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Full text of "Synthetic organic chemicals"

BOSTON 

PUBLIC 

LIBRARY 




;ynthetic organic chemicals 



Inited States Production 
nd Sales, 1977 



7~d 



?77 



ITC PUBLICATION 920 



'ed States International Trade Commission / Wastiington, D.C. 20436 



RECENT REPORTS OF THE UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION 
ON SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



Synthetic Organic Chemicals, United States Production and Sales, 1972 

(TC Publication 681, 1974), $2.70 
*Synthetic Organic Chemicals, United States Production and Sales, 

(ITC Publication 728, 1975), $3.25 
Synthetic Organic Chemicals, United States Production and Sales, 

(USITC Publication 776, 1976), $3.20 
Synthetic Organic Chemicals, United States Production and Sales, 

(USITC Publication 804, 1977), $3.10 
Synthetic Organic Chemicals, United States Production and Sales, 1976 

(USITC Publication 833, 1977), $5.25 



1973 
1974 



1975 



NOTE. —The report preceded by an asterisk (*) is out of print. The other re- 
ports listed above may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. All U.S. International Trade] 
Commission reports reproduced by the Government Printing Office may be consulted 
in the official depository libraries throughout the United States. 



UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION 



SYNTHETIC 
ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

United States Production 
and Sales, 1977 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
WASHINGTON : 1978 



USITC PUBLICATION 920 



%a^ 



^'^ ^//O Of^'OCC -CCO'/S' / 



UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION 



COMMISSIONERS 

Joseph O. Parker, Chairman 
Bill Alberger, Vice Chairman 
George M. Moore 
Catherine Bedell 
Italo H. Ablondi 
Daniel Minchew 



Kenneth R. Mason, Secretary to the Commission 



OFFICE OF INDUSTRIES 
Norris A. Lynch, Director 



This report was prepared principally by David B. Beck, Tedford 
C. Briggs, Edmund Cappuccilli, Louis N. DeToro, Janet L. 
Dietzman, John J. Gersic, J. Lawrence Johnson, Anne Klein, 
J. Ross Lewis, Daniel F. McCarthy, Bonnie Jean Noreen, K. 
James O'Connor, Jr., and Edward J. Taylor. 

Assistance in the preparation of the report was provided by 
Mildred Higgs, Virginia Bailey, Frances Battle, Judith 
Bryant, Sharon Greenfield, Ralph Gray, Kenneth Kozel, Linda 
Mudd, and Loretta Willis. Automatic Data Processing input 
was provided by Patricia Augustine, Andre Fontaine, and 
James Gill. 



Address all communications to 

Office of the Secretary 

United States International Trade Commission 

Washington, D.C. 20436 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction 1 

Summary 3 

General A 

Section I. Tar and tar crudes: 

Synthetic organic chemicals from coal 7 

Production and sales statistics 13 

Section II. Primary products from petroleum and natural 
gas for chemical conversion: 

Free world prospects for olefins and aromatics 19 

Production and sales statistics 26 

Section III. Cyclic intermediates: 

Import penetration of U.S. markets for cyclic 

intermediates 35 

Production and sales statistics 45 

Section IV. Dyes: 

Dyes 87 

Production and sales statistics 93 

Section V. Organic pigments: 

Organic pigments (Color lakes and toners) 133 

Production and sales statistics 140 

Section VI. Medicinal chemicals: 

Medicinal chemicals 151 

Production and sales statistics 159 

Section VII. Flavor and perfume materials: 

The flavor and perfume chemical industry - an overview 185 

Production and sales statistics 191 

Section VIII. Plastics and resin materials: 

Synthetic resins and plastics materials 211 

Production and sales statistics 220 

Section IX. Rubber-processing chemicals 233 

Section X. Elastomers: 

Synthetic elastomers: Role of U.S. imports 243 

Production and sales statistics 248 

Section XI. Plasticizers: 

Plas t ic izer s 253 

Production and sales statistics 261 

Section XII. Surface-active agents: 

Surface-active agents 271 

Production and sales statistics 278 

Section XIII. Pesticides and related products: 

Pesticides - developments in 1977 313 

Production and sales statistics 319 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Section XIV. Miscellaneous end-use chemical and chemical 
products: 

Organic flocculants 337 

Production and sales statistics 341 

Section XV. Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals 355 

APPENDIX 

Directory of manufacturers 400 

U.S. Imports of benzenoid chemicals and products 413 

Cyclic intermediates: Glossary of synonymous names 415 



iv 



INTRODUCTION 

This is the 6ist annual report of the U.S. International Trade Commission on Domestic production and 
sales of synthetic organic chemicals and the raw materials from which they are made. The report consists of 15 
sections, each covering a specified group (based principally on use) of organic chemicals as follows: Tar and 
tar crudes; crude products from petroleum and natural gas for chemical conversion; cyclic intermediates; dyes; 
organic pigments; medicinal chemicals; flavor and perfume materials; plastics and resin materials; rubber-pro- 
cessing chemicals; elastomers; plastlcizers; surface-active agents; pesticides and related products; miscellaneous 
end-use chemicals and chemical products; and miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals. Data have been supplied 
by approximately 800 producers. 

Each of the 15 statistical sections is headed by a short paper on recent developments in part or all of the 
given end-use group. This is followed by a summary of the statistical data. The first table in each section 
gives statistics on products and groups of products in as great detail as is possible without revealing the opera- 
tions of individual producers. Statistics for an individual chemical or group of chemicals are given only when 
there are three or more producers, no one or two of which may be predominant. Moreover, even when there are three 
or more producers, statistics are not given If there is any possibility that their publication would violate the 
statutory provisions relating to unlawful disclosure of information accepted in confidence by the Commission.^ 

Data are reported by producers for only those items where the volume of production or sales or value of sales 
exceeds certain minimums. Those minlmums for all sections are 5,000 pounds of production or sales or $5,000 of 
value of sales with the following exceptions: Plastics and resin materials— 50, 000 pounds or S50,0U0; pigments, 
medicinal chemicals, flavor and perfume materials, rubber-processing chemicals, and elastomers — 1,000 pounds or 
SI, 000. They are usually given in terms of undiluted materials; however, products of 95 percent or more purity 
are considered to be 100 percent pure. Commercial concentrations are applied to dyes, certain plastics and resins, 
and a few solvents; such concentrations are specifically noted. 



The statistics given in this report Include data from all known domestic producers of the item covered and in- 
clude the total output of each company's plants, i.e., the quantities produced for consumption within the producing 
plant, as well as the quantities produced for domestic and foreign sale. The quantities reported as produced, 
therefore, generally exceed the quantities reported as sold. Some of these differences, however, are attributable 
to changes in inventory. 

The second table in each section lists all items for which data on production or sales have been reported, by 
primary manufacturers, identified by manufacturers* codes. Each code consists of not more than three capital let- 
ters which is assigned on a permanent basis. 

The third table in each section is a directory, alphabetized by the codes of the manufacturers reporting in 
that section. 

Table 1 of the Appendix is a directory, alphabetized by the names of the manufacturers reporting in all sections 
and includes their office addresses. 

Table 2 of the Appendix summarizes and gives the competitive status of U.S. general imports in 1976 of benzenold 
intermediates and finished benzenold products, entered under schedule 4, parts IB and IC, of the Tariff Schedules of 
the United States. 

Table 3 of the Appendix lists synonymous names for cyclic intermediates. Information on all synonymous names 
of the organic chemicals included in this report may be found in the SOCMA Handbook: Cormeroial Organic Chemical 
NameSj published by the Chemical Abstracts Service of the American Chemical Society, or the Colour Index (Revised 
Third Edition), published jointly by the Society of Dyes and Colourists and the American Association of Textile 
Chemists and Colourists. 

As specified in the reporting Instructions sent to manufacturers, production and sales (unless otherwise 
specified) are defined as follows: 

PRODUCTION is the total quantity of a cormodity made available 
by ORIGINAL MANUFACTURERS ONLY within the customs territory 
of the United States (includes the 50 states, the District 
of Columbia^ and Puerto Rico). It covers synthetic organic 
chemicals, specified crudes from petroleum and coal tar, and 
certain chemically described natural products, such as, 
alkaloids, enzymes, and perfume isolates. It is the sum — 
expressed in terms of 200% active ingredient unless other- 
wise specified in the reporting instructions — of the quan- 
tities: 

Produced, aepoJKited, and consumed in the same plant or 

establishment. A corrmodity is considered separated 

either when it is isolated from the reaction system 

or when it is not isolated, but weighed, analyzed, 

or otherwise measured. This includes byproducts 

and co-products that are not classifiable as waste 

materials; 

* Title 18, U.S.C. 1905 and Title AA, U.S.C. 3508. 



INTRODUCTION 



Produced and not isolated^ but directly converted to 
a finished or semifinished item not included in 
this report (e.g., polyester filmy polyurethane 
tireSy nylon fihev^ bar soapy etc). (See specific 
instructions in individual sections) ; 

Produced and transferred to other plants or establish- 
ments of the same firm or 200%-owned subsidiaries 
or affiliates; 

Produced and sold to^ or bartered with, other firms 
(including less than 100% owned subsidiaries) ; 

Produced for others under toll agreements (see gen- 
eral instructions); 

Produced and held in stock. 

PRODUCTION EXCLUDES : 

Purification of a commodity y which is purchased hyy or 
transferred from withiny your companyy unless inclusion 
of such processing is specifically requested in the 
reporting instructions for individual sections; 

Intermediate products which are formed in the manufact- 
uring procesSy but are not isolated from the reaction 
system — that isy not weighedy analyzedy or otherwise 
measured; except such products as described above as 
being produced and not isolated, but directly converted 
to a finished or semifinished item. 

Materials that are used in the process but which are 
recovered for re-use or sale; 

Waste products having no economic significance. 

SALES are actual quantities of commodities sold by ORIGINAL 

MANUFACTURERS ONLX . Sales include the quantity and value of: 

Shipments of a commodity for domestic use or for 

export, or segregation in a warehouse when title 

has passed to the purchaser in a bona fide sale; 

Shipments of a commodity produced for you by others 

under toll agreements; 
Shipments to subsidiary or affiliated companies, pro- 
vided the ownership is less than 100%. 

SALES EXCLUDES : 

All intra-company transfers within a corporate entity; 
All shipments to 100% owned subsidiary or affiliated 

companies; 
All resales of inserted or purchased material, including 

materials obtained by barter; 
All shipments of a commodity produced for others under 

toll agreements. 

VALUE OF SALES is the net selling price f.o.b. plant or ware- 
house, or delivered price. F.o.b. prices are preferred, 
but if they are not readily available from your records, 
delivered prices are acceptable. 



SUmARY 



Combined production of all synthetic organic chemicals, 
and natural gas in 1977 was 306,566 million pounds— an Increa 
1). Sales of these materials in 1977, which totaled 161,106 
percent larger than in 1976 in terms of quantity and 0.6 perc 
data on production and sales of chemicals measured at several 
therefore, they necessarily reflect some duplication. 



r, tar crudes, and primary products from petroleum 
of 7.4 percent over the output in 1976 (see table 
llion pounds, valued at $33,961 million, were 6.1 
t larger in terms of value. These figures include 
uccessive steps in the manufacturing process, and 



In 1977, product 
totaled 174,502 milll 
production in 1977 ov 
16.7 percent; miscell 



of all synthetic organic chemicals, including cyclic intermediates and finished 
pounds, or 9.8 percent more than the output in 1976. Each section showed an incr 
1976. Flavor and perfume materials (150 million pounds) led the increase with a 
end-use chemicals and chemical products (19,348 million pounds) increased 16. 



plastics and resin materials (34,623 million pounds) were 15.4 percent greater than in 1976; plastlcizers 
(1,792 million pounds) increased 12.9 percent; elastomers (synthetic rubber) (5,813 million pounds) lucre 
percent; miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals (86,968 million pounds) increased 7.5 percent; cyclic 
mediates (18,726 million pounds) increased 5.8 percent; rubber-processing chemicals (402 million pounds) 
4.6 percent; dyes (264 million pounds Increased 3.2 percent; surface-active agents (4,718 million pounds) 
3.0 percent; medicinal chemicals (241 million pounds) increased 2.1 percent; pesticides and related produ 
million pounds) increased 1.7 percent; and organic pigments (69 million pounds) increased 1.4 percent. 



products, 

gain of 
percent; 



incr 



ed 7.5 
nter- 
sed 



iALlE 1. --Synthetic organic che"ICAls and their rav "aterims 

U.S. product IO:vl AtlD SALES, 1975 AND 1977 









PRODUCTION 






SALES 








QUANTITY 


VALUE 




1976 


1977 


Increase, 

decrease 
(-). 1977 

1976 ' 


1976 


1977 


Increase, 

decrease 
(-). 1977 

1976 ' 


1976 


1977 


Increase, 

decrease 
(-), 1977 

1976 ' 




Grand Total^ 


Million 
pounds 

5285j678 


Million 
pounds 

306,566 


Percent 
7.3 


Million 
pounds 

*152,112 


Million 
pounds 

161,768 


Percent 
6.4 


Million 
dollars ' 

'33,924 


Million 
dollars 

38,254 


Percent 
12.8 






6,364 
7,182 

112,873 


5,929 
(") 

126,133 


-6.8 
(") 

11.8 


2,905 
4,519 

59,083 


2,924 
C-) 

61,008 


0.7 
(") 

3.3 


96 
285 

5,490 


(") 
5,820 




Tar 

Prim 

1 


ary Crude products from Petro- 
Eium and Natural Gas 


6.0 



Synthetic organic chemicals 



Cyclic intermedi 

Dyes 

Organic pigments 
Medicinal chemic 
Flavor and perfu 



Pla 



and 



Rubber-processing chemicals- 
Elastomers (synthetic 

rubber) 

Plastlcizers 

Surface-active agents 

Pesticides and related 

Miscellaneous end-use chem- 
icals and chemical product 

Miscellaneous cyclic and 
acyclic chemicals 



236 

129 

^29,989 
384 

5.386 
1,587 
4,582 

1,364 

^6,684 

^80,892 



18,726 
264 
69 
241 

150 

34,623 
402 

5,813 
1,792 
4,718 



19,348 
86,968 



5.8 
3.2 
1.4 
2.1 



15.4 
4.6 

7.9 

12.9 

3.0 

1.7 

16,0 

7.5 



'85,605 



7,664 
250 



3,710 
1,456 
2,512 



10,101 
'33,110 



7,986 
255 
57 
162 

108 

29,799 
2 38 

4,177 
1,668 
2,515 

1,263 

10,855 

38,753 



14.3 
4.2 



6.0 
1.0 



12.6 
13. a 
0.1 



7.5 
17.0 



2,387 
620 
261 
742 

195, 

'8,785 
247 

1,529 
566 
821 

2,410 
'2,402 



32,434 

2,596 
690 
268 
794 

207 

10,882 
278 

1,940 
632 
875 



2,547 
7,919 



11.2 
2.6 
7.1 



26.9 
11.7 
6.6 



6.1 
11.7 



' Percentages calculated from figures rounded to thousands. 
^ Because of rounding, figures may not add to the totals shown. 
^ Estimated in part to avoid disclosing individual company operatic 
* Not available. 
Revised. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1977 



follows: cycli 



inter 


Tnediates, 


dv 


rubbe 


r-process 
llaneous 


ing 
end 


group 


s are fur 


the 



elude 



General 

synthetic organic chemicals are classified on the basis of their principal 
» organic pigments, medicinal chemicals, flavor and perfume materials, plastics and resin material 
aterials, elastomers, plastic-izers, surface-active agents, pesticides and related products, 
se chemicals and chemical products, and miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals. Most of these 
subdivided either by use or by chemical composition. As intermediate chemicals are used in the 

finished products, aggregate figures that cover both intermediates and finished products necessarily 

table duplication. 



Total production of syntheti 
million pounds or 9.6 percent mor 
than the output of 10A,711 millio 
amounted to 97,834 million pounds 
million in 1976 and 55,177 millio 



organic chemicals (intermediates and finished products combined) inl977 was 174,502 
than the output of 159,259 million pounds reported for 1976 and 56.6 percent more 
pounds reported for 1967 (see table 2). Sales of synthetic organic chemicals in 1977 
valued at $32,434 million, compared with 85,392 million pounds, valued at $27,888 
pounds, valued at $10,438 million In 1967. Production of all cyclic products (inter- 



mediates and finished products combined) in 1977 totaled 41, 942 railllon pounds or 5.2 percent more than the 39,870 m 
lion pounds reported for 19*^6 and 25.3 percent more than the 33,479 million pounds reported for 1967, however, the 
transfer of several items, in 1976, from the cyclic intermediates section to the section on primary production from 
petroleum and natural gas has caused the output of cyclic products to appear much lower in relation to 1967 and 1976 
than would otherwise have resulted. Production of all acyclic products in 1977 totaled 132 , 560 million pounds, or 
10.8 percent more than the 119,692 million pounds reported for 1976 and 86.1 percent more than the 71,232 million 
pounds reported for 1967. 

TABLE 2.--SYI1THETIC ORG'^^IC CHEMICALS: Summary of U.S, production and sales 

OF INTERMEDIATES AND FINISHED PRODUCTS, 1967, 1976, AND 1977 



[Production and sales 



nds of pounds; 



thousands of dollars] 






Organic chemicals. 
Grand total: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 



:yclic and acycli 



Cyclic, total: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value- 



Acyclic 
Produ 
Sales 
Sales 



Produ 
Sales 
Sales 



total: 



Cyclic Intermediates 



Production — 

Sales 

Sales value- 



3, Organic Pigments 



Sale 
Sale 



104,711,357 
55,176,823 
10,438,453 



33,479,469 
19,328,628 
4,610,293 



71,231,888 
35,848,195 
5,828,160 



20,793,132 
9,461,180 
1,000,359 



206,240 
198,592 
332,049 



53,322 
42,867 
108,354 



Medicinal Chemicals 



Cyclic: 

Production- 
Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production- 
Sales 

Sales value 



110 


129 


70 


120 


348 


873 


69 


941 


55 


804 


36 


402 



159,259,344 
85,605,088 
28,053,140 



39,869,736 
24,253,265 
12,433,093 



119,692 ,607 
61,351,823 
15,620,047 



17,700,000 
7,663,691 
2,386,993 



256,250 
249,887 
620,294 



67,727 
54,211 
251,089 



136,374 
79,581 
642,829 

99,431 
81,253 
98,692 



174,501,«73 
97,835,979 
32,434,301 



41,941,778 
26,041,307 
14,170,157 



132,550,095 
71,794,672 
18,264,144 



18,725,625 
7,985,790 
2,596,627 



264,369 
254,516 
689,992 



68,707 

57,434 

267,747 



153,922 
83,585 
718,392 

86,811 
78,798 
75,626 



34.7 
207.4 



-9.9 
-15.6 
159.6 



28.2 
28.1 
107.8 



28.8 
34.0 
147.1 



39.8 
19.2 
105.9 



14-3 
15.6 



17.0 
16.9 



1.4 
6.0 



12.9 

5.0 

11.8 



-3.0 
-23.4 



footnotes 



end of table. 



GEIJERAL 

ThiiLE 2,--SYiUrl£TIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS: SuMIIARY OF U.S. PRODUCTION AUD SALES 
0I-" INTERMEDIATES AND FINISHED PRODUCTS, rJ67, 1975' AND 1977— CONTINUED 



[Production and 



thousands of pounds; sales value in thousands of dollars] 



Increase, 



decrease (-) 



1977 ove 
1967 



5. Flavor and Perfume Materials 

Cyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

6, Plastics and Resin Materials 



Sale 

Sale 

Acycli 



Sales 

Sales valu 



?. Rubber-Processing Chemicals 

Cyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

8. Elastomers (Synthetic Rubber) 



Sales- 
Sales 
Acyclic: 
Produc 
Sales- 
Sales 



Plastiaizers 



Cyclic: 

Production- 
Sales 

Sales value- 
Acyclic : 

Production- 
Sales 

Sales value- 



it?. Surface-Active Agents 



Cyclic: 
Product 
Sales- 
Sales V 

Acyclic: 
Product 
Sales — 
Sales V 



57,973 
47,285 
52,8&6 

53,550 
49,311 
40,495 



5,033,497 
4,224,121 
1,036,940 

8,759,452 
7,753,242 
1,635,690 



220,139 
169,970 
116,318 

43,994 
30,873 
15,477 



2,297,537 

1,940,099 

439,530 

1,524,908 

1,321,945 

434,557 



929,071 
865,004 
167,827 

332,908 
296,767 
93,142 



1,418,444 
852,238 
95,810 

2,060,851 
897,786 
220,877 



55,090 
48,503 
125,479 

73,756 
52,445 
69,843 



9,252,262 
7,898,224 
3,278,777 

20,737,169 

17,151,982 

5,505,923 



334,735 
186,39 3 
218,263 

49,688 
37,879 
28,594 



3,146,083 

1,970,636 

560,385 

2,239,717 

1,739,501 

968,676 



1,185,909 

1,110,869 

360,453 

401,525 
354,842 
205,812 



2,312,728 

1,393,489 

319,422 

2,269,670 

1,118,596 

501,818 



58 


452 


46 


809 


34 


628 


91 


964 


50 


756 


72 


473 



10,802,389 
9,444,644 
4,275,111 

23,820,652 
20,354,360 
6,606,712 



335,549 
202,251 
243.756 



46,464 
35,833 
29,009 



3,449,123 

2,157,680 

750,128 

2,354,113 
2,019,749 
1,180,132 



1,407,084 

1,390,319 

474,781 

384,955 
277,303 
157,549 



989,564 
469,432 
200,244 

3,728,608 

2,045,151 

674,778 



0.8 : 
-1.0: 
154. 

71.7 : 
23.2: 



114.6 : 

123. 

312. 

171.9 ; 

162.5 

303. 



5.6 
16.0 
87.4 



50.1 
11.2 
72.9 

55.0 

52.8 

171.5 



15.-6 
-6.6 



-30.2 
-44.9 
109.0 



127.8 
205.5 



end of table 



SY.JTHtTIC UlWAiJIC CHEI1ICALS- 1977 



TABLE 2,— Synthetic organic chemicals: Summary of U.S. production and sales 
OF intermediates and finished products^ 19G7, 1976/ and 1977~Continued 

[Production and sales in thousands of pounds; sales value in thousands of dollars] 



11. Pesticides and Related Produots 



Cyclic: 
Produc 
Sales- 
Sales 

Acyclic: 
Produc 
Sales- 
Sales 



Cyclic: 
Product. 
Sales — 
Sales V. 

Acyclic: 
Product: 
Sales- 
Sales Vi 

13. 

Cyclic: 
Product 



Miscellaneous End-Use Shemicals and 
Chemical Products '* 



Miscellaneous Cyclic and Acyclic 
Chemicals'* 



Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 



1967' 



823,158 
681,532 
627,742 

226,505 
215,831 
159,301 



( 1,535,92:') 
( 775,540) 
( 283,575) 

(58,159,771) 
(25,225,631) 
( 3,192,119) 



940,263 

838,814 

1,843,896 

424,123 
353,790 
566,238 



2,265,262 
1,739,863 
1,180,206 

14,419,646 
8,360,847 
1,221,726 



2,214,054 

1,019,104 

635,006 

78,677,877 
32,090,688 
6,452,725; 



829,537 

691,136 

1,664,008 

557,932 

571,821 

1,144,265 



2,761,320 
2,213,649 
1,479,800 

16,586,612 
8,641,594 
1,067,681 



2,076,136 

1,044,011 

659,943 

84,891,933 
37,709,300 
7,255,919 



1977 ov£ 
- 1967 



1.4 
161.9 

146.3 
164.9 
618.3 



1977 ove 
1976 



-11.8 
-17.6 
-9.8 

31.6 
61.6 
102.1 



21.9 
27.2 
25.4 

15.0 

3.4 

-12.6 



-6.2 
3.9 

7.9 
17.5 
12.4 



Standard reference base period for Federal Government general-purpose Index numbers. 

Data revised for plastics and resin materials, intermediates (production only), and for the miscel 

Includes ligninsulf onates. 

Items in these two sections were previously included In the section named miscellaneous chemicals. 



The following tabulation shows, by chemical groups, the number of compani 
ore of the chemicals included in the groups listed in table 2: 



Chemical group 
Cyclic intermediates 

Organic pigments 

Medicinal chemicals 

Flavor and perfume materials- 
Plastics and resin materials- 



Number 

of , 

compan-tee 



that reported productio 

Chemical group 

Rubber-processing chemicals 

Elastomers (synthetic rubber) 

Plasticizers 

Surface-active agents 

Pesticides and related products 

Miscellaneous end-ude chemicals and 
chenical products 

Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chem- 
icals 



number 
companies 



SECTION I -- TAR AND TAR CRUDES 

Synthetic Organic Chemicals From Coal 
John J. Gersic 



The bulk of synthetic organic chemicals is currently made from petroleum 
or natural gas. In the past, however, the synthetic organic chemical industry 
was actually based on coal and remained so until after World War II when 
petroleum became relatively abundant and economical due, principally, to the 
discovery of the large oil fields in the Middle East. Now, coal derivatives 
are being increasingly studied as feedstocks for synthetic organic chemicals 
because shortages in petroleum and natural gas feedstocks are possible in the 
future. 

This new interest in coal is resulting in old processes being restudied 
as well as new methods being developed. Some of the new methods are related 
to the renewed activity in processes to convert coal into other fuels such as 
synthetic crude oil and synthetic natural gas. In addition to use as fuels, 
these materials may also be used as synthetic organic chemical feedstocks. 
Further, methanol, made from coal for use as a fuel, can also be used as a 
feedstock to make other synthetic organic chemicals such as plastics. 

This paper discusses the manufacturing processes for chemicals from coal 
and then some of the recent developments in this area. The paper will also 
address European and U.S. interests and support for coal-chemicals research, 
and the economics of coal versus natural gas and petroleum for chemical 
sources. 



Chemicals from coal 

It has been estimated that about one-quarter of a million chemical 
compounds can be obtained from coal or derived from its distillates. 1/ In 
the traditional coke-oven process, the principal sources of chemicals are 
coke-oven gas and coal tar (while the main product, coke, goes into the pro- 
duction of iron and steel). The main components of these two coke-oven 
byproducts are ammonia, pyridine bases, light oils, medium oils, and heavy 
oils . 

The coke-oven byproducts have been the sources of many chemicals. The 
pyridine bases may be refined to obtain pyridine, picolines, and lutidines. 
The light oils, obtained from both the coke-oven gas and the coal tar, are the 
primary source of the major aromatics, such as benzene, toluene and xylenes. 
The middle oils, obtained from the coal tar, can be refined into phenol, 
cresols, and naphthalene. Obtainable from the heavy oils from coal are 
anthracene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene , pyrene , and chrysene. 



y Chemtech , October 1975, p. 260, 



8 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEI^ICALS, 1977 

Although these chemicals are typical products of the usual coke-oven 
process (requiring a temperature of at least 900° C) , others are possible 
depending upon the temperature of the coking operation. At temperatures below 
about 700° C, for example, the liquid products are mainly paraffinic rather 
than cyclic in structure. 

Additional variables in the production of chemicals from coal include the 
type of coal used, oven design, timing of the coking cycle, and the severity 
of the distillation of the resulting coal tar. Thus, there can be much 
variation in the quantity, quality, and type of chemicals obtained as coking 
byproducts. Of particular concern are high manufacturing costs, sulfur 
content problems, and the increasing tendency of producers of light oils to 
sell these oils to petroleum refineries, which process them along with their 
petroleum fractions. However, this does not mean that the traditional 
coke-oven processes will be entirely replaced. 

Most coke-ovens are built today to provide metallurgical coke, much of 
which is used in blast furnaces for iron and steel production. And, although 
the consumption of coke per ton of metal produced is decreasing because of the 
use of supplemental fuels which displace coal in blast furnaces, and other 
advancements in technology, steel production is expected to continue to 
increase. It can, therefore, be concluded that the byproduct chemicals from 
coke-oven operations may be prevalent for some time to come. The challenge is 
to improve the traditional processes and develop new ones so that improved 
quantity and quality of chemicals result without sacrifices to the coke 
characteristics . 



Review of recent developments in chemicals from 
coal research and development 

Many of the proposed and demonstrated new processes to obtain chemicals 
from coal are closely tied to the research to change coal into another fuel. 
In the ordinary burning of coal for fuel, it pollutes the atmosphere and 
leaves an ash which is dirty and difficult to dispose of. Therefore, 
chemicals from coal research may receive indirect help from the research 
expenditures on processes to convert coal into other fuels such as synthetic 
natural gas, methanol, and synthetic crude. 

Coal can be converted into synthesis gas, which is a mixture of carbon 
monoxide and hydrogen. This synthesis gas is almost completely convertible 
into chemical products, particularly methanol or ammonia, without the 
production of any fuel byproducts. Although the production processes to make 
these two chemicals from synthesis gas are well established, it is possible 
that olefins (now the major-tonnage chemicals from petroleum), can also be 
produced from synthesis gas in future years. For, example, possible methods 
would include: 



I -- TAR AND TAR CRUDES 9 

steam cracking of hydrocarbons obtained from a 

Fischer-Tropsch reaction using synthesis gas; 1/ 

the dehydration of alcohols from methanol homo- 
logation to ethanol and propanol and the 
dehydration of ethanol to ethylene and propanol to 
propylene; 2/ 

the dehydration of linear primary alchohols from a 

Fischer-Tropsch reaction; 3/ 

the cracking of methyl ether made from methanol which 

was in turn made from synthesis gas. 4/ 

The most promising routes to the olefins from coal appear to be those 
involving methanol as an intermediate. 5/ 

Another possibility for the manufacture of chemicals from coal is through 
the liquefaction of coal. Those processes under development include COED 
(Char Oil Energy Development Process), Garret Flash Pyrolysis Process, Toscoal 
(Toscoal Low Temperature Pyrolysis Process) , Lurgi/Ruhr Gas Flash 
Carbonization Process, and the Lurgi Pressure-gasification Process. 6^/ 
Indeed, the currently-practiced coke-oven operations are examples of coal 
liquefaction by pyrolysis. 

Coal liquefaction can also be accomplished by hydrogenation. In this 
process, coal is treated with hydrogen while in liquid suspension, whereas in 
pyrolysis the coal is destructively distilled. The hydrogenation processes in 
general are versatile and can produce natural gas, paraffins of low-molecular 
weight, synthetic crude oil, and heavy fuel oils. Process variations have 
been developed by Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., U.S. Department of Energy, Gulf 
Oil Co., Consolidated Coal Co., and Exxon Co. 

In summary, coal can be gasified into synthesis gas or liquefied or 
pyrolyzed into liquids. The synthesis gas can be used to produce olefins and 
chemicals now made from natural gas. Coal liquids, on the other hand, are a 
rich source of cyclic organic chemicals. It does not appear to be 
economically feasible to make cyclic chemicals from synthesis gas or olefins 
from coal liquids. 7/ 

1/ Chem Systems Inc., Chemicals From Coal and Shale: An R&D Analysis for 
National Science Foundation, June 1975, p^^ 178, 

5/ Ibid., p. 193. '■ 

202. 
212. 
218. 
229. 
136. 



3/ Ibid., 


. P 


7/ Ibid., 


. P 


5/ Ibid., 


. P 


Z/ Ibid., 


. P 


7/ Ibid., 


. P 



2Q SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



European developments in coal processing 

Because of relatively abundant supplies of domestic coal, Europe has kept 
abreast of the world's latest coal technology developments. During World War 
II coal provided the base for significant quantities not only of chemicals but 
of fuels as well, and historically, coal has played an important role in the 
European dye industry. The large scale development of acetylene chemistry in 
Europe is but another indication of that area's reliance on coal. 

The United Kingdom is a leading coal producing nation. Much research on 
chemicals from coal has been carried out by organizations such as the British 
Steel Corp., the National Coal Board (NCB) , and Coalite and Chemicals Ltd. 

West Germany is also a leading coal producing nation and is noted 
worldwide for its coal research. The Bituminous Coal Mining Association in 
Essen, with a staff of 1,000 employees, remains the single largest coal 
research laboratory in the free world. 1/ 

A large part of the current European capacity for chemicals from coal is 
based on the usual coke-oven technology. However, as the production of 
synthetic natural gas from coal increases, the availability of coal liquids 
should increase dramatically. It is possible that this could cause the 
reintroduction of technology used during World War II to produce various 
products from these liquids. 2/ Also on the drawing board is a large coal 
complex in which the NCB has an interest that will use a combination of old 
and new technologies. 

NCB is currently involved in the study of the extraction of chemicals 
from coal using solvents in their supercritical gaseous state. 3/ The 
chemicals recovered are mainly cyclic organic chemicals; the yield is 
reportedly as high as 35 to 40 percent of the coal feed. 3/ The recovered 
chemicals could be used as a feedstock or a substitute oil refinery fraction. 
NCB personnel are discussing the process with Royal Dutch/Shell scientists. 
Such discussion fits in with NCB's belief that the optimum site for a 
supercritical gas extraction plant would be next to both a coal mine and an 
oil refinery. 

The breadth and depth of coal research in the United Kingdom is indicative 
of a country where the coal industry has been nationalized and is important to 
the country. Similar programs, though smaller, exist in France which also has 
a nationalized coal sector. However, even in those countries such as the 
United States and West Germany where the coal industry is still in private 
hands, much of the coal research and development is or soon will be funded by 
the respective governments. 1/ This interest of the governments should insure 
the long term availability oT coal R.& D. funds. 

1/ Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Energy R&D , 1975, 
p. "139. 

y Oil and Gas Journal , Dec. 8, 1975, p. 84. 

3/ Chemical and Engineering News , June 19, 1978, p. 10. 



I -- TAR AND TAR CRUDES 11 

Coal versus petroleum and natural gas 

As indicated previously, petroleum and natural gas are now the primary 
feedstocks for synthetic organic chemicals production. This situation 
prevails because petroleum and natural gas (especially in the United States) 
are readily available and low priced; in addition, both can be easily 
transported and stored. The result of this dependence is a worldwide network 
of facilities specifically designed to use petroleum and natural gas 
feedstocks. In some cases these facilities are so sensitive that even a 
change in sources of petroleum feedstocks can cause an increase in operating 
cost. Obviously then, essentially entirely new facilities would be needed to 
process entirely new feedstocks. The new investment that would be required is 
one of the drawbacks to a synthetic organic chemicals industry based on coal. 

A recent study quantifies the increased investment cost. 1/ It indicates 
that a 100 million cubic feet per day hydrogen plant based on natural gas 
would require an investment of $145 million, whereas the same plant based on 
coal would be $298 million. 2/ In the case of an ammonia plant the same trend 
is observed. It would cost "5^307 million based on natural gas, $435 million 
based on residual oil and $482 million based on coal. 2/ The investments 
needed for methanol and synthesis gas plants follow the same pattern. 

Obviously, chemical plants based on coal as a feedstock are not now 
competitive with those based on natural gas or petroleum. Estimates vary as 
to how high prices of the current petroleum feedstocks would have to rise 
before coal based plants would be competitive. A wellhead price of about 
$3.00 per million Btu's for natural gas (equivalent to about $18 per barrel of 
crude petroleum) appears reasonable, however. 3/ Based on current 
indications, such a natural gas price may be reached by the mid-1980' s based 
on the proposed oil pricing scheme outlined in The National Energy Plan . 4/ 

Spokesmen for the chemical industry argue that the economy would benefit 
the greatest from the use of coal as fuel rather than a synthetic organic 
chemical feedstock. 5/ This argument does not mean that byproduct chemicals 
from processes using coal as a fuel would be ignored. It does mean that 
petroleum and natural gas would continue to be the preferred synthetic organic 
chemicals feedstocks; therefore on-purpose coal-to-chemicals plants should not 
be built at this time. 5/ 

1/ Chemical Week, M ay 10, 1978, p. 62. 
2/ Ibid., p. 64. 

3/ Hydrocarbon Processing , Mar. 11, 1977, p. 15. 

%/ Executive Office of the President, Energy and Policy Planning, The 
National Energy Plan , Apr. 29, 1977. 
5/ Chemical Week, May 10, 1978, p. 64, 



I -- TAR AND TAR CRUDES 13 



Tar 
Janet L. Dietzman 



Coal tar is produced chiefly by the steel industry as a byproduct of the 
manufacture of coke; water-gas tar and oil-gas tar are produced by the fuel- 
gas industry. Production of coal tar, therefore, depends on the demand for 
steel; production of water-gas tar and oil-gas tar reflects the consumption of 
manufactured gas for industrial and household use. Water-gas and oil-gas tars 
have properties intermediate between those of petroleum asphalts and coal tar. 
Petroleum asphalts are not usually considered to be raw materials for chemicals. 

The quantity of coal tar produced in the United States in 1977 amounted 
to 593 million gallons (see table 1). Production in 1977 was 6.8 percent less 
than the 636 million gallons of coal tar produced in 1976. Sales of coal tar 
in 1977 amounted to 292 million gallons compared with 291 million gallons in 
1976. U.S. production of water-gas and oil-gas tars was not reported to the 
Commission for 1976 or 1977; production of these tars in 1968 amounted to 21 
million gallons, according to trade publications. 



TsT Crudes 



Tar crudes are obtained from coke-oven gas and by distilling coal tar, 
water-gas tar, and oil-gas tar. The most important tar crudes are benzene, 
toluene, xylene, creosote oil, and pitch of tar. Some of these products are 
identical with those obtained from petroleum. Data for materials obtained 
from petroleum are included, for the most part, with the statistics for like 
materials obtained from coke-oven gas and tars, and are shown in tables 1 and 
IB. 

Domestic production of industrial and specification grades of benzene 
reported by coke-oven operators and petroleum refinery operators in 1977 
amounted to 1,435 million gallons — 0.7 percent more than the 1,425 million 
gallons reported for 1976. These statistics include data for benzene produced 
from light oil and petroleum. Sales of benzene by coke-oven operators and 
petroleum refiners in 1977 amounted to 659 million gallons compared with 637 
million gallons in 1976. In 1977 the output of toluene (including material 
produced for use in blending in aviation fuel) amounted to 1,018 million 
gallons — 1.9 percent more than the 999 million gallons reported for 1976. 
Sales of toluene (Nitration grade, 1°) in 1977 were 396 million gallons com- 
pared with 534 million gallons in 1976. The output of xylene in 1977 
(including that produced for blending in motor fuels) was 811 million gallons, 
compared with 722 million gallons in 1976. Over 99 percent of the 811 
million gallons of xylene produced in 1977 was obtained from petroleum 
sources. 



14 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



Production and sales figures on crude naphthalene from coal-tar oils in 
1977 could not be published without disclosing the operations of individual 
companies. Production of petroleum-derived naphthalene in 1977 amounted to 
151 million pounds, compared with 260 million pounds' in 1976. Production 
figures on road tar for 1977 cannot be published; in 1972 production amounted 
to 30 million gallons. 

Some of the products obtained from tar and included in the statistics 
in table 1 are obtained from other products for which data are also included 
in the table. The statistics, therefore, involve considerable duplication, 
and for this reason no group totals or grand totals are given. 

Data for 1977 tar crudes were supplied by 11 companies and company 
divisions. 



Revised figure for 1976. 



I -- TAR AND TAP, CRUDES 

TABLE 1.--TAR AND TAR CRUDES; U.S. PRODUCTION AND SALES, 1977 

[Listed below are all tar crudes for which any reported data on production or sales may be published. (Leaders 
(...) are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be published or where no data we 
reported.) Table 2 lists separately all products for which data on production and/or sales were reported and 
identifies the manufacturers of each] 



TAR AND TAR CRUDES 



PRODUCTION 



SALES 



UNIT 

value' 



Coal tar: Coke-oven operators 

Crude light oil:' Coke-oven opera- 
tors 

Light-oil distillates: 

Benzene, all grades, total"* 

Coke-oven operators 

Petroleum refiners' 

Toluene, all grades, total" 

Coke-oven operators 

Petroleum refiners 

Xylene, all grades, total" 

Coke-oven operators 

Petroleum refiners 

Solvent naphtha: ' 

Coke-oven operators 

Crude tar-acid oils: ^ 

Coke-oven operators 

Creosote oil (Dead oil) (tar dis- 
tillers)' (100% creosote basis) 

total 

Distillate as such (100% creosote 

basis) 

Creosote content of coal tar solu- 
tion (100% creosote basis) 

Tar, refined, for uses other than 
road tar 

Pitch of tar (tar distillers)", tota! 
Hard (water softening point above 

160° F) 

Other' " 



1,000 gal- 

1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 

1,000 gal- 

1,000 gal- 



1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 

1,000 gal- 

1,000 tons 

1,000 tons 
1,000 tons 



178,420 

1,435,747 

64,571 

1,371,176 

1,017,546 

9,618 

1,007,928 

811,055 

1,706 

809,349 

1,628 



83.052 



292,393 

94,226 

658,535 

64,851 

593,684 

456,841 

9,483 

'447,358 

426,273 

1,872 

424,401 

1,539 



60,654 



1,000 
dollars 



504,272 
^53,081 
451,191 
253,260 
^6,023 
'247,237 
219,128 
n,180 
217,948 



47,033 
36,019 

21,251 
815 



35,418 
25,236 

15,178 
743 



9,277 
97.663 



622 
193 



557 
186 



73.008 
24.655 



131.07 
132.55 



Unit value per gallon or ton as specified. 
^ Includes only data for coal tar reported to the Office of Energy Data and Interpretation, Energy Information 
Administration, Department of Energy (Energy Data Reports, Coke & Coal Chemicals . March 22, 1978). At date of pub- 
lication, sales value for coal tar was not available. Data on U.S. production of water-gas tar and oil-gas tar are 
not collected by the U.S. International Trade Commission, but according to trade publications, production of these 
tars amounted to 21 million gallons In 1968. 

Data reported by tar distillers are not included because publication would disclose the operations of individ- 



ual companies. 

Includes data f 
petroleum refiners o 
because of fiscal ye 



dat 



of publication, sales value for coke-oven operators was not available, 
material produced for use in blending motor fuels. The annual production statistics for 
enzene, toluene, and xylene are not comparable with the combined monthly production figur 



thru Mar 
15, 1977 



iS value figures are estimate 

:h 22, 1978, and Mineral Industries Surveys, Coke and Coal Chemical 



Energy Data Reports 



Coal Chemic 



nthly 



J monthly, December 
March 25, 1977 thr 



1, 1977 
1 September 



Benzene, specification grades (1°, 2°) only. 

Toluene, specification grades (1°, 2°) only. 

Data from coke-oven operators was unavailable at time of publication. 

In 1977, production of coal-tar solution containing creosote (100% solution basis) amounted to 49,514 thousand 
gallons; sales were 32,845 thousand gallons, valued at 17.941 thousand dollars, with a unit value of $0.55 per gal- 
lon. 



16 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHD1ICALS. 1977 



Includes pitch emuls 



Footnotes--Continued 
and soft pitch. 



Note 1. — Statistics for materials produced in coke and gas-retort ovens are compiled by the Office of Energy Data 
and Interpretation, Energy Information Administration, Department of Energy. Statistics for materials produced In 
tar and petroleum refineries are compiled by the U.S. International Trade Commission. 

Note 2. — Data for all other tars and tar crudes are not included in 1977 report because publication would dis- 
close the operation of individual companies. Preliminary coke-oven operators data was obtained from cumulative total 
reported In Energy Data Reports, Coke and Coal Chemicals , March 22, 1978, as the annual publication data was not 
available to include in this report. 



TABLE lA.— Tar: U.S. production and consumption., 1976 and 1977 

(In thousands of gallons) 



PRODUCTION 

Coal tar from coke-oven byproduct plants, total' 

CONSUMPTION 

Total 

Tar consumed by distillation, total 

Coal tar distilled or topped by coke-oven operators - 
Coal tar and oil-gas tar distilled by tar distillers' 

Tar consumed by the producers chiefly as fuel' 

Coal tar consumed at coke-oven plants in miscellaneous 



604,376 



433,747 
163,051 
270,696 

165,169 

5,460 



(0 
(') 



(') 



Reported to the Office of Energy Data Interpretation, Energy Inf 
^ Department of Energy data were not available at time of publication. 
^ Reported to the U.S. International Trade Commission. Represents tar purchased f 
elude tar consumed other than by distillation by tar distillers. 



tlon Administration, Department of Energy, 
ompanies operating in- 



TAR Am TAR CRUDES 



17 



TABLE IB.— Tar and tar crudes; Summary of U.S, production of specified 
PRODUCTS, 1967, 1975, and 1977 



TAR AND TAR CRUDES 



INCREASED, OR 
DECREASED (-) 



1977 OVER 
1967 



1977 OVER 
1976 



Coal tar 



Percent 
-24.0 



Benzene: 

Coke-oven operators- 
Petroleum refiners — 
Total 

Toluene:' 

Coke-oven operators- 
Petroleum refiners — 
Total 



Xylene:' 

Coke-oven o 

Petroleum r 

Total 

Naphthalene: 

Crude* 

Petroleum n 
grades 



iphthalene, all 



Total- 



reosote oil (Dead oil): ' 
Distillate as such (100% 

creosote basis) 

Creosote content of coal tar 
solution (100% creosote 

has is) 

Total 



1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 



1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 



1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 



1,000 lb 



,000 lb— 
,000 lb— 



1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 



90,642 
878,704 



60,411 
1,364,811 



64,571 
1,371,176 



6.9 
0.5 



19,357 
624,454 



8,824 
990,152 



9,618 
1,007,928 



-50.3 
61.4 



5,488 
"■449, 349 



1,496 
720,518 



1,706 
809,349 



-68.9 
80.1 



14.0 
12.3 



520,991 
376,679 



(') 
107,191 



(') 
150,737 



126,234 



113,967 



36,019 



'83,052 



XX- 



(') 



C) 



Standard reference base period for Federal Government general-purpose Index numbers. 

^ Includes only data for coal tar reported to the office of Energy Data and Interpretation, Energy Information 
Administration, Department of Energy. 

^ Data reported by tar distillers are not included because publication would disclose the operations of individual 
companies. 

■* Includes data for material produced for use in blending motor fuels. Statistics are not comparable with monthly 
figures which include some o-xylene. 

^ Naphthalene solidifying at less than Tg'C. Figures include production by tar distillers and coke-oven operators 
and represent combined data for the commercial grades of naphthalene. Because of conversion between grades, the 
figures may include some duplication. Statistics on naphthalene refined from domestic crudes are reported In the 
section on "cyclic intermediates." 

^ Statistics for 1976 and 1977 cannot be published; to do so would disclose the operations of individual com- 
panies. 

^ Includes data for creosote oil produced by tar distillers and coke-oven operators and used only in wood pre- 
serving. 

^ Includes data for creosote oil produced by tar distillers only in wood preserving. 

Comparison not possible because 1977 data from the Department of Energy was not available at time of publication 
for inclusion in report. 



18 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 

TABLE 2,--Tar crudes for which U.S. production or sales were reported, 

IDENTIFIED BY MANUFACTURERS, 1977 

[CHEMICALS FOR WHICH SEPARATE STATISTICS ARE GIVEN IN TABLE 1 ARE MARKED WITH AN ASTERISK (*) ; CHENOCALS NOT SO 
MARKED DO NOT APPEAR IN TABLE 1 BECAUSE THE REPORTED DATA ARE ACCEPTED IN CONFIDENCE AND MAY NOT BE PUBLISHED. 
manufacturers' IDENTIFICATION CODES SHOWN BELOW ARE TAKEN FROM TABLE 3] 



TAR CRUDES 



MANUFACTURERS' IDENTIFICATION CODES 
(ACCORDING TO LIST IN TABLE 3) 



Light-oil distillates: 

Ethylbenzene 

♦Solvent naphtha' 

Pyridine, crude bases 

Naphthalene, crude, solidifying at: 

Less than 74° C 

74° C. to less than 79° C. : 

74° C. to less than 76° C 

76° C. to less than 79° C 

Methylnaphthalene 

*Crude tar-acid oils:' 

Tar-acid content 5% to less than 24% 

Tar-acid content 24% to 50% 

Cresylic acid, crude 

♦Creosote oil (Dead oil) : 

♦Distillate as such 

♦Creosote in coal tar solution 

All other distillate products: 

Carbon black oil 

Creosote tar acid oil 

Crude coal tar solvent 

Crude tetralin 

Priming and refractory oil 

50° to 60° residue oil 

All other 

Tar, road 

Tar for other uses: 

Crude 

♦Refined 

♦Pitch of tar: 

Soft (water softening point less than 110° F.) 

Medium (water softening point 110° F. to 160° F.) 

♦Hard (water softening point above 160° F.) 

Pitch emulsion 

Refined anthracene 



KPT. 
NEV. 
KPT. 



ASC, KPT. 
ASC, KPT. 
KPT. 

KPT. 
ASC. 
KPT, PRD. 



ASC, CBT, COP, HUS, KPT, RIL, WTC. 
ASC, KPT, RIL, WTC. 



KPT. 








KPT. 








KPT. 








KPT. 








WTC. 








ASC, 


KPT. 






KPT, 


RIL. 






RIL. 








ASC, 


KPT, 


RIL. 




ASC, 


KPT. 






ASC, 


COP, 


KPT, 


RIL 


ASC, 


KPT, 


RIL, 


WTC 


JEN. 








ASC. 









Does not include manufacturers' identification codes for producers who report to 
Interpretation, Energy Information Administration, Department of Energy. Those produ 
Bureau of Mines Mineral Industry Survey, Nov. 6, 1976, entitled "Coke Producers In th 



the Office of Energy Data and 
ers are listed in the U.S. 
U.S. in 1976." 



TABLE 3.— Tar and tar crudes: Directory of manufacturers, 1977 

ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 

[Names of manufacturers that reported production or sales of tar and tar crudes to the U.S. International Trade Com- 
mission for 1977 are listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


ASC 

CBT 
COP 

HUS 

JEN 


Allied Chemical Corp., Semet-Solvay Div. 

Samuel Cabot, Inc. 

Coopers Creek Chemical Corp. 

Husky Industries, Inc. 

Jennlson-Wright Corp. 


KPT 
NEV 
PRD 
RIL 
WTC 


Koppers Co., Inc. & Roads Materials Div. 

Neville Chemical Co. 

Ferro Corp., Productol Chemical Div. 

Reilly Tar & Chemical Corp. 

Witco Chemical Corp. 



Note. — Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the appendix. 



SECTION II -- PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS 19 
FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 

Free World Prospects for Olefins and Aromatics 
Louis DeToro 

Overview 

Ethylene and propylene (olefins) and benzene, toluene, and xylene 
(aromatics) are petrochemicals of exceeding commercial importance. The 
olefins and aromatics are the "building blocks" for most of the synthetic 
organic chemicals covered in the Commission's report. These petrochemicals 
are the source of chemical intermediates, plastics, synthetic fibers, 
pesticides, detergents, and other products. In the 1976 edition of Synthetic 
Organic Chemicals, United States Production and Sales , the production total 
for these five commodities amounted to approximately 50 percent (by weight) of 
the primary products from petroleum and natural gas. 

Because of lower feedstock costs and other factors, the United States has 
maintained a competitive edge in exports of petrochemicals in recent years. 
The President's National Energy Plan (NEP) , should it meet the approval of the 
Congress, will increase the domestic cost of petroleum and natural gas, and 
probably erase at least some of the United States' competitive edge. \_l 
The NEP cost effect is one of several factors which may affect the future 
price of U.S. petrochemicals and thus the volume of domestic exports. 

Major petrochemical buildups are occurring throughout the free world and 
in Communist-dominated areas. These buildups may serve to dampen U.S. export 
prospects. Data on the potential for trade, and on existing capacity and 
production, is relatively scarce for the Communist bloc countries. Because of 
the scarcity of data on petrochemical markets in these nations, data in this 
paper are restricted to the free world. It is reported, however, that some 
Communist countries (notably the U.S.S.R., Communist China, Rumania, and 
Yugoslavia) are spending foreign exchange in efforts to increase petrochemical 
capacities. The U.S.S.R., for one, has definite plans to increase its 
aromatics trade in world markets. 2/ However, the most noteworthy buildups 
which could affect U.S. export markets are in Mexico, Canada, the Middle East, 
and Africa. 

\] An example of the prospective effect of the NEP on "building block" 
prices is given in "Energy Program to Hurt Petrochemical Market," C&EN , May 
23, 1977. The price of benzene from all sources could rise from 85 
cents/gallon to $1.40/gallon with the enactment of the National Energy Plan 
price policy for feedstocks, according to a consultant specializing in 
forecasts for petrochemicals. 

2/ Technip, of France, will market Russian aromatics. See Oil and Gas 
Journal, Oct. 10, 1977, pp. 86 and 91. 



20 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 

The Canadians are planning ethylene and aromatics projects in the 
Provinces of Ontario and Alberta. 1/ Because of the close proximity to the 
United States, the output from these plants is expected to impact U.S. 
markets. Plans for olefins and aromatics projects in OPEC countries (Saudi 
Arabia in particular) and by Mexico's state-controlled petroleum company 
(Pemex) also threaten to exacerbate the decline in the United States 's 
competitive edge. 2/ 

As of 1977, most of the free world's existing capacity in olefins and 
aromatics was concentrated in North America and Western Europe (table A). 
Free world construction plans show large olefins and aromatic buildups all 
over the world (table B) . The figures shown in table A represents relative 
magnitudes of existing capacities in the free world and table B represents 
likely or planned projects through 1985. 3/ Because of the uncertainties 
involved in compiling such statistics, these figures can not be exact; but 
they are nonetheless representative of free world capacities and construction 
in coming years for the olefins and aromatics. 

The U.S. International Trade Commission estimates of planned construction 
based on published data were made with a relatively optimistic view towards a 
stable and healthy world economy and growing petrochemicals demand in the free 
world. Toluene and mixed xylenes were excluded and replaced by ortho and 
para-xylene isomer figures because of the difficulty in isolating capacities 
or construction data for these primary aromatics, both of which are coproducts 
in refinery streams. 

In line with burgeoning petrochemical buildups overseas, and rising U.S. 
feed stock costs (as discussed above), and with increased purchasing power in 
developing lands, world trade patterns should begin to shift slightly. 
Although most consumption should still occur in developed areas, trade among 
developing areas in the Middle East, Africa, and the Far East will begin. A 
weaker dollar could moderate the loss in U.S. exports of derivative 
petrochemicals; however, an ironic balancing effect could occur should the 
enactment of the NEP bolster the dollar, and thereby further weaken U.S. 
export competitiveness in petrochemicals. 

Tl "Slower Demand Growth Seen for Olefins," the Oil and Gas Journal , May 
167 1977, p. 50. 

2/ Argentina, Brazil, Canada, India, Kuwait, Qatar, Rumania, South Korea, 
Spain, Yugoslavia, and the European Community (EEC) are a few other areas 
where petrochemical projects are blossoming. 

3/ These data are estimates based upon several published sources. In 
general, the published numbers herein are compromises of divergent data with a 
bias toward the higher of the published figures. 



II -- PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS 21 

FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 

Olefins and aromatics prices to 1985 are expected to resemble the pattern 
which occurred prior to 1973. 1/ In those years, a moderate decline in prices 
was the rule. The reason for this return to an old pattern is that a free 
world oversupply of the basic petrochemical building blocks is likely to 
exist. New capacities coming on line indicate rising supplies, while demand 
growth is seen as moderating to a certain extent. Although prices rose 
dramatically after 1973, following a long period of decline, the situation 
regarding supply and demand balance has already shifted in major producing- 
consuming areas. 

U.S. prospects 

U.S. ethylene forecasters as late as 1974 were concerned over a supply 
shortfall for the remainder of the 1970' s. Ij When the world economy went 
into a recession in 1974 and 1975, chemical economic forecasters made a sharp 
adjustment. Forecasts of demand growth were scaled down until they began to 
fall short of existing U.S. capacities. Forecasters now see a prospective 
oversupply into the next decade. 

Ethylene supply in the United States is currently rising at about 7 
percent per year, while demand is slowing down in line with a decreased growth 
rate in the U.S. gross national product. The expected oversupply situation is 
due to several factors; among these factors are maturing domestic derivatives 
markets, new developments in ethylene production technology, and declining 
derivatives export markets. 3/ 

U.S. propylene prospects call for higher demand growth rates than those 
for ethylene. Gulf Oil Chemicals has forecasted growth rates as high as 11 
percent per year for 1976-80 and over 8 percent from 1980 to 1985, with 
domestic production and consumption in balance. 4/ More recent forecasts call 
for less rapid growth, although still at higher levels than projected for 
ethylene demand. Likely new target rates for demand growth are near 9 percent 
per year through 1980 and between 6 and 8 percent per year from 1980 to 1985. 
Supply projections indicate a balance between production and consumption 
throughout the period. 5/ 

1/ "Petrochemical Panel Forecasts Soft Prices and Surplus Supply in Basic 
Olefins and Aromatics," CMR , Nov. 14, 1977. 

y "Ethylene Oversupply Could Last Until 1980," C&EN , Apr. 14, 1977. 

3/ "Ethylene Growth Slips," C>ffi, Feb. 6, 1978. 

Til "Propylene Supply Tightens, Prices Rise," C&EN , Sept. 13, 1976. 

^/ Various sources; see for example "Slower Demand Growth Seen for Olefins," 
Oil and Gas Journal, May 16, 1977, p. 50. 



22 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 

For aromatics in the United States, the outlook is one of abundant 
supply. 1/ A principal consideration in aromatics markets is the use of these 
products as replacements for lead to raise octane values of gasoline to 
acceptable levels. 1/ 

In the U.S. benzene market, demand is expected to grow at 6 plus percent 
per year through 1985. 2/ This represent a considerable reduction from 
previous estimates of consumption growth rates. According to one petrochemical 
company official, there is a need for only 100 million gallons of annual new 
effective capacity to cover demand into the early 1980' s. 1/ 

U.S. toluene usage for chemcials is likely to increase, but only at a 
rate of 4.5 percent per year. 1/ The ratio between the value of toluene for 
chemicals and its value for gasoline could rise to 1.75 from the rule-of-thumb 
figure of 1.5 which has characterized the past. The demand growth for xylenes 
in the U.S. has stabilized since the middle 70's. Forecasts for 1978 consumpt- 
ion center on 1,150 million gallons. Sales growth has moderated in recent 
years . 

Market prospects for major free world producers 

In Western Europe, the future has been called "dim" for olefins and 
aromatics markets, especially in the EEC. 3/ Forecasted growth rates for 
petrochemical feedstocks, once much higher, have recently been scaled down by 
a considerable measure. Overcapacity and maturing markets are principal 
reasons for a demand/supply imbalance. The forecast average annual demand 
growth rate for ethylene through 1981 currently stands at 4.6 percent; for 
propylene, 5.6 percent. Average annual growth rates for the aromatics are 
projected at 4.0 percent for benzene; 4.7 percent for toluene; and 5 percent 
for ortho and para-xylene isomers. 4/ 

Specifically in the olefins market, European ethylene capacity will be 
larger than previously expected, and the overcapacity will last at least until 
1981. The supply for propylene, another olefin, will be somewhat tighter. 5_/ 
Because of petrochemical oversupplies, it is reported that the traditional EEC 
benzene import market could dry up. At least one expert expects benzene to 
flow westward across the Atlantic during the 1978-81 period. 6/ 

1/ "Aromatic Outlook: Abundant Supply," C&EN , Apr. 4, 1977. 

7/ Various sources; see for example "Slower Demand Growth Seen for Olefins," 
OiT and Gas Journal , May 16, 1977, p. 50. 

y "Outlook Dims for European Olefins, Aromatics," C&EN , Mar. 13, 1978. 

4/ These more "pessimistic" forecasts are the outcome of a recent meeting of 
the Conseil Europeen des Federations de 1' Industrie Chimique (Cefic). The 
Economist has quoted ethylene demand growth at slightly under 4.0 percent 
through the early 1980' s. "Europe's Chemical Moans," The Economist , June 3, 
1978, p. 88. 

5/ "Europe Carries Big Ethylene Load," Chemical Week , Mar. 8, 1978. 

Zl Oil and Gas Journal, Mar. 28, 1977, p. 31. 



II -- PRIMARY PRODUCTS FR0I1 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS 23 

FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 

In Japan, the olefins markets are causing some concern, according to 
trade journal articles. Overcapacity is plaguing the ethylene market just as 
in Europe. 1/ Burdened with excess capacity, Japan is likely to spend the 
next few years getting the supply/demand picture back into balance. Ethylene 
demand, without exports, is expected to increase from 6 to 7 percent a year 
through 1980, and it may take at least that long for demand to catch up with 
capacity already installed. In addition, new competition from the United 
States and from Southeast Asia is expected to shape Japanese strategy in world 
markets well into the 1980's. 

While ethylene is in oversupply, the Japanese propylene market appears to 
have taken an opposite turn. Latest projections show that Japan may well have 
a deficit of the petrochemical in coming years. 2/ 

Capacity buildups outside traditional areas 

Outside traditional producing areas, major petrochemical buildups planned 
for Mexico and the Middle East represent the most prominent changes. In the 
Middle East, 9 ethylene plants are being planned or are under construction. 
3/ Even by conservative estimates, projects now under study for the Middle 
East and Africa could add 3 million metric tons a year of ethylene capacity in 
1983 or soon after. 4/ In Saudi Arabia alone, plans have been detailed for 
three worldscale ethylene facilities to be built by joint-venture 
affiliates of Shell Oil (656,000 metric tons a year), of Mobil Oil (450,000 
metric tons a year), and of Dow Chemical (400,000 metric tons a year). 5/ 

In Mexico, Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) has begun a vast construction 
program which will make Mexico a large-scale petrochemical producer. Since 
the domestic market is not large by world standards, Mexico may become an 
increasingly important petrochemical exporter. Sixty-six chemical plants 
are due to be constructed. An outline of the olefins and aromatics plants 
scheduled for completion through 1982 is shown in the tabulation below: 6/ 

II "Overcapacity Plagues Japanese Ethylene," C&EN , Apr. 4, 1978. 

2/ "Propylene: Crystal Ball Gazing," Chemical Engineering , May 23, 1977, 
p ."99 . 

3/ Oil and Gas Journal , Oct. 17, 1977, p. 54. 

%J "U.S. Leads Olefins Investment, East Bloc Dominates Ammonia," European 
Chemical News , Feb. 24, 1978. 

5/ "Saudi Arabia Details Plans for Chemicals," C&EN , Mar. 6, 1978. 

6/ As of 1977. 



24 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



Product 


Location 




Capacity 
tons/year 


Ethylene 


Allende, Ver. 




500,000 




La Cangrejera, 


Ver. 


500,000 




Poza Rica, Ver 




182,000 




Undecided 




500,000 


Propylene 


Poza Rica, Ver 




300,000 


Benzene 


La Cangrejera, 


Ver, 


168,000 




La Cangrejera, 


Ver. 


49,000 




La Cangrejera, 


Ver. 


82,000 




Undecided 




75,000 


Orthoxylene 


La Cangrejera, 


Ver. 


55,000 


Isomer 


Undecided 




25,000 


Paraxylene 


La Cangrejera, 


Ver. 


240,000 


Isomer 


Undecided 




100,000 



Completion date 



1981 
1979 
1978 



1980 

1979 
1979 
1979 
1982 

1979 
1982 

1979 
1982 



Source: "Mexico Shoots for Big Petroleum Role," Oil and Gas Journal , 
Feb. 7, 1977. 



II -- PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS 
FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 

Table A. — Free world existing (design) capacities in olefins 
and aromatics, 1977 



25 





(In millions of metric 


tons per year) 






Ethylene 


Propylene 


Benzene 


p-Xylene 


o-Xylene 




0,2 
1.0 
6.0 

14.1 
.1 

15.0 


0.1 

.4 

3.5 

7.8 

1/ 
7.7 


1/ 
0.6 
2.8 
5.9 

2/ 
7.9 


2/ 
0.2 
.8 
1.2 
2/ 
T.9 


2/ 

0.1 
.3 
.9 

2/ 
.7 


South America 


Western Europe 

Middle East 

North America 




36.4 


19.5 


17.2 


^.1 


2.0 





1/ Negligible. 
2/ Not available. 

Source: Compiled from estimates of the U.S. International Trade Commission. 

Table B. — Free world construction projects: Olefins and aromatic plants 
planned for completion in 1978 to 1985 1/ 





(In millions of metric 


tons per year) 






Ethylene 


Propylene 


Benzene 


p-Xylene 


o-Xylene 




1.3 
3.1 
3.4 
5.5 

1.4 
5.5 


0.2 
.8 
1.4 
3.0 
11 
I.O 


2/ 

3/ 0.9 

1.4 

2.2 

.9 

4/ .8 


2/ 

0.4 
.6 
.3 
.4 
.3 


2/ 

0.1 
.1 
.1 
.2 
.1 


South America 


Western Europe 

Middle East 

North America 




20.2 


8.4 


6.2 


2.0 


0.6 





W As of 1977. 

2/ Not available. 

2/ Bolivia has a $640 million BTX unit planned. 

4/ Canada has a $225 million benzene plant in the offering. 



Source: Compiled from estimates of the U.S. International Trade Commission. 



25 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 

Primary Products From Petroleum And Natural Gas 
Louis N. DeToro and J. Ross Lewis, Jr. 

Primary products that are derived from petroleum and natural gas^ are 
related to the intermediates and finished products made from such primary 
materials in much the same way that crude products derived from the 
distillation of coal tar are related to their intermediates and finished 
products. Many of the primary products derived from petroleum are identical 
with those derived from coal tar (e.g., benzene, toluene, and xylene). Con- 
siderable duplication exists in the statistics on the production and sales 
of primary petroleum products because some of these primary chemicals are 
converted to other primary products derived from petroleum and because data 
on some production and sales are reported at successive stages in the 
conversion process. The statistics are sufficiently accurate, however, to 
indicate trends in the industry. Many of the primary products for which 
data are included in the statistics may be used either as fuel or as basic 
materials from which to derive other chemicals. In this report every 
effort has been made to exclude data on materials that are used as fuel; 
however, data are included on toluene and xylene which are used in blending 
aviation and motor fuel. 

The output of primary products derived from petroleum and natural gas 
as a group amounted to 125,911 million pounds in 1977. Production in 1976 
was 112,873 million pounds. The output of aromatic and naphthenic products 
from petroleum amounted to 52,263 million pounds in 1977, compared with 
48,167 million pounds in 1976. Sales amounted to $2,469 million in 1977 
and $2,757 million in 1976. Production of benzene, toluene, and xylene from 
petroleum increased marginally in 1977, while the unit values of these 
products remained nearly the same (table 1). 

Production of all aliphatic hydrocarbons and derivatives from petroleum 
and natural gas was 67,902 million pounds in 1977, compared with 64,706 
million pounds in 1976. Sales of these products were valued at $2,994 million 
in 1977 compared with $2,732 million in 1976. Production of ethylene was 
25,426 million pounds in 1977 — 13.1 percent more than the 22,475 million 
pounds produced in 1976. The output of 1, 3-butadiene in 1977 (3,259 million 
pounds) decreased from the production in 1976 (3,507 million pounds). 

Data for 1977 crude products from petroleum and natural gas for chemical 
conversion were supplied by 76 companies and company divisions. 



^ Statistics on aromatic chemicals from coal tar are given in the report 
on "Tar and Tar Crudes." 



II - PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 



27 



TABLE 1 



-PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS FOR CHEMICAL 
CONVERSION: U.S, PRODUCTION AND SALES, 1977 



[Listed below are the primary products from petroleum and 
data on production or sales may be published. (Leaders 
confidence and may not be published or where no data wer 
ducts from petroleum and natural gas for chemical conver 
ported and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



tural gas for chemical conversion for 
. .) are used where the reported data 
reported.) Table 2 lists separately 
on for which data on production and/o 



which any reported 
ire accepted in 
ill primary pro- 



PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL 
GAS FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 



Grand total 

AROMATICS AND NAPHTHENES^ 

Total 

Alkyl aromatics^ 

Benzene (1° and 2°) 

Cumene 

Cyclohexane 

Dicyclopentadiene (including cyclopentadiene) 

Ethylbenzene 

Naphthalene, all grades 

Naphthenic acid 

Styrene 

Toluene, all grades, total 

Nitration grade, 1° 

Pure commercial grade, 2° 

All other" ' ^ 

Xylenes, mixed, total 

3° grade 

5° grade 

All other ^ 

o- Xylene 

p-Xylene 

All other aromatics and naphthenes 

ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS 

Total 

Cj Hydrocarbons, total 

Acetylene' 

Ethane 

Ethylene 

C3 Hydrocarbons, total 

Propane 

Propylene^ 

C^ Hydrocarbons, total 

Butadiene and butylene fractions 

1, 3-Butadiene, grade for rubber (elastomers) 

n- Butane 

1-Butene 

1-Butene and 2-butene, mixed 

Isobutane 

Isobutylene, 2-butene and mixed butylenes 

All other'" 



1,000 
pounds 

125,133,316 



52,262,978 



394,160 

10,037,010 

2,644,259 

3,019,895 

56,374 

8,311,535 

150,737 

20,673 

6,867,418 

7,297,395 



4,189,864 

2,131,507 

976,024 



1,649,777 
1,933,702 
2,567,576 

984,605 
3,172,247 
3,155,615 



270,459 

7,013,644 

25,426,105 

21,529,401 



8,200,936 
13,328,465 

12,652,328 

754,495 

3,258,972 

3,347,892 

75,549 

2,105,572 

1,554,071 

948,810 

606,968 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



24.120.593 



2.469.213 



345,269 

4,345,770 

1.294.122 

2,197,591 

55,202 

211,483 

92,671 

14,627 

2,798,973 

3,387,165 



33,992 
451,191 
160.081 
261,405 
4,547 
27,875 
12,869 
1,985 
520,498 

247,237 



2,856,841 
530,324 



3.225.450 



1,256,311 

1,357,912 

611,227 

810,051 
1,840,549 
3,501,670 



210,696 
36,541 



217.948 



84,565 
90,762 
42,621 

88,402 
270,995 
170,188 



13,907,446 



48,256 
5,676,436 
8,182,754 



8,574,314 
5,306,421 

5,377,040 
346,054 

2,471,399 
866,138 
62,741 
376,717 
204,010 
694,969 
355,012 



7,999 
268,007 
984,477 

997.365 



494,761 
502,604 

683,200 
56,543 

440,997 
45,843 
11,936 
29,733 
13,091 
62.721 
22,236 



Per 

pound 



.098 
.104 
.124 
.119 
.082 
.132 
.139 
.136 
.186 



.073 
.074 
.069 



■ 068 
.067 
.067 
.070 

.109 
.147 
.049 



■ 091 
.166 
.047 
.120 



■ 072 

■ 058 
.095 



■ 127 

■ 188 
.178 

■ 053 
.190 
.079 

■ 064 

■ 090 

■ 063 



See footnotes at 



nd of table^ 



28 



SYiJTHETIC ORGANIC CHEfllCALS. 1977 



TABLE 1. --Primary products from petroleum and natural gas for chemical conversion: 
U.S, production and sales, 1977— Continued 



PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL 
GAS FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 

value' 



ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS— Continued 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
pounds 



1.000 
dollars 



Per 
pound 



Cs Hydrocarbons, total 

Amylenes and pentenes 

Isoprene (2-Methyl-l, 3-butadlene)- 
All other' ' 



liphatlc hydrocarbo 
es, total 



All other 
mixt 

Alpha olefins'^ 

Dodecene (Tetrapropylene) 
Heptenes, mixed 



179,404 
166,275 
888,090 



5.744.631 



Hexane 

Hydrocarbon derivative: 
Nonene (Trlpropylene)— 
n-Paraffins, total''' — 

POlybutene 

All other' ^ 



389,887 
293.929 
115,052 
674,142 
141,047 
346,198 
1,641,518 

2,142,858 



71,045 
96,531 
436,659 



3,118,327 



353,722 

55,718 
327,412 
83,194 
168,202 
1,162,937 
206,001 
761,141 



12,298 
13,193 
27,151 



357,487 



.173 
.137 
.062 



70,899 

5,473 
24,757 
20,735 
15,956 
79,676 
30,636 
109,355 



.098 
.076 
.249 
.095 
.069 
.149 
.144 



1 


Calculated from 


rounded figur 


es. 
































The chemical ra 


•1 materials de 


signat 


ed as ar 


omatic 


are in 


some 


cases identi 


;al 


wi 


th 


those 


obtained fr 


om the 


dls 


tillatlon of coal 


tar; however. 


the s 


tatistic 


s give, 


1 in the 


tab) 


e above re 


lat 


s OI 


ily 


to s 


JCh 


materials a 


s are 


der 


ived from petroleum and natura; 


gas. 


Statist 


ics on 


product 


ion c 


r sales of 


be 


azei 


le. 


tc 


lu 


;ne 


and 


xylene 


from 


all 


sources are give 


1 in tables 1 


and IB 


of the 


report 


on "Tar 


and 


Tar Crudes 


." 


















•" 


Includes cyclos 


Dls, decylbenz 


ene, a 


nd other 


alkyl 


aromatics. 























Includes toluene, solvent grade, 
Includes toluene and xylene used 
Includes data for crude cresylic 

miscellaneous cyclic hydrocarbons. 

Production figures for acetylene 

of the Census. 



90 percent. 

as solvents, as well as that which is blended in aviation and motor gasolines. 

acid, cyclohexene, phenols, polyethylbenzene, distillates, solvents, and 

from calcium carbide for chemical synthesis are collected by the U.S. Bureau 



or refinery propylene, 
represent principally the bute 



" Includes dat 
^ The statisti 
factured. 
^° Includes data f. 
^ ^ Includes data f 
^^ Includes data f. 

^' Includes data for methyl, ethyl 

and other hydrocarbons derivatives. 

^'* Includes data for the following 

^^ Includes production and/or sale: 

methane, methyl acetylene propadiene 



efinery gases from which butadiene is 



butanes, mixed C^ strea 
Cg hydrocarbon mixtures 
the following molecular 



pentanes, and piperylenes. 
weight ranges: Cg-C,; Cg-C 



propyl , butyl , oc ty 1 , nony 1 , decyl , hexadecy 1 , and miscellaneous 



chain lengths: 
data for cyclo 
mixtures of C2 



n-heptane, n-octane, polybutene, propylene tetr 



Cg-Cg; C9-C1S; Cio-Cii.; Cio-Cie; C15-C17; and others. 
)ctadiene, di-isobutylene, di-isopropyl, dodecene, elcosane, 
and Ca, Ce and C7, and C5 and Cg hydrocarbons, neohexane, 
propylene trimer, triisobutylene, and other hydrocarbons. 



II -- PRiriARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSI 



29 



r) o 

Eh O. 



- i^ Eh 



< Q M 

E-i a = 



CO rH W Eh 
t-i Q < 
t. M O o 



Eh O £h 

Eh S Eh W 



^ 


0. 




Q O, 


t) 








u 


(> 


3 




^J 




H 


a. 


u 






u 


U 


^ 






o 




0. 


E 


M 



J O Q Z 



U U U 



^ >. >- : 
I U U Ji£ I 
' >. 0) -H I 
; U Q •< ! 



u o 
• a 



-I at 

>. a 

a> s 

5S 



•« 0) *■ * N 

X M a o. c 
o o O u ^ 



o o o 

■H ■»-» .H 

fH a u 

I Z J3 jd . 



O 0} 
r-* a {_ 
O 01 M « V v 



^5g: 



30 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEniCALS. 1977 



o to 

T O 



C» X f- Dj Oj 

OS Cm z :b u 
cu u ^ O -1 



3 H Ot O 



O W VI 



C U Q^ Z I 






D o 
o o 



o o 



o +J >- -a • 



. '^ o 6 ii. 



I ^^»« <y^ Z 



O WN-^CTx »- ' 





d; 


» • 


e (4 


0) ^ 


3 y 


















o a 0) 








=3 O 






-J H 




0) 4J 


o* 


« » 



I C u 



^ a 






g -a g ** « 



II-- PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS FOR CflEMICAL CONVERSION 



31 









> t • t » ..^ »3 



ZOOCOEUO: 



O • O » pa » 
XX = O H O 



: U U OB O 
I Q. m -e U 



O a> 

■H J3 



a; e ' 

Ul « 

a o 

u u Of o 



o o o >.x 

U U U J3 

ct« Oi -a V ^ I 



I *J CL >,,- 



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: a a fl a ^^ 

t -^ o o 

c/i A ja 0) 

) 4) ^ Lt u a 

I a -9 « « fl 

> OJ (J y u *j 

» ^ H o o 3 

I >-. a u u ja 

I *j a» 'o -o o 



^ u u tn - 



I o 0) a -H • 



Hjq O O O* 






32 



SYI'ITHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1977 



u 

■^ .^ 

O 03 

EH H 



a H 



U U O u L) O O 



1 5 O "x : 



Q5 o 0) y 
Q m a 5 



S^ 0) o ' 
4J O "O ' 





to 


0) 0) 






e a 




u) n 








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T) o 


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8 






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1 ^ 01 

I a 

' ui 0) 

o >• 1 



A5; 



U U I -I : 
LI'"-'' 

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U U U 






U U I 



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'8^: 



• H O X -H -I -H H . 



:ss 



II -- PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 



33 



, U X •-^■Cv^.cC'C'^O. 



: ■< -< u O 



to ^ 
O. o 

H 

1 0) 

I « O ' 

■H tfl 

i -H *j c a ac 

' O W TJ ffl ■— ^ 



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— UJ C >.z: 

_j cr o 01 *j o 

< ID-Q c a CO r 

ct X «3 *j o •< ■ 

UJ — U 3 W O 

X 2 O XI H O ( 

O TS .-t -H Q 



34 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1977 



TABLE 3. --Primary products from petroleum and natural gas for chemical 
conversion: Directory of manufacturers, 1977 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



[Names of manufactu 
chemical conversi 
Identification co 



that reported produ 
o the U.S. Internatl 
as used In cable 2) 



ion or sales of primary products from petrol 
al Trade Commission for 1977 are listed belo 



and natural gas fo 
n the order of thei 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


ACC 


Amoco Chemicals Corp. 


KPP 


Arco/Polymers, Inc. 


ACU 


Allied Chemical Corp. , Union Texas 








Petroleum Div. 


MCB 


Borg-Warner Corp., Borg-Warner Chemicals 


AIP 


Air Products i Chemicals, Inc. 


MNO 


Monochem, Inc. 


AMO 


Amoco Oil Co. 


HOC 


Marathon Oil Co., Texas Refining Div. 


AMO 


Amoco Texas Refining Co, 


MON 


Monsanto Co. 


APR 


Atlas Processing Co. 






ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc. 


NHP 


Northern Petrochemical Co. 


ATR 


Atlantic Richfield Co. 










OCC 


Oxirane Chemical Co. 


BAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. 


OHC 


Olin Corp. 


BFG 


B. F. Goodrich Co., B. F. Goodrich Chemical 
Co. Div. 


OXI 


Oxirane Chemical Co. (Channelview) 




PAN 


Amoco Production Co. 


CBN 


Cities Service Co., Petrochemical Div. 


PAS 


Pennwalt Corp. 


CCP 


Crown Central Petroleum Corp. 


PLC 


Phillips Petroleum Co. 


CLK 


Clark Oil i Refining Corp. 


PPR 


Phillips Puerto Rico Core, Inc. 


CO 


Continental Oil Co. 


PRD 


Ferro Corp., Productol Chemical Div. 


COL 


Collier Carbon & Chemical Corp. 


PIT 


Petro-Tex Chemical Corp. 


COR 


Commonwealth Oil & Refining Co., Inc. 


PUE 


Puerto Rico Olefins Co. 


CPI 


Commonwealth Petrochemicals, Inc. 






CPX 


Chemplex Co. 


QH 


Quintana-Howell Joint Venture 


CPY 


Copolymer Rubber & Chemical Corp. 






CSD 


Cosden Oil S, Chemical Corp. 


RH 


Rohm & Haas Co. 


CSO 


Cities Service Co. 






CSP 


Coastal States Petrochemical Co. 


SHC 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 






SHO 


Shell Oil Co. 


DOW 


Dow Chemical Co. 


SIO 


Standard Oil Co. 


DUP 


E. I. duPont de Nemours 6, Co., Inc. 


SKO 


Getty Refining & Marketing Co. 






SM 


Mobil Oil Corp. i Mobil Chemical Co. 


EKX 


Eastman Kodak Co., Texas Eastman Co. Div. 


SNO 


SunOlln Chemical Co. 


ELP 


El Paso Products Co. 


SOC 


Standard Oil Co. of California, Chevron 


ENJ 


Exxon Chemical Co. U.S.A. 




Chemical Co. 






SOG 


Charter International Oil Co. 


FG 


Foster Grant Co., Inc. 


STY 


Styrochem Corp. 


FRS 


Firestone Tire S Rubber Co., Firestone 


SUN 


Sun Company, Inc. 




Synthetic Rubber & Latex Co. Div. 


SWC 


Corco Cyclohexane, Inc. 


GOC 


Gulf Oil Corp., Gulf Oil Chemicals 


TBO 


Tauber Oil Co. 




Co. -U.S. 


TID 


Getty Refining i Marketing Co. 


GRS 


Champlin Petroleum Co. 


TNA 


Ethyl Corp. 






TOC 


Tenneco Oil Co. 


hcf 


Hercofina 


TUS 


Texas-U.S. Chemical Co. 


HCR 


Hercor Chemical Corp. 


TX 


Texaco, Inc. 


HES 


Amerada Hess Corp. (Hess Oil Virgin Islands 








Corp.) 


UCC 


Union Carbide Corp. 


hmy 


Humphrey Chemical Co. 


UOC 


Union Oil Co. of California 






USI 


National Distillers 6, Chemicals Corp., 


JCC 


Jefferson Chemical Co., Inc. 




U.S. Industrial Chemicals Co. 






USR 


Unlroyal, Inc., Uniroyal Chemical Div. 



No te . — Compi e t e 



and addresses of the abo 



table 1 of the appendix. 



SECTION III -- CYCLIC INTERflEDIATES 35 

Import Penetration of U.S. Markets for Cyclic Intermediates 
Daniel F. McCarthy 

Summary of current status of imports 

Imports of cyclic (benzenoid) intermediates in 1977 amounted to 307 
million pounds valued at $325.9 million. Imports of cyclic intermediates are 
covered in part 1 B, Schedule 4 of the TSUS . In the import statistics, they 
are referred to as benzenoid chemicals and include a certain amount of 
noncyclic chemicals which were manufactured from cyclic raw materials. 
Imports more than doubled in 1972-77 ($150 million in 1972: $326 million in 
1977; table A). However, because of inflation in the United States and the 
different inflation rates in exporting countries, these value figures may not 
reflect the true impact of imports on the U.S. market for cyclic interme- 
diates. On the basis of quantity, imports of organic cyclic intermediates 
amounted to 221 million pounds in 1972 and have increased irregularly through 
1977 to 307 million pounds, which represents an average growth rate of 6.8 
percent per year. 

The ratio of the value of imports of cyclic intermediates to that of 
domestic sales ranged from 6.5 percent to 9.8 percent in 1972-77. Measured, 
however, on the basis of volume the ratio of imports to sales did not exceed 
2.8 percent in the last 5 years. In 1974 when imports of cyclic intermediates 
peaked at 2.8 percent of U.S. sales, they amounted to 401 million pounds, 
valued at $259 million. Sales of such products in 1974 by domestic producers 
amounted to 14.2 billion pounds, valued at $3.4 billion. 

The principal cyclic intermediate imports (along with those benzenoid non- 
cyclic chemicals referred to in the first paragraph) in 1977 were phthalic 
anhydride, (53 million pounds), cyclohexane (22 million pounds), and acetone 
(18 million pounds). Increased U.S. consumption of phthalate plasticizers , 
especially those used to increase flexibility of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
plastics materials, and increased use of polyester resins provided an increase 
in the market for imports of phthalic anhydride over that of 1976 when such 
imports amounted to 31.5 million pounds. 

Increased domestic consumption of nylon 6 and nylon 66 resulted in the 
increased demand for cyclohexane as a precursor material for these products. 
Increased consumption of acetone for such uses as the manufacture of methyl 
methacrylate and for bisphenol A were contributing factors to the large volume 
of acetone imports in 1977. Bisphenol A is used in the manufacture of epoxy 
resins and polycarbonate resins, which are expected to grow from 7 to 10 
percent a year according to industry estimates. Methyl methacrylate is 
likewise used as a raw material for plastics and resins. 



36 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 

Derivation and uses of principal cyclic intermediates 

The cyclic intermediates included here are derived principally from the 
basic petrochemical raw materials: benzene, toluene, xylene and naphthalene. 
The principal intermediates derived from benzene include cyclohexane, phenol, 
styrene, detergent alkylates, maleic anhydride, and aniline. Cyclohexane is 
used mostly in the production of the nylons. Stryrene is poljrmerized to 
polystyrene and used in plastics products. Styrene is also used in synthetic 
rubber, polyester resins and alkyd protective coatings. Phenol is used in the 
manufacutre of phenolic resins and of bisphenol A. Other products obtained 
from phenol include caprolactam used to produce nylon 6, alkylated phenols, 
and chlorinated phenol to make the herbicide 2, 4-D. A byproduct in the 
production of phenol from cumene , alpha-methylstyrene, is used as an additive 
in resin formulations to increase their high-temperature performance. The 
alkylbenzenes are used mostly to make synthetic detergents. Maleic anhydride 
is used to make alkyd resins, some agricultural chemicals, and styrene-maleic 
anhydride resins. Aniline is used to produce isocyanates which, in turn, are 
used to make polyurethanes for insulation, cushioning, and other applications 
of foamed plastics. Aniline is also used in the production of dyes, drugs, 
and photographic chemicals such as hydroquinone. Monochlorobenzene has been 
used in the manufacture of the pesticide DDT, drugs, perfumes, and in 
solvents. Ortho-dichlorobenzene is used mostly as a solvent for metal 
degreasing. Para-dichlorobenzene , on the other hand, is used as a moth 
repellant for wool. Resorcinol (meta-dihydroxybenzene) is used by the tire 
industry in a resorcinol-formaldehyde resin to bond the tire cord to the 
rubber. Resorcinol-formaldehyde resins are also used as wood adhesives. 

Intermediates derived from toluene include toluene diisocyanate (TDI) , 
benzoic acid and phenol. Toluene diisocyanates , when reacted with polyols or 
polyesters, make polyurethanes. The flexible polyurethane foams are used for 
cushioning and padding in automobiles and furniture. The semi-rigid urethane 
foams are used for crash pads in automobiles, whereas the rigid urethane foams 
are used in plastic panels for home construction and insulation. 

The principal intermediates produced from xylene include phthalic 
anhydride from ortho-xylene , isophthalic acid made from meta-xylene, and 
terephthalic acid from para-xylene. The major uses of phthalic anhydride 
include plasticizers , alkyd resins and unsaturated polyester resins. 
Isophthalic acid is also used to make unsaturated polyester and alkyd resins. 
Terephthalic acid (TPA) and its dimethyl ester (DMT) are primarily (90 
percent) used to make polyester fibers and the remaining 10 percent is used to 
make polyester plastic film. 

Intermediates derived from naphthalene include phthalic anhydride, 
insecticide intermediates and beta-naphthol which is used in the manufacture 
of dyes, rubber, perfume, and pharmaceuticals. 



Ill -- CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 37 



U.S. production and sales 

In 1977, the volume of U.S. production of all industrial organic 
chemicals (principally cyclic intermediates) amounted to 43 billion pounds, 
representing an increase of 27.4 percent over the 34 billion pounds produced 
in 1976. Of that 1977 volume, the output of cyclic intermediates was about 16 
percent more than in 1976; sales, however, were only 1.6 percent larger than 
in 1976. Production of cyclic intermediates amounted to 36.9 billion pounds 
in 1977 and sales amounted to 13.2 billion pounds, valued at $3.4 billion (the 
difference between the two sets of numbers being captive consumption). In 
addition to the cyclic intermediates, there is an estimated production in 1977 
of miscellaneous industrial organic chemicals amounting to approximately 6.5 
billion pounds; sales amounted to 2.3 billion pounds, valued at $1.3 billion. 

Comparision of the output of some of the principal cyclic intermediates 
in 1977 with that in 1976 shows an increase in 1977 of 44.1 percent for 
ethylbenzene, 38.1 percent for cyclohexane, 9.0 percent for styrene monomer, 
7.4 percent for aniline, 7.1 percent for dimethyl terephthalate , 3.5 percent 
for toluene diisocyanate (80/20 mixture), and 1.4 percent for bisphenol A. 
The output of synthetic phenol in 1977 increased 10.7 percent over 1976, 
whereas, the output of monochlorobenzene decreased 1 percent. Production of 
cresols and cresylic acid, however, decreased 11.5 percent; production of 
straight-chain dodecylbenzene decreased only slightly. For this group of 
selected intermediates, which account for 67.7 perent of the 1977 output of 
all industrial organic chemicals, there was an increase of 17.5 percent in 
output in 1977 over the 1976 output. 

Sales of intermediates in 1977 were influenced by several factors 
including changes in consumer demand for the end products of the chemical 
industry. The severe weather conditions in the eastern United States in the 
first quarter of 1977 hampered transportation and thereby reduced sales of 
chemicals. There was a slight increase in the demand for housing which 
resulted in an increased demand for plastics and in turn a demand for 
plasticizers made from phthalic anhydride. Increased sales of automobiles had 
a favorable effect on the sales of alpha-methylstyrene-based plastics. Along 
with increased sales of intermediates in 1977, raw materials had increased 6.5 
percent; one producer announced that his intermediates prices will be 
increased by 5.0 percent. 1/ 

Industry changes 

In 1977, there were 172 producers of cyclic intermediates, compared with 
175 producers in 1976. There were approximately 1400 cyclic intermediates 
produced by these manufacturers, many items produced by only one manufacturer. 
In 1977, one large producer of many of these cyclic intermediates was reported 
to be negotiating with a foreign producer for the purpose of selling the 
company. The sale will probably be consumated in 1978. 



~TJ Chemical Marketing Reporter , Mar. 13, 1978 p. 55. 



38 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 

Concentration in the industry 

In 1977, 5 of the 172 companies accounted for 37 percent of the sales 
value and 10 companies accounted for 56 percent. These ratios are 
significantly higher than those in 1973 when 5 companies accounted for 25 
percent and 10 companies 36.5 percent. The trend in overall concentration 
seems to be increasing in favor of the larger companies. However, there is a 
large number of producers of the large-volume cyclic intermediates. For 
example, there are 10 producers of phthalic anhydride, 17 producers of phenol, 
and 15 producers of styrene monomer. 

Regulations 

There are many Government regulations which affect the production and 
sales of chemicals in the United States. However, of particular interest is 
the Toxic Substances Control Act, which was passed in late 1976, with the 
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) being responsible for establishing 
standards for the use of toxic chemicals. In 1977 para-phenylenediamine (PPD) 
and 2,4-diaminoanisole (2,4-D) were found in tests conducted by the National 
Cancer Institute to have a positive link to cancer in animals. \_l In 
December, 1977 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a notice on 
inventory reporting regulations. 2/ These regulations required that, 
effective January 1, 1978, persons who manufacture or import chemical 
substances: (1) report the identity of each; (2) estimate the amount 
manufactured; and (3) indicate whether each chemical substance is manufactured 
and used only within one site. 

Although precise data are not available for the cyclic intermediates 
industry, expenditures for pollution control by the entire chemical industry 
in 1977 amounted to 11 percent of total capital expenditures. The chemical 
industry spent $301 million for water pollution control, $470 million for air 
purification, and $96 million for solid waste control; a total of $867 
million. 3/ 



International trade 



In 1973-77, the value of U.S. exports of industrial (benzenoid) organic 
chemicals exceeded imports in this group by an average ratio of 3.3 to 1. 
Analysis of the 1977 U.S. foreign trade statistics for this group of chemicals 
showed a lower unit value for exports (28 cents per pound) than for imports 
($1.06 per pound). 

Imports of industrial (benzenoid) organic chemicals in 1977 amounted to 
$326 million compared with $294 million in 1976. Since 1972, imports have 

—p Chemical Week , Jan. 25, 1978, p. 13. 

2/ Federal Register , Dec. 23, 1977, p. 64572. 

^/ McGraw-Hill Publications, annual Survey of Pollution Control Expenditures. 



Ill -- CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 39 

grown from $150 million to $326 million in 1977 or by an average growth rate 
of 16.8 percent per year (table A). On the basis of quantity, however, the 
average annual growth rate in 1972-77 for imports of industrial organic 
chemicals was 6.8 percent per year compared with 6.6 percent for exports and 
6.9 percent for domestic production. The principal sources of imports of 
cyclic intermediates in 1972-77 were West Germany and Japan and, in 1975-77, 
Italy, the United Kingdom, and Switzerland were also important sources. In 
1977 these five countries accounted for nearly 80 percent of the total imports 
for consumption of cyclic intermediates (benzenoid chemicals) (table B) . 
Analysis of benzenoid intermediates imports in 1974 through 27 customs 
districts showed that imports through the port of New York accounted for 64 
percent of the total, followed by Houston, Tex. (8 percent); Norfolk, Va. (4.5 
percent); Philadelphia, Pa. (3.4 percent) and Wilmington, N.C. (3.3 percent). 

The principal products imported, which vary from year to year, reflect 
the demand for such products in the United States. Analysis of benzenoid 
cyclic intermediate imports in 1976 showed that 77 percent of the total 
quantity was accounted for by the following functional-group products: 
phenols and phenol alcohols (17.9 percent); polycarboxylic acids (17.3 
percent); hydrocarbons (15.9 percent); amine-function compounds (8.7 percent); 
oxygen- function amines (6.0 percent); ketones (4.1 percent); hydrocarbon 
derivatives, (3.9 percent); and halogenated hydrocarbons (3.4 percent). In 
1977, on the basis of an analysis of imports of benzenoid chemicals and 
products by the U.S. International Trade Commission, phthalic anhydride (53 
million pounds) was the principal product imported. The principal sources of 
phthalic anhydride were Italy, Canada, Venezuela, Mexico, and Argentina. 
Cyclohexane (22 million pounds) was the second most important cyclic 
intermediate imported in 1977. Cyclohexane was imported from Argentina and 
West Germany. Acetone (18 million pounds) came from Italy, Brazil, West 
Germany, and the Netherlands. (imports of nonbenzenoid acetone, made from 
isopropyl alcohol, were insignificant in 1977). Other imports of lesser 
volume in 1977 included maleic anhydride, para-cresol , caprolactam, styrene 
monomer, m,p-cresol, copper phthalocyanine crude, phenol, fumaric acid, 
l-chloro-2-nitrobenzene , H acid, p-nitroaniline , and beta-napthol . Imports of 
these 15 intermediates accounted for approximately 63 percent of the total 
quantity of intermediates imported in 1977. 

There were 819 benzenoid intermediates imported in 1977: 67 more than 
the 752 imported in 1976. During 1977, imports from member countries of the 
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) accounted for 89 
percent of the total value of imports of cyclic intermediates; with 11 percent 
coming from less developed countries. The nine European Economic Community 
(EEC) countries accounted for 54 percent of the total and Japan for 20 percent. 



40 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEFIICALS. 1977 



Prices of imported benzenoid cyclic intermediates are usually lower than 
those of the competitive domestic products. However, the values of competi- 
tive imports are appraised by the U.S. Customs Service for duty purposes based 
on the American selling price (ASP) of the domestic products. Since the oil 
embargo of 1974, some prices of benzenoid chemicals imported from Europe have 
been higher than like or similar domestic products. In addition, prices of 
some imports of cyclic intermediates, especially from Europe, by U.S. 
subsidiaries of foreign manufacturers may not reflect the true market value of 
these products. These related-party transactions amounted to 32 percent of 
the total value of imports of cyclic intermediates in 1976, the latest year 
for which statistics are available. 



Exports of cyclic intermediates 

The United States maintains a positive balance of trade in cyclic 
intermediates. In 1973-77, the value of exports ranged from 3 to 3.8 times 
the value of imports. Exports went principally to the Netherlands, Canada, 
Brazil, Mexico, and Belgium in 1976 and 1977. These countries accounted for 
approximately 45 percent by value of the total exports of cyclic intermediates 
in 1977. The principal industrial organic chemical products exported in 1977 
were styrene monomer, lubricating oil additives, toluene diisocyanates (TDIs), 
detergent alkylates, rubber-processing chemicals, and cyclohexane. These 
products accounted for 48 percent of the total value of exports of cyclic 
intermediates in 1977. 



Balance of trade 

In each year since 1966, exports of cyclic intermediates have been much 
larger than imports (tables A and B) . In 1976 and 1977, the United States has 
had a negative balance of trade with West Germany, Japan, Italy, the United 
Kingdom, Switzerland, and France. Imports from West Germany in 1977 exceeded 
exports to that country by $100 million; imports from Japan exceeded exports 
to Japan by $35 million 1/; imports from Italy exceeded exports by $33 
million. Our negative balance of trade with the United Kingdom, Switzerland, 
and France was considerably smaller. On the other hand, our trade balance 
with Belgium, Canada, the Netherlands, Mexico, and Brazil has been positive 
(table C) . In 1977, our exports to the Netherlands exceeded imports by $152 
million, exports to Canada were $75 million larger than imports; exports to 
Mexico were $58 million larger than imports; and exports to Brazil were $78 
million larger. Brazil has become a sizeable export market for industrial 
organic chemicals in the past 2 or 3 years. 

T7 However, the U.S. surplus was $512 million for all chemicals traded with 
Japan in 1977. 



Ill -- CYCLIC INTERNEDIATES 41 



Outlook 

Although data were not available for the cyclic intermediates 
industry, the sales by majority-owned foreign affiliates of U.S. chemical, 
companies in 1976 amounted to $43.1 billion, a 15 percent increase over the 
$37.6 billion reported for 1975. 1/ This trend may have continued into 1977. 

According to the U.S. Department of Commerce, the value of shipments for 
the Industrial Organic Chemicals Industry (SIC code 2869) is expected to 
increase by 10 percent in 1978 over 1977. 2/ However, "three important 
unknowns are clouding the year ahead in the industry." 3/ The unknowns 
referred to are: (1) dependence on petroleum feedstocks, including natural 
gas; (2) the Toxic Substances Control Act; and (3) the scheduled trade 
negotiations (General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade) regarding tariff 
reductions and trade restrictions. "Until a clearer picture emerges, a wait 
and see attitude seems to have developed, affecting decisions on new plant 
investments in 1977 and perhaps into 1978." 3/ 

ll Survey of Current Business , Mar. 1978, p. 34. 
21 U.S. Industrial Outlook , 1978, p. 93. 
3/ Ibid. , p. 85. 



42 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



Table A. — Industrial organic chemicals: 1/ U.S. production, imports^ 
exports, and apparent consumption, 1966-77 



Year " 


Production H\ 


Imports 3/^ 


Exports 4/ 


Apparent : 
consumption 


Ratio of 
imports to 
consumption 


1966 

1967 

1968 

1969 

1970 

1971 

1972 

1973 

1974 

1975 

1976 

1977 


Million 
dollars 

2,391 
2,503 
2,915 
3,325 
3,229 

: 3,467 
3,730 

: 4,110 
8,037 

: 7,569 
8,882 

: 12,217 


Million 
dollars 

48 

48 

67 

: 84 

91 

: 129 

150 

: 169 

: 259 

: 205 

: 294 

: 326 


Million 
dollars 

211 
231 
292 
: 290 
: 336 
: 304 
: 320 
: 484 
: 930 
: 779 
: 1,008 
: 995 


Million 
dollars 

2,228 

2,320 

2,690 

: 3,119 

2,984 

: 3,292 

3,560 

: 3,795 

: 7,366 

: 6,995 

8,168 

: 11,548 


Percent 

2.1 

2.1 

2.5 

: 2.7 

3.0 

: 3.9 

: 4.2 

: 4.5 

: 3.5 

: 2.9 

: 3.6 

: 2.8 



1/ Principally cyclic benzenoid intermediates 
chemical compounds derived from benzenoid chemi 

2/ Partly estimated. Statistics include dupl 
chemicals represent successive steps in product 
calculated using the average unit values of sal 

3/ For the most part, imports have been "comp 
production and have been valued for duty purpos 
price." Data represents customs import value — 
U.S. Customs Service in accordance with the leg 
402a of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended. 

4/ Includes exports of some finished products 
and are not strictly comparable with imports or 



Some acyclic organic 
cals are also included, 
ication since some of the 
ion. Value of production 
es of all products, 
etitive" with domestic 
es at the "American selling 
the value appraised by the 
al requirements of sec. 402 and 

Figures include estimates 
production. 



Source: Production, U.S. International Trade Commission, Synthetic Organic 
Chemicals, United States Production and Sales ; imports compiled from official 
statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce. Exports are partly estimated, 
compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce. 



Ill -- CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 



43 



Table B. — Industrial organic chemicals: 1/ U.S. imports for consumption, 
by principal sources, 1972-77 

(In thousands of dollars 2/) 



Source 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



1977 



West Germany 

Japan 

Italy 

United Kingdom- 
Switzerland 

France 

Belgium 

Canada 

Netherlands 

Mexico 

Argentina 

All other 

Total 



,085 
,181 
,305 
,605 
,593 
,611 
,220 
,301 
,067 
35 
3 
,031 



72,715 

29,793 

10,705 

10,433 

16,063 

4,233 

7,919 

5,515 

4,724 

486 

6,892 



84,059 
65,027 
17,323 
21,119 
15,846 

8,585 
10,494 

4,826 
10,291 

1,812 

19,190 



62,145 

49,243 

19,073 

18,820 

14,773 

9,797 

1,871 

4,352 

6,738 

388 

657 

17,625 



94,768 

61,228 

30,678 

24,709 

17,280 

12,371 

2,154 

8,081 

8,987 

3,452 

1,927 

28,201 



105,172 

65,770 

32,711 

31,132 

21,956 

15,763 

9,839 

7,270 

4,858 

4,673 

3,353 

23,403 



150,037 



169,478 



258,572 



205,482 



293,836 



325,900 



1/ Principally cyclic benzenoid intermediates. Some acyclic organic 
chemical compounds derived from benzenoid chemicals are also included. 

2/ Customs import value, the value appraised by the U.S. Customs Service in 
accordance with the legal requirements of sec. 402 and 402a of the Tariff Act 
of 1934, as amended. 



Source ; 
Commerce. 



Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of 



44 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



Table C. — Industrial organic chemicals: U.S. trade, by principal trading 

partners, 1976 and 1977. 

(In thousands of dollars) 



Source 



Imports 1/ 



Exports 2/ 



Trade Balance 



1976: 

West Germany — 

Japan 

Italy 

United Kingdom- 
Switzerland 

France 

Belgium 

Canada 

Netherlands 

Mexico 

Argentina 

Brazil 

All other 

Total 

1977: 

West Germany — 

Japan 

Italy 

United Kingdom- 
Switzerland 

France 

Be Igi um 

Canada 

Netherlands 

Mexico 

Argentina 

Brazil 

All other 

Total 



,768 
,228 
,678 
,709 
,280 
,371 
,154 
,081 
,987 
,452 
,927 
98 
.103 



293,836 



105 

65 

32 

31 

21 

15 

9 

7 

4 

4 

3 

22 



,172 
,770 
,711 
,132 
,956 
,763 
,839 
,270 
,858 
,673 
,353 
538 
,865 



325,900 



10,487 
27,380 
3/ 

~ 15,497 

2,681 

11,401 

46,779 

93,471 

178,111 

63,964 

3/ 

~ 59,444 
498,985 



1,008,200 



5,038 
30,736 
3/ 

27,458 

6,541 

1' 

61,126 

82,676 
156,581 

62,965 
6,283 

78,512 
477,469 



995,385 



-84,281 

-33,848 

-30,000 

-9,212 

-14,599 

-970 

44,625 

85,390 

169,124 

60,512 

-1,500 

59,346 

470,882 



714,364 



-100,134 
-35,034 
-32,500 

-3,674 
-15,415 
-15,500 

51,287 

75,406 
151,723 

58,292 
2,930 

77,974 
454,604 



669,485 



1/ Data represent customs import value — the value appraised by the U.S. 
Customs Service in accordance with the legal requirements of sec. 402 and 402a 
of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended. 

2/ Incudes exports of some finished products. Figures include estimates 
and are not strictly comparable with imports. 

3^/ Not available. 

Source: Imports compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of 
Commerce. Exports are partly estimated, compiled from official statistics of 
the U.S. Department of Commerce. 



Note. — Because of rounding, figures may not add to the totals shown. 



Ill -- CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES ^15 

Cyclic Intermediates 
Daniel F. McCarthy and Bonnie Noreen 



Cyclic intermediates are synthetic organic chemicals derived principally 
from petroleum and natural gas and from coal-tar crudes produced by destruc- 
tive distillation (pyrolysis) of coal. Most cyclic intermediates are used in 
the manufacture of more advanced synthetic organic chemicals and finished pro- 
ducts, such as dyes, medicinal chemicals, elastomers (synthetic rubber), 
pesticides, and plastics and resin materials. Some intermediates, how- 
ever, are sold as end products without further processing. For example, 
refined naphthalene may be used as a raw material in the manufacture of 
2-naphthol or of other more advanced intermediates, or may be packaged and 
sold as a moth repellant or as a deodorant. In 1977 about A3 percent of the 
total output of cyclic intermediates was sold; the rest was consumed chiefly 
by the producing plants in the manufacture of more advanced intermediates 
and finished products. 

Total production of cyclic intermediates in 1977 amounted to 18,726 
million pounds, a 6 percent increase from the 17,700 (revised) million pounds 
produced in 1976. Sales of cyclic intermediates in 1977 were 7,986 million 
pounds, valued at $2,597 million, compared with 7,664 million pounds, valued 
at $2,387 million in 1976. These totals for 1976 and 1977 cannot be compared 
with 1975 figures because several items were transferred to the primary pro- 
ducts from petroleum and natural gas section. 

Intermediates which were produced in excess of 2 billion pounds in 1977 
were dimethyl terephthalate (5,410 million pounds), and phenol (2,338 million 
pounds). Other large-volume intermediates produced in 1977 were isocyanates 
(1,057 million pounds), phthalic anhydride (926 million pounds), cyclohexanone 
(745 million pounds), aniline (584 million pounds), nitrobenzene (552 million 
pounds), alkylbenzenes (526 million pounds), bisphenol A (455 million pounds), 
monochlorobenzene (326 million pounds), toluene-2 ,4-diamine (222 million 
pounds), and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (209 million pounds). The 12 chemicals noted 
above accounted for 71 percent of the total output of intermediates in 1977. 



Items transferred from cyclic intermediates to primary products from 
petroleum and natural gas are ethylbenzene, cyclohexane, cyclohexene, styrene, 
m-xylene, o-xylene, p-xylene, and cumene. 



Ill -- CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 47 

TABLE 1.— Cyclic intermediates: U.S. production and sales, 1977 

[Listed below are all cyclic intermediates for which any reported data on production and sales may be published. 
(Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be published or where no 
data were reported.) Table 2 lists alphabetically all cyclic intermediates on which data on production and/or 
sales were reported and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 



SALES 



PRODUCTION 




• UNIT 






QUANTITY 


VALUE : v^u^. 




1,000 


1,000 


1,000 : Per 




pounds 


pounds 


dollars : pound 




18,725.626 


7,985,790 


2,596,627 : $0 


33 




1,276 


1,879 : 1 


47 




1,268 


946 : 


75 


4,299 








526,121 


456,491 


116,969 : 


26 


739 








800 








277 








584,078 


175,892 


42,081 ; 


24 


130 


20 


24 : 1 


24 


350 








79,637 


30,854 


7,489 : 


24 




4,106 


2,636 : 


64 


68,274 


26,826 


7,364 : 


27 


22,531 


19,402 


7,358 : 


38 


1,389 


574 


198 : 


34 


285 








325,518 


174,840 


35,049 : 


20 


619 








92,842 


82,106 


41,075 : 


50 


21,060 


15,710 : 


6,636 : 


42 


71,782 


66,396 


34,439 : 


52 


46,449 


41,801 


13,868 : 


33 


100 








744,949 


32,618 


11,743 : 


36 


6,868 


6,490 


4,799 : 


74 


47 








47,371 


55,741 


15,250 : 


27 


65,094 


62,039 


14,235 : 


23 




8,889 


5,387 : 


61 


2,118 


1,833 


1,740 : 


95 


1,690 








13,060 


8,672 


4,810 : 


55 


66 








209,091 








1,717 


1,819 


577 : 


32 


32,307 








992 


1,115 


960 : 


86 


292 








1,263 








154 


103 


221 : 2 


14 




11,892 


16,559 : 1 


39 




10,089 


3,380 : 


33 


1,057,315 


951,346 


462,805 : 


49 


352,250 


316,491 


146,477 : 


46 


583,610 


532,498 


240,571 : 


45 


121,455 


102,357 


75,758 : 


74 


454,942 


121,438 


45,597 : 


38 




: 145 


231 : 1 


60 


125,918 


76,091 


26,710 : 


35 


8,755 


: 6,994 


725 : 


10 


1,33S 
64 









Grand total 

o-Acetoacetanisidide 

o-Acetoacetotoluidide 

Acetophenone, tech. 

Alkylbenzenes^ 

3'-Amino-p-acetanisidlde 

l-Amino-2-bromo-4-hydroxyanthraquinone 

P~ t (p-Aminophenyl)azo]benzenesulf onic acid 

Aniline (Aniline oil) 

2-Anilinoethanol 

Anilinomethanesulf onic acid and salt 

Benzoic acid , tech — 

2-Benzothiazolethiol, sodium salt 

Biphenyl 

p-tert-Butylphenol 

Butylphenols, mixed 

6-tert-Buty 1-2 , ^-xylenol 

Chlorobenzene, mono 

A-Chlorophthalic acid 

Cresols, total ^ 

o-Cresol 

All other" 

Cresylic acid, refined 

p-[ (2-Cyanoethyl)methylamino]benzaldehyde 

Cyclohexanone 

Cyclohexylamine 

1,4-Diaminoanthraquinone 

o-Dichlorobenzene 

p-Dichlorobenzene 

2,4-Dichlorophenol 

N,N-Diethylaniline 

1,4-Dihydroxyanthraquinone (Qulnizarln) 

N,N-Dimethylaniline 

N,N-Dimethylbenzylamine 

2,4-Dinitrotoluene 

Dinonylphenol 

N-Ethy laniline , refined 

2-(N-Ethylanilino)ethanol 

N-Ethyl-N-phenylbenzylamine 

3- (N-Ethy l-m-toluidino)propionitrile 

Hydroquinone, tech. 

p-Hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid 

Isocyanic acid derivatives, total 

Polymethylene polypheny lisocy ana te 

Toluene-2,4- and 2,6-diisocyanate (80/20 mixture) 
Other isocyanic acid derivatives 

4, A'-Isopropylidenediphenol (Bisphenol A) 

3, 4-Lutidine 

Melamine 

dl-p-Mentha-l,8-diene (Limonene) 

Metanilic acid (m-Aminobenzenesulfonic acid) 

3-(N-Methylanilino)propionitrile 



at end of table. 



i,8 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEITICALS. 1977 

TABLE 1.— Cyclic intermediates; U.S. production and sales, 1977--Continued 



CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 



4,4'-Methylenebls[N,N-dimethyIaniliae) (Methane 

base) 

a-Methylstyrene 

Nitrobenzene 

5-Nltro-o-toIuenesuIfonic acid [SOjH'l] 

Nonylphenol 

1- [ ( 7-Oxo-7H-benz [de ] anthracene- 3-yl) amino] anthra- 
quinone 



Phenol, total 

From cumene 

Other 



2 , 2 ' - [ (Phenyl) imino ] diethanol (N-Pheny Idiethanol- 

amine) 

Phthalic anhydride 

Salicylic acid, tech. 

Terephthallc acid, dimethyl ester^ 

Toluene-2,4-diamine (4-m-Tolylenedlamine) 

1, 3, 3-Trlmethyl-A' 'O-lndollneacetaldehyde 

l,3,3-Trimethyl-2-methyleneindoline 

7,7' -Ureylenebis [ 4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulf onic 



eld) 



Violanthrone (Dibenzanthrone)- 
All other cyclic intermediates 



PRODUCTION 



1,000 
pounds 

998 

60,245 

552,329 

5,890 

102,852 

155 

2.337,836 



2,131,661 
206,175 



501 

925,952 

45,291 

5,409,672 

222,400 

373 

910 

260 

236 

4,529,877 



54,725 
19,193 



1,116,733 
89,000 



264 

566,794 

5,812 



3,721,013 



2,000 
dollars 



9,507 
4,182 



231,692 



212,328 
19,364 



189 

128,492 

4,857 



UNIT 

value' 



Per 
pound 



$0.17 
.22 



Calculated from unrounded figures. 

' Includes straight-chain dodecylbenzene, tridecylbenzene, and other straight-chain alkylbe 
chain alkylbenzenes are Included in "All other cyclic intermediates." 

' Does not include data for coke ovens and gas-retort ovens, reported to the Office of Energy Dat 
pretation. Energy Information Administration, Department of Energy. 

^ Figures include (o,m,p)-cresol from coal tar and some m-cresol and p-cresol. 

^ The figures for terephthallc acid, dimethyl ester (DKI) include both the acid itself and the dimethyl ester 
without double counting. The acid production figure was multiplied by the factor 1.16 to 



Branched- 
and Inter- 



to equx 



Note. — The dat 
shown below: 



Grand tota 
Terephthal 



for production (in thousands of pounds) for cyclic intermediates for 1976 have be 
jgj^ 17 , 700 , 000 

id, dimethyl ester 5,051,049 



Ill -- CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 



i\9 






w 3 o z e- 

m Z W M M < 

*« OS c/1 H C 

O M O H 

2 PJ B E U ^ 

3: u s: w 

>. t^ M o u 

E H 3 -« W 



H F-. 



J • E < O H M 

«: CO W H U U* 

WW Wo: X . O 

05 OS «t E • "-J H 

of-* ■soeU'^O*^ 

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: cu u z 0= => ( 



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50 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



, U •< ^ I 



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O O O U -H 



t/1 W W .-» W 



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o; a> <v o 0) <u 



Ill -- CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 



51 



I 3e u (-» ; 

I U H H ' 



aiDdjatOO-Haio' 



O tr N N J3 



ats -o (0 ^ ,-* 



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o o o 



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■H >• -Q U , 

'I *-- V fl >- : 



x: j= jc i-< I I I 
u u u u a' * »c 



J-ci. 



OOOOOOOO'-'OO 



O^^liOOOOO.OO'OO 



01 j) 



52 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. ]977 



U U 3 



05 O t^ H 
H <* 3C -« 



U ^ CX4 o J 
OS •«: 3 05 w 
H in Q H OS 



0) O 



0) => I - 
. 01 O I 



O O I 

■M 4-) L 

0) Q) 



•a jq 
•H u 






b'o 



s^ O U H ■ 



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0) -^ «*j t-i •« '^ 

J3 X) .-H n^ rH r 

a* (0 3 3 3 : 

-^■H U) w w I 

rH X -H -H -^ ■■ 

>-*j -a TJ 'O " 

c I oj <D a> ' 

o ^ a c a I 



H -H U U ^ IM 



OJ (1> +J V *J 



oooooooooooooo" 



Ill -- CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 



53 



HHU'~^(j>'U^-l'-3i 



. U U U X S« H U 
> OS DC cc U (J • :>c: o: ( 



u o 



•ft -ft 

u u 

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o o 



•-•-'-■'-' 0) 



<D 0) - 
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u 0) o o a a I 



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■a fl fl « c 

H I* . 

a u u u -^ 

o o o o ^ 

T3 W W « W >> 

S C C C c3 O ' 

o o o O O I 

4J +J V V *> o 

" o o o o o <( . 



Q> O 
o -^- 



54 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEfllCALS, 1977 



O Ph. 

H S 



UZ0GHnUiC»(X3 U UO> 



>- o 
j= a 

—I o 



. 0- o 



ja 4) Q) O 01 



O O <D ■" ii-i W-l *J 



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X) a 
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(prH^^O) N >,^ 



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o o 

(= c 
<U 01 



[I -- CYCLIC INTLRMEDIATES 



55 






0) 0) -H 

o a 3 
o CJ* 



Q> U u at ' 

O OH 



t St, 



0) o o 

^ O V 1 -H 

fl o I -H a 
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I ^ H -a flj c 

< -H S 01 J3 -H 

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N r-t N en N N ^ -^ I : I C H I H H -H a 

ajWaizoiaiNNmo3^j3L_^i i lu^ 



56 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHmiCALS. 1977 



X O Q E-, ( 



I *« H 03 U 





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Ill -- CYCLIC INTERflEDIATES 



57 



Sr'. 



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t a Cb u w 3 I 



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58 



SYI\ITHETIC ORGANIC CHEfllCALS, 1977 



. .>'^E-'H'-1 tCl. * Ot ^ Ci* fri Cu >> : 



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Ill -- CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 



59 



O so 



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50 



SYIJTHETIC ORGANIC CHEIIICALS, 1977 



OQKOCBCUHI 



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Ill -- CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 



61 



H OS H H Hi 



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Ill -- CYCLIC INTERHEDIATZS 
TABLE 3. --Cyclic intermediates; Directory of manufacturers, 1977 



35 



[Names of 
Commissi 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



nufacturers that reported production or sales o£ cyclic intermediate 
for 1977 are listed below In the order of their Identification code 



the U.S. Interna 
used in table 2] 



Code 


Name of company 


1 

Code 


Name of company 


ABB 


Abbott Laboratories 


GAF 


GAF Corp. 


AC 


American Color (. Chemical Corp. 


GE 


General Electric Co. 


ACC 


Amoco Chemicals Corp. 


GIV 


Glvaudan Corp. 


ACS 


Allied Chemical Corp., Specialty Chemicals 


GLY 


Glyco Chemicals, Inc. 




Div. 


GMW 


Greenwood Chemical Co. 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 


GOC 


Gulf Oil Corp., Gulf Oil Chemicals 


ADC 


Anderson Development Co. 




Co. -U.S. 


AIP 


Air Products S Chemicals, Inc. 


GP 


Georgia-Pacific Corp., Plaquemine 


ALD 


Aldrich Chemical Co., Inc. 




Div. 


ALF 


Allied Chemical Corp., Fibers Div. 


gtl 


Great Lakes Chemical Corp. 


ALL 


Alliance Chemical Corp. 


GYR 


Goodyear Tire 6, Rubber Co. 


AMB 


American Blo-Synthetics Corp. 






ARA 


Araphahoe Chemicals, Inc. Sub/Syntex 


HCF 


Hercofina 




U.S.A., Inc. 


HDW 


Hardwicke Chemical Co. 


ARK 


Armstrong Cork Co. 


HEX 


Hexagon Laboratories, Inc. 


ARS 


Arsynco, Inc. 


HK 


Hooker Chemicals i Plastics Corp. 


ARZ 


Arizona Chemical Co. 


HH 


Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 


ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc., Ashland Chemical Co. 


HPC 


Hercules, Inc. 


ASL 


Ansul Chemical Co. 


HSC 


Chemetron Corp., Pigments Div., Sub. of 


atl 


Atlantic Chemical Corp. 




Allegheny Ludlum Industries, Inc. 






HSH 


Harshaw Chemical Co. 


BAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. 


hst 


American Hoechst Corp. : 


BCC 


Buffalo Color Corp. 




Hoechst Fibers Industries Div. 


BJL 


Burdick & Jackson Laboratories, Inc. 




Industrial Chemicals Div. 


BUC 


Synalloy Corp., Blackman-Uhler 








Chemical Div. 


ICI 


ICI United States, Inc., Chemical 
Specialties Co. 






IHC 


IMC Chemical Group, Inc. 


CCW 


Cincinnati Mllacron Chemicals, Inc. 






CEL 


Celanese Corp., Celanese Chemical Co. 


JCC 


Jefferson Chemical Co., Inc. 


CGY 


Clba-Gelgy Corp. 






CHL 


Chemol, Inc. 


KF 


Kay-Fries Chemicals, Inc. 


cht 


Chattem Drug & Chemical Co. 


KLM 


Kalama Chemical, Inc. 


CLK 


Clark Oil & Refining Corp. 


KPT 


Koppers Co. , Inc. 


CNP 


Nlpro, Inc. 






CO 


Continental Oil Co. 


LAK 


Bofors Lakeway, Inc. 


CRS 


Carus Chemical Co. 


LEM 


Napp Chemicals, Inc. 


CWN 


Upjohn Co., Fine Chemical Div. 


LIL 


Ell Lilly i Co. 






HAL 


Malllnckrodt, Inc. 


DBC 


Dow Badlsche Co. 


MCB 


Borg-Warner Corp., Borg-Warner Chemicals 


DCC 


Dow Corning Corp. 


HER 


Merlchem Co. 


DKA 


Denka Chemical Corp. 


MIL 


Milliken & Co., Milliken Chemical 


DOW 


Dow Chemical Co. 




Div. 


DUP 


E.I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. 


MLC 


Melamlne Chemicals, Inc. 


DVC 


Dover Chemical Corp., Sub of ICC Industries, 


MLS 


Miles Laboratories, Inc., Sumner Div. 




Inc. 


MNR 


Monroe Chemical Co. 






MOB 


Mobay Chemical Co. 


EGR 


Eagle River Chemical Corp. 


HON 


Monsanto Co. 


EK 


Eastman Kodak Co. : 


MRK 


Merck & Co. , Inc. 


ekt 


Tennessee Eastman Co. Div. 


mto 


Montrose Chemical Corp. of California 


ELP 


El Paso Products Co. 






ENJ 


Exxon Chemical Co. U.S.A. 


NCI 


Union Camp Corp. 






NEP 


Nepera Chemical Co., Inc. 


PER 


Ferro Corp., Ottawa Chemical Div. 


NES 


Nease Chemical Co., Inc. 


FG 


Foster Grant Co., Inc. 


NIL 


Nllok Chemicals, Inc. 


FMP 


FMC Corp., Industrial Chemical Div. 


NOR 


Morton-Norwich Products, Inc., Norwich 


fmt 


Fairmount Chemical Co., Inc. 




Eaton Pharmaceutical Div. 


FST 


First Chemical Corp. 


NPC 


Northwest Petrochemical Corp. 



86 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1977 



TABLE 3, --Cyclic intermediates: Directory of ^ianufacturers, 1977--Continued 





Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 




OMC 


01 in Corp. 


SKO 


Getty Refining & Marketing Co. 




OPC 


Orbls Products Corp. 


SOC 


Standard Oil Co. of California, Chevron 




ORO 


Chevron Chemical Co. 




Chemical Co. 




ORT 


Roehr Chemicals 


SRL 
STC 


G. D. Searle 6. Co. 

American Hoechst Corp., Sou-Tex Works 




PAS 


Pennwalt Corp. 


STG 


Stange Co. 




PCW 


Pflster Chemical, Inc. 


STP 


Stepan Chemical Co. 




PD 


Parke, Davis 6. Co. Sub. of Warner-Lambert 


SUN 


Sun Company, Inc. 






Co. 


SW 


Sherwin-Williams Co. 




PFN 


Pfanstiehl Laboratories, Inc. 








PFZ 


Pfizer, Inc. i Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 


TCC 


Tanatex Chemical Corp. 




PIT 


Pitt-Consol Chemical Co. 


TCH 


Emery Industries, Inc., Trylon Div. 




PLC 


Phillips Petroleum Co. 


TEN 


Cities Service Co., Copperhill Operations 




PPG 


PPG Industries, Inc. 


TNA 


Ethyl Corp. 




PRD 


Ferro Corp., Productol Chemical Div. 


TOC 


Tenneco Oil Co. 




PTO 


P. R. Chemical Co., Inc. 


TRC 


Toms River Chemical Corp. 




ptt 


Petro-Tex Chemical Corp. 


TRD 


Manufacturing Enterprises, Inc., Squibb 

Manufacturing, Inc., Trade Enterprise, Inc 




QKO 


Quaker Oats Co. 


TX 


Ersana, Inc. 
Texaco, Inc. 




RBC 


Flke Chemicals, Inc. 








RCI 


Relchhold Chemicals, Inc. 


UCC 


Union Carbide Corp. 




RDA 


Rhodia, Inc. 


UOP 


UOP, Inc., Chemical Div. 




RH 


Rohm & Haas Co. 


UPF 


Jim Walter Resources, Inc. 




RIL 


Reilly Tar 6, Chemical Corp. 


UPJ 


Upjohn Co. 




RPC 


A. Kewanee Industry, Millmaster Chemical 


USM 


USM Corp. , Bostik Div. 






Group, Refined-Onyx Co. Div. 


USR 


Uniroyal, Inc., Uniroyal Chemical Div. 




RSA 


R.S.A. Corp. 


USS 


USS Chemicals Div. of U.S. Steel Corp. 




RUC 


Rubicon Chemicals, Inc. 


VEL 


Velsicol Chemical Corp. 




SAL 


Salsbury Laboratories 


VGC 


Virginia Chemicals, Inc. 




SAR 


Sartomer Industries, Inc. 


VIK 


Viking Chemical Co. 




sec 


Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. 


VPC 


Mobay Chemical Corp., Verona Div. 




SCN 


Schenectady Chemicals, Inc. 


VTC 


Vlcksburg Chemical Co. Sub. of Vertac 




SDC 


Martin-Marietta Corp., Sodyeco Div. 
Sterling Drug, Inc.: 




Consolidated 




SDH 


Hilton-Davis Chemical Co. Div. 


WAY 


Philip A. Hunt Chemical Corp., Organic 




SDW 


Winthrop Laboratories Div. 




Chemical Div. 






Stauffer Chemical Co. : 


WCC 


White Chemical Corp. 




SFA 


Agricultural Div. 


WIL 


Inolex Corp., Index Pharmaceutical Div. 




SFC 


Calhio Chemicals, Inc. 


WIC 


Witco Chemical Corp. 




SFS 


Specialty Div. 


WYT 


Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., Wyeth 




SHC 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 




Laboratories Div. of American Home 




SK 


SmithKllne Laboratories 




Products Corp. 



Note. — Complete names and addre 
above codes ident if y those of the 
not restricted. 



Df the above repo 
reporting compani 



n table 1 of the appendix. T 
which permission to publish 



SECTION IV -- DYES 87 

Dyes 

Edmund Cappuccilll 

Synthetic benzenoid dyes are compounds or mixtures which usually possess 
a color and can be used to impart that color to various items such as cloth, 
rugs, paper, plastic, or leather, with or without the use of a bonding sub- 
stance. In the United States, the textile industry is the principal consumer 
of dyes. At the present time, there are several hundred dyes produced in 
the United States to meet the demands of the domestic and foreign consumers. Dyes 
are classified by the chemical composition (e.g., azoic, anthraquinone, and so 
forth) and also by the type of reaction occurring in the application process. 
Some of the more common application classes are acid, basic, direct, disperse, 
solvent, and vat dyes. 

The synthetic benzenoid dye industry in 1977 continued to recover from 
the low production registered in 1975. One of the primary reasons for the 
increased production is the upturn in the U.S. economy after 1976. This 
economic recovery by the industry helped to offset the increased pressures 
from imports and Federal regulations. 

Production and sales 

In 1977, the production of synthetic dyes in the United States increased 
by 3 percent to 264 million pounds. Although this increase was not nearly so 
large as the 24-percent increase of the previous year, it does represent a 
sign of continued economic improvement in the dye industry. The quantity of 
sales of domestically produced dyes increased by 2 percent (to 255 million 
pounds) with a ll-percent increase in the value of sales (to $690 million). 
A 10-percent increase in the average unit value of sales from $2.48 in 1976 
to $2.72 was also registered in 1977. The somewhat slower rise in prices in 
1977 (from the 30-percent increase in 1976) is due principally to the easing 
of the overall inflation rate coupled with increasing imports. This increase 
in imports, especially lower priced competitive imports, contributed to the 
smaller rise in dye prices since the domestic dye producers had to insure 
that their products remained competitive in the domestic market. 

Some industry sources anticipate that production of dyes in 1978 will 
continue to increase but not to the extent recorded in 1977. An increase of 
1 or 2 percent is expected even though increasing Government regulations, 
including pollution controls, and imports will continue to affect the dye 
industry. These adverse factors, however, should be offset by increased 
production in the dye-consuming industries (e.g., textiles and paper products). 

Over the past several years, the major classes of dyes (e.g., acid; basic; 
direct; disperse; food, drug and cosmetic (FD&C) ; fluorescent brightening agents; 
solvent; and vat) have shown changes in production for a variety of reasons. For 
example, the classes of dyes which have a variety of uses or are closely 
associated with a stable market have had the most constant output over the past 
several years. Conversely, those dye classes which depend mainly on the volatile 
textile markets have experienced large fluctuations during the same period. The 
following examples illustrate recent trends in the dye industry. 



88 SYNTH [TIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 

Because of their specialized applications, the output of certain classes 
of dyes for the past several years has varied greatly compared to the overall dye 
industry. For example, fluorescent brightening agents have shown the smallest 
change of all the major dye classes. They are used primarily in household 
detergent formulations to produce a brightening effect on clothes. The synthetic 
detergent industry, which manufactures these formulations, has been quite stable 
for the past several years. Because of this stability, the demand for fluorescent 
brightening agents has remained relatively constant when compared to other 
classes of dyes. 

Basic dyes, on the other hand, are used in the textile industry mainly on 
acrylic and modacrylic fibers. The decrease in the production of textiles made 
from these fibers during the recession of 1975 greatly affected the production 
of basic dyes. In 1975, the production of basic dyes decreased by 41 percent 
while the overall production of dyes declined only 25 percent. 

Changes in the dye industry 

During 1970-77, the number of dye plants in the United States declined 
as several companies closed their plants or sold them to foreign companies. 
In most cases, the plants were owned by U.S. companies. As a result, the U.S. 
dye industry is slowly being dominated by subsidiaries of foreign firms. In 
1970, there were approximately 45 dye producers in the United States. By 1977, the 
number of companies reporting production or sales of dyes to the U.S. International 
Trade Commission had declined to 41. 

Several companies allege that increasing production costs and foreign imports 
are the main reasons they have sold part or all of their dyestuff plants in the 
past few years. Most sales of dyestuff plants in the past few years were to 
foreign firms. For example, one large U.S. chemical company recently sold its 
dyestuff business to a West German firm because of declining profits. The i 
foreign producers can usually supply their subsidiaries with lower cost inter- 
mediates or semifinished dyes with a lowering of production costs. It is the 
belief of the dye industry that there will continue to be sales and mergers of 
dye plants as the cost of production continues to rise and competition from 
imports continues to increase. 

Some dye producers have stopped producing certain classes of dyes for a 
variety of reasons. For example, in late 1977, DuPont discontinued the production 
of vat dyes because of the increased costs of dye intermediates and of required 
pollution controls.^ The estimated increase in the selling price of the finished 
product would eliminate any competitive edge over the imported vat dyes. 

Government regulations and controls, which are considered by many people to be 
a major factor in the decline of domestically owned dye plants in the United States 
are also affecting the competitiveness between certain classes of domestic dyes anc 
similar imported products. 



American Dyestuff Reporter , September 1977, pp. 17-lf 
Ibid., October 1977, p. 68. 



IV -- DYES 89 

Increasing pollution controls have affected the vat dyes to a greater extent 
than other classes because of the need to control the effluents from the vat dye 
production process. Vat dyes had consistently been one of the lowest priced 
classes of dyes produced in the United States and one of the more competitive 
compared with similar imports. The increased cost of vat dyes owing to pollution 
control costs is expected to decrease the competitiveness of these products in 
future years. 

Another example of the effect of Government regulations on the dye industry 
is the withdrawal by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of certain dyes which 
have proven potentially harmful to man. At the present time the two classes most 
affected by these regulations are the FD&C dyes and the direct dyes based on 
benzidine. A short time ago. Red Dye 40, a food coloring dye, was withdrawn by 
the FDA from the domestic market because it was a suspected carcinogen. In 1978, 
however, it was shown in laboratory tests that Red Dye 40 did not cause cancer 
in mice as had previously been suspected. Its fate is now being decided by the 
FDA. Other dyes are still undergoing tests. Three benzidine-based direct dyes, 
C.I. Direct Blue 6, C.I. Direct Black 38, and C.I. Direct Brown 95, have all 
been reported to cause cancer in rats and may be withdrawn from the domestic 
market in the near future. 

In addition, the output of other dyes in coming years will probably be 
affected either by restrictions or by withdrawals from production as a result of 
increased testing for carcinogens. At the present time, direct dyes, especially 
those based on benzidene, are the main subject of investigations by the FDA and 
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; they will probably 
experience a decline in production in the near future as alternative dyes are 
found to replace them. 

Foreign trade 

Imports of synthetic benzenoid dyes in 1977 (TSUS 406.50) amounted to 21.3 
million pounds valued at $101.7 million (table A), an increase of 13.9 percent in 
quantity and 15.7 percent in value over the 1976 level. 

West Germany and Switzerland continued to supply the bulk of the dye imports 
to the United States in 1977 despite increased imports from several other countries 
(e.g., Japan and the United Kingdom). Total imports from West Germany and 
Switzerland were 14.4 million pounds in 1977. Although this quantity amounted 
to 67 percent of the total dyes imported in 1977, it was 2.7 percent less than the 
combined total reported in 1976. 

Large volumes of dyes are shipped by producers in West Germany and Switzerland 
to their U.S. subsidiaries; such shipments in 1977 are estimated to have comprised 
85 percent (about 12 million pounds) of total imports from these countries.^ 



Chemical Week , May 1978, p. 57. 

Estimated from items examined by the Commission for TSUS 406.50. 



90 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHmiCALS. 1977 



Future sources of imported dyes, especially the noncompetitive products, 
are not expected to vary greatly from the present ones because of the secure 
position of major chemical companies in West Germany and Switzerland in the 
dyestuff field. Minor shifts in the importing patterns may occur in the coming 
years, however, because some European and Japanese companies are constructing 
dye plants in several developing countries where low labor rates and minimal 
pollution controls now exist. Also, the possibility of a duty exemption for dyes 
imported under TSUS item 406.50 applicable to eligible countries under the 
Generalized System of Preferences provision of the 1974 Trade Act may have 
been a factor in the decision to construct dye plants in these countries. 

During the past few years, the major imported dye by far has been Vat Blue 
1, 20%, which is used for dyeing cotton fiber items (i.e., denim) and for printing. 
In 1977, 4.1 million pounds of Vat Blue 1, 20%, was imported into the United 
States. This quantity was an increase of 20.6 percent from the 3.4 million 
pounds imported in 1976. Imports of Vat Blue 1, 20%, and several other major 
imported dyes in 1975-77 by quantity are shown in table B. Future imports of Vat 
Blue 1, 20%, will depend upon the use of this product in textiles, and on the 
ability of the U.S. producer to market a competitive product despite costs of 
pollution controls. At the present time, it appears that U.S. imports of Vat Blue 
1, 20% will increase for several years, depending on consumer demand. 

The future of dye imports, in general, may depend upon the outcome of the 
current trade negotiations in Geneva, Switzerland. Topics for discussion in the 
Geneva trade negotiations include: (1) the elimination of the American selling 
price (ASP) method of valuation of imports for duty purposes; (2) the substitution 
of the ASP method by one of assessing import duties based on transaction values; 
and (3) the possible reduction of duty rates by 60 percent. Industry sources 
have indicated that the adoption of any one or all of the above proposals may have 
a significant effect on the domestic dye industry in the future. Irrespective 
of the outcome to these proposals, imports of dyes are expected to continue to 
increase by 5 to 10 percent per year over the next few years, because of the 
predicted growth of consumer products (e.g., clothing, rugs, and paper products) 
which utilize dye products in their production. This rate of increase, however, 
could accelerate if new trade developments, such as adoption of any of the above 
trade-agreement proposals, should occur. 



IV -- DYES 



91 



Table A. — Synthetic dyes: 1^/ U.S. imports, by 
principal sources, 1975-77 



Source 



1975 



1976 



1977 



West Germany 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom- 
Japan 

France 

All other 

Total 



West Germany 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom — 

Japan 

France 

All other 

Total 



West Germany 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom — 

Japan 

France 

All other 

Total 



Quantity (1,000 pounds) 



5,652 

2,585 

1,497 

704 

820 

650 



11,908 



8,407 
4,742 
1,901 
1,153 
831 
1.704 



18,738 



Value (1,000 dollars) 



Unit value (per pound) 



$4.07 
4,68 
4.24 
4.88 
3.72 
3.84 



4.24 



$4.75 
5.32 
4.77 
4.21 
4.36 
3.06 



4.69 



5,507 
2,130 
1,639 
933 
2,248 



21,346 



23,001 


39,906 


41,765 


12,108 


25,248 


30,620 


6,348 


9,075 


11,266 


3,432 


4,849 


6,069 


3,049 


3,622 


4,372 


2,493 


5,221 


7,615 


50,431 


87,921 


101,707 



$4.70 



4.77 



1/ TSUS item 405.60. 



Source: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department 
of Commerce. 



92 



SYNTH ITIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1977 



Table B. — Synthetic dyes: U.S. imports by principal 
products, 1/ 1975-77 11 

(In thousands of pounds) 



Item 



1975 



1976 



1977 



Vat Blue 1, 20% 

Solvent Black 5 ; 

Phorwite CL 4_/ 

Phorwite RKH kj 

Disperse Blue 73 

Food, Drug, and Cosmetic 

Yellow 5 

Fluorescent Brightening 

Agent 351 

Disperse Blue 79 

Fluorescent Brightening 

Agent 119 

Basic Yellow 2 

Solvent Black 7 

Direct Black ANBN 

Acid Blue 277 



5,995 
692 
675 
359 
331 

281 

209 



3/ 

II 
11 
II 
II 
3/ 



3/ 
3/ 



3/ 



3,409 
263 



901 



644 
734 



248 
117 



3/ 
3/ 
3/ 



3/ 
3/ 
3/ 
3/ 

3/ 



3/ 



4,111 



480 
388 



280 
499 
322 
247 



1^/ Selected on the basis of items examined by the Commission for 
TSUS item 406.50. 

2j The 7 dyes imported in the largest quantities are shown for each 
year, 

_3/ Hot applicable. 

4/ A fluorescent brightening agent. 



Source: Compiled from official statistics of the International Trade 
Commission, July 1978. 



IV -- DYES 93 



Dyes 
Edmund Cappuccilli 

Synthetic dyes are derived in whole or in part from cyclic intemediates. 
Approximately two-thirds of the dyes consumed in the United States are used 
by the textile industry to dye natural and synthetic fibers or fabrics; about 
one-sixth is used for coloring paper; and the rest is used chiefly in the 
production of organic pigments and in the dyeing of leather and plastics. Of 
the several thousand different synthetic dyes that are known, more than one 
thousand are manufactured by one or more domestic producers. The large 
number of dyes results from the many different types of materials to which 
dyes are applied, the different conditions of service for which dyes are 
required, and the costs that a particular use can bear. Dyes are sold as 
pastes, powders, lumps, and solutions; concentrations vary from 6 percent to 
100 percent. The concentration, form, and purity of a dye are determined 
largely by the use for which it is intended. 

Total domestic production of dyes in 1977 amounted to 26A million pounds, 
or 3.2 percent greater than the 256 million pounds produced in 1976 (table 1). 
Sales of dyes in 1977 amounted to 255 million pounds, valued at $690 million, 
compared with 250 million pounds, valued at $620 million, in 1976. In terms 
of quantity, sales of dyes in 1977 were 1.9 percent greater than in 1976 and 
in terns of value, 11.3 percent greater. The average unit value of sales of 
all dyes in 1977 was $2.71 per pound compared with $2.48 per pound in 1976. 

The production of six classes of dyes continued to increase in 1977, 
while the remaining three major classes registered slight to moderate declines 
in their production. Acid dyes increased by 8.7 percent from 28.2 million 
pounds in 1976 to 30.7 million in 1977. The other five classes of dyes 
Increased by the following percentages: basic dyes (17.2), disperse dyes (10,6), 
fiber-reactive dyes (47.0), solvent dyes (8.9), and vat dyes C13.6). 



IV -- DYES 



95 



TABLE 1.— Dyes: U.S. production and sales^ 1977 

[Listed below are all dyes for which any reported data on production or sales may be published. (Leaders (...) are 
used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be published or where no data were reported.) 
Table 2 lists all dyes for which data on production and/or sales were reported and Identifies the manufacturers of 
each] 



1,000 
^pounds 



Grand total 

ACID DYES 

Total 

Acid yellow dyes, total 

Acid Yellow 17 

Acid Yellow 19 

Acid Yellow 23 

Acid Yellow 40 

Acid Yellow 151 

All other 

Acid orange dyes, total 

Acid Orange 7 

Acid Orange 8 

Acid Orange 10 

Acid Orange 24 

Acid Orange 60 

All other 

Acid red dyes, total 

Acid Red 1 

Acid Red 4 

Acid Red 14 

Acid Red 73 

Acid Red 88 

Acid Red 114 

Acid Red 137 

Acid Red 151 

Acid Red 182 

Acid Red 266 

Acid Red 337 

All other 

Acid violet dyes, total 

Acid Violet 3 

All other 

Acid blue dyes, total 

Acid Blue 25 

Acid Blue 27 

Acid Blue 40 

Acid Blue 113 

All other 

Acid green and brown dyes, total 

Acid Brown 14 

All other 

Acid black dyes, total 

Acid Black 1 

Acid Black 52 

Acid Black 107 

All other 

See footnotes at end of table. 



30,705 



11,323 



201 
563 
430 
58 
2,284 
7,787 

4,079 



380 
218 
210 
547 
521 
2,203 

4.925 



240 
129 
503 
96 
259 
1,429 
1,524 



600 

409 

3,987 



419 
1,488 



425 
617 

178 
,746 



1,000 
pounds 



254,516 



1,000 
dollars 



29.003 



208 
545 
458 

2,061 
7,549 

3,627 



353 
241 
166 
536 
497 
1,834 

4.694 



163 
118 
524 
78 
299 
1,268 
1,542 



5.347 



531 

353 

3,827 

1.741 



427 
1,314 

2.608 
354 
459 
231 

1,564 



30,646 



667 
1,225 
1,884 

3.417 
2 3,453 

11,443 



567 

395 

1,342 

1,618 

6,713 

19.525 



1,070 
209 
293 
584 

736 
591 
1.413 
348 
1,119 
5,209 
7,95 3 

804 



245 
559 



20.282 



.379 

383 

2.449 

1.279 

12.792 

7,070 



1,409 
5.661 

8.418 
1.128 
1.357 
978 
4.955 



Per 
pound 



96 



SYNTH LTIC ORGANIC CH01ICALS. 1977 
TABLE 1,~Dyes; U.S. production and sales, 1977— Continued 



PRODUCTION 



AZOIC DYES AND COMPONENTS 



Azova Diazo Components, Bases 
(Fast Color Bases) 



Azoic Diaz 
Total 



Azoia Diazo Components, Salts 
(Fast Color Salts) 

Total 

Azoic Diazo Component 6, salt 

All other azoic diazo components, salts 

BASIC DYES 

Total 

Basic yellow dyes, total 

Basic Yellow 11 

Basic Yellow 13 

All other 

Basic orange dyes, total 

Basic Orange 2 

Basic Orange 21 

All other 

Basic red dyes, total 

Basic Red lA 

Basic Red 18 

Basic Red 49 

All other 

Basic violet dyes, total 

Basic Violet 1 

All other 

Basic blue dyes, total 

Basic Blue 3 

All other 

All other basic dyes 

DIRECT DYES 

Total 

Direct yellow dyes, total 

Direct Yellow 4 

Direct Yellow 6 

Direct Yellow 11 

Direct Yellow 28 

Direct Yellow 34 

Direct Yellow 44 

Direct Yellow 50 

Direct Yellow 84 

Direct Yellow 105 

Direct Yellow 106 

All other 

Direct orange dyes, total 

Direct Orange 15 

Direct Orange 39 

Direct Orange 72 

Direct Orange 102 

All other 



1,000 
pounds 



1,271 



753 

275 

4,744 



486 
559 
593 

3,070 
876 
591 
104 

1,499 

3,129 
1,039 
2,090 



909 
2,047 



11,896 

707 

246 

2,838 



127 
467 
196 
239 
258 
1,170 
5,564 

1,857 
636 
158 
236 
323 
504 



1,000 
poimds 



1,000 
dollars 



1,235 



208 
4,927 



603 
580 
529 

2,846 
718 
600 
103 

1,425 

3,187 
1,112 
2,075 



692 
2,058 



12,128 

1,023 

264 

2,908 

74 

111 

419 

206 

340 

223 

1,497 

5,063 



1,622 
523 
134 
227 
307 
431 



115 

1,487 



16,694 

516 
16,178 

4,751 
1,430 
1,637 
1,684 

10,262 
1,505 
1,395 
377 
6,9S5 

11,699 
3,661 
8,038 



2,156 
9,534 



32.841 

1,976 

1,030 

5,477 

421 

392 

1,302 

740 

624 

694 

3,344 

16,841 

4,826 

872 

365 

688 

1,146 

1,755 



See footnote 



end of table 



IV -- DYES 



97 



TABLE 1,— Dyes: U.S. production and sales, 1977— Continued 



DIRECT DYES— Continued 

Direct red dyes, total 

Direct Red 2 

Direct Red 23 

Direct Red 24 

Direct Red 72 

Direct Red 80 

Direct Red 81 

All other 

Direct violet dyes 

Direct blue dyes, total 

Direct Blue 1 

Direct Blue 15 

Direct Blue 80 

Direct Blue 86 

Direct Blue 98 

Direct Blue 218 

All other 

Direct green dyes 

Direct brown dyes 

Direct black dyes, total 

Direct Black 22 

All other 

DISPERSE DYES 

Total 

Disperse yellow dyes, total 

Disperse Yellow 23 

Disperse Yellow 42 

Disperse Yellow 54 

All other 

Disperse orange dyes, total 

Disperse Orange 3 

Disperse Orange 25 

All other 

Disperse red dyes, total 

Disperse Red 1 

Disperse Red 5 

Disperse Red 17 

Disperse Red 50 

Disperse Red 60 

Disperse Red 65 

Disperse Red 177 

All other 

Disperse violet dyes, total 

Disperse Violet 1 

Disperse Violet 27 

All other 

Disperse blue dyes, total 

Disperse Blue 3 

Disperse Blue 64 

Disperse Blue 79 

All other 

Disperse green and brown dyes 

Disperse black dyes 



1,000 
pounds 



5,515 



81 
192 
213 
371 
465 
1,806 
2,387 

145 

6,380 



3,904 



856 
3,048 



43,262 



8,160 



814 

663 

1,058 

5,625 

6,551 



134 

451 

5,966 



345 

67 

202 

427 

2,388 
253 
320 

5,825 

584 



15,664 



1,106 

363 

2,636 

11,559 

1,317 
1,159 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



5,050 



64 
186 
214 
324 
481 
737 
3,044 

143 



145 
514 
441 
739 
203 
888 
,217 

393 
795 

6,842 



1,110 
,732 



8.005 



829 

655 

1,065 

5,456 

5.727 



113 

530 

5,084 

8,761 



323 
79 
191 
255 
1,980 
187 



5,746 



15,424 



1,091 

499 

2,946 

10,888 

1,159 
1,215 



15,324 



275 
813 
838 
1,121 
1,671 
2,804 
7,802 

567 
19,501 



627 
1,502 
1,956 
2,502 

559 
3,126 
9,229 

1,721 
2,328 

11,359 



1,517 
9,842 



21.098 



1,997 

1,414 

3,278 

14,409 

16,249 



304 

1,409 

14,536 



864 
205 
516 
,163 
,510 
639 



2.310 



185 

186 

1,939 

70,846 



3,488 
1,192 
8,016 
58,150 

3,769 
2,736 



otnote 



end of table. 



98 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHOIICALS. 1977 
TABLE 1.— Dyes; U.S. production and sales, 1977--Continued 



FIBER-REACTIVE DYES 

Fiber-reactive dyes, total 

Reactive yellow dyes 

All other reactive dyes 

FLUORESCENT BRIGHTENING AGENTS 

Fluorescent brightening agents, total 

Fluorescent Brightening Agent 28 

Fluorescent Brightening Agent 61 

All other fluorescent brightening agents 

FOOD, DRUG, AND COSMETIC COLORS 

Total 

Foody Di*ugy and Cosmetic Dyes 

Total 

FDiC Blue No. 1 

FD6.C Red No. 3 

FD4C Red No. 40 

FDSC Yellow No. 5 

FDiC Yellow No. 6 

All other food, drug, and cosmetic dyes 

Dt*ug and Cosmetic and External Drug 
and Cosmetic Dyes 

Total 

D&C Red No. 7 

D4C Red No. 9 

D&C Red No. 19 

All other drug and cosmetic and external drug and 
cosmetic dyes 

MORDANT DYES 

Total 

Mordant orange dyes 

All other mordant dyes 

SOLVENT DYES 

Total 

Solvent yellow dyes 

Solvent orange dyes 

Solvent red dyes, total 

Solvent Red 24 

All other 

Solvent blue dyes 

All other solvent dyes 

VAT DYES 

Total 

Vat yellow dyes 

See footnotes at end of table. 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



1,019 
4,134 



1,042 

115 

32,097 



^744 



259 

461 

1,712 

1,558 

1,142 

134 



12.999 



1,400 
821 



3,959 
4,045 



965 
3,777 



31,003 
1,003 

3 0, 000 



5,381 



5.030 

316 

479 

1,486 

1,528 

1,059 

162 



25.758 



9,955 



1,350 
690 



2,795 



1,308 
3,812 



59,815 
1,485 



5,486 
20,272 



50,899 
1,494 

49,465 



33.412 

1,969 
5,097 
11,990 
7,944 
4,866 

1,546 



3,866 



401 
345 



2,173 



214 
1,959 



32.251 



5,324 
2,616 



255 
7,909 



9,079 
7,068 



Per 

pound 



$5.43 



1.49 
l'.65 



6.24 
10.63 
8.07 
5.20 
4.5° 



6.90 
4.83 



2.99 
3.75 



3.94 
3.79 



6.94 
1.85 



IV -- DYES 
TABLE 1.— Dyes: U.S. production and sales^ 1977--Continued 



99 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 

value' 



VAT DYES— Continued 

Vat orange dyes, total 

Vat Orange 15, 10% 

All other ■• 

Vat red dyes 

Vat violet dyes 

Vat green dyes, total 

Vat Green 3, 10% 

All other 

Vat black dyes, total 

Vat Black 25, 12-1/2% 

All other 

All other vat dyes 

All other dyes' 



1,000 
pounds 



2,392 



207 
2,185 



429 
704 



1,318 
2,945 



2,241 
1,646 



47,194 
22,389 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



2,233 
2,233 



378 
432 



1,129 
3,413 



2,368 
1 ,497 



46,880 
2 2,075 



2,651 
1,724 



2,462 

4,761 



4,773 
4,184 



65 , 7 7 9 
3 4, 7 6 7 



Per 

pound 



$5.04 



7.02 
3.99 



2.18 
1.39 



2 .7 9 
1.40 
L 57 



Calculated from unrounded figures. 
^ The data include dyes which are similar to. 

The data include azoic compositions, azoic 
for those groups of dyes may not be published s 
confidence. 



but not chemically identical w 
:oupling components, sulfur dye 
iparately because publication w 



th, the indicated Colour Index name. 
, and miscellaneous dyes. Statistics 
uld disclose Information received in 



TABLE 1A.--Dyes; U.S, production and sales^ by class of application, 1977 



CLASS OF APPLICATION 



UNIT 

value' 



Total 

Acid 

Azoic dyes and components: 

Azoic dlaso components, bases (Fast color bases)- 
Azoic diazo components, salts (Fast color salts)- 

Basic 

Direct 

Disperse 

Fiber-reactive 

Fluorescent brightening agents 

Food, drug, and cosmetic colors 

Mordant 

Solvent 

Vat 

All other' 



1,000 
pounds 

264,369 



30,705 

581 

1,271 

17,103 

30,735 

43,262 

5,153 

33,254 

5,744 

695 

12,999 

60,478 

22,389 



1,000 
pounds 



254,516 



1,000 
dollars 



689,992 



29,003 

533 

1,235 
16,249 
33,120 
40,811 

4,742 
31,003 

5,381 
594 

9,955 
59,815 
22.075 



98,188 

1,229 

1,602 

57,353 

88,467 

158,140 

25,758 

50,899 

37,278 

2,173 

32,251 

101,887 

34,767 



Per 
pound 



$2.71 



2.31 
1.30 
3.53 

2.67 
3.87 
5.43 
1.64 

6.93 
3.66 
3.24 
1.70 
1.57 



Calculated from unrounded figures. 

The data include azoic compositions, azoic coupling components, sulfur dyes, and miscellaneous dyes. 
r those groups of dyes may not be published separately because publication would disclose information 
if idence. 



Statistics 
received in 



100 



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113 



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116 



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118 



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119 



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120 



SYNTH [TIC ORGAfilC CHEMICALS, 1977 



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122 



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IV -- DYES 



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126 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 






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127 






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128 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1977 



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IV --JYES 



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130 



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132 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHt/IICALS, 1977 



TABLE 3. --Dyes; Directory of manufacturers^ 1977 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



that reported production or sales of dyes to the U.S. Int 
listed below in order of their identification codes as us 



tonal Trade Commi 
table 2] 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


AC 


American Color S Chemical Corp. 


ICI 


ICI United States, Inc., Chemical 


ACS 


Allied Chemical Corp., Specialty 
Chemical Dlv. 




Specialties Co. 


ACY 


American Cyanarald Co. 






ALL 


Alliance Chemical Corp. 


KOll 


H. Kohnstamm & Co. , Inc. 


ALT 


Crompton & Knowles Corp., Dyes & Chemical 

Div. 
Atlantic Chemical Corp. 






ATL 


MAY 


Otto B. May Co. Div. of Cone Mills 








Corp. 






URT 


Morton Norwich Products, Morton Chemical 


BAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. 




Co. Div. 


BCC 


Buffalo Color Corp. 


IIRX 


Max Marx Color 4 Chemical Co. 


BDO 


Benzenoid Organics, Inc. 






BUC 


Synalloy Corp., Blackman-Uhler Chemical 
Div. 








PCU 


Pflster Chemical Works 






PDC 


Berncolors-Poughkeepsie, Inc. 


COW 


Cincinnati Milacron Chemicals, Inc. 


PSC 


Passaic Color & Chemical Co. 


CGY 


Clba-Geigy Corp. 






CMC 


Nyanza, Inc. 










S 


Sandoz, Inc. 






SDC 


Martin-Marietta Corp., Sodyeco Div. 


DGO 


Day-Glo Color Corp. 


SDH 


Sterling Drug, Inc., Hilton-Davis 


DSC 


Dye Specialties, Inc. 




Chemical Co. Dlv. 


DUP 


E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. 


SNA 


Sun Chemical Corp., Pigments Dlv. 






STG 


Stange Co. 






SW 


Sherwin-Williams Co. 


EKT 


Eastman Kodak Co., Tennessee Eastman 
Co. Div. 










TMS 


Sterling Drug, Inc., Thomasset Colors Dlv. 


FAB 


Fabricolor Manufacturing Corp. 


TRC 


Toms River Chemical Corp. 


OAF 


GAF Corp. 


VPC 


Mobay Chemical Corp, Verona Dlv. 


HSC 


Chemetron Corp., Pigments Div. Sub. of 


WAY 


Philip A. Hunt Chemical Corp., Organic 




Allegheny Ludlum Industries, Inc. 




Chemical Dlv. 


HSH 


Harshaw Chemical Co. 


WJ 


Warner-Jenklnson Manufacturing Co. 


HST 


American Hoechst Corp. Industrial Chemicals 
Div. 







Note. — Complete 



of the above reporting corapa 



listed in table 1 of the appendix. 



SECTION V -- 0;^5ANIC PIGMENTS ^^^ 



Organic Pigments 
(Color Lakes & Toners) 

Bonnie Noreen 



Description and uses 

An organic pigment is a concentrated form of minute particles of coloring 
matter which is substantially insoluble in the medium in which it is dispersed. 
The organic pigment differs from a dye in that a dye is generally soluble in 
the transport medium or in the final product. Pigments are used rather than 
dyes when the color required must be insoluble, or substantially so, in its 
vehicle. An example of this is in the area of printing inks where distinction 
of colors is required and dyes would "bleed," or spread into surrounding 
areas. Usually pigments, having more opacity than dyes, are less expensive to 
use in certain applications since more of the dye is required to achieve the 
same degree of coloration. For example, opacity, plus a greater resistance 
to heat, makes pigments more desirable as coloring agents in many plastics and 
industrial paints. 

There are both organic and inorganic pigments. Organic pigments, in 
general, are more expensive and are available in brighter and more varied 
colors. They are usually transparent and are affected by organic solvents 
while inorganic pigments are usually opaque and insoluble in organic solvents. 
Although both pigment types have functional as well as decorative properties 
and can contribute to the durability and visibility of the end product, the 
inorganic pigments are more functional in that some add reinforcement and rust 
inhibition and generally are more heat resistant than organic pigments. Organic 
pigments comprise approximately 10 percent of the total volume and 30 percent 
of the total value of all pigments.' The volume of organic pigments as a per- 
cent of the total output is not expected to change drastically but their per- 
cent of the value is expected to increase in the next several years partly 
because of the increased costs of the petrochemical raw materials. 

The largest use of organic pigments is in printing inks. The second 
largest use is in paints and other coatings. Lesser amounts are employed to 
color plastics, textiles, and many other products. When employed in inks and 
paints, pigments must be readily dispersible in such mediums as oils, organic 
solvents, varnishes, and resins. 

Organic pigments can be derived from synthetic or natural dyestuffs. For 
economic reasons, the natural products have been almost completely replaced by 
synthetics. These pigments are generally prepared in one of two ways from dyes 
or pigment intermediates closely related to dyes. Color lakes are prepared by 
the precipitation of a water-soluble dye on an insoluble inorganic compound or 
substrate. In contrast, toners, or full strength colors, do not require a sub- 
strate or base. Toners are by far the more commercially important of the two 
pigments and are marketed either full strength or extended, i.e., diluted by 



Kirk-Othmer, Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology , Vol. 15, pp. 557-569; and 
Kline Guide to the Chemical Industry , 3rd Edition p. 151. 



134 SYNTHETIC ORGAiJIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



the addition of a solid diluent. Over the past 10 years production of lakes 
has decreased by 59 percent while production of toners increased by 34 percent. 
The sales unit values of both have increased, toners by 71 percent in 10 years 
and lakes by 192 percent (table A). 



Production and sales 

In 1977, the pigment industry continued to recover from the economic set- 
back of 1975. The production of organic pigments in 1977 was 68.7 million 
pounds or 980,000 pounds laore than in 1976, which represents an increase of 1.4 
percent. The sales quantity increased by 3.2 million pounds (6 percent) in 
1977 to a total of 57.4 million pounds, but the sales unit value decreased by 
15c to S4.66 per pound (table A). The decrease in unit value could possibly 
be attributed to increased import competition . 

Foreign trade 

In 1977, U.S. exports of organic pigments registered a high in both 
quantity and value. The total quantity of exports, 14.7 million pounds, was 
30,000 pounds greater than in 1974, the next highest year, and 242,000 pounds 
(1.7 percent) greater than in 1976. The total value of exports in 1977 was 
S3 .8 million laore than the $36.5 million recorded in 1976. This is an increase 
of 10 percent. Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Belgium, 
Vest Gemany, Italy, and Austrialia make up 57 percent of the quantity and 
60 percent of the value of these exports (table B) . 

Inports of 7.6 million pounds in 1977 were less than the all-time high 
reached in 1974, but were- 11 percent higher than the 6.9 million pounds in 
1976 (table C) . Imports of organic pigments to the United States come mostly 
from Vest Germany and Switzerland. These two countries accounted for 64 per- 
cent of the quantity and 76 percent of the value in 1977. Imports of Pigments 
Blue 15, Red 144, Yellow 92, Green 7, and Green 36 accounted for 56 percent of 
the total U.S. organic pigments inports in 1977. Imports in 1977 accounted 
for 12.4 percent of the apparent U.S. consumption on a quantity basis, and 
11.5 percent on a value zasis (table D) . 



.ae aosestxc inaustrv 



Concentration in the pigments industry in 1977 was about the same as in 
1976. In 1977, 5 of the 36 companies accounted for 59 percent of the sales 
and 10 ccapanies accounted for 83 percent. In 1976, 5 companies accounted 

for 61 percent of total sales, and 10 companies 87 percent. 



Although extended toners are provided for under .iV: iter -Zz.'Z, 
.ysis of inport data indicates that imports have also been entered under 

Inserts jf aenzenold Chenltal; and Products , 1977; USIIC Publication #900, 
"3. 



V -- ORGANIC PIGMBNTS 135 

The number of domestic companies reporting production of organic pigments 
has not varied much in the past 10 years, but the number of companies partially 
or completely owned by foreign investors is increasing. In early 1977, Harmon 
Colors Corp., a subsidiary of Bayer A.G., acquired the organic pigment 
business of Allied Chemical Corp. In mid-1977, GAF offered for sale its 
dye and pigments business.^ The purchase, by BASF Wyandotte, was concluded in 
early 1978. Recently there have been negotiations on the sale of yet another 
large producer to a Germany based company. The amount of foreign interest in 
the pigment industry is expected to continue to increase in the immediate 
future. Many U.S. producers have indicated that rising domestic costs are 
making it more difficult to compete with lower priced foreign pigments. Industry 
attributes the rising domestic costs to various U.S. pollution controls and 
safety regulations, increasing labor and overhead costs, and increasing costs 
of the pigment intermediates and dyestuffs. Foreign companies with U.S. sub- 
sidiaries can bypass many of these expenses by manufacturing semifinished dye- 
stuffs abroad and providing them to the U.S. subsidiaries at prices below U.S. 
market prices. 

The U.S. pigment industry is highly dependent upon imported pigment inter- 
mediates. According to some industry sources, this dependency has increased in 
the past several years to the point that approximately one-third of the domestic 
output of pigments is now based on imported pigment intermediates. These 
sources point out that many foreign intermediate suppliers are also producers 
of organic pigments. By increasing the prices of the intermediates to dependent 
U.S. producers, they could make their own pigments more competitive in the U.S. 
market. Further import penetration into the pigment intermediate market could, 
they believe, pose a threat to the domestic pigments industry. They argue that 
the current trade negotiations may have an adverse effect on the domestic 
industry in that import duties may be reduced beyond the point where the 
domestic manufacturers can compete on a price basis with imports. 



American Dyestuff Reporter , September 1977, pp. 17 and 18. 



136 



SYNTH LTIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



TABLE A. — Organic pigments (toners and lakes): U.S. 
production and sales, 1968-77 



Year 



Production 



Sales 



Quantity 



Value 



Toners : 
1968- 
1969- 
1970- 
1971- 
1972- 
1973- 
1974- 
1975- 
1976- 
1977- 

Lakes: 
1968- 
1969- 
1970- 
1971- 
1972- 
1973- 
1974- 
1975- 
1976- 
1977- 

Total: 
1968- 
1969- 
1970- 
1971- 
1972- 
1973- 
1974- 
1975- 
1976- 
1977- 



1,000 
pounds 



49,919 
57,310 
52,547 
55,086 
62,878 
66,949 
67,464 
47,723 
66,020 
67,134 



,830 
,701 
,977 
,240 
,019 
,446 
,334 
,930 
,707 
,573 



53,749 
61,011 
56,524 
58,326 
65,897 
69,395 
69,798 
49,653 
67,727 
68,707 



1.000 
pounds 



42,202 
47,375 
43,754 
44,247 
50,506 
58,991 
56,318 
40,779 
52,818 
56,037 



3,608 
3,419 
3,412 
2,805 
2,709 
2,473 
2,163 
1,593 
1,393 
1,397 



45,810 
50,794 
47,166 
47,052 
53,215 
61,464 
58,481 
42,372 
54,211 
57,434 



1,000 
dollars 



116,337 
129,310 
119,353 
126,564 
145,941 
178,583 
222,805 
182,067 
256,707 
263,671 



3,597 
3,839 
3,612 
3,449 
3,402 
3,583 
5,007 
3,923 
4,382 
4,076 



119,934 
133,149 
122,965 
130,013 
149,343 
182,166 
227,812 
185,990 
261,089 
267,747 



Calculated from rounded figures. 

Source: U.S. International Trade Commission, Synthetic Organic Chemicals, United 
States Production and Sales. 



V -- ORGANIC PIGHENTS 



137 



TABLE B. — Organic pigments: U.S. exports, 1973-77 



Market 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



1977 



Quantity (1,000 pounds) 



Canada 

Japan 

Netherlands 

United Kingdom- 
Belgium 

West Germany 

Italy 

Australia 

All other 

Total 

Canada 

Japan 

Netherlands 

United Kingdom- 
Belgium 

West Germany 

Italy 

Australia 

All other 

Total 



1,894 
860 
875 
962 
329 
383 

1,019 
337 

4,083 



10.743 



2,736 
719 
969 

1,132 
398 
492 

1,089 
675 

6,586 



14,716 



2,624 
655 

1,063 
756 
250 
508 
577 
580 

5,107 



12,120 



2,696 

1,391 

1,309 

720 

595 

366 

1,200 

708 

5,519 



14.504 



Value (1,000 dollars) 



3,434 

3,187 

1,107 

1.612 

791 

952 

1,663 

780 

5,997 



19,515 



6,037 
4,215 
1,643 
3,253 
1,236 
1,190 
2,431 
1,400 
8,642 



33,147 



5,007 

2,637 

1.738 

1.878 

933 

889 

1.430 

985 

9.565 



25.062 



6,839 
4,952 
3,218 
2,071 
1,904 
1,208 
2,877 
1,341 
12,087 



36,497 



1,873 

1,058 

1,474 

1,157 

807 

827 

829 

413 

6,308 



14,746 



5,199 
4,015 
3,817 
3,284 
2,570 
2,251 
1.840 
1.293 
15,986 



40.255 



Source: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce. 



'■ 



138 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 

TABLE C. — Organic pigments: U.S. imports, 19Ti-n 



Source 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



1977 



West Germany 

Switzerland 

Japan 

Canada 

Italy 

United Kingdom- 
All other 

Total 

West Germany 

Switzerland 

Japan 

Canada 

Italy 

United Kingdom- 
All other 

Total 



2,105 
2,226 
177 
862 
51 
360 
273 



6.054 



7,206 
6,003 

448 
1,147 

192 
1,166 

485 



16,647 



Quantity (1,000 pounds) 



3,225 
2,891 
437 
395 
224 
269 
701 



8.142 



2,009 
1,243 
527 
796 
126 
299 
319 



5,319 



2,407 
2,326 
819 
527 
300 
204 
305 



6,888 



Value (1,000 dollars) 



12,553 
9,179 
1,500 
835 
741 
1,056 
1,441 



27,305 



8,281 
6,303 
1,422 
981 
404 
1,789 
1.098 



20,278 



13,488 

12,618 

2,330 

1,343 

800 

700 

1.067 



32,346 



2,722 
2,135 
738 
709 
524 
205 
612 



7,645 



16,246 
11,409 
2,604 
1,621 
1,452 
1,041 
2.064 



36,437 



Source: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce. 



V -- ORGANIC PIGMBITS 



139 



TABLE D. — Organic pigments: U.S. production, imports, exports, and 
apparent consumption, 1968-77 



Year 


Production ll 


Imports 


Exports 


Apparent 
consumption 


Ratio 

(percent) of 

imports to 

consumption 




Quantity (1,000 pounds) 


1968 

1969 

1970 

1971 

1972 

1973 

1974 

1975 

1976 

1977 


53,749 
61,011 
56,524 
58,326 
65,897 
69,395 
69,798 
49,653 
67,727 
68,707 


1,653 
3,447 
3,617 
5,764 
4,612 
6,054 
8,142 
5,319 
6,888 
7,645 


4,921 

4,408 

5,632 

6,222 

7,094 

10,743 

14,716 

12,120 

14,504 

14,746 


50,481 
60,050 
54,509 
57,868 
63,415 
64,706 
63,224 
42,852 
60,111 
61,606 


3.3 

5.7 

6.6 

10.0 

7.3 

9.4 

12.9 

12.4 

11.5 

12.4 




Value (1,000 dollars) 


1968 

1969 

1970 

1971 

1972 

1973 

1974 

1975 

1976 

1977 


140,985 
159,868 
146,806 
160,921 
183,826 
205,882 
272,212 
217,977 
325,767 
320,175 


4,940 
8,783 
10,622 
12,966 
12,017 
16,647 
27,305 
20,278 
32,346 
36,437 


8,366 
7,846 
9,575 
10,870 
12,867 
19,515 
33,147 
25,062 
36,497 
40,255 


137,559 
160,805 
147,853 
163,017 
182,976 
203,014 
266,370 
213,193 
321,616 
316,357 


3.6 

5.5 

7.2 

8.0 

6.6 

8.2 

10.3 

9.5 

10.1 

11.5 



ll Value of production estimated, based on unit value of sales. 



Source: Production, U.S. International Trade Commission, Synthetic Organic Chem- 
icals, United States Production and Sales ; imports and exports compiled from offi- 
cial statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce. 



1^0 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 

ORGANIC PIGMENTS 
Bonnie J. Noreen and Edmund Cappuccilli 

Organic pigments are toners and lakes derived in whole or in part from 
benzenoid chemicals and colors. 

Statistics on production and sales of all organic pigments in 1977 are 
given in table 1.^ For a few important pigments already reported in table 1, 
supplemental data on sales by commercial forms are reported in table lA. 
Individual toners and lakes are identified in this report by the names used 
in the third edition of the Colour Index . 

Total production of organic pigments in 1977 was 68.7 million pounds — 1.5 
percent more than the 67.7 million pounds produced in 1976. Total sales of 
organic pigments in 1977 amounted to 57.4 million pounds, valued at $267.7 
million, compared with 5A.2 million pounds, valued at $261.1 million, in 1976. 
In terms of quantity, sales of organic pigments in 1977 were 5.9 percent 
greater than in 1976 in terms of value, sales in 1977 were 2.6 percent greater 
than in 1976. 

Production of toners in 1977 amounted to 67.1 million pounds — 1.7 per- 
cent more than the 66.0 million pounds reported in 1976. Sales in 1977 were 
56.0 million pounds, valued at $263.7 million, compared with 52.8 million 
pounds, valued at $256.7 million, in 1976. Sales in 1977 were 6.1 percent 
greater than those of 1976 in terms of quantity, and 2.7 percent greater in 
terms of value. The individual toners listed in the report which were 
produced in the largest quantities in 1977 were Pigment Yellow 12, 8.7 
million pounds; Pigment Blue 15:3, beta form, 6.7 million pounds; Pigment Red 49, 
barium toner, 5.1 million pounds; Pigment Blue 15, alpha form, 3.7 million 
pounds; and Pigment Red 53, barium toner, 3.7 million pounds. 

Production of lakes totaled 1.6 million pounds in 1977 — 7.8 percent less 
than the 1.7 million pounds reported for 1976. Sales of lakes in 1977 
amounted to 1.4 million pounds, valued at $4.1 million, almost identical to 
the sales reported in 1976 of 1.4 million pounds, valued at $4.4 million. 

For each of 6 selected pigments, or groups of pigments, table lA gives 
data on sales by commercial forms. Pigment Green 7, Pigment Red 3, and 
Pigment Blue 15, alpha form, were sold principally in the dry full-strength 
form. The remaining 2 pigments and group of pigments for which statistics 
are published were sold principally in the flushed form. 



^ See also table 2 which lists these products and identifies the manu- 
facturers by codes. These codes are listed in table 3. 



V -- ORGANIC PIGMENTS 



141 



TABLE 1.— Organic pigments; U.S. production and sales^ 1977 



[Listed below are all organic pigments for which any re,; 
(Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are ac 
2 lists separately all organic pigments for which data 
manufacturers of each] 



a production or sales may be publj 
nfidence and may not be published, 
on or sales were reported and ider 



shed. 
) Table 
tifies the 



ORGANIC PIGMENTS 



PRODUCTION 



QUANTITY 



Grand total 

TONERS 
Total 

Yellow toners, total 

Acetoacetarylide yellows: 

Pigment Yellow 1, C.I. 11 680 

Pigment Yellow 3, C.I. 11 710 

Pigment Yellow 73, C.I. 11 738 

Pigment Yellow 74, C.I. 11 741 

Dlarylide yellows: 

Pigment Yellow 12, C.I. 21 090 

Pigment Yellow 13, C.I. 21 100 

Pigment Yellow 14, C.I. 21 095 

Pigment Yellow 17, C.I. 21 105 

All other 

Orange toners, total 

Pigment Orange 5, C.I. 12 075 

Pigment Orange 13, C.I. 21 110 

Pigment Orange 16, C.I. 21 160 

Pigment Orange 34, C.I. 21 115 

All other 

Red toners, total 

Naphthol reds, total 

Pigment Red 2, C.I. 12 310 

Pigment Red 5, C.I. 12 490 

Pigment Red 9, C.I. 12 460 

Pigment Red 17, C.I. 12 390 

Pigment Red 22, C.I. 12 315 

Pigment Red 23, C.I. 12 355 

All other naphthol reds 

Pigment Red 3, C.I. 12 120 

Pigment Red 4, C.I. 12 085 

Pigment Red 38, C.I. 21 120 

Pigment Red 48, C.I. 15 865, barium toner 

Pigment Red 48, C.I. 15 865, calcium toner — 
Pigment Red 48, C.I. 15 865, manganese toner. 

Pigment Red 49, C.I. 15 630, barium toner 

Pigment Red 49, C.I. 15 630, calcium toner- 
Pigment Red 52, C.I. 15 860, calcium toner — 
Pigment Red 52, C.I. 15 860, manganese toner- 
Pigment Red 53, C.I. 15 585, barium toner 

Pigment Red 57, C.I. 15 850, calcium toner- 
Pigment Red 63, C.I. 15 880 

Pigment Red 81, C.I. 45 160, PMA 

Pigment Red 81, C.I. 45 160, PTA 

All other 

Violet toners, total 

Pigment Violet 1, C.I. 45 170, PMA 

Pigment Violet 1, C.I. 45 170, PTA 

Pigment Violet 3, C.I. 42 535, fugitive 

Pigment Violet 3, C.I. 42 535, PMA 



1,000 
pounds 

basis ^ 



68,707 



67,134 

18,495 

422 

156 

455 

1,463 



8,670 
367 
3,248 
1,002 
2,712 

1,923 
663 
230 
439 



25,267 
970 
36 



84 

94 

255 

453 

1,583 

172 

205 

517 

1,525 

271 

5,077 

1,450 

1,439 

496 

3,651 

2,984 

39 

489 



1,693 
65 
154 
269 
447 



1,000 
pounds 

dry 
basis ^ 



57,434 



12,837 

362 

150 

448 

1,249 

5,768 
300 

2,323 
612 

1,625 

1,549 
520 
186 
441 



39 

82 

242 

354 

1,313 

150 

161 

485 

1,529 

168 

4,602 

1,312 

1,256 

479 

2,736 

2,278 

35 

462 



1,000 
dollars 



1,505 

634 

1,785 

7,508 

19,072 
1,191 
7,616 
2,536 

11,056 

8,289 
1,880 

981 
1,996 

380 
3.052 

98,069 

5,654 

230 

329 

267 

582 
1,780 
2,466 
5,045 

505 
1,328 
2,202 
5.908 

786 
11,670 
3,932 
5,653 
1,621 
8,572 
10,433 

164 
4,324 

533 
28,738 

17,850 

553 

952 

1,126 

2.157 



See footnote 



end of table. 



W2 



SYiJTHETIC ORGANIC CH01ICALS. 1977 



TABLE 1, --Organic pigments; U.S. production and sales^ 1977--Continued 



ORGANIC PIGMENTS 



PRODUCTION 



TONERS— Continued 

Violet toners — Continued 

Pigment Violet 3, C.I. 42 535, PTA 

Pigment Violet 23, CI. 51 319 

All other 

Blue toners, total 

Pigment Blue 1, C.I. 42 595, PMA 

Pigment Blue 15, C.I. 74 160, alpha form 

Pigment Blue 15:1, C.I. 74 160, alpha form- 
Pigment Blue 15:3, C.I. 74 160, beta form 

All other 

Green toners, total 

Pigment Green 2, C.I. 42 040 and 49 005, PMA- 
Pigment Green 2, C.I. 42 040 and 49 005, PTA- 

Pigment Green 7, C.I. 74 260 

Pigment Green 36, C.I. 74 265 

All other 

Brown and black toners, total 

Pigment Brown 5, C.I. 15 800 

All other 

LAKES 

Total 

Red lakes: 

Pigment Red 60:1, C.I. 16 105 

Pigment Red 83, C.I. 58 000 

Violet lake: Pigment Violet 5:1, C.I. 58 OSS- 
Blue lakes 

All other lakes 



1,000 
pounds 

dry 
basis^ 



266 
468 

15,855 
92 
3,674 
331 
6,670 
5,088 

3,535 



,974 
211 
290 



602 
537 



1,000 

pounds 

dry 



198 
1,139 

14,056 
114 
2,855 
266 
6,025 
U.Tib 



,745 
179 
254 



1,397 



1,000 
dollars 



Til 
221 
and the 



275 
4,335 
8,442 

64,014 
1,133 

16,541 
1,855 

28,639 

15,836 

21,448 
236 
456 
17,638 
1,405 
1,713 

1,098 
229 
869 



1,191 
323 

424 

1,710 

428 



Per 
pound 



$9.58 
21.86 
7.41 



4.75 
3.30 



10.34 
12.54 



3.95 
6.23 



2.32 
1.94 



e of sales for lakes 
sing or packaging in 



The value of sales from toners are reported on a dry full-strength bas 
reported on a dry form basis. All sales value data exclude the additional 
mercial forms other than the dry full-strength or dry form. 
' "All other" unit values calculated from rounded figures. 

Quantities for toners are reported as dry-full strength toner content, excluding the weight of any dispersing 
agent, vehicle, or extender. Quantities for lakes are reported as dry lake content, excluding the weight of any 
dispersing agent or vehicle. 



Note. — The C.I. (Colour Index} numbers shown in this report are the identifying numbers given in the third edi- 
tion of the Colour Index. 

The abbreviations PMA and PTA stand for phosphomolybdlc and phosphotungstic (including phosphotungstomolybdic) 
acids, respectively. 



V - ORGANIC PIGMENTS 
TABLE lA.-U.S. sales of selected dry full-strength colors, dry extended colors, dry 

DISPERSIONS, aqueous DISPERSIONS, AND FLUSHED COLORS, 1977 



W3 



[Listed below are supplemental 
table 1] 



ales data, by commercial forms, of selected pigments that have been repor 



SELECTED PIGMENTS BY COMMERCLAL FORMS 



Pigment Yellow 12, C.I. 21 090 and Pigment Yellow 1^4 

C.I. 21 095, total 1. 

Dry full-strength toner 

Flushed color 

Aqueous dispersion,'' dry dispersions, and dry ex- 
tened toner ^ 



Pigment Red 3, C.I. 12 120, total 

Dry full-strength toner 

Dry extended toner, aqueous dispersions,'* and flushed 



Pigment Red 53:1, C.I. 15 585, ba 
Flushed color 



Dry dispersions, dry full-strength toner, and aqueous 
dispersions » 



igmnnt Red 57:1 
Flushed color- 
"ry full-strength t 



Icium toner, C.l. 15 850, total- 

and aqueous dispersions ** 

15, C.I. 74 160, alpha form, total 



2,000 

pounds 

dry basis ^ 



8,091 



2,961 
3,976 



1,154 
1,313 



832 

481 

2,736 



1,822 

914 

2,278 



383 



Pigment Blue 15, C.I. 74 160, alph. 

Dry full-strength toner 

Aqueous dispersions'* 

Dry extended toner and flushed i 



otal- 



Plgment Green 7, C.I. 74 260, 

Dry full-strength toner 

Flushed color 

Aqueous dispersions 

Dry extended toner and dry dispersions^ 



1,338 

512 

1,005 



,456 
438 
585 
266 



1,000 
dollars 



28,026 



9,833 
14,278 



3,915 
■i,291 



3,149 
2,142 
8,706 



2,811 
10,547 



H,!)OB 
1,739 
16,816 



2,633 
6,336 

17,947 



9,528 
3,139 
3,473 
1,807 



UNIT 

value' 



Per 
pound 



3.08 
4.63 



5.87 
5.14 
6.30 



6.57 
7.16 
5.94 
6.79 



' Sales quantities are identical in table 1 and lA; the sales value data in table lA generally exceed the value 
in table 1 because table lA includes the additional processing and packaging costs of the various commercial forms 
Calculated from unrounded figures. 

Quantity of the various commercial forms is given in terms of dry full-strength toner content. 
Includes presscake. 
' Separate data on these commercial forms may not be published without revealing the operation of individual 
companies. 

Note. — The C.I. (Colour Index) numbers shown in this report are the identifying numbers given in the third 
edition of the Colour Index. 

The abbreviations PMA and PTA stand for phosphomolybdlc and phosphotungstlc (including phosphotungstomolybdic) 
acids respectively. 



liiil 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEfllCALS. 1977 



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V - ORGANIC PIGMENTS 



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SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



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V -- ORGANIC PIGMENTS 



147 



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148 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEJIICALS. 1977 



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V - ORGANIC PIGMENTS 



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150 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHOIICALS, 1977 



TABLE 3.— Organic pigments: Directory of manufacturers. 1977 



[Names of manufacturer 
for 1977 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 

that reported production or sales of organic pigments to the U.S. Internation 
re listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



al Trade Commiss 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 


KCW 


Keystone Color Works, Inc. 


AMS 


Rldgway Color 6. Chemicals 


KOH 


H. Kohnstamm & Co., Inc. 


APO 


Apollo Colors, Inc. 










LVR 


C. Lever Co., Inc. 


BAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. 






BNS 


Binney and Smith, Inc. 






BOR 


Borden, Inc., Printing Ink Dlv. 


IIGR 


Magruder Color Co., Inc. 


BUG 


Synalloy Corp., Blackman-Uhler 
Chemical Div. 


MRX 


lla-x Marx Color i Chemical Co. 






POP 


Pope Chemical Corp. 


CIK 


Flint Ink Corp., Cal/Ink Div. 










ROM 


United Merchants & Manufacturers, Inc., 


DUP 


E. I. duPont de Nemours i Co., Inc. 




Roma Chemical Dlv. 


OAF 


OAF Corp. 


S 


Sandoz, Inc., Colors & Chemicals Div. 


GLX 


Galaxle Chemical Corp. 


SDC 


llartin-Marietta Corp., Sodyeco Div. 






SDH 


Sterling Drug, Inc., Hilton-Davis Chemical 
Co. Div. 


HFC 


Hercules, Inc. 


SNA 


Sun Chemical Corp., Pigments Div. 


HRC 


Harmon Colors Corp. 


SH 


Sherwin-Williams Co. 


HSC 


Chemetron Corp., Pigments Dlv. Sub. of 








Allegheny Ludlum Industries, Inc. 


MS 


Sterling Drug, Inc., Thomasset Colors 


HSH 


Harshaw Chemical Co. 




Div. 


HST 


American Hoechst Corp., Industrial 
Chemicals Div. 


TNI 


Gillette Co., Chemical Div. 






UHL 


Paul Uhlich S Co., Inc. 






USII 


USM Corp., Bostlk Div. 


ICC 


Inmont Corp. 






IND 


Indol Chemical Co., Inc. 


VPC 


Mobay Chemical Corp., Verona Div. 



Note. — Complete 



reporting compani 



table i of the append! 



SECTION VI -- MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 151 



Medicinal Chemicals 
Tedford C. Briggs 



The most important new developments during 1977 were significant 
Government actions affecting consumers and producers of medicinal chemicals. 
The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) ordered a drug removed 
from the market, proposed restrictions on antibiotics and some other 
anti-infective agents used as growth promoters in animal feeds, and drafted 
legislation that may change drug approval and regulatory procedures. 

Also, several significant new drugs were marketed in 1977. An indepth 
analysis of the anti-infective sulfonamides is provided below, as a case 
study, pointing out trends in that important group of medicinal chemicals. 
The market for sulfonamides may be affected by HEW restrictions on the use of 
medicinals in animal feeds. 



Government Actions 

In an unprecedented move, HEW banned sales of the antidiabetic drug 
phenformin on the basis that it presented an imminent hazard to the public. 
An estimated 385,000 patients were using the drug to control some type of 
diabetes. The Secretary of HEW acted to remove phenformin because of evidence 
that the drug had an incidence rate of fatalities associated with its general 
use that was far higher than has been regarded as acceptable for any other 
drug approved for use in the United States for a broad patient population. 
HEW estimated that the risk of death from phenformin use ranged from 5 to 80 
times greater than for other drugs known to produce life-threatening side 
effects. 

In another Government action, with likely significant economic effects, 
the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) decided to restrict the use of 
antibiotics as growth promoters routinely added to cattle and poultry feeds. 
The FDA proposal would virtually eliminate the use of the penicillins, 
oxytetracycline , and chlortetracycline in animal feeds. The sales value of 
antibiotics consumed in animal feeds has been estimated at $170 million. 

Farm groups have opposed the proposed restrictions on antibiotic feed 
additives, and they have estimated that implementation of the proposal could 
cost from $2 billion to $5 billion annually in increased feed costs, lower 
feed efficiency, and higher animal mortality rates. 

According to the FDA, the use of subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics in 
animal feeds promotes the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the 
animals' intestines. These bacteria contain plasmids (small lengths of 
genetic material), which can be transferred among various types of bacteria. 
A single plasmid can confer bacterial resistance against several antibiotics. 
Also, the plasmids can supposedly be transferred from nonpathogenic bacteria 
to pathogenic bacteria, thus creating a new group of drug-resistant harmful 
bacteria that could infect both animals and humans. 



152 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



There is little agreement with the FDA assessment from the antibiotic 
producers or the cattle and poultry producers. These groups argue that the 
FDA reasoning is speculative and that there is little or no actual evidence 
supporting the FDA position. Thus, before the FDA plan to restrict the use of 
antibiotics in feeds can be implemented, the agency must go through a process 
of hearings to receive public comment. 

During 1977, pressure mounted for major changes in the law regulating the 
testing, approval, and marketing of medicinal chemicals in the United States. 
The basic legislation which now controls these procedures is set forth in the 
1906 Pure Food and Drug Act, as amended. Major changes in the 1906 Act have 
occurred only twice, in 1938 and 1962. In those instances the amendments were 
direct congressional responses to specific drug-related disasters. In 1938, 
the Congress passed drug safety rules in the wake of more than 100 deaths 
caused by a preparation of sulfanilamide. In 1962, drug efficacy rules were 
enacted into law after congressional hearings on the thalidomide disaster in 
Germany which left a number of deformed infants whose mothers took the drug 
while pregnant. 

As the result of both consumer and industry dissatisfaction with the 
current law, a number of bills were drafted in 1977 which, if enacted, would 
significantly alter the regulation and marketing of drugs in the United 
States. According to the Secretary of HEW, the present law highlights 
irrelevant historical distinctions and perpetuates time-consuming repetitive 
processes that are closed to effective public review. Under the present 
system, an application for approval of a new drug averages 34 volumes of 
paperwork, takes years to process, and costs millions of dollars. 

Among the features included in some of the proposed legislation are 
provisions to speed up the approval process for new drugs and to make it 
easier to remove a drug from the market if it has an unusually high incidence 
of harmful side effects. Other proposals would require that drug packets 
include messages to patients spelling out the proper use and adverse effects 
of a drug and, thus, make industry information on drug safety easily available 
to the public for the first time. Another provision would specify that patent 
protection for a drug would begin on the day of FDA approval. Drug patents 
now take effect when a drug is first submitted to the FDA for approval, a 
process that can take years. FDA reportedly is seeking legislation that would 
articulate more precisely the responsibilities of the agency, thus easing the 
differences of opinion about its role in regulating drugs. 

New drugs 

Several new drugs were introduced into the prescription market in 1977, 
and others entered clinical trials which are steps in the testing procedures 
required for FDA approval for marketing. 

The drugs mentioned below do not constitute an exhaustive list of new 
products and the information is based upon recent reports in various trade 
journals . 



VI -- MEDICINAL CHETIICALS 153 



Cimetidine . — This new drug for treating duodenal ulcers received FDA 
approval for marketing. Cimetidine has been available for use in the United 
Kingdom for about a year, and it is now being marketed worldwide. The drug 
was developed in the United Kingdom and belongs to a new class of compounds 
that reduce or block excess acid secretions in the gastrointestinal tract, 
thus promoting the healing of duodenal ulcers. 

Disopyramide phosphate . — This new drug for treating ventricular 
arrhythmias is now being marketed in the United States. The drug has been 
available for some time in several European countries and reportedly has fewer 
side effects than some of the other antiarrhythmic agents. 

Sodium valporate . — This drug for treating epilepsy received FDA approval 
for marketing in early 1978. Sodium valporate was developed in France and has 
been in use there since 1967. 

Probucol . — This drug for lowering blood cholesterol levels was approved 
by the FDA in early 1977. The domestic market for cholesterol reducing agents 
has been estimated at $35 million. 

Adenine arabinoside . — This antiviral drug demonstrated clinical 
effectiveness against a virulent form of encephalitis caused by a herpes 
virus. Presently the drug is approved for treatment of eye infections caused 
by herpes simplex virus. 

The Anti-Infective Sulfonamides 

The anti-infective sulfonamides are an important group of drugs to 
examine for market factors affecting domestic production because these drugs 
are, for the most part, mature products that have passed through the stages of 
discovery, development, extensive use, the development of competing products, 
expiration of many basic patents, reductions of tariffs on imported 
sulfonamides, and yet they continue to be an important group of domestically 
produced medicinal chemicals. 

Development of sulfonamides as medicinal chemicals 

The anti-infective sulfonamides, or sulfa drugs, are derivatives of 
sulfanilamide which was first synthesized in 1908 by Gelmo as a step in 
obtaining a better synthetic red dye. In 1935 Gerhard Domagk reported that a 
red dye called Prontosil protected mice against lethal doses of infective 
streptococci. 

Studies by workers in the Pasteur Institute in France led to the 
important discovery in late 1935 by Trefouel, Trefouel, Nitti, and Bovet, that 
the dye Prontosil was altered by the metabolism of the host to give 
sulfanilamide as the bacteriostatic agent. These discoveries stimulated 
research throughout the world on the therapeutic properties of derivatives of 
sulfanilamide, and it was soon discovered that nitrogen-containing 
heterocyclic-substituted sulfanilamides were more effective anti-infective 
agents than the parent compound. 



154 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



The discovery and development of the anti-infective sulfonamides were 
major milestones in the development of synthetic medicinal chemicals, and the 
effectiveness of these compounds was demonstrated soon after the discovery of 
their bacteriostatic properties. Sulfanilamide and its derivatives were the 
"miracle" drugs of World War II, and in 1942 the War Department announced that 
every U.S. soldier going into a combat zone would be equipped with a container 
of sulfa drugs. The results were dramatic in controlling infections resulting 
from wounds and in curing and preventing infectious diseases. 

By 1945, about 5,500 sulfonamides had been described in the literature, 
and because of the intensive research in this area many of the compounds were 
developed independently leading to many patent interferences. 

In recent years the importance of sulfonamides has diminished in the 
treatment of infectious diseases of man, as bacterial resistance to the 
sulfonamides has increased, and as the frequently more effective and less 
toxic antibiotics have been developed. Nevertheless, the anti-infective 
sulfonamides continue to be the drugs of choice in the treatment of certain 
urinary tract and systemic infections in humans and, because of their 
relatively low cost and demonstrated effectiveness, are frequently-used 
anti-infective agents in veterinary medicine. About 25 different 
anti-infective sulfonamides were produced in the United States in 1977. 

Methods of production 

Acetanilide is the basic chemical used to produce most anti-infective 
sulfonamides. Acetanilide is treated with chlorosulfonic acid to obtain 
n-acetylsulfanilyl chloride which can be reacted with ammonia and then an 
alkali to obtain sulfanilamide, or n-acetylsulfanilyl chloride can be used to 
produce a multitude of other sulfonamides. 

Production 

Production data for sulfanilamide drugs were first published in United 
States International Trade Commission statistics in 1937 and are summarized in 
the table on the following page. 



VI -- MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 



155 



Sulfanilamide and related anti-infective sulfonamides: 
U.S. Production, 1937-77 

(in thousands of pounds) 



Year 



Production 



Year 



Production 



Year 



Production 



1937 
1938 
1939 
1940 
1941 
1942 
1943 
1944 
1945 
1946 
1947 
1948 
1949 
1950 



355 

339 

709 

646 

2,091 

5,436 

10,006 

4,514 

5,912 

5,104 

6,142 

2,660 

4,895 

4,967 



1951 
1952 
1953 
1954 
1955 
1956 
1957 
1958 
1959 
1960 
1961 
1962 
1963 
1964 



6,411 
5,786 
4,672 
4,157 
2,767 
3,817 
3,843 
3,725 
5,835 
5,080 
4,181 
4,257 
4,639 
4,964 



1965 
1966 
1967 
1968 
1969 
1970 
1971 
1972 
1973 
1974 
1975 
1976 
1977 



,728 
,450 
,046 
,794 
,916 
,943 
,063 
,078 
,781 
,104 
,677 
,015 
,435 



Source: U.S. International Trade Commission, Synthetic Organic Chemicals, 
United States Production and Sales, 1937-77. 



Production of the anti-infective sulfonamides peaked in 1943 at 10 million 
pounds at the height of World War II. At that time, the sulfonamides were the 
only widely effective anti-infective drugs, and the United States was 
supplying these drugs for most of the Allied Forces. Some market analysts 
predicted that the anti-infective sulfonamides would largely be replaced by 
the antibiotics, but a glance at the production statistics reveals that this 
has not been the case. Production has varied widely from a post-World War II 
low of 2.7 million pounds in 1948 to a high of 7.1 million pounds in 1974. 



Trade Statistics : 

Statistics for production, imports, exports, and consumption of 
anti-infective sulfonamides for a 10-year period, 1968-77, are shown 
graphically in the following illustration. A non-linear regression analysis 
was used to establish trend lines for the data. 

The chart shows a gradual decline in the trend for both production and 
consumption. The declines are probably due to loss of markets to competing 
anti-infective agents such as the antibiotics. Consumption and production 
could drop sharply, as would imports, if the FDA places strong restrictions on 
the use of anti-infective sulfonamides in animal feeds. 

Both exports and imports showed increasing trends during 1968-77, with 
exports increasing somewhat more rapidly than imports. Imports of some 
individual anti-infective sulfonamides, such as sulfamethazine, have shown 
large increases. There may be some correlation between imports of 
sulfamethazine, as shown in the following table, and its U.S. patent 
protection which expired about 1963. 



156 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1977 




5<INnDd JD 5Nni11IW 



VI -- MEDICINAL CHmiCALS 



157 



Sulfamethazine and its sodium salt: U.S. imports, 1958-77 
(In thousands of pounds) 



Year 


Imports 


Year 


Imports 


Year 


Imports 


1958 

1959 

1960 

1961 

1962 

1963 

1964 


3 

9 

7 

5 

63 

107 

175 


1965 

1966 

1967 

1968 

1969 

1970 

1971 


121 
225 
343 
479 
783 
773 
482 


1972 

1973 

1974 

1975 

1976 

1977 


679 

861 

1,010 

683 

1,434 

1,064 



Source: U.S. International Trade Commission, Imports of Benzenoid Chemicals 
and Products, 1958-77. 



VI -- MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 159 



Medicinal Chemicals 
Tedford C. Briggs 

Medicinal chemicals include the medicinal and feed grades of all organic 
chemicals having therapeutic value, whether obtained by chemical synthesis, 
by fermentation, by extraction from naturally occurring plant or animal sub- 
stances, or by refining a technical grade product. They include antibiotics 
and other anti-infective agents, antihistamines, autonomic drugs, cardio- 
vascular agents, central nervous system depressants and stimulants, hormones 
and synthetic substitutes, vitamins, and other therapeutic agents for human 
or veterinary use and for animal feed supplements. 

The table shows statistics for production and sales of medicinal chemicals 
grouped by pharmacological class. The statistics shown are for bulk chemicals 
only. Finished pharmaceutical preparations and products put up in pills, capsules, 
tablets, or other measured doses are excluded. The difference between produc- 
tion and sales reflects inventory changes, processing losses, and captive con- 
sumption of medicinal chemicals processed into ethical and proprietary 
pharmaceutical products by the primary manufacturer. In some instances, the 
difference may also include quantities of medicinal grade products used as 
intermediates, for example, penicillin G salts used as intermediates in the 
manufacture of semi-synthetic penicillins. All quantities are given in terms 
of 100-percent content of the pure bulk drug. 

Total U.S. production of bulk medicinal chemicals in 1977 amounted to 240.7 
million pounds, or 2.1 percent more than the 235.8 million pounds produced in 
1976 and 15.5 percent more than the 208.4 million pounds produced in 1975. Total 
sales of bulk medicinal chemicals in 1977 amounted to 162.4 million pounds, 
valued at $794.0 million, compared with sales in 1976 of 160.8 million pounds, 
valued at $741.5 million, and sales in 1975 of 148.8 million pounds, valued at 
$772.1 million. In terms of quantity, sales in 1977 were 1.0 percent more than 
in 1976 and 9.1 percent more than in 1975. In terms of value, sales in 1977 
were 7.1 percent more than in 1976 and 2.8 percent more than in 1975. 

Production of the more important groups of medicinal chemicals in 1977 was 
as follows: Antibiotics, 23.1 million pounds (12.9 percent more than in 1976), 
of which 14.0 million pounds was for medicinal use and 9.1 million pounds was 



^ Complementary statistics on the dollar value of manufacturers' shipments 
of finished pharmaceutical preparations, except biologicals, are published 
annually by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, in Current 
Industrial Reports, Series MA-28G. Many pharmaceutical manufacturers who re- 
port to the Bureau of the Census are excluded from the U.S. International 
Trade Commission report because they are not primary producers of medicinal 
chemicals, that is, they do not themselves produce the bulk drugs which go in- 
to their pharmaceutical products but purchase their drug requirements from 
domestic or foreign producers. 



160 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHmiCALS. 1977 

for other uses; anti-infective agents other than antibiotics, 28.0 million 
pounds (1.2 percent more than in 1976); central nervous system depressants 
and stimulants, 52.5 million pounds (0.4 percent less); and vitamins, 37.1 
million pounds (11.4 percent more). 

Production of some of the more important individual products listed in 
the table was as follows: Choline chloride, 48.2 million pounds (2.5 percent 
larger than in 1976); aspirin, 31.4 million pounds (11.1 percent more); 
penicillins (except semi-synthetic), 7.5 million pounds (4.6 percent more); 
tetracyclines, 5.6 million pounds (1.3 percent less); and vitamin E, 5.3 
million pounds (15.1 percent more). 



VI -- flEDICIilAL CHEMICALS 



161 



TABLE 1. --Medicinal chemicals: U.S. production and sales, 1977 

ted below are all synthetic organic medicinal chemicals for which any reported data on production or sales may 
published. (Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be published 
where no data were reported.) Table 2 lists all medicinal chemicals for which data on production and/or sales 

re reported and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 



production' 



UNIT 
VALUE ^ 



Grand total 

Acyclic 

Benzenoid' 

Cyclic nonbenzenoid'' 

Antibiotics, total' 

Cephalosporins 

Penicillins, semisynthetic, total 

Amoxicillin 

Ampicillin 

All other (semisynthetic)^ 

Penicillins (except semisynthetic), total 

Penicillin G, potassium, for medicinal use 

All other, for all uses 

Tetracyclines, for all uses 

Other antibiotics, total 

For medicinal use' 

For nonmedicinal uses^ 

Antihistamines, total 

Chlorpheniramine maleate 

All other 

Anti- infective agents (except antibiotics) , total— 

Anthelmintics, total 

Piperazine dihydrochloride 

All other 

Antifungal agents 

Antiprotozoan agents 

Sulfonamides 

Urinary antiseptics 

Other antl-lnfeccive agents^ 

Autonomic drugs, total 

Sympathomimetic (adrenergic) agents, total 

Phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride 

All other 

Other autonomic drugs 

Central depressants and stimulants, total 

Analgesics, antipyretics, and nonhormonal anti- 
inflammatory agents, total 

Aspirin 

All other'" 

Anticonvulsants, hypnotics, and sedatives 

Antidepressants 

Antitussives 

Skeletal muscle relaxants 

Tranquilizers 

Other central depressants and stimulants" 

Dermatological agents and local anesthetics, total- 

Lldocalne 

All other 



1.000 
pounds 



240,733 



85,811 
109,143 
44,779 

23,120 



806 
2,034 

305 
1,167 

562 
7,460 
2,712 
4,748 
5,615 
7,205 
3,474 
3,731 

454 



27,977 



10,932 
1,464 
9,468 
776 
8,233 
4,435 
327 
3,274 

1,194 



,085 
433 
652 
109 

52,479 



45,857 

31,415 

14,442 

1,426 

162 

200 

417 

556 

3,861 

2,139 



1,000 

pounds 



162,384 



1,000 
dollars 



794,018 



78,798 
57,943 
25,643 

7,407 



443 
2,915 



4,049 
1,096 
2,953 



11,140 



4,856 

1,279 

3,577 

735 

731 

392 

4,426 



771 
359 
412 



33,520 
505 



3,742 
1.975 



75,626 
380,521 
337,871 



38,380 
35,862 



181,625 
136,183 

45,442 



42,166 



15,964 
1,777 

14,187 
1,189 

4,680 
1,180 
19,153 

15,885 



12,255 
2,952 
9,303 
3,630 

134,275 



63,293 
3,996 

39,263 
3,817 

23,906 

3,032 

258 

2,774 



Per 
pound 



6.57 
13.18 



86.64 
12.30 



44.86 
124.25 
15.39 



3.97 
1.62 



6.40 
3.01 



19.05 



15.89 
8.22 
22.58 
57.62 

3.50 



1.90 
7.91 

260.02 
9.05 

6.39 

1.54 
12.90 
1.42 



footnotes at end of table. 



162 SYNTHETIC ORGAiNIC CHmiCALS. 1977 

TABLE 1.— Medicinal chemicals: U.S. production and sales^ 1977--Continued 



MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 



production' 



sales' 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



Per 
pound 



Expectorants and mucolytic agents, total 

Ethylenediamine dihydr iodide 

All other 

Hematological agents, total 

Sodium heparin 

All other 

Hormones and synthetic substitutes, total 

Synthetic hypoglycemic agents 

All other' ^ 

Renal-acting and edema-reducing agents, tote 

Theophylline derivatives 

All other' ' 

Vitamins , total 

Vitamin D 

Vitamin E 

All other vitamins'* 

Miscellaneous medicinal chemicals, total 

Choline chloride (all grades) 

All other' 5 



1,300 
1,002 



1,862 



1,180 
682 



7,258 



4,050 
3,208 



$3.90 



3.43 
4.70 



942 
161 



1,843 
1,019 



81,503 



921,50 
48.52 



160 
275 



113 
1,641 



6,400 



509.39 
23.27 



22,726 



164.430 



5,289 
31,827 



91,055 



48,167 
42,888 



3,466 
19,251 



77,393 



42,556 
34,837 



,226 
51,059 
110,145 

73,426 



358.44 
14.73 
5.72 



16,970 
56,456 



The data on production and sales are for bulk medicinal chemicals only. 

Calculated from rounded figures. 

Benzenoid, as used in this report, describes any cyclic medicinal chemical whose mo 
membered carbocyclic ring with conjugated double bonds or a six-membered heterocyclic ri 
and conjugated double bonds, except the pyrlmidine ring. 

Includes antibiotics of unknown structure. 
^ Production of all antibiotics for medicinal use amounted to 13,992,000 pounds, and 



pounds 



alued at $205,523,000. 



to 9,128,000 pound 
' Includes sale 
Includes prod 
^ Includes sale 
' Includes sale 
'° Includes sale 
' ' Includes sale 
amphetamines 
'^ Include 
' ' Include 
' '* Include 
'^ Include 



and 



ales 



:ity and 
and sal 

:ity and 
sales quantity and 
sales quantity and 
sales quantity and 
general anesthetic 
sales quantity and 
sales quantity and 
production and sal 



Production of all antibiotics for a 
Dounted to 4,209,000 pounds, valued 

value of amoxicillin and ampicillin 
;s of antifungal and antituberculer 

value of tetracyclines. 

value of antiprotozoan agents, 
of aspirin. 



limal feed and other 
It $50,344,000. 



nonmedicinal 



3,198,000 
amounted 



atibiotics and sales of cephalosporins 



lue of antidepressants and tranquilizers. Also includes production and sales of 

and respiratory and cerebral stimulants. 

lue of synthetic hypoglycemic agents. 

lue of theophylline derivatives. 

of vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, and vitamin K. 
production and sales of antineoplastic agents, cardiovascular agents, diagnostic agents, gastisinte- 
tinal agents (except choline chloride), therapeutic nutrients, smooth muscle relaxants, and unclassified medicinal 
hemicals. 



VI -- MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 



163 



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171 






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SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEIIICALS, 1977 



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173 



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VI - MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 



175 



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176 



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177 






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179 



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181 



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184 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEfUCALS. 1977 



TABLE 3. --Medicinal chemicals: Directory of manufacturers^ 1977 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



[Names of manufacturers that reported production o 
Commission for 1977 are listed below in the orde 



sales of medicinal chemic 
of their identification c 



to the U.S. Inter 
s as used in table 



Name of company 



Name of company 



ABB 


Abbott Laboratories 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 


ADC 


Anderson Development Co. 


ARA 


Arapahoe Chemicals, Inc. Sub/Sy 




(U.S.A.) 


ASN 


Arenol Chemical Corp. 


ARP 


Armour Pharmaceutical Co. 


ARS 


Arsynco, Inc. 


ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc., Ashland Chemi 



BAX 
BEE 
BJL 
BKC 
BKL 

BOC 
BRS 
BUR 

CGY 
CHT 
CPR 



DLI 
DOW 
DUP 



FIN 
FLM 

GAF 
CAN 
GIV 
GNF 
GNM 

HET 

HEX 

HFT 

HN 

HOF 

HYN 

IMC 

JCC 

KPT 

LEM 
LIL 
LKL 



Ast 



Pharmac 



al Produ 



Inc. 



Baxter/Travenol Laborato 

Beecham, Inc. 

Burdick & Jackson Laboratories, In 

J.T. Baker Chemical Co. 

Kewanee Industries, Inc., Millmast 



Co. 



raft Laborator 
tol-Myers Co. 
oughs-Wellcome 



es. In 



Ciba-Geigy Corp. and Ciba Pharmaceutical Co 
Chattem Drug & Chemical Co. 
Certified Processing Corp. 

Diamond Shamrock Corp. 

Dawe's Laboratories, Inc. 

Dow Chemical Co. 

E.I. duPont de Nemours i Co., Inc. 

Eastman Kodak Co. : 

Tennessee Eastman Co. Div. 
Endo Laboratories, Inc. 

Hexcel Corp., Hexcel Specialty Chemicals 
Fleming Laboratories, Inc. 

GAF Corp. 

Gane's Chemical Inc. 

Givaudan Corp. 

General Foods Corp., Maxwell House Div. 

General Mills Chemicals, Inc. 

Heterochemical Corp. 

Hexagon Laboratories, Inc. 

Syntex Agribusiness, Inc. 

Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 

Hof fmann-LaRoche, Inc. 

Hynson, Westcott & Dunning, Inc. 

IMC Chemical Group, Inc. 

Jefferson Chemical Co., Inc. 

Koppers Co., Inc. 

Napp Chemicals, Inc. 
Ell Lilly & Co. 

Richardson-Merrell, Inc., Merrell-Natlonal 
Laboratories Div. 



HAL 
MDJ 
MLS 
HON 
MRK 



OHS 
OPC 
ORG 
ORT 



PEN 
PFU 
PFZ 



RDA 
RIK 
RIL 
RLS 
RSA 

SAL 
SCH 

SDG 

SDW 

SFS 

SHC 

SK 

SKG 

SPR 

SRL 

STA 

TMH 
TNA 
TKD 



WAG 
WHL 
WIL 
WTL 
WYT 



Malllnckrodt Chemical Wor 
Mead Johnson & Co. 
Miles Laboratories, Inc. 
Monsanto Co. 
Merck i Co. , Inc. 

Nepera Chemical Co., Inc. 
Morton-Norwich Products, 

Eaton Pharmaceutical Di 
HL Industries, Inc. 

E.R. Squibb & Sons, Inc. 
Orbis Products Corp. 
Organics, Inc. 
Roehr Chemicals, Inc. 



Parke, Davis (, Co. Sub of Warner-Lamber 

Co. 
CPC International, Inc., Penick Corp. 
Pfanstiehl Laboratories, Inc. 
Pfizer, Inc. and Pfizer Pharmaceuticals 

Inc. 
Pharmachem Corp. 



Rhodia, Inc. 

Rlker Laboratories, Inc. Sub. of 3M Co. 

Reilly Tar i Chemical Corp. 

Rachelle Laboratories, Inc. 

R.S.A. Corp. 

Salsbury Laboratories 
Sobering Corp. 
Sterling Drug Corp. : 

Glenbrook Laboratories Div. 

Winthrop Laboratories Div. 
Stauffer Chemical Co., Specialty Div. 
Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 
SmithKline Chemicals 
Sunkist Growers, Inc. 
Scientific Protein Laboratories, Inc. 
G.D. Searle S Co. 
A.E. Staley Manufacturing Co. 

Thompson-Hayward Chemical Co. 

Ethyl Corp. 

Manufacturing Enterprises, Inc., Squibb 

Manufacturing Inc., Trade Enterprises, 

Ersana, Inc. 

Upjohn Co. 

Vitamins, Inc. 

West Agro-Chemicals, Inc. 
Whitmoyer Laboratories, Inc. 
Inolex Corp., Inolex Pharmaceutical Div. 
Pennwalt Corp., Lucldol Div. 
Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., Wyeth Laborato 
Div. of American Home Products Corp. 



Note. — Complet 



nd addresses of the above reporting companies are listed 



table 1 of the appendix. 



SECTIO.N VII -- FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS 185 

The Flavor and Perfume Chemical Industry - an Overview 
Anne Klein 



The flavor and perfume chemicals considered here are important as raw 
materials in the production of food flavors, perfumery, cosmetics, and 
toiletries. Important flavor and perfume products not included here are 
flavor and perfume oil blends, and "synthetic essential oils" which are 
artificial mixtures. 



U.S. production, sales, and consumption 

Production of flavor and perfume chemicals in the United States in 1977 
continued its significant annual rate of growth begun the previous year as 
it recovered from the depressed level of 1975. Production by domestic firms 
increased to 150.4 million pounds, valued at an estimated $290.3 million,^ 
an increase over 1976 of 16.8 percent and 28.1 percent, respectively. 

In 1977, acyclic compounds constituted 61.2 percent of total output of 
flavor and perfume chemicals, benzenoid cyclic, 30.9 percent, and other 
cyclic, 7.9 percent.^ Based on value of sales the top ranking single chemical 
in 1977, as in 1976 and 1975, was monosodiura glutamate (MSG) . Following MSG 
in value of sales were vanillin, saccharin, anethole, .methyl salicylate, and 
coumarin. The aggregate value of shipments of these chemicals amounted to 
$84.3 million or 40.7 percent of the total. 

MSG is the leading flavor enhancer. Vanillin is one of the most widely 
used chemicals, both in perfume formulations and in flavors. Saccharin 
remains the only artificial sweetener whose use is permitted in the United 
States. P-propenylanisole (anethole) is extensively used in low-cost 
fragrances, particularly in soap and household products, and in flavor com- 
positions for chewing gums and anisette-type alcoholic beverages. Methyl 
salicylate has long had diverse large volume uses varying from an 
industrial masking odor to a popular chemical flavoring agent for candy and 
soft drinks. Coumarin has long been extensively used in perfumery and as a 
masking agent. 

U.S. apparent consumption"* of flavor and aroma chemicals in 1977 
increased by 22.9 percent over the level in 1976 to about 159 million pounds. 
MSG consumption, which rose, slightly, accounted again in 1977, as in 1976, 
for a significant share of the total consumption of all flavor and perfume 
chemicals. The following factors suggest that the rise in demand for flavor 
and aroma chemicals will continue, although slower than the rise from 1976 
to 1977. 

Also known as aroma chemicals; the terms "perfume," "fragrance," and 
"aroma" are used interchangeably here. 

The value of production is estimated by applying the unit value of sales 
to quantity of production. 

The benzenoid, other cyclic, and acyclic breakdowns of the flavor and 
aroma chemicals tables accommodate tariff classification requirements rather 
than industry practices. 

Apparent consumption is estimated here by adding U.S. imports to and sub- 
tracting U.S. exports from U.S. production. 



185 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



"Observable changing tastes among both men and women 
purchasers of toiletries, according to an industry periodi- 
cal,^ may have important and differing implications for 
sales of toiletries in the next several years. These 
changing tastes may have secondary implications for aroma 
chemicals as raw materials for these products. There is 
an expected growth of demand, the industry believes, in 
the so-called "treatment cosmetics," for women, or products 
that cleanse and moisturize the skin. On the other hand, 
significant growth of demand is not expected for fragrances 
for women, which are believed to have reached a plateau. The 
industry believes, however, that the demand for men's 
toiletries, particularly fragrances, is rapidly rising. 
According to an industry educational group, retail sales 
of men's fragrances in 1976 amounted to $650 million and 
in 1977 exceeded $800 million. The group believes that 
the accelerated growth of demand for men's fragrances which 
began in 1976, will reach 10 to 12 percent annually through 
1983. 

"There continues to be, particularly in perfume bases, a 
public acceptance of the substitution of aroma chemicals 
for natural oils which are subject to high prices and/or 
supply problems. This acceptance would tend to enhance 
consumption of synthetic aroma chemicals considered here. 

°U.S. disposable personal incomes in terms of constant 
1972 dollars increased by about 25 percent during the 
1970-77 period.'* This pattern will probably continue 
through the 1978-83 period. Increased disposable income 
for individuals and families tends to increase their con- 
sumption of prepared food, cosmetics, and toilet prepara- 
tions — products in which flavor and aroma chemicals are 
raw materials. 



International trade 

Because of the traditionally international orientation of the flavor 
and aroma chemical industry and the relatively low freight costs for the 
products, foreign trade is relatively important for flavor and fragrance 
chemicals. In 1977, imports, for example, represented about 25.8 percent 
of U.S. apparent consumption while exports amounted to 20.5 percent of 
U.S. production. 



Chemical Marketing Reporter , June 26, 1978. 
^ The Fragrance Foundation of New York, NY. 

Based on official statistics of the Bureau of Economic Analysis, U. 
Department of Commerce. 



VII -- FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS 187 



Imports . — Imports of all natural and synthetic flavor and aroma chemicals 
in 1977 amounted to 34.6 million pounds, valued at $81.6 million — 32 percent 
in terms of quantity and 24 percent in terms of value over the 1976 level. 
Imports of monosodium glutamate, principally from Korea, Japan, and Taiwan, 
alone amounted to 18 million pounds, valued at $9.6 million. 

Other flavor and aroma chemicals imported during 1977 in significant 
quantities were vanillin, saccharin, and menthol. These items came principally 
from Canada, Japan, and Brazil. 

In 1977, the sole domestic producer of saccharin filed a complaint that 
imports of saccharin from Japan and the Republic of Korea were allegedly being 
dumped in the United States and causing injury to the U.S. saccharin industry. 
In December 1977, the U.S. International Trade Commission reported its 
negative findings in this case to the Secretary of the Treasury in connection 
with Investigation Nos. AA-1921-174 and 175. 

Exports . — Exports amounted to 26 million pounds valued at $52 million, a 
slight increase over 1976 both in terms of quantity and value. The negative 
trade balance observed for most years during 1970-76 was again observed in 
1977. The ratio of exports to imports was 74.2 percent in 1977, showing a 
further steep decline of this ratio when compared with the 1976 level of 96.7 
percent. There has been no evidence that the multinational orientation of the 
principal firms of this industry will change in the next several years. These 
firms typically tend to import aroma chemicals from their foreign affiliates 
rather than initiate production in the United States when it is mere cost- 
efficient to do so. One can thus anticipate a continuation of this negative 
balance of trade into the early 1980 's for the flavor and aroma chemical 
industry. 



The industry 

The traditionally international orientation of the flavor and aroma 
chemical industry will probably continue. Of all companies reporting sales of 
aroma chemicals to the Commission in 1977, those companies having affiliates in 
one to four foreign countries accounted for about 42 percent of the total sales 
value of these products and were represented among the top members of the 
flavor and aroma chemical industry when ranked by sales values. During early 
1978, Haarman and Reimer of West Germany, which maintains operations in 13 
countries, and whose total sales annually exceed $130 million, has opened a 
new production facility in Bushy Park, S.C., for the manufacture of 
synthetic menthol. 

The concentration profile of producers of flavor and perfume chemicals 
changed to a small extent in 1977 from that observed in 1976. In 1977, the 
four largest companies in terms of value of sales together accounted for 43 
percent of total sales value compared with 49 percent in 1976. In 1977, 14 
companies accounted for almost 75 percent of total sales value; in 1976, 
that share was accounted for by 9 companies. 



138 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1977 



Regulation — an update 

The flavor and perfume chemicals included here are widely used in food 
products or in cosmetics and toiletries. The regulation of these chemicals 
continues to be more important when an ingredient is used in foods than in 
cosmetics. Labeling requirements by the FDA, begun in 1976, have been in 
place since the beginning of 1977. These Federal regulations require that 
cosmetic containers must include on their labels, in addition to the name and 
address of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor, and net quantity of 
contents, a list of ingredients in descending order of predominance. Fragrance 
and flavor ingredients may be listed as such. 

The flavor enhancer monosodium glutamate, which early in the decade (1970) 
had been removed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from baby foods but not 
from its Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) list, has been produced and consumed 
during the decade in increasing quantities. Consumption of MSG in the United 
States, is estimated to have reached 56 million pounds in 1977. The industry 
estimates that demand for MSG in 1978 amounted to nearly 60 million pounds. 

During 1978 it became mandatory for stores selling products containing 
saccharin to display a poster warning of health hazards inherent in using 
saccharin-containing products, as required by the FDA. 

The Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association, a trade association 
comprised of more than 90 members, has expanded work, in 1977 on its intra- 
industry Cosmetic Ingredient Review which would review the safety of some 
2700 ingredients in products which are applied to the eyes or to the skin. 
The industry believes that initiatives on its part will probably tend to 
retard any government regulation initiatives in this area during the next few 
years. 

Regulation has traditionally been minimal in the home markets of our 
principal trading partners. Actions by governments increasing regulation have 
been rare. In Canada, cosmetic containers are subject to labeling require- 
ments of the Consumers' Packaging and Labelling Act and Regulations. This 
probably has negligible affect on U.S. trade with Canada which produces 96 
percent of all cosmetic products consumed by Canadians. In Japan, cosmetics, 
along with drugs, "quasidrugs" and medical devices are controlled with respect 
to sale, labeling, and advertisement by the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law of 
Japan. In West Germany as in other countries of the European Community a 
Cosmetic Directive is in effect which contains a list of "generally prohibited 
substances" and a list of substances allowed but to a restricted extent. These 
35 or 40 agents are generally regarded, in most countries including the United 
States, as poisonous or damaging to health. 



Chemical Marketing Reporter , July 31, 1978. 



VII -- FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS 




S o 1-1 (1) 



190 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 




VII -- FLAVOR AND PERFUfC MATERIALS 191 



FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS 
Anne Klein 



Flavor and perfume materials are organic chemicals used to impart flavors 
and aromas to foods, beverages, cosmetics, and soaps. These aroma chemicals 
are also utilized to neutralize or mask unpleasant odors in industrial pro- 
cesses and products as well as in consumer products. 

Total domestic production of flavor and perfume materials in 1977 amounted 
to 150.4 million pounds (table 1). Sales of these materials in 1977 amounted 
to 107,6 million pounds, valued at $207.1 million, compared with 110.9 million 
pounds, valued at $195.3 million, in 1976. These totals do not include 
benzyl alcohol, which, before 1973, was included in flavor and perfume materials 
but is now shown in the miscellaneous cyclic section of this series. U.S. 
production of flavor and perfume materials in 1977 increased 16.8 percent from 
the level in 1976 but the quantity of sales decreased slightly, by 3 percent. 

Production of cyclic flavor and perfume materials in 1977 amounted to 
58.5 million pounds; sales amounted to 46.8 million pounds, valued at $134.6 
million. Individual publishable chemicals in the cyclic group produced in 
the greatest volume in 1977 were a-terpineol, anethole, cinnamaldehyde, 
benzyl acetate, and isopentyl salicylate. 

U.S. output of acylic flavor and perfume materials in 1977 amounted to 
92.0 million pounds; sales of these materials amounted to 60.8 million pounds, 
valued at $72.5 million. Monosodium glutamate was by far the most important 
of the acyclic chemicals in 1976, although the data are not publishable. 
Other important acyclic compounds included linalyl alcohol, citronellol, and 
hydroxycitronellal . 



VII -- FLAVOR AND PERFUfC MATERIALS 



193 



TABLE 1, --Flavor and perfume materials: U.S, production and sales, 1977 



[Listed below are all synthetic organic flavor and perfu 
sales may be published. {Leaders (...) are used where 
be published or where no data were reported.) Table 2 
which data on production and/or sales were reported an 



the reported datf 
lists separately 
identifies the n 



nich any reported dat 
are accepted in conf 
all flavor and perfum 
anufacturers of each] 



production 
ce and may 
terials for 



FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS 



1,000 
pounds 



Grand total- 



Benzenoid and Naphthalenoid 
Total 

4-Allyl-2-iiiethoxyphenol (Eugenol) 

4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenol acetate 

Anlsyl acetate 

Benzophenone^ 

Benzyl acetate 

Benzyl benzoate 

Benzyl propionate 

Cinnamaldehyde 

Cinnamyl acetate 

Cinnamyl anthranilate 

Cinnamyl propionate 

2-Ethylhexyl salicylate 

Isobutyl phenylacetate 

Isobutyl salicylate 

Isopentyl salicylate 

4 ' -Methoxyacetophenone 

2-Methoxy-4-propenylphenol (Isoeugenoi) 

p-Methylanisole 

Methyl anthranilate 

a-Methylcinnamaldehyde 

Methyl phenylacetate 

2-Phenethyl phenylacetate 

Phenethyl propionate 

3-Phenyl-l-propanol (Hydrocinnamic alcohol) 

3-Phenylpropyl acetate 

p-Propenylanisole (Ane thole) 

p-Tolyaldehyde 

All other benzenoid and naphthalenold materials— 

Terpenoid, heteroayoHo, and Alioyclia 

Total 

Cedrol 

Cedryl acetate 

Dihyrdonordicylcopentadienyl acetate 

Dihyrdonordicyclopentadienyl propionate 

(Cyclaprop) 

Dihydroterpinyl acetate 

Guaiacwood acetate 

a-Ionone 

lonone (a- and B-) 

Isobornyl propionate 

a-Methylionone 

Methyllonone (a- and 6-) 

a-Terplneol 

a-Terpinyl acetate 

Vet ivenyl acetate 

All other terpenoid, heterocyclic, and alicycllc 

materials 



973 
1,542 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



569 

1,396 

725 



130 
25 
223 



2,310 
30,121 



8,839 



134,628 



106,617 



1,112 

1,370 

643 



8,603 
89,260 



28.011 



35 


30 


196 


320 


172 


728 


87 


53 


72 




89 


130 


136 


78 


144 




45 


199 


72 


59 


494 


27 


22 


131 




3 


B 


22 






628 


444 


2,482 


,570 


2,393 


1,161 


,004 


899 


903 



See footn 



3f table 



m 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



TABLE 1,— Flavor and perfume materials: U.S. production and sales, 1977--Continued 



FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS 



ol (NeroD- 
-l-ol (Gera 
ol acetate 



1; Linalyl 
(Linalyl 



Total 

Allyl heptanoate 

Butyl butyryl lactate 

Butyl undecylenate 

Citral dimethyl acetal 

Cltronellyl acetate 

Cltronellyl formate 

Cltronellyl isobutyrate 

Cltronellyl propionate 

3,7-Dimethyl-cis-2,6-octadie 
3,7-DiiDethyl-trans-2,6-octad 
3,7-Diniethyl-cis-2,6-octadie 

(Neryl acetate) 

3,7-Dimethyl-l,6-octadlen-3-ol (L 

alcohol) 

3,7-Dimethyl-l,6-octadlen-3-ol ac 

acetate) 

3,7-Dlmethyl-6-octen-l-al (Citronellal) — 
3, 7-Dimethyl-6-octen-l-ol (Citronellol) — 

Ethyl heptanoate 

Ethyl hexanoate (Ethyl caproate) 

Ethyl isovalerate 

Ethyl myrlstate 

Ethyl propionate 

Geranyl acetate 

Geranyl butyrate 

Geranyl foi-mate 

Geranyl propionate 

2-Hexanal 

7-Hydroxy-3, 7-dimethyl-l-octanal (Hydroxy' 

citronellal) 

Isopentyl butyrate 

Isopentyl formate 

Isopentyl isovalerate 

Rhodinol 

All other acyclic materials 



Calculated from the unrounded figures. 
Includes significant quantities having othe 



1,000 
pounds 



91,964 



910 
1,013 
2,508 



1,690 
129 



1,000 
pounds 



320 
1,783 



2,703 

942 

1,337 



623 
106 



1,000 
dollars 



72.473 



293 
4,553 



5,139 

2,546 

3,690 
17 
23 



155 
331 



Per 

pound 



4.37 
4.33 



3.64 
5.05 



.92 
2.55 



1.90 

2.70 

2.76 
2.90 
2.86 

1.26 
3.47 

4.93 
7.35 
20.45 

6.24 
1.43 
2.45 



VII -- FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS 



195 









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196 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1977 



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VII -- FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS 



197 



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201 



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203 



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205 



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207 



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208 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHErilCALS. 1977 



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VI! -- FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS 



209 



TABLE 3. --Flavor and perfume materials: Directory of manufacturers, 1977 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



[Names of manuf 
Trade Connniss 



sales of flavor and perfu 
order of their identlfica 



to the U.S. International 
s used in table 2] 



Code 


Name of Company 


Code 


Name of Company 


ABB 


Abbott Laboratories 


OPC 


Orbis Products Corp. 


AIP 


Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. 






AMB 


American Blo-Synthetics Corp. 


PD 


Parke, Davis S Co. Sub. of Warner-Lambert 


ARS 


Arsynco, Inc. 




Co. 


ARZ 


Arizona Chemical Co. 


PEN 


CPC International, Inc., Penlck Div. 






PFU 


Polak's Frutal Works, Inc. 


BJL 


Burdlck & Jackson Labs., Inc. 


PFZ 


Pfizer, Inc. 


CI 


Chem-Fleur, Inc. 


RDA 


Rhodia, Inc. 


OWN 


Upjohn Co., Fine Chemical Dlv. 


RSA 


R.S.A. Corp. 






rt 


Ritter International 


ELN 


Elan Chemical Co. 










SCM 


SCM Corp. 


FB 


Fritzsche, Dodge i Olcott, Inc. 


SDH 


Sterling Drug, Inc., Hilton-Davis Chemical 


FEL 


Felton International, Inc. 




Co. Dlv. 


FLO 


Florasynth, Inc. 


SFF 


Stauffer Chemical Co., Food Ingredients 


FMT 


Fairmount Chemical Co., Inc. 




Div. 






SKG 


Sunkist Growers, Inc. 


GAF 


GAF Corp. 


SLV 


Steruin Chemicals, Inc. 


GIV 


Givaudan Corp. 


stp 


Stepan Chemical Co. 


GRW 


Great Western Sugar Co. 


SW 


Sherwin-Williams Co. 


HN 


Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 


TCC 


Tanatex Chemical Corp. 


HOF 


Hof fman-LaRoche, Inc. 






HPC 


Hercules, Inc. 


UNG 


Ungerer & Co. 






UOP 


UOP, Inc., Chemical Div. 


IFF 


International Flavors & Fragrances, Inc. 










VEL 


Velsicol Chemical Corp. 


MON 


Monsanto Co. 


VIK 


Viking Chemical Co. 


NCI 


Union Camp Corp. 






NEC 


Norda Inc. 






NW 


Northwestern Chemical Co. 







Note. — Complete 



reporting companies 



table 1 of the append! 



SECTION VIII -- PLASTICS AND RESIN HATERIALS 211 

Synthetic Resins and Plastics Materials 
Edward J. Taylor 

The synthetic resins and plastics materials 1/ industry is a major user 
of many of the synthetic organic chemicals covered in this report. These 
plastic materials are in turn sold in the fabrication of consumer products 
such as automobile instrument panels and soft drink bottles. This paper 
discusses the industry in general, certain end-use markets, foreign trade, new 
product areas and the impact of government regulations on the industry. 

Production, sales, and major markets 

The U.S. production, consumption, and sales of synthetic resins and 
plastics materials reached an all-time high in 1977; production amounted to 35 
billion pounds, consumption reached 32 billion pounds, and sales, 30 billion 
pounds. These quantities represent gains of 15 percent, 18 percent, and 19 
percent, respectively, above what it was in 1976. The average unit value of 
sales for all plastics materials in 1977 was double the level of the early 
1970's (i.e., 37 cents per pound in 1977 compared to about 19 cents per pound 
during 1970-72). 

The principal markets for plastics materials include building/construc- 
tion, packaging, and automotive applications. These three markets have 
accounted for over half the annual consumption of all plastics materials in 
recent years. Industry sources 2/ estimate that building/construction 
applications represented 27 percent of domestic synthetic resins consumption 
in 1976; packaging represented 25 percent; and the automotive industry 
represented about 6 percent of synthetic resins demand during the same year. 

Building/construction. — Major synthetic plastics products used in the 
building and construction trade include pipe, siding, and insulation. The 
chief plastics beneficiary of the rise in building starts are the thermo- 
setting resins, 3/ of which about 40 percent are consumed in this market. 

Insulation applications have made important strides as a result of the 
energy crisis. Polyurethane foam and polystyrene foam are two of the 
principal materials used in insulation. Other important plastics applications 
in the building/construction sector are glazing, panels, ducts, and tanks. 

T/ Unless otherwise stated, the term "plastics materials" as used in this 
paper is synonymous with "synthetic resins and plastics materials." 

Ij Giarles Genest (Arthur D. Little) "Plastics Industry to Grow at Triple 
the Rate of GNP through 1981,": a paper presented at the Third Annual 
Conference on Contingency Planning, New York, fall 1977. 

ZJ A plastic material that cures by heat, catalyst, or other chemical 
means, and, when cured, cannot be resoftened by heating. 



212 SYNTHETIC ORGAfJIC CHEMICALS. 1977 

Plastics products now account for only about 5 percent of all the 
materials used in building and construction. Thus the building and 
construction industry offers great market potential for plastics. A surge in 
this market usually has a multiplier effect on other important markets for 
plastics such as appliances, furniture, and housewares. These increase 
although interior applications usually lag behind the building boom. 

Packaging. — A highly diversified market, packaging constitutes the single 
most important use for thermoplastic resins. 1/ At the present time, 
packaging uses comprise about 30 percent of all the thermoplastic resins 
consumed. Packaging materials includes both rigid and flexible plastics items 
such as shrink wrap, blister containers, bottles, disposable cups, boxes, and 
trays, all of which are familiar consumer items. The value of U.S. shipments 
for the total packaging industry was $38 billion in 1977, 9 percent above the 
1976 level of $35 billion. 2/ The quantity of plastics materials used by the 
packaging industry increased to 7.1 billion pounds in 1977, up 11 percent from 
6.4 billion pounds in 1976. 3/ 

Plastics materials currently constitute about 10 percent of all material 
used in packaging. The growth of plastics in packaging has been at the 
expense of both traditional materials (glass, paper products, and nonferrous 
metals) and older plastics (e.g., cellulosic plastics). 

The preference for newer plastics materials over other materials is due 
primarily to cost/performance factors. For example, plastics materials, when 
compared with glass or metal, may be formed into a great variety of shapes, 
with lower temperatures and energy requirements. Also, plastics products 
(cups, bottles, and so forth) are typically lighter in weight per given volume 
than those of glass or metal which results in lower shipping costs. 

Automotive industry . — Although plastics materials are used in all forms 
of transportation, the automobile represents the most important end use for 
plastics in the transportation industry. The increase in consumption of 
plastics in the automotive industry is the result of an absolute gain in the 
number of new car sales as well as Federal regulations governing fuel 
consumption (i.e., the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975). The act 
specifies that all 1985 model autos must meet a standard of 27.5 miles per 
gallon (mpg) on a production-weighted average basis, which is an increase of 
53 percent over the federally mandated standard of 18 mpg that must be met by 
the 1978 model autos. In order to attain this increased fuel efficiency, it 
will be necessary to reduce the weight and size of automobiles. The 
substitution of plastics and other lighter weight materials must take place. 

T7 A plastic material that will repeatedly soften when heated, and harden 
when cooled. 

2/ U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Industrial Outlook 1978. 
1/ Modern Plastics , Jan. 1978, p. 43. 



VIII -- PLASTICS AND RESIN MATERIALS 213 



Industry sources 1/ report that the average 1977 auto contained 166 
pounds of plastics as compared with 20 pounds in the typical 1960 automobile. 
It has been forecast 2/ that the typical 1985 auto will contain 350 to 500 
pounds of plastics. This means that as a share of total vehicle weight, 
plastics will increase from 5 percent in 1977 to about 20 percent in 
1985, with a reduction in the the overall weight of the automobile. 

Foreign trade 

The plastic materials industry is export-competitive and should maintain 
a positive trade balance in the coming years. It may, however, be unfavorably 
impacted by the export plants being built in the oil-rich countries. 

Exports . — In 1977, exports accounted for about 8 percent of U.S. 
production of plastics materials, a level consistent with that of recent 
years. The quantity of exports of plastics materials amounted to 2,770 
million pounds in 1977, a 5 percent decline from the 2,913 million pounds 
estimated for 1976. However, the value of exports increased in 1977 to $1,197 
million, a 3.7 percent gain above what it was in 1976; this increase in value 
was due mostly to inflationary reasons rather than any shift in product 
lines. Thermoplastic commodity resins 3/ accounted for about two-thirds of 
the total volume and 45 percent of the value in both 1976 and 1977. Large 
U.S. exports of plastics, particularly the commodity resins, are indicative of 
the inability of the plastics materials industries of developing countries to 
keep pace with the growth of the local plastics materials fabrication and 
processing industries. One reason given for the decline in the quantity of 
U.S. plastics materials exports in 1977 was the excess production capacity for 
these materials in Europe and Japan. 4/ 

Canada was the leading market for U.S. exports of plastics materials in 
1977, as it has been for at least the last decade. Other important U.S. 
markets in the Western Hemisphere during 1977 include Brazil, Colombia, 
Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, and Venezuela — nations whose fabrication 
industries have outpaced their local plastics production capabilities. The 
major Asian markets in 1977 included Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, the 
Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan. The leading markets in Europe, on the 
other hand, were all developed nations — Belgium, the Netherlands, France, and 
West Germany. A significant share of these exports are believed to represent 
shipments by U.S. producers to their European subsidiaries. 

T7 The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc., 1977 Facts and Figures of 
the Plastics Industry . 

2/ Du Pont's Annual Report 1977, p. 19. Several independent marketing 
research firms have made similar forecasts. Included among these are: 
Predicasts, Inc. (Cleveland, Ohio), and Springborn Laboratory (Enfield, Conn.). 

V Low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene, polypropylene, 
polystyrene and its copolymers and terpolymers , and polyvinyl chloride and its 
copolymers . 

4/ Chemical Week , Dec. 7, 1977, pp. 57, 58 and 63. 



214 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 

Imports . — Except for 1974, imports have not exceeded 1 percent of 
consumption in any year during the period 1950-77; in 1977 the ratios of 
imports to consumption were 0.7 percent (quantity) and 0.9 percent (value). 
Imports of plastics materials in 1977 amounted to 207 million pounds valued at 
$112 million, an increase of 8.4 percent and 8.7 percent, respectively, over 
1976. 

Traditionally, the capital-intensive, technology-oriented manufacture of 
plastics materials has given the United States a competitive edge over its 
foreign competition, but that advantage appears to be diminishing. In 
addition, the U.S. plastic manufacturers have recently had a cost advantage in 
both raw materials and energy over Western Europe and Japan. Should the 
proposed National Energy Plan 1/ become enacted, the energy cost advantage 
may also disappear. 

The leading sources of imports of plastics materials in 1977 included 
Canada, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, and West Germany; together they 
accounted for three-fourths of the volume of plastics imports that year, up 
from two-thirds of the total in 1976. West Germany was the major source in 
1977, a position that Japan held in earlier years. Since most foreign 
plastics materials do not compete with domestic plastics in the U.S. market, 
imports are usually sought for one of three reasons: (1) A shortage of a 
particular resin exists in the United States; (2) the imported plastic is a 
new product not yet made domestically; or (3) foreign firms are supplying 
their U.S. affiliates or subsidiaries to make up a short-fall for a given 
resin or resins. 

The pattern of U.S. imports of plastics materials is not expected to 
change significantly until at least the mid-1980' s. At that time, the 
oil-rich nations of the Middle East are expected to attain a capacity for 
plastics materials which will allow substantial export. 2/ 

New areas of growth 

The plastics materials industry continues to be a leader in the 
development of technology and of applications for its products. This 
leadership has resulted in continued new areas of growth which have 
contributed greatly to the health of the industry. 

1/ Executive Office of the President, Energy and Policy Planning, The 
National Energy Plan , Apr. 29, 1977. 

2? Chemical Week, Mar. 23, 1977, pp. 29-40. 



VIII -- PLASTICS AND RESIN MATERIALS 215 

Polyethylene terephthalate . — The thermoplastic polyester resin, 
polyethylene terephthalate (PET), is making rapid inroads into the disposable 
(one-way) soft drink bottle field as a replacement for glass. This market 
grew from zero consumption of PET in 1976 to 51 million pounds in 1977, and is 
forecast to reach 176 million pounds in 1978 and to climb to 309 million 
pounds by 1980. 1/ This penetration has been most pronounced in the "family 
size" bottles (32 ounce and 64 ounce), where PET now accounts for an estimated 
25 percent of the Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola family-size containers. 

PET bottles offer certain advantages over glass containers (lighter 
weight, safety), as discussed earlier. Future markets for PET bottles include 
containers for such diverse products as cooking oils, salad dressing, fruit 
juice, and shampoos. 

Engineering thermoplastics . — The engineering thermoplastic resins 
comprise a family of high-performance resins which have mechanical, chemical, 
and thermal properties suitable for use in construction, transportation 
equipment, machine components, and chemical processing equipment. 2/ 
Industry sources forecast that by the mid-1980' s the domestic demand for 
engineering resins will have reached 2 billion pounds, about 3 1/2 times the 
reported 1976 level of 600 million pounds. 3/ These materials enjoy a 
cost-benefit advantage over die-cast metals. They also have considerably 
lower production energy requirements than the metals they compete with and 
offer improved fuel economy in automobiles through reduced weight. 

The engineering resins are closely tied to the durable goods economy. 
For example, automotive applications (e.g., distributor caps), together with 
electrical/electronics uses (e.g., coil bobbins) and home appliance 
applications (e.g., dishwasher pump parts) are the three leading markets for 
these engineering resins, and together account for about three-fourths of the 
domestic consumption. 



Government regulations 

A high degree of concern has been expressed in many segments of the U.S. 
Government about how specific chemicals might adversely affect the health of 
individuals who come into contact with them. This concern has resulted in 
various laws and regulations designed to control industry actions. 

T7 Modern Plastics , April 1978, pp. 4B and 49. 

"y VJhittington s Dictionary of Plastics , First edition. These engineering 
resins include polyacetal resins, polycarbonate resins, polyimide and 
amide-imide polymers, polyphenylene oxide, polyphenylene sulfide, and 
polysulfone. Whittington' s also lists ABS resins and nylon resins in this 
category. 

y Chemical Marketing Reporter , Sept. 19, 1977, p. 38. 



216 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) . — Since 1974, 
polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins have been subjected to closer government 
scrutiny (for safety) than any of the other plastics materials; so far the PVC 
resin industry has not only survived but output has increased under these 
conditions (4,744 million pounds in 1974 versus 5,153 million pounds in 
1977). Because of a worker health problem, OSHA in October 1974 imposed 
strict rules governing the level of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM, the raw 
material for PVC) to which workers may be exposed. These rules specify a 
maximum exposure of 1 part per million (ppm) during an 8-hour period, and 5 
ppm for any 15-minute period. Prior to the OSHA ruling the exposure level to 
VCM was 500 ppm for an 8-hour period. 

An independent marketing research firm estimated that the OSHA 
regulations lowering worker exposure levels to VCM have added 0.3 cent to 1 
cent per pound to the manufacturing cost of VCM and from 1 cent to 3 cents per 
pound to costs for PVC resins. 1/ Since 1974, five producers of PVC resins 
have left the market while four new producers have entered this field. 

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) . — It has been estimated that to 
meet proposed standards under the Clean Air Act (limiting the emission level 
of VCM in the atmosphere to 10 ppm) the initial industry outlay will be $183 
million with an annual upkeep expenditure of $70 million. 2/ In addition, 
EPA's new water effluent guideline will become effective in 1983. The total 
capital cost for existing plants to meet these guidelines has been estimated 
by EPA at an aggregate of $83 million, with an annual maintenance of $17 
million for all existing plants. Thus, in order for industry to maintain 
precontrol profits and also to recover the annual control costs for meeting 
both the air and water standards, EPA estimates that it will be necessary to 
increase the price of PVC resins by at least 7 percent. 3/ 

The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) . — This law, which became 
effective on January 1, 1977, may be the most significant legislation ever to 
impact the plastics materials industry. 4/ It empowers the EPA to ban or 
restrict the use of chemicals to protect public health. EPA's new regulatory 
powers are being directed not only toward the production side of business 
through pollution standards, and so forth, but also on the marketing side 
through prescreening and testing for safety of new and existing products. 
TSCA could affect plastics materials either directly, or indirectly by 
impacting the ingredients of plastics materials (e.g., acrylonitrile , 
benzene) . Many studies have already been made and are now being done to 
assess the probable economic effects that strict enforcement of the act could 
have on the plastics materials industry. The cost to industry of compliance 
with TSCA has been estimated by EPA at $80 million to $140 million, and by a 
business-consulting firm at $360 million to $1.3 billion. 5/ 

1/ Chemical and Engineering News , l^ov'. 10, 1975, pp. 13 and 14. 

"?/ Modern P lastics, February 1976, p. 16, also 41 F.R. 46561 and 42 F.R. 
28T54 ~. 

3/ Ibid. 

7/ Salomon Brothers, an international investment banking house, "Government 
Regulations of Marketing will Lower Chemical Earnings Growth," July 6, 1977. 

5/ U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Industrial Outlook 1978, p. 91. 



VIII -- PLASTICS AND RESIN MATERIALS 



217 




218 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



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■H <ys 




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VIII -- PLASTICS AND f^.ESIM MATERP.LS 



219 




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220 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEI^ICALS, 1977 

PLASTICS AND RESIN MATERIALS 
Edward Taylor 



Plastics and resin materials are high molecular weight polymers which, 
at some stage in their manufacture, exist in such physical condition that 
they can be shaped or otherwise processed by the application of heat and 
pressure. The terms "plastics," "resin," and "polymers," can be (and often 
are) used interchangeably by the trade. Depending on the chemical composi- 
tion, manufacturing process or intended use, the commercial products may 
contain plasticizers, fillers, extenders, stabilizers, coloring agents, or 
other additives. There are about 40 to 50 basic plastics and resins which 
are available commercially. These basic materials are available in literally 
thousands of individual compounds each with its distinct properties depending 
on the molecular weight of the resin and the types and amounts of the 
additives present. Plastics materials may be molded, cast, or extruded into 
semi-finished or finished solid forms. Resin materials may be in the form 
of solutions, pastes, or emulsions for applications such as protective 
coatings, adhesives, or paper and textile treatment. 

Statistics on U.S. production and sales of synthetic plastics and resin 
materials for 1977 are given in table 1. U.S. production of plastics and 
resin materials in 1977 totaled 34,623 million pounds, or 15.5 percent more 
than the 29,989 million pounds^ produced in 1976. Sales in 1977 totaled 
29,799 million pounds, valued at $10,882 million compared with 25,050 million 
pounds,^ valued at $8,785 million^ in 1976. 

Thermosetting materials are those which harden with a change in com- 
position in the final treatment so that in their final state as finished 
articles they are substantially infusible and insoluble, that is, they 
cannot again be softened by heat or solvents. U.S. production of thermo- 
setting materials totaled 7,129 million pounds in 1977 compared with 5,970 
million pounds in 1976. Production of the most important products in 1977 
included phenolic resins (1,797 million pounds), amino (or urea and melamine) 
resins (1,361 million pounds), polyester resins, (unsaturated) (1,018 million 
pounds) and alkyd resins (753 million pounds) . 

Thermoplastic materials are those which in their final states as finished 
articles can be repeatedly softened by heat and hardened by a decrease in 
temperature. U.S. production of thermoplastic materials totaled 27,494 
million pounds in 1977 compared with 24,020 million pounds^ in 1976. Production 
of the most important products in 1977 included polyethylene (10,100 million 
pounds), vinyl resins (6,438 million pounds), and styrene type materials 
(5,203 million pounds). 



Certain of the 1976 data have been revised. See footnote 1, table 1 for 
details. 



VIII -- PLASTICS AND RESIi\l MATERIALS 
TABLE 1. --Plastics and resin materials: U.S. production and sales, 1977' 



221 



[Quantities and 
plastics and r 



alues are given in terms of the total ' 
sin materials, urethane type elastomer 
ales may be published. (Leaders (...) are 
ot be published or where oo data vere rep- 
or sales were reported and identifies the i 



ght of the materials (dry basis) . Listed below ar 
and certain precursors for which any reported data 
e used where the reported data are accepted in con 

ed.) Table 2 lists all products for which dat 

ufacturers of each] 



PLASTICS AND RESIN MATERIALS 



PRODUCTION 



Grand total 

Plastics and resin materials, benzenoid"* 

Plastics and resin materials, nonbenzenoid 

THERMOSETTING RESINS 

Total 

Alkyd resins, total 

Phthalic anhydride type 

Polybasic acid type 

Styrenated-alkyds or copolymer alkyds 

Other copolymer alkyds 

Dicyandiamide resins 

Epoxy resins: ^ ' ^ 

Unmodified 

Advanced 

Melamine- formaldehyde resins (an amino resin) 

Phenolic and other tar acid resins 

Polyester resins, unsaturated' 

Polyether and polyester polyols for urethanes^ 

Polyurethane elastomer and plastic products, total- 
Elastomers' 

Plastics 

Silicone resins 

Urea-formaldehyde resins (an amino resin) 

Other thermosetting resins^" 

THERMOPLASTIC RESINS 

Total 

Acrylic resins, total^' 

Polymethyl methacrylate 

Thermosetting acrylics 

Other acrylics 

Cellulose plastics" 

Engineering plastics^ ^ 

Petroleum hydrocarbon resins 

Polyamide resins, total 

Nylon type' ' ' ' ' 

Non-nvlon type 

Polyester resins, saturated" '* "* 

Polyethylene resins, total 

Density 0.940 and below 

Density over 0.940 

Polypropylene resins 

Polyterpene resins 

Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) 



1,000 

pounds 

dry basis^ 

34,623,041 



10,802,389 
23,820,652 



753,363 



637,222 
54,820 
38,227 
23,094 

1,973 

261,283 

(79,311) 

198,119 

1,797,128 

1,017,970 

1,572,357 

255,006 



92,244 
162,762 

18,348 

1,162,853 

90,880 



27,493,761 



355,137 
30,770 
581,248 

356,367 
524,995 
333,540 



244,365 
40,585 



10,100,116 



,494,273 
3,605,843 

2,705,831 
14,485 
18,459 



1,000 

pounds 

dry basis ^ 

29,799,004 



1,000 
do I lavs 



10,881,823 



9,444,644 
20,354,360 



4,275,111 
6,606,712 



2,287,028 



434,347 



189,499 



374,974 
33,163 
21,901 
4,309 

1,840 

273,580 
(52,286) 
162,938 

1,390,702 
866,434 

1,154,259 

188,116 



163,023 
14,940 
9,143 
2,393 

1,796 

233,571 
(54,621) 
93,968 
546,973 
351,476 
432,663 

187,837 



79,009 
109,107 

11,348 

,045,287 

69,742 



105,665 
82,172 

31,403 
169,994 
47,848 



228,329 
415,802 
332,257 



190,996 

428,107 

78,477 



218,285 
39,663 



5,804,039 
3,395,398 

2,212,005 
14,117 
14,242 



53,294 

272,246 

2,610,435 



1,660,254 
950,181 

629,522 
6,561 

54,735 



at end of table 



222 SYi^THETIC ORGANIC CHEfllCALS. 1977 

TABLE 1, --Plastics and resin materials: U.S. production and sales^ 1977'--Continued 



PLASTICS AND RESIN MATERIALS 



PRODUCTION 



PER 

value' 



THERMOPLASTIC RESINS— Continued 



Rosin modifications, total 

Rosin esters, unmodified (ester gums)- 
Rosin esters, modified 



Styrene plastics materials, total 

Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer 
(ABS) resins 

Styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN) resins- 
Straight polystyrene 

Rubber modified polystyrene 

Styrene-butadiene latexes 

All other styrene latexes 

All other styrene plastics materials ^^ 



Vinyl resins, tocal^^ 

Polyvinyl acetate" 

Polyvinyl alcohol^ ^ 

Polyvinyl chloride and copolymers 

Polyvinylldene chloride latex resins- 
Other vinyl and vinylidene resins 



All other thermoplastic resins 



1,000 

pounds 

dry hasis^ 



20,829 
26,096 

5,203,024 



1,108,130 
141,424 
2,196,159 
1,013,776 
481,603 
46,990 
214,932 

6,438,458 



768,563 
138,717 
,267,291 
20,686 
243,201 

115,402 



1,000 

pounds 

dry basis^ 

47,081 



1,000 
dollars 



21,485 
25,596 



8,222 
11,611 



2,064,231 
1,007,776 

473,215 
46,102 

348,499 

5,36 4 ,642 



686,196 
116,933 
,363,441 

198,072 

862,338 



519,197 

577,985 
270,098 
169,646 
14,530 
200,640 



254,555 
78,117 



Per 
pound 



Certain data have be 



iTlsed for 1976. 



PLASTICS AND RESIN MATERIALS 



Grand total 

Thermoplastic resins, total- 
Engineering resins 

Polyester resins, saturated- 



1,000 

pounds 

dry basis 

29,989,431 

24,019,587 

378,226 

131,585 



1,000 

pounds 

dry basis 

25,050,206 

20,369,586 

290,716 

84,185 



1,000 
dollars 

8,784,700 

6,906,238 

239,471 

90,697 



UNIT 
VALUE 



Per 

pound 



.82 
1.08 



Calculated from rounded figures. 

Dry weight basis unless otherwise specified. Dry weight basis is the total weight of the materials including 
resin and coloring agents, extenders, fillers, plasticizers, and other additives, but excluding water and other 
liquid diluents unless they are an Integral part of the materials. 

Includes benzenold plastics and resin materials as defined In part 1 of schedule 4 of the Tariff Schedules of 
the United States; also includes urethane type elastomers which are not defined in part 1 of schedule 4 of the 
TSUS. 

^ Includes reactive diluents which are an Integral part of the resin. Excludes the weight hardeners sold in 
association with the resin as part of a two-component system. 

* Data shown for advanced epoxy resins are that part of the unmodified epoxy resins which is further processed; 
therefore, the totals in parentheses are not Included in the grand total. 

Polyester resins are unsaturated alkyd resins, later to be copolymerlzed with a monomer (such as styrene or 
methyl methacrylate) , and polyallyl resins (such as dlallyl phthalate and dlglycol carbonate). Data are on an 
"as sold" basis, including monomer if part of the resin system. 

In addition to the polyols, the other principal starting materials used in the production of urethane pro- 
ducts are the isocyanlc acid derivatives, mainly the 80/20 mixture of toluene-2,4- and 2,6-dllsocyanate. Statis- 
tics for the isocyanlc acid derivatives are reported in the "Cyclic Intermediates" section of the Synthetic Organ- 
ic Chemicals report. 

^ The data on urethane elastomers are believed to be not fully representative of the total urethane market in 
view of the very large number of urethane elastomer producers. 

Includes acetone-formaldehyde resins, furfuryl type resins, polybutadiene resins and certain other thermo- 
setting resins. 
^^ Does not Include production or sales for fiber use. 
' Engineering plastics: Includes acetal, polycarbonate, polylmide and amide-imide nolymers, polysulfone, and 
polyphenylene oxide, and polyphenylene sulfide. Engineering plastics are defined In Whlttlrigton ' s Dictionary 
of Plastics , as "Those [plastics] which have mechanical, chemical and thermal properties suitable for use in 
construction, machine components and chemical processing equipment." The above list of plastics (all of which 
are thermoplastic) was selected from a larger group in this source. The other plastics named in Whittington's 
Dictionary as engineering plastics, ABS resins and nylon resins, are not included in the above list as they are 
published separately. 



VIII -- PLASTICS AND RESIN MATERIALS 223 

Footnotes --Continued 

*^ Statistics for nylon 6 and nylon 6/6 which are used in plastic applications (e.g., molding, etc.) are in- 
cluded here. 

^'* Statistics are included here for polyethylene terephthalate used in plastics applications (e.g., molding, 
etc.). 

^^ Includes data for styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN) resins (sales only), a-methyl styrene polymers, 
and all other styrene copolymers. 

^^ Data are on the basis of dry resin content, excluding the weight of plasticizers, extenders, fillers, 
coloring agents, stabilizers, or impact modifiers, unless otherwise noted. 

^' Data for polyvinyl acetate produced and sold in latex form includes the weight of any protective colloids 
which are used as emulsion stabilizers and form an integral part of the resin system. Production and sales do 
not include polyvinyl acetate used as a reactive intermediate for polyvinyl alcohol or other vinyl resins. 

® Production and sales do not include polyvinyl alcohol used as a reactive intermediate for polyvinyl 
butyral or other vinyl resins. 

^^ Includes acrylic resins (sales only), coumarone-indene resins, fluorocarbon resins except FIFE, polybuty- 
lene type resins, polyphenyl aromatic ester resins, and other thermoplastics materials. 

Note. — Data reported to the U.S. International Trade Commission do not necessarily coincide with that reported 
to the Society of the Plastics Industry (SPI) because of differences in both the reporting instructions and in 
the coverage of certain resins. 



221 



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VIII - PLASTICS AflD RESIN MATERIALS 



227 



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223 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CKEfllCALS, 1977 



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VIII -- PLASTICS AIJD RESIN MATERIALS 



229 



TABLE 3. --Plastics and resin materials: Directory of manufacturers, 1977 

ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 

[Names of manufacturers that reported production or sales of plastics and resin materials to the U.S. International 
Trade Commission for 1977 are listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


ABS 


Abex Corp., Friction Products Group 


DOW 


Dow Chemical Co. 


ACC 


Amoco Chemicals Corp. 


DPP 


Dixie Pine Chemicals, Inc. 


ACR 


CPC International, Inc., Acme Resin Corp. 


DSO 


DeSoto, Inc. 


ACS 


Allied Chemical Corp., Specialty Chemical Div. 


DUP 


E.I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 






AEP 


A i E Plastics Pak Co., Inc. 


ECC 


Eastern Color & Chemical Co. 


AIP 


Air Products i Chemicals, Inc. 


EFH 


E.F. Houghton 6, Co. 


ALF 


Allied Chemical Corp., Fibers Div. 




Eastman Kodak Co. : 


AMR 


Pacific Resins & Chemical Co. 


EKT 


Tennessee Eastman Co. Div. 


APT 


Whlttaker Corp., Whittaker Coatings i 


EKX 


Texas Eastman Co. Div. 




Chemical, Mol Rez Resins 


EllR 


Emery Industries, Inc. 


APX 


Apex Chemical Co., Inc. 


ENJ 


Exxon Chemical Co. U.S.A. 


ARK 


Armstrong Cork Co. 


EPI 


Eagel Pitcher Industries, Inc., 


ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc., Ashland Chemical Co. Div. 




Ohio Rubber Co. 


ASY 


American Synthetic Rubber Corp. 


EW 


Westinghouse Electric Corp., Industrial 


atr 


Atlantic Richfield Co. 




Materials Div. 


AZS 


AZS Corp.: 








AZ Products Co. Div. 


FAR 


Syncon, Inc. 




AZS Chemical Co. 


FCD 


Synres Chemical Corp. 






FG 


Foster Grant Co. , Inc. 


BAL 


Baltimore Paint i Chemical Corp. 


FIR 


Firestone Tire S Rubber Co., Firestone 


HAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. 




Plastics Co. Div. 


BCM 


Beldlng Chemical Industries 


FLH 


H.B. Fuller Co. 


BEN 


Bennett's 


FLN 


Franklin Chemical Corp. 


BFG 


B.F. Goodrich Co., B.F. Goodrich Chemical 


FLW 


O'Brien Corp., Fuller-O'Brien Div. 




Co. Div. 


FKP 


FMC Corp., Industrial Chemical Div. 


BLS 


Life Savers, Inc. 


FOC 


Handschy Chemical Co., Farac Oil & Chemical 


BME 


Bendix Corp., FMD Div. 




Co. Div. 


BOR 


Borden Co., Borden Chemical Co. Div. 


FOM 


Formica Corp. 


BRU 


M.A. Bruder & Sons, Inc. 


FRE 


Freeman Chemical Corp. 






FRF 


Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., Firestone 


CBD 


Chembond Corp. 




Synthetic Fibers Co. 


CBM 


Carborundum Co. 


FRP 


FRP Company 


CBN 


Cities Service Co., Petrochemicals Div. 


FRS 


Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., Firestone 


CBY 


Crosby Chemicals, Inc. 




Synthetic Rubber & Latex Co. Div. 


CEL 


Celanese Corp.: 








Celanese Plastics Co. 


GAF 


GAF Corp. . 




Celanese Polymer Specialties Co. 


GE 


General Electric Co.: 


CGL 


Cargill, Inc. 


GEI 


Insulating Materials Products Sec. 


CGY 


Ciba-Gelgy Corp., Resins Dept. 


GIL 


Gilman Paint & Varnish Co. 


CHC 


Carpenter Chemical Co. 


GLC 


General Latex & Chemical Corp. 


CHP 


C.H. Patrick i Co., Inc. 


GNW 


General Mills Chemicals, Inc. 


CLK 


Clark Chemical Corp. 


GNT 


General Tire & Rubber Co., Chemical 


CMP 


Commercial Products Co., Inc. 




Plastics Div. 


CNE 


Conchemco, Inc. 


GOC 


Gulf Oil Corp., Gulf Oil Chemicals 


CNI 


Conap, Inc. 




Co. -U.S. 


CNT 


Certalnteed Corp. 


GOR 


Carl Gordon Industries, Inc. 


CO 


Continental Oil Co. 


GP 


Georgia-Pacific Corp.: 


COO 


The Terrell Corp. 




Plaquemine Div. 


CPV 


Cook Paint & Varnish Co. 




Resins Operations 


CPX 


Chemplex Co. 


GPM 


General Plastics Manufacturing Co. 


CSD 


Cosden Oil & Chemical Co. 


GRA 


Great American Chemical Corp. 


CTR 


Customs Resins, Inc. 


GRD 


W.R. Grace & Co., Polymers Chemicals 


CWN 


Upjohn Co., Fine Chemical Div. 




Div. 


CYR 


CY/RO Industries, Inc. 


GRG 


P.D. George Co. 






GRV 


Guardsman Chemicals, Inc. 


DA 


Diamond Shamrock Corp. 


GYR 


Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. 


DAN 


Dan River, Inc., Chemical Products Dept. 






DCC 


Dow Corning Corp. 


HAL 


C.P. Hall Co. 


DEC 


Degan Oil & Chemical Co. 


HAIJ 


Hanna Chemical Coating Corp. 


DGO 


Day-Glo Color Corp. 


HER 


Heresite & Chemical Co. 


DNS 


Dennis Chemical Co. 


HKD 


Hooker Chemicals & Plastics Corp, Durez Div. 



230 



SYiJTHETIC ORGANIC CHEfllCALS, 1977 



TABLE 3. --Plastics and resin materials; Directory of manufacturers^ 1977--Continued 



Tenneco Chem 


cals, Inc 






H 6, N Chemlc, 


1 Co. 






Hercules, Inc. 






Hart Products Corp. 






Haveg Industries, Inc. 


Sub 


of Her 


Dexter Corp. 


Hysol Co 


Di 




Inmont Corp. 








ICI United S 


ates, Inc 






Plastics D 


V. 






Chemical Specialties 


Co. 




IMC Chemical 


Group, Inc., HcV;orte 


Inland Steel 


Co., Inland S 


teel Co 


Co. Dlv. 








Indopol, Inc 








lonac Chemlcc 


1 Co. Div 


ot 


Sybron 


Interplastic 


Corp. 






Ironsides Resins, Inc. 







Jefferson Chemical Co. 
S.C. Johnson & Sons, Inc, 
Jones-Blair Paint Co. 
Jersey State Chemical Co. 
J.W. Carroll & Sons Div. of U.S. Indu 
Inc, 

Kohler-McLister Paint Co. 
Kelly-Moore Paint Co. 
Arco/Polymers, Inc. 
Koppers Co. 
Keysor Corp. 

Masonite Corp., Alpine Div, 
Borg-Warner Corp., Borg-Warner Cheraic 
McCloskey Varnish Co. 

McCloskey Varnish Co. of the Northwes 
McCloskey Varnish Co, of the West 
Rockwell International Corp. 
Dexter Corp., Midland Div. 
Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co. 
The Valspar Corp. 



Mobay Chemical Co. 






Monsanto Corp. 






Marblette Co. 






W.R. Grace & Co. , Hatcc 


Po 


lyeste 


Morton Chemical Co. Dl 


/. o 


f Mort 


Products, Inc. 






Union Camp Corp. 






Neville Chemical Co. 






Norris Paint & Varnish 


Co. 


, Inc. 


National Starch S. Chemical 


Corp. 


National Casein Co. 






NL Industries, Inc. 






Novamont Corp. 






Northern Petrochemical 


Co. 





O'Brien Corp. 
Owens-Corning Flberglas 
Olln Corp. 

Pennwalt Corp. 
Proctor Chemical Co., I 
Phelps Dodge Industries 
Magnet Wire Co. Dlv. 



Inc., Phelps Dodge 



PhE 


Perry 6. Derrick Co. 


PEP 


Midwest Manufacturing Corp. 


PLC 


Phillips Petroleum Co. 


PLN 


Dlsogrln Industries Corp. 


PLR 


Polysar Resins, Inc. 


PLS 


Plastics Engineering Co. 


PMC 


Plastics Manufacturing Co. 


PNT 


Pantasote Co. 


POL 


Polymer Corp. 


PPG 


PPG Industries, Inc. 


PPL 


Pioneer Plastics Div. of LOF PI 


PRC 


Products Research 6. Chemical Cor 


PRT 


Pratt i Lambert, Inc. 


PVI 


Polyvinyl Chemical Ind. 


PYC 


Polycast Technology Corp. 


PYZ 


Polyrez Co., Inc. 


QCP 


Quaker Chemical Corp. 


QUN 


K.J. Qulnn & Co., Inc. 



RBT 
RCC 
RCC 
ROD 
RCI 

RCO 
RED 
REL 



RSC 
RSN 
RSY 
RUB 



SAC 
SAR 
SCM 
SCN 
SCO 
SED 
SEP 
SHC 
SHT 
SIC 
SIM 
SKI 
SLC 
SLT 



SNW 
SOR 
SPC 
SPD 



Raybestos-Manhattan, Inc., RM Friction 

Materials Co. Dlv. 
Roblntech, Inc. 
Rexene Polyolefins Co. 
Rexene Styrenics Co. 

Richardson Co., Polymeric Systems Div. 
Reichhold Chemicals Inc. and Relchhold 

Polymers Inc. 
Rico Chemical Corp, 



Red Spot Paint 
Reliance Univer 

Operations 
Hexcel Corp. 
Rogers Corp. 
Rohm i Haas Co. 
A. Kewanee Indu 

Group, Ref 



nd Varnl 
al. Inc. 



h Co., Inc. 
Louisville 



Res 



Che 



;stry, Mlllmas 
d-Onyx Co. Dl 
als Corp. 



Rllsan Corp. 
Resyn Corp. 
Hooker Chemic 



il Corp. , Ruco Dl 



Sandoz, Inc. 

Southeastern Adheslves Co., Inc, 

Sartomer Industries, Inc, 

SCM Corp, 

Schenectady Chemicals, Inc, 

Scholler Bros., Inc. 

Conchemco, Inc, 

Stauffer Chemical Co., Plastics Dlv. 

Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Dlv. 

Shlntech, Inc. 

Vlstron Corp., Sllmar Div. 

Simpson Timber Co,, Chemicals Dlv, 

Textron Inc., Spencer Kellogg Div. 

Soluol Chemical Co,, Inc. 

Soltex Polymer Corp. 

Mobil Oil Corp., Mobil Chemical Co., 

Chemical Coatings Dlv. 
Sun Chemical Corp., Chemicals Dlv. 
MW Manufacturers, Southern Resin Dlv, 
Insllco Corp,, Sinclair Paint Co, Dlv. 
General Electric Co,, Silicone Products 

Dept. 
Spaulding Fibre Co., Inc. 



VII! -- PLASTICS AND RESIN flATERIALS 



231 



TABLE 3. --Plastics and resin materials: Directory of manufacturers^ 1977— Continued 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


SIC 


American Hoechst Corp., Sou-Tex Works 


USM 


USM Corp., Bostlk Div. 


STT 


Standard T Chemical Co. 


USO 


U.S. Oil Co. 


SW 


Sherwin-Williams Co. 


USR 


Uniroyal, Inc., Uniroyal Chemical Div. 


SWE 


Swedcast Corp. 


USS 


USS Chemicals Div. of U.S. Steel Corp. 


SWS 


Stauffer Chemical Co., SWS Silicones 








Div. 


VAL 


Valchem Div. of United Merchants i 
Manufacturers, Inc. 


TKL 


Thiokol Corp. 


VEL 


Veliscol Chemical Corp. 


TNA 


Ethyl Corp. 


VPC 


Mobay Chemical Corp., Verona Div. 


TNO 


Trancoa Chemical Corp. 


VSV 


Valentine Sugars, Inc., Vallte Div. 


TX 


Texaco, Inc. 






UBS 


A.E. Staley Manufacturing Co., Chemicals 


WCA 


West Coast Adheslves Co., Inc. 




Specialties Div. 


WLN 


Wilmington Chemical Corp. 


UCC 


Union Carbide Corp. 


WRD 


Weyerhaeuser Co. 


UNO 


United-Erie, Inc. 


WTC 


Witco Chemical Corp. 


UOC 


Union Oil Co. of California 






UPJ 


Upjohn Co. 






USI 


U.S. Industrial Chemicals Co.: 

National Distillers & Chemical Corp. 
National Petro Chemical Corp. 


ZGL 


Carolina Processing Corp. 



SECTION IX -- RUBBER PROCESSING CHEMICALS 23: 



RUBBER-PROCESSING CHEMICALS 
David B. Beck 



Rubber-processing chemicals are organic compounds that are added to natural 
and sjrnthetic rubber to give them qualities necessary for their conversion into 
finished rubber goods. In this report, statistics are given for cyclic and 
acyclic compounds by use — such as accelerators, antioxidants, blowing agents, 
and peptizers. Data on production and sales of rubber-processing chemicals in 
1977 are given in table 1.^ 

Production of rubber-processing chemicals as a group in 1977 amounted to 
402 million pounds, or 4.7 percent more than the 384 million pounds in 1976. 
Sales of rubber-processing chemicals in 1977 amounted to 238 million pounds, 
valued at $278 million, compared with 224 million pounds, valued at $247 
million, in 1976. 

The production of cyclic rubber-processing chemicals in 1977 amounted to 
356 million pounds, or 6.3 percent more than the 335 million pounds in 1976. 
Sales in 1977 were 202 million pounds, valued at $249 million, compared with 
186 million pounds, valued at $218 million, in 1976. Of the total production 
of cyclic rubber-processing chemicals in 1977, accelerators, activators, and 
vulcanizing agents accounted for 39.8 percent and antioxidants, antiozonants , 
and stabilizers for 55.9 percent. Production of antioxidants, antiozonants, 
and stabilizers, which amounted to 198.7 million pounds in 1977, included 132,0 
million pounds of amino compounds and 66.7 million pounds of phenolic and 
phosphite compounds. Sales of amino antioxidants, antiozonants, and 
stabilizers in 1977 amounted to 79.1 million pounds, valued at $99.1 million; 
sales of phenolic and phosphite antioxidant, antiozonants, and stabilizers, were 
38.2 million pounds, valued at $43.6 million. 

Production of acyclic rubber-processing chemicals in 1977 amounted to 46.5 
million pounds, or 6.4 percent less than the 49.7 million pounds reported for 
1976. Sales in 1977 totaled 35.8 million pounds, valued at $29.0 million, com- 
pared with 37.9 million pounds, valued at $28.6 million, in 1976. Dithiocarbamic 
acid derivatives accounted for 15.9 percent of sales (based on quantity) of 
acyclic rubber-processing chemicals in 1977 and bis-(dimethylthiocarbamoyl) 
disulfide accounted for 10.4 percent. 



See also table 2 which lists these producers and identifies the manufacturers 
by codes. These codes are given in table 3. 



IX -- RUBBER-PROCESSING CHffllCALS 



235 



TABLE 1,--RUBBER-PR0CESSING CHEMICALS: U.S. PRODUCTION AND SALES, 1977 
3r which any 



[Listed below are all rubber-processing chemicals for w 
lished. (Leaders (...) are used where the reported d 
or where no data were reported.) Table 2 lists separ 
production and/or sales were reported and Identifies 



reported data 

e accepted in con 

all rubber-proces 



n production or 
idence and may 
ing chemicals f 



may be pub- 
published 
:h data on 



RUBBER-PROCESSING CHEMICALS 



PRODUCTION 



Grand total 

CYCLIC 

Total 

Accelerators, activators, and vulcanizing agents, 
total 

Aldehyde-amine reaction products 

Dithiocarbamic acid derivatives 

Thiazole derivatives, total 

N-Cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolesulfenamide 

2,2'-Dithiobis(benzothiazole) 

2-Mercaptobenzo thiazole 

All other thiazole derivatives 

All other accelerators, activators, and vulcan- 
izing agents^ 

Antioxidants, antiozonants, and stabilizers, 

total 

Amino compounds, total 

Aldehyde- and acetone-amine reaction products 

Substituted p-phenylenediamines 

All other amino compounds^ 

Phenolic and phosphite compounds, total 

Phenolic compounds, total 

Polyphenolics (including bisphenols) 

Phenol , alkylated 

Phenol , styrenated 

Other 

Phosphite compounds 

Peptizers 

Retarder : N-Nitrosodiphenylamine 

All other cyclic rubber-processing chemicals'* 

ACYCLIC 

Total 

Dithiocarbamic acid derivatives, total^ 

Diethyldithiocarbamic acid, zinc salt 

Dimethyldithiocarbamic acid, zinc salt 

All other dithiocarbamic acid derivatives 

Bis (diethylcarbamoyl) disulfide 

Bis (dimethylthiocarbamoyl) disulfide 

Shortstops; Dimethyldithiocarbamic acid, sodium 
salt 

All other acyclic rubber-processing chemicals^ 



1,000 
pounds 



141,354 



732 
243 
132,107 

19,530 

109,035 

8,272 

198.664 



131,957 

77,002 
54,955 
66,707 
20,482 
13,080 
3,778 

3,624 
46,224 

2,222 
1,469 
11,840 



46,464 



502 
1,710 
6,090 



3,455 
32,334 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



202,251 



71,794 



620 
162 
62,307 
2,315 
7,353 
5,994 
46,645 

8,705 



117.292 



79,054 
5,518 
42,154 
31,382 
38,238 
15,985 
12,455 
1,416 
855 
1,259 
22,253 



679 
12.486 



35.833 



5.687 



440 
1,570 
3,677 

1,998 
3,716 

1,420 
23,012 



82,465 



.041 
547 
64.937 
3.041 
6.847 
3.828 
51.221 

15.940 



142.673 



99.065 
5,713 
62,328 
31,024 
43.608 
28.749 
24.449 
1.147 
502 
2,651 
14,859 



722 
22,896 



29,009 



8.559 



355 

1.466 
6.737 

1.890 
2.816 

596 
15.148 



Per 
pound 



1.31 
.93 



1.25 
1.04 
1.48 



1.06 
1.83 



Calculated from rounded figures. 

Includes guanldines and other uses not separately shown. 
^ Includes aldehyde- and acetone-amine reactions products (productii 
** Includes blowing agents and other uses not separately shown. 
^ Data on dithiocarbamates included in this table are for materials 
and synthetic rubber. Data on dithiocarbamates which are used chiefly 
on "Pesticides and Related Products". 

' Includes "other" thiurams, xanthates, sulfides, conditioning and lubri 
lators. shortstops, and other uses not separately shown. 



sed chiefly in the processing of natural 
s fungicides are Included in the report 



polymerization regu- 



236 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHB-IICALS, 1977 



M Z to 



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IX -- RUBBER PROCESSING CHEI'lICALS 



237 



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238 



SYNTHETIC ORGAiMlC CH [fllCALS, 1977 



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IX - RUBBER-PROCESSING CMb-iKALS 



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240 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1977 



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IX -- RUBBEK-PRUCESSING CHEI1ICALS 



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242 



3Y,;THETIC URGAiUC CHB'IICALS, 1977 



TABLE 3. --Rubber-processing chemicals: Directory of manufacturers, 1977 

ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 

[Names of manufacturers that reported production or sales of rubber-processing chemicals to the U.S. International Trade 
Commission for 1977 are listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 


I1CB 


Borg-Warner Corp., Borg-Warner Chemicals 


ALC 


Alco Chemical Corp. 




Div. 


ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc., Ashland Chemical Co. 


HLS 


Miles Laboratories, Inc., Sumner Div. 






MON 


Monsanto Co, 


BFG 


B. F. Goodrich Co., B. F. Goodrich Chemical 








Co. Div. 


NEV 


Neville Chemical Co. 






tJPI 


Stepan Chemical Co., Polychem Dept. 


DUP 


E. 1. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. 










PAS 


Pennwalt Chemicals Corp. 






PIT 


Pitt-Consol Chemical Co. 






PLC 


Phillips Petroleum Co. 


FMN 


FMC Corp., Agricultural Chemical Div. 










RBC 


Fike Chemicals, Inc. 


GYR 


Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. 


RCD 


Richardso-n Co. 






RCI 


Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. 


ICI 


ICI United States, Inc., Chemical 








Specialties Co. 


UPtl 


UOP, Inc. 






USR 


Uniroyal, Inc., Uniroyal Chemical Div. 


LAK 


Bofors Lakeway, Inc. 


VNC 


Vanderbilt Chemical Corp. 



Note. — Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the appendix. 



SECTION X -- ELASTOMERS 



2L\': 



Synthetic Elastomers: Role of U.S. Imports 
David B. Beck 



Synthetic elastomers (also referred to as sjmthetic rubber) comprise part of 
a large group of materials called polymers (which encompasses all plastics as well 
as elastomers) . An elastomer is any polymer material that is capable of recovering 
quickly and forcibly from large deformations such as stretching, bending, or 
twisting. Generally, a cured elastomer (1) can be stretched to at least three 
times its original length at room temperature and (2) after being held at twice its 
original length for 1 minute, will return to 1.5 times its original length within 
5 minutes. 

U.S. consumption of synthetic elastomers was estimated at 5.6 billion pounds 
in 1977. More than half of the synthetic elastomers consumed in the United 
States are used in the manufacture of tires and tire products. The remainder 
are consumed in a wide variety of industrial end uses, chiefly nontire automotive 
components; latex applications (carpet and drape backing, dipped goods, adhesives, 
molded products); impact modifiers for plastics; hoses and belting; footwear; 
gaskets and seals; and wire and cable insulation. U.S. production in 1977 
amounted to more than 5.7 billion pounds, an increase of 7.5 percent over 1976. 
U.S. exports accounted for 9.7 percent of 1977 production, and were 1.5 times 
as large as U.S. imports that year. 

U.S. consumption 

Total annual U.S. consumption of synthetic elastomers for the 6-year period 
from 1972 to 1977, along with domestic production, imports, and exports, is 
shown in the table below. 



Synthetic elastomers: U.S. production, imports, 
exports, and consumption, 1972-77 

(In millions of pounds) 



Year 



Production 


Imports 


Exports 


Consumption 


5,154.4 


249.8 


602.8 


5,133.0 


6,185.9 


304.0 


657.2 


5,379.8 


5,823.5 


249.5 


631.2 


4,872.5 


4,631.7 


203.9 


510.2 


4,329.3 


5,441.1 


273.5 


623.3 


4,687.3 


5,749.9 


367.0 


559.1 


1/ 5,600.0 



Ratio (percent) 

of imports to 

consumption 



1972 
1973 
1974 
1975 
1976 
1977 



4.9 
5.7 
5.1 
4.7 
5.8 
6.5 



1/ Compiled from estimates of the U.S. International Trade Commission. 

Source: Production data compiled from U.S. International Trade Commission, 
Synthetic Organic Chemicals, United States Production and Sales ; import, export, 
and consumption data compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department 
of Commerce. 



24^ SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 

Consumption in 1977 reached an estimated all-time high of 5.6 billion pounds; 
the previous record was 5.38 billion pounds in 1973. Styrene-butadiene 
rubber (SBR) accounted for about 55 percent of the total in 1977; polybutadiene 
accounted for about 15 percent; butyl, polychloroprene (neoprene), ethylene- 
propylene, nitrile, and isoprene elastomers, less than 6 percent each. As with 
many commodities, consumption of synthetic elastomers dropped in 1974 as a 
result of the Arab oil embargo. The continuing recession in 1975 kept consump- 
tion down. Although the national economy began to recover in 1976, the United 
Rubber Workers' Union went on strike against the major tire producers, effecting 
a slackening of demand for elastomers during the summer of that year. Later in 
1976 and through most of 1977, U.S. tire producers stepped up tire production 
for two reasons: (1) to replenish inventories that had dropped to near-critical 
levels during the 1976 strike; and (2) to meet increasing demand brought about by 
the improving economy; hence, the large jump in synthetic elastomers consump- 
tion in 1977. 

Consumption (quantity basis) of the larger volume synthetic elastomers, 
except polychloroprene (neoprene), increased in 1977 over 1976, as shown below: 

Change in U.S. 
consumption from 
Elastomer type 1976 to 1977 

( Percent ) 

Styrene-butadiene +14 

Butyl +23 

Nitrile +12 

Polybutadiene +22 

Poly isoprene +16 

Polychloroprene -4 

Ethylene-propylene +25 

The larger increases in consumption of butyl and polybutadiene elastomers were 
accounted for at least in part by a 31-percent increase in demand for truck and 
bus tires: butyl, because it has superior air retention for inner tubes, which 
are still commonly used in truck and bus tires; and polybutadiene, because an 
average of 7 pounds of it are used in the production of every truck and bus tire. 

The 25-percent increase in ethylene-propylene elastomer consumption in 1977 
over 1976 was a continuation of rising growth equaling an average compounded rate 
of 15 percent per year since 1972. While declines in consumption of other types 
of elastomers ranged from 7.5 percent to 27 percent in 1975 (overall synthetic 
decline was 11 percent), ethylene-propylene elastomer consumption declined only 
7.5 percent in 1975 but rebounded quickly in 1976. Although consumption of 
ethylene-propylene elastomers in tires never burgeoned to producers' intitial 
great expectations, that group of elastomers has been found to be suitable for a 
growing number of nontire applications. 

Similarly, the decline in polychloroprene consumption in 1977 was a 
continuation of a downward trend. Polychloroprene will continue to be best 
suited for industrial applications where good weathering and water resistance 
(e.g., in bridge mounts) are important; in less demanding end uses, polychloroprene 
has yielded to less expensive substitutes (i.e. , other elastomers and plastics 
materials) . 



X -- ELASTOriERS 2^5 

U.S. imports 

Imports of synthetic elastomers during 1972-77 fluctuated in the same 
pattern as U.S. consumption, accounting, on the average, for 5.4 percent of 
total consumption. The chief sources each year during 1972-77 were Canada and 
Japan. On the average, Canada accounted for 54 percent of the total (52 percent 
in 1977); Japan, for 25 percent (23 percent in 1977). The bulk of the remainder 
came from West European countries. 

Effective August 3, 1975,^ imports of synthetic elastomers from Romania 

became eligible for duty-free treatment under the Generalized System of 

Preferences provided for in title V of the Trade Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-618). 

The share of U.S. imports originating in Romania rose from virtually nil before 
1975 to 2.2 percent in 1976 and 1.2 percent in 1977. 

Total U.S. imports of synthetic elastomers increased irregularly from 249 
million pounds in 1972 to 367 million pounds in 1977. For the 6-year period, 
styrene-butadiene rubber accounted for about one-third of the total; polybutadiene 
accounted for about one-fourth; and butyl rubber, about 15 percent. For the 
first time, the level of polybutadiene imports, accounting for 34 percent 
of the U.S. synthetic elastomers import total in 1977, jumped above the import 
level of the perennial leader styrene-butadiene rubber, which accounted for 
24 percent of the total in 1977. The figure on the following page is a graphic 
illustration of U.S. imports of the three large-volume elastomers (with respect 
to imports), which together accounted for 74 percent of total U.S. imports of 
synthetic elastomers in 1977. 

The ratio of total synthetic elastomer imports to consumption reached a 
record 6.4 percent in 1977. The following tabulation indicates by types of 
elastomers the changes which occurred in the import/consumption ratios from 1976 
to 1977: 

Type of 
elastomer 1976 1977 

Styrene-butadiene 

Butyl 

Nit rile 

Polybutadiene 

Polyisoprene 

Polychloroprene 

Ethylene-propylene 

1/ Less than 0.05. 

The most significant change in import/consumption ratios from 1976 to 1977 was for 
polybutadiene. Production of polybutadiene in 1977 is estimated to have increased 
only about 5 percent over 1976, while demand strengthened with the increase in 
truck and bus tire production. Since the domestic polybutadiene industry as a 



Presidential Proclamation 4369, dated Apr. 24, 1975. 



3.3 


2.8 


18.4 


19.1 


11.5 


10.9 


7.8 


13.5 


.8 


4.8 


2.6 


2.7 


1/ 


1.0 



2^16 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



d 







in 


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a 


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X -- ELASTOMERS W 



whole operated at or near capacity in 1977, imports served to meet the temporarily 
increased demand; however, import statistics for the first four months of 1978 
indicate that by yearend, the polybutadiene import level will be 18 percent below 
the 1977 level. 



Competitiveness of imports in U.S. market 

Imported synthetic elastomers are generally comparable in quality to U.S. 
products. The average unit value of imports (including insurance and shipping 
costs) was 1 to 4 cents lower than the average unit value of U.S. sales during 
1972-77. However, there are three factors which offset the effect of unit value 
differences between domestic product and imported material. First, the overall 
U.S. product mix is different from that of imports. Many imported specialty 
elastomers are not produced in volume in the United States. Furthermore, the 
proportion of each type of elastomer comprising imports may differ from that for 
U.S. production. Secondly, the proximity of U.S. producers to industrial consumers, 
rapid response to those consumers' needs, and steady availability of supply all 
contributed to the competitive edge held by domestic producers despite price 
differences. Finally, many- imports from Western Europe and elsewhere, are 
intracompany transfers, some of which are valued below the domestic market price. 

Those importers which did account for a significant part of the U.S. market 
during 1972-77 included Polysar, Inc. and the larger Japanese trading companies. 
Polysar, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Polysar, Ltd. (the largest producer 
of synthetic elastomers in Canada) , was the major importer of synthetic 
elastomers into the United States during 1972-77. The larger Japanese importing 
firms are wholly owned subsidiaries of large Japanese chemical companies and 
include, among others, JSR America, Inc.; Mitsubishi International Corp.; Mitsui 
& Co., U.S.A.; Nichimen Company, Inc.: and Marubeni America Corp. Significant 
as imports were during 1972-1977, exports continued to outpace imports during 
the period. 

The United States was a net exporter of most types of synthetic elastomers 
throughout 1972-77. On the average, U.S. export quantity each year was 2.2 
times that for imports. 

Trade outlook for 1978 

Based upon preliminary import data for 1978, the quantity of U.S. imports 
of synthetic elastomers is projected to return to about the 1976 level. The push 
by U.S. tiremakers to replenish depleted inventories is beyond the crisis stage, 
and near-term demand growth is not expected to top 3 or 4 percent for the year. 
The domestic industry is expected to operate at or near practical production 
capacity, with no impending strike threats or the like. 

Exports, on the other hand, are expected to approach the 600 million pound 
level in 1978. As a result, the export/import ratio will climb from 1.5 (in 
1977) to about 2.0 (compared with the 1972-77 average of 2.2). 



ms SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



ELASTOMERS 
David B. Beck 

Elastomers (synthetic rubber) are high polymeric materials with properties 
similar to those of natural rubber. The term "elastomers" as used in this 
report, means a substance, whether in bale, crumb, powder, latex, and other 
crude form, which can be vulcanized or similarly processed into a material that 
can be stretched to at least twice its original length and, after having been 
so stretched and the stress removed, will return with force to approximately 
its original length. U.S. production and sales of elastomers in 1977 are shown 
in table 1.^ 

Total U.S. production^ of synthetic rubber in 1977 amounted to 5,813 million 
pounds, an increase of 7.9 percent from that produced in 1976. Total sales^ of 
elastomers in 1977 amounted to 4,177 million pounds, an increase of 12.6 percent 
from that sold in 1976. 

Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR, or S-type rubber) in 1977 continued to be 
elastomer produced in the greatest quantity as it has been for more than a 
quarter of a century. U.S. production of S-type rubber, including 34 million 
pounds of its vinylpyridine sub-type, amounted to 3,288 million pounds in 1977, 
an increase of 9 percent from that reported for 1976. Solution polymerized 
butadiene rubber, a stereo type elastomer, was produced domestically in 1977 
in the next largest amount — 758 million pounds; production of isoprene the other 
major stereoelastomer, amounted to 137 million pounds. Total U.S. production 
of these stereo type elastomers amounted to 896 million pounds in 1977 — a 
decrease of 2 percent from 1976.'* Other principal types of synthetic elastomers 
for which U.S. production data are reported separately are ethylene-propylene 
rubber, production of which was 348 million pounds in 197 7, isobutylene- 
isoprene (butyl) rubber, production of which was 329 million pounds, acrylonitrile 
butadiene (N-type) rubber, production of which was 161 million pounds, and 
polychloroprene (Neoprene) rubber, production of which was 365 million pounds. 

Sales of S-type rubber by U.S. producers in 1977 (including its vinyl- 
pyridine sub-type) amounted to 1,946 million pounds, an increase of 9 percent 
over sales reported for 1976. Sales of solution polymerized butadiene rubber 
amounted to 544 million pounds, and those of ethylene-propylene rubber to 298 
million pounds. Sales of N-type rubber in 1977 amounted to 135 million pounds. 
Sales of solution polymerized butadiene rubber in 1977 increased from sales in 
1976 by 32 percent, and sales of ethylene-propylene rubber increased 22 percent. 
Sales of N-type rubber in 1977 were 4 percent above those in 1976. 



^ See also Table 2 which lists these products and indicates the manufacturers 
of each by code. The codes are identified by company name in table 3. 
Does not include urethane type elastomers. 

^ Reported by the Rubber Manufacturers' Association. 

"* The 1976 totals for stereorubber erroneously included production and sales 
of ethylene-propylene rubber; the revised production total for stereorubber in 
1976 is 915.6 million pounds. 



X " ELASTOMERS 
TABLE 1. --Elastomers (synthetic rubber):' U.S. production and sales^ 1977 

Listed below ate all elastomers (synthetic rubber) for which reported data o 
lished. (Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted in co 
or where no data were reported.) Table 2 lists all elastomers for which da 
reported and identifies the loanufacturers of each] 



2'l9 



prod 


jction or sales may be pub- 


fiden 


e and may not be published 


a on 


reduction and/or sales wer 



ELASTOMERS 



UNIT 
VALUE ' 



1,000 
pounds 



Grand total 

Cyclic 

Acyclic 

Acrylonitrile-butadiene type (N-type) — 
Butadiene (emulsion polymerized) type — 

Chloroprene type (Neoprene) 

Ethylene-propylene type 

Isobutylene-isoprene type (Butyl) 

Silicone type 

Stereo elastomers: 

Butadiene (solution polymerized) type 

Isoprene type 

Styrene-butadiene type (S-type) 

Styrene-butadiene-vinylpyridine type 

Ure thane type 

All other elastomers" 



4,177,429 



1,000 
dollars 



1,940,260 



Per 
pound 



$0.46 



3,449,123 
2,364,113 

161,280 
37,397 

(-) 

348,534 

( = ) 

52,563 

758,429 

(') 

3,254,079 

33,967 

(') 

1,166,987 



2,157,680 
2,019,749 

134,563 
27,848 

298,391 

43,340 

544,117 

1,924,576 
21,536 



760,128 
1,180,132 

87,813 
8,290 

147,804 

127,020 

182,669 

643,680 
15,898 



The term "elastomers" is defined as substances in bale, crumb, powder 
be vulcanized or similarly processed into materials that can be stretched 
inal length and, after having been stretched and the stress removed, will 
original length. 

^ Includes oil content of oil-extended el 
Calculated from rounded figures. 

* Included in "All other elastomers". Th 
ber Manufacturers' Association to be 165,388 

^ Included in "All other elastomers". Th. 
facturers' Association to be 149,455 metric 

' Included in "All other elastomers" 
Manufacturers' Association to be 62,260 



latex, and other crude forms which can 

68° F. to at least twice their orlg- 
turn with force to approximately their 



stomers. 

production of polychloroprt 
metric tons (364,614,400 poi 
The production of butyl rubber 
ic tons (329,488,500 pounds). 

The production of polyisoprene 
etric tons (137,258,400 pounds). 



of 



The data on production and 
erials" with urethane plastics and polyol 

Includes production and sales data f< 
butylene, isoprenes, and polysulfide elastomers, certain 
polyethylene, thermoplastic rubber, miscellaneous elastoi 



thane elastomers are reported in the 



ne rubber 

nds). 

in 1977 w 


in 1977 was reported by the Rub 


as reported by the Rubber Manu- 


rubber in 


1977 was reported by the Rubber 


in the s 


Bction "Plastics and Resin Mat- 



rylic 



butyl, chloroprene, eplchlorohydrln, f luorinated, Iso- 
olutlon elastomers, chlorinated rubber, chlorosulfonated 



250 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. ]977 

TABLE 2. --Elastomers for which u.s. production and/or sales were reported. 

IDENTIFIED BY MANUFACTURER. 1977 

[CHEMICALS FOR WHICH SEPARATE STATISTICS ARE GIVEN IN TABLE 1 ARE MARKED BELOW WITH AN ASTERISK (»); CHEMICALS NOT 
SO MARKED DO NOT APPEAR IN TABLE 1 BECAUSE THE REPORTED DATA ARE ACCEPTED IN CONFIDENCE AND MAY NOT BE PUBLISHED. 
MAKUEACTURERS ' IDENTIFICATION CODES SHOWN BELOW ARE TAKEN FROM TABLE 3. AN "X" SIGNIFIES THAT THE MANUFACTURER 
DID NOT CONSENT TO HIS IDENTIFICATION WITH THE DESIGNATED PRODUCT] 



ELASTOMERS 



MANUFACTURERS' IDENTIFICATION CODES 
(ACCORDING TO LIST IN TABLE 3) 



CYCLIC 

Butadiene-styrene type: 
*Butadiene-styrene (S-Type) 

Butadiene-s tyrene-itaconic acid 

*Butadiene-styrene-vinylpyridine 

Polyester elastomer 

Thermoplastic elastomers, cyclic 

ACYCLIC 

Butadiene-acrylic acid-acrylonitrile— 
*Butadiene-acrylonitrile type (N-Type)- 

Depolymerized butyl rubber 

Epichlorohydrin rubber 

♦Ethylene-propylene rubber 

Fluoroelastomers 

Isobutylene-isoprene type (Butyl) 

Polyacrvlate ester, type elastomers — 

Polyalkalene oxide 

Polyalkalene sulfide, type elastomers- 

*Polybutadiene type (Emulsion) 

Polychloroprene type (Neoprene) 

Polyethylene, chlorosulf onated 

Polyisobutylene, type elastomers 

Products of natural rubber: 

Depolymerized natural rubber 

Polymerized chlorinated rubber 

♦Silicone type elastomers ■' 

Stereoisomer type: 

Depolymerized isoprene 

*Polybutadiene (Solution polymerized 
Polyisoprene (Solution polymerized)- 
Stereoisomer type, all other 



ASH, ASY, BFG, BOR, CPY, FIR, FRS, GNT, GRD, GYR, PLC, 

PLR, RCI, SWL, TUS, USR. 
ASY. 

BFG, FIR, FRS, GNT, GYR, MIL, USR. 
DUP. 
PLC, SHC, USR. 



ASY. 












BFG, 


CPY, 


FRS, 


GYR, 


RCI, 


USR 


RDM. 












BFG. 












BFG, 


CPY, 


DUP, 


ENJ, 


ORG, 


USR 


DUP, 


MMM. 










CBN, 


EN J. 










ACY, 


BFG, 


DUP. 








PRC. 












TKL. 












BFG, 


FRS, 


GYR, 


TKL, 


TUS. 




DKA, 


DUP, 


PTT. 








DUP. 












EN J. 












HDM. 












ICI, 


X. 










DCC, 


SPD, 


SWS. 








HDM. 












ASY, 


BFG, 


FRS, 


GNT, 


GYR, 


PLC 


BFG, 


GYR. 










WAY. 













X -- ELASTOMERS 



251 



TABLE 3, --Elastomers (synthetic rubber): Directory of manufacturers, 1977 



[Names of 
1977 are 



manufacturers that reported production or s 
listed below in the order of their identif 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 
sales of elastomers 



s to the U.S. International Trade Commis 
used in table 2) 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 


ICI 


ICI United States, Inc., Chemical 


ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc. 




Specialties Co. 


ASY 


American Synthetic Rubber Corp. 










MIL 


Hilliken & Co., Milliken Chemical Div. 


BFG 


B. F. Goodrich Co., B. F. Goodrich Chemical 
Co. Div. 


HMM 


Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co. 


BOR 


Borden, Inc., Borden Chemical Div. 










ORG 


Chevron Chemical Co. 


CBN 


Cities Service Co., Columbian Group 






CHP 


C. H. Patrick i Co. Inc. 


PLC 


Phillips Petroleum Co. 


CPY 


Copolymer Rubber i Chemical Corp. 


PLR 


Polysar Resins, Inc., Polysar Latex 

Div. 
Products Research i Chemical Corp. 






PRC 


DCC 


Dow Corning Corp. 


PTT 


Petro-Tex Chemical Corp. 


DKA 


Denka Chemical Corp. 






DUP 


E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. 










RCI 


Reichhold Chemicals, Inc., Relchhold 
Polymers, Inc. 


ENJ 


Exxon Chemical Co., U.S.A. 










SHC 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 




Firestone Tire & Rubber Co.: 


SPD 


General Electric Co., Silicone Products 


FIR 


Firestone Plastics Co. Div. 




Dept. 


FRS 


Firestone Synthetic Rubber & Latex 


SWL 


Southwest Latex Corp. 




Co. Div. 


SWS 


Stauffer Chemical Co., SWS Silicones Div. 


gnt 


General Tire S Rubber Co., Chemical/Plastics 


TKL 


Thiokol Chemical Corp. 




Div. 


TUS 


Texas-U.S. Chemical Co. 


GRD 


W. R. Grace & Co., Polymers i Chemicals 
Div. 






GYR 


Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. 


USR 


Uniroyal, Inc., Chemical Div. 


HDM 


Hardman, Inc. 


WAY 


Philip A. Hunt Chemical Corp., Organic 


HPC 


Hercules, Inc. 




Chemical Div. 



Note. — Complete 



eporting compani 



listed in table 1 of the appendix. 



SECTION XI -- PLASTICIZERS 253 



Plasticizers 



J. Lawrence Johnson 



Plasticizers are organic chemical substances that are added to synthetic 
plastics and resin materials to (1) improve workability during fabrication, 
(2) extend or modify the natural properties of these materials, or (3) develop 
new, improved properties not present in the original material. Plasticizers 
are not final products of themselves but rather components of other materials 
which, in turn, are formed into final products. 

Roughly 85 percent of total annual plasticizer shipments are consumed in 
the manufacture of plastics materials, with elastomer production accounting 
for the remainder. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins used in flexible 
applications (e.g., shower curtains, wall coverings, tablecloths, and window 
shades) now account for about two-thirds of all plasticizers consumed in the 
United States. Plasticizers convert this brittle PVC material, which 
decomposes when heated, into a flexible workable polymer. 

U.S. Production and sales 

In 1977, plasticizer production reached 1.8 billion pounds; consumption 
was 1.5 billion pounds and sales 1.7 billion pounds. These increases over 
1976 of 5.5 percent, 12.2 percent, and 13.8 percent respectively, reflect the 
continuing recovery of the flexible PVC resin markets from the 1974 and 1975 
recession. 

Industry sources U forecast demand growth for plasticizers at an average 
rate of 6.3 percent per year from 1976 to 1981. This is in line with a 
projected average annual growth rate for flexible PVC applications of 6.4 
percent per year during this period. 

The phthalic anhydride esters (i.e., phthalates) were again the leading 
plasticizers in 1977, accounting for about 67 percent of the total production 
quantity. The phthalic anhydride esters have dominated the plasticizer market 
for over 25 years mainly because these materials are unequaled on a 
cost/performance basis for general-purpose plasticizer applications. 

The most important phthalate plasticizer is di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 
accounting for an estimated 22 percent of all plasticizer sales. It is the 
standard PVC plasticizer and properties of other plasticizers are usually 
reported relative to it. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate has good compatibility 
properties with PVC resins and is available at a price (31 cents per pound in 
mid-1978) generally below that of the other common phthalates. 



2/ Chemical and Engineering News , Nov. 27, 1976. p. 12. 



25^ SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 

Consumption of the trimellitates (esters of trimellitic anhydride) is 
forecast to grow at a faster rate (10.7 percent) between 1976 and 1981 than 
any other class of plasticizers 1/. These trimellitates have relatively low 
volatility at higher temperatures which makes them choice plasticizers for 
PVC used to coat wire and cable for electrical applications. 

Major PVC markets 

The chief uses for plasticizers in PVC applications are, in descending 
order of importance: flooring, wire and cable insulation, meat and produce 
films, and furniture upholstery. Together, they account for about 50 percent 
of the total plasticizers consumed annually in flexible PVC applications; 
flooring alone represents about 18 percent of the total. 

Flooring. — In flooring, the trend away from vinyl asbestos tile to the 
more highly plasticized coated types of resilient vinyl flooring is expected 
to continue. This should lead to increased uses of plasticizers in the 
flooring market, which has already captured a primary share of consumption. 

Wire and cable insulation . — Most plasticizers used in extruded, flexible 
PVC applications in this field are in the low voltage range (500 volts and 
below) where building wire accounts for the greatest share. These are wires 
suitable for appliances and communications (90° C-rated wire) as well as for 
use on equipment and machinery (105° C-rated wire). Thus the insulation 
market for plasticizers as might be expected, is closely tied to the growth of 
the construction industry. Over the past 2 years the construction industry 
has been particularly healthy, and plasticizer growth in wire and cable 
insulation grew about 7 percent more in 1977 than in 1976. Plasticizer growth 
in this market is forecast at about 8 percent per year during 1976-81 2/. 

Furniture coverings . — The market for plasticizers used in furniture 
coverings is cyclical and generally follows the pattern of new home 
construction. Since furniture sales are closely related to the level of 
disposable personal income, changes in the business cycle are a good 
indication of market performance. When the level of disposable personal 
income is high, furniture sales tend to climb at a faster rate than 
construction in general, thereby accelerating plasticizer usage in this market. 

Foreign trade 

The United States is the world's leading producer of plasticizers and is 
highly export competitive. The pattern of U.S. foreign trade in plasticizers 
has remained relatively unchanged during the 1970 's in terms of export 
markets, import sources, and relative levels of trade. 

1/ Chemical and Engineering News , Nov. 27 , 1976, pi! 12. 
£/ Hydrocarbon Processing , January 1978, p. 155 and 156. 



XI -- PLASTICIZERS 255 



U.S. exports . — Exports of plasticizers in 1977 amounted to 152.5 million 
pounds, representing a 36 percent increase over the amount in 1976. This gain 
is indicative of the continuing recovery being made in the foreign plastics 
markets from the worldwide recession of 1974 and 1975. Exports in 1977 
accounted for 9 percent of production, an annual level typical of the level 
during 1970-76. 

Canada has been the single most important export market for plasticizer 
materials during the past decade, and in 1977 accounted for 18 percent of the 
quantity exported. Other major export markets for plasticizers in 1977 
included Belgium, France, Italy, and the Netherlands in Europe, and Hong Kong, 
Japan, and Singapore in the Far East. These seven markets, together with 
Canada, accounted for 80 percent of the quantity of U.S. plasticizer exports 
in 1977. 

Most of the exports of large-volume, low-priced phthalic anhydride ester 
plasticizers have gone to the developing nations in recent years. These 
developing areas tend to manufacture flexible PVC products (shower curtains, 
tablecloths) for which low price takes precedence over quality. Exports of 
the higher priced, specialty type plasticizers usually go to the more advanced 
economies which tend to produce higher quality PVC products that require a 
good deal of sophisticated technology. 

U.S. imports . — Imports of plasticizers continue to be negligible and 
amounted to only 6.2 million pounds in 1977, or about 0.4 percent of domestic 
consumption. Since 1970, annual imports of plasticizers have not exceeded 
11.6 million pounds. Most imports represent specialty items or shipments from 
a foreign manufacturer to its U.S. subsidiary. 

Canada, Japan, and the United Kingdom accounted for more than 70 percent 
of the U.S. imports of plasticizers by quantity in 1977; these countries have 
been among the leading suppliers since the mid-1960' s. 

The Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) . — The GSP has had a negligible 
impact on the source of plasticizers imports since its implementation in 
January 1976. Imports of plasticizers from GSP sources in 1977 amounted to 
1.2 million pounds, or about 19 percent of total imports. This compares to 
1.9 million pounds, or about 16 percent in 1974. The Republic of Korea was 
the leading source of GSP plasticizer imports in 1977, supplying 886,000 
pounds . 

Recent developments 

Certain changes have occurred recently which have altered the makeup of 
the plasticizer industry. Most important of these is the trend towards 
plasticizers based on linear alcohols. Also of importance is the increased 
use of trimellitates as plasticizers. The most recent development of note is 
the use of materials (e.g., ethylene vinyl acetate) which impart flexibility 
into PVC resins, but are not the typical ester type plasticizers. 



256 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEJ1ICALS. 1977 



Linear alcohols . — Industry sources 1/ claim that production of phthalic 
anhydride esters derived from linear (straight-chain) alcohols have increased 
from less than 8 percent of all phthalate esters plasticizers in 1966 to 25 
percent or more a decade later. A major reason for this rapid growth is that 
linear type plasticizers offer improved low-temperature flexibility over 
phthalate plasticizers made from branched-chain alcohols. Also, the linear 
derived products are less volatile than those made from branched-chain 
alcohols. Both of these are important qualities in the prevention of fog- 
ging 2j in automobiles, which is caused in part by volatile plasticizers 
incorporated in the vinyl products (e.g., upholstery, ceiling, and side 
panels) used in automobiles. Presently, linear phthalates are the major 
plasticizers used by automotive vinyl makers 3/ to reduce this condition. 

Trimellitates . — Plasticizers derived from trimellitic anhydride have 
antifogging properties which are superior to all other plasticizers. However, 
price is a prohibiting factor. Trimellitic anhydride is a relatively 
expensive starting material (49 cents per pound) when compared with phthalic 
anhydride (26 cents per pound in mid-1978). Therefore, trimellitate 
plasticizers are used primarily in those applications where quality is 
paramount (e.g., wire and cable coatings). 

Plasticizer substitutes . — High molecular weight materials such as 
polymers of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) are being employed as plasticizer 
substitutes. 4/ These materials add about 20 percent to the cost of the vinyl 
product over the standard phthalate type plasticizers. However they enhance 
the product's effective life as well as improve its resistance to heat, wear, 
and chemical attack. These new permanent plasticizers have nearly zero 
extraction, volatility, migration and exudation properties. 5/ These 
qualities are essential in applications such as vinyl roofing on automobiles 
and vinyl wrap for wharf piling where materials are subject to extreme 
climatic changes. 



"~T7 Plastics World , July 19, 1976, pp. 54 and 55. 

Ij "Fog" is the film formed on auto windshields when car interiors are shut 
in~hot weather. 

3/ Plastics Technology , May 1978, pp. 65-70. 

4/ Modern Plastics , June 1978, pp. 42 and 43. 

"S"/ Plastics World , July 19, 1976, pp. 54 and 55. 



XI -- PLASTICIZERS 



257 






i 



i 



258 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



Plasticizers: U.S. production and sales, 1970-77. 1/ 



Billions 



TlIF 




.2I!- 



M 



1.1 

ui' 



•*■ 



..* 

y' «••■■ 

..••^^Value (dollars) 



..* 



—i 

im 



m 1311 m \m 

1/ 1977 figures are estimates. 



i3Tj ins 



\m 



Source: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. 
International Trade Commission. 



XI -- PLASTICIZERS 



259 



Plasticizers: U.S. imports and exports, 1970-77, 



Millions of 


pounds 


m.B 




in.B 




ia.n 




i>fl.n 




mm 




!■.■ 


i 


BR.n 


Exports 
Imports 



«.B 



a.» 



tWF 



^--. 



/\ 



H — 



V 



-t^ 



m 



1971 



1572 



i!m 



m 



m 



m 



1577 



Source: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department 
of Commerce. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



Plasticizers: U.S. imports, exports, and domestic production, 1970-77. 



Per pound 



$L 



Domestic production 

Imports 

Exports 




m 



m 1312 \m \m 



m 



I31E lan 



Sources: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. 
International Trade Commission and the U.S. Department of Commerce. 



XI -- PLASTICIZERS 261 



PLASTICIZERS 
J. Lawrence Johnson 



Plasticizers are organic chemicals that are added to synthetic plastics 
and resin materials to (1) improve workability during fabrication, (2) extend 
or modify the natural properties of these materials, or (3) develop new 
improved properties not present in the original material. Table 1 presents 
statistics on U.S. production and sales of plasticizers in as great a detail 
as is possible without revealing the operations of individual producers. 

U.S. production of plasticizers totaled 1,792 million pounds in 1977, 
an increase of 5.5 percent from the 1,699 million pounds reported for 1976. 
Sales of plasticizers totaled 1,668 million pounds, valued at $632 million, 
in 1977 compared with 1,466 million pounds, valued at $566 million, in 
1976. 

Production of cyclic plasticizers in 1977, which consisted chiefly of 
the esters of phthalic anhydride, phosphoric acid, and trimellitic acid, 
amounted to 1,375 million pounds, an increase of 14.9 percent from the 1,197 
million pounds reported for 1976. Sales of cyclic plasticizers in 1977 
totaled 1,302 million pounds, valued at $425 million, compared with 1,111 
million pounds,^ valued at $360 million,^ in 1976. The most important cyclic 
plasticizer was di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, with production of 389 million 
pounds, in 1977. 

Production of acyclic plasticizers in 1977 totaled 417 million pounds, 
an increase of 3.7 percent from the 402 million pounds reported for 1976. 
Sales of acyclic plasticizers totaled 366 million pounds, valued at $208 
million, in 1977, compared with 355 million pounds, valued at $206 million, 
in 1976. Epoxidized soya oils were the most important acyclic plasticizer 
in 1977 with production of 93 million pounds. 



Some data for 1976 has been revised as shown in footnote 2 on Table 1. 



XI -- PLASTICIZtRS 
TABLE 1.~Plasticizers: ' U.S. production and sales, 1977^ 



263 



Listed below are plastlcizers for which any report 
are used where the reported data are accepted In 
ported.) Table 2 lists separately all plastlclze 
ported and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



data on production or sales may be published. (Leaders (...) 
nfidence and may not be published or where no data were re- 
chemicals for which data on production and/or sales were re- 



PLASTICIZERS 



Grand total 

Benzenoid* 

Nonbenzenoid 

CYCLIC 

Total 

Phosphoric acid esters^ 

Phthalic anhydride esters, total 

Dibutyl phthalate 

Diethyl phthalate 

Diisodecyl phthalate 

Dimethyl phthalate 

Dloctyl phthalates, total 

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 

Other dioctyl phthalates 

Dl-tridecyl phthalate 

n-Hexyl n-decyl phthalate 

All other phthalic anhydride esters 

Trlmellltlc acid esters, total 

Tri-n-octyl n-decyl trimellitate 

Trioctyl trimellitate 

All other trlmellitic acid esters 

All other cyclic plasticizers* 

ACYCLIC 

Total 

Adlpic acid esters, total 

Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate 

Diisodecyl adipate 

All other adlpic acid esters 

Complex linear polyesters and polymeric pis 

ticizers , total 

Adlpic acid type 

All other 

Epoxldlzed esters, total 

Epoxldized linseed oils 

Epoxldlzed soya oils 

All other epoxldlzed esters 

Isopropyl myristate 

Oleic acid esters, total 

Butyl oleate 

Methyl oleate 



1,000 
•pounds 



1,407,084 
384,956 



1,374,908 



1,202,413 



16,592 
17,471 

160,567 
9,887 

400,207 

388,543 
11,664 
23,278 
15,182 

559,229 



,213 
12,510 
13,555 



417,132 



68,910 



42,561 
2,527 
23,822 



47,995 



10,482 
37,513 



5,207 
92,503 
22,m 



2,575 
4,333 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



1,390,319 
277,308 



19,348 
13,496 
149,408 
8,309 
391,782 
381,982 
9,800 
16,267 

557,549 

25,729 



1,037 
10,637 
14,055 



365,715 



40,607 
2,228 
22,569 



37,455 



37,455 
114.892 



5,139 
89,343 
20,410 



1,435 
4,208 



474,781 
157,549 



341,110 



7,215 

5,796 

43,941 

3,272 

109,097 

105,839 

3,258 

5,952 

165,837 

12,418 



610 
5,052 
6,756 



207.679 



17,854 
1,138 
12,854 



35,928 



35,928 
53,917 



3,538 
40,343 
10,036 



725 
1,642 



pound 

$0.38 



footn 



nd of table 



2m SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 

TABLE 1.— Plasticizers; ' U.S. production and sales, 1977^— Continued 



PLASTICIZERS 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 

value' 



lelc acid esters 
n-Propyl oleate 
All other oleic 

cid 



ACYCLIC — Continued 
--Continued 



:id 



Palmatic acid esters- 
Phosphoric acid esters 

Ricinolelc and acetylricinolei 
Sebacic acid esters 



Ste 



cid 



s, total- 



n-Butyl stearate — 
All other stearic 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



326 
4,551 



4,987 
17,313 



4,482 
14,186 



202 
4,105 

3,649 

13,035 

875 

3,594 

13,411 



2,065 

2,001 

10,008 

695 

4,011 

7,211 



8,059 
6,127 



7,460 
.951 



2,989 
4,222 



Per 
pound 



.77 
.79 



Includes data for compounds used principally (but not exclu 
clearly defined extenders of secondary plasticizers. 
^ Certain 1976 data are revised as shown below: 



zers. Does 



PLASTICIZERS 



Grand total 

Benzenoid 

Plasticizers, cyclic, total- 
Phthalic anhydride esters, t 

Dioctyl phthalates, total 

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate — 
Ditridecyl phthalate 



PRODUCTION 



1,000 
pounds 

1,698,587 

1,414,925 

1,197,052 

1,154,086 

413,952 

396,739 

21,625 



1,000 
pounds 

1,465,623 

1,207,137 

1,110,781 

986,472 

393,454 

380,293 

14,224 



1,000 
dollars 

566,114 

416,232 

360,302 

292,867 

102,989 

99,266 

4,924 



UNIT 
VALUE 



pound 

$0.39 

.34 

.32 



3f the Tariff Schedules of the United States 
tyl phosphate, tricresyl 



Calculated from unrounded figures. 

Includes benzenoid products as defined in part 1 of schedule 
Annotated. 

Includes data for cresyl diphenyl phosphate, dibutyl phenyl phosphate, diphenyl 
phosphate, triphenyl phosphate, and other cyclic phosphoric acid esters. 

^ Includes data for glycol dibenzoates, toluenesulf onamides , tetrahydrofurfuryl oleate, and other cyclic plas- 
ticizers. 

Includes data for azelaic, citric and acetylcitric, myristic, pelargonic, ricinoleic (production only), 
acetylricinoleic (production only), glyceryl, and glycol esters, and other acyclic plasticizers. 



XI -- PLASTICIZERS 



265 



n M J Q 



W E^ W W 
CC < ec X 

< a < ^ 

H Q 3 3:: 

wot-" 

W ti J ►H 



< m o 

CO -t &H hH 

O < X 

M M O 

EH hJ l-f O 
««&.£-« 

M < M 

H e-" t^ H 

< h: s 

&^ z w w 



Q s :=> 

IK W tH 

o it: o 



u woo Ecoz::<:i»- 



o^ oa,u*S'<ttotn 



z M H I 
O b^ ^ I 

o K a w ; 



0) -o I 



■HO 4-» (D 4) 



C7> JS 



LIU4J ^ 4^.^ V<Uv^J=4J 



'-taw^OO-*-'4-'WWfl-^n30..-) ^3(0*01 «««) 

to JB W D. Q. J J3 W4J>,*JrHJ3.-H4.>a)+J'O*J«,0fl 

q;B.Wr-t o.aT3Qj:x^>.4J>-n3 1 j=jafl,«j3ja 

a''OQc>">-ooo 



■ >- o *J 

M 10 ^ •-« ^ pH 
-HW FH>-y)cO ^ iJatJ03<HOO'-<^4)mo 

o.o>--»-'aii-ixiD.M-H^^— t^r-i(*Juu^-oi 00 
uQ«(yjaaH-HO'<A; m*'*'v^^j3Uu<i'<i' i-h-h 

Q, (^ U H .^ U U J: X '^ "^ 3 3 3 H .H H H H -W -H -H -f4 
OOUQQHHCUE-.<« CQCOcqQqqqQQQqo 



266 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



U 1-1 

a 
H o 



& :3 9 M ( 



tS = Eh CJ 



u u as o = 



t5 U Qi &, I 






I ( « I r I 

+J o 



0>-+J3::<-H>'J3J3-»-» ja'<J3*>>-yaiJ3'*-lflUj3 -HtjU 

a>>,^IO+J'-H>-'rJU r-l0fl-H^-Hl-i3HQJja0O>--OH 

^qfN(Do■H■r^•HOJ3■^-'flU^H(^>•yJ2^Ce-lwl■■^lo u 

P4QQQ QQQOO Kxflfti^JrH'-iHHHfHEH'OO 

x»* « * <Do« m * >. 

(L. H H H U 



« V 



0) H a a -H -H 



Q ia >- 


>^ >» ^ a 

•w O o 


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U rM -P 






XI T) 1 a 




O o 


U fM (M 


w w M n 

■ -1 -H -4 -H 








M O t^ 


Q Q Q Q 



XI -- PLASTICIZERS 



267 



r t-t W Q U = a 



I O O S S C 



0) CX, V ^ 



Q) 4J TJ rH "O W 






O TJ '^ ■•-» -H 



I X O O -H -S w-H Q) 
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01 -H 


-^ o r^ a* <y 



H H H U E • 



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o <N r) 



268 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



g y 



IE H » CE I 



, ^ ^ ^ o o o a 



a)WcaB*J rO-iJH 


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+>uWrHiTj4JWtn 




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XI - PLASTICIZERS 



269 



O OQ 



H ■< 3fi : 



m Q> *J 



OJ W 3 —( H Q- 

+J U J3 TS "O I 

Of o ~ 



U X Ul 




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to cr tr j; 


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+J -iJ 






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Q Q O 


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:3 uj l-i • 
tn E-. H (N 



270 SYrJTHEIIC ORGAi\IIC CHEMICALS^ 1977 

TABLE 3.--PLASTICIZERS; Directory of manufacturers, 1977 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



cturers that reported production or sales of pla 
:ted below in the order of their identification i 



s to the U.S. International Trade Com 
used In table 2] 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of Company 


ARC 


Armak Co. 


NEV 


Neville Chemical Co. 




ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc., Ashland Chemical Co. 


NTL 


[IL Industries, Inc. 




BAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. 








BFG 


B. F. Goodrich Co., B. F. Goodrich Chemical 


PFZ 


Pfizer, Inc. 






Co. Div. 


PPL 


Pioneer Plastics Div. of LOF Plastics, 
Inc. 




CCA 


Interstab Chemical, Inc. 


PVO 


PVO International, Inc. 




CHL 


Chemol, Inc. 








CO 


Continental Oil Co. 








CPS 


CPS Chemical Co. 


RCI 
RH 


Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. 
Rohm & Haas Co. 




DA 


Diamond Shamrock Corp. 


RUB 


Hooker Chemical Corp., Ruco Div. 




DOW 


Dow Chemical Co. 








DUP 


E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. 


SCP 


Henkel, Inc. 








SFS 


Stauffer Chemical Co., Specialty Chemic 


1 


EK 


Eastman Kodak Co.: 




Div. 




EKT 


Tennessee Eastman Co. Div. 


SM 


Mobil Oil Corp., Mobil Chemical Co. Div 


, 


EKX 


Texas Eastman Co. Div. 




Chemical Coatings Div. 




ELC 


Elco Corp. Sub of Detrex Chemical 


SW 


Sherwin-Williams Co. 






Industries, Inc. 


SWT 


Unitech Chemical, Inc. 




EMR 


Emery Industries, Inc. 








ENJ 


Exxon Chemical Co. U.S.A. 


TCC 


Tanatex Chemical Corp. 




FMP 


FMC Corp., Industrial Chemical Group 


TCH 


Emory Industries, Inc., Trylon Div. 




GLY 


Glyco Chemicals, Inc. 


TEK 


Teknor Apex Co. 




GRH 


W. R. Grace i Co., Hatco Chemical Div. 


TKL 


Thiokol Chemical Corp. 




GRO 


A. Gross & Co., Millmaster Onyx Group, 










Kewanee Industries, Inc. 


UCC 
USS 


Union Carbide Corp. 

USS Chemicals Div. of U.S. Steel Corp. 




HAL 


C. P. Hall Co. 








HN 


Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 








HPC 


Hercules, Inc. 


VEL 


Velsicol Chemical Corf 




HUM 


Kraft Inc., Humko Plastics Div. 


VIK 

viro 


Viking Chemical Co. 
Van Dyk 6. Co . , Inc . 




ICI 


ICI United States, Inc., Chemical 
Specialties Co. 








IMC 


IMC Chemical Group, Inc. 


WM 
WIG 


Inolex Corp. 

Witco Chemical Corp. 




KT 


Kay-Fries Chemicals, Inc. 


WTH 


Union Camp Corp., Chemical Div., 




MON 


Monsanto Co. 









of the above 



table 1 of the appe 



SECTION XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 271 



Surface-Active Agents 
Anne Klein 



This paper covers surface-active agents or surfactants which are organic 
chemicals that reduce the surface tension of water or other solvents. They 
are used in packaged soaps and detergents for household and industrial use, 
in the processing of textiles and leather, by the mining industry in ore 
flotation fluids, and in petroleum production. Additional applications are 
in the manufacture of sprays, cosmetics, elastomers, food, lubricants, paints, 
and pharmaceuticals. 



U.S. production and demand 

U.S. production of surface-active agents amounted to 4.7 billion pounds 

in 1977 and was valued at $1.7 billion. It had declined slightly, by 1.6 

percent in terms of quantity, from the level in 1976, as shown in the following 
tabulation: 

Annual change in 
Year production quantity 

( Percent ) 

1971 (-1.5) 

1972 5.5 

1973 8.3 

1974 7.4 

1975 (-7.4) 

1976 9.9 

1977 (-1 .6) 



The slight decline in the level of production in 1977 may be attributed to 
a slackening in demand for household detergents, the principal market for 
surface-active agents. The synthetic detergent industry believes that the rate 
of growth of household detergents may continue to be lower than in the past. 
They expect a probable slowing of population growth rates in the 1975-85 
decade compared to the previous decade (caused by smaller membered households) . 
Women, at present, spend more time in activities outside the home, including 
jobs. This reduces the amount of family laundering and other household cleaning 
chores. 

Whether the slowing of demand for household detergents will continue to 
affect the overall market for surface-active chemicals will depend on the 
growth of industrial uses of the latter. It is possible that the increased 
use of surface-active chemicals in secondary and tertiary oil recovery 
operations in the United States will compensate for any reduced demand by 
household detergent manufacturers. 



272 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 

Surfactants, including ligninsulf onates , are used increasingly in 
petroleum enhanced recovery procedures termed "microemulsions" or "micellar 
dispersions" which use surfactant solutions of various concentrations in the 
flooding of old wells in secondary or tertiary oil recovery. The Energy 
Research and Development Administration (ERDA) presently contributes to a 
significant part of the cost of industry research in a number of enhanced 
oil and gas recovery projects. Also, the petroleum industry conducts over 
150 other enhanced oil recovery projects in the United States and, in 10 
to 15 percent of the projects, surfactants are used for chemical flooding. 
Continued development and eventual commercialization of chemical flooding 
methods are probable. This could result in an accelerated demand in the 
early 1980' s for sulfonated surface-active agents. 

There was a significant increase in production of ligninsulf onates 
during 1970-77 from 491 million pounds to 1,160 million pounds, 
a more rapid change than that shown for any other group of surfactants. 
In addition to the continued use of ferrochrome ligninsulf onates in the 
secondary and tertiary oil recovery research mentioned above, additional 
expanding demand for ligninsulfonates has stemmed for such diverse uses as: 
an extender in the manufacture of phenolic resins; in air pollution control 
programs in which ligninsulfonates act as a binder for the recovery of polluting 
materials (such as dust caused by wind-erosion or fly-ash from industrial 
plants); and in certain other uses, including dispersants in water treatment 
formulations and in the increasing production of gypsum board used in housing. 
In addition, ligninsulfonates are used as a binder for such items as charcoal 
briquets and carbon black. 



U.S. exports and foreign markets 

During 1970-77, annual U.S. exports^ of surfactants increased from 134 
million pounds, valued at $41 million to 157 million pounds, valued at 
$83 million. Exports ranged from 3.3 to 4.2 percent by quantity of U.S. 
production as shown in the following tabulation: 

Rate of 
Year Previous Year exports to production 

( Percent ) ( Percent ) 

1970 - 3.4 

1971 6.0 3.7 

1972 6.3 3.7 

1973 15.2 4.0 

1974 13.8 4.2 

1975 (-23.7) 3.5 

1976 7.9 3.4 

1977 (-3.7) 3.3 



1 U.S. exports are partly estimated. 



XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



Principal export markets are in Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, Belgium, 
the United Kingdom, France, and other European countries. In terms of value 
the largest group of exports specified in 1977 were nonionic surface-active 
agents ($21 million), which reflects the ascendency of the linear alcohols, 
alkoxylated, as the choice for the surfactant constituent in household 
detergent products in European markets as well as in U.S. markets. 

The volume of U.S. exports is not expected to exceed 173 million pounds 
in 1982, and will probably continue the erratic pattern of growth of the 
previous decade. High shipping costs, relative to the low unit prices of 
surfactants, may tend to render exports of these items to overseas markets 
less profitable. In addition, according to industry data, significant over- 
seas production of surfactants takes place in Germany, France, Italy, and 
the United Kingdom, all of which are large markets for actual or potential 
U.S. exports. 



U.S. imports 

U.S. imports^ of surface-active agents totaled 98 million pounds in 1977, 
an increase over 1976 of 11 percent. Imports represented only 2.1 percent of 

U.S. consumption in 1977, as shown in the following tabulation. 

Change from Ratio of imports 

Year previous year to consumption 

( Percent ) ( Percent ) 

1970 - 1.7 

1971 (-24.3) 1.5 

1972 (-25.0) 1.1 

1973 A7.6 1.5 

1974 17.7 1.6 

1975 2.7 1.8 

1976 17.3 1.9 

1977 11.4 2.1 



In 1977, imports consisted principally of non-benzenoid surface-active 
agents which included 28.5 million pounds of ligninsulf onates and 29 million 
pounds of other surface-active agents, the predominant part of which consisted 
of linear alcohols, alkoxylated. 

It is anticipated that by 1982 total imports will exceed 150 million 
pounds and will consist of a relatively unchanged product mix. The U.S. 
industry will probably continue to supply nearly all of the domestic 
market demand of synthetic detergents at strongly competitive prices and 
supply the bulk of the U.S. demand in other surface-active agents. It is 
believed that substantially increased U.S. productive capacity for lignin- 
sulf onate surfactants, which came on stream in Illinois in 1977, will supply a 
considerable part of the expected increased U.S. demand for these surfactants. 



U.S. imports are partly estimated. 



274 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEi^ICALS. 1977 

Synthetic detergent constituents - problems and regulations 

Whole synthetic detergent formulated products are not included in the 
analysis in this paper, but only their surface-active components. Nevertheless, 
the problems and regulations surrounding synthetic detergent formulations as a 
whole are discussed inthe following sections since the formulated products manu- 
facturers are important users of surface-active agents. 

Marketable synthetic detergents used for laundering are formulations 
containing surface-active agents as essential ingredients along with sub- 
sidiary constituents such as builders, boosters, anti-soil-redepositing 
agents, optical brighteners, perfume, and other auxiliary constituents. The 
function of the "builder" is as a sequestering agent, which binds up the 
calcium and magnesium ions of "hard" water which would otherwise cause a 
troublesome precipitate. The use of two groups of synthetic detergent 
constituents, the surface-active agents and the builders, has historically 
spawned problems for the environment which has stimulated both legislation 
and industry research for substitute chemicals and reformulation. 



Surface-active agents 

Prior to 1965, a serious foaming problem in rivers and sewage treatment 
plants was caused by the preeminent use of the surfactant component alkyl- 
benzenesulfonate (ABS) . This ingredient exhibits delayed biodegradeability 
because of the branched chain structure of its molecules. In 1965, detergent 
manufacturers substituted linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) for ABS in their 
formulations, and thus helped alleviate the foaming sewage problem. Today 
LAS remain an important surfactant, although production has declined from 715 
million pounds in 1970 to 633 million pounds in 1977. 



Meanwhile, the use in synthetic detergent formulations of linear alcohol 
ethoxylates (LAE) of molecular length of C or higher chains (e.g., dodecyl) 
has increased. The increased use of synthetic polyester blends in clothes 
fabrics, which are characterized by a tendency to retain oily soil deposits, 
has spurred the increased use in laundry detergent formulations of linear 
alcohol ethoxylates, which are superior in removing oily deposits. In 
addition, the laundry detergent manufacturers increased their consumption of 
linear alcohol ethoxylates as sjmthetic detergent surfactants in order to 
compensate for the lower levels of phosphate builders now allowed in laundry 
detergent formulations. The lower phosphate levels, they belived, lowered the 
overall cleaning performance of their products, and thus more surfactant was 
needed. Production of linear alcohol ethoxylates rose from 328 million 
pounds in 1970 to about 577 million pounds in 1977, thus rivaling the prominence 
that LAS had formerly held. 



Builders 

Coping with water hardness, the builders role was a more complex pro- 
blem than reducing foaming. Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), the most effec- 
tive builder, is still the principal builder used in synthetic detergent 



XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 275 



formulations, although the percent of phosphorus content has been reduced 
since 1970, even in areas of the United States where they are not banned. 
During the 1970' s, complete bans or limitations on the phosphate content of 
home laundry detergents in the United States followed general consumer con- 
cern for the environment. Of particular concern was the accelerated rates 
at which bodies of fresh water such as the Great Lakes were undergoing 
eutrophication, a condition in which algae reproduce too rapidly in the pre- 
sence of the nutrient phosphates. The resulting corrective legal and regula- 
tory action has been channelled through State and local jurisdictional units. 
Those areas in which the phosphate laundry detergent builders are banned 
include the States of Indiana, Michigan, New York, and Vermont; Dale County 
in Florida; the cities of Chicago and certain Chicago suburbs; the city of 
Akron, Ohio; and several other communities in the United States. 

The enactment of most legislation affecting phosphate content occurred 
between October 1970 and June 1971. However, Michigan, New York, and Vermont 
passed such laws as recently as the fall of 1977 and early 1978. These laws 
and regulations probably necessitated certain revisions of product formula- 
tions and of distribution patterns of detergent manufacturers. However, 
according to the industry, even in nonban areas the phosphate content of 
laundry detergents was reduced from the level existing in 1970 (9 to 12 
percent phosphorus), to an average level of 6 percent at present. As a result 
the industry reports that overall U.S. consumption of sodium tripolyphosphate 
declined from 573,000 short tons (P2O5 content) in 1969 to 246,000 
short tons (P2'-'5 content) in 1976. Consumption of STPP has declined at the 
rate of 12.9 percent per year since 1970 and is expected to decline further 
until 1982, at an average rate of 4.5 to 6.0 percent per year. 

According to the industry, since the reduction in the use of phosphates, 
some synthetic detergent manufacturers have substituted sodium carbonate and 
sodium silicate as builders. These compounds were used as builders before 
phosphate grew in popularity following World War II. Development is 
currently proceeding on the possible use of sodium aluminosilicate (including 
zeolites) and sodium silicate, which control water hardness by ion exchange. 



276 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS^ 1977 



c 


en 


o 


T3 


•H 


C 


.H 


-i 


7-i 





•H 


D. 


2 






s^g|ss?^^a 



XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



277 




278 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHE,"1ICALS. 1977 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 
Anne Klein 



The surface-active agents included in this report are organic chemicals 
that reduce the surface tension of water or other solvents and are used 
chiefly as detergents, dispersing agents, enulsif iers, foaming agents, or 
wetting agents in either aqueous or nonaqueous systems. Waxes and products 
used chiefly as plasticizers are excluded. Surface-active agents are pro- 
duced from natural fats and oils, from silvichemicals such as lignin, rosin, 
and tall oil, and from chemical intermediates derived from coal tar and 
petroleum. A major part of the output of the bulk chemicals shown in this 
report is consumed in the form of packaged soaps and detergents for household 
and industrial use. The remainder is used in the processing of textiles and 
leather, in ore flotation and oil-drilling operations, and in the manufacture 
of agricultural sprays, cosmetics, elastomers, foods, lubricants, paint, 
pharmaceuticals, and many other products. 

The statistics for production and sales of surface-active agents are 
grouped by ionic class and by chemical class and subclass. All quantities 
are reported in terms of 100-percent organic surface-active ingredient and 
thus exclude all inorganic salts, water, and other diluents. Sales 
statistics reflect sales of bulk surface-active agents only; sales of 
formulated products are excluded. 

Total U.S. production of surface-active agents in 1977 amounted to 
4,718 million pounds, or 1.6 percent less than the 4,796 million pounds 
reported for 1976. Sales of bulk surface-active agents in 1977 amounted to 
2,515 million pounds, valued at $875 million, compared v;ith sales in 1976 
of 2,512 million pounds, valued at $821 million. In terms of quantity, 
sales in 1977 were approximately the same as reported in 1976; in 
terms of value, however, sales in 1977 were 6.5 percent greater than in 1976. 

Production of anionic surface-active agents in 1977 amounted to 3,207 
million pounds, or 68 percent of the total output reported for 1977. Sales 
of anionics in 1977 amounted to 1,425 million pounds valued at $335 million. 

Production of cationic surface-active agents in 1977 amounted to 297 
million pounds, 17.9 percent greater than the 252 million pounds reported in 
1976. Production of nonionic surface-active agents amounted to 1,195 
million pounds in 1977, 21.4 percent greater than the 1,170 million pounds 
reported in 1976. Sales of cationic surface-active agents in 1977 increased 
by 14.8 percent in terms of quantity and 14.5 percent in terms of value over 
1976. Sales of nonionics in 1977, however, declined slightly from 1976, by 
1.0 percent, in terms of quantity but increased by 5.1 percent in terms of 
value over 1976. 



XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 279 

The difference between production and sales reflects inventory changes 
and captive consumption of soaps and surface-active agents by synthetic 
rubber producers, and by manufacturers of cosmetics, packaged detergents, 
bar soaps, and other formulated consumer products. In some instances the 
difference may also reflect quantities of surface-active agents used as 
chemical intermediates, e.g., nonionic alcohol and alkylphenol ethoxylates 
which may be converted to anionic surface-active agents by phosphation or 
sulfation. 



XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGEl^S 
TABLE 1.— Surface-active agents; U.S. production and sales> 1977' 



281 



Listed below are all surface-active agents for which reported data on production or sales may be published. (Lead- 
ers (...) are used where the reported data are accepted in cinfidence and may not be published or where no data 
were reported.) Table 2 lists all surface-active agents for which data on production and/or sales were reported 
and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



PRODUCTION' 



UNIT 
VALUE" 



Grand total 

Benzenoid^ 

Nonbenzenoid^ 

AMPHOTERIC 

Total 

ANIONIC 

Total 

Carboxylic acids (and salts thereof), total 

Carboxylic acids having amide, ester, or ether 

linkages 

Coconut oil acids, potassium salt 

Coconut oil acids, sodium salt 

Corn oil acids, potassium salt 

Mixed vegetable oil acids, potassium salt 

Oleic acid, potassium salt 

Oleic acid, sodium salt 

Soybean oil acid, potassium salt 

Tall oil acids, potassium salt 

Tall oil acids, sodium salt 

Tallow acids, sodium salt 

All other carboxylic acids 

Phosphoric and polyphosphoric acid esters (and sail 

thereof) , total 

Alcohols and phenols, alkoxylated and phosphated, 

total 

Dinonylphenol, ethoxylated and phosphated 

Mixed linear alcohols, ethoxylated and phos- 
phated 

Nonylphenol, ethoxylated and phosphated 

Polyhydric alcohol, ethoxylated and phosphated- 

Tridecyl alcohol, ethoxylated and phosphated 

AH other 

Alcohols, phosphated or polyphosphated 

Sulfonic acids (and salts thereof), total 

Alkylbenzenesulfonates, total 

Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid 

Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, calcium salt 

Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, isopropylamine 

salt 

Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, potassium salt 

Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, sodium salt 

Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, triethanolamine 

salt 

Trldecylbenzenesulfonlc acid, sodium salt 

All other 

Toluenesulf onlc acid, potassium and sodium 

See footnotes at end of table. 



1,000 
pounds 



989,564 
3,728,608 



637,808 



5,290 

9,016 

129,966 

189 

3,722 

451 

301 

904 

6,995 

796 

353,862 

126,316 



38,622 



25,358 
574 

3,280 

10,392 

255 

673 

10,184 

13,264 

1,961,387 



632,605 

179,260 

6,123 

4,954 

185 

318,785 

6,823 
99,414 
17,061 



1,000 
pounds 



2,514,583 



1.000 
dot tars 



469,432 
2,045,151 



17,498 



1,425,199 



134,340 



4,478 

1,757 

1,726 

209 

3,508 

196 

232 

359 

4,247 

522 

21,322 

95,784 



21,899 



15,405 
508 

2,993 
5,574 
249 
404 
5,677 
6,494 



176,733 
88,294 



4,676 

184 

51,815 

7,390 

16,506 



200,244 
674,778 



18,880 



51,461 



4,494 

1,176 
607 
146 

4,893 
101 
205 
160 

2,342 
178 

5,562 
31,597 



10,625 
373 

2,328 
3,560 
152 
327 
3,885 
4,997 

164,455 



62,868 
26,415 
5,820 

2,743 

97 

15,842 

2,961 



Per 
pound 



1.00 
.67 
.35 
.70 

1.39 
.51 



.44 
.55 



282 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEHICALS. 1977 

TABLE 1.— Surface-active agents; U.S. production and sales, 1977'— Continued 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



PRODUCTION' 



AtlIOmC—Cout±naed 

Sulfonic acids (and salts thereof) — Continued 

Xylenesulfonlc acid, ammonium salt 

Xylenesulfonic acid, sodium salt 

Ligninsulf onates , total 

Ligninsulfonic acid, calcium salt 

Ligninsulfonic acid, sodium salt 

All other 

Naphthalenesulf onates , total 

Diisopropylnaphthalenesulfonic acid, sodium 

salt 

All other 

Sulfonic acids having amide linkages, total 

N-Methyl-N-(tall oil acyDtaurine, sodium 

salt 

All other 

Sulfonic acids having ester or ether linkages, 

total 

Sulfosuccinic acid esters, total 

Sulfosuccinic acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl)ester, 

sodium salt 

All other 

Other sulfonic acids having ester or ether 

linkages 

All other sulfonic acids 

Sulfuric acid esters (and salts thereof), total 

Acids, amides, and esters, sulfated, total 

Butyl oleate, sulfated, sodium salt 

Isopropyl oleate, sulfated, sodium salt 

Propyl oleate, sulfated, sodium salt 

Oleic acid, sulfated disodium salt 

Tall oil sulfated, sodium salt 

Other acids, amides, and esters, sulfated 

Alcohols, sulfated, total 

Dodecyl sulfate, ammonium salt 

Dodecyl sulfate, magnesium salt 

Dodecyl sulfate, sodium salt 

Mixed linear alcohols, sulfated, ammonium salt — 

Mixed linear alcohols, sulfated, sodium salt 

Other altohols, sulfated 

Ethers, sulfated, total 

Dodecyl alcohol, ethoxylated and sulfated, 

sodium salt 

Mixed linear alcohols, ethoxylated and sul- 
fated, ammonium salt 

Mixed linear alcohols, ethoxylated and sul- 
fated, sodium salt 

All other 

Castor oil, sulfated, sodium salt 

Cod oil, sulfated, sodium salt 

Neat's-foot oil, sulfated, sodium salt 

Soybean oil, sulfated, sodium salt 

Tallow, sulfated, sodium salt 

Other anionic surface-active agents 



1,000 
pounds 

3,194 
29,055 
1,160,244 
534,609 
109,384 
516,251 
11,217 

1,776 
9,441 
4,603 

364 
4,239 

77,032 
16,512 

13,394 
3,118 

60,520 
23,681 



16,153 

1,084 

81 

545 

5,569 

2,107 

6,767 

222,980 

10,722 

236 

56,375 

18,496 

137,151 
272,621 



123,153 

122,059 

16,101 
4,235 
1,862 
1 ,149 
697 
4,981 

44,568 



1,000 
pounds 

3,257 
20,460 
762,186 
490,405 
92,062 
179,719 
5,741 

1,587 
4,154 
3,103 

357 
2,746 

28,430 
13,954 

11,327 
2,627 

14,476 
38,145 



12,187 
1,080 



1,155 
9,482 
57,875 

226 
27,966 
1,306 
2,385 
25,992 
124,282 

11,129 



30,562 

82,591 

3,935 

1,837 

763 

643 

4,761 

24,623 



1,000 
dollars 



Per 
pound 



5,558 
43,197 
15,962 

9,504 
17,731 

3,67° 

1,451 
2,228 
3,253 



33,913 
12,949 



11,209 
1,740 



20,964 
11,099 



5,452 
440 



320 
4,467 
34,232 

251 
15,157 
723 
1,611 
16,490 
50,541 

8,528 



11,613 

30,400 

2,102 

433 

263 

222 

1,011 

8,977 



1.03 
1.05 



1.45 
.29 



.28 
.47 
.59 



.54 
.55 
.68 
.63 
.41 



See footnotes at end of table. 



XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 
TABLE 1, --Surface-active agents: U.S. production and sales, 1977'— Continued 



283 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



CATIOniC 

Total 

Amine oxides and oxygen-containing amines (except 

those having amide linkages) , total 

Acyclic , total 

(Tallow alkyDamlne, ethoxylated 

All other 

Cyclic (including imidazoline and oxazoline 

derivatives) , total 

l-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-2-nor(coconut oil alkyl)-2- 

imidazollne 

l-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-2-nor(tall oil alkyl)-2- 

imidazoline 

All other 

Amlries and amine oxides having amide linkages, 

total 

Stearic acid - ethylenediamine condensate, mono- 
ethoxylated 

Tall oil acids - diethylenetriamine and poly- 

alkylenepolyamine condensates 

All other 

Amines, not containing oxygen (and salts thereof), 

total 

Diamines, polyamines, and amine salts, total 

N-(9-0ctadecenyl)trimethylenediamlne 

N- (Tallow alkyl) trimethylenedlamine 

All other 

Primary, secondary, and tertiary monoamines, total- 

(Hydrogenated taj.low alkyl)amine 

9-Oc tadeceny lamine 

(Tallow alkyDamlne 

N,N-Dimethyl (mixed alkyl)amine 

N,N-Dime thy loctadecy lamine 

N-Methyl bis(hydrogenated tallow alkyl)amine 

All other 

Quaternary ammonium salts, not containing oxygen, 

total 

Acyclic , total 

Bis(coconut oil alkyl) dimethylammonium chloride- 
Bis(hydrogenated tallow alkyDdlmethyl- 

ammonium chloride 

TrimethyKtallow alkyl) ammonium chloride 

All other 

Benzenoid , total 

Benzyl(coconut oil alkyDdlmethylaimionium 

chloride 

Benzyldlmethyl (mixed alkyl) ammonium chloride 

Benzyltrimethylamroonium chloride 

All other 

Other cationic surface-active agents 

mniotiic 

Total 

Carboxylic acid amides, total 

Diethanolamine condensates (amine/acld ratlo=2/l), 
total 

See footnotes at end of table. 



1,000 
pounds 



297.353 



78,332 



72,630 
3,913 
58,717 

5,702 

139 

932 
4,631 

28,437 



14,098 
11,436 



78,854 



18,578 
2,953 
5,535 

10,080 

60,275 
3,416 
6,519 
9,786 
6,115 
754 
3,254 

30,332 



72,990 
2,934 

50,348 
1,308 
8,400 

15,899 

218 
8,241 

7,440 

22,841 



1,195,463 



1,000 
pounds 



204,301 



1,000 
dollars 



21,695 



18,435 

3,509 

14,926 



217 
3,043 



13,390 
6,556 



59,712 



16,011 
1,918 
4,789 
9,304 

43.701 
2,784 
4,260 
6,752 
4,454 
725 

24,726 



80.270 



66,362 
2,305 

55,477 
1,498 
7,082 

13,908 



7,684 
1,024 
5,200 



13,407 
2,251 
11,156 



146 
1,958 



16,958 



7,562 
7,079 



42,234 



10,176 
1,339 
2,901 
5,936 

32,058 
1,791 
2,540 
5,564 
3,471 
639 

17,953 



52.476 



35.354 
1.951 

22,794 
1,107 
9,502 

17.122 



10,999 

462 

5,661 



31,374 



Pen- 
pound 



.bit 
.70 
.61 
.54 
.73 
.54 
.52 
.82 
.78 



.53 
.85 



284 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEfllCALS. 1977 

TABLE 1.— Surface-active agents: U.S. production and sales, 1977 --Continued 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



NONIOmC— Continued 

Carboxylic acid amides — Continued 

Dlethanolamine condensates (amlne/acid ratio= 
2/1)— Continued 

Capric acid 

Castor oil acids 

Coconut oil acids 

Coconut oil and tallow acids 

Laurie acid 

Laurie and myristic acids 

Oleic acid 

Stearic ac id 

All other 

Diethanolamine condensate (other amlne/acid 

ratios) , total 

Coconut oil acids (amlne/acid ratlo=l/l) 

Laurie acid (amlne/acid ratlo=l/l) 

Laurie and myristic acid (amlne/acid ratlo=l/l)- 

Linoleic acid (amine/acid ratio=l/l) 

Oleic acid (amlne/aeld ratlo=l/l) 

Stearic acid (amlne/aeld ratio=l/l) 

All other 

All other carboxylic acid amides, total 

Coconut oil acids (ratio 1/1), ethanolamlne 

condensate 

All other 

Carboxylic acid esters, total 

Anhydrosorbltol monolaurate 

Anhydrosorbitol mono-oleate 

Anhydrosorbltol monostearate 

Diethylene glycol esters, total 

Dlethylene glycol dlstearate 

Diethylene glycol monolaurate 

Diethylene glycol monostearate 

All other 

Ethoxylated anhydrosorbltol esters, total 

Ethoxylated anhydrosorbltol monolaurate 

Ethoxylated anhydrosorbltol mono-oleate 

Ethoxylated anhydrosorbitol monostearate 

All other 

Ethylene glycol esters, total 

Ethylene glycol dlstearate 

Ethylene glycol monostearate 

Glycerol esters, total 

Glycerol dloleate 

Glycerol mono-oleate 

Glycerol monostearate 

Glycerol monoester of hydrogenated cotton- 
seed oil acids 

Glycerol monoester of hydrogenated soyben 

oil acids 

Glycerol monoester of lard acids 

All other 

Natural fats and oils, alkoxylated, total 

Castor oil, ethoxylated 

Hydrogenated castor oil, ethoxylated 



1,000 
pounds 



187 

1,777 

10,180 

1,801 

226 
3,295 

960 

591 
1,310 

37,475 

22,692 

6,569 

3,156 

300 

641 

625 

3,492 

23,116 



4,356 
4,011 

1,125 

383 

267 

225 

250 

26,135 

7,685 

8,034 

6,650 

3,766 

3,025 

1,448 

1,577 

93,208 

73 

3,875 

21,287 

2,763 

8,985 

56,225 
15,091 
8,236 



1,000 
pounds 



1,694 
198 



356 
1,968 

32,281 
22,043 
3,975 
2,487 
300 

631 
2,845 
8,254 

742 
7,512 



4,657 
1,098 
417 
275 
156 
250 
26,939 

7,912 
7,996 

11,031 
3,242 
1,686 
1,556 

79,394 

3,273 
18,581 



9,225 
1,737 
46,578 
13,907 
7,487 
1,963 



1,000 
dollars 



525 

4,713 

833 

140 

1,240 

231 
1,251 

17,627 
11,669 
2,092 
1,617 
285 

429 
1,535 
4,714 

407 
4,307 



3,241 
694 
258 
168 
94 
174 
16,875 

5,243 
4,214 
7,418 
1,682 
644 
1,038 
44,521 

2,187 
9,226 



5,925 
971 
26,211 
5,804 
2,936 
1,105 



See footnotes at end of table. 



XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 285 

TABLE 1. --Surface-active agents; U.S. production and sales, 1977 --Continued 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



NONIONIC — Cont Inued 

Carboxyllc acid esters — Continued 

Natural fats and oils, alkoxylated — Continued 

Lanolin, ethoxylated 

All other 

Polyethylene glycol esters, total 

Polyethylene glycol esters of chemically de- 
fined acids, total 

Polyethylene glycol dilaurate 

Polyethylene glycol dioleate 

Polyethylene glycol distearate 

Polyethylene glycol monolaurate 

Polyethylene glycol mono-oleate 

Polyethylene glycol monostearate 

All other 

Polyethylene glycol esters of mixed acids, 

total 

Polyethylene glycol diester of tall oil at 

All other 

Polyglycerol esters 

1 , 2-Propanediol monolaurate 

1 , 2-Propanediol monostearate 

All other carboxyllc acid esters 

Ethers, total 

Benzenoid ethers, total 

Dinonylphenol , ethoxylated 

Dodecylphenol, ethoxylated 

Nonylphenol , ethoxylated 

Phenol , ethoxylated 

All other 

Nonbenzenold ethers, total 

Linear alcohols, alkoylated, total 

Decyl alcohol, ethoxylated 

Mixed linear alcohols, ethoxylated 

9-Octadecenyl alcohol, ethoxylated 

Oleyl alcohol, ethoxylated 

All other 

Other ethers and thioethers, total 

Tridecyl alcohol, ethoxylated 

All other 



Other nonionic 



-active agents 



1,000 
pounds 

1,005 
5,850 
39,367 

20,673 
1,256 
3,390 
2,965 
3,A59 
2,707 
6,743 
153 

18,694 
3,060 

15,634 

1,378 

49 

2,307 

35,870 

882.905 
225,660 

14,785 

130,384 

2,796 

77,695 

657,246 

576,703 

2,641 

466,347 

1,075 

284 

106,356 

80,543 

7,305 

73,238 

5,718 



1,000 
pounds 

826 
3,631 
31,544 

16,357 
1,203 

929 
2,888 
3,662 
2,245 
5,268 

162 

15,187 

15,187 

1,282 

37 

2,216 

19,915 

617.191 

195,004 

1,852 

123,043 

2,222 

67,887 

422,186 

361,377 

336,605 

817 

254 

23,701 

60,809 

7,273 

53,536 

4,172 



1,000 
dollars 



642 
1,121 
16,425 

11,474 

873 

586 

1,916 

2,872 

1,382 

3,696 

149 

4,952 

4,952 
1,555 
49 
1,481 
17,221 

229,474 
76,118 
1,109 

41,373 
1,112 

32,524 
153,356 
122,113 

109,400 
833 
333 
11,547 
31,243 
3,789 
27,454 

5,077 



Per 
pound 



$0.78 
.31 



.70 
.73 



.78 
.62 



1.32 
.67 
.86 



.39 
.60 

.34 
.50 
.48 
.36 

.34 

.33 
.77 
1.31 
.49 
.51 
.52 
.51 

1.22 



The data for production (in thousands of pounds) for 1976 has been revised as shown below: 
Grand total 4,795,775 

Nonionic surface-active agents, total 1,170,144 

Ethers, total 866,210 

Nonbenzenold ethers, total 633,414 

Linear alcohols, alkoxylated, total 567,423 

Mixed linear alcohols, ethoxylated 441,659 

^ All quantities are given in terms of 100 percent organic surface-active ingredient. 
^ Sales include products sold as bulk surface-active agents only. 
"* Calculated from rounded figures. 

^ The terro "benzenoid" used in this report, describes any surface-active agents, except llgnln derivatives, whose 
molecular structure includes 1 or more 6-membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic rings with conjugated double bonds 
(e.g., the benzene ring or the pyridine ring). 
Includes ligninsulf onates. 
Includes all other natural fats and oils, sulfated. • 



286 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



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SYiJTHETIC ORGANIC CHmiCALS. 1977 



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XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



239 















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290 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEfllCALS. 1977 






I U U M ^J 



O 0) . 



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0) (D Dl o o o a> 



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(0 (/) 

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XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



291 





















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292 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



U E U U (J CM 



«s -s ■< • 
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;Gk:: 



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0)03 V (D 4) <d tt4 [ 

s s x: c H z I-) I 



XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



293 



5e 











































































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XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



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SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEfllCALS, 1977 



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XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



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SYflTHETIC ORGANIC CHEfllCALS. 1977 



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XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



311 



TABLE 3,— Surface-active agents: Directory of manufacturers^ 1977 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



Lifacturers that reported production o 
for 1977 are listed below in the orde 



o the U.S. Interna 
used in table 2] 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


AAC 


Alcolac Chemical Corp. 


EGG 


Eastern Color & Chemical Co. 




ACT 


Arthur C. Trask Co. 


EFH 


E.F. Houghton i Co. 




ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 


EKT 


Eastman Kodak Co., Tennessee Eastman Co 


Dlv 


AES 


Penetone Corp. 


EMK 


Emkay Chemical Co. 




AGP 


Armour-Dial, Inc. 


EMR 


Emery Industries, Inc. 




AIP 


Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. 


ENO 


Enenco, Inc. 




AKS 


Arkansas Co., Inc. 


ESS 


Essential Chemicals Corp. 




APX 


Apex Chemical Co., Inc. 








ARC 


Armak Co. 


FER 


Ferro Corp., Keil Chemical Div. 




ARD 


Ardmore Chemical Co. 


FIN 


Hexcel Corp., Hexcel Specialties Chemicc 


Is 


ARL 


Arol Chemical Products Co. 








ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc., Ashland Chemical Co. 


GAF 


GAF Corp. 




ASY 


American Synthetic Rubber Corp. 


GLY 


Glyco Chemicals, Inc. 




ATR 


Atlantic Richfield Co., ARCO Chemical 


GNU 


General Mills Chemicals, Inc. 






Co. 


GRC 


Chemed Corp., Dubois Chemicals Div. 




AZS 


AZS Corp.: 


GRL 


Ghemed Corp., Vestal Laboratories, Inc. 






AZ Products Co. Dlv. 


GRO 


A.H. Gross 4 Co., Millmaster Onyx Group 






AZS Chemical Co. 




Kewanee Industries, Inc. 




BAO 


Bayoil Co., Inc. 


HAL 


CP. Hall Co. 




BAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. 


HDG 


Hodag Chemical Corp. 




BFP 


Breddo Food Products Co., Inc. 


HEW 


Hewitt Soap Co., Inc. 




BLA 


Astor Products, Inc., Blue Arrow Div. 


HLI 


Haag Laboratories, Inc. 




BLS 


Life Savers, Inc. 


HUP 


W.R. Grace & Co., Organic Chemicals 




BRD 


Lonza, Inc. 




Div. 




BSW 


Original Bradford Soap Works, Inc. 


HNT 
HPG 


Huntington Laboratories, Inc. 
Hercules, Inc. 




CCA 


Interstab Chemical, Inc. 


HRT 


Hart Products Corp. 




CCL 


Catawba-Charlab, Inc. 


HUM 


Kraft, Inc., Humko Products Div. 




CCW 


Cincinnati Milacron Chemicals, Inc. 








CGY 


Ciba-Gelgy Corp. 


ICI 


ICI United States, Inc., Chemical 




CHL 


Chemol, Inc. 




Specialties Co. 




CHP 


C.H. Patrick & Co., Inc. 








GIN 


Clndet Chemicals, Inc. 


JCC 


Jefferson Chemical Co., Inc. 




CLD 


Colloids, Inc. 


JOR 


Jordan Chemical Co. 




CLI 


Clintwood Chemical Co. 


JRG 


Andrew Jergens Co. 




CO 


Continental Oil Co. 








CON 


Concord Chemical Co., Inc. 


KAL 


Pathan Chemical Co. 




CP 


Colgate-Palmolive Co. 


KNP 


Knapp Products, Inc. 




CRD 


Croda, Inc. 








CRN 


CPC International, Inc., Amerchol 


LAK 


Bofors Lakeway, Inc. 




CRT 


Crest Chemical Corp. 


LEA 


Leatex Chemical Co. 




CRZ 


Crown Zellerbach Corp., Chemical Products Div. 


LEV 


Lever Brothers Co. 




cst 


Charles S. Tanner Co. 


LKY 


Lake States Div. of St. Regis Paper Co. 




ctl 


Continental Chemical Co. 


Ull 


North American Chemical Co. 




CWP 


Consolidated Papers, Inc. 


LUR 


Laurel Products Corp. 




DA 


Diamond Shamrock Corp. 


tlAR 


American Can Go. 




DAN 


Dan River, Inc., Chemical Products Dept. 


MCP 


Moretex Chemical Products, Inc. 




DEX 


Dexter Chemical Corp. 


MIL 


Hilliken i Co., Milllken Chemical Div. 




DOW 


Dow Chemical Co. 


MIR 


Hiranol Chemical Co., Inc. 




DUP 


E.I. duPont de Nemours 4 Co., Inc. 


MOA 


Mona Industries, Inc. 




DYS 


Davies-Young Co. 


MOtI 


Monsanto Go. 





312 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHBIICALS. 1977 



TABLE 3, --Surface-active agents: Directory of manufacturers. 1977--Continued 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


MRD 


Marden-Wild Corp. 


SEA 


Seaboard Chemicals, Inc. 




MRT 


Morton Chemical Co. Div. of Morton Norwich 


SFS 


Stauffer Chemical Co., Specialty Div. 






Products, Inc. 


SHC 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 




MRV 


Marlowe-Van Loan Corp. 


SID 
SLC 


George F. Siddall Co., Inc. 
Soluol Chemical Co., Inc. 




NCW 


Nostrlp Chemical Works, Inc. 


SLH 


Salem Oil I, Grease Co. 




NES 


Nease Chemical Co., Inc. 


SM 


Mobil Oil Corp., Mobil Chemical Co., 




NMC 


National Milling 8. Chemical Co., Inc. 




Chemical Coatings Div. 




NPR 


Safeway Stores, Inc. 


snw 


Sun Chemical Corp., Chemicals Div. 




NTL 


NL Industries, Inc. 


SOC 


Standard Oil Co. of California, Chevron 
Chemical Co. 




OMC 


01 In Corp. 


SOP 


Southern Chemical Products Co., Inc. 




ONX 


Kewanee Industry, Millmaster Onyx Group, 


SOS 


SSC Industries, Inc. 






Onyx Chemical Co. Div. 


SPA 


Scott Paper Co. 




ORO 


Chevron Chemical Co. 


stc 

STP 


American Hoechst Corp., Sou-Tex Works 
Stepan Chemical Co. 




PC 


Proctor Chemical Co., Inc. 








PCH 


Peerless Chemical Co. 


tcc 


Tanatex Chemical Corp. 




PEK 


Peck's Products Co. 


TCH 


Emery Industries, Inc., Trylon 




PFZ 


Pfizer, Inc. 




Div. 




PG 


Procter S. Gamble Co., Procter i Gamble 


TCI 


Texize Chemical Co. 






Mfg. Co. 


TEN 


Cities Service Co., Copperhill Operations 




PIL 


Pilot Chemical Co. 


tmh 


Thompson-Hayward Chemical Co. 




PLX 


Plex Chemical Corp. 


tma 


Ethyl Corp. 




PNX 


Murphy-Phoenix Co. 


TNI 


The Gillette Co., Chemical Div. 




PRX 


Purex Corp. 








PSP 


Georgia-Pacific Corp. 


UCC 


Union Carbide Corp. 




PVO 


PVO International, Inc. 


UDI 

UNN 


Petrochemicals Co., Inc. 

United Chemical Corp. of Norwood 




QCP 


Quaker Chemical Corp. 


UNP 

USM 


United Chemical Products Corp. 
USM Corp., Bostik Div. 




RAY 


ITT Rayonier, Inc. 


USR 


Uniroyal, Inc., Unlroyal Chemical Div. 




RBC 


Fike Chemicals, Inc. 








RCD 


Richardson Co. 


val 


Valchem Div. of United Merchants i 




RH 


Rohm & Haas Co. 




Manufacturers, Inc. 




ROB 


Robeco Chemicals, Inc. 


viro 


Van Dyk i Co. , Inc. 




RPC 


Kewanee Industry, Millmaster Onyx Group, 
Refined-Onyx Co. Div. 


VPC 

WAU 


Mobay Chemical Corp., Verona Div. 
W.A. Wood Co. 




S 


Sandoz, Inc., Sandoz Colors S. Chemical Div. 


way 


Philip A. Hunt Chemical Corp., Organic 




SBC 


Scher Bros. Inc. 




Chemical Div. 




SBP 


Sugar Beet Products Co. 


WBG 


IVhite i Bagley Co. 




SCO 


Scholler Bros. , Inc. 


WHI 


IJhite i Hodges, Inc. 




SOP 


Henkel, Inc. 


WHW 


Whittemore-Wright Co., Inc. 




SDC 


Martin-Marietta Corp., Sodyeco Div. 


WH 


Inolex Corp. 






Sterling Drug, Inc. : 


WTC 


Wltco Chemical Corp. 




SDH 


Hilton-Davis Chemical. Div. 


WVA 


Westvaco Corp., Chemicals Div., Poly- 




SDW 


Winthrop Laboratories Div. 




chemicals Dept. 





Note. — Comple 



eporting compani 



ed in table 1 of the appendix. 



XIII -- PESTICIDFS md RELATED PRODUCTS 313 



Pesticides - Developments in 1977 

Edmund Cappuccilli 

Unfavorable weather conditions in several sections of the country and 
changes in the markets for agricultural products in 1977 resulted in a 
decrease in the use of certain organic pesticides, such as acyclic fungicides 
and herbicides. Continued high level of imports and the increased number of 
pesticides undergoing reregistration by the Environmental Protection Agency 
(EPA) also affected the use of some pesticides. Other factors in the domestic 
market for pesticides in 1977 included the continued use of plant growth 
regulators for specific crops, and the increased use of synthetic pyrethroids 
as insecticides on cotton crops. 

The production of synthetic organic pesticides in 1977 recovered somewhat 
from the low output in 1976 but did not reach the high level attained in 
1975. While total organic pesticide production increased by approximately 2 
percent to 1.39 billion pounds over 1976, fungicides continued to remain at 
the 1976 level of 142 million pounds. The total value of sales of pesticides 
increased by 16 percent over the 1976 level to $2.8 billion and the average 
unit value of sales increased appromixately 10 percent to $2.22 per pound. 

In addition to the unfavorable conditions mentioned above, the output of 
pesticides in 1977 was affected by the softening of prices for certain farm 
products. Some of these factors, along with the reported increase in 
inventories, are also expected to affect the production of pesticides in 
1978. It is, therefore, anticipated that pesticide production in 1978 will 
remain at the 1977 level or increase slightly, from 1 to 5 percent. The value 
of sales for pesticides in 1978 is also expected to remain close to the 1977 
level. However, some downward pressure on prices due to increased inventories 
at the end of 1977 may depress the value from 1 to 3 percent. 

Plant growth regulators 

For the past several years, major pesticide producers in the United 
States have been conducting more research on plant growth regulators. They 
believe that plant growth regulators are the probable answer to the need for 
increased food production in the future. 

Plant growth regulators — chemicals which increase or modify plant 
growth — have been used in agriculture for almost 4 decades. The total 
production of all plant growth regulators in 1976 was estimated to be 7 
million pounds. Maleic hydrazide, produced in the largest volume and one of 
the better known plant growth regulators, is used primarily to increase the 
yield of tobacco. In 1976, 3.8 million pounds of maleic hydrazide was 
produced in the United States. 

Pesticide producers are continuing to develop plant growth regulators for 
a wide variety of purposes, such as the loosening of ripened fruits for faster 
harvesting, controlling the size of fruits, and so forth, despite the 
increasing costs of development and the uncertainty of commercial utilization. 
Recently, research on plant growth regulators for sugar cane has 



31^ SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHmiCALS. 1977 



increased. Several major pesticide producers have products either in 
connnercial use or under experimental use permits issued by the EPA. The 
immediate future of this type of growth regulator does not appear to be 
optimistic, however, owing to the steep decline of sugar prices from their 
high in late 1974. Future development of these higher priced plant growth 
regulators will probably be directed toward certain crops which should 
financially benefit the farmers by the application of these specialty products. 

Synthetic pyrethroids 

Synthetic pyrethroids are a class of pesticides whose properties have 
made them quite attractive for commercial use in this era of environmental 
concern. Two of the qualities which make synthetic pyrethroids especially 
desirable are their high toxicity to insects combined with low toxicity to 
mammals. These compounds were also found to remain highly effective for 
longer periods of time than organophosphate insecticides used in similar 
situations. Interest in these compounds increased in 1977 when the EPA issued 
an emergency exemption use permit for three synthetic pyrethroids to be used 
on cotton because of the withdrawal of certain organophosphate insecticides 
used primarily for bollworm control. 

Production of synthetic pyrethroids has been increasing steadily over the 
past few years and should increase substantially in the near future as new 
products and uses are introduced despite the higher costs. The favorable 
environmental qualities of synthetic pyrethroids will probably be the 
determining factor in future use, as Government controls on other 
insecticides continue to increase. 



Government regulatory actions continue to increase 

The EPA continued to be the dominant Government agency affecting the 
pesticide industry in 1977. Under the Federal Environmental Pesticides 
Control Act, the EPA continued its registration/reregistration of all 
pesticide products. Because of the uncertainty and delays encountered in this 
reregistration process, the sale of certain pesticide products in 1977 was 
erratic. 

The procedure employed by the EPA to identify pesticides which may be 
hazardous to man and to the environment is called "Rebuttable Presumption 
Against Reregistration (RPAR)." Pesticides placed on the RPAR list are 
reviewed to decide whether they can be reregistered. While these products are 
awaiting review on the RPAR list, producers usually have shown a tendency to 
limit production of these products until disposition is determined (the 
production of several pesticides placed on the RPAR list decreased in 1977). 

The notice by EPA to cancel the registration of some widely used 
pesticides such as chlordane, DBCP and heptachlor, combined with the voluntary 
withdrawals of several pesticides from the reregistration process, is probably 
a main reason for the slowdown in the overall rate of production from the 
previous years. This trend, however, should eventually be offset by increased 
production of alternative pesticides. 



XIII -- PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 315 



The EPA's involvement with the pesticide industry is not expected to 
diminish in the near future. The pesticide producers must be willing to 
reassess their future plans to conform with reasonable Government 
regulations if they are to remain competitive in the domestic market. 

Foreign trade 

In 1977, imports of benzenoid pesticides (TSUS 405.15) totaled 47.7 
million pounds valued at $101.3 million. This represented a decrease of 19.9 
percent in quantity and a decrease of 21.4 percent in value from the 62.1 
million pounds, valued at $128.8 million imported in 1976. Sales from 
domestic inventory existing throughout most of 1977 and a decrease in consumer 
demand were two factors primarily responsible for the decrease in imports of 
pesticides in 1977. Imports of pesticides in the future are expected to 
continue their general upward trend despite the decrease experienced in 1977, 
The annual increments, however, are not expected to be as large as in previous 
years. 

An analysis of a large sample of benzenoid pesticide imports in 1975-77, 
which shows the major pesticides in the "competitive" and "noncompetitive" 
classes, 1/ is given in table A. Over the past 2 years, the pesticide 
imported in the greatest quantity has been bentazon, a "noncompetitive" 
herbicide produced in West Germany. Imports of bentazon in 1977 increased by 97.0 
percent over the 1976 level to 19.9 million pounds. Increases of this 
magnitude are not expected to continue in the future because of increased 
competition from domestic products with properties similar to this imported 
postemergence herbicide and the variability of future crop plantings. 

Over the past 3 years, one of the largest volume "competitive" pesticides 
imported into the United States has been 2 ,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 
(2,4-D). Imports of 2,4-D decreased by 58 percent in 1977 from a high of 6.0 
million pounds reported in 1976. However, the 2.5 million pounds of 2,4-D 
imported in 1977 is still far above the 80,000 pound per year average imported 
during the 4 years prior to the 1974 Trade Act. The Trade Act of 1974 has 
enabled several countries to ship 2,4-D to the United States under the 
Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) which grants duty-free treatment to 

T] "Competitive" benzenoid imports are those products which are similar to 
domestic products because they accomplish results substantially equal to those 
accomplished by the domestic products, when used in substantially the same 
manner. 

"Competitive" imports are subject to a special basis of valuation for 
customs purposes known as the "American selling price." If the benzenoid 
imports are "noncompetitive," the products are valued for customs purposes on 
the basis of the "United States value." The essential difference between 
these two values is that "American selling price" is based on the wholesale 
price in the United States of the "competitive" domestic product, whereas 
"United States value" is based on the wholesale price in the United States of 
the imported product less most of the expenses incurred in bringing the 
product to the United States and selling it. 



316 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



certain imported products from designated beneficiary countries. Imports of 
"competitive" pesticides from GSP beneficiary countries are expected to 
increase in the future primarily because of the 15 to 20 percent competitive 
edge realized by duty-free entry. 

Although there were large imports from certain GSP countries, total 
imports of pesticides in 1977 continued to be dominated by the United Kingdom 
and West Germany, as shown in table B. Combined imports (principally 
"noncompetitive" pesticides) from the United Kingdom and West Germany in 1977 
amounted to 28.9 million pounds, or 58.0 percent of the total pesticide 
imports. This was an increase of 12.0 percent over the combined total of the 
two countries in 1976. Because of their strong positions in the marketing and 
research areas of the pesticide industry, the United Kingdom and West Germany 
are expected to remain as the principal foreign sources of pesticides for the 
next several years. Government regulations and greater competitiveness by 
U.S. producers should keep imports from increasing more than 10.0 percent per 
year for the next few years. Imports of certain pesticides, however, may 
exceed the predicted yearly increase because of consumer preference or because 
of a favorable cost advantage. There are indications that the beneficiary 
countries of GSP will be producing more of the "competitive" pesticides in the 
future to meet the anticipated demand from the U.S. market. In addition, 
several European countries and Japan are working to develop and to test new 
environmentally safe pesticides for future distribution, especially in the 
United States. All these developments indicate a modest rate of increase of 
pesticides imports for the next several years. 



XIII -- PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 



317 



TABLE A. — U. S. imports of major pesticides, \J l'il5-ll 
(million pounds) 



Status 



1975 



1976 



1977 



Competitive: 

2,4-D 

2,4-DB 

Chlordimeform- 
Dichloroprop — 

Diuron 

MCPA 



Noncompetitive : 

Bentazon 

Chlorothalonil 

Paraquat dichloride- 



3.0 



1.3 
1.4 



1.7 
3.8 
9.5 



6.0 
0.7 

2.1 



10.1 
3.9 
4.2 



1.0 



19.9 
3.6 
5.0 



^ Based on the items examined by the Commission for TSUS item 
405.15. 

Source: Imports of Benzenoid Chemicals and Products, 1975, 
1976, and 1977. 

Note. — All of the compounds in the above table are herbicides, 
except chlorothalonil (a fungicide) and chlordimeform (an secti- 
cide) . 



318 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



Table B. — Pesticides 1/: U.S. imports by principal source, 1975-77 



Source 



1975 



1976 



1977 



West Germany 

United Kingdom- 
Japan 

Switzerland 

Canada 

All other 

Total 



West Germany 

United Kingdom- 
Japan 

Switzerland 

Canada 

All other 

Total 



West Germany 

United Kingdom- 
Japan 

Switzerland 

Canada 

All other 

Average 



T7 TSUS item 405,15. 



Quantity (1,000 pounds) 



7,362 
17,587 
3,922 
6,388 
4,842 
10,315 



50,416 



15,732 
12,988 

5,613 
10,885 

2,289 
14,607 



62,114 



14,941 
14,025 
4,870 
3,761 
4,609 
7.528 



49,734 



20,035 
29,493 

6,323 
14,618 

5,043 
21,615 



Value (1,000 dollars) 
48,643 



97,127 



19,904 
10,599 
26,060 
3,383 
20,244 



128,833 



41,033 
20,136 
13,067 
7,251 
5,810 
14,000 



101,297 



Unit value (per pound) 



$2.75 
1.68 
1.61 
2.29 
1.04 
2.10 



TW 



$3.0$ 
1.53 
1.89 
2.39 
1.48 
1.39 



2.07 



$2.75 
1.44 
2.68 
1.93 
1.26 
1.86 



TM- 



Source: 
Commerce. 



Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of 



XIII -- PESTICIDES m RELATE) PRODUCTS 319 

PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 
Edmund Cappuccilli 



Pesticides and related products include fungicides, herbicides, insec- 
ticides, rodenticides, and related products such as plant growth regulators, 
seed disinfectants, soil conditioners, soil fumigants, and synergists. The 
data are given in terms of 100 percent active materials; they thus exclude 
such materials as diluents, emulsifiers, and wetting agents. 

U.S. production of pesticides and related products in 1977 amounted to 
1,388 million pounds — 1.7 percent greater than the 1,364 million pounds re- 
ported for 1976 (table 1).^ Sales in 1977 were 1,263 million pounds, an 
increase of 5.9 percent, as compared with 1,193 million pounds reported in 
1976; the value of sales was $2,808 million in 1977, compared with $2,410 
million in 1976 — an increase of 16.5 percent. 

The output of cyclic pesticides and related products amounted to 994 
million pounds in 1977 — 5.7 percent greater than the 940 million pounds 
produced in 1976. Sales in 1977 were 904 million pounds, valued at $2,066 
million, compared with 839 million pounds, valued at $1,844 million in 1976. 
Production of acyclic pesticides and related products in 1977 amounted to 394 
million pounds, compared with 424 million pounds reported for 1976, a decrease 
of 7.2 percent. Sales in 1977 were 359 million pounds, an increase of about 
1.4 percent, as compared with 354 million pounds reported in 1976; the value 
of sales was $742 million in 1977, compared with $566 million in 1976 — an 
increase of 31.0 percent. 



^ See also table 2 which lists these products and identifies the manu- 
facturers by codes. These codes are given in table 3. 



XIII -- rrsTiciDES a<d rflated products 

TABLE 1. --Pesticides and related products; U.S. production and sales, 1977 



321 



[Listed below are all pesticide 


and 


lished. (Leaders (...) are u 


ed wh 


where no data were reported.) 


Tabl 


or sales were reported and id 


mtifi 



roducts for which any reported data on production or sales may be pub- 
eported data are accepted in confidence and may not be published or 

all pesticides and related products for which data on production and/ 
nufacturers of each] 



PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 



Grand total 

Benzenoid 

Nonbenzenoid 

CYCLIC 

Total 

Fungicides, total 

Naphthenic acid, copper salt 

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) 

Phenylmercuric acetate (PMA) 

All other cyclic fungicides^ 

Herbicides and plant growth regulators, total 

2, A-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, dtmethylamine salt- 

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, iso-octyl ester 

Plant growth regulators^ 

All other cyclic herbicides'* 

Insecticides and rodenticides, total 

Organophosphorus insecticides, total 

Methyl parathion 

All other organophosphorus insecticides^ 

Toxaphene (chlorinated camphene) 

All other cyclic insecticides and rodenticides^ 

ACYCLIC 

Total 

Fungicides, total 

Dithiocarbamic acid salts' 

All other acyclic fungicides' 

Herbicides and plant growth regulators^ 

Insecticides, rodenticides, soil conditioners and 

f umigants, total 

Methyl bromide (Bromomethane) 

Organophosphorus insecticides' " 

Trichloronitromethane (Chloropicrin) 

All other acyclic insecticides, rodenticides, soil 
conditioners and fumigants^' 



1,000 
pounds 



829,537 
557,982 



993.896 



110,624 



1,276 

4A,862 

178 

64,308 

550,145 



21,281 

6,392 

5,438 

517,034 

333,127 



113,498 
39,695 
73,803 
39,780 

179,849 



32,653 

29,650 

3,003 



34,684 

90,547 

5,803 

105,873 



1,000 

•pounds 



1,263,007 



1,000 
dollars 



691,185 
571,821 



903,794 



1,664,008 
1,144,265 



101,284 



1,148 

43,349 

164 

56,623 



150,688 



16,349 

5,129 

4,528 

449,471 

325,033 



954 

16,275 

1,251 

132,197 

1,331,425 



115,815 
49,257 
67,558 



359,213 

32,249 
30,159 
2,080 



35,280 
71,210 
5,256 

105,345 



17,380 

5,244 

17,433 

1,290,368 

584.328 



259,502 
49,992 
219,610 



31,832 
5,255 



415,952 

17,753 

221,574 

3,784 



172.751 



?er 

pound 



2.41 
2.00 



1.49 



.83 

.38 

7.70 

2.33 

2.79 



2.31 
1.01 
3.25 



1.05 
3.01 



.50 

3.11 

.50 

1.62 



' Calculated from rounded figures. 

^ Includes benomyl, captafol, captan, chlorothalonil, dinocap, DMTI, folpet, pentachloronitrobenzene, sodium pi 
chlorophenate, 2,4, 5-trichlorDphenol salts, all other phenylmercury compounds, and others. 

^ Includes maleic hydrazide. 

'■ Includes alachlor, atrazine, barban, benefin, bensulide, 2,4-D acid (es 

phenol compounds, diuron, isopropyl phenylcarbamates (IPC and CIPC) , MCPA, mi 

and its esters, 2,4,5-T acid (esters and salts), triazines, trlfluralin, ura 

Includes carbophenothion, diazinon, dioxathion, fensulf othion, papathio 

and phosphorodithioates. 

^ Includes carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorinated insecticides (BHC + lindane, 
endosulfan, endrin, heptachlor, methoxychlor , and others), insect attractant 
small amounts of rodenticides, piperonyl butoxide and other synergists, and 



ers and salts), 2,4-DB, dicamba, dlnltro 
linate, NPA, picloram, propanil, silvex 
ils, and others. 
, ronnel, and other phosphorothloates 

chlordan, chlorobenzilate, DDT, dicofol, 
, DEET and other insect repellents. 



322 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEfllCALS. 1977 

Footnotes --Continued 

' Includes ferbam, maneb, nabam, PETD, and zineb, plus the remaining dithiocarbamates which are used chiefly as 
fungicides. 

Includes dodine, and others. 
^ Includes CDAA, dalapon, methanearsonic acid salts, sodium TCA, thiocarbamates, and organophosphorus herbicides, 
and others. 

*" Includes acephate, DDVP, disulfoton, ethion, malathion, monocrotophos, naled, phorate, and other organophos- 
phorus Insecticides. 
'' Includes DBCP, soil conditioners and fumigants, aldicarb, small quantities of rodenticides, and others. 

Note. — Does not include data for the insect fumigant, p-dlchlorobenzene nor the fungicide, o-phenylphenol. These 
data are included in the section on "Cyclic Intermediates." It also does not Include data for the fungicides, di- 
methyldithiocarbamic acid, sodium salt and dimethyldlthiocarbamic acid, zinc salt (i.e., ziram) . These data are In- 
cluded in the section on "Rubber-Processing Chemicals." The data for ethylene dibromide, a fumigant, are included 
in the "Miscellaneous End-Use Chemicals and Chemical Products" section. 



XIII -- PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 



323 



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XIII -- PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 



325 



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326 



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XIII -- PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 



327 



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330 



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XIII -- PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 



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332 



SYNTHETIC ORGAIIC CKEMICALS. 1977 



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XIII -- PESTICIDES /»)D RELATED PRODUCTS 



353 



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SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



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XIII -- PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 



335 



TABLE 3.— Pesticides and related products; Directory of manufacturers, 1977 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



Names of manufacturers that reported production or 
Trade Commission for 1977 are listed below in the 



of pesticides and related products to the U.S. Inte 
of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


ABB 


Abbott Laboratories 


MMM 


Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co. 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 


HON 


Monsanto Co. 


ALC 


Alco Chemical Corp. 


MOT 


Motomoco, Inc. 


ALP 


Alpha Laboratories, Inc. 


MRK 


Merck & Co., Inc. 


AMC 


Amchem Products, Inc. Sub. of Union Carbide 


MRT 


Morton Chemical Co. Dlv. of Morton Norwich 




Corp. 




Products, Inc. 


AMP 


Kerr-McGee Chemical Corp. 


mto 


Montrose Chemical Corp. of California 


ARA 


Arapahoe Chemical, Inc. Sub/Syntex U.S.A., 








Inc. 


NES 


Nease Chemical Co., Inc. 


ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc., Ashland 
Chemical Co. 


NLO 


Nlklor Chemical Co. 






omc 


Olln Corp., Agricultural Products Dept. 






ORO 


Chevron Chemical Co. 


BAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. 






BKM 


Buckman Labs,, Inc. 


PAS 


Pennwalt Corp. 






PCW 


Pflster Chemical, Inc. 


CCA 


Interstab Chemical, Inc. 


PD 


Parke, Davis & Co. Sub of Warner-Lambert 


CGY 


Ciba-Gelgy Corp., Agricultural Dlv. 




Co. 


CHF 


Chemical Formulators, Inc. 


PEN 


CPC International, Inc., Penick Dlv. 


CHG 


Mobay Chemical Corp., Chemagro Agricultural 


PFZ 


Pfizer, Inc. 




Div. 


PIC 


Pierce Organics, Inc. 


CLY 


W. A. Cleary Corp. 


PLC 


Phillips Petroleum Co. 


CWN 


Upjohn Co., Fine Chemical Div. 


PPG 


PPG Industries, Inc. 


DA 


Diamond Shamrock Corp. 


RBC 


Fike Chemicals, Inc. 


DOW 


Dow Chemical Co. 


RCI 


Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. 


DUP 


E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. 


RDA 


Rhodia, Inc. 






RH 


Rohm & Haas Co. 


EFH 


E. F. Houghton & Co. 


RIV 


Riverdale Chemical Co. 


EGR 


Eagle River Chemical Corp. 










S 


Sandoz Inc., Crop Protection Dept. 


FUN 


FMC Corp., Agricultural Chemical Div. 


SDC 


Martin-Marietta Corp., Sodyeco Dlv. 


FMT 


Fairmount Chemical Co. 




Stauffer Chemical Co. : 


FRl 


Farmland Industries, Inc. 


SFA 


Agricultural Dlv. 


FRO 


Vulcan Materials Co., Chemical Div. 


SFC 


Calhlo Chemicals, Inc. Dlv. 






SHC 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Dlv. 


GAF 


GAF Corp. 


SM 


Mobil Oil Corp., Mobil Chemical Co., 


GNW 


Greenwood Chemical Co. 




Phosphorus Dlv. 


GOC 


Gulf Oil Corp., Gulf Oil 








Chemical Co. - U.S. 


THH 


Thompson-Hayward Chemical Co. 


GTH 


Guth Chemical Co. 


tro 


Troy Chemical Corp. 


GTL 


Great Lakes Chemical Corp. 










UCC 


Union Carbide Corp. 


HK 


Hooker Chemicals & Plastics Corp. 


UOP 


UOP, Inc., Chemical Dlv. 


HN 


Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 


USM 


USM Corp., Bostik Dlv. 


HPC 


Hercules, Inc. 


USR 


Uniroyal, Inc., Uniroyal Chemical Div. 


IMC 


IMC Chemical Group, Inc. 


VCC 


Vinlngs Chemical Co. 






VEL 


Velsicol Chemical Corp. 


KF 


Kay-Fries Chemicals, Inc. 


VIII 


Vineland Chemical Co., Inc. 






VNC 


Vanderbilt Chemical Corp. 


LAK 


Bofors Lakeway, Inc. 


vtc 


Vlcksburg Chemical Co. Sub. of 


LIL 


Eli Lilly & Co. 




Vertac Consolidated 


MCF 


Miller Chemical & Fertilizer Corp. 


WTC 


Witco Chemical Corp. 


MCI 


Mooney Chemical Corp. 






MGK 


McLaughlin, Gormley & King Co. 


ZOC 


Zoecon Corp. 



Note. — Compl 



and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the append! 



SECTIOi^ XIV -- niSCELLANEOUS EHD-USE CHEfllCALS 337 

AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 

Organic Floccuants 

K. James O'Connor, Jr. 



In recent years, the public has become increasingly concerned over the 
state of the environment, including, among other factors, the quality of 
water. Not only in response to these concerns, but also as a result of 
increased Government regulation in this area, the U.S. chemical industry has 
found it necessary to institute new measures to more thoroughly cleanse the 
effluent of its manufacturing plants. One facet of this cleansing is the 
removal of suspended or colloidal particles from wastewater. This is 
accomplished by a process known as coagulation or f locculation. 

This paper will examine the mechanism by which flocculation of colloidal 
particles occurs. It will also examine the developing market for polyacryl- 
amide, polyamines, and polyepichlorohydrins , all of which are commonly 
referred to as organic flocculants. 

Organic versus inorganic flocculants 

In general, the vast majority of particles suspended in wastewater are 
too small to be seen with the unaided eye. Flocculation causes these smaller 
particles to coagulate into larger ones called floes, which can not only be 
seen, but which will also settle out, or float, depending on their nature, 
and which can subsequently be rapidly filtered out of the water. 

The process of flocculation for the removal of suspended particles from 
water is not new. In the past, the coagulant aids of choice have generally 
been inorganic compounds, most often alum or various ferric (iron) salts, 
vrhile these compounds are effective as flocculants, large quantities are 
required in relation to the suspended matter. This has never been a 
significant drawback with regard to cost, as the materials are relatively 
inexpensive. (In 1977, a typical price for alum was 6.5 cents per pound.) 
However, the large amount of coagulants used produced a correspondingly 
large amount of sludge. Consequently, the total cost of using inorganic 
flocculants, although initially inexpensive, is becoming increasingly 
costly because of the problem of sludge disposal. Ocean dumping of sludge, 
once common, is generally prohibited by environmental regulations. Similar 
regulations have greatly increased the cost of sludge disposal in landfills, 
as precautions must be taken to avoid any seepage of material into groundwater 
supplies. 

Organic flocculants, on the other hand, produce far less sludge because 
the mechanism by which they operate reduces the amount of colloidal particles 
more efficiently than inorganic flocculants. (This mechanism is described 
below.) Thus the cost of using organic flocculants is greatly reduced because 
significantly smaller amounts are required (from 1/3 to 1/25 as much as 
inorganic flocculants, depending on the constituents of the wastewater) and 
much less sludge is generated. 



338 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1977 

Flocculatlon mechanism 

Colloidal particles suspended in water generally carry a small electrical 
charge which causes the particles to mutually repel one another. For 
effective flocculatlon to occur, this charge must be neutralized. Whether 
the suspended particles are anionic (possessing a negative charge) or cationic 
(positively charged) depends on the particular contaminant. In general, 
naturally occuring colloidal particles, such as those found in municipal 
waste, possess a net negative charge and must be treated with a cationic 
flocculant. Industrial wastes tend to contain positively charged matter and 
must be treated with an anionic flocculant. V/astewater which contains a 
variety of suspended solids is generally most effectively treated with a 
nonionic polymer which possesses a mixture of charges. 

Polyacrylamide comprises the largest segment of the organic flocculant 
industry. Depending on the degree of hydrolyzation of the amide (-COM!! ) 
group to carboxyl (-COOK) groups during polymerization, polyacrylamide nay 
be made cationic, nonionic, or anionic. Polyamines and polyepichlorohydrins 
are generally cationic. 

Once the appropriate organic flocculant is in solution, the suspended 
particles migrate to the polymer molecules which are then adsorbed onto the 
surfaces of the suspended particle. This process, called bridging, results 
in a large three-dimensional network which can be rapidly filtered from the 
solution. 



Market growth and outlook 

The following table summarizes production and sales for the last 3 years 
of polyacrylamide and other polymers used as organic flocculants. While 
not all polyacrylamide is used for the production of flocculants, this is 
its major use. As shown in the table, both production and sales declined 
moderately in the 1975 recession, followed by a strong rebound in 1976, 
and continued growth in 1977. Production of polymers used as flocculants 
increased from 49.0 million pounds in 1975, to 71. A million pounds in 1977, 
while the value of sales increased from $39.7 million to $59.3 million in the 
same period. The corresponding figures for acyclic organic chemicals are 
included in the table for comparison. It can be seen that the rate of decline 
for acyclic chemicals was much more pronounced than that for organic floccul- 
ants in 1974-75 and that acyclic chemicals' recovery rate was less pronounced 
in 1975-77. 

As Government regulations governing wastewater become more stringent in 
the near future, the organic flocculant industry can expect continued steady 
growth for the following reasons. First, the problem of sludge disposal will 
become more acute, which will favor the organic flocculants because they decrease 
the amount of sludge created in effluent cleanup. Second, as new plants 
are built, their sludge-handling equipment will be designed to process sludge 



Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals, sec. XV, p. 



XIV -- fllSCELLANEOUS END-USE CHEfllCALS 339 

AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 



created when organic polymers are used for flocculation instead of inorganic 
compounds. (Older plants already have sludge-handling equipment which will 
process flocculant products of inorganic compounds, and conversion of the 
equipment would not be cost-effective.) Lastly, the organic flocculants have 
been shown to be pharmacologically inert and therefore virtually devoid of 
toxicity. The majority of the compounds used for flocculation have received 
either EPA or FDA approval for their respective uses. 



340 



SYNTHETIC ORCA.JIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



C <H J= 

ao Ol. o 



XIV -- niSCELLANEOUS END-USE CHEMICALS 3^1 

AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 

Miscellaneous End-Use Chemicals and Chemical Products 
K. James O'Connor, Jr. and Janet Dietzman 



This section incorporates those end-use groups which are not readily 
classifiable within the prior sections of this report. Both cyclic and 
acyclic chemicals fall within this section. With the exception of gaso- 
line additives, both production and sales of all end-use groups contained 
within this section increased over 1976 levels. 

In 1977 the production of miscellaneous end-use chemicals exceeded 
19.3 billion pounds, an increase of 16.5 percent over the more than 16.6 
billion pounds of production reported for 1976 (see revisions to 1976 
data at end of table 1). Sales in 1977 exceeded 10.8 billion pounds, valued 
at $2.5 billion. The sales quantity represents an increase of 7.5 percent 
over that of 1976 with the value of sales increasing by 6.1 percent. As in 
1976, polymers for fibers and urea again collectively accounted for 84 per- 
cent of the 1977 production of these miscellaneous end-use chemicals. Urea 
accounted for 73 percent of the 1977 sales quantity of these chemicals. 

Production of gasoline additives for 1977 totaled 1.15 billion pounds, 
a decrease of 10 percent from the previous year. The decline in sales was 
even more pronounced. Total sales quantity for 1977 was 862 million pounds, 
down 26.2 percent from the 1976 sales quantity of 1.09 billion pounds. This 
market is expected to continue its decline as a result of environmental 
legislation which restricts the use of lead alkyls in gasoline. 



XIV -- MISCELLADEOUS END-USE CIIE.'^ICALS AND CHEfllCAL PRODUCTS 



3^13 



TABLE 1.— Miscellaneous end-use chemicals and chemical products; 
AND sales^ 1977' 



U,S, PRODUCTION 



[Listed below are all miscellaneous end-use chemicals and chemical products for which any rep 
tlon or sales may be published. (Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accept 
may not be published or where no data were reported.) Table 2 lists alphabetically all mis 
chemicals and chemical products on which data on production and/or sales were reported and identifie 
facturers of each] 



ed data on produc- 
in confidence and 



MISCELLANEOUS END-USE CHEMICALS 
AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 



PRODUCTION 



Grand total 

Chelating agents, nitriloacidB and salts, total 

(Dlethylenetrinltrilo)pentaacetic acid, penta- 

sodium salt 

(Ethylenedinitrllo)tetraacetic acid, calcium 

disodium salt 

(Ethylenedinitrilo) tetraacetic acid, tetrasodlum 

salt 

(N-Hydroxyethylethylenedinitrllo) triacetlc acid, 

trisodium salt 

All other 

Chemical indicators 

Chemical reagents 

Enzymes , total 

Hydrolytlc enzymes, total 

Amylases 

Proteases, total 

Papain 

Rennin 

All other proteases 

All other hydrolytlc enzymes 

Non-hydro lytic enzymes 

Gasoline additives, total" 

N,N'-DlsallcyHdene-l,2-propanediamine 

Ethylenedibromide 

Tetraethyl lead 

Tetra(methyl-ethyl) lead, (TEL-TML, reacted) 

Tetramethyl lead 

All other gasoline additives 

Lubricating oil and grease additives, total 

Oil soluble petroleum sulfonate, calcium salt 

Oil soluble petroleum sulfonate, sodium salt 

Phenol salts, total 

Nonylphenol, barium salt 

All other 

Sulfur compounds 

Zinc dlalkyldlthiophosphate 

All other lubricating oil and grease additives 

Paint driers, naphthenic acid salts, total^'^ 

Calcium naphthenate 

Cobalt naphthenate 

Lead naphthenate 

Manganese naphthenate 

Zinc naphthenate 

All other 

Photographic chemicals 

See footnotes at end of table. 



1,000 
pound 



168,317 



6,174 

295 

54,A64 

2,488 
106,897 



1.152,253 



480 
244,238 
326,935 
432,819 
119,642 
28,619 



287,495 
117,808 
126,013 
8,363 
117,650 
163,044 
32,587 
750,650 

15,434 
1,119 
3,735 
4,901 
1,539 
1,300 
2,837 

16,152 



1,000 
pound 



1,000 
dollars 



2,547,481 



140,009 



3,235 
96,356 



861,745 



294,383 
392,625 



273,850 
104,916 
121,059 
7,739 
113,320 
158,522 
18,828 
576,154 

10.781 
944 
3,372 
3,379 
1,015 
1,169 
902 

3,114 



3,022 
40,969 



472 
1,996 



52.181 



32.170 
5,853 

19,041 
2,772 
6,167 

10.102 
7,276 

20,011 

785.709 



287.407 
391.015 



491.932 
90.098 
27.540 
49.734 
5.635 
44.099 
64.396 
10.599 

249.565 

10.654 

644 

5.258 

2.262 

665 

802 

1.023 

11.039 



Per 
pound 



$0.23 



.93 
.43 



74.33 
35.03 



3W SY,JTH:TIC organic CHEfllCALS. 1977 

TABLE l,--MlSCELLANEOUS END-USE CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS: 
AND SALESj 1977 '-"CONTINUED 



U.S. PRODUCTION 



haSCELLANEOUS END-USE CHEMICALS 
AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 



UNIT 
VALUE 



Polymers for fibers, total 

Nylon 6 and 6/6 

Polyacrylonitrile and acrylonitrile copolymers 

Polyethylene terephthalate 

All other polymers for fibers 

Polymers, water soluble, total 

Cellulose ethers and esters = 

Polymers used as flocculants, total 

Polyacrylamide 

All other 

Sodium polyacrylate 

All other water soluble polymers 

Tanning materials, synthetic, total 

2-Naphthalenesulfonic acid, formaldehyde condense 

and salt 

All other 

Textile chemicals, other than surface-active agents 

Urea, total 

In feed compounds 

In liquid fertilizer 

In solid fertilizer 

In plastics 

All other 

All other miscellaneous end-use chemicals and chem- 
ical products^ 

' Certain data have been revised for 1976. Thes 

MISCELLANEOUS END-USE CHEMICALS 
AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 



1,000 
pound 



6,022,251 



1,873,993 

795,028 

2,332,020 

1,021,210 

252,349 



149,127 
72,181 
46,112 
26,069 
7,911 
14,419 

61,589 



35,510 
26,079 



10,143,695 



475,228 
2,946,998 
5,368,190 
1,193,791 

157,488 



1,000 
pound 



355,232 



1,000 
dollars 



171,215 



176,194 
179,037 



226,531 



146,187 
61,278 
38,037 
23,241 
7,520 
11,546 

56,206 



34,269 
21,937 



397,657 
,557,540 
,397,246 
416,808 
150,571 



57,334 
113,882 



257,602 



175,373 
60,156 
41,788 
18,368 
5,622 
16,451 

25,521 



14,732 
10,789 



568,736 



25,534 
185,659 
274,446 
25,213 
57,884 



Per 
pound 



$0.48 



.75 
1.42 



.07 
.06 



PRODUCTION : 



UNIT 
VALUE 



1,000 : 1,000 

pounds : pounds 



1,000 
do I lars 



Per 
pound 



Grand total 

Gasoline additives, total 

All other gasoline additives- 



-: 16,684,908 : 10,100,710 
-: 1,271,143 : .1,088,445 



Ur 



Urea, in liquid fertilizer- 
Urea, in solid fertilizer — 



702,395 
8,995,288 

2,412,138 
4,866,132 



526,962 
7,397,905 

2,310,931 
4,149,055 



2,401,932: 
446.250: 
423,866; 
42J,3o>: 

108,112 
256,593 



' Calculated fr 
^ Not available 
* Statistics ex 

with the section o 
' Quantities ar 
' Statistics ex 

In the section on 



esyl phosphate are given 



m rounded figures. 

;lude production and sales of trlcresyl phosphate. Statistics on 

1 "Plasticizers." 

• given on the basis of solid naphthenate. 

:lude production and sales of copper naphthenate. Statistics for copper naphthenate are giv 

'Pesticides and Related Products." 



Includes all other items listed in table 2 which are not individually publishable or publishable as groups. 



XIV -- MISCELLANEOUS END-USE CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 



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346 



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XIV -- MISCELIAIIEOUS END-USE CllEMKALS AND CHEI1ICAL PRODUCTS 



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352 



SYNTHtTIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



TABLE 3,— Miscellaneous end-use chemicals and chemical products: 
OF manufacturers, 1977 



Directory 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



of manufacturers that reported pro 
he U.S. International Trade Commlss 
sed in table 2] 



chemical 
of the! 



and chemical products 
identification codes 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 




Allied Chemical Corp. : 


FRF 


Firestone Tire 8. Rubber Co.. Firestone 


ACN 


Agricultural Dlv. 




Synthetic Fibers Co. 


ACS 


Specialty Chemicals Div. 


FRI 


Farmland Industries, Inc. 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 






AGY 


Agway, Inc., Glean Nitrogen Complex 


GAF 


GAF Corp. 


AIP 


Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. 


GCC 


W. R. Grace i Co. 


AKS 


Arkansas Co., Inc. 


GFS 


G. Frederick Smith Chemical Co. 


ALC 


Alco Chemical Corp. 


GLY 


Glyco Chemicals, Inc. 


alf 


Allied Chemical Corp., Fibers Dlv. 


GPI 


Goodpasture, Inc. 


ALL 


Alliance Chemical, Inc. 




W.R. Grace i Co. : 


ALX 


Alox Corp. 


GRD 


Polymers S, Chemicals Div. 


APD 


Atlas Powder Co. Sub. of Tyler Corp. 


GRH 


Hatco Chemical Div. 


ARM 


USS Agri-Chemicals Div. of U.S. Steel Corp. 


GYR 


Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. 


ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc., Ashland Chemical Go. Dlv. 










HDG. 


Hodag Chemical Corp. 






HKY 


Hawkeye Chemical Co. 


BAX 


Baxter/Travenol Laoratories, Inc. 


HMP 


W. R. Grace 4 Co., Organic Chemicals Div. 


BCC 


Buffalo Color Corp. 


HN 


Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 


BFG 


B. F. Goodrich Co., B. F. Goodrich Chemical 


HPG 


Hercules, Inc. 




Go. Div. 


HST 


American Hoechst Corp., Industrial 


BIG 


Beker Industries, Inc. 




Chemicals Dlv. 


BOR 


Borden Co., Borden Chemical Dlv. 






BUK 


Buckeye Cellulose Corp. 


ICI 


ICI United States, Inc. 






JDC 


Nipak, Inc. 


CCA 


Interstab Chemical, Inc. 


JFR 


George A. Jeffrey's 6. Co., Inc. 


CCW 


Cincinnati Milacron Chemicals, Inc. 


JOR 


Jordan Chemical Co. 


GEL 


Celanese Corp. : 








Celanese Fibers Co. 


KCU 


Kennecott Copper Corp., Utah Copper Div. 




Celanese Polymers Specialties Go. 






CFA 


Cooperative Farm Chemicals Association 


MCI 


Mooney Chemicals, Inc. 


GFl 


CF Industries, Inc. 


MIL 


Mllliken & Co., Milliken Chemical Dlv. 


CGY 


Ciba-Gelgy Corp. 


MLS 


Miles Laboratories, Inc., Marschall Dlv. 


CHH 


CHR. Hansen's Laboratory, Inc. 


MMC 


MCiB Manufacturing Chemists, Inc. 


CRN 


N-Ren Corp., Cherokee Nitrogen Div. 


HON 


Monsanto Co. 


CHP 


C.H. Patrick & Co. , Inc. 


MOR 


Marathon Morco, Co. 


CNC 


Columbia Nitrogen Corp. 


MRK 


Merck 6, Co. , Inc. 


COL 


Collier Carbon 6. Chemicals Corp. 


MSG 


Mississippi Chemical Corp. 


CRN 


CPG International, Inc., Amerchol 






CRT 


Crest Chemical Corp. 


NTL 


NL Industries, Inc. 






OMC 


Olin Corp. 


DA 


Diamond Shamrock Corp. 


OMS 


E. R. Squibb i Sons, Inc. 


DAN 


Dan River, Inc., Chemical Products Dept. 


ORG 


Chevron Chemical Co. 


DGG 


Dow Corning Corp. 






DLI 


Dawe's Laboratories, Inc. 


PAR 


Pennzoil Co., Penneco Div. 


DDL 


Castle i Cooke, Inc., Castle 6. Cooke 


PAS 


Pennwalt Corp. 




Foods, Hawaii Region 


PCW 


Pfister Chemical Inc. 


DOW 


Dow Chemical Co. 


PEN 


CPC International, Inc., Penick Corp. 


DUP 


E. I. duPont de Nemours i Co., Inc. 


PFN 


Pfanstlehl Laboratories, Inc. 






PFZ 


Pfizer, Inc. 


EK 


Eastman Kodak Co. : 


PHR 


Pharmachem Corp. 


EKT 


Tennessee Eastman Go. Dlv. 


PIG 


Pierce Chemical, Inc. 


ELC 


Elco Corp. Sub. of Detrex Chemical Industries, 


PLB 


P-L Biochemicals, Inc. 




Inc. 


PLC 


Phillips Petroleum Co. 


ENJ 


Exxon Chemical Co. U.S.A. 


PMP 


Premier Malt Products, Inc. 


ESA 


East Shore Chemical Co., Inc. 


PPG 


PPG Industries, Inc. 


FER 


Ferro Corp. , Keil Chemical Div. 


QGP 


Quaker Chemical Corp. 


FIN 


Hexcel Corp., Hexcel Specialty Chemicals 






FMP 


FMC Corp., Industrial Chemical Group 


RBC 


Fike Chemicals, Inc. 


FMS 


First Mississippi Corp. 


RH 


Rohm 6, Haas Co. 


FMI 


Fairmount Chemical Co., Inc. 


RPC 


A Kewanee Industry, Mlllmaster Onyx 


FND 


Fiber Industries, Inc. 




Group, Refined-Onyx Co. Div. 



XIV -- MISCELLANEOUS END-USE CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 



353 



TABLE 3. --Miscellaneous end-use chemicals and chemical products: Directory 

OF MANUFACTURERS, 1977--CONT I NUED 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


RSA 


R.S.A. Corp. 


TER 

TNA 


Terra Chemicals International, 
Ethyl Corp. 


Inc. 


SAG 


Swift Agricultural Chemicals 


TRI 


Triad Chemicals 




SFA 


Stauffer Chemical Co., Agricultural Dlv. 


TRO 


Troy Chemical Corp. 




SHC 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Dlv. 


TVA 


Tennessee Valley Authority 




SHP 


Shepherd Chemical Co. 


TX 


Texaco, Inc. 




SKP 


Shakespeare Co., Monofilament Div. 








SM 


Mobil Oil Corp., Chemical Co., 


UCC 


Union Carbide Corp. 






Chemical Coatings Div. 


USR 


Uniroyal, Inc., Unlroyal Chemic 


al Dlv. 


SMP 


J.R. Simplot Co., Minerals & Chemical 










Div. 


VLN 


Valley Nitrogen Producers, Inc 




SNI 


Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corp., Kaiser 










Agricultural Chemicals Div. 


WAY 


Phillip A. Hunt Chemical Corp. 


Organic 


SOH 


Vistron Corp. 




Chemical Div. 




SPD 


General Electric Co., Silicone Products 


WBC 


Worthington Biochemical Corp. 






Dept. 


WBG 


White i Bagley Co. 




SPR 


Scientific Protein Laboratories, Inc. 


WLC 


Agrico Chemical Co. 




SW 


Sherwin-Williams Co. 


WTC 


Witco Chemical Corp. 




SWS 


Stauffer Chemical Co., SWS Silicones 
Div. 


WYC 


Wycon Chemical Co. 





Note. — Complete names and addresses of the above reporting compa 



ed in Table 1 of the Append! 



SECTION XV -- MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 355 

Miscellaneous Cyclic and Acyclic Chemicals 
K. James O'Connor, Jr. and Janet Dietzman 

The term miscellaneous chemicals as it is used here comprises those 
synthetic organic products that are not included in the use groups covered 
by the other sections of this report. They include products that are em- 
ployed in a great variety of uses. The number of chemicals used extensively 
for only one purpose is not large. Among the products covered are those 
used for refrigerants, aerosols, solvents, and a wide range of chemical 
intermediates. 

U.S. production of miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals in 1977 
amounted to 87 billion pounds, an increase of 7.5 percent over 1976. U.S. 
sales for 1977 totaled 39 billion pounds valued at $7.9 billion. Compared 
with 1976, sales quantity increased by 17 percent and sales value increased 
by 11.7 percent. Production of miscellaneous cyclic chemicals comprised only 
2.4 percent of this section's total production. 

The group among miscellaneous acyclic chemicals with the greatest 
volume of production and sales is the halogenated hydrocarbons. U.S. pro- 
duction for this group in 1977 was 23.9 billion pounds, an increase of 
15 percent over the previous year. Production increased in all segments of 
this group except fluoronated hydrocarbons. The production of fluoronated 
hydrocarbons decreased from 1 million pounds in 1976 to 921,000 pounds in 1977. 
This segment of the industry is expected to continue its decline because of 

Federal regulations limiting the use of certain fluoronated hydrocarbons. 



XV -- f'.ISCELLAMEOUS CYCLIC Af)D ACYCLIC CHfl^JCALS 357 

TABLE 1.— Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals: U.S. production and sales^ 1977' 

[Listed below are all miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals for which any reported data on production or sales 
may be published. (Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be pub- 
lished or where no data were reported.) Table 2 lists all miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals for which 
data on production and/or sales were reported and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



^aSCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



PRODUCTION 



SALES 



Grand total 

CYCLIC 

Total 

Benzoic acid, sodium salt 

Benzoyl peroxide 

Benzyl alcohol 

tert-Butyl peroxybenzoate 

Caprolactara 

2 , 6-Di- tert-butyl-p-cresol (BHT) : 

Food grade 

Tech . grade 

Dioxane (1,4-Diethylene oxide) 

Hexamethylenetetramine, tech. grade ; 

p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, propyl ester 

2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone 

Maleic anhydride 

a-Pinene 

B-Pinene 

Tall oil salts 

All other miscellaneous cyclic chemicals 

ACYCLIC 

Total ■ 

Nitrogenous Compounds 

Total' 

Amides 

Amines, total 

Butylamines , total 

n-Butylamine, mono- 

Dl-n-butylamine 

All other butylamines 

Ethylamines: 

Diethylamine 

Triethylamine 

Isopropylamine, mono- 

Methylamines: 

Dime thy lamine 

Methylamine, mono- 

Trime thy lamine 

All other 

2-Dlmethylaminoethanoi (N,N-Dimethylethanolamine) 

Ethanolamines , total 

2-Aminoethanol (Monoethanolamine) 

2, 2'-Aminodiethanol (Diethanolamine) 

2,2',2"-Nitrilotriethanol (Triethanolamine) 



1,000 
pounds 

86,968,069 



2,076.136 



13,600 
7,048 
8,096 
3,329 
867,339 

10,777 

11,942 

12,251 

88,171 

230 

793 

293,965 

93,018 

38,658 

2,887 

624,032 



84,891.933 



297,050 
1,410,088 



3,977 
4,424 



14,179 
13,700 
42,632 

71,815 

53,227 

31,705 

1,174,429 

7,008 



102,732 
100,932 
104,745 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



663,163 



12,348 
7,101 
5,526 
3,417 



9,543 
11,706 

5,671 
41,926 

704 

224,116 

7,376 

6,773 

1,11b 

105, OT) 



37,709,300 



6,632 
16,410 
3,982 
6,303 



8,079 
9,802 
3,902 
12,850 

1,681 

69,000 

745 

1,910 

1,810 

520,057 



125,605 
416,757 



69,857 
225.756 



3,636 
35,327 

6,964 
10,983 
39,561 

62,094 
31,353 
27,613 
199,226 

5,411 



89,356 
83,773 
95,781 



2,169 
18,165 

3,943 
8,016 
14,016 

19,807 

9,958 

8,316 

141,366 

4,120 

93,954 



30,037 
29,451 
34,466 



Per 
pound 



.11 
1.84 



.85 
.84 
.69 
.31 



end of table. 



358 



SYNTHFTIC ORfiANIC CHEMICALS, 1977 



TABLE 1. --Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals: U.S. production 
AND sales, 1977'— Continued 



MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE ' 



ACYCLIC — Cont Inued 

Nitrogenous Compounds — Continued 

Hexamethylene diamine adipate (Nylon salt) 

Nitriles , total 

Acetonltrile 

Acrylonitrile 

2-Methyllactonitrile (Acetone cyanohydrln) 

Nitriles, all other 

All other nitrogenous compounds 

Acids, Acyt Halides, and Anhydrides 

Total 

Acetic acid, 100% 

Acetic anhydride, 100% 

Acrylic acid 

Adipic acid 

Dodecenylsucclnic anhydride 

Fumaric acid 

Lauroyl chloride " 

Oxalic acid 

Polyacrylic acid 

Propionic acid 

All other acids, acyl halides, and anhydrides — 

Salts of Organic Acids 

Total 

Acetic acid salts, total 

Barium acetate 

Sodium acetate 

Zinc acetate 

All other 

2-Ethylhexanoic aclij (a-Ethylcaprolc acid) salt! 
total 

Calcium 2-ethylhexanoate 

Cobalt 2-ethylhexanoate 

Lead 2-ethylhexanoate 

Manganese 2-ethylhexanoate ■ 

Zinc 2-ethylhexanoate 

Zirconium 2-ethylhexanoate 

All other 

Malelc acid salts 

Stearic acid salts, total'' 

Aluminum distearate 

Aluminum trlstearate 

Barium stearate 

Cudmlum stearate 

C - Iclum stearate 

Lead stearate 

Magnesium stearate 

Zinc stearate 

All other 

All other salts of organic acids 



57,840 

1,646,021 

843,692 



2,570,238 

283,358 

1,535,500 

1,342 

33,971 

2,045 

12,285 

1,948 

84,020 

2,065,421 



18,496 

415 

4,044 



3,005 

297 

795 

48 

50,535 

1,446 

4,991 

26,680 

3,782 

269,656 



717,325 



526,389 
190,936 
516,784 



599,990 
138,563 

40,137 

181,097 

1,264 

28,567 

12,278 

1,821 

48,619 

428,086 



417 
19,607 



298 

797 

48 

50,980 

1,211 

4,583 

25,865 

3,973 

195,066 



1,000 
dollars 



156,347 



127,869 
28,478 

214,817 

438,051 



79,729 
30,618 
12,894 
61,554 
868 
11,689 

4,899 

1,671 

8,518 

225,611 



521 
10,634 



1,991 


2,003 


1,377 


4,409 


3,975 


6,582 


1,896 


1,899 


1,126 


1,401 


1,442 


1,056 


1,565 


1,545 


1,285 


2,660 


2,619 


3,650 


2,359 


2,200 


4.394 



2,242 

229 

578 

98 

28,297 

904 

3,141 

18,313 

3,328 

76,689 



Per 
pound 



end of table. 



MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC 



ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



359 



TABLE 1.— Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals; U.S. production 

AND SALES^ 1977 ' "-CONT INUED 



MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE ^ 



ACYCLIC— Continued 
A Idehydes 



Total- 



But yraldehyde 

Formaldehyde (37% by 

I sobut yraldehyde 

All other 



cetone, total 

From cumene 

From isopropyl alcohol- 



2-Butanone (Methyl ethyl ketone) 

^-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (Diacetone alco 
A-Methyl-2-pentanone (Methyl Isobutyl ketone)- 

4-Methyl-3-penten-2-one (Mesltyl oxide) 

All other 



Alcohols, Monohydpic, Unsubstituted 
Total 



lower , 



nixed, total- 



Alcohols, Cu or 
Butyl alcohols 

n-Butyl alcohol (n- Propylcarbinol) — 
Isobutyl alcohol (Isopropylcarbinol)- 

Ethyl alcohol, synthetic^ 

2-Ethyl-l-hexanol 

n-Hexyl alcohol 

Isopropyl alcohol 

Methanol, synthetic 

Propyl alcohol (Propanol) 

All other 



Alcohols 
All othe 



C 1 2 and higher , unmixed 

unmixed monohydric alcohols 



Esters of Monohydric Alcohls 



Total- 



nixed- 



n-Butyl acetate 

Butyl acrylate 

Dlbutyl maleate 

Di(2-ethyl-l-hexyl) maleate 

Dilauryl-3 , 3 ' -thiodipropionate 

Ethyl acetate (85%) 

Ethyl acrylate 

2-Ethyl-l-hexyl acrylate 

Fatty Acid Esters, not included with plastlcizers 

surface-active agents 

Isobutyl acetate 

Methyl acetate 

Methyl methacrylate 

Phosphorus acid esters, not elsewhere specified — 

Propyl acetate 

Vinyl acetate 

All other 



1,000 
pounds 



8,904,565 



791,942 
6,046,497 

382,853 
1,633,273 



3,335,042 



1,323,751 
894,868 



241,455 
37,639 
325,748 



840,488 

173,319 
,338,635 

492,589 

41,431 

,888 ,'413 

,452,741 

111,067 
,032,740 

380,661 



3,916,779 



114,291 

260,057 

4,826 

779 

2,100 

217,846 

260,187 

47,430 

25,570 

4,466 
744,950 
54,830 
49,411 
,585,745 
544,281 



1,000 
pounds 



3,147,460 



1,000 
dollars 



204,397 



42,948 

2,789,782 

4,953 

309,777 



7,821 

127,517 

670 

68,389 



,117,867 
438,576 

509,463 
46,750 

165,043 
22,372 

150,629 



147,837 
53,403 

95,293 
12,688 
41,882 
5,851 
35,106 



420,425 
130,014 
942,972 
339,429 
24,719 
1,281,993 
3,630,385 
86,929 



1,364,300 
418,153 



72,940 

17,250 
170,860 

70,468 

5,743 

162,165 

210,111 

20,643 



167,823 
132,247 



109,797 

125,852 

5,273 

2,093 
220,225 
128,118 
48,337 

25,890 
42,734 

194,969 
45,087 
44,65* 
789,442 
325,860 



27,090 

44,078 

1,978 

2,548 
38,302 
35,318 
19,102 

13,487 
10,262 

72,055 
36,030 
11,376 
140,333 
135,591 



Per 
pound 



.14 
.22 



See footnotes at end of table. 



360 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHFTIICALS. 1977 



TABLE 1. --Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals; U.S. production 

AND SALES^ 1577 ' '-CONT INUED 



MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEmCALS 



ACYCLIC — Continued 

Polyhydrio Alcohols^ 



Total- 



Ethylene glycol 

Glycerol, synthetic only- 
Pen taerythritol 

Propylene glycol 

Sorbitol (70% by weight) - 
All other 



Polyhydria Alcohol Esters 

Total 

ylate 



Trimethylolpropane t 
All other 



Polyhydria Alcohol Ethers 
Total 



2-Butoxyethanol 

2-(2-Butoxyethoxy)ethanol (Diethylene glycol 

monobuty I ether) 

2- [ 2- (2-Bu toxyethoxy) ethoxy ] ethanol (Triethylen 

glycol, monobutyl ether 

Diethylene glycol 

Dipropylene glycol 

2-Ethoxyethanol 

2-(2-Ethoxyethoxy)ethanol (Diethylene glycol 

monoethyl ether 1 

2- [ 2- (2-Ethoxyethoxy) ethoxy ] ethanol (Triethylen 

glycol monoethyl ether) 

2-Methoxyethanol (Ethylene glycol monomethyl 

ether) 

2-(2-Methoxyethoxy)ethanol (Diethylene glycol 

monomethyl ether) 

2- [ 2- ( 2-Me thoxyethoxy) ethoxy ] ethanol (Triethyle 

glycol monomethyl ether) 

Polyethylene glycol 

Polypropylene glycol 

Propylene glycol, mixed ethers 

Tetraethylene glycol 

Triethylene glycol 

All other 



Halogenated Hydrocarbons 



Total- 
Brominated hydr 



arbons- 



Chlorinated hydrocarbons, total 

Carbon tetrachloride 

Chlorinated paraffins, total 

35%-6« chloride 

Other 

Chloroethane (Ethyl chloride) 

Chloroform 

Chloromethane (Methyl chloride) 

1,2-Dlchloroethane (Ethylene dichloride) — 

Dlchloromethane (Methylene chloride) 

1,2-Dichloropropane (Propylene dichloride)- 
Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) 



^.993.181 



3,675 
140, 
114, 
489, 
196, 
377, 



,067 
,464 



129, 
429, 



,165 

,485 

,457 
,158 
,266 
,928 

,352 

,383 

,024 

,335 

,613 
,728 
,394 
,674 

622 
884 



23,901.524 



612, 
301, 
475, 
10,996, 
477, 
58, 



4,016,911 



2,958,366 
131,768 
107,341 
487,152 
163,507 
168,777 



148,805 
25,413 



96,579 

12,648 

9,208 
81,041 
24,388 

16,583 
101,237 
343,926 



8,879,757 



385,491 
81,502 
70,926 
10,576 
295,717 
285,114 
195,933 
1,525,984 
475,118 

526,993 



1,000 
doliars 



918,946 



556,557 
62,726 
47,036 

121,146 
54,343 
77,138 



44,017 
7,965 



41,198 
12,090 
29,815 



3 


269 


30 


517 


9 


060 


6 


096 


29 


521 


134 


338 



1,165,373 
49,078 
23,127 
18,755 
4,372 
40,807 
49,387 
26,868 
123,107 
87,494 

62,994 



See footnot 



end of table. 



XV - MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



361 



TABLE 1. —Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals: U.S. production 
AND sivLEs, 1977'— Continued 



>aSCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



ACYCLIC — Cont Inued 
Balogenated Hydrocarbons — Continued 

Chlorinated hydrocarbons , total — Continued: 
1,1,1-Trichloroethane (Methyl chloroform)- 

Trichloroethylene 

Vinyl chloride, monomer (Chloroethylene) — 
All other chlorinated hydrocarbons 



Fluorinated hydrocarbons, total 

Chlorodifluoromethane (F-22) 

Dichlorodlfluorome thane (F-12) 

Tetraf luoroethylene, monomer 

Trichlorof luoromethane (F-11) 

All other fluorinated hydrocarbons- 



lodinated hydrocarbons 

All other halogenated hydrocarbo 



Alt Other Miscellaneous Acyclic Chemicals 
Total 



2-Butanone peroxide 

ert-Butyl peroxide (Di 
Carbon disulfide 



rt-butyl peroxide)- 



Epoxides, ethers, and acetals 

Ethylene oxide 

Ethyl ether, absolute 

Propylene oxide 

All other epoxides, ethers. 



Hydrocarbons- 



Phosgene (Carbonyl chl 

Silicone fluids 

Sodium methoxide (Sodi 
All other 



PRODUCTION 



1,000 
pounds 

634,844 

297,503 

5,985,912 

1,560,824 

920,825 



179,368 
358,281 
24,990 
212,556 
145,6 30 

58 



8,236 
2,830 

504,528 

6.664.811 



4,364,070 

8,141 

1,865,838 

426,762 



665,993 

142,408 

9,982 

,129,155 



1,000 
pounds 

560,070 

295,386 

4,127,058 

125,391 



128,676 
339,559 



8,386 

2,728 

389,963 



1,062,927 
4,693 



68,797 
15,323 
223,148 



1,000 
dollars 

114,428 
47,094 

507,545 
33,444 



88,123 
135,923 



9,911 
2,669 
31,164 



240,303 
2,720 



114,687 

4,775 

182,214 



UNIT 
VALUE? 



Per 
pound 



Certain data have been revised for 1976. These revis 



summarized below: 



mSCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



QUANTITY : VALUE 



UNIT 
VALUE 



Grand Total- 



is 50(7 
pounds 



80.891.931 



1,000 
pounds 



33.109.792 



1,000 
dollars 



87.731 



Miscellaneous chemicals, cyclic, total 

All other miscellaneous chemicals, cyclic 
Miscellaneous chemicals, acyclic, total — 

Nitrogenous compounds, total 

Amines , total 

Amines, all other 

Nitrogenous compounds, all other 

Calculated from rounded figures. 
Statistics exclude production and 
Active Agents." 

' Statistics exclude production and 
included with "Surface-Active Agents." 

^ Statistics on production of ethyl alcohol from 
of the Treasury, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Fi 
Some polyols which are used as intermediates f< 
Materials." 



2,214,054 
1,026,402 
78,677,877 
6,561,575 
1,317,039 
327,433 
760,188 

;tatistics o 



1,019,104 

751,087 

32,090,688 

1,904,620 
415,658 
283,490 
424,383 



635,006 
514,005 
6,452,725 
742,255 
227,511 
174,833 
190,114 



Per 
pound 



.39 
.55 



.45 



les of fatty amines. Statistics on fatty amines are given with "Surface 
les of potassium and sodium stearates. Statistics on these stearates ar 
natural sources by fermentation are Issued by the Department 
r urethanes have been included with "Plastics and Resin 



362 



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XV -- MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



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365 






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XV - MISCELWNEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



359 



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XV - MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



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XV -- MISCELLAN[OUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



373 



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SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1977 






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575 



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XV -- MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



377 



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re (13 TS H 

4^ 4-J -H •-] 

u u u < 



I u) .. a> 
4) -p in *» 
+j H H « 



i.^ 



* M O M I 

rH = «o U ; 

O O «< •■ 



ITJ-Our trO U'OO s 



lOUUUUvJJ.-^! 



373 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHETIICALS, 1977 



H H U -J I 



. U H =C U U ( 



>* E-« Eh >* <-* 






X H 



O O +J 

Q- O O 

O J3 -H 

M CLja QJ 0) H J= 

a: u) 4-" •*-' *J -»=: ■*-» 

e-i o ---t fl (fl -p -.-4 

M J3 -C O O -H Q 

Q D. O ■'^ -'^ TJ w 

H j= at? -a -c --( 

h-i *j ui o o a- (0 

< 0) o i-* i-t "J to 

o o " 






4-> V 



4J ui «s 



I H <D to 4-» -P 



< H ^ 0) •* ■ 



B X U M 

9 O «« S >=> 



O < W B (J a 05 



CO to -4J 4) (/) -H 1 

1 I Q) -C -^ 73 ' 

^ .H ■-< -H -H O J 

3 O O ' 



inOCT3 ofld' ^K^oato 



U) T) IJ) 



0, a> I 

*J *J 0) 



I <; cu t« ^j «: o I 



O O O O - 



a-H o -fl 



O U -^ o. o u 

M r-l -O O Z rH ■ 



I Oj u tj ta T3 • 



i^S 



<U <1> 

to to . 



0) (0 (/} 

■p 

(0 B 0) 

3 to 

a H 01 



!* -e DQ u u U Ou . 



XV - MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



379 



-H "O 8H 
« O 



0^10=)HM'-H>.! 



-H TJ Q O W 



' X} rH 3 Ui a 

) I >. J3 a. fo 

1 U ^ O O tT> 



O rH M to -H V (J 



CO W Z 



■H -H V U H 



o t/) www 
a w (J w to tn 






H O 
>■ X 
^ U 






'O'O'OWQfl.H UUO- 

r oj tJ 4J ^ o i 

•o « U O 3 J U 



^ >■ u >. 0) u 



4j0^a(iia.iva) 



380 



SYNTH [TIC ORGANIC CHB1ICALS, 1977 



o o 

M H 



S^ 



I btf u 6<: E-* (O : 






Se 



= L X I 



: -o ^ -^ Q) -^ w 

) >. >, OJ S <D '' 

I jg J B o a ( 



S.2. 



I v^ O 01 

-■ fH a 
> 0) ^ o 



-Q o a- ■* 



O r^ na ^ 



a> o I 

■*j a c 

0) CL : 






■H -H ' 
Q Q . 



0) 01 0> -H <-'-H 



H X 
H H 



0) M 
I *J P o ' 



a> 0) 

c3 e 

o o 

0) 0) 



U O rH 0) 0> XJ 9 

I -o a. o c >' 



0) 0) 

o o 



0) +> rH o «- o : 



a, ^ z u o o 



0) c 
o V 



H U J3 *J 

I .J *j a 



r-t u Q o a a 3: I 
^ o I V} 0) a> I 

U rH ro -H 3] m in 



^ > V 

! O U 5 



: ^ (fl o> *j 4-> o 



0)0)3 •OOOHE 



XV -- MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



381 



• O » H M U ( 



! ^ fc, rj 

I w «< a 

: U t5 W 



H H Oi 
O O O ! 



OOU-CWO^r-i 






U N^ U "O ;5 



*-*ja o a o 



J 35 O i 
O J 



0) 0) t aJ5 QJ o u 



I o o o o. o 



^ O C 

O JZ 0) -H 

j: H o H y o 

o o u o 0* a H 

u c <-• a -a (0 o 

H (0 Id IT) « u a 

JO Of ^ Q> b X) u 

C H -o >^'o o <0 0) I 

= 0-533 00 Wf-H, 

5 I O I V) ( .^ , , 






a d 



■H O 

in o o 
o w o 



o u w 

C CTJ H, . 

o -a -« 

a 4j H 



382 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHIMICALS, 1977 



H U 
U < 

Z3 Du, 



^J U --4 -J U Q 
I H H H H t-« Z 



.-) ,-J _) a Z ■ 



Cb < U -^ !*= 



4J ^ 4-> O U <« 
IT) -M => U (D ^ 

iD I O O O > 



OH u fl 

OH r-( 









o o o o o o 

^ ^ <D Q} ^ Oj 0) 






0* TJ 

<v o 



o o 

o o 






(ll(DN_iDa>(V<j)- 



' r-l B I 



XV -- MISCELLANWUS CYCLIC PND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



383 









O *J 

o 



4J <0 « 

I . 01 CD . 



I *J dt • (O ^ f 



u o o >■ >* >. 

'O M-( £ X X >! , 

o o u dJ 01 1* 

. O O U I I • ■ 



O --4 « 
U ^ 0) 
Of 0) O (0 4J 






4^ a. 

f« o 

V 4J U 

« u o 

o o a 



U'D>-uuu-c:j3a' 



OS O I W *J *J w6 



■ a> Q. X ^ ^ j: . 

B O +J 4J *J *J 



o o o o o o 
(/I (A CO en ui 10 



384 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1977 



O OQ 









H H 
H U 
U -< 



4JJ=O*Jfl0-C«J 
•H 0.13 <0 O JS Q.^ 

. O 1-t O JS o w 



0) *H 



O V 
4jOO<DUC>H<V(J-i-' 






fH a> u 



. W 01 o o 



o-Hoa a'lia'o.a.v 

0.0-0 cra>—t ra-n o Oj3 
^jC >-o cr-o-cjaj;^ o, 

O Q. a. a a. o. t/} 



Q) (0 41MJ3J3 a.i-1 ;^w*j O^ >-'0 o o o r-t .-t , 






tn ^ 



0) a> ■ 



0) , 



: H H H H f^ ' 



XV - MISCELLAN [OUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



385 



•J t Ot »-i U "UU z' 



Eh a.-H a> 



u «3 
V 4J •-* 0) t/1 '-' "^ ■ 



y o 



cc o 0) .-t 

O U^ rry V U Q) OI-H-HU^AJOoJ OO' 



, ^ ^ ,-< 0) 



0) <D 0) -w d) 0* Q) "^ i 



U U 4J d* •!) M V ' ' 

O. O- W H f- f^ H 



O Oi 

o o 



w O 

•a 

O a 

■o Q, 
4> o 



a> 0) o a; 
e Q u s 
» >- o H 



^-1 3 3- 

I (N ^ cr> <» < 



Jia; 



386 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



I s u >^ <-> 3 a X . 



I u o « x: « 



I u m > I 
I (J ■« w ■ 



!03QQUUU^UI 



■H o U 

0) O .H 

U i: u 

. <0 wE-i 



I j= 01 ^ ^ 01 






01 >. 4J 



O i-M J= O w I 



0)*J U-'^ 0) QJrH*J 



0) ►no • o ' 



.H.H-H4,>(JQJ(1' ■HUfOBOl 


^ 


^ <— < (H H 


oooo'flo.Hai^o'O *i 




o o o cr- 


UOUUOflO-'-'OU .-twfl 


J3 




>->.>.ro CrH-H <n •'^ s-r-i ;*»>.*j 




■H .^ -H 0) 


^^-(■H o u u q.'Op-i s-aao) 


U 




cr(TO"o a-MV-H oitT-ao o 




-a j3 ^ 0) 


73 C 4J U U fl 




*> +J *' ^ 


0) 0) (r.-H>-<.-H-H ici ^ ^ ^ ao. 








c 




a)<DaJuui-<i-<^a'(Dxxx-H 




<U Q) 0) *J 


^^^OlOJOlDOSCrHOOO^ 


'H 


fl (fl (0 dj 


»->'>.UOUUUI >stj'-'UO 


O 


^ ^^ *i >. 












dJ Q) 01 


bJtijwutsootJ'-scxrcar^J 


_] 


Cb a. a, Oi 



XV -- MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



387 



O CQ 



H3'-1U'-»CCi-)!bX( 



O O I 

M a I 
a- o , 



(DUO) >-J3 



0) 0) 
. 0) 01 



I u a; to v^ c 0) 

) fl a -H .H Of V 

-r^ .H u u a, en 

< t3 t3 jj V I a> 

( ^ _, at Qj •^ 
- o o c a <- o 
( u u « fl I ^ 

r >■ >• a. u.^ o 

-^ r-( o o >. o 



e c o o B o 

0) Q) >~t <-* -H -H 

>. >. J5 J= f-. XJ 

V ■«-■ OJ 0) '^ J3 

01 OJ B B • >. 

U U U U - O 

M H H H ^ CI. 



ja o 0) a> 

V -tJ ^ r-^ 



X -tJ ^"^ *J --• JS O Q) * 








1 O 1 












B 


1 JS 1 




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1 4J 1 














o u 


1 M 1 



O 0) 

U >• 0) >■ 

< O -w O - 



>. 0* T) O - 



• -H O OJ 3 

, O J= '-^ >,X1 
I C +J U M O 

-a >. ja +J o . 
+j X *» 3 a ■ 

Of O 0) CO 



' w^ t^ crcn OJ 



(U >-^ o Q) • 



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a> 


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a 

















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1 


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s 


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u 


^ 


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^- 


Cr 



=2 tu 



SYNTHLTIC ORGANIC CHB1ICALS. 1977 



L) U U 

s i: u 
o o n 



o o o o 



0) <Q 



a (p O 1 
•Q j= ^ . 
O *> *J J 



<D Of 

j: - * >• a , 

■U U X o - 

0) 0) o a 

>-J3 J= o 

X 4-) 4-) e 



, O O >-t3 -O *-* = 



-, "-* I O at rH >• * X I 



o w 
o o 



u 0) (u >• o m ' 



0) 0) Oi M ^ 



. U ID 



>, X ^ ♦J u 



^ 0) j: 

a 0) Q 
o ^ e 

a a 1- 

3 >. O 4-' 0) o *) ' 



0) r-( • 
D- v; O Q. -U >.. 

^ g ^ ^ ^ o 



0) •'J: o >» 



XV - MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



389 



H U 

U << 



^U»U>'>*UJ: 



0) U 'H 



= O J3 
(J L4 
O ^ rH 
K >• 

O ^ 4J 
03 >. 3 

a o m o 

O 2 I OJ (1> u 

CO M c w a a. 

CO Q w w fl o 

■< =3 -a u 

U -1 4-> O 

O U 01 01 * -I 

OS » c c a j= 

Q M nj fl O U 

>* ^^-tJ *i u t 
30 3 3 0'^ 

Q J3 ja "-t I 

Q U O O ^ O- 

H H a a u B 

H < O O O O ' 



0) o 

•H i3 

B 

o ^ 



« v o 

V o o 

0) a e 

o o o 



O IT 

m a ^ 

O H = 



I a> o 

> c a ( 

' v- o , 



O O O O (^ --H .. 



o o o . 

M H -a • 



cn » '^ T) 



<p 0) a> in 01 



:^ ^ ^ i, ; 



:aMOOOooo 
)-QOj3jaj:-i=oO' 



0^ <P 01 (K 'O XI Of 

a a a Q. ra o o 

fl I I V M u 

ja fN csj U 3 o O 

0) o O O O jO J 

U Ui J-i u u 

O O O H -H 



390 



SYNTH mC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1977 



O CO 

H «: 

H H 



ffi a, 
H o 



u o -< u => u 



o = 

H H 
H U 






01 O -H 



. (1) 01 (V 

0) 0) d e a 

a. a. c: 
. -^ , o o o 

4) +J 4J 0) U| u s 



I tH o u u o u ( 



1 i~ fN d ' 



J3 Ul U r^ M U 01 

*J O O >■ O 'O 

<D --H ^ j: ^ rH -H 

O XJ JS 4J J3 j3 U 

U U U 0) o u o 

O -H H O rH .^ i-t 

-jaHfH OHH U 
J U I I rH I I 
5 « •- fN j3 rn m -< 
^ u » » u •■•■>- 

' 01 • • U • -H 



0> C 

O » « 



(0 w 





» (0 


O fl 


V >,J3 


J3 


rg +J 


o 


a» fl 




»" j: 


3 J= 


<D ^ V 








0) Ul M 




0) 


r-4 4-1 


O 4J 0) 


0> 


fN a 





a o 0) 0) 




u-f 0> 


u 0) a 




» o 




'0 M ... J3 








o o o 


o 






j: J3 >. 




o 


X) O 






• o 




V u a u 








-^ 




.- 3 




01 fl o 




-c o 


- O 


•W 3 3 


a 


1 H 




o U U 3 


» 


u = 


• 3 






O **-( 


*j 


U 4-> CXrH 


s 


1 rH 




4.> iw tu 




S -H 


0> 


O OJ <w 








-H 


-a 


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1 -H 


.M 


0) M U 


-O 


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-* 


w 


u ^ 


a+j V 




^ u 




>M u 3 a. 


u 


s ■»-' 


O O 


O O 




H O 


o 


■H W O 


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o o 
















U B 


jz O 


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I rH fl 


a 


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ja 


<N U 






£ 




1 j= 








-H 


^■H Q) ^ 


fN CO 


*- u 


u u u 


Q 


*- a 


Q 





XV - MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



391 



O CQ 



: "S •« -« U U H H 



J3 a> C <D '^ ' 

a> B 0) u s -H ^ ' 



0) 



H C 



JJ 01 O V 

Q* a =j . 

O O -H 

! O O O O 3 



I -W O 0) 5) 



u u 



O >, «s O O O 



J O 'O 
1 -H M 

I n4 

) r-^ U 
i >- 5- 
) J3 U 

I *J < 

) Q, 

I E IT) 

, 01 =: ■ 

a •« 

IQ _] 

1 J= ^ 

I (1) u 

O M ' 



O -H 
Q' X 

o o 









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*i V ^ 

^ J3 H I 



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^ ' 












a 0) o 1 




M jS V) 








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*J ^ J3 




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■H ^ at 








w u -^J 




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Q "^ 




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a >. 




(0 -n 1 








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^ (a -a 




><'"' +j 1 








o >* a 1 


1 <u 



V a> I 
o o o . 

o o o 

H rH ^ 

■a -a -c , 
o u u 



O ^ rH ^ 






t M M OS (P 






' i5 j= « I I 



I •— (y w yj ui 



392 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



U 35 



M U 

n a 



U 3 •> 



1 fc* n kJ i»^ ui • 

\ tS ta U ID IQ a 



■r^ 4^ r-i >i 



< ^ 4 

J W C 

J c 

W - I 

M Q ^ 

SMC 

cc; o c 



S w Sj 



tn w u 0) w <u 









I 9 Ui >. >. >. , 



0) a> 

c c 



■3 5 



I J3 -C >- O O , . _ 



O O T3 0! C *J 



XV -- MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



393 



z -J 

o m 

M < 



i-* i-^ i-> fri tri ^ 



UU HE-E-iHF-'f-'HF-iosait^HE 



O X U H H C 



:< OuUU<-i<JU 
rf QQQQaQn 



> *> OJ D o -H y . 



X 


(U 


p, 


o 














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a 


m 


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^ 


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o o ja u 



■-* 4) -H W iH I 



) (fl ■*-• ^ o 3 'H o : 



a)coo>'aiB*j*^o 



' O J >. 3 O E -H ' 

i fl O 3 1 fl O -C - 

I tr z ™ U D- z ■»-' . 

■ o o e « o o = ! 



o M 

u a. 
o o 



M O 
O O 

1 U ca ' 



O O >■ 

o o o 



3% 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



D Q 






•> J O U = a 



I U f-i tn «e ( 



01 » o i> -M 

■H-H'^^uo otn 4*0' 



(rt "-H iH VI tn 0) 

o a- ♦J 



; o >. o --I <u 01 



w o 

a a > -^ 

o o O Ql H 3 

U U U H W Z XJ 
O O O u I M H 

OrHr-l^4-'OHt-l 



OJ 



1 .-I a cu 



rH JJ ja xJ I 

C C (J 

H H -H .r^ H *J *J •'^ U ■ 

4J4->+J+J4-»rH'H4-'Z 



._|U<DX>-HUUU>. 
; I D I Q) O H U U l-< -rH 



■H :3 T3 

A cn o 



<!>•-* 0) «M >4-i a ^ 



w - 



iQQf-'EHOOCl M O 



Qj J3 -H O O O O 



XV -- MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



395 











» 










H 










O 










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i: • 










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1 < 










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1 M M 








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1 •=> 










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1 ra oa 








cu c 


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t u u 




















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1 n 
















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1 








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1 


















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0) 


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395 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEfllCALS. 1977 



TABLE 3,— Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals: 
OF manufacturers, 1977 



Directory 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



[Names of manufacture 
International Trade 
table 2] 



ted production or sales 
or 1977 are listed belo 



2llaneous cyclic and acyclic chemic 
order of their identification code 



to the U.S. 
used in 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


AAC 


Alcolac Chemical Corp. 


CNP 


Nipro Inc. 




ABB 


Abbott Laboratories 


CO 


Continental Oil Co. 




ACS 


Allied Chemical Corp., Specialty Chemicals 


CPS 


CPS Chemical Co. 






Div. 


CPV 


Cook Paint & Varnish Co., Inc. 




ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 


CRN 


CPC International, Inc., Amerchol 




ADC 


Anderson Development Co. 


CRZ 


Crown Zellerbach Corp., Chemical Produ 


cts 


AIP 


Air Products S. Chemicals, Inc. 




Div. 




ALB 


Ames Laboratories, Inc. 


CTN 


Chemetron Corp., Chemical Products Div 




ALD 


Aldrich Chemical Co., Inc. 


CWN 


Upjohn Co., Fine Chemical Div. 




/LF 


Allied Chemical Corp., Fibers Div. 








ALX 


Alox Corp. 


DA 


Diamond Shamrock Corp. 




AMB 


American Bio-Synthetics Corp. 


DAN 


Dan River, Inc., Chemical Products 




ASA 


Arapahoe Chemicals, Inc. Sub/Syntex 




Dept. 






Corp. (U.S. A) 


DEC 


Dow Badlsche Co. 




ARC 


Armak Co. 


DCC 


Dow Coming Corp. 




ARS 


Arsynco, Inc. 


DIX 


Dixie Chemical Co. 




ARZ 


Arizona Chemical Co. 


DKA 


Denka Chemical Corp. 




ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc., Ashland Chemical Co. 


DOM 


Dominion Products, Inc. 




ASL 


Ansul Chemical Co. 


DOW 


Dow Chemical Co. 




AZT 


Dart Industries, Inc., Aztec Chemicals Div. 


DUP 


E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. 








DVC 


Dover Chemical Corp. Sub. of ICC Indus 


trie 


BAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. 




Inc. 




BAX 


Baxter/Travenol Laboratories, Inc. 








BCC 


Buffalo Color Corp. 


EFH 


E. F. Houghton & Co. 




BFG 


B. F. Goodrich Co., B. F. Goodrich Chemical 


EK 


Eastman Kodak Co. : 






Co. Div. 


EKT 


Tennessee Eastman Co. Div. 




BKC 


J. T. Baker Chemical Co. 


EKX 


Texas Eastman Co. Div. 




BKL 


Kewanee Industries, Inc., Mlllmaster Chemical 


ELP 


El Paso Products Co. 






Co. Div. 


EMR 


Emery Industries, Inc. 




BME 


Bendix Corp., FMD Div. 


ENJ 


Exxon Chemical Co. U.S.A. 




BOR 


Borden Co., Borden Chemical Div. 


EVN 


Evans Chemetics, Inc. 




BRD 


Lonza, Inc. 








BUK 


Buckeye Cellulose Corp. 


FER 


Ferro Corp. : 

Grant Chemical Div. 




CAD 


Noury Chemical Corp. 




Kell Chemical Div. 




CAU 


Calcasieu Chemical Corp. 


FIN 


Hexcel Corp., Hexcel Specialty Chemica 


Is 


CBD 


Chembond Corp. 




FMC Corp.: 




CBY 


Crosby Chemicals, Inc. 


FMB 


Industrial Chemical Group 




CCA 


Interstab Chemical, Inc. 


FMB 


Specialty Chemicals Group 




CCH 


Pearsall Chemical Corp. 


FMP 


Industrial Chemical Group 




CCL 


Catawba-Charlab, Inc. 


FMT 


Falrmount Chemical Co., Inc. 




CCW 


Cincinnati Milacron Chemicals, Inc. 


FCC 


Handschy Chemical Co., Farac Oil 4 




CEL 


Celanese Corp. ; 




Chemical Div. 






Celanese Chemical Co. 


FRO 


Vulcan Materials Co., Chemicals Div. 






Celanese Fibers Co. 


FTE 


Foote Mineral Co. 




COY 


Ciba-Geigy Corp. 








CHG 


Mobay Chemical Corp., Chemagro Agricultural 


GAF 


GAF Corp. 






Div. 


GAN 


Gane's Chemical Works, Inc. 




CHL 


Chemol, Inc. 


GIV 


Glvaudan Corp. 




CHP 


C. H. Patrick 6, Co., Inc. 


GLY 


Glyco Chemicals, Inc. 




CHT 


Chattem Drug & Chemical Co., Chattem 


GNM 


General Mills Chemicals, Inc. 






Chemicals Div. 


GOG 


Gulf Oil Corp., Gulf Oil Chemicals Co. 


-U.S 


CLK 


Clark Chemical Corp. 


GP 


Georgia-Pacific Corp.: 




CLN 


Standard Brands, Inc., Clinton Corn Processing 
Co. Div. 




Plaquemine Div. 
Resins Operations 





XV - MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



397 



TABLE 3.- 



-MlSCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS: 
OF MANUFACTURERS^ 1977--CONTINUED 



Directory 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


GRD 


W. R. Grace i Co., Polymers i Chemicals Dlv. 


OCC 


Oxirane Chemical Co. 


GTL 


Great Lakes Chemical Corp. 


OH 


Airco, Inc., Ohio Medical Products Div. 


GYR 


Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. 


OMC 


Olin Corp. 






ONX 


A Kewanee Industry, Millmaster Onyx 


HAL 


C.P. Hall Co. 




Group, Onyx Chemical Co. 


HCF 


Hercoflna 


ORO 


Chevron Chemical Co. 


HCP 


Honlg Chemical i Processing Corp. 


ORT 


Roehr Chemicals, Inc. 


HDG 


Hodag Chemical Corp. 


OXC 


Oxochem Enterprise 


HDW 


Hardwicke Chemical Co. 


CXI 


Oxirane Chemical Co. (Channelview) 


HEX 


Hexagon Laboratories, Inc. 






HFT 


Syntex Agribusiness, Inc. 


PAS 


Pennwalt Corp. 


HK 


Hooker Chemicals i Plastic Corp.: 


PD 


Parke, Davis & Co. Sub of Warner-Lambert 


HKD 


Durez Div. 




Co. 


HMP 


U. R. Grace & Co., Organic Chemicals Div. 


PEN 


CPC International, Inc., Penick Corp. 


HMY 


Humphrey Chemical Co. 


PEN 


Pfanstiehl Laboratories, Inc. 


HN 


Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 


PFX 


Plastifax, Inc. 


HPC 


Hercules, Inc. 


PFZ 


Pfizer, Inc. S Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Inc 


HRT 


Hart Products Corp. 


PC 


Procter i Gamble Co. 


HSH 


Harshaw Chemical Co. 


PIC 


Pierce Chemical, Inc. 


HUM 


Kraft, Inc., Humko Products Chemical Div. 


PLC 


Phillips Petroleum Co. 






PLS 


Plastics Engineering Co. 


ICI 


ICI United States, Inc.: 


PMP 


Premier Malt Products, Inc. 




Chemical Specialties Group 


PPG 


PPG Industries, Inc. 




Plastics Div. 


PST 


Perstorp, Inc., Toledo Dlv. 


IMC 


IMC Chemical Group, Inc., Nltroparaf f in Dlv. 


PTT 


Petro-Tex Chemical 


IOC 


lonac Chemical Co. Div. of Sybron Corp. 


PUB 


Publicker Industries, Inc. 






PVO 


PVO International, Inc. 


JCC 


Jefferson Chemical Co., Inc. 










QKO 


Quaker Oats Co. 


KAI 


Kaiser Aluminum i Chemical Corp. 






KCC 


Kennecott Copper Corp., Chlno Mines Div. 


RBC 


Fike Chemicals, Inc. 


KCH 


Joseph Ayers, Inc. 


RCI 


Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. 


KF 


Kay-Fries Chemicals, Inc. 


RCN 


Racon, Inc. 


KPT 


Koppers Co. , Inc. 


RDA 


Rhodla, Inc. 






REH 


Rebels Chemical Co. Dlv. of Armour 


LEM 


Napp Chemicals, Inc. 




Pharmaceutical Co. 






REM 


Remington Arms Co., Inc. 


MAL 


Mallinckrodt Chemical Works 


RH 


Rohm & Haas Co. 


MCB 


Borg-Warner Corp., Borg-Warner Chemicals 


RSA 


R.S.A. Corp. 


MCI 


Mooney Chemicals, Inc. 


RUB 


Hooker Chemical Corp., Ruco Dlv. 


MHI 


Ventron Corp. 


RUC 


Rubicon Chemicals, Inc. 


MIL 


Mllliken & Co., Milliken Chemical Div. 






MLS 


Miles Laboratories, Inc., Marschall Div. 


S 


Sandoz, Inc. 


MMM 


Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co. 


SAL 


Salsbury Laboratories 


MNO 


Monochem, Inc. 


SAR 


Sartomer Industries, Inc. 


MNR 


Monroe Chemical 


SBC 


Scher Bros. 


MOB 


Hobay Chemical Co. 


SCM 


SCM Corp. 


MON 


Monsanto Co. 


SCP 


Henkel, Inc. 


MRK 


Merck & Co., Inc. 


SDC 


Martin-Marietta Corp., Sodeyco Div. 


MRT 


Morton Chemical Co. Div. of Morton Norwich 


SDW 


Sterling Drug, Inc., Wlnthrop Laboratories 




Products, Inc. 




Div. 


MTO 


Montrose Chemical Corp. of California 




Stauffer Chemical Co. : 






SFA 


Agricultural Div. 


NCI 


Union Camp Corp. 


SFC 


Calhlo Chemicals, Inc. Div. 


NEV 


Neville Chemical Co. 


SFI 


Industrial Dlv. 


NOC 


Norac Co., Inc. and Mathe Div. 


SFP 


Plastics Dlv. 


NPI 


Stephan Chemical Co., Polychem Dept. 


SFS 


Specialty Chemical Div. 


NSC 


National Starch & Chemical Corp. 


SHC 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 


NTB 


National Biochemical Co. 


SHP 


Shepherd Chemical Co. 


NTL 


NL Industries, Inc. 


SK 


SmithKline Chemicals 


NWP 


Northern Petrochemicals Co. 


SKO 


Getty Refining i Marketing Co. 



398 



SYi^THETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1977 



TABLE 3. --Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals; 
OF manufacturers, 1977--Continued 



Directory 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


SM 


Mobil Oil Corp., Chemical Co.: 


USB 


U.S. Borax Research Corp. 




Chemical Coatings Dlv. 


US I 


lU.S. Industrial Chemicals Co., National 




Phosphorus Div. 




Distillers & Chemicals Corp. 


SNO 


SunOlin Chemical Co. 


USO 


U.S. Oil Company 


SNW 


Sun Chemical Corp., Chemical Div. 


USR 


Unlroyal, Inc., Uniroyal Chemical Dlv. 


SOC 


Standard Oil Co. of California, Chevron 
Chemical Co. 


USS 


USS Chemicals Div. of U.S. Steel Corp. 


SOH 


Vlstron Corp. 


VAL 


Valchem Div. of United Merchants S 


SPD 


General Electric Co., Silicone Products 




Manufacturing, Inc. 




Dept. 


VEL 


Velsicol Chemical Corp. 


STC 


American Hoechst Corp., Sou-Tex Works 


VGC 


Virginia Chemicals, Inc. 


STP 


Stepan Chemical Co. 


VIK 


Viking Chemical Co. 


SW 


Sherwin-Williams Co. 


VND 


Van Dyk i Co., Inc. 


SWS 


Stauffer Chemical Co., SWS Silicones 


VTC 


Vlcksburg Chemical Co. Sub. of Vertac 




Div. 




Consolidated 


SYP 


Dart Industries, Inc., Synthetic Products 








Co. Dlv. 


WAG 


West Agro Chemical, Inc. 






WAY 


Phillip A. Hunt Chemical Corp., Organic 


TCC 


Tanatex Chemical Co. 




Chemical Div. 


TCH 


Emery Industries Inc., Trylon Div. 


WCC 


White Chemical Corp. 


TKL 


Thlokol Chemical Corp. 


WCL 


Wright Chemical Corp. 


TNA 


Ethyl Corp. 


WLN 


Wilmington Chemical Corp. 


TNI 


The Gillette Co., Chemical Div. 


WM 


Inolex Corp. 


TRO 


Troy Chemical Corp. 


WTC 


Witco Chemical Corp. 


TSA 


Texas Alkyls, Inc. 


UTH 


Union Camp Corp., Chemical Dlv. 


TX 


Texaco, Inc. 


WTL 


Pennualt Corp., Lucldal Div. 


TZC 


Magnesium Elektron, Inc. 


WYC 


Wycon Chemical Co. 






WYT 


Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., Wyeth 


UCC 


Union Carbide Corp. 




Laboratories Dlv. of American Home 


UOP 


UOP, Inc., Chemical Dlv. 




Products Corp. 


UPJ 


Upjohn Co. 






UPM 


UOP, Inc. 


ZGL 


Carolina Processing Corp. 



of the above reporting compa 



table 1 of the Append! 



399 



APPENDIX 



400 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEflICALS> 1977 



TABLE 1,— Synthetic organic chemicals; Alphabetical DiRECTO^iY of manufacturers^ 

BY COMPANY^ 1977 

[Names of synthetic organic chemical manufacturers that reported production and/or sales to the U.S. Internati 
Trade Commission for 1977 are listed below alphabetically, together with their identification codes as used 
table 2 of the 15 Individual sections of this report] 



Name of company 



AEP 
AZS 



ABB 

ABS 

WLC 

AGY 

OH 

AIP 

ALC 

AAC 

ALD 

ALL 

ACN 
ALF 
ASC 
ACS 
ACU 
ALX 
APH 
ALP 
AMC 



HST 
HST 
STC 
ASY 
ALB 
ACC 
AMO 
PAN 
AMO 
ADC 
ASL 
APX 
APO 
ARA 

KPP 
ARD 
ARN 
ARZ 
AKS 
ARC 
AGP 
ARP 



A 6, E Flastlk Pak Co., Inc 

AZS Corp. : 

AZ Products Co. Div 

AZS Chemical Co. 

Abbott Laboratories 

Abex Corp., Friction Products Group- 

Agrico Chemical Co 

Agway, Inc., Olean Nitrogen Div 

Airco, Inc., Ohio Medical Products t 

Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. 

Alco Chemical Corp 

Alcolac , Inc 

Aldrich Chemical Co., Inc 

Alliance Chemical Corp 

Allied Chemical Corp. : 

Agricultural Div 

Fibers Div 

Semet-Solvay Div 

Specialty Chemicals Div 

Union Texas Petroleum Div 

Alox Corp 

Alpha Chemical Corp 

Alpha Laboratories, Inc 

Amchem Products, Inc. Sub. of Union 

Carbide Corp. 
Amerada Hess Corp. (Hess Oil Virgin 
Islands Corp.) 

American Bio-Synthetics Corp 

American Can Co. 

American Color & Chemical Corp 

American Cyanamid Co 

American Hoechst Corp. : 

Hoechst Fibers Industries Div 

Industrial Chemicals Div 

Sou-Tex Works 

American Synthetic Rubber Corp 

Ames Laboratories, Inc 

Amoco Chemicals Corp 

Amoco Oil Company 

Amoco Production Co 

Amoco Texas Refining Co 

Anderson Development Co 

Ansul Chemical Co 

Apex Chemical Co. , Inc 

Apollo Colors, Inc 

Arapahoe Chemicals, Inc. Sub/Syntex 
U.S.A., Inc. 

ARCO/Polymers , Inc 

Ardmore Chemical Co., Inc 

Arenol Chemical Corp 

Arizona Chemical Co 

Arkansas Co., Inc 

Armak Co 

Armour-Dial , Inc 

Armour Pharmaceutical Co 



14505 Pr 



Ave 



Industry, CA 91749. 



33840. 

30313. 
, IL 60064. 



2525 So. Combee Rd., Eaton Park, FL 

762 Marietta Blvd., N.W. , Atlanta, GA 

14th St. and Sheridan Rd., N. Chicago, 

P. 0. Box 3207, Winchester, VA 22601. 

P. 0. Box 3166, Tulsa, OK 74101. 

1446 Buffalo St., Olean, NY 14760. 

3030 Airco Dr., Madison, WI 53701. 

P. 0. Box 538, Allentown, PA 18105. 

Trenton Ave. and William St., Philadelphia, PA 19134. 

3440 Fairfield Rd., Baltimore, MD 21212. 

940 W. St. Paul Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53233. 

33 Avenue P, Newark, NJ 07105. 

P. 0. Box 2120, Houston, TX 77001. 

1411 Broadway - 38th Fl., Hew York, NY 10018. 

Columbia Rd . , Morrlstown, NJ 07960. 

P. 0. Box 1219 R, Morristown, NJ 07960. 

P. 0. Box 2120, Houston, TX 77001. 

3943 Buffalo Ave., Niagara Falls, NY 14303. 

P. 0. Drawer A, Colliervllle, TN 38017. 

1685 S. Fairfax St., Denver, CO 80222. 

Brookside Ave. and Spring Garden St., Ambler, PA 19002. 



1 Hess Pla 



Woodridge, NJ 07095. 



710 W. National Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53204. 
American Lane, Greenwich, CT 06830. 
P. 0. Box 51, Reading, PA 19603. 
Wayne, NJ 07470. 



Route 202-206 North, 
129 Quldnlck St. , Coi 
P. 0. Box 866, Mount 
4500 Camp Ground Rd. 
200 Rock Lane, Milfo: 
200 E. Randolph Dr. , 
200 E. Randolph Dr., 
P. 0. Box 591, Tulsa 
200 E. Randolph Dr., 
1415 E. Michigan St. 
1 Stanton St. , Marlni 
200 S. 1st St. , Ellzi 
899 Skokie Blvd. , Noi 
2075 N. 55th St. , Boi 



Somervllle, NJ 08876. 
entry, RI 02816. 
Holly, NC 28120. 

Louisville, KY 40216. 
d, CT 06460. 
Chicago, IL 60680. 
Chicago, IL 60680 

OK 74102. 
Chicago, IL 60680. 

Adrian, MI 49221. 
tte, WI 54143. 
ibethport, NJ 07206. 
■thbrook, IL 60062. 
ilder, CO 80302 



1500 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 19101. 
840 Valleybrook Ave., Lyndhurst, NJ 07071. 
40-33 23d St., Long Island City, NY 11101. 
Berdan Ave., Wayne, NJ 07470. 
185 Foundry St., Newark, NJ 07105. 
300 S. Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606. 
2000 Aucutt Rd., Montgomery, IL 60538. 
P. 0. Box 511, Kankakee, IL 60901. 



APPENDIX 



401 



TABLE 1. --Synthetic organic chemicals; Alphabetical directo'^y of manufacturers. 
BY company, 1977— Continued 



Name of company 



Armstrong Cork Co 

Arol Chemical Products Co 

Arsynco , Inc 

Ashland Oil, Inc 

Ashland Chemical Co 

Astor Products, Inc., Blue Arrow Div 

Astra Pharmaceutical Products, Inc 

Atlantic Chemical Corp 

Atlantic Richfield Co 

Atlas Powder Co. Sub. of Tyler Corp 

Atlas Processing Co 

Joseph Ayers, Inc 

BASF Wyandotte Corp 

BP Oil, Inc 

J. T. Baker Chemical Co 

Baltimore Paint & Chemical Co 

Baxter/Travenol Laboratories, Inc 

Bayoil Co., Inc 

Beecham, Inc 

Beker Industrie? Corp 

Belding Chemical Industries 

Bendix Corp., FMD Div 

Bennett ' s 

Benzenoid Organics, Inc 

Berncolors-Poughkeepsie , Inc 

Binney and Smith, Inc 

Biocraft Laboratories, Inc 

Bofors Lakeway, Inc 

Borden, Inc.; 

Borden Chemical Div 

Printing Ink Div., Pigments Div 

Borg-Warner Corp., Borg-Warner Chemicals- 

Breddo Food Products Corp., Inc 

Bristol-Meyers Co 

M. A. Bruder & Sons, Inc 

Buckeye Cellulose Corp 

Buckman Laboratories, Inc 

Buffalo Color Corp 

Burdick & Jackson Laboratories, Inc 

Burroughs Wellcome Co 

CF Industries, Inc 

CPC International, Inc.: 

Acme Resin Corp 

Amerchol 

Penick Corp 

CPS Chemical Co 

Samuel Cabot, Inc 

Calcasieu Chemical Corp 

Carborundum Co 

Cargill , Inc 

Carl Gordon Industries, Inc 

Carolina Processing Corp 

Carpenter Chemical Co 

J.W. Carroll & Sons Div. of U.S. 

Industries, Inc. 
Carus Chemical Co 



Charlotte & Liberty Sts., Lancaster, PA ITSO'.. 

649 Ferry St., Newark, NJ 07105. 

P. 0. Box 8, Carlstadt, NJ 07072. 

1401 Winchester Ave., Ashland, KY 41101 and 

P. 0. Box 2458, Columbus, OH 43216. 
P. 0. Box 2219, Dublin, OH 43216. 
5244 Edgewood Ct., Jacksonville, FL 32205. 
7 Neponset St., Worcester, MA 01606. 
10 Klngsland Rd . , Nutley, NJ 07110. 
515 S. Flower St., Los Angeles, CA 90064. 
P. 0. Box 87, Joplin, MO 64801. 

P. 0. Box 3099, 3333 Midway St., Shreveport, LA 71 
Route in, Bethlehem, PA 18017. 

100 Cherry Hill Rd., Parsippany, NJ 07054. 

397 Midland Bldg. , Cleveland, OH 44115. 

222 Red School Lane, Philllpsburg, NJ 08865. 

2325 Hollins Ferry Rd., Baltimore, MD 21230. 

6301 N. Lincoln Ave., Morton Grove, IL 60053. 

2 Union St., Peabody, HA 01960. 

65 Industrial S., Clifton, NJ 07012. 

120 W. Putnam Ave., Greenwich, CT 06830. 

1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018. 

P. 0. Box 238, Troy, NY 12180. 

2131 S. 300 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84115. 

P. 0. Box 157, Route 140, Bellingham, MA 02019. 

75 N. Water St., Poughkeepsie, NY 12602. 

P. 0. Box 431, 1100 Church Lane, Easton, PA 18042. 

12 Industrial Way, Ualdwick , NJ 07463. 

5025 Evanston Ave., Muskegon, MI 49443. 

180 E. Broad St., Columbus, OH 43215. 

630 Glendale-Milford Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45215. 

International Center, Parkersburg, WV 26101. 

18th and Kansas Avenue, Kansas City, KS 66105. 

345 Park Ave., New York, NY 10022. 

52d St. and Grays Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19143. 

2899 Jackson Ave., P.O. Box 8407, 

Memphis, IN 38108. 
1256 N. McLean Blvd., Memphis, TN 38108. 
340 Elk St., Buffalo, NY 14210. 
1953 S. Harvey St., Muskegon, MI 49442. 
3030 Cornwallls Rd . , Research Triangle Park, NO 27 

Salem Lake Dr., Long Grove, IL 60047 

1401 S. Circle Avenue, Forest Park, IL 60130. 

Talmadge Rd., Edison, NJ 08817. 

1050 Wall St. W., Lyndhurst, NJ 07071. 

P. 0. Box 162, Old Bridge, NJ 08857. 

One Union St., Boston, MA 02108. 

P. 0. Box 1522, Lake Charles, LA 70602. 

P. 0. Box 477, Niagara Falls, NY 14302. 

P. 0. Box 9300, Minneapolis, MN 55402. 

1001 Southbridge St., Worcester, MA 01610. 

P.O. Box 161, Severn, NC 27877. 

P. 0. Box 27205, Richmond, VA 23261. 

P. 0. Box 4908, Carson, CA 90745. 

1500 8th St., LaSalle, IL 61301. 



402 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1977 



TABLE 1,— Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 

BY COMPANY, 1977--CONTINUED 



Name of company 



astle & Cooke, Inc., Castle S, Cooke 

Foods, Hawaii Pineapple Dlv. 

CCL Catawba-Charlab, Inc 

CEL Celanese Corp.: 

Celanese Chemical Co 

Celanese Fibers Co 

Celanese Plastics Co 

Celanese Polymer Specialties Co 

CNT Certalnteed Corp 

CPR Certified Processing Corp 

GRS Champlln Petroleum Co 

SOG Charter International Oil Co 

CHT Chat tern Drug & Chemical Co 

CBD Chembond Corp 

Chemed Corp. : 

GRC Dubois Chemicals Dlv 

GRL Vestal Laboratories Dlv 

Chemetron Corp. : 

CTN Chemical Products Div 

HSC Pigments Dlv., Sub. of Allegheny 
Ludlum Industries, Inc, 

Chem-Fleur , Inc 

CHF Chemical Formulators, Inc 

CHL Chemol, Inc 

CPX Chemplex Co 

ORO Chevron Chemical Co 

CHH CHR. Hansen's Laboratory, Inc 

CGY Ciba-Gelgy Corp 

Agricultural Dlv 

Pharmaceutical Div 

Resins Dept 

CCW Cincinnati Mllacron Chemicals, Inc 

CIN Clndet Chemicals, Inc 

Cities Service Co.: 

CBN Columbian Div 

TEN Copperhill Operations 

CBN Petrochemicals Dlv 

CSO Petroleum Products Group 

CLK Clark Oil & Refining Corp 

CLY W. A. Cleary Corp 

CLI Cllntwood Chemical Co 

CSP Coastal States Petrochemical Co 

CP Colgate-Palmolive Co 

COL Collier Carbon i Chemical Corp 

CLD Colloids, Inc 

CNC Columbia Nitrogen Corp 

CMP Commercial Products Co., Inc 

COR Commonwealth Oil Refining Co., Inc 

CPI Commonwealth Petrochemicals, Inc 

CNI Conap, Inc 

CNE & Conchemco, Inc 

SED 

CON Concord Chemical Co., Inc 

CWP Consolidated Papers, Inc 

CTL Continental Chemical Co 

CO Continental Oil Co 

CPV Cook Paint & Varnish Co 

CFA Cooperative Farm Chemicals Association- 



650 Iwilel Rd 
HI 96801. 



P. 0. Box 3380, Honolulu, 



50A6 Old Pinevllle Rd., Chariot 



NC 28231. 



1211 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036. 

P. 0. Box 1414, Charlotte, NC 28201. 

26 Main St., Chatham, NJ 07928. 

One Riverfront Plaza, Louisville, KY 40202. 

P. 0. Box 860, Valley Forge, PA 19482. 

U.S. Highway 22, Hillside, NJ 07205. 

P. 0. Box 9176, Corpus Chrlstl, TX 78408. 

P. 0. Box 5008, Houston, TX 77012. 

1715 W. 38th St., Chattanooga, TN 37409. 

P. 0. Box 270, Springfield, OR 97477. 



Dubois Tower, Cincinnati 
4963 Manchester Ave., St 



OH 45202. 



P. 0. 66251-AMF O'Hare, Chicago, IL 60666 
491 Columbia Ave. , Holland, MI 49423. 

200 Pulaski St., Newark, NJ 07105. 

P. 0. Box 26, Nltro, WV 25143. 

P. 0. Box 20687, Greensboro, NC 27420. 

3100 Golf Rd., Rolling Meadows, IL 60008. 

575 Market St., Rm. 3280, San Francisco, C 



9015 W. Maple S 
444 Saw Mill Rl 
P. 0. Box 11422 
556 Morris Ave. 
444 Saw Mill Rl 
West St. , Readli 
2408 Doyle St., 
NC 27406. 



Allls, WI 53214. 
rer Rd., Ardsley, NY 19502. 
, Greensboro, NC 27409. 
, Summit, NJ 07901. 
rer Rd . , Ardsley, NY 10502. 
ig, OH 45215. 
P. 0. Box 20926, Greensboro, 



P. 0. Box 300, Tulsa, OK 741 
Copperhill, TN 37317. 
P. 0. Box 1522, Lake Charles, 
6th & Boston Sts. , Tulsa, 
P. 0. Box 1562, Lake Charles, 
131st St. S Kedzle Ave., Blue 



LA 70602, and 
: 74102. 
LA 70602. 
Island, IL 60406. 



P. 0. Box 10, Somerset, NJ 08873. 

4342 S. Wolcott Ave., Chicago, IL 60609. 

P. 0. Drawer 521, Corpus Chrlstl, TX 78403. 

300 Park Ave., New York, NY 10022. 

P. 0. Box 60455, Los Angeles, CA 90060. 

394 Frellnghuysen Ave., Newark, NJ 07114. 

P. 0. Box 1483, Augusta, GA 30903. 

117 Ethel Ave., Hawthorne, NJ 07506. 

Petrochemical Complex, Ponce, PR 00731. 

Petrochemical Complex, Ponce, PR 00731. 

1405 Buffalo St., Olean, NY 14760. 

1000 Marshall Dr., Lenexa, KS 66215, and 

18th 6. Garfield Sts., Kansas City, MO 64127. 
17th & Federal Sts., Camden, NJ 08105. 
231 1st Ave N., Wisconsin Rapids, WI 54494. 
270 Clifton Blvd., Clifton, NJ 07015. 

P. 0. Box 1267, 1000 South Pine, Ponce City, OK 74601. 
P. 0. Box 389, Kansas City, MO 64141. 
P. 0. Box 308, Lawrence, KS 66044. 



APPENDIX 



103 



TABLE 1. --Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 

BY company, 1977--CONTINUED 



Coopers Creek Chemical Corp 

Copolymer Rubber & Chemical Corp 

Corco Cyclohexane, Inc 

Cosden Oil 6. Chemical Co 

Crest Chemical Corp 

Croda , Inc 

Crompton & Knowles Corp., Dyes & Chemic 

Div. 

Crosby Chemicals, Inc 

Crown Central Petroleum Corp 

Crown Zellerbach Corp., Chemical Produc 

Div. 
Customs Resins Div. of Bemis Co., Inc— 

Dan River, Inc., Chemical Products Dept 
Dart Industries, Inc.: 

Aztec Chemicals Div 

Synthetic Products Co. Div 

Davie s-Young Co 

Dawe's Laboratories, Inc 

Day-Glo Color Corp 

Degen Oil 6. Chemical Co 

Denka Chemical Corp 

Dennis Chemical Co 

DeSoto , Inc 

Dexter Chemical Corp 

Hysol Div 

Midland Div 

Diamond Shamrock Corp 

Disogrin Industries Corp 

Dixie Chemical Co 

Dixie Pine Chemicals, Inc 

Dominion Products, Inc 

Dover Chemical Corp. Sub. of ICC 
Industries, Inc. 

Dow Badlsche Chemical Co 

Dow Chemical Co 

Dow Corning Corp 

E. 1. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc 

Dye Specialties, Inc 

Eagle Pitcher Industries, Ohio 

Rubber Co. Div. 

Eagle River Chemical Corp 

Eastern Color & Chemical Co 

Eastman Kodak Co 

Tennessee Eastman Co. Div 

Texas Eastman Co. Div 

East Shore Chemical Co., Inc 

Elan Chemical Co 

Elco Corp. Sub. of Detrex Industries, 

Inc. 

El Paso Products Co 

Emery Industries, Inc 

Trylon Div 

Emkay Chemical Co 

Endo Laboratories, Inc 

Enenco , Inc 

Essential Chemicals Group 

Ethyl Corp 

Evans Chemetics, Inc 

Exxon Chemical Co. U.S. A 



River Rd . , W. Conshohocken, PA 19428. 

P. 0. Box 2591, Baton Rouge, LA 70821. 

Petrochemical Complex, Ponce, PR 00731. 

P. 0. Box 1311, Big Spring, TX 79720. 

225 Eramett St., Newark, NJ 07114. 

51 Madison Ave., Suite 2518, New York, NY 10010. 

500 Pear St., Reading, PA 19603. 



P. 0. Box 460, Picayune 


MS 


39466. 


1 N. Charles St., Baltl 


nore. 


MD 21203 


Camas, WA 98607. 







P. 0. Box 933, Henderson, KY 42420. 

P. 0. Box 261, Danville, VA 24541. 

555 Garden St., Elyria, OH 44035. 
1636 Wayside Rd., Cleveland, OH 44112. 

2700 Wagner Place, Maryland Heights, MO 63043. 
450 State St., Chicago Heights, IL 60411. 
4732 St. Clair Ave., Cleveland, OH 44103. 

200 Kellogg St., Jersey City, NJ 07305. 
8701 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77017. 

2701 Papin St., St. Louis, MO 63103. 

1700 S. Mt. Prospect Ave., Des Plaines, IL 6001 

845 Edgewater Rd . , Bronx, NY 10474. 

211 Franklin St., Olean, NY 14760. 

1-7 E. Water St., Waukegan, IL 60085. 

1100 Superior Ave., Cleveland, OH 44114. 

Grenier Field, Manchester, NH 03130. 

3635 W. Dallas Ave., P. 0. Box 13410, Houston, 

TX 77019. 
P. 0. Box 470, Hattiesburg, MS 39401. 
882 3d Ave., Brooklyn, NY 11232. 
15th & Davis Sts., Dover, OH 44622. 

602 Copper Rd., Freeport, TX 77541. 
2020 Dow Center, Midland, Ml 48640. 
P. 0. Box 1757, Midland, MI 48640. 
DuPont Bldg. , Wilmington, DE 19898. 
26 Journal Sq., Jersey City, NJ 07306. 

P. 0. 1398, Denton, TX 76201. 

P. 0. Box 2648, W. Helena, AR 72390. 
35 Livingston St., Providence, RI 02904. 
343 State St., Rochester, NY 14650. 
P. 0. Box 511, Kingsport, TN 37662. 
P. 0. Box 511, Kingsport, TN 37662. 
1221 E. Barney Ave., Muskegon, MI 49443. 
268 Doremus Ave., Newark, NJ 07105. 
P. 0. Box 09168, Cleveland, OH 44109. 

P. 0. Box 3986, Odessa, TX 79760. 

1300 Carew Tower, Cincinnati, OH 45202. 

P. 0. Box 628, Mauldln, SC 29662. 

319 2d St., Elizabeth, NJ 07205. 

1000 Stewart Ave., Garden City, NY 11530. 

P. 0. Box 398, Memphis, TN 38101. 

28391 Essential Rd., Merton, WI 53056. 

330 S. 4th St., Richmond, VA 23231. 

90 Tokeneke Rd . , Darlen, CT 05820. 

P. 0. Box 3272, Houston, TX 77001. 



404 



SY;JTH:TIC organic CHEfllCALS. 1977 



TABLE 1.— Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers. 
BY company. 1977--Continued 



FMN 
FMB 
FMP 
FMB 

FRP 
FAB 
FMT 
FRI 
FEL 
FER 



PRD 
FND 
RBC 

FIR 
FRF 
FRS 

FST 

FMS 

FLM 

CIK 

FLO 

FTE 

FOM 

FG 

FLN 

FRE 



GLX 
GAN 



GEI 
SPD 
GNF 
GLC 
GNM 
GPM 
GNT 

GRG 
PSP 



SKO 
TID 
TNI 
GIL 
GIV 
GLY 
GPI 



Name of company 



FMC Corp. : 

Agricultural Chemical Div 

Industrial Chemical Group 

Industrial Chemical Group 

Specialty Chemicals Div 

FRP Co 

Fabricolor Manufacturing Corp 

Fairmount Chemical Co., Inc 

Farmland Industries, Inc 

Felton International, Inc 

Ferro Corp. ; 

Grant Chemical Div 

Kell Chemical Div 

Ottawa Chemical Div 

Productol Chemical Div 

Fiber Industries, Inc 

Flke Chemicals, Inc 

Firestone Tire S. Rubber Co.: 

Firestone Plastics Co. Div 

Firestone Synthetic Fibers Co 

Firestone Synthetic Rubber & Latex Cc 
Div. 

First Chemical Corp 

First Mississippi Corp 

Fleming Laboratories, Inc 

Flint Ink Corp., Cal/Ink Div 

Florasynth, Inc 

Foote Mineral Co 

Formica Corp 

Foster Grant Co., Inc 

Franklin Chemical Corp 

Freeman Chemical Corp 

Frltzsche Dodge & Olcott, Inc 

H. B. Fuller Co., Polymer Div 

GAF Corp 

Galaxle Chemical Corp 

Gane's Chemicals, Inc 

General Electric Co 

Insulating Materials Products Sectloi 

Silicone Products Dept 

General Foods Corp., Maxwell House Div 

General Latex & Chemical Corp 

General Mills Chemicals, Inc 

General Plastics Manufacturing Co 

General Tire & Rubber Co., Chemical/ 
Plastics Div 

P. D. George Co 

Georgia-Pacific Corp 

Plaquemine Div 

Resins Operations 

Getty Refining & Marketing Co 

Delaware Refinery 

The Gillette Co., Chemical Div 

Oilman Paint 6, Varnish Co 

Glvaudan Corp 

Glyco Chemicals, Inc 

Goodpasture, Inc 



100 Niagara St., Mlddleport, NY 1A105. 
2000 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 19103. 
2000 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 19103. 
Sawyer Ave. & River Rd., Town of Tonawanda, 

NY 14150. 
P. 0. Box 349, Baxley, GA 31513. 
24-1/2 Van Houten St., Paterson, NJ 07509. 
117 Blanchard St., Newark, NJ 07105. 
P. 0. Box 7305, Kansas City, MO 64116. 
599 Johnson Ave., Brooklyn, NY 11235. 

P. 0. Box 263, Baton Rouge, LA 70821. 
3000 Sheffield Ave., Hammond, IN 46320. 
700 N. Wheeling St., Toledo, OH 43605. 
13215 E. Penn St., Whlttler, CA 90602. 
P. 0. Box 10038, Charlotte, NC 28201. 
P. 0. Box 546, Nltro, WV 25143. 

P. 0. Box 699, Pottstown, PA 19464. 
P. 0. Box 450, Hopewell, VA 23869. 
381 W. Wllbeth Rd., Akron, OH 44301. 

P. 0. Box 1427, Pascagoula, MS 39567. 

P. 0. Box 1249, Jackson, MS 39205. 

P. 0. Box 10372, Charlotte, NC 28237. 

1404 4th St., Berkeley, CA 94710. 

410 E. 62nd St., New York, NY 10021. 

Route 100, Exton, PA 19341. 

120 E. 4th St., Cincinnati, OH 45202. 

289 H. Main St., Leominster, MA 01453. 

2020 Bruck St., Columbus, OH 43207. 

222 E. Main St., Port Washington, WI 53074. 

76 9th Ave., New York, NY 10011. 

4450 Malsbary Rd., Blue Ash, OH 45242. 

P. 0. Box 6037, Chattanooga, IN 37401 and 
33 Riverside Ave., Rensselaer, NY 12144. 

26 Piercy St., Paterson, NJ 07524. 

1144 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 1 

1 Plastics Ave., Pittsfield, MA 01201 and 
1350 S. Second St., Coshocton, OH 43812. 

1 Campbell Rd., Schenectady, NY 12306. 

Bldg. 11-24, Waterford, NY 12188. 

1125 Hudson St., Hoboken, NJ 07030. 

666 Main St., Cambridge, MA 02139. 

4620 W. 77th St., Minneapolis, MN 55435. 

3481 S. 35th St., Tacoma, WA 98409. 

1 General St., Akron, OH 44329. 

5200 N. 2d St., St. Louis, MO 63147. 
P. 0. Box 1235, Bellingham, WA 98225. 
P. 0. Box 629, Plaquemine, LA 70764. 
900 S.W. 5th Ave., Portland, OR 97240. 
P. 0. Box 1650, Tulsa, OK 74102. 
Delaware City, DE 19706. 
3500 W. 16th St., N. Chicago, IL 60064. 
216 W. 8th St., Chattanooga, TN 37401. 
100 Delawanna Ave., Clifton, NJ 07014. 
51 Weaver St., Greenwich, CT 06830. 
P. 0. Drawer 921, Brownfleld, TX 79316. 



APPENDIX 



t05 



TABLE 1.— Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers^ 

BY COMPANY^ 1977— CONTINUED 



Name of company 



B. F. Goodrich Co., B. F. Goodrich Chemical 
Co. Div. 

Goodyear Tire i Rubber Co 

W. R. Grace & Co 

Hatco Chemical Div 

Hatco Polyester Div 

Organic Chemicals Div 

Polymers f. Chemicals Div 

Great American Chemical Corp 

Great Lakes Chemical Corp 

Great Western Sugar Co 

Greenwood Chemical Co 

A. Gross & Co., Millmaster Onyx Group, 

Kewanee Industries, Inc. 

Guardsman Chemical, Inc 

Gulf Oil Corp., Gulf Oil Chemicals Co. - 

U.S. 
Guth Corp 

H & N Chemicals Co 

Haag Laboratories, Inc 

C. P. Hall Co 

Handschy Chemical Co., Farac Oil and 

Chemical Div. 

Hanna Chemical Coatings Corp 

Hardman , Inc 

Hardwicke Chemical Co 

Harmon Colors Corp 

Harshaw Chemical Co 

Hart Products Corp 

Haveg Industries, Inc. Sub. of 

Hercules, Inc. 

Hawkeye Chemical Co 

Henkel , Inc 

Hereof ina 

Hercor Chemical Corp 

Hercules , Inc 

Hereslte i Chemical Co 

Heterochemical Corp 

Hewitt Soap Co., Inc 

Hexagon Laboratories, Inc 

Hexcel Corp 

Hexcel Specialty Chemicals 

Hodag Chemical Corp 

Hof fmann-LaRoche , Inc 

Honig Chemical & Processing Corp 

Hooker Chemicals & Plastics Corp 

Durez Div 

Ruco Div 

E. F. Houghton & Co 

Humphrey Chemical Co 

Philip A. Hunt Chemical Corp., Organic 

Chemical Div. 

Huntington Laboratories, Inc 

Husky Industries, Inc 

Hynson, Westcott & Dunning, Inc 

ICI United States, Inc.: 

Chemical Specialties Co 

Plast Ics Div 

Specialty Chemicals Group 



6100 Oak Tree Blvd., Cleveland, OH 44131. 

1144 E. Market St., Akron, OH 44316. 

P. 0. Box 277, Memphis, TN 38101. 

King George Post Rd., Fords, NJ 08863. 

1711 Elizabeth Ave. West, Linden, NJ 07036. 

Poisson Ave., Nashua, NH 03060. 

55 Hayden Ave., Lexington, MA 02173. 

650 Water St., Fitchburg, MA 01420. 

P. 0. Box 2200, West Lafayette, IN 47906. 

P. 0. Box 5308, Terminal Annex, Denver, CO 80217. 

P. 0. Box 26 - State Highway #690, Greenwood, VA. 

22943. 
625 Doremus Ave., Newark, NJ 07105. 



1350 S. 15th St., Louis 
P. 0. Box 3766, Houston 



Hie, KY 40210. 



322 S. Center St., Hillside, IL 60162. 

90 Maltese Dr., Totowa, NJ 07512. 
14010 S. Seeley Ave., Blue Island, IL 60406. 
7300 S. Central Ave., Chicago, IL 60638. 
13601 S. Ashland Ave., Riverdale, IL 60627. 

P. 0. Box 147, Columbus, OH 43216. 
600 Cortlandt St., Belleville, NJ 07109. 
Route 2, Box 50A, Elgin, SC 29045. 
550 Belmont Ave., Haledon, NJ 07507. 
1945 E. 97th St., Cleveland, OH 44106. 
173 Sussex St., Jersey City, NJ 07302. 
900 Greenback Rd., Wilmington, DE 19808. 

P. 0. Box 899, Clinton, lA 52733. 

400 Alfred Ave., Teaneck, NJ 07666. 

310 N. Front St., Wilmington, NC 28402. 

Petrochemical Complex, Ponce, PR 00731. 

910 Hercules Tower, Wilmington, DE 19899. 

822 S. 14th St., Manitowoc, WI 54220. 

Ill E. Hawthorne Ave., Valley Stream, NY 11580. 

333 Linden Ave., Dayton, OH 45403. 

4166 Boston Rd., Bronx, NY 10475. 

20701 Nordhoff St., Chatsworth, 

205 Main St., Lodl, NJ 07644. 

7247 N. Central Park Ave., Skoki 

324-424 Kingsland St., Nutley, N 

414 Wilson Ave., Newark, NJ 07105. 

MPO Box 8, Niagara Falls, NY 14302. 

Walck Rd., N. Tonawanda, NY 14121. 

P. 0. Box 456, Revin Rd., Burlington, NJ 08016. 

303 W. Lehigh Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19133. 

Devine St., North Haven, CT 06473. 

P. 0. Box 4249, E. Providence, RI 02914. 

970 E. Tipton St., Huntington, IN 46750. 
62 Perimeter Center E., Atlanta, GA 30346. 
Charles and Chase Sts., Baltimore, MD 21201. 



Wilmington, DE 19897. 
Wilmington, DE 19897. 
Wilmington, DE 19897. 



91311. 



IL 60076. 
07110. 



H06 



SY[JTHE:TIC organic chemicals, 1977 



TABLE 1. --Synthetic organic chemicals; Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 

BY COMPANY, 1977--C0NT INUED 



Name of company 



RAY 

IND 
INP 
INL 

ICC & 
ICF 
KM 
WIL 
SPC 
IFF 
IPC 
CCA 
IOC 
IRI 

JCC 
JFR 
JEN 
JRG 
UPF 
JNS 
JOB 
JOR 

KAl 
SNI 
KLM 



KCC 

KCU 
AMP 



ONX 
RPC 
KYS 
KCW 
KNP 
KMC 
KON 
KPT 



LKY 

LUR 
LEA 
LEV 
LVR 
BLS 
LIL 



IMC Chemical Group, In 



McWorter Resins 

Nitroparaffin Div 

ITT Rayonier, Inc 

Indol Chemical Co., Inc 

Indpol, Inc 

Inland Steel Co., Inland Steel Container 

Co. 
Inmont Corp 

Inolex Corp 

Inolex Pharmaceutical Div 

Insilco Corp., Sinclair Paint Co. Div 

International Flavor and Fragrances, Inc- 

Interplastlc Corp 

Interstab Chemical, Inc 

lonac Chemical Co. Div. of Sybron Corp 

Ironsides Co 

Jefferson Chemical Co. , Inc 

George A. Jeffreys & Co., Inc 

Jennison-Wright Corp 

Andrew Jergens Co 

Jim Walter Resources, Inc 

S. C. Johnson S Son, Inc 

Jones-Blair Co 

Jordan Chemical Co 

Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corp 

Kaiser Agricultural Chemicals Div 

Kalama Chemical, Inc 

Kay-Fries Chemicals, Inc., Member Dynamit 

Nobel Group. 

Kelly-Moore Paint Co 

Kennecott Copper Corp.: 

Chino Mines Div 

Utah Copper Div 

Kerr-McGee Chemical Corp 

A Kewanee Industry: 

Millmaster Chemical Co. Div 

Millmaster Onyx Group: 

Onyx Chemical Co. Div 

Refined-Onyx Co. Div 

Keysor Corp 

Keystone Color Works, Inc 

Knapp Products, Inc 

Kohler-McLister Paint Co 

H. Kohnstamm & Co., Inc 

Koppers Co., Inc 

Roads Materials Div 

Kraft, Inc., Hmnko Sheffield Chemical 

Operation. 

Lake States Div. of St. Regis Paper Co — 

Laurel Products Corp 

Leatex Chemical Co 

Lever Brothers Co 

C . Lever Co . , Inc 

Life Savers, Inc 

Eli Lilly i Co 



P. 0. Box 207, Terre Haute, IN 47808; P. 0. Box 
149, Orrington, ME 0A474 and 100 Lister Ave., 
Newark, NJ 07105. 

P. 0. Box 308, Cottage PI., Carpentersvllle, IL 60110 

666 Garland PI., Des Plaines, IL 60016. 

605 3d Ave., New York, NY 10016. 

FT. of Leffert St., Carterit, NJ 07008. 

P. 0. Box 1213, Tustin, CA 92680. 

4300 W. 130th St., Chicago, IL 60658. 

1255 Broad St., Clifton, NJ 07015, and 
150 Wagaraw Rd., Hawthorne, NJ 07506. 
Jackson i Swanson Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19148. 
2600 Bond St., Park Forest South, IL 60466. 
3960 E. Washington Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90023. 
521 W. 57th St., New York, NY 10019. 
2015 NE. Broadway St., Minneapolis, MN 55413. 
500 Jersey Ave., New Brunswick, NJ 08903. 
Birmingham Rd. , Birmingham, NJ 08011. 
270 W. Mound St., Columbus, OH 43216. 

P. 0. Box 52332, Houston, TX 77052. 

P. 0. Box 709, Salem, VA 24153. 

P. 0. Box 691, Toledo, OH 43694. 

2535 Spring Grove Ave., Cincinnati, OH 45214. 

3300 1st Ave. N., Birmingham, AL 35202. 

1525 Howe St., Racine, WI 53403. 

2728 Empire Central, Dallas, TX 75235. 

1830 Columbia Ave., Folcraft, PA 19032. 



P. 0. Box 337, 
P. 0. Box 246, 



Gramercy, LA 
Savannah , GA 



70052. 
31402. 



1110 The Bank of Call 
200 Summit Ave., Mont 



ale, NJ 07645. 



Hurley, MN 88043. 

P. 0. Box 11299, Salt Lake 

1101 McGee Tower, Oklahoma 



84147. 
73102. 



99 Park Ave 



Ne 



York, NY 10016. 



Lonza 



190 Warren St., Jersey City, NJ 07302. 

624 Schuyler Ave., Lyndhurst, NJ 07071. 

P. 0. Box 308, Saugus, CA 91350. 

151 W. Gay Ave., York, PA 17403. 

187 Garibaldi Ave., P. 0. Box 405, Lodi, NJ 07644. 

P. 0. Box 546, Denver, CO 80201. 

161 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013. 

Koppers Bldg., Pittsburgh, PA 15219. 

Koppers Bldg., Pittsburgh, PA 15219. 

P. 0. Box 398, Memphis, TN 38101. 



515 W. Davenport St., Rhinelander, WI 54501. 

2600 E. Tioga St., Philadelphia, PA 19134. 

2722 N. Hancock St., Philadelphia, PA 19133. 

390 Park Ave., New York, NY 10022. 

736 Dunks Ferry Rd., Cornwells Hgts. PA 19020. 

Church St., Canajoharie, NY 13317. 

P. 0. Box 618, Indianapolis, IN 46206 and G.P.O. 

Box 4388, San Juan, PR 00936. 
22-10 Route 208, Fair Lawn, NJ 07410. 



APPENDIX 



407 



TABLE 1.— Synthetic organic chemicals; Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 

BY COMPANY, 1977--C0NTI NUED 



MC&B Manufacturing Chemists, Inc 

^fW Manufacturers, Southern Resin Div 

Magnesium Elektrbn, Inc 

Magruder Color Co. , Inc 

Mallinckrodt , Inc 

Manufacturing Enterprises, Inc., Squibb 
Manufacturing, Inc., Trade Enterprises 
Inc., Ersana, Inc. 

Marathon Morco Co 

Marathon Oil Co., Texas Refining Dlv 

Marblette Co 

Marden-Wlld Corp 

Marlowe-Van Loan Corp 

Martin-Marietta Corp., Sodyeco Div 

Max Marx Color I, Chemical Co 

Masonite Corp., Alpine Chemical Dlv 

Otto B. May Co. Dlv. of Cone Mills Corp- 

McCloskey Varnish Co 

McCloskey Varnish Co. of the Northwest — 

McCloskey Varnish Co. of the West 

McLaughlin Gormley King Co 

Mead Johnson & Co 

Melamine Chemicals, Inc 

Merck 6. Co., Inc 

Merichem Co 

Midwest Manufacturing Corp 

Miles Laboratories, Inc.: 

Marschall Dlv 

Sumner Dlv 

Milliken i Co., Milliken Chemical Div 

Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co 

Miranol Chemical Co., Inc 

Mississippi Chemical Corp 

Mobay Chemical Corp 

Chemagro Agricultural Div 

Verona Dlv 

Mobil Oil Corp 

Mobil Chemical Co 

Chemical Coatings Div 

Phos phorus Div 

Mona Industries, Inc 

Monochem, Inc 

Monroe Chemical Co 

Monsanto Co 

Montrose Chemical Corp. of California 

Mooney Chemicals, Inc 

Moretex Chemical Products, Inc 

Morton Norwich Products, Inc.: 

Morton Chemical Co. Dlv 

Norwich Eaton Pharmaceutical Dlv 

Motomco , Inc 

Murphy-Phoenix Co 

NL Industries, Inc 

N-Ren Corp. , Cherokee Nitrogen Div 

Napp Chemicals, Inc 

National Biochemical Co 

National Casein Co 



2909 Highland Ave., Norwood, OH 45212. 
P. 0. Box 68, Thomasvllle, NC 27360. 
Star Route A, Box 202-1, Flemlngton, NJ 
1029 Newark Ave., Elizabeth, NJ 07201. 
675 Brown Rd., St. Louis, MO 63134. 
P. 0. Box 609, Humacao, PR 00661. 



P. 0. Drawer C, 4A01 Park Ave., Dickinson, T 

P. 0. Box 1191, Texas City, TX 77590. 

37-31 30th St., Long Island City, NY 11101. 

500 Columbia St., Somervllle, MA 02143. 

P. 0. Box 1851, High Point, NC 27260. 

P. 0. Box 10098, Charlotte, NC 28237. 

192 Colt St., Irvington, NJ 07111. 

P. 0. Box 2392, Gulfport, MS 39503. 

52 Amsterdam St., Newark, NJ 07105. 

7600 State Rd. , Philadelphia, PA 19136. 

4155 N.W. Yeon Ave., Portland, 

5501 E. Slauson, Los Angeles, 

8810 10th Ave., N., Mlnneapoll 

2404 Penna. St., Evansville, I 



R 97210. 
90040. 
MN 55427. 
47721. 

P. 0. Box 748, Donaldsonville, LA 70346. 
126 E. Lincoln Ave., P. 0. Box 2000, Rahway, NJ 07065. 
1914 Haden Rd., Houston, TX 77015. 
Oak St. at Bluff Rd., Burlington, lA 52601. 

1127 Myrtle St., Elkhart, IN 46514. 

1127 Myrtle St., Elkhart, IN 46514. 

P. 0. Box 817, Inman, SC 29349. 

3M Center, St. Paul, MN 55101. 

277 Cult St., Irvington, NJ 07111. 

P. 0. Box 388, Yazoo City, MS 39194. 

Penn Lincoln Parkway, W. Pittsburgh, PA 15205. 

P. 0. Box 4913, Hawthorne Rd., Kansas City, MO 64120. 

lorio Ct., Union, NJ 07083. 

P. 0. Box 900, Dallas, TX 75221. 

P. 0. Box 3868, Beaumont, TX 77704. 

1024 South Ave., Plainfleld, NJ 07062. 

P. 0. Box 26683, Richmond, VA 23261. 

65 E. 23d St., Paterson, NJ 07524. 

P. 0. Box 488, Geismar, LA 70734. 

1296 N.W. 3rd, Kalama, WA 98625. 

800 N. Lindbergh Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63166. 

3250 Wllshire Blvd. Suite 1800, Los Angeles, CA 90010. 

2301 Scranton Rd., Cleveland, OH 44113. 

P. 0. 1799, Spartanbury, SC 29304. 

110 N. Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606. 

17 Eaton Ave., Norwich, NY 13815. 

267 Vreeland Ave., P. 0. Box 300, Paterson, NJ 07513. 

9505 Casslus Ave., Cleveland, OH 44105. 

1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, OT 10020. 

P. 0. Box 429, Pryor, OK 74361. 

199 Main St., Lodi, NJ 07644. 

3127 W. Lake St., Chicago, IL 60612. 

601 W. 80th St., Chicago, IL 60620. 



108 



SYNTH (TIC ORGANIC CHB1ICALS. 1977 



TABLE 1. --Synthetic organic chemicals; 
BY company. 



Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 
1977--c0ntinued 



Name of company 



National Milling 6, Chemical Co 

National Starch & Chemical Corp 

Nease Chemical Co. » Inc 

Nepera Chemical Co., Inc 

Neville Chemical Co 

Niklor Chemical Co 

Nilok Chemicals, Inc 

Nipak, Inc 

Nipro , Inc 

Norac Co., Inc 

Mathe Dlv 

Norda , Inc 

Norrls Paint 6. Varnish Co., Inc 

North American Chemical Co 

Northern Petrochemical Co 

Northwestern Chemical Co 

Northwest Petrochemical Corp 

Nostrip Chemical Works, Inc 

Noury Chemical Corp 

Novamont Corp 

Nyanza , Inc 

O'Brien Corp 

Fuller-O'Brien Dlv 

Olln Corp 

Agricultural Products Dept 

Orbls Products Corp 

Organics , Inc 

Original Bradford Soap Works, Inc — 

Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp 

Oxlrane Chemical Co 

Oxirane Chemical Co. (Channelvlew)- 
Oxochem Enterprise 

P-L Biochemical, Inc 

PPG Industries, Inc 

P. R. Chemical Co., Inc 

PVO International, Inc., Chemical 
Specialties Dlv. 

Pacific Resins 6. Chemicals, Inc 

Pantasote Co. of New York, Inc 

Parke, Davis S, Co. Sub. of Warner- 
Lambert Co. 

Passaic Color & Chemical Co 

Pathan Chemical Co 

C. H. Patrick 6. Co., Inc 

Pearsall Chemical Corp 

Peck's Products Co 

Peerless Chemical Co 

Penetone Corp 

Pennwal t Corp 

Lucldol Dlv 

Pennzoil Co., Penreco Dlv 

Perry & Derrick Co., Inc 

Perstop, Inc., Toledo Dlv 

Petrochemicals Co., Inc 

Petro-Tex Chemical Corp 

Pfanstlehl Laboratories, Inc 

Pflster Chemical, Inc 

Pfizer, Inc 

Pfizer Pharmaceuticals. Inc 



^601 Flat Rock Rd., Philadelphia, PA 19127. 
10 Finderne Ave., Brldgewater, NJ 08876. 
P. 0. Box 221, Route 26N, State College, 

PA 16801. 
Route 17, Harrlman, NY 10926. 
Neville Island P. 0., Pittsburgh, PA 15225. 
2060 E. 220th St., Long Beach, CA 90810. 
2235 Langdon Farm Rd . , Cincinnati, OH 45230. 
P. 0. Box 2820, Dallas, TX 75221. 
P. 0. Box 1483, Augusta, GA 30903. 
405 S. Motor Ave., Azusa, CA 91703. 
169 Kennedy Dr., Loll, NJ 07644. 
140 Route 10, E. Hanover, NJ 07936. 
P. 0. Box 2023, Salem, OR 97308. 
19 S. Canal St., Lawrence, MA 01843. 
2350 E. Devon Ave., Des Plaines, IL 60018. 
120 N. Aurora St., W. Chicago, IL 60185. 
P. 0. Box 99, Anacortes, WA 98221. 
P. 0. Box 160, Pedricktown, NJ 08067. 
2153 Lockport-Olcott Rd., Burt, NY 14028. 
P. n. Box 189, Kenova, WV 25530. 
Megunco Rd., Ashland, MA 01721. 

2001 W. Washington Ave., South Bend, IN 46634. 

450 E. Grand Ave., S. San Francisco, CA 94080. 

120 Long Ridge Rd., Stamford, CT 06904. 

P. 0. Box 991, Little Rock, AR 72203. 

140 Route 10, E. Hanover, NJ 07936. 

7125 N. Clark St., Chicago, IL 60628. 

200 Providence St., W. Warwick, RI 02893. 

Fiberglas Tower, Toledo, OH 43659. 

10801 Choate Rd., Pasadena, TX 77507. 

P. 0. Box 580, Channelvlew, TX 77530. 

King George Post Rd., Fords, NJ 08863. 

1037 W. McKinley Ave., Mllwa^ikee, WI 53201. 
1 Gateway Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15222. 
P. 0. Box 496, Arecibo, PR 00612. 
416 Division St., Boonton, NJ 07005. 

1754 Thorne Rd., Tacoma, WA 93421. 
26 Jefferson St., Passaic, NJ 07056. 
P. 0. Box 118, Detroit, MI 48232. 

28-36 Paterson St., Paterson, NJ 07501. 
427 Meyer St., Philadelphia, PA 19125. 
P. 0. Box 2526, Greensville, SC 29602. 
P. 0. Box 437, Houston, TX 77001. 
610 E. Clarence, St. Louis, MO 63147. 
12416 Cloverdale St., Detroit, MI 48204. 
74 Hudson Ave., Tenafly, NJ 07670. 
3 Parkway, Philadelphia, PA 19102. 
1740 Military Rd . , Buffalo, NY 14240. 
Union Bank Bldg. , Butler, PA 16001. 

, Norwood, OH 45212. 
Toledo, OH 43612. 

rt Worth, TX 76101. 

77017. 
60085. 



2510 Highland Ave. 
600 Matzlnger Rd. , 
P. 0. Box 2199, Fo 
8600 Pa 
1219 Gl. 



Place Blvd. , Houst 
Rock Ave., Waukega 



46 



Rout 

235 E. 42d St. , 1 

P. 0. Box 628, B, 



Ave., Ridgefleld, NJ 07657. 
■w York, NY 10017. 
■celoneta, PR 00617. 



APPENDIX 



m 



TABLE 1. --Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of MANUFACTURERSy 

BY COMPANY^ 1977--C0NTINUED 



Pharmachem Corp 

Phelps Dodge Industries, Inc., Phelps 

Magnet Wire Co. Dlv. 

Phillips Petroleum Co 

Phillips Puerto Rico Core, Inc 

Pierce Chemical Co 

Pilot Chemical Co 

Pioneer Plastics Div. of LOF Plastics, 

Inc, 

Pltt-Consol Chemical Co 

Plastics Engineering Co 

Plastics Manufacturing Co 

Plastifax, Inc 

Plex Chemical Corp 

Polak's Frutal Works, Inc 

Polycast Technology Corp 

Polymer Corp 

Polyrez Co., Inc 

Polysar Resins, Inc 

Polysar Latex Dlv 

Polyvinyl Chemical Industries 

Pope Chemical Corp 

Pratt & Lambert, Inc 

Premier Malt Products, Inc 

Procter i Gamble Co., Procter & Gamble 

Mfg. Co. 

Proctor Chemical Co., Inc 

Products Research & Chemical Corp 

Publicker Industries, Inc 

Puerto Rico Olefins Co 

Purex Corp 



Quaker Chemical Corp 

Quaker Oats Co 

K. J. Qulnn & Co., Inc 

Quintana-Howell Joint Venture 

R.S.A. Corp 

Rachelle Laboratories, Inc 

Racon , Inc 

Raybestos-Manhattan, Inc., RM Friction 

Materials Co. Div. 

Red Spot Paint i Varnish Co., Inc 

Rebels Chemical Co. Dlv. of Armour 

Pharmaceutical Co. 
Relchhold Chemicals, Inc 

Relchhold Polymers, Inc 

Reilly Tar & Chemical Corp 

Reliance Universal, Inc., Louisville 

Resins Operation 

Remington Arms Co., Inc 

Resinous Chemicals Corp 

Resyn Corp 

Rexene Polyolefins Co 

Rexene Styrenics Co 

Rhod la , Inc 

Richardson Co 

Polymeric Systems Div 

Richardson-Merrell, Inc., Merrell-Natlo 

Laboratories Div. 

Rico Chemical Corp 

Ridgway Color & Chemical 

Riker Laboratories, Inc. Sub. of 3M Co- 

Rilsan Corp 

Rit ter International 



P. 0. Box 1035, Bethlehem, PA 18018. 

132 E. Crelghton Ave., Fort Wayne, IN 46863. 

15C1 Phillips Bldg., Bartlesville, OK 74003. 
GPO Box 4129, San Juan, PR 00936. 
3747 N. Meridian Rd., Rockford, IL 61103. 
11756 Burke St., Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670. 
Plonite Rd., Auburn, ME 04210. 

P. 0. Box 1267, 1000 S. Pine, Ponca City, OK 74501. 

3518 Lakeshore Rd., Sheboygan, WI 53081. 

2700 S. Westmoreland, Dallas, TX 75224. 

P. 0. Box 2216, Gulfport, MS 39503. 

1205 Atlantic St., Union City, CA 94487. 

33 Sprague Ave., Mlddletoun, NY 10990. 

69 Southfield Ave., Stamford, CT 06902. 

2120 Fairmont Ave., Reading, PA 19603. 

P. 0. Box 320, Woodbury, NJ 08096. 

29 Fuller St., Leominster, MA 01453. 

3305 Amnicola Hwy., Chattanooga, TN 37406. 

730 Main St., Wilmington, MA 01887. 

33 6th Ave., Paterson, NJ 07524. 

P. 0. Box 22, Buffalo, NY 14240. 

917 W. Juneau Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53201. 

P. 0. Box 599, Cincinnati, OH 45201. 

P. 0. Box 399, Salisbury, NC 28144. 
2820 Empire Ave., Burbank, CA 91505. 
1429 Walnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19102. 
Firm Delivery, Ponce, PR 00731. 
5101 Clark Ave., Lakewood, CA 90712. 

Lime & Elm Sts., Conshohocken, PA 19428. 
Merchandise Mart Plaza, Chicago, IL 60654. 
195 Canal St., Maiden, MA 02148. 
P. 0. Box 4656, Corpus Christi, TX 79408. 

690 Sawmill River Rd., Ardsley, NY 10502. 
700 Henry Ford Ave., Long Beach, CA 90801. 
P. 0. Box 198, Witchita, KS 67201. 
75 E. Main St., Stratford, CT 06497. 



110 Main St., Evansville, IN 
236 Snyder Ave., Berkely Hgts 



47703. 



525 N. Broadway, White Plains, NY 10603. 
525 N. Broadway, White Plains, NY 10603. 
1615 Merchants Bank, Indianapolis, IN 45204. 
P. 0. Box 21-423, Louisville, KY 40221. 

939 BarnumAve., Bridgeport, CT 05502. 
1399 W. Blancke St., Linden, NJ 07036. 
1401 W. Blancke St., Linden, NJ 07035. 
W. 115 Century Rd., Paramus, NJ 07652. 
W. 115 Century Rd., Paramus, NJ 07652. 
120 Jersey Ave., New Brunswick, NJ 08903. 
2400 E. Devon Ave., Des Plaines, IL 60018. 
15 Meigs Ave., Madison, CT 06443. 
110 E. Amity Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45215. 

P. 0. Box 387, Guayanilla, PR 00656. 

75 Front St., Ridgway, PA 15853. 

19901 Nordhoff St., Northridge, CA 91324. 

139 Harristown Rd., Glen Roc, NJ 07452. 

4001 Goodwin Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90039. 



m 



SYNTH [TIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1977 



TABLE 1.— Synthetic organic chemicals; Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 
BY company, 1977--Continued 



Identi- 
fication 




RIV 
ROB 
RBT 
MFC 
ORT 



SCM 
SOS 
NPR 
SLM 
SAL 



SCN 

SBC 

SCH 

SCO 

SPA 

SEA 

SRL 

SKP 

SHO 

SHC 

SHP 

SW 

SHT 

SID 

SMP 

SIM 

GFS 



SLT 
SLC 
SAC 
SOP 
SWL 
SPL 
OMS 
STA 
UBS 
CLN 



STT 
STG 

SFA 
SFC 
SFF 
SFI 
SFP 
SFS 
SWS 
STP 




Riverda 
Robe 

Robintech, 
Rockwell Inte 

Roehr Chemicals Div. of Aceto Indus 
Chen 
ogers 
Rohm (t Haas Cc 
Rubicon Chemicals, Inc- 

SCM Corp- 

SSC Industries 

Safeway Stores, 

Salem Oil & Grease 

Salsbury Laboi 

Sandoz 

Colors & Chemicals 

Crop Protectlon- 
Sartomer Industrie 

Schenectady Chemicals, Inc- 
Scher Bros. , Inc- 
Scherlng Corp- 

Scholler Bros., Inc 

Scott Paper Co 

Seaboard Chemicals, Inc 

G. D. Searle 6, Co 

Shakespeare Co., Monofilament Dlv 

Shell Oil Co 

Shell Chemical Co. Dlv 

Shepherd Chemical Co 

Sherwin-Williams Co 

Shintech, Inc 

George F. Slddall Co., Inc 

J. R. Simplot Co., Minerals Chemical Dlv 

Simpson Timber Co., Chemicals Dlv 

G. Frederick Smith Chemical Co 

SmlthKllne Chemicals 

Soltex Polymer Corp 

Soluol Chemical Co., Inc 

Southeastern Adhesives Co., Inc 

Southern Chemical Products Co., Inc 

Southwest Latex Corp 

Spauldlng Fibre Co., Inc 

E. R. Squibb i Sons, Inc 

A. E. Staley Mfg. Co 

Chemical Specialties Dlv 

Standard Brands, Inc., Clinton Corn 

ProcesslnK Co. Dlv. 
Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc., Sub. 
of Standard Chlorine Chemical Co., Inc. 

Standard Oil Co. 

Standard Oil Co. of California, Chevron 
Chemical Co. 

Standard T Chemical, Inc 

Stange Co 

Stauffer Chemical Co.: 

Agricultural Div 

Calhlo Chemicals, Inc 

Food Ingredients Div 

Industrial Dlv 

Plastics Dlv 

Specialty Div 

SWS Silicones Dlv 

Stepan Chemical Co 



220 E. 17th St., Chicago Heights, IL 60411. 
99 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. 
1407 Texas St., Fort Worth, TX 76102. 
4501 Benefit Ave., Ashtabula, OH 44004. 
52-20 37th St., Long Island City, NY 11101. 

Rogers, CT 06263. 

Independence Mall West, Philadelphia, PA 191 

P. 0. Box 517, Geismar, LA 70734. 



299 Park Ave., New York 
P. 0. Box 90987, Eas 



NY 



Pol 



10017. 
t, GA 30344. 



50616 



2800 Ygnacio Valley Rd., Walnut, CA 

60 Grove St., Salem, MA 01970. 

2000 Rockford Rd., Charles City, lA 

P. 0. Box 357, Fair Lawn, NJ 07410. 

Route #10, E. Hanover, NJ 07936. 

P. 0. Box 207, Wasco, CA 93280. 

Gov. Printz Blvd. & Wanamaker Ave., Essing 

19029. 
P. 0. Box 1046, Schenectady, NY 12301. 
P. 0. Box 1236, Allwood Station, Clifton, 
1011 Morris Ave., Union, NJ 07083. 
Collins and Westmoreland Sts., Philadelphl 
Scott Plaza, Philadelphia, PA 19113. 



30 Foster St. , 


Salem, MA 


01970. 


P. 0. Box 5110 


Chicago, 


IL 60680. 


P. 0. Box 246, 


Columbia, 


SC 29202. 


P. 0. Box 2463 


Houston, 


TX 77001. 


P. 0. Box 2463 


Houston, 


TX 77001. 


4900 Beech St. 


Norwood , 


OH 45212. 



1370 Ontario St. NW., Cleveland, OH 44101. 

3800 Buffalo Speedway-Suite 210, Houston, TX 77098 

P. 0. Box 925, Spartanburg, SC 29304. 

P. 0. Box 912, Pocatello, ID 83210. 

2301 N. Columbia Blvd., Portland, OR 97217. 

867 McKlnley Ave., P. 0. Box 23214, Columbus, OH 

43223. 
1500 Spring Garden St., Philadelphia, PA 19101. 
P. 0. Box 1000, Deer Park, TX 77536. 
Green Hill and Market Sts., W. Warwick, RI 02893. 
P. 0. Box 791, Lenoir, NC 28645. 
430 Lower Boundary St., Macon, GA 31202. 
1001 Chemical Rd . , Pasadena, TX 77507. 
310 Wheeler St., Tonawanda, NY 14150. 
40 W. 57th St., New York, NY 10019. 
2200 E. Eldorado St., Decatur, IL 62525. 
2200 E. Eldorado St., Decatur, IL 62525. 
1251 Beaver Channel Parkway, Clinton, lA 52733. 

1035 Belleville Turnpike, Kearny, NJ 07032. 

270 Midland Bldg., Cleveland, OH 44130. 

575 Market St., Rm. 3280, San Francisco, CA 94105. 

P. 0. Box A-3351, Chicago, IL 60690. 
342 N. Western Ave., Chicago, IL 60612. 



636 Califoi 


nia 


St 


, San Francisco, CA 


94119 


636 Califoi 


nia 


St 


, San Francisco, CA 


94119 


636 Callfo 


nia 


St 


, San Francisco, CA 


94119 


636 Callfo 


nia 


St 


, San Francisco, CA 


94119 


636 Califoi 


nia 


St 


, San Francisco, CA 


94119 


636 Califoi 


nia 


St 


, San Francisoc, CA 


94119 


636 Califoi 


nia 


St 


, San Francisco, CA 


94119 


RR tn, Elwood, 


IL 


60421 and 








(=r 





APPBJDIX 



til 



TABLE 1. --Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 
BY company, 1977— Continued 



Sterling Drug, Inc. : 

Glenbrook Laboratories Dlv 

Hilton-Davis Chemical Co. Dlv 

Thomasset Colors Dlv 

Winthrop Laboratories Dlv 

Sterwin Chemicals, Inc 

Styrochem Corp 

Sugar Beet Products Co 

Sun Chemical Corp.: 

Chemical Dlv 

Pigments Dlv 

Sun Company, Inc 

Sunklst Growers, Inc 

SunOlln Chemical Co 

Swedcast Corp 

Swift Agricultural Chemicals 

Synalloy Corp., Blackman-Uhler Chemical 
Div. 

Syncon Resins, Inc 

Synres Chemical Corp 

Syntex Agribusiness, Inc 

Tanatex Chemical Corp 

Charles S. Tanner Co 

Tauber Oil Co 

Teknor Apex Co 

Tenneco Chemicals, Inc 

Tenneco Oil Co 

Tennessee Valley Authority 

Terra Chemicals International, Inc 

Terrell Corp 

Texaco , Inc 

Texas Alkyls , Inc 

Texas-U.S. Chemical Co 

Texlze Chemicals Co 

Textron, Inc., Spencer Kellogg Div 

Thlokol Corp 

Thompson-Hayward Chemical Co 

Toms River Chemical Corp 

Trancoa Chemical Corp 

Arthur C. Trask Co 

Triad Chemical 

Troy Chemical Co 

UOP , Inc 

Chemical Div 

USM Corp., Bostlk, Inc 

USS Agrl-Chemlcals Dlv. of U.S. Steel Corp- 

USS Chemicals Dlv. of U.S. Steel Corp 

Paul Uhllch i Co., Inc 

Ungerer & Co 

Union Camp Corp 

Chemical Div 

Union Carbide Corp 

Union Oil Co. of California 

Unlroyal, Inc., Uniroyal Chemical Div 

Unitech Chemical, Inc 

United Chemical Corp. of Norwood 



90 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. 

2235 Langdon Farm Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45237. 

120 Lister Ave., Newark, NJ 07105. 

90 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. 

Military Rd . , Rothschild, WI 54474. 

Petrochemical Complex, Ponce, PR 00731. 

P. 0. Box 1387, Saginaw, MI 48605. 

P. 0. Box 70, Chester, SC 29706. 

441 Tompkins Ave., Staten Island, NY 10305. 

100 llatsonford Rd., Radnor, PA 19087. 

P. 0. Box 7888, Van Nuys, CA 91409. 

P. 0. Box F, Claymont, DE 19703. 

7350 Empire Dr., Florence, KY 41042. 

P. 0. Box 2175, Beaumont, TX 77704. 

P. 0. Box 5627, Spartanburg, SC 29301. 

77 Jacobus Ave., S. Kearny, NJ 07032. 

1036 Commerce Ave., Union, NJ 07083. 

P. 0. Box 1246 S.S.S., Springfield, MO 65805. 

P. 0. Box 388, Lyndhurst, NJ 07071. 

1310 Barcelona Dr., Greensville, SC 29605. 

1610 Melrose Blvd., Houston, TX 77052. 

505 Central Ave., Pawtucket, RI 02662. 

Park Eighty Plaza West-One, Saddle Brook, NJ 07662. 

P. 0. Box 2511, Houston, TX 77001. 

Muscle Shoals, AL 35660. 

P. 0. Box 1828, Sioux City, lA 51121. 

820 Woburn St., Wilmington, MA 01887. 

P. 0. Box 430, 4800 Fournace PI., Bellalre, TX 77401 

Deer Park, TX 77536. 

Port Neches, TX 77651. 

Greenville, SC 29502. 
Ti 14240. 
18940. 



P. 0. Box 500, 
P. 0. Box 667, 
P. 0. Box 368, 
120 Delaware Ave., Buffalo 
P. 0. Box 1000, Newtown, P 
2 E. Madison St., Waukegan, IL 50085, and 
5200 Speaker Rd., Kansas City, MO 66110. 
P. 0. Box 71, Toms River, NJ 08753. 
312 Ash St., Reading, MA 01857. 
7666 W. 63d St., Summit, IL 60501. 
P. 0. Box 310, Donaldsonville, LA 70346. 
One Avenue L, Newark, NJ 07105. 

10 UOP Plaza, Des Plaines, IL 60016. 
State Highway 17, E. Rutherway, NJ 07073. 
Boston St., Middleton, MA 01949, and P. 0. Box 

5695, Greenville, SC 29606. 
P. 0. Box 1685, Atlanta, GA 30301. 
600 Grant St., Rm. 2880, Pittsburgh, PA 15230. 
1 Railroad Ave., Hastings on the Hudson, NY 107 
161 Avenue of the Americas, New York, !IY 10013. 
P. 0. Box 6170, Jacksonville, FL 32205. 
P. 0. Box 220, Dover, OH 44622. 
270 Park Ave., New York, NY 10017. 
1650 E. Golf Rd., Schaumburg, IL 60196. 
Emic Bldg., Spencer St., Naugatuck, CT 06770. 
115 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, IL 60604. 
Endicott St., Norwood, MA 02062. 



112 



SYNTH ITIC ORGAIJIC CHmiCALS. 1977 



TABLE 1, --Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 

BY company, 1977--CONTINUED 



Name of company 



Office address 



UNP 
UNO 
ROM 

USB 
USI 



USD 
UPJ 
CWN 



VSV 
VLN 
MNP 
VNC 

VND 
VEL 
MHI 
VTC 

VIK 
VIN 
VCC 
VGC 
SDH 
SIC 
VTM 
FRO 



WAG 
WCA 



WVA 
WKD 
WBG 
WHI 
WCC 
WHL 
APT 

WHW 
WLN 
WTC 
WAW 
WBC 
WCL 
WYC 
WVT 



United Chemical Products Corp 

United- Erie, Inc 

United Merchants & Manufacturers, Inc., 

Roma Chemical Dlv. 

U.S. Borax Research Corp 

U.S. Industrial Chemicals Co.: 

National Distillers & Chemicals Corp— 

National Petro Chemical Corp 

U.S. Oil Co 

Upj ohn Co 

Fine Chemical Dlv 

Valchem Div. of United Merchants 
& Manufacturers, Inc. 

Valentine Sugars, Inc., Valite Div 

Valley Nitrogen Producers, Inc 

The Valspar Corp 

Vanderbilt Chemical Corp 

Van Dyk S Co., Inc 

Velsicol Chemical Corp 

Ventron Corp 

Vicksburg Chemical Co. Sub. of Vertac 

Consolidated. 

Viking Chemical Co 

Vineland Chemical Co., Inc 

Vinings Chemical Co 

Virginia Chemicals, Inc 

Vlstron Corp 

Silmar Dlv 

Vitamins , Inc 

Vulcan Materials Co., Chemicals Div 

Warner- Jenkinson Manufacturing Co 

West Agro-Chemical, Inc 

West Coast Adheslves Co., Inc 

Westinghouse Electric Corp., Industrial 

Materials Div. 

Westvaco Corp. , Polychemicals Dept 

Weyerhaeuser Co 

White i Bagley Co 

White 4 Hodges, Inc 

White Chemical Corp 

Whitmoyer Laboratories, Inc 

Whittaker Corp., Whittaker Coatings S. 

Chemicals, Mol Rez Resins. 

Whlttemore-Wright Co., Inc 

Wilmington Chemical Corp 

Witco Chemical Corp 

W. A. Wood Co 

Worthington Biochemical Corp 

Wright Chemical Corp 

Wycon Chemical Co 

Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., Wyeth Laboratc 

Div. of American Home Products Corp, 

Zoecon Corp 



A72 York St. , Jer 
438 Huron St., Er 
749 Quequechan St 



, PA 16512. 
Fall River, 



3075 Wllshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90005. 

99 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. 

99 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. 

P. 0. Box 4228, E. Providence, RI 02914. 

7000 Portage Rd., Kalamazoo, MI 49002. 

410 Sackett Point Rd., North Haven, CT 06473. 

1407 Broadway, New York, NY 10018. 

726 Whitney Bldg., New Orleans, LA 70130. 

1111 Van Ness Ave., Fresno, CA 93717. 

1101 S. 3d St., Minneapolis, MN 55415. 

31 Taylor Ave., Bethel, CT 06801, and Rt . 5 - Box 54, 

Murray, KY 42071. 
Main 4 Williams Sts., Belleville, NJ 07109. 
341 E. Ohio St., Chicago, IL 60611. 
152 Andover St., Danvers, MA 01923. 
P. 0. Box 3, Vicksburg, MS 39180. 



838 Baker Bldg., Minneapoli 
W. Wheat Rd., Vineland, NJ 
2555 Cumberland Pkwy., Suit 
3340 W. Norfolk Rd., Portsi 
393 Midland Bldg., Clevelat 



s, MN 55402. 

08360. 
e 200, Atlanta, 
outh, VA 23703. 
d, OH 44115. 



12333 S. Van Ness Ave., Hawthorne, CA 90250. 
200 E. Randolph Dr., Chicago, IL 60601. 
P. 0. Box 7689, Birmingham, AL 35223. 

2526 Baldwin St., St. Louis, MO 63106. 
501 Santa Fe, Kansas City, MO 54105. 
11104 NW. Front Ave., Portland, OR 97231. 
Manor, PA 15665. 

P. 0. Box 5207, N. Charleston, SC 29406. 

118 S. Palmetto Ave., Marshfield, WI 54449. 

P. 0. Box 706, Worcester, MA 01613. 

576 Lawrence St., Lowell, MA 01853. 

P. 0. Box 278, Bayonne, NJ 07002. 

19 N. Railroad St., Myerstown, PA 17067. 

3134 California St., NE., Minneapolis, MN 55418. 

62 Alford St., Boston, MA 02129. 

P. 0. Box 66, Wilmington, DE 19899. 

P. 0. Box 305, Paramus, NJ 07652. 

108 Spring St., Everett, MA 02149. 

Halls Mill Rd., Freehold, NJ 07728. 

Acme Station, Rlegelwood, NC 28456. 

5 Greenway Plaza East, Houston, TX 77046. 

P. 0. Box 831, Paoli, PA 19301. 



Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304. 



APPENDIX ni3 



U.S. IMPORTS OF BENZENOID CHEMICALS AND PI JDUCTS 



U.S. general imports of benzenoid chemicals and products entered under 
the Tariff Schedules of the United States (TSUS) , schedule 4, part 1, sub- 
parts B and C are analyzed by the U.S. International Trade Commission an- 
nually and published in detail in a separate report.^ General imports of 
benzenoid items entered in parts IB and IC totaled 412.5 million pounds 
with a foreign invoice value of $570.5 million in 1977 compared with 362.4 
million pounds with a foreign invoice value of $493.8 million in 1976. 

Benzenoid products that are "competitive" with similar domestic pro- 
ducts, because they accomplish results substantially equal to those accom- 
plished by the similar domestic product when used in substantially the same 
manner, are subject to a special basis of valuation for customs purposes 
known as the "American selling price." If "noncompetitive," the benzenoid 
products are valued for customs purposes on the basis of the "United States 
value," The essential difference between these two values is that "Amer- 
ican selling price" is based on the wholesale price in the United States 
of the "competitive" domestic product, whereas "United States value" is 
based on the wholesale price in the United States of the imported product 
less most of the expenses incurred in bringing the product to the United 
States and selling it. ^-Then neither of these two valuation bases applies, 
then the "export value," "foreign value," or "constructed value" is used 
as the valuation basis under section ^02 and 402a Tariff Act of 1930, as 
amended. The competitive status of benzenoid imports in 1977 is shown in 
table 2. 

Industrial organic chemicals that are entered under part IB consist 
chiefly of benzenoid intermediates and small quantities of acyclic compounds 
which are derived in whole or in part from benzenoid compounds. Also in- 
cluded are mixtures and small quantities of finished products not specially 
provided for in part IC (e.g., rubber-processing chemicals). In terms of 
value, 34.6 percent of all the benzenoid imports under part IB in 1977 came 
from West Germany; 21.2 percent, from Japan; 9.8 percent, from Italy; and 
9.0 percent, from the United Kingdom. 

Finished organic chemical products entered under part IC include dyes, 
pigments, medicinals, flavor and perfume materials, pesticides, plastics 
materials, and certain other specified products. In terms of value 34.4 per- 
cent of all finished benzenoid imports under part IC in 1977 came from West 
Germany; 16.4 percent, from the United Kingdom; and 12.0 percent, from 
Japan. 



Imports of Benzenoid Chemicals and Products^ 1977, TC Publication 900, 
1978. 



4W 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1977 



TABLE 2.— Benzenoid chemicals and products; Summary of U.S. general imports entered under 
Schedule 4, Parts IB and IC of the TSUS, and analysis by competitive status, 1977 



Part and competitive sta 



total 
quantity 



Unit 
foreign 



Schedule 4. Part IB 
Total' 



Competitive: 

Duty based on ASp' 



Noncompetitive: 

Duty based on U.S. value- 
Duty based on export valu 



Competitive status not available 
Schedule 4, Part IC 
Total' 



Competitive: 

Duty based on ASP^ 



Noncompetitive: 

Duty based on U.S. valu 
Duty based on export va 



Competitive status not available 

Summary (Schedule 4, Parts IB and IC) 



Total'- 



Competitive: 
Duty based 



Noncompetitive: 

Duty based on U.S. value- 
Duty based on export valu 

Competitive status pnt aval 



284 
157 



970 
197 



1,254 
354 



1,000 
pounds 



22,772 
14,087 



28,686 
60,356 



51,458 



1.000 
dollars 



9.2 
5.7 



35,125 
34,257 



17.4 
36.7 



80,281 
133,286 



570,508 



12.5 
18.0 



115,406 
167,543 



17.9 
17.5 



21.4 
35.6 



20.2 
29.4 



Per 
pound 



1.54 
2.43 



2.21 
3.71 



2.24 
2.25 



Detail may not add to total due to rounding. 
^ American selling price. 

Source: Compiled by the U.S. International Trade Commission from records of the U.S. Bureau of Custo 



Note. — The totals shown in this table differ from those given in 
of Commerce chiefly because of differences in coverage and in the n 
the statistics coverage in 1977 varies from a low of 63 percent foi 
percent flavor and perfumes materials, 85 percent dyes, 81 percent 
pharmaceuticals. 



the official statistics of the U.S. Department 
ethods used in compiling the data. In general, 

pigments, to about 86 percent coverage of 86 
intermediates, and 73 percent medicinals and 



APPENDIX 



115 



TABLE 3.— Cyclic Intermediates: Glossary of synonymous names 



A Acid 

1,2, 4-Acld 

Acid yellow 9 

p-Aminobenzenesulf onic acid 

ra-Amlnobenzoyl J acid 

Aminoepislon acid 

Amino G acid 

Amino J acid 

Amino R salt 

Aniline oil 

Anthraflavlc acid 

Anthrarufin 

Armstrong & Wynne's acid 

B Acid 

2B Acid 

4B Acid 

Benzal chloride 

Ben zan throne 

Benzo trichloride 

Bisphenol A 

B . . N 

Broenner's acid 

Bromamlne acid 

Bromobenzanthrone 

C Acid (Cassella acid) 

C.A. Acid 

C-Amine (Lake Red C acid) 

Chicago Acid (SS acid) 

Chlorobenz an throne 

Chromotroplc acid 

Chrysazln 

1,6-Cleve's acid 

1,7-Cleve's acid 

Crocein acid 

2-Cyanopyrldlne 

3-Cyanopyridine 

Cyanuric chloride 

D Acid 

DADI 

DBB 

Decacyclene 

Dehydrothlo- P-toluldlne 

Developer Z 

o-Dlanisidine 

l,l'-Dianthrlmlde 

Dibenzanthrone 

A, 4 '-Dihydroxydiphenylsulf one- 
Dimethyl POPOP 

A,5-Dinltrochrysazln 

Dioxy S acid 

Diphenyl Epsllon Acid 

Durene 

Epsilon Acid (Andresen's acid)- 

F Acid 

Fast Red G base 

Fast Scarlet R base 

Fischer's aldehyde 

Fischer's base 

Freund's acid 



al Abstracts) 



3,5-Dlhydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonlc ac 
4-Amino-3-hydroxy-l-naphthalensulfonic acl 

(l-Anino-2-naphthol-4-sul£onic acid) . 
6-Ainino-3,4'-azodibenzenesulfonic acid. 
Sulfanilic acid and salt. 

4-Hydroxy-7-(m-aminobenzamldo)-2-naphthale 
8-Amino-l,6-naphthalenedlsulfonlc acid. 
7-Amino-l,3-naphthalenedlsulfonlc acid. 
6-Amlno-l , 3-naphthalenedlsulfonic acid. 
3-Amino-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonlc acid. 



2 , 6-Dihydroxyanthraquinone . 
1 , 5-Dihydroxyanthraquinone . 
4-Hydroxy-2-naphthalene sulfa 



id. 



5-Amino-4-hydroxy-l , 7-naphthalenedisulf or 

6-Anino-4-chloro-m-toluenesulfonic acid. 

6-Amino-m-toluenesulfonic acid. 

a, a-Dichloro toluene. 

7H-Benz [ de ) anthracen-7-one . 

a,a,a,-Trichlorotoluene. 

4 , 4 '-Isopropylldenediphenol . 

3-Hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. 

6-Amlno-2-naphthalenesulf onic acid. 

l-Amino-4-brorao-2-anthraqulnonesulfonlc a 

3-Bronio-7H-benz [ de]anthracene-7-one . 

3-Amino-l,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid. 

3-Amlno-6-chloro-4-sulf obenzolc acid . 

2-Amlno-5-chloro-p-toluenesulfonic acid. 

4-Amlno-5-hydroxy-l , 3-naphthalenedlsulfon 

Chloro-7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one. 

4 , 5-Dihydroxy-2 , 7-naphthalenedisulf onic a 

1 , 8-Dihydroxyanthraqulnone . 

5-Amlno-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 

8-Amlno-2-naphthalenesulf onic acid . 

7-Hydroxy-l-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 

Plcolinonitrlle. 

Nlcotlnonltrile. 

2,4,6-Trichloro-s-triazine. 



6-Amino-l-naphthalenesulfonlc 

Dianlsidine diisocyanate. 

p-Dlbutoxybenzene . 

Diacenaphtho[l,2-j :l',2'-£Jflu 

2-(p-Aminophenyl)-6-methylben 

3-Methyl-l-phenyl-2-pyrazolin' 

3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine. 

1 , 1 '-Imlnodianthraquinone . 

Violanthrone. 

4,4 '-Sulfonyldiphenol. 

1 , 4-Bls 1 2- (4-me t hyl-5-phe: 

l,8-Dihydroxy-4,5-dinitro. 

4 , 5-Dihydroxy-l-napththal 

6, 8-Dianil ino-1-naphthale; 

1,2,4, 5-Tetramethylbenzen. 



eld. 



ranthene. 
othlazole 
5-one, 



yloxazolyl)Jbenzene. 
nthraquinone. 
nesulfonlc acid, 
esulfonlc acid. 



8-Hydroxy-l , 6-naphthalenedisulf onic 



cid. 



7-Hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 
2-Nitro-p-toluldlne [NHz'l]. 
5-Nitro-o-anlsldine [NHi-l]. 
1,3,3-Trimethyl-A^ •'^-Indolineacetaldehyde. 
1 , 3, 3-Trlmethyl-2-methylenelndoline . 
4-Amino-2,7-naphthalenedlsulfonlc acid. 



41G 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEfllCALS. 1977 



TABLE ■?. --Cyclic intermediates; Glossary of synonynious names— Continued 



Standard (Chemical Abstracts) 



G salt 

Gamma acid 

Gold salt 

H Acid 

Helllmellltene 

Indoxyl 

J Acid 

J Acid Urea 

K Acid 

Koch's Acid 

L Acid 

Lake Red C amine 

Laurent's acid 

M Acid 

MEP 

Mesltylene 

Methane base 

Mlchler's hydrol 

Mlchler's ketone 

Naphthlonlc acid 

o-Naphthionlc acid 

&-Naphthol 

Naphthol AS 

a-Naphthylamine 

NeviUe & Wlnther's acid 

ui-Nltrobenzoyl J acid 

Oxy Koch's acid 

Pentaanthriralde 

Peri Acid 

Phenylbiphenyl 

N-Phenyldiethanolamlne 

Phenyl Gamma acid 

Phenyl J acid 

Phenyl peri acid 

POPOP 

Pseudocumene 

Pyrazo lean throne 

Pyrazoleanthrone yellow 

Pyrazolone T 

Quinlzarin 

2-qulnizarlnsulfonlc acid 

Qulnollne yellow base 

R salt 

RG Acid (Violet acid) 

Rhodullne acid (J Acid Imide)- 
RR acid 

S Acid 

Schaffer's acid 

Silver salt 



7-Hydroxy-l , 3-naphthalenedisulf onic acid . 
6-Amlno-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulf onlc acid, so 

salt. 
9 , lO-Dihydro-9 , 10-dioxo-l-anthracenesulf onlc acl 

and salt. 

4-Amlno-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonlc acid 
(8-Ainlno-l-naphthol-3,6-disulfonlc acid). 
1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene. 

3(2H)-Indolone. 

7-Ainlno-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, so 

salt. 
7,7'-Ureylenebis[A-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonlc 



eld] 






-5-hydroxy-l,7-naphthalenedisulfo 
-1,3,6-napthalenetrlsulfonlc acid 



5-Hydroxy-l-naphthalenesulfonlc 
2-Amlno-5-chloro-p-toluenesul£o 
5-Amino-l-naphthalenesulfonic a 



lid. 



8-Amlno-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulf onic acid , 

5-Ethyl-2-picollne (2-Methyl-5-ethylpyrldlne) . 

1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene. 

4,4'-Methylenebls[N,N-dimethylanlllne]. 

4,4'-Bis[dlmethylamlno]benzhydrol. 

A , 4 ' -Bis [dimethyl amino Jbenzophenone . 

4-Amino-l-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 
l-Amlno-2-naphthalenesulfonlc acid. 
2-Naphthol, tech. 
3-Hydroxy-2-naphthanllide. 
1-Naphthylamine. 
4-Hydroxy-l-naphthalenesulfonlc acid. 



4-Hydroxy-7-(m 
id. 



l-Naphthol-3,6,8- 



ulfon 



ldo)-2-naphthalenesulfo 



:ld. 



l,4,5,8-Tetrakls(l-anthraqulnonylamino)anthraqulnone. 
8-Amlno-l-naphthalenesulf onlc acid . 
Terphenyl. 

2,2'-[(Phenyl)imlno]diethanol. 

6-Anlllno-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonlc acid. 
7-Anlllno-4-hydroxy-2-naph thai enesulf onlc acid. 
8-Anilino-l-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 
l,4-Bls[2-(5-phenyloxazolyl)]benzene. 
1, 2 ,4-Trimethylben2ene . 
Anthra[l,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one. 

[3,3'-Blanthra[l,9-cd]pyrazole]-6,6'-(2H,2'H)dione. 
5-Oxo-l-(p-sulfophenyl)-2-pyrazollne-3-carboxyllc 
acid. 

1,4-Dlhydroxyanthraqulnone. 

9 , 10-Dlhydro-l ,4-dihydroxy-9 , lO-dloxo-2-anthracene- 

sulfonlc acid. 
Qulnophthalone. 

3-Hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedlsulfonlc acid, dlsodium 

salt. 
4-Hydroxy-2 , 7-naphthalenedlsulf onlc acid . 
7,7'-Imlnobis[4-hydroxy-2-napthalenesul£onlc acid] . 
3-Amlno-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedlsulfonic acid. 

4-Amino-5-hydroxy-l-naphthalenesulf onic acid . 
6-Hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulf onlc acid . 
9 , lb-Dlhydro-9 , lO-dloxo-2-a 
and salt. 



APPENDIX 



W 



rASLE 3. --Cyclic intermediates: Glossary of synonyiious names— Continued 



standard (Chemical Abstracts) 



Solvent Yellow 1 

Solvent Yellow 3 

SS Acid (Chicago acid) 

o-Sulfobenzaldehyde 

Thloindoxyl 

Thlosallcylic acid 

Tobias Acid 

TODI 

o-Tolldlne 

a-Toluic acid 

d-Tolunltrile 

4-ni-Tolylenedlamlne 

Trlmellitic anhydride 

Trlmethyl base 

Trinitrophenol 

Urea J Acid (J Acid Drea)- 

Vinyl toluene 

Violet acid (RG Acid) 



p-Phenylazoaniline and hydrochlo 
4-(o-Tolylazo)-o-toluidlne. 
4-Aniino-5-hydroxy-l , 3-naphthalen 
o-Formylbenzenesulfonic acid. 

3 ( 2H) -Thlanaphthenone . 
o-Mercaptobenzolc acid. 
2-Aniino-l-naphthalenesulfonlc ac 
Bitolylene diisocyanate. 
3,3' -Dlmethylbenzidlne . 
Phenylacetic acid. 



Phe 



Toluene-2 ,4-diamine. 

1,2, A-Benzene tricarboxylic 



cid, 1,2-anhydride 



,3,3-Trl 
icrlc ac 



thyl-2-methyleneindollne. 



7,7'-Ureyleneblsl4-hydroxy-2-naphthale 



ar-Methyls tyrene . 
4-Hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedlsulfonlc 



r U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1978 273/867/6443 



Library Cataloging Data 

U.S. International Trade Commission . 

Synthetic organic chemicals. United 
States production and sales, 1977. 
Washington [U.S. Govt. Print. Off. 
1978] 

355, A 417 p. lllus. 27 cm. 
(USITC Publication 920) 

Appendix Includes: Directory of 
manufacturers, p. AOO-412; U.S. Imports 
of benzenold chemicals and products, 
p. 413-414; Cyclic intermediates: 
glossary of synonymous names, p. 415-417. 

1. Coal-tar products. 2. Petroleum 
Industry and trade — U.S. 3. Interme- 
diates. 4. Dyes and dyeing. 5. Drugs. 
6. Flavoring essences. 7. Plastics 
Industry and trade — U.S. 8. Rubber 
Industry and trade. 9. Elastomers. 
10. Cleaning compounds. 11. Pesticides. 
12. Chemicals — Manufacture and Industry — 
U.S. — Directories. I. Title. 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. QoTemment Printing Office 
Wasliington, D.C. 20402 



Stock Number 049-000-00048-1