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Full text of "Synthetic organic chemicals"

BOSTON 

PUBLIC 

LIBRARY 




I I IL I w ^^ r% >^ »-» • ■» ■ -w 



• IblTII V» , 



\ States Production 
Sales, 1978 



n 



33: 




IBUCATION 1001 



ates International Trade Commission / Washington, D.C. 20436 



RECENT REPORTS OF THE UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSIOI 
ON SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



*Synthetic Organic Chemicals, United States Production and Sales, 1973 

(ITC Publication 728, 1975), $3.25 
Synthetic Organic Chemicals, United States Production and Sales, 1974 

(USITC Publication 776, 1976), $3.20 
Synthetic Organic Chemicals, United States Production and Sales, 1975 

(USITC Publication 804, 1977), $3.10 
Synthetic Organic Chemicals, United States Production and Sales, 1976 

(USITC Publication 833, 1977), $5.25 
Synthetic Organic Chemicals, United States Production and Sales, 1977 

(USITC Publication 920, 1978), $6.25 



NOTE. — The report preceded by an asterisk (*) is out of print. The other n 
ports listed above may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. All U.S. International T« 
Commission reports reproduced by the Government Printing Office may be consult^ 
in the official depository libraries throughout the United States. 



UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION 



SYNTHETIC 
ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

United States Production 
and Sales, 1978 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
WASHINGTON: 1979 



OEP OS1TORY 
USITC PUBLICATION 1001 



UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION 



COMMISSIONERS 

Joseph O. Parker, Chairman 
Bill Alberger, Vice Chairman 
George M. Moore 
Catherine Bedell 
Paula Stern 



Kenneth R. Mason, Secretary to the Commission 



OFFICE OF INDUSTRIES 
Norris A. Lynch, Director 



This report was prepared principally by David B. Beck, Tedford 
C. Briggs, Edmund Cappuccilli, Louis N. DeToro, Cynthia B. 
Foreso, John J. Gersic, J. Lawrence Johnson, Eric Land, Daniel 
F. McCarthy, Bonnie Jean Noreen, Rick Talisman, and Edward J. 
Taylor. 

Assistance in the preparation of the report was provided by 
Mildred Higgs, Susan Abel, Virginia Bailey, Joseph Balog, 
Frances Battle, Judith Bryant, Brenda Carroll, Sharon 
Greenfield, Ralph Gray, Kenneth Kozel, Susan Lemarie, 
Linda Mudd, and Sharon Thompson. Automatic Data Processing 
input was provided by Patricia Augustine, Andre Fontaine, and 
James Gill. 



Address all communications to 
Office of the Secretary 
United States International Trade Commission 
Washington, D.C. 20436 



CONTENTS 



Pa g e 

Introduction .- 1 

Summary 3 

General 4 

Section I. Tar and Tar crudes: 

Statistical highlights 7 

Production and sales statistics 9 

Section II. Primary products from petroleum and natural 
gas for chemical conversion: 

Petrochemicals and the gasoline market 13 

Statistical highlights 23 

Production and sales statistics 25 

Section III. Cyclic intermediates: 

Important developments in cyclic intermediates in 1978 33 

Statistical highlights 42 

Production and sales statistics 43 

Section IV. Dyes: 

Statistical highlights 81 

Production and sales statistics 83 

Section V. Organic pigments: 

Profile of the domestic organic pigments industry 121 

Statistical highlights 129 

Production and sales statistics 131 

Section VI. Medicinal chemicals: 

Important developments in medicinal chemicals in 1978, and a case 

study of the penicillins 143 

Statistical highlights 150 

Production and sales statistics 153 

Section VII. Flavor and perfume materials: 

Statistical highlights 177 

Production and sales statistics 179 

Section VIII. Plastics and resin materials: 

Statistical highlights 197 

Production and sales statistics 199 

Section IX. Rubber-processing chemicals: 

Statistical highlights 211 

Production and sales statistics 213 

Section X. Elastomers: 

Statistical highlights 221 

Production and sales statistics 223 

Section XI. Plasticizers: 

Statistical highlights 227 

Production and sales statistics 229 



CONTENTS 



Section XII. Surface-active agents: 

Statistical highlights 237 

Production and sales statistics 239 

Section XIII. Pesticides and related products: 

Important developments in pesticides in 1978 271 

Statistical highlights 278 

Production and sales statistics 279 

Section XIV. Miscellaneous end-use chemicals and chemical 
products: 

Statistical highlights 293 

Production and sales statistics 295 

Section XV. Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals: 

Statistical highlights 307 

Production and sales statistics 309 

APPENDIX 

Directory of manufacturers 352 

U.S. imports of benzenoid chemicals and products 365 

Cyclic intermediates: Glossary of synonymous names 367 



INTRODUCTION 

This is the 62nd annual report of the U.S. International Trade Commission on Domestic production and 
sales of synthetic organic chemicals and the raw materials from which they are made. The report consists of 15 
sections, each covering a specified group (based principally on use) of organic chemicals as follows: Tar and 
tar crudes; crude products from petroleum and natural gas for chemical conversion; cyclic intermediates; dyes; 
organic pigments; medicinal chemicals; flavor and perfume materials; plastics and resin materials; rubber-pro- 
cessing chemicals; elastomers; plasticizers; surface-active agents; pesticides and related products; miscellaneous 
end-use chemicals and chemical products; and miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals. Data have been supplied 
by approximately 800 producers. 

Five of the 15 statistical sections are neaded by a short paper on recent developments in Dart or all of the 
given end-use group. This is followed by a summary of the statistical data. The first table in each section 
gives statistics on products and groups of products in as great detail as is possible without revealing the opera- 
tions of individual producers. Statistics for an individual chemical or group of chemicals are given only when 
there are three or more producers, no one or two of which may be predominant. Moreover, even when there are three 
or more producers, statistics are not given if there is any possibility that their publication would violate the 
statutory provisions relating to unlawful disclosure of information accepted in confidence by the Commission.' 

Data are reported by producers for only those items where the volume of production or sales or value of sales 
exceeds certain minimums. Those minimums for all sections are 5,000 pounds of production or sales or $5,000 of 
value of sales with the following exceptions: Plastics and resin materials — 50,000 pounds or ?50,0ou; pigments, 
medicinal chemicals, flavor and perfume materials, rubber-processing chemicals, and elastomers — 1,000 pounds or 
$1,000. They are usually given in terms of undiluted materials; however, products of 95 percent or more purity 
are considered to be 100 percent pure. Commercial concentrations are applied to dyes, certain plastics and resins, 
and a few solvents; such concentrations are specifically noted. 

The statistics given in this report include data from all known domestic producers of the item covered and in- 
clude the total output of each company's plants, i.e., the quantities produced for consumption within the producing 
plant, as well as the quantities produced for domestic and foreign sale. The quantities reported as produced, 
therefore, generally exceed the quantities reported as sold. Some of these differences, however, are attributable 
to changes in inventory. 

The second table in each section lists all items for which data on production or sales have been reported, by 
primary manufacturers, identified by manufacturers' codes. Each code consists of not more than three capital let- 
ters which is assigned on a permanent basis. 

The third table in each section is a directory, alphabetized by the codes of the manufacturers reporting in 
that section. 

Table 1 of the Appendix is a directory, alphabetized by the names of the manufacturers reporting in all sections 
and includes their office addresses. 

Table 2 of the Appendix summarizes and gives the competitive status of U.S. general imports in 1976 of benzenoid 
intermediates and finished benzenoid products, entered under schedule 4, parts IB and 1C, of the Tariff Schedules of 
the United States. 

Table 3 of the Appendix lists synonymous names for cyclic intermediates. Information on all synonymous names 
of the organic chemicals included in this report may be found in the SOCMA Handbook: Commercial Organic Chemical 
Names, published by the Chemical Abstracts Service of the American Chemical Society, or the Colour Index (Revised 
Third Edition), published jointly by the Society of Dyes and Colourists and the American Association of Textile 
Chemists and Colourists. 

As specified in the reporting instructions sent to manufacturers, production and sales (unless otherwise 
specified) are defined as follows: 

PRODUCTION is the total quantity of a commodity made available 
by ORIGINAL MANUFACTURERS ONLY within the customs territory 
of the United States (includes the SO states, the District 
of Columbia, and Puerto Rico). It covers synthetic organic 
chemicals, specified crudes from petroleum and coal tar, and 
certain chemically described natural products, such as, 
alkaloids, enzymes, and perfume isolates. It is the sum — 
expressed in terms of 100% active ingredient unless other- 
wise specified in the reporting instructions — of the quan- 
tities: 

Produced, separated, and consumed in the same plant or 

establishment. A commodity is considered separated 

either when it is isolated from the reaction system 

or when it is not isolated, but weighed, analyzed, 

or otherwise measured. This includes byproducts 

and co-products that are not classifiable as waste 

materials; 

'Title 18, U.S.C. 1905 and Title 44, U.S.C. 3508. 



INTRODUCTION 



Produced and not isolated, but directly converted to 
a finished or semifinished item not included in 
this report (e.g., polyester film, polyurethane 
tires, nylon fiber, bar soap, etc.). (See specific 
instructions in individual sections) ; 

Produced and transferred to other plants or establish- 
ments of the same firm or 100%-owned subsidiaries 
or affiliates; 

Produced and sold to, or bartered with, other firms 
(including less than 100% owned subsidiaries); 

Produced for others under toll agreements (see gen- 
eral instructions); 

Produced and held in stock. 

PRODUCTION EXCLUDES : 

Purification of a commodity, which is purchased by, or ^ 
transferred from within, your company, unless inclusion 
of such processing is specifically requested in the 
reporting instructions for individual sections; 

Intermediate products which are formed in the manufact- 
uring process, but are not isolated from the reaction 
system — that is, not weighed, analyzed, or otherwise 
measured; except such products as described above as 
being produced and not isolated, but directly converted 
to a finished or semifinished item. 

Materials that are used in the process but which are 
recovered for re-use or sale; 

Haste products having no economic significance. 

SALES are actual quantities of commodities sold by ORIGINAL 

MANUFACTURERS ONLY . Sales include the quantity and value of: 

Shipments of a commodity for domestic use or for 

export, or segregation in a warehouse when title 

has passed to the purchaser in a bona fide sale; 

Shipments of a commodity produced for you by others 

under toll agreements; 
Shipments to subsidiary or affiliated companies, pro- 
vided the ownership is less than 100%. 

SALES EXCLUDES : 

All intra-company transfers within a corporate entity; 
All shipments to 100% owned subsidiary or affiliated 

companies; 
All resales of imported or purchased material, including 

materials obtained by barter; 
All shipments of a commodity produced for others under 

toll agreements. 

VALUE OF SALES is the net selling price f.o.b. plant or ware- 
house, or delivered price. F.o.b. prices are preferred, 
but if they are not readily available from your records, 
delivered prices are acceptable. 



SUMMARY 



Combined production of all synthetic organic chemicals, tar, and primary products from petroleum and natural 
gas in 1978 was 320,891 million pounds — an increase of 4,7 percent over the output in 1977 (see table 1). Sales 
of these materials in 1978, which totaled 170, 488 million pounds, valued at $41,511 million, were 5.4 percent 
larger than in 1977 in terms of quantity and 8.5 percent larger in terms of value. These figures include data on 
production and sales of chemicals measured at several successive steps in the manufacturing process, and therefore 
they necessarily reflect some duplication. 



In 1978, production 
totaled 186,657 million 
rubber-processing chemic 
fume materials (189 
increased 16.4 perc 
chemicals (269 mill 
mediates (19,936 mi 



f all synthetic organic chemicals, including cyclic intermediates and finished products, 
n pounds, or 7.0 percent more than the output in 1977. All sections except those on dyes, 
icals, and elastomers, showed an increase in production in 1978 over 1977. Flavor and per- 
llion pounds) led the increase with a gain of 26.0 percent; plasticizers (2,086 million pounds) 
; plastics and resin materials (38,878 million pounds) increased 12.3 percent; medicinal 
pounds) and organic pigments (77 million pounds) each increased 11.6 percent; cyclic inter- 
on pounds) increased 6.5 percent; miscellaneous end-use chemicals and chemical products 



(20,589 million pounds) 
increased 5.9 percent; p 
active agents (4,738 mil 
creased 9.0 percent; dye 
0.9 percent. 



lcreased 6.4 percent; 
iticides and related p 
Lon pounds) increased 
(251 million pounds) 



iscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals (92,101 million pounds) 
oducts (1,416 million pounds) increased 2.0 percent; and surface- 
.4 percent. Rubber-processing chemicals (366 million pounds) de- 
ecreased 4.9 percent; and elastomers (5.761 million pounds) decrea 



TABLE l.~ Synthetic organic chemicals and their raw materials 
U.S. production and sales, 1977 and 1978 



PRODUCTION 



decrease 

(-), 1978 

over 

1977 1 



Increase, 

or 

decrease 

(-), 1978 

over 

1977 1 



decrease 
(-), 1978 



Grand Total 

Tar 

Primary Crude products from Pet] 
leum and Natural Gas 

Synthetic organic chemicals 

total 2 

Cyclic intermediates 

Dyes 

Organic pigments 

Medicinal chemicals 

Flavor and perfume 

materials 

Plastics and resin 

materials 

Rubber-processing chemicals — 
Elastomers (synthetic 

rubber ) 

Plasticizers 

Surface-active agents 

Pesticides and related 

products 

Miscellaneous end-use chem- 
icals and chemical products 
Miscellaneous cyclic and 

acyclic chemicals 



Million 
pounds 

3 30b,544 



Mi I lion 
pounds 



Percent 
4.7 



Million 
pounds 



Million 
pounds 



::'?: I - 



5,929 
126,133 

3 174,482 

18,726 
264 
69 
241 

150 

34,623 
3 382 

5,813 
1,792 
4,718 

1,388 

19,348 

86,968 



5,405 
128,829 



19,936 

251 

77 

269 

189 

38,878 
366 

5,761 
2,086 
4,738 

1,416 

20,589 

92,101 



Million 
dollars 

3 38,258 



Million 
dollars 



7.0 

6.5 
-4.9 
11.6 
11.6 

26.0 

12.3 
-9.0 

-.9 
16.4 
0.4 

2.0 

6.4 

5.9 



2,924 
61,008 



7,986 
255 
57 
162 

108 

29,799 
238 

4,177 
1,668 

2,515 

1,263 
10,855 
38,753 



2,947 

64,281 



8,853 
233 
65 
185 

140 

33,527 
228 

3,640 
1,748 
2,708 

1,300 

11,698 

38,935 



5-5; 

10.9 
-8.6 
14.0 
14.2 

29.6 

12.5 
-4.2 

-12.9 
4.8 
7.7 

2.9 



32,438 

2,596 
690 
268 
794 

207 

10,882 
278 

1,940 
632 
875 



2,547 
7,919 



,803 
734 
322 
944 



12,349 
287 

1,875 
703 
966 

3,041 

2,713 

8,582 



9.5 

8.0 
6.4 
20.2 
18.9 

2.4 

13.5 
3.2 

-3.4 
11.2 
10.4 

8.3 

6.5 

8.4 



1 Percentages calculated from figures rounded to thousands. 

* Because of rounding, figures may not add to the totals shown. 



Note.— Data on total production and sales of tar crudes, which were published prior to 1977, are not available. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



General 



In this report synthetic organic chemicals are classified on the basis 
intermediates, dyes, organic pigments, medicinal chemicals, flavor and perft 
rubber-processing materials, elastomers, plasticizers, surface-active agents 
miscellaneous end-use chemicals and chemical products, and miscellaneous eye] 
groups are further subdivided either by use or by chemical composition. As 



manuff 



ot f 



:lude 



hed product 
able duplicatio 



aggregate figures that 



both 



their principal use as follows: 
materials, plastics and resin m* 
pesticides and related products, 
and acyclic chemicals. Most of 
termediate chemicals are used in 
tes and finished products necess; 



cyclic 
erials 



Total production of synthetic organic chemicals (intermediates and finished products combined) in 1974J was 186,657 
million pounds or 7.0 percent more than the output of 174,482 million pounds reported for 1977 and 78.3 percent more 
than the output of 104,711 million pounds reported for 1967 (see table 2). Sales of synthetic organic chemicals in 1978 
amounted to 103, 260 million pounds, valued at $35,531 million, compared with 97,836 million pounds, valued at $32,438 
million in 1977 and 55,177 million pounds, valued at $10,438 million in 1967. Production of all cyclic products (inter- 
mediates and finished products combined) in 1978 totaled 45,826 million pounds or 9.3 percent more than the 41,9 2 mil- 
lion pounds reported for 1977 and 36.9 percent more than the 33,479 million pounds reported for 1967, however, the 
transfer of several items, in 1976, from the cyclic intermediates section to the section on primary production from 
petroleum and natural gas has caused the output of cyclic products to appear much lower in relation to 1967 
than would otherwise have resulted. Production of all acyclic products in 1978 totaled 140,831 million pounds, or 
6.2 percent more than the 132,560 million pounds reported for 1977 and 97.7 percent more than the 71,232 million 
pounds reported for 1967. 

TABLE 2. -SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS: Summary of U.S. production and sales 

OF INTERMEDIATES AND FINISHED PRODUCTS, 1967- 1977- AND 1973 



thousands of pounds; 



thousands of dolla 



Increase, or decrease (-) 



1978 over 
1977 



Organic chemicals, cyclic and acycl 
Grand total: 2 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

Cyclic, total: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic, total: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

1. Cyclic? Intermediates 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

2. Dyes 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

3. Organic Pigments 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

4. Medicinal Chemicals 

Cyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

See footnotes at end of table. 



104,711,357 
55,176,823 
10,438,453 



33,479,469 

19,328,628 

4,610,293 



71,231,888 
35,848,195 
5,828,160 



20,793,132 
9,461,180 
1,000,359 



206,240 
198,592 
332,049 



174,481,873 
97,835,977 
32,437,521 



*41, 921, 778 
26,041,307 
2 14,173,377 



132,560,095 
2 71, 794,670 
18,264,144 



18,725,626 
7,985,790 
2,596,627 



264,369 
254,516 
689,992 



53,322 
42,867 
108,354 



10 


129 


70 


120 


48 


873 


69 


941 


56 


804 


36 


402 



68,707 

57,434 

267,747 



153,922 
83,586 
718,392 

86,811 
78,798 
75,626 



186,657,007 

103,260,322 

35,530,776 



45,825,737 
26,527,904 
14,743,163 



140,831,270 
76,732,418 
20,787,613 



19,935,769 
8,852,650 
2,803,327 



250,780 
232,711 
733,553 



76,716 
64,638 
321,882 



157,207 
87,197 
850,199 

111,855 
97,915 
93,915 



78.3 
87.1 
240.4 



97.7 
114.0 
256.7 



21.6 

17.2 

120.9 



43.9 

50.8 

197.1 



24.4 
143.7 



6.9 
13.8 



-8.6 
6.3 



12.5 
20.2 



GENERAL 

TmbLE 2.— Synthetic organic chemicals: Summary of U.S. production and sales 
of intermediates and finished products, 1967, 1977- and 1978— Continued 



[Production and 



thousands of pounds; sale 



5. Flavor and Perfume Materials 

Cyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

6. Plastics and Resin Materials 

Cyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sa les value 

7. Rubber-Processing Chemicals 

Cyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Produc t ion 

Sales 

Sales value 

8. Elastomers (Synthetic Rubber! 

Cyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

9. Plasticizers 

Cyclic: 

Produc t ion 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

10. Surface-Active Agents 

Cyclic: 3 

Product ion 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 



57,973 
47,285 i 
52,866 

53,558 
49,311 
40,495 



5,033,497 
4,224,121 
1,036,940 

8,759,452 
7,753,242 
1,635,690 



220,139 
169,970 
116,318 

43,994 
30,873 
15,477 



2,297,637 

1,940,099 

439,530 

1,524,908 

1,321,945 

434,657 



929,871 
865,084 

167,327 

332,908 

296,767 

93,142 



1,413,444 
852,238 
95,310 

2,060,851 
897,736 
220,877 



58,452 

46,809 

134,628 

91,964 
60,756 
72,473 



10,802,389 
9,444,644 
4,275,111 

23,820,652 

20,354,360 

6,606,712 



335,549 
202,251 
248,756 

46,464 
35,833 
29,009 



3,449,123 

2,157,680 

760,128 

2,364,113 
2,019,749 
1,180,132 



1,407,084 

1,390,319 

474,781 

384,956 
277,303 
157,549 



989,564 
469,432 
200,244 

3,728,608 

2,045,151 

674,778 



101,175 
83,565 
137,239 

88,271 
56,656 
74,565 



11,819,919 
10,103,322 
4,969,197 

27,057,873 

23,423,832 

7,380,227 



325,001 
200,514 
258,254 

40,802 
27,935 
28,311 



3,209,951 

1,760,624 

551,299 

2,551,190 
1,879,749 
1,323,807 



1,781,612 

1,470,534 

539,216 

304,172 
277,035 
163,684 



1,099,120 
570,987 
228,476 

3,638,733 

2,137,048 

737,184 



Increase, or decrease (-) 



134.8 
139.1 

379.2 

208.9 
202.1 
351.2 



17.8 
122.0 



67.3 
42.2 
204.6 



70.0 
221.3 



138.0 
233.8 



at end of table. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 

TABLE 2.— Synthetic organic chemicals: Summary of U.S. production and sales 
of intermediates and finished products, 1967/ 1977/ and 1973 —Continued 

[Production and sales in thousands of pounds; sales value in thousands of dollars] 



11. Pesticides and Related Products 



Cyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

12. Miscellaneous End-Use Chemicals and 
Chemical Products 

Cyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

IS. Miscellaneous Cyclic and Acyclic 
Chemicals" 

Cyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 



823,158 
681,532 
627,742 

226,505 
215,831 
159,301 



( 1,535,92?.) 
( 775,540) 
( 283,575) 

(58,159,771) 
(25,225,631) 
( 3,192,119) 



829,537 

691,136 

1,664,008 

557,932 

571,821 

1,144,265 



2,761,320 
2,213,649 
1,479,800 

16,586,612 
8,641,594 
1,067,681 



2,076,136 

1,044,011 

663,163 

84,891,933 
37,709,300 
7,255,919 



795,836 

747,054 

1,897,623 

620,648 
553,057 

1,143,579 



4,002,939 

1,221,617 

718,464 

16,586,394 

10,476,649 

1,994,612 



2,269,712 

1,132,491 

734,434 

89,831,332 
37,802,542 
7,847,229 



1978 ove 
. 1967 



174.0 
156.2 
617.9 



160.6 
57.5 
153.4 

-71.5 
-58.5 
-37.5 



1978 over 
1977 



145.0 

-44.8 

51.4 

0.0 
21.2 
86.8 



1 Standard reference base period for Federal Government general-purpose index numbers. 

2 Revised 1977. 

3 Includes ligninsulfonates. 

** Items in these two sections were previously included in the section named miscellaneous chemicals. 



The following tabulation shows, by chemical groups, the number of companies that reported production 
or more of the chemicals included in the groups listed in table 2: 



Chemical group 

Cyclic intermediates 

Dyes 

Organic pigments 

Medicinal chemicals 

Flavor and perfume materials 
Plastics and resin materials 



Number 

of 
■ ■■•; oiii s 



Chemical group 

Rubber-processing chemicals 

Elastomers (synthetic rubber) — 

Plas t ic izers 

Surface-active agents 

Pesticides and related products 

Miscellaneous end-use chemicals 
chemical products 

Miscellaneous cyclic and acycli 
icals 



a 1978 of one 

Humber 

°? . 
companies 



166 
83 



SECTION I -- TAR AND TAR CRUDES 

STATISTICAL HIGHLIGHTS 
Cynthia B. Foreso 

Tar 



Coal tar is produced chiefly by the steel industry as a byproduct of the 
manufacture of coke; water-gas tar and oil-gas tar are produced by the fuel- 
gas industry. Production of coal tar, therefore, depends on the demand for 
steel; production of water-gas tar and oil-gas tar reflects the consumption of 
manufactured gas for industrial and household use. Water-gas and oil-gas tars 
have properties intermediate between those of petroleum asphalts and coal tar. 
Petroleum asphalts are not usually considered to be raw materials for chemicals. 

The quantity of coal tar produced in the United States in 1978 amounted 
to 540 million gallons (see table 1). Production in 1978 was 8.8 percent less 
than the 593 million gallons of coal tar produced in 1977. Sales of coal tar 
in 1978 amounted to 295 million gallons compared with 292 million gallons in 
1977. U.S. production of water-gas and oil-gas tars was not reported to the 
Commission for 1977 or 1978; production of these tars in 1968 amounted to 21 
million gallons, according to trade publications. 



Tar Crudes 

Tar crudes are obtained from coke-oven gas and by distilling coal tar, 
water-gas tar, and oil-gas tar. The most important tar crudes are benzene, 
toluene, xylene, creosote oil, and pitch of tar. Some of these products are 
identical with those obtained from petroleum. Data for materials obtained 
from petroleum are included, for the most part, with the statistics for like 
materials obtained from coke-oven gas and tars, and are shown in tables 1 and 
IB. 

Domestic production of industrial and specification grades of benzene 
reported by coke-oven operators and petroleum refinery operators in 1978 
amounted to 1,488 million gallons — 3.7 percent more than the 1,435 million 
gallons reported for 1977. These statistics include data for benzene produced 
from light oil and petroleum. Sales of benzene by coke-oven operators and 
petroleum refiners in 1978 amounted to 757 million gallons compared with 659 
million gallons in 1977. In 1978 the output of toluene (including material 
produced for use in blending in aviation fuel) amounted to 1,054 million 
gallons — 3.6 percent more than the 1,018 million gallons reported for 1977. 
Sales of toluene (Nitration grade, 1*) in 1978 were 695 million gallons com- 
pared with 457 million gallons in 1977. The output of xylene in 1978 
(including that produced for blending in motor fuels) was 845 million gallons, 
compared with 811 million gallons in 1977. Over 99 percent of the 845 million 
gallons of xylene produced in 1978 was obtained from petroleum sources. Sales 
of xylene increased slightly to 446 million gallons in 1978 compared with 
426 million gallons in 1977. 



8 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 

Production and sales figures on crude naphthalene from coal-tar oils in 
1978 could not be published without disclosing the operations of individual 
companies. Production of petroleum-derived naphthalene in 1978 amounted to 
157 million pounds, compared with 151 million pounds in 1977. Production 
figures on road tar for 1978 cannot be published; in 1972 production amounted 
to 30 million gallons. 

Some of the products obtained from tar and included in the statistics 
in table 1 are obtained from other products for which data are also included 
in the table. The statistics, therefore, involve considerable duplication, 
and for this reason no group totals or grand totals are given. 

Data for 1978 tar crudes were supplied by 8 companies and company 
divisions. 



I -- TAR AND TAR CRUDES 9 

TABLE 1.— Tar and tar crudes: U.S. production and sales, 1978 

[Listed below are all tar crudes for which any reported data on production or sales may be published, (Leaders 
(...) are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be published or where no data 
were reported.) Table 2 Lists separately all products for which data on production and/or sales were reported 
and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



TAR AND TAR CRUDES 



PRODUCTION 



SALES 



QUANTITY 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



Coal tar: 2 Coke-oven operators 

Crude light oil: 3 Coke-oven operators — 
Light-oil distillates: 

Benzene, all grades, total 11 

Coke-oven operators 

Petroleum refiners 

Toluene, all grades, total 

Coke-oven operators 

Petroleum refiners 

Xylene, all grades, total 1 * 

Coke-oven operators 

Petroleum refiners 

Solvent naphtha: 3 

Coke-oven operators 

Crude tar-acid oils: 3 

Coke-oven operators 

Creosote oil (Dead oil) (tar distillers) 

(100% creosote basis), total 

Distillate as such (100% creosote 

basis) 

Creosote content of coal tar solution 
(100% creosote basis) 

Tar, refined, for uses other than road 

tar 

Pitch of tar (tar distillers)', total — 
Hard (water softening point above 

160° F) 

Other 9 



1,000 gal— 
1,000 gal— 

1,000 gal— 
1,000 gal— 
1,000 gal— 
1,000 gal— 
1,000 gal— 
1,000 gal— 
1,000 gal— 
1,000 gal— 
1,000 gal— 

1,000 gal— 

1,000 gal— 

1,000 gal— 
1,000 gal— 
1,000 gal— 

1,000 gal— 

1,000 tons- 

1,000 tons- 
1,000 tons- 



540,452 
164,744 

1,488,429 

53,472 

1,434,957 

1,053,962 

7,855 

1,046,107 

845,216 

1,434 

843,782 

1,476 

13,858 



86,304 



294,672 
102-.810 

756,922 

54,143 

702,779 

694,508 

8,103 
686,405 
445,602 

1,514 
444,088 

1,485 

3,533 



1,000 
lo liars 



558,389 
5 40,066 
518,323 
382,109 
5 4,700 
377,409 
250,283 
5 848 
249,435 



51,343 
34,961 



17,854 
874 



36,285 
26,272 



14,357 
816 



22,959 
( 6 ) 

10,903 
121,395 



670 
204 



612 
204 



89,545 
31,850 



$0.74 
.74 
.74 
.55 
.58 
.55 
.56 
.56 
.56 



.63 
( 8 ) 


.76 


148.77 


146.32 


156.13 



Unit value per gallon or ton as specified. 

2 Includes only data for coal tar reported to the Office of Energy Data and Interpretation, Energy Information 
Administration, Department of Energy (Energy Data Reports, Coke & Coal Chemicals, in December, 1978 , February, 
1979). At date of publication, sales value for coal tar was not available. Data on U.S. production of water- 
gas tar and oil-gas tar are not collected by the U.S. International Trade Commission, but according to trade 
publications, production of these tars amounted to 21 million gallons in 1968. 

3 Data reported by tar distillers are not included because publication would disclose the operations of indi- 
vidual companies. At date of publication, sales value for coke-oven operators was not available. 

"includes data for material produced for use in blending motor fuels. The annual production statistics for 
petroleum refiners on benzene, toluene, and xylene are not comparable with the combined monthly production fig- 
ures because of fiscal year revisions. 

Sales value figures are estimated from Energy Data Reports, Coke & Coal Chemicals, in December, 1978 , February, 
1979. 

Benzene, specification grades (1°, 2") only. 

Data from coke-oven operators was unavailable at time of publication. 

8 In 1978, production of coal-tar solution containing creosote (100% colution basis) amounted to 46,937 thousand 
gallons; sales were 34,411 thousand gallons, valued at 21,557 thousand dollars, with a unit value of $0.63 per 
gallon. 



10 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 

Footnotes --Continued 



9 Includes pitch emulsion, medium and soft pitch. 

Note 1. — Statistics for materials produced in coke and gas-retort ovens are compiled by the Office of Energy 
Data and Interpretation, Energy Information Administration, Department of Energy. Statistics for materials 
produced in tar and petroleum refineries are compiled by the U.S. International Trade Commission. 

Note 2. — Data for all other tars and tar crudes are not included in 1978 report because publication would 
disclose the operation of individual companies. Preliminary coke-oven operators data was obtained from cumu- 
lative totals reported in Energy Data Reports, Coke 5. Coal Chemicals in December, 1978 , February, 1979, as 
the annual publication data was not available to include in this report. 



TABLE 1A.— Tar: U.S. production and consumption, 1977 and 1978 

(In thousands of gallons) 



PRODUCTION 

Coal tar from coke-oven byproduct plants, total 

CONSUMPTION 

Total 

Tar consumed by distillation, total 

Coal tar distilled or topped by coke-oven operators 

Coal tar and oil-gas tar distilled by tar distillers 3 

Tar consumed by the producers chiefly as fuel 

Coal tar consumed at coke-oven plants in miscellaneous uses ■ 



( 2 ) 



( 2 ) 



(O 

275,287 



( 2 ) 
( 2 ) 



540,452 



( 2 ) 



( 2 ) 



( 2 ) 

277,079 



( 2 ) 
( 2 ) 



Reported to the Office of Energy Data and Interpretation, Energy Information Administration, Department of 
Energy. 

department of Energy data were not available at time of publication. 

3 Reported to the U.S. International Trade Commission. Represents tar purchased from companies operating coke- 
ovens and gas-retort plants and distilled by companies operating tar-distillation plants. Statistics also in- 
clude tar consumed other than by distillation by tar distillers. 



I -- TAR AND TAR CRUDES 

TABLE IB.— Tar and tar crudes: Summary of U.S. production of specified 

products, 1967, 1977, and 1978 



11 



TAR AND TAR CRUDES 



1967 1 



INCREASE, OR 
DECREASE (-) 



1978 OVER 
1967 



1978 OVER 
197 7 



Coal tar' 

Benzene: 3 

Coke-oven operators- 
Petroleum refiners — 
Total 



Toluene: 

Coke-oven operators- 
Petroleum refiners — 
Total 



Xylene: 3 

Coke-oven operators- 
Petroleum refiners — 
Total 



Naphthalene: 

Crude 5 

Petroleum naphthalenes, 

all grades 

Total 



Creosote oil (Dead oil): 
Distillate as such (100% 

creosote basis) 

Creosote content of coal 
tar solution (100% 

creosote basis) 

Total 



1,000 gal- 



1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 



1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 



1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 



1,000 lb- 
1,000 lb- 



1,000 gal- 



1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 



),334 



90,642 
878,704 



592,935 



64,571 
1,371,176 



540,452 



53,472 
1,434,957 



-41.0 
63.3 



Percent 
-8.9 



-17.2 

4.7 



969,346 



19,357 
'624,454 



643,811 



5,488 
'449,349 



9,618 
1,007,928 



1,488,429 



7,855 

1,046,107 



-59.4 
67.5 



-18.3 
3.8 



1,017,546 



1,706 
809,349 



1,053,962 



1,434 
843,782 



-73.9 
87.8 



-15.9 
4.3 



520,991 
376,679 



845,216 



C) 



( 6 ) 

-58.4 



( 6 ) 
4.0 



37,670 



108,832 



17,402 



126,234 



* )6,019 



'34,961 



( 6 ) 

( 9 ) 
(') 



( 6 ) 

( 9 ) 
( 9 ) 



"83,052 



"86,304 



( 9 ) 



(') 



Standard reference base period for Federal Government general-purpose index numbers. 

2 Includes only data for coal tar reported to the Office of Energy Data and Interpretation, Energy Information 
Administration, Department of Energy. 

3 Data reported by tar distillers are not included because publication would disclose the operations of individ- 
ual companies. 

''Includes data for material produced for use in blending motor fuels. Statistics are not comparable with 
monthly figures which include some o-xylene. 

5 Naphthalene solidifying at less than 79° C. Figures include production by tar distillers and coke-oven opera- 
tors and represent combined data for the commercial grades of naphthalene. Beucase of conversion between grades, 
the figures may include some duplication. Statistics on naphthalene refined from domestic crudes are reported 
in the section on "Cyclic Internatiates." 

Statistics for 1977 and 1978 cannot be published; to do so would disclose the operations of individual com- 
panies. 

Includes data for creosote oil produced by tar distillers and coke-oven operators and used only in wood pre- 
serving. 

8 Includes data for creosote oil produced by tar distillers only in wood preserving. 

Comparison not possible because 1978 data from the Department of Energy was not available at time of publica- 
tion for inclusion in report. 



12 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



TABLE 2. --Tar crudes for which U.S. production or sales were reported, 

IDENTIFIED BY MANUFACTURERS, 1978 

[CHEMICALS FOR WHICH SEPARATE STATISTICS ARE GIVEN IN TABLE 1 ARE MARKED WITH AN ASTERISK (*) ; CHEMICALS NOT SO 
MARKED DO NOT APPEAR IN TABLE 1 BECAUSE THE REPORTED DATA ARE ACCEPTED IN CONFIDENCE AND MAY NOT BE PUBLISHED. 
MANUFACTURERS' IDENTIFICATION CODES SHWON BELOW ARE TAKEN FROM TABLE 3] 



MANUFACTUFERS ' IDENTIFICATION CODES 
(ACCORDING TO LIST IN TABLE 3) 



Light-oil distillates: 

*Solvent naphtha 

Pyridine, crude bases 

Naphthalene, crude, solidifying at: 

Less than 74° C 

74° C. to less than 79° C: 

74° C. to less than 76° C 

76° C. to less than 79° C 

Methylnaphthalene 

*Crude tar-acid oils: 1 

Tar-acid content 5% to less than 24% 

Tar-acid content 24% to 50% 

Cresylic acid, crude 

*Creosote oil (Dead oil) : 

*Distillate as such 

*Creosote in coal tar solution 

All other distillate products: 

Carbon black oil 

Creosote tar acid oil 

Crude coal tar solvent 

Crude tetralin 

Priming and refractory oil 

All other : 

Tar , road 

Tar for other uses: 

Crude 

*Refined 

*Pitch of tar: 

Soft (water softening point less than 110° F.) 

Medium (water softening point 110° F. to 160° F.) 

*Hard (water softening point above 160° F.) 

Pitch emulsion 

Refined anthracene 



NEV. 
KPT. 



ASC, 


KPT. 


ASC, 


KPT. 


KPT. 




KPT. 




ASC. 




FER, 


KPT. 



ASC, COP, KPT, RIL, WTC. 
ASC, KPT, RIL, WTC. 



KPT. 








KPT. 








KPT. 








KPT. 








KPT. 








ASC, 


KPT. 






ASC, 


KPT, 


RIL. 




RIL. 








ASC, 


KPT, 


RIL. 




ASC, 


KPT. 






ASC, 


COP, 


KPT, 


RIL. 


ASC, 


KPT, 


RIL, 


WTC. 


JEN. 








ASC. 









Does not include manufacturers' identification codes for producers who report to the Office of Energy Data 
and Interpretation, Energy Information Administration, Department of Energy. Those producers are listed in the 
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Data Report, Sept. 15, 1978, entitled "Coke Producers in the United States in 
1977". 



TABLE 3. --Tar and tar crudes: Directory of manufacturers, 1978 

ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 

[Names of manufacturers that reported production and/or sales of tar and tar crudes to the U.S. International 
Trade Commission for 1978 are listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in Table 2] 



Code 


Name of company : 


: Code 


Name of company 


ASC 
COP 

FER 

JEN 


Allied Chemical Corp., Semet-Solvay Div. : 
Coopers Creek Chemical Corp. : 
Ferro Corp. , Productol Chemical Div. : 
Jennison-Wright Corp. : 


: KPT. 
: NEV 
: RIL 
: WTC 


Koppers Co., Inc. & Roads Materials Div. 
Neville Chemical Co. 
Reilly Tar 6, Chemical Corp. 
Witco Chemical Corp. 



Note. — Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in Table 1 of the appendix. 



SECTION II -- PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS 13 

FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 

PETROCHEMICALS AND THE GASOLINE MARKET 
Louis N. DeToro 



"Primary products" derived from petroleum and natural gas are the raw 
material inputs for nearly every synthetic organic chemical. Some 25 percent 
of these primary products consist of benzene, toluene, and xylenes (so-called 
"aromatic" petrochemicals). About 65 percent of the primary products is ali- 
phatic hydrocarbons such as ethylene, propylene, and butadiene. The remainder 
consists of naphthenes and miscellaneous petrochemicals such as butanes and 
cyclohexane. 

Seventy-five companies produced primary products in 1978. The producers 
are oil companies and chemical companies, including some of the largest firms 
in both categories. It is not unusual for any of these large oil refiners or 
chemical companies to have the capacity to produce from 50 to 200 million gal- 
lons per year of a large volume primary petrochemical, such as benzene or 
ethylene. 

Production of primary products from petroleum and natural gas in 1978 
was about 129 billion pounds (table A) , representing an average rate of in- 
crease of 7.2 percent per year since 1973. Sales quantities have grown from 
50 billion pounds in 1973 to over 64 billion pounds in 1978, representing an 
average rate of increase of 5.1 percent per year. The difference in the growth 
rates indicates an increase in the relative share of captive consumption of the 
primary products being used to make other petrochemicals. 

The primary products price index 1 more than doubled from 1973 to 1974 (table 
A) , which was expected given the quadrupling of crude oil prices during that 
period. Employee wages contribute a relatively small part to the price increases 
in this capital-intensive industry. Since 1974, the price index has continued 
to increase, albeit at a much slower pace than that which occurred during the 
1973-74 period of the Arab oil embargo. Preliminary estimates for 1978 indicate 
an increase of about 5 percent per year 2 in producer prices since 1974. Surpris- 
ingly, primary product price increases have been smaller than those of whole- 
sale manufactured goods prices in general, and the price index for chemicals 
and allied products as a whole, since 1974. 



1 This price index for primary products, as discussed herein, is based on selected 
individual chemicals which compose 60 percent of the value of sales of all pri- 
mary products, i.e., benzene, butadiene, ethylene, propylene, tetra- and tri- 
propylene, toluene, cumene, cyclohexane, o-xylene, p-xylene, and styrene monomer. 

2 This figure is supported by the 8.2 percent per year rise in petroleum refiners' 
costs for acquiring crude oil for the same period, coupled with the two-thirds 
passthrough indicative of crude oil cost increases passed on to the primary 
products producers. 



301-061 0-79 



14 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 

Of the primary products from petroleum and natural gas, the aromatics are 
among the most consequential, both as petrochemical building blocks and as 
fuel additives. These chemicals, benzene, toluene, and xylenes, and their 
markets are the subject of the remainder of this paper. 

Aromatics and the Gasoline Market 

The use of aromatics — benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) — as gasoline 
components as well as petrochemicals is a matter of serious concern to the 
chemical industry now that the energy shortage is likely to continue. Aro- 
matics 1 primary use is in lead-free gasoline in which they are essential to 
improve the antiknock rating. The chemical industry fears that it might be 
denied BTX supply in a future period of gasoline shortage. 

BTX are derived mainly from petroleum refinery streams 2 and pyrolysis 
gasoline obtained during the manufacture of olefins such as ethylene. Benzene 
is also made by the hydrodealkylation (HDA) of toluene. 1 * A minor source of 
aromatics is coal tar, a byproduct of coke-oven operations. Consisting of about 
one-quarter of the tonnage of raw materials from synthetic organic chemicals, 
aromatics are vital to the production of synthetic fibers, plastics, drugs, 
and other synthetic organic chemicals (i.e., petrochemicals). While irreplace- 
able in a number of chemical end uses, the high-octane rating of BTX also makes 
their use as an octane-raising component in gasoline extremely important, as 
noted in the following list of octane ratings of gasoline components: 

Research Octane 
Gasoline components No. (RON) 

Tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) 108 

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) 115 

Benzene 106 

Toluene 110 

Xylene 114 

Straight-run gasoline 70 

Catalytic cracker gasoline 92 



Benzene (CjH 6 ) is a clear, colorless, flammable liquid of a characteristic odor 
(hence "aromatic") and it is both narcotic and toxic (which limits its use in gaso- 
line). Toluene (C6H5CH3) is a colorless, flammable liquid with a benzene- like 
odor. As compared with benzene, its vapors are less dangerously toxic and less 
flammable; it also has a lower rate of evaporation. Xylenes (C 6 Hij (^3)2) are a 
commercial mixture of 3 isomers, ortho-, meta-, and para-xylenes . The mix- 
ture is a clear liquid, toxic, and flammable. 

In refining petroleum, several products are extracted. Among these products 
is a stream known as catalytic reformate, of which aromatics are a part. 

"Pyrolysis" is the breaking down of complex materials into simpler units by 
use of heat. Pyrolysis gasoline is produced in steam-cracking operations during 
the manufacture of olefins from heavier feedstocks. 

Hydrodealkylation is a petroleum refining process by which hydrogen under 
pressure is used to convert the hydrocarbons in heavy reformates, catalytic crack- 
ing recycle stocks, or other streams of hydrocarbons, into other chemicals. 



II -- PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS 15 

FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 

Aromatics for gasoline are contained in reformate itself (an integral 
part of oil refinery output) and also come from BTX which are separated 
from reformate and blended back into the gasoline "pool." This pool includes 
both petroleum and natural -gas liquid mixtures. About 20 percent of the pool 
is straight-run gasoline, natural-gas liquids, and other low-octane stocks; 
40 percent is petroleum fractions resulting from other refinery operations 
such as catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, and isomerization (such fractions 
are of slightly higher octane ratings but still too low to run a modern gaso- 
line engine efficiently) ; 20-plus percent of the gasoline pool is reformate 2 
which contains BTX; and the remainder is alkylates and octane-raising com- 
pounds, including BTX which has been separated from refinery streams and then 
blended back into the gasoline pool, 

The economics of the use of BTX as an octane-raising component of gasoline 
is influenced by three major factors: demand for motor gasoline; availability 
and use of antiknock agents (including substitutes for tetraethyl lead); and 
demand for BTX in petrochemicals, As stated above, the concern of the chemical 
industry is that the third named factor may have the lowest priority. Each of 
these factors is discussed in the following sections. 

Demand for motor gasoline 

The quantity of BTX which goes to the gasoline pool as an octane-raising 
agent is related to the nation's demand for motor gasoline, especially the un- 
leaded type. Demand for gasoline in 1978 and 1979 has influenced BTX demand 
more strongly than any other single factor. Unleaded gasoline now requires a 
major fraction of BTX to maintain its antiknock rating; its usage in the United 
States is increasing as older cars are replaced by newer models that require 
unleaded gas because they are equipped with catalytic converters to decrease 
air pollution; lead would poison the catalysts in these converters. However, 
overall gasoline usage may decline somewhat through the early 1980's. 

Calculation of recent trends in motor vehicle use, vehicle miles of travel, 
fuel consumed, and a constructed trend in miles per gallon of fuel consumption, 
all of which determine motor gasoline demand, show some surprising results. 
While the number of owned vehicles in the United States has increased, the rate 
of increase was only 3 percent per year, from 125.7 million to 143.8 million, 
during the mid-1970 's. Vehicle miles of travel increased more than 2 percent 



"Catalytic" gasoline is formed in the presence of certain catalysts. "Crack- 
ing" is decomposition by heat, with or without catalysis. "Isomerization" is 
a process for converting hydrocarbons into compounds whose molecules have a 
different arrangement of atoms, but the same numbers and kinds of atoms, Condensed 
Chemical Dictionary . 

"Reforming" is the use of controlled heat and pressure to cause cracking and 
isomerization of hydrocarbons, Condensed Chemical Dictionary . 

"Alkylation" is a process used in petrochemical refining which causes the 
chemical combination of "isoparaf f in" hydrocarbons with olefins, such as ethylene, 
Condensed Chemical Dictionary . 



16 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 

annually to nearly 1.5 trillion miles from 1973 to 1978, and fuel consumed 
increased at about 2 percent per year to about 120 billion gallons. Fuel 
consumption figures, combined with numbers of miles driven, indicate that 
"miles per gallon of fuel" were nearly constant in the mid-70 's, rising from 
11.84 mpg in 1973 to just over 12 mpg by 1978. * An estimate of the declining 
demand for motor gasoline, based solely upon projected motor vehicle registr- 
ations, miles logged, and fuel efficiencies, is as follows: 

Projected U.S. motor gasoline demand 
(million barrels per day) 

1980 7.2 

1981 7.1 

1982 7.0 

Because large amounts of the aromatics are going to the gasoline pool, 
chemical purchasers of BTX are facing a buying "squeeze." This competitive 
situation will be only partially eliminated if falling gasoline demand actually 
occurs in the early ' 1980 's. Further easing of the BTX pinch is possible if the 
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) eases restrictions on certain antiknock 
agents as substitutes for tetraethyl lead. 

Availability and use of antiknock agents 

There are many different types of antiknock agents, old and new. The 
traditional antiknock agent is tetraethyl lead (TEL) . The present EPA lead 
limit on the gasoline pool is 0.8 grams per gallon. Since many producers are 
currently operating under waivers, the actual average is nearly 1.3 grams/ 
gallon. Imposition of a 0.5 grams/gallon limit has been postponed from October 
1, 1979, to October 1, 1980. 

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) , a new product, has a research octane 
number of 115, making it slightly better than toluene. The problem, however, 
is lack of present production capacity. New plants, approved by the EPA some 
time ago, are now due on stream but will add only 0.2 percent to the volume of 
the unleaded gasoline pool (and have little effect on releasing BTX for petro- 
chemical use) . 

Tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) is somewhat worse than toluene as a blend for 
octane-raising purposes. Moreover, the presently available quantity of TBA is 
too small to have any significant impact. Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) has a blending 
octane of about 100. Unfortunately, while much work has been done on ''gasohol," 
a mixture of ethanol and gasoline, it still takes more energy to produce a gallon 



1 A11 data are drawn from the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association's Motor 
Vehicle Facts and Figures '78 . Figures on miles per gallon of fuel consumed were 
calculated from raw data. 

See appendix to this paper for details on the methodology used in forecasting 
motor gasoline demand. 



II -- PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS 17 
FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 

of ethanol than it contains . 

Most of the BTX blended into gasoline enters as reformate. Toluene, the 
principal high-ootane ingredient of BTX, has a research octane number of 110 
and is the most common standard of comparison. 

Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), 1 another newly deve- 
loped agent, was used in unleaded and leaded gasoline until October 28, 1978, at 
which time the EPA banned its use in the unleaded gasoline pool. At that time 
its level of use was 1/16 grams/gallon in unleaded gas. At the expected future 
level of 1/32 grams/gallon in leaded gasolines, MMT will yield octane-improve-' 
ment of 0.9 octane numbers; production capacity exists to produce quantities 
sufficient to fill the requirements of unleaded pools. Thus, if the EPA was 
to lift its MMT ban in unleaded gasoline, more than 2 billion gallons of 
toluene could be diverted, theoretically, for petrochemical use. That would 
be 2.5 times the amount of toluene currently used as a primary petrochemical in 
the production of synthetic organic chemicals. While there are other measures, 
such as conservation of gasoline, to free up the BTX necessary for chemical 
markets, removal of EPA restrictions on other octane improvers, such as MMT, 
is favored by the industry. 

The increasing use of BTX in motor gasoline has caused an increase in con- 
tract prices and spiraling spot market prices for benzene in the petrochemical 
market; and benzene inventories have diminished markedly. Similar price move- 
ments have characterized toluene and xylenes. Industry observers are fore- 
casting slower growth in the BTX petrochemical markets, partially owing to supply 
problems which in turn spring from the increasing market for aromatics in 
motor gasoline. 

Demand for BTX in petrochemicals 

Benzene used in gasoline was about 1,650 million gallons per year for the 
past several years, while production of benzene for chemical conversion in this 
period was approximately 1,400 million gallons. As a raw material for deriv- 
ative chemicals, benzene is the major multiple-purpose aromatic. Strong markets 
exist for ethylbenzene/styrene (in polystyrene plastics), cyclohexane (in nylon), 
and cumene/phenol (in phenolic resins for construction, automobiles, appliances, 
and numerous other uses) . The most substantial growth of benzene derivatives 
expected through 1985, however, will be in the aniline market (for urethanes 
and urethane elastomers which supply insulation for buildings) . 

Toluene through 1980 is expected to retain steady consumption in the 
chemical market at 900 million gallons. A much larger part of the total pro- 
duction of toluene will continue to go to the gasoline pool because of toluene's 
high-octane rating and because it is less carcinogenic than benzene. Currently, 
toluene's use in gasoline is running at 7.6 billion gallons per year, including 
material blended back into gasoline after separation. 



About 1 gram of MMT equals 1.73 gallons of toluene as a blendstock. 



18 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 

The xylenes' total use in gasoline is currently 8.1 billion gallons per 
year while production for chemical conversion is about 860 million gallons. 1 
Most of the xylene isomers' use in chemicals is shared between paraxylene and 
orthoxylene. Orthoxylene is used to make phthalic anhydride; its demand is 
likely to grow by about 2 percent per year through 1980. Paraxylene should 
increase at a 7 percent per year rate of growth. 2 Nearly all paraxylene goes 
to the manufacture of dimethyl terephthalate or terephthalic acid (for use in 
making polyester fibers). 

U.S. exports of BTX in 1978 were 234 million gallons, which amounted to 
about 7 percent of U.S. production of 3,387 million gallons. U.S. imports of 
179 million gallons amounted to about 5 percent of apparent U.S. consumption 
of BTX (tables B, C, and D) . The ratio of exports to imports in 1978 was 1.3. 
Since 1974, exports have increased while imports have decreased; the ratio of 
exports to imports in 1974 was only 0.8. This change in the trade pattern is 
the result of the turmoil in the world energy markets that began with the OPEC 
oil embargo and price increases of 1973-74. 

Prices for all the basic aromatics increased in 1978 and 1979, owing to 
several factors, mainly higher prices of crude oil and also plant mechanical 
difficulties. Projected declining demand for gasoline in the early 1980 's 
would alleviate some of the price pressure on BTX. In the interim, however, the 
buying squeeze is on, with few options available to aromatics purchasers to 
alleviate a very tight market situation. 



"Xylenes as used here is composed of three isomers, ortho-, meta-, and para- 
xylene. The isomers have the same chemical formula, however, the chemical 
structure of each isomer is unique. 

2 "Aromatics Seen Entering Slow-Growth Era as Energy, Government Strictures 
Hobble Trade," Chemical Marketing Reporter , June 12, 1978, p.l. 



II -- PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS 19 
FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 

APPENDIX 

The motor gasoline demand extrapolation developed for this paper consists of 
the following mathematical formula: 

G = E [N * MPV * (1/MPG )] v = ti , £2,. ■ • , t 
D v v v v n 

Motor gasoline demand (G„) is equal to the number of current vehicle registra- 
tions (N v ) multiplied by the miles driven per vehicle (MPV ) , yielding total 
miles logged, which in turn is multiplied by the reciprocal of vehicle miles 
per gallon (1/MPG ), yielding gallons of motor gasoline demanded. The multi- 
plication process is carried out for each of several vehicle types (v = ti , 
t2,.-., t ) and the motor gasoline demanded for each vehicle type is summed 
(E ) to yield overall demand for motor gasoline. 

In this paper, statistics from the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Associ- 
ation's Motor Vehicle Facts and Figures '78 were used to arrive at current 
and past trends of motor vehicle registrations, miles logged, fuel consumed, 
and miles per gallon of fuel consumption, Using these trends, projections 
were made of future values for these factors. Separate gasoline demand fore- 
casts for several vehicle types (cars, lightweight trucks, other trucks, buses, 
and motorcycles) were calculated and then summed according to the above equation 
to arrive at projections of total U.S. gasoline demand. 



20 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



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II -- PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS 
FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 

Table B — Benzene: U.S. production, imports, exports, and 
apparent consumption, 1974-78 

(In thousands of gallons) 



Production 



Imports 



Exports 



Apparent 

consumption 



21 



1974 

1975 

1976 

1977 

1978 



1,488,264 
1,023,913 
1,425,222 
1,435,747 
1,488,429 



102,258 
70,321 
52,523 
61,346 
67,559 



23,454 
30,619 
35,754 
34,759 
45,391 



1,567,068 
1,063,615 
1,441,991 
1,462,334 
1,510,597 



Source: 
cals, U.S. 



Production data are taken from Synthetic Organir rhpm-i- 
Production and Sales . Data on imports and exports are 



official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce, 



Table C — Toluene: U.S. production, imports, exports, and 
apparent consumption, 1974-78 



(In thousands of gallons) 



Production 



Imports 



Exports 



Apparent 

consumption 



1974 
1975 
1976 
1977 
1978 



921,959 

705,067 

998,976 

1,017,546 

1,053,962 



54,477 
70,321 
39,298 
65,503 
58,364 



71,940 
116,492 
143,935 
159,706 
110,992 



904,496 
658,896 
894,339 
923,343 
1,001,334 



Source: Production data are taken from Synthetic Organic Chemi- 
cals, U.S. Production and Sales . Data on imports and exports are 
official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce. 



22 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



Table D. — Xylenes 1/ : U.S. production, imports, exports, 
and apparent consumption, 1974-1978 



(In thousands of gallons) 



1974 
1975 
1976 
1977 
1978 



Production 



802,111 
639,099 
722,014 
811,055 
845,216 



Imports 



61,651 
35,711 
36,409 
32,150 
52,547 



Exports 



47,985 
66,523 
80,199 
80,290 
77,233 



Apparent 
consumption 



815,777 
608,287 
678,224 
762,915 
820,530 



1/ Mixed xylenes only (i.e., does not include isomers separately). 

Source: Production data are taken from Synthetic Organic Chemicals, U. 
Production and Sales . Data on imports and exports are official sta- 
tistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce. 



II — PRIMARY PPOnilCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS 

PETROCHEMICALS AND THE GASOLINE MARKET 
Louis N. DeToro 

Primary products that are derived from petroleum and natural gas are 
related to the intermediates and finished products made from such primary 
materials in much the same way that crude products derived from the 
distillation of coal tar are related to their intermediates and finished 
products. Many of the primary products derived from petroleum are identical 
with those derived from coal tar (e.g., benzene, toluene, and xylene). Con- 
siderable duplication exists in the statistics on the production and sales 
of primary petroleum products because some of these primary chemicals are 
converted to other primary products derived from petroleum and because data 
on some production and sales are reported at successive stages in the 
conversion process. The statistics are sufficiently accurate, however, to 
indicate trends in the industry. Many of the primary products for which 
data are included in the statistics may be used either as fuel or as basic 
materials from which other chemicals are derived. In this report every 
effort has been made to exclude data on materials that are used as fuel; 
however, data are included on toluene and xylene which are used in blending 
aviation and motor fuel. 

The output of primary products derived from petroleum and natural gas 
as a group amounted to 128,947 million pounds in 1978. Production in 1977 
was 131,133 million pounds. The output of aromatic and naphthenic products 
from petroleum amounted to 54,638 million pounds in 1978, compared with 
52,263 million pounds in 1977. Sales amounted to $2,663 million in 1978 
and $2,469 million in 1977. Production of benzene, toluene, and xylene from 
petroleum increased marginally in 1978, while the unit values of these products 
remained within one cent per pound of last year's unit values (table 1). 

Production of all aliphatic hydrocarbons and derivatives from petroleum 
and natural gas was 74,308 million pounds in 1978, compared with 78,870 
million pounds in 1977. Sales of these products were valued at $3,497 million 
in 1978, compared with $3,351 million in 1977. Production of ethylene was 
25,955 million pounds in 1978 — 2.1 percent more than the 25,426 million 
pounds reported in 1977. The output of 1 , 3-butadiene in 1978 (3,515 million 
pounds) increased from the production in 1977 (3,259 million pounds). 

Data for 1978 crude products from petroleum and natural gas for chemical 
conversion were supplied by 75 companies or company divisions. 



23 



Statistics on chemicals from coal tar are given in Section I (Tar and Tar Crudes) 
of this report. 



Revised figure for 1977. 



II - PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSI 



25 



TABLE 1. --Primary products from petroleum and natural gas for chemical 
conversion: U.S. production and sales, 1978 

[Listed below are the primary products from petroleum and natural gas for chemical conversion for which any 
ported data on production or sales may be published. (Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are 
cepted in confidence and may not be published or where no data were reported.) Table 2 lists separately a 
primary products from petroleum and natural gas for chemical conversion for which data on production and/c 
sales were reported and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL 
GAS FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 



PRODUCTION 



Grand total 

AROMATICS AND NAPHTHENES 2 

Total 

Benzene (1° and 2°) 

Cyclohexane 

Dicyclopentadiene (including cyclopentadiene)— 

Ethylbenzene 

Naphthalene, all grades 

Naphthenic acid 

Styrene 

Toluene, all grades, total 

Nitration grade, 1° 

Pure commercial grade, 2° 

All other 3 • "* 

Xylenes, mixed, total 

3° grade 

5° grade 

All other'' 

o- Xylene 

p-Xylene 

All other aromatics and naphthenes 5 

ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS 

Total 

C 2 Hydrocarbons, total 

Acetylene 6 

Ethane 

Ethylene 

C 3 Hydrocarbons, total 

Propane 

Propylene 7 

C^ Hydrocarbons, total 

Butadiene and butylene fractions 

1,3-Butadiene, grade for rubber (elastomers)- 

1-Butene 

1-Butene and 2-Butene, mixed 8 

Isobutane 

Isobutylene, 2-butene and mixed butylenes 

All other 9 

C 5 Hydrocarbons, total 

Amylenes and pentenes 

See footnotes at end of table. 



1,000 
pounds 



128,946,708 



54, 638, 320 



10,503,883 

3,380,322 

2,331,665 

60,060 

8,385,482 

156,801 

26,253 

7,186,193 

7,542,434 



5,288,631 

896,976 

1,356,827 



2,858,247 

2,568,433 

986,065 

1,013,131 
3,515,869 
4,123,482 



74,308,388 



32,307,965 



245,670 
6,107,668 
25,954,627 

21,470,274 



8,456,745 
13,013,529 



10,080,601 



482,789 

3,515,206 

2,058,513 

91,655 

1,162,931 

1,201,118 

909,301 

659,088 

3,234,022 



159,595 



1,000 
pounds 



64,281,228 



1,000 
dollars 



27,293,434 



5,144,345 

1,579,161 

2,194,849 

53,064 

365,102 

84,642 

21,740 

2,882,387 

4,948,978 



,654,158 
838,988 
455,832 



518,323 

174,249 

245,860 

5,020 

38,616 

13,234 

3,021 

500,786 

377,409 



1,183,012 

1,534,991 

657,063 

939,180 
2,178,563 
3,526,357 



36,987,794 



279,145 
63,935 
34,329 

249,435 



85,149 
112,498 
51,788 

103,775 
269,139 
163,977 



1,295,604 



4,190,167 
8,784,177 



13,613,803 



7,933,845 
5,679,958 



5,746,708 



199,980 
1,095,624 



949,721 



423,193 
526,528 



759,638 



261,011 
2,505,025 
960,876 
75,867 
817,826 
208,080 
597,712 
320,311 

698,329 



50,984 
486,944 
48,293 
13,793 
58,410 
13,471 
65,925 
21,818 

62,472 



26 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



TABLE 1. --Primary products from petroleum and natural gas for chemical 
conversion: U.S. production and sales, 1978--Continued 



PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL 
GAS FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS— Continued 

C 5 Hydrocarbons — Continued 

Isoprene (2-Methyl-l, 3-butadiene) 

All other 1 ° 

All other aliphatic hydrocarbons, derivatives, and 

mixtures , total 

Alpha olefins 1 ' 

Dodecene (Tetrapropylene) 

Heptenes , mixed 

Hexane 

Hydrocarbon derivatives 1 2 

Nonene (Tripropylene) 

n-Paraf f ins, total 1 3 

All other 1 * 



1,000 
pounds 



184,117 
2,890,310 



7,215,526 



492,332 

359,705 

97,495 

439,287 

389,591 

431,525 

1,461,708 

3,543,883 



1,000 
pounds 



116,969 
475,924 



3,954,610 



399,711 
97,144 
54,930 

337,131 

283,539 
1,149,664 
1,623,491 



1,000 
dollars 



18,195 
30,602 



429,228 



Per 
pound 



$0,156 
.064 



.108 



92,160 

12,018 

5,526 

31,971 

30,805 
83,635 
173,113 



.231 

.124 
.101 
.095 

.109 

.073 
.106 



Jith those obtained from the 

ily to such materials as are 

zene, toluene, and xylene 



1 Calculated from rounded figures. 

The chemical raw materials designated as aromatics are in some cases identi 
distillation of coal tar; however, the statistics given in the table above rela 
derived from petroleum and natural gas. Statistics on production and/ar sales of be 
from all sources are given in table 1 and IB of the report on "Tar and Tar Crudes." 
'includes toluene, solvent grade, 90 percent. 

Includes toluene and xylene used as solvents, as well as that which is blended in aviation and motor gasolines 
Includes data for alkyl aromatics, crude cresylic acid, refined cresylic acid, cyclohexene, cyclopentane and 
methylcyclopentane, crude sodium carbonate and phenate, meta-xylene, distillates, solvents, and miscellaneous 
cyclic hydrocarbons. 

Production figures for acetylene from calcium carbide for chemical synthesis are collected by the U.S. Bureau 
of the Census. 

7 Includes data for refinery propylene. 

e The statistics represent principally the butene content of crude refinery ga 
factured. 

Includes data for butanes, mixed C^ streams. 

Includes data for C5 hydrocarbon mixtures, dibutanized aromatic concentrate, pentanes, 
n Includes data for the following molecular weight ranges: C 6 -C 7 ; C 9 -C]o; Cn-C ls ; C15- 
Includes data for methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, hexadecyl, and 
and other hydrocarbon derivatives. 

■'includes data for the following chain lengths: C 6 -C 9 ; C 9 -C 15 ; C ir C„; C 10 -C 16 ; and others. 

Includes production and/or sales data for cyclooctadiene, di-isobutylene, di-isopropyl, dodecene, eicosane, 
methane, methyl acetylene propadiene, methylcyclopentadiene, mixtures of C2 and C3, C5 and C6, C 5 and C 7 , C 5 and 
C 9 , and C 6 and C 7 hydrocarbons, neohexane, n-heptane, polybutene, propylene tetramer, triisobutylene, and other 
hydrocarbons. 



from which butadi 



piperylenes. 
C20J an d Ci 5 -Cie. 
scellaneous mercaptans 



II -- PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS FOR CHEMICAL CONVERS1 



27 



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28 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



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II -- PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSK 



29 



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301-061 0-79 



30 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



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U Cu «* 



ooooaio h&- zo = ci 

UUCJ^HO «e 0Q W U M CL 



« OifN 0) O 



<n ■ 



a> 



u o 



O *- (N 1- O (J 



1 w to 



c o >.iv oo a^ O OQ O VI OQ 
id u.nr u >- (H +-■ u u >. ,— ■ -h U? 
M T3 +J 0T)H O.T3 TJ 32 O I "O rt 



•H (0 -H -H 

UZ<WU 

o o 

O (0 «3 



c c w " 

O 1 « QJ hJ 

o w a i 

O Q> 



O O O O H 



u u 

c - 

(0 IT) 



u o 

O O 

u u 

w n w » 

C C G V) 



u. a- u. a. cc Cb a. i 



II - PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 



31 



O CO 
H E-. 



M O 
CO u 



wuwinwowwi/i 3W wtntnto 



(DO w *0 

•h aac 

T3 C fl B ffl. 

« u u -p 



U O 3 U 
i U U -Q U 

■i 1 i '1 



0> -Q i 
+> O - 

3 W I 



CD O «-t 



i l-i GO 

, Q) ( 

i 4-> C 



S 6 B 

u +-■ rj i js x O +j 

IDS QI'H^dl IAU 



+J . 

1 01 



+J CL £-• -O fd O x 

V 1 I ►• Mh 



32 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEHCALS, 1978 



TABLE 3. --Primary products from petroleum and natural gas for chemical 
conversion: Directory of manufacturers, 1978 

ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



[Names of manufacturers that reported production and/or sales of crude p 

for chemical conversion to the U.S. International Trade Commission for 1978 
their identification codes as used in table 2] 



ts from petrole 



atural gas 
a order of 



Code 


: Name of company 


:: Code 


: Name of company 


ACU 


: Allied Chemical Corp., Union Texas 


: : MCB 


: Borg-Warner Corp., Borg-Warner Chemicals 






: Petroleum Div. 


:: MNO 


: Monochem, Inc. 




AIP 


• Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. 


:: MOC 


■ Marathon Oil Co., Texas Refining Div. 




AMO 


Standard Oil Co. (Indiana) 


:: MON 


Monsanto Co. 




APR 


Atlas Processing Co. 








ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc. 


:: NWP 


Northern Petrochemical Co. 




ATR 


Atlantic Richfield Co., Arco Chemical Co. 


: OCC 


Oxirane Chemical Co. 




BAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. 


: OMC 


Olin Corp. 




BFG 


B. F. Goodrich Co., B. F. Goodrich Chemical 
Co. Div. 


: 0X1 
PAS 


Oxirane Chemical Co. (Channelview) 
Pennwalt Corp. 




CBN 


Cities Service Co., Petrochemicals Div. 


: PLC 


Phillips Petroleum Co. 




CCP 


Crown Central Petroleum Corp. 


: PPR 


Phillips Puerto Rico Core, Inc. 




CLK 


Clark Oil & Refining Corp. 


: PPX 


Phillips Paraxylene, Inc. 




CO 


Continental Oil Co. 


: PTT 


Petro-Tex Chemical Corp. 




COR 


Commonwealth Oil & Refining Co., Inc. 


: PUE 


Puerto Rico Olefins Co. 




CPI 


Commonwealth Petrochemicals, Inc. 








CPX 


Chemplex Co. 


: QH 


Quintana-Howell Joint Venture 




CPY 


Copolymer Rubber & Chemical Corp. 








CSD 


Cosden Oil & Chemical Corp. 


: RH 


Rohm & Haas Co. 




CSO 


Cities Service Co., Petroleum Products Group 








CSP 


Coastal States Petrochemical Co. 


: SHC 
: SHO 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 
Shell Oil Co. 




DOW 


Dow Chemical Co . 


: SIO 


Standard Oil Co. 




DUP 


E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. 


: SKO 

: SM 


Getty Refining & Marketing Co. 
Mobil Oil Corp. : 




EKX 


Eastman Kodak Co., Texas Eastman Co. Div. 




Gas Liquids Dept. 




ELP 


El Paso Products Co. 




Mobil Chemical Co. 




ENJ 


Exxon Chemical Co. U.S.A. 


: SNO 
: SOC 


SunOlin Chemical Co. 

Standard Oil Co. of California, Chevron 




FER 


Ferro Corp., Productol Chemical Div. 




Chemical Co. 




FRS 


Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., Firestone 


SOG 


Charter International Oil Co. 






Synthetic Rubber & Latex Co. Div. 


: STX 
: SUN 


St. Croix Petrochemical Corp. 
Sun Company, Inc. 




GOC 


Gulf Oil Corp., Gulf Oil Chemicals 


SWC 


Corco Cyclohexane, Inc. 






Co. -U.S. 


: SWR 


Southwestern Refining Co. 




GP 


Georgia-Pacific Corp. 








GRS 


Champlin Petroleum Co. 


: TCC 
: TID 


Tanatex Chemical Corp. 

Getty Refining & Marketing Co. 




HCF 


Hercofina 


TNA 


Ethyl Corp. 




HCR 


Hercor Chemical Corp. 


: TOC 


Tenneco Oil Co. 




HES 


Amerada Hess Corp. (Hess Oil Virgin Islands 


: TUS 


Texas-U.S. Chemical Co. 






Corp.) 


: TX 


Texaco, Inc. 




HMY 


Humphrey Chemical Co. 








HST 


American Hoechst Corp. 


: UCC . 


Union Carbide Corp. 








: UOC : 


Union Oil Co. of California & Chemicals 


Div 


JCC 


Jefferson Chemical Co., Inc. 


: USI : 


National Distillers & Chemicals Corp., 
U.S. Industrial Chemicals Co. 




KPP 


Arco/Polymers, Inc. 


: USR : 


Uniroyal, Inc., Uniroyal Chemical Div. 





Note. — Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies 



sted in table 1 of the appendi 



Ill -- CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 33 

IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS IN CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES IN 1978 
Daniel F. McCarthy 

While U.S. production, sales, and foreign trade in cyclic (benzenoid) 
intermediates in 1978 continued the upward trend established in 1973-77, the 
ratio of exports to imports remained almost the same (2 to 1). 

More than 98 percent of the cyclic intermediates produced in the United 
States are benzenoid products, i.e., they have a chemical structure like or 
similar to that of a benzene or modified benzene ring. Almost all the 
benzenoid intermediates are produced from petroleum-derived aromatic compounds 
such as benzene, toluene, xylene, and naphthalene. A small amount of these 
aromatics, and thus some benzenoid intermediates, are produced from coal tar. 

Cyclic (benzenoid) intermediates are used in the manufacture of products 
in all segments of the U.S. synthetic organic chemicals industry. The 
principal product classes derived from benzenoid intermediates and the 
percentage of benzenoids in each class in 1978 were dyes (100 percent); 
organic pigments (100 percent); rubber-processing chemicals (88 percent); 
plasticizers (85 percent); organic pesticides (56 percent); flavor and perfume 
materials (44 percent); medicinals (42 percent); and plastics (31 percent). 

New Developments in 1978 

In addition to increases in antipollution expenditures, a general 
increase in sales prices, and increased costs of raw materials, the changes in 
the classification of imports of benzenoid chemicals which were adopted during 
the Multilateral Trade Negotiations in Geneva will perhaps be judged to have 
been the most significant development in this industry in 1978. In conjunc- 
tion with its proposal to eliminate the American selling price system for 
assessing duties on imports of benzenoid chemicals and products, the U.S. 
negotiating team presented, along with its offers list, a revised classifi- 
cation system for imports of benzenoid chemicals and products into the United 
States. 1 The new system segregates all benzenoid intermediates not 
specifically provided for in the existing Tariff Schedules of the United 
States (TSUS) into 20 major classes and many subclasses based on chemically 
functional groups of atoms within the molecule. Within each class, items 
which are now important in trade are specifically identified and provided for, 
and a number of residual or "basket" categories provide for products which may 
be imported in the future. This new system will allow a determination of the 
extent of domestic competition from imports of the thousands of benzenoid 
intermediates formerly classified in the TSUS "basket" item 403.60. 



1 The revised classification system is included in the Trade Agreements Act 
of 1979, which was signed by the President on July 26, 1979. 



34 SYNTHETIC ORGA.JIC CHEMICALS, 1378 



Government regulations 

In 1978, environmental regulations continued to increase the processing 
costs of producing cyclic intermediates. Feedstock costs, the principal 
component of production expenditures, were also affected by environmental 
regulations. Industry estimates that 12 percent of annual production costs 
were related to worker safety and 10 percent of total capital expenditures 
went toward pollution abatement. 

The supply and the prices of aromatic petrochemicals such as toluene and 
xylene depend greatly on their use as octane improvers in gasoline, which 
consumes about 40 percent of the isolated toluene and 25 percent of the 
xylene. Government regulations requiring the reduction of lead alkyls in 
gasoline have increased the demand for aromatics, especially toluene for use 
in unleaded gasoline. About 30 percent of the supply of benzene is derived 
from the dealkylation of toluene; therefore, increased demand for toluene in 
the auto-fuel market will be reflected not only in the prices of benzene and 
toluene, but also in the prices of their derivatives. Recent industry 
estimates indicate that a proposed or current increase of 10 cents per gallon 
in the price of toluene will be reflected in the following price increases: 
benzene (15.8 percent); cumene (12.0 percent); phenol (10.6 percent); and 
styrene (8.2 percent). 



Price changes 

In 1978, average domestic prices of cyclic (benzenoid) intermediates were 
approximately 7 percent less than those in the peak year of 1977 (table A). 
Industry price quotations for some of the large-volume intermediates reflect 
considerable price erosion between January and December 1978. For example, 
phenol prices decreased from 27.5 cents per pound in January to 19 cents per 
pound in December and maleic anhydride dropped from 37 cents per pound in 
January to 27 cents per pound in December. However, styrene monomer was 
quoted at 21 cents per pound in January, 17.5 cents in July, and 20.5 cents in 
December. Sluggish markets for end use organic chemical products and excess 
capacity to produce the intermediates were the most frequent explanations 
given for the price declines. There were small increases in 1978, however, in 
the selling prices of detergent alkylate (dodecylbenzene), cyclohexane, and 
caprolactam monomer. Price increases for detergent alkylate reflected the 
national and worldwide shortage of one of its major raw materials, normal 
paraffins. 1 The cyclohexane price increase reflects the increased cost of 
benzene, from which it is made. The caprolactam monomer price increased 2.5 
cents per pound beginning in October 1978. However, other large-volume 
intermediates such as phthalic anhydride, aniline, ortho and paradichloro- 
benzenes, and isophthalic acid experienced no price increases or decreases in 
1978. 



1 This shortage was due primarily to a rise in demand for detergents and a 
shutdown of a large normal paraffin plant in Italy. 



Ill -- CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 35 



Trends in U.S. Production, Sales, and Consumption, 1973-78 

The trends in U.S. production, sales, and consumption of products from 
the cyclic intermediates industry, which manufactured 1,060 chemicals in 1978, 
are briefly described below. 

Industry profile 

In 1978 there were 162 companies which produced 46 billion pounds of 
cyclic intermediates. About 58 percent of this production was captive 
(consumed in plant by the producer in the manufacture of more advanced 
chemicals). Sales amounted to 19 billion pounds, valued at $4.1 billion 
(table A and fig. 1). 

Those cyclic intermediates used principally to make plastics and 
synthetic fibers are large-volume hydrocarbon petrochemicals, each produced by 
a large number of producers (from 8 to 14 each); however, in no instance is 
the bulk of the production controlled by a small number of companies. For 
those intermediates which are used to manufacture dyes, pigments, medicinals, 
pesticides, and so forth, the four largest producers accounted for less than 
30 percent of the output. 

Employment in the cyclic intermediates industry in 1978 amounted to 
28,000, compared with 29,000 in the peak year 1977. 

Although there is considerable double counting in the production data, 
i.e., one compound used in the manufacture of a second compound is reported 
again in its new structure, the gross value of such production in 1978 is 
estimated at $10 billion. Eight percent of that production was exported. 

In 1978, exports of cyclic intermediates were two times as large as 
imports, yielding a trade balance of $383 million (table A and fig. 2). The 
increase in exports in 1978 over 1977 amounted to 22 percent and reflects the 
competitive advantage of U.S. exports in world markets because of the 
relatively lower cost of domestic feedstocks. 



U.S. consumption 

Domestic consumption of cyclic intermediates in 1978 amounted to $9.6 
billion. The ratio of imports to apparent consumption in 1978 was 4.2 
percent, the same ratio as in 1973; during 1974-77 the ratio ranges from 3.4 
to 4.0 percent. Apparent consumption increased from $3.8 billion (measured in 
current dollars) in 1973 to $9.6 billion in 1978, or at an average annual 
growth rate of 20.6 percent. Another approach to the measurement of consump- 
tion is obtained by using the quantity of the production, which increased 
during that period at an average annual rate of 4.9 percent. 



36 SYiJTHETIC ORG/UIC CHEMICALS, 1973 



Foreign Trade 

In 1978, both imports of cyclic intermediates at $407 million and exports 
of these chemicals at $790 million were 22 percent more than in 1977. 
Industry sources attribute the large volume of exports to "improved economic 
conditions in some industrialized countries, greater demand for U.S. products 
in the oil-exporting nations, and the declining value of the U.S dollar 
relative to several foreign currencies." 1 



U.S. imports 

Imports of industrial organic chemicals (cyclic intermediates) amounted 
to $407 million in 1978, compared with $334 million in 1977. From 1973 to 
1978, imports grew from $172 million to $407 million in 1978, or by an average 
annual growth rate of 18.8 percent, measured in current dollars (table A and 
fig. 2). 

The principal sources of U.S. imports of cyclic intermediates during 
1973-78 were Western Europe (principally the European Community (EC)) and Asia 
(principally Japan). In 1978, 72 percent of U.S. imports came from the EC and 
23 percent, from Asia. 

There were 824 benzenoid (cyclic) intermediates imported in 1978, 
compared with 819 imported in 1977. During 1978, imports from member 
countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 
accounted for 95 percent of the total value of imports of cyclic 
intermediates, with 5 percent coming from developing countries. The nine EC 
countries accounted for 61 percent of the total benzenoid intermediates and 
Japan, for 21 percent. Imports of cyclic intermediates from eligible 
Generalized Systems of Preference countries in 1978 were valued at $5.5 
million or 1 percent of the total. 

In 1978, 76 percent of the imports of industrial organic chemicals were 
classified into 13 chemically functional groups; several individual chemicals 
were specified within these groups. About 80 percent of the compounds 
classified by function were in the following seven groups: amines having one 
or more oxygen functions; alcohols, phenols, ethers, and aldehydes; amines and 
their derivatives; sulfonamides; carboxylic acids; heterocyclic compounds; and 
nitrogen function compounds, not specifically provides for. In 1978, on the 
basis of an analysis of imports of benzenoid chemicals and products by the 
U.S. International Trade Commission, phthalic anhydride (40 million pounds) 
was the principal product imported. The principal sources of phthalic 
anhydride were Argentina, Canada, Italy, Venezuela, and the United Kingdom. 
Ethylbenzene (34 million pounds) was the second most important cyclic inter- 
mediate imported in 1978; it came from Canada and the Netherlands. Styrene 
monomer (31 million pounds) all came from Canada. Cyclohexane (10 million 



Chemical and Engineering News, June 11, 1979 p. 62. 



Ill -- CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 37 



pounds) came from Argentina and West Germany. Other imports of lesser volume 
in 1978 included para-cresol, copper phthalocyanine crude, l-chloro-2- 
nitrobenzene, adipic acid, caprolactam, o-nitrophenol, hexamethylenediamine, 
2-naphthol (B-naphthol), (m,p)-cresol, o-anisidine, and malelc anhydride. 
Imports of these 15 intermediates accounted for approximately 54 percent of 
the total quantity of intermediates imported and analyzed by the Commission in 
1978. 



U.S. exports 

Exports of industrial organic chemicals (principally cyclic inter- 
mediates) in 1977 accounted for 19 percent of total sales. Although U.S. 
exports of cyclic intermediates increased from $345 million in 1973 to $790 
million in 1978, the ratio of exports to imports remained fairly steady, 
ranging from 1.9 in 1977 to 2.6 in 1974. 

According to industry sources, the U.S. chemical industry's advantage in 
low feedstock costs enabled it to increase exports to Western Europe by 25 
percent in 1978 over those in 1977, despite the overcapacity that existed in 
European chemical plants. Exports to developing country markets also 
registered large increases. Approximately 40 percent of U.S. exports go to 
Western Europe and approximately 35 percent go to countries in the Western 
Hemisphere, principally Latin American. About 20 percent of U.S. exports go 
to countries in Asia. In Europe, the principal market for cyclic inter- 
mediates is the EC, whereas in the Western Hemisphere the principal market is 
Latin America (table B and fig. 2). 

Industrial organic chemical products exported in the largest amounts in 
1978 were styrene monomer, cyclohexane, phenol, detergent alkylate (dodecyl- 
benzene), dimethyl terephthalate , toluene diisocyanates , caprolactam monomer, 
polyalkylbenzenes, dichlorobenzene. isophthalic acid, maleic anhydride, and 
phthalic anhydride. Exports of these products in 1978 amounted to $366 
million and accounted for 46 percent of the total value of U.S. exports of 
industrial organic chemicals; principal markets were the Netherlands, Canada, 
Mexico, and Japan. 



38 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 





vO 


on 


O 


ns 


o 


r^ 


on 




H 


m 






ON 


o 


rH 


in o 


O 


rH 


00 


00 


r* 


<r 


M> 








CM 


CO 








in o 


ON 


■* 










ON 


•* rH 


rH 



















m 


O 


rH 


OS 


<* 


H 


-j- in 


OS 




co 


(N 






<t 


m 


<T 








H 


on 


on 


r-~ 


VD 


CN 


r~. 


CO CO 










(N 


m 












m o 


r- 


ro 










OS 






«tf i-( 


H 























\0 00 N 


r^. 


MD 


SO 


r~ 


rH 


O 








•* 


rH 


00 








in ct\ 


on 


r^ r~ co 


SO 


m 


m 












- cm m 














O 00 


*r> 


en cm 






CO 









CO r- 
■H On 

-* m 

rH VD 
CO 



O m CM CO 



o m o 

. CM . 
•* CM CM 



00-HON vDCMS 
CO rH • • O nO On 
vO UO r^ CM r^- CM rH 
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r- r^ M3 

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CO -J- CM 



co in 
vd -a- 

00 on 



in o> m o m cm cm 
rH on • • -* r~ r~ 
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I I I I I I I 
I I I I I I I 



en 


on 


en 


T) 


u 


T) 


C 


01 


C 


3 




01 


o 




CO 


O- 





3 



B 43 I II 

O C J-> I CI I 



OJ I I O O I I 

•a i i h u i i o 



CU | | 3 U I CO |J 

o i i co o c u o 

■H | i c g. o *j g. 

CO U I I O B -H rl 

U d, l I u iH 4J in tV 

C II & ° 

a) u i i *j «h S 



US 



CO CO C O 3 <D O 

. u u gj co o 

3c0rHC0CCJrHO3>J>-'MOCCO 

•OSKHISHHTJOOH'HOIIH 

o o - > i-h o- > 0.0 a 0, a w orHjj 



a; cc 
en o 



3 O J*, M 



3 CO -r( > CU 



m co c es 



« cu 

•h o 

T3 3 

CU TD 

B o 

u u 

01 Cu 



Ill -- CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 



39 



Table B. — Cyclic intermediates: U.S. imports for consumption and exports of dom- 
estic merchandise, by geographic areas, 1977 and 1978 

(In thousands of dollars) 



Geographic area 



Imports 



1977 



1978 



Exports 



1977 



1978 



Grand total 

Western Hemisphere, total 

Canada 

Latin America 

Other 

Western Europe, total 

EC, total 

United Kingdom 

West Germany 

Other 

Other Western Europe 

Asia, total 

Japan 

Near East 

Other 

Australia and Oceania 

Africa 



334,324 



17,865 



7,637 

9,612 

616 

230,832 



205,279 
29,020 
96,267 
79,992 
25,553 

81,787 



67,821 

10,322 

3,644 

39 



406,562 



648,960 



19,188 



242,824 



13,596 
5,592 



'293,161 



58,763 

182,096 

1,965 

256,370 



292,723 

( 2 ) 
119,403 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

94,208 



228,492 
20,585 
13,378 

194,529 
27,878 

108,337 



86,603 
( 2 ) 
( 2 ) 



24,320 

4,763 

79,254 

24,519 
11,787 



789,776 



275,665 



79,316 

178,907 

17,442 

320,035 



284,390 
56,577 
19,313 

208,500 
35,645 

157,719 



53,874 

7,193 

96,652 

18,842 
14,501 



Includes Communist areas of Europe. 
2 Not available. 



Source: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce. 



an 



SY.JTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 



Figure 1. — Cyclic intermediates: U.S. production and sales, 1972-78 
(Semilogarithmic scale) . 



50 



50 



40- 



30- 



* . r:- -• ■=" 



Production quantity 
(billion pounds) 



-•40 



-30 



20- 



-V - 



Sales quantity 
(billion pounds) 



.20 



10- 
9- 

8- 

1- 
6- 



f^ 



«"" 



4r^" 



Production value 
(billion dollars) 



10 

-- 9 

1. 

-. 7 



5— 



4- 



/ 



/ 



... 5 



• 4 



3— 



Sales value 
(billion dollars) 



2- 



A 



I 2 



1^ 
1972 



1977 



1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission, Synthetic Organic Chemicals, U.S. 



Production and Sales. Prepared by "ir^ini* ". Bailev. 



Million 
dollars 



III -- CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 

Figure 2. — Cyclic intermediates: U.S. exports and imports, 
1973-78. 



HI 



800 



700 — 




Exports 



300 - 



/ 



200— - 
y 
/ 



100 — 



Imports 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



1977 



1978 



Source: Official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce. Prepared by 
Virginia R. Bailey. 



42 

SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



STATISTICAL HIGHLIGHTS 

Daniel F. McCarthy and Bonnie Jean Noreen 

Cyclic intermediates are synthetic organic chemicals derived principally 
from petroleum and natural gas and from coal-tar crudes produced by destruc- 
tive distillation (pyrolysis) of coal. Most cyclic intermediates are used in 
the manufacture of more advanced synthetic organic chemicals and finished pro- 
ducts, such as dyes, medicinal chemicals, elastomers (synthetic rubber), 
pesticides, and plastics and resin materials. Some intermediates, however, 
are sold as end products without further processing. For example, refined 
naphthalene may be used as a raw material in the manufacture of 2-naphthol 
or of other more advanced intermediates, or may be packaged and sold as a 
moth repellant or as a deodorant. In 1978 about 44 percent of the total 
output of cyclic intermediates was sold; the rest was consumed chiefly in the 
producing plants in the manufacture of more advanced intermediates and finished 
products. 

Total production of cyclic intermediates in 1978 amounted to 19,936 
million pounds, a 6 percent increase from the 18,726 million pounds produced 
in 1977. Sales of cyclic intermediates in 1978 were 8,853 million pounds, 
valued at $2,803 million, compared with 7,986 million pounds, valued at 
$2,597 million in 1977. These totals do not include the following cyclic 
intermediates: ethylbenzene, cyclohexane, cyclohexene, styrene, m-xylene, 
o-xylene, p-xylene, and cumene. Figures on U.S. production and sales of 
these eight cyclic intermediates are included in Section II, Primary Products 
from Petroleum and Natural Gas for Chemical Conversion. 

Intermediates which were produced in excess of 2 billion pounds in 1978 
were dimethyl terephthalate (5,954 million pounds), and phenol (2,682 million 
pounds). Other large-volume intermediates produced in 1978 were isocyanates 
(1,210 million pounds), cyclohexanone (1,162 million pounds), phthalic 
anhydride (978 million pounds), aniline (606 million pounds), nitrobenzene 
(576 million pounds), alkylbenzenes (526 million pounds) bisphenol A (471 
million pounds), monochlorobenzene (295 million pounds), toluene-2,4-diamine 
(139 million pounds), nonylphenol (125 million pounds) and melamine (112 
million pounds)- The 13 chemicals noted above accounted for 74 percent of the 
total output of intermediates in 1978. 



Ill -- CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 43 

TABLE 1.— Cyclic intermediates: U.S. production and sales, 1978 

[Listed below are all cyclic intermediates for which any reported data on production and sales may be published. 

(Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be published or where 

no data were reported.) Table 2 lists all cyclic intermediates for which data on production and/or sales were 
reported and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 



PRODUCTION 



SALES 



QUANTITY 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



Grand total 

Alkylbenzenes 2 

3 f -Amino-p-acetanisidide 

1- Amino- 2-bromo-A-hydroxyanthraquinone 

7-Amino-l, 3-naphthalenedisulf onic (Amino G acid) 

P~[ (p-Aminophenyl)azo]benzenesulf onic acid 

Aniline (Aniline oil) 

Anilinomethanesulfonic acid and salt 

Benzoic acid, tech 

Biphenyl 

2-Bromo-4,6-dinitroaniline 

Butylphenols , mixed 

Chlorobenzene, mono- 

4-Chloro-3-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride 

Cresols, total 3 

o-Cresol 

All other ^ 

Cresylic acid, refined 3 

Cyclohexanone 

1, 4-Diamino-2, 3-dihydroanthraquinone 

o-Dichlorobenzene 

p-Dichlorobenzene 

2,4-Dichlorophenol 

N,N-Die thy lani line 

1,4-Dihydroxyanthraquinone (Quinizarin) 

N,N-Dimethylaniline 

N,N-Dimethylbenzylamine 

2, 4 (and 2,6)-Dinitrotoluene 

N-Ethylaniline, refined 

2- (N-Ethylanilino) ethanol 

2-(N-Ethyl-N,8-cyanoethyl)-4-acetaminoanisole 

3-(N-Ethyl-m-toluidino)propionitrile 

Isocyanic acid derivatives, total 

Polymethylene polypheny lisocyanate 

Toluene-2,4- and 2,6-diisocyanate (80/20 mixture)- 
Other isocyanic acid derivatives 

4,4'-Isopropylidenediphenol (Bisphenol A) 

Leuco quinizarin (1,4, 9,10-Anthratetrol) 

Melamine 

dl-p-Mentha-1, 8-diene (Limonene) 

3-(N-Methylanilino)propionitrile 

oc-Methylstyrene 

o-Nitroaniline 

p-Nitroaniline 

Nitrobenzene 

Nonylphenol 

Phenol, total 3 

From cumene 

Other 



1,000 
pounds 



19,935,769 



526,185 

555 

609 

98 

316 

605,772 

339 

85,175 

63,527 

1,827 

6,529 

295,426 

330 

96,869 



20,124 
76,745 

45,003 

1,161,712 

481 

41,140 

41,224 

26,482 

2,359 

1,309 

11,278 

348 

655,914 

1,886 

458 

612 

115 

1,209,742 



439,449 
626,361 
143,932 

470,797 
116 

112,158 
14,007 
167 
75,571 
16,225 
15,220 

575,523 

125,167 

2,681,603 



1,000 
pounds 



8,852,650 



1,000 
dollars 



2,803,327 



503,689 



187,767 



36,822 
17,450 



96,428 



94,932 



143,430 



41,865 



8,686 
4,224 



47,630 



20,397 
74,535 

46,078 
36,992 

44,028 

38,062 

7,923 

1,518 

8,679 
265 

1,853 



1,033,926 



7,310 
40,320 

12,991 
12,226 

11,810 

10,311 

3,553 

1,521 

4,927 
534 

1,612 



,915,543 
766,060 



355,023 
558,233 
120,670 



79,411 
6,116 



61,176 



20,192 
49,294 



1,431,536 



179,149 

237,851 

94,326 

45,744 

28,701 
809 

10,780 



4,302 
11,177 



231,622 



Per 
pound 



1,086,493 
345,043 



175,028 
56,594 



See footnotes at end of table. 



w 



SY.JTHLTIC ORGANIC CHLT1ICALS, 1973 



TABLE 1. --Cyclic intermediates: U.S. production and sales, 1978— Continued 



CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



2,2'-[(Phenyl)imino]diethanol (N-Phenyldiethanol- 

amine) 

Phthalic anhydride 

Piper id ine 

Salicylic acid, tech 

Terephthalic acid, dimethyl ester 5 

Tetrahydrofuran 

Toluene- 2, 4- diamine (4-m-Tolylenediamine) 

7, 7'-Ureylenebis[4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic 

acid] 

All other cyclic intermediates 



1,000 
pounds 



628 

978,036 

780 

47,149 

5,954,216 

99,758 

139,250 

458 
3,745,320 



1,000 
pounds 



351 
646,289 



6,335 



■'4,263,001 



1,000 
dollars 



251 
152,018 



1,474,383 



Per 

pound 



$0.72 
.24 



35 



Calculated from unrounded figures. 

Includes straight-chain dodecylbenzene, tridecylbenzene, and other straight-chain alkylbenzenes. Branched- 
chain alkylbenzenes are included in "All other cyclic intermediates." 

Does not include data for coke ovens and gas-retort ovens, reported to the Office of Energy Data and Inter- 
pretation, Energy Information Administration, Department of Energy. 

Figures include (o,m,p)-cresol from coal tar and some m-cresol and p-cresol. 
5 The figures for terephthalic acid, dimethyl ester (DMT) include both the acid itself and the dimethyl ester 
without double counting. The acid production figure was multiplied by the factor 1.16 to convert it to equivalent 
DMT. 



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7s 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CH01ICALS, 1978 



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^r-f«h{vi^NP Bvh >>inr\i=?/>>p«: 



Ill -- CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 
TABLE 3. —Cyclic intermediates: Directory of manufacturers, 1978 



73 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 

[Names of manufacturers that reported production and/or sales of cyclic intermediates to the U.S. International 
Trade Commission for 1978 are listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Code 


: Name of company 


; Code 


• Name of company 


ABB 


Abbott Laboratories . 


: GAF 


. GAF Corp. 


AC 


American Color & Chemical Corp. 


. GE 


. General Electric Co. 


ACS 


Allied Chemical Corp. , Specialty Chemicals 


'. GIV 


. Givaudan Corp. 




Div. 


; GLY 


. Glyco Chemicals, Inc. 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. . 


'. GNW 


. Greenwood Chemical Co. 


ADC 


Anderson Development Co. . 


'. GOC 


Gulf Oil Corp., Gulf Oil Chemicals 


ALD 


Aldrich Chemical Co., Inc. ! 




. Co. -U.S. 


ALF 


Allied Chemical Corp., Fibers Div. ! 


.' GP 


. Georgia-Pacific Corp., Plaquemine 


ALL 


Alliance Chemical Corp. . 




Div. 


AMB 


American Bio-Synthetics Corp. . 


\ GTL 


Great Lakes Chemical Corp. 


AMO 


Standard Oil Co. (Indiana) . 


! GYR 


Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. 


ARA 


Araphahoe Chemicals, Inc., Sub/Syntex . 








U.S.A., Inc. ! 


! HCF 


Hercofina 


ARK 


Armstrong Cork Co. : 


' : HDW 


Hardwicke Chemical Co. 


ARS 


Arsynco, Inc. ; 


] HEX 


Hexagon Laboratories, Inc. 


ARZ 


Arizona Chemical Co. ; 


: HK 


Hooker Chemical Corp. 


ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc. . 


; HN 


Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 


ATL 


Atlantic Chemical Corp. . 


: HPC 


Hercules, Inc. 






: HSC 


Chemetron Corp., Pigments Div., Sub. of 


BAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. : 




Allegheny Ludlum Industries, Inc. 


BCC 


Buffalo Color Corp. : 


\ HSH 


Harshaw Chemical Co. 


BJL 


Burdick & Jackson Laboratories, Inc. ; 


: HST 


American Hoechst Corp. : 


BUC 


Synalloy Corp., Blackman-Uhler ; 




Hoechst Fibers Industries Div. 




Chemical Div. ; 




Industrial Chemicals Div. 






\ HXL 


Hexcel Corp., Hexcel Specialty Chemicals 


CCW 


Cincinnati Milacron Chemicals, Inc. ; 


: ICI 


ICI Americas Inc., Chemical 


CEL 


Celanese Corp., Celanese Chemical Co. : 




Specialties Co. 


CGY 


Ciba-Geigy Corp. : 






CHL 


Chemol, Inc. ; 


] JCC 


Jefferson Chemical Co., Inc. 


CHT 


Chattem, Inc. : 






CLK 


Clark Oil & Refining Corp. : 


: KF 


Kay-Fries Chemicals, Inc. 


CNP 


Nipro, Inc. : 


! KLM 


Kalama Chemical, Inc. 


CO 


Continental Oil Co. : 


: KPT 


Koppers Co. , Inc. 


CWN 


Upjohn Co., Fine Chemical Div. : 










\ LAK 


Bofors Lakeway, Inc. 






i lem 


Napp Chemicals, Inc. 


DBC 


Badische Co. : 


! LIL 


Eli Lilly & Co. 


DCC 


Dow Corning Corp. ; 






DGC 


Degussa Corp. : 


j MAL 


Mallinckrodt, Inc. 


DKA 


Denka Chemical Corp. ; 


i MCB 


Borg-Warner Corp. , Borg-Warner Chemicals 


DOW 


Dow Chemical Co. : 


\ MER 


Merichem Co. 


DUP 


E.I, duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. : 


] MIL 


Milliken & Co., Milliken Chemical 


DVC 


Dover Chemical Corp., Sub of ICC Industries,; 




Div. 




Inc. : 


] MLC 


Melamine Chemicals, Inc. 






: MNR 


Monroe Chemical Co. 






: MOB 


Mobay Chemical Co. 


EGR 


Eagle River Chemical Corp. : 


! MON 


Monsanto Co. 


EK 


Eastman Kodak Co.: : 


'. MRT 


Morton-Norwich Products, Inc., 


EKT 


Tennessee Eastman Co. Div. : 




Morton Chemical Co. Div. 


ELP 


El Paso Products Co. : 


\ MTO 


Montrose Chemical Corp. of California 


ENJ 


Exxon Chemical Co. U.S.A. : 










\ NCI 


Union Camp Corp., Terpenes and 


FER 


Ferro Corp. : : 




Aromatics Div. 




Ottawa Chemical Div. ; 


'. NEP 


Nepera Chemical Co., Inc. 




Productol Chemical Div. : 


'. NES : 


Ruetgers-Nease Chemical Co., Inc. 


FMP 


FMC Corp., Industrial Chemical Div. : 


: NIL 


Nilok Chemicals, Inc. 


FMT 


Fairmount Chemical Co., Inc. : 


'. NOR 


Morton-Norwich Products, Inc., Norwich 


FST 


First Chemical Corp. : 




Eaton Pharmaceutical Div. 



so 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



TABLE 3,— Cyclic intermediates: Directory of manufacturers, 1978— Continued 



Code : 


Name of company 


Code : 


Name of company 


NPC : 


Northwest Petrochemical Corp. 


SKO 


Getty Refining & Marketing Co. 






SOC 


Standard Oil Co. of California, Chevron 


OMC : 


Olin Corp. : 




Chemical Co. 


OPC : 


Orbis Products Corp. : 


: STC 


American Hoechst Corp., Sou-Tex Works 


ORO 


Chevron Chemical Co. ' 


: STG 


Stange Co. 


ORT 


Roehr Chemicals : 


: STP 


Stepan Chemical Co. 






: SUN 


Sun Company, Inc. 


PAS 


Pennwalt Corp. : 


: SW 


Sherwin-Williams Co. 


PCW 


Pfister Chemical, Inc. : 






PD 


Parke, Davis & Co., Sub. of Warner-Lambert • 


: TCC 


Tanatex Chemical Corp. 




Co. : 


: TCH 


Emery Industries, Inc., Trylon Div. 


PFZ 


Pfizer, Inc. & Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Inc. : 


: TEN 


Cities Service Co., Copperhill Operations 


PIT 


Pitt-Consol Chemical Co. 


: TNA 


Ethyl Corp. 


PLC 


Phillips Petroleum Co. 


: TRC 


Toms River Chemical Corp. 


PPG 


PPG Industries, Inc. 


: TRD 


Manufacturing Enterprises, Inc., Squibb 


PTO 


Puerto Rico Chemical Co., Inc. 




Manufacturing, Inc., Trade Enterprise, Inc 
Ersana, Inc. 


QKO 


Quaker Oats Co. 










: UCC 


Union Carbide Corp. 


RBC 


Fike Chemicals, Inc. • 


: UOP 


UOP, Inc., Chemical Div. 


RCI 


Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. 


: UPF 


Jim Walter Resources, Inc. 


RDA 


Rhone-Poulenc, Inc. 


: UPJ 


Upjohn Co. 


RH 


Rohm & Haas Co. 


: USM 


USM Corp., Bostik Div. 


RIL 


Reilly Tar & Chemical Corp. 


: USR 


Uniroyal, Inc., Uniroyal Chemical Div. 


RPC 


Millmaster Onyx Group, Refined Onyx 

Co. Div. : 
R.S.A. Corp. : 


: USS 


USS Chemicals Div. of U.S. Steel Corp. 


RSA 






RUC 


Rubicon Chemicals, Inc. 


: VEL 


Velsicol Chemical Corp. 






: VGC 


Virginia Chemicals, Inc. 


SAL 


Salsbury Laboratories 


: VIK 


Viking Chemical Co. 


see 


Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. : 


: VPC 


Mobay Chemical Corp. , Verona Dyestuf f Div. 


SCN 


Schenectady Chemicals, Inc. 


: VTC 


Vertac, Inc., Vicksburg Plant 


SDC 


Martin-Marietta Corp. , Sodyeco Div. 

Sterling Drug, Inc.: : 






SDH 


Hilton Davis Chemical Co. Div. 


: WAY 


: Philip A. Hunt Chemical Corp. , Organic 


SDW 


Winthrop Laboratories Div. 




• Chemical Div. 




Stauffer Chemical Co.: 


: WCC 


• White Chemical Corp. 


SFA 


Agricultural Div. • 


: WIL 


• Inolex Corp. , Inolex Pharmaceutical Div. 


SFC 


Calhio Chemicals, Inc. : 


: WTC 


: Witco Chemical Corp. 


SFS 


Specialty Div. : 


: WYT 


■ Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., Wyeth 


SHC 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 




■ Laboratories Div. of American Home 


SK 


SmithKline Corp., SmithKline Chemicals : 
: Div. : 




: Products Corp. 



Note. — Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the appendix. The 
above codes identify those of the 162 reporting companies and company divisions for which permission to publish was 
not restricted. 



SECTION IV -- DYES 81 



STATISTICAL HIGHLIGHTS 
Edmund Cappuccilli 



Synthetic dyes are derived in whole or in part from cyclic intermediates. 
Approximately two-thirds of the dyes consumed in the United States are used 
by the textile industry to dye natural and synthetic fibers or fabrics; about 
one-sixth is used for coloring paper; and the rest is used chiefly in the 
production of organic pigments and in the dyeing of leather and plastics. Of 
the several thousand different synthetic dyes that are known, more than one 
thousand are manufactured by one or more domestic producers. The large 
number of dyes results from the many different types of materials to which 
dyes are applied, the different conditions of service for which dyes are 
required, and the costs that a particular use can bear. Dyes are sold as 
pastes, powders, lumps, and solutions; concentrations vary from 6 percent to 
100 percent. The concentration, form, and purity of a dye are determined 
largely by the use for which it is intended. 

Total domestic production of dyes in 1978 amounted to 251 million pounds, 
or 5.1 percent less than the 264 million pounds produced in 1977 (table 1). 
Sales of dyes in 1978 amounted to 233 million pounds, valued at $734 million, 
compared with 255 million pounds, valued at $690 million, in 1977. In terms 
of quantity, sales of dyes in 1978 were 8.6 percent less than in 1977 and 
in terms of value, 6.3 percent greater. The average unit value of sales of 
all dyes in 1978 was $3.15 per pound compared with $2.71 per pound in 1977. 

The production of five classes of dyes continued to increase in 1977, 
while the remaining four major classes registered slight to large declines 
(vat dyes) in their production. Acid dyes increased by 28.4 percent from 
30.7 million pounds in 1977 to 39.4 million in 1978. The other four classes 
of dyes increased by the following percentages: disperse dyes (2.5), fiber- 
reactive dyes (7.1), food, drug, and cosmetic colors (6.6), and solvent dyes 
(6.9). 



IV -- DYFS 83 

TABLE 1.— Dyes: U.S. production and sales, 1978 

[Listed below are all dyes for which any reported data on production or sales may be published. (Leaders (...) 
are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be published or where no data were 
reported.) Table 2 lists all dyes for which data on production and/or sales were reported and identifies the 
manufacturers of each] 



PRODUCTION 



SALES 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



1,000 
pounds 



Grand total 

ACID DYES 

Total 

Acid yellow dyes, total 

Acid Yellow 17 

Acid Yellow 19 

Acid Yellow 23 

Acid Yellow 151 

Acid Yellow 174 

All other 

Acid orange dyes, total 

Acid Orange 7 

Acid Orange 8 

Acid Orange 10 

Acid Orange 24 

Acid Orange 60 

All other 

Acid red dyes, total 

Acid Red 1 

Acid Red 4 

Acid Red 14 

Acid Red 73 

Acid Red 88 

Acid Red 114 

Acid Red 137 

Acid Red 151 

Acid Red 182 

Acid Red 266 

Acid Red 337 

All other 

Acid violet dyes 

Acid blue dyes, total 

Acid Blue 9 

Acid Blue 40 

All other 

Acid green and brown dyes, total 

Acid Brown 14 

All other 

Acid black dyes, total 

Acid Black 1 

Acid Black 52 

All other 

AZOIC DYES AND COMPONENTS 

Azoic Diazo Components, Salts 
(Fast Color Salts) 

Azoic Diazo Components, salts (Fast Color Salts)- 

See footnotes at end of table. 



16,267 



185 

437 

278 

3,566 

94 

11,707 

4,832 



455 
314 
145 
701 
657 
2,560 

5,984 



379 
2,239 
1,692 

159 

7,010 



2,539 

899 

3,572 



1,553 
3,141 



340 

895 

1,906 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



14,866 



142 
328 
235 
3,288 
128 
10,745 

4,585 



448 
342 
149 
630 
602 
2,414 

5,417 



277 
2,055 
1,643 



6,928 



,666 

883 

3,379 



457 
,328 



2,929 



393 

700 

1,836 



40,559 



700 
1,021 
1,016 
7,091 

538 
30,193 

17,016 



1,213 

884 

462 

1,943 

2,340 

10,174 

23,237 



1,136 

122 

112 

798 

260 

836 

529 

1,226 

531 

1,018 

7,964 

8,705 

766 

30,973 



,674 
4,776 
21,523 



1,779 
5,959 



9,933 



1,444 
2,269 
6,220 



Per 
pound 



34 



TABLE 1. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC C!!EP.ICALS, 1978 
-Dyes: U.S. production and sales, 1978— Continued 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



BASIC DYES 

Total 

Basic yellow dyes, total 

Basic Yellow 11 

Basic Yellow 28 

Basic Yellow 29 

All other 

Basic orange dyes, total 

Basic Orange 1 

Basic Orange 2 

Basic Orange 21 

All other 

Basic red dyes, total 

Basic Red 14 

Basic Red 15 

Basic Red 18 

Basic Red 49 

All other 

Basic violet dyes, total 

Basic Violet 1 

Basic Violet 16 

All other 

Basic blue dyes, total 

Basic Blue 1 

Basic Blue 3 

All other 

All other basic dyes 

DIRECT DYES 

Total 

Direct yellow dyes, total 

Direct Yellow 4 

Direct Yellow 6 

Direct Yellow 11 

Direct Yellow 28 

Direct Yellow 34 

Direct Yellow 44 

Direct Yellow 50 

Direct Yellow 105 

Direct Yellow 106 

All other 

Direct orange dyes, total 

Direct Orange 15 

Direct Orange 39 

Direct Orange 102 

All other 

Direct red dyes, total 

Direct Red 2 

Direct Red 23 

Direct Red 24 

Direct Red 72 

Direct Red 80 



1,000 
pounds 



15,357 



4,324 



628 

716 

491 

2,489 

1,757 



207 
614 
460 
476 

2,349 
551 
315 
324 
137 

1,022 

3,312 

1,399 

328 

1,585 

2,556 

24 

456 

2,076 



11,894 
846 
275 

3,564 
57 
130 
228 
603 
295 
681 

5,215 

1,553 
451 
184 
318 
600 



118 
163 
391 
439 



1,000 
pounds 



15,257 



1,000 
do I lews 



67,437 



4,461 



744 

762 

689 

2,266 

1,629 



210 
583 
422 
414 

2,351 
511 
274 
307 
117 

1,142 

3,184 

1,312 

310 

1,562 



23 

498 

2,103 



10,762 

717 

279 

3,373 

50 

73 

253 

363 

243 

596 

4,815 

1,569 
552 
151 
315 
551 

4,513 
128 
123 
172 
386 
425 



16,492 



2,216 

1,961 

1,768 

10,547 

4,991 



438 
1,558 
1,477 
1,518 

10,491 

1,155 

799 

913 

487 

7,137 

10,963 
3,344 
1,070 
6,549 



121 

1,795 

15,234 



80,545 

28,174 

1,776 

975 

4,280 

313 

275 



890 

804 

1,637 

16,357 

4,916 
1,071 
450 
1,445 
1,950 

15,761 

625 

646 

693 

1,788 

1,552 



Per 
pound 



2.09 
2.67 



2.97 
4.17 
6.25 



2.55 
3.46 
4.19 



5.25 
3.60 



2.62 
2.48 
3.49 
1.27 
6.33 
3.79 
3.44 
2.45 
3.31 
2.75 
3.40 

3.13 

1.94 
2.97 
4.58 
3.54 

3.49 



See footnotes at end of table 



TABLE I.—Dyes: 



IV -- DYES 

U.S. PRODUCTION AND SALES, 1978— CONTINUED 



35 



PRODUCTION 



QUANTITY : VALUE 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



DIRECT DYES— Continued 

Direct red dyes — Continued 

Direct Red 81 

All other 

Direct violet dyes — 

Direct blue dyes, total 

Direct Blue 1 

Direct Blue 15 

Direct Blue 76 

Direct Blue 80 

Direct Blue 86 

Direct Blue 98 

Direct Blue 218 

All other 

Direct green and brown dyes 

Direct black dyes, total 

Direct Black 22 

All other 

DISPERSE DYES 

Total 

Disperse yellow dyes, total 

Disperse Yellow 23 

Disperse Yellow 42 

Disperse Yellow 54 

All other 

Disperse orange dyes, total 

Disperse Orange 3 

Disperse Orange 25 

Disperse Orange 29 

All other 

Disperse red dyes, total 

Disperse Red 1 

Disperse Red 4 

Disperse Red 5 

Disperse Red 17 

Disperse Red 55 

Disperse Red 59 

Disperse Red 60 

Disperse Red 65 

Disperse Red 86 

All other 

Disperse Violet dyes, total 

Disperse Violet 1 

Disperse Violet 27 

All other 

Disperse blue dyes, total 

Disperse Blue 3 

Disperse Blue 64 

Disperse Blue 79 

All other 

Disperse green and brown dyes 

Disperse black dyes 



1,000 
pounds 



1,962 
1,687 



90 

65 
293 
598 
271 
981 
3,821 

807 

3,073 



845 
2,228 



44,347 



7,244 



546 

728 

1,189 

4,781 

6,246 



47 

716 

636 

4,847 

9,516 



170 
561 

63 
,446 
230 
331 
,175 



499 
17,268 



1,000 
pounds 



1,818 
1,461 



5,563 



1,389 

648 

4,669 

10,562 

1,131 
2,392 



327 
62 
280 
734 
195 
856 
3,011 

874 



1,157 
2,222 



39,721 



7,433 



571 

590 

1,157 

5,115 

5,070 



85 

531 

589 

3,865 

9,039 



183 
566 
55 

1,789 
226 
309 

5,372 

510 



13,968 



1,205 

218 

3,310 

9,235 

1,264 
2,438 



1,000 
dollars 



3,873 
6,584 



18,742 



579 

866 

181 

970 

2,535 

640 

3,435 

9,536 

3,766 



1,612 
6,855 



21,065 



,378 

1,597 

3,999 

14,091 

15,478 



288 

1,450 

1,741 

11,999 

42,008 



1,156 
712 
187 
537 

4,788 
390 

6,848 
783 

2,569 
24,038 

2,259 



328 

183 
1,748 

64,492 



4,254 

644 

9,153 

50,441 

4,333 
7,124 



Pep 

pound 



2.64 
2.91 
3.46 
3.45 
3.27 
4.01 
3.17 



4.31 
2.51 



2.83 



2.41 

2.71 
3.46 
2.75 

3.05 



3.37 
2.73 
2.96 
3.10 

4.65 



2.97 
9.07 
2.60 
2.93 
8.45 
7.06 
3.83 
3.47 
8.32 
4.47 



3.03 
4.54 



3.53 
2.96 

2.77 



3.42 
2.92 



See footnotes at end of table. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 197S 
TABLE 1,--Dyes: U.S. production and sales, 1978— Continued 



FIBER-REACTIVE DYES 

Fiber-reactive dyes, total 

Reactive yellow dyes 

All other reactive dyes 

FLUORESCENT BRIGHTENING AGENTS 

Fluorescent brightening agents, total 

Fluorescent Brightening Agent 28 

Fluorescent Brightening Agent 61 

All other fluorescent brightening agents 

FOOD, DRUG, AND COSMETIC COLORS 

Total 

Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Dyes 

Total 

FD&C Blue No. 1 

FD&C Blue No. 2 

FD&C Red No. 40 

FD&C Yellow No. 5 

FD&C Yellow No. 6 

All other food, drug, and cosmetic dyes 

Drug and Cosmetic and External Drug 
and Cosmetic Dyes 

Total 

D&C Red No. 7 

D&C Red No. 9 

D&C Red No. 19 

All other drug and cosmetic and external drug and 
cosmetic dyes 

MORDANT DYES 

Total 

SOLVENT DYES 

Total 

Solvent yellow dyes, total 

Solvent Yellow 14 

All other 

Solvent orange dyes, total 

Solvent Orange 20 

All other 

Solvent blue dyes 

All other solvent dyes 

VAT DYES 

Total 

Vat yellow dyes 



PRODUCTION 



1,000 
pounds 



5,520 



1,166 
4,354 



29,933 



1,131 

157 
28,645 



6,125 



205 

31 

1,908 

1,606 

1,074 

869 



13,892 



2,196 



381 
1,815 



3,894 
7,027 



1,000 
pounds 



984 
4,308 



972 

142 

28,247 



5,968 



5,536 



255 

39 

1,849 

1,421 

1,124 

848 



10,29 



1,754 



335 

1,419 



1,346 
6,531 



36,890 



1,000 
dollars 



5,423 
23,261 



1,642 

777 

47,226 



36,887 



2,727 
612 
14,488 
7,408 
5,104 
6,548 



475 
497 
136 



6,971 



1,033 
5,938 



236 
2,666 



7,102 
15,655 



at end of table. 



IV -- DYFS 



3/ 



TABLE 1.--Dyes: U.S. production and sales, 1978--Continued 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



VAT DYES — Continued 

Vat orange dyes, total 

Vat Orange 2, 12% 

Vat Orange 15, 10% 

All other 

Vat red dyes-— 

Vat violet dyes 

Vat blue dyes, total 

Vat Blue 6, 8-1/3% 

All other 

Vat green dyes, total 

Vat Green 3, 10% 

All other 

Vat brown dyes 

Vat black dyes, total 

Vat Black 25, 12-1/2% 

All other 

All other dyes 3 



1,000 
pounds 



1,829 



739 
177 
913 

749 
409 



1,000 
pounds 



1,912 



1,000 
dollars 



12,506 



802 
1,110 



582 
514 



5,110 
2,373 



1,092 
23,450 



967 

20,769 



2,548 
39,116 



867 
1,543 



3,824 
3,163 



983 

1,747 



3,901 
3,360 



2,270 
3,951 



18,534 
9,856 



3,163 
27,968 



2,285 
1,075 



4,810 
5,046 



Per 

pound 



5.40 
7.36 



8.78 
4.62 



2.31 
2.26 



4.75 
2.93 



2.11 
4.69 



Calculated from unrounded figures. 

2 The data include dyes which are similar to, but not chemically identical with, the indicated Colour Index 
name. 

The data include azoic compositions, azoic coupling components, azoic diazo components (bases), sulfur dyes, 
and miscellaneous dyes. Statistics for those groups of dyes may not be published separately because publication 
would disclose information received in confidence. 



TABLE 1A.— Dyes: U.S. production and sales, by class of application, 1978 



CLASS OF APPLICATION 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
pounds 



Total 

Acid 

Azoic dyes and components: Azoic diazo component; 

salts (Fast Color salts) 

Basic 

Direct 

Disperse 

Fiber-reactive 

Fluorescent brightening agents 

Food, drug, and cosmetic colors 

Mordant 

Solvent 

Vat 

All other 2 



1,000 
dollars 



733,553 



39,434 

1,690 
15,357 
28,386 
44,347 

5,520 
29,933 

6,125 
376 
13,892 
37,752 
27,968 



36,658 

1,340 
15,257 
26,816 
39,721 

5,292 
29,361 

5,968 

375 

10,298 

36,890 

24,735 



130,222 

1,806 
67,437 
80,545 

156,758 
28,684 
49,645 
42,061 
1,665 
32,630 

102,211 
39,889 



Per 

pound 



3.55 

1.35 
4.42 
3.00 
3.95 
5.42 
1.69 



2.77 
1.61 



Calculated from unrounded figures. 

The data include azoic compositions, azoic coupling components, azoic diazo components (bases), sulfur dyes, 
and miscellaneous dyes. Statistics for those groups of dyes may not be published separately because publica- 
tion would disclose information received in confidence. 



33 



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96 



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119 



TABLE 3. --Dyes: Directory of manufacturers, 1978 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



[Names of 



jfacturers that reported producti 
for 1978 are listed below in o 



nd/or sales of dyes to the U.S. International Trade Commission 
of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Code 


: Name of company 


: Code 


: Name of company 


AC 


American Color & Chemical Corp. 


: KON 


: H. Kohnstamm & Co., Inc. 




ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 








ALL 


Alliance Chemical Corp. : 








ALT 


Crompton & Knowles Corp. , Dyes & Chemical : 

Div. : 


: LVR 


C. Lever Co. , Inc. 




ATL 


Atlantic Chemical Corp. : 


: MAY 


Otto B. May Co. Div. of Cone Mills 
Corp. 




BAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. : 


: MRT 


Morton Norwich Products Inc., Morton 




BCC 


Buffalo Color Corp. : 




Chemical Co. Div. 




BDO 


Benzenoid Organics, Inc. : 


: MRX 


Max Marx Color & Chemical Co. 




BUC 


Synalloy Corp. , Blackman-Uhler Chemical : 
Div. : 


: PCW 


Pfister Chemical Works 




CCW 


Cincinnati Milacron Chemicals, Inc. : 


: PDC 


Berncolors-Poughkeepsie, Inc. 




CGY 


Ciba-Geigy Corp. : 


: PSC 


Passaic Color & Chemical Co. 




DGO 


Day-Glo Color Corp. : 








DSC 


Dye Specialties, Inc. : 


: S 


Sandoz, Inc. 




DUP 


E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. : 


: SDC 
: SDH 


Martin-Marietta Corp. , Sodyeco Div. 
Sterling Drug, Inc., Hilton Davis 
Chemical Co. Div. 




EKT 


Eastman Kodak Co., Tennessee Eastman : 


: SNA 


Sun Chemical Corp., Pigments Div. 






Co. Div. : 


: STG 
: SW 


Stange Co. 
Sherwin-Williams Co. 




FAB 


Fabricolor Manufacturing Corp. : 












: TMS 


Sterling Drug, Inc., Thomasset Colors 


Div. 


GAF 


GAF Corp. : 


: TNI 
: TRC 


Gillette Co., Chemical Div. 
Toms River Chemical Corp. 




HSC 


Chemetron Corp., Pigments Div., Sub. of : 
Allegheny Ludlum Industries, Inc. : 








HSH 


Harshaw Chemical Co. : 


: VPC 


Mobay Chemical Corp, Verona Dyestuff 


Div. 


HST 


American Hoechst Corp. Industrial Chemicals : 
Div. : 








ICI 


ICI Americas, Inc., Chemical : 
Specialties Co. : 


: WJ : 


Warner- Jenkinson Co. 





Note. — Complete 



of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the appendi 



SECTION V -- ORGANIC PIGMENTS 121 



PROFILE OF THE DOMESTIC ORGANIC PIGMENTS INDUSTRY 
Bonnie Jean Noreen 

In 1978, U.S. production, sales, apparent consumption, and foreign trade in 
synthetic organic pigments continued the upward trend from the economic setback 
of 1974-75. The United States enjoys a positive balance of trade in the organic 
pigments; exports in 1978 were 2.5 times greater than imports on the basis of 
quantity and 1.4 times greater on the basis of value. 

All the organic pigments reported here are benzenoid products, i.e., they 
have a chemical structure like or similar to that of a benzene or modified benzene 
ring. 

DesrriDtion and Uses 

Organic pigments comprise approximately 10 percent of the total volume and 
30 percent of the total value of all pigments. Although more expensive than their 
inorganic counterparts, they are available in brighter and more varied colors. 
Organic pigments are usually transparent and can be dissolved by organic solvents 
while inorganic pigments are usually opaque and insoluble in such solvents. The 
volume of organic pigments as a percent of the total pigments output is not ex- 
pected to change significantly, but their percent of the value is expected to 
increase in the next several years partly because of the increased costs of the 
petrochemical raw materials. 

Organic pigments can be derived from synthetic or natural dyestuffs. For 
economic reasons, the natural products have been almost completely replaced 
by synthetics. These pigments are generally derived from dyes or pigment inter- 
mediates closely related to dyes. Color lakes are prepared by the precipitation 
of a water-soluble dye on an insoluble inorganic compound or substrate. In con- 
trast, toners, or full-strength colors, do not require a substrate or base. 
Toners are by far the more commercially important of the two pigments and are 
marketed either full-strength or extended, i.e., diluted by the addition of a 
solid diluent. 1 

The largest use of organic pigments is in printing inks. The second largest 
use is in paints and other coatings. Lesser amounts are employed to color plas- 
tics, textiles, and many other products. When used in inks and paints, pigments 
must be readily dispersible in such mediums as oils, organic solvents, varnishes, 
and resins. 



Although extended toners are provided for under TSUS item 406.70, analysis 
of import data indicates that imports have also been entered under TSUS item 
409.00 as mixtures. 



122 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



The Domestic Industry 

The number of companies reporting production and/or sales of organic pig- 
ments in 1978 was 37 — one more than in 1977. Concentration in the industry 
in 1978 was similar to the previous year. In both years, 5 of the reporting 
companies accounted for 59 percent of the total sales value; in 1978, 10 com- 
panies accounted for 82 percent of total sales value compared with 83 percent 
in 1977. 

For the third consecutive year both production and sales of organic pig- 
ments has increased. In 1978, the production of organic pigments was 76.7 
million pounds, which represents an increase of 7.0 million pounds (10.0 
percent) more than the 69.7 million pounds produced in 1977. The sales 
quantity in 1978 increased by 7.2 million pounds (12.5 percent) and sales 
value increased by $54.1 million (20.2 percent) more than the previous year. 
In 1978 both production and sales quantities exceeded the previous highs recorded 
before the economic setback of 1974-75. The sales unit value in 1978 was $4.98 
per pound, $0.32 per pound (6.9 percent) higher than the previous year and 
$0.17 per pound (3.5 percent) higher than the unit value set in 1976, the next 
highest year (table A) . 

Over the past 10 years, toners have increasingly become more important than 
lakes. In 1978, toner production was 75.3 million pounds, which was 55 times 
as great as the 1.4 million pounds of lakes produced. Ten years earlier, in 
1969, the 57.3 million pounds of toners produced were only 15 times as great 
as the 3.7 million pounds of lakes produced that year. Sales of toners in 1978 
were 63.7 million pounds valued at $318.9 million; this is 69 times as great 
as lakes on the basis of quantity, and 105 times as great as lakes on the basis 
of value. Over the past 10 years, production of lakes has decreased by 63 per- 
cent while production of toners has increased by 31 percent. The sales unit 
values of both have increased in the past 10 years, toners by 83 percent (from 
$2.73 to $5.00 per pound), and lakes by 193 percent (from $1.12 to $3.28 per 
pound) (table A). 

The apparent U.S. consumption of organic pigments in 1978 was 64.7 million 
pounds, representing a 3.3 percent increase over the 62.6 million pounds ap- 
parently consumed in 1977. Apparent U.S. consumption, like production, has 
been increasing since the economic setback of 1974-75. 

In 1978, foreign companies continued to purchase domestic organic pigments 
firms. In early 1978 the pigments division of GAF was bought by BASF Wyandotte. 
The proposed sale of the pigments division of Allegheny Ludlum Industries, Inc. 
(formerly the pigments division of Chemetron Corp.) to Bayer A.G. was withdrawn 
during an antitrust investigation by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission. The 
company was eventually purchased in early 1979 by BASF Wyandotte. Seven of the 
37 companies reporting production and/or sales of organic pigments in 1978 were 
German or Swiss subsidiaries. (The sale of the pigments division of Allegheny 
Ludlum is not included in this report, since the sale of that division was not 
completed until 1979.) 



Revised figure for 1977. 



V -- ORGANIC PIGMENTS 123 



Industry Outlook 

The effect that the elimination of the American selling price and other 
negotiations of the Tokyo round will have on the domestic organic pigment 
industry is uncertain. At the present time, the ad valorem equivalent duty 
rates range from 20 to 31.3 percent of transaction values. The new rates 
negotiated in the recent multilateral trade negotiations will range from 
8.3 to 20 percent ad valorem. Little immediate effect is anticipated from 
the negotiated lower rates of duty on imports of synthetic organic pigments; 
these imports in 1978 accounted for about one-eighth of the domestic market. 

Environmental Protection Agency regulations continue to have an effect 
on the domestic pigment industry. The registration and testing of new pig- 
ments under the Toxic Substances Control Act, and solid waste control, are 
perhaps two of the more unexplored areas at present. The increased testing 
required for all pigments may prove to be beneficial to the organic pigment 
industry because the pigments suspected of being carcinogenic are more 
heavily concentrated among the inorganic pigments and Government control 
of these pigments (such as some chromium and cadmium compounds) could lead 
to broader use of their organic counterparts. 

In the foreseeable future, the cost of raw materials and energy for the 
organic pigments industry is expected to continue to rise because of interna- 
tional pressure on oil prices and changes in the U.S. Government price con- 
trols on oil and gas. Ultimately, any significant increases in petroleum 
prices will probably be passed on to the consumer. The unit value dip of 
1977 is not expected to repeat itself in the immediate future, and the average 
unit value for pigments in 1979 will probably exceed $5.00 per pound. 



Foreign Trade 

U.S. exports of organic pigments in 1978 registered an increase for the 
third consecutive year in both quantity and value. The total quantity of 
exports, 20.0 million pounds, was 5.2 million pounds (35.5 percent) greater 
than the quantity exported in 1977. The total value of exports in 1978 was 
$56.4 million, an increase of $16.2 million (40.2 percent) more than the 
$40.3 million recorded in 1977. Canada, Japan, the United Kingdom, Belgium, 
West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Mexico, France, Venezuela, and Australia 
made up 69 percent of the quantity and 75 percent of the value of these 
exports (table C). 

U.S. imports of organic pigments in 1978 also registered an increase for 
the third consecutive year in both quantity and value, but the quantity was 
still 210,000 pounds less than the alltime high reached in 1974. The total 
quantity of imports, 7.9 million pounds, was 0.3 million pounds greater than 



m SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 

it was in 1977, representing an increase of 3.8 percent. The total value of 
imports in 1978 was $41.7 million, an increase of $5.3 million (14.5 percent) 
more than the $36.4 million recorded in 1977. U.S. imports of organic pig- 
ments are primarily from West Germany and Switzerland. In 1978 these two 
countries accounted for 61.0 percent of the quantity and 74.5 percent of the 
value of these imports (table D) . Data on annual imports of benzenoid chemi- 
cals are examined by the U.S. International Trade Commission. In 1978 the 
Commission examined 62 percent of the total quantity reported in the official 
statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce. 

Imports of Pigments Blue 15 («■ form), Red 144, Yellow 93, Red 57:1, Green 36, 
and Yellow 73 accounted for 41 percent on the basis of quantity of the total 
U.S. organic pigments imports examined by the Commission in 1978. Imports of 
organic pigments in 1978 accounted for 12.3 percent of apparent U.S. consumption 
on the basis of quantity and 11.4 percent on the basis of value (table B) . 

The United States has had a positive trade balance in organic pigments for 
the past several years. In 1978, exports exceeded imports by 12.0 million pounds 
on the basis of quantity and $14.7 million on the basis of value. U. S. exports 
of organic pigments are, on the average, of lower unit value than imports. In 
1978, imports of organic pigments averaged $5.26 per pound whereas exports averaged 
only $2.82 per pound. 



imports of Benzenoid Chemicals and Products , 1978; USITC Publication 
#990, pp. 73-76. 



V -- ORGANIC PIGMENTS 



125 



Table A. — Organic pigments (toners and lakes): U.S. production 
and sales, 1969-78 



Year 



Sales 



Production 


Quantity 


Value 


Unit j 
value 




1,000 . 


1,000 


Per 


1,000 pounds 


pounds 
47,375 


dollars 
129,310 


pound 


57,310 


$2.73 


52,547 


43,754 


119,353 


2.73 


55,086 


44,247 


126,564 


2.86 


62,878 


50,506 


145,941 


2.89 


66,949 


58,991 


178,583 


3.03 


67,464 


56,318 


222,805 


3.96 


47,723 


40,779 


182,067 


4.46 


66,020 


52,818 


256,707 


4.86 


2 63,134 


56,037 


263,671 


4.71 


75,348 


63,714 


318,852 


5.00 


3,701 


3,419 


3,839 


1.12 


3,977 


3,412 


3,612 


1.06 


3,240 


2,805 


3,449 


1.23 


3,019 


2,709 


3,402 


1.26 


2,446 


2,473 


3,583 


1.45 


2,334 


2,163 


5,007 


2.31 


1,930 


1,593 


3,923 


2.46 


1,707 


1,393 


4,382 


3.15 


1,573 


1,397 


4,076 


2.92 


1,368 


924 


3,030 


3.28 


61,011 


50,794 


133,149 


: 2.62 


56,524 


47,166 


122,965 


2.61 


58,326 


47,052 


130,013 


: 2.76 


65,897 


53,215 


149,343 


: 2.81 


69,395 


: 61,464 


182,166 


: 2.96 


69,798 


: 58,481 


: 227,812 


: 3.90 


49,653 


: 42,372 


: 185,990 


: 4.39 


67,727 


: 54,211 


: 261,089 


: 4.81 


2 69,707 


: 57,434 


: 267,747 


: 4.66 


76,716 


: 64,638 


: 321,882 


: 4.98 



Toners: 

1969 

1970 

1971 

1972 

1973 

1974 

1975 

1976 

1977 

1978 

Lakes : 

1969 

1970 

1971 

1972 

1973 

1974 

1975 

1976 

1977 

1978 

Total: 

1969 

1970 

1971 

1972 

1973 

1974 

1975 

1976 

1977 

1978 



Calculated from rounded figures. 
Revised figures for 1977. 

Source: U.S. International Trade Commission, Synthetic Organic Chemi- 
cals, United States Production and Sales. 



301-061 0-79-9 



126 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



Table B. — Organic pigments: U.S. production, imports, exports, and 
apparent consumption, 1974-78 













Ratio 


Year 


Production 


Imports 


Exports 


Apparent 
consumption 


(percent) of 
imports to 
consumption 




Quantity (1,000 pounds) 


1974— 


69,798 


8,142 


14,716 


63,224 


12.9 


1975— 


49,653 


5,319 


12,120 


42,852 


12.4 


1976— 


67,727 


6,888 


14,504 


60,111 


11.5 


1977— 


3 69,707 


7,645 


14,746 


3 62,606 


3 12.2 


1978— 


76,716 


7,932 


19,974 


64,674 


12.3 




Value (1,000 dollars) 


1974— 


272,212 


27,305 


33,147 


266,370 


10.3 


1975— 


217,977 


20,278 


25,062 


213,193 


9.5 


1976— 


325,767 


32,346 


36,497 


321,616 


10.1 


1977— 


3 324,835 


36,437 


40,255 


3 321,017 


3 11.4 


1978— 


382,046 


41,721 


56,426 


367,341 


11.4 



Value of production estimated, based on unit value of sales. 

The export data shown are the official U.S. Department of Commerce 
statistics. Export statistics for 1968 through 1973, published in the 
Synthetic Organic Chemicals, United States Production and Sales, 1977 , 
p. 139, were estimated percentages of the official U.S. Department of 
Commerce statistics. 

3 Revised figures for 1977. 



Source: Production, U.S. International Trade Commission, Synthetic 
Organic Chemicals, United States Production and Sales ; imports and 
exports compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of 
Commerce. 



V -- ORGANIC PIGMENTS 



127 



Table C. — Organic pigments: U.S. exports, by principal markets, 1974-78 



Market 



1974 



1975 



1976 



1977 



1978 



Canada 

Japan 

United Kingdom 

Belgium 

West Germany 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Mexico 

France 

Venezuela 

Australia 

All other 

Total 

Canada 

Japan 

United Kingdom 

Belgium 

West Germany 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Mexico 

France 

Venezuela 

Australia 

All other 

Total 



Quantity (1,000 pounds) 



2,736 
719 

1,132 
398 
492 

1,089 
969 
254 
498 
372 
675 

5,382 



14,716 



6,037 
4,215 
3,253 
1,236 
1,190 
2,431 
1,643 

654 
1,425 

988 
1,400 
8,675 



33,147 



2,624 
655 
756 
250 
508 
577 

1,063 
126 
267 
268 
580 

4,446 



12,120 



2,696 

1,391 

720 

595 

366 

1,200 

1,309 

219 

597 

417 

708 

4,286 



14,504 



1,873 

1,058 

1,157 

807 

827 

829 

1,474 

356 

412 

676 

413 

4,864 



14,746 



Value (1,000 dollars) 



5,007 

2,637 

1,878 

933 

889 

1,430 

1,738 

528 

1,044 

817 

985 

7,176 



25,062 



6,839 
4,952 
2,071 
1,904 
1,208 
2,877 
3,218 
682 
1,646 
1,352 
1,341 
8,407 



36,497 



5,199 
4,015 
3,284 
2,570 
2,251 
1,840 
3,817 
1,058 
2,037 
2,176 
1,293 
10,715 



40,255 



3,666 

1,370 

1,540 

1,255 

1,145 

1,270 

1,231 

835 

505 

648 

414 

6,095 



19,974 



9,620 
5,479 
4,892 
3,846 
3,670 
3,641 
3,610 
2,372 
1,932 
1,912 
1,180 
14,272 



56,426 



Source: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department 
of Commerce. 



123 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



Table D. — Organic pigments: U.S. imports, by principal sources, 1974-78 



Source 



1974 



1975 



1976 



1977 



1978 



Quantity (1,000 pounds) 



West Germany — 

Switzerland 

Japan 

Italy 

Denmark 

Canada 

United Kingdom- 
All other 

Total 

West Germany — 

Switzerland 

Japan 

Italy 

Denmark 

Canada 

United Kingdom 

All other 

Total 



3,225 
2,891 
437 
224 
30 
395 
269 
671 



8,142 



12,553 

9,179 

1,500 

741 

93 

835 

1,056 

1,348 



27,305 



2,009 
1,243 
527 
126 
8 
796 
299 
311 



5,319 



2,407 
2,326 
819 
300 
43 
527 
204 
262 



6,888 



2,722 
2,135 
738 
524 
247 
709 
205 
365 



7,645 



Value (1,000 dollars) 



8,281 
6,303 
1,422 

404 
34 

981 
1,789 
1,064 



20,278 



13,488 

12,618 

2,330 

800 

123 

1,343 

700 

944 



32,346 



16,246 
11,409 
2,604 
1,452 
679 
1,621 
1,041 
1,385 



36,437 



3,097 
1,742 
953 
552 
409 
571 
242 
366 



7,932 



20,645 
10,446 
3,964 
1,632 
1,312 
1,213 
1,109 
1,400 



41,721 



Source: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department 
of Commerce. 



V -- ORGANIC PIGMENTS 123 



STATISTICAL HIGHLIGHTS 
Bonnie Jean Noreen 

Organic pigments are toners and lakes derived in whole or in part from 
benzenoid chemicals and colors. 

Statistics on production and sales of all organic pigments in 1978 are 
given in table l. 1 For a few important pigments already reported in table 1, 
supplemental data on sales by commercial forms are reported in table 1A. 
Individual toners and lakes are identified in this report by the names used 
in the third edition of the Colour Index . 

Total production of organic pigments in 1978 was 76.7 million pounds — 10.0 
percent more than the 69 .7 2 million pounds produced in 1977. Total sales of organic 
pigments in 1978 amounted to 64.6 million pounds, valued at $321.9 million 
compared with 57.4 million pounds, valued at $267.7 million, in 1977. In 
terms of quantity, sales of organic pigments in 1978 were 12.5 percent greater 
than in 1977; in terms of value, sales in 1978 were 20.2 percent greater than 
in 1977. 

Production of toners in 1978 amounted to 75.3 million pounds — 10. 6 per- 
cent more than the 68. I 2 million pounds reported in 1977. Sales in 1978 were 
63.7 million pounds, valued at $318.9 million, compared with 56.0 million 
pounds, valued at $263.7 million, in 1977. Sales in 1978 were 13.7 percent 
greater than those of 1977 in terms of quantity, and 20.9 percent greater in 
terms of value. The individual toners listed in the report which were 
produced in the largest quantities in 1978 were Pigment Yellow 12, 11.9 
million pounds; Pigment Blue 15:3, beta form, 7.3 million pounds; Pigment 
Tied 49:1, barium toner, 5.6 million pounds; Pigment Red 53:1, barium toner, 3.9 
million pounds; Pigment Red 57:1, calcium toner, 3.4 million pounds; and 
Pigment Blue 15, alpha form, 3.3 million pounds. 

Production of lakes totaled 1.4 million pounds in 1978 — 13.0 percent 
less than the 1.6 million pounds reported for 1977. Sales of lakes in 1978 
amounted to 0.9 million pounds, valued at $3.0 million. In terms of quantity, 
sales of lakes in 1978 were 33.9 percent less than in 1977; in terms of value, 
sales in 1978 were 25.7 percent greater than in 1977. 

For each of 10 selected pigments, or groups of pigments, table 1A gives 
data on sales by commercial forms. Pigment Yellow 14, all other diarylide 
yellows (with the exceptions of Pigments Yellow 12 & 14), Pigment Red 3, Pigment 
Red 48:2, calcium, Pigment Blue 15, alpha form and Pigment Green 7 were sold 
principally in the dry full-strength form. The remaining 4 pigments for which 
statistics are published were sold principally in the flushed form. 



See also table 2 which lists these products and identifies the manu- 
facturers by codes. These codes are listed in table 3. 
Revised figures for 1977. 



V -- ORGANIC PIGMENTS 
TABLE 1.— Organic pigments: U.S. production and sales, 1978 



133 



[Listed below are all organic pigments for which any reported data on production or sales may be published. 
(Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be published.) Table 
2 lists all organic pigments for which data on production and/or sales were reported and identifies the 
manufacturers of each] 



ORGANIC PIGMENTS 



SALES 



Grand total 

TONERS 
Total 

Yellow toners, total 

Acetoacetarylide yellows: 

Pigment Yellow 1, C.I. 11 680 

Pigment Yellow 3, C.I. 11 710 

Pigment Yellow 65, C.I. 11 740 

Pigment Yellow 73, C.I. 11 738 

Pigment Yellow 74, C.I. 11 741 

Diarylide yellows, total 

Pigment Yellow 12, C.I. 21 090 

Pigment Yellow 13, C.I. 21 100 

Pigment Yellow 14, C.I. 21 095 

Pigment Yellow 17, C.I. 21 105 

All other diarylide yellows 

All other 

Orange toners, total 

Pigment Orange 5, C.I. 12 075 

Pigment Orange 13, C.I. 21 110 

Pigment Orange 16, C.I. 21 160 

Pigment Orange 34, C.I. 21 115 

All other 

Red toners, total 

Naphthol reds, total 

Pigment Red 2, C.I. 12 310 

Pigment Red 5, C.I. 12 490 

Pigment Red 9, C.I. 12 460 

Pigment Red 17, C.I. 12 390 

Pigment Red 22, C.I. 12 315 

Pigment Red 23, C.I. 12 355 

All other naphthol reds 

Pigment Red 1, light, C.I. 12 070 

Pigment Red 3, C.I. 12 120 

Pigment Red 4, C.I. 12 085 

Pigment Red 6, C.I. 12 090 

Pigment Red 48:1, barium toner, C.I. 15 865 

Pigment Red 48:2, calcium toner, C.I. 15 865 — 
Pigment Red 48:4, manganese toner, C.I. 15 865- 

Pigment Red 49:1, barium toner, C.I. 15 630 

Pigment Red 49:2, calcium toner, C.I. 15 630— 
Pigment Red 52:1, calcium toner, C.I. 15 860 — 
Pigment Red 52:2, manganese toner, C.I. 15 860- 

Pigment Red 53:1, barium toner, C.I. 15 585 

Pigment Red 57:1, calcium toner, C.I. 15 850— 

Pigment Red 63, C.I. 15 880 

Pigment Red 81, PMA, C.I. 45 160 

Pigment Red 81, PTA, C.I. 45 160 

All other 



1,000 
pounds 

dry 
basis 1 

"76,716 



'75,348 



439 

146 

540 
1,294 

11,860 

511 

3,130 

1,370 

3,351 



680 
237 
465 
83 
237 



1,211 
51 
57 

91 

78 

440 

494 

35 

1,069 

109 

23 

549 

1,707 

238 

5,612 

1,316 

1,358 

399 

3,856 

3*390 

57 

527 

35 

4,367 



1,000 
pounds 

dry 
basis 3 



63,714 



15,582 



381 

150 

49 

435 

1,257 
12,195 

7,537 
386 

2,475 
816 
981 

1,115 

1,643 



586 
238 
468 
68 
283 

23,162 



963 
53 
47 
18 
46 
84 

294 

421 

48 

1,178 

137 
20 

519 
1,619 

167 
5,051 

1,379 

541 

3,178 

2,684 

54 

518 

38 

5,068 



1,000 
dollars 



321,882 



65,993 



1,543 

623 

272 

1,672 

7,130 

44,886 

24,720 

1,528 

8,571 

3,419 

6,648 

9,867 

8,813 



2,161 
1,296 
2,128 
364 
2,864 

112,747 



6,900 

334 

362 

161 

316 

621 

2,164 

2,942 

177 

4,758 

500 

88 

2,370 

7,361 

808 

13,806 

6,561 

1,982 

10,952 

12,734 

248 

5,122 

536 

37,844 



See footnotes at end of table. 



132 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



TABLE 1.— Organic pigments: U.S. production and sales, 1978— Continued 



ORGANIC PIGMENTS 



UNIT 
VALUE 2 



TONERS — Cont inued 

Violet toners, total 

Pigment Violet 1, PMA, C.I. 45 170 

Pigment Violet 1, PTA, C.I. 45 170 

Pigment Violet 3, fugitive, C.I. 42 535 

Pigment Violet 3, PMA, C.I. 42 535 

Pigment Violet 3, PTA, C.I. 42 535 

Pigment Violet 19, C.I. 46 500 

Pigment Violet 23, C.I. 51 319 

All other 

Blue toners, total 

Pigment Blue 1, PMA, C.I. 42 595 

Pigment Blue 15, alpha form, C.I. 74 160 

Pigment Blue 15:3, beta form, C.I. 74 160 

Pigment Blue 15:1 & 2, alpha forms, C.I. 74 160 

and Pigment Blue 15:4, beta form, C.I. 74 160- 

All other 

Green toners, total 

Pigment Green 1, PMA, C.I. 42 040:1 

Pigment Green 2, PMA, C.I. 42 040 and 49 005 

Pigment Green 2, PTA, C.I. 42 040 and 49 005 

Pigment Green 7, C.I. 74 260 

Pigment Green 36, C.I. 74 265 

All other 

Brown toners 

Black toners 

LAKES 

Total 

Yellow lake 

Red lakes : 

Pigment Red 60:1, C.I. 16 105 

Pigment Red 83, C.I. 58 000 

Violet lake: Pigment Violet 5:1, C.I. 58 055 

Blue lakes 

All other lakes 



1,000 

pounds 

dry 



'2,465 



82 

44 

150 

470 

57 

1,212 

425 

"25 

18,844 



3,317 
7,259 



573 
7,621 



3,451 



3,004 
227 
175 

175 
212 



1,368 



300 

38 

101 

361 

480 



1,000 

pounds 

dry 



2,203 



1,000 
dollars 



30,119 



50 
185 
451 

49 

1,042 

307 

33 

17,679 



69 
2,951 
6,605 



8,054 
3,117 



897 
603 
803 

2,907 

426 

17,302 

6,610 
571 

77,964 



9 

15 

26 

2,711 

189 

167 

108 
220 



710 
18,045 
31,870 



27,339 



21,996 



79 

182 

362 

18,271 

1,642 

1,460 

534 
686 



3,030 



486 



1,263 
281 

491 

995 



Per 

pound 



$13.67 



10.42 

12.15 

4.33 

6.45 

8.67 

16.60 

21.52 

17.30 

4.41 



10.28 
6.11 
4.82 



7.06 



9.08 
11.99 
14.01 
6.74 
8.69 
8.74 

4.93 



4.13 
6.75 
5.39 

2.05 



The value of sales from toners are reported on a dry full-strength basis and the value of sales for lakes 
are reported on a dry form basis. All sales value data exclude the additional costs of processing or packaging 
in commercial forms other than the dry full-strength or dry form. 

Calculated from unrounded figures, except "All other." 

'Quantities for toners are reported as dry-full strength toner content, excluding the weight of any dispers- 
ing agent, vehicle, or extender. Quantities for lakes are reported as dry lake content, excluding the weight 
of any dispersing agent or vehicle. 

Incorrectly reported in 1977 report — should have been 1 million pounds greater than reported. 

Note. — The C.I. {Colour Index) numbers shown in this report are the identifying numbers given in the third 
edition of the Colour Index. 

The abbreviations PMA and PTA stand for phosphomolybdic and phosphotungstic (including phosphotungstomolybdic) 
acids, respectively. 



V -- ORGANIC PIGMENTS 



133 



TABLE 1A. — U.S. sales of selected dry full-strength toners, dry extended toners, dry 

DISPERSIONS, AQUEOUS DISPERSIONS, AND FLUSHED COLORS, 1978 

[Listed below are supplemental sales data, by commercial forms, of selected pigments that have been reported in 
table 1] 



SELECTED PIGMENTS BY COMMERCIAL FORMS 



SALES ' 



UNIT 
VALUE 2 



Pigment Yellow 12, C.I. 21 090, total 

Dry full-strength toner 

Flushed color 

Dry dispersions and aqueous dispersions ' 

Pigment Yellow 14, C.I. 21 095, total 

Dry full-strength toner 

Aqueous dispersions 

Flushed color 

Dry extended toner and dry dispersions 

Pigment Yellow 13, C.I. 21 100; Pigment Yellow 17, C.I. 21 105; 

and other diary lide yellows, total 

Dry full-strength toner 

Aqueous dispersions'* 

Dry dispersions and flushed color 

Pigment Red 3, C.I. 12 120, total 

Dry full-strength toner 

Aqueous dispersions 

Dry extended toner and flushed color 

Pigment Red 48:2, calcium toner, C.I. 15 865:2, total 

Dry full-strength toner 

Dry extended toner and dry dispersions 

Aqueous dispersions and flushed color 

Pigment Red 53:1, barium toner, C.I. 15 585, total 

Flushed color 

Dry full-strength toner, dry dispersions, and aqueous disper- 
sions 4 ' 5 

Pigment Red 57:1, calcium toner, C.I. 15 850, total 

Flushed color 

Dry full-strength toner, dry extended toner, and aqueous dis- 
persions ' 

Pigment Blue 15, alpha form, C.I. 74 160, total 

Dry full-strength toner 

Aqueous dispersions'* 

Dry extended toner, dry dispersions, and flushed color 

Pigment Blue 15:3, beta form, C.I. 74 160, total 

Dry full-strength toner 

Aqueous dispersions'* 

Flushed color 

Dry extended toner and dry dispersions 5 

Pigment Green 7, C.I. 74 260, total 

Dry full-strength toner 

Aqueous dispersions'* 

Flushed color 

Dry extended toner and dry dispersions 

'Sales quantities and values are identical in table 1 and 1A. 



1,000 

pounds 

dry 

basis 3 

7,537 



3,518 

3,838 

181 

2,475 



1,468 

883 

109 

15 



2,183 



1,459 
454 
270 

1,178 



730 

65 

383 

1,619 



,443 

52 

124 



2,070 
1,108 
2,684 



2,160 



2,951 



,196 

797 
958 

6,605 



2,194 

1,159 

3,213 

39 

2,711 



1,543 
669 

294 
205 



1,000 
dollars 



10,893 

13,316 

511 

8,571 



5,166 
2,931 

417 
57 



11,595 



8,248 
2,148 
1,199 

4,758 



2,918 

307 

1,533 

7,361 



6,447 
266 
648 

10,952 



7,270 

3,682 

12,734 



10,529 
2,205 



18,045 



7,672 
3,846 
6,527 

31,870 



11,579 

4,907 

15,139 

245 

18,271 



10,721 
4,032 
1,994 
1,524 



134 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 

Footnotes --Continued 

Calculated from unrounded figures. 

3 Quantity of the various commercial forms is given in terms of dry full-strength toner content. 
Includes presscake. 
5 Separate data on these commerical forms may not be published without revealing the operation of individual 
companies. 

Note. — The C.I. {Colour Index) numbers shown in this report are the identifying numbers given in the third 
edition of the Colour Index. 

The abbreviations PMA and PTA stand for phosphomolybdic and phosphotungstic (including phosphotungstomolybdic) 
acids respectively. 



ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



135 



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V -- ORGANIC PIGMENTS 



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Ml 



TABLE 3.— Organic pigments: Directory of manufacturers, 1978 

ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 

[Names of manufacturers that reported production and/or sales of organic pigments to the U.S. International Trade 
Commission for 1978 are listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Code 


Name of company : 


: Code 


Name of company 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 




: KCW 


Keystone Color Works, Inc. 


AMS 


Ridgway Color & Chemicals 




: KON 


H. Kohnstamm & Co . , Inc. 


APO 


Apollo Colors, Inc. 




: LVR 


C. Lever Co. , Inc. 


BAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. 








BNS 


Binney and Smith, Inc. 








BOR 


Borden, Inc., Printing Ink Div 


, : 


: MGR 


Magruder Color Co., Inc. 




Pigments Div. 




: MRX 


Max Marx Color & Chemical Co. 


BUC 


Synalloy Corp. , Blackman-Uhler 
Chemical Div. 




: POP 


Pope Chemical Corp. 


CIK 


Flint Ink Corp., Cal/Ink Div. 




: ROM 


United Merchants & Manufacturers, Inc., 
Roma Chemical Div. 


DUP 


E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., 


Inc. : 


: S 


Sandoz, Inc., Colors & Chemicals Div. 


GAF 


GAF Corp. 




: SDC 


Martin-Marietta Corp., Sodyeco Div. 


CGY 


Ciba-Geigy Corp. 




: SDH 


Sterling Drug, Inc., Hilton Davis Chemical 


GLX 


Galaxie Chemical Corp. 




: SNA 

: SW 


Co. Div. 
Sun Chemical Corp., Pigments Div. 
Sherwin-Williams Co. 


HPC 


Hercules, Inc. 








HRC 


Harmon Colors Corp. 








HSC 


Chemetron Corp., Pigments Div. 


Sub. of : 


: TMS 


Sterling Drug, Inc., Thomasset Colors 




Allegheny Ludlum Industries, 


Inc. : 




Div. 


HSH 


Harshaw Chemical Co. 








HST 


American Hoechst Corp., Industrial : 








Chemicals Div. 




: UHL 

: fSM 


Paul Uhlich & Co., Inc. 
USM Corp., Bostik Div. 


ICC 


Inmont Corp. 








IDC 


Industrial Color, Inc. 




: VPC 


Mobay Chemical Corp. , Verona Dyestuf f Div. 


IND 


Indol Chemical Co., Inc. 









Note. — Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the appendix. 



SECTION VI -- MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 143 

IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS IN MEDICINAL CHEMICALS IN 1978, 
AND A CASE STUDY OF THE PENICILLINS 

Tedford C. Briggs 



The principal developments involving medicinal chemicals in 1978 were 
mostly the result of U.S. Government actions. For example, the Drug Re- 
gulatory Reform Act was debated during 1978 but was not enacted. The Food 
and Drug Administration (FDA) delayed plans to place restrictions on the use 
of penicillins and tetracyclines in animal feeds. The FDA proposed labeling 
changes and other regulatory changes to warn of hazards associated with the 
use of certain drugs. 

Several new drugs were introduced in 1978; their therapeutic prop- 
erties are summarized below. The penicillins are examined below in detail 
because they were the next major class of anti-infective agents developed 
after the anti-infective sulfonamides, which were discussed in the 1977 SOC 
report. 



Government Actions 

After lengthy subcommittee hearings in both the House and Senate the 
proposed Drug Regulatory Reform Act of 1978 failed to be enacted in the 95th 
Congress. The same legislation has, however, been reintroduced in the 
96th Congress. 

The basic thrust of the proposed legislation is to accelerate the intro- 
duction into the market of valuable new drugs, while at the same time insuring 
that excessively toxic or dangerous drugs will be removed from the market. The 
drug industry reportedly supports features of the legislation that would 
speed up the introduction of new drugs, but opposes provisions that would make 
public the safety and efficacy data that companies in the industry feel could 
disclose trade secrets to their competitors. On the other hand, industry 
critics want access to the data so that they can ferret out any industry decep- 
tions in the drug approval process. This difference of opinion about safety and 
efficacy data disclosure is, therefore, the central issue in the continuing debate 
on the merits of the drug reform legislation. 

On July 14, 1978, the House Agriculture Committee unanimously approved 
a resolution urging the FDA to await completion of scientific studies before 
making a final decision on proposed regulations that would curtail the use 
of penicillins and tetracyclines as animal feed additives. The FDA regulations 
were proposed because of the fear that bacterial drug resistance developed in 
animals receiving treated feeds could be transferred to other animals or humans, 
thus reducing the effectiveness of the drugs involved in treating human disease. 
The resolution called on the FDA to delay action until completion of studies 
being conducted by the National Academy of Sciences, the Congressional Office of 
Technology Assessment, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. It stated that 



144 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



antibiotics have been used at low levels in feeds for about 30 years with- 
out proof that human health has been adversely affected. At the same 
time, the resolution stated, the treated feeds have promoted faster and 
healthier growth of mass-fed animals and have reduced the cost of producing 
food. 

Subsequently, the FDA postponed implementation of the proposed regulations, 
reportedly because of procedural questions that were raised during public hearings 
and because of concern about whether there was a sufficient number of veterinarians 
to have handled the workload that would have been imposed by the regulations. 
There was no indication that it had changed its views about the possible long- 
term adverse effects of antibiotics in animal feeds. 

In other actions the FDA, along with the National Bureau of Standards 
and the Joint Commission on Prescription Drug Use, took the first steps to 
develop an improved system for monitoring unexpected side effects from 
newly approved drugs. The FDA says that if useful new drugs are to be 
approved quickly, a postmarketing drug-monitoring system is needed for removing 
drugs from the market if they are found to be dangerous. 

The FDA implemented requirements in labeling of birth control pills 
to warn that, in women using birth control pills, cigarette smoking 
greatly increases the risk of heart attacks, strokes, and other cardio- 
vascular disorders. Five independent studies agree on the hazardous 
association between the use of birth control pills and smoking. 

The FDA took a number of steps toward banning certain hormone-based animal 
health products that have been used to stimulate growth in livestock and poultry. 
Products that would be affected by the proposed ban include those containing 
estradiol, progesterone, or testosterone. 

An advisory panel to the FDA recommended restrictions on the labeling of 
vitamin and mineral products sold as over-the-counter drugs. The panel 
recommended that labeling should be restricted to promotion of the products 
only for the treatment of physician-identified deficiencies. Also, the panel 
recommended restrictions on the use of the term "natural" in the labeling as 
there is no evidence that so-called natural forms of vitamins and minerals are 
better than synthetic ones. 

New Drugs in 1978 

Each year many new drugs are developed and tested by chemical and 
pharmaceutical manufacturers. Some of these drugs eventually gain FDA 
approval and reach the marketing stage. The following list of new drugs, 



VI -- MEDICINAL CHEMICALS ms 



although not a comprehensive list, covers new treatments for a wide range of 
diseases. 

Tamoxifen — was approved for sale and distribution in the United States 
as an antiestrogen drug for palliative treatment of advanced breast cancer 
in women. The drug is said to have fewer serious side effects than other 
anticancer drugs. 

Urokinase — was approved for treatment of massive pulmonary embolism; 
i.e., it works by dissolving blood clots that cause pulmonary embolism. 
Urokinase is an enzyme produced by the kidneys and normally found in minute 
quantities in urine. The drug can be obtained by extraction from urine or 
produced from human kidney cells grown in tissue culture. 

Metoprolol tartrate — was approved for treatment of high blood pressure. 
The exact way in which the drug acts in controlling high blood pressure is 
unknown. 

Trimolol maleate — was approved for use in lowering the high internal 
eye pressure of glaucoma. Trimolol maleate is the first of the beta- 
adrenergic blocking agents to be approved for treatment of glaucoma. 

Vidarabine — was approved for the treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis, 
This disease is a life-threatening inflammation of the brain caused by a 
herpes virus. Test data indicate that treatment with vidarabine can 
significantly reduce the fatalities and neurological damage caused by this 
disease. 

Cefoxitin , sodium — was approved for use against a wide range of serious 
infections, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics. 

Natamycin — was approved for treatment of a fungal infection of the eye 
that can cause blindness. Because of the small number of people affected, 
natamycin has little commercial potential, but it is expected to be vitally 
important to those individuals who suffer from fungal keratitis. 

Butorphanol tartrate — was approved for the relief of moderate-to-severe 
pain. Unlike many other potent prescription pain relievers, butorphanol 
tartrate is not classified as a narcotic. Advantages claimed for this 
analgesic are low addictive potential and limited respiratory depressant 
effects. 



Penicillins 

The penicillins are a highly important group of anti-infective agents 
which were developed a few years after another class of anti-infective 
agents known as sulfonamides. 



1*115 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



Discovery and development 

Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming, professor of bacteriology, 
at Saint Mary's Hospital, London. In 1929, a spore of the mold Penicillium 
notatum lodged in a culture dish which harbored pathogenic staphylococcus 
bacteria. It soon became apparent to Professor Fleming that the penicillin 
mold was inhibiting growth of the staphylococci, and he was quick to grasp 
the significance of this discovery. However, it was not until 1939 that a 
group at Oxford University under the leadership of H. W. Florey prepared a 
sufficient quantity of material for clinical tests, which were encouraging 
enough to warrant further work. England was under siege at that time, and 
Professor Florey moved to the United States to continue development work 
on penicillin at the Northern Regional Research Laboratory (NRRL) , Bureau 
of Agricultural and Industrial Chemistry, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 
That laboratory was selected because of the extensive experience of the 
NRRL staff in mold fermentations. 

When sufficient quantities of penicillin were prepared, a clinical 
testing program was organized and, by 1943, the combined efforts of the many 
people involved in the penicillin program had established the medicinal 
value of penicillin. 

Once the therapeutic value of penicillin had been established and 
laboratory production methods developed, large-scale production became 
the next formidable problem. The problem was referred to the War Produc- 
tion Board, which made decisions as to the required number of plants, plant 
capacity, allocation of supplies, and so forth. By 1944, 21 plants were 
producing penicillin in the United States at a rate of approximately 200 
billion units of penicillin per month. 

The technical knowledge and skills accumulated during the early years 
of penicillin development led directly to the discovery and production of 
many valuable antibiotics other than the penicillins. 

There are six naturally occurring penicillins, but of these only 
penicillin G has found wide application as an anti- infective agent. 
A. J. Moyer and R. D. Coghill discovered in 1947 that the addition of 
phenylacetic acid to the fermentation media increased the yield of 
penicillin G. This discovery prompted research into the addition of other 
chemicals to the penicillin fermentation media, which resulted in a "second 
generation" of biosynthetic penicillins. About 40 or 50 compounds of this 
type were developed, but only a few had any advantage over penicillin G. 

The most important of the biosynthetic derivatives is penicillin V, 
which is obtained by adding phenoxyacetic acid or phenoxyethanol to the 
fermentation media. This penicillin is relatively acid stable, and hence 
can be administered in oral doses without destruction of the penicillin 
by the acid content of the stomach. 



VI -- MEDICINAL CHEMICALS Vi7 



The "third generation" penicillins are chemical derivatives or 
modifications of 6-aminopenicillanic acid. Literally thousands of 
semisynthetic penicillins have been made, and many of them possess desirable 
properties such as stability toward acids and resistance to the enzyme 
produced by some bacteria that destroys most penicillins. The semi- 
synthetic penicillins are used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. 

Manufacture of penicillins 

There are many technical problems associated with the commercial produc- 
tion of penicillin, and it was a major advancement in fermentation technology 
when substantial quantities of penicillin were first made. Since many organisms 
produce an enzyme which destroys penicillins, penicillin fermentation 
must be conducted under aseptic conditions. Maintaining aseptic 
conditions during industrial-scale fermentation processes is, at best, 
difficult. Since the penicillin-producing organisms are aerobic, submerged- 
culture techniques were developed to supply oxygen to the mold. Batch proc- 
esses are used, in most instances, in which the fermentor is filled with 
culture medium, sterilized, cooled, then inoculated with penicillin culture. 
Fermentation is then allowed to proceed until the penicillin concentration 
reaches a maximim, at which time the batch is harvested and the procedure 
repeated . 

Considerable work has been done to develop strains of the penicillin 
microorganisms that produce the maximum amount of penicillin during the 
fermentation process. Strain development has been enhanced by the use of 
radiation, neutron bombardment, heat, and chemical agents. Once a high- 
producing strain has been developed it can be maintained and propagated for 
months or even years. Inoculum from the strain is then used in successive 
fermentation batches to produce penicillin. 

Statistical measurement problems associated 
with the penicillins 

Early in the development of the penicillin industry, problems arose in 
determining the amount of penicillin in the fermentation mixtures and in the 
final products and, as a result, an arbitrary standard unit of measurement 
based on a quantity of penicillin G was adopted. The testing methods have 
changed over the years so that test results are now more reproducible. How- 
ever, the antibiotic activity of penicillin is still measured in arbitrary 
units and varies according to the type of penicillin measured. 

Data on production, imports, and exports of the penicillins have been 
reported in various units, i.e., international units, grams, and pounds; 
data are also reported without a unit of quantity. Thus, when statistics 
are given for various groups of penicillins (as is usually the case) , the 
data cannot be translated to another measurement of quantity or used to 



W3 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMCIALS, 1978 



track the growth of consumption or trade over a period of years. For these 
reasons, a historical presentation of penicillin trade data is not included 
here. 



U.S. International Trade in Bulk Medicinals, 1973-78 

U.S. production of bulk medicinals increased 15 percent during 1973- 
78. Sales quantity increased only 3.4 percent, but sales value increased 
62 percent, to $944 million. Domestic employment increased 72 percent, 
from 8,200 to 14,200 (see the following table). 

The value of U.S. exports increased 86 percent, from $311 million in 
1973 to $580 million in 1978. The value of U.S. imports increased threefold, 
from $43 million in 1973 to $172 million in 1978. 

The Producer Price Index increased 37 percent. 



VI 



MEDICI'IAL CHEMICALS 



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150 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



STATISTICAL HIGHLIGHTS 
Tedford C. Briggs 

Medicinal chemicals include the medicinal and feed grades of all organic 
chemicals having therapeutic value, whether obtained by chemical synthesis, 
by fermentation, by extraction from naturally occurring plant or animal sub- 
stances, or by refining a technical grade product. They include antibiotics 
and other anti- infective agents, antihistamines, autonomic drugs, cardio- 
vascular agents, central nervous system depressants and stimulants, hormones 
and synthetic substitutes, vitamins, and other therapeutic agents for human 
or veterinary use and for animal feed supplements. 

The table shows statistics for production and sales of medicinal chemicals 
grouped by pharmacological class. The statistics shown are for bulk chemicals 
only. Finished pharmaceutical preparations and products put up in pills, capsules, 
tablets, or other measured doses are excluded. 1 The difference between produc- 
tion and sales reflects inventory changes, processing losses, and captive con- 
sumption of medicinal chemicals processed into ethical and proprietary 
pharmaceutical products by the primary manufacturer. In some instances, the 
difference may also include quantities of medicinal grade products used as 
intermediates, for example, penicillin G salts used as intermediates in the 
manufacture of semi-synthetic penicillins. All quantities are given in terms 
of 100-percent content of the pure bulk drug. 

Total U.S. production of bulk medicinal chemicals in 1978 amounted to 269.1 
million pounds, or 11.8 percent more than the 240.7 million pounds produced in 
1977. and 14.1 percent more than the 235.8 million pounds produced in 1976. Total 
sales of bulk medicinal chemicals in 1978 amounted to 185.1 million pounds, 
valued at $944.1 million, compared with sales in 1977 of 162.4 million pounds, 
valued at $794.0 million, and sales in 1976 of 160.8 million pounds, valued at 
$741.5 million. In terms of quantity, sales in 1978 were 14.0 percent more than 
in 1977 and 15. 1 percent more than in 1976. In terms of value, sales in 1978 
were 18.9 percent more than in 1977 and 27.3 percent more than in 1976. 

Production of the more important groups of medicinal chemicals in 1978 was 
as follows: Antibiotics, 25.7 million pounds (11.2 percent more than in 1977), 
of which 13.4 million pounds was for medicinal use and 12.3 million pounds was 

Complementary statistics on the dollar value of manufacturers' shipments 
of finished pharmaceutical preparations , ^except biologicals, are published 
annually by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, in Current 
Industrial Reports, Series MA-28G. Many pharmaceutical manufacturers who re- 
port to the Bureau of the Census are excluded from the U.S. International 
Trade Commission report because they are not primary producers of medicinal 
chemicals, that is, they do not themselves produce the bulk drugs which go in- 
to their pharmaceutical products but purchase their drug requirements from 
domestic or foreign producers. 



VI -- MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 151 



for other uses; anti-infective agents other than antibiotics, 28.6 million 
pounds (2.3 percent more than in 1977); central nervous system depressants 
and stimulants, 49.3 million pounds (6.1 percent less); and vitamins, 37.8 
million pounds (1.8 percent more). 

Production of some of the more important individual products listed in 
the table was as follows: Methionine and its salts, choline chloride, 50.7 
million pounds (5.3 percent larger than in 1977); aspirin, 32.2 million pounds 
(2.6 percent more); Penicillins (except semi-synthetic), 7.7 million pounds 
(3.5 percent more); tetracyclines, 5.9 million pounds (5.3 percent more); and 
vitamin E, 5.8 million pounds (10.4 percent more). 



VI - MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 



153 



TABLE l.~ Medicinal chemicals: U.S. production and sales, 1978 

[Listed below are all synthetic organic medicinal chemicals for which any reported data on production or sales 
may be published. (Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be 
published or where no data were reported.) Table 2 lists all medicinal chemicals for which data on production 
and/or sales were reported and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 



PRODUCTION' 



SALES' 



UNIT 
VALUE 2 



Grand total 

Acyclic 

Benzenoid 

Cyclic nonbenzenoid 1 * 

Antibiotics, total 5 

Penicillins, semisynthetic, total 

Amoxicillin 

Ampicillin 

All other (semisynthetic) 6 

Penicillins (except semisynthetic) , total 

Penicillin G, potassium, for medicinal use 

All other, for all uses 7 

Tetracyclines, for all uses 

Other antibiotics, total 

For medicinal use 8 

For nonmedicinal uses 

Antihistamines , total 

Antinauseants 

Chlorpheniramine maleate 

All other 9 

Anti- infective agents (except antibiotics) , total- 

Anthelmintics , total 

Piper azine dihydrochloride 

All other 

Antiprotozoan agents, total 

Arsenic and bismuth compounds 

All other 1 D 

Sulfonamides 

Urinary antiseptics-— 

Other anti-infective agents 

Autonomic drugs, total 

Sympathomimetic (adrenergic) agents, total 

Phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride 

All other 

Other autonomic drugs 

Central depressants and stimulants, total 

Analgesics, antipyretics, and nonhormonal anti- 
inflammatory agents, total 

Acetaminophen 

Aspirin 

All other" 

Anticonvulsants, hypnotics, and sedatives 

Antidepressants 

Antitussives 

Skeletal muscle relaxants 

Tranquilizers 

Other central depressants and stimulants 12 

Derma tological agents 



1,000 
pounds 



111,855 
111,878 
45,332 

25,705 



1,708 

332 

915 

461 

7,723 

2,073 

3,029 

2,621 

5,912 

10,362 

4,777 

5,585 

486 



28,619 



9,770 
1,225 
8,545 
10,568 
4,650 
5,918 
4,585 
281 
3,415 

1,015 



917 

451 

466 

98 

49,260 



43,024 

6,748 

32,247 

4,029 

1,326 

139 

197 

141 

459 

3,974 

3,335 



1,000 
pounds 

185,112 



97,915 
61,803 
25,394 



523 
1,907 



1,907 
3,411 
3,329 
1,315 
2,014 

244 



9,572 



3,402 
1,364 
2,038 
2,961 

2,961 
511 
181 

2,517 

852 



814 

457 
157 



39,324 



34,543 



34,543 
509 



197 
171 



3,904 
3,814 



1,000 
dollars 



944,114 



93,915 
473,191 
377,008 

303,593 



39,378 
23,287 



23,287 

68,941 

171,987 

149,233 

22,754 

7,931 



45,718 



4,994 
1,864 
3,130 
24,404 

24,404 

3,588 

864 

11,868 

16,463 



12,653 
3,684 
8,969 
3,810 

135,966 



70,146 
5,007 



41,035 
1,269 



18,509 
3,683 



Per 
pound 



75.29 
12.21 



12.21 
20.21 
51.66 
113 .49 
11.30 

32.50 



4.78 



1.47 
1.37 
1.54 
8.24 

8.24 
7.02 



19.32 



15.54 

8.06 

25.12 

100.26 

3.46 



2.03 
9.84 



208.30 
7.42 



4.74 
.97 



See footnotes at end of table 



.?54 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



TABLE 1.— Medicinal chemicals: U.S. production and sales, 1978— Continued 



MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 



PRODUCTION' 



UNIT 
VALUE 2 



Expectorants and mucolytic agents, total 

Ethylenediaraine dihydr iodide 

All other 

Gastrointestinal agents, total 

Choline chloride, all grades 

Methionine and its salts 

All other 

Hormones and synthetic substitutes, total 

Estrogens 

Synthetic hypoglycemic agents 

All other 1 3 

Local anesthetics, total 

Lidocaine 

All other 

Renal-acting and edema-reducing agents, total- 

Theophylline derivatives 

All other 1 * 

Vitamins, total 

Vitamin D 

Vitamin E 

All other vitamins 15 

Miscellaneous medicinal chemicals, total 

Sodium heparin 

All other 1 6 



1,000 
pounds 



1,834 



1,137 

697 



1,000 
pounds 



1,722 



1,000 
dollars 



,099 
623 



3,752 
3,336 



50,706 

55,006 

972 



43,293 

49,662 

1,491 



18,678 

60,315 

2,857 



980 
172 



167 

45 



1,443 



1,443 
7,654 



193 
1,314 



37,800 



269 
23,749 



7,654 
188,005 



5,839 
31,929 



3,461 
20,276 



3,362 
56,738 
127,905 



11,501 



1,735 



2,181 
38,431 



Per 
pound 



3.41 
5.35 



.43 
1.21 
1.92 

619.69 



1,648.00 
613.53 
32.07 



32.07 



280.17 
16.39 
6.31 



1,090.50 
22.15 



al chemicals only. 



^he data on production and sales are for bulk mi 
"Calculated from rounded figures. 
Benzenoid, as used in this report, describes any cyclic medicinal chemical whose molecule contains either a 
six-membered carbocyclic ring with conjugated double bonds or a six-membered heterocyclic ring with 1 or 2 he- 
tero atoms and conjugated double bonds, except the pyrimidine ring. 
''Includes antibiotics' of unknown structure. 

Production of all antibiotics for medicinal use amounted to 13,390,000 pounds, and sales amounted to 
3,763,000 pounds, valued at $206,915,000. Production of all antibiotics for animal feed and other nonmedicinal 
uses amounted to 12,315,000 pounds, and sales amounted to 5,407,000 pounds, valued at $96,678,000. 
6 Includes sales quantity and value of amoxicillin and ampicillin. 
Includes sales quantity and value of penicillin V. 

Includes production and sales of antifungal, antituberculer, cephalosporin, and antibiotics. 
Includes sales quantity and value of antinauseants and chlorpheniramine maleate. 



Includes sales quantity and 
1 includes sales quantity and valu 
12 Includes sales quantity and valu 
of amphetamines, general anesthetics 
1 3 Includes sales quantity and valu 
^Includes sales quantity and value of theophylline derivatives. 

Includes production and sales of vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, and vitamin K. 

Includes production and sales of antineoplastic agents, cardiovascular agents, diagnostic agents, hemato- 
logical agents (except sodium heparin), therapeutic nutrients, smooth muscle relaxants, and unclassified medicinal 
chemicals. 



ot arsenic and bismuth compounds. 

of acetaminophen and aspirin. 

of antidepressants and tranquilizers. ' Also includes production and sales 

and respiratory and cerebral stimulants. 

of synthetic hypoglycemic agents. 



VI -- MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 



155 



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VI -- MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 



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176 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 

TABLE 3. --Medicinal chemicals: Directory of manufacturers, 1978 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 

[Names of manufacturers that reported production and/or sales of medicinal chemicals to the U.S. International Trade 
Commission for 1978 are listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Code 


Name of company • 


: Code 


Name of company 


ABB 


Abbott Laboratories I 


: MAL 


Mallinckrodt Chemical Works 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. : 


: MDJ 


Mead Johnson & Co. 


ADC 


Anderson Development Co. : 


: MON 


Monsanto Co. 


ARA 


Arapahoe Chemicals, Inc., Sub/Syntex : 
U.S.A., Inc. : 


: MRK 


Merck S, Co. , Inc. 


ARN 


Arenol Chemical Corp. : 


: NEP 


Nepera Chemical Co., Inc. 


ARP 


Armour Pharmaceutical Co. : 


: NOR 


Morton-Norwich Products, Inc., Norwich 


ARS 


Arsynco, Inc. : 




Eaton Pharmaceutical Div. 


ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc. : 


: NTL 


NL Industries, Inc. 


AST 


Astra Pharmaceutical Products, Inc. : 










: OMS 


E.R. Squibb S. Sons, Inc. 


BAX 


Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc. : 


: OPC 


Orbis Products Corp. 


BEE 


Beecham, Inc., Beecham Laboratories, Inc. : 


: ORG 


Organics, Inc. 


BJL 


Burdick & Jackson Laboratories, Inc. : 


: ORT 


Roehr Chemicals, Inc. 


BKC 


J.T. Baker Chemical Co. : 






BKL 


Millmaster Onyx Group, Millmaster Chemical : 


: PD 


Parke, Davis & Co., Sub. of Warner-Lambert 




Co. Div. : 




Co. 


BOC 


Biocraft Laboratories, Inc. : 


: PEN 


CPC International, Inc., Penick Corp. 


BRS 


Bristol-Myers Co. : 


: PFN 


Pfanstiehl Laboratories, Inc. 


BUR 


Burroughs-Wellcome Co. I 


: PFZ 


Pfizer, Inc. and Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, 


CGY 


Ciba-Geigy Corp. and Ciba Pharmaceutical Co. : 


: PHR 


Pharmachem Corp. 


CHT 


Chattem Corp. : 






CPR 


Certified Processing Corp. : 


: RDA 


Phone-Poulenc, Inc. 






: RIK 


Riker Laboratories, Inc., Sub. of 3M Co. 


DA 


Diamond Shamrock Corp. • 


: RIL 


Reilly Tar & Chemical Corp. 


DGC 


Degusso Corp. : 


: RLS 


Rachelle Laboratories, Inc. 


DLI 


Dawe ' s Laboratories, Inc. • 


: RSA 


R.S.A. Corp. 


DOW 


Dow Chemical Co. : 






DUP 


E.I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. : 


: SAL 


Salsbury Laboratories 






: SCH 


Schering Corp. 


EK 


Eastman Kodak Co.: : 


: SCP 


Henkel Corp. 


EKT 


Tennessee Eastman Co. Div. : 




Sterling Drug Corp. : 


EN 


Endo Laboratories, Inc. : 


: SDG 


Glenbrook Laboratories Div. 






: SDH 


Hilton Davis Chemical Co. Div. 


FLM 


Fleming Laboratories, Inc. • 


: SDW 


Winthrop Laboratories Div. 






: SFS 


Stauffer Chemical Co., Specialty Div. 


GAF 


GAF Corp. : 


: SHC 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 


GAN 


Gane's Chemical Inc. • 


: SK 


SmithKline Corp., SmithKline Chemicals 


GIV 


Givaudan Corp. : 




Div. 


GNF 


General Foods Corp., Maxwell House Div. : 


: SKG 


Sunkist Growers, Inc. - 






: SPR 


Scientific Protein Laboratories, Inc. 


HET 


Heterochemical Corp. '• 


: SRL 


G.D. Searle 4 Co., Searle Pharmaceuticals, 


HEX 


Hexagon Laboratories, Inc. '• 




Inc. 


HFT 


Syntex Agribusiness, Inc. ' 


: STA 


A.E. Staley Manufacturing Co. 


HN 


Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. : 






HOF 


Hof fmann-LaRoche, Inc. • 


: TMH 


Thompson-Hayward Chemical Co. 


HXL 


Hexcel Corp. , Hexcel Specialty Chemicals : 


: TNA 


Ethyl Corp. 


HYN 


Hynson, Westcott & Dunning, Inc. : 


: TRD 


Manufacturing Enterprises, Inc., Squibb 

Manufacturing Inc., Trade Enterprises, Inc 


ICI 


ICI Americas, Inc., Chemical Specialties : 

Co. : 

International Minerals & Chemical Corp. : 




Ersana, Inc. 


IMC 


: UPJ 


Upjohn Co. 


JCC 


Jefferson Chemical Co., Inc. : 


: VTM 


Vitamins, Inc. 


KPT 


Koppers Co. , Inc. : 


: WAG 


West Agro-Chemicals, Inc. 






: WHL 


Whitmoyer Laboratories, Inc. 


LEM 


Napp Chemicals, Inc. : 


: WIL 


Inolex Corp., Inolex Pharmaceutical Div. 


LIL 


Eli Lilly S, Co. and Puerto Rico : 


: WTL 


Pennwalt Corp. , Lucidol Div. 


LKL 


Richardson-Merrell, Inc., Merrell-National : 


: WYT 


Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., Wyeth Laboratories 




Laboratories Div. : 




Div. of American Home Products Corp. 



Note. — Complete names and addresse 



reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the appendi 



SECTION VII -- FLAVOR AIJD PERFUME MATERIALS U7 



STATISTICAL HIGHLIGHTS 
Cynthia B. Foreso 

Flavor and perfume materials are organic chemicals used to impart flavors 
and aromas to foods, beverages, cosmetics, and soaps. These aroma chemicals 
are also utilized to neutralize or mask unpleasant odors in industrial pro- 
cesses and products as well as in consumer products. 

Total domestic production of flavor and perfume materials in 1978 amounted 
to 189.4 million pounds (table 1). Sales of these materials in 1978 amounted 
to 140.2 million pounds, valued at $211.8 million, compared with 107.6 million 
pounds, valued at $207.1 million, in 1977. These totals do not include 
benzyl alcohol, which, before 1973, was included in flavor and perfume materials 
but is now shown in the miscellaneous cyclic section of this series. U.S. 
production of flavor and perfume materials in 1978 increased 26 percent from the 
level in 1977; while the quantity of sales increased by 30 percent. 

Production of cyclic flavor and perfume materials in 1978 amounted to 101.2 
million pounds; sales amounted to 83.6 million pounds, valued at $137.2 
million. Individual publishable chemicals in the cyclic group produced in 
the greatest volume in 1978 were a-terpineol, anethole, and benzyl acetate. 

U.S. output of acyclic flavor and perfume materials in 1978 amounted to 
88.3 million pounds; sales of these materials amounted to 56.7 million pounds, 
valued at $74.6 million. Monosodium glutamate was by far the most important 
of the acyclic chemicals in 1978, although the data are not publishable. 
Other important acyclic compounds included linalyl alcohol, citronellol, and 
linalyl acetate. 



SLCTIOfl VII - FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS 179 

TABLE 1. --Flavor and perfume materials: U.S. production and sales, 1978 

[Listed below are all synthetic organic flavor and perfume materials for which any reported data on production or 
sales may be published. (Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not 
be published or where no data were reported.) Table 2 lists separately all flavor and perfume materials for 
which data on production and/or sales were reported and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE ' 



Grand total 

CYCLIC 

Total 

Benzenoid and Naphthalenoid 

Total 

4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenol (Eugenol) 

4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenol acetate 

Benzophenone 2 

Benzyl acetate 

Benzyl propionate 

Cinnamaldehyde 

Cinnamyl acetate 

Isobutyl phenylacetate 

Isopentyl salicylate 

2-Methoxy-4-propenylphenol (Isoeugenol) 

p-Methylanisole 

Methyl anthranilate 

Methyl phenylacetate 

Phenethyl isobutyrate 

2-Phenethyl phenylacetate 

Phenethyl propionate 

p-Propenylanisole (Ane thole) 

All other benzenoid and naphthalenoid materials- 

Terpenoid, Heterocyclic, and Alicyclic 

Total 

8-Caryophyllene 

Cedrol 

Cedryl acetate 

Dihydronordicyclopentadienyl acetate 

Dihydroterpinyl acetate 

Guaiacwood acetate 

a-Ionone 

Ionone (a- and 6-) 

Methylionone (a- and B-) 

Nopyl acetate 

a-Terpineol 

a-Terpinyl acetate 

Vetivenyl acetate 

All other terpenoid, heterocyclic, and alicycli< 
materials 

ACYCLIC 

Total 

Allyl heptanoate 

Citral dimethyl acetal 

Citronellyl acetate 

Citronellyl formate 

See footnotes at end of table. 



1,000 
pounds 



189, 446 



101,175 



838 
139 

29 



2,279 
77,822 



131 
39 



764 

96 

,951 

,181 



i,271 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



83,565 



73,961 



414 

7 

966 

1,800 

23 

1,098 

12 

29 



2,263 
66,044 



37 

41 

565 

101 

2,416 

1,066 



56,656 



137,239 



106,619 



1,662 
43 

1,727 

1,797 
36 

1,530 
60 



58 

523 



58 

7,248 

90,521 



301 

601 

147 
183 
311 
236 

2,960 
157 

1,211 
995 



74,565 



324 

200 



Per 

pound 



1.44 



4.02 
6.51 
1.79 
1.00 
1.59 
1.39 
5.12 
2.33 
1.31 

1.86 

1.55 

4.67 
4.94 
4.73 
3.20 
1.37 



5.84 
3.84 

1.79 
4.35 
8.29 
5.74 
5.24 
1.55 
.50 



1.32 



5.00 
4.79 
3.41 
5.97 



180 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEHICALS, 1973 

TABLE L— Flavor and perfume materials: U.S. production and sales, 1978--Continued 



FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



ACYCLIC — Continued 

Citronellyl isobutyrate 

3,7-Dimethyl-cis-c,6-octadien-l-ol (Nerol) 

3, 7-Dimethyl-trans-2,6-octadiene-l-ol (Geraniol) 

3, 7-Dimethyl-cis-2,6-octadien-l-ol acetate (Neryl 

acetate) 

3, 7-Dimethyl-l,6-octadien-3-ol (Linalool; Linalyl 

alcohol) 

3,7-Dimethyl-l,6-octadlen-3-ol acetate (Linalyl acetate) 

acetate) 

3, 7-Dimethyl-6-octen-l-ol (Citronellal) 

3,7-Dimethyl-6-octen-l-ol (Citronellol) 

Ethyl heptanoate 

Ethyl hexanoate (Ethyl caproate) 

Ethyl isovalerate 

Ethyl myristate 

Ethyl propionate 

Geranyl acetate 

Geranyl butyrate 

Geranyl formate 

2-Hexanal 

7-Hydroxy-3, 7-dimethyl-l-octanal (Hydroxycitronellal) 

Isopentyl butyrate 

Isopentyl formate 

1, 3-Nonanediol acetate 

N-Octyl acetate 

All other acyclic materials 



1,000 
pounds 



1,535 

394 

2,264 



19 

207 



730 
141 



1,000 
pounds 



,307 



1,328 
1,443 



229 
123 



713 
111 



1,000 
dollars 



333 
4,997 



3,285 



308 
443 



,421 
162 



Per 
pound 



2.73 
3.16 
3.21 



1.35 
3.60 

5.64 

6.20 

1.45 
2.78 
3.74 
4.98 
1.12 



'Calculated from the unrounded figures. 
Includes significant quantities having other 



VII -- FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS 



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FLAVOR AND , 5 ERFUf\E MATERIALS 



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191 



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VII - FLAVOR A.MD PERFUME MATERIALS 



195 



TABLE 3. --Flavor and perfume materials: Directory of manufacturers, 1978 

ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 

Names of manufacturers that reported production and/or sales of flavor and perfume materials to the U.S. Inter- 
national Trade Commission for 1978 are listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Code 


Name of Company : 


: Code 


Name of Company 


ABB 


Abbott Laboratories : 


: NCI 


Union Camp Corp., Terpenes and 


AMB 


American Bio-Synthetics Corp. ; 




Aromatics Div. 


ARS 


Arsynco, Inc. : 


: NEO 


Norda Inc . 


ARZ 


Arizona Chemical Co. ; 


: NW 


Northwestern Chemical Co. 






: OPC 


Orbis Products Corp. 


BJL 


Burdick & Jackson Labs., Inc. ; 










: PD 


Parke, Davis & Co., Sub. of Warner-Lambert 
Co. 


CI 


Chem-Fleur, Inc. : 


: PEN 


CPC International, Inc., Penick Div. 


CIN 


Cindet Chemicals, Inc. : 


: PFW 


PFW, Inc. 


CWN 


Upjohn Co. , Fine Chemical Div. : 


: PFZ 


Pfizer, Inc. 


ELN 


Elan Chemical Co. : 


: RDA 


Rhone-Poulenc, Inc. 






: RSA 


R.S.A. Corp. 


FB 


Fritzsche, Dodge & Olcott, Inc. : 


: RT 


Ritter International 


FEL 


Felton International, Inc. : 






FLO 


Florasynth, Inc. : 


: SCM 


SCM Corp., Organic Chemicals Div. 


FMT 


Fairmount Chemical Co., Inc. : 


: SDH 


Sterling Drug, Inc., Hilton Davis Chemical 
Co. Div. 






: SFF 


Stauffer Chemical Co., Food Ingredients 


GIV 


Givaudan Corp. : 




Div. 


GRW 


Great Western Sugar Co. : 


: SKG 


Sunkist Growers, Inc. 






: STP 


Stepan Chemical Co. 


HN 


Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. ; 


: SW 


Sherwin-Williams Co. 


HOF 


Hof fman-LaRoche, Inc. ; 






HPC 


Hercules, Inc. : 


: UNG 


Ungerer & Co. 






: UOP 


UOP, Inc., Chemical Div. 


IFF 


International Flavors & Fragrances, Inc. : 










: VEL 


Velsicol Chemical Corp. 


MON 


Monsanto Co. : 


: VIK 


Viking Chemical Co. 



Note. — Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the appendix. The 
above codes identify those of the 42 reporting companies and company divisions for which permission to publish was 
not restricted. 



SECTION VIII -- PLASTICS Md RESIN MATERIALS 197 

STATISTICAL HIGHLIGHTS 
Edward J. Taylor 

Plastics and resin materials are high molecular weight polymers which, 
at some stage in their manufacture, exist in such physical condition that 
they can be shaped or otherwise processed by the application of heat and 
pressure. The terms "plastics," "resin," and "polymers," can be (and often 
are) used interchangeably by the trade. Depending on the chemical composi- 
tion, manufacturing process or intended use, the commercial products may 
contain plasticizers, fillers, extenders, stabilizers, coloring agents, or 
other additives. There are about 40 to 50 basic plastics and resins which 
are available commercially. These basic materials are available in literally 
thousands of individual compounds each with its distinct properties depending 
on the molecular weight of the resin and the types and amounts of the 
additives present. Plastics materials may be molded, cast, or extruded into 
semi-finished or finished solid forms. Resin materials may be in the form 
of solutions, pastes, or emulsions for applications such as protective 
coatings, adhesives, or paper and textile treatment. 

Statistics on U.S. production and sales of synthetic plastics and resin 
materials for 1978 are given in table 1. U.S. production of plastics and 
resin materials in 1978 totaled 38,878 million pounds, or 12.3 percent more 
than the 34,623 million pounds produced in 1977. Sales in 1978 totaled 
33,527 million pounds, valued at $12,349 million compared with 29,799 million 
pounds, valued at $10,882 million in 1977. 

Thermosetting materials are those which harden with a change in com- 
position in the final treatment so that in their final state as finished 
articles they are substantially infusible and insoluble, that is, they 
cannot again be softened by heat or solvents. U.S. production of thermo- 
setting materials totaled 7,906 million pounds in 1978 compared with 7,129 
million pounds in 1977. Production of the most important products in 1978 
included phenolic resins (1,926 million pounds), amino (or urea and melamine) 
resins (1,604 million pounds), polyester resins, (unsaturated) (1,133 million 
pounds) and alkyd resins (754 million pounds). 

Thermoplastic materials are those which in their final states as finished 
articles can be repeatedly softened by heat and hardened by a decrease in 
temperature. U.S. production of thermoplastic materials totaled 30,972 
million pounds in 1978 compared with 27,494 million pounds in 1977. Production 
of the most important products in 1978 included polyethylene (11,359 million 
pounds), vinyl resins (7,060 million pounds), and styrene type materials 
(5,989 million pounds). 



VIII -- PLASTICS AND RESIN MATERIALS 199 

TABLE 1. --Plastics and resin materials: U.S. production and sales, 1978 

[Quantities and values are given in terms of the total weight of the materials (dry basis). Listed below are 
all plastics and resin materials, urethane type elastomers, and certain precursors for which any reported 
data on production or sales may be published. (Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted 
in confidence and may not be published or where no data were reported.) Table 2 lists all products for 
which data on production and/or sales were reported and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



PLASTICS AND RESIN MATERIALS 



PRODUCTION 



SALES 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



Grand total 

Plastics and resin materials, benzenoid 3 

Plastics and resin materials, nonbenzenoid 

THERMOSETTING RESINS 

Total 

Alkyd resins, total 

Phthalic anhydride type 

Polybasic acid type 

Styrenated-alkyds or copolymer alkyds" 

Vinyl toluene alkyds 

Other copolymer alkyds 

Dicyandiamide resins 

Epoxy resins: 5 ' 6 

Unmodified 

Advanced 

Furfuryl type resins 

Melamine-formaldehyde resins (an amino resin) 

Phenolic and other tar acid resins 

Polyester resins, unsaturated 

Polyether and polyester polyols for urethanes 

Polyurethane elastomer and plastics products, total' 

Elastomers 9 

Plastics 

Silicone resins 

Urea-formaldehyde resins (an amino resin) 

Other thermosetting resins 10 

THERMOPLASTIC RESINS 

Total 

Acrylic resins, total 11 

Polymethyl methacrylate 

Thermosetting acrylics 

Other acrylics 

Cellulose plastics 1 : 

Engineering plastics ^ 2 

Petroleum hydrocarbon resins 

Polyamide resins, total 

Nylon type 1 : ' ] 3 

Non-nylon type 

Polyester resins, saturated, total 11 ' 1 " 

Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) 

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) 

Other polyesters, saturated 



1,000 

pounds 

dry basis 2 

38,877,792 



1,000 

pounds 

dry basis 2 



1,000 
dollars 



11,819,919 
27,057,873 



7,906,242 



10,103,322 
23,423,832 



6,088,699 



4,969,197 
7,380,227 



2,508,513 



753,835 



414,687 



204,657 



599,337 
71,810 
60,768 
21,920 



2,052 

351,004 

(124,364) 

16,824 

228,644 

1,925,983 

1,133,323 

1,770,109 

272,689 



370,255 

23,565 

15,356 

4,927 

584 

1,884 

256,667 

(70,761) 
16,093 

174,491 
,523,935 

928,390 
,303,691 

197,731 



178,022 

14,506 

8,929 

2,832 

368 

1,753 

242,116 
(80,375) 
9,927 
98,922 
570,068 
367,416 
526,753 

214,718 



111,707 
160,982 

16,448 

,375,207 

60,124 



96,535 
101,196 

11,016 

1,211,464 

48,650 



130,968 
83,750 

33,790 
190,046 
48,347 



9,840,911 



1,085,293 



418,141 
69,993 
597,159 

468,098 
656,734 
318,633 



224,809 
9,268 



549,471 
308,578 



246,384 



150,755 
8,155 



946,395 
81,227 



299,037 



235,052 
33,496 



464,754 



213,754 
32,630 



262,659 
36,378 



48,370 
387,091 
29,293 



43,827 
210,930 



49,591 
140,344 



Per 
pound 



See footnotes at end of table. 



200 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 

TABLE 1.--PLASTICS AND RESIN MATERIALS: U.S. PRODUCTION AND SALES, 1978--CONT INUED 



PLASTICS AND RESIN MATERIALS 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



THERMOPLASTIC RESINS— Conti 



aed 



Polyethylene resins, total 

Specific gravity 0.940 and below 

Specific gravity over 0.940 

Polypropylene resins 

Polyterpene resins 

Polytetraf luoroethylene (PTFE) 

Rosin modifications, total 

Rosin esters, unmodified (ester gums) 

Rosin esters and others, modified 

Styrene plastics materials, total 

Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS) 

resins 

Straight polystyrene 

Rubber modified polystyrene 

Styrene- butadiene latexes 

All other styrene latexes 

All other styrene plastics materials 15 

Vinyl resins, total 16 

Polyvinyl acetate 1 7 

Polyvinyl alcohol 1 8 

Polyvinyl chloride and copolymers 

Polyvinylidene chloride latex resins 

Other vinyl and vinylidene resins 

All other thermoplastics resins 19 



1,000 

pounds 

dry basis 2 

11,359,419 



6,741,057 
4,618,362 

3,055,280 
15,320 
20,197 



1,000 

pounds 

dry basis 1 

10,467,276 



6,130,170 
,337,106 

,594,761 
15,193 
16,859 



1,000 
dollars 



2,835,016 



per 

pound 



,732,152 
1,102,864 

703,610 

7,164 

68,808 



.28 
.25 



.47 
4.08 



14,476 
26,988 



5,988,617 



19,497 
22,100 



5,704,909 



7,823 
9,278 



2,003,207 



.40 
.42 



1,190,537 
2,235,936 
1,499,902 

578,296 
60,923 

423,023 

7,060,054 



763,796 
145,550 
,878,037 
21,746 
250,925 

169,139 



1,158,804 
2,126,507 
1,482,156 

521,342 
55,261 

360,839 

6,121,805 



564,964 
610,811 
407,765 
186,670 
18,724 
214,273 

1,837,518 



684,366 

130,939 

5,127,567 

21,671 

157,262 

882,788 



271,060 

87,944 

1,322,491 

12,592 

143,431 

692,983 



.78 



Calculated from unrounded figures. 
2 Dry weight basis unless otherwise specified. Dry weight basis is the total weight of the materials includ- 
ing resin and coloring agents, extenders, fillers, plasticizers, and other additives, but excluding water and 
other liquid diluents unless they are an integral part of the materials. 

3 Includes benzenoid plastics and resin materials as defined in part 1 of schedule 4 of the Tariff Schedules 
of the United States; also includes urethane type elastomers which are not defined in part 1 of schedule 4 of 
the TSUS. 

^Includes data for other copolymers alkyds (production only) . 

5 Includes reactive diluents which are an integral part of the resin. Excludes the weight of hardeners sold 
in association with the resin as part of a two-component system. 

Data shown for advanced epoxy resins are that part of the unmodified epoxy resins which is further pro- 
cessed; therefore, the totals in parentheses are not included in the grand total. 

Polyester resins are unsaturated alkyd resins, later to be copolymerized with a monomer (such as styrene 
or methyl methacrylate) , and polyallyl resins (such as diallyl phthalate and diglycol carbonate). Data are on 
an "as sold" basis, including monomer if part of the resin system. 

In addition to the polyols, the other principal starting materials used in the production of urethane pro- 
ducts are the isocyanic acid derivatives, mainly the 80/20 mixture of toluene-2,4- and 2,6-diisocyanate. Sta- 
tistics for the isocyanic acid derivatives are reported in the "Cyclic Intermediated" section of the Synthetic 
Organic Chemicals report. 

9 The data on urethane elastomers are believed to be not fully representative of the total urethane market 
in view of the very large number of urethane elastomer producers. 

Includes acetone-formaldehyde resins, glyoxal-formaldehyde resins, polybutadiene resins and certain other 
thermosetting resins. 

Does not include production or sales for fiber use. 
Engineering plastics: Includes acetal, polycarbonate, polyimide and a 
and polyphenylene oxide, and polyphenylene sulfide. Engineering plastics 
tionary of Plastics , as "Those [plastics] which have mechanical, chemical 
use in construction, machine components and chemical processing equipment, 
of which are thermoplastic) was selected from a larger group in this 



ide-imide polymers, polysulfone, 
re defined in Whittington's Dic- 
nd thermal properties suitable for 
The above list of plastics (all 
The other plastics named in 



Whittington's Dictionary as engineering plastics, ABS resins and nylon resins, are not included in the above 
list as they are published separately. 



VIII -- PLASTICS AND RESIN MATERIALS 201 

Footnotes --Continued 

1 Statistics for nylon 6 and nylon 6/6 which are used in plastic applications (e.g., molding, etc.) are in- 
cluded here. 

^Statistics are included here for polyethylene terephthalate used in plastics applications (e.g., molding, 
etc.). Statistics also are included here for production only when the starting materials are converted dir- 
ectly to a finished product (i.e., "in-situ" production), polyester film and tape are examples of such a con- 
version. 

15 Includes data for styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN) resins, a-methyl styrene poylmers, methyl meth- 
acrylate-butadiene-styrene (MBS) resins, and all other styrene copolymers. 

6 Data are on the basis of dry resin content, excluding the weight of plasticizers, extenders, fillers, 
coloring agents, stabilizers, or impact modifiers, unless otherwise noted. 

17 Data for polyvinyl acetate produced and sold in latex form includes the weight of any protective colloids 
which are used as emulsions stabilizers and form an integral part of the resin system. Production and sales 
do not include polyvinyl acetate used as a reactive intermediate for polyvinyl alcohol or other vinyl resins. 

1 Production and sales do not include polyvinyl alcohol used as a reactive intermediate for polyvinyl 
butyral or other vinyl resins. 

19 Includes acrylic resins (sales only), cellulose plastics (sales only), coumarone-indene resins, fluoro- 
carbon resins except PTFE, polybutylene type resins, polyester resins, saturated (sales only), polyphenyl 
aromatic ester resins, and other thermoplastics materials. 

Note. — Data reported to the U.S. International Trade Commission do not necessarily coincide with that re- 
ported to the Society of the Plastics Industry (SPI) because of differences in both the reporting instructions 
and in the coverage of certain resins. 



202 



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VIII -- PLASTICS AND RESIN MATERIALS 



203 



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a. a. 



VIII -- PLASTICS AND RESIN MATERIALS 



205 



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206 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 



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VIII -- PLASTICS AND RESIN MATERIALS 



207 



TABLE 3, --Plastics and resin materials: Directory of manufacturers, 1978 

ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 

[Names of manufacturers that reported production and/or sales of plastics and resin materials to the U.S. Inter- 
national Trade Commission for 1978 are listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Code 


Name of company : 


: Code 


Name of company 


ABS 


Abex Corp. , Friction Products Group 


: DEG 


Degan Oil & Chemical Co. 


ACR 


CPC International, Inc., Acme Resin Corp. : 


: DGO 


Day-Glo Color Corp. 


ACS 


Allied Chemical Corp. , Specialty Chemical Divj 


: DNS 


Dennis Chemical Co. 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 


: DOW 


Dow Chemical Co. 


ADC 


Anderson Development Co. : 


: DPP 


Dixie Pine Chemicals, Inc. 


AEP 


A & E Plastics Pak Co., Inc. : 


: DSO 


DeSoto, Inc. 


AIP 


Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. 


: DUP 


E.I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. 


ALF 


Allied Chemical Corp., Fibers Div. : 






AMO 


Standard Oil Co. (Indiana) : 


: ECC 


Eastern Color & Chemical Co. 


AMR 


Pacific Resins & Chemical Co. : 


: EFH 


E.F. Houghton 6. Co. 


APH 


Alpha Chemical Corp. : 




Eastman Kodak Co. : 


APT 


Whittaker Corp., Whittaker Coatings & : 


: EKT 


Tennessee Eastman Co. Div. 




Chemical, Mol Rez Resins : 


: EKX 


Texas Eastman Co. Div. 


APX 


Apex Chemical Co., Inc. : 


: EMR 


Emery Industries, Inc. 


ARK 


Armstrong Cork Co. : 


: ENJ 


Exxon Chemical Co. U.S.A. 


ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc. 


: EPI 


Eagle Pitcher Industries, Inc., 


ASY 


American Synthetic Rubber Corp. '• 




Ohio Rubber Co. 


AZS 


AZS Corp. : : 


: EW 


Westinghouse Electric Corp., Industrial 




AZ Products Co. Div. 




Materials Div. 




AZS Chemical Co. 










: FAR 


Syncon, Inc. 


BAL 


Baltimore Paint & Chemical Corp. , Div. of : 


• FCD 


Synres Chemical Corp. 




Dutch Boy, Inc. : 


'• FIR 


Firestone Tire i. Rubber Co., Firestone 


BAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. : 




Plastics Co. Div. 


BCM 


Belding Chemical Industries • 


: FLH 


H.B. Fuller Co., Polymer Div. 


BEN 


Bennett's ' 


: FLN 


Franklin Chemical Corp. 


BFG 


B.F. Goodrich Co., B.F. Goodrich Chemical : 


: FMP 


FMC Corp., Industrial Chemical Div. 




Co. Div. : 


: FOC 


Handschy Industries, Inc., Farac Oil & 


BLS 


Life Savers, Inc. ■ 




Chemical Co. Div. 


BME 


Bendix Corp. : 


: FOM 


Formica Corp. 


BOR 


Borden Co., Borden Chemical Co. Div. : 


: FRE 


Freeman Chemical Corp. 


BRU 


M.A. Bruder & Sons, Inc. • 


: FRF 


Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., Firestone 
Synthetic Fibers Co. 


CBD 


Chembond Corp. • 


: FRP 


FRP Company 


CBM 


Carborundum Co. : 






CBN 


Cities Service Co., Petrochemicals Div. '■ 


: GAF 


GAF Corp. 


CBY 


Crosby Chemicals, Inc. 


: GE 


General Electric Co.: 


CEL 


Celanese Corp. : : 


: GEI 


Insulating Materials Products Sec. 




Celanese Plastics Materials Co. : 


: GIL 


Gilman Paint & Varnish Co. 




Celanese Polymer Specialties Co. : 


: GLC 


General Latex & Chemical Corp. 


CGL 


Cargill, Inc. : 


: GNT 


General Tire & Rubber Co., Chemical 


CGY 


Ciba-Geigy Corp., Resins Dept. 




Div. 


CHC 


Carpenter Chemical Co. 


GOC 


Gulf Oil Corp., Gulf Oil Chemicals 


CHP 


C.H. Patrick & Co., Inc. : 




Co . -U . S . 


CLK 


Clark Oil & Refining Corp. : 


: GOR 


Carl Gordon Industries, Inc. 


CMP 


Commercial Products Co., Inc. : 


: GP 


Georgia-Pacific Corp.: 


CNE 


Conchemco, Inc. • 




Plaquemine Div. 


CNI 


Frye Copysystems, Conap Div. : 




Resins Operations 


CNT 


Certainteed Corp. 


: GRA 


Great American Chemical Corp. 


CO 


Continental Oil Co. : 


: GRD 


W.R. Grace & Co., Organic Chemicals Div., 


COO 


The Terrell Corp. 




Polymers & Chemicals Div. 


CPV 


Cook Paint & Varnish Co. 


: GRG 


P.D. George Co. 


CPX 


Chemplex Co. : 


: GRV 


Guardsman Chemicals, Inc. 


CSD 


Cosden Oil & Chemical Co. 


: GYR 


Goodyear Tire 6. Rubber Co. 


CTR 


Custom Resins Div. of Bemis Co., Inc. : 






CWN 


Upjohn Co., Fine Chemical Div. : 


: HAL 


C.P. Hall Co. 


CYR 


CY/RO Industries, Inc. 


: HAN 


Hanna Chemical Coating Corp. 






: HER 


Heresite-Saekaphen, Inc. 


DA 


Diamond Shamrock Corp. 


: HKD 


Hooker Chemical Corp., Hooker Chemicals 


DAN 


Dan River, Inc., Chemical Products Dept. : 




& Plastics Corp., Durez Div. 


DCC 


Dow Corning Corp. 


: HN 


Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 



208 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 

TABLE 3.— Plastics and resin materials: Directory of manufacturers, 1978— Continued 



Code 


Name of company ' 


: Code 


Name of company 


HNC 


H 6, N Chemical Co. : 


: PER 


Perry & Derrick Co., Inc. 


HPC 


Hercules, Inc. : 


: PLC 


Phillips Petroleum Co. 


HRT 


Hart Products Corp. : 


: PLN 


Disogrin Industries Corp. 


HST 


American Hoechst Corp. : 


: PLR 


Polysar Resins, Inc. 


HVG 


Haveg Industries, Inc., Sub. of Hercules, : 


: PLS 


Plastics Engineering Co. 




Inc. : 


: PMC 


Plastics Manufacturing Co. 


HXL 


Hexcel Corp., Hexcel Specialty Chemicals : 


: PNT 


Pantasote, Inc., Film/Compound Div. 






: POL 


Polymer Corp. 


ICF 


Inmont Corp. : 


: PPG 


PPG Industries, Inc. 


ICI 


ICI Americas, Inc. : : 


: PPL 


Pioneer Plastics, Div. of LOF Plastics, Inc 




Plastics Div. : 


: PRC 


Products Research & Chemical Corp. 




Chemical Specialties Co. : 


: PRT 


Pratt & Lambert, Inc. 


IMC 


International Minerals & Chemicals, Inc.: : 


: PSL 


Plaslok Corp. 




Foundry Products Div. : 


: PST 


Perstorp, Inc. 




McWorter Resins : 


: PVI 


Polyvinyl Chemical Industries 


INL 


Inland Steel Co., Inland Steel Container : 
Co. Div. : 


: PYZ 


Polyrez Co. , Inc. 


INP 


Indopol, Inc. • 


: QCP 


Quaker Chemical Corp. 


IOC 


Ionac Chemical Co. Div. of Sybron Corp. : 


: QUN 


K.J. Quinn & Co. , Inc. 


IPC 


Interplastic Corp. : 






IRI 


Ironsides Resins, Inc. : 


: RAB 


Raybestos-Manhattan, Inc., Raybestos 
Materials Co. 


JCC 


Jefferson Chemical Co. I 


: RCC 


Rexene Polyolefins Co. 


JNS 


S.C. Johnson & Sons, Inc. : 


: RCD 


Richardson Co., Polymeric Systems Div. 


JOB 


Jones-Blair Paint Co. : 


: RCI 


Reichhold Chemicals Inc. 


JSC 


Jersey State Chemical Co. : 


: RCO 


Rico Chemical Corp. 


JWC 


J.W. Carroll & Sons Div. of U.S. Industries, : 


: RED 


Red Spot Paint and Varnish Co., Inc. 




Inc. : 


: REL 


Reliance Universal, Inc., Louisville Resins 
Operations 


KMC 


Komac Paint, Inc. : 


: RGC 


Rogers Corp., Molding Materials Div. 


KMP 


Kelly-Moore Paint Co. : 


: RH 


Rohm & Haas Co. 


KPP 


Arco /Polymers, Inc. : 


: RPC 


Millmaster Onyx Group, Refined Onyx Co. 


KPT 


Koppers Co., Inc. : 




Div. 


KYS 


Keysor Corp. : 


: RSN 


Rilsan Corp. 






: RSY 


Resyn Corp. 


MCA 


Masonite Corp., Alpine Div. : 


: RUB 


Hooker Chemical Corp., Hooker Chemicals & 


MCB 


Borg-Warner Corp. , Borg-Warner Chemicals : 




Plastics Corp., Ruco Div. 


MCC 


McCloskey Varnish Co. : 






MCC 


McCloskey Varnish Co. of the Northwest : 


: S 


Sandoz, Inc. 


MCC 


McCloskey Varnish Co. of the West : 


: SAC 


Southeastern Adhesives Co., Inc. 


MFG 


Rockwell International Corp. : 


: SAR 


Sartomer Industries, Inc. 


MID 


Dexter Corp., Midland Div. : 


: SCM 


SCM Corp., Glidden Coatings & Resins Div. 


MMM 


Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co. : 


: SCN 


Schenectady Chemicals, Inc. 


MNP 


The Valspar Corp. : 


: SCO 


Scholler Bros. , Inc. 


MOB 


Mobay Chemical Co. : 


: SCP 


Henkel Corp. 


MON 


Monsanto Corp. : 


: SDH 


Sterling Drug, Inc., Hilton Davis 


MRB 


Marblette Co. : 




Chemical Co. Div. 


MRT 


Morton Chemical Co. Div. of Morton Norwich : 


: SED 


Conchemco , Inc . 




Products, Inc. : 


: SFP 


Stauffer Chemical Co., Plastics Div. 






: SHC 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 


NCI 


Union Camp Corp., Chemical Products Div. : 


: SHT 


Shintech, Inc. 


NEV 


Neville Chemical Co. : 


: SIC 


Vistron Corp. , Silmar Div. 


NPV 


Norris Paint & Varnish Co., Inc. : 


: SIM 


Simpson Timber Co., Chemicals Div. 


NSC 


National Starch & Chemical Corp. : 


: SKT 


Textron Inc., Spencer Kellogg Div. 


NTC 


National Casein Co. : 


: SLC 


Soluol Chemical Co., Inc. 


NTL 


NL Industries, Inc. : 


: SLT 


Soltex Polymer Corp. 


NVT 


Novamont Corp. : 


: SM 


Mobil Oil Corp. : 


NWP 


Northern Petrochemical Co. : 




Mobil Chemical Co.: 

Chemical Coatings Div. 


OBC 


O'Brien Corp. : 


: SNW 


Sun Chemical Corp., Chemicals Div. 


OCF 


Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp. : 


: SOR 


M. W. Manufacturers, Southern Resin Div. 


OMC 


Olin Corp. : 


: SPC 


Insilco Corp., Sinclair Paint Co. Div. 






: SPD 


General Electric Co., Silicone Products 


PAS 


Pennwalt Corp. : 




Dept. 


PC 


Proctor Chemical Co., Inc. : 


: SPI 


Sterling Plastics, Inc. 


PDI 


Phelps Dodge Industries, Inc., Phelps Dodge : 


: SPL 


Spaulding Fibre Co., Inc. 




Magnet Wire Co. Div. : 


: STC 


American Hoechst Corp., Sou-Tex Works 



VIII -- PLASTICS AND RESIN MATERIALS 209 

TABLE 3. --Plastics and resin materials: Directory of manufacturers, 1978--Continued 



Code 


Name of company : 


: Code 


Name of company 


STT 


Standard T Chemical Co. : 


: USO 


U.S. Oil Co. 


SW 


Sherwin-Williams Co. : 


: USR 


Uniroyal, Inc., Uniroyal Chemical Div. 


SWE 


Novamonc Corp. • 


: USS 


USS Chemicals Div. of U.S. Steel Corp. 


TKL 


Thiokol Corp. : 


: VAL 


Valchem Div. of United Merchants 6, 


TNA 


Ethyl Corp. : 




Manufacturers, Inc. 


TNO 


Trancoa Chemical Corp. • 


: VEL 


Velsicol Chemical Corp. 


TX 


Texaco, Inc. : 


: VPC 


Mobay Chemical Corp., Verona Dyestuff 

Div. 
Valentine Sugars, Inc., Valite Div. 


ucc 


Union Carbide Corp. : 


: vsv 


UNO 


United-Erie, Inc. : 






UOC 


Union Oil Co. of California & Union : 


■ WCA 


West Coast Adhesives Co., Inc. 




Chemicals Div., Petrochemicals Group : 


: WLN 


Wilmington Chemical Corp. 


UPJ 


Upjohn Co. : 


: WRD 


Weyerhaeuser Co. 


USI 


National Distillers & Chemical Corp.: : 

U.S. Industrial Chemicals Co.: : 

National Petro Chemical Corp. ' 


: WTC 


Witco Chemical Corp. 


USM 


USM Corp., Bostik Div. & Bostik Div. East : 


: ZGL 


Carolina Processing Corp. 



Note. — Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the appendix. The 
bove codes identify those of the 247 reporting companies and company divisions for which permission to publish was 
Dt restricted. 



SECTION IX -- RUBBER-PROCESSING CHEMICALS 211 



STATISTICAL HIGHLIGHTS 
J. Lawrence Johnson 



Rubber-processing chemicals are organic compounds that are added to natural 
and synthetic rubber to give them qualities necessary for their conversion into 
finished rubber goods. In this report, statistics are given for cyclic and 
acyclic compounds by use — such as accelerators, antioxidants, blowing agents, 
and peptizers. Data on production and sales of rubber-processing chemicals in 
1978 are given in table I. 

Production of rubber-processing chemicals as a group in 1978 amounted to 
366 million pounds, or 9.0 percent less than the 402 million pounds in 1977. 
Sales of rubber-processing chemicals in 1978 amounted to 228 million pounds, 
valued at $287 million, compared with 238 million pounds, valued at $278 
million, in 1977. 

The production of cyclic rubber-processing chemicals in 1978 amounted to 325 
million pounds, or 8.6 percent less than the 356 million pounds in 1977. 
Sales in 1978 were 201 million pounds, valued at $258 million, compared with 
202 million pounds, valued at $249 million, in 1977. Of the total production 
of cyclic rubber-processing chemicals in 1978, accelerators, activators, and 
vulcanizing agents accounted for 36.2 percent and antioxidants, antiozonants , 
and stabilizers for 58.7 percent. Production of antioxidants, antiozonants, 
and stabilizers, which amounted to 190.9 million pounds in 1978, included 127.9 
million pounds of amino compounds and 63.0 million pounds of phenolic and 
phosphite compounds. Sales of amino antioxidants, antiozonants, and 
stabilizers in 1978 amounted to 78.7 million pounds, valued at $102.1 million; 
sales of phenolic and phosphite antioxidant, antiozonants, and stabilizers, 
were 39.7 million pounds, valued at $43.3 million. 

Production of acyclic rubber-processing chemicals in 1978 amounted to 40.8 
million pounds, or 12.2 percent less than the 46.5 million pounds reported for 
1977. Sales in 1978 totaled 27.9 million pounds, valued at $28.8 million, com- 
pared with 35.8 million pounds, valued at $29.0 million, in 1977. Dithiocarbamic 
acid derivatives accounted for 20.9 percent of sales (based on quantity) of 
acyclic rubber-processing chemicals in 1978. 



See also table 2 which lists these producers and identifies the manufacturers 
by codes. These codes are given in table 3. 



RUBBER-PROCESSING CHEMICALS 



213 



TABLE 1. --Rubber-processing chemicals: U.S. production and sales, 1978 

[Listed below are all rubber-processing chemicals for which any reported data on production or sales may be pub- 
lished. (Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be published 
or where no data were reported.) Table 2 lists separately all rubber-processing chemicals for which data on 
production and/or sales were reported and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



RUBBER-PROCESSING CHEMICALS 



PRODUCTION 



QUANTITY 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



Grand total 

CYCLIC 

Total 

Accelerators, activators, and vulcanizing agents, total- 

Aldehyde-amine reaction products 

Thiazole derivatives, total 

N-Cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolesulfenamide 

2,2'-Dithiobis(benzothiazole) 

2-Mercaptobenzo thiazole 

2-Mercaptobenzothiazole, zinc salt 

All other thiazole derivatives 

All other accelators, activators, and vulcanizing 

agents 2 

Antioxidants, antiozonants, and stabilizers, total 

Amino compounds, total 

Aldehyde- and acetone-amine reaction products 

Substituted p-phenylenediamines 

All other amino compounds 3 

Phenolic and phosphite compounds, total 

Phenolic compounds, total 

Polyphenolics (including bisphenols) 

Phenol, alkylated 

Phenol, styrenated 

Other 

Phosphite compounds 

Retarder: N-Nitrosodiphenylamine 

All other cyclic rubber-processing chemicals* 

ACYCLIC 

Total 

Dithiocarbamic acid derivatives, total 5 

Dimethyldithiocarbamic acid, zinc salt 

All other dithiocarbamic acid derivatives 

Thiurams 

Xanthates and sulfides 

Shortstops 

Other accelerators, activators, and vulcanizing agents — 
All other acyclic rubber-processing chemicals 6 



1,000 
pounds 



325,001 



117,607 



925 

108,527 

5,061 

16,611 

2,691 
84,164 

8,155 

190,888 



127,934 

72,163 
55,771 
62,954 
19,930 
14,313 
2,375 

3,242 
43,024 

1,614 
14,892 



8,533 



,231 
6,302 

7,662 
249 

3,174 

61 

21,123 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollops 



200,514 



68,496 



733 
59,490 
8,169 
6,260 
6,106 

38,955 



118,360 



78,676 

5,204 

40,119 

33,353 

39,684 

14,438 

11,352 

1,426 

820 

840 

25,246 

769 
12,889 



6,611 



2,098 
4,513 



15,160 



258,254 



84,908 



1,254 
66,374 
10,678 
6,139 
4,161 

45,396 

17,280 

145,544 



102,141 

5,723 

62,215 

34,203 

43,403 

26,348 

23,110 

1,322 

476 

1,440 

17,055 

853 
26,949 



10,560 



2,230 
8,330 



270 
11,462 



Per 
pound 



1.29 



1.24 
1.71 
1.12 
1.31 
.98 
.68 



2.09 



1.23 
1.30 
1.10 
1.55 
1.03 
1.09 
1.83 
2.04 



.93 

.58 

1.71 

.68 

1.11 
2.08 



1.60 
1.06 
1.85 



Calculated from unrounded figures. 

Includes guanidines and other uses not separately shown. 
3 Includes aldehyde- and acetone-amine reactions products. 

''Includes blowing agents, peptizers, and other uses not separately shown. 

5 Data on dithiocarbamates included in this table are for materials used chiefly in the processing of natural and 
synthetic rubber. Data on dithiocarbamates which are used chiefly as fungicides are included in the report on 
"Pesticides and Related Products." 

'includes "other" xanthates and sulfides (sales only), conditioning and lubricating agents, polymerication re- 
gulators, shortstops (sales only), and other uses not separately shown. 



214 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 



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220 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 



TABLE 3. --Rubber-Processing chemicals; Directory of manufacturers, 1978 

ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 

[Names of manufacturers that reported production and/or sales of rubber-processing chemicals to the U.S. International 
Trade Commission for 1978 are listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Name of company 



Name of company 



ACY 
ALC 



American Cyanamid Co. 
Alco Chemical Corp. 



3. F. Goodrich Co. 
Co. Div. 



F. Goodrich Chemical 



E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. 



FMC Corp., Agricultural Chemical Di 



Goodyear Tire 6, Rubber Co. 



ICI Americas Inc., Chemical 
Specialties Co. 



LAK : Bofors Lakeway, Inc. 



MCB 
MON 



NEV 
NPI 



PAS 
PIT 
PLC 



RBC 
RCD 

RCI 



UPM 

USR 



Borg-Warner Corp., Borg-Warner Chemicals 
Monsanto Co. 



Neville Chemical Co. 

Stepan Chemical Co., Polychem Dept. 



Pennwalt Chemicals Corp. 
Pitt-Consol Chemical Co. 
Phillips Petroleum Co. 



Fike Chemicals, Inc. 

Richardson Co. 

Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. 



UOP, Inc. 

Uniroyal, Inc., Uniroyal Chemical Di 



Vanderbilt Chemical Corp. 



Note. — Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the appendix. The 
above codes identify those of the 26 reporting companies and company divisions for which permission to publish was 
not restricted. 



SECTION X -- ELASTOMERS 2 21 



STATISTICAL HIGHLIGHTS 
Eric Land and Rick Talisman 

Elastomers (synthetic rubber) are high polymeric materials with properties 
similar to those of natural rubber. The term "elastomers" as used in this 
report, means a substance, whether in bale, crumb, powder, latex, and other 
crude form, which can be vulcanized or similarly processed into a material that 
can be stretched to at least twice its original length and, after having been so 
stretched and the stress removed, will return with force to approximately 
its original length. U.S. production and sales of elastomers in 1978 are 
shown in table 1. 

Total U.S. production 2 of synthetic rubber in 1978 amounted to 5,761 million 
pounds, a decrease of 0.9 percent from that produced in 1977. Total sales 2 of 
elastomers in 1978 amounted to 3,640 million pounds, a decrease of 12.9 percent 
from that sold in 1977. 

Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR, o.; S-type rubber) in 1978 continued to be 
the elastomer produced in the greatest quantity as it has been for more than a 
quarter of a century. U.S. production of S-type rubber, including 43 million 
pounds of its vinylpyridine sub-type, amounted to 3,037 million pounds in 1978, 
a decrease of 7.6 percent from that reported for 1977. Solution polymerized 
butadiene rubber, a stereo type elastomer, was produced domestically in 1978 
in the next largest amount — 802 million pounds. Other principal types of synthetic 
elastomers for which U.S. production data are reported separately are ethylene- 
propylene rubber, production of which was 385 million pounds in 1978, isobutylene- 
isoprene (butyl) rubber, production of which was 297 million pounds, acrylonitrile 
butadiene (N-type) rubber, production of which was 145 million pounds, and 
polychloroprene (Neoprene) rubber, production of which was 310 million pounds. 

Sales of S-type rubber by U.S. producers in 1978 (including its vinyl- 
pyridine sub-type) amounted to 1,542 million pounds, a decrease of 21 percent 
over sales reported for 1977. Sales of solution polymerized butadiene rubber 
amounted to 317 million pounds, and those of ethylene-propylene rubber to 324 
million pounds. Sales of N-type rubber in 1978 amounted to 123 million pounds. 
Sales of solution polymerized butadiene rubber in 1978 decreased from sales in 
1977 by 42 percent, and sales of ethylene-propylene rubber increased 9 percent. 
Sales of N-type rubber in 1978 were 4 percent below those in 1977. 



: See also table 2 which lists these products and indicates the manufacturers 
of each by code. The codes are identified by company name in table 3. 
Does not include urethane type elastomers. 
Reported by the Rubber Manufacturers' Association. 



301-061 0-79-15 



X - ELASTOMERS 
TABLE 1,~ Elastomers (synthetic rubber): 1 U.S. production and sales, 1978 



223 



[Listed below are all elastomers (synthetic rubber) for which reported data on production or sales may be published. 
(Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be published or where no 
data were reported.) Table 2 lists all elastomers for which data on production and/or sales were reported and 
identifies the manufacturers of each] 



ELASTOMERS 



PRODUCTION^ 



UNIT 
VALUE 3 



1,000 
pounds 



Grand total 

Cyclic 

Acyclic 

Acrylonitrile-butadiene type (N-type) 

Butadiene (emulsion polymerized) type 

Choroprene type (Neoprene) 

Ethylene-propylene type 

Isobutylene-isoprene type (Butyl) 

Silicone type 

Stereo elastomer: Butadiene (solution polymerized) 

type 

Styrene-butadiene type (S-type) 

Styrene-butadiene-vinylpyridine type 

Urethane type 

All other elastomers 7 



1,000 
pounds 



3,640,373 



1,000 
dollars 



1,875,106 



3,209,951 
2,551,190 

161,393 

53,775 

(') 
385,540 

( 5 ) 
78,455 

802,302 

2,993,954 

43,464 

( 6 ) 

1,242,258 



1,760,624 
1,879,749 

122,585 
23,091 

323,930 

66,768 

316,627 

1,528,191 

13,827 

1,245,354 



551,299 
1,323,807 

83,953 
8,481 

177,339 

244,490 

113,862 

428,399 

10,965 

807,617 



Per 
pound 



$ 0.52 



.31 
.70 

.68 
.37 

.55 

3.36 

.36 
.28 
.79 

.65 



The term "elastomers" is define as substances in bale, crumb, powder, latex, and other crude forms which can be 
vulcanized or similarly processed into materials that can be stretched at 68° F. to at least twice their original 
length and, after having been stretched and the stress removed, will return with force to approximately their orig- 
inal length. 

2 Includes oil content of oil-extended elastomers. 

Calculated from unrounded figures. 

'•Included in "All other elastomers." The production of polychloroprene rubber in 1978 was reported by the Rubber 
Manufacturers' Association to be 161,427 metric tons (355,878,736 pounds). 

s Included in "All other elastomers-" The production of butyl rubber in 1978 was reported by the Rubber Manufact- 
urers' Association to be 154,365 metric tons (340,309,992 pounds). 

6 The data on production and sales of urethane elastomers are reported in the section "Plastics and Resin Materials" 
with urethane plastics and polyols. 

Includes production and sales for acrylic ester, butyl, chloroprene, epichlorohydrin, fluorinated, isobutylene, 
isoprenes, and polysulfide elastomers, certain solution elastomers, chlorinated rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene, 
thermoplastic rubber, miscellaneous elastomers. 



224 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 

TABLE 2. --Elastomers for which u.s. production and/or sales were reported, 

IDENTIFIED 3Y MANUFACTURER, 1978 

[CHEMICALS FOE WHICH SEPARATE STATISTICS ARE GIVEN IN TA3LE 1 ARE MARKED BELOW WITH AN ASTERISK (*); CHEMICALS NOT 
SO MARKED DO NOT APPEAR IN TABLE 1 BECAUSE THE REPORTED DATA ARE ACCEPTED IN CONFIDENCE AND MAY NOT BE PUBLISHED. 
MANUFACTURERS' IDENTIFICATION CODES SHOWN BELOW ARE TAKEN FROM TABLE 3l 



ELASTOMERS 



MANUFACTURERS' IDENTIFICATION CODES 
(ACCORDING TO LIST IN TABLE 3) 



CYCLIC 

Butadiene-styrene type: 
*Butadiene-styrene (S-Type) 

*Butadiene-styrene-vinylpyridine 

Polyester elastomer 

Polyisoprene, eye li zed 

Thermoplastic elastomers, cyclic 

ACYCLIC 

Butadiene-acrylic acid-acrylonitrile — 
*Butadiene-acrylonitrile type (N-Type)- 

Depolymerized butyl rubber 

Epichlorohydrin rubber 

*Ethylene-propylene rubber 

Fluoroelastomers 

Isobutylene-isoprene type (Butyl) 

Polyacrylate ester, type elastomers 

Polyalkalene oxide 

Polyalkalene sulfide, type elastomers- 

*Polybutadiene type (Emulsion) 

Polychloroprene type (Neoprene) 

Polyethylene, chlorosulfonated 

Polyisobutylene, type elastomers 

Products of natural rubber: 

Depolymerize^ natural rubber 

Polymerized chlorinated rubber 

*Silicone type elastomers 

Stereoisomer type: 

Depolymerized isoprene 

*Polybutadiene (Solution polymerized) 
Polyisoprene (Solution polymerized)- 

Stereoisomer type, all other 

Thermoplastic elastomers, acyclic 

All other acyclic elastomers 



ASY, BFG, BOR, CPY, FIR, FRS , GNT, GRD, GYR, PLC, PLR, 

TUS, USR. 
BFG, FIR, FRS, GNT, GYT , MIL, USR. 
DUP. 
WAY. 
PLC, SHC. 



ASY. 










BFG, 


CPY, 


GYR, 


USR. 




HDM. 










BFG. 










BFG, 


CPY, 


DUP, 


ENJ, 


USR. 


MMM. 










CBN, 


ENJ. 








ACY, 


BFG, 


DUP. 






PRC. 










TKL. 










BFG, 


FRS, 


GYR, 


TKL, 


TUS. 


DKA, 


DUP. 








DUP. 










ENJ. 










HDM. 










HPC, 


ICI. 








DCC, 


SPD, 


sws. 






HDM. 










ASY, 


BFG, 


FRS, 


GNT, 


GYR, PLC 


BFG, 


GYR. 








ADC. 










ASY. 










DUP, 


USR. 









ELASTOMERS 



225 



TABLE 3, —Elastomers (synthetic rubber): Directory of manufacturers, 1978 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



[Names of manufacturers that reported production and/or sales of elastomers to the U.S. International Trade Commission 
for 1978 are listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Code 


I Name of company : 


: Cede 


Name of company 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. : 


: HDM 


Hardwan, Inc. 


ADC 


Anderson Development Co. : 


: HPC 


Hercules, Inc. 


ASY 


American Synthetic Rubber Corp. : 










: ICI 


ICI Americas Inc., Chemical 


BFG 


B. F. Goodrich Co., B. F. Goodrich : 
Chemical Co. Div. : 




Specialties Co. 






: MIL 


Milliken & Co. , Milliken Chemical Div. 


CBN 


Cities Service Co., Columbian Group ; 


: MMM 


Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co. 


CPY 


Copolymer Rubber & Chemical Corp. : 










: PLC 


Phillips Petroleum Co. 


DCC 


Dow Corning Corp. ; 


: PLR 


Polysar, Inc., Polysar Latex Div. 


DKA 


Denka Chemical Corp. : 


: PRC 


Products Research & Chemical Corp. 


DUP 


E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. : 










: SHC 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 


ENJ 


Exxon Chemical Co., U.S.A. : 


: SPD 


General Electric Co., Silicone Products 
Dept. 






: SWS 


Stauffer Chemical Co., SWS Silicones Div. 




Firestone Tire & Rubber Co.: : 






FIR 


Firestone Plastics Co. Div. : 






FRS 


Firestone Synthetic Rubber & Latex : 


: TKL 


Thiokol Chemical Corp. 




Co. Div. : 


: TUS 


Texas-U.S. Chemical Co. 


GNT 


General Tire & Rubber Co., Chemical : 

Div. : 

W. R. Grace 4 Co., Organic Chemicals Div. : 


: USR 


Uniroyal, Inc., Chemical Div. 


GRD 








Polymers & Chemicals Div. : 


: WAY 


Philip A. Hunt Chemical Corp., Organic 


GYR 


Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. : 




Chemical Div. 



Note. — Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the appendix. 



SECTION XI -- PLASTICIZERS 227 



STATISTICAL HIGHLIGHTS 
J. Lawrence Johnson 



Plasticizers are organic chemicals that are added to synthetic plastics 
and resin materials to (1) improve workability during fabrication, (2) extend 
or modify the natural properties of these materials, or (3) develop new 
improved properties not present in the original material. Table 1 presents 
statistics on U.S. production and sales of plasticizers in as great a detail as 
is possible without revealing the operations of individual producers. 

U.S. production of plasticizers totaled 2,086 million pounds in 1978, 
an increase of 16.4 percent from the 1,792 million pounds reported for 1977. 
Sales of plasticizers totaled 1,748 million pounds, valued at $703 million, 
in 1978 compared with 1,668 million pounds, valued at $632 million, in 1977. 

Production of cyclic plasticizers in 1978, which consisted chiefly of the 
esters of phthalic anhydride, phosphoric acid, and trimellitic acid, amounted 
to 1,673 million pounds, an increase of 21.7 percent from the 1,375 million 
pounds reported for 1977. Sales of cyclic plasticizers in 1978 totaled 
1,380 million pounds, valued at $487 million, compared with 1,302 million 
pounds, valued at $425 million, in 1977. The most important cyclic plasticizers 
were the dioctyl phthalates, with production of 409 million pounds, in 1978. 

Production of acyclic plasticizers in 1978 totaled 413 million pounds, 
a decrease of 1.1 percent fron the 417 million pounds reported for 1977. 
Sales of acyclic plasticizers totaled 367 million pounds, valued at $216 million, 
in 1978, compared with 366 million pounds, valued at $208 million, in 
1977. Epoxidized soya oils were the most important acyclic plasticizer in 
1978 with production of 90 million pounds. 



XI - PLASTICIZERS 229 

TABLE 1. --Plasticizers: ' U.S. production and sales, 1978 

[Listed below are plasticizers for which any reported data on production or sales may be published. (Leaders 
(...) are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be published or where no data 
were reported.) Table 2 lists separately all plasticizer chemicals for which data on production and/or 
sales were reported and identifies the amnufacturers of each] 



PLASTICIZERS 



PRODUCTION 



Grand total 

Benzenoid 3 

Nonbenzenoid 

CYCLIC 

Total -■ 

Phosphoric acid esters' 4 

Phthalic anhydride esters, total 

Dibutyl phthalate 

Diethyl phthalate 

Diisodecyl phthalate 

Dimethyl phthalate 

Dioctyl phthalates 

n-Hexyl n-decyl phthalate 

All other phthalic anhydride esters 

Trimellitic acid esters, total 

Tri-n-octyl n-decyl trimellitate 

Trioctyl trimellitate 

All other trimellitic acid esters 

All other cyclic plasticizers 6 

ACYCLIC 

Total 

Adipic acid esters, total 

Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate 

Diisodecyl adipate 

Di-tridecyl adipate =- 

All other adipic acid esters 

Complex linear polyesters and polymeric plasticizers. 

total 

Adipic acid type 

All other 

Epoxidized esters, total 

Epoxidized linseed oils 

Epoxidized soya oils 

All other epoxidized esters 

Isopropyl myristate 

Oleic acid esters, total 

Butyl oleate 

Methyl oleate 

Propyl oleates 

All other oleic acid esters 

Phosphoric acid esters 



1,000 
pounds 



1,781,612 
304,172 



1,673,057 



98,790 



1,258,568 



16,893 

22,288 

170, 7Tt 

9,643 

5 408,641 

15,599 

614,730 

32,762 



1,129 
15,778 
15,855 



6 7,743 



44,816 
2,054 
4,123 

16,750 



54,208 



12,222 
41,986 



113,789 



89,894 
23,895 



3,340 
14,785 



2,651 

6,251 

344 

5,539 

17,292 



1,000 
pounds 



1,747,569 



1,000 
dollars 



1,470,534 
277,035 



1.380,173 



76,319 
1,205,383 



18,908 
17,816 

151,319 
9,942 

391,131 

616,267 
30,915 



954 
13,305 
16,656 



63,480 



43,015 
1,743 
1,953 

16,769 



5,808 
38,229 



109,161 



,380 
85,544 
17,237 



12,743 



1,892 

6,278 

137 

4,436 

12,205 



539,216 
163,684 



486,810 



385,651 



6,966 
13,092 
47,346 

4,005 
116,928 

197,314 

16,086 



595 
7,311 
8,180 



216,090 



30,267 



18,717 

885 

1,128 

9,537 



30,777 



3,878 
26,899 



4,930 

42,247 

9,254 

2,537 

6,167 



918 
2,774 

176 
2,299 

9,536 



See footnotes at end of table. 



230 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 

TABLE 1.— Plasticizers: ' U.S. production and sales, 1978— Continued 



PLASTICIZERS 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 2 



ACYCLIC — Continued 



Ricinoleic and acetylricinoleic acid esters- 
Sebacic acid esters 



Stearic acid esters, total 

n-Butyl stearate 

Isobutyl stearate 

All other stearic acid esters- 
All other acyclic plasticizers 7 - 



1,653 
15,087 



1,000 
pounds 



824 
1,177 



1,000 
dollars 



760 
,416 



8,572 
1,739 
4,776 

124,830 



8,464 
1,704 
4,239 

106,348 



3,463 

818 

3,264 

70,654 



Per 
pound 



.66 



includes data for compounds used principally (but not exclusively) as primary plasticizers. Does not include 
clearly defined extenders of secondary plasticizers. 

^Calculated from unrounded figures. 

3 Includes benzenoid products as defined in part 1 of schedule 4 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States 
Annotated. 

"includes data for cresyl diphenyl phosphate, dibutyl phenyl phosphate, diphenyl octyl phosphate, tricresyl 
phosphate, triphenyl phosphate, and other cyclic phosphoric acid esters. 

5 The difference between the production reported here and that shown on the Preliminary Report on U.S. Production 
of Selected Organic Chemicals for 1978, results from a combination of incorrect reporting by some companies, end 
of year inventory adjustments, and rounding. 

'includes data for glycol dibenzoates, toluenesulfonamides, tetrahydrofurfuryl oleate, and other cyclic plas- 
ticizers. 

'includes data for azelaic, citric and acetylcitric, myristic, pelargonic, ricinoleic (production only), 
acetylricinoleic (production only), glyceryl, and glycol esters, and other acyclic plasticizers. 



XI -- PLASTICIZERS 



231 



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XI - PLAS1 ICIZERS 



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234 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 



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XI - PLASTICIZERS 



235 



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236 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHtfUCALS, 1973 



TABLE 3,--Plasticizers: Directory of manufacturers, 1978 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



iif tnanufactu 
Commiss 



s that reported production and/c 
for 1978 are listed below in tr 



sales of plasticizers to the U.S. International Trade 
order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Name of company 



Name of Company 



ARC 
ASH 



BAS 
BFG 



CCA 
CHL 
CIN 



DOW 
DUP 



EKT 
EKX 
ELC 

EMR 
ENJ 



GLY 
GRH 
GRO 



HAL 
HCC 



HPC 
HUM 



Armak Co. 
Ashland Oil, Inc. 



BASF Wyandotte Corp. 
B. F. Goodrich Co. , 



F. Goodrich Chemical 



Interstab Chemicals, Inc. 
Chemol, Inc. 
Cindet Chemicals, Inc. 
Continental Oil Co. 
CPS Chemical Co. 

Diamond Shamrock Corp. 

Dow Chemical Co. 

E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co . , Inc. 

Eastman Kodak Co.: 

Tennessee Eastman Co. Div. 

Texas Eastman Co. Div. 
Elco Corp., Sub. of Detrex Chemical 

Industries, Inc. 
Emery Industries, Inc. 
Exxon Chemical Co. U.S.A. 

FMC Corp., Industrial Chemical Group 

Glyco Chemicals, Inc. 

W. R. Grace 6, Co., Hatco Chemical Div. 
A. Gross & Co., Millmaster Onyx Group, 
Kewanee Industries, Inc. 

C. P. Hall Co. 
Hatco Chemical Corp. 
Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 
Hercules, Inc. 

Kraft Inc., Humko Sheffield Chemical 
Operation 



Kay-Fr 
Monsanto C 



i 'he 



iK 



NEV 
NTL 



PFZ 
PVO 



SBC 
SCP 
SFS 



TCC 
TCH 
TEK 
TKL 

UCC 
USS 



VEL 
VIK 
VND 



WTC 
WTH 



Neville Chemical Co. 
NL Industries, Inc. 



Pfizer, Inc. 
PVO Internati 



Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. 

Rohm & Haas Co. 

Hooker Chemical Corp., Hooker Chemicals 

6. Plastics Corp., Ruco Div. 
Robinson-Wagner Co., Inc. 

Scher Brothers, Inc. 

Henkel, Inc. 

Stauffer Chemical Co., Specialty Chemical 

Div. 
Mobil Oil Corp., Mobil Chemical Co. Div., 

Chemical Coatings Div. 
Sherwin-Williams Co. 
Unitech Chemical, Inc. 

Tanatex Chemical Corp. 

Emory Industries, Inc., Trylon Div. 

Teknor Apex Co. 

Thiokol Chemical Corp. 



Unio 



Carbide Corp. 



5f U.S. Steel Corp. 



Velsicol Chemical Corp. 
Viking Chemical Co. 
Van Dyk & Co . , Inc . 



Inolex Corp. 

Witco Chemical Corp. 

Union Camp Corp. , Chemical Di 



Note. — Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the appendix. The 
above codes identify those of the 57 reporting companies and company divisions for which permission to publish was 
not restricted. 



SECTION XII - SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 237 



STATISTICAL HIGHLIGHTS 
Eric Land and J. Lawrence Johnson 



The surface-active agents included in this report are organic chemicals 
that reduce the surface tension of water or other solvents and are used 
chiefly as detergents, dispersing agents, emulsifiers, foaming agents, or 
wetting agents in either aqueous or nonaqueous systems. Waxes and products 
used chiefly as plasticizers are excluded. Surface-active agents are pro- 
duced from natural fats and oils, from silvichemicals such as lignin, rosin, 
and tall oil, and from chemical intermediates derived from coal tar and 
petroleum. A major part of the output of the bulk chemicals shown in this 
report is consumed in the form of packaged soaps and detergents for household 
and industrial use. The remainder is used in the processing of textiles and 
leather, in ore flotation and oil-drilling operations, and in the manufacture 
of agricultural sprays, cosmetics, elastomers, foods, lubricants, paint, 
pharmaceuticals, and many other products. 

The statistics for production and sales of surface-active agents are 
grouped by ionic class and by chemical class and subclass. All quantities 
are reported in terms of 100-percent organic surface-active ingredient and 
thus exclude all inorganic salts, water, and other diluents. Sales 
statistics reflect sales of bulk surface-active agents only; sales of 
formulated products are excluded. 

Total U.S. production of surface-active agents in 1978 amounted to 
4,738 million pounds, or 0.4 percent more than the 4,718 million pounds 
reported for 1977. Sales of bulk surface-active agents in 1978 amounted to 
2,708 million pounds, valued at $966 million, compared with sales in 1977 
of 2,515 million pounds, valued at $875 million. In terms of quantity, 
sales in 1978 were 7.7 percent higher than in 1977; in terms of value, 
sales in 1978 were 10.4 percent greater than in 1977. 

Production of anionic surface-active agents in 1978 amounted to 3,094 
million pounds, or 65.3 percent of the total output reported for 1978. Sales 
of anionics in 1978 amounted to 1,511 million pounds valued at $359 million. 

Production of cationic surface-active agents in 1978 amounted to 296 
million pounds, 0.4 percent less than the 297 million pounds reported in 
1977. Production of nonionic surface-active agents amounted to 1,324 
million pounds in 1978, 10.8 percent greater than the 1,195 million pounds 
reported in 1977. Sales of cationic surface-active agents in 1978 decreased 
by 4.6 percent in terms of quantity but increased 7.6 percent in terms of 
value over 1977. Sales of nonionics in 1978, however, increased by 12.9 
percent, in terms of quantity and by 14.9 percent in terms of value over 1977. 



301-061 0-79-16 



238 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



The difference between production and sales reflects inventory changes 
and captive consumption of soaps and surface-active agents by synthetic 
rubber producers, and by manufacturers of cosmetics, packaged detergents, 
bar soaps, and other formulated consumer products. In some instances the 
difference may also reflect quantities of surface-active agents used as 
chemical intermediates, e.g., nonionic alcohol and alkylphenol ethoxylates 
which may be converted to anionic surface-active agents by phosphation or 
sulfation. 



XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



239 



TABLE 1,— Surface-active agents: U.S. production and sales, 1978 

[Listed below are all surface-active agents for which reported data on production or sales may be published. 
(Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be published or 
where no data were reported.) Table 2 lists all surface-active agents for which data on production and/or 
sales were reported and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



PRODUCTION' 



QUANTITY 1 



UNIT 
VALUE 3 



Grand total 

Benzenoid 

Nonbenzenoid 

AMPHOTERIC 

Total 

ANIONIC 

Total 

Carboxylic acids (and salts thereof) , total 

Amine sales of fatty, rosin, and tall oil acids— 
Carboxylic acids having amide, ester, or ether 

linkages 

Coconut oil acids, potassium salt 

Coconut oil acids, sodium salt 

Mixed vegetable oil acids, potassium salt 

Oleic acid, potassium salt 

Oleic acid, sodium salt 

Soybean oil acid, potassium salt 

Stearic acid, potassium salt 

Tall oil acids, potassium salt 

Tall oil acids, sodium salt 

Tallow acids, sodium salt 

All other carboxylic acids (and salts thereof) — 

Phosphoric and polyphosphoric acid esters (and 

salts thereof) , total 

Alcohols and phenols, alkoxylated and phosphated, 

total 

Mixed linear alcohols, ethoxylated and phos- 
phated 

Nonylphenol, ethoxylated and phosphated 

Phenol, ethoxylated and phosphated 

Tridecyl alcohol, ethoxylated and phosphated — 

All other 

All other phosphoric and polyphosphoric acid 
esters (and salts thereof) 

Sulfonic acids (and salts thereof), total 

Alkybenzenesulfonates, total 

Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid 

Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, calcium salt 

Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, isopropylamine 

salt 

Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, sodium salt 

Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, triethanolamine 

salt 

Tridecylbenzenesulfonic acid 

All other 

Ligninsulf onates , total 

Ligninsulfonic acid, calcium salt 



J, 000 
pounds 



1,099,120 
3,638,733 



22,971 



3,094,451 



2,193 

4,837 

9,203 

162,511 

2,610 

433 

579 

1,107 

517 

10,367 

1,482 

358,720 

261,096 



38,033 



18,518 

4,771 
6,285 
2,256 
812 
4,394 

19,515 



639,859 

203,406 

6,688 

3,346 
310,904 

6,211 

1,530 

107,774 

830,004 

553,681 



1,000 
pounds 



570,987 
2,137,048 



22,349 



876 

4,509 

1,836 

1,658 

2,823 

204 

132 

313 

3,963 
1,173 

125,719 



23,690 



16,309 

3,901 
5,378 
2,329 

4,701 

7,381 

1,104,910 



179,944 
95,309 
8,260 

3,382 
52,416 



14,151 
802,871 
526,403 



1,000 
dollars 



965,660 



228,476 
737,184 



20,797 



359,112 



54,075 



1,018 

4,789 
1,464 
383 
2,864 
144 
107 
139 

2,166 
337 



17,365 



11,273 

3,045 
3,476 
1,673 

3,079 

6,092 

176,511 



62,412 
29,237 
6,315 

2,037 
13,927 



8,181 
52,179 
20,734 



Per 

pound 



$0.36 



1.16 

1.06 
.80 
.23 

1.01 
.71 
.81 



See footnotes at end of table. 



240 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



TABLE 1. --Surface-active agents: U.S. production and sales, 1978--Continued 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



PRODUCTION' 



QUANTITY 1 



ANIONIC— Continued 

Sulfonic acids (and salts thereof) — Continued 
Ligninsulfonic acid — Continued 

Ligninsulfonic acid, iron salt 

Ligninsulfonic acid, sodium salt 

All other 

Naphthalenesulf onates , total 

Diisopropylnaphthalenesulfonic acid, sodium salt- 
All other 

Sulfonic acids having amide linkages, total 

Sulfosuccinamic acid derivatives 

Taurine derivatives 

All other 

Sulfonic acids having ester or ether linkages, 

total 

Sulfosuccinic acid esters, total 

Sulfosuccinic acid, bis (2-ethylhexyl) ester, 

sodium salt 

All other 

Other sulfonic acids having ester or ether 

linkages 

Xylenesulfonic acid, ammonium salt 

Xylenesulfonic acid, sodium salt 

All other sulfonic acids (and salts thereof) 

Sulfuric acid esters (and salts thereof), total 

Acids, amides, and esters, sulfated, total 

Butyl oleate, sulfated, sodium salt 

Isopropyl oleate, sulfated, sodium salt 

Propyl oleate, sulfated, sodium salt 

Tall oil sulfated, sodium salt 

All other 

Alcohols, sulfated, total 

Dodecyl sulfate, ammonium salt 

Dodecyl sulfate, isopropanolamine salt 

Dodecyl sulfate, magnesium salt 

Dodecyl sulfate, sodium salt 

Dodecyl sulfate, triethanolamine salt 

Mixed linear alcohols, sulfated, ammonium salt — 

Mixed linear alcohols, sulfated, sodium salt 

Mixed linear alcohols, sulfated, triethanolamine 

salt 

Octyl sulfate, sodium salt 

All other 

Ethers, sulfated, total 

Dodecyl alcohol, ethoxylated and sulfated, 

sodium salt 

Mixed linear alcohols, ethoxylated and sulfated, 

ammonium salt 

Mixed linear alcohols, ethoxylated and sulfated, 

sodium salt 

All other 

Natural fats and oils, sulfated, total 

Castor oil, sulfated, sodium salt 

Cod oil, sulfated, sodium salt 

Neat's-foot oil, sulfated, sodium salt 

Tallow sulfated, sodium salt 

All other 

Other anionic surface-active agents 6 



1,000 

pounds 

2,226 

120,868 

153,229 

17,821 

2,121 

15,700 

5,680 

2,690 

2,990 



75,746 
21,996 

17,940 
4,056 

53,750 

5,470 

31,693 

38,867 

551,080 



22,818 

1,071 

129 

442 

2,794 

18,382 

222,869 

13,815 

111 

271 

7,269 
26,936 



178 
174,289 
284,802 



156,114 
20,591 
3,902 
1,717 
1,208 
3,751 
10,013 

44,543 



1,000 
pounds 

2,226 
121,013 
153,229 



28,905 
16,380 

12,773 
3,607 

12,525 
6,020 
23,683 
59,394 

223,178 



17,493 

1,003 

129 

389 

1,579 

14,393 

46,848 

10,422 

251 
19,442 
6,501 
1,542 
2,989 

677 

180 

4,844 

139,537 

13,621 



33,461 
92,455 
19,300 
3,663 
1,695 
798 
3,596 
9,548 

15,962 



1,000 
dollars 

368 
14,759 
16,318 



31,020 
13,251 

11,022 
2,229 

17,769 
1,183 
6,512 

18,648 

105,776 



10,509 

451 

92 

192 

457 

9,317 

37,653 

7,703 

273 
15,743 
5,252 

959 
2,364 

466 

158 

4,735 

50,548 

10,618 



11,182 

28,748 

7,066 

2,127 

433 

301 

1,061 

3,144 

5,385 



at end of table. 



XII - SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



241 



TABLE 1. --Surface-active agents: U.S. production and sales, 1978— Continued 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



PRODUCTION 1 



QUANTITY 1 



UNIT 

VALUE 3 



CATIONIC 

Total 

Amine oxides and oxygen-containing amines (except 

those having amide linkages) , total 

Acyclic, total 

(Coconut oil alkyDamine, ethoxylated 

(Mixed alkyDamine, ethoxylated 

(Tallow alkyDamine, ethoxylated 

All other 

Cyclic (including imidazoline and oxazoline 

derivatives) , total 

l-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-2-nor(coconut oil alkyl)-2- 

imidazoline 

l-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-2-nor(tall oil alkyl)-2- 

imidazoline 

All other 

Amines and amine oxides having amide linkages, 

total 

Tall oil acids - diethylenetriamine and poly- 
alky lenepolyamine condensates 

All other 

Amines, not containing oxygen (and salts thereof) , 

total 

Diamines, polyamines, and amino salts, total 

Imidazoline derivatives 

N-(9-0ctadecenyl) trimethylenediamine 

All other 

Primary, secondary, and tertiary monoamines, 

total 

N,N-Dimethyl (mixed alky 1) amine 

(Hydrogenated tallow alkyDamine 

9-0ctadecenylamine 

(Tallow alkyDamine 

All other 

Quaternary ammonium salts, containing oxygen 

Quaternary ammonium salts, not containing oxygen, 

total 

Acyclic, total 

Bis(coconut oil alkyl)dimethylammonium chloridt 
Bis (hydrogenated tallow alkyDdimethylammonium 

chloride 

All other 

Benzenoid , total 

Benzyl (coconut oil alkyDdimethylammonium 

chloride 

BenzyldimethyKmixed alkyDammonium chloride 

Benzyldimethyloctadecylannonium chloride 

Benzyltrimethylaramonium chloride 

All other 

Other cationic surface-active agents 

KOKIONIC 

Total 

Carboxylic acid amides, total 

See footnotes at end of table. 



1,000 
pounds 



296,261 



75,414 



66,890 
2,056 



3,051 
61,783 



8,810 
19,997 



78,130 



20,546 
1,255 
2,081 

17,210 

57,584 
7,600 
3,695 
3,626 
9,168 

33,495 

25,570 



85,686 



70,521 
3,282 

57,506 
9,733 
15,165 

197 
8,315 
1,760 
1,789 
3,104 

2,654 



1,324,170 



1,000 
pounds 



194,891 



25,016 



21,609 

1,878 
3,290 

16,441 



105 

3,302 



59,512 



17,410 
1,125 
1,780 

14,505 

42,102 
6,972 

3,203 
4,369 
27,558 



65,276 



51,270 
2,478 

39,833 
8,959 

14,006 

177 
7,919 

1,177 
4,733 



1,000 
dollars 



151,533 



18,944 



16,817 

1,869 

2,237 

12,711 



11,858 
1,629 
1,340 



32,614 
6,520 

2,191 
2,893 
21,010 



54,638 



34,945 
2,072 

21,202 
11,671 
19,693 

180 
12,000 

592 
6,921 



pound 
$0.78 



1.00 
.68 
.77 



.89 
.59 



1.45 
.75 



.53 
1.30 
1.41 

1.02 
1.52 

.50 
1.46 



242 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 

TABLE 1. --Surface-active agents: U.S. production and sales, 1978--Continued 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



PRODUCTION' 



QUANTITY 1 



NONIONIC— Continued 

Carboxylic acid amides — Continued 

Diethanolamine condensates (amine/acid ratio=2/l) 

total 

Capric acid 

Coconut oil acids 

Coconut oil and tallow acids 

Laurie acid 

Laurie and myristic acids 

Oleic acid 

Stearic acid 

Tall oil acids 

All other 

Diethanolamine condensates (other amine/acid 

ratios) , total 

Coconut oil acids (amine/acid ratio-1/1) 

Laurie acid (amine/acid ratio-1/1) 

Laurie and myristic acid (amine/acid ratio=l/l)- 

Oleic acid (amine/acid ratio=l/l) 

Stearic acid (amine/acid ratio=l/l) 

Tall oil acids 

All other 

All other carboxylic acid amides, total 

Coconut oil acids (ratio 1/1), ethanolamine 

condensate 

All other 

Carboxylic acid esters, total 

Anhydrosorbitol esters, total 

Anhydrosorbitol monolaurate 

Anhydrosorbitol mono-oleate 

All other 

Diethylene glycol esters, total 

Diethylene glycol distearate 

Diethylene glycol monolaurate 

Diethylene glycol mono-oleate 

Diethylene glycol monostearate 

All other 

Ethoxylated anhydrosorbitol esters, total 

Ethoxylated anhydrosorbitol monolaurate 

Ethoxylated anhydrosorbitol mono-oleate 

Ethoxylated anhydrosorbitol nonostearate 

All other 

Ethylene glycol distearate 

Ethylene glycol monostearate 

Glycerol esters, total 

Glycerol esters of chemically defined acids, 

total 

Glycerol mono-oleate 

Glycerol monostearate 

All other 

Glycerol esters of mixed acids, total 

Glycerol monoester of hydrogenated cottonseed 

oil acids 

Glycerol monoester of hydrogenated soybean 

oil acids 

All other 

Natural fats and oils, ethoxylated, total 

Castor oil, ethoxylated 

Hydrogenated castor oil, ethoxylated 

Lanolin, ethoxylated 

All other 

See footnotes at end of table. 



1,000 
pounds 

23,449 

124 

11,267 

2,133 
186 

3,242 

1,137 
573 
190 

4,597 

24,692 

14,618 

4,281 

4,000 

170 

233 

1,206 

184 

21,250 

5,417 
15,833 



28,473 

6,122 

22,351 

1,493 

396 

243 

24 

180 

650 

30,324 

8,610 

7,660 

8,301 

5,753 

1,660 

2,480 

91,153 

25,776 
3,419 

21,128 
1,229 

55,444 

2,658 

8,627 
44,159 
15,149 
9,570 
1,750 
1,433 
2,396 



17,354 
92 
8,478 
2,070 
172 
1,752 

308 

190 

4,292 

19,135 

13,932 

1,388 

3,009 

205 

601 
4,206 

1,019 
3,187 

192,802 



18,338 

3,884 

5,659 

8,795 

1,336 

404 

233 

15 

185 

499 

31,014 

8,757 

7,513 

9,053 

5,691 

1,676 

2,417 

79,301 

21,897 
3,349 
17,560 



8,643 
39,383 
13,469 

8,698 

1,250 
3,521 



1,000 
dollars 

10,138 

82 

4,897 

1,078 

132 

1,208 

128 

119 

2,494 

11,452 

7,968 

970 

2,077 

100 

337 
2,767 

674 
2,093 

123,243 



13,569 

3,224 

4,156 

6,189 

821 

285 

135 

12 

121 

268 

19,331 

5,628 

4,805 

5,146 

3,752 

698 

1,682 

46,746 

12,175 
2,347 
8,793 
1,035 

28,388 



5,696 
22,692 
7,842 
4,990 

1,109 
1,743 



XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



243 



TABLE 1. --Surface-active agents: U.S. production and sales, 1978— Continued 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



PRODUCTION' 



QUANTITY 1 



UNIT 
VALUE 3 



NON IONIC— Continued 

Carboxylic acid esters — Continued 

Polyethylene glycol esters, total 

Polyethylene glycol esters of chemically defined 

acids, total 

Polyethylene glycol dilaurate 

Polyethylene glycol dioleate 

Polyethylene glycol distearate 

Polyethylene glycol monolaurate 

Polyethylene glycol mono-oleate 

Polyethylene glycol monostearate 

All other 

Polyethylene glycol esters of mixed acids, 

total 

Polyethylene glycol diester of tall oil acids- 
All other 

Polyglycerol esters 

1, 2-Propanediol monolaurate 

1, 2-Propanediol monostearate 

All other carboxylic acid esters 

Ethers, total 

Benzenoid ethers, total 

Dodecylphenol, ethoxylated 

Nonylphenol, ethoxylated 

Phenol, ethoxylated 

All other 

Nonbenzenoid ethers, total 

Linear alcohols, alkoxylated, total 

Decyl alcohol, ethoxylated 

Mixed linear alcohols, ethoxylated 

Mixed linear alcohols, ethoxylated and pro- 
poxy la ted 

9-0ctadecenyl alcohol, ethoxylated 

Oleyl alcohol, ethoxylated 

All other 

Other ethers and thioethers, total 

Tridecyl alcohol, ethoxylated 

All other 

Other nonionic surface-active agents 



1,000 
pounds 

37,329 

24,265 
1,353 
3,386 
3,189 
4,782 
3,614 
6,920 
1,021 

13,064 
1,858 

11,206 

1,378 

59 

2,571 

28,481 

981,125 



325,859 
14,069 
203,556 

3,414 
104,820 
655,266 
568,875 

3,062 
475,794 

23,161 

1,152 

339 

65,367 

86,391 
7,834 

78,557 

33,104 



1,000 
pounds 



19,237 

1,034 
3,065 
4,560 
3,106 
5,422 
2,050 

10,310 

10,310 
1,215 

2,316 
12,173 

740,744 



270,138 
13,658 
181,699 

74,781 

470,606 

408,690 

2,808 

373,185 

21,639 
970 
302 
9,786 
61,916 
6,571 
55,345 

5,608 



1,000 
dollars 



13,082 

676 
2,238 
3,124 
1,963 
3,717 
1,364 

4,258 

4,258 
1,277 

1,598 
12,339 

279,769 



96,525 
5,147 
59,129 

32,249 
183,244 
148,361 
1,151 
131,869 

8,355 
850 
402 
5,734 
34,883 
3,279 
31,604 

6,849 



Per 

pound 



.65 
.73 
.69 
.63 
.69 



.41 
1.05 



.36 
.41 



1.22 



All quantities are given in terms of 100 percent organic surface-active ingredient. 
Sales include products sold as bulk surface-active agents only. 
Calculated from unrounded figures. 

''The term "benzenoid" used in this report, describes any surface-active agents, except lignin derivatives, 
whose molecular structure includes 1 or more 6-membered carbocyclic or hetercyclic rings with conjugated double 
bonds (e.g., the benzene ring or the pyridine ring). 
5 Includes ligninsulfonates. 
includes all other natural fats and oils, sulfated. 



2M 



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XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



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3 




CO 










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CO 


id 




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cs 




z 


O 




< >o 


10 TJ 


4J 


X 


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X 


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u) i« oi >, 


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CO 








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CO 


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01 




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1 ■= 






< 




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0J 




c 


n 


O 


c 





c 


OHVH 








B 




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CO 




4-> 




01 






CO 4-' 






EH 






>* *i 


■d 


id 




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id 


JS 


id 


JO >- ro 


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B 


1 


3 







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0' 




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a 


a 




to IB 


1 05 




Z 


o 






A 


at 




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9 


a 1 


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10 


45 


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a 















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o 










to 




cu o 


l u 




1 






< 





>. 


Id 


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w 


id 


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10 


ir 1 -c - 


Cm 


id 


c- 




4J 


4m 


10 


to 




IB 




01 


o 




>, « 






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o 


CU 






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x 


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H 







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id 












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a 




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o 


o 


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o 


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M 


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m o 


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v 





H 


O 


o 


u 





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10 


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>- 


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CU 


:. 


o 




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u 


J3 






18 -= rH 0) 


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i-H 








CO 


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V 


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o 




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o 


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cu 


C 


01 


0' 





a 


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< 


J 




M 







01 





m 


01 




a 


=- U -C Cm 


X 


4- 1 


>. co 


Cm Cm 


CU Q.4J 


4- 


CO 


JS 


J5 J5 


4M 


JJ 


4J 


CO 


to >o 


1 3 






O 


55 


25 


JS 






u 






M 




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id 


4J 


a 










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-3 











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o c 








a, 


O 


a, 










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u 








o i8 u T3 


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u 


c 


H 


id 


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e 




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JS O 


a. o 


a 


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>M 


>- >- cu a. 


a, 




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a 




cu 








Q 




Q -1 


a) 









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01 


o 


4J U IB IB 


■ X 


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M 


X 


CO 


CO 


MM 


t>M 


>- >. 


CO 


Ifl 


CO 


M-M 


>.T3 








Z 




z 


n 


-e 


a 


mH 


e 


a 


u 


a 


01 -H 


>>cu 


O « 




01 


01 


01 


OJ 








-4 




Jm U 


□ 





o 




M 01 








< 




< 




CU 


3 


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01 


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C 


a 


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JS 




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O 4J 










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Tl 


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a. ^ 


a. 










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m3 


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CU CU Cu Cu Cu 18 










o 




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s 




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id 


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>- 


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>- 




















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H 


J 





U 




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o 


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a 


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>, c »-"C o 


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V 


4J 


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0' 


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rrj 10 







X 


c 


o 


4-1 


HH.H O 


. X 


4-1 


U 


CJ 


M 


M 


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to 




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X 


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4M 


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4J 








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o 








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c 




u 


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o 


3 





0' 










0' 





0' 




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U 





u 


u 


O JS 








Cu 


EH 


CJ 


o 


a 


BS 


H 


1C 


z: 


c^ 


o 


cu cu eh «: 


u 


a 


a 


a 




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X 


X 


X 


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j- e 





o 


o 


o 


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o 




< 




















<: 










































X 




* 






























































Cm 

* 





























































248 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 





























. 


































Cu 
















































j 


































EH 
















































H 






















j 












CO 
















































a, 






















Eh 

u 


Q 










„ 








































































U 










Q 
















































z 
























CC 










U 
















































O 






















EH 












a 
















































■ 






















CC 


































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U 


































u 




























































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> 
























Oj 










H 






















o 


ro 
























H 






















u, 












CL 






















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W 
























J 






















U 


lJ 










» 






















1 z 


►J 


























X 






















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LH 






















o 


ca 
























*: 






















O 


CL 










J 






















1 H 


< 
























«s 






















u 












X 






















EH 


H 
























lJ 


U 










X 








































































Eh 






















cs 
































U 


Z 


























3 
















u 




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CL 










CO 






















1 H 


H 
























H 












u 






H 




►4 












CO 






















ft. 


























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Eh 






B 




CQ 












CO 






















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En 
























cc 


Z 










2 












i: 
































EH 


to 


























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CO 
































1 z 


H 


























Eh 
















X 




CC 


CL 










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J 
























M 












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H 












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u 










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u 
























u 


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1 ft. 


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LC 
















H 






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3 




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to 




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to 


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< 


u 
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CL 
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z 

CO 
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a. 








a 

03 
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X 

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CL 
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o 

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3 
















Cu 




to 








u 


0, 




U 


to 


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u 




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O 
















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1 




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1 


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1 


to 


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1 


1 


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1 
















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s 


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to 


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u 




ft. 






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3 


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1 






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H 


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u 


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o 






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1 





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to 


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249 



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250 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



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252 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



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XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



253 



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301-061 0-79-17 



254 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



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XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



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256 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



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XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



257 



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253 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



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262 



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XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



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XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



265 



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266 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



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XII - SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



267 



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268 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



TABLE 3, --Surface-active agents: Directory of manufacturers, 1978 

ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



nufacturers that reported production and/or sales of surface- 
for 197S are listed below in the order of their identificati 



:tive agents to the U.S. International Trade 
i codes as used in table 2] 



Name of company 



AAC 


! Alcolac Chemical Corp. 


ACT 


: Southland Corp., Chemical Div. , 




: Arthur C. Trask Div. 


ACY 


: American Cyanamid Co. 


AES 


: Penetone Corp. 


AGP 


: Armour-Dial, Inc. 


AKS 


: Arkansas Co., Inc. 


APX 


• Apex Chemical Co., Inc. 


ARC 


: Armak Co. 


ARD 


: Ardmore Chemical Co. 


ARL 


: Arol Chemical Products Co. 


ASH 


: Ashland Oil, Inc. 


ASY 


American Synthetic Rubber Corp. 


ATR 


Atlantic Richfield Co., ARCO Ch 



BAO 
BAS 
BFP 
BLA 
BLS 
BRD 
BSW 

CCA 
CCL 
CCW 
CGY 
CHL 
CHP 
CIN 
CLD 
CLI 



CRD 
CRN 
CRT 
CRZ 
CST 
CTL 
CWP 



DAN 
DEX 
DOW 
DUP 
DYS 



AZS Corp. : 

AZ Products Co. Div. 
AZS Chemical Co. 



Bayoil Co., Inc. 

BASF Wyandotte Corp. 

Breddo Food Products Co., Inc. 

Astor Products, Inc., Blue An 

Life Savers, Inc. 

Lonza, Inc. 

Original Bradford Soap Works, 



Inc 



als, Inc. 

Inc. 
ron Chemicals, Inc. 



Interstab Chemic 

Catawba-Charlab , 

Cincinnati Milac 

Ciba-Geigy Corp. 

Chemol, Inc. 

CH. Patrick & Co., Inc 

Cindet Chemicals, Inc. 

Colloids, Inc. 

Clintwood Chemical Co. 

Continental Oil Co. 

Concord Chemical Co., I 

Colgate-Palmolive Co. 

Croda, Inc. 

CPC International, Inc. 

Crest Chemical Corp. 

Crown Zellerbach Corp., Chemical Products Div 

Charles S. Tanner Co. : 

Continental Chemical Co. : 

Consolidated Papers, Inc. : 

Diamond Shamrock Corp. : 

Dan River, Inc., Chemical Products Dept. : 

Dexter Chemical Corp. : 

Dow Chemical Co. : 

E.I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. : 

Davies-Young Co. : 






ECC 
EFH 
EKT 
EMK 
EMR 
ENO 
ESS 



GAF 
GLY 
GRC 
GRL 
GRO 



HAL 
HDG 
HEW 
HLI 



HNT 
HPC 
HRT 

HUM 



JCC 
JOR 
JRG 

KAL 
KNP 

LAK 
LEA 
LEV 
LKY 
LMI 
LUR 



MAR 
MCP 
MIL 
MIR 
MOA 



Eastern Color & Chemical Co. 

E.F. Houghton 6. Co. 

Eastman Kodak Cc . , Tennessee Eastman Co. 

Emkay Chemical Co. 

Emery Industries, Inc. 

Enenco, Inc. 

Essential Chemicals Corp. 

Ferro Corp., Keil Chemical Div. 

GAF Corp. 

Glyco Chemicals, Inc. 
Chemed Corp., Dubois Chemicals Div. 
Chemed Corp., Vestal Laboratories, Inc. 
A. Gross & Co., Millmaster Onyx Group, 
Kewanee Industries, Inc. 

C.P. Hall Co. 

Hodag Chemical Corp. 

Hewitt Soap Co., Inc. 

Millmaster Onyx Corp. , Haag Labs/Onyx 

Chemical Corp. 
W.R. Grace & Co., Organic Chemicals 

Div. 
Huntington Laboratories, Inc. 
Hercules, Inc. 
Hart Products Corp. 
Kraft, Inc., Humko Sheffield Chemical 

Operation 
Hexcel Corp., Hexcel Specialty Chemicals 

ICI Americas lie, Chemical 
Specialties Co. 

Jefferson Chemicals Co., Inc. 
Jordan Chemical Co. 
Andrew Jergens Co. 

Pathan Chemical Co. 
Knapp Products, Inc. 

Bofors Lakeway Inc. 

Leatex Chemical Co. 

Lever Brothers Co. 

Lake States Div. of Monarch Paper Corp. 

North American Chemical Co. 

Laurel Products Corp. 



American Can Co. 

Moretex Chemical Products, Inc. 

Milliken & Co., Milliken Chemical Div. 

Miranol Chemical Co., Inc. 

Mona Industries, Inc. 



XII -- SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



269 



TABLE 3. --Surface-active agents: Directory of manufacturers, 1978--Continued 



Code 


Name of company • 


: Code 


Name of company 


MON 


Monsanto Co. : 


: SEA 


Seaboard Chemicals, Inc. 


MRD 


Marden-Wild Corp. : 


: SFS 


Stauffer Chemical Co., Specialty Div. 


MRT 


Morton Chemical Co. Div. of Morton-Norwich : 


: SHC 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 




Products, Inc. ! 


: SID 


George F. Siddall Co., Inc. 


MRV 


Marlowe-Van Loan Corp. : 


: SLC 


Soluol Chemical Co., Inc. 






: SLM 


Salem Oil & Grease Co. 


NCW 


Nostrip Chemical Works, Inc. : 


: SM 


Mobil Oil Corp., Mobil Chemical Co., 


NES 


Ruetgers-Nease Chemical Co., Inc. • 




Chemical Coatings Div. 


NMC 


National Milling & Chemical Co., Inc. : 


: SNW 


Sun Chemical Corp., Chemicals Div. 


NPR 


Safeway Stores, Inc. : 


: SOC 


Standard Oil Co. of California, Chevron 


NTL 


NL Industries, Inc. : 




Chemical Co. 






: SOP 


Southern Chemical Products Co., Inc. 


OMC 


Olin Corp. • 


: SOS 


SSC Industries, Inc. 


ONX 


Onyx Chemical Co. : 


: SPA 


Scott Paper Co. 


ORO 


Chevron Chemical Co. : 


STC 


American Hoechst Corp., Sou-Tex Works 






: STP 


Stepan Chemical Co. 


PC 


Proctor Chemical Co., Inc. : 






PCH 


Peerless Chemical Co. : 


: TCC 


Tanatex Chemical Corp. 


PEK 


Peck's Products Co. : 


: TCH 


Emery Industries, Inc., Trylon 


PG 


Procter & Gamble Co., Procter & Gamble : 




Div. 




Mfg. Co. = 


: TCI 


Morton-Norwich Products, Inc., Texize Div. 


PIL 


Pilot Chemical Co. • 


: TEN 


Cities Service Co. , Copperhill Operations 


PLX 


Plex Chemical Corp. : 


: TMH 


Thompson-Hayward Chemical Co. 


PNX 


Murphy-Phoenix Co. : 


: TNA 


Ethyl Corp. 


PRX 


Purex Corp. • 


: TNI 


The Gillette Co., Chemical Div. 


PSP 


Georgia-Pacific Corp., Bellingham Div. : 






PVO 


PVO International, Inc. : 


: UCC 


Union Carbide Corp. 






: UDI 


Petrochemicals Co., Inc. 


QCP 


Quaker Chemical Corp. : 


: UNN 


United Chemical Corp. of Norwood 






: UNP 


United Chemical Products Corp. 


RAY 


ITT Rayonier, Inc. : 


: USM 


USM Corp., Bostik Div. 


RBC 


Fike Chemicals, Inc. • 


: USR 


Uniroyal, Inc., Chemical Div. 


RCD 


Richardson Co. • 






RH 


Rohm & Haas Co. 


: VAL 


Valchem Div. of United Merchants & 


ROB 


Robeco Chemicals, Inc. • 




Manufacturers, Inc. 


RWC 


Robinson-Wagner Co. • 


: VND 


Van Dyk i Co., Inc. 






: VPC 


Mobay Chemical Corp. , Verona Dyestuf f 


S 


Sandoz, Inc. • 




Div. 


SBC 


Scher Bros. Inc. • 






SBP 


Sugar Beet Products Co. : 


: WAW 


W.A. Wood Co. 


SCO 


Scholler Bros. , Inc. 


: WBG 


White & Bagley Co. 


SCP 


Henkel Corp. : 


: WHI 


White & Hodges, Inc. 


SDC 


Martin-Marietta Corp., Sodyeco Div. : 


: WHW 


Whittemore-Wright Co., Inc. 




Sterling Drug, Inc.: : 


: WM 


Inolex Corp. 


SDH 


Hilton Davis Chemical Co. Div. : 


: WTC 


Witco Chemical Corp. 


SDW 


Winthrop Laboratories Div. * 


: WVA 


Westvaco Corp., Polychemicals Dept. 



Note. — Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the appendix. The 
above codes identify those of the 166 reporting companies and company divisions for which permission to publish was 
not restricted. 



301-061 0-79-18 



SECTION XIII -- PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 2 71 



IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS IN PESTICIDES IN 1978 
Edmund Cappuccilli 



During 1978, the most important developments affecting peticide pro- 
ducers and consumers were the result of U.S. Government actions. The Congress 
passed the Federal Pesticide Act of 1978 which provides for a more efficient 
registration process for pesticides and incentives for the development of 
new pesticides. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) which administers 
pesticide legislation made several important decisions in 1978 concerning 
pesticides, the most important of which are discussed below. 

Other noteworthy developments covered in this paper are the registra- 
tion of two new pesticides which were developed to biologically control 
specific insects and the concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) , which 
was promoted by several Government agencies to decrease the use of synthetic 
pesticides in the United States. 



Biological Pesticides 

In 1978, the pesticide industry produced several new pesticides, namely 
insect pheromones. Insect pheromones, or sex attractants, have long been 
desired as insect control agents because of their low toxicity and relatively 
fast degradation time. Unfortunately, the identification and the synthesis 
of these compounds have been very slow because of the small amounts available 
and the high degree of specificity required for each insect specie. 

Despite these problems, the EPA recently approved the use of a syntheti- 
cally produced pheromone to control the pink ballworm caterpillar. This 
pheromone is sprayed on an infected cotton field to prevent the male insects 
from mating. Because of the specific nature of this pheromone, beneficial 
insects are not destroyed. It has also been shown that resistance to this 
chemical through evolution has been almost nonexistant. With the initial 
success of this and some other synthetic pheromones, and the favorable 
response from the EPA, it does not seem long before the major pesticide 
producers will allocate more time and money to this field of insect control. 

Another type of biological pest control which scientists have been 
investigating for some time is the synthesis of natural viruses to destroy 
specific insects. The EPA has approved a synthetic insect virus to combat 
the gypsy moth. Scientists from the Federal Government, private industry, 
and several universities discovered how to produce this lethal moth virus. 
After 1 or 2 years of field trials, this product should be available to 
supplement other conventional chemical controls used to combat this insect. 



Integrated Pest Management 

Over the past few years, several Federal and State agencies have been 
promoting the concept of IPM to reduce the amount of chemical pesticides used 



272 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



in this country. Nonchemical pest controls, including the use of biological 
pesticides such as those mentioned above, are being reemphasized because of 
the increasing costs of chemical pesticides, buildup of insect resistance to 
some pesticides, and environmental hazards. It has also been suggested that 
IPM be used to restrict the use of certain pesticides by incorporating this 
procedure in the EPA's registration/reregistration process. 

Several Government agencies have issued reports for farmers emphasizing 
IPM rather than chemical pesticides alone. Some nonchemical practices 
include crop monitoring for insects and disease before using pesticides, 
crop rotation, introduction of insect predators, and biological pesticides. 
Farmers at one time or another have used one or more of these techniciues, 
but for the past few decades have been relying more on chemical pesticides. 
Additional research on IPM techniques is now being conducted by various 
agencies to increase cost effectiveness on certain crops to make this 
practice more desirable to farmers. Government officials now believe that 
farmers will incorporate some of the IPM techniques into their crop manage- 
ment programs but will not greatly decrease their dependance on chemical 
pesticides until IPM is shown to be cost effective. 

Government Regulations 

After several months of hearings in both the House and the Senate, the 
Congress passed the Federal Pesticide Act of 1978. The following are the 
major provisions of the 1978 Amendments to the Federal Insecticide, 
Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) : 

(1) Increased authority is given to the states regarding enforce- 
ment responsibility and to register Federally approved pesticides 
for additional uses within their states, subject to certain 
conditions, without EPA authorization. 

(2) Data compensation and exclusive use for a specified period 
of time to encourage the development of new products. 

(3) Clarification of the uses consistent with the labeling on 
pesticides. 

(4) Authority to grant conditional registrations for pesticides 
without data under certain circumstances. 

(5) Simplification of the registration procedure in primary and 
minor use areas. 

In general, the Pesticide Act of 1978 should benefit all who are 
involved with pesticides and should increase the efficiency of the 
registration process while encouraging the development of new products 
and making available to farmers a variety of registered products. 



XIII -- PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 273 



One of the provisions of the 1978 Amendment states that before a 
pesticide is placed on the "Rebuttable Presumption Against Registration" 
(RPAR) list, the EPA must confidentially inform the producer and give that 
firm an opportunity to supply exonerating data to the agency. 

In 1978, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4,5- 
trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) and its salts were added to the RPAR list. The 
EPA took this action because of the presence of small amounts of dioxin, 
a powerful teratogen and carcinogen. The dioxin is produced as a byproduct 
when these pesticides are manufactured. One of these products, the herbicide 
2,4,5-T, has caused some controversy because it is alleged to have caused 
miscarriages. The EPA is now investigating this allegation and also 
reports that this herbicide has caused cancer in some Vietnam veterans who 
were exposed to it while in Vietnam. Any final decision on this product, 
however, is expected to take some time because the EPA must carefully 
examine all the risks and the benefits associated with each product. So 
far only two pesticides, chlorobenzilate and dibromochloropropane (DBCP) , 
have gone through the RPAR process. Both products, especially DBCP, have 
been greatly restricted in their uses. 

Production, Sales, and Consumption 

Production of synthetic organic pesticides in 1978 increased slightly 
from the 1977 level. Total synthetic organic pesticide production in 
1978 was 1.42 billion pounds, 2 percent greater than the 1.39 billion 
pounds produced in 1977. Production of herbicides declined by 1.6 percent 
to 664 million pounds owing mainly to increased inventories and lower 
consumer demand. Overall demand for herbicides was lower than anticipated 
because of an unusually wet spring in many parts of the country. On the 
other hand, fungicide production showed some strength by increasing 3 percent 
over the 1977 level to 148 million pounds. The quantity of sales of pesticides 
in 1978 remained at the 1977 level of 1.3 billion pounds; however, the 
value of sales increased by 6.0 percent to $2.0 billion. The average unit 
value of sales increased from $2.22 in 1977 to $2.34 in 1978. 

U.S. consumption of organic pesticides in the unmixed form in 1978 
decreased by approximately 7 percent to 1.1 billion pounds, valued at $2.8 
billion from the 1977 level. The decline in consumption was due primarily 
to heavy rains in some parts of the country which delayed planting of crops 
and to larger than normal pesticide inventories at the beginning of 1978. 

Foreign Trade 

Imports of benzenoid pesticides (TSUS item 405.15) in 1978 amounted 
to 71.7 million pounds valued at $161 million. These pesticide imports 
represented an increase in both quantity and value of 44 and 59 percent, 
respectively, more than the 49.7 million pounds of pesticides valued at $101 



274 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



million imported in 1977. The large increase in pesticide imports registered 
in 1978 is due primarily to an increase in consumer demand for certain pro- 
prietary products and an unexpectedly large volume of herbicides exported 
from Switzerland. Future imports of pesticides are expected to increase but 
not at the rate experienced in 1978. As in most commodities, the import 
value of these products may increase at a faster rate in the next few years 
because of inflationary pressures and the fluctuations of world currencies. 

Total imports of benzenoid pesticides in 1978 continued to be dominated 
by West Germany as shown in table A. The quantity of imports from West Germany 
amounted to 30.6 million pounds, or by 43 percent of the total benzenoid pesticide 
imports. These imports consisted mainly of the herbicide, bentazon, which 
amounted to 18 million pounds in 1978. It is expected that West Germany will 
continue to dominate pesticide imports for the next several years because 
of their strong commitment to research and development of new environmentally 
safe pesticides. 

Imports from countries designated to benefit from the Generalized System 
of Preferences (GSP) in 1978 were valued at $6.4 million, or by 4 percent of 
the total value of pesticides imports. Although this was an increase of 54 
percent in terms of value from 1977, the market penetration of GSP imports 
remained the same as 1977. Israel was the principal GSP country with exports to 
the United States valued at $4.2 million. Imports from GSP countries are expected 
to remain around 4 to 5 percent of total imports in the future because of the 
increased demand for "noncompetitive" pesticides which are, in many cases, 
more effective and environmentally safer than the "competitive" products 
usually exported from GSP countries. The total amount of imports is expected 
to increase at a moderate rate over the next few years because of consumer 
demand for certain pesticides. 

Exports of pesticides and their preparations in 1978 amounted to 618 
million pounds valued at $901 million. Unmixed pesticide exports amounted to 
314 million pounds valued at $490 million. The major markets for U.S. pesticides 
are listed in table B with the values of unmixed pesticides and pesticide 
preparations, which were exported from the United States in 1978. Belgium 
and Canada, the leading importers of U.S. pesticides, imported mainly herbicide 
preparations. Canada imported a large variety of pesticides in addition to 
herbicides (e.g., fungicides, insecticides, and fumigants), while Belgium 
concentrated mainly on herbicides and fungicides. Canada, Belgium, and 
other European export markets for pesticides are not expected to grow 
rapidly in the next few years because most of the usable land is already 
under cultivation. 

The areas of greatest export potential are generally regarded as the 
South American and Asian markets. Many of these countries are already 
importing increasing amounts of insecticides along with smaller amounts of 
herbicides, fungicides, and plant growth regulators. It is anticipated that 
exports to these countries could increase rapidly over the next several years 
if the U.S. products can remain competitive. 



XIII — PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 275 



The pesticide industry maintained a positive balance of trade in 1978. 
Total imports of pesticides, 1/ valued at $205 million, were only 23 percent 
of the export's value of $901 million, for a positive balance of trade of 
$696 million. The balance of trade in the pesticide industry is expected 
to remain positive over the next several years because of the competitiveness 
of U.S. pesticide products and consumer preference for certain U.S. pesti- 
cides. However, the relative U.S. advantage is declining. Several major 
European and Japanese pesticide producers are continuing to develop new 
environmentally safe products, although at a somewhat declining rate because 
of increasing cost. In the field of insecticides, new synthetic pyrethroids 
from Japan and England will probably increase in volume in the coming years. 
Herbicides continue to account for the largest amount of patent applications 
for pesticides in Japan and Europe, especially the products concerned with 
broader spectrum uses and lower toxicity. Future patent applications for 
pesticides by firms in these countries should continue to enhance their 
competitive position in the world market. 



1/ Includes TSUSA items 405.1510, 405.1520, 405.1530, 405.1540, 405.1550, 
425.1040, 425.3600, and 428.7270. 



276 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



Table A. — Pesticides: U.S. imports, by principal sources, 1976-78 



Source 



1976 



1977 



1978 



West Germany 

Switzerland 

Japan 

United Kingdom- 
Canada 

All other 

Total 

West Germany 

Switzerland 

Japan 

United Kingdom- 
Canada 

All other 

Total 

West Germany 

Switzerland 

Japan 

United Kingdom- 
Canada 

All other 

Average 



Quantity (1,000 pounds) 



15,732 
10,885 

5,613 
12,988 

2,289 
14,607 



62,114 



14,941 
3,761 
4,870 

14,025 
4,609 
7,528 



49,734 



Value (1,000 dollars) 



48,643 
26,060 
10,599 
19,904 
3,383 
20,244 



128,833 



41,033 
7,251 

13,067 

20,136 
5,810 

14,000 



101,297 



Unit value (per pound) 



$3.09 
2.39 
1.89 
1.53 
1.48 
1.39 



2.07 



$2.75 
1.93 
2.68 

1.44 
1.26 
1.86 



2.04 



30,638 
17,103 
6,593 
7,341 
2,076 
7,896 



71,647 



79,159 
30,255 
18,530 
11,128 
4,115 
18,176 



161,363 



$2.58 
1.77 
2.81 
1.52 
1.98 
2.30 



2.25 



'TSUS item 405.15. 



Source: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of 
Commerce. 



XIII -- PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 



277 



Table B. — Pesticides: U.S. exports, by principal 
markets, 1978 

(In thousands of dollars) 



Market 



Unmixed 



Preparations 



Total 



Belgium 

Canada 

Brazil 

Japan 

Switzerland 

Netherlands 

United Kingdom- 
Colombia 

West Germany 

Mexico 

Venezuela 

Nicaragua 

All other 

Total 



41,902 
34,884 
34,126 
26,485 
41,724 
29,337 
17,982 
15,754 
16,056 
11,191 
13,825 
13,648 
192,870 



68,278 

73,970 

56,734 

34,334 

2,658 

7,539 

6,222 

8,111 

4,965 

9,323 

4,073 

2,638 

133,216 



489,784 



412,061 



110,180 
108,854 
90,860 
60,819 
44,382 
36,876 
24,204 
23,865 
21,021 
20,514 
17,898 
16,286 
326,086 



901,845 



includes Schedule B Nos. 486.02, 486.04, 486.09, 486.12, 486.14, 
486.16, 486.19, 486.21, 486.23, 486.25, 486.26, 486.28, 486.29, 486.32, 
486.34, 486.39, 486.55, 486.62, 486.64, 486.66, 486.69, 486.72, 486.79, 
486.82, 486.84, 486.89, and 486.95. 



Source: 
Commerce. 



Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of 



278 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



STATISTICAL HIGHLIGHTS 
Edmund Cappuccilli 

Pesticides and related products include fungicides, herbicides, insec- 
ticides, rodenticides, and related products such as plant growth regulators, 
seed disinfectants, soil conditioners, soil fumigants, and synergists. The 
data are given in terms of 100 percent active materials; they exclude 
such materials as diluents, emulsifers, and wetting agents. 

U.S. production of pesticides and related products in 1978 amounted to 
1,416 million pounds — 2.1 percent greater than the 1,388 million pounds re- 
ported for 1977 (table 1). Sales in 1978 were 1,300 million pounds, an 
increase of 2.9 percent, as compared with 1,263 million pounds reported in 
1977; the value of sales was $3,041 million in 1978, compared with $2,808 
million in 1977 — an increase of 8.3 percent. 

The output of cyclic pesticides and related products amounted to 982 
million pounds in 1978 — 1.2. percent less than the 994 million pounds 
produced in 1977. Sales in 1978 were 944 million pounds, valued at $2,314 millic 1 
compared with 904 million pounds, valued at $2,066 million in 1977.. 
Production of acyclic pesticides and related products in 1978 amounted to 434 
million pounds, compared with 394 million pounds reported for 1977, an increase 
of 10.3 percent. Sales in 1978 were 357 million pounds, a decrease of about 
0.7 percent, as compared with 359 million pounds reported in 1977; the value 
of sales was $728 million in 1978, compared with $742 million in 1977 — a 
decrease of 1.9 percent. 



x See also table 2 which lists these products and identifies the manu- 
facturers by codes. These codes are given in table 3. 



XII -- PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 



279 



TABLE l.~ Pesticides and related products: U.S. production and sales, 1978 

[Listed below are all pesticides and related products for which any reported data on production or sales may be 
published. Table 2 lists all pesticides and related products for which data on production and/or sales were 
reported and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



Grand total 

Benzenoid 

Nonbenzenoid 

CYCLIC 

Total 

Fungicides , total 

Naphthenic acid, copper salt 

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) 

Phenylmercuric acetate (PMA) 

All other cyclic fungicides 2 

Herbicides and plant growth regulators, total 

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, dimethylamine salt- 
Plant growth regulators' 

All cyclic herbicides'* 

Insecticides and rodenticides, total 

Organophosphorus insecticides 5 

Piper onyl but oxide 

Toxaphene (chlorinated camphene) 

All other cyclic insecticides and rodenticides 6 

ACYCLIC 

Total 

Fungicides, total 

Dithiocarbamic acid salts 7 

All other acyclic fungicides 8 

Herbicides and plant growth regulators 9 

Insecticides, rodenticides, soil conditioners and 

fumigants, total 

Organophosphorus insecticides 1 ° 

Trichloronitrome thane (Chloropicrin) 

All other acyclic insecticides, rodenticides, soil 
conditioners and fumigants 11 



1,000 
pounds 



1,416,484 



795,836 
620,648 



109,242 



1,188 

39,985 

184 

67,885 

534,275 



19,749 

7,478 

507,048 

338,805 



117,621 

736 

40,430 

180,018 



434,162 



34,343 
3,940 



90,257 
5,818 



1,000 
pounds 



1.300,111 



1,000 
dollars 



3, 041,202 



747, 054 
553,057 



1,897,623 
1,143,579 



2,313,583 



114,852 



1 80,723 



1,207 

47,181 

184 

66,280 

524,031 



20,406 

6,825 

496,800 

304,691 



,042 

17,643 

1,841 

160,197 

1,493,334 



16,520 

23,006 

,453,808 

639,526 



103,478 

749 

40,391 

160,073 



356,537 



243,558 

2,304 

17,151 

376,513 



727,619 



36,065 



32,855 
3,210 



116,048 



41,229 



34,211 
,018 



398,919 



58,525 
6,498 



195,570 
4,321 



199,028 



Per 
pound 



$2.34 



2.54 
2.07 



.81 
3.37 
2.93 



3.08 

.42 

2.35 



1.04 
2.19 



3.34 
.66 



Calculated from unrounded figures. 

2 Includes benomyl, captafol, captan, chlorothalonil, dinocap, DMTT, folpet, pentachloronitrobenzene, sodium 
pentachlorophenate, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol salts, all other phenylmercury compounds, and others. 
Includes maleic hydrazide. 

"includes alachlor, atrazine, barban, benefin, bensulide, 2,4-D acid (esters and salts), 2,4-DB, dicamba, di- 
nitrophenol compounds, diuron, isopropyl phenylcarbamates (IPC and CIPC) , MCPA, molinate, NPA, picloram, propanil, 
silvex and its esters, 2,4,5-T acid (esters and salts), triazines, trifluralin, uracils, and others. 

s Includes carbophenothion, dlazinon, dioxanthion, EPN, methyl parathion, parathion, and other phosphorothio- 
ates and phosphorodith 
Includes carbaryl, 
heptachlor, : 
rodenticides 
Includes 
icides. 

8 Includes 



thoxychl' 
and 



oates. 

carbofuran, chlorinated insecticides (chlordan, chlorobenzilate, DDT, 

ir, and others), insect attractants, DEET and other insect repellents. 



dicofol, endrin, 
small amounts of 



thers. 
, maneb , 



nabam, and zineb, plus the remaining dithiocarbamates which are used chiefly as fung- 



280 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 

Footnotes-- Continued 

9 Includes butylate, dalapon, methanearsonic acid salts, sodium TCA, thiocarbamates, and organophosphorus 
herbicides, and others. 

1 "includes acephate, DDVP, disulfoton, ethion, malathion, naled, phorate, and other organophosphorus insect- 
icides. 

11 Includes methyl bromide, soil conditioners and fumigants, aldicarb, small quantities of rodenticides, and 
others. 

Note. — Does not include data for the insect fumigant, p-dichlorobenzene nor the fungicide, o-phenylphenol . 
These data are include in the section on "Cyclic Intermediates." It also does not include data for the fung- 
icides, dimethyldithiocarbamic acid, sodium salt and dimethyldithiocarbamic acid, zinc salt (i.e., ziram) . These 
data are included in the section on "Rubber-Processing Chemicals." The data for ethylene dibromide, a fumigant, 
are included in the "Miscellaneous End-Use Chemicals and Chemical Products" section. 



XIII -- PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 



231 



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PESTICIDES 



RELATED PRODUCTS 



289 



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290 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



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XIII -- PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 



291 



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292 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



TABLE 3.— Pesticides and related products: Directory of manufacturers, 1978 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



[Names of manufacturers Chat reported production and/o 
national Trade Commission for 1978 are listed below 



sales of pesticides and related products to the U.S. Inte 
the order of their identification codes as used in table 



Name of company 



ABB 
ACY 
ADC 
ALC 
ALP 
AMP 
ARA 



BAS 
BKM 

CCA 
CGY 
CHF 
CHG 

CLY 
CWN 



DOW 
DUP 

EFH 
EGR 

FMN 
FMT 
FRI 
FRO 

GAF 
GNW 
GOC 

GTH 
GTL 

HDW 

HN 

HPC 

IMC 

LIL 

MCI 
MGK 

MMM 



Abbott Laboratories 

American Cyanamid Co. 

Anderson Development Co. 

Alco Chemical Corp. 

Alpha Laboratories, Inc. 

Kerr-McGee Chemical Corp. 

Arapahoe Chemical, Inc. Sub/Syntex U.S.A. 

Inc. 
Ashland Oil, Inc. 



BASF Wyandotte Corp. 
Buckman Labs., Inc. 



Inc. 
ricultural Di 



Interstab Chemical 

Ciba-Geigy Corp. , 

Chemical Formulators, Inc. 

Mobay Chemical Corp. , Agricultural 

Chemicals Div. 
W. A. Cleary Corp. 
Upjohn Co., Fine Chemical Div. 

Diamond Shamrock Corp. 

Dow Chemical Co. 

E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. 

E. F. Houghton 6, Co. 
Eagle River Chemical Corp. 

FMC Corp., Agricultural Chemical Div. 

Fairmount Chemical Co. 

Farmland Industries, Inc. 

Vulcan Materials Co., Chemical Div. 

GAF Corp. 

Greenwood Chemical Co. 

Gulf Oil Corp., Gulf Oil 

Chemical Co. - U.S. 
Guth Chemical Co. 
Great Lakes Chemical Corp. 

Hardwiche Chemical Co. 
Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 
Hercules, Inc. 

International Minerals & Chemicals Corp. 

Eli Lilly 6. Co. 

Mooney Chemical Corp. 
McLaughlin, Gormley & King Co. 
Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co. 



MON 
MOT 
MRK 
MRT 



OMC 
0R0 

PAS 
PBI 
PCW 
PEN 
PFZ 
PIC 
PLC 
PPG 

RBC 
RCI 
RDA 



SFA 
SFC 
SHC 



TMH 
TRO 



UOP 
USR 

VCC 
VEL 
VIN 
VNC 
VTC 



Note. — Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies 
above codes identify those of the 83 reporting companies and company di 
not restricted. 



Monsanto Co. 

Motomoco, Inc. 

Merck & Co. , Inc. 

Morton-Norwich Products, Inc., Morton 

Chemical Co. Div. 
Montrose Chemical Corp. of California 

Niklor Chemical Co., Inc. 

Olin Corp., Agricultural Products Dept. 
Chevron Chemical Co. 

Pennwalt Corp. 

PBI Gordon Corp. 

Pfister Chemical, Inc. 

CPC International, Inc., Penick Div. 

Pfizer, Inc. 

Pierce Organics, Inc. 

Phillips Petroleum Co. 

PPG Industries, Inc. 

Fike Chemicals, Inc. 
Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. 
Rhone-Poulenc, Inc. 
Rohm & Haas Co. 
Riverdale Chemical Co. 

Sandoz Inc., Crop Protection Dept. 
Martin-Marietta Corp., Sodyeco Div. 
Stauffer Chemical Co.: 

Agricultural Div. 

Calhio Chemicals, Inc. 
Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 
Mobil Oil Corp., Mobil Chemical Co., 

Phosphorus Div. 

Thompson-Hayward Chemical Co. 
Troy Chemical Corp. 

Union Carbide Corp. 6. Agricultural 

Products Co. 
UOP, Inc., Chemical Div. 
Uniroyal, Inc., Chemical Div. 

Vinings Chemical Co. 
Velsicol Chemical Corp. 
Vineland Chemical Co., Inc. 
Vanderbilt Chemical Corp. 
Vertac, Inc., Vicksburg Plant 

Witco Chemical Corp. 



listed in table 1 of the appendix. The 
ions for which permission to publish was 



SECTION XIV -- MISCELLANEOUS END-USE CHEMICALS 293 

AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 



STATISTICAL HIGHLIGHTS 
David B. Beck 



This section incorporates those end-use groups which are not readily 
classifiable within the prior sections of this report. Both cyclic and 
acyclic chemicals fall within this section. With the exception of gaso- 
line additives, both production and sales of all end-use groups contained 
within this section increased over 1977 levels. 

In 1978 the production of miscellaneous end-use chemicals exceeded 

20.6 billion pounds, an increase of 6.4 percent over the more than 19.3 
billion pounds of production reported for 1977. Sales in 1978 totaled 

11.7 billion pounds, valued at $2.7 billion. The sales quantity represents an 
increase of 7.8 percent over that of 1977 with the value of sales increasing 
by 6.5 percent. As in 1977, polymers for fibers and urea again collectively 
accounted for 84 percent of the 1978 production of these miscellaneous end-use 
chemicals. Urea accounted for 76 percent of the 1978 sales quantity of these 
chemicals. 

Production of gasoline additives for 1978 totaled 1.1 billion pounds, 
a decrease of 6 percent from the previous year. Total sales quantity for 
1978 was 801 million pounds, down 7 percent from the 1977 sales quantity of 
862 million pounds. This market is expected to continue its decline as a 
result of environmental legislation which restricts the use of lead alkyls 
in gasoline. 



XIV -- MISCELLANEOUS END-USE CHEMICALS 



CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 



295 



TABLE 1.— Miscellaneous end-use chemicals and chemical products: U.S. 

PRODUCTION AND SALES, 1978 



[Listed below are all miscellaneous end-use chemicals and 
duction or sales may be published. (Leaders (...) are 
dence and may not be published or where no data were re 
chemicals and chemical products for which data on produ 
manufacturers of each] 



chemical products for which any reported data on pre 
sed where the reported data are accepted in confi- 
orted.) Table 2 lists all miscellaneous end-use 
tion and/or sales were reported and identifies the 



MISCELLANEOUS END-USE CHEMICALS 
AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



Grand total 

Chelating agents, nitriloacids and salts, total 

(Diethylenetrinitrilo)pentaacetic acid, penta- 

sodium salt 

(Ethylenedinitrilo) tetraacetic acid, calcium 

disodium salt 

(Ethylenedinitrilo) tetraacetic acid disodium salt- 
(Ethylenedinitrilo) tetraacetic acid, tetrasodium 

salt 

(N-Hydroxyethylethylenedinitrilo) triacetic acid, 

trisodium salt 

All other 

Chemical indicators 

Enzymes, total 

Hydrolytic enzymes, total 

Amylases 

Proteases, total 

Rennin 

All other proteases 

All other hydrolytic enzymes 

Non-hydro lytic enzymes 

Flotation reagents 

Gasoline additives, total 3 

N ,N ' -Disa 1 icy 1 idene-1 , 2-propanediamine 

Ethylenedibromide 

Tetraethyl lead 

Tetra(methyl-ethyl) lead, (TEL-TML, reacted) 

Tetramethyl lead 

All other gasoline additives 

Lubricating oil and grease additives, total 

Oil soluble petroleum sulfonate, calcium salt 

Oil soluble petroleum sulfonate, sodium salt 

Phenol salts, total 

Nonylphenol, barium salt 

All other 

Sulfur compounds, total 

Sulfurlzed lard oil 

All other sulfur compounds 

Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate 

All other lubricating oil and grease additives 

Paint driers, naphthenic acid salts, total"' 5 

Calcium naphthenate 

Cobalt naphthenate 

Lead naphthenate 

Manganese naphthenate 

Zinc naphthenate 

All other 



1,000 
pounds 



20,589,333 



183,059 



4,267 
530 



3,855 
104,732 



838 

229,913 
328,436 
368,885 
94,111 
58,468 

1,603,017 



275,082 
128,847 
143,254 

7,835 
135,419 
165,794 

6,910 

158,884 

33,763 

856,277 

12,979 

664 

3,709 

4,071 

799 

1,856 

1,880 



1,000 
pounds 



11,698,266 



1,000 
dollars 



2,713,076 



133,511 



3,679 



543 
576 



2,943 
88,918 



( 2 ) 
( 2 ) 
( 2 ) 
( 2 ) 
( 2 ) 
( 2 ) 
( 2 ) 



274,148 
343,955 



1,201,344 



238,868 
117,672 
124,817 

124,817 
161,479 

161,479 

8,140 

550,368 

11,557 

704 

3,958 

3,646 

755 

1,745 

749 



1,411 

986 



3,013 
39,088 



28,435 



23,937 
3,293 

15,080 
8,196 
6,884 
5,564 
4,498 



817,372 



2,861 



294,946 
364,938 



124,262 
35,316 
57,137 

57,137 
68,159 

68,159 

6,793 

358,568 

14,386 

486 

9,007 

2,199 

525 

1,231 

938 



Per 
pound 



$0.23 



2.60 
1.71 



.67 
1.02 



1.08 
1.06 



.83 
.65 

1.24 
.69 

2.28 
.60 

.70 

.71 

1.25 



See footnotes at end of table. 



296 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 

TABLE 1. --Miscellaneous end-use chemicals and chemical products: 
and sales, 1978— Continued 



U.S. production 



MISCELLANEOUS END-USE CHEMICALS 
AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



Photographic chemicals- 



Polymers for fibers, total 

Nylon 6 and 6/6 

Polyacrylonitrile and acrylonitrile 

Polyethylene terephthalate 

All other polymers for fiber 



Dpolymers- 



Polymers, water soluble, total 

Cellulose ethers and esters 

Polyacrylamide 

Sodium poly aery late 

All other water soluble polymers- 



Tanning materials, synthetic, total 

2-Naphthalenesulfonic acid, formaldehyde 

ate and salt 

All other 



Textile chemicals, other than surface-acti 



Urea, total 

In feed compounds 

In liquid fertilizer- 
In solid fertilizer — 

In plastics 

All other 



All other miscellaneous end-use chemicals and 
ical products 6 



1,000 
pounds 



6,355,206 



,189,909 

648,701 

2,593,092 

923,504 

239,723 



151,303 
53,021 
10,055 
25,344 

62,970 



37,642 
25,328 



6,873 

11,016,683 



469,940 

3,088,773 

6,368,031 

946,850 

143,089 



1,000 
pounds 



422,231 



176,771 
245,460 



203,604 



139,423 

41,441 

2,794 

19,946 

55,614 



38,197 
17,417 



8,854,710 



423,186 
2,594,157 
5,396,079 

373,242 
68,046 



1,000 
dollars 



218,836 



71,506 
147,330 



261,498 



188,640 

45,165 

2,829 

24,864 

24,371 



16,340 
8,031 



583,103 



23,022 
204,215 
324,470 

24,526 
6,870 



Per 

pound 



1.28 



1.35 
1.09 
1.01 
1.25 

.44 



Calculated from rounded figures. 
2 Not available. 
Statistics exclude prod 
given with the section on 
''Quantities are given in 
Statistics exclude prod 
given in the section on "P 



ction and sales of tricresyl phosphate 

Plasticizers." 

the basis of solid naphthenate. 

ction and sales of copper naphthenate. 

sticides and Related Products." 



Includes all other items listed in table 2 which are 



Statistics on tricresyl phosphate are 

tatistics for copper naphthenate are 

ally publishable or publishable as groups. 



XIV -- MISCELLANEOUS END-USE CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 



297 



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298 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 



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XIV -- MISCELLANEOUS END-USE CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 



299 



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300 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 



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XIV -- MISCELLANEOUS END-USE CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 



301 



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XIV -- MISCELLANEOUS EiMD-USE CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 



393 





























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304 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 



TABLE 3. --Miscellaneous end-use chemicals and chemical products: Directory 
of manufacturers, 1978 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



[Names of manufacturers that reported production 
ducts to the U.S. International Trade Commission 
codes as used in table 2] 



nd/or sales of miscellaneous end-use chemicals and chemical pr 
or 1978 are listed below in the order of their identification 



Code 


Name of company : 


: Code 


Name of company 




Allied Chemical Corp.: : 


: FRF 


Firestone Tire 6. Rubber Co., Firestone 


ACN 


Agricultural Div. : 




Synthetic Fibers Co. 


ACS 


Specialty Chemicals Div. : 


: FRI 


Farmland Industries, Inc. 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. : 






AGY 


Agway, Inc., Olean Nitrogen Complex : 


: GAF 


GAF Corp. 


AKS 


Arkansas Co., Inc. : 


: GCC 


W. R. Grace S. Co. 


ALC 


Alco Chemical Corp. : 


: GFS 


G. Frederick Smith Chemical Co. 


ALF 


Allied Chemical Corp., Fibers Div. : 


: GLY 


Glyco Chemicals, Inc. 


ALL 


Alliance Chemical, Inc. : 


: GPI 


Goodpasture, Inc. 


ALX 


Alox Corp. : 




W. R. Grace & Co. : 


AMB 


American Bio-Synthetic Corp. : 


: GRD 


Organic Chemicals Div. , Polymers & 


APD 


Atlas Powder Co. Subsidiary of Tyler : 




Chemicals Div. 




Corp. : 


: GRH 


Hatco Chemical Div. 


ARM 


USS Agri-Chemicals Div. of U.S. Steel : 
Corp. : 


: GYR 


Goodyear Tire 6, Rubber Co. 


ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc. : 


: HCC 


Hatco Chemical Corp. 






: HDG. 


Hodag Chemical Corp. 


BAX 


Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc. : 


: HKY 


Hawkeye Chemical Co. 


BFG 


B. F. Goodrich Co., B. F. Goodrich : 


: HMP 


W. R. Grace & Co., Organic Chemicals Div. 




Chemical Co. Div. : 


: HN 


Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 


BIC 


Beker Industries, Inc. : 


: HPC 


Hercules, Inc. 


BNP 


Bison Nitrogen Products Co. : 


: HST 


American Hoechst Corp., Industrial 


BOR 


Borden Co., Borden Chemical Div. : 




Chemicals Div. 


BUK 


Buckeye Cellulose Corp. : 


: HXL 


Hexcel Corp., Hexcel Specialty Chemicals 


CCA 


Interstab Chemicals, Inc. : 


: ICI 


ICI Americas, Inc., Chemical Specialties 


CCW 


Cincinnati Milacron Chemicals, Inc. : 




Co. 


CEL 


Celanese Corp. : : 








Celanese Fibers Co. : 


: JDC 


Nipak, Inc. 


CFA 


Cooperative Farm Chemicals Association : 


: JFR 


George A. Jeffreys & Co., Inc. 


CFI 


CF Industries, Inc. : 








Celanese Polymer Specialties Co. : 


: KCU 


Kennecott Copper Corp. , Utah Copper Div. 


CGY 


Ciba-Geigy Corp. : 






CHH 


CHR. Hansen's Laboratory, Inc. : 


: MCI 


Mooney Chemicals, Inc. 


CHN 


N-ReN Corp., Cherokee Nitrogen Div. : 


: MIL 


Milliken 6. Co., Milliken Chemical Div. 


CHP 


C. H. Patricks & Co., Inc. : 


: MLS 


Miles Laboratories, Inc., Industrial 


CNC 


Columbia Nitrogen Corp. : 




Products Group 


CRN 


CPC International, Inc., Amerchol Corp. : 


: MMC 


MCB Manufacturing Chemists, Inc. 


CRT 


Crest Chemical Corp. : 


: MON 


Monsanto Co. 






: MOR 


Marathon Morco, Co. 


DA 


Diamond Shamrock Corp. : 


: MRK 


Merck & Co. , Inc. 


DAN 


Dan River, Inc., Chemical Products Dept. : 


: MSC 


Mississippi Chemical Corp. 


DCC 


Dow Corning Corp. : 






DLI 


Dawe's Laboratories, Inc. : 


: NTL 


NL Industries, Inc. 


DOL 


Castle & Cooke, Inc., Castle & Cooke : 








Foods, Hawaii Region : 


: OMC 


Olin Corp. 


DOW 


Dow Chemical Co. : 


: OMS 


E. R. Squibb & Sons, Inc. 


DUP 


E. I. DuPont de Nemours ( Co., Inc. : 


: ORO 


Chevron Chemical Co. 


EK 


Eastman Kodak Co.: : 






EKT 


Tennessee Eastman Co. Div. : 


: PAR 


Pennzoil Co., Penneco Div. 


ELC 


Elco Corp., Sub. of Detrex Chemical : 


: PAS 


Pennwalt Corp. 




Industries, Inc. : 


: PFN 


Pfanstiehl Laboratories, Inc. 


ENJ 


Exxon Chemical Co. U.S.A. : 


: PFZ 


Pfizer, Inc. 


ESA 


East Shore Chemical Co. : 


: PHR 


Pharmachem Corp. 






: PIC 


Pierce Chemical, Inc. 


FER 


Ferro Corp. , Keil Chemical Div. : 


: PLB 


P-L Biochemicals, Inc. 


FMS 


First Mississippi Corp. : 


: PLC 


Phillips Petroleum Co. 


FMT 


Fairmount Chemical Co., Inc. : 


: PMP 


Premier Malt Products, Inc. 


FND 


Fiber Industries, Inc. : 


: PPG 


Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. 



XIV -- MISCELLANEOUS END-USE CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 



305 



TABLE 3, --Miscellaneous end-use chemicals and chemical products: Directory 
of manufacturers, 1978— Continued 



Name of company 



Name of company 



TER 


Terra Chemicals Internatioi 


TER 


Terra Nitrogen, Inc. 


TNA 


Ethyl Corp. 


TRI 


Triad Chemicals 


TRO 


Troy Chemical Corp. 


TVA 


Tennessee Valley Authority 


TX 


Texaco, Inc. 


UCC 


Union Carbide Corp. 


UPM 


UOP, Inc. 


USR 


Uniroyal, Inc., Chemical D 



Valley Nitrogen Produ 



Inc. 



Quaker Chemical Corp. 

Fike Chemicals, Inc. 
Rohm & Haas Co. 
R.S.A. Corp. 

SAG : Swift Agricultural Chemicals 
SFA : Stauffer Chemical Co., Agricultural Div. 
SHC : Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 
SHP : Shepherd Chemical Co. 
SKP : Shakespeare Co., Monofilaments Div. 
Mobil Oil Corp., Mobil Chemical Co.: 
Chemical Coatings Div. 
Phosphorus Div. 
SMP : J.R. Simplot Co., Minerals & Chemical 

Div. 
SNI : Kaiser Aluminum & Chemicals Corp. , Kaiser 

Agricultural Chemicals Div. 
SOH : Vistron Corp. 

General Electric Co., Silicone Products 
Dept. 
SPR : Scientific Protein Laboratories, Inc. 

Sherwin-Williams Co. 
SWS : Stauffer Chemical Co., SWS Silicones 
Div. 

Note. — Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in Table 1 of the Appendix. The 
above codes identify those of the 133 reporting companies and company divisions for which permission to publish was 
not restricted. 



WBC 
WBG 
WLC 
WTC 
WYC 



Phillip A. Hunt Chemical Corp. 

Chemical Div. 
Worthington Biochemical Corp. 
White 6. Bagley Co. 
Agrico Chemical Co. 
Witco Chemical Co., Inc. 
Wycon Chemical Co. 



SECTION XV -- MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 

STATISTICAL HIGHLIGHTS 
David B. Beck 

The term miscellaneous chemicals as it is used here comprises those 
synthetic organic products that are not included in the use groups covered 
by sections I - XIV of this report. They include products that are em- 
ployed in a great variety of uses. The number of chemicals used extensively 
for only one purpose is not large. Among the products covered are those 
used for refrigerants, aerosols, solvents, and a wide range of chemical 
intermediates . 

U.S. production of miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals in 1978 
amounted to 92 billion pounds, an increase of 5.9 percent over 1977. U.S. 
sales for 1978 totaled 39 billion pounds valued at $8.6 billion. Compared 
with 1977, sales quantity increased less than 1 percent, while sales value 
increased by 8.4 percent. Production of miscellaneous cyclic chemicals 
comprised only 2.5 percent of this section's total production. 

The group among miscellaneous acyclic chemicals with the greatest 
volume of production and sales is the halogenated hydrocarbons. U.S. pro- 
duction for this group in 1978 was 24.6 billion pounds, an increase of 
3.1 percent over the previous year. Production decreased in all segments of 
this group except chlorinated hydrocarbons. The production of fluorinated 
hydrocarbons decreased from 921,000 pounds in 1977 to 915,000 pounds in 1978. 
This segment of the industry is expected to continue its decline because of 
Federal regulation limiting the use of certain fluorinated hydrocarbons. 



XV -- MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 339 

TABLE 1, —Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals: U.S. production and sales, 1978 

[Listed below are all miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals for which any reported data on production or 
sales may be published. (Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may 
not be published or where no data were reported.) Table 2 lists all miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chem- 
icals for which data on production and/or sales were reported and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE ' 



Grand total 

CYCLIC 

Total 

Benzoic acid, sodium salt 

Benzoyl peroxide 

Benzyl alcohol 

tert- Butyl peroxybenzoate 

Caprolactam 

2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (BHT) : 

Food grade • 

Tech . grade 

Hexamethylenetetramine, tech. grade 

p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl ester 

Maleic anhydride 

a-Pinene 

B-Pinene 

Tall oil, chemically modified 

Tall oil salts, total 

Calcium tallate 

Other tall oil salts 

All other miscellaneous cyclic chemicals 

ACYCLIC 

Total 

NITROGENOUS COMPOUNDS 

Total 2 

Amides 

Amines, total 

Butylamines, total 

n-Butylamine, mono- 

Di-n-butylamine 

All other butylamines 

Dime thy lamine sulfate 

Ethylamines, total 

Die thy lamine 

Monoe thy lamine 

Trie thy lamine 

I sopropy lamine, mono- 

All other 

2-Dimethylaminoethanol (N,N-Dimethylethanol- 
amine) 

Ethanolamines , total 

2, 2'-Aminodiethanol (Diethanolamine) 

2-Aminoethanol (Monoethanolamine) 

2, 2 ',2' '-Nitrilotriethanol (Triethanolamine) 

Hexamethylene diamine adipate (Nylon salt) 



1,000 
pounds 



92,101,044 



15,468 
6,999 
8,572 
3,503 
918,660 

10,665 
13,034 
92,906 

341,127 

102,354 

39,683 

1,451 

8,086 



8,086 
707,204 



7,667,341 



1,540,164 



55,804 

4,097 

4,921 

46,786 

5,904 

65,623 

15,169 

36,151 

14,303 

45,844 

1,366,989 



115,881 
131,744 
114,402 



1,000 
dollars 



8.581,66 i 



734,434 



13,820 
6,673 
5,642 
3,611 



9,919 

12,842 

44,481 

848 

271,469 



5,479 



7,322 

16,825 

5,400 

7,087 



9,129 
11,235 
13,452 

2,320 
66,405 



3,283 



99 
5,380 

757,707 
37,802,542 



74 
3,209 



591,976 



7,847,229 



2,315,698 



857,430 



123,660 



425,735 



51,442 
4,103 
4,009 

43,330 

48,021 
5,712 
31,950 
10,359 
41,886 
284,386 



239,271 



102,336 
122,587 
95,313 



26,927 
2,318 

2,466 
22,143 

24,488 
3,458 

13,244 
7,786 

14,824 
173,032 



109,401 



35,719 
38,805 
34,877 



Per 
pound 



.53 
2.52 



See footnotes at end of table. 



310 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 



TABLE 1.- 



-Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals: 
and sales, 1978--continued 



U.S. PRODUCTION 



MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



PRODUCTION 



ACYCLIC — Continued 

NITROGENOUS COMPOUNDS— Continued 

2,2'-(Methylamino)diethanol (Methyldiethanol- 
araine) 

Nit riles, total 

Acetonitrile 

Acrylonitrile 

2-Methyllactonitrile (Acetone cyanohydrin)- 
Nitriles, all other 

All other nitrogenous compounds 

ACIDS, ACYL HALIDES, AND ANHYDRIDES 

Total 

Acetic acid, 100% 

Acetic anhydride, 100% 

Acrylic acid 

Adipic acid 

Dodecenylsu ccinic anhydride 

Fumaric acid 

Oxalic acid 

Polyacrylic acid 

Propionic acid 

All other acids, acyl halides, and anhydrides 

SALTS OF ORGANIC ACIDS 

Total 

Acetic acid salts, total 

Barium acetate 

Cobalt acetate 

Magnesium acetate 

Sodium acetate 

Zinc acetate 

All other 

Citric acid, potassium salt 

Citric acid, sodium salt 

2-Ethylhexanoic acid (a-Ethylcaproic acid) 

salts, total 

Calcium 2-ethylhexanoate 

Cobalt 2-ethylhexanoate 

Lead 2-ethylhexanoate 

Manganese 2-ethylhexanoate 

Nickel 2-ethylhexanoate 

Zinc 2-ethylhexanoate 

Zirconium 2-ethylhexanoate 

All other 

Maleic acid salts 

Neodecanoic acid, calcium salt 

Stearic acid salts, total 3 

Aluminum distearate 

Aluminum mono- and tristearates 

See footnotes at end of table. 



1,000 
pounds 



44,942 

1,752,302 

922,638 



7,532,896 



2,775,520 

325,318 

1,621,219 

1,207 

27,993 

2,298 

83,078 

2,696,263 



21,751 



274 

60 

15,935 

517 

4,965 



1,694 
1,618 



1,000 
pounds 



865,205 



1,000 
dol lore 



172,250 



586,815 
278,390 
573,896 

1,716,810 



823,274 
132,078 
46,503 

1,190 
24,402 
10,658 

2,055 

62,848 

613,802 



13,450 

361 

4,649 

4,960 
57,875 



1,703 
1,737 



134,965 

37,285 

256,885 

507, 065 



120,263 
32,032 
15,058 

1,830 
9,941 
4,596 
2,274 
10,879 
310,192 



125 

97 
5,223 

383 
5,505 

2,155 
25,070 



2,208 


2,213 


1,621 


4,904 


4,852 


12,637 


2,150 


2,100 


1,496 


1,571 


1,526 


1,197 


214 


234 


388 


974 


809 


671 


2,768 


2,699 


4,154 


2,428 


2,455 


5,392 



1,582 

1,457 



XV 



MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



311 



TABLE 1. --Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals: U.S. production 

AND SALES, 1978— CONTINUED 



MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



ACYCLIC — Cont inued 

SALTS OF ORGANIC ACIDS— Continued 

Stearic acid salts — Continued 

Barium stearate 

Calcium stearate 

Magnesium stearate 

Zinc stearate 

Al 1 other 

All other salts of organic acids 

ALDEHYDES 

Total 

Butyraldehyde 

Formaldehyde (37% by weight) 

All other 

KETONES 

Total 

Acetone: 

From cumene 

From isopropyl alcohol 

2-Butanone (Methyl ethyl ketone) 

4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (Diacetone 

alcohol) 

4-Methyl-2-pentanone (Methyl isobutyl ketone)' 

4-Methyl-3-penten-2-one (Mesityl oxide) 

All other 

ALCOHOLS, MONOHYDRIC, UNSUBSTITVTED 

Total 

Alcohols, C,, or lower, unmixed, total 

Butyl alcohols: 

n-Butyl alcohol (n-Propylcarbinol) 

Isobutyl alcohol (Isopropylcarbinol) 

Ethyl alcohol, synthetic 1 * 

2-Ethyl-l-hexanol 

n-Hexyl alcohol 

Isopropyl alcohol 

Methanol, synthetic 

Propyl alcohol (Propanol) 

All other 

Alcohols, C and higher, unmixed 

Mixtures of alcohols 

ESTERS OF MONOHWRIC ALCOHOLS 

Total 

n-Butyl acetate, unmixed 

Butyl aery late 

tert-Butyl peroxypivalate 

Di(2-ethyl-l-hexyl) maleate 

Dilauryl-3,3'-thiodipropionate 

Ethyl acetate (85%) 

Ethyl aery late 



1,000 
pounds 

696 
54,391 

6,491 
26,724 

2,761 

198,820 



9,202,093 



782,653 
6,380,959 
2,038,481 



3,758,668 



,051,811 
467,602 
660,835 



232,691 

33,143 

312,586 



14,151,534 



13,021,012 



755,855 

145,903 
1,266,866 

420,131 

39,506 

1,729,666 

6,443,242 

162,437 
2,057,406 

401,684 
728,838 



4,347,982 



122,106 
279,586 

2,186 
500 

2,417 
181,944 
299,306 



1,000 
: unds 

679 
54,147 

6,577 
26,743 

2,751 

136,378 



1,000 
do I lavs 



550 
30,387 

4,793 
19,755 

2,775 

36,966 



68,168 

2,241,958 

418,094 



2,535,255 



11,962 
105,917 
88,255 



1,083,662 
456,699 
669,341 

52,428 
155,944 

15,797 
101,384 



145,869 
71,366 

127,007 

15,360 
42,703 
4,991 
35,560 



1,001,477 



6,961,738 



780,778 



395,494 

136,197 

1,047,791 

315,965 

22,081 

1,052,634 

3,080,747 

119,838 

790,991 

150,848 
510,694 



66,985 

18,180 
178,762 

67,325 

6,645 

126,388 

181,027 

28,636 
106,830 

52,264 
168,435 



128,161 

147,451 

2,133 

2,310 
177,973 
147,541 



32,790 
52,702 
6,989 

2,772 
33,744 
44,295 



Per 
pound 



$0.81 
.56 
.73 



1.20 
.19 
.30 



See footnotes at end of table. 



312 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



TABLE l.~ Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals: U.S. production 

AND SALES, 1978— CONTINUED 



MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



PRODUCTION 



ACYCLIC — Continued 

ESTERS OF MOtlOHYDRIC ALCOHOLS— Continued 

2-Ethyl-l-hexyl aery late 

Fatty acid esters, not included with plastic- 

izers or surface-active agents, total 

Methyl esters of tallow 

All other 

Isobutyl acetate 

Phosphorus acid esters, not elsewhere specif ied- 

Propyl acetate 

Vinyl acetate 

All other 

POLYHYDRIC ALCOHOLS* 

Total 

Ethylene glycol 

Glycerol, synthetic only 

Pentaerythritol 

Propylene glycol 

Sorbitol (70% by weight) 

All other 

POLYHYDRIC ALCOHOL ESTERS 

Total 

Triethylene glycol diacrylate 

Trimethylolpropane triacrylate 

All other 

POLYHYDRIC ALCOHOL ETHERS 

Total 

2-Butoxyethanol 

2-(2-Butoxyethoxy)ethanol (Diethylene glycol 

monobutyl ether) 

Diethylene glycol 

Dipropylene glycol 

2-Ethoxyethanol 

2- (2-Ethoxyethoxy) ethanol (Diethylene glycol 

monoethyl ether) 

2- [2- (2-Ethoxyethoxy) ethoxy ] ethanol (Triethylene 

glycol monoethyl ether) 

2-Methoxyethanol (Ethylene glycol monomethyl 

ether) 

2- (2-Methoxyethoxy) ethanol (Diethylene glycol 

monomethyl ether) 

2- [2- (2-Methoxyethoxy) ethoxy] ethanol (Triethyl- 
ene glycol monomethyl ether) 

Polyethylene glycol 

Polypropylene glycol 

Tetraethylene glycol 

Triethylene glycol 

All other 

See footnotes at end of table. 



1,000 
pounds 



1,820 
28,171 



116,909 

52,497 

1,691,969 

1,504,442 



5,275,821 



3,903,889 
133,907 

546,794 
205,339 
485,892 



1,641 
172,806 



2,008,574 



188,838 

36,603 
372,243 

51,987 
398,346 

39,087 



17,066 

29,406 
89,849 
26,829 
22,707 
119,944 
482,457 



1,000 
dollars 



1,819 
28,930 

48,433 

94,503 

49,634 

942,659 

718,456 



4,242,314 



3,137,188 
116,612 
117,085 
525,527 
160,267 
185,635 



370 
148,471 



1,324,862 



177,079 

30,715 
208,804 

46,472 
104,307 

33,688 



84,603 
20,871 
15,457 
83,901 
399,998 



699 
15,398 

12,409 
79,715 
13,007 
167,107 
287,853 



929,321 



546,69 
54,448 
50,325 

127,404 
63,374 
87,080 



477 
72,922 



401,861 



53,806 

9,668 
35,343 
11,328 
27,664 

8,79 8 



29,869 



31,074 
7,799 
5,760 

26,110 
150,826 



XV -- MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



313 



TABLE 1. --Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals: 

AND SALES, 1978--CONTINUED 



U.S. PRODUCTION 



MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



PRODUCTION 



JJNIT 
VALUE 1 



ACYCL IC — Con t inued 

HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS 

Total 

Brominated hydrocarbons 

Chlorinated hydrocarbons, total 

Carbon tetrachloride 

Chlorinated paraffins (C 10 -C 30 ), total 

35%-64% chloride 

Other 

Chloroethane (Ethyl chloride) 

Chloroform 

Chloromethane (Methyl chloride) 

1,2-Dichloroethane (Ethylene dichloride) 

Dichloromethane (Methylene chloride) 

1, 2-Dichloropropane (Propylene dichloride) — 

Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) 

1,1,1-Trichloroethane (Methyl chloroform) 

Trichloroethylene 

Vinyl chloride, monomer (Chloroethylene) 

All other chlorinated hydrocarbons 

Fluorinated hydrocarbons, total 

Chlorodifluoromethane (F-22) 

Dichlorodif luoromethane (F-12) 

Tetraf luor ©ethylene, monomer 

Trichlorof luoromethane (F-ll) 

All other fluorinated hydrocarbons 

Iodinated hydrocarbons 

A] 1 other halogenated hydrocarbons 

ALL OTHER MISCELLANEOUS ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 

Total 

2-Butanone peroxide 

tert-Butyl peroxide (Di-tert-butyl peroxide) — 
Carbon disulfide 

Epoxides, ethers, and acetals, total 

Ethylene oxide 

Ethyl ether, absolute 

Propylene oxide 

All other epoxides, ethers, and acetals 

Phosgene (Carbonyl chloride) 

Silicone fluids 

Sodium formaldehyde bisulfite 

Sodium methoxide (Sodium methylate) 

All other 



1,000 
pounds 



24,634,818 



76,800 
23,643,057 



737,030 

99,876 

74,562 

25,314 

539,793 

349,169 

453,810 

11,000,619 

570,098 

74,112 

725,457 

644,475 

298,986 

6,941,123 

1,208,509 

914,911 



205,612 
327,097 
27,733 
193,735 
160,734 

50 



10,744,546 



7,584,748 



5,012,419 

12,098 

2,046,843 

513,388 

1,296,941 

200,370 

698 

7,864 

1,166,052 



1,000 

pounds 



9,969,588 



1,000 
iollars 



1,676,045 



9,137,217 



363,406 

95,200 

80,698 

14,502 

159,079 

302,114 

200,797 

1,033,313 

490,678 

33,382 

549,111 

631,243 

298,557 

4,885,688 

94,649 

753,170 



139,797 
316,864 



166,898 
129,611 



2,327,099 



9,024 

3,172 

375,962 

1,658,547 



525,113 



7,487 
194,581 



41,698 
28,245 
21,833 
6,412 
23,428 
53,423 
28,977 
82,645 

114,342 

2,120 

53,589 

135,388 
46,588 

618,407 
31,756 

390,816 



106,236 
134,743 



57,341 
92,496 



815,645 



12,489 

3,247 

31,645 

400,521 



5,754 
222,023 



Per 
pound 



1.36 
1.02 



1.14 



fatty amines are given with "Sur- 
se stearates 



Calculated from rounded figures. 

Statistics exclude production and sales of fatty amines. Statistic 
face-Active Agents." 

Statistics exclude production and sales of potassium and sodium stearates. Statistics 
are included with "Surface-Active Agents." 

''Statistics on production of ethyl alcohol from natural sources by fermentation are issued by the Department 
of the Treasury, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. 

Some polyols with are used as intermediates for urethanes have been included with "Plastics and Resin 
Materials." 



3W 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



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344 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 



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XV -- MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC 



ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



345 



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346 



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XV -- MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



347 



TABLE 3. --Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals: 

OF MANUFACTURERS, 1978 



Directory 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



bs of manufacturers that reported production and/or sales of miscellaneous cycli 
5. International Trade Commission for 1978 are listed below in the order of thei 
table 2] 



and acyclic chemicals to the 
identification codes as used 



Code : 


Name of company : 


: Code 


Name of company 


AAC : 


Alcolac Chemical Corp. : 


: CLN 


Standard Brands, Inc., Clinton Corn 




ABB : 


Abbott Laboratories : 




Processing Co. Div. 




ACS = 


Allied Chemical Corp., Specialty Chemicals : 


: CNP 


Nipro Inc. 






Div. : 


: CO 


Continental Oil Co. 




ACY : 


American Cyanamid Co. : 


: CPS 


CPS Chemical Co. 




ADC : 


Anderson Development Co. : 


: cpv 


Cook Paint & Varnish Co., Inc. 




AIP : 


Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. : 


: CRN 


CPC International, Inc., Amerchol Corp 




ALB : 


Ames Laboratories, Inc. : 


: CRZ 


Crown Zellerbach Corp. , Chemical Produ 


.ts 


ALD = 


Aldrich Chemical Co., Inc. : 




Div. 




ALF = 


Allied Chemical Corp., Fibers Div. : 


: CTN 


Chemetron Corp. , Chemical Products Div 




ALX : 


Alox Corp. * 


: CWN 


Upjohn Co. , Fine Chemical Div. 




AMB 


American Bio-Synthetics Corp. • 


: CYR 


CY/RO Industries, Inc. 




AMO 


Standard Oil Co. (Indiana) 








AMR 


Pacific Resins & Chemicals, Inc. • 


: DA 


Diamond Shamrock Corp. 




ARA 


Arapahoe Chemicals, Inc., Sub/Syntex 

U.S.A., Inc. : 


: DAN 


Dan River, Inc., Chemical Products 
Dept. 




ARC 


Armak Co. : 


: DBC 


Badische Co. 




ARS 


Arsynco, Inc. : 


: DCC 


Dow Corning Corp. 




ARZ 


Arizona Chemical Co. 


: DLX 


Dixie Chemical Co. 




ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc. : 


: DKA 


Denka Chemical Corp. 




ASL 


The Ansul Co., Chemical Div. 


: DOM 


Dominion Products, Inc. 




ATL 


Atlantic Chemical Corp. : 


: DOW 


Dow Chemical Co. 




ATR 


Atlantic Richfield Co., Arco Chemical Co. : 


: DUP 


E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. 




AZT 


Dart Industries, Inc., Aztec Chemicals Div. : 


: DVC 


Dover Chemical Corp., Sub. of ICC Indu 
Inc. 


itr i 


BAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. : 


: EFH 


E. F. Houghton & Co. 




BCC 


Buffalo Color Corp. : 


: EK 


nastman Kodak Co.: 




BFG 


B. F. Goodrich Co., B. F. Goodrich Chemical : 


: EKT 


Tennessee Eastman Co. Div. 






Co. Div. : 


: EKX 


Texas Eastman Co. Div. 




BKC 


J. T. Baker Chemical Co. : 


: ELP 


El Paso Products Co. 




BKL 


Millmaster Onyx Group, Millmaster Chemical * 


: SIR 


Emery Industries, Inc. 






Co. Div. : 


: EU 


Exxon Chemical Co. U.S.A. 




BOR 


Borden Co., Borden Chemical Div. 


: EVN 


Evans Chemetics, Inc. 




BRD 


Lonza, Inc. • 








BUK 


Buckeye Cellulose Corp. • 


: FER 


Ferro Corp. : 

Grant Chemical Div. 




CAD 


Noury Chemical Corp. 




Keil Chemical Div. 




CAU 


Calcasieu Chemical Corp. • 




FMC Corp. : 




CBD 


Chembond Corp. • 


: FMB 


Industrial Chemical Group 




CBY 


Crosby Chemicals, Inc. * 


: FMB 


Specialty Chemicals Group 




CCA 


Interstab Chemicals, Inc. : 


: FMP 


Industrial Chemical Group 




CCH 


Pearsall Chemical Corp. : 


: FMT 


Fairmount Chemical Co., Inc. 




CCL 


Catawba-Charlab, Inc. • 


: FOC 


Handschy Industries, Inc., Farac Oil & 




CCW 


Cincinnati Milacron Chemicals, Inc. • 




Chemical Div. 




CEL 


Celanese Corp. : • 


: FRO 


Vulcan Materials Co., Chemicals Div. 






Celanese Chemical Co. : 


: FTE 


Foote Mineral Co. 






Celanese Fibers Co. : 








CGY 


Ciba-Geigy Corp. 


: GAF 


GAF Corp. 




CHG 


Mobay Chemical Corp., Agricultural : 


: GAN 


Gane's Chemical Works, Inc. 






Chemicals Div. : 


'• GIV 


Givaudan Corp. 




CHL 


Chemol, Inc. : 


: GLY 


Glyco Chemicals, Inc. 




CHP 


C. H. Patrick & Co. , Inc. 


: GOC 


Gulf Oil Corp., Gulf Oil Chemicals Co. 


-U.S 


CHT 


: Chattem, Inc. , : 


: GP 


Georgia-Pacific Corp.: 




CIN 


Cindet Chemicals, Inc. : 




Plaquemine Div. 




CLK 


: Clark Oil & Refining Corp. : 




Resins Operations 





343 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 



TABLE 3.— Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals: 

OF MANUFACTURERS, 1978--CONTINUED 



Directory 



Name of company 



Name of company 



GTL 
GYR 

HAL 
HCF 
HCP 
HDG 
HDW 
HEX 
HFT 



HMP 

HMY 

HN 

HPC 

HRT 

HSH 

HST 

HUM 

HXL 

ICI 



KCC 

KCH 

KF 

KLM 

KPT 

LAK 

LEM 

MAL 
MCB 
MCI 
MHI 
MIL 
MLS 

MMM 
MNO 
MNR 
MOB 



W. R. Grace & Co., Organic Chemicals Div. 

Polymers S, Chemicals Div. 
A. Gross & Co., Millmaster Onyx Group 

Kewanee Industries, Inc. 
Great Lakes Chemical Corp. 
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. 

C.P. Hall Co. 

Hereof ina 

Honig Chemical & Processing Corp. 

Hodag Chemical Corp. 

Hardwicke Chemical Co. 

Hexagon Laboratories, Inc. 

Syntex Agribusiness, Inc. 

Hooker Chemical Corp.: 

Hooker Chemicals & Plastics Corp., 
Durez Div. 
Millmaster Onyx Group, Haag Labs/Onyx 

Chemical Corp. 
W. R. Grace & Co., Organic Chemicals Div. 
Humphrey Chemical Co. 
Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 
Hercules, Inc. 
Hart Products Corp. 
Harshaw Chemical Co. 
American Hoechst Corp. , Industrial 

Chemical Div. 
Kraft, Inc., Humko Sheffield Chemical 

Operation 
Hexcel Corp., Hexcel Specialty Chemicals 

ICI Americas, Inc.: 

Chemical Specialties Group 

Plastics Div. 
International Minerals & Chemicals Corp, 

Nitroparaf f in Div. 
Ionac Chemical Co. Div. of Sybron Corp. 

Jefferson Chemical Co., Inc. 

Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corp. , Kaiser 

Chemicals 
Kennecott Copper Corp., Chino Mines Div. 
Joseph Ayers, Inc. 
Kay-Fries Chemicals, Inc. 
Kalama Chemical, Inc. 
Koppers Co. , Inc. 

Bofors Lakeway, Inc. 
Napp Chemicals, Inc. 

Mallinckrodt Chemical Works 

Borg-Warner Corp., Borg-Warner Chemicals 

Mooney Chemicals, Inc. 

Thiokol Corp., Ventron Div. 

Milliken & Co., Milliken Chemical Div. 

Miles Laboratories, Inc., Industrial Prod 

Group 
Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co. 
Monochem, Inc. 
Monroe Chemical 
Mobay Chemical Co. 



MON 
MRK 
MRT 



NCW 
NEO 
NEV 
NOC 
NPI 
NSC 
NTB 
NTL 
NWP 



OMC 
ONX 
0R0 
ORT 
OXC 
0X1 

PAS 
PCW 



PEN 
PFN 
PFX 
PFZ 



PIC 
PLC 
PLS 
PMP 
PPG 
PST 
PUB 
PVO 



RBC 
RCI 
RCN 
RDA 
REH 



RSA 
RUB 



Monsanto Co. 

Merck & Co. , Inc. 

Morton-Norwich Products, Inc. Morton 

Chemical Co. Div. 
Montrose Chemical Corp. of California 

Union Camp Corp., Terpenes & Aromatics 

Div. 
Nostrip Chemical Works, Inc. 
Norda, Inc. 
Neville Chemical Co. 
Norac Co., Inc. and Mathe Div. 
Stephan Chemical Co., Polychem Dept. 
National Starch & Chemical Corp. 
National Biochemical Co. 
NL Industries, Inc. 
Northern Petrochemicals Co. 

Oxirane Chemical Co. 

Airco, Inc., Ohio Medical Products Div. 

Olin Corp. 

Onyx Chemical Co. 

Chevron Chemical Co. 

Roehr Chemicals, Inc. 

Oxochem Enterprise 

Oxirane Chemical Co. (Channelview) 

Pennwalt Corp. 

Pfister Chemical, Inc. 

Parke, Davis & Co., Sub. of Warner-Lambert 

Co. 
CPC International, Inc., Penick Corp. 
Pfanstiehl Laboratories, Inc. 
Plastifax, Inc. 

Pfizer, Inc. & Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 
Procter 4 Gamble Co., Procter & Gamble 

Manufacturing Co. 
Pierce Chemical, Inc. 
Phillips Petroleum Co. 
Plastics Engineering Co. 
Premier Malt Products, Inc. 
PPG Industries, Inc. 
Perstorp, Inc. 
Publicker Industries, Inc. 
PVO International, Inc. 

Quaker Oats Co. 

Fike Chemicals, Inc. 

Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. 

Racon, Inc. 

Rhone-Poulenc, Inc. 

Reheis Chemical Co. Div. of Armour 

Pharmaceutical Co. 
Remington Arms Co., Inc. 
Rohm 6, Haas Co. 
Millmaster Onyx Group, Refined Onyx Co. 

Div. 
R.S.A. Corp. 
Hooker Chemical Corp., Hooker Chemicals 4 

Plastics Corp., Ruco Div. 
Rubicon Chemicals, Inc. 



XV - MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



349 



TABLE 3.— Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals: Directory 

OF MANUFACTURERS, 1978— CONTI NUED 



Code 


Name of company : 


: Code 


Name of company 


S 


Sandoz, Inc. : 


: TNI 


The Gillette Co., Chemical Div. 


SAL 


Salsbury Laboratories : 


: TRO 


Troy Chemical Corp. 


SAR 


Sartomer Industries, Inc. : 


: TSA 


Texas Alkyls, Inc. 


SBC 


Scher Bros. , Inc. : 


: TX 


Texaco, Inc. 


SCM 


SCM Corp., Organic Chemicals Div. : 


: TZC 


Magnesium Elektron, Inc. 


SCP 


Henkel Corp. : 






SDC 


Martin-Marietta Corp., Sodeyco Div. : 


: UCC 


Union Carbide Corp. 




Sterling Drug, Inc.: : 


: UOC 


Union Oil Co. of California, Union 


SDH 


Hilton Davis Chemical Co. Div. : 




Chemicals Div., Petrochemicals Group 


SDW 


Winthrop Laboratories Div. : 


: UOP 


UOP, Inc., Chemical Div. 




Stauffer Chemical Co.: : 


: UPJ 


Upjohn Co. 


SFA 


Agricultural Div. : 


: UPM 


UOP, Inc. 


SFC 


Calhio Chemicals, Inc. : 


: USB 


U.S. Borax & Chemical Corp. 


SFI 


Industrial Div. : 


: USI 


U.S. Industrial Chemicals Co., National 


SFP 


Plastics Div. : 




Distillers & Chemicals Corp. 


SFS 


Specialty Chemical Div. : 


: USO 


U.S. Oil Company 


SHC 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. : 


: USR 


Uniroyal, Inc., Uniroyal Chemical Div. 


SHP 


Shepherd Chemical Co. : 


: USS 


USS Chemicals Div. of U.S. Steel Corp. 


SK 


SmithKline Corp., SmithKline Chemicals : 








Div. : 


: VAL 


Valchem Div. of United Merchants 8. 


SKO 


Getty Refining 6. Marketing Co. : 




Manufacturing, Inc. 


SM 


Mobil Oil Corp., Mobil Chemical Co.: : 


: VEL 


Velsicol Chemical Corp. 




Chemical Coatings Div. : 


: VGC 


Virginia Chemicals, Inc. 




Phosphorus Div. : 


: VIK 


Viking Chemical Co. 


SNO 


SunOlin Chemical Co. : 


: VND 


Van Dyk & Co. , Inc. 


SNW 


Sun Chemical Corp., Chemical Div. : 


: VTC 


Vertac, Inc., Vicksburg Plant 


soc 


Standard Oil Co. of California, Chevron : 








Chemical Co. : 


: WAG 


West Agro-Chemical, Inc. 


SOH 


Vistron Corp. : 


: WAY 


Phillip A. Hunt Chemical Corp., Organic 


SPD 


General Electric Co., Silicone Products : 




Chemical Div. 




Dept. : 


: wee 


White Chemical Corp. 


STC 


American Hoechst Corp., Sou-Tex Works : 


: WCL 


Wright Chemical Corp. 


STP 


Stepan Chemical Co. : 


: WLN 


Wilmington Chemical Corp. 


SW 


Sherwin-Williams Co. 


: WM 


Inolex Corp. 


SWS 


Stauffer Chemical Co., SWS Silicones : 


: WTC 


Witco Chemical Corp. 




Div. : 


: WTH 


Union Camp Corp., Chemical Div. 


SYP 


Dart Industries, Inc., Synthetic Products : 


: WTL 


Pennwalt Corp., Lucidol Div. 




Co. Div. : 


: WYC 


Wycon Chemical Co. 






: WYT 


Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., Wyeth 


TCC 


Tanatex Chemical Co. : 




Laboratories Div. of American Home 


TCH 


Emery Industries Inc., Trylon Div. : 




Products Corp. 


TKL 


Thiokol Chemical Corp. : 






TNA 


Ethyl Corp. : 


: ZGL 


Carolina Processing Corp. 



Note. — Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 
bove codes identify those of the 270 reporting companies and company divisions for which pe 



appendix. The 
n to publish was 



351 



APPENDIX 



352 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 



TABLE 1.— Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 

BY COMPANY, 1978 



Names of synthetic organic chemicals manufacturers that reported production and/or sales to the U. 
Trade Commission for 1978 are listed below alphabetically, together with their identification 
table 2 of the 15 individual sections of this report] 



odes 



used 



Name of company 



AEP 
AZS 



ABB 

ABS 

WLC 

AGY 

OH 

AIP 

ALC 

AAC 

ALD 

ALL 

ACN 
ALF 
ASC 
ACS 
ACU 
ALX 
APH 
ALP 
HES 



ACY 
HST 



STC 
ASY 
ALB 
ADC 
ASL 
APX 
APO 
ARA 

KPP 
ARD 
ARN 
ARZ 
AKS 
ARC 
AGP 
ARP 
ARK 
ARL 
ARS 
ASH 

BLA 
AST 
ATL 
ATR 
APD 



A & E Plastik Pak Co., Inc 

AZS Corp.: 

AZ Products Co. Div 

AZS Chemical Co 

Abbott Laboratories 

Abex Corp., Friction Products Group 

Agrico Chemical Co 

Agway, Inc., Olean Nitrogen Complex 

Airco, Inc., Ohio Medical Products Div 

Air Products & Chemicals, Inc 

Alco Chemical Corp 

Alcolac , Inc 

Aldrich Chemical Co., Inc 

Alliance Chemical Corp 

Allied Chemical Corp.: 

Agricultural Div 

Fibers Div 

Semet-Solvay Div 

Specialty Chemicals Div 

Union Texas Petroleum Div 

Alox Corp 

Alpha Chemical Corp 

Alpha Laboratories, Inc 

Amerada Hess Corp. (Hess Oil Virgin 

Islands Corp.) 
American Bio-Synthetics Corp 

American Can Co 

American Color & Chemical Corp 

American Cyanamid Co 

American Hoechst Corp 

Hoechst Fibers Industries Div 

Industrial Chemicals Div 

Sou-Tex Works 

American Synthetic Rubber Corp 

Ames Laboratories, Inc 

Anderson Development Co 

Ansul Co., Chemical Div 

Apex Chemical Co., Inc 

Apollo Colors, Inc 

Arapahoe Chemicals, Inc., Sub/Syntex 
U.S.A., Inc. 

ARCO/Polymers , Inc 

Ardmore Chemical Co . , Inc 

Arenol Chemical Corp 

Arizona Chemical Co 

Arkansas Co., Inc 

Armak Co 

Armour-Dial , Inc 

Armour Pharmaceutical Co 

Armstrong Cork Co 

Arol Chemical Products Co 

Arsynco , Inc 

Ashland Oil, Inc 

Astor Products, Inc 

Astra Pharmaceutical Products, Inc 

Atlantic Chemical Corp 

Atlantic Richfield Co., Arco Chemical Co 
Atlas Powder Co., Sub. of Tyler Corp 



14505 Proctor Ave., Industry, CA 91749. 



33801. 

GA 30318. 

60064. 



2525 So. Combee Rd . , Lakeland, 

762 Marietta Blvd., N.W., Atla 

14th St. and Sheridan Rd., N. Chicago, I 

P. 0. Box 3250, Winchester, VA 22601. 

P. 0. Box 3166, Tulsa, OK 74101. 

1446 Buffalo St., Olean, NY 14760. 

3030 Airco Dr., P. 0. Box 7550, Madison, 

P. 0. Box 538, Allentown, PA 18105. 

Trenton Ave. and William St., Philadelphia, PA 19134. 

3440 Fairfield Rd., Baltimore, MD 21226. 

940 W. St. Paul Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53233. 

33 Avenue P, Newark, NJ 07105. 



53701. 



P. 0. Box 2120, Houston 
1411 Broadway - 38th Fl 
Columbia Rd., Morristow 
P. 0. Box 1219-R, Morri 
P. 0. Box 2120, Houston 
3943 Buffalo Ave., Niag 
P. 0. Drawer A, Coll 



X 77001. 

New York, NY 1001 

NJ 07960. 

wn, NJ 07960. 

X 77001. 
gara Falls, NY 14303. 
rville, TN 38017. 



1685 S. Fairfax St., Denver, CO 80222. 
1 Hess Plaza, Woodridge, NJ 07095. 

710 W. National Ave., P. 0. Box 4275, Milwaukee 

WI 53204. 
American Lane, Greenwich, CT 06830. 
P. 0. Box 51, Reading, PA 19603. 
Wayne, NJ 07470. 

Route 202-206 North, Somerville, NJ 08876. 
P. 0. Box 5887, Spartanburg, SC 29304. 
129 Quidnick St., Coventry, RI 02816. 
P. 0. Box 866, Mount Holly, NC 28052. 
4500 Camp Ground Rd., Louisville, KY 40216. 
200 Rock Lane, Milford, CT 06460. 
1415 E. Michigan St., Adrian, MI 49221. 
1 Stanton St., Marinette, WI 54143. 
200 S. 1st St., Elizabethport, NJ 07206. 
899 Skokie Blvd., Northbrook, IL 60062. 
2075 N. 55th St., Boulder, CO 80302. 

1500 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 19101. 

840 Valley Brook Ave., Lyndhurst, NJ 07071. 

40-33 23d St., Long Island City, NY 11101. 

Berdan Ave., Wayne, NJ 07470. 

185 Foundry St., Newark, NJ 07105. 

300 S. Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606. 

2000 Aucutt Rd., Montgomery, IL 60538. 

P. 0. Box 511, Kankakee, IL 60901. 

Charlotte 6, Liberty Sts., Lancaster, PA 17604. 

649 Ferrv St., Newark, NJ 07105. 

P. 0. Box 8, Carlstadt, NJ 07072. 

1401 Winchester Ave., Ashland, KY 41101, and 

P. 0. Box 2458, Columbus, OH 43216. 
5244 Edgewood Ct., Jacksonville, FL 32205. 
Neponset St., Worcester, MA 01606. 
10 Kingsland Rd., Nutley, NJ 07110. 
515 S Flower St., Los Angeles, CA 90064. 
P. 0. Box 87, Joplin, M0 64801. 



APPENDIX 



353 



TABLE 1. --Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 

BY COMPANY, 1378— CONTINUED 



Name of company 



Office addr 



Atlas Processing Co 

Joseph Ayers, Inc 

BASF Wyandotte Corp 

Badische Corp 

J. T. Baker Chemical Co 

Baltimore Paint & Chemical Co. Div of 
Dutch Boy, Inc. 

Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc 

Bayoil Co., Inc 

Beecham, Inc., Beecham Laboratories Div- 

Beker Industries Corp 

Belding Chemical Industries 

Bendix Corp 

Bennett ' s 

Benzenoid Organics, Inc 

Berncolors-Poughkeepsie , Inc 

Binney and Smith, Inc 

Biocraft Laboratories, Inc 

Bison Nitrogen Products Co 

Bofors Lakeway, Inc 

Borden, Inc. : 

Borden Chemical Div 

Printing Ink Div., Pigments Div 

Borg-Warner Corp. , Borg-Warner Chemicals 

Breddo Food Products Corp., Inc 

Bristol-Meyers Co 

M. A. Bruder & Sons, Inc 

Buckeye Cellulose Corp 

Buckman Laboratories, Inc 

Buffalo Color Corp 

Burdick & Jackson Laboratories, Inc 

Burroughs Wellcome Co 

CF Industries, Inc 

CPC International, Inc.: 

Acme Resin Corp 

Amerchol Corp 

Penick Corp 

CPS Chemical Co 

CY/RO Industries, Inc 

Calcasieu Chemical Corp 

Carborundum Co 

Cargill , Inc 

Carl Gordon Industries, Inc 

Carolina Processing Corp 

Carpenter Chemical Co 

J.W. Carroll & Sons Div. of U.S. 

Industries, Inc. 
Castle & Cooke, Inc., Castle & Cooke 
Foods, Hawaii Pineapple Div. 

Catawba-Charlab , Inc 

Celanese Corp. : 

Celanese Chemical Co 

Celanese Fibers Co 

Celanese Plastics Materials Co 

Celanese Polymer Specialties Co 

Certain teed Corp 

Certified Processing Corp 

Champlin Petroleum Co 

Charter International Oil Co 



P. 0. Box 3099, 3333 Midway St., Shreveport, LA 71103. 
Route #2, Bethlehem, PA 18017. 

100 Cherry Hill Rd., Parslppany, NJ 07054. 
602 Copper Rd., Freeport, TX 77541. 
222 Red School Lane, Phillipsburg, NJ 08865. 
2325 Hollins Ferry Rd., Baltimore, MD 21230. 

60053. 



08854. 
06830. 



84110. 



6301 N. Lincoln Ave. , Morton Grove, 

2 Union St., Peabody, MA 01960. 

101 Possumtown Rd., Piscataway, NJ 

120 W. Putnam Ave., Greenwich, CT 

1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018. 

P. 0. Box 238, Troy, NY 12180. 

P. 0. Box 1320, Salt Lake City, UT 

P. 0. Box 157, Route 140, Bellingham, MA 02019. 

75 N. Water St., Poughkeepsie, NY 12601. 

P. 0. Box 431, 1100 Church Lane, Easton, PA 18042. 

12 Industrial Way, Waldwick, NJ 07463. 

P. 0. Box 1828, Sioux City, IA 51102. 

5025 Evanston Ave., Muskegon, MI 49443. 

180 E. Broad St., Columbus, OH 43215. 

630 Glendale-Milford Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45215. 

International Center, Parkersburg, WV 26101. 

18th and Kansas Avenue, Kansas City, KS 66105. 

345 Park Ave., New York, NY 10022. 

52d St. and Grays Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19143. 

2899 Jackson Ave., P. 0. Box 8407, 

Memphis, TN 38108. 
1256 N. McLean Blvd., Memphis, TN 38108. 
340 Elk St., P. 0. Box 7027, Buffalo, NY 14210. 
1953 S. Harvey St., Muskegon, MI 49442. 
3030 Cornwallis Rd., Research Triangle Park, NC 27 

Salem Lake Dr., Long Grove, IL 60047. 

1401 S. Circle Avenue, Forest Park, IL 60130. 

Talmadge Rd., Edison, NJ 08817. 

1050 Wall St. W., Lyndhurst, NJ 07071. 

P. 0. Box 162, Old Bridge, NJ 08857. 

Berden Ave., Wayne NJ 07470, and 697 Route 46, 

Clifton, NJ 07015. 
P. 0. Box 1522, Lake Charles, LA 70602. 
P. 0. Box 477, Niagara Falls, NY 14302. 
P. 0. Box 9300 CPD/30, Minneapolis, Mil 55440. 
1001 Southbridge St., Worcester, MA 01610. 
P. 0. Box 151, Severn, NC 27877. 
P. 0. Box 27205, Richmond, VA 23261. 
22600 Bonita St., Carson, CA 90745. 



650 Iwilei Rd., P. 0. 

HI 96801. 
5046 Old Pineville Rd 



Box 3380, Honolulu 



Charlotte, NC 28231. 



1250 W. Mockingbird Lane, Dallas, TX 75247. 

P. 0. Box 1414, Charlotte, NC 28201. 

26 Main St., Chatham, NJ 07928. 

One Riverfront Plaza, Louisville, KY 40202. 

P. 0. Box 860, Valley Forge, PA 19482. 

U.S. Highway 22, Hillside, NJ 07205. 

P. 0. Box 9176, Corpus Christi, TX 78408. 

P. 0. Box 5008, Houston, TX 77012. 



354 

TABLE 1.- 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 

-Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 
by company, 1978— continued 



f ication 
code 



CHT 
CBD 



GRC 
GRL 



CTN 
HSC 



CHF 
CHL 
CPX 
ORO 
CGY 



CCW 
CIN 



CBN 
TEN 
CBN 

CSO 
CLK 
CLY 
CLI 
CSP 
CP 
CLD 
CNC 
CMP 
COR 
CPI 
CNE 6. 
SED 
CON 
CWP 
CTL 
CO 
CPV 
CFA 
COP 
CPY 
SWC 
CSD 
CRT 
CRD 
ALT 

CBY 
CCP 
CRZ 

CTR 

DAN 

AZT 
SYP 



Name of company 



Chat tern, Inc 

Chembond Corp 

Chemed Corp. : 

Dubois Chemicals Div 

Vestal Laboratories Div 

Chemetron Corp. : 

Chemical Products Div 

Pigments Div., Sub. of Allegheny 
Ludlum Industries, Inc. 

Chem-Fleur , Inc 

Chemical Fonnulators , Inc 

Chemol , Inc 

Chemplex Co 

Chevron Chemical Co 

Ciba-Geigy Corp 

Agricultural Div 

Pharmaceut ical Div 

Resins Dept 

Cincinnati Milacron Chemicals, Inc 

Cindet Chemicals, Inc 

Cities Service Co.: 

Columbian Div 

Copperhill Operations 

Petrochemicals Div 

Petroleum Products Group 

Clark Oil & Refining Corp 

W. A. Cleary Corp 

Clintwood Chemical Co 

Coastal States Petroleum Co 

Colgate-Palmolive Co 

Colloids , Inc 

Columbia Nitrogen Corp 

Commercial Products Co., Inc 

Commonwealth Oil Refining Co., Inc 

Commonwealth Petrochemicals, Inc 

Conchemco, Inc 

Concord Chemical Co., Inc 

Consolidated Papers, Inc 

Continental Chemical Co 

Continental Oil Co 

Cook Paint & Varnish Co 

Cooperative Farm Chemicals Association — 

Coopers Creek Chemical Corp 

Copolymer Rubber & Chemical Corp 

Corco Cyclohexane, Inc 

Cosden Oil £. Chemical Co 

Crest Chemical Corp 

Croda , Inc 

Crompton & Knowles Corp., Dyes 6. Chemica 

Div. 

Crosby Chemicals, Inc 

Crown Central Petroleum Corp 

Crown Zellerbach Corp., Chemical Product 

Div. 
Custom Resins Div. of Bemis Co., Inc 

Dan River, Inc., Chemical Products Dept- 

Dart Industries, Inc.: 

Aztec Chemicals Div 

Synthetic Products Co. Div 



Office address 



1715 W. 38th St., Chattanooga, TO 37409. 
P. 0. Box 270, Springfield, OR 97477. 

Dubois Tower, Cincinnati, OH 45211. 

5035 Manchester Ave., St. Louis, MO 63110. 

P. 0. Box 66251-AMF 0'Hare, Chicago, IL 60666. 
491 Columbia Ave., Holland, MI 49423. 

200 Pulaski St., Newark, NJ 07105. 
P. 0. Box 26, Nitro, WV 25143. 
P. 0. Box 20687, Greensboro, NC 27420. 
3100 Golf Rd., Rolling Meadows, IL 60008. 
575 Market St., Rm. 3280, San Francisco, CA 94105. 
444 Saw Mill River Rd., Ardsley, NY 10502. 
P. 0. Box 11422, Greensboro, NC 27409. 
556 Morris Ave., Summit, NJ 07901. 
444 Saw Mill River Rd., Ardsley, NY 10502. 
West St., Reading, OH 45215. 
2408 Doyle St., P. 0. Box 20926, Greensboro, 
NC 27420. 

P. 0. Box 300, Tulsa, OK 74102. 

Copperhill, TO 37317. 

P. 0. Box 1522, Lake Charles, LA 70602, and 

6th & Boston Sts., Tulsa, OK 74017. 
P. 0. Box 1562, Lake Charles, LA 70602. 
131st St. & Kedzie Ave., Blue Island, IL 60406. 
P. 0. Box 10, Somerset, NJ 08873. 
4342 S. Wolcott Ave., Chicago, IL 60609. 
P. 0. Drawer 521, Corpus Christi, TX 78403. 
300 Park Ave., New York, NY 10022. 
394 Frelinghuysen Ave., Newark, NJ 07114. 
P. 0. Box 1483, Augusta, GA 30903. 
117 Ethel Ave., Hawthorne, NJ 07506. 
Petrochemical Complex, Ponce, PR 00731. 
Petrochemical Complex, Ponce, PR 00731. 
10000 Marshall Dr., Lenexa, KS 66215, and 

18th & Garfield Sts., Kansas City, MO 64127. 
17th & Federal Sts., Camden, NJ 08105. 
231 1st Ave. N., Wisconsin Rapids, WI 54494. 
270 Clifton Blvd., Clifton, NJ 07015. 
P. 0. Box 1267, 1000 South Pine, Ponce City, OK 74601 
919 E. 14th Ave., N. Kansas City, M0 64116. 
P. 0. Box 308, Lawrence, KS 66044. 
River Rd., W. Conshohocken, PA 19428. 
P. 0. Box 2591, Baton Rouge, LA 70821. 
Petrochemical Complex, Ponce, PR 00731. 
P. 0. Box 1311, Big Spring, TX 79720. 
225 Emmett St., Newark, NJ 07114. 
51 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10010. 
500 Pear St., Reading, PA 19603. 



P. 0. Box 460, Picayune, 
1 N. Charles St., Baltimo 
P. 0. Box 4266, Camas, WA 



39466. 
, MD 21203. 
98662. 



P. 0. Box 933, Henderson, KY 42420. 
P. 0. Box 261, Danville, VA 24541. 



P. 0. Box 250, Elyria, OH 44035. 

1636 Wayside Rd., Cleveland, OH 44112. 



APPENDIX 
TABLE 1. --Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 

BY COMPANY, 1978--CONTINUED 



355 



Name of company 



Office addres 



Davies- Young Co 

Dawe's Laboratories, Inc 

Day-Glo Color Corp 

Degen Oil 6, Chemical Co 

Degussa Corp 

Denka Chemical Corp 

Dennis Chemical Co 

DeSoto, Inc 

Dexter Chemical Corp 

Midland Div 

Diamond Shamrock Corp 

Disogrin Industries Corp 

Dixie Chemical Co 

Dixie Pine Chemicals, Inc 

Dominion Products, Inc 

Dover Chemical Corp., Sub. of ICC 

Industries, Inc. 

Dow Chemical Co 

Dow Corning Corp 

E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc 

Dye Specialties, Inc 

Eagle Pitcher Industries, Ohio 

Rubber Co. Div. 

Eagle River Chemical Corp 

Eastern Color & Chemical Co 

Eastman Kodak Co 

Tennessee Eastman Co. Div 

Texas Eastman Co. Div 

East Shore Chemical Co 

Elan Chemical Co 

Elco Corp., Sub. of Detrex Industries, 

Inc. 

El Paso Products Co 

Emery Industries, Inc 

Trylon Div 

Emkay Chemical Co 

Endo Laboratories, Inc 

Enenco , Inc 

Essential Chemicals Group 

Ethyl Corp 

Polymer Div 

Evans Chemetics, Inc 

Exxon Chemical Co. U.S. A 

FMC Corp. : 

Agricultural Chemical Group 

Industrial Chemical Group 

Industrial Chemical Group 

Specialty Chemicals Div 

FRP Co 

Fabricolor Manufacturing Corp 

Fairmount Chemical Co., Inc 

Farmland Industries, Inc 

Felton International, Inc 

Ferro Corp. : 

Chemical Div 

Grant Chemical Div 

Keil Chemical Div 

Ottawa Chemical Div 

Productol Chemical Div 



2700 Wagner Place, Maryland Heights, MO 63043. 
450 State St., Chicago Heights, IL 60411. 
4732 St. Clair Ave., Cleveland, OH 44103. 

200 Kellogg St., Jersey City, NJ 07305. 
Theodore Industrial Park, P. 0. Box 606, 

Theodore, AL 36582. 
8701 Park Place Blvd., Hou 

2701 "apin St., St. Louis, 
1700 S. Mt. Prospect Ave., 
845 Edgewater Rd., Bronx, 
1-7 E. Water St., Waukegan 
1100 Superior Ave. 
Grenier Field, Manchester, NH 
3635 W. Dallas Ave., Houston, 



ston, TX 77017. 
M0 63103. 
Des Plaines, II 
NY 10474. 
, IL 60085. 
Bland, OH 44114. 
03130. 
TX 77019. 



P. 0. Box 470, Hattiesburg, MS 39401. 

882 3d Ave., Brooklyn, NY 11232. 

15th & Davis Sts., P. 0. Box 40, Dover, OH 44622. 

2020 Dow Center, Midland, MI 48640. 

P. 0. Box 1767, Mail Code //C02216, Midland, MI 48640. 

DuPont Bldg., Wilmington, DE 19898. 

100 Plaza Center, Box 1532, Secaucus, NJ 07094. 



P. 0. 1398, Dent 



TX 76201. 



P. 0. Box 2648, W. Helena, AR 72390. 
35 Livingston St., Providence, RI 02904. 
343 State St., Rochester, NY 14650. 
P. 0. Box 511, Kingsport, TO 37662. 
P. 0. Box 511, Kingsport, TO 37662. 
1221 E. Barney Ave., Muskegon, MI 49443. 
268 Doremus Ave., Newark, NJ 07105. 
P. 0. Box 09168, Cleveland, OH 44109. 

P. 0. Box 3986, Odessa, TX 79760. 

1300 Carew Tower, Cincinnati, OH 45202. 

P. 0. Box 628, Mauldin, SC 29607. 

319 2d St., Elizabeth, NJ 07206. 

1000 Stewart Ave., Garden City, NY 11530. 

P. 0. Box 398, Memphis, TO 38101. 

28391 Essential Rd . , Merton, WI 53056. 

330 S. 4th St., Richmond, VA 23231. 

Ethyl Tower, 451 Florida, Baton Rouge, LA 

90 Tokeneke Rd., Darien, CT 06820. 

P. 0. Box 3272, Houston, TX 77001. 



2000 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 19103. 
2000 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 11103. 
2000 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 19103. 
Sawyer Ave. & River Rd., Town of Tonawanda, 

NY 14150. 
P. 0. Box 349, Baxley, GA 31513. 
24-1/2 Van Houten St., Paterson, NJ 07509. 
117 Blanchard St., Newark, NJ 07105. 
P. 0. Box 7305, Kansas City, MO 64116. 
599 Johnson Ave., Brooklyn, NY 11237. 

7050 Krick Rd., Bedford, OH 44146. 

P. 0. Box 263, Baton Rouge, LA 70821. 

3000 Sheffield Ave., Hammond, IN 46320. 

700 N. Wheeling St., Toledo, OH 43605. 

10051 Romandel Ave., Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670. 



556 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 

TABLE 1.— Synthetic Organic chemicals: Alphabetical Directory of manufacturers, 

BY COMPANY, 1978— CONT I NUED 



Name of company 



Office address 



FND • Fiber Industries, Inc — — 

RBC * Fike Chemicals, Inc ' 

Firestone Tire & Rubber Co.: 

FIR | Firestone Plastics Co. Div 

FRF j Firestone Synthetic Fibers Co 

FRS j Firestone Synthetic Rubber & Latex Co. 
Div. 

FST ; First Chemical Corp 

FMS * First Mississippi Corp 

FLM * Fleming Laboratories, Inc 

CIK ; Flint Ink Corp., Cal/Ink Div 

FLO ' Florasynth, Inc 

FTE ; Foote Mineral Co 

FOM ; Formica Corp 

FLN [ Franklin Chemical Corp 

FRE ; Freeman Chemical Corp 

FB | Frltzsche Dodge & Olcott, Inc 

CNI \ Frye Copysystems, Conap Div 

FLH ; H. B. Fuller Co., Polymer Div 

GAF | GAF Corp 

GLX ] Galaxie Chemical Corp 

GAN [ Gane's Chemicals, Inc 

GE j General Electric Co 

GEI ] Insulating Materials Products Section 

SPD \ Silicone Products Dept 

GNF \ General Foods Corp., Maxwell House Coffee 

\ Div. 

GLC \ General Latex & Chemical Corp 

GNT | General Tire 6. Rubber Co., Chemical Div 

GRG \ P. D. George Co 

I Georgia-Pacific Corp. : 

PSP ; Bellingham Div 

GP \ Plaquemine~Div 

GP | Resins Operations 

SKO | Getty Refining 6. Marketing Co 

TID \ Delaware Refinery 

TNI j The Gillette Co. , Chemical Div 

GIL \ Gilman Paint & Varnish Co 

GIV | Givaudan Corp 

GLY \ Glyco Chemicals, Inc 

GPI j Goodpasture, Inc 

BFG | B. F. Goodrich Co., B. F. Goodrich Chemical 

\ Group 

GYR \ Goodyear Tire (. Rubber Co 

GCC ; W. R. Grace 6, Co 

GRH \ Hatco Chemical Div 

HMP ; Organic Chemicals Div 

GRD | Polymers & Chemicals Div 

GRA \ Great American Chemical Corp 

GTL \ Great Lakes Chemical Corp 

GRW ; Great Western Sugar Co 

GNM | Greenwood Chemical Co 

GRO \ A. Gross & Co., Millmaster Onyx Group, 

] Kewanee Industries, Inc. 

GRV | Guardsman Chemical, Inc 

GOC J Gulf Oil Corp., Gulf Oil Chemicals Co. 

I U.S. 

GTH ; Guth Corp 

HNC : H 6. N Chemicals Co 



P. 0. Box 10038, Charlotte, NC 28201. 
P. 0. Box 546, Nitro, WV 25143. 

P. 0. Box 699, Pottstown, PA 19464. 
P. 0. Box 450, Hopewell, VA 23869. 
381 W. Wilbeth Rd., Akron, OH 44301. 

P. 0. Box 1427, Pascagoula, MS 39567. 

P. 0. Box 1249, Jackson, MS 39205. 

P. 0. Box 34384, 2205 Thrift Rd., Charlotte, NC ; 

1404 4th St., Berkeley, CA 94710. 
410 E. 62d St., New York, NY 10021. 
Route 100, Exton, PA 19341. 

10155 Reading Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45241. 
2020 Bruck St., Columbus, OH 43207. 
P. 0. Box 247, Port Washington, WI 53074. 
76 9th Ave., New York, NY 10011. 

1405 Buffalo St., Olean, NY 14760. 
4450 Malsbary Rd., Blue Ash, OH 45242. 

P. 0. Box 6037, Chattanooga, TN 37401, and 

P. 0. Box 12, Linden, NJ 07036. 
26 Piercy St., Paterson, NJ 07524. 
1144 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036. 
1 Plastics Ave., Pittsfield, MA 01201, and 

1350 S. Second St., Coshocton, OH 43812. 
1 Campbell Rd., Schenectady, NY 12306. 
Bldg. 11-24, Waterford, NY' 12188. 
1125 Hudson St., Hoboken, NJ 07030. 

666 Main St., Cambridge, MA 02139. 
1 General St., Akron, OH 44329. 
5200 N. 2d St., St. Louis, M0 63147. 

P. 0. Box 1236, Bellingham, WA 98225. 

P. 0. Box 629, Plaquemine, LA 70764. 

900 S.W. 5th Ave. , Portland, OR 97240. 

P. 0. Box 1650, Oil Center Bldg., Tulsa, OK 7410; 

Delaware City, DE 1970f-. 

3500 W. 16th St., N. Chicago, IL 60064. 

216 W. 8th St., Chattanooga, TN 37401. 

100 Delawanna Ave., Clifton, NJ 07014. 

51 Weaver St., Greenwich, CT 06830. 

P. 0. Drawer 921, Brownfield, TX 79316. 

6100 Oak Tree Blvd., Cleveland, OH 44131. 

1144 E. Market St., Akron, OH 44316. 

P. O. Box 277, Memphis, TN 38101. 

King George Post Rd., Fords, NJ 08863. 

Poisson Ave., Nashua, HE 03060. 

55 Hayden Ave., Lexington, MA 02173. 

650 Water St., Fitchburg, MA 01420. 

P. 0. Box 2200, West Lafayette, IN 47906. 

P. 0. Box 5308, T. A., Denver, CO 80217. 

P. 0. Box 26 - State Highway #690, Greenwood, VA 

22943. 
625 Doremus Ave., Newark, NJ 07105. 

1350 S. 15th St., Louisville, KY 40210. 
P. 0. Box 3766, Houston, TX 77001. 

322 S. Center St., Hillside, IL 60162. 

90 Maltese Dr., Totowa, NJ 07512. 



APPENDIX 



357 



TABLE 1. --Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 
by company, 1978— continued 




Office addr 



C. P. Hall 

Hands chy Industries, Inc., Farac Oil and 

Chemical D 
Hanna Chemical Coatings Corp 

CHR. Hansen's Laboratory, I 
Hardman, Inc 
Hardwicke Chemical C 
Harmon Colors Corp 
Harshaw Chemical C 
Hart Products Corp 
Hatco Chemical Corp 
Haveg Industries, Inc., Sub 

Hercules 
Hawkeye Chemical C 
Henkel, Corp 
Df ina 

Hercor Chemical Corp 

Hercules , Inc 

Heresite-Saekaphen, Inc 

Heterochemical Corp 

Hewitt Soap Co., Inc 

Hexagon Laboratories, Inc 

Hexcel Corp., Hexcel Specialty Chemicals 

Hodag Chemical Corp 

Hof fmann-LaRoche, Inc 

Honig Chemical & Processing Corp 

Hooker Chemical Corp 

Hooker Chemicals & Plastics Corp.: 

Durez Div 

Ruco Div 

E. F. Houghton & Co 

Humphrey Chemical Co 

Philip A. Hunt Chemical Corp. , Organic 

Chemical Div. 

Huntington Laboratories, Inc 

Hynson, Westcott & Dunning, Inc 

ICI Americas, Inc.: 

Chemical Specialties Co 

Plastics Div 

ITT Rayonier, Inc 

Indol Chemical Co 

Indpol , Inc 

Industrial Color, Inc 

Inland Steel Co., Inland Steel Container 

Co. 
Inmont Corp 

Inolex Corp 

Inolex Pharmaceutical Div 

Insilco Corp., Sinclair Paint Co. Div 

International Flavor and Fragrances, Inc 
International Minerals & Chemical Corp — 

Foundry Products Div 

McWorter Resins 

Nitroparaf f ins Div 

Inter plastic Corp 

Interstab Chemicals, Inc 

Ionac Chemical Co. Div. of Sybron Corp — 
Ironsides Co 



7300 S. Central Ave., Chicago, IL 60638. 
13601 S. Ashland Ave., Riverdale, IL 60627. 



1313 Windsor Ave 

OH 43216. 
9015 W. Maple St 
600 Cortlandt St 
Route 2, Box 50A 
550 Belmont Ave. 
1945 
173 



P. 0. Box 147, Columbus, 



West Alleis, WI 53214. 
Belleville, NJ 07109. 
Elgin, SC 29045. 
Haledon, NJ 07508. 
97th St., Cleveland, OH 44106. 
ex St., Jersey City, NJ 07302. 



King George Post Rd., Fords, NJ 08863. 
900 Greenback Rd., Wilmington, DE 19808. 

P. 0. Box 899, Clinton, IA 52733. 

4620 W. 77th St., Minneapolis, MN 55435. 

310 tl. Front St., P. 0. Box 1694, Wilmington, 

NC 28402. 
Petrochemical Complex, Ponce, PR 00731. 
910 Hercules Tower, Wilmington, DE 19899. 
822 S. 14th St., Manitowoc, WI 54220. 
Ill E. Hawthorne Ave., Valley Stream, NY 11580. 
333 Linden Ave., Dayton, OH 45403. 
4166 Boston Rd., Bronx, NY 10475. 
205 Main St., Lodi, NJ 07644. 
7247 N. Central Park Ave., Skokie, IL 60076. 
324-424 Kingsland St., Nutley, NJ 07110. 
414 Wilson Ave., Newark, NJ 07105. 
MPO Box 8, Niagara Falls, NY 14302. 

Walck Rd., N. Tonawanda, NY 14121. 

P. 0. Box 456, Revin Rd., Burlington, NJ 08016. 

303 W. Lehigh Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19133. 

Devine St., North Haven, CT 06473. 

P. 0. Box 4249, E. Providence, RI 02914. 



970 E. Tipton St., Huntington, IN 
Charles and Chase Sts. , Baltimore, 



46750. 

MD 21201. 



Wilmington, DE 19897. 

Wilmington, DE 19897. 

605 3d Ave., New York, NY 10016. 

F. of Leffert St., Carteret, NJ 07008. 

8434 Rochester Ave., Rancho Cucamonga, CA 91730. 

P. 0. Box 944, Joilet, IL 60434. 

4300 W. 130th St., Chicago, IL 60658. 

1255 Broad St., Clifton, NJ 07015, and 
150 Wagaraw Rd., Hawthorne, NJ 07506. 

Jackson 6. Swanson Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19148. 

2600 Bond St., Park Forest South, IL 60466. 

3960 E. Washington Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90023. 

521 W. 57th St., New York, NY 10019. 

P. 0. Box 207, Terra Haute, IN 47808, and 
P. 0. Box 149, Orrington, ME 04474. 

17350 Ryan Rd . , Detroit, MI 48200. 

P. 0. Box 308, Cottage Place, Carpentersville, 
IL 60110. 

666 Garland PI., Des Plaines, IL 60016. 

2015 N.E. Broadway St., Minneapolis, MN 55413. 

500 Jersey Ave., New Brunswick, NJ 08903. 

Birmingham Rd., Birmingham, NJ 08011. 

270 W. Mound St., Columbus, OH 43215. 



3m-0R1 - 79 - ?2 



358 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 



TABLE l.~ Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical direcoty of manufacturers, 

BY COMPANY, 1973--CONT INUED 



Identi- 
fication 



JCC 
JFR 
JEN 
JRG 
JSC 
UPF 
JNS 
JOB 
JOR 



SNI 
KAI 

KLM 



KCC 
KCU 
AMP' 
KYS 
KCW 
KNP 
KON 
KMC 
KPT 



LKY 
LUR 
LEA 
LEV 
LVR 
BLS 
LIL 



MMC 
SOR 
TZC 
MGR 
MAL 
TRD 



MOR 
MOC 
MRB 
MRD 
MRV 
SDC 
MRX 
MCA 
MAY 
MCC 
MCC 
MCC 
MGK 
MDJ 
MLC 



Name of company 



Jefferson Chemical Co., Inc 
George A. Jeffreys 6. Co . , I 

Jennison-Uright Corp 

Andrew Jergens Co 

Jersey State Chemical Co 

Jim Walter Resources, Inc— 

S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc 

Jones-Blair Co 

Jordan Chemical Co 



Inc- 



Kaiser Aluminum S. Chemical Corp.: 
Kaiser Agricultural Chemicals Dj 
Kaiser Chemicals Div 

Kalama Chemical, Inc 

Kay-Fries Inc., Member Dynamit 
Nobel Group. 

Kelly-Moore Paint Co 

Kennecott Copper Corp.: 

Chino Mines Div 

Utah Copper Div 

Kerr-McGee Chemical Corp 

Keysor Corp 

Keystone Color Works 

Knapp Products, Inc- 

H. Kohnstamm 4 

Komac Paint, Inc 

Koppers Co., Inc 

Roads Materials Group 

Kraft, Inc., Humko Sheffield Chemical 
Operation. 

Lake States Div. of Monarch Paper Corp- 

Laurel Products Corp 

Leatex Chemical Co 

Lever Brothers Co 

C. Lever Co., Inc 

Life Savers, Inc 

Eli Lilly & Co 



Inc- 



Lonza, Inc- 



MCB Manufacturing Chemists, Inc 

M.W. Manufacturers, Southern Resin Div 

Magnesium Elektron, Inc 

Magruder Color Co., Inc 

Mallinckrodt , Inc 

Manufacturing Enterprises, Inc., Squibb 

Manufacturing, Inc., Trade Enterprises, 

Inc. , Ersana, Inc. 

Marathon Morco Co 

Marathon Oil Co., Texas Refining Div 

Marblette Co 

Marden-Wild Corp 

Marlowe-Van Loan Corp 

Martin-Marietta Corp., Sodyeco Div 

Max Marx Color & Chemical Co 

Masonite Corp., Alpine Chemical Div 

Otto B. May Co. Div. of Cone Mills Corp 

McCloskey Varnish Co 

MCCloskey Varnish Co. of the Northwest 

MCCloskey Varnish Co. of the West 

McLaughlin Gormley King Co 

Mead Johnson & Co 

Melamine Chemicals, Inc 



Office address 



TX 



1111 Rush, Houston 

P. 0. Box 709, Salem, 

P. 0. Box 691, Toledo 

2535 Spring Grove Ave 

59 Lee Ave., Haldron, 

3300 1st Ave. N. , Bin 

1525 Howe St. , Racine 

2728 Empire Central, Dallas, TX 

1830 Columbia Ave., Folcraft, PA 



77052. 

24153. 
H 43694. 
Cincinnati 

07508. 
gham, AL 
T 53403. 



75235. 
19032. 



P. 0. Box 246, Savannah, GA 31402. 

P. 0. Box 337, Gramercy, LA 70052. 

1110 The Bank of California Center, Seattle, WA 

200 Summit Ave., Montvale, NJ 07645. 

987 Commercial St., San Carlos, CA 94070. 

Hurley, Nil 88043. 

P. 0. Box 11299, Salt Lake City, UT 84147. 

1401 McGee Tower, Oklahoma City, OK 73102. 

P. 0. Box 308, Saugus, CA 91350. 

151 W. Gay Ave., York, PA 17403. 

187 Garibaldi Ave., Lodi, NJ 07644. 

161 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013. 

P. 0. Box 546, Denver, CO 80201. 

Koppers Bldg., Pittsburgh, PA 15219. 

Koppers Bldg., Pittsburgh, PA 15219. 

5050 Poplar Ave., P. 0. Box 398, Memphis, TN 38 



515 W. Davenport St., Rhinelander, WI 54501. 

2600 E. Tioga St., Philadelphia, PA 19134. 

2722 N. Hancock St., Philadelphia, PA 19133. 

390 Park Ave., New York, NY 10022. 

736 Dunks Ferry Rd., Cornwells Hgts, PA 19020. 

Church St., Canajoharie, NY 13317. 

P. 0. Box 618, Indianapolis, IN 46206, and G.F 

Box 4388, San Juan, PR 00936. 
22-10 Route 208, Fair Lawn, NJ 07410. 

2909 Highland Ave., Norwood, OH 45212. 

P. 0. Box 68, Thomasville, NC 27360. 

Star Route A, Box 202-1, Flemington, NJ 08822. 

1029 Newark Ave., Elizabeth, NJ 07201. 

675 Brown Rd., St. Louis, MO 63134. 

P. 0. Box 609, Humacao, PR 00661. 



P. 0. Drawer C, 4401 Park Ave., Dickinson, TX 77539. 

P. 0. Box 1191, Texas City, TX 77590. 

37-31 30th St., Long Island City, NY 11101. 

500 Columbia St., Somerville, MA 02143. 

P. 0. Box 1851, High Point, NC 27261. 

P. 0. Box 33429, Charlotte, NC 28233. 

192 Coit St., Irvington, NJ 07111. 

P. 0. Box 2392, Gulfport, MS 39503. 

52 Amsterdam St., Newark, NJ 07105. 

7600 State Rd., Philadelphia, PA 19136. 

4155 N.W. Yeon Ave., Portland, OR 97210. 

5501 E. Slauson, Los Angeles, CA 90040. 

8810 10th Ave., N., Minneapolis, MN 55427. 

2404 Penna. St., Evansville, IN 47721. 

P. 0. Box 748, Donaldsonville, LA 70346. 



APPENDIX 
TABLE 1.— Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 

BY COMPANY, 1973— CONT INUED 



359 



Name of company 



Office addr 



NH 

N'PC 
NCW 
CAD 
NVT « 
SWB 



Merck & Co., Inc 

Merichem Co 

Miles Laboratories, Inc., Industrial 

Products Group. 
Milliken & Co., Milliken Chemical Dr< 
Millmaster Onyx Corp.: 

Haag Labs. /Onyx Chemical Corp 

Millmaster Chemical Co. Div 

Refined Onyx Co. Div 

Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co— 

Miranol Chemical Co., Inc 

Mississippi Chemical Corp 

Mobay Chemical Corp 

Agricultural Chemicals Div 

Verona Dyestuff Div 

Mobil Oil Corp. : 

Gas Liquids Dept 

Mobil Chemical Co 

Chemical Coatings Div 

Phorphorus Div 

Mona Industries, Inc 

Monochem, Inc 

Monroe Chemical Co 

Monsanto Co 

Montrose Chemical Corp. of California 

Mooney Chemicals, Inc 

Moretex Chemical Products, Inc 

Morton Norwich Products, Inc. : 

Morton Chemical Co. Div 

Norwich Eaton Pharmaceutical Div — 

Texize Div 

Motomco , Inc 

Murphy-Phoenix Co 

NL Industries, Inc 

N-Ren Corp., Cherokee Nitrogen Div — 

Napp Chemicals, Inc 

National Biochemical Co 

National Casein Co 

National Distillers S. Chemicals Corp 

U.S. Industrial Chemicals Co 

National Petro Chemical Corp 

National Milling 4 Chemical Co 

National Starch 4 Chemical Corp 

Nepera Chemical Co., Inc 

Neville Chemical Co 

Niklor Chemical Co., Inc 

Nilok Chemicals, Inc 

Nipak, Inc 

Nipro , Inc 

Norac Co., Inc 

Ma the Div 

Norda , Inc 

Norris Paint 6. Varnish Co., Inc 

North American Chemical Co 

Northern Petrochemical Co 

Northwestern Chemical Co 

Northwest Petrochemical Corp 

Nostrip Chemical Works, Inc 

Noury Chemical Corp 

Novamont Corp 



126 E. Lincoln Ave., P. 0. Box 20nr>, Rahway, NJ 07065. 

1914 Haden Rd., Houston, TX 77015. 

1127 Myrtle St., P. 0. Box 932, Elkhart, IN 46515. 



P. 0. Box 817, 



SC 29349. 



14000 S. Seeley Ave., Blue Island, IL 60406. 

99 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. 

624 Schuylin Ave., Lyndhurst, NJ 07071. 

3M Center, St. Paul, MN 55101. 

277 Cuit St., Irvington, NJ 07111. 

P. 0. Box 388, Yazoo City, MS 39194. 

Penn Lincoln Parkway, W. Pittsburgh, PA 15205. 

P. 0. Box 4913, Hawthorne Rd., Kansas City, MO 64120. 

Iorio Ct., Union, NJ 07083. 

P. 0. Box 900, Dallas, TX 75221. 

P. 0. Box 3868, Beaumont, TX 77704, and 

P. 0. Box 726, Paramus, NJ 07652. 
1024 South Ave., Plainfield, NJ 07062. 
P. 0. Box 26683, Richmond, VA 23261. 
65 E. 23d St., Paterson, NJ 07524. 
P. 0. Box 488, Geismar, LA 70734. 
1296 N.W. 3d, Kalama, WA 98625. 
800 N. Lindbergh Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63166. 
2401 Morris Ave., P. 0. Box E, Union, NJ 07083. 
2301 Scranton Rd., Cleveland, OH 44113. 
314 W. Henry St., P. 0. Box 1799, Spartanbury, SC 29304. 

110 N. Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606. 

17 Eaton Ave., Norwich, NY 13815. 

P. 0. Box 368, Greenville, SC 29602. 

267 Vreeland Ave., P. 0. Box 300, Paterson, NJ 07513. 

9505 Cassius Ave., Cleveland, OH 44105. 

1230 Aveune of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. 

P. 0. Box 429, Pryor, OK 74361. 

199 Main St., Lodi, NJ 07644. 

3127 W. Lake St., Chicago, IL 60612. 

601 W. 80th St., Chicago, IL 60620. 

99 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. 
99 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. 
4601 Flat Rock Rd. , Philadelphia, PA 19127. 
Bridgewater, NJ 08876. 
n, NY 10926. 
0., Pittsburgh, 
, Long Beach, CA 



A 15225. 

90810. 

OH 45230. 



10 Finderne Ave. , 
Route 17, Harrima 
Neville Island P. 
2060 E. 220th St. 

2235 Langdon Farm Rd., Cincinnati 
P. 0. Box 2820, Dallas, TX 75221. 
P. 0. Box 1483, Augusta, GA 30903. 
405 S. Motor Ave., Azusa, CA 91703. 
169 Kennedy Dr., Lodi, NJ 07644. 
140 Route 10, E. Hanover, NJ 07936. 
P. 0. Box 2023, Salem, OR 97308. 
19 S. Canal St., Lawrence, MA 01843. 
2350 E. Devon Ave., Des Plaines, IL 60018. 
120 N. Aurora St., W. Chicago, IL 60185. 
P. 0. Box 99, Anacortes, WA 98221. 
P. O. Box 160, Pedricktown, NJ 08067. 
2153 Lockport-Olcott Rd., Burt, NY 14028. 
P. 0. Box 189, Kenova, WV 25530, and 
7350 Empire Dr., Florence, KY 41042. 



360 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 

TABLE 2,— Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 

BY COMPANY, 1978--C0NTI NUED 



Identi- 
fication 



OBC 
OMC 

ONX 
OPC 
ORG 
BSW 
OCF 
OCC 
OXI 

oxc 

FBI 
PFW 
PLB 
PPG 
PVO 

AMR 
PNT 
PD 

PSC 

KAL 
CHP 
CCH 
PEK 
PCH 
AES 
PAS 
WTL 
PAR 
PER 
PST 
UDI 
PTT 
PFN 
PCW 
PFZ 

PHR 

PDI 

PPX 
PLC 
PPR 
PIC 

PIL 
PPL 

PIT 
PSL 
PLS 
PMC 
PFX 
PLX 
POL 
PYZ 
PLR 

PVI 
POP 
PRT 



Name of company 



O'Brien Corp 

Olin Corp 

Agricultural Products Dept- 

Onyx Chemical Co 

Orbis Products Corp 

Organics, Inc 

Original Bradford Soap Works, 
Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp- 

Oxirane Chemical Co 

Oxirane Chemical Co. (Channel 
Oxochem Enterprise 



Corp- 



PBI-Gordo 

PFW, Inc 

P-L Biochemical, Inc 

PPG Industries, Inc 

PVO International, Inc., Chemical 
Specialties Div. 

Pacific Resins & Chemicals, Inc 

Pantasote, Inc., Film/Compound Div 

Parke, Davis & Co., Sub of Warner- 
Lambert Co. 

Passaic Color & Chemical Co 

Pa than Chemical Co 

C. H. Patrick & Co., Inc 

Pearsall Chemical Corp 

Peck's Products Co 

Peerless Chemical Co 

Penetone Corp 

Pennwalt Corp 

Luc idol Div 

Pennzoil Co., Penreco Div 

Perry & Derrick Co., Inc 

Perstorp, Inc 

Petrochemicals Co., Inc 

Petro-Tex Chemical Corp 

Pfanstiehl Laboratories, Inc 

Pfister Chemical, Inc 

Pfizer, Inc 

Pfizer Pharmacuticals, Inc 

Pharmachem Corp 

Phelps Dodge Industries, Inc., Phelps 
Magnet Wire Co. Div. 

Phillips Paraxylene, Inc 

Phillips Petroleum Co 

Phillips Puerto Rico Core, Inc 

Pierce Chemical Co 



Pilot Chemical Co 

Pioneer Plastics Div. of LOF Plastics 

Inc. 

Pitt-Consol Chemical Co 

Plaslok Corp 

Plastics Engineering Co 

Plastics Manufacturing Co 

Plastifax, Inc 

Plex Chemical Corp 

Polymer Corp 

Polyrez Co., Inc 

Polysar Resins, Inc 

Polysar Latex Div 

Polyvinyl Chemical Industries 

Pope Chemical Corp 

Pratt & Lambert, Inc 



Office address 



450 E. Grand Ave., S. San Francisco, CA 9408 

120 Long Ridge Rd., Stamford, CT 06904. 

P. 0. Box 991, Little Rock, AR 72203. 

190 Warren St., Jersey City, NJ 07302. 

140 Route 10, E. Hanover, NJ 07936. 

7125 N. Clark St., Chicago, IL 60628. 

200 Providence St., W. Warwick, RI 02893. 

Fiberglas Tower, Toledo, OH 43659. 

10801 Choate Rd., Pasadina, TX 77507. 

P. 0. Box 580, Channelview, TX 77530. 

900 Route 9, Woodbridge, NJ 07095. 

300 S. Third St., Kansas City, KS 66118. 
33 Spraque Ave., Middletown, NY 10940. 
1037 W. McKinley Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53201. 
1 Gateway Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15222. 
416 Division St., Boonton, NJ 07005. 



1754 Thorne Rd., Tacoma, 
26 Jefferson St., Passa: 
P. 0. Box 118, Detroit, 



WA 



MI 



93421. 
[J 07056. 
48232. 



28-36 Paterson St., Paterson, NJ 07501. 

427 E. Moyer St., Philadelphia, PA 19125. 

P. 0. Box 2526, Greenville, SC 29602. 

P. O. Box 437, Houston, TX 77001. 

610 E. Clarence Ave., St. Louis, M0 63147. 

12416 Cloverdale St., Detroit, MI 48204. 

74 Hudson Ave., Tenafly, NJ 07670. 

3 Parkway, Philadelphia, PA 19102. 

1740 Military Rd., Buffalo, NY 14240. 

Union Bank Bldg., Butler, PA 16001. 

2510 Highland Ave., Norwood, OH 45212. 

238 Nonotuck St., Florence, MA 01060. 

500 E. Central, P. 0. Box 2199, Fort Worth, TX 76113. 

8600 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77017. 

1219 Glen Rock Ave., Waukegan, IL 60085. 

Route 46 & Linden Ave., Ridgefield, NJ 07657. 

235 E. 42d St., New York, NY 10017. 

P. 0. Box 628, Barceloneta, PR 00617. 

719 Stefko Blvd., P. 0. Box 1035, Bethlehem, PA 18018. 

132 E. Creighton Ave., Fort Wayne, IN 46861. 

G.P.n. Box 4129, San Juan, PR 00936. 

15 CI Phillips Bldg., Bartlesville, OK 74004. 

G.P.0. Box 4129, San Juan, PR 00936. 

3747 N. Meridian Rd., P. 0. Box 117, 

Rockford, IL 61103. 
11756 Burke St., Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670. 
Pionite Rd., Auburn, ME 04210. 

P. 0. Box 1267, 1000 S. Pine, Ponca City, OK 74601. 

3155 Broadway, Buffalo, NY 14227. 

3518 Lakeshore Rd., Sheboygan, WI 53081. 

2700 S. Westmoreland, Dallas, TX 75224. 

P. 0. Box 1255, Brevard, NC 28712. 

1205 Atlantic St., Union City, CA 94487. 

2120 Fairmont Ave., Reading, PA 19603. 

P. 0. Box 320, Woodbury, NJ 08096. 

29 Fuller St., Leominster, MA 01453. 

3305 Amnicola Hwy . , Chattanooga, TN 37406. 

730 Main St., Wilmington, MA 01887. 

33 oth Ave., Paterson, NJ 07524. 

P. 0. Box 22, Buffalo, NY 14240. 



APPENDIX 
TABLE 1. --Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 

BY COMPANY, 1978--CONTINUED 



351 




Office address 



Premier Malt Products, Inc 

Procter & Gamble Co., Procter & Gamble 
Mfg. Co. 

Proctor Chemical Co 

Products Research 6. Chemical Corp 

Publicker Industries, Inc 

Puerto Rico Chemical Co., Inc 

Puerto Rico Olefins Co 

Purex Corp 

Quaker Chemical Corp 

Quaker Oats Co 

K. J. Quinn & Co., Inc 

Quintana-Howell Joint Venture 

R.S.A. Corp 

Rachelle Laboratories, Inc 

Racon , Inc 

Raybestos-Manhattan, Inc., Raybestos 

Friction Materials Co. 

Red Spot Paint & Varnish Co., Inc 

Reheis Chemical Co. Div. of Armour 

Pharmaceutical Co. 

Reichhold Chemicals, Inc 

Reilly Tar & Chemical Corp 

Reliance Universal, Inc., Louisville 

Resins Operation 

Remington Arms Co., Inc 

Resyn Corp 

Rexene Polyolefins Co 

Rhone-Poulenc , Inc 

Richardson Co 

Polymeric Systems Div 

Richardson-Merrell, Inc., Merrell-National 

Laboratories Div. 

Rico Chemical Corp 

Ridgway Color & Chemical 

Riker Laboratories, Inc., Sub. of 3M Co 

Rilsan Corp 

Ritter International 

Riverdale Chemical Co 

Robeco Chemicals, Inc 

Robinson-Wagner Co., Inc 

Rockwell International Corp 

Roehr Chemicals Div. of Aceto Industrial 

Chemical Corp. 

Rogers Corp., Molding Materials Div 

Rohm & Haas Co 

Rubicon Chemicals, Inc 

Ruetgers-Nease Chemical Co., Inc 

SCM Corp. : 

Glidden Coatings & Resins Div 

Organic Chemicals Div 

SSC Industries, Inc 

Safeway Stores, Inc 

St. Croix Petrochemical Corp 

Salem Oil 8, Grease Co 

Salsbury Laboratories 

Sandoz, Inc 

Colors & Chemicals Div 

Crop Protection 

Sartomer Industries, Inc 



917 W. Juneau Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53201. 
P. 0. Box 599, Cincinnati, OH 45201. 

P. 0. Box 399, Salisbury, NC 28144. 
P. 0. Box 1800, Glendale, CA 91209. 
777 W. Putnam Ave., Greenwich, CT 06830. 
P. 0. Box 496, Arecibo, PR 00612. 
Firm Delivery, Ponce, PR 00731. 
5101 Clark Ave., Lakewood, CA 90712. 

Lime 6. Elm Sts., Conshohocken, PA 19428. 
Merchandise Mart Plaza, Chicago, IL 60654. 
195 Canal St., Maiden, MA 02148. 
P. 0. Box 4656, Corpus Christi, TX 79408. 

690 Saw Mill River Rd., Ardsley, NY 10502. 
700 Henry Ford Ave., Long Beach, CA 90801. 
P. 0. Box 198, Witchita, KS 67201. 
75 E. Main St., Stratford, CT 06497. 

110 Main St., Evansville, IN 47703. 

235 Snyder Ave., Berkeley Hgts., NJ 07922. 

525 N. Broadway, White Plains, NY 10603. 

1510 Market Square Center, 151 N. Delaware St., 

Indianapolis, IN 46204. 
P. 0. Box 21423, Louisville, KY 40221. 

939 BarnumAve., Bridgeport, CT 06602. 

1540 W. Blancke St., Linden, NJ 07036. 

W. 115 Century Rd., Paramus, NJ 07652. 

120 Jersey Ave., New Brunswick, NJ 08903. 

2400 E. Devon Ave., Des Plaines, IL 60018. 

15 Meigs Ave., Madison, CT 06443. 

2110 E. Galbraith Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45215. 

P. 0. Box 387, Magas Ward, Guayanilla, PR 00656 

75 Front St., Ridgway, PA 15853. 

19901 Nordhoff St., Northridge, CA 91324. 

139 Harristown Rd., Glen Roc, NJ 07452. 

4001 Goodwin Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90039. 

220 E. 17th St., Chicago Heights, IL 60411. 

99 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. 

628 Waverly Ave. , Mamaroneck, NY 10543. 

4501 Benefit Ave., Ashtabula, OH 44004. 

52-20 37th St., Long Island City, NY 11101. 

P. 0. Box 550, Rogers, CT 06263. 

Independence Mall West, Philadelphia, PA 19105. 

P. 0. Box 517, Geismar, LA 70734. 

P. 0. Box 221, State College, PA 16801. 



299 Park Ave., New York, NY 10017. 
299 Park Ave., New York, NY 10017. 
1550 E. Taylor Ave., East Point, GA 30344. 
2800 Ygnacio Valley Rd. , Walnut, CA 94604. 
Estate Hope, St. Croix, U.S., VI 00820. 
60 Grove St., Salem, MA 01970. 
2000 Rockford Rd., Charles City, IA 50616. 
P. 0. Box 357, Fair Lawn, NJ 07410. 
Route 010, E. Hanover, NJ 07936. 
480 Camino Del Rio South, San Diego, CA 92108. 
Gov. Printz Blvd. & Wanamaker Ave., Essington, I 
19029. 



362 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 



TABLE 1.— Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 

BY COMPANY, 1978--CONTI NUED 



Name of company 



Office addr 



SCN 
SBC 
SCH 
SCO 
SPR 
SPA 
SEA 
SRL 

SKP 

SHO 

SHC 

SHP 

SW 

SHT 

SID 

SMP 

SIM 

GFS 



SLT 
SIX 
SAC 
SOP 
ACT 

SWR 
SPL 
OMS 

STA 
CLN 

SCC 
SIO 
AMO 
SOC 

STT 
STG 

SFA 
SFC 
SFF 
SFI 
SFP 
SFS 
SWS 
STP 



SDG 
SDH 
TMS 
SDW 
SPI 
STY 
SBP 



3NW 
SNA 



Schenectady Chemicals, Inc 

Scher Bros., Inc 

Schering Corp 

Scholler Bros., Inc 

Scientific Protein Laboratories, Inc 

Scott Paper Co 

Seaboard Chemicals, Inc 

G. D. Searle 6. Co., Searle Pharmaceuticals 

Inc. 

Shakespeare Co., Monofilament Div 

Shell Oil Co 

Shell Chemical Co. Div 

Shepherd Chemical Co 

Sherwin-Williams Co 

Shintech, Inc 

George F. Siddall Co., Inc 

J. R. Simplot Co., Minerals Chemical Div — 

Simpson Timber Co., Chemicals Div 

G. Frederick Smith Chemical Co 

SmithKline Corp., SmithKline Chemicals 
Div. 

Soltex Polymer Corp 

Soluol Chemical Co., Inc 

Southeastern Adhesives Co 

Southern Chemical Products Co., Inc 

Southland Corp., Chemical Div., 
Arthur C. Trask Div. 

Southwestern Refining Co 

Spaulding Fibre Co., Inc 

E. R. Squibb & Sons, Inc 

A. E. Staley Mfg. Co 

Standard Brands, Inc., Clinton Corn 
Processing Co. Div. 

Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc 

Standard Oil Co 

Standard Oil Company (Indiana) 

Standard Oil Co. of California, Chevron 
Chemical Co. 

Standard T Chemical, Inc 

Stange Co 

Stauffer Chemical Co.: 

Agricultural Div 

Calhio Chemicals, Inc 

Food Ingredients Div 

Industrial Div 

Plastics Div 

Specialty Div 

SWS Silicones Div 

Stepan Chemical Co 

Polychem Dept 

Sterling Drug, Inc. : 

Glenbrook Laboratories Div 

Hilton Davis Chemical Co. Div 

Thomasset Colors Div 

Winthrop Laboratories Div 

Sterling Plastics, Inc 

Styrochem Corp 

Sugar Beet Products Co 

Sun Chemical Corp. : 

Chemicals Div 

Pigments Div 



P. 0. Box 1046, Schenectady, NY 12301. 

P. 0. Box 1236, Allwood Station, Clifton, NJ 07012. 

1011 Morris Ave., Union, NJ 07083. 

Collins and Westmoreland Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19134 

P. 0. Box 158, Waunakee, WI 53597. 

2600 Federal Ave., Everett, WA 98201. 

30 Foster St., Salem, MA 01970. 

P. 0. Box 5110, Chicago, IL 60680. 

P. 0. Box 246, Columbia, SC 29204. 

P. 0. Box 20329, Houston, TX 77025. 

P. 0. Box 2463, Houston, TX 77001. 

4900 Beech St., Cincinnati, OH 45212. 

1370 Ontario St. P. 0. Box 6520, Cleveland, OH 44101. 

3800 Buffalo Speedway-Suite 210, Houston, TX 77098. 

P. 0. Box 925, Spartanburg, SC 29304. 

P. 0. Box 912, Pocatello, ID 83210. 

2301 N. Columbia Blvd., Portland, OR 97217. 



867 McKinley Ave. , 

43223. 
1500 Spring Garder 

Philadelphia, ?l 
P. 0. Box 1000, D< 



P. 0. Box 23214, Columbus, OH 



St. , P. 0. Box 7929, 
19101. 

r Park, TX 77536. 
Green Hill and Market Sts., W. Warwick, RI 02893. 
P. 0. Box 791, Lenoir, NC 28645. 

430 Lower Boundary St., P. 0. Box 205, Macon, GA 312 
7666 W. 63d St., Summit, IL 60501. 

P. 0. Box 9217, Corpus Christi, TX 78408. 

310 Wheeler St., Tonawanda, NY 14150. 

40 W. 57th St., New York, NY 10019. 

2200 E. Eldorado St., Decatur, IL 62525. 

1251 Beaver Channel Parkway, Clinton, IA 52733. 

1035 Belleville Turnpike, Kearny, NJ 07032. 

397 Midland Bldg. , Cleveland, OH 44115. 

P. 0. Box 5910-A, Mail Code 3503, Chicago, IL 60680. 

575 Market St., San Francisco, CA 94105. 

P. 0. Box A-3351, Chicago, IL 60690. 
342 N. Western Ave., Chicago, IL 60612. 

636 California St., San Francisco, CA 94108. 

636 California St., San Francisco, CA 94108. 

636 California St., San Francisco, CA 94108. 

636 California St., San Francisco, CA 94108. 

636 California St., San Francisco, CA 94108. 

636 California St., San Francisoc, CA 94108. 

636 California St., San Francisco, CA 94108. 
RR #1, Elwood, IL 60421, and 

100 West Hunter Ave., Maywood, NJ 07607. 
51 Eames St., Wilmington, MA 01887. 

90 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. 
2235 Langdon Farm Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45237. 
120 Lister Ave., Newark, NJ 07105. 
90 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. 
P. 0. Box 1311, Big Spring, TX 79720. 
Petrochemical Complex, Ponce, PR 00731. 
302 Waller St., P. 0. Box 1387, Saginaw, 
MI 48605. 

P. 0. Box 70, Chester, SC 29706. 

441 Tompkins Ave., Staten Island, NY 10305. 



APPENDIX 



363 



TABLE 1. --Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 

BY COMPANY, 1978--CONTI NUED 




Sun Company, Inc 

Sunkist Growers, Inc 

SunOlin Chemical Co 

Swift Agricultural Chemicals Corp 

Synalloy Corp., Blackman Uhler Chemical 
Div. 

Syncon Resins, Inc 

Synres Chemical Corp 

Syntex Agribusiness, Inc 

Tanatex Chemical Corp 

Charles S. Tanner Co 

Teknor Apex Co 

Tenneco Chemicals, Inc 

Tenneco Oil Co 

Tennessee Valley Authority 

Terra Chemicals International, Inc 

Terra Nitrogen, Inc 

Terrell Corp 

Texaco , Inc 

Texas Alkyls, Inc 

Texas-U.S. Chemical Co 

Textron, Inc., Spencer Kellogg Div 

Thiokol Corp 

Ventron Div 

Thompson-Hayward Chemical Co 

Toms River Chemical Corp 

Trancoa Chemical Corp 

Triad Chemical 

Troy Chemical Co 

UOP , Inc 

Chemical Div 

USM Corp. : 

Bostik Div 

Bostik Div. East 

USS Agri-Chemicals Div. of U.S. Steel Corp- 

USS Chemicals Div. of U.S. Steel Corp 

Paul Uhlich 4 Co., Inc 

Ungerer 6. Co 

Union Camp Corp.: 

Chemical Div 

Chemical Products Div 

Terpene & Aromatics Div 

Union Carbide Corp 

Union Carbide Agricultural Products Co 

Union Oil Co. of California: 

Union Chemicals Div 

Petrochemicals Group 

Uniroyal, Inc., Uniroyal Chemical Div 

Unitech Chemical, Inc 

United Chemical Corp. of Norwood 

United Chemical Products Corp 

United-Erie, Inc 

United Merchants & Manufacturers, Inc., 

Roma Chemical Div. 
U.S. Borax 4 Chemical Corp 

Upj ohn Co 

Fine Chemical Div 

Valchem Div. of United Merchants 
& Manufacturers, Inc. 



100 Matsonford Rd., Radnor, PA 19087. 
P. 0. Box 7888, Van Nuys, CA 91409. 
P. 0. Box F, Claymont, DE 19703. 
P. 0. Box 2175, Beaumont, TX 77704. 
P. 0. Box 5627, Spartanburg, SC 29304. 



S. Kearr 



NJ 



77 Jacobus Ave. , 

1036 Commerce Ave. 

P. 0. Box 1246 S.S.S., Springfield, M0 65805. 



07032. 
07038. 



P. 0. Box 388, Lyndhurst, NJ 07071. 

1310 Barcelona Dr., Greenville, SC 29605. 

505 Central Ave., Pawtucket, RI 02662. 

Park Eighty Plaza West-One, Saddle Brook, NJ 

P. 0. Box 2511, Houston, TX 77001. 

Chemical Operations, A204 NFDC, Muscle Shoals, 

AL 35660. 
P. 0. Box 1828, Sioux City, IA 51102. 
P. 0. Box 1828, Sioux City, IA 51102. 
820 Woburn St., Wilmington, MA 01887. 
P. 0. Box 430, 4800 Fournace PI., Bellaire, TX 
P. 0. Box 600, Deer Park, TX 77536. 
P. 0. Box 667, Port Neches, TX 77651. 
120 Delaware Ave., Buffalo, NY 14240. 
P. 0. Box 1000, Newtown, PA 18940. 
152 Andovin St., Danvers, MA 01923. 
2 E. Madison St., Waukegan, IL 60085, and 

5200 Speaker Rd., Kansas City, MO 66110. 
P. 0. Box 71, Toms River, NJ 08753. 
312 Ash St., Reading, MA 01867. 
P. 0. Box 310, Donaldsonville, LA 70346. 
One Avenue L, Newark, NJ 07105. 



10 UOP Plaza, Des 
State Highway 17, 



Plaines, IL 60016. 

E. Rutherway, NJ 07073. 



15230. 

10706. 

10013. 



P. 0. Box 5695, Greenville, SC 29606. 
Boston St., Hiddleton, VA 01949. 
P. 0. Box 1685, Atlanta, GA 30301. 
600 Grant St., Rm. 2880, Pittsburgh, PA 
1 Railroad Ave., Hastings-on-Hudson, NY 
161 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 

P. 0. Box 220, Dover, OH 44622. 

1600 Valley Rd., Wayne, NJ 07470. 

P. 0. Box 6170, Jacksonville, FL 32205. 

P. 0. Box 8004, S. Charleston, WV 25303. 

7825 Baymeadows Way, Jacksonville, FL 32216. 

1650 E. Golf Rd., Schaumburg, IL 60196. 

P. 0. Box 60455, Los Angeles, CA 90060. 

1345 N. Meacham Rd., Schaumburg, IL 60196. 

Emic Bldg. , Spencer St., Naugatuck, CT 06770. 

30 N. La Salle, Chicago, IL 60604. 

Endicott St., Norwood, MA 02062. 

472 York St., Jersey City, NJ 07302. 

438 Huron St., Erie, PA 16512. 

749 Quequechan St., Fall River, MA 02721. 

3075 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90005. 
P. 0. Box 4228, Dexter Rd., E. Providence, RI 
7000 Portage Rd., Kalamazoo, MI 49002. 
410 Sackett Point Rd., North Haven, CT 06473. 

1407 Broadway, New York, NY 10018. 



564 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 



TABLE 1.— Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 

BY COMPANY, 1978--CONTINUED 



Identi- 
fication 
code 



VSV 
VLN 
MNP 
VNC 

VND 
VEL 
VTC 
VIK 
VIN 
VCC 
VGC 
SOH 
SIC 
VTM 
FRO 



WAG 
WCA 



WVA 
WRD 
WBG 
WHI 

WCC 
WHL 
APT 

WHW 
WLN 
WTC 
WAW 
WBC 

WCL 
WYC 
WYT 



Name of company 



Valentine Sugars, Inc., Valite Div 

Valley Nitrogen Producers, Inc 

The Valspar Corp 

Vanderbilt Chemical Corp 

Van Dyk & Co., Inc 

Velsicol Chemical Corp 

Vertac, Inc., Vicksburg Plant 

Viking Chemical Co 

Vineland Chemical Co., Inc 

Vinings Chemical Co 

Virginia Chemicals, Inc 

Vistron Corp 

Silmar Div 

Vitamins, Inc 

Vulcan Materials Co., Chemicals Div 

Warner- Jenkinson Co 

West Agro-Chemical, Inc 

West Coast Adhesives Co., Inc 

Westinghouse Electric Corp., Industrial 
Materials Div. 

Westvaco Corp., Polychemicals Dept 

Weyerhaeuser Co 

White & Bagley Co 

White & Hodges, Inc 

White Chemical Corp 

Whitmoyer Laboratories, Inc 

Whittaker Corp., Whittaker Coatings & 

Chemicals, Mol Rez Resins. 

Whittemore-Wright Co., Inc 

Wilmington Chemical Corp 

Witco Chemical Corp 

W. A. Wood Co 

Worthington Diagnostics Div. of Millipore 

Corp. 

Wright Chemical Corp 

Wycon Chemical Co 

Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., Wyeth Laboratorie 

Div. of American Home Products Corp. 

Zoecon Corp 



Office addre 



726 Whitney Bldg., New Orleans, LA 70130. 

1111 Van Ness Ave., Fresno, CA 93717. 

1101 S. 3d St., Minneapolis, MN 55440. 

31 Taylor Ave., Bethel, CT 06801, and Rt. 5 - Box 

Murray, KY 42071. 
Main 8, Williams Sts., Belleville, NJ 07109. 
341 E. Ohio St., Chicago, IL 60611. 
P. 0. Box 3, Vicksburg, MS 39180. 
838 Baker Bldg., Minneapolis, MN 55402. 
W. Wheat Rd., Vineland, NJ 08360. 
2555 Cumberland Pkwy. , Suite 200, Atlanta, GA 30 
3340 W. Norfolk Rd., Portsmouth, VA 23703. 
393 Midland Bldg., Cleveland, OH 44115. 
12333 S. Van Ness Ave., Hawthorne, CA 90250. 
200 E. Randolph Dr., Chicago, IL 60601. 
P. 0. Box 7689, Birmingham, AL 35223. 

2526 Baldwin St., St. Louis, MO 63106. 
501 Santa Fe, Kansas City, MO 64105. 
11104 N.W. Front Ave., Portland, OR 97231. 
Manor, PA 15665. 

P. 0. Box 5207, N. Charleston, SC 29406. 
118 S. Palmetto Ave., Marshfield, WI 54449. 
P. 0. Box 706, Worcester, MA 01613. 
576 Lawrence St., P. 0. Box 1204, Lowell, 

MA 01853. 
P. 0. Box 278, Bayonne, NJ 07002. 
19 N. Railroad St., Myerstown, PA 17067. 
3134 California St., N.E., Minneapolis, MN 55418. 

62 Alford St., Boston, MA 02129. 
P. 0. Box 66, Wilmington, DE 19899. 
P. 0. Box 305, Paramus, NJ 07652. 
108 Spring St., Everett, MA 02149. 
Halls Mill Rd., Freehold, NJ 07728. 

Acme Station, Riegelwood, NC 28456. 
9 Greenway Plaza, Houston, TX 77046. 
P. 0. Box 831, Paoli, PA 19301. 



975 California Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304. 



APPENDIX 



365 



U.S. IMPORTS OF BENZENOID CHEMICALS AND PRODUCTS 



U.S. general imports of benzenoid chemicals and products entered under 
the Tariff Schedules of the United States (TSUS) , schedule 4, part 1, sub- 
parts B and C are analyzed by the U.S. International Trade Commission an- 
nually and published in detail in a separate report. General imports of 
benzenoid items entered in parts IB and 1C totaled 487 .6 million pounds 
with a foreign invoice value of $663 .0 million in 1978 compared with 412 .5 
million pounds with a foreign invoice value of $570.5 million in 1977. 

Benzenoid products that are "competitive" with similar domestic pro- 
ducts, because they accomplish results substantially equal to those accom- 
plished by the similar domestic product when used in substantially the same 
manner, are subject to a special basis of valuation for customs purposes 
known as the "American selling price." If "noncompetitive," the benzenoid 
products are valued for customs purposes on the basis of the "United States 
value." The essential difference between these two values is that "Amer- 
ican selling price" is based on the wholesale price in the United States 
of the "competitive" domestic product, whereas "United States value" is 
based on the wholesale price in the United States of the imported product 
less most of the expenses incurred in bringing the product to the United 
States and selling it. When neither of these two valuation bases applies, 
then the "export value," "foreign value," or "constructed value" is used 
as the valuation basis under section 402 and 402a Tariff Act of 1930, as 
amended. The competitive status of benzenoid imports in 1977 is shown in 
table 2. 

Industrial organic chemicals that are entered under part IB consist 
chiefly of benzenoid intermediates and small quantities of acyclic compounds 
which are derived in whole or in part from benzenoid compounds. Also in- 
cluded are mixtures and small quantities of finished products not specially 
provided for in part 1C (e.g., rubber-processing chemicals). In terms of 
value, 33.1 percent of all the benzenoid imports under part IB in 1978 came 
from West Germany; 19.4 percent, from Japan; 10.6 percent, from the United 
Kingdom; 7.5 percent, from France. 

Finished organic chemical products entered under part 1C include dyes, 
pigments, medicinals, flavor and perfume materials, pesticides, plastics 
materials, and certain other specified products. In terms of value 33.2 per- 
cent of all finished benzenoid imports under part 1C in 1978 came from West 
Germany; 15.3 percent, from the United Kingdom; and 12.9 percent, from 
Japan. 



1 Imports of Benzenoid Chemicals and Products, 1978, TC Publication 990, 
1979. 



366 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1973 



TABLE 2.--Benzenoid chemicals and products: Summary of U.S. general imports entered under 
Schedule 4, Parts IB and 1C of the TSUS, and analysis by competitive status, 1978 



PART AND COMPETITIVE STATUS 



TOTAL 
QUANTITY 



FOREIGN 
INVOICE 
VALUE 



FOREIGN 
VALUE 



UNIT 
FOREIGN 
VALUE 



SCHEDULE 4, PART IB 



1,000 
pounds 



296,029 



1,000 
dollars 



241,387 



Competitive: 

Duty based on ASP '- 
Other 2 



Noncompetitive: 

Duty based on U.S. value 

Duty based on export value- 
Other 3 



272 
107 



217 
153 



Competitive status not available 
SCHEDULE 4, PART 1C 



1,692 



165,655 
85,345 



10,342 
5,982 
14,695 



191,598 



56.0 
28.8 



3.5 
2.0 
5.0 



96,410 
65,442 



20,429 
21,530 
22,513 



421,649 



Competitive: 

Duty based on ASP 1 - 
Other 2 



Noncompetitive: 

Duty based on U.S. value 

Duty based on export value- 
Other 3 



Competitive status not available 

SUMMARY (SCHEDULE 4, PART IE AND 1C) 



366 
215 



737 
215 
116 



28,421 
107,228 



8,879 
23,465 
7,751 



14.8 
56.0 



4.6 
12.2 
4.0 



70,677 
136,131 



42,767 
94,243 
32,423 



Competitive: 

Duty based on ASP 1 
Other 2 



Noncompetitive: 

Duty based on U.S. value 

Duty based on export value- 
Other 3 



Competitive status not available- 



638 
322 



954 
368 
176 

58 



194,076 
192,573 



19,221 
29,447 
22,446 

29,862 



39.8 
39.5 



3.9 

6.0 
4.6 

6.1 



167,087 
201,573 



63,196 
115,773 
54,936 

60,472 



39.9 

27.1 



8.9 
9.3 



16.8 
32.3 



10.1 

22.4 

7.7 



25.2 
30.4 



9.5 
17.5 
8.3 

9.1 



Per 
pound 



.58 

.77 



3.60 
1.53 



2.49 
1.27 



4.82 
4.02 
4.18 



.86 
1.05 



3.29 
3.93 
2.45 

2.06 



All import entries in this group were "competitive" as defined in sees. 402 and 402a of the Tariff Act of 
1930, as amended. 

Imports in this group are also "competitive." However, for each of the items in this group, there are some 
import entries which were appraised by the U.S. Customs Services as "noncompetitive" with like or similar U.S. 
products because at the time of exportation from the foreign country, the U.S. products were not freely offered 
for sale in the principal U.S. markets. 

Assessment of duties on import entries of items in this group were based on two or more import values during 
the year. Under the provisions of sees. 402 and 402a of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, each import ship- 
ment was valued either at the U.S. value, the export value, or the foreign value. 

Source: Compiled by the U.S. International Trade Commission from records of the U.S. Bureau of Customs. 

Note 1. — The totals shown in this table differ from those given in the official statistics of the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Commerce chiefly because of differences in coverage and in the methods used in compiling the data. In 
general, the statistics coverage in 1978 varies from a low of 53 percent for dyes, to about 88 percent coverage 
of flavor and perfume materials, 76 percent for intermediates, 70 percent of medicinals and pharmaceuticals, and 
62 percent for organic pigments. 

Note 2. — Because of rounding, figures may not add to the totals shown. 



APPENDIX 



367 



TABLE 3. — Cyclic Intermediates: Glossary of synonymous names 



Common name 



Standard (Chemical Abstracts) name 



A Acid 

1,2,4-Acid 

Acid yellow 9 

p-Aminobenzenesulfonic acid 

m-Aminobenzoyl J acid 

Aminoepislon acid 

Amino G acid 

Amino J acid 

Amino R salt — 

Aniline oil 

Anthraflavic acid 

Anthraruf in 

Armstrong & Wynne's acid 

B Acid 

2B Acid 

4B Acid 

Benzal chloride 

Ben zan throne 

Benzo trichloride 

Bisphenol A 

B.O.N 

Broenner 's acid 

Bromamine acid 

Br omobenzan throne 

C Acid (Cassella acid) 

C.A. Acid 

C-Amine (Lake Red C acid) 

Chicago Acid (SS acid) 

Chlorobenzanthrone 

Chromo tropic acid 

Chrysazin 

1,6-Cleve' s acid 

1,7-Cleve's acid 

Crocein acid 

2-Cyanopyridine 

3-Cyanopy r idine 

Cyanuric chloride 

D Acid 

DADI 

DBB 

Decacyclene 

Dehydrothio-P-toluidine 

Developer Z 

o-Dianisidine 

l,l'-Dianthrimide 

Dibenzanthrone 

4 ,4'-Dihydroxydiphenylsulf one — 

Dimethyl POPOP 

4 , 5-Dinitrochrysazin 

Dioxy S acid 

Diphenyl Epsilon Acid 

Durene 

Epsilon Acid (Andresen's acid)- 

F Acid 

Fast Red G base 

Fast Scarlet R base 

Fischer's aldehyde 

Fischer's base 

Freund's acid 



3,5-Dihydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid. 
4-Amino-3-hydroxy-l-naphthalensulfonic acid 

(l-Amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid) . 
6-Anino-3,4'-azodibenzenesulfonic acid. 
Sulfanilic acid and salt. 

4-Hydroxy-7-(tn-aminobenzamido)-2-naphthalenesij 
8-Amino-l,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid. 
7-Amino-l , 3-naphthalenedisulfonic acid. 
6-Amino-l,3-naphthalenedisulfonic acid. 
3-Amino-2,7-naph thai ened is ulf onic acid. 
Aniline. 

2,6-Dihydroxyanthraquinone. 
1 , 5-Dihydroxyanthraquinone . 
4-Hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulf onic acid . 

5-Amino-4-hydroxy-l,7-naphthalenedisulfonic ac 
6-Anino-4-chloro-m-toluenesulfonic acid . 
6-Amino-m-toluenesulf onic acid, 
a, a-Dichloro toluene. 
7H-Benz [ de ] anthracen-7-one . 
ct, a, ct,-Trichloro toluene. 
4,4'-Isopropylidenediphenol. 
3-Hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. 
6-Amino-2-naphthalene sulfonic acid. 
l-Anino-4-bromo-2-anthraquinonesulfonic acid. 
3-Bromo-7H-benz[de]anthracene-7-one. 

3-Arnino-l f 5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid. 
3-Amino-6-chloro-4-sulfobenzoic acid. 
2-Amino-5-chloro-p-toluenesulf onic acid. 
4-Amino-5-hydroxy-l, 3-naphthalenedisulfonic ac 
Chloro-7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one. 
4,5-Dihydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid. 
1 ,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone. 
5-Amino-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 
8-Amino-2-naph thai enesulf onic acid. 
7-Hydroxy-l-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 
Picolinonitrile. 
Nicotinonitrile. 
2,4,6-Trichloro-s-triazine. 

6-Amino-l-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 

Dianisidine diisocyanate. 

p-Dibutoxybenzene . 

Diacenaphtho [ 1 , 2-j : 1\ 2 ' -&] f luoranthene . 

2-(p-Aminophenyl)-6-methylbenzothiazole. 

3-Methyl-l-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one. 

3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine. 

1 , 1 '-Iminodianthraquinone. 

Violanthrone. 

4 ,4 '-Sulf onyldiphenol . 

l,4-Bis[2-(4-methyl-5-phenyloxazolyl)Jbenzene. 

l,8-Dihydroxy-4,5-dinitroanthraquinone. 

4,5-Dihydroxy-l-napththalenesulfonic acid. 

6, 8-Dianilino-l-naph thai enesulf onic acid. 

1,2,4, 5-Tetramethylbenzene . 

8-Hydroxy-l,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid. 

7-Hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 
2-Nitro-p-toluidine [NH 2 =1]. 
5-Nitro-o-anisidine [NH2 = 1] ■ 
l,3,3-Trimethyl-A 2 » ot -indolineacetaldehyde. 
1,3, 3-Trime thyl-2-methyleneindoline . 
4-Amino-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid. 



368 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1978 



TABLE 3, --Cyclic intermediates: Glossary of synonymous names— Continued 



Standard (Chemical Abstracts) 



G salt 

Gamma acid 

Gold salt 

H Acid 

Hellimellitene 

Indoxyl 

J Acid 

J Acid Urea 

K Acid 

Koch's Acid 

L Acid 

Lake Red C amine 

Laurent's acid 

M Acid 

MEP 

Mesitylene 

Methane base 

Michler's hydrol 

Michler's ketone 

Naphthionic acid 

o-Naphthionic acid 

B-Naphthol 

Naphthol AS 

a-Naphthylamine 

Neville 6. Winther's acid 

m-Nitrobenzoyl J acid 

Oxy Koch's acid 

Pentaanthrimide 

Peri Acid 

Phenylbiphenyl 

N-Phenyldiethanolamine 

Phenyl Gamma acid 

Phenyl J acid 

Phenyl peri acid 

POPOP 

Pseudocumene 

Pyrazo lean throne 

Pyrazoleanthrone yellow 

Pyrazolone T 

Quinizarin 

2-Quinizarinsulfonic acid 

Quinoline yellow base 

R salt 

RG Acid (Violet acid) 

Rhoduline acid (J Acid Imide) 
RR acid 

S Acid 

Schaffer's acid 

Silver salt 



7 -Hydroxy- l f 3-naphthalenedi sulfonic acid. 
6-Amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, sodi 

salt. 
9 , 10-Dihydro-9 , 10-dioxo-l-anthracenesulf onic acid 

and salt. 

4-Amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid. 
(8-Amino-l-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid). 
1,2, 3-Trimethylbenzene. 



7- Amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalene sulfonic acid, 

salt. 
7,7'-Ureylenebis[4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfor 



4-Amino-5-hydroxy-l,7-naphthalenedi sulfonic acid. 
8-Amino-l,3,6-napthalenetrisulfonic acid. 

5-Hydroxy-l-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 
2-Amino-5-chloro-p-toluenesulf onic acid . 
5-Amino-l-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 

8-Amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 
5-Ethyl-2-picoline (2-Methyl-5-ethylpyridine) . 
1,3, 5-Trimethylbenzene . 

4,4'-Methylenebis[N,N-dimethylaniline]. 
4,4' -Bis [dimethylamino ]benzhydrol . 
4, 4 '-Bis [dime thy 1 amino] ben zophenone. 

4-Amino-l-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 

l-Amino-2-naphthalenesulf onic acid . 

2-Naphthol, tech. 

3-Hydroxy-2-naphthanilide. 

1-ISaphthylamine . 

4-Hydroxy-l-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 

4-Hydroxy-7-(m-nitrobenzamido)-2-naphthalenesulfonic 



id. 



l-Naphthol-3,6,8-trisulfo 



acid. 



:>)anthraquinone. 



l,4,5,8-Tetrakis(l-anthraquinonylam 
8- Amino- 1-naphthalene sulfonic acid. 
Terphenyl. 

2,2'-[ (Phenyl )imino] die thanol. 
6-Anilino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 
7-Anilino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 
8-Anilino-l-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 
l,4-Bis[2-(5-phenyloxazolyl) ] benzene. 
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene. 
Anthra[l,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one. 

[3,3'-Bianthra[l,9-cd]pyrazole]-6,6'-(2H,2'H)dione 
5-Oxo-l-(p-sulfophenyl)-2-pyrazoline-3-carboxylic 
acid. 



1,4-Dihydroxyanthraqu 
9,10-Dihydro-l,4-dihydroxy-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracene- 

sulfonic acid. 
Quinophthalone. 

3-Hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid, disodium 

salt. 
4-Hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid. 
7,7'-Iminobis[4-hydroxy-2-napthalenesulfonic acid]. 
3-Amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid. 

4-Amino-5-hydroxy-l-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 
6-Hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 
9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracenesulfonic acid 



APPENDIX 



369 



TA3LE 3. --Cyclic intermediates: Glossary of synonymous names—Continued 



Standard (Chemical Abstracts) 



Solvent Yellow 1 

Solvent Yellow 3 

SS Acid (Chicago acid) 

o-Sulfobenzaldehyde 

Thloindoxyl 

Thiosalicylic acid 

Tobias Acid 

TODI 

o-Tolidine 

O-Toluic acid 

O-Tolunitrile 

4-m-Tolylenediamine 

Trimellitic anhydride 

Trimethyl base 

Trinitrophenol 

Urea J Acid (J Acid tJrea)- 

Vinyl toluene 

Violet acid (RG Acid) 



p-Phenylazoaniline and hydrochloride. 
4-(o-Tolylazo)-o-toluidine. 

4-Amino-5-hydroxy-l,3-naphthalenedisulfonic acid. 
o-Formylbenzenesulfonic acid. 

3 ( 2H) -Thianaphthenone . 

o-Mercaptobenzoic acid. 

2-Amino-l-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 

Bitolylene diisocyanate. 

3,3'-Diraethylbenzidine. 

Phenylacetic acid. 

Phenylacetonitrile . 

Toluene-2 ,4-diamine. 

1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, 1, 2-anhydride. 

1,3, 3-Trimethyl-2-methyleneindoline . 

Picric acid. 

7,7 '-Ureyleneb is [4-hydroxy-2-naph thai ene sulfonic 



ar-Methylstyrene. 

4-Hydroxy-2 , 7-naphthalenedisulf o 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1979 - 301-061 



Library Cataloging Data 

U.S. International Trade Commission . 

Synthetic organic chemicals, United 
States production and sales, 1978. 
Washington [U.S. Govt. Print. Off. 
1979] 

369 p. illus. 27 cm. 
(USITC Publication 1001) 

Appendix includes! Directory of 
manufacturers, p. 352-364; U.S. imports 
of benzenoid chemicals and products, 
p. 365-366; Cyclic intermediates: 
glossary of synonymous names, p. 367-369. 

1. Coal-tar products. 2. Petroleum 
industry and trade — U.S. 3. Inter- 
mediates. 4. Dyes and dyeing. 5. Drugs. 
6. Flavoring essences. 7. Plastics 
industry and trade — U.S. 8. Rubber 
industry and trade. 9. Elastomers. 
10. Cleaning compounds. 11. Pesticides. 
12. Chemicals — Manufacture and industry — 
U.S. — Directories. I. Title. 






■ W-0OOS0-2