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DA 75f.B2 NO. 61 

Madden, Frederic, Sir, 
18fl-1873, Ed 

Syr Gawayne; a collection of 
ancient romance-poems, by 
Scotish and English authors, 



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F.R.S., F.S.A., M.R.I.A., Corn F.S.A.E., &c. 






CLUB, held at Edinburgh in the Hall of the Antiquarian 
Society, on Monday the 29th of August, 1836 : 
* t 


That a Volume intitled j&Vt (55atilclt)ne, A COLLECTION OF 


be printed at London, for the use of the Members, under the 
superintendence of SIR FREDERIC MADDEN, K.H. 

* Secretary. 


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IN collecting for the first time the various Scotish and English 
poems relating to one of the most celebrated Knights of the 
Round Table, it might seem desirable to examine critically the 
sources whence the history of his exploits has been derived. But 
the subject is of such vast extent, is involved in so much obscu 
rity, and, moreover, has been discussed with such conflicting 
theories and assertions, that the limits I here propose to myself 
will only allow me to state in succinct terms the conclusions 
which, after a long course of reading, I have arrived at. 

The inquiry divides itself into two branches, closely connected 
together ; the first of which embraces the question of the antiquity 
of Welsh or Armorican traditions, and the share of Geoffrey of 
Monmouth in the compilation of the far-famed Brut ; the second 
includes the history of the ponderous French prose Romances of 
the Round Table, their authors, and the period of their composi 
tion. With regard to the former, it is impossible, I think, for any 
one, who is not prejudiced, to read the arguments of Ellis, Price, 
De la Rue, and the Author of " Britannia after the Romans," with 
the testimonies produced, and not to admit, that previous to the 
time of Geoffrey a mass of popular traditions relating to Arthur and 
his chivalry must have existed, and was circulated first by the na 
tive bards, and afterwards by the Anglo-Norman minstrels. 



On these traditions the earliest Prose Romances appear to have 
been subsequently based, the materials for which were arranged, 
embellished, and enlarged by the imagination and invention of the 
various compilers. It is true that these writers are unanimous in 
referring to a Latin original, from which they profess to translate ; 
and although the existence of such a work is called in question by 
Ritson, Scott, and Southey, yet I am not prepared altogether to 
deny it*. But setting this aside, it appears to me, after a some 
what laborious perusal of the printed editions of these works, 
compared with existing manuscripts, that they must have been 
compiled in the following order. 1. The Roman du Saint Graal, 
sometimes intitled the Roman de Joseph d'Arimathie, composed by 
Robert de Borron. In the printed editions this is called the first 
part of the Saint Graal. 2. The Roman de Merlin, by the same. 

3. The Roman de Lancelot du Lac, composed by Walter Mapf. 

4. The Roman du Qudte du Saint Graal, by the same. In the 
editions this forms the second part. 5. The Roman de la Mort 
Artus, by the same, and originally distinct, but in the printed 
editions united to the Lancelot. 6. The first portion of the .Ro 
man de Tristan, by Luces, Seigneur de Gast. 7. The conclusion of 
Tristan, by Helie de Borron; and 8. The Roman de Gyron le 
Courtois, by the same. Of these the first six were written in the 

Southey writes, " I do not believe that any of these Romances ever existed in Latin. 
By whom or for whom could they have been written in that language ? " Pref. to Morte 
fArtktr, p. xvi. I merely stop to reply, that it is not more unreasonable to suppose a Latin 
work should have existed on the exploits of Arthur than on those of Charlemagne. I may 
also add. for the information of those whom it may concern, that I have myself read no less 
than /re Latin romances still existing in manuscript, some of which are of considerable length. 
Three of these relate to Arthur, Meriadoc, Gawayne, and other British heroes ; the fourth 
is the original of Chaucer's Talt </ Conttance; and the fifth is the Knight of the Swan. 

t This is the mode in which his name is spelt in the ancient MSS. of the Romances, and 
it thus appears in an original charter preserved in the Cotton collection, by which he grants 
to Aunfrlisa and her son John twelve acres of land in Wilesdune, part of his prebend of 
Mapcsbory. co. Middlesex. Among the witnesses to this charter is "FilippoMap.nepote meo." 


latter half of the twelfth century, and the remainder in the first 
half of the thirteenth. To these must be added the metrical ro 
mances composed by Chrestiende Troy es, between the years 1170 
and 1195, as also the later prose compilations of Rusticien de 
Pise and his followers, in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 

Having thus, I trust, successfully pointed out a clue to the 
labyrinth in which all our writers on early poetry have lost them 
selves, I shall proceed to consider the history, character, and ex 
ploits assigned to our Hero ^>pt <HtDaj)n in this phalanx of 
romance authorities ; the utility of which in illustrating the Ar 
thurian cycle of fiction will be admitted, perhaps, as a sufficient 
excuse for the space it may occupy. 

Our attention is naturally directed in the first place to the re 
mains of the Welsh bards, but from those at present extant we 
learn but little. In the Triads we find Gwalchmai, the son of 
Crwyar, (who is identified with the Wahvainus or Galwanus of 
Geoffrey and the Gauvain of the Anglo-Norman romancers,) re 
corded as one of the three golden-tongued or eloquent chiefs, 
whose persuasion none could resist ; and in another passage, he 
is named as one of the three chiefs most courteous to strangers and 
guests*. There is extant also a dialogue between Gwalchmai 
and Trystanf, and some of his adventures are preserved in the 
Red Book of Hergest, in Jesus College, Oxford, but I should ap 
prehend that all of these have been borrowed from the Anglo-Nor 
man romance- writers j. Certain it is, that the stories in the Ma- 

* Thus also in the Roman de Meliadus, when Arthur and his knights are out riding, a 
stranger comes up, and inquires for the king." Et messire Gauvain, qui estoit nouvel chevalier 
a celluy temps, qui estoit si debonaire et si courtois a toutes choses, que de sa courtoisie alloient 
parlant les estranges et les privez, respondit, 'Ouy, sire, veez le la;' et luy monstra le roy 
Artus." f. xv b , fol. ed. 1528. 

f- Printed at length in Lady C. Guest's edition of the Mabinogion, pt. i. p. 118, 8vo, 1839. 

J Leland says in his Assertio Arthuri, " Melchinus, vates Britannicus, Gallovini celebrat 
nomen." Collectan.,v. 24 ; and Bale adds, that this Melchin wrote De Arthuri mensa rotunda. 



binogion referred to by Owen and others as proofs of the antiquity 
of the British traditions respecting Gawayne, are only translations 
of the Chevalier au Lion and the Perceval le Gallois. Turning there 
fore to Geoffrey of Monmouth, whose history was finished about 
the year 1138*, and, consequently, at least twenty years earlier 
than the presumed date of any Anglo-Norman romance on the 
Round Table, we collect the following particulars. 

Walicainus was the eldest son of Loth, sovereign of the province 
of Lothian and the adjacent territories, including the Orkneys, 
by Annaf, half-sister of Arthur. At the age of twelve years he 
was sent by his uncle to Rome, and delivered to the charge of 
Pope Sulpicius, from whom he received knighthood {. The next 
mention of him occurs as one of the chiefs who accompanied 
Arthur to France, to encounter the Romans. He is sent with 
two others to treat with the emperor Lucius Tiberius, and pur 
posely, to provoke a war, he cuts off the head of the emperor's 
nephew. In the decisive battle which shortly afterwards took 
place near Langres, he held with Hoel the joint command of the 
fourth division of Arthur's forces, and his prowess contributed 

See what is said of his work on Glastonbury by the former, De Scrip//. Britannia*, vol. i. 
p. 41 ; and compare Cotter/aura, iv. 153, with the work of John of Glastonbury, published 
by Hearne. 8vo, 1726, vol. i. pp. 30, 55. 

See Dr. Lloyd's letter to Price, in Owen's Britith Remains, 8vo, 1777. The author of 
" Britannia after the Romans," never could have read this, although he refers to it, and he 
much mistaken, p. 21, in asserting that Sigebert of Gemblou, who died in 1112, was ac 
quainted with Geoffrey's History, and thus confounding Sigebert with his interpolator. For 
Sigebert's genuine text see the edition of Mineus, 4to, Antv. 1608. 

t Ellis says, that according to the chronicles of Brittany, Anna was married to Budic, 
king of Armorica. and her sister united to Loth. Metr. Rom. i. 59, ed. 1811. In the English 
metrical Artkav tad Merlin Gawayne's mother is named Belitnt, p. 97, 4to, 1838, and in 
Malory's Morle f Arth*r, she is called Margate*, i. 4. 4to, 1817. 

I This passage is singularly misunderstood by Fordun, lib. 3, c. 25. 

I Wace, Lajamon, and Robert of Brunne add, that the cause of his being selected was that 
from his education at Rome he understood both the Latin and the British tongues. 


mainly to the victory. He fights with the emperor single-handed, 
but they are separated by the surrounding combatants, and in the 
melee the latter is slain. After this succeeds the history of 
Mordred's treason, the return of Arthur, and the destruction of 
his Round Table. 

The translators and imitators of Geoffrey have altered and 
amplified the above outline, but the general features remain the 
same. Wace has mistaken one passage in Geoffrey, and says 
that Gawayne arrived from Rome to assist Arthur in his expedi 
tion to Norway*; and this interpretation is followed by La^amon 
and Robert of Brunne. The passage in the latter is hitherto in- 
edited, and may therefore be quoted here. 

Loth sone, Syr Wawan, 
Had bene at Rome to lere Romayn, 
W* Supplies the pape to wonne, 
Honour to lere, langage to konne. 
Ther was he dubbid knyght, 
And holden hardy, strong and wight. 
Syr Supplice had don his ende, 
To Bretayn home Wawan gan wende. 
Noble he was and curteis, 
Honour of him men rede and sets ; 
He lufed mesure and fair beryng, 
Pride ne boste lufed he no thing ; 
Fals and fikele lesyng he hated, 
Auauntour alle suilk he bated ; 
More he gaf than he hette, 
More he did than terme of-sette. 

MS. Inner Temple, No. 511, 7./. 63, c. 2. 

Throughout the Brut, Gawayne is uniformly eulogised in simi 
lar terms, and placed first on the list of the Round Table, a su- 

* Roman du Brut, ii. 79, 8vo, Rouen, 1839. Ellis also commits the same error, and in 
creases it by saying, that Gawayne was invested with arms by Arthur. Metr. Rom. i. 65. 



periority indeed which in that work there were no Lancelots or 
Tristans to dispute. His adventures are, however, confined to the 
circle already described, and contain so small a share of the mar 
vellous, that they might easily have been accepted as grave 
matter of history. 

It is to the authors, therefore, of the prose legends of the Round 
Table we must look for the invention or preservation of those nu 
merous romantic narratives which record the exploits of Gawayne 
and his fellows on a more ample canvass, and clothe them with a 
character purely imaginative. 

In the earliest of these, the Roman du Saint Graal, sometimes 
called the Roman de Joseph d' Arimathie, the knights of the Round 
Table are not commemorated, since it relates more particularly to 
the history of the Holy Vessel, and to the fabulous descendants 
of Joseph, in whose hands the miraculous relique remained, until 
its arrival in Britain. 

The second on the list is Merlin, which perhaps is the most cu 
rious of the series, and best intitled to be considered a compila 
tion founded on Annorican or Welsh traditions. In this we re 
cognise the Gawayne of Geoffrey, but with such additions to his 
history, and such a marvellous character given to his exploits, as 
to render him the chief personage in the romance. The writer 
exhausts all his powers of language in praise of the valor, courtesy, 
and knightly bearing of the prince of Orkney: " Car le compte 
dit, que ce fut le plus saige chevalier en toutes choses qui fust au 
riccle, et le mieulx aprins, et le plus courtois, et le moins mesdisant 
d' aultruy*" At the period of his birth Merlin pronounces his 
eulogium to Arthur, as destined to be one of the best and most 
loyal knights in the world. At an early age he comes with his 
three brothers to assist the British monarch in his war against the 

Vol. ii. f. 51 k , ed. 1498, 4to. 


Saxons, who were then ravaging the kingdom, and after a series 
of sanguinary battles succeeds in expelling them. On account of 
his prowess he is made a knight of the Round Table, and ap 
pointed by Arthur constable* of his household, and the next of rank 
to himself. After this he is employed in an expedition against 
king Claudas of Gaul and his Roman allies, whom he defeats with 
immense slaughter. At a later period of the history he is em 
ployed against the Roman emperor, and the narrative here is 
nearly similar to that of Geoffrey. In one MS. I have consulted, 
it is stated that Gawayne slew the emperor with his own handf, 
and it is singular, that Peter de Langtoft should preserve this tra 
dition, as expressed by his translator, Robert of Brunne, 

I kan not say who did him falle, 

Bot Syr Wawayn said thei alle f. 80 b :{:. 

The most surprising adventure of our hero in this romance is 
related at the close, in which he goes in search of his friend 
Merlin to the forest of Broceliande, which is cited at length by 
South ey, in his Notes to the Preface of Morte d' Arthur, p. xlvi. 
It is in this work we also find the first mention of the supernatural 
strength of Gawayne, which augmented and diminished at differ 
ent hours of the day. In the English metrical translation it is 
thus described : 

For of his strengthe the maner 
Sumdel ye may lern and here. 
Bituen auen-song and night 
He no hadde hot o mannes might, 

* MS. Add. 10, 292, f. 151 b . The printed edd. for connestablie read moictie. 

f Ibid. f. 209. The printed ed. vol. ii. f. 154, follows the account of Geoffrey, but in 
a previous passage, vol. ii. f. 24, names the emperor Julius Ceesar, and says he was slain by 
Gawayne. This, however, is not in the MS., and seems to be an interpolation. 

t See the original French text, MS. Cott. Jul. D. V. f. 39. 


And that streogthe him last 

Fort arncmorwe, bi the last ; 

And fram arnemorowe to the midday 

He had strengths of knightes tuay ; 

Fram midday fort after-none 

He nadde strengths hot of one ; 

Fram afternone to euensong 

So to knightes he was strong*. 

In the Lancelot du Lac, the next of the series, we are intro 
duced to another race of heroes and a different set of adventures, 
connected only with the Merlin by the history of the war under 
taken against King Claudas, and an incidental notice of the 
Saxons, as enemies of Arthur. r Of course Lancelot is here the 
principal personage, and his intrigue with Queen Guenever the 
main-spring of the story, yet we find Sir Gawayne only inferior 
to J^ancelot himself, and on some occasions the writer seems to 
have balanced between the two. Throughout the greater part of 
the romance they are represented as being the most intimate 
friends, and it is only after the blind fury of Lancelot has sacri 
ficed three of Gawayne's brothers, that the latter entertains senti 
ments of hostility against their destroyer. He vows vengeance, 
and the result is the war undertaken by Arthur against the 

Romance of Arthour and Merlin, 4 to, 1838, p. 178, printed for the Maitland Club. I 
am sorry to perceive the text of this edition abound with so many errors. It is in general 
closely translated from the French romance, and concludes imperfectly at fol. cc. of vol. i. of 
the edition of 1498. In the original the above passage appears thus, " Quant il ae levoit au 
matin, il avoit la force al millor chevalier del monde ; et quant vint & cure de prime, si li dou- 
bloit, et a enre de tierce auri ; et quant ce vint a eure de midi, ri revenoit a sa premiere force, 
ou il atoit ettt au matin ; et quant vint a eure de nonne, et a toutes let cures de la nuit, estoit il 
tomdit en ta premiere force." MS. Add. 10,292, f. 113 b . Compare this passage in the 
printed edition, vol. i. f. cxiv. and corresponding passages in the Roman de Lancelot, vol. i. 
f. xciu\, vol. U. f. hux., vol. iii. f. clxxxvii., ed. 1513., (where there is a fable introduced to 
account for the miraculous gift) ; Roman de Perceval, ff. liii b ., lx b . ed. 1530 ; Malory's Morte 
f Arthur, vol. i. p. 114, and the English metrical version, MS. Harl., 2252, f. 120 b . 


knight of the Joyeuse Garde*, which ends in the discomfiture of 
Gawayne, and ultimately in his death. The quest of the Saint 
Graal by Arthur's knights forms a novel incident in the narra 
tive, and connects the story with Robert du Borron's first work. 
Among those whose exploits are recorded in this quest, Sir Ga- 
wayne's name is one of the most prominent, and although, like 
Lancelot, he is not destined to achieve the adventure, yet he 
succeeds in reaching the magic castle of the guardian of the 
Holy Vessel, and witnesses the marvels which ensue on his rest 
ing upon the lit adventureux^. His deeds of valor against King 
Gallehault's forces and elsewhere are so extraordinary, that Ar 
thur orders them first to be recorded by his four veracious chro 
niclers, among whom Arrodian of Cologne is mentioned |. ^The 
estimation also in which he was held at the court is shewn by 
his being elected unanimously king in the place of Arthur, on 
the disappearance and supposed death of that monarch. Of the 
episodes relating to him, those of his adventure with his amie, 
the daughter of the king of North Wales, and the history of his 
captivity in the prison of the giant Karados, are perhaps the 
most interesting. In the former we are told that the lady's 
chamber was guarded by twenty armed knights. These however 
at night fall asleep very opportunely, and Gawayne is enabled 
without resistance to reach his mistress's apartment. He takes 

* On the subject of this castle (placed by English poetical antiquaries at Berwick) see a 
curious paper in the Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires de France, vol. x. p. 237, 8vo, 
1834, intitled, "Memoirs sur le Chateau de la Joyeuse Garde, sur la riviere d'Elorn,pres 
Landerneau, Department du Finistere. Par le Chevalier de Freminville." 

t In the Roman de Perceval, f. xxxix b , the incident of the enchanted bed is repeated, but 
under different circumstances. It forms the subject of an ivory carving engraved in the 
Mem. de I'Acad. des Inscriptions, vol. xviii. p. 322, 4to, 1753, and in Ferrario, Analisi degli 
Romanzi di Cavalleria, vol. ii. p. 101, which is unintelligible to the writers. 

J Vol. i. f. cxliii b . One might forgive the writer in the Bibliotheque des Romans for be 
lieving in the historical reality of these personages (See Dunlop's Hist, of Fiction, i. 295) ; 
but it is matter of sincere regret to find so gross a blunder sanctioned by the name of 
Daunou, in the Hist. Litt. de la France, tome xvi. p. 177. 




^ e bith the mace so violently, that although it 
nTses Us object, it penetrates half a foot into the wall, and 
shivers in pieces ! Gawayne now loses no time, but jumping out 
of bed, rewards the two assailants by knocking out their brains, 
and then throwing their bodies out of the room, quietly locks the 
door which he seems to have before forgotten to do. 
puts' on his armour, and, encouraged by his mfe, awaits the at- 
tack of the twenty guards, who come to the door and kick at it, 
whilst the old queen stands aloof, and cries out to them, " As- 
,aillez,fil* de putains, quefaictes vous, que ne occiez le traystre qui 
leans 'est ! " Gawayne, however, escapes, leaving behind him 
many dead bodies as testimonies of his prowess ! In the course of 
this romance the author presents us with a portrait of Gawayne, 
which I quote from an early MS. in the Royal Library, 19 B. vn. 
f. 246, as being fuller than the edition. " Messire G. avoit la 
chere 'simple *> debonaire, et la regardure pitouse. E il fust voirs, 
que messire G. estoit li plus beus de tous ses freres en graundure 
de COTS. II est voirs, que mesire G. fuist li emplius* de tous ses 
Jrercs, fy fuist beu chevalier de son grant, fy bien tallies de totes 

The corresponding passage in MS. Add. 10, 293. f. 250, col. i. reads K mieldre*. 


membres ; ne sefu trop grant ne trop petis, mes de bele stature ; si 
fu liplus chevaleros de son age que nus de se[s] freres ; 8f nepurquant 
li estoire dit, que Gaheries se{js] frere souffrit bien presausi grant fes 
des armes come il fist, mes il ne s'en mist oncques si grant cure com 
messire G. fist tons jours, fy puree ne fuist pas si renomez. Et 
noepurquant la chose qu'il plus mist monseignor G. en remenbraunce, 
sifu qu'il ama povre gent, fy lor fu dolz fy pitous*." 

We next come to the Qu&e du Saint Graal, often confounded 
with the History of the Graal. It is intended as a continuation of 
the Lancelot, and was certainly composed subsequently to that 
romance, as the internal evidence demonstrates. The persons 
here celebrated are Perceval, Gawayne, Lancelot, and his son 
Galaad, by the last of whom the adventure is finally brought to 
an end. ^The exploits of Gawayne in pursuing the grand object 
of their search are marked, as in the two preceding romances, by 
a singular love of peril, determined valor, generosity, and cour 
tesy. He is on all occasions the most amiable personage of the 
Round Table. His adherence to the laws of knighthood is tried 
severely more than once, and particularly at a tournament against 
Nabigan de la Roche, where in consequence of a vow taken to 
grant the first request made of him, he is enjoined to act the 
part of a coward, and sustains unmoved the jeers of the assem 
bly. The following day, however, makes amends for this act of 
self-abasement, for he then nobly sustains his own character, 


and carries off the prize of the golden circletf. The most chi- 

* In a MS. compilation of the 15th century, I have read a similar description, with the 
addition : "II n'eust les chevaulx blancs ne rous, mais entredeux ; le visaige eust aucques brun ; 
les yeux eust vers et moult actrayens ; barbe eust a plante ; les espaules belles et larges, et les 
bras et les poings gros et carrez, etfors a desmesure. Courtois et gracieux estoit plus que che 
valier du monde." I have mislaid the reference, but believe it to have been a MS. in 
Broadley's sale, 1832, intitled, "Les noms, armes et blasons des Chevaliers de la Table Ronde, 
ou sont escripz les granz faiz de tons les Chevaliers." 

t Vol. ii. f. 183, ed. 1516. 




valrous of his undertakings is the acquisition of the famous sword 
with which St. John was beheaded, in the course of which he 
slays a monstrous giant on the top of a hill ; much after the 
fashion in which Arthur killed the giant Dinabuc on the Mont 
St. Michel. We have also a narrative, as in the Lancelot, but 
differing much in the circumstances, of Gawayne's arrival in the 
palace of King Pescheur, and the marvels of the Graal. 

Map's series of romances is closed by the Mort Artus, which 
is generally confounded with the Lancelot. The queen's amour 
with the latter here leads to the disunion and destruction of the 
Round Table. The war undertaken by Arthur against the vio 
lator of his honor, proves his ruin. A furious battle takes place, 
in which Gawayne singly kills thirty knights, but his valor avails 
not, for in a second encounter Arthur's forces are worsted. The 
Pope interferes, and Lancelot gives up the queen, and retires to 
his paternal dominions. Arthur follows him, at the instigation 
of Gawayne, and a combat takes place between Gawayne and 
Lancelot. The victory is long doubtful, but at length is given to 
the more youthful opponent, and Gawayne is left on the field, 
severely wounded in the head. After this follows the conflict 
between the forces of Arthur and the Roman emperor, and the 
return of Arthur to Britain on account of Mordred's treason, all 
of which is founded on the narrative of Geoffrey, but told with 
the usual license of the romance-writers. The part which relates 
to Gawayne's death has some pathos and interest, and will bear 
an abridgment. 

Arthur and his fleet arrive at Dover, where he is joyfully re 
ceived at the castle. At vesper- time he is sent for by his nephew, 
and on coming to him, finds Gawayne so weak, as scarcely to be 
able to speak. On hearing the king's sorrow he opened his 
eyes, and said, " Sire, I am dying, and I pray you in God's name 
to refrain from a battle with Mordred, for I tell you truly he is 


the man who will cause your death." He then desires to be 
remembered to Lancelot, whose pardon he asks, and requests 
him to visit his tomb. "And I pray you, Sire, that you cause 
me to be interred at Kamalot, with my brothers ; and I wish to be 
laid in the tomb wherein my brother Gaheriet lies, for him I 
loved most, and this inscription to be placed above, CY GISENT 


PAR L'OULTRAIGE DE GAUVAIN." Arthur asks if he believes 
Lancelot to have been the cause of his death, which he answers 
in the affirmative, on account of the wound he had received in 
his head, which was renewed in the battle with the Romans. 
" Et a tant se teust messire G. que plus ne parla, fors au derrenier 
qu'il dist, Jesu Crist, pere debonnaire, ne me juge pas selon mes mes- 
faitz!" Arthur swoons several times with grief, and exclaims, 
" Ha I Ha I mort villaine, comment as tu este si hardy e d'assaillir 
ung tel homme comme estoit mon nepveu, qui de bonte passoit tout le 
monde ! " On the mournful news arriving at the castle, the lament 
ation is so excessive, that you could not have heard God thunder*. 
They enveloped the corpse in silk, and surrounded it with so many 
lighted tapers, that the castle seemed on fire. In the morning Ar 
thur caused a bierre chevaleresse to be brought, and Gawayne's body 
placed therein, which he gave in charge to one hundred men to 
convey to Kamalot. Every eye is moistened, and the people cry 
out, " preudhomme courtois, et bon chevalier sur tous aultres, 
mauldicte soit la morte qui de toy nous a oste la compaignie !" 
The corpse is carried to the castle of Belloc, the lady of which, 
on hearing whose it is, loudly deplores his fate, and avows she. 
had never loved any one but Gawayne. Her husband requites 
this declaration with a stroke of his sword, which cuts off her 

* This phrase is found in Benoit de St. More and other French writers of the twelfth 
century. It passed thence into the English romance of Alexander. See Weber, Metr, Rom. 
Introd., p. xxxiv. 


shoulder, and penetrates deeply into the dead body of the knight. 
The lady expires, and requests to be buried by his side. Her death 
is revenged by the attendants, who then proceed with the body to 
Kamalot, and bury it in the tomb of Gaheriet, in the middle of the 
monastery. The remains of the lady of Belloc are also interred 
close by, with an inscription stating that she had been killed for 
her love of Gawayne*. 

The substance of this romance, but much abridged, is to be 
found in Malory's Morte d' Arthur, books 18, 20, and 21, and the 
latter text was versified in the reign of Henry the Seventh by an 
anonymous English author, who follows it in some instances 
verbally f. 

The account of Gawayne's death differs considerably in the va 
rious versions of the story, nor is the place of his sepulture less a 
subject of disagreement. In Geoffrey, Arthur lands at the Portus 
Rutupi, rendered Richborough by Thompson, and Sandwich by 
Ellis \ and others, where a battle takes place, in which Gawayne 
and his companions are slain. Wace, La3amon, and Robert of 
Brunne copy this narrative, but fix the spot at Romney. The 
Cotton MS. of Wace, Vitell. A. x., reads Toteneis (Totnes), while 
the Welsh (Tysilio) translation of Geoffrey and the alliterative poem 
in the Lincoln MS. place the locality at Southampton. Malory and 

Vol. iii. ff. 191 b , 192 b , ed. 1513. 

t This metrical version is preserved in MS. Harl. 2252, and was printed in 1819 for the 
Roxburghe Club. Ellis is in error in stating that it was translated immediately from the 
French text, Metr. Rom. i. 324, (copied by Dunlop, Hist, of Fiction, i. 244.) Had he taken 
the trouble of comparing them together, he would not have hazarded such an assertion. 

J Ellis probably followed the general stream of the chroniclers who borrow from the En- 
gliih prose Brut, subsequently known under the title of Caxton's Chronicle and Fructiu 
Ttmparvm. In this and in its French prose MS. original, the place of landing is called 
Sandwich. See also a ballad printed in Percy, vol. iii. p. 40, ed. 1794. 

f But in another passage Lajamon writes, that Gawayne was killed " suth in Cornwale." 
vol. ii. p. 546. 


his metrical translator follow the romance of Lancelot, in assigning 
the locality to Dover*, but they vary in the detail. The latter says 
of our hero : 

Syr Gawayne armyd hyme in that stounde, 
Alias I to longe hys hede was bare, 
He was seke, and sore vnsond, 
Hys woundis greuyd hym fulle sare. 
One hytte hym vpon the olde wounde, 
W* a tronchon of an ore ; 
There is good Gawayne gone to grounde, 
That speche spake he neuyr more. 

MS. Harl. 2252, foL 123 b . 

Malory follows the French text more closely, but inserts a letter, 
supposed to be written by the dying knight to Sir Lancelot, and 
concludes, " And so at the houre of none Syr Gawayn yelded up 
the spyryte ; and thenne the kynge lete entiere hym in a chappel 
within Douer Castel ; and there yet alle men maye see the sculle of 
hym, and the same wound is sene that Syr Launcelot gaf hym in 
bataill." vol. ii. p. 435. Caxton, in his Preface, alleges the last 
mentioned circumstance as a proof of the reality of the fact ; 
and Leland quotes the authority of the Chronicon Dovarensis 
monasterii for the existence of Gawayne's bones in the same 
place, which were shewn to himself on his visit theref. Leland 
therefore rejects the statement of William of Malmesbury, who 
says, that in the reign of William the Conqueror, the sepulchre 
of Gawayne was discovered on the sea-shore of a province of 
Wales, named Ross, [in Pembrokeshire,] fourteen feet in length, 
" ubi, a quibusdam ut asseritur, ab hostibus vulneratus, et naufragio 

* Ellis must have read the passage carelessly, or he would not have transferred the place 
of sepulture to the Cathedral of Canterbury. See Metr. Rom. i. 392. 

f Collectanea, vol. iii. p. 50 ; also in his Codrus, ib. vol. v. p. 7 ; and in Assertio Arthuri, 
i&.vol.v. p. 25. 


ejcctus, fi guibusdam dicitur & civibus inpublico epulo interfectus* ." 
Leland acknowledges, however, that the remains of a castle called 
by Gawayne's name were still extant in his time near the shore, 
and at the present day, on the southernmost point of Pembroke 
shire, called St. Gowen's head, stands a small chapel formed out 
of the rock, named after the same personage, which the tradi 
tionary voice of the neighbourhood assigns as the burial place of 
Arthur's nephewf. Wace was ignorant of these statements, for 
he expressly writes, 

Grans fu li dols de son neveu, 
Le carsjist metre ne sai , 
Ainc bom ne sot u il fu mis, 
Ne qui 1'ocist, ce m'est avis. 

Vol. ii. p. 225, ed. 1839J. 

Lu-,umon says nothing of the sepulture, but tells us that 
Gawayne previous to his death made great slaughter, and killed 
the son of Childric with his own hand, but at length was slain 
" thurh an eorle Sexisce, sari iwurthe his saule ! " Peter Langtoft 
and his translator add to the confusion, by stating that the body 
of Gawayne was interred at Wybre or Wibire, " en la Walescherye," 
" that is, in Wales ," by which I presume is intended Webbery, 

Scrip/ore* pott Sedan, lib. ii. p. 64, edit. 15Q6. Malmesbury adds, that Gawayne 
reigned in that part of Britain called Waluuithia (Galloway), but was expelled from his 
kingdom by the brother and nephew of Hengist. We here may, perhaps, trace the historical 
incident which gave rise to the account in the romance of Merlin and elsewhere of Gawayne's 
battles with the Saxons. The above passage in Malmesbury is copied by many succeeding 
chroniclers, down to the time of Stowe and Baker. 

t See a description in Fenton's Pembrokeshire, p. 414, 4to, 1811 : but he knows nothing 
of the legend, and talks of some 7rtA hermit being buried there. 

J From MS. de la Bibl. du Roi, No. 7515 1 - 3 . The Royal MS. 13, A. xxi. Brit. Mus. and 
Cott. Vit. A. x. read the same, except that the latter has en sarcu, instead of ne sai u. 

f MS. Cott. JuL A. v. f. 40., MS. Reg. 20, D. ii. f. 31 ; Robert of Brunne's MS. Chron. 
f.81 b ,c. 2. 


not far from Bideford, in Devonshire. Lastly, in the prose 
French and English Brut, whether manuscript or printed, and in 
the romance of Arthur in the Red Book of Bath, Arthur is said to 
cause the bodies of Gawayne and Augusel to be taken to Scot 
land, their native country. 

HThe alliterative Scotish romance of Morte Arthure, in the li 
brary of Lincoln Cathedral, marked A. 1. 17, is very, much ampli 
fied in its account of the destruction of the Round Table, and 
does not agree with any other authority I have consulted*. The 
British forces enter the harbour of Southampton, and Gawayne 
jumps into the water, " in alle his gylte wedys," attacks the Da 
nish auxiliaries, and kills their leader, the king of Gothland. He 
then with a small band of followers advances against Mordred, 
and fights with his usual impejaiQsjty. 

In to J) e hale bataile hedlynges he rynnys, 

And hurtes of f e hardieste fat one the erthe lenges, 

Letande alles a lyone, he lawnches theme thorowe, 

Lordes and ledars that one the launde houes. 

And for wondsome and wille alle his wit failede, 

That wode alles a wylde beste he wente at ]> e gayneste, 

Alle walewede one blode, thare he a-waye passede. fol. 93. 

At length he encounters the traitor chief, and wounds him 
severely, but in the act of finishing the contest with a " shorte 
knyfe," the weapon slips on the mail, and his adversary instantly 
takes advantage of the accident, and strikes him through the 
helm to the brain. 

And thus Syr Gawayne es gone, the gude man of armes, 
Withe owttyne reschewe of renke, and rewghe es J> e more I 
Thus Syr Gawayne es gone, that gyede many othire ; 
Fro Gowere to Gernesay, alle J> e gret lordys, 

* It is a singular circumstance that it often coincides verbally with Malory's prose ver 
sion, and the episode of Gawayne and Priamus is found in both, and no where else. 




Of Glamour, of Galys londe, )>is galyarde knyghtes, 

For glent of gloppyngnyng glade be they neuer I fol. 93 b . 

King "Froderike of Fres" comes up, and inquires of Mordred 
who the knight was that had felled so many of his men, and now 
lay deprived of life ? The reply is worthy of transcription, as a 
summary of the knightly qualities for which our Hero was di 

Than Syr Modrede w* mouthe melis fulle faire : 

" He was makles one molde, mane, be my trowhe I 

This was Syr Gawayne the gude, the gladdeste of othire, 

And the graciouseste gome that vndire God lyffede ; 

Mane hardyeste of hande, happyeste in arraes, 

And the hendeste in hawle vndire heuene-riche ; 

The lordelieste of ledynge, qwhylles he lyffe myghte, 

Fore he was lyone allossede in londes inewe. 

Had thou knawene hym, syr kynge, in kythe thare he lengede, 

His konynge, his knyghthode, his kyndly werkea, 

His doyng, his doughtynesse, his dedis of armes, 

Thow wolde hafe dole for his dede the dayes of thy lyfe 1 " fol. 93 b . 

Mordred having thus borne testimony to the worth of his fallen 
foe and brother, sheds tears, and moves away, cursing the time 
his fate was shaped to work such unhappiness. Arthur after 
wards causes the body of Gawayne to be honorably conveyed to 
Winchester, where it is received by a procession of the prior and 
monks, and they are charged by the king to observe every funereal 

Lokis it be clanly kepyd, he said, and in the kirke holdene, 

Done for dergese, as to the ded fallys ; 

Menskede w* messes, for mede of the saule. 

Loke it wante no waxe, ne no wirchipe elles, 

And at the body be baannede, and one erthe holdene. fol. 95. 

I have now traced the history of Sir Gawayne from his birth 
to his burial-place, and might gladly have wished to let him rest 


in peace, but this is forbidden. Subsequently to the completion 
of the romances by Robert de Borron and Map appeared a new 
work, the object of which was to introduce a knight of the Round 
Table, unknown and unnoticed by the preceding writers on the 
subject*. This was the famous Tristan, whose amour with the 
fair Iseult and feats of arms, told as they were in the inimitable 
style of the bon vieux Francois, found subsequently such favor 
with the world, as completely to eclipse the earlier romance com 
positions. The first portion of this work was written by Luces 
de Gastf, in the time of Henry the Second, and the con 
cluding part by Helie de Borron, in the reign of Henry the Third. 
Both are animated by the same spirit, that of vilifying the 
lineage of king Loth, and more particularly the fame and deeds 
of Gawayne. Among other fictions unknown to previous writers, 
they feign a hostility between the sons of king Pellinor and the 
children of Loth, and take every opportunity of praising the 
latter at the expense of the former f. Pellinor is said to have 
put king Loth to death, and is killed in return by Gawayne. 
Lamorat de Galles, the eldest son of Pellinor, and brother of 

* The fact of the more recent composition of the Tristan is, I think, indisputable. It is 
perfectly incredible, had he been previously celebrated, that no mention should be made of 
him by Robert de Borron and Map. These were also the sentiments of my learned friend 
M. Paulin Paris, in the first volume of his interesting work, Les Manuscrits Francois de la 
Bibliotheque du Roi, pp. 194-198, but in his second volume, p. 352, he retracts this opinion, 
and says he founded his arguments on the second portion of Tristan, composed at a later 
epoch. But the same conclusions may equally be drawn from the first part, in which the 
direct allusions to the Roman de Lancelot are frequent. To give a single instance. In the 
Lancelot, vol. i. f. clxxvi., is an account of Gawayne being carried off by a giant named Ka- 
rados ; and in the Tristan the same event is noticed as having previously occurred, vol. i. f. xlv. 
(MS. Harl. 49, fol. 105 b .) 

f The Abbe de la Rue conjectures that he possessed the seignory of the territory of Gast, 
in the canton of St. Severe, department of Calvados. Essais sur les Bardes, ii. 231. This re 
quires confirmation, but merits inquiry. 

I See the indignant remarks of Southey on the Tristan, in his Preface to Morte d' Arthur, 
P. xvi. 




Perceval, intrigues with the Lady of Orkney, the mother of our 
hero, and is slain by her sons, for which act of retributive justice 
Gawayne is severely censured. Indeed whenever Gawayne is 
mentioned, it is only to represent him under circumstances of 
defeat and disgrace, or to calumniate him. The manuscripts of 
this work are fuller, by one half, than the printed editions, and 
contain an additional quantity of misrepresentation*. To the 
same author who completed the Tristan we are indebted for a 
huge compilation intitled Gyron le Courtois, in which the exploits 
of Gyron, Meliadus, Branor le Brun, the Chevalier sans Peur, and 
a fresh race of worthies are commemorated, to whom even the 
Lancelots and Tristans are represented as inferior. Of course Sir 
Gawayne occupies here a very inferior grade, and is so changed 
from the all-conquering hero of the Merlin, as scarcely to be 
recognised. From this compilation, as well as from the prior 
works of Robert de Borron and Map, was formed the abridgment 
made by Rusticien de Pise in the reign of Edward the First ; and 
in the course of the succeeding two centuries other compilers 
arose, who selected what portions they pleased, and formed them 
into distinct bodies of romance. These more recent compilations 
must be regarded as the immediate originals of the romances 
printed under the titles of Gyron le Courtois and Meliadus de 
Leonnois. The former of these first issued from the press of 
Verard, and represents with tolerable accuracy a portion of Rus- 
ticien's work. In this Sir Gawayne is only mentioned on two 
occasions, and in both passages as a vanquished knight. In the 
Meliadus^ he is oftener introduced, but without a much greater 

MSS. of the pro* Tristan are rare in the libraries of Great Britain. In the British Mu- 
eum are only three copies of portions of the first part, and two copies of the second part. 
The complete text, I believe, is in the collection of Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart. 

t The author of this romance frequently refers to the Tristan, the Lancelot, the Perceval, 
and the Gyron. M. Paris is inclined to refer its compilation to the commencement of the 


degree of praise. His character for courtesy is indeed acknow 
ledged, and an awkward fiction is alleged to account for his in 
ferior powers, by stating that in the tournament of Galles, main 
tained between Arthur and the Seigneur des Loingtains Isles, 
(Gallehault,) he received such hurts as to deprive him of his pre 
vious force, so that afterwards he never recovered it. " Et du 
grant dueil quil en eut, iljist depuis moult de felonies, que la Table 
Ronde achepta moult durement." From the work of Rusticien de 
Pise it is probable that Sir Thomas Malory compiled the English 
prose Morte d 'Arthur in the year 1469, in which, as Scott and 
Southey have remarked, the character of Gawayne is traduced, 
and his history misrepresented. There are a few adventures 
of Gawayne in this work which I have not found elsewhere, but 
they were doubtless furnished by the French manuscript ori 
ginals, which I have had no opportunity of consulting*. 

The metrical romances composed by Chrestien de Troyes re 
quire next to be noticed. They all appear to have been borrowed 
from the prose romances, but contain also incidents derived from 
other sources. The longest and best known of these is the Per 
ceval le Gallois, so large a portion of which relates to the exploits 
of sir Gawayne, that, as a French writer has already observed, it 

sixteenth century, shortly before it was printed, but in Sir Thomas Phillipps's possession is 
a MS. of the fourteenth century, agreeing generally with the printed text, and containing the 
preface of Helie de Borron to his Gyron le Courtois, which in the printed edition of Me- 
liadus is erroneously attributed to Rusticien. From this cause have sprung innumerable mis- 
statements on the subject of these works, and the age of the composers. 

* There are no copies in the British Museum or Bodleian Library of the compilations of 
Helie de Borron and Rusticien. In Sir Thomas Phillipps's Library is a recension of Helie's 
work by Jehan le Vaillant, made in the year 13Q1, which was formerly in the La Valliere 
collection. I find also that a prose work intitled Roman du Roi Artus was printed at Paris 
in 1488, but is so scarce, that I do not know if a copy is to be found in England. It is evi 
dently a late compilation, chiefly taken from the Merlin, but with variations. It is here 
stated, that at Loth's death Mordred disputes the right of Gawayne to his father's throne, 
and on Arthur taking the part of the latter, the catastrophe is brought on which ends in the 
monarch's destruction. This is quite a new version of the story. 


might with equal propriety have been named after both these 
heroes. I have already spoken of this romance in my Notes, 
(p. 305,) and its popularity in Scotland and England must have 
been great, since no less than three of the poems printed in the 
present volume are founded on episodes in it. Here, as in the 
second part of the Saint Graal, the adventures of Gawayne in 
search of the Mysterious Vessel and the palace of king Pescbeur, 
occupy a prominent place. His character for valor and courtesy 
re-appears in its original lustre, and is praised with the same 
warmth as in the romance of Merlin. " Sire," says an esquire 
to Arthur, after relating the feats of Gawayne at the enchanted 
castle of queen Yguerne, " en ma puissance Gauvain assez suffisau- 
ment louer n'est pas possible ; le propoz assez acme* ne la langue 
diserte ne ay-je elegante ne propice a ce faire, pource que, comme 
jc croy, de toute chevaUerie est la perle ; c'est celluy qui de tout vice 
cat nect, innocent, et immaculle ; c' est celluy qui ne pourroit endurer 
felonnie ne mechancete f ; c'est le consolateur des desollez, le pere des 
orphelins, Vabresse et la reconfort des femmes vefues." fol. xlvii. 
We are also in this romance introduced to Giglan, the son of 
Gawayne by the sister of Brandelis, of whom mention only pre 
viously occurs in the first part of the prose Tristan. 

The remaining romances by Chrestien, are the Tristan, appa 
rently now lost ; the Chevalier au Lion, which is known as the 
original of the English Ywaine and Gawin ; the Roman d' Erec et 
Enide, in which Gawayne is assigned the first station among the 
knights of the Round Table* ; the Roman de Free/us, a narrative in 
many respects resembling that of Perceval, and the hero of which 

Devant toz lea bons chevaliers 
Doit cstre Gauvairu li premiers, 
Li seconz Erec, li filz Lac, 
Et li tierz Lanceloz dou Lac. 

MS. de la Bibl. du Roi, No. 7498<,/. 13. 


is a native of Scotland j the Roman de la Charrette, which is an 
episode taken from Lancelot ; and the Roman de Cliges. The last 
four, still remain in manuscript, in the Bibliotheque du Roi at 
Paris, but analyses of them are given in the Bibliotheque des Ro 
mans and the Histoire Litteraire de la France. In all of them we 
find Gawayne very honorably noticed. 

Besides the longer romances several shorter poems of the same 
chivalrous character exist, in which Syr Gawayne's adventures 
are commemorated. One of these is the Chevalier a VEpe'e*, the 
author of which blames Chrestien de Troyes for omitting to cele 
brate Gawayne in a distinct poem, and says he will narrate one 
out of his numerous exploits. The subject connects it with the 
English tale of Syr Gawene and the Carle of Carlyle, as I have 
pointed out in the Notes, (p. 345.) Here too we meet with the 
amusing incident of the greyhounds f, which seems to have been 
borrowed from the metrical Perceval. Another is the fabliau of 
La Mule sans .FVeinf; in which Gawayne undertakes for a lady 
the adventure of the bridle, and after many hazardous conflicts, 
succeeds in gaining it. A prosaical episode also is preserved, in- 
titled the Conte de V Atre Perilleux, containing an interesting ac 
count of Gawayne's encounter with a formidable magician or 
semi-daemon, whom he destroys amidst flashes of lightning, and 
afterwards rescues a damsel from the power of a redoubtable 
knight named Ersanors de la Montagne. 

In all probability other narratives remain in manuscript relating 
to the same personage, and some may have been lost. In the 

* Printed in Meon's Recueil de Fabliaux, vol. i. p. 127, and analysed by Le Grand. 

f See Dunlop's Hist, of Fiction, i. 272. 

I Printed, ib. vol. i. p. 1. See Notes, p. 306. 

Analysed in the Bibl. des Romans, Juillet, 1777, p- 70. It is mentioned in the Inven* 
taire des livres de I'ancienne Bibliotheque du Louvre, fait en I'annee 1373, p. 75, 8vo, 183&; 
edited by M. Van Praet. 


Reductorium Morale of Pierre Bercheur, Prior of St. Eloi, at Paris, 
better known by his Latin name of Berchorius, who is supposed 
by Warton to have been the author of the Gesta Romanorum*, at 
the end of his Prologue to book 14, De Nature Mirabilibus, speak 
ing of the wonderful relations extant of Britain, he writes, " What 
shall I say of the marvels which occur in the histories of Gawayne 
(Galvayni], and Arthur? Of which I will mention only one, 
namely, of the palace under the water, which Gawayne accident 
ally discovered, where he found a table spread with eatables, and 
a chair placed ready for him, but was not able to find the door by 
which he might go out ; but being hungry, and about to eat, sud 
denly the head of a dead man appeared in the dish, and a giant, 
who lay on a bier near the fire, rising up, and striking the roof 
with his head, and the head calling out and forbidding the repast, 
he never dared touch the viands, and after witnessing many 
wonders, got away he knew not howf !" Berchorius here evi 
dently refers to the prodigies seen by Gawayne at the palace of 
the Graal, but the manuscripts used by him must have differed 
greatly from those now extant, or he must have quoted from 
memory, and much misrepresented the story J. The former con 
jecture seems the most probable. So also in a copy of the Mer 
lin, No. 6958 of the Bibliotheque du Roi, we meet with an episode 
not in the usual text of this romance. Gawayne rescues a lady 
by force of arms from Oriol, King of the Saxons, and to his great 

See my Preface to the Old Englith Vermont of the Gesta Romanorum, printed for the 
Roiburghe Club, 4to, 1838. Bercheur died in 1362. 

f Edit. fol. Col. Agr. 1631, torn. ii. p. 901. He adds, "Melius ergo arbitror de istis 
tacere, quam de ipsu aliqua narrativfe asserere, ne forte videar fabulas hominum vel etiam 
opera dcmonnm pro natural! vcritate narrare. Ista ergo ad prsesens omittam, nisi forte quando 
dtfabulu pot/arum tractabo, inaeram aliquid de pnemissis." This work, which was to have 
formed \ht fifteenth book, is unfortunately lost, or was never completed. 

t Compare the Roman de Perceval, ff. cxxi cxxiii. 


delight recognises her as his mie, the Countess of Limos. " Si 
saut jus du cheval, et V embrace, et baise en la face, et ele lui, que 
onques dangler nul ne I' en fait ; et li dist, ' Certes, sire, Hen me 
devez baisier et accoler, que onques mais baisier n'eustes, au mien 
escient, que vous autretant chierement eussiez achete'.' ' Dame,' fait 
il, ' de tant suis-je plus liez*.' " 

Our hero seems to have been famed more for his various in 
trigues than his constancy. At the trial of the ivory horn sent by 
Morgain to Arthur's court, he is the first to raise it to his lips, 
but no sooner does he touch the wine than it runs over the en 
chanted rim, for " Ja nul chevallier n'y bevra qui aura triche son 
amye, ou que sa mie rait triche, que le vin sur lui ne respande^" 
In the Jeaste of Gawayne we have one of his affairs of gallantry nar 
rated, copied from the Perceval, and in the same romance we have 
a similar account of his amour with the daughter of the king of 
Escallon, with whom being surprised, he defends himself with a 
chess-board. A third affair of the same kind takes place with 
Tauree, sister of the Little Knight of the Great Forest, and in the 
Lancelot and Malory '$Mor ted' Arthur we have additional narratives 
of his influence with the fair sex ; so that we can readily under 
stand why he is addressed by the lady in the Scotish romance of 
the Grene Kny^t as a master and pattern not only of courtesy but 
of the art of love. 

One more romantic composition relative to Gawayne remains 
to be noticed, which is the more remarkable from its being quite 
distinct from the established fictions of the Round Table. This 
composition may be assigned to the early part of the fourteenth 
century, and is written in Latin ; but whether derived from "floating 
Celtic traditions," or from an Anglo-Norman original, must be left 

* P. Paris, Manuscrits Francois, ii. 344. 

f Roman de Perceval, f. c b . Comp. Rom. de Tristan, i. f. liii. In the similar fabliau of 
the Manteau mal faille it is Genelas, the mie of Gawayne, who fails in the trial, 



to conjecture. It is intitled De Ortu Waluuanii, nepotis Arturi, and 
is a strange tissue of romantic fiction, embellished with many rhe 
torical flourishes. In it Gawayne is represented as the result of 
a secret intrigue between king Loth and Anna, the daughter of 
Uter Pendragon, and to conceal his birth his mother delivers him 
to some foreign merchants, who carry him to the coast of France, 
not far from Narbonne. They leave the ship and the infant in 
the care of a boy, who falls asleep ; and in their absence a fisher 
man carries the child off, together with a casket, containing testi 
monials of his birth, and a vast quantity of treasure. He afterwards 
proceeds to Rome, where giving himself out to be a descendant 
of a noble Roman family, he is received most honorably by the 
emperor, and assigned as a residence the marble palace of Scipio 
Africanus. The boy grows up, and is beloved by all for his 
courteous demeanour and surprising boldness. At the age of 
twelve years his reputed father dies, but on his death-bed reveals 
the secret of Gawayne's birth to the emperor and the pope Sulpi- 
ciusy but charges them not to reveal it until he should be restored 
to his parents. The youth is brought up under the emperor's 
protection, receives knighthood from his hands, and distinguishes 
himself by his prowess so greatly, that he is sent for by the 
Christians living at Jerusalem to fight in single combat, as a 
champion in their behalf, against the champion of the king of 
Persia, who had made war on them. In his way to the east he 
lands on an island ruled by king Milocrates, an enemy of the Ro 
mans, whom he kills, and afterwards encounters the hostile fleet 
of the king's brother, whose ships are sunk or captured. He at 
length reaches Jerusalem, and fights on foot with the pagan giant 
Gormundus, the Persian champion, for the space of three days, but at 
last cleaves him asunder with his sword from the head downwards, 
"mm optabile stomacho antidotum" as the writer oddly remarks. 
He afterwards returns triumphantly to Rome, and thence, hearing 


of the fame of Arthur, to Britain, where he establishes his claim as 
nephew of the British monarch. Such is the brief outline of this 
singular story, in which we can clearly trace some few particulars 
referable to Geoffrey of Monmouth, but worked up in a manner that 
would bear comparison with the extravagant fictions of a much 
later era. 

The popularity of Gawayne, in spite of the calumny contained 
in the Tristan and Gh/ron, must have been great, but was neces 
sarily joined with that of other heroes of the Round Table. His 
adventures are referred to by several Provencal poets previous to 
the close of the twelfth century, and often subsequently*. In the 
poems of the Anglo-Norman trouveurs his name very frequently 
occurs, and always in terms of respect. It would occupy too 
much space to specify the passages, but I have indicated the prin 
cipal in a note below f. The author of a manuscript Latin trans- 

* See the Journal des Savans, p. 521, Sept., 1833 ; and Raynouard's Choix des Poesies des 
Troubadours, vol. ii. pp. 288, 295, 296, 298. By the author of the romance of Jaufre and 
Ellas Cairel, his feats of arms are placed on the same scale with the wisdom of Merlin or 
the love-passion of Tristan. 

f* A poem is quoted by the Abbe de la Rue, and assigned to king Henry the First, intitled 
Le dictie d'Urbain, in which it is said, 

Plus estre corteis et sein 
Que ne fut Sire Gauvein, 

but I should doubt both the authorship and antiquity claimed for it. See Essais sur les 
Bardes, vol. ii. p. 38, 8vo, 1834. In the same volume, p. 63, the Abbe* states that Turold, 
the author of a romance on the battle of Roncevaux, places Gawayne among the paladins 
by the name of Gautier. This is a silly blunder, arising out of a passage in a more recent 
copy of the poem, analysed by M. Monin, in which the words Ii nies Artus do not refer to 
Gautiers, but to Malarsus, and the name of Artus itself is a mischievous variation from the 
original text, which reads Droun. Compare M. Michel's valuable edition of the Chanson de 
Rolland, 8vo, 1837, p. 79, and Monin's Dissertation, pp. 26, 32. Consult also the Lai de 
Lanval, by Marie de France, vol. i. p. 220, 8vo, 1820 ; Le Couronnement de Renart, vol. iv. 
pp. 3, 5, 8vo, 1826 ; Lai de I' Ombre, p. 43, of Lais Inedits, par Fr. Michel, 8vo, 1836 ; Lai 
de Melion, p. 57, 8vo, 1832 ; the metrical Livre de Oger de Dannemarche, MS. Reg. 15 E. 
vi. f. 81 b , col. 2; the iZomara de la Rose, vol. iii. p. 211, 8vo, 1814 ; and the Roman du 



lation of the celebrated Calilah u Dimnah, made in the year 1313, 
complains in his preface of the avidity with which the romances of 
Gawayne and others were read*. But we are not hence to infer 
that there was originally any large distinct romance which passed 
by his name, but that allusion is made to one of those in which 
his exploits are prominently recorded. In this manner the ro 
mance of Gawayne might mean either the Merlin or the Perceval 
or the Lancelot, as in similar cases we read of the romances of 
Gallchault, Agravain, and La Charrette, all of which are only por 
tions or branches of the Lancelot. Thus too in the Inventory of 

GmtUavmtd'Orangt, quoted by M. Michel in the Glossary to the Chanson du Holland, p. 209. 
In the last of these passages Gawayne is placed in fairy-land with many other heroes of 
the cycle* of Arthur and Charlemagne. The British sovereign thus addresses Renouart, 

Je sui Artus, dont Ten a tant parle, 
Renouart, frere, ce sont la gent fa6, 
Qui sont du siecle venus et trespasse. 

* Vez-14 Rollant, ce vermeill couloure', 
Et c'est Gauvain, a ce poile ro, 

Et puis Yvain, un sien compaing prive ; 

Et cele bele au vis enlumine, 

Icele est Morgue, ou tant a de biaute'. 

Hence may be explained the lines of Chaucer, 

That Syr Gawayne with his old curtesie, 

Although he come agen out of Fairie, 

He could him nought amendin in no worde. 

l.ydgate alto, in his Fall of Princes, B. viii. ch. 25, speaks of Arthur's court in Fairie. 

" VOB igitnr regalem curiam frequcntes, qui tempus vestrum consumitis in narrationibus 
anbagicis, verbi gracia, Lanceloti, Galvani, consimilibusque, libros in quibus nulla con- 
i*ut scicncia vel modica viget utilitas, crebrius intendentes, abjecta vanitatis palea, librum 
istum regium virtutum pcrlegatis," etc. The writer was a physician, named Raymond de 
Biterris. and he translated the work from the Spanish at the request of Joan, queen of Na 
varre. It is altogether different from the version of John of Capua, printed under the title 
of the Dtnctonum Humana Vita. A beautiful copy of the work is preserved in the Bibl. 
dm Roi at Paris, No. 8504. 


the Library in the Louvre, in 1373, we find notices of volumes 
described, as, " No. 287. De Merlin, et des fais de Lancelot du Lac 
et de Gauvin, em prose," and again, " No. 302. Du Saint Graal, 
de Lancelot, de Gauvain, en grant volume plat, em prose." In the 
same manner must the passage of Caxton be understood, where 
he speaks of " the grete and many volumes of Seint Graal, Gha- 
lehot, and Launcelotte de Lake, Gawayne, Perceval, Lyonel, and 
Tristram*," which renders Southey's conjecture as to their sepa 
rate form of no force. 

If we now turn to our English writers, we shall find the fame 
of Gawayne in full vigor from the thirteenth to the sixteenth cen 
tury. The stream of romance which brought down the name of 
Arthur, invariably joined to it that of his courteous and valiant 
nephew ; and his reputation in the popular estimation continued 
to retain its hold, in spite of the misrepresentations of the authors 
of the Tristan and the Cry r on. John Hautville, author of the 
Archithrenius, written previous to the year 1207, places the follow 
ing noble sentiments in our Hero's mouth, 

Et Walganus ego, qui nil reminiscor avara 
Illoculasse manu ; non haec mea fulgurat auro 
Sed gladio dextraf 

In some prefatory lines to the collection of Metrical Legends of 
the Saints, written shortly before the year 1300J, we read, 

* Proheme to Godefrey of Boloyne, fol. 1481. Compare his Preface to the Sook of the 
Ordre of Chyvalry, fol. no date, but about 1484. 

f MS. Cott. Vesp. B. xxiii. f. 30, and MS. Harl. 4066, 2, f. 30. The knight previously 
says of himself, 

Et genus et gentem tribuit Lodonesia nutrix, 

Prebuit irriguam morum Cornubia mammam. 

J Warton, in Hist. Engl. Poetr. says 1200, vol. i. pp. 14, 126, and is incautiously fol 
lowed by Ritson, Metr. Rom. p. civ. I am surprised to find the same error repeated in Mr. 
Guest's valuable work on English Rhythms, vol. ii. p. 220. The same writer persists, p. 


Men wilnethe more yhere of batayle of kyngis 
And of knyjtis hardy, that mochel is lesyngis, 
Of Jloulond and of Olyuere, aud Gy of Warwyk, 
Of Wavayne and Tristram, that ne founde here ylike. 

MS. Bodl. 779, op. Warton, vol. i.p. 126. 
.< -' V <*-'^ ^..J " fi'ff '/v-'VT**.'*" *" : 

Again, in the romance of Richard Cceur de Lion, composed pro 
bably within ten years of the same period, 

Many romances men make newe, 

Of good knyghtes, strong and trewe ; 

Off theyr dedes men rede romance, 

Bothe in Engeland and in France ; 

Off Roweland and of Olyuer, 

And of euery doseper ; 

Of Alisandre and Charlemain, 

Off kyng Arthour and off Gawayn ; 

How they were knyghtes good and curteys, 

Off Turpyn, and of Ogier Daneys*. 


In a curious poem in the Digby MS. No. 86, intitled " Le 
Cuntent parentre le Mauvis et la Russinole, written in the reign of 
Edward the First, is the following stanza : 

Nijttingale, thou hauest wrong, 
Wolt thou me senden of this lond, 

For ich holde with the rijtte ; 
I take witnesse of Sire Waioain, 
That Ihesu Crist jaf inijt and main, 

And strengthe for to fijtte. fol. 137f. 

412, in assigning the year 1278 to Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle, although in my Preface 
to //ocelot I nave pointed out a passage in it which proves it not to have been completed 
till after 1297. 

Weber's Metr. Rom. ii. 4; see also ii. 261. He is greatly mistaken in supposing the 
romance of Ywaine and Gmrin to be here alluded to. 

t A fragment of the same poem, written thirty years later, is preserved in the Auchinleck 
MS., and is thence quoted by Leyden, in Complaynte of Scotland, p. 159. 


Chaucer's lines in reference to our hero are well known*, and 
so are the passages in the romance of Ywaine and Gawin^, com 
posed nearly at the same period. In a legendary MS. work, in- 
titled Cursor Mundi, of the same age, we read in the prologue, 

Man yhernes rimes for to here, 
And romans red on manere sere, 
O kyng Arthour, that was so rike, 
Quam non in hys tim was like ; 
O ferlys that hys knythes fell, 
That aunters sere I here of tell ; 
As Wawan, Cai, and other stabell, 
For to were the Ronde Tabell. 

MS. Cott. Vesp. A. m.fol. 1$. 

In the fifteenth century there are numerous allusions to Sir 
Gawayne, and the vernacular translations of the Saint Graal and 
Merlin^, Mort Artus\\ t Perceval 9 ^, Launfal**, the Squyr of Lowe 
Degrej- f, and other romances, united with the publication of Ma 
lory's diffuse work towards the close of this period, must have 
powerfully operated in diffusing a knowledge of his romantic 
career. In a metrical version of Guido de Colonna's War of Troy, 
which has erroneously been attributed to Lydgate, the writer thus 
enumerates the popular fictions of the day, 

. ,ji-, '<<> , }T-'-"\ *fVK tl'iJjl! V'TillttT '%'- 1 J' *< ' t 1 i( "* ill'- 

* Canterbury Tales, 1. 10,409, and Rom. of the Rose, 1. 2209. Tyrwhitt's Glossary, in v. 

f L. 1419, ap. Ritson, Metr. Rom., vol. i. 

J This copy of the poem is written in the northern dialect. See the same passage, with 
numerous variations, quoted from the Laud MSS., No. 416, Bodl. Library, in Warton, 
Hist. E. P., i. 127. 

Preserved in Corpus Chr. Coll. Cambr., No. 80, and hitherto unpublished. The trans 
lator names himself Kerry Lonelich : see Nasmyth's Catalogue, p. 55, 4to, 1777- 

|| MS. Harl. 2252. Printed for the Roxburghe Club, 4to. 1819. 

IT MS. Eccles. Lincoln., A. 1. 17. 

** Ritson's Metr. Rom., vol. i. 

tf Ibid., vol. iii. 


Off Bevis, Gy, and of Gawayn, 
Off kyng Richard, and of Owayn, 
Off Tristram, and of Percyvale, 
Off Rouland Ris and Aglavale. 

MS. Laud. 595, fol 1. Bodl. Libr. 

And in the inedited romance of Syr Degrevante, a composition 
of much merit, we are told, 

W l kyng Arthure, I wene, 
And dame Gaynore, the quene, 
He was knawene for kene 

This comly knyghte ; 
In haythynnes and in Spayne, 
In France and in Britayne, 
\V l Perceuelle and Gawayne, 

For hardy and wyghte. 

MS. Line. A. 1.17. 


In the reign of Henry the Eighth we learn from a curious pas 
sage in Skelton's Litle Boke of Phillip Sparow, what were the 
principal romance-stories then in vogue, and among them is 
" Gawen and Syr Guy," as well as Lancelot, Tristan, and Libius 
Diosconius, Gawayne'sson. The repeated editions of such romances 
in the course of the sixteenth century must have rendered the name 
of Gawayne familiar to all, and at length, by the natural course 
of all popular literature, the ballad-makers succeeded the minstrels 
in the commemoration of his exploits. Perhaps one of the latest 
passages in which his name is used as a bye-word occurs in Lane- 
ham's amusing account of the actors in the Coventry pageant be 
fore Queen Elizabeth at Kenilworth : "But aware! keep bak, 
make room noow, heer they cum ! And fyrst captin Cox, an od 
man, I promiz yoo, by profession a mason, and that right skilfull ; 
very cunning in fens, and handy as Gawin, for hiz tonsword hangs 


iy*n ye tee H- p* aflfftttt v^^ CeCeft at trope 
in- hn; Inntmiei * brent tobr<m&j i rtlVj 
i4 ff titlk pat pc tvarne^ uf treiou f ^rojt 
| ^Sjirtj tried fo?^ tn^me fC trfVi/c( * u ^. 

I yat Ctpen icprecc* jpinuces mtrotiCS bicvr. 

f f e 


s htt h\x^ Anne mmie as 
to tnCfcim -t 

h for on f ^ frend) fiod fehj* brut? 
Ion wcn bonW<# falbro?e brctavn 

-p me 

'< if t bo^ blyflV * bluicr 
fnll'ktc batrkftcd C ne 

i^i IK. | jrijj pnrtay iV>yijO^jjgci VIVVS blll'tl 

^J; bolJfe bvc^irn ferine baret pat lot'fcn 
^y|[ in mony ttirned tyme tetu ^at ^-ojteu 
\ ^no ferlyc^on yi$ folif \j an fallen l;crc ot't 
pen many o^ pat |^K>t fyn-pat ilk t^tne 
U bot of alle fat here bttlt of bretaTjgne f^iTj 
I o M i,^^ art |j nr p e );en^(V a-jl>af^v^ telle 

M.S.Cott Nero Ax.fol.91. 


at his tablz eend*." And a little further on, among the books 
which the same worthy had " at hiz fingers endz," he mentions 
" Syr Isenbras, Syr Gawyn, and Olyver of the Castl." Indeed 
there can be little doubt that Sir Gawayne was the prototype 
which furnished to Spenser the character of his Sir Calidore, 

In whom it seemes that gentleness of spright 

And manners mylde were planted naturall, 

To which he adding comely guize withall, 

And gracious speach, did steale mens hearts away ; 

Nathlesse thereto he was full stout and tall, 

And well approv'd in batteilous affray, 

That him did much renowme, and far his fame display. 

Faerie Queene, B. vi. c. 1 . st. 2. 

Having dwelt so long on the subject of our Hero's fame in Eng 
land, it is scarcely necessary to add, that in southern Scotland the 
popularity of his exploits could not have been less, since he there 
was claimed as one of their own chieftains, the Lord of Galloway. 
The Scotish poems published in the present volume will best show 
how he was regarded by the writers of the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries, but they also prove, that these writers were indebted to 
Anglo-Norman romance-literature for nearly all that they knew 
of him. This is an important fact in the history of Scotish lite 
rature, and hitherto has not received the attention it deserves. 
The same remark may extend to Wales, as proved by the publi 
cation of the Mabinogion. 

If we now look towards Germany, we shall find at an early pe 
riod the romances of the Round Table received there, as borrowed 
from the French originals. Hartman von Owe translated the Che 
valier au Lion at the commencement of the thirteenth century f, 

* Letter on the entertainment of the Queen at Kenilworth, p. 34, 1575. 12mo. Oliver of the 
Castle is a mistake for, or corruption of, Oliver of Castille. 
f Printed in MUller's Sammlung, vol. ii. 4to, 1785. 



and at the same period Wolfram von Eschenbach composed his ro 
mances of Parzival and Titurel from the authority of Kyot of Pro 
vence*. The proper names in these are very much altered, and 
other liberties taken, but in the German Parzival, as in the French 
text, Sir Gawayne occupies the larger share of the poem. Goldast 
in his Partenetica, p. 377, quotes a distich from a German poem 
intitled by him Historia Gewani, but in all probability it is taken 
from the Parzival^. In the " Altdeutsche Blatter" are also 
printed three fragments of old German romances from MSS. of 
the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries, relating to Gawayne, but it is 
doubtful to what works they belong f. The same personage is 
mentioned in the romance of Lohengrin, which belongs to the same 
cycle , as well as in the romance of Wigolais, by Wirnt von 
Gravenberg, of which I have spoken in my Notes, (p. 347.) To 
wards the end of the fifteenth century a cyclic compilation from 
the Round Table narratives was made by Ulrich Fiirterer, a poet 
of , Bavaria, and the work is still preserved in manuscript at Mu 
nich and Vienna || . 

Among the Flemish poets the adventures of Gawayne were 
equally well known, and at as early a period. They are referred 
to by Jacob von Maerlant, (who died about the year 1300,) in his 
Alexandreis, and also by Jan de Helu, who was his contemporary, 
and by Jan de Clerk, who died in 1350f . Besides these inci^ 

Printed in the edition of Eschenbach's works by Lachmann, 8vo, BerJ. 1833. The Par 
zival consists of 24,678 lines. 

t See Yonder Hagen's Gnmdruszur Geschichte der Deutschen Poesie, p. 122, 8vo, fieri. 

| Vol. ii. pp. 148159, 8vo, Leipz. 1838. 

f Edited by J. Gorres, from a MS. in the Vatican, 8vo, Heidelb. 1813. In this, Sygelmt, 
daughter of Gawayne, is noticed. 

|| Von der Hagen Grwtdr. etc., p. 153. See also Altdeuttche Gedichte aus den Zeiten der 
Tuftlnmdr, T. F. F. Hofstater, 2 Thl. 12mo, Wien, 1811. 

f See Hoffman's Horae i. pp.48, 52, 8vo, 1830; and Mone's Ubersicht der 
Ntrdrrlamduchtn Volkt- Liter atvr, p. 38, 8vo, Tub. 1838. 


dental passages, a poem consisting of 1 1,300 lines is extant, com 
posed by Pennine and Peter Vostaert in the fourteenth century, 
in which the exploits of Gawayne are principally narrated, and 
which is, doubtless, a translation of the French Perceval*. Even 
in the remoter regions of the North, the romances of Perceval, 
Ywaine, Erec and Enide, Tristan, and many more of French 
origin, found their way, and Icelandic versions of them are still 
preserved in the libraries of Stockholm, Copenhagen, and the Bri 
tish Museum. In the list given by Miiller in his SagabibliotheJc, 
vol. iii. p. 484, I find " Valvent, Artus Kappa, Saga," or Ro 
mance of Gawayne, Arthur's knight, and in the Additional MSS. 
in the British Museum, No. 4859, is preserved a transcript, 
with the title, " Nu byriast Valvers \Valvens\ }>attur, sem var eirn 
af Artus Kauppum." It consists only of five chapters, and is 
evidently a short compilation from the Perceval. 

In the southern countries of Europe the Round Table romances 
seem, comparatively speaking, to have been in far less repute. 
The Italians, indeed, had translations of the Merlin, the Lancelot, 
and the Tristan, but, with the exception of the last, they were 
never generally read, but gave way to the more popular romances 
of Charlemagne and his Douze Pairs^. Ariosto, however, takes 
occasion to eulogise the chivalry of Britain : 

Gran cose in essa gia fece Tristano, 

Lancilotto, Galasso [Galeotto,3 Artu, e Galvano. 

Orlando Furioso, Canto iv. st. 52. 

And another writer of more recent date, Brusantino, in his 
Angelica Innamorata, also says, 

* Consult the last cited works. Vostaert seems to have completed the poem in the year 

f See Panizzi's Boiardo ed Jiriosto, Essay, p. 151, 12mo, 1830. 



E tra i pregiati Artti gia fu e Tristano, 
E Bando, e Lantilotto, e 1 buon Galvano*. 

But it was reserved for a native of Cremona, at the request of 
the Loredani family of Venice, to celebrate Arthur's courteous 
nephew in a distinct work. It is written in ottava rima, and was 
printed without date at Milan by Peter Martir and his associates, 
and intitled, " Libro novo de lo Inamoramento de Galvano, etc., 
composto da il laureato poeta Fossa da Cremona." By Ferrario it 
is assigned to Evangelista Fossa, but Count Melzi seems inclined 
to give it to Matteo Fossa, who died in 1516f. Both agree in 
stating that it is of extreme rarity, and extremely worthless. 

Lastly, among the Greeks of the Eastern Empire we meet with 
the heroes of the Round Table, whose exploits must have been 
communicated to them in their intercourse with the Franks. 
This curious fact is proved by the fragment of a romance written 
in Greek political verses, a private impression of which was 
printed at Breslau in 1821, by Von der Hagen, and subsequently 
reprinted at the end of M. Michel's edition of Tristan, in 1835. 
Neither of these editors was aware of the fact, that the poem in 
question is only a portion of a longer romance, translated closely 
from the Gyron le Courtois of Helie de Borron or Rusticien de Pise, 
and consequently its composition cannot be assigned to so early 
a period as the twelfth century, but to the latter half of the 

I have now only to add a few words respecting the execution 
of the present volume. The Glossary has cost considerable labor, 
and will, I trust, be considered of value, but to those who know 

Cant. iii. at. 1, edit. 8vo, Vineg. 1553. No such personage as Bando occurs in the 
Arthurian romances. 

See Storia dtyli antichi Romanzi di Cavalleria, vol. ii. p. 330, 8vo, 1828 ; and Melzi's 
Biblioyrafia dr'Romanci, p. 320, 8vo, 1838. 




the difficulties which attend the explanation of the Northern 
alliterative poems, its imperfections will not prove matter of sur 
prise. I hope the time may arrive, when the whole of these 
poems still remaining in manuscript will be published, and I am 
confident, that until this preliminary step is accomplished, no 
complete Dictionary of the Northern English can be made. 
Jamieson's is, indeed, a work of great industry, and his col 
lection of modern Scoticisms intitled to considerable praise ; but 
as a critical or etymological guide to the Scotish and Northern 
dialect of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, it is 
miserably imperfect and inaccurate. A vicious theory pervades 
it throughout, which a more extensive acquaintance with the 
mass of vernacular literature still remaining inedited would, I am 
convinced, have excluded. 

The poems here taken from original manuscripts are printed 
with a scrupulous regard to accuracy, and the abbreviations left 
as written, but, for the convenience of the reader, a list of these 
is annexed, and the words are written at length in the Glossary 
and Notes. The truth is, that editors of our old poetry have, 
with few exceptions, paid too little attention to the system of 
writing used by the early scribes, and the consequence is, that 
but a small portion of all that has been published will bear colla 
tion with the originals. I say this advisedly, having myself com 
pared most of the poems edited by Ritson, Pinkerton, Weber, 
Percy, Ellis, Hartshorne, and others. It is time this were re 

I have added to the present Introduction, according to the 
excellent plan adopted by recent French writers, a description of 
the Manuscripts used by me, which may not be altogether devoid 
of interest. 

For three of the transcripts from the Percy MS., my thanks are 
due in an especial manner to George Baker, Esq., the Historian 


of Northamptonshire, who most kindly undertook to make them 
for me, which he was enabled to do by the liberal permission of 
the present possessor of the Manuscript, Ambrose Isted, Esq., of 
Ecton Hall. 


British Museum, 
9th August, 1839. 


I. COTTON MS. NERO A. x. A small quarto volume, consisting of three dif 
ferent MSS. bound together, which originally had no connection with each other. 
Prefixed is an imperfect list of contents, in the hand-writing of James, the Bodley 

The first portion consists of a panegyrical oration in Latin by Justus de Justis, 
on John Chedworth, archdeacon of Lincoln, dated at Verona, 16 July, 1468. It 
occupies thirty-six folios, written on vellum, and is the original copy presented by 
the author. 

The second portion is that we are more immediately concerned with. It is de 
scribed by James as " Vetus poema Anglicanum, in quo sub insomnii figmento multa 
ad religionem et mores spectantia explicantur" and this account with some slight 
changes is adopted by Smith and Planta, in their catalogues ; both of whom assign 
it to the fifteenth century. It will appear, by what follows, that no less than four 
distinct poems have been confounded together by these writers. 

This portion of the volume extends fromfol.37 to fol.126, inclusive, and is written 
by one and the same hand, in a small, sharp, irregular character, which is often, 
from the paleness of the ink, and the contractions used, difficult to read. There are 
no titles or rubrics, but the divisions are marked by large initial letters of blue, 
florished with red, and several illuminations, coarsely executed, serve by way of 
illustration, each of which occupies a page. 

1. Four of these are prefixed to the first poem. In the first the Author is 
represented slumbering in a meadow, by the side of a streamlet, clad in a 
long red gown, having falling sleeves, turned up with white, and a blue hood 


attached round the neck. In the second the same person appears, drawn on 
ft lirger scale, and standing by the stream. In the third he occurs nearly 
in the same position, with his hands raised, and on the opposite side a lady 
dreMed in white, in the costume of Richard the Second's and Henry the 
Fourth's time, battened tight up to the neck, with long hanging sleeves. Her 
hair is plaited on each side, and on her head is a crown. In the fourth we 
see the author kneeling by the water, and beyond the stream is depicted a 
castle, or palace, on the imbattled wall of which appears the same lady, with 
her arm extended towards him. 

The poem commences on fol. 39, and consists of one hundred twelve-line stanzas, 
every five of which conclude with the same line, and are connected by the itera 
tion of a leading expression. It commences thus : 

Perle plesaunte to prynces paye, 
To clanly clos in golde so clere, 
Oute of oryente I hardely saye 
Ne proued I neuer her precios pere ; 
So rounde, so reken in vche araye. 
So smal, so smothe her sydej were, 
Quere so euer I iugged gemmej gaye 
, I sette hyr sengeley in synglure. 

Alias ! I lefte hyr in on erbere, 
purj gresse to grounde hit fro me got ; 
I dewyne for dowed of luf daungere, 
Of J>at pryuy perle w'outen spot. 

The writer represents himself as going in the month of August to seek his pearl 
or mistress, and falling asleep in a flowery arbour. He is carried in his vision to a 
stream near a forest, which flows over pebbles of emeralds and sapphires. On the 
other side he perceives a chrystal cliff, and " a mayden of menske" sitting beneath. 

At the fote ther of ther sete a faunt, 
A mayden of menske ful debonere ; 
Blysnande whyt watj hyr bleaunt, 
I knew hyr wel, I had sene hyr ere. 
As glysnande golde )>at men con schcre, 
So schon \&t schene an vnder schore ; 
On lenghe I loked to hyr ]>ere, 
pe longer I knew hyr more & more. 

The lady rises and approaches him, and in answer to his inquiries blames him for 


supposing her lost. He wishes to pass the stream, but is told he may not till after 
death. The lady thence takes occasion to instruct him in religious doctrines, which 
are of a mystical tendency. The celestial Jerusalem is then pointed out to him, 
and he beholds a procession of virgins going to salute the Lamb. The lady leaves 
him to take her place among them ; and on his attempting to jump into the stream 
to follow her, he awakes. The poem concludes on fol. 55 b . 

2. Then follow two more illuminations ; in the first of which Noah and his 
family are represented in the ark ; in the second the prophet Daniel ex 
pounding the writing on the wall to the affrighted Belshazzar and his queen. 
These serve as illustrations to the second poem, which begins at fol. 57, and is 
written in long alliterative lines. 

Clannesse who so kyndly cowfe commende, 
& rekken vp alle )>e resownj ]>* ho by rijt askej, 
Fayre forme? myjt he fynde in forering his speche, 
& in Je contrare kark & combraunce huge. 

The first part of this poem is occupied with the parable of the marriage-feast, as 
applicable to cleanness of life. In the second is related the fall of the angels, 
the creation, and principal events of scripture history to the destruction of Sodom, 
after which follows a long passage on the birth of Christ, and reflexions of a moral 
character. The third part embraces the history of Daniel ; and concludes on fol. 82. 

3. Two illuminations precede, as before ; one of which represents the sailors 
throwing the prophet Jonas into the sea, the other depicts the prophet in the 
attitude of preaching to the people of Nineveh. The poem is in the same 
metre as the last, and commences thus, fol. 83 : 

Pacience is a poynt, J>aj hit displese ofte ; 
When heuy herttes ben hurt wyth hej>yng, other elles, 
Suffraunce may aswagen hem, & J>e swelme lethe, 
For ho quelles vche a qued, & quenches malyce. 

It is occupied wholly with the story of Jonas, as applicable to the praise of meek 
ness and patience ; and ends on fol. 90. 

4. The Romance intitled by me Syr Gaioayn and the Grene Kny^t follows, 
fol. 91. Prefixed is an illumination, of which an outline engraving is given at 
p. 18 of the present volume, and needs no further description, except that here 
and elsewhere the only colors used are green, red, blue, and yellow. A fac 
simile of the first page of the poem itself is also annexed. It ends on fol. 124 b , 
and at the conclusion, in a later hand is written Hony foit q mal penc," 



which may, perhaps allude to the illumination on the opposite page, fol. 
125, representing the stolen injerview between the wife of the Grene Knyjt 
and Syr Gawayne. (See p. 45.) Above the lady's head is written : 
Mi mind is mukul on on, >' wil me nojt amende, 
Sum time wa trewe as fton, & fro fchame cou>e hir defende. 

It does not appear very clearly how these lines apply to the painting. Two ad 
ditional illuminations follow ; in the first of which Gawayne is seen approaching the 
Grene Chapel, whilst his enemy appears above, wielding his huge axe (see p. 82.) ; 
and in the second Sir Gawayne, fully equipped in armour, w represented in the 
presence of king Arthur and queen Guenever, after his return to the court. (See 
p. 91.) The form of the helmet worn by the knight is here worthy of notice. 

The third and concluding portion of the Cotton volume extends from fol. 127 to 
fol. 140 b , inclusive, and consists of theological excerpts, in Latin, written in a hand 
of the end of the thirteenth century. At the conclusion is added Epitaphium de 
Ranulfo, abbate Ramegiensi, who was abbat from the year 1231 to 1253, and who 
is erroneously called Ralph in the Monanticun, vol. ii. p. 5-1-8, new ed. 

II. THE THORNTON MS. preserved in the Library of Lincoln Cathedral, and 
marked A. 1. 17. It is a folio volume written on paper, in a small and occasionally 
negligent hand, consisting at present of 314 folios, but imperfect both at the be 
ginning and end, and otherwise much injured by neglect '. It was apparently com 
piled by one Robert de Thornton, between the years 1430-1440. The Contents 


1. Life of Alexander; in prose, fol. 1. 

Beg downe to J>e dyke, and thare he felle, and was alle to-frusched. 

At the conclusion we read, " Here ende) b e lyf of gret Alexander, conguerour of 

1 Thi* MS. was liberally lent to me in 1832, for a considerable period, by the Dean and Chapter 
of Lincoln. It was then in thick oaken boards, covered with white leather, and fastened by a clasp, 
but in so decayed a state, and the leaves in such loose disorder, as to make it absolutely necessary, for 
the take of preserving it from destruction, to have it rebound. This I caused to be done, at my own 
expense, in a " good solid attire of Russia leather," and I prefixed to it a list of the contents, drawn 
up with considerable labor, to which I affixed my initials. It was therefore with some surprise I 
found, on looking into Dr. Dibdin's " Bibliographical Tour in the Northern Counties," 8vo, 1838, that 
in voL L pp. 110-116, the whole of this list was copied in my own words, (with some very trifling 
alterations, and some very glaring bbmderi,) without any proper acknowledgement to myself as the 
author, but on the contrary, at p. 117, the description is assigned to " Mr. Willson's enlarged notice." 
Justice to myself requires me to state this. Either Dr. Dibdin or Mr. Willson has not treated me 
fairly in this matter. 


alle J) e worlde" It is a literal translation of the Latin prose Life, printed at Stras- 
burg, in 1494, and from this or a similar version the alliterative Scotish Romance 
in MS. Ashmole 44, seems to have been versified. 

On the verso of fol. 49 is written in a later hand than the usual text, " Isto die 
natus fuit, sancta Maria ante \_Natwitatem ?~] Domini noslri Jhesu Ckristi, Ro- 
bertus Thornton in Ridaylle, anno Domini MCCCCLIIJ." 

2. Prognostications of the weather, etc., written in a different and more re 
cent hand. fol. 50. 

3. Lamentacio Peccatoris. fol. 51 b . 

Beg. Alle crystyn men ]?' wawkes me bye. 

In twenty stanzas of four lines each, written in a later hand than Thornton's. 
On fol. 52 b is a rude drawing in pen and ink of a combat between a knight and 
a giant, executed apparently by the same hand. 

4. Here begynnes Morte Arthure. fol. 53. 

Beg. Now grett glorious godd | thurghe grace of hym sclucnc, 
And the precyous prayere | of hys prys modyr. 

At the bottom of the page is written in red, j^ ^ 62 ^ ygV En espyrance 

may .... On fol. 93 b occurs also the name of " Robart Thornton" in a scroll at 
tached to an initial letter, and at the end of the poem occurs, " Here endes Morte 
Arthure, writene by Robert of Thorntone" A later hand adds, " R. Thornton dic- 
tus, qui scripsit sit benedictus. Amen." Bishop Tanner, and after him Ritson and 
others, have considered Thornton here and elsewhere as the author, but he is evi 
dently only the scribe. In all probability, this Romance is the "gret Geste of Ar 
thure" ascribed by Wyntown to Hucheon. (See Notes, p. 303.) 

5. Here by-gynnes the Romance off Octavyane. fol. 98 b . 

Beg. Mekylle and littille, olde and jynge, 
Herkyns alle to my talkynge. 

In six-line stanzas. Unfortunately one half of fol. 108 has been torn away. It 
differs from the Romance printed by Weber, from the Cotton MS. Calig. A. II., but 
agrees with the copy at Cambridge, among Bp. More's MSS. in the Public Library, 
No. 690. (Ff.ii.38.) 

6. Here begynnes the Romance off Syr Ysambrace. fol. 109. 

Beg. Jhesu Xp'c, Lorde of heuene kynge, 
Graunte vs alle his dere blyssynge. 

In six-line stanzas. At the end is, " Explicit Syr Ysambrace" It differs much 

from Copland's edition, reprinted by Uttereon in bis Early Popular Poetry, vol. i. 

p. 77. 

7. Here bygynnet y* Romance off* Dyoclicyane y* Emperour Sf y* Erie Be- 

rade of Tkolout, and ofy* Emprice Beaulilwne. fol. 1 14 b . 
Beg. Jhesu Criste, God and Lorde in Trynyte, 
Onely god and persones thre. 

In six-line stanzas. The close of this Romance has been torn away. It is printed 
by Ritson, Metr. Rom. vol. iii. p. 93, from Bp. More's MSS. in Publ. Libr. Cam 
bridge, No. 690, and a third copy exists in the Ashmolean Museum, No. 45. 

8. Vita Sancti Christofori. [Her^e bygynnes y* lyffe of y* Story of 
[S]aynte Cnttofre. fol.!22 b . 

Beg. Lordynges, if it be jowre wille. 

And je wille here, and holde jow still. 

In six-line stanzas. At the end is, " Explicit Vita Sancti Christofori. Thorntone." 

9. Syr Deareuance. fol. 130. 

Beg. Jhesu, Lorde in Trynite 

Graunte J>am heuene for to see. 

In eight-line stanzas. At the close is, " Explicit Syr Degreuaunt" The name is 
printed erroneously Degrenante by Laing, (who conjectures it may be Sir Degore, 
which it is not,) and Dygamore by Dibdin. Ritson in his MS. Catalogue of Ro 
mances, MS. Add. 10,285, Append., mentions another copy as existing among Bp. 
More's MSS. at Cambridge. 

10. Incipit Syr Eglamour ofArtasse. fol. 138 b . 

Beg. Jhesu >' is heucns kyng, 
Gyff vs alle his blyssyng. 

In six-line stanzas. There are other copies in MS. Cott. Calig. A. II., and MS. 
More, 690. It was printed by Chepman and My liar at Edinburgh, in 1508, and 
subsequently by Copland, and by Walley, at London. 

11. De Miraculo beate Marie, fol. 147. 

Beg. Jhesu, Lorde in Trinyte, 

P 1 was, and es, and aye schalle be. 

In six-line stanzas. The story relates to a wicked knight, who is converted from 
his sins by a friar. 


12. Lyarde. fol. 148. 

Beg. Lyarde es ane olde horse, and may noght wele drawe, 
He salle be putt in to > e parke, holyne for to gnawe. 

At the end is, " Here endys Lyarde" The tale is of an indecent cast. 

13. Tomas off" Ersseldoune. fol. 149 b . 

Beg. Lystyns, lordynges, bothe grete and smale. 

In stanzas of four lines each. At the end, "Explicit Thomas of Erseledoumne." 
It is imperfect; part of fol. 152 and nearly the whole of fol. 153 having been torn 
away. It was printed from this copy by Laing in his Popular Poetry of Scotland, 
4to, 1822, and previously had appeared in Scott's Border Minstrelsy and Jamieson's 
Popular Ballads, from the Cotton MS. Vitell. E. x., and MS. More Ff. v. 48. 

14. Here by-gynnes the Awntyrs of Arthure at the Terne-Wathelyne. fol. 154. 
Printed in the present Volume, p. 95. A fac-simile of the commencement is an 
nexed, which will shew the general character of the MS. 

15. Here bygynnes the Romance off Syr Perecyuelk of Gales, fol. 161. 

Beg. Lef, lythes to me, 
Two wordes or thre. 

In stanzas of eight lines. No other copy is at present known, but it is but of 
little merit as a composition. 

16. 17, 18. Charms for the tooth-ache, fol. 176. 

19. Epistola Sancti Salvatoris. fol. 176 b . 

20. Prayer in Latin, with a Proem in English, fol. 176 b . 

21. A Prey ere off the Fyve Joyes of oure Lady [m] Ynglys, and of the 
Fyve Sorowes. fol. 177 b . 

22. Psalmus, Voce mea ad Dominum clamaui. fol. 178. 

23. Here bygynnys Fyve Prayers to the wirchipe of the Fyve Wondys of 
oure Lorde Jhesu Cryste; in Latin, fol. 178. 

24. Oracio in Ynglys. fol. 178 b . 

25. A Colett to oure lady Saynt Marye; in Latin, fol. 178 b . 

26. Oracio in modo Collecte,pro amico; fol. 178 b . 

27. Antiphona Sancti Leonardi, cum Collecta. fol. 178 b . 

28. Here begynnes the Previte off the Passioune of owre lorde Jhesu. fol. 179. 

Beg. Who so desyres to fynd comforthe and gostely gladnes. 

At the end is written, "Explicit Bonauenture de Misterijs Passionis Jhesu 


29. Incipit tractate* WiUielmi Nassyngtone, quondam Aduocali Juris Ebo- 
raci, de Trinitate et Vnitate, cum declaration: operum Dei, et de passione 
Domini nottri Jhesu Christi, etc. fol. 1891 

Beg. A, Lord God of myghtes mastc, Fadere and Sone, and Haly Gaste, 
Fader, for >" ert almyghty, sone for thow ert alle wytty. 

Tanner notices this poem from the present MS., and so does Warton, Hist. Engl. 
Poetry, voL iii. p. 9, who with his usual inaccuracy confounds it with Nafsyngton's 
translation of John de Waldeby's Myrrour, and then assigns the author to the year 
1480; although in the Royal Library, British Museum, there is a copy of Nafsyng 
ton's version of the Myrrour, dated in 1418, MS. Reg. 17, C. viii. 
80, 31, 32. Prayers in verse, fol. 191 b . 

33. Of the vertu) of the holy name of Jhesu. fol. 192. 

A translation from Richard Hampole's comment on the verse Oleum effusum 
nomen tuum, etc. 

34. A tale^at Richerde ffermet [made}, fol. 193 b . 

Beg. When I hade takene my syngulere purpos, and lefte Y seculere habyte. 

35. A prayere \>at J> e same Richerde Hermet made, J>* es beried at Hampulle ; 
in Latin, fol. 193 b . 

. 36. Ympnus, quern composuit Sanctus Ambrosyus. fol. 193 b . 

37. De imperfecta contricione. fol. 194. 

Beg. Rycherde hermyte reherces a dredfulle tale. 

38. Moralia Richardi heremite, de natura apis. fol. 194. 

Beg. The bee has thre kyndis. 

At the foot of this folio is written " Edward Thornton" in a hand of Henry 
the Eighth's time. 

39. De vita cujusdam puelle incluse propter amorem Christi. fol. 194 b . 

Beg. Alswa Heraclides, Y clerke, telles. 

At the close is, " Richerd heremyte reherces J>is tale in ensampille." 

40. 41. Two Latin extracts from "Richardus Herymyta" fol. 195, 

42. A notabille Tretys off the ten Comandementys, drawene by Richerde the 
hermyte off Hamputte. fol. 195 b . 

Beg. The fyrste comandement es, Thy Lorde God J> u salle loute. 

43. Idem de septem donis Spiritus Sancti, Also of b e gyftes of the Halv 
Gaste. fob 196. 


44. Idem de dilectacione in Deo. Also of ]> e same, delyte and ^ernyng of Gode. 
fol. 196 b . 

45. Incipit Speculum Sancti Edmundi, Cantuar. Archiepiscopi, in Anglicis. 
Here begynnys the Myrrour of Seynt Edmonde, J) e Ersebechope of Canter- 
berye. ff. 197-209. 

Beg. Videte vocacionem vestram. This wordes sayse saynte Paule. 

Edmund Rich, the author of the Latin original of this treatise, died in 1242. 

46. Tractatus de dominica oracione. fol. 209 b . 

Beg. In alle the wordes at er stabilled. 

47. Poetical address to Christ, fol. 211. 

Beg. Jhesu Criste, saynte Marye sonne. 

In stanzas of four lines. At the end is, Explicit. Amen. Thorntone. Amen. 

48. Another metrical orison, in six-line stanzas, fol. 21 l b . 

Beg. Fadir, and Sone, and Haly Gaste. 

49. Another, to Christ, fol. 212. 

Beg. Jhesu Criste, Goddes sune of heuene. 

50. Incipit a Meditacione of\* Fyve Woundes of oure Lorde Jhesu Criste ; 
in Latin, fol. 212. 

51. A Meditacione of the Crosse of Criste ; in Latin, fol. 212 b . 

At the end is added, " R. Thorntone dictus, qui scripsit sit benedictus. Amen" 

52. Moral Poem, in stanzas of four lines, fol. 213. 

Beg. When Adam dalfe and Eue spane | Go spire, if J> u may spede, 
Whare was J>ane J> e pride of mane | ]>at nowe merres his mede. 

53. Six lines of poetry ; perhaps composed by Thornton himself, fol. 21 3 b . 

Beg. Jhesu Criste, have mercy one me. 

54. Here begynnes a Sermone \at Dane Joh'n Gaytryge made, J> e whilke 
teches how scrifte es to be made, and whare of, and in scrifte how many thynge$ 
solde be consederide. fol. 213 b . 

Beg. Als a grett doctour schewes in his buke. 

55. Hymn to Christ ; in four-line stanzas, fol. 219. 

Beg. Jhesu, thi swetnes wha moghte it se. 


56. Religious treatise, in prose. foL 219*. 

Beg. Dere frende, wit >' wele, |*t V ende and )> soueraynte of perfeccione. 

57. Moral Poem. foL 222. 

Beg. pi joy be ilke a dele to seme thi Godd to paye. 

Imperfect at the end, as is the next piece at the beginning, a folio having been 

here torn out. 

58. Treatise on Active and Contemplative Life, fol. 223. 

Beg. ... menne }>at ware in prelacye, and o>er also J>at ware haly temporalle menne. 

59. Prose religious treatise, fol. 229 b . 

Beg. Wit thou wele, dere frende, >at >of J>ou had neuer done syne. 

60. Of Sayne Joh'n )>' euaungelist. fol. 231. 

Beg. Of alle mankynde fat he made, J>at maste es of myghte, 
And of Y molde merkede and mesured that tyde. 

An alliterative poem in stanzas of fourteen lines each, of which the third, fifth, 
and seventh rhyme, and the second, fourth, sixth and eighth. At the close are six 
shorter lines, of which the first, second, fourth and fifth rhyme, and the third and 

61. Prose tract on Prayer. fol.233 b . 

Beg. . Prayng es a gracyous gyfte of owre Lorde Godd. 

62. De gratia Dei. fol. 240. 

Beg. Off Goddis grace stirrand and hel panel. 

63. Hie intipit quedam reuelacio. A Reuelacyone scfiewede to one holy wo- 
mane now one late tyme. fol. 250. 

Beg. AUe raanere of thyng >at es by-gunne. 

This revelation is stated to have occurred on St Lawrence's day, 1422, which 
may assist in determining the age of the Manuscript. 

64. 65. Two hymns, in Latin, fol. 258. 

66. Here bygynnys Sayne Jerome SpaUyre ; in Latin, fol. 258 b . 
Adjoined are various Latin prayers. On the margin of fol. 266 is written in a 
hand of the sixteenth century, " Dorythy Thornton:' 


67. Religio Sancti Spiritus religio munda. fol. 271. 

Beg. Off the Abbaye of Saynte Spirite, that es in a place that es callede 
Conscyence. A, dere brothir and systirs. 

This is the well-known treatise of the " Abbaye of the Holy Goste" generally 
ascribed by bibliographers to John Alcock, bishop of Ely, who died about 1498. 
That this statement is erroneous, appears not only from the presumed date of the 
present MS., but by the fact, that there is a copy of the treatise in the Vernon MS. 
Bodleian Library, written in the reign of Richard the Second, before Alcock was 
born ! Among the MSS. preserved in the library at Lambeth, No. 432, art. 2, a 
copy of this treatise is attributed to Richard Hampole, and this statement is not 
unlikely to be the true one. 

68. A religious Poem. fol. 276 b . 

Beg. The begynnyng es of thre. 

69. Ista oracio que sequitur est de vii. gaudia (sic) beate Marie virginis, per 
sanctum Thomam et Martirem, Cantuariensem episcopum edita. fol. 277 b . 

70. Anofyer Salutacioune tille oure Lady, ofhirfyve Joyes ; in Latin, fol. 277 b . 

71. Ane Antyme to p e Fadir ofheuene, w* a Colett\ in Latin, fol. 278. 

72. Ancfyer anteme of f e passyoune of Criste Jhesu ; in Latin, fol. 278. 

73. A Colecte ofgrete pardone oon to Crist Jhesu ; in Latin, fol. 278. 

74. Latin hymn to Christ, fol. 278 b . 

At the top of the page is written, " Thorntone. Misereatur mei Deus ! " 

75. A Preyere to p e wounde in Crystis syde ; in Latin, fol. 278 b . 

76. Memento, homo, quod sinis (sic) es, a Poem in four-line stanzas, each of 
which rhymes with the same syllable, fol. 279. 

Beg. Erthe owte of erth : es wondirly wroghte, 

Erthe base getyn one erthe : a dignyte of noghte. 

77. Hie incipit liber de diuersis medicinis, etprimo, pro capite, ff. 280-314 b . 

Beg. For werke and vanyte ine > e hede. 

This treatise is imperfect, the latter leaves having been wholly or partly torn 
away. The authority of the Rector of Oswaldkirk is often referred to by the com 
piler, and the names of Magister Will, de Excestre and Syr Apiltone are also 

The scribe and compiler of this volume, Robert de Thornton, is stated by Mr. 
Laing to have held some situation in the cathedral of Lincoln, and afterwards to 
hare become archdeacon of Bedford, and to have died in May, 1450. The internal 



evidence of the volume is altogether against such a supposition. From the general 
content* it appears evidently to have been compiled by a native of Yorkshire, and 
in all probability by a member of the family of Thornton, which was seated in the 
Wapontake of Rydale, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, in whose possession it 
remained till the close of the sixteenth century, as appears by the entries on ff. 194- 
and 266. Compare the pedigree of Thornton in MS. Harl. 6070, fol. 11, in which 
the same family names occur. The mention of the Rector of OswoJdkirk and Syr 
Airiltone concur to prove this conjecture, since Oswaldkirk and Appleton both lie 
in the same immediate district Ritsou's supposition (Bibl. Poet^ p. 107.), that 
the compiler of the MS. was the same person as Robert de Thornton, Prior of 
Bardney, in Lincolnshire, is improbable, but it is possible that he may have been 
the same who was Vicar of Silkeston in the Deanery of Doncaster, in the year 1425. 
See MS. Add. 11,4OO, p. 55. 

III. MS. DOUCE, now in the Bodleian Library. It consists of eleven folios of 
coarse paper, written in a large, inelegant, but very legible character, in the reign 
of Edward the Fourth. The guide-lines for the scribe have been ruled with a rough 
plummet, and at the bottom of each leaf is a series of signatures in red, beginning 
with a. i., and ending with b. Hi. The large initial letter at the commencement is 
coarsely colored with red. There are about thirty lines on a page, and no punctua- 
tion'is used except in the middle of a line. On the inside of the cover appears the 
autograph of "/. Baynes, Grey's Inn, 1781." 

IV. PORKINOTON MS. No. 10. A small quarto volume, written on vellum and 
paper, in the reign of Edward the Fourth, ff. 21 1. Its Contents are as follows : 

1. Secundum Anticos Grecorum. fol. 1. 

Beg. The man >at falle> syke J>e fyrst day of eny mone>. 

This tract consists of rules for sickness or health on certain days ; the lucky and 
unlucky days; rules for the weather; natures of the planets, etc.; and concludes 
with a short chronology, from the beginning of the world to the battle of Agincourt, 
in 1415. 

2. A Calendar of the days, hours, and minutes in each monto. fol. 4. 

On foL 4 b occur the names of Griffyth Owen of the county of Carnarvon, and 
of John Williams, petty constable of the parish of Llanarmon. 

3. A Table of the hours of day and night fol. 5 b . 

4. Rules regarding Nativities ; in Latin, fol. 6. 

5. Explanation of a Calendar made A.D. 1463 (which is missing) ; of the 
feast-days, hours of the day, altitude of the sun, etc. fol. 6 b . 


6. Rules for venesection, etc., with a figure, fol. 7. 

7. A Table of Eclipses, calculated for the years 1462-1481. fol. 7 b . 

8. For knowlege of the impressions concerning \e wedyr, fol. 8 b . 

Beg. Fyrst it ys to know ]>* that the eyere ys deuyded. 

9. For to know in what sygne and degre ]>e mone ys. fol. 11. 

10. Syre Gawene and the Carle of Carelyle. fol. 12. 

Printed in the present volume, Append. No. I. There is no title to this ro 
mance in the MS. A leaf is out of place between ff. 14 and 15, which ought to be 
fol. 66. 

11. Here begynnythe a schorte treticefor a manne to knowe wyche tyme of 
the yere hit is best to graffe or to plante treys, and also to make a tre to bere a 
manerfrute of diuerys colourys and odowrys, w l many othere thyngys. fol. 27. 

Beg. When the mone is in tauro, hit is good to plante treys of pepyns. 

12. Some other receipts of the same nature, which may be part of the same 
treatise, fol. 32. 

13. Here begynnythe thecrafte oflymnynge ofbokys, etc. fol. 33. 

Beg. To temper vermelone to wryte ther w*, grynde vermelone one a stone. 

At the end is added on a scroll the name of the scribe or compiler, " H. ffattun." 

14. A Poem without title ; in six-line stanzas, fol. 53. 

Beg. Louely lordynges, ladys lyke, 
Wyues and maydyns ryallyke. 

15. The Tale of Ten Wives ; an amusing but indelicate Poem, in stanzas of 
six lines, fol. 56 b . 

Beg. Leve, lystynes to me, 
Two wordys or thre. 

16. Complaint of a Lover, in four-line stanzas, fol. 59 b . 

Beg. Lord, how schalle I me complayne. 

17. Moral Poem, in stanzas of four lines, fol. 61. 

Beg. As I went one my playing. 

18. Vision of St. Philibert, or Disputation between the Body and the Soul ; 
in stanzas of seven lines ; translated from the Latin, fol. 63 b . 

Beg. The fadyr of pytte and most of myserycorde. 


19. Moral Poem, in stanzas of five long lines and one short one. fol. 79". 

Beg. Erthe vppon erth is woundyrly wrojte. 

A much enlarged copy of the poem in the Lincoln MS. A. 1. 17. fol. 279. 

20. Mourning of the Hare. fol. 81 b . 

Beg. Bi a forrest as I gane fare. 

A much better and fuller copy than that printed in Hartshorne's Metrical Tales, 
p. 165; from MS. More, Ff. v. 4-8. 

21. The Knjfite hit wyfe, in couplets, fol. 83 b . 

Beg. Ther was a knyjt in a cu[n]ttre, 
>' ryche man was wont to be. 

22. The holly mane sente Marttayne. fol. 86 b . 

Beg. As he lay in his wesione. 

23. Narracyone oftente Tantene. fol. 87. 

Beg. Saynt Antony also manny a tyme. 

24. Poetical address to the Virgin ; in four-line stanzas, fol. 87 b . 
t Beg. Off alle Y bryddus b 1 euer jeyt were. 

25. For )>' molde b* ysfaUone doune ; a receipt in prose, fol. 89 b . 

26. Several more receipts of a similar description, fol. 90. 

27. Her begynnethe b e lyfe of b e glorus uergyne seynt Katryne, b e wyche lyffe 
was wrytyne of Athanaysus, b e gret doctor ; in prose, fol. 91. 

Beg. In b* grete cite of Alexandyr ther was a kynge. 

28. A strange prosaical medley ; in the form of an epistle, fol. 129. 

Beg. A, syre, A, je syr, and je, syr Johne. 

29. Be trewe, and holde J> je have hy^t ; in stanzas of eight lines, fol. 130. 

Beg. Be trewe, and holde b' je haue hyjte. 

30. A similar poem, by the same author, fol. 130 b . 

Beg. A, dere God, haue I deservyd this. 

31. Here bethe the Stacyons of Rome ; in prose, fol. 132. 

Beg. In Rome bethe ii c . paresche churchs. 


At the end is written, " Eocplycyt tractus de indulgencia romana siue apostolica" 

32. The good wyfe wold a pylgremage ; in four-line stanzas, fol. 135 b . 

Beg. The good wyf wold a pylgremage 
Vnto > e holly londe. 

A similar poem to the present, intitled, " How the Goode Wif thaught hir 
Daughter" was edited by me from a MS. in the possession of C. W. Loscombe, 
Esq., of Pickwick House, Wilts, 8vo. 1838. 

33. The Friar and the Boy. fol. 139. 

Beg. God J) 1 dyed for vs alle, 

And dranke bo]> e eyselle and galle. 

A better and fuller copy than that printed by Ritson, in his Pieces of Ancient 
Popular Poetry, p. 35 ; but it omits all the lines after 1. 397, and concludes with 
twenty-one different lines instead. 

34. A Poem without title ; in stanzas of eight lines, fol. 150. 

Beg. As I stod in a ryalle haulle. 

35. A ludicrous Poem ; in couplets, fol. 152. 

Beg. Herkons to my tale J>* I schalle here schow. 

At the conclusion we read " Explycyt trutallys." A similar strange composition 
is printed by Hartshorne, p. 145. 

36. Epistle to a lady ; in couplets, fol. 154. 

Beg. Honowre w" alle mannere of heylle. 

37- Have my hert; in eight-line stanzas, fol. 154 b . 
Beg. Have alle my hert, and be in peys. 

38. Poem without title ; in stanzas of four lines, fol. 153 b . 

Beg. As I cam by a forrest syde. 

39. The Sege of Jerusalem; in prose, fol 157 b . 

Beg. Al men J>* wylle here of ]> e sege of Jerusaleme. 

At the end, " Her enddyth f e sege of Jerusaleme" 

40. Terras of Venery, etc., taken from Juliana Barnes, fol. 184. 

41. Sentences in verse, fol. 187 b . 

Beg. Aryse erlly, 

And serve god dewoutly. 


42. Extract* from Juliana Barnes' Treatise of Hawking. foL 188 b . 

43. Prophecy of Merlin, fol. 192. 

Beg. When )* cocke in > e northc bathe byld his neste. 

Printed among the Collection of Ancient Scottish Prophecies, pp. 6-9, reprinted 
for the Bannatyne Club from Waldegrave's edition, 1603. 

44. Letter from Balteser, son of the King " of Sarsyn," to the Duke of 
"Borgeyne" [Burgundy], fol. 193 b . 

Beg. Baltesere, be \> e grace of Mahounde, sone of y kynge of Sarsyn. 

45. Thi* byne J> e presentacyons J> 1 J> e lordus of J> e cetty of Vennes have present 
to oure fader J>* pope geneste {agenste~\ J> e Torhe. fol. 194. 

46. A Poem without title ; in stanzas of twelve lines, fol. 195. 

Beg. Timor mortis conturbat me, 

Thys is my song in my olde age. 

A different poem with the same burthen, composed by Lydgate, is in MS. Harl. 
fol. 128 b . and Dunbar also adopted the same refrain in his Lament for the Mahkaris, 
vol. L p. 211, ed. Laing, 8vo, 1834. 

This and the three following articles are written by a different hand. 

47. Seven moral lines, fol. 198. 

* Beg. Dysseyte disseyvethe. 

48. Carol, or song. fol. 198. 

Beg. Mery hit ys in May mornyng. 

49. Another, fol. 198 b . 

Beg. The ster he schynythe boj>* nyjte and day. 

50. Carol, or religious poem. fol. 200. 

Beg. Why, why, what ys >is, why hit ys. 

51. A Christmas carol, in Latin and English, fol. 201. 

Beg. Chrute qui lux ett, etc. 

A baby ys borne, vs blys to brynge. 

52. Carol fol. 202. 

Beg. Hey, hey, hey, hey, J borrys hede is armyd gay. 

Probably imperfect. It differs much from the Boars-head Carols printed by 
Ritson and Sandys. 


53. Moral Poem, in the form of a dialogue, fol. 203. 

Beg. Be a forrest as I gane walke. 

At the end is the colophon, " Explycyt Marcy and Ry$ttusnis" 

54. The Marchand. fol. 207 b . 

Beg. Lystons, lordyngus, I yow pray. 

It is imperfect, ending with 1. 214 of Ritson's edition in Pieces of Popular Poetry, 
p. 77. It contains many various readings from the printed text. 

V. MS. DOUCE. A small quarto volume, ff. 48, written on paper, in the year 
1564, and illustrated with rude colored drawings. It contains transcripts of several 
Romances, apparently taken from editions earlier than Copland's. 

1. Here begynneth the hystorye of the valyaunte knyght, Syr Isenbras. 

It contains several variations from Copland's edition, but is imperfect, ending 
with 1.411. 

2. Syr Degore. 

The MS. commences at 1. 415 of Copland's edition, as reprinted by Utterson, 
and is very imperfect. At the end is written, " Here endeth the Tretyse of Syr 
Degore." In Heber's sale, Lot 556, was an unique copy of an edition by Wynkyn 
de Worde, from which perhaps this transcript was made. 

3. Jeaste of Syr Gawayne. 

Printed in the present Volume, Append. No. II. It commences imperfectly, and 
at the end is drawn a device of a shield bearing three fleurs de lis, supported by 
two angels. Beneath are the initials E. B., which are probably those of the tran 
scriber. See Notes, p. 348. 

4. Syr Eglamoure. 

This is also imperfect. Dr. Bliss has in his possession some fragments of an 
edition earlier than that of Copland's, which perhaps may have served for the text 
of the present transcript. At the end of this MS. is a device of the letters IHS, 
and the date 1564, the period of its completion. 

VI. THE PERCY MS. Now in the possession of Ambrose Isted, Esq., of Ecton 
Hall, Northamptonshire. A minute account of the volume, with a list of the first 
fifty- nine articles in it, is given in Dr. Dibdin's Bibliographical Decameron, vol. iii. 
pp. 338-344. I had intended to have completed this list, when indulged with a 
sight of the volume in 1831, but I was unable to accomplish my wish. Four ro 
mance-poems are printed from it in the present Volume for the first time. 


VIL MS. RAWLINSON, marked C. 86, iiTthe Bodleian Library, and formerly 
belonging to Knox Ward, Esq., Clarenceux king of Arms. It is a small folio, and 
consists of two distinct portions. 

The first, extending from fol. 1 to fol. 30 inclusive, is written on vellum and 
paper in a late band of tbe fifteenth century. It contains a long English poem on 
the Fusion of Christ. Prefixed is a rude illumination of the crucifixion. 
Beg. Off gostly maters I wylle mere. 

At the end is : " Explicit Passio Domini nostri Jhesu Christi, composite a quo- 
dam tapienturimo in matema lingua, videlicet Anglicorum, hominibus non intelli- 
getUibut scripturarum sensus." And below we read : " Isle liber roust at , . . (blot) . . . 
Wyllmu* Aylysburrey, monachus Sancti Saluatoris de JBermudesay" 

The second portion consists of 159 leaves, and is written on paper in a negligent 
hand towards the close of Henry the Seventh's reign. The principal contents are 
as follows. 

1. Unconnected moral sentences, fol. 31. 

Beg. Vtter thy langage wythe good avisement. 

2. Policronica ; a prose geographical tract fol. 31 b . 

Beg. Josephus of Jewes >' nobyl was the firste auctour of the booke of Policronica. 
S. The tale ofjak and his Stepdame. fol. 52. 

Beg. God that died for vs allc. 

Printed by W. de Worde, and thence reprinted by Ritson in Pieces of Ancient 
Popular Poetry, 8vo. 1791. p. 35. Other manuscript copies, all of which differ 
much from each other, exist in MS. More, Ee. 4. 35. (which was printed by Mr. 
Wright, in 12mo. Pickering, 1836.) and MS. Porkington, No. 10, f. 139. 

4. Four lines of doggerel poetry, in English and Latin, fol. 59. 

Beg. Syng I wold, but alas ! discedant prospera grata. 

5. Fabula; a poem of eight stanzas of eight lines each. fol. 59 b . 

Beg. Whenne men motythe of byrdys of gret gentree. 

The burden of each stanza is, " pulle of her bellys and let her flye." It is pro 
bably composed by Lydgate, but is not found in Ritson's list of his writings. 

6. A poem without title, by Lydgate ; No. 61. of Ritson's list fol 61. 

Beg. For helthe of body couere for colde thyne hede, 

7. A poem by Lydgate ; No. 214. of Ritson. fol. 62 b , 

Beg. Beholde, mane, lyfte vp thy eye and se. 


8. A Poem consisting of fourteen eight-line stanzas. The subject is an ad 
dress of Christ to man. fol. 65. 

Beg. Late as I wente one myne pleyng. 

9. A Poem on the same subject, in eleven stanzas of twelve lines each. fol. 


Beg. Thys is Goddis owne compleynte. 

Cf. MS. Lambeth. 853. p. 81. 

10. A Poem by Lydgate, being a Lamentation of the Virgin on Christ's 
Passion ; No. 201 of Ritson. fol. 69 b . 

Beg. In a tabernacle of a towre. 

1 1 . A Poem in ten eight-line stanzas, the burden of which is " I wite my 
self myne owne wo." fol. 71. 

Beg. In my youthe fulle wylde I was. 

Cf. MS. Lamb. 853. p. 226. 

12. A Poem containing the Lamentation of our Lady, in twelve eight-line 
stanzas, fol. 72 b . 

Beg. In a chirche as I gane knele. 

13. A Poem in eleven twelve-line stanzas, of which the burden is, " Filius 
Regis mortuus est." fol 74 b . 

Beg. As Jhesu rewlithe myne recheles mynde. 

Cf. MS. Lamb. 853. p. 74. 

14. Fabula; a Poem by Lydgate, on the mutability of human affairs, in 
twenty-two seven-line stanzas, fol. 77. 

Beg. The worlde so wyde, the ayre so remeveabille. 

Other copies occur in MSS. Harl. 7333, f. J92, 2251, f. 23 b , 2255, f. 14, and 
Trin. Coll., Cambr., R. 3, 21. On the authority of the first of these, Ritson attri 
butes it to one " squiere Halsam." 

15. A Poem by Lydgate, in commendation of virtue ; No. 95 of Ritson. 

fol. 79 b . 

Beg. As of hony menne gadrene swetnesse. 

16. A Poem by Lydgate, against self-love; No. 99 of Ritson. fol. 81 b . 

Beg. Towarde thende of frosty January. 

Printed at the end of an edition of Lydgate's " Proverbes ;" by W. de Worde. 
See Collier's Catalogue of the Library at Bridgewater House, p. 179, 4to. 1837. 



17. A Poem by Lydgate against haste ; No *41 of Ritson. fol. 84. 
Beg. Alle hast is odious, wher as discrecione. 

See another copy in MS. Harl. 2251. f. 77 b . 

IS. Statu puer ad mensam, made in Engles by the monke of Bery called 
Lydgate. fol. 86 b . 

Beg. My dere chyld, first thy selffe enable. 

No. 16 of Ritoon. Printed by W. de Worde. 

19. A Poem by Lydgate against the forked head-dresses of women, fol. 88. 

Beg. Of God and kynde procedethe allc beaute. 

Entered by Ritson twice in his list, under Nos. 63 and 157. It is printed by 
Sir H. Nicolas, at the end of the Chronicle of London, p. 270, 4to. 1827. 

20. A Moral Poem, of four seven-line stanzas, fol. 89 b . 

Beg. Passe forthe, J>" pilgryme, and brydelle wele J> beste. 

In Shirley's MS. in the Ashmole Library, No. 59, f. IS, is another copy, intitled 
" Balade moral of gode counsel, made by Gower" 

21. A moralle tale of the horse, the goose and the shepe, written by Jhon Lid- 
gate, fol. 91. 

Beg. Contrauersies, pices and alle discorde. 

Printed by Caxton, and also by W. de Worde. Reprinted from the former edi 
tion for the Roxburghe Club, in 1822. 

22. Piers ofFullame. foL 100. 

Beg. A mane that louethe fisshyng and foulyng bothe. 

Printed in Hartshorne's Ancient Metrical Tales, pp. 117-133, 8vo. 1829, from 
a MS. in Trinity College, Cambridge. A third copy is in the Public Library, 
Cambridge, LI. 4, 14, and a fourth among James's MSS. in the Bodleian Library. 
It is entered among Lydgate's poems in Ritson's list, No. 48. 

23. Herefolowethe Colyne Blowbols Testament, fol. 106 b . 

Beg. Whanne that Bachus, the myghti lorde. 

A ludicrous poem, written in a broad style of humour. I do not know of any 
other copy. 

24. The Complant of Dido. fol. 113. 

Beg. Glorie and honowre Virgille Mantuane. 

It is falsely ascribed to Lydgate in the MS., and is, in reality, a portion of Chau 
cer's Legende of Good Women ; f. cci. b , edit fol. 1561. 


25. Landavalk. fol. 119. 

Beg. Sothely by Arthurys day 

Was Bretayne yn grete nobyle. 

This is the Romance of Launfal, but varies very considerably from the copy in 
MS. Cott Calig. A. II., printed by Ritson, Metr. Rom., vol. ii.p. 170; and in Way's 
Fabliaux, vol. iii. p. 233, 8vo. 1815. Another copy is in the Lambeth MS. 305. 
f. 73 ; and a modernised text is preserved in the Percy MS. 

26. The Weddynge of S* Gawene and Dame Ragnelk. fol. 128 b . 
Printed in the present volume, Appendix, No. VIII. This is the identical poem 

referred to erroneously by Warton as existing in one of the Tanner MSS. (See Notesj 
p. 358.) For its discovery, (after the greater part of the sheets of this work was 
printed off,) I am indebted to the Rev. Henry O. Coxe, Assistant Librarian of the 
Bodleian Library, who most kindly and promptly undertook a transcript, which was 
subsequently compared by myself with the Manuscript. It is, unquestionably, the 
original of the mutilated poem in the Percy folio, and is sufficiently curious to ren 
der its insertion in the Appendix an object of interest, although, had I been earlier 
aware of its existence, some change would probably have been made in the arrange 
ment. The title in the MS. is added by a later hand, and the poem itself is very 
carelessly written, so that several lines appear occasionally omitted. An entire page, 
containing lines, is, unfortunately, wanting. 

27. Tabula; a Poem by Lydgate; No. 120, of Ritson. fol. 141. 

Beg. Ther is fulle lytel sicurnesse. 

The burden of this poem, which consists of nine eight-line stanzas, is, " That now 
is hay summe tyme was grasse." Ritson inserts it in his list, No. 120, on Speght's 
authority, but gives no reference to any MS. 

28. Gioyscard and Segismonde. fol. 142 b . 

Beg. Prol. O wofulle worlde, deceyver of mankynde. 

Work. Whylome was ther an hyghe and myghty prynce. 

It differs from the version of this story by Walter, of which a MS. copy exists in 
Trin. Coll. Cambr. R. 3.20, and which was printed by W. de Worde. See Ritson's 
Bibl. Poet. p. 108. 

29. Poem, consisting of six stanzas of seven lines each. fol. 155 b . 

Beg. Myne hert is set vppone a lusty pynne. 

At the end is, " Finis, quod Quene Elyzabeth ;" by whom must be meant the 
queen of Henry the Seventh ; but she is not mentioned as an authoress by Walpole. 

30. Grysilk. fol. 156 b . 

Beg. Ther is ryghte atte west syde of Italie. 


This U the Clerke of Oxenfordei Tale, in Chaucer, f. xli b , edit. Speght, 1602. 
SI. Latin verses, fol. 174. 

Beg. Carmina qui Ictus cecini, cano tristia mestus. 

82. Poem in seven-line stanzas, on the murder of a child by the Jews. fol. 

m b . 

Beg. O goode Lorde, thyne name how mervelous. 

This U the Prioresses Tale, in Chaucer, f. Ixv. edit 1602. It is, however, in 
cluded among Lydgate's writings in MSS. Harl. 2251 , f. 69 b , and 2382, f. 97 ; whence 
Kitson has carelessly inserted it in his list, No. 239. 

S3. Poem on the Expedition of Henry the Fifth into France, fol. 178. 
Beg. God that alle this world gane make. 

Attributed to Lydgate in MS. Harl. 565, f. 502 ; and thence printed by Sir H. 
Nicolas, in the Chronicle of London, p. 216. A large portion was previously 
printed by Hearne, at the end of Tho. de Elinham, p. 359, from MS. Cott. Vitell. 
D. XII. At the end of the present copy is written, " Explicit per Joltannem Reve 
Free," who may be the transcriber. 

34. Poem on the reigns of the English kings, from William I. to Henry VI. 
foL 187. 
Beg. This myghti William, duke of Normandy. 

Attributed to Lydgate in many MSS., and printed by W. de Worde, 4to. 1530 ; 
as also by Hearne, in Append, to Robert of Gloucester, vol. ii. p. 585. A copy in 
MS. Harl. 2251, f. 2 b , has an additional stanza on the reign of Edward the 



d' de, as, knelyd', had', welcomyd', knelyde, hade, welcomyde. 

9 er, as p?, ou 9 , o]/*, aut 9 , m 9 J?e, ther, ouer, aunter, merthe. After the letter 

p it is expressed by re, as, p 9 fed, p 9 wey, presed, prewey. 
es, as, kryftf, l} T 3t, ftrikf, welter^, krystes, lytfes, strikes, welteres. 
ft he, as, high, i nogh, wygh, with, burlich, highe, in-noghe, wyghe, withe, 

h* hit. 
\', IP, ft le, lie, as, hondel', hanfell', aft, wift, fematts, hondele, hanselle, alle, 

wille,femalles. In MSS. of the fifteenth century ft is used even with 

the final e. 

m me, as, tym, ]?am, hem, seldom, tyme, thame, heme, seldome. 
n ne, as, arii, myfi, an, lythen, arne, myne, ane, sythene ; it sometimes has 

the power of nne, as, gun, ]?en, when, gunne, thenne, whenne. 
p per, as, paueture, f lep, pile, perauenture, sleper, perile. 
5 pro, as, guinces, ^fered, prouinces, profered. 
U, q d , quod. 

" ra, as, gy]?ed, g a cos, gce, p"yde, graythed, gracons, grace, prayed. 
r 9 re, as, her 9 , fair 9 , sekor 9 , fyr 9 , here,faire, sekore, syre. 
1 ri, as, tfftmaffe, tffel, cristmasse, trifel. 
u rw, as, t u e, true. 
f ser, syr. 
fpial, special. 
J? e , Me. 

\> l , thei', sometimes thi. 
)? s , this. 
Y-, that. 
}> u , Mow. 

" ur, as, to*nayed, co*"t, gou 9 n<?, yo 8 , tournayed, court, gouernour, your. 
T ur, as, Gayno r , yo r , Gaynour, your. 
9 us, as, Brut 9 , ho 9 , }> 9 , ded 9 , ell 9 , Brutus, hous, thus, dedus, ellus ; v 9 is 

written for us. 
w*, with. 

A short stroke over a letter denotes the absence of m or n, as, trames, 
tresou, hy, I, etc., trammes, tresoun hym, in. 


<0r ene 

anti fyt <rene 




[foi. 91.] /^^ IpEN j>e fege & J?e affaut wat$ fefed at Troye, 
pe bor} brittened & brent to bronde} & afke}, 
pe tulk J?at J?e trames of trefou ]P wro^t, 
Wat3 tried for his tricherie, ]>e treweft on erthe ; 

Hit wat$ Ennias J?e athel, & his higft kynde, 6 

pat fij?en depreced puinces, & patroues bicome 

Welneje of al J?e wele I J?e weft iles, 

Fro riche Romulus to Rome ricchis hy fwy]?e, 

W* gret bobbauce fat bur3e he biges vpon fyrft, 

& neuenes hit his anne nome, as hit now hat ; 10 

Ticius to Tufkan [turnes,] & teldes bigynes ; 

Langaberde i Lubardie lyftes vp homes ; 

& fer ou 9 be French flod Felix Brut 9 

/^ i-ii-jr. i. r ^ Wy" 1 W Y ne > 15 

On mony bonkkes ml brode Bretayn he Iette3, 
Where werre, & wrake, & wonder, 
Bi fyfe^ hat^ wont J? me, 
& oft boj?e blyffe & bluder 
Ful fkete hat^ fkyfted fyne. 

B 2 



Ancle quen f is B relay n wat3 bigged bi fis burn rycli, 
Bolde bredden fer me, baret fat lofden, 
In mon y turned tyme tene fat wro3ten ; 
Mo ferlyes on fis folde ban fallen here oft 
pen in any of 9 fat I wot, fyn fat ilk tyme. 

Bot of alle fat here bult of Bretaygne kyges a* 

Ay wat3 Arthur fe hendeft, as I haf herde telle ; 
[foL 91*. ] For fi an aut 9 in erde I attle to fchawe, 
pat a felly in fi3t fume men hit holden, 
& an outtrage awenture of Arthure3 wond 9 e3 ; 
If 36 wyl lyften f is laye bot on littel quile, t 
I fchal telle hit as tit as 1 1 tou herde, 
As hit is ftad & ftoken, 
In ftori ftif & ftronge, 

WMel Iett 9 es loken, K 

I londe fo hat} ben longe. 


pis kyg lay at Camylot vpon kryft-maffe, 

W mony luflych lorde, Iede3 of fe beft, 

Rekenly of f e roude table alle f o rich brej?, 

W l rych reuel ory3t, & rechles m 9 f es ; 

J^ to'nayed tulkes bi tyme3 ful mony, 

lufted ful jolile fife gentyle kiu^tes, 

Syfen kayred to fe court, caroles to make. 

For fer f e feft wat3 ilyche ful fiften dayes, 

With alle f e mete & f e mirf e fat me couf e a-vyfe ; 

Such glaumande gle glorio 9 to here, 

Dere dyn vp on day, daufyg on ny3tes, 


Al wat3 hap vpon he3e I halle^ & chambre}, 

With Iorde3 & ladies, as leueft hi f 03 1 ; 

With all f e wele of f e worlde fay woned f 9 famen, so 

pe moft kyd kny3te3 vnder kryftf feluen, 

& f e louelokkeft ladies fat eu 9 lif haden, 

& he fe comlokeft kyg fat fe court haldes. 

For al wat} fis fayre folk I her firft age, 

pe hapneft vnder heuen, 

Kyg hyeft mo of wylle, 

Hit were * now gret nye to neue 

So hardy a here 6 hille. 


Wyle nw 3er wat3 fo 3ep fat h* wat3 nwe cumen, r>o 

pat day douhble on fe dece wat3 J?e douth ferued, 
Fro J?e kyg wat3 cumen w* kny3tf I to J?e halle, 
pe chautre of \ e chapel cheued to an ende ; 
Loude crye wat3 Jer keft of clerke3 & ofer, 

[foi. 92.] Nowel nayted o newe neuened ful ofte ; 65 

& fyfen riche forth runen to reche honde-felle, 
3e3ed 3eres 3iftes on hi3, 3elde hem hi hond, 
Debated bufyly aboute fo giftes ; 
Ladies Ia3ed ful loude, 03 fay loft haden, 

& he fat wan wat3 not wrothe, f* may 36 wel trawe. n 

Alle f is mirf e fay maden to f e mete tyme ; 
When fay had wafchen, worfyly fay wenten to fete, 
pe beft burne ay abof, as hit beft femed ; 
Whene Guenore ful gay, grayfed I fe myddes, 
Dreffed on fe dere des, dubbed al aboute, 75 

1 werere, MS. 


Smal fendal bifides, a felure hir ou 9 

Of tryed Toloufe, of Tars tapites I nogfc, 

pat were enbrawded & beten wyth )>e beft gemes, . Q d . 

pat myjt be preued of prys wyth penyes to bye, 

pe comlokeft to difcrye, 

per glent w* y3en gray, 

A femloker )>at eu 9 he fy3e, 

Soth mo}t no mon fay. 


Bot Arthure wolde not ete til al were ferued, w 

He wat3 fo joly of his joyfnes, & fu quat child gered, 
His lif liked hy Iy3t, he louied J>e laffe 
Auji 9 to lenge lye, or to longe fitte, 
So bified him his 3onge blod & his brayn wylde ; 
& alfo ano)> 9 maner meued hi eke, M 

pat he 1113 nobelay had nomen, he wolde neu? ete 
Vpon fuch a dere day, er hy deuifed were 
Of fu auentur 9 j?yg an vncou)?e tale, 
Of fu mayn m 9 uayle, fat he my3t trawe, 

Of 1 alderes, of armes, of o)^ auentur 9 , > 

O}^ fu fegg hy bi-fo^t of fu fiker kny3t, 
To joyne wyth hy I iuftyg in joparde to lay, 
Lede Uf for lyf, leue vchon oj?, 
As fortune wolde fulfu ho J?e fayrer to haue. 
pis wat3 [the] kyges coutenauce where he i co"t were, 
At vch farand feft amog his fre meny, 
per fore of face fo fere, 
[foi. 92".] He fti3tle3 ftif I ftalle, 

1 Of of, MS. 


Ful 3ep I fat nw 3ere, 
Much mirthe he mas w* alle. 


Thus f 9 ftondes I ftale f e ftif kyg his feluen, 

Talkkande bifore f e hy3e table of trifles ful hende ; 

There gode Gawan wat3 g"yf ed, Gwenore bifyde, 

& Ag a uayn a la dure mayn on fat oj? fyde fittes, no 

Bof e f e kyges fift 9 fues, & ful fiker knijtes ; 

Bifchop Bawdewyn abof bi-gine^ f e table, 

& Ywan, Vryn fon, ette wit hyfeluen ; 

pife were di3t on fe des, & derworfly ferued, 

& fifen mony fiker fegge at J>e fidborde3- us 

J?e ]?e firft cors come with crakkyg of trupes, 

Wyth mony baner ful bryjt, ]?at ]> er bi henged, 

Nwe nakryn noyfe w* J>e noble pipes, 

Wylde werbles & wy3t wakned lote, 

pat mony hert ful hi3e hef at her towches ; 120 

Dayntes dryuen fer wyth of ful dere metes, 

Foyfou of fe frefche, & on fo fele difches, 

pat pine to fynde le place te peple bi-forne 

^ . r ^ Q i. . r r on clothe ; 125 

I 1 or to lette pe iyluen^, pat fere lewes halden, 
Iche lede as he loued hy felue 
per laght w* outen lofe, 
Ay two had difches twelue, 
Good her, & bry3t wyn boj?e. 


Now wyl I of hor feruife fay yow no more, 130 

For vch wy3e may wel wit no wont fat f 9 were , 


An o)* 9 noyfe ful newe ne3cd biliuc, 
pat }v lude my ;t haf leue liflode to each. 
For vne)>e wat3 )>e noyce not awhyle fefed, 

& )>e fyrft cdce I )>e co"t kyndely ferued, 135 

per hales I at )>e halle dor an aghlich mayft 9 , 
On J>e moft on J>e molde on mefure hygti ; 
Fro Je fwyre to J>e fwange fo fware & fo Jnk, 
& his lyndes & his lymes fo longe & fo grete, 

[foi. 93.] Half etayn I erde I hope J>at he were. i*> 

Bot mon mod I algate myn hy to bene, 
& J>at J>e myrieft I his muckel J>at my^t ride ; 
For of bak & of breft al were his bodi fturne, 
Bot his wombe & his waft were worthily fmale, 
& alle his fetures fo^ande, I forme J?at he hade, 
For wonder of his hwe me hade, 
Set I his femblaut fene ; 
He ferde as freke were fade, 
& oif al enker grene. iso 


Ande al grayj>ed I grene J>is gome & his wedes, 

A ftrayt cote ful ftre3t, J>at ftek on his fides, 

A mere mantile abof, menfked w l me, 

W l pelure pared apert )>e pane ful clene, 

W bly^e blaun 9 ful bry3t, & his hod bo>e, 14S 

pat wat? Ia3t fro his Iokke3, & layde on his fchulderes ; 

Heine wel haled hofe of J?at fame grene, 

pat fpenet on his fparlyr, & clene fpures vnder, 

Of bry3t golde, vpon filk hordes, barred ful ryche, 

& fcholes vnder fchankes, fere >e fchalk rides ; i^ 

& alle his vefture uerayly wat3 clene v 9 dure, 


Bo)>e ]?e barres of his belt & o)> ; blyfe ftones, 

p l were richely ray led I his aray clene, 

Aboutte hy felf & his fadel, vpon filk werke}, 

pat were to tor for to telle of tryfles J?e halue, 165 

pat were enbrauded abof, wyth bryddes & fly3es, 

With gay gaudi of grene, J?e golde ay I myddes ; 

pe pendautes of his payttrure, ]?e proude cropure, 

His molaynes, & alle }>e metail anamayld was f>ene, 

pe fteropes )?at he ftod on, ftayned of J>e fame, 170 

& his arfou3 al after, & his aj?el fturtes, 

pat euer glemed & dent al of grene ftones. 

f , ,., f ,, f , , . . fertayn ; 

pe fole pat he terkkes on, tyn of pat like, 

A grene hors gret & }?ikke, m 

A ftede ful ftif to ftrayne, 
I brawden brydel quik, 
[foi. 93 b .] To }>e gome he wat3 ful gayn. 


Wei gay wat3 J)is gome gered I grene, 

& Je here of his hed of his hors fwete ; 190 

Fayre fannand fax vmbe-foldes his fchulderes ; 

A much berd as l a bufk ou 9 his breft henges, 

pat wyth his hi3lich here, J>at of his hed reches, 

Wat3 enefed al vmbe-torne, a-bof his elbowes, 

pat half his armes J?er vnder were halched I J>e wyfe i 

Of a kyge3 capados, J?at clofes his fwyre. 

pe mane of J>at mayn hors much to hit lyke, 

Wei crefped & cemed wyth knottes ful mony, 

Folden I wyth fildore aboute J>e fay re grene, 

1 as as, MS. 


Ay a herle of f e here, an of? of golde ; i 

pe tayl & his toppyg twynen of a fute, 

& bouden bof e wyth a bande of a bryjt grene, 

Dubbed wyth ful dere ftone3, as fe dok lafted, 

Syfen frawen wyth a f wong a f warle knot alofte, 

per mony belle} ful bryjt of brende golde rungen. ii 

Such a fole vpon folde, ne freke fat hy rydes, t 

Wat} neu 9 fene I fat fale wyth fy}t er fat tyme, 

He loked as layt fo Iy3t, 

So fayd al fat hy fyje, t we 

Hit femed as no mon my>t , 

VncP his dyntte} dry3e. 


Whef? hade he no helme ne hawbrgh nau)^, 
Ne no pyfan, ne no plate fat pented to armes, 
Ne no fchafte, ne no fchelde, to fchwne ne to fmyte, 
Bot I his on honde he hade a holyn bobbe, 
pat is gratteft I grene, when greue} ar bare, 
& an ax I his of 9 , a hoge & vii-mete, 
A fpetos fparf e to expou I fpelle quo fo my^t ; 
pe hede of an eln^erde f e large lenkf e hade, 
pe grayn al of grene ftele & of golde hewen, 
pe bit burnyft bry3t, w* a brod egge, 
As wel fchapen to fchere as fcharp rafores ; 
pe ftele of a ftif ftaf f e fturne hit bi-grypte, 
[foL 94.] pat wat) wauden wyth yrn to f e wande} ende, 
& al bigrauen w t grene, I gc6s werkes; 
A lace lapped aboute, fat louked at f e hede, 
& fo aft 9 fe halme halched fill ofte, 
Wyth tryed taffele} ferto tacched I noghe, 





On botou} of f e bry3t grene brayden ful ryche. 220 

pis haf el helde3 by I, & f e halle entres, 

Driuande to f e he3e dece, dut he no wofe, 

Haylfed he neu 9 ane, hot he^e he ou 9 loked. 

pe fyrft word fat he warp, " wher is," he fayd, 

" pe gou 9 n<f of bis gyg-? gladly I wolde 225 

i <^^ w >_- ravioii 

Se fat fegg I fyjt, & w< hy felf fpeke, 

To kny3te3 he keft his 
& reled hy vp & dou, 
He ftemmed & con ftudie, 
Quo wait f er moft renou. 


Ther wat} lokyg on lenfe, fe lude to be-holde, 

For vch mo had meruayle quat hit mene myjt, 

pat a hafel & a horse my3t fuch a hwe lach, 

As growe grene as J>e gres & grener hit femed, 235 

pen grene aumayl on golde lowande bry3t 9 ; 

Al ftudied fat f 9 ftod, & ftalked hy nerre, 

Wyth al f e wonder of f e worlde, what he worth fchulde. 

For fele felly 63 had fay fen, bot fuch neu 9 are, 

For f i for fantou & fayry3e f e folk fere hit demed ; 240 

per fore to anfware wat3 ar3e mony af el freke, 

& al ftouned at his fteuen, & fton-ftil feten, 

In a fwogfe fylence bun be fale riche, 

I hv^e * 
As al were flypped vpon flepe fo flaked horlote3, 

I deme hit not al for doute, 
Bot fu for cortayfye, 
Bot let hy fat al fchulde loute, 
Caft vnto fat wy3e. 

c 2 



pen Arjxf bifore J>e m'3 dece J>at auenture byholde3, no 

& rekenly hy reu 9 enced, for-rad was he neu 9 , 
& fayde, " wy3e, welcu iwys to Jis place, 
[fol. M".] pe hede of J>is oftel Artho" I hat ; 

La3t luflych adou, & lenge, I J>e praye, 

& quat fo )>y wylle is, we fchal wyt aft 9 ." 25* 

" Nay as help me," q J>e haj>el, " he J>at on hy3e fyttes, 

To wone any quyle I J>is won, hit wat3 not my ernde ; 

Bot for J>e los of |>e lede is lyft vp fo hy3e, 

& ]?y bur3 & )>y burnes beft ar holden, 

Stifeft vnder ftel-gere on ftedes to ryde, 2 co 

pe wy3teft & J>e worfyeft of fe worldes kyndc, 

Preue forto play wyth in oj? pure Iayke3 J 

& here is kydde cortayfye, as I haf herd carp, 

& J>at hat3 wayned me hider, I wyis, at pis tyme. 

3e may be feker bi )>is brauch J?at I bere here, 2*5 

pat I paffe as I pes, & no ply3t feche ; 

For had I fouded I fere, i fe3tyg wyfe, 

I haue a haubergh at home & a helme boj>e, 

A fchelde, & a fcharp fpere, fchinande bry3t, 

Ande o)> 9 weppenes to'welde, I wene wel als, 370 

Bot for I wolde no were, my wede3 ar foft 9 . 

Bot if p be fo bold as alle burne3 tellen, 

P B wyl gnt me godly J?e gomen f>at I afk, bl 

Aitho" con onfware, 

& fayd, " f cortays kny3t, 

If J> u craue batayl bare, 

Here fayle3 |> u not to fy3t." 



" Nay, frayft I no fy3t, i fayth I J>e telle, 

Hit arn aboute on J?is bench bot berdle} chylder ; 2 so 

If I were hafped I armes on a he3e ftede, 
Here is no mon me to mach, for my^te^ fo wayke, 
For J>y I craue I Jis co A 't a cryftemas gome, 
For hit is 30! & nwe 3er, & here ar 3ep mony ; 
If any fo hardy I ]?is ho 9 holde3 hy ieluen, 295 

Be fo bolde I his blod, brayn I hys hede, 
pat dar ftifly ftrike a ftrok for an oj> 9 , 
I fchal gif hy of my gyft J?ys giferne ryche, 
pis ax, J>at is heue I nogh, to hondel' as hy lykes, 

[fol. 95.] & I fchal bide J>e fyrft bur, as bare as I fitte. 290 

If any freke be fo felle to fonde fat I telle, 
Lepe Iy3tly me to, & lach )>is weppen, 
I quit clayme hit for eu 9 , kepe hit as his auen, 
& I fchal ftonde hy a ftrok, ftif on bis flet, 

rn T*l n v 

Elle3 j? u wyl di3t me )>e dom to dele hy an oj> 9 , 29S 

& 3et gif hy refpite, 

A twelmonyth & a day ; 

Now hy3e, & let fe tite 

Dar any her me O3t fay." #00 



f If he hem ftowned vpon fyrft, ftiller were j?ane 
Alle )>e hered-men I halle, J?e hy3 & J?e 1036 ; 
pe renk on his rouce hy ruched I his fadel, 
& runifchly his rede y3en he reled aboute, 
Bende his brefed bro^, blycande grene, w* 


Wayued his berde for to wayte, quo fo wolde ryfe ? 

When non wolde kepe hy, w l carp he co3ed ful hy3e, 

And rimed hy ful richly, & ryjt hy to fpeke : 

" What, is )>is Arjwres ho 9 ," q J>e haj>el J>ene, 

" pat al Je ro 9 renes of, Jmr3 ryalmes fo mony ? MO 

Where is now yd* fdquydrye & yo" coquettes, 

Yo" gryndel-layk, & yo" greme, & yd* grete wordes ? 

Now is J>e reuel & j>e renou of }>e roude table 

Ou 9 -walt wyth a worde of on wy3es fpeche ; 

For al dares for drede, w* oute dynt fchewed ! " ai 

Wyth J>is he Ia3es fo loude, )>at ]>e lorde greued ; ,101 

pe blod fchot for fcham I to his fchyre face, 

He wex as wroth as wynde, 

So did alle }>at J>er were, 320 

pe kyg as kene bi kynde, 

pe ftod fat ftif mon nere. 


Ande fayde, " ha]>el, by heuen fy afkyg is nys, 
& as J> foly hat3 frayft, fynde }>e be-houes ; 
I know no gome }>at is gaft of }>y grete wordes. 
Gif me now J?y geferne, vpon gode3 halue, 
& I fchal bayjjen }>y bone, }>at ]> u boden habbes." 
[fol. 95b] Ly3tly Iepe3 he hy to, & Ia3t at his honde ; 
pen feerfly ]?at o\P freke vpon fote Iy3tis. 

Now hat3 Arthure his axe, & j?e halme grype3, 330 

& fturnely fture3 hit aboute, )>at ftryke wyth hit 031. 
pe ftif mon hy bifore ftod vpon hy3t, 
Herre fen ani in J>e ho 9 by j>e hede & more ; 
Wyth fturne fchere J?er he ftod, he ftroked his berde, 
& wyth a coutenauce dry3e he dro3 dou his cote, m 


No more mate ne difmayd for hys may dinte3, 

pen any burne vpon bench hade bro3t hy to drynk, 

Gawan, fat fate bi J>e quene, 

To J?e kyg he can enclyne, m 

" I be-feche now w t fa3e^ fene, 

pis melly mot be myne." 


*' Wolde 36 worpilych, lorde," Q, Gawan to J?e kyg, 

" Bid me bo3e fro J?is benche, & ftonde by yow fere, 

pat I wyth oute vylanye my3t voyde J?is table, 345 

& ]?at my legge lady lyked nat ille, 

I wolde com to yd" coufeyl, bifore yd" cort ryche. 

For me fink hit not femly, as hit is foj? knawen, 

p 9 fuch an afkyg is heuened fo hy3e I jo fale, 

pa3 36 30" felf be talenttyf to take hit to yo" feluen, 350 

Whil mony fo bolde yow aboute vpon bench fytten, 

pat vnder heuen, I hope, non ha3er er of wylle, 

Ne bett 9 bodyes on bent, fer baret is rered ; 

I am J?e wakkeft, I wot, & of wyt febleft, 

& left lur of my lyf, quo laytes J>e fofe, sw 

Bot for as much as 36 ar myn em, I am only to prayfe, 

No boute bot yo" blod I in my bode knowe, 

& fyfen ]?is note is fo nys, y uo^t hit yow falles, 

& I haue frayned hit at yow fyrft, folde3 hit to me, 

c T i i i 11 i_- i. II bout blame. 

& if I carp not comlyly, let alle fis cort rych, 

Ryche to-geder con rou, 

& fyf en J?ay redden alle fame, 

To ryd J?e kyg wyth crou, 

& gif Gawan j?e game. w 



[fi. 90.] pen comauded fe kyg fe kny^t for to ryfe ; 
& he ful radly vp ros, & ruchched hy fayre, 
Kneled dou bifore fe kyg, & cache3 fat weppen ; 
& he luflyly hit hy laft, & lyfte vp his honde, 
& gef hy godde3 bleffyg, & gladly hy biddes 
pat his hert & his honde fchulde hardi be bofe. 
" Kepe fe cofyn," a, fe kyg, " fat f u on kyrf fette, 
& if f u rede3 hy ry3t, redly I trowe, 
pat f u Ichal byden fe bur fat he fchal bede aft 9 ." 
Gawan got5 to fe gome, w l giferne I honde, 
& he baldly hy byde3, he bayft neu 9 fe helder. 
pen carppe3 to f Gawan )re kny3t I )?e grene, 
" Refourme we oure forwardes, er we fyrre paffe. 
Fyrft I efe fe, hafel, how fat f u hattes, 
pat f u me telle truly, as I tryft may?" 
" In god fayth," q fe goode kny3t, " Gawan I hatte, 
pat bede fe fis buffet, quat fo bi-falle3 aft 9 , 
& at fis tyme twelmonyth take at j?e anof 9 , Q 

Wyth what weppen fo f u wylt, & wyth no wy3 elle3, 
pat o)^ onfware3 agayn, 
" Sir Gawan, fo mot I fryue, 
As I am ferly fayn, 
pis dint fat f u fchal dryue." 


" Bi gog," q fe grene kny3t, " f Gawan, me lykes, 
pat I fchal fange at fy fuft fat I haf frayft here ; 
& f u hat3 redily rehersed, bi refoii ful trwe, 


Clanly al f e couenaut fat I f e kyge afked, 
Saf fat f u fchal fwer me, fegge, bi f i trawf e, 
pat f u fchal feche me f i felf, where fo f n hopes sw 

I may be funde vpon folde, & fych f e fuch wages 
As f u deles me to day; bifore fis doufe ryche." 
" Where fchulde I wale f e," q Gauan, " where is fy place ? 
I wot neu? where f u wonyes, bi hy fat me wro3t, 
Ne I know not fe, kny^t, fy cort, ne fi name. 400 

Bot teche me truly f er to, & telle me howe f u hattes, 
& I fchal ware alle my wyt to wyne me f eder ; 
[foi. 96>.] & fat I fwere f e for fofe, & by my feker trawef ." 
" pat is in nogh in nwe 3er, hit nedes no more," 
q f e gome I f e grene to Gawan f e hende, 4w 

" Gif I fe telle trwly, quen I fe tape haue, 
& f u me fmofely hat3 fmyten, fmartly I fe teche 
Of my ho 9 , & my home, & myn owen nome, 
pen may f u frayft my fare, & forwarder holde, 
& if I fpende no fpeche, f ene fpede} f u f e bett 9 , 410 

For f u may leng I f y londe, & layt no fyrre, 
Ta now fy gryme tole to f e, 
& let fe how f u cnoke}." 

" Gladly f, for fofe," 4 

q Gawan ; his ax he ftrokes. 


The grene kny3t vpon groude grayf ely hy dreffes 
A littel lut w* fe hede f e lere he difkoue 9 3, 
His longe louelych Iokke3 he layd ou 9 his crou, 
Let f e naked nee to fe note fchewe. 420 

Gauan gripped to his ax, & gederes hit on hyjt, 
pe kay fote on f e folde he be-fore fette, 



Let hit dou ly?tly 1 y;t on }v naked, 
pat fe fcharp of fe fchalk fchyndered fe bones, 
& fchrak fui3 fe fchyire grece, & fcade hit I twyne, 

pat fe bit of fe brou ftel bot on f e groude. 
pe fayre hede fro fe halce hit [felle] to fe erfe, 
pat fele hit foyned wyth her fete, fere hit forth roled ; 
pe blod brayd fro fe body, f< blykked on fe grene ; 
& nawfer falt 9 ed ne fel fe freke neu 9 fe helder, 430 

Bot ftyf ly he ftart forth vpon ftyf fchonkes, 
& ruyfchly he ra^t out, J?ere as renkke3 ftoden, 
La3t to his lufly hed, & lyft hit vp fone ; 
& fyj?en bo3C3 to his blonk, j>e brydel he cachche}, 
Steppe3 1 to ftel bawe, & ftryde3 alofte, 43.% 

& his hede by J?e here I his honde halde3 ; 
& as fadly )>e fegge hy I his fadel fette, . f ,. 

As non vnhap had hy ay led, )>a3 hedle3 ho we 1 , 
He brayde his bluk * aboute, 440 

[foi. 97.] pat vgly bodi fat bledde, 
Moni on of hy had doute, 
Bi fat his refou3 were redde. 


For fe hede in his honde he halde3 V P euen, 

To-ward J?e derreft on fe dece he dreffe3 fe face, 445 

& hit lyfte vp fe y3e-lydde3, & loked ful brode, 

& meled f 9 much w l his muthe, as 30 may now here. 

" Loke, Gawan, f u be grayfe to go as f u hette3, 

& layte as lelly til f u me, lude, fynde, 

As Y nat 3 nette V ls halle, herande fife kny3tes ; o 

1 he were ? * blunk ? 


To f e grene chapel f u chofe, I charge fe to fotte, 

Such a dunt as f u hat3 dalt differued f u habbe^, 

To be jederly golden on nw ^eres morn ; 

pe kny3t of f e grene chapel men knowen me mony ; 

For fi me for to fynde if f u frayfte3, fayle3 f u neu 9 , 455 

per fore com, of 9 recreaut be calde, fe be-houes." 

With a runifch rout fe rayne^ he torne3, 

Hailed out at fe hal-dor, his hed I his hande, 

pat f e fyr of f e flynt fla^e fro fole houes. 

To quat kyth he be-com, knwe non fere, 

XT 9 1.1. K f -L T, - ||what)?ene? 

JNeu^ more pen pay wylte irm quepen he wat3 wonen, 

pe kyg & Gawen J>are, 

At fat grene )>ay Ia3e & grene, 

}et breued wat3 hit ful bare, -iss 

A m 9 uayl amog Ipo mene. 


pa3 ArJ? 9 J?e hende kyg at hert hade wonder, 
He let no femblaut be fene, hot fayde ful hyje 
To J?e comlych quene, wyth cortays fpeche, 
" Dere dame, to day demay yow neu 9 ; 470 

Wei by-comes fuch craft vpon c'ftmaffe, 
Lay kyg of ent 9 lude3, to Ia3e & to fyng, 
Amog fife, kynde caroles of kny3te3 & Iadye3 ; 
Neu 9 fe lece to my mete I may me wel dres, 
For I haf fen a felly, I may not for-fake." 4/5 

He glent vpon f Gawen, & gaynly he fayde, 
" Now f, heng vp fyn ax, fat hat3 i nogh hewen." 
[foi. 97^.] & hit wat3 don abof f e dece, on dofer to henge, 
per alle men for m 9 uayl my3t on hit loke, 

& bi trwe tytel J? of to telle f e wonder. 430 

D 2 


JNB8 fay bojed to a borde fife burnes to-geder, 

pe kyg & fe gode knyjt, & kene me he ferued 

Of alle dayntye3 double, as denreft my3t falle, 

Wyth alle maner of mete & mynttralcie bofe ; . Q 

Wyth wele wait fay fat day, til worfed an ende, 

Now fenk wel, f Gawan, 

For wofe fat f u ne wonde, 

pis auenture forto frayn, 

pat f u hat3 tan on honde. 



This hanfell' hat} Arthur of auenturus on fyrft, 
In ;OIUY 3er, for he jerned 3elp)'g to here, 
Tha3 hym worde} were wane, when fay to fete wenten ; 
Now ar fay (token of fturne werk ftaf-ful her hond. 
Gawan wat} glad to be-gyne fofe gomne} I hallo, 
Bot fa} fe ende be heuy, haf 30 no wonder ; 
For fa3 man be mery in myde, quen fay han mayn drynk, 
A 3ere 3eraes ful 3erne, & 3elde3 neu 9 lyke, 
pe forme to fe fynifment folde^ ful felden. 
For fi fis 30! ou 9 -3ede, & fe 3ere aft 9 , 
& vche fefou ferlepes fued after oj? ; 
After crylten-mafle com fe crabbed lentou, 
pat fray(te3 flefch wyth fe fyfche & fode more fymple ; 
Bot fene fe weder of fe worlde wyth wynter hit f repe3, 


Colde clenge} adou, cloude^ vp lyften, m 

Schyre fchede) f e rayn I fchowre3 ful war me, 
Falle} vpon fayre flat, flowre3 fere fchewen, 
Bofe groiide3 & fe greue3 grene ar her wede3, 
Brydde3 bufken to bylde, & bremlych fygen, 
For folace of f e fofte fom 9 fat fues f er aft 9 , m 

& bloffue3 bolne to bio we, 
Bi rawe3 rych & ronk, 
pe note3 noble 1 11030, 
[foi. 98.] Ar herde in wod fo wlonk. M* 


After fe fefou of fom 9 wyth fe foft wynde3, 

Quen 3efer 9 fyfle3 hy felf on fede3 & erbe3, 

Wela wyne is fe wort fat woxes J?er oute, 

When Jje donkande dewe drope} of )?e leue}, 

To bide a blyfful blufch of ]?e bry3t fune. MO 

Bot fe hy3es herueft, & hardenes hy fone, 

Warne3 hy for J?e wynter to wax ful rype ; 

He dryues wyth dro3t ]>e duft for to ryfe, 

Fro }?e face of J?e folde to fljrje ful hy3e ; 

WroJ?e wynde of fe welkyn wraftele3 w* \e fune, 525 

pe Ieue3 lancen fro J?e lynde, & Iy3ten on ]?e groude, 

& al grayes J?e gres, fat grene wat3 ere ; 

pene al rype3 & rote3 fat ros vpon fyrft, 

& J? 9 3irne3 fe 3ere 1 3ifterdaye3 mony, 


& wynter wynde3 a3ayn, as fe worlde afke3, 530 

Til me3el-mas mone, 
Wat3 cuen wyth wynter wage ; 
pen f enkke3 Gawan ful fone, 
Of his amo 5 uyage. * 



jet quyl al-hal-day w c Arj> 9 he lenges, 
& he made a fare on ]>* feft, for J?e freke3 fake, 
W 1 much reuel & ryche of J>e roude table ; 
Kny3te3 ful cortays & comlych ladies, 

Al for luf of j>at lede I longyge J>ay were, w 

Bot neu 9 J>e lece ne j>e lat 9 J>ay neuened bot m 9 J>e, 
Mony ioyle3 for )>at ientyle iape3 )>er maden. 
For aftter mete, w l mo~nyg he mele3 to his erne, 
& fpeke3 of his paffage, & pertly he fayde, 

" Now, lege lorde of my lyf, leue I yow afk ; s 

$e knowe J>e coft of )>is cace, kepe I no more 
To telle yow tene3 J?er of neu 9 bot t'fel ; 
Bot I am bou to J?e bur barely to morne, 
To fech Jje gome of }>e grene, as god wyl me wyffe." 
pene J>e heft of J>e bur3 bo3ed to-geder, o 

Aywan, & Errik, & ojj 9 ful mony, 
[foi. 98 b .] f Doddinaual de Sauage, J?e duk of Clarence, 
Launcelot, & Lyonel, & Lucan J>e gode, 
f Boos, & fir Byduer, bigme bo]>e, 

& mony oj 9 menfkful, w* Mador de la Port. s.w 

Alle ]>is compayny of court com J?e kyg nerre, 
For to coufeyl )>e kny3t, with care at her hert ; 
pere wat3 much derne doel driuen I J>e fale, 
pat fo worthe as Wawan fchulde wende on J?at ernde, 
To dry 3 e a delful dynt, & dele no more, 
pe kny3t mad ay god chere, 
& fayde, " quat fchuld I wonde, 
Of deftines derf & dere, 
What may mon do bot fonde ! " M* 



He dowelle} f er al fat day, and dreffe} on f e morn, 

Afke3 erly hys arme^, & alle were fay bro^t ; 

Fyrft a tule tapit, ty^t ou 9 f e flet, 

& miche wat3 f e gyld gere fat glent f er alofte ; 

pe ftif mon fteppe} feron, & f e ftel hondele^, 5/0 

Dubbed I a dublet of a dere tars, 

& fyfen a crafty capados, clofed aloft, 

pat wyth a bry$t blauner was bouden w* me ; 

pene fet fay f e fabatou3 vpon fe fegge fote^, 

His Iege3 lapped I ftel w e luflych greue^, 575 

W l polayne^ piched f er to, policed ful clene, 

Aboute his kne} knaged wyth knote^ of golde ; 

Queme quyffewes J?e, fat coyntlych clofed 

His thik frawen f y3e3, w* fwonges to-tachched ; 

& fyfen f e brawden bryne of bry}t ftel ryge}, 530 

Vmbe-weued fat wy^, vpon wlonk ftuffe ; 

& wel bornyft brace vpon his bof e armes, 

W l eode cowters & gay, & gloue} of plate, 

i^ iT- r \. iV M tyfo j 585 

& alle f e godlych gere fat hy gayn fchulde, 

Wyth ryche cote armure, 

His gold fpore} fpend w l pryde, 

Gurde wyth a bront ful fure, 

W l filk fayn vmbe his fyde. 


[foi. 99.] When he wat3 hafped I armes, his harnays wat3 ryche, 590 

pe left lachet ou 9 loupe lemed of golde ; 
So harnayft as he wat3 he herkne3 his maffe, 


Offred & hono'ed at J>e heje auter ; 

Sy)>en he comej to )>e kyg, & to his cort ferej, 

Lache3 lufly his leue at Iorde3 & ladyej ; 

& )>ay hy kyft & conueyed, bikende hy to kryft. 

Bi )>at wat3 Gryngolet grayth, & gurde w* a fadel, 

pat glemed ful gayly w* mony golde frenges, 

Ay quere naylet ful nwe for )>at note ryched ; 

pe brydel barred a-boute, w 1 bry3t golde bouden ; oo 

pe apparayl of J>e payttrure, & of )>e proude fkyrte3, 

pe cropore, & J>e couertor, acorded wyth J?e arfoue3 ; 

& al wat3 ray led on red ryche golde nayle3, 

pat al glytered & glent as glem of J>e fune. 

pene hentes he )>e helme, & haftily hit kyffes, 

pat wat3 ftapled ftifly, & ftoflfed wyth me ; 

Hit wat3 hy3e on his hede, hafped bihynde, 

Wyth a Iy3th vryfou ou 9 )>e auentayle, 

Enbrawden & bouden wyth }>e beft geme3, 

On brode fylkyn horde, & brydde3 on feme3, w 

As papiaye3 paynted pernyg bitwene, 

Tortors & trulofe3 entayled fo J?yk, _ _ 

As mony burde J>er aboute had be feue wynt 9 , 

pe cercle wat3 more o prys, w 

pat vmbe-clypped hys crou, 

Of diamautc3 a deuys, 

pat bo)>e were bry3t & brou. 


Then )>ay fchewed hy J>e fchelde, )?at was of fchyr goule3, 
Wyth J?e pentangel de-paynt of pure golde hwe3 ; uo 

He brayde3 hit by Je bauderyk, a-boute J?e hals keftf, 
pat bifemed )?e fegge femlyly fayre. 


& quy fe pentangel apende} to fat prynce noble, 
I am i tent yow to telle, f of tary hyt me fchulde ; 
Hit is a fygne fat Salamon fet fu quyle, 625 

I bytoknyg of trawfe, bi tytle fat hit habbe3, 
[fol.99t>.] For hit is a figure fat halde} fyue poynte3, 
& vche lyne vmbe-lappe^ & Iouke3 1 of er, 
& ay quere hit is emdele^, & Englych hit callen 
ou 9 al, as I here, f e endeles knot. sso 

For fy hit acorde3 to fis kny^t, & to his cler arme}, 
For ay faythful I fyue & fere fyue fyfe3, 

Gawan wat3 for gode knawen, & as golde pured, 

IT i * i II i mote j ess 

Voyded of vche vylany, wyth vertue3 eno ned, 

For f y fe pentangel nwe 
He ber I fchelde & cote, 
As tulk of tale moft trwe, 
& gentyleft kny3t of lote. 


Fyrft he wat3 funden fautle3 1 his fyue wytte3, 640 

& efte fay led neu 9 f e freke I his fyue fyngres, 

& alle his afyaiice vpon folde wat3 I f e fyue woude3 

pat cryft ka3t on f e croys, as fe crede telle3 ; 

& quere fo eu 9 fys mon I melly wat3 ftad, 

His fro fo3t wat3 1 fat fur3 alle of 9 f yge3, e 

pat alle his formes he fong at fe fyue ioye3, 

pat f e hende heuen quene had of hir chylde ; 

At f is caufe f e kny3t comlyche hade 

i f e more half of his fchelde hir ymage depaynted, 

pat quen he blufched ferto, his belde neu 9 payred. ew 

pe fyft fyue fat I finde fat f e frek vfed, 

Wat3 frauchyfe, & fela3fchyp, for be al fyg 


His clannes & his cortayfye croked were neu 9 , 

& pite, fat pul'le; alle poynte3, )>yfe pure fyue 

Were harder happed on fat haf el fe on any of 9 . * 

Now alle )>efe fyue fyfe3 forfofe were fetled on fis kny$t, 

& vchone hatched in of?, fat non ende hade, 

& fyched vpon fyue poynte3, fat fay Id neu 9 , 

Ne faraned neu 9 I no fyde, ne fundred nouf er, 

W 1 outen ende at any noke i quere ' fynde, c> 

Where eu 9 fe gomen bygan, or glod to an ende. 

per fore on his fchene fchelde fchapen wat3 fe knot, 

p 9 alle wyth red golde vpon rede gowle3, t . 

i 11 11 j I ^ lore. 065 

[foi. 100.] pat is fe pure pentaungel wyth fe peple called, 

Now grayfed is Gawan gay, 
& Ia3t his lauce ry3t fore, 
& gef hem alle goud day, 
He wende for eu 9 more. 


He fperred fe fted w 1 fe fpure3, & fprong on his way, >7o 

So ftif fat fe fton fyr ftroke out fer aft 9 ; 

Al fat fe3 fat femly fyked I hert, 

& fayde fofly al fame fegges til of 9 , 

Carande for fat comly, " bi kryft, hit is fcafe, 

pat f u , leude, fchal be loft, fat art of lyf noble ! 6 ; 5 

To fynde hys fere vpon folde, I fayth is not efe ; 

Warloker to haf wrojt had more wyt bene, 

& haf dy3t 3onder dere a duk to haue worfed ; 

A lowande leder of Iede3 1 londe hy wel feme3, 

& fo had bett 9 haf ben fe britned to no3t, 

1 ay quere ? 


Hadet wyth an aluifch mon, for angarde3 pryde. 
Who knew eu 9 any kyg fuch coufel to take, 
As kny3te3 i cauelou3 on cryft-maffe gomne} ! " 

Wei much wat? f e warme water f ' walt 9 ed of y^en, 

rtn. 4. r i r c c i. I l> ad da Y e ; 

When pat lemly lyre io3t fro fo wone3, 

He made non abode, 

Bot wy3tly went hys way, 

Mony wylfu way he rode, 

pe bok as I herde fay. eoo 


Now ride3 f is renk f ur3 f e ryalme of Logres, 
f Gauan on gode3 halue, f a3 hy no gomen J?03t ; 
Oft Ieudle3 alone he Ienge3 on ny3tes, 
per he fonde no3t hy byfore J?e fare fat he lyked ; 
Hade he no fere bot his fole, bi frythe3 & doue3, ew 

Ne no gome bot god, bi gate wyth to karp, 
Til fat he ne3ed ful nogfc 2 1 to fe Norfe Wale3 ; 
Alle J?e iles of Anglefay on lyft hah he halde3, 
& fare3 ou 9 fe forde3 by J?e for-londe3, 

Ou 9 at J> e Holy-Hede til he hade eft bonk, 700 

I J?e wyldreneffe of Wyrale j wonde fer bot lyte 
[foi.ioo b .] pat auj^ god of 9 gome wyth goud hert louied. 

& ay he frayned, as he ferde, at freke3 fat he met, 

If fay hade herde any karp of a kny3t grene, 

I any groude f er aboute, of f e grene chapel 9 ; 705 

& al nykked hy wyth nay, fat neu 9 I her lyue 

9 / r/JTV of grene. 

pay Ie3e neu^ no legge fat wat3 of iuche hwe3, 

pe kny3t tok gates ftraunge, 

1 J>at ? nygh ? 3 clapel, MS. 

E 2 


i mony a bonk vn-bene, 
His cher ful oil con chauge, 
pat chapel er he myu fene. 


Mony klyf he* ou 9 clambe I contraye3 ftrauge, 
Fer flotcn fro his frende3 fremedly he ryde3 ; 
At vche warfe ofer wat 9 fer fe wy3e paffed, w 

He fonde a foo hy byfore, bot ferly hit were, 
& fat fo foule & fo felle, fat fe3t hy by-hode ; 
So mony m 9 uayl bi mout f fe mon fynde3, 
Hit were to tore for to telle of f e tenf e dole. 
Sumwhyle wyth worme3 he werre3, & w' wolues als, TJO 

Suwhyle wyth wodwos, fat woned I f e knarre3, 
Bofe wyth bulle3 & bere3, & bore3 of 9 quyle, 
& etayne3, fat hy a-nelede, of f e he3e felle ; 
Nade he ben du$ty & dry3e, & dry3tyn had ferued, 
Douteles he hade ben ded, & dreped ful ofte. 725 

For werre wrathed hy not fo much, fat wyt 9 was wors, 
When fe colde cler wat 9 fro f e cloude3 fchadden, 
& fres er hit falle my3t to f e fale erf e ; 
Ner flayn wyth fe flete he fleped I his yrnes, 
Mo nj3te3 fe I nogti I naked rokke3, 73 

\? as clat 9 ande fro fe creft fe colde borne rene3, 
& henged he3e ou 9 his hede I hard iiffe ikkles. 
pus I peryl, & payne, & plytes ful harde, 
Bi contray carye3 f is kny3t, tyl kryft-mafle euen, 
pe kny3t wel fat tyde, 
To Mary made his mone, 
pat ho hy red to ryde, 
[foL 101.] & wyfle hy to fu wone. 



Bi a moute on }>e morne meryly he rydes, 740 

Into a foreft ful dep, J?at ferly wat} wylde, 

Hi3e hille3 on vche a halue, & holt wode3 vnder, 

Of hore okej ful hoge a hundreth to-geder ; 

pe hafel & J>e ha3-J?orne were harled al famen, 

W* 1036 raged moffe rayled ay where, 745 

W 1 mony brydde3 vnblyj?e vpon bare twyges, 

pat pitofly ]?er piped for pyne of J?e colde. 

pe gome vpon Gryngolet glyde3 hem vnder, 

pur3 mony mify & myre, mo al hy one, 

Carande for his coftes, left he ne keu 9 fchulde 750 

To fe J>e feruy of }?at fyre, J?at on ]?at felf ny3t 

Of a burde wat3 borne, cure baret to quelle ; 

& J?erfore fykyg he fayde, " I be-feche J?e, lorde, 

& Mary, )>at is myldeft moder fo dere, 

Of fu herber, f er he3ly I my3t here maffe, 755 

Ande J?y matyne3 to-morne, mekely I afk, ,, 

& J?er to preftly I pray my pat 9 & aue, 

He rode I his prayere, 

& cryed for his myfdede, ;co 

He fayned hy I fyj?es fere, 

& fayde " cros kryft me fpede ! " 


Nade he fayned hy felf fegge bot frye, 

Er he wat3 war I Je wod of a won I a mote, 

Abof a laude, on a lawe, loken vnder bo3e3, 765 

Of mony borelych bole, aboute bi J?e diches ; 


A caftel fe comlokeft fat eu 9 kny3t a3te, 
Pyched on a prayere, a park al aboute, 
W* a pyked palays, pyned ful fik, 

pat vmbe-te3e mony tre mo fe two myle. 77* 

pat holde on fat on fyde fe hafel auyfed, 
As hit fchemered & fchon fur3 f e fchyre oke} ; 
pene hat3 he hendly of his helme, & he3ly he fonke$ 
Jefus & fay Gilyan, fat gentyle ar bofe, 

[fei.ioi b .] pat cortayfly hade hy kydde, & his cry herkened. 775 

" Now bone hoftel," cofe fe burne, " I be-feche yow 3ette I " 
pene gedere3 he to Gryngolet w* fe gilt hele3, 

& he ful chaucely hat3 chofen to f e chef gate, _ , - 

, i nalte ~, 780 

pat bro3t bremly fe burne to fe bryge ende, 

pe bryge wat3 breme vp brayde, 
pe 3ate3 wer ftoken fafte, 
pe walle3 were wel arayed, 
Hit dut no wynde3 blafte. 


pe burne bode on bonk, fat on blonk houed, 786 

Of f e depe double dich fat drof to f e place, 

pe walle wod I fe wat 9 wonderly depe, 

Ande eft a ful huge he3t hit haled vpon lofte, 

Of harde hewen fton vp to f e table3, 

Enbaned vnder f e abataylmet, I f e beft lawe ; 790 

& fyfen garyte3 ful gaye gered bi-twene, 

Wyth mony luflych loupe, fat louked ful clene ; 

A bett 9 barbican fat burne blufched vpon neu 9 ; 

& mermore he be-helde fat halle ful hy3e, 

Towre telded bytwene trochet ful fik, 79i 

Fayre fylyole3 fat fy3ed, & ferlyly long, 


With coruon coproues, craftyly fle^e ; 

Chalk whyt chymnees J?er ches he I no^e, 

Vpon baftel roue^, fat blenked ful quyte ; 

So mony pynakle payntet wat$ poudred ay quere, m 

Amog ]?e caftel carnele3, clambred fo J>ik, 

pat pared out of papure purely hit femed. 

pe fre freke on J?e fole hit fayr I noghe l fo^t, 

If he my3t keu 9 to com J?e cloyft 9 wyth me, 

To herber I J?at hoftel, whyl halyday lefted, 

He calde, & fone J?er com 

A porter pure plefaut, 

On J?e wal his ernd he nome, 

& haylfed J>e kny^t eryaut. sio 


" Gode ," q Gawan, " wolde^ J) u go my ernde, 
To J?e he3 lorde of J>is ho 9 , herber to craue ?" 
[foi. 102.] " 3e, Pet 9 ," q^ )?e port 9 , " & purely I trowe a , 

pat 36 be, wy3e, welcu to won quyle yow Iyke3." 

pe 3ede )> e wy3e a3ayn fwy]?e, sis 

& folke frely hy wyth, to fonge J>e kny^t ; 

pay let dou fe grete dra3t, & derely out 3eden, 

& kneled dou on her knes vpon J>e colde er]?e, 

To welcu J?is ilk wy3, as wor]?y horn J>o3t ; 

pay 3olden hy J?e brode 3ate, 3arked vp wyde, 820 

& he hem rayfed rekenly, & rod ou 9 J?e brygge ; 

Sere fegge3 hy fefed by fadel, quel 9 he Iy3t, 

& fy]?en ftabeled his ftede ftif me I no3e. 

Kny3te3 & fwyere3 comen dou ]>ene, 

1 nghe, MS. * trowoe, MS. 3 quyle ? 


For to bryg )>is burne ' wyth blys I to halle ; 
Quen he hef vp his helme, )>er hipd I nogfc 
For to hent hit at his honde, J>e hende to feruen ; 
His bronde & his blafou boj>e J>ay token. 
pe haylfed he ful hendly J>o haj>ele3 vch one, 
& mony proud mon }>er p 9 fed, )>at pryce to hon<f ; sao 

Alle hafped I his he3 wede to halle fay hy wonen, 
per fayre fyre vpon flet ferfly brened. 
pene )>e lorde of J>e lede Ioute3 fro his chambre, 
For to mete wyth menfke J?e raon on J>e flor; 
He fayde, " 30 ar welcu to welde as yow Iyke3, & weWe 

pat here is al is yowre awen, to haue at yowre wylle, 
" Graut mercy," q Gawayn, 
" per kryft hit yow for-3elde," 

As freke3 )?at femed fayn, sw 

AyJ? o)^ I arme3 co felde. 


Gawayn gly3t on )>e gome J^at godly hy gret, 
& )>u3t hit a bolde burne J?at J?e bur3 a3te, 
A hoge haj?el for J>e none3, & of hygfi elde 8 ; 
Erode bry3t wat3 his berde, & al beu 9 hwed, ^ 846 

Sturne ftif on )>e ftry^e on ftal worth fchonke3, 
Felle face as J?e fyre, & fre of hys fpeche; 
& wel hy femed for foj?e, as J>e fegge ]?u3t, 
To lede a lortfchyp I lee of Ieude3 ful gode. 

[foLio2>.] pe lorde hy charred to a chambre, & chefly' cuaude3 sso 

To delyu 9 hym a leude, hym Io3ly to ferue ; 
& J>ere were bou at his bode burne3 1 no3e, 

1 buurne, MS. ddee, MS. clefly, MS. 


pat bro3t hy to a bry}t boure, ]P beddyg wat3 noble, 

Of cortynes of clene fylk, wyth cler golde herne}, 

& cou 9 tore3 ful curious, w* comlych pane}, $55 

Of bry3t blaunn 91 a-boue enbrawded bifyde3, 

Rudele3 renande on rope3, red golde ryge3, 

Tapyte3 ty3t to J>e wo3e, of tuly & tars, 

& vnder fete on J?e flet of fo^ande fute. 

per he wat3 difpoyled, wyth fpeche3 of my 9 )>e, m 

pe burn of his bruny, & of his bryjt wede3 ; 

Ryche robes ful rad renkke3 hem bn>3ten, 

For to charge, & to chaunge, & chofe of j>e beft. 

Sone as he on hent, & happed ]? 9 me, 

pat fete on hym 2 femly, wyth faylande fkyrte3, 865 

pe ver by his uifage verayly hit femed 

Welne3 to vche haj?el alle on hwes, 

Lowande & lufly, alle his Iyme3 vnder, 

ITT 9 1 A hem 

pat a comloker kny3t new kryft made, 

Whe]?en I worlde he were, 
Hit femed as he my3t 
Be prynce w l outen pere, 
i felde ]? 9 felle me fy3t. 


A cheyer by -fore J?e chemne, J? charcole brened, 875 

Wat3 grayfed for f Gawan, grayfely w l clo]?e3, 

Whyffynes vpon queldepoyntf , J>a koyt wer bofe ; 

& ]>ene a mere mantyle wat3 on J?at mon caft, 

Of a broii bleeaut, enbrauded ful ryche, 

& fay re furred wyth me w l felle3 of J?e beft, 


1 blaunm 9 , MS. 2 hyn, MS. 


Alle of ermyn i erde, his hode of J>e fame ; 
& be-fete I fat fettel femlych ryche, 
& achaufed hy chefly 1 , & fene his cher mended. 
Sone wat3 telded vp a tapit, on trefte} fill fayre, 
Clad wyth a clene clofe, fat cler quyt fchewed, ** 

Sana]), & falure, & fylu 9 I fpone3 ; 

[foi. 103.] pe wy3e wefche at his wylle, & went to his mete. 
Segge3 hym femed femly I no^e, 
Wyth fere fewes & fete, fefoude of f e beft, 

Double felde, as hit falle3, & fele kyn fifche3 ; WK> 

Sume baken I bred, fume brad on f e glede3, 
Sume fofen, fume I fewe, fau 9 ed w l fpyces, 
& ayfawes fo f 16363, J>at J^e fegge lyked. 

pe freke calde hit a feft ful frely & ofte, . . 

Ful hendely, quen alle fe hafeles re-hayted hy at one3, 
" pis penauce now 36 take, 
&. eft hit fchal amende ; " 
pat mon much m 9 ]?e con make, 
For wy I his hed )>at wende. 900 


pene wat3 ^pycd & fpured vpon fpare wyfe, 
Bi preue poynte^ of )>at prynce, put to hy feluen, 
pat he be-knew cortayfly of J>e court ]?at he were, 
pat aj>el Arthure J>e hende halde3 ^y one > 
pat is J>e ryche ryal k)^g of J?e roude table ; 
& hit wat3 Wawen hy felf fat T J?at won fyttej, 
Comen to J>at kryftmaffe, as cafe hy fen lymped. 
When J?e lorde hade lerned fat he fe leude hade, 


cefly, MS. 


Loude la^ed he f 9 at, fo lef hit hy f O3t, 

& alle f e men I fat mote maden much joye, 910 

To apere I his prefenfe preftly fat tyme, 

pat alle prys, & prowes, & pured fewes 

Apendes to hys perfou, & prayfed is eu 9 , 

By-fore alle men vpon molde, his menfk is f e moft. 

Vch fegge ful foftly fayde to his fere, 915 

" Now fchal we femlych fe fle^te} of f ewe3, 

& f e teccheles termes of talkyg noble, 

Wich fpede is I fpeche, vnfpurd may we lerne, 

Sy we haf fonged fat fyne fader of nurture ; 

God hat3 geuen v 9 his g"ce godly for foj>e, 920 

pat fuch a geft as Gawan graute* v 9 to haue, 

& iyge 
When burne3 blype of his bur)?e fchal fitte, 

I menyg of man'e^ mere, 

pis burne now fchal v 9 bryg, 925 

I hope fat may hy here, 

Schal lerne of luf-talkyg." 


Bi fat J?e diner wat3 done, & fe dere vp, 

Hit watj ne} at fe nyst 1 ne3ed fe tyme ; 

Chaplayne3 to f e chapeles chofen f e gate, 930 

Rugen ful rychely, ry3t as fay fchulden, 

To f e herfu euenfong of f e hy3e tyde. 

pe lorde loutes f erto, & f e lady als, 

i to a comly clofet coyntly ho entre3 ; 

Gawan glyde3 ful gay, & gos f eder fone ; w 

pe lorde laches hy by f e lappe, & Iede3 hy to fytte, 

1 myjt, MS. 
F 2 


& coufly hy knowe3, & calle3 hy his nome, 
& fayde he wat3 )>e welcomed wy3e of J>e worlde ; 
& he hy J>onkked jroly, & ay}? halched oj>er, 
& feten foberly famen )>e feruife-quyle ; 94 

pene lyft )>e lady to loke on )>e kny3t. 
pene com ho of hir clofet, w l mony cler burde}, 
Ho watj )>e fayreft I felle, of flefche & of lyre, 
& of compas, & colo", & coftes of alle 6]P, 

& wener )>en Wenore, as J?e wy3e )> 031. 945 

He ches j>ur3 )>e chaufel, to cheryche fat hende ; 
An ofer lady hir lad bi ]>e lyft honde, 
pat wat3 alder J?en .ho, an aucian hit femed, 
& he3ly honowred w l hafeles aboute. 

Bot vn-lyke on to loke J?o ladyes were, .M> 

For if )>e 3onge wat3 3ep, 30136 wat3 Y ^ > 
Riche red on J?at on rayled ay quere, 
Rugh ronkled cheke3 )?at of? on rolled ; 
Kerchofes of )>at on wyth mony cler perle? 

Hir breft & hir bry3t )?rote bare difplayed, sw 

Schon fchyrer )>e fnawe, ]?at fcheder on hille3 ; 
pat o)? wyth a gorger wat3 gered ou 9 ]?e fwyre, 
Chymbled ou 9 hir blake chyn w* mylk-quyte vayles, 
Hir frout folden I fylk, enfoubled ay quere, 

Toret & trejeted w* tryfle3 aboute, %o 

[foi.KM.] pat 0031 wat3 bare of fat burde hot J?e blake bro3es,. 
pe tweyne y3en, & J>e nafe, J?e naked Iyppe3, 
& )>ofe were foure to fe, & fellyly blered ; 
A menfk lady on molde mo may hir calle, 
Hir body wat3 fchort & fit, 
Hir buttoke3 bay & brode, 
More lykker-wys on to lyk, 
Wat3 fat fcho hade on lode. 



When Gawayn gly3t on y gay, y g"cio 9 ly loked, ;o 

Wyth leue Ia3t of J>e lorde he went hem a3aynes ; 

pe alder he haylfes, heldande ful lowe, 

pe loueloker he lappe} a lyttel I arm 63, 

He kyffes hir comlyly, & kny3tly he mele3 ; 

pay kallen hy of a quoytauce, & he hit quyk afke3 975 

To be her feruaut fothly, if hem felf lyked. 

pay tan hy bytwene hem, wyth talkyg hy leden 

To chambre, to chemne, & chefly }>ay afken 

Spyce3, }>at vn-fparely me fpeded horn to bryg, 

& J?e wyne-lych wyne }P w l vche tyme. go 

pe lorde luflych aloft lepe^ ful ofte, 

Myned m 9 the to be made vpon mony fylpe^, 

Hent he3ly of his hode, & on a fpere henged, 

& wayned horn to wyne J?e worchip J?er of, 

pat moft myrj^e my3t mene J> 1 cryftenmas whyle ; sso 

11 & I fchal fonde, bi my fayth, to fylt 9 wyth ]>e beft, 

Er me wont fe wede3, w* help of my frende3." 

p 9 wyth Ia3ande Iote3 J?e lorde hit tayt 1 make3, 

For to glade I Gawayn w 1 gomne3 I halle, 

Til J?at hit wat3 tyme, 

pe kyg comaudet Iy3t, 

f Gawen his leue con nyme, 

& to his bed hy 




On fe morne, as vch mon mynej fat tyme, * 

pat dryjtyn for oure deftyne to de^e wat3 borne, 

Wele waxej I vche a won I worlde, for his fake ; 

So did hit fere on fat day, 1113 dayntes mony ; 

Bofe at mes & at mele, mefles ful quaynt ; 

Derf men vpon dece, dreft of f e beft. 1000 

pe olde aucian wyf he3eft ho fytte3 ; 

pe lorde lufly herby lent, as I trowe ; 

Gawan & fe gay burde to-geder fay feten, 

Euen I mydde3, as fe meffe metely come ; 

& fyfen Jmr3 al )e fale, as hem beft femed, iow 

Bi vche grome at his degre g"yj?ely wat3 ferued. 

p 9 wat3 mete, )>er wat3 myrj?e, f wat3 much ioye, 

pqt for to telle )>erof hit me tene were, 

& to poynte hit 3et I pyned me paueture ; 

Bot 3et I wot fat Wawen & fe wale burde 1010 

Such comfort of her compaynye ca3ten to-geder, 

pui3 her dere dalyauce of her derne worde3, 

Wyth clene cortays carp, clofed fro fylfe : 

T V3.vres * 
& hor play wat3 paflande vche prynce gomen, 

Trtpe3 & nakerys, 
Much pyp> 7 g f 9 repayres, 
Vche mo tented hys, 
& fay two teted fayres. 


Much dut wat3 fer dryuen fat day & fat o]?, ioao 

& fe f ryd as fro f ronge I f eraft 9 ; 


pe ioye of fayn Jone} day wat} gentyle to here, 
& wat3 Ipe laft of J?e layk, Ieude3 J?er Jx^ten. 
per wer geftes to go vpon J?e gray morne, 

For J?y wonderly J?ay woke, & ]?e wyn dronken, 1025 

Daufed ful dre^ly wyth dere carole} ; 
At ]>e laft, when hit wat3 late, J?ay lachen her leue, 
Vchon to wende on his way. J?at wat} wy3e ftronge. 
Gawan gef hy god-day, J?e god mo hy lachche^, 
Ledes hy to his awen chambre, fe chyne byfyde, 1030 

& ]?ere he dra^ hy on dry^e, & derely hy J^onkke^, 
Of Je wyne worfchip & ! he hy wayned hade, 
As to hono" his ho 9 on J?at hy^e tyde, 
& enbelyfe his bur3 w l his bele chere. 

' ' I wyffe I", quyl I leue, me worfe3 fe better, 1035 

[fol.105.] pat Gawayn hat3 ben my geft, at godde3 awen feft." 

" G a nt merci 2 f," q, Gawayn, " I god fayth hit is yowre3, 

Al J?e hono" is yd" awen, ]?e he3e kyg yow 3elde ; 

& I am wy3e at yd" wylle, to worch yoe heft, 

As I am halden j> 9 to, I hyje & 1 1036, HMO 

pe lorde faft can hy payne, 

To holde lenger ]?e kny3t, 

To hy anfwre3 Gawayn, 

Bi non way J?at he my3t. 1045 


Then frayned Ipe freke ful fayre at him felue, 
Quat derne dede had hy dryuen, at J?at dere tyme, 
So kenly fro J?e kyge3 kourt to kayre al his one, 
Er Ipe halidaye3 holly were halet out of tou ? 

1 pat ? 2 nerci, MS. 


" For foj^e f," q J>e fegge, " 36 fayn hot )>e trawj?e ; 10*0 

A heje ernde & a hafty me hade fro jx> wone^ ; 

For I am fiined my felfe to fech to a place, 

I wot ' I worlde wheder warde to wende, hit to fynde ; 

I nolde, hot if I hit negh my3t on nw3eres morne, 

For alle J>e londe I wyth Logres, fo me oure lorde help ! iaw 

For J>y, f, j>is enqueft I require yow here, 

pat 36 me telle w* trawj>e, if eu 9 36 tale herde 

Of J>e grene chapel, quere hit on groude ftonde3, 

& of J>e kny3t J>at hit kepes, of colo" of grene ? 

P 9 wat3 (labled bi ftatut a fteuen v 9 by-twene, \w> 

To mete J>at mon at J> e mere, 3if I my3t laft ; 

& of J>at ilk nw3ere bot neked now wonte3, 

& I wolde loke on J>at lede, if god me let wolde, 

Gladloker, bi godde3 fu, )?e any god welde ! 

For J?i I wyffe, bi 3owre wylle, wende me bi-houes, iocs 

Naf I now to bufy bot bare J?re daye3, 

& me als fayn to falle feye as fayly of my 8 ernde." 

pene Ia3ande q fe lorde, " now leng ]?e by-houes, 

For I fchal teche yow to fa terme bi J>e tyme3 ende, 

pe grene chapayle vpon groude, greue yow no more ; io;o 

Bot 36 fchal be I yowre bed, burne, at J>y efe, 

Quyle forth daye3, & ferk on J?e fyrft of f e 3ere, 

& cum to J>at merk at mydmorn, to make quat yow Iike3," mfpene; 

Dowelle3 whyle new 3eres daye, i 075 

& rys, & rayke3 )^ne, 

Mo fchal yow fette I waye, 

Hit is not two myle hene." 

1 not ? myy, MS. 



pene wat} Gawan ful glad, & gomenly he Ia3ed, 

" Now I }onk yow fryuandely J?ur3 alle oj> 9 )>yge, ioso 

Now acheued is my chauce, I fchal at yo wylle 

Dowelle, & elle} do quat 36 demen." 

pene fefed hy J?e fyre, & fet hy byfyde, 

Let J?e Iadie3 be fette, to lyke he ]> e bett 9 ; 

per wat} feme folace by hem felf ftille ; loss 

pe lorde let for luf Iote3 fo myry, 

As wy3 fat wolde of his wyte, ne wyft quat he my3t. 

pene he carped to \ e kny3t, criande loude, 

*' 3e ban demed to do ]?e dede Jat I bidde ; 

Wyl 36 halde ]?is hes here at J?ys one3 ? " 1090 

" }e f, for fofe," fayd J?e fegge trwe, 

" Whyl I byde I yowre bor3e, be bayn to 3owe ' heft." 

" For 36 haf trauayled," o^ J?e tulk, " towen fro ferre, 

& fy]?en waked me wyth, 36 arn not wel waryft, 

Naujr' of foftnauce ne of flepe, fofly I knowe ; 1095 

^e fchal lenge I yo^ lofte, & Iy3e I ycf efe, 

To morn quyle ]?e meffe-quyle, & to mete wende, 

When 36 wyl, wyth my wyf, fat wyth yow fchal fitte, . , 

& comfort yow w l compayny, til I to cort torne, 

& I fchal erly ryfe, 

On hutyg wyl I wende." 

Gauayn gnte3 alle fyfe, 

Hy heldande, as fe hende. 



" jet firre," Q fe freke, " a forwarde we make ; n 

Quat fo euer I wyne I fe wod, hit worfe3 to yo^ej, 
& quat chek fo 30 acheue, chauge me f er forne ; 
Swete, fwap we fo, fware w* trawfe, 
Quej? leude fo lymp, lere of? bett 9 ." 

" Bi god," q Gawayn J?e gode, " I g a nt f 9 tylle, mo 

[foi. 106.] & )>at yow lyft forto layke, lef hit me fynkf ." 

" Who bryge$ v 9 fis beu 9 age, J?is bargayn is maked," 

So fayde J?e lorde of fat lede ; fay Ia3ed vchone, 

pay dronken, & daylyeden, & dalten vntyjtel, 

pife Iorde3 & lady 63, quyle fat hem lyked ; ins 

& fyfen w* frenkyfch fare & fele fayre Iote3 

pay ftoden, & ftemed, & ftylly fpeken, 

Kyften ful comlyly, & ka3ten her leue. 

W mony leude ful Iy3t, & lemande torches, 

Vche burne to his bed wat3 bro3t at fe lafte, 

To bed 3et er fay 3ede, 

Recorded couenaute3 fte ; 

pe olde lorde of fat leude ', 

Cowfe wel halde layk a-lofte. , m 

lede ? 




Ful erly bifore f e day f e folk vp ryfen, 
Geftes fat go wolde, hor grome} fay calden, 
& fay bufken vp bilyue, blonkke3 to fadel, 
Tyffen her ! takles, truffen her males, 

Richen hem f e rycheft, to ryde alle arayde, 1130 

Lepen vp lystly, lachen her bry deles, 
Vche wyje on his way, f er hy wel lyked. 
pe leue lorde of f e londe watj not f e laft, 
A-rayed for fe rydyg, w* renkke3 ful mony; 
Ete a fop haftyly, when he hade herde maffe, 1135 

W bugle to bent felde he bufke3 by-lyue ; 
By J?at fat any day-ly^t lemed vpon erfe, 
He w l his hafeles on hy^e horffes weren. 
pene fife cacheres fat coufe, cowpled hor houde}, 
Vnclofed f e kenel dore, & calde hem f 9 oute, ii*> 

Blwe bygly I bugle3 f re bare mote ; 
Braches bayed f 9 fore, & breme noyfe maked, 
& fay chaftyfed, & charred, on chafyg fat went ; - - , - 
A hundreth of hunt'es, as I haf herde telle, 
To tryftors vewters 3od, 
Couples huntes of-keft, 
[foi.i06 b .] p 9 ros for blafte3 gode, 
Gret rurd I fat foreft. 

1 he, MS. 
G 2 



At fe fyrft quethe of f e queft quaked f e wylde ; iwo 

Der drof I fe dale, doted for drede, 

Hi3ed to )>e hy3e, bot het 9 ly fay were 

Reftayed w l fe ftablye, fat ftoutly afcryed ; 

pay let fe hertte) haf f e gate, w l f e hy3e hedes, 

pe breme bukkej alfo, w' hor brode paume3 ; HM 

For fe fre lorde hade defende I fermyfou tyme, 

p c jr> fchulde no mon mene to fe male dere. 

pe hinde3 were balden I, w l hay & war, 

pe does dryuen w' gret dyn to J?e depe llade^ ; 

per my3t mon fe, as J?ay flypte, fleutyg of arwes, nco 

At vche wende vnder wande wapped a flone, 

pat bigly bote on )?e brou, w l ful brode hede3, 

\VJiat )?ay brayen, & bleden, bi bonkke3 J?ay de3en. 

& ay rachches I a res radly hem fo^es, 

Hutere3 wyth hy3e home halted hem aft 9 , n 

Wyth fuch a crakkande kry, as klyffes haden bruften ; 

What wylde fo at-waped wy3es )?at fchotten, 

Wat3 al to-raced & rent, at J?e refayt. 

Bi J?ay were tened at J?e hy3e, & tayfed to J?e wattre3, 

pe Iede3 were fo lerned at fe 1036 tr) 7 fteres, nro 

& J>e gre-houde3 fo grete, J?at geten hem bylyue, ^ 

& hem to fylched, as faft as freke3 my3t loke, 

pe lorde for blys abloy, 

Ful oft con lauce & Iy3t, 1175 

& drof fat day wyth joy, 

Thus to fe derk ny3t. 



p 9 layke} fis lorde by lynde wode^ cue}, 
& G. J>e god mon, I gay bed lyge^, 

Lurkke} quyl J?e day-ly^t lemed on J>e wowes, nso 

Vnder couertd" ful clere, cortyned aboute ; 
& as I flom 9 yg he flode, fle^ly he herde 
A littel dyn at his dor, & derfly vpon ; 
& he heue3 vp his bed, out of ]?e clones, 

[fol. 107.] A corner of J?e cortyn he ca}t vp a lyttel, n85 

& wayte3 warly J?ider warde, quat hit be myjt. 
Hit wat3 j?e ladi, loflyeft to be-holde, 
pat dn>3 )?e dor aft 9 hir ful dernly & ftylle, 
& bo^ed to-warde J?e bed ; & fe burne fchamed, 
& layde hy dou lyftyly, & let as he flepte. nno 

& ho ftepped ftilly, & ftel to his bedde, 
Keft vp J?e cortyn, & creped w* me, 
& fet hir ful foftly on ]?e bed-fyde, 
& lenged fere felly longe, to loke que he wakened, 
pe lede lay lurked a ful longe quyle, n 95 

Compaft I his concience to quat fat cace myst 
Mene of 9 amout, to m 9 uayle hy J?o3t ; 
Bot 3et he fayde I hy felf, " more femly hit were 
To afpye wyth my fpelle, fpace quat ho wolde." 
pen he wakenede, & wroth, & to hir warde torned, 1200 

& vn-louked his y3e-lydde3, & let as hy wondered, t 
& fayned hy, as bi his fa3e J?e fau 9 to worthe, 
Wyth chyne & cheke ful fwete, 

BoJ>e quit & red I blande, 1205 

Ful lufly con ho lete, 
Wyth lyppe} fmal Ia3ande. 



" God morou, f Gawayn," fayde J>at fayr lady, 
" 36 ar a flep vn-fly^e, >at mo may flyde hider ; 
Now ar 36 tan aftyt, bot t u e v 9 may fchape, ww 

I fchal bynde yow I yd* bedde, J> 1 be 36 trayft ; " 
Al Ia3ande J>e lady lanced )>o bourde3. 
" Goud morou ge '," g, Gawayn >e bly>e, 
" Me fchal wor>e at yd* wille, & J?at me wel Iyke3, 
For 1 3elde me 3ederly, & 3036 aft 9 g"ce, 1215 

& J>at is J>e beft, be my dome, for me by-houe3 nede ;" 
& jms he bourded a-3ayn w* mony a blyfe Ia3t 9 ; 
" Bot wolde 36, lady louely, J?e leue me gnte, 
& deprece yd* pryfou, & pray hy to ryfe, 

I wolde bo3e of >is bed, & bufk me bett 9 , 1220 

I fchulde keu 9 |>e more comfort to karp yow wyth." 
[foi.io7>.] " Nay, for fo)>e, beau f," fayd J?at fwete, 

" 3e fchal not rife of y(f bedde, I rych yow bett 9 , 

I fchal haue yow here )>at o]? 9 half als, 

& fy)>en karp wyth my kny3t, >at I ka3t haue ; was 

For I wene wel, I wyffe, f Wawen 30 are, 

pat alle )>e worlde worchipe3, quere fo 36 ride ; 

Yo" hono", yd* hendelayk is hendely prayfed 

W* Iorde3, wyth ladyes, w* alle fat lyf here. 

& now 36 ar here, I wyffe, & we bot cure one ; 12*0 

My lorde & his Iede3 ar on lenj?e faren, 

OJ? burne3 1 her bedde, & my burde3 als, 

pe dor drawen, & dit w ! a derf hafpe ; 

& fyfen I haue I Jns ho 9 hy )?at al Iyke3, t 

I fchal ware my whyle wel, quyl hit Iafte3, 

1 This word is very doubtful in the MS. 


?e ar welcu to my cors, 

Yowre awen won to wale, 

Me be-houe3 of fyne force, 

YO" feruaut be & fchale." 1240 


In god fayth," q, Gawayn, " gay hit me fynkke3, 

I be not now he fat 30 of fpeken ; 
To reche to fuch reuerence as 36 reherce here 
I am wy3e vn-worf y, I wot wel my feluen ; 

Bi god, I were glad, & yow god f 031, 1245 

At fa3e ojr* at feruyce fat I fette my3t 
To f e plefauce of yd" prys, hit were a pure ioye." 
" In god fayth, f Gawayn," q, fe gay lady, 
" pe prys & fe prowes ]?at plefe3 al o]^, 

If I hit lakked, oj> 9 fet at Iy3t, hit were littel daynte ; 1250 

Bot hit ar ladyes I no3e, fat leu 9 wer now]>e 
Haf Je hende I hor holde, as I ]?e habbe here, 
To daly w* derely yo" daynte worde3, 
Keu 9 hem comfort, & colen her care3, 
pe much of }e garyfou o]? 9 golde fat l fay hauen ; i2s-> 

Bot I louue 2 bat ilk lorde, V be lyfte halde3, 

r y J bur3e grace. 

I haf hit holly I my honde, fat al defyres, 

Scho made hy fo gret chere, 

[foi. los.] pat wat3 fo fayr of face, i2>o 

pe knyjt w* fpeches fkere, 
Afwared 3 to vche a cace. 

1 fat p 1 , MS. 2 louie ? 3 anfwared ? 



" Madame," q fe myry mon, " Mary yow $elde, 

For I haf fouden, I god fayth, yowre frauchis nobele, 

& o)? ful much of ojj? folk fongen hor dede3 ; iau 

Bot fe daynte f * fay delen for my difert nyfen, 

Hit is fe worchyp of yo* felf, fat 0031 bot wel cone3." 

" Bi Mary," g, fe menfkful, " me fynk hit anof? ; 

For were I worth al ]>e wone of wymen alyue, 

& al f e wele of f e worlde were I my honde, mo 

& I fchulde chepen & chofe, to cheue me a lorde, 

For J>e coftes ]>at I haf knowen vpon ]>e kny3t here, 

Of bewte, & debonerte, & blyj?e femblaut, 

& )>at I haf er herkkened, & halde hit here trwe *, 

p 9 fchulde no freke vpon folde bifore yow be chofen." 1275 

"J wyffe, wor)?y," q )?e wy^e, " 30 haf waled wel bett 9 , 

Bot I am proude of J?e prys fat je put on me, 

& foberly yo* feruaut my fou 9 ayn I holde yow, 

& yowre kny^t I be-com, & kryft yow for-jelde." 

p 9 J?ay meled of much quat, til myd-morn pafte, 1290 

& ay )>e lady let lyk, a 9 hy loued mych ; 

pe freke ferde w e defence, & feted ful fayre. 

" pa) I were burde bry3teft," J?e burde I mynde hade, 

" pe lafle luf I his lode, for lur fat he fo^t, 

pe dunte fat fchilde hy deue, 

& nede3 hit moft be done ; " 

pe lady fen fpek of leue, 

He g a nted hir ful fone. 

1 trwee, MS. and ? 



pene ho gef hy god-day, & wyth a glent la^ed, 1290 

& as ho ftod, ho ftonyed hy wyth ful ftor worde$, 
" Now he fat fpede} vche fpech, fis difport ^elde yow ! 
Bot fat 36 be Gawan, hit got} I myde." 
" Quer fore ? " q f e freke, & frefchly he afke^, 
Ferde left he hade fayled I fcTine of his caftes ; 1295 

Bot f e burde hy bleffed, & bi fis fkyl fayde, 
[fol.i08 b .] " So god as Gawayn gaynly is halden, 

& cortayfye is clofed fo clene I hy feluen, 

Couth not ly^tly haf lenged fo long wyth a lady, 

Bot he had craned a coffe, bi his cortayfye, isoo 

Bi fu towch of fume tryfle, at fu tale^ ende." 

pe q. Wo wen, " I wyffe, worfe as yow lyke^, 

I fchal kyffe at yo" comaudement, as a kny^t falle3, 

& fire l left he difplefe yow, fo * plede hit no more." 

Ho comes nerre w* fat, & cache3 hy i arme}, 1305 

Loute^ luflych adou, & fe leude kyffe3 ; 

pay comly bykenen to kryft ayf 9 o)^ ; 

Ho dos hir forth at J?e dore, w* outen dyn more. 

& he ryches hy to ryfe, & rapes hy fone, 

Clepes to his chamberlayn, chofes his wede, mo 

60363 forth, quen he wat3 bou, blyfely to mafic, 

& J?ene he meued to his mete, Y mefkly hy keped, 

T j , ., 1 r j w game ; 

& made myry al nay til pe mone ryled, 

W ts neu 9 freke fayrer fonge, isis 

Bitwene two fo dygne dame, 
pe alder & fe 3onge, 
Much folace fet fay fame. 

i fere ? 2 fo ? * Was ? Nas ? 




And ay fe lorde of fe londe is lent on his gamne}, 
To hut I holte3 & hefe, at hyndej barayne, UHO 

Such a fowme he )? flowe bi fat fe fiine heldet, 
Of dos & of oj? dere, to deme were wonder. 
pene ferfly fay flokked I folk at f e lafte, 
& quykly of fe quelled dere a querre fay maked ; 
pe beft bo3ed ferto, w 1 burae3 I nogfi, IM* 

Gedered f e gratteft of gres fat f er were, 
& didden hem derely vndo, as f e dede afke$ ; 
Serched hem at f e afay, fume fat f were, 
Two fygeres fay fonde of f e fowleft of alle ; 
Syfe fay flyt f e flot, fefed f e erber, \m 

Schaued wyth a fcharp knyf, & f e fchyre knitten ; 
Syf en rytte fay f e foure lyrnes, & rent of f e hyde, 
pe brek fay fe bale, fe bale3 out token, 
[foi. ioo Lyftily forlancyg, & bere of f e knot ; 

pay gryped to f e gargulu, & g*yf ely departed is 

pe wefaut fro f e wynt-hole, & wait out f e gutte3 ; 

pe fcher fay out fe fchuldere} w* her fcharp knyue$, 

Haled hem by a lyttel hole, to haue hole fydes ; 

Sifen britned fay f e breft, & brayden hit i twyne, 

& eft at fe gargulu bigyne$ on f ene, 1340 

Ryue$ hit vp radly, ryjt to f e byjt 

Voyde3 out f e a-vanters, & v 9 ayly J^aft 9 

Alle fe ryme3 ^y f e rybbe3 radly fay lance ; 

So ryde fay of by refoii bi f e rygge bone3, 

Euenden to fe haunche, fat henged alle famen, IMS 

& heuen hit vp al hole, & hwen hit of fere, 

o , . , f , . bi kynde; 

& pat pay neme for fe noubles, bi nome as I trowe, 


Bi f e by3t al of f e f y^es, 
pe lappej fay lance bi-hynde, 
To hewe hit I two fay hyjes, 
Bi f e bak-bon to vnbynde. 


Bof e f e hede & f e hals fay hwen of f ene, 

& fyf en funder fay f e fyde} fwyft fro f e chyne, 

& f e corbeles fee fay keft i a greue ; 1^5 

pen furled fay ayf er f ik fide f urj, bi f e rybbe, 

& henged f ene af 9 bi hoses of f e fourche^, 

Vche freke for his fee, as fallej forto haue. 

Vpon a felle of f e fayre beft fede fay f ayr houdes, 

Wyth f e lyu 9 & f e lyjte^, f e lef er of f e paunche^, iseo 

& bred baf ed I blod, blende f er amoge3 ; 

Baldely fay blw prys, bayed f ayr rachchej, 

Syf en fonge fay her flefche folden to home, 

Strakande ful ftoutly mony ftif motej. 

Bi fat f e dayly^t wat^ done, f e douthe wat} al wonen . .. 

i to f e comly caftel, f er f e kny^t bidej, 

Wyth blys & bryjt fyr bette, 

pe lord is comen f 9 tylle, 

When Gawayn wyth hy mette, 1370 

per wat$ hot wele at wylle. 


Thene comauded fe lorde i f* fale to iamen alle fe meny, 
Bof e f e ladyes on logfe to Iy3t, w* her burdes, 
Bi-fore alle f e folk on f e flette, frekej he beddej 
V 9 ayly his venyfou to fech hy byforne ; 1375 

H 2 


& al godly i gomen Gawayn 1 he called, 

Techej hy to fe tayles of fill tayt beftes, 

Schewe} hy fe fchyrer grete fchorae vpon rybbes. 

" How payej yow f is play ? haf I prys wonen ? 

Haue I f ryuandely fonk f 1113 my craft ferued ? " ia 

" je, I wyffe," q fat of? wy3e, " here is wayth fayreft 

pat I fe3 fis feuen 3ere, I fefou of wynt 9 ." 

" & al I gif yow, Gawayn," q fe gome fene, 

" For by a-corde of couenaut 36 craue hit as yo* awen." 

" pis is foth," q JKJ fegge, " I fay yow J?at ilke, UK 

& I haf worthyly a J?is wone3 wyth me, 

I wyfle w l as god wylle hit worj?e3 to 3o"e3." 

He hafppe3 his fayre hals his anne3 wyth me, 

& kyffes hy as comlyly as he s coufe awyfe, 

" Tas yow ]>ere my cheuicauce, I cheued no more, 1390 

I wowche hit faf fynly, f a} feler hit were." 

" llit is god," q )?e god mon, " gnt m 9 cy f 9 fore, 

Hit may be fuch, hit is fe bett 9 , & 36 me breue wolde 

Where 30 wan fis ilk wele, bi wytte of hor* feluen ? " 

*' pat wat3 not forward," a he, " frayft me no more, 

v r* 3 e mowe." 

For 36 haf tan fat yow tyde3, trawe 36 non of 

pay la^ed, & made hem blyfe, 

Wyth Iote3 fat were to lowe, 

To foper fay 3ede aflwyfe, 1.100 

Wyth dayntes nwe I no we. 


And fyf en by e chymne i chamber fay feten, 
e walle wyn we3ed to hem oft, 

1 Gaway, MS. A word seems here to be wanting. 

3 ho, MS. your ? 


& efte I her bourdyg fay bayf en I f e morn, 
To fylle fe fame forwarder fat fay by-fore maden, MW 

pat chauce fo by-tyde} hoi cheuyfauce to chauge, 
What nwe3 fo fay nome, at najt quen fay mette. 
pay acorded of f e couenaute} byfore f e co"t alle ; 
[foi. no.] pe beuerage wat} bro3t forth I bourde at fat tyme ; 

pene fay louelych Ie3ten leue at f e laft, uio 

Vche burne to his bedde bufked bylyue. 

Bi fat fe coke hade crowe} 1 & cakled bot fryfe, 

pe lorde watj lopen of his bedde, f e leude^ vch one, 

So fat f e mete & f e maffe wat3 metely delyu 9 ed ; 

pe douthe dreffed to fe wod, er any day fprenged, 

He3 w* hute & horne3, 

pur3 playne3 fay paffe I fpace, 

Vn-coupled amog fo forne3, 

Rache3 fat ran on race. 1420 


Sone fay calle of a queft I aker fyde, 

pe hut re-hayted fe houde3, fat hit fyrft myged, 

Wylde worde3 hy warp wyth a wraft noyce ; 

pe hownde3 fat hit herde, haftid fider fwyf e, 

& fellen as faft to f e fuyt, fourty at ones ; 142* 

pene fuch a glau 9 ande glam of gedered rachche3 

Ros, fat f e rochere3 rugen aboute ; 

Hutere3 hem hardened w l home & wyth muthe. 

pe al I a femble fweyed to-geder, 

Bitwene a flofche I fat fryth, & a foo cragge ; 1430 

In a knot, bi a clyffe, at f e kerre fyde, 

1 crowed ? 



pP as fe rogh rocher vn-rydely watj fallen, 

pay ferden to fe fyndyg, & freke^ hem aft 9 ; 

pay vmbe-keften fe knarre & fe knot bof e, 

Wy$e3, whyl fay wyften wel wyt ine he hit were, 

pe beft fat fer breued wat3 wyth fe blod-houde3. 

pene fay beten on fe buflog, & bede hy vp ryfe, 

& he vnfoudyly out fo3t, fegge3 ou 9 fwert, 

On fe fellokeft fwyn fwenged out fere, 

Long fythen for fe fouder fat wi3t for olde, i 

For he wat3 b . . . & bor alfer gratteft, 

1 ere quen he gronyed, f ene greued mony, 

For t f e fyrft fraft he f ry3t to f e erf e, 

& fped . . . forth good fped, boute fpyt more, 
And fay halowed hygfe ful hy3e, & hay ! hay ! cryed, 1445 

[ b .] Haden horne3 to moufe heterly rechated ; 

Mony wat3 f e myry mouthe of men & of houde3, nuelle 

pat bufkke3 aft 9 f is bor, w l boft & wyth noyfe, 

Ful oft he byde3 fe baye, 1450 

& mayme3 f e mute in melle, 

He hurte3 of fe houde3, & fay 

Ful 3omerly 3aule & 3elle. 


Schalke3 to fchote at hy fchowen to f ene, 

Haled to hym of her arewe3, hitten hym oft ; i4 

Bot fe poyte3 payred at fe pyth f* py3t I his fchelde3, 

& fe barbe3 of his browe bite non wolde, 

pa3 fe fchauen fchaft fchyndered I pece3, 

pe hede hypped a3ayn, were fo eu 9 hit hitte ; 

1 The MS. is here in several lines illegible. 


Bot quen f e dyntq hy dered of her dry$e arwe^, i4eo 

pen brayn-wod for bate on burne} he rafe}, 

Hurtej hem ful heterly fer he forth hy^e^, 

& mony ar$ed f erat, & on lyte dro^en. 

Bot f e lorde on a ly$t horce lauces hym aft 9 , 

As burne bolde vpon bent his bugle he bio we}, 1465 

He rechated, & r . . . l f ur3 roue^ ful f yk, 

Suande fis wylde fwyn, til f e fune fchafted. 

pis day wyth fis ilk dede fay dryuen on fis wyfe, 

Whyle oure luflych lede lys I his bedde. 

n -1-1*1. - t i \ of hewe ' 

Gawayn, gypely at home, i gere3 ful ryche. 

pe lady no3t formate, 

Com to hy to falue, 

Ful erly ho watj hy ate, 

His mode forto remwe. 1475 


Ho comes to J?e cortyn, & at ]> e kny^t totes, 
& Wawen her welcued worj?y on fyrft, 
& ho hy 3elde3 a3ayn, ful 3erne of hir worde3, 
Sette3 hir fofly by his fyde, & fwyfely ho Ia3e3, 
& wyth a luflych loke ho fayde hy fefe worde3 : \m 

" f, 3if 36 be Wawen, wonder me J?ynkke3, 
Wy3e fat is fo wel wraft alway to god, 
& conne3 not of compaynye ]> e cofte3 vnder-take, 
[foi. in.] 1 & if mon kenes yow horn to knowe, 36 keft horn of yo* myde ; 

p u hat3 for-3eten 3ederly fat 3ift 9 day I ta3tte i486 

Bi alder trueft token of talk fat I cowf e." 

" What is fat ? " q f e wygfe, " I wyffe I wot neu 9 , 

1 rydes ? rode ? 


If hit be fothe fat $e breue, fe blame is my a wen." 

11 jet I kende yow of kyflyg," q f e clere f ene, 

11 Quere fo coutenauce is coufe, quikly to clayme, i4w 

pat bicues vche a kny3t, fat cortayfy vfes." 

" Do way," q fat derf mon, " mydere, fat fpeche, 

For fat durft I not do, left I denayed were, 

If I were werned, I were wrang I wyffe, }if I pferod." 

" Ma fay," <j }>e mere wyf, " }e may not be werned, u 

$e ar flif I nogh to conftrayne wyth ftrenkf e, $if yow Iyke3, 

$if any were fo vilano 9 fat yow denaye ' wolde." 

" Je, be god," q Gawayn, " good is yo* fpeche, 

Bot frete is vn-fryuande I ]> ede f 9 I lende, 

& vche gift fat is gyuen not w l goud wylle ; i5,K 

I am at ycf comaundemet, to kyfle quen yow lyke;, 

II in fD3.C6 " 

je may lach quen yow lyft, & leue quen yow fynkke}, 

pe lady Ioute3 a-dou, 

& comlyly kyffes his face, VM 

Much fpeche fay f? expou, 

Of druryes greme & g a ce. 


" I woled wyt at yow, wyje," fat worfy fer fayde, 

" & yow wrathed not fer wyth, what were fe fkylle, 

pat fo ^ong & fo }epe, as je at f is tyme, 1MO 

So cortayfe, fo kny^tyly, as je ar knowen oute, 

& of alle cheualry to chofe, f e chef f yg a-lofed, 

Is* fe lellayk of luf, fe lettmre of armes ; 

For to telle of f is tenelyg of f is trwe kny^te^, 

Hit is fe tytelet, token, & tyxt of her werkke$, 


1 de vaye, MS. In ? 


How le . . . ! for her lele luf hor Iyue3 han autered, 
Endured for her drury dulful ftoude^, 
& aft 9 wenged w* her walo", & voyded her care, 
& bro^t blyffe I to boure, w 4 boutees hor awen. 
& 36 ar kny3t comlokeft kyd of yo elde, 1520 

[foLinvi Yd* worde & yd" worchip walke^ ay quere, 
& I haf feten by yd 1 felf here fere twyes, 
3et herde I neu 9 of yd" hed helde no worde} 
pat eu? longed to luf, laffe ne more ; 

& 36, fat ar fo cortays, & coyt of yo" hetes, 1535 

Ogfe to a 3onke f yk 3ern to fchewe, 
& teche fu tokene3 of trweluf craftes. 

Why ar 36 lewed, fat alle be los welde3, 

r%x n j-n j i , t, i o forfchame! 

Op^elles 36 demen me to dille, yo dalyaucetoherken? 

I com hider fengel, & fitte, 
To lerne at yow fu game, 
Dos teche3 me of yo" wytte, 
Whil my lorde is fro name." 


" In goud fayfe," q Gawayn, " god yow for-3elde, 1535 

Gret is }?e gode gle, & gomen to me huge, 

pat fo worj?y as 36 wolde wyne hidere, 

& pyne yow w* fo pou 9 a mon, as play wyth yd 1 kny3t, 

With any fkyne3 coutenauce, hit keu 9 e3 me efe ; 

Bot to take J?e tornayle to my felf, to trwluf typou, 15.10 

& towche J?e temes of tyxt, & tale3 of arme3, 

To yow, fat I wot, wel werde3 more fly3t 

Of fat art, bi f e half, or a hudreth of feche 

1 ledes ? 


As I am, of eu 9 fchal, I erde fer I leue, 

Hit were a fole fele folde, my fre, by my trawfe. IMS 

I wolde yowre wylnyg worche at my my^t, 

As I am hy3ly bihalden, & eu 9 more wylle 

Be feruaut to yo" feluen, fo faue me dry3tyn ! " 

p 9 hy frayned fat fre, & fondet hy ofte, 

Forto haf wonen hy to woje, what fo fcho f 031 elle}, 1550 

Hot he defended hy fo fayr, fat no faut femed, (| ^ ffg _ 

Ne non euel on naw)? halue, nawj? fay wyften, 

pay lajed & layked longe, 

At fe laft fcho con hy kyffe, 1555 

Hir leue fayre con fcho fonge, 

& went hir waye I wyffe. 


Then rufes hy fe renk, & ryfes to fe mafle, 
[foi. 112.] & fifen hor din 9 wat3 dy3t, & derely ferued. 

pe lede w l Je Iadye3 layked alle day, iseo 

Bot J?e lorde ou 9 f e Ionde3 lauced ful ofte, 

Swe3 his vncely fwyn, fat fwyge3 hi fe bonkke3, 

& bote f e beft of his brache3 f e bakke3 I fuder ; 

per he bode i his bay, tel 1 bawe men hit breken, 

& maden 8 hym, maw-gref his hed, forto mwe vtt 9 , 1865 

So felle flone3 f er flete, when f e folk gedered ; 

Bot 3et fe ftyffeft to ftart bi ftoude3 he made, 

Til at fe laft he wat3 fo mat, he my3t no more rene, 

Bot i fe haft fat he my3t, he to a hole wyne3, 

Of a raffe, bi a rokk, f rene3 f e borne ; 1570 

He gete fe bonk at his bak, bigye3 to fcrape, 

1 tU? * madee, MS. 


pe frof e femed ' at his mouth, vnfayre bi f e wyke}, 
Whette3 his whyte tufche3 ; w* hy fe irked 

Alle be burne3 fo bolde, bat hy by ftoden, 

, p ,. f , \. , || forwobe; 

lo nye hy on lerum, bot ne3e hy non durlt, 

He hade hurt fo mony byforne, 

pat al f O3t f ene ful lof e, 

Be more wyth his tufche; tome, 

pat breme wat3 bray-wod both. isso 


-o .'v~ c I i*' 'V.~' : '*' rcrJ ^tJ.'iS'J .'.' [ 

Til J?e kny3t com hy felf, kachande his blonk, 
Sy3 hy byde at \ e bay, his burne3 byfyde, 
He Iy3tf luflych adou, Ieue3 his corfo 1 , 
Brayde3 out a bry3t bront, & bigly forth ftryde3, 
Foude3 faft fur3 fe forth, fer J?e felle bydej. ISM 

pe wylde wat3 war of J?e wy3e w* weppen i honde, 
Hef hy3ly J?e here, fo hett 9 ly he fnaft, 
pat fele ferde for J>e freke3 *, left felle hy J?e worre ; 
pe fwyn fette3 hy out on J?e fegge euen, 

pat fe burne & fe bor were bofe vpon hepe3, im 

In ]?e wy3creft 3 of ]?e wat 9 , fe worre had fat of 9 ; 
For f e mon merkke3 hy wel, as fay mette fyrft, 
Set fadly fe fcharp I fe flot euen, 
Hit hy vp to f e hult, fat f e hert fchyndered, 
& he 3arrande hy 3elde, & 3edou 4 f e wat 9 , 
[&1.H2X] A hudreth houde3 hy hent, 
pat bremely con hy bite, 
Burne3 hi bro3t to bent, 
& dogge3 to dethe endite. ww 

1 fomed ? 2 freke ? 3 7%zs worrf is doubtful in the MS. * }ede doun ? 

i 2 



There wat3 blawyg of prys I mony breme home, 

Heje halowig on hi3e, w l ha)?ele3 fat my^t ; 

Brachetes bayed j?at beft, as bidden >e mayft 9 e3, 

Of )>at chargeaut chace J?at were chef hutes. 

pene a wyje j>at wat3 wys vpon wod-crafte3, IMS 

To vnlace fis bor lufly bigyne3 ; 

Fyrft he hewes of his hed, & on hi3e fette3, 

& fyj>en rende3 him al rogft bi J>e rygge after, 

Brayde3 out j>e boweles, brene3 ho on glede, 

With bred blent J>er w* his braches rewardej ; wio 

Sy)>en he britne3 out J?e brawen, I bry3t brode chelde3, 

& hat3 out fe haftlette3, as hi3tly bifeme3 ; 

& 3et hem halche3 al hole j?e halue3 to-geder, 

& fyfen on a ftif ftange ftoutly hem henges. 

Now with )?is ilk fwyn J>ay fwengen to home ; wis 

pe bores hed wat3 borne bifore te bumes feluen, r - 

|| fo ftronge 
pat hi for-ferde I \ e forfe, J?ur3 forfe of his honde, 

Til he fey f Gawayne, 

I halle hy J?o3t ful longe, izo 

He calde, & he com gayn, 

His fee3 fi for to fonge. 


pe lorde ful lowde w* lote, & Ia3ed myry, 

Whe he fe3e f G : w* folace he fpere3 ; 

pe goude Iadye3 were geten, & gedered J?e meyny, is 

He fchewe3 hem J>e fchelde3, & fchapes hem )>e tale, 


Of f e largeffe, & f e lenf e, f e hy 9 ne3 l alfe, 
Of f e were of f e wylde fvvyn, I wod f er he fled, 
pat of 9 kny3t ful comly com ended his dede3, 
& pray fed hit as gret prys, fat he proued hade ; leao 

For fuche a brawne of a beft, f e bolde burne fayde, 
Ne fuch fydes of a fwyn, fegh he neu 9 are. 
pene hondeled fay fe hoge lied, f e hende mo hit prayfed, 
[foi.iia.] & let lodly ferat fe lorde forto here ; 

" Now Gawayn," 3 fe god mon, " fis gomen is yd 1 awen, i.% 

Bi fyn forwarde & fafte, faythely 36 knowe." 

" Hit is fothe," q }?e fegge, " & as fiker trwe ; 

Alle my get I fchal yow gif agayn, bi my trawj^e." 

He 3 fe hafel aboute ]?e halfe, & hendely hy kyffes, 

& eft 9 fones of J?e fame he ferued hy fere. 1540 

" Now ar we euen," ^ J?e hafel, " I fis euen-tide, . . . ,, 

Of alle f e couenautes Jat we knyt, fyfen I com hider, 

pe lorde fayde, "bi faynt Gile, 

3e ar fe beft fat I knowe, IMB 

^e ben ryche I a whyle, 

Such chaffer & 36 drowe." 


pene fay teldet table3, treftes* alofte, 

Keften clofe3 vpon clere Iy3t fene, 

Wakned bi wo3e3 waxen torches, leso 

Segge3 fette, 8z ferued I fale al aboute ; 

Much glam & gle glent vp f 9 me, 

Aboute f e fyre vpon flet, & on fele wyfe, 

At f e foper & aft 9 , mony afel fonge3, 

1 hynej ? 2 A word is here deficient, perhaps hent or hafped. Cf . 1. 1 3 88. 3 on treftes ? 


As coudutes of kryft-mafle, & carole3 newe, i 

With alle ]>e man 9 ly m?f e f * mon may of telle. 

& eu 9 cure luflych kny3t f e lady bi-fyde ; 

Such femblaut to fat fegge femly ho made, 

Wyth ftille ftollen coutenauce, fat ftal worth to plefe, 

pat al for-wondered wat3 fe wy^e, & wroth w* hy feluen, \w 

Bot he nolde not for his nurture mime hir a-3ayne3, 

Bot dalt w* hir al I daynte, how fe eu 9 f e dede turned, 

Quen fay hade played I halle, 

As lange as hor wylle horn laft, i* 

To chambre he con hy calle, 

& to fe chemne fay paft. 


Ande fer fay dronken, & dalten, & demed eft nwe, 
To norne on f e fame note, on nwe3ere3 euen ; 
Hot fe kny3t craued leue to kayre on fe morn, wo 

For hit wat3 ne3 at fe terme, fat he to fchulde. 
Lfol.ii3>>.] p e lorde hy letted of J>at, to lenge hy refteyed, 

& fayde, " as I am trwe fegge, I fwer my trawfe, 

p u fchal cheue to J?e grene chapel, ]?y charres to make, 

Leude, on nw3ere3 Iy3t, longe bifore pryme ; ie?5 

For )?y }?ow lye I J?y loft, & lach fyn efe, 

& I fchal hut in J?is holt, & halde J?e towche3, 

Chauge wyth J?e cheuifauce, bi fat I charre hider ; 

For I haf frayfted J?e twys, & faythful I fynde fe, 

Now f rid tyme f rowe beft f enk on fe morne, i6w 

Make we mery quyl we may, & myne vpon joye, 

For fe lur may mon lach, when fo mon Iyke3." 

pis wat3 grayfely grauted, & Gawayn is lenged, t . 

Blif e bn>3t wat3 hym drynk, & fay to bedde 3eden, 


:' ' ,t 


f G: lis & flepes, 

Ful ftille & fofte al ni^t ; 

pe lorde fat his craftes kepes, 

Ful erly he wat} di3t. 


Aft 9 meffe a morfel he & his men token, i fi9 o 

Miry wat3 f e mornyg, his mouture he afkes ; 
Alle f e hafeles fat on horfe fchulde helden hy aft 9 , 
Were bou bufked on hor blonkke3, bi-fore * f e halle 3ate3 ; 
Ferly fayre wat3 fe folde, for fe forft clenged, 
I rede rudede vpon rak rifes \ e fune, 1695 

& ful clere cofte} \ e clowdes of ]?e welkyn. 
Huteres vnhardeled bi a holt fyde, 
Rocheres rougen bi rys, for rurde of her homes ; 
Sume fel I fe fute, ]?er J?e fox bade, 

Trayle} ofte a trayt 9 es, bi traut of her wyles ; i-oo 

A kenet kryes ferof, J? e hut on hy calles, 
His fela^es fallen hy to, y fnafted ful J?ike, 
Runen forth I a rabel, i his ry^t fare ; 
& he fyfke} hem by-fore, J?ay fouden hy fone, 
& quen fay fegfi hy w l fy$t, fay fued hy faft, 1705 

Wre3ande hy ful weterly with a wroth noyfe ; 
& he trantes & tornayee} furj mony tene greue, 
Hamloue3, & herkene3, bi hegge3 ful ofte ; 
[foi. H4.] At fe laft bi a littel dich he Iepe3 ou 9 a fpene, 

Stele3 out ful ftilly, bi a ftrothe raude, 1710 

Went haf wylt of f e wode, w* wyle3 fro f e houdes. 
pene wat3 he went, er he wyft, to 2 a wale tryft 9 , 
per f re fro at a frich frat hy at ones, 

1 bi-forere, MS. 2 to to, MS. 


He blenched a3ayn bilyue, 
& ftifly ftart on ftray, 
With alle fe wo on lyue, 
To fe wod he went away. 


Thene wat3 hit lif vpon lift to lyfen fe houde3, 

When alle f e mute hade hy met, menged to-geder, u 

Suche a for3e at fat fjrjt fay fette on his hede, 

As alle f e clamberande clyffes hade clat 9 ed on hepes ; 

Here he wat3 halawed, when hafele3 hy metten, 

Loude he wat3 3ayned, w l 3arande fpeche ; 

per he wat3 f reted, & ofte f ef called, 1725 

& ay f e titleres at his tayl, fat tary he ne my3t ; 

Ofte he wat3 runen at, when he out rayked, 

& ofte reled I a3ayn, fo reniarde wat3 wyle. 

& 36 he lad hem bi lagmon, f e lorde & his meyny ; 

On fis man 9 bi fe moutes, quyle myd, ou 9 , vnder, 1730 

Whyle J?e hende kny3t at home halfuly flepes, 

With me fe comly cortyes, on ]?e colde morne. 

Bot fe lady for luf let not to flepe, 

Ne fe purpofe to payre, fat py3t I hir hert, 

Bot ros hir vp radly, rayked hir feder, 1755 

In a mery mantyle, mete to fe erfe, 

pat wat3 furred ful fyne w* felle3 wel pured, 

No hwe3 goud on hir hede, hot J>e ha3er ftones 

Trafed aboute hir treffo*, be twenty I cluft 9 es ; 

Hir fryuen face & hir frote frowen al naked, iw 

Hir breft bare bifore, & bihinde eke. 

Ho come3 w l me fe chambre dore, & clofes hit hir aft 9 , 


Wayne3 vp a wyndow, & on fe wy^e callej, t , 

& radly > 9 rehayted hy, w ' hir riche wordes, 
" A ! mon, how may f u flepe, 
[foi.U4i.] pis mornig is fo clere ? " 
He wat3 I drowpig depe, 
Bot fene he con hir here. 


In dre3 droupyg of dreme draueled fat noble, 1750 

As mon fat wat3 in mornyg of mony fro f O3tes, 

How fat deftine fchulde fat day his wyrde, 

At fe grene chapel, when he fe gome metes, 

& bi-houes his buffet abide, with oute debate more ; 

Bot quen }?at comly he keu 9 ed his wyttes, 1755 

Swenges out of J?e fweuenes, & fware3 w 4 haft. 

pe lady luflych cum Ia3ande fwete, 

Felle ou 9 his fayre face, & fetly hy kyffed ; 

He welcue3 hir worfily, with a wale chere ; 

He fe3 hir fo glorio 9 , & gayly atyred, i?o 

So fautles of hir fetures, & of fo fyne hewes, 

Wi3t wallande joye warmed his hert ; 

W l fmoj?e fmylyg & fmolt Jay fmeten I to m v fe, 

pat al wat3 blis & bonchef, fat breke hem bi-twene, 

pay lanced wordes gode, 

Much wele f e wat3 f 9 me, 

Gret pile bi-twene hem ftod, 

Nif mare of hir kny3t myne. 

1 bi, cl sec. manu. 




For fat prynce of pris deprefed hy fo fikke, 1770 

Nurned hy fo ne3e fe fred, fat nede hy bi-houed, 
OJr> lach f er hir luf, oj? lodly refufe ; 
He cared for his cortayfye, left craf ayn he were, 
& more for his mefchef, 3if he fchulde make fyne, 
& be traytor to fat tolke, fat f * telde a3t. 1775 

" God fchylde," <j fe fchalk, " fat fchal not be-faUe ! " 
W 1 Iuf-la3) r g a lyt, he layd hy by fyde 
Alle f e fpeche3 of fpecialte fat fprange of her mouthe. 
fat burde to fe burne, " blame 30 differue, 
}if 36 luf not fat lyf fat 36 lye nexte, 1790 

Bifore alle fe wy3es I f e worlde, wouded I hert, 
Bot if 36 haf a leman, a leu 9 , fat yow Iyke3 bett 9 , 
& folden fayth to fat fre, feftned fo harde, 
[foi. us.] pat yow laufen ne lyft, & fat I leue noufe ; 

And fat 36 telle me fat, now trwly I pray yow, f ., 

For alle fe Iufe3 vpon lyue, layne not fe fofe, 

pe kny3t fayde, " be fayn Jon," 

& fmefely con he fmyle, 

" In fayth I welde ri3t non, 1:90 

Ne non wil welde fe quile." 


" pat is a worde," q fat wy3t, " fat worft is of alle, 

Bot I am fwared for fofe, fat fore me f inkke3 ; 

Kyffe me now comly, & I fchal each hef en, 

I may hot md*ne vpon molde, as may fat much louyes." i/s 

Sykande ho fwe3e dou, & femly hy kyffed, 


& fifen ho feu 9 es hy fro, & fays as ho ftondes, 

" Now, dere, at J?is departyg, do me )>is efe, 

Gif me fumquat of fy gifte, ]?i gloue of 1 hit were, 

pat I may myne on }>e mon, my mdnyg to laffen." isoo 

" Now I wyffe," q. fat wy3e, " I wolde I hade here 

pe leueft fig for f y luf, fat I in londe welde, 

For 56 haf deferued, forfof e, fellyly ofte 

More rewarde hi refou, f e I reche my^t, 

Bot to dele yow for drurye, f* dawed hot neked ; isos 

Hit is not yo" hono" to haf at f is tyme 

A gloue for a garyfou, of Gawayne3 gifte^, 

& I am here an erande I erde3 vncoufe, 

& haue no me wyth no male3, w l menfkful fige3 ; 

bat miflyke} me, lade, for luf at Hs tyme a , 

ne pine. 
Iche tolke mon do as he is tan, tas to non elle, 

" Nay, hende of hy3e honors," 

g, J?at luffu vnder lyne, 

" pa3 I hade O3t of yoej, isis 

3et fchulde 36 haue of myne." 


Ho ra3t hy a riche rynk of red golde werke3, 
Wyth a ftarande fton, ftondande alofte, 
pat here bluffchande beme3 as J? e bry3t fune ; 
Wyt 36 wel, hit wat3 worth wele ful hoge. 1320 

Bot \ e renk hit renayed, & redyly he fayde, 
[foi.ii5*.] " I wil no gifte3 for gode, my gay, at J?is tyme ; 
I haf none yow to norne, ne no3t wyl I take." 
Ho bede hit hy ful byfily, & he hir bode wernes, 

1 if? s tyne, MS. 

K 2 


& fwere fwyftely l his fothe, fat he hit fefe nolde ; IBK 

& ho fore fat he forfoke, & fayde f 9 after, 
11 If je renay my rynk, to ryche for hit feme}, 
$e wolde not fo hy3ty halden be to me, 

I fchal gif yow my girdel, fat gaynes yow lafle." 

Ho Ia3t a lace Iy3tly, fat leke vmbe hir fyde, isso 

Knit vpon hir kyrtel, vnder fe clere mantyle, 

Gered hit wat} w* grene fylke, & w* golde fchaped, 

No3t hot aroude brayden, beten w l fyngre} ; 

& fat ho bede to fe burae, & blyfely bi-fo^t 

pa3 hit vn-worf i were, fat he hit take wolde. i& 

& he nay fat he nolde negfi I no wyfe, 

Naufer golde ne garyfou, er god hy gce fende, 

To acheue to fe chauce fat he hade chofen fere. 

II & ferfore, I pray yow, difplefe yow no3t, to fe 
& Iette3 be yd" bifmeffe, for I bayf e hit yow neu 9 , 

I am derely to yow biholde, 

Bi caufe of yo* fembelaut, 

& eu? I hot & colde 

To be yo* trwe feruaut," iw* 


" Now forfake 30 fis filke," fayde fe burde fene, 

" For hit is fymple I hit felf, & fo hit wel feme}, 

Lo ! fo hit is littel, & lafle hit is worf y ; 

Bot who fo knew fe coftes fat knit ar fer me, 

He wolde hit prayfe at more prys, parauenture ; w 

For quat gome fo is gorde w l fis grene lace, 

While he hit hade hemely halched aboute, 

1 fwyftel, MS. 


per is no haf el vnder heuen to-hewe hy fat my3t ; 
For he my3t not be flayn, for fli3t vpon erfe." 
pe keft fe kny3t, & hit come to his hert, isss 

Hit were a juel for f e joparde, fat hy iugged were, 
When he acheued to f e chapel, his chek forto fech ; 
My3 l he haf Hypped to be vn-flayn, f e fle3t were noble. 
[foi. lie.] pene he fulged with hir frepe, & foled hir to fpeke, 

& ho here on hy fe belt, & bede hit hy fwyfe, mo 

& he g"nted, & hy gafe with a goud wylle, 

& bi-fo3t hym, for hir fake, difceu 9 hit neu 9 , 

Bot to lelly layne, for hir lorde ; fe leude hy acorde3, 

pat neu 9 wy3e fchulde hit wyt, I wyffe, bot fay twayne, 

He f onkked hir oft ful fwyfe, 

Ful fro w* hert & 

Bi fat on f ryne 

Ho hat3 kyft f e kny3t fo to3t. 


Thene Iachche3 ho hir leue, & Ieue3 h} r fere, 

For more myrf e of fat mon mo3t ho not gete ; 

When ho 2 wat3 gon, f G. gere3 hy fone, 

Rifes, & riches hy I araye noble, 

Lays vp fe luf-lace, fe lady hy ra3t, 

Hid hit ful holdely, J? he hit eft fonde ; 

Syfe cheuely to fe chapel chofes he fe waye, 

Preuely aproched to a preft, & prayed hy fere 

pat he wolde lyfte 3 his lyf, & lern hy bett 9 , 

How his fawle fchulde be faued, when he fchuld feye hefe. 

pere he fchrof hy fchyrly, & fchewed his myfdede3, 

1 myjt? 2 he, MS. 3 lyfte ? 


Of fe more & fe myne, & m 9 ci befechej, 

& of abfoluciou he on fe fegge calles ; 

& he afoyled hy furely, & fette hy fo clene, 

As dome^-day fchulde haf ben di3t on fe morn. 

& fyfen he mace hy as mery amog f e fre ladyes, IBM 

W l comlych caroles, & alle k\Ties ioye, 

w blys 
As neu 9 he did bot fat daye, to f e derk ny3t, 

Vche mon hade daynte fare, 

Of hy, & fayde I wyffe, isw 

p 5 myry he wat} neu 9 are, 

Syn he com hider, er fis. 


Now hy lenge I fat lee, J? luf hy bi-tyde ; 
}et is J?e lorde on J?e laude, ledande his gomnes, 
He hat3 forfaren f>is fox, J? 1 he fo^ed longe ; iaw> 

As he fprent ou 9 a fpene, to fpye J?e fchrewe, 
[fol.H6 b .] per as he herd J?e howndes, fat hafted hy fwyfe, 
Renaud com richchande 1113 a 1036 greue, 
& alle fe rabel I a res, ry3t at his hele3. 

pe wy3e wat3 war of f e wylde, & warly abides, 1900 

& brayde3 out fe bryjt bronde, & at f e beft cafte3 ; 
& he fchut for fe fcharp, & fchulde haf arered, 
A rach rapes hy to, ry3t er he my3t, 
& ry3t bifore fe hors fete fay fel on hy alle, 

& woried me fis wyly wyth a wroth noyfe. 1905 

pe lorde Iy3te3 bi-lyue, & cache3 by ' fone, 
Rafed hy ful radly out of f e rach mouf es, 
Halde? he3e ou 9 his hede, halowe3 fafte, 

1 hy? 


& f 9 bayen hy mony bray houde3 ; 

Hutes hy^en hem f eder, w* home} ful mony, 1910 

Ay rechatande ary^t, til fay f e renk fe^en ; 

Bi fat wat3 comen his compeyny noble, 

Alle fat eu 9 ber bugle bio wed at ones, 

& alle fife of 9 halowed, fat hade no homes, 

Hit wat3 f e myrieft mute fat eu 9 me herde, 

pe rich rurd fat f 9 wat3 rayfed for renaude faule, 

Hor houde3 fay f 9 rewarde, 

Her * hede3 f a y fawne & frote, 

& fyf en fay tan reynarde, 1920 

& turnen of his cote. 


& f ene fay helden to home, for hit wat3 nie} ny}t, 
Strakande ful ftoutly I hor ftore home} ; 
pe lorde is Iy3t at f e lafte at hys lef home, 

Fynde3 fire vpon flet, f e freke f? by-fide, iy.>5 

Sir Gawayn f e gode, fat glad wat3 w* alle, 
Amog f e ladies for luf he ladde much ioye. 
He were a bleaut of blwe, fat bradde to f e erf e, 
His furkot femed hy wel, fat fofte wat3 forred, 
& his hode of fat ilke henged on his fchulder, 1930 

Blande al of blauner were bof e al aboute. 
He mete3 me fis god man I mydde3 fe flore, 
& al with gomen he hy gret, & goudly he fayde, 
" I fchal fylle vpon fyrft oure forwarde3 noufe, 

[foi. 117.] pat we fpedly han fpoken, fer fpared wat3 no drynk ; " 1935 

pen acoles he [f e] kny3t, & kyffes hy fryes, 

1 her her, MS. 


As fauerly & fadly as he hem fette cou}>e. 

" Bi kryft," q fat oj? knyjt, " 36 each much fele, 

I cheuifauce of fis chaffer, jif 30 hade goud chepe}." 

" $e of fe chepe no charg," <j chefiy fat o)?, 1940 

"As is pertly payed fe chepe3 fat I a3te." 

" Mary," q fat of 9 mon, " myn is bi-hynde, 

For I haf huted al fis day, & 003! haf I geten, 

Bot fis foule fox felle, f e fende haf f e gode3, 

& fat is ful pore, for to pay for fuche prys figes, 

As 36 haf f ry3t me here, fro fuche f re coffes, 

" Ino3," (j f Gawayn, 

" I fonk yow, bi f e rode ; " 

& how fe fox wat3 flayn, io 

He tolde hy, as fay ftode. 


With m 9 fe & mynftralfye, wyth mete3 at hor wylle, 

pay maden as mery as any me mo3ten, 

W l Ia3yg of ladies, w* Iote3 of borde3 ; 

Gawayn & f e gode mo fo glad were fay bof e, iw 

Bot if f e douthe had doted, o)? dronken ben ojr', 

Bofe fe mon & fe meyny maden mony iape3, 

Til fe fefou wat3 fe3en, fat fay feu 9 mofte ; 

Burne3 to hor bedde be-houed at f e lafte. 

pene Io3ly his leue at f e lorde fyrft iie 

Fechche3 fis fre mon, & fayre he hy fonkke3, 

" Of fuch a fellyly ! foiorne, as I haf hade here, 

Yo* hono", at fis hy3e feft, f e hy3e kyg yow 3elde ! 

1 3ef yow me for on of yo"e3, if yowre felf Iyke3, 



For I mot nedes, as 30 wot, meue to morne ; i* 

& ;e me take fu tolke, to teche, as 30 hy^t, 
pe gate to f e grene chapel, as god wyl me fuffer 
To dele, on nw^ere^ day, fe dome of my wyrdes." 
" In god fayfe," a, fe god mon, " wyth a goud wylle ; 
Al fat eu 9 I yow hy^t, halde fchal I rede." 1970 

per afygnes he a feruaut, to fett hy I f e waye, 
[fol.ii7 b .] & coudue hy by fe downe^, fat he no drechch had, 
For to ferk ' f ur3 f e fryth, & fare at f e gayneft, 
pe lorde Gawayn con f onk, ww 

Such worchip he wolde hy weue ; 
pe at fo Iadye3 wlonk, 
pe kny3t hat3 tan his leue. 


With care & wyth kyffyg he carppe$ hem tille, 

& fele Jryuande ]?onkke3 he frat horn to haue, \m 

& fay 3elden hy a3ayn 2 3eply fat ilk ; 

pay bikende hy to kryft, w* ful colde fykyge3- 

Syfen fro J?e meyny he menfkly departes ; 

Vche mon fat he mette, he made hem a f onke, 

For his feruyfe, & his folace, & his fere pyne, i9ss 

pat fay wyth bufynes had ben, aboute hy to ferue ; 

& vche fegge as fore, to feu 9 w* hy fere, 

As fay hade wonde worfyly w* fat wlonk eu 9 . 

pe w* ledes & Iy3t he wat3 ladde to his chambre, 

& blyf ely bro3t to his bedde, to be at his reft ; 1990 

3if he ne flepe foudyly, fay ne dar I, . , 

For he hade muche on f e morn to myne, 3if he wolde, 

' frk, MS. * ajay, MS. 


Let hy Iy3e j>ere ftille, 

He hat3 nere fat he fo3t, 19W 

& 36 wyl a whyle be ftylle, 

I fchal telle yow how fay wro^t. 




ow 116363 fe nw3ere, & fe ny3t paffe3, 
pe day dryue3 to fe derk, as dry3tyn bidde3 ; 
Bot wylde wedere3 of f e worlde wakned f eroute, 2000 

Clowdes keften kenly fe colde to fe erfe, 
\Vyth ny3e in nogfc of f e norf e, f e naked to tene ; 
pe fnawe fnitered ful fnart, fat fnayped f e wylde ; 
pe werbelande wynde wapped fro J?e hy3e, 
& drof vche dale nil of dryftes ful grete. 
pe leude lyftened ful wel, fat Ie3 1 his bedde, 
pa3 he Iowke3 his Iidde3, ful lyttel he flepes ; 
Bi vch kok fat crue, he knwe wel fe fteuen *. 
[foi. us.] Deliu 9 ly he drefled vp, er fe day fprenged, 

For fere wat3 Iy3t of a laupe", fat lemed I his chambre ; 2010 

He called to his chamberlayn, fat cofly hy fwared, 

& bede hy bryg hy his bruny, & his blonk fadel ; 

pat o)^ ferke3 hy vp, & feche3 hy his wede3, 

& grayf 63 me f Gawayn vpon a grett wyfe. 

Fyrft he clad hy I his clofe3, f e colde forto were ; 2015 

' This word is doubtful in the MS. 8 laumpe ? 


& fyf en his oj? harnays, fat holdely wat} keped, 
Bofe his pauce, & his plate}, piked ful clene, 
pe ryge} rokked of f e rouft, of his riche. bruny ; 
& al wat} frefch as vpon fyrst, & he wat} fayn f ene, 
He hade vpon vche pece, 
Wypped ful wel & wlonk ; 
pe gay eft I to Grece, 
pe burne bede bryg his blonk. 


Whyle f e wlonkeft wedes he warp on hy feluen ; 2025 

His cote, wyth f e conyfauce of f e clere werke}, 

Ennurned vpon veluet v 9 tuu 9 ftone}, 

Aboute beten, & boiiden, enbrauded feme}, 

& fay re furred w* me wyth fay re pelures. 

3et laft he not ]?e lace, J?e ladie} gifte, 2030 

pat for-gat not Gawayn, for gode of hy feluen ; 

Bi he hade belted J>e bronde vpon his balje hauche}, 

pen dreffed he his drurye double hy aboute ; 

Swyfe fwe]?led vmbe his fwange fwetely, fat kny^t, 

pe gordel of Je grene filke, ]?at gay wel bi-femed, 20.% 

Vpon J>at ryol red clo)?e, J?at ryche wat$ to fchewe. 

Bot wered not J?is ilk wy}e for wele J>is gordel, 

For pryde of ]?e pendaute}, fa} polyft J?ay were, 

& fa} fe glyt 9 ande golde glent vpon ende}, 

Bot forto faue hy felf, when fuffer hy by-houed, ^ 

To byde bale w* oute dabate, of bronde hy to were, 

Bi fat f e bolde mon bou, 

Wyne} feroute bilyue, 

Alle f e meyny of renou, 204^ 

He fonkke} ofte ful ryue. 

L 2 



[foJ.H8>.] Thene wat3 Gryngolet grayfe, fat gret wat3 & huge, 
& hade ben foicTned fau 9 ly, & I a fiker wyfe, 
Hy lyft prik for poyt, fat proude hors f ene ; 
pe wy3e wyne3 hy to, & wyte3 on his lyre, 2050 

& fayde foberly hy felf, & by his foth fwere3, 
" Here is a meyny I fis mote, fat on menfke fenkke3, 
pe mon hem mayntemes, ioy mot fay haue ; 
pe leue lady, on lyue luf her bityde ; 

$if fay for charyte cheryfen a geft, 2ow 

& halden hono" I her honde, fe hafel he 3elde, 
pat halde3 fe heuen vpon hy3e, & al fo yow alle ! 
& 3if I my3t lyf vpon londe lede any quyle, 
I fchuld rech yow fu rewarde redyly, if I my3t." 
pen fteppe3 he I to ftirop, & ftryde3 alofte ; 2000 

His fchalk fchewed hy his fchelde, on fchulder he hit Ia3t, 
Gorde3 to Gryngolet, w' his gilt helef, ^ cg 

& he ftarte3 on fe fton, ftod he no lenger, 

His hafel on hors wat3 fene, 20*55 

pat here his fpere & lauce, 
" pis kaftel to kryft I kene, 
He gef hit ay god chauce !" 


The brygge wat3 brayde dou, & fe brode 3ate3 

Vn-barred, & born open, vpon bofe halue ; 2070 

pe burne bleffed hy bilyue, & fe brede3 paffed ; 

Prayfes fe porter, bifore fe prynce kneled, 

Gef hym god & goud day, fat Gawayn he faue ; 


& went on his way, w l his wy3e one, 

pat fchulde teche hy to tone to fat tene place, 2075 

per f e ruful race he fchulde refayue. 
pay bo^en bi bonkke3, f 9 bo^ ar bare, 
pay clomben bi clyffe}, fer clenge^ fe colde ; 
pe heuen wat3 vp halt, bot vgly fer vnder, 

Mift muged on fe mor, malt on f e moute3, mo 

Vch hille had a hatte, a myft-hakel huge ; 
Broke} by led, & breke, bi bonkke$ aboute, 
Schyre fchat'ande on fchore}, f 9 fay dou fchowned. 
[foi. 119.] Welawylle wat} fe way, fer fay bi wod fchulden, 
Til hit wat} fone fefou, fat fe fune ryfes, 
pay were on a hille ful hy3e, 
pe quyte fnaw lay bifyde ; 
pe burne fat rod hy by, 
Bede his mayfter abide. sow 


" For I haf wonen yow hider, wy3e, at fis tyme, 

& now nar 36 not fer fro fat note place, 

pat 36 han fpied & fpuryed fo fpecially aft 9 ; 

Bot I fchal fay yow for fof e, fyf en I yow knowe, 

& 36 ar a lede vpon lyue, fat I wel louy, 205*5 

Wolde 36 worch bi my wytte, 30 worfed fe bett 9 . 

pe place fat 36 prece to, ful perelo 9 is halden ; 

per wone3 a wy3e I pat wafte, fe worft vpon erfe ; 

For he is ftiffe, & fturne, & to ftrike louies, 

& more he is fe any mon vpon myddelerde, 2100 

& his body bigger f e f e beft fowre, 

pat ar I Arfure3 ho 9 , heftor ', of 9 of 9 . 

1 Hector ? 


He cheue3 J>at chauce at )>e chapel grene; 

per paffes non bi J>at place, fo proude I his armes, 

pat he ne dyne3 hy to dej>e, w* dynt of his honde ; 2i 

For he is a mon methles, & mercy non vfes, 

For be hit chorle, o)^ chaplayn, j?at bi }>e chapel rydes, 

Monk, 0)? mafle-preft, o)? any mon elles, 

H) f )ynk as queme hy to quelle, as quyk go hy feluen. 

For j?y I fay }>e as fo)>e as je I fadel fitte, 2110 

Com 36 J>ere, 30 be kylled, may J>e kny^t rede, 

Trawe $e me fat trwely, )>a3 30 had twenty lyues 

He hat3 wonyd here ful 301*6, 

On bent much baret bende, ans 

A^ayn his dynte3 fore, 

je may not yow defende." 


" For Jy, goude f Gawayn, let J?e gome one, 

& got3 a-way fu o)^ gate, vpon godde3 halue, 

Cayre3 bi fu o)? kyth, ]?er kryft mot yow fpede ; 2120 

& I fchal hy3 me horn a3ayn, & hete yow fyrre, 

pat I fchal fwere bi god, & alle his gode ha^e}. 

As help me god & J?e halydam, & o)>e3 I nogfi, 

pat I fchal lelly yow layne, & lance neu 9 tale, 

pat eu 9 36 fondet to fle, for freke J?at I wyft." 2125 

" G a nt m 9 ci," q Gawayn, & gruchyg he fayde, 

" Wei worth J?e wy3e, J?at wolde3 my gode, 

& J>at lelly me layne, I leue wel J? u wolde3 ! 

Bot helde J> u hit neu 9 fo holde, & I here paffed, 

Fouded for ferde for to fle, I fd*me }>at )? u telle3, 2 i 

1 were a kny3t kowarde, I my3t not ' be excufed. 

1 mot, MS. 


Bot I wyl to f e chapel, for chauce fat may falle, 

& talk wyth bat ilk tulk f e tale fat me lyfte, 

hit harp * 
Worfe hit wele, of 9 wo, as fe wyrde Iyke3, 

pa3e he be a fturn knape, 
To fti3tel, & l ftad w* ftaue, 
Ful wel con dry3tyn fchape, 
His feruaute3 forto faue." 


" Mary !" q, fat of 9 mon, " now f u fo much fpelle}, 2140 

pat f u wylt fyn awen nye nyme to fy feluen, 

& f e lyft lefe f y lyf, f e lette I ne kepe ; 

Haf here f i helme on f y hede, f i fpere I f i honde, 

& ryde me dou fis ilk rake, bi 3on rokke iyde, 

Til f u be bn>3t to f e bof em of f e brem valay ; 2145 

pene loke a littyl on fe laude, on fi lyfte honde, 

& f u fchal fe I fat flade f e felf chapel, 

& fe borelych burne on bent, fat hit kepe3- 

Now fare3 wel on gode3 half, Gawayn fe noble, 

For alle fe golde vpon groude I nolde go wyth fe, 2150 

Ne here fe fela3fchip fur3 fis fryth on fote fyrre." 

Bi fat fe wy3e T fe wod wende3 his brydel, 

Hit fe hors w* fe hele3, as harde as he my3t, , 

Lepe3 hy ou 9 fe laude, & Ieue3 fe kny3t fere, 

" Bi godde3 felf," q, Gawayn, 

" I wyl nauf 9 grete ne grone, 

To godde3 wylle I am ful bayn, 

& to hy I haf me tone." 

i & &, MS. 



[foi. 120.] Thene gyrdej he to Gryngolet, & gedere3 J?e rake, 2ieo 

Schowuej I bi a fchore, at a fcha^e fyde, 
Ride3 1113 )>e ro}e bonk, ry3t to J?e dale ; 
& J>ene he wayted hy aboute, & wylde hit hy fojt, 
& fe3e no fygne of refette, bi-fyde3 nowhere, 
Bot hy3e bonkke3 & brent, vpon bo)>e halue, 2i 

& ruje knokled knarre3, w l knorned ftone} ; 
pe fkwe3 of J>e fcowtes fkayned hy Jjojt. 
pene he houed, & wyth-hylde his hors at Jat tyde, 
& ofte chauged his cher, ]?e chapel to feche ; 
He fe3 non fuche I no fyde, & felly hym J>o3t, 2170 

Sone a lyttel on a laude, a lawe as hit were ' ; 
A bal3 ber3, bi a bonke, J?e bryme by-fyde, 
Bi a for3 of a flode, ty ferked )>are ; 
J?e borne blubred fer me, as hit boyled hade, 
pe kny3t kache3 his caple, & com to J>e lawe, 2l7^ 

Ld3te3 dou luflyly, & at a lynde tache3 
pe rayne, & his riche, with a ro3e brauche ; 
pene he bo3C3 to ]?e ber3e, aboute hit he walke3, 
Debetande w* hy felf, quat hit be my3t. 

Hit hade a hole on J>e ende, & on ay)>er fyde, 2iso 

& ou 9 -growen w* greffe I glodes ay where, 

& al wat3 hoh I w*, no bot an old caue, 

w iDelle 
Or a creuuTe of an olde cragge, he cou]?e hit no3t deme, 

" We, lorde," q J?e gentyle kny3t, 2135 

' Whe)>er J?is be J?e grene chapelle ; 
He my3t aboute myd-ny3t, 
pe dele his matynes telle !" 

1 we, MS. 



" Now I wyffe," q, Wowayn, " wyfty is here ; 
pis oritore is vgly, w* erbe3 ou 9 growen ; 2190 

Wei bifeme3 f e wy3e wruxled I grene 
Dele here his deuociou, on f e deuele3 wyfe ; 
Now I fele hit is fe fende, I my fyue wytte3, 
pat hat3 ftoken me f is fteuen, to ftrye me here ; 
pis is a chapel of meschauce, fat chekke hit by-tyde, 2195 

Hit is fe crafedeft kyrk, fat eu 9 I com me !" 
[foi.i20b.] With he3e helme on his hede, his lauce I his honde, 
He rome3 vp to f e rokke of f o ro3 wone3 ; 
pene herde he of fat hyje hil, I a harde roche, 
Bi3onde fe broke, I a bonk, a wonder breme noyfe, 2200 

Quat hit clat 9 ed I fe clyff, as hit cleue fchulde, 
As one vpon a gryndelfton hade grouden a fyf e ; 
What hit wharred, & whette, as wat 9 at a mulne, 
What hit rufched, & ronge, rawf e to here. 

pene " bi godde," a Gawayn, " fat gere, at 1 I trowe, 

, , ' Q ; bi rote ; 

Is ryched at f e reu^ence, me renk to mete, 

Let god worche we loo, 

Hit helppe3 me not a mote, 

My lif f a3 I for-goo, 2210 

Drede dot3 me no lote." 


Thene f e kny3t con calle ful hy^e, 

" Who fti3tle3 I fis fted, me fteuen to holde ? 

1 as? 


For now is gode Gawayn goande ry3t here, 

If any wy3e 031 wyl wyne hider faft, 221* 

Oji? now, o]>? neu 9 , his nede3 to fpede." 

" Abyde," q on on fe bonke, abouen ou 9 his hede, 

" & f u fchal haf al I haft, fat I fe hy3t ones." 

jet he rufched on fat rurde, rapely a fro we, 

& wyth quettyg a wharf, er he wolde Iy3t ; 2*20 

& fyfen he keu 9 e3 bi a cragge, & come3 of a hole, 

Whyrlande out of a wro, wyth a felle weppen, 

A dene3 ax nwe dy$t, fe dynt w 1 o ' 3elde 

W l a borelych bytte, bende by f e halme, 

Fyled I a fylor, fowre fote large, 2225 

Hit wat3 no lafle, bi fat lace fat lemed ful bry3t. 

& f e gome I fe grene gered as fyrft, 

Bofe fe lyre & fe Iegge3, Iokke3, & berde, 

Saue fat fay re on his fote he foude3 on fe erfe, 

Sette f e ftele to the ftone, & ftalked byfyde. ao 

When he wan to fe watter, fer he wade nolde, 

He hypped ou 9 on hys ax, & orpedly ftryde3, 

n i i i iiit i II on ina\N e. 

Bremly brofe on a bent, fat brode wat3 a-boute, 

[foi. 121.] f Gawayn fe kny3t con mete, 
He ne lutte hy no fyg lowe, 
pat of 9 fayde, " now, f fwete, 
Of fteuen mon may fe trowe." 


" Gawayn," q fat grene gome, " god fe mot loke ! 

I wyfle f u art welcom 4 , wy3e, to my place, 2240 

& f u hat3 tymed f i trauayl as t u e 3 mon fchulde ; 

1 to ? * welcon, MS. 3 t u ee, MS. 


& J? u knowes J?e couenaute3 keft v 9 by-twene, 

At Jns tyme twelmonyth J? u toke ty ]?e failed, 

& I fchulde at J?is nwe sere 3eply J?e quyte. 

& we ar I f>is valay, v 9 ayly oure one, 2245 

Here ar no renkes vs to rydde, rele as v 9 like} ; 

Haf J?y J> y helme of J?y hede, & haf here J?y pay ; 

Bufk no more debate J?e I ]?e bede fene, 

When J> u wypped of my hede at a wap one." 

" Nay, bi god," q Gawayn, " J?* me goft lante, 2250 

I fchal gruch J?e no grwe, for grem J>at falle^ ; 

Bot %3tel Ipe vpon on ftrok, & I fchal ftonde ftylle, , 

& warp )?e no wernyg, to worch as J>e lykej, 

He lened w l }>e nek, & lutte, 2255 

& fchewed Jat fchyre al bare, 

& lette as he no3t dutte, 

For drede he wolde not dare. 


The J>e gome T ]?e grene grayfed hy fwyfe, 

Gedere^ vp hys gryme tole, Gawayn to fmyte ; zw 

W* alle }e bur i his body he ber hit on lofte, 
Mut as mastyly, as marre hy he wolde ; 
Hade hit dryuen adou, as drej as he atled, 
per hade ben ded of his dynt, J?at do3ty wat3 eu 9 . 
Bot Gawayn on J>at giferne glyfte hy byfyde, zaw 

As hit com glydande adou, on glode hy to fchende, 
& fchranke a lytel w* fe fchulderes, for J?e fcharp yrne. 
pat o)? fchalk wyth a fchut Je fchene wyth-halde3, 
& )?ene repreued he J>e prynce w* mony prowde worde3 : 
" p u art not Gawayn," q, J?e gome, " y is fo goud halden, 2270 
pat neu 9 ar3ed for no here, by hylic ne be vale, 

M 2 


[foi.i2ivj & now J> u fles for ferde, er )> u fele harmej ; 

Such cowardife of J?at kny$t cowj>e I neu 9 here. 

NawJ> 9 fyked I, ne flaje, freke, quen ]? n mynteft, 

Ne keft no kauelacou, in kyge3 ho 9 Arthor, 2275 

My hede fla3 to my fote, & 3et fla3 I neu 9 ; 

& ]? u , er any harme hent, ar3C3 1 hert, 

Wherfore )?e better burne me burde be called, 

"qG:", " I fchut one3, M 

& fo wyl I no more, 

Bot J?a3 my hede falle on J>e ftone3, 

I con not hit reftore. 


Bot bufk, burne, bi }>i fayth, & bryg me to J?e poyt, 

Dele to me my deftine, & do hit out of honde, && 

For I fchal ftonde )?e a ftrok, & ftart no more, 

Til^y ax haue me hitte, haf here my trawfe." 

" Haf at fe >ene," q > l of, & heue3 hit alofte, 

& wayte3 as wro]?ely, as he wode were ; 

He mynte3 at hy ma3tyly, hot not J?e mon ryue3, 9o 

With-helde het y ly his l honde, er hit hurt my3t. 

Gawayn grayj>ely hit byde3, & glent w* no membre, 

Bot ftode ftylle as )>e fton, oj^ a ftubbe auj>er, 

pat rafeled is I roche groude, w l rote3 a hundreth. 

pe muryly efte con he mele, fe mon I J?e grene, 2295 

" So now )) u hat3 J?i hert holle, hitte me bihoues 8 ; 

Halde J?e now J?e hy3e hode, fat Ar)?ur J?e ra3t, 

& kepe )>y kanel at )>is keft, 3if hit keu 9 may." 

G: ful gryndelly w l greme J>ene fayde, 

1 hs, MS. * bihous fc MS. 


" Wy ]?refch on, ]? u j?ro mon, J> u J?rete3 to longe, 2300 

I hope J?at J>i hert ar3e wyth Jyn awen feluen." 
" For fobe," a bat ob 9 freke, " fo felly b u fpeke?, 

T i i <> i 4 i * i.- j nowe. 

1 wyl no leng' on lyte lette pm ernde, 

pene tas he * hy ftryj?e to ftryke, 
& froufes bo]?e lyppe & browe, 
No meruayle J?a3 hy myflyke, 
pat hoped of no refcowe. 


He lyftes ly^tly his lome, & let hit dou fayre, 

[foi.122.] W* J>e barbe'of ]?e bitte bi ]?e bare nek; 2310 

J3a3 he homered het 9 ly, hurt hy no more, 
Bot fnyrt hy on J?at on fyde, fat feu 9 ed J?e hyde ; 
pe fcharp fchrank to J?e flefche J?ur3 fe fchyre grece, 
pat J?e fchene blod ou 9 his fchulderes fchot to Je erj>e. 
& quen J?e burne fe3 J?e blode blenk on )?e fnawe, 2315 

He fprit forth fpene fote more ]?e a fpere lenfe, 
Hent het 9 ly his helme, & on his hed caft, 
Schot w* his fchuldere3 his fayre fchelde vnder, 
Brayde3 ou t a bry3t fworde, & bremely he fpeke3 ; 
Neu? fyn ]?at he wat3 burne borne of his moder, 2320 

Wat3 ^ e neu * ; i )^ s worlde, wy3e half fo blyj>e : 
" Blyne, burne, of J>y bur, bede me no mo ; 
I haf a ftroke I J?is fted w* oute ftryf hent, 
& if ]?ow reche3 me any mo, I redyly fchal quyte, ,. 

& 3elde 3ederly a3ayn, & J? to 36 tryft, 
Bot on ftroke here me falle3, 
pe couenaut fchap ry3t foo, 

1 he he, MS. 


'I Arfure} hallej, 

& J>er fore, hende, now hoo !" 


The haj?el heldet hy fro, & on his ax refted, 
Sette }>e fchaft vpon fchore, & to J?e fcharp lened, 
& loked to J?e leude, J?at on j>e launde ^ede, 
How J?at do3ty dredles dernely ]>er ftonde}, 

Armed ful a3le3 ; I hert hit hy lykej. JSM 

pen he mele3 muryly, wyth a much fteuen, 
& wyth a rykande rurde he to ]?e renk fayde, 
" Bolde burne, on j?is bent be not fo gryndel ; 
No mon here vn-man 9 ly )>e mys-boden habbe, 
Ne kyd, bot as couenaude, at kyge} kort fchaped ; xuo 

I hy3t j?e a ftrok, & j> u hit hat3, halde fe wel payed, 
1 relece J?e of J?e remnaut, of ry3tes alle oj? ; 
3if *'I deliuer had bene, a boffet, paraut 9 , 
I coujje wroj>eloker haf, waret, to J?e haf wro3t an^ 3 . 
Fyrft I manfed J?e muryly, w* a mynt one, j 

[foi.i22 b .] & roue Je wyth no rof, fore w* ry3t I J>e pfered, 
For J?e forwarde J?at we feft I J>e fyrft ny3t, 
& )? u tryftyly }>e trawj?e & trwly me halde3, 
Al )>e gayne J>ow me gef, as god mon fchulde ; 
pat of mut for ]?e morne, mon, I J?e profered, 
p u kyffedes my clere wyf, fe coffe3 me ra3te3, 
For boj?e two here I J>e bede bot two bare myntes, 
Trwe mon trwe reftore, 

pene far mo drede no wa)?e ; 2s 

At J>e ]jrid )> u fayled fore, 
& j? for }>ai tappe taj?e. 

' Illegible. * uf, MS. * This word is doubtful. 



For hit is my wede fat f u were}, f* ilke wouen girdel, 

Myn owen wyf hit f e weued, I wot wel forfofe ; 

Now know I wel f y coffes, & fy coftes als, zm 

& f e wowyg of my wyf, I wro^t hit myfeluen ; 

I fende hir to afay fe, & fothly me fynkke3, 

On fe fautleft freke, fat eu 9 on fote 3ede ; 

As perle bi f e quite pefe is of prys more, 

So is Gawayn, i god fayth, bi of 9 gay kny3te3. ms 

Bot here yow lakked a lyttel, f t & lewte yow wonted, 

Bot fat wat3 for no wylyde werke, ne wowyg nauf 9 , 

Bot for 36 lufud yd" lyf, fe laffe I yow blame." 

pat o]P ftif mon I ftudy ftod a gret whyle ; 

So agreued for greme he gryed w* me, 2370 

Alle f e blode of his breft blende I his face, 

pat al he fchrank for fchome, fat j?e fchalk talked. 

pe forme worde vpon folde, fat fe freke meled, 

" Corfed worth cowarddyfe & couetyfe bo]?e ! 

I yow is vylany & vyfe, fat v 9 tue difftrye3." 2375 

pene he ka3t to )?e knot, & fe keft lawfe}, 

Brayde brof ely \ e belt to f e burne feluen : 

" Lo ! fer fe falffyg, foule mot hit falle ! 

For care of f y knokke cowardyfe me ta3t 

To a-corde me w* couetyfe, my kynde to for-fake, 239) 

pat is larges & lewte, fat longe} to kny3te}. 

Now am 1 fawty, & falce, & ferde haf ben eu 9 ; 

& care ! 
Of trecherye & vn-trawf e bof e bityde for3e, 

[foi. 123.] I bi-knowe yow, kny3t, here ftylle, 2335 

Al fawty is my fare, 
Lete3 me ou 9 -take yd" wylle, 
& efte I fchal be ware." 



Then loje fat oj^ leude, & luflyly fayde, 

" I halde hit hardily 1 hole, fe harme fat I hade ; saw 

p u art confeffed fo clene, be-knowen of fy myfles, 

& hat3 f e penauce apert, of fe poyt of myn egge, 

I halde fe polyfed of fat ply^t, & pured as clene, 

As f u hade} neu 9 forfeted, fyfe f n wat3 fyrft borne. 

& I gif f e, f, fe gurdel fat is golde hemed ; 

For hit is grene as my goune, f G :, $e maye 

penk vpon J?is ilke frepe, J^ J) u forth fryge^ 

Amog prynces of prys, & J?is a pure token 

Of J?e chaiice of )>e grene chapel, at cheualro 9 kny3te3 ; 

& 30 fchal I J?is nwe 3er a3ayn to my wone3, fi . ,, 

& wafch y reuel J?e remnaut of )?is ryche feft, 

pe? lafed hy faft )?e lorde, 

& fayde, " w* my wyf, I wene, 

We fchal yow wel acorde, 2405 

pat wat3 yo" enmy kene." 


" Nay, for fo)?e," Q J?e fegge, & fefed hys helme, 

& hat3 hit of hendely, & J?e haj>el )?onkke3, 

" I haf foioraed fadly, fele yow bytyde, 

& he 3elde hit 3ow 3are, fat 3arkke3 al mefkes ! 3410 

& comaude3 me to fat cortays, yo* comlych fere, 

Bofe fat on & fat of?, myn honoed Iadye3, 

pat f 9 hor kny3t wyth hor keft han koytly bigyled. 

, MS. 


Bot hit is no ferly, fa3 a fole madde, 

& 1113 wyles of wymen be wonen to for^e ; 24is 

For fo wat3 Adam I erde w* one bygyled, 
& Salamon w* fele fere, & Samfon eft fone^, 
Dalyda dalt hy hys wyrde, & Dauyth f er aft 9 
Wat3 blended w* Barfabe, fat much bale f oled. 
Now fese were wrathed wyth her wyles, h l were a wyne huge, 2420 
To luf horn wel, & leue hem not, a leude fat couf e, 
[foi.i23^.] For bes wer forne be freeft bat fohed alle fe fele, 

n 11 t 11 1. r 1,9 A u mufed ; 

Exellently of alle pyle o]r , vnder heuen-ryche, 

& alle fay were bi-wyled, 2425 

With l wymen fat fay vfed, 

pa3 I be now bigyled, 

Me fink me burde be excufed." 


" Bot y(T gordel," q, G: " god yow for-^elde ! 

pat wyl I welde wyth good wylle, not for f e wyne golde, 2430 

Ne fe faynt, ne fe fylk, ne f e fyde pendaudes, 

For wele, ne for worchyp, ne for f e wlonk werkke}, 

Bot I fygne of my furfet I fchal fe hit ofte ; 

When I ride I renou, remorde to myfeluen 

pe faut & f e fayntyfe of f e flefche crabbed, 2435 

How tender hit is to entyfe teches of fylf e ; 

& f 9 , quen pryde fchal me pryk, for prowes of armes, 

pe loke to fis luf lace fchal lefe my hert. 

Bot on I wolde yow pray, difplefes yow neu 9 ; 

Syn 36 be lorde of the 3onder londe, f 9 I haf lent me, 2*40 

Wyth yow wyth worfchyp, fe wy3e hit yow 3elde 

1 with wyth, MS. 



pat vp-halde} fe heue, & on hy} fitte3, 

How norne 36 yowre ry3t nome, & fene no more ?" 

" pat fchal I telle fe trwly," q f 4 o]? fene, 

" Bernlak de Hautdefert I hat I fis londe, 

pur3 my3t of Morgne la Faye, fat I my ho 9 lenges, 

& ' koyntyfe of clergye, bi craft es wel lemed, . 

pe mayftres of M 9 lyn, mony ho a taken ; 

For ho hat; dalt drwry ful dere fu tyme, 

. . . . A . ... | at hame ; 

With fat conable klerk, J?at knowes alle yo kny3te}, 

Morgne fe goddes, 

perfore hit is hir name ; 

Welde3 non fo hyje hawtefle, 

pat ho ne con make ful tame. 2455 


Ho wayned me vpon fis wyfe to yo* wyne halle, 
For to affay J?e furquidre, 3if hit foth were, 
pat renes of ]?e grete renou of J>e Roude Table ; 
Ho wayned me J?is wonder, yd* wytte3 to reue, 

[foi. 124.] For to haf greued Gayno", & gart hir to dy3e, 2*x> 

W* gopnyg of J?at ilke gomen, j?at goftlych fpeked, 
W l his hede I his honde, bifore fe hy3e table, 
pat is ho fat is at home, fe aucian lady ; 
Ho is euen fyn aut, Arfure3 half fufter, 
pe duches do3ter of Tyntagelle, fat dere Vt 9 aft 9 
Hade Arfur vpon, fat afel is nowfe. 
perfore I efe fe, haf el, to com to fy naut, 
Make myry I my ho 9 , my meny fe louies, 
& I wol fe as wel, wy3e, bi my faythe, 

> in ? -ho hatj ? 


As any gome vnder god, for J>y grete traufe." 
& he nikked hy- naye, he nolde hi no waves ; 

pay acolen & kyfien, [bikennen] ayj>er o^ 

T t~ f j-r s t. -L. j on coolde ; 

lo pe prynce 01 paradiie, & parten ry^t fere, 

Gawayn on blonk ful bene, 
To J>e k)*ges burj bufkej bolde, 
& )>e knyjt I J>e enker grene, 
Whiderwarde fo eu 9 he wolde. 


Wylde way 63 I )>e worlde Wowen now ryde3, 
On Gryngolet, fat J>e g'ce hade geten of his lyue ; 
Ofte he herbered I houfe, & ofte al Reroute, 
& mony a-venture I vale, & venquyft ofte, 
J?at I ne ty5t, at Jis tyme, I tale to remene. 
J?e hurt wat3 n l e > Jt he hade hent I his nek, 
& ]>e blykkande belt he bere J'eraboute, 
A belef as a bauderyk, bouden bi his fyde, 
Loken vnder his lyfte arme, J>e lace, w l a knot, 
I tokenyg he \N at3 tane I tech of a faute ; 
& J? 9 he comes to J>e co"t, kny3t al I foude. 
per wakned wele I )>at wone, when wyft J>e grete, 
pat gode G : wat3 comen, gayn hit hym )>o3t ; 
J?e k)*g k3-fle3 fe kny3t, & J?e whene alee, 
& fyfen mony fyker kny3t, J?at fo3t h) r to haylce, 
Of his fare J>at hy firayned, & ferlyly he telles ; 
Bi-knowe3 alle J>e coftes of care ]>at he hade, 
pe chauce of J>e chapel, J>e chere of fe kny3t, 
[foi.i24.] pe luf of )?e ladi, }>e lace at ]>e laft. 

pe nirt I }>e nek he naked hem fchewed, f , 

pat he Ia3t for his vnleute at )>e leudes hondes, 



He tened quen he fchulde telle, 

He groned for gref & grame ; 

pe blod I his face con melle, 

When he hit fchulde fchewe, for fchame. 


" Lo ! lorde," q fe leude, & fe lace hondeled, 2505 

11 pis is fe bende of fis blame I here [in] my nek, 

pis is fe lafe & fe lofle, fat I Ia3t haue, 

Of couardife & couetyfe, fat I haf ca3t fare, 

pis is fe token of my trawf e, fat I am tan me, 

& I mot nede3 hit were, wyle I may laft ; 2510 

For non may hyden his harme, bot vnhap ne may hit, 

For j? hit one3 is tachched, twyne wil hit neu 9 ." 

pe kyg comforte3 fe kny3t, & alle fe c<ft als, 

La^en loude f at, & luflyly acorden, 

pat lordes & ladis, f 1 longed to fe Table, 2515 

Vche burne of f e brof 9 -hede a bauderyk fchulde haue, 

A bende, a belef hy a-boute, of a bry3t grene, 

& fat, for fake of fat fegge, I fwete to were. 

For fat wat3 acorded f e renou of f e Roude Table, 

& he honored fat hit hade, eu 9 more aft 9 , 2520 

As hit is breued I f e beft boke of romauce. 

p 9 I Arthur 9 day fis aut 9 bitidde, 

pe Brut 9 bokef J? of beres wytteneffe ; 

Syfe Brut 9 , fe bolde burne, bo3ed hider fyrft, 

Aft 9 fe fegge & f e afaute wat3 fefed at Troye, 

Mony aut 9 e3 here bi-forne, 

Haf fallen fuche er fis : 

Now fat here fe crou of forne, 

He bryg v 9 to his blyfle ! AMEN. 2530 

of 8rt|mre at tbe 

lere ftpjjpnes Cfje atontgns of 8rt|mre at 



[fol. 154.] j N 'Kyng Arthure tym l ane awntir by-tyde, 

By the 'TerneWahethelyn, als 2 the buke telhs, 
Als 3 he to Carelele was comen, that 4 conqueroure kyde, 
With dukes, and w t5 ducheperes, fat w* J?at 6 dere duellys, 
For 7 to hunte at the herdys, J?at lange hafe 8 bene hyde ; s 

And 9 one a daye J>ay Jam 10 dighte to J? e depe dellis, 
To fette 11 of ]? e femmales, in J? e12 forefte Vele frythede 13 , 
Faire 'in the fernyfone tyme, by frythis 14 , and fellis. 

Thus to )? e15 wode are 16 thay wente, the wlonkefte in wedys, 1 

Bothe the kynge, and the qwene, -, 

And aft J? e doghety by-dene, Dame Gayenoure he ledis. J 

Syr Gawane, gayefte one grene, ' 

I. ' the tyme of Arthur, MS. Douce. * Turnewathelan, as. 3 Whan. 4 and. 
* This word omitted. fi J>e. ? Om. 8 had. 9 Om. 10 hem. "fall'. 12 Om. 
13 and frydde. 14 by fe firmyfchamis, in frithes. 15 Om. 16 arii. 



And 1 thus f Gawane y gay, dame 2 Gayend* he ledis, 

In a glet 9 ande gyde, J?at glemet futt gaye ; is 

With riche rebanes reuerffede, 'who J? t3 righte redys, 

Raylede w* rubes, 'one royalle 4 arraye ; 

Hir hude 'was of hawe 5 hewe, y hir hede hydys, 

'Wroghte w l peloure, and patte, and 6 perrye to paye ; 

Schruedede 7 in a fchorte cloke, fat the rayne fchrydes", 20 

Sett ou 9 w l fafyrs, futt 9 fothely to saye. 

'And thus wondirfully was aft y wyghtis wedys 10 , 

Hir faditt femyde " of }>at ilke, 1 


'Semlely fewede w tl2 fylke; 
One a muyle als 13 the milke, 

Gayely fcho 14 glydis. 


Thus 1 alle in glet 9 ande golde gayely fcho 5 glydis 

The gates, w* f Gawane, by a 3 grene wette ; 

'Nane bot hyna felfe, one a 4 blonke, 'by J? 1 birde 5 bydis, 

That borne was in Burgoyne, by buke, & by bette ; so 

He ledde y lady so lange by 'J>ofe Iande3 6 fydys, 

Sythen 7 vndir a 'lorere fcho" lyghte, lawe by a fette ; 

Sir 9 Arthure, w* his erles, futt 10 erneftly rydis, 

To teche 'J?ani to J?aire triftis, trewely" to tette. 

II. 1 Om. 8 Om. ho fo. of riaU'. 5 of a herde. 6 Of pillo r , of pal- 
werk, of. ' Schurde. 8 fhedes. s Om. 10 With faflres & feladynes, fet by 
|>e fides. "fette. :i Saude with farabutes of. 13 as. M fhe. 

HI. 1 Om. 8 ho. 3 J*. 4 And fat burne, on his. fl with the Quene. 6 }>e 
lawe. 7 Om. lorre J>ey. 9 And. I0 Om. " hem to her triftres, fe trouthe for. 


To ')>aire triftis he }>am taughte, who y righte 12 trowes, 
like a 13 lorde, w* owttyn lett, 

At his trifte was he sett 14 , 
W l bowe and w* barcelett, 

Vndir J?ofe 15 bewes. 


Vndir J?ofe l bewes j?ay bade, )?ofe beryns so bolde, 

To bekire at 'J?ofe barrayne 2 , in bankis so bare ; 40 

Thay kefte of }>aire 3 copitts, in clyffes so calde ; 

v Thay recomforthed J?aire 4 kenettis, to x kele J?afh 5 of care ; 

pare myghte 'hirdmen, hendely forfothte 6 , herdis by-halde, 

Herkyn huntynge V* hornnes 7 , in holds so hare; 

pay 'fellede downe 8 J? e femmatts, futt thikke folde, 45 

W* frefche hundis, and fette, 'felonofly J?ay 9 fare. 

'pay queftede 10 , and quellys, 

By 11 fry this and fellis, 

'pat Y dere dwellys 18 , 

'& darkys and darys 13 . 


'Afte darkis 1 the dere, v and to down fchowys 8 , 
And 3 , for J? e dowte 4 off 6 dede 5 drowpys the daa, 
And by Y ftremys so ftrange, J?at fwyftly swoghes 6 , 

'- here triftres he hem tau^t, ho ]>e troutft. 13 Eche. I4 To an oke he hem fette. 
15 J>e. 

IV. l ]>e. 2 fes baraynes. 3 here. 4 Conforte her. 5 hele hem. 6 ha)?eles 
in hi^. 7 in haft. 8 fel of. 9 J>ei folowen her. 10 With gret queftes. u Both in. 
12 All' the dure in fe delles. 13 They durken, and dare. In MS. Douce the lines 
5, 6 are transposed before the two which precede. In both MSS. a line seems wanting 
(the ninth) to complete the stanza. 

V. ' Then durken. 2 in fe djJme fkuwes. 3 fat. 4 drede. 5 deth. 6 This 
line is omitted in MS. D. 



pay wery f e wilde fwyne, and 'wyrkkis f am waa 7 ; 

Thay hunte, and halowes, in holttis and billys', 

'And titt faire rifte, raches relyes oft f aire raye 9 ; 

Thay gafe no 10 gameii, 'no grythe 11 , f* one grownde growes, 

Grete hundis 18 [in the greues 13 ] futt 14 gladly 'gan gaa 15 . 

Thus thies gomes fay ga 18 , in grevys so grene, 

'And boldly blawes rechayfe 17 , 

And folowes ' 8 fafte one f e trafe,- 
W l many fergyaunte of mace, 

Swylk 19 folauce to fene. 


Thus 1 w* folauce fay femelede*, the prowdefte in patte, 
And few 3 to f e foueraygne, 'in cleues fo clene 4 ; 
Nane* hot f Gawane, the 6 gayefte of afte, 
By-leuys w* dame Gaynd* in 'fofe greues 7 grene ; 
Vndir a lorrere Tcho laye 8 , fat lady fo fmatte, 
Off boxe, and of barboraiie 9 , byggyde futt bene ; 
Fafte by-fore vndrone 10 , this ferly gun 11 falle, 
And this mekitt mervette, fat I of 18 mene. 

Now witt 13 I of this mervette meen, jif I mote ; 

The daye waxe als dirke, 

Als 14 it were mydnyghte myrke ; 
Ther of 'f Gawane 15 was irke, 

And lyghte one his fote. ' 

7 worchen he wo. 8 The liuntes fei halowe, in hurftes and huwes. '' And bluwe 
rechas, ryally J>ei ran to the ro. I0 to no. " Om. ia J>e grete gre[u]ndes. 
IS Supplied from MS. D. " fo. l5 )>ei go. 16 So gladly J>ei gon. 17 The king 
blowe rechas. 18 folowed. 1S> J>*. 

VI. Om. 8 femble. 3 fuwen. 4 w l in fchaghes fchene. 5 Al. " Om. 
" greues fo. 8 ho was lijt. 9 bcrber. I0 vndre. " con. '* fhal of. 1J wol. 
14 As. ]>e king. 



Thus one 1 fote are fay 'lyghte, fofe 2 frekis vn-fayne, 
And 'fledde fafte to 3 the forefte, and 4 to f e fawe 5 fellis ; 
Thay rafie fafte to the roches, for reddoure of f e rayfie 6 , 
For f e 'flete, and f e snawe, fat snayppede fain so mette 7 ; 
Thare come a 'lowe one the loughe, I lede es noghte 8 to layne, 
In the lyknes of Lucyfere, layeth efte in heHe ; 
And glyddis to 'dame Gaynoure 9 the gatis fuft 10 gayne, 
^ollande samyrly 11 , with many lowde sette 12 . 

N It 3ellede, it jjamede, with vengeance futt 13 wete; 

And saide/ofte syghandefutt 14 sare,-j 

" I ame 15 the body v f 4 f el6 bare, 
[foi. 155.] Alias ! now kyndyls my kare, - 

I gloppyn 17 and I grete!" - 


Thane gloppenyde, and grett, dame 1 Gaynoure the gay, K 

And afkede 2 f Gawayne, whatt 'was his befte 3 rede ? 

" It es 4 the clippes of the mone 5 , I herde a clerke saye ;" 

And thus he comforthede 6 f e qwene, w t7 his knyghtehede. 

" Sir Cadore, v Sir Caduke, Sir Coftarde 8 , Sir Kaye, 

Thir 9 knyghtis are 10 vn-curtayfe, by crofe, & by crede! 90 

That thus 'me hafe lefte in this erthe, at my dede" daye, 

VII. l to. 2 faren fes. 3 fleen fro. 4 Om. 5 fewe. 6 This line and line 6 
are omitted in MS. D. 7 fneterand fnawe fnartly hem fnelles. 8 lede of }>e lawe, 
in londe is not. 9 Syr Gawayn. 10 to. ' ! 3anland, and jomerand. 12 Belles. 13 Hit 
jaules, hit gamers, w* waymynges. u with fiking. 15 ban. 16 me. , 17 gloppe. 

VlII. ' Om. 2 feid to. s is J>i good. 4 ar. 5 fon. 6 confortes. 7 for. 
8 Sir Cleges, Sir Coftardyne. 9 pes. 10 arn. u oonly haue me laft on my de}> e . 

o 2 


With the gryfelyefte gafte, j?at eu 9 herde I grete 18 !" 

" 'At this 13 gafte," quod ' Gaweayne 14 , " greue 3owe no more;-i 

I 14 satte fpeke w l jone 16 fpyrete, . 

'In jone wayes so 17 wete, 
If I 18 maye the bales bete, 

Of 3one lu body bare.' 

> i 


Bare was hir 1 body, and blake to the bone, 

Atte by-claggede in claye, v vn-comlyly clede* ; 

It 'weryit, it wayemettede, lyke 3 a woman, ^ 

'pal now)? one hede, ne on hare, hillynge 4 it hade ; 

It ftottyde*, it ftoiinede, it ftode als 6 a ftane, 

It marrede, it 'mo^nede, it moyfled 7 for made. 

'Vn to j?at" gryfely gafte f Gaweayne es gane ; 

He raykede 'to it one 9 a rafe, for he 10 was neu 9 rade 11 . 100 

'Fpr rade 14 was he neu 9 , 'nowe who J> tls ryghte redys ; 

One Y chefe of Y chotte 14 , , 

A 'tade pykit one hir 14 potte,- 'Glowand als 17 gledis. 

Hir eghne ware 16 holkedefutt hotte,-J 


Atte glowede 'als gledis 1 the gafte, 'whare fcho 2 glydis, 
'Vmbyclede in* a clowde, 'w l clethynge 4 vn-clere ; 

12 Written at first grede, and so MS. D. I3 Of )>e. M J>e gome. l = For I. ie ]>e. 
" And of |>e wayes I shaU'. 18 What. 19 J>e. 

IX. ' )>e. 8 in vncomly cladde. 3 waned, hit wayment, as. 4 But on hide, 
ne on huwe, no heling. 5 ftemered. 6 as. 7 memered, hit mufed. 8 Agayn J>e. 
9 out at. 10 Om. " drad. 19 Drad. IS ho fo. clolle. '* pade pikes on J>e. 
> Om. '7 That gloed as |>e. 

X. ' as a glede. 4 fere ho. 3 Vmbe-clipped hi w*. 4 of cleyng. 


Cerkelytt 5 with serpentes, 'fat satt by hir 6 sydes; 

To tette f e dedis 7 fer one, my tonge were to 8 tere. 

The 'beryii brawndeche owte his 9 brande, and the body bydis, 

There fore fat 10 cheualrous knyghte 'thoghte it 11 no chere ; no 

The hundes 'are to hillys 13 , & 'faire hedes 13 hydes, 

For fat 14 gryfely gafte made so 15 gryme here. 

The grete grewhundes were agayfte, 'for fat 16 grym here ; 

The birdes on 17 the bewes, 

That 'hedows when fay 21 

pat one 'that gafte gewes 18 , --- 
Thay clyme 19 in the clewes 20 , - 

r/sp _ 


'Who fat myghte f at hedows see, hendefte in 1 hautte, 

How 'hir chotte chatirede, hyr chaftis, and hir 2 chyne ; 119 

Thane coniurede 'hir fat 3 knyghte, and 4 one Crifte gun 5 he cafte, 

" Atts 6 fou was crucyfyede one croyfe, to 'faue vs fra 7 syn, 

'Thou fpirette, saye 8 me the fothe, whedir fat 9 fou satt, 

And whi fat 9 fouwalkes 10 thies wayes, thies 11 woddis, w* inn?" 

" I was of fegure, and 'of flefche, the 12 fayerefte of atte, 

Criftenede, and kryfomede 13 , witfe kynges in my kyn. 125 

I hafe kynges in my kyn, knawen 'kyde futt u kene; -- 
God hafe Tent me this 16 grace, - 1 

To drye my paynes in this place, - To fpeke witfi ^oure qwene.- 
'And nowe am I comen one a pafe 15 ,-" 

b Skeled. 6 all' aboute fe. 7 todes. 8 full'. g burne braides out ]^e. 10 J>e. 

II changed. 1? hijen to ]>e wode. 1S here hede. 14 'fe. 15 a. 16 of]>e. 17 in. 
18 Jje gooft glowes. iy fkryke. 20 fkowes. 21 hafeles may. 

XI. ' Hafelefe ml^t here fo fer into. 2 chatered Jje cholle, fe chalus on fe. 3 fe. 
4 Om. 5 con. 6 As. 7 clanfe vs of. 8 That ]> u fei. p Om. 10 walkeft. " ]>e. 
12 face. 13 knowen. 14 for. In MS. L. first written " for kyde," but afterwards 
" for" crossed out and " full* kene" added. 15 me geven of his. ltf I am comen in 
pis cace. 



Qwene was I 'whilome, wele 1 bryghtere of browes, 

Than Beryke*, or Brangwayne, the' byrdis so balde ; 

Of 'any gamnes, or gudis 4 , fat one the 5 grownde growes, 

Wele 8 grettere fan 7 Gayno", of garfomes 8 , & of golde, 

Of 'pales, of powndis, of parkes 10 , of plewes, 

Of townnes, of towris, of trefoures 11 vn-tolde, 

'Of contres, of caftetts", of cragges, of clewes ; 

'And nowe am I cachede 13 owte of 'kyttie, in 14 carys so colde ! 

In" care am I cachede 18 , and cowchede in claye ; 

Loo" I curtayfe knyghte, 

How 'fat dede 18 hafe me dyghte ; Of Gayend* the gaye." - 
Nowe gyffe me anes 19 a syghte, 


'Nowe to 1 Gay end* f e gaye Sir Gaweayne es gane, 

And to fat 4 body 'hafe he 3 broghte 'that birde fen fo 4 bryghte : i 

" Welecome, Waymf !" 'fcho fays, " f u5 worthye in wane ! 

Loo ! ho we fat 8 dulefutt dede 7 hafe thi dame dyghte. 

I was reddere in 8 rode fan rofe in f c rayne ; 

My lyre als 9 the lely, 'lufely to syghte 10 , 

And 11 nowe 'I am a grifely 12 gafte, and 'grymly granes 13 , iso 

W l Lucefere, in a lake, lawe ame I lyghte. 

XII. ' fome wile. 8 BerelT. 3 J?es. 4 al gamen, or gle. -' Om. 6 Om. 7 pen 

Dame. 8 garfon. Om. 10 palaies, of parkes, of pondes. " trefo r . ia Of cas- 

telles, of contreyes. 1J Now ame I caujt. 14 kide, to. IS Into. l6 caught. 
17 Lo ! fir. 18 delfulle deth. l9 Lete me onys haue. 

XIII. ' After. )>e. s he her. 4 and to J>e burde. 5 i-wis. 6 Om. " detn. 
8 of. as. I0 lonched on hignt. >' Om. '* am I a gracelos. 1J grifly I grofi. 


Thus am I lyke to Lucefere, takis witnes 14 by mee ;- 
For alt ^oure 15 frefche fauoure,- 

'Nowe moyfe one this 16 mirroure, | Thus salt 36 bee. - 
For bothe 17 kynge and empoure, ' 


And 1 thus dede wilt $ow dighte, 'takis witneffe by me 2 , 

And 3 there one hertly takis 4 hede, whils f t5 )> u es 6 here ; 

Wlien J?ou 'es richely 7 arrayede, and 'rydes in a 8 rowte, 

Hafe j?ari 9 pete, '& mynd 10 one J? e pore, for 11 ]) u arte of powere ; ieo 

Beryns, and byrdis, 'are befye 12 the a-bowte, 

When thi body es bawmede, and broghte appone 13 here, 

Thane 'wilt j>ay leue the lyghtely 14 , fat nowe wilt the lowte, 

'And thane helpes the 13 no thynge, bot halye prayere. 

The prayere of J? e16 pore 'chaffes the from helte 17 ; - 

Of 'J?afe j?at $ellis at thi 18 3ate, -- 1 

When 'f> u sittis 19 in thi sette, - 'Some dayntes ]?ou dele sl . -I 
With" alt mirthes at thi 20 mete, 


Witfi daynteths 1 one deffe, thi dyetes are dyghte, 170 

And thus 2 in dawngere, and dole, 'I downe, & 3 I duelte ; 
Nafty 4 , and nedfult, and 5 nakede one nyghte, 
[fol. 156.] pere folowes 6 me a ferde of fendis 'fult felt 7 ; 

14 Take truly tent tijt nowe. 15 ]n. ^ Mufe on my. 17 Om. 

XIV. l Om. 2 thare you not doute. 3 Om. 4 take. 5 Om. 6 art. 7 ar t 
richeft. 8 rideft in fi. 9 Om. 10 Om. u Om. 12 }>at ben. 13 on a. M lite wyn 
]>e light. 15 For fen he helpes. 16 Om. 17 may purchas fe pes. " that J>ou 
yeues at fe. 19 )x>u art fet. * Om. ai And dayntes on des. 

XV. l riche dayntes. 2 I. 3 in dongofi. 4 Naxte. 5 Om. 6 folo. ? of helle. 


Thay harle me vnhendely, 'and hewys 8 me one hyghte ; 

In brafle, and in bromstane, I 'burne als 9 a bette ; 17* 

Was neu 9 wroghte in this werlde a wafullere wyghte ; 

It were 'tore titt 10 any tonge my tourmenttis" to tette ! 

Bot u now witt I of my tourment talke", or I gaa ; 

Thynke hertly on this, 

Now 14 fande to mende of' 5 thi mys ;- Bewarrenow, 17 bemy waa!" 
For 16 thou erte warnede, I wyfle, 


" Now 1 wo es me, for thi waa!" sayd 9 Wayno", " I wyffe, 

Bot 'a worde 3 wolde I wete, and 4 thi witt ware ; 

GyfP matyns, or meffes 6 , myghte oghte 7 mendefi 8 thi myffe, iss 

Or any mobytts 9 on molde, my myrthis 10 ware the mare ; 

Or" bedis of bechopis myghte brynge the to blyffe, 

Or couentis, in cloyftV, myghte kele 13 the of care ; 

For 14 if J?ou be my modir, grete m 9 vette 15 it es, 

That 'thi burlyche 16 body es blakenede 17 fo bare ! 100 

" I bare the of my body ; whate bote es 'to lye 18 ?- 

'Be that to takenynge 19 thou trowe,-i 

1 brake a folempne a-vowe, 

'That none wyfte, hot I & 90 thowe,- 


91 _] 

J>eiharme. p bren as. 10 ful tore. ' t'ment. Om. ls tel. M Om. !i Om. 
' 6 Om. '- Om. 

XVI. 1 Om. * q d . 3 one Jnng. 4 if. 5 If au)>er. 6 mas. ' Om. 8 mende. 
9 meble. 10 merthe. "If. '* cloiftre. " kere. M Om. 1S wonder. 16 al }>i burly. 
" broujt to be. 18 h* I layn. 1S By))* token. 80 And no man wift h l but. 2I pat 
foj>ely Ifayn. The lines 10, 11, 12 of this stanza in MS. D. stand in order 12, 10, 11. 



" Tette me now 1 fothely, what may 'safe thi sytis 2 , 
And I satt 'garre feke fayntes 3 , for thi fake ; 
Bot 'of thafe 4 balefutt beftis, J>* one thi body bytys 5 , 
Atte 'blendis my blode, thi blee es 6 foo blake." 
" This es it to luffe pamoures, and luftis, and litys 7 , 
That gerfe 8 me lyghte and 'lenge so lawe in j?is 9 lake ; 
For 10 atte the welthe of this 11 werlde thus 12 a-waye wytis ; 
This werlde es wandrethe, J?at wirkis 13 me wrake. 

For' 4 wrake 'it me wirkis, now 15 Waynoure, I wyffe ; 

Were thritty trentatts done, 
'By-twyxen vndrone 16 and none, 
My saule 'were saluede futt 17 fone,- 

And broghte 'I to 18 blyffe. 



11 To blyffe brynge the that 2 barne, J?* 'dere hafe the boghte 3 , 
That was crucyfiede one croyfe, & crownnede w* thorne ; 210 

Cryftynnede 4 , and kryfomede, w* canditts 5 , and coude, 
'Fullede in funftane, futt 6 frely by-forne ; 
Mary, 'J?at es 7 myghty, and 8 myldefte of mode, 
That bare J?* blyffchede 9 , in Bedleme was borne, 

XVII. l Say. - fe faueri, y-wys. 3 make fere men to finge. * fe. b is. 
6 bledis my ble, fi bones arn. 7 pat is luf par amo r , liftes, and delites. 8 has. 9 laft 
k>3 in a. 10 Om. n fe. 12 f*. 1S Witn fe wilde wermis, ]>* worche. 14 Om. 
15 fei me worchen. 16 By-twene vnder. 17 focoured with. 18 to fe. 

XVIII. l In the Lincoln MS. this and the two next stanzas, are misplaced, and 
appear as the XIX., XX., and XVIII. The peculiar form of the verses, and the au 
thority of MS. D. both confirm the order now adopted. 2 J>e. 3 brought [boghte ?] 
J>e on rode. 4 As J>ou was criftened. 5 candel. 6 Folowed in fonteftone on. 7 pe. 
8 Om. Of whom fe bliiful barme [barne] . 



Gyffe 10 me grace, 'for to 11 grete 'thy saule w* some gude 19 , 215 
And mene 13 the w* mefles", and matynes 15 one morne." 
" To 'mene me 18 w* mefles, grete 'menfke nowe 17 it were ; 

For hym, f* ryfte one the rode, 

Gyffe nowe 18 fade of thy gude, 'Whytts fat 90 fou erte here."- 
To folke }>at fayles 19 the fude, 1 


" Now 1 here hertly one* hande, 1 hete the 3 to halde, 

W* a melyone of mefles to make 'thy menynge 4 . 

'Bot one worde," faide dame Wayne 4 *, " nowe wiete f* I walde 1 , 

Whate greues" Gode mofte 'of any kyns thynge 7 ?" 225 

" Pride, w* 'apparementis, als 8 pphetis haue 9 tolde, 

By-fore f e pople 'appertly, in thaire 10 p 9 chynge ; 

The [bowe] is fuft" bittire, fare of be thou balde, 

It 18 makis beryns 'futt balde 13 , to breke his byddynge. 

'Who fo 14 his byddynge brekis, 'bare he es 15 of blyfle ; , 

Bot fay be falued of that sare, 
Certis 16 , or fay hethyn fare, 

Waynoure, I wys." 
Thay mon wiete 17 of calde 18 care, 

lo Lene. " )>' I may. 18 J>e w* gode. l3 mynge. 14 matens. 15 mafles. 16 mende vs. 
" myfter. l8 Om. 19 feilen. While. 

XIX. 1 Om. 4 my. 8 J>es heftes. < ]>e mynyg. 5 A ! quod Wayno r , I wis, yit 

weten I wolde. 6 wrathed. 7 at fi weting. 8 )>e appurtenaunce, as. 9 han. I0 apt 

in her. ll Hit beres bowes. Instead of the word inclosed within brackets a blank 

tpace i* left in the Lincoln MS. ia fat. 18 fo bly. u Bot ho. 15 J>ei ben. 16 Om. 

7 weten. 18 Om. 




" Tette me," fayde 1 Wayno" '" a worde 2 , $if )>ou wofte, ^ 

Whate dedis 3 myghte me befte 'in to blysche 4 brynge ?" 

" Mekenefle and mercy," 'fcho faide 5 , " 'J?o are 6 the mofte, 

Hafe 7 pete one the pore, 'thane plefys J?ou owre 8 kynge ; 

Sythen 'aft 9 that, do almous dedis of atte of 9 thynge 9 ; 

Thies arefi the gud 10 gyftis of the holy gofte, 240 

That enfpyres 'atte fperites, w* owttyii 11 fpillynge, 

'For to come to that blyfle, that eu 9 more salt lafte 12 . 

Of 'thies fperituale thynges fpyre me 13 na mare ; 

Whills 14 )>ou arte qwene in thi quarte,- 

Halde thies wordis in thyii 15 herte, Hethyn satt J? u fare. 
For 16 J>ou salt lyffe hot a ftarte ; 

. . 

>!' XXI> r/t'wc 

" How satt we fare," faide 1 the freke, " Y fowndis 2 to fyghte, 
'That ofte foiidis the folkes, in 3 fele kyngis landis ; 
That riche rewmes ou 9 rynnes, agaynes the 4 ryghte, 250 

'And wynnes wirchippis, & welthis, by 5 wyghtenes of handis ?" 
" ^owre kynge es to couetous, I tett 6 the, sir knyghte, 
Maye no man 'ftere hy of ftrenghe, 'whitts J> e8 whele ftandis ; 

XX. 1 Wyffe me, q d . 2 fom wey. bedis. 4 to ]>e blifle. 5 Om. 6 fes arii. 
' ^ad fipeii haue. 8 fat plefes heuen. 9 charite is chef, and pen is chafte. 10 grace* 
ful. u iche fprete, with oute. 12 And fen almeffe dede cure al ]>ing. In MS. D. 
this line is the 6th. * fis fpi'al fing fpute f u . 14 Als. 15 Om. l6 Om. 

XXI. l q d . 2 fonden. 3 And J>us defouleii fe folke, on. 4 And riches ouer 
reymes, w* outen eny. 5 Wynnen worfhipp' in werre, forgft. 6 warne. 7 ftry 
him with. 8 while his. 

p 2 


When he es in his magefte 'heghefte, & 9 mafte 'es of 10 myghte, 
He satt lighte futt lawe, appone" the see sandis. 
[foi. is?.] "Thus joure 18 cheualrous kynge" chefe schatte a 14 chawnce, - 

Talfe fortune 1 * in fyghte, . 

'That wondirfutt whele-wryghte 18 , -\ Takes 18 witnes by Fraunce.- 
'Mafe lordis lawe for 17 to lyghte ; 


Fraunce hafe $e frely w* 30* fyghte wonnen ; 

The Frolo, and y Farnagtie, es frely by-leuede l ; 

Bretayne, and Burgoyne, 'es bothe to }ow bownen 2 , 

And alle the dugepers 3 of Fraunce w* j? e4 dyn dreuede 5 . 

Gyane may gretyn 6 , )> t7 J> e werre was by-gounnen ; 255 

N Es noghte a lorde in fat lande, appon lyfe 8 leuede ; 

3ete satt J> e riche Romaynes 9 w* ^ow ben ou 910 ronnen, 

And alle 11 J) e Rownde Tabitt faire 14 rentis be reuede. 

Thay satt 3itt be Tybire tymbire jow 13 tene ; - } 

Gete the, f Gawayne, 

Turne )?ou 14 to Tufkayne, 

For '[lefe] thu fatt 15 Bretayne, 

e a knyghte 16 kene.- 

!J Om. 10 in his. " on. >* And this. l * knijt. M Jwrgh. I5 Falfely fordone. lfi With 
a wonderful!' wight. 17 Shall' make lordes. 18 Take. 

XXII. 1 Freol, and his folke, fey ar |>ey leued. 2 al to you bowen. 3 duiTiperes. 
4 yo*. 5 dcued. 6 grete. 7 Om. 8 There ar no lordes on lyue, in fat londe. 
a remayns. 10 one be aur. "with. 12 )>e. 1S Thus shal a Tyber vntrue tymber 
with. M |>e. lb ye shal lefe. In MS. L. a blank space is left for the word lefe. 
15 long. 



'A knyghte satt kenly clofen J? el crowne, 

And at Carelyone 2 be crownede for 3 kynge ; 275 

That 4 fege fatt 'be fefede at a fefone 5 , 

That 'mekitt bale, and barete, tilt Ynglande 6 fall brynge ; 

Ther 7 fatt in Tufkane be tallde of fat 8 trefone, 

And 'tome home a-}ayne for that 9 tydynge ; 

And 10 ther satt the Rownde Tabitte loffe 11 the renowne, 2so 

Be-fyde Rameffaye, futt ryghte 12 at a rydynge ; 

'And at Dorfett 13 fatt dy the doghetyefte of atte. - 

Gette the, Gawayne, 1 

p e baldefte of Bretayne ; 'Swylke ferly 15 satt fatte !- 

For 14 in a flake > u fatt be flayne,- 


'Siche ferly 1 fatt falle, w* owtten 2 any fabitte, 

Appoiie Cornewayle cofte, w* a knyghte kene ; 

'Arthure J> e auenante, y honefte es & abitt 3 , 

Satt 4 be wondid, I wyffe, futt 5 wathely, I wene ; 290 

[And al J?e rial rowte of \>e Rounde Table, 

pei fhullen dye on a day, ]?e dougtity by-dene 6 ;] 

Suppryfede w* a 'sugette, J?at beris of 7 sabitte, 

XXIII. ' This knight shal be clanly enclofed w* a. 2 Carlele shal fat comly. 

3 as. 4 A. 5 he feche, with a ceffion. 6 myche baret, and bale, to Bretayn. " Hit. 
8 pe. 9 ye fhullen t r ne ayen for ]>e. 10 Om. u lefe. ia rad. 13 In Dorfet fhire. 
14 Om. 15 Sich ferlyes. 

XXIV. l Suche ferlies. 2 oute. 3 Syr Arthur ]>e honeft, auenant, and able. 

4 He fhal. 5 Om. 6 These two lines are omitted in MS. L. and are supplied from 
MS. D. 7 furget, he beris hit in. 


A 8 sawtire engrelede, of siluer futt fchene. 
He beris [it 9 ] of sabitte, fothely to saye ; - 

[foU57VJ In kyng 10 Arthures hautte 

The childe " playes hym 19 at the batte,- 
That 'satt owttraye" 3ow atte, 

Tutt derfely a 14 daye. 



Hafe gud daye, dame 1 Gayno", and Gawayne )> e gude ! 

I hafe no langare 'tyme, mo tales to 9 tette ; 

Tor me bufe wende one my waye, thorowte this 3 wode, 

'Vn to my wonnynge wane 4 , in waa for to wette 5 . 

For hym J?* 'rewfully rafe, & rente was one 8 rude, 

Thynke one J>e dawngere, 'and the dole 7 , Y I in duette ; ;<05 

And 8 fede folke, for my fake, J>at fawtes 9 the rade, 

And mene 10 me w* 'meffes, and matyns 11 1 mette. 

[Maffes arn medecyes to vs that bale bides 18 ;] 1 

Vs thynke a meffe als 13 swete, j 

Als" any fpyce fat eu 9 > u etc 14 ." 1 The gafte a-waye glydis. - 

'And thus", w* a gryfely grete, ' 


[With a grifly grete, J?e goofte a-wey glides, 

And goes, with gronyng fore, J>orgh j>e greues grene 1 ;] 

8 With a. 9 Supplied from MS. D. 10 riche. ll barne. ia Om. 1S on-tray shall'. 
14 Delfully ]>*. 

XXV. ! Om. 3 tome, tidinges. * I mote walke on my wey, }>orgh fia wilde. 
* In my wonyng ftid. 5 dwelle. 6 rightwifly rofe, & reft on )>e. 7 Om. 8 Om. 

9 fiailen. 10 menge. ll matens & mafic. ia Instead of this line from MS. D. the 
Lincoln MS. has the last five lines of stanza XVIII. inserted, by negligence of the 
scribe. 1S as. 14 ye yete. 15 Om. 

XXVI. 1 These lines are wanting in MS. L. 


The wynde 2 , and 3 the wedyrs, fan 4 welkeri 'in hydis 5 ; 315 

Than vnclofede the clowddis, J? e fone Tchane fchene 6 . 

The kynge his bogitt hafe blowen, & on }> e bent bydis ; 

His fayre folke in 'firthes, flokkes in fere 7 ; 

'Alle that royatte 8 rowte to J e qwene rydys, 

'And melis to hir mildely, one \ aire manere 9 . 320 

The 'wyes on fwilke wondirs a-wondirde faire 10 were 

'The prynces 11 prowdefte in 

To J>aire 13 fopere. 

Dame Gaynd", and atte, 

Wente to 'Randolfe fett hautte' 


The kynge 'was fett to f e fupere, & 1 ferued in fale, 

Vndir a seloure of fylke, 'futt daynetyuoufely 2 dighte; 

W* atte the 3 wirchipe 'to welde, & wyne for to wale 4 ; 

'Birdis in brede, of brynt golde 5 bryghte. 

Ther come 'two fetolers in 6 , w* a fymbale, rjo 

A lady, luffome of late 7 , ledande a knyghte ; 

'Scho rydes vp to y heghe deffe 8 , by-fore Y royatte 9 , 

And afkede 10 f Arthure, futt 11 hendely one highte. 

Scho 12 faide to )> t13 fou 9 ayne, wlonkefte in wedis 14 , i 

[fol. 158.] " Mane mofte 15 of myghte, ^ 

Here 'es comyfi ane armed 16 knyghte ;- 
Now 17 do hym refone, and ryghte, ' 

For thi manhede." 

2 wyndes. 3 Om. 4 ]>e. 5 vnhides. 6 con fhene. 7 ]>e fritft fei flokken by-dene. 
8 And al Je riall'. 9 She fayes hem J>e felcouj>es, }>at fai hadde per feeii. 10 wife 
of fe weder for-wondred pey. n Prince. I2 Rondoles halle. I3 J>e. 

XXVII. ' to fouper is fet. 8 dayntly. 3 Om. 4 and wele mewith fe walle. 
5 Briddes branden, and brad, I bankers. 6 in a foteler. 7 lote. 8 Ho raykes vp, 
in a res. 9 riaUe. 10 halfed. Om. 12 Ho. 13 fe. H wede. lb makeles. 
16 comes an errant. l7 Om. 



The ' mane in his 9 mantytt Tyttis at his 3 mete, 

In 'paulle purede w l pane, futt p 9 cyoufely dyghte 4 ; 340 

Trofelyte, and trauerfte, wyth trewloues in trete 5 ; 

The 'tafee was 8 of topas, fat 'f er to was 7 tyghte. 

He glyfte vpe with hys eghne, fat graye ware, & grete, 

Witft his burely 8 berde, one fat birde bryghte ; 

He was the sou 9 aynefte Tir, sittande 9 in sette, 345 

pat eu 9 any 10 fegge Taughe, or fene was w* fyghte". 

Thus the 19 kyng, crowned in kythe, carpis 13 hir titt, 

" Welecome, worthyly wyghte ! . 

Thou 14 satt hafe refone, & ryghte;- 
Whythen es this 15 comly knyghte,- 

Ifitbethi witt?" 


Scho 1 was the worthiliefte 2 wyghte, f* any 'wy myghte welde 3 ; 

Hir gyde was glory ous, and gaye, 'alle of gyrfe 4 grene ; 

Hir bette was of plonkete 5 , witfc birdis futt baulde, 

'Botonede w* befantes 6 , & bokellede fuft bene ; 355 

Hir faxe in fyri perrye Trette was 7 in fowlde, 

The cont 9 felette in a 8 kette, colourede futt clene ; 

Witti a crowne 'of cryftatte, and of clere 9 golde ; 

Hir courchefes were coryoufe, w* many prowde pyii. 

XXVIII. 1 Om. a )>e. 3 pat fittes at }>i. 4 pal pured to pay, prodly pight. 
11 This line is omitted in MS. D. 6 tafles were. 7 were J>ereto. 8 beueren. 9 of al 
fitting. ' Om. " had fen w* his eje-fight. > Om. 13 talkes. 14 He. 1S je. 

XXIX. 1 Ho. 9 worfieft. 3 wede wolde. 4 of a greffe. * blunket. 6 Branded 
w l brende golde. 7 was fretted. 8 Contrefeled and. 9 craftly, al of clene. 


[Her perre was prayfed, with prife men of might ; 10 ] 

The 11 bryghte byrdis, and balde, . 

Had 'note ynoghe 12 to by-halde 
One 13 fat freely to fawlde, 

And one J^hende^knyghte.- 


That 1 knyghte in his coloures was armede futt clene, 365 

Witfc his comly crefte, 'fuft clene 2 to by-holde ; 

His brenyes 3 , and his bacenett, burnefchet futt bene, 

W* a bourdoure 4 a-bowte, alle of brynte golde ; 

His mayles was* mylk-whytte, 'enclofede fo clene 6 ; 

His horse trappede Vitfr the fame, als it was 7 me taulde. 370 

The 8 schelde one his schuldir, of syluere futt 9 fchene, 

With 'bare-heuedis of blake, burely, and 10 baulde ; 

His horfe Vithe sendale was teldede, and 11 trappede to J? e hele;- 

And his 12 cheuarone by-forne, ( 

'And mayles 16 of ftele. 

Stode als 13 ane vnycorne, 

Als so 14 fcharpe als any 15 thorne, ' 


In ftele 'was he 1 ftuffede, J?at 'fteryii was one 2 ftede, 
Atte of fternys of golde, 'bat ftekillede was one ftraye 3 ; 
[foU58b.] 'He, and his gambefouns, glomede als gledys 4 , m 

10 This line is wanting in MS. L. u Om. l2 i-nore (sic.) 13 Of. 14 J>e. 

XXX. l The. a clere. 3 brene. 4 braudure. 5 were. 6 many hit seen. 7 of 
that like, as true me. 8 His. 9 fo. l bere-hedes of brake, browed ful. " in fyne 
fandel was. 12 in his. 13 as. 14 Om. lb a. 16 An anlas. 

XXXI. 1 he was. 2 ftourne vppon. 3 his pencell' difplaied. 4 His gloues, his 
gamefons, glowed as a glede. 



With graynes of 'rubyes, that graythede were* gaye ; 

And his fchene 'fchynbawdes, fcharpe for" to fchrede ; 

[His polem 9 with pelicoc 9 were poudred to pay 7 .] 

pus 8 w* a lance appon 9 lofte, j>at 'lady gun he 11 lede ; 

A swayne 19 , one a frefone, 'folowede hym 13 , in faye 14 ; s 

[The frefon 15 was a-fered, for drede of j>at fare ;] 

'He was feldom wounte 16 

To see the tabitte at his frounte 17 ;- 
'Swilke gafhmenes was he wonte 18 - 

v Futt feldom to see' 


Arthure afkede 'in hye, one-herande J>am' atte, 
" Whate woldeft }> u , wy, $if it were 4 thi witte? 
Tette me whate J? u fekis, and 'whedir ty j? u3 fchatte, 
And why )> n ftonyes 4 on thi ftede, and 5 ftondis so ftitte?" 
IJe lyfte 6 vpe his Vefage fro )? e7 ventatte, 
And 8 w* a knyghtly contenance he carpis hy tilt : 
" Be 9 J) u kayfere, or kynge, here I the be-catte, 
[foi.158".] To 10 fynde me a freke, to fyghte one 11 my fitt ; 

For 1 * fyghtynge to frayfte, I fowndede fra hame." 

The kynge carpede on heghte 13 , 
" 'Lyghte, & lende" atte nyghte, 
If thou be curtayfe knyghte 15 , 

And telle me thi name. 


5 rebe, that graied ben. 6 fchynbandes, fat fharp wer f . 7 This line, and line 9 of 
this stanza, are wanting in MS. L. e Om. 9 on. 10 louely con. |lj freke. I3 him 
folowed. I4 This and the preceding line are transposed in MS. L. 15 freke. 16 For 
he was felden wonte to fe. 17 The tablet flur6. 19 Siche gamen ne gle. 19 Saj 
he neuer are. 

XXXIL ' on hijt, herand hem. a be. 3 whefer J>ou. 4 fturne. * Om. 6 wayned. 
i vifer fro his. 8 Om. 9 Whefer. 10 Fore to. with. 12 Om. 13 Then feid the king 
vppon bight. M Late lenge. n This and the previous line are transposed in MS. D. 



" My name es f Galleroun, w* owttyri any gyle ; v 

The grettefte of Galowaye, of greves & 'of gyllis 1 , 405 

Of Konynge 2 , 'of Carryke 3 , of Conygame, 'of Kytte 4 , 

Of Lomonde, of Lenay 5 , of Lowthyane hillis ; 

Thou hafe wonne 'thaym one 6 werre, w* owttrageoufe 7 wift, 

And gyffen Jam 8 $ Gawayne, and 9 J?at myii herte grilles. 

[But he fhal wring his honde, and warry the wyle 10 ,] 410 

'Or he welden my landes, at myii vn-thankes 11 . 

By atte J? e welthe of this 12 werlde, he satt fain 13 neu 9 welde, 

'Whitts I my 14 hede may here ; 

'Bot he 15 wyn 'J?am one 16 werre, 
'Bothe w tl7 schelde, & w tl8 fpere, --* 

Appone 19 a fair felde !- 


I witt fighte one a felde, & 1 J? to 'make I my 2 faythe, 

Witfe any freke 'one the 3 foulde, J?at frely es borne ; 

To 'loffe swylke 4 a lordchipe, me 'thynke it futi 5 laythe, 

And 'ilke a leueande lede 6 wolde laughe me to fkorne." 420 

" We areri 7 here 8 in the wode, walkande 9 one our wathe ; 

We 10 hunte at the herdis 11 , w* hundes 12 , and w* home ; 

We 'aren one 13 owre gamen, we 'ne hafe no gude 14 graythe, 

XXXIII. 1 gryUes. 2 Connok. 3 Om. 4 and alfo Kyle. 5 Lofex. 6 hem in. 
7 a'wrange. 8 hem to. 9 Om. 10 This line is omitted in MS. L. u Er he weld 
hem, y-wys, agayn myn vmwylles. 12 fe. 13 hem. u While I }>e. 13 But if he. 
16 hem in. 17 With a. 18 a. ' On. 

XXXIV. J Om. 2 I make. 3 vppon. 4 lefe fuche. 5 wold thenke. 6 fiche 
[iche?] lede opofi lyue. 7 ar. 8 Om. 9 went, to walke. 10 To. u hertes. ia houde. 
13 ar in. 14 haue no gome. 

Q 2 


Hot jitt J> u satt be machede by middaye to morne. 
And"forthilrede the, 'J? u rathe mane,}> u rifte the atte)> e16 nyghte." n 
[foi. 159.] Than" Gawayne, gayefte 18 of atte,-i 

Ledis hym owte of the hautte, That prowdely was pyghte.-I 
'Vn titt 19 a paveleone of pautte, 


Pighte was it 1 prowdely, with purpure and pautte, 4* 

'And doffours, and qwefchyns, and bankowres futt 2 bryghte; 

'W* inn 3 was a chapelle, a chambir, 'and ane 4 hautte, 

A chymneye w l charecole, to 'chawffen j?at 5 knyghte. 

His ftede was fone 6 ftabillede, and lede to j> e ftatte, 

\And haye hendly heuyde in hekkes 7 one hyghte. 

Sythen 'he braydes 8 vp a burde, and clathes gun 9 catte ; 

'Sanapes, and falers, futt 10 femly to fyghte, 

Preketes", and broketes, and ftandertis by-twene. 

Than" thay feruede ty knyghte, - 

And his worthy 13 wyghte, 

W l fiitt 14 riche daynteths 15 dyghte,- 

In siluere futt' 6 fchene. 


In silu 9 fa femly ')>ay feme fam 1 of the befte, 

W* vernage, in verrys and cowppys fa 4 clene ; 

And thus 'thafe gleterande gomes, gladdis ]?aire geftis 3 , us 

' Om. J>enke reft al. 17 Om. 18 graj>eft. 19 Into. 

XXXV. ' Om. Birdes branden aboue, in brend gold. 3 Inwith. 4 a. b chaufe 
J>e. " Om. 7 Hay hertly he had, in haches. 8 |>ei braide. " |>ei. I0 Sanape, and 
faler. "Torches. Thus. 1S worjely. u Om. 15 dayntes. ' 6 fo. 

XXXVI. 1 were ferued. a ful. 3 Sir Gawayn )>e good, glades ho r geft. 


Witfi riche daynteths 4 , endorrede, in dyfches by-dene. 

When the ryaffe renke was gone to his ryfte, 

The kynge in 5 to concefte hafe callede his knyghtis so kene ; 

Sayfe 6 , " hikes 7 nowe, '36 lordyngs 8 , oure lofe be noghte loft, 450 

Who saft encont 9 witfi 3one 9 knyghte, 'nowe hikes vs 10 by-twene." 

Thane faide ' Gawayne, " he saS vs noghte 11 greue ; , 

Here my trouthe 12 13ow plyghte 13 ,-] 

I satt 14 feghte witfc ^one 15 knyghte,- 
In f> e16 defence of my ryghte, 

My I7 lord,with I8 3owrelefe." 


" I leue wele," quod the kynge, " thi latis are I[i3t, 

But I nolde, for no lordefhipp, fe ]?i life lorne."] 

" Late gaa," quod f Gawayne, " Gode ft[ond with ]?e ri3t,] 

If he fkape skatheles, [hit were a foule fkorne."] 

In the dawynge of j? e [day, \ e doughti were digfit ;] 400 

Thaye herde 2 matyns [and maffe, erly on morne ;] 

By that, one Plu[tofi land a palais was pi3t,j 

Whare neu 9 f[reke opon folde had fou3ten biforne. 

pei fetteii liftes by-lyue on fe 103 lande ;] 

Twa 3 sop[pes de mayn] 

Was 4 b[rought to Gawayn,] 
For [to confort his brayn, 

pe king gared comaunde.] 


4 dayntees. 5 Om. 6 Om. 7 loke. 8 lordis. 9 Je. 10 keftes you. u Gawayn 
fe goode, shal hit not. '~ 2 honde. li hijt. 14 woll'. 15 pe. l6 Om. l < Om. lb by. 

XXXVII. ' A large portion of this and the commencement of the succeeding stanza 
has been torn away in the Lincoln MS. and is here supplied from MS. D. 2 And 
herdeii. 3 Thre. 4 pei. 



The [king comaunded Krudely, )>e erles fon of Kent,] 
Cur[tayfly in fis cafe, take kepe to )>e knight.] 
Witts riche daynteths 1 J? t9 day, he dynede in his tente, 
'Witts birdes baken in brede, of brynte golde 3 bryghte ; 
And 4 fythen 'vn to dame 4 Wayno 4 * fatt" wyefely he wente, 
'And lefte witft hir in 7 warde his worthily wyghte. 
'And than thies hathetts full hendely faire horffes hafe 8 hent, 
'At the lycence of the lorde, J>at lordely gun 9 lyghte, 

x Atte hot thir beryns 10 , bouldefte of blode. 

The kynges chayere was 11 sette, i 

' A-bowne on a chaffelett l9 ; 

And 13 many a 14 gaylyarde grett,- 

For Gawayne the gude. ' 


Gawayne and Galleron 'dyghtis {jaire 1 ftedis, 

Atte of 2 glet 9 ande golde, futt 3 gaye was J>aire 4 gere ; 

Twa* lordes be-lyfe 'to thaire lyftes thaym 6 ledis, 

Witts many sergeauntes 7 of mace ; it 8 was J? e manere. 485 

The 'beryns broches )?aire 9 blonkes, 'to J?aire fydes 10 -bledis ; 

Aythire freke appoii felde hafe 'fichede thaire 11 fpere ; 

Schaftis 'of fchene 19 wode J>ay fcheu 9 ede 13 in fchides ; 

XXXVIII. ' dayntees. 8 or. 3 After bufkes him in a brene, |>at burnefhed was. 
* Om. * to. 6 Om. ^ He laft in here. 8 After aither in high ho r horfes )>ei. 
9 And at |>e liftes, on |>e lande, lordely don. 10 Bothe J>es two burnes. " is. 
11 Quene on a chacelet. 13 Om. 14 Om. 

XXXIX. l gurden her. a in. s Om. 4 here. * J)e. 6 horn to lift. 7 feriant. 
8 as. 9 burnes broched J>e. 10 )>at ]>e fide. u folde has faftned his. ia in fhide. 
15 fhindre. 



So jolyly thofe 14 gentifi men 15 juftede one were! 

Schaftis thay 'scheu 9 , in schydes fuft 16 fchene ; 

Sythen 17 , w* brandes full 18 bryghte,-] 

Riche mayles thay righte ; 

Thus enconterde 19 the knyghte 

W* Gawayne, one grene. 


XL. 1 

Gawayne was graythely 2 graythede one 3 grene, 495 

Witfe griffons 4 of golde, engrelede full gaye ; 

Trayfolede w* trayfoles 5 , and trewluffes by-twene ; 

One a ftirtande 6 ftede he 7 ftrykes one ftraye. 

[pat o}er in] his turnyge 8 he talkis with 9 tene ; 

[" Whi drawes f u fe] one dreghe, & makis Twilke delay 10 ?" soo 

[He fwapped hi yii at f e] fchuldir", w* a fwerde kene ; 

[That greued f Gawayn, to] his dede I2 day. 

[The dyntes of fat doughty were do]wttous by-dene ;- 

[Fyfte mayles, and mo, 

The fwerde fwapt in two, 
The canel-bone alfo, 

And clef his] fchelde fchene. 

XLI. 1 

[He clef forgfc fe cantett, fat couered f e kni3t, 
Thorgfc fe fhinand 2 fhelde, a fhaftmoii, and mare ; 

4 fes. 15 Om. l6 fhindr in fheldes fo. 17 And fifen. 18 Om. 1J There encontres. 

XL. ' The imperfections in MS. L. in this stanza are supplied from MS. D. as 
marked by brackets. 2 gaily. 3 in. 4 his griffons. 5 Trifeled with tranes. 6 ftargand. 
7 fat. 8 fnaying. 9 in. 10 fiche deray. u fwyre. 12 dej). 

XLI. l A leaf in the Lincoln MS. here appears unfortunately to be lost, and the 
stanzas from XLI. to XLVI. inclusive, with part of XLVII. are printed from the 
other copy. * fhiand MS. 


And J>efi J>e lady loude lowe vppon higfit, i 

And Gawayii greches J^w*, & gremed ful fare : 

" I fhal rewarde J?e J>i route, if I con rede rigfit !" 

He folowed in on J>e freke, witti a frefftl fare ; 

porgti blafon, and brene, J> c burnefhed wer 9 brijt, 

With" a burlich" bronde, thorgtJ him he bare ; BIS 

Tlie bronde was blody, J>at burnefhed was bri3t. 

Then gloppened J?at gay ; 

Hit was no ferly, in fay ; 
pe fturne ftrikf on ftray, 

In ftiropes ftrrjt. 


Streyte in his fteroppes, ftoutely he ftrikes, 

And waynes at Wawayn, als he were wode ; 

pen his lemafi on lowde fkirles, and fkrikes 1 , 

When ]?at burly burne blenket on blode ; 

'Lordes and ladies of J>at laike likes, 525 

And Jonked God fele fithe for Gawayn the gode. 

With" a fwap of a fwerde, J>at fwafel him fwykes, 

He ftroke of )>e ftede hede, ftreite fere he ftode ; 

The faire fole fondred, and fel to the grounde. 

Gawayn gloppened in hert, 

Of he were hafty and fmert ; 
Out of fterops he ftert, 

Fro Griffett j>e goode. 


" Griflett," q d Gawayn, " gon is, God wote ! 
He was )>e burlokeft blonke, that eu 9 bote brede ! 

XLII. fkirkes, MS. 


By him, J?at in Bedeleem was borne, eu 9 to ben cf bote, 

I fhaft venge J?e to day, if I con right rede ! 

Go fecche me my frefon, fairest on fote, 

He may ftonde J?e in i'toure, in as mekle ftede ; 

No more for )?e faire fole then for a rifffi rote, 540 

But for doel of J>e dombe beft, J?* }?us fhuld be dede ; 

I mdne for no montur 9 , for I may gete mare." 

Als he ftode by his ftede, 

pat was so goode at neede, 
Ner Gawayn wax wede, 

So fiked he fare.- 


Thus wepus for wo, Wowayn J> e wigfct, 

And wenys him to quyte, j?at wonded is fare ; 

pat oj?er dro$ hi on dre^t, for drede of fe kni}t, 

And boldely broched his blonk, on the bent bare. MO 

pus may fei 1 dryve forthe J?e day, to J?e derke night ; 

The foil was paffed, by ]?at, mydday and mare ; 

Witli in )>e liftes J?e lede lordly don ligfct ; 

Touard the burne, witfc his bronde, he bufked him J?are. 

To bataile fey bowe, with brondes fo bright ; 1 

Shene fheldes wer 9 fhred, 

Bright brenes by-bled, 
Many dou3ti were a-dred, 

So ferfely fei fight ! 


Thus J?ei feght on fote, on J?at fair 9 felde, 
As frefffc as a lyon, )?at fautes ]?e fille ; 

XLIV. > J) u i, MS. 


Wilele fes wigfet men, fail wepenes fey welde, 

* * * * * * * * ' 

He branched him yn with" his bronde, vnder fe brode flielde, 
porgti the waaft of fe body, and wonded him ille ; 
pe fwerde (lent for no ftuf, hit was so wel fteled ; M* 

pat ofer ftartis on bak, and ftondis fton ftille. 
Though he were ftonayed fat ftonde, he strikf ful fare ; 
He gnrdes to f Gawayn, 

ThorgtS ventaile, and pefayn ; 
He wanted no)! to be flayn 

pe brede of an hare.- 


Hardely fen fes hafelefe on hehnes fey he we, 

pei beten downe beriles, and btfdures bright ; 

Shildes on fhildres, f' fhene were to fhewe, 

Fretted were in fyne golde, fei failen in fight ; 575 

Stones of iral J?ey ftrenkel, and ftrewe, 

Sti)>e ftapeles of ftele fey ftrike don ftijt ; 

Burnes bannen fe tyme fe bargan was brewe, 

The dougtiti witfc dyntes fo detfully were dight. 

Then gretes Gayno 1 , w* bothe her 9 gray ene ; 

For fo dou3ti fat fijt, 

Were manly mached of might, 
With" oute refon, or right, 

As al men fene. 


Thus gretis Gayno r , with bofe her 9 gray yene, 
For gref of f Gawayn, grifly was wounded ; 

XLV. ' A line is wanting in the MS. 


The knigfet of corage was cruel and kene, 
And with a ftele bronde, fat fturne oft 1 ftonded ; 
Al J?e coft of [the 2 ] knyght he carf downe clene, 
porgh J?e riche mailes, J?at ronke were, and rounde ;] 590 

[foi. 160.] 'Swylke a touche at J?at tyme 3 he taughte hym in tene, 
He girdede 4 Galleron growelynge one grownde. 
'Galleron full greuoufely granes on J> e5 grene ; 
And 6 als wondede als 7 he was, 

'Swyftly vpe 8 he rafe, 

And folowde 'in fafte on his faas 9 ,-^ 

W l a fwerde fchene 1 


Clenly J>at crewefte cou 9 de hy 1 on highte, 

And w* a cafte 2 of J? e3 care, in kautette he ftrykes ; 

Tuft 3erne he wayttis Wawayne }> e4 wighte, eoo 

Bot hym lympede J> e werfe, and J?at me wele lykis. 

He etyttde with a flynge hafe flayne hym w t5 fleghte ; 

The fwerde 'fleppis on flante 6 , & one the mayle flydys 7 ; 

And * Gawayne by J) e colere clekis 9 the knyghte ; 

Than his lemane 'so lowde fkremes 10 and f krykis. eos 

'Scho grete 11 one dame 12 Gaymf, w* 'granes fo 13 grytte, 

'Andfaide 14 , "lady! makles of myghte,-i 

knyghte, - 

Giffeitbethi witt." ' 

XLVII. oft, MS. 2 This word is not in the MS. 3 With a teneful touche, 
MS. D. 4 gurdes. 5 Grrifly on gronde he groned on. 6 Om. 7 as. 8 Sone 
buredely. 9 Mt on his tras. 10 kene. 

XLVIII. * Om. 2 seas. 3 Om. 4 And waynes at fir Wawyn, J> e worfely. 
5 in. 6 fwapped on his fwange. 7 Hikes. 8 Om. 9 keppes. on loft fkrilles. 
11 Ho gretes. I2 Om. 13 gronyng. M Om. l5 Om. 16 yondre. 

R 2 



'Than wilfully 1 dame Wayno* Vn to* fe kynge went, 

Scho* caught of hir coronatte, & knelyde hy titt ; 

" Als J> u erte roye 4 ryatte, and 4 rechefte of rent, 

And I thyn* wyfe, weddid at myn 7 aweii witt, 

'$one beryns in }one batette, J?* bledis one jone 8 bent, 

pay are 9 wery, I wyffe, and wondide futt itt ; 

ThurgtS [her 910 ] fchene fchildis J?aire" fchuldirs are fchent ; 

[The grones of f Gawayn dos my hert grille. 14 ] 

The granes of f Gawayne greuys" me futt 14 fare; 

'Wolde ]> u , lufly 15 lorde, 

'Gare the 18 knyghtis accorde, 
It ware grete 17 comforde 

Titt 18 atte here 19 ware." 


'Bot fan hy fpake ! Galleron to Gawayne J? e gude : 
" I wende no 9 wy, in this werlde, 'were haluendette 3 fo wyghte. 
Here I make the relefe 'in my rentis 4 , by j?e rode ! 
And 'by-fore thiefe ryatte, refynge* the my ryghte ; 
And fythen I 8 make the manreden, w* a mylde mode, 
'Als to mane in this medilerthe 7 makles of myghte." 
[foi.i60 b .] He talkes to-warde )? e 'knyghte, one heghte 8 fere he ftode, 

XLIX. 1 Wifly. 8 to. 3 Ho. ioy (sic.) b Om. 6 J)i. 7 J?i. 8 pefe burnes 
jn |>e bataUe, fo blede on )>e. 9 arn. 10 Omitted in MS. L. " her. 12 This line 
it wanting in MS. L. 13 greuefi. 14 Om. !i Woldeft JKJU leve. I6 Make J>es. 
" a grete. 18 For. I9 )>ef. 

L. ' Then fpak fir. a neuer. 3 had ben half. * renke. 5 by rial reyfon 
relefe. 6 Om. 7 As man of medlert. 8 king, on hie. 


He 9 bedde ]?* burely his brande, J? 1 burnefchede was bryghte: 
" Of renttis and reches I make the relefe. 3 
Dowiie 'knelis fat 10 knyghte, 

And'carpis thies 11 wordes one highte;- 
The kyng ftude vp-ryghte, 

And 'comandis j? e12 pefe.- 1 


p e kynge 'comandis J) e ' pefe, and cryes 2 one highte ; 

And Gawayne was gudly, and lefte for his fake ; 

And 3 )>an 'to ]? e lyftis J? e lordis leppis 4 futt lyghte, 

f 'Owayne fyt^-Vryene, and Arrake, fuff rathe 5 ; &w 

'Marrake, and Menegafte 6 , J?at mafte were of myghte. 

Bathe J?afe trauelde 'knyghtes trewly )?ay taghte 7 ; 

Vnnethes 8 myghte v thofe knyghtes 9 ftande vp ryghte ; 

'pay were for-bett, & for-blede, J?aire wedis 10 wexe blake, 

[Her 9 blees were brofed, for beting of brondes. "] 

W* owtten more lettynge, 1 

'Was dighte there thiere femblynge 12 ;n And 14 helde vpe J?air 15 handes. 
By-fore ]?at" comly kynge, ' 


" 'I gyffe to the 1 , f Gawayne," 'quode )? e kynge, "trefoure 2 , and golde, 
'Glamorgans landis 3 , with greuys fo grene ; 
p e wirchipe of Wales, 'to welde and to 4 wolde, 

9 And. 10 kneled J>e. n carped. 12 comaunded. 

LI. ' comaunded. 2 cried. 3 Om. * lordes to liftes fey lopen. ' 3 Ewayn fij 
Brian, & Arrak fij Lake. 6 fir Drurelat, and Moylard. 7 men fey truly vp take. 
8 Vnnetn. 9 ]>o fturne. 10 What for buffetes and blode, her blees. " This line 
is wanting in MS. L. 12 Dijte was here fajtlynge. 1S fe. 14 pei. l5 her. 

LII. ' Here I gif. * w* gerfon. 3 Al fe Glamergan londe. 4 at wil and at. 


Witto Gryffons caftette 1 , kirnelde fo fl clene ; 

'And Y Huftere Hautte 7 , to hafe, and to holde, 

'Wayfurtfee, and Wakfelde, wallede 8 , I wene ; 

Twa baronryfe in Burgoyne 8 , w* burghes fo balde, 

That 'are moted 10 abowte, and byggede futt bene. 

I salt 'endowe j?e als" a duke, and dub the w 1 myn 14 hande, 

Witti YY saughtitt w l >ne " gentittknyghte,-. 

That es so hardy and wyghte, - -H And graunte hy his lande." 

And relefe hym thi 14 ryghte, - 


" 'Now, and here I gyffe hy," quod Gawayne ', " w l owttyn ony gyle, 

Atte Y landes, & Y lythes, fra Lowyke 8 to Layre ; 

'Commoke, and Carrike 3 , Conyghame, and Kylle, >& 

'Als the cheualrous knyghte hafe chalandchede als ayere 4 ; 

"The Lebynge, the Lowpynge, Y Leveaftre Ile s , 

Bathe 8 frythes, and foreftes, 'frely and 7 faire ; 

[Vnder $o r lordefhip to lenge J?e 8 while, 

And to j>e Rounde Table 'to make 9 repaire ; e-o 

I fhal refeff him in felde, I foreftf fo fair 910 ."] - 

Than" Y kynge, and Y quene, 1 

And atie the doghety by-dene, 1 To Carlele fay kayre. - 

Thorow Y g re uys so grene, ' 

4 caftelles. 6 ful. 1 Eke Vlftur haUe. 8 Wayford, and Waterforde, i Wales. 
9 Bretayne. 10 arn batailed. I1 di3tj>e. 12 Om. l3 ]>e. " his. 

LIII. ' Here I ^f fir Galeron, q d G. 9 Lauer. 3 Connoke, and Carlele. 4 Ori 
ginally in MS. D. pet if he haf cheualry, and chalange hit for are, but altered by a 
second hand to pet if he of cheualry, chalange ham for air. s pe Lother, ]>e Lemok, 
|>e Loynak, |>e Lile. In MS. L. the last word was at first written helle, then He, and 
lattly I lee. 8 With. 7 and foffes, 8 So written by the first hand, but altered to 
heren by a second. 9 By the second hand the first has only a. 10 The last word was 
originally written fare ; hence Pinkerton's text to fare. These lines within brackets are 
wanting in MS. L. " Bo}*. 



The kyng to Carelele es comen, w* knyghttis fo kene, 
To halde his 1 Rownde Tabitt, one ryatte arraye ; 
Thofe knyghtes 2 , J? 1 were 3 wondede futt 4 wathely, als 5 I wene, 
[foi. lei.] Surgeons 'sanede thaym 6 , fothely to saye. 

Bothe 'comforthede thaym than 7 , the kynge and the qwene , so 
Thay ware dubbyde dukes bothe one a daye ; 
'And ther f Galleron 8 weddid his wyfe, 'J?* femly & fchene 9 , 
With gyftis, and 'gerfoihs, off Gawayne 10 the gaye. 

'And thus thofe hathetts 11 w* haldis that heride; 

And 14 when he was faned 13 , and 14 fownde, 

pay made 'hyfh fworne to Gawane 1 15 y ftownde,- 'Vn titt 17 hislyuesende.- 
'And fythen 16 , a knyghte of J? e Tabitte Rownde, 


'Dame Gaynrf* garte befyly 1 wryte I 2 to Y wefte, 

To 'atte 'man 9 e of relygeous, to rede and to synge ; 690 

Priftes witfc proceffyons 4 [to p a y were preft, 

W* a mylion of 5 ] meffis, to make hir 6 menyge ; 

'Dukes, erles, barouns, and 7 bechoppes of 8 the befte, 

Thurgfie 'atte Yglande scho garte make menynge 9 . 

'And thus this ferlyes by-fette in a 10 forefte, 695 

Vndir an 11 holte fo bare 18 , at an 13 hunttynge ; 

LIV. 1 And al pe. 2 pe wees. 3 weren. 4 fo. 5 Om. 6 fone faued. 7 con- 
fortes ]>e knightes. 8 There he. 9 flonkeft [read wlonkeft], I wene. 10 garfons, fir 
Galeron. n pus fat hafel in hij. 12 Om. 13 faued. 14 Om. 15 fir Galeron. lfi Om. 

LV. l Wayno r gared wifely. 2 Om. s fe. * proceffion. 5 The words within 
brackets are omitted in MS. L. 6 ]>e. ? Boke-lered men. 8 Om. 9 al Bretayne 
befely ]>e burde gared rynge. 10 pis ferely bifelle in Englond. u a. 12 hore. 13 a. 


Swylke 14 hunttynge in 'holtis sulde noghte ben 14 hyde :- 

Thus to y foreftes 18 J>ay fore, 1 

Steryn" knyghttis 'and fture 18 ; This awntir by-tyd. - 
And 19 in > e tym of Arthure ' 

This ferly by-felle, futt fothely to fayne, 

In Yggillwode forefte, at J> e Ternwathelayne 1 . 


' Suche a. 1S haaft is nojt to be. l6 foreft. l7 pes fterne. > in ftore. '" Om. 
1 These two lines are not in MS. D. 



Cfje 3itttsi)ti Cale of (^olagtos; aito <atoane* 


IN the tyme of Arthur, as trew men me tald, 
The king turnit on ane tyde towart Tufkane, 
Hym to feik our J>e fey, that faiklefe wes fald, 
The fyre fat fendis all feill, futhly to fane ; 

With banrentis, barouis 1 , and bernis full bald, 5 

Biggaft of bane and blude, bred in Britane. 
Thai walit out werryouris, with wapinnis to wald, 
The gay eft grumys on grand, with geir fat my* gane, 
Dukis, and digne lordis, douchty and deir ; 

Sembillit to his fiimovne, 10 

Renkis of grete renovne, Of gold fat wes cleir. 

Cumly kingis with crovne, 

n. * 

Thus the royale can remove, with his Round Tabill, 

Of all riches maift rike, in riall array ; is 

1 baroms, ed. 1508. 

s 2 


Wes neuer tunclun on fold, but fencing or fabill, 

Ane farayr floure on ane feild of frefch men, in fay, 

Farand on thair ftedis, ftout men and ftabill ; 

Mony fterne our the ftreit ftertis on ftray. 

Thair baneris fchane with the fone, of filuer and fabill, 20 

And vthir glemyt as gold, and gowlis fo gay ; 

Of filuer and faphir fchirly J?ai fchane ; 

Ane fair battell on breid, 

Merkit our ane fair meid, Our fellis, in fane. 

With fpurris fpedely J>ai fpeid, 25 


The king faris with his folk, our firthis and fellis, 

Feill dais or he fand of flynd or of fyre ; 

Bot deip dalis bedene, dovnis and dellis, 

M on tains and marreffe, with mony rank myre ; 30 

Birkin bewis about, boggis and wellis, 

Withoutin beilding of blis, of bern, or of byre ; 

Bot torris, and tene wais, teirfull quha tellis. 

Tuglit and travalit thus trew men can tyre, 

Sa wundir wait wes the way, wit ye but wene ; 

And all thair vittalis war gone, 

That thay weildit in wone ; p* 1 fuld thair bute ben. 

Reflet couth thai find none, 


As thay walkit be the fyde of ane fair well, 40 

Throu J?e fchynyng of the fon ane ciete thai fe, 


With torris and turatis, teirfull to tell, 

Bigly batollit about with wallis fa he ; 

The yettis war clenely kepit with ane caftell ; 

Myght none fang it with force, bot foullis to fle. 45 

Than carpit king Arthur, kene and cruell, 

" I rede we fend furth ane faynd 1 to yone ciete, 

And afk leif at the lord, yone landis fuld leid, 

That we myght entir in his toune, 

For his hie renoune, For money to meid." 

To by vs vittale boune 2 , 


Schir Kay carpit to the king, courtes and cleir, 

" Grant me, lord, on yone gait graithly to gay, 

And I fall boid-word, but abaid, bring to you heir, 55 

Gif he be freik on the fold your freynd, or your fay." 

" Sen thi will is to wend, wy, now in weir, 

Luke that 3 wifly thow wirk, Crifte were the fra wa !" 

The berne bovnit to the burgh, with ane blith cheir ; 

Fand the yettis vnclofit, and thrang in full thra ; do 

His hors he tyit to ane tre, treuly that tyde ; 

Syne hynt to ane hie hall, 

That wes aftalit with pall ; And payntit with pride. o& 

Weill wroght wes the wall, 


The fylour deir of the deife dayntely wes dent, 
With the doughtyeft in thair dais dyntis couth dele ; 

1 fend, ed. 2 bonne, ed. 3 J>ot, ed. 


Bright letteris of gold blith vnto blent, 

Makand mecioune quha maift of manhede couth 1 mele ; 

He faw nane levand leid vpone loft lent, 

Nouthir lord, na lad, leif ye the lele. 

The renk raikit in the faill, riale and gent, 

p l wodir wifly wes wroght, with wourfchip & wele ; 

The berne befely and bane blenkit hym about ; 

He faw throu ane entre, 

Charcole in ane chymne, Birnand full ftout. 

Ane bright fyre couth he fe, 


Ane duergh braydit about, befily and bane, 

Small birdis on broche 9 be ane bright fyre ; so 

Schir Kay rufchit to the roift, and reft fra the fwane, 

Lightly claught 3 , throu luft, the lym fra the lyre ; 

To feid hym of that fyne fade the freik wes full fane ; 

Than dynnyt the duergh, in angir 4 and yre, 

With raris, quhil the rude hall reirdit agane. as, 

With that come girdand, in grief, ane wounder 5 grym fire ; 

With ftout contenance & fture he ftude thame beforne ; 

With vefage lufly and lang, 

Body ftalwart and ftrang, Of berne that wes borne. 

That fege wald fit with none wrang, s 

1 couh, erf. * brothe, ed. 3 clanght, ed. 

4 augir, ed. ' 3 wound, ed. 



The knyght carpit to fchir Kay, cruel and kene, 

" We think thow fedis the vnfair, freik, be my fay ! 

Suppofe thi birny be bright, as bachiler fuld ben, 

Yhit ar thi latis vnluffum, and ladlike, I lay. us 

Quhy has thow marrit my ma, with maiftri to mene ? 

Bot thow mend hym that mys, be Mary, mylde may, 

Thow fall rew in thi rufe, wit thow but wen, 

Or thou wend of this wane wemeles away !" 

Schir Kay wes haifty, and hate, and of ane hie will ; 100 

Spedely to hym fpak, 

" Schort amendis will I mak, Traift wele thair till." 

Thi fchore compt I noght 1 ane caik ; 


Thair vith the grume, in his grief, leit gird to fchir Kay, 105 

Fellit the freke with his fift, flat in the flure ; 

He wes fa aftonayt with the ftraik, in ftede quhare he lay 

Stok ftill as ane ftane, the fterne wes fa fture ! 

The freik na forthir he faris, bot foundis away ; 

The to]?ir drew hym on dreigh, in derne to the dure ; no 

Hyit 2 hym hard throu the hall, to his haiknay, 

And fped hym on fpedely, on the fpare mure. 

The renk reftles he raid to Arthour the king ; 

Said, " lord, wendis on your way, 

Yone berne nykis yow with nay ; It helpis na thing." 

To prife hym forthir to pray, 

1 noghr, ed. Byit, ed. 



Than fpak fchir Gawane the gay, gratious and gude, 

" Schir, ye knaw that fchir Kay is crabbit of kynde ; 

I rede ye mak forth ane man, mekar of mude, 120 

That will with fairnes fraift frendfchip to fynd ; 

Your folk ar febill and faynt, for fait of thair fade ; 

Sum better boid-word to abide, vndir wod lynd." 

" Schir Gawyne, graith ye that gait, for the gude rude ! 

Is nane 1 fa bowfum ane berne, brith for to bynd." i 

The heynd knight at his haift held to the tovne ; 

The yettis wappit war wyde, 

The knyght ca raithly in ryde ; Quhe he ves lightit' doun. 

Reynit his palfray of pryde, 


>chir Gawyne gais furth the gait, J? t9 graithit wes gay, 

The quhilk that held to the hall, heynd ly to fe ; 

Than wes the fyre in the faill 4 , with renkis of array, 

And blith birdis hym about, that bright wes of ble. 

Wourthy fchir Gawyne went on his way ; i 

Sobirly the fouerane faluft has he, 

" I am fend to your felf, ane charge for to fay, 

Fra cumly Arthur, the king, corteffe and fre ; 

Quhilk prays for his faik, and your gentrice, 

That he might cum this toun till, no 

To by vittale at will, Payand the price." 

Alfe deir as fegis will fell, 

1 naue, ed. lighit, erf. )>, erf. 4 faill, erf. 



Than faid the fyre of the faill and the fouerane, 

" I will na vittale be fauld your fenyeour vntill." us 

" That is at your avne will," faid wourthy Gawane, 

" To mak you lord of your avne, me think it grete fkill." 

Than right gudly that grome anfuerit agane, 

4 ' Quhy I tell the this taill, tak tent now thair till ; 

Pafe on thi purpos, furth to the plane ; iso 

For all the wyis I weild ar at his avne will, 

How to luge, and to leynd, and in my land lent ; 

Gif I fauld hym his awin, 

It war wrang to be knawin, Baldly on bent. 

Than war I wourthy to be drawin, 155 


" Thare come ane laithles leid air to this place, 

With ane girdill ourgilt, and vthir light gere ; 

It kythit be his cognifance ane knight that he wes, 

Bot he wes ladlike of laitf , and light of his fere ; IBO 

The verray caufe of his come I knew noght the cace, 

Bot wondirly wraighly he wroght, and all as of were. 

Yit wait I noght quhat he is, be Goddis grete grace ! 

Bot gif it happin that he be ane knyght of youris here, 

Has done my lord to difpleife, that I hym faid ryght, m 

And his prefence plane, 

I fay yow in certane 1 , As I am trew knight !" 

He falbe fet agane, 

1 tertane, ed. 



Schir Gavyne gettis his leif, and grathis to his fteid, 

And broght to the bauld king boid-word of blis,- 

" Weill gretis yow, lord, yone lufty in leid, 

And fays hym likis in land your langour to lis ; 

All the wyis and 1 welth he weildis in theid 

Sail halely be at your will, all that is his." 

Than he merkit with 8 myrth our ane grene meid, 

With all the beft, to the burgh, of lordis, I wis ; 

The knight kepit the king, cumly and cleir ; 

With lordis and ladyis of eftate, 

Met hym furth on the gate, With ane blith 3 cheir. 

Syne tuke him in at yate, 


He had that heynd to ane hall, hiely on hight, 

With dukis, and digne lordis, doughty in deid ; 

" Ye ar welcum, cumly king," faid the kene knyght, if* 

" Ay, quhil you likis and lift, to luge in this leid. 

Heir I mak yow of myne maifter of myght, 

Of all the wyis and welth I weild in this fteid ; 

Thair is na ridand roy, be refoun and right, 

Sa deir welcum this day, doutles but dreid. i*> 

I am your coufm 4 of kyn, I mak to yow knawin ; 

This kyth and this caftell, 

Firth, foreft, and fell, Reflaue as your awin. iw 

Ay, quhill yow likis to duell, 

1 in, ed. witht, ed. s bligh, ed. * rousing, ed. 



" I may refrefch yow with folk, to feght gif you nedis, 

With thretty thoufand tald, and traiftfully tight, 

Of wife, wourthy, and wight, in thair were wedis, 

Baith with birny and brand to ftrenth you ful ftright, 

Weill ftuffit in fteill, on thair ftout ftedis." aoo 

Than faid king Arthur hym felf, feymly be fight, 

" Sic frendfchip I hald fair, that forffis thair dedis ; 

Thi kyndnes falbe quyt, as I am trew knight !" 

Than thay bufkit to the bynke, beirnis of the beft ; 

The king crovnit with gold, ao& 

Dukis deir to behold, Gladit his geft. 

Allyns the banrent bold, 


Thair myght feruice be fene, with fegis in faill, 

Thoght all felcought war foght, fra the fon to the fee ; 210 

Wynis went within )>* wane, maift wourthy to vaill, 

In coupis of cleir gold, brichteft of blee ; 

It war full teir for to tell, treuly in taill, 

The feir courffis that war fet, in that femblee ; 

The merieft war 1 menfkit on mete, at the maill, 215 

With menftralis myrthfully makand thame glee. 

Thus thay folaift thame felvin, futhly to fay, 

Al thay four dais to end ; 

The king thankit the heynd, And went on his way. 

Syne tuke his leve for to wend, 220 

1 wai, ed. 
T 2 



Thus refrefchit he his folk, in grete fufloun, 

With out in wanting in waill, waftell, or wyne ; 

Thai turffit vp tentis, and turnit of toun, 

The roy with his Round Tabill, richeft of ryne. 2*$ 

Thay drive on the da deir, be dalis & douii, 

And of the nobilleft be-name, noumerit of nyne ; 

Quhen it drew to j>e dirk nycht, and J>e day yeid doun, 

Thai plan tit doun pauillonis, proudly fra thine. 

Thus iournait gentilly thyr cheualroufe knichtis, 230 

Ithandly ilk day, 

Throu mony fer contray, Holtis and hillis. 

Our the mountains gay, 


Thai paffit in thare pilgramage, )>e proudeft in pall, 23* 

The prince provit in prefe, that prife wes and deir ; 

Syne war j?ai war of ane wane, wrocht with ane wal, 

Reirdit on ane riche roche, befide ane riveir, 

With doubill dykis be-dene drawin our all ; 

Micht nane fame note with invy, nor ny* J?ame to neir. 240 

The land wes likand in large, and' luffum to call ; 

Propir fchene fchane j>e fon, feymly and feir. 

The king ftude vefiand )>e wall, maift vailyeand to fe ; 

On J>at river he faw, 

Cumly towns to knaw ; Thretty and thre. 

The roy rekinnit on raw, 

1 aud, ed. 



Apone fat riche river, randonit full evin, 

The fide-wallis war fet, fad to ye fee ; 

Scippis faland fame by, fexty and fevyn, 2W 

To fend, quhen fame felf lift, in feir cuntre ; 

That al f ai that ar wrocht vndir f e hie hevin, 

Micht nocht warne fame, at wil to ifche, nor entre. 

Than carpit f e cumly king, with ane lowd ftevin, 

" Yone is fe feymliaft ficht, fat euer couth I fe. 255 

Gif fair be ony keyne knycht, fat can tell it, 

Quha is lord of yone land, 

Lufty and likand, Fayne wald I wit." 260 

Or quham of is he haldand, 


Than fchir Spynagrofe with fpeche fpak to ye king, 

" Yone lord 1 haldis of nane leid, that yone land aw, 

But euer-lefting but legiance, to his leving, 

As his eldaris has done, enduring his daw." 

" Hevinly god !" faid the heynd, " how happynis this thing ? 265 

Herd thair euer ony fage fa felcouth ane faw ! 

Sal neuer myne hart be in faill, na in liking, 

Bot gif I loiffing my life, or be laid law, 

Be the pilgramage compleit I pas for faull prow, 

Bot dede be my deftenyng, 270 

He fall at my agane cumyng, I mak myne avow !" 

Mak homage and obliffing, 

1 lordis, ed. 





" A ! lord, fparis of fie fpeche, quhiU ye fpeir more, 

For abandonit will he noght be, to berne that is borne ; 275 

Or he be ftrenyeit with ftrenth, yone fterne for to fchore, 

Mony ledis falbe loiffit, and liffis forlorne. 

Spekis na fucceudry, for Criftis fone deir ! 

Yone knicht to fear w tl fkaitht, ye chaip nocht but fcorne. 

It is full fair for to be fallow and feir 

To the 9 beft that has bene brevit 3 you beforne ; 

The myghty king of Maffidone, wourthieft but wene, 

Thair gat he nane homage, 

For all his hie parage, Nor neuer none fene. 

Of lord of yone lynage, B* 


" The wy that wendis for to were, quhen he wenys beft, 

All his will in this warld, with welthis, I wys, 

Yit fall be 4 licht as leif of the lynd left, 

That welterf doun with the wynd, fa wauerand it is ; m 

Your mycht and your maiefte mefure, but mys." 

" In faith," faid the cumly king, " trou 6 ye full traift, 

My hecht fall haldin be, for baill or for blis ; 

Sail neuer my likame be laid vnlaiffit to fleip, 

Quhill I haue gart yone berne bow, m 

As I haue maid myne auow, Ful wraithly fal weip !" 

Or ellis mony wedou, 

1 wj> 1 , erf. 9 thee, erf. 3 beevit, ed. * he, erf. 3 throu, erf. 



Thair wes na man that durft mel to the king, 

Quhan l thai faw that mighty fa mouit in his mynde ; 3 oo 

The roy rial raid, withoutin refting, 

And focht to the ciete of Crifte, our the fait flude. 

With mekil honour in erd he maid his offering, 

Syne buf kit hame the famyne way, that he before yude ; 

Thayr wes na fpurris 2 to fpair, fpedely thai fpring ; 305 

Thai brochit blonkis 3 to thair fidis brift of rede blude. 

Thus the roy and his rout, reftles thai raid, 

Ithandly ilk day, 

Our the mountains gay 4 ; Withoutin mare abaid. 

To Rome tuke the reddy way, aio 


Thai plantit doun ane pailyeoun, vpone ane plane lee, 

Of pall and of pillour that proudly wes picht ; 

With rapis of rede gold, riale to fee, 

And grete enfenyes of the famyne, femly by ficht ; 315 

Bordouris about, that bricht war of ble, 

Betin with brint gold, burely and bricht ; 

Frenyeis of fyne filk, fretit ful fre, 

With deir dyamonthis bedene, J? 1 dayntely wes dicht. 

The king cumly in kith, couerit with croune, 320 

Callit knichtis fa kene, 

Dukis douchty bedene, How beft is to done." 

" I rede we caft ws betuene, 

1 Quhy, ed. * fpeirris, ed. 3 bloukis, ed. 4 pay, ed. 



Than fpak ane vight weriour, wourthy and wife, 325 

" I rede ane fayndis-man ye fend to yone fenyeour, 

Of the proudeft in pall, and haldin of prife, 

Wife, vailyeing, and moift of valour. 

Gif yone douchty in deid wil do your deuife, 

Be boune at your bidding, in burgh and in bour, sso 

Reflaue him reuerendly, as refoun in lyis ; 

And gif he nykis you with nay, yow worthis on neid, 

For to affege yone caftel, 

With cant men and cruel, Euer quhill ye fpeid." 

Durandly for to duel, 


Than fhir Gauane the gay, grete of degre, 

And fhir Lancelot de Lake, without lefing, 

And auenand fchir Ewin, thai ordanit that thre, 

To the fchore chiftane chargit fra the kyng. 340 

Spynagros than fpekis ; faid, " lordingis, in le, 

I rede ye tent treuly to my teching ; 

For I knaw yone bauld berne better than ye, 

His land, and his lordfchip, and his leuing. 

And ye ar thre in this thede, thriuand oft in thrang ; 345 

War al your ftrenthis in ane, 

In his grippis and ye gane, Yone fterne is fa ftrang. 

He wald ourcum yow ilkane, 



And he is maid on mold meik as ane child, 950 

Blith and boufum that berne, as byrd in hir bour ; 

Fayr of fell, and of face, as flour vnfild, 

Wondir ftaluart, and ftrang, to ftriue in ane ftour. 

Thairfore meikly with mouth mel to that myld, 

And mak him na manance, hot al mefoure ; * 

Thus with trety ye caft yon trew vndre tyld, 

And faynd his frendfchip to fang, with fyne fauour. 

It hynderis neuer for to be heyndly of fpeche ; 

He is ane lord riale, 

Ane 1 feymly fouerane in fale, Throu all this varld reche." 

Ane wourthy wy for to wale, 


" Thi counfale is convenabill, kynd, and courtefe, 

Forthi ws likis thi lair liftin and leir." 

Thai wyis, wourthy in weid, wend on thair ways, aw 

And caryis to the caftell, cumly and cleir ; 

Sent ane faynd to the fouerane fone, and hym fais, 

Thre knichtis fra court cum thay weir. 

Than the ledis belife the lokkis vnlauTis ; 

On fute frefchly thai frekis foundis, but feir ; 370 

The renkis raithly can raik in to the round hald ; 

Thair met thame at the entre, 

Ladys likand to fe, That With war and bald. 375 

Thretty knichtis and thre, 

1 Has, ed 



Thai war courtes, & couth, thair knyghthed to kyth, 

Athir vthir wele gret, in gretly degre ; 

Thai bowit to the bernys, that bright war and blith, 

Fair in armys to fang, of figure fa fre ; 

Syne thay fought to the chalmer, fwiftly and fwith, aw 

The gait to the grete lord femely to fe ; 

And faluft the fouerane fone, in ane fith, 

Courtefly inclinand, and kneland on kne. 

Ane blithar wes neuer borne, of bane nor of blude ; 

All thre in certane, 

Saluft the fouerane, Hatles, but hude. 

And he inclynand agane, 


'Than fchir Gawayne the gay, gude and gracius, 
That euer wes beildit in blis, and bounte embrafit ; a* 

Joly, and gentill, and full cheuailrus, 
That neuer poynt of his prife wes fundin defafit ; 
Egir, and ertand, and ryght anterus, 
Uluminat vith lawte, and with lufe lafit, 

Melis of the meflage to fchir Golagrus ; aw 

Before the riale on raw the renk wes noght rafit ; 
With ane clene contenance, cumly to knaw, 
Said, " our fouerane Arthour 

Gretis the with honour, His meffage to fchaw. 

Has maid ws thre as mediatour, *o 



He is the rialleft roy, reuerend, and rike, 

Of all the rentaris to ryme, or rekin on raw ; 

Thare is na leid on life of lordschip hym like, 

Na nane fa doughty of deid, induring his daw ; 405 

Mony burgh, mony hour, mony big bike, 

Mony kynrik to his clame, cumly to knaw ; 

Maneris full menfkfull, with mony deip dike ; 

Selcouth war the fevint part to fay at faw 1 . 

Thare anerdis to our nobill, to note, quhen hym nedis, 4io 

Tuelf crovnit kingis in feir, 

With all thair ftrang poweir, Worthy in wedis. 

And mony wight weryer, 


It has bene tauld hym with tong, trow ye full traift, 4i& 

Your dedis, your dignite, and your doughty nes ; 

Brevit throu bounte for ane of the beft, 

That now is namyt neir, of all nobilnes, 

Sa wyde quhare wourfcip walkis be weft ; 

Our feymly fouerane hym felf, forfuth, will noght cefe, 420 

Quhill he haue frely fangit your frendfchip to feft ; 

Gif pament, or praier, mught mak that purchefe, 

For na largefe my lord noght wil he neuer let, 

Na for na riches to rigne ; 

I mak you na lefing, Your grant for to get." 

It war his maift yarnyng, 

1 faw, ed. 

u 2 



Than faid the fyre of the fail, with fad fembland, 

11 1 thank your gracious grete lord, and his gude wil ; 

Had neuer leid of this land, that had bene leuand, 

Maid ony feute before, freik, to fulfil, 

I fuld fickirly myfelf be confentand, 

And feik to your fouerane, feymly on fyll. 

Sen hail our doughty elderis has bene endurand, 

Thriuandly in this thede, unchargit as thril, 

If I, for obeifance or boift, to bondage me bynde, 

I war wourthy to be, 

Hingit heigh on ane tre, To waif with j? e wind. 

That ilk creature might fe, 


Bot fauand my fenyeoury fra fubiectioun, 

And my lordfcip vn-lamyt, withoutin legiance, 

All that I can to yone king, cumly with croun, 

I fall preif all my pane, to do hym plefance ; 

Baith with body and beild, bowfum and boun, 

Hym to menfk on mold, withoutin manance. 

Bot nowthir for his fenyeoury, nor for his fummoun, 

Na for dreid of na dede, na for na diftance, 

I will noght bow me ane bak, for berne that is borne ; 

Quhill 1 may my wit wald, 

I think my fredome to hald, Has done me beforne." 

As my eldaris of aid 



Thai lufly ledis at that lord thair leuis has laught ; 

Bounit to the bauld king, and boidword him broght. 455 

Than thai fchupe for to affege fegis vnfaught, 

Ay the manlyeft on mold, that maift of myght moght ; 

Thair wes reftling, and reling, but reft that raught, 

Mony fege our the fey to the cite focht ; 

Schipmen our the ftreme thai ftithil full ftraught, m 

With alkin wappyns, I wys, y wes for were wroght. 

Thai bend bowis of bras, braithly within ; 

Pellokis paifand to pafe, 

Gapand gunny s of brafe, That maid ful gret dyn. 

Grundin ganyeis thair wafe, 466 


Thair wes blauing of bemys, braging, and beir ; 

Bretynit doune braid wod, maid bewis full bair ; 

Wrightis welterand doune treis, wit ye but weir, 

Ordanit hurdys ful hie, in holds fa haire, 470 

For to greif thair gomys, grameft that wer ; 

To gar the gay eft on grund 1 grayne vndir geir. 

Thus thai fchupe for ane fait, ilk fege feir ; 

Ilka fouerane his enfenye f hewin has thair ; 

Ferly fayr wes the feild, flekerit and faw 475 

With gold, and goulis in greyne, 

Schynand fcheirly & fcheyne ; In fcheildis thai fchaw 8 . 

The fone, as criftall fa cleyne, 

1 gruud, ed. 2 fchair, ed. 



Be it wes mydmorne and mare, merkit on the day, 

Schir Golagros mery men, menfkfiil of myght, 

In greis and garatouris, grathit full gay, 

Seuyne fcore of fcheildis thai fchew at ane ficht ; 

Ane helme fet to ilk fcheild, fiker of affay, 

With fel lans 1 on loft, lemand ful light ; 

Thus flourit thai the fore front, thair fays to fray, 

The frekis, that war fundin ferfe, and forfly in fight. 

Ilk knyght his cunyfance kithit full cleir ; 

Thair names wrictin all thare, 

Quhat berne that it bare, Might wit quhat he weir. 

That ilk freke quhare he fare, 


'' Yone is the warlieft wane," faid the wife king, 

" That euer I vift in my walk, in all this warld wyde ; 

And the ftraiteft of ftuf, with richefe to ring, 

With vnabafit bernys bergane to abide ; 

May nane do thame na deir with vndoyng, 

Yone houfe is fa huge hie, fra harme thame to hide. 

Yit fal I mak thame vnrufe, foroutin refting, 

And reve thame thair rentis, with routis full ride, 

Thoght I fuld fynd thame new notis for this ix yeir ; 

And in his avne prefence, 

Heir fall I mak refidence, With ftrenth me to fteir !" 

Bot he with force* mak defence, 

1 Iau8, <</. forte, ed. 



" Quhat nedis," faid Spinagrus, " fie notis to nevin 

Or ony termis be turnit, I tell you treuly ? 

For thair is fegis in yone faill 1 wil fet vpone fevin, 

Or thay be wrangit, I wis, I warne you ilk wy ; 

Narie hardiar of hertis vndir the hevin, io 

Or thay be dantit with dreid, erar will thai de ; 

And thai with men vpone mold be machit full evin, 

Thai falbe fundin right ferfe, and full of cheualrie. 

Schir, ye ar in your maiefte, your mayne, & your myght, 

Yit within thir dais thre, * 

The ficker 2 futh fall ye fe, And how thai dar fight." 

Quhat kin men that thai be, 


As the reuerend roy wes reknand vpone raw, 

With the rout of the Round Tabill, that wes richeft, 520 

The king crounit with gold, cumly to knaw, 

With reuerend baronis, and beirnis of the beft, 

He hard ane bugill blaft brym, and ane loud blaw, 

As the feymly fone filit to the reft. 

Agane gais to ane garet, glifnand 3 to fchaw, 5& 

Turnit to ane hie toure, that tight wes full treft ; 

Ane helme of hard fteill in hand has he hynt, 

Ane fcheld wroght all of weir, 

Semyt wele vpone feir ; And furth his wais wynt. 

He grippit to ane grete fpeir, 430 

1 faill, ed. filker, ed. 3 glifnand, ed. 



" Quhat fignifyis yone fchene fcheild ?" faid the fenyeour, 

" The lufly hehne, and the lance, all ar away, 

The brym blaft that he blew, with ane ftevin ftour ?" 

Tha faid fir Spynagrus with fpeche, " the futh 1 fall I fay. 535 

Yone is ane freik in his forte, and frefch in his flour, 

To fe that his fchire weid be f icker of alfay ; 

He thinkis provefe to preve, for his paramour, 

And prik in your prefence, to purchefe his pray. 

Forthi makis furth ane man, to mach hym in feild, MO 

That knawin is for cruel, 

Doughty dyntis to dell, With fchaft and with fcheild." 

That for the maiftry dar mell, 


Than wes the king wondir glaid, & callit Gaudifeir ; M 

Quhilum in Britane that berne had baronyis braid ; 

And he gudly furth gais, and graithit hif geir, 

And bufkit hym to battell, without mair abaid ; 

That wy walit, I vis, all wedis of veir, 

That nedit hym to note, gif he nane had. * 

Bery broune wes the blonk, burely and braid, 

Wpone the mold, quhare thai met, before the myd-day ; 

With lufly lancis and lang, 

Ane faire feild can thai fang, Baith blanchart & bay. 

On ftedis ftalwart and ftrang, w 

' fuch, ed. 



Gaudifeir and Galiot, in glemand fteil wedis, 

As glauis glowand on gleid, grymly thai ride ; 

Wondir fternly thai fteir on thair ftent ftedis, 

Athir berne fra his blonk borne wes that tide. m 

Thai rufchit vp rudly, quha fa right redis ; 

Out with fuerdis thai fwang fra thair fchalk fide ; 

Thair with wraithly thai wirk, thai wourthy in vedif, 

Hewit on the hard fteil, and hurt thame in the hide. 

Sa wondir frefchly thai frekis frufchit in feir, 555 

Throw all the harnes thai hade, 

Baith birny and breift-plade, Wit ye but weir. 

Thairin wappynis couth wade, 


Thus thai faught vpone fold, with ane fel fair, 570 

Quhill athir berne in that breth bokit in blude ; 

Thus thai mellit on mold, ane myle way and maire, 

Wraithly wroht, as thei war witlefe and wode ; 

Baith thai fegis, forfuth, fadly and fair, 

Thoght thai war aftonait, in y ftour ftithly thai ftude. 575 

The feght fa felly thai fang, with ane frefch fair, 

Quhil Gaudifeir and Galiot baith to grund yhude ; 

Gaudifeir gat vp agane, throu Goddis grete mightis ; 

Abone him wichtely he wan, 

With Y craft 1 that he can ; p e king and his knightis. 

Thai louit God and fanct An, 

1 craft, ed. 



Than wes Galiot the gome hynt in till ane hald ; 

Golagrus grew in greif, grymly in hart, 

And cailit fchir Rigal of Rone, ane renk that wes bald, 

" Quhill this querrell be quyt, I cover neuer in quert ! 

With wailit wapnis of were, evin on yone wald, 

On ane fterand fteid, that fternly will ftert, 

I pray the, for my faik, that it be deir fald ; 

Was neuer fa vnfound fet to my hert !" *w 

That gome gudly forth gays, and graithit his gere ; 

Blew ane blaft of ane home, 

As wes the maner beforne ; Away with his fpere. 5% 

Scheld and helm has he borne. 


the king crovnit with gold this cumpas wele knew, 

And cailit fchir Rannald 1 , cruell and kene, 

" Gif ony preffis to this place, for proves to perfew, 

Schaip the evin to the fchalk, in thi fchroud 2 fchene." 

The deir dight him 3 to the deid, be the day dew ; oo 

His birny, and his bafnet, burnift full berie ; 

Baith his horfe, and his geir, wes of ane hale hew, 

With* gold and goulis fa gay graithit in grene ; 

Ane fchene fcheild, & ane fchaft, that fcharply was fched ; 

Thre ber-hedis he bair, * 

As his eldaris did air, Of his blude bled. 

Quhilk beirnis in Britane wair, 

1 Kaunald, erf. - fchrond, ed. 3 hun, ed. wich, ed. 



Quhen the day can daw, deirly on hight, 

And the fone in the fky wes fchynyng fo fchir, eio 

Fra the caftell thair come cariand ane knight, 

Clofit in clene fteill, vpone ane courfyr. 

Schir Rannald to his riche fteid raikit full riht 1 , 

Lightly 2 lap he on loft, that lufly of lyre ; 

Athir laught has thair lance, that lemyt fo light, <ns 

On twa ftedis thai ftraid, with ane fterne fchiere. 

Togiddir frefchly thai frekis frufchit, in fay ; 

Thair fperis in fplendris fprent, 

On fcheldis fchonkit & fchent, In feild fir away. 

Euin our thair hedis went, ,120 


Thai lufly ledis belife lightit on the land, 

And laught out fuerdis, lufly and lang ; 

Thair ftedis ftakkerit in f e ftour, and ftude ftumerad, 

Al to-ftiffillit and ftonayt, the ftrakis war fa ftrang ! 2s 

Athir berne braithly bet with ane bright brand ; 

On fute frefchly thai frekis feghtin thai fang ; 

Thai hewit on hard fteil, hartly with hand, 

Quhil the fpalis, and the fparkis, fpedely out fprang. 

Schir Rannald raught to J? e renk ane rout wes vnryde ; OM 

Clenely in the collair, 

Fifty mailyeis & mair, Ane wound ty wes wyde. 

Euin of the fchuldir he fchair, 

' rihht, ed. 2 lighly, ed. 

x 2 



Thus thai faucht on fute, on the fair feild ; 

The blude famyt thame fra, on feild quhare thai foud ; 

All the bernys on the bent about that beheild, 

For pure forow of that fight thai fighit vnfound ; 

Schire teris fchot fra fchalkis, fchene vndir fcheild 1 , 

Quhen thai foundrit ane fel fey to the grund ; MO 

Baith thair hartis can brift, braithly but beild, 

Thair wes na ftaluart vnftonait, fo fterne wes j> e ftoud ! 

Schir Rannaldis body wes broght to the bright tent ; 

Syne to the caftel of ftone, 

Thai had fchir Regal of Rone ; Away with him wet. 

With mekil murnyng and mone, 



Thus endit the auynantis, with mekil honour, 

Yit has men thame in mynd, for thair manhede ; 

Thair bodeis wes beryit baith in ane hour ; MO 

Set fegis for thair faullis to fyng and to reid. 

Tha Gologrus graithit of his me, in glifnand 2 armour, 

Ane fchir Louys the lele, ane lord of that leid ; 

Ane vthir heght Edmond, that prouit paramour ; 

The thrid heght fchir Bantellas, the batal to leid ; eu 

The ferd wes ane weryour, worthy and wight, 

His name wes fchir Sanguel, 

Cumly and cruel ; Foundis to the feght. MO 

Thir four, treuly to tell, 

1 fcheid. ed. * glifnand, ed. 



Schir Lyonel to fchir Louys wes leuit, with ane lance ; 

Schir Ewin to fchir 1 Edmond, athir ful euin ; 

Schir Bedwar to fchir Bantellas, to enfchew his chance, 

That baith war nemmyt in neid, nobil to neuin ; 

To fchir Sangwel foght gude Gyromalance. m& 

Thus thai mellit, and met, with ane ftout fteuin, 

Thir lufly ledis on the land, without legiance ; 

With feymely fcheildis 2 to fchew, thai fet vpone feuin, 

Thir cumly knightis to kyth ane cruel courfe maid. 

The frekis felloune in feir, 670 

Wondir ftoutly can fteir, Rudly thai raid. 

With geir grundin ful cleir, 


Tha thair hors vith thair hochis fie harmis couth hint, 

As trafit in vnquart quakand thai ftand ; 675 

The frekis frefchly thai fare, as fyre out of flynt, 

Thair lufly lancis thai loiffit, and lichtit on the land ; 

Right ftyth, ftuffit in fteill, thai ftotit na ftynt, 

Bot bufkit to battaille, with birny and brand ; 

Thair riche birnys thai bet derfly with dynt, 680 

Hewis doun in grete haift, hartly with hand ; 

Thai mighty men vpon mold ane riale courfe maid, 

Quhill clowis of clene maill, 

Hoppit out as the haill ; Sa bauldly thai baid ! 

Thai beirnys in the bataill, &$ 

1 fhir, ed. fcheidis, ed. 



Thai bet on fa bryimly, thai beirnys on the bent, 

Briftis birneis with brandis, burnift full bene ; 

Tlirou thair fchene fcheildis thair fchuld 9 is var fchent, 

Fra fchalkis fchot fchire blude, our fcheildis fo fchene ; w 

Ryngis of rank fteill rat t i 1 1 it . and rent, 

Gomys grifly on the grand granis 1 on the grene. 

The roy ramyt for reuth 8 , richift of rent 3 , 

For cair 4 of his knightis, cruel and kene, 

Sa wondir frefchly thair force thai freft on the feildis ! 

Sa huge wes the melle, 

Wes nane fa futell couth fe, Bot God that al weildis. 

Quhilk gome fuld gouern the gre *, 


Tlie \vyis wroght vthir grete wandreth and weuch, 700 

Wirkand woundis full wyde, with wapnis of were ; 

Helmys of hard fteill thai hatterit, and heuch, 

In that hailfing thai hynt grete harmys & here ; 

All to-turnit thair entyre, traiftly and tewch, 

Burnift bladis of fteill throw birneis they here ; 7<w 

Schort fuerdis of fcheith fmertly thay dreuch, 

Athir freik to his fallow, with fellonne affere ; 

Throw platis of polift fteill thair poyntis can pafe, 

All thus thai threw in that thrang, 

Stalvart 8 ftrakf , and ftrang ; Thai doughtyis on dafe. 

With daggaris derfly thay dang, 

1 grams, ed. renth, erf. reut, ed. 

* thair, ed. * g ce> e # 6 Scalvart, erf. 



Schir Lyonell fchir Lowes laught has in hand, 

And fefit is Sangwell with Giromalans 1 the gude ; 

Schir Evin has fchir Edmond laid on the land, 715 

Braithly bartynit with baill, bullerand in blude ; 

Schir Bedwar to fchir Bantellas yaldis vp his brand, 

In that ftalwart ftour, thay ftyth men in ftude. 

Wes nane forffy on fold, that wes feghtand, 

Wnmaglit and marrit, myghtles in mude ; /*> 

Wes nane fa proud of his part, that prif it quhen he yeid ; 

Bedwer and Lyonell 

War led to the caftell ; To Arthour thay led. 725 

The cumly knight Sangwell, 


Schir Edmond loiffit has his life, and laid is full law 2 ; 

Schir Evin hurtis has hynt, hidwife and fair ; 

Knightis caryis to the corfe, wes cumly to knaw, 

And had hym to the caftell, with mekill hard cair ; 

Thai did to that doughty as the dede aw. 730 

Wthir four of the folk foundis to the fair, 

That wes dight to the dede, be the day can daw ; 

Than faid bernys bald, brym as bair, 

" We fal evin that is od, or end in the pane !" 

Thai ftuffit helmys in hy, 735 

Breift-plait and birny; All geir that 3 myght gane. 

Thay renkis maid reddy, 

1 Giromalaus, ed. - lav, ed. . 3 tbat, ed. 



Schir Agalus, fchir Ewmond, honeit and habill, 

Schir Mychin, fchir Meligor, men of grete eftait ; 740 

Than ftertis out ane fterne knyght, ftalwart and ftahill, 

Ane berne that heght fchir Hew, hardy and hait. 

Now ' wil I rekkin the renkis of the Round Tabill, 

That has traiftly thame tight, to governe that gait ; 

Furth faris the folk, but fenyeing or fabill, 745 

That bemyt war be the lord, luffum of lait ; 

Schir Cador of Cornwel, cumly and cleir, 

Schir Owales, fchir Iwell, 

Schir Myreot, mighty emell ; Foundis in feir. 

Thir four, treuly to tell, 750 



Thair wes na trety of treux, trow ye full traift, 

Quhe thai myghty can mach, on mold quhair thai met ; 

Thai brochit blonkis to thair fydis out of blude braift, 

Thair lufly lancis thai loiffit, and lightit, but let ; 755 

Sadillis thai temyt tyt, thir trew men and traift, 

Braidit out brandis, on birnys thai bet ; 

As fyre that fleis fra the flynt, thay fechtin fa faft, 

With vegeand wapnis of were throu wedis thai wet. 

It war teirfull to tell treuly the tend 750 

Of thair ftrife fa ftrang*, 

The feght fo fellely thai fang ; Yit laght 3 it ane end. 

poght it leftit neuer fo lang, 

1 Nov. erf. ftcang, erf. 3 laght, erf. 



Schir Oviles, fchir Iwill, in handis war hynt, 7< 

And to the lufly caftell war led in ane lyng ; 

Thair with the ftalwartis in ftour can ftotin, and ftynt ; 

And baith fchir Agalus, & fchir Hew, wes led to the kyng. 

Than fchir Golografe, for greif, his gray ene brynt, 

Wod wraith as l the wynd his handis can wryng ; 770 

Yit makis he mery magry, quhafa mynt, 

Said, " I fal bargane abyde, & ane end bryng ; 

To morne, fickirly, iny felf fall feik to the feild." 

He bufkit to ane barfray, 

Twa fmal bellis rang thay ; Wes fchene vndir fcheild. 

Than feymly Arthur can fay, 


" Quhat fignifyis yone rynging?" faid the ryale ; 

Than faid Spynagros, with fpeche, "fchir, fenf peir 8 , 

That fall I tell yow with tong, treuly in taill ; rm 

The wy J>* weildis yone wane, I warn you but weir, 

He thinkis his aune felf fhall do for his dail ; 

Is nane fa prouit in 3 this part of pyth is his peir. 

Yow worthis wifly to wirk, ane wy for to wail, 

That fal duchtely his deid do with yone deir ; 7s* 

He is J e forfieft freik, be fortoune his freynd, 

That I wait leuand this day." 

Than fchir Gawine J? e gay p* he myght furth weynd. 790 

Prayt for }> e iournay, 

1 ad, ed. a fen fpeir, ed. s is, ed. 




The king grantit J> e gait to fchir Gawane, 

And prayt to Y grete God, to grant him his grace, 

Him to faue, and to falf, Y is our fouerane, 

As he is makar of man, and alkyn myght haife. 

Than fchir Spynagros, Y freik, wox ferly vnfane ; 796 

Murnyt for fchir Gawyne, and mekil mayne maife ; 

And faid, " for his faik, Y faiklefe wes flane, 

Tak nocht yone keye knight to countir, in this hard cais. 

Is nane fa ftalwart in ftour, with ftoutnes to ftand ; 

Of al Jj 1 langis to the king, m 

The mair is my murnyng, Hynt vpone hand. 

Ye fuld this fell fechting, 


Sen ye ar fa wourfchipfull, and wourthy in were, 

Demyt with the derreft, maift doughty in deid ; * 

Yone berne in the battale wil ye noght forbere, 

For al Y mobil on the mold, merkit to meid." 

" Gif I de doughtely, the les is my dere, 

Thoght he 1 war Sampfone himfelf, fa me Crifte reid ! 

I forfaik noght to feght, for al his grete feir, 8 io 

I do the weill for to wit, doutlefe but dreid." 

Than faid fchir Spynagrofe, " fen ye will of neid 

Be bovn to the battale, 

Wirkis with counfale, And do it in deid. 

It fall right gret avale, 815 

1 the, ed. 



Quhen ye mach hym on mold, merk to hym evin ; 

And bere ye your bright lance in myddis his fcheild ; 

Mak that courfe cruel, for Cryftis lufe of hevin ! 

And fyne wirk as I wife, your vappins to weild. 820 

Be he ftonayt, yone fterne, ftout beis his ftevin ; 

He wourdis brym as ane bair, that bydis na beild ; 

Noy you noght at his note, that nobill is to nevin, 

Suppofe his dyntis be deip dentit in your fcheild. 

Tak na haift vpone had, quhat happunys may hynt, 825 

Bot lat the riche man rage, 

And fecht in his curage, Syne dele ye your dynt. 

To fwyng with iuerd quhil he fuage ; 


Quhen he is ftuffit, thair ftrike, and hald hym on fteir, w 

Sa fal ye ftonay yone ftowt, fuppofe he be ftrang ; 

Thus may ye lippin on the lake, throu lair Y I leir ; 

Bot gif ye wirk as wife, you worthis that wrang." 

The king and his knihtis, cumly and cleir, 

In armour dewly hym dight, be the day fprang ; SK 

Than wes fchir Kay wondir wo, wit ye but weir, 

In defalt of ane freik, the feghting to fang. 

That gome gudely furth gais, and graithit his geir ; 

Evin to the caftell he raid, 

Huvit in ane dern f laid ; Anairmit of weir. 

Sa come ane knight as he baid, 

Y 2 



That knight bufkit to fchir Kay, one ane fteid broune, 

Braifllt in birneis and bafnet, full bene ; 

He cryis his enfenye, and conteris hym full foune, M& 

And maid ane courfe curagioufe, cruell and kene ; 

Thair lufly lancis thai loiffit, and lightit baith doune, 

And girdit out fuerdis, on the grund grene, 

And hewit on hard fteill, hartlie but houne ; 

Rude reknyng raife thai 1 renkis betuene. no 

Thair mailyeis with melle thay merkit in the medis ; 

The blude of thair bodeis 

Throw breift-plait & birneis, Our ran thair riche vedis. SK 

As roife ragit on rife, 


Thus thai faught vpone fate, without fenyeing ; 

The fparkis flaw in the feild, as fyre out of flynt ; 

Thai lufly ledis in lyke, thai layid on in ane ling ; 

Delis thair full doughtely mony derf dynt ; 

Dufchand on deir wedis, dourly thai dyng ; so 

Hidwife hurtis, and huge, haiftely thai hynt. 

That knight carpit to fchir Kay, of difcomforting, 

" Of this ftonay, and ftour, I rede that ye ftynt. 

I will yeild the my brand, fen na better may bene ; 

Quhair that fortoune will faill, a 

Thair may na befynes availl." That clofit wes clene. 

He braidit vp his ventaill, 

1 thair, ed. 



For to reffaue the brand the berne wes full blith, 

For he wes byrfit, and beft, and braithly bledand ; m 

poght he wes myghtles, his mercy can he thair myth, 

And wald ty he nane harm hynt, with hart, & with had. 

Thai caryit baith to the kynge 1 , cumly to kyth ; 

Thair lancis war loiffit, and left on the land. 

Than faid he loud vpone loft, " lord, will ye lyth, 375 

Ye fall nane torfeir betyde, I tak vpone hand ; 

Na myfliking haue in hart, nor haue ye na dout ; 

Oft in romanis I reid, 

Airly fporne late fpeid." The knight that wes ftout. 

The king to the pailyeoun gart leid eso 


Thai hynt of his harnefe, to helyn his wound ; 

Lechis war noght to lait, with fawis fa fle. 

With that mony frefch freik can to the feild found, 

With Gologras in his geir, grete of degre ; 8& 

Armyt in rede gold, and rubeis fa round, 

With mony riche relikis, riale to fe ; 

Thair wes on Gologras, quhair he glaid on the ground, 

Frenyeis of fine filk, fratit full fre. 

Apone fterand ftedis, trappit to the heill, m 

Sexty fchalkis full fchene, 

Cled in armour fa clene, All ftuffit in fteill. 

No wy wantit, I wene, 

1 kynde, ed. 



That berne raid on ane blonk, of ane ble quhite, 

Blyndit all with bright gold 1 and beriallis bright ; 

To tell of his deir weid war doutles delite, 

And alfe ter for to tell the travalis war tight. 

His name, & his nobillay, wes noght for to nyte ; 

Thair wes na hathill fa heich, be half ane fate hicht ; MM 

He lanfit out our ane land, and drew noght ane lyte, 

Quhair he fuld fraftyn his force, and fangin his fight. 

Be that fchir Gawyne the gay wes graithit in his gere ; 

Cummyng on the ta fyde, 

Hovand battale to abyde, With fchelde, and with fpere. 

All reddy famyne to ryde, 


Thir lufly ledis on the land left be fame allane, 

Tuke nowthir fremyt nor freyndis, bot found thain fra ; 

Twa rynnyng renkis raith the riolyfe has tane, 910 

Ilk freik to his feir to freftin his fa. 

Thai gird one tva grete horfe, on grand q'hil thai grane ; 

The trew helmys, and traift, in tathis thai ta ; 

The rochis reirdit vith the ralch, quhe thai famyne ran ; 

Thair fperis in the feild in flendris gart ga. ii5 

The ftedis ftakerit in the ftour, for ftreking on ftray ; 

The bernys bowit abak, 

Sa woundir rude wes the rak, Couth na leid lay ! wo 

Quhilk that happynnit the lak, 



Thai brayd fra thair blonkis, befely and bane, 

Syne laught out fuerdis, lang and lufly ; 

And hewit on hard fteill, wondir hawtane, 

Baith war thai haldin of hartis heynd and hardy. 

Gologras grew in greif at fchir Gawane ; 925 

On the hight of the hard fteill he hyt hym, in hy ; 

Pertly put with his pith at his pefane, 

And fulyeit of the fyne maill ma 1 }?an fyfty. 

The knight ftakrit with the ftraik, all ftonayt in ftoiid ; 

Sa woundir fcharply he fchair, 930 

The berne that the brand bair ; Can to his faa found. 

Schir Gawyne, with ane fell fair, 



With ane bitand brand, burly and braid, 

Quhilk oft in battale had bene his bute, and his belde, 935 

He leit gird to the grome, with greif that he had, 

And claif throw the cantell of the clene fchelde ; 

Throw birny, and breift-plait, and bordour, it baid ; 

The fulye of the fyne gold fell in the feild. 

The rede blude with the rout folowit the blaid, 940 

For all the wedis, I wife, that the wy weild, 

Throw clafpis of clene gold, and clowis fa cleir ; 

Thair with fchir Gologras the fyre, 

In mekill angir and ire, Leit fle to his feir. 

Alfe ferfe as the fyre, 945 

1 may, ed. 



Sic dintis he delt to that doughty, 

Leit hym deftanyt to danger, and dreid ; 

Thus wes he handillit full halt, that hawtane, in hy, 

The fcheld in countir he keft our his cleir weid ; MO 

He wit on hard fteill, woundir haiftely ; 

Gart beryallis hop of the hathill, about hym on breid. 

Than the king vnto Crifte keft vp ane cry, 

Said, " Lord, as thow life lent to levand in leid, 

As thow formit all frute, to fofter our fude, 955 

Grant me confort this day, 

As thow art God verray!" For Gawyne the gude. 

Thus prais the king in affray, 



Golagras at Gawyne in fie ane grief grew, w 

As lyoune, for fait of fude, faught on the fold ; 

With baith his hadis in haift that haltane couth hew ; 

Gart ftanys hop of the hathill, that haltane war hold ; 

Birny and breift-plait, bright for to fchew ; 

Mony mailye and plait war marrit on the mold. <* 

Knichtis ramyt for reuth, fchir Gawyne thai rew, 

p l doughty delit with hym fa, for dout he war defold ; 

Sa wondir fcharply he fchare throu his fchene fchroud ; 

His fcheild he chopit hym fra, 

In tuenty pecis and ma ; Witlefe and woud. 

Schir Wawane writhit for wa, 



Thus wourthit fchir Gawyne wraith, and wepand, 

And ftraik to that ftern knight, but ftynt ; 

All engreuit the grome, with ane bright brand, 975 

And delt thairwith doughtely mony derf dynt ; 

Throw byrny, and breiftplait, bordour, and band, 

He leit fle to the freke, as fyre out of flynt ; 

He hewit on with grete haift, hartly with hand ; 

Hakkit throw the hard weid, to the hede hynt ; 900 

Throw the ftuf with the ftraik, ftapalis and ftanis, 

Schir Wawine, wourthy in wail, 

Half ane fpan at ane fpail, He hewit attanis ! sss 

Quhare his harnes wes hail. 


Thus raithly the riche berne raffit his array ; 

The tothir ftertis ane bak, the fterne that wes ftout ; 

Hit fchir Gawayne on J? e gere, quhil greuit wes the gay, 

Betit doune the bright gold, and beryallis about ; 

Scheddit his fchire wedis fcharply away ; 990 

That lufly lappit war on loft, he gart thame law lout. 

The fterne ftakrit with the ftraik, and ftertis on ftray ; 

Quhill neir his refoune wes tynt, fa rude wes the rout ! 

The beryallis on the land of bratheris gart light, 

Rubeis, and fapheir, ws 

Precious ftanis J?* weir ; That dantely wes dight. 

Thus drefe thai wedis fa deir, 



Thai gyrd on fa grymly, in ane grete ire, 

Baith fchir Gavine the grome, and Gologras the knight, 1000 

The fparkis flew in the feild, as fagottis of fire, 

Sa wndir frely thai frekis fangis the fight ; 

Thai lufchit and laid on, thai luflyis of lyre. 

King Arthur Ihefu befoght, feymly with fight, 

" As thow art fouerane God, fickerly, and fyre, i<* 

That 1 thow wald warys fra wo Wauane the wight, 

And grant the frekis on fold farar to fall, 

Baith thair honouris to faif." 

At Crift with credece thai craif, And thus pray thay all. 

Knight, fquyar, and knaif ; 1010 



Thai mellit on with malice, thay myghtyis in mude, 

Mankit throu raailyeis, and maid thame to mer ; 

Wraithly wroght, as thai war witlefe and wod, 

Be that fchir Wawane, the wy, likit the wer ; uu 

The ble of his bright weid wes bullerand in blude. 

Thair with the nobill in neid nyghit hym ner, 

Straik hym with ane fteill brad, in ftede quhare he ftude ; 

The fcheld in fardellis can fle, in feild away fer ; 

The toj?ir hyt hym agane with ane hard fwerd. 1020 

As he loutit our ane bra, 

His feit founderit hym fra ; Grulingis to erd. 

Schir Gologras graithly can ga 

1 At, ed. 



Or euer he gat vp agane, gude fchir Gawane 1025 

Grippit to fchir Gologras, on the grand grene ; 

Thair of gromys wes glaid, gudly and gane ; 

Lovit Crifte of that cafe, with hartis fa clene. 

Ane daggar dayntely dight that doughty has drawne ; 

Than he carpit to the knight, cruel and kene, ioao 

" Gif thou luffis thi life, lelely noght to layne, 

Yeld me thi bright brand, burnift fa bene ; 

I rede thow wirk as I wife, or war the betide." 

The to]?ir anfuerit fchortly, 

" Me think farar to dee, Ane fclander to byde. 

Than fchamyt be, verralie, 


Wes I neuer yit defoullit, nor fylit in fame, 

Nor nane of my eldaris, that euer I hard nevin ; 

Bot ilk berne has bene vnbundin with blame, KMO 

Ringand in rialte, and reullit thame felf evin. 

Sail neuer fege vndir fon fe me with fchame, 

Na luke on my lekame with light, nor with levin 1 , 

Na nane of the nynt degre haue noy of my name, 

I fwere be futhfaft God, that fettis all on fevin ! 1045 

Bot gif that wourfchip of were win me away, 

I trete for na favour, 

Do forth thi devoir ; Doutles this day." im 

Of me gettis thou na more, 

1 leme, ed. 

z 2 



Lordingis and lad vis in the caftell on loft, 

Quhen thai faw thair liege lord laid on the landis, 

Mony fweit thing of fware fwownit full oft, 

Wyis wourthit for wo to wringin thair handis ; 

Wes nowthir folace, nor fang, thair forow to foft, IMS 

Ane fayr ftonay and ftour at thair hartis ftandis ; 

On Crifte cumly thay cry, " on croce as thou coft, 

With thi blhTit blude 1 to bring ws out of bandis, 

Lat neuer our fouerane his caufe with fchame to echeif ! 

Mary, fareft of face, im 

Befeik thi fone in this cace, He grant ws to geif !" 

Ane drop of his grete grace, 


Thus the ledis on loft in langour war lent ; 

The lordis on the toj?ir fide for liking thay leugh ; i<*& 

Schir Gawyne tretit the knight to turn his entent, 

For he wes wondir wa to wirk hym mare wugh. 

" Schir, fay for thi felf, thow feis thou art fchent ; 

It may nocht mend the ane myte to mak it fo teugh. 

Rife, and raik to our roy, richeft of rent ; 1070 

Thow falbe newit at neid, with nobillay eneuch, 

And dukit in our duchery, all the duelling." 

" Than war I woundir vnwis, 

To purchefe proffit for pris, All my leuing. 

Quhare fchame ay euer lyis, 1.175 

1 hlude, ed. 



p e fege Y fchrenkf for na fchame, J? e fchent might hy fched, 

That mare luffis his life than lois vpone erd ; 

Sal neuer freik on fold, fremmyt nor freynde, 

Gar me lurk for ane luke, lawit nor lerd ; ioso 

For quhafa with wourfchip fall of this warld wende, 

Thair wil nane wyis, that ar wis, wary the werd. 

For ony trety may tyde, I tell the the teynd, 

I wil noght turn myn entent, for all this warld brerd, 

Or I pair of pris ane penny-worth in this place, \<m 

For befandis, or beryell ; 

I knaw myne avne quarrell, To dee in this cace !" 

I dreid not the pereill, 


Schir Gawyne rewit the renk, J? 1 wes riale, ioo 

And faid to J> e reuerend, riche, and rightuis, 

" How may I fuccour J? e found, femely in fale, 

Before this pepill in plane, and pair noght thy pris ?" 

" That fall I tel y with tong, trewly in tale, 

Wald yow denye Y m deid to do my deuis ; KX 

Lat it worth at my wil, J? e wourfchip to wale, 

As I had wonnyn }? e of were, wourthy and wis ; 

Syne cary to } e caftel, quhare I haue maift cure. 

Thus may yow faif me fra fyte ; 

As I am criftynit perfite, And fauf thyn honoure." 

I fall thi kyndes quyte, 



" That war hard," faid j? 1 heynd, " fa haue I glide hele ! 

Ane wounder peralous poynt, partenyng grete plight, 

To foner in thi gentrice, but fignete or fele, HM 

And I before faw J> e neuer, fickerly, with fight 1 ; 

To leif in thi laute, and thow war vnlele, 

Than had I caffin in cair mony kene knight. 

Bot I knaw thou art kene, and alfe cruell ; 

Or thow be fulyeit fey, freke, in J? e fight, UM 

I do me in thi gentrice, be Drightin fa deir !" 

He lenyt vp in J? e place ; 

The to)?ir raithly vpraife ; In feild of his feir ! m 

Gat neuer grome fie 8 ane grace, 


Than thei nobillis at neid yeid to thair note new ; 

Frefchly foundis to feght, all fenye, and thair fair ; 

Tua fchort fuerdis of fcheth fmertly thai drew, 

Than thai mellit on mold, ane myle way 3 and mare ; 

Wes newjrir cafar, nor 4 king, thair quentance J? 1 knew, 1120 

It ferny t be thair contenance ty kendillit wes care. 

Syne thai trailt in ty feild, throu trety of trew ; 

Put up thair brandis fa braid, burly and bair. 

Gologras and Gawyne, gracious and gude, 

Yeid to the caftel of ftane, im 

As he war yoldin & tane ; Sair murnand in mude. 

The king precious in pane 

1 fight, ed. - fit, ed. 3 wan, ed. 4 gor, ed. 



The roy ramand ful raith, y reuth wes to fe, 

And raikit full redles to his riche tent ; uao 

The watter wet his chekis, y fchalkis myght fe, 

As all his welthis in warld had bene away went ; 

And othir bernys, for barrat, blakynnit thair ble, 

Braithly bundin in baill, thair breftis war blent. 

" The flour of knighthede is caught throu his cruel te ! UK 

Now is y Round Tabil rebutit, richeft of rent, 

Quhen wourfchipfull Wawane, j? e wit of our were, 

Is led to ane prefoune 1 ; 

Now failyeis gude fortoune !" Grat mony fait tere. 

The king, cumly with croune, 1140 


Quhen y Gawyne the gay, grete of degre, 

Wes cummyn to J e caftel, cumly and cleir, 

Gromys of y garifoune maid gamyn and gle, 

And ledis lofit thair lord, lufly of lyere ; iu& 

Beirdis beildit in blife, brighteft of ble ; 

The tothir knightis maid care, of Arthuris here ; 

Al thus with murnyng and myrth thai maid melle. 

Ay, quhil J? e fegis war fet to the fuppere, 

The feymly fouerane of J? e fail marfchel he wes ; nso 

He gart fchir Gawyne vpga, 

His wife, his doghter alfua, War fet at y des. 

And of y mighty na ma, 

! prefonne, ed. 



He gart at ane fete burd )> e ftrangearis begin, uw 

The maift feymly in fale ordanit thame fete ; 

Ilk knyght ane cumly lady, y cleir wes of kyn ; 

With kynde contenance the renk couth thame rehete, 

Quhen thai war machit at mete, }> e mare and J?e myn, 

And ay the meryeft on mold marfchalit at mete. neo 

Than faid he lowd vpone loft, the lord of Y in, 

To al j> e beirnys about, of gre ]>* wes grete, 

" Lufly ledis in land, lythis me til 1" 

He ftraik the burd with ane wand, 

The quilk he held in hand ; Sa war thai 1 all ftil. 

Thair wes na word muuand, 


" Heir ye ar gaderit in groffe, al the greteft, 

Of gomys that grip has vndir my gouernyng 2 ; 

Of baronis, and burowis, of braid land J> e beft, 1170 

And alfe the meryeft on mold has intrometting. 

Cumly knightis, in this cace I mak you requeft, 

Freyndfully, but falffet, or any fenyeing, 

That ye wald to me, treuly and traift, 

Tell your entent, as tuiching this thing m* 

That now hingis on my hart, fa haue I gude hele ! 

It tuichis myne honour fa neir, 

Ye mak me plane anfueir ; I may noght concele. neo 

Thairof I you requeir, 

1 thair, ed. - goduernyng, erf. 



Say me ane chois, f e tane of thir twa, 

Quhethir ye like me lord, laught in the feild, 

Or ellis my life at J? e left lelely forga, 

And boune yow to fum berne, f * myght be your beild ?" 

The wourthy wyis, at Y word wox woundir wa, UK 

Tha thai wift thair fouerane wes fchent vnder fcheild ; 

" We wil na fauour here fenye, to frende, na 1 to fa ; 

We like yow ay as our lord, to were, and to weild ; 

Your lordfchip we may noght forga, alfe lang as we leif ; 

Ye fal be our gouernour, 1190 

Quhil your dais may endure, For chance J?* may cheif." 

In eife and honour, 


Quhen this auenand and honeft had maid this anfuer, 

And had tald thair entent trewly him till, nw 

Than fchir Gologras the gay, in gudly maneir, 

Said to thai fegis, femely on fyll, 

How wourfchipful Wavane had wonnin him on weir, 

To wirk him wandreth or wough, quhilk war his wil ; 

How fair him fell in feght, fyne how he couth forbere ; isw 

" In fight of his fouerane, this did j> e gentill ; 

He has me fauit fra fyte, throw his gentrice, 

It war fyn, but recure, 

p e knightis honour fuld fmure, Quhilk maift is of p'ce. 

That did me this honoure, iaw 

1 nar, ed. 
2 A 



I aught as prynce him to prife, for his prouefe, 

That wanyt noght my wourfchip, as he J? 1 al wan, 

And at his bidding fiill bane, blith to obeife, 

This berne full of bewte, ty all my baill blan ; mo 

I mak Y knawin, and kend, his grete kyndnes, 

The countirpas to kyth to him, gif I can." 

He raikit to fchir Gawine, right in ane race, 

Said, " fchir, I knaw be conqueft thou art ane kynd man ; 

Quhen my life and my dede wes baith at thi will, uu 

Thy frendfchip frely I fand ; 

Now wil I be obeyand, As right is, and (kill. 

And make j> e manrent with hand, 



Sen fortoune cachis the cours, throu hir quentys ; 1220 

I did it noght for nane dreid, J>* I had to de, 

Na for na fauting of hart, na for na fantife ; 

Quhare Crifte cachis )> e cours, it rynnis quently; 

May nowthir power, nor pith, put him to prife. 

Quha on-fortone quhelmys J? e quheil, thair gais grace by, 122* 

Quha may his danger endure, or deftanye difpife, 

That led men in langour, ay leftand inly, 

The date na langar may endure na Drightin deuinis. 

Ilk man may kyth, be his cure, 

Baith knyght, king, & empriour, & mater maift mine is. 

And mufe in his myrrour, 



Hectour, and Alexander, and Julius Cefar, 

Dauid, and Jofue, and Judas the gent ; 

Sampfone, and Salamon, Jj* wife and wourthy war, 123* 

And Y ryngis on erd, richeft of rent ; 

Quhen thai met at Y merk, than might thai na mair, 

To fpeid thame our Y fpere-feild enfpringing thai fp'nt ; 

Quhen fortune worthis vnfrende, tha failieis welefair, 

Thair ma na trefour ourtak, nor twyn hir entent. \w 

All erdly riches, and rufe, is noght in thair garde ; 

Quhat menis fortoune he fkill, 

Ane gude chance or ane ill ; Is worth his rewarde. IM* 

Ilkane be werk, and be will, 


Schir Hallolkis, fchir Hewis, heynd and hardy, 

Schir Lyonel lufly, and alfe fchir Bedwere, 

Schir Wawane Y wife knight, wicht and wourthy, 

Carys furth to Y king, cumly and clere ; 

Alfe my felf fall pafe with yow reddy, 12*0 

My kyth, and my caftel, compt his conquere." 

Thai war arait ful raith, that ryale cumpany, 

Of lordis and ladis, luffum to lere ; 

With grete lightis on loft, Y S^ grete leime ; 

Sexty torcheis ful bright, 1255 

Before fchir Gologras Y knyght ; In ony riehe reime. 

That wes ane femely fyght, 

2 A 2 



All effrayt of j> 1 fair wes the frefch king ; 

Wend the wyis had bene wroght all for the weir ; law 

Lordis laught thair lands, and went in ane lyng, 

And graithit thame to Y gait, in thair greif geir. 

Spynok fpekis with fpeche, faid, " moue you na thing, 

It ferny s faughtnyng thai feik, I fe he thair feir ; 

Yone riche cumis arait in riche robbing, 1*5 

I trow this deuore be done, I dout for na deir. 

I wait fchir Gawane Y gay has grathit this gait ; 

Betuix fchir Gologras and he 

Gude contenance I fe, Luffum of lait." 

And vthir knightis fo fre, mo 



The renk raikit to J> e roy, with his riche rout, 

Sexty fchalkis ]>* fchene, feymly to fchaw ; 

Of banrenttis, and baronis, bauld hym about, 

In clathis of cleyne gold, cumly to knaw. ms 

To Y lordly on loft Y lufly can lout, 

Before y l riale renkis, richeft on raw ; 

Saluft Y bauld berne, with ane blith wout, 

Ane furlenth before his folk, on feildis fo faw. 

The king crochit with croune, cumly and cleir, iw 

Tuke him vp by the hand, 

With ane fair fembland ; Did to Y deir - 

Grete honour auenand 



Than J> 1 feymly be fight faid to J? e gent, 1295 

Wes vailyeand, and verteous, foroutin ony vice, 

" Heir am I cumyn at this tyme, to your prefent, 

As to Y wourfchipfulleft in warld, wourthy, and wife ; 

Of al Y ryngis in erd richeft of rent, 

Of pyth, and of proues, peirles of prife. 1290 

Heir I mak yow ane grant, with gudly entent, 

Ay to your prefence to perfew, with al my feruice ; 

Quhare euer ye found or fair, be firth, or be fell, 

I fal be reddy at your will, 

In alkin refoune 1 and fkill, Treuly to tell." 

As I am haldin thairtill, 


He did the conquerour 8 to knaw all the caufe quhy, 

That all his hathillis in Y heir, hailly on hight ; 

How he wes wonnyn 3 of wer with Wawane Y wy, isoo 

And al the fortoune 4 Y freke befell in Y fight ; 

The dout, and J? e danger, he tauld him quently. 

Than faid Arthur him feluin, femely by fight, 

" This is ane foueranefull thing, be Ihefu ! think I, 

To leif in fie perell, and in fa grete plight ; 1305 

Had ony preiudice apperit, in Y partyce, 

It had bene grete perell ; 

Bot fen Y lawte is lell, The mare is thi price. isio 

That thow my kyndness wil heill, 

1 refonne, ed. * conquer, ed. 3 wounen, ed. * fortonne, ed. 



I thank the mekill, fchir knight," faid the ryall, 

It M ink is me hlythar to be than all thi braid landis ; 

Or all the renttis fra thyne vnto Ronfiwall, 

poght I myght reif thame with right, rath to my hadis." 

Than faid the fenyeour in fyth, femely in faill, uu 

" Becaufe of yone bald berne, that broght me of band is, 

All that I haue wndir hewyne, I hald of you haill, 

In firth, foreft, and fell, quhare euer that it ftandis. 

Se vourfchipfull Wawane has wonnyn to your hadis 

The fenyory in gouernyng, 1320 

Cumly conquerour, and kyng, As liege lord of lad is. 

Heir mak [I] yow obeifing, 


And fyne fewte I yow feft, without fenyeing, 

Sa Jj* the caufe may be kend, and knawin throw f kill ; 132* 

Blithly bow and obeife to your bidding, 

As I am haldin to tell treuly thair till." 

Of fchir Gologras grant blith wes the king, 

And thoght )> e fordward wes fair, freyndfchip to fulfil. 

Thair fchir Gawane the gay, throu requiring, 1330 

Gart J> e fouerane him felf, femely on faill, 

Cary to }> e caftel, cleirly to be hald, 

With all J> e wourthy y were, 

Erll, duke, and douch-fpere, That blyth war & baW. 

Baith banrent and bachilere, MM 



Quhen J) e femely fouerane wes fet in J) e faill, 

It wes felcouth to fe the feir feruice ; 

Wynis wifly in wane, went full grete waill 

Amang the pryncis in place, peirles to price. 1340 

It war teir for to tel, treuly in tail, 

To ony wy in this warld, wourthy, I wife. 

With reualing and reuay all the oulk hale, 

Alfo rachis can ryn vndir the wod rife, 

On Y riche riuer of Rone ryot thai maid ; 1345 

And fyne, on J? e nynte day, 

The renkis rial of array, With outin mare baid. 

Bownyt hame thair way, 


Quhen the ryal roy, maift of renoune, 1350 

With al his reuerend rout wes reddy to ryde ; 

The king, cumly with kith, wes crochit with croune, 

To fchir Gologras J? e gay, faid gudly Y tyde, 

" Heir mak I the reward, as I haue refoune, 

Before thir 1 fenyeouris in fight, femely befide, iw 

As tuiching J> e teporalite, in toure, and in toune, 

In firth, foreft, and fell, and woddis fo wide ; 

I mak releifching of fin allegiance ; 

But dreid I fall J? e warand, 

Baith be fey and be land, With outin diftance." 

Fre as I the firft fand, 

1 their, ed. 


$efr enUfe fte Hurt jrirtlp Cale of 0ola0tos ana <$atoa 
ne, fn t&e foutj) gaft of Ctrtnlmtgl), fte (Kaalter Cjjepman 
aiiti ^IntirotD pillar, tfte btrt* trap of ap'tte, tfte pftere of 


2 B 

No. I. 

(gatoene atto tfje Carle of Carelple* 


[MS. For- T YSTENNYTH, lordyng 9 , a lyttytt ftonde, 
foT^STl' JJ Of on Y 1 was fekor 9 and founde, 

And dou^gty in his dede ; 

He was as meke as mayde in bour 9 , 

And f to ftyfe in eu 9 y ftour 9 , B 

Was non fo dou^tty in dede. 

Ded 9 of arm 9 , wtt 1 out lefe, 

Seche he wolde in war 9 & pees, 

In mony a ftronge lede ; 

Sertaynly wtt outtyii fabuft, 10 

He was wtt Artt 9 at J? e Rounde Tabuft, 

In romans as we reede. 

His name was fyr 9 Gawene, 

Moche worfchepe in Brette he wan, 

And hardy he was and wy3te ; 

The yle of Brettayfi i-cleppyde ys, 

Betwyfi Skotlond & Ynglonde, I wys, 

In ftorry i-wryte a-ry3"te. 

Wallys ys an angutt of ]>* yle, 

At Cardyfe foiornde J) e kynge a whylle, 20 

Wtt mony a gentyft kny^te ; 

1 Sic, for w* or with, -passim. 
2 B 2 


That wolde to Ynglonde, to honte, 

As grete lordys dothe, and be wonte, 
[fol. 12.J Wtt hardy lordys and wygfte. 

Kynge Arttor 9 to his lordis gafi faye, 25 

As a lorde ryatt )>' weft maye, 

" Do vs to haue a mafse ; 

Byfchope Bawdewyfi fchaft hit dofi, 

The to Y forreft wofl we gofi, 

Aft that evyr 9 her 9 ys. so 

For nowe ys grece tyme of y l jeer 9 , 

That barus bolde fchulde hont )? e der 9 , 

And reyfe hem of her refte ; w 

Woder 9 glad was fyr 9 Mewreke, 

So was Y kny^t fy 1 ^ ^ e 7 Catocke, 35 

And o)? 9 mor 9 and lafe. 

Glade was Launccelet de Lacke, 

So was $ Percivatt, I vndor-take, 

And Lanfalle, I wene ; 

So was fyr 9 Eweyfi y Vytt yan, 40 

And fyr 9 Lot of Laudyafi, 

That hardy was & kene. 

Syr 9 Gaytefer 9 , and fyr Galerowne, 

Syr 9 Coftantyfi, and fyr Raynbrowfi, 

The knyjt of arm 9 grene ; 45 

Syr Gawefi was ftwarde of ]> e halle, 

He was maft 9 of hem aft, 

And bufkyde hem be-dene. 
[fol. 13.] The kyng 9 vncull fyr 9 Mordrete, 

Nobuft knyjtt 9 wtt hym gafi lede, so 

In romans as mefi rede ; 

Syr 9 Yngeles, ty- genttyle knyjte, 

Wtt hym he lede houndys wygjt, 

That well coude do her 9 dede. 

Syr 9 Le Byus Dyfkontis was )?are, ss 

i* * 

1 )*, MS. 


Wtt proude men les & mare, 
To make J> e doune der 9 blede j 
Syr Petty-pas of Wynchylfe, 
A nobuft knyjt of cheualre, 

And ftout was ofi a ftede. eo 

Syr Grandofi, & fyr Ferr 9 -vnkow]? e , 
Meryly they fewyde wtt mouthe, 
Wtt houndys }?* wer 9 wy3~t ; 
Syr Blancheles, and Iron-fyde, 

Mony a doughty J?* day cofi ryde, 6s 

On hors fayr 9 and Iy3te. 
Irouii-fyde, as I wene, 
Gat J? e kny^t of armus grene, 
On a lady bryg^t ; 

Sertenly, as I wndur 9 -ftonde, 70 

The fayr 9 may of Blanche-londe, 
[fol. 13V] In bour 9 , Y louely wyjte. 
Irofi-fyde, as I wene, 
I-armyd he wolde ryde futt clene, 

Wer J> e foufi nevyr 9 fo hoot 1 ; 75 

In wyntt 9 he wolde arm 9 bere, 
Gyantt 9 & he wer eu 9 at were, 
And aft way at ]? e de-bate. 
Fabele-honde hy3t ys ftede, 

His armys and his odir 9 wede, so 

Futt fayr 9 and goode hit was ; 
Of afur for 9 fothe he bare, 
A gryflyfi of golde futt feyr 9 , 
I-fet futt of golde flourr 9 . 

He coude mor 9 of venery & of wer 9 , es 

The att J> e kyng 93 )?* wer ther 9 , 
Futt oft a-fay hem he wolde ; 
Brennynge dragons hade he flayn, 
And wylde bull 9 mony won, 

1 hate? 2 knyjtes? 


That grefely wer i-holde. 
Byge barrens he hade i-bonde, 
A hardyer knyft myjjt not be fonde, 
Futt herdy he was, and bolde ; 
Therfor he 1 was callyd, as I hard fay, 

The kyng 9 fellowe, by his day, 

[fol. 14.] Wtt worthy knyjtt 9 i-tolde. 

A lyofi of golde was his crefte, 

He fpake reyfofi out of refte, 

Lyftyfi, and 36 may her 9 ; 

Wher eu 9 he went, be eft or wefte, 10 

He nold foi^-fake man nor 9 beft, 

To fyjt fer or 9 ner 9 . 

Knyjtt 9 kene faft they rane, 

The kynge followyd wtt mony a ma, 

V. C. and moo, I wene ; I05 

Folke foUowyd wtt fedyrt flofi 9 , 

Nobutt archarr 9 for ]> e nons, 

To fell Y fallow der 9 fo cleyfi. 

Barrens gafi her hornn 9 blowe, 

The der cam reykynge ofi a rowe, no 

Bothe hert and eke heynde ; 

Be that tyme was pryme of Y & & J> 

V. C. der 9 dede ofi a lond lay, 

Alonge vndur 9 a lynde. 

The fyr 9 Gawen & fyr 9 Key, us 

And befchope Bfcvdewyfi, as I yow fay, 

Aft 9 a rayfi-der 9 they rode ; 

Frowe )>* tym was prym of ]> e day, 
[fol.H>.] Tyi myde vndvu^-non, as I yow faye, 

Neu 9 ftyU hit abode. i> 

A myft gafi ryfe in a mor 9 , 
Barrens blowe her hornis (lore, 
Meche mofi fyr Key made ; 

> he-, MS. 


The reyne-der 9 wolde not dwelle, 

Herkon what avet 9 hem befelle, 125 

Herbrow J?ey wolde fayn haue hade. 
The fayde ]? e gentyft kny^t f Gawefi, 
" Aft J?is labur ys in wayne, 
For certen trowe hit me ; 

The dere ys paffyde out of our 9 fy^t, 130 . 

We mete no mor 9 wtt hy to ny^t, 
Hende, herkofi to me. 
I reede J?* we of our hors a-lyjt, 
And byde in ]?is woode aft nyt, 

And loge vndur Jns tree ;" 135 

" Ryde we hens," quod Keye a-non, 
" We fchaft haue harbrowe or 9 we gon, 
Dar no man wern hit me." 
The fayd J> e befchope, " I knowe hit well, 

A carle her 9 in a caftell, 140 

A lyttyft her 9 ner honde ; 
[fol. 15.] The Karl of Carllyft ys his nam, 

He may vs herborow, be fent Jame ! 

As I vndur-ftonde. 

Was I? 9 nevyr 9 baru fo bolde, 145 

That eu 9 my3~t gayftyn in his holde, 

But evyll harbrowe he fonde ; 

He fchall be bette, as I harde fay, 

And jefe he go wtt lyfe a-way, 

Hit wer but godd 9 fonde. 150 

Nowe ryde we pedyr 9 aft ]?re," 

Ther to fayd Key, " I grant hit J? e , 

Alfo mot I weU far 9 ! 

And as ]? u feyft hit fchaft be holde, 

Be J? e Carle neu 9 fo bolde, i 55 

I count hy not worthe an har. 

And 3eyf he be neu 9 fo ftovte, 

We woll hy bette aft a-bowt, 

And make his beggynge bar 9 ; 

. '^.T 

* *''*. j 


Suche as he brewythe feche fchaft he drenke, io 

He fchatt be bette )>' he fchatt ftynke, 

And a-;ciift his wyll be ther 9 ." 

Syr Gawen fayd, " fo hav I blyfe, 

I woll not geyftyn p? magreys, 
[fbl. 15>.] Thow I myjt neu 9 fo well ; IBS 

3efe any fayr 9 word 9 may vs gayn, 

To make J; e lorde of vs fuft fayn, 

In his oun cafteft. 

Key, let be thy boftfult fare, 

Thow goft a-bout to warke care, 170 

I fay, fo haue I helle ! 

I wott pray ]> e good lorde, as I yow faye, 

Of herborow tyll to-morrow daye, 

And of met & melle." 

On her 9 way faft they rode, 175 

At Y caftett-3at J>ey a-bode, 

The portt 9 callyd ]?ey fchulde ; 

Ther hynge a homyr by a cheyn, 

To knocke $ at fyr 9 Key toke dayn ! , 

The homyr 9 a-way he wold haue pold. iso 

The portt 9 come wtt a p 9 wey fare, 
+ And hem fonde he ther 9 , 

He axid what they wolde ; 

The fayd Gawen curttefly, 

" We be-feche ]> e lorde of herbory, IBS 

The good lorde of }ris holde. JJ 

The portt 9 anfwerd he a-gayn, 

" Your 9 meflage wold I do futt fayn, 
[fol. 17.] And je have haime, j?anke hyt not me ; 

$e be fo fayr 9 , lyme and lythe, 190 

And )? 9 to coly, glad Jjer 9 wtt, 

That comely hyt ys to fee. 

My lorde can no cortteflye, 

1 dedayn ? 


3e fchappyth notte w tt out a wellony, 

Truly trow 36 mee ; i 95 

Me rewyth for 9 je came Jris waye, 
And ar 9 je go fo woll 36 fay, 
But $efe mor 9 grace be." 
Portt 9 ," fayde Key, "let be thy care, 

Thow feft we mey no for}? 9 fare, 200 

Thow jappyft, as I wene ; 
But J? u woft on our 9 meffage 1 gofi, 
The kyng 9 keyis woll we tane, 
And draw hem doun c 9 teyn." 

Theportt 9 fayde, " fo mot I }>ryfe, 205 

Ther 9 be not ]?re kny^tt 9 a-lyve, 
That dorft do hit, I wene ; 
Wyft my lorde your 9 wordys grete, 
Some your 9 lyvys 36 fchold for 9 -lete, 

Or ell 9 fuft faft to-flen." 210 

The portt 9 went in to ]? e haft, 
[foU7b] Wtt his lord he mett wtt aft, 
That hardy was & bolde ; 
" Carl of Carllhyll, gode loke }> e ! 

At ]> e 3att be barun 9 J;re, 215 

Semley arm 9 to welde. 
To kny3tt 9 of Art 9 ys in, 
A befchope, & no mor 9 men, 
Sertayn as they me tolde ;" 

The fayd J> e Carle, be fent Mygheft, 220 

That tyjnng 9 lykyth me ryjt well, 
Seyth Y jns way wolde." 
WhS they came be-for 9 J?at fyr 9 , 
They fond iiij. whelp 9 lay about his fyer 9 , 
That grefly was for 9 to fee ; 
A wyld bole, & a fellon boor 9 
A lyoii, j? 4 wold bytte for 9 , 


1 mffage, MS. 

2 c 


Ther 9 of they had grete ferl j. 

A bege ber 9 lay loufe vn-bounde, 

Seche iiij. whelp 9 }> 9 )>ey foude, aso 

A-bout J> e Carll 9 kne ; 

They rofe, & came \> e knyjtt 9 a-gayn, 

And f > n | >' wold he hmue fleyfi, 

The Carle bade he let bee. 
[fol. 18.] Ly doun," he fayd, " my whelpys four 9 ," 235 

The JT* lyon be-gan to lour 9 , 

And glowyd as a glede ; 

The ber 9 to ramy, p 5 boole to groan, 

The bor he whett his tofkos foufi, 

Faft and j>at good fpcde. MO 

The fayd \t Carle, " ly ftyle, hardyfi !" 

They fett a-doun for 9 fer 9 of hyme, 

So for 9 J>ey gan hyme drede ; 

For a word Y Carle gan fay, 

Vnd 9 Y tabutt they crepyd a-way, MS 

Ther 9 of fjrr Key toke hede. 

The Carle ]> e knyjtt 9 can be-holde, 

Wtt a ftout vefage & a bolde, 

He femyd a dredfutt man ; 

Wtt chek 9 longe, & vefage brade, 250 

Cambur 9 nofe, & aft futt made, 
* Be-twyne his brow 9 a large spanc. 

Hys mo5th moche, his berd graye, 

Ou 9 his breft his lock 9 lay, 

As brod as anny fane ; 255 

Betwen his fchuldors, whos ry^t ca rede, 

He was ij. tayllors jard 9 brede, 

Syr Key merweld gretly \>a&. 
[fol. 18.] ix. taylloris 3erd 9 he was hy^tfcet, 

And f to legg 9 longe and wyjtht, aw 

Or ell 9 wondor 9 hit wer ; 

Ther was no poft in J>* haft, 
Grettyft growand of hem aS, 



But his J? e ys wer 9 }>ycker 9 . 

His arm 9 wer 9 gret, wtt outyn lefe, 266 

His fyng 9 is alfo, I wys, 

As any lege }>* we ber 9 ; 

Whos ftond a ftroke of his honde, 

He was not wecke, I vndur 9 -ftond, 

That dar 9 I fafly fwer 9 . 

nn_ 9 

Then fyr G. be-gan to cnele, 
The Carle fayd he myjt be knyjt wylle, 
And bad hyme ftond vpe a-non ; 
u Lett be J? 1 knellynge, getyft knyjt, 

Thow logoft wtt a carft to-nyjt, 275 

I fwer 9 by fefit Johfi ! 
For 9 her 9 no corttefly J> fchalt have, 
But carll 9 cortteffy, fo god me fave ! 
For 9 fertt 9 I can nofi ;" 
He bad brynge wyn, in gold fo der 9 , 1 
A-non hit cam i copp 9 cler 9 , 
As any foufi hit fchofi. 
[fol. 19.] iiij. gaUons held a cop, and more, 
He bad brynge forthe a grettor 9 , 
" What schaft J?is lytyll cope doun ? 
This to lyttytt a cope for 9 me, 
Whe I fytt by ]>* fyr 9 ofi hy, 
By my felf a-loun. 
Brynge vs a grett 9 bolle of wynn, 

Let vs drenke, & play fethyfi, 290 

Tyll we to fopp goun ? 
The butteler 9 brou^t a cope of golde, 
ix. gallons hit gane holde, 
And toke hit |> e Carle a-non. 

ix. gallons he hyld, and mare, 295 

He was not weke j?* hit bare, 
In his wofi honde ; 
The kny^tt 9 dronkon faft a-bout, 
And fethe a-rofe, & went he out, 
2 c 2 



To fe her 9 hors ftond. * 

Come and hey y had reydy, 
A lyttyll folle ftod hem bye, 
Wtt her hors faft ettand ; 
The beffchope put Y *l e a - wa 7> 

" Thow fchalt not be fellow wtt 1 my palfray, sos 

Whytt I am befchope in londe." 
[fol.!9 b .] The Carll }>e cam wtt a gret fpede, 

And afkyde " who hathe dofi Jris dede ?" 
The befchope feyd, " ]?* was I j" 

Ther 9 for 9 a bofett \P fchalt have, 310 

I fwer 9 , fo god me fave ! 
And hit fchaft be fett wytterly." 
" I ame a clarke of ordors hy3e, w - 
" 3ett cannyft }? u nojt of cortteffyje, 

I fwer 9 , fo mott I tryue !" 315 

He $afe Y beffchope a bofFett J>, 
That to Y ground he gan goo, 
In 4 fonynge he gann lyje. 
Syr 9 Key came in Y ^ san cas ? 

To fe his ftede j^er 9 he was, 3 

The foil fond he hym by; 
Out att Y dor 9 he drof hy out, 
And ofi Y backe ^afe hy a clovt, 
The Carle fe Y wtt hys y$e. 

The Cartt jaffe hym feche a boffett, ** 

That fmertly ofi Y grond hy fett, 
In fonynge gan he ly$e ; 
EuyU tavjt kny^tt 9 /' Y Carl g an %> 
u I fchaft teche Y ^ J> u wend a-way, 

[fol.20.] Sum of my cortteffye." 330 

The J?ey a-rofe, and went to haft, 
The befchope, and I Key wtt att, 
That worthy was i-wrogft ; 

' feUowtt, MS. a I, MS. 



Syr Gawe axyd w 9 ]>ey had byne, 

They feyd, " our 9 horflys we have fene, 335 

And vs for 9 foi^-thoght." 
Thg anfiwerd G. fuft curttefly, 
Syr 9 , wtt your 9 leyf }>e wyll I," 
The Carll knewe his thought ; 

Hett reynnyd, & blewe ftorm 9 felle, 340 

That well was hy, be bocke & belle, 
The herborow hade cav^t. 
Wtt out J> e ftabuft dor 9 \>* foU ga ftond, 
G. put hyme in a-gayn wtt his honde, 

He was aft wett, I wene ; 345 

As J? e foil had ftond in rayne, 
The keu 9 yd he hym fyr Gawene, 
Wtt his mattell of grene. 
G. J " ftond vpe fooll, & eette thy niette, 

We fpend her 9 )?at thy maft 9 dothe gett, 350 

Whyll }>* we her 9 byne ;" 
The Carle ftode hym faft by, 
And J>ankyd hy futt curtteflye, 
[fol.20b.] Manny fythis, I wene. 

Be Y" tyme her fop was redy dyjt, 355 

The tabull 9 w 9 hovfe vpe an hy^t, 

I-cowert they wer 9 fuft tyte ; 

Forth wtt Y wolde not blyne, 

The beffchope ga ]> e tabull begynne, 

Wtt a gret de-lytte. seo 

f Key was fett on J> e tdf fyde, 

A-^enft Y Carll 9 wyfe fo futt of pryde, 

That was fo feyr 9 & whytte ; 

Her 9 arm 9 fmatt, her 9 mydyll gent, 

Her yjen grey, her 9 brow 9 bente, 3 es 

Of curttefly fche was pfette. 

Her roode was reede, her 9 chek 9 rounde, 

1 G. fayd? 


A feyrror my$t not goo ofi grounds, 
Ne lowelyur 9 of fyfte ; 

Sche was fo gloryis & foo gay, 370 

I can not rekon her 9 a-raye, 
Sche was fo gayly dyjte. 
Alas ! thoug'ht Key, ]> tt lady fre, 
That p fchuldyft jms 1 i-pefchde be, 

Wtt feche a foulle we^tht ! " 375 

Sytt ftyll," quod y> Carl, & eete p mette, 
[fol.21.] Thow )nnkoft mor 9 ]>5 )> n darft fpeke, 
Sertten I the hyjt." 
I do yow aft weft to wette, 

Ther 9 was noo ma bade G. fitte, 380 

But in Y ha!* 6 flor 9 gan he ftonde ; 
The Carle sayde, " fellowe, a-nofi, 
Loke my byddynge be well i-donfi, 
Go take a fper 9 in thy honde. 

And at ]> e bottre dor 9 goo take thy pafle, 335 

And hitt me evyn in the face, 
Do as I the commande ; 
And $eyfe )? u ber 9 me a-jenft )) e watt, 
Thow fchalt not hort me wtt alle, 

Whyll I am gyaut in londe." 390 

Syr 9 Gawen was a glade man wtt J>*, 
At J? e bottre dor 9 a fper 9 he gatte, 
And in his honde hit hente ; 
Syr G. came wtt a gret ire, 

Doun he helde his hede |rat fyre, 395 

Tyll he hade geue his dentte 8 . 
He 3afe Y ftfi watt feche a rappe, 
That J>e goode fper 9 att to-brake, 
The fyer 9 flewe out of y flente ; 

[foL21>.] The Carl fayde to hym ful fofie, <> 

" Gentytt kny^t, > u haft wett donne." 

1 pis, MS. dette, MS. 


And be J? e honde hyme hente. 
A cher 9 was fette, for' I Gawene, 
That worthy kny^t of Bryttayne, 

Befor 9 J> e Carll 9 wyfe was he fett ; 405 

So moche his love was on her 9 ly$t, 
Of aft \> e fop he ne my$t, 
Nodyr drynke nor ette. 
The Carle fayde, G. comfort }^, 

For fynn ys fwete, & ^ I fe, 410 

Serten I the hete ; 
Sche ys myfi ]? u woldyft w 9 thynn, 
Leve feche J?o$tt 9 , & drenke ^ wynne, 
For her 9 ]?* fchalt nott geytt." 

Syr G. was a-fchemyde I his J?owt, 415 

The Carll 9 dovjtt 9 forthe was brovft, 
That was fo feyr 9 and bryjt ; 
As gold wyre fchynyde her 9 here, 
Hit coft a Mli. and mar 9 , 

Her 9 a-parreft pertly py3te. 420 

Wtt ryche ftonn 9 her clo]? 9 w 9 fett, 
Utt ryche peril 9 a-bout her 9 frete, 
[fol. 22.] So femly was that fyjte ; 

Ouyr 9 aft J> e haft gafi fche leme, 

As hit wer 9 a fon 9 -beme, 425 

That ftonn 9 fchone fo bry^t. 

Then feyde ]? e Carle to )>* bry^t of ble, 

" Uher ys \i harpe ]> u fchuldift have brojt w* j? e , 

Uhy haft ]? u hit for-gette?" 

A-non hit was fett in to ]> e haft, 430 

And a feyr 9 cher 9 wtt aft, 

Be-for 9 her 9 fador was fett. 

The harpe was of nrafei? rjme, 

The pynys wei 9 of goHej I wene, 

Serten wtt out lett ; 435 

Furft fche harpyd, & fethe fonge, 

Of love, & of Artorr 9 arm 9 a-monge, 


How j?ey to-geydor 9 mett. 

Uhe they hade fovpyde, & mad hem glade,, 

The befchope I to his chambur 9 was lade, 440 

Utt hym f Key }? e kene ; 

They toke f G. wtt out leflynge, 

To Y Carl 9 chab 9 ^ ga hy brynge, 

That was fo bryjt and fchene. 

They bade f G. go to bede, 445 

[fol.22".] Utt clothe of golde fo feyr 9 fprede, 

That was fo feyr 9 and bryjt ; 

Uhe y> bed was made wtt wynne, 

The Carle bade his oun lady go in, 

That loufefom was of fyjte. 450 

A fquyer 9 came w tt a p 9 wey far 9 , 

And he vn-armyde Gawen j^er 9 , 

Schaply he was vn-dyjt ; 

The Carle feyde, " fyr Gawene, 

Go take my wyfe I Y arm 5 tweyne, 465 

And kys her 9 in my fy3te." 

Syr G. anffwerde hyme a-non, 

" Syr, J? 1 byddynge fchatt be donne, 

Sertaynly in dede ; 

Kytt, or fley, or laye a-doune," 460 

To the bede he went fuft fone, 

Faft and that good fpede. 

For foftnis of Y ladys fyde, 

Made G. do his wyft )>* tyde, 

Ther of G. toke j? 6 Carle goode hede ; 465 

Uhe G. wolde haue dofi Y P 9ye y f?) 

The feyd )> e Carle, whoo ther 9 ! 

That game I \fi for-bede. 
[foL23.] But G. fethe J> n haft do my byddynge, 

Som kyndnis I moft fchewe )> e I any fringe, 470 

As fer 9 forthe as I maye ; 

Thow fchalt have wonn to fo bryjt, 

Schaft play wtt \> c aft Jris nyjte, 


Tytt to-morrowe daye." 

To his dou^tt 9 chambur he went fuft ryjt, 475 

And bade her 9 a-ryfe, & go to J? e kny^t, 
And wern hyme nott to playe ; 
Sche dorft not a-^enft his byddyng 9 don, 
But to G. fche cam fuft fone, 

And ftyle doun be hyme laye. 4so 

Now G." q' Y Carle > " holft V e wel1 payde?" 
" 3e, for gode, lorde," he fayde, 
" Ry$t weft as I my^te ;" 
" Nowe," q j y Carle, I woll to chambur 9 go, 
My bleflyng 9 I geyfe yow bouthe to, 485 

And play to-geydor aft Jris ny^t." 
A glad man was fyr Gawen, 
Sertenly as I yowe fayne, 
Of YIS lady bryjt ; 

Serten fothely for to fay, 490 

So I hope was J?at feyr maye, 
[fol. 23".] Of ]? 4 genttytt knyjt. 

" Mary, mercy !" Jjoujt y- lady bry^te, 

" Her come neu 9 fuche a kny^t, 

Of aft that her 9 hathe bene ; " 495 

Syr Key a-rose vppon J? e morrowii, 

And toke his hors, & wolde a-goiie, 

Homwarde, as I wenne. 

" Nay, I Key," )? e befchope gafi feye, 

" We l woft not fo wende our 9 waye, 500 

Tytt we f G. have fene ;" 

The Carft a-rofe, on morrow a-non, 

And fond his byddynge reddy doune, 

His dyner i-dyt fuft cleyne. 

To a mas they lett knelle, sos 

Syr G. a-rofe, & went );er 9 tyft, 

And kyft )?at lady bry^t & cler 9 j 

' Ne, MS. 
2 D 


\ " Mare, m*ce \" feyde )>* lady bryjt, 

" Uher 9 I fchaft fe enny mor 9 ]ns knyjt, 

That hathe ley my body fo ner 9 ?" 510 

Uhe" Y me ^ e was doune to ende, 

Syr 9 G. toke his leve to wende, 

And )>onkyde hym of his cher 9 ; 

" Furft," fayde Y Carle, "je fchalt dynfi, 
[fol.24.] And on my bleflynge wende home fyne, 515 

Homward al yn fere 1 . 

Hit is xx ti . wynt 9 gofi," fayde y Karle, " nowe, 

That god I make a-vowe, 

Ther 9 fore I was fulle fad ; 

Ther 9 fchulde neu 9 man logge I my won s , 520 

But he fcholde be flayne, I wys, 

But he did as I hym bad. 

But he wolde do my byddynge bowne, 

He fchulde be flayne, C layde a-downe, 

Whedir 9 he wer 9 lorde or lad* ; 525 

Fonde I neu 9 , G. none but the, 

Nowe gode of heuyfi yelde hit the, 

Ther 9 fore I am fulle glade. 

He yelde j> e ," fayde J* Carle, " ty Y dere bou^te ! 

For al my bale to blyffe is broujte, sso 

Throuje helpe of Mary quene ;" 

He lade G. yn to a wilfome won 5 , 

There as lay x. fodir 9 of dede men bonys, 

Al yn blode, as I wene ; 

Ther 9 hynge many a blody ferke, 535 

And eche of heme a dyuers marke, 

Grete doole hit was to fee 8 . 
[fol.24>.] This Howe I, G. and my helpis, 

I and alfo my four 9 whelpis, 

For fothe as I the fay ; 540 

1 This line is by a second, but coeeval hand. 
8 fene ? 


Nowe wulle I forfake my wyckyd lawys, 
J? 9 fchaft no mo men her 9 be flawe, I wys, 
As fer 1 forthe as I may. 
G. for the love of the, 

Al fchal be welcome to me, 545 

p t comythe her 9 by this way ; 
And for alle thefe fowlys I vndirtake, 
A chauntery her wul I lete make, 
x. preftis fyngynge til domys-day." 

Be that tyme her 9 dyner 9 was redy dyjte, sso 

Tables wer 9 hovyn 9 vp an hyjte, 
I-keuerid j?ei were fulle clene ; 
Syr G. and ]> s lady dere, 
They were i-ftiyd bothe i-fer 9 , 

Myche myrthe was theme bytwene. 555 

Ther 9 fore ]? e Carle was fuft glade, 
The byfchop & Kay he bad, 
Mery ]?* ]?ei fcholde bene ; 
He ^afe Y bifchop to his bleflynge, 

A cros, a myter, & a rynge, 560 

A clothe of golde, I wene ; 
He 3af f Kay, ]> e angery knygnt, 
[fol.25.]5 A blode-rede ftede, and a whight, 
Suche on had he neu 9 fene. 

He 3af f G. fothe to fay, sea 

His doubter, & a wlu^te palfray, 
A somer i-chargid w* golde ; 
Sche was fo gloryous fo gay, 
I kowde not rekyn here a-ray, 

So bry^te was alle her 9 molde 1 570 

" Nowe ryde for]? e , G. on my bleffynge, 
And grete wel Artyr, Y is yo* kynge, 
And pray hym )?* he wolde ; 
For his loue Y yn Bedlem was borne, 

ferth, MS. 
2 D 2 


That he wull dyne w me to-morne," 578 

G. feyde he fcholde. 
Then }>ei rode fyngynge a-way, 
W* )> yonge lady on her 9 palfray, 
p* was fo fayr 9 & brygtite ; 

They tolde kynge Artir wher 9 ]?ei had bene, wo 

And what wondirs J>ei had fene, 
Serteynly in her 9 fyght. 
" Nowe thonkyd be god, cofyn Gawyfi, 
p* |> u fcapift a-lyve vn-flayne, 

Serteyne, w 4 alle my myght ;" 685 

" And I, f kynge," fayd f Kay a-gayne, 
[fol.25 b .] That eu 9 I fcapid a-way vn-flayne, 
My hert was neuyr 9 fo lygnt. 

p Carle p a yde you for his love J>* yn Bedle was borne, 
That ye wolde dyne w* hyfn to-morne," 590 

Kynge Arf fone hym hyght ; 
In ]> e dawnynge for]?e J?ey rade, 
A ryalle metynge ^er 9 was i-made, 
Of many a ientylle knygtit. 

Trompettis mette hem at Y g*^ 59s 

Clarions of filuer 9 redy ^er 9 ate, 
Serteyne wyttloutyn lette ; 
Harpe, fedylle, and fawtry, 
Lute, geterofi, & merely, 

In to Y halle knyghtis hem fett. eoo 

The Carle knelyd' downe on his kne, 

And welcomyd' )?e kynge wurthyly, 

W* wordis ware and wyfe ; 

When Y kynge to \>e halle was brought, 

Nothynge j^er 9 ne wantyd* nought, 605 

That any man kowde deuyfe. 

The wallys glemyd as any glafle, 

W* dyapir colour wrou^te hit was, 

Of golde, afur 9 , and byfe ; 

W 4 tabernacles was )>e halle a-bou^te, 610 


[fol.2C.] W 4 pynnacles of golde, fterae and ftoute, 

Ther 9 cowde no man hem preyfe. 

Trompettys trompid vp in grete hete, 

The kynge lete fey g"ce, wente to mete, 

And was i-fuyde w* oute lette ; 615 

Swannys, fefautys, 5 cranys, 

Partrigis, plouers, and curlewys, 

Be-fore }?e kynge was fette. 

The Carle feyde to }?e kynge, " dothe gladly, 

Here get ye no nojnr 9 curtefy, 620 

As I vndir-ftonde ;" 

W* ]rat come yn bollys of golde fo grete, 

Ther was no knyght fat at ]?e mete, 

Myght lyfte hem w* his on honde. 

The kynge fwore by feynte Myghelle, 625 

"This dyner 9 lykythe me as welle, 

As any )>at euyr 9 Y fonde ;" 

A dubbyd hym knyght on the morne, 

The centre of Carelyle he ^efe hym fone, 

To be lorde of J?at londe. eao 

" Her 9 I make )>e, yn Jns ftownde, 

A knyght of )>e Table Rownde, 

Karlyle |?i name fchalle be ;" 
[fol. 26 b .] On the morne, when hit was day-lyght, 

Syr G. weddyid' |?at lady bryght, e.% 

That femely was to fe. 

Than )>e Carle was glade and blythe, 

And thonkyd }>e kynge fele fythe, 

For fothe as I yow fay ; 

A ryche fefte had' he i-dyght 1 , 640 

That laftyd holy a fortenyght, 

W* game, myrthe, and playe. 

The mynftrellis had yeftys fre, 

That ]?ey myght ]?e better be, 

1 i-dygft, MS, 


To fpende many a day ; 645 

And when |>e fefte was broujte to ende, 
Lordis toke here leve to wende, 
Homwarde on her 9 way. 
A ryche Abbey ]>e Carle gan make, 

To fynge and rede 1 for goddis fake, wo 

In wurfchip of our 9 lady ; 
In the towne of mery Carelyle, 
He lete hit bylde ftronge wele, 
Hit is a byfchoppis fee. 

And J>er yn monkys gray, ess 

To rede and fynge tille domys-day, 
[fol.27.] As men tolde hit me ; 

For the men JA he had flayne, I wis, 

Jhu Cryfte, brynge vs to thy blis, 

Aboue in heuj'fi, yn thy fee ! AMEN. eeo 

redee, MS. 

No. II. 

Cfje ftaste of 

[MS. And fayde, " I dreede no threte ; 
fol. if).] I haue founde youe here in my chafe," 
And in hys armes he gan her brace, 
With kyfsynge of mowthes fweete. 

There Syr Gawayne made fuch chere, 5 

That greate frendefhyp he founde there, 
With that fayre lady fo gaye ; 
Suche chere he made, and fuche femblaunce, 
That longed to loue he had her countenaunce, 
With oute any more delaye. -10 

He had not taryed with her longe, 
But there came a knyght tall and ftronge, 
Vnto the pauylion he wente ; 
He founde Syr Gawayne with that lady fayre, 
" Syr knyght, thow makest an euyll repayre, is 

That wyll make the fhente. 
Yt ys my doughter that thow lyest by, 
Thowe hast done me great vyllanye, 
Amende yt mayst thou nought ; 
Thou haste greate fortune with that dame, 20 


Tyll nowe neuer man coulde for fhame, 

I fee, Syr knyght, that thou hast wrought. 

Wherefore I fee fortune ys thy frynde, 

But haftely vnto harnes nowe thou wynde," 

Thau fayed that bolde knyght ; 25 

" Thou hast done me mnche dyfhonoure, 

And may not amende yt, by Mary floure ! 

Therefore hastelye the dyght." 

Than befpake Syr Gawayne, and thus he fayde, 

" I fuppofe I haue the loue of the mayde, 30 

Suche grace on her haue I founde ; 

But and youe be her father deere, 
[fol. lo b .] Syr, amendes nowe wyll I make here, 

As I am to knyght-hode bounde. 

Nowe all forewardes I wyll fullfyll, 35 

And make amendes youe vntyll, 

And lette me pafse quyte ;" 

" Naye," fayed the olde knyght than, 

" Fyrst wyll we afsaye oure myghtes as we can, 

Or elfe yt were a dyfpyte." 40 

Nowe fayde Gawayne, " I graunte yt the, 

Sythe yt none otherwife wyll be, 

[Here is inserted a drawing.'] 
[fol. 16.] Nedes muft that nedes fhall ;" 

He toke hys ftronge horfe by the brydle, 

And lyghtly lepte in to the faddle, 45 

As a knyght good and royall. 

He toke a fpere that was greate and ftronge, 

And forthe he wente, a large furlonge, 

And turned hys horfe with mayne ; 

They feutred theyr fpeares, thefe knyghtes good, 50 

And rufshed together with eger moode, 

Aboue on the mountayne. 

Gawayne fmotte thys knyght fo foore, 

That hys horfe with ftrenght he ouerthrewe thore, 

And on the groundc he laye vpright ; 55 


Syr Gawayne turned hys horfe agayne, 
And sayde, (t fyr knyght, wyll ye any more fayne ?" 
<e Naye," he fayed, for he ne myght. 
" I yelde me, Syr knyght, in to thy hande, 

For thou arte to ftyffe for me to ftande, eo 

My lyfe thou graunte me ;" 
(< On thys couenaunte," Syr Gawayne fayde, 
" That ye do no harme vnto the mayde, 
I am a-greed that yt so be. 

Alfo ye f hall fwere on my fwerde here, 65 

That none armes agaynst me ye fhall beare, 
Ney ther to daye nor to nyght ; 
And then take your horfe, and wende your waye, 
And I fhall do the belt that I maye, 

As I am a trewe knyght." 70 

There thys knyght fware, and dyd pafse, 
Syr Gylbert called he was, 
A ryche earle, ftyffe and 1 ftoure ; 
He fayde, " Syr knyght, take good kepe, 

[fol. 16 b .] For better fhalt thou be afsayled or thou flepe, 75 

With many a f harpe fhoure." 
Than fayd Gawayne, " I beleue right well, 
Whan they come, youe fhall here tell 
Howe the game fhall goo ; 

I am no we here in my playnge, so 

I wyll not go awaye for ho threatynge, 
Or that I will feele more woo." 
Than Syr Gylberte wente hys waye, 
Hys horfe was gone downe the valaye, 

On foote he must hym abyde ; 86 

He yode downe, without wordes more, 
The ftrokes greaued hym full foore, 
That bated muche hys pryde. 
Syr Gawayne had fmytten hym in the f holder-blade, 

1 in? 

2 E 


After hys walkynge the blode out fhade, 90 

He rested hym vnder a tree ; 
He had not rested hym but a lyttell fpace, 
But one of hys fonnes came to that place, 
Syr Gyamoure called was he. 

" Father/' he fayde, " what ayleth youe nowe ? ( " 

Hathe any man in thys foi rest hurte youe ? 
Me thynke full faste ye blede ;" 
" Yea, fonne," he fayde, " by goddes grame ! 
A knyght hath done me fpyte and fhame, 

And lost I haue my ftede. 100 

Alfo he hath layne by thy syster, by the rode ! 
That greueth me more than fhedynge of my blode, 
And the defpyte was well more ; . 
And he hath made me to fweare, 

That to daye none armes fhall I beare, 105 

A-gaynst hym, by goddes ore \" 
[fol. 17.] " Father, nowe be of good chere, 

And I fhall rewarde hym, as ye fhall here, 

As I am a trewe knyght! 

He fhall beate me, or I fhall beate hym, no 

I fhall hym beate be he neuer fo grymme, 

And hys death to-dyght." 

" Lett be, fonne Gyamoure, nowe I the praye, 

Thou fpeakest more than thou maye, 

That fhalt thoue feele foone ; us 

There fhalt thoue mete with a knyght ftronge, 

That M yll paye hys ly ueray large and longe, 

Or thy ioumey be all done." 

OWE farewell, father/' Gyamoure fayde, 

He toke the waye to hys fyster the mayde, lao 

As fast as he myght on the gate ; 

Vnto the pauylion he toke the waye, 

There as Syr Gawayne and hys fyster laye, 

That thought on no debate. 


" A-ryfe," he fayed, < thou knyght ftronge of hande, 125 

And geue me battaylle on thys lande, 

Hye the fast anone right ; 

Thou hast hurte my father to-daye, 

And layne by my fyster, that fayre may, 

Therfore thy deathe ys dyght." 130 

Than fayde Gawayne, "though yt be fo, 

A-mendes I wyll make or that I goo, 

Yf that I haue myfdone ; 

Better yt ys nowe to accorde right, 

Than we two nowe in battayll fhulde fyght, 135 

Therfore go from me foone." 

" Nay," fayed Gyamoure, " that f hall not bee, 
[fo!.17b. T na t daye, knyght, fhalt thow neuer fee, 

For to fuffer fuche a f koi ne ; 

A-ryfe in haste, and that anone, HO 

For with the wyll I fyght alone, 

As god lett me be borne !" 

Gawayne fawe no better bote, 

And wyghtelye he lepte on foote, 

Hys horfe was fast hym bye ; 145 

In to the faddle wightelye he fprente, 

And in hys hande hys fpeare he hentte, 

[Here is inserted a drawing.] 
[fol.18.] And loked full egerlye. 

Eyther turned hys horfe than a-waye, 

A furlonges lenght, I dare well faye, iso 

Aboue on the mountayne ; 

They ranne together, thofe knightes good, 

That theyr horfes fydes ranne on bloode, 

Eyther to other, certayne. 

What nedeth nowe more tale to tell ? 155 

Gawayne fmotte hym with hys fpeare fo well, 

That he fell flatte to the grounde ; 

Hys horfe was fyers, and went hys waye, 

And hurte was the knyght there as he laye, 
2 E 2 


Syr Gawayne afked hym in that ilounde. 160 

Syr knight, wyll ye any more ?" 

Naye," he fayde, " I am hurte fo fore, 

I maye not my felfe welde ; 

I yelde me, fyr knyght, and faue my lyfe, 

For with the I wyll no more ftryffe, 166 

For thowe hast wonne the felde." 

" Syr, on thys couenaunte I the graunte, 

So ye wyll make me faythe and warraunte, 

To-day e agaynst me no armes to beare ; 

Sweare thys othe on my fwearde bright." 170 

" Yes," he fayde, " I wyll, as I am trewe knight, 

That thys daye I wyll not youe deare. 

Nowe fare well, knyght, fo god me amende ! 

For I fee fortune ys thy greate frende, 

That fheowith in the to-daye ; 175 

There ys no bote to ftryde l agjayne, 

For thou arte a knyght full ftronge of mayne, 

Fare well, and haue good daye." 

Thus Gyamoure wente downe the mountayne hye, 
[foM8 b ] On foote he wente full werelye, iso 

Hys father foone hym fpyed ; 

" A ! weUcome," he fayed, " my fonne Gyamoure, 

Me thynke thou hast not fpede well thys ftoure, 

That full well I fee thys tyde. 

Thou went on horfe-backe, lyke a good knyght, i 

And nowe I fee thou arte dolefully dyght, 

That maketh all my care ;" 

" Father," he fayde, " yt wyll none otherwife be, 

Yonder knyght hath wonne me in warre fo fre, 

And hut In- wounded, me full fore. 190 

Forfothe," fayde Gyamoure, " 1 wyll not lye, 

He ys a ftronge knyght, bolde and hardye, 

Of Arthures courte I trowe he ys ; 

1 ftryvc ? 


I fuppofe on of the Rounde Table, 

For at nede he ys both ftronge and hable, 195 

So haue I founde hym, withouten nnyfse." 
Right fo as they fpake the one to the other, 
There came to them the feconde brother, 
Syr Tyrry was hys name ; 

He came rydynge on a iolye courfyer, 200 

Dryvinge by leapes, as the wylde fyer, 
The knyght was of good fame. 
He was not ware of hys father deare, 
But hys brother called hym neare, 

And fayde, " Syr, nowe abyde " 205 

He than turned hys horfe, that knyght fo gaye, 
By leapes out of ftraye, 
Hys hearte was full of pryde. 
Than founde he hys father all blodye, 

And hys brother was wounded fyckerlye, 210 

In hys hearte he began to be fyke : 
[fol.19.] A! fyr, who hath wounded youe ?" quod he, 
" A-venged on hym nowe wyll I be, 
That fhall hym myflyke." 

" I wys, fonne, yt ys a knyght ftronge, 215 

That hath done vs thys wronge, 
Aboue on the mountayne ; 
He hath me wounded pafsynge foore, 
And I trowe thy brother he hathe well more, 
And by thy syster he hathe layne. 220 

Therfore go nowe, as a knyght good, 
And auenge the fhedynge of thy fathers blood, 
As faste as euer thou maye ; 
Loke that thou fayle not for no cowardyfe, 

But mete hym in the myghtyest wyfe, 225 

For he ys good at a-faye." 
" I fee well, father, he ys a knyght ftronge, 
But he hathe done youe greate wronge, 
Yt woulde be harde hym to wynne ; 


But neuer the later I fhall do my myght, 230 

Hys ftrenght afsaye nowe I fhall in fyght, 
Yf he were of the deuyls kynne/' 


HYS knyght Sy/ Tei*/ turned hys horfe, 
And \ x ) the mountayne he rode with force, 
As fast as he myght dryue ; 235 

He came to the pauylion, with greate pryde, 
" Haue done, fyr knyght, thy horfe beftryde, 
For with the I am at ftryue." 
Syr Gawayne loked out at the pauylyon doore, 
And fawe thys knyght armed hym before, ato 

To hym he fayed verelye ; 
" Syr, yf I haue ought to youe offended, 
[fol.!9 b .] I am ready to make yt to be amended, 
By mylde mother Marye !" 

" Naye, Syr knyght, yt maye not fo be, MS 

Therfore make the ready faste to me, 
In all the haste that thou maye ; 
For be god that me dere bought, 
Make a-mendes mayest thou nought, 

Therfore nowe lett vs playe." 250 

Gawayne fawe none other bote than, 

Hys horfe he toke as a worthye man, 

And into the faddle he fprente ; 

He toke hys horfe with a greate randone, 

" Nowe, Syr knyght. lette me haue done, 355 

What in youre hearte ys mente." 

" Lo ! here I am," fayde Syr Terrye, 

ee For to the I haue greate enuye," 

And together gan they dafshe ; 

They rufshed to-gether with fuche debate, aeo 

That marueyll y t was howe that they fate, 

They gaue fuche a crafshe! 

Syr Terrye fpake in that place, 

And Gawayne fought faste in that race, 


And throughe the fholder hym pyght ; 255 

And caste hym ouer the horfe backe, 
That in the earth hys helme ftacke, 

That nyghe hys death he was dyght. 

Syr Gawayne than fayed on hyght, 

" Syr knyght, wyll ye any more fyght ?" 270 

He aunfwered hym, "naye, 

I am fo foore hurte I may no more ftande, 

Therfore I yelde me in to thy hande, 

Of mercye I the praye." 

[Here is inserted a drawing.] 
[fol.20.] "What/' fayde Gawayne, "ys that youre boast greate ? 275 

I wende youe woulde haue foughten tyll ye had fweate, 

Ys youre ftrenght all done ?" 

" Yea, fyr, in fayth, fo god me nowe faue ! 

Of me thou mayste no more craue, 

For all my myght ys gone. 280 

Thou haste to-day wonne thre knyghtes, 

The father, and two fonnes, that well fyghtes, 

Worfhypfullye vnder thy fhyelde; 

And yf thou maye wynne our eldest brother, 
[fbl.20 b .] I call thee the best knyght, and none other, 286 

That euer fought in fyelde. 

For he ys full wyght, I warne youe welle, 

He endureth better than l doth the fteele, 

And that f halte thou foone fee ; 

But he be thy matche I can not knowe, 290 

Of knyghthode thoue haste no felowe, 

On my fayth I enfure thee." 

" Nowe," quod Gawayne, " lette hym be, 

And, Syr knyght, make an othe to me, 

yt ys daye thou do me no greue ; 295 

And thou fhalt pafse fro me all quyte, 

Where as ys nowe thy moste delyght, 

1 that, MS. 


With oute any moore repreue." 
Syr Terrye fayde, " therto I graunte, 

Fare well nowe, God be thy warrante," soo 

Full weykelye he wente on foote ; 
He lefte neuer tyll he came there, 
Where as hys father and Gyamoure were, 
That carefull heartes had, god wote. 

Than befpake Gyamoure, hys yongest brother, sos 

" Syr, thou hast gotten as we haue, and non other, 
That knewe I well yt fhoulde fo be ;" 
" By god !" fayde Syr Terrye, " fo nowe yt ys, 
He ys a deuyll, forfothe ywys, 

And that ys proued on me." 310 

" Yea," quod Syr Gylbart, that Earle fo olde, 
" He ys a knyght bothe ftronge and bolde, 
And fortune ys hys frende ; 
My doughters loue he hath clene wanne, 

Therfore I dare well faye he ys a manne, si6 

Where euer that he wende." 
As they thre ftode thus talkynge, 
(Vol. 21.] They hearde a manne full loude fynge, 
That all the woode ronge ; 

" That ys my fonne Brandies fo gaye, 320 

Whan he feeth vs in fuche araye, 

He wyll leaue hys fonge." 

By than they fawe the knight comynge, 

A grene boughe in hys hande he dyd brynge, 

Syttynge on a ioylye courfyere ; 325 

Hys horfe was trapped in redde veluett, 

Many ouches of golde theron was fette, 

Of knyghthode he had no peere. 

Alfo hys horfe was armed before, 

The headde and the brest, and no more, sao 

And that in fyne fteele ; 

Hym felfe was armed pafsynge fure, 

In barneys that woulde ftrokes endure. 


That had bene proued right wele. 

Thys knyght bare on hys hedde a pomell gaye, 335 

Syttynge on hys horfe, ftertynge oute of the waye, 

By leapes he came aboute ; 

A fhyelde he had, that was of renowne, 

He bare theryn a blacke fawcowne, 

The fhyelde was of syluer withoute. 340 

Alfo in hys hande a fpere he bare, 

Bothe ftronge and longe, I make youe ware, 

And of a truftye tree ; 

There was an headde theron of fteele wrought, 

The beft that myght be made or bought, 345 

And well afsayed had be. 

Theron of pleasaunce a kercheyf dyd honge, 

I wote yt was more than thre elles longe, 

Enbrodered all withe golde ; 
[fol.2lb.] jje was a knyght of large and lenght, sso 

And proued well of muche ftrenght, 

Afsaye hym who fo woulde. 

Spurres of golde alfo he had on, 

And a good fwerde, that wolde byte a-bone, 

Thus came he dryuynge; 355 

Tyll he came there as hys father was, 

Whan he all fawe, he fayde, " alas ! 

[Here is inserted a drawing. ~\ 
[fol. 22.] Thys ys an euyll tydynge." 

Whan he fawe hys father all blodye, 

And hys two brethern hurte full fyckerlye, , seo 

" Alas !" fayde Brandies than, 

" Who hath done youe fuche a dyfpite ? 

Tell me in haste, that Tmaye yt quyte, 

For my hearte ys wo begone." 

Than faide the father, "fonne, I fhall the tell, ses 

All thys hathe done a knyght full fell, 
. And layne by thy syster alfo ; 

He beete me fyrst, and them all, 

2 F 


And made vs fwere that we ne fhall, 

Thys daye do hym no wo." 370 

Nowe faide Brandies, " thys ys yll come, 

I enfure youe by my holydome, 

I fhall proue hys myght ; 

Were he as ftronge as Sampfon was, 

In fayth fhall I neuer from hym pas, 375 

Tyll the one of vs to death be dyght." 

" Yea, fonne Brandies, thou fhalt not foo, 

Thoughe he haue done wronge, lett hym goo, 

The knyght ys paffynge fure ; 

I wyll not for more than I wyll fayne, sso 

See the, Syr Brandels, there flayne, 

For I warraunte the he wyll endure. 

The knyght ys ftronge, and well fight can, 

And when he hathe at hande a man, 

He wyll do hym none yll ; 385 

But gentle wordes fpeake agayne, 

And do hym no harme ne mayne, 

Thus gentyll he ys in fkyll." 


[fol.22".] T^y OWE lette hym be," fayde Brandies than, 

_j_ 1( " Sone fhall we fee yf he be a manne," 390 

And fayed " haue good daye ;" 
Streyght to the pauylyon he rode, 
That fawe the mayden as fhe ftode, 
That yt was her brother gaye. 

" Syr knyght," fhe fayde, " here cometh one, 395 

Yt wyl be harde hym to ouergone, 
Beholde nowe and fee ; 
Yonder cometh one wyll dure in fyght, 
I warraunte ye fawe neuer a better knight, 

Than ye fhall fynde hym, fyckerlye. *> 

Beholde nowe my brother, Syr Brandies, 
He ys in warre full flye, y-wys, 
And that thowe fhalt fynde ; 


Me thynke hym pafsynge lyke a knyght, 

Haue no drede ye fhall fynde hym wight, 4 05 

Nowe vnder thys lynde." 
" By god !" fayde Gawayne, " he ys full lyke, 
To abyde a buffette, and to ftryke, 
And of hys handes a man ; 

I fawe not or nowe thys yeares thre, 410 

A man more lyke a man to be, 
By god and by Saynt Johan \" 
Right fo Syr Brandies, the knyght gaye, 
Spake on hyghe, and thus gan faye, 

" Where arte thou, good Squyer ? 415 

Come forthe in hafte," he fayde on hyght, 
" For with the will I fyght, 
A newe game thoue fhalt leere. 
Thou haste done me dyfworfhip greate, 

And mayst not nowe amendement gette, 420 

[fol.23.] Yt ys no tyme of peace to fpeake " 

Syr Gawayne faide, " Syr, I the praye, 
Let me make a-mendes, and youe maye, 
Or thou begynne thys wreke. 

Syr, and I haue ought myfdone, 425 

Tell me, and it fhalbe amended foone, 
All gentlenes to fullfyll ; 
I haue bene be-ftad to daye full foore, 
Shame yt were to proue me any moore, 

But here I am at youre wyll." 430 

" Ywys," quod Brandies, " that ys fothe, 
But I must nedes holde myne othe, 
Thou haste done fo yll ; 

My father and my brethren thou hast beaten bothe, 
To accorde with the I were therof lothe, 435 

My worfhippe to full-fyll." 
Nowe fayed Gawayne, " fythe yt*ys : fo, 
I muste nedes me dryue ther to, 
Thys daye god lende me grace ; 
2 F 2 


For my worde fhall do none aduauntage, 440 

Let vs fee howe well we can outrage, 

Yf I maye dare ought in thys trace." 

" Gramarcy," fayde Brandies, " in good faye, 

Nowe fhall youe fee me make good playe, 

Of knight-hode thou hast no peere ; 445 

I am right gladde thou hast myght, 

But forye I am we lacke the daye-lyght, 

But a-mended ys my cheere." 

They fought together, thofe knightes good, 

Throughe theyr haburgeons ran out the redde blode, 450 

That pytte yt l was to fee ; 

They fought together with fuche yre, 

[Here is inserted a drawing.] 
[fol. 23.] That after flamed out the fyre, 
They fpake of no inercye. 

Thus full longe than gan they fyght, 455 

Tyll at the laste they wanted lyght, 
They wyste not what to done ; 
Than fayde Syr Brandies, that knyght fo gaye, 
, " Syr knyght, we w r ante lyght of the daye, 

Therfore I make my mone. 4o 

Yf we fyght thus in the darke together, 

Throughe myfhappe the one myght fie the other, 
[fol. 24.] And therefore by myne afsent ; 

Lett vs fweare on oure fweardes bothe, 

Where that we mete for leyfe or lothe, 466 

Yf that we mete in prefent, 

Neuer to leaue the battayll tyll the one be flayne," 

" I afsent me therunto," than fayde Gawayne, 

And ye wyll that yt fo be ;" 

Than fayde Syr Brandies, " I may none other do, 470 

For fuche promefse I made my father vnto, 

Therefore thys oth tt$ke we. 

1 ys, MS. 


I wotte there ys no ftroke that thou gauest me, 
But I fhall quyte yt full fyckerlye, 

And thou arte not in my debte ; 475 

Full large of lyueray thou arte, Syr knyght, 
Neuer none that proued fo well my myght) 
We bene euen as we mette. 
Lett vs make an othe on our fwerdes here, 

In that place we mete, farre or nere, 480 

Euen there as ether other may fynde ; 
Euen fo we fhall do the battayle vtterlye," 
" I holde," fayde Gawayne, " by mylde Marye 1 
And thus we make an ende." 

Syr Gawayne put vp hys fwerde than, 485 

" Syr knight, be frende to that gentle woman, 
As ye be gentle knyght ;" 
" As for that," fayde Brandies than, 
" She hathe caufed to day, "pardye, much f hame l , 
Yt ys pyttye fhe hathe her fyght." 490 

" Syr knyght," fayde Gawayne 2 , " haue good daye, 
For on foote I haue a longe waye, 
And 3 horfe were wonders 4 deare ; 
Some tyme good horfes I haue good wone, 

[fol.24 b .] And 5 nowe on foote 'I muste nedes 6 gone, 495 

God in haste amende my chere \" 
Syr Gawayne was armed pafsynge heavy, 
On fote myght he not endure, trewely, 
Hys knyfe he toke in hande 7 ; 

Hys armure good he cutte hym fro, soo 

Els on foote myght he not goo, 
Thus with care was he bande 8 . 

[Here is inserted a drawingl\ 

1 moch fhame, parde, ed. Petyt.fragm. Q fyr Gawayne. 

3 an. 4 me wonder. & But. 

6 nedes mul't I. . 7 honde. * bonde. 


.1 r- 1J :ml4 whrcft on ev at; ., 

ffol 25 1 T EAUE we nowe of 1 Syr Gawayne in wo, 
JLj And fpeake we more of Syr Brandies tho, 
When he with hys syster mette ; w 

He fayed, " rye on the harlot ftronge ! 
Yt ys pyttie thou 2 lyuest fo Ion ire. 
Strypes harde I wyll the 3 fette." 
He 4 bete her 5 bothe backe and fyde, 

And than woulde he not a-byde, 510 

But to hys father ftreight he wentte ; 
And 6 he afked 7 hym how he fared, 
He fayde, " fonne, for the haue I cared, 
I wende thou 8 haddest be 9 fhente." 

Brandies fayde, " I haue beate my syster, si& 

And the knyght, I made hym fweare, 
Than 10 whan we mete a-gayne ; 
He and I wyll together fyght, 
Tyll that 11 we haue fpended our 18 myght, 

And that one of vs be flayne." 520 

So home they went all foure 1S together, 
And eche of them helped other, 
As well as they myght go ; 
Than the lady gate her a-waye, 

They fawe her neuer after that daye, 525 

She went wandrynge to and fro. 
Alfo Syr Gawayne on 14 hys partye, 
On foote he went full werylye, 
Tyll he to the courte came home ; 

All 'hys aduentures 15 he f hewed the kinge, 530 

That with thofe foure knyghtes he had fyghtynge, 
And eche after other alone. 

1 Om. that thou. 3 Om. 4 And. 

J the. Then. 7 axed. 8 that thou. 

9 ben. ' That. " Om. a eche our. 

13 - M in. '* this aduenture. 



And 1 after that tyme they neuer mette more, 
Full gladde were thofe knyghtes 2 therfore, 
[fol.25V] So 'there was 3 made the ende ; 
I praye god geue vs 4 good reste, 
And thofe that haue harde thys lyttell Jeste, 
And in hye heauen to 5 be dwellynge ; 
And that we all maye 6 , vpon domes-daye, 
Come to the blyfse that lasteth aye, 
Where we maye here thy 7 Aungels fynge. 




'Here endeth the Jeaste of 
Syr Gawayne 8 . 

1 Om. 
5 for to. 

2 thefe party es. 
6 Om. 

3 was there. 
7 the. 

4 vs al. 
6 Om. 

No. HI. 


[MS. Per- T 1ST, when 1 Arthur he was K : 
cy,p.203.] J^ Re hftd fttt ^ ^ leading 

The broad He of Brittaine ; 
England & Scottland one was, 
& Wales stood in the same case, 

The truth itt is not to layne. 

He driue allyans 2 out of this He, 
Soe Arthur liued in peace a while, 

As man 3 of mickle maine ; 
K te9 stronge of their degree, 
W ch of them hyest shold bee, 

Therof Arthur was not faine. 

Hee made the Round Table for their behoue, 
Y* none of them shold sitt aboue, 

But all shold sitt as one ; 
The K : himselfe, in state royall, 
Dame Gueneuer, our Queene, w tt all, 

Seemlye of body & bone. 

wen, MS. a allyance, MS. 3 men, MS. 


Itt fell againe the Christmase, 

Many came to y* Lords place, 20 

To y* worthye one ; 
W th helme, & head, & brand bright, 
All y* tooke order of k*, 

None wold linger att home. 

There was noe Castle, nor man r free, as 

Y k might harbour y* companye, 

Their puissance was soe great ; 
Their tentf vp they l pight, 
For to lodge there ah 1 y* night, 

Therto were sett to me ate. so 

Messengers there came [&] went, 
W th much victualls, verament, 

Both by way & streete ; 
Wine & wildfowle thither was brought, 
W th in they spared nought, 35 

For gold, & they might itt gett. 

Now of K : Arthur noe more I mell, 
But of a venterous k* I will yo u tell, 

Y* dwelled in the west Countrye ; 

S r Bredbeddle for sooth he hett, 40 

He was a man of mickle might, 

& Lo : of great bewtye. 

He had a lady to his 2 wiffe, 
He loued her deerlye as his liffe, 

Shee was both blyth & blee ; 45 

Because S r Gawaine was stiffe in stowre, 
Shee loued him priuilye par amour, 

& shee neu 9 him see. 

the, MS. 9 wis, MS. 

2 G 


Itt was Aggteb y* was her mother, 
Itt was witchcraft, & noe other, 
Y* shee dealt w tt all ; 

* * * 

Shee cold transpose k*f & swaine, 
Like as in battaile they were slaine, 

Wounded both lim & lighth ; 
Shee taught her sonne the k* alsoe, 
In transposed likenesse he shold goe, 

Both by feU & frythe. 

Shee said, " thou shalt to Arthurs hall, 
For there great aduentures shall befall, 
[p. 204.] That euer saw K : or k*. 



















All was for her daughters sake, 
Y* the witch 8 soe sadlye spake, 

To her sonne in law the k*. 
Because S Gawaine was bold & hardye, 
& therto full of curtesye, 

To bring him into her sight. 

The knight said, " soe mote I thee, 
To Arthurs court will I mee hye, 

For to praise thee right ; 
& to proue Gawaines points 3. 
& y* be true y* men tell me, 

By Mary, most of might \" 

Three lines are here wanting. * Three lines again are missing. 3 they w ch , MS. 


Earlye soone as itt was day, 

The k* dressed him full gay, so 

Vmstrode a full good steede ; 
Helme & hawberke both he hent, 
A long fauchion, verament, 

To fend them in his neede. 

Y* was a jolly sight to scene, ss 

When horsse & armour was all greene, 

& weapon y* hee bare ; 
When y* burne was harnisht still, 
His countenance he became right well, 

I dare itt safelye sweare. 


Y* time at Carleile lay our K : 
Att a castle of Flatting was his dwelling, 

In the Forrest of Delamore ; 
For sooth he rode, the sooth to say, 
To Carleile he came on Christmas day, 95 

Into y* fayre countrye. 

When he into y* place came, 

The porter thought him a maruelous groome, 

He saitJi, "S r , wither wold yee?" 

Hee said, <e I am a venterous k 4 . 100 

& of yo r K: wold haue sight 

& other Lo s : y* heere bee." 

Noe word to him the porter spake, 
But left him standing att the gate, 

& went forth, as I weene ; 105 

& kneeled downe before the K : 
Saith, " in lifes dayes, old or younge, 

Such a sight I haue not seene. 

2 G 2 


For yonder att yo r gates right, 

He saith hee is a venterous k l , no 

All his vesture is greene ;" 
Then spake the K : proudest in pall ', 
Saith, " bring him into the hall, 

Let vs see what hee doth meane." 

When the Greene K* came before the K : ns 

He stood in his stirrops strechinge, 

& spoke vfto voice cleere ; 
& saith, " K : Arthur, god saue thee, 
As thou sittest in thy prosperitye, 

& maintaine thine honor. 1% 

Why thou wold me nothing but right, 
I am come hither, a venterous [knight], 

& kayred thorrow countryes fair ; 
To proue poynts in thy pallace, 
Y* longeth to manhood in eu ye case, 125 

Among thy Lo s : deere." 

The K : he sate 4 full still, 
Till he had said all his will, 

Certein thus can he say ; 

" As I am true k l and K : iso 

Thou shalt haue thy askinge, 

I will not say thee 3 nay. 

Whether thou wilt on foote fighting, 
Or on steed-backe iusting, 

For loue of ladyes gay ; 135 

If & thine armor be not fine, 
I will giue thee pt of mine," 

" Godamercy Lo :" can he say. 

1 all, MS. 8 ayd, MS. tfiy, MS. 


" Here I make a challenging, 

Among the Lords, both old & younge, HO 

Y fc worthy beene in weede ; 
W ch of them will take in hand, 
Hee y* is both stiffe & stronge, 

& full good att need, dt 

[p. 205.] I shall lay my head downe, 145 

Strike itt of, if he can, 

W th a stroke to garr itt bleed ; 
For this day 12 monthe another at his, 
Let me see who will answer this, 

A knight y* is doughtye of deed. 150 

For this day 12 monthe, the sooth to say, 
Let him come to me, & feicth 1 his praye, 

Rudlye, or eu 9 hee blin ; 
Whither he come I shall him tell, 
The readie way to the Greene Chappell, 155 

Y* place I will be in." 

The K : att ease sate full still, 
& all his Lords said but litle, 

Till he had said all his will ; 

Vpp stood S r Kay, y* crabbed k*, !6o 

Spake mightye words y* were of height, 

Y* were both loud & shrill. 

" I shall strike his necke in tooe, 
The head away the body froe," 

They 8 bade him all be still ; 165 

Saith Kay, " of thy dints make noe rouse, 
Thou wottest full litle what thou does, 

Noe good but mickle ill." 

1 fetch? 2 The, MS. 


Eche man wold this deed hauc done, 

Vp start S r Gawaine soone, 170 

Vpon his knees can kneele ; 
He said, " y* were great villanye, 
W to out yo u put this deede to me, 

My Leege, as I haue sayd* 

Remember I am yo r sisters sonne," w 

The K : said, " I grant thy boone, 

But mirth is best att meele ; 
Cheere thy guest, & giue him wine, 
& after dinner to itt fine, 

& sett the buffett well." iso 

Now the Grene K* is set att meate, 
Seemlye ' serued in his seate, 
Beside the Round Table ; 
To talke of his welfare nothing he needs, 

Like a k* himselfe he feeds, is* 

long time reasnable. 

When the dinner itt was done, 
The K : said to S r Gawaine soone, 

W^ outen any fable ; 

He said, " an 2 yo u will doe this deede, o 

I pray Jesus be yo r speede, 

This k* is nothing vnstable," 

The Greene K* his head downe layd, 
S r Gawaine to the axe he braid, 

To strike w* 11 eger will ; 195 

He stroke the necke-bone in twaine, 
The blood burst out in eu 9 ye vaine, 

The head from the body fell. 

1 Seenlyc, MS. on, MS. 


The Greene K* his head vp hent, 

Into his saddle wightilye he sprent, aoo 

Spake words both loud & shrill ; 
Saith, " Gawaine, thinke on thy couenant, 
This day 12 monthes see thou ne want, 

To come to the Greene Chappell." 

All had great maruell y* they l see, 205 

Y* he spake soe merrilye, 

& bare his head in his hand ; 
Forth att the hall dore he rode right, 
& y* saw both K : and knight, 

And Lords that were in land. 210 

W th out the hall dore, the sooth to saine, 
Hee sett his head vp on againe, 

Saies, " Arthur, haue heere my hand ; 
When soeu 9 the k* cometh to mee, 
A better buffett sickerlye, 215 

I dare him well warrand." 

The Greene K* away went, 
[p. 206.] All this was done by enchantment, 

Y* the old witch had wrought ; 

Sore sicke fell Arthur the K : 220 

& for him made great mourning, 

That into such bale was brought. 

The Q : shee weeped for his sake, 
Sorry was S r Lancelott du Lake, 

& other were dreery in thought ; 225 

Because he was brought in great pil, 
His mightye manhood will not availe, 

Y* before hath freshlye fought. 

1 the, MS. 


S r Gawaine comfort K : and U : 

& all the doughtye there be-deene, 230 

He bade they 1 shold be still ; 
Said, " of my deede I was neu 9 feard, 
Nor yett I am nothing adread, 

I swere, by S* Michaell ! 

For when draweth toward my day, 235 

I will dresse me in mine array, 

My promise to fullfill ; 
S r " he saith, " as I haue blis, 
I wott not where the Greene Chappell is, 

Therefore seeke itt I will." a*o 

The royall Court 2 , verament, 
All rought S r Gawaines intent, 

They thought itt was the best ; 
They went forth into the feild, 
K^t y l ware both speare and sheeld, a*6 

They priked 3 forth full prest. 


Some chuse them to justinge, 
Some to dance, karoll 4 , & singe, 

Of mirth they 3 wold not rest ; 

All they swore together in fere, aso 

Y* and S r Gawaine ou 9 -come were, 

They 6 wold bren all the west. 

Now leaue wee the K : in his pallace, 
The Greene K* come home is, 

To his owne Castle ; KS 

His folke frend, when he came home, 
What doughtye deeds he had done, 

Nothing he wold them tell. 

1 the, MS. Couett, MS. 3 The priced, MS. 

4 keuell, MS. > the, MS. the, MS. 


Full well he wist in certaine, 

Y* his wiffe loued S r Gawaiue, 260 

Y* comelye was vnder kell ; 
Listen Lo s & yee will sitt, 
& yee shall heere the second Fitt, 

What aduentures S r Gawaine befell. 

2d. PARTE. 

The day is come y* Gawaine must gone, 266 

K tes & Ladyes waxed wann, 

Y* were w* 11 out in y* place ; 
The K : himselfe siked ill, 
The Q, : a swounding almost fell, 

To y* jarney when he shold passe. 270 

When he was in armour bright, 
He was one of the goodlyest k tes 

Y* eu 9 in Brittaiue was borne ; 
They brought S r Gawaine a steed, 
Was dapple gray, & good att need, 275 

I tell, w th outen scorne. 

His bridle was w* 11 stones sett, 
W th gold & pearle ou 9 frett, 

& stones of great vertue ; 

He was of a fiirley kind, 280 

His stirropps were of silke of Ynd, 

I tell yo u this tale for true. 

2 H 


When he rode ou 9 the mold, 
His geere glistered as gold, 

By the way as he rode ; 285 

Many furleys he there did see, 
Fowles by the water did flee, 

By brimes & bankes soe broad. 

Many furleys there saw he, 

Of wolues & wild beasts sikerlye, 290 

On hunting hee tooke most heede ; 
Forth he rode, the sooth to tell, 
For to seeke the Greene Chappell, 

He wist not where indeed. 

[p. 207.] As he rode in an euening late, 295 

Riding downe a greene gate, 

A faire Castell saw hee ; 
Y* seemed a place of mickle pride, 
Thitherward S r Gawaine can ryde, 

To gett some harborrowe. 300 

Thither he came in the twylight, 
He was ware of a gentle k*, 

The Lo : of the place was hee ; 
Meekly to him S r Gawaine can speake, 
& asked him for K : Arthurs sake, 305 

Of harborrowe I pray thee. 

" I am a far labored knight, 

I pray yo u lodge me all this night/' 

He sayd him not nay ; 

Hee tooke him by the arme, & led him to the hall, sio 

A poore child can hee call, 

Saith, dight well his palfrey." 


Into a chamber they l went, a full great speed, 
There they l found all thingf readye att need, 

I dare safelye swere ; 315 

Fier in chambers burning bright, 
Candles in chandlers burning light, 

To supp they l went full yare. 

He sent after his Ladye bright, 

To come to supp w 111 y e gentle k*, 320 

& shee came blythe w th all ; 
Forth she came then anon, 
Her maidf following her eche one, 

In robes of rich pall. 

As shee sate att her supp, 325 

Eu 9 more the Ladye clere, 

S r Gawaine shee looked vpon ; 
When the supp it was done, 
Shee tooke her maids [euery one,] 

And to her chamber will gone. 330 

He cheered the k* & gaue him wine, 
& said, " welcome, by St. Martine ! 

I pray yo u take itt for none ill ; 
One thing, S r , I wold yo u pray, 
What yo u make soe farr this way, 335 

The truth yo u wold me tell. 

I am a k*, & soe are yee, 

Yo r concell an yo u will tell mee, 

Forsooth keepe itt I will ; 

For if itt be poynt of any dread, 340 

pchance I may helpe att need, 

Either lowd or still." 

the, MS. 
2 H 2 


For his words y* were soe smooth, 
Had S r Gawaine wist the soothe, 

All he wold not haue told ; 345 

For y l was the Greene K*, 
Y* hee was lodged w th that night, 

And harbarrowe in his hold. 

He saith, " as to the Greene Chappell, 

Thitherward I can yo u tell, SM 

Itt is but furlongf 3. 
The M r of it is a venterous k*, 
& workes by witchcraft day & night, 

W 01 many a great furley. 

If he worke w 01 neu 9 soe much frauce, 855 

He is curteous as he sees cause, 

I tell yo u sikerlye ; 
Yo u shall abyde & take yo 1 " rest, 
& I will into yonder forrest, 

Vnder the greenwood tree." 360 

They plight their truthes to be leele 1 , 
Either w* 11 other for to deale, 

Whether it were siluer or gold ; 
He said, "we 2. both wilbe, 
Whatsoeu 9 God send yo u & mee, 366 

To be pted on the mold/' 

The Greene K l went on hunting, 
S r Gawaine in the Castle beinge, 

Lay sleeping in his bed ; 

[p. 208.] Vp rose the old Witche w tt hast thowe 2 , 370 

& to her dauhter can shee goe, 
& said, " bee not a-dread." 

1 beleeue, MS. 2 throwe, MS. 


To her daughter can shee say, 

" The man y* thou hast wisht many a day, 

Of him thou maist be sped ; 375 

For S r Gawaine, y* curteous k*, 
Is lodged in this hall all night/ 3 

Shee brought her to his bedd. 

Shee saith, " gentle k 4 , awake, 

& for this faire ladies sake, 380 

Y* hath loued thee soe deere ; 
Take her body in thine armes, 
There is noe man shall doe thee harm," 

Now beene they both heere. 

The Ladye kissed him times 3. 385 

Saith, " w th out I haue the loue of thee, 

My life standeth in dere ;" 
S r Gawaine blushed on the lady bright, 
Saith, " yo r husband is a gentle k*, 

By him y* bought mee deare ! 390 

To me itt were great shame, 
If I schold doe him any grame, 

Y* hath beene kind to mee ; 
For I haue such a deede to doe, 
Y* I can neyther rest nor roe, 395 

Att an end till itt bee." 

Then spake y* ladye gay, 

Saith, " tell me some of your journey, 

Yo r succour I may bee ; 

If itt be poynt of any warr, *oo 

There shall noe man doe yo u noe darr, 

& yee wilbe gou 9 ned by mee. 


For heere I haue a lace of silke, 
It is as white as any milke, 

& of a great value ;" 406 

Shee saith, " I dare safelye sweare, 
There shall noe man doe yo tt deere, 

When yo u haue it vpon yo u ." 

S r Gawaine spake mildlye in the place, 

He thanked the lady, & tooke the lace ; 410 

& promised her to come againe ; 
The k* in the forrest slew many a hind, 
Other venison he cold none find, 

But wild bores on the plaine. 

Plentye of does & wild swine, 415 

Foxes, & other ravine, 

As I hard true men tell ; 
S r Gawaine swore sickerlye, 
" Home to yo r owne welcome yo u bee, 

By him y* harrowes hell !" 4*> 


The Greene K* his venison downe layd, 
Then to S r Gawaine thus he said, 

" Tell me anon in hight 1 ; 
What noueltyes y* yo u haue won, 
For heers plenty of venison", 426 

S r Gawaine said full right. 

S r Gawaine sware by St. Leonard, 

" Such as God sends yo u shall haue pt," 

In his armes he hent the k* ; 

& there he kissed him times 3. 430 

Saith, " heere is such as God sends mee, 

By Mary, most of might !" 

1 heght, ATS. 


Eu 9 priuilye he held the lace, 

Y* was all the villanye y* eu 9 was, 

Prooued by S r Gawaine the gay ; 435 

Then to bed soone they 1 went, 
& sleeped there, verament, 

Till morrow itt was day. 

Then S r Gawaine soe curteous & free, 

His leaue soone taketh hee, 440 

At the ladye soe gaye ; 
[p. 209.] Hee thanked her, & tooke the lace, 
& rode towards the Chappell apace, 
He knew noe whitt the way. 

Eu 9 more in his thought he had, 445 

Whether he shold worke as the ladye bade, 

Y* was soe curteous & sheene ; 
The Greene K 4 rode another way 
He transposed him in another array, 

Before as it was greene. 450 

As S r Gawaine rode ou the plaine, 
He hard one high vpon a mountaine, 
A home blowne full lowde ; 

* * * * * * 

* * # * * * 455 
# * # * -X- -X- a 

He looked after the Greene Chappell, 
He saw itt stand vnder a hill, 

Couered w th euyes about ; 

He looked after the Greene K*, 460 

He hard him whett 3 a fauchion bright, 

Y* the hills rang about. 

J the, MS. 2 Three lines here are wanting. 3 wehett, MS. 



The k* spake w th strong cheere, 

Said, "yee be welcome, S[ r ] Gawaine heere, 

It behooueth thee to lowte ;" * 

He stroke, & litle perced the skin, 
Vnneth the flesh w a in, 

Then S r Gawaine had noe doubt. 

He saith, "thou shoutest, why dost thou soe?" 
Then S r Gawaine in hart waxed throe, 

Vpon his feete con stand ; 
& soone he drew out his sword, 
& saith, " traitor, if thou speake a word, 

Thy liffe is in my hand. 

I had but one stroke att thee, 475 

& thou hast had onother att mee, 
Noe falshood in me thou found ; 


.*. * * 480 


The k* said, " w tb outen laine, 
I wend I had S r Gawaine slaine, 

The gentlest k* in this land ; 
Men told me of great renowne, 
Of curtesie thou might haue woon the crowne, 

Aboue both free & bound. 

& alsoe of great gentrye, 

& now 3 poyntf be put for thee, 

Itt is the moe pittye ; 
S r Gawaine, thou wast not leele, 
When thou didst the lace concede, 

Y* my wiffe gaue to thee. 

1 Three more lines are apparently deficient here. 


For wee were both wist full well, 
For thou hadst the halfe dele, 

Of my venerye ; 495 

If the lace had neu beene wrought, 
To haue slaine thee was neu 9 my thought, 

I swere, by God verelye ! 

I wist it well my wiffe loued thee, 

Thou wold doe me noe villanye, 500 

But nicked her w th nay ; 
But wilt thou doe as I bidd thee, 
Take me to Arthurs court w th thee, 

Then were all to my pay." 

Now are the k tes accorded thore, MS 

To the Castle of Hutton can they 1 fare, 

To locfge there all y* night ; 
Earlye on the other day, 
To Arthurs court they 1 tooke the way, 

W th harts blyth & light. 510 

All the court was full faine, 
Aliue when they saw S r Gawaine, 

They thanked God abone ; 
Y 4 is the matter & the case, 
Why k te8 of the Bathe weare the lace, sis 

Vntill they haue wonen their shoen. 

Or else a Ladye of hye estate, 
From about his necke shall it take, 

For the doughtye deeds y* hee hath done ; 
It was confirmed by Arthur the K : 520 

Thorrow S r Gawaines desiringe, 

The K : granted him his boone. 

1 the, MS. 

2 i 


[p. 210.] Thus endeth the tale of the Greene K*, 
God y e is soe full of might, 

To heauen their soules bring ; -, 25 

Y* haue hard this litle storye, 
Y* fell sometimes in the west Countrye, 

In Arthurs days our king. 


No. IV. 

Curfee an* 

[p. 38.] j- ISTEN lords, great & fmall, 
JLj What adventures did befall, 

In England where hath beene ; 
Of knights that held the Round Table, 
W ch were doughty & profitable, 5 

Of kempys cruell & keene. 

All England, both Eaft & Weft, 
Lords & ladyes of the beft, 

They buf ked & made them bowne ; 

& when the king fate in feate, 10 

Lords ferved him att his meate, 

Into the hall a burne there taite l . 

He was not hye, but he was broad, 
& like a Turke he was made, 

Both legg & thye ; 15 

& faid, u is there any will, as a brother, 
To give a buffett & take another, 

& iff any foe hardy bee ? w 

1 Sic MS. 

2 i 2 


Then fpake S r Kay, that crabbed k*, 

& fold, " man, thou feemeft not foe wight, 20 

If thou be not adread ; 
For there beeiie k* w tt in this hall, 
W tt a buffett will garr thee fall, 

& grope thee to the ground. 

Gine thou be never foe ftalworth of hands, 25 

I fhall bring thee to the ground, 

Y* dare I fafely fweare " 
Then fpake S r Gawaine, that worthy knight, 
Saith, " cozen Kay, thou fpeakeft not right, 

Lewd is thy anfwere. so 

What & that man want of his witt, 
Then litle worfhipp were to thee pitt, 

If thou fhold him forefore ;" 
Then fpake the Turke w 01 words thraw, 
Saith, " come the better of yo u tow, as 

Though ye be brenne 1 as bore 2 ." 

[Half a page is here torn away.] 

[p. 39.] This buffett thou haft 

Well quitt that it fhall be ; 

And yett I fhall make thee as feard, 
As ever was man in middlearth, 
This court againe ere thou fee." 

1 breme ? * bord, MS. 


Then faid Gawaine, " my truth I plight, 
I dare goe w th thee full right, 

& never from thee flye ; 

I will never flee from noe adventure, 

Jutting, nor noe other turnament, 

Whileft I may live on lee." 

The Turke tooke leave of king w th crowne, 
S r Gawaine made him ready bowne, 

His armor, & his fteed ; 50 

They rode northward 2 dayes and more ; 
By then S r Gawaine hungred fore, 

Of meate & drinke he had great need. 

The Turke wift Gawaine had need of meate, 

& fpake to him w th words great, ss 

Lawtinge l uppon hee ; 
Says, " Gawaine, where is all thy plenty ? 
Yefterday thou waft ferved w th dainty, 

& noe 2 y* thou wold give me. 

But w th buffett thou did me fore. o 

Therfore thou fhalt have mickle care, 

& adventures fhall thou fee ; 
I wold I had K: Arthur heere, 
& many of thy fellowes in fere, 

That behaves 3 to try mattery." es 

He led S r Gawaine to a hill foe plaine, 
The earth opened, & clofed againe, 

Then Gawaine was adread ; 
The merke was comen, & the light is gone, 
Thundering, lightning, fnow & raine, 70 

Therof enough they had. 

' Lawghinge? 2 none? 3 behoves? 


Then fpake S r Gawaine, & fighed fore, 
" Such wether faw I never afore, 
In noe ftead where I have beene ; 

[Half a page is here wanting. ~\ 

[p. 40.] noe answere, 75 

But only unto mee." 

To the Cattle they then yode, 
S r Gawaine light befide his Heed, 

For horfe the Turke had none ; 

There they found chamber, bower, & hall, w 

Richly rayled about w 411 pale, 

Seemly to looke uppon. 


A Bord was fpred w^in that place, 

All manner of meates & drinkes there was, 

For groomes that might it againe 1 ; s& 

S r Gawaine wold have fallen to y* fare, 
The Turke bad him leave, for care, 

Then waxt he unfaine. 

Gawaine faid, " man, I marvell have, 

Y* thou may none of thefe vittells 2 fpare 3 , 90 

& here is foe great plentye ; 
Yett have I more mervaile, by my fay, 
That I fee neither man nor maid 4 , 

Woman, nor child foe free ; 

' gaine ? * vttells, MS. 3 crave ? < may ? 


I had lever now att mine owne will, 95 

Of this fayre meate to eate my fill, 

Then all the gold in chriftenty f 
The Turke went forth, & tarryed nought, 
Meate & drinke he forth brought, 

Was feemly for to fee. 100 

He faid, " eate, Gawaine, & make thee yare, 
In faith or thou gett victalls more, 

Thou f halt both fwinke & fweat ; 
Eate, Gawaine, & fpare thee nought," 
S r Gawaine eate as him good thought, IDS 

& well he liked his meate. 

He dranke ale, & after wine, 

He faith, " I will be att thy bidding baine, 

Without boft or threat ; 

But one thing I wold thee ^>ray, no 

Give me my buffett, & let me goe my way, 

I wold not longer be hereatt." 

[Half a page wanting, .] 

[p. 41.] There ftood a 

S r Gawaine left behind his fteed, 

He might noe other doe ; us 

The Turke faid to S r Gawaine, 
" He fhalbe here when thou comes againe, 

I plight my troth to thee/' 


Within an hower, as men tell me, 

They were failed over the fea, 

The Turke faid, " Gawaine, hoe 1 ! 
Here are we, withouten fcath, 
But now beginneth the great othe, 

When he fhall adventures doe." 

He lett him fee a caftle faire 1* 

Such a one he never faw yare, 

Noe where 2 in noe country ; 
The Turke faid to S r Gawaine, 
" Yonder dwells the K : of Man, 

A heathen foldan is hee. iso 

With him he hath a hideous rout, 
Of giants ftrong & flout, 

& uglie to looke uppon ; 
Whofoever had fought farr & neere, 
As wide as the world were, m 

Such a companye he cold find none. 

Many aventures thou fhalt fee there, 
Such as thou never faw yare, 

In all the world about ; 

Thou fhalt fee a teniffe ball, 140 

That never k* in Arthurs hall, 

Is able to give it a lout ; 
& other adventures there are moe, 
Wee fhall be affayled ere we goe, 

Therof have thou noe doute. 145 

But & yee will take to me good heed, 
I fhall helpe yo u in tune of need, 
For ought I can fee ; 

1 hee, MS. * wherin, MS. 


There fhall be none fo ftrong in ftower, 

But I fhall . 150 

[Half a page wanting.] 

r p- 42.] Gawaine & ftowre, 

& all his company ; 
& that Bifhopp, S r Bodwine, 
That will not let my goods alone, 
But fpiteth them every day. 155 

He preached much of a crowne of thorne, 
He fhall ban the time y* he was borne, 

& ever I catch him may ; 
I anger more att the fpiritualty 1 , 
In England nor att the temporaltie, ieo 

They goe foe in theire array. 

And I purpofe, in full great ire, 
To brenn their clergy in a fire, 

& punifh them to my pay ; 

Sitt downe, S r Gawaine, at the bord," ies 

S r Gawaine anfwered at that word, 

Saith, " nay, thatt may not be. 

I trow not a venturous k* fhall 
Sitt downe in a kings hall, 

Adventures or yo u fee ; w 170 

The K : faid, " Gawaine, faire mot thou 2 fall ! 
Goe feitch me forth my teniffe ball, 

For play will I, and fee." 

1 fpiritually, MS. * then. MS. 

2 K 




They brought it out, w th out doubt, 
W tt it came a hideous rout, 

Of gyants great & plenty ; 
All the giants were there then, 
Heire 1 by the halfe then S r Gawaine, 

I tell yo u , withouten nay*. 

There were ix. giants bold of blood, 
& all thought Gawaine but litie good 3 , 

When they thought w tt him to play ; 
All the giants thoughten then, 
To have ftrucke out S r Gawaines braine, 

Help him God, that beft may ! 

The ball of braffe was made for the giants hand, 
There was noe man in all England, 
Were able to 

[Half a page wanting] 

[p. 43.] And flicked a giant in the hall, 
That gryfly can hee grow 4 ; 
The K : fayd, " bray away this axeltree, 
For fuch a boy I never fee, 

Yett he fhalbe aflayd 6 better ere he goe. 

I told yo u foe mote I tho, 
W 111 the 3 adventure, & then no more, 
Be for me at this tide." 

Then there flood amongft them all, 
A chimney in the 6 K 8 hall, 

barres mickle of pride ; 

i. e. higher ; heires, MS. * may, MS. s goods, MS. 

* grone ? b aflayd ? they, MS. 


There was laid on in that ftond 1 , 200 

Coales & wood that coft a pound, 
That upon it did abide. 

A giant bad Gawaine afiay, 

& faid, ft Gawaine, begin the play, 

Thou knoweft beft how it fhold be ; 205 

& afterwards when thou haft done, 
I trow yo u fhalbe anfwered foone, 

Either -w^ boy or me. 


A great giant, I underftand, 

Lift up the chimney w* 11 his hand, 210 

& fett it downe againe fairly. 

S r Gawaine was never foe adread, 
Sith he was man on midle-earth, 

& cryd on God in his thought ; 

Gawaine unto his boy can fay, 215 

ee Lift this chimney, if yo u may, 

Y* is foe worthily wrought." 

Gawaines boy to it did leape, 
& gatt itt by the bowler great, 

& about his head he it flang j 220 

3 s about his head he it fwang, 
Y* the coales & the red brands, 

[Half a page wanting.] 

[p. 44.] of mickle might, 

& ftrong were in battell. 

1 (tone, MS. 
2 K 2 


I have flaine them thorrow my maftery, 
& now, Gawaine, I will flay thee, 

& then I have flaine all the flower ; 
There went never none againe no tale to tell, 
Nor more fhalt thou, thoe thou be fell, 

Nor none that longeth to K: Arthur." 

The Turke was clad inviffible gay 1 , 
No man cold fee him, withouten nay, 

He was cladd in fuch a weede ; 
He heares their talkings, leffe & more, 
& yet he thought they fhold find him there, 

When they fhold do that deed. 




Then he led him into a fteddie 2 , 
Wher as 3 was a boyling leade, 

& welling uppon hie ; 
& before it a giant did ftand, 
W th an iron forke in his hand, 

Y* hideous was to fee. 

The giant y* looked foe keene, 

Y l before S r Gawaine had never feene, 

Noe where in noe country ; 
The K: faid to his giant thoe, 
" Here is none but wee tow, 

Let fee how beft may bee." 

When the giant faw Gawaines boy there was, 

He leapt, & threw, & cryed alas ! * 

Y* he came in that ftead ; 
8* Gawines boy to him lept, 
& w* 11 ftrenght up him gett, 

& caft him in the lead. 

1 in inviffible gray ? * stede ? 3 werhas, MS. 


W th an iron forke made of fteele, 255 

He held him downe wonderous weele, 

Till he was fcalded to the dead ; 
Then S r Gawaine unto the K: can fay, 
" W th out thou wilt agree unto our law, 

Eaten is all thy bread." 260 

The K : fpitt on Gawaine the k 4 , 
W th y 4 the Turke hent him upright, 

& into the fyer him flang ; 
& faid to S r Gawine, at the laft, 
" Noe force, M r , all the peril! 1 is paft 265 

Thinke not we tarried too longe." 

[Half a page wanting.] 

[p. 45.] He tooke forth a bafon of gold, 
As an Emperour was he fhold, 
As fell for his degree. 

He took a fword of mettle free, 270 

Saies, " if ever I did any thing for thee, 

Doe for me in this ftead ; 
Take here this fword of fteele, 
That in battell will bite weele, 

Therwith ftrick of my head." 275 

Y* I forefend," faid S r Gawaine, 
" For I wold not have thee flaine, 

For all the gold foe red ;" 
" Have done, S r Gawaine, I have no dread, 
But in this bafon let me bleed, 280 

Y* ftandeth here in this ftead. 

1 pill, MS. 


And thou f halt fee a new play, 
W tt helpe of Mary, y* mild mayd, 

Y* faved us from all dread ;" 
He drew forth the brand of fteele, 
That in battell bite wold weele, 

& there ftroke of his head. 

And when the blood in the bafon light, 
He ftood up a ftalwortht k*, 

Y* day, I undertake ; 
& fong Te deum laudam's, 
" Worfhipp be to our lord Jems, 

That faved us from all wracke ! 

A ! S r Gawaine, bleffed thou be, 
For all the fervice I have don thee 1 , 

Thou haft well quitt it me ;" 
Then he tooke him by the hand, 
& many a worthy man they fand, 

Y 1 before they never 2 fee. 

He faid, " S r Gawine, w^uten threat, 
Sitt downe boldly at thy meate, 

& I will eate w* 11 thee ; 
Lady es all, be of good cheere, 
Eche ane fhall wend to his owne deer, 

In all haft that may be. 

Firft we will to K : Arthurs hall, 
& foone after yo r hufbands fend we fhall, 
In country where they beene ; 

[Half a page wanting.] 
there, MS. * neve, MS. 


[p. 46.] Thus we have brought 17 ladys cleere, 

Y e there were left in great danger, 310 

& we have brought them out." 

Then fent they for theire hufbands fwithe, 
& every one tooke his owne wife, 

& lowlye can they lowte ; 

And thanked the 2 k ts & the K : 315 

& faid they 1 wold be at theire bidding, 

In all England about. 

S r Gromer kneeld upon his knee, 
Saith, " S r K : & your 2 wilbe, 

Crowne Gawaine K : of Man " MO 

S r Gawaine kneeled downe by, 
& faid, " lord, nay not I, 

Give it him, for he it wan. 

For I never purpofed to be noe K : 

Never in all my livinge, 325 

Whileft I am a living man " 
He faid, " S r Gromer, take it thee, 
For Gawaine will never K : bee, 

For no craft that I can." 

Thus endeth the tale that I of meane, 330 

Of Arthur & his knights keene, 

Y* hardy were & free ; 
God give them good life, far and neere, 
That fuch talking loves to heere, 

Amen, for Charity ! FIN[I]S. 335 

1 the, MS. 8 yo u , MS. 

No. V. 

Carle off Carttlt. 

fp. 448-1 T ISTEN to me a litle ftond, 

_j Yee fhall heare of one y* was fober & found ; 
Hee was meeke as maid in bower, 
Stiffe & ftrong in every ftoure. 

Certes, w^outen fable, 

He was one of the Round Table ; 

The k to name was S r Gawaine, 

Y* much worfhipp wan in Brittaine. 

The He of Brittaine called is, 
Both England & Scottland, I wis ; 
Wales ' is an angle to y* He, 
Where K: Arthur foiorned awhile. 

him 24 k te told, 
Befids Barrens & Dukes bold ; 

The K: to his Bifhopp gan fay, 15 

[p. 449.] Wee will have a Mafle to day. 

Bifhop Bodwiri* fhall itt done, 

After to the faireft wee will gone ; 

For now its grafs time of the yeere, 

Barrons bold fhall breake the deere. w 

1 Vales, AfS. * Bodwim, MS. 


Faine theroff was S r Marroche, 
Soe was S r Kay the k 1 ftout ; 
Faine was S r Lancelott Du Lake, 
Soe was S r Percivall, I undertake. 

Faine was S r Ewaine, 25 

& S r Lott of Lothaine ; 

Soe was the K* of armes greene, 

& alfoe S r Gawaine the fheene. 

S r Gawaine was fteward in Arthurs hall, 

Hee was the curteous k* amongft them all ; so 

K : Arthur, & his cozen Mordred, 

& other k ts w th outen lett. 

S r Lybius Disconyus was there, 

W th proud archers, leffe & more ; 

Blanch Faire, & S r Ironfide, as 

& many k ts y 1 day can ryde. 

& Ironfide, as I weene, 

Gate the knight of armour greene ; 

Certes, as I underftand, 

Of a faire lady of Blaunch-Land. 40 

Hee cold more of honor in warr, 
Then all the k ts y* w th Arthur weare ; 
Burning dragons he flew in land, 
& wUde beafts, as I underftand. 

Wilde beares he flew y* ftond, 45 

A hardyer k* was never found ; 
He was called in his dayes, 
One of K: Arthurs fellowes. 

2 L 


Why was hee called Ironfyde, 

For ever armed wold he ryde ; 50 

Hee wold allwais armes beare, 

For gyants & hee were ever att warr. 

Dapple coulour was his fteede, 

His armour, and his other weede ; 

Azure of gold he bare, 55 

W tt a griffon, lefle or more. 

& a difference of a molatt, 

He bare in his creft algate ; 

Wherefoever he went, eaft nor weft, 

He nev 9 forfooke man nor beaft. 60 

Beagles keenely away they 1 ran, 
The K: followed affter, w tt many a man ; 
The 2 gray hounds out of the leefhe, 
They drew downe the deere of graffe 8 . 


Fine tents in the feild were fett, es 

A merry fort there were mett ; 

Of comely k te of kind, 

Uppon the bent there can they lend 4 ; 

& by noone of the fame day, 

A 100* 1 harts on the ground they 5 lay ; 70 

Then S r Gawaine & S r Kay, 
& Bifhopp Bodwin, as I heard fay ; 
After a redd deere they 6 rode, 
Into a foreft, wyde & brode. 

the, MS. * they, MS. ' grefe ? 

lead, MS. * the, MS. the, MS. 


A thicke mift fell them among, 75 

Y* caifed them all to goo wronge ; 
Great moane made then S r Kay, 
Y* they fhold loofe the hart y* day. 

Y* red hart wold not dwell, 

Hearken what adventures them beffell ; so 

Full fore they l were adread, 

Ere they 1 any lodginge had. 

Then fpake S r Gawaine, 

" This labour wee have had in vaine ; 

This red hart is out of fight, ss 

Wee meete w th him no more this night. 

I rede 2 wee of our horffes do light, 
& lodge wee heere all this night ; 
[p. 450.] Truly itt is beft, as thinketh mee, 

To lodge low under this tree." 90 

" Nay," said Kay, " go wee hence anon, 
For I will lodge wherforre 3 I come ; 
For there dare no man warne me, 
Of whatt eftate foever hee bee." 

" Yes," faid the Bifhopp, y* wott I well, 95 

Here dwelleth a Carle in a caftell ; 
The Carle of Carlile is his name, 
I know itt well, by S* Jame ! 

Was there nev 9 man yett foe bold, 

Y* durft lodge w^in his hold j 100 

But & if hee ftaye w th his liffe away, 

Hee ruleth him well, I yo u fay." 

1 the, MS. * wede, MS. * wherfoever ? 

2 L 2 




Then faid Kay, aU in fere, 
To goe thither is my defire ; 
For & the Carle be never foe bolde, 
I thinke to lodge w tt in his hold. 

For if he iangle, & make itt (tout, 
I fhall beate the Carle all about ; 
& I fhall make his bigging bare, 
& doe to him mickle care. 

& I fhall beate [him], as I thinke, 
Till he both fweate & ftinke ;" 
Then faid the Bifhopp, " fo mote I fare, 
Att his bidding I wilbe yare!" 

Gawaine said, lett be thy boftlye fare, ll 

For thou doft ever waken care ; 
If thou fcape 1 with thy liffe away, 
Thou ruleth thee well, I dare fay." 

Then faid Kay, " that pleafeth mee, 
Thither let us ryde all three ; 
Such as hee bakes, fuch fhall hee brew, 
Such as hee fhapes, fuch fhall hee few. 

Such as he breweth, fuch fhall he drinke," 

" Y* is contrary," faid Gawaine, " as I thinke ; 

But if any faire fpeeche will he 9 gaine, 125 

Wee fhall make him Lord w th in his owne. 

If noe faire fpeech will avayle, 

Then to karp on, Kay, wee will not faile ;" 

Then faid the Bifhopp, " y* tenteth mee, 

Thither lett us ryde all three." 13 

1 ftape, MS. * him ? 


When they came to the Carles gate, 
A hammer they found hanging theratt ; 
Gawaine hent the hammer in his hand, 
& curteouflye on the gates dange. 

Forth came the Porter, w th ftill fare, 135 

Saying, " who is foe bold to knocke there ?" 
Gawaine anfwered him curteouflye, 
" Man," hee faid, that is I. 

Wee be 2 k ts of Arthurs inn, 

& a Bifhopp, no moe to min ; 140 

Wee have rydden all day in the forreft ftill, 

Till horffe & man beene like to fpill. 

For Arthurs fake, y* is our kinge, 

Wee def ire my Lo : of a nights lodginge ; 

& harborrow till the day at morne, 1*5 

Y* wee may fcape 1 away w th out fcorne." 

Then fpake the crabbed k* S r Kay, 

" Porter, our errand I reede the fay ; 

Or elfe the caftle gate wee f hall breake, 

& the keyes thereof to Arthur take." 150 

The Porter fayd w th words throe, 

" Theres no man alive, y* dares doe foe ; 

If 2 a 100 d fuch as thou his death had fworne, 

Yett he wold ryde on hunting to-morne 3 ." 

Then anfwered Gawaine, y* was curteous aye, 155 

" Porter, our errand I pray thee fay " 

Yes," faid the Porter, " w th outen fayle, 
I fhall fay yo r errand full well." 

1 ftape, MS. * Of, MS. s to-mornes, MS. 


m the Port* the Carie fee, 
Hee kneekd Amur fo. h knee ;- 
- Yonder beene*kofAith^r 
& a Bfflftopp, no more to myn. 

They hare roden all dT in the fatreft ftill, 

Y borffe [and] man is like to fpffl: 

Tner drTiie yo- for Aithn fate, their K: 

To grant them one nights lodging* ; 

& herhenow tffl the day att morae, 

1^ they may fcape 1 awmy w<N>nt fcorafc." 

Noe thing greens me," fwd the Carie, mSrt doubt, 
Bat y* the' k 45 ftand foe long * 

y< the* Porter opened the gates wyde, 
& the k* rode in y* tyde, 

Their fteeds into the ftabie are tane, 
The k*> into the haH are gone; 
Heere the Carle fete in his chaire on hye, 
W* hb legg cafk over de other knee. 

His month w*s wydte, & Ins beard was gray. 
His feekes on his fWHilders by; 
Betweene his browes, certaine, 
In was large there a fpann. 

2 great eyen brening as ryer. 
Lord! bee was a Vodbre fyer ; 
Over his fholders be bore a bread, 
3 tayion yards, as darkes doe 

BBgmn were like to tedder ftakes, 
hk bands tike breads y wires may bake; 

ftape. MS. * tacr, MB. 


50 cubitts he was in height, 
Lo : he was a lothefome wight ! 

When S r Gawaine y* Carle fee, 

He halfed 1 him full curteouflye ; 190 

& faith, Carle of Carlile 9 , God fave thee, 

As thou fitteth in thy profperitye I" 

The Carle faid, " as cheif 3 me fave, 

Yee fhall be welcome for Arthurs fake ; 

Yet is itt not my p* to doe foe, i 

For Arthur hath beene ever my foe. 

He hath beaten my k te & done them bale, 

& fend them wounded to my owne hall ; 

Yett the truth to tell I will not leane 4 , 

I have quitt him the fame againe." 200 

" Y* is a kind of a knave," faid Kay, " w th out leasing, 

Soe to revile a noble King ;" 

Gawaine heard, & made anfwere, 

" Kay, thou fayft more then meete were." 

y* they went further into the hall, * 

Where bords were fpredd, & covered w th pall ; 
& 4 welpes of great ire, 
They found lying by the fire. 

There was a beare y* did rome, 

& a bore, y* did whett his tufks fome ; 210 

Alfoe a bull, y* did rore, 

& a lyon, y* did both gape & rore. 

haltled, MS. * Callile, MS. s Crift ? 4 leave, MS. 


The lyon did both gape & gren, 

" O ! peace, whelpes," faid the Carle then ; 

For y* word y* the 1 Carle did fpeake, 215 

The 4 whelpes under the ! bord did creepe. 

Downe came a lady faire & free, 

& fett her on the Carles knee ; 

One whiles fhee harped, another whiles fong, 

Both of paramours & lovinge amonge. MO 

" Well were y* man/' faid Gawaine, " y* ere were borne, 

Y* might lye w th y 1 lady till day att morne ;" 

" Y* were great fhame," faid the Carle free, 

" Y* thou fholdeft doe me fuch villanye." 

S r ," faid Gawaine, I fayd nought," 225 

" No, man," faid the Carle, " more thou thought." 

Then Hart Kay to the flore, 

& faid hee wold fee how his palfrey fore ; 

Both corne & hay he found lyand, 

& the Carles palfrey by his fteed did ftand. aso 

Kay tooke the Carles palfrey by the necke, 

& foone he thruft him out att the hecke ; 

Thus Kay put the Carles fole out, 

& on his backe he fett a clout. 

Then the Carle himfelfe hee flood thereby, 6 

And fayd, this buffett, man, thou fhalt aby !" 

[p. 452.] The Carle raught Kay fuch a rapp, 
Y backward he fell flatt ; 
Had itt not beene for a feald of ftraw, 
Kayes backe had gone in 2. MO 

' they, MS. 


Then faid Kay, " & thou were w th out thy hold, 
Man, this buffett fhold be deere fold." 
" What \" fayd the Carle, " doft thou menace me ? 
I fwere by all foules, fikerlye, 

Man, I fwere further thore, 245 

If I heere any malice more, 

For this one word y 4 thou haft fpoken, 

Itt is but erneft thou haft gotten." 

Then went Kay into the hall, 

& the Bifhopp to him can call ; 250 

Saith, " Brother Kay, where have yo u2 beene ?" 

" To looke my palfrey, as 1 weene." 

Then faid the Bifhopp, " itt falleth me, 

Y* my palfrey I muft fee ;" 

Both corne & hay he found lyand, 255 

& the Carles palfrey, as I underftand. 

The Bifhopp tooke the Carles horffe by the necke, 

& foone hee thruft him out att the hecke ; 

Thus he turned the Carles fole out, 

& on his backe he fett a clout. 260 

Sais, " wend forth, fole, in the devills way ! 
Who made the foe bold w th my palfrey ?" 
The Carle himfelfe he ftood thereby, 
" Man, this buffett thou fhalt abuy 3 !" 

He hitt the Bifhopp upon the crowne, 265 

Y* his miter & he fell downe ; 

" Mercy," faid the Bifhopp, " I am a clarke, 

Somewhatt I can of Chrifts werke." 

? yo u have, MS. 3 abay, MS. 

2 M 


He faith, " by the clergye I fett nothing, 

Nor yett by thy miter, nor by thy ringe ; 270 

It fitteth a clarke to be curteous & free, 

By the conning of his clergy." 

W to y 1 the Bifhopp went into the hall, 

& S r Gawaine to him can call ; 

Saith, " brother Bifhopp, where have yo u beene ?" 275 

" To looke my palfrey, as I weene." 

Then fayd S r Gawaine, " it falleth mee, 

Y* my palfreye I muft needs fee " 

Corne & hay he found enoughe lyand, 

& the Carles fole by his did ftand. aao 

The Carles fole had beene forth in the raine, 
Therof S r Gawaine was not faine ; 
Hee tooke his mantle, y l was of greene, 
& covered the fole, as I weene. 

Sayth, " ftand up, fole, & eate thy meate, a 

Thy M r payeth for all y* wee heere gett ;" 
The 1 Carle himfelfe ftood thereby, 
& thanked him of his curtefye. 

The 1 Carle tooke Gawaine by the hand, 

& both together in the 1 hall they wend; 290 

The Carle 2 called for a bowle of wine, 

& foone they fettled them to dine. 

70 bowles 3 in y* bowle were 

He was not weake y 1 did itt beare. v M 

Then the ! Carle fett itt to his chin, ws 

& faid, " to yo* I will begin." 

' they, MS. 'Carles, MS. ' gallons ? 


15 gallons he dranke y* tyde, 

& raught to his men on every fide. 

Then the 1 Carle faid to them anon, 

" Sirrs, to fupp gett yo u gone ;" 3 oo 

Gawaine anfwered the Carle then, 

" S r , att yo r bidding wee will be ben." 

" If yo u be bayne att my bidding, 

Yo u honor me, w th out leafinge ;" 

They wafhed all, & went to meate, 305 

& dranke the wine y* was foe fweete. 

The Carle faid to Gawaine anon, 

te A long fpeare fee thou take in thy hand ; 

Att the buttrye dore 2 take thou thy race, 

& marke me well in middeft the face." sio 

.*ii>r* **J9ft*R '*fr *w'm sf :.") rrV 
A ! thought S r Kay, y* y* were I, 
Then his buffett he fhold deer abuy 3 ! 
" Well," q th the Carle, when thou wilt, thou may, 
When thou wilt thy ftrenght affay." 

" WeU S r ," faid Kay, I faid nought," 315 

[p. 453.] Noe," faid the Carle, but more thou thought." 

Then Gawaine was full glad of y*, 

& a long fpere in his hand he gatt ; 

Att the buttery dore he tooke his race, 

& marked the Carle in the middft the face. 320 

The Carle faw S r Gawaine come in ire, 
& caft his head under his fpeare ; 
Gawaine raught the wall fuch a rapp, 
The fyer flew out, & the fpeare brake. 

1 they, MS. * doe, MS. s a buy, MS. 

2 M 2 



He ftroke a foote into the wall of ftone, 

A bolder Ban-on was there never none ; 

Soft," faid the Carle, tfcou was to radd,"- 

I did but, S r , as yo me bade." 

If thou had hitt me, as thou had ment, 

Thou had raught me a fell dint." 

The 1 Carle tooke Gawaine by the hand, 
& both into a chamber they wend ; 
A full faire bed there was fpred, 
The Carles wiffe therin was laid. 

The Carle 8 faid, " Gawaine, of curtefye, 
Gett into this bedd w tb this faire ladye ; 
Kiffe thou her 3 8e before mine eye, 
Looke thou doe no other villanye." 

The Carle opened the fheetes wyde, 
Gawaine gott in by the ladyes fyde ; 
Gawaine over he put his arme, 
y* his flefh began to warme. 


Gawaine had thought to have made in fare, 

Hold!" q tt the Carle, " man, ftopp there 3 ; 

Itt were greet fhame," q th the 4 Carle, for me, 345 

Y* thou fholdeft doe me fuch villanye. 

But arife up, Gawaine, & goe w* me, 

I fhall bring thee to a fairer lady then ev 9 was fhee ;" 

The 4 Carle tooke Gawaine by the hand, 

Both into another chamber they wend. 

they, MS. * Carles, MS. 3 thee, MS. 

they, MS. 


A faire bedd there found they fpred, 
& the Carles daughter therin laid ; 
Saith, " Gawaine, now, for thy curtefye, 
Gett thee to bedd to this faire lady." 

The Carle opened the fheetes wyde, 355 

S r Gawaine gott in by the ladyes fide ; 

Gawaine put his arme over y* fweet thing, 

" Sleepe, daughter," fais the Carle, " on my bleffing !" 

The l Carle turned his backe, & went his way, 

& lockt the dore w th a filver kaye ; seo 

On the other morning, when the Carle 2 rofe, 

Unto his daughters chamber he goes. 

te Rise up, S r Gawaine, & goe w th mee, 

A marvelous fight I f hall lett thee fee ;" 

The l Carle tooke him by the hand, 365 

& both into another chamber they wend. 

& there they found many a bloody ferke, 

W ch were wrought w th curyous werke ; 

1500 dead mens bones 3 

They found upon a rooke att once. 370 

" Alacke !" q th S r Gawaine, (( what have bene here ?" 

Saith, " I & my welpes have flaine all there." 

Then S r Gawaine, curteous & kind, 

He tooke his leave away to wend ; 

& thanked the 1 Carle, & the ladyes there, 375 

Right as they worthy were ; 

" Nay," faid the Carle, f( wee will firft dine, 

& then thou fhalt goe w th bleffing mine." 

Carles, MS. 3 a bones, MS, 



After dinner, the footh to fay, 
The Carle tooke Gawaine to a chamber gay ; 
Where were hanginge fwords a-rowe 1 , 
The Carle soone tooke one of tho. 

& fayd to the k* then, 

" Gawaine, as thou art a man, 

Take this fword, & ftryke of my head," sas 

" Nay," faid Gawaine, " I had rather be dead. 

For I had rather fufler pine & woe, 

Or ev 9 I wold y* deede doe." 

The Carle fayd to S r Gawaine, 

" Looke thou doe as I thee faine ; 3 

& therof be not adread, 

But fhortly finite of my head. 

For if thou wilt not doe itt tyte, 
Forfooth thy head I will of fmyte ;" 

[p. 454.] To the Carle faid S r Gawaine, sgs 

u Sir, yo r bidding fhall be done." 

He ftroke the head the body froe, 

& he flood up a man thoe ; 

Of the height of S r Gawaine, 

The certaine foothe, w th outen laine. o 

The Carle fayd, " Gawaine, God blefs thee ! 
For thou haft deliv^ed mee ; 
From aU falfe 9 witchcrafit 
I am dehV* att the laft. 

By nigromance thus was I fhapen, 405 

Till a k' of the Round Table, 

1 swords rowe, MS. * halfe, MS. 


Had w th a fword fmitten of my head, 
If he had grace to doe y* deede. 

Itt is 40 winters agoe, 

Since I was tranfformed foe ; 410 

Since then none lodged w th in this woom 1 , 

But I & my whelpes driven them downe, 

& but if hee did my bidding foone, 

I killed him, & drew him downe. 

Every one but only thee, 415 

Chrift 2 grant thee of his mercye ! 

He y* the world made, reward thee this, 

For all my bale thou haft turned to blifle. 

Now will I leave y* lawe, 

There fhall no man for me be flawe ; 420 

& I purpofe for their fake, 

A chantrey in this place to make ; 

& 5 preifts to fing for aye, 

TJntill itt be doomes-day ; 

& Gawaine, for the love of thee, 425 

Every one fhall bee welcome to mee." 

S r Gawaine & the young lady clere, 

The Bifhopp wedded them in fere ; 

The Carle gave him for his wedding, 

A ftaffe, miter, & a ringe. 430 

He gave S r Kay, y* angry k*, 

A blood-red fteede & a wight ; 

He gave his daughter, the-footh to fay, 

An ambling white palfrey. 

1 woone ? 2 Thrift, MS, 



The faireft hee was on the mold, 
Her palfrey was charged w^ gold ; 
Shee was foe gorgeous, & foe gay, 
No man cold tell her array. 

The Carle comanded S r Gawaine to wend, 

& fay unto Arthur our King, 

& pray him y* hee wold, 

For his love y* Judas fold, 

& for his fake y* in Bethelem was borne, 

If hee wold dine w 01 him to-morne. 

S r Gawaine fayd the Carle unto, 
Forffooth I fhall yo r meffage doe ;" 
Then they rode finging by the way, 
the ladye, y* was gay. 


They were as glad of y* lady bright, 

As ever was fowle of the day-lyght ; 

They told K : Arthur where they had beene, 

& what adventures they had feene. 

I thanke God," fayd the K: " cozen Kay, 

Y* thou didft on live p* away ;" 

Marry !" fayd S r Kay againe, 465 

" Of my liffe 1 I may be faine. 

For his love y* was in Bethlem borne, 

Yo u muft dine w^ the Carle to-morne." 

In the dawning of the day they 8 rode, 

A merryer meeting was nev 9 made ; *> 

When they together were mett, 

Itt was a good thing, I yo u hett. 

lifte, MS. 2 the, MS. 


The trumpetts plaid att the gate, 

W th trumpetts of filver theratt 1 ; 

There [was] all manner of minftrelfye, 465 

Harpe, gyttorne 2 , & fawtrye. 

Into the hall the king was fett 3 , 

& royallye in feat was fett ; 

By then the dinner was readye dight, 

Tables were covered all on height. 470 

Then to wafh they wold not blinn, 
& the feaft they can beginn ; 
There they were mached arright, 
Every lady againft a knight. 

[p. 455.] & minftrells fate in windowes faire, 475 

& playd on their inftruments cleere ; 
Minftrells for worfhipp at every meffe, 
Full lowd they cry Largefie 4 ! 

The Carle bade the K: doe gladlye, 

<f For heere yee gett great curtefye ;" 480 

The K: faid, by S* MichaeU ! 

This dinner liketh me full well." 

He dubd the Carle a k* anon, 

He gave him the county of Carlile foone ; 

& made him erle of all y* land, 485 

& after k* of the Table Round. 

The K: faid, k*, I teU thee, 

Carlile fhall thy name bee. w 

1 therott, MS, * gyttome, MS. s has fell, MS. 4 Largneffe, MS. 




When the dinner was all done, 
Every k* tooke his leave foone ; 
To wend forward, foberlye, 
Home into their owne countrye. 

He y* made us all w th his hand, 
Both the fea & the land, 
Grant us all, for his fake, 
This falfe world to forfake ; 

& out of this world when wee fhall wend, 
To heavens blifle our foules bringe ; 
God grant us grace itt may foe bee ! 
Amen ! say all, for charitye. 





No. VI. 

^fragment of tije Baiiafc of 36Ung 
anti tlje Hing of Corntoall 


-* $u Uiw ft* .*..* *nJ,:r.; c 

[MS. Per- >^ OME here my cozen, Gawain, fo gay, 
cy. p. 24.") _ _ -, A .. . 

\^y My lifters fonne be yee ; , . fc0 ^ 

For yo u fhall fee one of the faireft Round Tables, 
That ever yo u fee w th yo 1 "" eye." 

'' > r : ' l\ f f< > .' , 

Then befpake [the] Lady d. Guenever, s 

& thefe were the words faid fhee, 

" I know where a Round Table is, thou noble K: 

Is worth thy Round Table & other fuch 3. 

The treftle that ftands under this Round Table," fhe faid, 

" Lowe downe to the mould, 10 

It is worth thy Round Table, tho u worthy K : 

Thy halls, & all thy gold. 

The place where this Round Table ftands in, 
It is worth thy caftle, thy gold, thy fee ; 

And all good Litle Britaine," 15 

" Where may that table be, Lady ?" q th hee, 
2 N2 



Or where may all that goodly building be ?' 
Yo fhall it feeke," fhee fayd, tiU yo* it find, 
For yo u fhall never gett more of me." 

Then befpake him noble K: Arthur, 
Thefe were the words faid hee ; 
" He make mine avow to God, 
& alfoe to the Trinity, 

He never fleepe one night, there as I doe another, 
Till y* Round Table I fee ; 
S r Marramiles, & S r Trifteram, 
Fellowes y* ye fhall bee. 

Weele be clad in palmers weede, 

5 palmers we will bee ; 

There is noe outlandifh man will us abide, so 

Nor will us come nye." 

Then they rived eaft & they 1 rived west, 

In many a ftrange country. 

Then they travelled* a litle further, 

They faw a battle new fett ; 

" Now, by my faith," faies noble K: Arthur, 

[Half a page is here torn away.~\ 

[p. 25.] But when he came that cattle to, 
& to the palace gate ; 
Soe ready was ther a proud porter, 
& met him foone therat. 

1 the, MS. * tranckled, MS. 


Shooes of gold the porter had on, 
& all his other rayment was unto the fame ; 
" Now, by my faith," faies noble K: Arthur, 
rt Yonder is a minion fwaine." 

Then befpake noble K. Arthur, 45 

These were the words fays hee, 
t( Come hither, thou proud porter, 
I pray thee come hither to me. 

I have 2 poor rings of my finger, 

The l better of them lie give to thee ; 50 

[To] tell who may be lord of this caftle," he faies, 

" Or who is lord in this cuntry ?" 

" Cornewall K:" the porter fayes, 

(( There is none foe rich as hee ; 

Neither in Chriftendome, nor yet in heathenneft, 55 

None hath foe much gold as he." 

& then befpake him noble K: Arthur, 

Thefe were the words fayes hee, 

" I have 2 poore rings of my finger, 

The better of them He give thee, 60 

If thou wilt greete him well, Cornewall K: 

& greete him well from me. 

Pray him for one nights lodging, & 2 meales meate, 

For his love that dyed uppon a tree ; 

A hue* ghefting, & 2 meales meate, es 

For his love that dyed uppon a tree. 

A bue 2 ghefting, & 3 2 meales meate, 
For his love that was of virgin borne, 

1 they, MS. s Sic, MS. of, MS. 


& in the morning y* we may fcape away, 

Either w^ut fcath or fcorne." 70 

Then forth is ' gone this proud porter, 
Aa fait as he cold hye ; 
& when he came befor Cornewall K: 
He kneeled downe on his knee. 

Sayes, " 1 have beene porter, man, at thy gate, 75 

[Half a page is wanting.'] 

f n 

p. 26.] our Lady was borne, 

Then thought Cornewall K: thefe palmers had beene in Britt. 

Then befpake him Cornewall King, 

Thefe were the words he faid there ; 

" Did yo u ever know a comely K: go 

His name was King Arthur ?" 

& then befpake him noble K: Arthur, 

Thefe were the words faid hee ; 

" I doe not know that comly K : 

But once my felfe I did him fee." gs 

Then befpake Cornwall K: againe, 

Thefe were the words faid he. 

Sayes, " 7 yeere I was clad & fed, 
In Litle Brittaine, in a bower ; 

1 hia, MS. 


I had a daughter by K: Arthurs wife, 90 

It now is called my flower ; 

For K: Arthur, that kindly cockward, 

Hath none fuch in his bower. 

For I durft fweare, and fave my othe, 

Y* fame lady foe bright, 95 

That a man y* were laid on his death-bed, 

Wold open his eyes on her to have fight." 

" Now, by my faith," fayes noble K: Arthur, 

& thats a full faire wight !" 

& then befpake Cornewall [King] againe, 100 

& thefe were the words he faid 1 , 

" Come hither, 5 or 3 of my knights, * 

& feitch me downe my fteed ; 

King Arthur, that foule cockeward, 

Hath none fuch, if he had need. io& 

For I can ryde him as far on a day, 

As King Arthur can doe any of his on 3. 

& is it not a pleafure for a K: 

When he fhall ryde forth on his journey ? 

For the eyes that beene in his head, no 

They 2 glifter as doth the gleed ;" 

" Now, by my faith," fays noble King Arthur, 

[Half a page is wanting.'} 

[p. 27.] No body 

But one y ts learned to fpeake. 

faid he, MS. * the, MS. 


Then K: Arthur to his bed was brought, 
A greeived man was hee ; 
& foe were all his fellowes w* him, 
From him they 1 thought never to flee. 

Then take they did that lodly boome 9 , 
& under thrubchandler 8 clofed was hee ; 
& he was fet by K: Arthurs bed-fide, 
To heere theire talke, & theire com'nye. 

Y* he might come forth, & make proclamation, 

Long before it was day ; 

It was more for K: Corn walls pleafure, & 

Then it was for K: Arthurs pay. 

& when K: Arthur on his bed was laid, 

Thefe were the words faid hee ; 

" lie make mine avow to God, 

& alfoe to the Trinity, 13 

That lie be the bane of Cornwall kinge 

Litle Brittaine or ever I fee !" 

" It is an unadvifed vow," faies Gawaine the gay, 

" As ever K: hard make I ; 

But wee y* beene 5 chriftian men, 

Of the chriften faith are wee ; 

& we fhall fight againft anoynted K: 

& all his armorie." 

& then he fpake him noble Arthur, 

& thefe were the words faid he ; 14 

" Why, if thou be afraid, S r Gawaine the gay, 

Goe home, & drinke wine in thine owne country." 

1 the, MS. 2 goome ? 3 thrubchadler, MS. 



And then befpake S r Gawaine the gay, 

And thefe were the words faid hee ; 

" Nay, feeing yo u have made fuch a hearty vow, us 

Heere another vow make will I. 

He make mine avow to God, 

& alfoe to the Trinity ; 

Y* I will have yonder faire lady, % 

To Litle Brittaine w th mee. 150 

He hose her hourly to my hurt ', 
& w th her He worke my will ; 

[Half a page is wanting, ,] 

[p. 28.] Thefe were the words fayd hee ; 

" Befor I wold wreftle w th yonder feend, 

It is better be drowned in the fea." 155 

And then befpake S r Bredbeddle, 

& thefe were the words faid he; 

" Why, I will wreftle w th yon lodly feend, 

God ! my governor thou fhalt bee." 

1 hart? 

2 o 


Then befpake him noble Arthur, 

& thefe were the 1 words faid he ; 

What weapons wilt thou have, thou gentle knight, 

1 pray thee tell to me?" 

He fayes, " Collen brand He have in my hand, 

& a Millaine knife faft be my knee j 

& a Danish axe faft in my hands, 

Y* a fure weapon I thinke wilbe." 

Then w* 1 * his Collen brand, y* he had in his hand, 
The bunge of the trubchandler he burft in 3. 
W* that ftart out a lodly feend, TO 

7 heads, & one body. 

The fyer towards the element flew, 
Out of his mouth, where was great plentie ; 
The knight ftoode in the middle, & fought, 
Y* it was great joy to fee. 

Till his Collaine brand brake in his hand, 
& his Millaine knife burft on his knee ; 
& then the Danifh axe burft in his hand firft, 
Y 4 a fure a weapon he thought fhold be. 

But now is the knight left w^ut any weapone, i*> 

& alacke ! it was the more pitty ; 

But a furer weapon then had he one, 

Had never L: in Chriftentye. 

& all was but one litle booke, 

He found it by the fide of the fea. 185 

He found it at the fea-fide, 
Wrucked upp in a floode ; 

1 they, MS. f fur, MS. 


Our L: had written it w th his hands, 
& fealed it w th his bloode. 

[Half a page is wanting. ,] 

[p. 29.] That thou doe 190 

But ly ftill in that wall of ftone ; 

Till I have beene vf^ noble K: Arthur, 

& told him what I have done." 

And when he came to the K s chamber, 

He cold of his curtefie ; 195 

Saves 1 , " fleep yo u , wake yo u , noble K : Arthur ? 

& ever Jefus watch yee !" 

" Nay, I am not fleeping, I am waking," 

Thefe were the words faid hee ; 

" For thee I have card, how haft thou fared, 200 

O! gentle knight, let me fee." 

The knight wrought the K: his booke, 

Bad him behold, reede, & fee ; 

& ever he found it on the backfide of the leafe, 

As noble Arthur wold wifn it to be. 205 

& then befpake him K: Arthur, 
" Alas ! thou gentle knight, how may this be, 
That I might fee him in the fame lickneffe, 
Y* he ftood unto thee?" 

i Saye, MS. 
2 O 2 


& then befpake him the Greene Knight, 
Thefe were the words faid hee ; 
If youle ftand ftifly in the battell ftronge, 
For I have won all the victory." 

Then befpake him the K: againe, 

& thefe were the words faid hee ; 

If we ftand not ftifly in this battell ftrong, 

Wee are worthy to be hanged all on a tree." 

Then befpake him the Greene Knight, 
Thefe were the words faid he ; 
Saies, " I doe coniure thee, thou fowle feend, 
In the fame licknefle thou flood unto me." 

that ftart out a lodly feend, 

7 heads, & one body ; 
The fier towarde the element flaugh, 
Out of his mouth, where was great plenty. 

The knight flood in the middle 

[Half a page is wanting.] 

[p. 30.] the fpace of an houre, 

I know not what they did. 

And then befpake him the Greene Knight, 

& thefe were the words faid he ; 230 

Suit h, " I coniure thee, thou fowle feend, 

Y 1 thou feitch downe the fteed y* we fee." 


& then forth is gone Burlow-beanie, 

As faft as he cold hie j 

& feitch he did that faire fteed, 235 

& came againe by & by. 

Then befpake him S r Marramile, 

& thefe were the words faid hee ; 

" Riding of this fteed, brother Bredbeddle, 

The maftery belongs to me." 240 

Marramiles tooke the fteed to his hand, 
To ryd him he was full bold ; 
He cold noe more make him goe, 
Then a child of 3 yeere old. 

He faid 1 uppon him w th heele & hand, 245 

W th yard that was foe fell ; 

" Helpe ! brother Bredbeddle," fays Marramile, 

" For I thinke he be the devill of hell." 

" Helpe ! brother Bredbeddle," fays Marramile, 

" Helpe ! for Chrifts pittye j 250 

For w th out thy help, brother Bredbeddle, 

He will never be rydden for 2 me." 

Then befpake him S r Bredbeddle, 

Thefe were the words faid he ; 

" I coniure thee, thou Burlow-beane 3 , 255 

Thou tell me how this fteed was riddin in his country." 

He faith, " there is a gold wand, 

Stands in K: Cornwalls ftudy windowe. 

fayed, i. e. efsayed ? s p', i. e. pro or per, MS. * leane, MS. 


Let him take that wand in y e window, 
& ftrike 3 ftrokes on that fteed j 
& then he will fpring forth of his hand, 
As fparke doth out of gleede." 

Then befpake him the Greene Knight, 

[Half a page is wanting. 1 

[p. 31.] A lowd blaft 

& then befpake S r Bredbeddle, 266 

To the feend thefe words faid hee ; 

Says, " I coniure thee, thou Burlow-beanie, 

The powder-box thou feitch me." 

Then forth is gone Burlow-beanie, 

As fall as he cold hie ; 270 

& feich he did the powder-box, 

& came againe by & by. 

Then S r Trifteram tooke powder forth of y* box, 

& blent it with warme fweet milke ; 

& there put it unto the home, w 

& fwilled it about in that ilke. 

Then he tooke the home in his hand, 

& a lowd blaft he blew ; 

He rent the home up to the midfl, 

All his fellowes this they 1 knew. aeo 

1 the, MS. 


Then befpake him the Greene Knight, 
Thefe were the words faid he ; 
Sales, " I coniure thee, thou Burlow-beanie, 
Y* thou feitch me the fword that I fee/' 

Then forth is gone Burlow-beanie, 285 

As fail as he cold hie ; 

& feitch he did that faire fword, 

& came againe by & by. 

Then befpake him S r Bredbeddle, 

To the K : thefe words faid he ; 290 

" Take this fword in thy hand, thou noble K : 

For the vowes fake y* thou made He give it thee ; 

And goe ftrike off K: Cornewalls head, 

In bed where l he doth lye." 

Then forth is gone noble K: Arthur, 295 

As faft as he cold hye ; 

& ftrucken he hath K: Cornwalls head, 

& came againe by & by. 

He put the head upon a fwords point, 

{The poem terminates here abruptly. ~\ 

were, MS. 

No. VII. 

of tije Carriage of ^tr <atoaint. 

[MS. Per- -T7~ INGE Arthur liues in merry Carleile, 
cy,p-460 J^ And feemely is to fee ; 

And there he hath v?^ him Queene GeneV, 
Y* bride fo bright of blee. 

And there he hath w* him Queene Genever, 

Y* bride foe bright in bower ; 
& all his barons about him ftoode, 

Y* were both ftiffe & ftowre. 

The K. kept a royall Chriftmaffe, 

Of mirth & great honor ; 
. . . when 

[About nine stanzas wanting.] 

[p 47.] And bring me word what thing it is, 

Y* women 1 moft defire ; 
This fhalbe thy ranfome, Arthur," he fayes, 

" For lie haue noe other hier." 15 

1 Y e a woman, MS. 


K. Arthur then held vp his hands, 

According thene as was the law ; 
He tooke his leaue of baron there, 

And homword can he draw. 

And when he came to merry Carlile, 20 

To his chamber he is gone ; 
And ther came to him his cozen, S r Gawaine, 

As he did make his mone. 

And there came to him his cozen S r Gawaine 1 , 

Y* was a curteous knight ; 25 

" Why figh yo u foe fore, vnckle Arthur ?" he faid, 

fe Or who hath done thee vnright ?" 

" O peace ! o peace ! thou gentle Gawaine, 

Y* faire may thee be-fall ; 
For if thou knew my fighing foe deepe, 36 

Thou wold not meruaile att all. 

For when I came to Tearne-wadling, 

A bold barron there I fand ; 
W th a great club vpon his backe, 

Standing ftiffe & ftrong. 35 

And he afked me wether I wold fight, 

Or from him I fhold be gone ; 
Or 2 elfe I muft him a ranfome pay, 

& foe dept him from. 

To fight w th him I faw noe caufe, 40 

Me thought it was not meet ; 
For he was ftiffe & ftrong w th all, 

His ftrokes were nothing fweete. 

Cawaine, MS. * O, MS. 

2 P 


Therfor this is my ranfome, Gawaine, 

I ought to him to pay ; 
I mull come againe, as I am fworne, 

Vpon the Newyeers day. 

And I muft bring him word what thing it is 
[About nine stanzas wanting. ~\ 

[p. 48.] Then King Arthur dreft him for to ryde, 

In one foe riche array ; 50 

Toward the forefaid Tearne-wadling, 
Y* he might keepe his day. 

And as he rode over a more, 

Hee fee a lady, where fhee fate ; 
Betwixt an oke and a greene hollen, sa 

She was cladd in red fcarlett. 

Then there as fhold have flood her mouth, 

Then there was fett her eye ; 
The other was in her forhead faft, 

The way that fhe might fee. eo 

Her nofe was crooked, and turnd outward, 

Her mouth flood foule a-wry ; 
A worfe formed lady then fhee was, 

Neuer man faw w tt his eye. 

To halch vpon him, K. Arthur, 65 

This lady was full faine ; 
But K. Arthur had forgott his leflbn, 

What he fhold fay againe. 


" What knight art thou ?" the lady fayd, 

" That wilt not fpeake to me ? 70 

Of me [be] thou nothing difmayd, 

Tho I be vgly to fee. 

For I haue halched yo u curteouflye, 

& yo u will not me againe ; 
Yett I may happen, S r Knight," fhee faid, 75 

" To eafe thee of thy paine." 

" Giue thou eafe me, lady," he faid, 

" Or helpe me any thing, 
Thou fhalt haue gentle Gawaine, my cozen, 

& marry him w th a ring/' so 

" Why if I helpe thee not, thou noble K. Arthur, 

Of thy owne hearts defiringe, 
Of gentle Gawaine 

[About nine stanzas wantingJ] 

[p. 49.] And when he came to the Tearne-wadling, 

The baron there cold he finde l ; as 

W th a great weapon on his backe, 
Standing ftiffe & ftronge. 

And then he tooke K. Arthurs letters in his hands, 

& away he cold them fling ; 
& then he puld out a good browne fword, 90 

& cryd himfelfe a K. 

1 frinde, MS. 

2 p 2 


And he fayd, " I haue thee, & thy land, Arthur, 

To doe as it pleafeth me ; 
For this is not thy ranfome Cure, 

Therfore yeeld thee to me." 95 

And then befpoke him noble Arthur, 

& bad him hold his hands ; 
" & give me leave to fpeake my mind, 

In defence of all my land." 

He 1 faid, " as I came over a more, 100 

I fee a lady where fhee fate ; 
Betweene an oke & a green hollen, 

She was clad in red fcarlette. 

And fhe fays a woman will haue her will, 

& this is all her cheef defire ; 105 

Doe me right, as thou art a baron of fckill, 

This is thy ranfome, & all thy hyer." 

He fayes, " an early vengeance light on her ! 

She walkes on yonder more ; 
It was my filler, that told thee this, no 

She is a muThappen hore. 

But heer lie make mine avow to god, 

To do her an euill turne ; 
For an euer I may thate fowle theefe get, 

In a fyer I will her burne." 215 

[About nine stanzas wanting.] 

The, MS. 


THE 2d. PART. 

[p. 50.] Sir Lancelot*, & S r Steven, bold, 
They rode w th them that day ; 
And the formoft of the company, 
There rode the fteward Kay. 

Soe did S r Banier, & S r Bore, lao 

S r Garrett w th them, foe gay ; 
Soe did S r Trifteram, y* gentle k*, 

To the forreft, fref h & gay. 

And when he came to the greene forreft, 

Vnderneath a greene holly tree ; 125 

Their fate that lady in red fcarlet, 

Y* vnseemly was to fee. 

S r Kay beheld this ladys face, 

& looked vppon her fuire ; 

rt Whofoeuer kifies this lady," he fayes, 130 

> * "Of his kiffe he ftands in feare !" 

S r Kay beheld the lady againe, 

& looked vpon her fnout ; 
u Whofoeuer kifles this lady," he faies, 

" Of his kiffe he ftands in doubt \" 13* 

" Peace, coz. Kay/ 3 then faid S r Gawaine, 

" Amend thee of thy life ; 
For there is a knight amongft us all, 

Y* muft marry her to his wife." 


" What 1 wedd her to wiffe," then f d S r Kay, 1411 

" In the diuells name anon ; 
Gett me a wiffe where ere I may, 

For I had rather be flaine !" 

Then fome 1 tooke vp their hawkes in haft, 

& fome tooke vp their hounds ; 145 

& fome fware they wold not marry her, 

For citty nor for towne. 

And then be-fpake him noble K. Arthur, 

& fware there, " by this day, 
For a litle foule fight & mifliking, iso 

[About nine stanzas wanting.] 

[p. 31.] Then fhee faid, "choofe thee, gentle Gawaine, 

Truth as I doe fay ; 

Wether thou wilt haue me in this likneffe, 
In the night, or elfe in the day." 

And then befpake him gentle Gawaine, 155 

Vf * one foe mild of moode ; 
Sayes, " well I know what I wold fay, 

God grant it may be good ! 

To haue thee fowle in the night, 

When I w* thee fhold play ; I6o 

Yet I had rather if I might, 

Haue thee fowle in the day." 

1 (borne, MS. 


" What, when Lords goe w th ther feires *," fhee faid, 

" Both to the ale & wine ; 
Alas ! then I muft hyde my felfe, 165 

I muft not goe withinne." 

And then befpake him gentle Gawaine, 

Said, "lady, thats but a fkill ; 
And becaufe thou art my owne lady, 

Thou fhalt haue all thy will." 170 

Then fhee faid, " bleffed 2 be thou, gentle Gawaine, 

This day y* I thee fee ; 
For as thou fee me att this time, 

From henceforth 3 I wilbe. 

My father was an old knight, 175 

& yett it chanced foe ; 
That he marryed a younge lady, 

Y* brought me to this woe. 

She witched me, being a faire young lady, 

To the greene forreft to dwell ; iso 

& there I muft walke in womans likneffe, 

Moft like a feeind of hell. 

She witched my brother to a Carlift B . . . . 

[About nine stanzas wanting.] 

[p. 52.] That looked foe foule, & that was wont, 

On the wild more to goe. iss 

1 feires, MS. 2 blefed, MS. 3 hencforth, MS. 


" Come kifle her, brother Kay," then faid S r Gawaine, 

& amend thee ' of thy liffe ; 
I fweare this is the fame lady 

Y* I marryed to my wiffe." 

S r Kay kifled that lady bright, iw 

Standing vpon his feete ; 
He fayes, as he was trew knight, 

The fpice was neuer foe fweete. 

" Well, coz. Gawaine," faies S r Kay, 

" Thy chance is fallen arright j 195 

For thou haft gotten one of the faireft maids, 

I euer faw w 111 my fight." 

" It is my fortune," faid S r Gawaine, 

" For my vnckle Arthurs fake ; 
1 am glad as grafle wold be of rain, MO 

Great joy that I may take." 

S r Gawaine tooke the lady by the one arme, 

S* Kay tooke her by the tother j 
They led her ftraight to K. Arthur, 

As they were brother & brother. 205 

K. Arthur welcomed them there all, 
& foe did lady Geneuer, his queene; 

all the knights of the Round Table, 
Moft feemly to be feene. 

K. Arthur beheld that lady faire, 
That was foe faire & bright ; 

He thanked Chrift in Trinity, 

For S r Gawaine, that gentle knight. 


1 the, MS. 


Soe did the knights, both more and leffe, 

Reioyced all that day ; 215 

For the good chance y* hapened was, 

To S r Gawaine & his lady gay. 


No. VIII. 

toeltopnge of j& lateen $ 

[MS. Raw- T YTHE 1 and* liftenytfe the IIP of a lord' riche, 
so. ' I ^The while that he lyvid' was none hym lictie, 
Nether in bowre ne in halle ; 
In the tyme of Arthour 9 thys adventure betyd,' 
And' of the greatt adventure that he hym felf dyd', 5 

That kyng curteys & royalt. 
Of alle kyngf Arture beryth the flowyr, 
And' of alle knyghtod' he bare away the hono r , 
Where foeu he wentt ; 

In hys contrey was no thyng butt chyvalry, 10 

And' knyghtf were belovid' [by] that doughty, 
For cowardf were eumore fhent. 
Nowe wytt ye lyft a whyle to my talkyng, 
I f hatt you tett of Arthowre the kyng, 

Howe ones hym befett ; 15 

On huntyng he was in Inglefwod', 
With aUe his bold' knyght? good', 
Nowe herkefi to my fpett. 
The kyng was fett att his treftyft-tree, 

With his bowe to fie the wylde ven 9 e, 20 

And' hys lordf were fett hym befyde ; 
As the kyng ftode, then was he ware, 
Where a greatt hartt was and' a fayre, 

1 Klythe, MS. 


And' forth faft dyd' he glyde. 

The hartt was in a brakeii feme, 25 

And' hard 5 the hound?, and' ftode fuft derne, 
Alle that fawe the kyng ; 
" Hold' you ftyft, euy man, 
And' I woft goo my felf, yf I can, 

With craft of ftalkyng." so 

[fol. 129.] The kyng in hys hand 5 toke a bowe, 
And' wodmanly he ftowpyd' lowe, 
To ftalk' vnto that dere j 
When that he cam the dere fuft nere, 

The dere lept forth into a brere, 35 

And eu the kyng went nere & nere. 
So kyng Arthure went a whyle, 
After the dere, I trowe, half a myle, 
And' no man with hym went ; 

And' att the laft to the dere he lett flye, 40 

And' fmote hym fore and' fewerly, 
Suche grace God' hym fent. 
Doun the dere tumblyd' fo deron, 
And' feft into a greatt brake of ferofi, 

The kyng folowyd' fuft faft ; 45 

Anon the kyng both ferce & feft 
Was with the dere, and' dyd' hym ^veft 1 , 
And' after the graffe he tafte. 
As the kyng was with the dere alone, 

Streyght ther ca to hym a quaynt grome, so 

Armyd' weft and' fure ; 
A knyght fuft ftrong, and' of greatt myght, 
And' grymly word? to the kyng he fayd', 
" Weft i-mett, kyng Artho r ! 

Thou haft me done wrong many a yere, 55 

And' wofully I f haft quytte the here, 
I hold thy lyfe-days nygh done; 

1 ferve weft ? 




Thou haft gevyfi my land?, in certayn, 
Witfc greatt wrong vnto f Gawefi, 
Whate fayest thou, kyng alone?" 
Syr knygfct, whate is thy name, with hono r ?" 
Syr kyng," he fayd', " Grom 9 fom 9 Jour 9 , 
I tett the nowe with ryght." 
A, f Grom 9 fom 9 , bethynk' the weft, 
To fie me here hono r getyft thou no deft, 
[fol. 129*.] Be-thynk' the thou artt a knyglit. 
Yf thou fle me nowe in thys cafe, 
Alle knyghte wott refufe the in euy place, 
That fhame f haft neu the froo ; 
Lett be thy wyft, and folowe wytt, 
And' that is amys I fhatt amend' itt, 
And' thou wolt, or that I goo." 
Nay," fayd' f Grom 9 fom 9 , " by heuyn kyng ! 
So fhalt thou nott fkape, withoute lefyng, 
I haue the nowe att avaytt ; 
Yf I fhold' lett the thus goo with mokery, 
Anoder tyme thou wolt me defye, 
Of that I fhatt nott faytt." 
Now fayd' the kyng, " fo God' me faue, 
Save my lyfe, and' whate thou wolt crave 
I fhatt now graunt itt the ; 
Shame thou fhalt haue to fle me in ven e, 
Thou armyd', and I clothyd' butt in grene, pde." 
" Alle thys fhatt nott help the, fekyrly, 
For I wott nother lond' ne gold' truly, 
Butt yf thou graunt me att a certayn day, 
Suche as I fhatt fett, and' in thys fame araye." 
" Yes," fayd' the kyng, " lo ! here my hand'." 
" Ye, butt a-byde, kyng, and' here me a ftound'. 
Fyrft thow fhalt fwere, vpofi my fword' broufi, 9 

To fhewe me att thy cSmyng whate wemefi love beft in feld' and' 
And' thou fhalt mete me here, with outefi fend', [town ; 

Evyfi att this day xij. monethes end' ; 


And' thou fhalt fwere vpon my fwerd' good', 
That of thy knygfetf f haft none com w* the, by the rood', 95 

Nowther frende 1 ne freynd'. 
And' yf thou bryng nott anfwere, with oute fayft, 
Thyne hed' thou fhalt lofe for thy travayft, 
[fol.*129.] Thys fhaft no we be thyne oth. 

'Whate fayft thou, kyng, lett fe, haue done." 100 

" Syr, I graunt to thys, now lett me gone, 
Though itt be to me fuit loth. 
I enfure the, as I am true kyng, 
To com agayfi att thys xij. monethes end', 

And' bryng the thyne anfwere." 105 

" Now go thy way, kyng Arthure, 
Thy lyfe is in my hand' I am futt fure, 
Of thy forowe thow artt nott ware. 
Abyde, kyng Arthure, a lytelt whyle, 

Loke nott to day thou me begyle, no 

And' kepe alle thyng in clofe ; 
For and' I wyft, by Mary mylde, 
Thou woldyft betray me in the feld', 
Thy lyf' fyrft fholdyft thou lofe." 

" Nay," fayd' kyng Arthure, " that may nott be, us 

Vntrewe knygfat fhalt thou neu fynde me, 
To dye yett were me lever ; 
Farweft, I knygtit, and' evyft mett, 
I woft com, and' I be ofi lyve, att the day fett, 
Though I fhold' fcape neu." 120 

The kyng his bugle gan blowe, 
That hard' euy knyght, and' itt gaii knowe, 
Vnto hym can they rake ; 
Ther they fond' the kyng and' the dere, 

With fembland' fad' and' hevy chere, 125 

That had' no luft to layk'. 
" Go we home nowe to Carlyft, 

1 fremde? 


Thys huntyng lykys me nott wett," 
So fayd' kyng Arthure ; 

Alle the lord? knewe by his counteifnce, iso 

[fol.l29'.]That the kyng had' mett with (time dyfturbaunce. 
Vnto Carlytt then the kyng cam, 
Butt of his hevynefle knewe no man, 
His hartt was wonder hevy ; 
In this hevynefle he dyd' a-byde, 
That many of his knyghtf m 9 velyd' that tyde. 
Tytt att the laft f Gawefi 
To the kyng he fayd' than, 
" Syr, me marvaylyth ryght fore, 

Whate thyng that thou forowyft fore." no 

Then anfweryd' the kyng as tyght, 
" I fhatt the tett, gentytt Gawefi knyght. 
In the foreft as I was this daye, 

Ther I mett with a knyght in his araye, us 

And' fteyfi wordf to me he gan fayfi, 
And' chargyd' me I fhold' hym nott bewrayne ; 
His councett muft I kepe therfore, 
Or els I am forfwore." 

" Nay, drede you nott, lord', by Mary flower 9 , iso 

I am nott that mafi that wold' you difhono 1 ", 
Nother by euyfi ne by morofi." 
" Forsoth I was ofi huntyng in Inglefwod', 
Thowe knoweft wett I flewe afi hartt, by the rode, 
Alle my fylf alofi ; 155 

Ther mett I with a knygnt armyd' fure, 
His name he told' me was f Grom 9 fom 9 Joure, 
Therfor I make my mone. 
Ther that knyght faft dyd' me threte, 

And* wold' haue flayfi me with greatt heatt, 160 

But I fpak* fayre agayfi ; 
Wepyns with me ther had' I none, 
Alas ! my worfhypp* therfor is nowe gone." 
"Whattherof?" fayd' Gawefi. 


" What nedys more, I f haft nott lye, ies 

He wold' haue flayn. me ther with oute m 9 cy, 
[fol. 130.] And' that me was fuft loth; 

He made me to fwere that att the xij. monethes end', 

That I fhold' mete hym ther in the fame kynde, 

To that I plyght my trowith. 170 

And' alfo I fhold' teft hym att the fame day, 

Whate wemefi defyren mofte, in good faye, 

Mylyf elsfhold'Ilefe 1 ; 

This oth I made vnto that knyght, 

And' that I fhold' neS tett itt to no wight, 175 

Of thys I mygnt nott chefe. 

And' alfo I fhold' com in none oder araye, 

But euyii as I was the fame daye ; 

And' yf I faylyd' of myne anfwere, 

I wott I fhal be flayn ryght there. iso 

Blame me nott though I be a wofuft man, 

Alle thys is my drede and' fere." 

" Ye, f, make good' chere, 

Lett make yo r hors redy, 

To ryde into ftraunge contrey ; iss 

And' eil wher as ye mete owther man or woman, in faye, 

Ask' of theym whate thay therto faye. 

And' I fhatt alfo ryde a noder waye, 

And' enquere of euy man and' woman, and' gett whatt I may, 

Of euy man and' womans anfwere, 190 

And' in a boke I fhaft theym wryte." 

te I graunt," fayd' the kyng, as tyte, 

" Ytt is wett advyfed, Gawefi the good', 

Evyfi by the holy rood' ! " 

Sone were they 2 both redy, 195 

Gawefi and' the kyng, wytterly. 

The kyng rode on way, and' Gawefi anoder, 

And eii enquyred' of mafi, womafi, and' other, 

i leve, MS. 2 the, MS. 


Whate wemefi defyred' mode dere. 

Somme fayd' they lovyd' to be wett arayd', 200 

Somme fayd' they lovyd' to be fayre prayed'; 
[fol. I30 b .] Somme fayd' they lovyd' a lufty mafi, 

That in theyr arrays cafi clypp' them and' kyfle them thafi ; 

Somme fayd' one, fomme fayd' other, 

And' fo had' Gawefi getyfi many afi anfwer 9 . 905 

By that Gawefi had' getefi whate he maye, 

And' come agayfi by a certeyfi daye ; 

Syr Gawefi had' gotefi anfwerys fo many, 

That had' made a boke greatt, wytterly, 

To the courte he cam agayfi ; 210 

By that was the kyng comyfi with hys boke, 

And' eyther ofi others pamplett dyd' loke, 

"Thys may nott fayd' 1 ," fayd' Gawefi. 

" By God'," fayd' the kyng, I drede me fore, 

I caft me to feke a lyteft more, 215 

In Ynglefwod' Foreft; 

I haue butt a monetfc to my day fett, 

I may hapefi on fomme good' tydyngf to hytt, 

Thys thynkytfe me nowe beft." 

" Do as ye lyft," then Gawefi fayd', 220 

" What fo eu ye do I hold' me payd', 

Hytt is good' to be fpyrryng ; 

Doute you nott, lord', ye fhaft wett l^ede, 

Sume of yo r fawes fhatt help att nede, 

Els itt were ytt lykyng." 225 

Kyng Arthoure rode forth ofi the other day, 

In to Ynglefwod' as hys gate laye, 

And' ther he mett with a lady ; 

She was as vngoodly a creature, 

As eu mafi fawe, witfeoute mefure, 230 

Kyng Arthure m 9 vaylyd' fecurly. 

Her face was red', her nofe fhotyd' withatt, 

1 fayUe? 


Her mowith wyde, her teth yalowe ou aft, 
With bleryd' eyen gretter then a baft, 

Her mowith was nott to lak' ; 235 

[fol. 131.] Her teth hyng ou her 1 lyppC? 

Her chekys fyde as wemens hyppf, 

A lute fhe bare vpon her bak'. 

Her nek' long and' therto greatt, 

Her here cloteryd on an hepe, 240 

In the fholders fhe was a yard' brode, 

Hangyng pappys to be an hors-lode, 

And' lyke a bareft fhe was made ; 

And' to reherfe the fowlneffe of that lady, 

Ther is no tung may teft, fecurly, 245 

Of lothlyneffe inowgh fhe had'. 

She fatt on a palfray was gay begofi, 

With gold befett, and many a precious ftone, 

Ther was an vnfemely fyght ; 

So fowft a creature, with oute mefure, 250 

To ryde fo gayly, I you enfure, 

Ytt was no reafofi ne ryght. 

She rode to Arthoure, and thus fhe fayd', 

" God' fpede, kyng, I am weft payd', 

That I haue with the mett ; 255 

Speke with me, I rede, or thou goo, 

For thy lyfe is in my hand', I warn the foo, 

That fhalt thou fynde, and' I itt nott lett." 

<e Why, what wold' ye, lady, nowe with me ? " 

" Syr, I wold' fayii nowe fpeke with the, 260 

And teft the tydyngf good' ; 

For alle the anfwerys that thou canft yelpe, 

None of theym alle f haft the helpe, 

That fhalt thou knowe, by the rood' ! 

Thou wenyft I knowe nott thy counceft, 255 

But I warn the I knowe itt euy deaft, 

' he, MS. 
2 Q a 


Yf ' I help the nott thou art butt dead' ; 
Graunt me, f kyng, butt one thyng, 
[fol 131" ] And' for thy lyfe I make warrauntyng, 
' Or ellf thou fhalt lofe thy hed'.' 
Whate mean you, lady, tett me tygfct, 
For of thy word? I haue great difpyte, 
To you I haue no nede. 
Whate is yo r defyre, fayre lady, 
Lett me wete fhortly, 
Whate is yo r meanyng ; 
And' why my lyfe is in yo r hand 5 , 
Tett me, and' I fhatt you warraunt, 
Alleyo* oufiafkyng?" 
For fotn," fayd' the lady, " I am no qued', 
* Thou muft graunt me a knyght to wed', 
His name is f Gawefi ; 
And' fuche couennt I wott make the, 

Butt thorowe myne anfwere thy lyP fauyd' be, 

Ell? lett my defyre be in vayne. 

And' yf myne anfwere faue thy lyf ', 

Graunt me to be Gawens wyf ', 

Advyfe the nowe, f kyng ; 

For itt muft be fo, or thou artt butt dead', 

Chofe nowe, for thou mayfte fone lofe thyne bed'. aw 

Tett me nowe in hying." 

"Mary," fayd' the kyng, " I maye nott graunt the, 

To make warrant f Gawefi to wed' the, 

Alle lyetfe in hym alofi ; 

Butt and' itt be fo, I wott do my labo r , w 

In favyng of my lyfe to make itt seco r , 

To Gawen wott I make my mone." 

" Wett," fayd' fhe, " nowe go home agayfi, 

And' fayre wordf fpeke to f Gawefi, 

For thy lyf I may faue ; 3 

1 In the MS. part of the previous line is carelessly repeated. 


Though I be fouft, yett am I gaye, 
Thourgh me thy lyfe faue he maye, 
Or fewer thy deth to haue." 
" Alas !" he fayd', " now woo is me, 

That I fhold' caufe Gaweii to wed* the, sos 

[fol. 132.] For he wol be lotti to faye naye ; 
So fouft a lady as ye ar nowe one 
Sawe I neu in my lyfe on ground' gone, 
I nott whate I do may." 

ff No force, f kyng, though I be foutt, 310 

Choyfe for a make hath an owft, 
Thou geteft of me no more ; 
When thou comyft agayn to thyne anfwer 9 , 
Ryght in this place I shaft mete the here, 

Or ell I wott thou artt lore 1 ." 3ie 

" Now fareweft," fayd' the kyng, " lady, 
Ye, f," fhe fayd', ther is a byrd' men caft an owft 8 , 
And' yett a lady I am ;" 
"Whate is yo r name, I pray you teft me ?" 

" Syr kyng, I hight dame Ragneft, truly, 320 

That neu yett begylyd' man." 
" Dame Ragneft, nowe haue good' daye," 
" Syr kyng, God' fpede the on thy way, 
Ryght here I fhaft the mete." 

Thus they departyd' fayre and' weft, 325 

The kyng fuft fone com to Carlyft, 
And' his hartt hevy and' greatt. 
The fyrfte man he mett was f Ga\veii, 
That vnto the kyng thus gan fayn, 

" Syr, ho we haue ye fped' ? " sso 

Forfoth," fayd' the kyng, neU 1 fo yft, 
Alas ! I am in poynt my feh to fpyft, 
For nedely I moft be ded'." 
K Nay," fayd' Gawefi, " that may nott be, 

lore fowtt, MS. * Sic MS. 

2 Q a 2 


I had* lever my felf be dead', fo mott I the, 335 

Thys is itt tydand'." 

* Gawefi, I mett to day with the fowlyft lady 
That eft I fawe, ftenly; 
She fayd' to me my lyfe fhe wold' faue, 

Butt fyrft fhe wold* the to husbond' haue ; 340 

Wherfor I am wo begofi, 
Thus in my hartt I make my mone." 
[fol. 132".] Ys this aft? " then fayd' Gawefi, 

" I fhatt wed* her and' wed' her agayfi, 

Thowgh fhe were a fend' ; 345 

Thowgh fhe were as foutt as Belfabub, 
Her fhaft I wed', by the rood', 
Or ellf were not I yo r frende. 
For ye ar my kyng with hono*, 

And' haue worfhypt me in many a ftowre, sso 

Therfor fhatt I nott lett j 
To faue yo r lyfe, lord', itt were my parte, 
Or I were l falfe and' a greatt coward', 
And' my worfhypp' is the bett." 

" I-wys, Gawefi, I mett her in Inglyfwod', 355 

She told' me her name, by the rode, 

That itt was dame Ragnett ; 

She told' me butt I had' of her anfwere, 

Ellf alle my laboure is neu the nere, 

Thus fhe gafi me teft. seo 

And butt yf her anfwer 9 help me wett, 

Ellf lett her haue her defyre no dele, 

This was her covenant; 

And' yf her anfwere help me, and' none other, 

Then wold* fhe haue you, here is alle to-geder, 365 

That made fhe warraunt." 

" As for this," fayd' Gawefi, [it] fhatt nott lett, 

I wott wed' her at whate time ye wott fett, 

1 were I, MS. 


I pray you make no care ; 

For and' fhe were the mofte fowlyft wygnt, 370 

That eu men mygnt fe with fyght, 
For yo r loue I woft nott fpare." 
" Garam 9 cy, Gaweii," then fayd' kyng Arthor, 
" Of alle knygnte thou bereft the fiowre, 

Thateuyett Ifond'; 375 

My worfhypp' and' my lyf' thou favyft for eu, 
Therfore my loue fhaft nott frome the dyffevyr, 
[fol. 133.] As I am kyng in lond'." 
Then within v. or vj. days, 

The kyng muft nedys goo his ways, 380 

To bere his anfwere ; 

The kyng and' f Gawefi rode oute of toufi, 
No mail with them, butt they alone, 
Neder ferre ne nere. 

When the kyng was with in the Foreft, 385 

" Syr Gawen, fareweft, I muft go weft, 
Thou f halt no furder goo ; " 
" My lord', God' fpede you on yo r jorney, 
I wold' I fhold' nowe ryde yo r way, 

For to departe I am rygftt wo." 390 

The kyng had' ryddefi butt a while, 
Lytett more then the fpace of a myle, 
Or he mett dame Ragneft ; 
" A, f kyng, ye arre nowe welcu here, 

I wott ye ryde to bere yo r anfwere, 395 

That wott avaytt you no dele." 
Nowe fayd' the kyng, " fith itt wott none other be, 
Tell me yo r anfwere nowe, and' my lyfe faue me, 
Gawen fhaft you wed' ; 

So he hath pmyfed' me my lyf to faue, 400 

And' yo r defyre nowe fhaft ye haue, 
Both in bowre and' in bed'. 
Therfore teft me nowe alle in haft, 
Whate woft help now att laft, 


Haue done, I may nott tary ; " 405 

" Syr," quod* dame Ragnett, " nowe f halt thou knowe, 
Whate wemeft defyreii mofte, of high and' lowe, 
From this I wott not varaye. 
Summe men fayn, we defyre to be fayre, 

Alfo we defyre to haue repayre, 410 

Of diufe ftraunge men ; 
Alfo we loue to haue luft in bed', 
[fol.!33>.] And' often we defyre to wed', 
Thus ye men nott ken 1 . 

Yett we defyre a noder man thyng, 415 

To be holdefi nott old', but freffhe and' yong ; 
With flatryng, and' glosyng, and' quaynt gyn, 
So ye men may vs wemeii eu wyfi, 
Of whate ye wott crave. 

Ye goo full nyfe, I wott nott lye, 420 

Butt there is one thyng is alle oure fantafye, 
And' that nowe fhatt ye knowe ; 
We defyrefi of mefi, aboue alle man 9 thyng, 
To haue the foueynte, w*oute lefyng, 

Of alle, both hygh and' lowe. 425 

For where we haue foueynte alle is ourys, 

Though a knyght be neu fo ferys, 

And' eu the maftry wynne ; 

Of the mode manlyeft is oure defyre, 

To haue the foueynte of fuche a fyre, 430 

Suche is oure crafte and' gynne. 

Therfore wend', f kyng, on thy way, 

And' tett that knyght, as I the faye, 

That itt is as we defyrefi mofte ; 

He wol be wroth and' vnfought, 435 

And' curfe her faft, that itt the taught, 

For his laboure is loft. 

Go forth, f kyng, and' hold' pmyfe, 

1 Sic MS. 


For thy lyfe is fure nowe in alle wyfe, 

That dare I weft vndertake." 440 

The kyng rode forth a greatt fhake, 
As faft as he myght gate ; 
Thorowe myre, more, and' fenne, 
Where as the place was fygnyd' and' fett then, 

[fol. 134.] Evyii there with $ Grom 9 he mett. 445 

And' fterfi wordf to the king he fpak' with that, 
" Com of, I kyng, nowe lett fe, 
Of thyne anfwere whate itt f hal be, 
For I am redy grathyd'." 

The kyng pullyd' oute bokf twayne, 450 

" Syr, ther is myne anfwer , I dare fayn, 
For fomme woft help at nede." 
Syr Grom 9 lokyd' on theym euychon, 
" Nay, nay, f kyng, thou artt but a dead' man, 
Therfor nowe fhalt thou blede." 455 

" Abyde, I Grom 9 ," fayd' kyng Arthoure, 
" I haue one anfwere fhaft make aft 1 fure," 
Lett fe," then fayd' f Grom 9 ; 
" Or els, fo God' me help as I the fay, 

Thy deth thou fhalt haue w* large paye, 460 

I teft the nowe enfure." 
Now fayd' the kyng, (( I fe, as I geffe, 
In the is butt a lyteft gentilneffe, 
By God', that ay is helpand' ! 

Here is oure anfwere, and' that is alle, 465 

That wemen defyren mofte fpeciaft, 
Bothoffre and' bond'. 
I faye no more, butt aboue al thyng 
Wemen defyre foueynte, for that is theyr lykyng, 
And' that is ther moft defyre ; 470 

To have the rewft of the manlyeft men, 
And' then ar they weft, thus they me dyd' ken, 

1 ale, MS. 


To rule the, Grom 9 fyre." 
' And* fhe that told' the nowe, f Arthoure, 
I pray to God', I maye fe her bren ofi a fyre, 475 

For that was my fuller dame Ragneft; 
[fol. 134V] That old' scott, God' geve her 1 fhame ! 
Elle had' I made the fuft tame, 
Nowe haue I loft moche travaytt. 

Go where thou wolt, kyng Arthoure, 4> 

For of me thou maifte be eu fure, 
Alas ! that I eil fe this day ; 
Nowe, weft I wott, myne enime thou wolt be, 
And' att fuche a pryk' fhaft I neu gett the, 
My fong may be weft-awaye ! " 435 

" No," fayd' the kyng, " that make I warraunt, 
Some harnys I wott haue to make me defendaunt, 
That make I God' avowe ! 
In fuche a plyght fhallt thou neu 1 me fynde, 
And' yf thou do, lett me bete and' bynde, 490 

As is for thy beft prouf 8 ." 
" Nowe haue good' day," fayd' f Grom 9 , 
FareweU," fayd' f Arthoure, " fo mott I the, 
I am glad' I haue fo fped'/' 

King Arthoure turnyd' hys hors into the playii, 495 

And' fone he mett with dame Ragnett agayn, 
In the fame place and' ftede. 
" Syr kyng, I am glad' ye haue fped' wett, 
I told' howe itt wold' be, euy deft, 

Nowe hold' that ye haue hygtit ; soo 

Syfi I haue fauyd' yo r lyP, and' none other, 
Gawefi muft me wed', I Arthoure, 
That is a futt gentift knyght." 
" No, lady, that I you hight I fhatt not faytt, 
So ye wol be rulyd' by my cowncett, sos 

Yo* witt thefi fhatt ye haue ;" 

1 he, MS. prow ? 


" Nay, f kyng, nowe woft I nott foo, 
Openly I wol be weddyd' or I parte the froo, 
[fol. 135.] Elle fhame woft ye haue. 

Ryde before, and' I woft com after, 510 

Vnto thy courte, f kynge Arthoure, 

Of no man I woft fhame ; 

Be-thynk' you howe I haue fauyd' yo r lyf ', 

Therfor with me nowe fhaft ye nott ftryfe, 

For and 5 ye do, ye be to blame." sis 

The kyng of her had' greatt fhame, 

But forth f he rood', though he were grevyd' ; 

Tytt they cam to Karlyle forth they mevyd'. 

In to the courte fhe rode hym by, 

For no mafi wold' fhe fpare, fecurly, 520 

Itt likyd' the kyng fuft yft. 

Alle the contraye had' wonder greatt, 

Fro whens fhe com, that foule vnfwete, 

They fawe neu of fo fowft a thyng ; 

In to the haft fhe went, in certefi, 535 

" Arthoure kyng, lett fetche me f Gaweyii, 

Before the knygfttf, alle in hying. 

That I may nowe be made fekyr, 

In welle and' wo trowitft plyght vs togeder, 

Before alle thy chyvalry ; 530 

This is yo r graunt, lett fe, haue done, 

Sett forth Gaweii, my love, anofi, 

For lenger tarying kepe nott I." 

Then cam forth f Gaweii the knyght, 

" Syr, I am redy of that I you hyght, 535 

Alle forward^ to fulfyft ;" 

" Godhauem 9 cy," fayd' dame Ragneft then, 

" For thy fake I wold' I were a fayre womafi, 
[fol. I35b.] For thou art of fo good' wyft." 

Ther f Gawen to her his trowth plyght, 540 

In weft and' in woo, as he was a true knygtit, -^ 

Then was dame Ragneft fayn ; 

2Q b 


" Alas !" thefi fayd' dame Gayno*, 
So fayd' alle the ladyes in her bower, 

And* wept for f Gawefi. MS 

"Alas \" thefi fayd' both kyng and' knyght, 
That eH he fhold' wed' fucfe a wyght, 
She was fo fowft and' horyble ; 
She had' two tetil on euy fyde, 

As borys tuskf, I woft nott hyde, MO 

Of length a large handfutt. 
The one tufk' went up, and the other doufi, 
A mowth futt wyde, and' fowtt igrowfi, 
With grey herys many ofi ; 

Her lyppf lay lumpryd' on her chyfi, 555 

Nek' forsolh on her was none ifeefi, 
She was a lothly ofi ! 
She wold' nott be weddyd' in no man 9 , 
Butt there were made a krye in alle the fhyre, 
Both in town and' in borowe ; MO 

Alle the ladyes nowe of the lond', 
She lett kry to com to hand', 
To kepe that brydalle thorowe. 
So itt befyft after ofi a daye, 

That maryed' fhold' be that fowtt [lady] 666 

Vnto f Gaweyfi ; 

The daye was comyfi the daye fhold' be, 
Therof the ladyes had' greatt pitey, 
" Alas !" thefi gafi they fayfi. 

The queefi prayd' dame Ragnett, fekerly, 570 

[fol. 136.] To be maryed' in the mornyng erly, 
As pryvaly as we may ; 
Nay," fhe fayd', by hevyfi kyng ! 
That wott I neu 9 , for no thyng, 

For ought that ye can faye. 575 

I wol be weddyd' alle openly, 
For with the kyng fuche covenant made I, 
I putt you oute of dowte j 


I woft nott to church tyft high maffe tyme, 

And' in the opefi halle I woft dyne, sso 

In myddys of alle the rowte." 
" I am greedy fayd' dame Gayno r , 
" Butt me wold' thynk' more hono r , 
And yo r worfhypp' mofte ;" 

" Ye, as for that, lady, God' you faue, sss 

This daye my worfhypp' woft I haue, 
I teft you withoute bofte." 
She made her redy to church to fare, 
And' alle the Statf that there ware, 

Syrs, withoute lefyng ; 590 

She was arayd' in the richeft man 9 , 
More freffher than dame Gayno*. 
Her arayment was worth iij M 1 ' mark', 
Of good' red' nobles ftyff and' ftark', 

So rychely fhe was begon ; 595 

For alle her rayment. fhe bare the beft 
Of fowlneffe, that eu I hard' teft, 
So fowft a fowe fawe neu man. 
For to make a fhortt conclufion, 

[fol. I36b.] When fhe was weddyd', they hyed' theym home, eoo 

To mete alle they went ; 
This fowft lady bygan the high defe, 
She was fuft fouft, and' nott curteys, 
So fayd' they alle, verament. 

When the fuyce cam her before, eos 

She ete as moche as vj. that ther wore, 
That m 9 vaylyd' many a man ; 
Her naylys were long ynchys iij e , 
Therwith fhe breke her mete vngoodly, 

Therfore fhe ete alone. eio 

She ette iij e . capons, and' alfo curlues iij e , 
And' greatt bake metf fhe ete vp, pde, 
Al mefi therof had' m 9 vayft j 
Ther was no mete ca her before, 
2 Q b 2 




Butt fhe etc itt vp, leffe and' more, 

That praty fowft damefett. 

Att mefi thefi that eil her fawe, 

Bad' the devitt her bonys gnawe, 

Both knyght and fquyre ; 

So fhe etc tytt mete was done, 

Tytt they drewe clothes, and' had' waffhefi, 

As is the gyfe and' man 9 . 

Meny mefi wold' fpeke of diufe fuice, 

I trowe ye may wete inowgh ther was, 

Both of tame and' wylde : 

In king Arthours courte ther was no wontt, 

That mygtit be gotten with mannys hond', 

Noder in foreft ne in feld'. 

Ther were mynftrallf of diufe contrey 

[A leaf here is wanting.] 

[fol. 137.] " A, f Gawefi, fyfi I haue you wed', eao 

Shewe me yo r cortefy in bed', 
With rygtit itt may nott be denyed'. 
I-wyfe, ( Gawefi," that lady fayd', 
" And' I were fayre, ye wold' do a noder brayd', 
Butt of wedlok' ye take no hed' ; ess 

Yett for Arthours fake, kyffe me att the lefte, 
I pray you do this att my requeft, 
Lett fe, howe ye can fpede." 
f Gawefi fayd', " I woft do more 

Thefi for to kyfTe, and' God' before ! " &> 

He turnyd' hyfh her vntitt ; 

He fawe her the fayreft creature, 

That eu he fawe, withoute mefure, 


She fayd', whatt is yo r wyft? " 

" A, liiu ! " he * fayd', whate ar ye ? " 545 

" f t I am yo r wyf', fecurly, 
Why ar ye fo unkynde ? " 
" A., lady, I am to blame, 
I cry you m 9 cy, my fayre madame, 

Itt was nott in my mynde. eso 

A lady ye ar fayre in my fygfct, 
And* to day ye were the foulyft wygtit, 
That eu I fawe with myne ie 2 ; 
Wele is me, my lady, I haue you thus/' 

And* brafyd' her in his armys, and* gafi her kyffe, 655 

And' made greatt joye, fy curly. 
Syr," f he fayd', thus f halt ye me haue, 
Chefe of the one, fo God' me faue, 
My beawty woft nott hold' ; 

Wheder ye woft haue me fayre on nygntf 3 . eeo 

And' as fouft on days to alle men f ightf ; 
[fol. 137 b .] Or els to haue me fayre on days, 

And' on nyght on the fowlyft wyfe, 

The one ye muft nedf haue ; 

Chefe the one or the oder, 665 

Chefe on, I knygtit, which you is leu, 

Yo r worfhypp' for to faue." 

(e Alas ! " fayd' Gawen, " the choyfe is hard', 

To chefe the beft itt is froward', 

Wheder choyfe that I chefe ; 670 

To haue you fayre on nygnt and' no more, 

That wold' greve my hartt rygfet fore, 

And' my worfhypp' fhold' I lefe 4 . 

And' yf I defyre on days to haue you fayre, 

Then on nyght I fhold' haue a fymple repayre, 675 

Now fayn wold' I chofe the beft ; 

I ne wott in thys world' whate I fhatt faye, 

1 fhe, MS. * ien, MS. 3 nyght, MS. 4 lofe, MS. 


Butt do as ye lyft nowe, my lady gaye, 
The choyfe I putt in yo r fyft. 

Euyfi as ye wott I putt itt in yo* hand 1 , eso 

Lofe me when ye lyft, for I am bond', 
I putt the choyfe in you ; 
Both body and' good?, hartt, and' euy dele, 
Ys alle yo r oufi, for to by and' feft, 

That make I God' avowe \" ess 

" Garam 9 cy, corteys knyght," fayd* the lady, 
Of alle erthly knyghte blyffyd' mott thou be, 
For now am I worfhyppyd' ; 
Thou fhatt haue me fayre both day and' nyght, 
And' eu whyle I lyve as fayre and' bryght, ew 

Therfore be nott greuyd'. 
For I was fhapefi by nygramancy, 
With my ftepdame, God' haue ofi her mPcy ! 
And' by enchaunteraent ; 

And' fhold' haue bene oderwyse vnderftond', 695 

Euyfi tytt the beft of Englond' 
[/ol. 138.] Had' wedyd' me, verament. 

And' alfo he fhold' geve me the foueynte, 

Of alle his body and' goodf , fycurly, 

Thus was I difformyd' j 700 

And' thou, f knyght, curteys Gawefi, 

Has gevyfi me the foueynte, fteyn, 

That wott not wroth the erly ne late. 

Kyfle me, f knyght, euyfi now here, 

I pray the, be glad', and' make good' chere, 705 

For weft is me begon" ; 

Ther they made joye, oute of mynde, 

So was itt reasofi and' cc^s of kynde, 

They two theym felf alone. 

She thankyd' God' and' Mary mylde, 710 

She was recoud' of that that fhe was defoylyd', 

So dyd'f Gawefi; 

He made myrth alle in her boure, 


And 5 thankyd' of alle cure Sauyoure, 

I teft you, in certeyfi. 715 

With joye & myrth they wakyd' tyft daye, 
And' than wold' ryfe that fayre may'e 1 , 
Ye fhaft nott," f Gawefi fayd' ; 
" We woft lye, & f lepe tytt pryme, 

And' then lett the kyng caft vs to dyne," 720 

" I am greed'," then fayd' the mayd'. 
Thus itt paffyd' forth tyft mid-daye, 
" Syrs 2 ,' 5 quod' the kyng, " lett vs go and' afaye, 
Yf f Gawen be on ly ve ; 

I am fuft ferd' of i Gawefi, 725 

Nowe left the fende haue hym flayfi, 
Nowe wold' I fayfi preve. 
Go we nowe," fayd' Arthoure the kyng, 
" We wott go fe theyr vpryfyng, 

[fol. 138 >.] Howe weft that he hatfc fped' ;" 730 

They cam to the chambre, alle in certeyfi, 
" Aryfe," fayd' the kyng to f Gawefi, 
Why f lepyft thou fo long in bed' ?" 
" Mary," quod' Gawefi, " f kyng, ficurly, 

I wold' be glad' and' ye wold' lett me be, 735 

For I am full weft att eas ; 
Abyde, ye f haft fe the dore vndone, 
I trowe that ye woft fay I am weft goon, 
I am fuft lotn to ryfe." 

Syr Gawefi rofe, and' in his hand' he toke 740 

His fayr lady, and' to the dore he fhoke, 
And' opynyd' the dore fuft fayre ; 
She ftod' in her fmok' alle by that fyre, 
Her her 3 was to her knees as red' as gold' wyre, 
" Lo ! this is my repayre. 745 

Lo !" fayd' Gawen Arthoure vntift, 
" Syr, this is my wyfe, dame Ragneft, 
That fauyd' onys yo r lyfe ;" 

mayd, MS. 2 Syr, MS. 3 hed, MS. 


He told' the kyng and' the queen hem beforfi, 
Howe fodenly from her fhap fhe dyd' torne, 
My lord', nowe be yo r leve." 
And' whate was the caufe fhe forfhapefi was, 
Syr Gawefi told' the kyng, both more and' leffe, 
I thank* God'," fayd' the queefi; 
I wenyd', f Gawefi, fhe wold' the haue myfcaryed', 
Therfore in my hartt I was fore agrevyd', 
Butt the contrary is here feefi." 
Ther was game, reveft, and' playe, 
And' euy man to other gafi faye, 

She is a fayre wyght ;" 7 60 

Thafi the kyng theym alle gafi teft, 
How did' held' hym att nede dame Ragnett, 
" Or my deth had' bene dygfet." 
Ther the kyng told' the queefi, by the rood', 
Howe he was beftad' in Inglefwod', 766 

[fol. 139.] Witfe f Grom 9 fom 9 Joure ; 

And' whate othe the kngyht made hym fwere, 

" Or ellf he had' slayfi me ryght there, 

W*oute m?cy or mefure. 

This fame lady, dame Ragnett, 770 

From my deth fhe dyd' help me ryght weft, 

Alle for the love of Gawefi ;" 

Then Gawefi told' the king alle to-geder, 

Howe forfhapefi fhe was with her ftepmoder 

Tytt a knyght had' holpefi her agayfi. 775 

Ther fhe told' the kyng fayre and' weft, 

How Gawefi gave her the foueynte euy deft, 

And' whate choyfe fhe gave to hym ; 

" God' thank' hym of his curtesye, 

He favid' me from chaunce and' vilony, TSO 

That was futt foutt and' grym. 

Therfore, curteys knyght and' hend' Gawefi, 

Shaft I neu wrath the, fteyfi, 

That jmyfe nowe here I make ; 

Whillf that I lyve I fhal be obayfaunt, TSS 


To God' aboue I fhaft itt warraunt, 
And' neu with you to debate." 
" Garam 9 cy, lady," thefi fayd' Gawefi, 
W* you I hold' me fuft weft content, 

And 5 that I truft to fynde ;" 790 

He fayd', " my loue fhaft fhe haue, 
Therafler nede fhe neu more craue, 
For fhe hatfe bene to me fo kynde." 
The queen fayd', and' the ladyes alle, 

" She is the fayreft nowe in this halle, 795 

I fwere by Seynt Johfi ! 
My loue, lady, ye fhaft haue eu, 
For that ye favid' my lord' Arthoure, 
As I am a gentilwoman." 

Syr Gaweii gatt on her Gyngolyn, soo 

[fol. 139 V| That was a good' knygfet of ftrength and' kynn, 
And' of the Table Round'; 
Att euy greatt feft that lady fhpld' be, 
Of fayrneffe fhe bare away the bewtye, 

Wher fhe yed' ofi the ground'. 805 

Gawefi louyd' that lady, dame Ragneft, 
In alle his lyfe he louyd' none fo weft, 
I teft you, witftoute lefyng ; 
As a coward' he lay by her both day and' nyght, 
Neu wold' he haunt justyng arygfct, sio 

Ther att m 9 vaylyd' Arthoure the kyng 1 . 
She prayd' the kyng, for his gentilnes, 
To be good' lord' to I Grom 9 i-wyffe, 
Of that to you he hath offendyd' ; 

" Yes, lady, that shaft I nowe, for yo r fake, sis 

For I wott weft he may nott amendf make, 
He dyd' to me fuft vnhend'." 
Nowe for to make you a fhort conclufyofi, 
I caft me for to make afi end' fuft fone, 
Of this gentyft lady ; azo 

1 kyng Arthoure, MS. 
2 Q c 


She lyvyd' with * Gawefi butt yerys v. 
That grevyd' Gawefi alle his lyfe, 
I tett you, fecurly. 
In her lyfe Hie grevyd' hym neii, 
Therfor was neu woman to hym lever, 
Thus leves my talkyng ; 
She was the fayreft lady of aft 1 Englond', 
Whefi fhe was on lyve, I vnderstond', 
So fayd' Arthoure the kyng. 
Thus endyth the aduenture of kyng Arthoure, 
That oft in his days was grevyd' fore, 
And* of the weddyng of Gawefi ; 
Gawefi was weddyd' oft in his days, 
Butt fo weft he neu lovyd' woman always, 
As I haue hard' men fayfi. 
This aduenture befett in Inglefwod', 
[fol. HO.] As good' kynge Arthoure on huntyng yod', 
Thus haue I hard' men tett ; 
Nowe, God', as thcru were in Bethleme born, 
Suffer neu her foules be forlorne, 
In the brynnyng fyre of hett ! 
And', Ihu, as thou were borne of a virgyfi, 
Help hym oute of forowe, that this tale dyd' devyne, 
And' that nowe in alle haft ; 

For he is be-fett with gaylours many, 845 

That kepefi hym futt fewerly, 
With wyles wrong & wrafte. 
Nowe, God', as thou art veray kyng ryoaft, 
Help hym oute of daunger that made this tale, 
For therin he hath bene long ; 
And' of greatt pety help thy font, 
For body & foutt I yeld' into thyne hand', 
For paynes he hath ftrong. 

Here endyth the weddyng of Syr Gawefi and Dame Ragneft,for 
helpyng of Kyng Arthoure. 

ale, MS. 


<atoajw anfc the 

THIS curious poem is printed for the first time from a manuscript, believed to 
be unique, preserved in the Cottonian Collection, and marked Nero, A. x 
The volume had undoubtedly been seen by Warton, since he quotes some other 
pieces contained in it 1 , and it is singular he should not have noticed the poem in 
question, which he seems to have confounded with a preceding one, on a totally 
different subject. The same error, indeed, pervades the Cottonian Catalogues com 
piled by Smith in 1696, and by Planta in 1802 ; and to this cause, in all probability, 
may be ascribed the oblivion in which for so long a period such a remarkable compo 
sition should have remained. Accident, however, threw it in the way of Mr. Price, 
the able editor of Warton, who extracted a passage in illustration of his argument 
against the Scotish authorship of Sir Tristrem, and announced his intention of pub 
lishing the entire Romance, under the designation of " Aunter of Sir Gawaine" 
in an octavo volume, to be intitled " Illustrations of Warton 's History of English 
Poetry," but which he relinquished some time previous to his decease 2 . Price, 
however, omitted all reference to the MS. containing the poem, and the same chance 
which had brought it under his notice subsequently made it known to myself and 
to Mr. Stevenson, the latter of whom frequently quotes it in his additions to 

1 History of English Poetry, vol. iii. pp. 107, 108, ed. 4to, 1781 ; and vol. iii. p. 393, ed. 8vo, 1824. 

2 See H. E. P. Preface, p. 17, vol. i. p. 187 ; and Advertisement annexed at the end of voL iv. 


300 NOTES. 

Boucher's Glouary 1 . A transcript was made by me shortly after the discovery, and 
the subject of the romance communicated in October, 1829, to Sir Walter Scott, 
who with his well-known courtesy, and zeal in the cause of ancient Scotish literature, 
at once proposed to have it edited, together with the similar poems of The Awntyrs 
ofArthure, and Golagros and Gawane, by subscription. I subsequently received 
from Sir Walter, during his visit to London, in October, 1831, permission to dedi 
cate the work to himself; and a prospectus was circulated 4 containing proposals 
of publication, which circumstances afterwards prevented being carried into effect. 
To those noblemen and gentlemen who on that occasion sent me their names, I 
have never hitherto had an opportunity of expressing my thanks, and although 
tardy they are not the less sincere. 

Having said thus much to account for the non-appearance of the poem in print, 
previous to its being so liberally taken under the patronage of the Bannatyne Club, 
I shall proceed to discuss briefly the questions which arise respecting the age of this 
composition, its author, and the sources whence it was derived. 

Warton, in quoting two poems in the same volume, written by the same hand as 
the present, assigns them to the age of Minot, t. e. to the middle of the fourteenth 
century, and adds, that the writing cannot be later than the reign of Edward HI. 
But the historian of English poetry is too poor a critic in matters of this kind to 
cause any weight to be attached to his opinion, unless supported by other evidence. 
His editor, Price, was evidently inclined to give the poem a much greater anti 
quity, and the whole scope of his argument would refer it to the thirteenth century, 
previous to the time of Robert de Brunne. " It abounds," says this ingenious 
writer, in those "selcouth names which in the fourteenth century were rapidly growing 
into disuse, and which were only retained by the writers in alliterative metre." To 
refute this notion, which has been adopted too hastily by the Rev. W. Conybeare 3 
and Mr. Laing 4 , there is abundant evidence in the poem itself, independent of the 
proofs afforded by the language and metrical structure. Stevenson merely notices 
that the poem was " probably written about the end of the fourteenth century*," 
and Guest, who is the latest writer on the subject, says, that the MS. " certainly 
belongs to the latter half of the fourteenth century," which he modifies in another 

1 This new edition of Boucher, under the superintendence of the Rev. Joseph Hunter, and Joseph 
Stevenson, Esq., cme out in 1832. Only two parts, extending to the middle of letter B, have hitherto 

The work had previously been proposed to Messrs. Longman and Co., and Mr. Murray. The 
former party civilly declined it, but the latter never even took the trouble to answer the letter ! 

fUuttrationi of A. 5. Poetry, p. Ixij, 8vo, 1826. 

4 Poem* o/Dtmtar, voL L p. 38, 8vo, 1834. * Add. to Boucher, voce Balp. 

NOTES. 301 

passage to " about the year 1400 '." It will not be difficult from a careful inspection 
of the manuscript itself, both in regard to the writing and illuminations, to assign 
it to the reign of Richard the Second ; and the internal evidence, arising from 
the peculiarities of costume, armour, and architecture, would lead us to assign the 
romance to the same period, or a little earlier. There are three other metrical 
pieces in the volume 2 , all most unquestionably composed by the author of the ro 
mance, and these I have carefully read over with the hope of detecting some more 
direct indication of the age, but without success. Jean de Meung is indeed referred 
to, in fol. 71 b , under his surname of Clopinel, in the following lines : 

For Clopyngnel in the compas of his clene Rose, 
Ther he expoune} a speche to hym that spede wolde, 
Of a lady to be loued, loke to hir sone, 
Of wich beryng that ho be, & wych ho best louyes. etc. 

But as this writer completed, before the year 1300, the Roman de la Rose, com 
menced by Guillaume de Lorris, it will only prove the popularity of the work in 
Scotland as well as in England, during the course of the fourteenth century. In 
another passage the author alludes to a proverbial phrase, 

Thay blwe a boffet in blande, that banned peple, 

That thay blustered as bJynde as Bayard wat$ ewer. fol. 69. 

Yet since this proverb is also found in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, nothing can 
be inferred from the contemporaneous use of a saying, of which the origin is too 
obscure to assist our inquiry. 

In regard to the author of these poems much uncertainty also exists. There is 
sufficient internal evidence of their being Northern, although the manuscript con 
taining them appears to have been written by a scribe of the midland counties, 
which will account for the introduction of forms differing from those used by 
writers beyond the Tweed. 

It is, I think, certain, that the writer of the romance must have been a man of 
birth and education, for none but a person intimately versed in the gentle science 
of wode-craft could so minutely describe the various sports of the chase, nor could 
any but an educated individual have been so well acquainted with the early French 

1 See History of English Rhythms, vol. ii. pp. 159, 171, note, 8vo, 1838. 

2 These all possess great merit, and deserve to be printed as the remains of one of the earliest 
existing Scotish poets. 

302 NOTES. 

literature. Of his poetical talent the pieces contained in the manuscript afford un 
questionable proofs, and the descriptions of the change of the seasons', the bitter aspect 
of winter *, the tempest which preceded the destruction of Sodom and Gomorra s } 
and the sea-storm occasioned by the wickedness of Jonas 4 , are equal to any similar 
passages in Douglas or Spenser. The individual who has the best claim to be re 
cognised as the author, is " Huchowne of the Awle Ryale" mentioned by Wyn- 
town , who writes of him thus : 

Men of gud dyscretyowne 

Suld excuse and loue Huchowne, 
That cunnand wes in literature ; 
He made the Gret Gest of Arthurt, 
The Pystyl als of swete Swsane. 
He wet curyws in hys style, 
Fay re offacund, and subtile, 
And ay to plesans and delyte 
Made in metyre mete his dyte 8 . 

Mr. Chalmers was of opinion, that this Huchowne and the Sir Hugh of Eglin- 
toun, mentioned by Dunbar in his " Lament for the Makkaris" who flourished in 
the middle of the fourteenth century, and died it is supposed about the year 1381, 
were one and the same person ; but there are so many difficulties in this supposition, 
as justly to prevent our yielding assent to it without some additional evidence 7 . 
Admitting, however, Huchowne to be the author of the romance 8 , we are sin- 

1 p. 21. 3 pp. 28, 74. a MS. Cott. Nero A. x. f. 70. < Ibid. f. 85. 

* Wyntown was elected Prior of St. Serfs, in Loch Leven, in 1395, so that he must have been con 
temporary with Huchawme. His Chronicle was not finished till the year 1420-1424. 
e Cronykil of Scotland, vol. i. p. 122. ed. Macpherson, 1795. 

7 See the notices of this Sir Hugh collected in the admirable edition of Dunbar's poems by my 
friend Mr. Laing, vol. ii. 355 ; and his remarks, vol. i. p. 38. Consult also the Select Remains of the 
Popular Poetry of Scotland, pref. to Pystyl of Susan, 4to, 1822 ; Lyndsay's Works, by Chalmers, 
vol. i. p. 132, note, 8vo, 1806 ; and Tytler's History of Scotland, voL ii. p. 367, 8vo, 1829. 

8 Mr. Guest regards as the most decisive proof of what is here assumed, the fact, that in the void 
pace at the head of the poem in the MS., a hand of the fifteenth century (Mr. G. says, " not much 
later than the year 1500,") has scribbled the name Hugo de, as shown in the fac-simile annexed to 
the description of this MS., but, I confess, to this I do not attach much weight. Mr. Guest's wish 
to regard any signature as the name of the author, has led him into some awkward mistakes, parti 
cularly in the case of the English lives of Saints, composed probably in the early part of the thir 
teenth century, and contained in a MS. written not long after, MS. Reg. 1 7 A. xxvii., which Mr. Guest 

NOTES. 303 

gularly fortunate in possessing probably all the pieces written by him noticed by 
Wyntoun, together with three others on allegorical or scriptural subjects, hitherto not 
pointed out. It is very evident on the chronicler's authority, that the Gret Gest of 
Arthure, the Gest Hystoryale, and the Gest of Broyttys auld story, are one and the 
same poem, and relate to the exploits of Arthur and his knights against the Romans. 
In this work Huchowne makes Lucius Hiberius emperor, in the time of Arthur, 
whereas Wyntown, following other authorities, name.4 Leo as emperor. He first 
defends himself, and then good-naturedly excuses his predecessor, by saying that 
in the Brwte, (by which he here means Geoffrey of Monmouth,) Lucius is called 
Procurator, which was more correct, but that had Huchowne done so, 

That had mare greuyd the cadens, 
Than had releuyed the sentens. 

Had Sir Walter Scott ever read through the Arthour and Merlin of the Auchinleck 
MS., he would have known that it could not be the Gest referred to in the above 
passage by Wyntown ; and Mr. Turnbull, the editor of this romance, is less ex 
cusable on this account in repeating the error without correction '. But of what in 
all probability is the veritable Gest of Arthure composed by Huchowne, and 
written in alliterative metre, I possess a transcript, from a MS. in Lincoln Cathe 
dral Library, which may, probably, at some future period be given to the press. 

It is, perhaps, too much to assume positively with Mr. Guest, that Huchowne 
" is certainly the oldest English poet, born north of the Tweed, whose works have 
reached us," since Barbour, who wrote between 1370-1380, possesses equal claims 
to be so considered ; but we have this remarkable fact before us, that the oldest 
manuscripts containing genuine Scotish poetry, are the Cotton MS., Nero, A. x., 
the Vernon MS. in the Bodleian library, and a MS. formerly in the possession 
of Dr. Whitaker, and afterwards of Mr. Heber, all of which are of the reign of 
Richard the Second, all apparently written in England, and all contain poems of 
Huchowne 2 . Now if it be supposed that some time must necessarily elapse to ac 
count for the transmission of poems composed on the other side of the Tweed to 

attributes to " one John Thayer" [Theyer], whose name occurs at the commencement, and who was 
the possessor in the reign of Charles the Second ! The whole of Theyer's MSS. were subsequently 
purchased for the Royal Library. See History of Rhythms, ii. 139, note. In the same page for 
" Lathi original" read " Latin version" as may be proved, perhaps, on some future occasion. 

1 Preface to Romance of Arthour and Merlin, 4to, 1838 ; printed for the Maitland Club. I have 
no doubt that the author is the same who wrote the English romance of Alexander, printed in Weber. 

2 The MS. of Barbour's Bruce, followed by Jamieson, is dated in 1489 ; and is in the Advocate 
Library. Another copy, dated one year earlier, is at Cambridge. 

304 NOTES. 

the southern counties, we must then with Mr. Guest give Huchowne the priority 
over Barbour, and he will stand first in the list of Scotish " makkaris." Of course by 
this I shall be understood to range myself on the side of those who consider Thomas 
of Erceldoune's claim to Sir Tristrem as apocryphal. To discuss this subject at 
length here would take me too much out of my way, therefore I shall only observe 
in passing, from a passage in the inedited portion of Robert de Brunne's Chronicle, 
that Kendats Christian name was also Thomas, and that he wrote a " tale" about 
Flttyn, the brother of the giant Skardyng, the lord of Scarborough castle ; a piece 
of information which I believe to be new to all the writers on the subject. 

In regard to the peculiarity of Huchowne's stanza and style, it cannot fail to ex 
cite observation how well it corresponds with the character given by the chronicler. 
It has also been ingeniously remarked by Mr. Guest, that the form of the stave, 
with its abrupt bob-line preceding the wheel, distinguishes the romance of Syr Ga- 
icayn and the Pystyl of Sussan from other somewhat similar productions of the 
fifteenth century, and fairly intitles them to be considered of earlier date '. The 
question of the introduction of alliteration into Scotland is a difficult one, as well as 
the period of its being first used ; but I should be glad to have pointed out to me any 
poem in that metre, previous to the year 1350, composed unquestionably by a native 
of North Britain. As far as we can at present judge, it must have been borrowed 
from their southern neighbours, and retained subsequently to the middle of the six- 
, teenth century. Mr. Guest is inclined to place among the earliest specimens the 
portion of the romance of Alexander, inserted in the splendid copy of the French 
romance in the Bodleian Library 4 , which he places about the middle of the four 
teenth century 3 . But the writing of this portion is of the reign of Henry the Sixth, 
nor is there any reason to believe the poem itself very much earlier than the year 
1400. A larger portion of the same romance is in a MS. in the Ashmolean Li 
brary 4 , and I possess a transcript of a fragment of an English alliterative romance 
on the same subject, which would appear from internal evidence to have been com 
posed by the author of William and the Werwolf. 

Of the sources whence the author has availed himself in composing Syr Gawayn 
and the Grene Knytf, it now remains to say something. It is professedly not of 
his own invention, nor founded upon popular tradition, for he expressly refers at 

VoL ii. p. 172. 2 MS. Bodl. 264. 

The Rev. W. Conybeare assigns it to so early a period as the end of the thirteenth. Illustr. 
p. bn. This and many other similar statements by eminent writers, prove that a critical history of 
English poetry is still a detideratum. 

* No. 44 paper, fifteenth century. It contains 27 pasnu, the 18, 19, 20 and 21 of which are in 
MS. Bodl. 264. 

NOTES. 305 

the commencement to written authority, " in stori stif and strong with lei letteres 
loken '," and again at the end, 

Thus in Arthurus day this aunter bitidde, 
The Brutus boJces ther of beres wyttenesse. 

To my knowledge no English romance of an earlier period than the one before us 
exists, in which the writer might have found the story he has so ingeniously con 
verted to his own purpose ; but on turning to the early Anglo-Norman literature, 
an extensive knowledge of which was undoubtedly at this period diffused over 
Scotland, I have been more successful. The immediate original of the Grene 
Knytf appears to exist in the Roman de Perceval, one of the most celebrated of 
Arthur's knights, whose adventures were written in verse by Chrestien de Troyes, 
at the close of the twelfth century, and continued after his death by Gautier de 
Denet and Manessier, at the beginning of the thirteenth 2 . This romance was trans 
lated into prose in the sixteenth century, and printed in 1530. In this it is related, 
that king Carados of Vaigue came to Arthur's court to ask for a wife, and receives 
from the suzerain a lady named Ysenne de Carahais. During the ceremonial of 
the nuptials an enchanter named Eliaures falls in love with the bride, and by ma 
gical delusion contrives to take the husband's place. The issue of this intercourse 
is a son, also named Carados, who is subsequently sent to the court of Arthur by his 
supposed father, to acquire a knowledge of chivalrous exercises. After a time the 
monarch resolves to hold a court pleniere in the city of Carlisle ( Cardeuil), for 
the purpose of conferring the order of knighthood on his young nephew, and com 
municates his intention to Gawayne, who highly approves of it. The feast is kept 
at Pentecost with extraordinary splendor, the ceremony of knighthood takes place, 
and Arthur, according to his usual practice, is only awaiting some adventure before 
he proceeds to the banquet, when at this moment a knight hastily rides up, singing 
an air " bien doulcement," whose appearance is thus described : " et avoit dessus le 
bonnet ung cercle, ou pendoit ung chapeau de fleurs, et estoit vestu de satin verd, 
fourre de erminnes ; et avoit une espee saincte, dont puis eust la teste couppee, et en 
estoient ses renges ou saincture de fine soie, batue en or, et force perles semees par 

1 p. 4, 1. 34. See also p. 27, 1. 690. 

* Copies of the metrical romance are rare in Great Britain. I have only been able to discover 
one, in the College of Arms, MS. Arund. 14 ; but this is imperfect, and does not proceed beyond 
f. xlvii. of the edition. There is said to exist a second perfect copy in the Advocates Library. In a 
copy of this romance among the MSS. of the Bibliotheque du Roi at Paris, Suppl. Franfais, No. 430 ; 
the Episode of Carados and Elaures occurs at fol. 89 b . 

2 R 

306 NOTES. 

The knight comes to the king, and begs to have a request granted, to ex 
change blow for blow. " How is that?" said Arthur. " Sire, I will tell you," replied 
the stranger, " I will deliver my sword to a knight, before your majesty and all the 
assembly, and if he is able to cut off my head with it at a blow, in case I should af 
terwards recover, I will then return him the stroke." Keux, the seneschal, declares 
he would not accept the proffer for all the world, and brands with the name of fool 
any one hardy enough to attempt it. The knight, however, persists, and drawing his 
sword presents it first on one side and then on the other, much to the displeasure of 
the king, who sees his bravest champions draw back. At last young Carados starts 
forward, and seizes the weapon. The knight then lays down his head on a block, 
and Carados, persisting in the enterprise against the wishes of the whole court, 
raises the sword, and at a blow sends the stranger's head rolling off the length of a 
lance. The headless trunk immediately rises and takes up the head, which unites as 
well as ever, and the knight now claims the fulfilment of the conditions, but defers it 
for one twelvemonth, and on leaving the court reminds Carados strictly to observe the 
agreement. The court is much troubled at so strange an adventure, and many tears 
are shed for Carados, who, however, does not seem to regard the peril, but passes 
the time in feats of arms. At length the prescribed term arrives, and he returns to 
Carlisle at Pentecost day, when Arthur and his Round Table are assembled as before. 
The stranger knight again makes his appearance, and demands the accomplishment of 
Jhe covenant. Carados lays his head on the block, and tells the knight to do his worst. 
Arthur and his queen both make an effort to save Carados from what appears cer 
tain death, but in vain; and the stranger having sufficiently kept them all in suspense, 
raises his sword, and strikes the neck of Carados, but with the flat side only of the 
weapon. He then tells him to rise, and reveals to him that he is Eliaures, the en 
chanter, his real father, and how it was brought about. He afterwards mounts his 
horse and departs, leaving Arthur and his knights to celebrate their feast in gladness '. 

From a comparison of this narrative with the Scotish romance, we may be better 
able to judge fairly of the merit of the author of the latter, and how far he has 
drawn on his own inventive powers for the changes and embellishments of the 

We meet with an incident of the same kind in the fabliau of La Muk sans Frein, 
probably of the thirteenth century. In this Gawayne is the hero, and on behalf of 
a damsel undertakes a perilous adventure. He arrives at the castle of a giant, sur- 

1 Edit 1530, ff. 76 b 79 b . Southey in his notes to the preface to the Morte d' Arthur, gives an 
analysis of this story, p. xxrv., and refers it to a Welsh or Breton original. It is most surprising he 
should have been ignorant of the existence of the metrical French text. See ibid., p. xxvL 

NOTES. 307 

rounded by a paling, on which are fixed four hundred human heads. The giant re 
ceives him civilly, but when he is about to retire to rest, he is ordered to strike off 
the giant's head, who warns him at the same time, that on the following morning he 
will have to suffer a similar blow. Gawayne is nothing daunted, and smites the 
giant's head off, but is infinitely astonished to see the body rise, take it up, and re 
place it. He goes to bed, and, strange to say, sleeps tranquilly. The next morning 
the giant comes with his axe, and awaking Gawayne, reminds him of the disagree 
able conditions made the previous evening. The knight holds forth his neck, but 
it proves to be only a trial of his courage, and the giant praises and embraces him 1 . 
This is evidently the same story as the preceding one, but diversified according to 
the fancy or memory of the minstrel. A third adventure of a similar description 
occurs in the second part of the Roman du Saint Graal, ascribed to Helie de Borron, 
and manifestly composed subsequent to the romance of Perceval. It is there re 
lated of Lancelot du Lac, that in one of his rambles he entered the Gaste Cite, from 
which issues a knight richly clad, holding a huge axe in his hands. Lancelot cuts 
his head off with the weapon, on the same conditions as Carados. At the appointed 
time he returns, and a strong and tall knight, brother of the one beheaded, ap 
proaches him, habited " de court, comme celluy qui veultfaire office" and holding 
the fatal glayve, which he had just whetted to make it cut sharper. Lancelot pre 
pares to fulfil the conditions, makes a cross on the earth, and kneels down on it. The 
sole thought that troubles him is of his mistress, queen Guenever. He regrets he 
had not seen her once more to bid her adieu, and fears death only because it will 
separate him from her. His tears flow for the first time in his life. He extends 
his neck, and the tall knight steps back, and aims a blow. Lancelot sees the shadow 
of the weapon, and eludes it. " Ha ! " cried the knight, " my brother, whom you 
killed, did not act thus, but held his head firm, and so must you do." At this 
crisis Lancelot is saved by the interference of two ladies from the castle, and the 
two enemies become friends 2 . 

Some points of resemblance will here also be remarked with the Scotish Romance, 
and it is highly probable that the author may have mingled together several narra 
tives for the purpose of rendering his own more attractive. The series of tempta 
tions to which Gawayne is exposed, undoubtedly connects it with another traditionary 
story of his exploits, which I shall have occasion to speak of when I come to the 
romance of the Carle of Carelyle. 

To one of the preceding sources, in all probability, was Ariosto indebted for his 

1 In Meon's Nouv. Rec. des Fabliaux, t. i. p. 1. 8vo, 1823 ; and Le Grand d'Aussy, Fabliaux ou 
Conies, vol. i. p. 79, ed. 1829. 

* Roman du St. Graal, ff. 149 b , 181, 4to, 1516. 

2 R 2 



episode of the necromancer Orrilo, whose powers in replacing his limbs when cut 
off exceed those of Eliaures : 

Se gli spiccano il capo, Orrilo scende, 
Ne cessa brancolar fin che lo truovi ; 
Et or pel crine et or pel naso il prende, 
Lo salda al collo, e non so con che chiovi : 
Piglial talor Grifone, e '1 bracchio stende, 
Nel fiume il getta, e non par ch' anco giovi ; 
Che nuota Orrilo al fondo come un pesce, 
E col capo salvo alia ripa esce 1 . 

In the Appendix to the present volume will be found a modern rifacimento of 
this romance of Syr Gawayn and the Grene Knytf, printed from the well-known 
Percy manuscript. 

P. 3, 1. 1. Sithen the sege Sf the assaut waty sesed at Troye, etc. 

Respecting the claim of the Britons and other nations to a Trojan descent, see 
the remarks of Thompson, in the preface to his translation of Geoffrey of Mon- 
inouth, 8vo, 1748 ; Warton's Hist. Engl. Poetr., vol. i. p. 131, note, and Diss. on 
Rom. Fict., p. xi. ed. 1824- ; Ritson's Life of Arthur, p. 6, 8vo, 1825 ; and Panizzi's 
Essay, prefixed to his edition of Boiardo and Ariosto, p. 49, 12mo, 1830. It is 
adopted by all the romancers, French and English, and introduced into Spenser's 
Faerie Queen, b. iii, c. 9, st. 38, 41. Thus also the author of the alliterative Morte 
Arthur, in the Lincoln MS. A. 1. 17. 

Thus endis kyng Arthure, as auctors alegges, 
That was of Ectores blude, the kynge sone of Troye, 
And of sir Pryamous, the prynce, praysede in erthe ; 
Fro thethene broghte the Bretons all his bolde eldyrs 
In to Brctayne the brode, as the Bruytte tellys. 

Ibid. \. 5. Hit wat$ Ennias the athel, fy his higJie kynde. 
The authority for this assertion was doubtless the Latin history ascribed to Dares 

1 Orlando Furiom, canto xv. st. 71. 

NOTES. 309 

Phrygius, cap. 39, 174, ed. Delph. 1702, although it is corroborated by the more 
classical names of Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Strabo. Joseph of Exeter in his 
poem De bello Trojano, composed in the twelfth century, thus versifies Dares : 

Interea questique diu, bellumque perosi, 
In foedus coiere Phryges ; juratur in usum 
Perfidise perjura fides, Antenore dirum 
Parturiente nefas ; hujus consulta secuti 
Ucalegon atque Amphidamas, nee justior ipso 
Polydamante Dolon, patrieeque in damna mentis 
Impius et tantis jEneas consonus ausis. lib. vi. v. 705. 

The immediate source, however, made use of by the Scotish poet, may have been 
the popular Latin romance of Guido de Colonna, compiled in the thirteenth century, 
which subsequently was translated by Lydgate into English verse. 

Ibid. 1. 11. Ticius to Tuskan \_turnes,~\ teldes bigynnes. 

Unless Ticius is here a mistake altogether for Anterior, the name may possibly 
have been derived from Titus Tatius, king of the Sabines, and afterwards the col 
league of Romulus at Rome. The word supplied is obvious, and rendered certain 
by several other passages, but I shall only quote one, 

In to Tuskane he tourney whenne thus well tymede, 
Takes townnes fulle tyte, withe towrres fulle heghe, etc. 

Morte Arthur, f. 80 b . 

Ibid. 1. 13. Felix Brutus. 

This surname seems to be an invention of the writer for the sake of alliteration. 
I have not met with it elsewhere. 

P. 4, 1. 31. As tit as I in toun herde. 

A phrase by no means unusual. Compare 11. 614, 1049. We may hence reject 
the emendation of Chalmers, in reading roun for toun in the first stanza of Sir 
Tristrem. See Works of Sir David Lyndsay, vol. i. p. 128, 8vo, 1806. 

Ibid. 1. 37. This kyng lay at Camylot, etc. 

In Malory's Morte a" Arthur, compiled in 1469, Camalot is expressly declared to 
be the same as Winchester, b. 12, ch. x. vol. ii. p. 193; but this is contradicted 

310 NOTES. 

by the Roman de Lancelot, vol. iii, f. cxliv b , 4-to, 1513, where the two cities are 
clearly distinguished from each other. Ritson supposes it may have been Caer- 
Went in Monmouthshire, and afterwards confounded with Caer- Wynt or Win 
chester ; Lift of Arthur, p. 82. But popular tradition here seems the best guide, 
which assigned the site of Camalot to the ruins of a castle on a hill, near the church 
of South Cadbury, in Somersetshire. See Leland's Itin. ii. 75, and Colkctan. v. 28. 
In the Roman de Tristan we read, "Leroy Artus y sejournoit souvent, pour ceque 
la cite estoit aisee de toutes choses qu'il conuenoit a corps de homme aysier." vol. 1, 
f. xxxvii. fol. 1520. So also the author of the Roman du St. Graal, 2nd part, in 
speaking of another Camylot, the residence of the mother of Perceval, says, " Sei- 
gneurs, necuydez pas que ce soit de celluy Kamelot dont ces jougleurs vont chantant 
la chanson, ou le roy Artus tenoit si souvent sa court. Cestuy Kamelot, quefut a 
la vefue dame, est assyz an plus beau chef, et en la plus belle isle, et en la plus sau- 
vaige de Galles, prez de la mer vers Occident. -Et F autre Kamelot est a 1* entree du 
royaulme de Logres, qui est peuple de gens, et est assiz au chef de la terre au roy 
Artus, pour ce que H tient d toutes les terres qui de celle part marchissoyent a la 
sienne." f. clxxxvii, 4to, 1516. See a passage likewise in the Roman de Lancelot, 
vol. i, f. Ixxxvi, and Southey's note on Morte d" Arthur, ii. 4-87. 

Ibid. 1. 40. The revels at Christmas are more than once described with a zest, 
which would induce us to believe that the feasting and jollities of that season were 
k'ept up in the fourteenth century in Scotland in a manner not to be excelled by 
English pageantry. Besides the tourney, or amicable joust, we have carols, dancing, 
shouts of Noel, gifts decided by lot, interludes, songs, and other amusements. See 
1L 4-72, 983, 1007, 1026, 1654. With regard to carols and Noel, Sandys's work on 
the subject may be consulted, 8vo, London, 1833. In the Roman de Lancelot, 
vol. i. f. xxxvi, it is stated, that Arthur was accustomed to hold a court and wear 
his crown five times in the year; namely, at Easter, Ascension-day, Pentecost, All 
Saints, and Noel. Of these the feast at Easter was more honoured, but that of 
Pentecost the most joyous. See some lines describing a court pleniere at Christmas, 
in the Lai du Conseil, p. 85, of Lais Inedits, by Fr. Michel, 8vo, Paris, 1836. 
On the popular Christmas play, as at present preserved in various parts of Scotland 
and England, see Davies Gilbert's Christmas Carols, 8vo, 1823, pref. p. iv ; Mac- 
taggart's Scotish Gallovidian Encyclopedia, (a work but little known, and very cu 
rious), 8 vo, London, 1824, in v. Yule-boys; Gentleman's Magazine, 1830, parti, p. 505; 
HoncaEvery-day Book, vol. ii. p. 18, 8vo, 1831 ; and Sandys's Carols, pp. 110, 
174-. This play has been separately printed, but made up, without judgement, from 
various sources, 8vo, Portsmouth, 1836. 

NOTES. 311 

P. 6, 1. 81. The comlohest to descrye, 
Ther glent with y^en gray. 

The beauty of Queen Guenever is a constant theme with the old romancers, and 
appears to rest on historical tradition. In the Welsh version of the romance of 
Ywaine and Gawaine, (recently edited with so much taste by Lady Charlotte Guest 
as Part I. of the Mabinogion,} the expression " more lovely than Gwenhwyvar" oc 
curs, p. 42, (see 1. 945 of the present poem), and the editor remarks, that this was the 
highest compliment it was possible to pay, since Gwenhwyvar is celebrated in the 
Triads as one of the three fair ladies of Arthur's court, p. 102. 

So also in the Latin Chronicle of Geoffrey, lib. ix. cap. 9, the queen is equally 
praised for her beauty and courteous manners, and this is repeated by Wace and 
his translators or imitators. But the most naive and elaborate personal description 
of her appearance, whilst yet at the court of Leodagan her father, is given in the 
very rare Roman de Merlin^ vol. i. f. cxxxvii, in these words : " Ny oncques en 
Bretaigne n en nasquit point de plus belle pour lors. Son visaige estoit cler et luy- 
sant, et bien couloure blanc et vermeil ; si belle estoit que Nature avoit mis en elle 
toute son estudie, qu il ne luy enfailloit ne plus ne moins. Elle estoit haulte et droicte, 
et bien polie, le corps long, et gresle par les flans, les hanches basses, vestue d' abiz 
qui moult bien luy advenoient ; les bras avoit gros et longs, les piedz plains et 
voultiz, les mains grassetes, blanches comme neige. Si luy commencoient encores d 
croistre les mamelles dures, blanches, et rondes comme pommettes ; nefut trop grasse 
ne trop maigre" etc. See also another passage quoted by Southey in his Notes on 
Morte d' Arthur, vol. ii. p. 462. It need only be remarked in addition, that the " yjen 
gray," des yeux vaires, were considered in the times of romance as the undoubted 
characteristic of beauty. See examples (out of many) in the Erie of Tolous, ap. 
Ritson, Metr. Rom. iii. 107. Launfal, ib. i. 205. Thomas of Ersyldoune, ap. Laing, 
Pop. Poetr. 1. 89 ; and Syre Gawene and the Carle of Carelyle, in the present 
volume, p. 197, 1. 365. 

Ibid. 1. 90. And also another maner meued him eke 

That he thur$ nobelay had nomen, lie wolde neuer ete. 

This is borrowed by the author immediately from the Roman de Perceval, fol. 
Ixxviii. " Keux,faict le Roy, ne vous hastez, car vous scavez long temps y a que 
quant court planiere ay tenue, que jamais ne voullus menger ains que nouvelles ou 
merveilles ne fussent devers moy venues ; et encores ne veuil coustume laisser ne 
abollir." So also in the Roman de Lancelot, vol. iii. f. Ixxxii ; and Roman de Mer 
lin, vol. ii. f. lvi b , which narrates the establishment of this custom of Arthur, and is 

312 NOTES. 

probably the authority whence the other romances borrowed. Cf. Malory's Morte 
d Arthur, ii. 203, 462. The same usage appears in the earlier German romance- 
writers, who, in truth, only translate the metrical French authorities. Consult 
Wigaloit, p. 12, 12mo, Berlin, 1819; and the notes of the editor Benecke, p. 4-36. 

P. 7. 1. 1 10. And Agrauayn a la dure mayn. 

One of the brothers of Gawayne, by Belisent, half-sister of Arthur. I know not 
whence the author of the poem derived the epithet of a la dure main, which is never 
applied to him in the romances. His constant appellation there is fOrgtieilleux. 
His character is drawn in a few words in the Roman de Lancelot, ii. f. Ixix. " fl 
fiU sans pitii et sans amour, ne il rieut oncques bonne grace fors que de chevalerie, 
et de beaulte, et la langue eut a delivre" There is an amusing episode of hb haughty 
behaviour in Merlin, ii. f. Ixxxvi, at which his father, old king Lot, is so enraged, 
that he cries out to Gawayne to slay him. His death, however, was reserved for 
Sir Launcelot, after the latter had been surprised by him in queen Guenever's 
chamber. Morte d Arthur, ii. 395. 

Ibid. 1. 112. Bischop Bawdewyn. 

This personage, who figures also in Sir Gawene and the Carle of Carelyle, and 
*in The Turke and Gowin, occurs nowhere in the early French metrical and prose 
romances ; and his name seems to have been substituted by the English or Scotish 
poets in the fourteenth century, for that of Bishop Brice or Dubricius. There was 
an Archbishop of Canterbury named Baldwin, who held the See from 1184 to 
1191, from whom the name may have been taken. 

Ibid. 1. 113. Ywan, Yryn son. 

Is the celebrated Ywain or Owain, sometimes surnamed Le Grand, son of Urien 
king of Moray, according to Geoffrey, or of Rheged, according to the Welsh au 
thorities. His exploits were celebrated in French verse by Chrestien de Troyes, 
and thence translated into the German, Icelandic, Welsh, and English languages, for 
which consult Benecke's edition of Iicein der Riter mit dem Lcwen, 8vo, Berlin, 1 827 ; 
Von der Hagen's Grundrisszur Geschichte der Deutschen Poesie, 8vo, Berlin, 1812, 
p. 118 ; Ritson's Metrical Romances, vol. i. and Notes, vol. iii. 8vo, 1802 ; and Lady 
C. Guest's Mabinogion, part i, 8vo, 1838. He must not be confounded (as Ritson 
has done) with Ywain FAvoultre, a base son of Urien by his seneschal's wife, who 
was killed by Gawayne without knowing him, Roman de Lancelot, iii. f. cxvii. There 

NOTES. 313 

are also others of this name mentioned in the Roman de Merlin, i. f. ccviii b , and 
in the Roman d'Erec et cTEnide. Cf. Arthour and Merlin, p. 306, 4to, 1838. 
The name of this hero of the Round Table, somewhat disguised, again occurs in 
1. 551 of the present poem ; in the Aivntyrs of Arthure, st. li. 1. 4 ; and Golagros 
and Gawane, 1. 662. 

P. 22, 1. 551. Ay wan, and Errik, and other ful mony, 

Sir Doddinaual de \le~} Sauage, the duk of Clarence, 

iMuncelot, and Lyonel, and Lucan the gode, 

Sir Boos, and Sir Byduer, big men bothe, 

And mony other menskful, with Mador de la Port. 

Of Aywan or Ywain I have already spoken. The second on the list is Erec, 
son of king Lac, of whom the romance of Erec et d'Enide, by Chrestien de Troyes, 
exists in MS. JBibl. du Roi, No. 74-98*. The third is Dodinel le Sauvage, son of Beli- 
nans, king of Estrangegorre, by a daughter of king Matheu " de 1'isle perdu." 
" Cestuy Dodinel," says the Roman de Merlin, "ful surnomme Sauvaige, pource 
quil ne bougeoit des forestz et des bois, a chasser bestes sauvaiges" i. f. cxlviii. He 
is delivered by Gawayne out of prison in the Roman de Perceval, f. cxcii b . The 
fourth, here named by his title of Duke of Clarence, was Galachin, son of Neutres, 
king of Garlot, by a sister of Arthur, and cousin of Dodinal. The duchy was given 
to him by Arthur, after his marriage with Guenever. The author of Merlin says of 
him, " Cest enfant fut le meilleur clievalier de deux centz cinquante chevaliers qui 
furent de la Table Ronde" i. f. cxi b . His exploits in the Val sans refaur are nar 
rated in the Roman de Lancelot, i. f. cxc b . The fifth on the list is the redoubtable 
son of king Ban of Benoit, whose amours with queen Guenever have made him more 
conspicuous even than his valor. The readers of his romance, or of Malory's Morte 
d 1 Arthur, need not be reminded that he became the destroyer, mediately or imme 
diately, of Gawayne and his brothers. Lyonel de Gauves or Gannes, son of king 
Boort, was the cousin of Lancelot, and received the kingdom of Gaul from his hand. 
In the Roman de Lancelot, i. f. Ixxxvi, it is said of him, " Et le varlet avoit d nom 
Lyonnel pource que une grande merveille advint d son naistre. Car sy tost comme 
il yssit du venire Helayne, sa mere, Ven trouva au meillieu de son pis une tasche ver- 
meille en forme de lyon, et avoit I 'enfant embrasse parmy le col, ainsi comme pour 
Vestrangler" He is stated to have been killed in a battle against the sons of Mor- 
dred, and buried at Winchester. Sir Lucan was Arthur's butler, and died with the 
king in the fatal engagement with Mordred. Sir Boort or Bors de Gauves or 
Gannes, was brother of Lyonel, and inherited the territories of king Claudas. Sir 

2 s 

314 NOTES. 

Beduer, usually styled the Constable, from his filling that office in Arthur's court, 
is characterized in the romance of Erec and Enide as one " Qui moll sot deschas et 
tables" His attendance on Arthur in his last moments, with the adventure of the 
WOtd Escalibor, forms an interesting chapter in the Morte d' Arthur, ii. 440. The 
last knight in the list, Mador de la Port, is introduced into the romance of Lancelot 
and the Morte d' Arthur, as the accuser of queen Guenever, on behalf of his cousin 
Sir Patryse, who had been poisoned by some apples at a banquet instead of Gawayne, 
for whom the fruit had been treacherously prepared. See Roman de Lancelot, iii. 
f. clix b ; Morte d 'Arthur, ii. 321. 

P. 23, 1. 567. Aske) erhj his arm*}, and alle were thay bro$, etc. 

This entire stanza and the following one are valuable for the minute description 
they contain of the mode of completely arming a knight at the close of the four 
teenth century. The order was as follows : A carpet was first brought, on which 
the various pieces of gilt armour were laid. The knight then was clad in a doublet 
of expensive Tarsic silk, (which was, doubtless, padded, to protect the body,) and 
next a skilfully made hood (capados), closed above, and bound within with some soft 
material (blaunner). The steel shoes were then placed on his feet, and his legs 
covered to the knee with steel greaves, to which were affixed knee-pieces (poleyns) 
well-polished, and fastened with knots of gold. After this, fair cuisses were affixed 
to* his brawny thighs, and tied beneath with thongs, and afterwards the byrny or 
haubergeon of mail, consisting of steel rings sewed on a fair stuff. Well-burnished 
braces then are placed on his arms, with good elbow-pieces (cowters), and gloves of 
plate. Above all he wore his coat-armor, or jupon ; his gold spurs were fixed ; and 
his sword attached about him by a silken girdle. Thus accoutred he hears mass, 
and afterwards, before mounting his horse, puts on his helmet, or bacinet, which was 
strongly stapled, and lined within ; it sat high on his head, and was hasped behind ; 
with a light urisoun over the aventaile, or part protecting the face, embroidered with 
gems on broad silken borders, with birds and truelove- knots interspersed so thick, 
as if it had been the labor of many ladies for seven years. Around the helmet was 
a circle of diamonds. The shield and spear complete the knight's equipment 
Compare with this the passage in p. 75, and plate 14 of Skelton's Illustrations of 
A a (if nt Armour, 4to, 1830. 

Ibid. 1. 572. A crafty capados, closed aloft. 
I have met with no other instance of this term except in the present poem, but 

NOTES. 315 

its derivation is clear, from the French cap-a-dos, and, doubtless, means a hood or 
close cap, descending low in the neck. Compare 11. 186 and 1930. 

Ibid. 1. 574. Thenne set ihay the sabatounj, etc. 

These were steel shoes or clogs to protect the feet, from the French sabot, Spanish 
sapato, and were at an earlier period termed sollerets. They are mentioned in a 
poem quoted in Sir Walter Scott's Notes to Sir Tristrem, p. 374, ed. 1833. 

And some also dempte most sureste 
To arme them for battel of areste, 
And dyd on first, after their desires, 
Sabatons, greves, cusses with voyders. 

The poem is cited as " Clariodes, MS.", but as these lines do not occur in the 
romance of Clariodus, published by the Maitland Club, it would be very desirable 
to know where Sir Walter's authority is preserved. The term again occurs in a 
curious MS. in the Lansdowne collection, No. 285, written for Sir John Paston, in 
the reign of Edward IV, and subsequently the property of Sir Thomas Wriothesley, 
the elder, Garter. " First ye muste set on sabatynes, and tye them vpon the shoo, 
w* smalle poyntes that will e [not] breke; and than griffus, and than quysshews, and 
than the breche of maile, and than towlettes ; than the breste ; than the vambrace ; 
than the rerebrace, than the gloovis" etc., fol. 9. See ArchcBologia, vol. xvii. p. 295, 
where the whole passage is copied, but not very accurately ; and vol. xx. p. 496. 

Ibid. 1. 576. With polayne^ picked ther to. 

This term for genouillicres or knee-pieces of plate, is as old as the reign of Ed 
ward the First, in whose household-book it is found. See Du Cange, v. Polena, 
and Dissert, on Joinville, p. 184, fol. 1668. The word is preserved in the Wallace, 
viii. 1203, and Rauf Coifyear, ap. Laing, sign. B. iv. ; and Jamieson is clearly mis 
taken in his explanation of pullaine greis, which mean greaves furnished with knee- 
pieces. See also MS. Harl. 6149, fol. 46. 

Ibid. 1. 583. With gode cowters and gay. 

From the French coudiere, la partie qui couvre la coude. In the inedited ro 
mance of Morte Artkure is a curious passage, which as it refers to a combat be 
tween Sir Gawayne and Sir Priamus, I may be excused quoting here. 

2 s2 

316 NOTES - 

And gyrdes at Syr Gawayne, as he by glentia, 
And awkwarde egerly sore he hym smythes ; 
An alet enamelde he ochis in sondire, 
Bristes the rerebrace with the bronde ryche, 
Kerues of at the coutere with the clene egge, 
Ane[n]tis the aTawmbrace, vrayllede w* siluer, 
Thorowe a double vesture of veluett ryche ; 
W 1 the venemous swerde a vayne has he towchede, 
That voydes so violently, that alle his witte changede ; 
The vesere, the auentaile, his vestures ryche, 
With the valyant blode was verrede alle ouer. 

MS. Line., A. 1, 17, /. 80 b . 

Ibid. 1. 592. So harnayst as he wot) he herhne) his masse. 

Thus in the Roman du Saint Graal, f. clxi b , 4to, 1516, it is said of Gawayne, 
" Nejamais Gauvain ne partoit d'ung logis sans ouyr messe, sil povoit, ny oncques 
ne trouva damotselle qu'il ne secourust" See also Ritson's Metr. Rom., iii. 241. 

P. 24, 1. 597. Bi that wat} Gryngokt grayth, etc. 

The name of this celebrated horse furnishes an additional proof of the acquaint 
ance possessed by the author of the early French romances. In the Roman de 
Merlin, pt ii. f. lxxii b Ixxiv, is the account of his acquisition by Gawayne from the 
Saxon king Clarion, who rode " le Gringalet, ung cheval qui ainsi avoyt a nott, 
pour la grant bonte de quoy il estoit plain ; car le compte dit, que pour dix lieues 
courir il nenfaisoit que le cerf, a tout ung chevalier arme de toutes pieces, ne si ne le 
failloit point picquer ne petit ne grant, ne jamais poil ne luy sua" We meet with 
the same steed in the Conte of Le Chevalier a lEspee, 

Les armes recut un vaslet, 
Uns autres prist lou Gringalet. 

Meon's Fabliaux, i, 134. 

Again, in the metrical Roman de Perceval, 

Trestoz fore le Gringalet ; 
Plorant s'en revont li valet. 

MS. Coll. Arm. f. 199. 

which in the prose text (4to, 1530, f.xxxiii b ) is thus rendered, " et remenassent ses 
chevaulx, fort ung bien petit palcfroy" evidently shewing that the later writer did 

NOTES. 317 

not understand his original. In the old German version of Wolfram von Eschen- 
bach, who appears to have followed Guiot, a Proven9al author, rather than Chres- 
tien de Troves, we find the lines, 

D6 was ouch Gringuljetan gegurt, 
daz in mangen angestlichen furt 
gein strite was zer tjoste braht, 
des wart och da hm zim gedaht. 

Parzival, ed. Lachmann, 8vo, 1833, p. 167. 

In Ttie Awntyrs of Arthure, Gawayne's steed is simply named Grisselle, st. xlii. 

Ibid. 1. 607. Hit wafy hy$e on his hede, hasped bihynde, 
Wyih a ly^th vrisoun ouer the aventayle, 
Enbrawden and bounden, etc. 

Much time has been spent, but without success, in endeavouring to find other 
instances of the term urisoun, which would seem to have been the same as the 
cointisse, or " kerchef of plesaunce," such as it appears on the effigy of Aymer de 
Valence, who died in 1323. See Stothard's Monum. Effigies, fol., 1817, and Sir 
S. Meyrick's Critical Inquiry, ii. 57. But in the former work, p. 12, in describing 
the bacinet, Stothard writes, " The camail, and what was called by the French a 
hourson, to which may be added a strap, was to attach the whole by means of a 
buckle, to the haubergeon or plates." Whence did Stothard derive this term ? I 
answer, in all probability from MS. Harl. 6149, in which at fol. 46, are regulations 
" How a knyt suld be armyt in tournay" and among them occurs, " Item, bacynet 
a tout le hourson, and ane escussone of balayne apone the nek, couerit w* ledder, 
etc. And apone ye bacynet a coife of mail, and a faire offroy befor on ye front, 
quha will." These regulations are printed at length in the Archtzologia, vol. xx. 
p. 510, and in the Critical Inquiry, vol. i. p. 155, but, I regret to add, very incor 
rectly; and the explanation of the terms used is very wide of the truth, as may appear 
by comparing the original French text, printed in Du Cange's seventh Dissertation on 
Joinville, p. 184. It is a curious circumstance, which must have escaped the notice 
of the author of the Inquiry, that the same regulations were previously printed more 
accurately by Leyden in his rambling preface to the Complaynte of Scotland, 4to, 
Edinb., 1802, p. 57, and there given as an extract from an heraldic MS., written 
and therefore conjectured to have been composed by Sir David Lyndsay, in 
1586; and on such doubtful grounds large excerpts were made, and an argument 
drawn to prove the author of the Complaynte and the writer of the heraldic MS. 

318 NOTES. 

to have been one and the same ! But the fact is, that the contents of this Heraldic 
MS. (now in the Advocates Library, marked W. 4. 13.) were literally transcribed by 
Lyndsay from the Harleian MS. 614-9, which latter volume, as appears by several 
entries in it, was translated out of French into Scotish at the command " of anne 
wirechipfulle man, Weljim Cumyn of Inverellochquy, alias Marchemond Herald, 
be his obedient sone in the Office of Armes, Kintyre purseuant," in the year 1494. 
In Lyndsay's time the Harleian MS. was no doubt preserved in the Scotish Office 
of Arms, which easily accounts for its transcription, and at once destroys all the 
superstructure raised by Leyden on its contents. In the French text, the word which 
occasioned this note is written houson ; in Leyden it is printed howsone, and in 
Meyrick housson, and interpreted housing. I am, however, inclined to believe that 
/lourson, the reading of the Harleian MS., is correct, as established by the line in 
the romance cited above. 

Ibid. 1. 615. The cercle wot) more o prys. 

This is not the padded wreath worn from the time of Richard II. to Henry IV. on 
the bacinet, but the more splendid band of goldsmiths' work, enriched with jewels. It 
is called " bourdoure" in the Awntyrs of Arthure, st. xxx. 1. 4, and said to be " alle 
of brynte golde." See numerous examples in Stothard's excellent work ; and also 
consult Du Cange, v. JBacinetum ; Roquefort's Glossaire, Suppl. v. Helme ; Mey- 
rick's Inquiry, Gloss., v. Helmus ; and Planch6's Hist, of Costume, p. 160. 

Ibid. 1. 620. Wyth the pentangel de-paynt, 

Hit is a syngne that Salomon set sum quyle, etc. 

Those who may wish to know the efficacy of this figure, as devised by Solomon, 
are referred to " Lemegeton, Clavicula Salomonis, or The Little Key of Solomon the 
King, which containeth all the names, orders and offices of all Spirits, with the seales 
belonging to each," &c., MS. Sloane, 3825. At f.221 b , is the Pentagonal Figure of 
Solomon, comprising a pentangle within a circle ; in the outer triangles is inscribed 
the name TETRAGRAMMATON, and names of Spirits in the inner divisions. It is di 
rected to be made in O or J) , and worn upon the breast, with the seal of the Spirit 
on one side of it, etc. 

P. 25. 1. 636. For thy the pentangel nwe 
He her in schelde and cote. 

He her in schelde and cote. 
This appropriation of arms to Sir Gawayne is purely imaginary on the part of 

NOTES. 319 

the author, and borne out by no romance authority. In the Devise des Armes des 
Chevaliers de la Table Ronde, prefixed to the Roman de Gyron la Courfois, fol., 
his arms are thus blasoned, " Gauvain d' Orcanie portoit de purpre a ung aygle d'or 
a deux testes, membrees d'a^ur ;" and this is copied by all the writers on the (pre 
tended) armorial bearings of the Round Table, down to Richard Robinson, who in 
that very scarce book, " The Auncient Order, etc., of Prince Arthure," 4to, Lond., 
1583, tells us in his doggerel lines, 

In purple shield an Aegle spied 

All golde Sir Gawayne gaue ; 
One of the knights most conquerous, 

Hee merits fame to haue. 

Amongst them which the Table Rounde 

Enobled with Renowne 
By deeds of Arms in Contreyes cause, 

To bring her foes a-downe. 

It is certain, however, that the earlier romancers do not uniformly countenance 
these arms. In the Roman du St. Graal, indeed, pt. ii. ff. cxxxvi b , clxii, Ga- 
wayne's shield is said to be de sinople, d ung aigle d'or, which device was probably 
bestowed on him from winning the shield of Judas Maccabeus (ibid. f. cxxx.), 
bearing the same insignia ; but in the Roman de Merlin, vol. i. f. clxiv, Gawayne's 
banner is described " de cendal d'Jnde, d ung lyon d argent" and vol. ii. f. lxxxiii b , 
his shield, " au lion de sinople, rampant." So also in the Roman de Lancelot, i. 
f. xcv b , his shield is blasoned, "le champ de I'escu estoitd'or, et ung lyon degueules." 
Again in the German romance of Wigalois, 1. 5618, his arms are represented to be 
"ein wizzer hirz uf einem berge guldin,"and on an ivory carving of the thirteenth cen 
tury, representing Sir Gawayne reposing on the enchanted bed, (see Roman de 
Perceval, f. xl.) we find on his shield a lion's jamb. Consult Ferrario, Storia ed 
Analisi degli antichi romanzi di Cavalkria, vol. ii. p. 101, 8vo, 1828. By way of 
adding to this variety, the author of the Awntyrs of Arthure, st. xl. tells us his arms 
were " griffones of golde, engrelede fulle gaye," with whom agrees the author of 
the metrical Morte Arthure in the Lincoln MS., fol. 93 b . 

Ibid. 1. 648. At this cause the knytf comlyche hade 

In the more half of his schelde Mr ymage depaynted. 

The author has introduced the Virgin on Gawayne's shield in imitation otPridwen, 
the famous shield of Arthur, on which her image was similarly depicted. The 



passage in Geoffrey of Monmouth, lib. ix. c. 3, appears thus in the early English 
version of La;amon. 

He heng an his sweore 

aenne sceld deore ; 

his nome wes on Bruttisc 

Pridwen ihaten ; 

ther wes innen igrauen, 

mid rede gold staucn, 

an on-licoes deore 

of Drihtenes Moder. 

See my edition of this valuable old poet, now in the press, vol. ii. p. 4-64, and 
Notes on the passage. A curious tradition or legend on the subject, evidently com 
posed by the Monks at Glastonbury, and intitled " Quedam narracio de nobili rege 
Artfturo, in sacramento altaris non plene credente, qualiter confirmatus fuit in fide, 
foetus vere credens, el quare mutavit arma sua," is preserved in the Bodleian 
Library, and together with several other Latin legends relating to the heroes of 
the Round Table, may hereafter be published by me, accompanied by translations 
and notes. 

P. 27. 1.691. The realme of Logres. 

In the Roman de Merlin, if. xcvii, cxvii b , Logres is merely the name of London, 
" la maitresse cite " of Arthur's kingdom, but in the present instance it means En 
gland in general. Supposing Gawayne to set out on his expedition from Camelot 
in Somersetshire, he must have proceeded (in case he did not cross the Severn) 
through Gloucestershire and adjoining counties into Montgomeryshire, and thence 
by a very circuitous route to Holyhead, adjoining the isle of Anglesea, from which 
he passes into the long narrow peninsula of Wirral in Cheshire, the uninhabited and 
waste state of which in the sixteenth century is borne out by historical facts. (See Or- 
raerod's Cheshire, vol. ii. p. 187.) The knight thence pursues his way over hill and 
moor, until he arrives at an immense forest, the locality of which would lead us to 
presume it to be Inglewood forest in Cumberland, which is elsewhere celebrated in 
romance. The object of his search, " the grene chapel" is stated to be but two miles 
distant from a castle in this forest, in which Gawayne takes up his abode. Although 
in cases of this sort the imagination of the romance-writer generally is the sole guide 
of his pen, yet I cannot help thinking some allusion may be made to the " Chapel 
of the Grune," which in the older maps of Cumberland is marked as existing on 

NOTES. 321 

the point of land on the western coast running into the aestuary of the Wampool, not 
far from Skinburness, which forms part of Allerdale ward, below Derwent, but its 
history I have in vain searched for in various topographical works. Close to this 
was Woltsty or Vulstey castle, said to have been built by the Abbots of Holm 
Cultram, to secure their treasures ; and here also are said to have been preserved 
the magic books of the wizard Michael Scott. Hutchinson's Cumberland, i. 329, 
ii. 327, 34-0, 4>to, 1794. 

P. 30, 1. 774. Jesus and say [saynt~\ Gilyan. 

The latter is Saint Julian, who in his character of "the gode herberjour," was 
noted for supplying way-worn travellers with lodgings in a time of need. See 
Tyrwhitt's Note on Chaucer, C. T. v. 342. 

P. 36, 1. 957. That other with a gorger was gered ouer the swyre. 

The gorger or wimple is stated first to have appeared in Edward the First's reign, 
and an example is found on the monument of Aveline, countess of Lancaster, who 
died in 1269. The fashion continued partially during the fourteenth century, for 
Chaucer's Wife of Bath is so dressed, and the usage may have lasted longer in 
Scotland than in England. It makes its appearance again in the reign of Henry 
the Sixth, as appears by the monument of Elizabeth, wife of John de la Pole, duke 
of Suffolk. It may be observed, however, that from the poem the usage of the 
gorger would seem to have been confined to the elderly ladies. 

P. 39, 1. 1022. The ioye of say n Jone^ day wafy gentyle to here. 

This is the 27th of December, and the last of the feast. Sometimes the Christ 
mas festivities were prolonged to New Year's Day. 

P. 43, 1. 1126. This and the succeeding stanza are quoted by Mr. Guest 
in his "History of English Rhythms" vol. ii. p. 166, accompanied by a translation* 
which is often faulty, as will be occasionally pointed out in the Glossary. The 
minute particulars given here and elsewhere of " wode-crafte," may seem to have 
been suggested by the similar passage in the romance of Sir Tristrem ; but whether 
this be so or not, the present poem has greatly the superiority, both in the extent of 
the details and the more graphic character given to them. 

The plan of hunting the deer here described may be explained as follows. On 
assembling at the kennel, the hounds were called out and coupled, and the hunters 
blew on their bugles three short moots or notes, which was responded to by the 

2 T 

322 NOTES. 

baying of the dogs. The vewters, or men who judged of the game by thefewte or 
scent, then proceeded to the stations (trysteres) marked out, and the dogs were cast 
off. The deer, roused from the dale by the cry, seek refuge in the heights (the hy^e), 
but are there driven back by the parties (stablye) appointed, who allow the male 
deer and bucks to pass, but drive back the hinds and does with shouts; and 
as they fly, followed by the dogs, they are pierced with arrows, or should they 
escape the bowmen, are pulled down and killed by the greyhounds at the stations 
below. Compare the passages in the Awntyrs of Arthure, st. iv. v. ; Romance of 
Clariodtu, p. 246 ; and Wyntoun, vi. 16, 15, vii. 1, 46. 

P. 50, 1. 1 327. And didden hem derely vndo, as the dede askej. 

The process here described may be compared with that in Sir Tristrem, p. 158, 
and in Dame Juliana Berner's Book of St. Albans, sign. e. i. edit. 1496. See also 
La Venerie de Jaques de Fouilloux, 4to, Paris, 1585, cap. 44 ; and A Jewell for 
Gcntrie, [by T. S.] 4to, Lond., 1614, sign. F. 2. The description runs thus, as 
far as the obscurity of the technical terms used enables me to interpret it. After 
taking the assay, or depth of the fat, they slit the slot (the hollow above the breast 
bone, or, according to others, the pit of the stomach), and take out the erber (the 
conduit leading to the stomach), cut it with a sharp knife, and tie up the severed 
par^s ; then rip the four limbs, and rend off the hide. They next open the belly, 
and take out the bowels, cutting away lustily, and bear away the knot ; then grasping 
the gargulun, they quickly divide the weasand or gullet from the wind-hole, and 
throw out the small guts. Afterwards they proceed to carve out the shoulders, by 
a small aperture, so as to keep the sides whole, and divide the breast in halves. 
Then beginning again at the gargulun, the deer is slit up to the fork ; the avancers 
are voided out, and the fillets cut away by the ribs, and so by the ridge-bone even 
to the haunch, all of which form the noumbles, and are taken away together. By the 
fork of the thighs they lance the flaps behind, and hew it in two parts by the back 
bone. After this the head and neck are cut off, and next the sides severed from 
the chine ; the raven's bone or fee is cast on a bush, and the sides pierced through 
and hung upon the houghs of the haunches (?), as the fee of those who were 
entitled to them. Lastly, they feed their hounds on the hide, with the liver, lights, 
and skin of the paunch, mingled with bread dipt in blood, and blow prys, consisting 
of " two longe notes and the rechate." The latter part of this ceremony, then con 
sidered so important, is amply described in the Mayster of the Game, a trea 
tise compiled for king Henry the Fifth, when prince ; but the details are passed 
over as belonging moor to wodemannys craft than to hunters." See MS. Cott. 

NOTES. 323 

Vesp. B. xii. f. 94. The modern practice of breaking a deer may be found in 
"L'ecole de la Chasse" par M. le Verrier de la Conterie, 8vo, Rouen, 1763, part 
ii. p. 182. 

P. 54, 1. 1440. Long sy then for the sounder that wi^tfor olde. 

The meaning of this line is obscure, but it seems to be, that the boar from its age 
had long since quitted the sounder or herd ; according to the Book of St. Alban's, 

Now to speke of the boore, the fyrste year he is 
A pygge of the sounder callyd, as haue I blys ; 
The seconde yere an hogge, and soo shall he be, 
And an hoggestere, whan he is of yeres thre ; 
And when he is foure yere, a boore shall he be, 
From the sounder of the swyne thenne departyth he ; 
A synguler is he soo, for alone he woll go. 

Edit. 1496, Sign. d. i. 

See also the treatise on hunting, by Twety, MS. Cott. Vesp. A. xii. f. 3 b , and the 
chapter in the Mayster of the Game, on the wild boar, f. 33. 

P. 60, 1. 1605. Thenne a wy^e that waty wys vpon wod-crafte^ etc. 

This process of unlacing or undoing the boor is told more at length in the Book 
of St. Alban's, sign, e, i, and the reward given to the hounds is especially noticed 
in another passage. 

Thrugh your houndys by strengthe yf that he be dede. 
They shall haue the bowelles boyllyd wyth the brede. 

Sign. d. i b . 

And so also in the treatise ascribed to Twety, written originally in French, in the 
time of Edward the Second. " And whanne the boor is itake, he be defietyd al 
velue, and he shal haue xxxii hasteletys ; and ye shal }if your houndys the bowellis 
boyled w* breed, and it is callyd reward, for cause that it is etyn on the erthe, and 
not on the skynne." f. 6 b . 

P. 63, 1. 1699. Summefel in thefute, ther the fox bade, etc. 

That the hunting of the fox was an accustomed sport as early as the beginning 
of the thirteenth century we have the authority of Lajamon, who in his translation 
of the Brut inserts a passage not in his original, in which king Arthur compares the 
position of Cheldric, in the forest of Caledon, to that of bold Reynard after a chace, 

2 T 2 

324 NOTES. 

when he a fain to take to his hole, and is unearthed by his pursuers. See vol. ii. 
p. 451. A drawing on this subject executed soon after the year 1300, is copied by 
Strutt in his Sports and Pastimes, from MS. Reg. 2 B. vii. In the Mayster of the 
Game it is said, " The huntynge for the foxe is faire for the good crie of the houndis 
that folowene hym so nye, and with so good a wille ; alway thei senten of hym, for 
he fleth by thik spoies, and also for he stinketh euermore, and with gret payne he 
wil leeue a couert whan he is therinne," etc., f. 42 b . Yet notwithstanding this 
commendation, fox-hunting seems to have been but in little repute in the fifteenth 
century, and is almost wholly passed over in theBook of St. Alban's. The description 
of the fox-chase given in stanzas xxiii, xxiv, and xxxi, forms one of the most 
spirited parts of the poem, and are certainly the earliest extant on the subject 
among Scotish writers. 

P. 64, 1. 1738. No hwe) goud on Mr hede, hot the ha^er stones 
Trased aboute hir tressour, etc. 

The fret in which the hair was confined forms a remarkable feature of the female 
coiffure in the reigns of Richard the Second and Henry the Fourth, and was com 
posed of gold wire studded with precious stones. See Chaucer's Floure and the 
Leafe, 1. 152; Kempe's Introd. to Stothard's Monumental Effigies, p. 15; and 
Plane-he's Hist, of Costume, p. 166. Compare also the tracing of the rude illumi- 
natjon in the original MS. of the poem, representing the lady's visit to Sir Gawayne. 

P. 75, 1. 2015. Fyrst he clad hym in his clothe), etc. 

The process of arming is not so minutely described here as in p. 23, but consists 
merely in putting on the ordinary apparel, and then the armour, namely, a hau 
berk (pounce), a pair of plates for the back and breast, and a byrny or haburgeon 
of steel rings, which would almost seem superfluous. Over all these was cast the 
surcoat of velvet, embroidered with the knight's conisance in precious stones, and 

P. 77, 1. 2081. Vch hille had a hatte, a myst-hakel huge. 

In Chalmers's Caledonia, vol. iii. p. 21 1, a local proverb is quoted, which bears the 
same phraseology, 

When cloudy Cairnmuir hath a hat, 
Pilnour and Skairs laugh at that. 

Fuller in his Worthies, preserves a similar saying in Cumberland, vol. i. p. 234, 
4to, 1811. 

NOTES. 325 

P. 89, 1. 2419. Wat) blended w l Barsabe. 

By Barsabe the writer means Bath-sheba, the wife of Uriah the Hittite. See 
2 Sam. cap. xi. 

P. 90, 1. 2446. Thur^ mytf of Morgne la Faye, that in my hous lenges, 
In koyntyse of clergy e bi craftes wel lerned ; 
The maystres of Merlyn, etc. 

The fame of this lady is known to all readers of romance, and more particularly 
of the Romance of Merlin, in which a minute description of her personal appearance 
and accomplishments is given. See Southey's Notes on Morte d" Arthurs, ii. 468. 
It is acknowledged on all sides that she received her instruction in the art of magic 
from the "conable klerk" Merlin, and from her proficiency was called " Morgain 
la fee," which our author has rendered " Morgne the goddess." Yet he seems by 
calling her " the maystres of Merlyn," and speaking of her amours with that sage 
personage, to have unwittingly confounded her with her rival in the science of ne 
cromancy, Vivienne, the Lady of the Lake. Merlin's love for the latter, and her 
deception of him by means of the art he had taught her, are related in various 
places ; but there is no authority, as far as my reading extends, for the assertion in 
the poem, beyond that of the writer himself. The cause of Morgain's hate to queen 
Guenever, alluded to in the text, 1. 2460, was occasioned by an intrigue between 
the former and a knight named Guyomars, which was discovered and revealed by 
the queen. Roman de Merlin, i. f. clxxx b ; Roman de Lancelot, i. f. cxcvi ; Le 
Grand's Fabliaux, i. 152, ed. 1829. In the romance of " Yvvaine and Gawin,'' 
printed in Ritson, a lady says she has a precious ointment, given to her by " Mor 
gan the Wise." This undoubtedly refers to the enchantress, and Ritson in his 
Notes, vol. iii. p. 239, interprets it erroneously. The Prophecies of Merlin attri 
bute to the Lady of the Lake a deeper knowledge of magic than Morgain, and 
a curious story is related of a trial of skill between Morgain, the Lady of Avalon, 
Sibille, the enchantress, and the queen of North Wales. If, says the compiler, the 
Lady of the Lake had been there, " toute la subtilite du monde y seroit" Morgain 
conjures up a legion of devils to carry away the Lady of Avalon, but they are re 
pulsed, and Morgain herself comes in person, reading her magical book as she ad 
vances. Her opponent, however, is prepared for her, and having on a ring, the 
power of which is such as to obtain instantly whatever the possessor demands, she 
comes forward to Morgain, and asks for all her clothes, which of course immediately 
leave the wearer, and Merlin's pupil, to her extreme surprise, finds herself " al so 
naked as she was borne" in the midst of her attendants I The Lady of Avalon laughs 



at her confusion, but in pity takes off her surcoat, and gives it to the vanquished 
i i i.l angry enchantress^" <ffa / ' dame, 'fait Moroain, vous m' avez honnye, car Ion 
Hrfflrff queje Juste dejeune aage, et Hz ontveuma chair nue et ridte, et mes mamelles 
pendant, et autsi la peau demon ventre, dont la nouvelle sera comptte en ma hit lieu.' 
Morgain,' fait la Dame d'Avallon, <je scay certainement gue par maintesfois avez 
este en vostre lict toute nue avec maint beau chevalier: < En nom Dieu,' fait Mor- 
gain, 'tejc y ay estt, aussi me suys-je baignte, et oings tons mes membres, dont les 
chevaliers let troverent toutes fresches et dures,'" fol. cxxxi b . The author of the poem 
had therefore good authority for his description of the " auncian" lady. See 1. 961 . 

Ci)e atontprs of Srtiwre at tlje Cetne 

TWO Manuscripts of this romance exist. Of these one is at present in the Bod 
leian Library, which previously belonged to Baynes, Ritson and Douce, and 
from a transcript of this MS. the poem was first printed (" surreptitiously," says 
Ritson,) by Pinkerton, in his " Scotish Poems" vol. iii. p. 197, 12mo, 1792, under 
the title of ' SIR GAWAN AND SIR GALARON OF GALLOWAY." He divided it 
into two parts, and prefixed an argument to each, but his text is extremely incorrect, 
and, as he was confessedly ignorant of the language, his Glossary exhibits many 
errors. From this edition, bad as it is, the first twenty-six stanzas were transferred 
to Sibbald's " Chronicle of Scotish Poetry" 8vo, 1802, vol. i. p. xvii. Another 
transcript of this MS., made about the middle of the last century, was in the library of 
Heber (Sale Cat No. 1 121, where it is stated to have been copied " from a MS. penes 
Nickols,") and was purchased subsequently by Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart. The second 

NOTES. 327 

copy of the poem is preserved in the library of Lincoln Cathedral, marked A. 1. 17, 
but is, unfortunately, not quite perfect. From this MS. the romance was again 
printed by Laing, in his " Select Remains of the Ancient Popular Poetry of Scot 
land" 4-to, 1822, and the deficiencies supplied from Mr. Douce's manuscript. 
The age of the latter MS. is assigned by Pinkerton and Laing to the reign of Henry 
the Sixth, but I do not think it can claim a higher antiquity than the period of his 
successor, or about the years 1460-14-80. The Lincoln copy is undoubtedly earlier, 
being written, with many other pieces in the same volume, between the years 14-30- 
14-4-0. ' It has therefore been judged advisable, in printing this curious poem for 
the third time, to take the Lincoln MS. for the ground-work of the text, and where 
defective, inserting the lines from the later copy, the variations of which throughout 
are very carefully noted. There are many clerical errors in both manuscripts, 
which were no doubt written in England, and therefore do not present a genuine Sco- 
tish text, yet enough remains to prove the romance to be of Northern original. The 
readings of the Douce MS. are sometimes preferable, but as it is a dangerous prac 
tice to attempt to unite copies written at different periods and in different parts of 
the kingdom, the variations of the later copy have been kept quite distinct. Both 
the MSS. having been placed by the liberality of the owners, the Dean and Chapter 
of Lincoln and the late Francis Douce, Esq., for a considerable period in the hands 
of the editor, an opportunity was thereby afforded of transcribing and collating them 
more minutely than had previously been possible, and it is believed that the present 
edition may on that account lay claim to greater accuracy than its predecessors. 

The authorship of this poem has been generally ascribed to Clerk of Tranent, 
who is believed, with every appearance of probability, to have lived in the early 
part of the fifteenth century. The authority on which this supposition rests is a 
passage in the poem of Dunbar, intitled " Lament for the deth of the Makkaris," 
written about the year 1507, in which he says, 

Clerk of Tranent eik he hes tane, 
That maid the awnteris of Gawane.* 

The Maitland MS. reads The clerk, which has occasioned Macpherson*, and, after 
him, Sibbald and Heber, to conjecture, that Hucheon or Hugh may have been his 
Christian name, and consequently that the Huchowne of Wyntoun and the Clerk of 
Dunbar were the same individual. But this conjecture has no probability in it, and 
is satisfactorily refuted by the internal evidence of the poem itself. From the simi- 

1 See the description of this MS. annexed to the Introduction of the present volume. 

2 Edit. Laing, vol. i. p. 214. 8 Notes on Wyntoun, ii. 364. 

328 NOTES. 

larity of style, the peculiar construction of the stanza, and the subject, it is almost 
certain, that the writer of the Awntyrs of Arthure must also have been the author ' 
of Golagros and Gattxme, and it will hence appear how inconsiderately the compo 
sition of these poems has been assigned by Sir Walter Scott 4 , Ellis 3 , Sibbald 4 , and 
Tytler* to the thirteenth century I The language alone, had it been studied, would 
prove the error of such an hypothesis, which is more completely demonstrated by 
the costume of these pieces, and by the structure of the wheel attached to each 
stanza. Another feature of these poems consists in the repetition of a leading 
thought or expression, which served to knit the lines together and assist the me 
mory, but this is not confined to poems of the fifteenth century, nor indeed to 
Scotish poetry ; for the usage occurs in Minot's poems, composed in the middle of 
the fourteenth century, and was borrowed from the middle-age Latin writers, 
among whom such verses were called serpentine. 

The sources from which the Scotish writers derived their romance poems has 
been too hastily referred by Sir Walter Scott to the floating British traditions of 
Arthur's cycle 6 ; an opinion repeated by Leyden 7 , Laing 8 , and Tytler 9 . This as 
sertion I hold to be true to a very limited extent Allowing even Sir Tristrem to 
be the work of a native of Scotland, (which I do not,) nothing is more certain than 
its derivation from an Anglo-Norman text ; and the same fact is indisputable in the 
instances of the romances of Sir Gawayne and the Grene Kny$t, and Golagros and 
Gawane. In regard to the poem which these remarks more particularly apply to, the 
author refers to " the buke," but whether this is, as often, a mere form of words, I have 
met with no evidence to prove. It is, however, not to be doubted, that the ground 
work of the first portion of the poem is taken from a very popular religious legend 
among the Latin writers of the middle-age, which is found in various forms, but with 
the same general outline, the appearance of a female in torments, who has been 
punished for her want of chastity, pride, and vanity, and whose salvation is procured 
by a certain number of masses said for her soul. In my edition of the old English 
versions of the Gesta Romanorum, printed for the Roxburghe Club, 4to, 1 838, will 
be found several notices on the subject, Notes, p. 528. There is an inedited English 
poem of the fifteenth century, called " The Trental of St. Gregory" MS. Cott. 

> Ellis commits a grievous error in ascribing the English romance of Ywain and Gawin to Clerk. 
See Mttr. Rom. i. 345. 

Preface to Sir Triitrem, p. 57, ed. 1833. Ellis, Metr. Rom., i. 129. 

Citron, of Sc. Poetr., i. p. rri. ; but he also assigns the years 13411371 as its aera. 
Hut. of Scotland, ii. 359, 8vo, 1829. 

Pref. Sir Trittr. p. 57. 7 Qompl. Scotl. p. 208. 

Pop. Poetr. Scotl., pref. to The Awntyrs. Hitt. Scotl. ii. 359. 

NOTES. 329 

Calig. A. II. f. 84 b , founded on the same story, in which Pope Gregory plays the 
part that queen Guenever does in the Scotish romance. It may be worth while to 
quote a few lines to shew the similarity of the tales. 

The pope as he at hya masse stode 
Vpon hys modur he hadde throwat goode, 
Prayng to god w l conciens clere, 
The sothe to knowe as hit were ; 
And sodenly yn myddes hys masse 
Ther throw? to hym suche a derkenesse 
Th 1 he lakkede ner the dayes lyjt, 
For hit was derke as mydny3t. 
In th 1 derkenes was myste among, 
Alle astonyed he stode, so hit stongke ! 
Be syde he loked vnthur hys lere ; 
In th 1 derknes a thyng threw hym nere, 
A wonthurfulle grysely creature, 
Aftur a fend fyred, w* alle here feture ; 
Alle ragged & rente, both elenge & euelle. 
As orrybulle to beholde as any deuelle ; 
Mowthe, face, eres, and yes 
Brennede alle fulle of brennyng lyes. 
He was so agast of th 1 grysyly goste 
That yn a sownyng he was almoste. 

He accosts the spirit, who answers him thus : 

I am thy modur th* the beere, 
Th* for vnschryuen dedes so derne 
In byttyr paynes thus Y brenne. 

He inquires the cause, and is told it is the consequence of her living in lusts and 
refusing to confess. 

The pope lette teres adown renne, 

And to hys modyr he sayde then, 

Telle me now, modur, for loue of Mary, flour, 

If any thyng may the help or sokour, 

Bedes or masse thy penaunce to bye, 

Or ony fastyng thy sorowe to aleye ? 

She requires a trenfal of masses, and then departs. 

It need scarcely be remarked how immeasurably the Scotish poet has the ad 
vantage over the English writer. 


330 NOTES. 

Of the second part of the romance I have not been so fortunate as to find the 
prototype, but in the Morte <f Arthur of Malory, professedly compiled from the 
French, Syr Galleron of Galway is introduced as a knight of the Table Round, 
" the whiche was a noble knyghte, and had done many dedes of armes, and he was 
a large knyght of flesshe and boone," vol. ii. p. 197- Of his " many dedes of armes" 
scarcely any information is given, but we find him again included among the knights 
who watch together for the purpose of surprising Lancelot du Lac in queen Gue- 
never's chamber. " And these were their names : Syr Colgreuaunce, Syr Mador de 
la Porte, Syre Gyngalyne, Syr Melyot de Logrys, Syre Petypase of Wynchelse, Syr 
Galleron of Galway, Syr Melyon of the Montayne, Sir Astamore, Syre Gromore 
Somor joure [read Grummors sone], Syr Cureelayne, Syr Florence, Syr Louel. 
So these twelue knyghtes were with Sir Mordred and Sir Agrauayne, and al they 
were of Scotland, outher of Syr Gawayris kynne, outher well willers to his bre- 
theren." Morte d Arthur, vol. ii. p. 392. 

P. 95, st. i. 1. 2. By the Terne Wahethelyne. 

This is still the name of a small tarn or lake, which covers about an hundred 
acres of land in the forest of Inglewood, near Hesketh in Cumberland. Towards 
the north-east end were the remains, in 1794, of an ancient castle, called popularly 
Castie Hewin. Hutchinson's Cumberland, i. 491. The spot is again alluded to in 
the* romance-talc or ballad on the Marriage of Sir Gawayne, printed by Percy, 
Reliques, iii. 351, ed. 1794, and reprinted in the Appendix to the present volume. 
Consult Ritson's King Arthur, p. 93. 

Ibid. st. i. 1. 3. Carelele. 

Carlisle in Cumberland is here evidently intended, but in the French romances 
we always find Cardueil, which is represented to be " en la marche de Gattes " in the 
Rom. de Perceval, f. lxxvi b , where we may conclude that Caerleon on Usk, in 
Monmouthshire, may be meant See Lady C. Guest's Note on the Mabinogion, 
pt i. p. 87. 

P. 96, st iii. 1. 4. That borne was in Burgoyne. 

This must refer to the birth-place of Gawayne s steed, since neither himself nor 
the Queen were born in Burgundy. Perhaps, however, it is a poetical license, for 
the sake of the alliteration. 

NOTES. 331 

P. 99, st. viii. 1. 5. Sir Cadore, Sir Caduke, Sir Costarde, Sir Kaye. 

Cador was earl of Cornwall, and acts a conspicuous part in the Brut. He was 
slain with the flower of the knights of the Round Table in the battle against Mor- 
dred, and his son Constantine succeeded Arthur in the kingdom. Mr. Douce's MS. 
reads Sir Cleges, whose name occurs several times in the Morte d? Arthur, and of 
whom exists a romance printed by Weber, vol. i. p. 331. Sir Caduke is doubtless 
Sir Cradock (the Carados of French romance,) who is the hero of the amusing tale 
of The Boy and the Mantle, in Percy, vol. iii. p. 3. Sir Costarde is probably a 
false reading for Constantyne, Cador's son ; and Sir Kaye is the well-known Sene 
schal of Arthur. 

P. 102, st. xii. 1. 2. Than Beryke or Brangwayne. 

Brangivayne is sufficiently well known as the accommodating attendant of La 
belle Iseult, (see Scott's Notes on Sir Tristrem, pp. 418, 4-50, and Michel's Tristan, 
ii. 163, 12mo, 1835); but of the other lady, Beryke, or Berelle (as Douce's MS. 
reads,), no mention has been found, either in French or English romancers. 

P. 103, st. xiii. 1. 11. Nowe moyse one this mirroure, etc. 
Compare some corresponding lines in Golagros and Gawane, 1. 1230. 

P. 104-, st. xvi. 1. 7. My modir. 

The name of queen Gayenour's or Guenever's mother is not here expressed, nor 
have I met with it elsewhere. According to romance authority she must have been 
the wife of Leodegan, king of Carmelide. The vices she accuses herself of are 
imaginary, and introduced from the old religious legend, invented for the purpose 
of shewing the efficacy of confession and mass. 

P. 108, st. xxii. 1. 2. The Frolo and the Famaghe. 

Arthur's combat with, and victory over Frolo, the tribune or governor of Gaul 
under the Romans, is related by Geoffrey, lib. ix. cap. 11, and amplified afterwards 
by Wace and Lajamon. The same personage is introduced into the Roman de 
Merlin, p. ii. f. ix, and Roman de Lancelot, ii. f. lxiv b . Who is meant by the Far- 
naghe, I am at a loss to discover, and from the reading of Douce's MS. one would 
suspect some error here. In the inedited Morte Arlhure, Fortune says to the British 


332 NOTES. 

Fownde abbayes in Frauncc, the froytej are thyne awene, 
Fore Frollt, and for Feravmt, and for thir ferse knyghttis, 
That thowe fremydly in Fraunce has faye be-leuede. 

MS. Line. f. 89- 

This Sir FerautU was slain by Sir Florent, in a battle between Sir Gawayne and 
the Lorainers and Lombards, ib. f. 82 b . Compare Malory's Morte d 1 Arthur, book v. 
cap. 11. It may be remarked that the reading of the Douce MS. in the latter part 
of the line is fully confirmed by the passage quoted above. 

P. 109, st. xxiii. 1. 1. A knyghte salle kenly, etc. 

Few readers of romance will hare to be reminded that the traitor Mordred, ge 
nerally termed Arthur's nephew, but in reality his bastard son by the wife of king 
Loth, is here intended. According to Malory, book xxi. cap. 1, he was crowned at 
Canterbury. For a personal description of Mordred, see Roman de Lancelot, ii. 
f. Ixix. His treason was first communicated to Arthur, after the final defeat of the 
Romans, in Tuscany. 

Ibid. si. xxiii. 1. 8. Be-syde Ramessaye, fulle ryghte at a rydynge ; 
And at Dor sett salle dy doghetyeste ofalle. 

The scene of the fatal battle with Mordred is placed by Geoffrey of Monmouth 
and his followers near the river Camel in Cornwall, which by French writers 
and many of our modern historians is called Camion. La^amon, the trans 
lator of Wace in the reign of King John, adds from himself, that the precise spot 
was at Camelford. See my edition of that writer, vol. Hi. p. 141. The author of 
a short metrical Brut, in the MS. Red Book of Bath, calls it Camelerton. It is 
therefore difficult to explain the statement in the passage above cited, which is 
manifestly erroneous, and opposed to the stanza immediately following, in which 
the writer says "upponne Cornewayle coste." Sir Thomas Malory, apparently 
without any authority, removes the action to " a doune besyde Salysbury," vol. ii 
p. 436. 

Ibid, st. xxiv. L 7 that beri* ofsabille 

A sawtire engrelede, ofsiluerfulle schene. 

This is also an invention of the poet, and not in accordance with the romance au- 
h orities, which state Mordred's arms to have been similar to his half-brothers, " de 

NOTES. 333 

pourpre a un aigle a deux testes (for, membrees de mesmes, a un chef d" argent" See 
La Devise, etc., des Chevaliers de la Table Ronde. 

P. 110, st. xxv. 1. 9. In the Lincoln MS. the scribe has negligently in 
serted in the place of this line the last five lines of st. xviii., but with some varia 
tions from his previous text, as follows: 

To mene me w* mefles grete mede to the it were ; 
Bot for hym )>* raghte was one rode, 

Gyffe fafte of thi gude 

To Jam' j>at fayles the fude,- 

Whilles ]* Jou arte here. 

P. 1 1 1, st xxvi. 1. 12. To Rondolfe sett hauUe. 

Of Randulphs, or Randals Hatt, I have been unable to fix the locality. It may 
be, as in other instances, an imaginary spot. 

P. 113, st. xxx. 1. 12. And his cheuarone by-fame 
Stode ah ane vnycorne, etc. 

Cheuarone is here used for the chanfron or chanfrain, . e. the piece of armour 
which protected the horse's head. Sir S. Meyrick states, Critical Inquiry, voL ii. 
p. 143, that the invention of a spike in front of the chanfron is to be assigned to 
the end of Henry the Sixth's reign ; and Planche, in his Hist, of Costume, p. 205, 
says " chanfrons, with spikes projecting from them, were adopted about 1467." 
Were this true, the date of the poem before us would be brought lower than the 
period we are from other circumstances justified in considering it to belong to. In 
an inventory dated 1316, I find mention made of two " chanfrains dore$, et un de 
cuir," and in the Assisce Hierosolymitana, which Sir S. Meyrick considers to belong 
to the reign of Edward the Third, we have in cap. 95, the following passage, " Et 
le cheval doit estre convert de couverture de fer (as in the present poem, st. xxx. 
1. 6,) et avoir une testiere defer, et enmi hi testiereunebrochedefer,te\le come celle 
de Fescu." See Crit. Inq. i. 124. 

P. 1 15, st. xxxiii. 1. 3. Of Konynge, of Carry ke, of Conynghame, of Kylle, 
Of Lomonde, of Lenay, of Lowthyane hillis. 

For Konynge the Douce MS. reads Connok, which is right, as confirmed by st. 
liii, L 3. The parishes of Old Cumnock and New Cumnock, in Ayrshire, were for 
merly comprehended in one, and constituted a barony, which in the fourteenth cen- 

334 NOTES. 

tury belonged to the earls of March. See Chalmers's Caledonia, iii. 521. The 
ame writer says it is difficult to decide when the Celtic districts of Carrick, Cu- 
ningham, and Kyle were formed into the present county of Ayrshire, and that in the 
time of Henry the Third Carrick was described as being in Galloway, a name ap 
plied loosely to the whole peninsula between the Solway and the Clyde, including 
Annandale and Ayrshire. By the ancient division of this county Carrick occupied 
the southern side of the Doon ; Kyle, the space between the rivers Doon and Irvine ; 
and Cuningham the whole territory on the north of the last-mentioned river. Ibid. 
iii. 249, 446. Lomonde is in Dumbartonshire, and for Lenay, or, as MS. Douce 
reads, Losex, we should probably read Lenaux, Lennox, an ancient district now 
partitioned between the counties of Stirling and Dumbarton. 

P. 117, st. xxxvii. 1. 7. By that, one Plutone land apalais was pi$t. 

Perhaps Plumpton Park or Land is alluded to, situate in the parish of Lazenby, 
Leath ward, Cumberland, about six miles from Penrith. 

P. 118, sk xxxviii. 1. 1. Krudely, the erles sone of Kent. 
I can find no such person among the knights of Arthur's court 

P. 1 19, st. xl. 1. 2. Griffbnes ofgolde. 
See Note on the previous poem, 1. 686. 

P. 122, st. xlvi. 1. 5. Stones ofiral they strenkel and strewe. 

The absence of this and of numerous other terms which occur in the present and 
following poems from Jamieson's Dictionary, induces me unwillingly to believe, 
that his work was executed but carelessly. The Doctor, had he pleased, might 
have found the word repeated in another piece he professes to have consulted. 

Hir peytrelle was of irale fyne, 

Hir cropoure was of orphare*. 

And als clere golde hir brydille it schone ; 

One aythir syde hange bellys three. 

Thomas off Ersyldoune, MS. Line., A. 1. 17, f. H9 b . 

The meaning of the term, I confess, I am ignorant of. This practice of 
wearing precious stones on the armour became very general during the fourteenth 

NOTES. 335 

and fifteenth centuries, and the allusions to it in this and the succeeding poem are 
extremely frequent. So in .a curious passage in the inedited Morte Arthure; 

Thane rysej the riche kynge, and rawghte one his wedys ; 

A reedde actone of Rosse, the richeste of floures, 

A pesane, and a paunsone, and a pris girdelle, 

And one he henttes a hode of scharlette fulle riche ; 

A Pauys pillione hatt, that pighte was fulle faire 

W* perry of the oryent, and precyous stones ; 

His gloues gayliche gilte, and grauene by the heramys, 

W* graynes of rubyes, fulle gracious to schewe. 

MS. Line. A. 1, 17, f. 89 b . 

P. 125, st. li. 1. 4. Syr Owaynefyfy Uryene, and Arrake, fulle rathe, 
Marrake, and Menegalle, that maste were ofmyghte. 

The reading of the Douce MS. Arrakfy Lake, is the more preferable. See with 
regard to this hero and Sir Owayne, the notes on the previous poem, 11. 113, 551. 
The third on the list is called Syre Mewreke in the romance of Syre Gawene and 
the Carle of Carelyle, 1. 34, and appears to be the same as " Sir Marrok, the good 
knyghte, that was bitrayed with his wyf, for she made him seuen yere a werwolf," 
in Malory's Morte d 'Arthur, ii. 385, and on a similar story is founded the Lai de 
Bisclaveret of Marie, ed. Roquefort, tome i.p. 179. For Meneaalle (Moylard, MS. 
Douce,) we should perhaps read Menadeuke, a knight of Arthur's table frequently 
joined to the former, as in the following passage : 

Sir Ewayne and Sir Errake, and othire gret lordes ; 
Demenys the medilwarde menskefully thare aftyre, 
With Merrake and Menyduke, myghtly of strenghes. 

MS. Line., 95 b . 

Both of these heroes were slain in the battle against Mordred. Ibid. f. 97 b . 


P. 126, st. lii. 1. 4. Gryffons castelle, etc. 

I must leave the illustration of this and the two following lines to those who may 
be more able to give it than myself. The readings of the Douce MS. make the 
localities still more perplexing than in the text. 

336 NOTES. 

P. 126, st. liii. 1. 2. AUe the landes and the lythes,fra Lowyke to Layre, 

The Lebynge, the Lowpynge, the Leveastre lie. 

To elucidate the names of places probably disfigured by the English scribes 
of the MSS. requires more local knowledge than I possess, and no assistance 
has been derived from Macpherson's Geographical Illustrations, 4-to, 1796, who 
ought to have had the passage before him. I heartily recommend the task to some 
Sc..t i-h antiquary. 

P. 128, end. In Yggillwode foreste, at the Temwathelayne. 

Inglewood forest in Cumberland was of great extent, being sixteen miles long 
and ten broad, lying between the rivers Shawk and Eden, and reaching from Car 
lisle to Penrith. It formerly abounded with deer, wild swine, and other beasts of 
the chace. In the Chronicle of Lanercost, under the year 1280, it is said that king 
Edward the First hunted there, and killed two hundred harts and hinds. The 
writer of the poem therefore in making this the scene of Arthur's adventure, ren 
ders his romance authority of greater credit, by its being supported by historical 


FT^HE present poem is so intimately connected with the preceding one in subject 
* and style, that the authorship of both has been almost by general consent 
ascribed to one and the same writer, and consequently to the same period. Unfor 
tunately no manuscript of the work is now known to exist, either in Scotland or 
England, and the only copy that can be traced is the one formerly contained 
in the Asloan MS. in the Auchinleck library, written about 1515, but sub- 

NOTES. 337 

sequently, together with many other pieces of interest, severed from the volume. In 
the index of contents still remaining it is entered as " Sir Golagrus and Sir Gawane" 
For its preservation from total oblivion we are indebted to the earliest efforts of the 
Scotish press, established at Edinburgh, in 1508, by Chepman and My liar, and it 
is, perhaps, owing to the popularity of their edition, that we find Gauen and Golla- 
gras mentioned among the tales enumerated in the Complaynte of Scotland, 154*9. 
In Lyndsay's Historic of Squyer Meldrum, composed about the same period, we 
also read, 

Holland with Brandwell, his bricht brand, 
Faucht never better, hand for hand, 
Nor Gawin aganis Gofagras, 
Nor Olyver with Pharambras. 

Vol. u. p. 296, ed. 1806. 

From the unique copy of the black-letter 4*to edition of 1508, preserved in the 
Advocates' Library, it was negligently reprinted by Pinkerton in his Scotish Poems, 
vol. iii. pp. 67-123, who divided it into four parts, and added an argument to each ; 
and it appeared again, together with other pieces of Chepman and Myllar, in a limited 
fac-simile impression at Edinburgh in 1827. From this volume (which is now 
become extremely scarce, owing to a fire having destroyed most of the copies,) it is 
here reproduced in ordinary type, with no other changes than a substitution of the 
Saxon J>Jbr its inadequate representative y, the rejection of obvious errors of the 
pi'ess (which are, however, retained at the foot of the page), and the use of regular 
punctuation, which is wholly omitted in the original. 

I have already had occasion to advert to the error of Scott and others, in as- 
signing these poems to the thirteenth century ; an opinion chiefly founded " on the 
comparative absence of French words and phraseology, so fashionable in Scotland 
after the time of Robert Bruce." [1306-1329.] Now we learn from a curious 
passage in the inedited Latin chronicle attributed to Walter of Coventry, that as 
early as the reign of William the Lion the Scotish court had adopted the manners, 
dress, and even language of France ', and this taste continued to prevail more or 
less to a comparatively recent period, and must have had considerable influence on 
Scotish literature in general. That such was the case at the close of the fourteenth 
century we have abundant proof in the various poems presumed to have been com- 

1 " Moderniores enim Scottorum reges magis se Francos fatentur, sicut genere, ita moribus, lingua, 
cultu, Scotisque ad extremam servitutem redactis, solos Francos in familiaritatem et obsequium ad- 
hibent." Memor. Histor. ad arm. 1212, MS. C.C.C.C. 



posed by Huchowne, which exhibit not only a familiar acquaintance with French 
compositions, but abound with words and phrases borrowed from that language. 
Yet, as it is nearly certain on other grounds that the present poem was composed 
in the first half of the fifteenth century, the argument of Scott necessarily falls 
to pieces. But the author of the prefatory remarks to the fac-simile reprint, in 
4to, 1827, writes thus, "Had this romance, like so many of the English metrical 
romances, been a translation, it is unlikely that the author would have encum 
bered himself with such an intricate mode of versification ; and therefore, it may 
be entitled to claim the praise of an original composition." p. 8. To this it may 
be replied, that there is no reason why a Scotish writer, even when translating 
or imitating a foreign original, should not use whatever form of verse was popular 
in his own country (as in the case of Rauf Coifyear), and that this peculiar allite 
rative stanza was the most cultivated is evident from the numerous poems still re 
maining in it, even so late as the sixteenth century. But without further " fending 
and proving," the plain fact is this ; that the author of Gologras and Gawane has 
borrowed the entire outline of his romance from the French Roman de Perceval. 
An abridgement of the original, as it appears in the prose version, printed in 
1530, will best serve to shew the close imitation of the Scotish writer, and the 
fallacy of believing in " floating Celtic traditions." 

King Arthur sets out with fifteen knights, amongst whom was Sir Gawayne, to undertake 
the delivery of Girflet, son of Do, from the Chateau Orgueilleux, where he had lain prisoner 
for three years. They issue from a forest into a plain of great extent, where the king is so 
fatigued with his journey and fasting, that he requires both meat and repose. They stop 
under a tree, by the side of a fountain, and Gawayne points out to Kay (Keux), the Seneschal, 
a mansion in a valley, to which the latter at once proceeds, in the hope of procuring some 
provisions. He finds only an old woman in the house, and no eatables of any sort; but the old 
woman tells him, that at no great distance was a castle, built by the Seigneur de Meliolant, 
where he generally amused himself with his hawks. She points it out to him, and Kay 
perceives that it is well environed with fish-ponds, woods, meadows, windmills, and or 
chards, in the midst of which stood a fair tower. Kay spurs his horse, rides up, and passes 
the drawbridge, but encountering nobody, he enters a spacious hall, and perceives a chimney 
with a large fire burning in it, at which a dwarf is diligently roasting a fat peacock on a spit 
made of apple-tree wood. The Seneschal inquires if any other person is within, but the 
dwarf does not deign to answer him, at which Kay is so angry, that he is near killing the 
dwarf on the spot. He restrains himself however, and merely says, he will take the pea 
cock for his dinner, and for the king's repast. The dwarf swears he shall not have it, and 
tells him he will fare ill, if he does not depart quickly. After some more mutual ill lan 
guage Kay strikes the dwarf such a blow, that he falls against the pillar of the chimney. 
He cries out lustily, and at the noise a door opens, and a tall fair knight enters the hall, not 

NOTES. 339 

yet thirty years of age. He wore a robe of white samit, furred with ermine, and fastened by 
a girdle of gold, of great value. He led a greyhound by a green silk lace, and when he saw 
his dwarf bleeding, he asks of Kay why he had thus mal-treated his servant? The Seneschal 
replies rudely, on which the knight inquires his name. On being told, he says, that he 
would easily have been known by his manner of speaking, (a direct allusion to Kay the 
crabbed) and adds, that as it is not the custom of his house to refuse any viands asked for, 
Kay shall certainly have his share of the peacock. He then takes the bird, and strikes the 
Seneschal with it on the neck so violently, that he falls flat on the floor. The peacock is 
broken by the force of the blow, and the hot gravy runs in between the rings of Kay's hau 
berk, and scalds him cruelly, so that he bore the mark about his neck the remainder of his life. 
The knight then throws the remains to his greyhounds, and tells the Seneschal to leave the 
place ; two attendants turn him out, and he returns much mortified to Arthur, to whom he 
relates what had taken place. Arthur does not credit Kay's representation, but sends Ga- 
wayne. He is received courteously by the knight, who invites the king and his companions 
to the mansion. They are entertained sumptuously, and Kay is ridiculed by all, the dwarf 
not excepted. The knight then discloses his name, which is Ydier le Bel, and offers to ac 
company Arthur to the Chateau Orgueilleux, but this is declined, and on the following day 
they take their leave. fol. 103 b 105. 

The above analysis comprehends this first eighteen stanzas of the poem before us. 
Let us now proceed to another portion of the same romance. 

Arthur and his knights, accompanied by Brandelis (who will figure also in the Jeaste of 
Syr Gawayne), proceeds to the siege of the Chateau Orgueilleux (which is clearly identical 
with the castle of Gologrus) . Soon after their arrival a horn is sounded from the castle, 
and on Arthur's inquiring the cause of Brandelis (who here takes the part of Spynagros), he 
is told, it is to warn the country of the approach of their forces. Knights approach on all sides 
to succour the lord of the castle, and three thousand shields and gonfanons are displayed from 
the walls. Lucan, the royal butler, asks to have the honour of jousting on the first day, 
which is granted. The place of combat is marked out by four olive trees, and the conditions 
are such, that whoever passed the bounds, was to be accounted recreant, and detained. 
Lucan forces his adversary from his horse, but contents himself with bringing back the steed 
as a proof of his victory, leaving the knight in the field. He is blamed by Brandelis for so 
doing, and on returning to the field, is encountered by another knight, wounded severely, 
and taken prisoner. Brandelis goes out the following day, and brings back his opponent 
prisoner to Arthur's camp. On the third day Kay undertakes the joust, and conquers his 
opponent, but violates the rules by going beyond the boundaries. The bells of the churches 
in the castle now sound, and Arthur is informed that the besieged are about to celebrate a 
festival in honour of the Virgin. Arthur therefore spends the day in hunting, and Gawayne 
rides out by himself, and meets the Riche Souldoyer, who is lord of the castle, and who had 
an appointment with a lady. The night is passed in great joy by the besieged "grand 
bruit feirent menestriers, de cors, tabours,fleuttes et trompes ajouer," until midnight. The 


340 NOTES. 

ing day Ywain has the joust, and takes his adversary prisoner, the son of Count 

Blandigant of Ireland. Gawayne inquires of him who will joust on the next day, on the 
part of the besieged. He is assured that the Riche Souldoyer himself means to come forth. 
Gawayne asks of Arthur to be allowed the combat. It is granted, and Arthur lends him 
his famous sword Escalibor. On Gawayne's coming into the field, a horn is heard to sound 
four times, and is explained by Brandelis to signify by the first blast, that the Riche Souldoyer 
was about to arm himself; by the second and third, that his jambes, cuisses, hauberk, and 
helm were adjusted ; and by the fourth, that he was mounted. The combat between this re 
doubtable knight and Gawayne is conducted with great strength and valour on both sides, 
and lasts till midday had passed. Gawayne sees his adversary's strength is failing, and 
deals him such a blow, that both combatants fall prostrate on the earth. Gawayne, how 
ever, recovers himself first, and commands the knight to yield, who refuses, and only utters 
some lamentations touching his mistress. Gawayne takes off the knight's helmet, who in 
quires his conqueror's name, and on learning it, he prays him for the sake of preserving the 
life of his amie, to accompany him to the castle, promising that he would afterwards be at 
the king's pleasure. Gawayne consents, and they return together. Arthur is utterly dis 
consolate, thinking his nephew is made prisoner, " tel courroux en a le Roy pris, que pita 
ne le peult regarder, ains s'en va sur ung lict gesir, ou de son manteau le chief se couvrit." 
On the approach of the knight and Gawayne, the lady is summoned, and Gawayne pushes 
his complaisance so far, as to give up his sword into her hands, and declares himself van 
quished. She is then sent away, under the pretence of furnishing the chambers above, and 
as soon as she has left them, the knight causes Girflet, son of Do, and Lucan to be freed 
from their imprisonment, and the four, having arrayed themselves in rich robes, ride to Ar 
thur's camp, to the great astonishment of the king and his barons. The Riche Souldoyer 
then states the circumstances of his defeat, and concludes by doing homage to Arthur for 
his lands, which is repeated by the knights his retainers. They feast and revel for a fort 
night, and Arthur then takes his departure for Britain. fol. 113 118 b . 

It will readily be seen that this adventure occupies the remainder of the Scotish 
poem, from the nineteenth stanza to the end. 

P. 136, 1. 119. Schir Kay is crabbit ofkynde. 

This is the constant character of Kay, both in the French and English romances 
of the Round Table, and crabbed seems to have been the epithet peculiarly appro 
priated to him. See The Grene Knight, 1. 160; The Turke and Gowin, 1. 19; 
and Carle of Carlite, 1. 147. This character of him is also alluded to in the inter 
lude of Thersites, (written in 1537,) in the passage, 

Where art thou, Gawayne the curtesse, and Cay the crabbed? 

Brit. Bibl. i. 172. 

NOTES. 341 

For further information respecting this worthy, see the Mabinogion, part i. p. 97 ; 
and Southey's Notes to Morte d 1 Arthur, ii. 4-59, 486. 

P. 141, 1. 261. Than schir Spynagrose with speche spak to the king. 
This name is not an invention, for among the knights of Arthur's court is men 
tioned " Syr Epynogrys that was the kyng'es sone of Northumberland," Morte d' Ar 
thur, vol. ii. p. 385. He is mentioned in the Roman de Tristan, ii. f. xc., under the 
name of " Espinogres ne de Sorolois," and in the Roman de Perceval, f. clxviii. A 
knight of the same name occurs in the Conte de I'Atre Perilleux, one of Sir Ga- 
wayne's adventures. Bibl. des Romans, Juillet, 1777. 

P. 143, 1. 302. And socht to the ciete of Criste. 

I do not recollect any other authority for this expedition of Arthur to Jerusalem, 
which seems to have been intended by the author as an imitation of Charlemagne's 
equally imaginary but better known travels to the same city ; on which subject may 
be consulted M. Michel's Preface to " Charlemagne, an Anglo-Norman poem of the 
twelfth century," etc., 12mo, Lond., 1836. 

Ibid. 1. 310. To Rome tuke the ready way. 

So reads the edition, but falsely. It should be Rone, as is evident by comparing 
11. 585, 1345. 

P. 144, 1. 339. And auenand schir Ewin. 
See a previous note, p. 312. 

P. 146, 1. 395. Schir Golagrus. 

Whence this name ? Can it be recognised in the Sir Galagars of Malory? vol. i. 
p. 95. 

P. 149, 1. 464. Gapand gunny s of brase. 

If we may believe Barbour, (who died in 1396,) the Scots first became acquainted 
with the use of artillery in the year 1328, but this requires confirmation. 

Twa noweltyis that day thai saw, 
That forouth in Scotland had been nane ; 
Tymmeris for helmys war the tane 
That thaim thoucht thane off gret bewte ; 

342 NOTES. 

And al sua wondyr for to se; 
The tothyr, cralcyt tear officer, 
That thai btfor herd neuir er. 

The Bruce, xiv. 168, ed. Jamieton. 

P. 152, 1. 545. Gaudifeir ; 

Quhilum in Britane that berne had baronyis braid. 

Intended, apparently, for the personage who occurs in the romance of Perceforest, 
as the hero's brother, and who was himself made king of Scotland by the conqueror 
Alexander. See cap. xxviii. ed. foL Par. 1531. I do not find his name among 
Arthur's knights. 

P. 153, 1. 557. Galiot. 

This name as well as the remainder of those given to the knights on the side of 
Golagros seem to have been invented by the writer. 

P. 154, 1. 597. Schir Rannald. 
He is mentioned in Malory's Morte d Arthur, vol. i. p. 175 ; ii. 384. 

P. 157, 1. 661. Schir Lyonel, etc. 

For the first three of these knights, see a previous note, p. 313. The fourth, 
Gyromalance (printed erroneously Siromelans in the prose edition of 1530), occurs 
frequently in the Roman de Perceval. He fights with Sir Gawayne, and afterwards 
marries Clarissant, the sister of his opponent, fol. liii b . 

P. 160, L 747. Schir Cador of Cornwel, etc. 

Consult note, ante p. 331. Although all termed "renkis of the Round Tabill," 
I have looked unsuccessfully for Schir Owales, or Oviles, Schir Iwell, or Schir My- 
reot, unless the latter be Syr Melyot de Logres, in Malory's work, vol. ii. p. 383. 

P. 165, 1. 878. Oft in romanis I reid, 
Airly sporne, late speid. 

If by romanis we are here to understand the French language, we have a pro 
verb equivalent to "Mauvaise haste nest preus," in Renart le Nouvel, v. 1034, 
written by Jacquemars GielSe at the end of the thirteenth century. But there is 

NOTES. 343 

a homely Scotish and English saying to the same effect, " Mair haste the waur 
speed, quoth the tailor to the lang threed." See Ramsay's Poems, vol. ii.p. 60, 12mo, 
Glasg., 1797. 

P. 167, 1. 934-. With ane bitand brand, burly and braid, 

Quhilk oft in battale had bene his bute and his belde. 

It is stated in the Roman de Merlin, f. ccix b , that on occasion of the ceremony 
of knighthood conferred on Sir Gawayne, Arthur girded his nephew with his famous 
sword Escalibor, vol. i. f. ccix b , and we find the weapon remaining for a period in 
Gawayne's hands, for one of his exploits with it is to cut down his father Loth, 
whom he does not recognise till he alights to cut off his head. Ibid. vol. ii. f. liii. 
So also in the Roman de Lancelot, i. f. cxxxi b , Gawayne is represented as fighting 
with Escalibor against Hector des Mares. At what period this sword was returned 
to Arthur we are not informed, but we find it borrowed again at the time Sir Ga 
wayne is about to encounter the Riche Souldoyer. See Roman de Perceval, f. cxvii. 
Instances of the fanciful epithets given by heroes to their swords abound in old ro 
mances, and Warton tells us in a note on Spenser's Fairy Queen, B. v. c. 3, st. 4, 
that Sir Gawayne's sword was named Galantine. What authority he had for this 
I am not aware, but I find something like it in the inedited Morte Arthure. 

Then Syr Gawayne was glade, agayne hyme he rydej, 
Wythe Galuthe, his gude swerde, graythely hyme hyttej ; 
The knyghte one the coursere he cleuede in soudyre, 
Clenlyche fro the croune his corse he dyuydyde, 
And thus he killej the knyghte w* his kydd wapene. 

MS. Line., A. 1, 17, f. 68. 

In a MS. which formerly belonged to Dr. Macro, No. 18, and is now in the pos 
session of Hudson Gurney, Esq., written in the reign of Edward the First, I was 
the first to discover the following curious memorandum at f. 4>2 b , relative to the 
sword of Gawayne : " Hec est forma gladii Walwyn militis: a puncto usque ad 
hilte 53 pollices ; hyfte continet, ii. pollices et dimidii ; manicle prope, ii, pollices ; 
pomes continet prope 8 pollices ; latitude 5 pollices ; longitudo in toto continet 66 
pollices et dimidii. Unde scribere in canello gladii : 


344 NOTES. 


In the Roman du St. (in ml, vol. ii. f. cxli., may also be found an account of Ga- 
wayne's winning the famous sword with which John the Baptist was decollated, 
which is afterwards presented to king Pescheor, the professor of the holy vessel. 
And the reader may now decide for himself which sword it is that the author of the 
poem alludes to. 

P. 179, 1. 1233. ffectour, and Alexander, etc. 

Six out of the eight names here mentioned are taken out of the number of the 
nine worthies. The remaining three are Charlemagne, Godfrey of Boulogne, and 
king Arthur. They are separately enumerated in the metrical Morte Arthur e, 
MS. Line., A. 1. 17, f. 89, and " Ane ballet of the Nine Nobles," printed in Laing's 
Popular Poetry of Scotland, 4to, 1 822. They made a figure not only in poetry, but 
in pageantry and tapestry. 

P. 182, L 1313. .... fra thyne vnto Ronsiuxill. 

.1 presume the allusion here refers to the fatal scene of Charlemagne's overthrow 
at Roncevalles. 

<&atoene anfc the Carle of Carelple. 

r THIS romantic tale is here printed for the first time from an unique copy dis- 

J. covered in one of the MSS. of the Porkington Library, No. 10, belonging 

to William Ormsby Gore, Esq., M.P., written at the close of the reign of Henry 

the Sixth. It is more particularly interesting from its being the original from which 

NOTES. 345 

the modernised copy in the Percy MS. was taken. The question, therefore, of the 
genuineness and antiquity of the romance-poems (as distinguished from the longer 
and better known romances,) in this celebrated MS. would seem to be decided, for 
as two of these poems, namely, The Grene Knight and The Carle of Carlile, have 
been preserved in MSS. of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, it is not too 
much to suppose, that the rest of the tales in the volume of a similar descrip 
tion, although written at so late a period as the latter half of the seventeenth cen 
tury, were derived from ancient texts, which may yet be lurking in the unex 
plored treasures of some cathedral, collegiate, or private library. 

The original of this story must be sought for in the literature of the continent, 
and we find it in the beautiful fabliau of Le Chevalier d lEpee, printed in Meon's 
Recueil, tome i. p. 127, 8vo, 1823, and previously analysed by Le Grand. Both 
works are so well known as to render any repetition of it here unnecessary. 

P. 188, 1. 34. Syre Mewreke. 
See previous note, p. 335. 

Ibid. 1. 35. Syre Key Cantocke. 

I do not understand the meaning of this appellation added to the name of Kay. 
In Malory, we have " Kay the Straunger," vol. ii. p. 403, but this is a corruption 
of Keux cFEstraux, who repeatedly occurs in the French romances, and who was a 
different personage from the Seneschal. 

Ibid. 1. 38. Syre Percivatte. 

The nephew of king Pescheor, guardian of the Sangreal, whose adventures oc 
cupy a quarto volume, printed in 1530. In the Thornton MS. at Lincoln is an 
English metrical abridgement of this romance, but so indifferently executed, as 
scarcely to be worth printing. 

Ibid. 1. 39. Lanfalle 

Is the hero of a lay by Marie de France, printed in Roquefort's Edition, tome i. 
p. 202, of which an English translation, made in the fifteenth century, is inserted 
in Way's Fabliaux, vol. iii. p. 233, 8vo, 1815, and Ritson's Metrical Romances, 
vol. i. 

2 Y 

346 NOTES. 

Ibid. I. W. Syre Eweyne the Vyttyan. 

There is some blunder here. Perhaps we should read Wytt hand, which would 
express the epithet given to Ywain as Blanches Mains. See Morte d Arthur, i. 

Ibid. L 41. Syre Lot of Laudyane. 

The father of Gawayne, and king of Lothian and Orkney. Geoffr. Monm. lib. ix. 
cap. 9. 

Ibid. L 43. Syre Gaytefere and Syre Galerowne. 

The first of these is probably the Gaudifeir, previously mentioned, p. 342, and 
the latter is the Galeron of Galloway, whose exploits are commemorated in the 
Awntyrs of Arthure. 

Ibid. 1. 44. Syre Costantyne, and Syre Raynbrowne, 
The kny$ of armus grene. 

Sir Constantyne has occurred before, p. 331. Of the latter I know nothing as 
one of Arthur's knights, but it would appear from 1. 68, that he was the son of 
Iroune-syde by the maiden of Blauncheland. A knight of the same name occurs 
in the romance of Guy of Warwick. 

Ibid. L 49. The kyngus vncull Syre Mordrete. 

For uncle we should read nephew. In the modern version of this romance, p. 257, 
and in the Marriage of Sir Gawaine, p. 289, he is called Arthur's cousin, but this 
is a general term of relationship. 

Ibid. L 52. Syre Yngeles. 

Of this personage, any more than of Syre Grandone, or Syr Ferre-unhowthe, 
1. 61, 1 have found no record. 

Ibid. L 55. Syre Le Byus Dyshonus was thare. 

This is no less a person than Giglan, the son of Gawayne, who received the sur 
name of Le Beau Desconu from king Arthur, on his first arrival at that monarch's 
court. According to the Roman de Perceval he was the illicit offspring of an 
amour between Gawayne and Guinalorete, the sister of Brandelys ; and an inter- 

NOTES. 347 

esting scene occurs, in which the mother interposes her child between her brother 
and lover, whilst struggling in mortal combat, fol. cxi. He is committed to the 
care of the Pucelle Envoisie, and achieves various adventures, from one of which he 
obtains the surname of Lyoncel. At length he encounters his father (who is un 
known to him,) and after a fierce combat, Gawayne recognises his son, and yields 
himself. The young hero is then taken to Arthur's court at Caerleon, and receives 
instructions in all chivalrous exercises from Ywain. Ibid. ff. cxxiv, cxxv. The ad 
ventures of Giglan form the subject of a very rare distinct prose French romance, 
which was printed at Paris without date, and afterwards at Lyons, in 1530. In this 
he is said to be the son of Gawayne by the fairy Blanchevallee. There is also an 
English romance, on the same subject, expressly stated to be borrowed from the 
French, but differing almost entirely from the prose work. It is printed by Ritson 
in vol. ii. of his Metrical Romances, and many of the incidents seem to have been 
supplied by the romance of Erec et Enide, composed by Chrestien de Troyes. 
That there existed, however, a French metrical romance as early as the twelfth 
century on the exploits of Giglan, is proved by the German romance of Wiyolais 
mit dem Rade, translated from the French by Wirnt von Gravenberch, about the 
year 1212. In this poem the name of Wigolais is intended to represent Gui le Ga 
lois, 1. 1574. In the English romance (1. 7) his name is written Geynleyn, and in 
Malory's Morte d Arthur, vol. i. p. 337, ii. pp. 383, 392, Gyngalyn. For further 
information concerning the versions of this romance, see Benecke's preface to his 
edition of Wigolais, 12mo, Berl. 1819. 

P. 189, 1. 58. Syr Petty-pas of Wynchylse 

Is mentioned in the Morte d 'Arthur, vol. ii. p. 383, and elsewhere, and occurs also 
in the list of knights given in Robinson's "Auncient ordre of Prince Arthur" etc., 
4to, 1583, No. 54. 

Ibid. 1. 64. Syr JSlancheles and Iron-side. 

In the modern version, p. 257, Blanch Faire is substituted for Blancheks, but 
as no knight of that name occurs, in all probability we should read Brandelys, of 
whom more hereafter. The second knight is mentioned in Malory's compilation as 
" Syre Ironsyde, that was called the noble knyjte of the reed laundes, that Syre 
Gareth [brother of Gawayne] wanne for the loue of dame Lyones," vol. ii. p. 384. 
The narrative of the combat may be read in vol. i. p. 211. 

348 NOTES. 

Ibid. L 71. Blanche-lande. 

The Seigneur de la Blaunche londe is noticed as one of Arthur's knights, in the 
Roman de Perceval, f. Ixxi. Cf. f. clxxi b . See in regard to this territory a note of 
M. Michel on Tristan, ii. 173. 

P. 205, 1. 631. A knyghte of the Table Rownde. 

No knight of this name occurs in the French romances of the Round Table, nor 
in the Morte d Arthur* of Malory. 

P. 206, 1. 655. And there yn monkys gray. 

A house of Gray or Franciscan friars existed at Carlisle before the year 1390. 
See Tanner's Notit. Monast. edit Nasmith, fol. 1787. 

3ieaste of 

THIS imperfect poem is taken from a small quarto MS. which was purchased 
at the Fairfax sale at Leeds castle in 1831, and subsequently came to the 
hands of Mr. Douce, who bequeathed it with the rest of his books to the Bodleian 
Library. The volume was written in 1564-, as appears by a date at the end, and 
contains several other romances, all unfortunately more or less imperfect, and all, ap 
parently, transcribed from early black-letter editions. Each romance is illustrated 
with rude drawings, and from their style, as well as the age of the MS. it is evident 
that the collection was made by the same hand which transcribed the romance of 
Roberte the Deuyll, printed by J. Herbert in 1798. No copy of the original, from 
which the present poem was copied, is now known to exist ; but it appears from 
the Stationers books, that in 1557 or 1558 John Kynge had a license to print "A 

NOTES. 349 

Jeaste of Syr Gawayne" and among Bagford's Collections, MS. Harl. 5927, art. 32, 
is preserved the last leaf of another edition in black letter, " Imprynted at London 
in Paule churche yarde, at the sygne of the maydens heed, by Thomas Petyt," con 
taining fifty-three lines, which have been collated with the text in the MS., and the 
variations, which are trifling, noted in the margin. It is no doubt this romance 
which is alluded to, under the title of " Sir Gawyn," by Laneham, in his letter de 
scribing the entertainment of the Queen at Kenilworth in 1575. Of what antiquity 
the story may have been in an English dress, it is difficult to form an opinion, but 
I should be inclined to refer it to the fifteenth century. The original author, how 
ever, in this instance, as in so many others, is French, and in the Roman de Per 
ceval, f. lxxiv b , we meet with the entire story. As the commencement of the ad 
venture is wanting in the MS., a short analysis of the French narrative may not be 
out of place. 

Gawayne leaves king Arthur at the siege of the city of Branlant, at which he had himself 
been severely wounded. He crosses a deep river, and rides along a beautiful plain to a wood, 
on emerging from which he finds himself in a spacious launde, on which he perceives, by the 
side of a fountain, a magnificent pavilion raised. The valances were of fine silk of different 
colours, richly embroidered in gold and silver with flowers, foliage and birds, whilst above 
the ball on the summit was a golden eagle. He dismounts and enters the pavilion, where 
he sees a sumptuous bed, on which lay a lovely girl, " fjui si formellement belle estoit, que 
pour ce temps n'eust &t6 trouve la pareille." Gawayne is exceedingly surprised at her beauty, 
and accosts her courteously. In reply she says, " Dieu quifist soir et matin doint honneur 
au chevalier Gauvain ; puis a vous qui estes icy!" He inquires why she expresses herself 
thus, and in explanation learns, that from the fame of Gawayne's great prowess, courtesy, 
and other qualities, she has long been accustomed to use such terms. The knight then dis 
closes himself, and unlaces his helmet, to shew his features, on which the lady retires to an 
adjoining room, and calls to her a Saracen damsel, who had beenfille de chambre to queen 
Chambres, and who had pourtrayed in embroidery the portrait of Gawayne so exactly, as to 
be recognised by all who saw it. Whilst she is contemplating his features, Sir Gawayne 
disarms himself, and puts on a splendid mantle. On the lady's return she at once acknow 
ledges the original of her picture, and runs to embrace him, kissing his eyes "par grant 
amour," and saying, " Sire, lapucelle, comme voyez, du tout se meet a vostre bandon, et de son 
corps vous faict present, tout par amours et en honneur, si vous plaist a la recepvoir." Of 
course the knight is not insensible of the value of such a gift, " et puis se mirent a deviser 
dujeu d' amours, sans villennie, et apres s'entrejouerent, en ensuivant le doulx purler, que I? nom 
de pucelle perdist." Gawayne at length takes leave of her, and immediately after his de 
parture arrives her father, the king of Lys, and on learning what had occurred, pursues the 
knight, and accuses him of the death of his brother, and the violation of his daughter. Ga 
wayne overthrows him with a mortal blow, and pursues his way. Shortly after, Brandelya 

350 NOTES. 

the lady's brother, make* hi* appearance at the parilion, and on hearing the same story, 
ride, sftrr and uiutalfa the author of the injury. They encounter each after fiercely, and 
throw, to the groaad. bat oatfaaaethe combat wttnhew sword, aad they are both 
Gawayae at kagth proposes a ctssirina of arms, and to renew the combat when- 
thty shffiH f"" aunt This is agreed to, and the combatants separate. Branderys 
carries Ac corpae of his father to aa abbey, to behtastaa'aiiiy iateuad; and Gawayne ratama 
to Arthur** te*t at the siege of Branlant. bat is so faaVubkd by his wound* aa to reqaire 

At a subsequent part of the romance (t cr.), the cosrtiaaafion of Gavayne's 

Arthwmm'liB eoart arrive at a stately castle, which proves to be the i 
They aad a ssaaptaoas banquet prepared ft* some guest, and no less than a hundred wild- 
boars' heads provided! Whilst at the amst Gawayne dbooms the shield of Branderys] 

which he had laid aside. On betaa; aaaatianed as to the cause, he relates his i 
lii jn nina. iihiifcMaaiaii i siilmllj f i Hi i i iBajaajlii'' |ii"j 1 

afSovdkey. Pre to llsr*? ?.<frt*r, p. rcn. In dus version of the story Gawayne 
that om anhiag at the panfioa he fcaad the lady asleep and strack by her beajaty, he 
and kissed her several dates so softly, as not to awaken her, except a Mat 
at"Btm*mre,tmi*ezmoydormir. m At last she avokv, and inqoired who he was. 
He says, heraaa/.batshebidshbafy.farfcar of the wageance of her father and brothers. 

sdC and proceeds with his tale thus.- Pan 'aflsy CMeaer aaarat feOe, easane jwv/avv 

aaaannl anU^aV^ anlaV aaatami^* Jaiai ^aVftnW jaf 20> VKnWftaW *^aV aBmW* ^Waa* 0una> ^aaa> nVafm/ A/ an^VnaAa> 4*Wa> ani 

fv yM tC W 9f^9CfOUf 9 yW*JW m^fCUOt Jnt C0P JIYanW ytUTC. Tot IjUj 

am the otnwst gheC and fianted in Gawayne's arms, when Mi Baas de Lys, one of her 

loaded Gaaajac willa reproaches. The 

to^^ -.__.*,_- 1.^1.. li^.*. %f ^l^Mk. ^.^L.tfl *4^.^ m ay 
Bkury tae lady, oat Jseaaas revueo taesa oota. 

L^.^Ml 4^A M^r^B^ 4*^ *M^ f^ - L^f 

saaren me aaase tate. anca to tne gnei 
of Gawayne. Lastly anrfcd Bkanderys. and having refused the coacifiatary oCers of the 

of his own. The sequel of the ail 1 1 ! aajjlli il by the Fifja* 
toad in the original text. 

ia the ewaiag, camaVa are sent far, aad a fiarioaa coaabat eaaaca 



between Gawayne and his opponent. At this juncture the lady (whose name we subse 
quently learn to be Guinalorete,) makes her appearance with her child Giglain, whom she 
interposes between its father and uncle. Brandelys, so far from being softened by the sight, 
brutally kicks the child away, which excites the indignation of Arthur. The fight is re 
sumed, and Brandelys is at length struck down. The lady again interposes, and her en 
treaties being seconded by the interference of the king and his nobles, Brandelys is persuaded 
to yield, and the adventure terminates by his being made a knight of the Round Table, and 
granting forgiveness to the penitent Gawayne, who begs it on his knees. 

The compiler of the Marie d* Arthur does not insert this episode in his work, but 
has a distinct allusion to the circumstance, when he says, " Thenne came in Syr 
Gawayne, with his thre sones, Syr Gyngleyn, Syr Florence, and Sir Loud ; these 
two were begoten upon Sir Brandyks syster ; and al they fay led." VoL ii. p. 383. 
Sir Brandelys was subsequently, together with Florence and Louel, slain by Lance 
lot du Lac and his party, at the rescue of queen Guenever. Ibid, ii. 4O1, 403. 

P. 217, 1. 347. Theron ofpleasaunce a hercheyfdyd honge. 

See Meyrick's Glossary to his Critical Inquiry, in v. Kercheffof Plesaunce. It 
was sometimes worn on the arm. But a lady's favour was occasionally in another 
shape, as we learn from the Roman de Perceval, f. Ixxxiii. " Et pour secretement 
faire cete chose asscavoir a Alardin par signe, luy donna la manche de sa cotte, que 
nous appettons mancherons, de quay il feist ung gonfanon ou baneroUe a sa lance." 
Cf. Malory, ii. 332. 

P. 219, 1. 422. Syr Gauxiyne saide, " Syr, I thepraye, etc. 

So also in the original text, " II me semble, franc chevattier, respond Gauvain, 
que vous deussiez plus honestement ou plus prudentement parler, car se je vous ay 
faict nul dommaige, je suis tout prest de Famender, au loz de tons noz bans amys, 
mats que n'y perde man honneur ; mats quant a la trahison que vous me mettez sus. 
je m'en veulx contre vous deffendre." f. lxxv b . 


352 NOTES. 


COPIED in 1831 by permission of the late Mrs. Samuel Isted of Ecton Hall, 
Northamptonshire, (eldest daughter of the Bishop of Dromore,) from the 
Percy Manuscript. It is noticed in the list of Romances prefixed to the third vo 
lume of the "Reliyues of Ancient Poetry" p. xxxvii. ed. 1794-, and was considered 
of sufficient interest by the Bishop to be transcribed, for the purpose of insertion in a 
subsequent edition. The singular volume which contains it may be assigned to the 
latter half of the seventeenth century, and abounds with inaccuracies of the scribe or 
compiler. It is here, however, printed literatim from the MS., except in cases where 
correction is absolutely necessary, and the corrupt readings are then thrown to 
the bottom of the page. Had Bishop Percy adopted the same plan, when printing 
his Ballads, even the hypercriticism of Ritson might have been satisfied. It will 
readily be admitted, I presume, that the Scotish romance at the beginning of the pre 
sent volume is the original from which the later tale has been borrowed ; but that it 
may have existed in some intermediate shape, is rendered highly probable by an entry 
in the inventory of English books belonging to John Paston of Norfolk, made in the 
reign of Edward the Fourth, in which occurs " The Greene Knight" Orig. Letters, 
vol. ii. p. 300, 4-to, 1787. 

The changes made in the story, in its recent form, are very remarkable, and serve 
to shew the extent and character of the license assumed by minstrels and poetasters, 
in reciting the compositions of their predecessors, or in borrowing from foreign 
sources. The fairy Morgana of the ancient romance is here changed into Aggteb, 
a witch, who is endowed with the power of transposing human forms ; and instead 
of the Grene Knight's visit to Arthur's court being made for the purpose of an 
noying Guenever, it is here designed by the old witch as a means of alluring Ga- 
wayne to her daughter's arms. The general outline is, however, precisely the same, 
but the narrative much abridged in the rifacimento. It is somewhat remarkable, 
that the latter places the scene " in the West Countrye" instead of the North, as 
one would have expected to find it. 

NOTES. 353 

P. 224, 1. 13. He made the Round Table for their behoue, 
F l none of them sJiold sitt aboue. 

The earliest authority for this tradition is Wace, who inserts it in his translation 
of Geoffrey, and adds, that the Round Table was instituted by Arthur for the pur 
pose of avoiding disputes of precedence among his knights. See the passage in 
Le Roux de Lincy's edition, tome ii. p. 74, 8vo, 1836. Robert of Brunne translates 
this literally in the inedited portion of his Chronicle, f. 62 b , MS. Inner Temple Li 
brary, No. 511. 7. Lajamon goes further, and not only gives the history of the 
table at much greater length, but adds from some source at present unknown, a 
narrative of a quarrel which was the more immediate cause of the institution. 
In an inedited romance on the subject of Arthur, preserved in the Red Book of 
Bath, of the fifteenth century, I find the following lines on the subject : 

At Cayrlyoun, w 4 oute fable 

He let make the Rounde Table, 

And why th l he maked hyt thus 

This was the resoun y-wyss, 

That no man schulde sytt aboue other, 

Ne haue indignacioun of hys brother. 

And alle had oo seruyse, 

For no pryde scholde aryse, 

For any degree of syttynge, 

Other for any seruynge. 

P. 225, 1. 40. Sir Bredbeddk. 

On what authority the Green Knight is thus named I am ignorant, but in this 
case it is no mistake of the scribe, for we meet with the same personage again in 
the ballad of Arthur and the King of Cornwall. He can scarcely be meant for the 
individual who is surnamed also the Grene Knyght in the Morte d"Arthur, and 
whose real name was Pertilope, the brother of Sir Persaunt and Sir Perymore, all 
of whom were defeated by Sir Gareth, younger brother of Sir Gawayne. See 
vol. i. pp. 196, 223 ; ii. p. 385. 

P. 227, 1. 92. Att a castle of Flatting was his dwelling, 
In the Forrest of Delamore. 

The forest of Delamere is an immense tract of wood and waste in Cheshire, and 
was formerly well stocked with deer. Of the Castle of Flatting I have found no 

2 z 

354 NOTES. 

mention elsewhere. It is, doubtless, a corruption. See Ormerod's Cheshire, vol. ii. 
p. 50, fol., 1819. 

P. 239, 1. 461. He hard him whett afauchion bright. 
Compare the lines in the original, 1. 2203, p. 81. 

P. 240, 1. 465. // behooueth thee to lowte. 

In the margin of the MS. Dr. Percy has noted after this line, " some great omis 
sion here." I confess I do not perceive it 

P. 241, 1. 506. To the Castle of Hutton can they fare. 

Perhaps the manor of Hutton in Inglewood forest, Leath ward, Cumberland, is 
here intended. See Nicolson and Burn's Hist. Cumb., ii. 388, or Hutchinson, i. 
506. There is also Hatton Castle, in AUerdale below Derwent, in the same county. 
The whole of the territory hereabout was romance-ground. 

Ibid. \. 515. Why k of the Bathe weare the lace. 

Compare the original text, 1. 2516, p. 92, which is very strangely altered here. 
The lace alluded to was of white silk, and worn on the left shoulder, as early as the 
reign of Richard the Second. See Anstis's " Observations upon the Knighthood of 
the Bath," 4to, 1725, pp. 9, 32, 35, 75. From a curious passage in Lord Herbert 
of Cherbury's Life, written by himself, 4to, 1764, p. 54, we learn that the practice 
was still observed in the reign of James the First, and that the Knights were obliged 
to wear the lace until they had done something famous in arms, or till some lady of 
honor had taken it off. 

NOTES. 355 

Curfee anli <@ototn* 

FROM the Percy Manuscript, and hitherto unpublished. The commencement 
of this singular romance-tale is evidently founded on a different version of 
the adventure related in the Grene Knyght, who is here transformed into a Turk, 
or, in other words, a Pagan. The poem, unfortunately, is very imperfect, and the 
connexion is not always obvious, but the story seems to run thus. After the buffet 
has been given by Gawayne, the Turk goes away, accompanied by the knight, and 
they repair to a castle, where the counter-buffet is demanded by the Turk. We next 
find them, after this proof of Gawayne's courage, sailing over the sea as friends, and 
they arrive at a castle inhabited by the King of Man, (who is a heathen Soldan,) and 
a rout of giants. A trial of skill takes place at tennis, in which Gawayne is assisted 
by the Turk, who passes for the knight's boy. Other trials of strength follow, 
which end in the discomfiture of the giants. The Soudan and one of his rout lay 
some plan to kill Gawayne, but are prevented by the Turk, who puts on a coat to 
make him invisible, and throws the giant into a boiling cauldron of lead, and the 
Soudan into the fire. After this, to complete the adventure, the Turk desires Ga 
wayne to strike off his head, who at first refuses, but on his compliance, in the place 
of the Turk rises up a stalworth knight, who immediately sings Te Deum, by way 
of thankfulness, and to prove his orthodoxy. By this feat the ladies and knights 
confined in the castle are delivered from thraldom, and the kingdom of Man having 
first been offered by Arthur to Gawayne, who refuses it, it is bestowed on Sir Gromer, 
the quondam Turk, as a recompense for his services. 

From the versification, this poem evidently proceeds from the same hand which 
composed the preceding one ; nor will it, perhaps, be wrong to assign to one hand 
the greater part, if not the whole, of the romance-stories in the Manuscript. 

P. 255, 1. 318. Sir Gromer. 

This name is probably borrowed from the Morte a" Arthur, in which " Syr Grum- 
more Grummursum, a good knyghte of Scotland," is mentioned, vol. i. p. 229, and 

2 z 2 

356 NOTES. 

Carle off Carltle. 

FROM the Percy Manuscript, and printed for the first time. It is most cer 
tainly a rifacimento of the older romance in the Porkington MS., and retains 
not only words but entire lines of the original. Some few alterations, however, as 
a matter of course, are introduced ; and at the end of the poem an incident is in 
serted, altogether omitted in the older copy, namely the striking off the Carle's head, 
which corresponds nearly with the similar performance in the tale of The Turke and 
Gowin. The Notes on the earlier text may be referred to for illustration of the 
present poem. 

arttjut anti tl)e 2tmg of Comtoall* 

j^ROM the same Manuscript, and hitherto inedited. It has no title, and the first 
* line has been cut away by the ignorant binder to whom the volume was 
intrusted, but both are supplied from the notice given of the ballad in the Disser 
tation prefixed to vol. iii. of the " Reliques" p. xxxvii. Dr. Percy has added in the 
margin of the MS. these words, " To the best of my remembrance, this was the first 
line, before the binder cut it." The poem is very imperfect, owing to the leaves 
having been half torn away to light fires (!) as the Bishop tells us, but I am bound 

NOTES. 357 

to add, previous to its coming into his possession. The story is so singular, that it 
is to be hoped an earlier and complete copy of it may yet be recovered. On no ac 
count perhaps is it more remarkable, than the fact of its close imitation of the fa 
mous gabs made by Charlemagne and his companions at the court of king Hugon, 
which are first met with in a romance of the twelfth century, published by M. 
Michel from a MS. in the British Museum, 12mo, Lond., 1836, and transferred at 
a later period to the prose romance of Galien Rethore, printed by Verard, fol. 1500, 
and often afterwards. In the absence of other evidence, it is to be presumed that 
the author of the ballad borrowed from the printed work, substituting Arthur for 
Charlemagne, Gawayne for Oliver, Tristram for Roland, etc., and embellishing his 
story by converting king Hugon's spy into a " lodly feend," by whose agency the gabs 
are accomplished. It is further worthy of notice, that the writer seems to regard 
Arthur as the sovereign of Little Britain, and alludes to an intrigue between the 
king of Cornwall and queen Guenever, which is nowhere, as far as I recollect, 
hinted at in the romances of the Round Table. 

P. 276, 1. 26. Sir Marramiles and Sir Tristeram. 

As four knights accompanied the king, a line would seem to be wanting here, 
containing the names of Sir Gawayne and Sir Bredbeddle. Of the remaining two, 
Sir Tristeram is sufficiently well known, but of Sir Marramiles I am unable to sup 
ply any information. 

P. 283, 1. 195. " Sayes, sleep you, wake you, noble King Arthur ?" 

This is a phrase which seems to have been popular at the end of the sixteenth 
century, and may, perhaps, mark the age of the ballad. See the song of Old Robin 
of Portingale, in Percy, iii. 49, edit. 1794 ; Ravenscroft's Pammelia, 4to, 1609, 
No. 30; and Scott's Border Minstrelsy, vol. i. p. 151, 8vo, 1803. It is alluded to 
by Shakspere in King Lear, Act. iii. Sc. 5, where Edgar, repeating some snatches 
of old ballads, says, 

Sleepest or wakest thou, jolly shepherd ? 

P. 284, 1. 210. The Grene knight. 

This is Sir Bredbeddle, who has subdued the fiend Burlow-beanie by means of 
the " litle booke," he carried about him. See a previous Note, p. 353. 

358 NOTES. 

^Marriage of >fr <&atoatne. 

THIS fragment is borrowed from the text of the Percy Manuscript, as given in 
the " Reliques of Ancient English Poetry" vol. iii. p. 350, edit. 1794. Dr. 
Percy supplied the deficiencies in a very ingenious manner, and inserted the ballad 
thus amended in the first edition of his collection, 8vo, 1764, and repeated it in all 
subsequent impressions ; but this mode of editing ancient poetry having justly been 
blamed by Ritson and Pinkerton, the Bishop in the fourth edition annexed the frag 
ment, " with all its defects, inaccuracies and errata," in order to show the state of 
the poem in the MS. Ritson reprinted the genuine and the amended texts in par 
allel columns in the Dissertation prefixed to his Metrical Romances, 8vo, 1802, 
p. ex, and the ballad in its improved form was introduced also by Lewis into his 
Tales of Wonder, vol. ii. p. 362, 8vo, 1802. The Bishop was of opinion that this 
poem was more ancient than the time of Chaucer, and that he borrowed from it his 
Wife of Bathe's tale (See Cambro-Briton, vol. i. p. 256, 8vo, 1820) ; and Sir Walter 
Scott in a letter to George Ellis writes, that the tale of Sir Gawayne's Foul Lady is 
originally Scaldic, as appears in the history of Hrolf Kraka, edited by Torfaeus, 
12mo, Havn. 1715, cap.vii. (Life, by Lockhart, vol.i. p. 334.) The passage itself 
is quoted from the Saga by Scott in his Border Minstrelsy, vol. ii. p. 140, in illus 
tration of the old Scotish ballad of King Henrie, which preserves very remarkably 
the legend of the Scandinavian monarch, Helgius. 

Warton says in a note to his " History of English Poetry ," vol. ii. p. 41, ed. 1824, 
" I must not forget here, that Sir Gawaine, one of Arthur's champions, is celebrated 
in a separate romance. Among Tanner's Manuscripts we have The Weddynge of 
Sir Gawaine, Numb. 455, Bibl. Bodl. It begins, Be ye blythe, and listeneth to 
the lyf of a lorde riche.' " It would have given me much pleasure to have included 
this romance in the present volume, but Warton's reference is erroneous, and 
although the Rev. Dr. Bandinel with the greatest courtesy undertook a minute and 
laborious search for the poem in question, it was without success. Warton's noto- 

NOTES. 359 

rious inaccuracy in matters of this sort forms a sad blot in his otherwise very useful 
and entertaining work, of which a critical edition is still much desiderated. 

P. 289, 1. 82. Tearne-wadling. 
See previous Note, in p. 330. 

P. 293, 1. 1 16. Sir Lancelot and Sir Steven bold. 

The name of the second of these champions does not occur in the Round Table 

Ibid. I. 120. Soe did Sir Banier and Sir Sore, 
Sir Garrett with them, soe gay. 

Banier is probably a mistake for Bedtter, the king's constable. Sir Bore is Bors 
de Gauves. (See previous Note, p. 313.) Sir Garett is Gareth or Gaheriet, the 
younger brother of Sir Gawayne ; and his adventures, under the surname of Beau- 
mayns, occupy an entire book, the seventh, in the Morte d 'Arthur, vol. i. pp. 186 
-24-5. He took the part of Lancelot against his brothers, but was accidentally killed 
by him on the occasion of the rescue of queen Guenever. Ibid. vol. ii. p. 403. 
Revenge for his loss prompted Sir Gawayne to induce king Arthur to cross the sea 
to attack Lancelot, which ultimately proved the destruction of the whole of the 
Table Ronde. Sir Walter Scott in a Note on Sir Tristrem, p. 379, ed. 1833, 
quotes a " romance of Sir Gaheret" in which the knight plays at chess with a beau 
tiful fairy, [Floribelle, a suivante of the fairy Morgana,] and is vanquished, but 
is afterwards liberated from his confinement by his cousin [brother] Gawayne, 
who wins the game by a move long afterwards called Vechec de Gauvain, and now 
Vechec du berger, mfooVs-mate. In reality there is no such romance, but the ad 
venture here alluded to occurs in an episodical tale of Gawayne and his three bro 
thers, analysed in the Bibliotheque des Romans, Juillet, 1777, pp. 87-122. I 
may here venture to correct another venial error of Scott, who in the same work, 
p. 416, quotes from Gower the lines, 

There was Tristrem, which was beloved 
With bele Isolde; and Lancelot 
Stode with Guenor, and Galahoie 
With his lady. 

Sir Walter argues, that Gower is here incorrect, since Galahaul or Galahad had 

360 NOTES. 

no paramour. But Gower is perfectly accurate, and alludes to GaUehault, king 
of the loingtaines islet or de oultre les marches, whose mistress was Malchault, lady 
in attendance on queen Guenever, and by whose instrumentality the intrigue of 
Lancelot with her mistress was brought about See the Roman de Lancelot, vol. i. 
ff. Ixxxiii-v, edit 1513. Scott confounds this Galkhault with Galaad, the imma 
culate son of Lancelot, who accomplished the adventure of the Sangreal. 




AA. Awntyrs of Arthure. AKC. Arthur and the King of Cornwall. C. Carle of Carlile. GC. Syre 
Gawene and the Carle of Carelyle. GG. Golagros and Gawane. GK. Syr Gawayn and the 
Grene Knyjt. Gr.K. The Grene Knight. J. Jeaste of Syr Gawayne. MG. Marriage of Sir 
Gawaine. TG. The Turke and Gowin. The numbers refer to the lines of each poem. Words 
of frequent occurrence have a limited number of references. Those to which an obelus is pre 
fixed appear to be irregular forms, or errors. 

fA, he, ec. 628. 

A, in, as A-SWOUNDING, in swooning, Gr.K. 

269. A-ROWE, in a row, c. 381. 
ABAID, delay, GG. 55, 311, 548. See BAID. 
ABANDONIT, p.p. brought under subjection, 

GG. 275. 

ABATAYLMENT, battlement, GK. 790. 
ABLOY, an exclamation used in hunting, ap- 

rently borrowed from the French, and 

equivalent to On! On! GK. 1174. 
ABOF, above, GK. 73, 112, 153. 
ABONE, above, GG. 579, Gr.K. 513. 
A-BONE, excellently, well, J. 354. In the 

form of i-bone it occurs in Lajamon and 

later poets, and is applied to animate or 

inanimate objects. 
ABOUEN, ABOWNE, above, GK. 2217. AA. 

xxxviii. 11. 


ABY, ABUY, to pay for, buy dear, and, in an 

oblique sense, atone for, suffer, c. 236, 264. 
ACHAUFED, p.t. warmed, GK. 883. 
ACHEUE, to obtain, arrive, GK. 1107, 1838. 

ACHEUED, p. t. 1081, 1857. See CHEFE. 
ACOLES, pr. t. embraces, GK. 1Q36. Aco- 

LEN, embrace, 2472. 
ADOUN, down, GK. 254. 
AFFERE, countenance, demeanour, GG. 707. 

See FEIR. 

AFFRAY, fear, GG. 958. See FRAY. 
AFYAUNCE, trust, GK. 642. 
AFTER, afterwards, GK. 218. 
f AGANE, probably a mistake for A GOME, a 

man, GG. 525. 

A-GAYN, towards, GC. 232. See AJAYN. 
AGHLICH, fearful, dreadful, GK. 136. 
A-GONNE, to go, GC. 497- 
A 3 



AT, ever, OK. 26, 73, 128, 167, 893. oo. 1 160. 
AY-QCBBB,AY-WHEBB, everywhere, OK. 599, 

629, 745, 800. 
AIB, previously, before, oo. 157, 606. See 


AIBB, A VERB, heir, AA. liii. 4. 
ATTHBB, AVTHIBB, either, OK. 841, 939, 

1307. AA. xxxix. 6. 
f AKBB, perhaps an error for UCH A, each, 

every, OK. 1421. 

t ALCB, also, likewise, OK. 2492. 
ALDER-TRUEST, truest of all, OK. I486. 
ALDBBBS, ancestors, OK. 95. 
ALOATB, every way, OK. 141, always, c. 58. 
AL-HAL-DAY, All-hallows day, 1 November, 

OK. 536. 
ALKIN, ALKYN, of all kind, (ealles cytmes. 

Sax.) oo. 461, 794. 
ALLYNS, altogether, GO. 207. 
ALMOUS-DEDIS, almsdeeds, AA.XX. 5. 
AL ONE, alone, OK. 735, 2155. AL HYM ONE, 
AL HIS ONE, by himself, 749, 1048. See 

A-LOSED, p.p. praised, OK. 1512. 
ALS. AI.SE, also, likewise, OK. 270, 720, 933, 
'1627, etc. oo. 1171, 1250; as, OK. 1067. 
AA.i.2, ft past. (MS. Douce generally reads 
As.) 00.945. 
ALSO, as, oc. 153. 

ALTHBR-GRATTBST, greatest of all, OK. 1441. 
ALUISCH, elvish, having preternatural power, 

OK. 681. 

AMNANT, pleasantly? OK. 806. 
A-MONGE, amidst, at intervals, oc. 437. c.220. 
AMONOEZ, amongst, OK. 1361. 
AN, on? OK. 1808. if, or.K. 338. 
AN-HYJTE,ANE HYJT, on high, oc. 356, 551. 
ANAI RMIT, p.p. armed, oo. 842. 
AN AM AYLD, p.p. enamelled, OK. 169. 
AND, if, OK. 1245, 1509, 1647. AA. xvi. 2. 
00.347- oc.189. j.423. or.K. 36. TG.31. 
ANE> one, OK. 223. 
ANE-BAK, aback, oo. 449, 987. 
A-NBLBDB, p. /. approached, OK. 723. 
ANEBDIS, pr. t. adheres, dwells with, oo. 4 10. 
ANOABDBZ, gen.c. arrogance ? OK. 681. The 

same word occurs as an adjective in the 
Scotish alliterative Romance of Alexander : 

Thire athila of Atenes, ther angard clerkis, 
Than reuerenst thai the riche seele, and red 
ouer the pistille. 

MS. Athm. 44, f. 40 b . 

It is possible that the word in both the 

above instances should be spelt with a u. 

See Jamieson, v. Ogart, and Roquefort's 

Glossaire, v. Angarde. 
ANIOVS, wearisome, fatiguing, GK. 535. 
ANLAS, pointed blade or spike, AA. xxx. 13, 

MS. D. The reading of the Line. MS. is 

a corruption. 

ANOTHER, otherwise, GK. 1268. 
ANTERUS, adventurous, GO. 393. 
APENDBS, APENDEZ, pr. t. appertains, be 
longs, OK. 623, 913. 

APEBT, openly, manifestly, GK. 154,2392. 
APPBRTLY, openly, AA. xix. 6. 
APPAREMENTIS, adornments? AA. xix. 5. 
ARE, ere, previously, GK. 239, 1632, 1891. 

AA. xxxi. 13. MS. D. oc. 197. See AIR, 


ARERED, p.p. retreated, GK. 1902. 
AREWEZ,ARWES,ARWEZ, arrows, GK. 1160, 

1455, 1460. 

ARN, are, OK. 280, 1094. 
ARSOUNEZ, ARSOUNZ, saddle-bows, GK. 

171, 602. 

AR;E, timid, fearful, GK. 241. 
AR;E, u6/. should wax timid, OK. 2301 . ARJEZ, 

pr. t. waxest timed, 2277. ARJED, p. t. 

waxed timid, 1463, 2271. 
As AY, n. the point in the breast of the buck, 

at which the hunter's knife was inserted, 

to make trial of the animal's fatness, GK. 

1328. See the Book of St. Alban's, and 

Boucher's Glossary, v. Assay, new edit. 
ASAY, to try, tempt, KG. 2362. 
ASCRYED, p. t. shouted, GK. 1153. Printed 

by Guest astryed, and explained opposed, in 

Hist. Engl. Rhythms, ii. 168. 
ASKEZ, ashes, GK. 2. 
ASOYLED, p. t. absolved, OB. 1883. 



ASPYE, to discover, OK. 1199. 

ASSAUT, assault, GK. 1. 

ASSWYTHE, quickly, GK. 1400. See SWITHE. 

ASTALIT, p. p. decked, GG. 63. 

ASTYT, suddenly, GK. 1210. See TIT. 

ASTONAIT, ASTONAYT, p. p. confounded, 
stunned, GG. 107, 575. 

AT, for, GK. 648; of, 703, (a modern Scoti- 
cism.) In Stevenson's Additions to Bou 
cher the line in GG. 1006 is quoted as an 
instance of the Northern use of the rela 
tive at for that ; but I regard it as a mis 
take of the scribe, since no other example 
of such a form occurs throughout the 

ATHEL, noble, good, GK. 5, 171, 241, 904, 
1654, 2466. See HATHEL. 

ATHER, either, GK. 1357. 

ATTLE, pr. t. aim, design, GK. 27. ATLED, 
p. t. 2263. See ETYLLEDE. 

ATTANIS, at once, GG. 985. 

AT-WAPED, p. p. escaped, GK. 1167- Ex 
plained by Guest, let fly at, Hist.Engl.Rh. 
ii. 169. The word occurs again in another 
of the poems by the same author in the 
Cotton MS. Nero A. x. f. 73 b . 

Thay stel out on a stylle nyjt, er any steuenrysed, 
&harde buries thurj the oste, er enmies hitwyste; 
Bot er thay at-wappe ne 0103! the wach wyth oute, 
Hi3e skelt watj the askry the skewes an vnder, etc. 

AUEN, AWEN, own, GK. 10, 293, 836. 

AUMAYL, enamel, GK. 236. 

AUNCIAN, aged, GK. 1001,2463. Usedsub- 

stantively, 948. 

GK. 27, 29, 2522. AA. i. 1. Iv. 13. AUN- 

TEREJ, pi. 2527. 

AUNTERED, p.p. ventured, GK. 1516. 
AUTHER, either, GK. 88, 702. AA. xvi. 3. 

MS. D. Pinkerton misprints this word 

anyes, which is explained by Mr. Guest 

A-VANTERS, portions of the nombles of a 

deer, which lay near the neck ; a term 

used in wood-craft, GK. 1342. 

Then dresse the nombles, fyrst that ye recke ; 
Downe the auauncers kerue, that cleuyth to the 

necke ; 

And down wyth the bolthrote put theym anone. 
Boke of St. Alban's, 1496, sign. d. iv. 

One croke of the nombles lyeth euermore 
Under the throte-bolle of the beest before, 
That callyd is auauncers, whoso can theym kenne. 
ib. sign. e. i. 


AA.xxiv.3. GG.339. Used substantively, 
man being understood, GG. 1194, 1283. 
AUYNANTIS, pi. 648. 

AUBNTAYLE, the open and moveable portion 
of the helmet which covered the mouth, for 
the purpose of respiration, GK . 608 . So in 
the alliterative Scotish romance of Morte 

He brayedez one a bacenett, burneschte of syluer , 
Thebeste that was in Basilic, wyth bordurs ryche ; 
The creste and the coronalle enclosed so faire, 
Wyth clasppes of clere golde, couched wyth stones ; 
The vesare, the aventaile, enarmede so faire, 
Voyde w* owttyne vice, w' wyndowes of syluer. 
MS. Line. A. 1. 17. f. 63. 

This term is frequently used in early wri 
ters for the whole front of the helmet, in 
cluding the visor, and much confusion has 
hence arisen. Consult Allou's paper Sur 
les Casques duMoyen Age, 4 me epoque, pub 
lished in the Memoires des Antiquaires de 
France, Nouv. Ser., tome i. pp. 161-191, 
8vo, 1835. It must be also remarked, 
that in the prose French romances of the 
Round Table, the ventaille is a distinct 
piece of armour, and put on before the 
helmet. See particularly Roman de Per. 
ceval, f. cxii, cxiv b , ed. 1530 ; Roman de 
Lancelot, vol. i. f. xlii. ed. 1513 ; Rom. de 
Meliadus, f. clxxi. ed. 1528 ; and Rom. de 
Merlin, vol. ii. f. cx b , ed. 1498. 

AUENTURUS, adventures, GK. 491. 

A-VYSE, AWYSE, to think, devise,GK.45, 1 389. 
AUYSED, p. t. viewed, observed, 771. 



AVOW. A-VOWE, VOW, Oath, AA.TVl. 11. <*. 

273.296. oc.518. AKC.22, 129, H7-,DOSese8.eo.262; demands. 

require*. 730. See AJT. 
A-WHARF. p.p. whirled round. OK. 2220. 
A-WOKDIRDB, p. p- astonUhed, AA. xxvi. 9- 
AxYD.p.f. "I"* 1 . oc.334. 


wards. OE. 815, 971; against. 1459. 1661, 

oc. 388, 478 ; opposite, 362. 
AJLBZ, fearless, OK. 2335. 
A|T, AJTE, p. /. owned, possessed, OK. 767, 

843,1775,1941. See Aw. 


BACHILBB, BACHILERE, bachelor, oo. 94, 


BACBNETT, BASNET, a light helmet, worn 
with or without a moveable front, AA. xxx. 
3. 00.601,844. 

BADE, BAID, p. /. abode, tarried, OK. 1699- 
AA.iv.l. 00.841; endured, persisted, 686, 
936. See BODE. 
BAY. round, OK. 967- 

BAY, BAYS, bay or baiting of a wild-boar, 
when attacked by dogs, OK. 1450, 1564, 

BAID. . delay, oo. 1349- See ABAID. 
HAVEN, pr. /. bay, bait, bark at, OK. 1909. 

BAYED, p. /. 1142, 1362, 1603. 
BAILL, BALE, harm, evil, grief, GK. 2041, 
2419. AA. xxiii. 4, xxv. 9- oo. 293, 716, 
1134. oc. 530. or.K. 222. c. 197,418. 
BALES, pJ.AA.viii. 12. 
BAINE.BAYN.BAYNE.BANB, prompt, ready, 
OK. 1092,2158. 00.1209. TO. 108. c.308. 
Used adverbially, oo. 74, 79, 921. See 

BAIK. boar, oo. 733,822. 
HA VST, p. t. was abashed, OK. 376. A word 
of no unusual occurrence, from the Fr. 
abaiuer. Stevenson quotes it incorrectly 
the bay tt, and then, without any authority 
converts baytt into a substantive, and ex 
plains it blow. On re-considering the pas 

sage, I think he will be convinced of his 
mistake. See Boucher, v. Baitt. 
BAYTHB, to grant, GK. 327. BAYTHE, BAY- 
THEN, pr. t. 1404, 1840. Stevenson is 
here again greatly in error. He prints the 
line, schal bay then thy bone, and interprets 
bay by obey! It is in defence of my own 
explanations that I feel obliged to notice 
these mistakes in a truly valuable work, 
which I still trust will be continued. 
BALE, belly, GK. 1333. In Stevenson's Add. 
to Boucher, this word is, I conceive, erro 
neously interpreted the scrotum. 
BALEFULLE, evil, noxious, AA. xvii. 3. 
BALEZ, bowels, GK. 1333. 
BALJE, ample, swelling, GK . 2032, 2172. Mr. 
Stevenson, however, explains it in the 
sense of plain, smooth. 
BAN, to curse, TG. 157. BANNE, BANNENE, 

pr.t. AA.vii. 11. MS. D. xlvi. 7- 
BANKERS, BANKOWRES, table-clothes, AA. 

xxvii. 4. MS. D. xxxv. 2. 
BANRENT, banneret, noble, GO. 207, 1335. 

BANRENTIS, pi. 5, 1274. 
BARAYNE, barren, applied to hinds not gra 
pi. used substantively, AA. iv. 2. 
BARBE, edge of an axe, GK.2310. BAR- 

BEZ, pi. points of arrows, 1457- 
BARBICAN, out-work or tower of a castle, 

GK. 793. 
BARBORANNE, barberry, a shrub, AA. vi. 6. 


BARCELETT, species of bow, AA. iii. 12, iv. 
1. See Stevenson's Add. to Boucher, v. 

BARE, mere, unconditional, GK. 277. In GK. 
1 141, it is applied to the motes or blasts of 
a horn, and seems to mean short, or with 
out rechate. It is used adverbially, 465. 
BARELY, unconditionally, certainly, GK.548. 
BARE-HEUEDIS, boars' heads, AA. xxx. 8. 


BARET, BARRAT, strife, contest, GK.21,353. 
2115 ; grief, GK. 752. AA. xxiii. 4. GG. 



BARFRAY, tower, GG. 774. By the mention 
of bells in the following line the connexion 
between this word and belfrey would seem 
to be established. See Stevenson's Add. 
to Boucher, in v. 

BARLAY, apparently a corruption of the 
French par loi, GK. 296. 

BARNE, child, AA. xxiv. 11. MS. D. Applied 
to Christ, xviii. 1. See BERNE. 

BARRED, p.p. striped diagonally, GK. 159, 
600. See Tyrwhitt's Notes on Chaucer, 
iv. 150, ed. 1822, and Warton'sHist.Engl. 
Poetr. ii. 213. Stevenson interprets it 
cross-chequered, but, I think, erroneously. 

BARRES, diagonal stripes, GK. 162. 

BARTYNIT, p. p. struck, battered, GG. 716. 
The Editor of the reprint of 1827 is mis 
taken in wishing to read Barkynit. 


BASTEL-ROUEZ, turreted or castellated roofs, 
GK. 799. 

BATE, debate, conflict, GK. 1461. 

BATED, p. t. abated, j. 88. 

BATOLLIT, p.p. imbattled, GG. 43. 

BAUDERYK, strap by which the shield was 
suspended round the neck, GK. 621 ; belt 
or lace, 2486. 

BAWE, bow of a saddle? GK. 435. 

BAWE-MEN, bowmen, GK. 1564. 

BE, by, GK. 652, 1216. 

BEAU, fair, GK. 1222. 

BE-CALLE, pr. t. require, challenge, AA. 
xxxii. 7- 

BE-COM, p. t. went, GK. 460. 

BEDDEZ, pr. t. bids, GK. 1374. BEDE, p. t. 
bade, 1437, 2090. 

BEDE, to proffer, GK. 374. EsDS.,pr. t. and 
imp. proffer, offer, 382, 2322. BEDE, 
BEDDE, p. t. 1824, 1834, 2248. AA.l. 8. 

nously? together? moreover? AA. i. 11, 
xxiv. 6. xxvi. 6. xxxvi. 4. xl. 9- GG. 29, 239, 
319,322. or. K. 230; forthwith? GC. 48. 
Consult Boucher's Glossary in v. with re 
gard to this difficult word. 

BEDIS, prayers, AA. xvi. 5. 

BEENE, are, TG. 22. 

BEFORNE, BYFORNE, before, GK. 1375, 1577, 

GO. 87. 

BEFT, p. p. beaten, GG. 870. 
BEGE, big, GC. 229. 
BEGGYNGE, mansion, GG. 159. SEE BIG- 

BEILD, BELDE, protection, shelter, GG. 445, 

BEILDING, place of shelter, GG. 32. 
BEILDIT,^./. imaged, formed, GG. 390,1146. 

See Jamieson, v. Beldit. I think he is 

mistaken in the explanation given under 

BEIRDIS, ladies, GG. 1146. See BIRDE, 

BEIRNIS, BEIRNYS, men, knights, GG. 204, 

686. See BERYN, BURN. 
BEIS, pr. t. is or will be, GG. 821. 
BEKIRE, to attack, act hostilely against, AA. 

iv. 2. 
BE-KNEw,stti/. should acknowledge, GK. 903. 

BE-KNOWEN, p.p. acknowledged, 2391. 

BELE-CHERE, good company or presence, 

GK. 1034. 
BELEF, badge? GK. 2486, 2517. Has this 

word any connexion with the Fr. belif, as 

it appears in the following passage ? " Et 

quel escu portiez vous ? Dame, je portay a 

la premiere foys ungescu blanc a une bande 

de belif vermeille." Rom. de Lancelot, i. 

f. Ixxxii. Elsewhere I find "une bende 

blanche de bellif." ib. i. f. cxxx. 
BELIFE, BE-LYFE, quickly, AA.xxxix. 3. GG. 

369, 622. See BILIUE. 
BELLE, bonfire, AA. xv. 6. 
BELLE, part of a lady's dress, perhaps the 

mantle, AA. xxix. 3. 
BEMYS, trumpets, GG. 467- 
BEMYT, p. p. summoned by sound of trum 
pet, GG. 746. 

BEN, prompt, ready, c. 302. See BAINE. 
BE-NAME, p. t. took, acquired, GG. 227. 
BENDE, band, bond, GK. 2505, 2517. 



BBNDB, p. t. and p. p. bent, OK. 305, 2224 ; 

put down, 2105. 
BBNB. to be, OK. 141. 

be, 1646. 

BBKB, well, fair, OK. 2402, 2475. oo. 601, 
688, 844, 1032. AA. vi. 6. xxix. 4. xxx. 3. 
lii. 8. In ever)* instance but one this 
word is coupled with/*/. It is impossi 
ble to interpret the majority of these pas 
sages by quickly, as Stevenson would have 
us. See his Additions to Boucher, in r. 

BENT, plain, field, so denominated from a 
coarse grass growing on open lands. OK. 
353, 1465, 1599, 2115, 2233, 2338. AA. 
xxvi. 5, xlix. 5. 00.156,637. c.68. 

BKR, beer, OK. 129- 

BBR-HKDIS, BERE-HEDES, boars' heads, AA. 
xxx. 8. MS. D. oo. 605. See BARE- 

BERBER, barberry, a shrub, AA. vi. 6. MS. D. 

BBR, BERK, j>. /. bare, carried, OK. 637, 1913. 

BERE, noise, AA. x. 8. 

beryls, precious stones, AA. xlvi. 2. GO. 
896, 952, 1086. 

JBERYNE, BERNE, man, knight, noble, OG. 
59,91,115. AA. x. 5. BERYNS, BEKMS, 
BKRNYS, pi. oo. 5, 378, 637. AA. iv. 1, 
xiv. 5, xxxviii. 9, xlix. 5. See BEIRNIS, 

BERN, barn, oc. 52. 

BBRJ, BER;E, mount, hill, OK. 2172, 2178. 

BESANDIS, BBBANTES, besants, AA. xxix. 4. 
oo. 1086. 

BBST, beast, animal, OK. 1436. AA. 553. 
BESTM, p/. 1377. 

BE-STAD, p. p. circumstanced, j. 428. 

BETE, to amend, better, AA. viii. 12. BETTE, 
p.p. applied to fire, OK. 1367. 

BBTTE, to beat, oc. 148, 158. BET, BETIT, 
p. t. oo. 626. 680, 989. BETEN, p. t. pi. 
OK. 1437. BETEX, BETIN, p. p. worked, 
embroidered (Fr. battu), OK . 78, 1833, 
2028. oo.317. 

BBCERAOE, drink, liquor, OK. 1112, 1409. 
From the first passage, and one in Fieri 

Plouhman, it would seem to have been 
the custom to drink, when making a bar 

BEUEREN, flowing? AA. xxviii. 6. MS. D. 
The Lincoln MS. reads burely. Jamieson 
seems inclined to explain it shaking, but I 
think he is wrong. The word occurs again 
in the alliterative Marie Arthur. 

The bolde kynge is inabarge,anda-bowtherowes, 
Alle bare-heuedefor besye, withfou*rynlokkes. 
MS. Line. A. 1. 17./. 91". 

BEUER-HWED, color of a beaver? OK. 845. 
Is there any connexion with the preceding 

BEWES, BBWIS, boughs, AA. iii. 13, x. 10. 
OG. 468. 

BY-BLED, p.p. made bloody, AA. xliv. 11. 

BY-CLAGOEDE, p. p. besmeared, AA. ix. 2. 

BYCOMES, pr.t. befits, OK. 471. BICOME, 
p. t. became, 6. 

BIDE, BYDE, BYDEN, to abide, endure, OK. 
374, 520, 1582, 2041. oo. 1037- BIDES, 
BYDEZ, t. abides, awaits, stays, 
OK. 376. AA. iii. 3, x. 5, xxv. 9. 


BIGES, pr. t. builds, GK. 9. BIGGED, BYG- 
OED, BYOGEDE, p. p. inhabited, built, 20. 
AA. vi. 6, lii. 8. 

BIGGING, mansion, c.109. SeeBEOGYNGE. 

BIQLY.BYGLY, loudly, OK. 1141 ; deeply, se 
verely, 1162 ; boldly, 1584 ; strongly, oo. 
43. The second of these instances is in 
terpreted hugely by Guest, Hist. Engl. Rh. 
ii. 167, but under a misapplication. 

BIGRAUEN, p. p. engraved, OK. 216. 

BI-ORYPTE, p. t. grasped, OK. 214. 

BIHALDEN, BIHOLDE, p. p. indebted, be 
holden, OK. 1547, 1842. 

BY-HODE, p. t. behoued, GK. 717- 

BIKE, building, GO. 406. 

BYKENNEN, pr. t. commend, GK. 1307. Bi- 
KENDE, p. t. 596, 1982. See Stevenson's 
Add. to Boucher, v. Bekenne, which is, 
however, far from satisfactory as to the 



BI-KNOWE, Bi-KNOWEZ,2>r.#. acknowledge, 

acknowledges, GK. 2385, 2495. See BE- 


BYLED, p. t. boiled, GK. 2082. 
BY-LEUYS, pr. t. remains, AA. vi. 4. BY- 

LEUEDE, p.p. left, xxii. 2. 
BILIUE, BILYUE, BY- LYUE, quickly, GK. 132, 

1128, 1136, 1171, 1715. AA. xxxvii. 9. 


BYNKE, bench, table, GG. 204. 
BIRDS, BYRD, lady, AA.iii.3,xiii.2. GG.351. 

BIRDIS, BYHDIS, pi. AA. xii. 2,xiv.5,xxix. 

10. GG. 134. See BEIRDIS, BURDE. 
BYRE, shed, cowhouse, GG. 32. 
BIRKIN, birchen, GG. 31. 
BIRNAND, burning, GG. 78. 
B i RNY, cuirass, coat of mail,GG. 94, 199,567- 

BIRNEIS, EiHNYS,pl. 680, 688, 757, 844. 

In the last passage fheplur. seems written 

by error for the sing. See BRENE, BRUNY. 
BYRSIT, p.p. bruised, GG.870. 
BYSE, white or grey, GC. 609. 
BISEMEZ, pr. t. befits, GK. 1612, 2191. Bi- 

SEMED, p. t. befitted, became, 622, 2035. 
BISIDES, BISYDEZ, on the side, GK. 76, 856. 
BISIED, p. t. agitated, GK. 89. 
BISOJT, p. t. besought, GK. 96. 
BITAND, biting, sharp, GG. 934. 
BITIDDE, BY-TYD, BY-TYDE,^. t. befell, GK. 

2522. AA. i. l,lv. 13. 
BITTE, BYTTE, the steel part of an axe, GK. 

2224, 2310. 

BI-WYLED, p.p. beguiled, GK. 2425. 
BYJT, hollow, cavity, GK. 1341, 1349. 
BLAN, p. t. caused to cease, GG. 1210. See 


BLANCHART, white (horse), GG. 556. 
BLANDER./), intermixed, blended, GK. 1205, 


BLASOUN, shield of arms, GK. 828. 
BLAUING, blowing, GG. 467. Pinkerton 

chose to turn the u into a v, and Jamieson 

uselessly perpetuates the blunder. 
BLAUNNER, a species of fur? GK. 155, 573, 

856, 1931. Compare Ly beaus Disconus, 

1. 116. It is left unexplained by Ritson, 

and not found in any other Glossary con 

BLE, BLEE, hue, color, complexion, AA.xvii. 
4. GG. 134, 212, 316, 895, 1016. GC.427. 
MG. 4. BLEBS, pi. features, AA. li. 9. 

BLE AUNT, species of rich cloth or stuff, also 
a robe or mantle, GK. 879, 1928. Sir W. 
Scott's error in explaining this word in Sir 
Tristrem, is adopted in Jamieson's Diet. 
See the latter work in v. Bland, Roque 
fort's Glossary, v. Bliaux, and Michel's 
Charlemagne, v. Blianz. 

BLED, p. p. interpreted by Jamieson sprung, 
GG. 608 ; but may, perhaps, be a misprint 
for bred. 

BLEDAND, bleeding, GG. 870. 

BLENCHED,/?. Preceded, drew back,GK. 1715. 

BLENDED, p. t. blinded, GK. 2419. 

BLENDIS, pr. t. mingles, curdles, AA. xvii. 4. 
BLENDE, BLENT, p. t. and p. p. mingled, 
blended, GK. 1361, 1610, 2371. GG. 68, 
1134. AKC. 274. Jamieson is mistaken in 
his interpretation of Blent. 

BLENK, to shine, GK. 2315. BLENKED, 
BLENKET, BLENKIT,/). t. shone, 799; ap 
peared, looked, AA. xlii. 4. GG. 74. 

BLYCANDE, BLYKKANDE, shining, glittering, 
GK. 305, 2485. 

BLYKKED, p. t. shone, glistened, GK. 429. 

BLYNDIT, p. p. blended, GG. 896. See 

BLINN, BLYNNE, to stop, delay, GC. 358. 
c. 471. BLYNNE, imp. cease, GK. 2322. 

BLYSSE, fortune, prosperity, GK. 18. 

BLYTHE, gay, bright, GK. 155. 

BLONK, BLONKE, steed, GK. 434, 785, 1581, 
AA. iii. 3, xliii. 2, xliv. 4. GG. 551, 560. 
1128,1693. AA.xxxix. 5. GG. 306, 754. 

BLUBRED, p. t. foamed, blubbered; applied 
to a stream of water, GK. 2174. 

BLUNDER, confusion, trouble, GK. 18. 

BLUNK, steed, GK. 440. See BLONK. 

BLUNKET, a white stuff, AA. xxix. 3. MS. D. 

3 B 



BLUSCH. . look. OK. 520. 

BLVBCHED, BLUSHED, p.p. looked, OK. 650, 

793. or.K.388. 
BLUMCHANDE, blushing, glittering, OK. 


BLW. BLWB, p. /. blew, OK. 1141, 1362. 

BLWE, blue, OK. 1928. 

BOBBADNCB. boast, OK. 9. 

BOOB, bidding, proffer. OK. 852, 1824. 

BOOB, p.t. abode, OK. 785, 1564. See BADE. 

Bo DEN, p. p. prayed, asked, OK. 327. 

BOID-WORD, message, oo. 55, 123, 171- 

BOUT, threat, oo. 436. 

BOKE-LBRED, p. p. book-learned, 3. 
MS. D. 

BOKIT, p. t. vomited, GO. 571 > 

BOLDB, used substantively, men being under 
stood, OK. 21. 

HOLE, trunk of a tree, OK. 766. 

BOLLB, bowl, cup, oc. 289- BoLLY8,p/.622. 

BOLNB, pr. t. swell, OK. 5 12. 

BONCIIBF, gaiety? OK. 1764. 

BONE, BOONB, prayer, request, OK. 327. 
or.K. 175, 522. 

BONE-HOSTEL, lodging, OK. 776. 
,BONK, bank, height, OK. 511, 700, 710, 785, 
1571. BONKKES, BONKKBZ, pi. 14, 1562, 
2077. Jamieson prints the plural from 
bo*ke, and explains it solitudes ! ! 

fBooMB, perhaps a mistake for GOOME, 
man, AKC. 119. 

BOBD.BORDE, BURD, BuRDE, table, OK. 481. 
AA. xxxv. 7. 00.1164. TO. 83, 165. To 
begin thrburd or tabull, OK. 11 2. oo. 1155. 
oc. 359- See Warton's Hist. Engl. Poetr. 
ii. 5. BORDS, pi. c. 206. 

BORDB, border, OK. 610. BOBDES, pi. 159. 

BOEDEZ, jests? OK. 1Q54. See BOURDB. 

BOBDOUR, apparently a piece of armour at 
tached to the cuirass, oo. 938, 977. 

BORBLTCH. burly, huge, strong, OK. 766, 
2148, 2224. See BURELY. 

BORNB. bourn, stream, OK. 731.1570,2174. 

BORNTST, BVRNYST, p. p. burnished, OK. 
212. 582. 

BORJ, BoR)E, BUR?, BVRJE. burgh, city, 

castle, OK. 2, 9, 259, 843, 1092. BUROHES, 

pi. AA. lii. 7. 

BOSTFVLLE, boasting, oc. 169. 
BOSTLYE, boasting, c. 115. 
BOT, BOT IF, unless, OK. 1782. oo. 268, 

716, 1300. 
BOT, BOTE, p.t. bit, wounded, OK. 426, 1 162, 

1562; ate, AA.xliii.2. The third of these 

instances is interpreted erroneously by 

Mr. Guest beat. 
BOTE, BUTE, salvation, remedy, safety, AA. 

xliii. 3. oo. 39, 935. j. 143, 176. 
MOT M KM, bottom, OK. 2145. 
BOUN, BOUNE, BOWNB, ready, prompt, 

obedient, OK. 548, 852, 1311, 1693. AA. 

xxii. 3. oo. 51, 330, 813. TO. 9, 49; 

promptly, oc. 523. 
BOUNE, mp. go, GO. 1184. BOUNIT,BOWNYT, 

p.t. went, 59,455,1348. 
BOUR, BOURB, BOWER, chamber, OK. 853, 

1519. 00.330. oc.4. AKC. 89. 
BOURDE, sport, joke, GK. 1409. BOURDEZ, 

pi. 1212. See BORDEZ. 
BOURDED, p. t. joked, OK. 1217. 
BOUHDYNG, joke, sport, OK. 1404. 
BOURDOURE, circlet round the helmet, AA. 

xxx. 4. BOURDURES, /'/. \1 vi. 2. 
BOUSVM, BOWSUM, obedient, affable, GO. 


BOUT, BOUTE, without, GK. 361, 1285,1444. 
BOWLER, boiler? TO. 219. 
BOJE, to move, rise, go, GK. 344, 1220. 

Hou:s, BOJEN, pr. t. 434, 1311, 2077, 

2178. BOJED,^./. 481,550, 1189, 2524. 
Bo3EZ, boughs, OK. 765, 2077. 
BRA, an acclivity, GG. 1021. 
BRACE, armour for the arms, GK. 582. See 


BRACE, to embrace, /. 3. 
BRACHES, BRACHEZ, hounds, GK. 1142, 

1563, 1610. 

BRACUETBS, hounds, OK. 1603. 
BRAD, p.t. and p.p. roasted, OK. 891. AA. 

xxvii.4. MS. D. 
BRADDE, p. t. extended, GK. 1928. 



BRACING, boasting, GO. 467- 
BRAY, good, bold, GK. 1909. 
BRAY, imp. throw, TG. 191. 
BRAYDEN,P.P. embroidered, GK. 220, 1833. 


GK. 621, 1584, 1609, 1901. AA.X.5.MS.D. 


BRAYDE, BRAYDIT, p. t. started, leapt, 

GK.429. GG. 921. Gr.K. 194; turned, GK. 

440. GG. 79; cast, threw, GK. 2377; drew, 

GO. 757, 867. BRAIDE, BRAYDEN,P.#.^?. 

drew, GK. 1339- AA. xxxv. 7- MS. D. 

BRAYDE, p.p. drawn, thrown, GK. 2069. 
BRAYEN, pr. cry, as deer, GK. 1163. 
BRAYN, BRAYN-WOD, mad, violent, GK. 286, 

1461, 1580. 

BRAISSIT, p.p. inclosed, GO. 844. 
BRAIST, p. t. burst,. GG. 754. See BHIST. 
BRAITHLY, forcibly, violently, GG. 462, 626, 

641, 716, 870, 1134. 
f BRAKE, probably an errorforBLAKE, black, 

AA. xxx. 8. MS. D. 


BRANDES, pi. AA. xxxix. 10. See BROND. 
BRANDENE,P.P. roasted, AA. xxvii.4. MS.D. 

xxxv. 2. MS. D. 
BRASSE, explained by Mr. Guest gledes, but 

I know not on what authority, AA. xv. 6. 
BRATHERIS, vambraces, armour for the arms, 

GG. 994. " Item, bracheres knet to the 

shuldres of the cuyrie." MS. Harl. 6149, 

f. 46, where the original French text has 

BRAUDED, p p. embroidered, AA. xxix. 4. 

MS. D. It has been printed inadvertently 

BRANDED, as in Pinkerton, Laing, and 

Jamieson, which is interpreted bordered 

by the latter. 
^BRATJDURE, apparently an error, AA. xxx. 

4. MS. D. Jamieson prints it Brandur. 

BRAWDEN, p.p. woven, GK. 177, 580. See 

BRA WEN, BRAWNE, brawn or flesh of a 

wild-boar, GK. 1611, 1631. 


BRAWNDECHE, p. t. brandished, AA. x. 5. 

BREAD, BREDE, breadth, AA.xlv. 13. c. 183. 

BREAKE, to cut up the deer; a hunting term, 
c. 20. BREK, p. t. GK. 1333. BREKEN, 
p. brake, 1564. 

BREDDEN,P. ./>/. were bred, flourished, GK.2 1 . 

BREDEZ, bounds, limits, GK. 2071. 

BREM, BREME, fierce, bold, GK. 1142, 1155, 
1580, 2200 ; loud, shrill, 1601 ; rugged, 
2145. See BRYM. 

quickly? GK. 779, 781 ; fiercely, boldly, 
509, 1598, 2233, 2319. 

BREN, BRENN, to burn, Gr.K. 252. TG. 163. 
BRENNEZ, pr. t. GK. 1609. BRENDE, 
BRENNED, BRENT, p. t. and p. p. 2, 195, 
832, 875, 2165. AA. xxix. 4. MS. D. 

BRENE, BRYNE, burny, cuirass, GK. 580. MS. D. xxxviii.4.MS. D. xli.7. 
BRENES, BRENYES,P?.AA. xxx. 3, xliv. 11. 

BRENING, burning, c. 181. 

fBRENNE, an error probably for BREME, 
TG. 36. 

BREED, surface of the earth, GG. 1084. 

BRESED, p.p. broken? GK.305. 

BRETH, rage, anger, GG. 571. See BHITH. 

BRETHER, brethren, GK. 39. 

BRETYNIT, p. t. cut down, GG. 468. See 

BREUE, to tell, inform, speak, GK. 1393, 
1488. BREUED, BREVIT, p.p. told, es 
teemed, accounted, GG. 281, 417, 465 ; 
marked, GK. 1436 ; written, 2521. In the 
old edition of GO. the word is misprinted 
beevit, which is repeated by Pinkerton and 
Jamieson, and the latter endeavours, as 
usual, to find an etymon, but is very wide 
of the mark. 

BREWE, p.p. brewed, made, AA. xlvi. 7. 

BRYDDES, BRYDDEZ, birds, GK. 166, 509, 746. 

BRYM, loud, shrill, GG. 523, 534 ; fierce, 
cruel, 733, 822. See BREM. 

BRYMME,flood,river,GK.2l72. BRIMES, pi. 
seas, waters, or.K. 288. 

B 2 




BRYIMLY, fiercely, o. 687. See BRBME. 

BRIXT. BBYWT.P. /. and p.p. burnt, refined, 

AA.XTYU. 4. 00.317; flashed, 769. See 

BRUT, to burst, GO. 64 1 . BHIST. p. t. 306. 

BRITH, wrath, contention, oo. 125. See 

BRITNBZ, pr. /. breaks, cuts, OK. 1611. 

BRITNED, BRITTBNED, p. t. and p. p. 

broke or cut in pieces, 2, 680, 1 339- See 


BROCHB, spit, oo. 80. 
BROCHES, pr. /. spur, AA. xxxix. 5. BRO- 

CHED,BROCHIT,P. /. spurred, AA. xxxix. 5. 

MS. D. xliv. 4. 00. 306, 754. 
BROKBTBB, torches, tapers, AA.XXXV. 9. 
BRONCHBD, p. t. pierced, AA. xlv. 5. 
BROXDB, BRONT, sword, OK. 561, 588,828, 

1584. AA.xliv.8. BRONDES, pf.AA.xliv.9. 
BRONDEZ, embers, OK. 2. 
BROTHE, angry, OK. 2233. 
BROTHELT, angrily, violently, OK. 2377. 
BROTHER-HEDE, brotherhood, OK. 2516. 
BROUN, used elliptically for the brown deer, 

OE. 1162. Mr. Guest is greatly mistaken 

in interpreting it branches. 
BROWE, brow, OK. 1457. BHOJES, BROJEZ, 

pi. 305, 961. 
BRUNY, cuirass, GK. 861, 2012, 2018. See 


BRUSTEN./J. t. burst, OK. 1166. See BRIST. 
BCB, fair? ARC. 65, 67. 
BVLLBRAND, weltering, GO. 716, 1016. 
BULT, p. /. built, dwelt, OK. 25. 
BUR, blow, OK. 290, 374, 548, 2322 ; force, 

violence, 2261. See also the Glossary to 

William and the Werwolf, v. Bere, and 

Boucher, v. Birr. 
BURD, see BORD. 
IK-RUE, lady, OK. 613, 752, 961. AA . xjij. 2t 

MS. D. BCRDES, BURDEZ, pi. OK. 942, 

1232, 1373. See BIRDB, BEIRDIS. 
BURDB, p. /. ought, behoved, OK. 2278, 

2428. Hence may be corrected the inter- 

pretation of Birde in the Glossary to 
Havelok, 1. 2761. Cf. also Jamieson, vv. 
liyrd ami Boot. 

BUREDBLY, forcibly? AA. xlvii. 11. MS. D. 
The Line. MS. reads noyftly. 

huge, big, AA. xvi. 8, xxviii. 6, xxx.8, xli. 8, 
xlii.4. 00.317,551,934. Used substan- 
tively, man being understood, AA. 1. 8. 

BURLOKBST, biggest, strongest, AA. xliii. 2. 

BURN, BURNE, man, knight, noble, OK. 20, 
73, 337, etc. AA. iii. 3. MS. D. xlii. 4. 
or.K.88. TO. 12. BURNBS, gen. OK. 1616. 
BURNES, BURNBZ, pi. OK. 259, 272, 481. 
AA. xxxviii. 9. MS. D. xlvi. 7- See BEIR- 

BUSE, pr. /. behoves, AA. xxv. 3. SeeBuROE. 

BUSK, to array, OK. 1220. BUSK, imp. pre 
pare, 2248, 2284. BUSKES, BUSKKEZ, 
pr. t. goes, 1136, 1448, 2476 ; arrays, AA. 
xxxviii. 4. MS. D. BUSKEN, pr. t. pi. pre 
pare, OK. 509, 1128. BUSKED, BUSKIT, 
BUSKYDE, p. /. and p. p. went, 1411. AA. 
xliv. 8. oo. 204, 304, 548 ; prepared, GK . 
1693. oc. 48. TO. 9. This verb generally 
implies motion with a degree of haste. 

BUSK, bush, GK. 182. BUSKBZ, pi. 1437. 

BUSY, to be active, OK. 1066. 

BuT,without,oo.35,98, 190. BUT, BUT AND, 
unless, oc. 522. j. 32. 

BUTE, see BOTE. 


CACH, to catch, take, acquire, OK. 133 ; to 
go, 1794. CACHEZ, KACHEZ, pr. t. 368, 

CACHERES, hunters, GK. 1139. 

CAHBURE, hooked, oc. 251. 

CAN, pr. t. know, knows, oc. 193, 279. c. 
268. CANNYST, knowest, oc. 314. 

CAN, is extensively used as an auxiliary before 
verbs in the infinitive mood, to express a 
past tense, and is frequently, particularly 
in poems of later date, supplied by yun, 
as an equivalent, as CAN ENCLYNE, inclined. 



GK.340. CAN PAYNE, pained, 1042. CAN 
REMOVE, removed, GG. 14. CAN FANG, 
took, 554. CAN DAW, dawned, 609. CAN 
POUND, went, 884,933. CAN FARE, CAN 
GOE,went,Gr.K. 371, 506. CANN BEGINN, 
begun, c.47l. CAN DRAW, drew, MG. 19- 
See CON. 

CANEL-BONE, collar-bone, AA. xl. 12. 

CANT, strong, GO. 334. 

CANTELL, CANTELLE, corner, angle, AA. xli. 
1. GG. 937. 

CAPADOS, hood or close cap, from the Fr. 
cap-h-dos, GK. 186, 572. 

CAPLE, horse, GK. 2175. 

CARANDE, caring, anxious, GK. 674, 750. 

CARE, grief, concern, GK. 1979, 2379- 

CARF, p. t. carved, AA. xlvii. 5. 

CARIAND, going, journeying. GG. 611. See 

CARNELEZ, battlements, embrasures, GK. 

CARP, speech, conversation, GK. 307, 1013. 

CARP, KARP, to say, tell, speak, GK. 263, 
696,704. c. 128. CARPIS, CARPPEZ,P\ t. 
GK. 377, 1979. AA. xxviii. 9,xxxii.6. CAR 
PED, CARPIT, p. t. GK. 1088. AA. 1. 11. 
MS. D. GG.46, 92. 

CARY, to go, GG. 1098, 1332. CARYEZ, 
CARYIS, pr. t. GK. 734. GG. 366, 728. 
CARYS,CAYREZ,I>K/).GK. 2120. GG. 1249. 
CARYIT, p. t. 873. 

CASAR, KAYSERE, emperor, AA. xxxii. 7. GG. 

CASSIN, p.p. cast, GG. 1108. 

CAST, to speak, address, GK. 249. CAST, 
pr. t. contrive, GG. 323. 

CASTE, stratagem, AA. xlviii. 2. CASTES, 
pi. actions or wiles, GK. 1295. 

CAUELOUNZ, disputes? GK. 683. Perhaps 
a mistake forCAUELACiouNZ. Cf. 1. 2275. 

CEMMED, p.p. folded, twisted, GK. 188. 

CERCLE, circle round the helmet, GK. 615. 

CERKELYTT, p.p. encircled, AA. x. 3. 

CHACELET, CHASSELETT, small tower or 
castle ? AA. xxxviii. 11. 

CHAFFER, merchandise, GK. 1647, 1939- 

CHAFTIS, chops, jaws, AA. xi. 2. 

CHAIP, pr. t. escape, GG. 279- 

CHALUS, jowls, cheeks, AA. xi. 2, the read 
ing of MS. D. as an equivalent for chaftis. 
Jamieson's singular blunder in explaining 
this word will be noticed under CHOLLE. 

CHARG, matter, GK. 1940. 

CHARGEAUNT, dangerous ? GK. 1604. 

CHARRE, pr. t. return, GK. 1678. CHAR 
RED, p. t. led, turned, 850, 1143. 

CHARRES, pi. business, task, GK. 1674. 

CHASTE, chastity, AA. xx. 5. MS. D. 

CHAUFE,CHAWFFENE, to warm, AA.xxxv.4. 

CHAUNCELY, accidentally, GK. 778. 

CHAUNTRE, religious service, GK. 63. 

CHEFE, upper part? AA. ix. 10. 

CHEFE, CHEIF, CHEUE, to obtain, GK. 1271- 
AA. xxi. 9. GG. 1193; to arrive, GK. 1676. 
CHEUED, p. t. obtained, GK. 1390. See 


CHEFLY, CHEUELY, speedily? GK. 850, 883, 
978, 1940. 

CHEK, fortune, GK. 1107, 1857. CHEKKE, 
ill fortune ? 2195. 

CHELDEZ, shields of a boar, GK. 1611. 

CHEMNE, chimney, GK. 978. 

CHEPE, CHEPEZ, bargain, terms of buying 
and selling, or goods sold, GK. 1939, 1940, 

CHEPEN, to bargain, GK. 1271- 

CHER, CHERE, countenance, spirits, beha 
viour, GK. 562, 711, 883, 1745, 2169, 
2496 ; entertainment, 1259. AA. x. 6. 

CHERE, chair, oc.403. 

CHES, p. t. saw, beheld, GK. 798, 946. 

f CHEUARONE, chanfron, armour for a 
horse's head, AA. xxx. 10. 

SAUNCE, booty, gain, GK. 1390, 1406, 
1678, 1939. 

CHILD-GERED, p. p. of childish manners, 
GK. 86. 

CHOLLE, jowl, jaws, AA. ix. 9. xi. 2. The 
second of these passages has occasioned 
Jamieson to make a very ridiculous mis 
take. He says cholle and chalus are birds, 



and then explains chyme, the chin, by 
oo*/.'.' The reading of the Lincoln MS. 
at once shows the fallacy and folly of such 
an interpretation. 
CHORLE. churl, OK. 2107. 
CHYLDER. children. OK. 280. 
CHYMBLED. p.p. folded ? OK. 958. 
CLAD, p.p. covered, OK, 885. 
CLAIP, p. t. clove, oo. 937. 
CLAMBKRANDE, clustering, OK. 1722. 
CLAMBBBD, p.p. clustered, joined together, 

ax. 801. 

CLANLT, wholly, OK. 393. 
CLANNES, purity, chastity, OK. 653. 
CLATEHANDE, clattering, bubbling, GK. 731. 
CLATTERED, p.p. resounded, OK. 1722. 
CLAUOHT, p. t. caught hold of hastily, 

clutched, oo. 82. 

CLEF, p. t. cleaved, AA. xl. 13,xli. 1. 
fCtEYNO, probably a mistake of the scribe 
furCLKTHVNGE, clothing, AA.X. 2. MS.D. 
Jamieson trifles with the word in his usual 

CLEIH, CLEB, CLEHE, fine, fair, bright, beau 
tiful, noble, OK. 631, 942, 954, 1489. AA. 
xxx. 2. MS. D. OG. 53, 366, 672, 747, 
. 1157. oc.507. or.K.326. 
tCLEiRLY, for CLEIH, GG. 1332. 
CLBKIS, pr. t. strikes or seizes, AA. xlviii. 7. 
CLBNE, fair, OK. 163. AA. vi. 2; wholly, GK. 

1298. See CLANLT. /. contracts or causes to shrink 
with cold, OK. 505, 2078. CI.ENGED,;>. /. 

CLEPES, pr. t. calls, GK. 1310. 
CLKRGYE, erudition, OK. 2447. 
C LEWES, cliffs, AA. x. 12, xu. 7.MS.D.reads 
clown, which Jamieson explains a hollow 
betwctn two hillt. 
CLIPPES, eclipse, AA. viii. 3. 
fCLOLLE, an error of MS. D. for CHOLLE, 
AA. ix. 10. Jamieson here again ia sadly 
at fault 

CLOM BEN, p. t. climbed, OK. 2078. 
CLOUT, blow, oc. 323. c. 234, 260. See 

CLOWIS, nails, splinters, GG. 683, 942. 


92, 104. 
Con, p. t. bought, GO. 1057. 

COPLY, speedily? OK. 2011. 

COLD, p. t. of CAN, knew, c. 41. AKC. 195. 
See CON. 

COLBN, to cool, assuage, GK. 1253. 

COLERE, collar, AA. xlviii. 7. 

COLLAINE, COLLBN, Cologne, AKC. 164, 168, 
176. Swords manufactured here seem to 
have been in repute. 

COM, COME, COMBN, p. t. came, GK. 824, 
942,1004. GC. 494. 

fCoMAUNDEZ, imp. commend, OK. 2411. 

COME, coming, arrival, GO. 161. 

COMFORT, p.t. comforted, cr.K. 229- See 
Gloss, to Will, and Werwolf, in v. 

COMLY, COMLYCH, CUMLY, comely, fair, 
OK. 469, 539. GG. 1057. Used substan- 
tively,man being understood,GK. 674,1755. 
Used adverbially, 648, 1307, 1629, 1794. 

COMLYLY, courteously, GK. 974, 1118, 1389. 

COMLOKER, comelier, GK. 869. COMLOK- 
EST, sup. 52, 81, 767- 

COM'NYK, communing, discourse, AKC. 122. 

COMPAS, form, stature, GK. 944. 

CON, CONNE, can, GK. 2455. AA.xli.5, xliii. 
4. CONNEZ, pr.t. knows, GK. 1267, 1483. 
could, knew, 45, 1125, 1139, 1389, I486. 
GG. 67, 920. GC. 85. COUTH, COUTHE, p.p. 
known, GK. 1490 ; skilled, GG. 376. See 

CON, CONNE, pr. t. COLD, COUTH, p. t. 
used as an auxiliary before verbs to ex 
press a past tense, as Cox STUDIE, studied, 
GK. 230. CON ANSWARE, answered, 274. 
CON ROUN, communed, 362. CON FBLDE, 
folded, 841 . CON NYME, took, 993. CON 
LETE, looked, 1206. CONNE FALLE, fell, 
AA. vi. 7. MS. D. CONNE CALL, called, xi. 
3, (in both which instances the Line. MS. 
reads gunne.) CONNE RYDE, rode, GC. 
65. CON STAND, stood, or.K. 471. COLD 
FLING, flung, MG. 89- COUTH HINT, re- 



ceived, GO. 674. COUTH HEW, hewed, 
struck, 962. COUTH REHETE, cheered, 
1158. COUTH FORBERE, forbore, 1200. 
See CAN. 

CONABLE, famous, or accomplished, GK. 2450. 

CONQUERS, conquest, GO. 1251. 


ven ? AA. xxix. 6. 

CONUENABILL, befitting, GO. 363. 

sance, GG. 488, 1057. 

COPILLES, couples of dogs, AA. iv. 3. 

COPROUNES, capitals ? GK. 797. " Coperum, 
capitellum," Prompt. Parv. See quota 
tion under ENBANED. 

CORBELES, gen. raven's, GK. 1355. With 
regard to the fee, see Scott's Notes on Sir 
Tristrem, p. 388, ed. 1833. 

CORS, body, GK. 1297. 


467, 539. 


247, 263, 1300. 

CORTAYSLY, courteously, GK. 775, 903. 

CORTYNES, curtains, GK. 854. 

CORUON, p. p. carven, GK. 797- 

COSSE, kiss, GK. 1300. COSSES, COSSEZ, 
pi. 2351, 2360. 

COST, manner, business, GK. 546. COSTES, 
CosTEZ,j3^.manners, qualities, virtues, 944, 
1272, 1483, 1849, 2360, 2495. Hence 
may be interpreted Cust, in the Owl and 
Nightingale, which in the Glossary to that 
poem is left without explanation. 

COST, side, AA. xlvii. 5. COSTES, pi. ways? 
GK. 750. 

COSTEZ, pr. t. coasts ? GK. 1696. 

COTHE, p. t. quoth, GK. 776. 

COUDE, chrysom-cloth atbaptism, AA. xviii.3. 


COUNDUE, to conduct, guide, GK. 1972. 

COUNDUTES, songs, (Fr. conduis, cantique,) 
GK. 1655. The same word occurs in the 
poem of the Owl and Nightingale, 1. 483, 
which is not explained by the editor. 

COUNTENAUNCE, CUStom, GK. 100, 1490. 

COUNTIR, to encounter, GG. 798. CONTIHS, 

pr. #.815. 

COUNTIRPAS, counterpart, like, GG. 1212. 
COURCHEFES, head-covers, caps, AA.xxix.8. 
COUTHLY, familiarly, GK. 937. 
COUENTIS, convents, AA. xvi. 6. 
COVER, pr. t. recover, regain, GG. 586. 
COUERTOR, COUERTOUR, cover or trapping 

of a horse, GK. 602; canopy of a bed, 1181. 

COUERTOREZ, pi. canopies, 855. 
COWTERS, pieces of plate for the elbows, GK. 

583. See the NOTES, p. 315. 
COYNT, KOYNT, curious, quaint, GK. 877 ; 

skilful, cunning, 1525. 


ly, 578, 934, 2413. 

COJED, p. t. derided ? shouted ? GK. 307- 
CRAFTY, skilfully made, GK. 572. 
CRAKKANDE, resounding, loud, GK. 1166. 
CRAKKYNG, blast, blowing, GK. 116. 
CRASEDEST, most crazy, GK. 2196. 
CRATHAYN, craven, coward, GK. 1773. In 

Douglas, Crawdoun. 
CREST, top of a rock, GK. 731. 
CREUISSE, fissure, cavity, GK. 2183. 
CREWELLE, valiant, used substantively, man 

beingunderstood,AA.xlviii. 1. SeeCRUEL. 
CRIANDE, crying, GK. 1088. 
CROCHIT, p.p. covered ? GG. 1280, 1352. 
CROKED, p.p. bent aside, GK. 653. 
CROPORE, CROPURE, crupper, GK. 168, 602. 
CROYS, cross, GK. 643. 
CRUEL, keen in battle, AA. xlvii. 3. GG. 334, 


CRUELTE, valour ? GG. 1135. 
CRYSTENMAS, Christmas, GK. 985. 
CUMMEN, p.p. come, GK. 60,62. 
CUMPAS, purpose, GG. 596. 
CURE, care, anxiety, GO. 1098, 1229- 


DA, DAA, doe, AA. v. 2. GG. 226. 
DABATE, strife, GK. 2041. 
DAIL, part, GG. 782. See DOLE. 



DALY, to dally. OK. 1253. DAYLYBDBN,P./. 

DAIT, p. t. and p. p. dealt, OK. 452, 1114, 

1664, 2449- 

DANOB. p. /. struck, c. 134. See DYNO. 
DA KB. to manifest fear, tremble, OK. 2258. 

DAR, DABBS. DARYS, pr. t. OK. 315. 

AA. iv. 12. 
DARK i s, DARKYS, pr. /. lie hid, AA. iv. 12. 

T. 1. See DURKBNB. 
tDARR, harm, or.K. 401. See DEERB. 
DASB, the phrase here, on date, OG. 712, is 

explained by Jam ieson, alive, and I have no 

better interpretation to offer. 
DAW, to dawn, GO. 609, 732. 
DAWBD.P./. (?) OK. 1805. 
DAWTNOB, dawning, AA. xxvii. 5. 
fDAYN, disdain, oc. 179. 
DAYNTBTHB, dainties, A A. xv. 1, xxxvi. 4, 

xzxviii. 3. 

DAYNKTYVOUSBLY, daintily, AA. xxvii. 2. 
DB, DEE, DEJB, to die, OK. 996. GO. 511, 

808. 1035. 
DBARB, to injure, 1. 172. DEREO, p. /. GK. 


J)EBETANDE, debating, GK. 2179. 
DEBONERTE, good manners, politeness, GK. 

DECK, DEI SB, DEB, DESSE, dais or table of 

estate, GK. 61, 75, 222, 250. AA. xiv. 13. 

MS. D. xv. 1. oo.66,1154. 
DEDE, death, AA. v. 2. viii. 7. GO. 270, 1215. 
tDBDis, probably a mistake for TADIB, AA. 

DEERE, DBIR, DBRE, harm, evil, GO. 497, 

808,1266. or.K. 387, 407. 
DEFENDS, p. /. defended, GK. 1156. 
DEFOLD, p. p. vanquished or disgraced, GG. 

DBIB, DBRE, joyful, delightful, GK. 47, 92, 

1012, 1026, 1047; precious, costly, 75, 121, 

193,571.00.66, 319,860,897; honorable, 

564. Used substantively, man or knight 

being understood, in the sense of worthy, 

noble, honorable, OK.'678, 928. AA. i. 4. 

GO. 206, 600, 785, 1284. Jamieson's in. 

tcrprctation of bold, dariny, is, I thiuk, 

wholly inadmissible. See DERELY. 
DBIR, DER, DERB, deer, beasts of chace, OK. 

1151, 1322. 00.226. 
DELE, to deal, (a blow,) OK. 295, 560 ; to 

give, bestow, 1805, 2192 ; to partake, 1968. 

DELES, DBLBN, pr. /. 397, 1266. 
DELE, n. part, share, or.K. 494. 
DELE, the Devil, OK. 2188. 
DELFUL, DELFULLB, doleful, OK. 560. AA. 

xii. ll.MS. D. See DULFUL. 
DELFULLY, dolefully, AA. xxiv. 3. MS. D. 

xlvi. 8. 

DELIVER, active, nimble, GK. 2343. 
DELIUEHLY, quickly, GK. 2009. 
DEMAY, imp. dismay, GK. 470. 
DEME, to judge, deem, GK. 246, 1322, 2183. 

DBMEX, pr. /.judge, think fit, 1082, 1529. 

DEMED, DEMYT, p. t. and p. p. esteemed, 

judged, determined, 240, 1089, 1668. oo. 


DEXAYE, to deny, refuse, OK. 1497. 
DENAYED, p. /. refused, GK. 1493. 
DENEZ, Danish, GK. 2223. Compare AKC. 

166, and see the Note of Du Cange on 

Villehardouin, p. 298, fol. Par. 1657. 
DENT, p. p. indented, GO. 66. 
DBNTTE, blow, oc. 396. 
DEPAYNT, DEPAYNTED, p.p. depicted, GK. 

620, 647. 

DEPARTED, p. t. severed, divided, GK. 1335. 
DEPRECE, to vanquish? GK. 1219. DE- 

PRECED, DEPRESED, p. /. vanquished, 

bore down, 6, 1770. 
DERAY, disorder, AA. xl. 6, MS. D. 
DERELY, joyfully, honorably, OK. 817, 1031, 

1253, 1327, 1559. See DBIR. 
DERF, strong, stern, GK. 564, 1000, 1233, 

1492. GG. 859,976. 
DERFLY, DERFELY.strongly, fiercely,steraly, 

OK. 1183. AA. xxiv. 13. GO. 671, 680. 
DERNE, secret, privy, GK. 558, 1012, 1047. 

GG. 840. 



DERNLY, DERNELY, secretly, GK. 1188 ; si 
lently? 2334. 
DERREST, noblest, GK. 445, 483. GG. 805. 

See DEIR. 

DERWORTHLY, honorably, GK. 114. 
DESTENYNG, destiny, GG. 270. 
DEUE, to confound, GK. 1286. DEUED, j>.p. 

confounded, AA. xxii. 4, MS. D. 
DEUINIS, pr. t. decrees, GG. 1228. 
DEUORE, DEUOIR, service, duty, GG. 1048, 


DEW, p. t. dawned, GG. 600. See DAW. 
DEJE, see DE. 

DICHT, p. p. made, GG. 319. See Di3T. 
DID, DIDDEN, see Do. 
DYETES, diets, repasts, AA. xv. 1. MS. D. reads 
diotes, which Pinkerton and Jamieson 
misprint Drotes, and the latter explains by 
nobles! Mr. Guest has been deceived also 
by this false reading, although he might 
have found the genuine text in Laing's work. 
DIGNE, DYNGNE, worthy, GK. 1316. GG. 9, 


DILLB, dull, foolish, GK. 1529. 
DYMME, covert? AA.V. 1. MS. D. 
DYN, noise, revelry, GK. 47. 
DYNG, pr. t. smite, GG. 860. See DANGE. 
^DYNNEZ, pr. t. strikes, GK. 2105, perhaps 

an error for DYNGEZ. 
DYNNYT, p. t. roared, GG. 84. 
DYNT, stroke, blow, GK. 315, 560, 2105. GG. 
DYNTIS, DYNTTEZ,^)Z.GK.336, 202, 1460, 
AA. xl. 9, xlvi. 8. GG. 67, 542, 946. See 


DISCEUER, to discover, GK. 1862. 
DISCRYE, to describe, GK. 81. 
DISPLESES, imp. displease you, GK. 2439. 
DISPOYLED, p.p. undressed, GK. 860. 
DISSTRYEZ, pr. t. destroys, GK. 2375. 
DISTANCE, dissension, strife, GG. 448, 1362. 
DYSWORSHIP, disgrace, j. 419. 
DIT, p.p. fastened, GK. 1233. 
DIJT, to pronounce, make, GK . 2 95 . DYGHTI s, 
pr. t. get ready, AA. xxxix. 1. DIGHT, 

DYGHT, imp. prepare, look after, j. 28. 
DYGHTE, Di3T, DIJTE, DY$T,P. t. a&dp.p. 
prepared, dressed, placed, disposed, made 
ready, GK. 1 14, 678, 994, 1559, 1884, 1 223, 
1689. AA. i. 6, xiii. 4, xxvii. 2, li. 11. GG. 
600, 732, 1029. GC. 372, 550. J. 130. c. 
469 ; treated, circumstanced, AA. xlv. 8, 
xlviii. 12. 
Do, to cause, GC. 27 ; place, lay, GK. 1492, 


GK. 1308. Dos, imp. do thou, GK. 1533. 
DOTHE, do ye, GC. 619. DOTJ, pr. t. doth, 
GK. 2211. DID, DIDDEN, p. t. caused, 
GK. 1327. GG. 1298. DON, p. p. placed, 


DOEL, DOLE, DOOL, sorrow, torment, GK. 
558. AA. xvi. 13, xliii. 8. GC. 537. 

DOGHETY, DOJTY, DujTY, doughty, brave, 
GK. 724, 2264. Used substantively, man 
being understood, GK. 2334. AA. i. 11. 
DOUGHTYIS, pi. GG. 712. 

DOK, tail, GK. 193. 

DOLE, part, GK. 719. See DAIL. 

DOM, DOME, judgement, sentence, GK. 295, 
1216, 1968. 

DONKANDE, damp, moistening, GK. 519. 

DOSER, back of a seat, GK. 478. In the 
Prompt. Parv. the "Docer of an hall," is 
explained dorsorium, auleum,i.e. hangings. 

DOSSOURS, cushionsfor the back, AA. xxxv. 2. 

DOTED, p. t. and p. p. became foolish, de 
mented, GK. 1151, 1956. 

DOUCH-SPERE, nobleman, GG. 1334. DUCHE- 
PERES, pi. AA. i. 4. See DUGEPERS. 

DOURLY, boldly, sternly, GG. 860. 

DOUTE, fear, GK. 246, 442. 

DOUTH, DOUTHE, people, nobles, GK. 61, 
1365,1415,1956. SeealsoNeroA.x.f.73 b . 

f'DowNE, probably a mistake of the tran 
scriber, AA. xv. 2. The reading of MS. D. 
is, doubtless, correct. 

DOWTTOUS, fearful, AA. xl. 9. 

DRAD, p. p. afraid, AA. ix. 8, 9, MS. D. 

DHAUELED, p. t. slumbered fitfully, GK. 

3 c 



DBAJT, drawbridge, OK. 817. 
DRKCHCII, delay ? OK. 1972. 
DREDPULLE, fearful, ec. 249. 
DREDLE*, void of dread, OK. 2334. 
DREPED, p.p. put to death, OK. 725. 
DRB. to prepare, go, OK. 4f4. DRESSES, 
DREBSEZ. pr. /. prepares, addresses, 

rises, 417, 445, 566. DRBSB, pr. t. pi, 

treat, oe. 997. DRESSED, p. /. and p. p. 

placed, set, OK. 75, 2033 ; went, addressed 

themselves, 1415 ; rose, 2009. 
DRECCII, p. /. drew, oo. 706. 
DREC BOB, p.p. confounded, AA. xxii. 4. 
ORE), strong? OK. 1750. Used adverbially, 


DRE^LT, vigorously ? OK. 1026. 
DRYB, DRYJE, to endure, suffer, OK. 202, 

560. AA. xi. 11. DRTE, pr. r. AA. xvi. 

DRIOHTIN, DRYJTYN, the Lord, OK. 724, 

996, 1548. oo. 1111,1228. 
DRIUANDE, driving, advancing quickly, OK. 


DRIVE, p. /. drove, or.K. 7. 
DRYJE, calm, patient, OK. 335, 724 ; en 
during, tough, 1460. 
DROP, p. t. drove, rushed, passed, OK. 786, 

1151, 1176. 

DRONKBN, p. /. drank, OK. 1025, 1668. 
DROPPING, DROWPINO, slumber, OK. 1748, 

DROJ, DROJEN, p. /. drew, OK. 1188, 1463, 

AA. xliv. 3. 

DROJT, drought, dryness, OK. 523. 
DRURY, DRWRYB, amour, love, OK. 1507, 

1517, 2449 ; love-token, 1805, 2033. 
DUBBED, p.p. ornamented, dressed, clad, 

OK. 75, 193,571. 
DOCHERY, dukedom, oo. 1072. 
DUCHTELY, doughtily, oo. 785. 
DVEROII, dwarf, oo. 79, 84. 
DUOEPERS, Dcssi PERES, the Douze-Pairsof 

France, AA. xxii. 4. 

DuKir,p.p. ennobled, made duke,oo. 1072. 
DULB FULLY, dolefully, AA. xlviii. 12. 
DULFUL, DULEFULLB, doleful, grievous, OK. 

1517. AA. xiii. 4. See DELPUL. 
DUNT, DUNTB, blow, OK. 452, 1286. See 


DUHANDLY, enduringly, oo. 335. 
DURB, to endure, i. 398. 
DURKENE, pr. /. lie hid, AA. iv. 12, MS. D. 

v. 1. Pinkerton and Jamieson interpret 

this falsely, affright. See DARKIS. 
DUSCHAND, smiting hard, oo. 860. 
DUT, mirth ? OK. 1020. 
DUT, DUTTB, p. t. doubted, feared, OK. 222, 

784, 2257. 


EPFRAYT, p.p. alarmed, oo. 1259. 

EFTB, after, afterwards, OK. 641,700, 788, 

EFT-SONBZ, fEpTER-soNEs, forthwith, 

thereafter, OK. 1640, 2417. 
EOOE, edge, OK. 212. Used for the axe itself, 

EGIINE, ENB, YBNB, pi. eyes, AA. ix. 12, 

xxviii. 5, xlvi. 9, xlvii. 1. 
ELBE, age, OK. 844, 1520. 
fELLB, for ILLE, OK. 1811. 
ELNJERDE, ell-yard, GK. 210. 
EM, EMB, uncle, OK. 356, 543. 
EMDELEZ, with equal sides, OK. 629. 
EM ELL, amidst? oo. 1230. Pinkerton prints 

this in mell, which it may also possibly be 

meant for. 

EMPRIOUR, emperor, GO. 1230. 
ENBANED, p.p. ornamented? OK. 790. The 

same term is used by the author in another 

poem, when describing the vessels used 

at Balthazar's feast : 

For ther wer bassynes ful brj^t of brende golde 


Enamaylde w l azer, and eweres of sute ; 
Couered cowpes foul clere, as casteles arayed. 
Enbaned vnder batelment w* bantelles quoynt. 



& fyled out of fygures of ferlyle schappes ; 
The coperounes of the canacles, that on the cuppe 


Wer fetysely formed out infylyoles longe ; 
Pinnacles py3t ther apert, that profert bitwene, 


MS. Cott. Nero A. x.f. 77. 

ENBELYSE, to embellish, GK. 1034. 

p.p. embroidered, adorned, GK. 78, 166, 
606, 856. 

ENCHEIF, to accomplish ? GG. 1059. 

ENDITE, p. t. put (to death,) GK. 1600. 

ENDORRED, p. p. gilded, AA. xxxvi. 4. Ja 
mieson renders it adorned. 

ENDUHAND, enduring, GG. 434. 

ENE, see EGHNE. 

ENESED, p. p. covered ? GK. 184. 

ENEUCH, enough, GG. 1071. 

ENFOUBLED, p.p. wrapt up, GK. 959- 

ENGRELEDE, p. p. interspersed, AA. xl. 2. 

ENGREUIT, p. t. angered, GG. 975. 

ENKER, deep, intense? applied to color, 
GK. 150, 2477. 

ENNOURNED, ENNURNED,^.^. adorned, GK. 
634, 2027. 

ENQUEST, inquiry, GK. 1056. 

ENSCHEW, to prove, try, GG. 663. 

ENSENYE, ensign, war-word, GG. 474, 845. 
ENSENYES, pi. 315. 

ENSPRINGING, springing forth, GG. 1238. 

ENTAYLED, p.p. interwoven, embroidered, 
GK. 612. 

ENTYRE ? GG. 704. 

ENTYSE, to acquire, GK. 2436. 

ER, ere, before, previously, GK. 92, 197, 712, 
etc. See AIR, ARE. 

ERAR, comp. rather, sooner, GG. 511. 

ERBER, the conduit leading to the stomach ; 
a hunting term, GK. 1330. See A Jewell 
for Gentrie, 4to, 1614, sign. F. 2. "To 
make the erber," says Sir Walter Scott, 
" is to disembowel the animal ;" but the er 
ber certainly did not extend to the paunch, 
which is separately mentioned. See the 
Notes, p. 322. 

3 c 

ERD, ERDE, earth, GK. 27, 140, 881. GG. 

303, 1024. 

ERDEZ, pi. lands, GK. 1808. 
ERDLY, earthly, GG. 1241. 
ERYAUNT, errant, GK. 810. 
ERND, ERNDE, errand, GK. 257, 559, 809. 
ERNEST, a first payment by way of pledge to 

receive a larger, c. 248. 
ERTAND, enterprising, GG. 393. Jamieson 

explains it, ingenious. 
ESTE, (?) AA. vii. 6. 
ETAYN, giant, GK. 140. ETAYNEZ, pi. 


ETHE, pr. t. ask, GK. 379, 2467- 
ETHE, easy, GK. 676. 
ETTAND, p. pr. eating, GC. 303. ETTE,^. t. 

ate, GK. 113. 
ETYLLEDE, p. t. aimed, AA. xlviii. 5. See 


EUENDEN, evenly? perpendicularly? GK. 1345. 
EUEZ, borders? GK. 1178. 
EUYES, ivies ? or.K. 459. 
EXPOUN, to describe, explain, GK.209, 1506. 


FA, FAA, foe, GG. 911, 933. FAAS, pi. used 
for sing. AA. xlvii. 12. See FAY. 

FADE, wan ? GK. 149. 

FAYLY, to fail, GK. 1067. FAILIEIS, FAIL- 
YEIS, FAYLEZ, pr. t. GK. 278, 455. GG. 
1139, 1239. 

FAIR, action, proceeding, enterprise, GG. 570, 
576, 731. Jamieson is hi error in inter 
preting the last of these instances, funeral 
solemnity, and has totally misunderstood 
the passage. 

FALE, fallow? grassy? GK. 728. 

FALL, FALLE, to befall, happen, GK. 483. 
AA. xxiii. 13. GG. 1007. FALLEZ, pr. t. 
befalls, appertains, GK. 1303, 1358, 2327. 
FALLETH, pr. t. behoves, c. 253, 277. 
FALLED, p. t. belonged, appertained, GK. 
2243. FALLEN, p. p. befallen, happened, 
23. See FELL. 

FALSSET, falsehood, GG. 1173. 




FAMYT. p. f. foamed, bubbled, oo. 636. 
FAROE. FAYKD,ip.try,AA.xv. 11. 00.357- 
FANB. vane, oc. 255. 

FAWB. FAYN. gUd, joyful, OK. 388,840, 1067. 
oo.83. IN FAY*, joyfully, 26. Jamieson 
interprets the last example, fondly. 
FAKO. FAXOB, FANOIN, to take, receive, ac 
cept. OE. 391. oo. 45, 357. 554. 902. 576. 1002. FANOIT, 
p.p. 421. 

FAN WAND, flowing. OK. 181. 
FAXTISE. FAYNTYSE, deceit, cowardice. OK. 

2435. 00. 1222. 

FAXTOUN, phantom, illusion, OK. 240. 
FABAND. goodly. OK. 101 ; going, riding, 


FARAR, fairer, more honorable, oo. 1035. 
FABOELUS, pieces, shivers, oo. 1019. 
FARE, unusual display, entertainment, OK. 
537, 694 ; behaviour, conduct, 1116, 2386 ; 
course, path, 1793; proceeding, adventure, 
2494 ; onset, AA. xxxi. 9. xli. 6 ; conduct, 
speech, oc. 169. c. 115; step, movement, 
action, oc. 181, 451, 466. c. 343. See 

FARE, to go, journey, or.K. 506. FAI B, pr. /. 
oo. 1293. FAREZ, imp. go ye, OK. 2149. 
FARBN, p.p. gone, 1231. 
FA uc m ON, falchion, or.K. 83,461. 
FACOURE, appearance, AA. xiii. 10. 
FACT, fault. OK. 1551, 2435. 
FACTES, FAWTES, pr. t. fails, AA. xxv. 7, 

xlv. 2. 

FAUTINO, loss, failure, oo. 1222. 
FAUTLES. FADTLEZ, faultless. OK. 640. 1761. 
FAW, FAWE, variegated, AA. vii. 2. oo. 475, 


FAWLDE, to embrace, AA. xxix. 12. /. caress, OK. 1919. 
FAWTY, faulty, OK. 2382, 2386. 
FAX, FAXB, hair. OK. 181. AA.xxix.5. 
FAT, FATE, faith, AA. xxxi. 8. GO. 17. j. 

443. TO. 92. 

FAY, foe. oo. 56. FAYS, pi. 486. See FA. 
FAYRYJE, enchantment, magic, OK. 240. 

FAYTHBLY, certainly, OK. 1636. 
FEALD, truss (of straw,) c. 239. It is so ex 
plained on the authority of Dr. Grainger in 
a MS. note in the Percy MS. 
FEARD, p.p. afraid, or.K. 232. 
FECHTIN, p. t. fouglit, oo. 758. 
FEDYRT, p.p. feathered, oc. 106. 
FKOHTAXD, fighting, oo. 719- 
FEILL, FEL. FELB, FBLLB, many, OK. 122, 
239, 428, 1566. AA. xxl. 2. oo. 28, 485. 
oc. 638. FELE-FOLDE, manifold, OK. 
FEIR, FERE, demeanour, conduct, oo. 160, 

810, 1264. See AFFEHE. 
FEIR, FERE, companion, fellow, mate, OK. 
676, 695, 915, 2411. OO.280, 911, 1115. 
FEIRES, FEREZ, pi. OK. 594. MO. 163. 
IN FEIR, IN FERE, together, in company, 
OK. 267. AA. xxvi. 6. 00.411,565. oc. 
516. or.K. 250. TO. 64. c. 103. 
FEL, FELL, FELLE, fierce, bold, furious, 
cruel, OK. 291, 847, 874. AA. iv. 8, xv. 4. 
00.570,802,932. oc. 340. j. 366. TG. 
229. AKC. 246. Used substantively, OK. 

FELAJES, fellows, OK. 1702. 
FBLAJSCHYP, fellowship, OK. 652. 
FELDE, to fold, embrace, OK. 841. 
FELDE, fold ? OK. 890. 
FBLBR, more, greater, GK. 1391. See FEILL. 
FELL, FELLE, hill, moor, OK. 723. AA. iii. 
6. oo. 193, 1290, 1318. FBLLIS, pi. AA. 
i. 8, iv. 10, vii. 2. oo. 26. 
FELL, FELLB, p. t. should befall, befell, OK. 

1588. GG. 1200. See FALL. 
FELLE, skin, hide. OK. 943, 1359, 1944. oo. 

352. FELLEZ, pi. OK. 880, 1737. 
FBLLELY, FELLY, fiercely, cruelly, boldly, 

OK. 2302. 00.576,762. 
FELLOCNE, cruel, fierce, GO. 670, 707. 
FELONOSLY, keenly, AA. iv. 8. 
FEHED, p. t. foamed, OK. 1572. 
FEND, to defend, or.K. 84. 
FENYE, to feign, oo. 1187- 
FBNYB, FENYBINO, deceit, GO. 745, 856, 



FENJEING, feigning, GO. 16. 

FERD, fourth, GG. 656. 

FERDE, host, troop, AA. xv. 4. 

FERDE, fear, GK. 2130, 2272. 

FERDE, FERDEN, p. t. proceeded, acted, GK. 

149, 703, 1282, 1433. See FARE. 
FERDE, p. t. and p.p. feared, afraid, GK. 

1295, 1588, 2382. 
FERE, bold, GK. 103. 

FERK, to proceed, ride, GK. 1072, 1973. 
FERKEZ, FERKKES, pr. t. rides, rises, 173, 
2013. FERKED, p. t. ran, 2173. 
FERLY, wonder, marvel, GK. 716, 2414. AA. 
vi. 7, xxiii. 13. GC. 228. FERLIES, FER- 
LYE8, pi. GK. 23. AA. xxiii. 13, MS. D. 
xxiv. 1, MS. D. Iv. 7. See FURLEY. 
FERLY, FERLYLY, wondrous, wondrously, 
GK. 388, 741, 766, 1694, 2494. GO. 475, 

FERMYSOUN, FERNYSONE, a hunting term, 
applied to the time in which the male deer 
were closed, or not allowed tobekilled, GK. 
1156. AA.i.8. Mr. Guest interprets it 
winter season. 
FERRE, afar, GK. 1093. 
FEST, to secure, fasten, GG. 421. F%ST,pr. t. 
GG. 1324. FEST,^.*. GK.2347. FESTNED, 
p.p. 1783. 

FETED, p. t. (?) GK. 1282. 
FETLED, p.p. joined, GK. 656. 
FETLY, featly, GK. 1758. 
FETT, FETTE, p. p. fetched, brought, GK. 

1084. GC. 430. c.467. 
FEUTE, FEWTE, fealty, GG. 431, 1324. 
FEUTRED, p. t. fixed in the lance-rest, j. 50. 
See FEUTER in Gloss, to Will, and Wer 
FEY, p. p. dead, slain, AA. xxii. 2, MS. D. 

GG. 640, 1067, 1110. 
FYCH, to fix, GK. 396. FICHEDE, FYCHED, 

p.p. 658. AA. xxxix. 6. 
FYERS, fierce, spirited, j. 158. 
FYKED,/>. t. shrank, was troubled, GK. 2274. 
FILDORE, gold thread, Yr.fil d'or, GK. 189. 
FYLED, p.p. ground, GK. 2225. 

FYLYOLEZ, round towers ? GK. 796. In 
Douglas the same term occurs in the form 
offycllis. See Jamieson, in v. and also 
the quotation under Enbaned. 

FYLIT, p.p. disgraced, GG. 1038. 

FYLLE, to fulfil, GK. 1405, 1934. 

FYLOR, grindstone ? GK. 2225. 

FYLTER, to weave ? GK. 986. See Jamieson, 
in v. 

FYNE, perfect, unconditional, GK. 1239. 

FYNISMENT, end, finish, GK.499. 

FYNLY, wholly? GK. 1391. 

fFiRE, perhaps a mistake for FERE, fear, 
GK. 1304. 

FIRMYSCHAMIS ? AA. i. 8. MS. D. Omitted 
in the Glossaries of Pinkerton and Ja 
mieson. It has undoubtedly some con 
nexion with FERMYSOUN. 

FIRRE, FYRRE, further, GK. 378,411, 1105, 

FIRST, early, youthful, GK. 54. 

FIRTH, an inclosed wood, GG. 193, 1293. 

FlRTHES, FlRTHIS, pi. AA. XXvi. 6. GG. 

27. See FRITHE. 
FYSKEZ, p. t. runs, GK. 1704. 
FITT, division of a poem or lay, Gr.K. 263. 
FY3ED, p. t. were fair ? GK. 796. 
FLAT, ground, field, GK. 507. 
FLA UGH, FLAW, FLAJ, FLAJE,^. t. flew, fled, 

GK. 459, 2274, 2276. GG. 857. ARC. 


FLEKERIT, p.p. spotted. GG. 475. 
FLENDRIS, splinters, GG. 915. 
FLET, FLETTE, floor, GK. 294, 568, 832, 859, 


FLETE, p. t. flitted, flew, GK. 1566. 
FLYND, flint, GG. 28. 
FLONE, arrow, GK. 1161. FLONEZ, FLON- 

NUS, pi. 1566. GC. 106. 
FLOSCHE, flood, pool, GK. 1430. In Bar- 

bour, Flouss. 

FLOTEN, p. p. removed, distant, GK. 714. 
FLURE, flory, floureu, AA. xxxi. 11, MS. D. 
FNAST, FEASTED, to breaihe hard, GK. 1587, 

1702. See Glossary to Havelok, in v. and 

Reply to Singer's Remarks, p. 35. 


FOTHBD, p. t. kicked, OK. 428. 

FOTSOUN, plenty, OK. 122. 

FOLD, FOLD*. FOULDB, earth, ground, OK. 

23, 196, 396. 422. AA. XEUV. 2,ravii. 8. 

00. 56, 570. 
FOLDKI*. p. p. folded, OK. 959 ; plighted, 


FOLDBZ. imp. grmntthou, OK. 359; pr. *. ac 
cords, 499- 
FOLK, fool, OK. 1545. 
Fo LOWED, p.p. baptised, AA. xviii. 4, MS.D. 

FOLY, foolishly, OK. 324. 
FOLJANDE, following, suitable, OK. 145, 859- 
FOLJBS, pr. /. follows, OK. 1 164. FOLJED, 

p. t. followed, 1895. 
FONDB, to try, endeavour, prove, OK. 291, 

565, 986. FONDE, gubj. might find, 1875. 

FONDBT, FOUNDED, j. /. attempted, 

proved, 1549, 2125, 2130. 


foundered, gave way, AA. xlii. 9. oo. 640, 

FONOE, to take, receive, OK. 816, 1556, 1622. 

. FONOBN, pr. /. 1265. FONO, FONGB,J>./. 
646,1363,1315. FONOB, FONOED, p.p. 
919, 1315. 

Foo, large, largely? OK. 1430, 2326. 

FOB, because, OK. 258 ; before? 965, 1822. 

FOB-BETT.P. p. thoroughly beaten, AA. li. 8. 

FOB-BLEDE, p. p. covered with blood, AA. 

FOBCE, matter, TO. 265. 

FORDONE, p.p. destroyed, AA.xxi.lO,MS.D. 

t FOBDWARD, covenant, oo. 1329. See FOR 

FOBB, p. p. fared, c. 228. See FARE. 

fFoBBFOBE, to destroy, kill, TO. 32. FOR- 

FERDE, p. /. OK. 1617. FOBPABBN, p.p. 

OK. 1895. 

FOBB-LETE, to loose, oc. 209. 
FORB-THOOHT, p. /. repented, oc. 336. 
FOBOA, to lose, oo. 1183, 1189. 
FOBLANCYNO, cutting off, OK. 1334. 
FOBLOBNE, p. p. destroyed, eo. 277. 

FORME, beginning, OK. 499 ; foremost, OK. 


FOBNB, formerly ? OK. 2422. 
FOBOUTIN, without, oo. 499, 1286. 
FOR.SAKK, to deny, OK. 475. FOBSOKE, 

p.t. 1826. 

FOBSIBBT, mightiest, oo. 786. 
FORSNES, strength, GK. 646. 
FOBSSIS, pr. t. enforce ? oo. 202. 
FORSSY, powerful, mighty, GO. 487. Used 

substantively, 719. 
FORST, frost, OK. 1694. 
FORTH, FORTH E, FOBJ, ford, stream, OK. 

FOR-THI, FOB-THY, therefore, OK. 27, 240, 

283, 455. AA. xxxiv. 9. oo. 36*4. 
FORWARD, FORWARDS, covenant, OK. 1105, 


FOHEWARDES, pi. 378, 409, 1405. j. 35. 
FOR-WONDRED, p.p. astonished, OK. 1660. 

AA. xivi. 9, MS. D. 
FORJATE, p. t. forgot, OK. 1472. 
FOR-JELDB, subj. requite, GK. 839, 1279, 1535. 
FOTEZ, feet, OK. 574. 
FOTTE, to fetch, OK. 451. 
FOUND, to go, journey, oo. 884, 933. 


1585, 2229. AA. xxi. 1, 2. oo. 109, 370, 
660. FONDENE, pr. AA.XX!. 1,MS.D. 
FOUND, FOWNDEDE, p. t. journeyed, AA. 
xxxi. 9. oo. 636, 909, 1293. FOUNDED, 
p.p. OK. 267- 

FOURCHEZ, pJ. a hunting term, applied to the 
forks or haunches of the deer, GK. 1357. 
The same term is used in the Boke of St. 
Alban's, 1496. 

And after the ragge-boon kyttyth euyn also, 
Theforchit and the sydes euyn bytwene, 
And loke that your knyues ay whettyd bene ; 
Thenne turne vp the /orchis, and frote theym 

wyth blood, 
For to saue grece ; so doo men of good. 

FRA, from, oo. 58. 

FRAIST, FBAYST, to ask, seek, GK. 409. AA. 
xxxii. 9. GO. 121. FRAYST, FBAYSTEZ, 



pr.t. ask, askest, GK. 279, 455 ; tries, 503, 
FRAYST, FRAYSTED,^.^. asked, 324, 391; 
1395 ; tried, proved, 1679. 

FRASTYN, to prove, GG. 902. See FRAIST, 

F&A.TiT,p.p. fretted? wrought? GG. 889. 

FRAUCE, deceit? GI-.K. 355. 

berality, GK. 652, 1264. 

FRAY, to frighten, GG. 486. See AFFRAY. 

FHAYN, to seek, GK. 489. FRAYNED, p. t. 
and p. p. asked, 359, 703, 1046. 

FRE, noble, GK. 101,847, 1156, 1885, 1961. 
GG. 138, 379. Used substantively, lady, 
being understood, GK. 1545, 1549, 1783. 

FREELY, noble, lovely, used substantively, 
AA. xxix. 12. 

FREEST, most noble, GK. 2422. 

FREIK,FREK,FREKE, man, warrior, GK. 149, 
196,241,651. AA. xxi. l,xxxi. 8. GG. 56, 
83, 106. FREKEZ, gen. man's, GK. 537. 
FREKES, FREKEZ, FREKIS, pi. men, 703, 
840, 1 172. GG. 370 ; persons, AA. vii. 1. 

FREYNDFULLY, friendly, GG. 1173. 

FREMEDLY, as a stranger, GK. 714. 

FREMMYT, strangers, GG. 909, 1079. 

FREND, p. t. asked, or.K. 256. See FRAYN. 

FRENKYSCH, French? frank? jocular? GK. 
1116. In the Chester miracle-play of The 
Deluge the term is used by Noah's wife, 

In faith, Noe, I had as lief thou had sleped, for 

all thy frankish fare, 
For I will not doe after thy red. 

It is explained by the editor nonsense. 

See A Collection of English Miracle-Plays, 

etc. By W. Marriott, 8vo, Basel, 1838, 

p. 6. 

FRENYEIS, fringes, GG. 318, 889. 
FRES, p. t. froze, GK. 728. 
FRESCH, vigorous, GG. 1259. 
FRESCHLY, quickly, GK. 1294. 
FRESONE, Frieseland horse, AA. xxxi. 8, 

xliii. 5. 
FRESTIN, to prove, GG. 911. FREST, p. t. 


FRETE, FRETT, FRETTE, p.p. fretted, laced, 

braided, AA. xxix. 5. GC. 422. Gr.K. 278. 
FRYDDE for FRYTH, AA. i. 7, MS. D. 
FRITHE,FRYTH,FRYTHE, an inclosed wood, 

GK. 1430, 1973, 2151. AA. xxvi. 6, MS. D. 


FRYTHIS, pi. GK. 695. AA. i. 8, MS. D. 


FRYTHEDE, p.p. wooded, AA. i. 7- 
FRO, from the time that, GK. 8, 62 ; from, 


FROTE, pr. t. rub, GK. 1919. 
FHOUNSES, pr. t. wrinkles, contracts, GK. 


FROUNT, forehead, GK. 959. 
fFRowE, from, GC. 118. 
FRUSCHIT, p. t. rushed with violence, GG. 

565, 617. 
FULYE, explained by Jamieson, leaf-gold, 

GG. 939. 
FULYEIT, p. t. and p. p. injured, destroyed, 

GO. 928, 1110. 
FULLEDE, p.p. baptised, AA. xviii. 4. See 


FULSUM, to help, aid, GK. 99. 
FUNDEN, p.p. found, GK. 640. 

FUNNESTANE, font, AA. XViH. 4. 

FURE, p. t. went, rode, AA. Iv. 10. GG. 676. 

FURLEY, n. wonder, marvel, Gr.K. 354. 
FURLEYS, pi. 286. See FERLY. 

FURLEY, adj. wondrous, Gr.K. 280. 

FURLENTH, furlong, GG. 1279. 

FUSIOUN, abundance, GG. 222. 

FUST, hand? GK. 391. 

FUTE, FUYT, track of a fox or beast of chace, 
by the odour, GK. 1425. See Boke of St. 
Alban's, and Malory's Morte d" Arthur, B. 
18, ch. xxi. Also Gloss, to Will, and Wer 
wolf, v. Feute. 


GAA, GAY, to go, AA. v. 8. GG. 54. GA, AA.V. 9. GG. 591. SeeGANE. 

GAY, an epithet, used substantively, and 
applied to both sexes, GK. 970, 1822, 2035. 



AA. xli. 10. o. 988. Hence we may, 

perhaps, comet the doubtful reading in 

OK. 1215. 
GAYLTARDE. sprightly, gay, used suUtan- 

tively, AA. xxxviii. 12. 
GATif, to require, befit, OK. 584. 
GATS, prompt, on. 178 ; fit, proper, 1241. 
GATW, GAYWB, promptly, quickly, OK. 1621, 

AA. vi I. 7. 

GAYNBBT, nearest, speediest, OK. 1973. 
GAYNLY, fitly, promptly, OK. 476, 1297. 
GAYSTYN, GBYBTYN, to lodge, oc. 146, 164. 
GAIT, GATB, way, roal, path, OK. 696, 778, 

930. 00.54,131,381. j. 121; enterprise, 

oo. 124, 744, 791. GATBS, GATIS, pi. 

roads, ways, OK. 709. AA. iii. 2, vii. 7- 
blet to defend the body, AA. xxxi. 3. 
GAM EN, GAME.XB, GAMYN, sport, game, 

AA.v.7,xii.3,MS.D. xxxiv.7. oo. 1144. 


1319. AA.xii. 3,xxxi. 12. See GOMEN. 
GAME, to go, oo. 8. See GAA. 
GARB, prompt, GO. 1027. See GAYN. 
GANYBIB, darts, arrows, oo. 465. 
GAR, GARB, GARR, GARRE, to cause, AA. 

xvii.2.xlix. 11. 00.472,1080. or.K. 147. 

TO. 23. CARED, GART, GARTB, p. t. and 

p.p. OK. 2460. AA. xxxvii. 13, Iv. 1. oo. 

295, 880, 952. 

GABATOURIB, watch-towers, oo. 482. 
CARET, turret, watch-tower, oo. 525. GA- 

RYTEZ, pi. OK. 791. See Du Cange, v. 

GAROULVX, part of the inwards of a deer, 

apparently included in the numblet. OK. 

1335, 1340. See Scott's Notes to Sir 

Triitrtm, p. 387, ed. 1833. 
GABBOXB, GARYSOUN, treasure, reward, OK. 

1255.1807,1837. AA.xii. 4, MS. D. GAK- 


xii. 4, liv. 8. 

GABT, p.p. afraid, OK. 325. 
GAUDI, ornament? OK. 167. 
GBF, p. t. see GIF. 
GBIB, GBBRB, GERE, armour, OK. 569, 584. 

00.738,987. or.K. 234; applied to spears, 
672. GEREZ, pi. apparel, OK. 1470. 

GENT, fair, comely, oo. 72. oc. 364. Used 
Bubstantively, kiny being understood, oo. 

GENTHICE, GBNTRISB, courtesy, honor, oo. 

GBREZ, pr. t. arrays, OK. 1872. GERED, 
p. t. and p. p. dressed, arrayed, 179, 957, 
2227; disposed, 791; made, fashioned, 

GBRSB, pr. t. causes, AA. xvii. 6. See GAR. 

GESERNB, GISERNK, axe, OK. 288, 326, 375, 

GET, booty, gain, OK. 1638. 

GETEN, p. t. and p. p. got, OK. 1171, 1625. 

GETBRONB, GYTTOHNE, gitern, a sort of 
guitar, oc. 599. c. 466. 

tGEWBS, pr. t. probably a mistake for 
GLBWEB, look, AA. x. 11. MS. D. reads 

CHESTING, lodging, hospitable reception, 
AKC. 65, 67. 

GYDE, attire, gown, AA. i. 2, xxix. 2. 

GIF, to give, GK. 288, 365. GEF, p. t. OK. 
370, 668, 2349. 

GIF, GIFFE, CINE, if, AA. xlviii. 13. GO. 56, 
329. TO. 25. 

GYLD, p. p. gilded, GK. 569. 

GYLLIS, glens, AA. xxxiii. 2. The word oc 
curs in the same sense in La Bone Flo 
rence of Rome, ap. Ritson, iii. 60. The 
MS. D. corruptly reads grylles, which 
consequently finds a place in Jamieson's 

GYNO, assembly, GK. 224. 

GIRD, to strike, smite, (governed by let) GO. 
106, 936. GYRDEZ, pr. t. strikes, spurs, 
GK. 2160. GIRD, GYRD, pr. t. pi. spur, 
strike, GO. 912, 999. GIRDEDB, GIRDIT, 
p. t. struck, AA. xlvii. 8 ; drew, GO. 848. 

GIRDAND, spurring, riding, GO. 86. 

GYRSE, grass, AA. xxix. 2. 

GLADE, to gladden, OK. 989. GLADIT, p./. 
entertained, GO. 208. 



GLADLOKER, gladlier, OK. 1064. 

GLAiD,p.#.glided,rode,GG. 888. See GLOD. 

GLAM, noise, cry, clamor, GK. 1426, 1562. 
See also MS. Cott. Nero, A. x. f. 68 b . 

GLAUERANDB, noisy, yelping, GK. 1426. 
The same term is used in the metrical 
Morte Arthurs, MS. Line. f. 80. 

GLAUIS, swords? GG. 558. 

GLAUMANDE, riotous, GK. 46. 

GLEDE, GLEED, GLEID, burning coal, ember, 
GK. 1609. AA.xxxi. 3, MS. D. GO. 558. 
GC. 237. ARC. iii. 262. GLEDEZ, GLEDIS, 
GLEDYS, pi. GK. 891. AA. ix. 13, xxxi. 3. 

GLEMAND, gleaming, GO. 557. 

GLENT, n. glance, GK. 1290. 

GLENT, p. t. glanced, looked, GK. 82, 476 ; 
shone, 172, 569, 604; brightened, started 
up, 1652 ; shrank, 2292. 

2039. AA. ii. 2, iii. 1, xxxvi. 3. 

GLYDANDE, gliding, GK. 2266. 

GLYFTE, p.t. looked, GK.2265. AA.xxviii. 5. 
MS. D. reads GLIFFED, which is mis 
printed GLISSED by Pinkerton, and thence 
inserted in Jamieson's Dictionary. 

GLISNAND, glistening, glittering, GO. 525, 

GLISTER, pr, t. glitter, AKC. 111. 

GLYJT,^. t. looked, GK. 842, 970. Probably 
only another form of GLYFTE. 

GLOD, p. t. glided, GK. 661. 

GLODE, clump, hillock, tuft? GK. 2266. 
GLODES, pi. 2181. 

GLOMEDE, p.t. gleamed, glowed, AA.xxxi. 3. 

GLOPPE, GLOPPYNNE, pr. t. wail, lament, 
p. t. wailed, mourned, AA. viii. 1, xli. 10, 
xlii. 10. 

GLOWAND, glowing, AA. ix. 13. GG. 558. 

GLOWES, pr. t. looks, AA. x. 11, MS. D. 

GOANDE, going, walking, GK. 2214. 

GODAMERCY! an exclamation easily cor 
rupted from God have mercy ! or. K.I 38. 

GODLY, GODLYCH, GOUDLY, goodly, cour 
teously, GK. 273, 584, 1933. 

Goo, a corruption of GOD, GK. 390. 

GOME, man, knight, warrior, GK. 151, 178, 
325, 375. AA. xxxiv. 7, MS.D. (In this last 
instance Jamieson makes a strange blun 
der, by joining the part, graithe on to the 
noun.) GG. 583, 698. GOMES, GOMMES, 
GOMYS, pi. AA. v. 9, xxxvi. 3. GG. 1169. 

GOMEN, game, sport, GK. 273, 661, 1014, 
1376. GOMNES, GOMNEZ, pi. 495, 683, 
1894. See GAMEN. 

GOMENLY, playfully, GK. 1079. 

Go PNYNG, affright ? GK. 2461. 

GORDE, p.p. gird, GK. 1851. 

GOHDEZ, pr. t. strikes, spurs, GK. 2062. 
See GIRD. 

GORGER. wrapper or covering for the throat, 
GK. 957. 

GOST, spirit, life, GK. 2250. 

GOSTLYCH, ghostly, GK. 2461. 

GOTJ, pr. t. goeth, goes, GK. 375, 1293 ; 
imp. go ye, 2119. 

GK. 619, 663. GG. 21, 603. 

GRACONS, Greek ? GK. 216. 

GRAZED, p. p. a contracted form of GRAI- 
THED, arrayed, AA. xxxi. 4, MS. D. 

GRAYES, pr. t. becomes gray, GK. 527. 

GRAYJSE, to groan, GG. 472. GRANES,/W. t. 
AA. xlvii. 9. 

GRAITH, imp. prepare or undertake thou, GG. 
124. GHAITHIS, GRAYTHEZ, pr. t. makes 
ready, goes, GK. 2014. GG. 170. GRAI- 
p.p. arrayed, dressed, prepared, GK. 74, 
109, 151, 666, 876, 2259. AA. xxxi. 4, xl. 
1. GG. 131,482, 547, 603, 1262 ; accom 
plished, 1267. 

GRAYTH, GRAYTHE, ready, prepared, GK. 
448, 597, 2047. 

GRAITHLY, GRAYTHELY, readily, speedily, 
GK. 417, 876, 1006, 1335. AA. xl, 1. GO. 
54, 1023; steadfastly, cheerfully? GK. 
1470, 2292. 

GRAME, anger, j. 98 ; mischief, or.K. 392. 
See GREM. 

GRAMEST, most angry, GG. 471. Jamieson 
chooses to interpret this warlike. 

3 D 



GBAIUM, pi. groan*, A A. xlviii. 9> 
GEANT-MBBCI, GaAuicr-MBacT, gramercy, 

thanks, OE. 838. 1037, 1392- 
fGaAssB for GREASB, c. 19- 
GBAT, p. t. wept, oo. 1141. See GRETB. 
GBATUBBT, readiest ? AA. xxxiv. 10, MS. D. 
GBATTE*T. greatest, OE. 207. 1441. 
GRK. degree, dignity, superiority, oo. 698, 


GRBCHBS, pr. t. grows angry ? AA. xli. 4. 
GRBIP, rage, paseion, oo. 925,960. 
GBBIP, adj. heavy? oo. 1262. 
GEEIB, steps, oo. 482. 
GRBM, GBEMB, anger, OK. 312, 1507, 2370 ; 

mischief, 2251. See GRAVE. 
GEBMBD, p. t. was grieved, AA. xli. 4. 
GREN, to roar, c. 213. 
GRBXNE, pr. t. made game, OK. 464. 
GRBS, GRESSE, grass. OK. 235, 2181. 
GBBT, p. t. greeted, accosted, OK. 842, 1933. 

oe. 377. 
GRETE, used substantively for nobles, great 

men, OK. 2490. 

CRETE, . cry, AA. xxv. 12, xxvi. 1. 
GRETE, GRBTYNB, to cry, weep, OK. 2157. 

AA. viii.8, xxii. 5. GHETES, GRETE, pr.t. 
* vii. 13, xlvi.9. GRETT, p. t. viii. 1. 
GREUE, grove, copse, OK. 1355, 1707, 1898, 


2O7, 508. AA. v. 8, rxvi. 2. MS. D. lii. 2. 
GRBUES, greaves, leg-armour, OK. 575. 
GRBUXDBS, greyhounds, AA. v. 8, MS. D. 

Jamieson most absurdly explains this 


Ga YBD, p. t. trembled, was agitated, o K . 2370. 
GRILLE, to torment, AA. xlix. 8. GRILLES, 

pr. t. torments, xxxiii. 6. 
GRTLLB, hideous, frightful, AA. xlviii. 9. 
fGaYLLEi, see GYLLSS. 
GBYXMB, cruel, OK. 2260. 
GBYNDEL, wrath, fierce, OK, 2338. 
GBYNDEL-LAYK, anger, fierceness, OK. 312. 
GRYNUELLY, wrathfully, OK. 2299. 
GRYNDELSTON, grindstone, OK. 2202. 
GRIP, possession, tenure, oo. 11G9. GRIP- 
PIS, pL grasp, gripe, 347. 

GBIPPBD, GBIPPIT, GRYPBD. p. t. grasped, 

OK. 421, 1335. oo. 1026. 
GBIBLY, horribly, fearfully, AA. xlvii. 2, 9. 
GRYTHE, respite, AA. v. 7* 
GBOMB. GRUME, man, knight, OK. 1006. 

GO. 105. 148, 1000, 1114. GROMYB, 

GRUMYB, /</. 8, 1027, 1144. 
GRONYED, p. t. grunted as a wild-boar, OK. 


GKOHSE, IN OROBSB, all together, oo. 1 168. 
GROUN, to bellow, oc. 238. .. .fir.. 
GROWELYNGE, grovelling, AA. xlvii. 8. 
GBUCH, to grudge, OK. 2251. 
GRUCHYNO, misliking, OK. 2126. 
GRULINGTS, gen. aba. in a grovelling attitude, 

oe. 1024. 

Gu WE, will ? OK. 225 1 . Compare Grieu and 

Grein Roquefort. 

GCDLY, courteous, complaisant, AA. li. 2. 
GURDES, pr. t. smites, AA. xlv. 10. Gua- 

DENE, spur, xxxix. 1, MS. D. 

See GIRO. 


HAD BE, HABBES, HABBEZ.P-. /. have, hast. 
OK. 327, 452, 626, 1252. 

HACHES, racks for hay, AA. xxxv. 6, MS. D. 

HADEN, p. had, OK. 52, 1446. 

HADET, p.p. at enmity? OK. 681. 

HAY ! exclamation or cry of the hunters, OK. 
1158, 1445. In the former instance it is 
most incorrectly rendered hedge by Mr. 
Guest, Hit. E. R. ii. 169. See HYOHE. 

HAIL, all, oo. 434. 

HAYLCB, to embrace, salute, OK. 2493. 
HAYLSES, pr. t. 972. HAYLSBD, p. t. 
223, 810, 829. See HALCH, HAI.SED. 

HAILLY, HALELY, wholly, oo.|l75, 1299, 

. HAILSINO, encounter, oo. 703. 

1 1 AIT, eager, courageous, oo. 742 ; used ad 
verbially ; hotly, fiercely, 949. 

HALAWED, p.p. hallooed, OK. 1723. 
, neck, OK. 427. 



HALCH, to salute, embrace, MG. 65. HAL- 
CHED, p. t. and p.p. GK. 939. MG. 73. 
HALCHEZ, pr. t. fastens, GK. 1613. HAL- 
CHED, p. t. looped, fastened, 185, 218, 
657, 1852. 

HALD, stronghold, GG. 371, 583. 
HALDAND, holding, GG. 259. 

HALDE, to hold, GK. 1125. HALDES, HAL- 
DEZ, pr. t. holds, 53, 627. HALDEN, p. t. 
held, 124 ; p. p. obliged, bound, 1040, 
1828; esteemed, 1297- HALT, p. p. held, 
2079. In the last instance we recognise 
the common phrase of hold up, as applied 
to the heavens. 

HALE, whole, GG. 602, 1344. 


HA.i,zs,pr.t. drives, rushes, GK, 136. HALED, 
HALLED, p. t. rushed, 458 ; roge, 788 ; 
pulled, hauled, 1338 ; shot, discharged, 
1455 ; p. p. pulled ? 157 r gone, 1049. 
In most if not all the above instances the 
radical meaning of quick motion is pre 
dominant. See Ihre, Gloss. Suio- Goth., v. 
Holla, in the 7th signification. 

HALF, behalf, GK. 2149. See HALUE, 

HALYDAM, reliques of the saints ? GK. 2123. 

HALM, handle, GK. 218, 330, 2224. 

HALS, HALSE, neck, GK. 621, 1353, 1639. 

HALSED, p. t. saluted, AA. xxvii. 8, MS. D. 
c. 190. See HALCH, HAYLCE. 

HALSUMLY, comfortably, GK. 1731. 

HALTANE,haughty, proud, used substantive- 
ly, GG.962; precious, 963. SeeHAWTANE. 

HALUE, behalf, GK. 326,692, 2119; side, 
742, 1552. HALUE, pi. sides, GK. 2070, 
2165. See HALF. 

HALUENDELLE, half-part, AA. 1. 2. 

HALJEZ, saints, GK. 2122. 

HAMLOUNEZ, pr. t. a hunting term, used of 
the wiles of the fox, GK. 1708. So in the 
BoJce of St. Alban's, 1496. 

And yf your houndes at a chace renne there ye 

And the beest begyn to renne, as hartes ben woute, 

3 D 

Or for to hanylon, as dooth the foxe wyth his 

Or for to crosse, as the roo doth otherwhyle. 

And in the older treatise of Twety, MS. 
Cott. Vesp. A. xii. f. 6 b . " Sohow gothe 
to alle maner of chaces, and couplyng, 
and dyscouplyng, but if yowre houndes 
renne to one chace, that is to seye, ruse^t, 
or hamylone, or croisethe, or dwelle, and 
they conne not put it no ferthere, ye shal 
seye, Ho so, amy, so, venez a coupler." 
Hence also may be explained the passage 
so miserably glossed in Hearne's Peter 
Langtoft, p. 308. 

With hanelon tham led, to mak the purale. 

HAN, p-. have, GK. 23, 1089, 2093. 
HANSELLE, specimen, first occurrence, GK. 

491. See HONDE-SELLE. 
HAP VPON HE3E, a phrase somewhat equi 
valent to hop-hazard, GK.48. 
HAPNEST, most fortunate ? GK. 56. 
HAPPED, p.p. fastened, GK. 655; wrapped, 


HAPPUNYS, pi. fortunes, chances, GG. 825. 
HARBARROWE, p.p. lodged, or. K. 348. 

lodging, GC. 137, 147- or.K. 300. c. 145. 

HARDYNE, (?) GC. 241. 
HARE, hoary, AA. iv. 6. See HORE. 
HARLE, pr. t. drag, AA. xv. 5. HAULED, 

p.p. drawn, trailed, GK. 744. 
HARROWES, pr. t. robs, plunders, GK. 420. 

The oath here used may be found also in 

Chaucer and Lyndsay. 
HAS, pr. t. _ have, GO. 453. 
HASPPEz,pr. t. clasps, GK. 1388. HASPED, 

p.p. clasped, closed, 281, 590, 831. 
HASTLETTEZ, part of the inwards of a wild 

boar, GK. 1612. In modern writers spelt 

harslets and haslets. See Richardson's 

HAT, HATTE, pr. t. am named, GK. 263, 

381, 2445 ; is called, 10. HATTES, art 

named, 379, 401. See HEGHT. 



HA TII EL. HATH ILL, properly an adjective, 
but used substantively to denote generally 
a noble person, knight, or warrior, OK. 
Ml. 234. 256, 309, 655, 844. GO. 900, 
952, 963. Applied to God, OK. 2056, and 
to an attendant, 2065. HATHELBS, HA- 


TIIILLIS,/)/. OK. 829, 895,949. 1 138, 1602. 

AA.IV. 5, MS. D. x. 13. xxxviii. 7, xlvi. 1. 

oo. 1299. See ATHBL. 
HATTBBIT, p. t. shattered, oo. 702. 
HATJ, hath, OK. pauim. 

hauberk, cuirass, OK. 203, 268. or.K. 


MA WE, azure, AA. ii. 5. 
HAWTANB, proud ; used adverbially, oo. 923, 

and substantively, 949- See HALTANE. 
M AWTE88E, nobility, power, OK. 2454. 
HAJEB, more noble, OK. 352, 1738. 
t HEATHENNEST, heathendom, ARC. 55. 
HBCHT, promise, vow, oo. 293. 
HBCKB, rack for hay, c. 232, 258. HEKKES, 

pi. AA. xxxv. 6. See H ACHES. 
HBF, p. t. heaved, hove, raised, OK. 120, 

826, 1587. 
HEOHT, p. t. was named, oo. 654, 742. See 


HBICB, tall, oo. 900. 
HBILL, to submit ? eo. 1309. 
HEIR, host, army, GO. 1299- See HEBE. 
HELDANDE, bowing, inclining, OK. 972, 

HELDEN, to ride, follow, OK. 1692. HEL- moves, advances, 221. HELD, 

HBLDBT, p, t. set, went down, 1321 ; 

moved, went back, 2331 ; went, led, GO. 

126, 132. HELDEN, p. went, rode, 

OK. 1922. 
H ELDER, more, in a greater degree, OK. 376, 

430. A word still preserved in Lancashire 

and the North. See also Ihre, v. Hatter. 
HBLB, HBLLB, health, prosperity, oo. 1 103, 

1176. oc.1/1. 

H KI.YN, to heal, GO. 882. 

HBLINO, covering, AA. ix. 4, MS. D. See 


HEM, them, OK. 862. AA. passim, MS. D. 
HEME, close, tight? OK. 157- 
HEMELY, secretly, closely, GK. 1852. Dan. 

HBNDE, HEYND, fair, courteous ; an epithet 

applied to both sexes, OK. 108, 405, 467, 

647, 896, 1104, 1731. AA. xxix. 13. oo. 

126, 924, 1246. Used substantively, 

knight or lady being understood, GK. 827, 

946, 1252, 1813, 2330. AA. liv. 9. GO. 

183, 219. HENDE, pi. used substantively, 

GO. 132. 
HBNDELAYK, courtesy, OK. 1228. See also 

MS. Cott. Nero A. x. f. 68 b . 
HBNDESTE, fairest, GK. 26. AA. xi. 1. 
1 1 I;M>I v, 1 1 I.MIKI.V, HEYNDLY.fairly, cour 
teously, well, GK.773,829,895, 1228. AA. 

iv. 5, xx vii. 8, xxxv. 6. GO. 132, 358. 
HENGES, pr. t. hangs, GK. 182. HENGBD, 

p. t. hanged, 732, 1345. See HYNGB. 
HENNE, hence, GK. 1078. 
HENT, to take, receive, GK.827. HENTES, 

pr. t. 605. HENT, HENTE, p. t. 864, 983, 

2277, 2317. oc. 393. or.K. 82. HENT, 

p. p. GK. 2323, 2484. AA. xxxviii. 7. 
HER, HERB, their, OK. 54, 120, 428, et 

past. AA. iv. 3, MS. D. etpass. oc. 175, 


HERANDE, hearing, GK. 450. 
HERBER, lodging, GK. 755,812. 
HERBER, to lodge, GK. 805. HERBERED, 

p.t. 2481. 

lodging, GC. 126, 173, 342. c. 167. See 


HERBOROW, to lodge, GC. 143. 
HERBORY, lodging, GC. 184. 
HERDE, coarse ? AA. ii. 5, MS. D. 
HERE, host, army, GK. 59, 2271. so. 1147. 

See HEIR. 

HERE, hair, GK. 180, 436 ; bristles, 1587. 
HERE, loss, injury, GO. 703. 
HERB, to praise, GK. 1634. 



HERED-MEN,HiRDMENNE,courtiers, nobles, 
attendants, GK. 302. AA. iv. 5. 

HERLE, twist, fillet, GK. 190. 

HERRE, higher, GK. 333. 

HERSUM, devout? GK. 932. 

HES, HEST, order, bidding, GK. 1039, 1090, 
1092. HESTES, pi. promises, AA. six. 1, 

HEST, highest, noblest, GK. 550. 

HETE, to promise, GK. 2121. HETE, HETT, 

HTTEZ,j>r..GK.448. AA. xix. 1. GC.41 1. 

c.462. HETTE, p.p. GK. 450. See HYJT. 
HETERLY, HETTERLY, violently, strongly, 

GK. 1152, 1446, 1462, 1587, 231 1 ; quickly, 

suddenly? 2291, 2317. See Gloss, to 

mil. and Werwolf, v. Hetterli. 
HETES,pl. promises, GK. 1525. 
HETHEN, HETHYNNE, hence, GK. 1794, 

1879. AA. xx. 13. 
HETT, p. t. was named, or.K. 40. See 


HEUCH, p. t. hewed, GG. 702. 
HEUE, heavy ? GK. 289. 
HEUEN, pr. raise, GK. 1346. HEUEN- 

ED, p.p. raised, GK. 349. See MS. Cott. 

Nero A. x. f. 64. 

HEUEN-RYCHE, heaven, GK. 2423. 
HEWEN, p.p. forged, GK. 211. 
HEWES, colors, GK. 1761. See HUWE. 
HEWYNE, heaven, GG. 1317. 
HEWYS, pr. t. strike ? AA. xv. 5. 
HEJ, HE3E, high, GK. 48, 222, 593 ; noble, 

812, 831 ; important, 1051. Used adverb 
ially, 1417. See HTJE. 
HEJLY, loudly, devoutly? GK. 755, 773, 

highly, greatly, 949 ; nobly ? 983. 
HICHT, height, GG. 900. 
HIDE, HYDE, skin, body, GK. 2312. GG. 564. 
HIDER, hither, GK. 264. 
HIDWIES, hideous, GG. 727, 861. 
HYE, HYJ, to hasten, GK. 2121. AKC. 72. 

HYJES, HYJEZ, pr. t. 521, 1351, 1462. 

HIJEN, HYJEN, pr. t. pi. GK. 1910. AA. 

x. 7, MS. D. HYE, HYJE, imp. hasten 

thou, GK. 299. J. 127. HIJED, HYIT,;>. t. 

GK. Ill, 826, 1153. 

HIGHE, HIJ, HY, HYE, HY3E, haste ; always 
preceded by in or on, GK. 245. AA. iv. 5, 
MS. D. xxxii. 1, xxxviii. 7, MS. D. liv. 9, 
MS. D. GG. 735, 926, 949. GC. 287. 

HYGHE ! shout or exclamation of the hunters, 
GK. 1445. See HAY. 



HILLYNGE, covering, AA. ix. 4. See HE- 


fHiM for HEM, GK. 49. 

HYNGE, p. t. hung, GC. 535. See HENGES. 

HINT, HYNT, to take, receive, GG. 674, 803. 

HYNT,^>. t. andp.p. took, taken, received, 

527,703,727; went, 62. 
HYPPED, p. t. hopped, jumped, GK. 1459, 



HIT, it, joined to a plural noun, as in Ger 
man, GK. 280,1251. 

HIJE, HYGHE, HY3E, noble, GK. 120 ; loud, 
307, 468, 1165, (not long, as Mr. Guest 
would have it,) ]602; tall, 1154. Used 
substantively for heights, high ground, GK. 
1152, 1169, 2004, in the two former of 
which instances Mr. Guest explains it very 
erroneously by hedge. Hist. E. R. vol. 
ii. p. 169. So, in the Wycliffite Bible, 1 
Kings, cap. 9 : " To-day forsothe he came 
into the cytee, for to-day is sacrifyce of 
the peple in the heeyi-" MS. Trin. Coll. 
Dubl. A. 1.9. 

HIJLICH, noble, admirable? GK. 183. 

HYJT, pr. t. promise, GC. 378. HYGHTE, 
HYJT,^. t. promised, GK. 1966, 2218. GC. 

HY3T, height, stature, GK. 332. 

HY3THET, high, tall, GC. 259. 

Hi3TLY, fitly, GK. 1612. 

Ho, she, GK. 934, 948, 1001, 1191, 1206. 
AA. iii. 1, et passim, MS. D. 

HOCHIS, houghs ? GG. 674. 

HOD, HODE, hood, GK. 155, 2297. 

HOE! Hoo! halt! stop! GK. 2330. TG.121. 

HOL, HOLE, HOLLE, whole, entire, GK. 1338, 
1406, 1613, 2296. 


HOLD, HOLDB, cattle, mansion, OK. 771. 

0.146,186. or.K.348. c. 100. 
HOLDB, faithfully, OK. 2199. 
HOLDBLY, faithfully, carefully, OK. 1875, 


HOLKBDB, p. p. sunk, AA. ix. 12. 
HOLLB, HOL), hollow, OK. 2182. AA. ix. 12. 
HOLLBX, the holly, no. 55, 102. HOLYN- 

BOBBE, holly-bough, OK. 206. 
HOLLY, wholly, OK. 1049, 1257. 
HOLST, pr. I. boldest, oc. 481. 
HOLT, HOLT*, forest, OK. 1677, 1697. AA. 
lv. 8. HOLTEZ, HOLTIS, pi. OK. 1320. 
AA. iv. 6, v. 5, lv. 9. oo. 234, 470. HOLT 
WODBZ, OK. 742. See Chalmers' Gloss. 
to Lyndsay, in . 

HOLYDOMB, salvation ? j. 372. See HALT- 

HOM, them, OK. 99, 819, 979, 984. 
HOMERED, p. t. hammered, struck, OK. 

Hoir DB-SBLLB, gift conferred at a particular 

season, OK. 66. See HANSELLE. 
HONE, HOUNE, delay, OK. 1285. oo. 849. 

Also used by Barbour. 
HOPE, pr.f. think, trust, OK. 140,352, 2301. 

HOPES, thinkest, trustest, 395. 
HOB, their, OK. 130, 1014, 1127, 1139. 
HORB, hoar>-, OK. 743. See HARE. 
HOBLOTEZ, vagabonds, OK. 244. 
HOBS, pi. horses, oo. 674. 
HOSE, pr. t. embrace, AKC. 151. Not in 
Brockett, bat inserted by Grose as a North 
country word. It is evidently formed from 


Ho so, whoso, AA. ii. 3, MS.D. ix.9, MS.D. 
HOSTEL, inn, dwelling, OK. 805. 
Ho v AND, tarrying, waiting, oe. 905. 
HOUBD, p. t. tarried, OK. 785, 2168. See 


HOUES, pi. hoofs, OK. 459. 
Hours, p. t. heaved, ec. 356. HOVYNB, 

p.p. heaved, raised, 551. 
Ho)B8, houghs, OK. 1357. 
HOLT, hilt, OK. 1594. 
HUNT, huntsman, hunter, OK. 1422, 1701. 

HCNTES, pi. 1147, 1604, 1910. AA. v. 5, 


HCRDYS, hurdles, eo. 470. 
HURSTES, woods, AA. v. 5, MS. D. 
HUVIT, p. t. tarried, oo. 840. Misprinted 

by Pinkerton and Jamieson Hewit. See 

HUWB, HWE, color, complexion, OK. 147, 

234. AA. ix. 4, MS. D. HWBS, HWEZ, 

pi. OK. 707, 867, 1738. 
Hu WES, hills, AA. v. 5, MS. D. 
HWBN,JW./. hew, cut, OK. 1346. 

I. J. 

I-ARMYD, p.p. armed, oc. 74. 
I-BONDE, p.p. bound, oc. 91. 
I-CHAROIO, p.p. loaded, oc. 567. 
ICHE, each, OK. 126, 1811. 
I-CLBPPYDB, j>./>. named, oc. 16. 
I-COWERT, p.p. covered, oc. 357. 
I-DYOHTE, I-DYJT, p. p. prepared, oc. 504, 

640. See DIJT. 

I-FERE, together, oc. 554. See FERE. 
I-HOLDB, p.p. held, accounted, oc. 90. 
IISSB-IKKLES, icicles, OK. 732. 
I-KEUERID, p.p. covered, oc. 552. 
ILYCHE, (?) OK. 44. 
ILK, ILKB, same, OK. 24, 1062, 1256, 1385. 

AA. i. 10. oo. 1157. ILK, ILKA, ILKBA, 

each, AA. iii. 10. oo. 473,474. 
ILKANB, each one, GO. 348, 1244. 
ILLUMINAT, p.p. enlightened, oo. 394. 
IN, INN, castle, mansion, oo. 1161. oc.217. 

c. 139. 
INCLINAND, INCLYNAND, bending, oo. 383, 

IN HIGHT, on high, aloud, or.K. 423. See 


YNOGHB, enough, OK. 77, 219, 404, 514, 

1401,1948. AA.xxix. 12. 
l-NORE, a mistake of the scribe for I-NOJE, 

enough, AA. xxix. 1 1, MS. D. Jamieson, 

however, inserts it as a legitimate form, and 

finds an Armoric root for it ! ! ! 



INTROMETTING, admission, GG. 1171. 

IN-WYTH, within, GK. 1055. In Pinkerton's 
text this word is printed erroneously Ru- 
with, which is inserted by Jamieson in his 
Dictionary, and the latter hazards on it, 
as usual, one of his absurd conjectures as 
to meaning. 

I-PERESCHDB, p. p. destroyed, lost, GC. 374. 

t I-QUERE, every where, GK. 660. See AY- 

IRAL, (?) AA. xlvi. 5. See Notes, p. 334. It 
is misprinted Sral by Pinkerton, and ad 
mitted in this disguised form by Jamie- 
son. Perhaps it is the same as orielle, 
which we are told by Sir John Maunde- 
vile, " is a ston well schynynge." Voiage, 
p. 48, ed. 8vo., 1839- 

IRKE, incommoded, AA. vi. 12. 

IRKED, p. t. were angry ? strove ? GK. 1573. 

ISCBE, to issue, GG. 253. 

I-SET, p.p. set, GC. 84. 

ITHANDLY, diligently, GG. 231, 308. 

I-TOLDE, p.p. told, GC. 96. 

fl-vrsfor I-wis, GG. 549. 


Y-WYS, truly, certainly, GK. 252, 264, 
1035, 1065, 1226, 1230, 1276, etc. AA. 
xiii. 3, xv. 12, xvii. 1, MS. D. xix. 13. GG. 
177,288,341. GC. 17,266,658. J. 215, 

309. I-WYSSE I WOT, GK.1487. I-WYS8E 

I WENE, AA. xxiv.4. Manifestly the Saxon 
adjective gewis, used adverbially. Several 
writers, and among them I include myself, 
(Gloss, to Will, and the Werwolf,) have 
erroneously explained this word / know, 
considering it equivalent to the Germ, ich 
weiss; but although satisfied about its 
origin, I still have my doubts whether it 
was not regarded as a pronoun and verb, 
by the writers of the fifteenth century. 

I-WRYTE, p.p. written, GC. 18. 

I-WROGJT, p.p. made, formed, GC. 333. 

JAPEZ, jokes, jests, GK. 542, 1957. 

JAPPYST, pr. t. jokest, GC. 201. 

JBNTYLE, gentle, of noble birth or breeding, 
used substantively, GK. 542. 

JOYFNES, youth, GK. 86. 

JOYLEZ, ^?Z. jewels? GK. 542. 

JOLILE, JOLYLY, gaily, GK. 42. AA.xxxix.8. 

JOURNAY, enterprise, GG. 789. 

K. See also C. 

KACHANDB, catching, reining up, GK. 1581. 

KAY, left, GK. 422. A word probably in 
troduced by the Danes. See Molbech's 
Dansk Dialect- Lexikon, in w. Kau, Kei, 
and Outzen's Gloss. derFriesischen Sprache, 
in v. Kei. 

KAYRE, to journey, depart, GK. 1048, 1670. 
KAYRE, pr. t. go, return, AA. liii. 13. 
KAYRED, p. t. and p. p. turned, returned, 
travelled, GK. 43. Gr.K. 123. 

KANEL, collar, neck, GK. 2298. See CANEL- 

KAUTELLE, guile, caution, AA. xviii. 2. 

KAUELACIOUN, strife, GK. 2275. 

KAJT, KA3TEN,pr. t. received, took, GK. 643, 

KELE, to assuage, AA. iv. 4, xvi. 6. 

KELL, KELLE, dress for a lady's head, caul, 
AA. xxix. 6. Gr.K. 261. 

KEMPYS, knights, TG. 6. 

KEND, p.p. known, GG. 1211, 1325. 

KENDE, p. t. taught, GK. 1489. 

KENE, bold, brave, GK. 321. GG. 185. 

KENET, hound, GK. 1701. KENETTIS, pi. 
AA. iv. 4. Jamieson in his Supplement in 
serts this word from Sibbald, at the same 
time professing his ignorance whence the 
former had derived it, a tolerably con 
vincing proof how carelessly he had read 
the poem of Sir Gawan and Sir Galaron, 
as printed in Pinkerton. 

KENLY, boldly, GK. 1048. 

KENNE, pr. t. commend, GK. 2067. 

KENNES, pr. t. teaches, GK. 1484. 

KEPE, n. care, heed, GK. 546. AA. xxxviii. 
2. j. 74. 

KEPE, to heed, or meet in a hostile way, 
GK. 307. KEPE, imp. take heed? 372. 
KEPPES, pr. t. catches, strikes, AA. xlviii. 


7. MS. D. KBPIT, j. /. and/>. p. received 
honorably, o. 178 ; guarded, 44. 

KsacHorES, kerchiefs, coverings for the 
head, OK. 954. 

, to recover, cure, AA. xvi. 6. Ap 
parently a mistake for, or contraction of 
kfutre. In The Erie of Toloua, ap. Kit- 
son, iii. 119, occurs dytkere for ditcover. 
Mr. Guest misprints the word keen, and 
explains it drive from ! Hist. . R. ii. 292. 

KIHHE, rock, OK. 1431. 

KBST, chance, blow ? OK. 2298 ; twist, knot, 
2376 ; stratagem, 2413. 

KBST, p. t. and p. p. raised, OK. 64 ; cast, 
228, 1 192, 1355 ; thought, formed a plan, 
1855 ; set, appointed, 2242. KBBTBN, cast, 1649. 

KEUER, to arrive, accomplish, OK. 750, 804 ; 
gain, 1221, 1254 ; recover, 2298. KB- 
UEREZ, pr. t. obtains, brings, 1539 ; de 
scends, 2221. KEUERED,P. /. recovered, 
1755. This participle occurs in AA. xlvii. 
1, MS. D., and is misprinted by Pinkerton 
kenerfd, which is repeated by Jamieson, 
who both in his Dictionary and Supplement 

. wastes a great deal of absurd and useless 
argument on it. The real reading is esta 
blished by couerde, i. e. recovered, of the 
Lincoln MS. 

KTD, KYDDE, KYDB, p.p. known, renowned, 
OK. 51, 263, 1520. AA. i.3,xi.9. 

KTD, KYDDE, p . p. directed, OK. 775 ; 
shewed, manifested, 2340. 

t KIDE, for KITH, country, AA. xii. 8, MS.D. 
Falsely explained by Jamieson, shew, ap. 

KIN, KYN, n. kind, OK. 890. GO. 517. 
KYNNES, gen. c. OK. 1886. 

KYXDE, . lineage, race, OK. 5 ; nature, dis 
position, reason, 321, 1348. 

KYNDE, adj. suitable, OK. 473. 

KTWDELT, suitably, OK. 135. 

KTWBIK, kingdom, oo. 407. 

KTBP, cut, blow, OK. 372. 

KTRK, church, OK. 2196. 

KIBNELDK, p.p. embattled, AA. Iii. 4. 

KYRTEL, tunic, gown, OK. 1831. 

KITH, KYTH, KYTHE, country, land, terri 
tory, kingdom, OK. 460, 2120. AA. xii. 8, 
xxviii. 9. oo. 192, 320, 1251, 1352. 

KYTH, to shew, oo. 376, 669, 873, 1212, 
1229. KYTHIT, p. t. 159, 488. 

KNAOBD, p.p. nailed, riveted, OK. 577- 

KNAPE, man, OK. 2136. 

KNABRB, rock, cliff, OK. 1434. KNABBEZ, 
pl. 721, 2166. See the Owl and Nightin 
gale, 1. 999. 

KNELAND, kneeling, oo. 383. 

KNITTEN, pr. t. cut? joined? OK. 1331. 

KNOKLED, p. p. with craggy projections, 
rugged, OK. 2166. 

KNOBNED, p.p. rugged, OK. 2166. 

KNOT, a hunting term, borrowed from and 
used as the French nceud, GK. 1334; crag? 
1431, 1434. KNOTEZ, pl. knobs, rivets, 

KOYNTYSB, cunning, OK. 2447. 

KRYSOMMEDE,^./). anointed with chrism, or 
sacred oil, at baptism, AA. xi. 8, xviii. 3. 


LA en, to take, receive, accept, OK. 234, 292, 
pr. t. OK. 595, 936, 1029. LACHEN.JJT. 
1027, 1131. 

LACHET, clasp, tie, OK. 591. 

fLADE, lady, OK. 1810. 

LADLICHE, hateful, odious, oo. 95, 160. 

LAFT, p. t. granted, delivered, OK. 369. 

LAOHT, LAUOHT, LAJT, p. t. and p. p. took, 
caught, received, OK. 328, 433, 667, 1830, 
2499. oo. 623, 764, 922, 1260; taken, re 
ceived, OK. 156, 971, 2507. GO. 454, 615; 
captured, 1182. 

LAGMON, (?) OK. 1729. 

LAYK, LAIKE, LAKE, sport, game, OK. 1023, 
1125, 1513 ; strife of battle, AA. xlii. 5. 
OG. 832. LAYKBZ, pl. OK. 262. 

LAYKE, to play, to sport, OK. 1111. LAY 
KBZ, pr. t. 1178. LAYKBD,J>. t. 1554, 



LAYKYNG, playing, GK. 472. 
LAINE, concealment, falsehood, Gr.K. 482. 
LAYNE, to conceal, keep secret, GK. 1863, 
2124,2128. AA. vii. 5. GG. 1031. GF.K. 

6. LAYNE, pr. t. and imp. GK. 1786. AA. 

xvi. 9, MS. D. 

LAIR, teaching, instruction, GG. 364, 832. 
LAIT, LATE, features, countenance, AA.XXVU. 

6. GG. 746, 1271. LAITES, LATIS, pi. 

looks, gestures, AA. xxxviii. 1. GG. 95, 160. 

See LOTE. 

LAYT, lightning? GK. 199. 
LAYT, to look, seek, GK. 41 1. LAYTES,^. t. 

GK. 355. LAYTE, subj. 449. 
LAITHLES, unmannerly, GG. 157. 
LAK, mischief, GG. 919, 
LANCE, LAUNCH, to utter ? to ride forth ? 

GK. 1175 ; to tell, 2124. LAUNCES, pr. t. 

rides forth, 1464. LANCEN, pr. fall 

quickly, 526. LANCED, LANSIT, LAUNCED, 

p. t. rode, 1561. GG. 901 ; uttered, threw 

out, GK. 1766, 1212. 
LANGABERDE, pi. Lombards, GK. 12. 
LANGES, pr. t. belongs, GG. 800. 
LANS, lance, GG. 485. Compare 1. 615. In 

the edit. 1508, and Pinkerton, it is printed 

laus, and explained by the latter fires; 

Jamieson, more suo, repeats the word, 

giving an absurd meaning and etymology. 
LANTE, p. t. lent, gave, GK. 2250. 
LAP, p. t. leapt, GG. 614. 
LAPPE, lappet, or hem, GK. 936. 
LAPPEZ, pr. t. embraces, GK. 973. LAPPED, 

LAPPIT, p. t. and p.p. wrapped, folded, 

217,575. GG.991. 
LAPPEZ, pi. flaps ? GK. 1350. 
LARGE,extent, GG.241; bodilystature,j.350. 
LARGES, LARGESSE, liberality, GK. 2381 ; 

cry of the minstrels at feasts, c. 478. 
LARGESSE, largeness, GK. 1627. 
LASSEN, to lessen, GK. 1800. 
LATHE, n. injury, harm, GK. 2507. 
LATHE, adj. hateful, AA. xxxiv. 3. 
LATHED, p. t. (?) GK. 2403. Perhaps a form 

of La$ed, laughed. 

LAUNDE, clear level space in a wood, plain, 
lawn, GK. 765, 2146, 2154, 2174, 2333. 

LAUSEN, to loose, GK. 1784. LAWSEZ,^. t. 

LAUTE, LAWTE, faith, loyalty, GG.394, 1107, 
1308. See LEWTE. 

LAWE, mount, hill, GK.765, 2171, 2175. AA. 
iii. 5, MS. D. vii. 5. See LOUGHE. 

LAWE, manner, GK. 790. 

LAWE, adj. low, AA. iii. 6. MS. D. here reads 
lo$e, which is misprinted lore by Pinkerton, 
and explained by Jamieson, solitary, q./or- 

LAWIT, p.p. unlearned, lay, GG. 1080. See 

fLAWTiNGE, laughing? TO. 56. 

LAJANDE, laughing, GK. 988, 1068, 1212. 

LAJE, to laugh, GK. 472. LAJES, LAJEZ, 
pr. t. 316, 1479. LAJE, LA3EN, pr. 
464, 2514. LAJED, p. t. 69, 909, 1079. 


LAJTER, laughter, GK. 1217. 

LAJYNG, laughing, GK. 1954. 

LE, LEE, land, plain, GK. 849, 1893. GG. 312, 
341. TG. 47. 

fLEANE for LAYNE, to conceal, c. 199. 

338. GC.442. c. 201. 

LECHIS, physicians, GG. 883. 

LEDANDE, leading, GK. 1894. AA. xxvii. 6. 

LEDE, LEID, man, person, GK. 98, 540, 1063, 
1195, 2095. AA. vii. 5, MS. D. xxxiv. 4, 
xliv.7. GG. 70, 157, 262; people, folk, GK . 
258; land, country, territory, 833, 1113. 
GG. 172, 186, 653. GC. 9 ; speech, lan 
guage, AA. vii. 5. LEDEZ, LEDis,/>, 
GK. 38, 126, 679, 1231. GG. 277, 369. See 

LEELE, LELE, faithful, loyal, GK. 1516. GG. 
71. or.K. 361,490. See LEL. 

LEERE, LEIR, to learn, GG. 364, 653. j. 418. 
LEIR, pr. t. teach, GG. 832. 

LEF, dear, agreeable, GK. 909, 1111, 1924. 
See LEUE. 

LEGGE, liege, GK. 346. 

LEGI ANCE, allegiance, GG. 263, 442. 

3 E 



LBID. to rule, gown, oo. 48. 

LEIF. to believe, give credence, oo. 1107, 

1305. LIF, imp. 71. See LBUB. 
Lir, pr. t. live, oo. 1 189- See LECB. 
LBIMB, gleam, light, oo. 1254. 
LBEAMB, body, oo. 1043. See LIKAMB. 
LBKB, p. I. fastened, encircled, OK. 1830. 

So G. lyrka. 
LBL, LELL, loyal, faithful, OK. 35, 1513. 

oo. 1308. See LEELB. 
LBLBLT, LBLLT, loyally, faithfully, OK. 449, 

1863, 2124. oo. 1031, 1183. 
LEMAND, LEMANDE, gleaming, shining, 

OK. 485, 1119. 

1781. AA. xlii. 3, xlviii. 8. 
LEME, to shine, gleam, oc. 424. LEHED, 

LBJ*YT,P./.GK. 591, 1137,2010. OO.615. 
LENDE, LETNO, to dwell, tarry, continue, 

OK. 1100. 00.152. LENDE, pr. t. OK. 

1499. LENDE, imp. AA. xxxii. 11. LENT, 

p.t. and p. p. sate, was stationed, OK. 1002; 

occupied, 1319; dwelt, remained, 2440. 

oo. 70. 

LENE, to grant, AA. xviii. 7, MS. D. 
I*BNO, LENGE, to dwell, tarry, remain, OK. 

411. 254, 1068. AA. xvii. 6, xxxii. 11, 

MS. D. liii. 7. LENGES, LBNOEZ, pr. t. 

OK. 536,693. LENGED,P. /. 1194, 1299, 


LENTOUN, Lent, OK. 502. 
LEPPIS, pr. leap, AA. li. 3. 
LEBD, p.p. learned, the clergy, GO. 1080. 
LEEB, countenance, OK. 318,418. oo. 1253. 

See LYRE. 

LEKB, to teach ? OK. 1109. See LEERE. 
LBBE, falsehood, oc. 7, 265. 
LESS, to lose, OK. 2142. AA. xxii. 12, xxxiv. 

3, MS. D. 

LESTAND, lasting, oo. 1227. 
LET, LETT, LETTE, hindrance, OK. 2142. 

AA. Hi. 10. oc. 597, 615 ; delay, oo. 755. 
LET, LETTE, p. /.caused, OK. 1084; feigned, 

acted, 1201, 2257. LET NOT, was not 

able, 1733. 
LETB, to look, OK. 1206. 

LETHE, to depress, moderate, OK. 2438. 

LRTHER, skin, OK. 1360. 

LETTE, to stop, tarry, OK. 2 303. LBTTEZ BE, 
imp. leave off, 1840. LETTED, p.t. hin 
dered, 1672. 

LETTYNOE, hindrance, AA. li. 10. 

LETTRURE, science, OK. 1513. 

LBUDE, LUDE, man, knight, OK. 133, 232, 
449, 675, 851, 908 ; territory, land, 1124. 
LEUOES, gen. c. man's, 2499. LEVDEZ, 
pi. men, 849, 1023, 1413. See LEDE. 

LEUDLEZ, companionless, OK. 693. 

LEUOH, p. t. laughed, oo. 1065. 

LBUAND, LEUEANDE, living, AA. xxxiv. 4. 
oo. 70, 430. Used substantively, oo. 954. 

LBUB, pr. t. live, OK. 1035. See LEIF. 

LEUE, to believe, OK. 2421. LECE, pr. t. 
1784,2128. See LEI r. 

LEUB, dear, beloved, OK. 1133, 2054. AA. 
xlix., MS. D. See LEP. 

LEU ED, LEuiT,p.p. left, AA. xxii. 2, MS. D. 
xxii. 6. 00.661. 

LEUEH, rather, liefer, OK. 1251. TO. 95 ; 
dearer, GK. 1782. LEUEST, dearest, most 
precious, GK.49, 1802. 

LEVIN, scorn, GO. 1043. 

LEWD, LEWED, p.p. ignorant, unlearned, GK. 
1528. TO. 30. 

LEWTE, loyalty, faith, GK. 2366, 238 1 . See 

LEJ, p. /. lay, OK. 2006. 

LEJTEN, p. t. took, OK. 1410. See LAGHT. 

LYAND, lying, c. 229, 255. 

LICHTIT,P.*. alighted, GG.677. SeeLiGHTE. 

LYERE, LYRE, complexion, countenance, OK. 
943,2228. GG. 614, 1003, 1145. AA. xiii. 
6 ; skin, flesh, GK. 2050. In AA. xiii. 6, 
MS. D. reads lere, which Pinkerton mis 
prints lever, and the word, thus disguised, 
is duly introduced into Jamieson's Dic 

LIPLOD, livelihood, GK. 133. 

LYFTE, sky, heaven, GK, 1256. 

LYOEZ, pr. /. lies, OK. 1179. 

LIGHTE, LYGHTE, LYJT, to descend, alight, 
GK. 1 175, 1373, 2220. AA. xvii. 6. xxi. 8. 



LIJTEZ, LYJTEZ, pr. f. GK. 1906, 2176. 
LYGHTE, imp. AA. xxxii. 11. LIGHT, 


GK.822. AA.iii. 6, vi. 12, xliv. 7. GO. 623, 

755. TG. 78, 288. LIGHTIT, LIJT, LYGHTE, 

LYJT, p.p. GK. 1924. AA. vi. 5, MS. D. 

xiii. 8. GO. 130. 
fLiGHTH, member, limb, cr.K. 57. See 


LIKAME, body, GG. 294. 
LIKAND, agreeable, pleasant, GG. 241,258, 


LYKE, body, personal stature ? GO. 858. 
LIKING, joy, pleasure, GG. 267, 1065. 
LYKKER-WYS, delightful, delicious, GK. 968. 
LYMP, to happen, befall, GK. 1 109. LYMPED, 

LYMPEDE, p. t. 907. AA. xlviii. 4. 
LYND, LYNDE, wood, tree, lime-tree, GK. 

526, 2176. GG. 289. GC. 114. j. 406. 

LYNDE- WODES, pi. GK. 1178. 
LYNDES, loins, GK. 139. 
LYNE, linen ; whence for female apparel in 

general, GK. 1814. 

LING, LYNG, line, file, GG. 766, 858, 1261. 
LIPPIN, to have confidence, GG. 832. 
Lis, to assuage, GG. 173. 
LIST, pleasure? GK. 1719. 
LYSTE, pr. t. pleases, GK. 2133. LYST, p. t. 

desired, willed, 941, 1784, 2049. 
LYSTENNYTH, imp. listen ye, GC. 1. 
LYSTILY, LYSTYLY, promptly? GK. 1190, 

LYT, LYTE, little, GK. 701, 1776. GG. 901 ; 

short while ? GK. 2303. 
LYTH, LYTHEN, to listen, GK. 1719. GG. 

875. LYTHIS, imp. listen ye, 1163. 
LYTHE, member, limb, GC. 190. 
LYTHES, territories, AA. liii. 2. 
fLiTYS, pi. delights, AA. xvii. 5. 
LYUERAY, bounty, allowance, T. 117,476. 
LYJE, to lie, recline, GK. 1096, 1994. 
LYJT, lightly, GK. 87. 
LYJTH, light, not heavy, GK. 608. 
LYJTLY, easily, GK. 1299. 
LODE, guidance, GK. 969; behaviour? 1284. 

fLoDLY, for LOUDLY ? GK. 1634. 
LODLY, LODLYE, uucourteously, GK. 1772 ; 

loathly, c. 182. AKC. 119, 158. 
LOFDEN, p. t. loved, GK. 21. 
LOFIT, p. t. praised, GG. 1145. 
LOFT, LOFTE, chamber, GK. 1096, 1676. 
Lois, fame, GG. 1078. See Los. 
LOISSIT, p. t. lost, GG. 677, 755, 874 ; p. p. 

destroyed, 277- 
LOKE, subj. guard, GC. 214. 
LOKEN, p.p. secured, inclosed, fastened, GK. 

35, 765, 2487. 
LOME, tool, axe, GK. 2309. 
LONCHED, perhaps we should read LOUCHED, 

bending down ? AA. xiii. 6, MS. D. 
LoNQvz,pr.t. belongs, GK. 2381. LONGED, 

p. t. belonged, appertained, 1524, 2515. 

J. 9. 

LONGYNGE, regret, trouble, GK. 540. 
LOPEN, p. t. and p. p. leapt, GK. 1413. AA. 


LORE, learning, skill, GK. 665. 
LORERE, LORRERE, laurel-tree, AA. iii. 6, 

vi. 5. 

LORNE, p.p. lost, AA. xxxvii. 2. 
f LORRE for LORRERE, laurel-tree, AA. iii. 6, 

MS. D. Pinkerton misprints it lone, and 

Jamieson, as usual, places the word, thus 

misrepresented, in his Dictionary, with an 

Icelandic derivation ! 
LORTSCHYP, lordship, GK. 849. 
Los, LOSE, renown, fame, GK. 258, 1528. 

AA. xxxvi. 7. 
fLossE, to lose, AA. xxxiv. 3, MS. D. See 

LOTE, mirth? jest? GK. 119, 1623, 1917. 

LoTEz,pl 988, 1086,1116, 1399, 1954. It 

is connected with the Fr. losterie, badinage. 
LOTE, (?) GK.2211. 
LOTE, features, aspect, gesture, GK. 639. 

AA. xxvii. 6, MS. D. See also MS. Cott. 

Nero A. x. f. 42. 

LOTHE, loath, unwilling, GK. 127, 1578. 
LOUFESOM, lovely, GC. 450. See LUFSOME. 
LOUGHE, hill, AA. vii. 5. See LA WE. 
LOUKES, LOWKEZ, pr. t. locks, GK. 628, 



9007. LOCKED, p. I. w* fastened, looped, 


LOUPE, loop-bole in a castle, OK. 792. 
LOUT, blow, TO. 142. 
LOOT. LOUTE, LOWTB, to bow down, obey, 

bend to. OE. 248. AA. xiv. 7. oo. 991, 

1276. er.E. 465. TO. 314. LOCTBS, 

LOUTEZ, pr. t. descends, OK. 833, 933 ; 

stoops, bends, 1306, 1504. LOUTIT, p . /. 

bent, oe. 1021. 

tLouuE, for LOUIE? pr.t. praise, OK. 1251. 
LOUELYCU, adv. lovingly, OK. 1410. See 

LOUELOKER, lovelier, OK. 973. LOUELOK- 

KEST, loveliest, OK. 52. 
LOUT, LOUIES, LOUYES.JW. t. love, loves, 

OK. 1795, 2099, 2468. LOUIED,J>./. loved, 

87, 702. 

Lou IT, p. t. praised, oo. 581, 1028. 
LOWANDE, shining, OK. 236 ; conspicuous, 

679. 868. 
LOWD OR STILL, on all occasions, or.K. 342 ; 

a phrase of constant occurrence in the ro 
mance writers. 
LOWE, flame, AA. vii. 5. 
LOWE. (?) OK. 1399. 
Lows, LojE, p. t. laughed, OK. 2389. AA. 

xli. 3. 

tLowELYURE, lovelier, GC. 369. 
Loj, LOJB, low, OK. 302, 1040, 1170. AA. 

xxxvii. 9. 

LO)LY, lowly, humbly, OK. 851, I960. 
LUF, love, pleasure, OK. 1086, 1284, 


LUF-LAJYNG, amorous play, OK. 1776. 
LUFLY, LUFLYCH, adj. lovely, fair, comely, 

agreeable, amiable, OK. 38, 575, 792, 868, 

981, 1469, 1480, 1657, 1757. GO. 667, 

755. LUFLYIS, pi. used substantively, 

me* or knight* being understood, 1003. 
LUFLY, LUFLYCH, adr. courteously, lovingly, 

becomingly, OK. 254, 595, 1206, 1306, 

1583. 00.991. 
LUFLT LT, courteously, lovingly, OK. 369, 

2176, 2514. 

LUFSOME, LUFSUM, lovely, OK. 1814. AA. 

xxvii.6. oa.241,746,1253,1271. 
LUKES, imp. look ye, AA. xxivi. 7. 
LI;R, loss, misfortune, OK. 355, 1284, 1682. 
LuscHiT,/>.f. encountered violently? GO. 1003. 

Omitted by Pinkerton and Jamieson. 
LUST, gluttony, oo. 82. 
LUSTY, powerful, oo. 172, 258. 
Lux, LUTTE, p. t. stooped, bowed down, OK. 

418, 2236, 2255. See LOUT. 


M.\ (ii, to encounter, meet in combat, OK. 

282. oo. 753. MACHED, MACHIT, p. p. 

matched in fight, arranged, AA. xxxiv. 8, 

xlvi. 11. oo. 1159. 

fMACB,pr.r. makes, OK. 1885. SeeMAisK. 
MA DDE, subj. should rage with love, OK. 


MA FAY ! ma foi ! OK. 1495. 
MAORY, MAGREYS, in spite of opposition, 

OO.771. oc. 164. See MAWGREF. 
MAY, MATE, maiden, GK. 1795. GO. 97- 

oc. 71,491. 
MAYLE, MAILYE, coat of mail, AA. xlviii. 6. 


coats of mail, rings of mail, AA. xxx. 5, 

xxxix. 11, xl. 10, xlvii. 6. GG.851, 1013. 
MAILL, company, oo. 215. See MELLE. 
MAYN, great, powerful, strong, OK. 94, 187, 

MAYN, MAYNE, strength, AA. xxxviii. 10. j. 


MAYNE, moan, sorrow, oo. 796. 
MAYNTEMES, pr. t. maintains, OK. 2053. 
MAISB, MAS, MASS, pr. t. makes, OK. 106. 

AA. xxi. 12. 00.796. 
MAISTRI, MASTERY, strife, conflict, 00.96. 

TO. 65. 

MAKAND, making, oo. 216. 
MAKE for MAKED, p. t. made, oc. 518. 
MAKELES, MAKLES, matchless, AA. xxvii. 

10, MS. D. xlviii. 10, 1. 6. 
MALES, MALEZ, bags, trunks, OK. 1129, 




MALT, p. t. dissolved, GK. 2080. 
MANHEDE, manhood, doughty deeds, GG. 69. 
MANKIT, p. t. maimed, impaired, GG. 1013. 
MANREDENE, MANRENT, homage, AA. 1. 5. 

GO. 1218. 

MANSED, p. t. menaced, GK. 2345. 
MARRE, to destroy, GK. 2262. MARRIT, 

p.p. GG. 96, 720, 965. 
MARREDE, p. t. moaned ? AA. ix. 6. 
MA SERE, maple, GC. 434. 
MAT, MATE, p.p. discouraged, wearied, GK. 

336, 1568. 

prayers, GK. 756, 2188. AA. xvi. 3, xviii. 8. 
MAW-GREF,inspiteof,GK.1565. SeeMAGRY. 
MA3TYLY, mightily, forcibly, GK.2262, 2290. 
ME, used absolutely, as the Fr. on, GK. 1214. 

Often, as an expletive, 1905, 1932, 2014, 


MEBLE, goods, AA. xvi. 4. See MOBIL. 
MEDILERTHE, MEDLERT, the earth, AA. 1. 

MEEN, to make mention of, remember, AA. 

vi.9. MENE,jpr. See MENE, MIN, 

MEKIL, MEKLE, much, great, AA. xliii. 6. 

GG. 303, 796. 
MEL, MELE, MELLE, to speak, talk, GK. 

2295, 2503. GG. 299. MELL, MELEZ, 

MELIS, pr. t. GK. 543, 974, 2336. AA. 

xxvi. 8. GG. 395. or.K. 37. MEL, imp. 

GG.354. MELED,JJ.*.GK. 447, 1280, 2373. 
MELE, MELL, to join in battle, fight, GG. 

69, 543. MELLIT,/). t. 572, 1012, 1119. 
MELLE, MELLE, MELLY, conflict, battle, 

GK. 342, 644, 1451. GG. 696, 851, 1148. 
MELLE, company, IN MELLE, together, AA. 

xxv. 8. 
MEMERED, p. t. murmured, AA. ix. 9. The 

word is still preserved in the North. See 

Brockett, v. Hammer. Jamieson explains 

it, erroneously, to recollect oneself. 
MENE, to signify, GK. 232 ; devise, 985 ; 

make attempt on, 1157; commemorate? 

AA. xviii. 8, 9 ; intend, GG. 96. MENE, 

imp. commemorate ? A A. xxv. 8. In the 

third and fifth of these instances, MS. D. 
reads Mynge, Mende, and Menye. See 

fMENEWiTH, (?) AA. xxvii. 3, MS. D. Pin- 
kerton and Jamieson neglect the contrac 
tion, and print mewith, which the latter 
interprets, moveth, changeth! 

MENGE, MYNGE, AA. xviii. 8, MS.D. xxv. 8, 
MS. D. Jamieson explains it, to soothe; 
but from xviii. 9, it would seem to be only 
another form of MEND, or MENE, to re 

MENGED, p.p. mixed, GK. 1720. 

MENSK, MENSKE, honor, worship, GK. 834, 
914, 2052. AA. xviii. 9, MENSKES, pi. 
GK. 2410. 

MENSK, adj. worshipful (used ironically), 
GK. 964. 

MENSK, to honor, treat with respect, GO. 
446. MENSKED, MENSKIT, p.p. honor 
ably decked, GK. 153 ; honored, GG. 215. 

MENSKFUL, honorable, GK. 555,1268, 1809; 
goodly, noble, GG. 408,481. 

MENSKLY, honorably, GK. 1312, 1983. 

MENY, MEYNY, retinue, household, com 
pany, GK. 101, 1372, 1625, 1729, 2468. 

MENYNG, knowledge, remembrance, GK. 
924 ; commemoration? AA. xix. 2, Iv. 4, 6. 

MER, to be in confusion, GG. 1013. Used 
also in Wallace. 

MERE, adj. simple, pure, good, GK. 153, 878, 
924, 1495. 

MERE, n. appointed place of meeting, GK. 
1061 . Perhaps we should read MERK, q. v. 

MERELY, an instrument of music, GC. 599. 

MERK, appointed term or place, GK. 1073. 
GG. 1237. 

MERKE, dark, used substantively for night, 

. TG. 69. 

MERKIT, p. t. rode, GG. 176. 

MES, mess, meal, GK. 999. 

MESOURE, moderation, GG. 355. 

MESSE-QUYLE, the time of celebrating mass, 
GK. 1097. 

METELY, measurely, fitly, GK. 1004, 1414. 



METHLBB, uncourteous, OK. 2106. 
MEUED, p. t. moved, OK. 90. 
MBJBL-MA*. Michaelmas, OK. 532. 

OK. 2100. TO. 40. See MEDILBRTHB. 
MTOBTTIS. pi. used substantively, men being 

understood, oo. 1012. 
Miw, MTN, to mention or remember, c. 140, 

162. See MENE, MYNXE. 
MYN. MYNXB, less, GK. 1881. oo. 1159. 
MTIVOBD, p. t. assembled ? OK. 1422. 
MTKNB, to think, remember, devise, OK. 14 1, 

1800, 1992. MYNEZ, MYNNB, pr. t. 995, 

1681, 1769. MYNNBD, p. t. 982. See 

MiM. Ml*. 

MYXXYNG, commemoration! AA. xix. 2, 

MYNT, aim, blow, OK. 3345. MYNTBS, pi. 


MYNT, p. t. attempted ? oo. 771. 
MYNTEST, MYNTEZ./W./. didst aim or strike, 

aims, strikes, OK. 2274, 2290. 
MYRKE, obscure, AA. vi. 11. 
MYS, MYSSE, fault, offence, AA.XV. ll,xvi. 
t 3. oo.97,291. J. 196. MYSSBS,^/. OK. 

MYS-BODEX, p.p. offered wrong, OK. 2339. 
MIST, quagmire, OK. 749. Still used in the 


MYSTBB, necessity, AA. xviii. 9. 
MYST-HAKBL, cloak of mist, OK. 2081. 
MYTE, smallest piece of money, oo. 1069. 
MYTH, to shew, GO. 871 
MYJTEZ, pi. might, power, OK. 282. 
Mo, more, OK. 23, 730, 770. AA. xxv. 2. 
MOBIL, property, goods, GO. 807. Mo- 

BYLLE8, pi. AA. Xvi. 4. See MEBLE. 

MOCHB, great, oc. 253. See MUCH. 

MODE, mind, OK. 1475. 

MOYSB, imp. muse, reflect, AA. xiii. 11. 

MOYSSED, j>. /. looked fixedly, as out of the 

senses, ix. 6. 

MOLAYNES, (?) OK. 169. 

MOLATT, mullet in heraldry, c. 57. 
MOLD, MOLOB, MOULD, earth, ground, OK. 

137,914,964. AA.xvi.4. oo. 350. or.K. 

283. c.435. AKC. 10. 
MOLDB, form ? oc. 570. 
MON, used as the Germ, man, and Fr. on, 

for one, a person, OK. 1209, 1484. 
MON, must, OK. 1811. 
MONB, complaint, oc. 123. 
MONTURE, MOUNTURB, saddle-horse, GK. 

1691. AA.xliii.9. 

MORE, greater, bigger, OK. 649, 2100. 
MOROUN, MORROWNE, morrow, OK. 1208. 

oc. 496. 
MOT, MOTE, may, GK. 342, 387, 2053. oc. 

153,205. TO. 171. c. 113; must, GK. 

1965, 2510. AA. xxv. 3, MS. D. ; might, 

AA. vi. 9. 

MOTE, assemblage, meeting, GK. 635, 910. 
MOTE, castle ? GK. 764, 2052. 
MOTE, atom, OK. 2009. 
MOTE, MOTEZ, pi. notes or measures of a 

bugle, OK. 1141, 1364. 
MOWB, may, GK. 1397. 
MOJT, MOJTEN, might, GK. 84, 1871, 1953. 
MOJTH, mouth, oc. 253. 
MUCH, great, loud, GK. 182,2336. 
MUCH-QUAT, many matters, GK. 1280. 
MUCKEL, stature, size, GK. 142. 
MUGED, p. t. stirred, hovered, GK. 2080. 
MULNE, mill, OK. 2203. 
MUNT, blow, GK. 2350. See MYNT. 
MUNT, p. t. feigned, GK. 2262. 
MURYLY, merrily, in joke, GK. 2336, 2345. 
MURNAND, mourning, GO. 1128. 
MUSED,JJ. t. (?) GK. 2424. 
MUTB, pack of hounds, OK. 1451, 1720; 

meeting, 1915. 

MUTHE, mouth, GK. 447, 1428. 
MUUAND, moving, GG. 1166. 
MWB, to move, GK. 1565. 


NA, than, GO. 1228. 

NADE, had not, GK. 724, 763. 

NAF, have not, OK. 1066, 



NAY, p. t. denied, refused, GK. 1836. 
NAYLET, p.p. nailed, GK. 599. 
NAYTED, p.p. (?) GK.65. 
NAKERYS, NAKRYN, pi. drums, GK. 118, 

1016. See Tyrwhitt's note on Chaucer, 

I. 2513. 

NAR, are not, GK. 2092. 
NAUNT, thy naunt, thine aunt, GK. 2467. See 

Glossary to William and the Werwolf, 

under letter N. 
NAUTHER, NAWTHER, neither, GK. 203, 

430, 1095. 

NAXTY, filthy, AA. xv. 3, MS. D. 
NAJT, night, GK. 1407. 
NEDE, NEDES, NEDEZ, necessarily, of ne 
cessity, GK. 1287, 1771, 1965, 2510. 
NEDFULLE, in necessity, AA. xv. 3. 
NEGH, NEGHE, to approach, GK. 1054 ; to 

touch, 1836. See NEJE. 
NEKED, little or nothing, GK. 1062, 

NEME,j9r. t. take, GK.1347. NEMMYT,^.^. 

taken, selected, GG. 664. See NYME. 
NERRE, nearer, GK. 237, 556, 1306. 
NEUEN, NEUIN, to name, GK. 58. GG. 506, 

664, 823, 1039. NEUENES, pr. t. GK. 10. 

NEUENED, p. t. and p. p. 65, 541. 
NEWIT, p.p. renovated, GG. 1071. 
NEWTHIR, neither, GG. 1120. 
NEJ, NEJB, NIEJ, nigh, GK. 929, 1771, 

NE3E, to approach, GK. 1575. NEJES,/^. t. 

1998. NE3ED, p. t. GK. 132, 697, 929- 
J-NYCHT, to approach, GG. 240. 
NYE, NYJE, difficulty, trouble, harm, GK. 

58, 2002, 2141. The same word is twice 

used in the plural, MS. Cott. Nero A. x. 

ff. 81, 84. 

NYE, to harm, assault, GK. 1575. 
NIF, unless, GK. 1769- 
NIGROMANCE, necromancy, c. 405. 


501. NYKIS WITH NAY, GG. 115, 332. 
A phrase expressive of denial, common to 
alliterative poems. See Gloss, to Wil 

liam and the Werwolf, and the Towneley 

Mysteries, for many examples. 
NYME, to take, GK. 993, 2141. 
NIRT, n. cut, hurt, GK. 2498. 
NYS, nice, strange, GK. 323. 
NYSEN,^. t. (?) GK. 1266. 
NYTE, to deny, GG. 899. 

NOBELAY, NOBILLAY, nobleness, GK. 91. 

GG.899, 1071. 

No EOT, except, GK. 2182. 

fNoGHE, nigh, GK. 697. 

NOKE, nook, corner, GK. 660. 

NOLDE, would not, GK. 1054, 1825. 

NOME, n. name, GK. 10, 408, 937- 

NOME, p. t. took, GK. 809, 1407. NOMEN, 
p.p. taken, 91. See NYME. 

NONEZ, NONS, nonce, GK. 844. The deri 
vations of this phrase suggested by Ju- 
nius, Tyrwhitt, Thomson, Jamieson, and 
myself (Gloss. Will, and Werw.) are cer 
tainly erroneous, and I have now not the 
least doubt that the original form was the 
Saxon for than anes ; a conclusion I had 
formed previous to my noticing the same 
opinion in a note of Price upon Warton, 
vol. ii. p. 496. 

NORNE, NURNE, to proffer ? GK. 1661, 
1669, 1823. NOHNE, pr. t. allege ? 2443. 
NURNED, p. t. proffered ? 1771- The use 
of this verb seems to be almost peculiar 
to the author of the poems in MS. Nero 
A. x. In another passage, I find it thus : 

An other nayed also, & nurned this cause, 

" I haf jerned & jat 3okke3 of oxen, 

& for my hy3es hem bojt, to bo we haf I mester ; 

To se hem pulle in the plow aproche me by- 
houe3." f. 57". 

NOTE, occasion, business, use, GK. 358, 599. 
AA.xxix.ll. GG. 410, 550, 1116. NOTIS, 
pi. 501, 506. 

NOTE, throat-knot? (Fr. naeud) GK. 420. 

NOTE, voice? GG. 823. 

NOTE, to view ? GG. 240. 

NOTE, noted ? GK. 2092. 

NOUMBLES, parts of the inwards of the deer, 
GK. 1347. See Notes, p. 322 ; and 



A JtwtU for G**trie, 4to, 1614. sign. 

r. e. 

NOUMBRIT. p. p. numbered, oo. 227- 
NOUTHB, NOWTHB, now, OK. 1251, 1934, 

9466 ; not, 1784. 
NOI-TBER, neither, OK. 659. 
NOWEL, Noel, Christmas, OK. 65. 
Nor, annoyance, oo. 1044. 
NOT, imp. annoy, trouble, oo. 823. 
NOJT, nought, OK. 680, 694, 961. 
NWB, new, anew, OK. 60, 636, 1668. 
NWBZ, news, tidings, OK. 1407. 
NW-JBB, NWE-JER, new-year, GK. 60, 105, 

284. XWJKHES, NWEJEREZ, gen. c. 454, 

1054, 1669. 


O, of, OK. 615. O NEWS, anew, OK. 65. 
OBBYAND, obedient, oo. 1217. 
OBBISB, to obey, oo. 1209, 1326. 
OBEISING, obedience, homage, oo. 1322. 
OBLISSING, submission, oo. 272. Perhaps 

a mistake for the last word. 
OF, from, OK. 183, 519, 1413; off, 773, 

*1332, 1607. TO. 287. 
Or-KEST, p. t. cast off, OK. 1147. 
OF-STEAYE, astray, j. 207. See ON-STRAY. 
OOHB, p. t. ought, OK. 1526. 
OLDE, age, OK. 1440. 
ON, one, OK. 30, 206, 864, 952 ; in, 867, 

ON-BREID, extensive, oo. 23; abroad, 

around, 952. 
OX-CHASYNO, a-chasing, a-hunting, OK. 


OX-COOLDE, (?) OK. 2474. 

DRBOHB, back, at a distance, OK. 1031. 

AA.xl.G, xliv. 3. 'oo. 110. 
OJCB, alone, unaccompanied; HTM ONE, 

alone, OK. 904 ; BOT OURR ONE, only 

ourselves, 1230 ; LET THE GOME ONE, let 

the man alone, 2118 ; WB AR OURE ONE, 

we are by ourselves, 2245. See AL ONE. 

ONB-BAK, aback, AA. xl. 8. See ANB-BAK. 
ONB-HBRANDB, in the hearing of, AA. 

xxxii. 1. 
ONEJ, once, OK. 1090. See Stevenson's Add. 

to Boucher, v. Aius. 
ON-FBRUM, afar, OK. 1575. 

ON FYR8T, VPON FYR8T, at first, OK. 301, 

491, 1477. 
ON-FORTONE, misfortune, GO. 1225. 



ON HYJT, VPON HYJT, in height, OK. 421 ; 

on high, aloft, above, 421. AA.XXXV. 6,xli. 

3, xlviii. 1,1. 7. c. 470 ; aloud, AA. xxvii. 

8, xxxii. 1, MS. D. xxxii. 10, li. 1. j. 269, 

414, 416. 

ON-HUNTYNO, a-hunting, GK. 1102. 
ON LENTHE, afar, GK. 232, 1231. 

life, GK. 385, 1717, 1786. GO. 404. 

above, GK. 788, 2261. GO. 70, 485, 614, 

991 ; aloud, AA. xlviii. 8, MS. D. 
ON-LOGHE, below, down, GK. 1373. 
ON-LOWDE, aloud, AA. xlii. 3. 
ON NY3TES, at night, in the night, GK. 47, C93 . 
ON-SLANTE, aslant, AA. xlviii. 6. 
ON (VP)-SLEPE, asleep, GK. 244. 
ON-STEIH, astir, GO. 830. 
ON-STRAY, ONE-STRAYE, astray, aside, GK. 

1716. AA. xl. 4, xli. 12. GO. 19, 916, 992 ; 

at intervals, apart, AA. xxxi. 2. 
ONSWARE, to answer, 6K. 275. ONSWAREZ, 

pr. t. 386. 

OONLY, alone, AA. viii. 7, MS. D. 
OR, than, GK. 1543. 
OR, ORE, before, GO. 276. oc. 137. 
ORE, mercy, j. 106. 
ORITORE, oratory, GK. 2190. 
O-RY3T, aright, GK.40. 
ORPEDLY, boldly, GK. 2232. 
OSTEL, mansion, GK. 253. See HOSTEL. 
OTHER, or, GK. 96, 702, 1246 ; either, 2216. 
OUCHES, ornaments, j. 327. 
OULK, week, GO. 1343. Used also by Bel- 




OUR, over, GG. 3, 19, 24. 

OURCUM, to overcome, GG. 348. 

OURGILT, p.p. overgilt, GG. 158. 

OURTAK, to overtake, GG. 1240. 

OUTE, throughout, wholly, GK. 1511. 

OUTRAGE, to fight, j. 441. 

OUTRAY, OWTTRAYE, to injure, destroy, AA. 
xxiv. 12. The first form is printed by 
Pinkerton, Jamieson, and Sibbald, ON- 
TRAY, and on their authority I inadver 
tently admitted it, but I am now convinced 
it should be OUTRAY. See Jamieson's 
Supplement, in v. 

OUTTRAGE, surprising, GK. 29. 

OUERGONE, to conquer, j. 396. 

OUER-THWERT, across, GK. 1438. 

OUER-WALT, p.p. overcome, GK. 314. 

OuER-3EDE, p. t. passed over, GK. 500. 

OJT, n. ought, GK. 300, 1815. 

OJT, adj. bold, GK. 2215. 


FADE, toad, AA. ix. 10. 
fPAY, a misprint for GAY, GG. 310, as ap 
pears from /. 233. Jamieson however 

supposes it to mean region, from the Fr. 

PAY, PAYE, pleasure, AA.ii. 6, xxxi. 6. Gr.K. 

504. TG. 164. AKC. 126. 
PAYAND, paying, GG. 143. 
PAYEZ, pr. t. pleases, GK. 1379- 
PAILYEOUN, PAILYEOUNE, pavilion, GG. 312, 

PAYNE, to be at pains, endeavour, GK. 

PAIR, PAYRE, to injure, impair, GK. 1734. 

GO. 1093. PA.iR,pr.t. fail, 1085. PAYHED, 

p. t. failed, GK. 650, 1456. 
PAISAND, heavy, GG.463. 
PAYTTRURE, defence for the neck of a horse, 

GK. 168,601. 
PALE, PALL, PALLE, PAULLE, rich or fine 

cloth, AA. ii. 6, vi. 1, xxviii. 2, xxxiv. 12. 

GG. 3, 63, 235, 313. or.K. 112, 324. TG. 

81. c. 206. 

PALWERK, fine cloth, AA. ii. 6, MS. D. 

Jamieson interprets it spangled work. 
PANE, cloth, GK. 154. AA. xxviii. 2. GG. 

1 127- PANEZ, pi. GK. 855. 
PAPFAYEZ, parrots, GK.Cll. 
PAPURE, paper, GK. 802. 
PAR AGE, lineage, GG. 284. 
PARAMOUR, n. gallant ? GG. 654. 
PARAMOURS, courtship, c. 220. 
PARAUNTER, peradventure, GK. 2343. 
PARDYE, by God ! verily, j. 489. 
PARED, p.p. cut, GK. 802. 
PARTENYNG, possessing, consisting of, GG. 


PARTYCE, covenant? GG. 1306. 
PASE, to poise, GG.463 ; pass, 708. 
PASSANDE, passing, GK. 1014. 
PATROUNES, sovereigns, GK. 6. 
PAUMEZ, antlers, GK. 1155. 
PAUNCE, coat of mail, GK. 2017. Jamieson's 

erroneous interpretation of covering for 

the knee is obvious, in v. Pans. 
PELICOCUS, pi. (?) AA. xxxi. 6. Omitted in 

Jamieson. See Douce's remarks on this 

word in Illtistr. of Shakspere, vol. ii. p. 


PELLOKIS, bullets, GG. 463. 

GK. 154. AA. ii. 6. GG. 313. PELURES, 

pi. GK. 2029. 

PENCELLE, banner, AA. xxxi. 2. 

ornaments of horse-trappings or a girdle, 

GK. 168,2038,2431. 
PENYES, pence, money, GK. 79. 
PENTANGEL, PENTAUNGEL, figure of five 

points, GK. 620, 636, 664. See Notes, 

p. 318. 

PENTED,^. t. pertained, GK.204. 
PERNYNG, picking and dressing, a term ap 
plied to birds, GK. 611. 
PERRE, PERRYE, jewelry, AA. ii. 6, xxix. 5, 

9, MS. D. 
PERTLY, openly, promptly, GK. 544, 1941. 

GG. 927. GC. 420. 
PES, peace, GK. 266. 




PBSANB. PBATWB, PTSAK, gorget of mail 
or plate, attached to the helmet, OK. 204. 
AA. xlv. 11. eo.927. 80 named from 
Pita, where these gorgets were probably 
first fabricated. In an inventory, cited by 
Du Cange, of the year 1316, is, " Item 3 
coloretet Puaimti de jazcran d'acier." 

PHB, measure, weight, OK. 2364. 

PBTER! an oath, used as Mary! OK. 813. 
It was left unexplained in the Glossary to 
Witt. ad the Werwolf. Other instances 
of its use may be found in the Tncneley 
Mytteriet, p. 29- Rot(f Coil^emr, sign. B. 
ii. ; Ritson's Mftr. Rom. in. 313, where 
the editor corrects it, erroneously, porter; 
Romance of Morte Arthure, MS. Line. ff. 
81 b . 83 b . ; and Romance of Syr Perecy- 
valit, ib. f. I66 b . 

PICHBD, PYCHBD, p. p. fastened, OK. 576 ; 
situated, 768. 


PTOHTB, PTJT, p. p. pitched, fixed, OK. 
1456, 1734. AA. xxxiv. 13, xxxv. 1, xxxvii. 
1. oo. 313. J. 265. or.K. 28 ; arrayed, 
AA. xxviii. 2, MS. D. but the Line. MS. 
reads DYOHTB. 

PtKBD, PYKKD, p.p. choice? OK. 769; 
picked out, burnished, 2017. 


PIWB, PYNB, trouble, grief, pain, torment, 
OK. 123, 747, 1812, 1985. 

PYNE, to take pains, OK. 1538. PYNED, 
p. t. 1009. 

PYJTED, p.p. (?), OK. 769. Perhaps a mis 
take for PYNACLED. 


PITH, PYTH, marrow, strength, power, GK. 

1456. eo.783,927,1290. 
PITT, p. p. put, assigned, TO. 32. 
PLATBZ, pi. steel armour for the body, OK. 

PLBASANCB, pleasure, OK. 1247 ; (KERCH YF 

or) J. 347. See Notes, p. 351. 
PLIGHT, PLYJT, hostility, danger, GK. 266. 

eo. 1104, 1305; offence? OK. 2393. 

PLYTBS, pi. 733. 

PLONKBTB, a white stuff, AA. xxix. 3. See 


POYNT, condition, OK. 2049. 
POYNTB, to declare, write, OK. 1009. 
POLAYNES, knee-pieces in a suit of armour, 

GK. 576. See Notes, p. 315. 
PoLD.p.p. pulled, oc. 180. 
POLEMUS, pi. (?) AA. xxxi. 6. Omitted by 

Pinkcrton and Jamicson. Perhaps we 

should read POLEINUS, knet-piecei. 
POLICED, POLYSED, POLYST,J>. p. polished, 

OK. 576, 2038 ; made clean, absolved, 


POM ELL, crest ? j. 335. 
Poo EH, poor, GK. 1538. 
PRAYERE, meadow, GK. 768. 
PRAYSE, to estimate, appraise, GK. 1850. 
PRECE, pr. t. proceed, GK. 2097. 
PREKETES, pi. wax tapers, AA. xxxv. 9. 
PRESE, throng, battle, GO. 236. 
PRESED, p. t. thronged, GK. 830. 
PRESENT, presence, GO. 1287- 
PREST, ready, prompt, AA. Iv. 3. or.K. 246. 
PRESTLY, promptly, GK. 757, 911. 
PREUE, privy, secret, GK. 902. 
PREUE, to prove, GK. 262. PREUED, p.p. 

proved, 79. 

PREWEY, privy, cautious, oc. 181, 451. 
PRIK, to gallop, GK. 2049. PHIKED, /?. /. 

rode quickly, or.K. 246. 
PRYME, six o'clock in the morning, GK. 

PRIS, PRYS, price, estimation, excellence, GK. 

1247, 1277, 1770, 1850, 2364; reward, 

prize, 1379, 1630. GO. 392. 
PRYS, note of the horn, blown in hunting, 

after breaking up the game, GK. 1362, 

PRISE, fine, good, prized, GK. 1945. AA. 

xxix. 9, MS. D. GO. 236. 
PRISE, to attempt? GO. 116. 
PRISIT,/). /. accounted worthy of prize ? GG. 


PRYSOUN, prisoner, GK. 1219. 
PROUES, PROVESE, PROWES, valor, courage, 

GK. 912, 1249. GO. 538, 598, 1290. 



PURE, quite, perfect, GK. 808, 1247. 
PUHED, p. p. refined, pure, GK. 633, 912, 

1737, 2393. 
PURED, PUREDE, p.p. furred, GK. 154. AA. 

xxviii. 2. 


QUAKAND, quaking, GG. 675. 

QUARTE, QUERT, good spirits, joy, AA. xx. 

10. GG. 586. 
QUAT, what, GK. 233, 460 ; how, 563, 2201. 

QUAT so, whatsoever, GK. 255. 
tQuEL, while, GK. 822. 
QUELDEPOYNTES, pL hassocks ? GK. 877. 
QUELLE, to put an end to, GK. 752 ; to kill, 

1449, 2109. QUELLED, p.p. slain, 1324. 
QUELLYS, cries, AA. iv. 9. 
QUEME, good, GK. 578 ; pleasant, 2109. 
QUEN, QUHEN, when, GK. 20, 130, 497. 
QUENTANCE, acquaintance, familiarity, GG. 


QUENTYS, cunning, GG. 1220. 
QUENTLY, easily, GG. 1223. 
QUERE, where, GK. 1058. QUERE so, 

wheresoever, 1227, 1490. QUER-FORE, 

wherefore, 1294. 

QUERRE, quarry, Fr. cur&; a term of hunt 
ing, GK. 1324. To make the quarry, is to 

break up the deer, and feed the hounds on 

the skin. 

QUEST, united cry of the hounds, GK. 1150, 

1421. QUESTES, pi. AA. iv. 9, MS. D. 
QUESTEOE, p. t. hunted in full cry, AA. 

iv. 9. 

QUETHE, cry, clamor, GK. 1150. 
QUETHEN, whence, GK. 461. 
QUETHEH, whether, GK. 1109. 
QUETTYNG, whetting, GK. 2220. 

QUHA, Who, GG. 69. QUHASA, whoSO, 


QUHARE, where, GG. 107. 
QUHEIL, wheel, GG. 1225. 
QUHELMYS, pr. t. rolls, GO. 1225. 
QUHY, QUY, why, GK.623. GG. 96. 



while, GK. 30, 257, 722, 1035. GG. 186 ; 

until, GK. 536. GG. 85, 272, 586 ; some 
times, 1730. QUYLE FORTH, during some, 

QUHILK, QUILK, which, GG. 132, 607, 


QUHILUM, whilom, GG. 546. 
QUYK, alive, GK. 2109. 
QUYSSEWES, cuisses, armour for the thighs, 

GK. 578. 

799,885, 1205,2364. 
QUYTE, to requite, repay, GK. 2244, 2324. 

AA.xliv. 2. GG. 1101. j. 363. QUYT,/)./). 

requited, GG. 203, 586. 
Quo, who, GK. 231. Quo so, whoso, 209, 

QUOD, QUODE, p. t. quoth, GK. 256, 309, 

343. AA.viii. 9,Hi. 1. J. 212. 
QUOYNTANCE, acquaintance, familiarity, 

GK. 975. 
QWESCHYNS, cushions, AA. xxxv. 2. 


RABEL, rabble, pack, GK. 1899. 

RACE, RASE, swift course, pace, GK. 1420. 

AA. ix. 8. GG. 1213. See RES. 
RACE, blow ? GK. 2076. 
RACK, hound, GK. 1903. RACK, RACHES, 


pL 1164, 1362, 1420, 1426, 1907. AA. v. 

6. GG. 1344. See The Maister of the Game, 

f. 71, MS. Cott. Vesp. B. xii. 
RAD, RADE, afraid, GK. 251. AA. ix. 8, 9. 
RAD, RADD, ready, quick, GK. 862. AA. 

xxiii. 8, MS. D. c. 326. 
RADLY, promptly, readily, GK. 367, 1164, 


RAGIT, p. p. torn ? GG. 854. 
RAYE, track? AA. v. 6. 
RAIK, to go, proceed, GG. 371, 1070. 

RAYKES, pr. t. goes, rides, AA. xxvii. 7, 

MS. D. RAYKEZ, imp. proceed, GK. 1076. 

F 2 

-1 0-1 


moved, ran, OK. 1727, 1735. AA. ix. 8. 

oo.72.6l3, 1130. 
RAYLBD, p. /. spread, OK. 952 ; bordered, 

163,603,745. AA.ii.4. 
RATSOUN, reason, argument, OK. 227. 
RAITH, RAITHLT, quickly, promptly, GO. 

128, 371, 910, 986, 1129. 1252. See 


RAK, vapor, fog, OK. 1695. 
RAK, encounter, oo. 918. 
RAKE, course, road, OK. 2144, 2160. 
RAM AND, roaring, oo. 1129- 
RAMY, to roar, growl, oc. 238. RAHYT, 

/>. /. roared, shouted, oe. 693, 966. See 


RANDOMS, swift course, j. 254. 
RAXDOXIT, p.p. flowed with a swift course, 

oo. 248. 

RANK, strong, oo. 691- See RONK. 
RAPELY, quickly, OK. 2219. 
RAPES, )*r. t. moves quickly, runs, OK. 1309, 


RABIS, roarings, oo. 85. 
RASCH, encounter, shock, oo. 914. 
RASEZ, pr. t. rushes, OK. 1461. 
RABIT, p.p. abashed, oo. 396. 
RASSK, raised mound, eminence, OK. 1570. 

So also in another poem in the same MS., 

the author says of the Ark, 

Hit s*:tled on a softe day, synkande to grounde ; 
On a roue of a rok hit reste at the laste. 

Nero A. x./. 63. 

The word is not in Jamieson ; but is pre 
served in Cumberland. See Brockett, v. 

RASSIT, p. t. razed, destroyed, oo. 986. 

RATH, RATHE, quickly, soon, AA. li. 4. oo. 
1314. See RAITH. 

RATHE, savage, hasty ? AA.xxxiv. 9. 

RATHELED, p.p. fixed, rooted, OK. 2294. 

RACDE, a path? OK. 1710. 

RAUOHT, p. t. reached, gave, oo. 458, 630. 
c. 237,323 ; p.p. given, c. 330. 

RAVINE, beasts of chace, prey, or.K.416. 

RAW, row, oo. 396. RAWEZ, pi. OK. 513. 

RAWTHE, terrible, jarring, OK. 2204. 

RAJTEZ, pr. t. gavest, OK. 2351. RAJT, p. t. 
rushed, 432 ; reached, gave, 1817, 1874, 
2297. See RAUOHT. 

REBANBS, ribbons, AA. ii. 3. 

t RKHK, an error, apparently, for RUBYES, 
AA. xxxi. 4, MS. D. Pinkerton and Ja 
mieson print it reve ; and the latter gives 
us the usual quantum of nonsense on it. 

REBUTIT, p.p. repulsed, oo. 1136. 

Ki i ii, RECHE, to reach, give, OK. 66, 1804, 
2059; attain, 1243. HECHES, RECHE/., 
pr. t. extends, 183; reachest, givest, 

REC HAS, RECHAYSE, the recheat, a hunting 
term, applied to the notes blown on the 
horn to call the dogs, AA. v. 6, MS. D. 
v. 10. The term is preserved in Shakspere. 
See Nares Gloss, v. Recheat. 

RECHATAND, blowing the recheat, OK. 1911. 

RECHATEO, p.t. blew the recheat, GK. 1466 ; 
p.p. blown on with the recheat, 1446. 

RBCHLES, careless, OK. 40. 

RECOMFOBTHED, p. t. encouraged, AA. iv. 4. 

RBCURE, remedy, oo. 1203. 

REDDOURE, violence, AA. vii. 3. 

REDE, n. counsel, AA. viii. 2. GG. 120. c. 87. 

REDE, to maintain, OK. 1970; to counsel, 
2111. AA. xli. 5, xliii. 4. REDEZ, REDYS, 
pr. t. managest, OK. 373 ; tells, AA. ii. 3. 
REDE, REEDE, REDDEN, pr. t. counsel, 
OK. 363. AA. xxxiv. 9- oo. 323. oc. 133. 
RED, subj. should counsel, GK. 738. 
REDDE, p. p. counselled, said, 443. 

REDLES, void of counsel, GO. 1130. 

REDLY, readily, GK. 373. See RADLY. 

REFOURME, pr. t. renew, remake, GK. 378. 

REFT, p. t. snatched, took away, GG. 81. 

REHETE, to cheer, GG. 1158. REHAYTED, 
p. t. cheered, encouraged, 895, 1422, 

REIF, to rob, GO. 1314. 

REYKYNQE, running, GC. 110. 

REIME, realm, GO. 1258. 

K LI u in i . p. t. clamored, GO. 914 ; p. p. 
resounded, 85 ; reared ? 238. 



REKENLY, straightway ? promptly? GK.39, 
251, 821. 

REKNAND, riding ? GG. 519- 

RELED, p. t. swaggered, GK. 229 ; rolled, 
spread, 304. 

RELYES, pr. t. follow ? continue ? AA. v. 6. 

REMENE, to remember, GK. 2483. 

REMORDE, to blame, GK. 2434. 

REMWE, to change, GK. 1475. 

RENAY, pr. t. refuse, GK. 1827. RENAYED, 
p. t. refused, 1821. 

RENK, RENKE, man, knight, GK. 303, 691, 
1558,1821. AA.xxvi. 5, 1. 3. GG. 72, 113. 
862,1134,2246. GG. 11, 133. In Rich 
ardson's Dictionary, 4to. 1837, I regret 
to find this by no means unusual word 
entered as REUK, on the authority of 
Whitaker's vile text of Piers Plouhman. 

RENNANDE, running, GK. 857. 

RENNE, to run, GK. 1568. RENNES, REN- 
NEZ, pr. t. runs, 310, 731, 1570. 

RENTARIS, holders of lands, chiefs, GG. 

RES, swift course, pace, GK. 1164, 1899. 
AA. xxvii. 7, MS. D. See RACE. 

RESAYT, a hunting term, applied to the 
stations taken up by those on foot, GK. 

RESCOWE, rescue, GK. 2302. 

RESETTE, RESSET, place of reception, abode, 
GK.2164. GG. 38. 

RESYNGE, pr. t. resign, AA. 1. 4. 

REST, p. t. rested ? AA. xxv. 5, MS. D. 

RESTAYED, p. p. stopt, driven back, GK. 

RESTEYED, p. t. constrained? GK. 1672. 

RESTLES, without rest, GG. 113,307. 

RESTLING, struggling? GG. 458, 

REUTH, sorrow, GG. 693, 996, 1129- 

REUAY, festivity, GG. 1343. 

REUE, to take away, bereave, GK. 2459. 
REUEDE, p. p. bereaved, AA. xxii. S. 

REUERSSEDE, p.p. trimmed, AA. ii. 3. The 
same phrase is found in the alliterative 
Morte Arthurs. 

And with ladily lappes, the lenghe of a jerde, 
And alle redily reuersside w* rebanes of golde. 
MS. Linc.f. 87 b . 

Pinkerton misprints this word reidsett, 
from the Douce MS., which is gravely 
received by Jamieson, and dignified with 
a Saxon derivation ! ! 

REW, to repent, GG. 98. REWYTH, pr. t. 
repents, GC. 195. REWIT, p. t. pitied, 
GG. 1090. 

REWFULLY, compassionately, AA. xxv. 5. 


royal, GK. 905. AA. xxvi. 7, xlix. 3. GG. 

15,72. GC. 26, 593. RYALLE, pi. nobles, 

used substantively, AA. 1.4. 
RIALLEST, royalest, GG. 402. 
RYALME, realm, GK. 691. RYALMES, pi. 


RIALTE, royalty, GG. 1041. 
RICCHES, RICHES, RYCHES, pr. t. goes, GK. 

8; prepares, dresses, 1309, 1873. RICHEN, 

RICHES, pr. dress, GK. 1130 ; march, 

AA. xxi. 3, MS. D. RYCHED, p. p. pre 
pared, GK. 2206. 
RICH, RICHE, RYCH, RYCHE, noble, proud, 

powerful, GK. 8, 20, 39, 40, 397, 1744. 

GG. 402. Used substantively in the plural, 

nobles, GK. 66, 362. 
RYCH, pr. t. teach? GK. 1223. 
RICHCHANDE, running, GK. 1898. 
RICHE, n. (?) GK. 2177- 
RYCHED, p. p. enriched, GK. 599. 
RICHELY, RYCHELY, proudly, nobly, GK. 

308, 931. 
RYD, RYDDE, to release, GK. 364 ; rescue, 


RIDAND, riding, GG. 189. 
RIDE, fierce, rough, GG. 500. Used also by 


RYDE, p. t. proceed, GK, 1344. 
RYGGE, back, GK. 1344, 1608. 
RIGHTE, p. t. rip, cut, AA. xxxix. 11. 
RIGHTUIS, righteous, GG. 1091. 
RIGHTWISLY, righteously, AA. xxv. 5, 

RIGNE, to reign, GG. 424. See RING. 


RYEANDB, potent, load ? OK. 2337. 

RIM BO, p. t. vociferated ? OK. 308. 

RTMBZ, rim, borders? OK. 1343. 

RYX, to run, oo. 1344. 

RTWB, territory, oo. 225. 

RIJJO. to reign, oo. 495. RYITOIS, pr. t. 
1236, 1289. 

RIXOAXD, reigning, oo. 1041. 

RYXK. ring, OK. 1817. 1827. 

RTOL, royal, OK. 2036. 

RIOLTSB, nobles, oo. 910. 

RYOT, revel, oo. 1345. 

RYPBZ, pr. t. becomes ripe, OK. 528. 

RISB, Rrs, bough, twig, OK. 1698. oo. 854, 

RISSHB, N. rash, AA. xliii. 7. 

RISTB, resting place ? AA. v. 6. 

RYSTB, p. I. rested, AA. xviii. 10. 

RYTTB, pr. /. cut, rip, OK. 1332. 

RTUB, rife, much, OK. 2046. 

RYVEZ, pr. f. rips, rives, cuts, OK. 1341, 

RIVBD, p. /. arrived, AKC. 32. 

RVJT, p. /. addressed, prepared, GK. 308. 

ROCHE, rock, OK. 2199. 

ROCHBR, rock, OK. 1432. ROCHERES, Ro- 

' CHEREZ, p/. 1327, 1698. 

RODE, ROODE, complexion, AA. xiii. 5. oc. 

RODE, Rood, OK. 1949. 

ROB, peace, rest, or.K. 395. Germ. ruh. It 
is left unexplained by Ritson in Le Bone 
Florence, Metr. Rom. iii. 36 ; and Erie of 
Tolout, ib. iii. 122. 

Ror, blow, cut, OK. 2346. 

ROOM, ROOHE, Ho), ROJE, rough, shaggy, 
OK. 745, 1432, 1608, 1898, 2162, 2198. 

ROT, ROTE, king, AA. xlix. 3. oo. 189. 

ROKKBD, p.p. rolled, cleansed, OK. 2018. 
Geoffrey of Vinesauf says, " Rotantur 
lories, ne rubigine squalescunt," which 
Sir S. Meyrick adds, was done by putting 
the coat of mail into a barrel filled with 
sand, and rolling it about. Crit. Inq. 1.85. 
Hence may be explained a passage in La. 
punon, 1. 22287. 

ROME, to growl, roar, c. 209. See RAMY. 
ROM EZ, pr. /. walks, proceeds, OK, 2198. 
RONEZ,P/. thickets, brush-wood, OK. 1466. 
RONOE, p. /. resounded, OK. 2204. 
RONK, RONKE, strong, OK. 513. AA. xlvii. 

6. See RANK. 

RONKKLED, p.p. wrinkled, OK. 953. 
ROOKE, heap, c. 370. 
ROTE, (?) OK. 2207. 

ROUOHT, p. /. recked, lamented, or.K. 242. 
ROUN, to whisper, commune, OK. 362. 
ROUNCE, steed, OK. 303. 
Rous, fame, OK. 310. 

ROUSE, brag, boast, or.K. 166. See RUSE. 
ROUT, army, multitude, oo. 307. TO. 131, 

ROUT, ROUTE, violent movement, impetus, 

OK. 457 ; blow, AA. xli. 5. GO. 630, 940. 

ROUTIS, pi. blows, c. 500. 
ROUE, p. f. cleaved, cut, OK. 2346. 
ROUEZ, roofs, OK. 799- 
Roj, ROJE, see ROOH. 
RUBES, rubies, AA. ii. 4. The Douce MS. 

reads, rybees, which is only a variation 

in spelling, or blunder of the scribe, but 

which Jamieson chooses in the 8vo edit. 

of his Dictionary to explain " shoes called 

turn-overs". '!.' 

RUCHCHBD, RUCHED, Ru8CHED,p. /.moved, 

advanced? GK. 303, 367, 2219. See Ric- 


RUDE, adj. strong? oo. 85. 

RUDE, n. Rood, GO. 124. 

RuDEDE,p.p. ruddy, GK. 1695. See RODE. 

RUDELEZ, curtains, GK. 857. 

RUDLY, speedily, GO. 561, 673. or.K. 153. 

RUOH, RUJE, rough, OK. 953, 2166. See 

fRuYscHLY, apparently an error for Ru- 

NYSCHLY, violently, OK. 432. 
RUNISCH, violent, impetuous, GK.457. 
RUNISCHLY, fiercely, roughly, OK. 304. See 

MS. Cott. Nero A. x. ff. 80 b , 85 b . 
RURD, RURDE, noise, clamor, GK. 1149, 

1698, 1916, 2219, 2337. 



RUSE, boast, GO. 98 ; fame, 1241. See Rous. 
RUTHES, pr. t. moves, dresses? GK. 1558. 


SA, so, GG. 831. 
SABATOUNZ, steel shoes, GK.574. SeeNotes, 

p. 315. 

SAD, stable, strong, GO. 249 ; grave, 428. 
SADEL, to saddle, GK. 1128. This word is 

only inserted for the purpose of pointing 

out a singular error of Mr. Guest, who 

prints the word/adeZ, and then explains it 

fettle. Hist. Engl. Rh. ii. 167. 
SADLY, gravely, steadily,GK. 437,1593,1937, 

2409. GG. 574. 
SAF, save, except, GK. 394. 
SAFE, SAUENE, to assuage, alleviate, AA. 

xvii. 1. 

SAGE, (?) GK. 531. 
SAGE, man, GG. 266. See SEGE. 
SAY, saint, GK. 774. 
SAIKLESE, guiltless, GG. 3, 797- 
SAIL, SAILL, SALE, hall, GK. 197, 243, 349. 

AA. xxvii. 1. GG. 72, 133, 360, 1092. 
SAYLANDE, flowing, GK. 865. 
SAILL, happiness, GG. 267' 
SAYN, girdle, GK. 589- 
SAYN, saint, GK. 1788. 
SAYND, SAYNDIS-MAN, messenger, GG. 47, 

326, 367. 

SAYNED, p. t. blessed, GK. 761, 1202. 
SAYNT, rich stuff, Fr. samit, GK. 2431. 
SALAND, sailing, GG. 250. 
SALER, salt-cellar, AA. xxxv. 8, MS. D. SA- 

LERS, pi. AA. XXXV. 8. 

SALF, to save, preserve, GG. 793. 

SALT, assault, GG.473. 

SALUE, to salute, GK. 1473. 

SALURE, salt-cellar, GK. 886. See SALER. 

SALUST, p. t. saluted, GG. 136, 382, 1278. 

SALUED, SALUEDE, p. p. saved, AA. xvii. 12, 

xix. 10. 
SAMBUTES, housings, saddle-cloth, AA. ii. 

11, MS.D. 

SAME, SAMEN, SAMYNE, together, GK. 50, 

363, 673, 744. GG. 906, 914. 
SAMEN, to assemble, GK. 1372. SAMNED, 

p.p. joined, 659- 
SAMYNE, same, GG. 304, 315. 
SANAP, SANAPE, napkin, GK.886. AA. xxxv. 

8, MS.D. SANAPES,/)?. AA.xxxv.8. " Sa- 

noppe, manutergium," Prompt. Parv. Ja- 

mieson absurdly interprets this mustard!!! 
SANE, SAYNE, to say, GG. 4. J. 57- 
SANED, SANEDE, p.p. healed, AA. liv. 4, 10. 
fSAUDE, p.p. served? AA. ii. 11, MS. D. 

Jamieson prints this sande, and explains it 


SAUF, to save, GG. 1102. 
SAUGHTiLLE,to make peace, to be reconciled, 

AA. Hi. 10. 
SAUGHTNYNG, peace, reconciliation, GG. 


SAULL-PROW, spiritual benefit, GG. 269. 
SAUAND, saving, excepting, GG. 441. 
SAUED, p. p. healed, AA. liv. 4, 10, MS. D. 
SAUER, safer, GK. 1202. 
SAUERLY, savourly, carefully, GK. 1937, 

SAW, SAJE, saying, speech, GK. 1202, 1246. 

GG. 266. SAWIS, SAJEZ,/^. GK. 341. GG. 


SAWTIRE, saltire, AA. xxiv. 8. 
SAWTRY, SAWTRYE, psaltery, GC. 598. c. 

SAJTLYNGE, reconciliation, AA. Ii. 11, MS.D. 

SCADE, p. t. severed, GK. 425. 
SCAR, to frighten, GG. 279. 
f SCAS, probably a mistake for cast, AA. xlviii. 

2, MS. D. Those who wish it may see 

what Jamieson has made of the corruption. 
SCATHE, harm, GK. 674, 2353. 
SCHADDEN, p. t. shed, dropt, GK. 727. See 


SCHAFTE, spear, GK. 205. 
SCHAFTED, p. t. set, sank, GK. 1467- 
SCHAGHES, groves, AA. vi. 2, MS. D. See 




SCIIAIP. imp. go, oo. 599- 
SCHAIR, SCHABE. p. t. cut, smote, oo. 930, 

SCIIALE, Shall, OK. 1240. 

SCHALE. man, knight. OK. 160,424, 1776, 
2061,2372. 00.599- SCHALKBZ, SCHAL- . 1454. oo. 639, 891. SCHALK, 569. 

SCHAXB, bright, AA. xxvi. 4. See SCHENE. 

SCHANKBS, legs, OK. 160. See SCHONKBS. 

SCHAP, p . t. was formed, OK. 2328. 

SCHAPB, to escape ? OK. 1210. 

SCBAPBN, p. p. shaped, OK. 213. 

SCHAPES, pr.t. relates, OK. 1626. 

SCHAPLY, fitly, fairly, oc.453. 

SCHABP, used substantively for sword, OK. 
1593. 1902; axe, 2318. 

SCHATBRANDE, dashing, GK. 2083. 

SCHAWE, to shew, OK. 27. 

SCHAJK, grove, wood, OK. 2161. See 

SCHEDDIT, p. t. CUt, 00. 990- ScHBD, />./>. 

cut, shaved, 604. 
SCHEDER, pr. t. drifts ? OK. 956. 
SCHEDBZ, pr. t. pours, OK. 506. 
tScHEims, a misprint for SCHEILDIS, GO. 

668. Jamieson, however, endeavours to 

find a meaning, and explains the word 

distances ! 

1880 ; brightly, oo. 22, 477. See SCHIR. 
SCHELDEZ, shields of a boar, OK. 1456, 


SCHEMERED, p. t. glittered, GK. 772. 
SCHEND, SCHENDB, to destroy, confound, 

OK. 2266. oo. 1077. SCHBNT, p. t. went 

to pieces, 619. SCHENT, SHENTE, p.p. 

injured, conquered, disgraced, AA. xlix. 

7. eo.689,1068,1186. j. 16,514. 

beautiful, clear, OK. 662, 2314. AA.XXIV. 

8, xxx. 7, xxxix. 7, liv. 7. oo. 242, 444, 
477,639. or.K. 447. Used substantively, 
OK. 2268. 

SCHENE, p. t. were conspicuous, oo. 1273. 
SCHENT, n. disgrace, GO. 1077. 

SCHERE, SCHIERE, countenance, mien, OK. 

334. GO. 616. 
SCHEHE, to shear, cut, GK. 213. SCHER, 

p. t. 1337. See SCHAIR. 
SCHIDES, SCHYDES, splinters, A A. xxxix. 


fScHiLDE, should, GK. 1286. 

SCHYLDE, subj. forbid, GK, 1776. 

SCHINANDE, shining, GK. 269. 

SCHYNBAWDES, greaves? armourfor the legs, 
AA. xxxi. 5. MS. D. seems to read SCHYN- 
BANDES, and it is so printed by Pinkerton 
and Jamieson. The same term occurs 
again in the alliterative Morte Arthure : 

The scliafte schoderede and schotte in the schire 

That the schedande blode one his schanke run- 

And schewede one his schynbawde, that was 

schire burneste. 

MS. Linc.f. 93". 

SCHYNDERED, p. t. severed, shivered, GK. 
424, 1458, 1594. 

fair, bright, clear, GK. 317, 425, 619, 772. 
oo. 537, 610, 639, 690, 1331. Used sub 
stantively for skin or neck, 2256. See 


SCHYRE, fairly, clearly, GK. 506, 2083. 

SCHYRER, fairer, clearer, GK. 955. 

SCHO, she, GK. 1259, 1550, 1555. AA. i. 13, 

iii. 1, xxvii. 7- 

SCHOLES, pr. t. (?) GK. 160. 
SCHONKBS, SHONKEZ, legs, GK. 431, 846. 
SCHONKIT, p. t. gave way, failed, GO. 619. 

Jamieson prints it Schenkit, and interprets 

it agitated. See also Weber's Gloss, to 
. Metr. Rom. v. Schenche. 
SCHORE, shore, earth, GK. 2161, 2332. 

SCHOREZ, pi. 2083. 
SCHORE, high, eminent, GO. 340. 
SCHORE, threat, GG. 103. 
SCHORB, to threaten, GO. 276. 

SCHOTTBN, p. t. shot, GK. 1167- 

shove, push, throng, GK. 1454, 2161. 



A A. v. 1. SCHOWUED, p. t. shoved, fell 

with force, GK. 2083. 

SCHRANK,/).*. sunk, pierced, GK. 425, 2313. 
SCHRBDE, to clothe? AA. xxxi. 5. 
SCHROF, p. t. shrived, GK. 1880. 
SCHROUD, apparel, armour, GG. 599, 968. 

SCHRUEDEDE, p.p. drCSSed, AA. U. 7. 

SCHRYDES, pr. t. covers or protects from ? 

AA. ii. 7. MS.D. reads SHEDES. 
SCHUNT, backward step? GK. 2268. 
SCHUNT, p. t. shunned, shrunk, GK. 1902, 


SCHUPE,JJ.. purposed, disposed,GG.456,473. 
SCHURDE, p.p. dressed, AA. ii. 7> MS. D. 
SCHWNE, to protect? GK. 205. 
SCOWTES, high rocks ? GK. 2167. See 

Brockett, in v. 
SECH, to seek, GK. 1052. 
SEE, kingdom, GC. 660. 
SEGE, SEGGE, siege, GK. 1, 2525. 
SEGE, SEGG, SEGGE, man, knight, GK. 96, 
115,226,394,437- AA. xxviii. 8. GG. 90, 
459. SEGGE, yen. c. man's, GK. 574. 
SEGGES, SEGGEZ, SEGIS, pi. GK. 673, 822, 
1438. GG. 142, 209, 651. 
SEGHE, p. t. saw, GK. 1705. 
SEY, sea, GO. 3. 
SEY, p. t. saw, GK. 1619. 
SEYE, to go, GK. 1879. SE3EN, p. p. arrived, 

SEILL, SELE, good fortune, prosperity, GK. 

1938,2409,2422. GG. 4. 
SEYMLY, fair, comely, GG. 524. The edit. 
1508, reads seynify, by a misprint, which 
Pinkerton converts into seynity. Jamieson 
contends that seynily is right, and means 
signal! !! 

SEIR, SERE, ad;', several, GK. 124, 632, 761, 
822, 1982. AA. xvii. 2, MS. D. GG. 214, 

SEIR, adv. much, eagerly? GG. 473. 

SEIR, GG. 529, is so printed by Pinkerton and 

Jamieson, although the edit, of 1508 reads 

FEIR. The meaning is doubtful. 

f SEIR, probably a mistake for SCHIR, bright, 

GG. 242. 


SEKER, SEKORE, sure, trusty, GK. 265. GG. 

2. See SIKER. 
SELADYNES, chalcedonies, AA. ii. 9, MS. D. 
Falsely printed by Pinkerton and Jamie- 
son scladynes. 

ELcouGHT, pi. marvels, GG. 210. 
SELCOUTH, marvellous, strange, GG. 266, 409, 

SELCOUTHES, marvels, wonders, AA. xxvi. 8, 


SELDEN, seldom, GK. 499. 

SELLOKEST, most surprising, GK. 1439. 
SELLY, n. marvel, wonder, GK. 474, 2170. 

SELLYEZ, pi. 239. 
SELLY, adj. strange, GK. 28. 
SELLY, adv. wondrously, GK. 1194. 
SELLYLY, strangely, wondrously, GK. 963, 

j- SELLYLY, perhaps for SELLY, excellent, 

GK. 1962. 
SELOURE, SELURE, canopy, GK. 76. AA. 

xxvii. 2. See SYLOUR. 
SELUEN, joined to a noun or pronoun in the 

singular, GK. 51, 107, 113, 1548. 


countenance, appearance, behaviour, GK. 

148,468, 1273, 1658. GG.428, 1282. J. 8. 

SEMBLE, SEMBLEE, assembly, GK. 1429. GG. 


SEMBLE, pr. t. assemble, AA. vi. 1, MS. D. 
SEMBLYNGE, meeting together, AA. Ii. 11. 
SEME, (?) GK. 1085. 
SEMED, p. t. beseemed, befitted, GK. 73, 


SEMELEDE, p. t. assembled, AA. vi. 1. 
SEMELY, SEMLY, adj. comely, fair, GK. 672, 

685. AA.XXXV. 8. GG. 1092, 1197- 
SEMEZ, seams, borders, GK. 610. 
SEMLY, SEMLYCH, adv. fairly, suitably, be 
comingly, courteously, GK. 865, 882, 916, 
1198, 1658. 
SEMLELY, SEMLYLY, becomingly, GK. 622. 

AA. ii. 11. 

SEMLOKER, more seemly, fairer, OK. 83. 



Sturm. SBMYT. p. t. appeared, AA. ii. 10. 

oo. 529. 

Sss, since, oo. 57,434. 
, for SENT, c. 198. 

, SBWDALB, SANDBL, fine silk, OK. 

76. AA. xxx. 9- 

SBKB. #. (?) OK. 341. It is allied to Su. 
o. MM, true? 

SEN*, to see, OE. 712. SBNB, pr. t. AA. 
ilvi. 13. 

SENS, without, oo. 779. 

SBNYEOUR, lord, master, oo. 145, 326. 

SEBE, see SEIR. 

SEBE. (?) OK. 1522, 2417- 

SEBKB, shirt, oc. 535. c. 367. 

SEBLBPEB, severally, by turns, OK. 501. 

SEBTAYN, certainly, OK. 174. 

SEBUED, p.p. deserved, OK. 1380. 

SEBCY, . service? OK. 751. Cf. 940. 

SBSB, to receive, OK. 1825. SBSED, p. t. 
held, seized, 822, 1330. 

SBSED.P. /. and p.p. ceased, OK. 1, 1083, 2526. 

which Jamiesoo, v. Scheidit, gives up as 
inexplicable, and yet which is of such fre 
quent occurrence as to deserve more notice 
than he has chosen to bestow on it. It is 
in most cases spoken of God, and the ori 
ginal idea seems to imply the creation of 
the world in seven days, whence it means to 
tet or dispose in order, oo. 1045. Compare 
the Pystyl of Susan, xxi. 4 ; and Towneley 
Mysteries, pp. 85, 97, 118. But in GO. 
508, 668, the phrase appears to have ac 
quired another sense, namely, to encounter 
in battle. In the same sense it occurs in 
the alliterative Morte Arthure, f. 75 b . 

SETE, (?) OK. 889- GO. 1155. Perhaps con 
nected with Su. G. seta, prodesse. 

SETE, SETEN, p. /. and p. p. sat, 865, 940, 

SETBE, SBTHTNE, SEYTH, afterwards, then, 
since, oc. 222, 290, 299. 436, 469. See 

SBTOLEBS, players on thecitole, a species of 
hurdy-gurdy ? AA. xxvti. 5. 

SBTTBL, seat, chair, OK. 882. 

SEVER, to part, OK. 1988. SEUERES, pr. /. 

SEW, p. t. follow, AA. vi. 2. SEWYDE, p. r. 

followed, oc. 62. 
SEWB, prepared dish of meat, perhaps a stew, 

GK. 892. SEWES, pi. 124, 889. 
SEJ, SEJE, SBJBN, p. /. saw, GK, 672, 707, 

SHADE, p. f. shed, flowed, J. 90. See 

SHAFTMONE, half a foot, AA. xli. 2. This 

term is retained by Sir John Harrington, 

in his translation of Ariosto. 
SHINAND, shining, AA. xli. 2. 
SHINDBB, pr. t. shiver, break, AA. xxxix. 7, 

MS. D. 

SHOEN, shoes, or.K. 516. 
SHONTEST, pr. t. shrinkest, or.K. 469. See 


SHOURE, conflict, J. 76. 
SHRED, p.p. severed, cut, AA. xliv. 10. 
Sic, such, GO. 274, 506. 


truly, GG.432, 773, 1005. J.210. or.K.215. 

SYFLEZ, pr. r. whistles, blows, GK. 517. 

SYKANDE, sighing, GK. 1796. 

SIKED, SYKED, p. f. sighed, GK. 672. AA. 
xliii. 13. or.K. 268. 

SIKEH, SYKER, adj. sure, trusty, brave, GK. 
96, 1 15, 2048, 2493. GO. 484. 

SIKER, adv. surely, GK. 1637- 

SIRING, SYKYNG, sighing, GK. 753. AA. vii. 
10, MS. D. SYKYNGEZ, pi. GK. 1982. 

SYLOUR, canopy, GO. 66. See SELOURE. 

SILIT, p. t. sank, GG. 524. Jamieson's ab 
surd interpretation of this line is unworthy 
notice. See his Diet. v. Seynity, or Sey- 
nily, words which never existed at all, ex 
cept by the merest typographical blunders. 

SILLE, SYLL, seat, throne, GK. 55. GO. 433, 

SYLUENER, silver, plate? GK. 124. 

SYN, SYNE, SYNNB, since, GK. 19, 24, 919, 
1892 ;then,afterwards,GG.62,304.GC. 515. 

SYNGNB, sign, token, GK. 625. 



SYRE, lord, master, GG. 144, 428. GC. 223, 

SYTE, disgrace, sorrow, GG. 1099, 1202. 

SYTIS, pi. torments, AA.xvii. 1. 
SYTH, sight? GO. 1315. 

SYTHEZ, SYTHIS, pi. GK. 17, 632, 761, 

1868. AA. xlii. 6. GC. 354, 638. 


THENNE, afterwards, then, next, since, GK. 
1, 6, 43, 115, 358, 1234, 1339. AA. iii. 6, 
xx. 5, xxxv. 7- J. 42. See SETHE. 

SITTANDE, sitting, AA. xxxviii. 7- 

SYJ, SYJE, p. t. saw, GK. 83, 200, 1582. 

fSKATTHT, injury, harm, GG. 279. 

SKAYNED, p.p. (?) GK. 2167. 

f* SKELED, apparently an error for SERKEI ED, 
incircled, AA. x. 3, MS. D. 

SKERE, modest ? GK. 1261. 

SKETE, quickly, GK. 19. 

SKYFTED. p.p. shifted, changed, GK. 19. 

SKILL, SKYL, SKYLLE, reason, GK. 1296, 
1509. GG. 1219. MG. 167. 

fSKYNNEZ,kind; theinitial letter in pronun 
ciation having become detached from the 
preceding word, GK. 1539. See other in 
stances in Lajamon, vol. ii. p. 607 ; and 
Arthour and Merlin, p. 159, 4to, 1838. 

SKIRLES, pr. t. screams, AA. xlii. 3. 

SKYRTEZ, horse-trappings, GK. 601 ; skirts 
of a robe, 865. 

SKOWES, SKUWES, SKWEZ, groves, shady 
coverts ? GK. 2167. AA. v. 1, MS. D., x. 
12, MS. D. Cf. MS. Cott. Nero A. x. f. 
81, 81 b . 

SKRIKES, SKRYKE, SKRYKIS, pr. t. shrieks, 
shriek, AA. x. 12, MS. D., xlii. 2, xlviii. 8. 

SKRILLES,;}*-./. screams, A A. xlviii. 8,MS.D. 

SLADE, SLAID, valley, GK. 2147. GG. 840. 
SLADEZ, pi. GK. 1159. 

SLAKE, gap or ravine between two hills, AA. 
xxiii. 12. 

SLAKED, p. p. drunken? GK. 244. 

SLAWE, p. p. slain, c. 420. 

SLE, skilful, GG. 883. 

SLEUTYNG, shooting, letting fly, GK. 1160. 

SLE3E, ingenious, GK. 797, 893. 

SLEJLY, slily, softly, GK. 1182. 

SLE3T, SLIJT, stratagem, GK. 1854, 1858. 
SLEJTEZ, pi. 916. 

SLIKES, pr. t. slides, AA. xlviii. 6, MS. D. 
The Line. MS. reads slydys, contrary to 
the rhythm. Pinkerton and Jamieson 
falsely print the word slik, and the latter 
makes it an adjective. 

SLYNGE, blow, AA. xlviii. 5. The Douce MS. 
reads slenk, which is only a provincial 
mode of pronunciation. Jamieson, how 
ever, is misled by it, and interprets it er 
roneously, apiece of low craft. 

SLYJT, skilful, GK. 1542. 

SLODE, p. t. slipt, GK. 1182. 

SLOKES, blows ? GK.412. 

SLOMERYNG, slumbering, GK. 1182. 

SLOT, pit of the stomach, GK. 1330, 1593. 
See NOTES, p. 322. 

SMETEN, p. t. smote, GK. 1763. 

SMETHELY, smoothly, GK. 1789. 

SMOLT, mild, GK. 1763. 

SMURE, to smother, be concealed, GG. 1204. 

SNART, SNARTLY, severely, sharply, GK. 
2003. AA.vii.4, MS.D. 

SNAYPED, SNAYPPEDE, p. t. nipped, GK. 
2003. AA.vii.4. 

SNELLE, keenly, AA. vii. 4. 

SNELLES, pr. t. pierces ? AA. vii. 4, MS. D. 

SNETERAND, drifting, AA. vii. 4, MS. D. 

SNITERED, p. t. drove, drifted, GK. 2003. 

SOCHT, p. t. went, proceeded, GG. 302, 459. 
See SOJT. 

SOFT, to soften, GG. 1055. 

SOJOURNED, p.p. lodged, GK. 2048. 

SOMER, beast of burthen, GC. 567. 

SONDE, Providence, GC. 150. 

SONER, to trust ? GG. 1105. 

SONYNGE, swooning, GC. 318. 

SOP, hasty meal, GK. 1135. SOPPES DE 
MAYN, pi. strengthening draughts, or 
viands, AA. xxxvii. 10. Dunbar uses the 
phrase breid of mane, which is equivalent 
to the pain de mains of Chaucer. 

SORE, p. t. grieved, GK. 1826, 1988. 

3 G 2 



SOBJE. inprecation, OK. 1721; sorrow, 24 15. 
SOTELEB, player on the citole? AA. xxvii. 5, 

SOTU, SOTHB, truth. OK. 84, 355. 
SOTHBN, p.p. boiled, sodden, OK. 892. 
SOBNDB, IN SOUNDS, well, unhurt, OK. 

SOCNDBB, herd of wild swine, OK. 1440. 

See Notes, p. 323. 

SODNDYLY, soundly, OK. 1991. 
SOCBQUYDBYB, pride, OK. 311. 

SOOEBANBFULL, noble, OO. 1304. 

SOWMB, number, OK. 1321. 
SOJT, p. t. went, departed, OK. 685, 1438. 
SPACE, to require? GK. 1199. 
SPAIL, blow ? oo. 984. 
SPALIS, splinters, oo. 629. 
SPARE, barren, GO. 112. 
SPAKE, several, divers, OK. 901. 
SPABIS, tm;j. spare ye, oo. 274. 
SPABLYB, calf of the leg, OK. 158. I have 
only met with this word once elsewhere, 
namely in the early Wycliffite version of 
Deuteronomy, cap. xxviii. v. 35, where the 
later version reads " hyndere partes of the 

SP'ABTHB, axe, OK. 209. 
SPED,;>. t. went, proceeded, GK. 1444. Used 
as p.p. with the verb to be, to imply suc 
cess, or.K. 375. 
SPEDE, profit, OK. 918. 
SPEDED, p. t. hastened, OK. 979. 
SPBDLY, expediently? OK. 1935. 
SPEIB, SPEUEZ, pr. t. inquire, inquires, OK. 

1624. 00.274. 

SPBK, SPEKEN, p. t. spake, OK. 1117, 1288. 
SPELLE, speech, narrative, OK. 209, 1199, 


SPELLEZ, pr. t. talkest, OK. 2140. 
SPEND, SPENET.JJ. t. fastened, GK. 158,587. 
SPENNE, (?) GK. 1074, 2316. 
SPBNNB, spinny, quickset hedge, OK. 1709, 


SPERE-FEILD, field of battle, oo. 1238. 
SPBTOS, cruel, OK. 209. 
SPI LLYNOE, failure, AA. xx. 7. The MS. D. 

reads Speling, which Jamicson falsely ex 
plains iimtrurtinn. 

SPYBE, imp. ask, AA. xx. 9* See SPEIR. 
SPYT, injury, OK. 1444. 
SPITETH, pr. t. injureth, TG. 155. 
SPORNE, interpreted by Jamieson to stumble, 

oo. 879. See Notes, p. 342. 
SPIIENGED, p. t. sprang, OK. 1415 ; dawned, 


SPRENT, SPRBNTB, p. t. leapt, OK. 1896. 
j. 146, 253. or.K. 200; shivered, split, 
00.618, 1238. 

SPRIT, p. t. started ? OK. 2316. 
SPURED, SPUHYED, p.p. inquired, OK. 901, 


SPUTB, imp. dispute, AA. xx. 9, MS. D. 
STABLED, p. p. established, GK. 1060. 
STABLYE, station of huntsmen, OK. 1153. 

Used also by Wyntown. 
STACKE, p. t. stuck, j. 267. 
STAD, p. p. placed, disposed, GK. 33, 644, 
2137. See MS. Cott. Nero A. x. ff. 58, 
68, 70 b . 

STAF-FUL, quite full, GK. 494. 
gered, GO. 624, 916, 929. 
STALE, STALLE, seat, GK. 104, 107. 
STALKED, p. t. approached, moved, GK. 237. 
powerful, brave, GK. 846, 1659. oo. 89, 
353,710,718,741. TO. 25. STALUAHT, 
and STALWARTIS, pi. used substantively, 
GG. 642, 768. 
STANDERTIS, pi. tapers of a large size? AA. 

xxxv. 9. 

STANQE, pole, staff, OK. 1614. 
STAPALIS, staples, fastenings, GG. 981. 
STAPLEDJJ.JJ. furnished with staples, GK. 606. 
STARANDE, glittering, GK. 1818. 
STARGAND, starting, AA. xl. 4, MS. D. 
START, p. t. started, moved, GK. 431, 1716. 
STAUB, staff? OK. 2137. 
STED, STEDDE, place, GK. 439, 2213, 2323. 
STEIR, to stir, GO. 505, 671. 
STEK, p. t. stuck, OK. 152. 



STEKILLEDE, p. t. strewed, AA. xxxi. 2. Per 
haps we should read STREKILLEDE. 

STEL, p. t. stole, GK. 1191. 

STEL-GERE, armour, GK. 260. 

STEMED, STEMMED, p. t. stood still ? spoke 
in a low voice? GK. 230, 1117. 

STENT, p. t. stopt, AA. xlv. 7 ; p.p- restrain 
ed, GO. 559. 

STEHAND, stirring, active, GG. 588, 890. 

STERNE, stout, brave ; used substantively, 
man being understood, GG. 19, 108, 987. 

STERNYS, stars, AA. xxxi. 2. 

STERYNE, stout, AA. xxxi. 1. 

STEUEN, STEUIN, voice, sound, shout, GK. 
242, 2008, 2336. GG. 2, 666, 821 ; con 
ference, GK. 1060, 2194, 2213. 

STID, place, AA. xxv. 4, MS. D. See 

STIF, adj. strong, brave, GK. 104, 107, 322. 

STIF, adv. courageously, GK. 671. 

STIRTANDE, starting, spirited, AA.xl. 4. 

STYNT, n. cessation, GG. 974. 

STYNT, to stop, GG. 767, 863. 

STYTH, stout, brave, GG. 678, 718. 

STiTHiL,jpr. t. voyage ? GG. 460. Jamieson is 
certainly mistaken in converting this word 
into an adverb, and explaining it eagerly. 

STITHLY, STYTHLY, stiffly, strongly, GK. 

STIJT, strongly ? AA. xlvi. 6. 

STIJTEL, to dispose? GK. 2137- STIJTLES, 
STIJTLEZ, pr. t. sits, dwells, 104, 2213. 
STYJTEL, imp. set, dispose, 2252. 

STOKEN, p.p. secured, fastened, fixed, GK. 

STONAY, conflict, GG. 863 ; trouble of the 
mind, 1056. 

STONAY, to confound, GG. 831. STONYES, 
pr. t. art astonished, AA. xxxii. 4. 
confounded, astonished, GK. 1291. AA. 
xlv. 9. GG. 1. 625, 821. 
STOND, STONDE, time, while, AA. xlv. 9. GC. 
1. c. 45. 

STONDED, p. t. confounded ? AA. xlvii. 4. 

STOR, STORE, adj. strong, GK. 1291, 1923. 

GC. 122. See STOXJR. 
STORE, n. combat, AA. Iv. 11. See STOUR. 
STOTIN, to cease, stop, GG. 768. STOTIT, 

p.t. 678. 

STOTTYDE, p. t. stammered, AA. ix. 5. 

liv. 11. GG. 642, 929. J. 160. STOUNDEZ, 

pi. GK. 1517, 1567. 

confounded, astonished, GK. 242, 301. AA. 

ix. 5. See STONAY. 
STOUR, STOWRE, STURE, adj. strong, brave, 11. GG. 87, 534. J. 73. MG. 8. 

battle, conflict, AA. xliii. 6. GG. 353, 575, 

624. GC. 5. J. 183. or.K. 46. TG. 149. c. 4. 
STOURNE, stout, bold, AA. xxxi. 1, MS. D. 


STOWT, strong, used substantively, GG. 831. 
STRAID, p. t. strode, GG. 616. 
STRAIK, n. blow, GG. 929, 981. 
'STRAIK, p. t. struck, GG. 1018, 1164. 
STRAYNE, to restrain, curb, GK. 176. 
STRAKANDE,/J./>r. blowing, GK.1364, 1923. 

A hunting term. See MS. Cott. Vesp. B . 

xii. f. 102 b . 

STRAUGHT, straight? GG. 460. 
STREYTE, STRIJT, p.p. stretched, erect, AA. 

xli. 13, xlii. 1. 

STRENYEIT, p.p. constrained, GG. 276. 
STRENKEL, pr. t. scatter, AA. xlvi. 5. 
STRENTH, to strengthen, GG. 199. 
STREJT, close, tight, GK. 152. 
STRY, STRYE, to destroy, GK. 2194. AA. xxi. 

6, MS. D. Erroneously interpreted by 

Jamieson to overcome. 
STRIGHT, straight? GG. 199. 
STRYKES, pr. t. rides, AA. xl. 4. 
STRYTHE, STRYTHTHE, position of the legs 

when firmly placed, stride, GK. 846, 2305. 
STROTHE,a<Z/. (?) GK.1710. Possibly related to 

the Middle High Dutch strut, copse, thicket. 
STUBBE, stock of a tree, GK. 2293. 
STUDE, place? GG. 718. 



Stcr. strength? oo. 495. 

SrurriT, p. p. tired, exhausted ? oo. 830. 

STUMMKRAMD, stumbling, oo. 624. 

STURNE, stout, bold, OK. 143. Used sub- 
tantively, 214. AA.xli. 12. See STBBNE. 

STVRTES, stirrups, OK. 171. 

SUAOB, pr. /. assuage, relax, oo. 828. 

SUANDB, following, OE. 1467. 

ScccBtiDRY, presumption, proud language, 
oe. 278. See SCRQUIDRE. 

SDKS, pr. t. follows, OK. 510. SUED, p. t. 
followed, 501, 1705. 

SCOETTE, subject, AA. xxiv. 7- 

SOIRE, neck, OM. 129. See SWYRE. 

SCMNED, p.p. summoned, GK. 1052. 

SUNDRED, p. p. severed, disjoined, OK. 659- 

SUPPOSE, although, oo. 94,824. 

SCRPBT, fault, OK. 2433. 

fSuROET, apparently an error for suget, sub 
ject, AA. xxiv. 7, MS. D. Jamieson consi 
dered it at first an heraldic term, and after 
wards, to mean a debauched woman, in 
allusion to Guenever ! 1 1 

SURQUIDRE, pride, OK. 2457. 

SUTELL, skilful, oo. 697. 

SUWENE, pr. /. follow, AA. vi. 2, MS. D. See 

SWANO, p. /. swung, smote, oo. 562. See 


SWANOE, loins? OK. 138, 2034. AA. xlviii. 

6, MS. D. 

SWAP, blow, AA. xlii. 7. 
SWAP, imp. exchange, OK. 1108. SWAP 
PED, SWAPT, p. /. struck, A A. xl. 7, 11, 

xlvii. 6, MS. D. 
SWARE, square, OK. 138. 
SWARE, neck ? oo. 1053. 
SWAREZ, pr. t. answers, OK. 1766. SWAR- 

D, p. /. answered, 1793, 2011. 
SWATHEL, strong man, AA. xlii. 7. 
SWEYED, p. f. moved, pressed, OK. 1429. 
SWENGES, pr. t. starts, OK. 1756. SWBN- 

OBN, pr. /. proceed, move quickly, 1615. 

SWENOED, p. r. rushed, 1439. See MS. 

Cott. Nero A. x., ff. 58 b , 66. 
SWERE, p. /. swore, OK. 1825. 

SWETB, n. suit, OK. 2518. 

SwETE.od;. used substantively, knight or lady 

being understood, OK. 1108, 1222. 
SWETB, p. /. sweated, OK. 180. 
SWETHLBO, p.p. folded, OK. 2034. 
SWEUENES, dreams, OK. 1756. 
SWEJ, pr. t. follows, OK. 1562. See SBW. 
SWEJE, p. r. stooped, OK. 1796. 
SWYEREZ, squires, OK. 824. 
SWYKES, pr. /. acts treacherously, AA. xlii. 

7. Jamieson explains it falsely, to cautf 

to stumble. 


xxiii. 13, xxvi. 9. 

SWILLED, p. /. washed ? ARC. 276. 
SWYNG, to strike, GG. 828. 
SWYNGEZ, pr. *. rushes, OK. 1562. See 


SWINKE, to labor, TO. 103. 
SWYRE, neck, throat, OK. 138, 186, 957. 

AA. xl. 7, MS. D. 

SWITH, SWITHE, SWYTHE, quickly, GK.8, 

815, 1424, 2259. GO. 380. TO. 312; 

greatly, earnestly, GK. I860, 1866, 1897. 
SWYTHELY, quickly, or much, GK. 1479. 
SWOGHE, quiet, GK. 243. 
SWOGHES, pr. /. flow with noise ? AA. v. 3. 
SWOUNDINO, swooning, or.K. 269. 


TA, one, GO. 904. 

TABERNACLES, ornamental work in archi 
tecture, oc. 610. 

TABLET, table-cloth ? AA. xxxi. 11, MS. D. 

TABLEZ, corbels ? GK. 789. 

TACHEZ, pr. t. fastens, GK. 2176. TACHED, 
TACHCHED,P.P. attached, fixed, 2 1 9, 25 1 2. 

TADE, toad, AA. ix. 10, MS. D. 

TAGHTE, p. t. took, AA. li. 6. 

TAKIS, imp. take thou, AA. xiv. 1. 

TAKLES, garments? GK. 1129. 

TALE, speech, discourse, GK. 1236. 

TALENTTYF, desirous, GK. 350. 

TALKKANDE, talking, GK. 108. 

TANE, one, GO. 1131. See Price's Note on 
Warton, ii. p. 496. 


TANK, to take, GC. 203. TAS, TA, TAN,^T. t. 
913, 977, 1920, 2305. TA, TAS, imp. 413, 
1390,1811. TAN, TANK, p. p. 490, 1210, 
2488. GG. 910. c. 173. 

TAPE, TAPPK, stroke, rap, GK. 406, 2357- 

TAPIT, carpet, GK. 568; table? 884. TA- 
PITBS, TAPYTEZ, pi. tapestry, 77, 858. 

TARS, is stated by Du Cange to mean 
Tharsia, a country adjoining to Cathay, 
but not to be confounded with Tartary. 
See his Glossary, v. Tartarinus. In GK. 
77, 858, it is named as the place where 
tapestries were manufactured, and in 571 
a rich silk must be understood. The 
phrase is met with in Chaucer, and in 
the alliterative Morte Arthurs, f. 87. 

TASEE, clasp, fibula, AA. xxviii. 4. MS. D. 
reads Tosses, in the plural, which Ja- 
mieson erroneously interprets girdles. 

TATHE, pr. t. takest, GK. 2357. 

TATHIS, fragments, GG. 913. 

TAUGHTE, p. t. gave, AA. xlvii. 7- 

TAUJT, p.p. behaved, mannered, GC. 328. 

TAYSED, p.p. driven, harassed, GK. 1169- 

TAYT, fair, plump? GK. 1377. See MS. 
Cott. Nero A. x. f. 69. 

TAJT, TA3TTE, p. t. taught, GK. 1485, 2379. 

TECCHELES, blameless, GK. 917. 

TECH, disposition, quality, GK. 2488. 
TECHES, pi. 2436. 

TEDDER-STAKES, stakes driven into the 
ground to which horses or cattle are te 
thered, c. 185. Still used in the North. 

TEIR, TER, TERE, tedious, irksome, AA. x. 
4. GO. 213, 898, 1341. See TOR. 

TEIRFULL, tedious, fatiguing, GG. 33, 42, 

TELDE, mansion, habitation, GK. 1775. 
TELDES, pi. 11. 

TELDET, p. t. set up, GK. 1648. TELDED, 
TELDEDE, p. p. set up, built, 795, 884 ; 
covered, AA. xxx. 9- 

TEMES, stories, themes? GK. 1541. 

TEMYT, p. t. emptied, GG. 756. 

TEND, tithe, tenth, GG. 760. 

TENE, n. sorrow, mischief, GK. 22. AA. xxii. 

9 ; trouble, GK. 1008 ; anger, AA. xl. 5, 

xlvii. 7- 

TENE, adj. difficult of passage, perilous, fa 
tiguing, GK. 1707, 2075. GG. 33. 
TENE, to grieve, GK. 2002. TENEZ, pr. t. 

troubles, matters, 547. TENED, p. t. 

grieved, 2501 ; p.p. molested, 1169. 
TENEFUL, grievous, AA. xlvii. 7, MS. D. 
TENELYNG, trouble ? GK. 1514. 
TENT, n. intent, care, attention, GK. 624. 

AA. xiii. 9, MS. D. GG. 149. 
TENT, to pay attention, GG. 342. TENTED, 

p. t. took care of, GK. 1018. 
TENTETH, pr. t. contenteth, c. 129. 
TEUGH, TEWCH, tough, GG. 704, 1069. In 

the latter instance it is used in a phrase 

by no means unusual, meaning to make 

difficulties. See Tyrwhitt's Gloss, in v. 


TEYND, (?) GG. 1083. 
THA, the, GK. 1069. 
THAI, THAY, those, GG. 218, 365, 737. 
THAIRTILL, thereto, GG. 1296. 
THAN, when, GG. 1186. 
THANE, perhaps ace. case of the, AA. xxvi. 3. 
THAR, THARE, pr. t. need, GK. 2354. AA. 

xiv. 1, MS. D. 
THAT, used for what, GK. 1406 ; joined with 

a noun in the plural, those, GG. 339, 1153. 

GC. 221,426. 

THAJ, though, GK. 350,438,467. See THOJ. 
THEDE, THEID, country, land, kingdom, GK. 

1499. GG. 174,345,435. 
THEDER, thither, GK. 935. 
THEE, to thrive, Gr.K. 73. 
THEN, than, GK. 24, 236, 655. 
THER, THERE, where, GK. 353,428, 874. 
THER-FORNE, therefore, GK. 1107- THER- 

TYKE, thereto, 1110, 1369. 
THEWES, THEWEZ, manners, GK. 912, 916. 
THINE, THYNE, thence, GG. 229, 1313. 

THYNKKEZ, pr. t. seems, GK. 1111, 1241, 

1481, 1793, 2109. AA. xxv. 10. 
THIR, these, AA. viii. 6, xxviii. Q. GG. 5715 

et scepius. 



THII, THIM, Tarn, these, OK. 42, 114, 

054,1514. AA.IV. 7- oe.1194. 
Tao, perhaps a mistake for TUB, OK. 39, 


THO, those, OK. 68, 466. AA.xx.3. c.382. 

TIIOE, then. T0.2I6. c. 398. 

THOP, though, OK. 624. 

THOOHT, though, oo. 210, 501,575. 

THOLBD, p. /. suffered, OK. 1859,2419- 

THOXKK, . thank, OK. 1984. THONK, 

THONKKEZ, ;>/. 1031, 1380. 
THO RE, there, OK. 667. 
fTnows, then, or.K. 370. 
THO|, though, OK. 69. See THAJ. 
THOJT, p. t. seemed, OK. 49, 803, 819, 870. 
TBBA, THRAW, bold, oo. 60. TO. 34. See 


THKAXO, battle, melee, oo. 345, 709. 
THRANO, p. t. crowded, pressed, oo. 60. 
THRAST, p. t. thrust, OK. 1443. 
THRAT, p. t. threatened, OK. 1713 ; urged ? 


THRAWEM, p.p. bound, twisted, OK. 194. 
THRAWEN, adj. brawny? OK. 579. 
THREPE, chiding, OK. 1859, 2397. 
THREPEZ, pr. t. chides, reproves, OK. 504. 
THRETBD, /). /. threatened, OK. 1725. 
THRICH, . push, rush, OK. 1713. 
THRIL, slave, GO. 435. 
THRICAND, THRYUANDE, hearty, OK. 1980; 

successful, oo. 345. 

1080,1380; prosperously, GO. 435. 
THRO, THROE, earnest, eager, OK. 645, 1021, 

1713, 1751, 1868, 1946 ; bold, confident, 

2300. or.K. 470. c. 151. SeeTHHA. 
THROLY, earnestly, OK. 939. 
THRONGS, p. t. thrust, crowded, OK. 1021. 
THROWS, time, while, OK. 1680, 2219. 
THROWS*, p. p. plump ? OK. 1740. See 


AKC. 120, 169. 
TURVES, thrice, GK. 1936. 
THRYNOEZ, pr. /. crowdest, OK. 2397. 
TBRYNNE, three, OK. 1868. 

THRYUEN, p. p. well-favored, OK. 1740. 
THRYJT, p. t. threw, OK. 1443 ; p.p. given, 


THULGED, p. t. endured, OK. 1859. 
THUHLED, p. t. pierced, OK. 1356. 
THURJ,THURJB, through, above, OK. 91, 243, 

645, et pass. 

TII UT, p. t. thought, OK. 843, 848. 
THWARLE, tight, hard, OK. 194. Whorl- 
knot is still used in the same sense in 

THWONO, thong, OK. 194. THWONGES,P/. 


THY, therefore, OK. 2247. 
TYBER, the river Tiber in Italy, AA. xxii. 9, 

MS. D. The reading of the Lincoln MS. 

proves how far wide of the truth Jamicson 

was, in conjecturing the word to mean 

TYDE, to betide, GO. 1083. TYDEZ, pr. t. 


TYKFEN, p. t. array, put in order, GK. 1129. 
TIGHT, TYGHTE, TYJT, p. p. fastened, tied, 

OK. 568, 858. AA. xxviii. 4 ; accoutred, 

oo. 197 ; made, built, 526 ; prepared, 744 ; 

undertaken? 898. 
TIL, TILLE, TYLLE, to, OK. 673, 1979. AA. 

xxviii. 9. 00.1163. oc. 506. 
TYLD, tent, mansion, oo. 356. See TELDE. 
TYMBER, TIMBIRE, to cause, build up, AA. 

xxii. 9. See Ritson's Gloss. Metr. Rom. 

in V. 

TYNT, p. p. lost, GO. 993. 
TYPOUN, type, pattern, GK. 1540. 
TIT, TITE, TIJT, TYT, TYTE, promptly, 

speedily, GK. 31, 299, 1596. AA. xiii. 9, 

MS. D. oo. 756. oc. 357. c. 393. See 


TYTELET, commencement, chief, OK. 1515. 

TITLERES, hounds, OK. 1726. 

TYXT, text, OK. 1515, 1541. 

TYJT, p. t. undertake? OK. 2483. See 

To, too, OK. 1827. j. 60 ; till, AA. xxxix. 5. 

GG. 306, 754. 
To- BRAKE, p. t. brake in pieces, oc. 398. 



TO-DTQHT, to occasion, cause, j. 112. See 

TO-FYLCHED, p. t. seized, pulled down, QK. 


TO-FLEN, to flee, oc. 210. 
TO-HEWE, to cut in pieces, GK. 1853. 
TOKE, p. t. gave, GC. 294. 
TOLE, weapon, GK.413, 2260. 
TOLKE, man, GK. 1775, 1811, 1966. See 


TOME, leisure, AA. xxv. 2, MS. D. 
TO-MORN, TO-MORNE, to morrow, GK. 548, 

756, 1097. 

TONE, p.p. betaken, committed, GK. 2159. 
TOPPYNG, mane ? GK. 191. 
TOR, TORE, tedious, difficult, GK. 165, 719. 

AA. xv. 8. See TEIR. 
TO-RACED, p.p. run down, GK. 1168. 
TORET, p.p. turreted, GK. 960. 
TORFEIH, hardship, GG. 876. 
TORNAYEEZ, pr. t. turns, wheels, GK. 1767. 
TORNAYLE, task? GK. 1540. Perhaps we 

should read TORUAYLE, labor, from Isl. 

TORRIS, towers, GG. 42 ; high rocks, 42. In 

this last sense it is still used in the North, 

but Jamieson blunders at it, more suo. 
TORTORS, turtles, GK. 612. 
TO-STIFFILIT, p. p. overthrown, GG. 625. 

See Brockett, v. stavelling. 
TO-TACHCHED,/). j3. fastened, tied, GK. 579. 


TOTES, pr. t. peeps, GK. 1476. 
TO-TUHNIT, p. t. turned ? GG. 704. 
fTow, two, TG. 35. 
TOWCHEZ, covenants ? GK. 1677- 
TOWEN, p.p. fatigued, GK. 1093. 
TOJT, promptly ? GK. 1869. 
TRACE, path, business, j. 442. 
TRAYFOLES, knots, devices, AA. xl. 3. 
TRAYFOLEDE, p.p. ornamented with knots, 

AA. xl. 3. The MS. D. reads trifeled. 

From the Fr. treffilier, a chain-maker. 
TRAYLEZ, pr. t. hunt by the track or scent, 

GK. 1700. 
TRAIST, adj. trusty, GG. 756, 913. 

THAIST, adv. trustily, faithfully, GG. 292, 

415, 752. 
TRAIST,JJ. t. pledge faith, GG. 1122. TRAYST, 

p.p. assured, GK. 1211. 
TRAISTFULLY, faithfully, GG. 197. 
TRAISTLY, trustily, securely, GG. 704, 744. 
TRAYTERES, (?) GK. 1700. 
TRAMMES, stratagems, GK. 3. 
TRANES, devices, knots, AA. xl. 3, MS. D. 
TRANTES, pr. t. employs artifices or tricks, 

GK. 1707. See Tovmeley Mysteries, v. 

Trant, which is left unexplained in the 

TRAS, TRASE, track of game, AA. v. 11, xlvii. 

12, MS. D. 
TRASED, THASIT, p. p. twined, GK. 1739 ; 

confounded? GG. 675. 
TRAUAYL, fatigue, labor, GK. 2241. THA- 

VALIS, pi. GG. 898. 

travelled, GK. 1093 ; fatigued, AA. li. 6. 

GG. 34. 

TRAUNT, trick, GK. 1700. See TRANTES. 

fidelity, GK. 403, 626, 1050, 1545, 1638. 
TRAWE, to believe, GK. 70, 94. THAWE, 

pr. t. 1396. TRAWE, imp. trust, 2112. 


TREJETED, p.p. marked, adorned, GK. 960. 
THENTALLES, service of thirty masses, AA. 

xvii. 10. 

TRESSOUR, head-dress, GK. 1739. 
TREST, firmly, trustily, GG. 526. 
TRESTES, TRESTEZ, trestles, supports of a 

table, GK. 884, 1648. 
TRETE, row, array, AA. xxviii. 3. 
TRETID, p. t. entreated, GG. 1066. 
TREUX, truce, GG. 572. 
TREW, truce, GG. 1122. 

true-love knots, GK. 612. AA. xxviii. 3, 

xl. 3. 

TRICHERIE, treachery, GK. 4. 
THYED, p.p. fine, costly, good, GK. 77. 219. 
TRISTE, appointed station in hunting, AA. 

3 H 



iii. 11. Twn, pi. AA. iii. 8/9. See Ma- 

lory'i Marie f Arthur, vol. u. p. 355. 
TRYBTBR, station in hunting, OK. 1712. 


1 146, 1 170. AA. iii. 8, 9. MS. D. 
TRYSTYLY, faithfully, OK. 2348. 
fTRYUB for THRYUE, GC. 315. 
TROCHET,(?) a term of architecture, GK.795. 
TBOFELYTB, p. p. ornamented with knots, 

AA. xxviii. 3. See TRAYFOLBDB. 
Taowa, to believe, OK. 2238. TBOWE, 

pr. t. 813. TROWB, imp. oc. 129- See 


Taoa, (?) OK. 1210. 
TRUMPES, TRUMPEZ, trumpets, OK. 116, 


TRI-SSEN, pr. t. pack up, OK. 1129- 
TRWB, true, OK. 1091, 1514, 1845. 
TRWLUF, TRWRLUF, true love, OK. 1527, 


TUOLIT, p.p. toiled, fatigued, GO. 34. 
TULB, (?) OK. 568. See the next word. 
TULY, seems to be equivalent, GK. 858, to 

Touloute, 77 ; which place seems then to 

have been famed for its tapestries. 
TULK, man, knight, OK. 3, 638, 2133. 

TCLKBS, pi. 41. See TOLKE. 
TCRATIB, turrets, oo.42. 
tTi-KXYGE for TURNYNGR, tournaying, AA. 


TURSSIT, p. t. trussed, packed, oo. 224. 
TUBCHKZ, tusks, OK. 1573, 1579* 
TWEYNB, TWYNNE, two, twain, OK. 425, 

962, 1339. 

TWYES, twice, OK. 1522. 
TWTN, TWTNWB, to sever, part, OK. 2512. 

oo. 1240. 
TWTNNBN, p. p. twined, OK. 191. 

U. V. 

VCH, VCHB, each, GK. 101, 131, 628, 995. 
VCH A, each, OK. 742, 997, 1262. 
VC-HON, VCHONB, each one, GK. 98, 657, 

, when, oc.439, 460. 

, UHERE, where, GC. 429, 509. 
, why, oc. 429. 

VMHE, around, about, OK. 589, 1830, 

circled, embraced, OK. 61 6. AA. x. 2, 

VMBE-FOLDES, pr. t. encircles, falls about, 
GK. 181. 

VMBE-KESTEN, p. t. surrounded, OK. 

VMBK-LAPPEZ, pr. t. enfolds, OK. 628. 

UMIIE-TEJE, p. t. inclosed, GK. 770. 

VHBE-TORNE, about, around? GK. 184. 

VMBE-WEUED, p. t. inclosed, GK. 581. 

VMBYCLEDE, p.p. surrounded, AA. x. 2. 

VHSTROOE, p. t. bestrode, or.K. 81. 

VMWYLLES, want of will, refusal, AA. xxxiii. 
8, MS. D. Perhaps agayne in this line is 
an error for at. See VN-THANKES. 

VNABASIT, p.p. undaunted, GG. 496. 

VN-BENE, rugged, impassable, GK. 710. 
See BENB. 

VNBLYTHB, mournful, GK. 746. 

VNCELY, mischievous, GK. 1562. 

VN-CLERE, cloudy, dark, AA. x. 2. 

VNCOCTH, strange, marvellous, GK. 93, 

VNDURE-NONB, nine o'clock in the fore 
noon, AA. vi. 7, xvii. 7- oc. 119. 

VN-DYJT, p.p. undressed, GC. 453. 

VNDO, to cut up game ; a hunting term, 
GK. 1327- 

GK. 134. AA. li. 7. or.K. 467. 

VNFANE, adj. sorrowful, GG. 795. 

VN-FAYNE, adv. unwillingly, AA. vii. 1 . 

VNFILD, p. p. not blown ? GG. 352. 

VNFRENDB, enemy, GG. 1239. 

VNHAP, misfortune, GK. 438, 2511. 

VNHARDELBD, p. t. dispersed, GK. 1697. 
From the Fr. harddle, troupe. See the 
Maister of the Game, f. 100 b , MS. Cott. 
Vesp. B. xii. 

VNHENDELY, uncourteously, AA. xv. 5. 



VNLACE, to cut up ; a hunting term, GK. 
1606. VNLAISSIS, pr. t. unfasten, GG. 
369. VNLAISSIT, p.p. unclothed, 294. 

VN-LAMYT, p.p. uninjured, GG. 442. 

VNLELE, disloyal, GG. 1107. 

VNLEUTE, disloyalty, GK. 2499. 

VN-LOUKED, p. t. unlocked, GK. 1201. 

VNLTJSSUM, uncourteous, GG. 95. 

VN-METE, immense, GK. 208. 

VNQUART, uneasiness, GG. 675. It is ap 
plied to horses, therefore can scarcely be 
interpreted sadness, with Jamiesou. 

VNRYDE, cruel, severe, GG. 630. 

VN-RYDELY, ruggedly, GK. 1432. 

VNRUSE, trouble, disquiet, GG. 499. 

VNSAUGHT,/). p. troubled, at strife, GG. 456. 

VN-SLAYN, p.p. not slain, GK. 1858. 

VN-SLYJE, careless, GK. 1209. 

VNSOUND, n. trouble, sorrow, GG. 590. 

VNSOUND, adj. sorrowful, GG. 638. 

VNSOUNDYLY, mischievously? GK. 1438. 
See MS. Cott. Nero A. x. f. 59 b . 

VN-SPARELY, unsparingly, GK. 979. 

VNSPURD, p.p'. unasked, GK. 918. 

VNSTONAIT, p.p. not confounded, GG. 642. 

VN-THANKES, displeasure, adverse of will, 
AA. xxxiii. 8. 

VN-THRYUANDE, uncourteous, GK. 1499. 

VNTILLE, unto, AA. liv. 13. 

VNTY3TEL, merrily? GK. 1114. 

VN-TRAWTHE, unfaithfulness, GK. 2383. 

VP-BRAYDE, p.p. drawn up, GK. 781. 

VPON, at, GK. 9, 301, 1934. 

VRYSOUN, GK. 608. Since I wrote the note 
on this term, p. 317, I have met with two 
original documents, which confirm my 
conjecture as to the correctness of the 
term hourson, and its signification. The 
first is a receipt from Guillaume de Leiry, 
embroiderer and armourer, for forty-five 
frans d'or, paid by Charles of Navarre, 
" pour la fa9on d'une cote d'armes, et un 
hourson tout de velinau vermeil et asur, 
qu'il a fait de broderie pour le dit seignur, 
et a ses arraes," dated 8 Oct. 1378 ; and 
the second is a warrant from Louis, duke 


of Orleans, to pay to Colin Pilleur, ar 
mourer, the sum of twenty frans d'or, for 
" un camail d'acier qu'il a bailie et ddlivre" 
pour notre bassinet, et pour avoir fait gar- 
nir notre dit bassinet pardedens de satin, 
de hourson, et autres estoffes pour garnir 
notre hernoiz de jambes pardedens de sa 
tin," dated 9 July, 1392. The dates of 
these documents, it will be observed, tend 
strongly to establish the period at which 
the English romance was composed. 

fU M , with, GC.441. 

VTTER, out, outward, GK. 1565. 

VAYLES, veils, GK.958. 

VAILYEAND, strong, GG. 243 ; valiant, 1286. 

VAILYEING, of worth, worthy, GG. 328. 

fVAiLL, to choose, GG. 211. See WAIL. 

VAYRES, (?) GK. 1015. 

weapons, GG. 820. 
, weeds, armour, GG. 563, 855. 
, war, GG. 549. 

VENERY, science of hunting, GC. 85. or.K. 

VENGEAND, avenging, GG. 759- 

able piece over the mouth, in front of the 
helmet, AA. xxxii. 5, xlv. 11. GG. 867. 

VENTEROUS, venturesome, Gr.K. 38, 100. 

VER, man, knight, GK. 866. 

VERAMENT, truly, Gr.K. 32, 83, 437. 

VERDURE, green, GK. 161. 

VERNAGE, kind of white wine, AA. xxxvi. 2. 
See Tyrwhitt's Gloss. 

VERRAY, true, GG. 161, 957- 

VERRYS, glasses, AA. xxxvi. 2. 

VESIAND, viewing, GG.243. 

VEWTERS, men who tracked the deer by the 
fewte or odor, GK. 1146. 

UYAGE, journey, expedition, GK. 535. 

fViGHT, brave, GO. 325. 

VYLANY, VYLANYE, fault, GK. 345, 634. 

VIST, p. t. saw, GG. 494. 

VOYDE, to quit, GK. 346. VOYDEZ, pr. t. 
casts, 1342. VOYDED, p. t. got rid of, 
1518 ; p.p. void, free, 634. 
H 2 



WA, WAA, . mischief, sorrow, AA. T. 4. 


WA, adj. sorrowful, oo. 1185. 
WADS, to pass, penetrate, oo. 568. 
WAGE, surety ? OK. 533. 
WAYBM KTTEDB, p . t. lamented, AA. ix. 3. 


WAIF, to wave, be agitated, oo. 440. 
WATBB, weak, OK. 283. 
WAIL, choice, oo. 982. 
WAIL, WALB, to seek, OK. 398 ; choose or 

possess, 1238. AA. xxvii. 3. oo. 1096 ; 

select, oo. 361, 784. WALIT, p. t. chose, 

7, 549. WALED, WAILIT, p. p. chosen, 

or. 1276. 00.587. 
WAILL, abundance? oo. 223, 1339. See 

WAY* ENT,/>. t. lamented, AA. ix. 3, MS. D. 

Jamieson erroneously takes the word for 

a noun. See Roquefort, v. Weimentaunts. 
WAYMYNGES, lamentations, AA. vii. 9, 

MS. D. 

t WAYNE for VAYNE, oc. 128. 
WAYNBD, p. t. and p. p. sent? OK. 264, 

984, 1032, 2456, 2459. See other in 
stances of this word in MS. Cott. Nero 

A. x. ff. 79 b , 80*, 89 b . 

WAYNES, pr. t. strikes, AA. xlii. 2, xlviii. 3. 
WAYNEZ, pr. t. raises, OK. 1743. WAYNBD, 

p. t. raised, AA. xxxii. 5, MS. D. 
WAYTEZ, WAYTTIS, pr. t. watches, looks, 

OK. 1 186, 2289. AA. xlviii. 3. WAYTBD, 

p.t. looked, OK. 2163. 
WAYTH, WATHE, game, venison, OK. 1381, 

hunting, AA. xxxiv. 5. 
WAYUED, p. t. stroked, moved, OK. 306. 
WAKED, p. t. kept awake, sat up at night, 

OK. 1094. 

WAKKKBT, weakest, OK. 354. 
WARNED, p. t. awakened, OK. 119; lighted, 


WALD, *. plain, OK. 587. 
WALD, to wield, oo. 7 ; enjoy, possess, 450. 

WALT, p. /. OK. 231, 485. 

WALE, WALLE, adj. choice, good, excellent, 
OK. 1010,1403,1712,1759. 

WALKEZ, pr. t. spreads, OK. 1521. 

WALLANDE, boiling, fervent, OK. 1762. 

WALOUR, valour, OK. 1518. 

WALT, p. t. threw, cast, OK. 1336. 

WALTBRBO, p. t. rolled, OK. 684. See 

WAN, p. t. came, OK. 2231 ; won, gained, 
oo. 70. 

WANDE, bough, tree ? GK. 1161. 

WANDRBTH, sorrow, AA. xvii. 8. oo. 700, 

WANE, n. mansion, habitation, hall, AA. 
xiii. 3, xxv. 4. OO. 211, 237, 494, 781, 

WANE, adj. wanting, deficient, OK. 493. 

WANYT, p. t. diminished, GO. 1208. 

WANT, pr. t. fail, or.K. 203. 

WAP, blow, GK. 2249. 

WAPPED, p. t. flew with violence, as an ar 
row, OK. 1161; rushed, as the wind, 
2004. WAPPIT, p.p. thrown open quickly, 
oo. 127. 

WAR ! exclamation of the hunters, OK. 1158. 
Mr. Guest explains it, erroneously, as I 
judge, by fear, Hist. E. R. ii. 169. See 
the Towneley Mysteries, pp. 36, 41. Thus 
also in the Maistcr of the Game, in the 
instructions for hunting the hare, the 
horsemen are directed " for to kepe that 
none hownde folowe to sheepe ne to other 
beestis, and if thei do, to ascrie hem sore, 
and bilaisshe hem wel, seying lowde, 
Ware! Ware! ha, ha! Ware!" MS. 
Cott. Vesp. B. xii. f. 97 b . 

WAR, worse, oo. 1033. 

WAR, WARE, aware, GK. 764, 1586 ; wary, 
oc. 603. 

WARE, to use, employ, GK. 402, 1235. WA- 
RET, p.p. acted, 2344. 

WARY, WARHY, to curse, AA. xxxiii. 7. 
MS. D. GO. 1082. WARIED, p. t. AA. 
ix. 3, MS. D. 

WARYS, to protect, defend, GO. 1006. 
WARYST, p.p. OK. 1094. See WERE. 



WARLY, warily, GK. 1186, 1900. 
WARLIEST, strongest, GG. 493. Jamieson 

misunderstands the word. 
WARLOKER, more warily, GK. 677. 
WARNE, to forbid, prevent, GO. 253. c. 93. 

WARP, to cast, GK. 2253. WARP, p. t. 

cast, uttered, GK. 224, 1423, 2025. 
WARTHE, water-ford, GK. 715. See Grose's 

Glossary, in v. 

WASCH, to consume ? GK. 2401. 
WAST, waist, GK. 144. 
WASTE, wilderness, GK. 2098. 
WASTELL, fine bread, GG. 223. 
WATHE, injury, danger, GK. 2355. 
WATHELY, severely, mortally, AA. xxiv. 4, 

liv. 3. Pinkerton misprints the word 

woyeley (for wothely) which gives occasion 

to Jamieson to trifle as usual. 
WATJ, was, GK. passim. Used for had, as 

in German, 1413. 

WAUNDEN, p.p. wound, bound, GK. 215. 
WAX,/), t. waxed, AA. xliii. 12. 
WE! Ah! GK. 2185. WE-LOO, alas! QK. 

WEDE, armour, clothing, part of the dress, 

GK. 831, 1310, 2358. WEDES, WEDEZ, 

WEDIS, WEDYS, pi. armour, garments, 

151, 271, 861. AA. i. 9, ii. 9. GO. 759 ; 

foliage of the groves, GK. 508. 
WEDE, adj. mad, AA. xliii. 12. 
WEDYRS, pi. bad weather, AA. xxvi. 3. Cf. 

Towneley Myst. p. 98. 
WEES, knights, AA. liv. 3, MS. D. See 


WEILD, WELDE, WELDEN, to possess, en 
joy, GK. 835, 837, 1064. AA. xxvii. 3, 

xxxiii. 8 ; rule, GG. 1188 ; sustain, j. 163. 

WEILDIS, WELDEZ, pr. t. possesses, GK. 

1528, 2454. GG. 781 ; rules, 174. WEILD, 

pr. t. rule, 151. WETLD, WEILDIT, p. t. 

possessed, had, GG. 37, 941. 
WEIR, doubt, GG. 469, 569. 
WEIR, WERE, war, hostility, combat, GK. 

271, 1628. AA. xxxix. 8. GO. 57, 162, 

1137, 1198, 1260. 

WELAWYLLE, exceeding wild, rugged, dan 
gerous, GK. 2084. 

WELA WYNNE, well joyous, GK. 518. The 
adv. welawynnely occurs in the same MS. 
Nero A. x. f. 68 b . 

WELE, wealth, riches, GK. 7, 60, 1270, 1394. 
GG. 73; joy, GK.485, 1371, 1767, 2490 ; 
good fortune, 997, 2134. 

WELKYN, air, sky, GK. 525, 1696. 

WELLE, grassy plain, sward, AA. iii. 2. 

WELLE, to boil, AA. xxv. 4. 

WELLING, boiling, TG. 239. 

fWELLONY, villainy, GC. 194. 

WELNEJ, WELNE3E, almost, GK. 7, 867. 

WELTERAND, rolling, GG. 469. 

WELTERES, pr. t. rolls, GG. 290. See WAL- 


WEMELES, unhurt, GG. 99. Jamieson is 
mistaken in rendering it blameless. 

WEN, WENE, doubt, GG. 35, 98, 282. 

WEND, WENDE, to go, GK. 559, 1028, 1053. 
GG. 57, 99. GC. 515. c. 374. WENDIS, 
pr. t. GG. 287. WENDIS, imp. 114. 
WENDE, p. t. GK. 900, 1161. c. 332. 
WENT, WENTE, p. p. gone, GK. 1712. 
AA. i. 9,xxxiv. 5, MS. D. GG. 1132. 

WENDEZ, pr. t. turns, GK. 2152. 

WENE, pr. t. ween, think, GK. 270, 1226. 
WENYS, AA. xliv. 2. WEND, WENDE, 
WENT, p. i. GK. 669, 1711. AA. 1. 2. GG. 

WENER, fairer, GK. 945. See the Gloss, to 
Molbech's edit, of the old Danish transla 
tion of the first eight books of the Old 
Testament, 8vo. 1828. v. Ween. > 

WENGED, p. t. avenged, GK. 1518. 

WEPAND, weeping, GG. 973. 

WER, worse, GG. 1015. See WAR. 

WERBELANDE, whistling ? GK. 2004. 

WERD, fate, GG. 1082. See WYRDE. 

WERDEZ, pr. t. are, GK. 1542. 

WERE, had, GK. 244. 

WERE, p. t. wore, GK. 1928. 

WERE, to defend, guard, GK. 2015, 2041. 
GG. 58, 1188. 

WERE, to make war, GO. 287. 


WBBT, pr. /. worry, AA. v. 4. 

WBBTIT, p. /. caned, AA. ix. 3. See WARY. 

WBBN, to forbid, oc. 188, 477. WBBNBS, 
pr. I. denies, OK. 1824. WBBNBD, j>. p. 
1494. See WABNE. 

WEBNYNOE, denial, OK. 2253. 

WBBBB. war, OK. 16. WBBBBZ, pi. 720. 

WEBBYOUBIS, warriors, eo. f. 

WESAUND, wind-pipe, OK. 1336. 

WESCHE, p. t. washed, OK. 887. 

WET, p . t. pierced ? oo. 759- 

WBTE, adj. (?) AA. vii. 9. 

WBTE, WBTENE, WETTE, to know, wit, AA. 
viii. 1 1 . x vi. 2, xix. 3, MS. D. oc. 379- See 

WETBRLY, eagerly ? fiercely? OK. 1706. 

WETINO, knowledge, AA. xix. 4, MS. D. 

WECCB, woe, mischief, GO. 700. 

WEDE, to give, OK. 1975. WEUED, p. t. 

WEX, p. t. waxed, OK. 319. See WAX. 

WEJED, p. t. carried, OK. 1403. 

WEJTHT, wight, oc. 375. 

WHABBED, p. t. made a whirring noise, OK. 

WHAT, how? OK. 1163, 2203. 

WHAT so, whatsoever, OK. 384, 1550. 

WHBDBB WARDB, whitherward, OK. 1053. 

WHBNB, queen, OK. 74, 2492. 

WHETHEN, WHYTHENE, whence, OK. 871. 
AA. xxviii. 12. In the second instance the 
scribe of the MS. D. has incorrectly writ 
ten whelcne, on which Jamieson wastes a 
weak conjecture. 

WHETHER, either of two, OK. 203. 

WHIOHT, active, oc. 563. See WIGHT. 

WHYRLANDE, rushing, OK. 2222. 

WHTSSYNES, cushions, OK. 877. 

WHOS, whoso, oc. 256, 268. 

WT, WYOHB, WYJ, WYJB. man, knight, OK. 
131. 249. 384, 581, 1487. AA. xxix. 1, 
xxxii.2. 00.57,287. Applied to God, 
pi. QK. 1403, 1167. AA.xxvi.9. ee. 151. 

WICB, what, OK. 918. 

WIGHT, brave, active, oo. 1248. 

WICHTELY, actively, oo. 579. 

WIETE, to know, AA. xix. 3, 12. See WBTE, 


WYOJT, brave, strong, active, AA. xliv. 1, 

1. 2, lii. 11. oo. 198, 656. oc. 53. J. 287. 

TO. 20. c. 432. See WIJT. 


actively, j. 144, 146. or.K. 200. 

WYGHTENBS, bravery, courage, AA. xxi. 4. 

WYOHTIS, gen. c. person's, AA. ii. 9. 

WYKIS, corners of the mouth, OK. 1572. 

WYLDB, used substantively for beasts of the 
chace in general, OK. 1150, 2003 ; and in 
the singular number, 1167, 1586, 1900, the 
words deer, boar, fox, being respectively 

WYLE, WYLY, wily, OK. 1728. Used sub 
stantively, 1905. 

WILELE, warily, AA. xlv. 3. 

WILFULLY, willingly, AA. xlix. 1. 

WYLYDE, wild, amorous, OK. 2367. 

WYLNYNO, will, OK. 1546. 

WILSOME, WYLSUM, pleasant, fair, OK. 689. 
oc. 532. 

WYLT, p.p. escaped, OK. 1711. 

WIN AWAY, to depart from, GO. 1046. 

WYND, wind, GG. 770. Jamieson sadly mis 
interprets this line, owing to Pinkerton 
having printed and for ad, which latter in 
the edit. 1508 is a misprint for as. 

WYNDEZ, pr. t. returns, OK. 530. 

WYNNE, n. joy, GK. 15, 1765, 2420, MS. D. 

WYNNE, adj. goodly, OK. 1032, 2430, 2456. 

WYNNE, to come, arrive at, GK. 402, 1537, 
2215. WYNNEZ, pr. t. proceeds, goes, 
1569, 2044. 

WYNNE-LYCH, cheerful, GK. 980. 

WYNT-HOLE, wind-hole ? GK. 1336. 

WYPPED, p. t. struck, OK. 2249. See WAP. 


pi. 1968. See WEBD. 
WIRKAND, making, GG. 701. 
WYSSB, to teach, direct, GK. 549. WISE, 

WYSSB, pr. t. 739. GG. 820, 1033. 



WYSTE, WYSTEN, p. t. knew, GK.461, 1087, 


WYSTY, (?) GK. 2189. 
WIT, with, GK. 113. WYT INNE, within, 


WIT, (?) GO. 1137. 
WIT, WYT, to know, learn, GK. 131, 255, 


WYTEZ, pr. t. looks on, GK. 2050. 
WITH, WYTH, by, GK. 664, 1153, 1229, 


WITH THI, on condition that, AA. Hi. 10. 
WYTIS, pr. t. goes, departs, AA. xvii. 7. 
WITLES, WITLESE, deprived of reason, GO. 

573, 972, 1014. 

WYTTERLY, certainly, oc. 312. 
WYJCREST, (?) GK. 1591. 
WIJT, n. wight, person, GK. 
Wi3T, WYJT, WYJTHT, brisk, active, brave, 

GK. 119,1762.60. 15, 24, 260. See WIGHT. 
WY3TEST, bravest, GK. 261. 
WYJTLY, quickly, GK. 688. 
WLONK, fair, beautiful, GK. 515, 581, 1977, 

WLONKEST, fairest, GK. 2025. AA. i. 9, xxvii. 

9, Hv. 7, MS. D. Jamieson explains it 

falsely by gaudily dressed and rich. 
WNMANGLIT, p. p. unmangled, GG. 720. 
WOD, WODE, WOUD, mad with anger, GK. 

2289. AA. xlii. 2. GG. 573, 972, 1014. 


WOD, p. t. went, GK. 787- 

WOD-CRAFTEZ, pi. skill in the arts of the 
chace, GK. 1605. 

WOD-LYND, foliage of the wood, forest, GG. 

WODWOS, pi. wild men, monsters, GK. 721. 

WOKE, p. t. watched, sate up at night, GK. 

WOLDE, tohave powerover, AA. Hi. 3. MS. D. 
reads AT WOLDE, in which case it is a sub 

fWoLED, would, GK. 1508. 

WOMBE, belly, GK. 144. 

WON, WONE, power or will, GK. 1238. GG. 

WON, WONE, dwelling, mansion, chamber, 
GK. 257, 736, 906, 2490. WONEZ, Wo- 
mis, pi. 685, 1051, 1386, 2400. oc. 520, 
532. Often used for the singular. 

WON, WONE, to dwell, GK. 257, 814. WO 
NEZ, WONYES, pr. t. 399, 2098. WONDE, 

WONED,^. f. 50, 701,721. WONYD,JJ.J9. 

WONDE, to avoid, shrink back, GK. 563. 

WONDE, pr. t, avoid, omit, 488. 
WONDER, n. marvel? GK. 16. 


wondrous, GK. 2200. GG. 35, 86, 353, 930, 
1002,1104. GC.34. The second of these 
instances is printed wound, by mistake, in 
the edit, of 1508 : on which see Jamieson's 


787, 1025. GG. 162. 
fWoNE, one, GC. 89, 297- 
WONE, estimation? GK.1269; plenty, j.495. 

WONYNG, WONNYNGE, dwelling, AA.XXV.4. 

WONNEN, p.t. conducted, brought, GK. 831. 

WONEN, WONNEN, p. p. arrived, come, 

GK. 461, 1365 ; brought, 2091. 
WONT, use, custom, GK. 17; lack, want, 131. 
WONT, WONTEZ, pr. t. fail, fails, GK. 987, 


WORDS, fame, reputation, GK. 1521. 
WORLDE, Nature, GK. 530. 
WORMEZ, dragons, serpents, GK. 720. 
WORRE, worse, GK. 1588, 1591. 
WORT, herb, GK. 518. 
WORTH, to be, happen, GK. 238, 1202, 1214, 

1302. GG. 1096. WORTHEZ, WoRTHIS, 

pr. t. is, becomes, will or shall be, GK. 

2035, 1106, 1387. GG. 332, 833, 1239- 

WORTH, WoRTHE,swi/. be, GK. 2127, 2374. 

WORTHED, WOURTHIT,^.^. was, became, 

485. GG. 973, 1054 ; would be, GK. 2096. 

WORTHED, p.p. become, 678. 
WORTHE, worthy, GK. 559. WORTHY is 

used substantively, 1276, 1508. 

WORJELY, adj. worthy, honorable, GK. 



343. AA. xxriU. 10, xxxv. 11, MS. D., 

xxxviii. 6, xlviii. 3. 
WOBTHT, adv. worthily, OK. 1477- 
WOBTHTLT, honorably, properly, OK .72, 144 . 
WORTHILIBBTE, worthiest, AA. xiix. 1. 
WOT, WOSTB, pr. t. know, knowest, OK. 24. 

AA. IX. 1. 

WOTHB, harm, injury, mischief, OK. 222, 

488, 1576. 
Wot-on, WUGH, harm, mischief, oo. 1067, 

1199. SeeWojB. 
WOCRDIS, pr. t. becomes, will become, oo. 

822. See WORTH. 
WOUT, countenance, GO. 1278. 
WOWCHR BAP, pr. t. vouchsafe, OK. 1391. 
WOWEB, walls, OK. 1180. 
WoxB8,jr. /.grows, waxes, OK. 518. Wox, 
j. t. waxed, oo. 795, 1185. See WAX, 

\VOJE, wrong, harm, OK. 1550. 
Wo)B, wall, GK. 858. WOJEZ, pi. 1650. 
WRAIOHLY, evilly, oo. 162. Jamieson in 
terprets it strangely or awkwardly. 
WRAITH, wrath, oo. 973. 
WRAITHLY, wrathly, OG. 298, 563, 1014. 

WRAKE, destruction, mischief, OK. 16. AA. 

xvii. 8. 

WRABT, adj. loud, stern, OK. 1423. 
WRABT, (?) OK. 1663. See Towneley My- 

itcriet, p. 178. 

WRABT, p.p. disposed, OK. 1482. 
WRATHED.JJ. p. ensnared? OK. 2420. 
WREKE, revenge, j.424. 
WREJANDB, reviling, OK. 1706. See Grose, 

v. Wrte. 

WRIOHTIB, carpenters, GO. 469. 
WRO, obscure corner, OK. 2222. 
WROTH, WHOTHE, angry, violent, OK. 70, 


WROTH, p. t. moved round, OK. 1200. 
WROTHBLT, angrily, GK. 2289. 
WROTHBLOKER, more angrily, OK. 2344. 
t WROUGHT for RAUGHT, reached, AKC. 202. 
WRoyr, WROJTKN, p. t. occasioned, GK. 3, 22. 
WRUCKBD, p.p. thrown up, AKC. 187. 

WRUXLED, p.p. clad, folded? OK. 2191. 


YARD, staff, AKC. 246. 

YAKE, adj. ready, TO. 101. c. 114. 

YARE, ;ARB, adv. quickly, soon, OK. 2410. 

or.K. 318 ; ere, previously, TO. 126, 137. 
YARNYNG, desire, oo. 426. 
YEFTYS, gifts, oc. 643. 
YEID, p. t. went, GO. 228, 1 1 16. 
YELDE, p. t. requite, oc. 527, 529. 
YHIT, yet, oo. 95. 

YHUDE, YUDE, p. t. went, oo. 304, 577. 
YND, India, or.K.281. 
YODE, p. t. went, j. 87. TO. 77. 
YOLDIN, p. p. yielded, GO. 1126. 
YRNE, iron, GK. 2267. 
YRNES, harness, armour, OK. 729. 
YJE, eye, GK. 198. oc. 324. YJEN, pi. GK. 

82, 304, 684. 

JAYNBD, p.p. hallooed, GK. 1724. 
fjAMEDE, apparently an errorfor JAMEREDE, 

p. t. cried, AA. vii. 9- 
SAMERS, pr. t. cries, AA. vii. 9, MS. D. 
JAMYRLY, lamentably, AA. vii. 8. 
JARANDE, JARRANDE, loud, snarling, GK. 

1595, 1724. 
3ARE, see YARE. 
JARKKEZ, pr. t. makes ready, disposes, GK. 

2410. JARKED, p.p. made ready, 820. 
JAULAND, yelling, AA. vii. 8, MS. D. 
;AULE, JAULES, pr. t. howl, yells, GK. 1453. 

AA. vii. 9, MS. D. 

jE,yea,GK. 813, 1091,1497; still, ever, 1729. 
JEDE, }EDEN,j3./. went, GK. 817, 1122, 1400, 

;EDERLY, promptly, soon, GK. 453, 1215, 

1485, 2325. 



JEFE, JEYFE, if, GC. 198, 388. 

3ELDE, 3ELDEZ, pr. t. yield, requite, yields, 
pays, OK. 498, 1038, 1215, 1263. JELDE, 
JELDEN, p. t. yielded, gave, 67, 1595, 

;ELLE, pr. t. yell, GK. 1453. 

JELP^YNG, pomp, ostentation, GK. 492. 

JEP, JEPE, active, alert, GK. 60, 105, 284, 
1510; fair? 951. 

JEPLY, promptly, GK. 1981, 2244. 

JER, year, GK. 60, et alib. 

JERN, JERNE, quickly, GK. 498 ; earnestly, 
eagerly, 1478, 1526. AA. xlviii. 3. 

JERNES, jiHNEZ,/>r. t. passes ? GK. 498, 529. 

3ET, JETTE, yet, GK. 776, 1122. 

3E3E, pr, t. ask, GK. 1215. JEJEO, p. t. asked, 

JIF, if, GK. 1494, 1496. 


30D, p. t. went, GK. 1146. 

JOL, Christmas, GK. 284, 500. 

GOLDEN, p. t. yielded, GK. 453, 820. See 


JOLLANDE, howling, yelling, AA. vii. 8. 
JOLJE, yellow, tawny, GK. 951. 
30MERAND, moaning, whining, AA. vii. 8, 


JOMERLY, lamentably, piteously, GK. 1453. 
JONGE, younger one, GK. 951. 
3<)XGE-3Eu, youth, GK. 492. 
JONKE, young person, GK. 1526. 
JORE, long time, GK. 2114. 
fjowE, your, GK. 1092. 

3 t 


P. 7, 1. 107,/or ftif read ftif. 

P. 12, 1. 251, for for-rad read for rad. 

P. 12, 1. 256, insert a comma after Nay. 

P. 15, 1. 343, dele the comma after worpilych, and insert it after $e. 

P. 15, 1. 353, for the semicolon substitute a full stop, and 1. 357, for the comma place 

a semicolon. 

P. 17, 1. 395, for J> n read J> u . 

P. 17, 1. 417, insert a comma at the end of the line, and in the next line after hede. 
P. 21, 1. 5B5,for amo 9 read anio 9 . 
P. 22, 1. 561, for the comma place a full stop. 
P. 22, 1. 563, a note of interrogation would be better after wonde. 
P. 23, 1. 591. for ou s (me in MS.) read ouj> 9 . 

P. 27, 1. 700, insert a comma after Holy-hede, and dele it after bonk. 
P. 29, 1. 763, insert commas after felf and fegge. 
P. 32, 1. 850, for chefly read chefly. 
P. 33, 1. 859, insert commas after fete and flet. 
P. 33, 1. 862, for hem in the MS. perhaps we should read hym. 
P. 34, 1. 882, for be-fete read he fete. 

P. 34, 1. 893, for ayfawes read ay fawes, and for fle^ej (sic MS.) read fleje. 
P. 38, 1. 101 8, for paueture read paueture. 
P. 44, 1. 1174, dek the comma after abloy. 
P. 48, 1. 1 264-5-6, for the comma substitute a semicolon after nobele, and in the 

next line a comma instead of the semicolon, after dedej, and in the 

third a semicolon for the comma, after nyfen. 
3 i 2 


P. 50, L 1337,/w fcharp read fcharp. 

P. 52, L 1378,/br fchyrer (fie MS.) we thould read fchyre, and grete w a error 

of the press for grece. Cf. 11. 425, 2313. 
P. 52, 1. 1402,/or e read J>e. 

P. 54, L 1442, nipply the defect in the MS. by And euere. 
P. 54, L 1443-4, the hiatus may be restored with certainty, For J>re at and fped hym. 

I am indebted for this suggestion to the Rev. It. Gamett. 
P. 55, L 1466,/w- rouej read ronej. 
P. 56, 1. 1513, for lellayk read lei layk. 
P. 58, 1. 1565, for maden read made. 
P. 59, L 1572, dele the conjectural rending, us unnecessary. 
P. 59, L 1580, in this line and seems wanting after wat$. 
P. 60, 1. 1623, a verb is apparently wanting after lorde. 
P. 66, 1. 1794,/or kyffe read kyfle. 
P. 67, 1. 1815, so reads the MS., but the sense would seem to require nade or 


P. 72, 1. 1940, insert a comma after je. 
P. 75, L 2035, dele the comma after f ilke. 
P. 76, L 2059, for if read if. 
P. 77, 1. 2083, for fchowned read fchowued. 
P. 77, 1. 2162, dele the conjectural reading. In the ancient manuscript romances of 

the Round Table the name of Hector des Mares, (as printed in 

Malory,) the natural son of king Ban, is always written Hestor. 
P. 82, 1. 2220, for a wharf read a-wharf. 

P. 84, 
P. 85, 

P. 85, 
P. 86, 
P. 86, 
P. 88, 
P. 89, 

. 2293, for fton read fton. 

. 2308, for refcowe read refcowe. 

. 2321, dele the comma after worlde. 

. 2335, for dernely read deruely. 

. 2344, dele the comma after haf. 

.2392, /or of read of. 

. 2420, substitute a semicolon for the comma after wyles. 

P. 90, 11. 2446, 2452, perhaps Morgne should be printed Morgue, as in the French 


P. 90, L 2447, dele the comma after clergye. 

P. 90, L 2461, for gomen, (sic MS.) we should probably read gome. 
P. 97, iv. 2. The lines have been, by mistake of tine printer, numbered erroneously 
from this place, and the stanzas are therefore always referred to in 

the Glossary. TJte total number of lines in the poem is 716. 


P. 97, iv. 5) for forfothte read forfothte, which is, apparently, an error for forfothe. 

P. 99, vii. 6, for efte we should no doubt read lowefte. 

P. 100, ix. 5, for ftottyde read ftottyde. 

P. 110, xxv. 9, for medecyes read medecynes. 

P. Ill, xxvi. 9, paire is evidently a mistake of the scribe for fai. 

P. 112, xxix. 6, perhaps The is here superfluous. 

P. 115, xxxiii. 1, 2, transpose the points at the conclusion of these two lines. 

P. 123, xlviii. I, for clenly MS. D. reads kenely. 

P. 127, Iv. 6, Yglande, sic MS. for Ynglande. 

P. 131. This Romance is reprinted from the re-impression made at Edinburgh, 4to, 
1827, but it was not observed, till too late, that most of the mere 
errors of the press in the old edition of 1508 were there corrected. 
The emendations therefore now made are such as escaped the no 
tice of the recent editor, or were neglected by him. 

P. 137, 1. 166, for And we should, no doubt, read In. 

P. 138, 1. 191, the edition of 1508 reads consing, not cousing. 

P. 141, 1. 261, for ye read fe. 

P. 143, 1. 3()0,for mynde (sic edit.) we should read myude. 

P. 161, 1. 779, for fen fpeir the editor of 1827 conjectures fen ye fpeir, but I think my 
own emendation more correct. 

P. 174, 1. 1118,/or fcheth read fcheith; the edit. 1508 has fchelth. 

P. 178, 1. 1227? for led we should perhaps read ledis. 

P. 180, 1. 1271, for luffum read luffum. 

P. 181, 1. 1299, for That the sense seems to require And. 

P. 181, 1. 1300, the edit. 1508 Jias wounyn, not wounen, and in the next line for- 
lonne, not fortonne. 

P. 182, 1. 1332, for be hald.razd behald. 

P. 182, 1. 1334, the edit. 1508 has douffipere, which was altered injudiciously in edit. 

P. 187, 1. 9, for ftronge (sic MS.) we should read ftrange. 

P. 194, 1. 259, for hjythet we should read hy3tht. 

P. 196, 1. 328, for knyjtt 9 the sense requires knyft. 

P. 200, 1. 465, G. is perhaps superfluous. 

P. 225, 1. 45, for both blyth & blee we should probably read so bright of blee. 

P. 228, 1. 125, for eu ye read eu 9 ye. 

P. 229, 1. 166, the inverted commas should be placed before Kay. 

P. 240, 1. 469, for shoutest reod'shontest. 

P. 252, 1. 231, in the margin, for inviffible read inviffible. 


P. 283, L 205,/or wife nod wifh. 

P. 289, L 18, the feenu to be wanting. 

P. 298 b , 1. 62. The name of Gromer Somer Joure would seem to have been taken 

from the printed Morte d Arthur, (vol. ii. p. 392, ed. Southey,) 

and, consequently, prove the poem to be later than the year 1485. 

The correct reading is Gromer Gromerson, or Gromorssum, as 

appears from vol. i. p. 231. 
P. 298, L 800. In reference to Gyngolyne, (see p. 347) may be added the title of 

the romance in the Lambeth MS. 305, f. 73. " A tretys of one 

Gyngelayne, othirwise namyd by Kyng Arthure Ly bens disconeus, 

that was bastard son to Sir Gaweyne." 


P. 304, 1. 26. A third portion of the same romance, but imperfect at the beginning 
and end, is preserved in a MS. in Trinity College, Dublin, marked 
D. 4. 12. It is written in a late hand of the fifteenth century, 
and commences towards the end of the third passus, and ends in 
the middle of the twelfth. It occupies forty quarto leaves. 

P. 307, L 12, for Helie de Borron read Walter Map, and dele the remainder of the 
* sentence. 

P. 310, last line. In addition to the references here given, Jones's Relicks of the 
Welsh Sards, 4to, Lond. 1794, p. 108, contains a notice of this 
Christmas play, as performed in Oxfordshire. 

P. 318, If 30. Consult also Thorns' Notes on Aubrey, in the Anecdotes and Tradi 
tions, 4to, 1839, p. 98, published by the Camden Society. 

P. 319, 1. 31. In a collection of Welsh arms made in 1560, and printed in Owen's 
British Remains, 8vo, 1777, Gwalchmai ab Gwyar is said to bear 
" Quarterly, ermines and ermine, afess argent" p. 49. 

P. 320, L 13. An abridgement of this legend may be found inserted in the 
Chronicle of John of Glastonbury, printed by Hearne, vol. i. p. 77, 
8vo, 1726. 

P. 320, 1. 27, far sixteenth read fourteenth. 

P. 330, L 27. In the Roman de Lancelot, vol. iii. f. xlA Cardueil in Galles is 
distinguished from Carlyon. 

P. 332, L 27. Malory's authority is to be found in the Roman de Lancelot, vol. iii. 
f. cxciii b , edit 1513. 


P. 341, 1. 11. Since I wrote this note I have found Arthur's expedition to Jeru 
salem mentioned in one of the interpolated passages of Nennius, 
ap. Gale, cap. 63. He is stated to have caused a consecrated cross 
to be made, by which he conquered the Pagans, and of which 
portions were preserved at Wedale in Lothian. Also in the Ro 
man d'Alexandre, composed by Alexandre de Paris in the twelfth 
century, he makes Arthur march to the extremity of the East, and 
erect two golden statues, which were subsequently discovered by 
Alexander. See De la Rue, Essais sur les Bardes, vol. i. p. 35. 

P. 344, 1. 7, for professor read possessor. 

P. 344, 1. penult., for at the close of the reign of Henry the Sixth read in the reign 
of Edward the Fourth. 


P. 371, v. BRAUDED. Add to the reference, xxxv. 2, MS. D. 

P. 376, v. DERFLY. Add here DERUELY, GK. 2334, and dele the word and reference 

under DERNLY. 
P. 379, v. ESTE. Dek this word and reference. 

N.B. The last poem in the Appendix, No. VIII. was discovered too late to be cited 
in the Glossary, but there are but few words of any obscurity, and most of these 
appear to be corrupt forms occasioned by the carelessness of the scribe, as in the case 
of lute, 1. 238, and scott, 1. 477-