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SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY 



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SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY 



SL Compnttitom atm CommonpIact'Sook 

DESIGNED FOB THE USE OF 
THEOLOGICAL STUDENTS 



BY 
AUGUSTUS HOPKINS STRONG, D. D., LL. D. 

FaB8n>]D(1?:iirdJ%i2oFBa90)»^Jbf TjBfjcAL thsology in tbs 

• •^» • ••• • • ••# 

liKlc^dnkfi tSi^I/OGigaij bkminaky 

• ••••• ••• 

• •• ••* • •• • • 

••• ••• • •••• • 

••• •»• • • ••• •• 



DT THREE VOLUMES 
VOLUME in 

THE DOCTRINE OF SALVATION 



PHILADELPHIA 

THE GRIFFITH & ROWLAND PRESS 

1701 Chestnut Street 










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• • • • 

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BY AUGUSTUS Hiil»KlHl:S.'J^*lNO, 

pubushed\jJijJ:^X ^^M : 



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€\iaMiltt>$o ^ibattrvi. 



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The byb sbbs oklt that which it sRixres with it thb poweb 
OP SBBiKG." — Cicero. . 

OpEK thou HIHB BTBS, THAT:iaiA-T'3:BEL0ED*W0N9B0U3 ^HIKOS 
OUT OF THT LAW."— JP«ftfl4 119 T 18r •* •••••• 

• • ••••• «••• 

Foe with theb is the pouirrAitf 6f*itfi'* •Iittht light shall 

WE BEE light."— Ptfolm Sfi y9/*\ y\ •;•: : : 
Fob we kkow ik pabt, and we pbophesy ik pabt ; but when 

THAT which is PEBFEGT IS COMB, THAT WHICH IS IN PART 
SHALL BE DO^TR AWAY." — 1 OOT. IS : 9, 10. 



I 



TABLE OF COIfTENTS. 

VOLUME III. 



GhAFTEB n. — ThB BECX>NOIIiIATION OF MaN TO GoD, 0% TttA 

Afpzjoation of Bebbmftion thbouob tbb 

Work of ;rHB Holy Spirit, 777 -886 

Sbotiok L — Thb Application of Christ's Bedsmftiok, in 

ITS Preparation, 777-798 

L— Election, 77^790 

1. Proof of the Doctrine of Election, 77^786 

2. Objections to the Doctrine of Election, 78&-790 

n. — Calling, 790-793 

-41 fB GoflVaene/ai ^jill Sincere ? 791-792 

& lkGo5i Spfecna-IOaflfaesistible ? 792-793 

SsonoN n. — Ti^.^JLii^Ci^p^TipN'OF Christ's Bbdsmption, in 

JfsS^ej'pkl^.fetapiNiNa, 798-868 

I. — Union wUh Chastiv- • jV • 2 «»". -^ 795-809 

1. Scrij^totd^eiij^G^^^ 795-798 

2. Nature of 'this ijniMi, . .' 798-802 

8. Consequences of this Union, 802-809 

n.— Eegeneration, 809-829 

1. Scripture Bepresentations, 810-812 

2. Necessity of Regeneration, 812-814 

8. The Efficient Cause of Regeneration, 814-820 

4. The Instrumentality used in Begeneration, 820-823 

5. The Nature of the Change wrought in Begeneration, 823-829 
rCL— Conversion, 829-849 

1. Bepentance, 832-836 

Elements of Bepentance, 832-834 

Explanations of the Scripture Bepresentations, . . . 884-836 

2, Faith, 836-849 

Elements of Faith, 837-840 

Explanations of the Scripture Bepresentations, 840-849 

IV.— Justification, 846-868 

1. Definition of Justification, 849 

2. Proof of the Doctrine of Justification, 849-854 

8. Elements of Justification, 854-859 

4. Belation of Justification to God's Law and Holiness, 859-86] 

5. Belation of Justification to Union with Christ and 

\ the Work of the Spirit, 86I-864 

Vll 



■ • • 



Vlll TABLE OP CONTEirrS, 

6. Belation of Jasidfloation to Faith, 864-867 

7. Advioe to Inquirers demanded by a Soriptaral View 

of Justification, 868 

SBcmoH TTT. — Thb Afflioatiok of Ghrist's Bkdkhption, in 

ITS Continuation, 868-886 

L — Sanotifioation, 860^-881 

1. Definition of Sanotification, 869-^0 

2. Explanations and Scripture Proof, 870-875 

8. Erroneous Views refuted by the Scripture Passages, 875-881 % 

A. The Antinomian, 875-877 

B. The Perfectionist, 877-881 

n.~ Perseverance, 881-886 

1. Proof of the Doctrine of Perseverance, 882-888 

2. Objections to the Doctrine of Perseverance, 888-886 j^ 

PART Vn.— EOOLESIOLOGT, OR THE DOCTRINE OP 

THE CHURCH, 887-980 

Chaftbb L — Thb CoNSTrrnnoN of thb Chuboh, ob Chuboh 

PouTT, 889^^929 

L— Definition of the Church, 887-894 

1. The Church, like.tti^JFstfn^y.aQd^thp State, is an 

Institution of Divi^iV ^^^H^m&nt^ / !!::/: 892-898 

2. The Church, unMe*{he¥aniIIy ^^d*tlfd^Sltfte, is a 

Voluntary Society, . . . !. !;i. . .li\il . ilH 898-894 

IL— Organization of the Church,*.*/.- ?:• "vf!v.V A 894r-903 | 

1. The Fact of Organizaiipii;^! /v •-!« -vlH- - : 894-897 

2. The Nature of this OrgLiIaalfoV ; ••••i-*'« 897-900 

3. The Genesis of this Organization, 900-908 

m.— Government of the Church, 903-926 

1. Nature of this Government in Gteneral, 908-914 

A. Proof that the Gt>vemment of the Church is 

Democratic or Congregational, 904-908 

B. Erroneous Views as to Church Government, 

refuted by the Scripture Passages, 908-914 

(a) The World-church Theory, or the 

Romanist View, 908-911 

(&) The National-church Theory, or the ^ 

Theory of Provincial or National ^ 

Churches, 912-914 

a. Officers of the Church, 914-924 

A. The Number of Offices in the Church is two, . . . 914-916 

B. The Duties belonging to these Offices, 916-918 

O. Ordination of Officers 918-924 

(a) "What is Ordination? 918-920 

(6) Who are to Ordain ? 920-924 

8. Discipline of the Church, 924-926 

A. Kinds of Discipline, 924-926 

B. Relation of the Pastor to Discipline, 925-926 ^ 

IV. — Relation of Local Churches to one another, 926-929 



TABLE OF CONTEKTS. IX 

1. The General Nature of this Relation is that of 

FellovBhip between Equals, 926-927 

2. This Fellowship involveB the Duty of Special Oon- 

Bultation with regard to Matters affecting the 

common Interest, 927 

8. This Fellowship may be broken by manifest Depart- 
ures from the Faith or Practice of the Scriptures 

on the part of any Church, 928-929 

Chaftbb n. — Thb Obdinanoes of thb Ghuboh, 930-980 

L— -Baptism, 931-959 

1. Baptism an Ordinance of Christ, 931-988 

2. The Mode of Baptism, 988-940 

A. The Command to Baptize is a Command to 

Immerse, 988-888 

B. No Church has the Bight to Modify or Dispense 

with this Command of Christ, 989-940 

8. The Symbolism of Baptism, 940-946 

A. Expansion of the Statement as to the Symbolism 

of Baptism, 940-942 

B. Inferences from the Passages referred to, 942-945 

4. The Subjects of Baptism, 945-959 

A. Proof that only Persons giving Evidence of 

being Begenerated are proper Subjects of 
Baptism, 945-946 

B. Inferences from the Fact that only Persons giv- 

ing Evidence of being Begenerate are proper 

Subjects of Baptism, 946-951 

G. Infant Baptism, 951-959 

(a) Infant Baptism without Warrant in the 

Scripture, 951-852 

(&) Infant Baptism expressly Contradicted 

by Scripture, 953-958 

(c) Its Origin in Sacramental Conceptions 

of Christianity, 968-954 

( d ) The Beasoning by which it is supported 

Unscriptural, Unsound, and Dangerous 

in its Tendency, 954-956 

(e) The Lack of Agreement among Pedo- 

baptists, 956-957 

(/ ) The Evil Effects of Infant Baptism, 957-959 

XL— The Lord's Supper, 959-980 

1. The Lord's Snpper an Ordinance instituted by 

Christy 959-960 

2. The Mode of Administering the Lord's Supper, 960-962 

8. The Symbolism of the Lord's Supper, 962-965 

A. Expansion of the Statement as to the Symbolism 

of the Lord's Supper, 962-964 

B. Inferences from this Statement, 964r-965 

4. ErxoneouB Views of the Lord's Supper, 965-960 



X TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

A. The Bomanist View, 965-968 

B. The Lutheran and High Chnroh View, 968-969 

6. FrerequiaiteB to Participation in the Lord's Supper, 969-980 

A. There are Prerequisites, 969-970 

B. Laid down by Ghrist and his Apostles, 970 

O. The Prerequisites are Four, 970-975 

First, — Begeneration, 971 

Secondly,— Baptism, 971-973 

Thirdly,— Church Membership, 973 

Fourthly,— An Orderly Walk, 978-975 

D. The Local Church is the Judge whether these 

Prerequisites are fulfilled, 975-977 

R Special Objections to Open Communion, 977-980 

PABT VUL— ESCHATOLOGT, OB THE DOCTBINE OP 

FINAL THINGS, 981-1056 

L— Physical Death, 982-998 

That this is not Annihilation, argued : 

1. Upon Bational Grounds, 984-991 

2, Upon Scriptural Grounds, 991-998 

XL- The Intermediate State, 998-1003 

1. Of the Bighteous, 998- 999 

2. Ofthe Wicked, 999-1000 

Befutation of the two Errors : 

(a) That the Soul sleeps, between Death 

and the Besurrection, 1000 

( 6 ) That the Suffering of the Intermediate 

State is Purgatorial, 1000-1002 

Concluding Bemark, 1002-1003 

nL— The Second Coming of Christ, 1003-1015 

1. The Nature of Christ's Coming, 1004-1005 

2. The Time of Christ's Coming, 1005-1008 

8. The Precursors of Christ's Coming, 1008-1010 

4. Belation of Christ's Second Coming to the 

MiUennium, 1010-1015 

IV.— The Besurrection, 1015-1028 

1. The Exegetical Objection, 1016-1018 

2. The Scientific Objection, 101^-1023 

v.— The Last Judgment, 1023-1029 

1. The Nature of the Final Judgment, 1024-1025 

2. The Object of the Fiual Judgment, 1025-1027 

8. The Judge in the Final Judgment, 1027-1028 

4. The Subjects of the Final Judgment, 1028 

5. The Grounds of the Final Judgment, 1029 

VL— The Final States of the Bighteous and of the Wicked, . . 1029-1056 

1. Of the Bighteous, 1029-1033 

A. Is Heaven a Place as well as a State ? 1032 

B. Is this Earth to be the Heaven of the Saints ? 1032-1033 

2. Of the Wicked, 1033-1056 



TABLE OF COirrENTS. x! 

A. Fatoro INmishment IB not Axmihilatioxit 1066-1039 

B. PmuBhinent after Death excludes new Pro- 

bation and nltimate Beatoration, 1099-1044 

0. This Fntnre Punishment is Everlasting, 1044-1046 

D. Everlasting Punishment is not inconsistent 

with God's Justice, 1046-1051 

E. Everlasting Punishment is not inconsistent 

with God's Benevolence, 1051-1054 

F. Preaching of Everlasting Punishment is not 

a Hindrance to the Success of the Gospel, 1054-1056 



OF Subjects, 1069-1116 

OF AUTHOBS, 1117-1188 

Index of ScBiprDBS Tkxtb, 1189-1167 

Index of ApooBn*HAii Texts, 1168 

Index of Gbeee Wobds, 1169-1168 

OF Hebrew Wobds, 1165-1166 



SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY, 

VOLUME IlL 



CHAPTER II. 



THE BECONOILIATION OP MAN TO GOD, OR THE 

APPLICATION OP REDEMPTION THROUGH 

THE WORK OP THE HOLY SPIRIT. 



SBOnOir I.— THE APPLIOATION OF CHRIST'S BBDBKFTIOlir 

IK ITS PBEPABATIOK. 

( a ) In this Section we treat of Election and Calling ; Section Second 

being devoted to the Application of Christ's Redemption in its Actual 

Beginning, — namely, in Union "with Christ, Regeneration, Conversion, and 

Justification ; while Section Third has for its subject the Application of 

Christ's Redemption in its Continuation, — namely, in Sanotifioation and 

Perseyeranoe. 

The arrangement of topios, in the treatment of the reoondllation of man to God, is 
taken from Julius MUller, Proof-texts, 8K. ** Revelation (4) us aims to brinff about reve- 
lation in us. In any being absolutely perfect, Gkxl's interoourse with us by faeuUy^ 
and by direct tecicMnOf would absolutely ooalesoe, and the former be just as much 
God's voice as the latter *' ( Hutton, Basays ). 

(b) In treating Election and Calling as applications of Christ's redemp- 
tion, we imply that they are, in Ood's decree, logically sabseqnent to that 
redemption. In this we hold the Snblapsarian view, as distinguished from 
theSupralapearianism of Beza and other hyper-Calvinists, which regarded 
the decree of individual salvation as preceding, in the order of thought^ the 
decree to permit the PalL In this latter scheme, the order of decrees is 
as follows : 1. the decree to save certain, and to reprobate others ; 2. the 
decree to create both those who are to be saved and those who are to be 
reprobated ; 8. the decree to permit both the former and the latter to fall ; 
L the decree to provide salvation only for the former, that is, for the elect 

Richards, Theology, 808-807, shows that Oalvin, whUe in his early work, the Institutes, 
he avoided definite statements of his position with regard to the extent of the atone- 
ment, yet in his latter works, the Commentaries, acceded to the theory of universal 
atonement. SupTalapsarlanlsm is therefore hyper-Galvinistic, rather than Oalvinistio. 
Sublapsarianism was adopted by the Synod of Dort ( 1618, 1619 ). By Supralapsarian is 
meant that form of doctrine which holds the decree of individual salvation as preceding 
the decree to permit the Fall ; Sublapsarlan designates that form of doctrine which 
holds that the decree of individual salvation is subsequent to the decree to permit the 



778 80TEBI0L00Y, OR THE DOCTBINB OP SALVATION. 

The pitwren In Oidyin't thouirbt may be seen by comparing some of fate earlier with 
his later uttcranoes. InstltuteB, 2 :88 : 5— " I Bay, with Aufirufltlne, that the Lord created 
those who. as he oertainly foreknew, were to ffO to deatruotloo, and he did so beoanae 
he so willed.*' But even then in the Institutes, 8 : 23 : 8, he affirms that " the perdition 
of the wicked depends upon the divine predestination in sudi a manner that the cause 
and matter of it are found In themselves. Man flails by the appointment of divine 
providence, but he fhdls by his own fault." God's blinding, hardening, turning the sinner 
he describes as the consequence of the divine dewrtUm, not the divine ootisation. The 
relation of God to the origin of sin is not efficient, but permtelve. In later days Galvin 
wrote in his Oommentary on 1 JohnSiS— "heisthtpnpiti&tifliivoviiiii; tadofllftroiuBSBlj, but 
•iM frr tk< vhola world "— as follows : ** Christ sulfered for the sins of the whole world, and ^ 

in the goodness of God is offered unto all men without distinction, his blood being shed 
not for a part of the world only, but for the whole human race ; for although in the 
world nothing Is found worthy of the favor of God, yet he holds out the propitiation to 
the whole world, since without exception he summons all to the faith of Christ, which 
is nothing else than the door unto hope." 

Although other passages, such as Institutes, 8 : 21 : 5, and 3 : 28 : 1« tmert the harsher ^ 

view, we must give Calvin credit for modifying his doctrine with maturer reflection « 

and advancing years. Much that is called Calvinism would have been repudiated by 
Galvin himself even at the beginning of his career, and Is really the exaggeration of his 
teaching by more scholastic and less religious successors. Benan calls Calvin ^ the most 
Christian man of his generation." Domer describes him as ** equally great in intellect 
and character, lovely in social life, full of tender sympathy and fblthfulness to his 
friends, yielding and forgiving toward personal offences.** The device upon his seal is 
a flaming heart from which is stretched forth a helping hand. 

Calvin's share in the burning of Servetus must be explained by his mistaken seal for 
God's truth and by the universal belief of his time that this truth was to be defended by 
the oivfl power. The following is the inscription on the expiatory monument which 
European Calvinists raised to Servetus: ** On October 27, 1568, died at the stake at 
Champel, Michael Servetus, of Villeneuve d'Aragon, bom September 28, 1611. Reverent 
and grateful sons of Galvin, our great Reformer, but condemning an error which was 
that of his age, and steadfastly adhering to liberty of conscience according to the true 
principles of the Reformation and of the gospel, we have erected this expiatory monu- 
ment, on the 27th of October, 1003." 

John DeWitt, in Princeton TheoL Rev., Jan. 1004 : 06 — **Take John Galvin. That 
fruitful conception— more fruitful In church and state than any other conception 
which has held the English speaking world — of the absolute and universal sovereignty 
of the holy God, as a revolt from the conception then prevailing of the sovereignty 
of the human head of an earthly church, was historically the mediator and instaurator 
of his spiritual career." On Calvin's theological position, see Shedd, Dogm. TheoL, 
1:408, note. 

(o) ButtheSoriptoieBteaohUiatmenasGiimerSyandnotmenirregpe^ 

tiye of their sixis, are the objects of Qod's saving grace in Ohrist ( John 15 : 

9 ; Bom. 11 : 6, 7 ; Eph. 1 : 4-6 ; 1 Pet 1:2). Condemnationy moreover, 

is an act» not of sovereignty, bat of jnstioe, and is grounded in the guilt of 

the condemned ( Bom. 2 : 6-11 ; 2 Thess. 1 : 5-10 ). The true order of the ( 

decrees is therefore as folloiro : 1« the decree to create ; 2. the decree to 

permit the Fall; 8. the decree to provide a salvation in Ohrist sufficient for 

the needs of all ; 4. the decree to secure the actual acceptance of this sal- 

yation on the part of some, — or, in other words, the decree of Election. 

That saving grace presupposes the Fall, and that men as sinners are the objects of it, 
appears from John 15 : 19 — "If 7» wire of Uia vorU, tkt vorld vooU loTt j% own: \nX booust j« an not of tiM 
woiid, but I flkoHToaoak of tko vorU, tkeidbnthe vorldhililk 70a"; Rom. 11 : 6-7— "1t« m thn at tUi prMoit 
tincalMtkflnifanauuuitaMardingtotkaoloelioBofgrMe. BatifitiibjgziM, itisno man of vorki: otilorvte 
gnMltaoBongnMi. Wbittto? That vUA laid MtkfCkftr, that bo obtainoixwk; bat tho doefebnobtainadi^ 
•ad tba rial mn hardanal** Iph. 1 : 4-6->"tfn aa ha ohoaa u In him baAm tha fbuid&tioii of tha wld, that wa 
ihatild bo holj and vllheat bkmiA baitara him ia lora: haviag fawriaiiiad u imto adaptioa at aoaa thnmsh Jana 
OhriatiiBlohtaBaaltaaoordiiig tothagoodpIaaaonafhiaviQ^totha paiia of tha glory of hia sf^ > 

baatovadaniuiiithaMoTad";! Pet. 1:2— elect, "aaaordinf tothafonkaavladgaof 6odthahithMr,iiiP»*'<Hi^ ' 

tiaa af tha tpiritt nato o b adia s aa and apgiakliag af tha Mood of Jawi ; Onaa to 7M and paaaa ba mnltipliad." 



I 



BLScnoK. 779 

That oQndemxiatioii te not an act of soTorelgnty, but of Jiifliloa, appears from 1ml t : 
6-9— "vko viU nndv to «?nrj ma Mowduf to hia voAs .... wnak and mdigiult« .... vpoi tfwy Mil tf 
IM tkiil irvkatk «tU '^ 8 Thm 1 : 6-9 — '' a rightoou tldag vitk M to iwwptDM aii^ 
. . . . mdtfiBfTangtaiiMtothaoithatkiiovBvtfladaiid to thai thai obtjnol tha go^ «f avloillMU: vte 
ahaU foflar pBBiihflMiii** Partlciilar penons are elected, not to have Oirist die for them, Imt 
to have special InfluenoeB of the Spirit bestowed upon them. 

(d) Those Sablax)sa]ians who hold to the Anselmio view of a limited 
Atonement^ make the decrees 3. and 4., just mentioned, exchange places, — 
the decree of election thus preceding the decree to provide redemption. 
The Scriptoial reasons for preferring the order here given have been 
already indicated in onr treatment of the extent of the Atonement (pages 
771-773 ). 

When *8'and *4' thus ohauRe places, *8* should be made to read: ''Tlie decree to 
provide in Christ a salvation sufficient for the elect "; and ' 4 ' should read : ** The decree 
that a certain number should be saved,— or, in other words, the decree of Election.*' 
Sublapsarlanism of the flist sort may be found in Turretln, loo. 4, quaes. 9 ; Cunning- 
ham, Hist. Theol., 415-439. A. J. F. Behrends : *' The divine decree is our last word In 
theoloflnr, not our first word. It represents the terminus ad quern, not the Urminua a que* 
Whatever comes about in the exercise of human freedom and of divine graoe— that 
God has decreed.'* Yet we must ffrant that Calvinism needs to be supplemented by a 
more express statement of Ood's lOve for the world. Herrlck Johnson : ** Across the 
Westminster Confession could Justly be written : ' The Gospel for the elect only.' That 
Confession was written under the absolute dominion of one idea, the doctrine of pre- 
destination. It does not contain one of three truths: God's love for a lost world; 
Chrises compassion for a lost world, and the sospel universal for a lost world.** 

L ExiBonoN. 

Election is that eternal act of God, by which in his sorereign pleasure, 
and on account of no foreseen merit in them, he chooses certain oat of the 
nomber of sinful men to be the recipients of the special grace of his Spirit, 
and so to be made voluntary partakers of Ohiiot's salvation. 

1. Proof of the Doctrine of Election. 
A. From Scripture. 

We here adopt the words of Dr. Hovey : "The Soriptares forbid ns to 
find the reasons for election in the moral action of man before the new 
birth, and refer ns merely to the sovereign will and mercy of Qod ; that is, 
they teach the doctrine of personal election.** Before advancing to the 
proof of the doctrine itself, we may daim Soriptoral warrant for three pre- 
liminary statements (which we also quote from Dr. Hovey), namely : 

First, that "God has a sovereign right to bestow more grace upon one 
subject than upon another, — grace being unmerited favor to sinners.'* 

lbk.aO:lS-lS— "TbiwlaikbinipcaibatoMkar.uAlhM hMl aidt tkM tqad ute « . . . . MhI, I 4b 
tkMBovTOOg .... bitiwtUvftilforiiMtBdoYhfttlviUwithBiMVWB?'* ]UB.9:M,tl — "AADtklkiBf 
flbniitdn.7tokinthatfonMdit,Vk7di4ilthMiBak«BMtku? Or kAthB«kthtpQttaraiigki«Ttrtktdi^,ftmthi 
HM Imp to Bikt ant put a imtA vnto hoMr, ud ta/Am onto difkanor 7** 

Secondly, that " God has been pleased to exercise this right in dealing 
with men." 

Ffe.l47:aO— "HthilkarttettMvUkunrutiai: ABdaiftrUf ti^inaMi^tMykmiMlkBowB fh«". Rml 
9:l,t— '*WhaadnBtog«th0akAtktkainrr irwtoiliitkipnii of drouMiaflBr luk tmj vay: Inl ifaO, 
thutOtywanialniitodirithtoAflndiioffiod"; likAl5:i6-"T«didBotflhMnaM,k;tIAM 7W.ai4 ippdiM 
7aii,tto47tA(nldKoudb«tfftiut**; Aflto9:16— **h*i8«A«nv«MlatoM,tobitfai7BaHbiaril^ 
•ad king% tad th« tkiUra of IbmL** 

Thirdly, that "Gk)d has some other reason than that of saving as many as 
possible for the way in which he distributes his grace." 



780 ^ BOTBBIOLOGY, OR THE DOCTBIKE OF SALYATIOIT. 

Ibtll:ll— 1^n»and8idon"voaldkaT8r9aBl«d,**lf they had had the grraoe bestowed upon 
Choraiin and Bethaaida ; B4n.9:2M6---''Vhatif6«d, vimi«toihffwhiivTatk,aiid to nakt kii poww 
kB0wip mubnA vitti rnoA longnining tiMltofvnthllttadiintodtgtnuti^ ud tkti h« adgkt Mkt kaswn Ha 
fkhM <f kii gkvy apn TflMls of amjp vkiflk h« aftn pnpirod uto glary ?** 



The Soriptare passages which directly or indirectly sapport the doctrine 
of a particular election of individual men to salvation may be arranged as 
follows : 

( a ) Direct statements of Qod's purpose to save certain individuals : 

Jesua speaks of God*s elect, as for example in Hirk 13 : S7— "tto ihall hs Mad fortk thi it^ 
aBdihAUgathflrtosaOffUsalMt"; LokolS:?— 'ihtUnolGodanBgokisdaet, thitlnytohiMdAyudnishl?** 

Aflli IS : 48 — " ai Buy m mn ordaiaod (-nrayiiivoi, ) to ekmul lifo beliered "— here Whedon translates : 
** disposed unto eternal Uf e," ref errin^r to Karninurikiya in twm 83» where " fitted *' — ** fitted 
themselves.'* The only instance, however, where roir^w is used In a middle flsnse is in 
t Oor. 14 : 15— '*Mt th«BMlT« " ; but there the object, cavrovc, is expressed. Here we must oom> 
pareBMklS:!— "thopowtnth&tbemordAiiMd (rrraytLinu) of God"; see also Aito 10:41— "tUs it bo 
vko ii ordaiBod (MpMTM-tfi'Of ) of God to bo tho Judgo oTtbo liTiag ud tbo doid.'* 

Horn. 9 : 11-16— "ftr tbo ohildmi boiiig not jot bon, noitbor baTiiig dono oajtUaif good or bid, tbit tto FSxpiM tt 
God AoooidiBgto dootion mlgbt itud, not of worki, but of bim tbat aollotb .... I will bATo tunj apoa vboml ban 
mmj .... 8etbo&itUBotofbimtbMirmotb,iu>rofbintbAtruiiiotb,batof GodtbAtbatbnony";!^ 
9; 11 — " flkoH u ia bim bofon tbo Ibuidation of tbo vorid, £ not because we were, or were to be, holy, 
but] ttal vo Aonld bo boly and vitbont blomisb boCort bin ia Ioto: bAviiig flgnardunod u auto odoptioB •■ wsu 
tbniogblaiuGfariituitobuBMU^aooordingtotbBgoodplouiiroofUivill .... tbomTitaryofbisvillfiooordiiigto 
bii good plouoro .... in vbomalM vev«oiiiadotboritago,baTingbooBl(WO(vdaiiiBdaeooidiiigtotb^ 
vbovarkolbaUtbiBgiaft«raoooiuiielorbiiviU'*;OoL8:12— "God^ioloet"; SAmSziS— "QodtbosoyMi 
tnm tbo boginaiag vnto wlntifltt ia wmntififlrtioa of tbo Spirit and boKof of tbo troth." 

( & ) In connection wiih tiie declaration of €k>d's foreknowledge of tiiese 
persons, or choice to make fhem objects of his special attention and care ; 

laB.8:87-tO— "fldlodafloardingtoUs pmpoM Pto vbcm bo ftnknow, be alio flanordainod to bo ooiftRBod to 
tboiatigfofbia8fla";iPoUl:l,8 — "otoot . . . . aeoordisgtothoftnknovledgoofGodthoVttbflr.iaiaiMtifiQatiiHi 
of too ^irtt, vato obodionoo and fpriaUing of tbo Uood of Jmis Quriot." On the passage in Romans, Shedd, 
in his Commentary, remarks that "bnknov," in the Hebraistic use, ^ is more than simple 
prescience, and something more also than simply ' to fix the eye upon,* or to * select.' 
It is this latter, but with the additional notion of a benignant and kindly feeling toward 
the object." In Horn. 8 : 87-30» Paul is emphasising the divine sovereignty. The Christian 
life is considered from the side of the divine care and ordering, and not from the side 
of human choice and volition. Alexander, Theories of the Will, 87,88— ** If Paul is 
here advocating indeterminlsm, it is strange that in obaptor 9 he should be at pains to 
answer objections to determinism. The apostle's protest in obaptar 9 is not against pre- 
destination and determination, but against the man who regards such a theory as 
Impugning the righteousness of Ood." 

That the word " know," in Scripture, frequently means not merely to ** apprehend intel- 
lectually," but to '* regard with favor,'* to " make an object of care," is evident from 
Gob. 18 ; 19 — "I bare known bim, to tbo end tbat bo may oominand bia obildnn and biiboiMhdd aftar bin, tbal tbojr 
■aykeepfbe vajof Jobomb, todoiigbteouaoesandjnstioo"; lz.2: 25— "And God aav tbo ebildnn of Isial, aad God 
took knowledge of tkaa'*; e/. veno 84— "Godbeeidtbeir gnaalDg, end God nmembered bia eoTamat witk ibnbaa, 
wi^ leue, aad witbJaoob" ; Pa.1 : 6— "For JeboTabkaowetk tbo way of tbo rigbteoaa; But tbe wajoftbo wloked 
ebiU periA '* ; lU : 4, maiv* — *'I ^nU know BO otU perm " ; Hboea 13 : 5 — " I did know tbee in tbo wilderneei, ia 
tbo land of greet dnoghi Aoeording to tbeir pasture^ ao were tbey Illod " ; Kabom 1 : 7— "be knowetb tbm tbet 
takoreftigeiabim"; Abum8:8— "ToBonlybaTelkBOwa of aU tbo ftotilieeof tbo eartb"; ]Cat7:83— *'tben 
Willi pralM onto tbem, I nerer knew yea"; RaDL7:15— "For tbat wbieb I del know not"; 10ar.8:8— "if 
aayaaatoTotbGod, tbeeanelaknowBbybim; GaL < 9— "nowtbatyebaTo oometoknow God,grntber, tobo 
known by God" ; 1 Tbeae* 5: 12,13 — "we baoeoobyoo, bretbrui, to know tbon tbat labor aouBgyoa, and anoreryon 
in tbe lord, aad admniib yon; and to eetosm tbem exoeeding bigbly in lore for tbeir work'a eikei" So the word 
** foreknow '* : Roib.11:2— "GoddidnoteestoffbiapooplowbAmbeftnkaew"; iM.i:20— Christ, "wbo 
WM fcnkaowB iadoed befbre tbe fimadatioa of tbe world.** 

Broadus on laL 7 : 28— "I Berer knew yw" —says ; " Not in all the paasages quoted above, 
nor elsewhere, is there occasion for the oft-repeated arbitrary notion, derived from the 
Fathers, that 'know* conveys the additional idea of approve or regard. It denotes 
aoquaintanoe, with all its pleasures and advantages ; ' knew/ 1 e., as mine, as my people. 



I 



f 



ff 



ELBCTIOK. 781 

But this last admiaslon seems to grant what BroadYis had before denied. Bee Thayer, 
Lex. N. T., on yivmo-km : ** With ace. of person, to reoognlze as worthy of intimaoy and 
loye ; so those whom Ood has Judged worthy of the blessings of the gospel are said 
vvh rod dcov yivu»<riiw^ai (10or.8:8; QaL 4:9); negatively In the sentence of Christ: 
ovMvorc eyywr vf&ac, ** I iuT«r knew 70a," never had any aoquaintanoe with you.'* On vpoyiM*- 
<ric«a, Horn. 8 : SB~oC« vpotfyvM, "whom he brekiMv," see Denney, in Expositor's Greek Testa- 
ment, in loco: ** Those whom he foreknew— in what sense? as persons who would 
answer his love with love? This is at least irrelevant, and alien to Paul's general 
method of thought. That salvation begins with Ood, and begins In eternity, are 
fundamental ideas with him, which he here applies to Christians, without raising any 
of the problems involved In the relation of the human will to the divine. Yet we may 
be sure that vpo^ma has the pregnant sense that ytrcStncu often has in Scripture, e. g., in 
Fi.i:6; Aibm8:8; henoe we may render: 'those of whom God took knowledge from 
eternity (IpLl: 4)." 

In Rom. 8 : 18-30, quoted above, "fenkiMw " — elected— that is, made certain individuals, 
in the future, the objects of his love and care ; "fenordaiiud" describes God's designation 
of these same individuals to receive the special gift of salvation. In other words, " fore- 
knowledge " is of persons : "^ foreordlnatlon " is of blessings to be bestowed upon them. 
Hooker, Eod. Pol., appendix to book y, (vol. 2:751 )—*"vhaiike did furtknAV* (know 
before as his own, with determination to be forever merciful to them ) 'be ilio predeetiaated 
to be eonlbnned to the inuif^ ofhit 80B ' — predestinated, not to opportunity of conformation, but 
to conformation itself." So, for substance, Calvin, ROckert, DeWette, Stuart, Jowett, 
Yaughan. On 1 Pet i : 1, 8, see Com. of Plumptre. The Armlnian interpretation of *' vbai 
keflNreknev'* (Roiil8:29) would require the phrase ''as oonformed to the image of his 
Son " to be conjoined with It. Paul, however, makes conformity to Christ to be the 
result, not the foreseen condition, of God's foreordlnatlon; see Commentaries of 
Hodge and Lange. 

( c ) With assertions that this choice is matter of grace, or munerited 
favor, bestowed in eternity past : 

lpLl:S-8— "tewrdiiBed .... ieoerdinf to the good pleiiue of Ui vUl, tothepndieofthegkrf efhie gnee, 
whieh he frMly bartewod on u in the BeloTed .... aoeerdingtotheriohMofhiegiMe*'; 8:8— "bjgnoe hare jt 
been nredthrao^h fitith; and that not of yonnelTei^ it ii the gift of Ged" — here "and that" (neuter wfiro, 
ferae 8 ) refers, not to ** faith '* but to " salvation." But faith is elsewhere represented 
as having its source in God,— see page 78SS, (h), 8 Tim. 1 : 9 — "hia ovn jmfm aad gnei^ vUA 
vaa giT«a u in Christ Joeoi before times etenaL" Election is not because of our merit. McLaren: 
" GkMi's own mercy, spontaneous, imdeserved, condescending, moved him. God Is his 
own motive. His love is not drawn out by our loveableness, but wells up, like an 
artesian spring, from the depths of his nature.*' 

( d) That the Father has given certain persons to the Son, to be his 
pecaUar possession : 

John 6 : 87— "All that vhieh the Father ginthme ahaU oome vnto me" ; 17 : 8— "that vbatseeTor then best giToa 
him, to them he ihoald giro eternal life " ; 6 — "I manifeited thj name onto the men vbom then ganst me ont of the 
vorld: thine thej wwn, andttev garost them tome" ; 9 — "I pnj not far the vorld, bat fir those vbom then hasi 
giren me"; lph.l:14— '*iuito the ndimption of Qod's «vn pobmsbLdb"; i M8:9— "apeofls teOed's ova 



(e) That the fact of believers being nnited thns to Oiirist is dne wholly 
to God: 



Jbha6:44— "Komaa oan some to mo^oxflopt the Father that aost me draw him"; 10 : 86 — "70 beUere set, 
booanae 70 are not of mj aheep"; 1 Oar. 1:80 — ''ofhim [God] an 70 in Chxisk Jeans " = your being, as 
Christians, in union with Christ, is due wholly to God. 

(/) That those who are written in the Lamb's book of life, and they 
only, shall be saved : 



Phi].4:8— "thenstofmybUov-vorker^vboaenamesan in the book of lift"; Bst.80 :16 — **ijdif anj 
vas not firasd vritton in the book of lift, he VBS oast into the lake of ire " ; 81 : 87 — " then BhaU in no via ostor iito 
it anything ttMloaa. . . batoBlyth^thatanvnttoa inthe Lsmb's book eflift"* God's deoraes of eleot- 
ing grace in Christ 



782 BOTEBlOLOGTy OB THB DOCTRIKB OF SALYATIOH. 

(g) Thai these are aUoited, as disoiplee, to oertain of God's serrants : 

Aili n : !--( UteraUy ) --*'MM of 1k« vm yiindM, idL vm aDotM [ b^ 
Md]0oiplet(BO Meyer and Grimm); 18:9, 10— "Besot afriii, tat ipMkiad luldBolt^|«Mt: tel 
uivtlktkiiba^iMBn*aUMk«lkMtokH»ttM:ftrIkaTtBaflhpM^iitUBiii^." 

(h) Axe made the recipients of a special call of God : 



]UB.g:l8,»— **adMMMrilactobiiFnpMt vkmh«faMriaiaad,fh«tea]ioaiM";9:2l;M* 

"nwrii ttmmj, whfah ta dan pwywd utoKkvy.cm m, vhan h« alio «U«d,aolfr«th«Je«ioiilj, bat alio 
frM tU tatilM *\ tt : M -- " to fU glib and tkt «l]ii« of God an 801 npolid tf '* ; 1 Co^^ 
tkaitkalanwM.... (Mat ttip«w«ofSod,aad tba vjadn of flod .... For b«hoId joor flailing, bmbm. 
. . . . thi tUagi ttat an diqiaod, did tod flhofli^ Tia aad tko thiBga that an not, that ta B%kt bri^ to B^ 
tUBgitkatan:ttatMiiAih«Bldg]ff7bifcn God'*; Sail: 15^16— "vkon it vutho good plooaon of God, wko 
a f p a nt o d m», tm frua my Botkar'a vombb and oaUodnothnvgh hit gnoi^ tonToalhia Son m no" ; e/. Jaaoa ti 23 
- "and ho [ Abraham] vaaoaDodCio be] thofrind of God." 

( i ) Are bom into God's kingdom, not by yirtae of man's will, but of 
God's will: 

JohBl:18— "bon,i0tofblooiiuroftho¥iDoftteiflA,MofttevmofBaa,lNitrfGod*^Jaffl^ 
hiBovivfflhohraightiiBftrthb7thovardoftrath";iJohB4:iO— "Kvns iaIoTObBfll that vo lofod God, tat 
that taloTod UL** 8. & Times, Cot. 14, 1880—" The hiw of love Is the expression of God's 
loTlnff nature, and it is only by our participation of the«divlne nature that we are 
enabled to render it obedience. * Lovinir God,' sajrs Bushnell, * is but lettinsr God love 
us.' So John's great sayintr may be rendered in the present tense : * not that we love 
God, but that he loves us.' Or, as Madame Guyon sings : * I love my God, but with no 
love of mine. For I have none to give ; I love thee, Lord, but all the love is thine, FOr 
by thy life I live'.** 

{j ) Beoeiying repentance, as the gift of God : 

Aflla 6 : Si— "ffim dU God oialt vith hia right hand to be a Prinoo and a Sarior, to gifo nponiaaoo to Imol, and 
nniBrifla of iiiia " ; 11 : 18 -- " Thoa to tho Gostiloo alao hath God gnatod npoataaoo ai^ 
noting thorn that i^pooe OanaolTea ; if pendToitiin God maj gin then npentuuo unto tho knovlodgo of tto truth." 
Of course it is true that God might give repentance simply by inducing man to repent 
by the agency of his word, his providence and his Spirit. But more than this seems to 
be meant when the Psalmist prays: "Onptoinnoaoioan hoort, God ; And naow a right ^t vithin 
iM"(Pa.Gl:10). 

(A;) Faith, as the gift of God : 

Johi6:66— "noBMBOHiooBMiuitoaObOxooptit bogim natohiaoftholathff"; iota 15: 8, 9— "God .... 
glTingthM tho My Spirit. . . otaanaing thoir hoarli bj fluth " ; IUn.l2:8 — "aooordingaaGodhathdoaltteoaflh 
nMaanwaonnofftith"; lOor.iS: 9— **toaBothflrfluth, in tho aaoio Spirit"; GaLS :SS— "thofrnitofthoS^t 
i... fidth"(A.y.);PhiL8:i3 — InaUfaith,"iti8 6od vhovQrkothin7oabothtovmandtovork.fiir 
hia good ploaion"; lpL6:SS— '*Fiaoo bo to tho bnarai,aad Ion vith ftdth, ftwn God tho Vkthor and tho Loid 
JonaOhriit"; JohnS:8 — "Tho Spirit bnathoth ifken U villa, and thoa [ as a consequence ] hoaroat hia 
nioo " ( so Bengel ) ; see A. J. Gordon, Ministry of the Spirit, 166 ; 1 Oor. 12 : 8— "lo aun oon laj, 
Joani ia Laid, bat in tho E0I7 Spirit " —but calling Jesus '* Lord " is an essential part of ftUth,— faith 
therefore is the work of the Holy Spirit ; lit. 1 : 1 — " the &ith of God'a oleot "- election is not In 
consequence of faith, but faith is in consequence of election (Bllioott). If they get 
their ftdth of themselves, then salvation is not due to grace. If God gave the faith, 
then it was in his purpose, and this is election. 

it) Holiness and good works, as the gift of God. 

Ipk. 1 : 4 — "ihooa va in bin boftin tta frondatin of the vorld, that in ohonld bo hidy " ; 2 : 9, 10 --^ not of vorka, 
thatnomaaahooldgloiy. lor vo an hia irarknaaahip^ onatod in Ohriat Jeena (br good worka, vhioh God abn pn- 
pand that mflhonldvaO: is thiB";i Pot 1:8— elect "ante oibodieooa." On Scripture testimony, see 
Hovey , Manual of TheoL and Ethics, 856-Ml ; also art. on Predestination, by Waifleld, 
in Hasttngt' Dictionary of the Bible. 

These passages famish an abundant and conclasiye refutation, on the 
one hand, of the Lutheran view that election is simply God's determina- 
tion from etemily to provide an objeotiye salvation for universal humanity; 



ILECTIOK. 783 

and, on the other hand, of the Arminian view that election is Ghxl's deter- 
mination from eternity to save certain indiTidnals npon the ground of 
their foreseen fidth. 

Bouffhly statecU we may say that Sohleieniiaoher elects all men subjeottyely ; 
Lutherans all men objectively ; Arminians all belieyers ; Auirustiniana all foreknown 
as God*8 own. Schleiermacher held that decree locrically precedes foreknowledge, and 
that election is individual, not natlonaL But he made election to include all men, the 
only difference between them being that of earlier or of later conversion. Thus in 
his system Calvinism and Bestorationism go hand in hand. Murray, In Hastings' 
Bible Dictionary, seems to take this view. 

Lutheranism is the assertion that original grace preceded original sin, and that the 
Quia VoluU of Tertullian and of Oalvin was based on wisdom, in CSirist. The Lutheran 
holds that the believer is simply the non-resistant subject of common grace ; while the 
Arminian holds that the believer is the coOperant subject of common grace. Luther- 
anism enters more fully than Calvinism into the nature of faith. It thinks more of the 
human agency, while Calvinism thinks more of the divine purpose. It thinks more 
of the church, while Calvinism thinks more of Scripture. The Arminian conception 
is that Qod has appointed men to salvation, Just as he has appointed them to condem- 
nation, in view of their dispositions and acts. As Justification is In view of present 
faith, so the Arminian regards Election as taking place in view of futttre faith. 
Armlnianism must reject the doctrine of regeneration as well as that of eleotion, and 
must in both cases make the act of man precede the act of God. 

All varieties of view may be found upon this subject among thedoglanB. John 
Ifllton, in his Christian Doctrine, holds that *' there is no particular predestination or 
election, but only general. . . . There can be no reprobation of individuals from all eter- 
nity.*' Archbishop Sumner : ^ Election is predestination of communities and nations 
to external knowledge and to the privileges of the gospeL" Archbishop Whately : 
" Eleotion is the choice of individual men to membership In the external church and 
the means of graoe.'^ Gore, in Lux Mundi, 880 ~ " The elect represent not the special 
purpose of God for a fbw, but the universal purpose which under the drcumstanoes 
can only be realized through a few." B. Y. Foster, a Cnmberiand Presbyterian, 
opposed to absolute predestination, says in his Systematic Theology that the divine 
decree " is unconditloiial in its origin and conditional in its i4>plication.'* 

B. FromBeaaon. 

( a ) What Gk>d does, he has eternally purposed to do. Since he bestows 
special regenerating grace on some, he mnst have eternally pniposed to 
bestow it, — in other words, mnst have chosen them to eternal life. Thus 
the doctrine of eleotion is only a Bpecaal application of the doctrine of 
decrees. 

The New Haven views are essentiaUy Arminian. See Fitch, on Predestination and 
Election, in Christian Spectator, 8:883 ~ ** God*s foreknowledge of what would be the 
results of his present works of grace preceded in the order of nature the purpose to 
pursue those works, and presented the ifrounda of that purpose. Whom he foreknew -^ 
as the people who would be guided to his kingdom by his present works of grace, in 
which result lay the whole objective motive for imdertaking those worlcs — he did also, 
by resolving on those works, predestinate." Here God is very erroneously said to 
/orelmow what is as yet included in a merely possible plan. As we have seen in our dis- 
cussion of Decrees, there can be no foreknowledge, unless there is something fixed, in 
the future, to be foreknown; and this llxity can be due only to Gtod's predetermina- 
tion. Bo, in the present case, Section must precede presdence. 

The New Haven views are also given in N. W. Taylor, Revealed Theology, 878-444 ; 
for critldsm upon them, see Tyler, Letters on New Haven Theology, 17:fr-180. If God 
desired the salvation of Judas as much as of Peter, how was Peter elected in distinct- 
ion from Judas? To the question, "¥ke mda thM to difirT" the answer must be, **Not 
God, but my own wllL** See Finney, in Bib. Sac, 1877:711 — ^God must have fore- 
known whom he ooi4d wiuly save, prior in the order of nature to his determining to 
save them. But his knowing who wnUd be saved, must have been, in the order of 
nature, subsequent to his eleotion or determination to save them, and dependent upon 



80TKSI0L0GT, OB THE DOCTRINE OF BALYATIOK. 

VbHt detanninatloiL'* Foster, Chrlstiaii life and Theology, 70 — ** The doctrine of eleo- 

tion It the oonsiftent f onnolatlon. mib specie eUmitatiM, of preyenlent graoe 86 — 

With the doctrine of prevenient grace, the evangelical doctrine stands or falls.'* 

(b) This purpose oannot be conditioned upon any merit or faith of 
those who aie ohoeen* sinoe there is no such merit, — faith itself being 
Qod's gift and foreordained by him. Since man's faith is foreseen only 
as the result of Qod*a work of graccy election proceeds rather npon fore- 
seen unbelief. Faith, as the effect of eleotiony cannot at the same time be 
the cause of 



Tbtere Is an analcgr be t wee n prayer and Its answer, on the one hand, and faith and 
aalTBlion on the other. Ood has decreed answer in connection with prayer, and salva^ 
Hon In connection with faitli. Bat he does not change his mind when men pray, or 
wfaeo they belieye. As he fulfils his purpose by inspiring true prayer, so he fulfils 
his pur pose by giving faith. Augustine : ** He chooses us. not because we belieye, 
but that we may believe : lest we should say that we first chose him." ( John 15 : 16 — *■ Ta 
lUsilAMMMhlNilIihflMTN"; B4n.9:lt — "ftvathtniMhaiip": 16— ''BotorkiBthfttwilldh"). 

Here see the valuable discussion of WardUiw, Systematic Theol., 2 : 4S6-M9 ~ ** Elec- 
tion and salvation on the ground ot works foreseen are not dUferent In principle from 
election and salvation on the ground of works performed.*' C/. Pro?. 21:1— "At Uag'i 
knit it la Hm kand «f Jthenk u tkt vitanoazBM; Et tanwOi 11 vhltkiriMTw kt will"— as easily as the 
rivulets of the eastern fields are turned by the slightest motion of the hand or the foot 
of the husbandman; PillOtS— "TkypMptoaArtkaBMlTMvUIingljIntktdaytinigrpovw;* 

(c) The depravity of the hnman will is sach that, without this decree to 
bestow special divine influences upon some, all, without exception, would 
have rejected Christ's salvation after it was offered to them ; and so all, 
without exception, must have perished. Election, therefore, maj be 
viewed as a necessary consequence of God*s decree to provide an objective 
redemption, if that redemption is to have any subjective result in human 
salvation. 

Before the prodigal son seeks the father, the father must first seek him,— a truth 
brought out in the preceding parables of the lost money and the lost sheep ( Ink* 15 ). 
Without election^ all are lost. Newman Smyth, Orthodox Theology of To-day, M— 
" The worst doctrine of election, to-day, is taught by our natural science. The scien- 
tific doctrine of natural selection is the doctrine of election, robbed of all hope, and 
without a single touch of human pity in it.'* 

Hodge, Syst. TheoL, 8:836— ^* Suppose the deistic view be true: Ood created men 
and left them ; surely no man could complain of the results. But now suppose Ood, 
foreseeing these very results of creation, should create. Would it make any difference, 
If Gk)d's purpose, as to the f uturitlon of such a world, should precede it ? Augustine 
supposes that GK>d did purpose such a world as the deist supposes, with two exceptions : 
< 1) he interposes to restrain evil ; (8) he intervenes, by providence, by Christ, and by 
the Holy Sfrfrit, to save some from destruction." Election is simply Ood's determlna^ 
tlon that the sufferings of Christ shall not be In vain ; that all men shall not be lost ; 
that some Shall be led to accept Christ ; that to this end special influences of his Spirit 
shall be given. 

At first sight it might appear that Ood's appointing men to salvation was simply 
permissive, as was his appointment to condemnation ( 1 P6i. 8 : 8 ), and that this appoint- 
ment was merely indirect by creating them with foresight of their faith or their dis- 
obedience. But the decree of salvation is not simply permissive, -> it Is ef&cient also. 
It is a decree to use special means for the salvation of some. A. A. Hodge. Popular 
Lectures, 148 — "The dead man cannot spontaneously originate his own quiokenlng. 
Qor the creature his own creating, nor the infant his own begetting. Whatever man 
may do after regeneration, the first quiokenlng of the dead must originate with Gk)d." 

Hovey, Manual of Theology, 287— '* Calvinism, reduced to its lowest terms, is elec- 
tion of believers, not on account of any foreseen conduct of theirs, either before or In 
the act of conversion, which would be spiritually better than that of others Influenced 
by the same grace, but on account of their foreseen greater usefulness in manifesting 
the glory of Ood to moral beings and of their foreseen non-commission of the sin 



BLEcnoir. 785 

against the Holy Spirit.'* Bat even here we most attribute the arreater uaefalneas and 
the abstention from fatal sin, not to man's unaided powers but to the dlrine decree : 
see Ipk. 2: 10— "Iv vi arc Ui vorkauttfeii^ omM ia CUii J«iu ftr gMd v«k% vUek G«d aftn fnpni that 
vfih0«Uv»UciBtt«L" 

id) The doctrine of election beoomes more acceptable to reason when 
-we remember : first, that God's decree is eternal, and in a certain sense is 
oontemporaneoos with man's belief in Ohrist ; secondly, that God's decree 
to create involves the decree of all that in the exercise of man's freedom 
will follow ; thirdly, that God's decree is the decree of him who ia all in 
all, so that our willing and doing is at the same time the working of him 
who decrees onr willing and doing. The whole question tarns npon the 
initiative in human salvation : if this belongs to Gkxl, then in spite of dif- 
ficoltiee we must accept the doctrine of election. 

The timeless eidstenoe of Gk>d may be the souroe of many of our dlffloultles with 
regard to election, and with a proper view of Qod's eternity these dlffloultles might be 
removed. Mason, Faith of the Gospel, 840-861 — ** Btemlty is commonly thought of as 
If It were a state or series anterior to time and to be resumed again when time comes 
to an end. This, however, only reduces eternity to time again, and puts the life of Qod 
in the same line with our own, only coming from further bacdE. .... At present we do 
not see how time and eternity meet.'* 

Royce, World and Individual, 2 : 874~" God does not temporally foreknow anything, 
except so far as he is expressed in us finite beings. The knowledge that exists in time 
is the knowledge that finite beings possess, In so far as they are finite. And no such 
foreknowledge can predict the special features of Individual deeds precisely so far as 
they are unique. Foreknowledge in time Is possible only of the general, and of the 
causally predetermined, and not of the unique and free. Hence neither Giod nor man 
can foreknow perfectly, at any temporal moment, what a free will agent is yet to do. 
On the other hand, the Absolute posses^bs a perfect knowledge at one glance of the 
whole of the temporal order, past, present and future. This knowledge is 111 called 
foreknowledge. It is eternal knowledge. And as there is an eternal knowledge of all 
individuality and of all freedom, free acts are known as occurring, like the chords in 
the musical succession, precisely when and how they actually occur." While we see 
much truth In the preceding statement, we find In it no bar to our faith that God can 
transhite his eternal Imowledge Into finite knowledge and can thus put It for speolal 
purposes In possession of his creatures. 

B. H. Johnson, Theology, 2d ed., 250—" Foreknowing what his creatures would do, 
Qod decreed their destiny when he decreed their creation ; and this would still be the 
case, although every man had the partial control over his destiny that Arminians 
aver, or even the complete control that Pelagians dalm. The decree is as absolute as 
If there were no freedom, but It leaves them as free as If there were no decree." A. H. 
Strong, Christ In Creation, 40, 42— ** As the Logos or divine Reason, Christ dwells in 
humanity everywhere and constitutes the principle of its being. Humanity shares 
with Christ In the image of God. That Image is never wholly lost. It Is completely 
restored in sinners when the Spirit of Christ secures control of their wills and leads 
them to merge their life In his. ... If Christ be the principle and life of all things, 
then divine sovereignty and human flneedom. If they are not absolutely reconciled, at 
least lose their ancient antagonism, and we can rationally * v«rk ost onr vwn alratioa,* for 
the very reason that *it it Qod thai wlwtk iiiu, balk to viU and to voric, fior Ui good ploonio* (AiL 
t:il»18V* 

2. Objections to the Doctrine of Election, 

(a) It is nnjnst to those who are not included in this pnrpose of salva- 
tion. — ^Answer : Election deals, not simply with creatures, but with sinfol, 
goilty, and condemned creatores. That any shonld be saved, is matter of 
pure grace, and those who are not included in this purpose of salvation 
suffer only the dne reward of their deeds. There is, therefore, no injustice 
in Gk>d*s election. We may better praise Gk>d that he saves any, than charge 
him with injustice because he saves so few. 
50 



786 SOTERIOLOGY, OR THE DOCTRINE OP 8ALVATI0K. 

God can say to all men, saved or unsaved, "Frlnl, I do Am bo vnng . . . . b itMlkvflil fv ■• 
U do iAilIvmvitkBiM«viir"(Iai 10:18,15). The queaUon is not whether a father wlU treat 
his children alike, but whether a Borereiga must treat condemned rebels alike. It is 
not true that, because the Governor pardons one convict from the penitentiary, he 
must therefore pardon aU. When he pardons one, no injury is done to those who are 
left But, In God*8 sovemment, there is still lesi reason for objection ; for God offers 
pardon to all. Nothing* prevents men from being pardoned but their unwlllingnesB to 
accept his pardon. Election is simply God*s determination to make certain persons 
willing to accept it. Because justice cannot save all, shall it therefore save none ? 

Augustine, De Predest. Sanct., 8—^* Why does not God teach all ? Because it is tn 
mercy that he teaches all whom he does teach, while it is in judgment that he does not 
teach those whom he does not teach.** In his Manual of Theology and Ethics, 200, 
Hovey remarks that Bmb. 9 :IO^''vhoirtikattatnpUMticaiMlMr"— teaches, not that might 
makes right, but that God is morally entitled to glorify either his righteousness or his 
mercy In disposing of a guilty race. It is not that he chooses to save only a few ship- 
wrecked and drowning creatures, but that he chooses to save only a part of a great 
company who are bent on committing suicide. Pkt. 8 : M — "ko Oat lioiiolk acalafk bm vnngvth 
Uf own MsltAJlth^ that kilonolon diatk'* It Is best for the universe at large that some should 
be permitted to have their own way and show how dreadful a thing Is opposition to 
God. See Shedd, Dogm. TheoL, 1 : 456. 

(b) It representB God as partiaL in his dealings and a respecter of per- 
sons. — ^Answer : Since there is nothing in men that determines Gk>d's choice 
of one rather than another, the objection is invalid. It would equally apply 
to Qod*B selection of certain nations, as Israel^ and certain individuals, as 
Gyros, to be recipients of special temporal gifts. If God is not to be 
regarded as partial in not providing a salvation for fallen angels, he cannot 
be regarded as partial in not providing regenerating influences of his Spirit 
for the whole race of fallen men. 



RL44:S-~''foth^gBtMltte]udiapomiri«b7itairovBiwvri,Iiitl«didthdrownaiBMT»tfcMi; Bit 
tky fight kod, ndtUM an, udtho light of tty aoutmim^BooHM tkoavMl&TO^ It. 45:i,i5 

— "Ihu nith Johenh to hit aaoiatol, to Qjm, vhoio right hand I haro hoUon, toaabdu nakloDi bdbn Urn .... Tor 
Jaoob mj anrraiit't lako^ and IbmI ny flhooM, I havo oallad that by fkj aano: I ban mnasMd thaa^ though thoa 
haitoolkiHViiBM"; Uko4:8M7— "Th«f van naay vidova is braal . . . . and ooto bobo of than vaa Iljjah 
iaftt, batonlj to laraphath, in tho bod of fidas, uto t voaaa that vat a vidov. And than von maj lapan is 
laraol .... and noiio of than vat elaauad, bat only laanaa tha Sjriaii"; 1 Oor. 4 : 7 — "Far vho aaakath thaa ta 
diftr ? and vhathattthes that thoK didst not naalTo? bat if thoa didttnaaiTo it, vhy doit thoa gloiy, aa if thoa 
hadatiiotnoiiTadit?" 8Vot8:4— "God iparad sot aag*It vhta th^ ainnad. bat oatt tham down to haU "; Hatai 
8 : 16 — " hr Y«il7 Bot ta aogalt doth ha giTO balp, bat ho girath halp to tho aaod of ihnhaa." 

Is God partial. In ohoosing Israel, Qyrus, Naaman ? Is God partial, in bestowing upon 
some of his servants special ministerial gifts? Is God partial, in not providing a salva- 
tion for flEdlen angels ? In God*s providence, one man is bom in a Christian land, the 
son of a noble family,* Is endowed with beauty of person, splendid talents, exalted 
opportunities, Immense wealth. Another is bom at the Five Points, or among the 
Hottentots, amid the degradation and depravity of actual, or practical, heathenism. 
We feel that it is Irreverent to complain of God*s dealings In providence. What right 
have sinners to complain of God's dealings In the distribution of his grace ? Hovey : 
" We have no reason to think that God treats all moral beings alike. We should be glad 
to hear that other races are treated better than we." 

Divine election is only the ethical side and Interpretation of natural selection. In the 
latter God chooses certain forms of the vegetable and animal kingdom without merit 
of theirs. They are preserved while others die. In the matter of individual health, 
talent, property, one is taken and the other left. If we call all this the result of system, 
the reply is that God chose the system, knowing precisely what would come of it. 
Bruce, Apologetics, 201—** Election to distinction in philosophy or art is not Incompre- 
hensible, for these are not mattera of vital concern; but election to holiness on the 
part of some, and to unholinoss on the part of others, would be inconsistent with Ghid's 
own holiness." But there is no such election to unhollness except on the part of man 
himself. God's election secures only the good. See (e) below. 

J. J. Murphy, Natural Selection and Spiritual Freedom, 78— "The world is ordered 
on a basis of Inequality ; In the organic world, as Darwin has shown, it is of inequall^-- 



ELBcnoK. 787 

of faTored races— that all prosrefla oomea; history shows the same to be true of the 
human and spiritual world. All human progress Is due to elect human Individuals, elect 
not only to be a blessing to themselyes, but still more to be a blessing to multitudes of 
others. Any superiority, whether in the natural or in the mental and spiritual world, 
becomes a vantage-ground for gaining a greater superiority. ... It is the method of 
the divine government, acting in the provinces both of nature and of grace, that all 
l)eneflt should come to the many through the elect few.'* 

( c ) It represents God as arbitrary. — Answer : It represents God, not 
as arbitrary, but as exercising the free ohoioe of a wise and sovereign will, in 
ways and for reasons whioh are insomtable to na. To deny the possibility 
of Booh a ohoioe is to deny God*s personality. To deny that Gk>d has 
reasons for his choice is to deny his wisdom. The doctrine of election finds 
these reasons, not in men, but in QodL 

When aregiment is dedmated for insubordination, the fact that every tenth man is 
chosen for death is for reasons; but the reasons are not In the men. In one case, the 
reason for God's choice seems revealed : i Tin. 1 : 16— "iMvbtlt fbr Hum mam I oMiiiifd mtnjt ttat 
lBBaMddifBightJiiuOki1ikih0viHrtkaUUteIongnff«iBg,&raaaBwapI«iftk^ biUfTt 

n kiB vBto ilarBal lift "— here Paul Indicates that the reason why Ood chose him was that 
he was so great a sinner t vvwiS — "OtaiilJNuouMiBltlk* vorld tomTsifiiiiin; d whml §m ikitC 
Hovey remarks that ** the uses to which Ood can put men, as ve s se ls of grace, may 
determine his selection of them." But since the naturally weak are saved, as well as 
the naturally strong, we cannot draw any general conclusion, or discern any general 
rule, in Ood's dealings, unless it be this, that in election Ood seeks to illustrate tjie 
greatness and the variety of his grace,- the reasons lying, therefore, not In men, but 
in Ood. We must remember that Ood's toverelgnty is the sovereignty of Ood —the infi- 
nitely wise, holy and loving Ck)d, in whose hands the destinies of men can be left more 
Mfely than in the hands of the wisest, most Just, and most kind of his creatures. 

We must believe in the grace of sovereignty as weU as in the sovereignty of grace* 
Klection and reprobation are not matten of arbitrary wilL Ood saves all whom he can 
wisely save. He will show benevolence In the salvation of mankind just so tar as ha 
can without prejudice to holiness. No man can be saved without Ood, but it is also 
true that there is no man whom Ood is not wiUing to save. H. B. Smith, System, SIl— 
**It may be that many of the finally impenitent resist more light than many of the 
saved.'* Harris, Moral Bvolution, 401 (for substance)— ** Sovereignty Is not lost in 
Fatherhood, but is recovered as the divine law of righteous love. Doubtless thou art 
our J^ather, though Augustine be ignorant of us, and Calvin acknowledge us not." 
Hooker, BccL Polity, 1 : 8^" They err who think that of Ood's wUl there is no reason 
except his wllL*' T. Bnkine, The Braaen Serpent, 280— Sovereignty is ^* just a name 
for what is unreveaUd of Ood." 

We do not know oS of Ood's reasons for saving particular men, but we do know some 
of the reasons, for he has revealed them to us. These reasons are not men's merits or 
works. We have mentioned the flnt of these reasons : ( 1 ) Men'-s greater sin and need ; 
lTiB.i:i6— "tkatiaBiMikitfBigktJ«nBiailil*ovartkaUkiiia^^aiMaK." We may add to this I 
(2) The fact that men have not sinned against the Holy Spirit and made themselves 
onreceptlve to GSurist's salvaUon; iflBiliiS — ''lobtaiaadBMrqr.bMHMldlAitigMnatljiaiibt- 
itf "— the fact that Paul had not sinned with full knowledge of what he did was a reason 
why Ood could choose him. ( 8 ) Men's ability by the help of Christ to be witnesses and 
martyrs for their Lord ; iili9:iS,i6— "hciiaikMaarMMliiiten^to hmx mj bum btftn th» GmMIm 
aadki]ig%Mi4tteflhiUfiaoflBul: ftr I vill ihew kioi hov nuy tUigi te bbiI niMr ftr my bum's aJu." As 
Paul's mission to the Oentiles may have determined Ood's choice, so Augustine's mia- 
sion to the sensual and abandoned may have had the same influence. But if Paul's 
sins, as foreseen, constituted one reason why Ood chose to save him, why might not his 
ability to serve the kingdom have constituted another reason ? We add therefore : ( 4 ) 
Men's foreseen ability to serve Christ's kingdom in bringing others to the knowledge of 
the truth ; Mb 15 : 16— **I Am yw aad appflBtid jn, tkit yt ikMld go ud bm frvlL" Notice however 
that this is choice to service, and not simply choice on tiocount of acrvtee. In all these 
cases the reasons do not lie in the men themselves, for what these men are and what 
they possess is due to Ood's providence and grace. 

(d) It tends to immorality, by representing men's saltation as inde- 
pendent of their own obedience. — Answer : The objection ignores the fact 



788 80TEBI0L00Y, OB THE DOGTRIKE OP BALVATIOK. 

that the salvation of believers is ordained only in connection witii their 
regeneration and sanctification, as means ; and that the certainty of final 
triumph ia the strongest incentive to strennoos conflict with sin* 

Plutarch: **God to the brave man's hope, and not the coward's excuse." The pur- 
poses of Gk)d are on anchor to the storm-toswd spirit. But a ship needs engine, as well 
as anchor. Ood does not elect to save any without repentance and faith. Borne hold 
the doctrine of ejection, but the doctrine of election does not hold them. Such should 
ponderiM.i:l^ in which Christians are said to be elect, '«iaiiBatitetka«ftte8|ui^ulo«hidi- 
Moa ud ipriakliBg of tht UMd of Jmu Okiut" 

Augustine : ** He loved her [ the ohuxoh ] foul, that he might make her fisir." Itar. 
John Watson ( Ian McLaren ) : " The greatest reinforcement religion could have in our 
time would be a return to the ancient belief in the sovereignty of God." This is 
because there to lack of a strong conviction of sin, guilt, and helplessness, still remain- 
ing pride and unwillingness to submit to Ood, imperfect faith in Ood's trustworthiness 
and goodness. We must not exclude Arminians from our feUowship —there are too 
many good Methodtots for that. Hut we may maintain that they hold but half the 
truth, and that absence of the doctrine of election from their creed makes preaching 
less serious and character less secure. 

( e ) It inspires pride in those who think themselves elect — Answer : 
This is possible only in the case of those who pervert the doctrine. On 
the contrary, its proper influence is to hnmble men. Those who exalt 
themselves above others, upon the groniid that they are spedal favorites of 
Gbd, have reason to question their election. 

In the novel, there was great effectiveness in the lover's plea to the object of hto 
affection, that he had loved since he had flnt set hto eyes upon her in her childhood. 
But God's love for us to of longer standing than that. It dates back to a time before 
we were born,— aye, even to eternity past. It to a love which was fastened upon us, 
although Ood knew the worst of us. It to unchanging, because founded upon hto 
infinite and eternal love to Christ. Jw. SI : 8— " JahoTtk appeuvd of old uito im, mjia^, T«, I kavt 
kni Om vitk IB frwlaitiaf lovt: tUnftn vitk loTiagktodAHi kan I di»n tkM**; Urn, 8 : 81-39— "If Qod it fer 
va, vho if aguiiik u? .... Wk» ikaU MfMili u tnm tht lovtof Ohriit?" And the answer Is, that 
nothing "ihall bo ibto to MpuBto u firw tkt lore of God, vUflkii to OhriikJMDS0iir lori" Thto eternal 
love subdues and humbles : II 116 : 1— "lot uto u, iohonk, not uto v^ Bvk ute tky bum (Itb gtey 
9* tkj loTinfkiiidBM^ and for tky tnitk*! nkn" 

Of the effect of the doctrine of election, Oalvin, in hto Institutes, 8 : SB : 1, remarks 
that ** when the human mind hears of It, its irritation breaks all restraint, and it dis- 
covers as serious and violent agitation as if alarmed by the sound of a martial 
trumpet.** The cause of thto agitation is the apprehension of the fact that one to an 
enemy of Ood and yet absolutely dependent upon hto mercy. Thto apprehension leads 
normally to subminion. But the conquered rebel can give no thanks to himself,— all 
thanks are due to God who has chosen and renewed him. The affe<$tions elicited are 
not those of pride and self -complacency, but of gratitude and love. 

Christian hymnology witnesses to these effects. Isaac Watts ( 1 1748) : ** Why was I 
made to hear thy voice And enter while there 's room. When thousands make a wretohed 
choice. And rather starve than come. 'T was the same love that spread the feast That 
sweetly forced me in ; Else I bad still refused to taste, And pertohed in my sin. Pity 
the nations, O our God I Constrain the earth to come ; Send thy victorious word 
abroad. And bring the wanderers home.'* Jostoh Conder ( 1 1836 ): *' 'T to not that I did 
choose thee. For, Lord, that could not be ; Thto heart would still refuse thee ; But thou 
hast chosen me ;— Hast, trom. the sin that stained me. Washed me and set me free. And 
to thto end ordained me That I should live to thoe. 'T was sovereign mercy called me, 
And taught my opening mind ; The world had else enthralled me. To heavenly glories 
blind. My heart owns none above tbee ; For thy rich grace I thirst ; Thto knowing,— 
if I love thee, Thou must have loved me flist." 

(/) It disooniages effort for the salvation of the impenitent, whether on 
their own part or on the part of others. — Answer : Since it is a secret 
decree, it cannot hinder or discourage such effort On the other hand, it 
is a groond of encouragement, and so a stimnloa to effort ; f or, without 



ELBOTIOK. 789 

electioi^ it is certain that aU wonld be lost (c/. Acta 18: 10). Whileit 
humbles the sinner, so that he is "willing to oiy for mercy, it encourages 
him also by showing him that some will be sayed, and ( since election and 
faith are inseparably connected) that he will be saved, if he wUl only 
believe. While it makes the Christian feel entirely dependent on God's 
power, in his efforts for the impenitent, it leads him to say with Panl that 
he ** endures all things for the elects' sake, that they also may attain the 
salvation that is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory" (2 Tim. 2 : 10). 

God's decree that Paul's ship's company should he saved ( AaU 27 : S4 ) did not ohvlate 
the necessity of their ahidinff in the ship ( T«ne 81 ). In marrliiffe, man's eleotloa does 
not exclude woman's ; so God's election does not exdude man's. There is just as much 
need of effort as if there were no election. Hence the question for the ednner is not, 
^ Am I one of the elect ? " but rather. *' What shall I do to be saved ? '* Milton repre- 
sents the spirits of hell as debating foreknowledge and free will, in wandering maaes 
lost. 

No man is saved until he ceases to debate, and begins to act. And yet no man will 
thus begin to act, unless God*s Spirit moves him. The Lord encouraged Paul by say- 
ingtohim: *'IkaT«mApi(9toiBtUia^" ( letB 18 :iO)— people whom I will bring in through 
thy word. '* Old Adam is too strong for young Melanchthon.** If God does not regen- 
erate, there is no hope of success in preaching : *^ God stands powerless before the 
majesty of man's lordly wilL Sinners have the glory of their own salvation. To pray 
God to convert a man Is absurd. God elects the man, because he foresees that the man 
will elect himself *' ( see & B. Mason. Truth Unfolded, 288-807 ). The doctrine of eleo- 
tlon does indeed cut off the hopes of those who place confidence in themselves ; but it 
is best that such hopes should be destroyed, and that in place of them should be put a 
hope in the sovereign grace of God. The doctrine of election does teach man*s abso- 
lute dependence upon God, and the Impossibility of any disappointment or disarrange- 
ment of the divine plans arising from the disobedience of the sinner, and it humbles 
human pride until it is willing to take the place of a suppliant for mercy. 

Rowland Hill was criticized for preaching election and yet exhorting sinners to repent, 
and was told that he should preach only to the elect. He replied that, if his critio 
would put a chalk-mark on all the elect, he would preach only to them. But this Is 
not the whole truth. We are not only ignorant who God's elect are, but we are set to 
preach to both elect and non-elect (iL 2: 7— "ttra diatt speak my vordi onto Ihna, whuAve tkay 
vill httr, or ▼bttho' they vill tatbtu *' ), with the certainty that to tbe former our preaching 
will make a higher heaven, to the latter a deeper hell ( 2 Oar. 2 : 15» 16 — "For v« an a ivwl wnt 
flf Cbiiit unto God, ia tkan that are eaTad, aad la tkoa that periah ; to ^ eae a nvor from death uite death ; to the 
other a MTV from life unto lift"; c/. Luke 2:34— "this ehildie let ftr the frlUag and the xiiiB^ of many in 
Inael " — for the falling of some, and for the rising up of others ). 

Jesus' own thanksgiving in Vat. il : 2S, 26— "I thaai thee, Father, Lord of heam Bid earth, that then 
didit hide theee thiflgs from the viae and mkdentanding, and didst rereal fhem nnto habee: yea, FUhor, ftr so it vu 
vell-pkaaing in thy eight " — is immediately followed by his invitation in Terae 28 — " Ooae ute m% 
all ye that labor and areheaTy laden, and I viUgtre yon rest.*' There is no contradiction in his mind 
between sovereign grace and the free Invitations of the goepelL 

G. W. Northrup, in The Standard, Sept. 19, 1889 — " 1. God will save every one of the 
human race whom he can save and remain God ; Z, Every member of the race has a 
full and fair probation, so that all might be saved and would be saved were they to use 
aright the light which they already have.'* . . . . ( Private letter ) : ^* Limitations of God 
in the bestowment of salvation : 1. In the power of God in relation to free will ; 2L In 
the benevolence of God which requires the greatest good of creation, or the greates t 
aggregate good of the greatest number ; 3. In the purpose of God to make the most 
perfect self-limitation ; 4. In the sovereignty of Gtod, as a prerogative absolutely 
optional in its exercise; 5. In the holiness of God, which involves Immutable limita- 
tions on his part In deaUng with moral agents. Nothing but some absolute impossi- 
bility, metaphysical or moral, could have prevented him * whose nature and whose 
name is love * from decreeing and scouring the confirmation of all moral agents in holi- 
ness and blessedness forever." 

(g) The decree of election implies a decree of reprobation. — Answer : 
The decree of reprobation is not a positive decree, like that of electiony 



790 80TBBIOLOOT, OB THE DOCT&IKB OF SALYATIOK. 

but a pemuBsiye deoree to leave the smner to his aelf-choaen zebellion and 
its natoral ooiuieqaenoes of pmuBbment. 

Bleotion and soTereiffntj are only aouroes of good. Bleotlon is not a deoree to 
destroy,— It is a decree only to save. When we elect a President, we do not need to 
hold a second election to determine that the remaining milUons shall he non-Presi- 
dents. It is needless to apply oontrivanoe or f oroe. Sinneis, like water, if simply let 
alone, will ran down hill to ruin. The decree of reprobation is simply a decree to do 
nothing— a decree to leave the sinner to liimself . The natural result of ttJs judicial 
foraaldng, on the part of Ood, is the hardening and destruction of the sinner. But It 
must not be forgotten that this hardening and destruction are not due to any positive 
efllclency of Ck>d, —they are a self-hardeoing and a self -destnictlon, —and Ood^ judi- 
oial forsaking is only the Just penalty of the sinner's guilty rejection of offered mercy. 

See IMM U :8 — ''Hvv ikiU I gift tkM v^ IptavB? . . . . Bj k«it it tnatd vitkii »•» ig «BpuB« 
kiidladtagrtkff*'; 4:17— "Ipknip ii Jeia«d to iddi; M Unahst"; ]UB.9:B»n-"¥kaftifQod, vimi«te 
ffcjv Ml wnA, aad to ikt Ui ptiwr kaowa, tadswd witk anA lomiftriiy t— ihrfviBik ittid mto Jrti iiIIm ; 
nd ttal ka nifkl mtk» kstwa tht liotoflf togiwyspaaTi h rfn«ty, irhMfch<iftr> nn i m dsBtogldiy**— 
here notice that '* vhioh kt atet ft§futi*' decUunes a positive divine efficiency, in the case of 
the v e ss e ls of mercy, while "Ittoi uto iisti Wilis'* intimates no such positive agency of 
God,- the vessels of wrath fitted themselves for destruction; BTiB.I:N— < 
w^SBtoh— r,MiiMMintoi»i(r";lg>tt;> — "tttyttmbto it thi vwi bd^ linb«dusl: 
alioikty vmaipoiBtod'^ Jiiitoi- ''vkA vmofoUMlflkftC 'vrittoiofbdhnhaaA'-- Am^ 
indiniftbs**; HiilS:M,4i~''ttekias4m FnpH«4 fv 7os....tktttonilin vUAiifn^ 
you, nor for men, but] far tla dafil ud kii UKtli**— there Is an election to life, but no 
reprobation to death ; a ** bMk tf lift ** ( lar. a : 17 ), but no book of death. 

B. G. Robinson, Christian Theology, 813— "Reprobation, In the sense of absolute pre- 
destination to sin and eternal damnation. Is neither a sequence of the doctrine of Sec- 
tion, nor the teaching of the Scriptures.** Men are not "affaiitoA " to disobedience and 
■tumbling in the same way that they are "•yptbtoi ** to salvation. God uses positive 
means to save, but not to destroy. Henry Ward Beecfaer : '* The elect are whosoever 
will ; the non-eleot are whosoever won*t'* Geoiye A. Gordon, New Epoch for Faith, 
44 — ^* Bleotion understood would have been the saving strength of Israel ; election mla- 
understood was its ruin. The nation felt that the election of It meant the rejection of 
other nations. . . . The Christian church has repeated Israel's mistake.** 

The Westminster Conf easlon reads : ** By the decree of God, for the manifestation of 
bis glory, some men and angels are predestinated unto everlasting life, and others to 
everlasting death. These angels and men, thus predestinated and foreordained, are 
particularly and unchangeably designed ; and their number Is so certain and detlnlto 
that It oannot be either Increased or diminished. The rest of mankind God was 
pleased, according to the unsearchable counsel of his own will, whereby he eztendeth 
or wlthholdeth mercy as he pleaseth, for the glory of his sovereign power over his 
oreatures, to pass by and to ordain them to dishonor and wrath for their sin, to the 
praise of his glorious Justice." This reads as if both the saved and the lost were made 
originally for their respective final estates without respect to character. It Is supra* 
lapsarianisnu It Is certain that the supralapsarians were In the majority In the West- 
minster Assembly, and that they determined the form of the statement, although there 
were many sublapsarians who objected that it was only on account of their foreseen 
wickedness that any were reprobated. In its later short statement of doctrine the 
Presbyterian body In America has made It plain that God's decree of reprobation Is a 
permissive decree, and that it places no barrier in the way of any man's salvation. 

On the general subject of Election, see Hosley, Predestination ; Payne, Divine Sover- 
eignty; Bidgeley, Works, 1:861-804, esp. 922; Edwards, Works, 2:627 sgi.; Van Ooetor- 
lee. Dogmatics, 448-458; Martensen, Dogmatics, 888-^82; and espedaUy Wardlaw, 
Systematic Theology, 48^-640 ; H. B. Smith, Syst. of Christian Theology, 600-614 ; liaule. 
Outlines of Christian Doctrine, 86-66 ; Peck, in Bapt. Quar. Bev., Oct. 1891 : 688-706. On 
objections to eleotion, and Spurgeon's answers to them, see Williams, Kemlnlsoenoes 
of Spurgeon, 189. On the homlletloal uses of the doctrine of eleotion, see Bib. Sac, 
Jan. 1888: 18-88; 

n. OaIiLINO. 

C3alling is that act of God by which men are inyited to aooept, b j ftdth, 
the salvation proyided by CSunst — The Soriptores disfcingnifth between : 



CALLIKG. 791 

(a) The general, or external, caU to all men through God's providenoe, 
word, and Spirit. 

If.45:B— "Lottkuto]iu,«adlM70 ntid,aUtfe«flniBartM«rtk; frr I ui (M, asd tkm if bum ate " ; 6S:6 
— "8Mk7tJ«honkvkileh«BajlMfcoiMi; oaUyei^oBkiB vkil«k«iiD«r"; 65:12— "vhtnIcalH7«^Bot 
aaiwir; wb«n I qikt, yt did boI kMr; bat j* did Uiat vkiok ¥U evil ia miM oj«i^ ud oboM that Thtnia I dtUghtsd 
Brt'^li88:li--''iiIUTi,iMththoI«rdJ«hoTBt^IliaT«MplMiiiniAttedBtihoftha viokad; bot tbat 1h« 
wiflkid tm froB kit vajasd liTi ; torn ye^ tun ye from ymir tril waji ; lor Thj will j« dia^ hoon of Iirul ? " 
Hat 11 : 28 <—" Coma unto au^ all j« that labor and are heaTj laden, and I vill give 70a reit " ; 22:8 — 'aentbrtk 
bia aarranv te eall than that wen bidden to the naniage Aaat: and thoy woold net eooM " ; Hark 18: IS— "6070 
into all the world, and inaeh the geapd te the whoto emtioB" ; John 12:88— ''And I, if I beliiled ny fiem the ear^^ 
wm draw aU men nntoByeelf"— draw, notdraff; BeT. 8:20— "Behdi I stand at the door aDdknoek: ifan7 
man hear 07 vdee and open the doer, I will eome in to htai, and will np with him, and he with aei'* 

(6) The special, efficacious call of the Holy Sinrit to the elect 

Lnke 14 : 28— "60 ont into the UghwaTi and hedgea, and eoaitrain then to eone in, that 07 hesn na7 be tiled'* ; 
Koni.l:7— "toallthataninRau^beleTed of Ood, oalled to be aainta: 6nee to 70a and paaee frn God oar Ikther 
and the lord Jenis Qbxiit '^ 8 : 80 - " when he foeordained, then he aJiO oaM : and when he oalH than ho alae 
jnatiiied":li:29— "Airtheglftaand the oallisg of Bod an not npented of"; 10Dr.l:28,24-"bntwopnaflh 
Okriit eradflod, nnto Jewi a BtnmWingbloab, and nnto GentOea Iboliahnna; bnt nnto then that an eaUed, both Jews 
andGnok%Ohziatthepower«fQod,andthewiadonofGod"; 26— **for behold 7oar oalliog; bnthmi, that not nan7 
wise after the flfliA, not nian7 nighty, not nan7 noble, an oalled"; nil.8:14— "I preea en toward the goal onto the 
iriieofthohigh[marR. 'npward'leallingofflodinOhnitieiu'*; Iph. 1 : 18— "that 7a na7 know what is the hope 
of his eailing, what the riehea of the gleey of his inhflritanee in the ninta'^ 1 IhoK 2; 12— " U) the end that 70 shoold 
walk warthil7ofQed, who ealleth 701L into hia ownkiagdon and glny"; 21hen.2:ld— "wbennntoheoalled7oa 
thnoghonr gospel, to the obtaining of the glor7 ^ ^""^ ^^ '**■* Christ**, 2 Tin. 1 : 9 — " who nred vs. and oallod 
as with a hol7 ealling, not aeoording to onr works, bat aeeerdiag to hia own parpooe and graoe, whieh was giren as in 
Christ Jesasbefim tines eternal"; leb. 8:1 — "hoty bnthren, pertaken of a heaT«l7 ealliBg";2 Pet 1:10 — 
" Vhflnbre» hnthrsn, giro the non diligeaee to nakoTnir ealling and eleekbn sbtil'* 

Two qnestionB only need special consideration : 

A. Is God's general call sincere ? 

This is denied, npon the ground that sach sincerity is incompatible, 
firsti with the inability of the sinner to obey ; and secondly, with the 
design of God to bestow only upon the elect the special grace withont 
which they will not obey. 

(a) To the first objection we reply that, since this inabilily is not a 
physical but a moral inability, consisting simply in the settled perversity 
of an evil will, there can be no insincerity in offering salvation to all, espe- 
cially when the offer is in itself a proper motive to obedience. 

Ood'g oall to all men to repent and to believe the irospel is no more insincere than hin 
oonmiand to all men to love him with all the heart. There is no obstacle In the way of 
men's obedience to the gospel, that does not exist to prevent their obedience to the law. 
If it is proper to publish the commands of the law, it is proper to publish the Invita- 
tions of the gospeL A human being may be perfectly sincere in giving an invitation 
which he knows will be refused. He may desire to have the invitation accepted, while 
yet he may, for certain reasons of Justice or personal dignity, be unwilling to put forth 
special efforts, aside from the Invitation itself, to secure the acceptance of it on the 
part of those to whom it is offered. 80 Ood*s desires that certain men should be saved 
may not be accompanied by his will to exert special influences to save them. 

These desires were meant by the phrsse ** revealed will " in the old theologians ; his 
purpose to bestow special grace, by the phrase " secret will." It is of the former that 
Paul speaks, in i fin. 2: 4— "who would ban all aiea to be sared." Here we have, not the active 
aw«-ai, but the passive ««i^yai. The meaning is, not that God purpoHs to save all men, 
but that he detirea all men to be saved through repenting and belleviog the gospeL 
Hence Qod*s revealed will, or desire, that all men should be saved, is perftotly con- 
sistent with his secret will, or purpose, to bestow special grace only upon a certain 
number ( see, on 1 fiie. 2 : i Fairbaim's Oommentary on the Pastoral Epistles ). 

The sincerity of 0od*B oall is shown, not only in the tact that the only obstacle to 
oompUanoe, on the sinner's partk is the sinner's own evil will, but also in the fact that 



792 SOTEKIOLOOY, OB THE DOCTBIKB OF BALYATIOK. 

Ood has, at Infinite ooat, made a complete external provWon, upon the ground of 
whl<di'kttkatvm"niay"«M'*aDd''UdntktvBtfforUff Mj" (Iit. S:n); so that God can 
truly say: "WUt mU kavt bus int Mft to ^7 viMjaii tkit I kavi iol tei is It?" (I& S:4). 
Broadus, Ck>m. on !■! 6 :10 — " Aj vill bt tei" — dteMngiilshiw between God's will of pur- 
pose, of desire, and of command. H. B. Smith, Byst. TheoL, ttl—** Common grace 
pnnnm over Into effectual grace In proportion as the sinner yields to the divine tnflu- 
enoe. Bffeotual grace Is that which efltets what common grace tends to effect'* See 
also Studlen imd Krltlken, 1B87 : 7 tg. 

( 6 ) To the aeoond, we reply that the objection, if true, wonld equally 

hold against Gk>d'8 foreknowledge. The dnoerily of God's general oall is 

no more inconsistent with his determination that some afaall be permitted 

to reject it, than it is with foreknowledge that aome will reject it 

Hodge. Syst. TheoL, 2 : 648— ** Predestination concerns only the purpose of God to 
render effectuaU in particular cases, a call addmannd to all. A general amnesty, on cer- 
tain conditions, may be offered by a sovereign to rebellious subjects, although he 
knows that through pride or malice many will refuse to accept it ; and even though, 
for wise reasons, he should determine not to constrain their assent, supposing that 
such Influence over their minds were within his power. It Is evident, from the nature 
of the call, that it has nothing to do with the secret purpose of God to grant his effect- 
ual grace to some, and not to others. . • . According to the Angustlnian scheme, the 
non-elect have all the advantages and opportunities of securing their salvation, which, 

according to any other scheme, are granted to mankind Indiscriminately God 

designed, in its adoption, to save his own people, but he consistently offers its benefits 
to all who are wUling to receive them.** See also H. B. Smith, System of Christian 
Theology, fiUMSSL 

B. Is Qod's special call irresistible ? 

We prefer to aay that this special call is efficadonsy — that is, that it infal- 
libly accomplishes its purpose of leading the sinner to the acceptance of 
salvation. This implies two things : 

( a ) That the operation of Qod is not an outward constraint upon the 
homan will, but that it accords with the laws of our mental oonstitation. 
We reject the term ' irresistible,' as implying a coercion and compulsion 
which is foreign to the nature of Gk)d's working in the souL 

: PliU0:8 — "IkjpMpleanfltinrm-tAriiViIiitktdftjarthjpswv: Isteljuny.OBtaftktiPaBdioftttBon- 
lag Aoa k«l tte dav of tkj jmth " — i. e., youthful recruits to thy standard, as numberless and 
as bright as the drops of morning dew; Phil8:12,18 — "▼flfkcatTtarewBiilTitioBvilkCMrMiA 
tnMUiBf;li»itiiGedvtev«ktthia7wb0lktoiiUiiiitovoil^arUigMdyliMnn"~«.e.,t^ 
God's working Is our own working. The Lutheran Formula of Concord properly con- 
demns the view that, before, in, and after conversion, the will only raJsts the Holy 
Spirit: for this, It declares. Is the very nature of conversion, that out of non-willing, 
God makes willing, persons ( F. C, SO, 581, 588, 673). 

loa 4 : II ~ * * InMi kiUk bthiTid UiMilf ilabbflnay, lilu a itebban Mfti;** or ** or 
» when the sacrificial offering is brought forward to be slain, it holds back, settling on 
its haunches so that it has to be pushed and forced before it can be brought to the 
altar. These are not *'tt«MnlMi of flod** which are "a bnkm ipirit, a brakn and a aooMte hnrt" 
( Pi Si : H). B. H. Johnson, Theology, M ed., 260 — '' The N. T. nowhere declares, or even 
intimates, .... that the general call of the Holy Spirit is insufficient. And further- 
more, It never states that the efficient call is irresistible. Psychologically, to speak of 
irresistible Influence upon the faculty of self-determination In man Is express oontiu- 
dlctlon in terms. No harm can come from acknowledging that we do not know God's 
unrevealed reasons for electing one individual rather than another to eternal life.'* 
Dr. Johnson goes on to argue that if,- without disparagement to grace, faith can be a 
condition of justification, faith might also bo a condition of election, and that Inasmuch 
as salvation is received as a gift only on condition of faith ezerdsed, it is in purpose a 
gift, even If only on condition of ftdth foreseen. This seems to us to Ignore the abund- 
ant Scripture testimony that faith itself is God's glft» and therefore the Initiative must 
be wholly with God, 



APPLIOATIOK OF GHBIST'S BBDBMPTIOK. 793 

(b) That the operation of Gk>d is the originatiBg oanse of tha^ new dis- 
podtion of the afifeotionB, and that new aotiTity of the will, by which the 
sinner accepts Ghrist. The cause is not in the response of the will to the 
presentation of motives by Qod^ nor in any mere codperation of the will of 
man with the will of God, bat is an almighty act of Qod in the will of man, 
by which its freedom to choose Gk>d as its end is restored and rightly exer^ 
cised ( John 1 : 12, 13). For farther discussion of the sabject, see, in the 
next section, the remarks on Begeneration, with which this efficamoas call 
isidenticaL 



JikB 1 : II; tt-* "tat 11 BHoy u norivtd Un, to thM gaTi kt tiM rigkt to bM8M Aildiu tf (K tm to 1^ 
ttAtMQmatktoBiM: wtevmban,B0k«fUMiBff irthtvmirfMiiik,ii«rftktvmtrMfl,biaar(k^^^ 
Ood'8 BaYlng grace and elteotual oaUing are inesistlble, not in the sense that they are 
never resisted, but in the sense that they are never sucoessfully resisted. See Andrew 
FiiUer, Works, 2: 878,613, and 8:807; OiU, Body of Divinity, 8:121-180; Bobert HaU« 
Works, 8: 76. 

Matheson, Moments on the Mount, 128, 120 — ** Thy love to Him is to his love to thee 
what the sunlight on the sea is to the sunsiilne in the sky — a reflex, a mirror, a diffu- 
sion ; thou art giving back the glory that has been cast upon the waters. In the 
attraction of thy life to him, in the cleaving of thy heart to him, in the soaring of thy 
spirit to him, thou art told that he is near thee, thou hearest the beating of his pulse 
for thee." 

Upton, Hibbert Lectures, 802— ** In regard to our reason and to the essence of our 
ideiUs, there is no real dualism between man and Ck>d ; but in the case of the will which 
constitutes the essence of each man's individuality, there is a real dualism, and there- 
fore a possible antagonism between the will of the dependent spirit, man, and the will 
of the absolute and universal spirit, God. Such real duality of will, and not the appear^ 
anee of duality, as F. H. Bradley put It, is the wwf i nt Jal condition of ethics and reUgion.'* 



SBOnOK II. — THB APPLIGATIOK OF GHBIST'S BEDBMFTIOir 

IN ITS AOTUAL BBOIinnNO. 

Under this head we treat of Union with Christ, Begeneration, Oonyersion 
(embracing Bepentance and Faith), and Justification. Much confusion 
and error have arisen from conceiving these as occurring in chronological 
order. The order is logical, not chronological As it is only ** in Ohrist " 
that man is " a new creature " (2 Cor. 6 :17) oris '^justified" (Acts 18 :89), 
union with Ghrist logically precedes both regeneration and justification ; 
and yet, chronologically» tiie moment of our union with Christ is also the 
moment when we are regenerated and justified. So, too, regeneration and 
conyersion are but the divine and human sides or aspects of the same fact, 
although regeneration has logical precedence, and man tarns only as Gk)d 
turns him. 

Domer, Glaubenslehre, 8:6M (Syst Doot, 4:150), gives at this point an account of 
the work of the Holy Spirit in geoeraL The Holy Spirit's work, he says, presupposes 
the historical work of Christ, and prepares the way for Christ's return. ** As the Holy 
Spirit is the principle of union between the Father and the Son, so he is the principle of 
union between Ood and man. Only through the Holy Spirit does Christ secure for him- 
self those who will love him as distinct and free personalities." Begeneration and con* 
version are not chronologically separate. Which of the spokes of a wheel starts first f 
The ray of light and the ray of heat enter at the same moment. Sensation and peroep* 
tion are not separated in time, although the former is the cause of the latter. 



794 SOTEBJOLOGY^ OB THE DOCTBIKS OF 8ALYATI0K. 

**8upp08eaiion'«tasttotubeexteDdiiiffaorQMtlie Atlaatlo. 8ui»pofle that tiie tube Is 
oompletely filled with an iDOompreasfble fluid. Then there would be no internal of time 
between the impulse gi^en to the fluid at this end of the tube, and the effeot upon the 
fluid at the other end." See Hamrd, Oausatioa and Freedom in Williiur, 83-88, who 
aririies that oause and effeot axe always simultaneous; else, in the intenroning time, 
there would be a oause that liad no effect ; that Is, a oause that caused nothing ; that is, 
a oause that that wss not a cause. " A potentisl oause may exist for an unlimited 
period without produdnff any effect, and of course may precede its effect by any len^h 
of time. But aotoal, efltetive oause belnff the exereise of a sufficient power, its effeot 
cannot be delayed ; for, in that case, there would be the exercise of a suflloient power 
to produoe the efltoct, without prodnotnff it,— involvlnff the absurdity of its beinff both 
suffldent and Insuflldent at the same time. 

** A diflloulty may hero be suggested in regard to the flow or progress of events in 
timcb if they are ail simultaneous with their causes. This difficulty cannot arise as to 
Intelligent effort ; for, in regard to it, pertods of non-aotlon may continually intervene ; 
but if there are series of events and material phenomena, each of which is in turn effeot 
and oause, it may be diflloolt to see how any time could elapse between the first and 
the last of the series. .... If, however, as I suppose, these series of events, or material 
changes, are always effiected through the medium of motion, it need not trouble us, for 
there is preoiBely the same difficulty in regard to our conception of the motion of matter 
from point to point, there being no space or length between any two consecutive points, 
and yet the body in motion gets from one end of a long line to the other, and in this 
case this dilBculty Just neutralises the other. .... So, even If we cannot conceive how 
motion involTes the Idea of time, w« may perceive that, if it does so, it may be a means 
of conveying events, which depend upon it, through time also." 

Martineau, Study, 1 : 148-UiO~ ** Simultaneity does not exclude duration,** —since each 
cause has duimtlon and each eflteot has duration also. Bowne. Metaphysics, 106—** In 
the system, the complete ground of an event never lies in any one thing, but only in a 
complex of things. If a single thing were the sufficient ground of an effect, the effect 
would ooCxJst with the thing, and all effects would be instantaneously given. Hence 
all events In the system must be viewed as the result of the interaction of two or more 
things." 

The first manifestation of life in an infant may be in the lungs or heart or brain, but 
that which makes any and all of these manifestations possible is the antecedent life. 
We may not be able to tell which comes first, but having the life we have all the rest. 
When the wheel goes, all the spokes will go. The soul that Is bom again will show it In 
fkith and hope and love and holy living. Begeneratlon will involve repentance and 
faith and Justification and sanctification. But the one life which makes regeneration 
and all these consequent blessings possible Is the life of Christ who Joins himself to us 
in order that we may Join ourselves to him. Anne Beeve Aldrich, The Meaning : ** I 
lost my life In losing love. This blurred my spring and killed its dove. Along my path 
the dying roses Fell, and disclosed the thorns thereof. I found my life in finding Ood. 
In ecstasy I kiss the rod; For who that wins the goal, but lightly Thinks of the thorns 
whereon he trod Y" 

See A. A. Hodge, on the Ordo Salutls, in Princeton Bev., March, 1888 : 804-80. Union 
with Christ, says Dr. Hodge, ** Is effected by the Holy Obost in effectual calling. Of this 
calling the parts are two: (a) the offering of Christ to the sinner, extemaQy by the 
gospel, and irUemaUy by the Illumination of the Holy Ohost; (h) the reception of 
Christ, which on our part is both passive and active. The passive reception is that 
whereby a spiritual principle Is ingenereted into the human will, whence Issues the 
active reception, which is an act of faith with which repentance Is always conjoined. 
The communion of benefits which results from this union involves : (a) a change of 
state or relation, called Justification ; and ( 2> ) a change of subjective moral character, 
commenced in regeneration and completed through sanctification." See also Dr. 
Hodge's Popular Lectures on Theological Themes, 840. and Outlines of Theology, 888-429. 

H. B. Smith, however, in his System of Christian Theology, Is more dear In the putting 
of Union with Christ before Begeneratlon. On page 608, he begins his treatment of the 
Application of Bedemptlon with the title : ** The Union between Christ and the Indi- 
vidual believer as effteted by the Holy Spirit. This embraces the subjects of Justifica- 
tion, Begeneratlon, and Sanctification, with the underlying topic which comes first to 
be considered, Blectlon." He therefore treats Union with Christ ( 681-<(80 ) before Begen- 
eratlon (668-668). He says Oalvln defines regeneration as oomtaig to us by participa- 
tion In Christ, and apparently agrees with this view (668). 



UKIOK WITH 0HBI8T. 795 

MXhiB union [ with Christ] is at the ground of regenermUon and justttboatlon " ( 884). 
^The great dilSerenoe of theoiogical systems oomes out here. Blnoe Chrisdanitj is 
redemption through Christ, our mode of oonoelTing that will determine the character 
of our whole theological system ** (S»h ** The union with Christ is mediated by his 
Spirit, whence we are both renewed and Justilled. The great Hact of objective Chris- 
tianity is incarnation in order to atonement ; the great fact of subjective GSitistlanity 
ie union with Christ, whereby we receive the atonement '* ( 587 ). We may add that this 
union with Christ, in view of which God elects and to which God calls the sinner, is 
begun in regeneration, completed in converBioo« declared in Justiiloatioo« and proved 
in sanoUHcation and perseverance. 

L nNION 'WITH OhBIST. 

The Scripfcares dedare that, through the operation of Gk)d, there is oon- 
stitated a union of the aonl ^nth Ghrist different in kind from Qod's natoral 
and providential oonoursna "with all spiritSi as well as from all nnions of 
mere association or sympathy, moral likeness, or moral influence, — a union 
of life, in which the human spirit, while then most truly possessing its own 
indiyiduality and personal distinctness, is interpenetrated and energized by 
the Spirit of Christ, is made inscrutably but indissolubly one with him, 
and so becomes a member and partaker of that regenerated, believing, and 
Justified humanity of which he is the head. 

Union with Christ is not union with a system of doctrine, nor with eztenud religious 
influences, nor with an oiganlzed church, nor with an ideal man,— but rather, with a 
personal, risen, living, omnipresent Lord ( J. W. A. Stewart ). Dr. J. W. Alexander well 
calls this doctrine of the Union of the Belieyer with Christ ^ the central truth of all 
theology and of all religion.** Yet it receives little of formal recognition, either in 
dogmatic treatises or in common religious experience. Quenstedt, 88S-912, has devoted 
a section to it ; A. A. Hodge gives to it a chapter, in his Outlines of Theology, 869 iq., to 
which we are indebted for valuable suggestions ; H. B. Smith treats of it, not however 
as a separate topic, but under the head of Justification ( System, 681-580 ). 

The majority of printed systems of doctrine, however, contain no chapter or section 
on Union with Christ, and the majority of Christians much more frequently think of 
Christ as a Savior outside of them, than as a Savior who dwells within. This compara- 
tive neglect of the doctrine is doubtless a reaction from the exaggerations of a fiUse 
mysticism. But there is great need of rescuing the doctrine from neglect. For this we 
rely wholly upon Scripture. Doctrines which reason can neither discover nor prove 
need large support from the Bible. It is a mark of divine wisdom that the doctrine of 
the Trinity, for example, is so inwoven with the whole fabric of the New Testament, 
that the rejection of the former is the virtual rejection of the latter. The doctrine of 
Union with Christ, in like manner, is taught so variously and abundantly, that to deny 
it is to deny Inspbration itself. See Eahnis, Luth. Dogmatik, 8 : Ul-MIO. 

1. ScHplvre B^presenUttiona of thU Union. 

A. FiguratiYe teaching. It is illustrated : 

( a ) From the union of a building and its foundation. 

lpkl;iM«— "bdagViiittayattoamAtiaioffttafflrtkiMdpwphi^ 
MnMriloa*; ia irkon mA nrml bvildiig, ttlj framti ttgioar, gravitk into % Mj tompto it tto Lard; is Yhdn 
7falaBinlmlMlOK«thvlbr ahaUtationof OodiatkaSpirit**; {W.S:7--'*b«UdBd ipinUm 
in Christ as our foundation ; i Pat S: 4, S— "uto irhm Maiag, a tttiag itoiu^ r^jeoled iadMd of bmb, Ink 
vilkM«lMltpwiou,yBaIi^uliTiagilos«,amt«ilk«pafpoitailk0a«"-~each living stone in the 
Christian temple is kept in proper relation to every other, and is made to do its part in 
furnishing a habitation for Ood, only by being built upon and permanently connected 
with Christ, the chief comer^toiie. Cf, H il8 :»—"»• itflsavUak the MUnnifiotodb bei«t 
tte kM4 of tht ooRMr ** ; U » : 16 — "Bihold, I ky in On te a foadatin a itoa*. a tri^ 
af nzf loudakiMi : ka tiat bdimft ihall Mt bt ia haito.** 

( & ) From the union between husband and wife. 

laB.7:'4-"7«aIaawiBa4idiidto tha bw thnof h tki b^j «f fltaiak; tbalyaihealdbtjilaidtoaapihv, 
si« to Urn vhB vaa laiMd frost tka ta< Unt ¥• ■ifhft bcias fcrtk fhdl onto M '* ~ here union with Ch^ 



796 &OTSBIOLOQY, OB THE DOOTBIKB OF SALTATION. 

is Uliutrated hj the indiasoluble bond that oonneota hushand and wife, and makes them 
legally and organically one ; tOor. 11:S — ''loijMdflUflTM'jmvitkastdtyJiilMfy: brlapMnAjoa 
tooMkiisbnd,tkUlBigkt iriMBt 7W u A yon firgiB to Ohxiil''; lph.5:», a--''P»tUionHibdlaB^ 
l«T«Ui&lk«ndMa«;«a'iki^«l«T*tokiivifc;aiidthitveihaU bMOM «• iMk. AiaajiliiyiigrMl: 
tal I i|«k ia zvgiri afOiiil ad «f thi flhn«h " — Meyer refers nm M wholly to Christ, and says 
that Christ leaves ftither and mother (the right hand of God) and is joined to the 
ohuroh as his wife, the two constituting thenceforth one moral person. He makes the 
union future, howcTer, — "Fortidf eniisTiaa a turn. l«Tt Us bAm ud BBlkw" — the consum- 
mation is at Christ's second coming. But the Esthers, as Cfarysostom, 13ieodoreth and 
Jerome, referred it more properly to the incarnation. 

UTM9 : 7— *'fht Btniag* «r the Umb ii 000% aad Ui vilb hatk bUi kndf riOy ** ; B : n^ " Aid lli 8|iiit 
asd tki bridt M7, Oom";c/. b. S4:6— «f» thy lakor if IUm taibud"; Jor. S:IO-"8ntl7 u a vift 
tiMokonoily dopwUlk frsB bor kubaiid, » kav« /• doalttroMhonuIjvitbBo^Ok«a«afbrMl»adtkJokmb"; 
IooLS:t-5-"brtbdrBoa«'hatkpUjodtbobtfh(**— departure from God is adultery; theBoa^ol 
MooMB, as Jewish interpreters have always maintained, is an allegorical poem desorfb- 
Ing, under the figure of marriage, the union between Jehovah and his people : Paul 
only adopts the Old Testament figure, and applies it more precisely to the union of 
God with the church In Jesus Christ. 

( c ) From the union between the Tine and its farandheB. 

JehAl5:i40— "IaBtlMTii«,7oanti»bnaoh«:Ittba abidtth ia m, ud I is kia, tht hm bomlb nob 
frvit : ftr ofirt firaoi m 70 ou do notbiif ** -> as God*s natural life is in the vine, that it may give 
life to its natural branches, so God*s spiritual life is in the vine, Ouist, that he may 
give life to his spiritual branches. The roots of this new vine are planted in heaven, 
not on earth ; and into ii the half-withered branches of the old humanity are to be 
grafted, that they may have life divine. Yet our Lord does not say ** I am the root.** 
The branch is not something ouUidt^ which has to get nourishment otit of the root, — it 
is rather a part of the vine. 1a6:B— **!/«• bavobooMM altod witb bim [oiim^vtoi — ^ grown 
together *— used of the man and hoise in the Centaur, Xen., Qyrop., 4 : 8 : 18], in tbt lik»- 
iioMorbiidofttb,voihaUbaa]MiBtbtlibiBMofbiirMBm0kioa*^li:E4 — •'thMVMtootcalortbitvbi^ii 
MtanavildoUfotno^andviilgnftodooBtrary toBitanuitoagoodoUtvtM"; (M.t:8t7— "iitbonfavji 
noilTod Chziit Jons tbo lord, to valk ia bim, netodud baildod vpia bia " — not only grounded in Christ 
as our foundation, but thrusting down roots into him as the deep, rich, ail-sustaining 
soil. This union with Christ is consistent with individuality: for the graft brings forth 
fruit after its kind, though modified by the tree Into which it is grafted. 

Bishop H. W. Warren, in 8. 8. Timea, Oct 17, 1801 — ** Hie lessons of the vine are 
intimacy, likeness of nature, continuous impartation of hfe, fruit. Between friends 
there is intimacy by means of media, such as food, presents, care, words, soul looking 
firom the eyes. The mother gives her liquid flesh to the babe, but such intimacy soon 
cesses. The mother is not rich enough in life continuously to feed the ever«nlarging 
nature of the growing man. Not so with the vine. It continuously feeds. Its rivers 
crowd aU the banks. They burst out in leaf, blossom, clinging tendrils, and fruit, 
everywhere. In nature a thorn grafted on a pear tree bears only thorn. There is not 
pear-life enough to compel change of its nature. But a wild olive, typical of depraved 
nature, grafted on a good olive tree finds, contrary to nature, that there is force 
enough in the growing stock to ohange the nature of the wild scion." 

( d ) From the nnion between the memben and the head of the body. 

iOor.6:iS,19— "IiMV 70 not tbaS 70V bodi« ait Msbvi of AriH f . . . . kaov 71 sot tbrt 70V body ii a 
toiirto«rtbo]U7 Spirit i^obU in 7«q, vbiob jtUnftm OodT" 12:12— "For ai tbo bod7iaoBO. and bilb 
■aa7 mombor^ aad aU ibo moDbon of tbo bod7, b^ Biaa7, aro ana body ; ao ako ia Cbziat" — here Christ is 
identified with the church of which he is the head ; Ipb. 1 : A a — " ka pat aU tbiaga m aHld««tioB 
■BdorUaftot,«BdgaTobiBtoboboidoToraUtbi]^totbaobiinb, i^ob ia bia bod7, tbo talaoai of bim tbat UMb 
an ia all " — as the members of the hunun body are united to the heed, the source of 
their activity and the power that controls their movements, so all believers are mem* 
bers of an invisible body whose head is Christ. 8hall we tie a string round the finger 
to keep for it its own blood ? No, for all the blood of the body is needed to nourish 
one finger. 80 Christ is "boad ofw all tbiaga to [ f or the benefit of ] tbo cbnnb " (Tyler, TheoL 
Greek Poets, preface, 11 )• *' The church is the fulness ( wXi^fmita ) of Christ ; as It was 
not good for the first man, Adam, to be alone, no more was it good for the second man, 
Christ ''(C.H.H.). Ipk.4:i5^ 16— "grov up in all tbinga ioto bin, vbo ia tbo baid. vm rbriat; ftaai 
vbam aU tbo bod7 . . . . aakotb tbo iaofMoo of tbo bod7 vato tbo bvilding V|; of itoolf in loro" ; 6:11,80— "forao 
BUBOTwbatodbiaevaftoA;btttB0ariabottaidoboriabalbi^tmaaGbi8ta]aotbo Asreb; booaaao «• an mb- 

b«Borbiabod7." 



UNIOK WITH CHBI8T. 797 

( 6) From the tmion of the race with the sooroe of its life in Adam. 

Bml 5 : 12; tt — "as tknmgli om ibui dn mUni into the vorld, and dMtk tkrongk liii . . . . tln^ la bb itigiMd ii 
daatk, araB to Bught graaa raign thnogh rightaoaaneaa unto ataroal Ufa thnmgk Jeau Ohriat oar Lord" ; 1 Oar. 15 : S, 

45^49— "as in Adam all dia^ 80 alao in Christ ahall all be BuaeaHT Ae Ifant ma idam beeaaM a UvlBg aooL 

The laat Adam baeaine ft lifa-giTiog Spirit . . . . aa ve haTo bone die fanaga of tka eartbj, ve aball alao bear ika uufe 
ef the keaTaalj ** — as the whole raoe is one with the first man Adam, In whom it fell and 
from whom It has derived a corrupted and gruilty nature, so the whole raoe of belleyers 
constitutes a new and restored humanity, whose justified and purified nature is derived 
from Christ, the second Adam. Cf. Gen. 2 : 23 — **1hi8 is now bosa of ny bonea, and fleah of atj fleA : aha 
ahall be ealled ▼onaa, baeauaahe vaatakeiioatof lIaB"~here C. H. M. remarks that, as man is first 
created and then woman is viewed in and formed out of him, so it Is with Christ and 
the church. '* We are members of Ctirlst's body, because in Christ we have the princi- 
ple of our oriflrtn ; from him our life arose, Just as the life of Eve was derived from 
Adam .... The church is Christ's helpmeet, formed out of Christ in his deep sleep of 
death, as Bve out of Adam .... The church will be nearest to Christy as Bve was to 
Adam.** Because Christ is the source of all spiritual life for his people, he Is called, in 
Ii 9 : (1^ •« IrariaitlBg Mhir." and it is said, in IL 63 : 10, that '* ha than lee hia lead " ( see page 680 ). 

B. Direct statements. 

( a ) The believer is said to be in Christ. 

Lest we should regard the figures mentioned above as merely Oriental metaphors, 
the fact of the believer's union with Christ Is asserted in the most direct and prosaic 
manner. JohBi4:80 — "yainiBa"; BAm.6:li~"aIiTaiinto God in Ohriat Jeaaa"; 8:1 — "noeondimBatioi 
la tham thai are in Chriit Jeana '* ; 2 Oor. 5 : 17 -- ** if any inan ia In Ohzis^ he ia a new areatnra '* ; Iph. i : 4 — ** eheoe 
«8 in hin bolbro the bnndatioii of the world " ; 2 : 13 — " bow is Ohriat Jeaiia ye that oaoe wen fiur off are Bade nlgt is 
the blood of Ohriat." Thus the believer is said to be "in Ohriat," as the element or atmosphere 
which surrounds him with Its perpetual presence and which constitutes his vital breath ; 
in fact, this phrase "In Ohriat," always meaning '* in union with Christ,'* is the very key 
to Paul's epistles, and to the whole New Testament. The fact that the believer is in 
Christ is symbolized in baptism : we are "baptiaod into Ohriat" (QaL 8 :27). 



(6) Ohrist is said to be in the believer. 

JohBl4r20 — ''Iin7w";Rom.8:9— •"TeanDotinthafleahbatintheBliri^ if ao bo that the Splril ef Qed 
dvallethinyoB. BntifanynaBhathDottheSpiritofOhriattheiaBOBeofhia"— that this Sphrit of Christ is 
Christ himself, is shown from nrae 10— "And if Ohriat la in 70a, the body la dead beeaaae ef aia ; bst the 
ifjrit la lift beeaoao ef righteoaaneaa " : GoL 2 . 20 — "I have been enuiied vith Ohriat ; and it la no IflBgw I that lln^ 
bntOhriatliTeUinaM"— here Christ is said to be in the beUever, and so to live his life 
within the believer, that the latter can point to this as the dominating fact of his 
experience, — it is not so much he that Uves, as it is Christ that lives in him. The fact 
that Christ is in the believer is symbolized in the Lord's supper : "Iho birnd vhiah ve bnak, 
ie it not a fortieipation in the bodj ef Chriat? " ( 1 Oer. 10 : 16). 

( c ) The Father and the Son dwell in the believer. 

John 14:28— "If a inn lore me, he vill keep mj vord: and aij flithar will Io?i hial^ aad va vill eeao utt 
him, and make oor abode vith him" ; ef. 10— "BaUereat thon net that I am In the Father, and the Rathar In me? the 
vorda that I wj ante yea I apeak not from mjaelf : bvt the Father abiding in an doeth Ua imka" —the Fftther 
and the Son dwell in the believer ; for where the Son is, there always the Father must 
be also. If the union between the believer and Christ In John 14 : 28 is to be interpreted 
as one of mere moral influence, then the union of Christ and the Esther in John 14 : tO 
must also be interpreted as a union of mere moral influence. Iph. 8:17— "that Ohriat may 
dvdl in 7«ir haarta thraa^h ftith " ; 1 John 4 : 16 — " he that abidith in lore aUdeth in God, and God abideth in him." 

( d) The believer has life by partaking of Christ, as Ohrist has life by 
partaking of the Father. 

John 6 : 58, 58. 87— "liaepi 70 eat the ioA of the lea of man and drink hia blood, ye ban not lift in ywiadvea 
.... He that eateth my ieah and drinketh my blood abi4eth inme.aiidlinhim. lathe liriag Father aeat ma 
and I lire beeaaae of the Fkther, ao he that eatetk me, he alao ahall hTe beeaoae of ma" —the believer has life 
by partaking of Christ in a way that may not inappropriately be compared with 
Christ's having life by partaking of the Father. 1 Oor. 10 : 16; 17 — "The eop of UeaBiBf v»<-^ ^ 
bleaa^laitnotaoemmvnieaofthebloodef Ohriat? The bread vUch ve bnak, ta it not a oonmnnioa of the body . 
Ohriat?" —here it is intimated that the Lord's Supper sets forth, in the language of aaoQ- 



798 SOTEHIOLOGT, OR THE DOGTRINB OF SALYATIOK. 

bol, the sours actual partiolpatlon In the life of Christ ; and tbe margin property 
translates the word ffOiM»M«, not ** oommunion,*' but " partidpitki." C/. 1 J«kil:S— "fir 
ftlkvihip (KOitwWa) ii vitk tk« Futa; and vitk Ui 8« Jmu Okrift" Foster, Christian JJfe and 
Theology, 2J0— ** In John 6^ the phrases call to mind the anoieut form of sacrifloe, and 
the participation therein by the offerer at the sacrilloial meal, —as at the Passover.*^ 

( 6 ) All believers are one in Cbrist 

Joka 17 : ft-»— *'tkrt tk«7 W7 an te oBt; erm M thM, Mhff, »t ia B^ aid I iA tkM, tkat i^jr alM my to i^ 
u: tkattto vorid mj toUtTe tkat dm didit md aai Aid tto slay vkiok ttoa toatgivw au I haTi givn ult 
ttom; tkat tk^ au7 to ana, fT« aa vi an «aa ; I ii tkoa, aid tkaa ia m», tkal ttoy b»7 to parftetad inta «a * — 
all beUeyers are one in Christ, to whom they are severally and collectively united, as 
Christ himself is one with God. 

(/) The believer IB made partaker of the divine natora 

SI«ti:4— *«tkat tkxaogk tkMa [promises] 7a ^7 baona laitakm af tto diviM lataf*'— not by 
having the essence of your humanity changod Into the essence of divinity, but by 
having Christ the divine Savior continually dwelling within, and indissolubly Joined 
to, your human souls. 

{g) The believer ia made one spirit with the Lord. 

iOor.l:]?— "to tkat iaJauadvBtaika Lard iaasa ifiiit" — human nature Is so interpenetrated 
and energlied by the divine, that the two move and act as one ; ef. 19 — ** kaav 7a aat tkat 
7anr tod7ia a ten9laaritolal7 Spirit vkkk lain 700, vUdk 7a tova frna Qad T*' Ron. 8:16— "tto Spirit alaa 
kalpatk aur lolbnity : fbr va kaavaot kav ta pn7 aa w angkt; bat tto Spirit kiaadf nakatk iaunmum ftr u 
vitk pwniBga vkiok aaana* to uttaad" — the Spirit is so near to us, and so one with us, that 
our prayer is called his, or rather, his prayer becomes ours. Weiss, In his Life of Jesus, 
says that, in the view of Scripture, human greatness does not consist in a man's pro- 
ducing everything in a natural way out of himself, but in possessing perfect receptiv- 
ity fOr God*s greatest gift. Therefore God's Son receives the Spirit without measure ; 
and we may add that the believer in like manner receives Christ. 

2. NcLture of this Union^ 

We have here to do not only with a fact of life, bat with a nniqne rela- 
tion between the finite and the infinite. Onr desoiiptions most therefore 
be inadequate. Yet in many respects we know what this union is not ; in 
oertain respects we can positively characterize it. 

It should not surprise us if we find it far more difficult to give a soientlflc deflnitloii 
of this union, than to determine the fact of its existence. It is a fact of life with 
which we have to deal ; and the secret of life, even in its lowest forms, no philosopher 
has ever yet discovered. The tiniest flower witnesses to two facts : first, that of its 
own relative independence, as an individual organism ; and secondly, that of its ulti- 
mate dependence upon a lifO and power not its own. So every human soul has its 
proper powen of intelleot, afltetion, and will ; yet it lives, moves, and has its being in 
God (A«li 17:18). 

Starting out from the truth of Gtod's omnipresence. It might seem as if Ck)d's indwell- ' 

ing in the granite boulder was the last limit of his union with the finite. But we see 
the divine intelligence and goodness drawing nearer to us, by successive stages, in 
vegetable life, in the animal creation, and in the moral nature of man. And jret there 
are two stages beyond all these: first, in Christ's union with the believer; and sec- 
ondly, in God's union with Christ. If this union of God with the believer be only one 
of several approximations of God to his finite creation, the fact that it is, equally with 
the others, not wholly comprehensible to reason, should not blind us either to its truth 
or to its importance. 

It is easier to-day than at any other previous period of history to believe in the union 
of the believer with Christ. That God is immanent in the unlversei and that there is a 
divine element in man, is familiar to our generation. All men are naturally one with 
Christ, the immanent Gk>d, and this natural union prepares the way for that spiritual 
union in which Christ joins himself to our fiiith. Ounpbell, The Indwelling Christ, 181 
—''In the immanence of Christ in nature we find the ground of his immanence in i 

human nature. ... A man may be out of Christ, but Christ is never out of him. Those, 
who banish him he does not abandon." John Galrd, Fund. Ideas of Christianity, 2 : Oth 



I 
C 



UKIOK WITH 0HBI8T. 799 

2GG— " God is united with nature, in the atoms, in the trees, in the planets, toenoe is 
seelniT nature full of the life of Ood. Ood is united to man m body and eoui. The 
beatinflr of his heart and the voice of consolenoe witneai to God within. God sleeps in 
the stone, dreams In the animal, wakes in man." 

A. Kegativelj. — It is not : 

( a ) A merely natural union, like that of God with all hnmon spiritB, — 
aa held by rationalists. 

In our physioal life we are conscious of another life within us which is not sul^eot to 
our wills : the heart beats involuntarily, whether we sleep or wake. But in our spirit- 
ual life we are still more conscious of a life within our life. Bven the heathen said : 
'* Est Deus in nobis ; a^tante calesdmus illo,** and the Bgyptlans held to the identiHr 
cation of the departed with Osiris (Benouf, Hibbert Lectures, 186). But Paul uiyes 
us to work out our salvation, upon the very ground that **it if Otd Ikil wktik** in us, 
*batktowiUaiidtoirariE,ftrhiBgoodpUMon*'(PULS:illi3). This Ufto of God in the soul is the 
life of Christ. 

The movement of the electric car cannot be explained simply fh>m the working of 
Its own motor apparatus. The electric current throbbing through the wire, and the 
dynamo from which that energy proceeds, are needed to explain the results In Uke 
manner we need a spiritual Christ to explain the spiritual aotlyity of the Christian. 
A. H. Strong, Sermon before the Baptist World Congrees in London, 1905— ** We had 
in America some years ago a steam engine all whose working parts were made of glaes. 
The steam came from without, but, being hot enough to move machinery, this steam 
was itself invisible, and there was presented the curious spectacle of an engine, trans- 
parent, moving, and doing important work, while yet no cause for this activity was 
perceptible. So the church, humanity, the universe, are all In constant and progressive 
movement, but the Christ who moves them is invisible. Faith oomes to believe where 
it cannot see. It joins itself to this invisible Christ, and knows him as Its very life.'* 

( 6 ) A merely moral nnion, or nnion of love and {sympathy, like that 
between teacher and scholar, friend and friend, — aa held by Socinians 

and Armitiiano- 

There is a moral union between different souls: 1 8mb.1S:1— **atMil«f Jcsiihtavukiil 
with thf Msl of DATid, ud JoMthtt lortd kin u Ui ««■ Md * * — here the Vulgate has : " Anlma Jona* 
the agglutlnata DavidL*' Aristotle calls friends ** one soul.*' So in a higher sense. In 
A0li 4:81; the early believers are said to have been "tT «• kmt ud wd.** But in JckilT.tt. 
M» Christ's union with his people is distinguished from any mere union of love and 
sympathy: " that thty nay alibi mm; tf«Mtkn,lktk«,artiaBfikndIiatkN,thal«k^a]MBa7Wisw; 
. . . . tkattt«IeTewker«vitbtlMiiloTadi|]MHajbtintbn,aBdIiBth«s.** Jesus' aim, in the whole of 
his last discourse, Is to show that no mere union of love and sympathy will be suf- 
fldent: "aput from mt,** he says, '*y «a d» sstUag** ( Joks 15:S). That his disciples may be 
vitally Joined to himself, is therefore the subject of his last prayer. 

Domer says well, that Arminlanism ( and with this doctrine Roman Catholics and the 
advocates of New School views substantially agree ) makes man a mere tangent to the 
circle of the divine nature. It has no idea of the Interpenetratlon of the one by the 
other. But the Lutheran Formula of Concord says much more correctly : " Damna- 
mus sententiam quod non Deus ipse, sed dona Del duntaxat, in oredentlbiis habitent.*' 

Bltschl presents to us a historical Christ, and Pflelderer presents to us an Ideal 
Christ, but neither one gives us the living Christ who is the present spiritual life of the 
believer. Wendt, In his Teaching of Jesus, 2 : 810, oomes equally fSr f^ort of a serious 
interpretation of our Lord's promise, when he says : **This union to his person, as to 
its contents, is nothing else than adherence to the message of the kingdom of God 
brought by him.** It is not enough for me to be merely in towih with Christ. He 
must come to be '* not so far as even to be near." Tennyson, The Higher Pantheism : 
*' Closer is he than breathing, and nearer than hands or feet" William Watson, The 
Unknown God : "Yea, In my flesh his Spirit doth flow. Too near, too far, for me to 
know." 

(c) A union of essence, which destroys the distmct personality and snb- 
sistenoe of either Ohrist or the human spirit^ — as held l^ many of the 
mystios. 



(; 






800 SOTBBIOLOaY^ OK THE DOCTBIKB OF SALYATIOK. 

Many of the mystios, as Sohwenkfeld, Welgel, Bebaatian Fnmk, held to an emt^nlUal 
union between Christ and the believer. One of WeIgel*B f oUowers, therefore, oould aay 
to another: " I am Christ Jesua, the llvlniT Word of God; I have redeemed thee by my 
sinless sufferings.** We are ever to remember that the Indwelling of Christ only puts 
the believer more completely in possession of himself, and makes him more consoious 
of his own personality and power. Union with Christ must be taken in oonneotion 
with the other truth of the personality and activity of the Christian ; otherwise it 
tends to pantheism. Martineau, Study, t : 190— ** In nature it is Ood*s immanent itfls, in 
morals it is God's transcendent life, with which we commune.*' 

Angelus Silesius, a German philosophical poet (1091-1877), audaciously wrote: **I 
know God cannot live an Instant without me ; He must give up the ffhost, if I should 
cease to be." Lowde, a disciple of Malebranche, used the phrase *' Godded with God, 
and Chrlsted with Christ,*' and Jonathan Edwards, in his Bellirious Affections, quotes 
it with disapprobation, saying that ^* the saints do not become actually partakers of the 
divine essence, as would be Inferred from this abominable and blasphemous language 
of heretics " ( Allen, Jonathan Edwards, 8S4). ** Self is not a mode of the divine : it is a 
principle of isolation. In order to religion, I must have a will to siurender .... * Our 
wills are ours, to make them thine.'. . . . Though the self is, in Icnoidedoe, a principle of 
unification ; in exUAenu^ or metaphysioally, it is a principle of isolation *' ( Seth). 

Inge, Christian Mysticism, 80 — ** Some of the mystics went astray by teaching a real 
substtttttioii of the divine for human nature, thus depersonalizing man — a fatal mistake, 
for without human personality we cannot conceive of divine personality." Lyman 
Abbott : ^ In Christ, God and man are united, not as the river is united with the sea, 
losing its personality therein, but as the child is united with the father, or the wife with 
the husband, whose personality and individuality are strengthened and Increased by 
the union.** Here Dr. Abbott's view comes as fbr short of the truth as that of the 
mystics goes beyond the truth. As we shall see, the union of the believer with Christ 
is a vital union, surpassing In its intimacy any union of souls that we know. The union 
of child with father, or of wife with husband. Is only a pointer which hints very 
imperfectly at the interpenetrating and energising of the human spirit by the divine. 

id) A. nnion mediated and oonditioned by participation of the saora- 
ments of the church, — as held by BomanistB, Lnthezans, and High-Ohnrch 
Epiacopalianflb 

Perhaps the most pernicious misinterpretation of the nature of this union Is that 
which conceives of it as a physical and material one, and which resis upon this basis the 
fabric of a sacramental and external Christianity. It is sufficient here to say that this 
union cannot be mediated by sacraments, since sacraments presuppose it as already 
existing; both Baptism and the Lord's Supper are designed only for believers. Only 
faith receives and retains Christ ; and faith Is the act of the soul grasping what is purely 
invisible and supersensible : not the act of the body, submitting to Baptism or partaking 
of the Supper. 

William Lincoln : ** The only way for the believer, if he wants to go rightly. Is to 
remember that truth is always two-sided. If there is any truth that the Holy Spirit 
has speciaUy pressed upon your heart, if you do not want to push it to the extreme, 
ssk what is the counter-truth, and lean a little of your weight upon that ; otherwise, if 
you bear so very much on one side of the truth, there is a danger of pushing it into a 
heresy. Heresy means selected truth ; it does not mean error ; heresy and error are 
very different things. Heresy is truth, but truth pushed into undue importance, to the 
dispcuragement of the truth upon the other side.'* Heresy ( aipco>tc ) -^ an act of choice, 
the picking and ohooalng of a part, instead of comprehensively embracing the whole 
of truth. Sacramentarians substitute the symbol for the thing symbolized. 

K Poeitiyely. — It is : 

( a ) An organic nnion, — in -which we become members of Christ and 
partakers of his hnmanify. 

Kant defines an organism, as that whose parts are reciprocally means and end. The 
Yx)dy is an organism ; since the Umbs exist for the heart, and the heart for the limbs. So 
each member of Chiist's body lives for him who is the head ; and Christ the head equally 
lives for his memben: %L 6 :M, 10 --**&(»■•&•?« hatid his own fliih;tetnoiinikiUiaBd«kiriihitkiilk 



UKION WITH CHRIST. 801 

ifn M ChiiBt abo <h« aknroh; beouue vt an naBb«n ef Us bodj." The train-deepatcher is a symbol 
of the oonoentratlon of energy ; the switohmen and oonductoxv who reoetve hia orders 
are symbols of the localization of foroe ; but it is all one organic system. 

( 5 ) A vital union, — in which Ghrist's life beoomea the dominating prin- 
ciple within U8. 

This union is a Tftal one, in distinction from any union of mere Juxtaposition or 
external influence. Christ does not work upon us from without, as one separated from 
us, but from within, as the very heart from which the life-blood of our spirits flows. 
See QaL B : 20— "itiiMlM^v I thatUTi^ but Gkriit UTrtk inna: and that lift ▼buh I sow Ut« hi tka iiak lUfi 
ia &itk, tht fcitk vhidi ia in tka Suor Gad, vlia lovid au, and gaya Unaalf up far at;" OoLSrS^ 4— "For ja 
difld,aad7OBrlifrliUdviSkGhmliB0«d. Vhn Gkrial, vho ia oar lift, akaU ba wuiitetad. than ahaU 7a alaa vitk 
Ub ba waalfcitad la glaiy." Christ's life is not corrupted by the corruption of his members, 
any more than the ray of liffht is defiled by the filth with which it comes in contact 
We may be unconscious of this union with Christ, as we often are of the circulation of 
the blood, yet it may be the very source and condition of our life. 

( c ) A spiritoal union, — that is, a nnion whose sonioe and author is the 
Holy Spirit 

By a spiritual union we mean a union not of body but of spirit, — a union, therefore, 
which only the Holy Spirit ori^rinates and maintains. ]lam.8:fl^lO>-''7aaniioliBibaflaakb«t 
iatba Spirit if aa bathalfhalpiiitarMdiraUatbinyoB. BntifanyittabaikBatikaSifritof Okrial, ba ia nana 
«fUa ABdifObnillaiajw,tbabad7iadaadbaeaBaBofihi;b«ttha8pfaiftialifabaoaiiaaafi%kt^^ The 
Indwellinff of Christ involves a continual exercise of efficient power. In Iph. 3: 18, 17, 
'^ftaangthaBad vitb pow ttnogb Ua 8|iril ii tia iavard aaa *' is immediately foUowed by "tbaft Oriat 
■ay dwiH ia 7«ir baarts through fntk** 

(d) An indiasolnble nnion, — that is, a nnion which, consistently with 
Christ's promise and grace, can never be dissolved. 

Kai 28 : so -- ** la, I aa vllh 7W al vaTa, tran mrto tha «iid of tha vnld " ; John 10 : 88 -- « aqr ih^ 
■nd Ba ana aball aaateh thaai out of a^ hand**; Bom. 8:8(1^ 89— "ITboaball aipanta na from tba lara of Qhrirtf 
• . . . Bor haigbi, nar depth, nor any olhar vaatoia, ahall ba aUa to aapaiata u from tha lora of (Sad, vhuh is ia 
Obii8lJiBUowl4iid";inM4:14,17-''thamalaathataraaUaaala9piaJflaaaviUGodbilAgvithh^ .... 
than va that in aUTO, thai an lift, ahaU togfthar vith Ihim ba aoghft op la tha oloQd% to naak tha Irf^ 
nd aa ahaU va arar ba viih tha lord.** 

Christ's omnipresence makes it possible for him to be united to. and to be present in, 
each believer, as perfectly and fully as If that beUever were the only one to receive 
Christ's fulness. As Christ's omnipresence makes the whole Christ present in every 
place, each believer has the whole Christ with him, as his source of strength, purity, 
Ufe; so that each may say: Christ arivM all bis time and wisdom and care to mo. Such 
a union as this lacks every element of instability. Once formed, the union is indis- 
soluble. Many of the ties of earth are rudely broken,^ not so with our union with 
Christ,— that endures forever. 

Since there Is now an unehanfl^eable and divine element in us, our salvation depends 
no longer upon our unstable wills, but upon Christ's purpose and power. By temporary 
declension from duty, or by our causeless unbelief, we may banish Christ to the barest 
and most remote room of the soul's house ; but he does not suffer us wholly to ezdude 
him ; and when we are willing to unbar the doors, he is still there, ready to fill the 
whole mansion with his light and love. 

{e) An inscmtable nnion, — mystioal, however, only in the sense of snr^ 
passing in its intimacy and value any other union of souls which we know. 

This union is inscrutable, indeed ; but it is not mystical. In the sense of being unintel- 
ligible to the Christian or beyond the reach of his experience. If we call it mystical at 
all, it should be only because, in the intimacy of Its communion and in the transform^ 
ing power of its influence, it surpasses any other union of souls that we know, and so 
cannot be fully described or understood by earthly analogies. Iph. 5 : 88—" Aia mjatary ia 
gnat: b«k I apaak ia ngard of Ghriit aad of tha ahanh "; (ML 1 : 87— "tha xiohoa of tha glocy of tUa mjitory amoag 
tha GoBtUaa, vUflh ia Chriit ia TOO, tha hapa of glorj." 

See Diman, Theistic Argument, 380— "As physical science has brought us to the ood^* 
elusion that back of all the phenomena of the material universe there lies an invisible 
universe of forces, and that these forces may ultimately be reduced to one all-pervad- 

51 



802 BOTERIOLOQY, OR THE DOCTRINB OF SALVATION. 

lug foroe In which the unity of the phsrsloal universe oonsistB; and as philosophy has 
advanced the rational conjecture that this ultimate all-pervading foroe is simply will- 
force; so the firreat Teacher holds up to us the spiritual universe as pervaded by one 
omnipotent life— a life which was revealed in him as its highest maniftetation, but 
which is shared by all who by faith become partakers of his nature. He was Son of 
God : they too had power to become sons of God. The incarnation is wholly within 
the natural course and tendency of things. It was prepared for, it came, in the fulness 
o J times. Christ's life is not something sporadic and individual, having its source in 
the personal conviction of each disciple ; it implies a real connection with Christ, the 
head. Behind all nature there 1b one foroe ; behind all varieties of Christian life and 
dharaoter there is one spiritual power. All nature is not inert matter,— it is pervaded 
by a living presence. So all the body of believers live by virtue of the all-working 
Spirit of Christ, the Holy Ghost.*' An epitaph at Silton, in Dorsetshire, reads : " Here 
lies a piece of Christ —a star in dust, A vein of gold, a china dish, that must Be used in 
heaven when God shall feed the just.** 

A. H. Strong, in Examiner, 1880: ^ Such fa the nature of union with Christ,— such I 
mean, is the nature of every believer's union with Christ. For, whether he knows it or 
not, every Christian has entered into just such a partnership as this. It is this and this 
only which oonstitutes him a Christian, and which makes poarible a Christian church. 
We may. Indeed, be thus united to Christ, without being fully conscious of the real 
nature of our relation to him. We may actually possess the kernel, while as yet we 
have regard only to the shell; we may seem to ourselves to be united to Christ only by 
an external bond, while after all it is an inward and spiritual bond that makes ua his. 
God often reveals to the Christian the mystery of the gospel, which is Christ in him the 
hope of glory, at the very time that he is seeking only some nearer access to a Redeemer 
outside of him. Trying to find a union of cooperation or of sympathy, he is amazed to 
learn that there is already established a union with Christ more glorious and blessed, 
namely, a union of life; and so, like the miners in the Rocky Mountains, while he is 
looking only for silver, he finds gold. Christ and the believer have the same life. They 
are not separate persons linked together by some temporary bond of fHendahip,^ they 
are united by a tie as dose and indissoluble as if the same blood ran in their veins. Yet 
the Christian may never have suspected how intimate a union he has with his Savior ; 
and the first understanding of this truth may be the gateway through which he passes 
into a holier and happier stage of the Christian life.*' 

So the Way leads, through the Truth, to the Life (John 14 : 6 ). Apprehension of an 
external Savior prepares for the reception and experience of the internal Savior. 
Christ is first the Door of the sheep, but in him, after they have once entered in, they 
find pasture (JokiilO:7-9). On the nature of this union, see H. B. Smith, System of 
Christian Theology, 631-639; Baird, Elohim Revealed, 601; Wllberforoe, Incarnation, 
SOB-872, and New Birth of Man's Nature, 1-^ Per contra, see Park, Discourses, 117-186. 

8. Oonaequencea of this UnUm as respects the Believer. 

We have seen that Christ's onion with humanity, at the incarnation, 
involved him in all the legal liabilities of the race to which he united him- 
self, and enabled him so to assume the penalty of its sin as to make for all 
men a full satisfaction to the divine justice, and to remove all external 
obstacles to man's return to God. An internal obstacle, however, stUl 
remains — the evil affections and will, and the consequent guilt, of the 
individual souL This last obstacle also Christ removes, in the case of all 
his people, by uniting himself to them in a closer and more perfect manner 
than that in which he is united to humanity at large. As Christ's union 
with the race secures the objective reconciliation of the race to God, so 
Christ's union with belieTers secures the subjectiYe reconciliation of 
believers to God. 

In Baird, Elohim Revealed, 607-610, in Owen, on Justification, ohap. 8, in Boston, 
CX>venant of Grace, ohap. 2, and in Dale, Atonement, 966-440, the union of the believer 
with Christ is made to explain the bearing of our sins by Christ. As we have seen in 
our discussion of the Atonement, however (page 750), this explains the cause by the 
effect, and implies that Christ died only for the elect ( see review of Dale, in Brit. Quar. 



UNION WITH CHRIST. 803 

Ber., Apr. 1878 : 2S1-S25 ). It \b not the union of Christ with the believer, but the union 
of Christ with humanity at large, that explains his taking upon him human guHt and 
penalty. 

Amnesty oftored to a rebellious olty may be oomplete, yet it may avail only for those 
who surrender. Pardon secured from a Governor, upon the ground of the servioeB of 
an Advocate, may be effectual only when the oonvlot accepts it,— there is no hope for 
him when he tears up the pardon. Dr. H. B. Robins: **The judicial declaration of 
acquittal on the ground of the death of Christ, which comes to aU men ( Bom. 5 : U ), and 
into the benefits of which they are introduced by natural birth, is inchoate justifica- 
tion, and will become perfected justification through the new birth of the Holy Spirit, 
unless the working of this divine agent Is resisted by the personal moral action of those 
who are lost." What Dr. Robins calls ** inchoate justlltoation *' we prefer to call ** ideal 
justification ** or *' attainable justification.*' Humanity in Christ is justified, and every 
member of the race who joins himself to Christ by faitti participates in Christ's justifi- 
cation. H. B. Dudley : ** Adam's sin holds us all down just as gravity holds all, while 
Christ's righteousness, though secured for all and accessible to all, involves an effort of 
will in climbing and grasping which not all will make." Justification in Christ is the 
birthright of humanity ; but, in order to possess and enjoy it, each of us must claim 
and appropriate it by faith. 

R. W. Dale, Fellowship with Christ, 7 — ^ When we were oreated in Christ, the for- 
tunes of the human race for good or evil became his. The Incarnation revealed and 
fulfilled the relations which already existed between the Son of God and mankind. 
From the beginning Christ had entered into feUowship with us. When we sinned, he 
remained in fellow^p with us still. Our miseries " [ we would add : our guilt ] ** were 
his, by his own choice. . . . His fellowship with us is the foundation of our fellowship 
with him. . . • When I have discovered that by the very constitution of my nature 
I am to achieve perfection in the power of the life of Another — who is yet not Another, 
but the very ground of my being— it ceases to be incredible to me that Another— who 
is yet not Another — should be the Atonement for my sin, and that his relation to God 
should determine mine." 

A tract entitled "The Seven Togethers" sums up the Scripture testimony with 
regard to the Consequences of the believer's Union with Christ : 1. Crucified together 
with Christ— QtLt: SO— irvM^avpMfuu. S. Died toget her with Christ— OoLS: 20— av«d«y«rc. 
8. Buried together with Christ —Bom. 0:4 — witr^iificir. 4. Quickened together with 
Christ— Ipk. S:S— ^M<Mo««cV«i'. 5. Raised together with Christ— OiL S:i— winrHp^<r«. 
6. Sufferers together with Christ— Rom. 8:17— ov/iirM'xoMi'. 7. Glorified together with 
Christ — Rob. 8 : 17 — vm^oiard^iLw. Union with Christ results in common sonahip, rela- 
tion to Gk)d, character, influence, and destiny. 

Imperfect apprehension of the believer's union with Christ works to the great injury 
of Christian doctrine. An experience of union with Christ first enables us to under- 
stand the death of sin and separation from God which has befallen the race sprung 
from the first Adam. The life and liberty of the children of God in Christ Jesus showa 
us by contrast how far astray we had gone. The vital and organic unity of the new 
race sprung from the second Adam reveals the depravity and disintegration which we 
had inherited from our first father. We see that as there is one source of spiritual life 
in Christ, so there was one source of corrupt life in Adam ; and that as we are justified 
by reason of our oneness with the justified Christ, so we are condemned by reason of 
our oneness with the condemned Adam. 

A. H. Strong, Christ in Creation, 175— "If it is consistent with evolution that the 
physical and natural life of the race should be derived from a single source, then it is 
equally consistent with evolution that the moral and spiritual life of the race should 
be derived from a single source. Scripture is stating only scientific fact when it sets 
the second Adam, the head of redeemed humanity, over against the first Adam, the 
head of fallen humanity. We are told that eyolution should give us many Christs. 
We reply that evolution has not given us many Adams. Bvolution, as it assigns to the 
natural head of the race a supreme and unique position, must be consistent with itself, 
and must assign a supreme and unique position to Jesus Christ, the spiritual head of 
the race. As there was but one Adam from whom aU the natural life of the race was 
derived, so that there can be but one Christ fh>m whom all the spiritual life of the 
race is derived.** 

The oonaeqnenoes of niiion with Ohiist may be Bmnmarily steted as 
follows: 



804 BOTERIOLOGY, OB THE DOCTBIKB OF SALYATIOIT. 

( a ) Union with Ghrist myolyes a change in the dominant affeotion of 
the BouL Ohiist's entrance into the aonl makes it a new creature, in the 
sense that the ruling disposition, which before was 8infiil» now becomes 
holy. This change we call BegeneroHon. 

ltt8:S--'*ltotkt]Mrrftt«8|fail«r]lfeis(kiM J«» bUi atftwftwthtkvrfdiuirftea'^tOv. 
fi:17--''ifaajBuiiia(&iHWIiaanrflratm''(marv.— "thmitaanraniim'');aia.i:t^ 
wutktgMdfliMni«rfM....tomiidku8miaM'^lpkS:10»'ivwianktfirirkMMUf,ct^ ii 
Ohriat J«u ftrgooi vMiki'* As we derive our old nature from the first man Adam, by birth* 
so we derive a new nature from the seoond man Christ, by the new birth. Union with 
Christ is the true ** transfusion of blood.*' ** The death-struck sinner, Uke the wan, 
ansemlo, dying invalid, is saved by having poured Into his veins the healthier blood of 
Christ*' ( Dnimmond, Nat. Law in the 8pir. World ). Ood regenerates the soul by unit- 
ing it to Jesus Christ. 

In the Johnston Harvester Works at Batavla, when they paint their machinery, they 
do it by immersing part after part in a great tank of paint, —so the painting is instan- 
taneous and oomplete^ Our baptism Into Christ Is the outward ploture of an inward 
Immersion of the soul not only into his love and fellowship, but into his very life, so 
that in him we become new creatures (I Oar. S: 17). As Miss Sullivan surrounded Helen 
KeUar with the influence of her strong personality, by intelligence and sympathy and 
determination striving to awaken the blind and dumb soul and give it Ught and love, 
io Jesus envelops us. But his Spirit is more encompassing and more penetrating than 
any human influenoe however powerful, because his life is the very ground and prin- 
ciple of our being. 

Tennyson: ** O for a man to arise in me, That the man that I am may cease to be 1 " 
Emerson : *' Himself from God he could not free ; He builded better than he knew." 
Bellglon is not the adding of a new department of activity as an adjunct to our own 
life or the grafting of a new method of manifestation upon the old. It is rather the 
grafting of our souls into Christ, so that his life dominates and manifests Itntf in all 
our activities. The magnet which left to itself can lift only a three pound weight, 
will lift three hundred when it Is attached to the eleotric dynamo. Bxposltor^s Greek 
Testament on 1 Otr. 15 : 45^ 46—** The aotlon of Jesus In 'bnttUaf ' upon his disciples while 
he8ald,*BMn?BtteE«l78p.rit'(JohA»:ttsQ.) gymboliaed the vitalizing relationship which 
at this epoch he assumed towards mankind ; this act raised to a hii^ier potency the 
original 'tontUiV' of God by which *aMibMUMaUTiafiiRa'((kB. 1:7)." 



( & ) Union with Ohrist involves a new exercise of the soul's powers in 
repentance and faith ; faith, indeed, is the act of the soul bj which, nnder 
the operation of God, Ohrist is received. This new exercise of the soul's 
powers we call Conversion (Bepentance and Faith ). It is the obvezse or 
human side of BcgeneratioiL 

l^8:17--"ttil(lhtMmjd«inia7onr havti «bwgkMtk**; l1lB.8:i5-''thiiMndvriti^ 
■liUtoBikattMviMUtoaa?rtlmtkiwghbiUivhiaklfinGkriikJ«iu" lUth Is the soul's laying hold 
of Christ as its only source of life, pardon, and salvation. And so we see what true 
religion is. It is not a moral life ; it is not a determination to be religious ; it is not 
faith, if by faith we mean an external trust that somehow Christ will save us ; it is 
nothing less than the life of the soul in Gkxl, through Christ his Son. To Christ then 
we are to look for the origin, continuance and increase of our faith ( Lnlt* 17:5— "Mid 
uitotb«lard.lBawMaarftitk"). Our fUth isbutapartof "Usfti]BM"of which "vtaUrmiM 
ud gziM ftr gTMt ** (Ifiha 1 : 16). 

A. H. Strong, Sermon before the Baptist World Congress, London, 1906— " Christian- 
ity is summed up in the two facts : Christ /or us, and Christ <n us— Christ /or us upon 
the Cross, revealing the eternal opposition of holiness to sin, and yet, through Gtod's 
eternal suffering for sin making objective atonement for us ; and Christ in us by his 
Spirit, renewing in us the lost image of God, and abiding in us as the all-sufllolent 
source of purity and power. Here are the two f od of the Christian ellipse : Christ 
for us, who redeemed us from the curse of the law by being made a curse for us, and 
Christ in us, the hope of glory, whom the apostle calls the mystery of the gospel. 

** We need Christ la us as well as Christ /or us. How shall I, how shall society, find heal- 
ing and purification within ? Let me answer by reminding you of what they did at Chi- 
cago. Inalltheworld there wasnoilvermorestagnantandfetid than wasChioagofilvw. 



UKIOK WITH 0HBI8T. 805 

Its sluffgiih Btraam received the sweepings of the wateroraft and the offal of the city, 
and there was no ounent to carry the detritus away. There It settled, and bred 
miasma and fever. At last it was suggested that, by cutting through the low ridge 
between the city and the Desplalnes River, the current could be set running tn the 
opposite direction, and drainage could be secured Into the Illinois River and the great 
MissisBippl. At a cost of 'fifteen millions of dollars the cut was made, and now all the 
water of Lake Michigan can be relied upon to cleanse that turbid stream. What CThl- 
cago River could never do for itself, the great lake now does for It. So no human soul 
can purge itself of Its sin ; and what the Individual cannot do, humanity at large is 
powerless to accomplish. Sin has dominion over us, and we are foul to the very depths 
of our being, until with the help of God we break through the barrier of our self-will, 
and let the floods of Christ's purifying life flow into us. Then, in an hour, more la 
done to renew, than all our efforts for years had effected. Thus humanity is saved, 
individual by individual, not by philosophy, or philanthropy, or self -development, or 
self-reformation, but simply by Joining itaelf to Jesus Christ, and by being filled In 
Him with aU the fulness of God." 

( ) Union with Ohrist gives to the believer the legal standing and rights 
of Christ. As Christ's union with the race involves atonement^ so the 
believer's union with Christ involves JuaHflcatum. The believer is enti- 
tled to take for his own all that Christ is, and all that Christ has done ; and 
this because he has within him that new life of humanity which goffered in 
Christ's death and rose from the grave in Christ's resurrection, — in other 
words, because he is virtnaUy one person with the Bedeemer, In Chxist 
the believer is prophet^ priest, and king. 



Ailit8:S9><*li7kim[lit.: *iaUB' -in union with him] ifvyaittkatbdimtkiBjaittbd** 
6:7,8— "ki that hAtkdiid it Jutifltdfrinain .... VB^iad vitkChriK"; 7:4— "dMdtette law thnngk tte 
My if Ohriil*'; 8:1— "ao mdauaUflB to tkn that an is Ohriik Jmu**; 17— "kain of Go< and jointphain 
vilkGkrist*'; iOor. 1:80- "Botflfhim jaaninCkriatJflioi^ who vaiiDadasiitouviitoi froa God, and li^t- 
•ounaai [Justifloatlon]"; 8:81, S — "aU thing! an joon. . . . aad ya an Ghritf*!"; 6:11— "Towm 
jflitiiidlathaBaMtf tha Lord J«niiChxi< and iatha Spirit of ear Sod *^ 8 0«. 6:14— *'vo fhn Jods% t^ 
diadfbrBD,thm6vtandi«i**; 21 — "SB vhokaavnoitaho nado tolMBBonovbihalf; thatvoHifhtbaoo^ 
tha lightNUBaai [ Justlfloation] of God la hia '* - Gk)d*8 justified persons, in unkm with Christ 
(see pages 700, 761 ). 

aaL8:80— ''IhanbonondiMviftOkriit: aaditiaio loBg« I thalUn^tatOhriilllffthiiBO**; ^^ 
6— "ahoaavsiahiB .... totho|n:aaoftho;lor7ofhiafnoo» vhiihhofroslyboitovod on va ia tha BoloTid"; 
8:6^6— "ofavhaavo wan daadttnofh oir twijiaaai^ iMda na alira togothar with Chriat .... ■adoutaiit 
withhiBi&theh«Toiil7plaaoi,inChriitJMBa"; Fkil.8:a;9— "thatlBajgalBOhriat,aiidbolMuid la hiii, net 
having a ijghtaonsiaB of aino own, oral that whloh ii of tho law, bat that whiA ia thnogh aith ia Ohriit, tho light- 
oonnMiwUahiaftoBGodl^fluth"; STiB.8:ll— ''faithfiaiathaaajiog: for if wodiodwithhlB, woahaUalao 
liTO with hiBL** Prophet: Iakal2:12— "tho lolj Spirit ihall toaah 70a ia thai tvj how what 70 ooght to 
aaj"; iJflha8:aO— "johaToaaaadBtiagfromthoIoly Ono^ and 70 kaow aO thiagi." Priest: iPol.8:6— 
'U hd7 ifiarthood, to oftr vp apiritaU aaoriBoaa, aeooptoblo to God thnvgh JoBoa Chxlat " ; Hot. 80 : 6 — 
yrMaliof6odaadofChrl8t";lP«t8:0— "anTolprioithooi** King : Bot. 8 : 81 - " lo that owwMlh, I will 
giTi to hlB to dt down with mo ia 117 fhnao " ; 6 : 10 — " nadail thn to bo onto ow God a kiagdon aad priiila" 
The oonnection of JusttBcation and union with Christ delivers the former from the 
charge of being a mechanical and arbitrary procedure. As Jonathan Bdwards has 
said ! ** The Justification of the believer is no other than his being admitted to oom- 
muniOQ in, or partloipation of, this head and surety of all beUevers." 

(d) Union "with Ohrist seooree to the believer the oontannonsly trans- 
forming, assimilatiug power of Christ's life, — first, for the sotd ; secondly, 
for the body, — consecrating it in the present, and in the f utcfre raising it 
up in the likeness of Christ's glorified body. This oontinnons influence, 
so far as it is exerted in the present life, we call SanctiftctUion, the hnman 
side or aspect of which is Perseverance, 

For the soul: Joha 1:16— "of hla lUaaaa wo all moind, and gnao kt gnao**- suooessive and 
inoreaalng measures of grace, oonesponding to the soul's successive and Increasing 

needs; BiiB.8:iO— "if Christiaia 700, tho bod7iadaadboeaaaaoraia; batthoiyritklifcbooaMaofilghiooM 



806 SOTBBIOJiOQi:, OB THE DOCTRINB OF SALVATIOK. 



BM"; lCar.l5:45— "ThtlMkAdaBbMUMalil^Tiag^iril'*; PkiL 8:5— "Saft tkii auad ii yvn, vkkk 
VMa]»iiChiiilJ«Di"; 1 J«kn 8:2— "if k« shall bt muilMUd. vt ibdl bi lilu Uil" *'Ckii Christ let 
the believer tell out of hJa hands 7 No, for the beUever is his hands.'* 

For the body : 1 0^.6:17-80— "kAttaliiJdud vslotkt lord li om iplrit .... kasv yt am th«i ywr 
MjitAtan^ofttMldySptritwUakiiinyoa.. .. gloriff Mthwdbraia jwrbody"; infii.5:88-"ABd 
th« Qod of jmm Unnlf mad&tj yoa whaXlj ; ud anj jow spirit ud soul and body bo yooTfod otir^ witboftt 
UajMattkioomiagoroiirlardJoBuChluk"; Boffl.8:ii — "'shall givn lift also to yoor aortal bodioi tkraogk Ui 
SpiritfhaldvoUothlaToa"; 10ar.l6:49— "as vo havo bomo tko tasago of thooaxth7[ man ],voBhaU also boar 
thoiauigtofthohoamlyCman]"; FUL8:80,81 — "Porosrdtiaiuh^iaiBhoaTas; firan irkonoo alsovovait 
ftr ABavior, tho Lerl J«u Ohxlst: vbo shall flHyosanovtbobodjofoirkaBdliatien,aatitM7boeoiiftiiMdto 
tho body of Us gkiy, aooordiif to tho workhif vhoribj ho is ablo om to aobjool all tkiagi uto hiBsill'* 

Is there a physical miraole wrought for the drunkard In his regeneration? Mr. 
Moody says, Yes ; Mr. Oough says. No. We prefer to say that the change is a spiritual 
one ; hut that the ** expulsive power of a new affection *' indirectly affects the body, so 
that old appetites sometimes disappear in a moment ; and that often, in the course of 
years, great changes take place even in the believer^s body. Tennyson, Idylls : ** Have 
ye looked at Bdym ? Have ye seen how nobly changed ? This work of his is great and 
wonderful ; His very face with change of heart is changed.*' ^* Christ In the soul 
fashions the germinal man into his own likeness,— this is the embryology of the new 
life. The oardinsl error in religious lif^ is the attempt to live without proper environ- 
ment " ( see Drummond, Natural Law In Spiritual World, ZBH-M ). Human life from 
Adam does not stand the test, —only divine-human life in Christ can secure us from 
falling. This is the work of Christ, now that he has ascended and taken to himself his 
power, namely, to give his life more and more fully to the church, until it shall grow 
up in all things into him, the Head, and shall flUy express his glory to the world. 

As the accomplished organist discloses unsuspected capabilities of his instrument, so 
Christ brings into activity all the latent powers of the human souL ** I was five years 
in the ministry,*' said an American preacher, ** before I realized that my Savior is 
alive." Dr. B. W. Bale has left on record the almost unutterable feelings that stirred 
his soul when he first realized this truth ; see Walker, The Spirit and the Incarnation, 
preftoe, y. Many have struggled in vain against sin until they have admitted Christ 
to their hearts, —then they could say : "this is tho Tiotory that hath OTorKHBo tho vorld, otob ou* fiuth" 
<iJohn6:4). ** Go out, Ood will go in ; Die thou, and let him live; Be not, and he will 
be ; Wait, and he *11 all things give." The best way to get air out of a vessel is to 
pour water in. Only in Christ can we find our pardon, peace, purity, and power. He is 
<* Badi vnto u viadoBi fron flod, andjnsh'isatlfflii aad saaetiflflatieB, and ndomptioa " (i Oor. 1 : 80 ). A medical 
man says: **The only radical remedy for dipsomania is religiomania'* (quoted in 
William James, Varidtles of BeUgious Bicperience, 268 ). It is easy to break into an 
empty house ; the spirit csst out returns, finds the house empty, brings seven others, 
and * tho last sIbIo of that BaBbaoomothvono than tho Ant '* (Vat. 18:45). There is no safety in simply 
expelling sin ; we need also to bring in Christ; In fact only he can enable us to expel 
not only actual sin but the love of it. 

Alexander McLaren : **If we are 'in Ohriitt* we are like a diver in his crystal bell, and 
have a solid though invisible wall around us, which keeps all sea-monsters olf us, and 
communicates with the upper air, whence we draw the breath of calm Ufe and can 
work In security though in the ocean depths.** John Caird, Fund. Ideas, 2 : 96— " How 
do we know that the life of God has not departed from nature ? Because every spring 
we witness the annual miracle of nature*s revival, every summer and autumn the 
waving com. How do we know that Christ has not departed from the world ? Because 
he imparts to the soul that trusts him a power, a purity, a peace, which are beyond all 
that nature can give.*' 

(e) Union with Ghrist brings aboat a feUowship of OhxiBt with the 
believer, — Ghrist takes part in all the labors, temptations, and sufferings 
of his people ; a fellowship of the believer with Christ, — so that Christ's 
whole experienoe on earth is in some measure reproduced in him ; a fellow- 
ship of all believers with one another, — furnishing a basis for the spiritoal 
unity of Christ's people on earth, and for the eternal oommonion of heaven. 
The doctrine of Union with Christ is therefore the indispensable prepara- 
tion for JEhcleHology, and for EschcUologym 



UKIOK WITH GHBIST. 807 

FellowBhip of Christ with the b^ever: FUL4:18— "laudoaUttu^lBkiiBfliititnDcaMflh 
at**; laK4:i5— "VorvBhaTtBotakigkpriwk thrt oumot bttouMvikhflMffltliiisorouriBfriiutiM"; c/. b. 
63:9— "Ii«Utktiraili0tiaah«VMafli«tad." Heb.S:18— "in that l« Umalf hathnintd batogtamited^ktii 
■bl« to aoflsgr thfloi tkat m t«Biytad"-are heiag tempted, ore under temptation. Bp. Wordi- 
worth: ** By his powion he acquired compowion.** S0or.2:14— "thaskilMaiitoGod, vkoalvayi 
lMd0th OS in triumph in Ohrift" — Christ leads us in triumph, but his triumph Is ours, even If 
it be a triumph over us. One with him, we participate In his Joy and in his soverelinity. 
R0r.S:2i— ''lethaloraroonMthJwillgiTatoUatofitdovnvitkintinmythrnM." W.F.Tayloron&aD.8:9 
— "ThfSpiriiflfMdwdlodLinyon... . ifuyauhath aat titt Spht of Ohxiit,k«iinoiMonui "—"Christ 
dwells In us, says the apostle. But do we accept him as a resident, or as a ruler? 
England was first represented at Kinir Thebau's court by her resident. Tills official 
could rebuke, and even threaten, but no more,— Thebau was sovereiflm. Burma knew 
no peace, till England ruled. So Christ does not consent to be represented by a mere 
resident. He must himself dwell within the soul, and he must reign." Christina 
Rossetti, Thee Only : ** Lord, we are riven running to thy sea. Our waves and ripples 
all derived from thee ; A nothing we should have, a nothing be, Bzcept for thee. Sweet 
are the waters of thy shoreless sea ; Make sweet our waten that make haste to thee ; 
Pour in thy sweetness, that ourselves may be Sweetness to thee I *' 

Of the believer with Christ: Phil. 8 : 10— "thai I naj taunr lun, ud the powof Ui rannMkioii, ud 
tht Mlovihip «f hii Rdbring^ badaning aanftmsd unto hif diMh"; Old. 1 : M— "ffll np on my put that vhioh la 
]afikingofthaaillifltioB8«rOhriilinmjlliihtehiibodj'8iik^vUfihiathadiaTBh";lM 4 : 13— "paitakm of 
Oxiit'a nfiri^gi.** The Christian reproduces Christ's life In miniature, and, in a true sense, 
lives it over again. Only upon the principle of union with Christ can we explain how 
the Christian instinctively applies to himself the prophecies and promises which origi- 
nally and primarily were uttered with reference to CAirist : ' thoa iritt not Imto my ami to Shaol ; 
Raithorwiltthoaaaffvthyholjonotoaiaoomptifla" ( Pi. 10 : 10, 11 ). This fellowship is the ground of 
the promises made to believing prayer : Johal4:13— "vhatooomryoihallaikinmyBaiM^thatirill I 
do**; Wesoott, Bib. Com., in loco : ** The meaning of the phrase I'in. my naau *] is ' as being 
one with me even as I am revealed to you.' Its two correlatives are 'in mi* and the 
Pauline *inGhnak'." "AllfUngaariyoan'* (10or.8:81), because Christ is universal King, and 
all believers are exalted to fellowship with him. After the battle of Sedan, King 
William asked a wounded Prussian officer whether It were well with him. *' All Is well 
where your majesty leads I ** was the reply. PhiL 1 : 81 — "For to mo to Uto ii OhriHi and to die ia 
gain." Bftul Indeed uses the words * Christ ' and * church ' as Interchangeable terms : 1 Oar 

12 : 18— "aa the body ia amy and hath miny mambin^ ao atoe ia Ohiisk" Denney, Studies in The-. 

ology, 171— "There Is not in the N. T. from beginning to end, In the record of the 
original and genuine Christian life, a single word of despondency or gloom. It is the 
most buoyant, exhlleratlng and joyful book in the world." This is due to the fact that 
the writers believe in a living and exalted Christ, and know themselves to be one with 
him. They descend crowned into the arena. In the Soudan, every morning for half an 
hour before General Gordon's tent there lay a white handkerchief. The most pressing 
message, even on matters of life and death, waited till that handkeroliief was with- 
drawn. It was the signal that Christ and Gordon were in communion with each other. 

Of all believerB with one another : John 17 : 81 — " that th^ may aU bi ono "; 1 Oor. 10 : 17 — " v% 
vheanmaay, aneBabnad,«ubody: ftrvoaU partake of the one hnad"; lpL2:15— "omtoinhimnlf of the 
tvo OBO Bov man, 80 making poaoo"; 1 Johnl: 8— "that yialaomayhiTofBUovih^withnB: y«i, and oor ftllov- 
ihip ia vith the Pathv. and vith hia Bon Jasoa Qhxlit '* — here the word KOivwria is used. Fellowship 
with each other is the effect and result of the fellowship of each with Gk>d in Christ. 
Compare John 10 : 10 —"they ahall boMBo one floek, ooa ihephord '*; Westoott, Bib. Com., in loco : " The 
bond of f^owship is shown to lie in the common relation to one Lord. .... Nothing 
is said of one ' fold ' under the new dispensation.*' Here is a unity, not of external 
organisation, but of oommon life. Of this the visible church is the ooosequenoe and 
expression. But this communion is not limited to earth,— It is perpetuated beyond 
death: lTheiB.4:17—''io ihaU we ow bo with the lord"; Kib^ 18:88— ''tothagaunl aiMmUy aad chnv^ 
the fntbon who in oanUed in heaTon, and to 6od the Jndgo of all, andto the ipixito of Jnat man made peribit*'; Rot. 81 
and 88— the dty of QoCL, the new Jerusalem, is the image of perfect sodety, as well 
as of Intensity and fulness of life in Christ. The ordinances express the essence of 
Bcclesiology— union with Christ— for Baptism symbolizes the incorporation of the 
believer in Christ, while the Lord's Supper symbolizes the Incorporation of Christ in the 
believer. Christianity is a social matter, and the true Christian feels the need of being 
with and among his brethren. The Romans could not understand why *' this new sect *' 
must be holding meetings all the time— even daily meetings. Why oould they not go 
singly, or in ffimilies, to the temples, and make offerings to their God, and then come 



808 SOTEKIOLOGY, OB THE DOCTBINS OF BALYATIOK. 

Aw»7, as the pagans did 7 It was this meeting togetiier which exposed tbem to pwaeou- 
tioii and martyrdom. It was the natural and inevitalde expressloa of their union with 
Christ and so of their union with one another. 

The oonsciousness of union with Christ gtves assnianoe of salratiOQ. It is a great 
stimulus to believing prayer and to patient labor. It is a duty to *'faiinr vtet ii tk hipt if 
Ui adliBf . vkit th« Tuta ef Ihi (hij «r Ui inharituM la tkt wMi, aid vkit tte tuM^ 
toM-wivhalwUm" (lpk.l:i8;l9X Christ's oommand, ^'iUit ia m^ iadIiajw"(MaiS:4), 
implies that we are both to realise and to oonflrm this union, by aotlTe exertfton of our 
own wills. We are to abide in him by an entire conseoration, and to let him abide In us 
by an appropriating faith. We are to give ourselves to Christ, and to take in return the 
Christ who gives himself to us,— in other words, we are to believe Ghrist*s promiws and 
to act upon them. All sin consists in the sundering of man's life from Ood, and most 
systems of falsehood in religion are attempts to save man without meivinff his life in 
Ood*8 onoe more. The only religion that can save mankind is the religion that fills the 
whole heart and the whole life with Ood, and that aims to interpenetrate unlvenal 
humanity with that same living Christ who has already made himself one with the 
believer. This oonsoiousness of union with Christ gives "tiMai " ( wmpfn^ia-^LdB 4 1 18 ; 
1 Ma 5: 14) toward men and toward Ood. The word belongs to the Greek democraoies. 
Freemen are bold. Demosthenes boasts of his frankness. Christ frees us from the hide- 
bound, introspective, self-ooDSdous spirit. In him we become free, demonstrative, 
outspoken. So we find. In John's epistles, that boldncM in prayer is spoken of as a 
virtue, and the author of the Bpistle to the Hebrews urges us to "inw bmt vilk boUaMi 
iilttktthf«BtiilgnM"(laK4:ll). An engagement of marriage is not the same as martiage. 
The parties may be still distant from each other. Many Christians get just near enough 
to Christ to be engaged to him. This seems to be the experience of Christian in the Pil- 
grim's Progress. But our privilege is to have a present Christ, and to do our work not 
only for him, but Ci» him. *^ Since Christ and we are one. Why should we doubt or fear ? " 
** We two are so joined, He*]l not be in heaven. And leave me behind.** 

We append a few statements with regard to this union and its consequflnoes, from 
noted names in theology and the church. Luther: **By flalth thou art so glued to 
Christ that of thee and him there becomes as It were one person, so that with confidence 
thou canst say : * I am Christ,— that is, Christ's righteousness, victory, ete^ are mine ; 
and Christ In turn can say : * I am that sinner,— that is, his sins, his death, etc, are mine, 
because he clings to me and I to him, for we have been Joined through flalth into one 
fiesh and bone.* " Oalvln ; **I attribute the highest importance to the connection 
between the head and the mfflnbers ; to the inhabitation of Christ in our hearts; in a 
word, to the mystical union by which we enjoy him, so that^ being made ours, he makes 
us partakers of the blessfngs with which he is furnished." John Bunyan : ^ The Lord 
led me into the knowledge of the mystery of union with Christ, that I was Joined to 
him, that I was bone of bis bone and flesh of his fiesh. By this also my faith in him bb 
my righteousness was the more confirmed ; for if he and I were one, then his righteous- 
ness was mine, his merits mine, his victory also mine. Now could I see myself in heaven 
and on earth at once— in heaven by my Christ, my risen head, my righteousness and 
lif^ though on earth by my body or person." Edwards : "Faith is the soul's active 
uniting with Christ God sees fit that, in order to a union's being established between 
two Intelligent active beings, there should be the mutual act of both, that each should 
receive the other, as entirely Joining themselves to one another.** Andrew Fuller : " I 
have no doubt that the Imputation of Christ's righteousness presupposes a union with 
him ; since there is no precelvable fitness in bestowing benefits on one for another's 
sake, where there Is no union or relation between." 

See Luther, quoted, with other references, in Thomaglus, Christi Person und Werk, 
8:8K. See also Galvln, Institutes, 1:900; Edwards. Works, 4: 08, 00, 70; Andrew Fuller, 
Works, 2 : 066; Pascal, Thoughts, Eng. trans., 42B; Hooker, BccL Polity, book S, ch. 
fiO ; TUlotson, Sermons, 8 : 807; Trench, Studies in Gospels, 284| and Christ the True 
Vine, in Hulsean Lectures ; SchOberleln, in Studien und Kritlken, 1847 : 7-88 ; Oaird, on 
Union with God, In Scotch Sermons, sermon 2 ; Godet, on the Ultimate Design of Man< 
in Princeton Bev^ Nov. 1880— the design Is ^'God in man, and man in God"; Baird. 
Elohlm Bevealed, £80-817 ; Upham, Divine Union, Interior life. Life of Madame Guyon 
and F6nelon; A. J. Gordon, In Christ; HcDuff, In Christo; J. Denham Smith, Life- 
truths, 25-88 ; A. H. Strong, Philosophy and Beliglon, 220-226 ; Bishop Hall's Treatise on 
The Church Hystioal ; Andrew Murray, Abide in Christ ; Steams, Evidence of Christian 
Bxperienoe, 146» 174, 179; F. B. Meyer, Christian Living— essay on Appropriation of 



Chriit w. mere Imltitkm of Chrtot; Banday, Bpistle to the Bomrnnt, lupplemonteiy 
ennyoD the Mystto Unkm; H. & Sniftth, Systein of Theology, fiSl; J. IL GunpheU, The 
IndwelUng GhriBt 

n. Bmqbnxbaxion. 

Begeneration is that act of Qod by which the governing dispoflition of 
the soul 18 made holy, and by whieh, through the troth as a means, the first 
holy exezoiae of this disposition is seonred. 

Begeneration, or the new birth, is the divine side of that change of heart 
which, viewed from the hnman side, we call conversion. It is God's tam- 
ing the soul to himself, — conversion being the sonl's tnming itself to Ood, 
of which God's torning it is both the accompaniment and caose. It will be 
observed from the above definition, that there are two aspects of regener- 
ation, in the first of which the sool is passive, in the second of which the 
soul is active. God changes the governing disposition, — in this change the 
soul is simply acted npon. God secores the initial exercise of this disposi- 
tion in view of the trnth, — in this change the sonl itself acts. Yet tiiese 
two parts of God's operation are simnltaneoos. At the same moment that 
he makes the sonl sensitive, he ponrs in the light of his troth and induces 
tiie exercise of tiie holy disposition he has imparted. 

This disttnotion botweeen the passiTe and the aod ve aapeota of regenefatioii Is neoes* 
iitated, as we shall see, by the twofold method of representing the change in Soripture. 
In many passages the change is ascribed wholly to the power of God ; the change is a 
change in the fundamental disposition of the soul ; there is no ose of means. In other 
passages we find truth referred to as an agency employed by the Holy 8piilt» and the 
mind acts in view of this truth. The distinction between these two aspects of regen- 
eration seems to be intimated ln^B:S,6— "■dbuaUntagtltarvitkOkriil»"and"niMdaiap 
¥itk kia." Laiarus must first be made alive, and in this he could not ooOperate; but he 
most also come forth from the tomb, and in this he eould be active. In tiie old photog- 
raphy, the plate was first made sensitive, and in this the plate was passive ; then it .was 
exposed to ttie object, and now the plate actively seised upon the rays of light which 
tbe object emitted. 

Availing ourselves of the illustration from photogiaphy,we may compare God's 
initial work in the soul to the sensitising of the plate, his next work to the pouring in 
of the light and the production of the picture. The soul is first made receptive to the 
truth ; then it is enabled actually to receive the truth. But the Wustratioo fails in one 
respect,— it represents the two aspects of regeneration as sucoeadve. In rcgeneiation 
theore is no chronological succession. At the same instant that God makes the soul 
sensitive, he also draws out its new sensibility in view of the truth. Let us notice also 
thatf as in photography tbe picture however perfect needs to be developed, and this 
development takes time, so regeneration is only the beginning of Gk)d*s work ; not all 
the dispositions, but only the governing dispositioa, is made holy ; there is still need 
that sanctlflcatlon should follow regeneration ; and sancUficatlon is a work of God 
which lasts for a whole lifetime. We may add that ** heredity affects regeneration 
as the quality of the film atfects photography, and environment affects regeneratiain as 
the focus affects photography '* ( W. T. Thayer). 

Sacramentarianism has so obscured the doctrine of Scripture that many persons who 
gave no evidence of being regenerate are quite convinced that they are Christians. Uncle 
John Yassar therefore never asked : ^ Are you a Christian? *' but always : " Have you 
ever been bom again?" B. G. Bobinson : **The doctrine of regeneration« aside from 
saoramentarianiam, was not apprehended by Luther or the Reformers, was not indeed 
wrought out till Wesley taught that God instantaneously renewed the affections and 
the wilL** We get the doctrine of regeneration mainly from the apostle John, as we 
get the doctrine of Justification mainly from the apostle PauL Stevens, Johannlne 
Theology, 366 »" Paul's great words are, JusUfioatlon, and righteousness ; John's are, 
birth from God, and life. But, for both Paul and John, faith is life-union with Christ." 

Steams, Bvldence of Christian Bxperience, ISA— "The sinful nature is not gone, but 
its power is brcAfiD ; sin no longer dominates tbe Ufe ; it has been thrust from the centre 



810 SOTBBIOLOGYy OB THB D0CTRII9B OF BALVATIOlf. 

totheoirQuiiiferenoe; it has fhewateDoe of death In itself ; the man is freed, at least in 

potency and inromise. ««— An MMvity may ha Immftdiate , yat not nnmaHtiit WI. Ood*fl 

action on the soul may be tlnouirh the seosei yet sUll be immediate, as when finite 
spirits communicate with each other." I>uboi8, in Century Haffssine, Deo. 1894 : 283 — 
** Man has made his way up from physical conditions to the consciousness of spiritual 
needs. Heredity and environment fetter him. He needs spiritual help. God provides 
a spiritual environment in regeneration. As science is the verification of the ideal in 
nature, so reUflrion is the verification of the spiritual in human life.** Last sermon of 
8eth K. Mitchell on B«r. a :6~"Bak0U,lBa]usUiUBgtB0v**-*« God first makes a new man, 
then gives him a new heart, then a new commandment. He also gives a new body, a 
new name, a new robe, a new son^, and a new home.** 

1. Scripture BepreseniaHona, 

(a) Begeneiution is a change indispensable to the saltation of fheaiimer. 

J«la 1:7— "TtBUttebanaaiv*'; fl«l. S -. jR^-tm&ar fa riMdrii —ythhig, Mr mu yi miiiflgH B , Iwt fmiif 



owtan" (marg.— "owtiflB"); e/. E0Ktt:14— *'th«iuMtiflaiti«vithHft vkiehMBu ihaU ne tha hui' 

— regeneration, therefore, is yet more necessary to salvation ; Iph. S : S— " Vf Mtm ehiUm 

ifwrrfh,tmMtlMiiik**;Rom.S:li— '^Tkflniiaosafhiaudnitauidfih.TkflnitBflM 

• :4i66— "loBiaeuMSMtoBi^aMpttktltithwthatsnlmtdnwUB .... bo bib oa oons uto m^ flntpk 

it b* gim ulo kia of tki Falkv"; Jw. IS : a— "(ha tta ItUqiu flb^ Ui Ail, « tto iMpi^ 

Mj ji oho io good, that on Mnutaaad to do ofiL** 



( 6 ) It is a ohange in the inmost principle of life. 

iobi t : 8 — "Izoopl OM bo bora aaov, ko ouBot iM tko >±igdfliB of God '*; 5 : 11 ~"tt tko liifkv n^ 
aadglntktkMUft^oTaiaBthoaaBaliOKiTithliato vkna bo vill"; Rom. 6:iS— "pnoaot jobimItw vnto God, 
M oliTo from tho dood"; IpL t : 1— "iai job did bo mako aliv^ whas 70 wo doad throogb yoor twopaaoM asd 
ilB8 ": fi : 14 —"ivaka^tkoB thai doapea^aadariM from thad0ad,aBdOhriatahaUiUBOB|OBtba&" InJoka8:8— 
"bon MMv**«not, *« altered,*' 'Mnfluenced,'* *'reinvigorated," •* reformed *' ; but a new 
beginning, a new stamp or character, a new family likeness to God and to his children. 
"So ii OTB17 OBO tkatii ban of tko Spirit" (Joka 8 : 8) « L secrecy of process ; 2, independence of 
the will of man ; 8. evidence given in results of conduct and life. It is a good thing to 
remove the means of gratifying an evil appetite ; but how much better it is to remove 
the appetite itself ! It is a good thing to save men from frequenting dangerous resorts 
by fnmishinsr safe places of recreation and entertainment; but far better is it to 
implant within the man such a love for all that is pure and good, that he will instinc- 
tively shun the impure and evlL CSiristianity aims to puri^ the springs of action. 

(0 ) It is a change in the hearty or governing disposition. 

lUi IS :8S| 85 --''lltkar mako tko tioo good, aaditaflrBit good; or mako tko trooooRvpttOBditafrBitfloin te 
tko tooo li kaowB bj iti tnik .... Tko good bmb oat of kia good tnaanro briagotk fortk good tkisga: aad tko oTil 
BHB OBt of kia otU traaaaiobriBgolk ivtk oTil tkiag8'\ 15:i9-'«nir OBtof tki kaort oomo fortkoiil tkoDgkla, mm 
aMlKia% forBieatioBi^ tkafla^ ftlaa vitaaaBt raillBgi" ; iota 16 : 14— "isd a otrtaia womaa Baaied Lydia .... 
koardBa:i^oaokoarttkoIiordopoBodtogiTokoodBBto tko tkisga vUok voro apokoB byPaal"; B«bl6:17— "BBt 
tbaska ba to God, tka^ vkaroM 70 voro atrnuita of aia, 70 booamo obodioBi from tko koart to tkat lonB of toaokiBg vk 
BBto 70 vin daUvvod ": 10 : 10 — " vitk tko koart mas boliantk BBto ligklooBaaim '^ c/. Fl 51 : 10 -'' (koato iB mo 
adoaakaarttOGcd; Asd roaov a rigkt ipirit vitkia mo "; Jor.8i:88~*'Ivillpntm7laviBtkoiriflvardpart%aBd 
Vb tkoir kaarti vill I writo it " ; la. U : 19 — " And I vill givo tkom obo k«ai\ asd I viU pBt a bow apirit vitkiB 70B ; 
•Bd I via tako tko atoB7 keart oat of tkair flaak, aid will glTO tkoB a keait of ioab." 

Horace Mann : ** One former is worth a hundred reformers.** It is often said that the 
redemption of society is as important as the regeneration of the individual. Yes, we 
reply ; but the regeneration of society can never be accomplished except throucrh the 
regeneration of the individuaL Bef ormers try in vain to construct a stable and happy 
oommunity from persons who are selfish, weak, and miserable. The first cry of such 
reformers is : ^* Get your obrcamstanoes changed I ** Christ's first call is : ^ Qet your- 
selves changed, and then the things around you will be changed.*' Many college settle- 
ments, and temperance societies, and self-reformations begin at the wron^ end. They 
are like iHTi dHTig a coal-fire by lightingr kindlings at the top. The fire soon goes out. 
We need God's work at the very basis of character and not on the outer edge, at the 
wery beginning, and not simply at the end. Mai 6 : 83— "aaak 70 Int hiakiflgdan^ aad kia rigfctioBa- 
Bim; a8daUtkamtUag8 8kaUbaiddadBBto70B." 

( d) It is a ohange in the moral relations of the souL 



BEGENBBATIOH. 811 



Ipk 8 : 5 --" vIm in wi ted thn^k oir tnipuN^ madt u aUira in tofittv vttk fliriik **; 4 : 1^ 
ji 1m mifvid iA tb« quit of jow niad, ud pat « tht mw bib, tlut aAvGod kUk btta crattad iit rif^taaunaa and 
kaliaaaa af taratk "; OnL 1 : 18--''^M daUTmd u aat af tkt povar of darkiaaii aad tnoaUtad w inta tha ki^^ 
ika Baa af Us lafR.'* William James, V arletieB of Bellgious Bxperienoe. A08, finds the features 
belonging to all religfons : 1. an uneaslneBB ; and 8. its solution. L The uneastnesB, 
reduced to its simplest terms, is a sense that there is wmeUiing wrono ciiout ui, as we 
naturally stand. 8. The solution is a sense that we are sowed from the wrongnem hj 
wiaMny proper oonneetion with the higher powers. 

. ( ) It 18 a dhange 'wrought in ooxmeotion with the use of troth as a 

meaoB. 

iaaaa 1 : 18~"0f kiaawi idU ka krangkt uftifk ky tka v«d af tratt **— hero in oonneotlon with the 
spedal agency of Ood (not of mero natural law ) the truth is spoken of as a means ; 
1 M. i : B—*'kavlif kaaakasatlaD again, natal aornptiUa aaad, bntaf iBoaRi^tikk tknogk tka v«d af Ood, vkkk 
ifvtk aaduikidalk"; 8 Mi : 4— *'kia pnaboi aad auaadiag paal fnuaea; tkat tknogk tkaaa 7a mj baaoiaa 
pailakan aftka dlTina Mtm*^ e/. Jar. B : 18— *'Is nM Mj irard lika in? aaitk Jakotak; aod Uka 1 kauiar tkat 
knakatktkaraekiApiaeaaT'* Jakal5:8— "Alraady 7a ara alaas baeanaa «f tka vard vUak I kava apokan uta 
70a ^ lpL6:17~'«tka award aftka Spirit wkiakiitkavari af Gad '^ Iak.4:lS—"teika vard of Gad iaUfiiift 
■ad aatiT% aad akarpar tkaa aB7 twa-adgad award, aad piardBf arn to tka dlTidiif af aad and apiri^ af kotk jainta aad 
mrw, and qdokta diaoantkatkaogktaaad iatantaaftkakaart"; i Pat I : •— *'aUlad7a«aataf darkaaaa tata kia 
■arfaDooa ligkt" An adyertising sign reads : ** Fbr spaces and ideas, apply to Johnson and 
Smith." In regeneration, we need both the open mind and the truth to instruct it, and 
we may apply to Ood for both. 

(/) It is a change inntantaneona, seoretly wronght, and known only in 
itsresolts. 

JakB 5 : 24 — ''Ha tkat kMntk ^7 ward, aad kalitralk Urn tkat a«t aa^ krtk atand U^ aad aaaalk BBt lata J^^ 
■nt,katkatkpaaaadaatofdaatk lata lift": c/. Vat. 6:24— "la aaa aaa avra twaaaatara: far aitkar ka will 
katatkaon^aadlaratkaatkar; ar alaa ka will kald to aw^ aad daapiaa tka atkar." Jaka8:8— '*1ka wind kbwalk 
wkarait wiU,aBdaadtkoakaBnattkaTBiaatkBrae( kat kaawaat aal wknaa it aoMtk, aad wkitkar it gaalk : ao ia 
vnrjWM tkat ia kon af tka 8pirit";c/.mL 8: 11^13- "wirtaat7oiirewaaalTatioB wttkflbaraadtnaiUiag; kt 
itiaGadwkawwketkia70Bkatkl»wiUaBdtawark,ftrkugaadplaaiU«**; 8Pat.i:iO— "Vkarrfbn^ kraOraa, 
giTatkaiMndi]igaBaataBaka7aaradlia(aadalaattaa iira.** 

(g) It is a change wrought by God, 

Jakai:18— "wkawankan,Batofklaod,AaraftkawillaffkiiaA,BaroftkawiIlafBaa,kiitafGad'*;8:5* 
« faaaptaaakakaraafwatar aad tka Spirit kaaaaaataatw lata tka kiagdMiaf Gad;" 8:^ marg.— "Tka Spirit 
kraalkalk wkara it will "; Ipk. i : 18, 80— "tka axaaadi^ paataiBB af kia paw* ta vf-ward wka kaUavi^ aaaardiag ta 
tkat warkbg af tka atrnglk af kia Bigkt wUA ka wraagkt ia Okrialt wkaa ka ndaid klH frw tka 
ta ait al kia rigkt kjutd ia tka kaftTaid7 plaeaa "; 8 : 10 — "Far w« ara kia warkMaaUi^ anatad ia (iriat Jaaaa for g^ 
wvk% wkbk God afon pvaparad tkat wa akoold walk ia tkMa "; i Pat 1 : 8 — *< Blaaaad ka tka God aad ratkar of oar 
lariJaaaiGkriat wkeaaoahUagtakiagriatBMn7kagataaagaiBBBtaaUTiBgkapak7tkarMnnafliaBof Jaau (ftriat 
iiraBitkadBad*';e/.i0ar.8:l^7— "Ipkuitad,ipaUaawat»id;kQtOodgatatkaiaanaaa. 8a tkaa aailkar ia ka tkal 
plaatalk aa7tkii«^ aaltkv ka tkat wataralk ; kat Gad tkat giTHk tka iaaraaaa." 

We have seen that we are "kagatlaaagaia. . . . tkraagktkaword*'(lFaLi:83). Intherevealed 
truth with regard to the person and work of Christ there is a divine adaptation to the 
work of renewing our hearts. But truth in itself is powerless to regenerate and 
sanctify, unless the Holy Spirit uses it-"tka award af tka Spirit wkiok iatkawoidof God** (Ipk. 
6 : 17 ). Hence regeneration is ascribed preeminently to the Holy Spirit, and men are said 
to be "konoftkaSfirit" (JokaS : 8V When Robert Morrison started for China, an inored. 
ulcus American said to him : " Mr. Morrison, do you think you can make any impres- 
sion on the Chinese? '* '^No,*' was the reply; ** but I think the Lord can." 

( A ) It is a change accomplished thioogh the union of the soul with 
Ohrist 

BaBL8:8— "to tkakwaf tkaSpiritaf UfaiaOkriatJaataaadaaMfraa flwiy Uw af ala aad daatk*^ 8 Ov^ 
5:17— '^if aa7 naa ia ia Okriat ka ia a aaw araatnra** (marg.— *<tk«a ia a aaw anatloB") ; Gd.1 :lfi^ 16— *'it wu 

tkagoadplaaanraofGad ta nml kia 8aa ia bm "; lpk.8:10— "rorwaarakiawarkMaakip^caatadiaOkiM 

Jaaaa fer goad warka.'* On the Scriptural representations, see B. D. Oriffln, Divine BfBoiency, 
117-164; H. B. Smith, System of Theology, 663-569— ''Regeneration involyes union with 
Christ, and not a change of heart without relation to him.'* 

%k.8:14,i6— '*tkayMkar,framwkaaianr7&tkarkaadiakaaT«aadaaaai1kiaaaaMl'* But even here 
God works through Christ, and Christ himself is called "iTiriaatiiVllitkv'* (Ik 8:6X The real 



812 80TBBI0L0OY, 0& THl DOOTBUTE OF SALYATIOK. 

bMlfl of our aoDflhlp and unity is in Ghrlst, our Crettfeor, and Upholder. Sin is repudi- 
ation of this fllial relationship. Beireneratlon by the Spirit r es tor es our sonship by 
Jolninff us onoe more, ethioally and spiritually, to Ohrist the Son, and so adoptingr us 
•sain Into Ood's ftunily. Henoe the Holy Spirit does not reveal himself, but Ohiist. 
TheSplrit is Uffht, and light does not reveal itself, but aU other thinsa. I may know 
that the Holy Spirit is working within me whenever I more olearly perceive Christ 
Sonship in Christ makes us not only individually children of God, but also members of 
a oommonwealth. PiLt7:4-<'T«,ifaait*aUbiw4»1kii«tMl IM ist vm kn la tar"-««the 
most fflorious thing to be said about them Is not something pertaining to their 
separate history, but that they have become members, by adoption, of the dty of 
Ood"(Perowne). The Psalm speaks of the adoption of nations, but it is equally ttue 
of individuals. 

2. Necessity qf RegeneraHon, 

That all men wiihoat eocoeption need to be changed in moral dhanoter, is 
manifest, not only from Soriptore pasaages already dted, but from the fol- 
lowing rational oonsiderations : 

(a) Holiness, or oonformity to the fundamental moral attribate of God, 
is the indispensable condition of seooring the divine favor, of attaining 
peace of conscience, and of preparing the sonl for the aasooiationB and 
employments of the blest 

Phillips Brooks seems to have taught that regeneratloo is merely a natural forward 
step in man's development. See his Life, S : 868 — ** Tlie entrance Into this deeper oon- 
sdousnesB of sonship to Ood and Into the motive power which it ezerdses Is Begenera- 
tion, the new birth, not merely with reteence to time, but with reference also to 
profoundness. Because man has something sinful to oast away in order to enter this 
higher life, therefore regeneration must begin with repentance. But that is an incident. 
It is not eswntial to the idea. A man simply imperfect and not sinful would still have 
to be bom again. The presentation of sin as guilt, of release as forgiveness, of ooose- 
quence as punishment, have their true meaning as the most permnal ezpresBlons of 
man*s moral condition as always measured by, and man's moral changes as always 
dependent upon, God." Here imperfection seems to mean depraved condition as dis- 
tinguished from conscious transgrearion ; It is not regarded as sinful ; it needs not to be 
repented of. Yet it does require regeneration. In Phillips Brooks's creed there Is no 
artlde devoted to sin. Baptism he calls ** the declaration of the universal fact of the 
sonship of man to Ctod. The Lord's Supper Is the declaration of the universal fact of 
man's dependence upon God for supply of life. It is associated with the death of Jesus, 
because in that the truth of God giving himself to man found its completest manif es- 
taUon." 

Others seem to teach regeneration by education. Here too there is no recognition of 
Inborn sin or guilt. Man's Imperfection of nature is innocent. He needs training in 
order to fit him for asBOdation with higher intelligences and with God. In the evolu- 
tion of his powers there comes a natural crisis, like that of graduation of the scholar, 
and this crisis may be called conversion. This educational theory of regeneration is 
represented tyStarbuck, Psychology of Beligton, and by Ooe, The Spiritual life. What 
human nature needs however Is not evolution, but involution and revolution ~ involu- 
tion, the conmiunication of a new Uf^ and revolution, change of direction resulting 
from that life. Human nature, as we have seen in our treatment of sin. Is not a green 
apple to be perfected by mere growth, but an apple with a worm at the core, whloh left 
to itself will surely rot and perish. 

President G. Stanley Hall, in his essay on The Religious AArmatlons of Psychology, 
ssys that the total depravity of man is an ascertained fact apart from the teachings of 
the Bible. There had come into his hands for inspection several thousands of letters 
written to a medical man who advertised that he would give confidential advice and 
treatment to all, secretly. On the strength of these letters Dr. Hall was prepared to 
say that John Calvin had not told the half of what is true. He declared that the neces- 
sity of regeneration in order to the development of character was oleariy established 
from psychological investigation. 

'^, Strong, Cleveland Sermon, 1904^** Here is the danger of some modem theoriei 
tian education. They glveus statistlos, to show that the age of puberty is the 



/ 



/ 



BBOENERATIOK. 818 

age of strongett rdlgloiu ImpreeBlODs; and the inferenoe to drawn that oonvenloii Is 
nothing but a natuial phenomenon, a regular sta^ of development. The free will, and 
the evil bent of that will, are forgotten, and the aboolute dependenoe of perverse human 
nature upon the regenerating spirit of God. The age of puberty Is the age of the 
strongest religious impressions? Yes, but It Is also the age of the strongest artistic and 
social and sensuous impressions, and only a new birth from above can lead the soul to 
seek flrst the kingdom of God." 

(6) The condition of nnivenal homBnity as by nature depiaved, and, 
when arrived at moral oonsoionsnesB, as guilty of actual tranfigression, ia 
preoisely the opposite of that holiness without which the sool cannot eiist 
in nonnal relation to €k>d, to self, or to holy beings. 

Plutarch has a parable of a man who tried to make a dead body stand upright, but 
who finished his labors saying: ^^Deest aliquid intus '* — ** There's somethhicr laoklnff 
inside/' Blbot, Diseases of the Will, fiS— ** In the vidous man the moral elements are 
laoklnff. If the idea of amendment arises, it is involuntary. • . . But if a flist element 
is not given by nature, and with it a potential energy, nothing results. The theologi* 
cal dogma of grace as a free gift appears to us therefore founded upon a much more 
exact psychology than the contrary opinion." ** Thou art chained to the wheel of the 
foe By links which a world cannot sever : With thy tyrant through storm and through 
catan thou shall go. And thy sentence is bondage forever." 

lfarteosen,C9irlstianBthioB: "WhenEanttreatiof the radical evil of human nature, 
he makes the remarkable statement that, if a good will is to appear In us, this cannot 
happen through a partial improvement, nor through any reform, but only through a 
revolution, a total overturn within us, that Is to be compared to a new oreatlon.'* 
Those who hold that man may attain perfection by mere natural growth deny this 
radical evil of human nature, and assume that our nature is a good seed which needs 
only favorable external influences of moisture and sunshine to brinir forth good fruit. 
But human nature is a damaged seed, and what comes of it will be aborted and stunted 
like itself. The doctrine of mere development denies God's holioesB, man^ sin, the 
need of Christ, the necessity of atonement, the work of the Holy Bplrit, the justice of 
penalty. Kant*s doctrine of the radical evil of human nature, like Aristotle's doctrine 
that man is bom on an Inclined plane and subject to a downward gravitation, is not 
matched by a oorrespondinff doctrine of regeneration. Only the apostle Paul can teU 
us how we came to be in this dreadful predicament, and where is the power that can 
deliver us ; see Steams, Evidence of Christian Bxperience, S74 

Desn Swift's worthy sought many years for a method of extracting sunbeams from 
cucumbers. We cannot cure the barren tree by giving it new bark or new branches, 
—it must have new sap. Healing snakebites Is not killing the snake. Poetry and 
music, the uplifting power of culture, the inherent nobility of man, the general mercy 
of God — no one of these will save the souL Horace Bushnell : '* The soul of all improve- 
ment is the improvement of the souL'* Frost cannot be removed from a window pane 
simply by scratching it away, —you must raise the temperature of the room. It is as 
impossible to get regeneration out of reformation as to get a harvest out of a field by 
mere plowing. Beformation Is plucking bitter apples from a tree, and in their place 
tying good apples on with a string ( Dr. Pentecost ). It is regeneration or degradation 
—the beginning of an upward movement by a power not man's own, or the continu- 
ance and Increase of a downward movement that can end only in ruin. 

Kidd, Social Evolution, shows that In humanity itself there resides no power of prog^ 
resB. The ocean steamship that has burned its last pound of coal may proceed on its 
course by virtue of its momentiun, but it is only a question of the clock how soon it 
will cease to move, except as tossed about by the wind and the waves. Not only Is 
there power lacking for the good, but apart from God's grace the evil tendencies con- 
stantly became more aggravated. The settled states of the alTeotlons and will practi- 
cally dominate the life. Charles H. Spurgeon : ** If a thief should get Into heaven 
unchanged, he would begin by picking the angels' pockets.** The land is full of exam- 
ples of the descent of man, not from the brute, but to the brute. The tares are not 
degenerate wheat, which by cultivation will become good wheat, —they are not only 
useless but noxious, and they must be rooted out and burned. ** Society never will be 
better than the individuals who compose it. A sound ship can never be made of rotten 
timber. Individual reformation must precede social reconstruction." Socialism will 




"""•«».. 



^'JS S. 'Si™. Tb'"" ''"'u.bSS 






RKOENBBATION. 815 

whole post 18 everywhere the same, the effects must, upon this view, at each Instant be 
everywhere one and the same. ** The theory that, of every suooeoBlve event, the real 
cause is the whole of the anteoedents, does not dist^ffuish between the passive condi- 
tions acted upon and ohanflred, and the active agencies which act upon and change 
them ; does not distinguish what produces, from what merely precedes, change." 

We prefer the definition given by Porter. Human Intellect, 600— Cause is ** the moet 
conspicuous and prominent of the agencies, or conditions, that produce a result '* ; or 
that of Dr. Mark Hopkins : " Any exertion or manifestation of energy that produces 
a change is a cause, and nothing else is. We must distinguish cause from occasion, or 
material. Cause is not to be defined as * everything without which the effect could not 
be realised.' " Better still, perhaps, may we say, that eflicient cause is the competent 
producing power by which the eifect is secured. James Martineau, Types, 1 : preface, 
ziii — " A cause is that which determines the indeterminate." Not the light, but the 
photographer, is the cause of the picture ; light is but the photographer's servant. So 
the "vordof Qod" is the "nrardof fheSpiitt" (Iph. 6:17); the Spirit uses the word as his instru- 
ment ; but the Spirit himself is the cause of regeneration. 

A. The htunan will, as the efficient canae of regeneration. 

This -view takes two forms, according as the will is regarded as acting 
apart from, or in conjunction with, special influences of the truth applied 
by God. Pelagians hold the former ; Arminians the latter. 

( a ) To the Pelagian view, that regeneration is solely the act of man, and 
is identical with self-reformation, we object that the sinner's depravity, 
since it consists in a fixed state of the affections which determines the 
settled character of the volitions, amounts to a moral inability. Without 
a renewal of the affections from which all moral action springs, man will 
not choose holiness nor accept salvation. 

Man's volitions are practically the shadow of his affections. It is as usetoss to think of 
a man's volitions separating themselves from his affections, and drawing him towards 
God, as it is to think of a man's shadow separating itself from him, and leading him 
In the opposite direction to that in which he is going. Man's affections, to use Oalvin*s 
words, are Uke horses that have thrown off the charioteer and are running wildly, 
— they need a new hand to direct them. In disease, we must be helped by a physician. 
We do not stop a locomotive engine by applying force to the wheels, but by reverslnflr 
the lever. So the change in man must be, not in the transient volitions, but in the 
deeper springs of action — the fundamental bent of the affections and wilL See Hens- 
low, Bvolution, 1B4. Shakespeare, AU's Well that Bnds Well, 8:l:149-"Itlsnotso 
with Him that all things knows. As 'tis with us that square our guess with shows; 
But most it is presumption in us when The help of heaven we count the act of men." 

Henry Clay said that he did not know for himself personally what the change of 
heart spoken of by Christians meant ; but he had seen Kentucky family ftods of long 
standing healed by religious revivals, and that whatever could heal a Kentucky ftonily 
feud was more than hiunan. •<- Mr. Peter Harvey was a lifelong friend of Daniel Web- 
ster. He wrote a most interesting volume of reminiscenses of the great man. He tells 
how one John Colby married the oldest sister of Mr. Webster. Said Mr. Webster of 
John Colby: ** Finally he went up to Andover, New Hampshire, and bought a farm, 
and the only recollection I have about him is that he was called the wickedest man in 
the neighborhood, so far as swearing and Impiety went. I used to wonder how my 
sister could marry so profane a man as John Colby.". Yeazs afterwards news comes to 
Mr. Webster that a wonderful change has passed upon John Colby. Mr. Harvey and 
Mr. Webster take a journey together to visit John Colby. As Mr. Webster enters John 
Colby's house, he sees open before him a large-print Bible, which he has just been read- 
ing. When greetings have been interchanged, the first question John Colby asks of 
Mr. Webster is, ** Are you a Christian ? '* And then, at John Colby's suggestion, the 
two men kneel and pray together. When the visit is done, this is what Mr. Webster 
says to Mr. Harvey as they ride away : ** I should like to know what the enemies of 
religion would say to John Colby's conversion. There was a man as unlikely, humanly 
speaking, to become a Christian as any man I ever saw. He was reckless, heedless, 
impious, never attended church, never experienced the good influence of associating 
with religions people. And here he has been living on in that xeokleflB way untU he 



816 80TBRI0L00T, OB THB DOCTBIirB OF BALYATIOflr. 

bas got to be an old maii, until a period of Uf e when you naturallj would not expect 
Ui habits to dhange. And yet be has been brought Into the condition in which we 
haTe seen him to-day, — a penitent, trusting, humble beUever.'* ** Whatersr people 
may say,** added Mr. Webster, ** nothing can oonvinoe me that anything short of the 
grace of Almi^ty Ood could make such a change as I, with my own eyes, have wlt- 
neswd in the life of John Colby." When they got back to Franklin, New Hampshire, 
in the evening, they met another Ufalong friend of Mr. Webster^s, John Taylor, stand- 
ing at his door. Mr. Webster called out : '* Well, John Taylor, miracles happen in these 
latter days as weU as in the days of old." ** What now. Squire ? " asked John Taylor. 
** Why,'* replied Mr. Webster, ** John Odby has become a Christian. If that is not a 
miracle, what Is?" 

(b) To the Azminiaii view, that xegonenition is the act of man, oodper- 
ating with divine inflnenoeB applied thiongh the troth (flynergiBtio the- 
017), we object that no beginning of holinesB is in this way conoeiTable. 
For, 80 long as man's aelfiah and perverse aflfootions are unchanged, no 
choosing €k>d is possible bat such as proceeds from sapxeme desire for 
one's own interest and happiness. Bat the man thus sapremely bent on 
self -gratification cannot see in €k>d, or his service, anything productive of 
happiness ; or, if he could see in them anything of advantage, his choice 
of God and his service from sooh a motive would not be a holy choice, and 
therefore could not be a beginning of holiness. 

Although Melanohthon (ltf7-]«0) preceded Aimlnliw(lfla(>-iaW), his view was rab- 
stantlaHy the same with that of the Dutdi theologian. Melanohthon never experienced 
the throes and travails of a new spiritual Ufa, as Luther did. His external and internal 
development was peculiarly placid and serene. This Pneceptor GennaniaB had the 
modesty of the genuine scdiolar. He was not a dogmatist, and he never entered the 
ranks of the ministry • He never could be puiauaded to accept the degree of Doctor of 
Theology, though he lectured on theological su bjeots to audiences of thousands. Domer 
says of Melanohthon ; " He held at first that the Spirit of Ood is the primary, and the 
word of Ood the secondary, or instrumental, agency in conversion, while the human 
will allows their aoUon and freely yields to it.*' Later, he held that ^ conversion is the 
result of the combined action ( eofmlotio) of three causes, the truth of Ood, the Holy 
Spirit, and the will of man." This synergistic view In his last yean involved the theo- 
logian of the Oerman Bef ormation in serious trouble. Luthardt : ** He made a faeuUaa 
out of a mere eapoettos." Domer says again : ^ Man's causality is not to be coordi- 
nated with that of Ood, however small the influence ascribed to it. It is a purely 
reeepUve, not a productive, agency. The opposite is the fundamental Romanist error." 
Self-love will never induce a man to give up self-love. Selflshness will not throttle 
and oast out sdflshness. ** Such a choice from a selflsh motive would be unholy, 
when Judged by Ood*s standard. It is absurd to make salvation depend upon the exer- 
cises of a wholly unspiritual power"; see Domer, Olaubenslehre, 8:716-720 (Syst. 
Doct, 4:179-188). Shedd, Dogm. TheoL, 8:606— "Sin does not first stop, and then 
holiness come in place of sin ; but holiness positively expels sin. Darkness does not 
first cease, and then light enter; but light drives out da rkne ss." On the Arminlan 
view, see Bib. Sac^ 19:866, 806. 

John WesleylB theology was a modified Arminianism, yet it was John Wesley who 
did most to establish the doctrine of regeneration. He asserted that the Holy Spirit 
acts through the truth, in distinction fkx>m the doctrine that the Holy Spirit works 
solely throuirh the ministers and sacraments of the church. But In asserting the work 
of the Holy Spirit In the individual soul, he went too far to the opposite extreme of 
emphastzing tJie ability of man to choose Ood's service, when without love to Gtod 
there was nothing in Ood*s service to attracL A. H. Bradford. Age of Faith : ** It is 
as if Jesus had said: If a sailor will properly set his rudder the wind wiU fill his sails. 
The will is the rudder of the ohaFBoter ; if it is turned in the right direction, all the 
winds of heaven will ftevor ; if it Is turned in the wrong direction, they will oppose." 
Tlie question returns: What shall move the man to set his rudder aright, if he has no 
desire to reach the proper haven? Here Is the need of divine power, not merely to 
cooperate with man, after man's will Is set In the right direction, but to set it in the 
right direction in the first phuse. WLtzIS— *'ltiiOWvkoviAilkiixnktktiviUaaitiv«k, 

fcrUlgMd|lMBIik** 



BEGSNEBATIOK. 817 

StiU another modifloation of Arminlan doctrine is found In the Revealed Theology 
of N. W. Taylor of New Haven, who maintained that, antecedently to regeneration, 
the atljitih principle is suspended tn the sinner's heart, and that then, prompted by seJf- 
love, he uses the means of regeneration from motives that are neither sinful nor holy. 
He held that all men, saints and sinnera, have their own happiness for their ultimate 
end. Regeneration involves no change in this principle or motive, but only a change 
in the governing purpose to seek this happiness in Gtod rather than in the world. Dr. 
Taylor said that man could turn to God, whatever the Spirit did or did not do. He 
could turn to Gk>d if he would ; but he could also turn to Ood if he would n*t. In other 
words, he maintained the power of contrary choice, while yet affirming the certainty 
that, without the Holy Spirit's influences, man would always choose wrongly. These 
doctrines caused a division in the Congregational body. Those who opposed Taylor 
withdrew their support from New Haven, and founded the Bast Windsor Seminary in 
1884. For l^ylor's view, see N. W. Taylor, Revealed Theology, 80MM, and in The 
Christian ^lectator for 18SB0. 

The chief opponent of Dr. Taylor was Dr. Bennet Tyler. He replied to Dr. Taylor 
that moral character has its seat, not in the purpose, but in the affections back of the 
purpose. Otherwise every Christian must be in a state of sinless perfection, for his 
governing puipose is to serve Ood. But we know that there are affections and desires 
not under control of this purpose— dispositions not in conformity with the predomi- 
nant disposition. How, Dr. iS^ler asked, can a sinner, completely selfish, from a selfish 
motive, xesolve not to be selfish, and so suspend his selilshnesB? ** Antecedently to 
regeneration, there can be no suspension of the selfish principle. It is said that, in 
suspending it, the sinner is actuated by self-love. But is it possible that the sinner, 
while destitute of love to God and every partlde of genuine benevolence, should love 
himself at all and not love himself supremely? He loves nothing more than self. He 
docs not regard God or the universe, except as they tend to promote his ultimate end, 
his own happiness. No sinner ever suspended this selfishness until subdued by divine 
grace. We can not become regenerate by preferring God to the world merely from 
regard to our own interest. There is no necessity of the Holy Spirit to renew the 
heart, if self-love prompts men to turn from the world to God. On the view thus com- 
bated, depravity consists simply in ignorance. All men need is enlightenment as to 
the best means of securing their own happiness. Regeneration by the Holy Spirit is, 
therefore, not necesaary." See Bennet Tyler, Memoir and Lectures, 816-881, esp. 884, 
87Q, 871; Letters on the New Haven Theology, 21-78^ 148-188; review of Taylor and 
Fitch, by B. D. Griflln, Divine Bffloiency, 18-64; Martineau, Study, 2:9— **By making 
it a man's interest to be disinterested, do you cause him to forget himself and put any 
love into his heart? or do you only break him in and cause him to turn this way and 
that by the bit and lash of a driving necessity ? " The sinner, apart from the grace of 
God, cannot see the truth. Wllberforce took Pitt to hear Cecil preach, but Pitt 
declared that he did not understand a word that Cecil said. Apart from the grace of 
God, the sinner, even when made to see the truth, resists it the more, the more clearly 
he sees lt» Then the Holy Spirit overcomes his opposition and makes him willing in 
the day of God's power ( PidB 110 : 8 ). 

B. The tmth, as fhe efficient oaose of regeneration. 

Aooording to this view, the troth as a system of motives is the direct and 
immediate canse of the change from nnholiness to holiness. This view is 
objectionable for two reasons : 

( a ) It erroneonsl J regards motiyes as wholly external to the mind that 
is inflnenced by them. This is to conceive of them as mechanically con- 
straining the willy and is indistinguishable from necessitarianism. On the 
contrary, motives are oomponnded of external presentations and internal 
dispositions. It is the soul's affections which render certain suggestions 
attractive and others repugnant to us. In brief, the heart makes the motive. 

( 6 ) Only as trutii is loved, therefore, can it be a motive to holiness. 
But we have seen that the aversion of the sinner to Ood is such that the 
truth is hated instead of loved, and a thing that is hated, is hated more 
58 



818 SOTBBIOLOGT^ OB THE DOCTBINB OF BALVATIOK. 

inteoflelj, the more distinoftlj it is aeeiL Henoe no mere power of the 
tmth can be regarded as the efficient oanae of regeneration. The contrary 
view implies that it is not the truth which the sinner hates, bat rather some 
element of error which is mingled with it 

hymui Beeoher and GhartoB O. Flimey held this view. The influenoo of the Holy 
Spirit diflen from that of the pzeaoher only In degree,*- both uaeonly moral ■uaalon ; 
both do nothing more than to present the tmth ; both work upon the toul from without. 
'* Were I as eloquent as the Holy Ghost, I oould oonvert sinners as well as he,'* said a 
popular preacher of this school (see Bennet Tyler, Letters on New Haven Theology, 
164-171 ). On this view, it would be absurd to pray to Ood to regenerate, for that Is 
more than he can do,— regeneration Is simply the effect of truth. 

Baiey,ln Meth. Quar., July, 1881 : 484-4fiB, holds that *' the wiU cannot rationaUy act 
without motive, but that It has always power to suspend action, or defer it, for the 
purpose of rational examination of the mottve or end, and to consider the opposite 
motive or end. Putting the old end or motive out of view will temporarily break Its 
power, and the new truth considered will furnish motive for rl^t action. Thus, by 
using our faculty of suspending choice, and of fixing attention, we can realise the 
permanent eligibility of the good and choose it against the eviL This Is, however, not 
the realiaation of a new spiritual life in regeneration, but the election of its attain- 
ment. Power to do this suspending Is of grace [ grace, however, given equally to all ]• 
Without this power, Ute would be a sp<mtaneous and irresponsible development of eviL** 

The view of MIley, thus substantially given, resembles that of Dr. Taylor, upon 
which we have already commented ; but, unlike that, it makes truth itself, apart from 
the affections, a determining agency In the change from sin to holiness. Our one reply 
is that, without a change in the affections, the truth can neither be known nor obeyed. 
Seeing cannot be the means of being bom again, for one must first be bom again in 
order to see the kingdom of Ood (Mas :S). The mind will not choose God, until God 
appears to be the greatest good. 

Bdwards, quoted by GrliHn, Divine BIBoiency, M— ** Let the sinner apply his rational 
powers to the contemplation of divine things, and let his belief be speculatively cor- 
rect ; stiU he is in such a state that those objects of contemplation will excite in him no 
holy affections." The Scriptures declare < Rom. 8:7) that "tkc aliA of tkt ImIl is aunitj '*— not 
against some error or mistaken notion of God— but *'li wmtty asiiaH Gol** It Is God's 
holiness, mandatory and punitive, that is hated. A dearer view of that holiness will 
only increase the hatred. A woman's hatred of spiders will never be changed to love by 
bringing them close to her. Magnifying them with a compound oxy-hydrogen micro- 
Bcope will not help the matter. Tyler : ** All the light of the last day will not subdue 
the sinner's heart/' The mere presence of God, and seeing Gk)d face to face, will be hell 
to him, if his hatred be not first changed to love. See B. D. Griffin, Divine Bffiolenoy, 
185-118, 208-881 ; and review of Griffin, by S. R. Mason, Tmth Unfolded, 888-407. 

Bradford, Heredity and Christian Problems, 839 —^'Christianity puts three motives 
before men : love, self-love, and fear." True, but the last two are only preliminary 
motives, not essentially Christian. The soul that is moved only by self-love or by fear 
has not yet entered into the Christian life at aU. And any attention to the truth of God 
which originates in these motives has no absolute moral value, and cannot be regarded 
as even a beginning of salvation. Nothing but holiness and love are entitled to be 
called Christianity, and these the truth of itself cannot summon up. The Spirit of God 
must go with the truth to impart right desires and to make the truth effective. B. G. 
Robinson : '* The glory of our salvation can no more be attributed to the word of God 
only, than the glory of a Praxiteles or a Canova can be ascribed to the chisel or the 
mallet with which he wrought into Ijeauty his Immortal creations." 

0. The immediate agency of the Holy Spirit, as the efficient oanae of 
regeneration. 

In asoribing to the Holy Spirit the anthorship of regeneration^ we do 
not affirm that the divine Spirit aocomplishes his work without any accom- 
panying instrumentality. We simply assert that the power which regen- 
erates is the power of God, and that although conjoined with the nse of 
means, there is a direct operation of this power npon the sinner's heart 



REOBKERATIOK. 819 

which ohaxiges its mond character. We add two remarks by way of farther 
explanation : 

( a ) The Scriptural aasertionB of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit and 
of his mighty power in the soul forbid ns to regard the divine Spirit in 
regeneration as coming in contact, not with the soul, bnt only with the 
tmth. The phrases, ''to energize the trnth^" '*to intensify the truth,*' 
«« to illuminate the truth," have no prox>er meaning ; since even God cannot 
make the truth more tma If any dhimge is wrought, it must be wrought^ 
not in the truth, but in the souL 

The maxim, "Truth la mi^rhty and will prevBilf'* is very untrue, if God be left out of 
theaooount. Truth without God is an abstraotlon, and not a power. It is a mere instru- 
ment, uaoleas without an agent. "n«fvard«rth«8piii^vyA it th«v«4«r(M"(l|h. 6:17), must 
be wielded by the Holy Spirit himself. And the Holy Spirit oomes in oontact, not 
simply with the instrument, but with the soul. To all moral, and espeoially to aU reUfl^ 
ious truth, there is an inward unsusoeptibillty, arising from the perversity of the affec- 
tions and the wilL This blindness and hardness of heart must be removed, before the 
soul can i>erceive or be moved by the truth. Hence the Spirit must deal directly with 
the souL Denovan : '*Our natural hearts are hearts of stone. The word of God is 
good seed sown on the hard, trodden, maoadamiiiRd highway, which the hones of 
paoBlon, the asses of self-will, the wagons of imaginary treasure, have made impene- 
trable. Only the Holy Spirit can soften and pulverise this soil." 

The Psalmist prays: "JmiiMmjhmiimkUikjiti^timmm'* ( Ffe. 119: 36 X while of I^diaitis 
said: *'vhaMhMrtth« Lardopmadtogin kMdiBtetkttUi^ivhkhvanipttkaibyliHil" (iflil6:14). We 
may tey of the Holy Spirit : ** He freezes and then melts the soil. He breaks the hard, 
cold stone. Kills out the rooted weeds so vile,— AU this be does alone ; And every virtue 
we possess. And every victory won. And every thought of holiness, Are his, and his 
alone.'* Hence, in Fi. 90 : 16^ 17, the Psalmist says, first : "Ui tifty voric vffm nto tky wnati**; 
then " MtaUiik tkoa tht voric of our hiads apoa u"— God's work is first to appear,— then man's 
work, which is God's work canied out by human instruments. At Jericho, the force 
was not applied to the rams' horns, but to the walls. When Jesus healed the blind man, 
his power was applied, not to the spittle, but to the eyes. The impression is prepared, 
not by heating the seal, but by softening the wax. So God's power acts, not upon the 
truth, but upon the sinner. 

lk.G9:iO-''H7Qodvitk UstovlBgiUBdnMviU aNkM*'; A.y.--**1kR(M rffljBV^i^ 
i. e., go before me. Augustine urges this text as proof that the grace of God precedes aU 
merit of man : ^ What didst thou find in me but only sins ? Before I do anything good, 
his mercy wiU go before me. What will unhappy P^lagius answer here?" Oalvin how- 
ever says this may be a pious, but it is not a fair, use of thepasBsge. The passage does 
teach dependence upon Gk>d; but Gk>d*s anticipation of our action, or in other words, 
the doctrine of prevenlent grace, must be derived from other portions of Scripture, such 
as Joha i : il^ and Ipk. S : IQi ^ The enthusiasm of humanity '* to which J. B. Seeley, the 
author of Bcce Homo, exhorts us, is doubtless the secret of happiness and usefulneoB,— 
unfortunately he does not teU us whence it may come. John Stuart Mill felt the 
need of It, but he did not get it. Arthur Hug^ Glough, Glergyman^s First Tale : 
'* Would I could wish my wishes all to rest, And know to wish the wish that were the 
best." Bradford, Heredity, 22S — *^ God is the environment of the soul, yet man has free 
wilL Light fills the spaces, yet a man from ignorance may remain in a cave, or from 
choice may dwell in darkness." Man needs therefore a divine Influence which wiU 
beget in him a disposition to use his opportunities aright. 

We may iUustrate the philosophy of revivals by the canal boat which lies before the 
gate of a lock. No power on earth can open the lock. But soon the look begins to fill, 
and when the water has reached the proper level, the gate can be opened almost at a 
touch. Or, a steamer runs into a sandbar. Tugs fall to pull the vessel off. Her own 
engines cannot accomplish it. But when the tide comes in, she swings free without 
effort. So what we need In religion is an influx of spiritual influence which will make 
easy what before is diflioult if not Impossible. The Superintendent of a New York 
State Prison tells ns that the common schools furnish 83 per cent., and the colleges and 
academies over 4 per cent., of the inmates of Auburn and Sing Sing. Truth without 
the Holy Spirit to apply it is like sunshine without the aotlnio ray which alone can give 
it vitalising energy. 



820 SOTfiRIOLOOT, OB THE DOCTRIKB OF SALYATIOIT. 

( & ) Even if tmth oould be energized, inteufiifled, iUmninated, there 
would still be needed a change in the moral d]8poBition» before the aonl 
could recognize its beauty or be affected by it. No mere increase of light 
can enable a blind man to see ; the disease of the eye must first be cured 
before external objects are visible. So Qod'a work in regeneration must 
be performed within the soul itsell Over and above all influence of the 
truth, there must be a direct influence of the Holy Spirit upon the hearts 
Although wrought in conjunction with the presentation of truth to the 
intellect, regeneration diffiars from moral suasion in being an immediate 
actof Qod. 

Bef6ie regeneration, man*B knowledge of God if the blind man's knowledge of oolor* 
The SorlptuzeB oall such knowledge '^isMtuM** ( Iph. 4 : iS ). The heart does not appreciate 
Qod'8 mercy. Regeneration gives an experimental or heart knowledge ; see Shedd« 
Doirm.TheoL,8:49fi. b.G0:4— Ood"vitkiMlkadM«rtok«r." It is flOoe to say that loul 
can oome in oontaot with soul only through the inHuenoe of truth. In the intercourse 
of dear friends, or in the disooorse of the orator, there is a personal influenoe, distinct 
from the word spoken, which persuades the heart and conquers the wilL We sometimes 
call it *" mBgnetUmu"— but we mean simply that soul reaches soul, in ways apart from 
the use of physical intermediaries. Ciompare the facts, imperfectly known as yet, of 
second sight, mind-reading, clairvoyance. But whether these be accepted or not, it 
still is true that God has not made the human soul so that it is inaccessible to himself. 
The onmipresent Spirit penetrates and pervades all spirits that have been made by 
him. Bee Lotae, Outlines of Psychology (Ladd), 141^ I4a 

In the primary change of disposition, which is the most essential feature of regene- 
ration, the Spirit of God acts directly upon the spirit of man. In the securing of the 
initial exerdse of this new disposition— which constitutes the secondary feature of 
God's work of regeneration— the truth is used as a means. Hence, perhaps, in Sutm 
i:i8»weread: "OfUsownviUkibnafhtiisllirthbytte varioftndk" instead of ** he begat us by 
the word of truth," —the reference being to the secondary, not to the primary, feature 
of regeneration. The advocates of the opposite view — the view that God works only 
through the truth as a means, and that his only influence upon the soul is a moral 
Influence— very naturally deny the mystical union of the soul with Christ. Squier, 
for example, in his Autobiog., 84:^-078, esp. 800, on the Spirit's influences, quotes Mki 
16:8— he''vilIooBTiottkivari4uinipMl of iIa" — to show that God regenerates by applying 
truth to men's minds, so far as to convince them, by fair and suffloient arguments, 
that they are sinners. 

Christ, opening blind eyes and unstoppinflr deaf ears, illustrates the nature of God's 
operation in regeneration,— in the case of the blind, there is plenty of Ui;M,— what 
is wanted is tlghL The negro convert said that bis conversion was due to himself and 
God : he fought against God with all his might, and God did the rest% So our moral 
successes are due to ourselves and God, — we have done only the flghtlnff against GN>d, 
and God has done the rest. The sand of Sahara would not bring forth flowers and 
fruit, even if you turned into it a hundred rivers like the NUe. Man may hear sermons 
for a lifetime, and still be barren of aU spiritual growths. The soil of the heart needs 
to be changed, and the good seed of the kingdom needs to be planted there. 

For the view that truth is ** energised" or *Mntensifled" by the Holy Spirit, see 
Phelps, New Birth, 61, 121 ; Walker, Philosophy of Plan of Salvation, chap. 18. Per eon- 
trOf see Wardlaw, Syst. TheoL, 8:84, 25; B. D. Griffin, Divine Bffloienoy, 73-116 ; Ander- 
son, Begeneration, 128-168 ; Bdwards, Works, 8 : 647-587 ; Chalmers, Lectures on Romans, 
chap. 1; Payne, Divine Sovereignty, lect. 28:868-867; Hodge, Syst. Thed.. 8:8-87, 466- 
485. On the whole subject of the Bffldent Cause of Regeneration, see Hopkins, Works, 
1:454; Dwlght, TheolosT« 8:41M89; John Owen, Works, 8:28S-W7, 866-588; Robert 
Hall, Sermon on the Cause, Agent, and Purpose of Regeneration. 

4. TKe Instrumentality used in Regeneraiion. 

A, The Boman, English and Lutheran dhurches hold that regeneration 
ia accomplished through the instrumentality of baptism. The DisoipleSy 
or f oUowera of Alexander Campbell, make regeneration indnde baptism. 



BEGENERATIOir. 821 

as well as repentance and faith. To the view that baptism is a means of 
regeneration we nrge the following objections : 

( a ) The Scriptores represent baptism to be not the means but only the 
sign of regeneration, and therefore to presappose and follow regeneration. 
For this reason only believers — that is, persons giving credible evidence 
of being regenerated — were baptized (Acts 8 : 12). Not external baptism, 
bDt the conscientious taming of the sonl to Gk>d which baptism symbolizes, 
saves ns ( 1 Pet 8 : 21 — awetS^eui aya^^ ktrtp&njfia ). Texts like John 
8 : 6, Acts 2 : 88, OoL 2 : 12, Tii 8 : 5, are to be explained npon the princi- 
ple that regeneration, the inward change, and baptism, the outward sign 
of that change, were regarded as only different sides or aspects of the same 
fact, and either side or aspect might therefore be described in terms 
derived from the other. 

( 6 ) Upon this view, there is a striking incongruity between the nature 
of the change to be wrought and the means employed to produce it The 
change is a spiritual one, but the means are physicaL It is far more 
rational to suppose that, in changing the character of intelligent beings, 
God uses means which have relation to their intelligence. Hie view we 
are considering is part and parcel of a general scheme of mechanical rather 
than moral salvation, and is more consistent with a materialistic than with 
a spiritual philosophy. 



Aili S : tt —" i^fln t^7 bdkrtd Philip pnMki^ gMd tUingt ooBflaniBg tkt kiag^ 
Okrii^ tiM7 vanbftptind" ; 1 P»t.8:21 — "wtdflhalnafWratnw UknuadolhiioviaTt jov, •wnlMptini, lultht 
pOttiiki; ava7«rthtiltli(tf UtflMk, Inttkt iBtegmgaiiaB [ marg.— 'iainiry*, 'ippttl'] ef t good MnaoianM tovard 
Qtd" — tbe inquiry of the soul after God, the consoientioiu turning of the Bonl to God. 

Pliimptre, however, mokes iwpArnit^ a f orenslo term equivalent to '* examination," 
and including both question and answer. It means, then, the open answer of alle- 
glanoe to Christ, friven by the new convert to the constituted officers of the church. 
** That which is of tbe essence of the Baving power of baptism is the confession and the 
profession which precede it. If this comes from a conscience that really renounces sin 
and believes on Christ, then baptism, as the channel through which the graoe of the 
new birth is conveyed and the convert admitted into the church of Christ ' saves us,' 
but not otherwise.'* We may adopt this statement from Plumptre's Commentary, 
with the alteration of the word "conveyed" into **8ymbollBed" or ** manifested." 
Plumptre's intepretatlon is, as he seems to admit, in Its obvious meaning Inconsistent 
with Infant baptism; to us it seems equally Inconsistent with any doctrine of bap- 
tismal regeneration. 

Scriptural regeneration is God's ( 1 ) changing man's disposition, and (2 ) securing Its 
lint exercise. Begeneration, according to the Disciples, is man's ( 1 ) repentance and 
faith, and (2) submission to baptism. Alexander Campbell, Christianity Restored: 
** We plead that all the converting power of the Holy Spirit is exhibited In the divine 
Becord." Address of Disciples to Ohio Baptist State Convention, 1871: "With us 
regeneration Includes all that Is comprehended in faith, repentance, and baptism, and 
so far as it la expressive of birth. It belongs more properly to the last of these than to 
either of the former." But if baptism be the instrument of regeneration, it is difficult 
to see how the patriarchs, or the penitent thief, could have been regenerated. Uki 
18:43— '*Aif dajikittthoabairithflMiiiFluBdin." Bossuet: " 'Tkia day' — what promptitude I 
•Tith Be* — what companionship I 'b Pandin'-what restl** Bersier: ** <1Ua day'- 
what then ? no flames of Purgatory ? no long period of mournful expiation ? * TUi dij * 
— pardon and heaven 1 " 

Baptism is a condition of being outwardly In the kingdom ; It is not a condition of 
being Inwardly In the kingdom. The confounding of these two led many in the early 
church to dread dying unbaptised, rather than dsring unsaved. Bven Pascal, in later 
times, held that participation in outward ceremonies might lead to real conversion. 
He probably meant that an initial act of holy will would tend to draw others in its train. 
Similarly we urge unconverted people to take some step that will maniftat religious 



82)2 SOTBBIOLOOT, OR THB DOOTBIKB OF SALVATIOK. 

interest. We hope that In taking this step a new dedaion of the will, lowrouffht bx 
the Spirit of Ood, may reveal Itself. But a religion wfedch conBlstB only in such out- 
ward perf ormanops is Justly denominated a cutaneous religion, for it Is only skin-deep. 
On Jikat:5~'<lui|ttMtebcnitr vitoudtka apfai^teMiBitalffiAtofh* Uigdw fTGod*'; A«li S:» 
— "Riftiity^ ■&! bt b^liMd •^■7 «• of 7«a ia ttesHM«f JeniGMflvatothtRnteiaBtfyMrdiii"; (M. 
l:iS— "taxMvitkUmUb^tiai, vh««iB7»vma]«z«iMdvi1kUH tiling fldtk'*^ 
tkroogk Um vMhi^ «r npamtka aai nmwIik rftht My Spirit " ^ see further discussion and expo- 
sition in our chapter on the Ordinances. Adkins, Dlsdples and Baptists, a booklet 
published by the Am. Bap. Pub. Society, is the best stotement of the Baptist position, 
ss disUngnished from that of the Disciples. It claims that Disciples overrate the 
externals of Christianity and underrate the work of the Holy Spirit. Ptr wntra, see 
Gates, Disciples and Baptists. 

B. The Soriptoial Tiew ib that regenezBtion, so &r as it seonreB an 
aotivity of man, is aooompliflhed through the infltnunentality of the truth. 
Although the Holy Spirit does not in any way illmninate the tmth, he 
does illuminate the mind, so that it can peroeive the tniih. In oonjnno- 
tion with the change of man's inner disposition, there is an appeal to man's 
rational nature through the truth. Two inferences ma j be drawn : 

(a) Man is not wholly passiye at the time of his regeneration. He is 
passive only with respect to the change of his ruling disposition. With 
respect to the exercise of this disposition, he is aotiye. Although the effi- 
cient power which secures this exercise of the new disposition is the power 
of Gk)d, yet man is not therefore unconscious, nor is he a mere machine 
worked by Gkxl's fingers. On the other hand, his whole moral nature 
under God's working is aliye and active. We reject the ''exerdse-Gfystem," 
which regards Qod as the direct author of all man's thoughts, feelings, 
and volitions, not only in its general tenor, but in its spedal application to 
regeneration. 

Shedd, Dogm. TheoU S:60B— ^* A dead man cannot assist in his own resurrection." 
This is true so far as the giving of life is concerned. But once made alive, man can, 
like Laiarus, obey Christ's command and "«aM fafk" ( J«ka li : 41 ). In fact, if he does not 
obey, there is no evidence that there is spiritual life. ** In us la Ood ; we burn but as 
he moves*' — "Est deus in nobis; agltante calesdmus illo." Wireless telegraphy 
requires an attuned receiver ; regeneration attunes the soul so that it vibrates respon* 
sively to God and receives the communloatlons of his truth. When a convert came 
to Rowland Hill and claimed that she had been converted in a dream, he replied : ** We 
will see how you walk, now that you are awake." 

Lord Bacon said he would open every one of Argus's hundred eyes, before he opened 
one of Briareus's hundred hands. If Gk>d did not renew men's hearts in connection 
with our preaching of the truth, we might well give up our ministTy. E. G. Bobinson ; 
"The conversion of a soul is Just as much according to law as the raising of acrop of 
turnips.'* Simon, Beconciliation, 877 — ** Though the mere preaching of the gospel is 
not the eaute of the conversion and revlvifloation of men, it is a necessary condition — 
as necessary as the action of light and heat, or other physioal agencies, are on a germ, 
if it is to develop, grow, and bear its proper fruit." 

( 6 ) The activity of man's mind in regeneration is activity in view of 
the truth. Qod secures the initial exercise of the new disposition which 
he has wrought in man's heart in connection with the use of truth as a 
meana Here we perceive the link between the efficiency of €k>d and the 
activity of man. Only as the sinner's mind is brought into contact with 
the truth, does €k)d complete his regenerating work. And as the change 
of inward disposition and the initial exerdse of it are never, so far as we 
know, separated by any interval of time, we can say, in general, that 
Christian work is successful only as it commends the truth to every man's 
-ysience in the sight of Qod (2 Cor. 4:2). 



BBQBNEBA.TIOir. 823 

In Ipk ! :!7, U^ there is reoognlied the divine illumination of the mind to behold the 
truth — **anj (^ ulo 701 a ifiiit tfviidABiiidnfiUtkBiithilaMvlidgttflua; haTiigtktfljctofywr 
kivt«Bl%ktined,ttAl7eBM7]m*wvkatiithikop«ofUteilliaf." Ontruthasa means of regenera- 
tion, see Hovey, Outlines, 198, who quotes Cunningham, fiUstorlcal Theology, 1 :617— 
^ Bc^neration may be taken in a limited sense as including only the first impartatlon 
of spiritual life .... or it may be taken in a wider sense as oomprehending the whole 
of that prooeoB by which he is renewed or made over again in the whole man after the 
image of God,— i. e., as including the production of saving fUth and union to GhrisL 
Only in the flist sense did the Reformers maintain that man in the process was wholly 
passive and not active ; for they did not dispute that, before the process in the second 
and more enlarged sense was completed, man was spiritually aUve and active, and con- 
tinued so ever after during the whole process of his sanotifloation." 

Dr. Hovey suggests an apt illustration of these two parts of the Holy Spirit's work 
and their union in regeneration : At the same time that Ood makes the photographic 
plate sensitive, he pours in the light of truth whereby the image of Christ is formed in 
the souL Without the ** sensitising *' of the plate, it would never fix the rays of light 
so as to retain the image. In the process of ** sensitising," the plate is passive ; under 
the influence of light, it is active. In both the ** sensitising '* and the taking of the pic- 
ture, the real agent is not the plate nor the light, but the photographer. The photog- 
rapher cannot perform both operations at the same moment. Gk>d can. He gives the 
new affection, and at the same instant he secures its ezerdse in view of the truth. 

For denial of the Instrumentality of truth in regeneration, see Pierce, in Bap. Quar., 
Jan. 1872 : 62. Per eontni, see Anderson, Begeneration, 81^101 H. B. Smith holds mid- 
dle ground. He says : ** In adults it [ regeneration ] Is wrought most frequently by the 
word of Ood as the instrument. Believing that inftmts may be regenerated, we cannot 
asMrt that it is tied to the word of God absolutely." We prefer to say that, if infants 
are regenerated, they also are regenerated in conjunction with some influence of truth 
upon the mind, dim as the recognition of It may be. Otherwise we break the Script- 
ural connection between regeneration and conversion, and open the way for faith in 
a physical, magical, sacramental salvation. Squier, Autobiog., 868, says well, of the 
theory of regeneration which makes man purely passive, that it has a benumbing 
effect upon preaching : '* The lack of expectation unnerves the efforts of the preacher ; 
an impression of the fortuitous presence neutralixes his engagedness. This antlnomian 
dependence on the Spirit extracts all vitality from the pulpit and sense of responsi- 
bility firom the hearer, and makes preaching an optis operotum, like the baptismal 
regeneration of the formalist," Only of the first element in regeneration are 8hedd*s 
words true : ** A dead man cannot assist in his own resuirecUon " ( Dogm. TheoL, 2 : 603 ). 

Squier goes to the opposite extreme of regarding the truth alone as the cause of 
regeneration. His words are none the leas a valuable protest against the view that 
regeneration is so entirely due to God that in no part of it is man active. It was with 
a better view that Luther cried : " O that we might multiply living books, that is, 
preachers I " And the preacher is successful only as he possesses and unfolds the 
truth. John took the little book from the Covenant-angers hand and ate it ( &»t. 10 : ^ 
11 ). 80 he who is to preach God's truth must feed upon it, until it has become his own. 
For the Bxeroise-syBtem, see Bmmons, Works, 4 : 831^11 ; Hagenbach, Hist. Doct., 2 : 480. 

6. The Nature of the Change wrought in Regeneration, 

A. It is a change in which the governing digpoeition is made holy. 
This implies that : 

( a ) It is not a change in the sabetanoe of either body or sooL Begen- 
eration is not a physical change. There is no physical seed or germ 
implanted in man's nature. Begeneration does not add to, or subtract 
from, the number of man's intellectual, emotional or voluntary faculties. 
But regeneration is the giving of a new direction or tendency to powers 
of affection which man possessed before. Man had the faculty of love 
before, but his love was supremely set on self. In regeneration the direc- 
tion of that faculty is changed, and his love is now set supremely upon 
God. 



824' BOTEBIOLOGT, OB THE DOCTBINB OF SALYATIOK. 



lpL2:10*''awtidiA<ftriikJ«mftr gMd vorki*'— does not imply that the old aoul Is sniii- 
hilated, and a new soul oreated. The "M ■»" which is "vuiiid** — (Bm 6:6) and ''|nt 
avay " (Iph. 4 :») is simply the sinful bent of the affections and wllL When this direc- 
tion of the dispositions is changed, and becomes holy, we can call the change a new 
birth of the old nature, because the same fctcuUiet that acted before are acting now, 
the only difference being that now these faculties are set toward God and purity. Or, 
regarding the change from another point of view, we may speak of man as hsTing a 
**new nature,*' as ''recreated,** as being a ^new creature,*' because this direction of 
the affection and will, which ensures a different life from what was led before. Is some- 
thing totally new, and due wholly to the regenerating act of Ood. In 1 V«t i : a — " UgtUr 
tta agaio, not of oomptiUe wed, bat of inooRoitiUf** — all materialistic inferences from the word 
" Hod," as if it implied the implantation of a physical germ, are prevented by the f ollow- 
ing explanatory words : "thmghthtvoriofiM, vkioklintkMdtbUtO.** 

So, too, when we describe regeneration as the communication of a new life to the 
soul, we should not conceive of this new life as a niZMtanee imparted or infused into us. 
The new life is rather a new direction and activity of our own affections and will. 
There is, indeed a union of the soul with Christ; Christ dwells in the renewed heart; 
Christ's entrance into the soul is the cauae and aecompcmimefit of its regeneration. 
But this entrance of Christ into the soul is not itself regeneration. We must distill 
guish the effect from the cause ; otherwise we shall be in danger of a pantheistic con- 
founding of our own personality and life with the personality and life of Christ. Christ 
is indeed our life, in the sense of being the cause and supporter of our life, but he is 
not our life in the sense that, after our union with him, our individuality ceases. The 
effect of union with Christ is rather that our indiyiduality is enlarged and exalted (Ma 
iO : 10 — " 1 ouM that th«7 maj hftTo liib^ and nay hftTi it ateudaBtty." See page 790. ( c >. 

We must therefore take with a grain of allowance the generally excellent words of 
A. J. Gordon, Twofold life, 2S— **Begeneration is the communication of the divine y^ 

nature to man by the operation of the Holy Spirit through the word (SM1:4). ...As / 

Christ was made partaker of human nature by incarnation, that so he might enter into / 

truest f ellowBhip with us, we are made partakers of the divine nature, by regeneration, 
that we may enter into truest fellowship with God. Begeneration is not a change of 
nature, i, e^ 9. natural heart bettered. Btemal life is not natural life prolonged into 
endless duration. It is the divine life Imparted to us, the very life of Qod communi- 
cated to the human soul, and bringing forth there its proper fruit.** Dr. Gordon's 
view that regeneration adds a new substance or faculty to the soul is the result of 
literallzing the Scripture metaphors of creation and life. This turning of symbol into 
tact accounts for his tendency toward annihilation doctrine in the case of the unre- ) 

generate, toward ftiith cure and the belief that all physical evils can be removed by 
prayer. B. H. Johnson, The Holy Spirit : ** Begeneration is a change, not in the quan- 
tity, but in the quality, of the soul." E. G. Bobinson, Christian Theology, 8S0— ^ 
** Begeneration consists in a divinely wrought change in the moral affections.** \ 

So, too, we would criticize the doctrine of Drummond, Nat. Law in the Splr. World : 
** People forget the persistence of force. Instead of transforming energy, they try to \. 

create it. We must either depend on environment, or be self-sufficient. The 'oaaafll boar 
friitt«ritMlf*(J<ihBl5:4)isthe'OB]uiot*of naturallaw. Natural fruit flourishes with air and \ 

sunshine. The difference between the Christian and the non-Christian is the difference * 

between the organic and the inorganic. The Christian has all the characterlstios of 
life: assimilation, waste, reproduction, spontaneous action." See oritidsm of Drum- ^' 

mond, by Murphy, in Brit. Quar., 1884 : 118-125 — " As in resurrection there is a physical 
connection with the old body, so in regeneration there is a natural connection with the 
old soul.*' Also, Brit. Quar., July, 1880, art. : Evolution Viewed in Belation to Theol- 
ogy — ** The regenerating agency of the Spirit of God is symbolized, not by the vital- 
iiation of dead matter, but by the agency of the organizing intelligence which guides 
the evolution of living beings.** Murphy's answer to Drummond is republished. 
Murphy's Natural Selection and Spiritual Freedom, 1-38— ^* The will can no more 
create force, either muscular or mental, than it can create matter. And it is equally 
true that for our spiritual nourishment and spiritual force we are altogether depend- 
ent on our spiritual environment, which is God." In ^ dead matter " there is no sin. 

Drummond would imply that, as matter has no promise or potency of life and is 
not responsible for being without life ( or " dead," to use his misleading word ), and if . 

it ever is to live must wait for the life-giying influence to come unsought, so the J 

human soul is not responsible for being spiritually dead, cannot seek for life, must 
passively wait for the Spirit. Plymouth Brethren generally hold the same view with 



; 



^EGEKEBATIOK. 825 

Brummoiid, that regeneratloii oddt tomethSnir— m vUaHty^to the subBtsnoe of the 
soul. Christ is tnnflBubetantlated into the soul's subetonoe; or, the wcvfi« is added. 
But we have giveo over talking of Yftallty, as If it were a substance or faculty. We 
regard it as merely a mode of action. Brolntion, moreover, uses what already exists, 
sofsrasit will go. Instead of creating new; as in the miracle of the loaves, and as in the 
original creation of man, so in his recreation or regeneration. Dr. Charles Hodge also 
makes the same mistakpi in calling regeneration an *' origination of the principle of the 
spirit of life. Just as literal and real a creation as the origination of the principle 
of natural life." This, too, literallxes Scripture metaphor, and ignores the fact that 
the change accomplisbed in regeneration is an exclusively moral one. There is Indeed 
a new entrance of Christ into the soul, or a new exercise of his spiritual power within 
the soul. But the effect of Christ's working is not to add any new faculty or sub- 
stance, but only to give new direction to already existing powers. 

( 6 ) Begeneratioii involveB an enlightemnent of the imderstaiiding and 
a rectification of the volitions. But it seemg most consonant with Scripture 
and with a correct {Mfychology to regard these changes as immediate and 
necessary consequences of tiie change of disposition akeady mentioned, 
rather than as the primary and central f^ts in regeneration. The taste for 
truth logically precedes perception of the trnth, and love for Qod logically 
precedes obedience to €k>d; indeed, without love no obedience is possible. 
Beverse the lever of affection, and this moral locomotive, without further 
change, will move away from sin, and toward truth and Gk>d. 

Texts which seem to imply that a right taste, disposition, affection, logically precedes 
both knowledge of God and obedience to Ood, are the following : Fil 84 :8— "Oh tMto aad m 
that JikotBhiisMd**; 119: M— "India* BjkMrtntofkj tutiaMiiiii**; Jir.84:7— "I vUl gi?i thA a hmrX 
to knov m"; Ihi S:8— "llflmd an tk* fura in h«rt: ftr thay ikdl m M**; Joka 7:17— "If lajntt 
vmath to 4o Ui vni, ka ihaU kaaw af tta taaaUag, vhatterit iaaflM''; Aato 16:14— of Lydiait is said : 
"vkaahaarttkakrdopaMd togiYtkeadvatotka tUagawkidi vwaapdkaaby Paal";lpk. l:tt— "haTiog tka 
fjaaafTourkaartnligktoBid.'* ** Change the centre of a dnde and you change the place and 
direction of all lis radlL" 

ThetextJokairi^ia— "BotMrnajairiidtidkhB, tolkiBgafiktaithaiigkt to keawa flUUrn of Gai, 
ana to tkoi tkat baUan oa kii aaiaa: vko wara ken, nat af klaad, av of tka viU af tka flaak, aar af tka vill ^ 
■aa, bat af Gad " — seems at first sight to imply that faith is the condition of regeneration, 
and therefore prior to It. ^ Bat If iimwUv here signifies the *zl^* or 'privilege' of 
sonshlp, it is a right which may presuppose faith as the work of the Spirit in regenera- 
tion — a work apart from which no genuine faith exists in the soul. But it is possible 
that John means to say that, in the case of all who received Christ, their power to 
beUeve was Qiven to them by him. In the original the emphasis Ib on *^y%* and this is 
shown by the order of the words *' ; see Hovey, Manual of Theology, 816, and Com. on 
Jabai:fl^l3—** The meaning would then be this: 'Many did not leceiye him; but some 
did ; and as to all who reoeiyed him, he oave them grace by which they were enabled 
to do this, and so to become God's <dilldren.' ** 

BuaUn: "The first and last and closest trial question to any living oreature is, 
'What do you like?* Gk) out into the street and ask the first man you meet what his 
taste is, and, if he answers candidly, you know him, body and souL What we like 
determines what we are, and is the sign of what we are; and to teach taste is inevitably 
to form character.'* If the taste here spoken of Is moral and spiritual taste, the words 
of Buskin are sober truth. Begeneratlon is essentially a changing of the fundamental 
taste of the soul. But by taste we mean the direction of man's love, the bent of his 
affections, the trend of his will. And to alter that taste is not to impart a new faculty, 
or to create a new substance, but simply to set toward Ood the affections which 
hitherto have been set upon self and sin. We may Illustrate by the engineer who 
climbs over the cab into a runaway locomotive and who changes its course, not by 
adding any new rod or cog to the machine, but simply by reversing the lever. The 
— engine slows up and soon moves in an opposite direction to that in which it has been 
going. Man needs no new faculty of love ; he needs only to have his love set in a new 
and holy direction ; this Is virtually to give him a new birth, to make him a new crea- 
ture, to impart to him a new life. But being bom again, created anew, made alive 
from the dead, are physloal metaphors, to be Interpreted not UtenUly but spiritually. 



826 80TBBI0L0GY, OB THB DOCTBIKE OF SALYATIOlSr. 

(o) It is ol^eoted, indeed, ihat we know only of mental sabetaaoe and of 
mental aots, and that the new diaposition or state jnst mentioned, sinoe it 
18 not an aot^ must be regarded as a new sabstanoe, and so lack all moral 
quality. But we reply that, besides sabstanoe and acts, there are habits, 
tendencies, prodivities, some of them native and some of them acquired. 
They are yolnntary, and have moral character. If we can by repeated 
acts originate sinful tendencies, God can surely originate in us holy ten- 
dencies. Such holy tendencies formed a part of the nature of Adam, as 
he came from the hand of God. As the result of the Fall, we are bom 
with tendencies toward evil for which we are responsible. Begeneration 
is a restoration of the original tendencies toward God which were lost by 
the FalL Such holy tendencies ( tastes, dispositions, affections ) are not 
only not unmoral — they are the only possible springs of right moral action. 
Only in the restoration of them does man become truly frea 

Ma tt:»—"Iakith»tm good, aadttiftvtt gwd**; IplL 1:10- "mM k Ohilik J«u 
The tree to first made good— the character renewed in its fundamental principle, love 
to Godwin the oertaintj that when this is done the fruit will be good also. Good 
works are the neoeseary result of regeneration by union with Christ. Begeneration 
introduces a new force into humanity, the force of a new love. The work of the 
preacher is that of cooperation with CK)d in the impartation of a new life —a work far 
more radical and more noble than that of moral reform, by as much as the origination 
of a new force is more radical and more noble than the guidance of that force after it 
has been originated. Does regeneration cure disease and remove physical ills ? Not 
primarily. ]IUii:a--"thMihtltoaUUiBiMJim; teitiikatbrtBhaU mt» kis peoidt Ihn 
Salvation from sin is Christ's first and main work. He performed physical healing 
only to illustrate and further the healing of the soul. Hence in the case of the para- 
lytic, when he was expected to cure the body, he said first: **ikj bjis an fingiTn*' (lUt. 
9:8); but, that they who stood by might not doubt his power to forgive, he added the 
raising up of the palsied man. And ultimately in every redeemed man the holy heart 
will bring in its train the perfected body : Bml 8 :8S— *< vi Mxadns grota vitUn ainMlve% viikiag 
ftr Mr idopiiNi, to vl^ the radtMptiuL «f ov bodj." 

On holy affection as the spring of holy action, see especsially Edwards, Religious 
Affections, in Works, 8 : 1-21. Tl^s treatise is Jonathan Edwards's Confessions, as much 
as if it were directly addressed to the Deity. Allen, his biographer, calls it **a work 
which will not suffer by comparison with the work of great teachers in theology, 
whether ancient or modem." President Timothy Dwight regarded it as most worthy 
of preservation next to the Bible. See also Hodge, Essays and Beviews, 1 : 48; Owen 
on the Holy Spirit, in Works, 8 : 297-886 ; Chamook on Regeneration ; Andrew Fuller, 
Works, £:461-471, 612-MO, and 8:796; BeUamy, Works, 8:600; Dwight, Works. 2:418; 
Woods, Works, 8 : 1-Sl ; Anderson, Regeneration, 21-^ 

R It is an instantaneous change, in a region of the soul below oon- 
soiousness, and is therefore known only in its results. 

( a ) It is an instantaneous ohauge. — Begeneration is not a gradual 
work. Although there may be a g^radual work of Gk)d's providence and 
Spirit^ preparing the change, and a gradual recognition of it after it has 
taken place, there must be an instant of time when* under the influence of 
God's Spirit, the disposition of the soul, just before hostile to Qod, is 
dhanged to love. Any other view assumes an intermediate state of indeci- 
sion which has no moral character at all, and confounds regeneration either 
with conviction or with sanctification. 

Conviction of sin is an ordinary, if not an invariable, antecedent of regeneration. It 
results from the contemplation of truth. It is often accompanied by fear, remorse, 
and cries for mercy. But these desires and fears are not signs of regeneration. They 
are selflsh. They are quite consistent with manifest and dreadful enmity to God. 



BBOBKBRATION. 827 

TtMBj have a hopeful aspect, simply because they are evidenoe that the Holy Spirit is 
striTliiff with the bouL But this work of the Spirit is not yet regeueratioxi ; at meet, it 
is preparation for regeneration. So far as the sinner is concerned, he is more of a sin^ 
ner than ever before ; because, under more Ught than has ever before been glTen hinu 
he is still rejeotincr Christ and resisting the Spirit. The word of God and the Holy 
Spirit appeal to lower as well as to higher motives ; most men's concern about religion 
is determined, at the outset, by hope or fear. Bee8hedd,Dogm.TheoL,2:6U. 

All these motives, though they are not the highest, are yet proper motives to influ- 
ence the soul ; it is right to seek Ood from motives of self-interest, and because we 
desire heaven. But the seeking which not only begins, but ends, upon this lower plane, 
is never successful. Until the soul gives itself to God from motives of love, It is never 
saved. And so lonir ss these preliminary motives rule, regeneration hss not yet taken 
place. Bible-reading, and prayers, and church-attendance, and partial reformations, 
are certainly better than apathy or outbreaking sin. They may be signs that God is 
working In the souL But without complete surrender to God, they may be accompa- 
nied with the greatest guilt and the greatest danger; simply because, under such 
influences, the withholding of submission Implies the most active hatred to God, and 
opposition to his wilL Instance oases of outward reformation that preceded regenersr 
tlon, — like that of John Bunyan, who left off swearing before his oonvenion. Park : 
''The soul is a monad, and must turn all at once. If we are standing on the line, we 
are yet unregenerate. We are regenerate only when we croBS it." There is a preve- 
nient grace as well as a regenerating grace. Wendelius indeed distinguished Ave kinds 
of grace, namely, prevenlent, preparatory, operant, oodperant, and perfecting. 

While in some oases God's preparatory work oooupies a long time, there are many 
oases in which he cuts short his work In righteousnesB ( Ian. 9:I8X Some persons are 
regenerated in infkncy or ohildhood, cannot remember a time when they did not love 
Cfhrist, and yet take long to learn that they are regenerate. Others are convicted and 
converted suddenly in mature years. The best proof of regeneration is not the mem- 
ory of a pest experience, however vivid and startling, but rather a present inward 
love for Christ, his holinesB, his servants, his work, and his word. Much sympathy 
should be given to those who have been early converted, but who, from timidity, self- 
distrust, or the faults of inconsistent ohuroh members, have been deterred tram join- 
ing themselves with Chrlstisn people, and so have lost all hope and Joy in their religious 
lives. Instance the man who, though oonverted in a revival of religion, was injured 
by a prof eased Christian, and became a reduse, but cherished the memory of his dead 
wife and child, kept the playthings of the one and the clothing of the other, and left 
directions to have them buried with him. 

As there is danger of confounding regeneration with preparatory influenoes of God's 
Spirit, so there is danger of confounding regeneration with sanctiflcatlon. Sancti- 
floation, as the development of the new affection, is gradual and progressive. But 
no beginnino is progressive or gradual ; and regeneration is a beginning of the new 
affection. We may gradually oome to the knouiUdoe that a new affection exists, but the 
knowledge of a beginning is one thing ; the beginning Itself is another thing. Luther 
had experienced a change of heart, long before he knew its meaning or could express 
his new feeUngs in sdentUk) form. It is not In the sense of a gradual regeneration, 
but in the sense of a gradual recognition of the fact of regeneration, and a progressive 
enjoyment of its results, that ** the ifttk of ttw lightMU " is said to be " at tkt davBing liskt "- the 
morning-dawn that begins in falntness, but— **ttak ikiMtk wan ud man uto tkt parfiot iaj " 
(?»0T.4:18X C/.tOff.4:4--**teKO«oftldBVwUkatkUiadidttaauBdi«ftlMutoIitTia6ihi»tktli(kt§l 
tttg«9tloftt«fki7orOb1il»vke]itktiBis«ar6dl,il0dAMi4avBiipflBtkn." Here the reoognltlOQ 
of God's work is described as gradual; that the work itself is Instantaneous, appears 
from the following nm 6- '*8Nbg itiiGH tkanid, LifkiikkUikiiiiastar duAsiB^ vtediaii Isosr 
kairii, to gin Iht Ughi flf tk« knnrMi* «r tht flay rf Ood la tha ftM of Jani Obuk" 

mustiate by the unconscious crossing of the line which separates one State of the 
FMeral Union from another. From this doctrine of Instantaneous regeneration, we 
may Infbr the duty of reaping as well as of sowing: Joki4:9«"lMBtyiNitonifk** ^Itis 
a mistaken notion that it takes God a long time to give Increase to the seed planted In 
a sinner's hearL This grows out of the idea that regeneration is a matter of training ; 
that a soul must be edueaUd from a lost state into a state of salvation. Let us remem- 
ber that three thousand, whom in the morning Peter called murderers of Christ, were 
before night regenerated and baptised members of his church.*^ Drummond, In his 
Nat. lAW In the Splr. World, remarks upon the humaneness of sudden conversion. As 



828 80TERJ0L0QY, OB THE DOGTBIKE OF SALYATIOK. 

■elf -limitation, self -mortification, suicide of the old nature, it is well to have it at onoe 
done and over with, and not to die by degrees. 

( 6 ) This change takes place in the region of the soul below consdons- 
ness. — It is by no means tnie that Gbd's work in regeneiation is always 
recognized by the sabjeot of it. On the other hand, it is never directly 
perceived at alL The working of God in the hnman sonl, since it contra- 
Yenes no law of man's being, but rather puts him in the full and normal 
possessiou of his own powers, is secret and inscrutable. Although man is 
conscious, he is not conscious of Qod's regenerating agency. 

We know our own natural existence only through the phenomena of thought and 
sense. So we know our own spiritual existence, as new creatures In Christ, only 
throuflrh the new ftollngs and experiences of the souL *^ The will does not need to act 
solitarily, in order to act freely.'* Gk>d acts on the will, and the resulting holiness is 
true freedom. Jokn8:a6 — ''IfthtfthntkeSaaihallBak* jm ft«% 7« ■hall bt ftw iadMl*' We have 
the consciousness of freedom ; but the aot of God in giving us this freedom is beyond 
or beneath our ooosoiousneaB. 

Both Luther and Calvin used the word regeneration in a loose way, confounding it 
with sanotiflcation. After the Federalists made a distinct doctrine of it, Calvlnists 
in general came to treat it separately. And John Wesley rescued it from identification 
with sacraments, by showing its connection with the truth. B. G. Bobinson : ** Begen- 
eration is in one sense instantaneous, in another sense not. There is necessity of some 
sort of knowledge in regeneration. The doctrine of Christ crucified is the fit Instru- 
ment. The object of religion is to produce a tound rather than an emotional experi- 
ence. Bevivals of religion are valuable In just the proportion in which they produce 
rational conviodon and permanently righteous action." But none are left unaffected 
hy them. ** An arm of the magnetic needle must be attracted to the magnetic pole of 
the earth, or it must be repelled, —there is no such thing as indilference. Modem 
materialism, refusing to say that the fear of God is the beginning of wisdom, is led to 
dedare that the hate of God is the beginning of wisdom " (Diesselhofl, Die klasslsohe 
Poe8ie,8). 

( c) This change, however, is recognized indirectly in its results. — At 
the moment of regeneration, the soul is conscious only of the truth and of 
its own exercises with reference to it. That God is the author of its new 
affection is an inference from the new character of the exercises which it 
prompts. The human side or aspect of regeneration is Conversion. This, 
and the Sanctification which follows it ( including the special gifts of the 
Holy Spirit), are the sole evidences in any particular case that regenera- 
tion is an accomplished fact 

Begeneration, though it is the birth of a perfect child, is still the birth of a child. 
The child is to grow, and the growth is sanotiflcation ; in other words, sanctifioation, as 
we shall see, is simply the strengthening and development of the holy affection which 
begins Its existence in regeneration. Hence the subject of the epistle totheBoDUtt— 
salvation by faith — includes not only Justification by faith ( obaplan 1-7 ^ but sanctifioa- 
tion by faith ( ohaptan 8-16 ). On evidences of regeneration, see Anderson, Begeneration, 
IflHBli, 227-2B6; Woods, Works, 4A-^ The transition from Justification by faith to 
sanctifioation by faith is in ohaptar 8 of the epistle to the Romam. That begins by declaring 
that there is no condemnation In Christ, and ends by declaring that there is no aeparo' 
tUm from Christ. The work of the Holy Spirit follows upon the work of Christ. See 
Godet on the epistle. 

The doctrine of Alexander Campbell was a protest against laying an unscrlptural 
emphasis on emotional states as evidences of regeneration— a protest which certain 
mystical and antinomian exaggerations of evangelical teaching very Justly provoked. 
But Campbell went to the opposite extreme of practically excluding emotion from 
religion, and of confining the work of the Holy Spirit to the conscious Influence of the 
truth. Disciples need to recognize a power of the Holy Spirit exerted below consdoos- 
nesH, in order to explain the conscious acceptance of Christ and of hia salvation. 



oomrEBSiOK. 829 

WUMam James, Varieties of Belljdoiis Experience, 271 — ** If we should oonceiTe that 
the human mind, with its different pofislbilities of equilibrium, mi^rht be like a many 
sided solid with different surfaces on which it could lie flat, we miflrht liken mental 
revolutions to the spatial revolutions of such a body. As it is pried up, say by a lever, 
from a position in which it lies on surface A, for instance, it will linger for a time 
unstably half way up, and if the lever oease to urge it, it will tumble back or relapse, 
under the continued pull of gravity. But if at last it rotate far enough for its centre 
of gravity to pass beyond the sur&ce A altogether, the body will fall over, on surface 
B, say, and will abide there permanently. The pulls of gravity towards A have van- 
ished, and may now be disregarded. The polyhedron has become immune against 
further attraotion from this direction." 

HL OONTBRSION. 

Oonyersioii is that voltintary change in the mind of the sinner, in which 
he tarns, on the one hand, from sin, and on the other hand, to Ghrist. 
The f onner or negative element in conversion, namely, the taming f zom 
sin, we denominate rex>entance. The latter or positive element in conver- 
sion, namely, the taming to Ohzist, we denominate faith. 

Fdr account of repentance and faith as dements of conversion, see Andrew Fuller, 
Works, 1 : 668 ; Luthardt, Oompendlum der Dogmatik, 8d ed., 2Q1-JB06. The two elements 
of conversion seem to be in the mind of Paul, when he writes in Koin. 6:11— ''nokoii jt ate 
jpoxNlTHtobtdMdiuito sa, Iml alin into (kd in Oritt Jam"; 0id.3:S— "7«4i<d, aad j«ar lift is Ud vitk 
Chrift in Qod." Cf, awovrpi^^ in isti 8 :S6— "in tuiuiif away •nrj 000 of joa from jour iaiqnitia^" with 
iirurrp^^ in iolill :»— "btliotod" and "tuiMd oato tko Lorl" A candidate for ordination was 
once asked which came first : regeneration or conversion. He replied very correctly : 
" Begeneratlon and conversion are like the cannon-ball and the hole— they both go 
through together." This is true however only as to their chronological relatlbn. 
Logically the ball is first and causes the hole, not the hole first and causes the ball. 

( a ) Conversion is the homan side or aspect of that fandamental spirit- 
oal change which, as viewed from the divine side, we call regeneration. 
It is simply man's taming. The Soiiptares recognize the volimtaiy activ- 
ity of the hnman sonl in this change as distinctiy as they recognize the 
causative agency of €k>d. While Qod tarns men to himself (Ps. 85 : 4 ; 
Song 1:4; Jer. 81 : 18 ; Lam. 5 : 21 ), men are exhorted to tarn themselves 
to God (Prov. 1 : 28 ; Is. 81 : 6 ; 59 : 20; Ez. 14 : 6 ; 18 : 82 ; 83 : 9, 11 ; 
Joel 2 : 12-14 ). While God is represented as the author of the new heart 
and the new spirit ( Ps. 51 : 10 ; Ez. 11 : 19 ; 86 : 26), men are commanded 
to make for themselves a new heart and a new spirit (Ez. 18 : 81 ; 2 Cor. 
7: 1 ; qf. PhiL 2: 12, 18; Eph. 5: 14). 

Ak85:4— "Tmub OMof m alntifla**; Bog 1:4— "Skw im^ vi viU nm afiv Ow"; tar. 81:18— 
« ton thM nab ttd I ihaU bs tonad '^ luk 5 : 81 — ''Ton thM u mto thM^ JabiT^ 

?i«T. l:83~"Toni7oaatB7nproof: B«koUI,I vill poor oat mj ipixlt onto 70&"; Ii.81:6— "TanytHBl* 
Ub ft«m vfaom 7« kiTB dMpl7 rt Tdtod, Oohildmaflanel"; 68:80 — "AAdaRadiiiBirvilloeBMto&aiifaaduto 
than that torn frlnitnaiSKrHBoa in Jaoob"; 1^14:6 — "Batom 71^ aad tan 7witn1tm frm 700- idtls " ; 18:88 
— "toaTBonilTituidllTB"; 88:9— "if tbrni van tk« viokad of Us va7 to tan fron it, and ka tan noi fraa 
kiava7,kaahalldia in Ids iniquity"; 11 — "ton 7a, tan 7a frm 7oiur aTil vaji ; to vfy vill 7a dia^ kaua af 
braair" Jaal8:i8-14 — "tiin7aiintoxBa vithaU7anrhaart." 

1151:10— "Oitstoinmaaalflukfltr^OGad; AndnoavftrigktqihtvithiBBa"; 1111:19— «ind I vill gin 
tkam ona kaart) and I will pat a nav spizift vitUn 7on ; and I vill taka tka 8ton7 kaait oat af tboir flaal^ and vill giva 
tkanabaartofflask"; 36:86— *'Anavkaarta]aawiUIgiTa700,aiidanawapiritvUlIpiitvlthin7oa.'* 

Iil8:81 — "Oukava7 tttm 70a all 7oar bnuBsgraaaiod^ vharain 7a ka?a traa^gnaHd; tad Buka7oaaBav 
haait and a BOW spirit: to vk7 viU 7a dia^ koosa of ImalT" 8 Oor. 7:1— "laTing tkmtav tkaM pradaa^ 
kabradflalaaalaaBaaoanaliaBfromaUdaAlaMBtoriaakaBd^piri^partotingkalisiaBiatkaiiH^ c/.PkiL 

8:12; 13 — *<v«kaiift7aQro«a aalnitai vilk far and toaUing; to It if 6ad vko varkatk ia 7«a bolk to viU 
■adto vwk, toUs gaed plaaaon'^ Ipk 6:tt«"Avak% tkaa tkiik iisipai^ nd siisi frantkadaad, aadlft^ 
ikiUakiBatipQatkaaL*' 



830 SOTERIOLOGY, OR THE DOOTRIKE OF SALVATION. 

When asked the way to heaven. Bishop WUberf oroe replied : ^ Take the lint torn to 
the right, and go straight forward.** Phillips Brooks's oonvenion Is described \}j Pro- 
flBSBor AUen, Life, 1:808, as oonsistiiig in the resolve ** to be true to himself, to renonftoe 
nothing which be knew to be good, and yet bring all things captive to the obedience 
of God, .... the absolute surrender of his will to God, in aooordanoe with the exam- 
ple of Christ: 'mutaoM todetk7vm,0M'(I«lk.i0:7)." 



(6) This twofold method of representation can be explained only when 
we remember that man's powers may be interpenetrated and qniokened by 
the divine, not only without destroying man's freedom, but with the resolt 
of making man for the first time tmly free. Sinoe the relation between 
the divine and the hmnan activity is not one of ehronologioal snooession, 
man is never to wait for Gk)d's working. If he is ever regenerated, it mnst 
be in and through a movement of his own will, in whioh he tarns to God 
as onconstrainedly and with as little oonsoionsness of €k>d's operation upon 
him, as if no such operation of Qod were involved in the change. And in 
preaching, we are to press upon men the daims of Gk>d and their dnty of 
immediate sabmission to Christ, with the oertainiy that they who do so 
submit will subsequently recognize this new and holy activity of their own 
wills as due to a working within them of divine power. 



Fi iiO :8— "Ihj paopto oAr fhoMhrai vflfiaf^ ia tif day rf tty p»w.** The act of God is aooom- 
panied by an activity of man. Domer : ** Ood*s act Inltlalgw action." There is indeed 
an original changing of man's tastes and aiSeotions, and in this man is passive. But 
this is only the iirst aspect of regeneration. In the second aspect of it ~ the rousing of 
man's powers— God^s action is aooompanied by man*s activity, and regeneration is but 
the obverse side of*oonversion. Luther's word : "Man, in conversion, is purely pas- 
sive," is true only of the first part of the change ; and here, by " conversion,*' Luther 
means '* regeneration." Melancfathon said better : ** Non est enim oottotio, ut voluntas 
non possit repugnare : trahit Deus, sed volentem trahit.** See Meyer on Ion. 8 : 14 — " lid 
liy tiM ^iril of God " :* " The expression," Meyer says, ** is passive, though without prejudice 
to the human will, as wmtt proves: 'IrjtlMflpixttTiFBttodiftikthtdBeditfttebodj.*" 

As, by a well known principle of hydrostatics, the water contained in a little tube can 
balance the water of a whole ocean, so God's grace can be balanced by man's will. As 
sunshine on the sand produces nothing unless man sow the seed, and as a fair breese 
does not propel the vessel unless man spread the sails, so the influences of God's Spirit 
require human agencies, and work through them. The Holy Spirit is sovereign, — he 
bloweth where he Uateth. Bven though there be uniform human conditions, there will 
not be uniform spiritual results. Results are often Independent of human oonditiona 
as such, nils is the truth emphasised by Andrew Fuller. But this does not prevent us 
from saying that, whenever God's Spirit works in regeneration, there is always accom- 
panying it a voluntary change in man, which we call conversion, and that this change 
is as free, and as really man's own work, as if there were no divine influence upon him. 

Jesus told the man with the withered hand to stretch forth his hand ; it was the man's 
duty to stretch it forth, not to wait for strength from God to do it. Jesus told the 
man sick of the palsy to take up his bed and walk. It was that man's duty to obey the 
oommand, not to pray for power to obey. Depend wholly upon Gtod ? Yes, as you 
depend wholly upon wind when you sail, yet need to keep your sails properly set. 
*'Vorkoai7oiir«va Mlnttoa" comes first in the apostle^B exhortation; "fbrttiaOodvkovarkftk 
la jw" f oUows ( PhiL 8 : 12^ 18 ) ; which means that our first business is to use our wiUs in 
obedience ; then we shall find that QoA has gone before us to prepare us to obey. 

1^.11:18— **tlMklBsdA«rk«waiaAnlkTiolMu% and mn rf violnM tak* it by fcne." Conversion is 
like the invasion of a kingdom. Men are not to wait for God's time, but to act at 
once. Kot bodily exercises are required, but impassioned earnestness of souL Wendt, 
Teaching of Jesus, 2 : 49-66 — ^ Not injustice and violence, but energetio laying hold of 
a good to which they can make no claim. It is of no avail to wait idly, or to seek laboiw 
ioualy to earn it; but it is of avail to lay hold of it and to retain it. It is ready as a gift 
of God for men, but men must direct their desire and will toward it. ... . Hie man 
who put on the wedding garment did not earn his share of the feast thereby, yet he did 
show the disposition without whioh he was not permitted to partake of it,** 



OOKVBBSIOK. 831 

James, Varieties of Religlotis Experience, 18 — " The two main phenomena of religion, 
they will say, are essentially phenomena of adolescence, and therefore synchronous 
with the development of sexual life. To whioh the retort is easy : Bven were the 
asserted synchrony unrestrictedly true as a tact ( which it Is not ), it Is not only the 
sexual life, but the entire hi^rher mental lifCb which awakens during adolesoenoe. One 
might then as well set up the thesis that the interest in mechanics, physics, chemistry, 
logic, physiology and sociology, which springs up during adolescent years along with 
that in poetry and religion, is also a peryersion of the sexual insUnot^ but this would 
be too absurd. Moreover, if the argument from synchrony is to decide, what is to be 
done with the ftust that the religious age par exeeOenee would seem to be old age, when 
the uproar of the sexual lifd is past ? " 

( e ) From the fact that the word ' oonversion * meoQB mmplj * a tazning/ 

eyery taming of the Christian from sin, sabsequent to the fluret, maj, in a 

subordinate sense, be denominated a oonyeraion ( Lnke 22 : 82 ). Since 

regeneration is not complete sanctifioation, and the change of governing 

disposition is not identical with complete purification of the natore, sach 

sabsequent turnings from sin are necessary consequences and evidences of 

the first ( c/. John 18 : 10). But they do not, like the first, imply a change 

in the governing disposition, — they are rather new manif estations of a 

disposition already changed. For this reason, conversion proper, like the 

regeneration of whioh it is the obverse side, can occur but once. The 

phrase ' second conversion,' even if it does not imply radical misconception 

of the nature of conversion, is misleading. We prefer, therefore, to 

describe these sabsequent experiences, not by the term 'conversion,' but 

by such phrases as 'breaking off, forsaking, returning from, neglects or 

transgressions,' and 'coming back to Ghrist, trusting anew in him.' It is 

with repentance and faith, as elements in that first and radical ohaoge by 

which the soul enters upon a state of salvation, that we have now to da 

lAkt 2B : 81, 88 — '' Sinoa, SaoB, btkoU, Situ MktA to kiTi JOD, tkat kt niffkl 
rUMiUan farther thai thy ftitkfiul Ml; loldB than, whin asm than hart tBnidagua[ A. V.: *artMBWrtad'], 
artaUiahthjbnthna*'; John i8:iO—"B«thalbhathadLhas taken afuUbathliaidalh sal aantovaihUa 
flbt^ hot la daaa tmrj vhit [ as a whole ].'* Notice that Jesus here announoes that only one 
reseneration is needed, — what follows is not conversion but sanotUioation. Qpuzgeon 
said he believed in regeneration, but not in re-regeneration. Second blessinff ? Tes, 
and a forty-second. The stages in the Christian life are like ice, water, invisible vapor, 
steam, all suocesslve and natural results of increasing temperatureb seemingly diiterent 
from one another, yet all forms of the same element* 

On the relation between the divine and the human agendes, we quote a different view 
from another writer : ** Qod decrees to employ means which in every case are sufficient, 
and which in certain cases it is foreseen will be effectuaL Human action converts a 
sufficient means into an effectual means. The result is not always according to the 
varying use of means. The power is all of God. Man has power to resist only. There 
is a universal influence of the Spirit, but the influences of the Spirit vary in different 
cases, just as external opportunities do. The love of holiness is blunted, but it still 
llngera. The Holy Spirit quickens it. When this love is wholly lost, sin against the 
Holy Ghost results. Before regeneration theie is a desire for holiness, an apprehension 
of its beauty, but this is overborne by a greater love for sin. If the man does not 
quickly grow worse, it is not because of positive action on his part, but only because 
negatively he does not resist as he might. ' Behold, I ala&d at tha door and kaocL' God leads at 
first by a resistible influence. When man yields, God leads by an irresistible infltienoe. 
The second influence of the Holy Spirit confirms the Christian's choice. This second 
influence is called 'sealing.' There is no necessaiy interval of time between the two. 
Prevenient grace oomes flist ; conversion comes after.'* 

To this view, we would reply that a partial love for holiness, and an ability to choose 
it before Gtod works eifeotually upon the heart, seem to contradict those Scriptures 
which assert that **tha mind of tha takia amity agaiMi God "(Ion. 8: 7), and that all good works 
are the result of God*s new creation ( Ipk. 8 : iO ). Conversion does not precede regeoera- 
tdoD, — it ohronologicaUy aooompaales regenentton, though it logically follows it. 



882 SOTSBIOLOGY, OB THE DOCTBINB OF SALTATION. 

1. Bepentance, 

Bepentonoe is that yoltintary change in the mind of the sinner in which 
he tarns from sin. Being essentially a change of mind, it involyes a 
change of view, a change of feeling, and a change of purpose. We may 
therefore analyze repentance into three constitaents» each succeeding term 
of which includes and implies the one preceding : 

A. An intellectaal element, — change of view — recognition of sin as 
involying personal guilty defilement^ and helplessness (Ps. 51 : 8, 7» 11). 
If unaccompanied by the following elements, this recognition may mani- 
fest itself in fear of punishment^ although as yet there is no hatred of sin. 
This element is indicated in the Scripture phrase tnlyvuetc dfiaprioc (Bom. 
8:20;e/. 1:82). 

Fl.Gt:a;ll-*'larIkMvnjtnB%raBMi; kai. my da it iw bttet m. . . . . Out bi aal tviy from thj 
1 : 81 — *' wH kaoviif tlM ovliuBN of Qdl, Ikrt O^ tkat pnikiM nA tU^ in w«^ 

MM^ tal alM OOMUt vith thOB till pMliM ttOk'* 

It is weU to remember that Ood requires os to oherish no yiewB or emotions that 
contradict the truth, fie wants of us no false humility. Humility ( htimiw )— ground- 
nesB— a coming down to the hard-pan of ftiotB— a fAdng of the truth. Repentance, 
therefore, is not a calling ourselves by hard names. It is not cringing, or exaggerated 
self-contempt. It is simple recognition of what we are. The ** *umble " Uriah Heep 
is the arrant hypocrite. If we see ourselyes as CK)d sees us, we shall say with Job 41:6^ • 
-- ■'I haa katfd of tkM by tbi iMriag of fht Mr ; BiU Bov BlBa ^ tatik tte : ¥tedhn I ahtar Bji^ 
iadaitiallukM.** 

Apart from God's working in the heart there is no proper recognition of sin, either 
in people of high or low degree. Lady Huntington invited the Duchess of Bucking- 
ham to oome and hear Whltefleld, when the Duchess answered : ** It is monstrous to be 
told that you have a heart as sinful as the common wretches that crawl on the earth, 
—it is highly ofTensive and insulting." Hr. Moody, after preaching to the prisoners in 
the Jail at Chicago, visited them in their oells. In the first cell he found two, playing 
cards. They said false witnesses had testified against them. In the second cell, the 
convict said that the guilty man had escaped, but that he, a mere accomplice, had been 
caught. In the last cell only Mr. Moody found a man crying over his sins. Henry 
Drummond, after hearing the confessions of inquirers, said : '* I am sick of tiie sins of 
these men, — how can Godbear it ? " 

Experience of sin does not teach us to recognize sin. We do not learn to know chlo- 
roform by frequently inhaling it. The drunkard does not understand the degrading 
eifects of drink so well as his miserable wife and children do. Bven the natural con- 
science does not give the recognition of sin that is needed in true repentance. The 
oonf^sdon ''I h^n dimad " is made by hardened Pharaoh ( Ix. 9 :27 X double minded Tii^iAftm 
( IuB.tt: 84 X remorseful Aohan (JmL7:»), insincere King Saul (1 Sun. 16:S4), despairing 
Judas ( lai S7 : 4 ) ; but in no one of these cases was there true repentance. True repent- 
ance takes God's part against ourselves, has sympathy with God, feels how unworthily 
the Ruler, Father, Friend of men has been treated. It does not ask, *" What wiU my sin 
bring to me?*^ but, ^* What does my sin mean to God?'* It involves, in addition to 
the mere recognition of sin : 

B. An emotional element, — change of feeling — sorrow for sin as com- 
mitted against goodness and justice, and therefore hateful to God, and j 
hateful in itself ( Ps. 61 : 1, 2, 10, 14 ). This element of repentance is indi- | 
cated in the Scripture word fura/ii^fuu. If accompanied by the following i 
element, it is a Xbmf Kara Qe6v, If not so accompanied, it is a ^irmj ton nAaimo ! 
»remorse and despair (Mat 27 : 8; Luke 18 : 23 ; 2 Oor. 7 : 9, 10). 

Fl6i:l,2»10;14— "EaTtrnvfljiipaiM . . . .Uolwi inyiniiflgnHiaBi. ▼•A me tkoraogUy frm bIm . 

iufoitf, inddMBM at Cram mj on. . . . . OMto in m« a elflu kau^ God; .... Sdinr mt from bloodgoiltiiMi^ I 

Ood" ; Hat 27:3 — "Am Jiida% vho betriTtd him, vha ko mw that ht vu oandflmaod, npoatod kirnadl^ and 
llmght baak tka tkiity liaam fli mlfv to tte flUaf Fiaita aad aldci^ mviag^ I toft 1^ 



comrBBSiOK. 838 

Uo0i*';Ia]Ml8 3<— "vteny h«rltkMitU]«% ht bafluc oaeading HrmrlU; ftrktvMTWjiuk*'; 20or. 
7:9;lO~''Ifi0wr4ai0^iitttthAt7eirw8iiiid«Mn7,bBttUt7ev««Bad«HR7iistoi^^ krywmwui» 
HRjaftaragodljMrt .... Far godly nrmr vvketli npolaiiM ulo Mlniloii, k npenUiiM vUok briagtth bo 
ngiit: tattko oonov of tko vorU varkott dootk** We must dJgtloguJflh sorrow for sin from shame 
on aooouD t of It and fear of its consequences. These last are selfish, while ffodly sorrow 
Js disinterested. '^ A man may be angry with himself and may despise himself without 
any humble prostratSoo before Ood or conftosBion of his ffuilt *' ( Shedd, Dogm. TheoL, 
8:fi8fi»note). 

True repentance, as Illustrated In Pi. 51, does not think of 1. consequences. & other 
men, 8. heredity, as an excuse ; but it sees sin as 1. transgreasion against Ood, 2. per- 
sonal ffullt, 8. deflUng the inmost being. Perowne on Pi fil:l— "In all godly sorrow 
there is hope. Sorrow without hope may be remorse or despair, but It Is not repent- 
ance." Much so-called repentance Is Illustrated by the little girl's prayer: '^O GK)d, 
make me good,~not real good, but Just good enough so that I won't have to be 
whipped 1 " Shakespeare, Measure for Measure, 2 : 8 — ** 'T is meet so, daughter ; but 
lest you do repent As that the sin hath brought you to this shame. Which sorrow la 
always towards ourselTCs* not heaven. Showing we would not spare heaven as we love 
it. But as we stand In fear. .... I do repent me as it is an evil. And take the shame 
with Joy.** Tempest, 8:8—** For which foul deed, the Poweis delaying, not forgetting. 
Have incensed the seas, and shores, yea, all the creatures, Against your peace. .... 
Whose wrath to guard you from .... is nothing but heart's sorrow And a clear life 
ensuing.'* 

Simon, Beconcillatlon, lOB, 879— ''At the very bottom It is Ood whose claims are 
advocated, whose part is taken, by that in us which, whilst most truly our own, yea* 
our very selves, is also most truly his, and of him. The divine energy and idea which 
constitutes us will not let its own root and source suffer wrong unatoned. Ood Intends 
us to be givers as well as receivers, givers even to him. We share In his Image that we 
may be creators and givers, not from compulsion, but in love." Such repentance as 
this is wrought only by the Holy Spirit. Oonsdence Indeed is present in every human 
heart, but only the Holy Spirit convinces of sin. Why Is the Holy Spirit needed ? A. J. 
Gk>rdon, Ministry of the Spirit, 18B-401 — ** Conscience is the witness to the law ; the 
Spirit is the witness to grace. Conscience brings legal conviction ; the Spirit brings 
evangelical conviction. The one begets a conviction unto despair; the other a 
conviction unto hope. Conscience convinces of sin committed, of righteousness 
Impossible, of Judgment Impending; the Comforter convinces of sin committed, of 
righteousness imputed, of Judgment accomplished — In Christ. Ood alone can reveal 
the divine view of sin, and enable man to understand it." But, however agonizing the 
sorrow, it will not constitute true repentance, unless it leads to, or is accompanied hj : 

0. A yolimtazy element, — ohaiige of pnrpoee — inward turning from 
sin and diBpodtion to seek pardon and cleansing ( Ps. 51 : 5, 7, 10 ; Jer. 
25 : 5 ). This inolndes and implies the two preoeding elements, and is 
therefore the most important aspect of repentance. It is indicated in the 
Scriptore term fitr&vota (Acts 2 : 88 ; Bom. 2 : 4). 



PI.S1:6,7,10— **BohoU,IiraibnagktftrtkiaiBi|vlt7;AidiBiiadidBjBOlk»ooBotfTom ... .PBgoM 
vitkkjwp,udliUlboflloon: VaA w^ lad I okoU bo vkitor tka& nov. .... (h«tolBiMafll«akoBVOM; 
AadliiBOvaxiflitqlritvilhiABM"; Jor. 15:6— *']Utoim jo nov OTory obo Ikvi Uo oril vbj* <ui^ '^''"b tko trU of 
jonrUBffl**; Aotolitt— "AbA Pote oiid uto tkoH, lopont 70, ood bo baptiaoA onry ooo of yoa ia tko aaaoo of 
ImuOlxiit"; laa. » ; 4 — " <oopiiiiot ttw <ko liahi of Mo gooAaw aai JMboonMO aai loi^jwaft^ 
Ikol tto goodsMo of God loodoft thoo to rop«lMMO ? ' 



)«t 



n 



Walden, The Oreat Meaning of MeCanoia, brings out well the fact that ** repentance 
is not the true translation of the word, but rather ** change of mind '* ; indeed, he 
would give up the word *' repentance *' altogether in the N. T., except as the translation 
of fMTotiUXcta. The idea of fi«rdyoui is abandonment of sin rather than sorrow for sin, — 
an act of the will rather than a state of the sensibility. Bepentance is participation in 
Christ's revulsion f^m sin and suffering on account of it. It is repentance from sin, 
not of sin, nor for sin — always dvd and m, never nnpl or ivC The true illustrations of 
repentancearefoundln Job(tt:6— "I ahkr aiToiI^ AadnpoatlndnilaiidaohiB"); in David (Fi. 
11:10 — "Cmlo ia ■• a olou biHi; isd niiov a rigkt optrit vitkia no"); in Peter (JokaM:!?— "tboa 
kao«iokthklIl0T«thoo");ln the penitent thief (Uko IS: 4S-"Jin%raMmb«riBovhatkoiiooflMotia 
thjkiagdfla"): In the prodigal son (Uko 16:18-**! ¥01 ■riNOBd go to^yfotttf"). 

58 



834 80TBRI0L00T, OB THB DOCTRUTK OF SALYATIOK. 

RapeDttDoe ImpUes free wilL Henoe Spinoaa, wbo knows noihiiv of tnt wOL, 
known nothing of repenUtnce, Inbookiof hlsBllilGi,lieMj«: "^BflpeatanoelBnotm 
▼UtiM, that is, it does not spring from won; on the oontnrx, the man who repents 
of what he has done Is doohl J wretched or Impotent." Still be mtes that for the good 
of society it is not desiiahle that Tulsar minds shook! he enlightened ss to this matter; 
•ee Upton, Hlbbert Leetores. 3U. DetermlnlBm also lenders It Inrattonal to feel ilffht- 
eons indignation either at the misoondoot of other people or of um se lna . Morsl 
admiration is simHarlr irrational in the deteradnlst; see fiattom; Foondattons of 
Belic f i Ma 

In brottd dirtiiiotion from the Beriptoxal doctrine, ne find fiie BomaniBi 
viewt which regards the three elements of repentance aa the following: 
(1) contrition; (2) confearion; (8) aatisfaction. Of 'thescp contrition is 
the only element properl j belonging to repentance ; yet from this contri- 
tion the Bomaniat exdndea all aorrow for sin of natore. Gonf eaaion ia con- 
fession to the priest; and satisfaetion is the sinner's own doing of oatwaid 
penance, as a temporal and aymbolio sabmission and reparation to violated 
law. This view is faJse and pemicioos, in that it confoonds repentance 
with its ontward froitBy conceiTcs of it aa ezerciaed rather toward the chnrbh 
than toward Gk>d9 and regards it as a meritorioos ground, instead of a mero 
condition, of pardon. 

On the Romanist doctrine of Penanoe, Thomwell (OoOeoted Writings, 1:40) 
remarks: **The culpa may be remitted, ihej say, while the poma is to some extent 
retained." Hie priest atisolves, not declaratiTely, but Judicially* Denying the great- 
neiB of the sin, it mokes man able to become his own SaTlor. Christ's satisftictloo, for 
sins after baptism, is not suiBcleot ; our satisfaction is sufficient. But performance of 
one duty, we object, cannot make satisteotion for the violation of another. 

We are required to confess one to another, and specially to those whom we have 
wronged: JmmiS:16— "Ooste tknanyov liai onf to aMikw, nAfoj «• te aaiOMr, tbt ;• mj 1m 
haOid." This puts the hardest streis upon our natural pride. There are a hundred who 
will confess to a priest or to God, where there Is one who will make frank and full 
confession to the aggrieved party. Confession to an official religious superior is not 
penitence nor a test of penitence. In the Confessional women expose their inmost 
desires to priests who are forbidden to marry. These priests are sometlmeB, though 
gradually, corrupted to the core, and at the same time they are taught in the Confes- 
Bional predsely to what women to apply. In France many noble families will not 
permit their children to confess, and their women are not permitted to incur the danger. 

Lord Salisbury in the House of Lords said of auricular confession : " It has been 
injurious to the moral independence and virility of the nation to an extent to which 
probably it has been given to no other Institution to affect the character of mankind." 
See Walsh, Secret History of the Oxford Movement; A. J. Gordon, Ministry of the 
Spirit, 111 — *' Asceticism is an absolute InverBion of the divine order, since it seeks life 
through death, instead of finding death through life. No degree of mortification can 
ever bring us to sanctiflcatlon." Penance can never effect true repentance, nor be 
other than a hindrance to the soul's abandonment of sin. Penance is something exter- 
nal to be done, and it diverts attention from the real inward need of the souL The 
monk does penance by sleeping on an iron bed and by wearing a hair shirt. When 
Anwrtm of Canterbury died, his under garments were found alive with vermin which 
the saint had cultivated in order to mortify the flesh. Dr. Pusey always sat on a hard 
chair, traveled as uncomfortably as possible, looked down when he walked, and when- 
ever he saw a coal-fire thought of heU. Thieves do penance by giving a part of their 
Ill-gotten wealth to chart^. In all these things there Is no transformation of the 
Inner Ufa. 

In farther explanation of the Soriptore representations, we remark : 

(a) That repentance, in each and all of ita aapecta, ia wholly an inward 
aot^ not to be oonf oonded with the change of life which prooeeda from it, 

Tme repentance ia indeed manifested and evidenced by confession of sin 
before God (Lnke 18 : 13), and by reparation for wrongs done to men 



CONYEBSION. S^B 

(Lnke 19 : 8). But these do not oonstitate repentanoe ; they are xather 
fruits of repentance. Between ' repentance ' and * fmit worthy of repents 
anoe,' Soriptore plainly distingniaheB (Mat 8:8). 



]«k« 18 : 13 ~ * Bftt tkt paUiwi, itudlflf afa flC iniild not lift np w BnA M Us fjM u^ 
bi«s^M7ing^Qod,UthoaBirafd to mi a ii]uur[' be propitiated to me tlifi 19:8— "Aid 

Zaeekau itooi and nii imto tk« Uui, BchoU, Lahi, tlM half «f nj goodi I gin to tho poor ; and if I hftvo vfgoKfUlj 
oxa0lidaQgktQraa7nB,lTCitanfaulBld'^ ]laft.S:8— "BriDgibrthtluidbn Fruit 

worthy of repentance, or fruits meet for repentance, are : 1. OonfeoBlon of sin ; 8. Sur- 
render to Christ ; 8. Turning from sin ; 4. Beparation for wron^ doinff ; &• Riffht moral 
conduct ; 6L Profession of Christian faith. 

On Inks 17:8— "if tty tavtkff iIb, nMk» bin; ani if ho npiai, flvsiTo him**— Dr. B. H. OarroU 
remarks that the law Is uniform which makes repentance indispensable to forgiveness. 
It applies to man's forgiveness of man, as well as to God's forgiveness of man, or the 
church's forgiveness of man. But I must be sure that I cherish toward the offender 
the spirit of love, whether he repents or not. Freedom from all malice toward him, 
however, and even loving prayerful labor to lead him to repentanoe, is not forgiveness. 
This I can grant only when he actually repents. If I do forgive him without repent- 
ance, then I Impose my rule on God when I pray: "loigiwniovdoM^MvoaliobaEfofcigiTn 
oiirdolrtfln"(]laft.6:i8>. 

On the question whether the requirement that we forgive without atonement Implies 
that God does, see Brit, and For. Bvang. Bev., Oct. 1881 :678-eBl—** Answer: 1. The 
present constitution of things Is based upon atonement. Forgiveness on our part is 
required upon the ground of the Cross, without which the world would be helL 8. God 
is Judge. We forgive, as brethren. When he forgives, it is as Judge of all the earth, 
of whom all earthly Judges are representatives. If earthly judges may exact justice, 
much more God. The argument that would abolish atonement would abolish all civil 
government. 8. 1 should forgive my brother on the ground of God's love, and Christ's 
bearing of his sins. 4. God, who requires atonement. Is the same being that provides 
it. This is * handsome and generous.' But I can never provide atonement for my 
brother. I must, therefore, ftorglve freely, only upon the ground of what Christ has 
done for him." 

(6) That repentanoe is only a negative condition, and not a poedtive 
means of salvation. 

This is evident from the fact that repentance is no more than the sinner's 
present duty, and can famish no ofGaet to the daims of the law on account 
of past transgression. The truly penitent man feels that his repentance has 
no men! Apart from the positive element of conversion, namely, faith in 
Christ, it would be only sorrow for guilt unremoved. This veiy sorrow, 
moreover, is not the mere product of human will, but is the gift of Qod. 

Aflli 6 :81 — **]Db did GodfliaU vith Uaiigkt hand to bo a Priiue and a 8aTior, to gin npiatanoo to Inu], and 
nniiiUa of iiitt''; 11:18—'' Tim to tho Gontiko alio Uth eod gmtadrafontaaooiuto lift"; tT^ 
pondTnton Ood amy p.i% tfcon npontuioo vDto tho knovlodgo of tho tntt." The truly penitent man 
recognises the fact that his sin deserves punishment. He never regards his penitence 
88 ofllBetting the demands of law, and as making his punishment unjust Whltefleld : 
** Our repentance needeth to be repented of, and our very tears to be washed in the 
blood of Christ." 8fhakespeare, Henry Y, 4: 1— '* More will I do : Though all that I can 
do is nothing worth. Since that my penitence comes after all. Imploring pardon" — 
Imploring pardon both for the crime and for the imperfect repentance. 

(e) That true repentance, however, never exists except in oonjunctlon 
with faith. 

Sorrow for sin, not simply on account of its evil consequences to the 
transgreasor, but on account of its intrinsic hatefulness as opposed to divine 
holiness and love, is practically impossible without some confidence in 
Gk>d's mercy. It is the Cross which first makes us truly penitent ( c/. John 
12:82, 88). Hence all true preaching of repentanoe is implicitly a preaoih- 



836 80TBRI0L0GT, OU THE DOCTRINE OF BALYATIOK. 

ing of faith (Mai 3 : 1-12 ; c/. Aeto 19 : 4), and xepentanoe towaid Qod 
involTee laiih in the Lord Jesus Ghiirt (Acta 20 : 21 ; Lnke 15 : 10, 24; 
19:8,9; q/l GaL3:7). 

MBtt:9i;»--ABAI,ifIlMUfM«yftiaia««ril,wffldnTanMinto«jMlt litlkiihinll.i%ri^- 
ijDcbyvhilBUUMrrfdiiUklMihMlddiiL'* 1*18:1-11— John the Bapdst't preaching of repent- 
anoe was also a preaidilnff of f alth ; 88 is ahown bj Alii » : 4 ~ " JAa biftiMi vltk lit biflia if 
itfttHum, mjiai ul» tkt fmpU ttal tkij iktdi biUnt m km thai AnU mm aftv kin, tka i% « km." 
Bepentanoe involves faith: Ae(i»:ll~*lirtiffii«bMktoJfviaBite«rMkirifaau«lmi4<M.aai 
fdtktavn««irUr4J«iuflMil*^lBkttf:l«kl4--"tWiii]ojiBtb#|nMMi«f tktu«dicrM«w 

MrtkanpmML tfui ^7 ■BVMtod.aaiiitUviagAiB; Iw vas]Ml,udiilMiia*' ; 19:i^«— "ttekdf 

ofHjgoodtlgiTtiotktpoflr; ud if I ban vraBcfkny luMltd ugkt of My au, I thUr InrfUl AadJuHaii 
nli UiB. lb-day ]■ adntJoB flOM to thif Wa% ansvA u bt alM ]■ ft M af Abnhw "•- the father of aU 
beUever8;c/.flftl8!^7~"lnBaftAbnibftmbtlktid(k>iftaittwMwA«idDatobiaigritto Iitv 

IhmAn tbftft tbqr tbit an of fkitb, tht MM ti« Moa of ibnbn." 

IakoS;lg says of John the Baptists "Wiwaobidtbo goitiiM*><fc> fM|i%'* and the go^>elme8- 
sage, the fflad tidings, is more than the oommand to repent,— It is also the offer of 
salvation through Christ ; see Prof. Wm. Arnold Stevens, on John tlie Baptist and his 
Gospel, In Studies on the Gospel according to John. t<ftnB.S4:i»— **iBditoBaito|M%vbai 
tbaki^baAboaritbavoriaoftbakv.tbalbamtbkfllolbifc** Moberly, Atonement and Peisonality, 
44-46— ** Just in proportion as one sins, does he render it impossible for him truly to 
repent. Bepentance must be the work of another in him. Is it not the Spirit of the 
Clruolfled whioh is the reality of the penitence of the truly penitent ? " If this be true, 
then it is plain that there is no true repentance which is not accompanied by the fsith 
that unites us to Christ. 

( d) That, oon^ersely, wherever there is tnie foith, there is tme repent- 
aneealflo. 

Since repentance and foith are bat different sides or aspects of the same 
act of taming, faith is as inseparable from repentance as repentance is from 
faith. That most be an unreal ^th where there is no repentance, jost as 
that most be an nnreal repentance where there is no faith. Yet becaose 
the one aspect of his change is more prominent in the mind of the convert 
than the other, we are not hastily to condnde that the other is absent 
Only that degree of conviction of sin is essential to salvation, which carries 
with it a forsaking of sin and a trnstfol sorrender to Christ 

Bishop Hall : ** Never will Christ enter into that soul where the herald of repentance 
hath not been before him.** I Oar. 7 : 10 — " npiBtoiM uto Mlfattoa.'* In consciousness, sensa- 
tion and perception are in inverse ratio to each other. Clear vision is hardly conscious 
of sensation, but inflamed eyes are hardly conscious of anything besides sensation. So 
repentance and faith are seldom equally prominent In the oonsdousnesi of the con- 
verted man ; but it is important to know that neither can exist without the other. 
The truly penitent man wlU, sooner or later, show that he has faith ; and the true 
believer will certainly show, in due season, that he hates and renounces sin. 

The question, how much conviction a man needs to insure his salvation, may be 
answered by asking how much excitement one needs on a burning steamer. As, in the 
latter case, just enough to prompt persistent effort to escape ; so, in the former case, 
Just enough remorseful f eeiung is needed, to induce the sinner to betake himself bellev^ 
ingly to Christ 

On the general subject of Bepentance, see Anderson, Begeneratlon, ST9-8B8; Bp. 
OsKny, Nature and Effects of SWth, 40-48, 811-818; Woods, Works, 8:6fr-78; Phlllppi, 
Olaubenslehre, 6:1-10, S06-S46; Luthardt, Compendium, 8d ed., 208-408; Hodge, Out- 
lines of Theology, 876-881; Alexander, Bvidenoes of Christianity, 47-40; Crawford, 
Atonement, 418-419. 

2. Ikiith. 

Faith is that voluntary chaoge in the mind of the sinner in whioh he 
tarns to Ohrist Being essentially a change of mind, it involves a change 



OONYEBSION. 837 

of view, a change of feeling, and a change of pnrpose. We may therefore 
analyze faith also into three constitoents, each Bncceeding term of which 
includes and implies the preceding : 

A. An inteUectoal element {noHHtif credere Deum), — recognition of 
the tmth of God's reyelation, or of the objectiye reality of the salvation 
provided by Ohrist. This includes not only a historical belief in the facts 
of the Scripture, but an intellectual belief in the doctrine taught therein 
as to man's sinfulness and dependence upon Ohrist 



Joha 8: 18, S4 ^ "low wUn k« vh in J^roHltm at tk« piaoTv, duia; Oa Cmo^ aiaj balifvid m kii 
Mddii«hisiifuwUekh«did. But JiiudidiuittnMtkiiiiMlf uitoth«,ihrtha«k«k]i«vaUBMi"; c/.8:8— 
Nioodemus has this externa] fiedth : "m an« out do ihtm wi^ thai tkoo dMil» fzN|ft M bt vitk km.'* 
JaiMi8:19— "ThMLbeUeTHlttatGodiaaBa; tkoadowtwaQ: tka dmiona alio baUa?*, and dmddir." Bveathla 
htotorioal faith ia not without its frulta. It ia the spring of much philantfaroplo work. 
There were no hospitals In andent Rome. Much of our modem progress is due to the 
leavening InHuence of Christianltsr, even in the case of those who have not personally 
accepted Christ. 

McLaren, S. 8. Times. I^bIi. 28, 1908: 107—'* Luke does not hesitate to say, in A0ti8:i3, 
that 'SiiiMB MafOM atao huB»lf balitrad.* But he expects us to understand that Simon's belief 
was not faith that saved, but mere credence in the gospel narrative as true history. It 
had no ethical or spiritual worth. He was 'anand,' as the Samaritans had been at his 
Juggleries. It did not lead to repentance, or confession, or true trust. He was only 
'anand* at Philip's miracles, and there was no salvation in that.'* Merely historical 
faith, such as Disciples and Ritschlians hold to, lacks the element of affection, and 
besides this lacks the present reality of Christ himself. Faith that does not lay hold of 
a present Christ is not saving faith. 

B. An emotional element ( €U8ensu8t credere Deo ), — assent to the 
revelation of God's power and grace in Jesus Christ, as applicable to the 
present needs of the souL Those in whom this awakening of the sensibili- 
ties is unaccompanied hj the fundamental decision of the will, which con- 
stitutes the next element of faith, may seem to themselves, and for a time 
may appear to others, to have accepted Christ 

Ibl IS : 80, 81 -- "ha that vaa iova npoa tta IMI7 pla08% tUi if ba tlMl hantt tka vwd, H^ 
JoyraedTBtkit; jtt katk ka not nal in Umalt tat endnrath &r a vUk; aad vkaa ftribnlatiaa or panaoatiaB aiiaath 
baeanaBarthaimd^BtniglitvayhartiimUaa"; e/.Fi.i06:12;i3— "An bdiandtliaxUavanla; ttajnogbia 
pnlaa. Thaj aoon tafat kia vorka ; thay waitad not ftr kia oaoaail"; li.88:Sl,8SB— "iadtkajoansvatatkaau 
tha paopla aomatk, and tkay ait bafbn tbM u nj peopla, and tkaj hiar thy v«d% but do th«Bi not; ftr vitb tkair 
Bontb tbay ibov nub lari^ tat tbeir haart goetb alUr tbabr gaia. And, k^ tboa art asto tbaai aa a TI17 lanlj mmg 
of ona tbat batb a plaaaaot Toba^ aad «aa plaj vail an aa iaatmmant ; ftr tbay baar tk j vordi^ tat tk«7 do tkaai aat " ; 
Jaha5:S5— Of John the Baptist : " la vaa tba laarp tbat boraalk and akinatk ; and 70 vara villing to rtjaiaa 
ftraaaaacnittUaUgbt"; 8:80,8i-~*'iaba9akatbflBtbiBga^Baa7baUavidaBbim (tit ain6p). Jaaoatbara- 
ftra add to tkaao Java tkat bad baUared bin ( « vry ), If 7a abida ia m7 vord, tkaa ara 7a tral7 B17 diaaiplai" They 
believed him, but did not yet believe on him, that is, make him the foundation of their 
faith and life. Yet Jeaua ffradoualy reoogrnlzeB this flnt faint f oreahadowinff of faith. 
It miffht lead to full and saving faith. 

*' Proaelytea of the gate'* were ao oalled, beoauae they contented themaelvea with 
Bitting in the gate, as it were, without going into the holy dty. ** Proaelytea of right- 
eouaneea '* were thoae who did their whole duty, by joining themaelvea fully to the 
people of God. Not emotion, but devotion, ia the important thing. Temporary faith ia 
aa irrational and valuelesB aa temporary repentanoe. It perhaps gained temporary 
bleasing in the way of healing in the time of Chriat, but, if not followed by complete 
aurrender of the will, it might even aggravate one's sin ; aee Jaka 5:14— "Bakold, tkou art 
auda vkala ; aia aa man, laat a vena tkiog bafidl tkaai" The special faith of miracles waa not a high, 
but a low, form of faith, and it la not to be aought in our day as indispensable to the 
progress of the kingdom. Miracles have ceaaed, not becauae of decline in faith, but 
becauae the Holy Spirit haa changed the method of hia manifestationa, and has led the 
ohoroh to aeek more spiritual gifts. 



838 CHBIBTOLOOY, OB THE DOCTBIKB OF BEDBMPTIOK. 



flttving fidthy however, indiideB alao : 

0. A Toluntary element {ftduda^ credere in Dewn ), — inut in Ohnrt 
as Lord and Sayior ; or, in other words — to di«tingniah its two eegexAB : 

(a) Surrender of the soul, as gniltj and defiled, to Ghxist's goremanoe. 

■rikU:ll,N — "CaMntoWbtUjtllilliteaaiiit kiii7lite,MiI vffl|iit jwmL ftkktBjjiki 
■IMTfViMAlMnrf Bt'^ Ml 8:tt— ''I ■■ tte UfM cf tkt vvrii: kttMMlfVfaMikiUMlVMlkiilto 
tekMB";U:l-**I.itMij«iirkMiibttewbM:bdimiB(kd.MlmtlMUMt**; iiliie:tl— ''Biiim« 
lit lard J«a% and tbn ihalt bi mt«1" InBtanoos of the uae of wumvm^ in the seiiae of tmatful 
oomndttanoe or flunender, aro : Ml t : M-- "tat J«if dil Mt tnrt UMilf nil thi^ ftr t^^ 
■Uh«'^ Im S:l•-"t^f vmiitrMiti vilkty «nMl« rf M'*; (taLt:7— ''vkalh^mvlkfellMteM 
iiferaaMvitkthtgiViltftktuainncUiB.** «urrit-''tnutfalMtf-tiirreod6r to Ood"( Meyer). 

In this lurrender of the soul to Christ's gOTemanoe we have the guarantee that the 
gospel salvation is not an unmoral trust which permits oontinuanoe In sin. Aside from 
the fsot that saving faith is only the obvem side of true repentanoe, the very nature 
of faith, as submission to Christ, the embodied law of Ood and souroe of spiritual life, 
makes a life of obedienoe and virtue to be its natural and noowiry result. JIUth is 
not only a decdaration of dependence, it is also a vow of allegiance. The sick man's 
faith in his physician is shown not simply by trusting him, but by obeying him. Doing 
what the doctor says is the very proof of trust. No physician will long care for a 
patient who refuses to obey his orders. FUth is self -surrender to the great Fhysioian, 
and a leaving of our case in his hands. But tt is also the taking of his prescriptions, 
and the active following of his directions. 

We need to emphasise this active element in saving faith, lest men get the notion 
that mere indolent acquiescence in Christ's plan will save them. IWth is not simple 
receptivenesB. It gives itself, as well as receives Christ It is not mere passivity, — it 
is also self -committal. As all reception of knowledge is active, and there must be 
attention If we would learn, so all reception of Christ is active, and there must be intel- 
ligent giving as well as taking. The Watchman, April 80t 180S— ^ Faith is more than 
belief and trust It is the action of the soul going out toward its object. It Is the 
ezerolse of a spiritual faculty akin to that of sight ; it establishes a peiaonal relation 
between the one who exercises faith and the one who is its object When the intel- 
lectual future predominates, we call it belief; when the emotional element predoml* 
nates, we call it trust This faith Is at once * An aiBnnation and an act Which bids 
eternal truth be present fact' " 

There are great things received in faith, but nothing is received by the man who does 
not first give himself to Christ A conquered general came Into the presence of his 
conqueror and held out to him his hand: ** Tour sword first, sir I" was the response. 
But when General Lee offered his sword to General Grant at Appomattox, the latter 
returned It, saying: ** No, keep your sword, and go to your home.'* Jaoobi said that 
*^ Faith Is the reflection of the divine knowing and willing in the finite spirit of man." 
G. B. Foster, in Indiana Baptist Outlook, June 19, 1903 — *' Catholic orthodoxy Is wrong 
in holding that the authority for faith is the church ; for that would be an external 
authority. I^otestant orthodoxy is wrong In holding that the authority for faith is 
the book ; for that would be an external authority. Liberalism is wrong in holding 
that the reason Is the authority for faith. The authority for faith Is the revelation of 
God.'* Faith in this revelation is faith in Christ the Bevealer. It puts the soul in con- 
nection with the source of all knowledge and power. As the connection of a wire with 
the r e s er voir of electric force makes it the channel of vast energies, so the smallest 
measure of faith, any real connection of the soul with Christ, makes it the recipient of 
divine resources. 

While faith is the act of the whole man, and intellect alEdctlon, and will are involved 
in It will is the all-inclusive and most important of Its elements. No other exercise of 
will is 8U<A a revelation of our being and so decisive of our destiny. The voluntary 
element in faith is illustrated in marriage. Here one party pledges the future In per^ 
manent self-surrender, commits one's self to another person in confidence that this 
future, with all its new revelations of character, will only Justify the decision made. 
Yet this is rational ; see Holland, In Lux Mundl, 46-48. To put one's hand into molten 
iron, even though one knows of the '* spheroidal state '* that gives impunity, requires 
an exertion of will; and not all workmen in metals are courageous enough to make 
the venture. The child who leaped into the dark cellar, in confidence that her father's 
arms would be open to receive her, did not act irrationally, because ahe had heard her 



CONYEBSIOK. 830 

father's oommand and trusted his promise. Though tai&i In Ohrist Is a leap In the 
dark, and requires a mighty ezeroise of wiU, It Is nevertheless the highest wisdom, 
because Christ's word Is pledged that "kfaBth&tooMtktomlvffl itiMviM Ml eat'* (lohi6:S7). 
J. W. A. Stewart : ** Faith Is 1. a bond between persona, trust, oonfldenoe ; & It makes 
Tentures, takes much for granted ; 8. Its security Is the character and power of him In 
whom we beUeve, —not our fslth, but his fidelity. Is the guarantee tiiat our fUth is 
rational*' Kant said that nothing in the world Is good but the good will which freely 
obeys the law of the good. Pfleiderer defines faith as the free surrender of the heart 
to the giadous wUl of God« Kaftan, Dogmatik, 81, declares that the Christian religion 
is essentially faith, and that this faith manifests itself as 1. doctrine; 8. worship ; 8. 
morally. 

( b ) Reception and appropriation of Ghrist, as the souioe of pardon and 
spiritual life. 

John 1 '.Si'-'** u way u nodTid kin, te thtm ga?* k« thi right to bNoiM ahiUrw of M, vna to Otn ttai 
btlifirtoB Uibum" ; 4:14— "vhMMTvdrliilLatk of th« wstor thai I ikaU giTt Ua ihaU imtw tUnI; bat tht 
mtor thai! dull givt him ihall bMona in him a vtU of mtar fpingiag a]^ uto ttonial lifb"; 6:53— "Ixoipt ya 
aal tha flflah of tha Sim of maa aai drink hto U«H 7* han not Ua la jwnriTM'* ; 10 :M — *'fh6N an vritt^ 
7«ma7boUmthali«aJathaOfariat,tha8oBafOed; and that baUaving jrt may Vara Ufe in hii aamo " ; IpL 8 : 17 
— "thai Ohriit nay dwall in javhiarta through aith"; Iah.li:l — "lavaHhii aMniiooQrthii«B hopad fr, 
aooDTifltionofthiaganotaioa"; Bar.S:!!! — "BahoUiIitBadalthadoaraiidbiock: ifaBymaahMrnyToioaaad 
opoathadoor,IvmooBaintohim,aBdvmfopvithhin,ttAkaYithmii*' 



The three constituents of faith may be Illustrated fkom the thought, feeling, and 
action of a person who stands by a boat, upon a little Island which the rising stream 
threatens to submerge. He first regards the boat from a purely Intellectual point of 
▼lew,— it is merely an ckciuaXLy exUting hoaJt, As the stream rises, he looks at it, sec- 
ondly, with some accession of emotion,— his prospective danger awakens in him the 
conviction that it is a good hoal for a tims of need, though he is not yet ready to make 
use of it. But, thirdly, when he feels that the rushing tide must otherwise sweep him 
away, a volitional element Is added,— he gets into the boat, trusts himself to it, accepts 
it as his preeenU ond orUy, means of safety. Only this last faith in the boat is faith that 
saves, although this last includes both the preceding. It is equally dear that the get- 
ting into the boat may actually save a man, while at the same time be may be full of 
fears that the boat will never bring him to shore. These fears may be removed by the 
boatman's word. So saving ftdth is not necessarily assurance of faith ; but it becomes 
assurance of fUth when the Holy Spirit "hoanlh wibDM vith our apirttt that va an ohildna of God " 
( tan. 8: 16 ). On the nature of this assurance, and on the distinction between It and saving 
faith, see pages 841-848. 

" Coming to Christ," " lookbig to Christ," ^ receiving Christ," are all descriptions of 
faith, as are also the phrases : ** surrender to Christ," ** submission to Christ," " dosing 
in with Christ." Paul refers to a confession of faith in ftan.i0:9— '^ifthoaahaltoaoftiavilh 
thy moott ioaos u Lord." Faith, then, is a taking of Christ as both Savior and Lord ; and it 
Includes both appropriation of Christ, and consecration to Christ. The voluntary ele- 
ment in faith, however, is a giving as well as a taking. The giving, or surrender, is 
illustrated in baptism by submergence ; the taking, or reception, by emergence. See 
further on the Symbolism of Baptism. McCosh, Div. Government : ^ Saving faith is the 
consent of the wlU to the assent of the understanding, and commonly accompanied with 
emotion." Pres. Hopkins, in Princeton Rev., Sept. 1878:611--640— "In its intellectual 
element, faith is receptive, and believes that God 48 ; In its affectional dement, fUth is 
assimilative, and believes that God is a rewarder; in its voluntary dement, fUth is 
operative, and actually cornea to God ( Hob. 11 : 6 )." 

Where the element of surrender is emphasized and the dement of reoeption is not 
understood, the result is a legalistic experience, with little hope or Joy. Only as we 
appropriate Christ, in connection with our eonaeeration, do we realise the full blessing 
of the gospeL light requires two things : the sun to shine, and the eye to take In its 
shining. So we cannot be saved without Christ to save, and fUth to take the Savior 
for ours. Faith is the act by which we reodve Christ. The woman who touched the 
border of Jesus' garment received his healing power. It is better stlU to keep in touch 
with Christ so as to recdve continually his grace and life. But best of all is taking him 
into our Inmost being, to be the soul of our soul and the life of our life. This is the 
essence of faith, though many Christians do not yet realise it. Dr. Curry said well that 
ftUth can never be defined because it Is a fact of life. It la a merging of our life in the 



840 BOTERIOLOOY, OB THE DOCTEIKB OF SALVATION. 

life of Christy and areoeptfon of Cbrist's life to fnterpenetrato and eoerglae oon. In 
faith we must take Christ as well as give ounelyea. It is certainly true that surrender 
without trust will not make nsposMSBors of God's peaoei F. L. Anderson : **Eaithi8 
submisrive zelianoe on Jesus.Christ for salvation: 1. Belianoe on Jesus Christ— not 
mere intellectual belief; Z. Beliance on him for salvation— we can never undo the 
past or atone for our sins ; 8. Submisive reliance on Christ. Tknst wlthont surrender 
will never save." 

The passages already ref ened to lefate the view of the Bomamsti that 
saying faith is aimply implicit assent to the doctrines of the ohnroh ; and 
the view of the Disciple or Oampbellite, that faith is merely intelleotoal 
belief in the tmth, on the presentation of evidence. 

The Bomanist says that faith can coSzist with mortal stn. The Disciple holds that 
faith may and must exist before regeoeration, — regeneration being completed in bap- 
tism. With these erroneous views, compare the noble utterance of Luther, Com. on 
Galatians, 1 : 191, 247, quoted in Thomasius, m, 8 : IBS — '* True faith," says Luther, *^ is 
that assured trust and firm assent of heart, by whioih Christ Is laid hold of,— so that 
Christ is the object of faith. Yet he is not merely the object of faith ; but in the very 
faith, so to speak, Christ is present. lUth lays hold of Christ, and grasps him as a pres- 
ent possession. Just as the ring holds the Jewel." Edwards, Works, 4 : 71-73 ; t : 601-641 — 
** Esith," says Edwards, ** includes the whole act of unition to Christ as a Savior. The 
entire active uniting of the soul, or the whole of what is caOed coming to Christ, and 
receiving of him, is called fslth in the Scripture." See also Belief, What Is It f ISShVl^ 
axV-JBOS. 

Hatch, Hibbert Leotores, 680—" Faith began by being : 1. a simple trust in QoA ; 
then followed, 8. a simple expansion of that proposition into the aannt to the proposi- 
tion that God is good, and, 8. a simple acceptance of the proposition that Jesus Christ 
was his Son ; then, 4. came in the definition of terms, and each definition of tenns 
Involved a new theory; finally, 6. the theories were gathered together into systems, 
and the martyrs and witnesses of Christ died for their fiUth, not outside but inside the 
Christian sphere ; and instead of a world of religious belief which resembled the world 
of actual fact in the sublime unsymmetry of its foliage and the deep harmony of its 
discords, there prevailed the most fatal assumption of aU, that the symmetry of a 
system is the test of its truth and the proof thereof." We regard this statement of 
Hatch as erroneous, in that it attributes to the earliest disciples no Uuger faith than 
that of their Jewish brethren. We dalm that the earliest faith involved an implicit 
acknowledgement of Jesus as Savior and Lord, and that this faith of stanple obedience 
and trust became explicit recognition of our Lord's deity and atonement Just so soon 
as persecution and the Holy Spirit disclosed to them the real contents of their own 
consciousness. 

An illustration of the simplicity and saving power of faith is furnished by Principal 
J. B. Andrews, of New London, Conn., Principal of the Bartlett Grammar SchooL When 
the steamer Atlantic was wrecked off Fisher^s Island, though Mr. Andrews could not 
swim, he determined to make a desperate effort to save his lite. Binding a life-preserver 
about him, he stood on the edge of the deck waiting his opportunity, and when he saw 
a wave moving shoreward, he Jumped into the rough breakers and was borne ssf ely to 
land. He was saved by faith. He accepted the conditions of salvation. Forty perished 
in a scene where he was saved. In one sense he saved himself ; in another sense he 
depended upon Gk)d. It was a combination of personal activity and dependence upon 
God that resulted in his salvation. If he had not used the life-preserver, he would have 
perished ; if he had not oast himself into the sea, he would have perished. So faith in 
Christ is reliance upon him for salvation; but it is also our own making of a new start 
in life and the showing of our trust by action. Tract 867, Am. Tract Society — '*What 
is it to believe on Christ? It is : To feel your need of him ; To believe that he is able 
and wiUing to save you, and to save you now ; and To cast yourself unreservedly upon 
his mercy, and trust in him alone for salvation." 

In farther explanation of the Scripture representations, we remark : 

( a ) That faith is an act of the affections and will, as tmly as it is an aoi 
of the intelleot 



coirrBRsioir. 841 

It has been claimed {hat faith and nnbelief are pnzely inteUeotnal states, 
which are necessarily determined by the facts at any given time presented 
to the mind ; and that they are, for this reason, as destitnte of moral quality 
and as far from being matters of obligation, as are onr instinctiye feelings 
of pleasore and pain. Bat this view unwarrantably isolates the intellect^ 
and ignores the fact that, in all moral sabjeots, the state of the affections 
and will affectB the judgment of the mind with regard to truth. In the 
intellectoal act the whole moral nature expresses itself. Since the tastes 
determine the opinions, faiih, is a moral act^ and men are responsible for 
not believing. 

iak]iS:18-»— "iBttitMunlkMUBJfBtlJvdga: ka tkal balimtk Ml halh btm Jttlsed iInm^, bMHNi kf 
hatkMtbdi«v«d<iatk»aHMalthiaa7big«tt«ntaarQol AadtkifisthsJiidgiMa^thilthtU^tiioaBtiilBtta 
vwU,MiBnl0fidatdirbiMinlk«ttMith«ligkt; ftrthdrvarksvmtra P» efvj «• ttil tott tril 
bOcth th« liskt, «ad oonitk Mt to th« ligkt, krt Ub vwki AooM bo npnrrad '^ 5 ^ 

«hal7t]Bi7toT«lifo'^16:8,«--''Aalh^vhe&lMisoQnia.vfflmvisttk0VvldiiirH968t«riiB... .fllai, 
beoMiMth^lMUfT«iiokoiiBi'';Rir.S:81~*'dAvil]ithB0ltorifnk.'* Notioe that the BevlBed Ver- 
sion very frequently substitutes the vohintazy and active terms "dinhtdiiiiM" and "diioto- 
diot" for the "B^bdirf" and •'mbdini^** of the Authorised Version,— as in Bol lfi:li ; Ub. 
S:i8;4:fl^U;ll:IL Bee Park, Discounes, 40, 40. 

Savages do not know that they are responsible for their physical appetites, or that 
there Is any right and wrong In matters of senssb until they come under the influence 
of Christianity. In like manner, even men of sdenoe can declare that the intellectual 
sphere has no part In man's probation, and that we are no more responsible for our 
opinions and beliete than we are for the color of our skin. But fkith is not a merely 
inteUectoal act,— the affections and will give It quality. There is no moral quality in 
the belief that 2 +3*- 4, because we can not help that belief. But in beUeving on Cluist 
there is moral quality, because there is the element of choice. Indeed It may be ques- 
tioned, whether, in every Judgment upon moral things, there Is not an act of wilL 

Hence on John 7 : 17 — " tf any BU vilkth to do Ui vill, kt ihAU lottw of th9 taMhiog^ vkitt 
vbotte I tfmk trm. ajnlf"— F. L. Fatten calls attention to the two common errors : (1 ) 
that obedience ¥ri]l certify doctrine,— which is untrue, because obedience is the result 
of fiUth, not vicevena; (2) that personal experience is the ultimate test of faith,— 
which is untrue, because the Bible Is the only rule of faith, and It is one thing to receiye 
truth through the filings, but quite another to test truth by the feelings. The text 
really means, that if any man is willing to do Ood's will, he shall know whether it be of 
Ood ; and the two lessons to be drawn are : ( 1 ) the gospel needs no additional eyldence ; 
( 2 ) tiie Holy Ghost is the hope of the world. On responsibility for opinions and bellefi, 
see Mosley, on Blanco White, in Essays Philos. and Historical, 2 : 142 ; T. T. Smith, Hul- 
sean Lectures for IfflO. WiUrid Ward, The Wish to Believe, quotes Shakespeare : " Thy 
wish was father, Harry, to that thought" ; and Thomas Arnold : *'They dared not 
lightly belieye what they so much wished to be trua'* 

Pascal : ** Faith is an act of the wilL" Bmerson, Bsny on Worship: ** A man bears 
beliefs as a tree bears apples. Man's religious faith is the expression of what he is/* 
Bain: **In its essential character, belief is a phase of our active nature, otherwise 
called the wlU." Nash, Ethics and Bevelation, 257— '* Faith is the creative human 
answer to the creative divine offer. It is not the passive acceptance of a divine favor. 
.... By faith man, laying hold of the peraonality of Gk>d in Christ, becomes a true 
person. And by the same faith he becomes, under Gk>d, a creator and founder of true 
society." Inge, Christian Mysticism, 52—** Faith begins with an experiment and ends 
with an experience. But even the power to make the experiment is given from above. 
Eternal life is not yimnt, but the state of acquiring knowledge — Ira yiyimaKwnv. It is 
significant that John, who is so fond of the verb * to know,' never uses the substantive 
yvwaic." Crane, Beligion of To-morrow, 14S— " * I will not obey, because I do not yet 
know' ? But this is making the intellectual side the only side of faith, whereas the 
most important side Is the will-side. Let a man follow what he does believe, and he 
shall be led on to larger faith. Faith is the rec^tion of the personal influence of a 
living Lord, and a corresponding action." 

William James, WiU to Believe, 01 —''This life is worth Uvlng« sinoe it is what we 

make it, from the moral point of view Often enough our f&ith beforehand in an 

nnoertilled result is the only thing that makes the result come true If your heart 



842 SOTBBIOLOGT, OB THE DOCTRINE OF SALTATIOK. 

does not totMit a world of moral reality, your head will aaniredly never make you beibeye 
in one. .... Freedom to believe ooTera only livinir options wMoh the intelleot cannot 
by itaelf reeolye. .... We are not to put a stopper on our heart, and meantime act as 
it religion were not true"; Peychology, 2:2SES,8ZL— ^'Belief is oonaent, wHlingness, 
tuminf of our disposition. It is the mental state or function of oognisinir reality. We 
never disbelieve anything ezoept for the reason that we believe something else which 
contradicts the llzst thing. We give higher reality to whatever things we select and 

emphssbK and turn to with a will We need only in cold blood act as If the thing 

in question were real, and keep acting as if it were real, and it will infallibly end by 
growing into such a connection with our life that it will become real. Those to whom 
God and duty are mere names, can make them much more than that» if they make a 
little sacrifice to them every day.*' 

B. G. Bobinson : ** Oampbellism makes inteUectoal beUef to be saving faith. But sav- 
ing faith is oonsent of the heart as well as assent of the intellect. On the one hand 
there is the inteUeotnal element: flidth is belief upon the ground of evidence; faith 
without evidence is credulity. But on the other hand faith has an element of affection ; 
the etoment of love is always wrapped up in it. 80 Abraham's faith made Abraham 
like God; fOr we always become like that which we trust." Faith therefore is not 
chronologically subsequent to regeneration, but is its acoompaniment. As the soul^ 
appropriation of Christ and his salvation, it is not the result of an accomplished renewal, 
but rather the medium through which that renewal is effected. Otherwise it would 
follow that one who had not yet believed ( i. »., received Christ ) might still be regen- 
erate, whereas the Scripture represents the privilege of sonship as granted only to 
believers. Seelokal:ll,lS--"BfttMBUjMmdwiUii,tetkMi ganbt tteii^ktto biMMflkiUNBef 
M,matothMthiftMmaikiiBUM: whovwitara,B0torU«)d,BvofttiviUortk«lMk,Bff«rthiviUflr 
mo^lntrfM"; a]soS:fik<;i»>l5; 8ALt:l6; 8M.i:S; c/.ilgkiL5:t 

( 6 ) That fhe object of saving faith is, in general^ the whole tnith of Qod« 
80 fiir as it is objectively revealed or made known to the soul ; but, in par- 
tlcalar, the person and work of Jesos Ohrist, which oonstitates the centre 
and sabstance of Qod's revelation (Acts 17 : 18; 1 Cor. 1 : 28; OoL 1 : 27 ; 
Bey. 19:10). 

The patriarohsy thongh they had no knowledge of a personal Ohrist^ were 
saved by believing in Qod so far as Qod had revealed himself to them ; and 
whoever among tiie heathen are saved, must in like manner be saved by 
casting themselves as helpless sinners npon God's plan of mercy, dimly 
shadowed forth in natore and providence. Bnt snch faith, even among the 
patriarchs and heathen, is implicitly a faith in Christ, and wonld become 
explicit and oonscions tmst and sabmission, whenever Christ were made 
knowntoth6m(Mat 8:11, 12; John 10:16; Acts4:12; 10:81,84,86, 
U; 16:81). 

Aitii7:i8-*'l« jmAti JimaiidtlMnwrMte*'; 10ar.l:»— "vvprauk OUHaradM"; 0oLi:S7— 
**tki•m7lte7aanl( tkatatiH vUAisOkiiiftiB7VD,th0k0p«ir ghiT: vhomwvpm^ R«T. 19:10— "tla 
tHtlBOBy af Jmu if tht i|lril of pnpkicj.'* Saving fUth is not belief in a dogma, but personal 
trust in a personal Ohristb It is, therefore, possible to a ohild. Domer : ** The object of 

faith is the Christian revelation— Ood in Christ Faith is union with objective 

Christianity— appropriation of the real contents of Christianity." Dr. Samuel Hop- 
kins, the great uncle, defined faith as "an understanding, cordial receiving of the 
divine testimony concerning Jesus Christ and the way of salvation by him. In which 
the heart accords and conforms to the gospel." Dr. Mark Hopkins, the great nephew, 
defined it as ^ oonfidenoe in a personal being." Horace Bushnell: " Faith rests on a 
person. Faith is that act by which one person, a sinner, commits himself to another 
person, a Savior." InJahall:S— "I •aith«nnxn0kioiiaBdtk«li&"— Martha is led to substitute 
belief tn a person for belief in an abstract doctrine. Jesus is "tk« mamgttoB," because he 
is *'tht liih^** AU doctrine and all miracle is significant and important only because it is 
the expression of the living Christ, the Bevealer of Ood. 

The object of faith is sometimes represented in the N. T., as being God the Father. 
Ma 5 : 84^'' It thiit kttrith Bj vori aad balierift ym thii MBt n^ hatk atmal lift *' ; fto^ 
VPriEfth B0^ bat Ulinm a Mm tkat Jutililh tht vigodlj, to ftitk ii wkmi ftr xig^tMiinM.'* We oan 



coNVBRSioiir. 848 

erplaln these paamres only when we remember that Christ 1b God *' MiiMid is Ik* i«k' 
(llliB. 8:16), and that "!• Oat hatti mm m hstk mw tb* Ikthir" (Jokn 14:9). Man may reoeiye a 
rift without knowing from whom it oomes, or how much it has cost. So the heathen, 
who oasts himself as a sinner upon Ood^s meroy, may receive salvation from the Cmo^ 
fled One, without knowing who is the giver, or that the gift was purchased by agony 
and blood. Denney , Studies In Theology. IM ^** No N. T. writer ever remembered Chxist. 
They never thought of him as belonging to the past. Let us not preach about the Ms- 
torieal Christy but lather, about the living Christ ; nay. let ns preach him, present and 
omnipotent. Jesus could say : '¥kithir I go, j* ian Iht mj' ( Ma M:4); for they knew Mm. 
and he was both the end and the toay." 

Dr. Charles Hodge unduly restricts the operations of grace to the preaching of tiie 
Incarnate Christ : Syst. TheoL, 2 : 648 — ** There is no faith where the gospel is not heard ; 
and where there is no fUth, there is no salvation. This Is Indeed an awful doctrine." 
And yet, in8:688, he says most InconsiBtently : **Ab God is everywhere present In the 
material world, guiding its operations according to the laws of nature ; so he Is every- 
where present with the minds of men, as the Spirit of truth and goodness, operating on 
them according to laws of their tree moral agency, inclining them to good and restrain- 
ing them from evil.'* This presence and revelation of Ck>d we hold to be through Christ, 
the eternal Word, and so we interpret the prophecy of Gaiaphas as referring to the work 
of the personal Christ : Jtfaii 11 : SI, 68— "iM |n|hMi«d tka J«iu AmU di* fo tto aalin; aod B^ 
liitiA oalj, bol that to Bi^ aln gtthir togvlkv Into 006 th« tUUrn tf M 

Since Christ is the Word of God and the Ttuth of God, he may be received even by 
those who have not beard of his manifestation In the flesh. A proud and self-righteous 
morality is Inconsistent with saving faith; but a humple and penitent reliance upon 
God, as a Savior ftom sin and a guide of conduct, is an implicit faith In Christ ; for such 
reliance casts Itself upon God, so far as God has revealed himself,— and the only 
Bevealer of God Is Christ. We have, therefore, the hope that even among the heathen 
there may be some, Uke Socrates, who, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit working 
through the truth of nature and conscience, have found the way of lite and salvation. 

The number of such is so small as in no degree to weaken the claims of the missionary 
enterprise upon us. But that there are such seems to be intimated in Scripture : Hat 
8 : 11, 18— '' nnj AiU MBM ftw tto «Hl ud tht vM^ aad ildl lit down vitk Ahnihiii, lal iM^ 
kiagdflB «r 1mm : tel tki Mai of tha IdflgdoB ihiil b0 OMt fertk iato tto Mto d^ 

Amp I hftTi, wkiflh an ml of tUi ftid: tkaa atoo I Muk Iviaf, aad thij ikall hMr mj mm \ and iksy ihall booMio 
0MlMk,waAaphird"; iJti4:18— "AadiaiiDBaotkflriittwnialTitiaa: ftr nathar U tkn aay oikir bmbi udv 
kaam, tkat ii givm aHOOg Man, vtoraia vo auk ba »Tid"; 10:81, 8^ 86^ 44— ''Oonalia^ tkypnjw ii feaaii 
aad ikiaa aiM an had la ifMBbnyMa la tto aigki of Qod. . . . . Of a tratk I poTNin thai God ia lu 
bat la oTMj BAtiMi ho that teroth hia, aad vorkoth nghtooaaooM, la iMoptaUo to hia . .. . . ¥Uk Potar 70k ipaka 
thoM vffd% thoHoly Spiiit fldl oa aU thai thai hMid tho v«d"; 10: 81— "Boliffloa tha Lord J«a% aad tkoa 
ihatt bo Mvid, thou aad thj hoiaa. " 

And instances are found of apparently regenerated heathen ; see in Godet on Joha 7 : 17, 
note ( vol. 8 : S77 )• the account of the so-called " Chinese hermit," who accepted Christ, 
saying : " This Is the only Buddha whom men ought to worship I ** Bdwards, Life of 
Brainard, 17B-17&, gives an account ** of one who was a devout and aerlous reformer, or 
rather restorer, of what he supposed was the ancient religion of the Indians. " After 
a period of distress, he says that God '* comforted his heart and showed him what he 
should do, and since that time he had known God and tried to serve him ; and loved all 
men, be they who they would, so as he never did before. *' See art. by Dr. Lucius B. 
Smith, in Bib. Sac., Oct. 1881 : 882-64&, on the question : "Is salvation possible without 
a knowledge of the gospel ? " H. B. Smith, System, 888, note, rightly bases hope for the 
heathen, not on morality, but on sacriflce. 

A chief of the Oamaroons in S. W. Africa, fishing with many of his tribe long before 
the missionaries came, was overtaken by a storm, and while almost all the rest were 
drowned, he and a few others escaped. He gathered his people together afterwards 
and told the story of disaster. He said : '* When the canoes upset and I found myself 
battling with the waves, I thought: To whom shall I cry for help? I knew that the 
god of the hills could not help me ; I knew that the evil spirit would not help me. So 
I cried to the Great lather. Lord, save me I At that moment my feet touched the 
sand of the beach, and I was safe. Now let all my people honor the Great Flather, and 
let no man speak a word against him, for be can help us. '* This chief afterwards used 
every effort to prevent strife and bloodshed, and was remembered by those who came 
after as a peace-maker. His son told this stiwy to Alfred Saker, the miadooary, saying: 



844 SOTBBIOLOOY, OB THE DOCTRINE OF SALYATIOK. 

** Why did you not oome sooner? My father longed to know what you have told nt: 
be thinted for the knowledge of God.** ICr. Saker told this in England In 1879. 

John Fiske appends to his book. The Idea of Ood« 108, 108, the following paihetio 
words of a Kafir, named Sekese, in oonversation with a French traveler, M. Arbron- 
floUle, on the BUl^eot of the Christian religion: **Tour tidings, " said this unoultored 
bartiarlan, ''are what I want, and I was seeking before I knew yon, as yoa shall hear 
and Judge for yourself. Twelve yeaisago I went to feed my flodks ; the weather was 
hasy. I sat down upon a rook, and asked myself sorrowful questions ; yes, sorrowful, 
because I was unable to answer them. Who has touched the stars with his hands —on 
what pillars do they rest? I asked myself. The waters never weary, they know no 
other law than to flow without ceasing from morning tiU night and from night till 
morning ; but where do they stop, and who makes them flow thus? The clouds also 
oome and go, and bunt in water over the earth. Whence come they —who sends them? 
The diviners certainly do not give us ratn; for how could thiqy do it? Andwhydolnot 
see them with my own eyes, when they go up to heaven to fetch it? I cannot see the 
wind ; but what is it? Who brings it, makes it blow and roar and terrify us? Do I 
know how the com sprouts? Yesterday there was not a blade in my field ; to-day I 
returned to my field and found some ; who can have given to the earth the wisdom and 
the power to produce it? Then I burled my head in both hands. " 

On the question whether men are ever led to faith, without interoourse with living 
Christians or preachers, see Life of Judson, by his son, 84. The British and Foreign 
Bible Society publish a statement, made upon the authority of Sir Bartle Frere, that 
he met with "an instanoe, which was carefully investigated, in which all the inhabi- 
tants of a remote village in the Deccan had abjured idolatry and caste, removed from 
their temples the idols which had been worshiped there time out of mind, and agreed to 
profess a form of Christianity which they had deduced from the careful perusal of a 
single Gospel and a few tracts. " Max Mliller, Chipa, 4 : 17T-188, apparently proves that 
Buddha is the original of 8t^ Josaphat, who has a day assigned to him in the *^i<wiHf^y 
of both the Oreek and the Boman churohes. ** Sancte Socrates, ora pro nobis. '* 

The Missionary Beview of the World, July, 1880: 610-888, tells the story of Adirl, 
afterwards called John King, of Marlpastoon In Dutch Guiana. The Holy Spirit 
wrought in him mightily years before he heard of the miasionarieB. He was a coal-black 
negro, a heathen and a fetish worshiper. He was convicted of sin and apparently con- 
verted through dreams and visions. Heaven and hell were revealed to him. He was 
sick unto death, and One appeared to him declaring himself to be the Mediator betwee n 
God and man, and telling him to go to the missionaries for instruotipn. He was perse- 
cuted, but he won his tribe from heatbenlnn and transformed them into a Christian 
oonununity. 

8. W. Hamblen, missionary to China, teDs of a very earnest and consistent believer 
who lived at rather an obscure town of about 8800 people. The evangelist went to visit 
him and found that he was a worthy example to those around him. He had become a 
Christian before he had seen a single believer, by reading a Chinese New Testament. 
Although till the evangelist went to his house he had never met a Baptist and did not 
know that there were any Baptist churches in existence, yet by reading the New Tes- 
tament he had become not only a Christian but a strong Baptist in belief, so strong that 
he could argue with the missionary on the subject of baptism* 

The Bev. K. B. Malm, a pioneer Baptist preacher in Sweden, on a Journey to the dis- 
trict as far north as Gestrikland, met a woman from Lapland who was on her way to 
TJpsala in order to visit Dr. FJeUstedt and converse with liim as to how she might 
obtain peace with God and get rid of her anxiety concerning her sins. She said she had 
traveled 80 (-840 BngUsh) miles, and she had still far to go. Malm improved the 
opportunity to speak to her concerning the crucified Christ, and she found peace in 
believing on his atonement. She became so happy that she olapi)ed her hands, and for 
Joy could not sleep that night. She said later : ^ Now I will return home and tell the 
people what I have found." This she did, and did not care to continue her Journey to 
Upsala, in order to get comfort from Dr. F^Jellstedt. 

(c) That the ground of faiih is the external word of promise. The 
ground of assurance, on the other hand, is the inward witness of the Spirit 
that we fulfil the oonditions of the promise (Bom. 4 : 20, 21 ; 8 : 16; Eph. 
1:18; lJohn4:13; 6:10). This witness of the Spirit is not a new zere- 



CONYEBSION. 846 

lation from God, bnt a fltrengtJiening of faith so that it beoomea oonsoionB 
and indabitable. 

Tme faith is possible withont assnranoe of salvation. But if Alexander's 
view were oorreot» that the object of saving faith is the proposition : '<Gk>d, 
for Christ's sake, now looks with reoonciling love on me, a sinner," no one 
could believe, without being at the same time assured that he was a saved 
person. Upon the true view, that the object of saving faith is not a propo- 
sition, but a person, we can perceive not only the simplicily of fedth, but 
the poBsibiliiy of &dth even where the soul is destitute of assurance or of 
joy. Hence those who already believe are urged to seek for assurance 
(Heb. 6: 11; 2 Peter 1:10). 

Rob. 4 : 10^ 21— "koikiiig unto tk« poranuie «f 6o4, k« mvtnd not throogk «Bbeli< Intvixidilniiganiigk frith, 
giving glory to G«d, aad baiBg fUlj lonnd that what h« kad praniMd, hi vas aU« alM to paftnn '* ; 8:16 — "At 
^irit Umitlf teratk vite«a vitk tor ipih^ itot v« an ckildna of God"; 1^ 1: 18— "la vhon^ having alio 
bdierod, je vm wdod vith the Eoiy 8^t of pnouae" ; 1 John 4 :13— "hor% vo knov that w abide in hia, and 
he in 11% booanae ho hath giTon na of hia Spirtt " ; 5 : 10 — ''le that beUorath on the Sea of God hath the witaeoi in Um.'* 
This aasuranoe la not of the eoenoe of faith, because believers are exhorted to attain to 
It : leb. 6:11— "And «e deain that oaeh om of yoa mkj ahov toe lame diligenee unto toe fialnen of hope [marg. 
— 'fUl aanuineo'] evn to the ad*'; 8 Ml:10-***¥h«efaN^ hnthnn,giT8 the am diligenee tonkeTMr 
eaUingandeleotioninre.** Cr.PMT.14:U— ''AgoodnanahalibeaatiidedfivMhinMlt" 

There is need to guard the doctrine of asBuranoe from mysticism. The witness of 
the Spirit ia not a new and direct revelation from Gk)d. It is a strengthening of pre- 
viously existing faith until he who possesses this faith cannot any longer doubt that 
he possesses it. It is a general rule that all our emotions, when they become exceed- 
ingly strong, also become conscious. Instance affection between man and woman. 

Edwards, Beliglous AfTectlons, in Works, 8: 88-01, says the witness of the Spirit is not 
a new word or suggestion from God, butan enlightening and sanctlf jring influence, so 
that the heart is drawn forth to embrace the truth already revealed, and to perceive 
that it embraces it. ^ Bearing witness " is not in this case to declare and assert a thing 
to be true, but to hold forth evidence from which a thing may be proved to be true : 

God "baanto vitaiOB byaiguaad vonden'* (Eeb.8:4) So the ''seal Of the Spirit" is not 

a voice or suggestion, but a work or effect of the Spirit, left as a divine mark upon the 
soul, to be an evidence by which God*s children may be known. Seals had engrraved 
upon them the image or name of the persons to whom they belonged. The ''seal of 
the Spirit," the ''earnest of the Spirit," the " witness of the Spirit, " are all one thing. 
The childlike spirit, given by the Holy Spirit, is the Holy Spirits witness or evidenoe 
in us. 

See also illustration of faith and assurance, in 0. 8. Bobinson's Short Studies for 
S. S. Teachers, 179, 190. Faith should be distinguished not only from assurance, but also 
from feeling or Joy. Instance Abraham^s faith when he went to sacrifice Isaac; and 
Madame Guyon's faith, when Gk>dVi face seemed hid from her. See, on the witness of 
the Spirit, Short, Bampton Lectures for 1846; British and For. Evan. Bev., 1888:<I17-68L 
For the view which confounds faith with assurance^ see Alexander, Discourses on Faith, 
68-U8. 

It Is important to distinguish saving faith from assurance of faith, for the reason 
that lack of assurance is taken by so many real Christians as evidence that they know 
nothing of the grace of Gk)d. To use once more a well-worn illustration : It Is getting 
Into the boat that saves us, and not our comfortable feelings about the boat. What 
saves us is faith In Chritit not faith in our faith, or faith in the faith. The astronomer 
does not turn his telescope to the reflection of. the sun or moon in the water, when he 
can turn it to the sun or moon itself. Why obscure our faith, when we can look to 
Christ? 

The faith in a distant Bedeemer was the faith of Christian, in Bunyan's Pilgrim's 
Progress. Only at the end of his journey does Christian have Christ's presence. This 
representation rests upon a wrong conception of faith as laying hold of a promise or a 
doctrine, rather than as laying hold of the living and present Christ The old Scotch 
woman's direction to the inquirer to " grip the promise " is not so good as the direction 
to '*grip Christ." Sir SVands Drake, the great English sailor, had for his orest an 



846 SOTBRIOLOOT, OR THB DOOTRINB OF SALVATION. 

anchor with a cable runntoff up into the sky. A poor boy, taught In a mivion school in 
Ireland, when asked what was meant by saving fUth, replied : *' It is grasping God with 
the heart." 

The view of Charles Hodge, Uke that of Alexander, puts doctrine before Christ, and 
makes the formal principle, the supremacy of Scripture, superior to the material prin- 
ciple, Justification by faith. The Shorter Catechism is better : *' Faith in Christ is a sav- 
ing grace, whereby we receive and rest on him alone for salvation, as he is offered to us 
in the gospeL " If this relation of faith to the personal Christ had been kept in mind, 
much religious despondency might have been avoided. Murphy, Natural Selection and 
Spiritual SVeedom, 80, 81, tells us that Frances Bidley Havergal could never fix the 
date of her conversion. From the age of six to that of fourteen she suffered from relig- 
ious fears, and did not venture to call herself a Christian. It was the result of con- 
founding helnij at peace with God and being oonaeioius of that peace. So the mother of 
Frederick Denison liaurice, an admirable and deeply religious woman, endured long 
and deep mental suflierlng from doubts as to her personal election. 

There is a witness of the Spirit, with some sinners, that they are not children of God, 
and this witness is through the truth, though the sinner does not know that it is the 
Spirit who reveals it to him. We call this work of the Spirit conviction of shi. The 
witness of the Spirit that we are children of God, and the aaBurance of faith of which 
Scripture speaks, are one and the same thing, the former designation only emphasising 
the source from which the assurance sprlngiEU False aanirance is destitute of humility, 
but true assurance is so absorbed in Christ that self is forgotten. Self-consdousnest, 
and desire to display one's faitli, are not marks of true assurance. When we say : '* That 
man has a great deal of assurance," we have in mind the false and self-centered asmr- 
anoe of the hypocrite or the self -deceiver. 

Allen, Jonatiuu Bdwards, 881 — " It has been said that any one who can read Bdwardi's 
Religious Affections, and still believe In his own conversion, may well have the highest 
assurance of its reality. But how few there were in Edwards's time who gained the 
assurance, may be inferred from the circumstance that Dr. Hopkins and Dr. Bmmons, 
disciples of Bdwards and religious leaders in New Bngland, remained to the last uncer- 
tain of their oonvenion.'* He can attribute this only to the semi-deistic spirit of the 
time, with its distant God and imperfect apprehension of the omnipresence and omni- 
potence of Christ. Nothing so olearly marks the practical progress of Christianity as 
the growing faith in Jesus, the only Bevealer of God In nature and history as well as 
In the heart of the believer. As never before, faith comes directly to Christ, abides in 
him, and finds his promise true: **lokIui«ilk7«ad«ij^if«utetht«d«raiw]d"(Iat»:M). 
** Nothing before, nothing behind; The steps of faith Fall on the seeming void and find 
The Book beneath." 

{d) That fiiitli neoeBsorily leads to good works, sinoe it embraoes the 
whole tmth of God so far aa made known, and appropriates Ohrist, not only 
as an external flaidor, bat as an inteznal sanctifying power (Heb. 7:15, 16; 
OaL 6 : 6). 

Good works are the proper evidenoe of faiiL The faith which does not 
lead men to act upon the commands and promises of Ghrist, or, in other 
words, does not lead to obedience, is called in Scriptnre a "dead,** that is, 
an unreal, faith. Such faith ia not saving, since it lacks the voluntary ele- 
ment — actual appropriation of Ghrist (James 2 : 14-26). 



IA 7:ti,il--^tt«lhw|riii^ vhohatkbMBidi^ BotiftwtlMkv«ra watlMBBudBM^ tat 
iftSMdlMiliii"; teLS:6— "f«ia(hhii J«u uHHkm ttnomimm anlhtk aajthlog, aar nnripwrnditiea ; bol 
aUk vwkiaf tknogh lort"; JiaMS:ii, M— "Vkil istk it prafl^ m j bvtknn, if a nan ujU hatk fiitk, bat 
I»vai0lvtrki7 (ha thit fria Mn kimT . . . . iMr m tki bodyifHl fron tk«ipiritiidiad,fviaMbitkifirl 
frBSiw«ricfiai«i** 

The best evidanoe that I believe a man's word Is that I act upon it. Instance the 
bank-cashier's assurance to me that a sum of money is deposited with him to my 
account If I am a millionaire, the communication may cause me no special Joy. My 
faith In the cashier's word Is tested by my going, or not going, for the money. So my 
faith in Christ is evidenced by my acting upon hit commands and promises. We may 
Illustrate also by the lifting of the trolley to the wire, and the resulting light and heat 

^motloatotbeoarthat before stood dark and oold and motlonleBB upon the tracdb 



COKTEBSIOir. 847 

SalTEtion by worka Jb like frefctliiff to one's destination by posbinff the oar. True fUtb 
depends upon God for energy, but it results in activity of all our powers. Im. 8 : tt — 
"▼• neluB tt«if«f tiMt a aua is Jutiiid by fiutk •pvt frn tha vorki of tht Uv." We are saved only by 
faith« yet this fliith will be sure to bring forth irood works; 8eeGaLS:6— "fcitk v«rtii|r 
ttroagh kn.** Dead faith might be Illustrated by Abraham Lincoln's Mississippi steam- 
boat, whose whistle was so big that, when it sounded, the boat stopped. Oonfessioii 
exhausts the energy, so that none is left for action. 

A. J. Gordon, The First Tiiiog in the World, or The Primapy of Faith : ** David Brain- 
ard speaks with a kind of suppressed astonishment of what he observed among the 
degraded North American Indians : how, preaching to them the good news of salvation 
through the atonement of Christ and persuading them to accept it by faith, and then 
hastening on in his rapid missionary tours, he found, on returning upon hJs track a 
year or two later, that the fruits of righteousness and sobriety and virtue and brotli- 
erly love were everywhere visible, though it had been po«ible to impart to them only 
the slightest moral or ethical teaching." 

(e) That faith, as oharacteristioanj the inward act of reception, is not to 
be confounded with love or obedience, its fmit. 

Faith is, in the Scriptores, called a work, only in the sense that man's 
active powers are engaged in it It is a work which Gk>d requires, yet 
which God enables man to perform (John 6 : 29 — ipyav tov Qeov, Qf, Bom. 
1 : 17 — duuuooinnf Oecv ). As the gift of Qod and as the mere taking of unde- 
served mercy, it is expressly excluded from the category of works upon the 
basis of whidi man may daim salvation (Bom. 8 : 28 ; 4 : 4, 5, 16). It is 
not the act of the full soul bestowing, but the act of an empty soul receiv- 
ing. Although this reception is prompted by a drawing of heart toward 
Qod inwrought by the Holy Spirit, this drawing of heart is not yet a con- 
scious and developed love: such love is the result of faith (QaL 5:6). 
What precedes faith is an unconscious and undeveloped tendency or dispo- 
sition toward Gbd. (Conscious and developed affection toward Qod, or love 
proper, must always follow faith and be the product of faith. So, too» 
obedience can be rendered only after fedth has laid hold of Ohriati and with 
him has obtained the epirit of obedience (Bom. 1 : 5 — inraitoijv ir(orec<B 
' ' obedience resulting from faith *' ). Hence faith is not the procuring cause 
of salvation, but is only the instrumental causa The ixrocnring cause is 
the Ohrist, whom faith embraces. 



Mui6:IB— "AiiiBthavvricof Otitetytbdimfli liBvkB httatknst**; csf.laal:!?— **tott«ii 
ii rtTMdid a ligktMoaim of Ood £nm Ulk uto biU : M it Ji viitta, Ivl tto fif ktMOf ikiU UTf ^ 
S : 28 --•' ¥• rHkoB ttflnfm tlMt a naa ii Juttlii by fldtk apnt flpm thi vvki <f 

tDkialkatvarktlk^thtrsvinliiiwtraskaMduof gneiyteittflfAibl. Bnl to hia thil vorlnlk ati bat bdlmlk 
whim thai JutiiUhtbAUgodly, hit aitkiiiwkflMdftrrighlaaainMi. .... rtotUtaaiiMitiaarflkitk,thititaay 
btMMriJBf to gHM" ; aaL S:6~"liaria ttriil hm mdi^ dmmeUm mSltik asjftiuft mt miraiiitoiMi ; 
bvt Ufk vorkiag thiMgh tora"; KiiBki:6— "tknigk vhai va mafed pm aad ajlhiMft aito obriiaai rf 
fcith UDOK all tha national** 

Faith stands as an intermediate faotor between the unoonsdous and nndersloped 
tendenoy or disposition toward Ood inwrought in the soul by God*s regenerating aot» 
on the one hand, and the conscious and developed affection toward God which is one 
of the fruits and evidences of conversion, on the other. Illustrate by the motherly 
instinct shown in a little girl's care for her doll,— a motherly instinct which becomes a 
developed mother's love, only when a child of her own is bom. This new love of the 
Christian is an activity of his own soul,and yet it is a"frut«ltlM8piit"(0aLfi:S). To 
attribute it wholly to himself would be like calling the walking and leaping of the lame 
man ( ioto S : 8 ) merely a healthy activity of his own. For illustration of tlie priority of 
faith to love, see Shedd, Dogm. HieoL, S : 688| note ; on the velatlaii of fUth to love^ sea 
Julius MUller, Doct Sin, 1:116. 117. 

The logical order is therefore: 1. UnconsoiOtts and undeveloped tove; S. SUth in 
Christ and his truth; & OonBdousand developed love; 4. Asniranoeof faith, WtAth 



848 SOTBRIOLOQY, OR THB DOCTBIKB OP SALVATIOIT. 

and love aot and reaot upon one another. BBoh advance In the one leads to a oorr^ 
spondinff advance In the other. But the Bouroe of all is In God. Ood loves, and there- 
fore he ffives love to us as well as receives love from us. The unoonsoioQS and 
undeveloped love which he Imparts in rofreneration is the root of all Christian faith. 
The Boman Catholic is right in affirming the priority of love to fslth, if he means b7 
love only this unconscious and undeveloped aflOotton. But the Protestant is also right 
in affirming the priority of faith to love, if he means by love a ooosolous and devdoped 
affection. Stevens, Johannine Theology, 808 — ** Faith is not a mere passive receptivity. 
As the acceptance of a divine life, it involves the possession of a new moral eneigy. 
Psith works by love. In faith a new life-fovoe is received, and new Uf e-powws stir 
within the Christian man.'* 

We must not confound repentance with fruits meet for repentance, nor fSlth with 
fruits meet fOr faith. A. J. Gordon, Hie First Thing in the World: "Love is the great- 
est thing in the world, but faith is the first. The tree is greater than the root, but let 
itnotboast: 'iftlmgkriM^itiiBftthMtkit b«nrt thinol,batth0iwlllM' (lM.tt:18). Love has 
no power to branch out and bear fruit, except as, through faith, it is rooted in Christ 
and draws nourishment from him. i M. i : S— ' vIm ty Ikt ytw of M m gur^ tkraigli fidih ute 
aMlntiMim47tobenv«Minth«]iitttaN'; iOw.iS:lS— 'aw aUdttti frith, hopiblm'; IMkiO: IMS— 
*inw iMT .... la UbIbmi «r bitk .... kdd bA tkt wiImiIub tf Mur kpi .... pnrakf ante Isvt ui gMi 

vorkt'; Bflik5:i-6— 'JsitiM by kith . . . . nj«« in iNpt left tf CM hatti bMa ihtA aknid ia «ar 

kMrti*;iAMii:l,t— 'vaikrffldtkudUiarortofiaadiitiMNinwpa^' Faith is the actinic ray, hope 
the luminif^rous ray, love the calorific ray. But faith contains the principle of the 
divine likeness, as the life of the parent given to the child contains the principle of like- 
ness to the ftither, and will insure moral and physloal resemblance in due time." 

A. J. Gordon, Ministry of the Spirit, U2 -'* *Ai km of tk« Spirit' ( BoL 15 : 10 ) is the love of 
the Spirit of Christ, and it is given us for overcoming the world. The divine life is the 
source of the divine love. Therefore the love of God is 'Aid abnid la mt kMrti by tbi blj 
Spirit vb« ii gitai uto u ' ( ftaB.S:6 ). Because we are by nature so wholly without heavenly 
affection, God, through the indwelling Spirit, gives us his own love with which to love 
himself." A. H. Strong, Christ in Creation, 88B, 28!, points out that in S Oar. S : 14 — ■ tli kvt 
flf Ohiiit wartwiBitt u " — the love of Christ is ^*not our love to Christ, for that is a very 
weak and uncertain thing ; nor even Christ's love to us, for that is still something 
external to us. Bach of these leaves a separation between Christ and us, and falls to 
aot as a moving power within. .... Not simply ourlove to Christ, nor simply Christ's 
love to us, but rather Christ's love in us, is the love that constrains. This is the thought 
of the apostle." The first fmit of this love, in its still uncoosaftous and undeveloped 
state, is faith. 

(/) That iBith is BOfioeptible of inoreaBe. 

This is eridenti 'whether we consider it from the hmnan or from the divine 
side. Asanaotof manyithasanintellecttialfanemotionaltandayolantazy 
element, each of whioh is capable of growth. As a work of God in the Boi:d 
of man, it can receive, through the presentation of the tmth and the qniok- 
ening agenoj of the Holy Spirit, continually new aooesfiions of knowledge, 
sensibilify, and active energy. Snoh increase of ^th, therefore^ we are to 
seek, both by resolnte exercise of our own powers, and above all« by direct 
application to the source of fedth in God (Luke 17 : 6). 

lBktl7:S— ''iadtbtiVMlliiaJdimtotbehrd.IiuraMtBraitL'' The adult Christian has mora 
faith than he had when a child,— evidently there has been increase, i OoKi iS:8b S— "fbr t» 
•MiiglTttthnDgbttt Sprit tb0 void of wiidaB.... to uoibvfluth, la tbt aunt Spktt^ In this latter 
passage, it seems to be intimated that for special exigencies the Holy Spirit gives to his 
servants special lUth, so that they are enabled to lay hold of the general promise of 
God and make special application of it. Im. 8: 86^17 —"the Spirit alnbalpettov iaihiuty . . . . 
MkfaiatvBMBflaftrvB. . . . auMb iatvNHiaaflrtbeMiBtiMaaidiag totbtvUlflfOod'*; i JohBS:i4kl5— 
•*iBithiBjltbtboldBMvbiAv•bAntl«lldbiB|,tbll»lfv•■lk■aJtbia(Moordiagtobisw^ ud 
if ve]mov1tetbabMi«tbuYbitiMT«vtMk,vikBnrtbatvfbAT»tb« petitioaa vbiob v* bavt Mkad «f bioL" 
Only when we begin to believe, do we appreciate our lack of faith, and the great need 
of Its increase. The little beginning of light makes known the greatness of the sux^ 
rounding darkness. lariL 9:84— "I btUfvi; batptboamlatiiabdigf"— was the utterance of one 
who xeoognlaed both the need of faith and the true source of supply. 



JITSTIFIOATIOK. 849 

On the general rabjeot of Finiih* see KOstUn, Die Lehte von dem Glanben, IS-aS* 801- 
Ml, and in Jabrbuoh f . d. TheoL, 4 : 177 «?. ; Bomalne on Faith, 9-89 ; Bishop of Onoiy, 
Nature and BfieotB of Faith* 1-40; Venn, CharHotBrigtiot of Belief, IntroduotiOD; 
Nltnoh, System of Christ. Boot, 89i. 

IV. JlTErtlFIGATIOK. 

1. Dejlnition of Juatiflcation. 

By jnstifioation we mean that jndidal act of Qod by whioh, on aooonnt of 
ChriBt^ to whom the Burner is united by faith, he dedares that sinner to be 
no longer ezpoeed to the penalty of the law, but to be restored to his fayor. 
Or» to give an altematiye definition from which all metaphor is exdnded : 
Justification is the reversal of God's attitude toward the amnery because of 
the Bumer's new relation to Christ God did condemn ; he now acquits. 
He did repel ; he now admits to favor. 

Justification, as thus defined, is therefore a declarative act, as distin- 
gnished from an efficient act ; an act of God external to the sinner, as dis- 
tingnished from an act within the sinner's nature and changing that nature ; 
a judicial act, as distinguished from a sovereign act ; an act based upon and 
logically presupposing the sinner's union with Christy as distinguished from 
an act which causes and is followed by that union with Christ 

The word 'declarative' does not imply a * spoken' word on God's part,— much less 
that the sinner hears Ood speak. That Justillcatlon is sovereiffn, is held by Armlnians, 
and by those who advocate a governmental theory of the atonement. On any such 
theory, justification must be sovereign ; since Christ bore, not the penalty of the law, 
but a substituted suffering which God gradoualy and sovereignly accepts in place of 
our suffering and obedienoe. 

Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1100, wrote a tract for the consolation of the 
djrlng, who were alanned on account of sin. The following is an extract from It: 
'* QuaitUm, Dost thou believe that the Lord Jesus died for thee ? Answer . I believe It. 
Qtt. Best thou thank him for his passion and death? Ans, Idothankhim. Qu. Best 
thou believe that thou canst not be saved except by his death? Ans, I believe it." 
And then Anselm addresses the dying man : *'Come then, while life remaineth in thee; 
In his death alone place thy whole trust ; In naught else place any trust ; to his death 
commit thyself wholly ; with this alone cover thyself wholly ; and if the Lord thy God 
will to judge thee, say, ' Lord, between thy Judgment and me I present the death of our 
Lord Jesus Christ ; no otherwise can I contend with thee.' And if he shall say that thou 
art a sinner,, say thou : 'Lord, I interpose the death of our Lord Jesus Christ between 
my sins and thee.' If he say that thou hast deserved oondenmatlon, say : * Lord, I set 
the death of our Lord Jesus Christ between my evil deserts and thee, and his merits I 
offer for those which I ought to have and have not.' If he say that he Is wroth with 
thee, say : * Lord, I oppose the death of our Lord Jesus Christ between thy wrath and 
me.' And when thou hast completed this, say again : * Lord, I set the death of our Lord 
Jesus Christ between thee and me.' " See Anselm, Opera (Mlgne), l:d8A, 687. The 
above quotation gives us reason to beUeve that the New Testament doctrine of justi- 
fication by fSaith was Implicitly, if not explicitly, held by many pious souls through all 
the ages of papal darkness. 

2. Proof of the Doctrine of JuHificaHon, 

A. Soriptare proofs of the doctrine as a whole are the following : 



Bin. 1:17 ~"arichlaoiiniB«rflodfr«idfhutefldtk";8:M^~''lMiaffJiis^ 
thmdoVtiAtkiykiaiattriilJMU. . . . thi Jutiflir of kia thai hath fidth ia Jasu. .... ▼enekflatkmfcn 
thfttAauaiiJaMifladbjftitkapHtlhBtbvwkiofthAkv. . . . . Jutiff tht dnamdilfla by fidth, aad ft* midr- 
ouDttiiloatknagkfulli**; (U.S:ll~"lovtlHilBOBiMi8 JnsliMbyfhikvlMCmGHiiefidut: for.nArigkt- 
flwuihRUUTaby&itk; ttdtkalavifaottf flulk; Imtklte tbU dosth Om ibdllivf iatkni"; l^l:7~**Ja 
«• km «r riA«q*faB tknogh kto hload, tht ibisifHMH of oBf tnq^ 

M 



650 SOTERIOLOOT, OB THE DOCTBIKB OF SALTATIOV. 



lUi U :i 7— "By iuth ibd «ind unto M ft Mn anDMt MTilM ttu (Ua, fbwgk wkk^ 
to Ua ttal kt vas rigktoott. .... Bj toitk loih ... . ami witk godlj Cmt, fnptnd «& arte ... . btauM kdr 
oTlhei^ktooiiiiiwwIuAuftooQHiagtofcitk'*; e/.0«.tt:6--'AiiitebdtoTMiBM»Tfth; ^ 
UBftrrigktoottBM'*; Ii.7:9-"If ji win Mk UltofibMnfy 7« ihftU nol btatohUiktd"; »:16— "kllil 
kUmlkihftUiMklMiakftito**; lfttB;4~"tliaiigfctoiPMAftIlliwbykiiftittL'* 

Hl 8S : 8 — "lb will viftkptiM utoUtptopliL" Ood*0 great word of pwdon IndndM all else. 
Peaoe with him implies all tbe covenant privileges resulting tlierefrom. 1 Oir. S :ll-a— 
**ftU thiBgiftnyMzi," beoause "yt an Okrut'i; aai CkiH it flod'i.'* This is not salvation by law, 
nor by ideals, nor by effort, nor by character ; although obedience to law, and a loftier 
ideal, and unremitting effort, and a pure oharaoter, are consequences of Justifloation. 
Justification is the change in Ood*s attitude toward tbe sinner which makes all these 
consequences possible. The only condition of Justifloation is the sinner's faith in Jesus* 
which merges the life of the sinner in the life of Christ. Paul expresses the truth in 
W.S:i«^B0--**lBowiBf1kstftBtttoMtJutiBadbyttevvkfrfttakvMtkrMgkibitkiaJMuCkii^f^ 

bdtoviAasOkiMJin^thaftvtBightWJvitiMbytoitkiBiMi^MdMkl^thtvorkiafthaUw IhftTt 

bMS cnuiiid vilk Okriit ; ttd it to nt kBgw I thai liTa^ tat (hrtol hTilk in ■• : tad tkat lift vkiA I ^ 
laahlUTtintoith, thatoitk vkkktointkiBanefOad, vlotoTtdB%ftBdgaTf UMtlfi^forM." 

With these observations and qualifications we may assent to much that is said by 
Whiton, Divine Satisfftotion, 6A, who distinguishes between forgiveness and remisiloa : 
** Forgiveness is the righting of disturbed personal relations. Bemission is removal of 
the consequences which in the natural order of things have resulted from our fault. 
God forgives all that is strictly personal, but remits nothing that is strictly natural in 
sin. He imparts to the sinner the power to bear his burden and work off his debt of 
consequences. Forgiveness is not remission. It is introductory to remission. Just as 
conversion is not salvation, but introductory to salvation. The prodigal was received 
by his father, but he could not recover his lost patrimony. He could, however, have 
been led by penitence to work so hard that he earned more than he had lost. 

**Here is an element in Justifloation which Protestantism has ignored* and which 
Rntnanton has tried to retain. Debts must be paid to the uttermost farthing. The 
soars of past sins must remain forever. Forgiveness oonveria the persistent energy of 
past sin from a destructive to a constructive power. There is a transformation of 
energy into a new form. Genuine repentance spurs us up to do what we can to make 
up for time lost and for wrong done. The sinner is clothed anew with moral power. 
We are all to be Judged by our works. That Paul had been a blasphemer was ever 
stimulating him to Christian endeavor. The faith which receives Christ is a peculiar 
apfrit, a certain moral activity of love and obedience. It is not mere reliance on what 
Christ was and did, but active endeavor to become and to do like him. Human Justice 
takes hold of deeds ,* divine righteousness deals with eharaeter. Justification by faith 
is Justification by spirit and inward principle, apart from the merit of works or per- 
formances, but never without these. God*s charity takes the will for the deed. This 
is not Justification by outward conduct, as the Judalsers thought* but by the godly 
spirit.'* If this new spirit be the Spirit of Christ to whom fSith has united the soul, we 
can accept the statement. There is danger however of conceiving this spirit as purely 
man's own, and Justification as not external to the sinner nor as the work of God, 
but as the mere name for a subjective process by which man Justifies himself. 

B. Soriptare tuse of the speoial words translated " justify " aad " jnstifi- 
oation" in the Septoagint and in the New Testament. 

( a ) diMoidu — uniformly, or with only a single exception, signifiesi not to 
make righteous, but to declare just, or free from guilt and exposure to pun- 
ishment The only O. T. passage where this meaning is questionable is 
Dan. 12 : 8. But even here the proper translation is, in all probability, not 
*they that turn many to righteousness,' but 'they that justify many,' i, e., 
cause many to be justified. For the Hiphil force of the verb, see Girdle- 
stone, O. T. Syn., 257, 258, and Delitzsch on Is. 53 : 11 ;c/. Jame85 :19, 20. 

O. T. texts: 1l 88:7— "I viU not JnMiiythfvidcdi"; 9Mt»:l~"tk^CtheJudges]ibaUJa^ 
il^Uimfaa,9aAtmkmjx11umAti";U^T!:S--"fnUiXtm ¥1143:8— "is ttij 

light no Dti UTiof if righteoof "; PntM7: 15— "He that Jutiibtk tk« vukad, tnd kt t^ 
Botk «r tham aliko art an abominitka to Jehonh '\ la 6 : 88 -'' tkat Justify tlw viokad te a brlH 
igkl8«QiDM of tko rightoou from kin"; 60:8— "lo is mv tkat JaUiflUhM**; 6S:U— "by thikaratdi|S«( 



JU8TIFICATI0K. 851 

UMdfiten^rrigMMUMmilJailiiyBuy; uiiktikiailMirtkdriBifiiitiii*'; ]ln.tt:S— "udtlqrtkrttan 
mukj to riffctnaaimM^ m tk« flin fnr ew ui •▼« " ( * they that Justify many,' i. e., cause many to 
be Justified); c/. JiaiiS:lt,20~''IEjbrilhriD,if uyanMig yon ar tram tho tnitk,aad om oonvirt kia; 
lil him faMw, thai b vlM anvvtoUi a liiiiiff frw tte OTW of kii «ft7 ikall ATI a lODl frondiitk, and itan tows 
■uititadtafiiu." 

The Christian minister ahsolyeB from Bin, only as he marries a oonple: be does not 
Join them, — he only declares them Joined. So he declares men forgiven, if they have 
complied with the appointed divine conditions. BCarrlaiire may be inyalid where these 
conditions are laolring, but the minister's absolution is of no account where there is no 
repentance of sin and faith in Christ ; see Q. D. Boardman, The Church, 178. We are 
ever to remember that the term JustiUcation is a forensic term which presents the 
change of Ood 's attitude toward the sinner in a pictorial way derived from the pro- 
cedure of earthly tribunals. The fact is laiKer and more vital than the flffure used to 
describe it. 

McConnen, Evolution of Immortality, ISA, 186— " Christ's terms are biological ; those 
of many theologians are legal. It may be ages before we recover from the misfortune 
of having had the truth of Christ interpreted and fixed by Jurists and logicians, instead 
of by naturalists and men of science. It Is much as though the rationale of the circula- 
tion of the blood had been wrought out by Sir Matthew Hale, or the germ theory of 
disease interpreted by Blackstone, or the doctrine of evolution formulated by a legla- 
lative oounoiL .... The Christ is intimately and vitally concerned with the eternal life 
of men, but the question involved is of their living or perishing, not of a system of Judi- 
cial rewards and penalties.** We must remember however that even biology gives us 
only one side of the truth. The forensic conception of Justification furnishes its com- 
plement and has its rights also. The Scriptures represent both Bides of the truth. Paul 
gives us the Judicial aspect, John the vital aspect, of Justification. 

In Bom. 6:7 — ^ yap hiro&aviiv 6e6iKaUrrai itird t^ aftapriaQ sa < he that onoo 
died vith OhiiBt was aoquitted from the servioe of sin considered as a pen- 
ality.' In 1 Oor. 4 : 4 — Mkv yhp ifunrr^ airvoida, dAA* ov« kv tovt^ dediKottifiOi 
» ' I am oonsoioaB of no fault, but that does not in itself make certain Qod's 
acquittal as respeota this particular charge.' The usage of the epistle of 
James does not contradict this ; the doctrine of James is that we are justi- 
fied only by such faith as makes us faithful and brings forth good works. 
" He usee the word exclusively in a judicial sense ; he combats a mistaken 
Tiew of nUntCf not a mistaken view of Sucatdu "; see James 2 : 21, 28, 24, and 
Cremer, N. T. Lexicon, Eng. trans., 182, 188. The only N. T. passage 
where this meaning is questionable is Bev. 22 :11 ; but here Alford, with 

K, A and B| reads duuuooirvifv iroufadru. 



H. 

t 



N. T. texts : Ibi iS : t7--"ftar by tky voHi (hM ibdk te JBiliM, nd bytty ¥«rii tkM ikilt ba 
lBki7:S9— "AndallthipMfto .... jutUM God, biiaf b^pttMd vith the btflim cf John"; iO:N— "Biilb% 
diriziflg to JutUy biaiiV Mid VBlo litii% ind vbo it By naigbbar ? *M6 : 15 ~ "Tt m 
1h« light (if an ; bat Ood kiMiMb yov hflurti '^ IB : 14-- "Tbii ma vnt d«vB to b» booM Jutiflfld r^ 
otbir'*; C/.18 (Ut. ) "God, bttbonpnpitutodtoirtidmtbA Bmiff '*: Sa 4:6-S~"lm M ItoTid ^ 
blMungupontboBU, uto vbon Ood nokaBitb rightooonaM apart firam wqAm, »ying, Blamd antboy vtaiaiini- 
tlM an fagina, iad vboio iIbi aro oormd. Blamd ii tbo naa to vbflu tbo Lord villaotrMkoailB"; e/.PkSI: 
i,l^ — "Blamdiabo vboaotraiugraBaa ia IbrgiTn, Ifhm an it ooT«id. BlMMd if tbo ana uto wbMi Jokonb 
iapotatb Bot inifvity, ind in vboaa qirit tb«n ia BO gvilo." 

BaBR.5:i8ki9— "8otboaaatbroagboBotnapaaatbo)«dgaiaiitflaiwuitoanaMBtoaandaBnatiMi: ofaaatbnigb 
aMaot of ligbtaaMBaaa tba froo giit aaaao aato all aam toJattHkatJaa of liih. VaraattroogbtbooMiua'adiaobadiaMa 
tbantBy w«oBadaai]iiMr%OToiLaotbroBgbtboobidiMMooftbooDOBhaUtboBUBybomadozigbtooBa"; 8:89; 84— 
**¥koabaU]ayaaytbi]igtotboehaigoofGod'aoloot7 ItiaGodtbaftjuttiitlb; vboiabotbatooiidaiBiiotbr"8Cor.f: 
19^21 — "God vMiaOhriit rooonoiliag tbo vorld onto biaiaoli; not nakcnlDg nato tboai tb eir traapaaaaa. .... Urn 
¥ba kaov bo aln bo oado to bo dn on our bohalf ; tbat vo aigbt baeomo tbo rigbtoounaaa of God [ Ood's luati- 
fledperaonsl inbia'^ Rom.6:7~*'botbathatbdiadtojnatifladftmain"; 10ar.4:4— 'FvIkaovMtbia^ 
agaiiakByaalf; yot am I not baraby Jvatiflad : bat bo tbat Jodgolb mo ii tbilari** (on this lost text* tee 
Bxpositor'B Greek Testament, in loco ). 

JamatS:8l,l3;84--"Vai not ibnbam oar &tbar]vatiMl7 vgrki,intbiftboaAnd«pl8aaobiaaaBn|OBtbo 
rihfT .... Abrabam baUowd God, and it ima watoad into Mm ihr ligbtaawmma To laatbathy 



852 SOTBRtOLOGT, OR THE DOCTRINB OF SALYATIOK. 



a wa ii juliiBd; uii Mtody by Mtk.** Jamee li deoonnaliiff a dead fUth, while Paul it speak- 
ing of the neoeasity of a Uving faith; or, rather, Jamea la deacribliiff the nature of 
faith, while Paul is deaoribing the Inatrumeot of JuBtilloatioii. ^ They are like two men 
beaetbyaooupleof robben. Back to back each atrikea out againat the robber oppo- 
site him,— each having a dilfeient enemy in his eye " ( Wm. M. Taylor ). Neander on 
Jaaai S : i4-M — ** James Is denouncing mere adfaesioo to an eztemai law, trust in intelleoU 
ual possession of it. With him, law means an inward principle of lifto. Paul, contrast- 
ing law as he does with faith, oonunonly meana by law mere eztemai divine requisition^ 
.... Jamea doea not deny salvation to him who has faith, but only to him who flalaely 
pro/euM to have. When he says that 'l^wkiAHU Ifjutiiid,* he takea into aooonnt the 
outward manifestation only, speaka from the point of view of human oonsotousneas. 
In works only does fftith show itself as genuine and complete." Ur. tt:li— *'kf ihitii 
iightMi%tetUHd«iigMMBaiMiitm'*— not,astheA. Y.seemed to imply, ''he that Is Just, let 
him be jnsdfled still ** — i. e., made subjectively holy. 

Christ is the great Physkdan. The physician says: **If you wish to be cured, you 
must trust me." The patient repUee : ** I do trust you fully." But the physician oon- 
tinuei: *'If you wish to be cured, you must take my medicines and do as Idirect." The 
patient objects ; ** But I thougbt I was to be cured by trust in you. Why lay such stress 
on what I do? ** The physioian answers: ** You must show your trust in me by your 
action. Trust In me, without action in proof of trust, amounts to nothing" ( 8. 8. 
Times). Doing ifithout a physician is death; hence Paul says works cannot aave. Trust 
In the physician Implies obedience; hence James says faith without works is dead. 
Crane, Bellgion of To-morrow, lS2-lfi6— " Paul insists on apple-tree righteousness, and 
warns us against Ghrtstmas-tree righteousness." flagebeer, Tlie Bible in Court, 77, 78— 
** By works, Paul means works of law ; James means by works, works of faith." Hovey, 
In The Watchman, Aug. 27, 1801 — ** A dilVerence of emphasis, occasioned chiefly by the 
different religious perils to which readers were at the time exposed.' 



»i 



(&) dutaioatf — ig the aet, in prooess, of declaring a man jiiflt» — that i8» 
aoqnitted from guilt and restored to the divine favor ( Bom. 4 : 26 ; 5 : 18). 



SA4:l5--'*vl«VMMT«rfa9 ibr «v trMpHM^uA vu niMd Ibr ov Jiutiflntua**; 5:1^ 
tojMtabitiflB •riik*' GrilBth^ones, Ascent through Christ, 887. 868— *' Raised for our 
Justification "—Christ's death made our Justifloatlon possible, but it did not consum- 
mate it. Through his rising from the dead he was able to come into that relationship 
to the beUever which restores the lost or interrupted sonship. In the church the fsot 
of the resurrection is perpetuated, and the idea of the resurrection is realiaed. 

(0) diKoU^ia — is the act» as already aooomplished, of declaring a man 
jnst^ — that is, no longer exposed to penalty, bat restored to God's favor 
( Bom. 5 : 16, 18 ; c/. 1 Tim. 8 : 16 ). Hence, in other connections, SiKowfta 
has the meaning of statnte, legal decision, act of justice ( Luke 1:6; Bom. 
2:26; Heb. 9:1). 

Bm 6 : 18. i8 -"cTm^f tnpMM nio Joitifloitka . . . . thxs^k «i aak gf lisUM^ 
"jDrtiM ia tt« quit" The distinotlon between AucoMM-it and StMoimiLa may be illustrated by 
the distinction between poesy and poem,— the former denoting something in process, 
an ever-working spirit ; the latter denoting something fully accomplished, a completed 
work. Hence auc«^iui is used InLnktiza— "oriiBasMoftteLorA"; BflBkl:26— "ffdiaudiiiftto 
Uv"; Uki:9— **«liBia08itf4ifiBBMrrkk" 

{d) c^Moioo^— is the state of one justified, or declared jnst( Bom. 8: 
10; 1 Cor. 1:80). In Bom. 10:8, Paul inveighs against n^ m^/ov dMOMciwiTv 
as insaffident and false, and in its place would put t^ tov Oeov duuuooivipf^ — 
that is, a iuuuoaifvif which Qod not only requires, but provides ; which is not 
only acceptable to God, but proceeds from God, and is appropriated by 
faith, — hence caUed iuatoainnf niareug or j« iriarec^c. *' The primary signifioa- 
tion of the word, in Paul's writingB, is therefore that state of the believer 
which is Gidled forth by God's act of acquittal, — the state of the believer as 
," that is, freed from pnniahment and restored to the divine fa^oi; 



JinSTIFICATIOK. 863 

BaB.8:iO— "Otqiilliilift baome of ri^taounMi'* 10or.l:30— "Okriik J«iit, vho vm nnde volo u 
.... right w o m wi" ; Eobl 10:8~*'beiiig ipunnt of God'i xightaoosntei^ aad Mtking to eiteUiik thoJr own, ihBj 
lidMlnlqMttliagMlTBitothorighteoaflMBofOod." Bhedd,Dogm.TheoL,2:5i2— "The'rigkteonnm 
•f M * is the aotive and paasive obedlenoe of incarnate God." See, on ducoioowii, Cremer, 
N. T. Lexioon, Bng. trans., 174 ; Meyer on Romans^ trans., 68-70— "Sucoto^mi e«ov (gen. 
of origin, emanation from ) — rlghtneea which proceeds from God — the relation of being 
right into which man is put by God ( by an act of God declaring- him righteous )." 

B. G. Robinson, Christian Theology, 304— ** When Paul addressed those who trusted 
in their own righteousness, he presented salvation as attainable only through faith in 
another ; when be addressed Gentiles who were conscious of their need of a helper, the 
fCrensic imagery is not employed. Scarce a trace of it appears In his discourses as 
recorded in the Acts, and it is noticeably absent from all the epistles except the 
Romans and the Galatians." 

Sinoe this state of acquittal is aooompanied by ohaziges in the dhazaoter 
and oondnoty duuuoaifvtf oomes to mean, seoondarilj, the moral oondition of 
the believer as resulting from this acquittal and inseparably connected with 
it ( Bom. 14 : 17 ; 2 Cor, 5 : 21 ). This righteousness arising from justificii- 
tion becomes a principle of action ( Mat. 8 :15 ; Acts 10 :85 ; Bom. 6 : 13, 
18). The term, however, never loses its impHoation of a justifying act 
upon which this principle of action is based. 

Bm. i4 : 17 •-" tka Idi^dom of God is not ooAb^ and dxiaUflg^ bat ricktNUBMi aid poMe tad Joj in thi I0I7 
Spirit"; 20or.5:»— "tkatWBBight Immbm tka righteoouMi of God in Urn " ; IM.8:15— "ftifeilnow: for 
thu it temMlk u to AUiU all rightaoaanaai*' ; iota i0:86— "in $mj aatia ka tkat hmA kin, and wkelh 
rigfctaoaanaa^ is aoMptaUa to kim " ; Rem.6:18— "pnaaat jonnalTea onto God, aa aliva from tho daad, and joof 
■nmban aa instnuunta of rigkloaonflai vato Gol** Meyer on Bobl 3 : n —** Every mode of concep* 
tion which refers redemption and the forglvenesB of sins, not to a real atonement 
throufirh the death of Christ, but subjectively to the dy]ng and reviving' with him guar- 
anteed and produced by that death ( Schleiermacher, Nitssch, Hofmann ), is opposed 
to the N. T.,— a mizinff up of Justification and sanctiflcation." 

On these Boripture terms, see Bp. of Ossory, Nature and Effects of Faith, 486-486 ; 
Ijuoge, Oom., on Ronaaa 8 : 24 ; Buchanan on Justification, 206-849. Venus Moehler, Sym- 
bolism, IQB — ** The forgiveness of sins .... is undoubtedly a remission of the ^i^t and 
the punishment which Christ hath taken and borne upon himself ; but it is likewiM the 
transfusion of his Spirit into us '* ; Newman, Lectures on Justification, 6S-148; Knox, 
Remains ; N. W. Taylor, Revealed Theology, 810-873. 

It is a great mistake in method to derive the meaning of 8c««uov from that of ^ucmooiM, 
and not vice vena, Wm. Arnold Stevens, in Am. Jour. Theology, April, 1887 — 
** aucoto^mi, righteousness, in all its meanings, whether ethical or forensic has back 
of it the idea of lair ; also the idea of vioUxUd law ; It derives its forensic sense from the 
verb BucaUt and its cognate noun ducaimrtit ; ducoio^^ therefore Is legal aooeptableness, 
the ttatus before tTie law of a patrdoned Mnner,*' 

Denney, in Expos. Gk. Test, 2:666— "In truth, 'sin,' *the law,' * the ooxse of the 
law,' ^ death,* are names for something which belongs not to the Jewish but to the 
human conscience; and it is only because this is so that the gospel of Paul is also a 
gospel for us. Before Christ came and redeemed the world, all men were at bottom on 
the same footing : Pharisaism, legalism, moralism, or whatever it is called, is in the 
last resort the attempt to be good without Ood, to achieve a righteousness of our own, 
without an initial all-lncluslve immeasurable debt to him ; in other words, without 
submitting, as sinful men must submit, to be Justified by faith apart from works of 
our own, and to find in that Justification, and in that only, the spring and impulse of 
aUgood." 

It is worthy of speouJ observation that, in the passages dted above, the 
terms *' justify" and " jostifieation" are oontrasted, not with the process of 
depraving or oorrapting, bat with the outward act of oondemning ; and that 
the expressions used to explain and illustrate them are all derived, not from 
the inward operation of purifying the soul or infusing into it righteousness, 
but from the procedure of courts in their judgments, or of offended persona 
in their forgiveness of ofEbnders. We conclude that these tenns, wherever 



854 SOTBRIOIiOOT, OR TH8 DOCTRINE OF SALTATIOK. 

theyhATOieferenoe to the sixmGr's relation to God, ognity a dedaniiiTe and 
jndioial act of Qod^ external to the sinner, and not an efficient and sovereign 
act of Qod ^iio^nging ^he sinner's nature and making him sabjeotiyely 
righteous. 

In the CtooDS and Deoraes of the Coimaa of n«nti MKlOD A, ohaii. 9 is devoted to the 
refutation of the ^ Inanla hseretJoorum llduola *' ; and Oanon U of the seaion anathe- 
matiaea thoee who aay: **fldem juatiflcantem nihil aliod e«e quam fldnolam dlvlnie 
mlaerioordte, peooata lemlttentls proiiter Chriatom*'; or that **SuiMfjiDg Caith ia 
nothing but trnat In the divine mercy which pardona aina for Chriat'a sake." The 
Roman Oathollo docstrlne on the contrary maintains that the ground of JuatUlcatlon is 
not simply the faith by which the sinner appropriates Chrtet and his atoning work, but 
Is also the new love and good works wrought within him by Christ's Spirit. This Intro- 
duces a subjective element which Is foreign to the Scripture doctrine of Justlfloatlon. 

Dr. E. O. Roblnaon taught that Justification consists of three elements : 1. Acquittal ; 
S. Restoration to fiivor ; 8. Infusion of righteousness. In this he accepted a fundamental 
error of Romanism. He says : " Justification and sanctiflcation are not to be dlstin. 
gulshed as chronologlcaUy and statically different. Justification and rlghteouaneas are 
the same thing from different points of view. Pardon ia not a mere declaration of fOr- 
giveneas — a merely arbitrary thing. Salvation Introducee a new law into our sinful 
nature which annuls the law of sin and destroys its penal and destructive consequences. 
Forgiveness of sins must be in itself a gradual procesa. The final consequences of a 
man's sins are written indelibly upon his nature and remain forever. When Christ 
said : ' Thy sins are forgiven thee ', It was an objective statement of a subjective fact 
The person waa already in a state of living relation to Christ. The gospel is damnation 
to the damnable, and invitation, love and mercy to thoee who feel their need of it. We 
are saved through the enforcement of law on every one of us. Forgiveness consists in 
the removal from oonsciousnesB of a sense of ill-desert. Justification, aside from its 
forensic use, is a transformation and a promotion. Sense of f oiglveneaB is a sense of 
relief from a hated habit of mind.** This seems to us dangerously near to a denial that 
Justification ia an act of Ood, and to an afllrmation that itls simply asubjeotive change 
in man's condition. 

B. H. Johnson : "If Dr. Robinson had been content to say that the divine flat of 
Justification had the man ward elfect of regeneration, he would have been correct ; for 
the verdict would be empty without thla manward efficacy* But unfortunately, he 
made the effect a part of the cauae, identifying the divine Justification with its human 
fruition, the clearance of the past with the provision for the future." We must grant 
that the words inward and outward are misleading, for Ood is not under the law of 
space, and the soul itself is not in space. Justification takes place Just as much in man 
as outside of him. Justification and regeneration take place at the same moment, but 
logically Ood's act of renewing is the cause and God's act of approving is the effect. 
Or we may say that regeneration and Justification are both of them effects of our union 
with Christ. LDktl:S7— "IvaBvwdfromOodihaUbtTaiiefpevw." Regeneration and Justifica- 
tion may be diffierent aspects of Ood's turning— his turning us, and his turning MmaAif. 
But it still is true that Justification is a change in God and not in the creatore. 

8. Elements of Justification. 

These are two : 

A. Bemission of punishment. 

(a) God aoqnits the ungodly who belioTe in Ohiist^ and dedares them 
jnst This is not to declare Ihem innocenti — that would be a judgment 
oontraiy to truth. It declares that the demands of the law have been satis- 
fied with regard to them, and that they are now free from its condemnation. 

Bm4:S— "BoltokiBthavwIuftBvti bal MerrthttUm fbi Jiiitiirthtb«^odl7,)^ 
rightoomMi"; c/. JohA8:16— "gaT* Us ntj b^gottn 800, that vhomw bcliertUi on Ua ikonld not p«riih " ; 
see page 868, (a), and Shedd, Dogm. TheoL, 2 : 619. Biub. 6:1— "Bdagthardbn joitiMbj fldO, 
vt hftTt pMM vitt Qod "~not subjective peace or quietness of mind, but objective peace or 
reconciliation, the opposite of the state of war, In which we are subject to the divine 
wiath. Datet BpheBiao8« 67—** VcnglvenesB may be defined: L in penoncA tsnoa, as 



JUBTIFICATIOK. 855 

A oenKtIon of the anger or moral reaentment of God against sin ; 2. In ethical terms « 
as a release from the guilt of sin which oppresses the oonsdenoe ; 8. in legal terms, as a 
remissioii of the punishment of sin, which is eternal death." 

( b) This aoqniial, in so far as it is the act of Qod as judge or exeontiyey 
adminiBtering law, maj be denominated pardon. In so far as it ia the act 
of God as a father personally injured and grieved by sin, yet ahomog grace 
to the sinner, it is denominated f orgiveneas. 

■ioih 7 :i8~*<ll0 b & God Ukt uto Om^ thai pttdiaflOi iaiquty, tad pMMft «wl^ 
rfkishflritassT'* Fli80:4— ''Biitthmiifi^TeiiMivittitktekAatthoaiiuTrtbeftmd.*' It is hard for us 
to undeistand Gk)d'8 feeling toward sin. Forgiveness seems easy to us. hugely because 
we are Indifferent toward shi. But to the holy One, to whom sin is the abominable 
thing which he hates, forgiveness inyolves a fundamental change of relation, and 
nothing but Christ's taking the penalty of sin upon him can make it possible. B. Fay 
Mills : "■ A tender spirited follower of Jesus Christ said to me, not long ago, that it had 
taken him twelve years to forgive an injury that had been committed against him." 
How much harder for Ood to forgive, since he can never become indifferent to the 
nature of the transgreasion I 

(c) In an earthly tribunal, there is no aoqnitlal for those who are proved 
to be transgesBors, — for such there is only conviction and puniahmenti 
But in God's goyemment there is remission of punishment for believers, 
even though they are confessedly offenders ; and, in justification, God 
declares this remission. 

There is no forgiveness in nature. F. W. Robertson preached this. But he ignored 
the vis medieatfix of the gospel, in which forgiveness is offered to all. The natural con- 
sdenoe says : ** I must pay my debt.'* But the believer finds that ** Jesus paid it all." 
niustrate by the poor man, who on coming to pay his mortgage finds that the owner at 
death had ordered it to be burned, so that now there la nothing to pay. PikS4:tt— 
**JehonkndMBMtk the loal oflilfBtmata, And none of them that takt nfiife in hla ihall be eondfluaed.** 

A child disobeys his father and breaks his arm. His sin involves two penalties, the 
alienation from his fftther and the broken arm. The father, on repentance^ may forgive 
his child. The personal relation is re-established, but the broken bone is not therefore 
at once reknlt. The flither*s f org! veness, however, will assure the father's help toward 
complete healing. So justlfloation does not ensure the immediate removal of all the 
natural consequences of our sins. It does ensure present reconciliation and future 
perfection. Clarke, Christian Theology, 964 — '' Justification is not equivalent to acquit- 
tal, for acquittal declares that the man has not done wrong. Justification is rather the 
acceptance of a man, on sufftdent grounds, although he has done wrong." As the Ply- 
mouth Brethren say : ** It is not the afn-question, but the Son-question.*' "Ihdr rini ud 
thdr Mqiiitiee will I nmember no wan " ( EeK 10 : 17 ). The father did not allow the prodigal to com- 
plete the confession he had prepared to make, but interrupted him« and dwelt only upon 
his return home ( loke IS : a ). 

( d ) The declaration that the sinner is no longer exposed to the penalty 
of lawy has its ground, not in any satisfaction of the law's demand on the 
part of the sinner himself, but solely in the bearing of the penalty by 
Christy to whom the sinner is imited by fidth. Justification, in its first 
elementi is therefore that act by which God, for the sake of Ghrist, acquits 
the transgressor and suffers him to go free. 

irti 18 : 88; n^"Be it kninrn uto joa thcrdfan, bNftrv^ thet tfan^ 
of liu : and bj Ub [lit. : Ma him ' ] ereiy one that beliereth Itjiutiled frn all ttdasit fron which je eonld lot 
bo Jutiflad b7 the bw of Moeee" ; Koa. 8 : 8i 86--"bdBg]«itiM fiwdj bj Us gnee 

biOhriitJiiDa. ...that he night hlnaelf ejut»a]idthejaikiflflr«f him that hath fidthfaiJeaDa*'; i Oor. 6:11 — 
"but 70 wweJnrtUed ia the name of the Lord Joou" ; Iph. 1 : 7~ "in whom we hoTO ear redeaiflion through hia 
Uood, the IbrgiTenoa of ear troepooeno, aeoordlng to the riohoa of hia gnoo.'* 

This acquittal is not to be conceived of as the sovereiflrn act of a €k)vemor, but rather 
as a Judicial procedure. Christ secures a new tiialfor those already condemned— atrial 



856 SOTBBIOLOOY, OB THS DOCTBIKB OF SALYATIOH. 



Inwhlahtaeappeafsforfheciillty; andwIicyveraflBliiBttlMlralBlilioiwnxieMeoiiih 

nesBiOriatberdbo^vsilieintolMzlcfateoiiain him. CfLiLi '^WhdaB^MkamkBto 

oune fhe seed of Abraham, It Jg Mid of JehOYBh : 'bkirtk Ml MMiii^ 

htBNBpanNraBMiiBliBMl*(lDB.SS:av When Satan atandB forth to vebnkeJochiiat the word 

taz *JilmknliikstkMk08ktaa .... bMlttiiftbnai|lMki«Mt<rttiinr* (IiA.t:tX OSnubeerer 

puta himaalf between hia people and oTery tongue that would aconw them. 'HaikaUHfai 

■]MuM«aflk'heBayB,'iBddo^f irvphfliiBkttB* (Fi4ff:i5). 'Itii Mthajaitahlk; vhtktetel 

toadanMlk 7* (BflBL 8:0^84).** It is not sin, then, thftt oondemna,— ItlathefUlnretoaak i 

pardon for sin, throuirhOhrlBt DlaBtrate by the ring presented bgrQneenBUnbefh to ^ 

the Barl of Basez. Queen Bllaabeth did not foiglTe the penitent Oounteas of Nottlng- 

ham for withholding the ring of Bnex which would haye purohaaed hii pardon. She 

shook the dying woman and oursed her, eyen while she was imploiliig f orgiTSDsn* 

There is no such failure of mercy in God's administration. 

Kaftan, in Am. Jour. Theology, 4:008— **The peooliar charaetBristic of ChrlitlBn 
ezperlenoe is the forglyenesB of sins, or reoonoOiation— a forgiyenesB whidh isoon^ 
oelved as an unmerited gift of God, whioh Is bestowed on man tndepeodently of his 
own moral worthinesst Other religions haye aome measure of revelation, bat Oiris- 
tianity alone has the dear revelation of thia f Ofgive n eas, and this Is accepted by fUth. 
And foigtveness leads to a better ethioB than any religion of wcrkB oan show." 

B» BeBtoiatiQn to fttvor* 

(a) Jnstifioation is more than rfflniaBJon or aoqtdtfaiL These iroald 
leave the siimer silnply in the position of a disdharged oriminal, — law 
requires a positive righteonsneas also. Besides deliverance from ponish- 
menty jnstification implies God's treatment of the sinner as if he were, and 
had been, persoaiilly righteous. The justified person reoeives not only 
remission of penalty, but the rewards promised to obedience. 



]Akti6:IM4— "Brioirftftttviddjlk* b«t n^ttd pot it OB kbi; aadpiilariiir«kiihaai,ai^ 
UilM:aailiriBgtk«&ttadaJt«Bikmi^aadli( viaM^aadnikiBary: ftrtkifBym vudMudiialifi 
agitia; kt «m lost, ud li fimid " ; J«hB8:16— "gavvkii ody )MK«tta Son, thai vtamm btUmik oi Un AmU 
. . . . hAi« iteittl lift *^ RoBL 5 : 1, B— "BdBg tkrrfbnjutUfld ^ Cttft, y« kaif paiM vith M t^^ 
iMvOhrist; tlTNgh vham Btoo ve kaTt ka4 aor MMH by fidlk late tkii gnat vkania «• Uni ; udvtr^)dMin 
bflfo d\h» iiarj of God'*— "tkii grue" being a permanent state of divine favor; 1 Oor. 1 :80— "Bat 
of Ub aro jb in Ohxiit hoM, vko ma made niitou viidn hm. God, and rigktMUBoa aad wMtitettDB, and ndnp- 
tfoa: ikMX, aooordhv aa it ia vritton. Ea ttat gkriotk, lotUngtayintkoliid'*;! Oor. 6:11— "that w nigkt 
booQOM Iks rigktoooaneiB of God in hia.** 

GaL 8:t-«lmiaibnkaBboIioTod God. aad it vaa ndnaod ul» Un to ri^liOBniS** ; l|k.S:7-**tka 
anoodiag riohoa of hia graoo in kiadiMH toward na is Ofariit Joaoa " ; 8 : 13 — " ia vImb wo kaft boldiuaB and aoooaa ia 
ooDiUflDOO tkxoogk oor fUtk ia kirn *' ; im 8 : 8^ 9-- "I ooBBt aU tkii«i to ko loaa Iv tka ozaelkBoy of tko kaowlo^ 
oTOkriatJoiiiaByLofd. . . . tkaiigktooonoaiwkiokhfroBGodkj Utk**; OBLi:a--**roogadIodiBtkokod7of 
ki8i«ktknw0d«fttk,tOFn8Bnt7oii kolj aad witkoat blflniA aad nnpranblo bofenUm"; m8:i7— *'tko 
kiadaoai of God ov flavior .... tka^ bo^ jvatUad bjr kia gnm^ wo la^t bo aiado koin aoooidiagtB tko kopo of 
0tanMlIia'^BoT.i9:8— "AaditwugiTBaBtokvtkatBkaAMildamykarnlfiBlbaliai^brlgktaBdpvrozlv 
tko fiao Ilaaa ;« ito ilgkloooa aoli of tko BKBta.'* 

Justiflcatlon is setting one rigbt before law. But law requires not merely freedom 
firom offenoe negatively, but aU manner of obedience and likeness to Ood positively. 
Stnoe justiflcatlon Is in Christ and by virtue of the believer's union with Ohrlrt» it puts 
the believer on the same footing before the law that Christ is on, namely, not only 
acquittal but favor. lTiBk8:ie— Christ was himself "Jutiflodia tko aplriV* and the believer 
partakes of his Justifloation and of the whole of it, i. e., not only acquittal but favor. 
iotBl8:80— "la kin OTOIT OBO tkat boUoTiib iajvililod" C 6., in Christ ; i Oor. 6:U— **]atilfldktU 
tko lord Jeiu Ghrlst" ; G«L 4: 5— "tkat w« ni^kt noavo tko adoptioa of iaH*'~a part of Justifloation ; 
BflBk 5: 11 — "tkmgk wkon wo kan bow ncoiTod tko xoonuiliatiBB"— in justiflcatlon ; B Oor.5: Bl— "tkat 
woBiffktbooQBNtfcoilgktooiinioaofGodiakia"; PkiL8:9— 'tkorigktoooaoawkiokiafraBGodl^ftitk'*; Joka 
1 : IB— "to tkm gaTo ko tko xigkt to boooau okOdna «f God " — emphasis on "gato " — intimation that 
the " boooBdBg okildroa " Is not subsequent to the Justification, but is a part of it. 

EUicott on Tit 8:7— "Sucato^^vrcv, 'JaitiBod,* in the usual and more strict theological 
sense ; not however as implying only a mere outward non-imputation of sin, but as 
involving a ' mutatlonem status,' an aoceptanoe into new privileges, and an enjoyment 



JUSTIFIGATIOK. 857 

* Jlifltlfloatlon oaunot be oonoeiTed wlthoat some work of tbe Spirit In cem fa rring a tdtle 
to aalTatlon.* *' The prisoner who has simply served out his term escapes without fur- 
ther punishment and that is alL But the pardoned man receives back In his pardon 
the full rights of oitiaenshlp, can again vote, serve on Juries, testify in court, and exer- 
cise all his individual liberties, as the discharged convict cannot. The Sodet j of Friends 
is BO called, not because they are friends to one another, but because they regard them- 
selves as friends of Ood. 80, in the Middle Ages, Master Bokart, John Tauler, Heniy 
Suso, called themselves the friends of Gkxl, after the pattern of Abraham ; 8 Qhiw. BO :7» 
"ilnknftjftin^'^ JuMiB:a~*'ibnkuB bdltrtd 8od, ua it VM n^^ 
It mi diJkd lbs friflid of (M*\ i. e., one not merely acquitted from the charge of sin, batalso 
admitted into flavor and intimacy with God. 

(6) This legtoiation to &vor, Tieved in its aspect as the renewal of a 
broken f xiendshipy is denominated reoondliation ; viewed in its aspect as a 
renewal of the soul's tme relation to God as a father, it is denominated 
adoption. 

Jotai i:iS---B«t as mi^jM iwiftd kfai^ to tkaa gm WthtxighttobMMtUUiuof ^ 
bilwn 01 Us BUM ** ; Bab. 5 : ii --"Mid Bot odj M^ kwl m tl» n^M in God tknagii 0^ 
whaa mhmmm noAr&i tt» wwaalirtiftii " ; (kl.4:i5~"bon«]idartlMUv,tkatk«BJgktndMBtk«Bth*t 
WKvnadartkAkv, that ▼• Bight nMT«thiadoptiMi«fHBi**; lph.l:5— "hAviagftnandaiBadDaimtoadoptiaBM 
ButtraighiMuQhnituitoUBMlf"; c/.Bfgm.8:S3^"tTM vt obxmItm groan vithia ooimItb, vaiktng fbr flvr 
adoyttoBito vit, a* rodoBytiaaoroiir body "—that is, this adoption is completed, so fftr asthe body 
is concerned, at the resurrection. 

Luther called MBaas^ 51, m, 141^ '* the Pauline Fsalms,'* because these dedaze forgive- 
ness to be granted to the beUever without law and without works. Pi. 190 : a» 4 —" If thoa, 
Mmh,AfliiU8tBaAiBifdliia,0La(d,vhaooiildala]idr Bat thon is fagiwBOB vilh thoa, Tkt thoa Bajiat ba 
ftand** is foUowed by taraB?, 8— "0 lanal, hapa in Jaharah; For vilh Jahanh ttna is tovii^kiiidaaai, Aad 
vithhiBispkBtoaasradoBFtifla. Aai ha viU xadoaa Imal has aU UaiaiqjBitiaa'* Whltofleld was rebuked 
for declaring in a discourse that CSirist would receive even the devil's castaways ; but 
that very day, while at dinner at Lady Huntington's, he was called out to meet two 
women who were sinners, and to whose broken hearts and blasted lifes that remark 
gave hope and heaUng. 

(o) In an earthly pardon there are no special helps bestowed npon the 
pardoned. There are no penalties, but there are also no rewards ; law can- 
not daim anything of the discharged, but then they also can daim nothing 
of the law. But what, thongh greatly needed, is IdEt nnprovided by human 
goyemment^ €k>d does provide. In justification, there is not only acquittal, 
but approval ; not only pardon, but promotion. Bemission is never sepa- 
rated from restoration. 

After serving a term in the penitentiary, the oonvlot goes oat with astigma upon 
him and with no friends. His past oonviotion and disgrace follow him. He cannot 
obtain employment. He cannot vote. Want often leads him to commit crime again ; 
and then the old conviction is brought up as proof of bad character, and increases his 
punishment. Need of Friendly Inns and Befuges for discharged criminals. But the 
justified sinner is differently treated. He is not only delivered from God*s wrath and 
eternal death, but he is admitted to €k)d*s fsvor and eternal life. The discovery of this 
is partly the cause of the convert's Joy. Expecting pardon, at most, he is met with 
unmeasured favor. The prodigal finds the ftither's house and heart open to him, and 
more done for him than if he had never wandered. Tills overwhelms and subdues him. 
The two elements, acquittal and restoration to favor, are never separated. Like the 
expulsion of darkness and restoration of light, they always go together. No one can 
have, even if he would have, an Incomplete Justification. Christ's Justification is ours ; 
and, as Jesus' own seamless tunic could not be divided, so the robe of righteoosness 
which he provides cannot be cut in two. 

lUlure to apprehend this positive aspect of Justification as restoration to favor is the 
reason why so many Chzlstians have little Joy and little enthusiasm in their religious 
lives. The preaehlng of the magnanimity and generosity of Gk>d makes the gospel "fha 
pavw of God vBla aolfatiaa** ( Baa. 1 : 16>. Bdwtn M. Stanton had ridden roughshod over Abra- 
ham Unooln in the conduct of a case at law in which they had been Joint oonnseL 



858 80TEBI0L0GT, OB THB DOOTBIKB OF SALVATION. 

Stanton had become vlndioCiye and even violent when Unooln was made President. 
But Lincoln invited Stanton to be Seoretaiy of War, and he aent the invitation by 
HanUnflr, who knew of all this former trouble. When Stanton heard it, he said with 
streamlnflT eyes: ** Do you tell me« Harding, that Mr. Lhicoln sent this message to me? 
Ten him that such magnanimity wfllmake me work with htm ss man was never served 
beforel" 

(d) The declaration that the ainner is restored to God's favor, has its 
ground, not in the sinner's personal oharacter or conduct^ but solely in the 
obedience and righteousness of Ohrist, to whom the sinner is united by 
faith. Thus Ghrist's work is the procuring oanae of our justification, in 
both its elements. As we are acquitted on account of Christ's suffering of 
the penally of the law, so on aooount of Christ's obedience we receive the 
rewards of law. 

All this comes to us in Christ. We partic^Mite In the rewards promised to his obedi- 
ence: JakB»:81-"tkat btliffiag jt aaj kavt lili in Ut sum"; iOQr.S:li-2S-"taaUtUB«ian70on; 
.... •Uanyoon; udyi wiGhriit*!; aad Orirt ii QodV* Denovan, Toronto Baptist, Deo. 1883, 
maintains that " grace operates in two ways : ( 1 ) for the rebel it provides a scheme of 
jitft^/leodon,— this is Judicial, matter of debt; (2) for the ehUd It provides pardon,— 
fatherly forgiveness on repentance." Eik. 7 : 19— ** tkt kv tu4§ aotUag pvM .... a bringing in 
OvMpoBafabflttvbop^throB^vUak vtdnvnigkmloGod.'* This "btttv k9e"isoffered tousin 
Christ's death and resurrection. The veil of the temple was the symbol of separation 
from Gk)d. The rending of that veil was the symbol on the one hand that sin had been 
atoned for, and on the other hand that unrestricted access to God was now permitted 
us in Christ the great forerunner. Bonar's hymn« ^ Jesus, whom angel hosts adore," 
has for its concluding stansa : *"T is finished all : the veil is rent. The welcome sure, the 
access free ;— Now then, we leave our banishment, O Eather, to retam to thee I " See 
pages 748(5), 770(h). 

James Russell Lowell: *' At the devil's booth all things are sold. Each ounce of dross 
costs its ounce of gold ; For a cap and beUs our lives we pay : Bubbles we buy with a 
whole soul's tasking ; 'T is heaven alone that is given away, *T is only (3od may be had 
for the ssklng." John G. Whittler : ^ The hour draws near, howe'er delayed and late. 
When at the Eternal Gate, We leave the words and works we call our own, And lift 
void hands alone For love to fllL Our nakedness of soul Brings to that gate no toll ; 
Giftless we come to him who all things gives, And live because he lives." 

H. B. Smith, System of Christian Doctrine, 6S8, 684—** Justification and pardon are 
not the same in Scripture. We object to the view of Emmons ( Works, vol. 6 ), that * Jus- 
tlfloation is no more nor less than pardon,' and that ' God rewards men for their own, 
and not (Christ's, obedience,' for the reason that the words, as used in common life, relate 
to wholly different things. If a man is declared Just by a human tribunal, he is not 
pardoned, he is acquitted ; his own inherent righteousness, as respects the charge 
against him, is recognized and declared. The gospel proclaims both pardon and Justifi- 
cation. There is no significance in the use of the word 'Justify,' If pardon be all that 
islntended. • . . 

** Justification involves what pardon does not, a righteousness which is the ground of 
the acquittal and favor ; not the mere favor of the sovereign, but the merit of Christ, 
is at the basis — the righteousness which is of €k)d. The ends of the law are so far sat- 
isfied by what (Arist has done, that the sinner can be pardoned. The law Is not merely 
set aside, but its great ends are answered by what Christ has done in our behalf. Qcd 
might pardon as a sovereign, from mere benevolence ( as regard to happiness ) ; but in 
the gospel he does more,— he pardons in consistency with his holiness,— upholding that 
as the main end of all his dealings and works. Justification involves acquittal from aU 
the penalty of the law, and the inheritance of all the blessings of the redeemed state. 
The penalty of the law— spiritual, temporal, eternal death— Is all taken away ; and the 
opposite blessings are conferred. In and through Christ— the resurrection to btossed- 
ness. the gift of the Spirit, and eternal life. • . . 

** If Justification is forgiveness simply, it applies only to the past. If it is also a title to 
Uf e, it includes the future condition of the souL The latter alone is consistent with the 
plan and decrees of God respecting redemption — his seeing the end from the beginning. 
The reason why Justification has been taken as pardon is two-fold : first, it doea involve 



JUSTIFICATION. 869 

pardon,— this Is its negative side, while it has a positive side also —the title to eternal 
life ; secondly, the tendency to resolve the gospel into an ethical system. Only our acts 
of choice as meritorious could procure a title to favor, a positive reward. Christ miarht 
remove the obstacle, but the title to heaven is derived only from what we ourselves do. 

''Justification is. therefore, not a merely governmental provision, as it must be on 
any scheme that denies that Christ's work has direct respect to the ends of the law- 
Views of the atonement determine the views on Justification, if logical sequence is 
observed. We have to do here, not with views of natural Justice, but with divine 
methods. If we regard the atonement simply as answering the ends of a governmental 
scheme, our view must be that Justification merely removes an obstacle, and the end of 
it is only pardon, and not eternal life." 

But upon the true view, that the atonement is a complete satisfaction to the holinesd 
of God, Justlflcation embraces not merely pardon, or acquittal from the punishments of 
law, but also restoretion to fkivor, or the rewards promised to actual obedience. Bee 
also Quenstedt, 8:601: PhlUppi, Active Obedience of Christ; Shedd, Dogm. Theol., 
8:488,488. 

4. BelatUm of Juatifloation to OotVa Law and Holiness, 

A. Jnstifioation has been shown to be a forensio term. A man may, 
indeed, be oonoeiyed of as just, in either of two senses : (a) as just in 
moral character, — that is, absolutely holy in nature, disposition, and con- 
duct ; (6) as just in relation to law, — or as free from all obligation to suffer 
penalty, and as entitled to the rewards of obedience. 

So, too^ a man may be conceived of as justified, in either of two senses : 
( a) made just in moral character ; or, ( 6 ) made just in his relation to law. 
But the Scriptures declare that there does not exist on earth a just man, in 
the first of these senses ( Eccl. 7 : 20). Even in those who are renewed in 
moral character and united to*Ghrist, there is a remnant of moral depravity. 

If, therefore, there be any such thing as a just man, he must be just, not 
in the sense of possessing an unspotted holiness, but in the sense of being 
delivered from the penalty of law, and made partaker of its rewards. If 
there be any such thing as justification, it must be, not an act of Gfod 
which renders the sinner absolutely holy, but an act of God which declares 
the sinner to be free from legal penalties and entitled to legal rewards. 

Justus is derived from ius, and suggests the idea of courts and legal procedures. The 
fact that ' Justify ' is derived from juatus and faeio^ and mi^ht therefore seem to Imply 
the making of a man subjectively righteous, diould not blind us to its forensio use. The 
phrases "anfltifyaeloly Out of JMob" (li 29:23; e/.iPet3:lS— "wMtiiyiaToarkavtiOkriitMloni") 
and " gloriQr God " ( 1 Ow. 6 : 20 ) do not mean, to make QoA subjectively holy or glorious, for 
this he to, whatever we may do ; they mean rather, to deela/re^ or show, him to be holy or 
glorious. So Justification Is not making a man righteous, or even pronouncing him 
righteous, for no man to subjectively righteous. It is rather to count him righteous so 
far as respects his relations to law, to treat him as righteous, or to declare that God will, 
for reasons assigned, so treat him ( Payne ). So long as any remnant of sin exists, no 
Justification, in the sense of making holy, can be attributed to man : led. 7 : M— "tanly 
tba«iiiiokai1gktaoBS]inaiipoatai1h,thatdoithgoodaadiuiiiilhiMt^ If no man is Just, in this sense, 
then God oannot pronounce him Just, for God cannot lie. Justification, therefore, must 
signify a deliverance from legal penalties, and an assignment of legal rewards. O. P* 
Gifford ! There is no such thing as "salvation by character" ; what men need is salva- 
tion from character. The only sense in which salvation by character is rational or 
Scriptural Is that suggested by George Harris, Moral Evolution, 400—** Salvation by 
character is not self -righteousness, but Christ In us.'* But even here It must be remem- 
bered that Christ in us presupposes Christ for us. The objective atonement for sin 
must oome before the subjective purification of our natures. And Justification is upon 
the ground of that objective atonement, and not upon the ground of the subjective 
oleaniliig. 



860 ftOTEBIOLOGY, OR THE DOGTBIl^B OF SALTATION. 

The JewB had a proyerb that if only one man could perfectly keep the whole law even 
for one day, the kingdom of Messiah would at once come upon the earth. This to to 
state in another form the doctrine of Paul,in Rom.7:9— ** Vk«itt«onuHalMiit«a^dBmiTi4, 
Mi I Asi'* To reoogniae the impossibility of being JustiHed by Pharisaic works was a 
preparation for the gospel ; see Bruce, Apologetics, 419. The Germans speak of Werk-, 
Lehre-, Buchstaben-, Negations-, Partelgerechtigkeit; but all these are forms of self- 
righteousness. Berridge : ** A man may steal some gems from the crown of Jesos and 
be guilty only of petty huroeny, .... but the man who would Justify himself by his 
own works steals the crown itself, pats it on his own head, and prodlatms himself by 
his own conquests a king in Zion.' 



»• 



B. The diffioalt feature of jnstifieation is the dedlaniliony on the part of 
Qod, that a edimer whose remaming smfnhiess seems to necessitate the yin- 
dioatiYe reaction of Qod's holiness against him, is yet free from sadh reaofcioQ 
of holiness as is expressed in the penalties of the law. 

The fact is to be accepted on the testimony of Scriptore. If this testimony 
be not accepted, there is no deliverance from the condemnation of law. But 
the difficulty of conceiving of God's declaring the sinner no longer exposed 
to legal penalty is relieved, if not removed, by the three-fold consideration : 

(a) That Christ has endnred the penally of the law in the sinner's stead. 



QaLS:13— "GbutndMmadinfraBtkfflUMof thtlAV, haTi^btioMa<nwlbru.** Benovan: *«We 
are Justified by faith, instrumentally, in the same sense as a debt is paid by a good note 
or a check on a substantial account in a distant bank. It Is only the Intelligent and 
honest acceptance of Justifloation already provided.'* Htm. 8:S— "God, miUiig kit nra Bon 
.... wndiMiMd ifai in tki isA"— the believer's sins wero Judged and condemned on Calvary. 
The way of pardon through Christ honors God's Justice as well as Ood's mercy ; c/. Ion, 
S : M — •' tkit kt Bigkt Undf ba Jut, aai tka jutlilff of kia Oat hath fldtk to J«ni." 

(&) That the sinner is so united to Christ, that Ohrist's life already con- 
stitates the dominating principle within him. 

M.I:IO-**IkaT«baaaffuUidvittGkRgl; and it !■ no loBgw I fbt Uvi^ Imt OhiiH Unik in bml" God 
does not Justify any man whom he does not foresee that he can and wiU sanctify. Some 
prophecies produce their own fulfilment. Tell a man he is brave, and you help him to 
become so. So declaratory Justification, when published in the heart by the Holy 
Spirit, helps to make men Just. Harris, God the Creator, S : 883 — ** The objection to the 
doctrine of Justification by faith insists that Justification must be conditioned, not on 
faith, but on right character. But Justification by faith is itself the doctrine of a Justi- 
fication conditioned on right character, because faith in God is the only possible begin- 
ning of right character, either in men or angels." Gould, Bib. TheoL M. T., 07-79, in a 
similar manner argues that Paul*s emphasis is on the spiritual eftect of the death of our 
Lord, rather than on its expiatory efTect. The course of thought in the Bpistle to the 
Bomans seems to us to contradict this view. Sin and the objective atonement for sin 
are first treated ; only after Justification comes the sanctifioatlon of the believer. Still 
it is true that Justifloation is never the sole work of God In the soul. The same Christ 
in union with whom we are Justified does at that same moment a work of regeneration 
which is followed by sanctlfication. 

(c) That this life of Christ is a power in the sonl which will gradnally, 
bat infallibly, extirpate all remaining depravity, nntil the whole physical 
and moral nature is perfectly conformed to the divine holiness. 



AIL S :tt— " vk0 ikiJl flMkim aiMV Ika Vodj of our kimiliatifln, tkat it maj kt MaHraad to tka body afkli gtoj, 
uoofHai; to fba vwUBg vkmby kt la abla ina ta nl^ aU tkiagi vnto kiinaalf " ; Ool 8:1-4— ' If tkaa ya wan 
iaiaidt«gftkervitkCkrial,i0aktkatkiiig8tkatai«abon,vker«Okriftia,8Mtadoatkari|^ka]i^ Set your 

■faid ea tka ttiagi tkat an »bo?«, not OB Ika tkiflga tkat an upon ika aartk. Tor ya died, and joor lili la kid vitk 
akriatiaOod. ¥kia (%ris^ vko ia ov Ufo. akaU b« BMaiMed, tkaa ikaU ji alao viik kim ba naidte^ 
Truth of fact, and ideal truth, are not opposed to each other. F. W. Bobertson, Leo- 
res and Addresses, 266— "When the agriculturist sees a small, white, almond-Uke 
tnffxisinff from the ground, he calls that an oak ; but this is not a truth of fiRoC,ttia 



JUSTIFICATION. 861 

an Ideal truth. The oak is a large tree, with spreadloff branches and leaves and aooms; 
but that Ib only a thing en Inch long, and imperceptible in all its development ; yet the 
agriculturist sees in it the idea of what it shall be, and, if I may borrow a Scriptural 
phrase, he imputes to it the majesty, and excellence, and glory, that is to be hereafter.'* 
This method of representation is effective and unobjectionable, so long as we remember 
hat the force which is to bring about this future development and perfection is not 
the force of unassisted human nature, but rather the force of Christ and his indwelling 
Spirit. See PhiUppi, Glaubenslehre, v, 1 : 201-208. 

Gore, Incarnation, SS4 — *' * Looking at the mother,' wrote George Eliot of Mrs. Garth 
in The Mill on the Floes, 'you might hope that the daughter would become like her— 
which Is a prospective advantage equal to a dowry— the mother too often standing 
behind the daughter like a malignant prophecy: Such as I am, she will shortly be.' 
George Eliot imputes by anticipation to the daughter the merits of the mother, because 
her life Is, so to speak, of the same piece. Now, by new birth and spiritual union, our 
life Is of the same piece with the life of Jesus. Thus he, our elder brother, stands 
behind us, his people, as a prophecy of all good. Thus God accepts us, deais with us, 
*ia tk« BttoTvd,* rating us at something of his value. Imputing to us his merits, because in 
fact, except we be reprobates, he himself Is the most powerful and real force at work 
in us." 

6. Helation of JustiflcaHon to Union with Christ and the Work of 
theSpirU. 

A. Sinoe the siimer, at the moment of jnstifloationf is not yet com- 
pletely transformed in character, we have seen that God can declare him 
jnst» not on account of what he is in himself, but only on account of what 
Ohrist i& The ground of justification is therefore not, ( a ) as the Bomanists 
hold, a new righteousness and love infused into us, and now constituting 
our moral character ; nor, (6) as Osiander taught, the essential righteous- 
ness of Christ's divine nature, which has become ours by faith ; but ( c ) the 
satisfaction and obedience of Christy as the head of a new humanity, and 
as embracing in himself all belieyers as his members. 

Bitsohl regarded JustUloatlon as primarily an endowment of the ofanrch. In which the 
Individual participated only so far as he belonged to the church ; see Pfleiderer, Die 
Ritschl'sche Theologle, 70. Here Bitsdil committed an error like that of the Romanist, 
—the church Is the door to Christ, instead of Christ being the door to the church. Jus- 
tlflcation belongs primarily to Christ, then to all who join themselves to Christ by faith, 
and the church is the natural and voluntary aggregation of those who In Christ are 
thus Justified. Hence the necftsity for the resurrection and ascension of the Lord 
Jesus. ** For as the ministry of Enoch was sealed by his reception Into heaven, and as 
the ministry of Elijah was also abundantly proved by bis translation, so also the right- 
eousness and Innocence of Christ. But It was necessary that the ascension of Christ 
should be more fully attested, because upon his righteousness, so fully proved by his 
ascension, we must depend for all our righteousness. For if God had not approved him 
after his resurrection, and he had not taken his seat at his right hand, we could by no 
means be accepted of God *' ( Cartwiight ). 

A. J. Gordon. Ministry of the Spirit, 40, 198, 19ft, 806—** Christ must be Justified in the 
spirit and received up Into glory, before he can be made righteousness to us and we can 
become the righteousness of God in him. Christ's coronation is the indispensable con- 
dition of our Justification. .... Christ the High Priest has entered the Holy of Holies 
in heaven for us. Until he comes foHh again at the second advent, how can we be 
assured that his sacrifice for us Is accepted? We reply: By the gift of the Holy Spirit. 
The presence of the Spirit in the church Is the proof of the presence of Christ before 
the throne. .... The Holy Spirit convinces of righteousness, 'beeuM I g» ute the FMter, and 
7* iM AM no mm' (Jobal8:10). We can only know that ' v« kavi a PiuaAkU vifh the Vkthar, rrta Jatu 
ObMlktRigiUMtu' (1 JakaS:!), by that 'oOur Fandatt' sent forth from the Father, even the 
Holy Spirit ( John 14 : K. M ; 15 : M ). The church, having the Spirit, reflects Christ to the 
world. As Christ manifests the Father, so the church through the Spirit manifests 
Christ. So Ohrist gives to us his name,* Ohristiansi' as the husband gives his name to 
thawite." 



862 SOTBBIOLOGY, OB THB DOOTRIKB OF SALYATIOK. 

As Adam's sin is impnted to ns, not because Adam is in ns, bat beoause 
we were in Adam ; so Christ's righteousness is impnted to ns^ not becaose 
Christ is in ns, bnt because we are in Christ, — that is, joined by fiuth to 
one whose righteonsness and life are inflnitely greater than onr power to 
appropriate or contain. In this sense, we may say that we are jostifled 
through a Christ outside of us, as we are sanctified through a Christ within 
us. Edwards : " The justdfioation of the believer is no other than his being 
admitted to communion in, or participation of, this head and surety of all 
belieyers." 



11I&l:14---atthuillmvkiAiii&Ckkki<ni**;l:tt— "bvleVMMidteidiAtteflfl^JMtiM 
thAipirit"; ifllilS-.SS— "aad bjrUm [Ut.: 'iaktai*] nwy ane that bdimth is jutiiid frtn aU tUiici.ft«i 
vUflk jteoDldiMtbiJuUMbyfhahvafHflMi"; KnL4:K~"vhovMdtliTindipfa-aartrMpMMi,ud vu 
niMd Ibr owjulUMtim" ; Ipk. 1 : 6 —"iMipltd ia tk« Bdortd "—Boy. Yen. : "ftwlj baitovwd on u in tk« 
B«lmd'':10«r.6:ll— ''JuiiMisthtiMMaf thtlffdJiniOhrut.'* ** We in Christ " is the formula 
of our Justifloation ; ** Christ in us " is the formula of our sanctiflcation. As the water 
which the shell contains is little compared with the irreat ocean which contains the 
shell, so the actual change wrought within us by Qod's sanctifying grace is slight com- 
pared with the boundless freedom from condemnation and the state of favor with 
Qod into which we are introduced by Justification ; Son. 5: i, I —"Mag tkmran jutiM by 
fttiO, «• kan paiM vifk flod tkmigh oar lord Jmdi Okriit; tknogk vkn «1m vt kavt kad vox mim hj fUSk isle 
tUi giBM vtavn vt itaod ; tad VI i^oiM in k«pt of tka gteiy flf (M." 

Here we have the third instance of imputation. The first was the imputation of 
Adam's sin to us ; and the second was the imputation of our sins to Christ. The third 
Is now the imputation of Christ's righteousness to us. In each of the former cases, we 
have sought to show that the legal relation presupposes a natural relation. Adam's sin 
Is imputed to us, because we are one with Adam; our sins are imputed to Christ, because 
Christ is one with humanity. So here, we must hold that Christ's righteousness Is 
imputed to us, because we are one with Christ. Justification is not an arbitrary trans- 
fer to us of the merits of another with whom we have no real connection. This would 
make it merely a legal fiction ; and there are no legal fictions in the divine government. 

Instead of this external and mechanical method of conception, we should iirst set 
before us the fact of Christ's Justification, after he had borne our sins and risen from the 
dead. In him, humanity, for the first time, is acquitted from punishment and restored 
to the divine favor. But Christ's new humanity is the germinal source of spiritual life 
for the race. He was Justified, not simply as a private person, but as our representative 
and head. By becoming partakers of the new life in him, we share in all he is and all 
he has done ; and, first of all, we share in his Justification. Bo Luther gives us, for sub- 
stance, the formula : '* We in Christ » Justification ; Christ in us »- sanctificatien." And 
in harmony with this formula is the statement quoted in the teact above from Edwards, 
Work8,4:6A. 

See also H. B. Smith, Presb. Bev., July, 1881— '* Union with Adam and with Christ is 
the ground of imputation. But the parallelism is incomplete. While the sin of Adam 
is imputed to us because it is ours, the righteousnesB of Christ is imputed to us simply 
because of our imion with him, not at all because of our personal righteousness. In 
the one case, character Is taken into the account ; in the other, it Is not. In sin, our 
demerits are included ; in Justification, our merits are excluded." For further state- 
ments of Dr. Smith, see his System of Christian Theology, 604-66S. 

C. H. M. on Genesis, page 78 — '* The question for every believer is not * What am I ? ' 
but 'What is Christ?' Of Abelitissaid: «QodtMtiifldof yigifli' (Ibk.U:4. A.y.). SoGod 
testifies, not of the believer, but of his gift,— and his gift is Christ. Tet Cain was angry 
because he was not received in Ms sftu, while Abel was accepted in Ms gift. This was 
right, if Abel was Justified in himself ; it was wrong, because Abel was Justified only in 
Christ." See also Hodge, Outlines of Theology, 884-888, 808 ; Baird, Elohim Revealed. 448. 

B. The relation of jnstifioation to regeneration and Banctiflcation, more- 
over, delivers it from the charge of externality and immorality. God does 
not justify ungodly men in their ungodliness. He pronounces them just 
only as they are united to Ohrisfci who is absolutely just, and who, l^ his 



JUSTIFICATIOK. 863 

Spirit, can make them jtiBt, not only in the eye of the law, but in moral 
character. The very faith by which the sinner receives Christ is an act in 
which he ratifies all that Christ has done, and accepts Qod*B judgment 
against sin as his own (John 16 : 11). 

Jolm 16 : 11 -"of Jodgmnk, teeaoM tkt piOM of tUi vvU kaSh bM Jii4gdi'*~ ^ 
believer to ratify God's Judgment a^alDAt sin and Satan. Aooeptlng Chiiat, the believer 
accepts Christ's death for sin, and resuireotlon to life for his own. If it were otherwise, 
the first act of the believer, after his disoharffe, might be a repetition of his offenoes. 
Such a jnstifloatlon would offend against the fundamental principles of Justice and the 
safety of government. It would also fail to satisfy the conscience. This clamors not 
only for pardon, but for renewaL Union with Christ has one legal fruit ^ Justifloatlao ; 
but it has also one moral fruit— sanctlflcatlon. 

A really guilty man, when acquitted by Judge and Jury, does not cease to be the vlo- 
tim of remorse and fear. Forgiveness of sin is not in Itself a deliveranoe from sin. 
The outward acquittal needs to be accompanied by an inward change to be really eflieot- 
1 ve. Pardon for sin without power to overcome sin would be a mockery of the criminal. 
Justification for Christ's sake therefore goes into effect through regeneration by the 
Holy Splsit ; see B. H. Johnson, in Bib. Sac., July, 18M9 : 88S. 

A Buddhist priest who had studied some years in Bngland printed in Shanghai not long 
ago a pamphlet entitled "Justification by Faith the only true Basis of Morality." It 
argues that any other foundation is nothing but pure selfishness, but that morality, to 
have any merit, must be unselfish. Justification by fblth supplies an unselfish motive, 
because we accept the work done for us by another, and we ourselves work from grat- 
itude, which is not a selfish motive. After laying down this Christian foundation, the 
writer erects the structure of faith in the Amida incarnation of Buddha. Buddhism 
opposes to the Christian doctrine of a ereative Person, only a creative process ; sin has 
relation only to the man sinning, and has no relation to Amida Buddha or to the eter- 
nal law of causation ; salvation by ftUth in Amida Buddha is fUth in one who is the 
product of a process, and a product may perish. Tennyson : '* They are but broken 
lights of Thee, And thou, O Christ, art more than they.*' 

Justification is possible, therefore, because it is always accompanied by 
regeneration and nnion with Christ, and is followed by sanctification. Bnt 
this is a very different thing from the Bomanist oonf onnding of jnstification 
and sanctification, as different stages of the same process of Tno-lring the 
sinner aotnaUy holy. It holds fast to the Scriptore distinction between 
justification as a declarative act of €k>d, and regeneration and sanctification 
as those efficient acts of Qod by which jnstification is accompanied and fol- 
lowed. 

• 

Both history and onr personal observation show that nothing can change the life and 
make men moral, like the gospel of tree pardon in Jesus Christ. Mere preaching of 
morality will effect nothing of consequence. There never has been more insistence 
upon morality than in the most immoral times, like those of Seneca, and of the English 
deists. As to their moral fruits, we can safely compare Protestant with Boman Catho- 
lic systems and leaders and countries. We do not become right by doing right, for only 
those can do right who have become right. The prodigal son is forgiven before he 
actually oonf esses and amends (Luka 16: M^ U ). Justification is always accompanied by 
regeneration, and is followed by sanctification ; and all three are results of the death 
of Christ But the sin-offering must precede the thank-offering. We must first be 
accepted ourselves before we can offer gifts ; HtK 11 : 4— **B7 fidtk ibal oimd onto Ood a bom nad- 
Int Moite thia (Ub, tkroigli vkkk 1m ]»d litDM bwM to kirn t^ 
tfUigiflB.'* 

Hence we read in lpL5:IE;28— "(ftriililM IotmL tht flbiink,ud gavt klanlf apirlt; thitkaaigkt 
lUiBtUy Itt kATiag diUMd •- C after he had cleansed ] It by tht vuUag sfvite vitk ttt 1^ 
eratlon]:iPit.i:i,S— "alaet. .. . umiiag to tht fardnowlady d flod tlw ftithcr, la Mimtltotiai of ftt 
Spirit [regeneration], unto obadinoe [ conversion ] aoii qgiinkUng «f tht Uaa4 of Jim Ohrirt ijimtffioar- 
tlon ] '^ Uohn 1 : 7-- " If v» walk iA fh« Hght, M iM toil tht lights V* hiw aUoviUp (M vitli lootkir, ^ 
aftauktoScadtoaBMlhiulhai all u'*— here the 'oleaoalng' refers primarily and mainly to 



864 SOTBBIOLOGY, OB THB DOGTBIlirB OP SALYATIOK. 



justifloatioii, not to saootUloatloii ; for tlie ftposlde hJmaelf dedareB in vmS— «If «• ng 
tkat VB ban bo liii, v« 4M«iT<8oarMlfa% andtiw tnXk iiaok in u.** 

Quenstedt says well, that ** JuBtiflcation, slooe It is an act, outside of man, in God, 
oannot produce an intrinsic change in us." And yet^ he says, ** although faith alone 
iustiflea, yet faith is not alone.'* Melanohthon : ^ Bote ildes Justlflaat ; sed fides non est 
sola.*' With faith go all manner of gifts of the Spirit and internal graces of character. 
But we should let go all the doctrinal gains of the Bef onnation if we did not insist that 
these gifts and graces are accompaniments and consequences of Justiflcation, instead 
of being a part or a ground of justification. See Girdlestone, O. T. Synonyms, lOi, 
note — " Justification is God's declaration that the individual sinner, on account of the 
faith which unites him to Christ, is taken up into the relation which Christ holds to 
the Esther, and has applied to him personally the objective work accomplished for 
humanly by Christ.** 

e. BelatUm of JuB^floaticn to lyutK 

A* We aie justified by ffdthv latherthanbjlofvearbjaajcylihergzaoe: 
(a) not beoanse faith is itself a work of obedience by whidh we merit 
jnstifioationy — for this would be a doctrine of jostifloation by works ; ( 6 ) 
nor becftose faith is accepted as an equivalent of obedience, — for there is 
no equivalent except the perfect obedience of Ghnst ; ( o ) nor because 
faith is the germ from which obedience may spring hereafter, — for it is 
not the faith which accepts, but the Christ who is accepted, that renders 
such obedience possible ; but ( d ) because &ith, and not repentance, or 
love, or hope, is the medium or iostmment by which we receive Ohrist and 
are united to him. Hence we are never said to be justified dtd, ntariv^ «- on 
account of faith, but only ^td wUneuc^ » through faith, or U wUmuc, a 
by faith. Or, to express the same truth in other words, while the grace 
of Qod is the efficient cause of justification, and the obedience and suffer- 
ings of Ohrist are the moitorioas or procuring cause, faith is the mediate 
or instrumental cause. 

Bdwaids, Works, 4 :60-^— ** Fsith justifies, beoause faith includes the whole act of 
noitioin to Christ as a Savior. It is not the nature of any other graces or virtues 
directly to close with Christ as a mediator, any further than they enter into the con- 
stitution of justifying faith, and do belong to its nature*'; Observations on Trl ity 
M-67 — ** Salvation is not oflFered to us upon any condition, but freely and for nothing. 
We are to do nothing for it, —we are only to take it. This taking and receiving is 
faitii." H. B. Smith, System, fiB4 — ** An internal change is a sine qua non of justUoa- 
tion, but not its meritorious ground." Give a man a gold mine. It is Mb, He has not 
to work /or it ; he has only to work it. Working for life is one thing ; working /rom 
life is quite another. The marriage of a poor girl to a wealthy proprietor makes her 
possessor of his riches despite her former poverty. Yet her acceptance has not pur- 
chased wealth. It is hers, not because of what she is or has done, but because of what 
her husband is and has done. So fSith is the condition of justifloation, only because 
through it Christ becomes ours, and with him his atonement and righteousness. Sal- 
vation comes not because our faith saves us, but beoause it links us to the Christ who 
saves ; and believing is only the link. There is no more merit in it than in the beggar's 
stretching forth his hand to receive the oCTered puise, or the drowning man's grasping 
the rope that is thrown to him. 

The Wesleyan scheme is inclined to make faith a work. See Dabney, Theology, 637. 
This is to make faith tlie cause and ground, or at least to add it to Christ's work as a 
joint cause and ground, of justifloation ; as if justification were SiiL irfoTir, instead of 
iU wiantH or U vforcMc. Since faith is never perfect, this is to go back to the Roman 
Catholic uncertainty of salvation. See Domer, Olaubenslehre, 8 :74i, 746 ( Syst. Doot* 
4:200,207). 0, H. M.ona«B.S:7— "They made themselves aprons of fig-leaves, before 
Qod made them coats of skin. Man ever tries to dothe himself in garments of his own 
righteousness, before he will take the robe of Christ's. But Adam felt falmaelf naked 
when Qod visited him, even though he had his fig4eaves on him." 



JUSTIFIOATIOK. 865 

We are Juitillad efflolently by the gnu» of God, meritorioudy by Christ, instrament- 
tUy by faith, eTldentiaUy by works. lUth pastilles, as roots biinff plant and soil 
together. Fsith oooneots man with the source of life in Christ. ** When the boatman 
with his hook grapples the rock, be does not pull the shore to the boat, but the boat to 
the shore ; so, when we by faith lay hold on Christ, we do not pull Christ to us, but our- 
SBlves to him." lUth is a coupling ; the train Is drawn, not by the coupling, but by the 
looomotlye ; yet without the coupling it would not be drawn* lUtfa is the trolley that 
reaches up to the eleotrto wire; when the conneotioD is sundered, not only does the 
car cease to move, but the heat dies and the lights go out. Dr. John Duncan : **I have 
married the Merchant and all his wealth is mine I " 

H. C. QhrumbuU : ** If a man wants to cross the ocean, he can either try swimming, or 
heoantrustthecaptainof aship to carry himorer InhisyesseL By or through his 
faith in that captain, the man is carried safely to the other shore; yet it is the ship's 
captain, not the passenger's faith, which is to be praised for the carrying." 80 the 
sick man trusts his case in the hands of his phyitoian, and his life is saved by the physi- 
cian, » yet by or through the patient's faith. This fiilth is indeed an inward act of 
allegiance, and no mere outward performance. Whlton, Divine Batlsfaotlon, 00— 
'* The Protestant Bef ormers saw that it was by an inward act, not by penances or sac- 
raments that men were Justified. But they halted in the crude notion of a legal court 
room process, a governmental procedure external to us, whereas It is an educational, 
inward process, the awakening through Christ of the filial spirit in us, which in the 
midst of imperfections strives for likeness more and more to the Bon of God. Justifi- 
cation by principle apart from performance makes Christianity the religion of the 
spirit.'* We would add that such Justification excludes education, and is an act rather 
than a process, an act external to the sinner rather than internal, an act of God rather 
than an act of man. The Justified person can say to Christ, as Buth said to Boas : 
*'Vk7 hAT«I ftud hfot hi tkj dgkt» thU thn ihMUtft tain ksmrlfldgt «f mt, ndiig lun a teiisBarr** 
(KiilkS:iO). 

B. Sinoe the ground of jnstifloation is only OhriBt, to whom we are 
tmited by futh^ the jugtified person has peace. If it were anything in 
ouiselvee, onr peaoe mast needfi be proportioned to our holiness. The 
practical efTeot of the Bomanist mingling of works with faith, aa a joint 
ground of justification, is to render all assurance of salvation impossible. 
( CouncU of Trenti 9th ohap. : ** Every man, by reason of his own weak- 
ness and defects, must be in fear and anxiety about his state of grace. 
Nor can any one know, with infallible certainty of faith, that he has 
received forgiveness of Qod. " ). But since justification is an instantaneous 
act of Qod, complete at the moment of the sinner's first believing, it has 
no degreea Weak faith justifies aa perfectly as strong faith ; although, 
since justification is a secret act of CK)d, weak fiuth does not give so strong 
assurance of salvation. 

Foundations of our Faith, 816—*' The GathoUo doctrine declares that Justification is 
not dependent upon faith and the righteousnesB of Christ imputed and granted thereto, 
but on the actual condition of the man himself. But there remain in the man an undenl* 
able amount of fleshly lusts or inclinations to sin, even though the man be regenerate. 
The Catholic doctrine is therefore constrained to assert that these lusts are not In them- 
selves sinful, or objects of the divine displeasure. They are allowed to remain in the 
man, that he may struggle sgainst them ; and, as they say, Paul designates them as sin- 
ful, only because they are derived from sin, and Incite to sin ; but they only become 
sin by the positive concurrence of the human will. But Is not Internal lust displeasing 
to God? Can we diaw the line between lust and will? The Catholic favors self here, 
and makes many things hut, which are really irOL A Protestant is necessarily more 
earnest in the work of salvation, when he recognises even the evil desbe as sin, socord- 
Ing to Christ's precept." 

AU systems of religion of merely human origin tend to make salvation, in larger or 
smaller degree, the effect of human works, but only with the result of leaving man in 
despair. See, in Bcdeslasticus 8 : 80, an Apocryphal declaration that alms nuke atone- 
ment for sin. 80 Bomasism bids me doubt God*s grace and the forglveaeas of sins. 
65 



866 BOTBBIOLOOYy OB THB DOCTBIKE OF SALYATIOIT. 

See Dorner, Oesoh. prot. TheoL, 228, 2S9, and his quotatioiui from Luther. ** Bat If the 
Romanlat doctrine la true, that a man is JuBtlfled only in suoh meeaure as he is aanott- 
fled, then : 1. Justifloation must be a matter of deirrees, and so the Council of Trent 
declares it to be. The sacraments which sanctify are therefore essential, that one may 
be increasinflrly Justifled. 2. Since Justification is a continuous process, the redeeming 
death of Christ, on which it depends, must be a oontinuous process also ; hence its pro- 
longed reiteration in the sacrifice by the Mass. 8. Since sanotification is obviously 
never completed hi this life, no man ever dies completely justified ; hence the doctrine 
of Purgatory.*' For the substance of Romanist doctrine, see Moehler, SymboUam, 79- 
190; Newman, Lectures on Justification, 258-846; Bttschl, Christian Doctrine of Justi- 
fication, 121-aO. 

A better doctrine la that of the Puritan divine: "It Is not the quantity of thy fldth 
that shall save thea A drop of water is aa true water aa the whole ocean. So a little 
faith ia aa true fUth aa the greatest. It ia not the measure of thy faith that saves 
thee,— it is the blood that it grips to that saves thee. The weak band of the child, that 
leads the spoon to the mouth, will feed as well as the strong arm of a man ; for it is not 
the hand that feeds, but the meat. So, if thou canst grip Christ ever so weakly, he will 
not let thee perish." I am troubled about the money I owe in New York, until I find 
that afriend has paid my debt there. When I find that the objective account againat 
me ia cancelled, then and only then do I have aubjectlve peace. 

A child may be heir to a vast eatate, even while he doea not know it ; and a child of 
God may be an heir of glory, even while, through the weakness of his faith, he is 
oppreaaed with painful doubts end fears. No man ia loat aimply becauae of the great- 
ness of his sins; however ill-deserving be may be, faith in Christ will save him. 
Luther's climbing the steps of St. John Lateran, and the voice of thunder : " The Just 
shall live by faith," are.not certain as historical facta ; but they express the substance 
of Luther's experience. Not obeying, but receiving, is the substance of the gospeU 
A man cannot merit salvation ; he cannot buy it ; but one thing he muat do,— he muat 
take it. And the least faith makea salvation ours, becauae it makea Christ ours. 

Augustine conceived of Justification aa a continuoua process, proceeding untUlove 
and all Chriatlan virtuea fill the heart. There is his chief difference from Paul. Augus- 
tine believes in sin and grace. But he has not the freedom of the children of God, aa 
Paul haa. The influence of Augrustine upon Roman Catholic theology haa not been 
wholly aalutary. The Roman Catholic, mixing man'a aubjective condition with God'a 
gifaoe aa a ground of Justification, continually wavers between self -righteousness and 
uncertainty of acceptance with God, each of these being fatal to a healthful and stable 
religious life. Hiirh-church Bplacopaliana, and SaoramentaUata generally, are aflUoted 
with thia diatemper of the Romanists. Dr. B. W. Dale remarks with regard to Dr. 
Pusey : ^* The absence of Joy in his religious Uf e was only the inevitable effect of his 
conception of God's method of saving men ; in parting with the Lutheran truth con- 
cerning Juattflcation, he parted with the apringa of gladneas." Spurgeon said that a 
man might get from London to New York provided he took a steamer ; but it made 
much difference in his comfort whether he had a first class or a second class ticket. A 
new realization of the meaning of Justification in our churches would change much of 
our singing from the minor to the major key ; would lead ua to pray, not /or the pres- 
ence of Christ, but from the presence of Christ ; would aboUah the mournful upward 
inflectiona at the end of aentencea which give such unreality to our preaching ; and 
would replace the peaslmistic element in our modem work and worship with the notes 
of praise and triumph. In the Pilgrlm*s Progress, the Justification of the believer is 
symbolized by Christian's lodging In the Palace Beautiful whose window opened toward 
thesunrising. 

Even Luther did not fully apprehend and apply his fkivorite doctrine of Justification 
by faith. Hamack, Weaen dea Chriatenthuma, 168 »q„ states the fundamental princi- 
ples of Protestantism as: "1. The Christian religion is wholly given in the word of 
Qcd and in the inner experience which answers to that word. 2. The assured belief 
that the Christian haa a gradoua God. * Nun wefaz und glaub' ich *b f este, loh rtthm 's 
auch ohne Scheu, Dasa Gott, der hOchst' und beste, Mein Freund und Vater sel ; Und 
dasE in alien FKUen Er mir zur Bechten steh', Und dampfe Sturm und Wellen, 
Und was mir bringet Weh'.' 8. Restoration of simple and believing worship, both 
public and private. But Luther took too much dogma into Christianity ; insisted too 
much on the authority of the written word ; cared too much for the means of grace, 
•uoh aa the Lord's Supper ; identifled the church too much with the organized body." 



JUSTIFICATIOK. 86r 

Tet Luther talked of beating the heads of the Wittenbergen with the Bible, ao as to 
get the great doctrine of Justiflcation by fUth Into their brains. ** Why do you teach 
your child the same thing twenty times?** he said. ** Because I find that nineteen 
times Is not sufficient.*' 

O. Justifioation is inBtantaneoTifl, complete, and final : inatantaneonBy 
sinoe othennae there wonld be an interval during nrhioh the aonl ma 
neither approved nor condemned by God (Mat. 6 :24 ) ; complete, ainoe 
the aonl, nnited to Ohziat by faith, becomes partaker of hia complete aatia- 
faction to the demanda of law ( GoL 2 : 9, 10 ) ; and final, since the union 
with Ohrist la indiaaolnble ( John 10 : 28, 29). Aa there are many acta of 
sin in the life of the Christian, ao there are many acta of pardon following 
them. But all theae acta of pardon are virtually implied in that first act 
by which he waa finally and forever justified ; aa alao auocessive acta of 
repentance and faith, after auoh aina, are virtually implied in that firat 
repentance and faith which logically preceded justification. 



]Ui6:M-"IoBaafliBHrTt tvt ■Mtan"; Od. 2:8^10— "Ia Ua dvdktk lU tte flUiM ffttt ^dkmi 
bodUj.aadiakiBjtinnidtfUl, who is tht kMd of aU friadfditj ud p«vw"; JofaaiO:»»»— "tk^iftaS 
umr ptriak, aad aoflniifcill aatth thm out of ly tml Hylitker, vkohithgivHi tkaiintoaM^li gnatartkaa 
•U; indMtntiaaUttoaitaktkBoatflrtktlklkr'iknL** 

Plymouth Brethren say truly that the Christian has sin in him, but not on him, 
because Christ had sin on him, but not In him. The Christian hassin but not sullt, 
because Christ had guilt but not sin. All our sins are burled In the grave with Christ, 
and ChrlBt*s resurrection is our resurrection. Toplady : " From whenoe this fear and 
unbelief ? Hast thou, O Father, put to grief Thy spotless Son for me T And wlU the 
righteous Judge of men Condemn me for that debt of sin. Which, Lord, was laid on 
thee ? If thou hast my discharge procured. And freely in my room endured The whole 
of wrath divine. Payment Ood cannot twice demand. First at my bleeding Surety's 
hand. And then again at mine. Complete atonement thou hast made. And to the 
utmost farthing paid Whate'er thy people owed ; How then can wrath on me take 
place. If sheltered in thy righteousness And sprinkled with thy blood ? Turn, then, my 
soul, unto thy rest; The merits of thy great High-priest Speak peace and liberty; 
Trust in his efflcaolous blood. Nor fear thy banishment from Ood, Since Jesus died for 
thee I" 

Justlfloatlon, however, is not eternal in the past. We are to repent unto the remis. 
stonof our sins (Afft8:88). Bemisslon comes after repentance. Sin is not pardoned 
before it is committed. In Justiflcation God grants us actual pardon for past sin, but 
virtual pardon for future sin. Edwards, Works, 4 : 104 ^" Future sins are respected, in 
that nrsb justiflcation, no otherwise than as future faith and repentance are respected 
in it ; and future faith and repentance are looked upon by him that Justlfles as virtually 
Implied in that first repenu»uoe and faith, in the same manner that Justtfloation trom 
future sins ic :ji»*Ued in that flist Justification.*' 

A man Is not Justified from his sins before he has oommitted them, nor Is he saved 
before he is bom. A remarkable lUustration of the eztzeme to which hyper-Gal vinlsm 
may go Is found in Tobias Crisp, Sermons, 1 : 86B — " The Lord hath no more to lay to the 
charge of an elect person, yet in the height of Iniquity, and in the excess of riot, and 
committing all the abomination that can be committed .... than he has to thechaige 
of the saint triumphant in glory." A far better statement is found in Moberly . Atone- 
ment and Personality, 61r-** As there is upon earth no consummated penitence, so 
neither is there any forgiveness consummated. .... Forgiveness Is the recognition, by 
anticipation, of something which Is to be, something toward which it is itself a mighty 
quickening of possibilities, but something which is not, or at least Is not perfectly, yet. 
.... Present forgiveness is Inchoate, Is eduoatlonaL .... It reaches Its final and 
perfect consummation only when the forgiven penitent has become at last personally 
and completely righteous. If the consummation Is not reached but reversed, then for- 
giveness is forfeited (Ihi 18:12-35)." This last exception, however, as we shall see in 
our discussion of Peneverance, is only a hypothetical one. The truly foiglven do not 
finally fiaU away. 



868 SOTXSIOLOOYi OB THB DOGTBIKB OF SALYATIOV. 

7. Advice to Inquirers demanded by a Scriptural View ofJtut^ficaHan, 

(a) Where oonTiotion of sin is yet lacking, our aim should be to show 
the sinner that he is nnder Ckxl's condemnation for his past sins, and that 
no fature obedience can ever seonre his justification, since this obedience, 
even though perfect, could not atone for the pasti and even if it could, he 
is unable, without God's help, to render it 

Withthehelpof theHolyBiiiTltiOooTiotlonofatnmaytieroaaed by prc s ont aM o n of 
the olaima of Ood's perfect law, and hy dnwing attention, flxst to pcurtloular overt 
tnuugreflaiona, and then to the manifold omtelonf of duty, the general lack of supreme 
and all-pervading love to Qod, and the guilty rejection of (Prist's offers and commands. 
*^ Even if the next page of the copy hook had no blots or erasures, its cleanness would 
not alter the smudges and misshapen letten on the earlier pages." God takes no notice 
of the promise "lait pittnoi vith m^ ud I «iU|ij tkM** (lai i8:l9)i for he knows It can never 
be fulfilled. 

(6) Where conviction of sin abeady exists, our aim should be» nol^ In 
the first instance, to secure the performance of external religious duties, 
such as prayer, or Scripture-reading, or uniting with the church, but to 
induce the sinner, as his first and all-inclusive duty, to accept Christ as his 
only and sufficient sacrifice and Savior, and, committing liimaAlf and the 
matter of his salvation entirely to the hands of Ohrist, to manifest this trust 
and submission l^ entering at once upon a life of obedience to Ohrist'? 
commands. 

A convicted sinner should be exhorted, not first to prayer and then to fidth, but first 
to ftUth, and then to the immediate expression of that faith in prayer and Christian 
activity. He should pray, not for faith, but in ftdth. It should not be forgotten that 
the sinner never sins against so much light, and never is In so greiit danger, as when he 
is convicted but not converted, when he is moved to turn br'^ ^et refuses to turn. No 
such shinershould be allowed to think that he has the rigb. to do any other thing what- 
ever before accepting Christ. This accepting Christ Is not an outward act, but an Inward 
act of mind and heart and will, although believing Is naturally evidenced by ImmedJata 
outward action. To teach the sinner, however apparently well disposed, how to believe 
on Christ, Is beyond the power of man. God is the only giver of fttlth. But Borlptuie 
Instances of faith, and illustrations drawn from the child's ta^ljg the father at his 
word and acting upon it, have often been used by the Holy Spirit as means of leading 
men themselves to put faith in Christ. 

Bengel: '*Those who are secure Jesus refers to the law ; those who are contrite he 
consoles with the gospeL" A man left work and came home. His wife asked why. 
'* Because I am a sinner." '* Let me send for the preacher.*' ^ Fm too far gone for 
preachers. If the Lord Jesus Christ does not save ma I am lost." That man needed 
only to be pointed to the Cross. There he found reason for believing that there was 
salvation for him. In surrendering himself to Christ he was Justifleo. un the general 
subject of Justification, see Edwards, Works, 4:6i-12S: Buchanan on Justlflcation« 
SG(M11 ; Owen on Justification, in Works, vol. 5; Bp. of Ossory, Nature and Effects of 
Faith, 48-152; Hodge, Syst. TheoL, 8:114-212; Thomasius, Christ! Person und Werk, 
8: 188-4900; Henog, Bncydoplldle, art. : Bechtfertlgung; Bushnell, Vicarious Sacrifioeb 
416-420, 48&. 



SBOnOH ni.— THE APPLICATION OF CHRIST'S BBDBXPTIOK 

IN ITS CONTINUATION. 

Under this head we treat of Sanctification and of Perseverance. These 
two are bat the diyine and the human sides of the same f act» and they heat 
to each other a relation similar to that which exists between Begen^ntion 
and Oonyendon. 



8ANCTIPICATI0K. 869 

L SAKCfrmoATiON. 

1. Definition of SancHflcation, 

Sanotification is that oontiiinous operation of the Holy Spirit, by which 
the holy disposition imparted in regeneration is maintained and strength- 
ened. 

Oodet : ** The work of Jesus in the world is twofold. It is a work acoompUshed for 
U8, destined to effect reeoneHiatUm between God and man ; It is a work aooomplished in 
ttt, with the object of effeotinir our sanetijlcalian. By the one, a right relation is estab- 
lished between Ood and us ; by the other, the fruit of the retetablished order is secured. 
By the former, the condemned sinner is received into the state of grace ; by the latter, 
the pardoned sinner is assoototed with the life of Ood. .... How many express them- 
selves as if, when forgiveness with the peace which it procures has been once obtained, 
all is Unished and the work of salvation is complete I They seem to have no suspicion 
that salvation consists in the health of the soul, and that the health of the soul consists 
in holiness. Forgiveness is not the regstablishment of health ; it is the crisis of con- 
valescence. If Gk)d thinks fit to declare the sinner righteous, it is in order that he may 
by that means restore him to holiness." O. P. Oiffoid : ** The steamship whose machinery 
is broken may be brought into port and made f&st to the dock. She is aafe^ but not 
aowid. Bepalrs may last a long time. Christ designs to make us both safe and sound. 
Justification gives the flist— safety ; sanctlfication gives the second -* soundness." 

Bradford, Heredity and Christian Problems, 2B0^**To be conscious that one is for- 
given, and yet that at the same time he is so polluted that he cannot boget a child with- 
out handing on to that child a nature which will be as bad as if his father had never 
been forgiven, is not salvation in any real sense.*' We would say : Is not salvation tn 
any complete sense. Justification needs sanctiflcation to follow it. Man needs Ood to 
continue and preserve his spiritual life, just as much as he needed God to begin it at the 
flrsL Creation in the spiritual, as well as in the natural world, needs to be supple- 
mented by preservation ; see quotation from Jonathan Edwards, in Allen's biography 
of him, 871. 

Begeneration is instantaneous, but sanctiflcation takes time. The ** developing " of 
the photographer's picture may illustrate God's process of sanctifying the regenerate 
soul. But it is development by new access of truth or light, while the photographer's 
picture is usually developed in the dark. This development cannot be accomplished in 
a moment. ^ We try in our religious lives to practise instantaneous photography. One 
minute for prayer will give us a vision of God, and we think that is enough. Our pic- 
tures are poor because our negatives are weak. We do not give God a long enough 
sitting to get a good likeness." 

Salvation is something past, something present, and something future; a past fSct, 
justification; a present process, sanctiflcation; a future consummation, redemption 
and glory. David, in Pb. 61 : i, S; prays not only that Ood will blot out his transgressions 
(justification ), but that God will wash him thoroughly from his iniquity (sanctiflca- 
tion ). B. G. Bobinson : '* Sanctiflcation consists negativeiv, in the removal of the penal 
consequences of sin from the moral nature ; positively, in the progressive implanting 

and growth of a new principle of Ufe The Christian church Is a succession of 

copies of the character of Christ. Paul never says s ' be /• imitetan of dm * ( l Oor. 4 : 16 ), except 
when writing to those who had no copies of the New Testament or of the Gospels.*' 

Clarke, Christian Theology, 806—*' Sanctiflcation does not mean perfection reached, 
but the progress of the divine Ufe toward perfection. Sanctiflcation is the Christianiz- 
ing of the Christian.** It is not simply deliverance from the penalty of sin, but the 
development of a divine life that conquers sin. A. A. Hodge, Popular Lectures, 848— 
** Any man who thinks he is a Christian, and that he has accepted Christ for justiflcation, 
when he did not at the same time accept him for sanctlfication, is miserably deluded In 
that very experience." 

This definition implies : 

( a) That^ althongh in regeneration the goreming disposition of the sool 
is made holy, there still remain tendencies to evil which are nnsnbdned. 



I >• 



Jokan:M— "HtthiitiibfttM BBdMknolMTBtovHk Us liwt. bia ii dfluk aTaity vhii [{. e., as a whole] 
tea S;tS--'<UI Art lia tkawlm nicn is Toor aortal b«d7,ttaft7«ikaU ob^ ft* 1«^ 



870 SOTEBIOLOOY^ OR THB DOCTBIKB OF SALVATION. 

in a believer, but it relgna in an unbetiever ( a H. M. ). Subordinato volitioDS in the 
Ghrtotlan are not always determined in ohaiaoter by the fundamental ohoice; eddies in 
the stream sometimes run counter to the general oourse of the current. 

This doctrine is the opposite of that expressed in the phrase : ** the essential divinity 
of the human.*' Not culture, but crucifixion. Is what the Holy Spirit prescribes for the 
natural man. There are two natures in the Christian, as Paul shows in Bantu 7. The 
one flourishes at the other's expense. The vine dresBer has to cut the rank shoots from 
self, that all our force may be thrown into growing fruit Deadwood must be cut out ; 
U ving wood must be out back ( J«kn 15 : S ). Sanotlflcatlon Is not a matter of oomee, which 
will go on whatever we do, or do not do. It requires a direct superintendence and 
surgery on the one hand, and, on the other hand a practical hatred of evil on our part 
that cooperates with the husbandry of God. 

(b) That the existenoe in the believer of these two opposing prindpleB 
gives rise to a conflict which lasts through life. 

(kL5:17--''7orth«i«ikliifUtkagiiailtht8plriKudtke8piiil^aiiit for thm in mtniy tkt «■• to 

tktotkv; ttMtycmaj&otdotketUBgttkalysvmU' — not, as the A. V. had It, ' m tkit 7* flUMt do tk« 
tkiiigi tkit /• iraoU*; the Spirit who dwells in believers is represented as enabling them 
successfully to resist those tendencies to evil which naturally exist within them ; Jmm 4 : 5 
( the marginal and better reading)— "l^^phttvkuk kaaidi to dwaU la ujHrniftftriiifTiA onto 
JmIohi niTy** — <. e., QoA'b love, like all true love, longs to have its objects wholly for its 
own. TheChzistlanlstwomeninone; butheisto''pataiAjtheddBMa"and"piitaat)Mii0w 
■u"(lpk4:ata). Compare Bcoleslastlous 8: 1~'* Hyson, if thou dost set out to serve 
the Lord, prepare thy soul for temptstion." 

1 nm. 6:12— "ngkt tht good flght of tktUtt**—Av«*i^^<>v ^^ ««>^^ «Y»*« ^ vurrmK— the beau- 
tiful, honorable, glorious fight ; since it has a noble helper, incentive, and reward. It 
is the commonest of all struggles, but the issue determines our destiny. An Indian 
received as a gift some tobacco in which he found a half dollar hidden. He brou^rht it 
back next day, saying that good Indian had fought all niffht with bad Indian, one tell- 
ing him to keep, the other telling him to return. 

( ) That in this conflict the Holy Spirit enables the Christian, through 
increasing faith, more fully and consoioiiBly to appropriate Christ, and thus 
progressively to make conquest of the remaining sinfulness of his nature. 

BaB.8:lS,14— "flirif7oliToaltortheftoib,7oniikdio: tetlfbythoBpixitTopattodaiththodoediofttobody, 
TOihallUTO. VoroaauayMinlidltjthoSpirikofaod, thMoanioBiofGod"; 10or.6:ll— "tatyo vonviahod, 
bill 70 vor» WMkiflod, bat 70 vonjiiitiilod ia tho loiBO of tho Irfii Jwu (ftr^ 

— "IfaayBHathiakothbiiMlfto bo nligku^ vkile ho bridloth not Ui toagvo bat dooolTotb Ui knz^ thii aiu'i 
roEgioB to nia "— see Com. of Neander, in loco -^ ** That religion Is merely imaginary, seem- 
IngTi unreal, which allows the continuance of the moral defects originally predominant 
in the character." The Christian is "oraoiiM vltk Obitok" ( floL 2 : SO ); but the crudfied man 
does not die at onca Yet he is as good as dead. Bven after the old man is crudfied 
we are stlU to mortify him, or put him to death (Rob. 8 : 18 ; OoL 8 : 5 ). We are to cut 
down the old rosebush and cultivate only the new shoot that Is grafted into it. Here 
is ourprobatlon as Christians. 80^' die Scene wlrd zum Tribunal*'— the play of llf^ 
becomes Ood*a Judgment. 

Dr. Hastings : ^ When Bourdaloue was probing the consdenoe of Louis XIY , apply- 
ing to him the words of St. Paul and Intending to paraphrase them : ' for tho good ▼hick I 
voold, I do Bot, bat tbo OTll vhiok I voold not, that Ido^"IflndtTOBflBlaBio*— the King interrupted the 
great preacher with the memorable exclamation : * Ah, these two men, I know them 
well I ' Bourdaloue answered: * It is already something to know them. Sire ; but it is 
not enough,— one of the two must perish.* " And, In the genuine believer, the old does 
little by little die, and the new takes its place, as "DoTid miod ilraigor ond ifanongw, bat tho booio 
of 8oal miod wmkm taA wmkm" (8 8hd. 8:1). As the Welsh minister found himself after 
awhile thinking and dreaming in Knglteh, so the language of Gkmaan becomes to the 
Christian his native and only speech. 

2. JSa^lanoHona and /Scripture Proof. 
(a) Saoetifioation is the work of Qod. 

1 Tbooi 5 :88— "And tho Qod of poioo kianolf wietify 70a vhQD7.** Much of our modem literature 
ignores man^s dependence upon Ood, and some of it seems distinctly Intended to teach 



SAKCTIPICATIOK. 871 

the oppodte doctrine. Auerbach*s ^* On the HeightB," for example, teaofaes that man 
oan make his own atonement; and '*The Villa on the Rhine,'* by the same author, 
teaches that man can sanctify himself. The proper inscription for many modem French 
noTols is : ** Entertainment here for man and beast." The TendenznoveUe of Germany 
has its imitators in the sceptical novels of Enfrland. And no doctrine in these novels is 
so common as the doctrine that man needs no Savior but himself. 

( 6 ) It is a oontinnotis proceaa. 

nuLi:6— ''b«u« wiflaaatof thiBTa7tkiag,thakki vkobaguAKoodwrt la TMviU par^ 
ttJmu Ghriik"; 3:15— "Mutktnfon^ ubmbj Man ptrfMl, betkiamiadiad: and if la aBytluig yemaOo^ 
vwBindaditkiialnibaUflodmwluiteyHi**; 0oL8:l^lO— ^'UsaatoBBtoaaalbv; MciBg thai p hm pst dT 
tkt dd Baa vith Ui doings and havt patoa tha saw aaa, tkal is baiag nnawad mto kaowlsdga after tta inagt of 
bin that onatid him*'; o/.ict8 8:47—"ttaat that vara balog «Ted"; 1 0(r.l:18— "uto oa vho an baing 
ia?ed'^ SOor.S:15--'ia tktt that an Msg and '^ inflaal:iS—''(H vhoaalMhTSB lata hla ova kiag^ 
and gkiy." 

C. H. Parkhurst : **Tbe yeast does not strQEO tbroucrh the whole lump of dough at a 
flash. We keep finding unsuspected lumps of meal that the yeast has not yetseiaed 
upon. Wesurrender to God tn instalments. We may not mean to do it, but wedo it. 
Oonversion has got to be brought down to date.*' A student asked the President of 
Oberlin Oolleffe whether he could not take a shorter course than the one prescribed. 
^ Oh yes," replied the President, '* but then it depends on what you want to make of 
yourself. When God wants to make an oak, he takes a hundred years, but when he 
wants to make a squash, he takes six months." 

( ) It is distiiigiiished from regeneration as growth from birth, or as the 
sfcrengihening of a holy disposition from the original impartation of it 

%k4:lft— "^aaki]«thatnthiBk▼^■aJgnvl9iaaUthiBg8talahiB.vhoi8tha haad^em flbiat'*; t 
1haKS:18->"tha l^BiakaToatoiaflraaaaaBdabaQadiahinoBatavaid aaothar, aad tovaid aUinan*'; 1PM. 
8:18— "BstgnvinthagTMaaiid ksowladga of osr Lord and SkTior Jaaoa Ohriat"; (^.iPatl:83~*'bagotten 
a«am,]iotof oampbUa aaad, but of inoomitiUa, thnogh tha vord of flod, vhieh linlh and ahidath"* iJohnS:9 
— "▼haaoawriabagottanof GoddoathMaui,baoaaaahiaBMdahidathiiihlffl: aai ha flaimot da, beaaaaa ha ia bigofe- 
taidlGod." Not Bin only, but holiness also, is a germ whose nature is to grow. The new 
love in the belieyer's heart follows the law of all life, in developing and extending itself 
under God's husbandry. George Bllot: ^ The reward of one duty done is the power to 
doanother.*' J. W.A.Stewart: ^*Whenthe21stof March has come, we say * The back 
of the winter is broken.* There will still be altematioos of troeU hut the progr e ss will 
be towards beat. The coming of summer is sure,— in germ the summer is already here." 
Begeneratlon is the crisis of a disease ; sanotifloation is the progress of convalescence. 

Tet growth is not a uniform thing in the tree or in the Christian. In some single 
months there is more growth than in all the year besides. During the rest of the year, 
however, there is soUdifloation, without which the green timber would be useless. The 
period of rapid growth, when woody fibre is actually deposited between the bark and 
the trunk, occupies but fourto six weeks in Hay, June, and July. 8 Pat 1:5— "adding on 
jooryaiialldiUgoMi^iii yovftithaapplyTiitM; aad ia janr^litDa ]a0vledga"-i adding to the central 
grace all those that are complementary and subordinate, tlU they attain the harmony 

of a chorus ( hnxofnfY^an ). 

( d) The operation of Qod reveals itself in, and is sooompanied by, intel- 
ligent and Tolnntary activity of the believer in the disoovexy and mortifica- 
tion of sinfol desires, and in the bringing of the whole being into obedience 
to Christ and conformity to the standards of his word. 

J«hBl7:17— "BkBOtiiythaB in tha troth: thj vwd ia tnth " ; 8 0ar.l0:5— "aaati^ dova iM«liiatloo^aad 
aniy high thing that la anltad againat tha knovladga of (M, aad briflging anrj thoo^ 
oTAiiit"; PhiL8:18;i8— "voikaatyoarovBalnSiflavilkfoaraadhmbliiig; ftr it ia God vho v«luth in joa 
balhtoviU and ta vark, fcr Ua good pleaaan'*; 1PM. 8:8-" unav-banbaba^ long for thaapritDAl Billcvhiah 
iivithsiUgmlabthat 7aB»7gnvthiiob7Uiitaaidi«tkn." Jdhnifi:8— "AtaoadtyTO andaaabaoaaaaof tho vord 
vUA I han ipoka unto 700.'* Regeneration through the word is followed by sanctification 
through the word. Iph.8:l— "Bo 7a thoraftn inutatea of aod,M balondthUdNB." Imitation is at 
flrsta painful effort of will, as in learning the piano; afterwards it becomes pleasurable 
and even unoonsdous. Ghlldien unconsciously imitate the handwriting of their par- 
ents. Oharlss Lamb sees in the mirror, as he is shaving, the apparition of his dead 



872 SOTEBIOLOOTy OB THB DOOTBINB OF SALYATIOK. 

father. So our likeness to God oomes out m we adyanoe In jean. OoLS:4— "Vlmdriil 
vho to oor UK ihAU bt awiiiirtii thm ihdl 7» alM vilk kte be waiftiM 

Horace Bushn^ said that, If the stars did not move, thej would rot In the sky. The 
man who rides the bloyole must either go on, or go off. A larare part of sanctlfloatlon 
consists In the formation of proper habits, such as the habit of Scripture reading, of 
secret prayer, of church going, of efforts to convert and benefit others. Baxter: 
" Byery man must grow, as trees grow, downward and upward at once. The visible 
outward growth must be accompanied by an Invisible Inward growth." Drummond : 
"The spiritual man having passed from death to life, the natural man must pass from 
life to death.** There must be Increasing sense of sin : " My sins gave sharpness to the 
nails, And pointed every thorn." There must be a bringing of new and yet newer 
regionsof thought, feeling, and action, under the sway of Christ and his truth. Tbete 
is a grain of truth even in Maoaulay's Jest about ** essentlaUy Christian cookery." 

A. J. Gk>rdon, Iflnlstry of the Spirit, 88, 109-111— ** The church Is Christian no more 
than as it is the organ of the continuous passion of Christ. We must suffer with sinning 
and lost humanity, and so 'ill ip . . . . thaliAitk it kokiiv oftk* aflialiaM of ahriik*(0iiLl:S4). 
Christ's orudflzlon must be prolonged side by side with his resurrection. There are 
three deaths : 1. death In sin, our natural condition ; 2, death for sin, our Judicial con- 
dition ; 8. death to sin, our sanctified condition As the ascending sap in the tree 

crowds off the dead leaves which in spite of storm and frost ding to the branches aU 
the winter long, so does the Holy Spirit within us, when allowed full sway, subdue and 
expel the remnants of our sinful nature.' 



>• 



[e) The agency through which God effects the aanctification of the 
believer is the indwelling Spirit of Ohzist 

Mnl4:17,18— "thtSpiritoftnitt .... k« aUdfih vtth yon, ud ihdl b« is tn. IviniMtbftTC]fwdinlili 
iMMUtoyoii"; i5:>-6— "Alradjyemdau .... ihidi la ■•.... tpirt froa ■• yt MadsDOtkiaf** 
SflB.8:9,iO~"tfc6 8piritofaoddvdMbiB7«Q. Biilifiii7BaahiikiiottU8fattofGhriat»k«itBaiMfrkui td 
if(hrirt]siB7im,ttabo47iideadbMiiiHtrdi;1nttlMiprUiiliftbteMiM«rri^ 10ar.l:l;80 — 

"MMlifiad la OhrisllanB . . . . Gkriik lan% Yho vm b^ ute u tuu/Ohml&m " ; 6 : H — "kawr y» nut 

that ymir body iB ft tupto of tfceldj Sprit vfcuh ilia TOO, vUehyekftTt from Ood?" (kLS:i6— "Wtlkliytto 
Spirit, and ye fthftU not lUffi the Ivit of tha loih '^ Ipk 5 : 18 — ** Aid bo iM dnBka litk vlB^ 
beflllfldviththe^irit"; OeL l:»-»~''theriflh« of the glory of tUinyitaiy ainoBg the OoBiUflf^vhuh if Christ 
iayoo, thehopoof gkry: vhon ve pradaim, •daoniihlBg OTOiy boo lad taoohiiig orvy naii ia all viodoa^ that «e 
BHiy pnatBl OTory Biaa porfMtiaOhxiit; irhMwatoIlaboralao^BtriTliig aooovliag tohisvarldag, whiehvorkethia 
BM nigktily'^ S IlB. 1 : 14-" Ihat good Ihiag vhkh vu onmtlod VBlo thee goiid thra^ih the I^ 
dvoUethiau." 

Christianity substitates for the old souioes of ezdtement the power of the Holy 
Spirit. Here Is a source of comfort, energy, and Joy, Infinitely superior to any which 
the sinner knows. Ood does not leave the soul to fall back upon Itself . The higher up 
we get in the scale of being, the more does the new Ute need nursing and tending,— 
compare the sapling and the babe. God gives to the Christian, therefore, an abiding 
presence and work of the Holy Spirit,— not only regeneration, but sanotiflcation. C. E. 
Smith, Baptism of Fire: "The soul needs the latter as well as the former rain, the 
sealing as well as the renewing of the Spirit, the baptism of fire as well as the baptism 
of water. Sealing gives something additional to the document, an evidence plainer 
than the writing within, both to one's self and to others." 

'* Few flowers yield more honey than serves the bee for its daUy food." So we must 
first live ourselves off from our spiritual diet ; only what Is over can be given to nour- 
ish others. Thomas A Eempis, Imitation of Christ : ** Have peace in thine own heart; 
else thou wilt never be able to communicate peace to others." Gtodet : " Man is a ves- 
sel destined to receive God, a vessel which must be enlarged in proportion as it Is filled, 
and filled in proportion as it is enlarged." Matthew Arnold, Morality: " We cannot 
kindle when we will The fire which in the heart resides ; The Spirit bloweth and is still ; 
In mystery our soul abides. But tasks in hours of Insight willed Can be in hours of 
gloom fulfilled. With aching hands and bleeding feet. We dig and heap, lay stone on 
stone ; We bear the burden and the heat Of the long day, and wish *t were done. Not 
till the hours of Ught return AU we have built do we discern." 

(/) The mediate or instrumental oanse of sanotiflcationy as of jnstifioa- 
tion^ is faith. 



SAKonFiGATioiir. 873 

AttilS;9— "tlMMiiyttdrhMitityfcitt"; Rm.l:17— <'fMr ttn^ it nmklarichlimBMiflr Mbw 
Adtk into fldtk: u it if vrittas, Biit tko ligMmit ihaU livtftvB fritk." The ilsfateoiUDeflB indudes flano- 
ttfloation as well as Justiflcation ; and the subject of the epistle to the Romans Is not 
simply Justilloatlon by AUth, but rather rjffhteousnesi by faith, or salvation by faith. 
Justlfloatlon by faith is the subject of flbiptn 1-7 ; sanotliloation by faith is the subject of 
okiyltn 8-11 We are not sanctified by efforts of our own, any more than we are Justified 
by efforts of our own. ' 

God does not share with us the irlory of sanotifloation, any more than he shares with 
us the glory of Justification. He must do all. or nothing. William Iaw : *' A root set 
in the finest soil, in the best climate, and blessed with all that sun and air and rain can 
do for it, is not in so sure a way of its growth to perfection, as every man may be whose 
spirit aspires after all that which Ood is ready and infinitely desirous to give him. For 
the sun meets not the springing bud that stretches toward him with half that certainty 
as Ood, the source of all good, communicates himself to the soul that longs to partake 
of him.** 

(g) The object of this laith is Ohrist him8elf» as the head of a new 
humanity and the sonroe of truth and life to those nnited to him. 



8 Ov. 8 : 18 -" v» all, vitk UTfilid fl»% bakoldiiif M in a Binw tl» ^«7 «r the I«d. an toiarfnid iBtt ^ 
■MM iBMgtfroagkiy to fla7,«TaiMfroatk«Lavlth« Spirit"; lph.4:13— ^'tiUviaUottaittutethoaiiitjof 
tko fldth, ud of tU imo^odgo of tho 8m of God, vsto a lUlgrovB ma, vnto tke BMm of tho ili^ 
of OkrjA" Faith here is of course much more than intellectual faith,— it is the reception 
of Christ himself. As Christianity furnishes a new source of life and energy — in the 
Holy Spirit : so it gives a new object of attention and regard — the Lord Jesus Christ. 
As we get air out of a vessel by pouring in water, so we can drive sin out only by bring- 
ing Christ in. See Chalmers' Sermon on The Bzpulslve Power of a New Affection. 
Drummond, Nat. Law in the Splr. World, 128-140—** Man does not grow by making 
efforts to grow, but by putting himself into the conditions of growth by living in 
Christ" 

lJokB8:8— *'oTW70BotkathaiktklalMpoiot«aUB(4»'«^)pnilolkUndi^omMhoiipBNL" Sano- 
tiflcation does not begin from within. The objective Savior must come first. The hope 
based on him must give the motive and the standard of self-purification. Likeness 
comes from liking. We grow to be like that which we like. Hence we use the phrase 
** I like," as a synonym for ** I love.*' We cannot remove frost from our window by 
rubbing the pane ; we need to kindle a fire. Growth is not the product of effort, but 
of life. "Takiflg th0acH"or "baing aaxiooa" (Iai6:87),isnot thewayto grow. Only take 
the hindrances out of the way, and we grow without care, as the tree does. The moon 
makes no effort to shine, nor has it any power of its own to shine. It is only a burnt 
out dnder in the sky. It shines only as it reflects the light of the sun. So we can shine 
"aa ligliia is tko v»U " ( FhiL 8 : 15 }, only as we reflect Christ, who is "tko 8n of UgktooMMH*' ( Bal. 
4:8) and "tho light of tlio wld*' (John 8:18). 

(h) Though the weakest faith perfectly jnstifles, the degree of sanddfica- 
tion is measured by the strength of the Christian's faith, and the persist- 
ence with which he apprehends Ohrist in the various relations which the 
Scriptures declare him to sustain to us. 



lBi9:88-*'ldiarii^to70«rfiuthboitteiii]il0 7oa"; Ukol7:8-'*lKiiBBMMOVftiih*'; Ban.l8:8 
— "boiiolfi«hi«odo«MirtiiiKtothiavarid: hat bo yo tnnateBod by Iho nanrisff of jonr sriai that jo aaj into 
vhat la tho good aad aooi^Io and porflMt vin of God '^ 18 : i4<-*' Bit pat 70 «B tho Ia4 JoBU Gbiit, and B^^ 
p«TiBionfortteioih,tofti]81tholwtith«iof"; lph.4:84— "pat on tho now man, that afUr Ood hath boon anatid 
iniightooanaBandholiaHioftanth";lTSB.4:7— "oimiaothTHlfutogodlinoai*' Leighton: *'Noneof 
the children of Ood are bom dumb." Milton: "Gkiod, the more communicated, the 
more abundant grows.** Finlth can neither be stationary nor complete ( Westcott, Bible 
Com. on John 18:8— "ao ihall ja become mj diaaiplaa" ). Luther : ** He who is a Christian is no 
Christian '* ; ** Christianus non in esse, sed in fieri.** In a Bible that belonged to Oliyer 
Cromwell is this Inscription : " O. C. 1644 Qui oessat esse melior cessat esse bonus **— 
** He who ceases to be better ceases to be good.** Story, the sculptor, when asked which 
of his works he valued most, replied : ** My next." The greatest work of the Holy Spirit 
is the perfecting of Christian character. 

OaL 1 : II— "laanaai^ by tho kmladgo of Ood '*> here the Instrumental datlye represents the 
knowledge of God as the dew or rain which nurtures the growth of the plant ( Ught- 



874 SOTERIOLOGYy OR THE DOCTRINE OF SALVATION. 

foot ). Mr. GladBtone bad the habit of reading the Bible every Sunday afternoon to old 
women on his estate. Tholuck : " I have but one pawiion, and that is Christ." This Is 
aneohoof Paol'swords: '*teB0toUTCifObziit**(ndLl:a). But Paul Is fkr ftom thinking 
that he has already obtained, or is already made perfect. He prays^tkatlBijgaisAiH 
.. .ltatIni7kBOvUB"(naS:8^10). 

(i) From the lack of persisienoe in nedsg fhe means apjwinted for 
GhzistiAn growth — saoh as the word of €k>d, prayer, aaaooiation with other 
believers, and personal effort for the oonyersion of the ungodly — sanotifl- 
oation does not always proceed in regnlar and nnbroken oonrse, .and it ie 
never oompleted in this life. 

Pka 8 : la— '• left tM I hAW abMdy oblriMdl, cr ■■ ■bway aiida parM : bat I pvw «, tf 
htfcBtkiilirwkiflli AtelvwkudkldcBby JaniChriil*'; 1 John 1 : 8 — "If W0 lay that m kATe no u^ vt 
imdn oumItml and the tnth ii nst in nt." Otiriyle, in his Lif^ of John Sterling, chap. 8, says of 
Coleridge, that '* whenever natural obligation or voluntary undertaking made it his 
duty to do anything, the fsct seemed a suflicient reason for his not doing it.'* A regular, 
advancing sanotillcation is marked, on the other hand, by a growing habit of instant 
and Joyful obedience. The intermittent spring depends upon the reservoir in the moun- 
tain oave,— only when the rain fills the latter full, does the spring begin to flow. So to 
secure unbroken Christian activity, there must be constant reception of the word and 
Spirit of Ood. 

Oalen : ** If diseases take hold of the body, there is nothing so certain to drive them 
out as diligent exerdse." Williams, Principles of Medidne : "Want of exerdse and 
sedentary habits not only predispose to, but actually cause, disease.*' The little girl 
who fell out of bed at night was asked how it happened. She replied that she went to 
sleep too near where she got in. Some Christians lose the Joy of their religion by ceas- 
ing their Christian activltiOB too soon after conversion. Yet others cultivate their 
spiritual lives from mere selfishness. Selfishness follows the line of least resistance. It 
Is easier to pray in public and to attend meetings for prayer, than it is to go out into 
the unsympathetic world and engage in the work of winning souls. This is the ftolt of 
monasticism. Those grow most who forget themselvea in their work for others. The 
discipline of life is ordained in Gk>d's providence to correct tendencies to indolence. 
Bven this discipline is often received in a rebellious spirit. The result is delay in the 
process of sanotifioatlon. Bengel : ** Deus habet horas et moras "— *' Ood has his hours 
and his delays." German proverb: "Gut Ding will Weile haben**— "A good thing 
requires time." 

If ) Sanctifioation, both of the sonl and of the body of the believer, is 
oompleted in the life to oome, — that of the former at death, that of the 
latter at the resurrection. 

PUL 8 : 81 ~*< vbo ihaU flohkB Ufv tiM body of 0Br kuiliatbi^ that it my b* ooaftrnid to tk« body tf 
•DOflriiBgtotbovvkiagvhorBbyhoiiablooTiiitoRibjoelalltUDgiimtoklBiaoIf*'; OoL8:4— "Whniiriik, wheii 
ov lif^ shaU bo BwiilHtod, th«a ihall vo alao vitb bin bo oaaifatfld ia g^ 

iritt all noa, and tho ■aiwMHaitioa wittoat whiah no aan iballooo tbo Lori .... ipiriiB of Jut ma aado porfiNl " ; 
1 Jobn 8:8— "Btbrrod, nov an vo ohildrm of Ood, and it ii not yot nado manifoit vbat wo ihall be. Vo bww tbal» 
IfboohallbonaiiiiMidtVodiallbolUuhiBi; florvoihBllioebimtfaiaaboia"; Jado84— "aUotopaidyoaflraai 
■nmbUog, and to iot yoa biAn tho pnoonoo of Us gkry vHbont UomiA in oieoediiig )oy '* ; Eot.14:5— "Aadia 
tboir noatii vas fsond no Us : tboy are without bloBiih." 

A. J. Gordon, Ministry of the Spirit^ 121, puts the completion of our sanctifioation, 
not at death, but at the appearing of the Lord "a oeeend tine, apart firon aii^ .... onto aelTakloB " 
(leb. 9 : 88 ; 1 fhtm. 3 : 18 ; 6 : 88 ). When we shall see him as he is, instantaneous photograph- 
ing of his image in our souls will take the place of the present slow progress from glory 
to glory (8 0or.8:18; i JokB8:8). If by sanotification we mean, not a sloughing off of 
remaining depravity, but an ever increasing purity and perfection, then we may hold 
that the process of sanotification goes on forever. Our relation to Christ must always 
be that of the imperfect to the perfect, of the finite to the infinite ; and for finite spirits, 
progress must always be possible. Olarke, Christian Theology, 373—** Not even at death 

can sanotification end The goal lies far beyond delireranoe from sin There 

is no such thing as bringing the divine life to such completion that no further progress 
is possible tp it, , * , ^ Indeed, free and unhampered progress can scarcely begin until 



BAKCTIFICATIOir. 876 

tin isleftbehind.'* ** O mows so pure, O peaks ao high I I shall not reach you till I dJe I*' 

As Jesus* resurrection was prepared by holiness of life, so the Christian's resurreoticn 
is prepared by sanctifloation. When our souls are freed from the last remains of sin, 
then it will not be possible for us to be holden by death (ef. ioti2:M). See (Gordon, The 
Twofold Life, or Christ's Work for us and in us; Brit, and For. Bvanff. Bev., April* 
]S84:S(XHB»: Van Oosterzee, Christian Doirmatlos. e67-«8& 

8. Hrroneoua Views routed by these Scripture Passages, 

A. The AntinomiaD, — which holds that, sinoe Ghrist'B obedience and 
BofferingB have satisfied the demands of the law, the believer is free from 
obligation to observe it 

The Antinoniian view rests upon a misinterpretation of Rom. 6 : 14 ~ " Tt m 110I ate lav, 
bvtutegnoi.** Affricola and Amsdorf (16G0 ) were representatiYes of this view. Ams- 
dorf said that ^sood works are hurtful to salvation.'* But Mehmohthon's words fur- 
nish the reply : ** Sola fides Justlflcat, sed fides non est sola." F. W. Robertson states 
it : *' Faith alone Justifies, but not the faith that is alone." And he illustrates s " Liffht- 
niDg alone strikes* but not the lightning whloh is without thunder ; for that Is summer 
lightning and harmless.** See Brownlng*s poem, Johannes Agrioola in Meditation, in 
Dramatis FerBonsB, 800— ** I have Ood's warrant, Could I blend All hideous sins as in 
a cup. To drink the mingled venoms up. Secure my nature will convert The draught 
to blosBoming gladness.** Agrioola said that Moses ought to be hanged. This is Sano- 
tiflcation without Perseverance. 

Sandeman, the founder of the sect called Sandemanians, asserted as his fundamental 
principle the deadllness of all doings, the necessity for inactivity to let God do his work 
in the souL See his essay, Theron and Aspasta, referred to by Allen, In his Life of 
Jonathan Edwards, 114. Anne Hutchinson was exconununloated and banished by the 
Puritans from Massachusetts, In 1637, for holding ** two dangerous errors : 1. The Holy 
Spirit personally dwells in a Justified person ; 8» No sanctifloation can evidence to us 
our Justification." Here the latter error almost destroyed the Influence of the former 
truth. There is a little Antlnomianism in the popular hymn : " Lay your deadly doings 
down, Down at Jesus* feet; Doing is a deadly thing; Doing ends in death." The 
colored preacher's poetry only presented the doctrine in the concrete : " You may rip 
and te-yar. You may cuss and swe-yar. But you *re Jess as sure of heaven, ' 8 If you *d 
done gone de-yar.'* Plain Andrew Fuller In Kngland (1764-1816 ) did ezodleDt service 
In overthrowing popular Antlnomianism. 

To this view we nrge the following ol^eotions : 

(a) That since the law is a transcript of the holiness of God, itsdemands 
as a moral role are unchanging. Only as a system of penalty and a method 
of salvation is the law abolished in Ohrist's death. 



111.6:17-19— "Aiak Ml thfti I MM to dMlrajtktUv or tki in^hsto: lauMSoltodMferej.tattoftillL fm 
TvrilylMyutoyvB, Till heana ud «rth yta av»7,MU Jok «r cattitUtiblli&MwinpMiaviyframtkilaw, 
ttUaUtkingibiaaoinpUihfld. ▼koMTWthmftn ikaO break ant of tkiM]MtMnnBiid]iinti,aBdihaUtoa^ 
M^ihaUbiMUadlMikiiitktkiBgdomofkMfMi: bntirboiNTV ihall do and \mk tken, ka ihaU bi oallid gnat it 
tba kiagdoa of h«attt **; 48 —*' T« tt«nfbn ihaU b« p«i^ u yov h«annl7 father ii pv^^ 
ikaUbtk«l7;arIaBhal7'*; Bon. 10:4— "r« Obriik U thend aftbilaw onto rigktooUDMi to «t«7 am fhal 
balimth'^ GaLS:90— **Ihav«bfln«nAMvitiiOhmt'*; 8:18~"Ohilrtrid0«BMdufbBtha«^ 
batiBKbrnmaevwaru"; OaL 2: 14 — ^'baTiag blotted oat tho bond wrtttan in ordinaiuea tkift vu agaiaak a% 
vbieb vueosftnry to u: and bo katk toku it oat of tho vay, nailiag it to tho orai'*; Ieb^8:i6— "doUmaU 
IbiB vbo Ihnwcb terydoath we aU tholr liMiM nl^ to boBdigo." 

( 6 ) That the nnion between Ohrist and the believer secures not only 
the bearing of the penalty of the law by Ghrist^ but also the impartation 
of Christ's spirit of obedience to the beUever, — in other words, brings 
him into communion with Christ's work, and leads him to ratify it in his 
own experience. 

Ban.8:«^10,i5— "ToareiokiathofliihbokiBtho flprit, if oobothakthoSviritorMdwoUolhiijoa. Mif 
aijaoabathMllko8yWtof0hriil,b«iaiflaeofhii. lad if Ohriat ia is rn.thobod7iodoid boeMuoflfdB;bak 



876 80TEBI0L0GY, OB THE DOGTBIKE OF SALVATION. 

tkf qJrit if lib bMUM of ri^tuwiniiaMi .... Dor yt nmtni net iht ^irit tf boadigf agali uiltlMr: Mji 
nodTsd tht ^iht flf adoptiAn, whanby v» eij, ib^ fMto "; GaL 5 : St-^ 

piM«, loBgiBfihiig, UndoMi, goodiMi, fltilhfUBMii maekBMi^ mH^nknl ; agaiBiil inA tkiva if lo lav. Aod Hkf/f 
that an ffGhrifkJ«Dfbfftanifliifdth«l«akvith tkt pairioBf and tha lute tbiraof"; i John 1:6-*' If vtaajttat 
vahfTiM]oviUpvlthUma]idvalkiBtkadarkBaat,vtlia. aaddonokthatnitk"; 8:1— "WkftofmahiialkiB 
Mintiniiflmd- vhotoiTVfiiafllbhftkiiotfianymiiuitharkafVifkUn.'* 

(o) That the freedom from the law of which the Soriptnres speak, is 
therefore simply that freedom from the oonsfcraiiit and bondage of the law. 
wbioh oharaoterizes those who have become one with Ohrist by fidth. 



fi.til:fr— "OhAvlfTtlthylavlitif ByMditatioAaU tka da7"; ]Ub.S:8,I1— "aad vh7iat(af Vfan 
Jfllaid«0Ml7npiffiid,aiidafflOBMalnBtkal va aay), let u doaril, fkat goodBAjaoBa? vhaaaaanABguatiaaif 
vat ... . SovathfDflMkatkaUvflf BanaaffaatttrMghfldthr Oodftrliid: Bay.vaafUbUakthabv*'; 6:1^11^ 
B— "ParalBiballiiothaTadaBUBiaB ow jou: ftrja an aat vndar la v, bat uiiar gnaa. Wbatthu? aball va 
ri^ baifiifla wa an iwtuidv lav, bat udar graeaT Gad flbiUd .... ww baiag mada tn tnm fin and baaaaa 
wrrtttito Bad, ya ban jomr frxdt nnto aMMtidflatipn, and tba and atenal lift " ; 7:6— "Bat novva ban bats dia- 
ategadfromtba lav,baTing diadtatbatvbanin va van bald ; aa that va avn in navnaa of tba aplrit, and not ii 
aldMHoftbAlattar"; 8:4 — "tbaitbaoriinanaa of tta lav migbt bo fbUllod U oa, vbo valk not altar tba flails 
bntaftartba8p!rit";10gr.7:88— "batbatvuaallad in tba Lord baing a bondaamnt,iatbaLard'afraadaun"; 
8aL5:l — "Forfkaadandld Obriftaat aa tm: atand flbat ttanftra, and ba not ontaagledagaininaTokaaf bond- 
aga"; 1T1b.1:9— "lavianotnadaforarigbtooaf aua, bat ftr tba lavlaaa and nnmly"; JaniaBi:85— >*'tbo 
piriM kv. tba lav of libflity." 

To stun up the doctrine of Ohristian freedom as opposed to Antinomian- 
ism« we may say that Christ does not free usi as the Antinomian believesp 
from the law as a role of life. But he does free us ( 1 ) from the law as a 
system of corse and penalty ; this he does by bearing the corse and penalty 
himself. Christ frees os ( 2 ) from the law with its claims as a method of 
salvation ; this he does by maJdng his obedience and merits ours. Christ 
freeis us ( 8 ) from the law as an ootward and foreign compoMon ; this he 
does by giving to us the spirit of obedience and sonship, by which the 
law is progresaiyely realized within. 

Ohrist, then, does not free us, as the Antinomian believQS, from the law as a rule of 
life. But he does free us ( 1 ) from the law as a system of ourse and penalty. This he 
does by bearing the ourse and penalty himself. Just as law oan do nothlns with a man 
after it has executed its death-penalty upon him, so law oan do nothing with us, now 
that Its death-penalty has been executed upon Ohrist. There are some Insects that 
expire in the act of planting their sting ; and so, when the law gathered Itself up and 
planted its sting in the heart of Christ, it expended all its power as a judge and avenger 
over us who believe. In the Cross, the law as a system of curse and penalty exhausted 
Itself; so we were set free. 

Christ frees us (2) from the law with Its claims as a method of salvation : In other 
words, he frees us from the necessity of trusting our salvation to an Impossible future 
obedience. As the sufferings of Christ, apart from any sufferings of ours, deliver us 
from eternal death, so the merits of Christ, apart from any merits of ours, give us a 
title to eternal life. By ftUth In what Christ has done and simple acceptance of his 
work for us, we secure a right to heaven. Obedience on our part is no longer rendered 
painfully, as If our salvation depended on It, but freely and gladly. In gratitude for 
what Christ has done for us. Illustrate by the Bnglish nobleman's Invitation to his 
park, and the regulations he causes to be posted up. 

Christ frees us ( 8 ) from the law as an outward and foreign oompolsion. In putting 
an end to legalism, he provides against license. This he does by giving the spirit of 
obedience and sonship. He puts Ice In the place of fear ; and this secures an obedi- 
ence more intelligent, more thorough, and more hearty, than could have been secured 
by mere law. So be frees us from the burden and compulsion of the law, by realizing 
the law within us by his Spirit. The freedom of the Christian Is freedom in the law, 
such as the musician experiences when the scales and exercises have become easy, and 
work has turned to play. See John Owen, Works, 8 :d6(M)61 ; 6 : 1-818 ; Campbell, The 
Indwelling Christ, 78-81. 



8AKCTIFICATI0N. 871 

Gould, Bib. Theol. N. T., 195— "The aupremaoy of thoee books which contain the 
words of Jesus himself [ i. e., the Synoptic Gospels ] Is that they incorporate, with the 
other elements of the reliffious Ufa, the reerulative will. Here for instance [ in John ] 
Js the gospel of the contemplative life, which, 'bebolding m in a nixnr th« glnyoftbALordii 
ehugtdinto tte MBS iaukge from g)arj to glorj, asbj tha^tflftka Lord' (2 Oor. 3: 18). The belief is that, 
With this beholding, life will take care of itself. Life will never take care of Itself. 
Among other things, after the most perfect vision, it has to ask what aspirations, prin- 
ciples, affections, belong to life, and then to cultivate the will to embody these things. 
Here is the common defect of all religions. They fail to marry religion to the common 
life. Christ did not stop short of this final word ; but if we leave him for even the great- 
est of his disciples, we are in danger of missing it.'* This utterance of Gould Is sur- 
prising in several wasrs. It attributes to John alone the contemplative attitude of 
mind, which the quotation given shows to belong also to Paul. It ignores the constant 
appeals in John to the will : *'Hi that hitk ay aauiaadiBaiita ud knptlk thm, kaitiithatlenUiBit" 
( John 14:81 ). It also forgets that "lift" in John is the whole being, including InteUeot. 
alfootion, and will, and that to have Christ for one's life is absolutely to exdude Anti- 
nomianism. 

B. The PerfeotioiiiBt^ — which holds that the Ohristian may, in this 
life, become perfectly free from sin. This view was held by John Wedey 
in England, and by Mahan and Finney in America. 

Finney, Syst. Theol., 600, declares regeneration to be ^* an instantaneous change firom 
entire sinfulness to entire holiness." The claims of FerfeotionistB, however, have been 
modified from "freedom from all sin," to ** freedom from all known sin," then to 
"entire consecration," and finally to "Christian assurance." H. W. Webb-Peploe, in 
d. & Times, June 26, 1886—" The Keswick teaching is that no true Christian need wil- 
fully or knowingly sin. Tet this is not sinless perfection. It is simply according to 
our faith that we receive, and faith only draws from God according to our present 
possibilities. These are limited by the presence of indwelling corruption ; and, while 
never needing to sin within the sphere of the light we poosess, there are to the last 
hour of our life upon the earth powers of corruption within every man, which defile 
his best deeds and give to even his holiest efforts that * nature of sin ' of which the 9th 
Article in the Church of Bngland Prayerbook speaks so strongly." Yet it is evident 
that this corruption is not regarded as real sin, and is called ^ nature of sin ' only in 
some non-natural sense. 

Dr. George Feck says : " In the life of the most perfect Christian there is every day 
renewed occasion for self-abhorrence, for repentanoe, for renewed application of the 
blood of Christ, for application of the rekindling of the Holy Spirit.** But why call 
this a state of perfection ? F. B. Meyer : " We never say that self is dead ; were we to 
do so, self would be laughing at us round the comer. The teaching of Rhuu 6 is, 
not that self is dead, but that the renewed will is dead to self, the man's will saying Yes 
to Christ, and No to self ; through the Spirit's grace it constantly repudiates and morti- 
fies the pc^er of the flesh." For statements of the Perfectionist view, see John Wesley's 
Christian Theology, edited by Thomley Smith, 266-878; Mahan, Christian Perfection, 
and art. in Bib. Bepob. 8d Series, voL iv, Oct 1840 : 40^428 ; Finney, Systematic Theol- 
ogy,686-76e; Peck, Christian Perfeoticm ; Bitschl, Bib. Saa, Oct 1878: 666; A.T.Pier8on, 
The Keswick Movement. 

In reply, it will be snffioient to observe : 

( a ) That the theory rests npon fidse conceptions : first, of the law, — as 

a flliding-scale of requirement graduated to the moral condition of creatores, 

instead of being the unchangeable reflection of Qod's holiness; secondly, 

of sin, — as consisting only in voluntaiy acts instead of embracing also those 

dispositions and states of the soul which are not conformed to the divine 

holiness ; thirdly, of the human will, — as able to choose Gk>d supremely 

and persistently at every moment of life, and to fulfil at every moment the 

obligations resting upon it, instead of being corrupted and enslayed by the 

FalL 

This view reduces the debt to the debtor's ability to pay, — a short and easy method 
of discharging obllgationa. I can leap over a church steeple, if I am only permitted to 



878 SOTSBIOLOOY^ OR THE DOCTRIKB OP 8ALTATI0K. 

make the oburoh steeple low enouflrh ; and I can touch the stars* if the stan will only 
oome down to my hand. The PhilistineB are quite equal to Samson, if they may only 
cut off Samson*8 looks. So I can obey God's law, if I may only make God's law what 
I want it to be. The fundamental error of perfectionism is its low view of God's law ; 
the second is its narrow conception of sin. John Wesley : ** I belieye a person filled with 
love of God Is still liable to involuntary transffiessloDS. Such transgressions you may 
call sins, if you please ; I do not.'* The third error of perfectionism is its exaggerated 
estimate of man's power of contrary choice. To say that, whatever may have been 
the habits of the past and whatever may be the evil affections of the present, a man is 
perfectly able at any moment to obey the whole law of God, is to deny that thero are 
such things as character and depravity. Finney, Gospel Themes, 188, indeed, disclaimed 
*'aU expectations of attaining this state ourselves, and by our own independent, 
unaided efforts." On the Law of God, see pages 687-644. 

Augustine : " Every lesser good has an essBnttal element of sin." Anything less 
than the perfection that belongs normally to my present stage of development is a 
coming short of the law's demand. B. W. Dale, Fellowship with Christ, 868— " For us 
and in this world, the divine is always the impossible. Give me a law for individual 
conduct which requires a perfection that is within my reach, and I am sure that the 
law does not represent the divine thought. 'lol tkit I ten aliwdj tblikiiMd, or la dzwdj nadi 
pffftit: batIpvwaB,ifMbtttetIm7kjk(dd M thai fowklA alM IvM kid kAldoabyOhnitJfliu' (FhU^ 
8 : 11 ) — this, from the begiiming, has been the conftasion of saints.'* The Perfectionist 
is apt to say that we must ^ take Christ twice, once for Justification and once for sano- 
tificatlon." But no one can take Christ for Justification without at the same time 
taking him for sanctliloatlon. Dr. A. A. Hodge oalJs this doctrine ** Neonomianism," 
because it holds not to one unchanging, ideal, and perfect law of God, but to a second 
law given to human weakness when the first law has failed to secure obedience. 

( 1 ) The law of God demands perfection. It is a transcript of God's nature. Its object 
is to reveal God. Anything leas than the demand of perfection would misrepresent 
God. God could not give a law which a sinner could obey. In the very nature of the 
case there can be no sinlessness in this life for those who have once sinned. Sin brings 
incapacity as well as guilt. All men have squandered a part of the talent intrusted to 
them by God, and therefore no man can come up to the demands of that law which 
requires all that God gave to humanity at its creation together with Interest on the 
investment (9) Even the best Christian comes short of perfection. Begenention 
makes only the dominant disposition holy. Many affections still remain unholy and 
fequire to be cleansed. Only by lowering the demands of the law, making shallow 
our conceptions of sin, and mistalring temporary volition for permanent bent of the 
will, can we count ourselves to be perfect. (8) Absolute perfection is attained not In 
this world but in the world to come. The best Christians count themselves still sin- 
ners, strive most earnestly for holiness, have Imputed but not inherent sanctifioation, 
are saved by hope. 

(6) That the theoiy finds no support in, but rather is distinotLj contra- 
dieted by, Sorijitiire. 

First, the Seriptores never assert or imply that the Christian may in this 
life live without sin ; passages like 1 John 8 : 6, 9, if interpreted consist- 
ently with the context, set forth either the ideal standard of Ohristian 
living or the aotaal state of the beUeyer so for as respects his new nature. 

lJflkBl:e— *¥kmwri]iUflkiahiail]i]MlkDal: v]MiDtr«ilaMlkh>tiiii«kM«UB,MithwkaovtthkiB"; 
9--''¥teMtTwkbtgollaof 4M4iMlknodB,bMua8 yiiNdaUdttkiAkia: and k« flunst u, bMUM kt ii 
btgaMn «f Goi" Ann. Far. Bible, in loco : —"John is contrasting the states in which sin 
and grace severally predominate, without reference to degrees In either, showing that 
all men are in one or the other." Neander : ** John recognises no intermediate state, no 
gradations. He seises upon the radical point of difference. He contrasts the two states 
in their essential nature and principle. It Is either love or hate, light or darkness, truth 
or a lie. The Christian life in its essential nature Is the opposite of all sin. If there be 
sin, it must be the afterworking of the old nature." Yet all Christians ara lequiied in 
Scripture to advance, to confess sin, to ask forgiveness, to maintain warfare, to assume 
the attitude of lU desert In prayer, to receive chastisement for the removal of Imper- 
feotiona. to regard fttU salvation as matter of hope, not of prasent experience. 



BANCTlFICATIOir. 879 

John palntB only in blaok and white ; there are no intermediate tints or oolonu Take 
the words in i Jokn 3 : 6 literally, and there never was and never can be a regenerate per- 
son. The words are hyperbolical, as Paul's words in Kam. 6 : 2 — " ▼• vbo diad to ais, hov ihaU 
vt laj loBgv liTt th«nin"^ are metaphorical ; see B. H. Johnson, in Bib. Sac, 1809 : 87S, note. 
The Emperor William refused the request for an audience prepared by a German- 
American, saying that Germans bom in Germany but naturalised in America became 
Americans: **Ich kenne Amerikaner, Ich kenne Deutsche, aber Deutsoh-Amerikaner 
kenne Ich nloht "— " I know Americans, I know Germans, but German-Americans I do 
not know." 

Lowrie, Doctrine of St. John, 110 — '* St. John uses the noun sin and the verb tottnia 
two senses : to denote the power or principle of sin, or to denote concrete acts of sin. 

The latter sense he generally expresses by the plural sfru The Ohristian is guilty 

of particular acts of sin for which conf esBion and forgiveness are required, but as he 
has been freed from the bondage of sin he cannot habitually practise it nor abide in it, 
still less can he be guilty of sin in its superlative form, by denial of Christ." 

Secondly, the apoetolio admonitioiiB to the OhristiaiiB and Hebrews show 
that no such state of complete sanotification had been generally attained by 
the Obristians of the first century. 

Ron. 8:24— "rwiAk«peYtnveiaTid: bat hope fhaiiMnii sol ktpe: ftrvhohoprtkfottiftiAMkkiiMlkr** 
The party feeling, selfishness, and immorality found among the memben of the Corin- 
thian church are evidence that they were far from a state of entire sanottflcation. 

Thirdly, there is express record of sin committed by the most perfect 
characters of Scripture — as Noah, Abraham, Job, David, Peter. 

We are urged by perfeotionistB ^ to keep up the standard." We do this, not by calling 
certain men perfect, but by calling Jesus Christ perfect. In proportion to our sancti- 
flcation, we are absorbed in Christ, not in ourselves. Self-consciousness and display 
are a poor evidence of sanctillcation. The best characters of Scripture put their trust 
in a standard higher than they have ever realized in their own persons, even in the 
righteousness of Qod. 

Fourthly, the word riXetoc, as applied to spiritual conditions already 
attained, can fairly be held to signify only a relative periection, equivalent 
to sincere piety or matorily of Christian judgment. 

10ar.2:6~''V«ip<ftk wiidflB, kevtTw, MMDf tt«pvftal»"or,a8the Am. Revisers have it, "amnf 
than that an fbllgrovB"; PlilL3:15— ''latiistlMnfcre^UBuyusnpirfto^betinimiadad.'' Men are often 
called perfect, when free from any fiiult which strikes the eyes of the world. See Ou. 
6:9— "lotbvMaright«iiitnaii,«iid pvfoat"; Jobl:i— '* thai bib vaipvftdudqrigkk" OnWA«toc,Bee 
Trench, Syn. N. T., 1 : 110. 

The WA«(o& are described in Sab. 5: 14— "Solid Ibad is ilor th« oatnn ( rtXtUtv ) wko oi afloouit of habit 
hava their pcnoptbna diaaipliaad fa tha dlBatniBatliig of good and aril " ( Dr. Kendrick's translation ). 
The same word "porfaot" is used of Jacob in Gan. 25:27— "Jaaob vaa a qviat man, dmlliag in taata'*.- 
a harmless man, exemplary and well-balanced, as a man of business. Genuncr, Bpio of 
the Inner Life, 182— '* 'Pwflbot' in Job -Horace^s 'integer vlt»,* beinir the adjective of 
which * integrity ' is the substantive.** 

Fifthly, the Scriptores distinctly deny that any man on earth lives with- 
out sin. 



iL8:46— "thanianoBaathataanathaot"; looL7:20— **8Bz«l7thartiBBatari(htaoB8BaB!ipoBaaith,that 
doath good, and ainneth not"; Ja]Ma8:2— "ForiBauiiythiQgivaall atuabk If any itHMbMh sot it void, tha 
nma ii a parfoet nan, abla to bridia tha lAote body ate"; i John 1:8— "If vaaay thai vaha^ soda, vadaoaiTa 
onnalTBi^ and tha truth ia not In va." 

T. T. Eaton, Sanctiflcation : " L Some mistake regeneration for sanotiflcation. They 
have been unconverted church members. When led to faith in Christ, and finding 
peace and joy, they think they are sanctified, when they are simply converted. 2. Some 
mistake assurance of ftdth for sanctiflcation. But joy is not sanctiflcation. & Some 
mistake the baptism of the Holy Spirit for sanctiflcation. But Peter sinned grievously 
at Antioch, after he had received that baptism. 4. Some think that doing the best one 
can is sanctiflcation. But he who measures by iiiohes» for feet, can measure up well. 



880 SOTERlOLOOTy OR tHB DOOTBIKS OF SALTATIOH. 

5. Some regwd sin as only a Tohintary act, whereas the slofiil nature is the f ountalo. 
Btrippinir off the leaves of the Upas tree does not answer, ft. Some mistalm the power 
of the human will, and fSncy that an act of will oan free a man flrom sin. ThiQjr Ignore 
the settled bent of the wUl, whloh the act of wUl does not ohange." 

Sixthly, the declaration : "ye were sanctified" (1 Oor. 6:11), and the 
designation: "saints" ( 1 Oor. 1 : 2), applied to early believers, are, as the 
whole epistle shows, expressiTe of a holiness existing in germ and anticipa- 
tion ; the expressions deriving their meaning not so much from what these 
early believers were^ as from what Ohrist waa^ to whom they were united 
by fidth. 

When N. T. belieyera are said to be ^'luokiM,** we must remember the O.T. use of the 
word. * Sanctify ' may have either the meaning ' to make holy outwardly,' or 'to make 
holy Inwardly.' The people of Israel and the vessels of the tabemade were nude holy 
in the former sense ; their sanotWcatlon was a setting apart to the saored use. Iul 8 : 17 
— **aUtktlnkbonaMi(tk«ikiUnBariniIanBiM .... laaitilidtkttfcraijidf**; BMttt.S— ^'Ttt.ht 
UnlktktpM^; all kii Bisti an in tky hasd " ; I Ghna. »:19— *'aU thtTMMh .... ka^ v« |ri|wei and 
■JMliflil** The vessels mentioned were first Immeraed, and then sprinkled ftom day to 
day aooordlng to need. So the Christian by his regeneration is set apart for Ood*s servloe, 
andinthissen8elBa"al>t"and"aMliM." More than this, he has in him the beginnings 
of purity,— he Is "dMBMavldik" though he yet needs "to vaikkufMl" (John 11:10)— that is, 
to be deansed from the recurring defilements of his dally life. Shedd, Dogm. TheoL, 
8 : 881 — ** The error of the Perfectionist is that of confounding impuUd sanoUflcation 
with inherent sanotificatlon. It is the latter whloh Is mentioned in 1 (tar. 1 : SO —' Ckriak Jmu, 
vbo vu muU ulo u . . . . MimtltBitiMi.* ** 

Water from the Jordan is turUd, but It settles In the bottle and seems pure— untU It 
is shaken. Some Christians seem very free from sin, until you shake them,— then they 
get "riled." Clarke. Christian Theology, 871 — ** Is there not a higher Christian JUef 
Yes, and a higher Ufe beyond It, and a higher stlU beyond. The Christian life is ever 
higher and higher. It must pass through all stages between its beginning and Its per- 
fection." C D. Que : ** The great objection to [ this theory of ] complete sanotlfioatloii 
Is that, if possessed at all« It is not a development of our own character." 

( o) That the theory is disapproTed by the testimony of Christian expe- 
rience. — In exact proportion to the soul's advance in holiness does it ahrink 
from claiming that holiness has been already attained, and humble itself 
before Qod for its remaining apathy, ingratitade, and nnbeliet 

PhlL S : lS-14— •'lol tiia I kiTt alniiay ^btaiaad, « an abwdy flsidt pofeet: bat I pvw 0^ 
laykaldoitkatihrvhiAh alio I via laid kold on by OfariilJflna." Some of the srreatest advocates of 
perfeottonism have been furthest from claiming any such perfection ; although many 
of their less Instructed followers claimed it for them, and even p rofe ss ed to have 
attained it themselves. 

In Uka 7 : l-lO* the centurion does not think himself worthy to go to Jesus, or to have 
him come under his roof, yet the elders of the Jews say: *iiiaw«rthjtkatthMiteay«lda 
ibis'*; and Jesus himself says of him: "IbaTaBoltaBdia|nalflitb.a^iMliBlanML** "laly ta Jaba- 
Tab " was Inscribed upon the mitre of the high priest ( II 18: S8 ). Others saw it, but he 
saw It not. Moses knew not that his face shone ( Ix. 84 : 19 ). The truest holiness is that 
of which the poe soou or is least conscious ; yet it is his real diadem and beauty ( A. J. 
Gordon ). ** The nearer men are to being sinless, the less they talk about It " ( Dwight 
L. Moody ). " Always strive for perfection : never believe you have reached it " ( Arnold 
of Bugby ). Compare with this, Ernest Benan's declaration that he had nothing to alter 
in his life. " I have not sinned for some time," said a woman to Mr. Spurgeon. **Then 
you must be very proud of it," he replied. ** Indeed I am I " said she. A pastor says: 
'*No one can attain the * Higher life,' and escape making mischief." John Wesley 
lamented that not one in thirty retained the blessing. 

Perfectionism is best met by proper statements of the nature of the law 
and of sin ( Ps. 119 : 96 ). While we thus rebuke spiritual pride, however, 
we should be equally careful to point out the inseparable connection between 
justification and sanotiflcation, and their equal importance as together mak* 



PBBSBVBBANOB. 881 

Ing up the Biblioal idea of salTation. While we show no favor to those who 
would make sanotifioation a sudden and paroxysmal act of the human will, 
we should hold forth the holiness of God as the standard of attainment^ and 
the faith in a Christ of infinite fuhiess as the medium through which that 
standard is to be giadually but certainly realized in us (2 Oor. 8 : 18). 

We should imitate Lynuui Beeoher's method of opposioff perfeottoDlsm — by aearoh* 
iDir ezpo«itioii8 of Ood*8 law. When men know what the law te, they will aay with the 
PnilmJst: ''lUTCMttandofiUparfatton; ttyMumudmiatiintNASsgbroi^ And yet 

we are earnestly and hopefully to seek in Christ for a continually increasing measure 
of sanottiicatlon : i Ov.i:M~''Ohiiit J6Ri,wh»VM nad* utto u . . . . nuctiteitiai'*; SOv.SilS— 
"SbI w« d; vilk umM Ami b^holdiBg af iA a fldnw tht gloy of tkt Ind, an 

froBghiytagkry.tTwaafrwthalardtkaflpiiiC* Arnold of Bugby: ** Always expect to succeed, 
and never think yon have succeeded.*' 

Mr. Finney meant by entire sanctUioatlon only that it is possible for ChzJstianB in this 
life by the grace of God to consecrate themselves so unreservedly to his service as to 
live without conscious and wilful disobedience to the divine commands. He did not 
dalm himself to have reached this point ; he made at times very impressive confessions 
of his own sinfulness ; he did not encourage others to make for themselves the claim to 
have lived without conscious fault. He held however that such a state is attainable, 
and therefore that its pursuit is rationaL He also admitted that such a state is one, not 
of absolute, but only of relative, stnlessnesB. His error was in calling it a state of entire 
sanctiiloation. See A. H. Strong, Christ in Creation, 877-884. 

A. J. Oordon, Mlnlstiy of the Spirit, 116—** It is possible that one may experience a 
great crisis in his spiritual life, in which there is such a total surrender of self to Gtod 
and such an inflUing of the Holy Spirit, that he is freed from the bondage of sinful 
appetites and habitst and enabled to have constant victory over self instead of sulfering 

constant deftet If the doctrine of sinless perfection is a heresy, the doctrine of 

contentment with sinful imperfection is a greater heresy It is not an edifying 

spectacle to see » Christian worldling throwing stones at a Christian perfectionist.'* 
Calrd, Bvolution of Beligion, 1 : 188— " If, according to the German proverb, it is pro- 
vided that the trees shall not grow into the sky, it is equally provided that they shall 
always grow toward it ; and the sinking of the roots into the soil is inevitably accom- 
panied by a further expansion of the branches." 

See Hovey, Doctrine of the Higher Christian life. Compared with Scripture , also 
Hovey, Higher Christian Life Examined, in Studies in Bthics and Theology. 844-427 ; 
Snodgrass, Scriptural Doctrine of Sanctiflcation ; Princeton Bssays, 1 : 886-866 ; Hodge, 
Syst. TheoL, 8 : 218-258 ; Calvin, Institutes, m, 11 : 6 ; Bib. Repos., 2d Series. 1 : 44-68; 
8 : 148-lM ; Woods, Works, 4 : 48IHi88 ; H. A. Boardman, The *' Higher Life " Doctrine of 
Hanotiiloatlon; William Iaw, Practical Treatise on Christian Perfteitlon ; B. H. John- 
son, The Highest Life. 

IL Pkbsbvxbangh. 

The Scriptures declare that, in virtue of the original purpose and contin- 
uous operation of God, all who are united to Ohrist by faith will infallibly 
continue in a state of grace and will finally attain to everlasting Ufe. This 
voluntary continuance, on the i)art of the Ohristian, in faith and well-doing 
we call perseverance. Perseverance is, therefore, the human side or aspect 
of that spiritnal process which, as viewed from the divine side, we call sanc- 
tiflcation. It is not a mere natural consequence of conversion, but involves 
a constant activity of the human will from the moment of conversion to the 
end of life. 

Adam's holiness was mutable ; God did not determine to keep him. It to otherwise 
with believers in Christ; Gtod has determined to give them the kingdom (loka 12:82). 
Yet this keeping by God, which we call sanctiflcation, is accompanied and foUowed by a 
keeping of himself on the part of the believer, which we call perseverance. The former 
isalludedtoinJekal7:ll,12— "katftiMmintkjiHiM. . . . Ikfptttaintkyaims . . . . I guuM ttiB, 
tai B«t «Bt«rtlMm piriihii but tki mb «rp«4itiai**; the latter is alluded to in i iokn 6:18— '^Iwt^VM 

66 



882 SOTEBIOLOGYy OB THE DOCTBIKE OF 8ALYATI0K. 

bagottaa of Ood kMptft kioadl'* Both axe ezpraaBed In JvdtSl, B4— "leip jmnAimiRi^Ufn of God 
.... low Qsto Ub tktt if ablo to gnari 7011 from #flw>^ti^^g ....'* 

A German treatise on Pastoral Theolosy is entitled : " Keep What Thou Hast '*— an 
allusion to S II& 1:14— "That good thing wkiok ini ooomittod snto tkoo gnud throagh tko Idy Spirit v^ 
dvoUolk in u.** Not only the pastor, but every belieyer, has a charge to keep ; and the 
keeping of ouiaelyeB is as important a point of Christian doctrine as Is the keeping of 
God. Both are expressed In the motto : Teneo, ZVneor — the motto on the front of the 
Y. M. & A. building in Boston, underneath a stone cross, firmly clasped by two hands. 
The colored preacher said that *' Perseverance means: L Take hold; & Hold on; 8. 
Never let go." 

Physioally, inteUectually, morally, spiritually, there Is need that we persevere. Paul, 
in i Oor. • : S7. declares that he smites his body under the eye and makes a slave of It, lest 
after having preached to others he himself should be rejected ; and in t tia. 4 : 7, at the 
end of his career, he rejoices that he has "kopt tho ^tk." A. J. Gordon, Ministry of the 
Spirit, m -" The Christian is as ' a tm idiAtad by tko itmm of vi^, tkrt briBgotk ftrtt 
MiOB* ( Fi 1 : S ), but to conclude that his growth will be as irresistible as that of the tree, 
coming as a matter of course simply because he has by regeneration been planted in 
Christ, is a grave mistake. The disciple is required to be consciously and intelligently 
active in his own growth, as the tree is not, ' to givo all diligaM to luko kis ooUiag ud otoodoB nrt' 
( B Pot 1 : 10 ) by surrendering himself to the divine action." Oarke, Christian Theology, 
879—'' Man is able to fall, and God is able to keep him from falling ; and through the 
various experiences of life God will so save his child out of all evil that he will be 
morally incapable of failing." 

1. Proof of the Doctrine of Perseverance, 

A. From Soriptore. 

JokBlO:28»»— "thoyAalliMTv poriik, and no oao ihaU natok thaa out of mykaad. My hlhar, who haU 
giTontiMBinBtonMbiagnator than ail; aadnoono la ablo to nakb thoM oatofthofathor'akaad'*; BablUiSO— 
"ForthogiftiaadtbooalUBgofGodanvittuMtropaBtoBoo"; 1 Oar. 18:7— **ondnntkaUtUngi**: c/.13 — "Bat 
nowaUdo&ftithtbopi^loTo"; FhU.i:6— "boingooBfidontoftUaTvythiag^thatboi^baganagood vorkinyoa 
wmporibotitBntiltkodayofJoi08 0hriit";S n«K8:8— "Bnttho lord ia futoflU, wbo ikaU flOtaUiih yoo, and 
gvaid yon from tko oril 000 " ; 8 HaL 1 :18— "I know Um whom I ban boliond, andl am pmnadod that bo iaablo 
to gwffd that wbiob I bato eommittod onto him againit that day"; i Fit. 1:5— "who by iho power of God ari 
gnardodthrmghfiuthnstoaialTitiaBmdytobonTnltd ia tho laattino"; R«y.8:10— "Booauethondiditkoop 
tbo word of ny patiinoo, I alio will koop thoofrtna tho hour of trial, that boor wbiob ia to oobm npon tho wholo world, 
to tiy thorn that dwoll npoatbo oirth." 

8 Tim. 1 : 18— ri|v wapa&iiniy mov— BUioott translates: " tho tnit oonaittod to BMb" or "ny dopoait" 
. the office of preaching the gospel, the stewardship entrusted to the apostie ; e/. 1 fia. 
6 :80— "0 flaolhy, keop thy dopodt"— ri|y wopad^r ; and 8 Tiai.l : 14— "Koap tho good d^poatt"— where 
the deposit seems to be the faith or doctrine delivered to him to preach. Nicoll, The 
Church's One Foundation, 211— ** Some Christians waken each morning with a creed 
of fewer articles, and those that remain they are ready to surrender to a process of 
argument that convinces them. But it is a diity to keep. ' To bavo aa anoiating fron tho My 
Om^ and yo know' (1 John 8:80). .... Bsra gave to his men a treasure of gold and silver and 
sacrificial vessels, and he charged them : ' Wateh yi^ and koop than, nnlilyo woigh thoai .... in 
thy flhambfln of the booao of Joborah * ( Im 8 : 28 ).'* See in the Autobiography of C. H. Spurgeon, 
1:226, 266, theoutlineof asermonon jQha6:87— "ill that wbiob tho FbthorgiTrth mo ihallooino onto 
nM; and him that oaaoth to mo I will inno wiao oast ont" Mr. Spurgeon remarks that this text can 
give us no comfort unless we see : 1. that God has given us his Holy Spirit; 2. that we 
have given ourselves to him. Christ will not cast us out because of our great sins, our 
long delays, our trying other saviors, our hardness of heart, our little faith, our poor 
dull prayers, our unbelief, our inveterate corruptions, our frequent backslldlngs, nor 
finally because every one else passes us by. 

B. From Beason. 

(a) It is a neoeasary inferenoe from other dootrines, — saoh as election, 
union with Christ, regeneration, jnstifioation, sanctifioation. 

' Election of certain individuals to salvation is election to bestow upon them such 
influences of the Spirit as will lead them not only to accept Christ, but to persevere and 
be saved. Union with Christ is indissoluble ; regeneration is the beginning of a work of 
new creation, which is declared in Justification, and completed in sanctiflcation. All 



PEBSBYEBAKCB. 883 

these dootrlzieB are parts of a general scheme, whloh would come to naught if anjr 
single Christian were permitted to ftdl away. 

( 6 ) It aooords with analogy, — Ckxl's preserying oare being needed by, 
and being granted to, his spiritual, as well as his natoral, creation. 

As natural life cannot uphold itself, but we "Uti^ aid bmtb^ udhaTtfur bdag" in God (Atli 
17 : 28 ), so spiritual life cannot uphold itself, and God maintains the faith, love, and hoi j 
activity which he has originated. If he preserves our natural life, much more may we 
expect him to preserve the spirltuaL i tia. 6 :1S— "I «huit tkat bdbn 8od wbo pmarrttkall 
thlBgi alin" (B. y. maTg.)—itMrfovwmt rd vdyTa«> the great Preserver of all enables us to 
persist in our Christian course, 

( ) It is implied in all assnxaQoe of salvation, — since this aBsnranoe is 
given by the Holy Spirit, and is based not upon the known strength of 
homan resolution, but npon the purpose and operation of Qod. 

S. R. Hason : ** It Satan and Adam both fell away from perfect holiness, it is a million 
to one that, in a world f uU of temptations and with all appetites and habits against me, 
I shall fall away from imperfect holiness, unless God by his almighty power keep me.'* 
It is in the power and purpose of CK>d, then, that the believer puts his trust. But since 
this trust is awakened by the Holy Spirit, it must be that there is a divine fiaot corre- 
sponding to it; namely, God's purpose to exert his power in such a way that the 
Christian shall persevere. See Wardlaw, Byst. TheoL, 2 : fi6(M^ ; N. W. Taylor, Revealed 
Theology, 44&-iaa 

Job6:ll— "Whaliimy ikvBgth, tkiti ihOQld viitr And what is niat tal. tkal I ik0Dldbt|tlftiBtr'* 
*' Here is a note of self -distrust. To be patient without any outlook, to endure with- 
out divine support— Job does not proinise it, and he trembles at the prospect; but 
none the less he sets his feet on the toilsome way " ( Genung ). Dr. Lyman Beecher was 
asked whether he believed in the perseverance of the saints. He replied ; " I do, except 
when the wind is from the Bast." But the value of the doctrine is that we can believe 
it even when the wind U from the East. It is well to hold on to God's hand, but it Is 
better to have God's hand hold on to us. When we are weak, and forgetful and asleep, 
we need to be sure of God's care. like the child who thought he was driving, but who 
found, after the trouble was over, that his father after all had been holding the reins, 
we too find when danger comes that behind our hands are the hands of God. The Per- 
severance of the Saints, looked at from the divine side, is the Preservation of the 
Saints, and the hymn that expresses the Christian's faith Is the hymn : ** How Arm a 
f oiuidatlon, ye saints of the Lord, Is laid for your ftitth in his excellent word 1 '* 

2. OtjeoHona to the Doctrine of Perseverance. 

These objections are urged chiefly by Arminians and by Bomanists. 

A. That it is inconsistent with human freedom. — Answer : It is no 
more so than is the doctrine of Election or the doctrine of Decrees. 

The doctrine Is simply this, that God will bring to bear such influences upon all true 
believers, that they will freely persevere. Moule, OutUoes of Christian Doctrine, 47— 
^ Is grace. In any sense of the word, ever finally withdrawn 7 Yes, if by grace is meant 
any free gift of God tending to salvation ; or, more specially, any action of the Holy 

Spirit tending in its nature thither But if by grace be meant the dwelling and 

working of Christ in the truly regenerate, there is no indication In Sorlptore of the 
withdrawal of it." 

B. That it tends to immorality. — Answer : This cannot be, since the 
doctrine declares that Qod will save men by securing their perseverance in 
holinesa 



l1im.l:l«**'IffvMlttiinifciiBd»ti«a«rMiludilk,kaTiaf tkiiMia, TteLaidkaBVflktkflBtktankii; 
ud, IM 0T«7 AM ttftt BMMlk tt« aaat ff tk« krd dipttt torn urigktmasMi" ; that is« the temple of 
Christian character has upon its foundation two significant inscriptions, the one declar- 
ing GodlB power, wisdom, and purpose of salvation ; the other deolariog the purity and 
holy sctivity, on the part of the believer, through which God's purpose Is to be ful- 



884 80TER10L00T, OR THE DOCTRIKE OP SALVATION. 

lUled:lPttl:l,8— "dMt Moaniiigtottt ftnkaovkdgt •fGodt^Htttr.iniaafltiiDitiaDofthta^rii 

ute obtdiMM ua qriBkling af tk« blMd of Jani Ohziik '^ S M 1 : 10, 11 — *' ¥kiv^ 
IMMtoiMktTNrflilliBguddMtiaiinrf: Ibrif j«dBtk«atki]ig% je ihAll mt« itaaUi : tethuAiUteiiihly 
utojntbttitauMiAtotktflanulUBgdaBaraiirLvludStTurlwii Ottftit** 



0. That it leads to indolence. — Answer : This is a perversion of the 
dootrinoy continnonjaly possible only to the nnregenerate ; sinoe, to the 
regenerate, oertainty of soooess is the strongest inoentive to activity in the 
oonfliot with sin. 



1JAb8:4— ■ftrwkitMifgJibigqUMflf Mowwrtk tk« vorid : aad this if tkt viotay thit httk 
tht vari< tviB ow aitL'* It Is notoriously untrue that oonildenoe of suooess inspires timid- 
ity or Indolenoe. Thomas Fuller : **' Your salvation Is his buslnesB ; his servioe your 
business." The only prayers God will answer are those we ounelves cannot answer. 
Fbr the very reason that "ttiiCMi^ vorkilk is joa boUto will asdtB vwk, ftr Us good plMiu%'* the 
apostle exhorts: "vvricoBkjwrnrBiilfitllittwithflMrttdtnBUiai;'* (Fhil.B:iJi;tB). 

D. That the Scriptore commands to persevere and warnings against 
apostasy show that certain, even of the regenerate, will fall away. — 
Answer: 

( a ) They show that some, who are apparently regenerate, will fall away. 

lbilS:7— *'¥Miitethtw«ldbMuiiifooaMUMofitBBbUBfl firUwutiiNdi btthitthtoeiuloiiiMm; 
tatvMtathiklaaalhrM(h whan tht muka ooMtk"; 1 Oar. 11:10— **?« tUri mut be ate fl«kloBi [ lit. 
'b«iilii']aiMBf 7«B, thai duj thai in approTidaftj 1m nada Banifflit aaong 7m " ; 1 John 2: 19 — "Ihaj van! 
•Bt Dram n, tat thay vaa sat af sa; fqrif thay had btea of oa, thay vould hata oonlinaid vtth na: tat thiy waft 
aatk thai thay adf ht U aada auaif«t that thaj all an lot of va." Judas prot>ably experienced strong 
emotions, and received strong impulses toward good, under the influence of Christ. 
The only fiUllng from grace which is recognised in Scripture is not the flailing of the 
regenerate, but the falling of the unregenerate, from influences tending to lead them 
to Christ. The Babbins said that a drop of water will suflloe to purify a man who has 
aoGidently touched a creeping thing, but an ocean will not sufiice for his cleansing so 
; long as he purposely keeps the creeping thing In his hand. 

( 6 ) They show that the traly regenerate, and those who are only appar- 
ently 80, are not certainly distingnishable in this life. 

laL 8 :18— "Thn ahall ja ntnra asd diitan botvott tha lirbtoooa and tha vioktd, botviaii bin that Mnath 
Qod and blm that Mmtb him nat"; ]IatlS:25,47— '^vbilama ilapt^ bia aaamj oana asd nvad tana alao aiMBf 
tha vb«l» and vnt away .... igaia, tha kiagdoa af boa?an la lika vate a not^ thal«u<oatintothoaia,aiid 
gathwadofamykiiid*'; RmlOiO^?— "Par thoyara sat aU laraal, that an of Imal : naiOir. booMw thty an 
ibnham'aiMd,antha7 aUflhildns"; BaT.8:l — *'I knav thy vork^ thai thoa haat a naaio that than Uvii^ aad 
thai art diad.*' The tares were never wheat, and the bad flsh never were good, in spite of 
the ttMt that their true nature was not for a while recognised. 

( ) They show the fearfol consequences of rejecting Christ, to those 
who have eoijoyed spedal divine influences, but who are only apparently 
regenerate. 

lob. 10:18-80— "lor If «a bIb iriUhOj aflff that va bara rooiiTid tha kaowlodga of tha truth, thon naaisalh so 
iMra a noiiiBa fcr lia^ but a osttala ftaiiU aipootilioa af Jadgmaa^ aad a flononiii af fln whkh ifaall doTov tha 
adTHHriML i Bia that hatt ail at naof bt Moa«' lawdiothwithoatoonpaiiioiioatbavordoftwoorthnavltaMM: 
of hav vadk mnt foaiibaMB^ thiak y% ahall ba ba ivdgad trorthy, vba both teoddaa ondor foot tha Boa af M, aad 
balk ooutod tha blood of tha ooTMial vhonvith ha «u anotlflod aa aahaly tbiag, aad both doaa daapito aato tha 
Bpirlttif gnoo?*' Here "aaoliflad *' - external sanctiflcatlon, like that of the andent Israel- 
ites, by outward connection with God's people; c/. i 0«. 7:U->"tbo anboUaTiac bariaad li 
■aattM ia tha vik" 

In considering these and the following Scripture passages, much will depend upon 
our view of inspiration. If we hold that Christ's promise was fulfilled and that his 
apostles were led into all the truth, we shall assume that there is unity in their teach- 
ing, and shall recognise in their variations only aspects and applications of the teach- 
ing of our Lord; in other words, Christ's doctrine in Joha 10: 88^ 88 will be the norm for th« 



PBBSETERANCiL 885 

iiit<?rpretatlon of seemingly dlverae and at first slerht Inconsistent passages. There was 
a ** &ith vki«h «M ODM Ibr all dallTtnd uto the niate," and for this pr jmiti%'e faith we are exhorted 
** to OQBtnd ainiMtlj '* ( Jv4« 8 ). 

(d) They show what the fate of the truly regenerate would be, in case 
they should not persevere. 

Itlk 6:4r4 — **?« as touhiag thoM vho van onae anHgfctonad and taatad of tha katTaaly p% and vera mada 
lartakan of thaEalj Spirit, and taaMtha good vordflfflod, and tha pov«s of tka world to Mma, and than Ibll avay, 
it isiapoiiiUa to noaw tkni again onto ropontanoa; aaaing thaj oraoiff to thoiaaolToa tha Son of Qod afraah, and pat 
Urn to an opon ahana." This is to be understood as a hypothetical oase, — as is clear from 
Toraa 9 which follows : " Bnt^ balo^ voan pomudod bottar tUngi of 70a, and tUngi lAioh aoooaqpanj talvft- 
tioB, thoBgh va tkni ipoak." Dr. A. C. Kendrick, Oom. in loco: **In the phrase 'oaoa 
anlightinai' the ' oooa ' is ava{ — once for alL The text describes a condition subjectively 
possible, and therefore needing to be held up in earnest warning to the believer, while 

objectively and in the absolute purpose of God, it never occurs If passages like 

this teach the possibility of falling from grace, they teach also the impossibility of 
restoration to it. The saint who once apostatises has apostatised forever." 80 U. 
18:84 — " vkon tba rightaooa tnnoth avay from Us lighteoosnaoa, and ooniBittotk ini%ni^ .... in tham dnll ha 
dia'\ 8 Pot 8 :80 — " Ibr i^ aitor tb«7 luTa aaeapod tba ddUasMnto of tka world thnngh tta kaowladga of tka I^ 
and SaTiv Jasns Olirist, thaj ara again ontanglad tharein and onroomo, tha last slato la boooBM wona with thaa than 
thalnt.** So,in]lat5:i3— "ifthaaatthaTolostitosaw^wherewithshaUitbaaattodr"— if thisteaohes 
that the regenerate may lose their religion, it lUso teaches that they can never recover 
It. It really shows only that Christians who do not perform their proper functions as 
Christians become harmful and contemptible ( Broadus, in looo ). 

(6) They show that the perseverance of the tmly regenerate may be 
aeonied by these vezy oommands and warnings. 



1 Oor. 9:87— "I biiirt my body, and Ining it into boodaga: lost hj any maan% afkor that I hara pnaohad to ottsn^ 
I mjmlf ahonld ba ndootad " — or, to bring out the meaning more fully : * I baat my body Una [ or, 
'strike it under the eye ' ], and maka it a aUva^ last aftar having boon a honld to othera, I myialf should bo 
r^oolad *' ( * unapproved,' * counted unworthy of the prize ' ) ; iO : 18 — " ▼harofora lot him that 
thinkath ha stondalh taka haad laat ha fiOl." Quarles, Bmblems : " The way to be safe is never to 
be secure." Wrightnour : *' Warning a traveler to keep a certain path, and by this 
means keeping him in that path, is no evidence that he wiU ever fall into a pit by the 
side of the path simply because he is warned of it." 

(/) They do not show that it is certain, or possible, that any tmly 

regenerate person will fall away. 

The Christian is like a man making his way up-hill, who occasionally dips back, yet 
always has his face set toward the summit. The unregenerate man has his face turned 
downwards, and he is slipping all the way. C. H. Spurgeon : '* The believer, like a nuin 
on shipboard, amy fall again and again on the deck, but he will never fall overboard." 

K That we have actual examples of such apostaey. — We answer : 

(a) Such are either men once outwardly reformed, like Jndas and 

AnanJBS, but never renewed in heart ; 

But, per contra^ instance the experience of a man in typhoid fever, who apparently 
repented, but who never remembered it when he was restored to health. Sick-bed and 
death-bed conversions are not the best. There was one penitent thief, that none might 
despair ; there was but one penitent thief, that none might presume. The hypocrite 
is like the wire that gets a second-hand electricity from the live wire running 
parallel with it. This second-hand electricity Is elfective only within narrow limits, 
and its efficacy is soon exhausted. The live wire has connection with the source of 
power in the dynamo. 

( 6 ) Or they are regenerate men, who, like David and Peter, have fallen 

into temporary sin, from which they wiU, before death, be reclaimed by 

€k>d's discipline. 

Instance the young profligate who, in a moment of apparent drowning, repented, 
was then rescued, and afterward lived a long life as a CSuistian. If he had not been 



886 SOTBBIOLOGY, OB THB DOCTBIKB OF SALYATIOK. 

reaoued, his lepentanoe would nerer have beeo known, nor the answer to his mother^ 
prayers. So, In the moment of a baoksUder's death, Qod can renew repentance and 
faith. Cromwell on his death-bed questioned his Chaplain as to the doctrine of final 
peneveranoe, and, on bein^ assured that it was a certain truth, said : "Then I am 
happy, for I am sure that I was once in a state of ffraoe.'* But reliance upon a past 
experience is like trusting in the value of a policy of life insurance upon which scYcral 
years' premiums have been unpaid. If the policy has not lapsed, it is because of 
extreme grace. The only conclusive evidence of perseverance is a present experience 
of Christ's presence and Indwelling, corroborated by active service and purity of life. 

On the general subject, see Bdwards, Woiks, 8 : 60IMHB, and 4 : 104 ; Bidgeley, Body of 
Divinity, 2:164-m; John Owen, Works, voL U; Woods, Works, 8:2S1-MB; Van 
Oosteraee, Christian Dogmatics, O0M08. 



t - 



PAET VIL 

EOOLESIOLOGT, OR THE DOCTRINE OF THE OHUROH. 



CHAPTER L 

THB COlSrSTITUnON OF THB CHURCH. OB OHITBCH POLITY. 

I. Definition of thb Chuboh. 

( a ) The church of Christ, in its largest signification, is the whole com- 
pany of regenerate persons in all times and ages, in heaven and on earth 
(Mat. 16:18 ; Eph. 1 :22, 23 ; 8 : 10 ; 5 :24, 25 ; CoL 1 :18 ; Heb. 12 :23). 
In this sense, the church is identical with the spiritual kingdom of Gk>d ; 
both signify that redeemed humanity in which Ood in Christ exercises 
actual spiritual dominion ( John 3 : 8, 5 )• 

1Uil6:18 — "ttM art PMtr, and upon thb mk I viU Indld bj ohvnk; ttdttagBtMofHadMahaUiuipniiil 
■giinfltit"; lph.l:2l;23 — "aadkt pot all tUagi ia nbjMtioii nadir UafttttUdg»T«hiBtolMh«doT8rall 
thiagi to the flkuvh, vUflk ii Ui bedj. th« ftilnM of Ub tut flllftk aU in aU " ; ^ 

tbo priodpalitieo and tho pevari in tho hoaTnlj plioaa Bigkt bo mado known tkroogk tka okorok tko naaiibld viidom 
orQod";6:24,25— *'Bntaitkookiinhiinbjoottoahriflt»io lot tko viToaalaobotothilrkiubBadainenrTtking. 
lubanda, loTo your viT«% OTiB as'Okriit alio loTod tko oku«b,aad gaTokiaaolfvpfiirit"; 0oLl:18— "indkoit 
thokoadofthobody, tkoQkank: who ia tko baginning, tho flntbon fromtkodoad; thatinalltkiagikofliigkthaTBtho 
pntBdnoaflO*'; Idk 12:28 — "tkogennral aoMBbly and oknnk of tko flntbon vkoanoBroUodinkoaToi"; Jokn 
8:3t6— "Ixoopt ono bobon aaov, ko oaanoi mo tko kingdom of Ood. .... Ixoiptonobeboniofvatarandtbo 
Spiritk ko eannot ontor into tko kingdom of Goi" 

Cioeiro*8 words apply here : '* Una navlfl est jam bonorum omnium *' — all srood men 
are In one Ixiat. Gioero speaks of the state, but It is still more true of the ohuroh 
Invisible. Andrews, in Bib. Sao., Jan. 1883: 14, mentions the foUowin^r differences 
between the church and Idnffdom, or, as we prefer to say, between the visible church 
and the invisible ohuroh : (1) the church beffan with Christ,— the kinffdom began 
earlier; (2) the church is confined to believers in the historic Christ,— the kingrdom 
includes all Ood's children ; (8) the church belongs whoUy to this world— not so the 
kinirdom ; ( 4 ) the church is visible, — not so the kingdom ; (6 ) the church has (pnaai 
organic charaoter, and leads out into local churches, — this is not so with the kingdom. 
On the universal or Invisible church, see Cremer, Lexicon N. T., transl., 113, 114, 831 ; 
Jacob, Eool. Polity of N. T., 12. 

H. C. Vedder : ** The church is a spiritual body, oonsisting only of those regenerated 
by the Spirit of Ood.*' Yet the Westminster Oonfefislon afflrms that the church 
'^ consists of all those throughout the world that profess the true religion, together 
with their children." This definition includes In the church a multitude who not only 
give no evidence of regeneration, but who plainly show themselves to be unregenerate. 
In many lands it practically identifies the church with the world. Augustine indeed 
thought that "tko Sold,'* in Kat 13:88, is the church, whereas Jesus says very distinctly 
that it "is tko vorld." Augustine held that good and bad alike were to be permitted to 

887 



888 EOCLESIOLOOTy OB THE DOCTBIKB OF THE OHUBCH. 

dwell together In the ohdroh, without attempt to separate them ; see Broadus, Com. in 
loco. But the parable gives a reason, not why we should not try to put the wicked out 
of the chuToh, but why Qod does not immediately put them out of the world, the 
tares being separated from the wheat only at the final judgment of mankind. 

Yet the universal church includes all true believen. It fulfils the promise of God to 
Abraham in G€B.15:5—''I«iikD0W to Yard kflanii, tad miHbar tktihn, if ttMbeaUttomakrtkMi: uA 
to nid unto kin, 80 ihall thj nod bo." The church shall be immortal, since it draws its lif^ from 
Christ : Ii. 65 : a ~ "M tko daji of a tm AaU bo tho daji of Bj peo^ '' ; iNk 4 : 1^ 8 — "a oudkltiak a^ 
gold . andtwoollTMnoibyii** DeanStanley, JAfe and Letters. S:8tt, 218— "* A Spanish 
Boman Catholic, Cervantes, said : * Many are the roads by which God carries his own 
to heaven.' DOUinger : * Theology must become a science not, as heretofore, for mak- 
ing war, but for making peace, and thus bringing about that reconciliation of churches 
for which the whole dvillaed world Is longing.* In their loftieit moods of inspiration, 
the Catholic Thomas A Kempis, the Puritan Milion, the Anglican Keble, rose above 
their peculiar tenets, and above the limits that divide denominations, into the higher 
regions of a common Christianity. It was the Baptist Bunyan who taught the world 
that there was * a common groimd of communion which no difference of external rites 
could efface.' It was the Moravian Gambold who wrote : ' The man That could sur- 
round the sum of things, and spy The heart of Gtod and secrets of his empire. Would 
speak but love. With love, the bright result Would change the hue of intermediate 
things, And make one thing of all theology.' '* 

( 6 ) The oihiiioh, in this laige senise, is nothing leas than the body of 
Christ — the organism to which he gives spiritual life, and through which 
he manifests the fulness of his power and grace. The ohurdh therefore 
camiot be defined in merely human terms, as an aggregate of indiyiduaJs 
associated for social, benevolent^ or even spiritual purposea There is a 
transcendent element in the church. It is the great company of persons 
whom Ghristhas saved, in whom he dweUs, to whom and through whom 
he reveals God (Eph. 1 :22, 23 ). 

%Li:B;» — "thoobm«k,vhiAiihiibod7,tkftalBMofUHttA(fU]oaialliBaU.*' He who is the life 
of nature and of humanity reveals himself most fully in the great company of those 
who have joined themselves to him by faith. Union with Christ is the presupposition 
of the church. This alone transforms the sinner into a Christian, and this alone makes 
possible that vital and spiritual fellowship between individuals which constitutes the 
organizing principle of the church. The same divine life which ensures the pardon and 
the perseverance of the believer unites him to all other beUevers. The Indwelling 
Christ makes the church superior to and more permanent than all humanitarian organi- 
ntions; they die, but because Christ lives, the church lives also. Without a proper 
conception of this sublime relation of the church to Christ, we cannot properly appre- 
ciate our dignity as church members, or our high calling as shepherds of the flock. Not 
**ubi eodesia, ibi Christus," but "ubi Christus, ibi eodesia," should be our motto. 
Because Christ is omnipresent and omnipotent, ** tho mdm Tooloidoj, and to-day, 70a and fimrw ** 
( lok 18 : 8), what Burke said of the nation is true of the church : It is " indeed a partner- 
ship, but a partnership not only between those who are living, but between those 
who are living, those who are dead, and those who are yet to be bom." 

MoGllfert, Apostolic Church, 601—** Paul^ conception of the church as the body of 
Christ was first emphasized and developed by Ignatius. He reproduces in his writings 
the substance of all the Paulinism that the church at large made permanently its own : 
the prefizistence and deity of Christ, the union of the believer with Christ without 
which the Christian life is imposBible, the importance of Christ's death, the church the 
body of Christ. Bome never fully recognized Paul's teachings, but her system rests 
upon his doctrine of the church the body of Christ. The modem doctrine however 
makes the kingdom to be not spiritual or future, but a reality of this world." The 
redemption of the body, the redemption of institutions, the redemption of nations, 
are indeed aU purposed by Christ. Christians should not only strive to rescue individ- 
ual men from the slough of vice, but they should devise measures for draining that 
slough and making that vice impossible ; in other words, they should labor for the 
coming of the kingdom of God in society. But this is not to identify the church with 
poUtioB, prohibition, libraries, athletlos. The spiritual fellowship is to be the fountain 



DBFIKITIOK OF THE GHUBGH. 889 

from which all theee aoU yltieB spiing, whUe at the same time Ciirlst^B * kiafdon ii nrt of 
tkiBVDrid**(4bh]il8:86). 

A. J. Oordon, Ministry of the Spirit, 24, %, S07 — ^* As Christ is the temple of God, so 
the ohiiroh is the temple of the Holy Spirit. As God could be seen only throu^rh Christ, 
so the Holy Spirit can be seen only through the church. As Christ was the imaffe of 
the invisible God, so the church is appointed to be the image of the invisible Christ, 
and the members of Christ, when they are glorified with him, shall be the express image 

of his person The church and the kingdom are not identical terms, if we mean 

by the kingdom the visible reign and government of Jesus Christ on earth. In another 
sense they are IdenticaL As is the king, so is the kingdom. The king is present now 
in the world, only invisibly and by the Holy Spirit ; so the kingdom is now present 
invisibly and spiritually in the hearts of believers. The king is to come again visibly 
and gloriously ; so shall the kingdom appear visibly and gloriously. In other words, 
the kingdom is already here in mystery : it is to be here in manifestation. Now the 
spiritual kingdom is administered by the Holy Spirit, and it extends from Pentecost to 
Parousia. At the Farousia — the appearing of the Son of man in glory — when he shall 
take unto himself his great power and reign (lUT.ii:17), when he who has now gone 
into a tar country to be invested with a kingdom shall return and enter upon his 
government (Luke 19 :15 ), then the invisible shall give way to the visible, the kingdom in 
mystery shall emerge into the kingdom in manifestation, and the Holy Spirit's admin- 
istration shall yield to that of Christ' 



*t 



( c ) The Bariptnres, however, distingniflh between this inYisible or imi- 
versal churchy and the individnal church, in which the nniversal church 
takes local and temporal form, and in which the idea of the church as a 
whole is concretely exhibited. 



llAiO:»*«lfV7eiHth«nfan, vkoahaU aoBfM ■• Msn BO, Urn liniakoooBtob^ 
iiiakMfm'*; 12:84,35— "oat of ttt alwiMiinw of tho hiort tho month ipookolk Ao good nui out of kia good 
trooioroteiBgothflbrthgoodtUBgi"; BMLiO:fl^iO— ^'ifthoafhaltooaftHwithtkywnthJoiuMlord.aBdihalt 
boUoTointhyheort tbot Qod niiod hiai from tho dodi, tho« itolt bo loTod: kt iritt fho hoort mail bolio? oth uto 
rigktooBBUM; oadvitb tho moatb ooofoiilfla if nado unto nlTitio&"; Joniil:18— "OfUiownvillhobivBglit 
nifatkbytha vordoftnith,thatvoikoiild bo a kind of irttfrvito of Ui onatnni"— we were saved, not 
for ourselves only, but as parts and beginnings of an organic kingdom of God ; believers 
aie called ''flntfimiti, ** because from them the blessing shall spread, until the whole 
world shall be pervaded with the new life ; Pentecost, as the feast of ilrst-fruits, was 
but the beginning of a stream that shaU continue to flow until the whole race of man 
is gathered in. 

B. S. Storrs: *' When any truth becomes central and vital, there comes the desire to 
utter it," — and we may add, not only in words, but in organization. So beliefs crystal- 
lise into institutions. But Christian faith is something more vital than the common 
beliefs of the world. Linking the soul to Christ, it brings Christians into living fellow- 
ship with one another before any bonds of outward organization exist ; outward 
organization, indeed, only expresses and symbolizes this inward union of spirit to Christ 
and to onb another. Horatius Bonar : ** Thou must be true thyself. If thou the truth 
wouldst teach ; Thy soul must overflow, if thou Another's soul wouldst reach ; It needs 
the overflow of heart To give the lips full speech. Think truly, and thy thoughts Shall 
the world's famine feed ; Speak truly, and each word of thine Shall be a fruitful seed ; 
Live truly, and thy life shall be A great and noble creed." 

Contentio Veritatls, 128, 129— '* The kingdom of God is flrst a state of the individual 
soul, and then, secondly, a society made up of those who enjoy that state." Dr. F. L. 
Patton : " The best way for a man to serve the church at large is to serve the church 
to which he belongs." Herbert Stead : " The kingdom is not to be narrowed down to 
the church, nor the church evaporated into the kingdom.*' To do the flrst is to set up 
a monstrous ecdesiastloism ; to do the second is to destroy the organism through 
which the kingdom manifests itself and does its work in the world ( W. B. Taylor )• 
Prof. Dalman, in his work on The Words of Jesus in the Light of Postbiblical Writing 
and the Aramaic Language, contends that the Greek phrase translated ** kingdom of 
God ** should be rendered *' the sovereignty of God." He thinks that it points to the reign 
of God, rather than to the realm over which he reigns. This rendering, if accepted, 
takes away entirely the support from the Bitsohlian conception of the kingdom of 
God as an earthly and outward organization. 



890 EOOLBSIOLOGYy OB THE DOGTBIKE OF THE CHUBCH. 

{d) The indiTidnal ohnrdh may be defined as that smaller company of 
regenerate persons, who, in any given oommnnity, unite themselves volun- 
tarily together, in aooordanoe with Christ's laws, for the purpose of secur- 
ing the complete establishment of his kingdom in themselveB and in the 
world. 



HiA.18:17--«ABdifkivdtetohitftta^tdlit!iiito«h«Ainh:udiflaiiftwtekiwtteflk^ 
be QBto ttM M th* flntikiiidthifiibliau"; Afltoi4:28— "aivoiBtodftrtka&ddniaaTKyihnnk"; £aB.16:S 
— '*iil8tttlM dkonh tUtiiiB tWir hoDM" ; 1 Oor. 1 :8— "tho eknrah of God vkkh ii tt Ooriiitk" ; 4:17— "on 
uItMA«T«7vk«iBtT«7akiinh";inm8:14— ''tk*Aiinh«of6odvkkk«niBJ«dwiB(^ 

We do not define the ohuroh as a body of ** tjaptised believeiB,'* beoause baptism is but 
one of '* ChrisVs laws,** In aooordanoe with which believers unite themselves. Since 
these laws are the laws of ohuroh-organization contained in the New Testament, no 
Sunday Sohool, Temperance Society, or Young Men's Christian Association, is properly 
a churoh. These organizations L lack the transcendent element — they are instituted 
and managed by man only ; 2. they are not confined to the regenerate, or to those alone 
who give credible evidence of regeneration ; 8. they presuppose and require no partic- 
ular form of doctrine ; 4^ they observe no ordinances ; 6. they are at best mere adjuncts 
and instruments of the church, but are not themselves churches ; 6. their decisions 
therefore are devoid of the divine authority and obligation which belong to the decis- 
ions of the churoh. 

The laws of Christ, In aooordanoe with which believers unite themselves into churches, 
may be summarised as follows : 1. the suflldency and sole authority of Scripture as the 
rule both of doctrine and polity ; ( 2 ) credible evidence of regeneration and conversion 
as prerequisite to church-membership ; (8 ) immeislon only, as answering to Christ*B 
command of baptism, and to the symbolic meaning of the ordinance ; ( 4 ) the order of 
the ordinances. Baptism, and the Lord's Supper, as of divine appointment, as well as 
the ordinances themselves ; ( 6 ) the right of each member of the church to a voice in its 
government and discipline; (6) each church, while holding fellowship with other 
churches, solely responsible to Christ ; ( 7 ) the freedom of the Individual conscience, 
and the total Independence of ohuroh and state. Hovey In his Bestatement of Denom- 
inational Principles ( Am. Bap. Pub. Society ) gives these principles as follows : 1. the 
supreme authority of the Scriptures in matters of religion ; 2. personal accountability 
to God in religion ; 8. union with Christ essential to salvation ; 4. a new life the only 
evidence of that union ; 5. the new life one of unqualified obedience to Christ. The 
most concise statement of Baptist doctrine and history Is that of Vedder, In Jackson's 
Dictionary of Beliglous Knowledge, 1 : 74-8S. 

With the lax views of Scripture which are becoming common among us there is a 
tendency in our day to lose sight of the transcendent element in the church. Let us 
remember that the churoh is not a humanitarian organization resting upon common 
human brotherhood, but a supernatural body, which traces its descent from the second, 
not the first, Adam, and which manifests the power of the divine Christ. Mazzinl in 
Italy claimed Jesus, but repudiated Ids church. So modem socialists cry : " Liberty, 
Equality, Fraternity," and deny that there Is need of anything more than human unity, 
development, and culture. But God has made the churoh to sit with Christ "in the kwrenly 
fluM " ( IpK S : ). It is the regeneration which comes about through union with Christ 
which constitutes the primary and most essential element in eccleslology. ** We do not 
stand, first of all, for restricted conununion, nor for immersion as the only valid form 
of baptism, nor for any particular theory of Scripture, but rather for a regenerate 
churoh membership. The essence of the gospel is a new life in Christ, of which Chris- 
tian experience is the outworking and Christian consdousness is the witness. Christian 
life is as important as conversion. Faith must show Itself by works. We must seek 
the temporal as well as spiritual salvation of men, and the salvation of society also ** 
(Lelghton Williams). 

B. G. Boblnson : *^ Christ founded a church only proleptlcally. In Hal 18 : 17, UxkiivCa 
Is not used technically. The church Is an outgrowth of the Jewish synagogue, though 
its method and economy are different. There was little or no organization at first. 
Christ himself did not organize the church. This was the work of the apostles after 
Pentecost. The germ however existed before. Three persons may constitute a church, 
and may administer the ordinances. Councils have only advisory authority. Diooesao 
episcopacy Is antisorlptural and antlohrlstlan," 



DEFIHrmOK OF THE CHURCH. 891 

The prindpleB mentioned above are the essential principles of Baptist ohurches, 
although other tx)dies of Christians have come to reoogniie a portion of them. Bodies 
of Christians wlilch refuse to accept these principles we may, in a somewhat loose and 
modified sense, call churches ; but we cannot regard them as churches organized in all 
respects according to Christ's laws* or as completely answering to the New Testament 
model of church organization. We f6Uow common usage when we address a Lieutenant 
Colonel as '* Colonel,'* and a Lieutenant Governor as ** Governor." It is only courtesy 
to speak of pedobaptlst organizations as ** churches," although we do not regard these 
churches as organized in full accordance with Christ's laws as they are indicated to us 
in the New Testament. To refuse thus to recognise them would be a discourtesy like 
that of the British Commander in Chief, when he addressed Cteneral Washington as 
"Mr. Washington." 

As Luther, having ftmnd the doctrine of justification by fiUth, could not recognize 
that doctrine as Christian which taught justification by works, but denounced the 
church which held it as Antichrist, saying, " Here I stand ; I cannot do otherwise, God 
help me," so we, in matters not indifferent, as feet-washing, but vitally airsoting the 
existence of the church, as regenerate church-membership, must stand by the New 
Testament, and refuse to call any other body of Christians a regular church, that is not 
organized according to Christ's laws. The English word* church 'like the Scotch* kirk' 
and the German ' KUrehef* is derived ftom the Greek «vptauc4, and means * belonging to 
the Lord.' The teim itself should teach ns to regard only Chrisfto laws as our rule of 
organization. 

(e) Besides these two signiflotttions of the term 'chnroh,' there are 
properly in the New Testement no others. The word UxX^ia is indeed 
need in Acts 7 : 88 ; 19 : 82, 89; Heb. 2 : 12» to designate a popular assem- 
bly ; but since this is a secular nse of the term, it does not here concern ns. 
In certain passages, as for example AofB 9 : 81 {IkkX^Io, sing., K abo), 
1 Ck)r. 12 :28, PhiL8 : 8, andl Tim. 8 : 15, Ijoc^la appears to be nsed either 
as a generic or as a collectiye term, to denote simply the body of indepen- 
dent local chnrches eTisting in a given region or at a given epoch. But 
since there is no evidence that these churches were bound toge^er in any 
outward organization, this nse of the term kiucXifaia cannot be regarded as 
adding any new sense to those of 'the universal church' and 'the local 
church ' already mentioned. 

Alii 7:88 --''tkA otank [ marg.'oi^inpliaBl in the «IU««**-the whole Ixidy of the p^ 
Israel ; 18 : 88— " tki tmuMj wui^tafukaL **— the tumultuous mob in the theatre at Bphesus ; 
88— *ib TCgttlw iMmlilj'^ 9:8i~"8o tke thonh tknoskflot aU JttlM and Gal^ 
•diiad"; 1 Oor.i2:88— "iad Qed httk Mt mim in tki 8kiink,iRli9ail]«^ieMBd]7 pvph^ 
rkiL8:6— 'utoa0yiviMl,p«Niiii]«lh6 Awok": i fiaL8:i5— "tktt thMi MyHk kMVkownaoagktto 
bahftTt tkiMdT« hi the WW of Gei vUflk ii tka Aonh tftht UTiaf (H tti pUitf uA graad tftto t^ 

In the original uee of the word UKktivim^ as a popular assembly, there was doubtiess an 
allusion to the derivation from U and koA^m, to call out by heriild. Some have held that 
the N. T. term contains an allusion to the ftust that the members of Christ's church are 
called, chosen, elected by God. This, however, is more than doubtful. In common use, 
the term had lost its etymological meaning, and signified merely an assembly, however 
gathered or summoned. The church was never so large that it could not as&jmble. 
The churoii of Jerusalem gathered for the choice of deacons (i«li 8:8, 5X and the church 
of Antioch gathered to hear Paul's account of his missionary Journey ( idi 14 : 87 ). 

It is only by a common figure of rhetoric that many churches are spoken of together 
in the singular number, in such passages as AMi 8:8L We speak generically of * man,' 
meaning the whole race of men ; and of * the horse,' meaning all horses. Gibbon, speak- 
ing of the successive tribes that swept down upon the Boman Empire, uses a noun in 
the singular number, and describes them as ** the several detachments of that immense 
army of northern barbarians,"— yet he does not mean to intimate that these tribes had 
any common government. So we may speak of ** the American college " or ** the Amer- 
ican theological seminary,'* but we do not thereby mean that the colleges or the 
seminaries are bound together by any tie of outward organintion. 

So Paul says that God has set in the church apostles, prophets, and teachers ( i 0«r. it : 
88 X but the word * church ' is only a collective t^rm for the many independent churches. 



892 EOCLESIOLOOT, OB THE DOCfTBIKB OF THE CHUECH. 

In this same ■enae, we may apeak of " the Baptist ohurch *' of New York, or of Amer- 
ica ; but it must be remembered that we use the term without any such impliGation of 
oommoo gOFemmeut aa is involved in the phrases ' the Presbyterian ohuroh,* or * the 
Protestant Episcopal church,* or 'the Boman Oatholic ohuroh' ; with us, in this con- 
nection, the term *' ohuroh * means simply ^ chuxohes.' 

Broadus, in his Oom. on Mat., page 860, suggests that the word immkiiaia in Aflli 9:Sli 
** denotes the original church at Jerusalem, whose members were by the persecution 
widely scattered throughout Judea and Galilee and Samaria, and held meetings where- 
ever they were, but still belonged to the one original organintion. .... When Paul 
wrote to the Gtelatians, nearly twenty years later, these separate meetings had been 
organised into distinct churches, and so he speaks ( 6«L iztt) in reference to that same 
period, of " tht shanhis of iuim vhiol vm is Ohriit" On the meaning of UmXnaia^ see Cremer, 
Lex. N. T., 889 ; Trench, Syn. N. T., 1 : 18 ; Oirdlestone, Syn. O. T., 887 ; Curtis, Progress 
of Baptist Principles, 801; Dexter, OongrefrationaUsm, 86 ; Dagg, Church Order, 100- 
180; Bobinson, N. T. Lex^ nib voce. 

The pzevailing naage of the N. T. gives to the term UkX^Ui the second 
of these two significations. It is this local church only which has definite 
and temporal ezistencey and of this alone we henceforth treat Onr defini- 
tion of the individual church implies the two following particulars : 

A. The churchf like the famity and the state^ is an inttUuHon of 
divine appointment. This is plain : (a) from its relation to the church 
universal, as its concrete embodiment \ (b) itom the &ot that its necessity 
is grounded in the social and religious nature of man ; (c) from the Script^ 
ure, — as for example, Christ's command in Mat. 18 : 17, and the designa- 
tion * church of God,* applied to individual churches ( 1 Ck>r. 1:2). 

President Waybmd: **The universal church comes before the particular church. 
The society which Christ has established is the foundation of every particular associa- 
tion calling itself a church of Christ*' Andrews, in Bib. Sac, Jan. 1888 : 86-48, on the 
conception hutkuvU in the N.T^ says that ''the 'church' is the prius of all local 
' churches.' iKKkifvia in AMi 9 : 81 — the church, so far as represented in those provlncea. 
It is ecumenical-locaU as in i Oar. 10:81 The local church is a microcosm, a specialiaed 
localintion of the universal body. ShD, in the O. T. and in the Targums, means the 
whole congregation of Israel, and then secondarily those local bodies which were parts 
and representations of the whole. Christ, using Aramaic, probably used tVHO in Hat 
18: 17. He took his idea of the church from it, not from the heathen use of the word 
<mAi|vml, which expresses the notion of locality and state much more than Stlp. The 
larger sense of <iecAifvt« is the primary. Local churches are points of consdousness and 
activity for the great all-inclusive unit, and they are not themselves the units for an 
ecclesiastical aggregate. They are faces, not parts of the one church.*' 

Christ, in lai 18 : 17, delegates authority to the whole congregation of believers, and at 
the same time limits authority to the local church. The local church is not an end in 
itself, but exists for the sake of the kingdom. Unity is not to be that of merely locai 
churches, but that of the kingdom, and that kingdom is internal, ''oantth Mt vitii obHrnr 
tlMi'' (lAkt 17: SO), but consists in ''rigklNDiMH and yiMudJ«7 in thtlMjBpi^ The 

word ' church," in the universal sense, is not employed by any other N. T. writer before 
PauL Paul was interested, not simply in Individual conversions, but in the growth of 
the church of Ood, as the body of Christ. He held to the unity of all local churches 
with the mother church at Jerusalem. The ohurch in a dty or in a house is merely a 
local manifestation of the one universal church and derived its dignity therefrom. 
Teaching of the Twelve Apostles: "As this broken bread was scattered upon the 
mountains, and being gathered became one, so may thy church be gathered together 
from the ends of the earth into thy kingdom." 

Babatler, Phllos. Beligion, 92— "The social action of religion springs from its very 
essence. Men of the same religion have no more imperious need than that of praying 
and worshiping together. State police have always failed to confine growing religious 

sects within the sanctuary or the home God, it is said, is the place where spirits 

blend. In rising toward him, man necessarily passes beyond the limits of his own indi- 
viduality. He feels instinctively that the principle of his being is the prindpto of the 



DEFINITION OF THE CHURCH. 893 

Ufe of his brethren also, that that which fflyes him safety must irlre It to all." Botha 
held that, as men reach the full development of their nature and appropriate the per- 
fection of the Savior, the separation between the religious and the moral life will van- 
ish, and the Christian state, as the highest sphere of human life representing all human 
functions, will displace the church. " In proportion as the Savior Christianizes the 
state by means of the church, must the progressive completion of the structure of the 
church prove the cause of its abolition. The decline of the church is not therefore to 
be deplored, but is to be recognised as the consequence of the Independence and com- 
pleteness of the religious life " ( Encyc. Brit., 21 : 2 ). But it might equally be maintained 
that the state, as well as the church, will pass away, when the kingdom of God is fully 
come ; see J«kB 4: Si — "tha koor ooiMth, vhtt Bflftbcr ia this noDstaia, nor in Jmaim, ihall jt vonbip the 
rathff"; lGor.l5:S4— "TkoKNBWlkthAcadiThf&ktihAlI ddiTW&pthe kiagdoBto Ood,0TtiiUM Vathar; vhen 
ktihAlIhaTtAboliikadallnikaadalluthflritytiidpover"; Eit.21:S— ''AaAlBwaotinptothflnla: fortkelord 
6€d tk« ilwgkty, ud the bnbk in ttt tan^te thorail** 

R The church, ufdike the family/ and the state, ia a voUmiary aooiety, 
(a) This results from the fact that the local ohnroh is the outward expres- 
sion of that rational and free life in Christ which characterizes the ohurch 
as a whole. In this it differs from those other organizations of divine 
appointment^ entrance into which is not optional Membership in the 
church is not hereditary or compulsory. ( 6 ) The doctrine of the church, 
as thus defined, is a neceaaary outgrowth of the doctrine of zegeneration. 
As this fnndamentfd spiritual change is mediated not by outward appli- 
ances, but by inward and conscious reception of Christ and his truth, union 
with the church logically follows, not precedes, the soul's spiritual union 
with Christ 

We have seen that the church is the body of Christ. We now perceive that the ohurch 
is, by the impartation to It of Christ's life, made a living body, with duties and powers 
of Its own. A. J. Gk>rdon, Ministry of the Spirit, 68, emphasises the preliminary truth. 
He shows that the definition : The church a voluntary association of believers, united 
together for the purposes of worship and edification. Is most Inadequate, not to say 
Incorrect. It Is no more true than that hands and feet are voluntarily united In the 
human body for the purposes of locomotion and work. The church is formed from 
within. Christ, present by the Holy Ghost, regenerating men by the sovereign action 
of the Spirit, and organizing them Into himself as the living centre, is the only princi- 
ple that can explain the existence of the church. The Head and the body are therefore 
one — one in fact, and one In name. He whom God anointed and filled with the Holy 
Ghost is caUed ''tka (ftriil'W 1 'tha fi: t--''^>nifltmar MiiTtth that Jflm is fk« Chr^ 
and the church which is his body and fulness is also caUed *'tlM Ckiiit*' (1 Oor. 12: it-^all the 
aimbflnorthtbodj,lMlngiian7, anoiubodj; walioiilhtQhriit**). 

Domer Includes under his doctrine of the church: ( 1 ) the genesis of the church, 
through the new birth of the Spirit, or Begeneration ; ( 8 ) the growth and persistence 
of the ohurch through the continuous operation of the Spirit in the means of grace, or 
Bcoleslology proper, as others call it ; ( 8 ) the completion of the church, or Eschatology . 
While this scheme seems designed to favor a theory of baptismal regeneration, we 
must commend Its recognition of the fact that the doctrine of the church grows out of 
the doctrine of regeneration and is determined In its nature by it. If regeneration has 
always conversion for Its obverse side, and if con venlon always Includes faith In Christ, 
it is vain to speak of regeneration without faith. And if union with the church Is 
but the outward expression of a preceding union with Christ which involves regene- 
ration and conversion, then Involuntary ohurch^membershlp is an absurdity, and a 
misrepresentation of the whole method of salvation. 

The value of compulsory religion may be Illustrated from David Hume*s experience. 
A godly matron of the Ganongate, so runs the story, when Hume sank In the mud In 
her vicinity, and on account of his obesity could not get out, compelled the sceptic to 
aay the Lord's Prayer before she would help him. Amos Kendall, on the other hand, 
concluded In his old age that he had not been acting on Christ's plan for saving the 
world, and so, of his own accord, connected himself with the church. Martineau. Study, 
1 : 819— ** Till we oome to the State and the Church, we do not reach the highest oigaa« 



894 BCCLESIOLOOTy Ott tHB DOCTRINS OP THB CHUBOH. 

ism of htmuui life, into the perf ecst worUnff of which all the distaiterasted alteotloiif 
and moral entbusiasma and noble ambitiona flow." 

Sodallam aboliahea freedom, which the ohuroh onltivateB and insiatB upon as the 
principle of its life. Tertullian : " Nee religionia eat cogere reUgionem *' — ** It ia not 
the buaineaB of religion to compel religion.*' Tedder, Hiatory of the Baptiata: "The 
community of gooda In the ohuroh at Jeniaalem waa a purely voluntary matter ; aee 
Afta5:4— •▼U]eitraBdBtd,daditB0linMiitUMOiri7aBdtftvit«Miili,«iiitaoliatljp0ww?* The 
community of gooda doea not seem to have continued in the ohuroh at Jeruaalem 
after the temporary atreaa had been relieved, and there la no reaaon to believe that any 
other ohuroh in the apoatolio age praoUaed anything of the kind.'* By aboliahing 
freedom, aodaUam deatroya all possibility of economical progreaa. The economical 
principle of aocialism is that, relatively to the enjoyment of commoditiea, the individ- 
ual ahall be taken care of by the community, to the effect of hia being relieved of the 
care of himself. Tlie communism in the Acts waa: 1. not for the oonunanlty of 
mankind in general, but only for the ohuroh within itself; 8. not obligatory, but left 
to the discretion of individuals ; 8. not pennanent, but devised for a temporary crisis. 
On socialiam, see James MacGregor, in Preab. and Bef . Bev., Jan. 1808 : 36-418. 

Scfaurman, Agnosticlam, 106— " Few things are of more practical consequence for 
the future of religion in America than the duty of all good men to become identifled 
with the viaible church. Liberal thinkers have, aa a rule, underestimated the value of 
the church. Their point of view la individualistic, * as though a man were author of 
himaelf, and knew no other kin.' * The old ia for alavea,' they declare. But it Is also 
true that the old ia for freedmen who know ita true uaea. It is the bane of the religion 
of dogma that it haa driven many of the choicest religious souls out of the churches. 
In its purification of the temple, it haa lost sight of the object of the temple. The 
church, as an institution, is an organism and embodiment such aa the religion of spirit 
necessarily creates. Spiritual religion la not the enemy, it is the cmouoo, of Institu- 
tional religion." 

n. Oboaiozation of THB Ohdboh. 
1. The Ja/ct of organizcUion, 

Organizatioii may exist without knowledge of writiiig, 'without written 
records, lists of members, or formal choice of officers. These last are the 
proofs, renunders, and helps of organization, but they are not essential to 
it It is however not merely informal, but formal, ozganization in the 
church, to which the New Testament bears witness. 

That there was such organization is abundantiy shown from ( a ) its stated 
meetings, ( 6 ) elections, and ( c ) officers ;(d) from the designations of its 
ministers, together with ( 6 ) the recognized authority of the minister and 
of the church ; (/) from ite discipline, (g) contributions, ( A ) letters of 
commendation, (i) regieiters of widows, (J) uniform oustems^ and {k) 
ordinances ; (I) from the order enjoined and observed, ( m ) the qualifi- 
cations for membership, and ( n ) the common work of the whole body. 

(a) JMilO:7--"^aatlMii«lda7tftk«vMk, vhavs van gii«h««dttgilhwto1v«kte 
Witt tlMm**;lUb.lO:K—''BaifBnddii( MET own UMabliiv tofttkr, m tht mtetfaiMii^ tatohartingflm 



i 



( b ) Aitt 1 :»46~ the election of Matthias ;«: Sk <— the election of deacons, 
(e) Pkil.i:i— "tktMlBtiiaaxtetJ«nithaliniAIUIi||i,iritktkiWihi|iMild«MUL** 

(d) A0li8O:17,l8— **th«tl4n«ftk« flkmk .... ttiflMk,iB vyA ttt Holy Sfirit kiA mda tw Ukop 
[marg.: *0T«Mn*].'* 

(e) lbli8:i7-*'iBiifktnfeMtolMwtt«B,tiU Ittalathiflhinh: aadifktnfteitokMrlhiahnvhalM^ 
M him bt aat0 tkM u tkt tatU* u4 tlM ysUifltt'^ i Pli fi :l^ "tad the flMk tf M vkM U aiHBf 7«^ 
omiiliV tte •rmigh^ Bol «r Miianiil^ iNit vllUi^y, MM^ 

(/)10or.fi:4.i^iS->''iBthtiiuMofmUr4JMBi,7fMairntk«^t«C*t^t*><"7q^ 
«r Mur LvlJfln^ toUiTW fuk aeuuto ftitaa fv tk« diHrwtiea of thifl«k, tlafttl« ipiiit mjUmrti ia tht 

daj tf th« Lord Jahu. .... Pat aw»7 tki viekid nu tmrn UMug jvumXim.** 

(g) Ba&15:M--'*ForlthAihbMntht^pltiau«of]lMidoakaidiehiktOBikaaoK«daMatrik^^ 

tht wr—pagtltiMHithatawatJiniaJim". iOpr. 16;!, I— "MwriMiMfilig tbiwlk<iaifcrthiaMito.^I 



OBGANIZATIOK 6F I'HE CHUBCfl. 696 

|iTt order to tko eliiirgh« of Qtlatb, lo alio do jt. Upon tto Inl d&j of tka wook lot mtk ono of jm Uj by kia ia 
■ton, u ho nay prospar» thik no ooUootioa bo nodo whin I oono." 

(h) iolil8:t7— "And vhon ho vm niadod to pw OTor into Aohik, tho brothra OMoonfod Um, ud wroU to 
tbo diioiploi to rooolTo hiffl " ; B0or.8:l — "irovobogiBaing agunto onuMBdosxiolTOir ornood v^ ai do lono, 
opiiUoi of ooliiiBondatioa to joa or froB 70a ?** 

(i)lTlB.5:9— "UtBmobooBroUodaaavidBwaiidorthxwmrvyiBnold**; df. Aoti 6:1 — *'fhen anna 
■™««i4iig of tbt Srooiaa Jovi against tho Hobrovi, booanao tkoir vidovi wo a^gloolid ia tbo daily aUitntiaB.*' 

(J) 10or.ll:16— "BalifaaynaaiiOBitktoboooBtaitioiiik vo haft no luh foalom, Mithv tboAnnhoiof 
flod.'* 

(h) AeliS:41 — "AiytbMitbat noahod Uiirard von baptind '* ; 1 Oor. il:8M6— "iv I norind ofthi 
lord that vbiob alao I doUfvod anto yoa ** — the institution of the Lord*8 Supper. 

(I) 1 CQr.l4:40~"Iot all tUagi bo dons dooatly and ia ordor"; 0oL8:S— "For thoof h I aa aknat la tha 
dMh, yot am I with yoa ia tho iplrit, joylBf aad boboldii« yoar ordor. aad tbo itodftstBoai of yoor flUtk ia (%ri^ 

(m) Xat 28:19— "flo yo thonflmb and aiako diariyloo of all tho Batun% baptiaac tbm iato tboaaaoof tho 
Patkor aad of the Boaaad of tho Idy Spirit*'; iflli 8:47— *'iadtho Lord addod to tkfli day by day Oois that vm 
boiagaaTod.'* 

(n) Pha8:80— •*bodaaaofotkovark«f(iiiatba«nMBigh«Btodiaft,haMifiBKkiihfctoflippiy«hakvhiflh 
VB8 laoUag la yaoriorTioo toward BMk" 

As indicatiye of a developed organization in the N. T. ohnrohy of which 
only the germ existed before Christ's death, it is important to notice the 
progrress in names from the €k)6pels to the Epistles, In the Gk)spels» the 
word " disciples '* is the common designation of Christ's followers, but it is 
not once found in the Epistles. In the Epistles, there are only ** saints," 
** brethren," '* churches. " A consideration of the focts here referred to is 
sufficient to evince the unscriptural nature of two modem theories of the 
ohurch : 

A. The theory that the church is an ezdusiTely spizitoal body, destitute 
of all formal organization, and bound together only hy the mutual relation 
of each believer to his indwelling Lord. 

The church, upon this view, so far as outward bonds are concerned, is 
only an aggregation of isolated units. Those believers who chance to 
gather at a particular place, or to live at a particular time, constitute the 
church of that place or time. This view is held by the Friends and by the 
Plymouth Brethren. It ignores the tendencies to organization inherent in 
human nature; confounds the visible with the invisible church ; and ia 
directly opposed to the Scripture representations of the visible church as 
comprehending some who are not truebeUevers. 

Aola 5: 1-11— Ananias and Sapphlra show that the visible ohurch comprehended some 
who were not true believers; 10or.i4:88— "If thsrdbn tho vhelo ohnnh bo aaaomblid togothor aad aU 
ipoak vithtoBgui^aBdthoraooBioiaaMaaaloanMdor aaboUoTiag^ will th^aotaay thatyoannad?"— here, 
if the ohuroh had been an unorganised assembly, the unlearned visitors who oame in 
would have formed a part of It ; PhiL 8 :18— "Por aaay valk, of vhoia I told jn ofUa, and aov tall 
yoB oToa woopiag^ that thay an tho oaaaioa of tho crMi of Ohiiat** 

Some years ago a book was placed upon the Index, at Rome, entitled : ** The Priest- 
hood a Chronic Disorder of the Human Baoe.*' The Plymouth Brethren dislike church 
organizations, for fear they will become machines ; they dislike ordained ministers, for 
fear they will become bishops. They object to praying for the Holy Spirit, because he 
was given on Pentecost, ignoring the fttct that the ohurch after Pentecost so prayed : 
BeeA«ta4:81— "Aadvbtathoyhadpnyod, tho plaoa vu ahakia vhoniathoyamgathaodtogtthv; aadthoy 
van all Iliad vith tho Holy Spirit aad they qako tho voi4 of MvUhboMBM.** What we caU a giving or 
descent of the Holy Spirit is, since the Holy Spirit is omnipresent, only a manifestation 
of the power of the Holy Spirit, and this certainly may be prayed for ; see Lako 11 :18 — 
"If yo thoa, bolBf ovil, kaov hov to giro good gifta talo yovr ohildna, hov auiah bmn Aall yw batTaily Plithv 
gin tho Ifily Spirit to thorn that aak hia ? " 

The Plymouth Brethren would '* unite Christeodom by Its dismemberment, and do 
away with aU sects by the creation of a new 8eot» more narrow and bitter in Its hostility 



896 BCGLK8I0L00T, OR THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHUROH. 

to exHsOng sects than aay other." Yet the tendency to organise Js so strong in human 
nature, that even Plymouth Brethren, when they meet refpilariy together, Call into an 
informal, if not a formal, organiaatlon ; certain teachers and leaders are tadtly reoog- 
niaed as officers of the body ; committees and rules are unconsciously used for flioilitat- 
ing business. Even one of their own writers, C H. M., speaks of the " natural tendency 
to associatiOD without Ood, — as in the Shinar Association or Babel Oonf ederaoy of G«a. 
11, which aimed at building up a name upon the earth. The Christian church is God's 
appointed association to take the place of all these. Hence God conf oundsthe tongues 
in G«.ll( judgment); gives tongues in Aolit( grace); but only one tongue is spoken in 
Bw. 7 (glory)." 

The Nation, Oct. 18, 1800:806— '* Every body of men must have one or more leaden. 
If these are not provided, they wlU make them for themselves. You cannot get fifty 
men together, at least of the Anglo-Saxon race, without their choosing a presiding 
officer and giving him power to enforce rules and order." Even socialists and anar- 
chists have their leaders, who often exercise arbitrary power and oppress their fol- 
lowers. Lyman Abbott says nobly of the community of true beUevers : *' The grandest 
river in the world has no banks ; it rises in the Gulf of Mexico ; it sweeps up through 
the Atlantic Ocean along our coast; it crosses the Atlantic, and spreads out in great 
broad fanlike form along the coast of Europe ; and whatever land it kisaes blooms and 
blossoms with the fruit of its love. The apricot and the fig are the witneoB of its fertil- 
izing power. It is bound together by the warmth of its own particles, and by nothing 
else." This is a good illustration of the invisible church, and of Its course through 
the world. But the visible church is bound to be distinguishable from unregenerate 
humanity, and its inner principle of asBodation inevitably leads to organization. 

Dr. Wm. Held, Plymouth Brethrenism UnveUed, 79-148, attributes to the sect the 
following Church-principles: (1) the church did not exist before Pentecost; (8) the 
visible and the Invisible church Identical; (8) the one assembly of God ; (4) the presi- 
dency of the Holy Spirit ; ( 6 ) rejection of a one-man and man-made ministry ; ( 6 ) the 
church is without government. Also the following heresies : ( 1 ) Christ's heavenly 
humanity ; (9) denial of Christ's righteousness, as being obedience to law ; ( 8) denial 
that Christ's righteousness Is Imputed ; ( 4 ) Justification in the risen Christ ; ( 6 ) Christ's 
non-atoning sufferings ; (6) denial of moral law as rule of life; (7) the Lord's day is 
not the Sabbath; (8) perfectionism; (0) secretraptureof the saints,— caught up to be 
with Christ. To these we may add ; ( 10 ) premlllenlal advent of Christ 

On the Plymouth Brethem and their doctrine, see British Quar., Oct 1878: 800; 
Princeton Bev., 1872:48-77 ; H. M. King, In Baptist Review, 1881 : 488-486 ; Fish, Ecdeei- 
ology, 814-818; Dagg, Church Order, 80-88; R. H. Canon, The Brethren, 8-14; J. C. L. 
Carson, The Heresies of the Plymouth Brethren; Croskery, Plymouth Brethrenism; 
Teulon, Hist and Teachings of Plymouth Brethren. 

B. The theory that the form of ohmoh organization is not definitely 
prescribed in the New Testament, but is a matter of expediency, each body 
of believers being i>ermitted to adopt that method of organization which 
best snits its dxcamstances and condition. 

The view under consideration seems in some respects to be favored by 

Neander, and is often regarded as incidental to his larger conception of 

church history as a progressiye development. Bat a proper theory of 

development does not exolnde the idea of a ohnroh organization already 

complete in all essential particulars before the dose of the inspired canon, 

so that the record of it may constitute a providential example of binding 

authority upon all subsequent ages. The view mentioned exaggerates the 

differences of practice among the N. T. churches ; underestimates the need 

of divine direction as to methods of church union ; and admits a principle 

of 'church powers,' which may be historically shown to be subversive of 

the very existence of the church as a spiritual body. 

Dr. Oalusha Anderson finds the theory of optional church government in Hooker's 
BcdesiaBtioal Polity, and says that not untU Bishop Bancroft was there claimed a 
divine right of Episcopacy. Hunt, also. In his Bellglous Thought In England, 1 : 57, sajrs 
that Hooker gives up the divine origin of Episcopacy. So Jacob, BcoL Polity of the 



OBGANIZATIOK OF THB CHUBCH. 897 

N. T.| and Hfttoh, Org«nintion of Barly Christian Churobee, — both Jaoob and Hatch 
lielonfflnff to the Church of Bngland. Hooker identified the church with the natioo ; 
aee Bod. Polity, book yiii« chap. 1 : 7 ; 4 : ; 8 : 9. He held that the state has committed 
itself to the church, and that therefore the church has no right to commit itself to the 
state. The assumption, however, that the state has committed Itself to the church is 
entirely unwarranted ; see GK>re, Incarnation, 209, 21QL Hooker declares that, eyen if 
the Bpisoopalian order were laid down in Scripture, which he denies, it would still not 
be unalterable, since neither " Ood*s being the author of laws for the government of 
hii ofaurdh, nor his oommitting them unto Scripture, is any reason sufficient wherefore 
all churches should forever be bound to keep them without change.** 

T. M. Lindsay, in Contemp. Bev., Oct lfl96 : 648-AI8, asserts that there were at least five 
diftarent forms of diuxoh government In apostolic times: L derived from the seven 
wise men of the Hebrew village oommunity, representing the political side of the 
synagogue system ; S. derived from the 4«t9c6«oc, the director of the religious or social 
club among the heathen Greeks ; 8. derived from the patronate ( vpo<rrinfc, wftoivr^tvot ) 
known among the 'R^"»ft"'s the churches of Borne, Corinth, Thessalonica, being of this 
sort : 4. derived from the personal preeminence of one man, nearest tai family to our 
Iiord, James being president of the church at Jerusalem ; 6. derived from temporary 
superintendents (ih^ifiMvoi), or leaders of the band of missionaries, as in Crete and 
Bphesus. Between all these churches of different polities, there was intercommuni- 
cation and fellowship. Undsay holds that the unity was wholly spirituaL It seems to 
us that he has succeeded merely in proving five different varieties of one generic type 
—the generic type being only democratic, with two orders of officials, and two ordi- 
nances — in other words, in showing that the simple N. T. model adopts itself to many 
changing conditions, while the main outlines do not change. Upon any other theory, 
church polity is a matter of individual taste or of temporary fashion. Shall mission- 
aries conform church order to the degraded ideas of the nations among which they 
labor? Shall church government be despotic in Turkey, a limited monarchy in Bng- 
land, a democracy in the United States of America, and two-headed In Japan? For 
the development theory of Neander, see his Church History, 1 : 179-190. On the general 
subject, see Hitchcock, in Am. TheoL Bev^ 1860:28-M; Davidson, Bed. Polity, 1-48 ; 
Harvey, The Church. 

2. IT^e nature of this organization. 

The nataie of an j organization may be determined by aaking, first : who 
oonatitate its members ? secondly : for what object has it been formed ? 
and, thirdly : what are the laws which regolate its operations ? 

The three questions with which our treatment of the nature of this organization 
begins are furnished us by Pres. Wayland, in his Principles and Practices of Baptists. 

A. They only can properly be members of the local chnrohy who have 
previonsly become members of the dhnzoh nmyersal« — or, in other words, 
have become regenerate persona. 

Only those who have been previously united to Christ are, in the New Testament, 
permitted to unite with his church. See isli 8:47— ** And tke lai4 added to thai daj bydaytkoN 
that vinMas«Tid[ Am. Bey.: 'ikm tkal ww «T«d']"; 5:14 — ''and teOmn wm tktnonaddadto 
tka Urd '*; 1 Oar. i : B -. "tha dhanh of Qod wUok ia aft Ooijatli. am tkiB tbt an iiiMliflad in C^ 
U aain^ vitk aU tka aaU vpan tb aaM of OBT I«d JaaoB (hriit is araiy ylaM^ thair lord aad 00^^ 



From this limitation of membership to regenerate persons, certain 
results follow : 

( a ) Since each member bears sapreme allegiance to Ohrist, the ohnroh 
as a body must recognize Ohrist as the only lawgiver. The relation of the 
individnal Christian to the dharoh does not sapersede, but furthers and 
expresses, his relation to Christ 

1 Jala 8 : so— '* Aad 71 kafi as aasiallif frn tka K0I7 (hMb aad jt katv all tUi^ ** — see Neander, Com., 
in Z060 — '* No believer is at liberty to forego this maturity and personal independenoo, 
bestowed in that Inward anointing [ of the Holy Spirit ], or to place himself in a depend- 
ent relation, inoonsifltent with this birthright, to any teacher whatever among men. 
67 



898 EGCLBSIOLOQT^ OR THB DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH. 

.... This Inward aoointinflr fumisheB an element of resistanoe to tuoh arrogated 
authority.** Here we have reproved the tendency on the part of ministen to take the 
place of the church. In Christian work and worship, instead of leadinir it forward in 
work and worship of its own. The miasionary who keeps his converts in prolonged 
and unnecessary tutehige is also untrue to the church organization of the New Testa- 
ment and untrue to Christ whose aim in church training is to educate his followers to 
the bearing of responsibility and the use of liberty. Maoaulay : *' The only remedy for 
the evils of Uberty is Uberty.** " Bialo perlouloeam Ubertatem '*— '' Liberty is to be pre- 
ferred with all its dangers.'* Edwin Burritt Smith : ** There is one thing better than 
good government, and that is self-government.*' By their own mistakes, a self-govern- 
ing people and a self-governing church will Anally secure good government, whereas 
the **good government'* which keeps them in perpetual tutelage will make good 
government forever impossible. 

Ffe.l44:ll— '*aiiritiifih»UbtMptaatigmrBiipintlwlr7«slk" Archdeacon Hare : '*IfagenUe- 
man is to grow up, it must be like a tree : there must be nothing between him and 
heaven." What is true of the gentleman is true of the Christian. There need to be 
encouraged and cultivated in him an independence of human authority and a sole 
dependence upon Christ. The most sacred duty of the minister is to make his church 
self-governing and self-supporting, and the best test of his success is the ability of the 
church to live and prosper after he has left it or after he is dead. Such ministerial 
work requires self -saoriiice and self-eiraoement. The natural tendency of every min- 
ister is to usurp authority and to become a bishop. He has in him an undeveloped 
pope. Dependence on his people for support curbs this arrogant spirit. A church 
establishment fosters it. The remedy both for slavishneas and for arrogance lies in 
constant recognition of Christ as the only Lord. 

(6) Since eaoh regeneiate man reoognizoB in everj other a brother in 
Christy the several members are npon a footing of absolute equality ( Mat 
23:8-10). 



lUiS8:ft-iO— ''BallMBolytaiUtdBabU: ferauiiTovtiMhff.aadtUytuvbnlkrM. ABdoJlae 
7Mirftthffoiitht«urth: Cdt «im if your Pitktr, tfn ht who ii in kMTOi'*; JohalSiS— "luntteTini, jtantkt 
bnoflhM"— no one branch of the vine outranks another; one may be more advanta- 
geously situated, more ample in size, more fruitful ; but all are alike in kind, draw 
vitality from one source. Among the planets " ou itar iHwA fron ta/Atr ilir in gkry " ( i Oor. 
15 : 41), yet all shine in the same heaven, and draw their light from the same sun . " The 
serving-man may know more of the mind of Gk>d than the scholar." Christianity has 
therefore been the foe to heathen castes. The Japanese noble objected to it, ** because 
the brotherhood of man was incompatible with proper reverence for rank." There can 
be no rightful human lordship over God's heritage ( 1 P«t S :8 — " adthar m loriiag it ofw tk« 
flharg* allotlad to yam, bat maidag Toondfii omai^ai to tht flock " ). 

Constantino thought more highly of his position as member of Christ's church than 
of his position as head of the Roman BSmpire. Neither the church nor its pastor should 
be dependent upon the unregenerate members of the congreftation. Many a pastor is 
in the position of a lion tamer with his head in the lion's moutb. So long as he strokes 
the fur the right way, all goes well ; but, if by accident he strokes the wrong way, off 
goes his head. Dependence upon the spiritual body which he instructs is compatible 
with the pastor's dignity and faithfulness. But dependence upon those who are not 
Christians and who seek to manage the church with worldly motives and In a worldly 
way, may utterly destroy the spiritual effect of his ministry. The pastor is bound to 
be the impartial preacher of the truth, and to treat each member of his church as of 
equal importance with every other. 

(c) Since each local chnroh is direotly sabjeot to Ohrist^ there is no 
jurifldiction of one church over another, but all are on an equal footing, 
and all are independent of interference or control by the civil power. 

]bi22:81— *Rad«thmAniuitoOaitfthtthiiigitkilM«(hMw'i: ud unto God thttUagitkaftm Ood'i"; 
Aoti 5:28— "Wo mut obey Qod nthor than Ma." As each believer has personal dealings with 
Christ and for even the pastor to come between him and his Lord is treachery to Christ 
and harmful to his soul, so much more does the New Testament condemn any attempt 
to bring the church into subjection to any other church or combination of churches, 
or to make the church the creature of the state. Absolute liberty of conscience under 



ORGAKIZATIOK OF THE CHURCH. 899 

Christ has always been a diatingiiisbinfir tenet of Baptists, as it is of the New Testament 
(c/. lUniL 14:4— *'¥bo art tkoti thai Jiidgwt the MTTMt of uotber? to his own l«d h« standsth or ftlleth. Tot, ho 
■hall be aada to iland ; for tho krd hath povw to nako him stud" ). John Looke, 100 years before 
American independence : ** The Baptists were the first and only propounders of abso- 
lute liberty. Just and true liberty, equal and impartial liberty.'* Qeorge Bancroft says 
of Roger Williams : '* He was the first person in modem Christendom to assert the 
doctrine of liberty of conscience in religion. .... Freedom of consdenoe was from 
the first a trophy of the Baptists. .... Their history is written in blood.** 

On Roger Williams, see John Fiske^ The Beginnings of New England: *^Such views 
are to-day quite generally adopted by the more civilised portions of the Protestant 
world ; but it is needless to say that they were not the views of the sixteenth century. 
In Massachusetts or elsewhere." Cotton Mather said that Roger Williams ** carried a 
windmill in his head,*' and even John Quincy Adams called him ** conscientiously con- 
tentious." Cotton Mather's windmill was one that he remembered or had heard of in 
Holland. It had run so fast in a gale as to set itself and a whole town on fire. Leonard 
Bacon, Genesis of the New England Churches, vil, says of Baptist churches : **It has 
been claimed for these churches that from the age of the Reformation onward they 
have been always foremost and always consistent in maintaining the doctrine of relig- 
ious liberty. Let me not be understood as calling in question their right to so great an 
honor.'* 

Baptists hold that the province of the state is purely secular and dvil,— religious 
matters are beyond its Jurisdiction. Yet for economic reasons and to ensure its own 
preservation, it nuty guarantee to its citizens their religious rights, and may exempt 
all churches equally f^m burdens of taxation, in the same way in which it exempts 
schools and hospitals. The state has holidays, but no holy days. Hall Caine, in The 
Christian, calls the state, not the pillar of the church, but the caterpillar, that eats the 
vitals out of it. It is this, when it transcends its sphere and compels or forbids any 
particular form of religious teaching. On the charge that Roman Catholics were 
deprived of equal rights in Rhode Island, see Am. Cath. Quar. Rev., Jan. 1804 : 100-177. 
This restriction was not in the original law, but was a note added by revisers, to bring 
the state law into conformity with the law of the mother country, lira 8: 23— ''I waa 
ashaBodtoftskofthokiiigataaodofioldisnaiidhonaBin .... booaoM . . .-. Tho hand of oar God is upon all thorn 
that aook hiB, far good "—is a model for the churches of every age. The church as an organ- 
ized body should be ashamed to depend for revenue upon the state, although its mem- 
bers as citizens may Justly demand that the state protect them in their rights of 
worship. On State and Church in UOSand 189S, see A. H. Strong, Christ in Creation, 
SOO-240, esp. 230-841. On taxation of church property, and opposing it, see H. C. Yedder, 
in Magazine of Christian Literature, Feb. 1800 : 266-0ni. 

B. The sole object of the local church is the glory of Qod, in the com- 
plete establishment of his kingdom, both in the hearts of believers and in 
the world. This object is to be promoted : 

(a) By united worship, — induding prayer and religious instruction; 
(6) by mutual watohcare and exhortation ; ( c) by common labors for the 
reclamation of the impenitent world. 

(a ) lob. 10:25— "not finskiag oar ova ssi— Wing togtthsr, utho ooalaBi of sono is, but oxhorting obo aaothsr.** 
One burning coal by itself will soon grow dull and go out, but a hundred together will 
give a fury of flame that will set fire to others. Kotice the value of " the crowd *' in 
politics and in religion. One may get an education without groing to school or college, 
and may cultivate religion apart flrom the church ; but the number of such people will 
be small, and they do not choose the best way to become intelligent or religious. 

(b) iThiH.5:ii— "Whanfops tihort ono asothw, and bniU oaoh otkor op, ot«b u alao 70 do *' ; Iob.8:i8— 
"Kihort OM anothor daj bj day, so long as it is oallod To-daj; lort asy ono of 70a bo hardsasd by tks doooitfiUsoss of 
sis." Churches exist in order to : 1. create ideals; 8. supply motives ; 8. direct ener- 
gies. They are the leaven hidden in the three measures of meal. But there must be 
life in the leaven, or no good will come of it. There is no use of taking to China a lamp 
that will not bum in America. The light that shines the furthest shines brightest 
nearest home. 

(c) Vat 28: 19— "Go yo thavftn* aod nako disdplos of aU tho aatloBS *' ; isti8:4— "Aoy th«fflirBthat«wi 
■oatlarod abroad woDt aboat proachiBg thovord"; 8 0or.8:S— "and this, not sa wo had hopod, bst 8rat thoy gavt 
thiir ows solTOi to tho Loid, asd to «a thnmcb tha vill of God" ; JvdaSS— "ABdoafSBahaTtMny, vkoanla 



900 BOCLBSIOLOGY, OR THB DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH. 



doabt ; and nttw wKn, wuiiAof thai oat of th« fln." iDflcribed ui>oa a mural tablet of a Christian 
church, in Aneityum in the South Seas, to the memory of Dr. John Geddie, the pioneer 
miadonary in that Held, are the words: ** When he came here, there were no Chris* 
tians; when he went away, there were no heathen.*' Inscription over the grave of 
David Livingstone in Westminster Abbey : " For thirty years his life was spent in an 
unwearied effort to evangeUae the native races, to explore the undiscovered secrets, to 
abolish the desolating slave trade of Central Africa, where with his last words he 
wrote : * All I can add in my solitude is, May Heaven's richest bleaslng come down on 
everyone, American, Kngltsh or Turk, who will help to heal this open sore of the 
world.' " 

0. The law of the dhnroh is simply the will of Ohiist^ as expressed in 
the Soriptares and interpreted b j the Holy Spirit This law respects : 

(a) The qnalifioations for membership. — These are regeneration and 
baptism, i. e., spiritual new birth and ritual new birth ; the surrender of 
the inward and of the outward life to Ohrist ; the spiritoal entrance into 
communion with Ghrisfc's death and resorreotion, and the formal profession 
of this to the world by being buried with Ohrist and rising with him in 
baptism. 

( 6 ) The duties imposed on members. — In disoovering the will of Christ 
from the Scriptures, each member has the right of private judgment, being 
directly responsible to Christ for his use of the means of knowledge, and 
for his obedience to Christ's commands when these are known. 

How tax does the authority of the church extend 7 It certainly has no right to say 
what its members shall eat and drink; to what societtes they shall belong; what 
alliances in marriage or in buslnesB they shall contract. It has no right, as an organ- 
ized body, to suppress vice in the community, or to regenerate society by taking sides 
in a political canvass. The members of the church, as dtizens, have duties In all these 
lines of activity. The function of the church is to give them religious preparation and 
stimulus for their work. In this sense, however, the church is to influence all human 
relations. It follows the model of the Jewish commonwealth rather than that of the 
Greek state. The Greek irdXtc was limited, because it was the affirmation of only per^ 
sonal rights. The Jewish commonwealth was universal, because it was the embodiment 
of the one divine wiU. The Jewish state was the most comprehensive of the ancient 
world, admitting freely the incorporation of new members, and looking forward to a 
worldwide religious communion in one faith. So the Romans gave to conquered lands 
the protection and the rights of Rome. But the Christian church is the best example 
of incorporation in conquest. See Westcott, Hebrews, 886, 887 ; John Fiske, Beginnings 
of New England, 1-80 ; Dagg, Church Order, 74-90 ; Curtis on Communion, 1-81. 

Abraham Lincoln : " This country cannot be half slave and half free * vthe one part 
will pull the other over ; there is an irrepressible conflict between them. So with the 
forces of Christ and of Antichrist in the world at large. Alexander Duff : ^ The church 
that ceases to be evangelistic will soon cease to be evangelical." We may add that the 
church that ceases to be evangelical will soon cease to exist. The Fathers of New 
England proposed ** to advance the gospel in these remote parts of the world, even if 
they should be but as stepping-stones to those who were to follow them." They little 
foresaw how their faith and learning would give character to the great West. Church 
and school went together. Christ alone is the Savior of the world, but Christ alone 
cannot save the world. Zinzendorf called his society **The Mustard-seed Sodety" 
because it should remove moimtains ( VU. 17 : 20 ). Hermann, Faith and Morals, 0L, 888— 
'* It is not by means of things that pretend to be Imperishable that Christianity con- 
tinues to live on ; but by the fact that there are always persons to be found who, by 
their contact with the Bible traditions, become witnesses to the personality of Jesus 
and follow him as their guide, and therefore acquire sufficient courage to saoriflce 
themselves for others." 

8. The genesis of this organieaHon, 

(a) The ohuroh existed in germ before the day of Fenteoost^ — otherwise 
there would have been nothing to which those oonverted upon that di^ 



OBGAKIZATION OF THE CHURCH. 901 

ooald have been "added" (Acts 2 : 47). Among the aposdee, regenerate 
as tbej were, united to Christ bj faith and in that faith baptized (Acts 19 : 
4 )f under Christ's instmotion and engaged in common work for him, there 
were already the beginnings of organization. There was a treasurer of the 
body (John 18 : 29), and as a body they celebrated for the first time the 
Lord's Supper (Mat. 26 : 26-29 ). To all intents and purposes they consti- 
tuted a church, although the church was not yet fuUy equipped for its work 
by the outpouring of the Spirit ( Acts 2 ) , and by the appointment of pastors 
and deacons. The church eziBted without officers, as in the first days suc- 
ceeding Pentecost 

A«liS:47— "AadttekriaddadtotkamCnuuv.: 'logftkr'] daybydAytkflMlkatvwilMiagmTtd'*; 19:4 
— ' And FUd mU, J«to li^liiad wilk tka Itptim of npiBt^ 

that *o«ld MM Ate Uai, tka i% on Jmob *^ John 18 : »— ''1^ MBS tknf kt, beoun Jodu had Iht bi«, ^ 
Mid uto kin, Bay vbAllhiflgi V* kart OMd of te the teil ; or, that h* akooU {Ito nmotkisf to tkapoor" ; lat 

l6:l5-»^'ABdaatk7 von oatiag^Jona took hiMd aad ka gtva to tho diaaipkB, and laid, Ikka^ oat 

AidkotMkainp^aadgaTotkaaki,aBdgft?ototka,M7i]ig.Oriik7oaUQrit'*; lota S— the Holy Spirit is 
poured out It ii to be remembered that Christ himeelf is the embodied union between 
Ood and man, the true temple of God's Indwelling. So soon aa the first believer Joined 
himself to Christ, the ohuroh existed in miniature and germ. 

A. J. Gordon, Ministry of the Spirit, 66, quotes ioliB:4i— "aad tkm mn addid,** not to 
them, or to the ohuroh, but, as in iota 6: li and 11:84— "to tko Lvd." This, Dr. Gordon 
declares, means not a mutual union of believers, but their divine ootlnlting with Christ ; 
not voluntary association of Christians, but their sovereign inoorporation into the 
Head, and this inoorporation effected by the Head, throujrh the Holy Spirit. The old 
proverb, *^Tre8 fadunt eodeslam,** is always true when one of the three is Jesus ( Dr. 
Deems ). Cyprian was wrong when he said that ** he who has not the ohuroh for his 
mother, has not God for his Father ** ; for this could not account for the conversion of 
the first Christian, and it makes salvation dependent upon the church rather than upon 
Christ. The Cambridge Platform, 1648, chapter 6, makes officers essential, not to the 
being, but only to the well being, of churches, and deolares that elders and deacons 
are the only ordinary officers ; see Dexter, Congregationalism, 430. 

Fish, Bodesiology, 14-11, by a striking analogy, distinguishes three periods of the 
church's life: (1) the pre-natal period, in which the church is not separated from 
Christ's bodily presence; (2) the period of childhood, in which the church is under 
tutelage, preparing for an independent life; (8) the period of maturity, in which the 
church, equipped with doctrines and officers, is ready for setf-govemment. The three 
periods may be likened to bud, blossom, and fruit. Before Christ's death, the ohuroh 
existed in bud only. 

(6) That provision for these offices was made gradually as exigencies 
arose, is natural when we consider that the church immediatdy after Ohrist's 
ascension was under the tutelage of inspired apostles, and was to be pre- 
pared, by a process of education, for independence and self-government. 
As doctrine was communicated gradually yet infallibly, through the oral 
and written teaching of the apostles, so we are warranted in beUeving that 
the church was gradually but infallibly guided to the adoption of Christ's 
own plan of church organization and of Christian work. The same promise 
of the Spirit which renders the New Testament an unerring and sufficient 
rule of faith, renders it also an unerring and sufficient rule of practice, for 
the church in all places and times. 

Ms 16:11-M is to be interpreted as a promise of gradual leading by the Spirit into all 
the truth; i0or.l4:37— "tko tUagivkitk Ivritounoyoa . . . . tkoj an tko ooamaBdnonli of tko Lad." 
An examination of Paul's epistles in their chronological order shows a progreis in deft- 
niteness of teaching with regard to church polity, as well as with regard to doctrine In 
generaL In this matter, as in other matters, apostolic instruction was given as provl- 
dSQtial ezigenoies demanded it. In the earliest days of the ohnreh, attentloa was paid 



902 SCCLESIOLOaTy OB THB DOOTBINB OF THB CHUBCH. 

to ptetiehing nther than to orgmDhtLtkon, Like Luther, Paul thought more of ohuroh 
order in his later days than at the beginning of his work. Yet even in his lint epiitle 
we find the germ which is afterwards continuously developed. See : 

(l)iniK5:lAt8(A.D.5e}~*BatwtbMMAjoa,brftknB,tok]iow1teHthrtlateiMnf j^ 
fnryaa («poi9T«M4v«v«) iath0Url,«BdadiMaiiljN; tad to M J iia thm. w i mdh n higMy is low far ttdr 

(8) iOar.ll:» ( A. D.67)— *'iid Qod katt Ml hm ii tks ttank.iiiki98ittai,M6iadlyfnfli^1k^ 
tiMhn^ tkia BinaK tkn gifli of kotUigi, Myi [ «mAi^«ic* gifts needed by deacons], gofwUMSti 
[ cv^pn^ctc » gifts needed by psstors ], irmt kiaif of tasgim** 

(8)B«m.ll:M ( A. D.68)— "And kavii« gifti diflMig MO»diagtotkoKnMtkrtiigifnto«% wMte 
pfBffcwy, kiwi profhwyiooMndiag lotto pwportka of owfaitk; or Biaiiky [ <iMovMy ], M u giTo oandtv to 
ovadidilry; or ko ttil toookott, lo kii tooijii^; orhottrtoxkoi1ilk,loUioikrtiif : ko Ikol giTiUi, kl kia do il 
vitt UkmUty; ko ttrt raktt [ i vpoiiTTafMMf ], Witt diUgOBoo; ko tta Aovott amj, Witt flkoirfk^ 

(4) PkiLi:! ( A. I).6S)-"kaloai1iaMtt7.iffmtiorJoMa()krifl,loaUtkowitimGkRilJonittiftin 
il Fkilippi, witt tko biikopo [ cvivic«voi.v, marg. : 'oTHBoen ' ] oad duflwii [Aiax^poic ]." 

(5) lpk.4:ll (A.D.<l3)-*'AidkogaToooBotoboapoiUio;Mdosn^|npkoli;oBdiOB%ofBagoUili;aBl 
omo, poilon and tooekon [ woiiiipot «cat dt3ao'««Aow ]." 

(6)lTi&8:l.t(A. D.66) — "IfoBUiiookott tko oioo of a Uikop, ko dvintt a good work. TkoUAoy 
[ rkr iwi9Kowo¥ ] tkmlbro Boil bo wittoQl ropnoflk." On this last passage, Huther in Meyer's Oom 
remarks : ^* Paul in the beginning looked at the church in its unity, — only gradually 
does he make prominent its leaders. We must not infer that the churches in earlier 
time were without leadership, but only that in the later time circumstances were such 
as to require him to lay emphasis upon the pastor's office and work." See also Schaff, 
Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, ttB-75. 

MoOiflert, in his Apostolic Church, puts the dates of Paul's Bpistles considerably 
earlier, as for example: i Ikon, dro. 48; 1 Oor^ a 61JB; Hoil, 6S, 68; FklL, 86-68; Ipk^ 68,68, 
or 66-68 ; 1 TIh^ 56-68. But even before the earliest Bpistles of Paul comes JaMi 6 : 14— " b 
^jaMBgyoBiiokriolkiBoallfbrtkooMonof Iko okirak " — written about 48 A. D., and showing 
that within twenty years after the death of our Lord there had grown up a very defi- 
nite form of ohuroh organisation. 

On the question how ftur our Lord and his apostles, in the organlation of the church, 
availed themselves of the synagogue as a model, see Neander, Planting and Training, 
28-84. The ministry of the church is without doubt an outgrowth and adaptation of the 
eldership of the synagogue. In the synagogue, there were elders who gave themselves 
to the study and expounding of the Scriptures. The ssmagogues held united prayer, 
and ezerdsed discipline. They were democratic in government, and Independent of 
each other. It has sometimes been said that election of officers by the membership of 
the church came from the Greek ixKk^vU^ or popular assembly. But Bdersheim, Life 
and Times of Jesus the Messiah, 1 :488i says of the elders of the synagogue that ** their 
election depended on the choice of the congregation." Talmud, Beraohob, 66 a ; ** No 
ruler is appointed over a congregation, unless the congregation is consulted." 

(0 ) Any nnmber of beHeyerB, therefore, may oonstitate theniBelves into 
a Ohristian ohuroh, by adopting for their role of faith and praotioe Christ's 
law as hiid down in the New Testament, and by associating themselves 
together, in aocordanoe with it, for his worship and service. It is impor- 
tant, where practicable, that a council of churches be previously called, to 
advise the brethren proposing this union as to the desirableness of consti- 
tuting a new and distinct local body ; and, if it be found desirable, to 
recognize them, after its formation, as being a church of Christ But such 
action of a council, however valuable as affording ground for the fellowship 
of other churches, is not constitutive, but is simply declaratory; and, 
without such action, the body of beHevers alluded to, if formed after the 
N. T. example, may notwithstanding be a true church of Christ Still 
further, a band of converts, among the heathen or providentially precluded 
from access to existing churches, might rightfully appoint one of their 
number to baptize the rest, and then might organize^ de nova, a New 
Testament dhuioh. 



G07EBKMENT OF THE GHUBOH. 903 

The churoh at Antlooh was apparently aelf-oreated and self -directed. There Is no 
evidence that any human authority, outside of the converts there, was invoked to 
constitute or to organize the church. As John Spillsbury put it about 1610 : ** Where 
there is a beginning, some must be iirst/' The initiative lies in the individual convert, 
and in his duty to obey the commands of Christ. No body of Christians can excuse 
itself for disobedience upon the plea that it has no ofBoen. It can elect its own 
officers. Councils have no authority to constitute churches. Their work is simply 
that of recognizing the already existing organization and of pledging the fellowship of 
the churches which they represent. If Ood can of the stones raise up children unto 
Abraham, he can also raise up pastors and teachers from within the company of 
believers whom he has converted and saved. 

Hagenbaoh, Hist. Doct., 8:2M, quotes from Luther, as follows: **If a company of 
pious Christian laymen were captured and sent to a desert place, and had not among 
them an ordained priest, and were all agreed in the matter, and elected one and told 
him to baptise, administer the Blass, absolve, and preach, such a one would be as true 
a priest as if all the bishops and popes had ordained him." Dexter, Congregationalism, 
61 — ** Luther came near discovering and reproducing CongregationallsnL Three 
things checked him: 1. he undervalued polity as compared with doctrine; 2. he 
reacted from Anabaptist fanaticisms ; 8. he thought Providence indicated that princes 
should lead and people should follow. Bo, while he and Zwingle alike held the Bible 
to teach that all ecclesiastical power inheres under Christ in the congregation of 
believers, the matter ended in an organisation of superintendents and oonslstories, 
which gradually became ffttally mixed up with the state." 

ilL QOVBBNMJBMT OF THB OhTTBOH, 

1. Nature of this government in generaL 

It is evident from the direct relation of each member of the chnroh, and 
so of the church as a whole, to Ohrist as sovereign and lawgiver, that the 
government of the ohnrohy so for as regards the source of authority, is an 
absolute monarchy. 

In ascertaining the will of Ohrist, however, and in applying his com- 
mands to providential exigencies, the Holy Spirit enlightens one member 
through the counsel of another, and as the result of combined deliberation, 
guides the whole body to right conclusions. This work of the Spirit is 
the foundation of the Scripture injunctions to unity. This uniiy, since it 
is a unity of the Spirit, is not an enforced, but an intelligent and willing, 
uniiy. While Christ is sole king, therefore, the government of the church, 
so far as regards the interpretation and execution of his will by the body, 
is an absolute democracy, in which the whole body of members is intrusted 
with the duty and responsibility of carrying out the laws of Ohrist as 
expressed in his word. 

The seceders from the established church of Scotland, on the memorable ISth of May, 
1848, embodied in their protest the following words: We go out **from an establish- 
ment which we loved and prized, through interference with conscience, the dishonor 
done to Christ's crown, and the rejection of his sole and supreme authority as Ring in 
his church." The church should be rightly ordered, since it is the representative and 
giiardlan6f God*s truth — its" pQIar and gmud" (Ifim. 8:15) — the Holy Spirit working in 
and through it. 

But it is this very relation of the church to Christ and his truth which renders it 
needful to Insist upon the right of each member of the church to his private judgment 
as to the meaning of Scripture ; in other words, absolute monarchy, in this esse, 
requires for Its complement an absolute democracy. President Wayland : ^ No indi- 
vidual Christian or number of individual Christians, no Individual church or number of 
individual churches, has original authority, or has power over the whole. None can 
add to or subtract from the laws of Christ, or interfere with his direct and absolute 
sovereignty over the hearts and lives of his subJeotSi" Bach member, as equal to every 



904 BCOLESIOLOGY, OR THB DOGTBINB OF THB CHtTBOH. 

other, has riffbt to a yoloe in the deoiflioiis of the whole body ; and no action of tl» 
majority can bind him against his oonviction of duty to Christ. 

John Cotton of Massaohusetts Bay, 1043, Qaestioos and Answers : ^' The royal gorem- 
ment of the churohes is in Christ, the stewardly or ministerial in the ohurohes them- 
selves/* OEunbridge Platform, 1M8, 10th chapter— ^* So far as Christ is oonoemed, 
ohuroh government is a monarchy ; so far as the brotherhood of the ohuroh is oon- 
oemed, it resembles a demooraoy.** Unfortunate the Platfonn goes further and 
deolares that, in respect of the Presbytery and the EklerB* power, it is also an aristo- 
ooraoy. 

Herbert Spencer and John Stnart Mill, who held diverse views in philosophy, were 
once engaged in controversy. WhUe the disoossion was ronning through the press, 
Mr. Spencer, fOroed by lack of funds, announced that he would be obliged to discon- 
tinue the publication of his promised books on science and philosophy. Mr. Mill wrote 
him at once, saying that, while he could not agree with him in some things, he realised 
that Mr. Spencer's investigations on the whole made for the advance of truth, and so 
he himself would be glad to hear the expense of the remaining volumes. Here in the 
philosophical world is an eiounple which may well be taken to heart by theolo- 
gians. All Christians indeed are bound to respect in others the right of private Judg- 
ment while stedfastly adhering themselves to the truth as Christ has made it known to 
them. 

Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus, dug for each neophyte a grave, and buried 
him all but the head, asking him: *'Art thou dead?*' Whenhesaid: ** Yes !'* the Gen- 
eral added : "Rise then, and begin to serve, for I want only dead men to serve me.'* 
Jesus, on the other hand, wants only living men to serve him, for he gives life and gives 
it abundantly ( John 10 : iO ). The Salvation Army, in like manner, violates the principle 
of sole allegiance to Chriist, and like the Jesuits puts the individual conscience and 
will under bonds to a human master. Ckx>d intentions may at first prevent evil results ; 
but, since no man can be trusted with absolute power, the ultimate consequence, as in 
the case of the Jesuits, will be the enslavement of the subordinate members. Such 
autocracy does not find congenial soil in America,— hence the rebellion of Mr. and 
Mrs. Ballington Booth. 

A. Proof that the goyemment of the ohiiioh is democratio or congre- 
gatioDftL 

(a) From the duty of the whole ohnioh to preserve tmity in its actloiL 

In.l2:i6— "Btoftha MBA Bind OMtsvardaaetbw"; 1 Oar.l:iO— «Iov IbMMAjoa... .tkuftytiU 
•pukttenuMtUiig.aBdtkatthMvbeiiodiTiiiaBiuMngTMi; ImttkilytbtpcfteltdtQKvyuriatkanBaBiadtBi 
inthtMffleJiidgmMt'^ SOv.lS:li~<'b«ortkt lUM Biiid*';lpL 4:8— "giTiiv diUgooato 
tlM8pritinthtboDd«fp«M'^Pkai:27-''thirt7«iUBdfl«tinoBti^i»vitkmHdMTiBgtea^ 
tktgMpd"; 1 Ptk.8:8— "lM7«aIl liktniBiad." 

These exhortations to unity are not mere counsels to passive submission, suoh as 
might be given under a hierarchy, or to the members of a society of Jesuits ; they are 
counsels to cooperation and to harmonious Judgment. Each member, while forming 
his own opinions under the guidance of the Spirit, is to remember that the other mem- 
bers have the Spirit also, and that a final conclusion as to the will of Ood is to be 
reached only through comparison of views. The exhortation to unity is therefore an 
exhortation to be open-minded, docile, ready to subject our opinions to discussion, to 
welcome new light with regard to them, and to give up any opinion when we find it to 
be in the wrong. The church is in general to secure unanimity by moral suasion only ; 
though, in case of wilful and perverse opposition to its decisions, it nuy be necessary 
to secure unity by excluding an obstructive member, for schism. 

A quiet and peaceful unity is the result of the Holy Spirit's work in the hearts of 
Christians. New Testament church government proceeds upon the supposition that 
Christ dweUs in all believers. Baptist polity is the best possible poUty for good people. 
Christ has made no provision for an unregenerate church-membership, and for 
Satanic possession of Christians. It is best that a church in which Oirist does not 
dwell should by dissension reveal its weakness, and fftll to pieces ; and any outward 
organization that conceals inward disintegration, and compels a merely formal union 
after the Holy Spirit has departed, is a hindrance instead of a help to true religion. 

Congregationalism is not a strong government to look at. Neither is the solar system. 
Its enemies call it a rope of sand. It is rather a rope of iron filings held together by a 
magnetic current. Wordsworth : ** Mightier far Than strength of nerve or sinew, or the 



0oyEBijrMEirr of the chuboh. 905 

■way Of maglo portent oTer sun and star. Is lore.*' President WayUmd : ** We do not 
need any hoops of iron or steel to hold us together." At high tide all the little pools 
along the sea shore are fused together. The unity produced toy the Inflowing of the 
Spirit of Christ is better than any mere external unity, whether of organlaation or of 
creed, whether of Bomanism or of Protestantism. The times of the greatest external 
unity, as under Hildebnud, were times of the church's deepest moral corruption. A 
rerlTal of religion is a better cure for church quarrels than any change In church 
organisation could effect. In the early church, though there was no common govern- 
ment, unity was promoted by active intercourse. HospitBlity, regular delegates. Itin- 
erant apostles and prophets, apostolic and other epistles, still later the gospels, perse- 
cution, and even heresy, promoted unity— heresy compelling the exclusion of the 
unworthy and factious elements in the Christian community. 

Dr. F. J. A. Hort, The Christian Scdesia : ^ Not a word in the Epistle to the Epheslans 
exhibits the one eecUtia as made up of many eecleafcs. .... The members which make 

up the one eecUaia are not communities^ but individual men The unity of the 

universal eeclesia • , . . is a truth of theology and religion, not a fiu)t of what we call 
ecclesiastical politics. .... The eceleeto itself, i. e., the sum of all its male members, is 

the primary body, and, it would seem, even the primary authority Of officers 

higher than elders we find nothing that points to an institution or system, nothing like 

the Episcopal system of later times The monarchical principle reoeiveB practical 

though limited recognition in the position ultimately held by St. James at Jerusalem, 
and in the temporary functions entrusted by BL Paul to Timothy and Titus." On this 
last statement Bartlett, in Contemp. Rev., July, 1807, says that James held an unique 
position as brother of our Lord, while Paul left the communities organised by Timothy 
and Titus to govern themselves, when once their organization was set agoing. There 
was no permanent diocesan episcopate, in which one man presided over many churches. 
The ecdeaicb had for their officers only bishops and deacons. 

Should not the majority rule in a Baptist church ? No, not a bare majority, when there 
are opposing convictions on the part of a large minority. What should rule is the mind 
of the Spirit. What indicates his mind is the gradual unification of conviction and 
opinion on the part of the whole body in support of some definite plan, so that the 
whole church moves together. The large church has the advantage over the small 
church in that the single crotchety member cannot do so much harm. One man in a 
small boat can easily upset it, but not so in the great ship. Patient waiting, persuasion , 
and prayer, will ordinarily win over the recalcitrant. It is not to be denied, however, 
that patience may have its limits, and that unity may sometimes need to be purchased 
by secession and the forming of a new local church whose members can work harmon- 
iously together. 

(6) From the reefponsibilitj of the whole ohnrch for maintftiTiing pure 
dootrine and praotioe. 

iliB.S:15— "tk«flhiinhflftk«UTiBg«od, tkt pillar aad grand tf th« tnitk"; MbS— **«ikrtiiv jwto 
•ontaid MnwiUj ftr th« fcitk vidAh vunimfff all daliTwid utatkaiaiBti"; Iit.B and S— exhortations to 
the seven churches of Asia to maintain pure doctrine and practice. In all these pas- 
sages, pastoral charges are given, not by a so-called bishop to his subordinate priests, 
but by an apostle to the whole church and to all its members. 

In i Tim. 8 :lfi, Dr. Hort would translate " a piliar and grmiBd of tht trath '* —apparently refer- 
ring to the local church as one of many. lpL8:18 — "itraiK to annkand wilk all niati vhal ia tha 
bnadth aad iMgfh and kaig^t and dapth.** Edith Wharton, VesaUus in Zante. in N. A. Bev., Nov. 
1800 — ^ Truth is many-tongued. What one man faUed to speak, another finds Another 
word for. May not all converge. In some vast utterance of which you and I, Fallopius, 
were but the halting syllables?'* Bruce, Training of the Twelve, shows that the 
Twelve probably knew the whole O. T. by heart. Pandita Bamabal, at Oxford, when 
visiting Max MtUler, recited from the Big Veda passim, and showed that she knew 
more of it by heart than the whole contents of the O. T. 

( c ) From the oommittmg of the ordinances to the charge of the vhole 
ohnrch to observe and gnard. As the chnroh expresses tmth in her teach- 
ing, so she is to express it in symbol through the ordinances. 

Iaki8i:88~*«AadthB7rDia^thrt fvy knr . . . . Cpsid tka tkm falkmdtogalh«,ttdttMtkalv«iwia 



906 EGCLKSIOLOGYy OR THB DOCTBINE OF THB CHUBOH. 

thM"; iatil:15 — *'iAdiBtbMdaJlP•k6rlleod1lpiBtlM■Ultarafbntkr«^a]ld■ud(al^ 
todtofpflneof githmd tncethflr, aboat a kudni ud tv«t]r)"; 1 Oor. 15:6 — "tk« ki vpfmni to ibm 1ft 
hoBdnd fanChx«B at «Mt *' — these paflBages show that it was not to the eleyen apostles alone 
that Jesus committed the ordinances. 

1 (hr. 11 : S — *' Kov I prdM yoa tlut yt nnMbv M ii lU thiiigi» aad hoU fiat tk« tnditi^ 
thMtoyoa'*; e/.2a^M— "PorIrwdTdl»fth«I«rdthttvUdiftlM Id«Unndii]ito7M.thrttkA 
DigktinYhiokkevasbftnjtdtodkbnftd; ud vkia k« kid gina tkaak^ ki hnk* il^ and nid, Tkii ii «7 bod j, 
vkkkiiftrjoa: tkiidoin roMBbnaflo of bo"— here Paul commits the Lord's Supper Into the 
charge, not of the body of officials, but of the whole church. Baptism and the Lord's 
Supper, therefore, are not to be administered at the discretion of the Individual min- 
ister. He is simply the organ of the church ; and pocket baptismal and communion 
services are without warrant See Curtis, Progrev of Baptist Principles, 899 ; Boblnson, 
Harmony of Gk)6pelB, notesi 2 170. 

{d) From the election by the whole dhnroh, of its own officers and dele- 
gates. In Acts 14 : 28, the literal interpretation of ;t£<porov^avrec is not to 
be pressed. In Titos 1:5, " when Panl empowers Titos to set presiding 
officers over the commonities, this ciroomstance decides nothing as to the 
mode of choice, nor is a choice by the commnnity itself thereby necessarily 
ezcloded." 

ielol:i8,M— "Afldtboypatfonnrdtvo. .. . aadtb^gaTobilifortkM: aadtkolotfoUiipoalUttUM;*iid 
ko vu niimbtnd iritb tko olenB apootlH " ; 6 : 8* 6 — " Look yo oat tkoniiu^ bnlbroa, ihmi aaoof yoa Mfm bob of 
good npovt .... And tko faying pkuod tko vkelo Bsltttodo: and tkey obooeStopkoB, . . . . lad Pki% aad Pn- 
okomi, and Rieonor, ud Tiinon, tad Fonusii, ud KoolaiiB"— as deacons; ielo iZ-.t, S— "iad •■ tfciy 
Binistond to tbo Loid, aad tutod, tko Holy Spirit aid, Sopanio BoBonabu and Baal fir tko irark vkornmto I bavo 
odlod tkoB. IhoB, wkaa tkoy kad ftitod aad pnyod and laid tkoir kaadi oa tkoB, tboy oaak tboBavay." 

On this passage, see Meyer's comment : *' ' Hiniiaond * here expresses the act of celebrat- 
ing divine serrice on the part of the whole church. To refer avn»y to the ' propbota and 
toaebffi ' is forbidden by the d^opi«-air« — and by toiw 8. This interpretation would confine 
this most important mlssion-a«ot to five persons, of whom two were the missionaries 
sent ; and the church would haye had no part in it, even through its presbyters. This 
agrees, neither with the common possession of the Spirit in the apostolic church, nor 
with the concrete cases of the choice of an apostle ( ok. 1 ) and of deacons ( ok. 6 ). Com- 
pare 14:S7, where the returned missionaries report to the church. The imposition of 
hands ( nno 3 ) is by the presbyters, as representatives of the whole church. The subject 
in toiMo 2 and 3 is 'tko oknrok ' — (represented by the presbyters in this case ). The church 
sends the missionaries to the heathen, and consecrates them through its elders.*' 

iotol5:i^i22;80>-"tkobntbna appolBtod tbaft Faal aad Bonabao, aad oertaia otkvoftkom,okooldgoiipte 
JBTUiln .... And vkoa tkoj mn oobo to Jvualoa, tkoj voro noaifod of tko ekonk and tko apootloi aad tko 
oldon .... TkoB it oooaod good to tko apoitloo aad tko ddan^ vitti tko vkolo oknrek, to okoooo bob oat of tkoir 
ompany, and lond tkoB to iatiook vitk Fbal aad Boraaboa . . . . 8o tboy .... oaaio dovn to Aatioob; oad baiiag 
gatborod tko Biltitado to^tkor, tkoy doliTond tko opiitio**; 2 dor. 8:19— "vbo wualooappointodby tkookarokM 
totraTolwitkuiatkoBattaroftbii giaoo"— the contribution for the poor in Jerusalem ; ioli 
14:28— "iadvboa tboy bad appoiatod ( x««porori^arrcf ) for tkoB oldoniaoTwyflkarak"— the apostles 
announced the election of the church, as a CX>llege President confers degrees, i. e., by 
announcing degrees conferred by the Board of Trustees. To this same effect witnesses 
the newly discovered Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, chapter 16: ** Appoint there- 
fore for yourselves bishops and deacons." 

The derivation of x<(poron}a'arrec, holding up of hands* as in a popular vote, is not to be 
presBod, any more than is the derivation of ixxXifo-^a from K^Xdm, The former had come 
to mean simply ' to appoint,* without reftoence to the manner of appointment, as the 
latter had come to mean an ' assembly,* without reference to the calling of its mem- 
bers by Ood. That the church at Antioch " lopoiatod '* Paul and Barnabas, and that 
this was not done simply by the five persons mentioned, is shown by the fact that, 
when Paul and Barnabas returned from the missionary journey, they reported not to 
these five, but to the whole church. So when the church at Antioch sent delegates to 
Jerusalem, the letter of the Jerusalem church is thus addressed : " Tko apootloo aad tko oldon^ 
bi«tbroa,aatotbobrotbrea vboanoftboGoatilooiaintioek aad SyriaaadGUioia" ( Aot8l5:23). The Twelve 
had only spiritual authority. They could advise, but they did not command. Hence 
they could not transmit government, since they had it not. They could demand obedi- 
^ace, only as they convinced their hearers that their word was truth. It was not they 
io oonunanded, but their Master. 



"lOVEBKHBNT OF THB CHURCH. 907 

Haokett, Oom. od Acts — " x<^p«voinforarr«« is not to be proflsed, since Paul and BamsDas 
constitute the persons ordaininflr* It may possibly indicate a concurrent appointment^ 
in accordance with the usual practice of universal suffrage ; but the burden of proof 
lies on those who would so modify the meaning of the verb. The word is frequently 
used in the sense of choosing, appointtufirt with reference to the formality of raising 
the hand.*' Per contra, see Meyer, in loco: "The church officers were elective. As 
appears from analogy of 6:M (election of deacons), the word x«*P«Tori|<raKrcf retains 
its etymological sense, and does not mean ' constituted ' or * created.' Their choice was 
a recognition of a gift already bestowed, —not the ground of the office and source of 
authority, but merely the means by whioh the gift becomes t known, recognized, and] 
an actual office in the church.** 

Baumgarten, Apostolic History, l:4fi6— *' They —the two aposttes-^aUow presbyters 
to be chosen for the community by voting.*' Alexander, Com. on Acts — ^ The method 
of election here, as the ezprestf on x<>p«*v*^«l*^c< indicates, was the same as tliat in iete 
6 : 5, 6b where the people chose the seven, and the twelve ordained them.** Barnes, Com. 
on Acts: **The apostles presided in the assembly where the choice was made,— 
appointed them in the usual way by the suffrage of the people." Dexter, Congregation- 
alism, 138— "'OrdaiAfld' means here 'prompted and secured the election ' of elders in 
every church.** So in Titos 1:5—" appoint tldan in tmrj dtj." Compare the Latin : " dictator 
consules creavit " — prompted and secured the election of consuls by the people. Bee 
Neander, Church History, 1 : 18B ; Ouericke, Church History, 1 : 110 ; Meyer, on Aflli 13: 2. 

The Watchman, Nov. 7, 1901—** The root-difficulty with many schemes of statecraft 
is to be found in deep-seated distrust of the capacities and possibilities of men. Wen- 
dell Phillips once said that nothing so impressed him with the power of the gospel to 
solve our problems as the sight of a prince and a peasant kneeling side by side in a 
European Cathedral." Dr. W. R. Huntington makes the strong points of Congrega- 
tionalism to be : 1. a lofty estimate of the value of trained intelligence in the Christian 
ministry ; 2. a clear recognition of the duty of every lay member of a church to take an 
active Interest in its affairs, temporal as well as spirituaL He regards the weaknesses of 
Congregationalism to be : 1. a certain incapacity for expansion beyond the territorial 
limits within which it is indigenous ; 2. an undervaluation of the mystical or sacra- 
mental, as contrasted with the doctrinal and practical sides of religion. He argues for 
the obJect-«ymboUsm as well as the verbal-symbolism of the real presence and grace of 
our Lord Jesus Christ. Dread of idolatry, he thinks, should not make us indifferent to 
the value of sacraments. Baptists, we reply, may fairly claim that they escape both of 
these charges against ordinary Congregationalism, in that they have shown unlimited 
capacity of expansion, and in that they make very much of the symbolism of the 
ordinances. 

(6) From the power of the whole ohnroh to exercise discipline. Pas- 
sageB which show the right of the whole body to exdade, show also the 
right of the whole body to admiti members. 

HaL 18 : 17 — " And if ko t^m to Uu tkoi, tdl it nto tto akonk : and if ko nAut to kMr tko aknnk alio. lot 
kim boimto thto at tko Qmtih osd thi puUiouL Tsrilj I »j uto 700, Vhat thiagi looTtr je ihall bind on oartk 
ihaU bo bonnd in kMnn; oad Tbot tkiagi ooovor 70 ihall loooi m. aortb ihAll bo looood in kMTon*' — words often 
inscribed over Roman Catholic confessionals, but Improperly, since they refer not to 
the decisions of a single priest, but to the decisions of the whole body of believers 
guided by the Holy Spirit. In Mot 18:17, quoted above, we see that the church has 
authority, that it is bound to take cognizance of offences, and that its action is final. 
If there had been in the mind of our Lord any other than a democratic form of govern- 
ment, he would have referred the aggrieved party to pastor, priest, or presbytery, and, 
in case of a wrong decision by the church, would have mentioned some synod or 
assembly to which the aggrieved person might appeal. But he throws all the responsi- 
bility upon the whole body of believers. Cf. Iob. 15 : 35 — "oil tho Mn^ngation ihall itono kim 
nitk itoiMo " — the man who gathered sticks on the Sabbath day. Every Israelite was to 
have part In the execution of the penalty. 

1 Oor. 5:4, 6; 13 — "70 boiaf gatkmd togotkor .... to dolifor nuk a oso uto Sotaa .... Put ava7 tko 
viokod naa from among 7oanilToo ";8 0or.8:6^7— " Soioiont to nek a ono la tkia poniakmsil vkiok vu infliotod 
b7tk0fflan7; oo tkat oontmiviao 70 ikoold ntko- fagiTo kim ond oomfat kim " ; 7:11— "Par b«kdU.tki80ilf- 
lamo tking .... vkat ooimoc oon it vnmgkt in 7o«, 700, vkal tloazing of 70QndTfB .... In 0T6r7 tking 70 
anioTid 7ovnolT« to bo psn in tko aatlor"; STkMi.3:6^iil5— "vitkdnw TonMlfwflhsioimybntkvtkat 



908 EOOLESIOLOGYy OB THE DOGTRIKB OF THE CHUBOH. 



waUukk iiMrinty . .. . Ifanyma obtjith imI «orvwl bj thit ipiitK sola thU bu, Ott y* ban bb 
wilkki]B,tBth0«dthilh«BiijbeMhuMd. Aod yrt nut Ua sol u ui »8Bj.bBtidwdAUaM&te«ttMr." 
The erllfl in the ohuroh at Corinth were such as oould exist only in a democratlo body, 
and Paul does not enjoin npon the church a change of government, but a change of 
heart. Paul does not himself ezoommunioate the incestuous man« but he urges the 
ohuroh to ezcommunloate him. 

The educational influence upon the whole church of this eleotion of pastors and 
deacons, choosing of delegates, admission and exclusion of members, management of 
church finance and general conduct of business, carrying on of missionary operations 
and raising of contributions, together with responsibility for correct doctrine and 
practice, cannot be oyereetimated. The whole body can know those who apply for 
admission, better than pastors or elders can. To put the whole government of the 
ohurch into the hands of a few is to deprive the membership of one great means of 
Christian training and progress. Hence the pastor's duty is to develop the self-govern- 
ment of the church. The missionary should not command, but advise. That mtnistBr 
is most successful who gets the whole body to move, and who renders the church inde- 
pendent of himself. The test of his work is not wlille he is with them, but after he 
leaves them. Then it can be seen whether he has taught them to follow him, or to 
follow Christ; whether he has led them to the formation of habits of independent 
Christian activity, or whether he has made them passively dependent upon himself. 

It should be the ambition of the pastor not " to run the church,** but to teach the 
church intelligently and Scrlpturally to mansge its own aflteirs. The word *^ minister ** 
means, not master, but servant. The true pastor inspires, but he does not drive. He 
is like the trusty mountain guide, who carries a load thrice ss heavy as that of the 
man he serves, who leads in safe paths and points out dangers, but who neither shouts 
nor compels obedience. The individual Christian should be taught: 1. to realise the 
privilege of church membenhip; 8. to fit himself to use his privilege; 8. to exercise 
his rights as a church member; 4. to glory in the New Testament system of church 
government, and to deftod and propagate it. 

A Christian pastor can either rule, or he can have the reputation of ruling ; but he 
can not do both. Real ruling involves a sinking of self, a working through others, a 
doing of nothing that some one else can be got to do. The reputation of ruling leads 
sooner or later to the loss of real influence, and to the decline of the activities of the 
ohuroh itself. See Coleman, Manual of Prelacy and Ritualism, 87-126; and on the 
advantages of CongregatlonaUsm over every other form of church-polity, see Dexter, 
CongregationalisuL, 286-296. Dexter, 200, note, quotes from Belcher's Religious Denomi* 
nations of the U. 8., 184, as follows : '* JetTenon said that he considered Baptist church 
government the only form of pure democracy which then existed in the world, and 
had concluded that it would be the best plan of government for the American Colonies. 
This was eight or ten years before the American Bevolutlon." On Baptist democracy, 
see Thomas Armitage, in N. Amer. Bev., March, 1887 :2SI^-243. 

John Fiske, Beginnings of New Bugland : ** In a church based upon such a theology 
[ that of Calvin ], there was no room for prelacy. Bach single church tended to become 
an independent congregation of worshipers, constituting one of the most effective 
schools that has ever existed for training men in local self-government.** Schurman, 
Agnosticism, 160— " The Baptists, who are nominally Calvinists, are now, as they were 
at the beginning of the century, second in numerical rank [ in America ] ; but their 
fundamental principle— the Bible, the Bible only— taken in connection with their 
polity, has enabled them sllentiy to drop the old theology and unconsciously to adjust 
themselves to the new spiritual environment." We prefer to say that Baptists have 
not dropped the old theology, but have given it new interpretation and application ; 
see A. H. Strong, Our Denominational Outiook, Sermon in Cleveland, lOOi. 

B. Erroneous views as to ohnroh government refuted by the foregoing 



( a ) The world-church theory, or the Bomanist view. — This holds that 
all local churches are subject to the supreme authority of the bishop of 
Bome, as the successor of Peter and the infallible vicegerent of Ghrist» 
and, as thus united, constitute the one and only church of Ohrist on earth. 
We reply : 



GOVERl^^MENT OF THE CHURCH. 909 

First, — Ohrist gave no such sapreme authority to Peter. Mat. 16 : 18, 19, 
simply refers to the personal position of Peter as first confessor of Christ 
and preacher of his name to Jews and Gentiles. Hence other apostles 
also constituted the foundation ( Eph. 2 : 20 ; Bev. 21 : 14 ). On one occa- 
sion, the counsel of James was regarded as of equal weight with that of 
Peter ( Acts 15 : 7-80), while on another occasion Peter was rebuked by Paul 
( GaL 2 : 11 ), and Peter calls himself only a fellow-elder (1 Pet 5:1). 

Ha 16 : 18. 19 — " Aid I tlM say uto thee, that tiun tft P«lv, ud apoa tUs rook I wm ImUd m 
g&tM of Itdn ihall not imTiil agaiiut it I will gife vnto tiieo the k«7B of tiu kiagdom of hoavea : and vhatioenr 
thoa ihalt biad on earth ihall be bonndin heavn; and whataoeTer thou ihall loeee on earth ihalt be leoaed lAheaTOB." 
Peter exercised this power of the keys for both Jews and Gentiles, by bein^ the flnt 
to preach Christ to them, and so admit them to the kingdom of heaven. The " ndk " is 
a oonfeaBlnfiT heart. The confession of Christ makes Peter a rook upon which the 
church can be built PiuiQptre on BpisUes of Peter, Introd., 14—** He was a stone— 
one with that rock with which he was now Joined by an indissoluble union." But 
others come to be associated with him: Iph. 2:20 — "built upon the ibuidatioii of the apoatleiaiid 
pniphita, Okriit Jem himalf btiiig the ehlef eoner atone" ; Her. 21 :14— "And the wall of the city had twtlTe 
fonndakhna, and on thai tvalTt namea of the twelya apoatln of the Iamb." Ida 15 :7-n — the Council of 
Jerusalem. flaL2:tl— "Bntvhen Oephaa oame to Antioeh, I reaiitod him to the fut, beeaoae ha iteod oon- 
demned" ; 1 M 6 : 1 — "Ihe olden thenftm among 701 1 exhor^ who am a fUlov-aUUr." 

Here it should be remembered that three things were necessary to constitute an 
apostle : ( 1) he must have seen Christ after his resurrection, so as to be a witness to the 
fact that Christ had risen from the dead ; (2 ) he must be a worker of miracles, to 
certify that he was Christ*s messenger ; (3) he must be an inspired teacher of Christ's 
truth, BO that his final utterances are the very word of God. In Rom. 18 : 7— "Salute Andra- 
niena and Jnniaa, mj kinamen, and my liiUov-jriaonen^ vho are of note among the apootlea" means Simply : 
* who are highly esteemed among, or by, the apostles.' Barnabas is called an apostle. 
In the etymological sense of a messenger : ieta 13 : 2, 3— "Sepante me Banmbaa and Banlforthe vork 
vhsreutte I have ealled theiL Than, when they bad tutsd and prayed and laid thair handa on them, they eent tham 
avay"; leb. 8:1— "eonaider the ipoatle and High Ptioat of onr oenJSMrion, eren JemHi" In this latter sense, 
the number of the apostles was not limited to twelve. 

Protestants err in denying the reference in leiL 16 : 18 to Peter ; Christ recognises 
Peter^ pergondUty in the founding of his kingdom. But Romanists equally err in 
ignoring Peter's eonfemlon as constituting him the ^ rook." Creeds and confessions alone 
will never convert the world ; they need to be embodied in living personalities in 
order to save ; this is the grain of correct doctrine in Bomanism. On the other hand, 
men without a ftUth, which they are willing to confess at every cost, will never con- 
vert the world; there must be a substance of doctrine with regard to sin, and with 
regard to Christ as the divine Savior from sin ; this is the Just contention of Protest- 
antism. Baptist doctrine combines the merits of both systems. It has both personal- 
ity and oonfesslon. It is not hierarchical, but experiential. It insists, not upon 
abstractions, but upon life. Truth without a body is as powerless as a body without 
truth. A flag without an army Is even worse than an army without a flag. Phillips 
Brooks: "The truth of God working through the personality of man has been the 
salvation of the world." Pascal : *' Catholicism is a church without a religion ; Protest- 
antism is a religion without a church.** Tea, we reply, if diurch means hierarchy. 

Seoondly, — If Peter had saoh authority given him, there ia no eyidenoe 
thai he had power to transmit it to others. 

Fisher, Hist. Christian Church, 247— "William of Occam (1280-1847) composed a 
treatise on the power of the pope. He went beyond his predecessors in arguing that 
the church, since it has Its unity in Christ, is not under the necessity of being subject 
to a single primate. He placed the Emperor and the General Council above the 
pope, as his Judges. In matters of faith he would not allow infallibility even to the 
Qeneral Councils. ' Only Holy Scripture and the beliefs of the universal church are of 
absolute validity.**' W. Bausohenbusch, in The Examiner, July 28,1882— "The age 
of an ecclesiastical organization, instead of being an argument in its favor, is presump- 
tive evidence against it, because all bodies organised for moral or religious ends mani- 
fest such a frightful inclination to become oonupt • • • . Marks of the true ohuroh 



dlO EGCLESIOLOQYy OB THE DOCTRIKB OF THB CHURCH. 

are : present spiritual power, lojralty to Jesus, an unworldly morality, seeking and 
saylnflr the lost, self-sacrifloe and self-cruciflzion.*' 

Romanism holds to a transmitted infallibility. The pope is infallible : 1. when he 
speaks as pope ; 2. when he speaks for the whole ohurch ; 3. when he defines doctrine, 
or passes a final judirment ; i. when the doctrine thus defined is within the sphere of 
tsdth or morality ; see Brandts, in N. A. Rev., Dec. 1898 : 6S4. Schurman, Belief in Ood, 
114—** Like the Christian pope, Zeus is conceived in the Homeric poems to be falUble 
as an individual, but infallible as head of the sacred convocation. The other gods are 
only his representatives and executives.*' But, even if the primacy of the Roman pon- 
tiff were acknowledged, there would still be abundant proof that he is not infallible. 
The condemnation of the letters of Pope Honorius, acknowledging monotheUsm and 
ordering it to be preached, by Pope Martin I and the first Council of Lateran in 649, 
shows that both could not be right. Yet both were ex cathedra utterances, one denying 
what the other affirmed. Perrone concedes that only one error committed by a pope in 
an ex cathedra announcement would be fatal to the doctrine of papal infallibility. 

Bfartineau, Seat of Authority, 188, 140, gives instances of papal inconsistencies and 
contradictions, and shows that Roman Catholicism does not answer to either one of its 
four notes or marks of a true ohurch, viz.: 1. unity; 2. sanctity; 8. universality; 4. 
apostoUdty. Dean Stanley had an interview with Pope Pius IX, and came away saying 
that the infallible man had made more blunders in a twenty minutes* conversation than 
any person he had ever met. Dr. Voirbaim facetiously defines infallibility, as '' inability 
to detect errors even where they are most manifest.** He speaks of ** the folly of the men 
who think they hold God in their custody, and distribute him to whomsoever they will." 
The Pope of Rome can no more trace his official descent from Peter than Alexander 
the Great could trace his personal descent from Jupiter. 

Thirdly, — There is no condnaiTe evidenoe that Peter ever was at Borne, 
muoh less that he was bishop of Borne. 

Clement of Rome refers to Peter as a mart]rr, but he makes no daim for Rome as the 
place of his martyrdom. The tradition that Peter preached at Rome and founded a 
church there dates back only to Dlonysius of Corinth and Irenseus of Lyons, who did 
not write earlier than the eighth decade of the second century, or more than a hundred 
years after Peter*s death. Professor Lepsius of Jena submitted the Roman tradition to 
a searching examination, and came to the conclusion that Peter was never in Italy. 

A. A. Hodge, in Prlncetonlana, 1S8— "Three unproved assumptions: 1. that Peter 
was primate ; 2. that Peter was bishop of Rome ; & that Peter was primate and bishop 
of Rome. The last is not unimportant; because Clement, for instance, might have 
succeeded to the bishopric of Rome without the primacy ; as Queen Victoria came to 
the crown of England, but not to that of Hanover. Or, to come nearer home, Ulysses 
S. Grant was president of the United States and husband of Mrs. Grant. Mr. Hayes 
succeeded him, but not in both capacities 1 '* 

On the question whether Peter founded the Roman Church, see Meyer, Com. on 
Romans, transL, voL 1 : 28 — ** Paul followed the principle of not interfering with another 
apostle*s field of labor. Hence Peter could not have been laboring at Rome, at the time 
when Paul wrote his epistle to the Romans from Bphesus ; c/. iete 19 : 21 ; Rom. 15 : 20 ; 2 Qnr. 
10 : 18.** Meyer thinks Peter was martyred at Rome, but that he did not found the Roman 
ohurch, the origin of which is unknown. ** The Epistle to the Romans,** he says, "since 
Peter cannot have labored at Rome before it was written, is a fact destructive of the 
historical basis of the Papacy " ( p. 28 ). See also Elliott, Horae ApooalyptlcflB, 8 : 580. 

Fourthly, — There is no evidenoe that he really did so appoint the bishops 
of Borne as his suooessors. 

Denney, Studies in Theology, 191 —** The church was first the company of those 
united to Christ and living in Christ ; then it became a society based on creed ; finally 
a society based on clergy.*' A. J. Gordon, Ministry of the Spirit, 180—** The Holy Spirit 
Is the real ' Vicar of Christ.* Would any one desire to find the clue to the great apostasy 
whose dark eclipse now covers two thirds of nominal Christendom, here it is : The 
rule and authority of the Holy Spirit ignored in the church ; the servants of the house 
assuming mastery and encroaching more and more on the prerogatives of the Head, 
till at last one man sets himself up as the administrator of the church, and daringly 
usurps the name of the Vicar of Christ'* See also R. V. Llttledale, The Petrlne Claims. 



GOVEBNMEKT OP THE CHURCH. Oil 

The secret of Baptist suooess and progreea is in putting truth before unity. Jamat 3 : 17 
— " tk« vudom tittt ii firun abore is first pun, \h.m peuaabW The substitution of external for internal 
unity, of which the apostolic succession, so called, is a siern and symbol, is of a piece 
with the whole sacramental scheme of salvation. Hen cannot be brought into the 
kingdom of heaven, nor can they be made good ministers of Jesus Christ, by priestly 
manipulation. The Prankish wholesale conversion of races, the Jesuitical putting of 
obedience instead of life, the identification of the church with the nation, are all false 
methods of ditf using Christianity. The claims of Rome need irref ragible proof, if they 
are to be accepted. But they have no warrant in Scripture or in history. Methodist 
Review : " As long as the Bible is reoogniaed to be authoritative, the church wUl face 
Romeward as little as Leo X will visit America to attend a Methodist campmeetlng, or 
Justin D. Fulton be elected as his successor in the Papal chair." See Gore, Incaznatlon, 
206, a». 

Fifthly, — If Peter did bo appoint the bishops of Borne, the evidenoe of 
continnooB saocession ainoe that time is lacking. 

On the weakness of the argument for apostolic succession, see remarks with regard 
to the national church theory, below. Dexter, Congregationalism, 715— **To spiritu- 
alize and evangelize Romanism, or High ChurchisuL, will be to Congregationallze it." 
If all the Roman Catholics who have come to America had remained Roman Catholics, 
there would be sixteen millions of them, whereas there are actually only eight millions. 
If it be said that the remainder have no religion, we reply that they have just as much 
religion as they had before. American democracy has freed them from the domination 
of the priest, but it has not deprived them of anything but external connection with a 
corrupt church. It has given them opportunity for the first time to come in contact 
with the church of the New Testament, and to accept the offer of salvation through 
simple ftUth in Jesus Christ. 

*' Romanism,'* says Domer, ** identifies the church and the kingdom of Qod. The pro- 
fessedly perfect hierarchy is itself the church, or its essence.*' Yet Moehler, the greatest 
modem advocate of the Romanist system, himself acknowledges that there were popes 
before the Reformation ** whom hell has swallowed up ** ; see Domer, Hist. Prot. Theol., 
Introd., ad finem. If the Romanist asks : ** Where was your church before Luther ? '* 
the Protestant may reply : " Where was your face this morning before it was washed ? *' 
Disciples of Christ have sometimes kissed the feet of Antichrist, but it recalls an ancient 
story. When an Athenian noble thus, in old times, debased himself to the King of Per- 
sia, his fellow-citizens at Athens doomed him to death. See Coleman, Manual on Prelacy 
and Ritualism, 28&-S7i; Park, in Bib. Sac, 2:451 ; Princeton Rev., Apr. 1876:866. 

Sixthly, — There is abundant eyidenoe that a hierarohical fonn of chnroh 
government is corrupting to the churoh and dishonoring to Ghrist 

A. J. Gordon, Ministry of the Spirit, 181-140—" Oatholio writers claim that the Pope, 
as the Vicar of Christ, is the only mouthpiece of the Holy Qhost. But the Spirit has 
been given to the church as a whole, that is, to the body of regenerated believera, and 
to every member of that body according to his measure. The sin of sacerdotalism is, 
that it arrogates for a usurping few that which belongs to every member of Christ's 
mystical body. It is a suggestive fact that the name xAiipof , * tkc ohaigt allotted ts 7011,' which 
Peter gives to the church as ' tkt flook of God * ( i Pit. 5 : 2 ), when warning the elders against 
being lords over God's heritage, now appears in ecclesiastical usage as * the dergy,' 
with its orders of pontiff and prelates and lord bishops, whose appointed function it is 

to ezerdse lordship over Christ*s flook But committees and majorities may take 

the place of the Spirit, Just as perfeotiy as a pope or a bishop This is the reason 

why the light has been extinguished in many a candlestick The body remains, 

but the breath is withdrawn. The Holy Spirit is the only Administrator." 

Canon Melville: ** Make peace if you will with Popery, receive It into your Senate, 
enshrine it in your chambers, plant it in your hearts. But be ye certain, as certain as 
there is a heaven above you and a God over you, that the Popery thus honored and 
embraced is the Popery that was loathed and degraded by the hoUest of your fftthers ; 
and the same in haughtiness, the same in Intolerance, which lorded it over kings, 
assumed the prerogative of Deity, crushed human liberty, and slew the saints of God.*' 
On the strength and weakness of Romanism, see Hamack, What is Christianity ? 216-968. 



912 BCCLESIOLOGY, OR THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH. 

( 6 ) The national-chiirch theory, or the theory of proyincial or national 
ohorohes. — This holds that all members of the ohuroh in any ppovinoe or 
nation are bound together in provincial or national organization, and that 
this organization has jurisdiction over the local churohea We reply : 

First, — the theory has no support in the Scriptures. There is no evi- 
dence that the word kKKknala in the New Testament ever means a national 
church organization. 1 Gor. 12 : 28, PhiL 3 : 6, and 1 Tim. 8 : 15, may be 
more naturally interpreted as referring to the generic church. In Acts 9 : 
81, iKKXtfaia is a mere generalization for the local churches then and there 
existing, and implies no sort of organization among them. 

1 Oor. 12 : 28 ~" Aid Ood bith Mt MB! is tk« flhnnh, fini apoiOM^ Mooi^ 
thM gifts of healings telp% goTtnoMnti, dlTan kindi of toBgoM** ; PklL 3 : 6— "u tooohiiig miJ, pmMiliiif tkt 
ohorck"; 1 Tim. S : 15 —*' thai tkonmajitt know kov mta ongkt to bohaTO thamiilTM in tho hooM of flod, vUak ii 
tkoohnrehoftkoliTiBg God, tko pillar and gnond of thotratk"; A0ti9:81— "BotlMohmlitkroaghoatallJvdaaaad 
Galiloo and Samaria had piaoo, b^ odilM.*' For advooaoy of the Presbyterian system, see Cun- 
ningham, Historical Theologry* 2:51i-U6; McPherson, Presbyterianism. Per eotUra^ 
see Jacob, BcoL Polity of N. T., 9— "Tbero is no example of a national church in the 
New Testament. '* 

Secondly, — It is contradicted by the intercourse which the New Testa- 
ment churches held with each other as independent bodies, — for example 
at the Council of Jerusalem (Acts. 15 : 1-85) 

ioli 15:2, 6^ la^ iflt 22--"tho Mkm aifointed that Panl and Barnabas and oortainethortft^ 
JanualoituitotkoapoiUMandoUeraaboatlbiafaaition. .... And tho apoitlai and tho oldan w«ro gaibsod togoOir 
toooosidvoftbismattMr. .... Januaaniwad. . . . mj Jvdgmont la, tbat vo tronblo not tban tbat from among tbo 
OolilaitarntoGod. .... it Moud good to tbo apooUao and tbo old«% vitb tbo vbolo akanh, to dmoM nma ool of 
tkiir flompanj, and md tbem to Antkok vitk Pad and Baaabaa." 

McOiirert, Apostolic Church, 646— "The steps of developing organiaitlon were: 1. 
Beooflrnition of the teaching of the apostles as exclusive standard and norm of Christian 
truth ; 2. ConHnement to a spedflc office, the Oathollc office of bishop, of the power to 
determine what is the teaohlnir of the apostles ; 8. Designation of a spedflc institution, 
the Catholic church, as the sole channel of divine grace. The Twelve, in the church of 
Jerusalem, had only a purely spiritual authority. They could advise, but they did not 
command. Hence they were not aualifled to transmit authority to others. They had 
no absolute authority themselves.*' 

Thirdly, — It has no practical advantages over the Oongregational polity, 
but rather tends to formality, division, and the extinction of the principles 
of self-government and direct responsibility to Christ 

B. O. Robinson : ** The Anglican schism is the most sectarian of all the sects." Prin- 
cipal Rainey thus describes the position of the Episcopal Church: *^They will not 
recognize the church standing of those who recognize them ; and they only recognize 
the church standing of those, Greeks and Ijitins, who do not recogniie thenu Is not 
that an odd sort of Catholicity ? " ^ Every priestling hides a popellng/* The elephant 
going through the Jungle saw a brood of young partridges that had just lost their 
mother. Touched with sympathy he said : ** I will be a mother to you,** and so he sat 
down upon them, as he had seen their mother do. Hence we speak of the** incum- 
bent *' of such and such a parish. 

There were no councils that claimed authority till the second century, and the inde- 
pendence of the churches was not given up until the third or fourth century. In Bp. 
Lightf oot's essay on the Christian Ministry, in the appendix to his Com. on Philippians, 
progress to episcopacy is thus described : ** In the time of Ignatius, the bishop, then 
primus inter pares, was regarded only as a centre of unity ; in the time of Irenseus, as 
a depositary of primitive truth ; in the time of Cyprian, as absolute vicegerent of Christ 
in things spiritual.'* Nothing is plainer than the steady degeneration of church polity 
in the hands of the Fathers. Archibald Alexander : " A better name than Church 
Fathers for these men would be church babies. Their theology was infkntile.'* Luther : 
** Never mind the Scribes,' what saith the Scripture ? *' 



^OYEBNMEKT OF THE CHUBCH. 913 

Fourthly, — It is inoonsistient wiih itself, in binding a professedly spiritoal 
oihuroh by formal and geographioal lines. 

Instanoe the evita of PrcsbyteriaDJsm In praotloe. Dr. Park sayB that "the split 
between the Old and the New School was due to an attempt on the part of the majority 
to Impose their will on the minority. .... The Unitarian defection in New Bnffland 
would have ruined Presbyterian churohes, but it did not ruin Oonflrreiffational churches. 
A Presbyterian church may be deprived of the minister it has chosen, by the votes of 
neighboring churches, or by the ftow leading men who control them, or by one single 
vote in a dose contest.*' We may illustrate by the advantage of the adjustable card- 
catalogue over the old method of keeping track of books in a library. 

A. J. Gordon, Ministry of the Spirit, 187, note —*^ By the candlesticks in the Bevelation 
being seven, instead of one as in the tabernacle, we are taught that whereas, in the 
Jewish dispensation, Gk)d*s visible church was one, in the Gentile dispensation there 
are many visible churches, and that Christ himself reoognixes them alike" (quoted 
from Ganatt, Com. on Rev., 8S). Bishop Moule, Yeni Creator, 181, after speeJdng of 
the unity of the Spirit, goes on to say : ** Blessed will it be for the church and for the 
world when these principles shall so vastly prevail as to find expression from within 
in a harmonious counterpart of order ; a far different thing from what is, I cannot but 
think, an illusory prospect— the attainment of such internal unity by a previous 
exaction of exterior governmental uniformity." 

Fifthly, — It logically leads to the theory of Bomanism. If two ohnrches 
need a superior authority to control them and settle their differenoes, then 
two oonntries and two hemispheres need a common ecclesiastical govern- 
ment, — and a world-chnrch, under one visible head, is Bomanism. 

Hatch, in his Bampton Lectures on Organization of Early Christian Churches, wltli- 
out discussing the evidence from the New Testament, proceeds to treat of the post- 
apostolic development of organisation, as if the existence of a germinal Episcopacy 
very soon after the apostles proved such a system to be legitimate or obligatory. In 
reply, we would ask whether we are under moral obligation to conform to whatever 
succeeds in developing itself. If so, then the priests of Baal, as well as the priests of 
Rome, had Just daims to human belief and obedience. Prof. Black : **' We have no 
objection to antiquity, if they will only go back far enough. We wish to listen, not 
only to the fathers of the church, but also to the grandfiithers." 

PhlUlps Brooks speaks of *Hhe fantastic absurdity of apostolic suooesslon." And 
with reason, for in the Episcopal system, bishops qualified to ordain must be : ( 1 ) bap- 
tised persons ; ( 8 ) not scandalously immoral ; ( 8 ) not having obtained office by bribery ; 
( 4 ) must not have been deposed. In view of these qualifications, Archbishop Whately 
pronounces the doctrine of apostolic succession untenable, and declares that ** there is 
no Christian minister existing now, who can trace up with complete certainty his own 
ordination, through perfectly regular steps, to the time of the apostles.** See Macaulay *s 
Beview of Gladstone on Church and State, in his Essays, 4 : 166-178. There are breaks In 
the line, and a chain is only as strong as its weakest part. See Presb. Bev., 1886 : 89-128. 
Mr. Slanders called PhlUlps Brooks *'an Episcopalian with leanings toward Chris- 
tianity." Bishop Brooks replied that he could not be angry with **such a dear old moth- 
eaten angel.'* On apostolic succession, see C. Anderson Scott, Bvangelioal Doctrine, 
87-48, M7-«8. 

Apostolic succession has been called the pipe-line conception of divine grace. To 
change the figure, it may be compared to the monopoly of communication with Europe 
by the submarine cable. But we are not confined to the pipe-line or to the cable. There 
are wells of salvation in our private grounds, and wireless telegraphy practicable to 
every human soul, apart from any control of corporations. 

We see leanings toward the world-church idea in Pananglican and Panpresbytorlan 
Councils. Human nature ever tends to substitute the unity of external organization 
for the spiritual unity which belongs to all believers in Christ. There is no necessity 
for common government, whether Presbyterian or Episcopal ; siuoe Christ's truth and 
Spirit are competent to govern all as easily as one. It is a remarkable fact, that the 
Baptist denomination, without external bonds, has maintained a greater unity in doc- 
trine, and a closer general conformity to New Testameot standards, than the churches 
which adopt the principle of episcopacy, or of provincial organisation. With Abp. 
Whately, we find the true symbol of Christian unity in "tkt tm ofliAb teuisf twilTt iMaav of 
58 



914 BCCLESIOLOGY, OR THB DOCTRINE OF THE GHtJROS. 



frsiti"(R«T.S:S). Cf. J«kB 10:16— Ycvi^i^aifua«oiMri|,«I««o(Mi$y—''tte7«^^Mn««*lodE,flM 
•k«pk«d*'s not one fold, not external unity, but one flock in many folds. See Jacob, 
Bocl. Polity of N. T., ISO ; Dexter, Confirregationallsm, 286 ; Ck>leman, Manual on Prelacy 
and Ritoalism^ UA-ZU ; Albert Barnes, Apostolic Church. 

As testimonies to the adequacy of Baptist polity to maintain sound doctrine, we quote 
from the Conffregationalist, Dr. J. L. Withrow : " There is not a denomination of 
evangelloal Christians that is throughout as sound theolOffloaUy as the Baptist denom- 
ination. There is not an erangelical denomination in America to-day that is as true to 
the simple plain vospel of God, as it is recorded in the word, as the Baptist denomina- 
tion.'* And the Presbyterian, Dr. W. O. T. Bhedd, in a private letter dated Oct. 1, 1888, 
writes as follows : ** Amon^ the denominations, we all look to the Baptists for steady 
and Arm adherence to sound doctrine. You have never had any internal doctrinal 
conflicts, and from year to year you present an undivided front in defense of the Oal- 
vinistlc faith. Having no Judicatures and regarding the local church as the unit, it is 
remarkable that you maintain such a unity and solidarity of belief. If you could 
impart your secret to our Oonffregational brethren, I think that some of them at least 
would thank you.** 

A. H. Strong, Sermon in London before the Baptist World Congress, July, 1906— 
** Cooperation with Christ involves the spiritual unity not only of all Baptists with one 
another, but of all Baptists with the whole company of true believers of every name. 
We cannot, indeed, be true to our convictions without organizing into one body those 
who agree with us in our interpretation of the Scriptures. Our denominational divisions 
are at present necessities of nature. But we regret these divisions, and, as we grow in 
grace and in the knowledge of the truth, we strive, at least In spirit, to rise above them. 
In America our fftrms are separated from one another by fences, and in the springtime, 
when the wheat and barley are Just emerging from the earth, these fences are very 
distinguishable and unpleaslng features of the landscape. But later in the season, when 
the com has grown and the time of harvest is near, the grain is so tall that the fences 
are entirely hidden, and for miles together you seem to see only a single field. It is 
surely our duty to confess everywhere and always that we are first Christians and only 
secondly Baptists. The tie which binds us to Christ is more important in our eyes than 
that which binds us to those of the same faith and order. We live in hope that the 
Spirit of Christ in us, and in all other Christian bodies, may induce such growth of mind 
and heart that the sense of unity may not only overtop and hide the fences of division, 
but may ultimately do away with these fences altogether. " 

2. Officers of the Church. 

A. The nnmber of offices in the ohnroh is two : — firBt» the office of 
biflhop, presbyter, or pastor ; and, secondly, the office pf deacon. 

( a ) That the apiMllationci * bishop,' ' presbyter,' and ' pastor ' designate 
the same office and order of persons, may be shown from Acts 20 : 28 — 
kfrtanATrovg iroiftaiveiv ( c/. 17 — irpea^vrtpov^ ) ; PhU. 1 : 1 ; 1 Tim. 3 : 1, 8 ; Titns 
1 : 6, 7; 1 Pet 6 : 1, 2 — rrpeaPvrifMVC .... nofiOKaXo 6 avfiirpeapirrepoc .... 
voifidvaTe irotfsvtaif .... knunamwyre^. Conybeare and Howson : "The terms 
* bishop ' and ' eider ' are nsed in the New Testament as equivalent, — the 
former denoting ( as its meaning of overseer implies ) the duties, the latter 
the rank, of the office." See passages quoted in Gieseler, Church History, 
1 : 90, note 1 — as, for example, Jerome : " Apud veteres iidem episcopi et 
presbyteri, quia Ulud nomen dignitatis est, hoc iBtatia Idem est ergo 
presbyter qui episcopua." 



ifltiS0:28— **fckf hMd ute 7«nMlTi% tad ts «U the look, is wUflk tht lolj Spirit balk aad* jra Uihopi 
[marg. 'oTsian'], to feed [lit. *to ikqtod,* 'b« pMton of'] tbo ehvrok of tho lord vhiok kt punhoMd 
vith Ui ovB blood"; e/. 17~"tho oldon of the ohnnh" are those whom Paul addresses as 
bishops or oveneeis, and whom he exhorts to be good pastors. PUL 1:1 — "biihope aad 
diieau";lTim.8:l,8— "Ifanuiooketh theotteeofabithop^hedMinthaKoodinirk .... DoiMBiiBllke 
■iBBifBUtbognTe**; Titi:S, 7— "oipoiBteldiniBemyflity .... ForthebiihopBiiitbeUABelMi"; IPet 
5:1, S— "neeldmthenfonuMBf 70a I exhort, vko aai a fellov-oldv . . . . Tmd [lit. 'ihopherd,' 'bepaatan 
of ] the fleok of 8ed vhuh la vmaog 70a, enniaiag the omigkt [acting as bishopsl not of *«*«»"iln\ kit 



GOVERKMBNT OF THE CHURCH. 916 

vtUiagly. tmdiag to th« vill of 6ol" In this last passaire, Westcott and Hort, with Tlsohen- 
doif s 8th edition, follow K and B in omlttingr <irto-Koirovyrcv. Tregrellee and our Revised 
Version follow A and Me in retaining it* Rightly, we think ; since it is easy to see how, 
in a growing ecolesiastlolsm, it should have been omitted, from the feeling that too 
much was here ascribed to a mere presbyter. 

Ughtfoot, Com. on PhiUppians, 96-09— '* It Is a fact now generally recognized by 
theologians of all shades of opinion that in the language of the N. T. the same officer 
In the church is called indifferently *1iiihop ' ( iviirmovot ) and ' aUflr * or ' praibTtor * ( irp«9^ vrcpof ). 
• ... To these special officers the priestly functions and privileges of the Christian 
people are never regarded as transferred or delegated. They are called stewards or 
mesgengers of Ood, servants or ministers of the church, and the like, but the sacerdotal 
is never once conferred upon them. Hie only priests under the gospel, designated as 
such in the N. T., are the saints, the members of the Christian brotherhood.'** On ntiu 
1 : 5, 7—" appodnt ddan .... For th« biilutp mast be Uamalni"— Gould, Bib. TheoL N. T., 160, remarks : 
** Here the word 'Ibr* is quite out of place unless bishops and elders are identicaL All 
these officers, bishops as well as deacons, are confined to the local church in their Juris- 
diction. The charge of a bishop is not a diocese, but a church. The functions are 
mostly administrative, the teaching office being subordinate, and a distinction is made 
between teaching elders and others, implying that the teaching function Is not common 
to them all." 

Dexter, Congregationalism, 114, shows that bishop, elder, pastor are names for the 
same office : ( 1 ) from the signifloanoe of the words ; (2 ) from the fact that the same 
qualifications are demanded from all; (3) from the fact that the same duties are 
assigned to all ; ( 4 ) from the fsust that the texts held to prove higher rank of the bishop 
do not support that claim. Plumptre, in Pop. Com., Pauline Epistles, 666, 666—** There 
cannot be a shadow of doubt that the two titles of Bishop and Presbyter were in the 
Apostolic Age Interchangeable.'* 

( 6 ) The only plansible objection to the identity of the presbyter and the 
bishop is that first suggested by Galviny on the ground of 1 Tim. 5 : 17. 
But this text only shows that the one office of presbyter or bishop involved 
two kinds of labor, and that certain presbyters or bishops were more suc- 
cessful in one kind than in the other. Thai gifts of teaching and ruling 
belonged to the same individual, is clear from Acts 20 : 28-31 ; Eph« 4:11; 
Heb. 13 : 7 ; 1 Tim. 8 : ^^kvlaiumw dtdatcrtKAv, 

1 Tim. S : 17 — " kk th« tUm ttel mla vdl be ooonted irartkj of dooUi kdoor, fl^edaOj tkoM vko lubor is tkt 
vord ud hi tMahiag *' ; Wilson, Primitive Government of Christian Churches, concedes that 
this last text ^* expresses a diversity in the exercise of the Presbyterial office, but not in 
the office itself " ; and although he was a Presbyterian, he very consistently refused to 
have any ruling elders in his church. 

Aeti M:a8, 81— "Uikopi, to feed the eknnh of tke Lonl . . . . vhenfore wtteh ye" ; Ipk. 4:U— "ead nm» 
ptston and toMhini"— here Meyer remarks that the single article binds the two words 
together, and prevents us from supposing that separate offices are intended. Jerome : 
** Nemo .... pastorls sibi nomen aasumere debet, nisi possit docere quos pasdt." lelk 
13:7— "RounlMrtbeBi that bed the mkoTor you, men thai ipi^e vnto yoa the vord of God"; lTim.8:2— "The 
Uthoy BBft bo .... apt to teaoh." The great temptation to ambition in the Christian ministry 
Is provided against by having no ernidation of ranks. The pastor is a priest, only as 
eveiy Christian is. See Jacob, Bccl. Polity of N. T., 60 ; Olshausen, on 1 Tin. 5 : 17 ; Haokett 
on ioti 14:23; Preeb. Rev., 1886 : 89-128. 

Dexter, Congregationalism, 68—'* Calvin was a natural aristocrat, not a man of the 
people like Luther. Taken out of his own family to be educated in a fiimily of the 
nobility, he received an early bent toward exclusiveness. He believed in authority 
and loved to exercise It. He could easily have been a despot. He assumed all dtixens 
to be Christians until proof to the contrary. He resolved church discipline into police 
oontroL He confessed that the eldership was an expedient to which he was driven by 
circumstances, though after creating it he naturally enough endeavored to procure 
Scriptural proof in Its favor." On the question. The Christian Ministry, is It a Priest- 
hood ? see C. Anderson Scott, Bvangelical Doctrine, 806-824. 

( c ) In certain of the N. T. ohnrches there appears to haye been a pln- 
xalily of elders (Acts 20 :17 ; PhiL 1 :1 ; Tit 1:5). There is, howeyer, 



916 BCCLESIOLOOY, OR THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH. 

no evidence that the number of elden was nnif orm, or that the plnraHty 
which freqnentlj existed was due to any other cause than the size of the 
churches for which these elders cared. The N. T. example, while it per- 
mits the mnltipUcation of assistant pastors according to need, does not 
require a plural eldership in every case; nor does it render this eldership, 
where it exists, of coordinate authority with the church. There are indica- 
tions, moreover, that, at least in certain churches, the pastor was one, while 
the deacons were more than one, in number. 



ioli » : 17-- " Ab4 frn KklDi k« MBlte IpiMQB, aai fldlad to him tk« lUm of tha ohuA^ ; V^ 
ud TSaotky, sffnaAi of Ohriit J«iii% to all tke ainti in Ghriit Joni that on ok Ikilippi, vith tho Uahofo and dia- 
oo]iB";Iltl:6— *'fortUa«aaiIlift thao in Okitib that thoa i(hoaldert aot in ardor th« things that mn vantiBg^ 
and appoiat aU«i in amy al^, u I gavo thw ohaiga." See, however, iota 12:17— "Tall thaao things onto 
JanMi^ and to tha hnthra"; 15: 18 — *'iJid aftar ttay had held their paao^ Jamaa aasvarad, aajiag, Srathran, hearken 
nntone"; 21:18— "And Iha day loDovlng Paul vant In vlthva onto Jaaua; and all the alden vers pnaeat " ; flaL 
1:19— "But olharaf tha ivoatleamw I uodm, oava Jamea the Lord'a brother"; 8:12 — "eortain eama from JuMa.'* 
These paflsa^ros aeem to Indicate that James was the pastor or president of the churoh 
at Jerusalem, an intimation which tradition corroborates. 

lfim.8:8— "Thehiahopthereibfamnitbo witheatnpnaeh"; Tit. 1:7— "for theUihopmn8tbaUameIeBB,aa 
flod'aatevard"; e/.lTim.8:8^10,18—"])eaeona in Uke manner moat be grave .... And let thaee alae lint be 
proTod; then let thnaanoaadeaean, if thej be UamaUas .... Let deeeooa be hnabandaefoMvift^niling their 
ehiJdm and their own hoaaea veil " — in all these passages the bishop Is spoken of in the singular 
number, the deacons In the pluraL So, too, in Rer. 2:1, 8^ 12^ 18 and 8: 1, 7, 14, "the angel of the 
ehnnh " Is best Interpreted as meaning the pastor of the churoh ; and, if this be correct, 
it is clear that each churoh had, not many pastors, but one. 

It would, moreover, seem antecedently improbable that every church of Christ, how- 
ever small, should be required to have a plural eldership, particularly since churches 
exist that have only a single male member. A plural eldership is natural and advan- 
tageous, only where the church is very numerous and the pastor needs assistants in his 
work : and only in such cases can we say that New Testament example favors it. For 
advocacy of the theory of plural eldership, see Fish, Ecclesiology, 229-848 ; Ladd, Prin- 
ciples of Church Polity, 2&4B0. On the whole subject of offices in the church, see Dexter, 
Congregationalism^ 77-W ; Dagg, Church Order, 241-266 ; Lightf oot on the Christian 
Ministry, appended to his Commentary on Philipplans, and published in his Disserta- 
tions on the ApostoUo Age. 

B. The duties belonging to these offioes. 

(a) The pastor, bishop, or elder is : 

First, — a spiritual teacher, in public and private ; 

• 

Aeli 20:20^ 21, 85 — "how I abrank not from dedaring nnto yon anything that vu prodtab^and teaehing 
yon pvbUflly, and from honae to booaa^ teatifying both to Jove and to Greeka repentanoe toward God, and bith toward 
ovr Lord Jeeoa Ghriat .... In all thinga I gafa yon an example that ao laboring ye ooght to help the weak, and 
ta remember the woida of the Lord Jeani) that he himielf aaid, It ii more bleeeed to glTO than to reeelTe * ' ; 1 Theea. 5 : 12 
— " Bttt we beaoeeh yoo, bnthreo, to know them that labor anung yoo, and are orer yon in the Lord, and admonlah 
yon" ; SeK 18 :7, 17— "Renemberthn that had the mle otot yon, men that spake nnto yon the word of God; and 
ooBaidiKing tha iane of tteirlil^ imitala their fkith. .... Obey them that have the rale otv yon, and anbmit to them: 
for they waieh in behalf of yoQraonl% aa they that ahall giro aeeennt'* 

Here we should remember that the pastor*s private work of religious conversation 
and prayer is equally important with his public ministrations ; In this respect he is to 
be an example to his flock, and they are to learn from him the art of winning the 
unconverted and of caring for those who are already saved. A Jewish Babbi once 
said : ** God could not be every where, —therefore he made mothers." We may sub- 
stitute, for the word ' mothers,' the word * pastors.' Bishop Ken is said to have made a 
vow every morning, as he rose, that he would not be married that day. His own lines 
best express his mind : ** A vlrglu priest the altar best attends: our Lord that state 
commands not, but commends." 

Secondly, — administrator of the ordinances ; 

Mat. 28: 19; 20— "Go ye thenibre end make diadplea of all thenatioai,baptiiing them Into the name ofthelkther and 
oftheSonandeftheloly Spirit: teaehing them to oboenre all thinga whateoew I eommanded"; lOor. 1:18^17— 



OOYERNMBNT OF THE CHURCH. 917 

"iadIl»ptiMdalMtkeh0iiiskoUef8tophuiu: b«idM,Ikoowi^ Vor Ohrift MBt m 

not to UptiMp bot to praah tte goipeL" Here it is evident that^ althouflrh the pastor adminiBtera 
the ordinanoes, this is not his main work, nor is the churoh absolutely dependent upon 
him in the matter. He is not set, like an O. T. priest, to minister at the altar, but to 
preach the srospeL In an emergency any other member appointed by the church may 
administer them with equal propriety, the church always determining who are fit sub- 
jects of the ordinances, and constitutinir him their organ in administering them. Any 
other view is based on sacramental notions, and on Ideas of apostolic succession. All 
Christians are "priiili uto . . . . G«d" (B«t.1:6). " This universal priesthood is a priest- 
hood, not of expiation, but of worship, and is bound to no ritual, or order of times 
and places " ( P. 8. Mozom ). 

Thirdly, — saperintendent of the discipliiie, as well aa preading offioer at 
the meetmgs, of the ohoroh. 

Superintendent of discipline : 1 Tin 5 : 17 — " I«4 tkc 6ld«n tint rak w«II bt ooimted vorthy of doaU* 
honor, Mpedally thoM vhio labor in tbe mrd and in toMbiag"; S:5~"if a Baa ksAwoth not bow to iiilo kia «vb 
benaa, bow aball bo tako ean of tba ohiirob of God ? " Presiding offioer at meetings of the church : i Oor. 
12 :28 — " goTimmontB " — here icv^cpm^o-ctc, or "goitnunent^" indicating the duties of the pastor, 
are the counterpart of ai^tA^^civ, or " balpi;" which designate the duties of the deacons ; 
1 Pot.5 :i^ 3 — "TMd tboflook of God whiob ia among yon, exoraaiag tbo onnigbt» not of oonatninti but willingly, 
BfloordingtotbowillofGod; noryotlbrtltby hur^bntofarsadyoind; neitbar at lording it ow tbo obaifa allotted 
to yon, but making yoonalToa maamplaa to tbo flooL'* 

In the old Congrregational churches of New England, an authority was accorded to 
the pastor which exceeded the New Testament standard. ^' Dr. Bellamy could break in 
upon a festival which he deemed improper, and order the members of his parish to their 
homes." The congregation rose as the minister entered the church, and stood uncov- 
ered as he passed out of the porch. We must not hope or desire to restore the New 
England rigime. The pastor is to take responsibility, to put himself forward when 
there is need, but he is to ruJU only by moral suasion, and that only by guiding, teach- 
ing, and carrying into effect the rules imposed by Christ and the decisions of the church 
in accordance with those rules. 

Dexter, Congregationalism, 115, 165, 157— "The Governor of New York suggests to 
the Legislature such and such enactments, and then executes such laws as they please 
to pass. He is chief ruler of the State, while the Legislature adopts or rejects what he 
proposes.*' So the pastor's functions are not legislative, but executive. Christ is the 
only lawgiver. In fulfllling this office, the manner and spirit of the pastor's work are 
of as great importance as are correctness of Judgment and faithfulness to Christ's law. 
**The young man who cannot distinguish the wolves from the dogs should not think 
of becoming a shepherd." Gregory Nazianzen : ^* Bither teach none, or let your life 
teach too." See Harvey, The Pastor; Wayland, Apostolic Ifinistry; Jacob, EocL 
Polity of N. T., 99 ; Samson, in Madison Avenue Lectures, 261-S88. 

( 6 ) The deacon is helper to the jiastor and the ohnich, in both spiritaal 
and temporal things. 

First, — reHeving the x)astor of external labors, informing him of the 
condition and wants of the chnroh, and forming a bond of union between 
pastor and people. 

IfltaBii-m— "Howiatbaaadayi^ wbontbosadMr oftbadiniploawuirattlplyiBg, tbrnanMannmDriiigoftba 
flfidaa Jowa agauiat tbo Hobnwa, booaua tbtir vidowa van naglooted ia tbo daily BiaiatratioiL And tba twolTa 
flallad tbo mnMtado of tbo diadplaa vnto tbana, and aatd, It ia not tt tbat va aboold fonako tbo vord of God, and aarro 
tabloa. Look yo ooft tbonftvo, bntbno, from amoag yoa aoTon BMB of good nport, fbU of tbo Sprtt 
wham vo may i^point OTor tbia buaiiuoa. Bat wo vUl oootiBao atodfaatly in prayor, and in tbo adniitiy of tbo word. 
And tbo aaying plaaaod tbo vboU moltitodo : and tboy bboao Btopban, a man Ml of fidtband of tbo Holy Spirit, and 
Pbilip, and Proobonia, and liaaaor, and TiiMn, and Pannonai^ and Iloolaaa a praalyte of intioob ; vbom tboy tit 
boforo tbo ^oatlao: and vbon tboy bad prayod, tboy laid tboir banda npon tbam" ; e/. 8-20— where Stephen 
•bows power in disputation ; Bom. 12 : 7 — "or ndniatry [ iioKoria^ ], lot oa gifo onraalTea to oor ainia- 
try"; 10or.l2:28 — "bolpa" — here avnAi^^ttv, "balpa." indicating the duties of deacons, aro 
the counterpart of «v^«pin9<rcif, "goTanunonta," which designate the duties of the pastor; 
AiL 1 : i — " biabopa and doaoona." 

Dr. B. Q. Robinson did not regard the election of the seven, in iota 6 : IH as tnnryny 
the origin of the diaoonate, though he thought the diaoonate grew out of this eleotloo. 



918 EOCLBSIOLOOY^ OR THE DOCTRINB OF THB CHURCH. 

The Autobiography of C. H. Spurgreon, 8:2S, gives an account of the election of 
" elden ** at the Metropolitan Tabernacle In London, lliese ^ elden " were to attend 
to the spiritual aflUiB of the church, as the deacons were to attend to the temporal 
afhiliB. These ** elders ** were chosen year by year, while the office of deacon was per- 
manent. 

Secondly, — helping the ohnrdh, bj reHering the poor and siok and 
ministering in an informal way to the ohnroh's spiritnal needs, and by 
performing certain external duties connected with the service of the 
sanctoaiy. 

Since deacons are to be helpers, it is not neoeseary in all cases that they should be old 
or rich ; in ftust, it is better that among the number of deacons the Tarious differences 
in station, age, wealth, and opinion in the church should be r e pr e s en ted. The qualifi- 
cations for the diaoonate mentioned in ieU 6 : 1-4 and 1 Tim. 8 : 8-iS, are, in substance : wis- 
dom, sympathy, and spirituality. There are advantages in electing deacons, not for 
life, but for a term of years. While there is no New Testament prescription in this 
matter, and each church may exercise its option, service for a term of years, with 
reflection where the office has been well discharged, would at least seem fiivored by 
iTiB.8:10 — ''LrtthMtalMfliftUpraTBd; tkiaUttkaBMrre m AaMOB^ifthtybtbliBitoa"; IS— "Farttty 
tfalkaTtiv?riviUMdiiMnigfti]itetWnMlv«agMditttdtaft ud grvk MdaM ia Ikt ftkift vkieh is is Ohhit 

Expositor's Greek Testament, on isli 5:6; remarks that those who carried out and 
buried Ananias are called oi rcwrcpot — "tks Twag imb"— and in the case of Sappbira they 
were oi v«ayi0'KOi~ meaning the same thing. **' Upon the natural distinction between 
vpcv^t^poi and Mwrfpoi— elders and young men— it may well have been that official 
duties in the church were afterward based.*' Dr. Leonard Bacon thought that the 
apostles included the whole membership in the **«%** when they said: "It is set It tut v« 
shflsld fbnsks tkf word «f 0«d, aid ttm tsUsn" The deacons, on this interpretation, were chosen 
to help the whole church in temporal matters. 

In Bom. 16:1, ^ we have apparent mention of a deaconess-— "I ocaiMBd nnlo jw Fkobt ov 
sister, wko is A ssrrsBt [ inarg. : 'dss«nMss']ofth«ekuNkthstisst Oasflhrw .... ibr she hsrsalf also k*tli been 
aliolpff«fau&7, ladofauiisovB soil" See also 1 Tin. S:li— "▼omn in like aMnaor must 1m graTO, not 
slaad««% tsBipirata, fcitkfcl hi aU tkiags " — here Bllicott and Alf ord claim that the word " wanoB " 
refers, not to deacons' wives, as our Auth. Vers, had it, but to deaoonesKs. Dexter, 
Gongregatlonallsm, 69, 18S, maintains that the office of deaconess, though it once existed, 
has passed away, as belonging to a time when men could not, without suspicion, minis- 
ter to women. 

This view that there are temporary offices in the church does not, however, commend 
itself to us. It is more correct to say that there is yet doubt whether there vxu such an 
office as deaconess* even In the early church. Bach church has a right In this matter 
to interpret Scripture for itself, and to act accordingly. An article In the Bap. Quar., 
1860 : dO, denies the existence of any dlaoonal rank or office, for male or female. Fish, 
in his Bodesiology, holds that Stephen was a deacon, but an elder also, and preached as 
elder, not as deacon, — lots 6 : 1-4 being called the institution, not of the diaoonate, but of 
the Christian ministry. The use of the phrase itMcovlv rpaW<cuf , and the distinction 
between the diaoonate and the pastorate subsequently made in the Bpistles, seem to 
refute this interpretation. On the fitness of women for the ministry of religion, see 
F. P. Cobbe, Peak of Darlen, 109-262 ; F. E. WiUard, Women in the Pulpit ; B. T. Rob- 
erts, Ordaining Women. On the general subject, see Howell, The Deaconship ; Williams. 
The Deaconship; Robinson, N. T. Lexicon, «prtAif^tc. On the Claims of the Christian 
Ministry, and on Education for the Ministry, see A. H. Strong, Philosophy and Bellgion« 
200-318, and Christ in Creation, 814-83L 

O. Ordination of officers. 

(a) What is ordination ? 

Ordination is the setting apart of a -penon divinelj oalled to a work of 
special ministration in the chnroh. It does not involve the oommnnication 
of power, — it is simply a recognition of powers previonsly conferred by 
^d, and a consequent formal anthorization, on the part of the chorch, to 

'srcise the gifts already bestowed. This recognition and authorization 



GOYBRNMENT OF THE OHUBCH. 919 

flihonld not only be expressed by the vote in which the oandidate is 
approved by the ohnroh or the ooimcil which represents it, but should also 
be accompanied by a spedal service of admonition» prayer, and the laying- 
on of hands (Acts 6:5, 6; 13:2, 3; 14:23; ITinL 4:U; 5:22). 

Licensure simply commends a man to the churches as fitted to preach. 
Ordination recognizes him as set apart to the work of preaching and 
administering ordinances, in some particular church or in some designated 
field of labor, as representative of the church. 

Of his call to the ministry, the candidate himself is to be first persuaded 
( 1 Oor. 9 : 16 ; 1 Tim. 1 : 12 ) ; but» secondly, the church must be per- 
suaded also, before he can have anthorily to minister among them ( 1 Tim. 
3:2-7; 4:U; Titus 1:6-9. 

The word * ordain ' has oome to have a teohnloal sigiiifloation not found in the New 
TeBtament. There it means simply to ohoofle, appoint, set apart. In i Tin. S : 7 — ** whrn- 
Qsto I VM appointed [crc^i'] a praMktf and an apoaOe .... attaAar cf tha OantOat ia fritk and tratk " — it 
apparently denotes ordination of Ood. In the following pasBBges we read of an ordina- 
tion by the ohurch : Aeli 6:S»6— "And Oa aayiBg pltaaed tha wkola mpltitade: and they ohnaa Stapkan 

.... and Philip^ and Proohoru^ and lioaav, and Tinum, and Famena^ and liflolau .... whom thay lok befontka 
apoillaa: and whan thay lukd pnyad, thaj laid thair kandf apontham" — the ordination of deacons ; 18 :2, 8 
— ''AndaathayininistindtoikeLard, and CMtad, tha loly Spirit aaid, Sapanta ma Banabaa and 8anl ftr tha vark 
wkermnto I kava oalled tkam. Aao, whan thay had fhited and prayad and Jaid thair handa anttam, thay aanttham 
avay '* ; 14 : S3— *' And vhan they had appointed ftr them elden in enry ehnnh, and had prayed vith ftatin^ they 
eennnendad them to the lord, en irhom they had baliared"; ITim. 4:14— "legleet not the gift that lain thee, wUeh 
vaa giTon thee by prophet, vith the laying on of the handi of the pr eab jio f j " ; 5:tt— "Uyhandahaatilyoatto 
man, neither bo partaker of other meo'a aina.** 

Cambridge Platform, 1648, chapter 9— "Ordination is nothing else but the solemn 
putting of a man into his place and office in the church whereunto he had right before 
by election, being like the installing of a Magistrate in the Commonwealth.'* Ordina- 
tion confers no authority— it only recognizes authority already conferred by God. 
Since it ia only recognition, it can be repeated em often as a man changes his denomi- 
national relations. Leonard Bacon : "The action of a Coundl has no more authority 
than the reason on which it is based. The church calling the Council is a competent 
count of appeal from any decision of the Cotmcil." 

Since ordination is simply choosing, appointing, setting apart. It seema plain that in 
the case of deacons, who sustain official relations only to the church that constitutes 
them, ordination requires no consultation with other churches. But in the ordination 
of a pastor, there are three natural stages : ( 1 ) the call of the church ; (8) the decision 
of a council ( the oouncil being virtually only the church advised by its brethren ) ; ( 8 ) 
the publication of this decision by a public service of prayer and the laying-on of 
hands. The prior call to be pastor may be said, in the case of a man yet unordained, to 
be given by the church conditionally, and in anticipation of a ratification of its action 
by the subsequent Judgment of the coundL In a well-Instructed church, the calling 
of a council is a regular method of appeal from the church unadvised to the church 
advised by its brethren ; and the vote of the council approving the candidate is only 
the essential completing of an ordination, of which the vote of the church calling the 
candidate to the pastorate was the preliminary stage. 

This setting apart by the church, with the advice and assistance of the council, is all 
that is necessarily Implied in the New Testament words which are translated " ordain '* ; 
and such ordination, by simple vote of church and coundl, could not be counted 
invalid. But it would be irregular. New Testament precedent makes certain accom- 
paniments not only appropriate, but obligatory. A formal publication of the deaee 
of the coimcil, by laying-on of hands, in connection with prayer, is the hist of the 
duties of this advisory body, which serves as the organ and assistant of the church. 
The laying-on of hands is appointed to be the regular accompaniment of ordination, as 
baptism is appointed to be the regular accompaniment of regeneration ; while yet the 
laying-on of hands is no more the substance of ordination, than baptism is the sub- 
stance of regeneration. 

The imposition of hands is the natural ssrmbol of the communication, not of grace, 
but of authority. It does not make a man a minister of the gospel, any more than 



920 ECCLE8I0L0GT, OR THB DOOTBINE OF THE CHURCH. 

oorooatlon makes Victoria a queen. What it does tUgnity and publish, is tonoA 
reooffnition and authorintion. Viewed in this light, there not only can be no objeo^ 
tion to the imposition of hands upon the ground that it ftovors sacramentaUsm, but 
insistence upon it is the bounden duty of every council of ordination. 

Mr. Spurgeon was never ordained. He began and ended his remarkidlile ministry as 
a lay preacher. He revolted from the sacramentalism of the Church of England, which 
seemed to hold that in the imposition of hands in ordination divine grace trickled down 
through a bishop's finger ends, and he felt moved to protest against it. In our Judgment 
it would have been better to follow New Testament precedent, and at the same time to 
instruct the churches as to the real meaning of the laying-on of hands. The Lord's 
Supper had in a similar manner been interpreted as a physical communication of grace, 
but Hr. Spurgeon still continued to observe the Lord's Supper. His gifts enabled him 
to carry his people with him, when a man of smaller powers might by peculiar views 
have ruined his ministry. He was thankful that he was pastor of a large church, 
because he felt that he had not enough talent to be pastor of a small one. He said that 
when he wished to make a peculiar impression on his people he put himself into his 
cannon and fired himself at them. He refused the degree of Doctor of Divinity, and 
said that *' D. D." often meant " Doubly Destitute." Dr. P. 8. Henson suggests that 
the letters mean only " Fiddle Dee Dee.'* For Spnigeon's views on ordination, see his 
Autobiography, 1 : 866 «q. 

John Wesley's three tests of a call to preach : ** Inquire of applicants,*' he says, " 1. Do 
they know God as a pardoning QcA f Have they the love of Ood abiding in them ? Do 
they desire and see nothing but God ? And are they holy, in all manner of conversa- 
tion? 2. Have they gifts, as well as grace, for the work? Have they a dear sound 
understanding ? Have they a right Judgment in the things of Gkxl ? Have they a Just 
conception of salvation by faith ? And has God given them any degree of utterance? 
Do they speak Justly, readily, clearly 7 8. Have they fruit ? Are any truly oonvlnoed 
of sin, and converted to God, by their preaching ? " The second of these qualifications 
seems to have been in the mind of the little girl who said that the bishop, in laying 
hands on the candidate, was feeling of his head to see whether he had brains enough to 
preach. There is some need of the preaching of a " trial sermon " by the candidate, as 
proof to the Council that he has the gifts requisite for a successful ministry. In this 
respect the Presbyteries of Scotland are in advance of us. 

(6) Who are to ordain ? 

Ordination is fhe act of the ohnroh, not the act of a pririleged olaes in 
the ohnroh, as the eldership has sometimes wrongly been regarded, nor yet 
the act of other chnrohes, assembled by their representatives in oonnoiL 
No ecclesiastical authority higher than tiiat of the local church is recognized 
in the New Testament. This autiiority, howeyer, has its limits ; and since 
the ohuroh has no authority outside of its own body, the candidate for 
ordination should be a member of the ordaining church. 

Since each church is bound to recognize the presence of the Spirit in 
other rightiy constituted churches, and its own decisions, in like manner, 
are to be recognized by others, it is desirable in ordination, as in all 
important steps affecting other churches, that advice be taken before the 
candidate is inducted into office, and that other churches be called to sit 
with it in council, and if thought best» assiBt in setting the candidate apart 
for the ministry. 

Hands were laid on Paul and Barnabas at Antioch, not by their ecclesiastical supe- 
riors, as High Church doctrine would require, but by their equals or Inferiors, as simple 
representatives of the church. Ordination was nothing more than the recognition of 
a divine appointment and the commending to God*s care and blessing of those so 
appointed. The council of ordination is only the church advised by its brethren, or 
a committee with power, to act for the church after deliberation. 

The council of ordination is not to be composed simply of ministers who have been 
themselves ordained. As the whole church is to preserve the ordinances and to main- 
tain sound doctrine, and as the unordained church member is often a more sagacioiis 



GOTBRNKEirr OF THE CHURCH. 921 

Judge of a candidate's Chrtotlao experience than his own pastor would be, there seems 
no warrant, either In Scripture or in reason, for the exclusion of lay delegates from 
ordaining oounoHs. It was not merely the apostles and elders, but the whole church at 
Jerusalem, that passed upon the matters submitted to them at the coundl, and others 
than ministers appear to have been delegates. The theory that only ministers can 
ordain has in it the beginnings of a hierarchy. To make the ministry a close corpora- 
tion is to recognise the principle of apostolic succession, to deny the validity of all our 
past ordinations, and to sell to an ecclesiastical caste the libertiee of the church of Ood. 
Very great importance attaches to decorum and settled usage in matters of ordination. 
To secure these, the following suggestions are made with regard to 

I. Pbbixminart Asolaxiqwkmstb to be attended to by the candidate : 1. His letter of 
dismission should be received and acted upon by the church before the Council con- 
venes. Since the church has no Jurisdiction outside of its own membership, the candi- 
date should be a member of the church which proposes to ordain him. 8. The church 
should vote to call the CoundL 8. It should invite all the churches of its Association. 
4. It should send printed invitations, asking written responses. 6. Should have printed 
copies of an Order of Procedure, subject to adoption by the Coundl. 6. The candidate 
may select one or two persons to officiate at the public service, subject to approval of 
the CoundL 7. The derk of the church should be instructed to be present with the 
records of the church and the minutes of the Association, so that he may call to order 
and ask responses from delegates. 8. Ushers should be appointed to ensure reserved 
seats for the Coundl. 0. Another room should be provided for the private session of 
the CoundL 10. The choir should be instructed that one anthem, one hymn, and one 
doxology will suffice for the public service. IL Entertainment of the delegates should 
be provided for. Di. A member of the church should be chosen to present the candi- 
date to the CoundL 18. The church should be urged on the previous Sunday to attend 
the examination of the candidate as well as the public service. 

II. Thx Candidati at TBI CouNOiL: L His demeanor should be that of an appli- 
cant. Since he asks the fttvorable Judgment of his brethren, a modest bearing and great 
patience in answering their questions, are becoming to his podtlon. 2. Let him stand 
during his narration, and during questions, unless for reasons of ill health or fatigue he is 
specially excused. 8. It will be well to divide his narration into 16 minutes for his Chris- 
tian experienoe, 10 minutes for his call to the ministry, and 35 minutes for his views of 
dodrine. 4. A viva voce statement of all these three is greatly preferable to an elabo- 
rate written account. S. In the relation of his views of doctrine : ( a ) the more fully he 
states them, the less need there will be for questioning ; ( b ) his statement should be 
positive, not negative ~ not what he does not believe, but what he does believe ; ( e ) he 
is not required to tell the reatona for his belief, unless he is specially questioned with 
regard to these; (d) he should elaborate the later and practlcaL not the earlier and 
theoretical, portions of his theological system; (e) he may well conclude each point 
of his statement with a single text of Scripture proof. 

IIL Thx Dutt or thx Coumoil : 1. It should not proceed to examine the candidate 
until proper credentials have been presented. 2. It should in every case give to the 
candidate a searching examination, in order that this may not seem invidious in other 
cases. 8. Its vote of approval should read : *^ We do now set apart," and " We will hold 
a public service expressive of this fact." 4. Strict decorum should be observed In 
every stage of the proceedings, remembering that the Coundl is acting for Christ the 
great head of the church and is transacting business for eternity. Sw The Council 
should do no other business than that for which the church has summoned it, and 
when that business is done, the Coundl should adjourn aine die. 

It is always to be remembered, however, that the power to ordam rests 
with the ohtiroh, and that the ohoroh may proceed without a Goxmcil, or 
even againstthe deoision of the GounoiL Snoh ordination, of oonrse, would 
give authority only within the bounds of the individual church. Where no 
immediate exception is taken to the deoision of the Oouncil, that decision is 
to be regarded as virtually the decision of the church by which it was 
called. The same rule applies to a Oounoil's decision to depose from the 
ministry. In the abeence of immediate protest from the church, the decis- 
ion of the Oounoil is rightly taken as virtually the deoision of the church. 



922 BCCLESIOLOOYy OB THB DOOTBINE OF THB CHUBGH. 

In 80 far as ordination is an act performed by the local chnrch with the 
advice and aeoBtance of other rightly constitated chorohes, it ia justly 
regarded as giving formal permission to exerdse giiia and administer ordi- 
nances within the bounds of snch churches. Ordination is not^ therefore, 
to be repeated upon the transfer of the minister's pastoral relation from 
one church to another. In every case, however, where a minister from a 
body of Christians not Soriptnrally constituted assumes the pastoral rela- 
tion in a rightly organized church, there is peculiar propriety, not only in 
the examination, by a Council, of his Christian experience, call to the 
ministry, and views of doctrine, but also in that act of formal recognition 

and authorization which is called ordination. 

The Oounoil should be numerous and impartially constituted. The ohuroh oaUlnff the 
Oounoll should be represented in it by a fair number of delegates. Neither the church, 
nor the Ooundl, should permit a prejudgment of the case by the previous announce- 
ment of an ordination service. While the examination of the candidate should be 
public, all danger that the Council be unduly influenced by pressure from without 
should be obviated by its conducting its deliberationa, and arriving at its decision, in 
private session. We subjoin the form of a letter missive, calling a Council of ordina- 
tion ; *an order of procedure after the CounoU has assembled ; and a programme of 
exercises for the public service. 

Lbttkb Missivb. — The church of to the church of : Dear Brethren : 

By vote of this church, you are requested to send jrour pastor and two delegates to 

meet with us in accordance with the following resolutions, passed by us on the , 

19 — : Whereas^ brother — , a member of this diurch, has offered himself to the work 
of the gospel ministry, and has been chosen by us as our pastor, therefore, Reeolved^ 1. 
That such neighboring churches, in fellowship with us, as shall be herein designated, 
be requested to send their pastor and two delegates each, to meet and counsel with this 

church, at ~ o'clock—, m., on , 19 , and if, after examination, he be approved, 

that brother be set apart, by vote of the Council, to the gospel ministry, and that 

a public service be held, expressive of this fiict. Beaoloed, 2, That the Council, if it 
do BO ordain, be requested to appoint two of its number to act with the candidate. In 
arranging the public services. ReaolveA, 8. That printed letters of Invitation, embody- 
ing these resolutions, and signed by the clerk of this church, be sent to the following 

churches, , and that these churches be requested to furnish to 

their delegates an officially signed certificate of their appointment, to be presented at 

the organisation of the Council. Besolved, 4. That Rev. , and brethren , be 

also invited by the clerk of the church to be present as members of the CounciL 
Besoived, 6. That brethren , , and , be appointed as our delegates, to repre- 
sent this church In the deliberations of the Council ; and that brother •^— be requested 
to present the candidate to the Council, with an expression of the high respect and 
warm attachment with which we have welcomed him and his labors among us. In 
behalf of the church, , Clerk. , 19 — . 

Ordbr of Pbogkdurb.— 1. Beading, by the clerk of the church, of the letter-missive, 
followed by a call, in their order, upon all churches and individuals invited, to present 
responses and names in writing ; each delegate, as he presents his credentials, taking 
his seat in a portion of the house reserved for the CounciL 2. Announcement, by the 
clerk of the church, that a CouncU has convened, and call for the nomination of a 
moderator, — the motion to be put by the clerk,— after which the moderator takes 
the chair. 8. Organization completed by election of a clerk of the Council, the offering 
of prayer, and an invitation to visiting brethren to sit with the Council, but not to vote. 
4. Reading, on behalf of the church, by its clerk, of the records of the church concern- 
Ing the call extended to the candidate, and his acceptance, together with documentary 
evidence of his licensure, of his present church membenhip, and of his standing in 
other respects, if coming from another denomination. 6. Vote, by the Council, that 
the proceedings of the church, and the standing of the candidate, warrant an exami- 
nation of his claim to ordination. 6. Introduction of the candidate to the CounoQ, by 
some representative of the church, with an expression of the church's feeling respect- 
ing him and his labors. 7. Vote to hear his Christian experience. Narration on the 
part of the candidate, foUowed by questions as to any features of it still needing eluci- 
dation. 8. Vote to hear the candidate's reasons for believing himself called to the 



GOVEBNMENT OF THE CHURCH. 923 

ministry. Narration and questions. 0. Vote to hear the candidate's views of Chris- 
tian doctrine. Narration and questions. 10. Vote to conclude the public examination, 
and to withdraw for private session. IL In private session, after prayer, the Council 
determines, by three separate votes, in order to secure separate consideration of each 
question, whether it la satisfied with the candidate's Christian experience, call to the 
ministry, and views of Christian doctrine. 12. Vote that the candidate be hereby set 
i^Mirt to the ffospel ministry, and that a public service be held, expressive of this fact; 
that for this purpose, a committee of two be appointed, to act with the candidate, in 
arranging* such service of ordination, and to report before adjournment. 13. Reading 
of minutes, by clerk of Council, and correotiou of them, to prepare for presentation at 
the ordination service, and for preservation in the archives of the church. 14. Vote to 
give the candidate a certificate of ordination, signed by the moderator and clerk of the 
Council, and to publish an account of the proceedings in the journals of the denomi- 
nation. IS. Adjourn to meet at the service of ordination. 

Pboorammx or Pdbuo SsBVioa (two hours in length).—!. Voluntary— five min- 
utes. 2. Anthem— five. 8. Reading minutes of the Council, by the derk of the 
Council — ten. 4. Prayer of Invocation — five. 5. Beading of Scripture — five. 6. Ser- 
mon— twenty-five. 7. Prayer of ordination, with laying-on of hands— fifteen. 8. 
Hymn — ten. 9. Right hand of fellowship — five. 10. Charge to the candidate — fifteen. 
11. Charge to the church — fifteen. 12. Doxology — five. 18. Benediction by the newly 
ordained pastor. 

The tenor of the N. T. would seem to indicate that deacons should be ordained with 
prayer and the laying-on of hands, though not by council or public service. Evangel- 
ists, missionaries, ministers serving as secretaries of benevolent societies, should also 
be ordained, since they are organs of the church, set apart for special religious work on 
behalf of the churches. The same rule applies to those who are set to be teachers of 
the teachers, the professors of theological seminaries. Philip, baptizing the eunuch, is 
to be regarded as an organ of the church at Jerusalem. Both home missionaries and 
foreign missionaries are evangelists ; and both, as organs of the home churches to 
which they belong, are not under obligation to take letters of dismission to the churches 
they gather. Gtoorge Adam Smith, in his Life of Henry Drummond, 285, says that 
Dnunmond was ordained to his professorship by the laying-on of the hands of the Pres- 
bytery : ** The rite is the same in the case whether of a minister or of a professor, for 
the church of Scotland recognizes no difference between her teachers and her pastors, 
but lays them under the same vows, and ordains them all as ministers of Christ's gospel 
and of his sacraments." 

Rome teaches that ordination is a sacrament, and ** once a priest, always a priest." 
but only when Rome confers the ordination. It is going a great deal further than 
Rome to maintain the indelibility of oQ orders — at least, of all orders conferred by an 
evangelical church. At Dover in England, a medical gentleman declined to pay his 
doctor^ bill upon the ground that it was not the custom of his calling to pay one 
another for their services. It appeared however that he was a retired practitioner, and 
upon that ground he lost his case. Ordination, like vaccination, may run out Retire- 
ment from the office of public teacher should work a forfeiture of the ofliclal character. 
The authorlBitlon granted by the Council was based upon a previous recognition of a 
divine call. When by reason of permanent withdrawal from the ministry, and devo-- 
tlon to wholly secular pursuits, there remains no longer any divine call to be recog- 
nized, all authority and standing as a Christian minister should cease also. We therefore 
repudiate the doctrine of the " Indelibility of sacrod orders," and the corresponding 
maxim : **Once ordained, always ordained " ; although we do not, with the Cambridge 
Platform, confine the ministerial function to the pastoral relation. That Platform 
held that " the pastoral relation ceasing, the ministerial function ceases, and the pastor 
becomes a layman again, to be restored to the ministry only by a second ordination, 
called installation. This theory of the ministry proved so inadequate, that it was held 
scarcely more ttian a single generation. It was rejected by the Congregational 
churches of England ten years after It was formulated in New England." 

**The National Council of Congregational Churches, in 1880, resolved that any man 
serving a church as minister can be dealt with and disciplined by any church, no mat- 
ter what his relations may be in church membership, or ecclesiastical alflliatlons. If the 
church choosing him will not call a council, then any church can call one for that pur- 
pose " ; see New Englander. July, 1883 : 401-401. This latter course, however, pre- 
supposes that the steps of fraternal labor and admonition, provided for in our next 
section on the Relation of Local Churches to one another, have been taken, and have 



924 BGGLEBIOLOOY, OR THE DOCTBIKB OP THE CHURCH. 

been InsulBoient to Induce proper action on the part of the church jto which such 
minister belongs. 

The authority of a Presbyterian church is limited to the bounds of its own 
denomination. It cannot ordain ministers for Baptist churches, any more than 
it can ordain them for Methodist churches or for Episcopal churches. When a 
Presbyterian minister becomes a Baptist, his motives for making the change and the 
conformity of his Tiews to the New Testament standard need to be scrutinised by 
Baptists, before they can admit him to their C3iristlan and church f eUowship ; In other 
words, he needs to be ordained by a Baptist church. Ordination is no more a disoour^ 
tesy to the other denomination than Baptism is. Those who oppose reOrdlnation in 
such cases virtually hold to the Romish view of the saoredness of orders. 

The Watchnun, April 17, 1900—'* The Christian ministry is not a priestly class which 
the laity is bound to support. If the minister cannot find a church ready to support 
him, there is nothing to prevent his entering another calling. Only ten per cent, of the 
men who start in Independent business avoid fftllure, and a much smaller proportion 
achieve substantial success. They are not failures, for they do useful and valuable 
work. But they do not secure the prises. It is not wonderful that the proportion of 
ministers securing prominent pulpits is small. Many men fail in the ministry. There 
is no sacred character imparted by ordination. They should go into some other avoca- 
tion. ' Once a minister, always a minister ' is a piece of Popery that Protestant churches 
should get rid of.*' See essay on Councils of Ordination, their Powers and Duties, by 
A. H. Strong, In Philosophy and Religion, 260-868; Wayland, Principles and Practices 
of Baptists. 114; Dexter, Congregationalism, 188,146^140, KM, ISl. Pier contra, see Fish, 
Bcolesiology, 866-899 ; Presb. Rev., 1886:8»-U8. 

8. Discipline of the Church, 

A. Kinds of disoipline. — Disdpliiie is of two sorts^ aooording as offences 
are private or pubUo. (a) Private offenoes are to be dealt with aooording 
tothemleinMat 5:28, 24; 18:15-17. 

Kit 5:31,84— "If thtniiMrt ttM art dbriag thy gift at tha altar, and than raMBbanat tkat thy tarolte katk 
asfht againak tkaa^ laiTa thara thj gift bafora tha altar, and go thy way, ftnt ba reoondlBd to thj tmtbar, aad thM 
ooma and dbr thy gift "—here is provision for self -discipline on the part of each offender; 
18 : 15-17 — '' And if thy hrokhar ain againat ihaa, go^ ahov hiB hia fluilt batvotn thN and hiB aloM : if ha haa^ 
thonhaatgainad thy brothar. But if ha haar thaa no^ taka with thaa ana or two man, thai at tha nonth of two 
vitaanMor thno aTa7 word may ba aatabliahad. And if ho nftiaa to haar thtn, tall it nnta tha ahnnh : and if ha 
raftuo to haar tha ehnroh alao^ lot Urn ba onto thoa u tha Gantila and tha pnblioan"— here Is, first, private 
discipline, one of another; and then, only as a last resort, discipline by the church. 
Westoott and Hort, however omit the civ o*^— "againat thaa "— in Kat. 18 : 15^ and so make each 
Christian responsible for bringring to repentance every brother whose sin he becomes 
oostiiaant of. This would abolish the distinction between private and public offences. 

When a brother wrongs me, I am not to speak of the offence to others, nor to write 
to him a letter, but to go to him. If the brother is already penitent, he will start from 
his house to see me at the same time that I start from my house to see him, and we 
will meet Just half way between the two. There would be little appeal to the church, 
and little cherishing of ancient grudges, if Christ's disciples would observe his simple 
rules. These rules impose a duty upon both the offending and the offended party. 
When a brother brings a personal matter before the church, he should always be asked 
whether he has obeyed Chrl8t*s command to labor privately with the offender. If he 
has not, he should be bidden to keep silence. 

(&) Pnblic offences are to be dealt with aooording to the role in 1 Oor, 
5 : 8-5, 18, and 2 Thess. 8 : 6. 

i Oar. 5: 3^ 18— "For I Tarily, boing abaant inbody but preaant in apirit) hara alraady u thaogh I vara praaent 
Jadgad hin that hath ao vnnghi thia thing, in tha narao of tho Lord Jaaoa, ya bainggathand tagothar, and my apfait» 
vith tto povor of oor Lord Jaan^ to dalitar anah a ono unto Satan br tho daatraetion of tha flaah, that tha ^t nay ba 
aavad in tho day of tho Lord Jeaaa. .... Put away tha vidkad nan from among yonraolTaa." 

Notice here that Paul gave the incestuous person no opportunity to repent, confess, 
or avert sentence. The church can have no valid evidence of repentance immediately 
upon discovery and arraignment. At such a time the natural conscience always reacts 
in remorse and self-accusation, but whether the sin is hated because of its inherent 
wickedness, or only because of its unfortunate consequences, cannot be known at once. 
Only fruits meet for repentance can prove repentance reaL But such fruits take time. 



OOVEBNMENT OF THE CHUBOH. 925 

And the church has no time to wait. Its good repute in the community, and iti influence 
over its own members, are at stake. These therefore demand the instant exclusion of 
the wrong-doer, as evidence that the church dears its skirts from all complicity with 
the wrong. In the case of gross public offences, labor with the offender is to come, not 
before, but after, his excommunication ; e/. S Oor. S : M— "Safioint tQ nak i om ii ttia jni^kmmi 
wUflh wu iafljetad by tk« waj; .... faglTt kia taid eaaivt kia ; . . . . «aaiiB jsiir kn tovud i 



The church is not a Mutual Insurance Company, whose object is to protect and shield 
its individual members. It Is a society whose end Is to represent Christ in the world, 
and to establish his truth and righteousness. Christ commits his honor to its keeping. 
The offtoder who Is only anxious to escape Judgment, and who pleads to be forgiven 
without delay, often shows that he cares nothing for the cause of Christ which he has 
injured, but that he has at heart only his own selfish comfort and reputation. The 
truly penitent man will rather beg the church to exclude him, in order that it may free 
itself from the charge of harboring iniquity. He will accept exclusion with humility, 
will love the church that excludes him, will continue to attend its worship, will in due 
time seek and receive restoration. There is always a way back into the church for 
those who repent. But the Scriptural method of ensuring repentance is the method of 
immediate exclusion. 

In 3 Oor. S : M -"iofifllid by tk« may" might at first siffbt seem to imply that, although the 
offender was excommunicated, it was only by a majority vote, some members of the 
church dissenting. Some interpreters think he had not been excommunicated at all, 
but that only ordinary association with him had ceased. But, If Paul's command in the 
first epistle to "pot avaj tks iriek«d flun frpB aaong yoonelTai" (1 Ov. 5:18 ) had been thus dis- 
obeyed, the apostle would certainly have mentioned and rebuked the disobedience. On 
the contrary he praises them that they had done as he had advised. The action of the 
church at Corinth was blessed by God to the quickening of conscience and the purifi- 
cation of lite. In many a modem church the exclusion of unworthy memberi has in 
like manner given to Christians a new sense of their responsibility, while at the same 
time it has convinced worldly people that the church was In thorough earnest. The 
decisions of the church, indeed, when guided by the Holy Spirit, are nothing less than 
an anticipation of the Judgments of the last day ; see lUi 18 : 18 — " Vhal tkingt mntr jt ik&U 
bind on outk ikiJl b« bound in k«TiB ; ind wbtt tkiagi loeTor y* lUll Ioom oa oixtb ihall bt looMd is hoftTW.*' In 
Jokn 8 : 7, Jesus recognlaes the sin and urges repentance, while he challenges the right of 
the mob to execute Judgment, and does away with the traditional stoning. His gracious 
tzeatment of the sinning wonum gave no hint as to the proper treatment of her case 
by the regular synagogue authorities. 

8 Aim 8 : 6 •— "low vtooBBudyn, bnthrin, inttoBiB* of oorLorl Joiof Olniilt thai 7« vit^ 
fwj brotkar that wOkoth diaorAvly, and sot aiW tha traditioa vkiok tkay nodrod of va** The mere "drop- 
ping '* of names from the list of members seems altogether contrary to the spirit of the 
N. T. polity. That recognises only three methods of exit from the local church : ( 1 ) 
exclusion; (2) dismission; (3) death. To provide for the case of members whose 
residence has long been unknown, it is well for the church to have a standing rule that 
all members residing at a distance shall report each year by letter or by contribution, 
and, in case of failure to report for two successive years, shall be subject to discipline. 
The action of the church, in such cases, should take the form of an adoption of preamble 
and resolution : *' Whereaa A. B. has been absent from the church for more than two 
years, and has failed to comply with the standing rule requiring a yearly report or 
contribution, theref ore^ Readlved, that the church withdraw from A. B. the hand of 
fellowship." 

In aU cases of exclusion, the resolution may uniformly read as above ; the preamble 
may indefinitely vary, and should always dte the exact nature of the offence. In this 
way, neglect of the church or breach of covenant obligations may be distinguished from 
offences against common morality, so that exclusion upon the former ground shall not 
be mistaken for exclusion upon the latter. As the persons excluded are not commonly 
present at the meeting of the church when they are excluded, a written copy of the 
preamble and resolution, signed by the Clerk of the Church, should always be imme- 
diately sent to them. 

B. Belation of the pastor to disoipline. — ( a ) He has no original author- 
ity ; (b) but is the organ of the churchy and ( c ) superintendent of its 
labors for its own pnrifloation and for the reolamation of ofBanders ; and 



926 BOOLESIOLOGY, OR THE DOOTBIKB 09 THE CHURCH. 

therefore (d) may best do the work of difidplme, not direoUy, by oonsti- 
tatmg himself a special policeman or detective, but indirectly, by secoring 
proper labor on the part of the deacons or brethren of the ohnrdu 

The pastor should regard himself as a Judge, rather than as a proseouttng attorney. 
He should presB upon the offloeis of his ohuroh their duty to investigate oases of immor- 
ality and to deal with them. But if he himself makes charges, he loses dignity, and 
puts it out of his power to help the offender. It is not well for him to be, or to have 
the reputation of being, a f erreter-out of misdemeanors among his church members. 
It is best for him In general to serve only as presiding officer in oases of discipline, 
instead of being a partisan or a counsel for the prosecution. For this reason it is well 
for him to secure the appointment by his ohuroh of a Prudential Committee, or Com- 
mittee on Discipline, whose duty It shall be at a fixed time each year to look over the list 
of members, initiate labor in the case of delinquents, and, after the proper steps have 
been taken, present proper preambles and resolutions in cases where the church needs to 
take action. This regular yearly process renders disdpUne easy; whereas the neglect of 
it for several successive srears results in an accumulation of oases, in each of which the 
person exposed to disoipUne has friends, and these are tempted to obstruct the church's 
dealing with others from fSar that the taking up of any other case may lead to the 
taking up of that one in which they are most nearly interested. The church wlilch 
pays no regular attention to its discipline is like the farmer who milked his cow only 
once a year, in order to avoid too great a drain ; or like the small boy who did not see 
how any one could bear to comb his hair every day,— he combed his own only once in 
six weeks, and then it nearly killed him. 

As the Prudential Committee, or Committee on Discipline, is simply the church Itself 
preparing its own business, the church may well require all complaints to be made to 
It through the committee. In this way it may be made certain that the preliminary 
steps of labor have been taken, and the disquieting- of the chtu*ch by premature charges 
may be avoided. Where the committee, after proper representations made to It, fails 
to do its duty, the Individual member may appeal directly to the assembled church; 
and the difference between the New Testament order and that of a hierarchy is this, 
that according to the former all final action and responsibility is taken by the church 
Itself In its collective capacity, whereas on the latter the minister, the session, or the 
bishop, so far as the individual ohuroh is concerned, determines the result. See Savage, 
Church Discipline, Formative and Corrective ; Dagg, Church Order, ^68-4374. On church 
discipline in oases of remarriage after divorce, see A. H. Strong, Philosophy and Relig- 
ion, 481-4fiB. 

IV. Relation of Logaii Ghubghhs to onb anotheb. 

1. The general nature of this reloHon is ttuU of fellowship between 
equals. — Notice here : 

(a) The absolute equality of the ohnrohe& — No church or council of 
churches, no association or convention or society, can relieve any single 
church of its direct responsibility to Ohrist, or assume control of its action. 

(6) The fraternal fellowship and cooperation of the churches. — No 
church can properly ignore, or disregard, the existence or work of other 
churches around it. Every other church is presumptively possessed of the 
Spirit^ in equal measure with itself. There must therefore be sympathy 
and mutual furtherance of each other's welfare among churches, as among 
individual Ohristians. Upon this principle are based letters of dismission, 
recognition of the pastors of other churches, and all associational unions, 
or unions for common Christian work. 

H. O. Rowlands, in Bap. Quar. Bev., Oct. 1801 : 860-677, urges the giving up of special 
Councils, and the turning of the Association Into a Permanent Council, not to take 
original cognizance of what cases it pleases, but to consider and judge such questions 
as may be referred to It by the individual churches. It could then revise and rescind 
its action, whereas the present OonnoU when onoe adjourned can never be called 



BELATIOK OF LOCAL CHUBCHES TO OKE AKOTHEB. 92? 

together acrain. Tbia method would preyent the packing of a Council, and the Council 
when once constituted would have greater influence. We feel slow to sanction such a 
plan, not only for the reason that it seems destitute of New Testament authority and 
example, but because it tends toward a Presbyterian form of church government. All 
permanent bodies of this sort gradually arrogate to themselves power ; indirectly if not 
directly they can assume original jurisdiction; their decisions have altogether too 
great influence, if they go further than personal persuasion. The independence of the 
individual church is a primary element of polity which must not be sacrificed or endan- 
gered for the mere sake of inter-ecdesiastlcal harmony. Permanent Councils of any 
sort are of doubtful validity. They need to be kept under constant watch and criticism , 
lest they undermine our Baptist church government, a fundamental principle of which 
is that there is no authority on earth above that of tbe local church. 

2, This fellowBhip involves the duty of special oonsuUaHon with 
regard to matters affecting the common interest, 

(a) The duty of seekmg advice. — Since the order and good repnte of 
each is yalxiable to all the others, casee of grave importance and difficnlty in 
internal discipHne, as well as the question of ordaining members to the min- 
istry, should be sabmitted to a conncil of churches called for the purpose. 

(b) The duty of taking advice. — For the same reason, each church 
should show readiness to receive admonition from others. So long as thia 
is in the nature of friendly reminder that the church is guilty of defects 
from the doctrine or practice enjoined by Christ, the mutual acceptance of 
whose commands is the basis of aU church fellowship, no church can justly 
refuse to have such defects pointed out, or to consider the Scripturalnees of 
its own proceeding. Such admonition or advice, however, whether coming 
from a single church or from a council of churches, is not itself of bind- 
ing authority. It is simply in the nature of moral suasion. The church 
receiving it has still to compare it with Ohrist's laws. The ultimate decis- 
ion rests entirely with the church so advised or asking advice. 

Churches should observe comity* and should not draw away one another's members. 
Ministers should bring churches together, and should teach their members the larger 
unity of the whole church of God. The pastor should not confine his interest to his 
own church or even to his own Association. The State Convention, the Education 
Society, the National Anniversaries, should all claim his attention and that of his people. 
He should welcome new laborers and helpers, instead of regarding the ministry as a 
close corporation whose numbers are to be kept forever smalL B. G. Boblnson : ^ The 
spirit of sectarianism is devUlsh. It raises the church above Christ. Christ did not 
say : ' Blessed is the man who accepts the Westminster Conf e«ion or the Thirty-Nine 
Articles.' There is not the least shadow of churchism in Christ. Churchlsm is a 
revamped and whitewashed Judaism. It keeps up the middle wall of partition which 
Christ has broken down." 

Dr. P. H. Mell, in his Manual of Parliamentary Practice, calls Church Councils ** Com- 
mittees of Help." President James C. Welling held that " We Baptists are not true to 
our democratic polity in the conduct of our collective evangelical operations. In these 
matters we are simply a bureaucracy, tempered by individual munificence." A. J. Gkir- 
don, Ministry of the Spirit, Itf, 160, remarks on Hai 18:19— "If two of ysa ihaU ■gm'*— 
ovjui^«ivi)<r«Kriy, from whlch our word 'symphony' comes: "If two shaU 'accord,' or 
' sjrmphonize * in what they ask, they have the promise of being heard. But, as in tuning 
an organ, all the notes must be keyed to the standard pitch, else harmony were impos- 
sible, BO in prayer. It is not enough that two disciples agree with each other,— they 
must agree with a Third— the righteous and holy Lord, before they can agree in inter- 
cession There may be agreement which is in most sinful conflict with the divine wiU : 
*Hov if it tbal 7* kavo agrood tof«th«r'— ovyv^m^^— the same word— 'to trj tko Spfaik of tko lordT* 
says Peter ( ioli 5 : 9 ). Here is mutual accord, but guilty discord with the Holy Spirit," 



928 ECCLESIOLOOTy OH THE DOCTRIKB OF THE CHURCH. 

8. This fellowship may be broken by manifest departures from the 
faith or practioe of the Scriptures^ on the part of any church. 

In sach case, duty to Obrist reqiiiresfheohtirdhee, whose labors to redaim 
a sister dhnroh from error have proyed anAyailing, to withdraw their fellow- 
ship from it» until snch time as the erring chnrdli shall retom to the path 
of duty. In this regard, the law whioh applies to indiyidnals applies to 
chnrchesy and the polity of the New Testament is oongregational rather 
than independent 

Independenoe is qualified by Interdependenoe. While each ohurdi is, in the last resort 
thrown upon Its own responsibility in ssoertalninff doctrine and duty, it is to acknowl- 
edge the indwelling of the Holy Spirit In other ohurohes as well as in itself, and the 
▼alue of the public opinion of the churches as an indication of the mind of the Spirit. 
The church in Antioch asked advice of the church in Jerusalem, although Paul himself 
was at Antioch. Although no church or union of churches has rightful jurisdiction 
over the single local body, yet the GounclU when rightly called and constituted, hos 
the power of moral influence. Its decision is an index to truth, which only the grayest 
reasons will Justify the church in ignoring or refusing to follow. 

Dexter, Congregationalism, 695—*' Barrowism gave all power into the hands of the 
elders, and it would have no Councils. Oongregotionalism is Barownism. It has two 
f od : Independence and Interdependence.** Charles 8. Scott, on Baptist Polity and the 
Pastorate, in Qap. Quor. Rev., July, 1800 : 901-8B7 — ** The difference between the polity of 
Baptist and of Congregational churches is in the relative authority of the Ecclesiastical 
Counofl. Congregationalism is Councillsm. Not only the ordination and first settie- 
ment of the minister must be with the advice and consent of a Coundl, but every 
subsequent unsettlement and settlement." Baptist churches have regarded tills depend- 
ence upon Councils after the minister's ordination as extreme and unwarranted. 

The fact that the church has always the right, for Just cause, of going behind the 
decision of the Council, and of determining for itself whether it will ratify or reject that 
decision, shows oonolusiveiy that the church has parted with no particle of its original 
independence or authority. Yet, though the Council is simply a counsellor ~ an organ 
and helper of the church,— the neglect of its advice may involve such ecclesiastical or 
moral wrong as to Justify the churches represented in it, as well as other churches, In 
withdrawing, from the church that called it, their denominational fellowship. The 
relation of churches to one another is analogous to the relation of private Christians to 
one another. No meddlesome spirit is to be allowed ; but in matters of grave moment, 
a church, as well as an individual, may be Justified in giving advice unasked. 

Ughtf oot, in his new edition of Clemens Bomonus, shows that the Bplstle, instead of 
emanating from Clement as Bishop of Bome, is a letter of the church at Bome to the 
Corinthians, urging them to peace. No pope and no bishop existed, but the whole 
church congregationolly addres9ed its counsels to its sister body of believers at Corinth. 
Congregationalism, in A. D. 9S, considered it a duty to labor with a sister church that 
had in its Judgment gone astray, or that was in danger of going astray. The only pri- 
macy was the primacy of the church, not of the bishop ; and this primacy was a primacy 
of goodness, backed up by metropolitan advantages. All this fraternal fellowship fol- 
lows from the fundamental conception of the local church as the concrete embodiment 
of the universal church. Park : ** Congregationalism recognises a voluntary co(Spera- 
tion and communion of the churches, which Independency does not do. Independent 
churches ordain and depose pastors without asking advice from other churches.'* 

In accordance with this general principle, in a case of serious disagreement between 
different portions of the same church, the council called to advise should be, if possible, 
a mutual, not an ex parte, council ; see Dexter, Congregationalism, 2, 8, 01-61. It is a 
more general application of the same principle, to say that the pastor should not shut 
himself in to his own church, but should cultivate friendly relations with other pastors 
and with other churches, should be present and active at the meetings of AsKWlationa 
and State Conventions, and at the Anniversaries of the National Societies of the denom- 
ination. His example of friendly interest in the welfare of others will affect his church. 
The strong should be taught to help the weak, after the example of Paul in raising 
oontrfbutions for the poor churches of Judea. 



RELATION OF LOCAL CHURCHES TO 0KB ANOTHER. 929 

The principle of church independenoe Ib not only consistent with, but it absolutely 
requires under Christ, all manner of Christian cooperation with other churches ; and 
Social and Mission Unions to unify the work of the denomination, to secure the start- 
insr of new enterprises, to prevent one church from trenching upon the territory or 
appropriating the members of another, are only natural outmrowths of the principle. 
President Wayland's remark, ''He who is displeesed with everybody and evenrthing 
gives the best evidence that his own temper is defective and that he is a bad asBooiate,** 
applies to churches as well as to individuals. Bach church is to remember that, though 
it is honored by the indwelling of the Lord, it constitutes only a part of that great body 
of which Christ is the head. 

See Davidson, EcoL Polity of the N. T. ; Ladd, Principles of Church Polity; and on 
the general subject of the Church, Hodge, Bssays, 201 ; Flint, Christ's Kingdom on 
Barth, fia-8SB; Hooker, Bodestastical Polity; The Church,— a collection of essays by 
Luthardt, Kahnis, etc,; Hiscoz, Baptist Church Directory; Ripley, Church Polity; 
Harvey, The Church; Growell, Church Members* Manual ; R. W. Dale, Manual of Con- 
gregational Principles; Lightfoot, Com. on Phlllppians, excursus on the Christian 
Ministry ; Ross, The Church-Kingdom — Lectures on Congregationalism ; Dexter, Con- 
gregationalism, ea-Tia, as seen in its Literature ; Allison, Baptist Councils in America. 
For a denial that there is any real apostolic authority for modem church polity, see 
O. J. Thatcher, Sketch of the History of the Apostolio Church. 



59 



OHAPTEB n. 



THE ORDIKAXrOES OF THE CHUBCH. 

By fhe ordinances, we mean those outward rites which Ohrist has 
appointed to be administered in his church as visible signs of the saving 
truth of the gospeL They are signs, in that they vividly express this truth 
and confirm it to the believer. 

In contrast with this characteristically Protestant view, the Bomanist 
regards the ordinances as actoally conferring grace and producing holiness. 
Instead of being the external manifestation of a preceding union with 
Christ, they are the physicsd means of constituting and maintaining this 
union. With the Bomanist, in this particular, sacramentalists of every 
name substantially agree. The Papal Church holds to seven sacraments or 
ordinances: — ordination, confirmation, matrimony, extreme unction, pen- 
ance, baptism, and the eucharist The ordinances prescribed in the N. T., 
however, are two and only two, viz. : — Baptism and the Lord's Supper. 

It will be well to distinguish from one another the three words: symbol, rite, and 
ordlnanoe. 1. A svrnbol is the sign, or visible representation, of an invisible truth or 
idea; as for example, the Hon is the symbol of strength and oourage, the lamb is the 
symbol of gentleness, the olive branch of peace, the sceptre of dominion, the wedding 
ring of marriage, and the flag of country. Symbols may teach great lessons ; as Jesus' 
cursing the barren flgtree taught the doom of unfruitful Judaism, and Jesus* washing of 
the disciples* feet taught his own coming down from heaven to purify and save, and the 
humble service required of his followers. 2. A rile is a symbol which is employed with 
regularity and sacred Intent. Symbols became rites when thus used. Examples of 
authorized rites in the Christian Church are the lajrlng on of hands in ordination, and 
the giving of the right hand of fellowship. 8. An ordinance is a symbolic rite which 
sets forth the central truths of the Christian faith, and which is of universal and per- 
petual obligation. Baptism and the Lord's Supper are rites which have become 
ordinances by the spedflo command of Christ and by their inner relation to the essential 
truths of his kingdom. No ordinance is a sacrament in the Romanist sense of confer- 
ring grace ; but, as the saeramentum was the oath taken by the Roman soldier to obey 
his conunander even unto death, so Baptism and the Lord's Supper are sacraments, in 
the sense of vows of allegiance to Christ our Master. 

President H. O. Weston has recorded his objections to the observance of the so-called 
*' Christian Tear,* in words that we quote, as showing the danger attending the Romanist 
multiplication of ordinances. "L The * Christian Year' is not Christian. It makes 
everything of actions, and nothing of relatlona Make a day holy that Qod has not 
made holy, and you thereby make all other days unholy. 2. It limits the Christian's 
view of Christ to the scenes and events of his earthly life. Salvation comes through 
spiritual relations to a living Lord. The * Christian Year ' makes Christ only a memory, 
and not a living, present, personal power. Life, not death, is the tjrplcal word of the 
N. T. Paul craved, not a knowledge of the fact of the resurrection, but of the power of 
it. The New Testament records busy themselves most of all with what Christ is doing 
now. 8. The appointments of the * Christian Year* are not in accord with the N. T. 
These appointments lack the reality of spiritual life, and are contrary to the essential 
spirit of Christianity.*' We may add that where the *' Christian Year " is most generally 
and rigtd«y observed, there popular religion is most formal and destitute of spiritual 

980 



BAPTISK. 981 

L Baftibic. 

Ghristian Baptifim is the immersion of a believer in water, in token of his 
previons entrance into the oommunion of Christ's death and resurrection, — 
or, in other words, in token of his regeneration through union with Ohrist 

1. Baptism an Ordinance of Christ 

A. Proof that Ohrist instituted an external rite called baptism. 

(a) From the words of the great commission ; ( 6) from the injunctions 
of the apostles ; (c) from the fact that the members of the New Testament 
churches were baptized believers ; ( d ) from the uniyersal practice of such 
a rite in Christian churches of subsequent timea 



(a) ]liiS8:19— '<ao7fttmftr^uidiiMkedJmpl«of>UtkBiwtiflB%bipki^ 
and of th« Son ud of the My Sprit"; Mark 16:16— '*Io that iMliflTith aul la haptind ihaU be Htfod"— we hold« 
with Westoott and Hort, that Mark 16: 9-SO is of canonical authority, thoufirh probably not 
written by Bfark himself. (Z>> id82:88— "ind Peter said nnto then. Bepest ye, and be baptiaadenry 
eneof yoalntiMBaneof JflnaOhriatimtothenBiaBioBof yomraiiia"; (e) Rob.6:S-6 — "OrareTaignonuitthak 
all vevfao van baptiaed into OhiiatJesoavarebiftiaed Into his death? Ve van buried therafcre vith him through 
baptiam into death: that like aa Chziat vaa raiaed Ibai the dead through the glory of the Fkther, ao ve alao might valk 
in nevnaaa of liib. Fiir if ve han beeone united vith him in the likeneai of hia death, ve ahali beaJao inthelikeDeaaof 
hia nanrreotion " ; OoL 2 : 11, 12 — ''in vhoa je ven alao eireomeiaed vith a aireonuiaion not made vith haada, in the 
potting off of the body of the fleeh, in the etmuneiilon of Chriat; having been boried vith him in baptiin, vhenin ye 
mn alao raiaed vith him thnogh futh in the vorking of God, vho raiaed him from the dead." ( d) The only 
marked ezoeptiona to the univeraal requisition of baptism are found In the Society of 
Friends, and in the Salvation Army. The Salvation Army does not regard the ordinance 
as having any more permanent obligation than feet- washing. General Booth: **We 
teach our soldiers that every time they break bread, they are to remember the broken 
body of the Lord, and every time they wash the body, they are to remind themselves of 
the cleansing power of the blood of Christ and of the Indwelling Spirit." The Society 
of Friends regard Christ's commands as fulfilled, not by any outward baptism of water, 
but only by the Inward baptism of the Spirit. 

B. This external rite intended by Christ to be of nniversal and per- 
petoal obligation. 

(a) Ohrist recognized John the Baptist's commission to baptize as 
derived immediately from heaven* 

1lai21:85— *' Aa baptiam of John, vhenee vaa it? Ibm heann or from men ?"— here Jesus clearly Inti- 
mates that John's commisBlon to baptize was derived directly from God ; e/. John 1 : SB— 
the delegates sent to the Baptist by the Sanhedrin ask him : ^'^ then beptiaeBt thoo, if thon art 
not the Ohriat; neither Sijah, neither the prophet? " thus indicating that John's baptism, either in its 
form or its application, was a new ordinance that required special divine authorization. 

Broadus, In his American Com. on Mai 3 : 6, claims that John's baptism was no modifi- 
cation of an existing rite. Proeelyte baptism is not mentionet in the Mishna ( A. D. 200 ) ; 
the first distinct account of it is in the Babylonian Talmud ( Oemara) written in the 
fifth century ; It was not adopted from the Christians, but was one of the Jewish puri- 
fications which came to be regarded, after the destruction of the Temple, as a peculiar 
initiatory rite. There is no mention of it, as a Jewish rite. In the O. T., N. T., Apocrypha, 
Phllo, or Josephus. 

For the view that proaelytfr-baptism did not exist amon^ the Jews before the time of 
John, see Schneokenburger, ITeber das Alter der JUdischen Proseljrtentauf e ; Stuart, in 
Bib. Repos., 18S8:88S-865; Toy, In Baptist Quarterly, 1872:901-838. Dr. Toy, however, 
in a private note to the author ( 1884 ), says : ** I am disposed now to regard the Christian 
rite as borrowed from the Jewish, contrary to my view in 1872." So holds Bdersheim, 
Life and Times of Jesus, 2 : 743-744—" We have positive testimony that the baptism of 
proselytes existed in the times of Hillel and ShammaL For, whereas the school of 
fffmrntni^i is said to have allowed a proselyte who was oiroumoised on the eve of the 
Passover, to partake, after baptism, of the Passover, the school of Hillel forbade It. 
This controversy must be regarded as proving that at that time [pravious to Gbzlst ] 
the baptism of proselytes was customary." 



932 EGOLESIOLOOT, OB THE DOCTBIKE OF THE CHUBCH. 

Porter, on Proselyte Baptlan, Hastings' Bible Diet., 4 : 18S— ** If droiimcision was the 
deolslTe step in the case of all male oonverts, there seems no longer room for serioiM 
luestion that a bath of pariflcation must have followed, even though early mention of 
anoh proselyte baptism is not found. The law (Ut. il-tS; lun. 19) prescribed such 
baths in all cases of impurity, and one who came with the deep impurity of a heathen 
life behind him could not have entered the Jewish oommunity without such oleansinff.*' 
Plummer, on Baptism, Hastings' Bible Diet., 1 :2a0— " What is wanted is direct evidenoo 
that, before John the Baptist made so remarkable a use of the rite, it was the custom 
to make all proselytes submit to baptism ; and such evidence is not forthcoming. 
Nevertheless the fact is not really doubtfuL It is not credible that the baptising of 
proselytes was instituted and made essential for their admission to Judaism at a period 
subsequent to the institutiOD of Christian baptism ; and the supposition that it was 
borrowed from the rite enjoined by Christ is monstrous." 

Although the O. T. and the Apoorsrpha, Josephus and Philo, are silent with regard to 
proselyte baptism, it is certain that it existed among the Jews in the early Christian 
centuries ; and it is almost equally certain that the Jews could not have adopted it from 
the Christians. It is probable, therefore, that the baptism of John was an application 
to Jews of an immersion which, before that time, was administered to proselytes from 
among the Gentiles ; and that it was this adaptation of the rite to a new class of subjects 
aod with a new meaning, which excited the inquiry and criticism of the Sanhedrin, We 
must remember, however, that the Lord's Supper was likewise an adaptation of certain* 
portions of the old Passover service to a new use and meaning. See also Kitto, Bib. 
Cyclop., 8 :586L 

( 6 ) In his own sabmiasion to John's baptism^ Ohrisfc gave testimony to 
the binding obligation of the ordinance (Mat 8 : 13-17). John's baptism 
was easenlJally Ohiistian baptism (Acts 19 : 4), althongh the full signifi- 
cance of it was not understood until after Jesus' death and resurrection 
(Mat 20: 17-28; Luke 12: 50; Bom. 6:8-6). 

lai 8:1347 —*'8iiff«r it nov: flbr tkoi it b«aiMlk u to MU ill rightocmw"; AaliH;4— "JohnbiitiMd 
vitk th« teptini of np«itaB0^ nylng VBto tk* peopto that tkbj ikald bdim on Um that AooU omm ilUrkin, tktX 
ii, on J«m*\ lia 20 : 18, 19, 88 —''tka 8oB of ma ihaU Im dttiftni vato tkt ohiif priMto ud MribM ; OB^ 

tondomn him to dMUk, and thall doUw kia unto tha G«Ati]« to mook, and to Moiirg^ and to tnatj An 70 

aUotodrlnk iho oapthat I an abont to diink?" Lnko 18:80— '*Baft I havi a baptinn to bo bapdiad vith ; and 
bow am I itaiitonid till it bo aooonpliabid 1 " Ron. 6: 8; 4>-''0r aro 70 ignorant that all vo wbo wm biytiiod into 
Obrift Jona vara baptind into bit doatb? Wo van boried tbwofen vitb bin tbnmgk baptlai into doatb: tbatlikou 
Obriat wu zaiaod flram the daad tbroofb tbo glorj of tbo liitbw, ao vo alio mlgbt walk la bowdmi of lifk" 

Robert Hall, Works, 1 : 887-809, denies that John's baptism was Christian baptism, and 
holds that there is not suflBcient evidence that all the apostles were baptized. The faot 
that John's baptism was a baptism of faith in the comlnir Messiah, as well as a baptism 
of repentanoe for past and present sin, refutes this theory. The only dUrerence between 
John*s baptism, and the baptism of our time, is that John baptised upon profession of 
faith in a Savior yet to come ; baptism is now administered upon profession of faith in 
a Savior who has actually and already oome. On John's baptism as presupposing faith 
in those who received it, see treatment of the Subjects of Baptism, page 060. 

( c ) In continuing the practice of baptism through his disciples (John 
4 : I9 2 ), and in enjoining it upon them as part of a work which was to last 
to the end of the world (Mat. 28 : 19, 20), Christ manifestly adopted and 
api>ointed baptism as the invariable law of his church. 

Jobn4:l,8—"Vbatbanf<M tbo Lord know tbat tbo PbaiiiM bad baard tbat Jtioa wu nakiiv and bapturiag 
B»«dia8iplaBtbaBJoba(altboagbJflBasbinMlfbaptSxodnot,bntblsdladploi)"; ]iat88:lfl^20— "QoTotbrnAn^ 
aad nako dlidplaa of all tbo nation^ baptiilng tbon Into tbo namo of tbo Patbor and of tbo Sob and of tbo H0I7 Spirit: 
toaobins tb«i to obMrro all tbiags wbatooorar I ooimaandod 7on; and to, I aa witb 70a alwa7i^ ttrm nnto tbo «d of 
tbo world." 

{d) The analogy of the ordinance of the Lord's Supper also leads to the 
conclusion that baptism is to be observed as an authoritatiye memorial of 
Christ and his tru^, until his second coming. 



BAPTISM. 933 



lOv.tliSe^^rteudUBMT^MiKUi taMd, tnd driak ths np^ yi prakim tht lord'i daitk tlU k« 
Baptism, like the Lord's Supper, is a teaching ordinance, and the two ordinances together 
furnish an Indispensable witness to Christ's death and resurrection. 

(6) There is no intunataon whatever that the oommand of baptism is 
limited, or to be limited, in its application, — that it has been or ever is to 
be repealed ; and, nntil some evidenoe of snch limitation or repeal is pro- 
dnoed, the statute mnst be regarded as nniyersally binding. 

On the proof that baptism is an ordinance of Christ, see Pepper, in Madison Avenue 
Lectures, 8&-1U; Dagg, Church Order, 9-21. 

2. The Mode of Baptism. 

This is immersion, and immersion only. This appears from the follow- 
ing considerations : 

A. The oommand to baptize is a oommand to immerse. — We show this : 

(a) From the meaning of the original word pam-l^tt. That this is to 
immerse, appears: 

First, — from the nsage of Greek writers — including the ohnroh Fathers, 
when they do not speak of the Christian rite, and the authors of the Greek 
version of the Old Testament. 

LlddeU and Scott, Greek Lexicon : ** jlavri^M, to dip in or under water; Lat. itiuFMr- 
0ere.** Sophocles, Lexicon of Oreek Usage in the Roman and Byzantine Periods, 140 
B. C. to 1000 A. D.—" /Sairrt^w, to dip, to immerse, to sink. .... There is no evidence 
that Luke and Paul and the other writers of the N. T. put upon this verb meanings not 
recognized by the Greeks." Thayer, N. T. Lexicon: ^^fiturriin, literally to dip, to dip 

repeatedly, to immerge, to submerge, .... metaphorically, to overwhelm 

fidwrurita^ immersion, submersion .... a rite of sacred immersion commanded by 
Christ.'* Prof. Goodwin of Harvard IJDlveraity, Feb. 18, 18%, says: "The claasloal 
meaning of fiairtlin^ which seldom occurs, and of the more common fiawrw, is dip 
( literally or metaphorically ), and I never heard of its having any other meaning any- 
where. Certain ly I never saw a lexicon which gives either sprinkle or pour, as meanings 
of either. I must be allowed to ask why I am so often asked this question, which seems 
to me to have but one perfectly plain answer.'* 

In the International Critical Cctmmentary, see Plummer on Luke, p. 86—^* It is only 
when baptism is administered by immersion that its full significance is seen '* ; Abbott 
on Colossians, p. 261— "The flgiire was naturally suggested by the immersion in bap- 
tism '* ; see also Gould on Mark, p. 127 ; Sanday on Romans, p. 164-U7. No one of these 
four Commentaries was written by a Baptist. The two latest English Bible Dictionaries 
agree upon this point. Hastings, Bib. Diet., art. : Baptism, p. 843 a—*' The mode of using 
was commonly immersion. The symbolism of the ordinance required this " ; Chesme, 
Encyc. Biblica, 1 : 478, while arguing from the Dfdache that from a very early date **a 
triple pouring was admitted where a sufficiency of water could not be had," agrees that 
" such a method [ as immersion ] is presupposed as the ideal, at any rate, in Paul's words 
about death, burial and resurrection in baptism ( Ran. 6 : 3-5 ).'* 

Conant, Appendix to Bible Union Version of Matthew, 1-4M, hag examples "drawn 
from writers in almost every department of literature and science ; from poets, rheto- 
ricians, philosophers, critics, historians, geographers; from writen on husbandry, on 
medicine, on natural history, on grammar, on theology ; from almost every form and 
style of composition, romances, epistles, orations, fables, odes, epigrams, sermons, nar- 
ratives: from writers of various nations and religions. Pagan, Jew, and Christian, 
belonging to many countries and through a long succession of ages. In all, the word 
has retained its ground-meaning without change. ITrom the earliest age of Greek 
literature down to its close, a period of nearly two thousand years, not an example has 
been found in which the word has any other meaning. There is no instance in which it 
signifies to make a partial application of water by affusion or sprinkling, or to cleanse, 
to purify, apart from the literal act of immersion as the means of cleansing or purify- 
ing." See Stuart, in Bib. Repos., 1883 : 818 ; Broadus on ImmersiOD, 57. note. 



934 BOGUSSIOLOGY, OB THB DOCTBINE OF THB GHUBOH. 



Bale, in his GUuBio, Judaic, Chiiatio, and Fatrtotio Baptism, malntaloa that |M«tw alone 
means * to dip,' and that fiawri^m never means * to dip/ but only ' to put within,* givinff 
no intimation that the object is to be taken out aflrain. But see Beview of Dale, bj 
A. a Kendrick, in Bap. Quarterly, 1809 : USB, and by Harvey, in Bap. Review, IflTB : 141- 
168. " Plutarch used the word ^airrt^w, when he describes the soldiers of Alexander on a 
riotous march as by the roadside dipping ( lit. : baptialnff ) with cups from huge wine 
Jars and mixing bowls, and drinking to one another. Here we have fiawriim used wliere 
Dr. Dale's theory would call for fidwrm. The truth Is that fiawriim, the stronger word, 
came to be used In the same sense with the weaker; and the attempt to prove a broad 
and Invariable difference of meaning between them breaks down. Of Dr. Dale^ three 
meanings of fimwri^n — ( l ) intusposition without influence (stone in water ), ( 2 ) Intus- 
pcsition with Influence ( man drowned in water), (8) influence without intusposition, 
— the last is a flgment of Dr. Dale's imagination. It would allow me to say that when 
I burned a piece of paper, I baptized It. The grand result is this : Beginning with the 
position that baptize means immerse. Dr. Dale ends by T"B*"*^*'?<"g that Immerrion is 
not baptism. Because Christ speaks of drinking a cup. Dr. Dale Infers that this is bap- 
tism.** For a complete reply to Dale, see Ford, Studies on Baptism. 

Secondly, — every paasage where the word oooors in the New Testament 
either requires or allows the meaning 'immerse.' 

Kii8:fl^U— **IiidM4b«pliMjMiBvitarutonpariuM. ... kt AiU b^lia jm in tte Mj Spirit aai is 
fln"; c/. t Kiagi6:14— "Animt kt [ Naaman ] dftvn, and dipptd Uaialf [ j/U«Ti<r«To] mtu tOMiintkt 
JoritB*'; Harkl:5, 9-~*'the7vmUptijidofkimiBttMriTwJ«idHi,MaflMBgthttriiiUL .... Jans mow frm 
luHWth of (klilM, ud VH bftftiad of John into ttM Joriaa"; 7:4— "ud vhntkiyooBoibmtheBiirkitrplMi^ 
OMpI thij bfttko tut. : 'biptin' ] tkoBMlTii, thij «i» oaI: tad maaj olh« tUagi thin tn, vkiA tk^ karo 
noaTdltokold,VHkiags[llt.: 'biptUagi*] of o^o^aad po«a» tad knMifMMls**- In this verse, West- 
cott and Hort, with M and n, read pwrivmrruk^ Instead of fiawriat^trrai ; but It is easy 
to see how subsequent ignorance of Pharisaic scrupulousnesi might have changed 
fiawrlvurrai into poyriVwrrot ; but not easy to SCO how ^avrto-Myru Should have been 
changed into fiavrimttrrai. On IsiiS:S (and the parallel passage Ittk 7:4), see Broadus, 
Com. on Mat., pages 88B. 888b Herodotus, S: 47, says that if any Egyptian touches a 
swine in passing, with his dothes, he goes to the river and dips himself from it. 

Meyer, Oom. in loco— "idrfi^^Avrtirwrrai Js not to be understood of washing the 
hands ( Lightfoot, Wetsteln ), but of immersion, which the word in classic Greek and in 
the N. T. everywhere means ; here, according to the context, to take a bath.'* The 
Bevlsed Version omits the words ^and couches," although Maimonides speaks of a 
Jewish immersion of couches ; see quotation from Maimonides In Ingham, Handbook 
of Baptism, 878 — ^* Whenever in the law washing of the flesh or of the clothes is men- 
tioned. It means nothing else than the dipping of the whole body in a laver ; for If any 
man dip himself all over except the tip of his little finger, be is still in his undeanneas. 
• ... A bed that is wholly defiled, if a man dip it part by part, it is pure.*' Watson, 
In Annotated Par. Bible, lUS. 

lAkoll:88— "indvkaitkoPkiiiM«vi^k«BarTdlodtkilkakdiiMtintkitkod[llt.: 'kiyliiid'lkiiiMlf 
boftn diuMr" ; cA Eocleslasticus 81 : 25— *' He that washeth himself after the touching of 
a dead body *' ( ^airri^dficrof &wh v«<cpou ) ; Judith 12 : 7 — " washed herself [ ifiavri^m ] in 
a fountain of water by the camp '* ; Ur. 28:4-4 — "Wkooo toiukflik ujtkiag tkat it oaoloia by tkt 

dad ... . iDMliia um tk« OTcn bttko kit ink is valor." ioti 8 : 41 — " Tkoy tkon tkat nooiTod kii 

vwd mn bo.pliiod: and tkan mn addod unto tkon la tktt day aboat tkroo tkouud moIi." Although the 
water supply of Jerusalem is naturally poor, the artificial provision of aqueducts, cis- 
terns, and tanks, made water abundant. During the siege of Titus, though thousands 
died of famine, we read of no suffering from lack of water. The following are the 
dimensions of pools in modem Jerusalem : King's Pool, 15 feet x 16 x 8; SUoam, 63 x 18 
X 19; Hezekiah, 240 x 140 x 10; Betbesda (so-called), 860 x 180 x 76 ; Upper Gihon, 816 x 
218 X 19 ; Lower Gihon, 600 x Si60 x 18 ; see Robinson, Biblical Researches, 1 : 8S8-348, and 
Samson, Water-supply of Jerusalem, pub. by Am. Bap. Pub. Soc. There was no dlfllculty 
in baptizing three thousand in one day ; for, in the time of Chrysostom, when all can- 
didates of the year were baptised in a single day, three thousand were once baptized ; 
and, on July 8, 1878, 2222 Telugu Christians were baptized by two administrators in nine 
hours. These Telugu baptisms took place at Velumpilly, ten miles north of Ongole. 
The same two men did not baptize all the time. There were six men engaged in bap- 
tizing, but never more than two men at the same time. 

iflti 16:88— "ind ko took tkom tke itiiio koar of tke lufkt, ud vukod tboir itripoo ; and vm bi^Und, kt oad aU 
kHlamidiitilj ** — the prison was doubtless, as are most large edifices in the Bast, whether 



BAPTISM. 635 

public or private, provided with tank and fountain. See Cremer, Lnnoon of N. T 
Greek, mb voce — ** ^a«rt^w, immersion or submersion for a rellflrlous purpose.*' Grimm's 
ed. of Wilke— "/SawTi^M, 1. Immerse, submerKo; 8. Wash or bathe, by immersing or 
gubmersring (Kirk 7:4, also Naaman and Judith); 8. Figuratively, to overwhelm, as 
with debts, misfortunes, etc." In the N. T. rite, he says it denotes ** an immersion in 
water, intended as a sign of sins washed away, and received by those who wished to be 
admitted to the beneflta of Messiah's reign." 

DGUinger, Kirohe und Kirchen, 837—" The Baptists are, however, from the Protes 
tant point of view, unassailable, since for their demand of baptism by submersion they 
have the clear Bible text ; and the authority of the church and of her testimony is not 
regarded by either party '*— i. e^ by either Baptists or Protestants, generally. Prof. 
Hamaok, of Giessen, writes in the Independent, Feb. 19, 1886 — ** 1. JSdptteein undoubtedly 
signifies immersion < eintauehen ). 8. No proof can be found that it signifies anything 
else in the N. T. and in the most ancient Christian literature. The suggestion regard- 
ing a ' sacred sense ' is out of the question. 8. There is no passage in the N. T. which 
suggests the supposition that any New Testament author attached to the word 5ap- 
tizein any other sense than e(ntattc/ien-*untertatie/ien (immerse, submerge)." See 
Com. of Meyer, and Cunningham, GroaU Lectures. 

Thirdly, — the absence of any nae of the word in the paasiye voice with 
* water' as its subject confirms onr conclusion that its meaning is "to 
immerse." Water is never said to be baptized upon a man. 

(6 ) From the use of the verb panrl^u with prepositions : 

First, — with ei^ ( Mark 1:9 — where *lop6dvrnf is the element into which 
the person passes in the act of being baptized ). 

lMfci:9, ]iiMg.--*t^itaa«topMiBtloMdaji^thilJfliiiiflHBeftmlMM«aflfMito^ 
John into thAJordu." 

Secondly,— with iv( Mark 1:5, 8; c/. Mat. 8:11. John 1 : 26, 81, 88 ; 
c/. Acts 2 : 2, 4). In these texts, iv is to be taken, not instrumentally, but 
as indicating the element in which the immersion takes place. 

1hrkl:S,8--"tk07vweta|tiMdofhiminthtriTvJflffdiuk,9onfoMingtbciriiBi . . . .IbiptiiedTonin vfttar; 
Imt h« thiOl baptiH yon in tkt loly Spirit " — here see Meyer's Com. on Mai 3 : 11 — *' ^i^ is in aooord- 
anoe with the meaning of ^avrt^M ( immerse ), not to be understood instrumentally, but 
on the contrary, in the sense of the element in which the immersion takes place." 
Those who pray for a ' baptism of the Holy Spirit ' pray for such a pouring out of the 
Spirit as shall fill the place and permit them to be flooded or immersed in his abundant 
presence and power ; see a B. Smith, Baptism of Fire, 1881 : 805-811. Plumptre : " The 
baptism with the Holy Ohost would imply that the souls thus baptized would be 
plunged, as it were, in that creative and informing Spirit, which was the source of 
light and holiness and wisdom." 

A. J. Gordon, Ministry of the Spirit, 67 — '* The upper room became the Spirit's bap- 
tistery. His presence 'iUl«ddltk*koiiM whm they vm riuing* (ioli2:2). .... Baptismin the 
Holy Spirit was given once for all on the day of Pentecost, when the Paraclete came in 
person to make his abode in the church. It does not follow that every believer has 
received this baptism. God's gift is one thing, — our appropriation of that gift is quite 
another thing. Our relation to the second and to the third persons of the Gk)dhead is 
exactly parallel in this respect. '6«d lo IoT«d the vorU, thai ha gave his only btgottn Bon* (John 3:16). 
*Biit u many M received him, to tham gav« ho tho right to booome ohildm of God, tron to tham thai boIioTo on 
hia namo * ( John i : 12 ). We are required to appropriate the Spirit as sons, in the same way 
that we are required to appropriate Christ as sinners .... 'Eahnalhod on than, and satth onto 
tt«,R«ooiTojo*— takeye,actively-'teIoty^pirit* <JohnSO:S).** 

( c ) From dronmstanoes attending the administration of the ordinance 
(Markl:10 — avapaivuvkKTovldaToc; John8:28 — vdara iro^M ; Acts S :38, 
89 — Kariptfoav etc rb ifdap .... Mpijaav ck wv ifiaroc). 



laAlMO— "ooningapoBl oftta intir"; John 8:S3~"ABd John alao vu hoptifing in Jhion niar to SaUn^ 
than wai mut valv than*' —a sufficient depth of water for baptizhig ; see Prof. W, A« 



936 BCGLBSIOLOGT, OB THB DOOTBIKB OF THB CHUBOH. 

StereiDB, on Maoa near to Sallm, in Joum. Boo. of Bfb. lAt, and Bscegeiis, Deo. 18881 
A0lt8:88;l9— **u4tkt7bolkv«ld0vaiitotkt vite, b«th lUl^udtteNBUh;!^ iii 

vhAttiijiaBt^mtff th« vitar .....** In the case of Philip and theeunuch^ President 
Timothy Dwiffht, in 8. 8. Times, Auff. 97, 189B, sajs : ** The baptism was apparently by 
immersion.'* The Bditor adds that ^* practioally soholan are agreed that the primitiTe 
iftattning of tho woTd 'baptlse ' was to immene.** 

(d) From figoioliTe allnsioiiB to the oidinaiijoe. 

laiklOtSS—'AnyeiUttodiiBk tte rap tkitl I Mak? «r to be b^tiiad vittlkb^linlM^ 
iritk?"— here the oup is the oup of suffering in Gethsemane; ef, Inkt S:4S— *'ralk«,ifthM 
be vilUag, naan thit esp fron ae**; and the baptism is the baptism of death on OalTary, and 
of the graye that was to follow ; c/. lake 12 : 50 — '* I ba?a a beptwi to be beptUod vitb ; ad bov am I 
■tniteoid till it be aeeonpliAid I " Death presented itself to the Savior's mind as a baptism* 
because it was a sinking under the Hoods of suffering. Ben. 6 : 4— " Ve vwe buiad tkmfae 
vitb bim tkmgb bepttaa into doeth : tkal lilce If Obriit vtt niied IhH tbo ted tkrani^ tke (k^ 
vt ate migbt valk is neviiMi of Ufo" — Oonybeare and Howson, Life and BplsUes of St. Paul, 
say, on this psasage, that **it cannot be understood without remembering that the 
primitive method of baptism was by immersion.'* On lake IS : 4S^ aaif .— " I eoae to eoit fire vp« 
tbeiorth,iadbowiioHldItbalitven«]r«d7kiBdledr'— seeWendt,Teaohingof Jesus,S:8»--''He 
knew that he wss called to bring a new energy and movement into the world, which 
mightily seises and draws everything towards it, as a hurled iirebrand, which where- 
ever it falls kindles a flame which expands into a vast sea of lire ** — the baptism of 
fire, the baptism in the Holy Spirit ? 

iOv.lO:i,8-"eQrfrtb«ivw«iUudirthod0id, aad oil peaed tbnogb tbOM; aal vmaUbeptiadulo 
iMiistbeelfliidaBdistbe loa**; (U. S:iS- "baTiaf bees bnied vitb UaisboptisB, vbareiajivwoalM 
niMdvitbbiiii";EeKiO:»— "baTingevbeirtiipriiikled bm la ffil ooaeBoi^ and bavi^ ear body vaAad 
[A«Aovf&<roi] vitb pin vitar"— here Trench, N. T. Synonsrms, 21ft, 217, says that **Xov« 
implies always, not the bathing of a part of of the body, but of the whole.'* i M 8 : M, 
21 — "BaTodtbroogb vatar: vbiob eloo after a tnio likMMi dotb aov nve joo, ereii bapttan, net tbe psttJag avqr 
ef tbe ilth of Oe fleih, bst the intemgatiga of a good eenedflm tovHdflod, tbimfb tbenni^ 
as the ark whose sides were immersed in water saved Noah, so the immersion of 
believers typically saves them ; that Is, the answer of a good oonscienoe, the turning 
of the soul to Ood, which baptism symboUaes. ** In the ritual of Moses and Aaron, 
three things were used : oil, blood, and water. The oil was poured, the blood was 
sprinkled, the water was used for complete ablution first of all, and subsequently for 
partial ablution to those to whom complete ablution had been previously adminis- 
tered ** ( Wm. Ashmore). 

(e) FromtheteBtiiiu>nyQfdbiiz6hh]Btorja8toth^ 
dhnrdh. 

Tertullian, De Baptismo, ofaap. 12— ** Others make the suggestion (forced enough, 
(dearly ) that the apostles then served the turn of baptism when in their little ship they 
were sprinkled and covered with the waves; that Peter himself also was immersed 
enough when he walked on the sea. It is however, as I think, one thing to be sprinkled 
or intercepted by the violence of the sea ; another thing to be baptised in obedience to 
the discipline of religion.'* Fisher, Beginning of Christianity, £66— "Baptism, it is now 
generally agreed among scholars, was commonly administered by immersion." Sohait, 
History of the ApoetoUo Church, 670— *^ Bespeoting the form of baptism, the impartial 
historian is compelled by exegesis and history substantially to yield the point to the 
Baptists." Elsewhere Dr. Schafl says : *^The baptism of Christ in the Jordan, and the 
illustrations of baptism used in the N. T., are all in fiivor of immersion, rather than of 
sprinkling, as is freely admitted by the best ezegetes, Catholic and Protestant, English 
and German. Nothing can be gained by unnatural exegesis. The persistency and 
aggressiveneeB of Baptists have driven pedobaptists to opposite extremes." 

Dean Stanley, in his address at Eton College, March, 1879^ on Historical Aspects of 
American Churches, speaks of immersion as ** the primitive, apostolical, and, till the 13th 
century, the universal, mode of baptism, which is still retained throughout the Eastern 
churches, and which is still in our own church as positively enjoined in theory as it is 
universally neglected in practice." The same writer, in the Nineteenth Century, Oct. 
1879, says that " the change from immersion to sprinkling has set aside the larger part 
of the apostolic language regarding baptism, and has altered the very meaning of the 
word." Neander, Church Hist., 1 : 810— " In respect to the form of baptism. It was* In 



BAFTI8M. 987 

oonformlty with the orlfftnal institution and the oriflrinal import of the sjnnbol, peru 
formed by ImmerBion, tm a siffn of entire baptism into the Holy Spirit, of being* entirely 

penetrated by the same It was only with the siok, where exigency required it, 

that any exoeption was made. Then it was administered by sprinkling ; but many 
■uperstitions persons imagined such sprinkling to be not fully valid, and stigmatiSRd 
those thus baptised as dinios." 

Until recently, there has been no evidence that dinlo baptism^ i. e^ the baptism of a 
sick or dying person in bed by pouring water copiously around him, was practised 
earlier than the time of Novatian. in the third century ; and in these esses there is good 
reason to belieye that a regenerating efficacy was ascribed to the ordinance. We are 
now. however, compelled to recognise a departure from N. T. precedent somewhat 
further back. Important testimony is that of Prof. Hamack, of Giessen, in the Inde- 
pendent of I^b. 19, 1885 — *^ Up to the present moment we possess no certain proof from 
the period of the second century, in favor of the fact that baptism by sspersion was 
then even facultatively administered ; for Tertullian ( De Poenit., 6, and De Baptismo, 
12 ) is uncertain ; and the age of those pictures upon which is represented a baptism by 
aspersion is not certain. The * Teaching of the Twelve Apostles,* however, has now 
instructed us that already, in very early times, people in the church took no offence 
when aspersion was put in place of immersion, when any kind of outward droum- 
stances miirht render immersion impossible or impracticable. .... But the rule was 
also certainly maintained that immersion was obligatory if the outward conditions of 
such a performance were at hand.*' This seems to show that, while the corruption of 
the N. T. rite began soon after the death of the apostles, baptism by any other form 
than immersion was even then a rare exception, which those who introduced the 
change sought to Justify upon the plea of necessity. See Scbaff, Teaching' of the 
Twelve Apostles, 89-ffr, and other testimony in Ck>leman, Christian Antiquities, 276; 
Stuart, in Bib. Bepos., 1888 : 966-868. 

The ^Teaoblng of the Twelve Apostles,' section 7, reads as follows : " Baptise 

in living water. And if thou have no living water, baptise in other water ; and if thou 
canst not in cold, then in warm. And if thou have neither, pour water upon the head 
thrice." Here it is evident that * baptise * means only * immerse,* but if water be scarce 
pouring may be substituted for baptism. Dr. A. H. Newman, Antipedobaptism, 6, 
says that * The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles' may possibly belong to the second 
half of the second century, but in its present form is probably much later. It does not 
explicitly teach baptismal regeneration, but this view seems to be implied in the require- 
ment, in esse of an absolute lack of a suffldenoy of water of any kind for baptism 
proper, that pouring water on the head three times be resorted to as a substitute. 
Catedietioal instruction, repentance, fasting, and prayer, must precede the baptismal 
rite. 

Dexter, in his True Story of John Smyth and Sebaptlsm, maintains that immersion 
was a new thing in England in 1641. But if so, it was new, ss Congregationalism wss 
new — a newly restored practice and ordinance of apostolic times. For reply to Dexter, 
see Long, in Bap. Bev., Jan. 1888 : 12; 13| who tells us, on the authority of Blunt's Ann. 
Book of CouL Prayer, that from 1085 to 1640, the ' Salisbury Use ' was the accepted 
mode, and this provided for the child's trine immersion. ** The Prayerbook of Edward 
y I succeeded to the Salisbury Use in 1548 ; but in this too immersion has the place of 
honor— affusion is only for the weak. The English church has never sanctioned 
sprinkling ( Blunt, 236). In 1664, the Westminster Assembly said 'sprinkle or pour, ' 
thus annulling what Christ commanded 1600 years before. Queen Elisabeth ?ras 
immersed in 1638. If in 1641 immersion had been so generally and so long disused that 
men saw it with wonder and regarded it as a novelty, then the more distinct, emphatic, 
and peculiarly their own was the work of the Baptists. They come before the world, 
with no partners, or rivals, or abettors, or sympathisezs, as the restorers and preservera 
of Christian baptism.'* 

(/) From the dootrine and piaotioe of the Greek ohnroh. 

DeStourdsa, the greatest modem theologian of the Greek church, writes: ^fivwrf^ 
■lgn^^^^ literally and always * to plunge.' Baptism and immersion are therefore identi- 
cal, and to say * baptism by sspersion ' is as if one should say * immersion by aspersion,' 
or any other absurdity of the same nature. The Greek diurch maintain that the Latin 
church, instead of a fiaim^ii6f, practice a mere payrto-fi^, -> instead of baptism, a mere 
sprinkling " —quoted in Oooant on Mat, appendix, W, See also Broadus on Immer- 
sion, lA. 



938 BCCLESIOLOOYy OR THE BOCTBIKB OF THB GHT7B0H. 

The evidence that Immenion Jb the original mode of baptism Is well summed up hf 
Dr. HarouB Dods, In his article on Baptism In Hastings' Dictionary of Cbristand the 
Apostles. Dr. Dods defines baptism as *' a rite wherein by Immersion In water the par- 
ticipant symbolises and stgnallses his transition from an Impure to a pure life, his death 
to a past he abandons, and his birth to a future he desires." As regards the ^ mode of 
baptism,'* he remarks : "That the normal mode was by Immersion of the whole body 
may be Inferred (a) from the meaning of boptiso, which is the intensive or freqnen- 
tatlTe form of haptOt * I dip,* and denotes to immerse or submerge — the point Is, that 
* dip ' or ' immerse ' Is the primary, * wash * the secondary meaning of fxtpto or haptizo, 
( b ) The same inference may be drawn from the law laid down regarding the baptism 
of proselytes : * As soon as he grows whole of the wound of circumcision, they bring 
him to baptism, and being placed in the water, they again instruct him in some weight- 
ier and In some lighter commands of the Law, which being heard, he plunges himself 
and comes up, and behold, he is an Israelite in tiu. things * ( Lightf oot*s Horse Hebralce ). 
To use Pauline language, his old man Is dead and buried In water, and he rises from this 
cdeansing grave a new man. The full slgnlfloance of the rite would have been lost had 
immersion not been practised. Again, it was required in proselyte baptism that * every 
person baptised must dip his whole body, now stripped and made naked, at one dipping. 
And wheresoever in the Law washing of the body or garments is mentioned, it means 
nothing else than the washing of the whole body.' ( e ) That Immersion was the mode 
of baptism adopted by John is the natural conclusion from his choosing the neighbor- 
hood of the Jordan as the scene of his labors ; and from the statement of Joha 8:28 
that he was baptizing in Bnon * because there was much water there.* ( d) That this 
form was continued in the Christian Church appears from the expresiion Loutron 
palinoeneslaM ( bath of regeneration, Tltu 8:5), and from the use made by St. Paul in 
EoBiui 6 of the symbolism. This is well put by Bingham (Antiquities zi.2)." The 
author quotes Bingham to the effect that ** total immersion under water " was the uni- 
versal practice during the early Christian centuries ** except in somepartioular cases of 
exigence, wherein they allow of sprinkling, as in the case of a clinic baptism, or where 
there Is a scarcity of water." Dr. Dods continues : " This statement exactly reflects 
the ideas of the PftuUne Bpisties and the *Didache'" (Teaching of the Twelve 
Aposties). 

The prevailing iiaage of any word determines the sense it bears, when 
found in a command of Christ We have seen, not only that the prevail- 
ing usage of the Ghreek language determines the meaning of the word 
' baptize ' to be ' immerse,' but that this is its fundamental, constant, and 
only meaning. The original oonmiand to baptize is therefore a (x>mmand 
to immerse. 

As evidence that quite diverse sections of the Christian world are coming to recog- 
nise the original form of baptism to be immersion, we may cite the fact that a memo- 
rial to the late Archbishop of Canterbury has recently been erected in the parish 
church of Lambeth, and that It is in the shape of a *^ font-grave," in which a believer 
can be buried with Christ in baptism ; and also that the Bev. 6. Campbell Morgan has 
had a baptistery constructed in the newly renovated Westminster Congregational 
Church in London. 

Pfleiderer, Philos. Beligion, 8:211— ** As in the case of the Lord's Supper, so did 
Baptism also first receive its sacramental slgnlfloance through PauL As he saw in the 
immersing under water the symbolical repetition of the death and resurrection of 
Christ, baptism appeared to him as the act of spiritual dying and renovation, or 
regeneration, of incorporation into the mystical body of dirist, that ' new creation.' 
As for Paul the baptism of adults only was in question, faith in Christ is already of 
course presupposed by It, and baptism is Just the act in which faith realizes the decisive 
resolution of giving one's self up actually as belonging to Christ and his community. 
Yet the outward act is not on that account a mere semblance of what is already 
present in fSith, but according to the mysticism common to Paul with the whole 
ancient world, the symbolical act efTectuates what it typifies, and therefore in this 
case the mortification of the carnal man and the animation of the spiritual man.*' For 
the view that sprinkling or pouring constitutes valid baptism, see Hall, Mode of Bap- 
tism. Per contra, see Hovey, in Baptist Quarterly, April, 1875 ; Wayland, Principles 
and Practices of Baptists, 85 ; Oarson, Noel, Judson, and P^igilly, on Baptism ; e0peol- 
aUy recent and valuable is Burrage, Act of Baptisnu 



BAPTISM. 939 

B. No ohnroh has the right to modify or dispense with this oommand 
of Christ This is plain : 

(a) From the nature of the ohnroh. Notice: 

First, — that, besides the local ohnrch, no other yisible chnrch of Christ 
is known to the New Testament. Secondly, — that the local ohnroh is not 
a legialatLve, bnt is simply an exeoatiyey body. Only the authority which 
originally imposed its laws can amend or abrogate them. Thirdly, — that 
the local chnrch cannot delegate to any organization or oonnoQ of dinrohes 
any power which it does not itself rightfully possess. Fourthly, — that the 
opx)osite principle puts the church above the Scriptures and above Christ, 
and would sanction all the usurpations of Bome. 



Mil 5 : 19--'' VlMiiotTV tk«nflon thaU Irak « of thM iMt «aaud]ii^ 
liMt ia fhe kingdom of haavn: Iraft whotofTV shall do ud taoflh thni, ho ihall bo odlod gnot in tho kiagdon of 
kMTtt"; e/.88ua.6:7— "Andttooagorof JohonkvMkiadlod ogainitUBak; and God imoto Uffl th«o fcr Ui 
omr ; and tkan lio diod by tho ark of Sod." Shakeepeare, Henry VI, Part 1, 8: 4 — '' Faith, I have 
been a truant in the law. And never yet oould frame my will to it. And therefore frame 
the law unto my will.** As at the Reformation believers rejoioed to restore communion 
in both kinds, so we should rejoioe to restore baptism as to its subjects and as to its 
meaningr* To administer it to a walling and resisting infant,' or to administer it in any 
other form than that prescribed by Jesus' oommand and example. Is to deseorate and 
destroy the ordinance. 

(b) From the nature of God's command : 

First, — as forming a part^ not only of the law, but of the fundamental 
law, of the church of Christ. The power claimed for a church to change 
it is not only legislative but constitutionaL Secondly, — as expressing the 
wisdom of the Lawgiver. Power to change the oommand can be claimed 
for the church, only on the ground that Christ has failed to adapt the 
ordinance to changing circumstances, and has made obedience to it unneces- 
sarily difficult and humiliating. Thirdly, — as providing in immersion the 
only adequate symbol of those saving truths of the go£^ which both of 
the ordinances have it for their office to set forth, and without which they 
become empty ceremonies and forms. In other words, the church has no 
right to change the method of administering the ordinance, because such a 
cheuige vacates the ordinance of its essential meaning. As this argument, 
however, is of such vital importance, we present it more fully in a special 
discussion of the Symbolism of Baptism. 

Abraham Lincoln, in his debates with Douglas, ridiculed the idea that there could be 
any constitutional way of violating the Constitution. F. L. Anderson : " In human 
governments we change the constitution to conform to the will of the people ; in the 
divine government we change the will of the people to conform to the Oonstltution/* 
For advocacy of the church's right to modify the form of an ordinance, see Coleridge, 
Aids to Beflection, in Works, 1:833-M8—** Where a ceremony answered, and was 
intended to answer, several purposes which at its first institution were blended in 
respect of the time, but which afterward, by change of circumstances, were necessarily 
disunited, then either the church hath no power or authority delegated to her, or she 
must be authorized to choose and determine to which of the several purposes the cere- 
mony should be attached." Baptism, for example, at the first symbolized not only 
entrance into the church of Christ, but personal faith in him as Savior and Lord. It is 
assumed that entrance into the church and personal faith are now necessarily disunited. 
Since baptism is in charge of the church, she can attach baptism to the former, and 
not to the latter. 

We of course deny that the separation of baptism from faith is ever oeoessary. We 
maintain, on the contrary, that thus to sepaxate the two is to pervert the onUnaaoe, 



940 BOOLESIOLOOY, OR THE DOOTRIKE OF THE CHURCH. 

and to make It teaoh the doctrine of heraditary ohnroh membeiahlp and aalTstlon by 
outward manipulation apart from faith. We Bay with Dean Stanley ( on Baptism, In 
the Nineteenth Century, Oct. 1879), though not* as he does, with approval, that the 
change in the method of admlntetering the ordinance shows ** how the spirit that lives 
and moves in human society can override the most sacred ordinances.** We cannot 
with him call this spirit **the free spirit of Christianity,"— we reirard itrather as an 
evil spirit of disobedience and unbelief. ** Baptists are therefore pledged to prosecute 
the work of the Reformation until the church shall return to the simple forms it 
posseased under the apostles" (G. M. Stone). See Curtla, Progress of Baptist Prind- 
plee, 234-848. 

ObjeeiUmB : 1. Immersion is often impracticable.— We reply that, when really imprso- 
tioable, it is no longer a duty. Where the will to obey is present, but providential 
droomstances render outward obedience impossible, Christ takes the will for the deed. 

2. It is often dangerous to health and life.— We reply that, when it Is really danger- 
ous, it is no longer a duty. But then, we have no warrant for substituting another 
act for that which Christ has commanded. Duty demands simple delay untn it can be 
administered with safety. It must be remembered that ardent fMlng nerves even the 
body. ** Brethren, if your hearts be warm. Ice and snow can do no harm." The cold 
climate of Russia does not prevent the universal practice of immersion by the Greek 
church of that country. 

8. It is indecent.— We reply, that there Is need of care to prevent exposure, but that 
with this care there Is no indecency, more than in fashionable sea-bathing. The argu- 
ment Is valid only against a oareless administration of the ordinance, not against 
immersion itself. 

4. It is inconvenient.— We reply that, In a matter of obedience to Christ, we are not 
to consult convenience. The ordinance which symbolizes his Baorlflcial death, and our 
spiritual death with him, may naturally involve something of inconvenience, but Joy 
in submitting to that inconvenience will be a test of the spirit of obedience. When the 
act is performed, it should be performed as Christ enjoined. 

6. Other methods of administration have been blessed to those who submitted to 
them.— We reply that Gk>d has often condescended to human ignorance, and has given 
his Spirit to those who honestly sought to serve him, even by erroneous forms, such as 
the Mass. This, however, is not to be taken as a divine sanction of the error, much less 
as a warrant for the perpetuation of a false system on the part of those who know that 
it is a violation of Christ's commands. It is, in great part, the position of its advocates, 
as representativee of Christ and his church, that gives to this false system its power 
forevlL 

3. The Symboliam qf BapHwn. 

Baptism symbolizes the previonB entranoe of the believer into the com- 
mnnion of Christ's death and resorreotion, — or, in other words, regenera- 
tion through union with Christ 

A. Expansion of this statement as to the symbolism of baptism. Bap- 
tism, more partioolarly, is a symbol : 

(a) Of the death and resoirection of Christ 

Am. 6:8— ''Qr an J9 idonat that all v« vko v«n hKi/imi into Ohriik Jama vara baptisad iota Ua daath?" 
ef, lUt8:18— "naBaanatk Jaaoaihm Galilaa to tha Jordan vnteJokn, tobabapkiaadorkiB"; 1h^kiO:38 — 
'• iia ya aUa to drink tha cap that I drink ? or to bo laptiaed vitk tko baptiam tkat I am ba]rtia^ 
M^^Bot I bava a baptiam ta ba bi^tiaad vitk; and kov am I atraitaned till it ba ammpliabad 1 ** (M. 8: 12— 
"bmiBd vith kim in b^liam, vbaraitt 7a van alao raiaad with him thitmgk bitk in tka vorldng of God, vko niaad 
bim Ibm tha daad." For the meaning of these passages, see note on the baptism of Jesus, 
under B. (a), pages 942; 943. 

Denney, In Expositor's Greek Testament, on Im. 6:8-6—'* The argrumentatlTe reqube- 
ments of the passage .... demand the idea of an actual union to, or inoorporation in 
Christ. .... We were buried with him [ in the act of immersion] through that baptism 

into his death If the baptism, wMch is a timUUude of Chrigfs deaths has had a 

reality answering to its obvious import, so that we have really died in it as Christ died, 
then we shall have a corresponding experience of resurrection. Baptism, inasmuch as 
one emerges from the water after being ImmerBed, is a similitude of resurreotion as 
weh as of death." 



BAPTTSH. 941 

( 6) Of the pnrpofle of thai death and resnrreotion, — namely, to atone 
for sin, and to deliver ednnere from its penalty and power. 



RoB.6:4— "WavsnteM tk«rerenvith Urn tknngli Iwftilm into dttth: tUt lika u Chxist «u niiid frM 
dM d«td thnngk tkt glory of tho Pftther, u we alio might walk in wwvm of life" ; c/. 7, 10^ 11 —"for bo ikat katk 
diadiijutiiodfhattiia. .. . . For tho datth thit ho diod, he died usto ib OBoa : but Um lift that he UtoOi, ko linlh 
nntoM Iron m reekea 70 alio jonnelTie to be dead imto lin, but alifo uito 6od in Ghriat Jem *' ; 80or.5:14-> 
" VB thai jiidg% that one died fcr all, thoretee all diel" Baptism Is therefore a conf esBion of evamcelio- 
al faith both as to sId, and as to the deity and atonement of Christ. No one is properly 
a Baptist who does not acknowledge these truths which baptism sifrnifles. 

T. W. Chambers, In Presb. and Ref. Rev., Jan. 1890: llS-118, objects that this view of 
the symbolism of baptism is based on two texts. Bom. 6 : 4 and Oel. 2 : tf; which are illus- 
trative and not explanatory, while the great majority of paasafires make baptism only 
an act of purification. Yet Dr. Chambers concedes : *^ It is to be admitted that nearly 
all modem critical expositors (Meyer, Gk)det, Alford, Conybeare, Liffhtfoot, Beet) 
consider that there is a reference here [in Rom. 6:4] to the act of baptism, which, as 
the Bishop of Durham says, * is the srrave of the old man and the birth of the new— an 
image of the believer's participation both In the death and in the resurrection of Christ. 
.... As he sinks beneath the baptismal waters, the believer buries there all his corrupt 
affections and past sins ; as he emerges thence, he rises regenerate, quickened to new 
hopes and a new life.' *' 

(0) Of the aooompliahment of that pnrpose in the person baptized, — 
who thus professes his death to sin and resurrection to spiritual life. 

QaLS:n— "For ai many of yea ai van b^tiied into Chriat didpntonOuriit**; 1 Pot 8:21 —"vhkh [water] 
alae after a tno Ukeneei do^ now nre 70a, enn baptiim, not the putting away of the iUth of the ieih, bat the inter- 
ngatton of a good oeaaeieBee tovard Ood, thnmgh the raaoneetioB (tf Jena Ghriat"; e/. OaL 2:11^ 20— "For I through 
the lav died onto the lav, that I might Uto nnto ML I have been amoifled vith Ohzlat; and it la no longer I that 
Ht^ bat Ohriat Uveth in me : and that lift vhieh I nov Un in the ieah I Ure in ftith, theftithvhiehiaintheSeaof 
God, vholoTedme,andgaTehifflaelfvpfiirnie"; 0oL8:8 — "TorTediedfandyoorliftiahidvithOhziatlnQod." 

C. H. M. : "A truly baptiaed person is one who has passed from the old world into the 

new The water rolls over his person, signifying that his place in nature is ignored, 

that his old nature is entirely set aside, in short, that he is a dead man, that the flesh 
with all that pertained thereto— its sins and its liabilities— is buried in the grave of 
Christ and can never come into Qod*s sight again. .... When the believer rises up 
from the water, expression is given to the truth that he comes up as the possessor of a 
new life, even the resurrection life of Christ, to which divine rlghteousnesB Inseparably 
attaches." 

(d) Of the method in which that purpose is acoomplished, — by union 
with Christ, receiving him and giving one's self to him bj faith. 

Iom.6:5— "Forif vehaTebeeemennited[^f&^vToi] vith him in tholibaneaa of hia death, ve ahaP be aha in 
thelikonoaaefhiaraaaneetion'*— ^fA^vroi, orov|&v«^icMf, is used of the man and the horse as 
grown together in the Centaur, by Luoian, Dial. Mort , 16 : 4, and by Xenophon, Cyrop., 
4:3:18. OoL 2:12— "having been boried vith him in boftiam, vWain ja vara alae ladaed vith him threagh 
ikith in the voiking of (led, vho raiaad him from the dead." Dr. N. S. Burton : "The oneness of the 
believer and Christ is expressed by the fact that the one act of immersion sets forth 
the death and resurrection of both Christ and the believer." As the voluntary element 
in faith has two parts, a giving and a taking, so baptism illustrates both. Submer- 
gence — surrender to Christ ; emergence — reception of Christ ; see page 889, ( b ). * Patting 
an Ohriit*' ( QaL S: 27) is the burying of the old Ufe and the rising to a new. Cf. the active 
and the passive obedience of Christ (pages 7d9, 770), the two elements of Justifloatlon 
t pages 864-860), the two aspects of formal worship (page 28), the two divisions of the 
Lord's Prayer. 

William Ashmore holds that Incorporation Into Christ is the root idea of baptism, 
union with Christ's death and resurrection being only a part of It. We are "bafliaad into 
dhiiat" (Ben. 6:2). as the Israelites were "baptiaad inta Kooaa" (1 Oor. 10:2). As baptism sym- 
bolizes the incorporation of the believer into (Thrist, so the Lord's Supper sjrmboliaes the 
incorporation of Christ into the believer. We go down into the water, but the bread 
goes down into us. We are "la Ohriat," and Christ is "is na** The candidate does not 
baptise himself, but puts himself wholly Into the hands of tlK administiatog. Hilt 



942 BCCLESIOLOOT^ OR THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH. 

fleems sym'bolio of his oommittinff himself entirely to Christ, of whom the administrator 
is the representative. Similarly in the Lord's Supper, it is Christ who through his 
representative distributes the emblems of his death and lif^ 

E. G. Robinson regarded baptism as implying: 1. death to sin ; S. resurrection to 
new life in Christ ; 8. entire surrender of ourselves to the authority of the triune God. 
Baptism "into tke bum of ih« Vktto a&dofthtSosaadQftkAlbly Spirit'* ( Ibi 88:19) cannot imply 
supreme allegiance to the Eather, and only subordinate aUegianoe to the Son. Baptism 
therefore is an assumption of supreme allegiance to Jesus Christ N. B. Wood, in The 
Watchman, Deo. 8, 1806 15—'* Calvinism has its five points ; but Baptists have also their 
own five points: the Trinity, the Atonement, Regeneration, Baptism, and an inspired 
Bible. All other doctrines gather round these." 

( 6) Of the oonBeqnent union of all belieyera in Ohrist 

Ipk. 4:6— "ooA Lord, «oi ftitb, «oi bnptini*'; 1 Ov. iS:iS— "for in om Spirtt im ve aU bayliad isko oni 
bod7,YkikhflrJ«wior0nAi»vk0lharboodfffrBe;oadwinAnBidototfri]ikoroBt8^ e/.i0:8,4-"ial 
did«ll«ttkdiMMfpiritiulfeod; ud did ftU dfiak tho lUN ^iritul drisk : te tkoj dnak of a fpiiitul look tkal 
fcllovad tkflB: ud th« rook vu Ohriik" 

In IpL 4 : 6b it is noticeable that, not the Lord's Supper, but baptism, is retemd to as 
the symbol of Christian unity. A. H. Strong, Cleveland Sermon, 1004— ** Our fathers 
lived in a day wtien simple fSith was subject to serious disabilities. The establishments 
frowned upon dissent and visited it with pains and penalties. It is no wonder that 
believers in the New Testament doctrine and polity felt that they must come out from 
what they regarded as an apostate church. l%ey could have no sympathy with those 
who held back the truth in unrighteousness and persecuted the saints of God. But our 
doctrine has leavened all Christendom. Scholarship is on the side of immersion. Infant 
baptism is on the decline. The churches that once opposed us now compliment us on 
our stedfastnesB in the faith and on our missionary seal. There is a growing spirit- 
uality in these churches, which prompts them to extend to us hands of fellowship. 
And there is a growing sense among us that the kingdom of Christ is wider than our 
own membeiship, and that loyalty to our Lord requires us to recognise his presence 
and blessing even in bodies which we do not regard as organized in complete accord- 
ance with the New Testament modeL Faith in the larger Christ is bringing us out 
from our denominational isolation into an inspiring recognition of our oneness with 
the universal church of God throughout the world.'* 

(/) Of the death and resnrreotion of the body, — which will complete 
the work of Ghiist in na, and which Ohrist's death and resurrection assure 
to all his members. 

1 Ow. 16:11, IB— "low if Ohiiit If pmohod thai ko both boa nind fron tko dood, hov ny aoau tBOSff ywi tb«t 
thanisnoxonzTNtionoftlMditd? .... Vto m in idia tU dio, to alio in Ohxiok ihall ill bo aado oUra^" In the 
Scripture passages quoted above, we add to the argument from the meaning of the 
word /iavTi^ the argument from the meaning of the ordinance. Luther wrote, in his 
Babylonish Captivity of the Church, section 108 ( Bnglish tnmshition in Wace and Buch- 
heim, First Principles of the Reformation, 108): *' Baptism is a sign both of death and 
resurrection. Being moved by this reason, I would have those that are baptised to be 
altogether dipped into the water, as the word means and the mystery signifies.** See 
CalvinonArti8:88;Conybeareand Howson on &flB.6:4; Boardman, in Madison Avenue 
Lectures, 116-186. 

B. Inferences from the passages referred to : 

(a) The central truth set forth by baptism is the death and resurrection 
of Ohrist, — and our own death and resurrection only as connected with that 

The baptism of Jesus in Jordan, equally with the subsequent baptism of his follow- 
ers, was a symbol of his death. It was his death which he had in mind, when he said : 
"An yo ablo to drink tbo cop tbak I drink? or to bo baptiMd with tbo boptiam tbat I im baptiaid vitb ? " ( Hark 
10:18); "BotlbaToabaptiaflitobobBptiaidvltk; and how aa I UraitOBodtillitboaMoinplUodr* (Uko 12:50). 
The being immersed and overwhelmed in waters is a frequent metaphor in all languages 
to express the rush of successive troubles; compare Fa. 60:S— "I am oomo into doop mtan, 
wbmtbofloodaoioitowBo"; 42:7— "AU tkj vaToa aad ikj billotrB aro gOM OTor mo"; iJB4:4, 5— "Tkn tho 
vatmhad oTorwboImod n% Tho otmrn bad gooo OTor ov loal; Tkon iko imd watm bad goso ont our aooL" 



BAPTISM. 943 

80 the suffering, death, and burial, which were before our Lord, presented themselves 
to hJs mind as a baptism, because the very idea of baptism was that of a complete sub- 
mersion under the floods of waters. Death was not to be poured upon Christ,— it was 
no mere sprinkling of suffering which he was to endure, but a sinking into the mighty 
waters, and a being overwhelmed by them. It was the giving of himself to this, which 
he symbolized by his baptism In Jordan. That act was not arbitrary, or formal, or 
ritual. It was a public consecration, a consecration to death, to death for the sins of 
the world. It expressed the essential nature and meaning of his earthly work : the 
baptism of water at the beginning of his ministry consciously and designedly prefigured 
the baptism of death with which that ministry was to close. 

Jesus' submission to John's baptism of repentance, the rite that belonged only to 
sinners, can be explained only upon the ground that he was "nad* to b« liii on ov bcbalf " 
( S Oor. 5 : tt ). He had taken our nature upon him, without Its hereditary corruption 
indeed, but with all Ha hereditary guilt, that he might redeem that nature and reunite 
it to Qod. As one with humanity, he had in his unconscious childhood submitted to 
the rites of circumcision, purification, and legal redemption ( Lakf 8: 81-S4 ; c/. Ix. 18 : S^ 13 
see Lange, Alf ord, Webster and Wilkinson on Luke 8 : 84 ) — all of them rites appointed 
forsinners. "MidaintheliktDMofintn'' (PhiL8:7),"th«Ukiii«ofiinMteh''(Baii.8:8),hewas*'i® 
pt avay iIb by thi nsilba afUiHalf '* (Htb. 9: 86 ). 

In his baptism, therefore, he oould say,"1kuitbMoniihiiitolUfllinzigkt80iiflMi*'(lhl8:15) 
because only through the final baptism of suffering and death, which this baptism in 
water foreshadowed, could he " mikt aa tnd «f iIbi " and ** Iving in tTwlBitiiig rigktwiuuH ** ( Ota 
9:84) to the condemned and ruined world. He oould not be "th« Lord our RigktaouMn" 
( Jtr. 83 : 6 ) except by first suffering the death due to the nature he had assumed, thereby 
delivering it from its guilt and perfecting it forever. All this was indicated in that act 
by which he was first "inido nuiftik to Isaol *' ( JobB i : 81 ). In his baptism in Jordan, he was 
burled in the likeness of his coming death, and raised in the likeness of his coming 
resurrection. 1 John 5 : 6 — ^"Tkis li bo thai oamo bj valor aai blood, onn Jma Ohxiot; not la tbo vatw only, 
bnt In the vator and in the blood "--in the baptism of water at the beginning of his ministry, 
and in the baptism of blood with which that ministry was to dose. 

As that baptism pointed forward to Jesus* death, so our baptism points backward to 
the same, as the centre and substance of his redeeming work, the one death by which 
we live. We who are "baptiied into Ohxiik" are "baptiiod into bis doath" (lun. 6 :3 ), that is, into 
spiritual communion and participation in that death which he died for our salvation ; 
in short, in baptism we declare in symbol that his death has become ours. On the Bap- 
tism of Jesus, see A. H. Strong, Philosophy and Beligion, 288-287. 

(6) The oorrelatiYe tnith of the believer's death and regaireotioD, set 
forth in baptism, implies, first, — confession of sin and humiliation on 
account of it, as deserving of death; secondly, — declaration of Christ's 
death for sin, and of the believer's acceptance of Christ's substitutionary 
work ; thirdly,— acknowledgment that the soul has become partaker of 
Christ's life, and now lives only in and for him. 

A false mode of administering the ordinance has so obscured the meaning of baptism 
that it has to multitudes lost all reference to the death of Christ, and the Lord's Supper 
Is assumed to be the only ordinance which is intended to remind us of the atoning sacri- 
fice to which we owe our salvation. For evidence of this, see the remarks of President 
Woolsey in the Sunday School Times : " Baptism it [ the Christian religion ] could share 
in with the doctrine of John the Baptist, and if a similar rite had existed under the 
Jewish law, it would have been regarded as appropriate to a religion which inculcated 
renunciation of sin and purity of heart and life. But [in the Lord*B Supper] we go 
beyond the province of baptism to the very penetraU of the gospel, to the efllcaoy and 
meaning of Christ's death." 

Baptism should be a public act We cannot afldrd to relegate it to a corner, or to 
celebrate it in private, as some professedly Baptist churches of England are said to do. 
Like marriage, the essence of it is the Joining of ourselves to another before the world. 
In baptism we merge ourselves in Christ, before Gtod and angels and men. The Moham- 
medan stands five times a day, and prays with his face toward Mecca, caring not who 
seeshim. Lakoi8:8--"lnr7flMvboihiU ooataai brfmB(i^UBiMlthi8«irma]nMBfaiUtef 

thiB^iiiiorooi** 



944 ECCLE8I0LO6Ty OB THE DOOTBtKE OP THE CHURCH. 

( c ) Baptism gymbolizea piirification, but pnrifioation in a pecnliar and 
divine way, — namely, through the death of Christ and the entrance of the 
Bonl into oommonion with that death. The radical defect of sprinkling or 
pouring as a mode of administering the ordinance, is that it does not point 
to Christ's death as the procuring cause of our purification. 

It 10 a grievouB thlner to say by symbol, as those do say who practloe qprinldinff In 
place of immeisloii, that a man may regenerate himself, or. If not this, yet that his 
regeneration may take place without connection with Christ's death. Edward Beecher's 
chief argument against Baptist views is drawn f^m Jahi 3 : tt-S5 —" a quituuif m tte pait oi 
Jahn*i diidplM vitk a Jtv about pui^fiBf." Purifloatlon is made to be the essential meaning of 
baptism, and the conclusion is drawn that any form expressive of purtflcatlon will 
answer the design of the ordinance. But if Christ's death is the procuring cause of our 
puriiloation, we may expect it to be symbolised, in the ordinance which declares that 
purification ; if Christ^s death is the central fact of Christianity* we may expect it to be 
symbolised in the initiatory rite of Christianity. 

( d) In baptism we show forth the Lord's death as the original source of 
holiness and life in our souls, just as in the Lord's Supper we show forth 
the Lord's death as the source of all nourishment and strength after this 
life of holiness has been once begun. As the Lord's Supper symbolizes 
the sanctifying power of Jesus' death, so baptism symbolizes its regener- 
ating power. 

The truth of Christ's death and resozreotlon is a precious Jewel, and it is given us in 
these outward ordinances as in a caBket. Let us care for the casket lest we lose the 
gem. As a scarlet thread runs through every rope and cord of the British navy, testi- 
fying that it Is the property of the Crown, so through every doctrine and ordinance of 
Christianity runs the red line of Jesus' blood. It is their common reference to the 
death of Christ that binds the two ordinances together. 

{e) There are two reasons, therefore, why nothing but immersion will 
satisfy the design of the ordinance : first, — because nothing else can sym- 
bolize the radical nature of the change effected in regeneration — a chimge 
from spiritual death to spiritual life ; secondly, — because nothing else can 
Bet forth the &ct that this change is due to the entrance of the soul into 
communion with the death and resurrection of Christ 

Christian truth is an organism. Part is bound to part, and all together constitute one 
vitalised whole. To give up any single portion of that truth is like Tnafming the human 
body. Life may remain, but one manifestation of life has ceased. The whole body of 
Christian truth has lost its symmetry and a part of its power to save. 

Pfleiderer, Philos. Beligion, 8 : 212— ^' In the Eleuslnian mysteries, the act of reception 
was represented as a regeneration, and the hierophant appointed to the temple service 
had to take a sacramental bath, out of which he proceeded as a * new man ' with a new 
name, which signifies that, as they were wont to say, *the first one was forgotten,*— 
that is, the old man was put off at the same time with the old name. The parallel of 
this Eleuslnian rite with the thoughts which Paul has written about Baptism in the 
Epistle to the Bomans, and therefore from Corinth, is so striking that a connection 
between the two may well be conjectured ; and all the more that even in the case of 
the Lord's Supper, Paul has brought in the comparison with the heathen festivals, in 
order to give a basis for his mystical theory.'* 

(/) To substitute for baptism anything which excludes all symbolic 
reference to the death of Christ, is to destroy the ordinance, just as substi- 
tuting for the broken bread and poured out wine of the communion some 
form of administration which leaves out all reference to the death of Christ 
would be to destroy the Lord's Supper, and to celebrate an ordinance of 
human invention. 



BAPTISK. 945 

Baptism, like the Fourth of July, the Passover, the Lord's Supper, is a historical 
monument. It witnesses to the world that Jesus died and rose aeain. In oelebratinflr 
it, we show forth the Lord's death as truly as In the celebration of the Supper. But it 
is more than a historical monument. It is also a pictorial expression of doctrine. Into 
it are woven all the essential truths of the Christian scheme. It tells of the nature and 
penalty of sin, of human nature delivered from sin in the person of a crucified and 
risen Savior, of salvation secured for each human soul that is united to Christ, of 
obedience to Christ as the way to life and glory. Thus baptism stands from age to age 
as a witness for God —a witness both to the facts and to the doctrine of Christianity. 
To change the form of administering the ordinance is therefore to strike a blow at 
Christianity and at Christ, and to defraud the world of a part of God's means of salva^ 
tlon. See Bbrard's view of Baptism, in Baptist Quarterly, 1800 : 267, and in Olshausen's 
Com. on N. T., 1 :87Q, and 8:604. Also Llghtfoot, Com. on 0olfliiiuua:20, and 3:L 

Ebrard : ** Baptism — Death." So Sanday, Com. on Bon. 6 — ** Immersion=>I>eath ; Sub- 
mersion— Burial ( the ratification of death ) ; Bmergence»Besurrection ( the ratification 
of life )." William Ashmore : ** Solomon's Temple had two monumental pillaiB : Jcuihin, 
* he shall establish,' and Boaz, * in it is strength.' In Zechariah's vision were two olive 
trees on either side of the golden candlestick. In like manner, Christ has left two 
monumental witnesses to testify concerning himself— Baptism and the Lord's Supper." 
The lady in the street car, who had inadvertentiy stuck her parasol into a man's eye, 
very naturally begged his pardon. But he replied : ** It is of no consequence, madame ; 
I have still one eye left." Our friends who sprinkle or pour put out one eye of the 
gospel witness, break down one appointed monument of Christ's saving truth,— shall 
we be content to say that we have still one ordinance left ? At the Rappahannock one 
of the Federal regiments, just because its standard was shot away, was mistaken by 
our own men for a regiment of Confederates, and was subjected to a murderous enfi- 
lading fire that decimated its ranks. Baptism and the Lord's Supper are the two fiaga 
of Christ's army,— we cannot afford to lose either one of theoL 

4. The SuX3ject8 of Baptism. 

The proper sabjects of baptism are those only who give credible evidenoe 
that they have been regenerated by the Holy Spirit, — or, in other words, 
have entered by faith into the communion of Christ's death and resurrection. 

A. Proof that only persons giving evidence of being regenerated are 
proper subjects of baptism : 

(a) From the command and example of Ohrist and his apostles, which 
show : 

Firsty that those only are to be baptized who have previously been made 
disciples. 

Kat 88: 19— "Oo 7* thmfti^ ud mika dJadplM of aa the BAtiom^ baptiiiiig thtm into the wtu of thi Fatkar and 
oftkoSoaaiidoftkoHolySfizit"; irtiS:41— '•ThaytkaBtkatrmiTtdUiirari venbaptiiad." 

Secondly, that those only are to be baptized who have previously 
repented and believed. 

][ai8:li;8^6— "RapntT* .... makayonadytkovayofthilord .... aad thoj wo baptiMd of him la tko 
riTV Jordan, MsfMBBg thair iiiia"; Aoli8:87, 88— "Kov whan thay heard thla, they ware pricked in their haartt 
and aaid oata Peter and the rat of the apeatlait Brethran, what ahall we do? And Pater odd unto them, Repent j% and 
be bftptiaed ofery one of yon" ; 8 :i8— "Bat whan they believed Philip pnaehing good tidingi eeneaming the Un^dom 
flf 6od and the name of Joaai Ohrii^ th^ were baptiaed, both man and women" ; 18: 8— "And Criapoa, the ruler of 
the BTna^egne^ belieTed in the Lord with all hia hooae; and many of the Oeiinthiana heering belioTed, and wore bap- 
tiaed"; 19 : 4 —" John baptiaed with tha baptiim of repentu^ aajing onto the people that they ahoold belJeTO on him 
that ahanU eoma after him, that 1^ on Jaena" 

( 6 ) From the nature of the church — as a company of regenerate persons. 

John8:5— "luepl eaa be bom af water and the spirit, ha eanaot enter into the kinfdom of Ood'*; Rom.f:13— 
" neither pnatatyoBrmamboB onto ain an ioBtnimanta of vnrightoeanaBB; bol pna«t joaraalfei unto God, an bUti 
from the dea^ and jour mmban an isabmneBtB of righteonaaeaa onto Oai" 

60 



946 ECCLESIOLOOY, OE THE DOCTRINE OP THE CHURCH. 

(o) From the Bymbolism of the ordinanoe, — as dedaring a previoiu 
spiritnal change in him who sabmits to it. 

iatil0:47--"0uMjBaii teUd tk« mte.ttat tliM iheiild aot be taftiiid. wh« kan noAM tk« Ea^Spixtt 
uvdlMV*?" Roa.6:»^— "▼6whodiidtoBB,hovahaUv»a&7laBKvUnth«mir Or an 7* igiMnat tkit 
aU v« who vmbiptiMdiBtoGkrift Jens vmbiptiMd into kifdattk? ¥• vm IniM tkarafan vltk kia tknogk 
btftiniotodMlk: thai liks u Ohiuk vm niMd fh» tb dwd timagk tke gkry of fM Mh^^ 
iBM¥BMi«fIi& ltrifv»kanbM0BtudtodwitkhiBmtkaIik«uiiofkiadai4k,vaihaUbaa]ioiattolik«M 
of kianniTMti«"; GaL8:86, 87— "Foryaanall lou if God, thrmgkfiutk. in OkriaUmi. hraanayofToa 
u won baptiMd into Oxiat did pat on Ckriit" 

As marriage should never be solemnized ezoept between persons who are already 
Joined in heart and with whom the outward ceremony is only the sign of an existing 
love, so baptism should never be administered except in the case of those who are 
already Joined to Christ and who signify in the ordinanoe their union with him In his 
death and regurreotion. See Dean Stanley on Baptism, 24 — '* In the apostolic age and 
in the three centuries which followed, it is evident that, as a general rule, those who 
came to baptism came in full age, of their own deliberate choice. The liturgical ser- 
vice of baptism was framed for full-grown converts, and is only by considerable adap- 
tation applied to the case of infants ** ; Wayland, Prlndples and Practices of Baptists, 
9B ; Robins, in ICadison Avenue Lectures, 13&-1£0. 

B. Inf erenoes from the fact that only persons giving evidence of being 
regenerate are proper subjects of baption : 

(a) Since only those who give credible evidence of regeneration are 
proper snbjects of baptism, baptism cannot be the means of regeneration* 
It is the appointed sign, but is never the condition, of the forgiveness of 
sins. 

Passages like Mat. 8 : 11 ; Markl:4; 16:16; John3:5; Acts2:88; 22: 
16 ; Eph. 5 : 26 ; Titns 8:5; and Heb. 10 : 22, are to be explained as par- 
ticnlar instances ** of the general fact that, in Scripture language, a single 
part of a complex action, and even that part of it which is most obvious 
to the senses, is often mentioned for the whole of it, and thus, in this case, 
the whole of the solemn transaction is designated by the external symboL" 
In other words, the entire change, internal and external, spiritual and 
ritual, is referred to in language belonging strictly only to the outward 
aspect of it. So the other ordinance is referred to by simply naming the 
visible "breaking of bread," and the whole transaction of the ordination 
of ministers is termed the ** imposition of hands " ( c/. Acts 2 : 42 ; 1 Tim. 
4 : U). 

IbiSril— "lindMdbaptiaiTaaiii vitar onto npentuiM"; lEarkl:4— "thabaptianofnpantaanimtonBii- 
aloBof aina"; 16:16— "IithitlMlkTrtliandiabaFtiMdibaU boMTid"; John8:5— "Izeoptoneboboraofvater 
and tha Spirit ha aanaat tatir into the kukgdon af 6od "~here Nicodemus, who was familiar with 
John's baptism, and with the refusal of the Sanbedrin to recognise its claims, is told 
that the baptism of water, which he suspects may be obligatory, is indeed necessary to 
that complete change by which one enters outwardly, as well as inwardly, into the 
kingdom of God ; but he is taught also, that to "ba bcra of vatar" is worthless unless It is 
the accompaniment and sign of a new birth of "tka Spirit" ; and therefore. In the further 
statements of Christ, baptism is not alluded to ; see Tonia 6^ 8 — " that vhioh ia bon of tha Spirit 
la ipirlt . . . . N ia anry ono that ii bom of tho Spirit." 

ioli l:a8~"Rop«t j«^ and bo baptiaod .... onto tho nniaBoa of joor ana"— on this passage see 
Hackett: "The phrase *ln order to the forgiveness of sins* we connect naturally with 
both the preceding verbs ('npont' and 'be baptind'). The clause states the motive or 
object which should Induce them to repent and be baptized. It enforces the entire 
exhortation, not one part to the exclusion of the other "— i. «., they were to repent for 
the remission of sins, quite as much as they were to be baptized for the remission of 
sins. Aoti a: 16— "iriao, and ba baptiaed, and wuh avay thj iia% oilling on his naaa" ; Iph. 6: S6— "thai ha 
might wutiiy it [the church], haiiag akuiiod it bj tho vaahing of vit«r vith tha vwd" ; fit S:S— 



BAPTISM. 947 

'^MOwdiBf to Ui mmj kc MTBd n^ tknn^k th« wuUag «f rag«iuntim [ bapt^^ 

[the Dew birth ] '* ; Iib^ 10 :28— "kaTii; oor kMxta wpinkkA from u oril oo&Miflim[ regeneration ] : and 
haTlBgoarbodjrviikodvitkpiinwitir [haptiflm]"; c/. AdoBitt— <*tkebraikii«of toand"; 11Sb.4:14 
— "tha kjiBg on oftko handa of tho pntbTtoiy." 

Dr. A. G. Kendxick : ^^Oonsiderfng how Inseparable they were In the Christian pro- 
fession — believe and be baptized, and how imperative and absolute was the requisition 
upon the beUever to testify his allegiance by baptism, it could not be deemed singular 
that the two should be thus united, as it were, in one complex conception. .... We 
have no more right to assume that the birth from water involves the birth from the 
Spirit and thus do away with the one, than to assume that the birth from the Spirit 
involves the birth from water, and thus do away with the other. We have got to have 
them both, each in its distinctness, in order to fulfil the conditions of membership in 
the kingdom of God.*' Without baptism, faith is like the works of a dock that has no 
dial or hands by which one can tell the time ; or like the political belief of a man who 
refuses to go to the polls and vote. Without baptism, dlscipleshlp is IneflT ective and 
incomplete. The Inward change — regeneration by the Spirit — may have ocouR«d, bat 
the outward change — Christian profession — is yet lacking. 

Oampbelllsm, however, holds that instead of regeneration preceding baptism and 
expressing itself in baptism, it is completed only in baptism, so that baptism is a means 
of regeneration. Alexander Ounpbell : ** I am bold to affirm that every one of them, 
who in the belief of what the apostle spoke was immersed, did, in the very instant in 
which he was put under water, receive the forgiveness of his sins and the gift of the 
Holy Spirit." But Peter commanded that men should be baptised because they had 
alTeady received the Holy Spirit : ioli 10 : 47— " Ou any ana fattd tlu vator, tkat thoao Aoald aol bo 
bapkiatd, who havo noilTod th« Eolj 9^ aa voU m vo?" Baptists baptize Christians: Bisdplee 
baptize sinners, and in baptism think to m&ke them Christians. With this form of 
sacramentaUsm, Baptists are necessarily less in sympathy than with pedobaptism or 
with sprinkling. The view of the Disciples confines the divine eflSciency to the word 
(see quotation from Campbell on page 8S1 ). It was anticipated by Claude Pajon, the 
Reformed theologian, in 1678: see Domer, Oesoh. prot. Theologle, 448-460. That this 
was not the doctrine of John the Baptist would appear from Josephus, Ant., 18:6 :8, 
who in speaking of John's baptism a&ya : ** Baptism appears acceptable to Gk)d, not in 
order that those who were baptized might get free from certain sins, but in order that 
the body might be sanctified, because the soul beforehand had already been purified 
through ricrhteousness." 

Disciples acknowledge no formal creed, and they differ so greatly among themselves 
that we append the following statements of their founder and of later representatives. 
Alexander Campbell, Christianity Restored, 188 ( in The Christian Baptist, 6 : 100 ) : *' In 
and by the act of immersion, as soon as our bodies are put under water, at that very 

instant our former or old sins are washed away Immersion and regeneration 

are Bible names for the same act, .... It is not our faith in Ood*8 promise of remis- 
sion, but our going down into the water, that obtains the remission of sins." W. E. 
Garrison, Alexander Campbell's Theology, 847-200— *' Baptism, like naturalization, is 
the formal oath of allegiance by which an alien becomes a citizen. In neither case 
does the form in itself effect any magical change in the subject's dlaposltion. In both 
cases a change of opinion and of affections is presupposed, and the form is the culmi- 
nation of a process. .... It is as easy for God to forgive our sins in the act of immer- 
sion as in any other way.'* All work of the Spirit is through the word, only through 
sensible means, emotions being no criterion. God is transcendent ; all authority is 
external, enforced only by appeal to happiness « a thorou^rhly utilitarian system. 

Isaac Brret is perhaps the most able of recent Disciples. In his tract entitled " Our 
Position," published by the Christian Publishing Company, St. Louis, he says : ** As to 
the detfion of baptism, we part company with Baptists, and find ourselves more at 
home on the other side of the house : yet we cannot say that our position is Just the 
same with that of any of them. Baptists say they baptize believers became they are 
foroiven^ and they insist that they shall have the evidence of pardon before they are 
baptized. But the language used in the Scriptures declaring what baptism is for. Is so 
plain and unequivocal that the great majority of Protestants as well as the Roman 
Catholics admit it in their creeds to be, in some sense, for the remission of sins. The 
latter, however, and many of the former, attach to it the idea of regeneration, and 
insist that in baptism regeneration by the Holy Spirit is actually conferred. Bven the 
Westminster Confession squints strongly in this direction, albeit its professed adher- 
eots of the present time attempt to explain away its meaning. We are as tar from 



948 EOCLBSIOLOOT^ OR THE DOCTRINE OP THE CHURCH. 

this ritualistic extreme as from the anti-rituaUsm Into whloh the Baptists have been 
driven. With us, regeneration must be so far aeoompUshed before baptism that the 
subject is changed in heart, and in faith and penitence must have jrlelded up his heart 
to Christ — otherwise baptism is nothing but an empty form. But /orcKoeness is some- 
thing distinct from rcQenenUion. Forgiveness is an act of the Sovereign — not a change 
of the sinner's heart ; and while it is extended in view of the sinner's faith and repent- 
ance, it needs to be offered in a sensible and tangible form, such that the sinner can 
seize it and appropriate it with unmistakable deflnlteness. In baptism he appropriates 
Ood'B promiBe of forgineneas, relying on the divine testimonies : * He that believeth and 
is baptised shall be saved * ; *' Repent and be baptised, every one of you, in the name of 
Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.' 
He thus lays hold of the promise of Christ and appropriates it as his own. He does not 
merit it, nor procure it, nor earn it, in being baptized ; but he appropriates what the 
mercy of God has provided and offered in the gospel. We therefore teach all who are 
baptised that, if they bring to their baptism a heart that renounces sin and implicitly 
trusts the power of Christ to save, they should rely on the Savior's own promise— 
He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved.' " 

All these utterances agree in making forgiveness chronologically distinct from 
regeneration, as the concluding point is distinct from the whole. Regeneration is not 
entirely the work of God, — it must be completed by man. It is not wholly a change of 
heart. It is also a change In outward action. We see in this system of thoufirht the 
beginnings of sacramentallsm, and we regard it as containing the same germs of error 
which are more fully developed In pedobaptist doctrine. Shakespeare represents this 
view in Henry Y, 1:8— ** What you speak is In yourconsdenoe washed As pure as sin 
with baptism "; Othello, 2:8— Desdemona could " Win the Moor — were ' t to renounce 
his baptism — All seals and symbols of redeemed sin." 

Dr. G. W. Lasher, in the Journal and Messenger, holds that Mil 3:11— "I iadaid bapti« 
yoa in wtJur nnto ( ci* ) npanluae" — does not imply that baptism effects the repentance ; the 
baptism was heeause of the repentance, for John refused to baptize those who did not 
give evidence of repentance before baptism. lUt. 10 : 42— " vhomTtr ihall pra .... * tup of 
odld vator only, iz ( cU) tht naas oft diidpla " — the cup of cold water does not put one into the 
name of a disciple, or make him a disciple. Mat 12 : 41 — "Tm bmh «f lii»T«h .... npntad aft 
( <i« ) tha pnaoUag of Jooab '* »> because of. Dr. Lasher argues that, in all these cases, the mean- 
ing of etc is "in respect to,** **with reference to." So he would translate iota 2:88 — 
"HapoBt ya, and ba Iwptiiad .... vitk raopaot to^ in rafanBaa \a, tha nmiaaioa ofaina." This is also the view 
of Meyer. He maintains that fiairnC*t¥ ci« always means "baptiaa with rafaranaa to (e/. Mai 
28:19; 1 Onr. 10:12; GtL 8:27; iota 2:88; 8:16; 10:5). We are brought through baptism, he 
would say, into fellowship with his death, so that we have a share ethically in his 
death, through the cessation of our life to sin. 

The better parallel, however, in our judgment, is found in Bob. 10:10— *'vith tha hoait 
■an baliarathnnto (€i«) xightaoaaaaaa ; and wilk tka noath oonfeaaioB in nadavnto (etc) aalTation," — where 
evidently salvation is the end to which works the whole change and process, including 
both faith and confession. So Broadus makes John's ' taaptiam onto ropantanoa ' mean baptism 
In order to repentance, repentance indudinflr both the purpose of the heart and the 
outward expression of it, or baptism in order to complete and thorough repentance. 
Expositor's Greek Testament, on iola 2: 88 — "onto tha raniaaion of joor aina" : ** civ, antOk signlfy- 
ing the aim." For the High Church view, see Sadler, Church Doctrine, 41-1:34. On 
F. W. Robertson's view of Baptismal Regeneration, see Gordon, in Bap. Quar., 1868 : 406. 
On the whole matter of baptism for the remission of sins, see Gates, Baptists and Dls> 
dples ( advocating the Disciple view ) ; Wlllmarth, in Bap. Quar., 1877 : 1-26 ( verging 
toward the Disciple view ) ; and per contra, Adklns, Disciples and Baptists, booklet pub. 
by Am. Bap. Pub. Society (the best brief statement of the Baptist position); Bap. 
Quar., 1877 : 476-489; 1878 : 814 ; Jacob, Ecd. PoL of N. T^ 256, 266. 

( 6 ) As the profession of a Bpiritoal change already wrought, baptism is 
primarily the act, not of the administrator, but of the person baptized. 

Upon the person newly regenerate the command of Christ first ter- 
minates ; only npon his giving evidence of the change within him does it 
become the duty of the church to see that he has opportunity to follow 
Ohrist in baptism. Since baptism is primarily the act of the convert, no 
lack of qualification on the part of the administrator invalidates the bap- 



BAPTISM. 949 

tism, so long as fhe proper outward act is performed, with intent on the 
part of the person baptized to express the fact of a preceding spiritual 
renewal (Acts 2 : 87, 88). 

AeliS:37.38 — "BnUmn, vhatahiUwsdo?. . . . Bepnt /• lad be b^tiied." If bapttem be primarily 
the act of the administrator or of the church, then invalidity in the adminiatrator or 
the church renders the ordinance itself Invalid. But if beptlon be primarily the act of 
the person baptized — an act which it is the church's business simply to scrutinize and 
further, then nothing but the absence of immersion, or of an intent to profess faith in 
Christ, can invalidate the ordinance. It is the erroneous view that baptism is the act of 
the administrator which causes the anxiety of High Church Baptists to deduce their 
Baptist lineage from regularly baptized ministers ail the way back to John the Baptist, 
and which induces many modem endeavors of pedobaptists to prove that the earliest 
Baptists of England and the Continent did not immerse. All these solicitudes are 
unneoesaary. We have no need to prove a Baptist apostoHo succession. If we can 
derive our doctrine and practice from the New Testament, it is all we require. 

The Council of Trent was right in its Canon : ** If any one saith that the baptism 
which is even given by heretics in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the 
Holy Ohost, with the intention of doing what the church doeth, is not true baptism, 
let him be anathema.** Dr. Norman Fox : ^* It is no more important who baptizes a 
man than who leads him to Christ.*' John Spilsbury, first pastor of the church of Par- 
ticular Baptists, holding to a limited atonement, in London, was newly baptized in 163S, 
on the ground that " baptizedness Is not essential to the administrator," and he repu- 
diated the demand for apostolic succession, as leading logically to the ^'popedom of 
Rome." In 1641, inunersion followed, though two or three years before this, or in 
March, 1839, Roger Williams was baptized by Bzekiel Holllman in Rhode Island. 
Williams afterwards doubted its validity, thus dinging still to the notion of apostolic 
BuooeflBlon. 

( c ) As introsted with the administration of the ordinances, however, the 
church is, on its part, to require of all candidates for baptism credible evi- 
dence of regeneration. 

This follows from the nature of the church and its duty to maintain its 
own existence as an institution of Christ The church which cannot restrict 
admission into its membership to such as are like itself in character and 
aims must soon cease to be a church by becoming indistinguishable from 
the world. The duty of the church to gain credible evidence of regenera- 
tion in the case of every person admitted into the body involves its right to 
require of candidates, in addition to a profession of faith with the lips, 
some satisfactory proof that this profession is accompanied by change in 
the conduct The kind and amount of evidence which would have justified 
the reception of a candidate in times of persecution may not now constitute 
a sufficient proof of change of heart 

If an Odd Fellows' Lodge, in order to preserve its distinct existence, must have its 
own rules for admission to membership, much more is this true of the church. The 
church may make its own regulations with a view to secure credible evidence of regen- 
eration. Tet it is bound to demand of the candidate no more than reasonable proof of 
his repentance and faltii. Since the church is to be convinced of the candidate's fitness 
before it votes to receive him to its membership, it is generally best that the experience 
of the candidate should be related before the church. Yet in extreme cases, as of 
sickness, the church may hear this relation of experience through certain appointed 
representatives. 

Baptism is sometimes figuratively described as ** the door into the church." The 
phrase is unfortunate, since if by the church is meant the spiritual kingdom of Ood, 
then Christ is its only door ; if the local body of believers is meant, then the faith of the 
candidate, the credible evidence of regeneration which he gives, the vote of the church 
itself, are all, equally with baptism, the door through which he enters. The door, in 
this sense, is a double door, one part of which is his confession of faith, and the other 
hto baptism. 



950 EGCLBSIOLOGY, OB THE DOCTRIKB OF THE CHURCH. 

(d) Ab the oatward expressioii of the inward change by whieh the 
believer enters into the kingdom of God, biqptifliu is the firsts in point of 
time, of all ontward dutiea 

Regeneration and baptism, although not holding to each other the rela- 
tion of effect and canse, are both regarded in the New Testament as essen- 
tial to the restoration of man's right relations to €k)d and to his people. 
They properly oonstitnte parts of one whole, and are not to be mmeoessarily 
separated. Baptism should follow regeneration with the least possible 
delay, after the candidate and the chnroh have gained evidence that a 
spiritnal change has been accomplished within him. No other duty and no 
other ordinance can properly precede it. 

Neither the pastor nor the church should encourage the convert to wait for others' 
company before being baptized. We should aim continually to deepen the sense of 
individual responsibility to Christ, and of personal duty to obey his command of bap- 
tism Just so soon as a proper opportunity is afforded. That participation in the Lord's 
Supper cannot properly precede Baptism, will be shown hereafter. 

(e) Since regeneration is a work accomplished once for all, the baptism 
which symbolizes this regeneration is not to be repeated. 

Even where the persuasion exists, on the part of the candidate, that at 
the time of baptism he was mistaken in thinking himself regenerated, the 
ordinance is not to be administered again, so long as it has once been sab- 
mitted to, with honest intent, as a profession of faith in Christ We argae 
this from the absence of any reference to second baptisms in the New Tes> 
tament, and from the grave practical difficulties attending the opposite 
view. In Acts 19 : 1-5, we have an instance, not of rebaptism, but of the 
baptism for the first time of certain persons who had been wrongly taught 
with regard to the nature of John the Baptist's doctrine, and so had igno- 
rantly submitted to an outward rite which had in it no reference to Jesus 
Christ and expressed no faith in him as a Savior. This was not John's 
baptism, nor was it in any sense true baptism. For this reason Paul com- 
manded them to be " baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus." 

In the respect of not being repeated. Baptism is unlike the Lord's Supper, which 
symbolizes the continuous sustaining power of Christ's death, while baptism symbolizes 
its power to begin a new life within the soul. In Aeto 19:1-6, Paul instructs the new 
disciples that the real baptism of John, to which they erroneously supposed they had 
Bubniitted, was not only a baptism of repentance, but a baptism of faith in the coming 
Savior. "And vhan thsy katii tU% they vm li^tiMd in tltt nuM of th« Lord JMu"~as tJiey had not 
been before. Here there was no rebaptism, for the mere outward submersion in water 
to which they had previously submitted, with no thought of professing faith in Christ, 
was no baptism at all ~ whether Johannine or Christian. See Brooks, in Baptist Quar- 
terly, April, 1887, art : Rebaptism. 

Whenever it is clear, as in many oases of Campbellite immersion, that the candidate 
has gone down into the water, not with intent to profess a previously existing faith, 
but in order to be regenerated, baptism is still to be administered if the person subse- 
quently believes on Christ. But wherever it appears that there was intent to profess 
an already existing faith and regeneration, there should be no repetition of the immer- 
sion, even though the ordinance has been administered by the Campbellltes. 

To rebaptize whenever a Christian's faith and Joy are rekindled so that he begins to 
doubt the reality of his early experiences, would, in the case of many fickle believers, 
require many repetitions of the ordinance. The presumption is that, when the profes- 
sion of faith was made by baptism, there was an actual faith which needed to be pro- 
fessed, and therefore that the baptism, though followed by much unbelief and many 
wanderings, was a valid one. Rebaptism, in the case of unstable ChrlsUanSv tenda to 
bring reproach upon the ordinance itself. 



BAPTISM. 951 

(/) 80 long as the mode and the snl^eciiB are snoh as Ohiut haa enjoined, 
mere aooeBSOiies are matters of individual jadgment^ 

The nse of natural rather than of artificial baptisteries is not to be elevated 
into an esaentiaL The formula of baptism prescribed by Christ is ''into 
the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit*' 

lbt.»:l9— "laptiitaigtlMaiiBtotbAUiM of tte lathar ud of the Son laa tf thilolyBpiiit**; e/.ioli8:16 
— "tk»7hidbanibaptJndiAtoth«iHUB*oftht Lord Jam"; Bon.6:3— "OranTtigaonntthBtftU vtvho vm 
baptiMdinloOhiislJflm v«n btpUied into Uidntk?" QiL 3 : 27 — " For u aanj of joa u ipan bopttiad into 
Okriik did ftnt oa Ohriit" Baptism is immeralon Into God« into the presence, oommunlon, life 
of the Trinity ; see Com. of Clarlc, and of Lange, on Hat 28 : 19 ; also C. B. Smith, In Bap. 
Bev., 1881:806-311. President Wayland and the Bevised Version read, "into th» bubo." 
Per contrix, see Meyer (transL, 1:281, note) on Kom.6:8; e/.lUt 10:41; 18:20; in all which 
passages, as well as in Mat 28 : 19^ he claims that «(« rb Svofta siflrnifles ** with reference to the 
name." In isti 2:88, and 10:48; we haye *ia tkt bum." For the latter translation of lit 
28:19; see Oonant, Notes on Mat., 171. On the whole subject of this section, see Dagg, 
Church Order, 18-78 ; Ingham, Subjects of Baptism. 

0. Infant Baptism. 

This we reject and reprehend, for the following reasons : 

(a) Infant baptism is without warrant, either express or implied, in the 
Soriptore. 

First, — there is no express command that infants shonld be baptized. 
Secondly, — there is no clear example of the baptism of infants. Thirdly, — 
the passages held to imply infant baptism contain, when fairly interpreted, 
no reference to snoh a practice. In Mat 19 : 14, none would have ' forbid- 
den,' if Jesus and his disciples had been in the habit of baptizing infants. 
From Acts 16 : 15, c/. 40, and Acts 16 : 33, c/. 84, Neander says that we 
cannot infer infant baptism. For 1 Ck)r. 16 : 15 shows that the whole 
family of Stephanas, baptized by Paul, were adults (1 Oor. 1 : 16). It is 
impossible to suppose a whole heathen household baptized upon the faith 
of its head. As to 1 Cor. 7 : 14, Jacobi calls this text " a sure testimony 
against infant baptism, since Paul would certainly have referred to the 
baptism of children as a proof of their holiness, if infant baptism had been 
practised." Moreover, this passage would in that case equally teach the 
baptism of the unconverted husband of a believing wifa It plainly proves 
that the children of Christian parents were no more baptized and had no 
closer connection with the Christian church, than the unbelieving partners 
of Christians. 

]Utl9:14— "8Qf«thtUtltoflUldnn,aBdftrUdthflmB0lttoMBtutoBi: for to m<l bdoogilk lk« Uacdan of 
h«m '^ i0U 16 : 15 ~ *' iBd vhn lU [ Lydia ] vu btptiMd, and W kooMhdd *^ e/. 40 -- "iDd tt«7 VMt rat 
ef tk« priMD, and ontond into tht hooie of Ljdia : and vkaii they had ana tka tevthns, tkay oomfaiid tk«B, aad 
dapntod." iota 16:S3— The JaUor * vu bapkia^ ha and aU U% Imaifldiataly " ; e/. 84-"iBd ha bn»rht 
than vp into hiahraaa, aad Bit Iwdbafentha^ aad z^oedgmtiy, with aUhiahaoaiyhaTiafbdiaYad^ 1 

Oor. 10:15— "7a know tha honaa of Stophaau. that 11 ia tho Intfiraita of iohai% and that th^ ha?« art thoudToa 
tovinialornAtothaMiali"; 1:16 — "And! baptiaod alaothahooaohold of Stophaau"; 7:14— "VlrthoubaliaTinf 
hniband ia auikiiid ia tha vll^ aad tha vabalioTiag vift to audilid la tha hrathff : alai vm jMT oUl^ 
hoi nov art thaj haly" — here the sanctity or holiness attributed to unbelieving memben of 
the household is evidently that of external oonneotion and privilege, like that of the 
O. T. IsraeL 

Broadus, Am. Oom., on Hat 19 : 14 — ** No Greek Oommentator mentions Inftuit baptism 
in connection with this passage, though they all practised that rite." Schleiermacher, 
Olaubenslehre. 2:883-* ** All the traces of Infant baptism which it has been desired to 
find In the New Testament must first be put into It*' Pflelderer, Onmdriss, 184-1S7 ~ 



952 ECCLBSIOLOOT, OB THE DOGTBIKE OF THE CHURCH. 

'* Inftuit baptism oaonot be proved from the K. T., and aooording to 1 Oar. 7 : 14 It is ante- 
oedently improbable ; yet it was the logical conseqaenoe of the command, lit. 2B :19 sq., 
in whioh the ohuroh oonsdousneai of the Sd century prophetically expressed Ciurist's 
appointment that it should be the universal church of the nations. .... Infant bap- 
tism represents one side of the Biblical saoraihenti the side of the divine gnoe ; but it 
needs to have the other side, appropriation of that grace by personal freedom, added 
in confirmation." 

Dr. A. 8. Crapsey, formerly an Bpisoopal rector in Rochester, made the following 
statement in the introduction to a sermon in defence of infant baptism : " Now in 
support of this custom of the churoh, we can bring no express command of the word 
of God, no certain warrant of holy Scripture, nor can we be at all sure that this 
usage prevailed during the apostolic age. Ftom a few obeOure hints we may conject- 
ure that it did, but it is only conjecture after aU. It is true St. Paul baptised the 
household of Stephanas, of Lydia, and of the Jailor at Phllippi, and in these households 
there may have been littie children ; but we do not know that there were, and these 
inferences form but a poor foundation upon which to base any doctrine. Better say 
at once, and boldly, that infant baptism Is not expresdy taught in holy Scripture. Not 
only is the word of Gk>d silent on this subject, but those who have studied the subject 
tell us that Christian writers of the very first age say nothing about it. It is by no 
means sure that this custom obtained in the ohuroh earlier than in the middle of the 
second or the beginning of the third century.** Dr. C. M. Mead, in a private letter, 
dated May 87. 1896~ *' Though a Congregationalist, I cannot find any Scriptural author- 
ization of pedobaptism, and I admit also that inmiersion seems to have been the prev- 
alent, if not the universal, form of baptism at the first.'* 

A review of the passages held by pedobaptists to support their views leads us to the 
conclusion expressed in the North British Review, Aug. 1868 : 211, that infant baptism 
is utterly unknown to Scripture. Jacob, BccL Polity of N. T., 870-275— '* Infant bap- 
tism is not mentioned in the N. T. No instance of it is recorded there; no allusion is 
made to its effects ; no directions are given for its administration. .... It Is not an 
apostolic ordinance.** See also Neander's view, in Kitto, Bib. Cyclop., art. : Baptism ; 
Kendrick, in Christian Rev., April, 1863; Curtis, Progress of Baptist Principles, 96 ; 
Way land, Principles and Practices of Baptists, 186; Cunningham, loot, on Baptism, In 
Croall Lectures for 1886. 

(6) Infant baptdam is expressly oontradioted : 

Firsts — by the Soriptnral prerequisites of &ith and repentance, as signs 
of regeneration. In the great commission, Matthew speaks of baptizing 
disciples, and Mark of baptizing believers ; bnt infants are neither of these. 
Secondly, — by the Bcriptoral symbolism of the ordinance. As we should 
not bury a person before his death, so we should not symbolically bury a 
person by baptism until he has in spirit died to sin. Thirdly, — by the 
Scriptural constitution of the church. The church is a company of persons 
whose union with one another presupposes and expresses a previous con- 
scious and voluntary union of each with Jesus Ohrist. But of this conscious 
and voluntary union with Ghrist infants are not capable. Fourthly, — by 
the Scriptural prerequisites for participation in the Lord's Supper. Parti- 
cipation in the Lord's- Supper is the right only of those who can discern 
the Lord's body ( 1 €k>r. 11 : 29). No reason can be assigned for restrict- 
ing to intelligent communicants the ordinance of the Supper, which would 
not equally restrict to intelligent believers the ordinance of Baptism. 

Infant baptism has accordingly led in the Greek churoh to infant communion. This 
course seems logically consistent. If baptism is administered to unconscious babes, 
they should participate in the Lord's Supper also. But if confirmation or any intelli- 
gent profession of faith is thought necessary before communion, why should not such 
confirmation or profession be thought necessary before baptism? On Jonathan 
Edwards and the Halfway Covenant, see Kew Bnglander, Sept 1884:001-414; O. L. 
Walker, Aspects of Beligious Life of New England, 61-88 ; Dexter, Congregationalism, 
487, note — *^ It has been often intimated that President Edwards opposed and destroyed 



BAPTISM. 953 

the Halfway Oovenant. He did oppose Stoddardinii, or the doctrine that the Lord's 
Supper l8 a oonvertlxig ordinance, and that nnoonyerted men, because they are such* 
should be encouraged to partake of It.*' The tendency of his ssrstem was adverse to it ; 
but, for all that appears in his published writings, he could have approved and admin- 
istered that form of the Halfway Covenant then current among the churches. John 
Fiske says of Jonathan Edwards's preaching : *' The prominence be gave to spiritual 
conversion, or what was called * change of heart,' brought about the overthrow of the 
doctrine of the Halfway Oovenant. It also weakened the logical basis of infant bap- 
tism, andled to the winning of hosts of conyerts by the Baptists.*' 

Other pedobaptist bodies than the Greek Church save part of the truth, at the expense 
of consistency, by denjring participation in the Lord's Supper to those baptized In infancy 
until they have reached years of understanding and have made a public profession of 
faith. Dr. Charles & Jefferson, at the International Congregational Council of Boston, 
September, 18W, urged that the children of believers are already church members, and 
that as such they are entitled, not only to baptism, but also to the Lord's Supper — ** an 
assertion that started much thought " I Baptists may well commend Congregatlonal- 
ists to the teaching of their own Increase Mather, The Order of the Gospel ( 1700 ), 11 — 
** The Congregational Church discipline Is not suited for a worldly interest or for a 
formal generation of profesBors. It will stand or fail as godliness in the power of it 
does' prevail, or otherwise. .... If the begun Apostacy should proceed as fast the 
next thirty years as it has done these last, surely it will come that in New England 
(except the gospel itself depart with the order of it) that the most conscientious 
people therein will think themselves concerned to gtUher churches out of churches," 

How much of Judaistic eztemallsm may linger among nominal Christians is shown 
by the fact that in the Armenian Church animal sacrifices survived, or were permitted 
to converted heathen priests, in order they might not lose their livelihood. These 
sacrifices continued in other regions of Christendom, particularly in the Greek church, 
and Pope Gregory the Great permitted them ; see Conybeare, in Am. Jour. Theology, 
Jan. 1808 : flB-80. In The Key of Truth, a manual of the Paulidan Church of Armenia, 
whose date in its present form is between the seventh and the ninth centuries, we have 
the Adoptlanist view of Christ's person, and of the subjects and the mode of baptism: 
** Thus also the Lord, having learned from the Father, proceeded to teach us to per- 
form baptism and all other commandments at the age of full growth and at no other 
time. .... For some have broken and destroyed the holy and precious canons which 
by the Father Almighty were delivered to our Lord Jesus Christ, and have trodden 
them underfoot with their devilish teaching, .... baptlalng those who are irrational 
and communicating the unbelieving." 

Minority is legally divided into three septennates : L From the first to the seventh 
year, the age of complete irresponsibility, in which the child cannot commit a crime ; 2L 
from the seventh to the fourteenth year, the age of partial responsibility, in which 
intelligent consciousness of the consequences of actions is not assumed to exist, but 
may be proved in individual instances ; 8. from the fourteenth to the twenty-first year, 
the age of discretion, in which the person Is responsible for criminal action, may choose 
a guardian, make a will, marry with consent of parents, make business contracts not 
wholly void, but is not yet permitted fully to assume the free man's position in the 
State. The church however is not bound by these hard and fast rules. Wherever it 
has eyidence of conversion and of Christian character, it may admit to baptism and 
church membership, eyen at a very tender age. 

( ) The rise of infant baptism in the history of the ohnroh is due to 
saoramental conceptions of Ghristianityy so that all argoments in its favor 
from the writings of the first three centories are equally arguments for 
baptismal regeneration. 

Neander's view may be found in Kitto, Cydopeedia, 1:287— ''Inftuit baptism was 
established neither by Christ nor by his apostles. Even in later times TertuUian 
opposed it, the North African church holding to the old practice." The newly dis- 
covered Teaching of the Apostles, which Bryennios puts at 140-160 A. D., and Llghtfoot 
at 80-110 A. D., seems to know nothing of infant baptism. 

Professor A. H. Newman, in Bap. Bev., Jan. 1884— " Infftnt baptism has always gone 
hand in hand with State churches. It is difficult to conceive how an ecclesiastical 
establishment could be maintained without infant baptism or its equivalent. We 
should think, if the facts did not show us so plainly the contrary, that the doctrine of 



954 EGCLESIOLOOTy OB THB DOCTRINE OF THE GHUBCH. 

jiutiOoaiioii by faith alone would displace Infant baptiam. But no. The ettaitlUhment 
must be maintained. The rejeotion of infant baptism implies Insistence upon a bap- 
tism of believers. Only the baptised are properly members of the church. Even adults 
would not all receive baptism on professed faith, unless they were actually compelled 
to do so. Infftnt baptism must therefore be retained as the necessary concomitant of 
a State church. 

** But what becomes of the Justification by faith ? Baptism, if it symbolises anythinflr. 
symbolises regeneration. It would be ridiculous to make the symbol to forerun the 
fact by. a series of years. Luther saw the difficulty ; but he was sufficient for the 
emergency. 'Yes,' said he, 'Justification is by faith alone. No outward rite, apart 
from faith, has any efficacy.' Why, it was against opera operata that he was laying out 
all his strength. Yet baptism is the symbol of regeneration, and baptism must be 
administered to infants, or the State church falls. With an audacity truly sublime, 
the great reformer declares that infants are regenerated in connection with baptism, 
and that they are simtdtofMOUtfy justifted try penonal faith. An infftnt ei^rht days old 
believe? * Prove the contrary if you can 1 ' triumphantly ejaculates Luther, and his 
point is gained. If this kind of personal f&ith is said to Justify infants, is it wonderful 
that those of maturer years learned to take a somewhat superficial view of the faith 
that Justifies?" 

Yet Luther had written : ** Whatever is without the word of Ood is by that very fbct 
against Ood*'; see his Brief e, ed. DeWette, 11:202; J. O. Walch, De Fide in Utero. 
There was arreat discordance between Luther as reformer, and Luther as conservative 
churchman. His Catholicism, only half overcome, broke into all his views of faith. 
In his early years, he stood for reason and Scripture ; in his later years he f ouirht rea- 
son and Scripture in the supposed interest of the church. 

lit 18 : 10 — " 8m that 7« dHfiM sot €■• of tiMM littto aoM *' ~ which refers not to Uttle children but 
to childlike believers, Luther adduces as a proof of Infant baptism, holdinfir that the 
child is said to believe ~" little odm that bdi«T» oa »'*(▼•(«• 6)— because it has been circum- 
cised and received into the number of the elect. "And so, through baptism, children 
become believers. How else could the children of Turks and Jews be distinguished 
from those of Christians ? " Does this involve the notion that infants dyin^r unbaptized 
are lost ? To find the very apostie of Justification by faith saying that a little child 
becomes a htHiever by beluir baptised, is humiliatinfir and disheartening (so Broadus. 
Com. on Matthew, page 884, note ). 

Pfleiderer, Philos. Religion, 8:349-846, quotes from Lan^r as follows: "By mistaking 
and casting down the Protestant spirit which put forth its demands on the time in 
Carlstadt, Zwingle, and others, Luther made Protestantism lose its salt ; he inflicted 
wounds upon it from which it has not yet recovered to-day ; and the ecclesiastical 
struggle of the present is Just a struggle of spiritual freedom against Lutherlsm." 
B. G. Robinson : " Infant baptism Is a rag of Bomanism. Since regeneration is always 
through the truth, baptismal regeneration is an absurdity.*' See Christian Review, 
Jan. 1861 ; Neander, Church History, 1 :811, 818 ; Coleman, Christian Antiquities, 268-060 ; 
Arnold, in Bap. Quarterly, 1888 : 32 ; Ho vey, in Bap. Quarterly, 1871 : 76, 

(d) The reaaoning by which it is sapported is niuBoriptaral, unsound, 
and dangerous in its tendency : 

First, — in assuming the power of the ohnroh to modify or abrogate a 
command of Christ. This has been sufficiently answered above. Secondly, 
— in maintaining that infant baptism takes the place of circumcision under 
the Abrahamio covenant. To this we reply that the view contradicts the 
New Testament idea of the church, by making it a hereditary body, in 
which fleshly birth, and not the new birth, qualifies for membership. "As 
the national Israel typified the spiritual Israel, so the circumcision which 
immediately followed, not preceded, natural birth, bids us baptize children, 
not before, but after spiritual birth." Thirdly, — in declaring that baptism 
belongs to the infant because of an organic connection of the child with 
the parent, which permits the latter to stand for the former and to make 
profession of faith for it, — faith already existing germinally in the child by 
virtue of this organic union, and certain for the same reason to be developed 



BAPTISM. 955 

as the child grows to maturity. **A law of organio connection as regards 
character subsisting between the parent and the child, — such a connection 
as induces the conviction that the character of the one is actually included 
in the character of the other, as the seed is formed in the cax>sule." We 
object to this view that it unwarrantably confounds the personality of the 
child with that of the parent ; practically ignores the necessity of tiie Holy 
Spirit's regenerating influences in the case of children of Christian parents ; 
and presumes in such children a gracious state which facts condusiyely 
show not to exist. 

What takes the place of drcumdslon is not baptism but regeneratton. Paul defeated 
the attempt to fosten oiroumdsioii on the church, when he refused to have that rite 
performed on Titus. But later Judaizera suooeeded in perpetoatlnflr circumoislon under 
the form of infant baptism, and afterward of infant sprinklinff ( McOarvey, Ck>m. on 
Acta ). B. O. Robinson : " Ciroumciflion is not a type of baptism : L It is purely a gra- 
tuitous assumption .that it is so. There is not a word in Scripture to authorize it ; 
2. Circumcision was a national, a theocratic, and not a personal, religious rite ; 8. If 
circumcision be a type, why did Paul circumcise Timothy ? Why did he not ezplam, on 
an occasion so natmrally calling for it, that circumcision was replaced by baptism ? " 

On the theory that baptism takes the place of circumcision, see Pepper, Baptist 
Quarterly, April, 1857 ; Palmer, m Baptist Quarterly, 1871 : 314. The Christian Church is 
either a natural, hereditary body, or it was merely tvpified by the Jewish people. In 
the former case, baptism belongs to all children of Christian parents, and the church is 
indistinguishable from the world. In the latter case, it belongs only to spiritual 
descendants, and therefore only to true believers. **That Jewish Christians, who of 
course had been droumcised, were also baptized, and that a large number of them 
insisted that Gentiles who had been baptized should also be cirenmoised, shows con- 
clusively that baptism did not take the place of circumcision The notion that 

the family is the unit of society is a relic of barbarism. This appears m the Roman law, 
which was good for property but not for persons. It left none but a servile station to 
wife or son, thus degrading society at the fountam of family life. To gain freedom, 
the Roman wife had to accept a form of marriage which opened the way for unlimited 
liberty of divorce." 

Hereditary church-membership is of the same piece with hereditary priesthood, and 
both are relics of Judaism. J. J. Murphy, Nat. Selection and Bpir. Freedom, 81 — ** The 
institution of hereditary priesthood, which was so deeply rooted m the religions of 
antiquity and was adopted into Judaism, has found no place in Christianity ; there liB 
not, I believe, any church whatever calling itself by the name of Christ, in which the 
mmistry is hereditary." Tet there is a growing disposition to find in infant baptism 
the guarantee of hereditary church membership. Washington Gladden, What is Left ? 
252-254— "Solidarity of the generations finds expression in infant baptism. Families 
ought to be Christian and not individuals only. In the Society of IMends every one 
bom of parents belonging to the Society is a birthright member. Children of Christian 
parents are heirs of the kingdom. The State recognizes that our children are organi- 
cally connected with it. When parents are members of the State, children are not 
aliens. They are not called to perform duties of citizenship until a certain age, but the 
rights and privileges of citizenship are theirs from the moment of their birth. The 
State is the mother of her children ; shall the church be less motherly than the State ? 
.... Baptism does not make the child God's child ; it simply recognizes and declares 
the fact" 

Another illustration of what we regard as a radically false view is found in the ser- 
mon of Bishop Grafton of Fond du Lac, at the consecration of Bishop Nicholson in 
Philadelphia : " Baptism is not Uke a function in the natural order, like the coronation 
of a king, an acknowledgment of what the child already is. The child, truly God's 
loved offspring by way of creation, is in baptism translated into the new creation and 
incorporated mto the Incarnate One, and made his child." Yet, as the great majority 
of the inmates of our prisons and the denizens of the slums have received this * bap- 
tism,* it appears that this * loved ofllspring ' very early lost its * new creation * and got 
* translated ' in the wrong direction. We regard infant baptism as only an ancient 
example of the effort to brioff m the kingdom of God by externals, the protest against 



956 ECCLE8IOLOOY, OB THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHUBCH: 

which torouffht Jesus to the arooB. Our modem methods of salvation by sodoloffj and 
education and legislation are under the same indictment, as orucifyinff the Son of Ood 
afresh and putting him to open shame. 

Prof. Moses Stuart urged that the form of baptism was immaterial, but that the 
temper of heart was the thing of moment. Francis Wayland, then a student of his, 
asked : ** If such is the case, with what propriety can baptism be administered to those 
who oannot be supposed to exercise any temper of heart at all, and with whom the 
form must be everything ? *' — The third theory of organic connection of the child with 
its parents is elaborated by Bushnell, in his Christian Nurture, 9CV-SB3. P§r contra^ see 
Bunsen, Hippolytus and his Times, 179, 211 ; Curtis, Progress of Baptist Principles, 282. 
Hezekiah's son Manasseh was not godly ; and it would be rash to say that all the 
drunkard's children are presumptively drunkards. 

(e) The lack of agreement among pedobaptdsts as to the warrant for 
infant baptism and as to the relation of baptized infants to the ohuroh, 
together with the manifest deoline of the praotioe itself, axe arguments 
against it. 

The propriety of infant baptism is variously argued, says Dr. Buahnell, 
upon the ground of ''natural innooenoe, inherited depravity, and federal 
holiness ; because of the infant's own oharaoter, the parent's piety, and the 
church's faith ; for the reason that the child is an heir of salvation already, 
and in order to make it such. .... No settled opinion on infant baptinn 
and on Christian nurture has ever been attained to." 

Quot homines, tot sententlae. The belated traveler in a thunderstorm prajred for a 
little more light and less noise. Buahnell, Christian Nurture, 9^ denies oriirlnal sin, 
denies that hereditary connection can make a child guilty. But he seems to teach 
transmitted righteousness, or that hereditary connection can make a child holy. He dis- 
parages " sensible experiences '* and calls them " explosive conversions." But because 
we do not know the time of conversion, shall we say that there never was a time when 
the child experienced God's graoe? See Bib. Sac, 1872:666. Buahnell said: ^*I don*t 
know what right we have to say that a child can't be bom again before he is bom the 
first time.** Did not John the Baptist preach Christ before he was bom ? ( Uki i : 15^ 41, 44 ). 
The answer to Buahnell is simply this, that regeneration is through the truth, and an 
unborn child cannot know the truth. To disjoin regeneration from the truth, is to 
make it a matter of external manipulation in which the soul is merely passive and the 
whole process irrational. There is a secret work of God in the soul, but it is always 
accompanied by an awakening of the soul to perceive the truth and to accept Christ. 

Are baptized infants members of the Presbyterian Church? We answer by dting 
the following standards : 1. The Confession of Paith, 86 : 2—" The visible ohuroh .... 
consists of all those throughout the world, that profess the true reliflrlon, together with 
their children.*' 8. The Larger Catechism, 6S— *' The visible church is a society made 
up of all such as in all ages and places of the world do profess the true religion, and of 
their children.*' 166 — ** Baptism is not to be administered to any that are not of the 
visible church .... till they profess their faith in Christ and obedience to him : but 
infants descending from parents either both or but one of them professing ttdth in 
Christ and obedience to him are in that respect within the covenant and are to be bap- 
tized." & The Shorter Catechism, 96 — " Baptism is not to be administered to any that 
are out of the visible church, till they profess their faith in Christ and obedience to him : 
but the infkints of such as are members of the visible church are to be baptized." 
4. Form of Government, 3—** A particular church consists of a number of professing 
Christians, with their ofllspring.'* 6. Directory for Worship, 1 — ^* Children bom within 
the pale of the visible church and dedicated to God in baptism are under the inspection 
and government of the church. .... When they come to years of discretion, if they 
be free from soandal, appear sober and steady, and to have sufficient knowledge to 
discern the Lord's body, they ou^ht to be informed it is their duty and their privilege 
to come to the Lord's Supper.*' 

The Maplewood Congregational Church of Maiden, Mass., enrolls as members all 
children baptized by the church. The relation continues until they indicate a desire 
either to continue it or to dissolve it. The list of such members is kept distinct from 
that of the adults, but they are considered as members under the care of the ohuroh. 



BAPTISM. 957 

Dr. W. G. T. Sbedd : '* The in&nt of a belieyer Is born Into the churoh aa the Inftint of a 
oitiaen la bom into the State. A baptised ohild In adult yean may renounce his iMp- 
tism, become an infidel, and Join the ejuagogue of Satan, but until he does this, be 
must be regarded as a member of the church of Christ.*' 

On the Decline of Infant Baptism, see Vedder, in Baptist Bevlew, April, 188S : 173-188, 
who shows that in fifty years past the proportion of infant baptisms to communicants 
in general has decreased from one in seven to one in eleven ; among the Reformed, 
from one in twelve to one in twenty ; among the Presbyterians, from one in fifteen to 
one in thirty-three ; among the Methodists, from one in twenty-two to one in twenty- 
nine ; among the Congregationalists, from one in fifty to one in seventy-seven. 

(/) The evil effects of in£ant baptism are a strong argument against it : 

First, — in forestalling the yolnntary act of the child baptized, and thns 
praoticallj preventing his personal obedience to Christ's commands. 

The person baptiaed in infancy has never performed any act with intent to obey 
Christ's command to be baptised, never has put forth a single volition looking toward 
obedience to that command ; see Wilkinson, The Baptist Principle, 40-4(1. Bvery man 
has the right to choose his own wife. So every man has the right to choose his own 
Savior. 

Secondly, — in inducing superstitions confidence in an outward rite as 
possessed of regenerating efficacy. 

French parents still regard infants before baptism as only animals ( Stanley ). The 
haste with which the minister is summoned to baptize the dying child shows that super- 
stition still lingers in many an otherwise evangelical family in our own country. The 
Wnglifth Prayerbook declares that in baptism the infant is ** made a child of Ood and 
an inheritor of the kingdom of heaven." Bven the Westminster Assembly *B Catechism, 
SB: 8, holds that grace is actually conferred in baptism, though the efficacy of it is 
delayed till riper years. Merceraburg Review : ** The objective medium or instrumental 
cause of regeneration is baptism. Men are not regenerated outside the church and 
then brought into it for preservation, but they are regenerated by being incorporated 
with or engrafted into the church through the sacrament of baptism.** OathoUo 
Beview : ^ Unbaptiaed, these little ones go into darkness ; but baptised, they rejoioe tn 
the presence of God forever." 

Dr. Beebe of Hamilton went after a minister to baptize his sick chUd, but before he 
returned the ohild died. Reflection made him a Baptist, and the Editor of The 
Bzaminer. Baptists unhesitatingly permit converts to die unbaptlzed, showing plainly 
that they do not regard baptism as essential to salvation. Baptism no more makes 
one a Christian, than putting a crown on one's head makes him a king. Zwlngle held 
to a symbolic interpretation of the Lord*s Supper, but he clung to the sacramental 
conception of Baptism. K H. Johnson, Uses and Abuses of Ordinances, 88, claims 
that, while baptism is not a Justifying or regenerating ordinance, it is a sanctifying 
ordinance, — sanctifying, in the sense of setting apart. Yes, we reply, but only as 
church going and prayer are sanctifying ; the efficacy is not in the outward act but In 
the spirit which accompanies it. To make it signify more is to admit the sacramental 
principle. 

In the Roman Oathollc Churoh the baptism of bells and of rosaries shows how infant 
baptism has induced the belief that grace can be conununicated to irrational and even 
material things. In Mexico people bring caged birds, cats, rabbits, donkeys, and pigB* 
for baptism. The priest kneels before the altar in prayer, reads a few words in Latin, 
then sprinkles the creature with holy water. The sprinkling is supposed to drive out 
any evil spirit that may have vexed the bird or beast. In Key West, Florida, a town 
of 22,000 inhabitants, infant baptism has a stronger hold than anywhere else at the 
South. Baptist parents had sometimes gone to the Methodist preachers to have their 
children baptized. To prevent this, the Baptist pastors established the custom of lay- 
ing their hands upon the heads of infants in the congregation, and * blessing* them, 
i, e., asking God's blessing to rest upon them. But this custom came to be confounded 
with christening, and was called such. Now the Baptist pastors are having a hard 
struggle to explain and limit the custom which they themselves have introduced. 
Perverse human nature will take advantage of even the slightest additions to N. T. 
prescriptions, and will bring out of the germs of false dootrine a fearful harvest of 
evil. Obstaprlnoipii8~''Reslit beginnings." 



d68 ECCLESIOLOOTy OR THE DOCTRINE OP THE CHI7RCH. 

Thirdly, — in obfloniing and oormpting Christian trath with regard to 
the sufficiency of Scripture, the connection of the ordinances, and the 
inconsistency of an impenitent life with ohnroh-membership. 

Infant baptism in England la followed hj oonflrmation, as a matter of conrae* 
whether there haa been any oonaotoua abandonment of ain or not. In Gtarmany, a 
man la alwaya underatood to be a Christian unleas he expreaaly atatea to the contrary — 
in fact, he feels inaulted if hia Chriatianity la queationed. At the f unerala eyen of 
infldeia and debaucheea the pall uaed may be inacrlbed with the worda : ** Bleaaed are 
the dead that die in the Lord.'* Confldenoe in one*a Chriatianity and hopea of heayen 
baaed only on the taot of baptlam in Infanoy, are a great obetade to evangelloal 
preaching and to the progreaa of true religion. 

Wordaworth, The Ezcnision, 600, 008 ( book 6 ) — ** At the baptlamal font And when 
the pure And oonaeorating element hath deanaed The original atain, the child la thua 
reoeived Into the aecond ark, Chriat*a ohuroh, with truat That he, from wrath redeemed 
therein ahall float Over the blllowa of thia troubleaome world To the fair land of erer- 
laating life. .... The holy rite That lovingly oonslgna the babe to the arma Of Jeaua 
and hia everlaating oare." Infant baptism aroae in the aaperatitiouB belief that there 
lay in the water itself a magical efflcaoy for the washing away of ain, and that apart 
from baptlam there could be no aalvatlon. Thia waa and still remalna the Roman 
Catholic position. Father Doyle, in Anno Domini, 2 : 182 — ** Baptism regeneratea. By 
meana of it the child la bom again into the newneaa of the aupematural life.** Theo- 
dore Parker waa baptized, but not till he waa four yeara old, when hia " Oh, don't I ** — 
in which hia blographera have found prophetic intimation of hia mature dislike for all 
conventional forms— waa clearly the amall boy 'a dlalike of water on hia fSoe; see 
Chadwlck, Theodore Parker, 0, 7. ** How do you know, my dear, that you have been 
christened?" ** Please, mum, 'cos I 've got the marks on my arm now, mum 1 ** 

Fourthly, — in destroying the chnrch as a spiritual body, by merging it 
in the nation and the world. 

Ladd, Principles of Church Polity: '* Unitarianlsm entered the Congregational 
churches of New England through the breach in one of their own avowed and most 
important teneta, namely, that of a regenerate dhuroh-memberahlp. Fonnallam, 
indllTerentlami, neglect of moral reforms, and, aa both cauae and reaulta of theae, an 
abundance of unrenewed men and women, were the cauaea of their seeming diaaatois 
in that aad epoch." But we would add, that the aerioua and alarming decline of 
religion which culminated in the Unitarian movement in New England had ita origin 
in infSnt baptlam. Thia introduced into the church a multitude of nnregenerato 
peraona and permitted them to determine ita doctrinal poeition. 

W. B. Sfatteaon : ** No one practice of the church haa done ao much to lower the tone 
of Ita life and to debaae ita standards. The first New England churches were estab- 
lished by godly and regenerated men. They received into their churches, through 
infant baptism, children presumptively, but alas not actually, regenerated. The reault 
la well known — awift, atartling, aeemlngly Irreaiatlble decline. * The body of the rising 
generation,' writes Increase Mother, * is a poor perishing, inconverted, and, except the 
Lord pour out his Spirit, an undone generation.* The * Halfway Covenant * was at once 
a token of preceding, and a cause of further, decline. If Ood had not indeed poured 
out his Spirit in the great awakening under Edwards, New England might well, as some 
feared, *be lost even to New England and buried in its own ruins.' It was the new 
emphasis on personal religion— an emphasis which the Baptists of that day largely 
contributed — that gave to the New England churchea a larger life and a larger uaef ul- 
neaa. Infant baptlam haa never aince held quite the aame place in the polity of thoae 
churchea. It haa very generally declined. But it Is stUl fSr from extinct, even among 
evangelical Protestants. The work of Baptlats Is not yet done. Baptists have always 
stood, but they need stUl to stand, for a believing and regenerated church-member- 
ship." 

Fifthly, — in putting into the place of Christ's command a commandment 
of men, and so admitting the essential principle of all heresy, schiam, and 
false religion. 



THB lord's SUPPSB. 969 

There is thettelote no logical haltiiiff-plaoe betiween the Baptist and the Bomanist 
positions. The Roman Catholic Archbishop Hughes of New York, said well to a Pres- 
byterian minister : ** We have no controversy with you. Our controversy is with the 
Baptists.^* Lange of Jena : **' Would the Protestant church fulfil and attain to its final 
destiny, the baptism of infants must of necessity be abolished.*' The English Judge 
asked the witness what his religious belief was. Reply : ** I haven't any.*' " Where do 
yt)u attend church ? *' ** Nowhere.*' " Put him down as belonging to the Church of 
England." The small child was asked where her mother was. Reply : " She has gone 
to a Christian and devil meeting." The child meant a Christian Endeavor meeting. 
Some systems of doctrine and ritual, however, answer her description, for they are a 
mixture of paganism and Christianity. The greatest work favoring the doctrine which 
we here condemn Is Wall's History of Infant Baptism. For the Baptist side of the 
controversy see Arnold, In Madison Avenue Lectures, 160-182 ; Curds, Progress of Bap- 
tist Principles, 274, 275 ; Dagg, Church Order, 144-80B. 

n. Thb Lord's Supphb. 

The Lord's Supper is that outward rite in which the assembled ohuroh 
eats bread broken and drinks wine poured forth by its appointed represen- 
tative, in token of its constant dependence on the once crucified, now risen 
Savior, as source of its spiritual life ; or, in other words, in token of that 
abiding communion of Ohrist's death and resurrection through which the 
life begun in regeneration is sustained and perfected. 

Norman FOz, Christ in the Daily Meal, 81, 3&, says that the Sorlpture nowhere speaks 
of the wine as "poured forth"; andlnlOor.ll:U— "iiqrbod7vUAhiBlffQkiaftr7oa,"the Revised 
Version omits the word "brakn "; while on the other hand the Gospel according to John 
( 19 : aft) calls especial attention to the fact that Christ*s body was not broken. We reply 
that Jesus, In giving his disciples the cup, did speak of his blood as **paond ooi** (laik 
14:M) ; and it was not the body, but *'& bon« of ki]%" which was not to be broken. Many 
ancient manuscripts add the word "bnkea " in 1 Oor. 11 : 21 hn the Lord's Supper in general, 
see Weston, in Biadison Avenue Lectures, 188-lOS; Dagg. Church Order, 206-814. 

1. ITie LorcTs Supper an ordinance instituted by Christ 

(a) Christ appointed an outward rite to be observed by his disciples in 
remembrance of his death. It was to be observed after his death ; only 
after his death could it completely fulfil its purpose as a feast of commem- 
oration. 

Uke 22 : 19— " And k« took InM ud vWn k« hid gim thuki^ k« k«k« 1^ lid gin to tko^ 
body vhiok ii givoii fbr yoa : tUi do is roMiibnttoe of mo. Aad tho eap is liko Binnar ilUr n^por, ujiag, Tkii 
oap is th« no V ooTouat in 117 Mood, omitfait vhiokiipoondontforToa"; 10or.ll:2]^-25~"PorInooiTodof tko 
Lord tkit whiflh iloo I dolirored onto yoii, thit tko lord J«nu is tho Bight in vUflb ho vii botnyod took brad ; lad 
vhen ho hid givon think% ho bnko it^ ind Hid, TUi li my body, whioh ii ibr yoa : tUi do in raiOBibnain of m. In 
liko ninnor ilio &o onp, ifUr wajffm, nying, Thii oop ii tho now ooraamt in my blood : ttii do. u ofton u yo drink 
it, in ramombruue of mo.'* Observe that this communion was Christian communion before 
Christ's death. Just as John's baptism was Christian baptism before Christ's death. 

(&) From the ajiostolic injunction with regard to its celebration in the 
church until Christ's second coming, we infer that it was the original inten- 
tion of our Lord to institute a rite of perpetual and uniyersal obligation. 



1 Oor. 11 : 2e --'' Vto H ofton u yo oit thii brad, ind drink tho onp, yo prooliim tho krd'i doOh till ho oooio **; ^ 
Mit 26 : 29 — "Bat I My onto yoa, I ihill not drink koBoobrth of thii firnit of tho Tino, nntU thil diy vhon I d^ 
novvith yoa in my Vkthor'i kingdom'*; Ilirkl4:25— "Torilyl nyonto yoa,I will so morodrinkof thofrnltol 
tho vino, nntil tfait diy vhm I drink it nov in tho kingdom of God." As the paschal supper continued 
until Christ came the first time in the fleshy so the Lord's Supper is to continue until he 
oomes the second time with all the power and crlory of Ood. 

(c) The uniform practice of the N. T. churdheSy and the celebration of 
such a rite in subsequent ages by almost all ohnrohes professing to be 



900 BOCLESIOLOOT, OR THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH. 

Ohiistiaii, is best explained upon the snpposition that the Lord's Sapper is 
an ordinance established by Christ himself. 

A«li2:tt— 'AndfhfyioatiiudilidftaayiBthaaptiai^ UmIub; tal Mk«dd|^ ii tte teaiUig tf bnid Mi 
Ik* pK7«n*^ « — ''Aad dAj by day, ontiftiii^ rtadfltfUy vitk «M aMsH ia tte ta^fli. lid bNiki^ 
tey took tkalr food Tttk fladBMud liagloBMi of kotrt"— oo the words here tniulated "•! koBo" (mt* 
oUo¥)^ but meaning, as Jacob maintains, "from one worBhl]>-room to another," see 
page Oei. AfltaSO:?— "lodttpontkoiinldAyof thowook,wkiBvov«rogittond togolhirtobrak bnid,P^ 
dliooiinod vitk tktm" ; 1 Oor. 10:16-"Tho oop of M«oui« whkk vo Um^ ii it boI a OMUBonioa of tko Mood of 
Okriit? Ao hrnd vkiok vo bnik, if it sol a ooaunuioB of tko body of Ohriil T oioiBf tkfll wib vko on Biay, on 
OBO brad, OM body: for voBUportakooftkooso bnid." 

2. The Mode of administering the Lord^a Supper, 

(a) The elements are bread and wina 

Although the bread which Jesus broke at the institution of the ordinance was doubt- 
less the unleavened bread of the Passover, there is nothing in the symbolism of the 
Loid^B Supper which necessitates the Romanist use of the wafer. Although the wine 
which Jesus poured out was doubtless the ordinary fermented Juice of the grape, there 
is nothing in the symbolism of the ordinance which forbids the use of unfermented 
juice of the grape,— obedience to the command '*Tkia do ia rmoiabnuMO of bo" (LokoBrlt) 
requires only that we should use the " IMt of tbo TlM '*< Kai 86 : B9 ). 

Huguenots and Roman Oatholios, among Parkman*s Pioneers of France in the New 
World, disputed whether the sacramental bread could be made of the meal of Indian 
com. But it is only as food, that the bread is symbolic. Dried flsh is used in Green- 
land. The bread only symbolizes Christ's life and the wine only symboliaes his death. 
Any food or drink may do the same. It therefore seems a very conscientious but 
unnecessary literalism, when Adonlram Judson (Life by his Son, 8tt) writes from 
Bunna: '*No wine to be procured in this place, on which account we are unable to 
meet with the other churches this day in partaldng of the Lord's Supper." For proof 
that Bible wines, like all other wines, are fermented, see Presb. Rev., 1881 : 8(^114 ; 1882 : 
78-106, 8M-880, 686; Hovey, in Bap. Quar. Rev., April, 1887 : 160-180. Per contra^ see Sam- 
son, Bible Wines. On the Scripture Iaw of Temperance, see Presb. Bev., 188S : 867-40A. 

(6) The oommnnion is of both kinds, — that is, oonmmnioants are to 
partake both of the bread and of the wine. 

The Roman Oatholio Ohuroh withholds the wine from the laity, althous^ it considers 
the whole Christ to he present under each of the forms. Christ, however, says : "Onak 
yo all of it " ( laL Be : S7 ). To withhold the wine from any believer is disobedience to Christ, 
and is too easily understood as teaching that the laity have only a portion of the benefits 
of Christ's death. Calvin : *' As to the bread, he simply said 'Taki^ oat* Why does he 
expressly bid them aU drink ? And why does Ifark explicitly say that 'thoy all dxiak of it ' 
( Mark 14: 88) 7 " Bengel : Does not this suggest that, if communion in ** one kind alone 
were sufficient, it is the cup which should be used? The Scripture thus speaks, fore- 
seeing what Bome would do." See Bxpositor's Greek Testament on 1 Oor. 11 : 27. In the 
Greek Church the bread and wine are mingled and are administered to communicants, 
not to infants only but also to adults, with a spoon. 

(o) The partaking of these elements is of a festal natore. 

The Passover was festal in Its nature. Gloom and sadness are foreign to the spirit of 
the Lord's Supper. The wine is the symbol of the death of Christ, but of that death by 
which we live. It reminds us that he drank the cup of suif ering in order that we might 
drink the wine of Joy. As the bread is broken to sustain our physical life, so Christ's 
body was broken by thorns and nails and spear to nourish our spiritual life. 

10v.il:S9— "FttrhothatoatotbaaddriBkoa, oatott aad drinkotb Jndpnont uto biauolt if bo diooan not tho 
body." Here the Authorised Version wrongly had " damnation *' instead of " Jadgnoot." Not 
eternal condemnation, but penal Judgment in general, is meant. He who partakes "ia 
■ uvortby naaaff " ( vono 17 ), i. e., in hypocrisy, or merely to satisfy bodily appetites, and 
not discerning the body of Christ of which the bread Is the symbol (nm 29 X draws 
down upon him God*s Judicial sentence. Of this Judgment, the frequent sickness and 
death in the church at Corinth was a token. See nnm 80-H and Meyer's Com.; also 



THE lord's supper. 961 

Ooiild, in Am. Oom. on 1 Oor. 11:27— "uvoithUy"—" This ia not to be understood as 
Teferrin^ to the unworthlness of the person himself to partake, hut to the unworthy 

manner of partaking The failure to recogmize practically the symbolism of the 

elements, and henoe the treatment of the Supper as a common meal, is just what the 
apostle has pointed out as the fault of the Corinthians, and it is what he characterizes 
as an unworthy eating and drinking." The Christian therefore should not be deterred 
from participation in the Lord's Supper by any feeling of his personal unworthlness, 
so lODg as he trusts Christ and aims to obey him, for " All the fitness he requireth Is to 
feel our need of him." 

{d) The oomnmnion is a festival of oommemoration, — not simplj bring- 
ing Christ to our remembranoe, bnt malring proclamation of his death to 
the world. 

i Oar. ii : S4, M— '*tld8 do in mmmbiiBM of bm. .... For at flftoi m ye Mt tUi bmd Mid drink thii eaf, 7* 
proeUiffl ^ Lovi'i dttth till ht mbi^" As the Passover commemorated the deliverance of Israel 
from Egypt, and as the Fourth of July commemorates our birth as a nation, so the 
Lord*s Supper commemorates the birth of the church in Christ's death and resurrec- 
tion. As a mother might bid her children meet over her grave and commemorate her, 
so Christ bids his people meet and remember him. But subjective remembrance is not 
its only aim. It is public proclamation also. Whether it brings perceptible blessing to 
us or not, it Is to be observed as a means of oonfeashig Christ, testifying our faith, and 
publishing the fact of his death to others. 

( e ) It is to be celebrated by the assembled chnrohu It is not a solitary 
observance on the part of individuals. No " showing forth " is possible 
except in company. 

iflkia0:7-''gattindtog«lhartobnikbnid**; i Oor. 11 : 18, 80^ 22; 88^ M -•• whM ;• mom tegvOar hi tht 
ehnrek .... MMmble jonnalTit togflUur .... 1uit» 71 not Imnun to aii and to drink in? or daqpiio 70 the drank 
of Qod, and pat tiim to ihanM Oak kata not? .... lAn ya ooma togathar to atU . . . . If aqr nian ia koDgry, lat 
kini aat at kooM : that yoor toning tagethar ba not onto Jodgmant ** 

Jacob, Boot Polity of N. T., 191-lM, chUms that in Asto 8:46— "teaaUig knadat koM" — 
where we have ot«of , not oUla^ oUot is not a private house, but a ' worship-room,' and 
that the phrase should be translated *' breaking bread from one woi-ship-room to 
another," or ** in various worship-rooms.** This meaning seems very apt in Aoti 5 : 43— 
"And avary day, in tta tanyla and at hona [ rather, ' in nriooa vflnkip-noBa' ], tkay oaaaad not to UaA and to 
praaah Jaau aa tha Ohriat**; 8:3— "Bnt 8anl laid vaito tha ahnrah, antoring into 01197 honaa [ rather, 'orwy 
vonUp-nioBi *] and dragging nian and voBun flOBunittad tiMm to priaon '* ; Rom. 16: 5 — "aalntotka ahnnkOntiain 
tkair kooaa [rather, 'in thair wonfaip-iwB* ] '* ; Titu 1 :il— "nan who owtfarew whola honaaa [rather, 
' wkola vtnUp-nMiiia ' \ taaahing tkinga vkioh thay oogkt no^ for IDthy tmara'a aakai' ' Per eontrOy however, 
see i Oar. 11 : 34— "kt him aal at koma^" where oZxoc is contrasted with the plaoe of meeting ; so 
also 1 Oor. 14: 85 and Aoto 20 : 20^ where oUot seems to mean a private house. 

The celebration of the Lord's Supper in each fhunily by itself is not recognized in the 
New Testament. Stanley, In Nineteenth Century, May, 1878, tells us that as Infftnt com- 
munion is forbidden in the Western Church, and evening communion is forbidden by 
the Roman Church, so solitary communion Is forbidden by the Bnglish Church, and 
death-bed communion by the Scottish Church. B. G. Bobinson : ** No single indi- 
vidual in the New Testament ever celebrates the Lord's Supper by himself." Mrs. 
Browning recognized the essentially social nature of the ordinance, when she said that 
truth was like the bread at the Sacrament — to be passed on. In this the Supper gives 
us a type of the proper treatment of all the goods of life, both temporal and spiritual. 

Dr. Norman Fox, Christ in the Daily Meal, claims that the Lord's Supper is no more 
an exclusively church ordinance than is singing or prayer ; that the command to 
observe it was addressed, not to an organized, church, but only to individuals ; that every 
meal in the home was to be a Lord's Supper, because Christ was remembered in it. But 
we reply that Paul's letter with regard to the abuses of the Lord's Supper was 
addressed, not to individuals, but to "tka aknrok «f Oad vhiahiaatOorintk" (lOor. 1:8). Paul 
reproves the Corinthians because in the Lord's Supper each ate without thought of 
others*: "Wha^kiTayoBotkaoiMtoaatandtodrinkln? or daapiaa yatkaohnnkof Ood, and put thorn to ahaaa 
thai havo not ? " ( 11 : 22 ). Bach member having appeased his hunger'at home, the members of 
the church " ooma tagath« to aat " ( 11 : 80 X as the spiritual body of Christ. All this shows that 
the celebration of the Lord's Supper was not an appendage to every ordlnazy meal. 

61 



962 BCCLBSIOLOOT, OB THB DOCTRINB OF THB OHUBCH. 

InAdilO:7*"i9«tk«lnld>7ofttevwk,vhnw«v««Kitte«dtaK«lkrtobr«k kwi, Hal ilMWini wift 
thai " ^ the natural Infereaoe is that the Lord's Supper was a sacsred rite, observed apart 
from any ordinary meal, and accompanied by rell^^'ious instruction. Dr. Fox would go 
beck of these later observances to the oriirinal command of our Lord. He would eliml - 
nate all that we do not find in Hark, the earliest gospel. But this would deprive us of 
the Sermon on the Mount, the parable of the Prodigal Son, and the discourses of the 
fourth gospeL McGiflert gives A. D. 62, as the date of Paul's first letter to the Corin- 
thians, and this antedates Bfark*s gospel by at least thirteen years. Paulas aooount of 
the Lord's Supper at Corinth is therefore an earlier authority than Mark. 

(/) The responflibility of seemg that the ordiiiaQoe is properly adxzdnis- 
tered rests with the choroh as a body ; and the pastor is, in this matter, the 
proper representative and organ of the ohnroh. In oaaes of extreme 
exigency, however, as where the ohnroh has no pastor and no ordained 
minister can be secnred, it is competent for the ohnroh to appoint one from 
its own nnmber to administer the ordinance. 

1 ftr. ll;^n— "IcwlFtri»y«ithrtytniiMml¥rM<iB>UttiBg%>aakBMflrtft>tri^^ 
thimtojBa ....ArlmiivtdorthtLardthatvkiahalMlMvmd vitojoii, that tht In^ J«iu la tht aiskt is 
wkiok hb wm bilnjsl took lirad." Here the reqionaibiUty of administering the Lord's Supper 
is laid upon the body of beUevers. 

ig) The freqnenoy with which the Lord's Snpper is to be administered 
is not indicated either by the N. T. precept or by uniform N. T. example. 
We have instances both of its daily and of its weekly observance. With 
respect to this, as well as with respect to the accessories of the ordinance, 
the ohnzeh is to exercise a sonnd discretion. 

AaiiS:46— "iiiddAj by dnj, oontinia; ikad&itty vift ose Mowd in th* tn^ iBd bnildiig brad atboM 
[or perhaps, 'in nxkoM vonih^raaBi']"; 10:7— "And npui tbf lb«t dftj of th« VMk, vhai vt vwi 
pXbmii togflth* to brnk bnod." In 1878, thirty-nine churches of the Establishment in London 
held daily communion ; in two churches it was held twice each day. A few churches of 
the Baptist faith in England and America celebrate the Lord*8 Supper on each Lord's 
day. Oarlstadt would celebrate the Lord's Supper only in companies of twelve, and 
held also that every bishop must marry, fiedllning on couches, and meeting in the 
evening, are not commanded ; and both, by their inconvenience, might in modern 
times oounteraot the design of the ordinance. 

8. I7ie SjffnJboliwn of the Lord^s Supper. 

The Lord's Snpper sets forth, in general, the death of Ohrist as the 
sustaining power of the believer's life. 

don of this statement 



(a) It flymbolizes the death of Ohrist for our sin& 

i Oar. U : 16 — " ibr u oftM M 70 Nt tkii brad, tad drink thi onp^ 70 prodldB tko I«rd*i doiitk tin bo 00^ 
c/. KukidrM— "AiiitHjUoidoftbo eoTtnu^ vbiib it pound oat ibrmaaj"— the blood upon which 
the covenant between God and Christ, and so between Gk>d and us who are one with 
Christ, from eternity past was based. The Lord's Supper reminds us of the covenant 
which ensures our salvation, and of the atonement upon which the covenant was 
based; c/.Iob.lS:30 — "UoodofuotaraolooTeaut" 

Alex. McLaren : ** The suggestion of a violent death, implied in the douHblinQ of the 
symbols, by which the body is separated from that of the blood, and still further 
implied in the hreaMng of the bread, is made prominent in the woi^ in reference to 
the cup. It symbolizes the blood of Jesus which is *8hed.* That shed blood is cove- 
nant blood. By it the New Covenant, of which Jeremiah had prophesied, one article 
of which was, *' Their sins and iniquities I will remember no more," is sealed and rati- 
fied, not for Israel only but for an indefinite *many,' which is really equivalent to all. 
Could woi^ more plainly declare that Christ's death was a sacrifice? Can we under- 
stand it, according to his own interpretation of it, unless we see in his words here a 
reference to his previous words (Mat 10:28) and recognise that in shedding his blood 



THE lobd's suppbb. 968 

'for many/ he * gmye his life a ranflom for many ' ? The Lord's Supper Is the stand* 
log witness, voiced by Jesus himself, that he regarded his death as the very centre of 
his work, and that he regarded it not merely as a nuirtyrdom, but as a saoriflce by which 
he put away sins f orerer. Those who reject that view of that death are sorely pussled 
what to make of the Lord's Supper." 

( 6 ) It symbolizes onr personal appropriation of the benefits of that death. 



10or.ll:M— "Tkiiiim7bo4j.whiahiif«r7aa";e/. 1 Oor.5:7-"Gknit MrpMnTwkMrifl0•dftrnl"; 
or R. y.~**oQr pMMTw ilM hAlk bMB Mtiftoii. fm Obriit" ; here it Is evident not only that the 
showing forth of the Lord's death Is the primary meaning of the ordinance, but that 
our partaking of the benefits of that death is as clearly taught as the Israelites' deliver- 
ance was symboUaed in the paschal supper. 

( c ) It symbolizes the method of this appropriation* through union with 
Christ himself . 

1 to. 10:i6~"1te«iipflf Uoriag irtkh vt Um^ if it Ml a flOB»mi« of [marg.: 'y«rt^^ 
UoodofChriit? n< bwai i^ioh we bwik. ii it nat a <wiiMntan of [marg.; 'partidpiiMB ia* ] th> hdj rf 
GhriH?'* Here "uitiMtaputidpatioa" -'does it not symbolize the partioipatlon?' SolUi 
28:18— "tkkita^ body" -'thissymboliass my body.* 

(d) It symbolizes the continuons dependence of the believer for all 
spiritual life upon the onoe Graoified» now living. Savior, to whom he la 
thus united. 

Of. iokn 8 :S3— "T«ity, Tsrilj, Iwtjvatajn, nattfL jo oai tho leih of tho Boa of ■!■ ud drink kit blood, yo 
bftTo not lift is yoonolTOi" — here is a statement, not with regard to the Lord's Supper, but 
with regard to spiritual union with Christ, which the Lord's Supper only symbolizes ; 
see page 906, (a). Like BapUsm, the Lord's Supper presupposes and implies evangelical 
faith, especially ftdth in the Deity of Christ; not that all who partake of it realise its 
full meaning, but that this participation logically implies the five great truths of 
Christ's pre^zistence, his supernatural birth, his vicarious atonement, his literal resur- 
rection, and his living presence with his followers. Because Balph Waldo Bmerson 
perceived that the Lord's Supper implied Christ's omnipresence and deity, he would no 
longer celebrate it, and so broke with his church and with the ministry. 

(6) It symbolizes the sanctifioation of the Christian through a spiritual 
reproduction in him of the death and resurrection of the Lord. 



140.8:10— •* lad if Chrifkii In yoa, ft« body if dood booraio of liii ; but thoifiiitiiliftboanioofflghlooat- 
boh"; FhU. 8:10—" that I my knov U]n,aDd tho povor of bio nourNtioD, tod tho feUovohipofhisiniaiaga 
bMOBiagoonftnDodiiiitohiidoatt; if by aay BOOM I Buy attain onto tbonovnotionS^ The bread 

of llfb nourishes ; but it transforms me, not I it. 

(/) It symboUzes the consequent union of Christians in Ohrist, their 
head. 

10ar.i0:i7~'*ooii]if tbotvi^ vboanno^y.on ooobnod,OBobody: ftrvoallpoitakooflhooiiobnai" The 
Boman Catholic says that bread is the unity of many kernels, the wine the unity of 
many berries, and aU are changed into the body of Christ. We can adopt the former 
part of the statement, without taking the latter. By being united to Christ, we become 
united to one another ; and the Lord's Supper, as It symbolises our common partaking 
of Christ, symbolises also the consequent oneness of all in whom Christ dwells. Teach- 
ing of the Twelve Apostles, zx~" As this broken bread was scattered upon the 
mountains, and being gathered together became one, so may thy ohuroh be gathered 
together from the ends of the earth into thy kingdom." 

( ^ ) It symbolizes the coming joy and x)6rf ection of the kingdom of Qod. 

Uk^tt:18— "ftrlMyvBloyoB,! AaUaoidriBk froB baoilortb «f tbo frsift oftboTia^utiltbokiagdflBof 
Qod ihaU ooM '' ; laik 14 : S - '' Yaily I lay uto yoo, I vm so Bon dilBk of tko flndt «f tho Tiso, util tkat b^ 
vbflBldiiBkiliHwiBtbokii«doBof(M*';lloiM:»--''B«tIflayutoyoii,IobaUBoldriakboBorfbrtk«ftkia 
froil of tbo TtM» utU tbit day vboB I driak it Mw vitk yos ia ay Mbor'fl klBgdoB.** 

like Baptlnn, which points forward to the resuireotion, the Lord's Sapper is antld- 



964 BCCLBSIOLOOY, OB THE DOCTRIKB OF THB CHURCH. 

patory also. It brings before us, not simply death, but life ; not simply past sscrlfloe, 
but future glory. It points forward to the great festival, *'tk« naniigt wppir of tk« Lnb " 
( RaT. 19: 9 ). Domer : *' Then Christ will keep the Supper anew with us, and the hours 
of highest solemnity in this life are but a weak foretaste of the powers of the world to 
oome/* See Madison Avenue Lectures, 176-216 ; The Lord's Supper, a Glerioal Sympo- 
sium, by Pressens^, Luthardt, and English Dtvioes. 

B. Inf erenoes from this statement 

(a) The oomieotion between the Lord's Sapper and Baptism consists in 

this, that they both and equally are symbols of the death of Christ In 

Baptism, we show forth the death of CliriBt as the procuring cause of our 

new birth into the kingdom of God. In the Lord's Supper, we show forth 

the death of Christ as the sustaining power of our spiritual life after it has 

once begun. In the one, we honor the sanctifying power of the death of 

Christ, as in the other we honor its regenerating power. Thus both are 

parts of one whole, — setting before us Christ's death for men in its two 

great purposes and results. 

If baptism symbolised purification only, there would be no point of connection 
between the two ordinances. Their common reference to the death of Christ binds the 
two together. 

( b ) The Lord's Supper is to be often repeated, — as (Symbolizing Christ's 
constant nourishment of the soul, whose new birth was signified in Baptism. 

Tet too frequent repetition may induce superstitious confidence in the value of com- 
munion ss a mere outward form. 

(c) The Lord's Supper, like Baptism, is the symbol of a previous state 
of grace. It has in itself no regenerating and no sanctifying power, but is 
the symbol by which the relation of the believer to Christ, his sanctifler, is 
vividly expressed and strongly confirmed. 

We derive more help from the Lord's Supper than from private prayer, simply 
because it is an external rite, impressing the sense ss well as the intellect, celebrated in 
company with other belleveis whose faith and devotion help our own, and bringing 
before us the profoundest truths of Christianity —the death of Christ, and our union 
with ChrlBt in that death. 

(d) The blessiug received from participation is therefore dependent 
npon, and proportioned to, the faith of the communicant 

In observing the Lord's Supper, we need to dlsoem thebody of theLord(10or.li:29) 
—that is, to recognise the spiritual meaning of the ordinance, and the presence of 
Christ, who through bis deputed representatives gives to us the emblems, and who 
nourishes and quickens our souls as these material things nourish and quicken the 
body. The faith which thus discerns Christ is the gift of the Holy Spirit. 

( 6 ) The Lord's Supper expresses primarily the fellowship of the believer, 
not with his brethren, but with Christ, his Lord. 

The Lord*s Supper, like Baptism, symbolises fellowship with the brethren only as 
consequent upon, and incidental to, fellowship with Christ. Just as we are sll baptised 
**iiitombod7'* (1 Oor. 12:13) only by being "teptLndintoOhxiit'' (Hon. 6:3), so we commune with 
other believers in the Lord's Supper, only ss we commune with Christ. Christ's words : 
**tkli d0 is rmamfansBe of me" (i Oor. 11: 24), bid us think, not of our brethren, but of the 
Lord. Baptism is not a test o ( personal worthiness. Nor is the Lord's Supper a test of 
personal worthiness, either our own or that of others. It is not primarily an expression 
of Christian fellowship. Nowhere in the New T^tament is it called a communion of 
Christians with one another. But it is called a communion of the body and blood of 
Christ (1 Oor. 10: 16 ) — or, in other words, a participation in him. Hence there is not a 
single cap, but many: "iMUHumgywumim" {haktUiil), Here is warrant for the indi- 



THE lord's StrPPER. 965 

yidiial oommunioiMnip. Most ohurohes use more than one oop : If more than one 
why not many ? 

10ar.ll:)6 — "udUauTtanl... . y* Fmkiai th« Urri dntk ** — the Lord's Supper Is a teaoh- 
in^ ordinance, and is to be observed, not simply for the good that comes to the com- 
municant and to his brethren, but for the sake of the witness which it gives to the 
world that the Christ who died for its sins now lives for its salvation. A. H. Ballard, 
inTheStandard, Au£r.l8,19aO,oniOar.li:»— "tMMh lad drinkctk JndfiniDl vsto UiueU if ha dis- 
oini not tt« body " — *' He who eats and drinks, and does not discern that he is redeemed by 
the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all, eats and drinks a double condem- 
nation, because he does not discern the redemption which is symbolized by the things 
which he eats and drinks. To turn his thought away from that saoriflcial body to the 
company of disciples assembled is a grievous error —the error of all those who exalt 
the idea of fellowship or communion in the celebration of the ordinance.** 

The offence of a Christian brother, therefore, even if committed against myself, 
should not prevent me from remembering Christ and communing with the Savior. I 
oould not commune at all, if I had to vouch for the Christian character of all who sat 
with me. This does not excuse the church from effort to purge its membership from 
unworthy participants ; It simply declares that the church's failure to do this does not 
absolve any single member of it from his obligation to observe the Lord*s Sapper. See 
Jacob, BocL PoUtyof N. T.,28S. 

i. EmmeouA views of the LortTa Supper. 

A. The Bonumist yiew, — that the bread and vine are changed by 
priestlj oonseoiation into the very body and blood of Christ ; that this oon- 
seoration is a new offering of Christ's sacrifice ; and that, by a physical 
partaking of the elements, the communicant receives saving grace from 
God«. To this doctrine of " transubstantiation" we reply : 

( a ) It rests npon a false interpretation of Scriptore. In MaL 26 : 26, 
'' this is my body " means : " this is a symbol of my body. " Since Christ 
was with the disciples in visible form at the institution of the Supper, he 
oo^ld not have intended them to recognize the bread as being his literal 
body, ** The body of Christ is present in the bread, just as it had been in 
the passover lamb, of which the bread took the place " (John 6 : 53 contains 
no reference to the Lord's Supper, although it describes that spiritual union 
with Christ which the Supper symbolizes ; c/. 68. In 1 Cor. 10 : 16, 17, 
KDtviMOv Tov a6fiaTof T€v XpioTov is a figurative expression for the spiritual 
partaking of Christ In Mark 8 : 83, we are not to infer that Peter was 
actually " Satan," nor does 1 Cor. 12 : 12 prove that we are all Christs. QT. 
Gen. 41:26; 1 Cor. 10:4). 

lai MtB—'Thii b nj blood .... vkioh ia pound tnit" cannot be meant to be taken literally, 
since Christ's blood was not yet shed. Hence the Douay version ( Roman Oatholic)» 
without warrant, changes the tense and reads, ** which shall be shed.** At the insti- 
tution of the Supper, it is not conceivable that Christ should hold his body in his 
own hands, and then break it to the disciples. There were not two bodies there. 
Zwingle : ** The wordslof institution are not the mandatory * become * : they are only an 
explanation of the sign,** When I point to a picture and say : " This is George Wash- 
ington," I do not mean that the veritable body and blood of George Wsshington are 
before me. Bo when a teacher points to a map and says : " This is New York,'* or when 

esosrefersto John the Baptist, and says: *'tUf iiIUJfth,tkrtiftoooM" (Ibt ii:i4). Jacob, 
The Lord's Supper. Historically Considered — ** It originally marked, not a real presence, 
but a real absence, of Christ as the Son of God made man "— that is, a real absence of 
his body. Therefore the Supper, reminding us of his body. Is to be observed In the 
ohurch^tfflkooono" (iOnr. UiM). 

Maie:S8— "lioopt70«ottkoioihoftko8oBofBuaaddriBkUiUoQd.7okavi sollifc is joonolvw** must 
be interpreted by Tom 68— "It it tho ipirit tktt giTotkUfo;thoflflohpdlMhBotkiBg: tho«ordstkolIka?i 
^okflB valo 70s an ipiii^ ud an lift." 1 Oor. i0:i6— "Aooopof Uaaaiif vUok vo bloai, ia it not a ooaunika; 
ofrmvff.: *|Htki|alkBiB']lbabloQdtf (Iriiir Ik teood whiak wi bnak,ifitBataoaHaBkoof[ina^ 



966 BCOLESIOLOGY, OR THE DOCTRINE OF THE OHURGH. 

piitlapttioa in' ] th« bodj of Ohriik?'* ^see Expositor's Oreek Testament, in loco ; Hark 8: n^ 
- But h« taniag aboat» and neing his diaoiplM, nbokid ?»ttr, tad aaiUi, Get thM bahind bm, Bataa " ; i Ov. 
12 : 12— "For u th« bodj is ona^ uid hath nanj mfmben, and all thf Bamben of tho body, being many, an ooo 
bodj; ae alao if Christ" cf. God. 41:26 — "Tho iotw good kino an toron yean; and tho soTon good oars art sotob 
yoan: tho drsam is one ; " 1 Oor. 10:4— "ftoy drank of a spiritoal rook that lldlovod than: and tho rook VMOkriflL*' 

Queen Elizabeth : '* Christ was the Word that spake it : He took the bread and brake 
it; And what that Word did make it. That I believe and take it.'* Tea, we say ; but 
what does the Lord make it ? Nothisbody,butonly a symbol of his body. Sir Thomas 
More went back to the doctrine of transubstantiation which the wisdom of his age 
was almost .unanimous in rejecting'. In his Utopia, written in earlier years, he had 
made deism the ideal religion. Extreme Romanism was his reaction from this former 
extreme. Bread and wine are mere remembrancers, as were the lamb and bitter herbs 
at the Passover. The partaker is spiritually afl^ted by the bread and wine, only as 
was the pious Israelite in reoeiying the paschal symbols ; see Norman Fox, Christ in the 
DaUyMeal,86»42. 

E. G. Robinson : ^ The greatest power in Romanism is its power of visible represen- 
tation. Ritualism is only elaborate sjrmbolism. It is interesting to remember that this 
prostration of the priest before the consecrated wafer is no part of even Original 
Roman Catholicism." Stanley, life and Letters, 2 :213— **The pope, when he celebrates 
the communion, always stands in exactly the opposite direction [ to that of modern 
ritualists], not with his back but with his tuce to the people, no doubt following the 
primitive usage." So in Raphael's picture of the Miracle of Bolsina, the priest is at the 
north end. of the table, in the very attitude of a Protestant clergyman. Pfleiderer, 
Philos. Religion, 2 :2I1— *' The unity of the bread, of which each enjoys a part, repre- 
sents the unity of the body of Christ, which consists in the community of believers. 
If we are to speak of a presence of the body of Christ in the Lord's Supper, that can 
only be thought of, in the sense of Paul, as pertaining to the mystical body, i. e^ the 
Christian Community. Augustine and Zwingle, who have expressed most clearly this 
meaning of the Supper, have therefore caught quite correctly the sense of the Apostle." 

Norman Fox, Christ in the Daily Meal, 40-68 —** The phrase * consecration of the ele- 
ments * is unwarranted. The leaven and the mustard seed were in no way consecrated 
when Jesus pronounced them symbols of divine things. The bread and wine are not 
arbitrarily appointed remembrancers, they are remembrancers in thotr very nature. 
There is no change in them. So every other loaf is a symbol, as well as that used in the 
Supper. When St. Patrick held up the shamrock as the symbol of the Trinity, he 
meant that every such sprig was the same. Only the bread of the daily meal is Christ's 
body. Only the washing of dirty feet is the fulfilment of Christ's command. The loaf 
not eaten to satisfy hunger is not Christ's symbolic body at a^l." Here we must part 
company with Dr. Fox. We grant the natural fitness of the elements for which he 
contends. But we hold also to a divine appointment of the bread and wine for a 
special and sacred use, even as the "bow in tho dond " (Gen. 9: 13 X because it was a natural 
emblem, was consecrated to a special religious use. 

(6) It oontradicte the evidence of the senses, as well as of all scientific 
tests that can be applied. If we cannot trust oor senses as to the unchanged 
material qualities of bread and wine, we cannot trust them when they 
report to us the words of Christ 

Gibbon was rejoiced at the discovery that, while the real presence is attested by only 
a single sense — our sight [ as employed in reading the words of Christ ] — the real pres- 
ence is disproved by three of our senses, sight, touch, and taste. It is not well to pur- 
chase faith in this dogma at the price of absolute scepticism. Stanley, on Baptism, in 
his Christian Institutions, tells us that, in the third and fourth centuries, the belief that 
the water of baptism was changed into the blood of Christ was nearly as firmly and 
widely fixed as the belief that the bread and wine of the communion were changed into 
his flesh and blood. DUUinger ; '* When I am told that I must swear to the truth of 
these doctrines [ of papal infallibility and apostolic succession ], my feeling is just as if 
I were asked to swear that two and two make five, and not four." Teacher: "Why 
did Henry VIII quarrel with the pope ?" Scholar : ''Because the pope had commanded 
him to put away his wife on pain of transubstantiation. " The transubstantiation of 
Henry YUI is quite as rational as the transubsUintisUon of the bread and wine in the 
Bucharlst. 



THB lobd's supper. 967 

( c ) It involyeB the deoial of the oompletenesB of Christ's post saorifioe, 
and the assomptioii that a hnman priest can repeat or add to the atonement 
made by Christ once for all ( Heb. 9 : 28 — an-a^ npoaevex'^eic )• The Lord's 
Sapper is never called a sacrifice, nor are altars, priests, or oonsecrations 
ever spoken of, in the New Testament The priests of the old dispensation 
are expressly contrasted with the ministers of the new. The former 
*' ministered abont sacred things," i. e., performed sacred rites and waited 
at the altar; but the latter " preach the gospel "( 1 Cor. 9:18, U). 



Ilk 9:28— '*i»Qliiiita]aivhATiiiKb«aaBM abnd**~hero£va{meaii8'onoeforaU,*a8inJvdt8— 
"tU Mtk wkiok wu ooM fflr an diU^md note tha adok'^ 1 Oor. 9 : 13» 14 — ** Eninr yt ^ 
aboalaand tkingt aitrf tk* tUogi tf tha taqpU^ aad tbir thai viii npoa tha attar hvn ttair pstioa with tha 
altai? iTflB 10 dMtka kid flidaia that tka7 that Fnclaimthag«apeld«iiUUn«rttog«9iL*^ Bomanism 
Introduoes a mediator between tbe soul and Gbrist, namely, bread and wlosb ^ and the 
priest besides. 

Domer, Glaubeoslehre, 2 : 6S(MI87 ( Syst. Doot, 4 : 146-108 ) — ** Chrtet Is thought of as at 
a distance, and as represented only by the priest who offers anew his saoriflce. But 
Protestant doctrine holds to a perftot CSuist, applying the benefits of the work which 
h6 long ago and once for all completed upon the cross. '* Ghlillngworth : ** Romanists 
hold that the validity of every sacrament but baptism depends upon its administration 
by a priest ; and without priestly absolution there is no assurance of forgiveness. But 
the intention of the priest is essential in pronouncing absolution, and the intention of 
tbe bishop Is essential in consecrating the priest. How can any human being know 
that these conditions are fulfilled ? ** In the New Testament, on the other hand, Christ 
appears as the only priest, and each human soul has direct access to him. 

Norman Fox, Christ in the Daily Meal, S2 — " The adherence of the first Christians to 
the Mosaic law makes it plain that they did not hold the doctrine of the modem Church 
of Bome that the bread of the Supper is a sacrifice, the table an altar, and the minister 
a priest. For the old altar, the old sacrifice, and the old priesthood still remained, and 
were still in their view appointed media of atonement with God. Of course they could 
not have believed in two altars, two priesthoods and two contemporaneous sets of 
sacrifices." Christ Is the only priest. A. A. Hodge, Popular Lectures, 867 ^*' The three 
central dangerous errors of Bomanism and Ritualism are: 1. the perpetuity of the 
apoetolate ; 2. the priestly character and offices of Christian ministers ; &. the sacra- 
mental principle, or the depending upon sacraments, as the essential, initial, and ordi- 
nary channels of grace." ** Hierarchy," says another, " is an infraction of the divine 
order ; it imposes the weight of an outworn symbolism on the true vitalities of the 
gospel ; it is a remnant rent from the shroud of the dead past, to enwrap the limbs of 
the living present.' 



f» 



(d) It destroys Christianity by externalizing itb Bomanists make all 
other service a mere appendage to the oommnnion. Physical and magioal 
salyatlon is not Christianity, but is essential paganisnu 

Council of Trent, Session yix. On Sacraments in General, Oanon m "M any one 
saith that the sacraments of the New Testament are not necessary to salvation, but are 
superfiuous, and that without them, and without the desire thereof, men attain of 
God, through faith alone, the grace of Justification ; though all [ the sacraments 1 are 
not indeed necessary for every individual : let him be anathema." On Baptism, Caoon 
IV : *' If any one saith that the baptism which is even given by heretics in the name 
of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost, with the intention of doing what the church doth, 
is not true baptism, let him be anathema." Baptism, in the Romanist system, is neces- 
sary to salvation : and baptism, even though administered by heretlos, is an admis- 
sion to the church. All baptised penons who, through no fault of their own, but from 
lack of knowledge or opportunity, are not connected outwardly with the true church, 
though they are apparently attached to some sect, yet in reality belong to the uvi of the 
true church. Many belong merely to the body of the Catholic church, and are counted 
as its members, but do not belong to its rnnH. 8o says Archbishop Lynch, of Toronto ; 
and Pius IX extended the doctrine of invincible ignorance, so as to cover the case of 
every dissentient from the church whose lif^ shows faith working by love. 



968 ECGLESIOLOQY^ OB THE DOOTBIKE OF THE OHUBOH. 

Adoration of the Host ( Latin hotUa^ victim ) is a regular part of the servioe of the 
IfasB. If the Bomanlst view were correct that the bread and wine were actually 
changed into the body and blood of Christ, we could not call this worship idolatry. 
Ohrist's body in the sepulchre could not have been a proper object of worship, but it 
was so after his resurrection, when it became animated with a new and divine life. 
The Romanist error is that of holding that the priest has power to transform the ele- 
ments ; the worship of them follows as a natural consequence, and is none the leas 
Idolatrous for being based upon the false assumption that the bread and wine are really 
Ohrist's body and blood. 

The Roman Catholic system involves many absorditieB, but the central absurdity is 
that of making religion a matter of machinery and outward manipulation* Dr. R. 8. 
MaoArthur calls sacramentaUsm ** the pipe-line conception of grace.'* There is no 
patent Romanist plumbing. Dean Stanley said that John Henry Newman ** made 
Immortality the consequence of frequent participation of the Holy Communion.'* Even 
Faber made game of the notion, and declared that it ** degraded celebrations to be so 
many breadfruit trees." It is this transformation of the Lord's Supper into the Mass 
that turns the church into ** the Church of the Intonement.** ** Cai^dinal Gibbons," it 
was once said, ** makes his own God — the wafer." His error is at the root of the super- 
sanctity and ceUbacy of the Romanist clergy, and President Gtarrett forgot this when 
he made out the pass on his railway for "Cardinal Gibbons and wife." Dr. C. H* 
Parkhurst : *^ There is no more place for an altar in a Christian church than there is 
for a golden calf." On the word " priest '* in the N. T., see Gardiner, in O. T. Student, 
Nov. 1880 : 28&-891 ; also Bowen, in TheoL Monthly, Nov. 1880 : 816-820. For the Romanist 
view, see Council of Trent, session xm, canon m : per contra, see Calvin, Institutes, 
2 : 68&-<NB ; C Hebert, The Lord's Supper : History of Uninspired Teaching, 

B. The Lntheran and High Ghnrdh view, — that the oommmiioaiit, in 
partaking of the oonBeorated elements, eats the veritable body and drinks 
the veritable blood of Christ in and with the bread and wine, although the 
elements themselves do not cease to be material To this doctrine of 
** consubstantiation " we object : 

(a) That the view is not required by Seriptore. — All the passages cited 
in its support may be better interpreted as referring to a partaking of the 
elements as symboLs. If Christ's body be ubiquitous, as this theory holds, 
we partake of it at every meal, as really as at the Lord's Supper. 

(6) That the view is inseparable from the general sacramental system of 
which it forms a part. — In imposing physical and material conditions of 
receiving Christ, it contradicts the doctrine of justification only by faith ; 
changes the ordinance from a sign, into a means, of salvation ; involves the 
necessity of a sacerdotal order for the sake of properly consecratiug the 
elements ; and logically tends to the Bomanist condusions of ritualism and 
idolatry. 

( c ) That it holds each communicant to be a partaker of Christ's veritable 
body and blood, whether he be a believer or not, — the result, in the absence 
of &ith, being condemnation instead of salvation. Thus the whole char- 
acter of the ordinance is changed from a festival occasion to one of mystery 
and fear, and the whole gospel method of salvation is obscured. 

Enoyc. Britannica, art. : Luther, 15 : 81 — "* Before the peasants' war, Luther regarded 
the sacrament as a secondary matter, compared with the right view of faith. In alarm 
at this war and at Carlstadt's mysticism, he determined to abide by the tradition of the 
church, and to alter as little as possible. He could not accept transubstantiation, and 
he sought a via media, Occam gave it to him. According to Occam, matter can be 
present in two ways, first, when it occupies a distinct place by itself, excluding every 
other body, as two stones mutually exclude each other ; and, secondly, when it occu pies 
the same space as another body at the same time. Everyliilng which is omnipresent 
must occupy the same space as other things, else it could not be ubiquitous. Hence 



TFB lord's suppbb. 969 

oonsubstantiation inyolved no miracle. Christ's body was in the bread and wine 
naturally, and was not brouirht into the elements by the priest. It broutrht a blesslnff, 
not because of Christ's presence, but because of Gk>d's promise that this particular 
presence of the body of Christ should brin«r blessings to the fUthful partaker.*' 
Broadus, Am. Com. on Mat., SM^^ Luther does not say how Christ is In the bread and 
wme, but his followers have compared his presence to that of beat or magnetism in 
Iron. But how then could this presence be in the bread and wine separately ? '* 

For the yiew here combated, see Gerhard, z : 882—^ The bread, apart from the sacra- 
ment instituted by Christ, is not the body of Christ, and therefore it is aproXarpCa{ bread- 
worship ) to adore the bread in these solemn processions " ( of the Roman Catholic 
church ). 807 — ** SUth does not belong to the substance of the JBucharist ; hence it is 
not the faith of him who partakes that makes the bread a communication of the body 
of Christ ; nor on account of unbelief in him who partakes does the bread cease to be a 
communication of the body of Christ" See also Sadler, Church Doctrine, 124-109 ; 
Pusey. Tract No. 90, of the Traotarian Series; Wilberforoe, New Birth; NevlDS, Mys- 
tical Presence. 

Per eontra,aee Galyin, Institutes, 2:606-684; G. P. Fisher, in Independent, May 1, 1884 
— ** Galyin dllfered from Luther, in holding that Christ is receiyed only by the belieyer. 
He differed from Zwlngle, in holding that Christ is truly, though spiritually, receiyed.** 
See also E. G. Robinson, in Baptist Quarterly, 1809 : 86-109 ; Rogers, Priests and Sacra- 
ments. Consubstantiatlon accounts for the doctrine of apostolic sucoesBion and for 
the uniyersal ritualism of the Lutheran Church. Bowing at the name of Jesus, how- 
eyer, is not, as has been sometimes maintained, a relic of the papal worship of the 
. Real Presence, but is rather a reminiscence of the fourth century, when oontroversles 
about the person of Christ rendered orthodox Christians peculiarly anxious to 
recognise Christ's deity. 

** There is no * comer ' in divine grace " ( C H. Parkhurst ). ** All notions of a needed 
'priesthood,* to bring us Into connection with Christ, must yield to the truth that 
Christ is ever with us " ( B. G. Robinson ). ** The priest was the conservative, the pro- 
phet the progressive. Hence the conflict between them. Episcopalians like the idea 
of a priesthood, but do not know what to do with that of prophet.*' Dr. A. J. Gordon : 
** Ritualism, like ecwma in the human body, is generally a symptom of a low state of 
the blood. As a rule, when the church becomes secularised. It becomes ritualised, while 
great revivals, pouring through the church, have almost always burst the liturgical 
bands and have restored it to the freedom of the Spirit." 

Puseyism, as defined by Pusey himself, means : 1. high thoughts of the two saora- 
ments; & high estimate of Episcopacy as God's ordinance; 8b high estimate of the 
visible church as the body wherein we are made and continue to be members of 
Christ ; 4. regard for ordinances as directing our devotions and disciplining us, such as 
daily public prayeis, fasts and feasts ; 6. regard for the visible part of devotion, such 
as the decoration of the house of God, which acts insensibly on the mind ; 6. reverence 
for and deference to the andent church, instead of the reformers, as the ultimate 
expoimder of the meaning of our church." Pusey dedazed that he and BCaurice wor- 
shiped different Gtods. 

6. I^erequiaites to PartioiptUion in the Lord^a Supper. 

A^ There are prereqnisiteB. This we argue irom the fact : 

(a) That Ohrist enjoined the celebration of the Sapper, not upon the 
world at large, but only upon his disciples ; ( 6 ) that the apostolic injunc- 
tions to Ghristians, to separate themselves from certain of their number, 
imply a limitation of the Lord's Supper to a narrower body, even among 
professed believers ; ( c ) that the analogy of Baptism, as belonging only to 
a specified class of persons, leads us to believe that the same is true of the 
Lord's Supper. 

The analogy of Baptism to the Lord's Supper suggests a general survey of the con- 
nections between the two ordinances : 1. Both ordinances symbolize primarily the 
death of Christ; then secondarily our spiritual death to sin because we are one with 
bim : it being absurd, where there is no such union, to make our Baptism the sjrmbol 
of his death. 2. We are merged in Christ first in Baptism ; then in the Supper Christ 
Is mate and more taken into us; Baptlsm-we in Christ, the Supper— Christ in us. 



970 BGOLBSIOLOQY^ OB THE DOCTBIJSK OF THE CHUEGH. 

8. Aa regeneratlOD to InsteDteiieous and nmottfloatton oontiiraes in time, ao BaptJgm 
should be for onoe, the Lord's Supper often ; the lint stable, the oeoond frequent. 4. If 
one ordinanoe, the Supper, requires discernment of the Lord*B body, so does the other, 
the ordinanoe of Baptism ; the subject of Baptism should know the meaning of hto act. 
6u The order of the ordlnanoee teaches Christian doctrine, as the ordinances do ; to 
partaice of the Lord's Supper before being baptized to to say In symbol that one can be 
sanotifled without being regenerated. 0. Both ordinances should be public, as both 
^ show forth '* the Lord's death and are teaching ordinances ; no celebration of either 
one to to be permitted in private. 7. In both the administrator does not act at hto own 
option, but to the organ of the church ; Philip acts as organ of the church at Jerusalem 
when he baptises the eunuch. 8. The ordinances stand by themselves, and are not to 
be made appendages of other meetings or celebrations ; they belong, not to associations 
or conventlona, but to the local church. 9. The Lord's Supper needs scrutiny of the 
communicant's qualifications as much as Baptism i and only the local church to the 
proper judge of these qualifications. 10. We may deny the Lord's Supper to one whom 
we know to be a Chrtotlan, when he walks disorderly or disseminates false doctrine. 
Just as we may deny Baptism to such a person. 11. Fencing the tablea, or warning the 
unqualified not to partake of the Supper, may, like instruction with regard to Baptism, 
best take place before the actual administration of the ordinance ; and the pastor to 
not a special policeman or deteotlTe to ferret out oftenoes. See Expositor's Oroek 
Testament on 1 Ow. 10 : l-flL 

B, The prereqnifiiteB are those only which are expressly or implidily 
laid down by Ohrist and his apostles. 

(a) The ohtiioh, as possessiog exeoative but not legislatiye power, is 
charged with the dnty, not of framing roles for the administering and 
goarding of the ordinance, bat of discovering and applying the roles given 
it in the New Testament. No chorch has a right to establish any terms of 
commonion ; it is responsible only for making known the terms established 
by Christ and his apostles. (6) These terms, however, are to be ascer- 
tained not only from the injonotions, bot also from the precedents, of the 
New Testament. Since the apostles were inspired. New Testament prece- 
dent is the " common law " of the dhnroh. 

English law consists mainly of precedent, that is, past decisions of the oourts. Imme- 
morial customs may be as binding as are the formal enactments of a legislature. It to 
New Testament precedent that makes obligatory the observance of the first day. 
Instead of the seventh day, of the week. The common law of the church consistB, 
however, not of any and all customs, but only of the customs of the apostolic church 
Interpreted in the light of its principles, or the customs univerBally binding because 
sanctioned by inspired apostles. Has New Testament precedent the authority of a 
divine command 7 Only so far, we reply, as it to an adequate, complete and final 
ezpreoslon of the divine life in Christ. Thto we dalm for the ordinances of Bapttom 
and of the Lord's Supper, and for the order of these ordinances. See Proceedings of 
the Baptist Congress, 1806 : 83L 

.The Mennonltes, thinking to reproduce even the incidental phases of N. T. action, 
have adopted : 1. the washing of feet ; 2. the marriage only of members of the same 
faith ; 8. non-restotanoe to violence ; 4. the use of the ban, and the shunning of 
expelled persons ; &. refusal to take oaths ; A. the kiss of peace ; 7. formal examination 
of the spiritual condition of each communicant before hto participation in the Lord's 
Supper; 8. the choice of offlciato by lot. And they naturally break up into twelve 
sects, dividing upon such points as holding all things in common ; plainness of dress, 
one sect repudtoting buttons and using only hooks upon their clothing, whence their 
nickname of Hookers; the holding of services in private houses only; the asserted 
possession of the gift of prophecy ( A. S. Carman ). 

O. On examining the New Testament, we find that the prerequisites to 
participation in the Lord's Sapper are four, namely : 



THE lord's suppbb. 971 

Fiist, — Begeneration. 

The Lord's Supper is the outward expression of a life in the believer^ 
nourished and sustained by the life of Chrisi It cannot therefore be par- 
taken of bj one who is "dead through .... trespasses and sins." We 
give no food to a corpse. The Lord's Supper was never offered by the 
apostles to unbelievers. On the contrary, the injunction that each com- 
municant "examine hiTUHfllf " implies that faith which will enable the com- 
municant to *' discern the Lord's body " is a prerequisite to participation. 

lOor. 11:27-4 — "WlunfcnvkM6TV ibU atl th« hmA or driak tta flap oftkelnrdinuimvarthyBaiiiur, 
Bhftll b« guilty of tke bodj and the blood of tko Lori. But M » mil prow kionlA ud n lot kin oat of tbo brad, tad 
drink of tbooap. for bo tbat oatotb ud drinkoth, oitotb ud dxiakott jndgiMnt ante biaaolt if be diaotra aoktbo 
Lori'i body." Sohaff, in his Churoh History, 2 : 617, tells us that in the Greek Church, in the 
seventh and eighth centuries, the bread was dipped in the wine, and both elements 
were deUvered In a spoon. See Bdwards, on Qaalifloations for Full Ck>mmunion, in 
Works, 1:81. 

Secondly, — Baptism. 

In proof that bax)tism is a prerequisite to the Lord's Supper, we urge 
the following considerations : 

(a) The ordinance of baptism was instituted and administered long 
before the Supper. 

Ibt21:25— "Ibobaptia&of Jobn, vfaoBM vuit? fron boaven or fronMS?" — Christ here intiinates 
that John's baptism had been instituted by God before his own. 

( 6 ) The apostles who first celebrated it had, in all probability, been 
baptized. 

loll 1 : 21, 82 •> '< Of tbo wn tbonfbn tbnt bjiTO oanpiaiod litb u «U tbo Um tbat tbo kid J^ 
oat among «■» boginnlng flrom tbo baplina of Joba .... of tbooo wut ooo booono a vitnMi wilb u of bia rair- 
notioa" : 10 :4— "Jobnbaptlaod vikb tbo baptim of npoBtanoi^ Mjiag nato tbo poopla tbaktbqriboald bolion on bim 
tbat ibonld oomo aftor bin, tbat 1% on Joau.* * 

Several of the apostles were certainly disoipleB of John. If Christ was baptiaed, 
much more his disciples. Jesus reoognixed John's baptism as obligatory, and it is not 
probable that he would take his apostles from amon^r those who had not submitted to 
It. John the Baptist himself, the first administrator of baptism, must have been him- 
self unbaptized. But the twelve could fitly administer it, because they had themselves 
received it at John's hands. See Arnold, Terms of Communion, 17. 

(c) The command of Christ fixes the place of baptism as first in order 
after disdpleship. 

KbL 28 : 19, 20 -- " Go yo tbfltflnb tod naks dlMiplfli of an tbo natkoa, bapliiiBg Ibn 
aad of tbo to aad of tbo I0I7 Spirit: toaobiag tbon to dbavfo all Ibiagt vbataotrv I <wniiandad 70a " —here 
the first duty is to make disciples, the second to baptise, the third to instruct in ri^ht 
Christian living. Is it said that there is no formal command to admit only baptised 
persons to the Lord's Supper? We reply that there is no formal command to admit 
only regenerate persons to baptism. In both oases, the practice of the apostles and the 
general connections of Christian doctrine are sulfl<^ent to determine our duty. 

( d ) All the recorded cases show this to have been the order observed by 
the first OhristiiBais and sanctioned by the apostles. 

iet8 2:41,46— ''IhojtboBtbatnoaiTBdbiawdwon boytiaid .... lad day by day, oontiaviag itodftikly vitb 
ono aoeord in tbo toBiplo, aad broakiag bnad at bomo [rather, 'la nriooB vonbip-roona ' ] tboy took tboirftMd 
vitb sladaoaiaad liaglMMB of booit"; 8:12— "Bnt vbn tb^ boUoTod PhUip .... tboy von baptiied"; 10: 
47^ 48 _«• Qui any mia forbid tbo vatar.tbat tbrn ibonld aot bo baptiiod, vbo ba?o noeivod tbo Holy Spirit aa voU 
aa vo ? And bo *M"m«ii^aH tbam to bo bi^tiiod la tbo namo of Joni Obrist" ; 22 : 16— "ind now vby tairiMt tbon? 
ariM^aad be baptiaod, and vaab avay tby aiai, odlingon bia nanui" 

(e) The symbolism of the ordinances requires that baptism should pre- 
cede the Lord's Supper. The order of the facts signified must be expressed 



972 ECCLE8IOLOOY, OR THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH. 

in ihe order of the ordinanoes whidh signif j them ; else the world is 
taught that Banotifloation may take place 'withont regeneration. Birth must 
oome before snstenanoe — 'na^ctmur, pascimur.* To enjoy ceremonial 
privilegea, there must be ceremonial qnalifioationfl. Aa none but the 
oircomoiBed could eat the paasoyer, so before eating with the Ghristian 
family must come adoption into the Ohiistian family. 

As one must be "ban of ths Spiiit " before he can experienoe the sustaining influenoe of 
Christ, BO he must be " bon of wtkK" before he Gan properly be nourished bar the Lord's 
Supper. Neither the unborn nor the dead oan eat bread or drink wine. Only when 
Christ had raised the daughter of the Jewish ruler to life, did he say : "9in hat to tit" 
The ordinance which symbolizes regeneration, or the impartation of new life, must pre- 
cede the ordinance which symbolises the strengthening and perfecting of the life 
already begun. The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, dating back to the second half 
of the second century, distinctly declares ( 9 : 6, 10 ) — ** Let no one eat or drink of your 
Eucharist except those baptised into the name of the Lord ; for as regards this also the 

Lord has ssid: *Oive not that which is holy unto the dogs * The Buoharlst shall 

be given only to the baptized.*' 

(/) The standards of all eyangelical denominations^ with unimportant 
exceptions, confirm the view that this is the natural interpretation of the 
Scripture requirements respecting the order of the ordinances. 

** The only nrotest of note has been made by a portion of the English Baptists.** To 
these should DC added the comparatively small body of the Free Will Baptists in 
America. Pedobaptist churches in general refuse full membership, oflloe-holding, 
and the ministry, to unbaptized persons. The Presbyterian church does not admit to 
the oommimlon members of the Society of Friends. Not one of the great evangelical 
denominations accepts Robert Hall's maxim that the only terms of communion are 
terms of salvation. If individual ministers announce this principle and conform their 
practice to it, it Is only because they transgress the standards of the churches to which 
they belong. 

See Tyerman's Oxford Methodists, preface, page vl— "Even in Georgia, Wesley 
excluded dissenters from the Holy Conununion, on the ground that they had not been 
properly baptized ; and he would himself baptize only by Inunersion, unless the child or 
person was in a weak state of health." Baptist Noel gave it as his reason for submit- 
ting to baptism, that to approach the Lord's Supper conscious of not being baptized 
would be to act contrary to all the precedents of Scripture. See Curtis, Progress of 
Baptist Principles, 804. 

The dismission of Jonathan Edwards from his church at Northampton was due to his 
opposing the Halfway Covenant, which admitted unregenerate persons to the Lord's 
Supper as a step on the road to spiritual life. He objected to the doctrine that the 
Lord's Supper was " a converting ordinance." But these very unregenerated persons 
had been baptized, and he himself had baptized many of them. He should have 
objected to infant baptism, as well as to the Lord's Supper, in the case of the unre- 
generate. 

(g) The practical results of the opposite view are convincing proof 
that iiie order here insisted on is the order of nature as well as of Scripture. 
The admission of unbaptized persons to the communion tends always to, 
and has frequently resulted in, the disuse of baptism itself, the obscuring 
of the truth which it symbolizes, the transformation of Soripturally consti- 
tuted churches into bodies organized after methods of human invention, 
and the complete destruction of both church and ordinances as Ohrist 
originally constituted them. 

Arnold, Terms of Communion, 78 — The steps of departure from Scriptural precedent 
have not unfrequently been the following : ( 1 ) administration of baptism on a week- 
day evening, to avoid giving ofTence; (2) reoeption, without baptism, of persons 
renouncing belief in the baptism of their inftooy ; ( 3 ) giving up of the Lord's Supper as 



THB lobd's buppeb. 978 

noD-eaBential,— to be observed or not obeerved by each individual^ aooordinff as he 
finds it useful ; (4) oholoe of a pastor who will not advocate Baptist views ; ( 6 ) adop- 
tion of Con«Tegational articles of faith; (6) discipline and exclusion of members for 
propagatin^r Baptist doctrine. John Bunyan's church, once either an open communion 
church or a mixed church both of baptized and unbaptized believers, is now a re^rular 
Connrreffational body. Armlta«re, History of the Baptists, 482 «q., claims that it was 
oriiTinally a Baptist church. Vedder, however, in Bap. Quar. Rev., 1886 : 289, says that 
" The church at Bedford is proved by Indisputable documentary evidence never to 
have been a Baptist church in any strict sense." The results of the principle of open 
communion are certainly seen in the Regent's Park church in London, where some of 
the deacons have never been baptized. The doctrine that baptism is not essential to 
church membership is simply the logical result of the previous practice of admitting 
unbaptized persons to the communion table. If they are admitted to the Lord's 
Supper, then there is no bar to their admission to the church. See Proceedings of the 
Baptist Congress, Boston, November, 1902; Curtis, Progress of Baptist Principles, 
296-296. 

Thirdly, — OhTuroh membership. 

( a ) The Lord's Sapper is a ehnrch ordinanoe, observed by ohnrohes of 
Ohrist as such. For this reason, membership in the ehnrch natnrally pre- 
cedes oommunion. Binoe oommnnion is a family rite, the participant 
should first be a member of the family. 

A«li2:46 47— "taraikiBg braid at himiA[ rather, 'iBTviou vonU^rooni']*' ( see Com. of Meyer } ; 
n:7— "iipo&tMllntdAyofthevMk, whnviwiregtthMredtogtttMrtobnftkbnid"; 1 0or.ll:18t 22— "whtnye 
MBMtogfltharintheohiirdi . . . have jv not houM to Ml and to dxinkia? or daopiM 70 tiM dkurA of Qod,ud|iat 
thon to ihiaifl that baTO not?" 

( 6 ) The Lord's Snpper is a symbol of ehnrch fellowship. Ezoonmin- 
nication implies nothing, if it does not imply exclusion from the commun- 
ion. If the Supper is simply communion of the individual with Ohrist, 
then the church has no right to exclude any from it. 

i Oor. 10:17 — ^"vo, yA» axt maj, an one bnad, ono body: for vo all partako of tbo ono bread." Though the 
Lord's Supper primarily symbolizes feUowship with Christ, it symbolizes secondarily 
fellowship with the church of Christ. Not all belleyers in Christ were present at the 
first celebration of the Supper, but only those organized into a body — the apostles. I 
can invite proper persons to my tea-table, but that does not give them the right to come 
uninvited. Bach church, therefore, should invite visiting members of sister churches 
to partake with it. The Lord's Supper is an ordinance by itself, and should not be 
oelebrated at conventions and associations, simply to lend dignity to something else. 

The Panpresbyterian Council at Philadelphia, in 1880, refused to observe the Lord's 
Supper together, upon the ground that the Supper is a church ordinance, to be observed 
only by those who are amenable to the discipline of the body, and therefore not to be 
observed by separate church organizations acting together. Substantially upon this 
ground, the Old School General Assembly long before, being invited to unite at the 
Lord's table with the New School body with whom they had dissolved ecclesiastical 
relations, declined to do so. See Curtis, Progress of Baptist Principles, 804; Arnold* 
Terms of Communion, 36. 

Fourthly, — ^An orderly walk. 

Disorderly walking designates a course of life in a church member which 
is contrary to the precepts of the gospeL It is a bar to participation in the 
Lord's Supper, the sign of church fellowship. With Arnold, we may class 
disorderly walking under four heads : — 

(a) Immoral conduct 

i Oor. 5 : i-18 — Paul commands the Corinthian church to exclude the Incestuous penon : 
**! vmlo into 70a in mj oplsUo to ha?o no oompany vltk ImioateB; .... but now I vrite vnto joa not to koop 
^^mgiaj, if aaj ihb that ii aaiMd a Imtkar bo a flonkator, or oontao^ or as idolatff, or a nvikr, or a dnmkard, of 



[ DOCTRINR OP THE CHDBCH. 

Vat awkj O* wUui ua fra h 
it ataDrderl]r wklUiii 
>U*n f ellowBhlp aa « 

uutds of Ohrist. 



Dd from Uie Lord's Supper Its itga, while yet the 
rttan feUomfalp, bat b atlll oouoted •■ taiOv.' 
.lB8T!«-»7. 

it ** not to walk «ft«T tlie tiadltlon reoelTed from 
in Ua eptotles, li the oune u dlaobedlence to the 
ilv«a the forfeltiiTe of cburoh feUowahlp and Ita 
qulaltes to Comimmloix, OS). Binoe Baptkm la a 
eoannotproperlT oommUDe with the imbsptlnd. 
1 to give the ■nnbol of ohundi fellowship to thoss 
« Christian brethren, kie, thouah perhaps unoon- 
taw of the church. To wlthliold protert acaliiat 
inda la to th«t extent to oountenanoe auoh dlsobe- 
«h In the church member we should deoomlDBte 
Mbo7 all rlcht to the Lord's Supper on the part of 

and teaohing of false dootrine. 

Bevlsers: '■ bKi«u hi ' ] iflw > liM ul nMd ilMaitbi 
aiprrnif arfpaao, _ ^ae whoglvea rlso to diviMoiu by 
Ot a tUDdamentallr heterodox nature, but of the 
^0:10 — "faBuunc J*" <■*■ ■''■ '^ "*" ■"■.l-^'t 
,b«"; 1 Iiib)l:(S--E«(>Tkai* J>lttSpintrfM:>ni7 
lfc,iiAlnf M ; mj „^ tprit am mfiBirt m« li H M* 
^ B. Bosworth : " Heree;, in the N. T„ does not 
^j^ouaoplttloiu,— It ma; also mean tbeholdiocot 
dIvialTe apirit." Wegrant that the word 'hnttal' 
fjbat Mae dootriiie Is the ohief source ol dlTlsloD, 
Ijf (loatlon for partloipatioo In the Lord's Supper. 
^ „e treat tt under the next head ot Sohltm. 
fttfO^ above, refused to admit to thalr body the 
lOivh the latter adhere to the Preabyterlao form 



^^l^jiliithelr vIewBOf thedootrineaof iriaae. AS 
'^^ptiBm is a oontoHton ot evaiurellcal faltb, ao 
*f0 a oonfeBEtou ot eTaoceUoal faith, and that no 



iiiiee the dootrloee ot Eln, of the deity, Inc&ma- 
jBtiflcatloQ by faith, whiob the Lord's Supper 
^jrom all Christian teDowshlp as welL 



•i*; ™ 

*4iTn only from ohurch fellowship, Slnoe peda- 
ls* ^ «ithreBapd to the church and its ordlnauees 
r* ^^ty of the church, the suffldeoey ot the 
■^*^^fe oaunot properly admit them to Uie Lord's 
„— ' *h them, would be to treat taMehood oa If It 
^*-»oinmunlon, 78 -" Pedobaptists are pillly of 
^ *-^ of the church, or that memberahip In the 
^^^.^o sorts of baptltm. one of which Is a piotee- 
*L_e other la pt«fealoD of faltb ot another per- 
-^-^^ptiam, or that the church Is oomposed Id 
— ^eie never supposed to giva, any evidence 
J,! to ohanje aseenUally one ot Chrt*'s InsU- 
ie be observed as he ordained it or Id some 
rttfulll adminWered In a way which maba 



*r. 



THB lobd's suppbb. 975 

much of the language In which it to described in the SoriptureB wholly unsoltable and 
inapplicable, and which loea] not at all repreeentthe facta and doctrines which baptism 
Is declared in the Scriptures to represent ; that the Scriptures are not in all religious 
matters the sufficient and only binding rule of fUth and practic^" 

id ) Schism, or the promotion of division and dissension in the church. 
— This also requires exclusion from church fellowship, and from the Lord's 
Supper which is its appointed sign. 

Eon. 16:17— "low I hm u A. ytn, bretkno, mark than tkat are aaaaiag tka diTiiioBi and ooaaaiais of itaBiUiiig 
aoatrai7 to tka doetrina whiah ya laamad: and tan kw^j frm ttan." Since pedobaptists, by their 
teaching and practice, draw many away frOmScripturally constituted churches,— thus 
dividing true believers from each other and weakening the bodies organized after the 
model of the New Testament,— it to imperative upon us to separate ourselves from them, 
so far as regards that oommunion at the Lord's table which to the sign of church fellow- 
ship. Mr. Bpurgeon admits pedobapttots to commune with hto church **for two or 
three months." Then they are kindly asked whether they are pleased with the church, 
its preaching, doctrine, form of government, etc. If they say they are pleased, they 
are asked if tiiey are not dtoposed to be baptized and become members ? If so inclined, 
all to well ; but if not, they are kindly told that it to not desirable for them to commune 
longer. Thus baptism to held to precede church membership and permanent oommun- 
ion, although temporary communion to permitted without It. 

Arnold, Prerequisites to Oommunion, 80— ^*It may perhape.be objected that the pas- 
sages dted under the four preceding subdivisions refer to church fellowship in a 
general way, without any spedflc reference to the Lord's Supper. In reply to thto objec- 
tion, I would answer, in the first place, that having endeavored previously to estab- 
Iteh the position that the Lord's Supper to an ordinance to be celebrated in the church* 
and expressive of church fellowship, I felt at liberty to use the passages that enjoin the 
withdrawal of that fellowship as constructively enjoining exclusion from the Commun- 
ion, which to its chief token. I answer, secondly, that the principle here assumed seems 
to me to pervade the Scriptural teachings so thoroughly that it to next to impossible to 
lay down any Scriptural terms of communion at the Lord's table, except upon the 
admission that the ordinance to inseparably connected with church feUowship. To treat 
the subject otherwise, would be, as it appears tome, a violent putting asunder of what 
the Lord has Joined together. The objection suggests an additional argument in favor 
of our position that the Lord's Supper to a church ordinance. " ** Who Christ's body 
doth divide, Wounds afresh the Crucified ; Who Christ's people doth perplex, Weakens 
faith and comfort wrecks ; Who Christ's order doth not see. Works in vain for unity ; 
Who Christ's word doth take for guide, With the Bridegroom loves the Bride.'* 

D. The local ohuroh is the judge whether these prerequisites are ful- 
filled in the case of persons desiring to partake of the Lord's Supper. — 
This is evident from the following considerations : 

( a ) The command to observe the ordinance was given, not to individu- 
als, but to a company. 

( 6 ) Obedience to this command is not an individual act, but is the joint 
act of many. 

(c) The regular observance of the Lord's Supper cannot be secured, 
nor the qualifications of persons desiring to participate in it be scrutinized, 
unless some distinct organized body is charged with this responsibility. 

(d) The only organized body known to the New Testament is the local 
church, and this is the only body, of any sort, competent to have charge of 
the ordinances. The invisible church has no officera 

( e ) The New Testament accounts indicate that the Lord's Supper was 
observed only at regular appointed meetings of local churches, and was 
observed by these churches as regularly organized bodies. 



976 ECCLESIOLOGT, OE THB DOCTRINE OP THE CHURCH. 

C/) Since the datj of eTamining the qualifioationB of oandidates for 
baptism and for membership is vested in the local ohnrch and is essential 
to its distinct existence, the analogy of the ordinances wonld lead ns to 
believe that the scmtiny of qnalifioations for participation in the Lord's 
Sapper rests with the same body. 

{g) This care that only proper persons are admitted to the ordinanoeB 
shonld be shown* not by open or forcible debarring of the imworthy at the 
time of the celebration, bat by previoas public instraotion of the congre- 
gation, and, if needful in the case of persistent offenders, by sabsequent 
private and friendly admonition. 

"What is everybody's busineaB is nobody's bushieBi." If there be any power of 
effectiTe scrutiny, it must be lodged in the local church. The minister is not to adminis- 
ter the ordinance of the Lord's Supper at his own option, any more than the ordinance 
of Baptism. He is simply the organ of the church. He is to follow the rules of the 
church as to invitations and ss to the mode of celebrating the ordinance, of course 
instructing the church as to the order of the New Testament. In the case of sick mem- 
bers who desire to communicate, brethren may be deputed to hold a special meeting of 
the church at the private house or sick room, and then only may the pastor officiate. 
If an invitation to the Communion is given. It may well be in the following form : 
** Members in good standing of other churches of like faith and practice are cordially 
invited to partake with us." But since the comity of Baptist churches is universally 
acknowledged, and since Baptist views with regard to the ordinanoes are so generally 
understood, it should be taken for granted that all proper persons will be welcome even 
if no invitation of any sort is given. 

Mr. Bpurgeon, as we have seen, permitted unbaptiaed persons temporarily to partake 
of the Lord 's Supper unchallenged, but if there appeared a disposition to make partici- 
pation habitual, one of the deacons in a private interview explained Baptist doctrine 
and urged the duty of baptism. If this advice was not taken, participation in the Lord's 
Supper naturally ceased. Dr. P. 8. Henson proposes a middle path between open and 
dose communion, as follows ; ^ Preach and urge faith in Jesus and obedience to him. 
Leave choice with participants themselves. It is not wise to set up a Judgment-seat at 
the Lord's table. Always preach the Scriptural order— 1. Faith in Jesus'; 2. Obedi- 
ence in Baptism ; 8. Observance of the Lord's Supper.** J. B. Thomas : '' Objections 
to strict communion come with an ill grace from pedobaptlsts who withhold commun- 
ion from their own baptised, whom they have forcibly made quasi-members in spite of 
the only protest they are capable of offering, and whom they have retained as subjects 
of discipline without their consent." 

A. H. Strong, Cleveland Sermon on Our Denominational Outlook, May 19, 1904 — " If 
I am aSked whether Baptists still hold to restricted communion, I answer that our 
principle has not changed, but that many of us apply the principle in a different man- 
ner from that of our fathers. We believe that Baptism logically precedes the Lord's 
Supper, as birth precedes the taking of nourishment, and regeneration precedes sanc- 
tiflcation. We believe that the order of the ordinances is an Important point of 
Christian doctrine, and itself teaches Christian doctrine. Hence we proclaim it and 
adhere to it, in our preaching and our practice. But we do not turn the Lord's Supper 
into a Judgment-seat, or turn the officers of the church into detectives. We teach the 
truth, and expect that the truth will win its way. We are oourteous to all who come 
among us ; and expect that they in turn will have the oourtesy to respect our convic- 
tions and to act accordingly. But there is danger here that we may break from our 
moorings and drift into indlfferentism with regard to the ordinances. The recent 
advocacy of open church-membership is but the logical consequence of a previous con- 
oession of open communion. I am persuaded that this new doctrine is confined to very 
few among us. The remedy for this false liberalism is to be found in that same Christ 
who solves for us all other problems. It is this Christ who sets the solitary in families, 
and who makes of one every nation that dwells on the face of the earth. Christian 
denominations are at least temporarily his appointment. Loyalty to the body which 
seems to us best to represent his truth is also losralty to him. Love for Christ does not | 

involve the surrender of the ties of family, or nation, or denomination, but only 
oooseoiates and ennobles them. 



THE LOBD^S BUPPXR. 977 

** Yet Christ Is Klofir in Zlon. There Is but one army of the hvixig God, even though 
there ore many divisions. We can emphasize our unity with other Christian bodies^ 
rather than the differences between us. We can regard them as churches of the Lord 
Jesus, even though they are Irregularly constituted. As a marriage ceremony may be 
valid, even though performed without a license and by an unqualified administrator ; 
and as an ordination may be valid, even though the ordinary laying-on of hands be omit- 
ted ; so the ordinance of the Lord's Sapper as administered In pedobaptist churches 
may be valid, though irregular in its accompaniments and antecedents. Though we 
still protest against the modem perversions of the New Testament doctrine as to the 
subjects and mode of Baptism, we hold with regard to the Lord's Supper that Irregu- 
larity is not Invalidity, and that we may recognize as churches even those bodies 
which celebrate the Lord's Supper without having been baptized. Our faith In the 
larger Christ is bringing us out from our denominational isolation into an Inspiring 
recognition of our oneness with the universal church of Ood throughout the world.' 
On the whole subject, see Madison Avenue Lectures, S17-0OO; and A. H. Strong, on 
Christian Truth and Its Keepers, In Philosophy and Bellglon, 288-244. 

E. Special objeotlonfl to open oommnnioiL 

The adyooates of this view olaim that baptdam, as not being an indispen- 
sable term of salyation, oannot properly be made an indispensable term of 
oommnnion. 

Bo^art Hall, Works, 1:28S, held that there can be no proper terms of communion 
which are not also terms of salvation. He claims that ^ we are expressly commanded 
to tolerate In the church all those diversities of opinion which are not Inconsistent with 
salvation.^ For the open communion view, see also John M. Mason, Works, 1 : 809 ; 
Princeton Bevlew, Oct 1860; Bib. Sac, 21: 440; 94:480; 25:401; Spirit of the Pilgrims, 
6 : lOS, 142. But, as Curtis remarks. In his Pro g r e ss of Baptist Principles, 292, this prin- 
ciple would utterly frustrate the very objects for which visible churches were founded 
— to be "thtpUkrtBdgTMBdoftkttralh" (1 Tin. 8: 15); for truth Is set forth as forcibly in 
ordinances as In doctrine. 

In addition to what has already been said, we reply : 

( a ) This view is contrary to the belief and praotioe of all bat an insig- 
nificant fragment of organized Ohristendom* 

A portion of the Bnglish Baptists, and the Free Will Baptists In America, are the only 
bodies which in their standards of faith accept and maintain the principles of open 
communion. As to the belief and practice of the Methodist Bplscopal denomination, 
the New York Christian Advocate states the terms of communion as being : 1. Dlsdple- 
shlp ; 2. Baptism ; 8. Consistent church life, as required in the " Discipline "; and F. O. 
HIbbiud, Christian Baptism, 174, remarks that. ** In one principle the Baptist and pedo- 
baptist diurohes agree. They both agree In rejecting from the communion at the table 
of the Lord, and denying the rights of church fellowship to all who have not been bap- 
tized. Valid baptism, they consider, is essential to constitute visible church member- 
ship. This also we [ Methodists] hold. .... The charge of close communion is no 
more applicable to the Baptists than to us." 

The Interior states the Presbyterian position as follows : ** The difference between 
our Baptist brethren and ourselves is an important difference. We agree with them, 
however. In BAjing that unbaptlzed persons should not partake of the Lord's Supper. 
Close communion, in our judgment, is a more defensible position than open com- 
munion." Dr. John Hall : ** If I believed, with the Baptists, that none are baptised 
but those who are Immersed on prof esiion of ftUth, I should, with them, refuse to com- 
mune with any others.'* 

As to the views of CongregationaUsts, we quote ftom Dwlght, Systematic Theology* 
sermon 160— ** It Is an Indispensable Qualification for this ordinance that the candidate 
for communion be a member of the visible church of Christ, In full standing. By 
this I Intend that he should be a man of piety ; that he should have made a public pro- 
fession of religion ; and that he should have been baptised." The Independent : ** We 
have never been disposed to charge the Baptist churdh with any special narrowness or 
bigotry In their rule of admission to the Lord's table. We do not see how it differs 
from that commonly admitted and established among Presbyterian churches." 

62 



978 BGCLESIOLOGTy OB THE DOOTBIKB OF THE CHUBCH. 

The Episoopal standards and aathorltles are equally plain. The Book of Common 
Prayer, Order of Oonflrmation, declares : ** There shall none he admitted to the holy 
oommunlon, until suoh time as he be oonflrmed, or be ready and desirous to be oon- 
flrmed "« oonflrmation always oominff after baptism. Wall, History of Inftot Bap- 
tism, part 2, chapter 9 — " No church ever gave the communion to any persons before 
they were baptized. Among all the absurdities that ever were held, none erer main- 
tained that any person should partake of the communion before he was baptised." 

( 6 ) It aflsomes an nnfioriptiuiil inequality between the two ordinanoea. 
The Lord's Snpper holds no higher rank in Soriptore than does Baptism. 
The obligation to oommone is no more binding than the obligation to pro- 
fess &ith by being baptized. Open oommonion, however, treats baptism 
as if it were optional, while it insists npon oommnnion as indispensable. 

Bobert Hall should rather have said: ** No church has aright to establish terms of bap- 
tism which are not also terms of salvation," for baptism is most frequently in Scripture 
connected with the things that accompany salvation. We believe faith to be one pre- 
requisite, but not the only one. We may hold a person to be a Christian, without 
♦hiniHmr him entitled to commune unless he has been also baptised. 

Bora's reform in abolishing mixed marriages with the surrounding heathen was not 
narrow nor bigoted nor intolerant. Miss Willard said well that from the Gerisim of 
holy beatitudes there comes a voice : " Blessed are the inclusive, for they shall be 
included," and from Mount Ebal a voice, saying: **8ad are the exclusive, for they 
shall be excluded.*' True liberality is both Christian and wise. We should be just as 
liberal as Christ himself, and no more so. Bven Miss WiUard would not include rum- 
sellers in the Christian Temperance Union, nor think that town blessed that did not say 
to saloon keepers : ** Bepent, or go.** The choir is not narrow because it does not 
include those who can only make discords, nor is the sheepf old intolerant that refuses 
to include wolves, nor the medical society that excludes quacks, nor the church that 
does not invite the disobedient and schismatio to its oommiuion. 

(o ) It tends to do away with baptism altogether. If the highest privi- 
lege of dhnroh membership may be enjoyed without baptism, baptism loses 
its plaoe and importance as the initiatozy ordinance of the chnrdL 

Bobert Hall would admit to the Lord*s Supper those who deny Baptism to be perpetu- 
ally binding on the church. A foreigner may love this country, but he cannot vote at 
our elections unless he has been naturalized. Ceremonial rites imply ceremonial quali- 
floatioos. Dr. Meredith in Brooklyn said to his great Bible ClasB that a man, though 
not a Christian, but who felt himself a sinner and needing Christ, could worthily par- 
take of the Lord's Supper. This is the logic of open communion. The Supper is not 
limited to baptized persons* nor to church members, nor even to converted people, but 
belongs also to the unconverted world. This is not only to do away with Baptism, but 
to make the Lord's Supper a converting ordinance. 

(d) It tends to do away with all discipline. When Christians offend, 
the church must withdraw its fellowship from them. But upon the prin- 
ciple of open communion, such withdrawid is impossible, since the Lord's 
Supper, tiie highest expression of church fellowship, is open to every 
person who regards himself as a Christian. 

H. F. Colby: ^ Ought we to acknowledge that evangelical pedobaptists are qualified 
to partake of the Lord's Supper ? We are ready to admit them on precisely the same 
terms on which we admit ourselves. Our communion bars come to be a protest, but 
from no plan of ours. They become a protest merely as every act of loyalty to truth 
becomes a protest against error.*' Constitutions of the Holy Apostles, book 2, section 
7 (about 260 A. D.)— ^*But if they [those who have been convicted of wickedness] 
afterwards repent and turn from their error, then we receive them as we receive the 
heathen, when they wish to repent, into the church indeed to hear the word, but do not 
receive them to communion until they have received the seal of baptism and are made 
complete Chzistlaiis." 



THB lobd's suppbb. 979 

(6) It tends to do avay with the visible ohuroh altogether. For no 
visible ohoroh is possible, unless some sign of membership be required, in 
addition to the signs of membership in the invisible ohuroh. Open oom- 
munion logioall j leads to open church membership, and a church member- 
ship open to all, without reference to the qualifiloations required in 
Scripture, or without examination on the part of the church as to the 
existence of these qualifications in those who unite with it, is virtually 
an identification of the ohuroh with the world, and, without protest from 
ScripturaUy constituted bodies, would finally result in its actual extinotion. 

Dr. Waloott Oalldiia, in Andover Beview : ^* It has never been denied that the Puri- 
tan way of maintaining the purity and doctrinal soundneaB of the ohurohes is to secure 
a Boundly converted membership. There is one denomination of Puritans which has 
never deviated a hair's breadth from this way. The Baptists have always Insisted that 
regenerate persons only ou^ht to receive the sacraments of the church. And they have 
depended absolutely upon this provision for the purity and dootrlnal soundnesB of 
their churches.'* 

At the Free WHl Baptist Convention at Provldenoe, Oct., 18T4» the question came up 
of admlttinir pedobaptists to membership. This was disposed of by resolving that 
'* Christian baptism is a personal act of public consecration to Christ, and that believers' 
baptism and immersion alone, as baptinn, are fundamental principles of the denomina- 
tion.** In other words, unimmersed believers would not be admitted to membership. 
But is it not the Lord's church ? Have we a right to exclude ? Is this not bigotry 7 
The Free Will Baptist answers : ^ No, it is only loyalty to truth.** 

We claim that, upon the same principle, he should go further, and refuse to admit to 
the communion those whom he refuses to admit to church membership. The reasons 
assigned for acting upon the opposite principle are sentimental rather than ratlonaL 
See John Stuart Mlirs definition of sentimentality, quoted in Martineau's Bsaays, 
1:94— "Sentimentality consists in setting the sympathetic aspect of things, or their 
loveableness, above their aesthetic aspect, their beauty ; or above the moral aspect of 
them, their right or wrong." 

Objkctions to Striot CoMifUNiON, AHD Akswxbs TO THXM (ooodensed from 
Arnold, Terms of Communion, 82) : 

**l8t. PfimiUve ruUs are not apfUcable now. Beply: (1) The laws of Christ are 
unchangeable. ( 2 ) The primitive order ouff ht to be restored. 

**2d. Baptimn, a» an exUmal rUe^ is of leu importance than love, Beply : (1) It is 
not Inconsistent with love^ but the mark of love, to keep Christ's commandments 
( 2 ) Love for our brethren requires protest against their erron. 

*'8d. Pedobaptigti think themeelvee baptized, Beply : ( 1) This is a reason why they 
should act as if they believed it, not a reason why we should act as if it were so. < 2 ) 
We cannot submit our oonaclenoea to their views of truth without harming ourselves 
and them. 

"4th. Strict oommunUm ia a hindrance to union amono ChriBtiane, lieply : (1) Christ 
desires only union in the truth. (2) Baptists are not responslbie for the separation. 
( 8 ) Mixed communion is not a cure but a cause of disunion. 

" 6th. The rule excludes from the communion baptized menitwrt of peddbaptiat ehurehee, 
Beply: (1) These penons are walking disorderly, in promoting error. (2) The Lord's 
Supper is a symbol of church fellowship, not of fWowship for individuals, apart from 
their church relations. 

"0th. A plea for diepenainQ with the rule exitts in extreme eases where persona must 
commune with us or not <U aU. Beply : (1 ) It Is hard to fix limits to these exceptions: 
they would be likely to encroach more and more, till the rule became merely nomlnaL 
(2) It is a greater privilege and means of grace. In such circumstances, to abstain ftom 
communing, than oontrary to principle to participate. ( 8) It is not right to partici- 
pate with others, where we cannot invite them reciprocally. 

"7. AUeged incontUUney of our practice.— (a) Since we expect to commune In 
heaven. Beply : This confounds Christian fellowship with church fellowship. W%, do 
oonunune with pedobaptists spiritually, here as hereafter. We do not expect to par- 
take of the Lord's Supper with them, or with others, in heaven. ( b ) Since we reject 
the better and receive the worse. Beply: We are not at liberty to refuse to apply 
CBuiit's outward rule, because we cannot equally apply his Inward aplrituai rule of 



980 ECOLESIOLOGY, OR THB DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH. 

oharaoter. PedotMptiflts wlthold oommiuiloii from thooe they regard as unbaptlied, 
though they may be more spiritual than some In the obureh. (e ) Since we reoogniae 
pedotMptiats as brethren In union meetings, exchange of pulpits, etc. Reply : None 
of these acta of fraternal fellowship Imply the church communion which admission to 
the Lord's table would imply. This last would recogniae them as baptlaed : the for- 
mer do not. 

** 8th. Alleifed impoHey of our pracMee. Reply: (1) This consideration would be per- 
tinent, only if we were at liberty to change our practioe when it was expedient, or was 
thought to be so. ( 2 ) Any particular truth will inspire respect in others in proportion 
as its adyocates show that they respect it. In England our numbers haye diminished, 
compared with the population, in the ratio of 88 per cent. ; here we have Increased fiO 
per cent. In proportion to the ratio of population. 

** Summary, Open communion must be Justlfledt If at all, on one of four grounds ; 
First, that baptism Is not prerequisite to communion. Rut this is opposed to the belief 
and practioe of all churches. Secondly, that immersion on profession of faith Is not 
essential to baptism. But this is renouncing Baptist principles altogether. Thirdly, 
that the Individual, and not the church, is to be the judge of his qualiflcations for 
admission to the communion. But this is contrary to sound reason, and fatal to the 
ends for which the church is Instituted. For, If the conscience of the indiyidual Is to 
be the rule of the action of the church In regard to his admission to the Lord's Supper, 
why not also with regard to his regeneration, his doctrinal belief, and his obedience to 
Christ's commands generally? Fourthly, that the church has no responsibility in 
regard to the qualiflcations of those who come to her communion. But this is aban- 
doning the principle of the independence of the churches, and their aocountableneBB to 
Christ, and it oyerthrows all church discipline." 

See also Hovey, In Bib. Sac, 1868:188; Pepper, In Bap. Quar., 1887:216; Curtis on 
Communion, 800 ; Howell, Terms of Communion ; Williams, The Lord^ Supper ; Theo- 
dosla Ernest, pub. by Am. Bap. Pub. Soc. ; Wilkinson, The Baptist Principle. In con- 
cluding our treatment of Bodesiology, we desire to call attention to the fftct that 
Jacob, the English Churchman, in his Ecoleslastioal PoUty of the N. T., and Cunning- 
ham, the Scotch Presbyterian, in his Croall Lectures for 1886, have furnished Baptists 
with much valuable material for the defence of the New Testament doctrine of the 
Church and its Ordinances. In fact, a complete statement of the Baptist positions 
might easily be constructed from the concessions of their various opponents. See 
A. H. Strong, on Unoonaoious AasumptlonB of Commanlon Potomlos, In Philosophy and 
Religion, 816-Ma. 



PAET YIIL 

ESCHATOLOGT, OB THE DOCTRINE OF FINAL THINGS. 

Neither the individual Ghiistian oharaoter, nor the Christian ohnxoh as a 
whole, attains its destined perfection in this life ( Bom. 8 :24). This per- 
fection is reached in the world to come ( 1 Cor. 13 : 10 )• As preparing the 
way for the kingdom of God in its completeness, certain events are to take 
place, snoh as death, Christ's second coming, the resnrrection of the body, 
the general judgmentw As stages in the fntore condition of men, there is 
to be an intennediate and an ultimate state, both for the righteous and for 
the wicked. We discuss these events and states in what appears from 
Scriptore to be the order of their occorrence. 

lUiBL 8:M~«inkope vm v«ni«d:lmtbopttkft li Mtn it Mikopt: tevtehopelkteltalvfeiAksMilkr** 
1 Oor. 18:10— "vkrathitvhuhisparfMtiiogmi^ thit vUflk ta in pwi ihaU be doMaway.*' Originai Bin is 
not wholly eradicated from the Christian, and the Holy Spirit is not yet sole ruler. So, 
too, the ohurch is still in a state of oonflict, and viotory is hereafter. But as the Chris- 
tian life attains its oompletenesB only in the future, so with the life of sin. Death begins 
here, but culminates hereafter. Jann 1: 15— "tke an. vhan it ia fliU grevB, brisgakk iirtk daatk." 
The wicked man here has only a foretaste of *'tka wnik to tm»" ( Hat 8 r 7). We may "lay 
op ... . tnaiiinsiBkBaT«B" (llai8:80)b butwemay a]so'*trauoniipfvouMlTBiviath** (B«b.8:8X 
i. e., lay up treasures in hell. 

Domer : ^* To the actuality of the consummation of the church belongs a cessation of 
reproduction through which there is constantly renewed a world which the church 

must subdue The mutually external existence of spirit and nature must give 

way to a perfect internal existence. Their externality to each other is the ground of 
the mortality of the natural side, and of its being a means of temptation to the spiritual 
side. For in this externality the natural side has still too great independence and exerts 

a determining power over the personality Art, the beautiful, receives in the 

future state its special place ; for it is the way of art to delight in visible presentation, 
to achieve the classical and perfect with unfettered play of its powers. Every one 
morally perfect will thus wed the good to the beautif uL In the rest, there will be no 
Inactivity ; hnd in the activity also, no unrest." 

Schleiermaoher : ** Bschatology is essentially prophetic ; and is therefore vague and 
indeAnlte, like aU unfulfilled prophecy." SchiUer's Thekla : " Bvery thought of beau- 
tiful, trustful seeming Stands fulfilled in HeaTcn's eternal day ; Shrink not then from 
erring and from dreaming,— Lofty sense lies oft in childish play." Frances Power 
Cobbe, Peak of Darien, 286 — *' Human nature is a ship with the tide out ; when the tide 
of eternity comes in, we shaU see the purpose of the ship.-' Bschatology deals with the 
precursoiB of Christ's second coming, as well as with the second coming itself. We are 
to labor for the coming of the kingdom of God in society as well as in the individual 
and in the church, in the present life as well as in the life to come. 

Kidd, in his Principles of Western Civilization, says that survives which helps the 
greatest number. But the greatest number is always in the future. The theatre has 
become too wide for the drama. Through the roof the eternal stars appear. The image 
of God in man implies the equality of all men. Political equality implies universal 
suffrage ; economic equality implies universal profit. Society has already transcended 
flnt, city isolation, and secondly, state isolation. The United States presents thus far 
the largest free trade area in history. The next step is the unity of the English speak- 
ing peoples. The days of separate nationalities are numbered. Jxiifse«/a4*v — survlv- 

981 



982 BSCHATOLOGY, OB THE DOGTBIKB OF FIHAL THIKG8. 

ing barbarism. There are slgiis of larger Ideaa In art, ethics, literature, philosophy, 
scienoe, polities, eoonomlos, religion. Competition must be moralised, and must take 
into aooount the future as well as the presenL See also Walter Bausobenbusoh, 
Christianity and the Social Crisis. 

George B. Stevens, in Am. Jour. Theology, Oct. 19Q8 : 066-684, asks : ** Is there a self- 
constituted New Testament BBohatology ? " He answers, forsubstanoe, that only three 
things are sure : 1. The certain triumph of the kingdom —this being the kernel of 
truth in the doctrine of Christ's second coming ; 8. the victory of life over death — the 
truth in the doctrine of the resurrection ; 8. the principle of judgment ~ the truth at 
the basis of the belief in rewards and punishments in the world to come. This meagre 
and abstract residuum argues denial both of the unity and the sufficiency of Scripture. 
Our view of inspiration, while it does not assure us of minute details, does notwith- 
standing give us a broad general outline of the future consummation, and guarantees 
its trustworthiness by the word of Christ and his apostles. 

Faith in that consummation is the main incitement to poetic utterance and to lofty 
achievement. Shairp, Province of Poetry, 28 — ^* If poetry be not a river fed from the 
dear wells that spring on the highest summits of humanity, but only a canal to drain 
off stagnant ditches from the flats, it may be a very useful sanitary contrivance, but 
has not, in Bacon's words, any * participation of divineness.* '* Shakespeare uses prose 
for ideas detcushed from emotion, such as the merrymaking of clowns or the maunder- 
ing of fools. But lofty thought with him puts on poetry as its singing robe. Savage, 
Life beyond Death, 1-6—" When Henry D. Thoreau lay dying at Concord, his friend 
Parker PiUsbury sat by his bedside. He leaned over, took him by the hand, and said : 
* Henry, you are so near to the border now, can you see anything on the other side ? ' 
And Thoreau answered : * One world at a time, Parker ! ' But I cannot help asking 
about that other world, and if I belong to a future world as well as to this, my life will 
be a very different one. " Jesus knew our need of certain information about the 
future, and therefore he said : "In bj Ikthnr'i htnm in maaj naaiioBf; if tt vara not ao^ I mnUl kjtvi 
toU joa ; ftr I go to praptn A pliM for yra ** ( J«hn 14 : 2 ). 

Button, HsBays, 8 : 211 — *' Imagination may be powerful without being fertile ; it may 
summon up past scenes and live in them without being able to create new ones. 
National unity and supernatural guidance were beliefs which kept Hebrew poetry 
from being fertile or original in its dealings with human story ; for national pride is 
conservative, not inventive, and believers in actual providence do not care to live in 
a world of invention. The Jew saw in history only the illustration of these two truths. 
He was never thoroughly stirred by mere individual emotion. The modem poet is a 
student of beauty ; the O. T. poet a student of God. To the latter all creation is a mere 
shadow ; the essence of its beauty and the sustaining power of its life are in the spirit- 
ual world. Go beyond the spiritual nature of man, and the sympathy of the Hebrew 
poet is dried up at once. His poetry was true and divine, but at the expense of vari- 
ousnesB of insight and breadth of sympathy. It was heliocentric, rather than geocentric. 
Only Job, the latest, is a conscious effort of the imagination.*' Apocalyptic poetry 
for these reasons was most natural to the Hebrew mind. 

Balfour, Foundations of Belief, 66 —*^ Somewhere and for some Being, there shines an 
unchanging splendor of beauty, of which in nature and in art we see, each of us from 
his own standpoint, only passing gleams and stray reflections, whose different aspects 
we cannot now coordinate, whose import we cannot fully comprehend, but which at 
least is something other than the chance play of subjective sensibility or the far-off 
echo of ancestral lusts." Dewey, Psychology, 200 —^* All products of the creative 
imagination are unconscious testimonials to the unity of spirit which binds man to 
man, and man to nature, in one organic whole.* Tennyson, Idylls of the King : *' As 
from beyond the limit of the world. Like the last echo bom of a great cry. Sounds, 
as if some fair city were one voice Around a king returning from his wars." See, on 
the whole subject of Eschatology, Luthardt, Lehre von den letsten Dingen, and Saving 
Truths of Christianity; Hodge, Systematic Theology, 8:718-880; Hovey, Biblical 
Baohatology ; Heagle, That BlesMd Hope. 

L Phtbigaii Death. 

Physical death is the separation of the sonl from the body. We distin- 
g^nish it from spiritnal death, or the separation of the sonl from Gk>d ; and 
from the second death, or the banishment from Qod and final miaezy of the 
retLnited soul and body of the ^wioked. 



X 



FHTSIOAL DBATH. 983 

Spiritual death : la 0:1 —"tal jmr iaiqnitiai havs Hpntid bilvMB jn aadjnr 8«4, tad jwrriH Ivn 
kidkiifiMfran7on,Mthith«vUl]iolhflw"; Bin.7:84—''¥ntah«d BUthatlam! vko ihaU idiTir m Mt tf 
tkt bod J «r tkk deith?" lpk.2:l-."dMd \knn^ jm tntfum and tias." The second death: Ebt.2: 
ii— "IbthatoToreoaMlkahAUiiotbehiirtof thsaeflond dMth" ; M.U— "Aad daatk and Ead«i wan OMtlatotkc 
ake oflln. Thii it tbcMoond death, evnthtUka of iln'^ 21:8— ''BiU for tltB&aiiHudiab«lisTiiig,iiidab^ 
iaablo, aad mrdvan, and finioaton^ and aarefron, and idolater^ and all Uan, tiuir part ihall bo in tho lako that 
bnmfUvithtraaadbriBitono; vbiohiatkoaaoooddoath." 

JuUua Mtlller, Doctrine of Sin, 2 : 803 — '^ Spiritual deaUL. the inner diaoord and 
enslavement of the soul, and the misery resulting therefrom, to which belongs that 
other death, the second death, an outward condition corresponding to that inner 
shiTery.*' Trench, Epistles to the Seven Churches, 151 — ** This phrase [ 'aioond doaih' ] Is 
itself a solemn protest against the Sadduceelsm and Bpicureanism which would make 
natural death the be-all and the end-all of existence. As there is a life beyond the 
present life for the faithful, so there is death beyond that which falls under our eyes 
for the wicked.** K G. Bobinson : *' The second death is the continuance of spiritual 
death in another and timeless existence.'* Hudson, Scientific Demonstration of a 
Future Life, 222 — ** If a man has a power that transcends the senses, it is at least pre- 
sumptive evidence that it does not perish when the senses are extinguisbed. .... The 
activity of the subjective mind is in inverse proportion to that of the body, though the 
objective mind weakens with the body and perishes with the brain.'* 

Prof. H. H. Bawden : ^* Consciousness is simply the growing of an organism, while 
the organism is just that which grows. Consciousness is a function, not a thing, not 
an order of existence at all. It is the universe coming to a focus, flowering so to speak 
in a finite centre. Society is an organism in the same sense that the human being is an 
organism. The spatial separation of the elements of the social organism is relatively 
no greater than the separation of the unit factors of the body. As the neurone cannot 
deny the oonsdousnesB which is the function of the body, so the Individual member of 
society has no reason for denjring the existence of a cosmic life of the organism which 
we call sodety.*' 

BmmaM. Caillard, on Han in the Light of Bvolution, in Contemp. Rev., Deo. 1886: 
878— >**Man is nature risen into the consciousness of its relationship to the divine. 
There is no receding from this point. When * that which drew from out the boundless 
deep turns again home,' the persistence of each personal life is necessitated. Human 
life, as it is, includes, though it transcends the lower forms through which it has devel- 
oped. Human life, as it will be, must Include though it may transcend its present numi- 
f estation, vie., personality." *' Sometime, when all llfe*s lessons have been learned. And 
suns and stars f orevermore have set. And things which our weak judgments here have 
spumed. The things o'er which we grieved with lashes wet. Will flash before tis through 
our life's dark night. As stars shine most in deepest tints of blue : And we shall see how 
all God's plans were right, And most that seemed reproof was love most true : And if 
sometimes commingled with life's wine We And the wormwood and rebel and shrink. 
Be sure a wiser hand than yours or mine Pours out this portion for our lips to drink. 
And if some friend we love is lying low. Where human kisses cannot reach his face, O 
do not blame the loving Father so. But wear your sorrow with obedient grace ; And 
you shall shortly know that lengthened breath Is not the sweetest gift God sends his 
friend. And that sometimes the sable pall of death Conceals the fairest boon his love 
can send. If we could push ajar the gates of life. And stand within, and all God's work- 
ing see, We could interpret all this doubt and strife. And for each mystery flnd a key." 

Although phydoal death falls upon the nnbeliever as the original penalty 

of sin, to all who are united in Ohrist it loses its aspect of penally, and 

becomes a means of discipline and of entrance into eternal life. 

To the Christian, physical death is not a penalty : 100 hL flO :lS-"FMtat b tho Bfht «rJobmh 
b tbo doatk of Ui auBlo '* ; BoL 8 : 10--*'iBd if Gbial li la joQ, tbo body U diid booflSM of BB ; bat tbo qiiil i^ 
boMnoofrigbtoonnia"; 14:8— "For wbolbarvoliTO^ valivo ulo tko Laid; or vMhor wodlob voditaatoIlM 
krd : wbithor vo Uto tkmflbr^ or diob vo an tho IM'a ** ; I Oar. 8 :»— " vbolte FMl, or Ayolko^ or Oip^ 
VBrid, or lifo^ or doath, or tUngi proooo^ or tUiigi to onao ; aU an 70011" ; SS:6S— "0 doath, vhiro la thy 
tiotoi7rOdofllh,vhoroi8th7ofciae7" lPot4:6— "hr mte thiaond vu tho goopd prooohodomlothadoodt 
that ^ Bight bo Jvdgodiadoodaoeordiag to bob hi tht looh, b«t livt aooordiag to God la (ho qpiit";<^. Eoak 
i : 18— "For tho vnth of Qod la roroalod fron hoavoa agalut all ngodUBOH and urighloooMiiOi of bob, vho hiador 
tho hTBthfaoBrightooaaMoo'^ 8:1,1— "Than la thoroto BOW BO ooBdoBiBatioBtethoa that aroiaOhriitJooBa to 
tho lav of tho Spirit of liio hi Ohriot JoiDaBadoBofiMfrnitholBV«rriBaBd of doath*'; lohb iS:ft— «*llv 
vhoBi thi lAd lofolh ho ohaitaaoth." 



984 B8CHAT0L0OY, OB THB DOGTBIJBTB OF FIKAL THIKG& 

Dr. Hoveysays that" the preaeot suflterings of beUevera are In the nature of dSaol- 
pline, with an aspect of retribution ; while the present softorlngs of unbeUeven are 
retributive, with a fflanoe toward reformation.'* We prefer to say that all penalty has 
been borne by Christ, and that, for him who is justifled in Christ, sulTerinff of whatever 
kind is of the nature of fatherly chasteninflrt never of Jodioia] retribution ; see our dis- 
cussion of the Penalty of Bin, pages 66tMflO. 

" We see but dimly throuirh the mists and vapors Amid these earthly damps ; What are 
to us but sad funereal tapers May be Heaveu^s distant lamps. There is no death,— what 
seems so iB transition ; This lite of mortal breath Is but a suburb of the life Elyslan 
Whose portal men caU death." ^ 'Tls meet that we should pause awhile. Bre we put ofT 
this mortal ooil. And in the stUlnesB of old age, Muse on our earthly pilgrimage." 
Shakespeare, Romeo and JuUet, 4:6—'* Heaven and yourself Had part in thisfUr maid; 
now Heaven hath all. And all the better is it for the maid : Your part in her you oonld 
not keep from death. But Heaven keeps his part in eternal lite. The most you sought 
was her promotion. For *t was your heaven she should be advanced ; And weep ye now, 
seeing she is advanced Above the clouds, as high as Heaven itself?" Phcnbe Obit's 
Answered : *' I thought to find some healing oUme For her I loved ; she found that 
shore. That dty whose inhabitants Are sick and sorrowful no more. I asked for human 
love for her ; The Loving knew how best to still The infinite yearning of a heart Which 
but infinity could fill. Such sweet communion had been ours, I prayed that it might 
never end ; My prayer is more than answered ; now I have an angel for my friend. I 
wished for perfect peace to soothe The troubled ftwgniah of her breast ; And numbered 
with the loved and called She entered on untroubled rest. Life was so fair a thing to 
her,I weptand pleaded for its stay ; My wish was granted me, for lo I She hath eternal 
lifeto-dayl" 

Victor Hugo : **Tlie tomb is not a Uind alley ; it is a thoroughfare. It doses with 

the twilight, to open with the dawn. I feel that I have not said the thousandth 

part of what Is in me The thirst for infinity proves infinity." Shakespeare : 

** Nothing is here for tears; nothing to wail. Or knock the breast: no weakness, no 
oontempt. Dispraise or blame; nothing but well and fair." O. W. Holmes: ^* Build 
thee more stately mansions, O my soul, As the swift seasons roll I Leave thy low-vaulted 
past I Let each new temple, nobler than the last Shut thee from heaven with a dome 
more vast. Till thou at length art free, Leaving thine outgrown shell by life's unrest- 
ing sea I " J. O. Whlttier : *' Ho when Time's veil shall fall asunder. The soul may know 
No fearful change or sudden wonder. Nor sink the weight of mystery under. But with 
the upward rise, and with the vastness grow." 

To neither somt nor sinner is death a oeasation of being. This we main- 
teaUf against the adTooates of annihilation : 

1. Upon rational grounds, 

(a) The metaphysioal aigament — The soul is simple, not oomponnded. 
Death, in matter, is the separation of parts. But in the sonl there are no 
parts to be separated. The diasolution of the body, therefore, does not 
necessaril J work a dissolution of the sonL But^ since there is an immate- 
rial prinoiple in the bmte, and this argument taken by itself might seem to 
proye the immortality of the animal creation equally inth that of man, we 
pass to consider the next argument. 

The Gnostics and the ManichsBans held that beasts had knowledge and might pray. 
The immateriality of the brute mind was probably the consideretion which led Leib- 
Ditz, Bishop Butler, Coleridge, John Wesley, Lord Shaftesbury, Mary Somerville, 
James Hogg, Toplady, Lamartine, and Louis Agasslz to encourage the belief in animal 
immortality. See Bp. Butler, Analogy, part i, chap, i (Bohn^s ed., 81-^); Agasslz, 
Bssay on dassUlcatlon, 99 — '* Most of the arguments for the immortality of man apply 
equally to the permanency of this principle in other living beings.** Elsewhere Agaa- 
slz says of animals : ** I cannot doubt of their immortality any more than I doubt 
of my own.'* Lord Shaftesbury in 1881 remarked : " I have ever believed in a happy 
future for animals ; I cannot say or conjecture how or where ; but sure I am that ttie 
love, BO manifested by dogs especially. Is an enuuiatlon from the divine essence, and as 
snoh it can, or rather, it will« never be extinguished." St. Frands of Aasisi preached 



PHYSICAL DEATH. 985 

to binKand called sun* moon, earth, fire, water, Btonea, flowen, eorioketa, and death, 
hja brothers and slaters. ** He knew not if the brotherhood His homily had under- 
stood ; He onlj knew that to one ear The meaning of his words was dear " ( Long- 
fellow, The Sermon of St. brands — to the birds ). ** If death dissipates the sagacity of 
the elephant, why not that of his captor? " See Buokner, Immortality of Anirriaia ; 
William Adams Brown, Christian Theology in Outline, SIO. 

Hansel, Metaphjndos, 371, maintains that all this argument proves is that the objeotor 
oannot show the soul to be compound, and so cannot show that It is destructible. 
Oalderwood, Moral Philosophy, 260—*' The facts which point toward the termination 
of ou! present state of existence are connected with our physical nature, not with our 
mortal.*' John Fiske, Destiny of the Creature, 110 — ** With his lllegitiinate hypothesis 
of annihilation, the materialist tran sg r o sBes the bounds of experience quite as widely 
af the poet who sings of the New Jerusalem, with its river of life and its streets of 
gold SdentUlcally speaking, there is not a particle of evidence for either view.'* 
John Fiske, Life Everlasting, 80-86— ** How could immortal man have been produced 
through heredity from an ephemeral brute? We do not know. Nature's habit is to 
make prodigious leaps, but only after long preparation. Slowly rises the water in the 
tank, inch by inch through many a weary hour, until at length it overflows, and 
straightway vast systems of machinery are awakened into rumbling life. Slowly 
the ellipse becomes eccentric, until suddenly the finite ellipse becomes an infinite 
paraboloid." 

Ladd, Philosophy of Mind, 206— ** The ideas of dividing up or splitting off are not 
applicable to mind. The argument for the indestmotibllity of mind as growing out of its 
indiscerptibility, and the argument by which Kant confuted it, are alike absurd within 
the realm of mental phenomena." Adeney, Christianity and Evolution, 127 — ** Nature, 
this argument shows, has nothing to say against the immortality of that which is above 
the range of physical structure." Lotae : ^ Everything which has once originated 
will endure forever so soon as it possesses an unalterable value for the coherent sys- 
tem of the world ; but it will, as a matter of course, in turn cease to be, if this is not 
the case." Bowne, Int. to Psych. Theory, 816-818— ** Of what use would brutes be 
hereafter ? We may reply : Of what use are they here ? . . . . Those things which have 
perennial significance for the universe will abide." Bixby, Crisis in Morals, 208 — ** In 
living beings there is always a pressure toward larger and higher existence. .... The 

plant must grow, must bloom, must sow its seeds, or it withers away The aim is 

to bring forth consciousness, and In greatest fulness. .... Beasts of prey and other 
•nemles to the ascending path of life are to be swept out of the way." 

But is not the brute a part of that Nature which has been subjected to vanity, which 
groans and travails in pain, and which waits to be redeemed? The answer seems to be 
that the brute is a mere appendage to man, has no independent value in the creation, 
is incapable of ethical life or of communion with Ood the source of Uf e, and so has no 
guarantee of continuance. Man on the other hand is of Independent value. But this 
is to anticipate the argument which follows. It is sufficient here to point out that 
there is no proof that oonsoiousness is dependent upon the soul's connection with a 
physical organisnL McLane, Evolution in Beligion, 261— " As the body may preserve 
Its form and be to a degree made to act after the psychic element is lost by removal of 
the brain, so this psychic element may exist, and act according to its nature after the 
physical element ceases to exist.'* Hovey, Bib. Bschatology, 19 — " If I am in a house, 
I can look upon surrounding objects only through its windows ; but open the door 
and let me go out of the house, and the windows are no longer of any use to me." 
Shaier, Interpretation of Nature, 206 — " To perpetuate mind after death Is less surpris- 
ing than to perpetuate or transmit mind here by Inheritanoe." See also Martineau, 
Study, 2 : 832-837, 868-3a6. 

William James, in his Essay on Human Immortality, argues that thought is not neces- 
sarily a prvductioe function of the brain ; it may rather be a permissive or tronsmistiM 
function. Thought is not TMOjt in the brain, so that when the brain perishes the soul 
dies. The brain is only the organ for the trmwmiMfon of thought. Just as the lens 
transmits the light which it does not produce. There is a spiritual world behind and 
above the material world. Our brains are thin and half transparent places in the veil^ 
through which knowledge comes in. Savage, Life after Death, 280 — ** You may attach 
a dynamo for a time to some particular machine. When you have removed the machine, 
you have not destroyed the dynamo. Tou may attach it to some other machine and 
find that you have the old time power. Bo the soul may not be confined to one body." 
These analogies seem to us to come short of proving personal immortality. They 



986 ESGHATOLOGY, OB THE DOCTRIKE OF FINAL THIK08. 

belong to ''psychology without a soul/* and while they Illustrate the peisiBtenoe of 
some sort of life, they do not render more probable the continuaooe of my individual 
oonsoiousnesB beyond the bounds of death. They are entirely consistent with the pan- 
theistic theory of a remerging of the personal existence in the great whole of which it 
forms a part. Tennyson, In Memorlam : "That each, who seems a separate whole. 
Should move his rounds and, fusing all The skirts of self again, should fall Bemerging 
in the general Soul, Is faith as vague as all unsweet." See Plieiderer, Die BitBohl*sohe 
Theologie, 12; Howison, Limits of Evolution, 27»-ai2. 

Seth, Hegelianism : " For Hegel, immortality is only the permanence of the Absolute, 
the abstract process. This is no more consoling than the continued existence of the 
chemical elements of our bodies in new transformations. Human self-oonsdousneas is a 
spark struck in the dark, to die away on the darkness whence it has arisen." This is the 
only immortality of which George Eliot conceived in her poem. The Immortal Choir : 
** O may I Join the choir invisible Of those immortal dead who live again In minds made 
better by their presence ; live In pulses stirred to generosity. In deeds of daring recti- 
tude, in scorn For miserable aims that end in self. In thoughts sublime that pierce the 
night like stars. And with their mild perBistence urge man's search To vaster issues.*' 
Those who hold to this unconscious immortality concede that death is not a separation 
of parts, but rather a cessation of consciousness ; and that therefore, while the substance 
of human nature may endure, mankind may ever develop into new forms, without 
individual immortality. To this we reply, that man's self -consciousness and self-deter- 
mination are different in kind from the consciousness and determination of the brute. 
As man can direct his self -consciousness and self-detormination to immortal ends, we 
have the right to believe this self-consoiousneBs and self-determination to be immortaL 
This leads us to the next azgument. 

(6) The teleologioal argument. — Man, as an intelleotiial, mondt and 
xeligions being, does not attain the end of his existonee on earth. His 
development is imperfect here. Divine ^wisdom will not leave ite work 
incomplete. There mnst be a hereafter for the fall growth of man's powers, 
and for the satis&ction of his aspirationSi Created, nnlike the bmto, with 
infinite capacities for moral progress, there mnst be an immortal existence 
in which those capacities shall be brought into exercise. Though the 
wicked forfeit all claim to this future, we have here an argument from 
Qod's love and wisdom to the immortality of the righteous. 

In reply to this argument, it has been said that many right wishes are vain. Hill, 
Basays on Beligion, 204—^* Desire for food implies enough to eat, now and forever? 
hence an eternal supply of cabbage? " But our argument proceeds upon three pie- 
suppositlons : ( 1 ) that a holy and benevolent Qod exists ; ( 2 ) that he has made man in 
his image ; ( 8 ) that man's true end is holiness and likeness to Ood. Therefore, what 
will answer the true end of man will be furnished ; but that is not cabbage— it is holi- 
ness and love, i. e^ God himself. See Martlneau, Study, 2 : 870-88L 

The argument, however, is valuable only in its application to the righteous. Ood 
wiU not treat the righteous as the tyrant of Florence treated Michael Angelo, when he 
bade him carve out of ice a statue, which would melt under the first rays of the sun. 
In the case of the wicked, the other law of retribution comes in— the taking away 
of " eTtn tkrt wliieh he h&tli " ( KaL 25 : 28 ). Since we are all wicked, the argument is not satis- 
factory, unless we take into account the further facts of atonement and justification 
— facts of which we learn from revelation alone. 

But while, taken by itself, this rational argument might be called defective, and 
could never prove that man may not attain his end in the continued existence of the 
race, rather than in that of the individual, the argument appears more valuable as a 
rational supplement to the facts already mentionftd, and seems to render certain at 
least the immortality of those upon whom God has set his love, and in whom he has 
wrought the beginnings of righteousness. 

Lord Brskine : ** Inferior animals have no instincts or ftusulties which are not subser- 
vient to the ends and purposes of their being. Man's reason, and faculties endowed 
with power to reach the most distant worlds, would be uselesB if his existence were 
to terminate in the grave." There would be wastefulness in the extinction of great 
minds ; see Jackson, James Martlneau, 430. As water is implied by the organization of 



PHYSIOAL DEATH. 987 

the flflh, and air by that of the bird, so " the eziBtenoe of spiritual power within us is 
likewise presumption that some flttinir environment awaits the spirit when it shall be 
set free and perfected, and sex and death oan be dispensed with " ( Newman Smyth, 
Place of Death in Brolution, 106 ). NHseli, the Gtorman botanist, says that Nature tends 
to perfection. Yet the mind hardly beirins to awake, ere the bodily powers decline 
( Georve, Progress and Poverty, 506 ). ** Character grows firmer and solider aa the body 
ages and grows weaker. Oan character be vitally implicated in the act of physical 
dissolution ? " ( Upton, Hibbert Lectures, 853 ). If a rational and moral Deity has caused 
the gradual evolution in humanity of the ideas of right and wrong, and has added to it 
the faculty of creating ethical ideals, must he not have provided some satisfaction for 
the ethical needs which this development has thus called into existence? (Balfour, 
Foundations of Belief, 861 ). 

Royce, Conception of God, 50, quotes LeConte as follows: ** Nature is the womb in 
which, and evolution the process Z^ which, are generated sons of God. Without 
immortality this whole process is balked— the whole process of cosmic evolution is 
futile. Shall God be so long and at so great pains to achieve a tpirlU capable of com- 
muning with himself, and then allow it to lapse again into nothingness ? " John Fiske^ 
Destiny of Man, 116, accepts the immortality of the soul by ** a supreme act of faith In 
the reasonableness of God's work." If man is the end of the creative process and the 
object of Gk)d's care, then the soul's career cannot be completed with its present life 
upon the earth ( Newman Smyth, Place of Death in Evolution, 02, 98 ). Bowne, Philos- 
ophy of Theism, 354— " Neither God nor the future life is needed to pay us for present 
virtue, but rather as the condition without which our nature falls into Irreconcilable 
discord with Itself, and passes on to pessimism and despair. High and continual effort 
is impossible without oorrBSpondingly high and abiding hopes. .... It is no more 
selfish to desire to live hereafter than it is to desire to live to-morrow.** Dr. M. B. 
Anderson used to say that there must be a heaven for canal horses, washerwomen, 
and college presidents, because they do not get their deserts in this life. 

Life is a series of commencements rather than of accomplished ends. Longfellow, on 
Charles Sumner : ** Death takes us by surprise, And stays our hurrying feet; The great 
design unfinished lies. Our lives are incomplete. But in the dark unknown Perfect 
their drdes seem, Even as a bridge^s arch of stone Is rotmded in the stream." Bobert 
Browning, Abt Y ogler : " There never shall be one lost good " ; Prospice : '*No work 
begun shiUl ever pause for death "; "Pleasure must succeed to pleasure, else past 
pleasure turns to pain ; And tlUs first life claims a second, else I count its good no 
gain '* ; Old Pictures in Florence : " We are faulty — why not ? We have time in store " ; 
Grammarian's Funeral : ^ What 's time ? Leave Now for dogs and apes,— Man has For- 
ever." Robert Browning wrote in his wife's Testament the following testimony of 
Dante : " Thus I believe, thus I aifirm, thus I am certain it is, that from this life I 
shall pass to another better, there where that Isdy lives, of whom my soul was enam- 
ored." And Drowning says in a letter: "It is a great thing— the greatest — that a 
human being should have passed the probation of life, and sum up its experience in a 
witness to the power and love of God. .... I see even more reason to hold by the 
same hope." 

( ) The eihioal argament.— Man is not, in this world, adequately pnn- 
iahed for his evil deeds. Our sense of justice leads us to believe that Qod's 
moral administration will be vindioated in a life to oome. Mere extinction 
of being would not be a sufficient penalty, nor would it permit degrees of 
punishment corresponding to degrees of guilt. This is therefore an argpi- 
ment from Gbd's justice to the immortality of the wicked. The guilty con- 
science demands a state after death for punishmenl 

This is an argument from God's justice to the immortality of the wicked, as the pre- 
ceding was an argument from God's love to the immortality of the righteous. 
" History defies our moral sense by giving a peaceful end to Sulla." Louis XY and 
Madame Pompadour died in their beds, after a life of extreme luxury. Louis XYI and 
his queen, though far more Just and pure, perished by an appalling tragedy. The fiitea 
of these four cannot be explained by the wickedness of the latter pair and the virtue 
of the former. Alexander the Sixth, the worst of the popes, was apparently prosper- 
ous and happy in bis iniquities. Though guilty of the most shameful crimes, he was 
aeraoely impenitent, and to the last of his days he defied both God and man. Since 



988 B80HAT0L0QY, OB THB DOCTBIKB OF FINAL THIKG8. 

there is not an execution of Justice here, we feel that there must be a **|iidgMnl to i 
such as that which terrified Felix ( iflti M : 25 ). Martlneau, Study, 2 : 88^^88. Stopf ord 
A. Brooke, Justice : ** Three men went out one summer night. No care had they or 
aim. And dined and drank. * Bre we go home We'll have,' they said, * a game.' Three 
girls began that summer night A Ufe of endless shame. And went through drink, disease, 
and death As swift as racing flame. Lawless and homeless, foul, they died ; Blob, loved 
and praised, the men: But when they all shall meet with God, And Justice speaks,-* 
what then?" See John Gaird, Fund. Ideas of Christianity, 2:856-297. G. F. Wilkin, 
Control in Bvolution : " Belief in immortality is a praotiosl necessity of evolution. 
If the decisions of to-day are to determine our eternal destiny, then it is vastly more 
important to choose and act aright, than It is to preserve our earthly life. The martyrs 
were righL Consdenoe is vindicated. We can live for the ideal Of manhood. 
Immortality is a powerful refonnatory instrument.** Martineau, Study of Beligion, 
2 : 888 — ** If Death gives a final discharge to the sinner and the saint alike, Consdenoe has 
told us more lies than it has ever called to their account." Shakespeare, Henry V, 
4:2— ^* If [transgressors] have defeated the law and outrun native punishment, 
though they can oucBtrip men, they have no wings to fly from God '* ; Henry YI, 2d 
part, 6:2—" Can we outrun the heavens ? *' Addison, Oato : " It must be so,— Plato, 
thou ressonest welL— Blse whence this pleasing hope, this fond desire. This longing 
after immortality ? Or whence this secret dread and inward horror Of falling into 
naught ? Why shrinks the soul Back on herself and startles at destruction ? T is the 
divinity that stini within us, T is Heaven Itself that points out a hereafter. And inti- 
mates eternity to man." 

Gildersleeve, in The Independent, March 80, 1899 — ^ Plato In the Phsedo argues f6r 
immortality from the alternation of opposites : life must follow death as death follows 
life. But alternation of opposites is not generation of opposites. He argues from 
reminiscence. But this involves pre-existence and a cycle of incarnations, not the 
immortality which we crave. The soul abides, as the idea abides, but there is no guar- 
antee that it abides forever. He argues from the uncompounded nature of the soul. 
But we do not know the soul's nature, and at most this is an analogy : as soul is like 
God, invisible, it must like God abide. But this is analogy, and nothing more." 
William James, Will to Believe, 87 — *' That our whole physical life may Ue soaking in a 
spiritual atmosphere, a dimension of being which we at present have no organ for 
apprehending, is vividly suggested to us by the analogy of the life of our domestic anl* 
mals. Our dogs, for example, are in our human life, but are not of it. They bite, but 
do not know what it means ; they submit to vivisection, and do not know the wMMminy 
of that" 

George Bllot, walking with Frederic Myers in the Fellows* Garden at Trinity, Gam- 
bridge, "stirred somewhat beyond her wont, and taking as her text the three words 
which have been used so often as the inspiring trumpet-oalls of men — the words God, 
Immortality, Duty — pronounced with terrible earnestness how Inconceivable was the 
first, how unbelievable the second, and yet how peremptory and absolute the third." 
But this idea of the infinite nature of Duty is the creation of Christianity— the last 
infinite would never have attained its present range and intensity, had itnotbeenindis- 
solubly connected with the other two ( Forrest, Christ of History and Bxperienoe, 18 ). 

This ethical argument has probably more power over the minds of men than any 
other. Men believe In Minos and Rbadamanthus, if not in the Elyslan Fields. But 
even here it may be repUed that the Judgment which conscience threatens may be, 
not immortality, but extinction of being. We shall see, however, in our discustion 
of the endlessness of future punishment, that mere annihilation cannot satisfy the 
moral instinct which lies at the basis of this argument. That demands a punishment 
proportioned in each case to the guilt incurred by transgression. Bxtinotion of being 
would be the same to alL As it would not admit of degrees, so it would not, in any 
case, sulflcienUy vindicate God's righteousness. F. W. Newman : "If man be not 
immortal, God is not Just." 

But while this argument proves life and punishment for the wicked after death, it 
leaves us dependent on revelation for our knowledge how long that lif^ and punish- 
ment will be. Kant's argument is that man strives equally for morality and for well- 
being ; but morality often requires the sacrifice of well-being ; hence there must be a 
future reconciliation of the two in the well-being or reward of virtue. To all of which 
it might be answered, first, that there is no virtue so perfect as to merit rewazd ; and 
secondly, that virtue is its own reward, and so i§ well-being. 



PHY8I0AL DEATH. 989 

(d) The hiatorioal arg^ameni — ^The popular belief of all nationB and 
ages shows that the idea of immortality is natural to the human mind. It 
is not sufficient to say that this indicates only suoh desire for continued 
earthly ezistenoe as is necessary to self-preservation ; for multitudes expect 
a life beyond death without desiring it, and multitudes desire a heavenly 
life without caring for the earthly. This testimony of man's nature to 
immortality may be regarded as the testimony of the God who made the 
nature. 

TeBtimonies to this popular belief are given in Bartlett, Life and Death Eternal, pref- 
ace : The airow-heads and earthen yessels laid by the side of the dead Indian ; the 
silver obolns put in the mouth of the dead Greek to pay Charon's peaeage money ; the 
fumishlnff of the Egyptian corpse with the Book of the Dead, the papyrus-roll oon- 
tatning the prayer he is to offer and the chart of his journey through the unseen world. 
The Gauls did not hesitate to lend money, on the sole condition that he to whom they 
lent it would return it to them in the other life, — so sure were they that they should 
get it strain ( Valerius Mazimus, quoted in Boissier, La Religion Romaine, 1 : 284 ). The 
Laplanders bury flint and tinder with the dead, to furnish light for the dark journey. 
The Norsemen buried the horse and armor for the dead hero's triumphant ride. The 
Chinese scatter paper images of sedan porters over the grave, to help alouflr in the 
sombre pilgrimage. The Greenlanders bury with the child a dog to guide him ( George 
Dana Boardman, Sermon on Immortality ). 

Savage, lAte after Death, 1-18 — ** Candles at the head of the casket are the modem 
representatives of the primitive man's fire which was to light the way of the soul on its 

dtfk journey UlvBses talks in the underworld with the shade of Hercules 

though the real Hercules, a demigod, had been transferred to Olympus, and was there 
living in companionship with the gods. .... The Brahman desired to escape being 
reborn. Socrates : * To die and be released is better for me.' Here I am walking on a 
plank. It reaches out into the fog, and I have got to keep walking. I can see only ten 
feet ahead of me. I know that pretty soon I must walk over the end of that plank,— I 
haven't the slightest idea into what, and Idon*t believe anybody else knows. And I 
don't like it." Bfatthew Arnold : '* Is there no other life ? Pitch this one high." But 
without positive revelation most men will say : "Lil u «l ad diink, ftr toHBtmv vi dit" 
(iOor. 15:38). 

** By passionately loving Ufa, we make Loved life unlovely, hugging her to death." 
Theodore Parker : *' The intuition of mortality is written in the heart of man by a 
Hand that writes no falsehoods. .... There is evidence of a summer yet to be, in the 
buds which lie folded through our northern winter— efflorescences in human nature 
unaccountable if the end of man is In the grave." But it may be repUed that many 
universal popular impressions have proved false, such as belief in ghosts, and in the 
moving of the sun round the earth. While the mass of men have believed in Immor- 
tality, some of the wisest have been doubters. Cyrus said : ^ I cannot imagine that 
the soul lives only while it remains in this mortal body.'* But the dying words of 
Socrates were ; '* We part ; I am going to die, and you to live ; which of us goes the 
better way is known to Qod alone." Cicero declared : ** Upon this subject I entertain 
no more than conjectures ; " and said that, when he was reading Plato*s argument for 
immortality, he seemed to himself convinced, but when he laid down the book he 
found that all his doubts returned. Forrar, Darkness and Dawn, 184 — ** Though Cicero 
wrote his Tusculan Disputations to prove the doctrine of immortality, he spoke of 
that doctrine in his letters and speeches as a mere pleasing speculation, which might 
be discussed with interest, but which no one practically held." 

Aristotle, Nlc. Bthics, 8 : 9, calls death "* the most to be feared of all things .... for it 
appears to be the end of everything ; and for the deceased there appears to be no longer 
either any good or any evil. " .£schylu8 : ** Of one once dead there is no resurrection. " 
Catullus : '* When once our brief day has set, we must sleep one everlasting night." 
l^idtus : '* If there is a place for the spirits of the pious ; If, as the wise suppose, great 
souls do not become extinct with their bodies." ** In that if, '* sasrs Uhlhom, ** lies the 
whole torturing uncertainty of heathenism.'* Seneca, Bp. liv. — " Mors est non esse " 
—"Death is not to be" : Troedea V, 803--*^ Post mortem nihil est, Ipsaque mors 
nihil " — ** There is nothing after death, and death itself is nothing." Marcus Auielius t 
** What springs from earth dissolves to earth again, and heavenbom things fly to their 



990 BSCHATOLOGT, OR THE DOCTRINE OF FINAL THINGS. 

natiye seat.'* The Emperor Hadrian to his soul : ** AnlmiiUw TBffula, blandula, Hospes 
oomesque corporis. Que nuno ablbis In loea? PaUidula, rigida, nudula." Claasic 
writers mlflrht haye said of the soul at death : " We know not where is that Promethean 
torch That can its light relume." 

CSiadwiok, 184 ~ ** With the growth of all that is best in man of intelligenoe and affeo- 
tion, there goes the development of the hope of an immortal Ufle. If the hope thus 
developed is not a valid one, then we have i^ radical contradiction in our moral nature. 
The survival of the fittest points in the same direction.** Andrew Marvell ( 1821-1678 >— 
** At mj back I always hear Tlme*s winged chariot hurrying near ; And yonder all 
before us lie Deserts of vsst Eternity." Ooethe in his last days came to be a profound 
believer in immortality. *' You ask me what are my grounds for this belief ? The 
weightiest is this, that we cannot do without it." Huxley wrote in a letter to Morley : 
*' It is a carious thing that I find my dislike to the thought of eztinotlon inoreaatng as I 
get older and nearer the goal. It flaahes across me at all sortsof time that in 1900 1 shall 
probably know no more of what is going on than I did in 1800. I had sooner be in hell, 
a great deal,— at any rate in one of the upper drdes, where oUmate and the company 
are not too trying." 

The book of Job shows how impossible it is for man to work out the problem of per- 
sonal immortality from the point of view of merely natural religion. Shakespeare, in 
Measure for Measure, represents Claudio as saying to his sister Isabella : ** Aye, but to 
die, and go we know not where ; To lie in cold obstruction and to rot; This sensible 
warm motion to become A kneaded clod." Strauss. Glaubenslehre, 8 : 789 —** The other 
world is in all men the one enemy, in its aspect of a future world, however, the last 
enemy, which speculative criticism has to light, and if possible to overcome.** Omar 

KhayyAm, Rub^yAt, Stanzas 28-35 — " I came Uke Water, and like Wind I go Up 

from Earth's Centre through the seventh gate I rose, and on the throne of Saturn sate. 
And many a knot unravelled by the Road, But not the master-knot of human flate. 
There was the Door to which I found no Key ; There was the Veil through which I 
might not see : Some little talk awhile of Me and Thee There was,— And then no more 
of Thee and Me, Earth could not answer, nor the Seas that mourn. In flowing purple, 
of their Lord forlorn ; Nor rolling Heaven, with all his signs revealed. And hidden by 
the sleeve of Night and Mom. Then of the Thse In Me, who works behind The veil, I 
lifted up my hands to find A Lamp, amid the darkness ; and I heard As from with- 
out — * The Me within Thee blind.' Then to the Up of this poor earthen Um I leaned, 
the secret of my llf^ to learn ; And Lip to Lip it murmur'd— ' While you Uve, Drink I— 
for, once dead, you never shall return ! * " So ** The Phantom Caravan has reached The 
Nothing it set out from." It Is a demonstration of the hopelessness and blindness and 
sensuality of man, when left without the revelation of God and of the life to come. 

The most that can be claimed for this fourth argument from popular belief is that it 
indicates a general appentency for continued existence after death, and that the idea is 
congruous with our nature. W. E. Forster said to Harriet Martlneau that he would 
rather be damned than annihilated ; see F. P. Oobbe, Peak of Darien, U. But it may 
be replied that there is reason enough for this desire for life in the fact that it ensures 
the earthly existence of the race, which might commit universal suicide without It. 
There is reason enough in the present life fbr its existence, and we are not necessitated 
to infer a future life therefrom. This objection cannot be fully answered from reason 
alone. But if we take our argument in connection with the Scriptural revelation con- 
cerning God^s making of man in his image, we maj regard the testimony of man's 
nature tt the testimony of the God who made it. 

We oondnde our statement of these rational proofs with the acknowledg- 
ment that they rest upon the presupposition that there exists a Gk>d of truth, 
wisdom, jnstioe, and love, who has made man in his image, and who desires 
to oommnne with his oreatares. We acknowledge^ moreover, that these 
proofis give ns, not an absolute demonstration, bnt only a balanoe of proba- 
bility, in favor of man's immortality. We turn therefore to Scripture for 
the dear revelation of a fact of which reason famishes ns litUe more than 
a presumption. 

Everett, Essays, 76, 77 —^ In his TrUume eines Geistersehers, Eant foreshadows the 

Method of his Kritlk. He gives us a scheme of disembodied spirits, and calls it a bit of 

'■fitic ( geheilmen ) philosophy ; then the opposite view, which be calls a bit of vulgar 



PHYSICAL DEATH. 991 

igemeimen ) phUoeophy. Then he says the soales of the undentandlnir are not quite 
impaitia], and the one that haa the inscription * Hope for the future ' has a meohanl- 
cal advantage. He says he cannot rid himself of this unf almen. He suffers feeling to 
determine the result. Th is is intellectual agnoatiolsm supplemented by religions faith." 
The following lines have been engraved upon the tomD of Proftesor Huxley : " And If 
there be no meeting past the grave. If all is darkness, sflenoe, yet t is rest. Be not 
afraid, ye waiting hearts that weep. For God still glveth his beloved sleep. And If an 
endless sleep he wills, so best." Oontraat this consolation with : "lit aol ynr kairt be 
tmiblai: jebeUffiin6od,lMUii?taI«iaflN. In 07 Vilkar'i knn in auaj auinidns : If M w* aok m^ I wmU 
kaw teU JOS. I go to prtptn tptaM ftr jm Aad If I fo ud |nptn t plan far jos. I will aau tpta, mk mrift 
70a onto Byidt thBivhff«Iui,tk«»7«Ba7lMalM**(lQhBi4:l-& 

Domer: ** There is no rational evidence which compels belief In Immortality. 
Immortality has its pledge in Ood's making man in his image, and in Gk>d*s will of love 
for communion with men.*' Luthardt, Compendium, 280 — " The truth in these proofi 
from reason is the idea of human personality and its relation to Ood. Belief in Ood la 
the universal presupposition and foundation of the univeiaal belief in immortality.*' 
When Strauss declared that this belief in immortality is the last enemy which is to be 
destroyed, he forgot that belief in Qod is more ineradicable still. Frances Power Oobbe, 
liife.tt—'' The doctrine of immortality Is to me the indispensable corollary of that of 
the goodness of Ood." 

Hadley , BBsaya, Philologloal and Critical, 882-979 —** The claim of immortality may be 
based on one or the other of two assumptions : ( 1 ) The same organism will be repro. 
duced hereafter, and the same functions, or part of them, again manifested in oonneo. 
tion with it, and accompanied with consciousness of continued identity; or, (2) The 
same functions may be exercised and accompanied with consciousness of Identity, 
though not connected with the same organism aa before ; may in fact go on without 
interruption, without being even suspended by death, though no longer manifested to 
us." The conclusion is : ^ The light of nature, when all directed to this question, does 
furnish a presumption in favor of Immortality, but not so strong a presumption as to 
exclude great and reasonable doubts upon the subject.** 

For an excellent synopsis of arguments and objections, see Hase, Huttems BedlTivna, 
278L See also Bowen, Metaph. and Bthlos, 417-441 ; A. ML Falrbalrn, on Idea of Immor> 
tality, in Studies in Philos. of Bellglon and of History; Wordsworth, Intimations of 
Immortality ; Tennyson, Two Voices; Alger, Critical History of Doctrine of Future 
Life, with Appendix by Bsra Abbott, containing a Catalogue of Works relating to the 
Nature, Origin, and Destiny of the Soul ; Ingersoll Lectures on InmiortaUty, by Oeorge 
A. Gtordon, Josiah Boyoe, William James, Dr. Osier, John Fiske. B. I. Wheeler* Hyalop, 
Mtknsterberg, Crotfaars. 

2. Upon scripturtU grounds. 

(a) The aooonnt of man's oreation, and the sabseqiieiit alliudoiiB to it 
in Scriptore, ahow that, while the body was made oorraptible and sabjeot 
to death* the soul was made in the image of God« moonraptible and 
immortaL 

a«ai:II^S7--*'UlwMk0aMnb«srtaig«**;l:7'"JadJibtakMamidaMartkftea<ratgnnd. 
•ad hrmUkti isto kit Bortrib tht Itmik af lilb ; aiA aaa bMBt a Uiiiff Ml"— here, aa was shown in 
our treatment of Man's Original State, page 823^ it Is not the divine Image, but the 
body, that is formed of dust ; and into this body the soul that poss cooo s the divine Image 
is breathed. In the Hebrew recorda, the aninuitlng soul is everywhere distinguished 
from the earthly body. ta. S:fl^ 18— "BthditkaHiais bMOMM aai «ru,tok]Mwgoidud«Til; 
aB4MW,Mktpatai1kUilai4u4 takt alN tftkt tm ff lift^uA t^iad liTvtetTv: th«dbnJ«^ 
ml Ub fatk froB tkt gaHm of I4«'* — man had immortality of soul, and now, lest to this he 
add immortality of body, he is expelled from the tree of life. lod. 12 : 7 — " tta iul ntamHk 
tolhiautkMitvM^iBdthiqMtntanilkiuitoM wlMg&valt"; Zetfh.i2:l— "Jtlon^ vhoiMtMk tetk 
tkt kMfWk uA k7ilk tha IbuidiliM tf tte lulk, ud ivMlh Ikt ^iilt of Baa vitUi k^^ 

Vat 10:88— '*iiidbiaa(afrddrftUBthiakilltkabe^,bBtanB0iaU«teki]ltktMsl:talntt«iterkia vko 
iiaU«t»dMtn7 Mk ml and bo^ in baU**;!*?: 80- "iod «h^riosfld8lfpk«, aalUagiqw tkal«d,aBd 
■jia^lordJaniinaitTtByqiril**: 8 Onr. ]8:8— "IkaovftBta la Ckrial. fnitan viin aga ( wkathar in tka 
bad7,Ikaoviiat;arwhilkwaaiortkabod7, IkDaw Dal; Qad kaavaft), auk 4 osa oan^t 19 nm ta tka Ikizd 
knfai**; 1 Oar. 18:48,48— "TkaflnkBaaAdaakaaaDaaUTiBfaBaL fka tea AAmi baaaM a lU^^iTi^ aidiit 
Bawbaift Ikitt la aol Ink vkiak la ^pbitatl, bvk ttal vkkk is latml; tbM IkH vki* k apiittnl**— the first 



992 BSGHATOLOOY, OR THE DOCTRINE OF FINAL THINGS. 

Adam was made a being whose body was psyobloal and mortal —a body of flesh and 
blood, that could not inherit the kingdom of Ood. So Paul says the spiritual is not 
flFBt« but the psychloal; but there is no intimation that the soul also was created 
mortal, and needed external apidianoestlikethe tree of lif6, before It oould enter upon 
immortality. 

But it may be asked: Is not all this, in iOor. 15^ spoken of the reflrenente— those to 
whom a new principle of life has been communicated ? We answer, yes ; but that does 
not prevent us from learning from the passage the natural Immortality of the soul ; for 
in regeneration the essence Is not changed, no new substance is imparted, no new 
faculty or constitutive element is added, and no new principle of holiness is infused, 
llie truth is simply that the spirit Is morally readjusted. For substance of the above 
remarks, see Hovey, State of Impenitent Dead, l-OT. 

Savage, Life after Death, 4A, 68— "The word translated 'soul*, in 0<B.t:7, is the 
same word which in other parts of the O. T. is used to denote the life-principle of 
animals. It does not follow that soul implies immortality, for then all animals would 
be immortal. .... The firmament of the Hebrews was the cover of adinner-platter, 
solid, but with little windows to let the rain through. Above this firmament was 
heaven where Ood and angels abode, but no people went there. All went below. But 
growing moral sense held that the good could not be imprisoned in Hades. So came the 

idea of resurrection If a/orc«, a universe with Ood left out, can do all that has 

been done, I do not see why it cannot also continue my existence through what is 
caUed death." 

Dr. H. Heath Bawden : '* It is only the creature that is bom that will die. Moneta 
and AmoBbs are inmiortal, as Weismann tells us. They do not die, because they never 
are bom. The death of the individual as a somatic individual is for the sake of the 
larger future life of the individual in its germinal immortality. So we Uve ourselves 
spiritually into our children, as well as physically. An organism Is nothing but a 
centre or focus through which the world surges. What matter if the irrelevant somatio 
portion is lost In what we call death 1 The only immortality possible is the immortality 
of function. My body has changed completely since I was a boy, but I have become a 
larger self thereby. Birth and death simply mark steps or stages in the growth of 
such an individual, which in its very nature does not exclude but rather includes 
within it the lives of all other individuals. The Individual is more than a passive mem* 
ber, he is an active orgail of a biological whole. The laws of his life are the social 
organism functioning in one of its organs. He lives and moves and has his being in the 
great spirit of the whole, which comes to a focus or flowers out in his conscious life.'* 

( & ) The aooonnt of the onne in Qenesis, and the sabsequent allnsionsto 
it in Scriptore, show that» while the death then inooired includes the dis- 
solntion of the body, it does not include cessation of being on the part of 
the son], bnt only designates that state of the sonl whidi is the opposite 
of trae life, viz,, a state of banishment from God, of unholiness, and of 
misery. 



(IM. t:17-«ii tta da7 ttBt Ami artMt {hmrf thM ibll madj fit"; e/. 8 .-S-^fht MsaalUiwiakid 
tkemidTM from tba pmanM of J«koTak Qod " ; 16-19— the curse of pain and toil : tt-M — banishment 
from the garden of Bden and from the tree of life. Hat 8 : tt — "FoUov ma ; ud Imti tk* dMd 
te taiy tkiir «vn daad " ; S5 : 41, 46— ** Sapirt fkwB n% ye oonad, into th« •lanal fln^ . . . . Ami Aall go away 
iolo itaiiai puniahmiBt " ; Liiko 15 : tt — *' tUi tky brakkff ma diad, and ii aliTt again ; and vaa loil, and ia liRmd " ; 
Jota 5 : 24 — ''Ha thai kflarttb my v<nd, and baliiTitk kitt that MBk iH^ haft alffMa lilb^ 

bnt hath paMd out of diaft into Ufe " ; 6:47,53,63— "Ha that bditnkh hath ilanial liibi .... boqit yo lat tha 
lath of tha 8A of man and drink hia Uood, ye haTo not lift in yoDndvaa . . . . fta voidi that I havt apoka onto 
yon an apirit, and an lift ": 8: 61 —"If a man koop my vord, ko ahall nirar bm diath." 

Rofli 6:81— "tha^ u ain nignad in daaO, oron ao might gnee nign tknmgk ligktaoiiflMB soto ftsnal lift ** ; 
8 :13— "if yallTO altar tha floah, ya moat dia ; Imt if by tha Spirit yt pat to doatk tho dooda oftko body.ya BhaUliTO " ; 
lpk.8:l— "dead throogk your towpaama and aina";6:14-"i1rak^ thou that alaepmA, and ariaa from tba drnd. 
and Chriit ahall ihinanpoathaa**; Jaaaa5:20— "hairhooaiTertotha ainnar from tha vm of hia vij ahall aan a 
oMlfr«mdiath,andihalloaTvamaltitadaof alna"; 1 John8:14— "Wokntw tkalwakara paamdontofdiatk into 
lift, boeanaa va Ion tha bnthna " ; Bar. 8 : 1 — "I know tky vod^, tkat tkaa kaat a name that than linrt, and than 
artdrnd." 

We are to interpret O. T. terms by the N. T. meaning put into them. We are to 
interpret the Hebrew by the Greek, not the Greek by the Hebrew. It never would do to 



PHTSICAL DEATH. 993 

Interpret oar mtelODaries' use of the Chinese words for " God *', ** spirit ", ** holiness ", 
by the use of those words among the Chinese before the missionaries came. By the 
later usage of the N. T., the Holy Spirit shows us what he meant by the usage of the 
O. T. 

( ) The Soriptoral expressioiiB, held by aTmihAatJonists to imply cessa- 
tion of being on the jMurt of the wicked, are nsed not only in connections 
where they cannot bear this meaning ( Esther 4 :16 ), but in connections 
where they imply the opposite. 



4:]6-*'if IpwiA, I p«iik'*; Qml 6:11— "indtka avfh VM «mpt bdbn flod" — here, in the 
LXX, the word i^i^, translated " wu oanni|ft, ** is the same word whidh in other places is 
interpreted by annihilationlsts as meaning extinction of being. In Pi 119 : 171^ *' I hKn gont 
Miny like ft kit ihMp " cannot mean ** I have gone astray like an annihilated sheep." Ik 49 : 17 
— "thy d«tn7WfLannlhilators?]uidtlM7 that nade thM vaiti ihaU go &rtk firamthae*' ;67:1,S— "Tha 
riflitMaa poiikatk [ is annihilated ? ] aad no man iayeth it to hflart; and mardftil man an takaa avay, none 
■oaidning that thorifhtNoaiatakinavay firm tho aril to eome. lo antMathiBtapaaoa;tkBjiwtl&tb«lrb«di,«8h 
onatbatvaDcoainhiaiiprigktDOM"; 9an.9:S8— "And aftar tka tbraa mvb and tvo vwka ihaU tha aaoiBtod ana ba 
ontaffC annihilated?].'* 

]Iat.lO:fl^39^«— "thalflitihaapofthakoDiaoriarBal. .. . iMthatloMthhiilifclbrmjnkadiaUlndit . . .. 
kaihallinnoviasloaalda rsvard" — in these verses we cannot substitute ** annihilate '* for 
"loas"; ifllil8:41— "Baholiya deapiaan. and irandar, and pariah"; cf. Kat6:16— "for thaydidgan their 
&aia " —where the same word a^avC^M is used. 1 Oor. 8:17— "If aaj nan deatnToth [annihi- 
lates?] thatanplaof6od,hJfliihaU Goddeatroj"; 8 Oor. 7:8— "va eonnpted no maa *' — where the same 
word ^^ipM is used. 8 Iheea. 1 :9— " who ahall aidbr pnaiahaa^ aTen atenal daatrnetioa firoB the baa of 
tha Lord aad from the glory of hia might " i— the wicked shall be driven out from the presence of 
Christ. Destruction is not annihilation. "DoatnietiflBfroai"»8eparatlon;( per contra, see 
Prof. W. A. Stevens, Com. in loco : "firam " — the source from which the "daatroatioA " pro- 
ceeds ). ^ A ship engulfed In quicksands is destroyed ; a temple broken down and 
deserted is destroyed ** ; see Lillle, Com. in loco, 8 Fet. 8 : 7— "day of Judgment and deabmetion ef 
ungodly man " — here the word " deitniatloa '* ( dirMA«iac ) Is the same with that used of the end 
of the present order of things, and translated *' piriahed " ( dirwAcro ) In terae 6. ^* We cannot 
accordingly infer from it that the ungodly will cease to exist, but only that there wlU 
be a great and penal change in their condition " ( Plumptre, Com. in loco ). 

{d) The passages held to prove the annihilation of the wicked at death 
cannot have this meaning, since the Scriptures foretell a resurrection of the 
nnjust as well as of the jnst ; and a second death, or a misery of the reunited 
soul and body, in the case of the wicked. 

Aat8 84:15— "tlMreihaUbaaninnotiaabothofthaJnatandn^Jnat"; Bar. 8:11— "la that OTominathihaU not 
behortof tha aeoeaddiath'*; 80: 14)15 —"And death and ladaa vara eaat into the lakaefen.' lUa ii tha aeeond 
death, aran tha lake of Are. And if any vaa not fi»and vrittan la tha book of Uft^he vueaatintothalakeafflra"; 
81:8— **thalr part ihall ha in tha lake that bnmath vlth Ire aad brimetoae; vhieh ia tha aeoond deatL" The 
'**BeeQnd death '* is the first death Intenslfled. Having one's "part ia tha lake of flra '* is not anni- 
hilation. 

In a similar manner the word " lift '* Is to be Interpreted not as meaning oontlnuance 
of being, but as meaning perfection of being. As death is the loss not of lif^, but of all 
that makes life desirable, so life is the possession of the highest good. 1 Tim. 5 : 6 —"She 
that gifvth hareelf topleaeore ia dead whBa aha llTith " — here the death is spiritual death, and it is 
Implied that true life is spiritual life. JohalO:10-"IeBma thai thay may hata lift, and may haTa it 
abudantly " — Implies that " lift " to not : 1. mere existence, for they had this before Christ 
oame ; nor %. mere motion, as squirrels go in a wheel, without making progress ; nor 8. 
mere possessions, "for a man'e lift eenajataft not ia tha abnndanoe of thinga irhieh hapMeamith" (Lnkal8:lS). 
But life iB : 1. right relation of our powers, or holiness ; 2. right use of our powers, 
or love ; 8. right number of our powers, or completeness ; 4. right Intensity of our 
powers, or energy of will ; 6. right envircmment of our powers, or society ; 0. right 
source of our powers, or Gkxl. 

(e) The words used in Scripture to denote the place of departed spirits 
have in them no implication of annihilation, and the aUuaions to the condi- 
tion of the departed show that death, to the writers of the Old and the New 
68 



994 ESCHATOLOGY, OR THE DOCTRINE OF PINAL THINGS. 

Testaments, although it was the tennination of man's earthly ezistenoe, 
was not an extinotion of his being or his oonsdonsness. 

On SlMtB^ SheoU Geeenius, Lozloon, 10th ed., says that, though SlMK^ is oommonly 
explained as inflnitiYe of hwt^, to demand, it is undoubtedly allied to ij^e^ ( root hvf ), 
to he sunk, and "^ sinking/^ depth,* or Hhe sunken, deep, place.' ^At^iff, Hade8,~not 

* hell, ' but the * unseen world,* conoeived by the Greeks as a shadowy, but not as an 
uncoDSOious, state of beinff. Genung, Bpio of the Inner Life,onJ€b7:9— "Sheol, the 
Hebrew word designating the unseen abode of the dead ; a neutral word, presupposing 
neither misery nor happiness, and not infrequently used muoh as we use the word * the 
grave *, to denote the final undefined resting-plaoe of aU." 

Qml » :8| 9— Abraham "vMgBthmd to UipaopliL And Ihm ud Uwd kis hmm hnriid Ub in thi mti 
cf KMkpitaL'* ^ Tet Abraham's father was buried hi Haian, and his more remote ances- 
tors in Ur of the Chaldees. So Joshua's generation is said to be 'gatknd lo thdr fkthtn' 
though the generation that preoeded them perished in the wilderness, and previous 
generations died in Egypt" (W. H. Green, in S. 8. Times). So of Isaac in 6«b. 85 : 29^ and 
of Jacobin 19: 29; S3, ~ all of whom were gathered to their fathers before they were bur- 
ied. Hun. 20:94 —" Aaron ihnU bogithmd uto Us pwplo" — here it is very plain that being " gitkmd 
nnto Ut pooplo " was something different from burial. Dtoi 10 : 6 — " Aoro Aaron difd, and tkere ki vu 
bohad." Job8:t8kl8— "lorMwAanUIhaTalaJa down and boon qoiat ; Iikonldha?e abpt; Onhad Ibtos at 
nit ... . ftanthopiaononanatiaNtogolhar; TloyhoarnottkoTokaof thataakaaalar"; 7:9— "As thodond 
isooBniMdaadTaBiikothavay.Sokathatgoetkdownto Shoolihaa eona np noBHn"; 14:22— "But hiiiakapoa 
kin kath pain, And Us Hol vitUn him nMnnwtk." 

k 88:21~''Tko8te«BgaBanf tbaaightjihaUipoaktoUaiantor tko midst ofShool"; Uka 16: 28 —"And in 
Ibdoa ho liftid np Us oyos, boinK in tanMnts, and aioth Abraham aftr oC andlaairasin his boson " ; 28: 48 ^"^-day 
shaltthonbovithmeinFandiN"; c/. 1 8am. 28:19— Samuel said to Saul in the cave of Sudor: 
** to-Bonow ihalt thou and thy sobs bo vith mo" — evidently not in an unconscious state. Many 
of these passages intimate a continuity of consciousness after death. Though Sheol is 
unknown to man, It is naked and open to God (Job 26 :6); he can find men there to 
redeem them from thence ( Fi. 49 : 15 ) — proof that death is not annihilation. Bee Girdle- 
stone, 0. T. Synonyms, 447. 

(/) The terms and phrases which have been held to dedare absolute 
cessation of existence at death are frequently metaphorical, and an exami- 
nation of them in connection with the context and with other Scriptures is 
sufficient to show the untenableness of the literal interpretation put upon 
them by the annihilationists, and to prove that the language is merely the 
language of appearance. 

Death is often designated as a "aloofu«** ora"&l]is8Mloop"; see Johnll:ll,i4— "Onrftiond 
Ustfos is ailoa osloep; but I ^ thati Buyavako him out of sloop. .... Thon Jooos thonftm said anto thorn 
plainly, laaws is doad." Here the kmguage of appearance is used ; yet this language could 
not have been used, if the soul had not been conoeived of as alive, though sundered 
from the body ; see Meyer on i Oor. 1:18. So the language of appearance is used in loot 

9 : 10 — "thon is no voric, nor doTioa. nor knovlodgo, nor viadom, in Shool vhithor thoagoost *' — and in ft. 146 : 4 — 
"lisbnathgoottiilh; ho rotomoth to his oarth ; In that To^r day his thoughts porish." 

See Moaley, Bssays, 2 : 171 — ** These passages often describe the phenomena of death 
as It presents itself to our eyes, and so do not enter Into the reality which takes place 
beneath it.*' Bartlett^ Life and Death Btemal, 180-856 — '' Because the same Hebrew 
word is used for* spirit* and * b