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Full text of "A system of heraldry, speculative and practical, with the true art of blazon, according to the most approved heralds in Europe: illustrated with suitable examples of armoria figures, and achievements of the most considerable surnames and families in Scotland, together with historical and genealogical memorials relative thereto"

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SYSTEM 



OF 



HERALDRY, 

SPECULATIVE AND PRACTICAL: 



WITH THE 



TRUE ART OF BLAZON, 



ACCORDING TO THE 



MOST APPROVED HERALDS IN EUROPE. 



ILLUSTRATED 



WITH SUITABLE EXAMPLES OF ARMORIAL FIGURES, AND 
ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE MOST CONSIDERABLE SUR- 
NAMES AND FAMILIES IN SCOTLAND, $c. 



TOGETHER WITH 



HISTORICAL AND GENEALOGICAL MEMORIALS RELATIVE THERETO. 



BY ALEXANDER NISBET, GENT. 

A NEW EDITION. 



VOL. I. 
EDINBURGH: 

PRINTED FOR WILLIAM BLACKWOOD, PRINCE'S STREET, EDINBURGH J 
AND RODWELL AND MARTIN, NEW BOND STREET, 
LONDON. 

1816. 



OR 



!& 

V 



K OCT241967 




Alex. Latvrie < Co., Printers, Edinburgh. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



ollowing SYSTEM of HERALDRY was undertaken by the Author, 
about the beginning of the last century, under the patronage of the Parliament of 
Scotland, and in dependence on a public pecuniary aid of L. 200, granted in the 
year 1 704, for enabling him to execute an undertaking which bore a close 
alliance to the honour of the nation. 

The liberality of the Parliament having been rendered ineffectual, in conse- 
quence of prior assignments on the fund out of which the grant was payable, 
the plan of the Author was circumscribed, and the publication of the Work 
delayed till the year 1722, when the First Volume was printed at Edin- 
burgh, for Mr J. Mackeuen, bookseller, to whom the Author had assigned the 
property. 

As this Volume was in many respects defective, an Appendix, or Supple- 
mentary Volume, was intended by the Author to follow the First Volume; but the 
death of that learned and industrious heraldic antiquary, at no great distance of 
time, the imperfect state of his collections, and the property passing through dif- 
ferent hands, delayed the publication of the Second Volume till the year 1 742, 
when it was printed at Edinburgh by Mr Robert Fleming, who was assisted 
in preparing it for publication by Mr Roderick Chalmers and other anti- 
quaries. 

The great utility of this Work, which is universally acknowledged to be of 
the highest value and authority, joined to the consideration of its excessive 
rarity and enormous price, induced the design of reprinting it. 

In committing the Work, a second time, to the press, an opportunity has 
been found of retouching the original plates, correcting many typographical 
errors, and a very considerable number of mistakes, chiefly in the orthography 
of persons and places, and adding a few notes, distinguished by the letter E : 
but the Publishers do not wish to be understood as having made any alteration 
in the substance, style, or language of the Work. 

It is in contemplation with the Publishers to print a Supplementary Volume, 
containing corrections of the preceding volumes, -additional examples of Ar- 
morial Bearings in Scotland, and a continuation and enlargement of the memo- 
rials of our most ancient and considerable families to the present time. As it is 
evident that the materials for such a volume mtist be derived from sources of 
information inaccessible to the Publishers, they earnestly solicit the communica- 
tion of authentic memorials from the Nobility and Gentry of Scotland concerning 
their respective families. 



EDINBURGH,] 
Oct. 24. 1804. I 




TO THE 



MOST ILLUSTRIOUS PRINCE, 



J A M E S 



DUKE OF HAMILTON, CHATELHERAULT AND BRANDON, 

Marqxiisiof CLYDESDALE, Earl of ARRAN, LANERK, and CAMBRIDGE, 
Lord AVEN, POLMONT, M.ACHANSI-IIRE, and INNERDALE, Baron of 
BUTTON : And Hereditary Keeper of His Majesty s Palace of Holyroodbousc. 

MY LORD, 

THE design of the enfuing Treatise being to illustrate and perpetuate 
to posterity, in a methodical way, fuch distinguished Ensigns of 
Honour as have been bestowed by Sovereigns, especially the Kings of 
Scotland, on persons and families of the most distinguished merit, I 
could not introduce it more favourably into the world, than under the 



DEDICATION. 

protection of your most illustrious name, whose noble family has so 
signalized themselves in the service of their prince and country, as to de- 
serve to be honoured with the highest offices, and distinguished by 
the most noble badges of honour, which the Kings of Scotland could 
confer. 

Your Grace's family, next to the Sovereign's, justly claims the pre- 
cedency of all the families of Scotland, not only as being the first Duke, 
but also on account of your royal defcent ; your noble ancestor, James 
Earl of Arran, being so near in blood to Mary Queen of Scotland, that 
he Was declared, in Parliament 1542, t^e fecond person of the realm, and 
successor to the imperial crown, in case she died without issue ; and also 
regent during her minority. 

The merit of your farmfy was not confined to your native country, 
but procured considerable honours abroad ; so as the same noble person 
was dignified in France with the title Duke of Chatelherault, whose son, 
John, was created Marquis of Hamilton, being the first in Scotland who 
bore that dignity ; and in England, since the union of the crowns, your 
family was honoured with the title of Earl of Cambridge ; and, since the 
union of the two kingdoms, with the title of Duke of Brandon. 

Some of your ancestors have also been invested with the Royal En- 
signs of St Michael in France ; and, ever since the accession of our Kings 
to the crown of England, they have been honoured successively with the 
most Noble Order of the Garter. As your illustrioxis father had the 
honour to be installed in that Order, so also in the royal and most an- 
cient Order of the Thistle in Scotland : Which two Orders, in one per- 
son, is a singular inftance never before bestowed (that I know of) on 
any other subject in Great Britain. 

Your Grace having been pleased, of late, to add to the achievement of 
the family of Hamilton, &c. those of your mother, the daughter and fole 
heir of the ancient and noble family of Digby Lord Gerard of Bromley 
in England, I have prefixed them to this address, resolving to blazon and 
fpeak more particularly of them in the supplement to this work. 

I shall not trouble your Grace with a particular detail of your ancient 
and honourable descent, that being already performed by better hands ; 
in whose works, the wisdom, valour, and loyalty of your ancestors to 
their prince and country, shine with a lustre becoming their grandeur. 

So far as falls within my province, I hope, I have done your family 
justice in this book, and have nothing here to add but my earnest wishes, 
that the advantages of birth, education, and other accomplishments, so 
eminent in the person of your Grace, (which to enumerate, were to 
offend a modesty usually attending great souls), may be improven to 
perpetuate, and, if possible, to enlarge the honour of your family ; and 
to let the world know, how much I am, 

My Lord, 

Your Grace's most humble, 

s 

Most obedient, and most devoted servant, 

ALEXANDER NISBET. 



PREFACE. 



AS HERALDRY itself is of a noble extract and original, so the 
knowledge thereof is worthy of any gentleman : and, if duly 
considered, will be found no less useful than curious ; as tending to 
illustrate the histories not only of particular families, but of the nation in 
general. 

The original design of heraldry is not merely show and pageantry, as 
some are apt to imagine, but to distinguish persons and families ; to re- 
present the heroic achievements of our ancestors, and to perpetuate their 
memory ; to trace the origin of noble and ancient families, and the vari- 
ous steps by which they arrived at greatness ; to distinguish the many 
different branches descended from the same families, and to show the 
several relations which one family stands in to another. 

As the practice of heraldry in Scotland is very ancient, so the higher 
we trace it, we find arms the more regular and distinct : And of so great 
importance to the nation was the regularity and distinction of arms 
reckoned by our kings and parliaments, that sundry laws, relative there- 
to, have been enacted and published, discharging all persons to assume 
arms to themselves without due authority; prohibiting those to carry 
arms who had right to none, or those who had right, to usurp the 
arms of other men. 

Before the modern practice of subscribing names to writs of moment, 
which was not used in Scotland till about the year 1540, all such writs 
and evidents were only signed with seals, which contributed much to the 
regularity of arms : And therefore it was enacted by sundry statutes, 
That every freeholder should have his proper seals of arms, and should 
either compear himself at the head court of the shire, or send his attorney 
with his said Seal ; and they who wanted such seals were to be amerciate 
or fined : So that commonly gentlemen sent to the clerk of the court 
their seals in lead, who kept the same in his office, to produce or compare 
on occasions ; and it was reckoned no less a crime than forgery to coun- 
terfeit another man's seal. Vide Regiam Majestatem. 

As those seals grew less useful and necessary, so armorial bearings be- 
came less regular: And therefore, anno 1592, cap. 125. the Parliament 
gave power and commission to the Lyon King at Arms, and his brethren 
heralds, to visit the whole arms of noblemen, barons, and gentlemen 
within Scotland, and to distinguish them with congruous differences, and 
to matriculate them in their books ; as also, to inhibit alj such to bear 



iv PREFACE. 

M-m* as by the law of arms ought not to bear them, under the penalty 
of confiscating to the king all the goods on which such arms should be 
found ; with an hundred pounds to the Lyon and his brethren, and in 
case of not payment, to be imprisoned during the Lyon's pleasure. And, 
anno 1672, cap. 21. the said act of Parliament is renewed and ratified, 
and the Lyon King of Arms is impowered to distinguish arms, and ma- 
triculate the same in his books or registers. Which Register is ordained 
to be respected as the true and unrepealable rule of all arms and bearings 
in Scotland. 

Many other instances might be given to prove the regard our ancestors 
in Scotland bore to heraldry, their zeal and concern to prevent irregulari- 
ties therein. By all which it is evident that they never looked on armo- 
rial bearings as an idle amusement, but as a matter of great moment and 
importance to the nation. 

As the study of heraldry is what my peculiar genius has led me ta 
for many years, so I have endeavoured to adapt my studies that way, to 
the service of my country, not only by instructing sundry of our young 
npbility and gentry in that science, but by composing a complete system 
of it for the benefit of posterity. In which I have endeavoured to pro- 
secute that subject, both in a scientific or speculative way, and also re- 
ducing- the same to practice, by collecting the armorial bearings of most, 
if not all those surnames and families that ever made any considerable 

ire in Scotland, and applying those bearings for illustrating the parti- 
cular history of families among us. 

However ignorant or capricious people may censure this undertaking 
as idle or useless, yet the Parliament of Scotland, anno 1704, were of 
opinion, that something of that nature was very much wanted, and 
when finished, would be serviceable to the nation : And were so well 
pleased with my proposals for publishing the same, that the better to 
enable me thereto, they ordered me two hundred pounds Sterling, pay- 
able out of the tonnage on foreign ships ; but that fund not answering 
their expectations, and being encumbered with prior assignments, I ne- 
ver had a farthing that way, which was the occasion of this book's not 
being publi>shed long ago. 

The work being chargeable, and my bookseller having undertaken it 
wholly on his own risk, I was obliged to confine myself to a certain, 
number of sheets. At the time of publishing my proposals, it was 
reckoned that the whole might have been contained in about 120, foe- 
sides copper-plates ; and the price to subscribers was fixed accordingly. 
And though that number of sheets was then judged sufficient to contain 
the whole System of Heraldry, according to the view I then had of it, 
yet, by reason of sundry new materials which occurred, the book has 
already exceeded the foresaid number of sheets, and I have not been able 
to overtake sundry particulars which I intended to have treated of; such 
as marks of cadency, marshalling of divers coats in one shield, exterior 
ornaments, &c. And, upon a more mature deliberation, I find, that in 
order to treat distinctly of those particular heads remaining, and to do 
justice to many considerable families, which I was obliged either alto- 
gether to omit, or treat of very superficially, an Appendix, or Supple- 
ment, will be necessary : in which I shall have opportunity both of 
correcting any thing amiss, and supplying any thing here omitted. 

Had I confined myself barely to a System of Heraldry, as other authors 
on that subject have commonly done, I might easily have gone through 



P. R E F A C K.. v 

all the other parts of if, but the great collections 1 have made of armorial 
bearings in Sroiland, and the memorials of particular families, in this 
book, are so useful a part of it, that i am apt to think most of my 
readers will be better pleased with the method I have taken, than if L had 
given them only a dry system of the parts and rules of heraldry, 

Though 1 have not been able to overtake somethings in the System of 
Heraldry, as 1 at first intended, yet I have explained the True Art of 
Klaxon, in a more ample, regular, and distinct manner, than any thing 
that I have ever seen on that subject. I have treated of the Rise and 
Nature of Arms, the principal Ensigns of Honour on which they hau- 
been usually placed, their different Tinctures and Furrs, the Partition 
and Repartition Lines, with their Accidental Forms: As also, the different 
Figures used in Arms, whether Proper, Natural, or Artificial, with the 
different terms of those figures, from their position, situation, and dis- 
position in the shield ; together with their various blazons and significa- 
tions, according to the sentiments of those who have written in Latin, 
Italian, German, French, and English. 

As I have treated of all those particular heads very fully and distinctly, 
so I have illustrated them, and the several rules relative thereto, by 
suitable examples of armorial bearings ; principally taken from those of 
our own nation, and failing them, from those of other nations over all 
Europe; so that I may justly call it an Universal System, not calculated 
for Scotland only, or any particular country, but answering to the re- 
gular practice of heraldry through the world. Notwithstanding of which, 
I may presume to say, that my reader will here find such a collection of 
armorial bearings of surnames and families in Scotland, both ancient and 
modern, that the like was never attempted ; and which will serve as a 
general register, or at least a directory of arms to posterity: A work 
hitherto much wanted, and earnestly wished for by the curious. 

In order to render my collection more complete, I have not only had 
recourse to my Lord Lyon's Register, in the Herald-Office, whose civili- 
ties to me on that occasion I most thankfully acknowledge, but also to 
old books of blazons, ancient records, seals of arms, and other monu- 
ments of antiquity: All which I mention as my proper vouchers on that 
subject, and refer to them by proper marks, of which I shall give here a 
short account. 

The Lyon Register, though, by the foresaid act of Parliament, anno 
1672, ordained to be respected as the true and unrepealable rule of all 
arms and bearings in Scotland, and instituted to prevent irregularities in 
heraldry, yet, at this day, is not so complete as is to be wished. Many 
of our most ancient and considerable families have neglected to register 
their arms, notwithstanding the act of Parliament, partly through in- 
dolence, and partly through an extravagant opinion of their own great- 
ness, as if the same could never be obscured : So that were it not for an- 
cient records, books of blazons, charters with seals appended thereto, or 
other monuments of antiquity, to which I have had recourse with great 
labour, and some of which I have purchased with great charges, the ar- 
morial bearings of sundry considerable families and surnames in Scot- 
land had been entirely lost. However, as the Lyon Office is of late 
much improven, and better regulated than formerly, it is like to be very 
useful in time coming ; and I have collected the greatest part of my 
blazons therefrom, and refer thereto sometimes by the letters (L. R.) 

b 



,n PREFACE. 

/'. e. Lyon Register, and sometimes by the letters (N. R.) /. e. New Re- 
gister. 

The most certain vouchers for the practice of arms in Scotland, next 
to the Lyon's Register, are ancient seals appended to charters, and other" 
writs, many of which I have v seen, and to them I refer in the following 
Treatise, mentioning them particularly. 

Next to them are old manuscripts and illuminated books of blazons, 
whereof sundry are now in my custody, and to which I also frequently 
refer, as follows : 

I. I have an old illuminated book of arms, with the names of the fa- 
milies who carry those arms, written under the shield, but often mis- 
placed, and the writing such as can scarcely be read : I conjecture it to 
have been done by some Frenchman, in the reign of King James V. or 
in the minority of our Queen Mary, but can say nothing certain that 
wav. Only, I saw at London in the Herald-Office there, another of the- 
same book, resembling mine both in the painting, writing, binding, &c. 
so near as one book could resemble another. I met also there with sun- 
dry others. 

II. James Workman's Illuminated Book of Arms, who was herald in 
the reign of King James VI. ; which book I frequently refer to by these 
letters (W. MS.), which book I had from the ingenious Mr Henry Frascr, 
Ross Herald. 

III. Mr Pont, a known antiquary, his Alphabetical Collection, in ma- 
nuscript,* of the Arms of our Nobility and Gentry, the original of which 
1 have, being handsomely blazoned, and written in a good hand, to which 
I commonly refer thus, (P. MS.) 

IV. James Esplin, Marchmont Herald, has left behind him an Illumi- 
nated Book, with the pictures of sundry of our old kings and their arms; 
as also the arms of our nobility and principal gentry, about the year 
1630, to which I refer thus, (E. MS.) This book I have upon receipt 
from Mr Hugh Wallace of Ingliston. 

V. Sir James Balfour, a learned and famous antiquary, who was Lyon 
King at Arms in the reign or King Charles I. left a Register of Arms, 
now in the Lawyers' Library, to which I refer thus, (B. MS.) 

VI. George Ogilvie, a late herald with us, has left a Collection of 
Blazons, some of which I mention, and are marked thus, (O. MS.) 

Besides those already mentioned, I have sundry other manuscripts of 
arms in my custody, but do not so frequently refer to them ; because 1 
am not certain by whom they are done, and therefore cannot depend 
on their authority farther than as they agree with other books of the same 
kind. And as to blazons which I have collected from printed books, old 
b inklings, or other monuments of antiquity, when I refer to them I al- 
ways mention them at large. 

Many of those manuscripts &.c. are in danger of being lost to posterity : 
But I am hopeful the collections I have made from them may be very 
useful, at least for supplying any loss which may happen that way. 

I likewise refer sometimes to Sir George Mackenzie's Science of He- 
raldry thus, (M'K. H.) 

As to memorials of particular families I have not been so full on them 
as otherwise I might have been, had the number of sheets to which I 
was confined allowed me ; but a work of that nature, though most de- 
sirable in itself, yet being attended with many difficulties, requires much 
time and labour : And, therefore, all that I could pretend to, at present, 



PREFACE. vii 

was only to lay a foundation, upon which either I myself, or others 
afterwards may build. 

The learned Sir George Macken/.ie began a collection of such memo- 
rials, which he has left behind him in manuscript ; which I have referred 
to as occasion required : And had he finished the same for the press, it 
had been great service to the public, and made a very proper appendix 
to his excellent Book of Heraldry. But indeed a work of that nature is 
too great for one man, or one age, to finish, and therefore must proceed 
gradually, as the circumstances of things will permit. There are some 
ancient families amongst us now extinct, others have lost their charters 
and records ; and there are some who, though they have them in their 
possession, yet are not willing to communicate them ; and there are many 
of such an indolent disposition as not to regard the history either of 
their own, or of other considerable families : And yet without their con- 
currence a work of this nature cannot be completed. But as it is un- 
reasonable, that the more curious and inquisitive part of mankind should 
suffer by the indolence of those men, I am resolved to go on in this 
work so far as I can, w*th such helps as may be had. 

There are three objections which may pollibly be framed against this 
Treatise, which I shall endeavour, brieflly, to obviate. First, some may 
object, that in my memorials of families I have insisted more particu- 
larly on some inconsiderable families, and passed over others of greater 
consideration very superficially. To which I answer, That probably it 
may have happened so, but without any design or fault in me ; for some 
persons have a taste for learning and antiquity beyond others, know the 
histories both of their own families, and of the nation in general, and are 
willing to do justice both to themselves and posterity, and therefore 
have assisted me with memorials, or allowed me to peruse their charters: 
Whereas others are altogether carekss of such matters, and neither are 
concerned for knowing, or being known. Besides, that being straitened 
for room, I was obliged to abridge most of my memorials, especially to- 
wards the latter end, and to omit some altogether. But as I designed my 
book for the xise of posterity, so in die Supplement which I intend to 
make to it, 1 propose to omit no memorial of any family which I either 
have by me, or may at any time come in my way, so far as I find it duly 
vouched : And, therefore, if any family shall think themselves neglected 
hereafter, they must blame themselves. 

Secondly, others may object, That I have erred in sxmdry of my ac- 
counts of families. To which I answer, That the work being new, I 
have been obliged to go in an untrodden path, and therefore it is not to 
be wondered if sometimes I should miss my way; but I have endeavour- 
ed to act as cautious a part as possible, and where no proper vouchers 
appeared, I have chosen to be silent. If I have erred in any thing, I shall 
be ready, upon better information, to retract and correct the same in the 
above-mentioned Supplement, and shall be very thankful to any person 
who gives me further light in those matters. Which corrections and 
additions, being once printed, will be preserved for the use of posterity, 
and if ever the book comes to a second edition, these may be inserted in 
their proper places. 

Thirdly, it may be objected, That this may be an endless work, so that 
one volume may draw on another, and yet the whole never be com- 
pleted. To which I answer, That a complete history of all the surnames 
and honourable families in Scotland is not to be expected from one hand. 



viii PREFACE. 

or in one age ; notwithstanding of which, all advances towards such a 
history will be serviceable to the public. We have no complete history 
either of England or Scotland,, nor is it probable that ever we shall have 
one till the day of judgment, when the thoughts of the hearts of all men 
shall be revealed : And yet the collections of learned historians and an- 
tiquaries, in all ages, have been applauded, and very deservedly j as 
tending to illustrate and improve our national history, though without 
being ever able actually to complete it. In like manner, though I shall 
never pretend to make a complete collection of memorials, relative to all 
our considerable families, yet, in the Supplement, I propose to finish my 
whole System of Heraldry in all its parts ; to correct what is wrong, and 
supply what is wanting in the present volume, so far as I am either 
capable, or may receive assistance from others ; and, wherein I come 
short, to leave a plan or foundation for those who come after me, to im- 
prove and build upon. 

There are sundry subscribers, who should have been both mentioned 
in the book, and had their achievements engraven on die copper-plates, 
but happened either to come in too late for this volume, or neglected to 
give in either memorials or arms ; however, all care shall be taken to do 
them jxistice afterwards. 

I am very sensible that a work of this nature, in which so many different 
persons and families are more or less concerned, must expose the author to 
variety of censures, and readily they who are least concerned will be 
most censorious: But as it is the service of my country, and benefit of 
posterity that I chiefly write for, so I shall be easy as to the snarls of 
idle and ignorant critics; and shall be ready, on all occasions, fully to 
satisfy candid and judicious readers : And whatever fate the following 
book may undergo in the present age, I shall comfort myself with the 
thoughts of this, that the older it grows, the more useful and valuable 
will it be to posterity. 



SYSTEM 



OF 



HERALDRY, 



SPECULATIVE AND PRACTICAL: 



WITH THE TRUE ART OF BLAZON. 



CHAP. I. 

OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF ARMORIES. 

BEFORE I proceed to treat of ARMORIES in all their parts, it will not be im- 
proper to premise briefly somewhat concerning their name, rise and pro- 
gress. 

Arms have been taken by all nations, and in all ages, for military marks and 
signs of honour ; by which, not only persons, families and communities are dis- 
tinguished and known, but nobles also distinguished from plebeians, and nobles 
among themselves. Which marks and signs were called arms ; because in an- 
cient times, they were painted, or engraven on shields, and other pieces of armour ; 
as also, upon banners and pennons, from whence they are called armorial ensigns : 
And being likewise embroidered or painted on the surcoats of military men, which 
they wore over their armour, to distinguish them in battle, they were called coats 
of firms. 

How useful and honourable of old these marks and signs have been, will appear 
from \vhat some learned men have written on that subject j of whom I shall only 
mention a few. 

William Wyrley, in his True Use of Armories, printed at London, an. 1592, 
, " Without armorial tokens, no martial discipline can be exercised, no army 
ranged, no attempt of any company achieved, and, by consequence, no conquest 
made, nor so much as any commonwealth defended, neither from outward ene- 
mies, civil discord, or rebellion of any plebeian rout. It will, I hope, reduce in- 
to estimation, a matter both of honour, order and necessity, which no doubt was, 
by the wisest and best governed states, at the first devised, and generally by all 
of any policy, received to a most necessary end." 

A 



, OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

John Feme, in his Glory of Generosity, printed at London, an. 1586, p. 147, 
says, " The ancients did bear arms for the honour's sake of virtue : For it is one, 
" nay, the chiefest honour, for a gentleman to bear a coat of arms, and without 
" which none can be called gentle ; and that is commanded by the sanction of the 
" laws of nations." 

Guillim, in his Display of Heraldry, Sect. I. Chap. I. says, " How great the 
" dignity and estimation of arms ever has been, and yet is, we may easily conceive 
" by this, that, as they do delight the beholders, and greatly grace and beautify 
" the places wherein they are erected ; so also, they do occasion their spectators 
" to 'make serious inquisition, whose they are ; who is the owner of the house 
" where they are set up ; of what family the bearer is descended ; and who were 
" his next, and who his remote parents and ancestors. It is very notable, that 
" these signs, which we call arms at this day, however in former ages they have 
" been named, have been of the greatest use and esteem, the knowledge of which 
" is called the Science of Heraldry, or of Armories. Which Edward Bolton in his 
" Elements of Arms, calls the Mistress and Queen of Liberal Knowledge ; for in it 
" all the fair arts seem to assemble, and every grace of invention glitters there, 
" with much significancy, ornament and utility ; for armories are the only re- 
" maining customary evidences or testimonies of nobility now : For neither sta- 
" tues, arches, obelisks, trophies, spires, or other public magnificent erections, are 
" now in use." 

These ensigns of honour, or marks of nobility, are to be met with everywhere, 
not only on the frontispiece of public and private buildings, as aforesaid, but com- 
monly on tombs, and other monuments of antiquity, and especially are of excellent 
on seals, by which we know ancient charters and other evidences of the high- 
est importance, whether they be authentic, yea or not. And 1 cannot sufficiently 
wonder at the vanity of a great many, who glory in their carrying these marks 
and signs of honour, which they do not at all understand ; and must regret it in 
the greatest part of my countrymen, who, though otherwise well qualified in the 
knowledge of other liberal arts and sciences, yet neglect to apply themselves to 
Lhe study of heraldry ; a science so valuable, that the greatest men in all ages 
have thought it worth their study and application : And therefore Thomas Gore, 
in his Catalogue of Learned Men, who have written on this science, expresses 
himself in these words, " CMJO viri nobiles aliique laudabilem illam Heraldriae 
" Artem persequendi acriori extimulentur studio, i$c. ut palam fiat omnibus, 
" qualis in pretio &- Ignore nunc dierum est &- olim fuit res HeraldiCa, in 'toto 
" prope literarum orbe." 

Though learned men are generally agreed as to the -usefulness of armories, yet 

they difler with respect to the beginning and rise of them, of which I have spoken 

ticulaiiy in a book formerly published by me on that subject, entitled, An 

.y en the Ancient and Modern use of Armories, to which I refer the curious. 

But lest 1 should seem to be defective in my present undertaking, in which I 

propose to lay open the several parts of heraldry, I shall therefore give here a 

brief" account of the nature and rise of arms. 

iy are of opinion that arms owe their first beginnings to the light of nature, 

; have been used by all nations, however rude and illiterate, for distinguishing 
the more worthy and eminent, from the vulgar and ordinary people ; though they 
cannot but allow that arms have been used in greater perfection and regularity in 
some countries than in others. The reason they give for their opinion, is, that 
d universally practised in all nations must be founded in nature ; 
<>r, which is much the -same, that whatever all countries, whether civil or barbarous, 
agree to in the main, though they differ perhaps in some circumstances, must pro- 
ceed from the dictates of natural reason. And, to support their assertion, they 
produce many instances of the practice of arms among the ancient and modern 
;nts, not only of this but of the new discovered world, America. Whence 
.e conclude, that the use of arms was Amediluvian, and after the Flood, was 
continued among the children of Noah, and afterwards more particularly, and in 
.iter perfection, among the Children of Israel, as they endeavour to prove from 
: he prophecy of Jacob and Moses, and more especially from the ad chap, of the 
Book of Numbers, where God gives express commandment, " that every man of the 



OF ARMORIES. 3, 

" Children or" Israel shall pitch by his own standard, \viththe ensign of his father'- 
" house." And further, they urge the use and practice of armories in succeeding 
ages among the Egyptiar nans, Grecians and Romans. 

And indeed it is true, that, as mankind increased and grew numerous, certain 
marks and distinctions, by which, persons, families and communities might be 
known one from another, were in a manner absolutely necessary ; and, therefore, 
us the learned Becmannus saith, " Hominem ab liomine distingucrc, ac variis dis- 
" criminare nominibus &- signis, labor fuit primorum parentum, &. pullulantis or- 
" bis negotium." Neither can military marks be younger than Mars himself, 
seeing, without distinguishing marks and signs, no martial discipline could be exer- 
cised. But, notwithstanding this, neither the Egyptian hieroglyphics, the Gre- 
cian emblems, nor even the banners and ensigns of those, or other ancient nation^, 
the antiquity of which is unquestionable, can properly be called aims. The 
former of these having never been looked upon as such ; and the latter, viz. ban- 
ners and ensigns, being rather to be reckoned among the regalia of these nations, 
as ensigns of power and dominion, than hereditary marks of honour, which we now 
call arms. 

There are others who do not ascribe the rise and use of arms to the light of 
reason and nature, but rather to common practice and custom, as distinguishing 
military marks, or symbolical figures, used by these nations upon their shields, 
head-pieces, standards, or pennons, &c. which, as they were not hereditary marks 
of honour, transmitted from father to son, so neither were they ever regulated to 
the titles and rules of armories, being only temporary devices, which were taken 
up, and laid aside at pleasure, and intended partly for distinction, and partly for 
ornament's sake. And this is plain, particularly with respect to their use amongst 
the Romans, who never looked upon them as hereditary marks of nobility : For, 
had the Romans been conversant in the science of heraldry, as now practised all 
over Europe, we had certainly received from them the terms of that science, 
whereas, on the contrary, we find them handed down to us in Gothic and old 
French words, which the ancient writers of heraldry were obliged to dress up in a 
barbarous sort of Latin, when they wrote for the use of the learned world. 

The Romans had, for their badges and signs of nobility, the statues or images of 
their ancestors ; and, among many other divisions of the Roman people, we find 
them divided into that of Nobiles, Novi y Ignobiles, which distinction of persons 
and families was taken from their right to have images or statues, an honour 
granted only to those, whose ancestors had borne some ollice in the state, such as 
Curule Edile, Censor, Pnetor, Consul, &tc. 

He who had the privilege of using the images or statues of his ancestors was 
termed Nobilis ; he who had only his own was called Novus ; (the same with our 
upstart, or first of a family, that obtains a coat of arms) and he who had neither 
his own statues, nor those of his fathers, Avent under the name of Ignobi/zs, as the 
common people among us, who have no right to armorial bearings ; so that their 
Jus Imuginuw, was the same with our right to carry arms : And therefore, Abra- 
hainus Fransus, Lib. II. de Armis, says, " Quemadmodum apud Romanos, eorum 
" familiae obscura habebantur quarum nullae sunt Imagines, sic &. illi jam ignobile> 
" existimantur, qui majorum Anna non possunt ostendere." 

These images or statues were made of wood, brass, marble, and sometimes in 
wax-work, and the better to represent the perso'n intended, painted according to 
the life (as Polybius observes), and dressed out answerable to their quality ; adorn- 
ed with the robes of the offices they had borne, with marks of their magistracy, and 
the spoils they had taken from the enemy. Thus the collar or chain on the statue 
of Torquatus, and the tuft of hair on that of Cmcinnatus, were the trophies of 
which those brave heroes had despoiled two of the Roman enemies. 

These statues commonly stood in their courts, in a cabinet of wood, (from 
whence our cabinet of arms and ambries, where the several pieces of the honours 
of the nobility, such as, helmet, crest, gauntlet, spurs, banners, &c. ^ ere kept) and. 
upon solemn days, these presses or cabinets were set open, and the statues being 
adorned as above, were exposed to public view, in their courts before the porch 
and gate of their houses, (as now our nobility and gentry have their coats of arms 
cut in stone, or painted on escutcheons over their gates) ; not only that the people 



4 OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

micht behold their nobility and honours, but to excite their posterity to imitate 
the virtues of their ancestors, as Petrus Ancarena Clement says, " Arma plunbus 
in locis earn ob causam collocantur, non solum ut Nobihtatis indicia smt, & 
majorumnostrorumlVIonumenta, sed ut posteri excitentur ad laudem & decus. 
And Valerius Maximus upbraids a cowardly and insignificant posterity, " by those 
" ensigns, which as it were," says he, " tells them how unworthy they are of the 
" honours and privileges of their brave ancestors." 

When any of the family died, the statues and images were not only thus ex 
posed to view, but in the funerals were carried before the cotpse, as ensigns of then- 
nobility. This is observed by Hennanus Hermes, in his Fasciculus Juris Publici, 
p. 800, and Basil Kennet, in his Antiquities of Rome, tells us, that the Romans 
brought forth their images at the funerals of those persons only who had the Jus 
Imaginum; and that Augustus ordered 600 beds of images to be carried before, at 
the 'funeral of Marcellus ; and Sylla, the dictator, had no less than 6000. 

From this practice of the Romans, came the custom of succeeding ages to carry, 
at the funerals of great men, their ensigns of nobility, with the armorial bearings of 
those honourable families of whom they were descended, as well on the mother's 
side, as on the father's ; which, by our practice, being placed on funeral escut- 
< heons, round the achievement of the person deceased, are called Quarters or 
Branches ; and by others, Proofs of Nobility ; but by Pontus Heuterus Delphius, 
Stemmata, who, in his Genealogies, particularly treats of this subject, and derives 
our custom of carrying arms at funerals from that of the Romans above mentioned, 
in these words : " Quemadmodum olim apud Romanes in more positum fuit ut 
" majorum imagines ornandae funebrae Pompae adhiberentur, Atriaque cereis per 
" Armaria dispositis, ad Gentilitatem ostendendam ornarentur : ita & nostro tem- 
" pore in usu est, ut viri nobiles in justis funerum Exequiis, nuptiarum solenniis, 
' quorundam etiam sacrorum primordiis, longa serie a proavis demissum Stemma in 
" medium adducant, ut scil. inde ortus sui splendorem commonstrent, dum qua- 
" tuor, octo, sexdecim aut triginta duo Nobilitatis suae Membra (quas vulgo qua- 
" teras vocant) adferunt, licet non uno eodemque ordine a singulis Insignia 
" locentur." 

From all which we observe, that the use of arms with us, being hereditary 
marks of honour and noble descent, are of the same nature with the Jus Imagi- 
num among the Romans. Which opinion is confirmed by many famous writers, 
too numerous to be here inserted : But I cannot omit a modern one, the 
judicious John Brydal of Lincoln's-Inn, Esq. who, in his little book, intitled, Jus 
Imaginis apud Anglos, p. 53. says, " For, as in ancient times, the statues or images 
" of their ancestors were proofs of their nobility, so, of latter times, coat-arms 
came in lieu of those statues or images, and are the most certain proofs and evi- 
" dences of nobility. Hence it followeth, that Jus Nobilitatis is nothing else but 
" Jus Imaginis ; insomuch that the word Imago doth oftentimes signify nobility ; 
" and the right of having images with their ancestors was the same as the right 
" of having arms now with us." And hence it is, as Gerard Leigh tells us, in his 
Accidents of Armory, p. 40. " That the law of arms is for the most part directed 
" and regulated by the civil law." 

Our armorial bearings, us hereditary marks of honour, thus succeeding in place 
of the Roman images and statues, naturally lead us to date their rise and origin as 
such, from the time of the subversion of the Roman Empire by the Goths and 
Vandals ; who, as they sunk many liberal arts and sciences, seem to have given 
birth and life to that of heraldry. These northern and barbarous nations charged 
their shields, and other pieces of armour, with figures of fierce animals, and almost 
all kinds of creatures, partly for distinction's sake in time of battle, and partly for 
ornament's sake, according to their own particular genius ; answerable to the 
common saying, " Ex iis quibus quisque magis delectatur qualis etiam ipse sit 
" cognoscitur." 

These military marks and figures of lions, boars, wolves, &c. which they had on 
their shields, and other pieces of armour, became hereditary ensigns of honour, and 
were continued as such by them, and their posterity, and were called instead of 
Jus Imaginum, Tessera Gentilitiee, Insignia Gentilitia, and sometimes Arma as 
Budaeus in Pandect. " Prior pro iis" (speaking of the Roman images) says, " pos- 



OF ARMORIES. 5 

" teriora tempora Insignia Gentilitia habuerunt quae arma vulgo vocantur ; quac 
" ipsa quoque primum, nunc simile est veri, virtutis premia fuerunt, ac rerum 
" pracclare gestarum decora." And elsewhere, " Gentiles tuerunt hi, qui ima- 
" gines sui generis proierre poterant, & erant insignia Gentilitia qua; hodie arma 
" dicuntur." 

Hence they became fond of the word Gentilis: And as Sehleti observes in his 
Titles of Honour, it came to be used, in their language, for an honourable epithet, 
glorying probably in that name by which the Romans used to call them in con 
tempt ; for the Romans used indifferently to call all those Genriles, who were not 
citizens of Rome. 

These warlike nations, having subdued the Roman Empire, and raised their glory 
by military bravery, were naturally led to a high esteem of warlike achievements ; 
and, therefore, derived their ensigns and titles of honour from what chiefly con- 
cerned a soldier, and distinguished the different ranks of nobility, according to the 
different orders of military men, such as Miles, Eques, Scutifer, &-c. and their pos- 
terity, naturally desirous either to imitate, or perpetuate the warlike achievements 
of their ancestors, continued the same marks and ensigns of honour which were 
used by their ancestors : And not only so, but collateral descendants were ambi- 
tious to share with them in the glories of war already purchased ; and, therefore, 
assumed the same figures with the principal families, with some variation for dif- 
ference. And, in process of time, these ensigns were also desired by others, who 
justly reckoned, that, by extraordinary services performed in their civil capacities, 
they deserved as well of their Prince or country, as others had done by their mili- 
tary achievements. Upon which, many devices were formed into arms, and con- 
tinued as hereditary marks of honour, of which I am to speak particularly in the 

following treatise. And so much shall serve at present for the nature and rise of 

arms. 

As the Goths, and their northern allies, first brought in armorial bearings, and 
transmitted them to their posterity as hereditary marks of honour, so did they also 
the feudal law, by means of which, arms grew up to farther perfection ; as is evi- 
dent by many armorial figures (in the following treatise) of ancient families, repre- 
-.enting the acknowledgments and services they were obliged to perform to their 
overlords and superiors, as roses, cinquefoils, spur-revels, bows and arrows, hunting- 
horns, ships, &c. upon which account such figures are frequent in armories all 
Europe over. Thus the old barons of Arran and Lorn were obliged to furnish a 
ship to the King in time of war, as their old charters bear ; upon which account 
they still carry ships, or lymphads in their arms. But of such feudal arms I have 
discoursed in my above-mentioned essay, and shall be more particular in my fol- 
lowing treatise. 

Arms were very much improved, and in great esteem in the reign of King 
Charles the Great of France ; for which see Favin's Theatre of Honour, and Bar- 
tholomacus Chasa, in his Catalogue of the Glory of the World, who says, " That 
" that King not only constituted the Twelve Peers of France, but regulated the use 
" of arms." And all the French writers of that age tell us, That that great King, 
besides others, honoured the FrieTJanders and Scots with ensigns of honour, for 
their extraordinary services in his wars ; and when he and Achaius, King of Scot- 
land, entered into that famous league about the year 792, the double tressure, 
flowered and counter-flowered with flower-de-luces, was added to the arms of Scot- 
land, as a badge and memorial of that alliance, of which I have spoken in my fore- 
said essay, and shall have occasion afterwards to speak of the same in the following 
treatise. 

For the better understanding of the antiquity and progress of Armories, as \ve 
now have them, I shall here mention only two grand occasions which contributed 
thereto, viz. the Crusades and Tournaments. 

Crusades, or expeditions to the wars in the Holy Land against the Infidels, gave 
occasion of bearing several new figures, hitherto unknown in arms, such as the be- 
zants, martlets, alerions, escalopes, &-c. besides an indefinite number of crosses, 
which are to be seen in arms all over Europe. For they, who undertook these ex- 
peditions, received, from the hands of bishops and priests, little crosses, made of cloth 
or taflcty, which they sewed on their garments, and on which account these ex- 

B 



OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

peditions were called Crusades. The first-of them began i'n the .year 1096; in which 
almost all Christian nations engaged, and took upon them the Cross, as their man- 
ner of speaking was then. The form and fashion of the cross then could not but 
be as various as fancy could invent, to distinguish many companies of different na- 
tions. Which crosses became proper and fixed armorial figures to many families 
who had arms before these expeditions, but afterwards disused the same for the love 
they bore to the Cross, of which I have given several instances in my foresaid essay. 
By these crusades, arms were much improved all Europe over, and they gave an 

increase of various forms of crosses and other figures ; of which in the following. 

treatise. 

Tournaments, the other occasion I mentioned of improving armories, are much 
more ancient than the crusades, though I have spoken of them first, and have very 
much improved armories, sooner or later ; not only by giving rise to figures within 
the shield, (such as the ordinaries as some say), but to those without the shield, 
which adorn and trim it in the present perfection and beauty we find arms, and 
which we call Achievements, i. e. complete armorial bearings, with all the exterior 
ornaments. And since tournaments seem to have completely built the armorial 
structure, (except as to marks of cadency, and the method of marshalling many 
coats of arms in one shield), I shall here treat of them briefly and distinctly, that 
my reader may somewhat understand achievements, as I speak of them in the fol- 
lowing treatise, till I come to treat separately of them in distinct chapters. 

Some say, that Tournamenta is but the corruption of the word Trojamenta ; the 
Ludus Trojae, which were invented by Ascanius, and celebrated by a company of 
Roman youths, dressed after a' warlike manner, and generally of the best families 
of Rome. Others say, that Tournamenta came in place of the Ludus Trojae, and 
derives its name from Tour tier, a French word, (to turn round), because to be ex- 
pert in these military exercises, much agility both of man and horse was requisite. 

Tournaments are commonly described, " Nundinae vel feriae in quibus milites ex 
condicto convenire, & ad ostentationem virium suarum &- audaciae, temere con- 
" gredi solent." Or thus : " Solemn meetings, at great festivals, where nobles and 
" gentlemen performed martial exercises by combating together in desport." That 
there were such meetings as these, under the names of tournaments, joustings, has- 
tiludes, and tiltings, all Europe over, and especially in Germany, in the beginning 
of the tenth century, (where none were to be admitted who had not arms, as marks 
of their noble descent), is acknowledged by German, French, and English writers. 
Favin, in his Theatre of Honour, says, (for which he vouches Franciscus Modius's 
Pandectae Triumphales), That the Emperor Henry, surnamed the Birder, Duke of 
Saxony, in the year 936, decreed to bring in jousts and tournaments by solemn or- 
dinances ; and gave commandment, that the Palatine of the Rhine, and the Dukes 
of Bavaria and Saxony, should give, in writing, laws for regulating these meetings ; 
which they accordingly digested into twelve articles, in imitation of those of France, 
>ays Favin. By one of these articles it was decreed : " That no man should be 
" admitted into these festivals of arms who was not a gentleman of armories, and 
" of four descents at least, of noble parentage, both on the father and mother's 
" side; and if any man, who could not so justify his nobility by armorial ensigns, 
" (such as those we call quarters, or proofs of nobility, being the arms of his grand- 
" fathers and grandmothers), should present himself to jousts, by pretending that 
" he was ennobled by his Prince, (here Novi Homines were excluded), and there- 
" upon presumed himself worthy to be in the same rank with those of ancient no- 
" bility, such a man should be beaten with rods, and obliged to ride the rails, or 
" barriers, for his punishment." These rails, or barriers, were certain lists or stakes 
of wood, which surrounded the place of action, and kept off the spectators from the 
actors. And since I am speaking of them, I cannot but show, that though the 
various fashions of the trimming of armsbe brought from these honourable military 
exercises, yet 1 cannot be made to believe what Menestrier says, That the proper 
figures in this science, such as the cheveron, saltier, bend, bar, and other traverse 
pieces, are brought into this science, from these pieces of wood which formed and 

made up the barriers, however so like to them they may seem to be ; of which 

afterwards. But to proceed, 



OF ARMORIES. 7 

Segar, Norry King of Arms, in his treatise of Honour Military and Civil, Lib. 
111. tells us also, That Henry the Birder was the first who introduced tournament > 
in Germany, which other nations did imitate, and had their own law-> relative to 
them. Our author mentions several laws, one of which was, " That it should be 
" lawful for all gentlemen, well born, to enter and light in these exercises of arms, 
" ever excepting such as had, in word or deed, blasphemed, or done or said any 
" thing contrary to our Christian faith, of whom, if any presume to enter the list, 
" we will and command, that the arms of his ancestors, with all his furniture, shall 
" be cast out, and his horse confiscated." 

As for the frequency of tournaments solemnized in Germany, England, and Scot- 
land, I shall name but some, though there \vere many. Henry the Birder solem- 
nized one in the city of Magdeburg, upon the first Sunday after the feast of the 
Three Kings, in the year 938, and in anno 943. There was another held at Rot- 
tenburgh, by Conrad Duke of Franconia. The Duke of Saxony solemnized ano- 
ther in the city of Constance, the first Sunday after the feast of All Saints, in anti'j 
948. Favin gives us an account of thirty-seven tournaments, from that time till 
the year 1194. John Stow, in his Large Survey of London, tells us, several were 
anciently solemnized there every Friday in Lent, " by which, (says he), the gen- 
" try gave good proof how serviceable they would be in war." Upon which ac- 
count, Richard I. of England appointed several tournaments, " that his subjects, 
" (says our author), by these means, might be accustomed to horsemanship and 
" feats of arms ; and, consequently, better enabled to oppose their enemies the 
" Scots." Segar tells us of a tournament, held by King Edward the III. where 
David the II. King of Scotland, jousted and: carried the prize. He likewise tells 
us, that Richard the II. of England made solemn proclamation of a tournament, 
to be held at London, through Scotland, France, and Flanders, to which several 
stranger knights resorted.. And John Stow, in his forementioned book, says, ma- 
ny lords came from Scotland to that tournament, to get worship (as he calls it) by 
force of arms. Amongst them was the Earl of Mar, who challenged the Earl of 
Nottingham to joust with him ; they rode together certain courses, but not the full 
challenge, for the Earl of Mar was cast down, and had two of his ribs broken. 
The next Scotsman was Sir William Daxel, (whom I take to be Dalziel), the King 
of Scotland's banner-bearer ; he challenged Sir Piercy Courtney, the King of 
England's banner-bearer, and, when they had ridden many courses, they gave over 
without a seen victory. Then Cockburn, Esquire of Scotland, jousted with Sir 
Nicholas Howberk ; but Cockburn w r as borne over, horse and man, anno 1395. On 
St George's clay, there was a great jousting on London bridge, (says our author), 
between David Earl of Crawiurd of Scotland, and the Lord Wells of England, in 
which the Lord Wells was, at the third course, borne out of his saddle. 

In Scotland I have met with several tournaments solemnized ; but our authors 
are so brief that they only name them. There were three held in the reign of 
King William at Roxburgh, Edinburgh, and Stirling : Another in the reign of 
Alexander II. at Haddington ; " where," says Hector Boetius, " our nobility and 
' foreign knights showed great prowess." King Alexander the III. held another 
at Roxburgh, upon the festivals of his son's marriage. There was another in the 
reign of King Robert III. ; to which came one John Morlo, an Englishman, (says 
our author), who gave challenge to the Scots knights ; he was taken up first by 
Archibald Edmonston, and, after him, by Hugh Wallace, and defeated both of 
them ; but at last was taken up by Hugh Traill, who overcame him. King James 
IV. caused proclaim a tournament through Germany, France, and England, un- 
der this title. " In defence of the Savage Knight," (being so called by a foreign 
princess), to be holden at Edinburgh, upon the festivals of his marriage with Mar- 
garet, eldest daughter to King Henry VII. of England ; the fame of which tour- 
nament, (says Hawthornden in his History), brought many foreign lords and 
knights to Scotland. Challenges were given and received in defence of the Savage 
Knight ; and, several days before the joustings, the shields of the nobility and 
gentry of Scotland, with their helmets, wreaths, crest, and devices, were hung 
upon the barriers, or other places near by, which were guarded with strong and 
robust highlandmen, in savage dresses, which gave occasion to many families with 
us, whose progenitors were actors in that tournament, to have savages for their 



8 OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS, &c. 

supporters. To these tournaments with us none were admitted but those that 
were truly noble, as is evident by their proclamations, directed, of old, to earl% 

barons, and knights ; and, since the reign of King James I. lords and barons ; 

for which see Lindsay of Pitscotie's Manuscript, in the Lawyers' Library at Edin- 
burgh. 

Having thus briefly given an account of the nature of tournaments, and the laws 
relative to nobility and arms, with a few instances of them, as solemnized both at 
home and abroad, I shall now add some observes from the ceremonies and customs 
used in the solemnities of tournaments, from some of their formulas which I have 
met with, from which some heralds bring the first use of exterior ornaments which 
adorn the shield, especially Menestrier. 

It was the custom of those who went to these military exercises, to be in a com- 
plete military equipage, with arms on their shields, surcoat, and caparisons of their 
horses, as they are to be seen on the equestrian sides of many ancient seals with 
us and other nations, and on several sculptures, as Plate I. with their esquires 
riding before, carrying their masters tilting-spears, with their pennons of arms at 
them ; and in their left hand, the timbre, i. e. the helmets which were to be worn 
in the exercise, adorned with pieces of silk, mistress's favours, wreaths, or torses, 
being of the tinctures of the arms, and their proper liveries, and thereupon the 
crest or device. When the knights came near the barriers, where the joustings 
were to be held, they blew and winded a horn or trumpet, which gave advertise- 
ment to the heralds, who were there attending, to come forth, to receive their name, 
armorial bearing, and their other proofs of nobility ; which accordingly they per- 
formed, and recorded in their books : From which, it is said, came Heraldry, or 
Art of Blazon, a German word, which signifies to wind a horn, now taken for a 
regular description of arms, in their proper terms ; whence the German families 
have their helmets frequently adorned with several horns or trumpets, to show 
how often they have jousted in tournaments. 

After the heralds have recorded the names, arms, and proofs of nobility of the 
knights, their shields of arms, with helmets, mantlings, wreaths, and crests, with 
which they were to joust, were hung up by the left corner, with the timbre, (in 
that posture which we call couchie, which we meet with in many shields of arms 
on old monuments and seals, and shows the owners had been received into tour- 
naments) upon windows, pavilions, trees, barriers, or other fit places, near to the 
place of jousting, some days before the action ; to the end that every one might 
be known by his arms, crest and liveries, to the actors, judges and spectators : 
With whom, and the ladies, the heralds went about, and described the arms, and 
gave an account of their owners, whom the ladies took the freedom to praise or 
dispraise ; whence, sometimes, the word blazon is taken to praise or dispraise. 

Then challenges were given by the knights to one another, which were per- 
formed, by touching their shields with such weapon as they were to just with, 
cither with blunts or sharps. For the better understanding of which, I shall add 
here a piece of a formula of a tournament, held at Ingueleur in France, in the 
year 1389, sent by the French lords and gentlemen to the English, by way of a 
challenge, as in Segar's Treatise of Honour Civil and Military, Book III. being 
thus : " We likewise give you to understand, that such order is taken, that every 
' one of us shall have his shield and impress hung on the outside of his pavilion, 
' to the end if any one of you desire to run at tilts, then that the day before, you 
' may with a lance, or such as you intend to joust with, touch the shield ; and 
who intends to try his fortune, with blunt and sharp, must touch the shield with 
' both, and signify his name and arms to them that have our shields in keeping." 
Those who attended the shields, so hung and exposed, (which the French call 
a faire fenestre}, Menestrier tells us, were the knights' servants or pages, who were 
dressed in such fashions as their masters fancied, making them sometimes appear 
like savages, Saracens, Moors, Sirens, and other monsters ; and sometimes under 
the disguise of lions, bears, &- C . who guarded the shields, with one or more heralds, 
to take an account of the names and arms of those, as also their weapons, with 
which they touched the shields, and to list them for combat. From which cus- 
toms and form, says our author, came the use of tenans and supporters, represent- 
ing men and beasts, at the sides of the shield : So that those, it seems, who were 



OF THE DEFINITION AND DIVISION OF ARMS. Q . 

Hiied to be admitted into jousts and tournaments, though but gentlemen hud 
ri^ht to carry supporters ; but now they are allowed to none under the dignity ol 
a lord-baron, except those who have right to them by prescription. But more of 
this afterwards, when I come to treat ot" the exterior ornaments. 

Having given my reader a general idea of the rise, growth, and improvement of 
arms, to the present structure we now find them in, called Armorial Achievement 1 -. 
I must put an end to this general discourse, to begin and proceed to treat ,sepa 
rutely, as 1 have proposed, .of all the figures and pieces of armories, with i ! 
attributes and proper terms, in the following chapters of this treat; 



CHAP. II. 

OF THE DEFINITION AND DIVISION OF AR ' 

I DEFINE Arms, hereditary marks of honour, regularly composed of certain tine- 
lures and figures, granted or authorised by sovereigns, for distinguishing, differ- 
encing, and illustrating persons, families, and communities. 

These marks of honour being represented upon shields, surcoats, banners, pen- 
nons, and other military instruments and ensigns, as is said before, are called arms, 
coats of arms, and armorial ensigns ; by the French, armories ; and in Latin, Anna 
Centilitia, Tessera; Gentilities, Insignia, Phrenofchemata, i3 Deigmata. 

Hereditary marks of honour, regularly composed of certain tinctures and figures, 
distinguish arms from other signs and marks of soldiers, merchants and tradesmen, 
which are but arbitrary, during pleasure ; as also from hieroglyphics, symbols, 
emblems and devices, which have no fixed and certain tinctures, but may be com- 
posed of any colours or figures. 

The words, Granted or authorised by sovereigns, exclude all arbitrary marks 
and signs ; such as those assumed by the ignoble at their own pleasure, which 
cannot be called ensigns of honour, however like to arms they may seem : For, 
" Nemo potest dignitatem sibi arrogare sine principis licentia. None can assume the 
" marks of honour, without the allowance" of the sovereign ;" arms being only allow- 
ed to the noble, and the ignoble are discharged the use of them, by the laws of all 
well-governed nations. 

The words, For distinguishing, differencing, and illustrating persons, families, and 
communities, show the three principal ends of arms. 

The first, is to distinguish the noble from the ignoble, the worthy from the un- 
worthy, by marks of honour and noble descent, conferred by princes upon their 
well-deserving subjects and their families, in reward of their virtuous actions and 
brave attempts. 

The second end of arms, is to difference the branches or cadets of one and 
the same family ; that the first may be known from the second, and he again 
from the third, and the third from the fourth, and so on, were there never so many 
of them. 

The third end and design of arms, is to illustrate persons, families, and com- 
munities, with ensigns of noble descent, and other additaments of honour, with- 
in and without the shield : All which I shall fully handle in this Treatise of 
Heraldry. 

The division which I make of arms, in order to my intended method, is, into 
essential parts, and accidental ones, and of parts within and without the shield, and 
ot their various species and kinds. 

By the first, I understand tinctures and figures, without which, no arms can be. 
By accidental, attributes which follow figures in their various shapes, as ingrailed, 
invccted, embattelled, &-c. The parts within the shield, are those contained within 
the limits of the shield : And, by parts without the shield, I understand the ex- 
terior ornaments, such as crests, helmets, mantlings, supporters, &-c. And as for 
the species and kinds of arms, such as, arms of alliance, of patronage, gratitude, 
concession, dominion, noble feus and pretensions ; all which I shall fully treat of 
in their proper places. And, before I proceed, I shall here give a description of 

C 



OF THE SURCOAT, ENSIGN, AND SHIELD. 

those utensils and things, upon which arms have been anciently, and of later 
placed ; such as, the surcoat, ensign, and shield. 

CHAP. III. 

OF THE SURCOAT, ENSIGN, AND SHIELD. 

THESE are called by heralds, the three principal signs of honour, upon the 
account that arms have been commonly placed upon them ; which I ^hall 
here briefly describe. 

The surcoat, is a thin, loose, light, taftety coat, used by military men over their ar- 
mour ; upon which their arms were painted or embroidered, that they might be 
distinguished in time of battle. Sovereigns and other great men are represented 
on the equestrian side of their seals, on horseback, with such surcoats of arms. 
Sandford, in his Genealogical History of England, tells us, " That Gilbert Earl of 
" Clare was killed in the battle of Bannockburn by the Scots, for want of his 
" surcoat of amis ; who otherwise would have been saved, because he was a near 
" kinsman to King Robert the Bruce." These surcoats were much of the same 
shape and form of those now worn by heralds. 

The other principal sign of honour, is the ensign ; under which general name, 
are comprehended standards, banners, pennons, gideons, and gonfanouns. 

The first two, standards and banners, are of a square form, painted or embroidered 
with the whole achievements of those, who have right to display them in the field, 
or in solemnities ; and anciently they were allowed to none under the degree of a 
knight-banneret. 

The pennon and gideon are of an oblong figure, and ending in a sharp point or 
two, carried on the points of spears ; and on them are only painted a part of the 
owner's arms, such as his device,. crest, and motto. 

The gonfanoun is a banner or standard of the church, which is square, but has 
rhree labels or fanions (i.e. pieces of stuff, from which it is named), hanging 
down ; and the bearers thereof are called gonfaloniers. 

Arms have also appeared anciently upon the furniture of horses, such as the 
caparisons, as may be seen on the seals of kings, and other great men, who are re- 
presented on horseback, holding on their left arm the shield of their arms, and the 
same armorial figures embroidered on the caparisons of their horses. I have seen a 
*eal of Alexander II. King of Scotland, appended to a charter of confirmation of 

-,;ral lands to the abbacy of Melrose, upon which he is represented sitting on a 
throne with a crown on his head, in his right hand a sceptre, and in his left a 
mond : On the other side of this seal, he is represented on horseback in his coat 
of mail, holding in his right hand a sword, and on his left arm a shield, with the 
arms of Scotland, and the same arms are on the caparisons of his horse. Sandford, 
in his Genealogical History, makes King Edward I. of England, the first of their 
kings fhat had the arms of England on the caparisons of his horse; so that the 
fustom of placing arms upon caparisons was sooner with us than in England. I 
have seen the seals of the earls of March, Fife, &c. appended to evidents in the 
reign of Alexander III. whereon they were represented on horseback, holding their 
>hield of arms ; and the same on the caparisons of their horses. 

I shall not insist here further upon several other things, on which arms have 
been placed, but proceed to the principal one, the shield, called by the ancients 
Scutum, from the Greek word Te?, Corium, because they were made or covered 
with hides of beasts. From Scutum comes also the French words Escu and Escus- 
sion; the English Escutcheon; and the Italian Scudo, for a shield: From which 
came these titles of honour, Scutifer, Scutiger ; the Spanish Escudros ; the 
French Escuire ; and the English Esquire. 

The shield was also called Clypeus, wo yKvtfcm, Sculpere to engrave ; because figures 
Di armorial bearings or achievements were commonly painted, engraven, or imr- 
bossed upon it ; as Virgil, 

Mutemus Clypeos, Danaumque insignia nobis 
dptemus 



JOO 




P urn art 



Emun. CcrttnErnwri, Vavr. 





Courderfttent 



L , 



L11J.J 
TT^TT 



OF THE SURCOAT, ENSIGN, AND SHIELD. i r 

As the shield \vas a necessary instrument in defence of the body, so was it with 
the ancients an honourable badge or -ign ; for, with the Grecians and Romaic, they 
who returned from the battle without 'it, were in great disgrace, and interdicted 
from holy things, as the antiquaries of those nations write. And as the shield v.a 
necessary and honourable, so it was judged by all nations the most coin en: 
tabula, to contain marks of valour and honour, as Bccmannus very well oi, 
Dissert. VI. Chap. V11I. " Scutum cur veteres potissimum eligerent, ratio iuit 
" quod inter anna maxime conspicuum esset, ac dclensivis puritcr atque oilen . 
" armis omnibus nobilius haberetur." 

Antiquaries, historians, and heralds, amuse us with many various forms of shields 
used by the ancients, which are but of little use to us, therefore I shall be very- 
brief with them. There is no kingdom, people, or country, but have had several 
forms and fashions of shields, as they have had of apparel, ot which I shall give 
here only some few forms, ancient and modern, that ha\e been generally known 
and received all Europe over. 

. Shields for the most part of old were to be seen triangular on the ancientest 
monuments, seals and coins; by the French called VAncien Ecu, as in Plate I. 
fig. i. that is the ancient shield : Arid from this triangular form, came the custom 
in heraldry, of placing the greatest number of figures above, and the smallest be- 
low, as 2 and i ; and if more figures, such as stars, 4, 3, 2, and i. This form of 
shield is to be seen on our ancientest monuments with figures so situated. 

The other form of a shield, Plate I. fig. 2. now universally used, is square, 
rounded and pointed at the bottom, as Monsieur Baron describes it, in his Art of 
Blazon ; " Quarre arrondi &- pointu par la bas ;" which they say is after the 
fashion of the Samnitic shield used by the Romans. Sylvester Petra Sancta, in 
his Treatise of Heraldry, cap. n. says, " Existimo enim ad scuti Samnitici ftirmam 
" interne cuneatam & pinnatam, aequalem autem superne exigi posse materiatam 
" scuti hujus honorarii figurationem." Shields after this form, are commonly 
made use of by the Britons, French, and Germans. 

The Spaniards and Portuguese, have the like form of shields ; but they are 
round at the bottom, without a point, Plate I. fig. 3. The Germuns, besides the 
former, have other forms of shields whereon they place their arms ; two of which 
I shall here add. The first has its sides sloping, and again bulging at the flanks, 
as fig. 4. and the other, as fig. 5. has nicks and notches, called a shield-chancre ; 
because a shield after this form was used of old by them as a convenient one for 
resting the lance upon the notch, and in giving a thrust ; yet its form is not so 
convenient as the former ones to receive armorial figures. The two shields first 
mentioned, have been, and are more frequently used than any other form of 
shields. 

Besides these various forms of shields, we find them also frequently distinguished 
by their different positions ; some being carried erect, and others pendant, or 
hanging by the right or left upper corner : This the French call Escu Pendu, and 
the Italians, Scuto Pe ndente ; the reason given for it, is, that when tiltings and 
tournaments were proclaimed, they that were to joust in these military exercises, 
were obliged to hang up their shields of arms some days before the time of exer- 
, along the windows and balconies of the houses, near the place of action, and 
if in the field, upon trees, pavilions, or barriers of the place of jousting ; that they 
who were judges, or otherwise assisted in these noble exercises, might know the 
actors. Columbier says, " That they who w r ere to fight on foot had their shields 
" hung by the right corner, and they on horseback by the left." This position 
of the shield is called pendant by some, and couche by others, and was very fre- 
quent all Europe over, from the eleventh century to the fourteenth. But all the 
shields couche or pendant that I have met with of the sons of the royal family of 
Scotland and England, and of the nobility of these kingdoms, were pendant, or 
couche by the sinister, and very few by the dexter cornel- : The shield, pendant, 
or couche, when lying on the right side, was then a mark that the owner thereof 
had formerly been exercised in tournaments, into which none were admitted but 
those that were truly noble. And it "may not be improper here to observe, that 
no sovereign ever carried his shield pendant or couche i because, as soverei,. 
they never formally entered the lists of tournaments. 



12 OF THE SURCOAT, ENSIGN, AND SHIELD. 

The Italians, for the most part, have their shields of arms after an oval form, 
tig. 6. in imitation, it is thought, of those used by Popes, and other eminent church- 
men . '; .imedest writer on heraldry, Sylvester Petra Sancta, regrets the use 

of oval shields in Italy, who says, " Nunc figura Scuti ovalis usurpatur, retinetur- 
" que nescio an ex pictorum &- sculptorum imperitia." Others tell us, that the 
oval shield is not so honourable as those we have given before, as not representing 
any ancient nobility or descent, nor glory purchased in war, but a burgherly or 
citizen fame, and praise of learning, as Philobertus Camponile, whose words the 
anonymous author of Observation?* Eugenealogica:, Lib. II. cap. 5. gives us thus, 
" Ejusmodi scutis rotundis non indicari vetustam. originem, nee partem in bello 
" gloriam, sed urbanam laudera, solum famam Eruditionis ac Literarum :" And 
our anonymous author, in his forecited place, adds, " Qui nullo gaudet Nobilitatis 
" Jure, vel qui per Artes Mechanicas aliove modo eo Jure destitutus est, signa si 
" qvuehabet, neutiquam in 'scuto aut Clypeo exhibere posse: sed aut in forma 
" rotunda aut ovali, & a seuto distincta ;" /. e . Those who have not the privilege 
of nobility, or have had, and lost the privilege, by using mechanical arts, or by 
any other means, cannot place their arms on a formal shield, but on round or oval 
ones. But though oval shields be not looked upon as honourable in some coun- 
tries, and especially in our author's country, Flanders, yet in Italy, w r e find not 
only the popes, and churchmen of noble descent, place their arms on oval shields 
or cartouches, but even the secular princes in Italy ; which they would not do, if 
they looked upon round or oval shields, as any way derogatory from their honour, 
but" still retain them, as of the ancientest form used by the Romans. 

Women place their paternal arms on lozenges and fusils. The lozenge is a square 
figure, with one of its angles upmost, Plate I. fig. 7. ; and the fusil is such another, 
but longer than broad, and its upmost and undermost angles sharper than those at 
the sides, fig. 8. Plutarch tells, in the life of Theseus, That in the city of Mega- 
ra, (in his time), the tomb-stones, under which the bodies of the Amazons lay, 
were shaped after the form of a lozenge ; which some conjecture to be the cause . 
why women have their arms upon lozenges. Others again, that the fusil signifies 
a spindle, and represents one full of yarn, a proper instrument for women. Sylva- 
nus Morgan, and other English heralds, fancy, that the form of shields used by 
men was taken from Adam's spade, and women's from Eve's spindle. The French 
have a saying from their pretended Salic law, " Nunquam corona a lancea tran- 
" sibit ad fusum ;" ' the crown of France passes not from the lance to the distaff or 
t'usil." Sylvester Petra Sancta will have the form of women's shields to represent a 
cushion, whereupon they used to sit and spin, or do other housewifery, and calls 
it, " Pulvillum in quo exercent mulieres lintearia opificia." Sir John Feme has 
another notion of a woman's shield, to be from that square one, used sometimes by 
the Romans, called Tessera, which they finding unfit for war, did afterwards allow 
to women, to place their paternal ensigns upon, with one of its angles always up- 
most, as a tessera of their noble descent. 

I have given these few forms of shields, generally made use of all Europe over, 
and passed over many other forms, which some writers ascribe to the ancients, as 
being of no use to this science, nor a part of blazon. I, shall add here the form of 
a cartouch, upon the account that some heralds tell us, That they, who have not 
right to carry arms on formal shields, may place them on cartouches. Favin, in 
Ins Theatre of Honour, and Menestrier, in his Treatise of Exterior Ornaments, and 
in his Abrege Methodique des Armories, gives us this form of a cartouch, fig. 9. 
'arried by the village of Lyons in France. Others, again, tell us, That cartouches, 
i. e. false shields or compartments, are most frequently oval, having a mullet or 
ae round it, with flourishes coupe tortile, like to that used by the Popes, out of 
humility as they pretend. Monsieur L'Abbe Danet, in his Dictionary, says, " A 
" cartouche, ornamentique d'un fait de sculpture & de peinture qui represente des 
" rouleaux des cartes c'oupe'es & tortillees ;" such as these embellishments w 7 hich 
placed at the sides of geographical maps, and frontispieces of books, wherein 
.ire commonly placed the names of countries, titles of books, marks and figures of 
merchants and tradesmen ; and are like those compartments below achievements 
of arms whereon the supporters stand, and in which are placed the names, desig- 
nations, &C. belonging to the owners. 



OF THE TINCTURES, &c. 13 

So then formal shields, above given, are ancient and honourable signs, and 
by all nations, tor placing on them the fixed figures of noble families, yet in the 
blazon of them, neither the form nor position of the shield is ever mentioned, 
though it be the continent, or containing part of armories ; and whether we con- 
sider the shield itself as a solid or geometrical body, or as the imitation of such a 
body, drawn with lines or purfles, by a pen or pencil, upon paper, or any thing : 
The superficies of that geometrical body, or the space within the bounding lines, is 
called with us and the English, thejicld; by the Italians and Spaniards, campo; 
and by the Latins, area, fundus, campus ; and must be of the tinctures received in 
this science, of which I proceed to treat. 



CHAP. IV. 

OF THE TINCTURES, OR ARMORIAL COLOURS. 

THE essential parts of arms, (by some called the Elements of Armories), by 
our former definitio'n, are Tinctures and Figures. Tincture is a general word 
for metals and colours made use of in the science of heraldry ; and, in place of it, 
the French use the word Emaux, i. e. Enamelling, in placing colour upon gold and 
silver, the two metals in armories. 

The tinctures, or armorial colours are seven, viz. two metals, gold and silver, 
and five colours, blue, red, black, green, and purple. 

These tinctures are said, by Sylvester Petra Sancta and others, to be taken from 
the liveries of the four companies which acted upon the Roman theatres ; and Me- 
nestrier would have them brought from the Roman legions, as in his L' Origine de 
1'Art du Elason. 

In this science, tinctures, as well as figures, have their proper and fixed terms all 
Europe over, to which heralds hold close in their blazons ; so that almost all na- 
tions understand arid receive them in these terms, as an universal language, whiclr 
\vc very much owe to the French. And the terms of the tinctures are these : 



Or, 


i. e. Gold. 


Argent, 


i. e. Silver. 


Azure, 


i. e. Blue. 


Gules, 


i.e. Red. 


Sable, 


i. e. Black. 


Vert, or 7 
Simple, 5 


i. e. Green. 


Purpure, 


i. e. Purple. 



There have been some debates among heralds, which of these tinctures are most 
honourable. All agree in giving precedency to the metals or and argent ; but the 
contest is in ranking the colours, some esteeming them more noble, according to 
nature, as they participate most of light. As Upton, a canon of Sarum-Wells in 
England, in his Treatise of Arms, ranks them thus : azure, gules, purpure, vert, 
sable, preferring azure to gules, grounding his opinion on that laying, " Golores 
" esse nobiliores, aut ignobiliores quo de albedine vel nigredine plus participant." 

Others prefer those colours that can be best distinguished at the greatest distance, 
and the farther these distinctions or colours appear, they are, according to them, 
the more noscible and commendable ; upon which head they tell us, the Imperial 
Black Eagle is placed in a white" field. Gerard Leigh prefers gules to azure, be- 
cause it is nearer to the colour of the metal or than azure, which participates ot the 
metal argent. And some prefer sable before vert and pur pure, because its deepness 
is more conspicuous at a distance ; and they prefer vert to purpure, because the last 
was but lately received into this science. But all these precedencies given to 
tinctures must be considered with this proviso, that there be no other special reasons 
for the bearing of them otherwise in the ensigns of kingdoms and families. 

In all coats of arms there must be, at least, two tinctures ; and there is a gene- 
ral rule given by heralds, that the field should be of a more noble tincture than: 

D 



, 4 OF THE TINCTURE 

the figure placed upon it ; as in the arms of Scotland, the fit-Id i a or, the figure, 
the lion, is gules. Again, if the field consist of two different tinctures, parted/*-; 
fi-sse, parted per pale, &c. the noblest tincture should be on the upper part, or on 
'the right side of the shield, as Hoppingius, Cap. XI. lex. 4. " Quoties arma iiunt 
" ex diversis coloribus, semper nobilior color nobiliore in loco ponendus ;" pro- 
viding always, as before, there be no ether special reason for the contrary. 

Those tinctures at the first view, when painted and illuminated, are known by 
their natural colours ; and when carved and engraven on copperplate, they were 
anciently known by the initial letters of their names. But now in Tailledouce they 
are known by points, hatches, or small lines ; which contrivance some impute to 
the French, and others to the Italian, Sylvester Petra Sancta ; which I shall here 
show, as I speak separately of the tinctures. 

1. Or, a French word which signifies gold, its colour is yellow; and in Latin 
blazons, these words are used for it, aureus color, aurum, lutcum, croceum\flavum, gal- 
binum. This tincture was anciently known in engravings by the letter O, but now 
by points and ticks, as fig. i. Plate I. 

2. Urgent, i. e. silver, its colour is white ; the Latins say, argenteus color, a/bus, 
and argtntum. It was anciently known in Tailledouce by the letter A, but now it js 
blank, and has no mark, as fig. 2. 

3. Azure, i. c. blue, is said to have come from an Arabic or Persian word lazunl 
or lazurion, which signifies the same ; it is variously latinized by heralds, caruleus, 
cyaneus, glaucum, and cesium. It was represented by the letter B, now by horizon- 
tal or thwart hatches, as fig. 3. 

4. Gules, or Gueules, i. e. red ; some bring it from gula, the throat, because it is 
always red ; others from an Arabian word gule, which signifies a red rose; and 
others will have it from cusculium, cochineal, wherewith they dye scarlet : The La- 
tins, for gules, say, roseus color ; rubor, rubeus; sanguineus, coccineus ; and Petra 
Sancta uses these words, puniceum, purpureum ; conchileatum, ostreum, mineo vel cin- 
nabri illusuni. Gules was known in Tailledouce by the letter R, now by perpendicu- 
lar hatches. Fig. 4. 

5. Sable, i. c. black ; some would have it come from the black furr called sables ; 
others from the French word sable, which signifies sand or earth, being dark or 
black : The Latins say, niger, furvus, pullus, fuscus, ater, iS sabuleum. It was 
known by the letter S, and now, in engravings, by cross hatches, perpendicular 
and horizontal, as fig. 5. 

6. Vert, the common French word for green, is not used in their blazons ; but 
the word sinople, taken from the town Sinople in the Levant, where the best ma- 
terials for dying green are found. 

I find green termed prasin, from a Greek word which signifies a leek ; the La- 
tins say, viridus or prasinum. It was known by the letter V, now by thwart or 
diagonal hatches from right to left, as fig. 6. 

7. Purpure, i. e. purple colour, is said to have its name from a shell-fish called 
purpura, which gave materials for that colour. It was known by the letter P, now 
by thwart or diagonal hatches from left to right, fig. 7. 

I must take leave a little here, to give the opinion of ancient heralds, who say, 
that the last two colours were not so soon received in armories, especially in England, 
as the former colours. John Bassardo, of that nation, who wrote in the reign of 
Richard II. says. That in armories there were two principal colours, white and black, 
and the other three, yellow, blue, and red, were composed out of the first two, 
and that some heralds of late added the colour green. Henry Spelman, his coun- 
tryman, who wrote long after him, tells us, that the colour purpure was but newly 
added, and that he did never see that colour in English arms. Menestrier says 
likewise, That in France, purpure was never found in arms, except to represent the 
natural colour of fruits, as grapes, of birds, as peacocks, &c. which are then bla- 
zoned proper ; that is, in their natural colours : For if purpure had been an armo- 
rial colour, it would not have been wanting in the ensigns of Kings and Princes, 
where it is not to be met with, neither have I found it in any of our nobility and 
gentry's arms, but of late, in a new family. 

Some tells us, that purpure is a royal colour peculiar to Princes ; in so far, that 
all subjects were, by edicts, discharged the use of it, and the shell wherein it grew. 



OR ARMORIAL COLOURS ic 

, culled Saccr-mwcx : And the reason it was not so frequent in heraldry, 
that the shell-fish, in which that material was found, and the art of extracting or 
perfecting it, has been lost, ever since the Turks got pos^-.ion of the fishing at 
Tyre, and other places, where these shell-fishes grew. And the colour which we 
have in place of it, being composed of a red and a little black, or, as some <ay, of 
red and blue, has not been thought worthy to be received as an armorial colour. 
And though it be pretended by some, that the lion in the arms of the kingdom of 
Leon in Spain, and the horse in the arms of Westphalia, and the lion in the arnu 
of Bohemia, are of the colour purpure, and have been so blazoned by some, yet h 
in they are mistaken; for gules, i. e. red, is called purptireus color, as before, by 
Sylvester Pctra Sancta : And Bartolus, the lawyer and herald, who obtained right 
from the Emperor to carry the arms of Bohemia, knew the colour of his own arms 
best, and gives them thus in his Treatise de Insigniif, " Ut ego & omnes de agni- 
" tionc mea leonem rubeum cum caudis cluabus in campo aureo portaremus." 
That purpure and gules are all one armorial colour is clear ; and that which gave 
occasion to some to believe that purpure was used of old as a distinct colour, is onU 
the alteration (says Menestrier) that is made sometimes on silver towards the co- 
lour purple, especially when silver lies in moist places, and is exposed to the wea- 
ther ; which made some unadvisedly to blazon the silver horse of Westphalia, pur- 
pure: And it is the known reason, w r hy illuminators and painters make no use of 
silver for writing, but only of gold, because the silver turns to a purpure colour. 
Sylvester Petra Sancta says, The reason why purpure is seldom used in armories, is, 
because it is only made use of by churchmen at the altars, and not by military 
men in the camp : His words are these, " Quia violatius color aris non castris me- 
" ruit, nee tint in vestibus &- in clypeis lionorariis qui castra sequebantur." 

Besides these five colours named, the English heralds give other two colours, 
more rarely used Him purpure, and of less esteem; such as tenney and sanguine, which 
I cannot pass over, lest I seem to omit a part of the English heraldry. 

Ttnney is a colour, say they, composed of red and yellow, by some called Brusque ; 
.md they make it to be known in Tailledouce by diagonal lines from right to left, 
and, ^ contra, from left to right. 

Sanguine colour is a duskish red, which sometimes, they say, belongs to the 
Princes of W T ales, and to the habits of the Knights of the Bath, and Serjeants at 
Law ; and they point it out in Tailledouce, by diagonal hatches from right to left, 
and horizontal ones. 

These two colours are, by the English heralds, appropriated to abatements of 
honour, and so are dishonourable stained colours ; yet, says Guillim, if other figures 
be of these two colours, they are looked upon as honourable : But neither he, nor 
others, have ever given instances of any honourable families carrying figures of 
such colours that I have met with. Randal Holm, who wrote since Guillim, in 
his Academy of Armory, speaking of colours, says, " These two last colours, san- 
" gitine and tenney, have been used by the Dutch and Germans, but not with us in 
" England ; and, therefore," says he, " I do not set them down in the plate of 
" cuts with the other colours." And in the i8th page of his book says, " There 
" are indeed properly no more than four colours in arms with British men ; which 
" are gules, azure, sable, and vert ; and two metals, or and argent." 

Of these tw : o metals and four colours, are all the fields and figures of arms, ex- 
cept some natural figures, such as grapes, oranges, peacocks, &c. which, when 
they are represented in their natural colours, are then blazoned proper, without . 
mentioning their colours. Some heralds will have those tinctures above-mention- 
ed to have mystical significations, and to represent moral, politic, and military 
virtues, in the bearers of such colours ; which fancies I designedly omit as ridicu- 
lous : For arms, of whatsoever tinctures they be, are equally noble, data paritate 
gestantium, if the bearers of them be of equal dignity. But lest I should seem to 
be defective in this part of ajmories, and because most of the English writers not 
only insist too tediously on their virtues and qualities which they fancy they re- 
present, but give out for a rule in this science, that gentlemen's arms should b<- 
blazoned by tinctures, the nobility's by precious stones, and sovereign princes' 
by planets, to show their supposed eminent virtues, by which also they blazon. 
Of such fantastical blazons, I shall subjoin the following scheme ; and if it seem 



i6 



OF THE TINCTURES, 



too narrow for some, who love to use other different ways, by the months, days of 
the week, &-c. I recommend them to John Feme's Glory of Generosity. 



COLOURS, 


TINCTURES, 


PRECIOUS 
STONES, 


PLANETS, 


VIRTUES. 


Yellow 


Or 


Topaz 


Sol 


Faith 


White 


Argent 


Pearl 


Luna 


Innocency 


Blue 


Azure 


Sapphire 


Jupiter 


Loyalty 


Red 


Gules 


Ruby 


Man 


Magnanimity 


Black 


Sable 


Diamond 


Saturn 


Prudence 


Green 


Vert 


Emerald 


Venus 


Love 


Purple 
Tenney 
Blood-Colour 


Purpure 
Tf/iney 
Sanguine 


Amethyst 
Jacinth 
Sardonix 


Mercury 
Drains-Head 
Dragons-Tail 


Temperance 

jy 

Fortitude 



That these are but mere fancies, and are likewise unfit for the art in which 
they are employed, is clear from the following reasons given by Sir George Mac- 
kenzie of Rosehaugh, in his Science of Heraldry, p. 19. 

I. The French, from whom the English derive their heraldry, and to whom 
they conform themselves, not only in principles and terms of art, but even in ex- 
trinsic words of the French language, do not only disallow these different ways of 
blazoning, but constantly treat them in ridicule. 

II. The Italian, Spanish, and Latin heralds, use no such different forms, but 
blazon by the ordinary colours and metals, as Sylvester Petra Sancta in his Trea- 
tise, p. 58. " Non variari nomina debent metallorum vel colorum in magnatum, 
" aut in Regum Insigniis, pro hac re provoco ad Scriptores caeteros qui Gallice, 
" Germanice, aut Latine hac de re disseruerunt. 

The great design of heraldry, is, to have the art of blazon universal, and to have 
the arms they describe, generally understood in all nations ; yea, and even Mr 
Cartwright their countryman, does condemn these ways as fantastical. 

III. Art should imitate nature ; and as it would be an unnatural thing in com- 
mon discourse, not to call red, red, because a prince wears it ; so it is unnatural to 
use these terms in heraldry ; and it may fall out to be very ridiculous in some 
blazons : As for instance, if a prince had for his arms, an ass couchant under his 
burthen, gules, it were very ridiculous to say, that he had an ass couchant Mars ; 
for the word Mars will agree very ill with asses, sheep, lambs, and many other 
things which are to be painted red in heraldry ; and a hundred other examples 
may be given, but it is enough to say, that this is to confound colours with 
barges, and the things that are borne, with colours. 

IV. As this is unnecessary, so it confounds the reader, and makes the art un- 
pleasant, and deters gentlemen and others from studying it, and strangers from 
understanding what our heraldry is ; nor could the arms of our princes and no- 
bility be translated in this disguise into any other language. 

But that which convinceth me most, (says our learned author), that this is an 
error, is, because it makes the great rule unnecessary, whereby colour cannot be 
put upon colour, or metal upon metal, for this cannot hold, but when metals and 
colours are employed, and named. 

Having now fully treated of armorial colours, as the first elements or essential 
parts of armories, according to that part of the above definition, composed of tinc- 
tures and figures, I lay it down as a principle, that a shield of one of the foresaid 
tinctures only, without any figure, cannot be called a coat of arms, or an armorial 
bearing, no more than a red coat or a black hat, arms ; and no more than a piece 
of virgin -wax can be called a seal, nor a sheet of clean paper an evident, for two 
tinctures are absolutely necessary, at least, to form a coat of arms ; and when two 
tinctures meet in one shield, (though there be no proper or natural figure), there 
appears a partition or terminating line, which makes a figure, however small ; 
and is sufficient to make an armorial bearing, as will appear by the following par- 
titions of the field, and of furrs, ermine and vair, of which I proceed to treat. 



OF THE FURRS IN HERALDRY, &c. 17 



CHAP. V. 

OF THE FURRS IN HERALDRY, ERMINE AND VAJR. 

FURRS used in arms are two, ermine and vnir, which are composed of two or 
more of the foresaid tinctures : Heralds generally bring their hrst use in 
armories, from the robes and mantles of princes and chief commanders, which 
were lined or doubled with such furrs. 

Feme, in his Lacie's Nobility, p. 72. says, That Priamus, King of Troy, in it 
mantle doubled with ermine, fought against the Grecians ; and that the old Dukc- 
of Brittany in France, as deriving their descent from him, carried ermine ; which 
that dukedom continues to carry till this day. Columbier, Sir George Mackenzie, 
and others, tell us, That le Seignior de Caucis, fighting in Hungary, and percei- 
\ ing his army to fly, did pull out the lining or doubling of his cloak, which was of 
the furr vair, and displayed it as an ensign to. rally his men ; which, for its good 
effect, became the fixed armorial bearing of that seigniory. 

That furrs were anciently in use in arms, we have an ancient instance of Pope 
Innocent III. who, in giving absolution to Henry of Falkenburg, as being acces- 
sory to the slaughter of Conrad, the first Bishop of Wurtzburg, enjoined him, for 
penance, to fight against the Saracens, but never to appear in ermine and vair, or 
any other armorial colours made use of in tournaments. 

Sir George Mackenzie gives another rise to furrs in his Science of Heraldry, 
where he says, " As shields were anciently painted, or covered with skins, as the 
" targets or shields of our Highlanders yet are, the painting gave occasion to the 
" colours formerly treated of, and the covering to the furrs or skins now used, 
" which I take," says he, " to be a better rise for their being in arms than to say 
" that they were used in mantles or garments." But, with all due deference to 
that great man, I think that Sylvester Petra Sancta, and others, with a great deal 
of reason and probability, bring both the tinctures and furrs in armories, from the 
habits and garments of military men and civil magistrates, to the shield ; of which 
more particularly in the Chapter of Partitions. But to proceed to the description 
of furrs in armories. 

There are then two principal furrs, ermine and vair ; with their different kinds. 
Ermine is the skin of a little beast, about the bigness of a squirrel, whose furr is al- 
together white except the tip of his tail, which is black, with which the white 
furr is besprinkled for beauty's sake ; and for its rarity and beauty is looked upon 
as a royal and noble furr. The Kings of Scotland and England have their royal 
robes doubled with this furr : And a distinguishing sign of the degrees of nobility 
in Britain, is, the number of rows or bars of ermine allowed to them by sovereigns, 
to wear on their robes, as signs of their degrees of nobility. A duke, in his man- 
tle of state, has four bars of ermine allowed him ; a marquis, three and a half; the 
earls, three ; the viscounts and lords, say our present writers, have only their man- 
tles find robes faced up with a white furr, taken for a Litivite's skin. This furr is so 
much esteemed by our European Kings, that, as Menestrier tells us, at the coro- 
nation of Henry II. of France, for want of true ermines to line his robes, they were 
forced to make use of cloth of silver, spotted with pieces of black velvet, to repre- 
sent ermine. 

Several heralds have been at pains to trace the etymology of ermine. Some, 
probably enough, derive it from Armenia, where this little creature is to be found. 
For the furr ermine the Latins say, muris Armenia veil 'us ; and sometimes exuvia; 
Pontici muris, from the country of Pont us, where it is also to be found. And it i- 
observed by some, that those got there are not so white, neither the tip of their 
tail so black, as those in Armenia, from which country it has more co;nmonly it- 
name. Others, as Edward Bolton in his Elements of Armories, Chap. XXX. di-,- 
approvcs the derivation, of ermine from Armenia ; because these creatures are call- 
ed there gtinutales ; and he brings the name from bermes or herme, which were 
long square stones, formed like a statue, set up anciently by the Romans in their 
public ways, and dedicated to Mercury ; and these bermes or berme were used al- 

E 



i* OF THE FURR ERMINE. 

so in adorning sepulchres and libraries. So, by this hardy derivation of Bolton'., 
every spot of ermine in arms stands for a her me, or shadow thereof, turning a shield, 
ermine, into a Roman Atrium, which contained the images or statues of the noble 
Romans. This derivation, however improbable it may seem, I thought fit to give, 
in regard it hath some congruity with the most probable opinion, that armories had 
their rise from the Jus Imaginum. 

Ermine is represented by a white field powdered or seme of black spots, irregu- 
larly disposed as it were ; which black spots have their points upward, and topped 
with three ticks of black, as fig. 8. And when a shield, or field, or figure, is of 
this furr, argent and sfible, it is, in the blazon, only called ermine. 

As for its different kinds, or sorts, in armories, they are after the same form, but 
of different tinctures : As, if the field be sable, and the spots argent, it is called con- 
tre en/lint' ; by the English, ermines, fig. 9. If the field be or, and the spots sable, 
the English call it erminois ; and when the field is black, and the spots or, they 
call it pe.'in. And they have another sort which they call erminits ; that is, when 
a hair of red, or a little gules, is placed at the sides of the black spots in a white 
field. But the last three sorts are rarely to be met with, even in English blazons, 
being the peculiar inventions of English heralds. The French and we use them 
not ; and if they occur, they would be blazoned or, seme of spots, sable, or sa- 
ble powdered with ermines, or ; and not make use of the w^ords, erminois, pean, and 
erminetts, not knowing what they signify. 

Ermine, and its kinds, have two tinctures, by what is represented. The spots 
are in place of figures, and so make a complete armorial bearing ; and, as such, 
ermine has been carried by the Dukes of Bretagne, which we blazon only ermine ; 
the French say, d'be i mines ; and the Latins say, scutum Armenia; muris vellere de- 
rcriptum. This duchy was annexed to the kingdom of France by Lewis XII. 
marrying Anne, the only daughter and heir of Francis II. and last duke of 
Bretagne. 

The fields, and figures, or pieces of armories, which are laid upon the field as 
charges, frequently with us and other nations, are of this furr ; and, when the field 
is ermine, it may be charged with figures of any of the metals or colours before- 
mentioned. And the figures being ermine, may be laid upon fields either of metal 
or colour ; because furrs are composed of two tinctures, metal and colour, and so 
may either charge, or be charged, without any breach of the rule, Not to place 
metal upon metal, nor colour upon colour, of which I shall give some instances, 
of carrying ermine as a field and charge. 

The family of Soules with us, lords of Liddesdale, anciently carried ermine, 
three cheverons,^/^; which I have observed marshalled sometimes in the achieve- 
ments of the Douglasses, for the title of that lordship. 

The surname of Menzies have the field of their arms ermine; and these also of 
the name of Moncrief, M'Culloch, Craigie, and many others, of whom afterwards. 
And the family of Hamilton charges the field of their arms, being gules, with three 
cinque foils ermine, to shew their descent from the old earls of Leicester in England. 
And these of the surname of Telsifer, Cowper, and Mushet, have some of their ar- 
morial figures ermine, to show their descent from Bretagne ; and some of our se- 
nators of the College of Justice have assumed the furr ermine as senatorial. 

The spots of ermine are many, and of an indefinite number, being irregularly 
disposed on the field ; but when a certain number of them, under ten, formally 
disposed, and situated after the position of any of the proper figures in heraldry, 
then the bearing is not to be blazoned ermine, the spots being charges, and are 
ailed with us ermine spots, by the French, moucbetures ; and in the blazon, their 
name, number, and disposition are to be expressed. Gerard Leigh, an old English 
herald, in his Accidents of Armories, gives an example of this nature, thus, argent 
four queues (i. e. tails) of ermine placed in cross sable ; the moderns call them 
'our ermine, spots, or mouchetiires, in cross sable. Henderson of Fordel has on a 
< luef of his arms, a crescent between two moucbetures. Hamilton of Innerwick has 
Uvo moucbetures on his fesse ; and Sir George Hamilton of Barnton has on his, che- 
veron, argent, a buckle, azure, betwixt two mouchetures, sable. Monsieur Baron, 
in his Art Heraldujue, gives us the arms of De Vexin in French, " de g ueles au 
' croissant $ argent, charge' de cinque moucbetures de sable /' i.e. gules, a cres- 



OFTHEFURR VAIR. 19 

cent, argent, charged with five imucbetmes, sable. The Latin:-, call them, macula- 
minis Armenia.. 



UK THE KURR VAIR. 

VAIR is the other principal furr in heraldry. Its pieces arc ahv.iy urgent and 
azure, as fig. 10. and n. of much esteem with the ancients in lining or 
doubling of robes and mantles of Kings, princes, and senators, as heralds tell u , 
but diiVer among themselves about the nature of it. The most part, and learned- 
est of them, tell us, that it is the skin of a little beast like a weasel, called I'm 
which Menestrier says, is thus described in a manuscript in the Vatican at Rome, 
" Yarns est bertia parvula paulo amplior quam Mustek, a re nomen sortita, namin 
" ventre candicat, in dorso cinereo colore variatur, adeoque eleganti, ut pellis ejus 
" in deliciis habeatur, nee nisi excellentibus viris, &- mulieribus convenire judica- 
" tur in urbibus bene moratis." From this beast Varus, whose back is blue, and 
belly white, they bring Vuir ; its proper colours, as I have said, being azure and 
urgent. And when the head and feet of the beast are taken from its skin, it re- 
sembles much the figure of vair used in heraldry, as Sir George Mackenzie and 
John Feme observe in their above-mentioned books. 

Others, again, affirm, that this furr is not called vair from the beast Varus, but 
from vari'j vellere, being composed of pieces of skins of various colours sewed to- 
gether ; and when they latin this furr, they say, Anna variata ex pellibus all/if 
5" cteruleis, so blazons Mr Gibbon for the arms of Beauchamp, an eminent man 
in the reign of Edward I. who was at the siege of Carlaverock in Scotland. 

The learned Uredus, in his Blazons of Vair, says, " Scutum vario vellere impres- 
" sum ;" and so, with others, will have vair come from the Latin word vario, to 
vary and change. 

Some latin vair, not from the various colours, but from the forms of the pieces 
of the furr, which seem to represent little shields, and so say, Farias pe lies scutula- 
tas. And Le Traphe d'Arms will have these pieces of vair to represent pots, 
bells, or cups, ranged in a right line, of which some seem turned upside down, 
others upright, as tig. n. Sometimes the cups, or bells, are ranged in such sort, 
that the points of one of the blue immediately touches another of the same colour, 
as do these of the colour argent ; and this they call contre vair, as fig. 12. And 
some heralds latin vair from the form of its pieces, which they take to represent 
caps or hats ; as Uredus, in the Blazon of Guissnes, a French seigniory, and that of 
the arms of St Pole, being gules, three pales, vair, a chief, or, are thus latined by 
him, Scutum coccineum tribus palis vellere petasato impressis, lemniscatum, 
summitate deaurata : The word petasus, signifies a cap or hat with a broad 
brim ; so that for vair, the Latins ordinarily say, " Scutum vellere petasato argen- 
" teo vicissim & csruleo impressum," the arms of the family of Varana in Italy, 
which are canting arms, vair being relative to the name. And Menestrier tells us, 
the arms of Beauframont in France being vair, are also canting, and relative to the 
name, who will have the form of the pieces of vair to represent bells, which Beau- 
froy signifies befroy, a belfroy, a watch-tower or steeple, also an alarm-bell. The 
like may be said of the surname of Belches with us, who carry vair equivocally, 
relative to the name Belches. 

We meet with grand vair and menu vair in French books. The first consists 
only of three tracts or ranges of pieces of vair; so the fewer they are the pi< 
are the larger, and latined by Sylvester Petra Sancta, " Petasi decumani grandio- 

res." Menu vair, or little vair, is where there are more tracts than four ; and 
this is the ordinary vair used in armories, which is always of the tinctures argent 
and azure, as fig. 10. and n. Which tinctures we do not express in blazon, but 
only the word vair, which is always supposed to be of these two colours. But if 
the pieces of vair be of other tinctures, then they are to be expressed, by saying 
vaire or vairy of gules, and or, fig. 13. : As these of the Ferrers, earls of Derb) , 
and their descendants Lords Ferrers of Chartley in England, who carried vaire, or, 
and gules; thus blazoned by Jacobus Willhelmus Imhoff, in his Treatise, Blaz'jnia: 
Regum parlumque MagncE Britannia, " Ferrarii, Comites Derbine & Barones de 
" Chartley, scutum quo utebantur petasis aureis & rubeis variegatum est." 



.. 



20 POINTS AND PARTS OF THE SHIELD, &c. 

We meet often in French books vair or vairy, with their pieces otherwise ranged 
than the former, as fig. 14. which they call vair en pointe; of which Monsieur Ba- 
ron, in his LArt Heraldique, gives us the arms of Durant, which he blazons vair 
en pointe ; and, when of other tinctures than argent and azure, vair en pointe, 
d'or &- de gueles. 

There is another furr rarely to be met with, but in the books of our English 
writers, as fig. 15. which Gerard Leigh calls Meirre, a term used by them when 
the field is grittie, as John Feme says ; that is, when the field is composed equally 
of pieces of metal and colour alternately, as vair, cheque, lozenge, and meirre. The 
last, of which we are speaking, is composed of pieces representing cups or goblets, 
always of the tinctures of argent and azure alternately. And the foresaid Leigh 
blazons this coat vairy cappy, (or t assyj ; and his countryman, Mr Gibbon, in 
his Introductio ad Latinam Blazoniam, calls it, " Campum cuppis vel tassis variega- 
" turn." But Guillim, and other modern heralds, say, the pieces of this furr do 
represent the heads of crutches, and blazon it, potent contre potent, argent and 
azure; Potent, an English word signifying a crutch, from the French word Po- 
tence, a gallows, or cross like a T. The name of Bureau, in France, have a che- 
veron of these figures in their arms, which is blazoned by Sylvester Petra Sancta, 
" Cantherius ex repetitis mutuo insertis patibulis ;" and Mr Gibbon calls it, " Can- 
" therium patibulatum ;" and the English heralds, Potent contre potent; as in 
the foresaid figure. Of which more particularly afterwards, in the Chap, of Cros- 
ses, at the title, Of the Cross Potent, or Potence. 

Having, I think, sufficiently treated of the nature and forms of furrs used in ar- 
mories, which are a compound of metal and colour, and are sufficient of them- 
selves, without the addition of any other figure, to stand for a complete coat of 
arms ; when they are a field of arms, may be indifferently charged, either with 
metal or colour; and when charges or pieces are of those furrs, they may be laid 
on a field either of metal or colour, without offending the rule of heraldry, Not 
to put metal upon metal, or colour upon colour. I now proceed to the principal 
points of the shield. 



CHAP. VI. 

Til)' POINTS AND PARTS OF THE SHIELD ;' AND FORMS OF LINES, WHICH DIVIDE THE 

SHIELD INTO SEVERAL PARTS. 

I HAVE described the shield under several forms, and clothed it with armorial 
tinctures and furrs. I shall proceed now to show its points or niduli, as the 
Latir-5 term them, in which figures are situated, and from them have additional 
terms in the blazons, to show in what parts of the shield they stand, and how dis- 
posed of. 

The names of the points and parts of the shield are taken from the parts of a 
man, whom the shield is supposed to represent ; of which I have given two schemes, 
Plate II. 

In fig. i. Plate II. the letters ABC represent the highest part of the shield, 
which the French call chef, the head. The English and we write it chief, as it 
'.vere the most honourable and chief part of the shield. 

D is called the collar, or honour point; because eminent men do wear their bad- 
of honour about their necks, as the Knights of the Thistle, Garter, Holy Ghost, 
Golden Fleece, &c. 

E is called the cceur (or heart) point, as also the centre or fesse point. 

F, the nombrel or the navel point. 

G H, by the French, are called \\\zjlanque points; but by the English, the base 
points. And I, by all nations, the base point. 

^ is the dexter chief point ; B the middle chief point ; C the sinister chief 'point ; 

^ the right base point; H the sinister base point : But the French call themflanques ; 

and the letter I under them, they call the base point. The use of these points is to 

difference coats of arms charged with the same figures : For arms having a lion in 

chief, differ from those which have a lion in the nombrel point; and arms that have 









\v<n>t4 



4- 









OF THE LINES. 21 

u mascle or mullet in the dexter chief point, differ from those that have the like in 
the base points. Heralds tell us, these points have diflerent significations; for fi- 
gures which represent wit, are placed in the chief points ; and these which give 
addition of honour, are placed in the honour point: These which are given to re- 
ward courage, are placed in the cceur or centre point ; and these that are given in 
reward of supply or support, are placed in thejlank points, because a man's thighs, 
or flanks, are his greatest support. But these thoughts are mere flights of fancy in 
heralds, and seldom or never considered in composing arms ; but direct how to 
place figures on a shield after the most regular and beautiful ways, and, in blazon, 
to name the points wherein they stand, or are situated. When arms are blazoned, 
without relation to 4 or expressing the points wherein the figures are situated, the\ 
are then supposed to possess the centre of the shield. The other scheme being the 
figure 2. in which the letter A is the centre of the shield, where, ordinarily, the 
principal figure of the bearing is placed. 

B the middle chief point ; any figure placed there, is said to be in chief. 

C is ordinarily the place, when three figures are carried two and one : The un- 
dermost is there situate, as in the bearing of the house of Hamilton, gules, three 
cinquefoils, ermine, two in chief and one in base. 

D the dexter chief point, or canton. 

E the sinister chief point, or canton. 

F the dexter flanque ; and G, the sinister flanque of the shield, where are situate 
the two crescents in the arms of Haig of Bemerside, Plate VI. fig. 28. 

D B E are said to be in chief, or ranged in chief, as in the arms of Dalmahoy of 
that Ilk ; azure, three mullets in chief, argent. Plate VI. fig. 34. 

When figures are situate or ranged, as D A I, they are said to be in bend, as the 
three martlets in the arms of Norvil. Plate V. fig. 20. 

When ranged, as E A H, they are said to be in bend sinister. 

When ranged, as H C I, they are said to be in base; the French say, in point. 

When nine figures are ranged and placed as the nine letters in the scheme, they 
ire then, in the blazon, said to be carried 3, 3, and 3. 

When three figures are ranged or situate as the three letters F A C, they are said 
to be in fesse. 

And when five figures are ranged or placed as A B C F G, they are said to be 
in cross ; and when situate as A D I E H, they are then ranged in saltier. 

When eight figures are situate as the letters DBEGICHF, they are said to 
he placed in orle . 



OF THE LINES. 

THE lines used in armories, in dividing the shield into different parts, and in 
composing of figures, are of different forms, without which many arms would 
be one and the same ; for a chief wavey differs from a plain chief, by the lines 
which compose them : And there are particular reasons for these different forms of 
lines, as shall be observed hereafter. These lines, according to their forms and 
names, give denomination to the pieces or figures which they form, except the 
straight or plain line. The crooked lines are these following : The first two lines, 
Plate II. named ingrailed and inverted, when represented together, are somewhat 
known, the one from the other, being opposite to one another, both being made 
(as it were) of semicircles, the ingrailed with points upward, and the invected line 
with points downward. Bxit this is not yet a sufficient distinction ; for suppose the 
space betwixt them, which they form, be a fesse, then it is only ingrailed and not 
invected ; for a fesse ingrailed must have the points on both sides turned towards 
the field, and the convex or gibbose parts towards the fesse itself ; and so of a bend, 
cheveron, and other proper figures in heraldry : And if these be invected, then the 
convex parts of the line are towards the field ; but these lines are more clearly dis- 
tinguished, when placed by way of border, as fig. i. Plate II. with the letters with- 
in a border ingrailed, and in fig. 2. within a border invected. These two lines, in- 
grailed and invected, are more hard to be distinguished, when the field is divided 
into two equal parts of different tinctures, as parted per pale, parted per fesse, &c, 

F 



M PARTITION AND REPARTITION LINES 

Here we know not whether the line be ingrailed or invected, except Wo observe this 
rule, That the form of the line must be applied to the colour first named. The 
French, for ingrailed, say engrele ; and for invected, canele. And those who write 
in Latin, commonly say, for ingrailed, ingrediatus ; imbricatus, and striatus ; and 
for invected, invectus and canaliculatus ; as Sylvester Petra Sancta. 

Wavey, or waved, is said of a line or lines that are formed after the waves of the 
sea, as parted per fesse wavey in the arms of Drummond of Concraig, Plate II. fig. 
4. ; and the lines which form the bars waved in the arms of the earl of Perth, which 
signifies, that the bearer got his arms for services done at sea ; as Sir George Mac- 
kenzie says, That the Drummonds bear the three bars or faces undee or wavey, be- 
cause the first of that name came by sea with Queen Margaret, who was married 
to Malcolm Canmore, as master of the ship, and having suffered great storm, 
through which he, by his skill, conducted them. He did thereafter get the three 
faces wavey, representing waves ; which form of line, the French term unde or on- 
de ; and the Latins, undulatus, undosits, or undatus. 

Nebule, so called, because the line represents a cloud. The French heralds call 
it nuance ; the Latins, nebulosa linea ; and is given also to such as have been emi- 
nent for their skill in navigation. 

Crenelle, or embattled lines, represent the battlements of a house ; and are said 
to signify, in armories, skill in architecture, valiant actions in defending or as- ' 
saulting castles, or to show the bearer to be descended of a noble house ; for of 
old, none were admitted to embattle their houses but great barons ; as Cambdeu 
observes, who speaking of TunstaPs seat in England, says, " Rex dedit ei licentiam 
" canellare mansam." The word crenelle is used for embattling, especially when 
;t figure is embattled but in one side ; and when a figure, such as a fesse, is em- 
battled on both sides, heralds say ordinarily bretesse, and some say contre bretesse. 
For embattling, the Latins use the words pinnatus, pinnis asperatus ; as Uredus in 
his Blazons, and Sylvester Petra Sancta in his Murales Pimiula-. 

There is another embattled line of this sort, which Leigh gives us, called battled 
embattled; because it hath one degree of battling above another ; and when the 
upper points are sharp, it is called carnpagne, as if the points represented bastions, 
the outer-works of cities and camps : When the upper points or battlements are 
rounded, it is called crenelle embattled arrondi ; such an embattlement faces the west 
part of the House of Seaton, the ancient seat of the chief of that name, Earls of 
Winton. The line indented resembles the teeth of a saw, and has its name from 
dens, a tooth, or indentura, a certain deed of writing, whose top is indented, or cuJ 
into like teeth. Dancette, which is the same almost with the indente secundum 
quale ; but not secundum quantum, for their forms are both one, but in quantity 
they differ much, for the indente is smaller than the dancette: Also dancette 
differs from indente, by reason it consists but of few teeth, though never fewer than 
three, as Mr Holmes in his Academy of Armory, whereas the indente hath many 
teeth. The French say for indented, denche, dentelle ; and for dancette when the 
teeth are very long, and when there 'are but two teeth or points, vivre; which 
Menestrier takes for the letter M, when the legs of it are extended from side to 
side of the shield ; because, many who carry a partition or fesse after that form, 
their names begin with the letter M : The Latins say, for indente, indentatus, 
dentatits, and dentlculatus ; and when the teeth of it are very long, as dancette, 
they say denies decumani. 

I shall add other two forms of lines, lest I should seem to be defective in respect 
of other heralds ; who, for the most part, confound their readers, and make the . 
art unpleasant, and deter them from studying of it, by many fanciful forms of 
'lines, \vhich are rarely, or never to be met with, their terms being gibberish and 
bombast. The first of these two is termed patte, or dove-tail, from a form of art 
used by joiners, who make joints one into the other by that name : It is by Mr 
Morgan, in his Sphere of Gentry, blazoned, inclnvc, labelled, because the points as 
;iiey proceed from the ordinary, such as a chief or fesse, represent the points or 
ends of labels. 

The other line is blazoned unde or champaine by Feme. Upton calls it vere ? 
because its points are formed like pieces of vair. 



IN MEMORIES. 

These, not counting the last two, are the. common received forms of /;'/, 
armories, and are called the accidents or attributes of armorial figures, which they 
form, and if any other be in painting or sculptures, not agreeable to those abo\c. 
as being uncouth and irregular, they are called by the best French heralds clattc. 

The knowledge and use of these forms of lines are necessary in this science, to 
distinguish and difference many armorial bearings, who have the same partitions 
and figures, which would be all one bearing, if they were not distinguished and 
differenced by these attributes and accidents of lines ; as will more eminently ap- 
pear in the following chapters. 



CHAP. VH. 

OF THE PARTITION AND REPARTITION LINES IN ARMORIES. 

A SHIELD of one of the armorial tinctures is not a complete armorial bear- 
ing, as I said before, except there be more tinctures than one ; for then a 
figure will appear, though but the termination of two tinctures or more meeting- 
together, which represents a line or lines. 

Lines then, which divide the shield, or field, into parts, are of two sorts. And, 
First, These which divide the shield into equal parts, and cut the centre, are called 
the principal partition lines ; by some pertransient lines: Of them there are four, 
parted per pale, per fesse, per bend, dexter, and sinister, called by the French, 
parti, coupe, tranche, taille. Secondly, Repartition lines, by which I understand 
these which divide the shield into unequal parts> as parti mi-coupe, and coupe mi- 
parti: But before I proceed to treat of them separately, and illustrate them by 
examples, I shall give the opinion of the learnedest heralds, of their rise and use 
in armories. Murk Vulson de la Columbier, in his Science Heroique, will have the 
rise of the partition lines, from the strokes and cuts of swords, which military men 
received in time of battle upon their shields ; and, to recompense the dangers 
wherein they were known to have been by these cuts, heralds did represent these 
cuts upon their shields by lines ; but for my part, L cannot conceive how these 
strokes or cuts, given at random, could give rise to the regular partition lines in 
armories, which are very mathematical, and regular in the shield ; and from, them 
all the proper figures in heraldry have their forms and denominations ; whence 
also the positions, dispositions, and situations of natural figures, have their terms in 
blazons ; yea, the science depends upon the knowledge of them. 

I am rather of the opinion, that the partition lines have their rise from the same 
tountain with the tinctures and furrs, viz. from the habits of princes and military 
men, who, of old, were clothed in the war with garments of diverse colours, parti, 
'/.Y/ic% bendie barrc, &tc. Of these party-coloured garments, Favin observes, in IiN 
Theatre of Honour, were the jackets, cassocks, and arming coats of the ancient 
Gauls, for which he cites these words of Virgil, " Virgatis lucent sagulis." And Eri- 
therus, in his Notes upon this place ot" Virgil, says, " Quasi hae quidem in Virgarum 
" modum deducts?, quibus vestibus milites utuntur vulgo, striati et divisati inde 
"' livria in militaribus vestibus dicta." And Mr Frecheus, in his Origin of the 
Palatinate from the Boii, says, the Dukes of Bavaria have anciently borne their 
KQa,patii4,bendt, argent, azure, for that they resemble the party-coloured cassocks of 
the ancient Boii, who were these Gauls that attempted the surprise of Rome, and 
that their party-coloured garments were white and blue, by which they were dis- 
covered in the night-time. The Guelph. and Gibeline factions distinguished 
themselves by party-coloured garments ; the first had them parted per fesse, of 
two different colours, and the ether parted per pale ; and the same partitions were 
in their shields of arms. Menestrier in his treatise of the Origin of Arms, is of the 
opinion, that the rise of the partitions, in armories, was from those in the habits of 
grout men, and of which he gives several instances ; a few of which I shall here 
mention, as the ancient robes of the Consuls of Grenoble, were parti, or, and 
azure ; and the garments of the officers of the city of Cambray, part;, gules and 
argent ; and from these come the same partitions in their arms. The town of 
Metz carries for arms parti, argent, and sable ; and Bergamo, a town in Lom- 
bardy, carries also parti, azure, and or; the ancient habits of their magistrates be- 



: 4 OF THE PARTITION, AND REPARTITION LINES 

ing of the same tinctures ; and these partitions are called devices, from the diversity 
of their colours. 

Besides those partitions, we find other pieces of armories to have come from 
habits and garments, to the shields, of fields, especially those that are seme, or 
powdered, with small figures, such as stars, flowers, &-c. And show evidently, that. 
they were first on the stuff of garments, before they came to the shield ; for in all 
coats of arms seme, the half of these figures appear on the sides of the shield, being 
as it were so cut, when the stuff or cloth was shaped to the form of a shield- 
Many learned antiquaries and heralds are of this opinion. Sylvester Petra Sancta, 
in his Tesserae Gentilitia, has the title of his loth chap, thus, " Ex vestium ornatu 
" petitur origo gentilium Tesserarum ;" and about the end of that chapter, he says, 
" Si modum desideres haec signa transcribendi ex vestibus ad clypeos, nempe ex 
" unius luminis panno, vel bipartite, vel quadripartito, vel lemniscato, vel scutu- 
" lato ; fingas clypeo super poni pannum ejus schematis &- statim habes istiusmodi 
" gentilitias tesseras :" And besides, it is certain the crosses used in armories, were 
taken from the habit to the shield ; for those who undertook the crusades to the 
Holy War had crosses of stuff sewed on their clothes, before they were in their 
arms: Whence many shields of arms are mancbe, and gironne ; that is to say, with 
sleeves and gushets, which are proofs that many figures came from the habits and 
garments of great men to their shields. 

But to proceed to the partition lines, as is said before to be four principal ones, 
which divide the shield or field, into equal parts, by cutting the centre. The 
English and French give them different names, the knowledge of both which are 
necessary. The terms of the last would be found more serviceable in this science 
than those of the English, who bring them from the ordinaries. And to explain 
both, I shall add their terms in Latin, by heralds who write in that language. 

When the shield or field is divided into two equal parts, by a perpendicular line 
from the top of the shield to the base of the point, it is said by us and the English, 
parted per pale. The French say only parti, as of other things, when divided into 
two equal parts perpendicularly ; as Plate II. fig. 2. thus blazoned, parted per pale, 
argent, and gules. The French, parti d 'argent, et de gueules. The Latins say, 
Scutum a swmno bipartitum, dextra semisse argentea, sinistra coccinea : The arms of 
the city of Bari, in the Kingdom of Naples, which are so parted, upon the 
account that the ancient robes of their magistrates were of the same partition, as 
Favin gives us in his forementioned book : The arms of Lucerne, a Swiss canton, 
argent, parti d' azure i. e. parted per pale, argent, and azure : And Feme, in his 
above-named book, gives us the arms of the name of Fairly in England, blazoned 
after the old English way, counterly per pale, sable and or : They said of old 
counterly, when the field was divided into two equal parts, for which they say 
now, parted per pale. 

There are several surnames with us, who have their bearings parted per pale, as 
that of MAULE ; the chief family of which name is that of the Earls of PANMURE, 
whose bearing parted per pale, argent and gules; a bordure charged with eight 
escalops, all counter-changed of the same. 

Those of the surname of ALEXANDER, parted per pale, argent and sable; a 
cheveron and crescent in base, all counter-changed. The chief of this name was 
Alexander Earl of Stirling, who, to show his descent from the Macdonalds, quarter- 
ed their arms with his o.wn : Or, a galley sable, accompanied with three cross 
corslets, fitched gules ; two in chief, and one in base. 

The surname of NAIRN gives parted per pale, sable and argent, a chaplet 
charged with four quarter-foils all counterchanged, which was carried by Sir 
Robert Nairn of Strathurd ; who, being one of the Senators of the College of 
Justice, was created a Lord of Parliament by the title of Lord NAIRN, whose only 
daughter and heir was married to William, a younger son of the Marquis of 
Athol, who took upon him the name, title, and arms of Nairn, which he quarters 
with the arms of Murray of Athol. 

The blazons of other families of the surnames above mentioned will be found at 
the end of this chapter. 

The term counter-changed, mentioned in the foresaid blazons, is used where the 
Held is of metal and colour, and the figure which is placed upon them, partakes 



IN ARMORIES. 

f both ; that part of it being of colour which lies upon the metal, and the other 
part metal, which lies upon the colour. 

When the partition line is .straight, and of none of those crooked forms above 
mentioned, it has then no additional denomination in the blazon : Hut it it consist 
of ;uiy of those particular forms, then the term of that form is added in the blazon, 
and serves as a difference for cadets, as well to distinguish them amongst themselves, 
us to difference them from their principal families. So Thomas Maule, a second son 
of Maule of Melgum, who was a second son of Panmure, gave the same bearing 
with Panmure, with the partition liae waved thus ; fig. 2. parted per pale, wavey 
argent and gules, on a bordure, eight cscalops all counter-changed of the same. 
And Captain John Maule, another cadet of that family, made his partition line 
nebulc, as in the new Register in the Herald-ollice : Where also David Alexander 
of Pitkclly, has his partition line ingruiled for a difference, thus, parted per pale, 
ingrailed argent^ a cheveron ; and in base, a crescent, all counter-changed of the 
same. 

I shall here blazon the armorial bearing of the surname of Alexander, in the 
vulgar Latin, and then proceed to the other partitions. 

Scutum ad perpendicuiitin bipartitum dex.tr a semisse argentea, sinistra atra, cum can- 
tberio & in inu'i iuna crescens, pradictis coloribus commutatis. 

Parted per fesse, is when the shield is divided into two equal parts, by a hori- 
zontal line. The French say, coupe ; the Latins, partitum ex transverso, and some- 
times trinsvcrse sfdum; as rig. 3. parted perfesse, or and azure: The French, coupe 
d'or, et d' azure ; the Latins, ex auto 13 cyano transverse bipartitum; the arms of 
the Trotti in Milan. This and the former partition are very frequent in the 
arms of the Italians, upon the account, there are few old families in Italy, who 
were not engaged in the factions of the Guelphs and Gibelines, which parties 
wore not only distinguished by such partitions in their arms, but even in their 
habits, as before. 

Those of the surname of BALNAVES with us, carry parted per fesse, argent and 
sable, a cheveron counter-changed, of the same tinctures : Some say, that their 
name and arms, are from a high hill, in the north of Scotland, called Ben Nevis, 
whereabouts they lived ; the top of which hill is always white with now, and it's 
lower parts black with heather. Balnaves of Hallhill, carried the foresaid arms. 
Mr James Balnaves of Carnbody, and chanter of Dumblane, parted per fesse, 
argtnt and sable, a cheveron betwixt three cinque-foils, two in chief, and one in 
base, all counter-changed ; and for crest, a hand holding a foot-ball ; with this 
motto, Hinc origo, as in our new Register of Arms ; and some others of the name 
have the foot-ball for crest, with these words, Fortitudine ^ velocitate, upon another 
tradition of their name, that one Nevoy, playing well at the foot-ball, before one 
of our kings, who cried out, Well-balPd, Nevoy ; from, whence the surname Bal- 
naves, which tradition seems more probable, and that they are originally from the 
family of Nevoy, because their arms are not unlike. 

The surname of MIDDLETON, the chief of which family was the Right Honour- 
able the Earls of Middleton, and Lords Clermont ; coupe, or and gules, a lion ram- 
pant within a double tressure, flowered, and counter-flowered, with, flower de luces, 
all counter-changed. 

DRUMMOND of Concraig and Borlands, an old branch of the honourable house 
of Drummond of Stobhall, and afterwards of Perth, parted per fesse, waved or and 
gules, as fig. 4. 

SHEWAL of that ILK., parted per fesse, dancette, sable and argent; in chief three 
stars, and in base, a boar's head erased, all counter-changed of the same tinctures ; 
as in Workman's Manuscript of Blazons, who was a herald painter in the reign of 
King James VI. 

The name VALENCE in England, parted per fesse, indents , azure and argent. 
The name of KENDAL there, parted per fesse, indents, or and gules, as in Morgan's 
Heraldry. 

The third principal partition line, parted per bend, is when a field is divided 
into two equal parts by a diagonal line, passing from the upper right angle, to the 
left angle, towards the base; the French say then, tranche, the Latins, oblique^ 
dextrorsus bipartitum, vel sectum; as fig. 5. parted per bend, g ules and or. 

G 



OF THE PARTITION AND REPARTITION LINES 



IV.IES AiLANofSauchnel, parted per bend indents, argent mA gules ; in chief 
two crescents, and in base a star, all counter-changed, fig. 6. so matriculated in 
the New Register : Others of the name of Allan, carry a pelican with three birds 
in a nest, or; as in James Pont's Manuscript of Blazons, written in the year 1624. 

The surname of DAKSALLOUGH, parted per bend, ingrailed sable and argent, as in 
Mr Thomas Crawford's Manuscript of Blazons. 

The surname of SPOT, parked per bend, dancette, argent and sable, two mullets 
counter-changed, as in Pont's Manuscript. 

The name of BOYLE in England, of which is the Right Honourable Richard 
Earl of BURLINGTON, parted per bend, embattled argent and gules, (some say for 
embattled, crenelle > Imhoff, in his Blazons of the Nobility of England, gives 
them thus, Scuto constant oblique dextrorsum secto, ha ut dimidia ex parte candeat, 
alter rubeat, sectionis vero ades in pinnas desinat, quartered in the achievement of 
the Earl of Glasgow. 

The fourth principal partition line, parted per bend sinister, is by a diagonal 
line, passing from the upper left corner to the low right angle toward the base ; 
the word sinister is mentioned in the blazon of this partition, to distinguish it from 
the former ; the French say only taille, as fig. 7. taille d' argent et d'azure, i. e. 
parted per bend, sinister, argent and azure; the Latins, scutum sinistrorsus sectum ex 
argentco fc? cyaneo ; the arms of Zurich, one of the Swiss cantons. 

In England, the surname of JOHNES in Derbyshire, carry parted per bend, sinister 
ermine and ermines, (the French would say, taille d' ermine et contre ermine}, over 
all, a lion rampant within a bordure ingrailed, or. The same arms are borne by Sir 
JOHN TREVOR of Drynkynalt, in Denbighshire, descended from Tudor Trevor, 
Earl of Hereford, but he has no bordure. 

Sir George Mackenzie, in his Science of Heraldry, gives us the arms of ELLIS, 
;. ailed per bend sinister, argent and gules, a hand couped, and grasping a lance 
bend-ways, bearing on the top thereof an helmet, proper ; in the sinister chief an- 
gle, a spur-rowel of the first, and, in the dexter base, a horse-head couped sable ; 
but the Ellis's of Elliston and Southside carry .other arms, viz. eels relative to the 
name, of which afterwards. 

There were several families with us who had their arms of this partition, as in 
our old books of blazons, which is now turned to the dexter, fancying some abate- 
ments or ignominy in the partition per bend sinister ; but I have met with no he- 
rald that says any thing to its dishonour, but all look upon it to be as honourable 
as the partition from the right. 

Having treated of the four principal partition lines, when but one of them in a 
field, dividing it into two equal parts, I proceed now to show, what blazons they 
have, when there are two or more of these lines dividing the field into many parts. 

When the first two lines mentioned, parted per pale and parted per fesse, as the 
French parti and coupe, meet in a field, they divide it into four equal parts or quar- 
ters, which are of different tinctures, the first as the fourth, and the second quarter 
as the third ; as Sylvester Petra Sancta, Cap. XXV. says, " Ex area simul ab apice 
" simul ab latere intersecta habentur tetrantes equales &- recti ; atqui hi semper ita 
" metalli &- coloris jubar alternant ut primus cum ultimo, secundus cum tertio, 
" splendeant lumine consentaneo ;" fig. 8. quarterly gules and argent; French, ecar- 
tele de gueides et d' argent. Gerard Leigh, and his followers, give out, That it should 
be blazoned, parted per cross, gules and argent, especially when there are no char- 
ges nor figures on the quarters. Suitable to this, Mr Gibbon blazons the same, as 
carried by Vere Earl of Oxford, with a star argent on the first quarter : " Scutum 
" in quatuor partes (sanguineas vicissim & aureasj lineis ad crucis modum ductis 
" sectum ; cujus quadrans primus Stella nr^entea decoratur." The German Imhoff, 
in his Blazons of the Peers of Britain, blazons it better, thus : " Scutum in qua- 
" dras sectum, quarum prima & extrema rubent, reliqui candent, solaque prima 
" stella distincta est argentea" The arms of the surname of TOUNIS with us, illu- 
minated in Workman's Book of Heraldry, as fig. 9. where the two partition lines 
are indented, is thus blazoned, parted per pale and per fesse indentc, argent and 
gules ; in the upper quarters two stars counter-changed of the same. And here it 
may be observed, that when the partition lines are under accidental forms, they 



IN ARMOKU - 

are then to be named in the blazon as the same figure, quarterly indent c, argent 
and gules, in chief, two stars counter-changed of the same. 

When the other two partition lines, per bend, dexter and sinister, tranche and 
faille, meet in a field, they divide it into tour quarters, <n areas, as fig. 10. which 
is blazoned, parted per saltier, argent and azure, by the name or bane in Dau 
phiny. The French say, d'argentflanque d' azure; and frequently, fecnrtele en sau- 
tiAr. The Latins, as Chifletius, scutum oblique de\trorsus & sinisirorsus sectum ; and 
ImhofT, scutum in modum decussis quadripartitum. Some have blazoned them, girui 
ne of four, argent and azure ; because these quarters are not square but triangular, 
and meet in the centre as girons. 

When the three partition lines, coupe, tranche, and taille, meet in one field, 
they make six triangular areas ; which the English blazon, gironne of six, or and sa- 
ble, on the first three negroes' heads, proper ; the arms of the name of CALLADKK 
in England, as fig. n. 

There is a rule to be observed in the above-mentioned partitions, That the tinc- 
ture on the right side is to be begun with, as in the examples of parted per pale 
and quarterly ; and with the tincture which possesseth the top or chief part of the 
shield, as in the examples of parted per fesse and per saltier : Which rule, Syhr-- 
ter Petra Sancta gives thus : " Descriptio harum partium inchoare debet. ab eo ful- 
" gore, sen coloris, sen metalli, qui primus observatur oculis in superiore loco, vel 
" in angulo dextro." But, in the last example, we do not begin with sable, which 
is in the dexter corner, but with or, because it possesses the most part of the chief, 
and the sable but a cantle or lesser part of it. If there were a perpendicular line 
added to the three former, all the parts would be equal. Then we are to mention 
.first the tincture in the dexter chief corner, as in the examples following. 

When all the four principal partition lines meet in one field, they divide it into 
eight angular and conal areas, or pieces, like to girons, as fig. 12. which our he- 
ralds blazon, gironne of eight pieces, or and sable ; but, in my opinion, these areas 
are not properly girons, which are figures or charges laid upon the field ; for some- 
times there will be but one, two, or three girons, and, in some bearings, to the 
number of sixteen, of which afterwards. And it is to b^ observed, that these 
eight conal areas fall out necessarily by the four partition linos ; which, by the 
most judicious heralds, are blazoned, parted per pale, fesse, bend, dexter, and si- 
nister, or and sable ; carried by the ancient and honourable name of CAMPBELL, as 
in Sir George Mackenzie's Science of Heraldry. Menestrier, in his La Science de 
la Noblesse, gives the same arms to the family of Grolee in Bresse, which he bla- 
zons, parti, coupe, tranche, taille, d'or et de sable. Mr Gibbon, in his Introducti'j 
ad Latinam Blazoniam, gives us the arms of Bassingborn in England, which are al- 
so the same with the paternal bearing of Campbell, viz. " Scutum linea perpendi- 
" culari transversa, & diagonali turn dextra, turn sinistra in octana aurea &-fur- 
" va traductum segmenta ;" because, says he, these lines divide the field exactly 
into eight gironal segments. 

Besides the four principal partitions, now described, there are others, and espe- 
cially one, very frequently used with us and the English, but not with the French, 
especially under the name we give it ; which is, 

Parted per cheveron ; it is made by two half diagonal lines, rising from the dex- 
ter and sinister base flanks, and meeting in the collar point of the shield, as fig. 13. 
parted per cheveron, sable and argent. The English heralds bring this partition, 
as they do others, from the ordinaries, which the French do not ; and so the first 
were wont to latinize this partition thus, scutum partitum ad modum signi capita/is, 
which they of old latined a cheveron, taking it to represent the ancient attire of the 
head ; but more of this afterwards. Mr Gibbon blazons the foresaid figure, scu- 
tum ad modum cantherii (another word for the cheveron) bipartitum, pars superior 
nigrn i3 inferior argentea, carried by the name of ASHTON in Cheshire. 

Those ot the surname of CR.AW with us give such a partition in their arms, a^ 
CRAW of Auchencraw, in the Merse, an old family, now extinct, carried parted 
per cheveron, vert and gules, three crows, argent; and the branches of that family, 
which continue in the shire of Berwick, have these partition lines under accidental 
forms. Craw of East Reston, parted per cheveron. embattled vert and gules, three 
crows, argent, fig. 14. 



3 -, OF THE PARTITION AND REPARTITION LINES 

When there are two perpendicular, or palar lines, dividing the shield or field in- 
to three equal parts, without cutting the centre, as fig. 15. it is blazoned, tierce in 
pale, azure, or, and gules ; and by the Latins, area tripartite in aquales trientes a 
summo (Hi irrium ex cyano, auro, fc? astro, so given us for the arms of Douchat in 
France, by Sylvester Petra Sancta. 

Tierce in fesse is such another, made by two horizontal lines, dividing the field 
into three equal parts, as fig. 16. tierce in fesse, azure, sable, and argent; the 
French say sometimes, d' 'azure coupe, de sable et tierce $ argent. Sylvester Petra 
Sancta blazons such a coat, belonging to the Berengi in Hessia, area tripartita 
transversa in tres trientes ex veneto furvo IS argent eo. 

There are other two tierces, after the position of the bend, dexter, and sinister, 
by dividing the field into three equal parts by two diagonal lines ; the first, as fig. 
17. tierce in bend, or, gules, and azure, by the name of Noinpar in France. The 
other from the left to the right, as fig. 18. tierce in bend, sinister, or, sable, and 
argent, by Turlinger in Bavaria. The French say, instead of tierce in bend, sinis- 
ter, tierce en bar. 

These partitions, by tiercing the field, are not used in Britain in forming a sim- 
ple coat of arms, but only when they marshall three coats of arms in one shield, 
of which afterwards. The Germans, French, and other nations, have, besides these 
tierces, which make up one coat of arms, others of the same nature, which do not 
occur in our British Blazons, at least if they do, they are not under the terms used 
abroad, of which I shall give a few instances for my reader's satisfaction. 

Fig. 19. This is called tierce in mantle, azure, argent, and gules, by the name of 
Absperg in Ratisbon, which is made when the field is divided into three parts, by 
two lines issuing from the middle of the upper part of the shield, and dividing it- 
self again at the collar point into two diagonal lines, somewhat circular to the 
flanks. Which partition is frequent in the arms of religious orders, to represent 
their different habits ; the undermost area represents the tunic or vest, and the up- 
per part the surcoat or pallium, and in what colours they are worn. Sylvester Pe- 
tra Sancta, speaking of this partition, Cap. XXIV. says, " Ad haec scutaria chla- 
" mvs seu trabea, ter perinde scuti aream partitur ; & quod explicatur utrinque, 
" hoc refert pallium, quodque intus apparet, tunicam seu internum amiculum re- 
" presentat, ut dubitari non possit, quin ad similitudinem vestium, imo ad rem 
" vestiariam haec symboli gentilitii forma pertinet, idque ordinum religiosorum etiam 
" tessenc conformant, exemplo sint trabea aut coccinea, supra tunicam intextam 
" argento; quoe est Ghisiorum Venetiis ac Plessenbergionum in Franconia." And, 
on the margin, our author tells us, the French would call it pile or chappe ; and 
gives us several examples of this nature, some of which are reversed, to whom I re- 
fer the curious. I have observed, that the Spaniards marshall their arms by this 
partition, tierce in mantle ; as the family of Henriquez, first and second, argent, 
charged with a lion rampant, gules ; and the third of the last with a castle, or; be- 
ing descended of a natural son of Ferdinand King of Leon and Castile. 

There is another partition more frequent, parted per pile in point, or and sable, 
fig. 20. so blazoned by Guillim and other English heralds. Gerard Leigh says, the 
pile part of this coat may be charged, and no other part thereof; and that it may 
be used as one only coat ; but by what authority he asserts the field cannot be 
oharged, I know not, for the practice of England is otherwise : As in the arms of 
SEYMOUR. Duke of Somerset, and of PARRE Marquis of Northampton. I do not 
take this figure to be a proper partition, but rather a field sable , charged with a 
pile or, one of the subordinaries, of which afterwards. 

Tierce in pile from the left to the right, gules, argent, and or ; the French say, 
tierce embarasse d droit de gueules d' argent et d'or, for the family of NEGENDUCK, as 
Menestrier in his La Science de la Noblesse. 

Tierce in giron, bend sinister ways, sable, argent, and. gules : But Menestrier 
ys, tierce en girons en barre, de sable, d? argent, et de gueules, fig. 22. for the fa- 
mily of Wa's. 

Tierce in girons arrondi ; Menestrier says, tierce en girons gironnans au arrondis 
de gueules, d' argent, et de sable, carried by De Mengentzer, as in his La Science de 
la Noblesse, 011 la Nouvelle Metbode du Blason, fig. 23. 

Tierce in pairle, is frequent with the French and Germans, Its form and name- 



IN. ARMORIES. 

is 1'rom the figure of pearl, of which in its proper place. This partition is mad'.- 
by a paler line issuing from the base point, dividing, at the centre, into two diago- 
nal lines, which end in the dexter and sinister chief points, and divide the field 
into three areas ; blazoned, tierce in pairle, argent, sable, and gules, tig. 24. borne 
by the Prince of Misnia in Upper Saxony. Sylvester Petra Sancta not only give-, 
us this partition, but the reverse of it, tierce in pairle, reversed argent, or, and 
azure, borne by the family of Haldarmanstetin in Germany. 

There are partitions denominated by the French, parti emanche, coupe emancbt . 
&c. of the first, when the field is divided perpendicularly by points or piles, mix 
ing with one another, or like a large dancette, as fig. 25. 

Parti emanche, sable and argent, the English would blazon it, parted per pair. 
dancette argent and sable ; or argent, three piles issuing from the left side., sable. 
The French know nothing of piles of which afterwards ; but say, when such fi- 
gures appear, emanche, manche signifying the sleeve of a coat. By the descriptions 
of these partitions, and the examples given, it is more than probable, that these 
partition lines were originally from the habits and party-coloured garments of great 
men. , 

There are other partitions, called by some repartitions, a few of which, chiefly 
used in Europe, I shall here subjoin ; though these may be referred to the Chapter 
Of Marshalling many Coats of Arms in one Shield. But since these are used by 
some families in Europe as one coat of arms, I shall speak of them in this place. 

This partition is made by a fesse, or horizontal line, and half a palar or perpen- 
dicular line from the chief, terminating in the centre ; which the English would 
blazon, parted per fesse, first parted per pale, or and azure, second argent. The 
French say, caupe mi-parti en haut d'or, d 1 azure, et d 1 argent; and Sylvester Petra 
Sancta, parma transversa secta, superiore parte partim aurea, partim cy tinea, & in- 
ferne argentea, the arms of the Fatieri in Venice, fig. 26. 

Fig. 27. parted per fesse, first or, second parted per pale, sable and argent ; the 
French say, coupe mi-parti en base ; and Sylvester Petra Sancta, super ne omnino aurea, 
inferne casia argentcaque, the arms of SchafFengergi in Bavaria. 

Fig. 28. parted per pale, first parted per fesse, azure and gules, second argent ; 
the French, parti mi-coupe, to the dexter d' azure, de gueules, et d? argent. Sylves- 
ter Petra Sancta, scutum in dextra semisse quidem, super ne caruleum, inferne puniceum, 
& penitus argenteum in lava semisse, borne by the family of Florcaneri in Bavaria. 

I shall add this partition, consisting of six areas ; blazoned, parti one, coupe two, 
azure and argent, as fig. 29. But this partition is fitter for holding different coats 
of arms marshalled together in one shield, than to be a coat of arms of itself with- 
out figures ; but more of such afterwards. 

There are many other odd partitions and repartitions of the field into two or 
more parts, which are to be found in the books of heralds before-mentioned, which, 
for brevity's sake, I omit ; because they are not to be met with in our Britannic 
Bearings, and rarely in eminent families abroad. I shall only here add one, which 
is a little singular with us, which I met with in a part of a manuscript of the learn- 
ed Mr Thomas Crawfurd, a curious antiquary and herald, whose writings on this 
and other sciences, were, to the great loss of our country, embezzled and destroy- 
ed after his death. He gives us the arms of Garth, (or M'Garth), in Galloway, an 
old name, but now not frequent, as fig. 30. which he blazons, quarterly per pale 
and cheveron, argent and gules. 

To put an end to these partitions and repartitions, I shall only advise my reader 
to carry along with him the four principal partition lines, as they are given in the 
English and French terms ; from which not only the other partitions and reparti- 
tions, which commonly occur, but also the following proper figures in heraldry, 
which I am to treat of, have their names. 

And here I shall conclude this chapter, as I propose to do those that follow, with 
a collection of blazons of the several families with us, which have for their bearings 
one or more of those partitions or figures whereof I have now treated, or may treat 
hereafter, in their proper places : Which I choose rather to do, than interrupt my 
reader by a multitude of blazons at the end of every paragraph. 

JAMES ALEXANDER of Knockhill, parted per pale, argent and sable, a cheveron 
and crescent in base, all counter-changed, with a mullet for difference. N. R. . By 

H 



3 o OF THE PARTITION AND REPARTITION LINES 

these two letters I understand the New Register of the Lyon Office ; so that those 
blazons, marked with these letters, are to be found matriculated there. 

ALEXANDER ALEXANDER of Au.cb.mull, some time Bailie of Aberdeen, parted per 
pale, argent and sable, a cheveron between two mullets in chief, and a crescent in 
base, all counter-changed ; crest, a hand sustaining a pair of balances of equal 
scales : motto, ^uod tibi ne alteri. N. R. 

ROBERT ALEXANDER of Boghall, parti argent and sable, a cheveron betwixt a 
writing-pen, fesse-ways, in chief, and a crescent in base, all counter-changed ; crest, 
a hand holding a quill : motto, Fidem serva. N. R. 

JAMES ALEXANDER of Kinglassy, parti argent and sable, a cheveron bruised at 
the top, and, in base, a crescent counter-changed, quartered with the arms of the 
name of Aiton ; crest, a horse-head couped gules, bridled argent : motto, Ducitur 
non trahitur. N. R. 

The Right Honourable the Earls of MJDDLETON, Lords Clermont and Fettercairn, 
parted per fesse, or and gules, a lion rampant within a double tressure, flowered and 
counter-flowered with flower-de-luces, all counter-changed j crest, a tower embat- 
tled sable, and on the top of it a lion rampant ; supporters, two eagles sable, armed 
and crowned, or : motto, Fortis in arduis. 

This noble family is the principal one of the ancient surname of Middleton, so 
called from their lands, which lie in the sherifFdom of Kincardine, as Sir George 
Mackenzie in his Manuscript, who tells us, that the ancient evident, now extant 
of the family, is a charter of King William's, conh'rming a donation of King 
Duncan's, of the lands of Middleton, to Malcolm the son of Kenneth, from whence 
they took the surname, and were designed Middletons of that Ilk, till they sold 
these lands, and were thereafter designed Middletons of Cadham, till the year 
1660, that John Middleton, for his eminent loyalty and bright parts, was advanced 
by King Charles II. to be Earl of Middleton, and High Commissioner to the Par- 
liament of Scotland ; and then got a concession of the double tressure to be added 
to his arms. He was succeeded in his titles and dignities, by his son Charles Earl 
of Middleton, who was secretary of state for Scotland, and afterwards for England.. 
The other branches of the family of Middleton, whose arms are to be found in the 
Lyon Register, are these : 

Captain ROBERT MIDDLETON, descended of the family of MIDDLETON of Kill- 
hill, parted per fesse, or and gules, a lion rampant within a bordure embattled, 
all counter-changed ; crest, a boar's head erased and erected, azure; motto, Guard 
jour self. 

Captain LAURENCE MIDDLETON, descended of Middleton of Clcrkhill, who. 
was a fifth brother of Killhill, carried the same, only with the variation of having 
the bordure nebule ; crest, an ape sitting on the top of a tree, all proper ; motto, 
Arte y Marte. 

JOHN MIDDLETON, merchant in Frasersburgh, descended 'of the Middletons of 
Fettercairn, parted per fesse, or and gules, a lion rampant counter-changed of the 
same, armed and langued azure, holding in his dexter paw an astrolabe, proper ; 
motto, My hope is in God. 

MR JoftN MIDDLETON, a minister of the gospel in England, in the county of 
Essex, second lawful son to Mr Alexander Middleton, principal of the King's 
College in the university of Aberdeen, parted per fesse, or and gules, a lion rampant 
within a bordure, indented and counter-changed of the same. 

The surname of CRAIK, coupe, argent and vert, in chief three roses, gules ; and 
in base a ship, or, with sails thirled up. 

The surname of ALISON, parted per bend, gules and or; a flower-de-luce coun- 
ter-changed, as in Mackenzie's Heraldry, Clan M'lver, or Clan Kiver, quarterly, 
or and gules, over all a bend sable, as in Mr Thomas Crawfurd's Manuscript of 
Blazons. 

The Lord WIDDRINGTON in Lincolnshire, in England, quarterly, argent and 

, a bend sable. 

The paternal ensign of the ancient surname of CAMPBELL, ao I observed before, 

i composed of the four principal partition lines, parti, coupe, tranche, faille, which 

divide the field into eight gironal segments, ordinarily blazoned with us, gironne of 



IN ARMORIES. . 3 r 

'jighf, or and sable ; by the mistake of the engraver, in the Plate of the Achieve- 
ments, it is sable and or, and so in several blazons in the Register of Arms. 

I here give the blazon of the achievement of his Grace JOHN Duke of ARGYLE, 
Earl of GREENWICH, &-c. chief of the ancient and honourable surname of CAMP- 
BELL, quarterly, first and fourth gironne of eight pieces, or- and sable, second and 
third argent, a galley or lymphad, sable; sails furled up, flag and pinnets Hying, 
and oars in action, for the lordship of Lorn ; surrounded with the principal ensign 
of the most noble Order of the Garter, with the George pendant, as one of thr 
Knights Companions of the said Order ; timbred with crown, helmet, and mamv 
lings, befitting his quality ; and on a wreath of his tinctures, for crest, a boar's 
head couped, or; with the motto on an escrol, Ne obliviscaris ; and for supporters, 
two lions gardant gules, armed and langued azure, standing on a compartment, 
whereon are these words, Vix ea nostra voco; and behind the shield are placed a 
batton and sword accolle saltierways, the one being gules seme of thistles, or, and 
ensigned with an imperial crown, and the crest of Scotland ; and the other, a 
sword proper, hilled and pommelled or, being the two badges of the Great Master 
of the Household, and High Justiciar of the Kingdom of Scotland ; as in the 
Plate of Achievements. 

The Right Honourable HUGH CAMPBELL, Earl of LOUDON, descended of old of 
the ancient family of LOCHOW, afterwards Earls and Dukes of Argyle, carried the 
same gironal segments of different tinctures as his progenitors have done. The 
first of them, Duncan Campbell, in the reign of King Robert the Bruce, married 
Susanna Crawfurd, heiress of Loudon, as is evident by that king's charters ; upon 
which account, in place of the tinctures or and sable, the family has ever since 
been in use to have, for their tinctures, gules and ermine, being these in the bearing 
of Crawfurd of Loudon, viz. gules, a fesse. ermine. The achievement of the present 
Earl of Loudon, is gironne of eight gules and ermine, surrounded with a collar of 
the most ancient and noble Order of the Thistle, or that of St Andrew, with the 
badges thereat pendant : Which arms are timbred with crown, helmet, and mant- 
lings, agreeable to his quality ; and, on a wreath of his tinctures, for crest, an 
eagle displayed with two heads within a flame of fire, and on an escrol ; for motto, 
/ bide my time ; supported on the dexter by a man armed at all points, holding a 
spear, proper ; and, on the sinister, by a lady richly apparelled, holding in her 
hand a missive letter ; as in the Plate of Achievements.. 

The Right Honourable JOHN Earl of BREADALBANE, Lord GLENORCHY, quarterly, 
first, the paternal coat of Campbell, as descended of a younger son of the family 
of Lochow, now dignified with the title of Duke of Argyle. Secondly, argent, a 
lymphad sable, and oars in action. Thirdly, or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent, 
as being descended of one of the co-heiresses of Stewart of Lorn ; and the fourtli 
as the first : Which arms are adorned with crown, helmet, and mantlings, befitting 
his quality, and on a wreath of the tinctures of his paternal bearing : For crest, a 
boar's head erased, proper ; supporters, two stags, proper ; attired and unguled or ; 
motto, Follow me. 

The other cadets of the noble family of Argyle, I add here, as they stand record- 
ed in our Modern Register : Sir HUGH CAMPBELL of Calder, quarterly, or, a hart's 
head cabossed, sable, attired gules, for the name of Calder, the heiress of which 
name and lands, one of his progenitors married. Secondly, gironne of eight, or 
and sable, for Campbell. Thirdly, argent, a galley with her oars in action, sable, 
for Lorn. Fourthly, or, on a fesse, azure, three buckles of the first ; crest, a swan, 
proper ; crowned, or ; motto, Be mindful : Supported on the dexter by a lion ram- 
pant, gardant gules, armed or; and on the sinister, by a hart, proper. 

Sir JAMES CAMPBELL of Lawers, gironne of eight, sable and or, within a bordure 
vair; crest, a boar's head erected and erased, azure; motto, Fac fc? spera. 

Sir GEORGE CAMPBELL of Cesnock, as descended of the family of Argyle and 
Loudon, carried both their arms thus, recorded in the Lion Register 1672 ; gironne 
of eight pieces, or and sable, for Argyle, within a bordure gules, charged with eight 
escalops of the first ; and a canton, also gironne of eight pieces, ermine and gules, 
"for Loudon; crest, a phoenix head erased, or; with thjs motto, Const anter fc? pru- 
denter. 

Sir COLIN CAMPBELL of Aberuchill, Baronet, and one of the Senators of the 



p OF THE PARTITION, AND REPARTITION LINES 

College of Justice, whose grandfather was a second son of Campbell of Lawer.^ 
who was descended of the first son of a second marriage of the first laird of 
Glenorchy, who was a second son of the family of Lochow, now Duke of Argyle ; 
gironne of eight, or and sable, within a bordure embattled vert : Thereafter Sir 
Colin used the bordure nebule, and afterwards he caused mark it in the books, 
ermine; and altered also his exterior ornaments thus; crest, a demi-lion gardant, 
gules; holding in his dexter paw a sword, proper; and in his sinister, two laurel 
branches, orle-ways : The old motto was, Ex campo victoria; but since he was one 
of the Senators of, the College of Justice, he took for motto, Fictoriam coronat 
Christus; and for supporters, two blood hounds collared and leashed, proper. 

His son and successor, Sir JAMES CAMPBELL of Aberuchill, now carries the same 
arms ; but has of late, by warrant of my Lord Lyon King at Arms, placed the 
laurel on the lion's head in his crest ; and in his sinister paw, a Highlander's dag 
or pistol ; with this new motto, Sequitur victoria forteis, He married the heiress 
of Dempster of Pitliver ; whose armorial bearings, with those of his own, may be 
seen engraved in copperplate, amongst the Plates of Achievements. 

ROBERT CAMPBELL of Glenlyon, whose grandsire's grandfather was the eldest 
son of a second marriage of Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy, and his lady a 
daughter of Douglas Earl of Angus, carries quarterly, first and fourth, Campbell ; 
secondly, Lorn ; thirdly, Stewart ; and in the centre, a man's heart crowned, 
proper, for Douglas Earl of Angus ; crest, a demi-lion, holding up by his dexter 
paw a heart crowned : motto, ^ute recta sequor. 

ALEXANDER CAMPBELL of Lochnell, descended of the family of Argyle, quar- 
terly, first, Campbell; second, argent; a boar's head erased, azure; armed and 
languid gules; third, Lorn, and the fourth as first ; crest, a dexter hand holding a 
lance bend-ways, proper : motto, Audacesjuvo. 

ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, brother-german of Waterhaughs, gironne of eight 
pieces, ermine and gules, waved ; and a crescent for difference : motto, Tandem 
licet sero. 

JOHN CAMPBELL of Monzie, descended of a third son of the family of Gle- 
norchy ; the quartered coat of Glenorchy, with a mullet for difference : motto, 
Follow me. 

JOHN CAMPBELL of Gargunnock, gironne of eight, ermine and gules ; on each of 
the last, a bee volant, argent; crest, a stork, proper : motto, Refero. 

JOHN CAMPBELL of Succoth, gironne of eight pieces, ingrailed or and sable; crest, 
a camel's head couped, proper : motto, Labor omnia superat. 

COLIN CAMPBELL of Blythswood, descended of Campbell of Ardkinlas, descend- 
ed of Argyle; quarterly first and fourth; gironne of eight, or and sable; each 
charged with a trefoil, slipped and counter-changed of the same ; second and third, 
Lorn ; crest, a ship at anchor : motto, Vincit labor. 

MATTHEW CAMPBELL of Waterhaughs, descended of the family of Loudon ; 
parti, coupe, tranche, taille, wavey ermine and g ules : motto, Tandem lice sero. 

ROBERT CAMPBELL of Glenfalloch, descended of Glenorchy ; the quartered 
.-oat of that family, and for difference in the centre, a hunting-horn, sable, gar- 
nished gules ; crest, a man's heart pierced with a dart, proper : motto, Thus far. 

DUNCAN CAMPBELL, eldest lawful son to Colin Campbell of Monchaster, second 
lawful son to Sir Robert Campbell of Glenorchy ; the quartered arms of Glenorchy 
within a bordure invected, sable; crest, a boar's head erased cheque, or and sable: 
motto, Sequor. 

JOHN CAMPBELL of Moy, Justice and Sheriff-depute of Argyle, descended of 
Campbell of Meiklellines, a third son of Sir John Campbell of Calder ; carries, 
Calder's coat as before, within a bordure ingrailed, or; crest, a swan, proper; 
crowned, or: motto, Be ever mindful. 

Another cadet of the family of Calder, was Captain JOHN CAMPBELL, being a 
third son of that family ; whose grandchild is Mr Archbald Campbell, writer in 
Edinburgh, and who by his mother is descended of Campbell of Moy, and carries 
the arms of Calder, W 7 ith such another suitable brisure. 

JOHN CAMPBELL of Carrick, as descended of Argyle, carries the arms of that 
family, within a bordure invected, or; charged with eight crescents, sable: motto, 
Set on. 



IN ARMORIES.. 

Sir COLIN CAMPBELL of Ardkinlas, descended of Argyle, gironnt of eight, <,. 
and sable, within a bordure of the first; crest, a lyn.phad with oars in action, 
sable : motto, Set on. 

ALEXANDER CAMPBELL of Balgairshaw, whose grandfather was a second son- of 
Campbell of Cronnan, descended of the family of Loudon, gironne of eight, ermine 
and gules, within a bordure ingrailed of the second, and charged with eight cres- 
cents, argent: motto, Lente sed opportune. 

DONALD CAMPBELL of Auchawilling, descended of Sir Duncan Campbell, a 
second son of Colin Campbell, first laird of Ardkinlas ; carries Ardkinlas's arms, and 
charges the bordure with eight crescents, sable ; crest, two oars of a galley, di-- 
posed in saltier : motto, Armis fcr fide. 

JOHN CAMPBELL of Innellan, descended of Auchawilling, carries the s?.me with 
Auchawilling ; but, for difference, ingrails the bordure ; crest, the same : motto, 

Vis & fides. 

COLIN CAMPBELL of Ardintenny, descended of Ardkinlas ; gironne of eight, or 
and sable ; a. bordure of the first, charged with eight crescents of the second ; 
crest, two oars of a galley, disposed in saltier: motto, Terra, mare, fide. 

WALTER CAMPBELL of Skipness, descended of Ardintenny, carries the same with 
Ardintenny, but makes the bordure indented ; crest and motto the same. 

I have just now in my hands, a charter in Latin, containing a precept of seisin, 
granted by DOUGAL CAMPBELL of Corvorane, then representing the old family of 
Macdougal Campbells of Craignish, with consent and assent of Ronald Campbell 
his son and heir, to Duncan M'Callar of Ardarie, and Margaret Drummond his 
spouse, and to Patrick M'Callar their son, &-c. of the one mark-land of Kilmon, 
near Lochavich, in the barony of Lochow-Middle, and earldom of Argyle, dated at 
Kinlochgoyll, the seventh day of October 1528, written by Neil Fisher, fbesaura- 
rio Lesmorense & N. P. with a seal of arms thereto appended, having a formal 
shield, gironne of eight, hanging on the mast of a lymphad or galley, with the 
legend round it. S. (for sigillum}, Dugal de Creagginisb. Most, if not all the 
letters, are of the old Irish character, by which the seal seems to be much older 
than the charter, and probably cut before surnames were used, either in charters, 
or upon seals. 

These are also descended of the family of Lochow, now dukes of Argyle, and at 
this time represented by Dougal Campbell, now of Craignish, who bears the same 
arms, and uses for crest, a boar's head erased, proper ; with the motto, Fit via vi. 
See the old seal and present arms in the Plate of Achievements. 

CRAW of East-Reston, parted per cheveron, embattled vert and gules, three 
crows argent; crest, a crow, proper: motto, Cui debeofidus. 

CRAW of Nether-Byer, a cadet of East-Reston, gives the same ; and, for dif- 
ference, a bordure counter-changed of the tinctures of the field ; crest, a crow, 
proper ; with the motto, God is my safety. 

CRAW of Heugh-Head, parted per cheveron, ingrailed vert and gules, three crows 
argent ; crest, a crow proper, standing on a sheaf of corn : motto, Nee careo, nee 
euro. All these are matriculated in the New Register. 

The surname of LILLIE, parted per cheveron, ingrailed argent and gules, three 
lillies counter-changed of the same. 

The surname of CHAPMAN, parted per cheveron, argent and gules, a crescent in 
the centre counter-changed, as in Sir James Balfour's Book of Blazons ; but in 
other books, I find some of the same name to carry vert, a saltier ingrailed be- 
twixt four sangliers' heads, erased argent. 

I 



H OF THE PROPER FIGURES IN HERALDRY, &c. 

C H A P. VIH. 

uF THE PROPER FIGURES IN HERALDRY^ OR THE HONOURABLE ORDINARIES IN GENERAL. 

THE essential parts of armories, as before mentioned, are tinctures andjigures. 
I have spoken of 'the first, and I proceed now to treat of the second. 

Figures, in this science, are either proper or natural. The first have their being and 
name from heraldry ; and as they are called proper figures, so likewise the ordinary 
charges; as being of an ordinary use in this science. The second, natural figures or 
common charges, are the representation of all things, animate or inanimate ; and 
these keep their prdper names in blazon, though they have additional terms, from 
their position, disposition, and situation in the shield. 

The partition lines, which I have been treating of, may be reckoned proper fi- 
gures ; because they have their names from this art, and give denomination to all 
figures and charges, disposed or situate after their position : Yet they are not pro- 
perly charges, but the termination of such armorial bodies or figures which they 

form. 

The proper figures to be treated of, are those charges, or armorial bodies, which 
charge the field, or are laid upon it, and are commonly called the ordinaries, from 
their ordinary or frequent use in this science, and by some heralds, th& principal or 
honourable ordinaries ; (thi French say, pieces honor ables}, because they possess the 
third part, and principal places of the shield : And some say they are called ho- 
nourable ordinaries, because they are oftentimes given by emperors, kings, and 
princes, as additions of honour to armorial bearings of persons of singular merit and 
descent. 

There are some proper figures, which are called the sub-ordinaries, or less honour- 
able ones ; not upon the account that they are of less dignity and honour, but for- 
asmuch as they cede the principal places of the shield to the honourable ordinaries, 
when they meet together in one shield. 

The number of the honourable ordinaries with the English is nine ; some French 
heralds count ten, and others twelve ; and make every one of them possess a third 
part of the field : But the English make them sometimes to possess a lesser part, 
of which I shall take notice as I treat of them separately. And since our heralds 
have followed the English in numbering them nine, so shall I : And since they are 
all of equal quality, I shall take the liberty to rank them after the method of the 
partition lines, with which they agree in nature and name. 

The honourable ordinaries then are : The pale , fesse, bar, chief, bend dexter, bend 
sinister, crass, saltier, and cbeveron. Some English, in place of the bend sinister, 
have the inescutcheon; but I rank it with the sub-ordinaries, which are these: 

The bordure, orle, essonier and tressure, inescutcheon, franc, quarter, canton, cheque, 
billets and billette, pairle, point, girons, piles, flasque, flanque and voider, lozenge, 
rustre, mascles, fusils, fret and frette, bezants, torteauxes, vires, annulets, gutte, 
paprlonne, and diapre ; all which shall be treated of in order, in several chap- 
ters. 

As for the nine honourable ordinaries, some fancy that they are brought from 
the parts of a man's entire armour, as Columbier, who tells us, they represent the 
complete iwmour of a chevalier, as the chief, his helmet ; the pale, his lance ; the 
bend, his shoulder-belt ; the cross, his sword ; the fesse, his scarf ; and the cheve- 
ron, his spurs. 

But this herald has made his chevalier go on foot, and has not given him a horse. 
Menestricr brings these honourable ordinaries from pieces of the consular garment, 
from pieces of armour, and from the pieces of the rails and barriers of tournaments 
and joustings, into which none were admitted but they that were truly noble ; 
which rails and barriers were made up of traverse and cross pieces of timber, form- 
ed like the ordinaries, where he has found out the saltier for a horse to Columbier's 
chevalier. 

But, to leave these conjectures and fancies, I join with others, that the honour- 
able ordinaries have been invented as marks of different qualities in the bearers, 



i i t 1 1 1 i 
i t * * * 




OF THE PALE. 35 

and granted as additions of honour; as the chief, the reward of these actions which 
are the product of wit ; the cross, of religious performances; the fesse and bend, 
of military exploits ; the chevcron, of politic effects ; and the pale, a sign of autho- 
rity. But, not to insist on their significations in general, I shall treat more parti- 
cularly of their different significations, representations, and reasons, for which they 
are become the fixed figures of some families. 



CHAP. IX. 

OF THE PALE. 

THE Pale is that honourable ordinary which possesses tUe third middle part of 
the field perpendicularly, and has divers significations 'and representations 
in armorial bearings. 

And, first, it is taken and latinised by heralds palus, which signifies a pale of 
wood, or stake ; and sometimes, for palus, ptiludis, which signifies a ditch or chan- 
nel, which it is supposed to represent in arms, especially by some towns in Hol- 
land ; but more generally for pales of wood, with which cities and camps are for- 
tified ; and has been given for an armorial figure to those who have, w r ith skill or 
success, impaled a city or camp, or who, with valour, have broken down the impale- 
ments of their enemy's camp or city. 

The town of Beauvais in France carries for an armorial figure, a pale, with this 
verse to show its signification, 

Palus ut hie Jixus const ans ^ firma manebo ; 

upon account that town stood out always firm for the Kings of France against the. 
English. Others tell us, That the pale in this city's arms is relative to its name 
Beauvais, which signifies a good way ; as the pale, in the arms of the town of Stra- 
ta, represents a way or street, which Strata signifies. And Menestrier tells us, The 
town of Fond, upon the way from Rome to Naples, carries argent, a pale gules, to 
represent a ditch or channel, which Fond signifies in that country ; and the town 
of Dordrecht in Holland, gules, a pale argent, upon the account, and in memory 
of an old civil battle which occasioned much slaughter, staining the great street 
of that town with blood, and the river, running in the midst thereof, clear, is re- 
presented by the white pale. 

The pale in the arms of many noble families is frequently taken for a mark of 
power or jurisdiction, as the learned Menestrier and other heralds observe, to re- 
present the paler part of the consular garment, which hangs down before from the 
neck to the foot. Bishops, and other dignified churchmen, have likewise such ob- 
long pieces belonging to their ecclesiastical habits, called episcopal pales, 'stoles, and 
tippets, as marks of jurisdiction and authority. The episcopal pale is borne in the 
arms of the Arch -Episcopal See ot Canterbury. But to proceed to the form of se- 
cular and armorial pale, and its accidental forms. 

Plate III. fig. i . argent, a pale sable, the paternal bearing of the ancient surname 
of ERSKINE, the chiefs of which, the Right Honourable the Earls of MARK, Lords 
Erskine, &-c. have, for a long time, been in use to quarter these with the arms of 
Marr, viz. azure, a bend between six cross croslets, fitched or ; in their achieve- 
ment, timbred with crown, helmet, and mantlings befitting their quality, and out 
of a wreath of their tinctures ; for crest, a right hand, proper, holding a skein in 
pale, argent, hiked and pommelled or: and for motto, Jepenseplus. Which achieve- 
ment has been anciently, and of late, surrounded with the collar of the most no- 
ble Order of the Garter, (as Ashmole gives us), and of the most ancient Order of 
the Thistle, with the badges of St George and St Andrew pendant thereat, and 
supported with two griffins argent, winged, beaked, and armed or. Of the anti- 
quity of this noble family afterwards. 

Several of the armorial bearings of the noble and honourable families of this 
surname, descended of the house of Marr, are to be found at die end of this, 
chapter. 



. b OF THE PALE. 

The pale is subject to the accidental forms of lines which compose it, as to be 
invr ailed, inverted, indented, nelmle, &c. As, also, the pale is sometimes fitche, 
or aiguise, that is, sharp at the point, and, in this form, it aptly represents a pale 
of wood fixed in the earth, to fortify camps and towns. 

The family of CHANDOS in France and England, one of which name was one of the 
first Knights Companions of the noble Order of the Garter, as Ashmole gives us, in 
his Institution of that Order, argent, a pale fitched, at the point gules, as fig. 2. 
Plate III. ; the French say, a" argent an pale en pied aiguise de gueules; and Syl- 
vester Petra Sancta speaking of the arms of the Sussonii, being argent, three pales 
fitche at the foot gules, interdum (says he) bee sublica; Gentilitia cuspidantur in ima 
parte. When the pale turns fitche, or sharp gradually, from the top to the point, 
then they are called by us and the English, piles, of which afterwards, being one 
of the sub-ordinaries. 

Plate III. fig. 3. parted per fesse, gules and ermine, a pale counter-changed ot 
the same, and on the first three mascles or, used for arms by the name of Esplin. 
Such another bearing is that of ROPER of Teynham, an old family in Kentshire, 
which was dignified with the title of Lord Teynham, by King James I. of Great 
Britain, thus blazoned by Mr Dale, pursuivant, in his Catalogue of the Nobility of 
England, parted per fesse, azure and or, a pale, and three bucks' heads erased, and 
counter-changed of the same. 

The pale, as I said before, is' subject to the accidental forms of lines which com- 
pose it ; a few instances I shall here add, as fig. 4. or, a pale ingrailed sable, by the 
surname of SAWERS, which, having teeth like a saw, is relative to the name. Syl- 
vester Petra Sancta gives us another coat of the same kind, which he blazons, sub- 
lica furva utrinque striata, in aureo scuti alveola. 

Plate III. fig. 5. gules, a pale invected argent, by the name of VECK, as in Homs's 
Academy of Armory. And here it may be observed how ingrailing and invecting 
lines differ. 

As for the other forms the pale is subject to, as nebule, dancette, embattled, &c. 
and how they may be charged and accompanied with other figures, in regard the 
other ordinaries are subject to the like, and that I will have occasion to speak of 
them and their attributes, I shall refer those forms till I come to them ; but shall 
here add one singular form, which I have not mentioned before, viz. 

Azure, a pale rayoime or, by the name of LIGHTFORD ; the French say, a pale 
radiant, or rayonne, so named from the glittering rays and shining beams, like those 
of the sun. 

Plate III. fig. 6. azure, a pale rayonne or, charged with a lion rampant gules, is 
carried by the name of COLEMAN in England. 

This ordinary, the pale, is sometimes charged or accompanied with figures, for 
which I shall add the armorial bearing of the Honourable Mr DAVID ERSKINE of 
Dun, one of the Senators of the College of Justice, Plate III. fig. 7. argent, on a 
pale sable, a sword of the first, point downward, for the surname of DUN, upon the 
account that Sir ROBERT ERSKINE of that Ilk, one of the progenitors of the Earls of 
MARR, married the heiress of DUN of that Ilk, who carried gules, a sword in pale 
argent : Their younger son, in obtaining his mother's inheritance, placed the sword 
upon the pale of ERSKINE, for his difference from the principal family. Some of our 
old books of painting represent the sword as a cross croslet fitched or, taking it to 
be one of these in the arms of the earldom of MARR ; but, in our New Register of 
Arms I find them matriculated for DAVID ERSKINE of Dun thus, quarterly first and 
Fourth argent, a pale sable for ERSKINE, second and third gules, a sword in pale ar- 
gent, hilted and pommelled or, for DUN of that Ilk ; and for crest, a griffin's head 
i' rased, holding in its beak a sword bendways, and on the blade of it is for motto, 
Jn domino confido. Which arms are supported by two griffins gules, winged and 
armed or. 

The pale, as is said, possesses the third middle part of the field perpendicularly 
from top to bottom, yet it admits of diminutions as to its breadth, the half of it is 
called a pallet, and the fourth part of the pallet an endorse or verget. 

The pallet, the diminutive of the pale, being a half of its breadth, is latined pa- 
lus miniatus, and cannot be called semi-palus or demi-palus, which respects its length ; 
for with the English it is always as long as the pale : neither, according to them, 



OF THE PALE. 37 

can it be charged with any thing, but may be carried between figures. I have not 
met with the practice of carrying one pullet alone in a coat of arms, but where 
there are frequently two, three, or more together in one field, except in the bear- 
ing of the name of Ward, azure, a pullet argent, given us by the author of the Sy- 
nopsis of Heraldry, fig. b. Plate 111. 

The endorse, or vet-get, being the fourth part of the pallet ; the first is a term 
used by the English, and the latter by the French, which signifies the same thing, 
a small rod or branch of a tree, which were usually interwoven With the pales, or 
stakes of wood, (in the sense we took them before), to fortify camps and cities ; 
wherefore heralds tell us, that an endorse or verget are never to be seen in arms, 
but when a pale is between two of them ; tor example, Plate 111. fig. 9. but here 
the endorses are made too broad by the engraver. 

Argent, a pale ingrailed between two endorses sable, by the name of BELLASYSE,. 
thus blazoned by Mr Gibbon, " In parma argentea palum integrum ingrediatum, 
" (hoc est in semi lunulas utrinque delineatum), &. duabis hinc hide vacerrulis 
" planis ejusdem coloris comitatum." And Jacob Imhoil", in his Historia Genealo- 
gica Regum Pariumque Magiuv Britannia;, says, " Insignia quibus Bellasysii utun- 
" tur, in scuti quadripartiti prima &. ultima areola rubea, cantherium aureum, li- 
" liis tribus ejusdem metalli stipartum," (i. e. quarterly in the first and fourth area 
gules, a cheveron or, betwixt three flower-de-luces of the last, for Fauconberg ; 
but the pursuivant Dale, in his Catalogue of Nobility, gives other tinctures, viz. 
argent, a cheveron gules, between three flower-de-luces azure), " in secunda vero, 
" & tertia argentea, palum nigrum qucm utrinque taenia, eodem colore tincta co- 
" mitatur representant." There was an old family of the name of Bellasyse in York- 
shire, of which was Henry Bellasyse, who was created Knight Baronet by King 
James I. and his son Thomas, for his loyal services, was created a Lord Baron, and 
thereafter, in 1642, Viscount Fauconberg; and since, in anno 1699, their family- 
has been honoured with the title of Earl of Fauconberg. 

When there are more pales than one in a field, they cannot but lose of their 
breadth, and be proportionally smaller according to their number ; whence they 
have from the English the diminutive name pallet ; but the French call them al- 
ways pales, though they exceed the number of four. 

Plate III. fig. 10. or, three pallets gules, surmounted of a cheveron azure, char- 
ged with as many buckles of the first, by the surname of SKIRVING. Thus by- 
Monsieur Baron, in his Art du Blason, of such another coat, d'or, a. trois pah g ue ules, 
a la cheveron d' azure, charge de trois fermaux if or brochant sur le tout. It is to be 
observed, the French are not so nice as the English blazoners, who will not repeat 
one word twice in the blazon of a coat, whereas the French do not stand to repeat 
one word twice in one blazon, as trois and or are here twice repeated. 

Fig. ii. Plate III. or, three pallets gules, the arms of the town of Mechlin in 
the Netherlands ; thus by Uredus, scutum aureum palo coccineo tripartite exaraturn; 
and the arms of the county of Provence being almost the same, he blazons, scutum 
aureum quatuor palis miniatis impression, i. e. or, four pallets gules. 

The arms of the kingdom of Arragon in Spain, are, or, four pallets gules ; which 
the French blazon, d'or, a quatre paiix de gueules. This country was possessed of 
old by the Kings of Navarre, till Reimar, natural son of Sanchez the Great, King of 
N'avarre, erected it into a kingdom anno 1034, whose arms were then an oak tree, 
because that country lies near the Pyrenean forest : But since it was annexed to 
Barcelona, by Raymond Berenger Count of Barcelona, who married Petronilla, the 
only daughter of Reimar II. and last King of the Arragonian race, about the year 
1162, that kingdom has had no other arms since but these of the Counts of Barce- 
lona, or, four pallets gules ; which are said to have their rise thus : In the year 873, 
Geoffrey le Velon Count of Barcelona returning all bloody from battle, the King 
of Spain dipped his four fingers in his blood, and drew with them as many long 
lines o'n Geoffrey's shield, which became afterwards his fixed arms ; (we have such 
another story of the rise of the arms of the noble family of Keith, Earls Marischals 
of Scotland, which are after that same form, of which afterwards), which account 
is affirmed by Favin and many other writers ; but Menestrier will have those arrm: 
relative, and speaking of the name Barcelona, >uasi barras tongas, i* e. long 
bars. 

K 



3 8 OF THE PAL!.. 

It is to be observed, when a shield is filled with such pieces, as pules, bends, 
bars, &c. of different tinctures, those of the greatest number are to be first named in 
the blazon ; as in the above example, the tincture or predominates, which is taken for 
the field, and the pallets gules for the charge. But when these pieces are of equal 
number and quantity, then we say, paly of so many pieces, and name first that of 
the tincture on the right side. 

HUGH GOURNEY, a Norman, was made Earl of GOURNEY in England by King 
William Rufus, and carried paly of six pieces, or and azure. His daughter and 
heir was married to the Lord Mowbray, and his brother Sir Roger Gourney carried 
.is the said Hugh ; of whom Sir John Newton in England is descended, as in a 
Manuscript of the Ancient Nobility of England, which I have seen in the House of 
Seaton : 1 take some blazons out of it upon account of their antiquity, as those of 
Simon Sentliz Earl of Huntingdon, who carried paly of six, or and gules, within a 
bordure argent. He was Earl of Huntingdon in right of his wife Maud, daughter 
and heiress to Waltheof Earl of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Huntingdon, 
widow of David I. King of Scotland, and mother of Prince Henry. After Simon's 
death, the earldom of Huntingdon descended to her grandchild David, brother to 
King William of Scotland. 

The surname of RUTHVEN with us, paly of six, argent and gules, as fig. 12. The 
chief of this name was Ruthven Lord Ruthven, and thereafter Earl of Gowry. 
They are said by some to be originally from Arragon, from the similitude of their 
arms ; but this is no certain evident of itself, without other documents. This 
ancient family, as others, took their surname from their lands, called Ruthven ; 
and was dignified with the title of Lord Ruthven by King James HI. Thereafter 
that fumily marrying one of the daughters and co-heirs of Patrick Halyburton 
Lord Dirleton, quartered their arms with those of Halyburton, being argent on a 
bend azure, three mascles or. William Lord Ruthven was by King James VI. creat- 
ed Earl of Gowry, 1581. The family ended when the lineal succession was cut off 
for their treasonable practices against that king. The next branch of that name 
was Ruthven Lord Ruthven of Freeland, who carried only the arms of Ruthven, 
paly of six, argent and gules; crest, a goat's head; with the motto, Deed shaiv; 
and for supporters, two goats, proper, which were the same used formerly by the 
Earls of Gowry, as relative to that title, which signifies a goat. 

Fig. 13. Plate III. paly of six, argent and gules, over all, on abend azure, three 
cushions, or, by the name of Lundy of that Ilk in Fife, as in our books of blazons ; 
and are so illuminate, as I have seen them, with those of other Scots barons, on the 
roof of Falla-hall, an ancient monument of arms. Over all is said of the ordinary, 
and other things, when placed over figures proper or natural. And for over all, 
the French use the term brochant, and blazon the foresaid coat thus, palle d'ar- 
rent, et de gueles, de six pieces a la bande brochante d? azure, charge de trots coussins 
d'or. The Latins, for over all, say, in totam are am protensum; or, toti superinduc- 
tum, (as Uredus, in his Blazon of Sax. Modern}, or omnibus imposition. LUNDIE of 
that Ilk carries now the arms of Scotland, within a bordure gobonated; of whom 
afterwards. 

Fig. 14. Plate III. Paly of six, argent and sable, surmounted with a fesse of the 
first, charged with three stars of the second, by the name of JAFFREY of Kings- 
wells. JOHN JAFFRAY of Dilspro, as a second son of Kingswells, the same, with 
a crescent for difference ; with the crest of the family, the sun beaming through 
a cloud, proper ; and motto, Post nubila Phcebus : As in the Lyon Register. 

Tig. 15. Paly of eight pieces, others say, eight pieces pale-ways, or and g ides, 
over all a bend sinister azure, charged with a crescent argent, betwixt two stars of 
'.he first, by the name of MACKY. 

These examples may seem to some to be contrary to the received rule in he- 
raldry, that metal should not be placed upon metal, nor colour upon colour: For, 
the above cheveron, bends dexter and sinister, being of colour, lie upon colour. 
But there is an exception of this rule, besides others, which will occur as we go. 
along, viz. that, when the field is filled with pieces alternately of metal and colour, 
whether paly, barry, bendy, cheverony, fusily, lozengy, flower-de-lucy, it is then a 
compound field, and may receive a charge either of metal or colour, as the fields 
of furrs do. Sylvester Petra Sancta, in his 83d. Chap, intitled, An Metallum in. 



OF THE PALE. 3> 

Metalh esse, aut Cd'>r in Colore recte possint? says, " Satis t^t res comperta in par- 
" mulis colore simul ac metallo, seu virgatis, seu scutulatis, rectc iconem totam 
" exarari posse, aut ex colore, aut ex metallo." 

Yet some are so nice as to make the charge counter-change to the metal and 
colour of the compound fields above, as in the following example : 

Fig. 16. Paly of six, or and sable, a bend counter-changed of (he same, by the 
Lord CALVERT, Baron of England : The French blazon it, palle (for, et de sable, 
de six pieces, a la btinde brochante de Vun en fautre; and the Latins, sex pahs, 
aureos, y atros, cum balteo burner uli in totidem tessulas (c dlctis cohribus subalter- 
natum commutatis ) subdiviso* 

The pallets are subject to accidental forms, as well as the pale ; to be ingrailed, 
invected, waved, &-c. I shall add here one example out of the book, intitled, 
Synopsis of Heraldry ; argent, three pallets waved gules. There are other forms 
and variations of pales, of which I shall add a few instances. 

Fig. 17. Paly of lour, azure and argent, counter-changed per fesse. The French 
say, contre palle d' azure et $ argent de buit pieces, by the name of JOWAY in France, 
as Monsieur Baron. Such another bearing Sylvester Petra Sancta gives, being 
paly of six, gules and argent, counter-changed per fesse ; which he thus describes, 
rather than blazons : " Sed pulchre lumen reciprocant dimidii atque obversi pali 
" tesserarii numero sex, nunc punicei argenteique, quae est tessera Rosenbergiorum 
" in Franconia." 

Fig. 1 8. Plate lii. Paly of six, gules and argent on a chief of the field, as many 
crescents all counter-changed. Which blazon is given by Guillim, but he does 
not tell us by what family it is carried : He tells us, in his Display of Heraldry, 
Sect. 8. that arms paly represent strength ; and that the bearing of piles, pales, 
bends, bars, and other extracted parts, meaning the diminutives of the ordinaries, 
were called of old by heralds, restrial, in respect of their strength and solid sub- 
stance: And Sir John Feme, in his Glozy of Generosity, says the same, page 180. 
where he also tells us, that if these pieces be diminished, tierced, or voided, they 
show weakness. I shall here give an example of pallets voided. 

Fig. 19. Plate III. Sinople, three pallets or, voided gules.. Voided is said when 
the middle part of figures are cut out, so that the field is seen through the middle 
of them, or another tincture in its place ; as in the present example, thus blazoned 
by the French, Sinople, a trois paux d'or, vuides et remplies de gueules* Such arms 
as these, whose pieces are voided, are not so commendable as those that are entire, 
by the fore-named heralds ; nor one pallet so commendable in arms as many ; 
and far less an endorse or verget, except there be a pale betwixt two of them. 

Having treated sufficiently of a pale and its signification in armories, together 
with its accidental forms, as ingrailed, &-c. as also of its diminutives, pallets, and 
endorses ; and shown by blazons, that we say, a pale, when it. stands alone, as in 
the arms of Erskine Earl of Marr ; and how we say, on a pale, when it is charged 
with a figure, as in the arms of Erskine of Dun ; and how we blazon, when a pale 
is betwixt, or accompanied with figures : I proceed now to show when to say, in 
pale, and pale-ways. 

The common charges, such as figures natural and artificial, as I said before, keep 
their proper names in blazon ; but they have additional ones, according to their 
disposition and position in the field, from the position of the ordinaries, as the 
pale, fesse, &-c. When three or more figures are placed or ranged one above ano- 
ther in the field, after the position of the pale, then they are said to be in pale : 
The French say, /'?/// sur I'autre, i. e. one above another, or range en pal : The 
Latins say, in pal urn collocata, or, alter alteri super impositum, as Plate II. fig. 20. 
azure, three stars in pale argent, by the name of LAMBOULT in France : And the 
royal bearing of England has such a blazon, gules, three lions passant gardant in 
pale, or. 

Fig. 21. Azure, three salmons naiant in pale, proper, (Tun sur rautre, say the 
French), by the name of FISHER. And, azure, three fishes (called Garvin fishes), 
naiant, in pale argent, that in the middle looking to the sinister, and the two to 
the dexter, by the surname of GARVEY. Mackenzie's Heraldry. 

We need not say of fishes, as some, naiant fesse -ways, in pale ; nor of beasts, 
passant fesse-ways : For all fishes naiant, and all beasts passant, are fesse-ways- 



4 o OF THE PALE. 

So the terms, in pale, m fesse, in bar, in bend, respect the disposition or situation: 
ot" figures ; and to say pale-ways, fesse-ways, bar-ways, respects the position of 
figures : And this is the distinction betwixt in pale, and pMe-ways. 

The ordinary disposition of small figures of the number three, are two in chief, 
and one in base ; and it is not necessary to mention their disposition, but to say, 
he carries azure, three flower-de-luces or, which are understood always to be so 
disposed ; but if they be otherwise situate or disposed, then their situation must 
be named in pale, in bend, &-c. And when oblong figures are situate, two and 
one being either erect, or diagonally inclining to the right or left, then we say 
pah' -ways, bend-ways, and bend sinister-ways ; for example : 

Fig. 22. Argent, three sinister hands, couped gules, pale-ways ; we are not to say 
in pale, for then three hands in pale would stand one above another. 

Fig. 23. NEILSON of Grangen, argent, three sinister hands bend sinister-ways, 
couped gules ; we must not say in bend sinister, for then would they be situate 
after the position of the bend sinister. 

When one oblong figure is placed in the field, as a sword or spear, after the 
position of the ordinaries, it may be either blazoned in pale, in bend, &-c. or- pale- 
ways, bend-ways ; but when there are three swords, or other oblong figures, they 
must be blazoned pale-ways, and not in pale, as Plate III. fig. 24. azure, a sword 
in pale argent, hiked and pommelled or, between three crescents of the second, 
by the name of PATON of Kinaldy ; crest, a spar-hawk perching, proper : motto, 
I- Irtus laudando, L. R. where may be seen also the arms of Mr ROGER. PATON of 
Ferrochie, azure, three crescents argent (without the sword) ; crest, a spar-hawk, 
with wings expanded, proper : motto, Virtute adepta. 

Plate III. fig. 25. Parted per pale, argent and sable, three flower-de-luces in pale, 
counter-changed of the same, as Sylvester Petra Sancta, in his Blazon of the Arms 
of the Vasani in Venice, " Lilia tria, loco pali-tesserarii composita et semi-atnt 
" semi-argentea, illic in semisse argento, hie autem in semisse atro." 



BLAZONS OF ARMS BELONGING TO THIS CHAPTER WHICH HAVE THEIR FIGURES AFTER THF 

FORM OF THE PALE. 

The Right Honourable HENRY Lord CAR.DROSS, grandson to Henry first Lord 
Cardross, who was second son to John Earl of Marr, Lord High Treasurer of Scot- 
land, by his second wife, Lady Mary Stewart, daughter of Esme Duke of Lennox, 
carried quarterly, first gules, an eagle displayed or, armed and membered azure, 
looking towards the sun in his splendour, placed in the dexter chief point, as 
a coat of augmentation for the lordship of Cardross ; second grand quarter, quar- 
terly first and fourth azure, a bend between six cross croslets, fitch e or, for Man', 
second and third argent, a pale sable, the paternal coat of Erskine ; third grand 
quarter, quarterly first and fourth or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent ; second and 
third, azure, three garbs or, on account of his lady, daughter and heir of Sir James 
Stewart of Kirkhill ; fourth grand quarter as the first ; and for crest, on a wreath, 
argent and sable, a hand holding up a boar's head erased, on the point of a skein, 
thrust through the same, all proper ; supported on the dexter by a horse arjeat, 
furnished gules ; and on the sinister, by a griffin, parted per fesse, argent and sable, 
armed and membered gules, with this motto, Fortitudine. 

The Right Honourable DAVID Earl of BUCHAN, Lord Auchterhouse and Cardross, 
eldest son and heir of the above Henry Lord Cardross, by his said lady, daughter 
and heir of the said Sir James Stewart of Kirkhill, having, anno 1695, succeeded 
in the earldom of Buchan, as nearest heir-male of his cousin William Erskine Earl 
of Buchan, (in whom ended the issue-male of James, eldest son of John Earl of 
Marr, by his second wife the Lady Mary Stewart, daughter of Esme Duke of Len- 
nox, and immediate elder brother of Henry first Lord Cardross, great grandfather 
of the said David now Earl of Buchan), carries quarterly, first grand quarter azitn\ 
three garbs or, being the feudal arms of the earldom of Buchan ; second grand 
quarter, quarterly, the paternal arms of Marr and Erskine. as a son of the house of 
Marr ; third grand quarter, the arms of Stewart of Kirkhill, ("on account of his mo- 
ther as above), blazoned in the Lord Cardross's achievements ; fourth grand quar- 



OF THE PALE. 41 

ter argent, three bars gemels gules, surmounted of a lion sable, armed and mein- 
bered azure, the paternal bearing of his lady, daughter and sole heir of Henry 
Fairfax of Hurst, Esq. whose father was second son of the Viscount Fairfax in 
England; and overall the quarters, by way of .surtout, an escutcheon, charged with 
his father's coat of augmentation for the lordship of Cardross, the whole adorned 
with crown, helmet, and manthngs befitting his quality ; and for crest, issuing out 
of a wreath, or and azure, a dexter hand holding a club, or batton, raguled pro- 
per; supported on the right side by an ostrich proper, one of the supporters of the 
ancient earls of Buchan, and on the left by a griffin g ules, one of those of the earis 
of Marr : motto, that of his predecessors the earls of Buchan, Judge nought, as in 
the Plates of Achievements. 

The younger sons of David Lord Cardross, father of the above Henry Lord Car- 
dross, carry the arms of their father, as in the Lyon Register, thus : 

WILLIAM ERSKINE, sometime governor of Blackness Castle, and second son to 
David Lord Cardross, his father's arms within a bordure or. 

JOHN ERSKINE of Camock, third son, and some time governor of Stirling Castle, 
the same arms within a bordure, parted per pale, or and argent. 

CHARLES ERSKINE, fourth son to the said David Lord Cardross, the same within 
a bordure tierced in fesse, or, argent, and gules; crest and motto to all of them the 
same with that of the Lord Cardross, as above. 

CHARLES ERSKINE, Advocate, and one of the Commissioners of the Court o, Po- 
lice, brother-german to David now Earl of Buchan, and second son to Henry late 
Lord Cardross, carries the arms of his father Henry Lord Cardross, within a bor- 
dure ermine for difference ; crest and motto the same as his father. 

Sir WILLIAM ERSKINE of Brechin, who was Secretary to King James V. descend- 
ed of Erskine of Dun, carried quarterly, as by his seals which I have seen, first and 
fourth Erskine of Dun, second and third argent, three piles issuing from the chief 
gules, for Brechin, but upon what account I know not : His representative is 
Erskine of Pittodrie. 

The Right Honourable ALEXANDER ERSKINE Earl of Kelly carries quarterly, first 
and fourth \g ules, an imperial crown within a double tressure, flowered and coun- 
ter-flowered with flower-de-luces or, as a coat of concession, second and third ar- 
geqt, a pale sable for Erskine ; and for crest, a demi-lion gardant gules ; suppor- 
ters two griffins or, armed gules, and on their breasts a crescent sable : with this 
motto, Decori decus addit avito. He is lineally descended of Sir Thomas Erskine, 
second son to the Earl of Marr, who, with Sir John Ramsay, rescued King James 
VI. from the Farl of Cowrie's bad attempts anno 1600, for which he was honoured 
with the foresaid coat of augmentation, and created Lord Baron of Dirleton, then 
Viscount of Fenton, and afterwards Earl of Kelly, anno 1619. 

Sir JOHN ERSKINE of Alva, as a cadet of Erskine Earl of Marr, carries that earl's 
quartered arms as before, within a bordure quartered, or and vert ; and for crest, a 
dexter arm from the shoulder, in armour, grasping a sword, proper : with this motto, 
Je pense plus ; so matriculated L. R. 

Sir ALEXANDER ERSKINE of Cambo, Lord Lyon King at Arms, \vhose father Sir 
Charles, also Lyon King at Arms, was a second brother ol" the Earl of Kelly, car- 
ries that earl's quartered arms as before, with a crescent for a brotherly difference. 
More of which family afterwards. 

JOHN ERSKINE of Balgounie, descended of a second son of the Earl of Marr, 
quarterly, first and fourth azure, a bend between six cross croslets fitched or, for 
Mar ; second and third argent, a pale within a bordure sable. L. R. 

Captain PATRICK ERSKINE, in Colonel George Hamilton's regiment, third lawful 
son to David Erskine of Kirkbudclo, lineally descended of the family of Dun, quar- 
terly, first and fourth argent, a pale sable, for Erskine ; second and third gules, ;; 
sword pale-ways argent, hiked and pommelled or, for the name of Dun, all within 
a bordure embattled azure ; crest, a griffin issuing out of the wreath, holding in 
his dexter talon a sword, proper : motto, Ausim i$ confido. L. R. These letters 
stand for the present Lyon Register, where the arms of our nobility and gentry 
have been recorded since the year 1662. 

JOHN ERSKINE of Sheeltield, descended of the family of Balgounie, bears ar^i 
on a pale sable, a cross croslet fitched or, within a bordure azure ; for crest, a 

L 



42 OF THE FESSE. 

dexter arm from the elbow, proper, holding a cross croslet or, pointed downward : 
motto, Think well. L. R. 

Argent, a pale gule jv quartered with, the arms of Carnegie Earl of Northesk. 

GRANDMAIN in England, gules, a pale or. 

The family of ABBATI in France, d' 'azure, a pale tf argent. 

The old Earls of Athol, paly of six, sable and or, which after became the feu- 
dal ones of that dignity, to the families that were invested therewith. As to the 
Cummins, Stewarts, and Murrays, for which see the arms of Murray Duke of. 
Athol. 



CHAP. X 

OF THE FESSE. 

THIS honourable ordinary possesses the third middle part of the field horizoi;. 
tally. Guillim says, it is formed by two lines drawn traverse the escutcheon, 
which comprehends in breadth the third part of the field. Menestrier describes it, 
" Une pie'ce honorable qui occupe le tiers de 1'ecu horisontalment." And Sylves- 
ter Petra Sancta, in his 26th chap. De Fascia Tesseraria, says, " Tsenia haec medi- 
" am scuti regionem occupat, tertiamque ibi area partem implet ; refert vero mili- 
" tarem cingulum q uemadmodum scutaria coronis refert capitis diadema ;" and so 
will have it to represent the military belt, as the chief does the diadem of the 
head. 

It is written by us and the English fesse, and anciently faisse; by the French, 
face, who bring it from the Latin \vovdfascia, which signifies a scarf; which word, 
Chiffletius uses in many of his Blazons, as in his arms of Bethune, fascia cocci- 
nea scuto argenteo impressa, i. e. argent, a fesse gules, Plate III. fig. 26. Sir George 
Mackenzie, in his Science of Heraldry, tells us, it represents the scarf of a warrior 
en ecbarpe, and from bearing argent, a fesse azure, the first of the Sharps, who 
came from France with King David, was called Monsieur d'Esharp, and by cor- 
ruption Sharp, of which name there are several families with us, who carry the 
same arms with additional figures, as at the end of this chapter, among other 
blazons. 

The fesse, in armories, is generally taken to represent the military belt and gir- 
dle of honour, used in the ceremonies of old at the investiture of the nobility and 
knights. Cambden, in his Blazons, calls it balteum militare ; Minshew, cingulum 
honoris; and Guillim, in his Display, makes use of both these words: Who says, 
That the girdle of honour was anciently bestowed by emperors, kings, and gene- 
rals, upon soldiers for their special services ; and quotes that saying of Jpab to the 
man that brought him the news that Absalom was hanging by the hair of the head 
on aaoak tree, 2 Sam. xviii. n. " Why didst thou not smite him there to the 
" ground, and I should have given thee ten shekels of silver, and a girdle," which- 
some translations have, an arming belt. Some latinize it, cingulum or balteum, 
which was used as a sign of honour by all nations, and in all ages ; called by the 
French of old, bauhlrick, the knightly belt, because kings and princes, in the ce- 
remony of knighting their favourites, girded them with the belt. Favin, in his 
Theatre of Honour, tells us, That when Charlemagne went to the battle against the 
Hungarians in the town of Ratisbon, he created his son Lewis Debonnair knight, 
by engirthing him with the bauldrick; which he describes to be a military belt or 
girdle, to which was fixed, on the left side, a sword, and, on the right, a long po- 
niard or war-knife, much like, says he, to the daggers used in Scotland. 

Spelman also tells us, That knighthood was of old conferred by the cincture of 
the military belt. And Selden, in his Titles of Honour, says, The girding with 
the belt was an essential part of that ceremony : And, therefore, we find the por- 
niitures and statues of great men, on monuments and grave-stones", with this gir- 
dle or belt, as a sign of nobility or knighthood, variously adorned with figures, pre- 
cious stones, and studs of gold and silver, to represent their eminency. Such an 
jne has been anciently carried in the armorial ensigns of the noble and princely k- 
txiily of STEWART, which we call a fesse cheque, as Plate III. fig. 27. 




Plate Jiff. Vol.1. 




nK^fy^ 
[^A OL,^ 

K * > 




LULOXUl 

iiltVt^ 




VL 



VII 




XXVI 



xxvir 



xxyn 



XXIX 



XXX 




OF THE FESSE. 



43 



The term cheque, in heraldry, is said of the field or any other charge or figure 
lillcd with square pieces alternately of different tinctures ; \\ hich pieces Monsieur 
Baron will have to represent, in armories, battalions and squadrons of soldiers, and 
so a fit bearing for chief commanders of armies, as those of the ancient family of 
Stewart have been. 

Other heralds tell us, the term cheque is from the French word echiquier, a chess- 
board ; because the accountants in the office of the King's Exchequer did, of old, 
use such boards in calculating their accounts : And arms thus chequered, are call- 
ed by heralds arma scacuta or scaciata, and the Court of Exchequer with us is 
called, Scacariujn Regis* 

The English writers of the Ancient and Present State of England tell us, That 
their Court of Exchequer is so called from a chess-board used by accountants, or 
from a chequer-wrought carpet which covered the table of the Court ; as the Court 
of Green-cloth in. the King's Palace is called from the green carpet. But they that 
would have more of this derivation may see Skene De Verborum Significations. 

How agreeable, then, are the armorial ensigns of the Stewarts to their employ- 
ments and offices ; who, long before they ascended the throne, were commanders 
in chief of armies under our ancient Kings, and Lords High Stewards of Scotland, 
and were always in use to carry for their paternal ensign, or, a fesse cheque, azure 
and argent ; by the French, d'or, a la face echiquete, d' azure & d* argent ; and by 
the Latins, scutum aureum exaratum balteo militari transverso, cyani 1st argenti, duc- 
tu triplici scacato : The Latins ordinarily tell of how many tracts cheque consists, 
but more of this afterwards in the title of CHEQUE. 

I have seen the seal of Walter, hereditary Lord High Steward of Scotland in the 
reign of Alexander II. appended to a charter of his, for the south part of the forest 
lying upon the water of Ayr, which his father Allan had granted, Allano Parvo, as 
the charter has it ; wherein he gives these lands a-new to the Religious of Melrose. 
The seal appended is large, and of an equestrian form, having the picture of a maa 
on horseback in a coat of mail, brandishing, a sword with his right hand, and on 
his left arm a shield charged with a fesse cheque of three tracts, and above his hel- 
met, on his head, was also a wreath chequed, and round the seal were these words, 
Sigill. Walteri filii Allani. This seal has no reverse : He died 124.1. The seal of 
his son Alexander, (which I have also seen), was after the form of his father's ; but 
on the reverse was a triangular shield, charged with a fesse cheque hausse, that is 
higher up towards the top of the shield ; for which the English say transposed. 

Such a fesse is carried sometimes on the account of singular virtues ; of which 

afterwards. 

I shall only here mention the seal of his son James,, seventh Lord High Steward 
of Scotland, appended to a. charter of his, granting some lands to the Abbacy of 
Melrose, " Pro. salute animus nostrae & omnium ante cessorum & successorum meo- 
" rum, & specialiter pro salute Alexandri patris mei charissimi." On which seal, 
a man is represented on horseback, in his coat of mail, brandishing a sword, and 
on his left arm a shield, charged with a fesse cheque ; which fesse cheque was also 
on the caparisons of his horse, both behind and before : and on the reverse of the 
seal was a large triangular shield, with a fesse cheque hausse. 

Other instances of the bearing of the fesse cheque, by the name of Stewart and 
others, will be added at the end of this chapter. But to proceed to the other forms 
of fesses. 

The ancient arms of Austria were five birds called larks, situate 2 2 and I or, 
relative to the name of a Roman governor of that province named L'Alowette, 
which signifies a lark. But, afterwards, Leopold Jasper Duke of Austria, fighting 
against the Saracens in a white s-urcoat and scarf, and returning from the battle ;ill 
bloody, when the scarf was loosed, his surcoat appeared as a coat of arms thus : 
gules, charged with a fesse argent ; which became, after that, the armorial ensign 
of Austria. Yet others tell us, that these arms represent the country of Austria, 
being of a red soil, thwarted with the silver river of the Danube like a tesse argent ; 
as the four white fesses in the arms of Hungary do represent the four principal 
rivers which water that country. 

The surname of CHARTERIS with us gives for arms argent, a fesse azure ; the two 
principal families of this surname who contended for chiefship, were Charteris of 



44 OF THE FESSE. 

Amisfield, who carried the foresaid blazon alone, and Charteris of Kinfauns, who 
carried the same, but within the double tressure flowered and counter-flowered 

gules. 

The surname of CRAWFORD anciently gave for arms, gules, a fesse ermine, fig. 29. 
Plate III. Others of that name have argent, three stags' heads erased gules; of 
whom afterwards. 

Captain THOMAS BASICIN of Ord, in the Lyon Register, gules, a fcsse vair ; crest, 
a sword and stalk of wheat crossing each other saltier-ways, the last being depres- 
sed of the first : motto, Armis fc? diligentia. 

The fesse is sometimes carried as if it were cut oft' from the sides of the shield, 
as fig. 30. it is then blazoned, couped, or aliect or, a fesse couped azure. 

A fesse wreathed of divers tinctures, is called by the French tortille, or cable ; 
it is as it were formed like a rope or cable of different colours, borne by the sur- 
name of CARMICHAEL, argent, a fesse tortille, azure and gules, fig. 31. 

The fesse is sometimes also variegated of different tinctures, being counter- 
changed by the partition of the shield, as fig. 32. The arms of the name "of 
STANHOPE, given us by Workman in his Book of Blazons, parted per pale, gules 
and or, a fesse indents between three stars, two in chief and one in base, all coun- 
ter-changed. 

Mr Thomas Crawfurd gives us the arms of MACKRERY of Dumpender ; argent, a 
fesse quartered sable and or, fig. 33. Plate III. 

The fesse, as other ordinaries, is often charged and surmounted with proper or 
natural figures. When charged, the figures are contained within the breadth of 
the fesse ; and for the word charged, we say also on a fesse : But when the figures _ 
are oblong, and lie over the fesse, then the fesse is said to be surmounted of such a 
figure ; and these super-charges are not to be mentioned in the blazon, but after 
the figures which lie immediately on the shield, and accompany the fesse ; as by 
the following examples. 

Fig. 34. Argent, on a fesse azure, three stars or, (some call them mullets) the 
principal bearing of the surname of MURE. The chief of that name is Muir of 
Rowallan, a considerable family in the reign of Alexander III. and more eminent 
after, in the reigns of the Braces; who quartered the arms of Cummin, upon 
marrying one of the heiresses of a principal family of that name. King Robert 
II. married Elizabeth Mure, daughter of Rowallan, mother of King Robert III. 

Fig. 35. Argent on a fesse sable, three cinquefoils of the first, by the name of 
BOSWELL. The first of this name is said to have been a Norman, and to have 
':ome to Scotland in the reign of Malcolm III. and possessed lands in the Merse, 
ailed after them Boswell-Lands. The last possession they had in that shire was 
Oxmuire, of which I have seen a charter in the reign of King Alexander II. Of 
them is descended BOSWELL of Balmuto, in the shire of Fife, now the principal 
t'umily of that name, who got these lands of Balmuto by marrying the heiress of 
GLEN of Balmuto ; upon which they quarter the arms of AEERNETHY, or, a lion 
rampant gules, bruised with a ribbon sable ; which the Glens of Balmuto quartered 
with their own, viz. argent, three martlets sable ; which were more proper to have 
been quartered with Boswell, than the lion of Abemethy. 

Having so far treated of a fesse charged, it follows now, tp give examples of a 
fesse interposed betwixt figures. The English and we use only the word bet-ween ; 
mcl some the Latin word inter, as Sandford ; the French say accompagne. 

Plate III. fig. 28. Gules, a fesse cheque, argent and azure, between three cres- 
cents or; by the name of Row. Others of the name change the tinctures, and 
give or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent, between three crescents gules ; as ARCHI- 
D Row, Colonel of the Regiment of the Scots Fusiliers ; with the addition of a 
anton dexter azure, charged with an -orange, stalked and slipped, proper ; ensign- 
ed with an imperial crown ; and for crest, an arm, issuing out of a wreath, armed, 
ling a sword, proper ; with this motto, Nun desistam. He is descended by the 
father's side, from Mr John Row, an eminent reformer, and, by the mother's side, 
from that eminent lawyer, Sir John Skene, Clerk-Register in the reign of King 
James VI. 

Plate IV. fig. i. Argent, a fesse waved gules, betwixt three boars' heads erased 
sable, carried by ALLARDICE of that Ilk. This family got a charter from King 



OF THE FESSE. 45 

William of the lands of Allrethis, in the sherifTdom of Kincardi-ne, afterwards 
called Allyradis, no\v Allardice ; \vhk-h has been ever since the surname of the 
family. Thomas Allardice of that Ilk got a charter from Kin:', David II. of the 
lands of Little-Barras : And in the reign of King James IV. John Allardice of 
that Ilk granted a charter to his brother Robert Allardice, of the half of the lands 
of Little-Barras, \\hkh was confirmed by that King; of whom is descended the 
present Allardice of that Ilk. James Allardice of Balmanny in Fife, Arch-Dean 
of Glasgow, grants a charter in the year 1489, of the lands of Balmanny, to Sir 
Alexander Home of that Ilk, Great Chamberlain of Scotland, to which was ap- 
pended his seal, having a formal shield, charged with a fesse, waved between three- 
boars' heads erased : The shiekl had no trimmings, but was environed with two 
palm branches. 

ALLARDICE of Duninald, a second son of Allardice of that Ilk, argent, a 11 
waved gules, between three boars' heads erased sable, within a bordure of the 
second; crest, a stalk of wheat and a branch of a palm-tree disposed in' saltier : 
with this motto, Bene qui pficijke ; so matriculated in the Lyon Register. 

CORNWALL of Bonhard, gules on a fesse argent, between three mullets or, as 
many Cornish, kaes (daws) sable, beaked and membered of the first, as fig. 2. ; and for 
crest, a Cornish kae hatching in the face of a rock, proper : motto, We big you see 
warily ; in the Lyon Register. The first of this name in Scotland, is said to have 
come from Cornwall in England, and to have taken his surname from that country, 
and the Cornish kaes in relation thereto. John Cornwall of Bonhard was slain 
with King James IV. at the battle of Flodden : His son Peter, being minor, was 
infeft in these lands, in obedience to a brief directed from the chancery, men- 
tioning his father to have been killed at Flodden. 

CUTHBERT of Castlchill, in the shire of Inverness, or, a fesse gules, and in chief 
a serpent azure : crest, a hand in a gauntlet, holding a dart : motto, Nc-c minus 
farther. Lyon Register. 

Fig. 3. Plate IV. ALEXANDER CUTHBERT, sometime Provost of Inverness, vert, 
a fesse ingrailed between four mullets argent, and an arrow in pale, surmounting 
the fesse, point downward, proper. 

JOHN CUTUBERT, merchant in Inverness, and sometime one of the magistrates of 
that town ; his arms as the last ; but, for difference, has the fesse indented in the 
upper, and ingrailed in the nether side. 

Or, on a fesse azure, betwixt a bull's head couped in chief ; and in base, a galley 
with oars erected saltier-ways sable, a St Andrew's cross argent, by the name of 
RICHARDSON of Smeiton. 

The surname of CRAIG, or CRAIGIE, carry ordinarily ermine, as observed before. 
The original family was Craig of Craigie in West-Lothian, now called Craigiehall. 
In our histories, we meet with one John Craig, a valiant man, and captain of the 
castle of Kildrummy for King David II. who being besieged by Ed \\ard Jialiol's 
followers, upon the advancing of the king's forces, under the command of Robert, 
High Lord Stewart, and John Randolph Earl of Murray, who joined a doubtful 
battle with the besiegers, Captain Craig issued forth of the castle with his party, 
and gave victory by a notable overthrow of King David's enemies ; .amo; 
whom fell David Cummin Earl of Athol, with many of his friends on the Bal 
side. 

Sir THOMAS CRAIG of Rickarton in Mid-Lothian, an eminent lawyer and advo- 
cate to King James VI. carried ermine on a fesse sable, three crescents argent, as 
fig. 4. Plate IV. which afterwards were matriculated in the Lyon Register ; and 
for crest, a chevalier on horseback, holding a broken lance in bend, proper ; with 
this motto, 7?';? deo, lit vivas. 

When any oblong figure, proper or natural, lies over a fesse, beyond the limits 
ot it, as in tlie bearing of Alexander Cuthbert, just now given, fig. 3. in blazon, 
the resse is said to be surmounted: And if the fesse lies over another oblong figure, 
the lessc is said also to surmount if ; -for surmounting, the French say brocbi, 
as fig. 5. argent, an oak tree growing out of a mount, in base, vert surmounted of 
a ll-sse azure, by WATSON of Saughton. 

But if the super-charge be comprehended within the limits of the fesse, then it 
is said to be charged, or as we say commonly, on a fesse, of which I have eiveu 

M 



^6 OF THE FESSE. 

already several examples ; but here I shall add one more, with some variety as to 
the fesse. 

HERIOT of Trabrown, argent, on a fesse azure, three cinquefoils ot the first. As 
for the antiquity of this surname, Buchanan says, WILLIAM, JOHN and GILBERT 
HERIOTS, safely conducted Robert, High Steward of Scotland, out of the reach of 
his enemies, being narrowly sought after by Edward Baliol and the English. In 
e Earl of Haddington's Collections, in the Lawyers' Library, there is a double 
of a charter granted by Archibald Earl of Douglas, of the lands of Trabrown, to 
John Heriot, designed, Filius fc? .hares diletti confederate nostri Jacobi de Heriot, de 
Xudrie Mariscall ; which charter I find confirmed by Archibald Douglas, Earl of 
Wigton, Lord Eskdale, anno 1423, with these witnesses, James Douglas, our "bro- 
ther, William Seaton, son and heir of John Lord Seaton ; which charter is also con- 
firmed by King James I. the ipth year of his reign. 

The Heriots of Trabrown, continued in the possession of these lands, lying with- 
in the sheriffdom of Berwick, till the latter end of the reign of King Charles I. 
and about that time got the lands of Elphingston in East-Lothian, which they 
called Trabrown ; of whom are the Heriots of Long-Niddrie, old tenants to 
the earls of Winton: As also, George Heriot, jeweller to King James VI. famous 
tor his piety in erecting hospitals in England and Scotland; especially that at Edin- 
burgh, of a curious structure, upon the front and other places whereof are his 
arms ; argent on a fesse transposed, a crescent between two stars of the first, fig. 6. 
Plate IV. 

A fesse transposed, is said, when it is placed higher than the centre, and is then 
a mark of some eminent virtue, as the fesse cheque, in the arms of the High 
Stewards of Scotland before mentioned. 

The French have the same practice of transposing, as also of depressing the 
tesse, either above or below the centre ; and they term i,t then a fesse hausse, 
when it is high, and when depressed below the centre, abaisse. Hausse, says Mon- 
sieur Baron, is said of the cheveron and fesse when they are placed higher than 
their ordinary situation, and gives us examples thereof in his UArt Heraldique. 

I shall add some examples of a fesse, under other accidental forms. 

Fig. 7. Plate IV. Argent, a fesse nebule btween three escutcheons gules ; borne 
by Mr JOHN HAY, sometime one of the Under-Clerks of the Session. 

Item, Argent, a fesse embattled azure, by the name of BATTLEWALL in Eng- 
land ; this fesse, being only embattled on the upper side, is termed by the 
English embattled or crenelle ; but if on both sides, then it is termed count 'cr- 
cmbattled ; the French say, bretesse ; azure, a fesse counter-embattled argent; 
which Mr Holme, in his Academy of Armories, gives to the name of BARNES in 
England, with other various examples of counter-embattling, which I pass over, as 
mere fancies of his own. 

Fig. 8. Plate IV. Vert, a fesse dancette ermine, between a buck's head cabossed 
in chief, and two escalops or, carried by the surname of DUFF, as in Pout's MS. of 
Blazons ; which blazon is matriculated for DUFF of Craighead, and given to ALEX- 
ANDER DUFF of Keithmore, in the L. R. 

dancette, as I observed before, is a large indenting, with great and few teeth ; 
the fewest are three, and when but of two great teeth, it is like a capital M, with 
its legs extended to the two sides of the shield, and it is called a fesse vivre. Menes- 
trier gives us several examples of such, as fig. 9. Plate IV. Azure, a fesse vivre, 
surmounted of a little cross argent, borne by the family MASALKI in Poland ; and 
is of opinion, that the fesse vivre is carried in arms for the letter M, because the 
most part of the families who carry it have their names beginning with that letter : 
Mr Holme gives us such an example, which he calls a fesse double dancette, like 
unto two cheverons conjoined in fesse. In coats of this nature, says he, it is very 
necessary to number the points, else the tricker of coats may be deceived by its 
term of blazon : Such a coat he gives to the name of FLOWER, a fesse dancette 
counter -flowery gules. 

As the pale is carried in arms, as before, between two endorses, so the fesse is be- 
tween two barrulets, the diminutives of the bar, which are sometimes called cottises, 
but not so properly, being the diminutives of the bend. 



OF THE FESSE. 47 

For example, 1 'hail give the arms of CONGALTON of that Ilk, as they stand re- 
corded in our Lyon Register, quarterly, fig. 10. Plate IV. first and fourth argent, 
a beiui ^v/A'.f, and in chief a label of three points sable; second and third, argent, 
a fes.se sable betwixt two cottises compune azure, and of the second ; crest, a bee, 
proper: motto, Magnum in parvo. And, in the same Register, David Congalton, 
portioner of Dirleton, descended of Congalton of that Ilk, carries the same arm-, 
(without the cottises), and all within a bordure ingrailed g:. 

The arms of Congalton of that Ilk, which family is in East-Lothian, are other- 
wise illuminated in our old books of painting, as thus ; quarterly, first and fourth 
or, a bend, gules ; second and third gules, a fesse or, betwixt two cottises compose 
nt and azure. And Sir James Balfour, in his Blazons, makes the cottises vair, 
urgent, and azure. Sylvanus Morgan gives such another coat of arms, but \\ith 
some variety, in his Treatise of Heraldry, borne by Sir JOHN HUUDY of Stcwel, in 
Dorsetshire ; argent, a fesse, parted per fesse, vert and sable, betwixt two cot' 
counter-changed. 

Besides those accidental forms of the fesse, I shall add only two, couped and 
led, which the other ordinaries are also subject to. 

Couped is said of the fesse and other ordinaries, when their extremities do not 
touch the sides of the shield ; or, a fesse couped gules, carried by Masham of 
Essex. The English call such a fesse sometimes a hiwiet, as Morgan in his Blazon 
of the Arms of Brabant, argent on a fesse humet gules, three leopards' heads or; 
the French, for couped, say alaise ; and so of the other ordinaries, whose extremi- 
ties do not touch the sides of the shield ; for which, when the Latins blazon such 
figures, they say, a latere scuti disjunct!. 

Voided is said of the fesse and other ordinaries when their middle is as it were 
cut out, and the field appears, for which the Latins say, fascia secta introrsum : 
Camden says for voided, evacuata, and the French, wide, as Menestrier, " Vuide 
" se dit des croix & autres pie'ces ouvertes au travers desquelles on voit le champ, 
" ou sol de 1'ecu." As for example, argent, a fesse gules voided of the field, as 
Plate IV. fig. u. But if the voiding be of a different tincture from the field, as 
supposing the voided part of this figure was or, it would be blazoned by the 
English, argent, a fesse gules charged with another. 

The fesse, according to the English, is not to be diminished in its breadth, nor 
to be multiplied ; but with the French it is frequently both diminished and multi- 
plied : Of which in the following chapter. 



BLAZONS OF ARMS BELONGING TO THIS CHAPTER. WHICH HAVE FIGURES AFTER THE FORM 

OF THE FESSE. 

I have given before the armorial bearings of the princely family of STEWARTS, 
in carrying the fesse cheque, which continued in the right line of the family, till 
Robert the High Steward succeeded his uncle King David Bruce in the throne ; 
he then laid aside the fesse cheque, and carried only the imperial ensign of the 
Kingdom of Scotland. His eldest son, John, before his father's accession to the 
throne, carried or, a fesse cheque, argent and azure, with a label of three points 
within a double tressure, flowered and counter-flowered gules, as by old paintings, 
and his seal appended to charters having the shield couche ; and for crest, issuing 
out of a wreath, a lion's head. 

When his father came to the crown, he had another seal of arms, whereon was 
a shield couche, charged with a fesse cheque, out of which issued a demi-lion ram- 
pant, all within a double tressure, to intimate his right of succession to the crown : 
Which shield of arms was supported by two wild men with long hair hanging 
down from their head ; and for crest, a demi-lion, and the legend round the seal, 
Sigillum yohannes sensscalli Domini dc Kayle, appended to a charter of his father's, 
wherein he is witness with others to John Kennedy oi" Donnour, of certain lands, 
which for brevity's sake I omit. The charter ends thus, " Testibus venerabili in 
" Christo Patre Willielmo episcopo sancti Andreas . Johanne primogenito nostro 
" comite de Carrick, &. senescallo Scotiae, Roberto comite de Monteith," &c. 
dated at Dundonald the 4th of September, the first year of his father's reign. 



4 8 OF THE FESSE. 

I have seen another seal afterwards used by John Earl of Carrick, appended to 
-cvcral cvidents, which, for brevity's sake, 1 here forbear to mention as foreign to 
my purpose.-, but shall only take notice of the form, of the seal, which was eques- 
trian, having the picture of a man on horseback, in his surcoat of arms, brandish- 
ing a sword in his right hand, and on his left arm a shield, charged with a lion 
rampant, within a double tressure flowered and counter-flowered, and, in chief, a 
label of three points, to show that he was Prince and Steward of Scotland ; which 
arms are repeated on his surcoat and caparisons of his horse, the head of the man 
being covered with a forestanding helmet, upon which is a wreath cheque, and 
thereon, for crest, a lion's head betwixt two demi-vols ; and the legend round the 
seal had these words, Sig. Johannis primogenhi Regis Scotia;, Comitis de Carrie, & 
SenescaUi Scotia, He is the first son of our Scots Kings that I observe carried 
the entire arms of the kingdom with a label, and was afterwards King of Scotland 
by the name of Robert III. 

ROBERT, who obtained the earldom of Monteith, a younger son of King Robert 
i I. and afterwards created Duke of Albany by his brother King Robert III. 1399, 
carrietl first or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent, surmounted with a lion rampant 
gules ; the shield was adorned with a close helmet, and thereupon a wreath of 
three tracts cheque, as the fesse, out of which issued a wolf's head with its neck, 
holding in its mouth a rose ; supporters, two lions selant gardant gules ; and the 
same vais on his seal, appended to a precept of his of the great customs of Edin- 
burgh, Haddington, and Dunbar, anno 1399. Afterwards, as by our old illumi- 
nated Books of Blazons, he carries quarterly, first and fourth or, a lion rampant 
gules, and, in chief, a label of three points azure, for the title of Albany ; second 
and third or, a fesse cheque azure and argent, with a label of three points in chief: 
He died 1419. His eldest son Murdoch succeeded him in the government,, and 
his other titles of dignity ; but, upon the restoration of King James I. he and his 
two brothers Walter and Alexander were attainted of treason, and lost their 
heads. 

JOHN STEWART Earl of BUCHAN, Constable of France, second son of Robert Duke 
of Albany, carried for arms, quarterly, first and fourth, the arms of Scotland ; se- 
cond and third azure, three garbs or, for the earldom of Buchan : He died at the 
battle of Vernoile, 1429, and left issue only one daughter Jean, who was married 
to Sir George Seaton of that Ilk, progenitors of the Earls of Winton. 

1 shall proceed no further downward here in the right line of the Stewarts, be- 
ing sovereigns, nor to their younger children, because they disused the fesse cheque, 
and earned the sovereign ensign, to show their royal descent, with suitable brisures, 
or by marshalling the sovereign ensign with the arms of their dignified feus ; of 
which afterwards. But shall now proceed to give some blazons of other branches 
that came of the stock of Stewart before King Robert II. and who carried the fesse 
cheque, with other figures which they transmitted to their posterity with the sur- 
name of Stewart, except those two considerable old branches of the family of 
Stewarts, who, though they took the surname of Boyd and Monteith, yet they con- 
tinued the chequer bearing, as BOYD, azure, a fesse cheque, argent and gules ; and 
MONTEITH, argent, a bend cheque sable, and of the first ; of which afterwards. 

Sir JOHN STEWART of Bonkill, second son to Alexander High Steward of Scot- 
land, born in the year 1246. He married Margaret, daughter to Sir Alexander 
Bonkill of that Ilk : She bore to him several sons, heads of great families of the 
name of Stewart ; which Mr David Simpson gives us fully in his Genealogical and 
Historical Account of the Family of Stewart ; which families were known by the 
e cheque, bend, and buckles. The figures which Sir John Stewart carried in 
right of his wife, viz. or, a' fesse cheque, azure and argent, surmounted of a bend 
gules, charged with three buckles of the first, for Bonkill. 

His grandson, (by his eldest san Sir Alexander), JOHN STEWART Earl of Angus, 
Lord Bonkill and Abernethy, married the daughter of Alexander Abernethy. His 
Thomas succeeded him; who quartered with his paternal coat, before blazoned, 
that ot ABERNETHY, or, a lion rampant gules, bruised with a ribbon sable. He had 
one daughter and heir Margaret, who was married to William Earl of Douglas : 
He had by her George, first of the line of Douglas, Earls of Angus, for which they 
quartered the foresaid arms with their own ; of which in another place. 



OF THE FESSE. yj 

The second son of John Stewart of Bonkill was ALLAN STEWART ; of whom 
SimpMHi, in his ion-said hook, makes tin- Lords of Darnley, Earls and Dukes of 
Lennox, to be descended. Upon several documents, one of them relative to th- 
arms, he says, ALLAN STEWART Carried arms as his brother, a fesse cheque surmounted 
of u bend, charged with three buckles : Hut afterwards his posterity used a bordurc 
f, charged with buckles, which was carried by the Earls and' Dukes of Len- 
nox ; but more of this in another place. 

Sir \V YLTER STKWART, t whom King Robert the Bruce gave the barony of Dal- 
Uton, wa, descended of u younger son of John Stewart of Bonkill, "and was 
ned of Dalswinion, and sometimes of Garlics. His grandson, Sir Wal- 
ter Stewart of Dalswinton, was contemporary with Robert III. His daughter, Marion 
Stewart, became his heir, and was married to Sir William Stewart, Sheriff of Ti 
viotdale, descended of the family of Darnley, progenitors of the Earls of Galloway, as 
Mr Simpson, historiographer, tells us in his forementioned book. The arms of this fa- 
mily are : or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent, surmounted of a- bend ingrailed .///-, 
(which bend is a part of the armorial figures of Bonkill, to show their descent from 
that family), within a double tressure flowered and counter-flowered of the last : 
The arms of tlm noble family are supported on the dexter by a savage, wreathed 
about the head and middle with laurel, holding in his right hand a batton, and on 
the sinister by a lion rampant gules ; crest, a pelican feeding her young in a nest, 
all proper: and for motto, the word Virescit. 

The cadets of the family of Stewart of Dalswinton and Garlics, now Earls of 
GALLOWAY, are STEWART of Minto, or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent, surmoun- 
ted of a bend ingrailed, and, in chief, a rose gules. 

WALTER STEWART Lord BLANTYRE, representative of the family of Minto, carries 
the- same, with supporters as the Earls of Galloway ; and for crest, a dove with an 
olive leaf in its mouth : with this motto, Sola Juvat Virtus. 

STEWART of Castlemilk, or, a bend gules, surmounted of a fesse cheque, argent 
and tit.ure ; so recorded in the Lyon Register for Sir Archibald Stewart of Castle- 
milk, Baronet, with the badge of Nova Scotia in the sinister canton; crest, a dex-' 
ter hand holding a sword, proper : motto, Aiiant. 

STI..VAR.T of Torrence, descended of James, second son of Sir Archibald Stewart 
of Castlemilk, and his lady, Anne, daughter to Robert Lord Semple, carries as 
Castlemilk, with a crescent gules, in the sinister chief point for difference. 

From Sir JAMES STEWART, fourth son of Sir John Stewart of Bonkill, are descen- 
ded the Stewarts of Innermeth or Lorn, Durisdeer or Rosyth ; and, again, from 
Lorn or Innermeth, the Stewarts Earls of Athol and Buchan ; the Stewarts of 
Gairntully from the Earl of Buchan, as also the Earl of Traquair, the blazons of 
whose families I shall here insert as I find them in our old Books of Blazons. 

SI-EWART of Innermeth got from King Robert the Bruce, for his good services, 
a grant of the lands of Garmelton and Dunning in Perthshire, (as Crawfurd tells us in 
his History of Renfrew) ; and, thereafter, his family became possessed of the lordship 
ot Lorn, by marrying the heiress of the surname of Macdougal. The ancientest 
blazon of Stewart of Innermeth that I meet with, is, quarterly, first and fourth or, 
a fesse cheque, azure and argent, and, in chief, a garb of the second ; (some Books 

Blazons, in the reign of Queen Mary, in place of the garb, have z flower-de-luce ; 
and Sir James Balfour, in his Blazons, places a buckle azure, which speaks better 
to the descent from Stewart of Bonkill) ; second and third or, a lymphad or galley, 
with flames of fire issuing out of the fore and hinder parts, and out of the top 
of the mast, commonly called St Anthony's fire, for the lordship of Lorn. This 
family came to a period in the person of John Lord Lorn, 1445, wno dicd without 
issue male ; and the lordship was shared betwixt his three daughters, co-heirs, 
married to Colin Earl of Argyle, Sir Colin Campbell of Glenorchy, and to Campbell 
of Otter ; of whom before. 

WALTER STEWART of Innermeth, as nearest heir-male of John Stewart Lord of 
Lorn, laid claim to the lordship, and was seized therein ; but by an agreement 
with the Earl of Argyle, 1469, he resigned the lordship of Lorn in" favours of Ar- 
gyle, and, in place of it, was made Lord Innermeth, with the precedency of Lorn ; 
and carried the quartered coat above blazoned, without the garb or buckle, sup- 
ported by two fallow deers ; and for crest, a unicorn's head argent, mained and 

N 



5D OF THE FESSE. 

horned or ; with tliis word for motto, Wbadder ; as iu Workman's Book of Blazons 
This family continued till the reign of King James VI. when James Lord Inner- 
meth having married Mary Stewart, daughter of John Earl of Athol, was, by the 
favour of that monarch, created Earl of Athol upon the 25th day of March 1596, 
but he died without succession 1605. 

STEWART of Craigie, now called Craighall, quarterly, first and fourth or, a fesse 
cheque, azure and argent, in chief three buckles of the second, for Stewart of Bon- 
kill ; second and third ermine, on a fesse sable , , three crescents argent, for Craigie 
or Craig, as in Sir James Balfour's and Esplin's Blazons. 

STEWART of Durlsdeer or Rosyth, or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent, within a 
bordure gules, charged with eight buckles of the first. Esplin's Blazons. 

Sir JAMES STEWART, commonly called the Black Knight of Lorn, being a 
younger son of the Lord Lorn and Innermeth before-mentioned, married Jean, 
daughter of John Earl of Somerset, and Queen Dowager of King James I. of Scot- 
land, by whom he had three sons : first, John ; second, James Earl of Buchan ; 
third, Andrew Bishop of Murray. The eldest, John, by the favour of King Jamcb 
II. his uterine brother, was created Earl of Athol ; which earldom was then in the 
King's possession, by the forfeiture of Walter Earl of Athol, murderer of King 
James I. John, as Lieutenant to King James III. in his Majesty's minority, re- 
duced the rebel Donald Lord of the Isles, and brought him to submission ; for 
which action he got the motto, Furth Fortune and fill the fetters : His arms were 
quarterly, first and fourth Stewart ; second and third, paly of six, sable and or, for 
the title of Athol ; crest, a hand holding a key bend-ways, with the foresaid mot- 
to ; and, as relative thereto, two savages in fetters for supporters. 

From this JOHN Earl of ATHOL, was John the fifth Earl in a direct line, who 
died without male issue, leaving three daughters by his wife Mary, daughter to 
William the first Earl of Gowrie. First, Dorothea, married to William first Earl 
of Tullibardin. Second, Mary, wife to James Stewart Lord Innermeth, who, in 
her right, was Earl of Athol, (of whom 1 spoke before), and died without issue ; 
-o that the estate and dignity came to Dorothea Countess of Tullibardin, of whom 
John Duke of Athol is the lineal heir, and carries the foresaid quartered arms mar- 
hailed with his own, of which afterwards. The third daughter, Jean, was mar- 
ried to Henry Lord St Colm, and died without issue. 

The next collateral branch of the Stewarts of Lorn, that came from Sir James 
Stewart, commonly called the Black Knight of Lorn, was JAMES, created Earl of 
BUCHAN by King James II. about the year 1457, and got the lordship of Auchter- 
house by his wife Margaret, daughter and sole heir of Sir Alexander Ogilvie of 
Auchterhouse. She bore to him Alexander Earl of Buchan, whose great grandson 
John, Master of Buchan, was killed at the battle of Pinky, leaving only one 
daughter, Christian, his sole heir. She married Robert Douglas, son of William 
Douglas of Lochleven, and younger brother of William Earl of Morton, who was 
idterwards Earl of Buchan. His son, James Douglas Earl of Buchan, had only a 
daughter, Mary, his heir, who was married to James Erskine, eldest son of John 
Earl of Marr, by his second wife Mary Stewart, daughter of Esme Duke of Len- 
nox, and with her obtained the estate and dignity of Buchan, which still continues 
in the name of Erskine. The Stewarts of Buchan carried the plain coat of Stewart, 
quartered with these of Buchan, viz. azure, three garbs or, but left out the buckles, 
which showed their descent from the Stewarts of Bonkill. The like has been 
the practice of our heralds and painters of late, in giving the plain coat of a prin- 
cipal family to the cadets, without any difference, whenever they happened to be 
marshalled with any other bearing ; which is a loss to the bearers, and confounding 
to others curious in genealogies. 

The first of the family of STEWART of Traquair, was James Stewart, son of James 
Stewart first Earl of Buchan ; who, by marrying Katherine Rutherford, one of the 
daughters and co-heirs of Rutherford of that Ilk, in the reign of King James IV. 
got the lands of Traquair and others. From him was lineally descended Sir John 
Stewart, created a Lord Baron in 1628, and afterwards, in 1633, Earl of TRAQUAIR 
and Lord LINTON by King Charles I. ; he being that King's High Treasurer, and 
afterwards High Commissioner to the Parliament 1639. His son was Charles; and 
his son, again, John Earl of Traquair, who married Lady Anne Seaton, daughter of 



OF THE FESSE. 5: 

George Earl of Win ton. Their son Charles, the present Earl of Traquair, married 
Mary Maxwell, daughter of Robert Earl of Nithisdule, by whom he hath a mi; 
rous hopeful issue : The eldest son is Charles Lord Linton. The bearing of the fa- 
mily consists of four coats quarterly : first or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent, for 
Stewart ; second azure, three garbs or, for Buchan ; third sable, a mullet argent ; 
fourth argent, an orle g ules, and three martlets in chief sable, for Rutherford. Tin 
last coat was sometimes placed in the third quarter, as by the paintings on the 
roof of Fala-hall. Supporters, two bears, proper ; crest, a crow standing upon a 
garb ; with the motto, Judge nought. 

STEWART of Gairntully, as descended from Stewart of Lorn, quarterly, first and 
fourth the plain coat of Stewart ; second and third or, a lymphad or galley sable, 
with fire issuing out of the mast ; as in Mr Font's Manuscript of Blazons. But 
now, as in the Lyon Register, Sir Archibald Stewart of Gairntully, quarterly, first and 
fourth Stewart ; second and third argent, a galley, her oars in action, sable, for 
Lorn, (as now carried without the fire), all within a bordure azure, charged with 
eight buckles or ; crest, two bees counter-volant proper : motto, Pro-vide. 

WILLIAM STKWART of Innernytie, a second brother of Gairntully, quarterly, first 
and fourth or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent, in chief two stars of the second ; se- 
i-ond and third argent, a lymphad or galley with oars in action sable, with St. An- 
thony's fire on the top-mast ; and, in the centre of the quarters, a crescent, for 
brotherly difference. L. R. 

Sir THOMAS STEWART of Balcaskie, sometime one of the Senators of the College 
of Justice, whose father was a son of Gairntully, the quartered arms of Gairntully, 
within a bordure contre ermine ; crest, a bee volant proper : motto, Par at y cur at. 
L. R. 

WILLIAM STEWART of Tongorth, descended of the house of Gairntully, the same 
as Gairntully, with three garbs azure, in chief above the fesse cheque, for his dif- 
ference ; crest, a bee volant en arriere proper : motto, Pro videntiee folo. L. R. 

But, to proceed to other families of the surname of Stewart, I observe they sur- 
mounted or accompanied their fesse cheque with other figures, but especially lions, 
which I think was in imitation of the sons of Robert 111. For, as I observed be- 
fore, the arms of John Stewart, eldest son to King Robert II. had a demi-lion 
naissant out of the fesse, before he carried the entire lion of Scotland with a label. 
And his brother, Robert Earl of Monteith, after Duke of Albany, had a lion ram- 
pant gules, surmounting the fesse cheque, before he carried quartered arms. 

JOHN STEWART of Ardgowan, a natural son of King Robert 111. afterwards de- 
signed of Blackball, carried the same arms which Robert Duke of Albany first car- 
ried, and have been continued in the family, and are still carried by the present 
Sir Archibald Stewart of Blackball, Baronet, viz. or, a fesse cheque, azure and ar- 
gent, surmounted of a lion rampant g ules, langued and armed azure-, and for crest, 
a lion's head erased gules ; with the motto, Spero meliora ; as matriculated in the 
Lyon Register ; and sometimes, Integritate stabit ingenuus. 

Mr WALTER STEWART, Advocate, brother-german of Sir Archibald Stewart of 
Blackball, carries or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent, surmounted with a lion ram- 
pant gules, the same with his brother, and, for his difference, a bordure ermine, 
(upon account that his mother, Anne, eldest daughter and co-heiress of Sir Alex- 
ander Crawford of Kilbirny, Baronet, carried gules, a fesse ermine, of which after- 
wards) ; and for crest, a lion's head erased gules ; with the motto, Lcedere noli ; as 
in the Plate of Achievements. 

STEWART of Scotston, descended of Archibald, a second son of Archibald 
Stewart of Blackball, who got the lands of Scotston by marriage with Margaret, 
daughter and heiress of Mr John Hutcheson of Scotston, carried the same figures 
with Blackball, but, for difference, transposed them thus: or, a lion rampant g ules, 
surmounted, or bruised, with a fes-,e cheque, azure and argent ; matriculated in our 
New Register ; for crest, a boar's head couped of the field : motto, A virtute orta. 

STEWART of Garth, in the same Register, has the fesse surmounted of the lion, 
and quartered with the coat of Cummin, azure, three garbs or. 

STEWART of Lady well, descended of Garth, the same within a bordure argent ; 
crest, a man's head couped proper : motto, Pro rege fc? patria. L. R. 

DAVID STEWART of Inchbrock, descended of a second sou of the Stewarts of John- 



5i OF THE FESSE. 

ston, who was a second son of the house of Ochiltree, or, a fcsse cheque, azure and 
urgent, between a lion passant in chief, and a rose in base gules, all within a bor- 
dure ingrailed and gobonated of the second and third; crest, a civet cat couchant 
proper; motto, Semper paratus. L. R. 

STEWART of Allanton, or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent in chief, a lion pas- 
sant gules, armed azure. Pont' - s MS. 

STEWART of Dalswinton, or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent, betwixt three uni- 
corns' heads couped sable. 

STEWART of Davingstone, the arms of Stewart, within a bordure ingrailed gules. 
Balfour's MS. 

STEWART of Corme, or, a fesse cheque, argent and azure, between three wolves' 
heads couped sable. Ibid. 

The STEWARTS of Athol and Buchan, of old, says Jacob Imhoff, in his Blazons, 
Regum pariumque magnce Britannia;, accompanied their fesse with wolves' heads ; 
which I have sometimes met with in old illuminated manuscripts, but by whom 
done I could not learn. 

STEWART of Craigins accompanied the fesse with three otters' heads couped 
gules ; Balfour's MS. of Blazons, where he gives us an old coat of Stewart of Bute, 
thus, quarterly, first and fourth or, a bend cheque, azure and argent, for Stewart ; 
-ccond and third or, a ship, and in chief three buckles sable, which I take as be- 
longing to one of the sons, or grandsons of Sir John Stewart of Bonkill, upon the 
account of the buckles, and that the fesse cheque was turned to a bend, since all 
his issue, as before, carried buckles or bends ; and our historians tell us, that Sir 
John of Bonkill, was designed also of Bute, and had an interest there. 

As for the STEWARTS, Sheriffs of Bute, the first of them was Sir John Stewart, 
natural son to King Robert II. By several charters of King Robert III. he is de- 
signed, Prater noster naturalis : What that family carried of old, I know not, but 
in the Books of Blazons of Workman, Pont, and others, Stewart of Bute carried 
the single coat of Stewart. James the present Earl of Bute, and Lord Mount- 
stewart, has on his paintings and utensils or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent, 
\\ithin a double tressure flowered and counter-flowered gules; for crest, a lion 
naissant out of a wreath of his tinctures; with the motto on an escrol, Nobilis ira; 
upported on the dexter by an horse argent, bridled gules, and on the sinister, by 
a deer, proper, attired or, standing on a compartment, whereon are these words, 
Avito viret honore. As for the other families of the surname of Stewart, I shall 
subjoin the blazons of their arms as I find them recorded in the Lyon Register 
since the year 1661. 

ALEXANDER STEWART of Newhall, lineal representative of Sir John Stewart of 
Craighall his grandsire ; quarterly, first and fourth or, a fesse cheque, azure and 
argent, in chief three buckles of the second ; second, ermine on a fesse sable, three 
crescents argent, for the name of Craig ; crest, a trunk of an old tree sprouting 
out, a branch on the right side acorned, proper : motto, Resurgam. 

Mr JOHN STEWART of Ascog, advocate, descended of Bute, the arms of Stewart 
'.vithin a bordure sable, charged with eight mascles argent ; crest, a greyhound 
couchant within two branches of bay, proper : motto, Fide & opera. 

Sir WILLIAM STEWART of Strabork, quarterly, first and fourth Stewart, second 
and third azure, three garbs or for Buchan ; crest, a phoenix in flames of fire, pro- 
per : motto, Virtutifortuna comes. 

DAVID STEWART of Inchbrock, descended of a second son of the family of Stewart 
of Johnston, which was a branch of the house of Ochiltree ; or, a fesse cheque, 
azure and argent, between a lion passant in chief, and a rose in base gules, all with- 
in a bordure ingrailed, and gobonated of the second and third ; crest, a civet cat 
couchant, proper : motto, Semper paratus. 

Ciiptain JAMES STEWART of Rosling, or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent, in 
chief a lion rampant gardant gules ; crest, an anchor in pale azure, ensigned on the 
top with a man's heart, proper : motto, Fixus ac solidits ; as also at other times, 
Tarn fidus quam fixus. 

^ ROBERT STEWART of Burray, second son of Mains, who was a brother of the 
Earl of Galloway, carriea as the Earl of Galloway, within a bordure indented gules ; 
crest, a pelican vulnerate, proper : motto, Virescit vulnere*. 



OFTHEFESSI. 

LAURENCE STEWART of Bighton, in Orkney, or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent, 
between three muscles of the second; crest, an holly leaf slipped vert: motto, .V/r 
virescit industria. 

ROBERT STEWART of Newark, carries Stewart within a bordure gules, charged 
with three lions rampant, and as many ships at anchor, interchanged or ; crest, a 
lion's paw and a palm branch crossing other saltier-ways, proper : motto, Cbristus 
mibi lucrum. 

THOMAS STEWART of Drummin, descended of the family of Kinnerchly ; or, a 
fesse cheque, azure and argent, between three cross croslets, fitched in chief, and as 
many cushions in base gules, all within a bordure ingrailed azure ; crest, two 
hands conjoined, and holding a man's heart, proper : motto, Corde fc? manu. 

JAMES STEWART merchant in Dundee, descended of Stewart of Garth ; the quar- 
tered coat of Garth, over all a lion rampant gules, all within a bordure argent, 
charged with six wolves' heads erased gules ; crest, a savage head couped, proper : 
motto, Reddunt commercia mitem. 

WALTER STEWART merchant in London^ and third son to Sir Thomas Stewart of 
Cbltness, descended of the family of Allanton, descended of Castlemilk ; or, u 
bend gules, surmounted of a fesse cheque, azure and argent, within a bordure cheque. 
of the same ; crest, a thistle and a sprig of a rose tree crossing other in saltier, 
proper: motto, Juvant aspera probum. 

Having insisted upon the fesse cheque of the family of Stewart, and its branches, 
some of whom anciently, though they took not upon them the surname of Stewart, 
but other surnames, as Boyd and Monteith, yet they carried their figures, cheque, 
to show their descent. I shall now speak of them. 

The first of the surname of BOYD, was Robert, son of Simon, third son of Allan, 
second Lord High Steward of Scotland, who died 1153 ; which Robert is design- 
ed in the charters of Paisley, nephew to Walter, the son of Allan Dapifir, Great 
Steward of Scotland. Robert Boyd is witness in a charter, in the year 1205, as 
CrawfurJ in his History of Renfrew, page 55. ; and Sir James Dalryrnple, m 
his preface to his Scots Collections, page 80. says, I find Robcrtus diet us de Boyd, 
in a charter by Sir John Erskine about the year 1262. And doubtles he wu 
predecessor to the Lords BOYD, and Earls of KILMARNOCK, who carried azure, a 
fesse cheque, argent and gules ; crest, a hand issuing out of a wreath, pointing with 
the thumb and two fingers: motto, Cbnfido ; supporters, two squirrels collared or. 

BOYD of Pinkell, a second son of one of the Lord BOYDS, azure, a fesse cheque, 
argent and gules, and in base a cross moline or; and for crest, another cross moline 
sable ; with the motto, Prudentia me sustinet. L. R. 

BOYD of Pitcon, a second son of another Lord Boyd, the arms of Boyd, within a 
bordure or; crest, a hand couped, pointing two fingers to the sun in the heavens, 
proper : motto, Spes mea in ccelis. L. R. 

BOYD of Trochrig, azure, a fesse clxque', argent and gules, between- two cross 
croslets fitche in chief, and as many stars in base of the second ; and for crest, a 
sun-dial : motto, Eternitatem cogita. L. R. 

JOHN BOYD, sometime bailie in Edinburgh, azure, a fesse cheque, argent and 
gules, between three roses in chief, and a crescent in base of the second ; with the 
crest and motto of the Lord Boyd. L. R. 

As to the surname of MONTEITH, I shall speak to it in the chapter of the bend. 
There are many other families of different surnames, whoj in imitation of the 
Stewarts, or as vassals to them, have chequered their armorial figures, as the 
SEMPLES, ROSSES, HOUSTON'S-, SPRUELS, BRISBANES, FLEMING of Buracharr, and 
SCHAW of Bargaron ; of whom in their proper places. 

The ancient and honourable family of the surname of LINDSAY, gules, a fesse 
cheque, argent and azure. The first of this family and name, says Hector Boyes, 
came to Scotland with Edgar Atheling, and Margaret his sister, queen to King 
Malcolm Canmore. As for the antiquity of the name, Sir James Dalrymple tells 
us, in his Collections, page 351. that IValterufde Lindesayu and IVilliam de Linde- 
.tfivfi, are witnesses in King David I.'s charters. As for the de-vecnt, see Mr Craw- 
furd's Baronage, and Sir Robert Sibbald's History of Fife. 

There were two eminent families of this name, the one designed of CRAWFORD, 
aixd the other of BYRES. The family of Lindsay of Crawford, was dignified with 

O 



54 OF THE FESSE. 

the title of Earl of Crawford, about the year 1398, the pth year of the reign of 
Robert III. and carried for their armorial bearing as before : Who, after they mar- 
ried a daughter and heiress of the Lord Abernethy, quartered the arms of Aber- 
nethy with their own, and that very early ; and have been in use to have for sup- 
porters, two lions seiant gules, armed or; crest, an ostrich, proper, holding in its 
beak a key ; and for motto, Endure fort. 

The other family, LINDSAY of the BYRES, was William de Lindsay Dominus de 
Byres; by the production of whose rights at the ranking of the nobility 1606, says 
Sir Robert Sibbald, he was found to have been a peer of the degree of a lord, by 
marrying Christian, daughter to Sir William Mure of Abercorn. He got with her 
Abercorn, and Dean, near to Edinburgh, the Mills, and several other lands ; and 
added to his arms, being gules, a fesse cheque, argent and azure, three stars in chief 
of the second, the figures of his father-in-law ; supported by two griffins gules, 
armed and membered or; and crested with a swan with its wings expanded, 
proper ; and for motto, Love but dread. His successor, John Lord ' Lindsay of 
Byres, was created Earl of Lindsay 1633. Betwixt him and Lewis Earl of Craw- 
ford there was a tailzie, by means of which, when Earl Lewis was forfeited, Earl 
John succeeded to the titles, arms, and fortune of the Earl of Crawford. 

LINDSAY of Edziell, the male-heir of Lindsay of Crawford, carries the arms of 
the Earl of Crawford as above, as the representative of that noble family, and was 
for some time earl. 

The first of the family of LINDSAY of BALCARRAS, was Sir John, of the family of 
Edziell, who was one of the Senators of the College of Justice in the year 1595, 
and the next year Secretary of State to King James VI. in which office he died. 
His son was created Lord BALCARRAS 1633 ; and his grandson Colin was created Earl 
of Balcarras by King Charles II. They carry arms as the Earl of Crawford and 
Edziell ; within a bordure azure, charged with fourteen stars or ; supporters, two 
lions seiant gardant gules, with collars about their necks azure, charged with three 
stars or; for crest, a canopy seme of stars or, and fringed of the last, topped with a 
pennon gules ; and for motto, Astra, castra, numen, lumen. 

LINDSAY of Balgays in Angus, another younger son of Edzielly. who was Earl of 
Crawford, carried the quartered arms of Lindsay, Crawford, and Abernethy, as his 
father. Font's Manuscript. 

ALEXANDER LINDSAY, LORD SPYNIE, a younger son of David Earl of Crawford, 
and Edziell, who made a resignation of the earldom, carried his father's arms, with 
a label of three points argent: (some books have a crescent in place of the label), 
supporters, two lions seiant, armed and langued or; crest, an ostrich head erased, 
proper, with an horse-shoe or in its beak, and a label of three points about its 
neck, as have also the supporters. This family is now extinct : It was dignified 
with the title of lord on the I2th day of November 1590. Font's Manuscript. 

The other cadets of the name of Lindsay, whose blazons I find in, our old books, 
.specially in Sir James Balfour's Books of Blazons, are these following : 

LINDSAY of Linbank, gules, a fesse cheque, argent and azure, betwixt two stars in 
~hief, and a hunting-horn in base of the second. 

LINDSAY of Dunrodis does accompany the fesse with three stars argent, two and 
one. Which family was represented by George Lindsay of Blackholm, whose 
arms, as recorded in the Lyon Register, are, gules, a fesse cheque, argent and: azure, 
and in chief a label of three points of the second ; crest, a withered branch of 
oak sprouting forth green leaves, proper : motto, Mortua viv'escunt. 

DAVID LINDSAY, merchant in Edinburgh, descended of Dunrodis, as in the Lyon 
Register, carries gules, a fesse cheque, argent and azure, betwixt three garbs of the 
>econd, and banded of the first ; crest, a dexter hand holding & branch of olive, 
proper : motto, Mutuo amore cresco. 

LINDSAY of Corsbasket accompanies the fesse cheque with two. stars in chief, and 
in base a cinqucfoil argent. 

LINDSAY of Payetston accompanies the fesse cheque with three stars in chief, 
and in base a mascle argent. Which family is now represented by Lindsay of 
Wormiston. 

LINDSAY of Kirkforther places the fesse cheque betwixt three stars in chief, aiid a 
hunting-horn in base argent. 



OF THE FESSE. 55. 

LINDSAY of Wauchop placed above the fesse cheque in chief a label of three 
points argent. 

LINDSAY of Covington carried below the fesse cheque in base a mascle or. All 
those are in Sir James Balfour's Blazons : But Mr Thomas Crawfurd's Manuscript 
gives the fesse cheque of Lindsay of Covington, between three muscles argent. 

L'INDSAY of Dowhill, an ancient family of the name, as in an illuminated manu- 
script in the reign of Queen Mary, gules, a fesse cheque, argent and azure, a star of 
the second in chief. 

LINDSAY of the Mount, who was Lyon King at Arms, gules, a fesse chequS, argent 
and azure, between three stars in chief, and a man's heart in base argent. 

Sir ALEXANDER. LINDSAY of Evelick, baronet, descended of the old Earls of Craw- 
ford, bears the quartered arms of the Earl of Crawford, within a bordure argent. 
And WILLIAM LINDSAY of Kilspindy, brother to Evelick, carries the same ; but 
charges the bordure with eight roses gules, recorded in the Lyon Register. 

JAMES LINDSAY of Cavill bears first and fourth gules, a fesse cheque, argent and 
azure, for the name Lindsay ; second and third or, a lion rampant, gules bruised 
with a ribbon sable, for Abernethy, being the armorial bearing as before of the 
Earl of Crawford, within a bordure quartered or and gules, charged with eight 
martlets counter-changed ; for crest, an ostrich head erased, proper : motto, Sis 
fords. L. R. 

HENRY LINDSAY of Cairnie, descended of the family of Pitcarly, quarterly, first 
and fourth gules, a fesse cheque within a bordure componed, argent and azure, 
second and third, Abernethy, as before ; crest, two stalks of wheat disposed saltier- 
ways, proper : motto, Non soluin armis. L. R. 

JOHN LINDSAY of Pitscandly, gules, a fesse cheque, argent and azure, a durk or 
dagger paleways in base, proper ; and in chief, a mullet for difference. L. R. 

WILLIAM LINDSAY of Culsh, descended of the family of Dowhill, gules, a fesse 
cheque, argent and azure, in chief, a mullet of the second, and the base wide as 
the third, all within a bordure ingrailed or, for difference ; crest, a tower, proper, 
ensigned on the top, with a crescent argent: motto, Firmiter maneo. L. R. 

The surname of CRAWFURD, anciently gave for arms, gule s, a fesse ermine. And 
others of that name gave argent, a stag's head, erased gules* I shall here give the 
arms of those Crawfurds who carry the fesse ermine. 

CRAWFURD of London, gules, a fesse ermine; which family, ending in an heiress, 
was married to Sir Duncan Campbell, who were progenitors of the noble family of 
Campbells Earls of Loudon ; upon which account half of their girons are ermine, 
of which before. 

LAURENCE CRAWFURD of Kilbirny, the male representative of Crawford- John, 
carried gules, a fesse ermine; he, in the year 1528, excambed part of the lands of 
Crawford-John, with Sir James Hamilton of Finart, for the lands of Drumray, in 
the shire of Dumbarton, which continues with his descendants, by the title of 
Lord DRUMRAY. He quartered the arms of Barclay of Kilbirny, as his grandfather 
John Crawfurd of Kilbirny did ; upon the account his rather Malcolm Crawfurd 
of Garnock married Marjory, daughter and sole heir of John Barclay, Baron of 
Kilbirny, in the reign of King James III. and got with her that barony ; who car- 
ried azure, a cheveron betwixt three cross pates argent. 

Sir JOHN CRAWFURD of Kilbirny, lineally descended from them, who for hi- 
loyalty to King Charles II. was made a knight-baronet, he left behind him only- 
two daughters ; Anne, the eldest, married to Sir Alexander Stewart of Blackball, 
and bore to him Sir Archibald of Blackball, and his brother Mr Walter Stewart, 
advocate, who carries his paternal coat as before, within a bordure ermine, for hi- 
difference, upon the account of his mother, as in the Plate of Achievements : The 
.second daughter was Margaret, on whom her father Sir John settled his estate, 
and to the heirs of her body ; obliging them to carry the surname of Crawfurd, 
with the arms : She married Mr Patrick Lindsay, second son of John Earl of 
Crawfurd, to whom she had issue, three sons and as many daughters. John the 
eldest was created Viscount of GARNOCK, Lord Kilbirny, Kingsburn and Drumray, 
the loth of April 1703. He married Margaret Stewart, daughter to James Ea'rl 
of Bute ; she bore to him Patrick, the present Viscount of Gamock, who carries 
quarterly, first and fourth gules, a fesse ermine, for Crawfurd ; second and third 



5 6 OF THE FESSE. 

azure, a cheveron between three cross pates argent, for Barclay ; supporters, twa 
grey-hounds, proper ; and for crest, the beast ermine; with the motto, Sine labe 
not a. 

CRAWFORD of Auchinames, an ancient family in the shire of Renfrew, a branch 
of Crawfurd of Loudon, as in Crawfurd's History of Renfrew, who says the family 
carried argent, two spears saltier- ways, between four spots of ermine ; but Balfour, 
in his Blazons, says, Crawfurd of Auchinames, carried gules, a fesse ermine, sur- 
mounted of two lances in saltier argent. 

CRAWFURD of Haining, gules, a fesse ermine, betwixt two stars in chief, and a 
hart's head couped in base or, Workman's MS. And John Crawfurd, sometime 
Dean of Guild in Linlithgow, descended of Haining, carries, as in the Lyon Re- 
gister, gules, a fesse ermine, betwixt two mullets in chief argent, and a hart's head 
cabossed in base or, attired sable; crest, a hart's head couped proper : motto, Hue- 
tt'iius invictus. 

CRAWFURD of Lefnoris, or Lochnoris, gules, a fesse ermine, and in chief two star.-; 
-jr ; so illuminated in the house of Fala-hall. 

CRAWFURD of Ardmillan, alias of Bedland, descended of Crawfurd of Loudon, 
gules, on a fesse ermine, between three mullets argent, two crescents interlaced ot 
the field . and for motto, Durum patientiafrango. L. R. 

HENRY CRAWFURD of Easter Seaton, descended of Kilbirny, gules, a fesse waved 
ermine, between three mullets argent, pierced azure ; crest, an increscent cheque, 
argent and azure : and for motto, Fide & diligentia. L. R. 

THOMAS CRAWFURD of Jordanhill, a younger son of Laurence Crawfurd of Kil- 
birny, carried the quartered arms as his father, Crawfurd and Barclay ; but under 
the fesse, for his difference, he had two swords in saltier, answerable to his milita- 
ry profession, being an eminent captain in the minority of King James VI. : mot- 
to, God shaw the right. 

CRAWFURD of Cartsburn, a second son of Crawfurd of Jordanhill, gules, a fesss 
ermine, between three mullets in chief argent, and, in base, two swords saltier-ways 
proper, hiked and pommelled or, all within a bordure waved of the third ; crest, a 
sword erect in pale, having a pair of balances on the top or point, all proper : mot- 
to, >nod tibi hoc alteri. 

CRAWFURD of Cloverhill, gules, a fesse ermine, between three crows argent ; crest, 
a garb proper : motto, God feeds the crows. 

JOHN CRAWVURD of Crawfurdland, gules, a fesse ermine ; and for crest, a marble 
pillar supporting a man's heart, proper : motto, Slant innixa Deo. 

All these blazons of the name of Crawfurd are so recorded in the Register of 
our Lyon Office. I proceed to give examples of bearing the fesse by other sur- 
names, which are to be found there, and other Books of Blazon. 

The achievement of the Right Honourable the Earl of HYNDFORD, argent, a fesse 
tortille, azure and gules, timbred with crown, helmet, and mantlings befitting his 
quality, and issuing out of a wreath of his tinctures, an arm in armour holding a 
broken spear, all proper ; supported, on the right, by a man in complete armour, 
holding in his right hand a batton royal, all proper ; and, on the left, by a horse 
argent, furnished gules ; and, over all, on an escrol, for motto, Toujours pret, as 
;n the Plate of Achievements : Where may be seen, also, the achievement of his 
brother-german, WILLIAM CARMICHAEL, Esquire, Advocate, who carries as his bro- 
ther the Earl, within a bordure ermine, for his difference ; crest and motto as 
the Earl. 

CARMICHAEL of Balmeady, or, a fesse wreathed, azure and gules, charged with a 
crescent argent. Balfour's Manuscript. 

The first of this family was one Captain CARMICHAEL of the Castle of Crawford, 
>o designed in our Histories, who married the Countess Dowager of Angus, in the 
icign of King James III. and got the heritable Bailiery of the regality of Aber- 
'icthy. 

CARMICHAEL of Balmblae, descended of Balmeady, argent, a fesse wreathed, 
nzure and gules, within -an orle of eight crescents of the last, Mackenzie's Herald- 
But, in the New Registers, a bordure of the second, charged with eight cres- 
cents of the first ; crest, a woman's head and neck issuing out of the wreath : mot- 
to, Fortune helps the forward. 



OF THE FESSE. 57 

JOHN CARM-ICHAKJ., portioner of Little-Blackburn, argent, a fesse wreathed, azure 
and .?///', withiiv a bordurc counter- compone of the second and first, recorded in 
our Lyon Krister; with the motto, Pru nn-ipso i$ a/Us. 

The surname of WILK.IE carries (almost the same with the surname of Carmichael) 
urgent, a fesse \vreathcd, azure -dndgu/es, betwixt a crescent in chief, and a cinque - 
-toil in base of the second, as- in .Workman's MS. 

The surminu- of ELDER, argent, A fesse wreathed, gulfs and zrrf, between two 
mullets in chief, and a crescent in base of the second, in Ogilvie's Collection of 
Blazons.- 

MURE of Caldwell, descended of the Mures of Abercorn in West Lothian, ar- 
gent, on a fesse azure, three stars of the first, within a bordurc ingrailed gules, 
which stand illuminate in the house of Fala-hull. 

MURE of Glanderston, descended of Caldwell, carries the same with Caldwell, 
with a crescent in base gules, for a brotherly difference. 

ARCHIBALD MURK of Riccartoun, sometime Provost of Edinburgh, descended of 
the family. of Caldwell, carries as Caldwell ; but, for his difference, ingrails both 
the fesse and bordure ; and for crest, a savage's head and neck from the shoulders, 
and about the temples of the head a wreath of laurel, proper : motto, Duris non 
frangor. 

Mr JAMES MURE, Parson of Philorth, argent, on a fesse azure, three mullets or, 
and in base a book expanded, proper : motto, Ora 1$ labor a. L. R. 

BOSWELL of Glassmont, descended of the family of Balmuto, quarterly, first and 
fourth argent, on a fesse invected sable, three cinquefoils of the first ; second and 
third or, a lion rampant gules, surmounted of a ribbon sable, for Abernethy ; so re- 
corded in the Lyon Register ; with the motto, Nothing venture nothing have. 
Where are also, without a crest, the arms of Boswell of Dowen, another cadet of 
Balmuto, being the quartered coat of that family within a bordure indented gules : 
motto, I hope for better. 

The surname of WEIR is ancient with us, as Sir James Dalrymple observes in his 
Collections. 

RUNULPHUS DE WEIR, is mentioned in the registers of Kelso, Paisley, and Mur- 
ray, to have lived in the reign of King William, and Thomas de Weir in the 
reign of Alexander II. Of this surname there are several families in Clydesdale, 
the two principal of which are those of Blackwood and Stonebyres. 

Sir GEOROE WEIR of Blackwood, argent, on a fesse, azure, three stars of thp 
first, with the badge of Nova Scotia in the dexter chief point, as the Knights Ba- 
ronets use ; and for crest, a demi-horse in armour, proper, issuing out of a wreath 
of his tinctures, bridled and saddled gules : and for motto, Nihil verius. His grand- 
father was of the name of Lawrie, who married the heiress of Weir of Blackwood, 
and took upon him the name and arms of Weir. 

The surname of M'Micma, sable, a fesse betwixt, three crescents or Font's 
MS. And, in the same Book, the arms of the surname of LKCKY, argent, on a 
fesse vert, three roses of the first ; but, in Crawfurd's MS. lx:cky of that Ilk, ar- 
gent, a cheveron betwixt three roses gules. 

Sir WILLIAM CRAIGIE of Gearsay in Orkney, a family of an old standing there, 
carries ermine, a boar's head couped g ule s, armed and languid or ; and for crest, a 
boar passant urgent, armed and langued azure: motto, Timor omnis abest, as in the 
Lyon Register. 

LAURENCE CRAir.iE of Kilgraston, parted per pale, azure and sable, a cheveron 
argent, between three crescents or ; crest, a pillar proper : motto, SccuruM presi- 
dium. 

JOHN CRAIGIE of Dumbarnie, parted per pale, azure and sable, a cheveron in- 
grailed argent, between three crescents or : motto, Honeste vivo. L. R. 

The surname of ROGER, designed of that Ilk in Workman's MS. vert on a fe 
argent, between three piles in chief, and a cinquefoil in base of the last, a saltier 
of the first. But Mr Pont, in his Book of Blazons, gives to the name of Roger 
only vert, a fesse argent; and, to another family of that name, sable, a stag's head 
erased argent, holding in its mouth a mullet or. 

BR.YMER of Westerton, or, a fesse ermine, betwixt three dragons' heads erased 

P 



S 8 OF THE BAR. 

gules; crest, a dexter hand, armed with a gauntlet, proper, holding a pheon r 
motto, Per tela per bostes, so matriculated in the Lyon Register. 

DICK, argent , a fesse waved azure, between three stars gules, in Mr Font's Bla- 
zons. 

Sir JAMES DICK of Prestonfield, near Edinburgh, ermine, a fesse azure, between 
two mullets in chief and a hart's head erased gules, in base ; and for crest, a ship 
in distress, proper : motto, Spes infracta, matriculated in the Lyon Register ; where 
is also, 

SCOTT of Logic, argent, a fesse counter-embattled between three lions' heads 
gules* 

The surname of ROWAN, or, a fesse cheque, a-zure and argent, between three 
cross croslets fitched in chief, and as many crescents in base gules. Font's MS. 

M'CRACH, argent, a fesse between three mullets in chief, and a lion rampant in 
base gules. 

M'BRAIR, argent, a fesse gules, between three stars in chief, and a lion rampant 
in base of the second. 

The surname of DEE, argent, a fesse wavey azure, between three mullets gules^. 
in Qgilvy's Collections. 

The surname of DALGARNER, gules, a fesse between three boars' heads couped ar- 
gent. Font's MS. 

CHAP. XI. 

OF THE BAR. 

'T'HE Ear is one of the honourable ordinaries, which the English, as Guillim, 
JL describe, saying, " That it is formed by two lines equidistant, drawn over- 
" thwart the escutcheon, (after the manner of a fesse before-mentioned), and con- 
" taineth only the fifth part of the field." 

Seeing ther^ according to the English, there is no other difference between the 
fesse and the bar, but that the one possesseth the third part of the field, and the 
other only the fifth part, and both horizontally, it is evident, that the bar is but 
naturally a diminutive of the fesse ; and if so, why a distinct ordinary more than 
the diminutives of the other ordinaries, as the pallet, bendlet, and cheveronel ? 

To this some answer, That the fesse must always possess the centre of the shield, 
and the bar may be placed in chief, or in base. Yet it is still to be observed, when 
there is but one bar in the field, it must possess the centre as well as the fesse : 
And there is no mpre special reason for the bar to be counted an ordinary by itself 
than a pallet ; for* when one pallet appears in the field, it then possesses the 
centre. 

As for the signification of the bar, it is known, by the .name, to represent a piece 
of timber, or other matter, laid traverse over some passes, bridge, or gates, to stop 
and debar enemies from entrance ; and for that effect, says John Ferae, they are 
called bars, which do represent, in armories, force, valour, and strength : And the 
'-ame says of the pallets, bendlets, and cheveronels, which do represent the pieces 
of timber in the fortifications of camps, cities, and the barriers of places where 
tournaments and joustings were celebrated ; and from the various position of these 
pieces came their different names. 

To speak generally of the bar, all oblong pieces which thwart or traverse the 
ihield, as the honourable ordinaries do, have been called bars by all nations, speak- 
ing generally of them. The Spaniards give the name bar indifferently to pales, 
fesses, and bends : Speaking of the arms of Arragon and Barcelona, which are pal- 
ly argent and gules, they call them barras longas, as relative to the name Barce- 
lona. The Italians call them sbars, as Menestrier observes; who adds, that some 
French heralds have likewise called the ordinaries indifferently barres. The house 
of BARR in France, says he, carried azure, a bend argent, betwixt two stars of the 
last ; which bend is called a bar, as relative to the name of the family : But, since 
the term bar has been appropriated particularly to the bend sinister, by the 
French, this family have made their bend dexter a bend sinister, to make the allu- 



OF THE BAR. 59. 

Mon more direct to the name of the family of Barr. With us, I find a bend and fesse 
blazoned indifferently a bar, in allusion to the bearer's designation or surname. 

LOCKHART of Barr, an old family of that name, carried urgent, on a bar sable, 
(which was a bend dexter), three fetter locks or. 

The name of BARR, or BARRY, gave azure, an eagle displayed argeiu", surmoun- 
ted of a bar, which is represented as a fesse sable , charged with two mullets of the 
second. 

Sir George Mackenzie, in his Science of Heraldry, chap. 13. observes, that a 
fesse of old with us was taken for a bar, as in the blazons of the arms of the sur- 
name of DEMPSTER, gules, a sword argent, hiked and pommelled or bead-ways, 
surmounted of a bar of the last, now called a fesse, to show they were heritable 
Dempsters ; who are criminal officers, an honourable office of old, and therefore 
carry a sword as a sign of power in criminals, which is called Jus Gladii ; and be- 
cause the Dempsters used to stand at the bar, and pronounce the verdict, there- 
fore they got the bar, which seems to represent the same. Which arms quartered 
with those of Abernethy. viz. or, a lion rampant gules, bruised with a ribbon 
sable, were carried by JOHN DEMPSTER of Pitliver, descended, and representative 
of the family of Muiresk ; and for crest, a demi-lion gules naissant out of the torce, 
holding in his dexter paw a sword erected, proper ; with the motto on an escrol, 
Fortiter tf strenue, as in the Plate of Achievements, whicli family ended in an 
heiress who was married to Sir James Campbell of Aberuchill, baronet ; of whom 
before. 

Mr JOHN DEMPSTER, minister of the Gospel, carried the same quartered arms 
within a bordure, parted by pale, argent and sable; for crest, a leg bone of a man, 
and a branch of palm, disposed saltier-ways, proper ; with the motto, Mors aut vita 
decora. L. R. 

The bar then, according to the English, possesses the fifth part of the field, 
whereas the fesse occupies the third part. And it is not confined to any certain 
or prescribed place as the fesse is, but may be transferred to- any part of the 
escutcheon ; yet if there be but one in the field, by the rules of heraldry, it is 
over blazoned a fesse, and not a bar. For, says Holme's, it cannot be a bar, ex- 
cept there be two or more iruthe field : 

I have not met with one bar, and so- called, carried by the English for arms, 
save in one book called, The Art of Heraldry, printed at London 1693, which 
gives for arms, to Captain John Burken of London, Esq. argent, a bar azure, as 
fig. 12. Plate IV. to show the diminution of the bar from the fesse, which the 
French blazon a fesse en divise, the Latin heralds, trabs, as John Feme ; but Mr 
Gibbon calls it v eftis : Sylvester Petra Sancta has for a bar, tenea traasversa, and 
the German, Jacob ImhorT, uses the word fasciola. la carrying of one bar in a 
field, I find but one instance in our books of blazon, which is the bearing of the 
surname of MELDRUM, argent, a demi-otter issuing out of a bar waved sable, as fig. 
13. Plate IV. but here the bar is made too large by the engraver. 

By the practice then in Britain, there are to be two in a field before they can. 
be properly called bars ; but by the French they are still called faces, for the bar 
with them is the bend-sinister ; of which afterwards. The family of REFUGE in 
France, argent, two bars gules, surmounted of as many serpents nowed, and af- 
front e in pale azure ; Menestrier blazons these arms thus, if argent a deux faces de 
gueiiles tt deux serpens d'azur, tortillez, on ondoians en pal et affront ez brocbans sur Ic 
tout; as fig. 14. Plate IV. 

The surname of GIFFORD, g ules, three bars ermine, fig. 15. The first of this sur- 
name with us, is said to have come from England to Scotland, in the reign of 
Malcolm Canmore ; and Hugo de Giffbrd is to be met with as a witness in charters- 
of William King of Scotland. The principal family of the name was Gifford of 
Giffordhall, in East-Lothian ; which family ending without issue-male, having only* 
daughters : The eldest was married to Hay of Lochquharat, of whom is descended 
the present Marquis of Tweeddaie, the family has been in use ever since the fore- 
said match to quarter the arms of Gilford with their own. 

GIFFORD of Sheriff-hall, in Mid-Lothian, a cadet of Gifford-hall, carried gules, three 
bars ermine within a bordure argent. John Giftbrd of Sherift-hall was forfeited by 
King James III. for keeping correspondence with the English, and entertaining 



fo OF THE BAR. . 

the English pursuivant, catted Blue-mantte. Those of the surname of GIFFORD, in 
Devonshire in England, carry gules, three lozenges ranged in fesse ermine, as Mor- 
gan gives them, retaining the tinctures of the GIKFORDS in Scotland. 

FOTHERINGHAM of Powrie, ermine, three bars g ules-, as in fig. 16. Plate IV. ; crest, 
a griffin seiaat, proper ; supporters, two naked men wreathed about the head' and 
middle with laurel, proper. The like arms are thus blazoned by Mr Gibbon, Gerit 
trcsfasciolas coccineas in parmula argentea muris Armenia: maculis interstincta. The 
first of this family is said to have come from Hungary with Margaret, King Mal- 
colm Canmore's queen. Sir George Mackenzie observes, as in his Manuscript of 
Genealogies, that this iarnily got the lands of AVester-JWrie by marrying a daugh- 
ter of the family of Ogilvie of Auchterhouse, about the year 1399, of whom is 
lineally descended the present Laird of Powrie. 

The surname of MAIR, of old De la Mare, carried or, three bars dancette g ule s ; 
as in Balfour's Manuscript. 

The surname of AUCHENLECK., alias AFFLECK, argent, three bars sable, as in the 
Lyon Register. The chief of this surname was in the shire of Angus, and had 
their name from their lands ; as Sir George Mackenzie, who tells us in his Manu- 
script, they had a charter of the lands of Auchenleck from King David I. There 
was another family of this name in Kyle, called AUCHENLECK. of that Ilk, of which 
family Sir John Auchenleck of that Ilk, having only two daughters, the eldest of 
whom being married to William Cunningham of Craigens, anno 1499, disposed 
his estate to him and his said daughter, and to the heirs-male of that marriage, 
they bearing the name and arms of Auchenleck. But the conveyance being with- 
out consent of the king, who was superior, the barony of Auchenleck fell into the 
king's hands by recognition. King James IV. gave these lands to Thomas a 
younger son of Balmuto in Fife, who married the other daughter and co-heiress of 
Sir John Auchenleck of that Ilk; of whom is lineally descended Mr James Bos- 
well of Auchenleck, advocate ; as in Crawfurd's History of Renfrew. 

There was another family of the surname of AUCHENLECK, in the shire of Perth, 
designed of Balmanno, who carried for arms, argent, a cross counter-embattled 
.utble, being the arms of Balmanno, which the first Auchenleck of this family took 
when he married the heiress of Balmanno of that Ilk, as Sir George Mackenzie 
n his Manuscript and Science of Heraldry. 

Sable, three bars waved or, by the surname of LOGIE, being those of Sir John 
Logic of that Ilk ; as in Balfour's Manuscript, whose daughter Margaret was 
^econd wife to King David II. 

The name of LAUCHLAN, azure, two bars waved argent, between as many cross 
croslcts filched or in chief, and a swan in base, proper ; crest, a swan ; with the 
;notto, Divina sibi canit, as in Font's Manuscript. 

Bars do sometimes represent in armories, especially when waved or undy, as we 
blazon them, waves of the sea and waters. 

The arms of the surname of DRUMMOND, or, three bars waved gules, relative to 
the name Drummond. Drum, in old Scots, says Hawthornden, a famous historian 
and antiquary, signifies high, and und, or ond, from the Latin word unda a wave ; 
mcl so Drummond, an high wave. The first ancestor of this family, is said by 
Vanbassan, a Dane, as in his Manuscript in the Lawyers' Library, to have been 
one Maurice, son of George, a younger son of Andreas King of Hungary, who suc- 
ceeded his brother Solomon, whose queen was aunt to St Margaret, with whom 
Maurice came to Scotland ; and to make good this extract, he urges the similitude 
of the arms of Drummond, with those of Hungary, consisting also of bars : of 
which immediately. 

John Abel, a Franciscan friar, and John Leslie bishop of Ross, make also the 

: of the family of Drummond an Hungarian, and captain of the ship in which 
rxlgar Atheling and his sister Margaret arrived in Scotland, at the place now 
.ailed from her Queensferry. The same, says William Drummond of Haw- 
thornden, viz. that one Maurice was captain of that ship: And, besides his former 
derivation of the surname of Drummond, says, Drommont, or Drummond, in seve- 
ial nations signified a ship of swift course, the captains of which were called Drom- 
mont, or Drommoners ; for which he quotes William of Newberry in his Guide 
to Languages. And the Honourable William Drummond, first Viscount of 



OF THE BAR. 6* 

Strathallan has writ a full Genealogical Account of th family of Drummond, 
with its rise from the Hungarian Maurice to this time, with the collateral branches 
of the family ; some of which I shall only mention here, with their arms, as L have 
found them in old and new books of blazons. 

The first then of the ancient and noble family of DRUMMOND, was Maurice, who 
took the name and arms upon the account abovementioncd : He is said to Iiuvc 
got from King Malcolm III. a barony in the shire of Dumbarton, and the steward- 
ship of Lennox ; which barony and oflice was enjoyed by his successors. Sir 
William Drummond, the fifth in a lineal descent from Maurice, is mentioned in 
the Ragman-Roll, who was the father of Malcolm Drummond, who married a 
daughter of Maldwin Earl of Lennox. She bore to him several children : Their 
eldest son, Sir John Drummond, married Mary Montifex, one of the daughters and 
co-heiresses of Sir William Montifex, with whom he got several lands in Perthshire, 
near to other lands which formerly belonged to his progenitors, as the baronies of 
Stobhall and Cargill, where he fixed his residence ; which gave occasion thereafter 
to his posterity to be sometimes designed barons of Stobhall, and sometimes of 
Cargill. He had several sons and daughters : The eldest of the last, the beautiful 
Annabella Drummond, was queen to King Robert III. and mother of King James I. 
of Scotland. 

The fifth, in a lineal descent from him, was JOHN DRUMMOND of Cargill, who 
entered into an indenture and contract with Colin Earl of Argyle, anno 1472, 
that his eldest son, Malcolm, should marry Lady Isabel Campbell, Earl Colin's 
daughter ; and in case of failzie by death, the next son and daughter were substi- 
tute to marry. But Malcolm died young, and his immediate younger brother 
William married Lady Isabel, in his father's lifetime ;. whom I find, in a discharge 
of 400 merks, as a part of the tocher, designed John Drummond of Cargill, anno 
1478 ; to which his seal of arms was appended, having a shield couche by the 
sinister chief point, charged with three bars waved, timbred with an helmet ; and 
thereupon for crest, an eagle or falcon volant ; and supported by twb wild men, 
with battons in- there hands : But there was no compartment as now used.. This 
John Drummond of Cargill, was created a Lord of Parliament, by the title of 
Lord Drummond, in the year 1487 : He married Lady Eliz'abeth Lindsay, daugh- 
ter to David Earl of Crawford, commonly called Earl Bardy, and with her he had 
issue ; and from whom was lineally descended, 

JAMES sixth Lord DRUMMOND, who was created Earl of Perth 1605 ' ^ e married 
Isabel Seaton, daughter to Robert first Earl of Winton, and with her had only one 
daughter, (being succeeded by his brother John in the earldom of Perth) Jean 
Drummond, who was afterwards married to John Earl of Sutherland, of whom is 
descended the present Earl of Sutherland. James Earl of Perth died in the palace 
of Seaton, and was interred in the collegiate church of Seaton : Over him his lady 
caused erect a stately marble monument, where his achievement is curiously 
carved ; as by the following blazon used by his successors, Earls of Perth, viz. 

Or, three bars waved gules, adorned with crown, helmet, and mantlings, befitting 
their quality ; and, upon a ducal crown, in place of the wreath, standeth a slow- 
hound, proper, collared and leished gules ; supporters, two savages, proper, wreath- 
ed about the head and middle with oak leaves, holding battons over their 
shoulders, standing upon a compartment, like to a green hill seme of gall- 
traps ; and for motto, Gang warily. As for the arms of the branches of this fa- 
mily, severals of them shall be added in the end of this chapter. 

Fig. 1 8. Argent, four bars counter-embattled sable, in the centre an inescutcheon 
^nles. Counter-embattled is said of the fesse, bar, bend, and cross, &c. when both 
the sides of these figures are embattled. These arms were carried by the name of 
STRAITON of Lauriston. Alexander Straiton of Lauriston was killed in the battle 
of Hairlaw 1411 ; and another Alexander Straiton of Lauriston is witness in a 
charter of King James III. confirming the lands of Kinnaird to Allan Kinnaird of 
that Ilk. 

There was an old family of this name, designed of that Ilk, from the lands of 
Straiton, of which King David I. gave them a charter. Alexander Straiton of 
that Ilk, and Andrew Straiton of Craig, are two of the inquest of serving Sir Alex- 
ander Fraser of Philorth, heir to his grandfather Sir Alexander, in the thanedom of 

0. 



62 OF THE BAR. 

Cowy. Sir James Balfour, in his Book of Blazons, gives for arms to STRAITON of 
that Ilk, barry nebule of ten pieces, argent and azure. Bars then are carried plain, 
ingrailed, waved, embattled, and of other forms of lines before given in Plate II. 

There are divers opinions concerning the number of bars that can be contained 
in one field : Some say more, others less ; but, according to the proportion of the 
bar, without diminishing it, the field will contain but three : Yet to the number 
of four they are ordinarily blazoned bars ; and if they be above that number, thcy 
are termed barn/lets or closets. 

When the field is filled with such pieces, as fesses and bars, we must consider 
whether they be of equal or unequal numbers; if of the last, we mention those of 
the greatest number first, taking the same for the field, and the smallest number 
last, as being the charge. Thus, in the former blazons, for example, that of 
Straiten of Lauriston, argent, four bars counter-embattled azure : Here there are 
five pieces, of argent, the field, and four of azure, the charge. But, when the piece? 
are of equal number, then we say, fessy, barry, and barruly of four, six, eight, or 
ten, as in the following examples : 

Fig. 19. Plate IV. The province of ZEALAND in the Netherlands, barry wavey of 
four pieces, argent and azure, on a chief or, a lion naissant gules. Which Chifle- 
tius blazons thus, Fascia quatuor ex argenteo & cyano undulatim fusee, caput scuti. 
aureum, leone coccineo (qui symbolum Hollandicum est) emergente impressum. Here 
the bars waved, as in the arms of Meldrum, Lochlin, Drummond, and Zealand, 
as we observed before, are taken for the waves of the sea, or of water ; so also 
in the following blazon. The arms of Hungary, barry of eight pieces (the French 
say fad, the Latins, fasciolc^ argent and gules. The four pieces argent, are 
said, by heralds, to represent the four principal rivers that tlnvart the country of 
Hungary ; and the other four pieces gules, the fertile red ground of the country. 

When the number of these pieces exceed eight, the French, in place of barry, 
.y burette of ten ; and some of the English will say barry of ten : As Sandford,. 
in his Blazon of the Arms of VALENCE, barry of twelve pieces,, argent and azure, 
.in orle of eight martlets gules; which John Hastings Earl of Pembroke quartered 
as a coat of alliance with his own. And our heralds also say, barn' of ten pieces, 
argent and azure, over all a lion rampant gules, carried by the name of. JACKSON ; 
as Mr Pont, in his Manuscript. . 

The abstract or diminutive of the bar to the half, is called by the English a 
closet, and the fourth part of a bar is called by them a barrulet ; yet when the 
iield consists of twelve of them, they do not say closette or barulette, but barry of 
ten or twelve, and say also sometimes, twelve pieces bar-ways: So that closets and. 
barrulets are not mentioned in English blazons, but when the pieces are of an odd 
number, as argent five closets azure: The French, as is said before, for a bar, say, 
face en devise; and the diminutive of it, they call a tr angle; which I take to be. 
he same with the English closet, of which Menestrier gives an example, viz. 
argent, five tr angles gules ; and says, that tr angles are never borne in arms, but of 
ai odd. number : So that the French never say tr angle, nor the English closette, 
when the pieces are of an even number. Menestrier in his description of the 
trangle, or tringle, says, it is a straight line made by a carpenter's rule, and that 
tlie glaziers in France, call the bars of windows, to which the glass is fastened, 
'ingles; and the ropes, which are stretched from one side of a river to the 
other, for drawing boats back and fore, are' called tr angles. ' 

When these diminutives of the fesse or bar, are placed two and two in a shield, 

^ are called, bars gemels, from the word gemelii, twins; being in couples: 
\nd upon the same account, the French call them juinelle s ; the Latins, fasciolte 
jcmince, or geininata: ; and when three and three are joined together, they are called 
by the French, tierces; as by the following examples; argent, three bars gemeh 
.f; overall, a lion sable, by FAIRFAX Lord Fairfax in England. Our heralds 
:aake these arms barruly of twelve, argent and gules, a lion rampant sable ; and do 
not join the bars g ules, two and two, as in fig. 28. ; for example of tierces, azure, 
three tierces or, which Menestrier gives ; as also Monsieur Baron, for the arms of 
Bourburg in France. 

The French say of the faces, as of the pales before, when they are opposite to 
one another in metal and colour: and call them then contreface, fig. 21. as in the 



OF THE BAK. 

Blazon of the Arms of Juron in France, by Menestrier and Baron, Com re j. 
(for et de gueules de bvit pieces: We would say of such a bearing, parted per pale, 
harry of four, 'j> u\\d gules counter-changed ; or as Mr Morgan, in his Bhizon of 
the Arms of Sir Edward Barret of Avely in Essex, parted per pale, urgent and 
gules, barry of four pieces counter-changed: Sir James Balfour, in his Ilia/.' 
gives us the arms of the surname of PEIT, thus, parted per pale, ardent and g ules, 
barry of six counter-changed. It may be objected, that there cannot be six bur- 
in one field, since one bar possesses the fifth part of the field ; notwithstanding of 
which, the English and we say, ordinarily, barry of six or more, understanding, as I 
suppose, that there arc six pieces bar-ways. 

Having spoken to the bar, and the diminution of its breadth, I shall speak a little 
as to the losing of its length. When it does not touch the sides of the shield, it i-> 
said, with us, to be coupcd ; and alaise or aleze with the French ; as fig. 22. or, 
three bars couped gules, by the family of HAMYDES in Flanders, which Mr Gibson 
blazons thus, In campo aureo tres miniatos vectes a later e scuti disjunctos : French 
herulds blazon these arms, d'or a trois bamydes de gueules. And from them Gerard 
Leigh, when a fesse is couped, says it is bumet, from the bumydes, which signify a 
cut or piece of a tree ; and therefore, Menestrier takes them in the above blazon 
of the family of Hamydes, to represent what we call gantrees, or oblong pieces of 
trees, after the form of fesses couped, upon which they set hogsheads and barrels of 
wine, called in Flanders btunes ; and from which the surname and blazon of Hamydes. 
The Dictionary of Arms, lately published by Mr Kent, gives the arms of the name 
of ABRISCOURT, ermine, three bars buinette gules. 

Having thus treated of the fesse and bar, in their forms, multiplication and di- 
minutives, I am now to show what denomination other figures have, when situate 
after their position ; as when many small figures are ranged in the middle of the 
field, after the position of the fesse, they are said to be in fesse ; the French say, 
Ranges oil mises en face, and the Latins, Faciatim in loco ascia;, or, ad modum fascia ; 
as in the bearing of MONTAGUE Earl of SALISBURY, argent, three fusils, (some call 
them lozenges) in fesse gules, and with us argent, five fusils in fesse sable ; for 
which some of our heralds say, argent, a fesse fusilly sable, by LEITH of Restalrig, 
as fig. 23. Others of the name have them otherwise disposed ; of which in the 
chapter of fusib. 

When small figures are ranged horizontally, above or below the middle of the 
shield, they are said then with us, to be in bar; but the French, whether figures 
be ranged in chief or in base, say en face. As for example, some of the surname 
of OUSTON, with us, give for arms, gules, a crescent between two stars ranged bar- 
ways in chief, and three stars bar-ways in base argent, as in Mr. Workman's Il- 
luminated Manuscript. The French would blazon this bearing thus, gules, a cres- 
cent between two stars in fesse bausse, or transposed, and other three stars in fesse 
abaisse argent, as Menestrier, in his blazons of the arms of GROLIER in France, just 
such another as the former, fig. 24. viz. d'czure a. trois efoiles if 'argent, en face sur 
trois besants (for, disposes de meme en face abaisse, i. e. azure, three stars in fc^.f , 
and as many besants .in fesse below the middle of the shield. Abaisse is a term 
used by the French, when a chief or fesse is situate in the shield below their 
proper and fixed places : For example, the chief is always placed on the top of the 
shield ; but when another chief is placed above it, (as in the following chapter of 
the chief, Plate IV. fig. 31, and 32.) then the lowermost of the two is called a 
chief abaisse, and so of a fesse, whose proper place is the middle third part of the 
field ; but if it be placed below that, it is called a fesse abaisse, in opposition to 
the fesse bausse, of which before ; and so they say the same of other figures situate 
after the position of these fesses high or low. 

When oblong figures are placed in the field of arms horizontally, one above ano- 
ther, they are .said to be bar-ways ; as some do blazon the arms of England, gules, 
three leopards bar-ways in pale or, but these being Horn passant g ardant, need not, 
by their position after that of the bar, be said to be bar-ways, since passant inti- 
mates the same. For a more specific example of which, I shall here give the arms 
of BERTIE Marquis of LINDSEY, in England, argent, three battering rams bar-v, 
proper, armed and garnished azure. This family was dignified with the title of 
Lord Willoughby of Eresby, 1580 ; and, in the year 1626, with the title of Earl of 



64 OF THE BAR. 

Lindsey, and honoured with the office of Great Chamberlain of England, which is 
hereditary to the family since the death of Henry tie Vere Earl of Oxford, and, 
afterwards, with the title of Marquis of Lindsey, 1706. The first of this family is 
said to be one LEOPOLD DE BERTIE, Constable of Dover Castle, in the time of King 
EtheJred, whose ancestors are said to have come from Bertiland, on the borders of 
Prussia, with the Saxons. The above arms they quarter with those of Willough- 
by, being or, a fret azure. There are several noble branches of this family, as 
BERTIE Earl of ABINGDON, as in the Peerage of England, who carries the same arms, 
with an annulet, for his difference. 



BLAZONS BELONGING TO THE CHAPTER OF THE BAR. 

The surname of HARE with us, azure , two bars, and a chief indented or. 

Balfour's MS. 

Sir THOMAS HARE of Howburdolph, in Norfolk, Baronet, gules, two bars and a 
chief indented or. 

KIRBY of Kirbyhall, in Lincolnshire, argent, two bars and a canton gules, charged, 
with a cross moline or. 

Or, three bars azure, these were anciently the arms of one FULK DE OYRAY, an 
English Baron, whose only daughter and heiress was married to one of the name of 
Constable, who assumed the arms of the said Fulk, his father-in-law ; and from him 
was lineally descended Henry Lord Constable of Halsham, who carried the same 
arms as his paternal ones. He was, by King James I. of Great Britain, created 
Viscount of D unbar, 1621. 

FOTHERINGHAM of Lawhill, a second son of the family of Powrie, ermine, three 
bars gules, and, for his difference, charges each bar with a buckle or ; crest, a grif- 
fin's head couped, proper : motto, Be it fast. 

FOTHERINGHAM of Bandon, another younger son of Powrie, carries the arms of 
the family within a bordure gules, for difference ; crest, a griffin's head erased, 
.proper : motto, Be it fast. Both matriculated in the Lyon Register. 

The Right Honourable JOHN Earl of MELFORT, second son of James Earl of Perth> 
and his lady Anne Gordon, eldest daughter to George, second Marquis of Huntly, 
and Lady Anne Campbell, daughter to Archibald Earl of Argyle. John, before 
he was dignified with any titles of honour, married, first, Sophia Lundin, heiress 
of Lundin, and with her had issue ; secondly, he married a daughter of Sir Tho- 
;nas Wallace of Craigie, sometime one of the Senators of the College of Justice, 
md Lord Justice Clerk, and with her he has issue. He was first made Constable 
of the Castle of Edinburgh, and Master of the Ordnance ; he was a Privy Coun- 
cilor, and soon after made Secretary of State by King Charles the II. and was 
continued in that post by King James VII. who farther honoured him with the ti- 
tle of Earl of Melfort, Viscount of Forth, Lord Drummond of Riccarton, Castle- 
main, and Glaston. His armorial bearing, quarterly, first and fourth or, three bars 
waved gules, for Drummond ; second and third or, a lion rampant within the dou- 
ble tressure, flowered and counter-flowered with flower-de-luces gules, all within a 
bordnre gobonated, argent and azure, the arms of LUNDIN of that Ilk, as descend- 
ed of a natural son of William King of Scotland. 

The royal bearing, within the foresaid bordure, was granted by a special conces- 
5 on of King Charles II. under his royal hand, to John Laird of Lundin, (afterward^ 
Karl of Melfort), the tenor of which concession, or allowance, is as follows : 

" CHARLES REX, 

~\\ THEREAS by a declaration, under the hand of our Lyon-Depute, in our 
V V ancient kingdom of Scotland, bearing date the ad of September last, it 
doth appear to vis, that it is sufficiently instructed, by original charters and other 
ancient documents, that the ancient family of Lundin, (or London), in our said 
kingdom, is lineally descended of Robert of London, natural son of William the 
Lion King of Scotland, and brother to King Alexander IL and that in regard of 



OF THE BAR. 65 

this descent, it may be proper (if we please to allow the same) for the Laird or 
Lundin to bear the royal arms of Scotland, within a bordure coinpone, or gobonated, 
argent and azure ; and for the crest, a lion gules r issuing forth of an open or an- 
tique crown or ; and, for supporters, two lions gardant gules, having collars or, 
charged with three thistles vert : with this motto, Dei dono sum quml sum. And 
we being graciously desirous, upon all fit occasions, to give testimony of the es- 
teem we have of that ancient and honourable family, do, by these presents, give 
full power, and warrant, and authority, to the present Laird of Lundin, and his 
lawful successors of the name of Lundin, and descending from that family, to bear 
.c. as above. For doing whereof, this shall be to him, and to our Lyon King at 
Arms in that our kingdom, now for the time being, for extending and giving out 
the said arms in due form, a sufficient band. Which we do hereby appoint to be 
recorded in the Books of Registers of our Lyon Office, and this original band to re- 
main in custody of the said Laird of Lundin and his successors aforesaid. 

Given under our royal hand and signet, at our Court at Whitehall, the i^th day of 
October, One thousand six hundred and seventy-nine, and of our reign the thirty- 
one year. 

By His Majesty's Command, 

LAUDERDALE." 

The Lairds of Lundie, or Lundin, have been, and still are in. use to carry only 
these arms in the above grant, disusing their old bearing, (of which before in the 
Chapter of the PALE). And. in the Lyon Register it is added, " That it is further 
" allowed to the said Laird of Lundin, to add to the lion, the crest, a sword erect 
" in his dexter paw, and a thistle slipped in the sinister, all proper." See the same 
engraven among the Achievements. 

DRUMMOND of Carnock, or, three bars waved gules, within a bordure of the last. 
William Drummond, the first of this family, was a second son of Sir John Drum- 
mond, and brother to Annabell, Queen to King Robert III. and mother of King 
James I. 

DRUMMOND of Midhope, or, three bars waved gules, within a bordure of the last, 
charged with eight crescents of the first for his difference, being a younger son of 
Carnock. 

DRUMMOND of Hawthornden, or, three bars waved. gules, within a bordure of the 
last, being the same with Carnock, as representative of that family ; crest, a pega.- 
sus proper, maned and winged or : motto, His gloria reddlt honores. The first of 
the family of Hawthornden was Sir John Drummond, second son to Sir Robert, 
first Laird of Carnock, and his wife Marjory, daughter to Robert Lord Elphinston. 
Of them was lineally descended William Drummond of Hawthornden, a learn- 
ed gentleman, a famous antiquary, a renowned poet, and author of the History of 
the five King James's ; whose son was the late Sir William, father of the present 
Laird of Hawthornden. L. R. 

GEORGE DRUMMOND of Blair, descended of a third son of Sir Walter Drummond 
of Cargill, and his lady, a daughter of Graham of Gorthy, carries or, three bars 
waved gules, each charged with an escalop of the field, being a part of the Graham's 
bearing ; crest, a nest of young ravens, proper : with the motto, Deus Providebit. 
L. R. 

DRUMMOND of Innermay, or, three bars waved guies, on a canton argent, a foun- 
tain azure; crest, a, hand holding a flaming heart erected proper : motto, Loyal au 
mart. The first of this family was David, second son of John Drummond of Drum- 
merinock, a fourth son of Sir Malcolm Drummond of Cargill, and his lady, a 
daughter of Tullibardin. L. R. 

GEORGE DRUMMOND of Riccarton, quarterly, first and fourth or, three bars waved 
gules, within a bovdure azure ; second and third argent, a lion rampant azure, for 
Crichton ; crest, a lion azure, issuing out of a wreath : motto, Dum spiro spero. 
He was descended of a second son of Innerpeffry, younger son of the first John 
Lord Drummond. N. R. 

JAMES DRUMMOND, a younger son of David Lord Drummond, and his lady, a 

R 



J0 OF THE BAR. 

daughter of William Lord Rutlvren, was first styled Lord INCHAFFRY, being Com- 
mendatory of that Abbacy, and tifterwards created Lord MADERTV, by King James 
VI. in the year 1607. He married Jean, daughter to Sir James Chisholm of Crom- 
licks, and with her got the lands of Innerpeffry, which were her mother's portion, 
being heiress of Sir John Drummond of Innerpeffry. He had by his said lady two 
sons, John Lord Maderty, and Sir James the first Laird of Machony. The achieve- 
ment of the Lord Maderty is, or, three bars unde gules, and, oil a canton argent, a 
lion's head erased, within a double tressure counter-flowered gules ; crest, a falcon 
proper, armed, chessed, and belled or; supporters, two savages proper, holding 
clubs over their shoulders, wreathed about the head and middle with laurels, stand- 
ing upon a hill seme of gall-traps : and for motto, Lord have mercy. 

Sir JAMES DRUMMOND of Machary, descended as above, carries the same with 
the Lord Maderty, with a crescent for a brotherly difference ; crest, a falcon hood- 
ed, chessed, and belled, proper: motto, Prius mori quam fidem fuller e. 

WILLIAM DRUMMOND, Viscount of STRATHALLAN, Lord Drummond of Cromlicks, 
eldest son of William Drummond, a younger son of John second Lord Maderty, 
was a Lieutenant-General in Muscovy ; and, upon his return home, was advanced, 
for his merit, to the like post in Scotland ; and, by King James VII. created Vis- 
count of Strathallan. He was succeeded to that same title of honour by his son 
William, who also succeeded to the last Lord Maderty, who died without heirs- 
male of his body ; and carried, for arms, quarterly, first and fourth or, three bars 
waved gules, for Drummond ; second and third or, a lion's head erased gules, with- 
in a double tressure flowered and counter-flowered of the last, as a coat of augmen- 
tation ; crest, a goshawk with wings displayed, proper; motto, Lord have mercy ; 
supporters as the Earl of Perth, without the compartment. In some paintings, his 
crest is a falcon standing upon one foot, and holding up with the other a garland 
of laurel : with the motto, Virtutem coronal honos. 

Sir JOHN DRUMMOND of Logiealmond, as a third son of John second Earl of Perth, 
the arms of Drummond, within a bordure \va\edgules; crest, a dexter arm from 
the shoulder holding a broad sword : and for motto, Nil- timeo. N. R. 

JOHN DRUMMOND of Colquhalzie, descended of the Earl of Perth, or, three bars 
waved gates, and, in chief, as many stars azure; crest, a turtle dove standing on 
the top of a rock, proper; with the motto, Sto mobilis. N. R. 

JOHN DRUMMOND of Pitkellanie, descended of Concraig, or, three bars unde, and, 
in chief, a boar's head erased gules, for Chisholm of Cromlicks, with whom this fa- 
mily matched ; crest, a sword and garb, proper, placed saltier- ways : motto, Et 
narte fc? arte. N. R. 

Mr JAMES DRUMMOND of Cultmalundy, descended of the Earl of Perth, or, three 
bars waved gules, in the centre a man's heart counter-changed of the same ; crest, 
a hand grasping a. man's heart, proper : motto, Cum corde. N. R. 

Mr DAVID DRUMMOND, sometime Minister at Monedie, a younger son of Col- 
quhahie, carried as Colquhakie, all within a bordure gules, for his difference ; crest, 
an anchor in pale, and a dove standing on the top of it : with the motto, Spes mea 
res mea. N. R. 

GEORGE DRUMMOND of Carlowrie, or, three bars waved gules, and, for a brother- 
ly difference, a mullet surmounted of an annulet ; crest, a dexter hand holding a 
curling stone : with the motto, Have at all. 

Sir GEORGE DRUMMOND, sometime Provost of Edinburgh, or, three bars waved, 
and, in chief, a martlet betwixt two crescents gules ; crest, a pheon or: motto, Con- 
sequitur quodcunque petit. N. R. 

GAVIN DRUMMOND, descended of Kildies, who was a cadet of the family of Pit- 
kellunie, or, three bars unde gules, over all a naked man naiant in pale, grasping 
in his dexter hand a sword, and having his sinister hand and feet in action, all 
proper ; crest, a dexter hand holding a spear, proper : motto, Per mare per terras. 
>J. R. 

Mr JOHN DRUMMOND, representative of Midhope, or, three bars wavey gules, 
within a bordure of the last, charged with eight crescents of the first ; and for crest, 
three stars placed in cheveron or : motto, Ad astra per ardua. N. R. 

The ancient family of GREY, Earls of KENT in England, now Dukes of Kent, 
carry barry of six, argent and azure , for their paternal coat. And Grey Earl of 



OF THE CHIEF OR CHEF. 67 

STAMFORD, a branch of the family of Kent, carries the same, with this addition, 
viz. barry of six argent and azure, in. chief three torteauxcs, with a label of three 
points ermine. 

The two branches of the family of CECIL, Thomas and Robert, two brothers, 
were both created Earls by King James I. of Great Britain, the tlvird year of hi& 
reign. 

THOMAS, (the eldest by birth, though the youngest in the title), Earl of EXETER, 
carries the principal bearing, viz. barry of ten, argent and azure, over all, six es- 
cutcheons sable, each charged with a lion rampant of the first : And ROBERT, the 
younger, though first in the dignity of Earl, by the title of SALISBURY, carries the 
same arms, with a crescent for his difference. 

. The family of the surname of THYNNE in England were anciently surnamed 
BOUTEVILLE. The first of that name came from the countries of Ponton and Gas- 
cony in France, with forces to assist King John of England in his wars against the 
Barons ; and his successors, for a long time famous in England, went under the 
name of Bouteville l till the reigns of Edward IV. and Richard III. that John Boute- 
ville of Stratton was first named John le Thynne, and from him the name of 
Thynne was derived to the family of Boutevilles. His grandson, Thomas Thynne, 
alias Boutevijle, in the reign of Henry VIII. married the daughter and heir of 
Bleek, and Bleek a daughter and heir of Gataker, who married with a daughter and 
heir of Sir John Burleigh ; upon which account, the Thynnes now quarter the 
arms of those three families with their paternal arms, viz. barry of ten or and sable. 
This family was raised to the honour and dignity of Baron Thynne of Warminster, 
and Viscount of Weymouth, by letters patent, bearing date I ith December 1682. 

The surname of MACALZON with us, or, five bars gules, accompanied with two 
spear-heads in chief, three martlets in the centre, and four spear-heads in base % of 
the last. Font's Manuscript. 

MONTAGUE Earl of MONTAGUE, argent, three fusils in fesse gules, within a bor- 
dure sable, for his difference from Salisbury, who carries only the plain coat. 

MONTAGUE Earl of MANCHESTER, descended of Montague Earl -of Montague, car- 
ries as he does, with a crescent for a brotherly difference : And MONTAGUE Earl of 
SANDWICH, another younger brother, carries the same with Montague Earl of Mon- 
tague, with a star for his difference. 

The surname of LEITH, of old, argent, five fusils in fesse sable : Some say, ar- 
gent, a fesse fusil sable. 

LEITH of Leith-hall, or, a cross croslet fitched sable, between three crescents-' in 
chief, and as many fusils in base gules, bar-ways. 

LEITH of Overhall, or, a cheveron between three fusils azure, here the fusils 
are two and one ; and LEITH of Hearthill carries his figure that same way, viz. or, a 
cross croslet fitched azure, between two crescents in chief, and a fosil in base 
gules. 



CHAP. XH. 

I 

OFTHE CHIEF OR CHEF. 

THE Chief is that honourable ordinary which possesses the third upper part of 
the shield horizontally ; and the French describe it, Une piece honorable qui 
occupe le tiers le plus haut de I'ecu. The Latins call it scuti coronis vel caput, taking 
it to represent the crown or sign of- sovereignity and eminency j upon which ac- 
count, the republics in Italy, jealous of any thing that may be said to represent 
sovereignty, will not allow a chief to be used in the armorial ensigns of their no- 
bility : So that most of their arms are coupe, in imitation of the chief, as Menestrier 
and others observe ; who likewise tell us, that the chief, in arms, represents the 
upper part of the consular garment, called capicium, (which word is used in blazon 
by some for a chief}, and that none can carry a chief in those republics, but by a 
special licence or concession ; but in other countries, and with us, it is not in so 
high esteem. 
It is generally taken as a mark of wisdom and prudence, for chief signifies the 



68 OF THE CHIEF OR CHEF. 

head. And any concessions of armorial figures, granted by sovereign princes to 
their deserving friends and subjects, are ordinarily placed on a chief, or in chief, as 
all these concessions of armorial figures, made by the emperors to the free states in 
Italy, viz. Genoa, Mirandula, Massa, &c. are placed in chief. And Sir George 
Mackenzie very well observes, that the reason why this ordinary, the chief, is so 
frequently charged with figures, or that figures are placed in chief, is the respect 
our gentry had to their superiors or over-lords, by using some of their figu;es on a 
chief, or in chief, in their bearings. 

When there is a chief of concession to be added to any coat of arms that has a 
bordure about it, the bordure must not go round the chief but cede to it. 

The chief, saith Leigh and Guillim, containeth in depth the full third part of 
the field ; which may in some cases be augmented or diminished a little, notwith- 
standing of this rule, but in no case divided into halves horizontally, of which af- 
terwards. 

Fig. 25. Plate IV. argent, a chief gules, by Sir ALEXANDER MENZIES of that Ilk ; 
crest, a savage's head erased, proper: motto, Will God, I shall. N. R. 

MENZIES of Weem, and others of that name, of whom afterwards, give ermine 
a chief gules. This surname is ancient with us, and our historians, as Hector Boyes 
and others, mention it among the first of our surnames in the reign of Malcolm 
Canmore ; of which surname there have been many eminent families, who stood 
firm for their country against the English, under the usurpations of the Edwards, 
Kings of England. 

Argent, a lion rampant gules, armed and langued azure, a chief ermine, by Sir 
JOHN MONCRIEF of that Ilk, Baronet, in the shire of Perth ; crest, a demi-lion ram- 
pant as the former ; supporters, two men armed cap-a-pee, bearing pikes on their 
shoulders, proper : motto, Sur esperance. N. R. Which surname is from their 
land : Alexander III. grants a charter of confirmation of the lands of Moncrief to 
John de Moncrief, whose family was chief, and continued till of late. More exam- 
ples of bearing a chief plain at the end of this chapter. 

The chief may be parted per pale, bend, dexter or sinister, as also- quartered ; 
but the English say it cannot be parted per fesse. It is also subject to be counter- 
changed, and to all other accidental forms of lines above-mentioned, of which I 
shall add a few examples. 

Fig. 26. Plate IV. or, a chief parted per pale, azure and gules, by ARCHIE of that 
Ilk, with us. The French say, d'or an chef parti $ azure et de gueules. Sylvester 
Petra Sancta gives us such another bearing, thus : scutum aureum cum coronide scu- 
taria Ifipartita ex cianeo i$ ostro. 

Fig. 27. Plate IV. parted per pale, argent and sable, a chief indented and coun- 
ter-changed of the same, by the surname of LAING, as in Font's Manuscript. Where 
ulso SHEWEL of that Ilk, argent, a boar's head erased sable, on a chief invected of 
the last, three mullets of the first. Having given examples of arms with a chief, 
and of its accidental forms, I shall now give a few with a chief charged, for which 
we ordinarily say on a chief; and afterwards a few examples of what we call in 
chief. 

By one of the rules of blazon, when a chief is in a coat of arms, it is the last figure 
to be mentioned, except it be surrounded with a bordure. 

Fig. 28. Plate IV. argent, on a chief gules, three pallets or ; but in several paint- 
ings, the chief is paly of six pieces, or and gules, the ancient bearing of the sur- 
name of KEITH. The occasion of this bearing is not unlike that of the Prince of 
Catalonia, his carrying such figures, of which before ; but of a more general and 
Certain tradition, being of a later date. Thus, in anno 1006, at the battle of Pan- 
bride, one Robert, a chieftain amongst the Chatti, (from which it is said came the 

mme of Keith or Ketbi), having joined Malcolm II. King of Scotland with his 
; illowers, was very instrumental in obtaining a notable victory over the Danes, 
u here their King Camus was killed by the hands of this Robert, which King Malcolm 
perceiving, dipped his fingers in Camus's blood, and drew long strokes or pales of 
blood on the top of Robert's shield, which have ever since been the r.rmorial fi- 
gures of his descendants. All our historians and antiquaries agree in this action ; 
and Hector Boyes, in his Book u. chap. 17. tells us, Camus was slain in the fight 
by a young man called Keith j who, for his singular valour, got lands in East Lo- 



OF THE CHIEF OR CHEF. 60 

thian, which he called after his own name. And Sir Robert Sibbald, in his His- 
of Fife, page 42. says, The chief of the 'family of Keith was, in the year 1010, 
by Malcolm II. advanced to the hereditary dignity of Marischal of Scotland, for liis 
eminent valour against the Danes, and got a barony in East Ixrthian, which was 
called Keith after his name, and the isle of Inch-Keith in the Forth, likewise call- 
ed after his name. And Sir George Mackenzie, in his Science of Heraldry, gi\e- 
us the same account of the rise of the arms of Keith ; as also in his Manuscript of 
Genealogies, amongst which is the genealogy of this noble family ; where he, by 
charters, instructs, that this family was in possession of the office of High Manschal 
of Scotland long before the reign of King Robert the Bruce. Afterwards it was un- 
questionably hereditary in the family ; which was, by James II. dignified with the 
title of Earl of MARISCHAL, and the succeeding Earls in a lineal descent, heads of 
that ancient and noble family, ever since have carried the above arms, (never mar- 
shalled with any other), adorned with crown, helmet, and mantlings, befitting 
their quality; and, on a wreath of their tinctures, and sometimes, in place of it, a 
ducal coronet ; for crest, a hart's heart erased, proper, armed with ten tynes or; 
supporters, two harts proper, armed as the crest : and for motto, Veritas vincit. 
And behind the shield, two battons gules, seme of thistles, ensigned on the top with 
imperial crowns placed saltier-ways, as badges of the office of High Marischal of 
Scotland. 

The blazons of the arms of several branches of this family will be found in the 
end of this chapter. 

Fig. 29. argent, a man's heart gules, ensigned with an imperial crowa proper, on 
a chief azure, three stars of the first, now the paternal coat of the name of DOUGLAS. 
The old arms of the family, before Douglas became a surname, were azure, three 
stars argent, two and one. Some say, azure, three stars in chief; which were car- 
ried by all the ancient branches of that family, of different designations, long be- 
fore Douglas became a surname to all the descendants. 

The same arms were carried by the Scoti, a considerable family in Plaisance in 
Italy ; who were descended of one William, a son of one of the old ancestors of the 
family of Douglas, who accompanied (with many other brave Scotsmen) William, 
brother to Achaius, in an embassy to Charlemagne King of France ; and who 
assisted that King in his wars in Italy. Some of those Scotsmen were founders 
of great familes in Italy, amongst whom was this William (of the Douglases an- 
cestors) designed Scotus, of whom the Scoti in Plaisance. From other Scotsmen 
also, -who settled there, came the Riarii Scoti in Bononia, Mariscoti in Mantua, 
the Baroni Scoti in Florence, and the Paperoni Scoti in Rome ; all of which car- 
ried the paternal arms of their respective families in Scotland, from whom they 
u f ere descended ; and by their arms they were known : For surnames were not in 
use for a long time after, as John Leslie in his History, " Uti etiam, ante aliquot 
' saecula, alii Scoti, (fixis in Imbria ac Italia sedibus} clarissimarum familiarum 
' cognominibus oblivione deletis," &c. " Ex insignibus, tamen, qu<e pneferunt, 
' facile collegi potest, ex quibus, quaque familia, parentibus Scotis, profluerit." 
And the same author, speaking of William, the ancestor of the Scoti in Plaisance, 
and of his arms, which were the same with those of the ancestors of the Douglases, 
Lib. 8. says, " Unde, certissima conjectura assequimur, illam per-antiquam comi- 
' turn familiam, quibus Scoti cognomentum confirmarit jam usus loquendi, Pla- 
' centime florentem, ex nobilissima noJtrorum Douglassiorum comitum (eadem 
' namque sunt insignia) prosapia oriundam fuisse." Hume of Godscroft, in his 
History of the Douglases, tells us also, that the arms of Scoti in Plaisance, were 
the same with those of the Douglases of old, viz. azure, three stars argent, which 
were to be seen in St Laurence's church in Plaisance, where that family have 
twelve monuments. And further adds, that he saw a letter from Mark Anthony 
Scoto d'Agnazo, to the Earl of Angus, by which it was evident enough, that the 
arms of the Scoti in Plaisance were once the very same with the old arms of the 
Douglases, and continued so till the war between the Guelphs and Gibelines ; at 
which time the Scoti being of the French interest, were chosen to head the 
Guelphs ; and because the Gibelines had all of them in their arms, figures of an 
odd number, the Scots, during that w r ar, carried only two stars, with the addition 
of a bend dexter, to distinguish themselves from the Gibelines, who bore a bend 

S 



7 o OF THE CHIEF OR CHEF. 

sinister ; and that the Emperor Henry IV. afterwards honoured the Scots in Plai- 
sance with a pelican for their crest. 

The ancient arms of the DOUGLASES then, were azure, three stars argent; which, 
it seems, were altered, after that Good Sir James Douglas carried King Robert the 
Bruce's heart to Jerusalem, thus, argent, a man's heart gules, on a chief azure, 
three stars of the first, by some called mullets. 

WILLLAM Lord DOUGLAS, and Baron of Cavers, nephew to Good Sir James, car- 
ried these last arms, as by his seal of arms, which I did see appended to a charter 
of his, granting the church of Meikle-Cavers to the abbacy of Melrose ; which 
charter was in the custody of Mr David Simpson historiographer : The seal was 
of red wax, on which was a shield couche, charged with a man's heart, and on a 
chief three stars, supported by one lion only, seiant, having his head in a helmet, 
which timbred the sinister high angle of the shield. The man's heart was not en- 
signed with an imperial crown in the arms of Douglas, till some ages after. 

The Earls of DOUGLAS, of this line, afterwards quartered other arms with their 
own, upon the account of alliances and noble feus. They ordinarily carried, quar- 
terly, first Douglas, as before ; second, azure, a lion rampant argent, for Galloway ; 
third, azure, three stars argent, upon what account I cannot learn, being the same 
with their old arms before mentioned ; fourth, argent, a saltier and chief gules, for 
the lordship of Annandale. And when Dukes of Touraine in France, they quar- 
tered that duchy's arms in the first quarter ; being azure, three flower-de-luces or. 
I shall give the arms of the branches of this noble family, in the end of the chap- 
ter, after I h v ive treated of the chief and its various attributes more fully. 

Fig. 30. Plate IV. Or, on a chief sable, three escalops of the first, by the sur- 
name of GRAHAM ; which, when surnames came in use, is said to have been taken 
in memory of that valiant man, called Graham, general of King Fergus II's army, 
who made a breach upon the trench or wall, which the Emperor Severus had 
made betwixt the Scots frith and the river Clyde, as the outmost bounds of the 
Roman Empire, to keep out the Scots from molesting them in their possessions ; 
which Graham threw down ; and ever since it has been called Graham's Dyke. He 
was the progenitor of a noble family in Scotland, who, when surnames came in 
use, as is said, took the name Graham from this their famous ancestor. 

The principal family of the name is that of the Earls of Montrose, now honour- 
ed with the title of duke ; and, for their antiquity, I shall mention here some do- 
cuments. In the charter of foundation of the abbacy of Holyroouhouse by King 
David I. William de Graham is a witness ; which principal charter I saw lately, 
and is now in the archives of the town of Edinburgh. King William gave a 
charter of the lands of Kinnabyr, Davidi de Graham militi, pro homagio y servitio 
suo ; and the same Sir David got also the lands of Muckram. To him succeeded 
his son Sir David, who lived in the reign of Alexander III. and got from that 
King the lands and barony of Kincardine. This family was very zealous in vin- 
dicating the independency of Scotland against the English, and was sometimes de- 
signed of DundafF, sometimes of Kincardine, and sometimes of Mugdock. Sir 
Patrick Graham, son and heir of David de Graham de Dundaff, is one of the hos- 
tages sent to England, for the ransom of King David II. ; which Sir Patrick was 
sometimes designed of Kincardine : His son and successor, Sir William Graham, 
was, designed of Mugdock ; and his grandchild, Sir Patrick Graham, was by our 
King James II. created Lord Graham : His grandson again, William Lord Graham, 
was, by King James IV. in the 5th year of his reign, anno 1504, created Earl 
of Montrose, and had those lands erected into a free barony and earldom, which 
formerly belonged to his progenitors, by the gift of King Robert the Bruce, nar- 
rated in a charter of King James IV's, which is to be seen in the chartulary of 
Dunfermline, and in the Earl of Haddington's Collections, in the Lawyer's 
Library. 

This Earl of Montrose was killed with King James IV. at the battle of Flodden, 
the pth of September 1513. Of him was lineally descended James Earl of Mon- 
trose, who was created Marquis of Montrose 1643, by King Charles I. He was 
that King's High Commissioner, and Lieutenant-General of Scotland ; who, with a 
small army for the King, did feats beyond belief against the Covenanters. His 
great-grandson James, the fourth Marquis of Montrose, was raised to the dignity 






OF THE CHIEF OR CHEF. 7 r 

of a duke 1707; whose achievement is, quarterly, first and fourth, or, on a chief 
sable, three escalops of the first, for the name of Graham ; second and third, 
argent, three roses gules, for the title of Montrose ; crest, a falcon, proper, armed 
and beaked or, standing on an heron argent, membred gules : motto, Ne oublie ; sup- 
porters, two storks, proper. As for the arms of the honourable branches and 
cadets of this noble family, they are to be found at the end of this chapter. 

Having treated of a chief, and on a chief, or a chief charged, as we sometimes 
speak, and having illustrated them by suitable examples, before I proceed to 
blazons in chief, I shall speak to those arms we sometimes meet with, which have 
two chiefs, or the diminutive of a chief. 

The English tell us, that the chief is subject to all the partition lines in heral- 
dry, but cannot be parted per fesse, that is, couped horizontally through the 
middle : Yet, say they, such a partition may be, when three parts of the chief are 
above, and but one below ; and this they call a combel or fillet, viz. the diminu- 
tive of a chief, representing that ligament which ties up the hair, like what our 
common people in Scotland call a woman's snood : And heralds call it a fillet, 
because of the length and narrowness of it, as also because of the place where it 
is placed ; for did it occupy any other place than the chief, it should go under 
another name. 

We frequently meet with two chiefs in one coat, especially of foreign arms ; as 
those of Pope Innocent III. who was of the family of EDISCALKIE, thus, vair, on a 
chief gules, a leopard argent, surmounted of another chief or, charged with an 
eagle displayed sable, crowned gules. Here the chiefs are not the diminutives one 
of another, but both of an equal breadth, and proportioned as a chief should be to 
the body of the escutcheon ; and when it so happens, then the two chiefs take up 
the half of the escutcheon. 

That which occasions two chiefs, in one coat, is the concessions made by sove- 
reign princes, of their royal figures to their deserving friends or subjects ; who 
having before, a chief in their paternal arms, place those of their sovereign's on 
another chief, as those of the emperor's, in the last example, and several others 
I could here add, so carried by subjects of the empire. 

The Knights Templars of St John of Jerusalem, have ordinarily two chiefs, 
especially those knights who have a chief in their paternal bearings ; who, in that 
case surmount it, with another of the arms of that order, which they are by cus- 
tom obliged to do, being gules, charged with a cross argent : For example, fig. 31. 
the arms of Le BAILLI de VALENCE, of the House of ESTAMPES in France, being a 
principal Knight of that Order, carried azure, two girons placed cheveron-ways or, 
on a chief of the last, three ducal crowns gules, being the paternal coat, surmounted 
with another chief, (of the order of St John of Jerusalem) gules, a cross argent. 
W T hich arms Menestrier blazons thus, f azure a deux girons d'or, mises en cheveron 
mi cbef d'or, charges de trois couronnes due ales de gueules, ce chef est abaisse sur celui 
de la religion : The term abaisse, as I have observed already, is said of all the proper 
figures in armories, that are lower situate than they should be ; and the chief of 
this Order, he calls a chief of religion : So also, Mr Thomas Crawfurd calls it ; 
who tells us, that one of the name of DUNDAS, Lord St JOHN, principal Knight of 
the Order of St John of Jerusalem with us, carried argent, a lion rampant gules, 
for Dundas, and a chief of the last, charged with a cross argent, the cross of re- 
ligion. 

When the uppermost of the two chiefs is broader than that below, then it is 
said to be soutenu, that is, supported by the undermost ; which being a diminutive 
of a chief, is called a trangle by the French, and a fillet by the English ; as in the 
arms of the family of URCINS in France, fig. 32. thus blazoned by Menestrier, 
Bande d'guettles et d' argent, au chef de meine, charge d'une rose de gueules, et sou- 
tenu d'un trangle d'or, charge d'une aiguille ondoyante d'azi/re, i. e. bendy of six gules, 
and argent, on a chief of the last, a rose of the first, supported by a trangle, (the di- 
minutive of a bar, a fillet, with the English, for the diminutive of a chief, of 
which before), or, charged with a serpent gliding azure. Sylvester Petra Sancta 
describes these arms, beginning first at the chief, thus, Gerunt Urcini, rosam puni- 
ceam, in coronide scutaria argento illusa, cum subjecta insita (the diminutive of a 



ya OF THE CHIEF OR CHEF. 

bar), coloris anri, aqnatali collubrio cceruleo impresso, & cum una scuti semisse i. 
nis cat ti, baltf':s tcrnis tirgcnteis totidcmque puniceis. 

With the French, there is a chief, which they call chef cmtsu, that is, when a 
i hief is of" metal upon metal, and of colour upon colour ; which cannot be said to 
be laid upon a field as other chiefs are ; being contrary to the general received 
rule, that metal must be upon colour, and colour upon metal ; and is called a 
chief cousii, that is, sewed and not laid on the field, but added to the upper part of 
the shield. Cousu, says Menestrier, ' Se dit du chef qu and il est de metal sur metal, 
ou de couleur sur couleur ; Sylvester Petra Sancta calls it, Scutari urn caput ascituw, 
fidventitium, ac sutile. There are several examples of this chief in French books 
of blazons, as that of the family of BONNE de LESDIGUIERES in France, gules, a 
lion rampant or, on a chief cottsu, azure, three roses argent, as fig. 3^ I have met 
with no such practice of carrying a chief cousu, in the arms of any family in 
Britain. 

There are several other accidental forms of a chief used abroad, and to be found 
in English books ; as a chief convert, chaperonnc, mantels. Couvert they say when 
the chief is shadowed with hangings of tapestry ; and cbaperonne, which the 
English call sbapournet, derived from the French word chaperon, which signifies a 
hood, which they place upon a chief: Muntele is said, when a chief is covered with 
a mantle of a different tincture, like tierce en mantelet beforementioned. There are 
several other varieties given us by French and English heralds, particularly Mi- 
Holme, in his Academy of Armories, which I pass over as mere fancies ; seeing 
they are carried by no families in Britain, nor by any considerable family in other 
nations, and proceed to speak of the blazon in chief. 

In chief, is said, when natural or artificial figures are placed in the upper part of 
the shield, where the ordinary, the chief, is placed, and that without any purfle, or 
line, separating them from the under part of the shield. 

Fig. ^4. Azure, in chief three stars (called spur-rowels in the Lyon Register) 
argent, the armorial bearing of DALMAHOY of that Ilk, an ancient and honourable 
family in Mid-Lothian, now honoured with the dignity of baronet. Amongst the 
the gentlemen of inquest, at serving William Lord Somerville heir to his father 
Thomas, the first lord of that name, in the year 1435, there is mentioned Sir 
Alexander Dalmahoy of that Ilk. The lairds of Dalmahoy having been for a con- 
siderable time Under-Masterhouseholds to our kings ; and for supporters, they have 
two serpents nowed, cottising the shield ; and for crest, a hand brandishing a 
sword : motto, Absque metu. 

Fig. 35. WAUCHOPE of Niddry, azure, a garb or, and in chief two mullets of the 
last ; more of which family near the end of this chapter. So much then shall 
serve for the various forms > and attributes of the chief; I shall add here several 
blazons of noble families, whose bearings are relative to the chief in the same order 
as I have treated of it from the beginning of this chapter. 

The surname of DEWAR, or, a chief azure; the surname of SQUARE, or, a chief 
gules; the surname of AIRTH, argent, a chief sable, as in Sir George Mackenzie's 
Heraldry. 

DURWARD, of old Lord DURWARD, as in Sir James Balfour's Blazons, argent, a 

hief gule s. Alanus Durward, Ostiarius Regis, after the forfeiture of David Hastings, 

Earl of Athol, was by King Alexander II. created Earl of ATHOL. He lived but 

two years after he was made Earl, and died without issue. He carried for arms, 

argent, on a chief gule.':, a lion passant gardant of the first. 

BELCHES of that Ilk, paly of six, or and gules, a chief vair; crest, a greyhound's 
head couped argent, coloured azure: motto, Fulget virtus intaminata. L. R. 

BELCHES of Tofts, in the Merse, or, three pallets gules, a chief vair ; ci-est, the 
trunk of an oak tree eradicate, with leaves sprouting out, proper ; the motto, 
Revirescit. L. R. 

The surname of CAUSTON, argent, two stars and a crescent in base sable, a chief 
chftiue, argent and vert. Font's Manuscript. 

The surname of BRUCE carries or, a saltier and chief gules ; but more of them in 
the chapter of the saltier. 

BURNET of Barns sometimes designed of Burnetland, in the shire of Tweeddale. 
carries argent, three holly leaves vert, and a chief azure. 



OF THE CHIEF OR CHEF. 73 

'lor.ERT BURNT.T, Comn;i',sary of Peebles, a younger son of B une ; 

and for his difference, die undermost line of the chief is embattled ; but more of 
this name afterwards. 

The surname of BIGIIOLME, argent, an oak tree eradicate vert, a clr e, or 

and azure. 

His Grace the Duke of ORMOND, Earl of OSSORY, &c. or, a chief indent 
This noble family is said to be descended from the old counts o; 
mandy, and were hereditary chief butlers of Ireland; who, by reason of the office, 
introduced the surname of BUTLER into the family; as also took arms relative to 
the name and office, azure, three cups or; which they quarter with their paternal 
coat. James Butler was created Earl of Ormond by King Edward III. of Eng- 
land. Of him was descended James Duke of Ormond, who was made a peer of 
England. by the sams title, by King Charles II. the 341(1 of his reign, 1682. 

The Right Honourable CHARLES BUTLER Earl of ARRAN in Ireland, and Lord 
Butler of Weston in England, gives the same quartered arms, with a crescent for 
difference. 

Sir ROBERT PASTON of Paston, descended of a family in the county of Norfolk ; 
for his loyalty to King Charles I. and assisting in the restoration of King Charles II. 
was created by that king a baron, by the title of Lord PASTON Viscount of YAR- 
MOUTH, in 1673, and thereafter Earl of YARMOUTH, 1679. He carries azure, six 
flower-de-luces, 3, 2, and i, and a chief indented or. 

MANNERS Earl of RUTLAND, and Baron Roos of Hamlock ; so dignified by King 
Henry VIII, and Baron Manners of Haddon by King Charles II. 1679, or, two bars 
azure, a chief quarterly of the second and gules, the first charged with two flower- 
de-luces or, and the last with the lion of England ; which figures were given to 
this family, as an augmentation of honour by Henry VIII. as being descend- 
ed of the royal blood of England, the chief formerly being altogether gules. And, 
as it is observed before, the chief is the ordinary place for receiving additional 
marks of honour. 

The surname of PECK HAM in England, ermine, a chief quarterly, or mdgu/es. 

The Right Honourable JOHN KEITH Earl of KINTORE, Lord Keith of Inverury 
and Keith-hall, and Knight Marischal of Scotland, second son to William Earl Ma- 
rischal, and Lady Mary Erskine, daughter to John Earl of Marr, by his lady Mat v 
Stewart, sifter to Ludovick Duke of Lennox and Richmond. He, for his loyalty 
and faithful services to King Charles II. and for being instrumental in preserving 
the regalia of the kingdom from falling into the hands of the English, in the usur- 
pation of Oliver Cromwell, had these regalia added to his own arms by way of 
augmentation ; and was honoured by the said King with the titles of dignity above- 
mentioned. His achievement is quarterly, first and fourth gules, a sceptre and 
sword in saltier, with an imperial crown in chief, within an orle of eight thistles 
or, as a coat of augmentation ; second and third argent, on a chief gules, three 
pallets or. Sometimes the chief, as I observed before, is represented paly of six, 
or and gules ; and sometimes the chief, for the name of Keith, is argent, three pal 
lets gules, which is not good armory to lay a chief argent on a field or ; so that the 
first is better than the last. This noble family has -been in use to carry for crest , 
a demi-woman, richly attired, holding in her right hand a garland of laurel, proper ; 
and, for supporters, two men in complete armour, each holding a pick in a senti- 
nel's posture, proper : and for motto, Styx amissa salva, relative to the regalia : 
For it was given out that he had carried them over to King Charles II. who v 
then in France, and, by this means, they were preserved at home. He married 
Lady Margaret Hamilton, sister to the Earl of Haddington, by whom he had se- 
veral children. He was succeeded by his eldest son William Earl of Kintore, who 
married a sister of the Viscount of Stormont, and left issue. 

Sir ALEXANDER KEITH of Ludquhairn, Baronet, argent, a cross croslet fitcbt, and 
an escalop in fesse azure, on a chief gules, three pallets or; crest, a dexter hand 
casting an anchor in the water: motto, Remember tbv end. N. R. 

KEITH of Ravenscraig, argent, on a chief gules, three pallets or, quartered with 
or, three cushions gules, within a double tressure counter-flowered of the last, for 
RANDOLPH. Font's MS. 

T 



- 4 . OF THE CHIEF OR CHEF. 

KEITH of Hui.hill, or, a cross croslet filched azure, between two crescents and a 
fasil in base gules. Font's MS. 

KEITH of Troop, an old cadet, quartered the arms of Keith with azure, a garb 
between three falcons' heads or, as in Font's MS. 

KEITH of Tillygone, parted per fesse, or and argent, on the first three demi-pal- 
lets gules, and in base a man's heart of the last ; crest, a lure proper : motto, 1/enit 
:ib astris. L. R. 

Major GEORGE KEITH of Arthurhouse, Sheriff-depute of the Sheriffdom of Kin- 
cardine, descended of the family of the Earl Marischal, argent, a saltier and chief 
gules, the last charged with three pallets or, all within a bordure compone azure, 
and the first ; crest, a dexter hand holding a pick erect, proper, headed argent : 
motto, Justa scquor. L. R. 

KEITH of Auquhorsk, descended of the Earl Marischal, argent, a chief paly of 
six, gules and or, on the second a buckle of the first. L. R. 

Major ROBERT KEITH of Craig, argent, on a chief embattled gules, three pallets 
or, a bordure crenelle of the second ; crest, a stag standing at a gaze or, in a watch- 
ing posture under a bush of holly, all proper : motto, Fortiter qui sedulo. L. R. 

KEITH of Inverugie, argent, a chief paly of six pieces, or and gules, within a 
bordure ingrailed sable. Esplin's MS. 

They of the surname of DICKSON, as descended of one Richard Keith, said to be 
a son of the family of Keith Marischal, took their name from Richard, (called in 
the south country Dick), and to show themselves to be descended of Keith Earl 
Marischal, they carry the chief of Keith. There are several families of the name 
of Dickson, of a good old standing, in the shire of Berwick. 

DICKSON of Bughtrig there, azure, three mullets argent, on a chief or, as many 
pallets gules; crest, a hand holding a sword in bend, proper: with the motto, For- 
tes for tuna juv at. L. R. 

DICKSON of Belchester, now the only old family of that name since Bughtrig has 
failed, carries the same as Bughtrig. The next to it is DICKSON of Newbigging, 
'who carries the same also, with additional figures for his difference. 

Mr ALEXANDER DICKSON of Wester-Binning, descended of Bughtrig, carries as 
Bughtrig, within a bordure ingrailed gules; crest, a man's heart, proper, winged 
argent : motto, Cadum versus. 

Sir ROBERT DICKSON of Sornbegg, now designed of Inneresk, argent, three stars 
gules, on a chief of the last, as many pallets or ; crest, a hart couchant and gardant 
proper, attired or, within two branches of laurel disposed orle-ways. L. R. 

The arms of the branches of the principal family of DOUGLAS, v/hich were nobi- 
litate, as they are to be found in our old Books of Blazon, are as follows : 

WILLIAM DOUGLAS Lord LIDDISDALE, natural son to Archibald Earl of Galloway, 
quarterly, first and fourth Douglas, bruised with a batton sinister sable ; second 
and third sable, a lion rampant argent, for Liddisdale. 

ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS Earl of MURRAY, third son of James Earl of Douglas, quar- 
terly, first and fourth argent, three cushions within a double tressure flowered and 
counter-flowered with flower-de-luces gules, for the earldom of Murray ; second and 
third argent, a man's heart gules, on a chief azure, three stars of the first, for 
Douglas. 

HUGH DOUGLAS Earl of ORMOND, fourth son of James Earl of Douglas, ermine, 
;i man's heart gules, on a chief azure, three stars argent. Which two last Earls 
were forfeited for their rebellion, in going with William Earl of Douglas against. 
King James II. and III. so that in this William the chief family of the Douglases 
ended. 

The principal and chief family of DOUGLAS, since the extinction of the old line 
of the Douglases, is that of ANGUS ; the first of which family was George Douglas, 
son of William first Earl of Douglas, by his third wife Margaret Stewart, daughter 
und heiress to John Stewart Earl of Angus, son to Sir Alexander Stewart of Bon- 
kill, son of Sir John Stewart of Bonkill, brother to James Lord High Steward of 
Scotland, father to Walter Lord High Steward, father to King Robert II. 

MARGARET, Countess of ANGUS, bore to her husband William Earl of Douglas, a 
-on George, in whose favour she resigned the earldom of Angus in Parliament, the 
of April 1389: This George Douglas. Earl of Angus, married Mary, eldest 



OF THE CHIEF OR CHEF. 

daughter to King Robert III. and had issue William Earl of Angus, father of James 
and George, successively Earls of Angus. I have seen the seal of arms of this James 
Douglas Earl of Angus, Lord Abernethy, appended to a charter of his to one Ro- 
bert Imrie, of the lands of Stukerland, in the shire of Perth, dated at Tamtallan. 
the 8th of May 1434 : On which seal was a quartered shield, first, a lion rampant; 
second, a man's heart, and on a chief three stars ; third, a fesse cheque, surmoun- 
ted of a bend, charged with three buckles ; fourth, a lion rampant, bruised with a 
ribbon : Which shield was ensigned with an old fashioned helmet ; and, upon the 
top of it, for crest, a plume of feathers, supported, on the dexter, by a hart or 
deer, and, on the sinister, by a woman in a genteel habit. The whole achieve- 
ment was surrounded with the impalement of a wood or forest, such, as that now 
used as a compartment under the present achievement of the family, as in Sir 
George Mackenzie's Heraldry ; and the legend round the seal was, S. Jacobi Comi- 
tis Anguisi<e Dom. de Abernetbie i$ Jedivorth forest. 

He was succeeded by his brother George Earl of Angus, of whom was lineally 
descended William Earl of Douglas, who was created Marquis of Douglas the i jth 
of June 1633, and from him the present Duke of Douglas, who have been in use 
to carry, as at this time, quarterly, first azure, a lion rampant argent, crowded or, 
for the earldom of Galloway ; second or, a lion rampant gules, surmounted of a 
ribbon sable, for the Lord Abernethy ; third argent, three piles gules, for Wish- 
art of Brechin ; fourth or, a fesse cheque, azure .and argent, surmounted of a 
bend gules, charged with three buckles of the first, for Stewart of Bonkill ; crver 
all, on an escutcheon argent, a man's heart gules, ensigned with an imperial crown, 
proper, and, on a chief azure, three stars of the first, the paternal coat of Douglas ; 
above the shield, a crown, helmet, and vollets, befitting their dignity ; and, in place 
of a -wreath, a chapeeiu, or cap of state gules, turned up ermine, and, upon it, for 
crest, a salamander vert, in the middle of flames of fire : motto, Jamais arnere : 
Supported, on the dexter, by a savage, proper, holding a batton erected, and 
wreathed about the middle with laurel vert, and, on the sinister, by a stag, proper, 
armed and unguled or ; both which supporters stand within a pale of wood 
wreathed and impaled, for a compartment. 

The Right Honourable the DOUGLASES Earls of MORTON, were originally from the 
Douglases of Dalkeith ; who were descended of John Douglas, half-brother to good 
Sir James Douglas, in the reign of Robert the Bruce : Which John Douglas was 
Captain of the Castle of Lochleven in the reign of David II. His son and heir was 
Sir James Douglas of Dalkeith and Aberdour ; who had by his lady, Agnes Dun- 
bar, daughter to the Earl of March, James Lord Dalkeith, who married the Lady 
Elizabeth Stewart, daughter of King Robert III. by whom he had James, his suc- 
cessor, Lord Dalkeith, father of James Lord Dalkeith, who, by King James the II. 
was raised to the dignity of Earl of Morton, in Parliament, the I4th March 1457, 
as by charter and instrument in the custody of the present Earl of Morton; which 
Earl married Lady Jean, daughter of King James the I. Dowager Countess of An- 
gus, by whom he had John, his successor, the father of James Earl of Morton. 

Which James married Katherine, natural daughter of King James IV. with 
whom he had only three daughters, Margaret, married to James Earl of Arran ; 
Beatrix, to Robert Lord Maxwell ; and Elizabeth, to James Douglas, son of Sir 
George Douglas of Pittendrich, brother to the Earl of Angus. He, in her right, 
was Earl of Morton, upon the renunciation of the Earl of Arran and Lord Maxwell, 
who married the two elder daughters. This James Earl of Morton was Regent of 
Scotland in the minority of King James VI. He died withovit issue, and was suc- 
ceeded by his nephew Archibald Earl of Angus, who also died without issue ; and 
William Douglas of Lochleven, by virtue oif, a tailzie, became Earl of Morton, 
Lord Dalkeith and Aberdour. He was succeeded by William, his grandson and 
heir, who was High Thesaurer of Scotland, and one of the Knights of the most no- 
ble Order of the Garter, in the reign of King Charles I. He married Anne, 
daughter to the Earl Marischal, by whom he had Robert Earl of Morton, his 
successor ; who married Anne Villars, daughter to the Viscount Grandison, by 
whom he had William Earl of Morton, his successor; who married Grissel, daughter 
to John, first Earl of Middleton, by whom he had Charles Lord Dalkeith, who 
died before his father, and was succeeded by Sir James Douglas, his uncle, second 



-6 OF THE CHIEF OR CHEF. 

son to the Thesaurer. He married Anne Hay, daughter to Sir James Hay of Sinith- 
tield, by whom he had James Earl of Morton, his successor, who died a bachelor, 
and is succeeded by Robert, present Earl of Morton, his brother-german. 

The achievements of the Earls of Morton are quarterly, first and fourth Douglas 
as before. ; second and third argent, three piles issuing from a chief gules., on the 
last two stars of the first, for the Douglases of Dalkeith, who carried a chief gules, 
and the Douglases of Lochleven, who carried the three piles in chief, charged w ith 
two stars ; but since these two families were united in the house of Morton, they 
join the chief and piles together : The Earl of Morton's crest is a tanglier, proper, 
-ticking between two clefts of an oak-tree, with a chain and lock holding them to- 
gether : motto, Luck sicker ; supporters, two savages, proper, wreathed about the 
head and middle with oak-leaves vert, as in the Plate of Achievements of the No- 
bility. 

DOUGLAS Duke of .QUEENSBERRY, Marquis of Dumfries-shire, Earl of Drumlan- 
rig, Viscount of Nith, and Lord Douglas of Kinmount, quarterly, first and fourth 
argent, a man's heart gules, ensigned with an imperial crown, proper, on a chief 
azure, three stars of the first, for Douglas ; second and third azure , a bend betwixt 
six cross croslets fitched or, for the title of Marr, all within a bordure or, charged 
with a double tressure gule s ; crest, a man's heart proper, winged and ensigned with 
an imperial crown or; supporters, two pegasuses argent, winged or: with the motto, 
Forward. 

The first of this family was Sir William Douglas, son of James second Earl of 
Marr ; 'who got from his father the lands of Drumlanrig, Hawick, and Selkirk, 
v/hich were afterwards confirmed by King James I. to the family. Of him was li- 
neally descended Sir William, the tenth laird of Drumlanrig, who was created a 
Lord of Parliament, and honoured with the title of Viscount of Drumlafirig, anno 
1630 ; and, in the year 1633, was advanced by King Charles I. to the dignity of 
Queensberry : His grandson William, third Earl of Queensberry, was, by King 
Charles II. dignified with the title of Marquis, and soon after with the title of Duke 
of Queensberry. He had issue by his lady Isabel, daughter to William Marquis 
of Douglas, James, who succeeded him, and William, the first Earl of March. 

WILLIAM DOUGLAS Earl of MARCH, Viscount of Peebles, Lord Douglas of Neid- 
nath, Lynn, and Mannor : His achievement quarterly, first and fourth as Queens- 
berry ; second and third gule s, a lion rampant urgent, within a bordure of the last, 
charged with eight roses of the first, for the title of March ; supported on the sinis- 
ter 1 by a lion gules, and on the dexter, by one of the supporters of Queensberry ; 
with his crest and motto as above. 

Sir JAMES DOUGLAS of Kellhead, Baronet, descended of a second son of William 
first Earl of Qucensberry, and his lady Isabel Ker, daughter to the Lord New- 
battle, afterwards Earl of Lothian, and now Marquis of Lothian, carries the quar- 
tered arms of Queensberry within a bordure ingrailed gules, charged with eight be- 
zants or ; crest, a man's heart proper, powdered with besants, crowned and winged 
or: motto, Forward. N. R. 

DOUGLAS Lord CARLYLE, first and fourth argent, a cross flory gules, for Carlyle ; 
>econd and third gules, a cross or, for Corsby ; over all, by way of surtout, the pa- 
ternal coat of Douglas ; crest, t\vo dragons' heads and necks in pale addossc azure; 
supporters, two peacocks, proper : motto, Humilitate. The first of this family was 
George Douglas, natural son to Sir George Douglas of Pittendrich, who married 
Elizabeth, daughter and heir of James Douglas of Parkhead, and with her had two 
-ons, first, Sir JAMES DOUGLAS of Torthorald, his son and heir. 

Second, Sir GEORGE DOUGLAS of Mordington, of whose armorial bearing I have 
seen no vestige or memorial. 

Sir James was succeeded by his son Sir James, who, marrying Elizabeth, grand- 
child and heir of Michael Lord Carlyle, was, in her right, Lord Carlyle of Tortho- 
,ald ; their son, James Lord Carlyle, married Elizabeth Gordon, daughter of Sir 
John Gordon of Lochinvar, but having no issue, he resigned his honours to William 
tirst Earl of Queensberry, in the year 1638, who had acquired his estate ; and 
thereby the title became extinct in this family. 

The Right Honourable ARCHIBALD Earl of FORFAR, Lord Berredale, only son of 
the second marriage of Archibald Lord Angus, who in his father's lifetime, Wil- 



OF THE CHIEF OR CHEF. 

liam Marquis of Douglas, was advanced to the dignity of \ <A For- 

tar, by King Cliurles II. 1651 ; which lust title of Earl of Forfar, was to descend 
to the eldest son of the second marriage with Lady Jean \Vemy^, daughter to the 
Eari of Wemyss, who bore the above Archibald Earl of Forfar. He nvirried Air- 
Rabina Lockhart of the house of Lee, with whom he had Archibald late Karl of 
Forfar, who died at Stirling of the wounds he received at the battle of Sheritfmuir. 
He and his father carried for their achievement, quarterly, first azure, a lion ram - 
pant urgent, crowned or, for the earldom of Galloway ; second or, a lion rampant 
gules, bruised with a ribbon sable, for Abcrnethy : third argent, three piles issuing 
from the chief, conjoined, at the points in base gules,, for Wishart ; fourth m 
fesse cheque, azure and argent, surmounted of a bend gules, charged with ti; 
buckles or, for Stewart of Bonkill, and over all the coat of Douglas, (where I mu it- 
observe by the way, that these arms diller not from the bearing of his elder bro- 
ther the Marquis of Douglas, but by transposition of the quarters, which, in my 
opinion, is not a sufficient difference for a younger brother, some diminution or 
addition of other figures being necessary) ; which arms are adorned with crown, 
helmet, and mantlings, befitting his quality ; and, on a wreath of his tinctures, for 
crest, a salamander in flames, proper : motto, Extinctus or'wr. Supported on the 
dexter by a savage, wreathed about the middle with laurel, proper, and about the 
neck a chain of gold, at which did hang before his breast a heart gules, ensigned 
with an imperial crown, and holding in his right hand a batton erected, on the si- 
nister, supported by a hart, proper, attired or, with a col'ar azure, charged with 
three stars argent, having a heart ensigned with an imperial crown hanging 
thereat. 

Lord WILLIAM DOUGLAS, son of the foresaid William first Marquis of Douglas 
and younger brother of Earl Archibald, by a second marriage with Lady Mary 
Gordon, daughter to George the first Marquis of Huntly, was made Earl of Sel- 
kirk, and, upon marrying Anne Dutchess of Hamilton, Duke of Hamilton for life ; 
and quartered the arms of Hamilton with those of the Marquis of Douglas, before 
blazoned, of which afterwards. 

Lord GEORGE DOUGLAS, brother-german to the last mentioned Lord William, af- 
terwards Duke of Hamilton, was created Earl of Dumbarton, and carried the arms 
of his father, the Marquis of Douglas, w r ithin a bordure of France and England, 
quarterly, viz. first and fourth azure, three flower-de-luces or ; second and third 
gules, three lions passant gardant or, supported as the Duke of Douglas before-men- 
tioned ; and for crest, a peacock proper. 

DOUGLAS of Glenbervie, quarterly, first and fourth the paternal coat of Douglas ; 
second and third argent, a cross counter-embattled sable, for Auchinleck. The 
first of this family was Sir William Douglas, second son of Archibald Earl of An- 
gus, surnamed Bell-the-cat, who lived in the reign of King James 111. Sir Wil- 
liam married Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Sir John Auchinleck, (or Affleck), 
of that Ilk, and with her he got the estate of Gler.bervie ; on which account the 
family quarters the arms of Auchinleck as above. Their grandson, Sir William, 
succeeded, as nearest heir-male, to the earldom of Angus, and had with his lady, 
Giles, a daughter of Robert Graham of Morphie, three sons j first, William Earl 
of Angus ; second, Sir George, who died without issue ; third, Sir Robert of Glen- 
bervie, who married Elizabeth, daughter of George Auchinleck of Balmanno : He 
by her had two sons, the eldest Sir William of Glenbervie, whose issue failed in his 
grandson, Sir Robert Douglas of Glenbervie, Colonel of the Scots Royal Regimen) ; 
he had the bad fortune to be killed at the battle of Steenkirk in Flanders, 169 2, 
leaving only one daughter, who died young. Sir Robert of Glenbervie's second 
son was George Douglas, Doctor of Divinity, who married Cicely Drury, daughter 
and co-heir to Sir Robert Drury of Rucham in Sussex. Their eldest son, William 
Douglas of Airdit, married Agnes Scott, a daughter of Sir Patrick Scott of Ar.crum ; 
and their son, Robert Douglas of Airdit, upon-the death of his cousin, Sir Robert 
Douglas of Glenbervie, Baronet, killed as above, and the decease of his young 
daughter, succeeded as heir-male to the estate and honours of the family of Glen- 
bervie. The present Sir Robert married first, Mary, daughter of Sir William Ruth- 
ven of Dunglas, and his lady, Katharine Douglas, daughter of William first Mar- 
quis of Douglas, by his second lady, Mary Gordon, daughter of George the lir>i 



?8 OF THE CHIEF OR CHEF. 

Marquis of Huntly, the only son of which marriage is William. Secondly, he 
married Janet Paterson, a daughter of the Laird of Denmuir, and has with her 
issue. This account is taken from the genealogical tree of this knightly family, 
who have been in use, on their paintings and carvings, to adorn their above arms 
with the crest, motto, and supporters of the Marquis, now Duke of Douglas, of 
which before. 

DOUGLAS of Cavers, descended of a son of James Earl of Douglas and Marr, and 
brother to Sir William, the first of the family of Queensberry, carries the paternal 
coat of Douglas, within a bordure gules; crest, a dexter hand holding a broken 
lance bend-ways, proper : with the motto, Do or die. So matriculated in the Lyon 
Office. 

DOUGLAS of Whittinghame was descended of a second son of James Lord Dal- 
keith, and his lady, a daughter of the Lord Borthwick. He carried ermine, on a 
chief gules, two stars argent, as in Esplin's and Pont's Books of Blazons ; but Mr 
Thomas Crawfurd, in his Manuscript, says, he placed in base a cinquefoil sable, 
being his maternal figure for Borthwick. 

DOUGLAS of Bonjedward carries only the paternal coat of the name, and, for dif- 
ference, in the collar point, a label of three points gules; as on the paintings of the 
genealogical tree of the house of Douglas, which makes the first of the family of 
Bonjedward to have been William Douglas, a third son of William Earl of Angus, 
and brother of George Earl of Angus, who married the daughter of Sibbald of Bal- 
gonie, sometime Thesaurer of Scotland. 

Mr WALTER DOUGLAS, minister at Linton, and third son of George Douglas of 
Bonjedward, carries the above arms within a bordure ingrailed gules; crest, a. hand 
holding a scimiter : motto, Honor & amor, as in the Plates of Achievements. 

DOUGLAS of Kilspindy was a third son of Archibald Earl of Angus, and a younger 
brother to Glenbervie. He was Provost of Edinburgh in the reign of King James 
V. and carried only the paternal coat of Douglas, with a mullet for difference, as 
I have observed. 

DOUGLAS of Moffat carried the same, but without the crescent. 

DOUGLAS of Pittendreich, ermine, a hart gules, ensigned with an open crown or, 
on a chief azure, three stars argent. 

I shall add some other blazons of the name of Douglas, as they are matriculated 
in the Lyon Register. 

ROBERT DOUGLAS of Bridgeford, grand-child of a third son of the Earl of Angus, 
bears as the Marquis, now Duke of Douglas, quarterly, within a bordure indented 
or; and for crest, a dexter hand grasping a sword, erected proper: motto, Petit 
ardua virtus. 

JAMES DOUGLAS of Bads, descended of the family of Dalkeith, argent, a man's 
heart with a dart piercing the same fesse-ways gules, on a chief azure, three mul- 
lets of the field : motto, Sapientia y veritas. 

ROBERT DOUGLAS, sometime Bailie of Musselburgh, argent, a heart crowned 
gules, betwixt three mullets azure. 

JOHN DOUGLAS of Inchmarle, descended of Morton, the same as that Earl with- 
in a bordure counter-componed, or and sable; erest, a dexter hand appearing out 
of a bush, holding an oak leaf, proper : motto, Tandem Jit surculus arbor. 

JOHN DOUGLAS of Mains, argent, a fesse cheque gules, and of the first, between 
three stars in chief azure, and a man's heart in base, proper ; crest, an oak tree 
proper, with a lock hanging upon one of the branches : motto, ^uae serata 
stcura. 

ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS of Cliftonhall, frmine, on a chief azure, three stars argent, 
a bordure gules; crest, a hand holding a man's heart proper, ensigned with a cres- 
cent argent : motto, Meliora speranda. 

ROBERT DOUGLAS, Esquire, only son to the deceased Sir Robert Douglas of Til- 
iiquhally, quarterly, first, the paternal coat of Douglas ; second, Douglas of Loch- 
leven ; third, argent, three mascles sable , on a chief of the last, as many lions pas- 
sant gardan* of the first, for the name of Ogstoun ; crest, a dexter hand issuing 
out of a cloud, holding a sword erect, proper : motto, God for us. 

Mr JAMES DOUGLAS of Earnslaw in the Merse, who got those lands by marrying 
the heiress thereof, whose name was Graiden : He was the eldest son of Mr Robert 



OF THE CHIEF OR CHEF. 70 

Douglas, a presbyterian muiii-ter, descended of the house of Lochlr.ven, urgent, 
th.i - piles gules, and on a chief a^ure, as many stars of the first, witnin a bordurc 

The blazons of the cadets of the noble family of Graham, which have occurred 
to me, are these : 

Sir PATRICK. GRAHAM, second son of Sir Patrick Graham of Kincardine, progeni- 
tor of the Duke of Montrose, married Eupham, daughter and sole hrir or David 
Stewart Earl of Strathern, eldest son of the second marriage of King Robert II. 
and his Queen Eupham Ross. He, by his lady, was Earl of STRATHERN, nnd < 
ried for arms, quarterly, first argent, on a chief sable, three escalups or, for Graham , 
second and third or, a cheveron gules, for Strathern, (the old Earls of Strathern 
carried two cheverons) ; fourth or, a fesse cheque, figure and argent, for Stewart. 
Their son, Malise Graham, was one of the hostages sent to England for the ransom 
of King James I. and after he returned to Scotland, it \vas found, by the lav 
the kingdom, that the earldom of Strathern was a masculine feu and could not d 
cend to his mother ; but, in place of it, King James I. invested him in the earldom 
of Monteith, which was in the King's hands by the forfeiture of Murdoch Stewart 
Duke of Albany, Earl of Fife and Monteith ; which dignity continued in the ; 
terity of Malise Graham till of late. The Earls of Monteith carried quarterly, first 
and fourth argent, on a chief sable, three escalops or, for Graham ; second and 
third or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent, and, in chief, a cheveron gules, for 
Stewart of Strathern ; crest, an eagle's head, proper, beaked or ; supporters, two 
\xatlfardaHtgides, collared sable, and charged with three escalops or : motto, Right 
and Reason. 

GRAHAM Viscount of PRESTON was descended of Graham Earl of Monteith, v, 
progenitor went to England, and got a good possession there. One of the family, 
viz. Sir Richard Graham of Netherby in Cumberland, Bi-.ronet, was honoured v. 
the dignity of Lord Viscount of Preston in Scotland, by King James VI. \\i. 
slu'dld of arms, as in Guillim's Display, is coupe one, parti two, which makes six 
areas or quarters ; first or, a chief sable, charged with three escalops of the art; 
second or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent, and in chief a cheveron gules ; these 
two are the arms of Graham Earl of Monteith, of whom the Viscount of Preston 
and others are descended ; third azure, five annulets, 2, 2 and i ; fourth argent, 
on a bend sable, three owls of the first ; fifth argent, a cross gules, fretted or ; 
sixth argent, on a bend azure, six flower-de-luces or, 2, 2 and 2, supported on the 
right by a heron proper, and on the left by a lion gar dant gules, collared sable, 
charged with three escalops or; crest, a vol, proper : motto, Reason contents me. 

Sir WILLIAM GRAHAM of Gartmore, Baronet, another branch of the family of 
Monteith, quarterly, first and fourth or, a pale gules, charged with a mullet ar- 
gent, and, on a chief sable, three escalops of the first ; second and third or, a fesse 
cheque, azure and argent, and, in chief, a cheveron g tiles ; crest, an eagle display- 
ed, in his dexter talon a sword in pale, proper : motto, For right and reason. Sir 
William's only son, Sir John Graham of Gartmore, died unmarried 1708, and was 
succeeded by Robert Graham of Gallangad, his cousin-german ; who is now the 
male representative of Sir John Graham of Kilbride, second son to Malise, the first 
Earl of Monteith, as in Mr Crawfurd's Peerage. The above armorial bearing .of 
Gartmore is to be seen in the Plate of Achievements. 

WALTER GRAHAM of Gartur, whose great-grandfather was a second brother of 
the Earl of Monteith, bears the arms of that family, as above blazoned, within a 
bordure cheque, sable and or ; crest, a dove resting, with a twig of a palm-tree in 
its beak, proper : motto, Peace and grace. L. R. 

GRAHAM of Morphy, an ancient branch of the house of Graham, in the reign of 
King Robert the Bruce, got the lands of Morphy confirmed to the family by the 
charters of King David Bruce. Sir Robert Graham of Morphy was knighted by 
his chief John Earl of Montrose, Chancellor and Viceroy for King James VI. wi. 
arms were sable, a cheveron argent, between three escalops or, as in Balfour's Books 
of Blazons. 

ROBERT GRAHAM, son to Sir William Graham of Mugdock, (one of the progeni- 
tors of the Duke of Montrose), and his second wife, Lady Mary Stewart, daughter 
of King Robert III. and widow of William Earl of Angus, and of James Kennedy 



fc, OF THE CfflEF OR CHEF. 

of Dunmore ; which Robert was the first of the family of JFintry.. His arms, in 
the old Books of Blazons, are or, on a chief indented sable, three escalops of the 
first. But, by our modern Blazons, the indenting of the chief is as large as piles, 
and surrounded with the double tressure of Scotland, as a badge of their descent 
from the royal family, and so carried by the branches of this family. 

GRAHAM of Claverhouse, a younger son of Fintry, of whom was lineally des- 
cended John Viscount of DUNDEE, who carried or, three piles waved sable, within a 
double tressure counter-flowered gules, and, on a chief of the second, three esca- 
lops of the first. 

GRAHAM of Duntroon, descended of Claverhouse, carries the same, but ingrails 
the chief for his difference ; crest, a flame of fire issuing out of the torce : motto,' 
Recta sursutn. L. R. 

GRAHAM of Pottento, another cadet of Claverhouse, gives the same, but makes 
the chief indents for his difference ; crest, a flame of fire issuing out of the torce, 
proper : motto, Semper sursum. L. R. 

Sir JOHN GRAHAM of Gogar, or, a cross croslet issuing out of a crescent gules, 
within a double tressure flowered and counter-flowered sable, on a chief of the last, 
three escalops of the first. 

Sir WILLIAM GRAHAM of Claypots, or, three piles issuing from a chief sable, 
charged with three escalops of the first, and in base a rose gules, all within a dou- 
ble tressure counter-flowered of the last. 

Sir WILLIAM GRAHAM of Ballargus carries the same, but, in place of the double tres- 
sure, he had a bordure azure : Which last three gentlemen, says Mr Workman, a 
famous herald, were descended of Fintry, and were knighted with Sir David Her- 
ring of Lethendy, by John Earl of Mont rose, Chancellor and Viceroy to King 
James VI. the first day of May 1 1604, to which he was a witness, as in his MS. 

JAMES GRAHAM of Monargan, a second son of Fintry, or, three piles sable, on a 
chief of the last, as many escalops of the first, all within a double tressure coun- 
ter-flowered gules, and a crescent for difference ; crest, a flame of fire issuing out 
of the torce or wreath, proper : motto, Nunquam deorsum. N. R. 

GRAHAM of Inchbrakie, the first of this family was Robert, a younger son of 
William first Earl of Montrose, killed at the battle of Flodden. Inchbrakie gives 
for arms, or, a dike (or wall) fesse-ways, broken down in some places, and in base, 
a rose gules, on a chief sable three escalops of the first. The dike (or wall) here 
is assumed not only to difference, but to perpetuate the valiant action of Graham 
beforementioned, in throwing down the wall and ditch, which the Romans made 
betwixt Forth and Clyde, to keep out the Scots, which is to this day called 
Graham's Dike ; crest, a hand holding a garland, proper : motto, A Deo victoria. 
N.R. 

MUNGO GRAHAM of Gorthy, descended of Inchbrakie, or, three roses within a 

bordure gules, on a chief sable, as many escalops of the field ; crest, two arms 

issuing from a cloud erect, and lifting up a man's skull incircled with two branches 

of a palm tree, and over the head a marquis's coronet : motto, Sepulto viresco. 

R. 

GRAHAM of Grahamshall, descended of Gorthy, or, a lion rampant azure, be- 
tween three roses gules, and on a chief sable, as many escalops of the first ; crest, a 
lion couchant under a sword in pale, proper : motto, Nee temere nee timide. N. R. 

GRAHAM of Brackness, descended of Inchbrakie, or, a lion's paw erased and 
erected between three roses gules, and, on a chief sable, as many escalops of the first ; 
i rest, a lion's paw, as the former, grasping a sword erected in pale, proper: motto, 
v/r temere nee timide. L. R. 

GRAHAM of Bachlavy, descended of Inchbrakie, or, a stag 'current between three 
roses gules, on a chief sable, as many escalops of the first. L. R. 

JOHN GRAHAM of Killearn, descended of William Graham, Rector of Killearn, 
lawful son of William second Earl of Montrose, and Lady Janet Keith, daughter of 
William Earl Marischal of Scotland ; quarterly, first and fourth or, on a chief 
sable , three escalops of the first for Graham ; second and third, argent, three roses, 
gules, for the title of Montrose ; and, on a chief of the last, three pallets or, as 
descended by the mother from Keith Earl Marischal ; crest, a falcon killing a stork,, 
proper : motto, Memor esto. L. R. and Plate of Achievements^ 



OF THE CHIEF OR CHEI . 81 

JAMES GRAHAM of Orchill, descended of Mungo Graham, another lawful younger 
son of William second Earl of Montrosc, and Lady Janet Keith, daughter of 
William Earl Marischal, quarterly, first and fourth or, a bo.-r's head couped gules, 
on a chief sable, three escalops of the first ; second and third argent, three roses 
gules ; crest, an eagle volant, proper : motto, Prosequor nil a. L. R. 

JOHN GRAHAM, sometime Commissary Clerk of Dumblane, descended of a third 
brother of a second son of the family of Montrose, argent, on a chief sable, three 
escalops or; and, for a brotherly difference, a crescent of the third, surmounted of 
a mullet of the second : motto, Prosequor alls. L. R. 

Mr JAMES GRAHAM, Advocate and Solicitor to King James VII. a fourth son of 
Patrick Graham of Inchbrakie, descended, as before said, of the eldest son of a. 
second marriage of the first Earl of Montrose, carries or, three roses 2 and i gules, 
and on a chief sable, as many escalops of the first ; crest, a hand issuing out of a 
cloud, reaching to a garland, all proper : motto, Numen & omnia. L. R. 

Sir WILLIAM GRAHAM of Braco, Baronet, descended of a second son of John first 
Earl of Montrose, carries the quartered arms of the Earl of Montrose ; but, for his 
difference, iru ; rails the chief; crest, two hands issuing out of a cloud, in each a 
sword, the right hand flourishing aloft, the left holding it in a defensive posture : 
motto, Defendendo vinco. L. R. 

Colonel HENRY GRAHAM, whose grandfather was William Graham of Killearn, 
lawful brother-german to John Earl of Montrose, Viceroy and Commissioner to 
the Kingdom of Scotland, from King James VI. carries the quartered arms of 
Mcntrose, within a borclure quartered g ules and sable, supported by a falcon, pro- 
per, on the dexter, and by a stork on the sinister; and for crest, a falcon, proper ; 
with the motto, Prcedte metnor. L. R. * 

ROBERT GRAHAM of Newark, sometime Provost of Dumfries, or, a bear's head 
erased sable , and, on a chief of the same, three escalops of the first ; crest, a pelican's 
head couped, proper. L. R. 

GRAHAM of Garvock, descended of the family of Montrose, or, three piles gules, 
issuing from a chief sable, charged with as many escalops of the first ; crest, a lion 
rampant .f /;.; motto, Noli me tangere. L. R. 

DAVID GRAHAM of Meiklewood, descended of the family of Montrose, the pater- 
nal coat of Graham ; but for his difference, he has the chief embattled ; crest, a star, 
proper : motto, Auxiliante resurgo. N. R. 

J OHX GRAHAM of Dougalston, or, a heron volant, proper, and on a chief sable, 
three escalops of the first ; crest, an escalop as the former : motto, Pignut amoris. 
N. R. 

Mr JOHN MITCHELSON of Middleton, Advocate, argent, a demi-lion rampant 
nalssant out of the base gules, armed and langued azure, and, on a chief indented 
scihh', a star betwixt two crescents of the first ; on a wreath of the tinctures, for 
crest, an increscent argent; with the motto, Crescam ut prosim, so illuminated in 
Workman's Manuscript ; see Plate of Achievements. This family is of .a good 
old standing in Mid-Lothian, being heritors of the lands of Mitchelston, Luggat, 
and Blackhaugh, for some generations past, and were designed of Mitchelston, be- 
fore they purchased the lands of Middleton, about an hundred and fifteen years 
since, and have from that time been designed of Middleton ; of which family the 
above Mr John Mitchelson is lineally descended, and representative. 

The surname of SIMPSON, argent, on a chief vert, three crescents of the first, by 
George Simpson of Udoch, who has for crest, a falcon volant, proper : motto, Alis 
nut riot: N. R. 

HOWISON, argent, a man's heart gules, on a chief azure, three flower-de-luces or. 
P. MS. 

The name of SQUARE, or, on a chief sable, two mullets argent. P. MS. 

COUSLAND of that Ilk, argent, two mullets and a crescent in base sable, a chief 
cheque of the same tinctures. P. MS. 

I shall add here, for examples of a chief charged, some honourable families in 
England, from Mr Dale, pursuivant, his Catalogue of the Nobility of England, 
and from Jacob Imhoff 's Historia Regtim pariumque Magna Britannia. 

RUSSEL Duke of BEDFORD, argent, a lion rampant gules, on a chief sable, three 
escalops of the first ; thus by Imhoff, Russellorum Comitum Bedfordia tessera gen- 

X 



OF THE CHIEF OR CHEF. 

tilitia k'one rulco constat, qui scutum argeiiteum iinplet cephalo nigro, cui tres conelar 
argento tincta iiiscripta: sunt, aistincium. This noble family derives its descent from 
an ancient family in Dorsetshire ; John Russel of Berwick, was advanced to the 
title of peerage by Henry VIII. and, in the third year of the reign of Edward VI. 
was created Earl of Bedford ; and in April 1694, his successor William Russel Earl 
of Bedford, was created Marquis of Tavistock, and Duke of Bedford. 

HENRY CLINTON Earl of LINCOLN, Baron Clinton and Say, dignified with the 
title of Baron Clinton by writ of summons to Parliament the 6th of February 
1298, the 27th of Edward 1. and with the title of earl the 4th of May 1572, I4th 
of Elizabeth, as Dale, pursuivant, gives for his paternal bearing, argent, six cross 
cmsletsfitcbe, 3, 2, and i sable, on a chief azure, two mulcts or, pierced g uie s : 
But of late the crosses have been disused : Imhoff says, Digma Clintinorum gentiii- 
tium sex cruciculas cruel at as ^ in imo spiculatas nigras nfert, impress as scuto /<;- 
genteo, cui cephalus est cierulcits, steliis sive rotulis calcaris duabis aureis fulgcns. 
This author, because the English do not make a distinction betwixt stars and 
mullets, says, steliis sive rotulis, for a mullet pierced, which is the rowel of a spur ; 
and he makes use of the words rotula calcaris: But more of this afterwards under 
the title mullet. 

PAULET ST JOHN Earl of BOLINGBROKE, and Baron of St John of Bletsoe ; this 
family was dignified with the honour of baron by Elizabeth 1558, and earl by 
King James I. argent, on a chief gules, two mullets pierced or, as Mr Dale ; but 
Imhoff, argent, a bend gules, and on a chief of the same, three stars or. Anno 
1711, the title of the Earldom of Bolingbroke became extinct upon the decease of 
Paulet St John, the last earl, without heirs of his body, and the barony of Bletsce 
devolved upon Sir Andrew St John, who carries argent, on a chief gules, two mul- 
lets pierced or. 

LOVELACE Lord LOVELACE of Hurley was dignified with this title by Kin^ 
Charles I. 1627, gules, on a chief indented sable, three martlets argent. 

Sir JOHN WAUCIIOPE of Niddry, chief of the name, and head of an ancient family 
in Mid-Lothian, gives for arms, azure, two stars in chief, and in base a garb or ; 
crest, a garb or : motto, Industria ditat. N. R. 

They are said to have their surname from Wauchopdale, which they possessed 
of old, in the reign of Alexander II. Alanus Wauchope got the lands of Coulter, 
in the shire of Aberdeen, which were confirmed to him by that king, as Sir George 
Mackenzie in his MS. Which lands went with a daughter of Sir Adam Wauchope's 
to Cumin of Inneralachie, of whom is lineally descended Cumin of Coulter. 
The heads of this family of Wauchope of Niddry, were hereditary bailies to Keith 
Lords Marischal, and Marischal-Deputes in Mid-Lothian : From the Lords Maris- 
rhal they had the lands of Niddry, designed Niddry-Marischal ; and therefore on 
a tomb-stone in the chapel of Niddry, are engraven these words, This tomb was 
bigged by Robert Waucbope of Niddry-Mariscbal, 1387. 

Amongst the gentlemen of the inquest that served James Forrester heir to his 
father James Forrester of Corstorphine 1547, is Gilbert Wauchope of Niddry- 
Marischal, who married Margaret Douglas, daughter to Sir James Douglas of 
Drumlanrig, grandfather to the first Earl of Cnieensberry ; and in the inquest of 
serving Alexander Lord Home, heir to his father Lord George 1551, there is men- 
tioned Cuthbert Wauchope of Niddry-Marischal. There is honourable mention 
made of one Robert Wauchope of Niddry-Marischal, Doctor of the Sorbonne, and 
Primate of Ireland, by Leslie, in the tenth book of his History, by Labeus a Jesuit, 
in the I4th torn, of his Chronicle, and by John Cone a Scotsman, in his Book DC 
Duplici Statu Religionis apud Scotos. Several sons of this family were very eminent 
in military affair? , and in high posts abroad and at home. 

JOHN WAUCHOPE of Edmonstone, a second son of Wauchope of Niddry, and 
sometime one of the Senators of the College of Justice, his arms in the Lyon Re- 
gister arc two coats impaled, viz. first, azure, two mullets in chief, and a garb in 
base or, for Wauchope, differenced with a crescent in the collar point argent ; 
second, or, a cross ingrailed sable ; having married Rait the heiress of Edmonstone ; 
crest and motto as Niddry. L. R. 

They of the name of WAUGH, by our old books of blazons, carry the same with 
Wauchope, sometimes adding a fesse, as WAUGH of Glenboy in the parochin of 



OF THE CHIEF OR CHEF. 

Mcthie, in the sherificlom of Forfar. I have seen a charter of the lands of Glcnboy, 
to Alexander Waugh, of the date lytt-J, and another to his son, Alexander Waugh, 
of these lands 1(124, u'iiose daughter and heir Eupham VVaugli, v.us murried to 
David Ogilvy son to John Ogilvy of Millhall. 

KIKKALUY of Grange, gules, two stars in chief, and a crescent in base or; Esplin's 
MS. As for the antiquity of the name, we find William Kirkaldy submittin; 
Kdward 111. as in Prynne's History. Marjory Kirkaldy, daughter and heir to J'ltui 
Kirkaldy, was married to Reginald Kinnaird, who got with lier hinds in the barony 
of Inchture, as by a charter of King Robert III. 1399. J anics Kirkaldy of Grange 

ne of the witnesses in the charters of King James V. to Alexander Forrester of 
Corstorphinc. Sir John Kirkaldy of Grange, baronet, gules, a cheveron argent be- 
tween three stars in chief, and a crescent in base or; crest, a man's head with the 
face looking upwards, proper : motto, Fortissimo veritas. N. R. 

The surname of INGLIS, azure, a lion rampant, and in chief three stars argent. 

INGLIS of Manor carried the same, as did Inglis of Torbet, who quartered them 
with the arms of Torbet or Tarvit of that Ilk ; argent, a cheveron between three 
wolves' heads, couped sable, as in Sir James Balfour's Blazons. 

In the 6th year of King Robert Ill.'s reign, William Inglis got from that king 
the barony of Manor, for killing Thomas de Strut hers, an Englishman, as the 
charter bears : " In remunerationem facti nobilis, viz. interfectionis Thorme de 
" Struthers Anglici militis, quern super marchiis in duello interfecit." 

John Inglis of Manor obtains a charter of confirmation of his lands of Manor, 
to himself, and his son and heir Thomas Inglis, from his superior, Archibald Duke 
of Touraine, Earl of Douglas ; and the three stars in chief, carried by the name of 
Inglis, I take to be arms of patronage, and carried by that name, upon the account 
that they were vassals to the Douglases. Thomas Inglis of Manor made an ex- 
cambion of his lands of Brankesholm, Branshaugh, Goldylands, CMahitelaw, Quhit- 
rig, Todshaw-hills, and Todshaw-wood, which he held of the Douglases, with Sir 
Walter Scot of Murthouston, for the lands of Murthouston and Heartwood, lying 
in the barony of Bothwell in the shire of Lanark ; as by the charter of excambion, 
dated at Edinburgh the 23d of July 1446, in which he is designed, Nobilis vir 
Thomas Inglis de Manners ; and afterwards he and his family in other writs were 
designed, Domini de Murtboustoun, or Murdistoun. 

JOHN INGLIS, portioner of Newtonlees, whose grandfather Cornelius Inglis was 
lawful son of Murdistoun, azure, a lion rampant argent, on a chief ingrailed of the 
second ; three stars of the first ; crest, a star invironed with clouds, proper : motto, 
In tenebrls hicidior. N. R. 

Sir JOHN INGLIS of Cramond, Baronet, azure, a lion salient argent, on a chief or, 
three mullets of the field ; crest, a demi-lion rampant argent, holding in his dexter 
paw a mullet or : motto, Mr* dominus frustra. N. R. As in the Plates of Achieve- 
ments. 

Mr JOHN INGLIS, Advocate, descended of Inglis of Manor ; azure, a lion ram- 
pant argent, on a chief of the. last ; three stars of the first within a bordure gules ; 
crest, a demi-lion as the former, issuing out of the wreath : motto, Recte faciendo 
securus. N. R. 

GREY Earl of KENT, chief of the ancient and illustrious House of Grey, so dig- 
nified in the reign of Edward IV. from whom are descended and branched the 
Barons of Rotherfield, Codnore, Wilton, Ruthine, Groby, and Rugemont, the Vis- 
count of Lisle, the Earl of Stamford, the Marquis of Dorset, and the Duke of 
Suffolk, all of that surname, derived from the Castle and honour of GREY (or Croy 
as some write) in Picardy, their patrimony before the conquest, give for their 
paternal bearing, barry of six, argent and azure, in chief three torteauxes gules ; as 
Robert Dale, pursuivant, in his Catalogue of the Nobility of England. Henry 
Earl of Kent 1 706, was created Marquis of Kent, Earl of Harold, and Viscount 
Goodrich ; and afterwards in the year 1710, was advanced to the dignity of Duke 
of Kent. In an old manuscript of arms, illustrated by the monks of Ely in the 
reign of William the Conqueror, are the armorial bearings of his chief officers ; 
amongst w r hom is Paganus de Grev, equitum signifier to King William ; his arms, 
thus, face d' 'argent fc? tfazur, as Menestrier in his Origin of Armories, where he 



84 OF THE BEND. 

says, " That this Manuscript is in the English College of Benedictines at Douay ;" 
for the antiquity of the family of Greys, see the Peerage of England. 

EDWARD DEVEREUX, Viscount of HEREFORD, argent, a fesse gules, in chief three 
torteauxes. This family has its surname from a town in Normandy, from whence 
they came ; and was dignified with the title of Viscount of Hereford 1549, . v 
Edward VJ. and is the Premier-Viscount in England, as in the foresaid book. 



CHAP. XIII. . 

OF THE BEND. 

THE bend, say the English, is made by t\vo lines drawn over-thwart the es- 
cutcheon, from the dexter chief to the sinister base point, by an equal dis- 
tance, containing the fifth part of the field, when not charged, and the third part 
when charged : But others make no such . distinction, and tell us, that the bend 
possesses the third middle part of the field diagonally, from the right chief angle, 
to the leff. angle in base. 

Menestrier says, " Bande est une piece honorable, qui occupe diagonalement 
" le tiers de 1'ecu par le milieu de droit a gauche." Some bring bend or bands 
from a barbarous Latin word, bandum, which signifies an ensign, made of a piece 
of silk or stuff, more long than broad, which distinguished companies of men ; and 
from whence we say bunds of soldiers ; but the bend is more generally taken, to 
represent in arms the shoulder-belt, and is commonly Latined bulteus. Sylvester 
Petra Sancta, in his 2pth chap. De Balteo Tesserario, says, " Balteum voco vittam 
" eblique ab latere dextro exaratam, qure trientem coixtinens parmuhe nostrae tes- 
" serariae, earn perinde ac militem balteus praecingit." 

The old Latin Blazoners for a bend- said benda. The author of the book Le Tro- 
phee (CArmes Heraldiques will have the bend to represent le baudrier, which Pea- 
cham describes to be a sign of honour, called the baudrick, which knights used to 
wear of old over their shoulder, and under the left arm, whereat hung the sword : 
But Camden and Minshew will have the/m<? to be the knightly belt, or cingulum 
honoris ; yet, with others, I think, the bend may represent that piece of honour as 
well as the fesse, since some nations used the girding of the belt close about the 
waist at their making of knights, and others, in the like ceremony, by putting it 
loose over their shoulder, so that both bend and fesse may be latined balteus or bal- 
teum, with a proper adjective annexed for distinction, such as obliquus or humeralis 
balteus for a bend, and transversus or lumbaris balteus for the fesse. 

What I have said before of die fesse cheque, the armorial figure of the Stewarts, 
I shall not here repeat again, but give some examples of a bend of that form. 

Fig. i. -Plate V. or,, a bend cheque, sable and argent, by the name of MONTEITH. 
The first of this name was Walter, third son to Walter, and brother to Alexander 
High Steward of Scotland, who being made Earl of Monteith, took the surname of 
Monteith, whkh descended to all his posterity ; ,and, to show they were originally 
of the stock pf the Stewarts, they turned the fesse cheque to a bend ; for, to change 
a fesse to a bend, and a bend to a fesse, has been an ancient practice for differen- 
cing descendants with us ; thus, LESUE of Balquhan turned his figure, the bend, to 
a fesse, of which afterwards, and so of several other cadets. 

Anno 1291, WALTER Earl of MONTEITH is one of the arbiters, or auditors, of the 
competition for the crown, betwixt John Baliol Lord of Galloway, and Robert 
Bruce Lord of Annandale. He had for wife, one of the daughters and co-heirs of 
Walter Cumin Earl of Monteith, and, in her right, succeeded to the honours, 
and a part of the estate. She bore to him two sons, the eldest Alexander, design- 
ed, in his father's lifetime, in charters, Alexander de Monteith, filius Comitis de Mon- 
teith ; the second son John, anno 1297, (Fadera, torn. 2. pug. 782.), is designed, 
Johannes de Monteith, frater Comitis de Monteith. These two gentlemen were the 
first that assumed the surname of Monteith ; and all of that name are supposed to 
be descended from them. In anno 1296, Alexander Earl of Monteith is ranked, 
by Prynne, with others, in that concussive bond commonly called Ragman's Roll, 
extorted by Edward I. from the most considerable of the Scots nation, and desjgns 



OF THE BEND. 3 S 

him, Alexander tie Monteitb. lie had three sons, Allan and Murdoch, successive- 
ly Earls of Monteith, and the thud son, Alexander, wa.s the first of the family of 
Monteith of Kuskie ; \vhich family was in use to carry quarterly, first and fourth 
or, a bend cheque, sable and argent, for Monteith ; second and third azure, three 
buckles or. 

The MONTEITHS of Carss were in use to carry quarterly, first and fourth, Mon- 
teith as before ; second and third or, a lymphad, or ship, with one mast sable, and, 
in chief, three buckles azure, as in Sir James Balfour's Mami.script of Blazons. 

Allan Earl of Monteith, before-mentioned, died without issue, and was succeed- 
ed by his brother Murdoch, who left behind him a daughter, his heir, who wu 
married to Sir John Graham in the year 1341. 

yohannes de Graham Conies de Monteith, is frequently mentioned in charter- 
He was taken prisoner in the battle of Durham, the 171!! of October 1346 ; and, by 
order of Edward III. was barbarously murdered with Duncan, tenth and last Earl 
of Fife. The wife or daughter of this John Graham Earl of Monteith, was mar- 
ried to Robert Stewart, third son to King Robert II. who, in her right, was Earl 
of Monteith, and thereafter Duke of ALBANY. She bore to him several children, 
the eldest Murdoch Stewart, second Duke of Albany Earl of Monteith, who wa-. 
executed and forfeited by King James I. Tiiat King gave the earldom of Mon- 
teith, in lieu of the earldom of Strathern, to Malise Graham, of whom before 

But to return to the bend. 

Fig. 2. Plate V. azure, a bend argent ; by some Books, argent, a bend azure, by 
the name of BISSET. There was an ancient family of that surname with us in the 
reign of King Alexander II. : One Walter Bisset is. a witness in a charter, by that 
King, to the abbacy of Paisley ; and again I find him a witness, with William 
Bisset, in another charter of that King's to the abbacy of Dunfermline ; and, by 
the chartulary of Melrose, Walter Bisset, in the year 1233, married a daughter of 
Rowland Earl of Galloway. 

In the year 1258, Sir John Bisset of Lovat mortifies an annuity out of his lands 
to the Bishop of Murray. He died without heirs of his own body, leaving his es- 
tate to his three daughters ; the eldest married to David Graham, thereafter de- 
M^ned of Lovat, as in an agreement betwixt him and the Bishop of Murray, con- 
cerning the fishing of the water of Torn ; the second daughter was married to Sir 
William Fenton of Beaufort ; and the third to Sir Andrew de Bosco. In the year 
1291, amongst the Barons convened at Berwick, at the desire of Edward I. as ar- 
bitrators between the competitors for the crown of Scotland, is William Bisset, on 
uhose seal of arms there is a shield charged with a bend, and over it a label of 
three points. His grand-child, Thomas Bisset, by marrying Isabel M'Duff, eldest 
daughter and heiress of Duncan Earl of Fife, was Earl of Fife four years, and died 
without issue, in the reign of David II. 

BISSET Lord Beaufort, carried azure, a bend argent, as Workman in his Manu- 
sctipt. Sir James Balfour, says in his Blazons, azure, a bend sinister argent ; and 
that BISSET of that Ilk carried argent, a bend g ule s. 

Fig. 3. Plate V. arjjii', a bend ingrailed g ules, by the ancient name of COLE- 
PEPER in England. Sir THOMAS COLEPEPER of Bedgebury, was governor of one of 
the Cinque-ports in the reign of Edward II. whose arms were argent, a bend in- 
grailed gules ; of which the famous Drayton, in the Barons' wars, in the reign of 
Edward II. enumerating the arms of the noted families of each side, says 

" And Colepeper, with silver arms inrail'd, 
" Bare thereupon a bloody bend ingrail'd." 

Sir JOHN* COLEPEPER, a branch of the family of Bedgebury, was a knight of the 
>hire ot Kent in the Parliament which met in the year 1641. He was a man of 
perfect loyalty and great ability, as appears by all the accounts of these times, be- 
ing one of the first, that, on the irruption of the civil wars, stood up for the King; 
, utter twenty years service to the crown, and twelve years exile with King 
Charles II. he returned with his said Majesty into England, and died Master of the 
Rolls, in July 1660. The supporters to the arms of this Lord, granted by Sir Ed- 
Vv'alker Gaiter, principal King of Anns, are two dragons argent, each of 

Y 



86 OF THE BEND. 

them collared with a ducal coronet. He was created Lord Colepeper by letters pa- 
tent, the 2 ist of October 1644, from whom is John, now Lord Colepeper. For 
other examples of carrying a bend, by honourable families in Britain, they are to 
be found in the end of this chapter ; and, to follow my former method, I shall add 
here an example or two of a bend charged with figures, for which we say on a bend ; 
and I observe it has been a custom anciently to charge the bend, rather than to 
accompany it with figures. 

Fig. 4. Plate V. the ancient surname of LESLIE gives argent, on a bend azure, 
three buckles or. 

The first of this name is said to be one Bartholomew, son of Walter de Leshlin, 
from a castle so called in Hungary where he was born, and a near friend to Marga- 
ret, Queen to Malcolm Canmore, who came to Scotland with her, and got several 
lands there, as in a fragment of history, of a Norwegian, in the Lawyers' Library. 
In Sir Robert Sibbald's History of Fife, Andrew Leslie, the sixth in descent trom 
the above Bartholomew, married one of the co-heiresses of Abernethy about the 
year 1317, on which account they have since quartered the coat of Abernethy with 
their own ; and the fourth in descent from the above Andrew, was Normand Les- 
lie, first of ROTHES, great-grandfather of George Leslie, son of Normand Leslie, and 
Christian Seaton, daughter to William Lord Seaton, which George was served heir 
to his father Normand, 1439, anc ^ married Christian Halyburton. In a perambu- 
lation, anno 1457, of Easter and Wester Kinghorns, he is designed Lord Leslie, and 
was created Earl of Rothes by King James II. anno 1457. J onn the seventh Earl, 
lineally descended from George the first Earl, was created Dake of Rothes, for his 
lifetime, by King Charles II. in the year 1680 : He died 1681, and left issue by 
his lady, Anne Lindsay, daughter to the Earl of Crawford, two daughters ; Mar- 
garet Countess of Rothes, married to Charles Earl of Haddington, whose eldest son, 
John, takes upon him the name and arms of Leslie, and is the eighth Earl of Rothes, 
and married Lady Jean Hay, daughter to the Marquis of Tweeddale. His Lord- 
ship's achievement, as in the Copperplate, with others of the nobility, is quarter- 
ly, first and fourth argent, on a bend azure, three buckles or, for Leslie ; second 
and third or, a lion rampant gules, bruised with a ribbon sable, for Abernethy ; 
which are adorned with crown, helmet, and volets, befitting his quality ; and, is- 
iiiing out of a wreath of the tinctures, for crest, a demi-griffin ; supporters, two 
griffins, proper : motto, Grip fast. 

[The blazons of other families of the name of LESLIE, 'with those of other surnames who 
carry bends, are to be found at the end of this chapter, and, therefore, I proceed here 
to treat of the bend under its various forms. ~[ 

Fig. 5. or, on a bend azure, a star betwixt two crescents of the first, by the sur- 
name of SCOT. As for its antiquity, amongst the .witnesses in a charter of King 
David I. to the abbacy of Selkirk, there are Uchtred Jilius Scott, and Ranulphus An- 
glus, who may have been the first of the surname of Scott and Inglis. see Sir 
James Dalrymple's Collections. 

The eldest family of the name of Scott was that of Balwyrie, as Sir George Mac- 
kenzie, in his Science of Heraldry, and MS. of Genealogies, tells us ; and that one 
Walter Scott, a son of that family, married the only daughter and heiress of Mur- 
diston of that Ilk, in the reign of Robert the Bruce ; who, though he retained 
the surname of Scott, yet he laid aside his paternal arms, vix. argent, three lions' 
heads erased gules, and carried those of Murdiston, or, on a bend azure, a star 
betwixt two crescents of the first. 

WALTER SCOTT, his grand or great-grandson, designed of Murdiston, excam- 
bed these lands, with Thomas Inglis of Manor, for other lands, as I mentioned 
before. Sir Walter Scott got several lands from King James II. for killing Archi- 
bald Douglas Earl of Murray, and apprehending Hugh Douglas Earl of Ormond, 
the King's enemies ; his son and successor Walter Scott, designed of Kirkurd, for 
his special services against the Douglases, the King's enemies, got from King James 
III. at Edinburgh, the 7th of December 1463, a new charter to himself and to 
David Scott, his son and apparent heir, erecting the lands of Branksholm into a 
tree barony, with several other lands : " Pro fideli &. laudabili servitio progenito 



OF THE BEND. <,; 

" nostro - nobis, per dilectum militem Walterum Scott de Kirkurd & Davidem 
" Scott, filium ejus &- haeredem appurentem, in rebellione Jacobi de Dougl;i 
" fratrum suorum, invasione & expulsione, multipliciter impemo." This fumih 
rose by the fall of the Douglases. 

The above DAVID SCOTT, son and heir of Walter, was designed Baron of Branks- 
holm ; and from him was lineally descended, by four generations, Sir Walter Scott 
of Branksholm, who was advanced to the dignity of a Lord in Parliament by tin- 
title of Lord BUCCLEUGH, whose son, Walter Lord Buccleugh, was solemnly created 
Earl of Buccleugh at Holyroodhouse, the 3Oth of March 1619, by Alexander Sea- 
ton Earl of Dunfermline, Commissioner to his Majesty King James VI. He mar- 
ried a daughter of Francis Earl of Errol, who- bore to him Francis second Earl of 
Buccleugh. He married Margaret Leslie, daughter to John Earl of Rothcs, and 
widow of the Lord Balgonie, who bore to him two daughters ; Margaret, married 
to Walter Scott of Haychester, who was made Earl of Tarras for life, but she died 
without issue ; the second daughter, Anne, was created Dutchess of Buccleugh by 
King Charles II. and married to that King's natural son, James Duke of Mon- 
mouth, to whom she had two sons, James Earl of Dalkeith, who died 1705, left 
issue by Henrietta his wife, daughter of Laurence Earl of Rochester, Francis, now 
Lord Dalkeith, and other two sons and two daughters ; her Grace's second son, 
Lord Henry Scott, was, in the year 1706, created Earl of Deloraine, Viscount 
Hermitage, and Lord Scott of Goklilands, all in the county of Roxburgh, she mar- 
ried a second husband, Charles Lord Cornwallis, and to him has a daughter, Lady 
Isabella. Her Grace's achie\-ement is, or, on a bend azure, a star betwixt two 
crescents of the first ; crest, a stag passant proper, armed and unguled or ; sup- 
porters, two women, richly attired, in an antick habit, with their hair hanging 
down over their shoulders ; and, for motto, the word, Amo. 

The bend, is not only subject to all the accidental forms of lines, which com- 
pose it, but to be voided. Voided is not only said of the honourable ordinaries when 
so, but of other figures natural and artificial ; that is, when the middle of the fi- 
gure is cut out, as fig. 6. ermine, a bend gules voided of the field, by the name of 
HACK.ET in England, as in Holmes's Academy of Arms. 

Fig. 7. Plate V. argent, a bend sable voided of the field wavey, by the name of 
WIGMUR of Wigmur, as in Workman's Manuscript of Blazons. This last example 
would be blazoned by some, argent, a bend sable, charged with another waved of 
the field ; because the term wavey being an accidental form of the ordinaries, can- 
not be properly attributed to the field ; wherefore they say, that the bend sable is 
charged with a bend argent wavey, because of the accidental form. For if it had 
been voided with plain lines, it would have been blazoned properly, a bend voided 
of the field. 

WILLIAM BOHUN Earl of NORTHAMPTON, Knight of the Garter in the reign of 
King Edward 111. had on his seal of. arms, as a Knight of the Garter, argent, on a 
bend.fKfar, voided of the field betwixt six lioncels azure, three stars sable; a-, 
Ashmole, in his Institution of the Garter, page 708. ; and, in the same book, page 
714. he gives us the arms of Sir ANTHONY BROWK, Knight of the Garter, in the 
reign of King Henry VIII. sable on a bend argent, voided of the field, three lions 
of the second, as fig. 8. : But some would blazon this last bearing, sable, three 
lions in bend between two bendlets argent. 

Having treated of a bend under accidental forms, and a bend charged, or, as wt- 
say, in short, on a bend, I proceed to give examples of a bend cotoyed, or accom- 
panied, that is, when figures are placed in the field at the sides of the bend, and 
then we say with the English, a bend between such figures, for which the French 
say, accornpagne ; but when the figures are placed diagonally after the position of the 
bend, they say cotoye, and when figures are erected, we say betwixt or accom- 
panied. 

Fig. 9. Plute V. sable, a bend accompanied with six billets or, by the name of 
CALLENDER, an ancient family with us, which ended in an heiress, \vho was mar 
ried to William Livingston, a son of Livingston of Weems in Fife ; of whom 
were descended the Livingstons Earls of Linlithgow, who quarter those arms of 
Callender, in the second and third places, with the arms of Livingston in the :' 
and fourth, of whom afterwards.. 



88 OF THE BEND. 

JOHN CALI.ENDER of Kincardine, descended of Callender of Mayners, sable, -A 
bend cheque, or and gules, betwixt six billets of the second; crest, a hand holding 
11 billet or ; with the motto, I mean well. N. R. 

The ancient Earls of Marr carried azure, a bend betwixt six cross croslets fitched 
or ; which was afterwards quartered by other families honoured with the title of 
Earls of Marr : But more examples of the bend, accompanied with figures, to- 
wards the end of this chapter. 

A bend is said to surmount, when it lies over other ordinaries or other figures, 
keeping its just length and breadth ; but by the French it is said to be brochante. 

SPENCE of Wormiston, an ancient family with us, said to be descended of the 
old Earls of Fife, has been in use to carry the lion of M'DufF, Earls of Fife, with 
an addition thus : fig. 10. or, a lion rampant gules, surmounted with a bend sable, 
charged with a buckle, between two mascles argent, as in Mr Font's Manuscript of 
Blazons. Sir James Spence of Wormiston was Ambassador for King James I. of 
Great Britain to the King of Sweden, to effectuate a peace betwixt that King and 
the King of Denmark. 

The bend, as is said, is subject to all the accidental forms, as to be ingrailed, in- 
vected, waved, nebule, and counter-embattled, to be couped and counter-changed, to 
be parted of divers tinctures, and carried quarterly : Of which accidental forms I 
have given already several instances ; and the like will occur again in this Treatise, 
in other figures which I am to speak to in all their various forms, according to the 
practice of Great Britain. 

In Germany, sometimes the ordinaries, or proper figures, are put under very odd 
fantastical forms, with which I forbear to fatigue my reader, and to swell my book 
beyond its designed bulk, but refer the curious to the Wapen Book of Germany, 
to Sylvester Petra Sancta, the Italian, and others ; and shall proceed now to the 
diminutives of the bend, and the multiplication of them in one field, with their va- 
rious blazons, by a few examples, to show their general practice and use with us. 

The first diminutive of the bend is called a bendlet, w r hich possesseth in breadth 
fhe sixth part of the field diagonally. The French call it a bend en divine ; as Me- 
nestrier, in his blazon of the arms of Toure in France, d 1 argent, a une bande en de- 
mise d'azur, enfilee dans trois couronnes due ales d'or ; i. e. argent, a bendiet azure, 
invironed with three ducal crowns or, fig. n. Plate V. 

The bendlet, says Feme in his Lacies' Nobility, page 102. does represent a scarf 
which soldiers wore over their shoulder, from one side to the other under the arm. 
When there is but one in a field of arms, it is blazoned, by inadvertent heralds, a 
bend, and that is the reason, says he, we do rarely meet with a bctullet mentioned 
in a blazon. In Sir James Balfour's Blazons I have frequently met with a bendlet 
mentioned, as in the arms of the surname of LANTON, azure, an eagle with two 
heads displayed or, surmounted of a bendlet sable ; and in the blazon of the arnv; 
the name of PORTERFIELD, in Sir George Mackenzie's Science of Heraldry, or, a 
bendlet betwixt a stag's head erased in chief, and a hunting-horn in base sable, gar- 
nished gules ; so recorded in the Lyon Register for the arms of ALEXANDER POKTER- 
fiELD of that Ilk ; and for his crest, a branch of palm : with the motto, Sub po'.-dew 
sursum. 

I find no instance of a single bendlet carried in any arms of England except this, 
given us by Guillim, in his Display of Heraldry, fig. 12. Plate V. and the same by 
Handle Holmes, in his Academy of Armories. And though they give us the figure 
of a bendlet, yet they do not tell us by whom it is carried, because they suppose 
that u bendlet is not carried singly ; for, says Holmes, if the field contains more 
than one bend, then they are not called bends, but bendlcts : Notwithstanding of 
which, Ashmole, in his Institutions of the Order of the Garter, gives us a bendlet 
in the arms of Sir EDWARD POXNINGS, Knight, and one of the most honourable Or- 
der of the Garter, in the reign c King Henry VII. barry of six, or and vert, sur- 
mounted of a bendlet gules. 

Sandford, in his Genealogical History, gives us the arms of HENRY of LANCASTER, 
Lord MONMOUTH, second son of Edmond Earl of Lancaster, second son of Henry 111. 
of England, thus : gules, three leopards or, surmounted of a bendlet azure, as upon 
his seals, tombs, and other pieces given us by this author ; who tells us, when he 
became Earl of Lancaster, by succeeding to his elder brother Thomas, in the reigr* 



OF THE BEND. 

Edward II. lie disused the bendlet, and carried, as his father and brother, over 
the leopards, a label of three points azure, each charged with three flower-dc-li: 
'// ; and this is one of the ancientest instances, of carrying a bendlet as a mark of 
cadency in England. 

I shall add another instance of a bendlet, from Olivarius Uredus de Sigillis Comi- 
tiim 11 aiidria:, in the arms of GUIDO, second son of William Lord Dampetra, and 
his lady, Margaret Countess of Flanders, who carried the arms of Dampetra, 
leopards, bruised with a bendlet for difference, in the year 1251, which he also laid 
aside when he succeeded his elder brother William. So much then for a bendlet, 
by some English heralds called a garticr or g arter ; which is a bearing, sujs Mi- 
Holmes, of much esteem with us in England, from that renowned order of Knight- 
hood : Notwithstanding of which, in all liis numerous Collections of Blazons, he 
gives us not one where either the bendlet or garter is mentioned. 

The other sub-division of the bend is called a cost, which contained! in breadth 
the halt of the bendlet. When it is borne alone, it is always called a cost, say the 
English, but if by couples, then they are called cottises. The diminutive of the 
cost is called a ribbon, and doth contain the eighth part of the breadth of the bend ; 
the name agrees well with the form and quantity of the same, in that it is long and 
narrow, which is the right shape of a ribbon. Such an one is carried in the arms 
of ABERNETHY, or, a lion rampant gules, surmounted with a ribbon sable, quarter- 
ed in the bearings of several of our nobility, of which before. 

The French have diminutives of the bend, but bend en devise, i. e. the bendlet, 
baston, and cottise, which two last contain in breadth the third of the bend, as in 
the arms of the Duke of ORLEANS of old, azure, seme of flower-de-luces or, a cottise 
argent, fig. 13. Favin calls it -a. fillet. The baston (or batton) differs from a cottise 
thus ; when in arms, it is always a brisure, that is a mark of cadency ; if not, then 
a cottise ; as Menestrier : Cottise tst une bande diminuee, des deux tiers, quand elle est 
pour brisure, ou le nomine baston, autrement elle est cottise, to distinguish better the 
batton from the cottise : All nations make the batton coupe, that is, when its ex- 
tremities do not touch the dexter chief and sinister base points of the shield. 
The baton is made now very short by the French, who call it baton peri, and is 
always a brisure, frequently made use of by the younger sons of France, of which 
I have treated in my marks of cadency, and shall do so again in this treatise. 

Cottise comes from cost, and it from the Latin word cost a, a rib; but cottises are 
seldom or never carried, unless when a bend is betwixt two or more of them ; and 
when placed at the sides of the bend, they either immediately touch it, or are 
placed at a distance from it, with the field appearing between them, as fig. 14. 
Plate V. or, a bend -vair betwixt two cottises azure. When they touch the sides 
ot the bend, then it is said to be cottised ; and when the field and bend are both of 
colour or metal together, then the cottises are contrary of metal or colour ; and so 
placed closs to the bend, that colour touch not colour, nor metal metal ; as fig. 15. 
the arms of RUFFOLI in Florence, given us by Sylvester Petra Sancta, azure, a 
bend gules, cottised or. Here the cottises are of metal, to interpose betwixt the 
bendgutes, and the lield azure; to preserve the general rule in heraldry, that metal 
touch not, nor lie upon metal ; nor colour upon colour ; and for proof of this nice 
preservation, I shall add our author's words, who latins cottises, laciniolte, or fim- 
britr: " Et si tainen raro baltei ex uno colore astringunt alterius coloris parnvilu, 
' symbolicas, uti puniceas balteus in sapharini coloris alveolo, quando id contingit, 
' tamen ne color sit supra colorem, lacmiolis, tune, ex mctallo, iidem baltei colorati 
' muniuntur." In this case the bend is necessarily cottised and fimbrated as 
the cross ; of which afterward . 

I have seen the arms of Doctor JOHN TIIXOTSON, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
on the frontispiece of his works, impaled with those of his episcopal see, his pater- 
nal coat, being azure, a b-^nd of the same, cottised argent between two garbs of 
the last. If the cottises had not been too small, the blazon might have been tuurc, 
a bend argent, voided of the field. 

I have not found a bend so necessarily cottised with us, as that of Ruffoli 
above. As for that of Whiteford's, given us by Sir George Mackenzie, of a bend 
cottised, where there is no necessity for it (because the bend is of colour upon 
metal, viz. argent, a bend cottised sabk, betwixt two garbs gules} it would have 

7, 



9 o OF THE BEND. 

been more heraldriack, if the bend had been betwixt two cottises, the field apr 
ing betuixt them and the bend, than to join the cotttises close to the benu 
the same blazon is given to the arms of Colonel WALTER WIUTEFORD, in the Lyon 
Register. But it may be imputed to a mistake in the engraver, or in the bla;/. 
in not distinguishing a bend betwixt cottises, from a bend cottised. 

As for the antiquity of the surname of Whiteford, we find one Walter White- 
ford, for his good services at the battle of Largs, against the Norwegians, in the 
year 1263, to have got some lands in Renfrew, from Walter Lord High Steward 
of Scotland, which he called after his own name ; from him rose the family of 
WHITEFORD of that Ilk, and from it Whiteford of Milton, and Whiteford of Bal- 
quhan, who has but one garb accompanying the bend. 

When the cottises touch not the sides of the bend, the field appearing between 
them and the bend, as the endorses stand with the pale, of which before, then the 
bend is blazoned, between two cottises ; for examples, I shall mention these. 

HUMPHRY DE BOHUN Earl of HEREFORD, who married Elizabeth, daughter to 
Edward I. of England, carried, as Sandford gives us, azure, a bend argent, between 
two cottises, and six lions rampant or. This family ended in two heirs-female, the 
eldest, Eleanor, was married to Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester ; and, 
the other, Mary de Bohun, was wife to Henry of Bolingbroke Earl of Derby ; and 
in her right, was created Duke of Hereford, and afterwards became King of Eng- 
land, by the name of Henry IV. 

These cottises we are speaking of are subject to accidental forms, as well as the 
bend, of which I shall give one instance, as fig. 16. the arms of the surname of 
HONYMAN, with us, argent, three bendlets, each of them between two cottises in- 
grailed, on the outer side gules. 

When the field contains more than one bend, then they are not called bends, 
but bendlets; though all partitions of fields that way, are termed bendy, if there be 
never so many pieces of them. 

Fig. 17. Plate V. Argent, three bendlets sable, by the name of SANDERSON, as 
in Font's Manuscript, though others make them gules. 

In England the name of TRACY, or, two bendlets gules ; and there also the name 
BRANTWART, or, two bendlets ingrailed sable ; the bendlets are subject to all the 
abovementioned accidental forms, as well as the bend. 

As for example, the bearing of BYRON Lord BYRON of Rochdale, by letters 
patent, the 4th of October 1643, given us by the English heralds, and blazoned thus ; 
argent, three bendlets enhanced gules; the term enhanced, I never met with before 
in any blazon, neither do I apprehend the import of it. The three bendlets are 
on the sinister side of the shield, which may be more distinctly blazoned parted 
per bend dexter: First, bendy of six pieces, gules and argent; second, of the last, 
as Jacob Imhoff, in his Blazonia Regum Pariumque Magnte Britannia, " Insignia 
" Byronorum scuto constant oblique dextrorsum secto, cujus superior ( regio fasciis 
" transversis rubeis argenteisque distincta est, inferior tota candet :" Here this 
author, for bends, or bendlets, has fasciis transversis. 

When the field is filled with such pieces, and of an even number, alternately of 
metal and colour, heralds say then bendy of so many pieces, as in the Blazon of 
the arms of BURGUNDY ANCIENT, fig. 18. Plate V. bendy of six, or and azure: The 
French, bande d'or et d'azur, and the Latins, as Chiffletius, blazon these arms 
thus, scutum sexies, auro y cyano oblique dextrorsus fatiscatum; so that we say 
bendy, as before we said paly, barry of eight, ten, or twelve pieces. If they be of 
the number twelve or more, they say then twelve pieces, bend-ways ; and the 
French would say, instead of bande, cottise ; as in the Blazon of the Arms of 
ANOIS in France, cottise d 1 argent, y d'azur de dix pieces, i. e. bendy of ten pieces, 
argent and azure. 

As I said before of the pales and fesses, when opposite to one another in metal 
and colour, the same is said of bendy and cottise, according to their number, as 
fig. 19. Plate V. The arms of GONTIN in France, given us by Monsieur Baron, 
contre-bande de sable & d 'argent, de quatorze pieces, i. e. fourteen pieces bend- 
ways, counter-changed per bend sinister, sable and argent. Sylvester Petra Sancta, 
speaking of such another bearing, says, " Si exiliores baltei reciprocant jubar 
" coloris ac metalli, ut baltei sex semi-argentei ac semi-punicei in uno atque 



OF THE BEND. 9 t 

" eodem contextu arc* symbolical, qiuc cst tessera gentiKtia DAMUGLIAK F.VMILIAE 
" cum Venetiis," which \vi;h us would be blazoned, bendy of six, argent and 
azure, counter-changed per bend sinister, and by the French, contre-bande if argent 
\3 d'azur de douze pieces. 

When bendlets are placed two and two together, they are with us called bendlets 
gemels, as before of the bars gemels, and by the French, jumclles* the Latins 
gernini. 

Having treated of the bend in all its common variations, and as we blazon a 
bend, on a bend, or bend charged, bend between, or accompagne, or aAoye of figure*., 
bend cottised, bendlets and cottises, it follows now to treat of figures, natural and 
artificial, which are situate after the position of the benu, for which we say /'// bend, 
and bend-ways, as of the former ordinaries. The first respects the situation of 
small figures, the one above the other in bend ; and the .second respects the 
position of an oblong figure, after that of the bend ; for an example of the first, 
fig. 20. Plate V. argent, three martlets in bend between two cottises sable, carried 
by the name of NORVILLE, as in Font's MS. Some of this name carry sable, on a 
bend between two cottises or, three martlets of the first, by NORVILLE of Boghall, 
and for crest, a martlet rising, proper : motto, Spem renovant alee. N. R. 

Sable, three lions passant in bend, between two double cottises argent, borne by 
BROWN Viscount MONTAGUE ; which family was dignified with the title of Vis- 
count, by Philip and Mary of England, in the year 1554. 

As for example of an oblong figure, placed bend-ways, I shall add the arms of 
the surname of SYMINGTON, with us. 

Fig. 21. Plate V. Gules, a two handed sword bend- ways between two mullets or, 
as in Mr Font's MS. and in Esplin the same, but with one star in chief. 

I proceed now to give blazons of families with us, and in England, with all 
the variations of the bend that I have treated of : And first of examples of a 
bend. 

BIZZET, or BISSET of that Ilk, of old, azure, a bend argent : As in Sir James 
Balfour's MS. 

This surname is said to be old with us, being in the reign of Malcolm III. as. 
Hector Boece, in his History. In a charter of King Alexander III. to the abbacy 
of Paisley, Walter Bisset is a witness ; and he again with William Bisset are wit- 
nesses in another charter of that king's to the abbacy of Dunfermline. In the 
reign of King Alexander III. Sir John Bisset of Lovat, mortifies an annuity out of 
his lands to the Bishop of Murray ; he died without heirs-male, and left his estate 
to his three daughters, the eldest was marrid to David de Graham, afterwards de- 
signed of Lovat, as in an agreement betwixt him and the Bishop of Murray, re- 
lating to the fishing in the water of Torn ; the second daughter was married to 
Sir William Fenton of Beaufort ; and the third to Sir Andrew de Bosco, (Had. 
Coll.) in anno 1292. Amongst the barons convened at Berwick, upon the desire 
of King Edward of England, he was chosen arbitrator between the competitors 
for the crown of Scotland ; there is one William de Bisset (says Sir George Mac- 
kenzie in his Manuscript) upon whose seal the bend is surmounted with a label 
of five points. 

In our old books of blazons, BISS*ET of Beaufort carried azure, a bend argent, as 
in W. MS. and in B. MS. azure, a bend sinister argent. 

BISSET of Fairnyflcet, and BISSET of Lessendrum, carried of old, azure on a 
bend argent, three mullets gules, for difference : But now BISSET of Lessendrum, 
as chief, carries the plain coat, viz. azure, a bend argent, as matriculated in the 
Lyon-Oftice. And there WILLIAM BISSET, Merchant in Aberdeen, azure, on a 
bend argent, three mullets gules. 

These of the name of BISSET in England, as I have observed, carry for arms, 
azure, seme of besants or. 

The surname of VASS, or VAUSS with us, argent, a bend gules : This surname, 
says Sir James Dalrymple in his Collections, is the same with the name De Valli- 
bus, in the charters of Malcolm IV. James and Alexander de Vallibus were lairds 
of Dirleton, in the reigns of Alexanders II. and III. of them were descended VASS 
Lord DIRLETON, who carried the foresaid aims, which were quartered afterwards. 



9 .2 OF THE BEND. 

upon account of a maternal descent, by Halyburton Lord Dirleton, and after that 
by Hepburn Earl of Bothwell. 

VANS of Barnbaroch, argent, on a bend gules, a star or. This family lived in 
the shire of Wigton. P. MS. 

FENTON of that Hk, gules, a bend ingrailed argent. In the reign of Alex- 
ander III. lived Sir William Fenton Lord Beaufort, who was one of the auditors, 
at Berwick, of the claims of the Bruce and Baliol ; and on his seal of arms, used 
on that occasion, there was a shield charged 'with a bend ingrailed, and a mullet 
in chief. It was he, or his son Sir William, that married Cecilia Bisset, one of 
the co-heiresses of Sir William Bisset of Lovat, whose successors were known by 
the title of Lord FENTON ; in tbe registers, there is a contract betwixt two mighty 
lords, William Fenton, Lord of Fenton, and Hutcheon Fraser, Lord Lovat, and his 
wife Janet Fenton, daughter to the said Lord William, the i6th September 1430. 
This family ended in an heiress, who was married to WHITELAW of that Ilk. 

FENTON of Baiky, argent, three crescents gules. William Fenton Lord Baiky 
is so designed in a perambulation with Alexander Ogilvie, sheriff of Angus 1410 : 
And in a contract betwixt Thomas Dunbar Earl of Murray, and Henry Fraser 
Lord Lovat, the Earl gives to the Lord Lovat the barony of Abertauch, with the 
ward and relief of William Fenton Lord Baiky. Haddington's Collections from 
the Registers. 

FENTON of Ogile, FENTON of Garden, and FENTON of Kelly, were cadets of 
Fenton of Baiky, as by their arms in our old registers, being argent, three crescents 



SANDILANDS Lord TORPHICHEN, quarterly, i and 4, parted perfesse, azure and or; 
on the first, an imperial crown, proper ; and on the second, a thistle vert, as a 
coat of augmentation ; 2 and 3, grand quarter, quarterly i and 4, argent, a bend 
azure, the paternal bearing of the name of Sandilands ; 2 and 3, the arms of 
Douglas as arms of patronage, as some will, viz. argent, a man's heart ensigned 
with an imperial crown, proper ; and, on a chief azure, three stars of the first. 
Which shield of arms is supported by two savages, wreathed about the head and 
middle with laurel, holding in their hands battons, all proper ; and for crest, an 
eagle displayed or ; with the motto, Spero meliora; as in the Plate of Achievements 
of the Nobility. 

The name of SANDILANDS is very ancient with us, being barons of Sandilands 
and of Wiston in the Upper Ward of Clydesdale. Sir James Sandilands, Baron of 
Sandilands and Wiston, in the reign of King DAVID BRUCE, married Eleanora 
Bruce, the only daughter of Alexander Bruce Earl of Carrick, son to Edwaid 
Bruce King of Ireland, brother-german to Robert Bruce King of Scotland ; and 
uterine sister to William Earl of Douglas, who, upon account of that marriage, 
gave to the said Sir James Sandilands the barony of West-Calder, called Calder 
Comitis. Sir James Sandilands of Calder married Jean, second daughter to King 
Robert II. and his first wife Elizabeth Mure, relict of Sir John Lyon of Glammis 
and Kinghorn, Chancellor of Scotland, for which there is a charter (in Rotulis Ro- 
berti II. J of the lands of Slamannan, and others, " Jacobo Sandilands militi & haere- 
" dibus inter ipsum &- Joannam filiam nostram procreandis quam Deo duce duxit 
" in uxorem." Sir Alexander Sandilands of Calder, gave a charter of the lands of 
Meikle-Harwood, and Little-Harwood, in the barony of Calder, to his eldest son 
and apparent heir Sir James Sandilands, and to his wife Margaret in liferent, in 
the year 1466 ; to which Sir Alexander's seal of arms was appended, having a 
shield coiiche, with two coats quarterly first and fourth, a bend for Sandilands 
second and third, a man's heart, and on chief three stars for Douglas : Which 
shield is timbrcd with a helmet, and thereupon for crest, the head and neck of 
a horse, and having only one supporter on the left, viz. a lady holding the helmet 
and crest, which I did see in the custody of Mr Crawfurd, Author of the Peerage, 
where there is a more particular account of this noble family, whose successors 
have been barons of very great respect in the kingdom, and many goo'd families 
of that name have been descended of them, as Sir James Sandilands Lord of St 
John, Great Prior of the Knights of Rhodes in the Kingdom of Scotland, and 
others. I have seen a charter amongst our archives in the Parliament House, 
granted by James Lord St John, Preceptor of Torphichen, Knight of the Order of 



OF THE BEND: 

Jerusalem, to Gavin Dundas of Brestmill, of all and haill the lands of Brcstmill 
und the haul thidagc of the barony of Auldliston, in the sherifl'dom of Linlithgow, 
dated at Edinburgh, the last of February 1538. The seal thereto appended had 
the impression of a man in complete, armour, holding in his left hand a cr 
standing on a pedestal, whereon was a shield of arms, quarterly first and fourth 
bend for Sandilands, second and third Douglas. This Sir James Lord St John, in 
the year 1559, was sent ambassador by the Parliament of Scotland to the Kins: 
France, and to Francis and Mary of Scotland, Dauphins of Vienne : This Sir 
James became protestant, was created Lord Torphichen by Queen Mary 1563, 
und allowed to have alTthe dignities and privileges belonging to the Lord St John . 
and, after that, he quartered another coat, which some call the arm.-> of the Lord 
St John, which, as 1 have shown, was not on the seal of arms of James Lord S: 
John, so th..t I take it for a coat of concession, by way of augmentation, being the 
imperial crown and thistle, quartered in the first and fourth places, as above. Sir 
James Lord Torphichen, for want of heirs-male of his body, his fortune and 
honours came to his chief the Baron of Calder, his cousin, whose successors enjoy 
the same with the above achievement, sometimes supported with lions. 

Sir JAMES SANDILANDS of St Monans, descended of the family of Torphichen, 
was created by King Charles I. in consideration of his good services, Lord ABER- 
CR.OMBY, by letters patent, bearing date the i2th of December 1647. He had a 
son by his lady, Anne Carnegie, daughter of David Earl of Southesk ; which son, 
James, dying without succession, that dignity became extinct : They carried two 
coats quarterly, first and fourth urgent, a bend azure for Sandilands, second and 
third, the arms of Douglas, as before. 

WILLIAM SANDILANDS of Comiston, as second son of the Lord Torphichen, car- 
ried as the Lord Torphichen (except the supporters) with a crescent for a brother- 
ly difference, as in the Lyon Register. And there also are these three following 
blazons : 

Mr JAMES SANDILANDS of Craibston, quarterly, first and fourth argent, a bend 
counter-embattled azure, the paternal coat of Sandilands, differenced from the 
chief bearing ; second and third argent, a man's heart gules, and, on a chief azure, 
three mullets of the field for Douglas ; crest, a star issuing out of a crescent argent ; 
with the motto, Jitsti ut sidera fulgent. 

WALTER SANDILANDS of Hilderston, a second son of Torphichen, quarterly, 
first argent, on a chief azure, an imperial crown or, crowning a thistle in base vert, 
rlowered gules; second, quarterly, first and fourth argent, a bend azure, second and 
third argent, a heart gules, crowned or, and, on a chief azure, three mullets of the 
field ; third quarter, argen-:, a shake-fork sable, for Cunningham, and the fourth 
quarter as the first ; crest, an eagle volant, proper : motto, Victoria non prada. 

JAMES SANDILANDS, Merchant in Rotterdam, quarterly, first and fourth argent, 
u bend azune for Sandilands ; second and third argent, a man's heart crowned, 
proper, on a chief azure, three mullets of the field for Douglas, all within a bor- 
dure waved gules, for his difference ; crest, a palm tree, proper. 

ALEXANDER SAXDILANDS, one of the Magistrates of Edinburgh, in the year 1660, 
whose father and grandfather were eminent merchants in that city, descended of 
the Sandilands in Clydesdale, carried the arms of Sandilands and Douglas quarterly, 
with a suitable difference ; for crest, an eagle displayed. He married Agnes, 
daughter to Robert Sandilands, dean of guild of Edinburgh, who bore to him seve- 
ral children ; William, who died unmarried ; Mr Robert Sandilands present mini- 
ster of the gospel in Edinburgh, who has issue by his wife, a daughter of Carse of 
Cockpen ; and Alexander Sandilands, who left issue. Their grandfather, by the 
mother's side, the above Robert, dean of guild, was a younger son of Gavin Saudi- 
lands of Lumford in West-Lothian, and his lady, Mary, daughter of Robert 
Wauchope of Niddry, descended of Sandilands of Middleridge, descended of Sandi- 
lands of that Ilk, and of Wiston in Upper-Clydesdale, as by a Genealogical Ac- 
count of the Family which I have seen. 

The surname of DAMILSTON, argent, a bend sable, as in Sir James Balfour's 
Blazons : Robert Damilston obtains a charter from King David II. of the lands of 
Crapwood in Lennoxshire, which had fallen into the king's hands by the forfeiture 
of one of the name of Horsley. 

Aa 



< M OF THE BEND. 

The name ot' WALLOP with us, argent, a bend waved sable , and the same carried 
by WALLOP of Forleigh- Wallop, Esq. in Hampshire in England. 

GAMMEL of Clerkinshiels, g ules, a bend ingruiled argent, as in Font's Manuscript. 
And there also is 

M'GACHEN of Tulliquhat, or, a bend g ulcs . 

The bend is carried, says Lasius, by the best families in Europe, as a mark of 
dignity and honourable employment, as in the armorial ensigns of the LANDGRAVES 
of ALSATIA, gules, a bend ingrailed between six crowns or ; to show that the Lords 
of that family had been Majors of the French King's palace. And the house of 
HENEN, famous in Picardy and Hainault for being descended from the Landgraves 
of Alsatia, carry gyles, a bend argent. 

The house of CHALON, gules, a bend or, quartered with the arms of the princi- 
pality of Orange, or, a hunting-horn azure, virolled and stringed gules. 

RADCLIFFE Earl of DERWENTWATER, descended of Sir Thomas Radcliffe, eminent in 
the reign of Henry V. whose second son, John, married the heir-general of the an- 
cient family of Derwentwater in Cumberland, of whom was descended Sir Edward 
Radcliffe of Derwentwater, who was created a Baronet the lyth of James I. 1619. 
His son and heir, Sir Francis Radcliffe, was created Earl of Derwentwater, Viscount 
Radcliffe and Langley in Cumberland, and Baron Radcliffe of Tindale, by letters 
patent dated the yth of March 1688. He died anno 1697, and was succeeded by 
his son Francis Earl of Derwentwater, who married, in his father's lifetime, Mary 
Tudor, natural daughter -to King Charles II. by whom he had James Earl of Der- 
wentwater ; the paternal bearing of his family is, argent, a bend ingrailed sable. 

WIDDRIXGTON Lord WIDDRINGTON, an ancient family in the county of Nor- 
thumberland, of whom was descended Sir William Widdrington, who was created 
baronet by King Charles I. and having distinguished himself by singular services 
to that king, in the time of the grand rebellion, for his good service was created ;t 
peer of that realm 1643, by the title of Baron Widdrington, and carried for arms, 
quarterly, argent and gules, a bend sable. 

The name of KENDAL in England, argent, a bend vert. 

The name of CLARKE there, or, a bend ingrailed azure. 

The name of MARSHALL there, gules, a bend ingrailed or. 

To follow my former method, I shall add here examples of bearing of a bend 
charged with figures. 

LESLIE Earl of Ross, a branch of the House of Leslie, carried the arms of Leslie 
as before, argent, on a bend azure, three buckles or. Afterwards Sir Walter Leslie, 
finno 1366, married Eupham Ross, eldest daughter and co-heiress of William Earl 
of Ross, and, in her right, was Earl of Ross, and carried quarterly, first and fourth 
gules, three lions rampant argent, for the earldom of Ross ; second and third, 
Leslie, as in Sir James Balfour's Books of Blazons. 

I have seen two different seals of arms of this Earl's ; the first was appended to a 
charter of his, to Alexander Fraser of Philorth, of the date 1375, upon which was 
an eagle displayed, hoMing before him, on his breast and wings, three shields fesse- 
ways ; that in the middle was charged with three lions rampant, for Ross ; that on 
the right hand had a bend charged with three buckles, for Leslie ; and the other, on 
the left hand, had three garbs, for Cumin : And, within three years after, he 
had another seal, quartered Ross with Leslie, as above blazoned. His lady bore to 
him a son and a daughter ; the daughter, Eupham Leslie, who was married to Do- 
nald of the Isles : The son, Alexander, was Earl of Ross, and married Isabel 
Stewart, daughter to Robert Duke of Albany, and with her had only one daughter 
who was unfit for marriage. After the death of Alexander Earl of Ross, her fa- 
ther, she, by persuasion of her grandfather, Robert Duke of Albany, resigned her 
right of the Earldom of Ross in favours of her uncle John Earl of Buchan, young- 
er son of the Duke of Albany : But Donald, who married Eupham Leslie, Earl 
Alexander's sister, in her right, claimed and took possession of the Earldom of 
Ross ; which occasioned the battle of Hairlaw. 

LESLIE of that Ilk, an ancient family in Garioch, argent, on a bend azure, three 
buckles or, within a double tressure flowered and counter-flowered gules ; crest, a 
gr. (fin's head ; supporters, two griffins, all proper ; with motto, Grip fast. As in 
Mr. Pout's Manuscript. 



OF THE BEND. 05 

ALEXANBER LESLIE of Balquhain, argent, on a fesse azure, three buckle 
crest, a griffin's head erased, proper : motto, Grip fast. L. K. 

The first of this family was George, second son to Andrew dc Leslie, one of the 
progenitors of the Earl of Rothes, and his spouse Elisabeth, daughter to James 
Lord Douglas, in the reign of Robert the Bruce. He got from his father the lands 
of Balquhain, and married a daughter of Keith of Invcrugy. Sir William Leslie of 
Balquhain, lineally descended o him, was made a knight at the coronation of K 
Charles I. and married Elisabeth Eraser, daughter to Lovat ; she bore Alexander, 
of whom the lairds of Balquhain, and William Leslie, the first of the House of Kin- 
craigie, who carried argent, on a fesse.between.two cross croslets fitchcd azure, three 
buckles or; crest, a griffin's head couped, proper, charged with a cross cro 
fitched argent ; motto, Firma spe. 

ALEXANDER LESLIE of Wardis, a younger son of William Leslie of Kincraigie. 
by his wife Agnes Irving, daughter to the laird of Drum, argent, on a bend ayutf, 
betwixt two holly leaves vert, (his maternal- figures) three buckles or : So matri- 
culated in the Lyon Office. 

BALQUHAIN carries a fesse and not a bend, notwithstanding of which all the ca- 
dets of the family do not so. For, to change a fesse to a bend, and a bend to a 
fesse, has been an old practice of differencing younger sons with us, not only by 
this family, but by Stewarts Earls, of Monteith, of whom before, as also Scott of 
Bevelaw. 

DAVID LESLIE, first laird of Pitcaple, was the eldest son of a second marriage of 
William Leslie, first laird of Kincraigie, and his wife Eupham Lindsay, daughter 
to William Lindsay of Cairny, and carried argent, on a bend azure, betwixt two 
mullets gules, three buckles or ; as in Font's Manuscript. 

GEORGE LESLIE, sometime Bailie in Aberdeen, descended of a younger son of 
Wardis, argent, on a bend embattled azure, three buckles or : motto, Deus provi- 
dcbit. So matriculated in the Lyon Register; as also the following blazons of the 
name of Leslie i 

JOHN LESLIE of Colpnayshiels, descended of the family of Balquhain, argent, on a 
bend azure, three buckles or, within a bordure invected of the second, and charged 
with eight crescents of the first ; crest, a buckle issuing out of a crescent argent : 
motto, Conamine augeor. And JOHN LESLIE of Kininvie, another cadet of Balquhain, 
carries the same, but has his bordure indented, and not charged : motto, $>u<v 
juncta firnifi. 

WALTER. LESLIE of Tulloch turns his bend to a fesse, with buckles as the rest, 
as descended of Balquhain ; and accompanies it with three flower-de-luces azure ; 
crest, an eagle's neck, with two heads erased sable : motto, Hold fast. 

ROBERT LESLIE of Torry, a second son of the family of EindraSsie, descended of 
Rothes, carries the quartered coat of Rothes, within a bordure indented, and part- 
ed per pale, azure and argent; crest, a buckle or: motto, Hold fast. N. R. 

LESLIE Lord LINDORES, quarterly, first and fourth Leslie, second and third Aber- 
nethy, and, by way of smtout, an escutcheon gules, charged with a castle triple 
towered argent, and massoned sable, for the title of Lindores ; supporters, two 
griffins argent, armed gules ; crest, a demi-angel with wings or, holding in the 
right hand two greyhounds' heads erased, proper ; with the motto, Stat promissa 
fides. The first of this family was Sir Patrick Leslie, second son to Andrew fifth 
Earl of Rothes, and his lady Isabel Hamilton, daughter to Andrew Lord Evandale : 
Sir Patrick Leslie was created a lord of Parliament, by the title of Lord Lindores, 
by King James VI. the 25th of December 1600, of whom is lineally descended 
the present Lord Lindores. 

DAVID LESLIE Lord NEWARK, was a younger son of Patrick first Lord Lindores, 
who served in the wars abroad under Gustavus Adolphus, and afterwards at home 
under King Charles II. in the quality of lieutenant-general ; and, upon that king's 
restoration, was created Lord Newark, and carried for arms as the Lord Lindore?, 
with a crescent for difference. Upon the death of his son and successor without 
heirs-male, Dame JEAN LESLIE, his grandchild, present Baroness of Newark, did 
succeed to the dignity and honours.; of which family more afterwards, when I 
come to towers and castles. She is married to Sir ALEXANDER ANSTRUTHER, a son 



9 6. Oi THE BEND.. 

of Sir PHILIP ANSTKUHER of that Ilk. See the arms of Lord Newark quartered, 
with those of Anstruther, in the Plate of Achievements. 

LESLIE Earl of LEVEN, quarterly, first and fourth azure, a thistle, proper, ensign- 
ed with an imperial crown or, as a coat of concession ; second and third argent, 
on a bend azure, three buckles or, for Leslie ; crest, a man in armour holding a. 
sword, all proper, and other two for supporters after the same fashion, sometimes 
represented with colours over their shoulders ; with the motto, Pro rege ^ patria. 

The first raiser of this family was one David Leslie, who served under Gustavus 
Aclolphus, and became rich by the industry of his wife Anne Renton, said to be of 
the family of Renton of Billy, in the shire of Berwick. On his return to Scotland, 
he was by King Charles I. the nth of October 1641, created Lord Balgonie and 
Earl of Leven : He had, by his wife a son, Alexander Leslie Lord Balgonie, who 
;narried Margaret Leslie, daughter to John sixth Earl of Rothes, and with her had 
a son, Alexander, who outlived his father and grandfather, and was Earl of Leven ; 
:tnd a daughter, Katharine, married to the Lord Melville, afterwards Earl of Mel- 
ville. Alexander Earl of Leven, married a daughter of Howard Earl of Carlisle, 
and died without issue. David Melville, son of the Earl of Melville, and his lady 
Katharine Leslie, sister to Alexander the last Earl of Leven, in right of his mother, 
and taking upon him the name and arms of Leslie, is Earl of Leven, and carries 
the above achievement : He married Lady Jean Wemyss, sister to the present Earl 
of Wemyss, and has issue. 

GEORGE LESLIE of Findrassie, quarterly, as the Earl of. Rotlies, within a bordure 
,:bcque gules and or ; crest, a buckle argent : mptto, Firma durant. L. R-. 

THOMAS LESLIE of Oustons, son of David Leslie, who was eldest son to William 
Leslie of Lady wall, argent, on a bend azure, between three oaken branches slipped 
vert, acorned, proper, as many buckles or; crest, a hand holding a writing pen, 
proper : motto, Soli Deo Gloria. Lyon Register. 

NORMAN LESLIE, sometime Dean of Guild of Aberdeen, argent, a pair of wings 
conjoined, proper, surmounted of a fesse azure, charged with three buckles or : 
motto, God guide all. Lyon Register. 

WILLIAM LESLIE of Burdsbank, whose grandfather was a son of the family of 
Rothes, carries the quartered coat of the Earl of Rothes, within a bordure parted 
per pale cheque and counter-componed, gules and or ; crest, a buckle or : motto, 
Keep fast. Lyon Register. 

Mr JAMES LESLIE, Advocate, second son to George Leslie, sometime provost of 
Aberdeen, and descended of the family of Balquhan, argent, on a fesse azure, three 
buckles or, within a bordure of the second, charged with as many stars of the first ; 
crest, a griffin, proper, winged or, and holding in the dexter talon a buckle of the 
last : motto, Probitas & fir mil as. Lyon Register. 

Sir WILLIAM SCOTT of Thirlestane, Baronet, or, a bend azure, charged with u 
mullet pierced, betwixt two crescents of the first, within a double tressure flower- 
ed and counter-flowered of the second ; which arms are timbred with helmet and 
mantlings befitting his quality, and upon a wreath of his tinctures ; for crest, a 
mural crown, and issuing thereout, six horsemen's lances or spears, with pennons 
thereat, three and three, disposed in saltier ; supporters, two men in coats of mail, 
with steel caps, holding in their hand, each of them, a spear with pennons, all pro- 
per ; and for motto, Ready, ny ready : As in the Plate of Achievements. 

This family was anciently designed of Eskdale, alias Houpayslay, as by the 
genealogical account of the family. Arthur Scott of Eskdale, father of Robert 
Scott of Eskdale, alias Houpayslay, who was warden of the West Border, and great 
grandfather of Robert Scott of Houpayslay, the first of the family that took the 
designation of Thirlestane. Which last mentioned Robert of Thirlestane married 
a daughter of Johnston of that Ilk ; which family is now honoured with the title 
of Marquis of Annandale. 

JOHN SCOTT of Thirlestane, their son, a gentleman of entire loyalty, for his ready 
Cervices to his sovereign James V. was honoured by that king, as a special con- 
cession of his favour, with a part of the royal ensign and other suitable figures, to 
adorn his armorial bearing, under his majesty's hand, and the subscription of 
Sir Thomas Erskine of Brechin, secretary, as follows : 



OF THE BEND. 

" JAMES REX, 

WE James by the Grace of God King of Scots, considerand the faith and 
good servis of right traist friend, JOHN SCOTT of Thirlest'iine, quha com- 
mand to our host at Suutra Edge, with threescore and ten launciers on ;ck, 
of his friends and followers. And hearid willing to gang with us into England, 
when all our nobles and others refused, he was ready to stake all at our bidding ; 
for the which cause, it is our will . And we do strictly command and charge our 
Lion Herauld and his deputis for the time beand, to give and to grant to the said 
John Scott, an border of tlower-de-lis-es, about his coat of arms, sick as in our 
royal banner, and alseswae an bundle of launces above his helmet, with thir word-,, 
Readdy, ay readily; that he and all his aftercummers may bruck the samen, a 
pledge and taiken of our good-will and kindness for his trew worthiness. And thir 
our letters seen, ye naeways failzie to do. Given at Falamuire, under our hand 
and privy casket, the zyth day of July, 1542 years. 

By the King's special ordinance, 

THOMAS ARESKINE." 

ROBERT SCOTT of Thirlestane, eldest son of the above John Scott of Thirle- 
stane, was warden-depute of the West Border, and married Margaret Scott, sister 
to the first Lord Buccleugh, and with her had two sons. The eldest sou, Sir 
Robert Scott of Thirlestane ; the second son, Walter Scott, father of Patrick Scott 
of Thirlestane, who married Isabel, daughter to Sir John Murray of Blackbarony ; 
and by her had several children. 

Their eldest son and successor, Sir FRANCIS SCOTT of Thirlestane, Knight and 
Baronet, being first made a Knight, and after honoured with the dignity of 
baronet in the year 1666, he married Lady Henrietta Ker, daughter to William 
Earl of Lothian. 

Their son and successor Sir WILLIAM SCOTT of Thirlestane, Baronet, married 
first Elizabeth Napier, daughter to the Lady Napier, mother, by him, of the 
present Francis Lord Napier : Secondly, Sir William married Dame Jean Nisbet, 
only daughter of Sir John Nisbet of Dirleton, and widow of Sir William Scott of 
Harden ; she died without issue. 

Sir WILLIAM SCOTT of Harden, as descended of Buccleugh, carried or, on a bend 
azure, a star of six points, betwixt two crescents of the field, and, in the sinister 
chief point, a rose gules, stalked and barbed vert, for a difference ; but of late, as 
descended of Scott of Sinton, he carries or, two mullets in chief, and a crescent 
in base azure ; supporters, two mermaids, proper, holding mirrors in their hands ; 
and for crest, a lady richly attired, holding in her right hand the sun, and in the 
left, a half moon ; with the motto, Reparabit cornua Phabe, as in the Plate of 
Ac hievements. 

SCOTT of Highchester, eldest son of the Earl of Tarras, as descended of a second 
son of Harden, carries the first arms of Harden, and surmounts the rose, with a 
crescent ; crest, a stag tripping armed with ten tynes, all proper : motto, Pacein 
amrj. So matriculated iu the Lyon Register, with the following blazons. 

SCOTT of Thirleton carries the same coat of Harden, and charges the rose with 
a martlet ; with the crcit, and motto, as Highchester. 

SCOTT of Whiteslide, as descended of Sinton, or on a bend azure, a star betwixt 
two crescents of the first, and in chief, a broken lance, gules ; cre>t, a hand is- 
suing ovit of the torce, holding a broken spear as the former : motto, slmore 
patri(. 

HUGH SCOTT of Galashiels, as descended of Harden, Harden'.-, first arms, with- 
in a bordure sable, charged with six escalops argent ; crest, a lady from the waist 
richly attired, holding in her dexter hand, a rose proper : motto, Prudcntcr f/mo, 
as in the Plate of Achievements. 

WALTKR SCOTT of Raeburn, a third son of Harden, carries as Harden, with a 
suitable difference. 

SCOTT of Wool, the same with Harden, but surmounts the rose, with an an- 
nulet. 

SCOTT of Scotstarvet carries as Buccleugh, within a bordure ingrailed gules ; 
crest, a right hand holding an annulet, and therein a carbuncle proper ; with the 

BB 



^8 OF THE BEND. 

motto, In tencbiis lux. SCOTT of Letham, a younger son of that family, carries the: 
same, with a mullet for difference ; and Mr GEORGE SCOTT, sometime Stewart of 
Orkney, another cadet of Scotstarvet, carries the arms of that* family, quartered 
with azure, three boars heads couped, within a bordure indented or, for Gordon of 
Cluny ; crest, a boar's head couped or, holding in his mouth four arrows gules, 
feathered and headed argent : motto, Do well and let them say. 

WALTER SCOTT of Harwood, or, an oak tree vert, surmounted of a bend azure, 
charged with a star betwixt two crescents of the field ; crest, a stag's head erased 
proper : motto, Ardenter amo. Here the tree is assumed as relative to the designa- 
tion of the family of Harwood, of which t^here were several brothers, as Francis 
Scott of Greenhill, whose eldest son Robert is a Lieutenant in the Gray Regiment 
of Dragoons ; and Gideon Scott of Falnash, another brother of Harvvood, who 
carries as Harwood, with their suitable differences. See Harwood's arms in the 
Plate of Achievements. 

JOHN SCOTT of Malleny, son and representative of Sir William Scott of Clerking- 
ton, sometime one of the Senators of the College of Justice, the arms of Buccleugh ; 
and for difference, in base, an arrow bend-ways proper, feathered and barbed 
argent ; crest, a stag lodged proper : motto, Amo prohos. 

WILLIAM SCOTT of Balmouth or, a bend azure between three crescents of the 
last, within a bordure ingrailed, and quartered gules and argent, crest, a star or : 
motto, Lucet. 

ADAM SCOTT of Hassenden, or, on a bend azure, a star of six points between 
two crescents argent ; and in base, a bow and arrow of the second ; crest, a hand 
erect, holding a pole-axe proper : motto, Trusty and true. 

FRANCIS SCOTT of Gorrenberry, the same with Buccleugh, within a bordure 
gobonatedi gules and argent ; crest, an anchor in pale, inwrapt with a cable pro- 
per : motto, Speranditm. 

Mr LAURENCE SCOTT of Bevelaw, or, on a fess azure, instead of a bend, a star 
of six points between two crescents of the field ; crest, a dexter hand holding u 
scroll of paper. 

JAMES SCOTT of Vogrie, son of Mr Robert Scott, one of the clerks of tlie chan- 
cery, a younger son of Scotstarvet, or, on a bend azure, a star between two cres- 
cents of the field, all within a bordure parted per pale, gules and azure, the dex- 
ter side ingrailed, and the sinister indented ; crest, a dexter hand holding a ring 
proper: motto, Ne sc it amor fine s. 

THOMAS SCOTT of Todrick, a second brother of Whiteslide or, on a bend azure, 
a star between two crescents of the field, and in chief, a broken lance gules, with 
a crescent for difference ; crest, the head of a lance proper : motto, Pro aris 
'^ focis. 

Mr GEORGE SCOTT of Bunraw, representative of the fairjily of Sinton, or, two 
mullets in chief, and a crescent in base azure ; crest, a nymph, in her dexter 
hand the sun, and in her sinister the moon, all proper : motto, Reparabit cornua 
Pbcebe. 

WILLIAM SCOTT, a second son to the deceast Mr Laurence Scott of Bevelaw, or, 
on a fesse azure, a star of six rays between two crescents of the field, all within a 
bordure componed of the second and first ; crest, a star of six points proper : 
motto, Potior origine virtus. 

GEORGE SCOTT of Pitlochie^ or, on a bend azure, a st.rr between two crescents 
of the field, within a bordure ingrailed gulss-, and a mullet for difference ; crest, 
;i dexter hand erected, holding an annulet, and therein a carbuncle, proper : 
motto, In tenebris lux. He was a second son of Scott of Tarvet. 

Mr JAMES SCOTT, SherifF-Clerk of the shire of Edinburgh^ descended of the 
liunily of Scott of Knightspottie, or, on a bend azure, a star betwixt two cres- 
cuts of the first, all within a bordure ingrailed gules, charged with eight besants ; 
(rest, an arm and hand holding a book half opened, proper : motto, Fidel it as. 

Having given the blazons of such families of the name of Scott, descended of 
Buccleugh, as are recorded in the Lyon Register, I shall here add another recorded 
there, of a family of that name in Holland, also descended of Buccleugh, viz. 

Mr JAMES SCOTT, eldest son to Apollonius Scott, Judge, and afterwards President 
of the High Court of Justice at the Hague, lawful son of James Scott, who hav- 



OF THE BEND. & 

ing fled from Scotland on the account of some variance happening between him 
and some neighbouring family, and for certain violences committed by the one 
upon the other, was entered into the service of William Prince of Orange, and 
under his conduct served as colonel and brigadier at the taking of Middleburg in 
'Zealand, anno 1574, and thereafter was deputed for Zealand, to be one of the 
States-General, bears parted per fesse or and g ides, in chief a bend azure, charged 
with a star of six rays, betwixt two crescents of the first, and in base an eagle's-leg 
couped at the thigh in pale or : That in the upper part, being the coat of Buc- 
cleugh, and that in base being assumed by his predecessor upon, his fleeing to Hol- 
land, where acquiring new honours, he caused marshal them so ; and- for crest, an 
eagle rising or, and looking up to the sun, appearing from under a cloud proper, 
supported by two ladies richly arrayed, each holding in their hands a thistle slip- 
ped proper : motto, Amo inspicio. 

SCOTT of Ely, or, on a bend azure, a star betwixt two crescents of the first, 
within a bordure gules, charged with eight besants. 

SCOTT of Spencerfield, or, on a bend azure, between two spur-rowels gules, three- 
crescents of the first. 

SCOTT of Whitehaugh, or on a bend a%ure, ;i mullet argent betwixt two cres- 
cents of the first : These three last blazons are to be found in Font's manuscript. 
And as for the other families of the name of Scott, who carry lion's heads, their 
blazons will be found at the title of the Lion's bead. 

The surname of ELLIOT in the south is said to have come from a village called 
Elliot in the north, and with that name came to the south border, in the reign of 
King James I. of Scotland. 

ELLIOT of Redheugh, now called Lawriston in Liddisdalc, gules, on a bend or, a 
pipe (or flute) of the first. 

In an old book of blazons illuminated in the reign of Queen Mary, are the arms 
of the name of ELLIOT, gules, on a bend betwixt two cotrises or, as many pheons 
in chief and base of the second, a flute or pipe of the first. 

Sir GILBERT ELLIOT of Stobbs, baronet, gules, on a bend ingrailed or, a batton 
azure ; crest, a dexter arm holding a cutlass proper, with the motto, Pcradventun-. 
As matriculated in the Lyon Register. 

Sir GILBERT ELLIOT of Minto, baronet, of late one of the senators of the College 
of Justice, descended of Stobbs, gules, on a bend ingrailed or, a batton azure, all 
within a bordure vair ; crest, a dexter hand issuing from a cloud, and throwing a 
dart, all proper: motto, Non egit arai. N. R_ 

Mr ADAM ELLIOT, third son to the deceast Mr Henry Elliot, minister of Bedrule, 
who was lawful son to William Elliot, sometime provost of Peebles, who was 
third brother to Gilbert Elliot of Stobbs, gules, on a bend ingrailed or, a flute azure, 
all within a bordure ingrailed of the second, and charged with eight mullets of the 
third ; crest, a dexter hand holding a flute, proper ; with the motto, Inest jucundi- 
tas ; which shows the figure on the bend, to be a pipe or flute. N. R. 

WALTER. ELLIOT of Erkelton, a second son of Elliot of Unthank, who was de- 
scended of the family of Lawriston, gules, on a bend indented or, a flute of the first ; 
crest, a demi-man in armour, proper ; with the motto, Pro rege W limite. 

SIMEON ELLIOT of Binksnow of Swinside, descended of. the family of Lawriston, 
gules, on a bend or, a batton azure, all within a bordure of the second, charged 
with six garbs, as the third ; crest, a gentleman holding a pike in his hand, in a 
watching posture. N. R. 

The surname of TOWERS, the principal family of which name was Towers of 
Inverleith, argent, on a bend azure, three mullets of the first ; the first of this 
family was Walter Towers, by descent a Frenchman, merchant in Edinburgh, 
who, for his assisting to recover the castle of Edinburgh out of the hands of the 
English by a stratagem, got from King David II. the lands of Inverleith, Water 
of Leith, Dairy, and others. lYilliatn Towers de Inverhitb, Dominus de Dalray, 
so designed in a tack of a mill on the Water of Leith, to Thomas Fulton, in the 
year 1478. Sir James Towers of Inverleith was one of the Privy Council in the 
minority of King James V. and this family ended in an heiress, in the reign of 
King Charles II., who was married to Sir John Sinclair of Lochend and Longfor- 



ioo OF THE BEND. 

macus, and their son, the present Sir Robert Sinclair of Longformacus, quartern 
the arms of his mother with his own, as in the Plate of Achievements. 

TOURRIN or TURING of Foveran, an old family in the shire of Aberdeen, ori- 
ginally from France, now extinct *, or, on a bend g ules, three boars' heads of the 
first : As in James Esplin, Marchmont Herald, his book illuminated in the 
year 1630. 

KINNEAR of that Ilk, in the shire of Fife, sable,, on a bend or, three canary 
birds proper ; Mr Pont, in his blaxons, sable, on a bend or, three papingos vert ; 
but tlie first blazon given by Sir George Mackenzie seems to be the most proper 
one, being relative to the name, which is ancient with us ; for in the register of 
the abbacy of Balmerino, there is a donation of William Kinnear of that Ilk, of 
certain lands to the Monks of that abbacy, to pray for the soul of his father, and 
ef Emergalda, Queen to King William. This family, says Sir James Dalrymple 
in his Collections, has a charter of the lands of Kinnear from King Alexander II. 

The surname of DISHINGTON, gules, on a bend argent, three mullets sable. Sir 
William Dishington, for his faithful services to King Robert I. got a charter from 
that King of the lands of Ball-Glass in the Thanedom of Aberdeen. 

DISHINGTON of Ardross, or, on a bend sable, three escalops of the first, as in 
Mr Pont's blazons, with the motto, Unica spes mea Christus ; and so illuminated in 
Esplin's book of arms. John Dishington of Ardross is one of the assessors in the 
perambulation between the marches of Easter and Wester Kinghorn 1457. As in. 
the chartulary of the Abbacy of Dunfermline. 

NEWALD of Cargow, argent, on a bend azure, three martlets of the field. As 
in Esplin's illuminated book of blazons. 

BINNING of that ilk, argent, on a bend ingrailed sable, a mullet of the first. 

BINNING of Easter-Binning,- descended from the former, carries the same arms,, 
but placed on the bend a waggon argent, because one of the heads of that family, 
with his seven sons, went in a waggon covered with hay, surprised and took the 
castle of Linlithgow, then in possession of the English, in the reign of David II. 

Sir WILLIAM BINNING of Walliford, sometime provost of Edinburgh, descended 
of Easter-Binning, argent, on a bend ingrailed sable, a waggon or, within a bor- 
dure of the second ; crest, a demi-horse, furnished for a waggon, proper : motto, 
Christo ducefeliciter. In the Lyon Register. 

JAMES BINNING of Carlowriehall, carries the same with Easter-Binning ; and 
for crest, a horse's head furnished for a waggon, proper : motto, Mrtute doloque. 

The surname of HALYBURTON, or t on a bend azure, three mascles of the first- 
The principal old family of this name was Halyburton of that Ilk, in the shire of 
Berwick : the chapel of Halyburton was a pendicle of the church of Greenlaw, as 
appears from the charter of David the son of Truck, giving and disponing to the 
abb:icy of Selkirk, his chapel of Halyburton, in the reign of Malcolm IV. 
Which charter is confirmed by his pronepos Philip de Halyburton, in the year 1261 ; 
and in that charter Philip calls David, son of Truck, his proavus. The name of 
the knds and chapel, is said to be from a religious man named Burton, who had 
his residence in these lands which were called after him, Halyburton, i. e. Holy- 
burton, or St Burton's lands. 

In the reign of King Robert I. Adam de Halyburton, and Margaret Pourboure, 
his wife, got a charter from Patrick Dunbar Earl of March, of the lands of Tra- 
pran, cum monte Dumpelder, and the tenement of Southall, which belonged to Hugh 
de Gourly forfeited ; and which charter is confirmed by King David II. Philippus 
de Halyburton, filius 13 hares Domini IVillidmi de Halyburton militis, makes a dona- 
tion of an annuity out of the lands of Mellerstain to the abbacy of Kelso, in the 
chartulary of Melrose ; Adam Halyburton Dominus de Halyburton, with the con- 
sent of his superior, Patrick Earl of March, grants the like, 1357, which is con- 
firmed afterwards by James Bishop of St Andrews. Dominus Johannes de Haly- 
burton is witness to a charter of Richard Edgar, granted to Robert Edgar of Wad- 
derly, of the date 1378. And, in another charter, confirming the former, in the 
year 1384, Dominus Johannes de Halyburton, is designed Dominus de Dirleton: 
which two charters I see in the custody of Edgar of Wadderly, the last of which 
ends thus, " In cujus rei testimonium usus sum sigillo Domini Johannis Halybur- 
" ton Domini de Dirleton." Richard the disponer and granter of the charter, 

fc 

1 The family of Turing is represented by the present Sir Robert Turing, Bart, of Foreran. 



OF THE BEND. 

ti^ed then the seal of Sir John Halyburton Lord Dirleton, which F see appending 
to the said charter entire, whereon were the same quartered arms which our 
books of blazons now give to Halyburton Lord Dirleton, thus, quarterly, first or, 
mi a bend azure, three mascles of the first tor Hulyburton. Second, or, three 
bun gluts. Third, argent, a bend gules f for Vaus Lord Dirleton; and the fourth 
as the first. 1 have likewise seen a tack of the lands of Larruk-n given by John 
Lord Halyburton to Thomas and Alexander Heatlies tenants, of the date 1447, 
which tack begins thus : " We John Lord Halyburton," &c. (penes Edgar of 
Wadderly) to which his seal of arms is appended, and the transumpt of it after- 
wards judicially taken, to which Richard Lamb was notar ; who, being ignorant 
of armoury, confusedly describes the seal in the transumpt, which yet may be 
known to be the same with the above blazon, which I here add. " Literam 
" sedationis stipatam sigillo nobilis Domini Johannis de Halyburton, in quo sigil- 
" lo sculptum fuit unutn scutum, in dicto scuto bend lossyne (a bend charged 
" with lozenges or mascles) & trias faces (in the second quarter three bars) &. in 
" inferiore parte dicti sigil'i unum simplex bend ; (in the third quarter a bend) 
" &- unurn bend lossyne ;" (that is the fourth quarter as the first.) Anciently our 
notars were obliged, in transumpts of rights, to describe or blazon the seal, because 
it was the seal only that verified the deeds, or evidents, which then wenyiot sub- 
scribed by the granters. I have met with several such descriptions of blazons by 
our, notaries in transumpts, some of them awkwardly and some handsomely 
done. 

The family of HALYBURTON Lord DIRLETON ended in three daughters co- 
heiresses, in the reign of King James V. The eldest, Janet, was married to Wil- . 
liam Lord Ruthven. The second, Marion, was married to George Lord Home ; she 
bore to him Alexander Lord Home, who quartered the paternal coat of Halybur- 
ton, viz. or, on a bend azure* three mascles of the first, as on the seals of that 
family, of which afterwards : As also did the issue of William Lord Ruthven, 
grandfather of the first Earl of Gowry, who married Janet Halyburton, the other 
co-heiress of the Lord Dirleton ; of which before : And the third daughter, Mar- 
garet, was married to George Ker of Faudenside, in the shire of Roxburgh, who 
did the same. The exterior ornaments of the arms of HALYBURTON Lord DIRLE- 
TQN, as in our illuminated books of arms, are these ; for crest, a Moor's head band- 
ed argent ; supporters, two naked Moors banded about the head and middle argent ; 
and for motto, Watch well, 

The heir-male of Halyburton Lord Dirleton, is HALYBURTON of Pitcur, now re- 
presentative of the principal family, who carries or, on a bend azure, between three 
boars' heads erased sable, as many mascles of the first ; I know some make them 
lozenges, which I do not think so right. The boars' heads were assumed by this 
family, for marrying Chisholm heiress of Pitcur ; crest,, a negro's head and neck 
couped at the shoulders, armed with an helmet, proper ; supporters, two cats : 
motto, Watch well. N. R. 

HALYBURTON of Egliscairnie, or, on- a bend waved azure, three lozenges of the 
first, by some old books of blazon. But in the Lyon Register the bend is not 
waved, but plain, as descended also of the Lord Dirleton ; crest, a boar's head 
couped and erect, proper : motto, Watch well. 

WILLIAM HALYBURTON, son of a second brother of Egliscairnie, descended of the 
Lord Halyburton, or, on a bend, the upper side waved, and the under side ingrail- 
ed azure, three lozenges of the first ; crest, a boar's head erected and couped, pro- 
per : motto, Ma/ores sequor. N. R.. 

JOHN HALYBURTON of Newmains, descended, and representative of Morton, or, 
on a bend azure, three mascles, and in the sinister canton a buckle of the first ; 
crest, a stag at gaze, proper: motto, Watch well. N. R. 

DANZELSTON or DENNISTON of that Ilk, argent, a bend sable. 

DENNISTON- Lord DENNISTON'S arms as illuminated in our old books of blazon, are 
argent, a bend sable , between an unicorn's head erased gules, horned or, and a cross 
croslet fitche of the third, supported on the dexter by a lion gules, and on the 
sinister by an antelope argent, unguled and horned or ; and for crest, a right hand 
holding aloft an antique shield sable, charged with a star or. So illuminated iu 
Workman's Book of Blazons. 

C c 



,02 OF THE BEND, 

The lands of Denniston, in, the sheriffdom of Renfrew, were named from the 
first possessor, Danziel, as appears by a charter of the barony of Houston, in the 
reign of Malcolm IV. which is bounded with the lands of Daniiel, (see Craw turd's 
Hit-tory of Renfrew) whose successors both assumed their name and designation 
from them. King David the Bruce gives a charter to Robert Danzelston, son 
and heir of Sir John Danzelston, knight, of the barony of Glencairn : And Sir 
Robert Danzelston of that Ilk, upon his own resignation, obtains a charter from 
King Robert II. 

This family at last ended in two heiresses ; Margaret, the eldest, was married to 
Sir Robert Cunningham of Kilmaurs, ancestor to the Earl of Glencairn, who got 
with her the baronies of Danzelston, Finlayston, Kilmarnock, in Dumbartonshire, 
and the barony of Glencairn, in the shire of Dumfries ; and the second daughter, 
Elizabeth Denniston, was married to Sir Robert Maxwell of Calderwood, and with 
her he got the lands of Mauldsly, Kilkaydow, Stanley, &-c. Upon which account, 
the family of Calderwood quarter still the arms of Denniston with their own, 
having argent, a bend azure, for Denniston : Of which afterwards. 

There were other families of this name, as Denniston of Cowgrane in the shire 
of Dumbarton, who is reputed the heir-male and representative of the principal 
family of Denniston of that Ilk, and carries argent, a bend sable, an unicorn's head 
erased in chief of the last, and in base a cross croslet Jitcbe azure; crest, a dexter 
hand pointing at a star, proper : motto, Adversa virtute repello : As in the Lyon 
Register ; and in Font's Manuscripts of Blazons, are the arms of these two follow- 
ing families of the name of Denniston. 

DENNISTON of Duntraith, argent, on a bend azure, between two unicorns' heads 
erased sable, armed or, three rings, with carbuncles of the last. 

DENNISTON of Mountjohn, argent, on a bend azure, between two unicorns' heads 
erased sable, armed or, three cross croslets fitched of the last. 

The surname of HERRING, or HERON, with us, gules, on a bend argent, a rose, 
between two lions rampant of the field : There was an old family of this name in 
Clydesdale, and another in Mid-Lothian, who possessed the lands of Edmonstone 
and Gilmerton. A daughter of this family, Giles Herring, was married to Sir 
William Somerville of Linton and Carnwath, in the year 1375, who with her got 
half of the lands of Gilmerton, and the lands of Drum, of whom is descended the 
present laird of Drum, as by the charters and evidents of these lands, which I have 
seen in the custody of Somerville of Drum. 

There was also another family of this name, designed of Lethendy and Glas- 
cuine, in Perthshire ; John Drummond of Blair, married Agnes Herring, daughter 
of Sir David Herring of Lethendy, whose arms, in Font's Manuscripts, are quar- 
terly, first and fourth gules, on a bend argent, a rose between two lions rampant of 
the field ; second and third azure, a cheveron argent, and the same arms for Her- 
ring of Lethendy, stand illuminated with those of other barons, Members of Par- 
liament in the year 1604, in the House of Falahall, but there are two roses, one 
before each lion upon the bend. In the stewartry of Kirkcudbright there is a 
family of this name, who write themselves HERON of that Ilk, and carries the pa- 
ternal coat of Herring or Herin, as above ; and our heralds have been in use to 
place these arms on their funeral escutcheons ; having for crest, a demi-lion 
argent; with the motto, By valour. 

LOCKHART of Barr, an ancient family of that name, argent, on a bend sable, three 
fetterlocks or. As in Mackenzie's Heraldry. 

ALEXANDER BRAND of Baberton, argent, on a bend sable, three mascles of the 
first, and on a chief of the second, as many spur-rowels or ; and for crest, two pro- 
boscides of elephants in pale, couped, flexed, and reflexed argent ; that on the dexter 
charged with three mascles ; and the other on the sinister, with as many spur- 
rowels sable ; with the motto, Ay forward* As recorded in the Lyon Register, 
with these two following blazons. 

JOHN COOK, sometime Bailie of Pittenweem, guks, on a bend or, two cinquefoils 
azure, and, in the sinister chief point, a crescent surmounted of a cross croslet of 
the second ; crest, a sea cat, appearing out of the wreath ; with the motto, Tutum 
monstrat iter. 



01- THE BEND: 103 

Mr WALTER COMRIK, Doctor of Divinity, or, on a bend azure, an annulet of the 
first, betwixt two pheons issuing out of the same ; crest, an archer shooting an 
arrow out of a bo\v, proper : motto, Ad met am. 

The surname of Y\ 'IGMURE or WUJMER, argent, a bend sable, charged with ano- 
ther waved of the field. As in Workman's Manuscript. 

The surname of LEGGHT, azure, on a bend argent, tliree mens' hearts gules, 
and on a chief of the second, as many martlets sable. Font's Manuscript. And 
there also, 

The surname of LEITCH, gules, on a bend ingrailed or, betwixt six fusils of the 
second ; three escutcheons azure. 

I shall add here some blazons with, a bend between, accompanied or cotoyed 
with figures. 

The surname of CHEYNE, says Sir James Balfour, in the year 1290, carried as 
now, azure, a bend argent, between six cross patees fitched of the last ; I have seen 
a charter of Reynold Cheyne, son of Reynold, who was son of another Reynold 
Cheyne, of the lands of Durie in Fife, to Gilbert, son to Robert of Strathern ; 
which charter was confirmed by Adam de Kilconhaugb Earl of Carrick, in the reign 
of Alexander III. King Robert the Bruce gives a charter to Sir Reginald Cheyne, 
of the barony of Dunumainie, which formerly belonged to Roger Mowbray. And 
so much for the antiquity of the name. 

CHEYNE of Straithloch, azure, a bend argent, betwixt six cross patees fitched or. 
As in Font's Manuscript. And there also, 

CHEYNE of Esselmont, quarterly, first and last azure, a bend argent, between six 
cross patees fitched or, for the name of Cheyne ; second and third argent, an 
episcopal pale salAe, between three laurel leaves vert,, for the name of Marshall of 
Esselmont, (but in the blazon of the Lyon Register, the episcopal pale is left out ;) 
crest, a cross patee fitched argent ; and for motto, Patientia vincit. 

The surname of COLLESS, azure, on a bend or, betwixt three cross croslets fitch- 
ed of the last, as many mascles gules ; Andrew Colless, merchant in Aberdeen, 
gets a charter of the barony of Kelly, from Robert Lord Marr, 1404. 

COLLESS of Balnamoon, argent, a cross moline, between two mascles in chief 
gules, and a boar's head erased in base sable ; Font's Manuscript : and there also, 
COLLISON, argent, on a fesse azure, between three roses gules, a sword of the first, 
hiked and pommelled or. 

ROBERT COLLISON, Gentleman in His Majesty's guards of horse, descended of 
the family of Collison of Auchinloumes, argent, on a fesse azure, betwixt three 
roses in chief gules, and as many peasecods in base vert; a sword bar-ways of the 
first, hiked and pommelled or; crest, a falcon's head erased, proper: motto, Hoc 
virtutis opus. L. R. 

The surname of CRAMOND, argent, a bend gules ; faliterj argent, three hearts 
gules. Font's Manuscript. 

CRAMOND of Auldbar, azure, a bend or, between three pelicans feeding their 
young argent ; some place the pelicans on the bend. I find one Hug b de Cramand 
mentioned by King Robert the Bruce, in his charter to the monks of Jedworth. 
Font's Manuscript. 

The surname of MASON, argent, a. bend waved azure, betwixt two mullets in 
chief, and a flower-de-luce in base gules. Font's Manuscript. 

The surname of CANT, argent, a bend ingrailed betwixt two crescents sable. 
Font's Manuscript. 

LUDOVICK. CANT of Dryburnford in East-Lothian, argent, a bend ingrailed be- 
twixt a crescent and a star of eight points, or rays, in chief, and a mullet in base 
sable; crest, a dove, proper: motto, Alis reposita. In the Lyon Register; and 
there also, 

The surname of WYLLIE, azure, a bend accompanied with a fox current in 
chief, and two mullets in base argent, by Thomas Wyllie merchant in Edinburgh. 
L. R. 

MAXTON of Cultequhay, or, a bend gules, (some books have it a cheveron) be- 
tween three cross formees fitched azure. I have seen the seal of arms of Robert 
Maxton of Cultequhay, appended to his discharge to Sir Alexander Murray of 



io4 OF THE BEND. 

Abercairnie, of the date 1410, whereon was a bend ingrailed between three cross, 
croslets, one in chief, and two in base. 

The surname of ARCHIBALD, argent, on a bend azure, between two mullets of 
the second, a crescent of the first; as Mr Pont. But in Sis James Balfour's 
Blazons, argent, on a bend between three stars azure, as many crescents of the 
first ; which was carried by ALEXANDER. ARCHIBALD of Blackball in Fife : Which 
family ended in an heiress, who was married to Alexander Seaton, a younger son 
of Carriston, whose issue now enjoys that fortune. 

Mr WILLIAM ARCHIBALD, Governor to Mr William Talmash, son to the Dutchess 
of Lauderdale, descended of Archibald of Blackball, has the last blazon of Black- 
hall within a bordure ingrailed sable ; crest, a branch of palm tree slipped, proper : 
motto, Ditat servata fides. Lyon Register. And there also, 

ALEXANDER GAR!OCH of Kinstair, azure, a bend betwixt a stag's head couped 
in chief argent, attired or, and three cross croslets filched, in base, of the second ; 
crest, a palm tree growing out of a mount with a trefoil, proper ; motto, Concussus 
surgo. 

The surname of GLASSFORD, argent, a bend ingrailed accompanied with two 
spur-rowels gules. Font's Manuscript, and in the New Register. 

JOHN GLASSFORD, Collector of the Customs at Borrowstownness, argent, a bend in- 
grailed, accompanied with two spur-rowels in chief, and a hunting-horn in base 
gules, garnished sable : motto, Mente y manu. 

Major JOHN BIGGAR of Woolmet, argent, a bend azure, accompanied with three 
mullets gules ; crest, a pelican's head couped, proper; with the motto, Giving and 
forgiving. Lyon Register. 

WILLIAM BIGGAR, Merchant in Edinburgh, argent, a bend counter-embattled 
azure, between two mullets gules ; crest and motto as the former. There was a 
family of old of this name designed of that Ilk. Robert Bigris is a witness in the 
charter of King David I. to the abbacy of Dunfermline ; and there are severals of 
the name of Biggar, witnesses in the chartulary of Kelso. Sir James Dalrymple, 
in his Collections, says, he has seen a charter, Roberti Jilii Walderi de Biggar, 
granted to Ricardo Baird de magna IS parva Kyp, in the reign of Alexander 111. 

LIVINGTON or LETHINGTON of Saltcoats, an ancient family in East-Lothian, 
argent a bend between two otters' heads couped gules ; Font's Manuscript ; some 
call them boars' heads : I have seen the armorial seal of this family, which had a 
bend with an otter's (or boar's) head couped in chief, and the circumscription 
round it was, Sig. Patricii Livingtoun de Saltcoat, 1593. 

The honourable families of Howard in England, give, for their paternal arms, 
gules, a bend between six cross croslets fitche argent* 

THOMAS HOWARD Duke of NORFOLK, Hereditary Earl Marshal of England, 
premier duke and chief of the illustrious family of the Howards, descended from 
William Howard, a learned judge and counsellor to King Edward I. got an addi- 
tion to these arms from Henry VIII. in memory of the victory he obtained over 
King James IV. and his army in Flodden-field, the pth of September 1513, being 
an,, escutcheon or, charged with a demi-lion rampant, (pierced through the mouth 
with an arrow) within a double tressure counter-flowered ^fz/for; which escutcheon 
is placed by those of that family on the bend. The first duke of this name was 
Thomas, created by King Richard III., being descended by Lady Margaret 
Dutchess of Norfolk, daughter of Thomas de Brotherton, descended of a younger 
son of Edward I. for which the family quarters the arms of England, with a label 
of three points ; and in. the third place, the arms of Clifford, cheque, or and azure ; 
and in the fourth, gules, a lion rampant or, for Mowbray Duke of Norfolk. 

The many, noble branches of this family in England carry the paternal coat of 
Howard, with the minute differences, such as crescents, mullets, flower-de-luces, 
&c. as in the English, books of blazon. 

STOURTON Lord, STOURTON, sable, a bend or, betwixt six fountains, proper. This 
ancient family was dignified with the title of Lord Baron Stourton in the 28th 
year of the reign of Henry VI. 

PETRE Lord PETRE, gules, a bend or, between two escalops argent ; as in Mr 
Dale's. Catalogue of the Nobility of England. This family was dignified by the 



OF THE BEND-SINISTER. 

title of Lord Petrc of W'rittle in Com. Essex, by King James I. the list of July 
1603. 

ALLINGTON Lord ALLIKGTON of Wymondly in England, and Baron Killaird in 
Ireland, sable, a bend betwixt six billets ardent. 

I have; spoke to a bend surmounted with figures ; as aKowhcn it surmounts other 
figures ; and having given some few examples, I shall here add only two. 

SIKV.ART of Fothergale, or, a lion rampant gules, surmounted of a bend sable ; 
as in Mr Thomas Crawfurd's .Manuscript of Heraldry. 

Mr JOHN AIK.MAN of Cairnie, Advocate, argent, a sinister hand in base fesse- 
\vays, holding an oaken button in pale, with a branch at the top, proper, surmount- 
ed of a bend ingrailed gules ; crest, an oak tree, proper, as relative to the name ; 
with the motto, Sub robore virtus. Lyon Register. 

I have spoke before in this chapter of the diminutives of the bend, and of the 
situation and disposition of natural and artificial figures in bend or bend-ways, and 
given some few examples ; so that having treated sufficiently of the bend, I shall 
put an end to this long chapter, and proceed to the bend-sinister. 



CHAP. XIV. 

OF THE BEND-SINISTEX. ; THE BAR WITH THE FRENCH. 

THIS ordinary possesses a third middle part of the field diagonally from the 
upper left to the lower right angle. With the English it possesses the 
third part of the field, when charged, and when not, only the fifth part of the 
field. 

The French call this ordinary the bar, but do not take the diminutive of the 
e tor the bar, us the English, and describe it, La barre occupe Vautre milieu de 
'. droite. 

It is said to represent a military belt, whereat hang the quiver, now the cara 
bine belt. 

The bend-sinister, or bar with the French, is not frequent in the arms of the 
Britons, French, Spaniards, and Italians, because it lias some resemblance with the 
common note of illegitimation : It is frequent with the Germans, and is as honour- 
able, in the opinion of heralds, as the bend-dexter. What Sylvester Petra Sancta 
! of it, I shall here add : 

" Balteus hie sinister, intra gloriam est ingenuorum natalium ; neque enim cum 
" spuria clavula, seu cum notha ilia lineola confundi debet, quas vitiosae prosapiae 
" index habetur. Rarus est quidem hie balteus sinister in tesseris gentilitiis no- 
" bilium Italia?, Galliae, Hispaniae, atque Britanniae : Sed suum decus retinet ta- 
" men in tesseris non adeo paucis nobilium Germanize. Fuerit vero militare 
" cingulum fortasse pharetris ferendis aptum. Quemadmodum hodieque simili 
" cingulo utuntur militcs, gestandis ab humero pendulis aheneis fistulis longiori- 
" bus quas vulgo appellant charabinas." 

Of old the bend-sinister was more frequent in arms with us, than of late, when 
almost all of them are turned to the right ; fancying that it carries some mark of 
illegitimation with it. Sir James Balfour, in his Blazons, says, of old, BISSET of 
that Ilk carried argent, a bend-sinister gules ^ and these of the name of Sowles, 
in anno 1292, carried barry of six, or and gules, a bend-sinister sable. The name 
of BARBKR, or, a bend sinister azure, charged with a mullet of the first, plate V. 
fig. 22. But now some of that name, as ROBERT BARBER of Mulderg, argent, a 
St Andrew's Cross betwixt a garb in chief, two, escalops in the rlanques, and 
another in base azure : motto, Nibilo nisi cruce, L. R. In the borough rolls of 
Exchequer, in the year 1328, I find one John Barber, who, by order of King 
Robert the Bruce, got a sum of money from Sir Alexander Seaton of that Ilk, as 
governor and feuer of the town of Berwick upon Tweed, one of the progenitors of 
the Lords of Seaton, and Earls of Winton. It was this Sir Alexander Seaton's 
two sons, whom Edward III. caused most perfidiously to be hanged, because their 
father would not surrender the town of Berwick.. 

Dd 



rafi OF THE BEND-SINISTER. 

LIDDEL of Halkerton, of old, (says Sir James Balfour), carried 'gules on a bencJ- 
sinister argent, a mullet sable ; but now it is a bend-dexter, charged with tl 
mullet? tabfe. Sir James Liddel of Halkerton is witness in a charter of 'Alexan- 
der Duke of Albany, to Alexander Bonneston of that Ilk, of the lands of Upsat-" 
lington in the Merse, (penes Ctmitem de Home'). Robert Liddel, merchant in Edin- 
burgh, descended of the family of Halkerton, gules, on a bend, betwixt a cross 
croslet fitched in chief, and a flower-de-luce in base argent, three spur-rowels of 
the first ; crest, a rose slipped proper : motto, Hinc odor y sanitas, L. R. 

The name of KAY or CAY, in Sir George Mackenzie's Heraldry, argent, a bend- 
sinister sable, between an annulet in chief gules, and a griffin's head erased in base 
of the second, in its beak, a key azure ; fig. 23. plate V. He gives us also there 
the arms of the name of WESTON, fig. 24. gules, on a bend sinister argent, three 
crescents sable. Font's Manuscript. In the borough rolls of Exchequer, Thomas 
Weston got sixty-six pounds eight pennies from Sir Alexander Scaton, governor 
and steward of Berwick, as by his accounts given in the 2ist of January 1327. 

The bend-sinister is subject to all the accidental forms that the bend-dexter i?, 
and the Qther ordinaries : As, to have its diminutives, and to be multiplied also, 
which I shall only here name, since their practice in armories is very rarely to be 
met with in Britain. 

The first diminutive of the bend-sinister, with the English, is called a scarp, 
which contains in breadth the half of the bend-sinister, .and comes from the 
French word echarpe, a scarf, an ornament made use of by commanders and field- 
officer?, over their left shoulder, thwart the body, and so under the arm, on the 
right side, as Guillim says, who tells us, that in blazons, it should be named scarp, 
without mentioning the word sinister, and that it is an honourable armorial figure ; 
yet neither he nor others in England give us any instance by whom it is carried ; 
the French call it a barre, and if there be six of them in the field, they say ban e i 
and if more, cottise, 

The half of the scarp, with the English, is called a batton-sinister; by the French, 
baton -sinister ; it is never carried in arms, but as a mark of illegitimat'on, com- 
monly called the bastard bar. 

Guillim, in his Display of Heraldry, says, that the batton-sinister represents a 
cudgel, being latined by some, bacillus, to show that bastards are not free men, but as 
servants Kable to be cudgelled; but this is both unmannerly and unreasonably said, 
for the batton-dexter and sinister, are both latined bacilli ; the first used by the 
most polite nations, to difference the lawful younger sons of sovereigns and nobi- 
lity, as the batton-dexter in the arms of the younger sons of France, and which 
was used by the family of Bourbon, over the arms of France, before its accession 
to the throne. The button-sinister differs only from the former, by position, to 
distinguish the illegitimate from the legitimate, carried by natural children, not 
only of the nobility, but sovereigns ; and does not expose them as villain, as 
Guillim will have it, but shows that they are cut oft" from the succession to their 
tather's honour and inheritance, by the lawful children, from which it is sometimes 
called afasure, as Upton, " Fissura pro eo quod findit anna paterna in duas par- 
" tcs, quia ipse bastardus finditur a patrimonio patris sui." 

I shall take occasion here, for my reader's satisfaction, to speak a little to its an- 
cient and modern form, the antiquity of its use, its continuance in a coat of arms, 
and give some examples by whom it is carried as a mark of illegitimation. 

As to its form and length, (having shown its breadth before), it pa: sed anciently 
from the left chief corner of the shield, to the right flank over the arms, of which 
I have seen several instances with us ; and shall here only mention, that of JOHN 
HOMJS of Hilton in the Merse, natural son of Alexander Lord Home, Great 
Chamberlain of Scotland, in the reign of King James IV. who had on his seal of 
arms, appended to a right of reversion of the lands of the Fleurs in Roxburghshire, 
granted by him to Elizabeth Home, Lady Hamilton; fig. 25. plate V. Quarterly, 
first and fourth vert, a lion rampant argent, for Home ; second and third argent, 
three papingoes vert, for Pepdie of Dallas, (the arms of his father), and over all a 
batt.oTj-sinister sable, as a mark of illegitimation, passing from the left chief corner 
to the right flank. 



OF THE BEND-5INISTER. 107 

Sue' >f a batton-sinister, passing from corner to corner, 

paternal. quarter, and nut over the other qu is that of Robrrt Sn-warf, a. 

natunil MMI of King JIUHC^ V. begot upon Eupham, daughter ot" Alexander Lord 
Elphinston ; who being prior ot' Holyroodhouse, he exchanged that abbacy witli 
Actiiin Bothwcll, bislio]) ot Orkney, tor hi.s right of thut bishoprick, in the >eur 1570, 
and was created t'.url of Orkney, by King James Vl. by patent the 2ist of Octo- 
ber: He carried the arms of Scotland, bruised with a batton-sinister sable, quarter- 
ed, in the first and fourth places, with the feudal arms of Orkney ; in the second and 
third places, being azure, a ship with her sails furled up or. His son Patrick, whom 
he had by his wife Jean, daughter to Gilbert Earl of Cassilis, succeeded him in his 
honours : but the batton-sinister (it seems by favour allowed) was turned to the 
right, as a ribbon sable, bruising the lion, so illuminated in the Manuscript of 
James Workman, herald-painter, with these exterior ornaments ; for crest, a 
king inthronized, holding in his right hand a sword, and in his left, a falcon; with 
the motto, Sic fult esf j crit ; supported on the dexter by an unicorn ; and on 
the sinister, by a grirlin. This Earl Patrick was forfeited for treason, for which he 
lost his head in the year 1614. 

By our modern practice, the batton does not touch the extremities of the shield, 
nor the extremities of the quarter where the paternal arms are placed, for the bat- 
ton is couped, that is, cut short, as in all British paintings and engravings ; the 
French make it much shorter than we, and call it baton-sinister peri, 

As to the ancient use of the batton-sinister, it has not been in practice of arms, as 
a mark of illegitimation above three hundred years ; for of old, the natural sons, 
whether of subjects or sovereigns, did not carry the arms of their fathers, as now, 
with differences ; but carried other arms, which they got from, their sovereign, or 
those of their mothers or wives being noble. 

The natural children of the Kings of Scotland, and our nobility, had no names 
or arms of old from their fathers, and those they had were either from the places- 
of their birth, or from their mothers or wives, as also their names or designations. 
Robert, natural son of King William, having married the heiress of Lundy of 
that Ilk, he and his issue took upon them the name of LUNDY or LUNDIN, and the 
arms of that family, viz. paly of six, argent and gules, over all on a bend azure, 
three cushions of the first, which the family continued till of late, carrying now, 
by warrant from the crown, as before, the arms of Scotland within a bordure gobo- 
nated, argent and azure, as the natural sons of our kings have been in use to do 
only since the reign of King James I. of Scotland ; For the bordure gobonated 
was not then a mark of illegitimation as now. 

The same practice was in England ; WILLIAM LONG-ESPEE, natural son of Henry 
II. begot on the fair Rosamond, had for arms a long sword, relative to his name ; 
but after he had married Ella, daughter and heir of William D'Eureux, Earl of 
Salisbury, and being confirmed earl thereof by Richard I. he then took the arms 
of his wife, viz. azure, six lions rampant, argent, 3, 2, and j. and no part of his 
father King Henry's arms-: as Edward Walker, and Sir John Feme have observed. 
And Sandford, in his Genealogical History, also tell* us, that the unlawful chil- 
dren of JOHN of GAUNT, Duke of LANCASTER, begot on Katharine, daughter of Srr 
Pay en Rouet, Guienne King of Arms, did not carry the arms^of their father the king, 
though nobilitate with a batton-sinister, as now used ; but their arms were parted 
per pale argent and azure, over all a bend gules, charged with three lions passant 
gardant or : but after the legitimation of these three natural sons, by act of Parli- 
ament, they then assumed the sovereign ensign of England, being France and 
England quarterly, within a bordure gobonated argent and azure. Of which 
afterwards. 

Sir JOHN CLARENCE, natural son of Thomas, Duke of Clarence, second son of 
Henry IV. who was killed at the battle of Bauge in France, by the Scots 1421, 
did not presume, as Sandford observes, to carry his father's arms, which were 
France and England', quarterly, with a label of three points ermine, each charged 
with a canton gules, for Clare ; but carried only parted per cheveron gules and 
azure, two lions rampant affront e or. 

So that till about the fourteenth century, I have not found natural children carry- 
ing the arms of their fathers with a batton-sinister, as a mark of illegitimation ; 



Or THE BEND-SINISTER. 

for before and about that time, if natural children carried any figures belonging 
to their father, they were placed in fields of various partitions, dinerent positions 
and situations. 

ANTIGONE, natural daughter of Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, the fourth son of 
Henry IV. whose arms were France and England, quarterly, within a bordure 
gobonated ardent and sable, carried her father's arms, over which she placed a bat- 
ton-sinister azure: and this is the first instance which Sandford gives of that figure. 
The next was that of ARTHUR PLATAGENET, natural son of Edward IV. who car- 
ried his father's royal arms bruised, with a batton-sinister azure. 

It cannot then be precisely determined when the natural children began to use 
the arms of their supposed fathers, with the now known marks of illegitimation : 
For in some countries the practice was sooner than in others ; and some tell 
us it is but rare yet in Germany. 

The practice of natural children carrying the arms of their fathers with brisures 
had its rise and progression from a custom, says Sir John Feme, which began from 
the presumption of natural children, and the acts of legitimations of sovereigns. 
How soon this practice was in France, I cannot be positive ; but that the lawful 
younger sons of sovereigns there, were not in use to carry their father's arms, till 
about the thirteenth century, is certain; much less could the natural children, even 
for a long time after. Menestrier tells us, that it is the custom of France, for bas- 
tards not to take their surnames from their supposed fathers, but from their seig- 
niories and titles ; and when they began to carry their arms with a sinister traverse, 
or baton peri, he does not tell us, but says, that a bastard cannot cancel nor alter 
the batton, without the consent of the chief of the family, unless the bastard 
carry them in a faux escu, i. e. a cartouch, or false shield : and the son of a bas- 
tard, procreate in lawful marriage with a gentlewoman, may use the arms of his 
father and mother, quarterly, having always the batton-sinister on his paternal 
quarter. 

As for the continuance of this mark of illegitimation in arms, some are of opi- 
nion, that it should always continue with the bastards descendants by lawful mar- 
riages, until the sovereign or chief of the family dispense with it. 

Gerard Leigh says, The legitimate of a bastard, may, with consent of the prince, 
change the batton-sinister to the right side, keeping still the just quantity of the 
batton ; and that it should be broken, of which he gives us an example in his ac- 
cidents of armories, and blazons it thus, azure, a bend double duncette argent. 
But I find none has followed him as to the form of this traverse. 

It is usual for princes to dispense with this known mark of illegitimation even 
to bastards themselves, either by carrying it dexter, or cancelling it. Charles VIL 
of France allowed John the bastard of Orleans, for his valour against the English, 
to turn his sinister traverse to the dexter, with which he and his issue afterwards 
bruised the arms of Orleans as DUKES of LONGUEVILLE. 

I have observed in a book of arms illuminated in the reign of Mary Queen of 
Scotland, the arms of JAMES Earl of MURRAY, natural son to King James V. hav- 
ing the t sinister traverse turned to the dexter, bruising the lion and tressure of 
Scotland ; and quartered with the feudal arms of the Earldom of Murray, which 
I suppose were dispensed with by the Queen: and the arms of Scotland, carried 
by this family since, are surrounded with a bordure gobonated, argent and azure. 

The general opinion, and most commonly received, is, that the bastard bar, 
after three lawful generations, may be borne to the right, or omitted without the 
sovereign's consent ; and, in place thereof, some remote mark of cadency added ; 
but what these remote remarks are, I cannot determine here, not being to my pre- 
-ent purpose, and therefore shall only name the bordure gobonated, which is fre- 
quently carried in place of the batton-sinister with us and the English, not only 
by the lawful issue of bastards, but by bastards themselves ; as in the late practice 
of the natural children of King Charles II. 

JAMES Duke of MONMOUTH and BUCCLEUGH carried the arms of Great Britain, 
with a batton-sinister or. 

HENRY FITZROY Duke of GRAFTON, natural son of King Charles II. begot on 
Lady Barbara Villiers, Dutchess of Cleveland, carried over the arms of Britain a 



OF THE CROSS, &c. 

batton-sinibtcr, componed azure and argent ; which was also used by his lawful 
boa and heir, Charles Duke of Grafton. 

CHARLES FITZROY, another natural son of that king with the dutchess of Cleve- 
land, had his button-sinister ermine. 

GEORGE FITZROY, Duke of NoRXHUausftLAND, another natural son of that king 
with the same dutchess, to differ himself from his two elder brothers, gave his bat- 
ton-sinister compone' azure and ermine, (as Jacob ImhotT says) Similem bacillitm ex 
bermionicis if cerultis segment is composition, 

CHARLES BEAUCLERK. Duke of St ALBANS, another natural son of King Charles 
II. carried, over the arms of Great Britain, a batton-sinister gules. Let t 1 , 
amples sutfice for carrying batton-sinisters as marks of illegitimation. 



CHAP. XV. 

OF THE CROSS, AND ITS ACCIDENTAL AND PROPER FORMS. 

CROSS is so generally known, that I need not give a long description of 
JL it, as some do by lines perpendicular and horizontal, but only shew, as in fig. 
26. Plate V. it us as it were composed of the pale and the fessc : which two do not 
lie upon, or bruise one another, but are corporally united in the centre. 

This is called -a. plain cross, and possesses a third part of the field, whether char- 
ged or not : but the English say, when not charged, it should only possess the fifth 
part. And some of their Heralds, as Gerard Leigh and Sylvanus Morgan, begin 
with the cross, as the first and most honourable of all the ordinaries ; because it 
has been of great esteem, since our Saviour suffered upon it. And though this be 
true, yet I think it more methodical to rank it after these ordinaries which seem 
to compose it. 

The CROSS has been anciently and frequently used by Christians on their ensigns, 
flags, and armories. Constantine the Great is said to be the first who assumed it, 
and carried a red cross in a white field, which is the ensign and flag of England ; 
assumed by the Britons, says Edward Bolton, in his Elements of Armories, p. 73. 
because that Emperor was born in Britain. Other English say again, they took 
this cross from Joseph, the son of Joseph of Arimathea, who first preached Chris- 
tianity in Britain, and, when dying, drew a red cross with his own blood on a 
white banner, telling them, that if they continued in the faith, they should al- 
ways be victorious under such a banner. Some again ascribe it to their patron St 
George, and now is become the badge of the Noble Order of the Garter. 

The republic of GENOA carries the like ensign, argent, a cross gules ; upon the 
account that one St George is the patron of that republic. But whether he be the 
same with St George the patron of England, I know not. 

The ensign of DENMARK is gules, a cross argent. Some Danish writers say, that 
such a banner dropped from Heaven, when their King, Waldimer II. was fighting 
against the infidels in Livonia ; at the sight of which the Danes took courage, and 
obtained a complete victory over the infidels : and, to perpetuate that favour from 
heaven, they have always made use of it as their ensign. But others tell us, wi'.h 
more probability, that Waldimer, observing his own men giving ground to the 
enemy, who had beat down his ensign, upon which was an eagle, he ixared up a 
new one with the cross, which he had sent him from the Pope, rallied his forces, 
and recovered the victory ; and the people were made to believe that it was sent 
from heaven, founding upon an ordinary custom of the Popes, in those days, to 
send consecrated banners to princes, to encourage them to war against infidels and 
heretics. 

I shall not insist here upon the public ensigns of kingdoms or countries, and of 
the occasion of their rise and assumption ; which I think would be out of my 
road. For there are few old ensigns or banners which are not supported with le- 
gendary stories. 

The DUKE of SAVOY'S ensign, gules, a cross argent, is place3 by way of surtout 
over his shield of arms, being the cross of the Knights of St John of Jerusalem, 
with which they complimented Amadeus, the great Duke of Savoy, who came to 

Ee 



/to OF THE CROSS, Vc. 

their assistance against the Turks, in defence of Rhodes, in the year 1315. And,, 
for his great success and valour, they added these four letters by way of devica, 
F, E, R, T. which import, Fortitude ejus Rhodem tcnuit, i..e. his courage preserved 
Rhodes. But, to forbear to give instances of crosses as signs of sovereignties and 
fraternities, I shall speak of them as merely armorial, in the bearings of families, 
where we will rind them of many different forms, occassioned by the frequent ex- 
peditions to war, against the infidels in the Holy Land, for the recovery of 
Jerusalem. 

They who engaged in that war received from the hands of bishops and pre- 
lates, consecrated crosses, made of cloth or taffeta, which were sewed on the left 
side of their upper couts, and thereupon they were said to undertake the cross: 
and those expeditions were called crusades. So that of necessity there behoved, 
to be various forms of crosses, to distinguish the numerous companies of men, out 
of many different nations, who engaged in these expeditions. Besides, afterwards, 
the civil wars in Europe between the Emperors and Popes, likewise contributed to 
the frequent use of crosses, and their various forms in armories, so that they can- 
not be but numerous. 

Francis Fosses, who wrote a Treatise of Arms in the reign of Richard II. of 
England, and undertook in person a crusade to Jerusalem, gives us an account only 
of twelve sorts of crosses. But Nichol Upton, who wrote sometime afterwards, 
says, that there were so many sorts of crosses, that he durst not undertake to give 
a description of them all. Neither can I promise to perform that task, which 
would be both tedious and useless. 1 shall therefore here mention so many various 
forms of crosses as are frequently to be met with in the armorial bearings of 
Britain and France ; and if my reader be not satisfied with these, I recommend 
him to Handle Holmes, his Academy of Armory, where he will find 132 various forms 
of crosses. 

For the better understanding of these forms, I divide them into accidental and 
proper forms. By the first, I understand these which are communicable to the 
other honourable ordinaries; as ing railie , nebule, indent e, &-c, of which before : 
by proper ones, those which are peculiar only to the cross.. 

When the cross is under neither of these forms, it is by some said, in blazon, to 
be plain ; Crux simplex fc? plana, by the Latins ; as that of England, argent, a plain 
cross gules, fig. 26. 

CROSBIE of that Ilk, an ancient family sometime with us, gave arms equivocally 
relative to the name, or, a plain cross gules, as in Mackenzie's Heraldry. And 
there also, 

GUTHRIE of that Ilk, another ancient family, argent, a cross sable. : some books 
make it azure, quartered with the arms of Cumin, azure, three garbs or. Esplin's 
Book of Arms. 

DAVID GUTHRIE of that Ilk was Comptroller to King James III. and Captain of 
his Guards, and so designed as a witness in that King's charters, granted by him 
to Thomas Boyd Earl oi Arran, and to his wife Mary Stewart the King's sister, 
Davide Guthrey de eodem, nostrorum computorum rotulatore, and as a witness in 
another charter of that King's to James Lord Hamilton, giving him licence and 
power to recover lands out of the sea at Kinneil, and to build a castle there, 
amongst the witnesses Davide de Guthrey de eodem Capitano nojlra Guarditf, which 
are to be seen in the Earl of Haddington's Collections in the Lawyers' Library. 

GUTHRIE of Liman, in place of the cross, carries a lion, as in Workman's Manu- 
script, viz. quarterly, first and fourth or, a lion rampant gules, second and third 
azure, three garbs or. 

Sir HENRY GUTHRIE of Kingedwards, baronet, quarterly first and fourth or, a 
lion rampant regardant gules, holding in the dexter paw a cross croslet fitched 
azure, for Guthrie ; second and third azure, three garbs or, for Cumin ; crest, a. 
lion's paw issuing out of the torce, grasping a twig of a palm tree, all proper ; sup- 
porters, two naked men wreathed about the loins with bay leaves, proper : motto,. 
Sto pro veritate. L. R. 

THOMAS GUTHRIE, sometime provost of Forfar, descended of Guthrie of Halker- 
ton, quarterly, first and fourth or, a lion rampant regardant gules, second and 



OF THE CROSS, ur 

third Cumin, all \vithin a bordure indented argent ; Cfl I ux^lct fitchcd 

azure : motto, Ex uni'ntc increuientum. Lyon Register. 

JAMES GUTHRIE of Carsbank, quarterly, first and fourth argent, a cross se.ble, 
second and third, as before, Cumin, all within a bordure ingrailed gules : motto, 
Pietas S3 frugal it as. Lyon Register. 

The name of OSBORNE in England, quarterly, ermine nnd /-, 

Sir THOMAS OSBORNE, son of Sir Edward Osborne, in right of his mother, OIK 
the coheirs ot John Ncvil Lord Latimer, for adhering to the royal interest in or- 
der to the restoration of King Charles II. was erected Viscount of Dumblane in 
Scotland, and Baron of Kiveton, and Viscount of Latimer in England, 1673 ; and 
in the year following, by the same King, Earl of Danby, and installed Knight 
of the Garter. Afterwards, in the year 1689, he came to be Marquis of Carmar- 
then, and in the year 1694, Duke of LEEDS. He carries, quarterly, ermine and 
azure, a cross or, for his paternal bearing. 

The ancient and honourable name of SINCLAIR, argent, a cross ingrailed j 
of which more afterwards. Fig. 27. Plate V. 

There is another accidental form, to which the other ordinaries are subject, but 
especially the cross, which the English term rnguled or trunke d . As in the bearing 
of the Lord SANDYS in England ; argent, a cross raguled sable, fig. 28. Plate V. 
Guillim, in- his Blazons, uses the word trunked ; which term cannot relate here to 
the body of the cross, or the trees which are supposed to compose it ; for trunked 
or truncatum is said of a tree cut in two, and of the head of any animal couped, 
i. e. cut clean off. But it seems he makes it relate to the slumps or knobs that re- 
main of the branches cut oft, and so the nodi stint truncati. The word raguled seems 
to be more proper, for which Camden, in his Blazons, makes use of the word 
nodosa ; and Mr Gibbon blazons such a cross, Crucem nodis truncatis aspersam, mak- 
ing the word trunked relate to the stumps of the branches. The French say ecote, 
for any ordinary raguled. "Ecote" says Menestrier, " se dit des troncs & branch*, s 
" de bois dont les menues branches sont occupees." Sylvester Petra Sancta gives 
us such another coat df arms, borne by the family of BERK.AE in Germany, which 
he describes thus, Crux arbori simillima, qua; decisis 13 decussis ramalibus undique 
asperatjir sabulo expifta, in arvo aurei mettalli, i. e. or, a cross raguled' sable : a St 
Andrew's cross, thus knotted hath been the ancient sea standard of the Dukes of 
Burgundy. 

The cross is subject to be counter-changed, as fig. 29. quarterly, argent and 
sable, a cross counter-changed of the same. Which blazon is given us by Gerard 
Leigh, and latined by Mr Gibbon thus, Scutum argento S3 nigro quadripartitum, 
cruce plana e didis coloribHS commutatis insignitum. The author of the Synopsis of 
Heraldry gives us this figure cantoned with four escalops, borne by the name of 
HOOK, in England, quarterly, argent and sable, a cross cantoned with four escalops, 
all counter-changed. 

Sir GEOR.GE MACKENZIE, in his Science of Heraldry, gives us such another bla- 
zon of the arms of GLENDINNING of that Ilk, as fig. 30. quarterly, argent and 
sable, a cross parted per cross indented, counter-changed of the second and first. 
Mr Pont, in his Manuscript of Blazons, says, quarterly, argent and sable, across 
indented of the one and the other ; as the French say for counter-changed de run 
en Cautre. Of this family there have been several brave men, as our historians tell 
vis, and particularly one Sir Simeon Glendinmng, who died fighting valiantly against 
the English with the Earl of Douglas at the battle of Otterburn, in the year 
1388. 

The Cross is also subject to be voided, that is, when its middle part is cut out, 
and the field appears through the middle in all its parts ; for which the Latins say, 
Crux evacuata, as fig. 31. Plate V. azure, a cross or, waved and voided of the 
field. 

If the voiding be of another colour or metal than the field, the cross is then said 
to be charged with another cross ; for which our English heralds have some need- 
less terms, as sarcelled. and resarcelled ; which I industriously omit, being of no 
use but to confuse the blazon, and amuse the reader. 

When a cross is accompanied with figures, the English, in their blazons, use 
the word betu'ixt or between, as frequently we do ; and sometimes we follow tha 



H2 OF THE CROSS, 

French, in saying, a cross cantoned with such figures. Cantoned is said of the 
cross and saltier, when they are placed between figures, which appear between the 
branches of the cross and saltier, in the cantons. 

BANNATYNE of Corhouse, argent, a cross between four stars azure, as fig. 32. 
Plate V. The French, d'argent a la croix cantone de qi.atre etoiles d\a-zur. The 
Latins, In scuto argenteo crucem planam, ad quatuor scuti angulos singulis stellulis 
if idem ccemleis- percinttam ; crest, a demi-griffin, holding in his right paw a swprd 
upright, proper : motto, Nee cito nee tarde. L. R. 

BANNATYNE of Newhall, as descended of Corhouse, argent, on a cross azure, be- 
tween four mullets gules, a crescent or ; crest, a demi-griffin holding in its dexter 
paw a sword, with the motto, Dum spiro spero. So matriculated in the Lyon 
Register. Other ancient families of the surname of Bannatyne carry a cheveron 
in place of the cross ; of whom afterwards. 

When a cross is charged with any figure, we say of it, as of the other ordinaries, 
on a cross : as Sir George Mackenzie in the blazon of the arms of the name of 
SPALDING, or, on a cross azure, five cross croslets of the first. The first of the name 
of Spalding with us was an Englishman, who assisted Sir Thomas Randolph, Earl 
of Murray, in recovering the town of Berwick from the English, in the year 1318; 
for which good services he got several lands in Scotland. I have seen a charter of 
confirmation of Prince David's, eldest son of King Robert III. to Richard Spalding, 
of the lands of Lumlethen and Craigaw, in the shire of Fife. 

Crosses are sometimes pierced in the middle, so that the field is seen through 
the same. When the piercing is round, it suffices to say, pierced or perforated, 
as fig. 33. sable, a cross couped or, pierced of the field. If pierced after the form 
of a lozenge, then they say, pierced Lozenge-ways ; when pierced after the form of 
a square, it is mentioned in the blazon. 

If the piercings be in any other part of the crosses but in the middle, then they 
are not to be taken for piercings, but for charges. 

Couped or aliece is said of a cross or saltier, when their extremities do not 
touch the sides of the shield, but when there are more than one cross in the field, 
they cannot but be couped, and then that term is not added in the blazon, more 
than to other common charges, when they accompany the ordinaries. 

Crosses, for the most part, are couped, because they have their proper forms in 
their extremities : of which proper forms of crosses I shall now proceed to show 
some examples. 

Fig. 34. argent, a cross potent azure ; here the traverse is placed on the top of 
the stem or paler part. Guillim says it may be called a cross crutchy, for the 
resemblance it has to a crouch, which in old English was called potent. The 
French call it potence, which signifies a crouch or a gibbet ; for which the Latins say, 
crux patibulata. 

THE name of BUTTER of old with us carried argent, a cross potent azure, be- 
tween four men's hearts gules. Mr Pont, in his blazons of these arms, calls it a 
cross batune, following Gerard Leigh ; the reason for its being so called, is from 
its composition of two battons. But BUTTER, of Gormach has it a plain cross, as 
in his blazon in the Lyon Register, viz. argent, a cross sable, between four men's 
hearts proper ; crest, two hands issuing out of a cloud, drawing an arrow in a bow : 
motto, Dirigct Deus. 

Menestrier gives an example of cross patents in the arms of Chabeel Originaires dc 
.Danphine, which he blazons " d'azur, a la Bande d'argent, charge de trois rocs 
de sable, a Porle potences tournees d'argent brise d'un mullet d'argent a Tangle 
senestre de 1'ecu," i. e. azure on a bend argent, betwixt two orles of cross potents 
tournte, three chess rooks sable , and, for a mark of cadency, a mullet in the sinister 
chief point of the last. These cross potents here are like T's, contrary to one ano- 
ther, as the pieces of the furr, called potent counter -potent, the one opposite to the 
other : of which before in the chapter of Furrs. 

Fig. 35. Plate V. Potent counter-potent, is said of a cross, when its extremities 
are terminate with short traverses; as Monsieur Baron says, Potence contre potence 
si ces extremites en dedans en facon de I" contre T; as that cross in the arms of God- 
frey of Boulogne King of Jerusalem, argent ; a cross potent counter-potent, can- 
toned with four cross croslets or, Chiffletius blazons these arms thus, Crux pedata- 



6M.1, 







OF THE CROSS, isc. 115 



or am scuti minimi- pcrtin^cns, ad quatuor scuti angulos singulis cruJbus itidc m aureis 
pracincta in solo argenteo. 

Sylvester Petra Sancta says, this cross of Hierusalem is made by the two initial 
letters H I, of Hierusalem interlaced, and several antiquaries are of his opinion ; 
but Menestrier is in the contrary opinion, and tells m, that the Syrian characters 
H I could never form such a figure as the cross potent : And Favin, in hb Theatre 
of Honour, will likewise have it to be a cross, and gives ui an ancient account of 
it, that it was such an one as that on the gonfanoun or ensign of Jerusalem, that 
George, abbot of Mount-Olivet in Jerusalem, and Felix, abbot in Bethlehem, 
brought to Charlemagne in the year 792 ; which ensign was of white silk, and 
upon it a red cross counter-potent, cantoned with four little crosses ; which five 
crosses, says he, did represent our Saviour's five wounds. And afterwards when 
Godfrey of Boulogne was made King of Jerusalem, he assumed these crosses for his 
royal ensign, and turned them from the red colour, to the metal gold, in a silver 
field, contrary to the practice in armories, to place metal upon metal, but was 
done with the consent of the princes of Europe, that his arms might move the be- 
holders jto enquire after them ; for which they have the special name through all 
Europe of Anna inquircntla. 

The King of Spam, and the Duke of Savoy as King of Cyprus, the Duke of 
Loraine, and the Duke of Montserrate, as pretenders to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 
do all of them quarter the foresaid arms with their own. 

Such a cross, says Randle Holmes, in his Academy of Armories, was carried by 
those that were inrolled for the voyage to the Holy Land, about the year 1187, 
and was sewed on the left side of their garments, right against the heart ; the 
French wore it red, the English white, the Italians yellow, the Flemings green, 
and the Germans black : Such a cross as this is carried for arms, for the Episcopal 
See of Coventry and Litchfield in England, as fig i. Plate VI. parted per pale, 
gules and argent, a cross potent counter-potent, quadrate in the centre, between 
four crosses patee, all counter-changed of the same. 

When the ens s potent, or any other cross, of whatsoever form, is made sharp in 
the unde* part, it is then termed fitcbe or aiguise ; the Latins say, cruces in imo 
spiculata or cuspidatee. The reason of having them so was from an old custom 
which Christians then had, who carried, in their pilgrimages, little crosses, of what- 
soever form they affected, sharp at the point, which they fixed in the ground be- 
fore them, in their devotions ; so that we find many crosses in arms fitched, of 
which there are two sorts, fitcbe from the middle or centre of the cross, as the 
Latins say, quarum pars inferior ab ipso umbilico spiculata est ; the other fitcbe is 
when the under part of the cross keeps its specific form, but has a point added to 
it, then it is said to be thefeched at the foot ; the French, fitcbe en pied. 

An example of the first is the bearing of ETHELRED, King of the West-Saxons, 
who lived in the year 946, as English writers tell us, fig. 2. azure, a cross counter- 
potent fitched or: Mr Gibbon blazons it thus, portal in scuto cyaneo crucem pati- 
bulatam cujus pars ima ab ipso. scilicet crucis centra in spiculum prodit. Gules, a 
cheveron argent, between ten cross patees argent, as fig. 3. Plate VI. This is ano- 
ther specific form of a cross, which has its extremities ending broad, for which we 
say patee ; the Latins say patula, or crux ad scapos patula ; Menestrier says, patee 
des croix du les extremites se lagissent en forme cfestendue. Gules, a cross patee or, 
borne by the name of Islip in England ; Gerard Leigh calls this a cross forme ; 
such crosses are very frequent in armories, and adorn sovereigns' crowns, as those 
of Scotland and England, of which afterwards. Camden tells us, in his Remains 
of his History, page 180. at the title of armories, that one of the Lords BERKELEY 
or BARCLAY (whose progenitor came to England with William the Conqueror, and 
took the surname from the castle of Berkeley in Gloucestershire, and carried for 
arms, gules, a cheveron argent) he took upon him the cross to the Holy War, in- 
serted ten crosses patees argent, in his arms ; six of which accompanied the cheve- 
ron in chief, and four in base, as fig. 3. Which family had a numerous issue ; 
some of which came to Scotland, but the right male-line, it seems, of this family 
failed in the reign of Henry II. and was represented by a daughter, Alice Berkeley 
the heiress, who was married to Robert Fitzharding, a powerful man in those 
times, whose descendants were called Berkeley-Hardings ; of whom is descended 

Ff 



n 4 OF THE CROSS, tf 6-. 

the present James Earl of Berkeley, who carries gules, a cheveron between ten 
crosses patee (six above and four below) argent ; this family was honoured with 
the title of Baron Berkeley, the 23d of June 1295, by Edward I. and with the title 
of viscount and earl by King Charles II. the nth of September 1679. 

There is another branch of this family in England, which was dignified by King 
Charles II. the sgth of May, with the title of Baron Berkeley of Straton. 

As for the branch of the old stem of Barclays that came to Scotland, in the 
reign of King William, we have it mentioned by several English historions, as by 
Julmond Howes, in his History of England page 153. where he says, that. amongst 
the younger sons of the noblemen of England, that came to Scotland with King 
William, after he had given security for his ransom, was one Barclay. We find 
in King William's charters to the abbacy of Dunfermline, amongst the witnesses 
are Walter de Barclay, and Robert de Barclay ; and in the reign of Alexander II. 
Malcolm Earl of Angus, married the daughter of Sir Humphry Barclay, as in the 
Register of Arbroath, in a charter granted by Malcolm Earl of Fife, (who lived in 
the reign of Alexander III.) to Andrew de Swinton, Roger de Barclay is a witness ; 
Hugh Barclay obtains a charter from King Robert the Bruce, the i8th year of his 
reign, of the lands of Upper and Nether-Westerton, to himself and his wife 
Helen, as in the Registers of Melrose, page 48. And, in the same Register, page 
62. Walter Barclay Miles, sheriff of Aberdeen, is so designed in a charter of King 
Robert the Bruce to that town : I have seen his seal of arms affixed to evidences, 
too long here to insert, which was the same with the Lord Berkeley's arms in 
England, having a cheveron accompanied with ten cross patees. And Sir James 
Balfour, in his Manuscript of Blazons, says, the surname of Barclay with us, in the 
year 1247, carried gules, a cheveron between ten crosses patees argent, six in chief, 
and four in base. 

I am not to give a deduction of the descents of the families of the name of 
BARCLAY with us, which I leave to our genealogists, and shall only mention some 
of the families of this name, with their blazons at the end of this chapter, as 1 
find them in our old and modern books of blazons ; but to proceed to the crosses. 

The cross patee is sometimes carried fitched at the foot, and sometimes fitched 
from the middle ; for an example of the first, I give here thut as given us by the 
English, fig. 6. Plate VI. The arms of EDMOND IRONSIDE, King of England, or, 
a cross patee fitched at the foot azure ; thus latined by Mr Gibbon, in parmula 
aurea crucem cceruleam ad quatuor ejus extremitates patulam, \3 ejusdem ima pars est 
ad pedem cuspidata ; the same arms are given by the English to CADWALLADER, 
last King of the Britons ; but Mr Holmes, in his Academy of Armories, gives tin 
following blazon to him, as fig. 4. Plate VI. azure, a cross patee fitched argent, 

This cross, as others, may be used sometimes of two tinctures ; the Canons re- 
gular of the holy cross, the chief of whom is at Huy in the country of Liege, 
carries, in a round shield, a cross patee, whereof the stem (or paler part) is gules, 
and the traverse argent ; they use it on a black scapular. 

The Trinitarians of the Redemption of Captives, carry argent, a cross patee, 
whereof the stem is gules, and the traverse argent ; the reformed of that Order in 
France carries the same, but surround it with a bordure of France, and those of 
Spain with a bordure of Castile, as Menestrier observes. 

Fig. 5. Plate VI. Or, a cross patee azure, fimbriated (or bordured) gules, borne 
by the name of Fombrial, says Holmes. This cannot be said to be voided, because 
the field does not appear in voiding, nor to be a cross charged with another, be- 
cause of colour upon colour ; therefore it is called by the English, a cross fimbriat- 
ed, that is, edged with another colour. Bara and Sir John Feme call it a cross 
resarcelce, which signifies to edge or hem ; if a voidure of the field appear between 
the cross and the edging, it may be then called a cross cottised ; the Knights of 
St Mary the Glorious, in Italy, carried for their badge, a cross patee purpure, fim- 
briated or. 

Fig. 7. The cross Tau, or cross of St Anthony, because that saint is always re- 
presented in paintings with this cross on his shoulder ; and the Emperor Maxi- 
milian permitted those of the Order of St Anthony, to place on the breast of the 
Imperial eagle, which he granted to them as their arms, being an escutcheon or. 



OF THE CROSS, 

charged with a crass Tau azure. This cross is always represented patutus, and i , 
almost the same with the cross potent, or potence, and so blazoned by Favin. 

Fig. 8. Plate VI. This is called a cross of eight prints ; and now commonly thr- 
cross of Malta. It \vas worn by the Knights of the Order of Hospitallers of St 
John Baptist in Jerusalem; which Order was institute by King Baldwin 1104; 
they carried a white cross of eight points upon their red cassocks ; and after these 
Knights were expelled Jerusalem and Rhodes, they betook themselves to the Island 
of Malta, in the year 1520, where they reside; from which place this Order and 
cross have now the name of the Order and cross of Malta. The cross, which hangs 
at the collar of the Order of the Holy Ghost in France, is after that form. 

Monsieur Baron says, a cross may have its extremities ending in eight, twelve, 
or sixteen points, and gives us for example, the arms of Meline in France, d'azur 
a la croix d seize points de argent, i. e. azure, a cross of sixteen points argent. 

Fig. 9. Cross anchorie is when its extremities turn back, like the velocks of an 
anchor ; " ancre" says Monsieur Baron, " convient aux croix &. aux sautoirs, lors- 
" que leurs extremites sont termines en double points recubees en facon d'ancre ;" 
and gives for example the arms of Aubusson de la Feuillade, d'or, une croix ancree de 
gueules, i. e. or, a cross anchor gules : In Latin, refert in scuto aureo anchoratam 
cruccm cocclneam. The Knights of the Order of St Saviour in Arragon, institute 
by Alphonso King of Spain, in the year 1118, have, for their badge, a red cross 
anchorie in a white field; the English ordinarily call this cross, a cross moline; 
whereas the cross moline is always pierced in the middle, as by the following 
figure. 

The cross moline is much after the form of the cross anchorie, but always 
pierced, square or circular in the middle, fig. 10. it represents the mill-rind, or the 
ink of the mill ; the Latins say, crux molendinaris, er for rum molendinarium ; and 
the French call it amillee, ou fer de moulin. Boswell, in his Book of Heraldry, 
intitled the Armories of Honour, says, the cross moline is after the form of an iron 
instrument, fixed in the nether-stone of a mill, which beareth and guideth the 
upper-millstone equally in its course, and is a fit bearing for judges and magi- 
strates, who should carry themselves equally to every man in giving justice ; and 
Menestrier says, in arms, it is a mark of superiority and jurisdiction of a baron, 
that has tenants and vassals thirled and bound to their mills : For of old none but 
barons had right to erect mills, and by some it is carried as relative to their names, 
as Milne and Miller. 

The shape of this cross moline varies a little, according to the fashion of the 
countries ; sometimes given thus, as fig. 10. by Menestrier, in his La Science de la 
Noblesse, borne by the family of Montfort in the Low -Country of Gueldres, argent, 
a trois annelles de gueules. 

The surname of COLVIL, with us, argent, a cross moline sable, fig. 10. By our 
painters and engravers it is often represented not perforate, which it should be, 
and is so expressed in old books of blazons, as in those of Sir James Balfour, 
COLVIL of Ochiltree, argent, a cross moline sable , square pierced of the field. 

As for the antiquity of this name, I find Philippus de Colvil a witness in a charter 
of King William the Lion, Randulpho Rupho Kinaird, penes Dominum de Kinaird. 
And in another charter (in the custody of Lauder of Fountainhall) granted by 
Robert Lauder, Miles Dominus tie ^uarrclwood, of some lands in Lauder, to Thomas 
Borthwick, in the reign of Alexander III. IWllielmus de Colvil is a witness. And 
another William de Colvil gets a charter from King Robert I. of half the lands of 
Whitsom, in the shire of Berwick, in rotula Robert I. And King David II. gave 
a charter to Robert Colvil of the barony of Ochiltree. Richard Colvil of Ochil- 
tree was slain by the Earl of Douglas for killing John Affleck of that Ilk, in the 
year 1449. 

Sir William of Ochiltree, in the beginning of the reign of King James IV. died 
without issue-male, leaving two daughters. Robert Colvil of Hilton, whether as 
heir-male, or otherwise, I know not, acquired the barony of Ochiltree. He wa^ 
Director of the Chancery in the reign of King James IV. with whom he lost his 
life at Flodden. He was succeeded by his son Sir James Colvil of Ochiltree, who 
was also Director of the Chancery in King James V.'s time. He excambed the 
lands of Ochiltree with Sir James Hamilton, natural son to the Earl of Arran, 



OF THE CROSS, 

for the lands af Easter- Wemyss in Fife, in the year 1530; and was afterwards 
designed, in writs, Sir James Colvil of Easter- Wemyss, Comptroller and Director 
of the Chancery. His grandchild, Sir James Colvil, a famous soldier in the wars 
of Henry, King of Navarre, against the Leaguers in France, upon his return home, 
was advanced to the dignity of a Lord of Parliament by King James VI. the 25111 
April 1604, and was styled Lord Colvil of Culross : The honour ended in his grand- 
son Robert. 

ROBERT COLVIL, son of Sir James Colvil of Easter- Wemyss, got from his father 
the lands of Cleish, in Kinrosshire, whence he and his descendants were designed 
of Cleish, till they were raised to the honour of peerage in the person of Robert 
Colvil of Cleish, by King Charles II. with the title of Lord Colvil of Ochiltree, as 
by letters patent, 4th of January 1651 ; but he dying without issue, his estate and 
honours devolved on Robert Colvil his nephew, father of the present Lord Colvil, 
who carries, quarterly, I and 4 argent, a cross moline sable, for Colvil ; 2 and 3 
gules, a fesse cheque, argent and azure, for Lindsay, supported on the dexter by a 
rhinoceros, proper, and on the sinister by a Hercules, clothed with a lion's skin, 
with a club in his hand ; crest, a hind's head couped argent : motto, Oublier ne 
puis. 

Sir ALEXANDER COLVIL of Blair, son to Mr Alexander Colvil of Blair, sometime 
Justice-Depute, son to Alexander Colvil, Commendator of Culross, second son to Sir 
James Colvil of Hilton and Tullicoultry, uncle to the Lord Colvil of Culross, the 
great soldier, as in the Lyon Register, carries the above quartered arms w r ithin a 
bordure, quarterly, gules and Argent ; and for crest, a hind's head couped, proper ; 
with the motto, Non obliviscar : And there also are the arms of one Matthew 
Colvil, writer in Edinburgh, third son to William Colvil of Leffnissick, lineally 
descended of Colvil of Ochiltree, argent, a cross moline sable, with a mulkt for 
difference ; crest, a Hercules from the middle, clothed with' a lion's skin, holding 
in his hand a batton : motto, Oublier ne puis. 

As for other families carrying cross molines, I shall speak to them and their 
arms in the end of this chapter. 

The English not only give us a cross moline perforated in the centre, which then 
they call cross fer de moline, but also a cross, moline, altogether voided, Plate VI. 
fig. 12. which some of them call a cross cercelee, and Morgan a cross resarcelee ; 
and Guillim, a cross moline voided throughout, as in the arms of KNO-LLES Earl of 
BANBURY, azure, seme of cross croslets, a cross moline or, voided throughout of 
the field ; and VERNY Lord WILLOUGHBY de BROKE, gules, three crosses resarcelee 
voided or, a chief vair, ermine and ermines. 

Fig. 13. Plate VI. This is commonly called the cross of passion, by some the 
long cross ; it has a long stem or paler part, and a short traverse near the top, such 
an one was that which our Saviour suffered on, and for which it is jailed the cross 
of passion. 

The surname of MANSON, with us, carries such a cross between two stars ; the 
same was on a piece of household-work, belonging to Joseph Manson, carpenter to- 
Queen Mary and King James VI. 

Fig. 14. The cross of Calvary is the same with the cross of passion, set on three 
steps or degrees, which are said to represent, Faith, Hope, and Charity. The 
family of BOFFINES, in Dauphine, carries this cross, because one of the progenitors- 
of that family built the Calvary at Rome, after the form of that at Jerusalem ; as 
Menestrier says. 

Fig. 15. Plate VI. The cross patriarchal has its paler part crossed with two 
traverses, the uppermost not so long as that which is below it ; which two tra- 
verses denote the work of redemption to the Jews and Gentiles. The Patriarch of 
Jerusalem had for his ensign, argent, a cross patriarchal, cantoned with four stars 
gules ; and the Patriarch of Constantinople had such another of gold, in a blue 
field, t>etwixt two stars in chief, and a crescent in base argent ; as Favin in his. 
Theatre of Honour. This cross is also called by some, the cross of Lorame, as 
Monsieur Baron in his Blazon of the Arms of MENTES in France, d 'argent, a la, 
croix de Loraine de sable. 

The Pope's cross staff differs from that of the patriarch's, in having three tra- 
verses. 



01 THE CROSS, &.. 

Fig 16. Crass croslet has its extremities ending in little crosses, called by th 
French mi.\ recrohee. Sylvester Pctra Sancta says, " Si autein ad scapos ejus 
" fuerint repetiLnc cruces fit crux recrusciata;" which figure is frequently borne in 
Britain, but more especially when iltchsd, of which immediately. 

The name of TULLOCH, or, on a fesse between three cross croslcti gules, as many 
crescents argent. 

RICH Earl of WARWICK, and HOLLAND, gules, a chevernn betwixt three cross 
croslets or. 

Fig. 17. Cross, croslet fitcbed is when the undermost part of the cross is sharp; 
by the French, fitche. The Latins say, crux brucbatu in imo spiculata, frequently 
carried with us and the English. The ancient and honourable family of MARK 
Earls of MARR, had for their armorial ensign, azure, a bend betwixt six cross cros- 
lets ftcbe or; of which family afterwards with others. 

Plate VI. fig. 1 8. The cross furcbee, crux fur cata, has its extremities forked; but 
since they are blunt or obtuse., says Mr Gibbon, -it may be better latined, crucem 
obtusis tcrminis fur cat am. Sir George Mackenzie gives us the form of this cross, 
and says, he has not found it used in Scots bearings ; neither have I met with its 
practice with us, if that figure in the Cunningham's arms be not a part of it, as 
some will ; of which afterwards. 

Plate VI. fig. 19. The cross bottony, that is, says Gerard Leigh, a cross budded ; 
because its extremities end in buds of flowers : The French call it croix treflee, be- 
cause its extremities end in trefoils. In the little book called The Art of Herald- 
ry, the arms of Sir Ralph Winwood, Principal Secretary of State to King 
James VII. argent, a cross bottony sable : And Baron gives us the arms of Caudon 
m France, de gueules, a la croix treflee cCor. 

Fig. 20. Plate VI. Cross pome ttee or pomee, which comes from the French word 
pome, an apple ; some call it a cross pomel/e, because its extremities end in a round 
knob, or globe, like an apple, or the pommel of a sword : Peacham, in his Piece of 
Heraldry, calls this a cross bourdonnee, as if it were made of pilgrims' staffs, which 
use to have a round ball at the top. The name of POWMALE, in England, argent, 
a cross pomele sable. As Holmes in his Academy of Armories. 

Fig. 21. plate VI. Cross clecbee, its parts are like the handle or bowl of a key, 
voided and terminated with globes. " Cleche," says Menestrier, " se dit de^ 
44 arrondis-semens de la croix de Toulouse dont les quatre extremites sont faites.cornme 
44 les anneaux des clefs." It is said, that Torsin, who was put into possession of 
the country of Toulouse by Charles the Great of France, had such a cross, which 
became afterwards the ensign of the Counts of Toulouse, viz. gules, a cross clecbe 
voided and pomettet or. Rene, the last Count of that country, who married Jean, 
only daughter to Alphonso, brother to St Lewis, King of France, died without 
issue ; and that country was annexed to the kingdom of France, in the year 1261. 
Menestrier gives us another cross of the same, born by the family of Venasques, 
(fazur, a la croix vuidee et pomettee d'or. 

Fig. 22. Cross Jteur-de-lissee, by some called flcurcttee, has its extremities end- 
ing in a flower of three leaves, or flower-de-luces, with a purfle, or line between 
them and the ends of the cross. Mr Gibbon describes it thus, " Crucem ad sin- 
" gulos ejus terminos (filo linea instita mediante) tria lilia folia apponuntur." Ge- 
rard Leigh says, such a cross, which he calls furtie, was carried by Edwin, the first 
Christian King of Northumberland. The family of Villikier in France, azure, 
a cross flower-de-lucy, cantoned with twelve billets or. Holmes calls this a cross 
potence fiurt, and says, the name of Holmshaw carries such a cross sable, in a field 
argent. 

Fig. 23. This is called a cross-fory or Jleury; it is like the former cross, with- 
out the purfle or line betwixt the ends of the cross and the flower. Mr Gibbon 
describes it. " Crucem in liliorum folia (nulla linea sen filo interposito) desinen- 
" tern :" others call it crucem forid/im. Gerard Leigh calls it cross formee Jleury, 
and says, that Egebert King of England carried such a cross of gold in a blue 
field. 

FLETCHER of SALTON, sable, a cross flory between four escalops argent, which 
blazon is matriculated in the New Register: and for crest, a demi-blood-hound 

Gg 



Ii8 OF THE CROSS, 

awe, langued gules, cellared with a ducal crown, or; supporters, two griffins pro- 
per ; with the motto, Dicu pour nous. 

Sir ANDREW FLETCHER of Innerpeffer, an eminent Lawyer, and one of the Se- 
nators of the College of Justice, purchased the lands of Salton in East Lothian, 
from Alexander Lord Abernethy 1638, of whom the present Henry Fletcher of 
Salton is descended. 

Sir ANDREW FLETCHER of Aberlady, a brother of Salton, carries the foresaid 
arms within a bordure ingrailed argent, for his difference ; and for crest, a demi- 
lion azure, holding, in his dexter paxv, a cross croslet fitched or ; with the motto, 
Yortis in arduis. In the Lyon Register. 

FLETCHER of Maugan, in the county of Cornwall in England, carries ermine, a 
:ross moline sable, as in Morgan's Heraldry. 

When the cross-flory is like to a cross patee, turning broad at the extremities, 
which are cut out like a flower, it is termed by the English cross patonce: purpure, 
.i cross patonce argent, said by Mr Holmes to be the coat of Boniface, the forty- 
sixth archbishop of Canterbury. 

Fig. 24. plate VI. This is called a cross gringolee or guivree ; which is said of 
crosses, saltiers, and other figures whose extremities end with heads of serpents j 
guivris signifing a viper or serpent. The arms of Kaer in France gules, a cross 
ermine, guivree (or gringolee^) or. Such crosses with the English are called crosses 
mtserated by Mr Holmes, who tells us, that when a cross ends with lions; talbots, 
eagles, and several sorts of other heads, it may be blazoned a cross patee, adorned 
with lions or eagles heads ; and that some blazon them leonced when with lions', 
aquilated when with eagles' heads, and pavonated when with peacocks' heads ; and 
so forth of any other figures that end the cross ; as crosses annulated, crescenfed, 
&c. which end with annulets and crescents. 

Fig. 25. Cross avellane, crux avellana, is made up of four filbert, or hazle-nuts : 
Crosses after this form top the monds of kings and emperors, and are ensigns of 
sovereignty and majesty when so placed. 

When any natural figures are situate after the position of the cross, they are 
said to compose a cross or in cross ; as argent, a cross of four queves ermine, or mou- 
chetures ermine, being the tips of the tails of the beasts ermine, situate after the 
form of a cross, borne by the name of Hurleston of Picton, in Cheshire. 

Favin, in his Theatre of Honour, gives arms to the knights and brethren of the 
Inquisition and militia, instituted by S. Dominick, in the 1206, to fight against the 
Albigenses, which he thus blazons, as fig. 29. Girone de bail pieces, d' argent et de 
table, et sur celui, une croix de lizee, parti de Vun en V outre meme, a la bordure compons 
de huit pieces de meme de sable et d 'argent, a butt etoiles de run en Yautre, et huit be- 
sants torteaux pariellement parti d? argent et de sable ; which is, parti, coupe, tranche, 
faille, (or girony of eight pieces) argent and sable, four fiower-de-luces placed in 
cross within a bordure of the same partitions charged with eight stars, and as many 
besants torteaux, all counter-charged of the foresaid tinctures. 

When figures are situate after the form of a cross, the cross takes its name from 
them, and a cross, made up of lozenges so situate, is called a cross lozengee, or we 
may say also in cross ; as before of figures after the situation of other ordinaries, 
as in pale, in fcsse, bend, and bar ; and so much for crosses. Now I proceed to 
add the blazons of several families in Britain who carry such crosses as I have de- 
scribed. 

The surname of LETHEM, with us, gules, a cross ermine* Balfour's Manuscript. 
And there also, 

The surname of TAYRIE, gules, a cross vert. John Tayrie, burgess in Perth, 
mortifies several lands in that town to the church of Perth, the 2oth of August 
1511, and amongst the witnesses to that mortification, there is one Robert Tayrie 
burgess and bailie of Perth. 

MOHUN Lord MOHUN, or, a cross ingrailed sable ; this family was dignified with 
the title of Lord, the I5th of April 1628, by King Charles I. 

RAYNSFORD of Dallington, argent, a cross sable. 

The name of HUSSEY in England, or, a cross vert : and there the name of 
ARCHER, ermine, a cross sable. 

The honourable name of SINCLAIR, originally from the name of St GLAIR, in 
France, has been very eminent in Scotland, and carry for their paternal arms, 



OF THE CROSS, tfc. 

argent, a cross ingrailcd sable. William Sinclair miles, is so designed in a (Jmrtcr, 
that he got from King Alexander, of the lands of Roslin, penes Dominion de R^s- 
line. His son Sir William Sinclair of Roslin or Rowland, in the reign of Alexander 
III. was Sheriff of Edinburgh, and afterwards one of the arbitrators betwixt 
Bruce and the Baliol. He and his son Henry Sinclair swore allegiance to Edward 
the I. of England,, as in Prynne's Collect, page 301. And there one Gregory Sin- 
clair, with the gentry of the shirr, of Berwick, is said to have sworn also allegiai, 
he is thought to be the brother of the lust Henry, and the first of the family of 
Sinclair of Longformacus, in the shire of Berwick, upon the account he is record- 
ed with the gentry of that shire, where his land lay, by Prynne : and also on account 
of his relation, mentioned in Henry Sinclair Earl of Orkney's charter ; of which 
afterwards. 

Sir WILLIAM SINCLAIR, son of Henry Baron of ROSLIN, is one of the subscribers 
of the famous Letter by the nobility of Scotland to the Pope, in the reign of Ro- 
bert the Bruce. His son Henry, Baron of Roslin, says Torpheus in his Hist, page 
174, was made Earl of Orkney, by Haco King of the Norwegians : and he is de- 
signed in evidents, Henricus tie Sancto Claro Comes de Orcaden, 13 Dominus de Rosselyn ; 
and also in that obligation granted by him. to Sir James Sinclair of Longformacus, 
his cousin, whereby the earl is obliged to give him a twenty merk, land, dated at 
Roslin the 22d of June 1384. His son Henry Earl of Orkney, Lord Sinclair and 
Nithsdale, married Giles Douglas, daughter and sole heiress of William, Earl of 
Nithsdale, and Giles, daughter of King Robert II. He was governor to James, 
Prince of Scotland, when Robert the III. his father sent him to France; and they 
vYere both taken at sea by the English : his armorial bearing, as in Sir James Bal- 
four's blazons, quarterly, first and fourth azure, a ship within a double tressure, 
counter-flowered or; second and third argent, a cross ingrailed sable. His son Wil- 
liam Sinclair Earl of Orkney, built the chapel of Roslin, and was chancellor of 
Scotland in the reign of King James II. and by that King was made Earl of 
Caithness, after the death of John Crichton Earl of Caithness, who had no is- 
sue; and got a charter of that Earldom, in compensation of the Earldom of Niths- 
dale, which he had in right of his mother; which right he renounces in favour of 
the king as the charter bears, dated at Perth, the last day of April 1456. This 
Earl had a great estate, and took upon him a great many lofty titles; he was 
twice married, first to Margaret Douglas, daughter of Archibald Earl of Doug- 
las, Duke of Touraine in France ; and secondly, to Marjory Sutherland, daugh- 
ter to Alexander, Master of Sutherland, and had issue of both. He was for- 
feited by taking part with Alexander Duke of Albany, (who married his daugh- 
ter), and with the Earl of Douglas, (whose daughter he married), in their trea- 
sonable designs, and for fortifying his castle of Crichton against King James 
III. Yet the King was so good as to restore to his children (if not all) at least the 
better part of his estate. By his first lady, Margaret Douglas, he had a son William 
Sinclair of Newburgh, Dysart and Ravensheugh, of whom is descended the present 
Lord Sinclair : and by his second lady, Marjory Sutherland, daughter to Alexan- 
der Master of Sutherland, who died before his father, John Earl of Sutherland, he 
had several sons and daughters ; the eldest, Oliver, Laird of Roslin ; the second, 
William, was created Earl of Caithness. To clear the seniority of these sons, I 
have seen a contract of the date, the pth of February 1481, betwixt William Sin- 
clair, son and heir of the deceased William, Earl of Orkney, Lord Sinclair and 
7,etland, and Henry Sinclair, son and apparent heir of the said William Sinclair 
on the one part, and Sir Oliver Sinclair of Roslin on the other part ; whereby, 
the said Sir Oliver freely resigns and gives over to the said William and his son, 
and apparent heir Henry, the lands of Causland, Dysatt, and Ravensheugh, with 
the castles ; and obliges himself to deliver all rights and evidences of these lands, 
that may be profitable to his elder brother William, not being prejudicial to him- 
self and other lands, nor to his younger brother William ; and on the other part, 
William and his son Henry renounces all the right to the barony of Ros^in, Pent- 
land-muir, &c, in favours of Oliver and his heirs : and the same Oliver obliges 
himself, that he shall, in time coming, do worship and honour to the said William, 
as accords him to do to his elder brother ; and if it happen any plea or debate to 
be betwixt the said William and his younger brother for the earldom of Caithness, 
the said Sir Oliver shall stand evenly and neuter betwixt them, as he should do 



S20 OF THE CROSS, fc?c.. 

betwixt his brothers, and take no partial part with either of them. The seals ap- 
pended to this contract were those of the archbishop of St Andrews, Andrew 
Stewart Lord Evandale, Chancellor of Scotland, and of Colin Earl of Argyle, 
whose seal was, girony of eight, but not quartered with the coat of Lorn. The 
seal of William Sinclair was, quarterly, first and fourth, a ship with sails furled up, 
within a double tressure counter-flowered; second and third, a ship under sail: 
over all by way of surtout, an escutcheon with a cross ingrailed. And the seal of 
Sir Oliver had only a cross ingrailed; and of late the same arms are matriculated in 
the Lyon Register, with this crest and motto, a dove proper, with the word Credo. 

This WILLIAM SINCLAIR of Ravensheugh had, with his lady, Isabel Leslie, 
daughter to George Earl of Rothes, the forementioned son, Henry Sinclair, who 
succeeded his father; he married Jean Hepburn, daughter to Lord Hales, and was 
created a Lord of Parliament by King James IV. and in that king's first parliament, 
the 1 4th of January 1489, is declared chief of that name, as grandchild to Wil- 
liam Earl of Orkney, and, in all time coming, to be called Lord Sinclair ; he rati- 
fies the contract abovementioned of his father's, with Sir Oliver Sinclair, the 6th of 
June 1493, where he is designed a noble Lord, Henry Lord Sinclair. From him 
was lineally descended John Lord Sinclair, who married a daughter of the Earl of 
Wemyss, and with her had only one daughter, Katharine his heir ; she married 
John Sinclair of Hermiston, and had to him a son, Henry, the present Lord Sin- 
clair, and heir of Hermiston, in right of his father. 

The Lords SINCLAIRS* family have been constantly in use to carry the arms of 
the Earldom of Orkney, upon the account of pretension, or to show their descent 
from the old Earls of Orkney, quarterly, first and fourth azure ; a ship at anchor, 
her oars erected in saltier, within a double tressure counter-flowered or ; second 
and third azure, a ship under sail or, over all an escutcheon argent, charged with a 
cross ingrailed sable, for Sinclair ; which arms, as in our books of blazons, are 
adorned with exterior ornaments, crown, helmet, and mantlings, befitting their 
quality, and, on a wreath, or and azure; and for crest, a swan with wings expand- 
ed, proper, gorged with a collar and chain thereto affixed, reflexing over its back or, 
as in Mr Font's book ; (but Esplin, in his Illuminated Book, gives for crest, a 
griffin's head) supported by two griffins proper, armed or ; with the motto, 
Fight. 

WILLIAM SINCLAIR, younger son of William Earl of Orkney, Lord Sinclair and 
Zetland, by his second wife, Marjory Sutherland, beforementioned, was created 
Earl of Caithness, by King James HI. I have seen a charter of this Earl Wil- 
liam's, dated at Edinburgh the 3d of December 1498, who, with the consent of 
his brothers and sisters, dispones the lands of Swinburgh, in the lordship of Zet- 
land, to which all their seals were appended entire, with their proper differences : 
of which I shall speak in the chapter of Marks of Cadency, and only here describe 
the seal of William, Earl of Caithness, as it was appended ; upon which was a 
shield conchy, and quartered, first and fourth, a ship under sail ; second and third, 
3. lion rampant, and over all, dividing the quarters, a cross ingrailed ; the shield 
was timbred with a helmet, ensigned with a flower-de-luce for crest ; supported on 
the dexter by a griffin, and on the sinister by a lion, and the legend round the seal, 
Sig. Willielmii Comitis Cathanitt. 

In other Books, the arms of the Earl of Caithness are otherwise blazoned and il- 
luminated ; in Mr Font's they are, quarterly, first azure, a ship at anchor within a 
double tressure counter-flowered or, for the title of Orkney ; second or, a lion 
rampant gules , which he takes for the name of Spar ; the third and second, and 
the fourth azure, a ship under sail or, for Caithness, and over all a cross ingrailed 
and interchanged, argent and sable for the name of Sinclair; which arms was tim- 
bred with a coronet and helmet, with a wreath argent and sable, ensigned with 
a cock, proper ; with the motto, Commit thy ivork to God : supporters, two griffins 
proper, armed and beaked or. But James Esplin, Marchmont Herald, gives these 
arms otherwise illuminated in his book, viz. quarterly, first and fourth azure, a 
ship at anchor or ; second and third argent, a lion rampant gules, over all, divid- 
ing the quarters, a cross ingrailed sable, supported on the dexter by a griffin, pro- 
per, and, the sinister by a mermaid combing her head, proper ; and for crest a de- 
mi-bear issuing out of a coronet > with the foresaid motto. Sir George Mackenzie, 



OF THE CROSS, ^t. t2 z 

in his Science of Heraldry, gives them thus ; quarter]; , a ship at an- 

c hor, her oars erected in saltier within a double tie, sure, cuiimer-iio\vered or, by the 

name of Spar; second and third or, a lion rampant Cult's, by the name of 

fourth figure, a ship under sail or, (by some argent) by the title of Caithness; over 
all, dividing the coats, a cross ingnuled sable, by the name of St Clair. 

SINCLAIR of Herdmanston in Kast Lothian, another ancient family, has a char- 
ter of these lands from Richard de MofevilU Corutabulariiu. Rt-gis SfStorvm, grant 
ed to Hcnrico de Sancto Claro, in tl-.e year 1162, (Sir James Dalryinplr', i. 
tions, page 432;) and William de Sa;>i:to Claro di- Hcrmuruton, miles, ob; iiar 

ter from King Robert 1. of the barony of Cr>,s with, _/</<.,//./(/ servitiitmqutituor arcbi- 
tenentium in exercitu regis. John Sinclair of Heulmanston, upon Im r'^igiutiun ol" 
these lands in the hands of King James IV. obtains a new charter of the land 
Herdmanston and Carfrae, in the shire of Berwick; a>, ai ,o of the lands of Pencait- 
land which were fallen in the king's hands by the non-entry of John Lord Maxwell, 
the 3d of March 1504. The Sinckiirs of Herdmanston carried arsreiit, a cross in- 
grailed azure. Whether the family of Roslm, or that of Herdmanston be the eld- 
est family, I shall not take upon me to determine ; but these of the first very far 
surpassed the last, and most other families \vithin the kingdom, in grandeur and 
wealth ; but now both these ancient families are centred in the person of Henry, 
now Lord Sinclair, grandchild and heir to Henry the last Lord Sinclair ; who, by 
his mother, the heiress, and by his father, John Sinclair, is undoubted representa- 
tive of the Sinclairs of Roslin and Herdmanston. 

Sir ROBERT SINCLAIR of Longformacus, Baronet, quarterly, first and fourth 
argent, a cross ingrailed gules, for Sinclair ; second and third argent, on a bend 

/(?, three stars of the first, for Towers of Innerleith ; crest, a cock with open 
bill, and wings expanded, proper, having a chain about his neck, and brock or ; 
with the motto, Vincula temiw. L. R. See the Plate of Achievements. 

This family appears, by their evidents, which I have seen, to be the oldest 
branch of the Sinclairs of Roslin : And it is thought, as I observed before in the 
account of the family of Roslin, that one Gregory Sinclair, who swore allegiance 
to Edward I. of England, was brother of Henry Baron of Roslin, and first of the 
family of Longformacus, in the shire of Berwick. However, it is certain, that the 
Sinclairs possessed the lands of Longformacus, as soon, if not before the Sinclairs 
of Roslin were dignified with the title of Earl of Orkney, and Baron of Roslin ; 
for I have presently in my hands, an evident, whereby Henry, the first Earl of 
Orkney, obliges himself to infeft his beloved cousin Sir James Sinclair, Baron of 
Longformacus, in a twenty merkland. The words of the obligation are, " Uni- 
" versis patent, &c. Nos Henricum de Sancto Claro, Comitem Orcadiae, &. Domi- 
' num de Roslyn, teneri firmiter, &. fideliter obligari carissimo consanguineo 
" nostro, Jacobo de Sancto Claro, Domino de Longfurdmakhuse," &c. Which 
evident is dated at Roslin, the 22d of June 1384. The witnesses are, Thomas 
Erskine of Dun, George Abernethy of Soulston, Walter Halyburton of that Ilk, 
and John Halyburton of Dirleton. Afterwards, James Sinclair of Longformacus, 
son of James Sinclair of Longformacus, obtains a charter from Henry Earl of 
Orkney, Lord Sinclair and Nithsdale, of twenty merks yearly, to be uplifted out 
of the lands of Leny, dated at Roslin loth February 1418. When and how they 
came to the lands of Longformacus, 1 cannot be positive ; but, for certain, they 
had these lands in the reign of Robert II. from the Earl of March. I see a charter 
of King Robert III. in the fourth year of his reiyn, Confirming a charter of George 
Dunbar Earl of March, granted to James Sinclair of Longformacus, of the same lands, 
lying within the Earldom of March, and sheriffdom of Berwick. From this same 
James Sinclair was lineally descended James Sinclair, eldest son and apparent heir 
to David Sinclair of Longformacus ; who, upon his father's resignation, obtains a 
new charter of the barony of Longformacus, from Alexander Duke of Albany, 
Earl of March, Lord Annandale, and the Isle of Man, dated at the castle of Dun- 
bar, i2th of October 1472, (which evidents are in the custody of the present 
Longformacus.^) From the above James, last mentioned, was descended Sir Ro- 
bert Sinclair ot Longformacus, baronet, an eminent lawyer, who married Elizabeth, 
daughter and heir of Douglas of Blackerston, in the Merse ; by whom he had a 
son and successor, Sir John. And, secondly, he married Margaret Alexander, 

Hh 



OF THE CROSS, 

daughter to William Lord Alexander, eldest son of the Earl of Stirling : She bars 
to him two daughters ; the eldest was married to John, Master of Bargeny, and the 
other to Sir John Swinton of that Ilk. 

Sir JOHN SINCLAIR of Longformacus married Jean Towers, only daughter and 
heiress of Sir John Towers of Innerleith, who bare to him the present Sir Robert 
Sinclair of Longformacus, baronet ; who quartered his mother's arms with his own, 
as above blazoned. 

Sir ROBERT SINCLAIR of Stevenston, descended of a second son of Longforma- 
cus, argent, on a cross ingrailed gules, five bezants or. 

SINCLAIR of Blanse, quarterly, first and fourth, the same with Herdmanston ; 
second and third or, three martlets gules, as in Font's MSS. 

JAMES SINCLAIR of Freswick, eldest son of a second marriage of Sinclair of 
Rattar, whose grandfather was a third brother of the Earl of Caithness, quarterly, 
first azure, a ship at anchor, with oars in saltier, within a double tressure counter- 
flowered or ; second, or, a lion rampant gules ; third as the second, and the fourth 
Azure, a ship under sail or ; and, over all, dividing the quarters, a cross ingrailed 
sable, all within a bordure cheque, or and gules ; crest, a cross patee within a 
circle of stars argent : motto, Via crucis, via lucis. N. R. 

WILLIAM SINCLAIR of Dumbaith, descended of the Earl of Caithness, quarterly, 
first azure, a ship at anchor, her oars in saltier, within a double tressure counter- 
flowered or ; second and third or, a lion rampant gules ; fourth azure, a ship under 
sail or ; and over all, dividing the quarters, a cross ingrailed sable , all within a 
bordure cheque, or and gules ; crest, a cross pattee within a circle of stars argent : 
motto, Via crucis, via lucis. Ibid. 

WILLIAM SINCLAIR of Dumbaith, descended of the Earl of Caithness, quarterly, 
first azure, a ship at anchor, her oars in saltier, within a double tressure counter- 
flowered or ; second and third or, a lion rampant gules ; fourth azure, a ship under 
sail or ; over all, dividing the coats, a cross ingrailed sable, all within a bordure 
indented gules ; crest, a man displaying a banner, proper : motto, Te duce gloria- 
mur. Lyon Register. And there, 

PATRICK SINCLAIR of Ulbster, carries the same three quartered coats, as above, 
with a cross ingrailed sable dividing them, all within a bordure gobonated, sable 
and argent ; crest, a star issuing out of a cloud, proper : motto, Aspera virtus. 

THOMAS SINCLAIR, lawful son to William Sinclair, merchant in Thurso, descend- 
ed of the family of Caithness, argent, a cross ingrailed sable, between two mullets 
azure : motto, Fear God and live. L. R. 

JOHN SINCLAIR of Brimmes, a son of a second marriage of Mr John Sinclair of 
Ulbster, descended of the family of Sinclair of Mey, come of the House of Caith- 
ness, argent, a cross ingrailed on the outer side, and invected on the inner, sable-, 
all 'within a bordure gobonated of the second and first ; crest, an arrow, and the 
branch of a palm crossing other in saltier, proper : motto, Detur forti palma. 
Ibid. 

WILLIAM SINCLAIR of Dun, argent, a cross ingrailed sable, within a bordure of 
the second, charged with eight plates argent ; crest, a man on horseback, proper : 
motto, Promptus ad cert amen. Ibid. 

THOMAS SINCLAIR, descended of the family of Dun in Caithness, argent, a cross 
ingrailed sable, within a bordure waved of the second, charged with six stars of 
the first ; crest, a demi-man holding in one hand a sea-cat, and in the other, a 
pair of pencils, all proper : motto, Sic rectius progredior. Ibid. 

ALEXANDER SINCLAIR of Stamstare, third brother to William Sinclair of Dum- 
baith, descended of the family of Caithness, the same with Dumbaith ; but, for 
difference, has a bordure invected gules ; crest and motto as Dumbaith. Ibid. 

FRANCIS SINCLAIR of Stircock, the quartered coat of Caithness, with the cross in- 
grailed, dividing the quarters, all within a bordure gobonated, gules and or ; crest, 
a naked arm issuing out of a cloud, grasping a small sword, with another lying by, 
all proper : motto, Me vincit, ego mereo. Ibid. 

JOHN SINCLAIR, Writer in Edinburgh, descended of the family of Caithness, 
argent, a cross ingrailed between two mascles in chief sable: motto, Crux dat 
salutem. Ibid.. 



OF THE CROSS, &c.. 1.24 

Sir JAMES SINCLAIR of Oldbarr, Baronet, argent, a cross parted per cross, fable 
and gules ingrailed ; in the dexter canton, the badge of knight-baronet ; crest, an 
otter issuing out of the wreath : motto, ^uociaique ferar. Ibid. 

The surname of RAIT or Knur, or, a cross ingrailed sable : The first of this 
name is said to be a German, from the country of Rhetia, from whence the name; 
and, it is said, to have come to Scotland in the reign of Malcolm IV. and from that 
king got some lands in the shire of Nairn, which he called after his own name. 
In the reign of John Baliol, mention is made by our historians of Sir Gems Rait 
of that Ilk. In the reign of Robert III. Sir Alexander Rait of that Ilk, having 
killed the Thane of Calder, fled to the Merns, and lived under the protection of 

the Earl Marischal ; his son, Mark Rait, married Dunnct, heiress of 

Halgrecn, and got with her these lands. David Rait of Halgreen and Drumnagar 
gets a charter from King James III. of these lands, of whom were descended the 
Raits, lairds of Halgreen ; who carried as above, for crest, an anchor, proper ; 
motto, Spero meliora. Lyon Register. 

Mr WILLIAM RAIT of Pitforthie, descended of a second son of Halgreen, or, on 
a cross ingrailed sable, a hunting-horn of the first, stringed gules ; crest, an 
anchor, proper, ensigned on the top, with a crescent argent : motto, Meliora spero 
sequorque. Lyon Register. 

WILLIAM RAIT, Merchant in Dundee, whose father was a second son of Hal- 
green, or, a cross ingrailed within a bordure invected sable ; crest, a lily . motto, 
Sperandum. Lyon Register. 

The surname of WIDDERSPOON, or, a cross ingrailed betwixt four crescents gules, 
as in Mr Font's Manuscript. 

AYTON of that Ilk, argent, a cross ingrailed, cantoned with four roses gules. This 
was of old an eminent family in the shire of Berwick, in the reigns of Robert the 
Bruce, and Robert II. ; which family continued in a male succession till the reign 
of King James III. : It ended in an heiress, who was married to George Home, 
second son to Alexander Lord Home, and has continued in the name of HOME of 
Ayton, who have been in use to place over the quartered coat of Home in the centre, 
one of the red roses of Aiton. 

AYTON of Dunmura in Fife, being the next heir-male of Ayton; of that Ilk, in 

the shire of Berwick. I have seen a seal of Ayton of Dunmure, who 

was Captain of the Castle of Stirling, in the reign of King James V. upon which 
was a shield quartered, first, a cheveron between two stars in chief, and a crescent 
in base j second, the coat of Ayton as before ; third, an anchor ; and the fourth as 
first. This family, since, has procured a signature and, warrant from, the King, 
for calling the lands of Dunmure, Ayton ; and the family is now designed Ayton 
of that Ilk, and carries only the arms of Ayton, argent, a cross ingrailed, cantoned 
with four roses gules ; and for crest, a hand pulling a rose proper : with the motto, 
Decerptee. dabunt odarem. So matriculated in the Lyon Register, at the desire of 
Sir John Ayton of that Ilk, Baronet. 

Sir JOHN AYTON of Kippo, a cadet of the immediate family, being sworn Gentle- 
man-Usher of the Black-Rod in England, in presence of the Sovereign and 
Knights Companions of the most noble Order of the Garter, the 2Oth of February, 
Anno 13. Caroli II.. carried the foresaid arms, and added, by permission, the badge 
of his office, being a black batton, ensigned on the top with one of the Lions of 
England ; crest, a rose-tree vert, flowered gules : with the motto, Et decerptce 
dabunt odor em. 

JOHN AYTON of Kinaldy, descended of the family of Ayton of that Ilk, carries 
the arms of Ayton as above, within a bordure of the second ; crest, a rose-tree 
vert, flowered gules : motto, Decerptee dabunt odorem. 

JOHN AYTON of Inchdarnie, another cadet, gives the arms of Ayton as above, 
differenced with the addition of a crescent argent ; and, for crest, a rose gules : 
witli the motto, Vlrtute art a ofddunt rarius.. Which blazons are in the Lyon 
Register. 

ADINSTOUN of that Ilk, an ancient family in East-Lothian, which ended in an 

heiress, who was married to Hepburn, descended of Hepburn of 

Waughton, carried, argent, a cross ingrailed sable, cantoned with four cross cros- 



OF THE CROSS, tfc. 

lets fitched gules. As in Mr Font's Manuscript. Other books make the cross 
croslets sable. 

BALDERSTON of that Ilk, in the shire of Linlithgow, argent, a cross sable, with 
two cross croslets fitched of the last, in the two upper cantons. Balderston and 
Bauderston are to be found in the Ragman Roll : Prynne's Collections. 

GEORGE BALDERSTON, Apothecary and Chirurgeon in Edinburgh, as descended of 
the same family, carries the foresaid arms, and, for'diiference, charges the cross in 
the centre with a mascle or. As in the new Register. 

KEIR of the Carse, argent, a cross ingrailed sable, between four roses gules. 
Font's manuscript. 

The name of RIND, ermine, on a cross gules, a cross croslet fitched or, and in 
the sinister quarter argent, two mullets azure : as in Sir George Mackenzie's 
Science of Heraldry. 

DUDDINGSTON of that Ilk, argent on a cross ingrailed sable, between two cross 
croslets fitched gules, in chief of the last, a star or. Workman's MS. 

DUDDINGSTON of Sandford, gules, a cheveron argent, between three cross croslets 
fitched or ; crest, a grey-hound's head couped, proper : motto, Recreat & Atit. 
Lyon Register. 

The EPISCOPAL SEE of DURHAM has for its ensign, azure, a cross or, cantoned 
with four lions rampant, argent. 

The name of BUTTER of old with us carried argent, a cross potent (or bottony, 
as some call it) azure, betwixt four men's hearts gules ; but Butter of Gormach 
carries now argent, a plain cross sable, between four men's hearts gules ; crest, two 
hands issuing out of a cloud, drawing an arrow in a bow ; with the motto, Diligit 
Deus. In the Lyon Register. 

Having spoke before of the surname of Barclay, which carries cross patees, I 
shall here add some more blazons of families of that name, from our old and mo- 
dern books, in which they have reduced the number of the ten crosses patee, to 
three, as more agreeable to arms in accompanying a cheveron, according to the- 
opinion of some heralds, and, for their difference, have altered the tinctures of the 
field. 

BARCLAY of Cullerny or Colairnie, an ancient family in 'the shire of Fife; 
David Barclay of Colairnie is one of the assessors in a perambulation between 
Easter and Wester- Knghorn, 1457, azure, a cheveron or, between three crosses 
patee argent : as in Workman and Font's Manuscripts. 

BARCLAY of Garthie in the year 1421, says Sir James Balfour, carried gules, on 
;i cheveron between three crosses patee argent, as many hearts of the first. 

BARCLAY of Towie, in the shire of Aberdeen, azure, a cheveron or, between two 
cross patees in chief, and a lozenge voided in base argent. Balfour's Manuscript. 
A.nd there also, 

BARCLAY of Mathers or Madders, azure, a cheveron, and in chief three cross 
patees argent. 

BARCLAY of Kippo, azure, a cheveron argent, betwixt two cross patees in chief, 
and a mullet in base or. Font's Manuscript. 

BARCLAY of Touch, descended of the family of Colairnie, azure, a cheveron or, 
between three cross patees argent, within a bordure cheque of the last and first ; 
crest, a cross patee : motto, Crux salutem confert. Lyon Register. And there, 

Sir ROBERT BARCLAY of Pearston, Baronet, azure, a cheveron betwixt three 
cross patees or ; crest, a sword pale-ways, proper ; hiked and pommelled or : motto, 
Crux Cbristi nostra corona. 

BARCLAY of Johnston, decended of Barclay of Madders, azure, a cheveron be- 
tween three cross patees, argent, within a bordure indented of the last ; crest, the 
^un issuing out of a: cloud, proper : motto, Servabit me semper Jehova. 

WILLIAM BARCLAY of Balmakeuan, second lawful son to David Barclay of 
Johnston, azure, a cheveron ingrailed between three cross patees argent, all with- 
in a bordure indented of the last ; crest, a cross patee : motto, Sola cruce salus* 
Both matriculated in the Lyon Register. 

DAWSON, gules, three cross patees argent. Mackenzie's Heraldry. 

DUGUID of Auchenheuf, azure, three cross patees argent ; crest, a dove hold- 



OF THE CROSS, &c. 125 

ing a laurel-branch in her beak, proper : motto, Patientia U 1 spe. Lyon 
Register. 

BENNET, gules, a cross patce or, between three mullets argent. Mackem.i- 
Heraldry. 

Sir GEORGE BENNET, Baronet, living in Poland, gules, on a chcvcron betwixt 
three stars argent, as many cioss patees of the lirst ; crest, a demi-lion issuing out 
of the wreath, and holding, in ins dexter paw, a cross patee gules. Lyon 
Register. 

Sir WILLIAM BENNET of Grubbet, Baronet, gules, on a chevcron, between three 
stars argent, a cross patee gules ; crest, a hand issuing out ot a (.loud, holding 
f(>,;h a cross patee fitched : motto, Beneaifhu tjui to/lit crucem. Lyon Register. 

SIBBALD of Balgome, in the shire of Fife, argent, a cross moline, square pierced 
gutes ; some books give the ITOSS azure. As for the antiquity of the name, 1 have 
met with it in several charters in the reigns of King William and Alexander II. as 
in that charter of Roger us .^uincie Comes dc IVit/ion, to St-rus de Seaton, Dune anus 
Sibbauld is a witness. And in anno 1246, Donatus Sibbauld is a witness to a charter 
by the same Rogerus ^iiincie Earl of W niton, or Winchester in England, to Adam 
de Si'aton, tie Maritagio ha-rcdis Alam ac lasiae. For more documents of the an- 
tiquity of the name, see Sir Robert Sibbald's Histoiy of the Shire of Fife and Kin- 
ross, p. 142. Robert Duke of Albany and Earl of Fife grants a charter of the 
lands of Kossie, and others, to Sir John Sibbald of Balgonie, which appears to 
have been the principal family of the name. George Douglas Earl of Angus 
married Elizabeth, daughter to Sir Andrew Sibbald ot Balgonie : and of this mar- 
riage was born Archibald Earl of Angus, father of the learned Gavin Douglas 
Bishop of Dunkeld. Sir Thomas Sibbald of Balgonie was principal Treasurer to 
King James II. And, in the reign of King James IV. Sir Andrew Sibbald of Bal- 
gome was Sheriff of Fite, having no issue but a daughter, Flelena Sibbald, his 
heiress, was married to Robert Ac Lunden, a younger son of the Laird of Lunden 
D| that Ilk, who got with her the estate, and kept the surname of Lunden, of 
whom came the Lundens of Balgonie, who quartered the arms of Sibbald with 
their own. SIBBALD of Rankeilor, the next family to Balgonie, carried the fore- 
said arms within a bordure azure. Andrew Sibbald of Rankeilor-Over, had, by 
his lady Margaret, daughter to George Learmonth of Balcomie, three sons : The 
first, James, the lather of Sir David Sibbald of Rankeilor, in whom this family 
ended ; the second son, George, Doctor of Medicine, and Professor of Philosophy 
abroad, he carried for arms, at gent, a cross moline gules, within a bordure com- 
pone sable and or, the last charged with mascles of the second, which were the 
figures of his mother Leannonth's bearing ; the third son, Mr David Sibbald, was 
Keeper of the Great Seal under Chancellor Hay, father to Sir Robert Sibbald of 
Kips, Doctor of Medicine, a learned antiquary, who carried for arms, argent, a 
cross molme, within a bordure azure, and a star of the last for his difference; 
crest, a mort-head proper : motto, Me certum mots crrtafacit. L. R. 

Mr PATRICK SIBBALD, Parson of St Nicholas Church at Aberdeen, and Rector of 
the Marischal College there, descended of a lawful brother of Sibbald of Kair, who 
was a cadet of the ancient family of Balgonie, argent, a cross moline azure, pierced 
in the centre within a bordure cheque of the second and first ; crest, a hand erect- 
ed, proper : motto, Ora y Inborn. Lyon Register. 

The cross moline, as I said before, must be pierced round or square, to distin- 
guish it from the cross anchorie ; and it is carried by some representing the Ink of 
tlie Mill, as relative to the name. As by the name of Mill and Miller. 

ROBERT MYLNE of Balfargie, (his arms and descent are thus in the Lyon Register), 
his Majesty's Master Mason, nephew and representer of the deceast John My hie, 
late Master Mason to his Majesty ; which John was lawful son to the deceast John 
Mylne, also his Majesty's Master Mason ; and \\hich John was lawful son to the 
deceast John Mylne, likewise his Majesty's Master Mason ; and which John 
lawful son to the deceast Thomas Mylne, likewise his Majesty's Master Mason ; 
and which Thomas was son to the deceast Alexander Mylne, also his Majesty's 
Master Mason ; and which Alexander was son of the deccabt John Mylne, also his 
Majesty's Master Mason ; by virtue of a gift granted to him thereof by King 
James III. carries for arms, or, a cross moline azure, square pierced of the field 

li 



iat> OF THE CROSS, tf<. 

between three mullets of the second ; crest, Pallas's head couped at the shoulder* 
proper, vested about the neck vert, on the head a helmet azure, a beaver turned 
up, and on the top a plumash of feathers gules : motto, Tarn in arts quam Marte. 
Lyon Register. 

THOMAS MYLNE of Muirton, or, a cross moline azure, pierced lozenge-ways of 
the field betwixt three mullets of the second, within a bordure invected sable ; 
crest, a dexter hand holding a folding book, proper : motto, Efficiunt clarum studia. 
Lyon Register. 

JAMES MILL of Balweylo, or, a cross moline ingrailed azure between threr, 
mullets of the last ; crest, a cross moline situate in the sea, proper, surrounded 
with two stalks of wheat, disposed orle-ways : motto, Clarum reddit industria. 
Lyon Register. 

ROBERT MILNE, Writer in Edinburgh, or, a cross moline azure, pierced lozenge- 
ways, between three mullets of the last, within a bordure nebule of the second ; 
crest, a martlet volant argent : for motto, Ex Industria, and of late, Prudenter qui 
Tfdulo. Lyon Register. 

JAMES MILNE of Blairton, Merchant in Aberdeen, or, a cross moline azure, 
pierced oval-ways of the field, betwixt three mullets sable, all within a bordure 
waved of the second ; crest, a galley with oars erect in saltier, proper : motto, Dat 
cura commodum. Lyon Register. 

The name of MILLER, argent, a cross moline between four hearts gules. Font's 
Manuscript. 

MATTHEW- MILLER of Glenlee, Apothecary in Kilmarnock, argent, a cross mo- 
line azure, the base wavy vert, in chief a lozenge between two mullets of the se- 
cond ; crest, a hand with two fingers pointing upwards proper : motto, Manent 
optima ccelo. Lyon Register. 

GEORGE MILLER of Gourliebank, eldest lawful son to James Miller, who married 
Marion Thomson, heiress of Gourliebank, quarterly first and fourth argent, a cross 
moline azure, placed in a loch, proper, and in chief two mullets of the second for 
the name of Miller ; second and third, a stag's head cabossed and attired with ten 
tynes gules ; on a chief azure, a cross croslet fitched or, betwixt two spur-rowels of 
the first, for the name of Thomson ; crest, two arms, their hands joined proper : 
motto, Unione Augetur, Lyon Register. 

The name of DEANS of Longhermiston, argent, a cross moline azure, surmount- 
ed of a sword in pale, proper ; and for crest, another sword ensigned on the top 
with a cross patee : with the motto, Arte -vel Marte. Lyon Register. 

The surname of HUDSON, argent, a cross moline between two lozenges in chief, 
and a boar's head couped in base sable, armed or. Font's Manuscript. 

The surname of MOLINEUX in England, azure, a cross moline or. 

Sir WILLIAM BEVERSHAM of Millbeck, in England, gules, a fer de mouline 
argent, between two martlets or. 

WILLIAM BENTINCK, who came over with William Prince of Orange to England, 
afterwards King, was, by letters patent, bearing date the pth of April 1689, creat- 
ed Baron of Cirencester, Viscount of Woodstock, and Earl of Portland ; and, anno 
1692, installed Knight of the most noble Order of the Garter, carried azure, a cross 
moline argent. 



EXAMPLES OF A CROSS CROSLET ARE THESE FOLLOWING * 

The surname of LINTON of Drumerick, gules, a cross croslet argent, cantoned 
with four crescents or. As in Balfour's Manuscript. But Pont gives to the name 
of Linton, gules, an eagle with wings displayed argent, and on a chief of the last 
three roses of the first. 

The name of SPALDING, or, on a cross azure, five cross croslets of the first ; some, 
in place of these cross croslets, have crescents. Sir George Mackenzie gives to 
SPALDING of Ashnillie, or, a two-handed sword in pale azure. 

JOHN SPALDING, Esq. in France, or, on a cross azure, five cross croslets of 
the first ; crest, a cross croslet fitched or : motto, Hinc mibi salus. Lyon Re- 
gister. 



OF THE CROSS, fcf<r. 127 

D'ARCY Earl of HOLDERNESS, Baron Darcy, created by King Charles I. Baron 
Darcy, and Earl by Charles II. 1682, azure, seme of cros<< croslets, three cinquefoils 

argent. 

The ancient and honourable family of MARR, Earls of MARR, carried azure, a 
bend betwixt six cross croslets fitched or. How soon this family was honoured witli 
the title of Earl I can.not ascertain, some say in the reign of Malcolm 111. though 
before, and in his time, there were Comites (Earls); yet it was not customary to 
name the earls by their countries, till the reign of Alexander I. and Malcolm IV. 
about which time we find Gartnach Comes de Marr, Morgund Comes de Marr, and 
Willielmus Comes de Marr. This last, in the reigns of Alexander II. and III. was 
a benefactor to the prior and canons of St Andrews, as in their Register : He con- 
firmed donations, which his grandfather Morgund Comes avus suus, and grandmo- 
ther Agnes Comitissa avia sua fecerunt dictis monachis, anno 1260. 

His son, Duncan Earl of Marr, in 1284, was one of the nobility who obliged them- 
selves to own and acknowledge Margaret the maiden of Norway, as lawful Queen of 
Scotland, in case King Alexander, her grandfather, should die without heirs male of 
his body. Upon the death of that princess, when the grand competition arose for 
the crown, he' declared for the right of Robert Bruce. This Earl dying about 
the year 1294, he left a son Gratney, who succeeded him, and a daughter Isabel, 
married to King Robert the Bruce, by whom he had only one daughter, the Prin- 
cess Marjory, wife to Walter, Lord High Steward of Scotland, mother by him to 
King Robert II. first of the Stewartine line. 

GRATNEY Earl of MARR married a daughter of Robert Bruce Earl of Carrick, 
aad sister to King Robert II. by whom he had Donald, who succeeded, and a daugh- 
ter Helen, wife to Sir John Monteith ; she bore to him a daughter Christian, mar- 
ried to Sir Edward Keith, whose only daughter and heiress, Janet, was married to 
Thomas Lord Erskine, mother by him to Robert Lord Erskine, who laid claim to 
the earldom of Marr, in the reign of King James I. 

DONALD Earl of MARR succeeded his father Earl GRATNEY: he had the misfor- 
tune to be taken prisoner by the English at the battle of Methven, and detained 
prisoner by them till after the battle of Bannockburn, but was exchanged for 
another person of quality, in anno 1331. After the death of Thomas Randolph Earl 
of Murray, Governor of Scotland, in the nonage of King David II. he was 
chosen guardian of that part of Scotland be North Forth, but shortly after he lost 
his life at the battle of Duplin, 3d August 1332, leaving issue by Isabel, his wife, 
daughter of Sir Alexander Stewart of Bonkill, sister to John Earl of Angus, Tho- 
mas his son and heir : and a daughter Margaret, married to William first Earl of 
Douglas, after his decease, married Sir John Swinton. 

THOMAS Earl of MARR, in the year 1538, was Lord High Chamberlain of Scot- 
land: he married first the heiress of the family of Monteith, and after her death, Mar- 
garet, eldest daughter and co-heir of Thomas Stewart Earl of Angus, who dying 
without issue 1379, his estate and honour devolved to his sister Margaret, Countess 
of Douglas, married to William the first Earl of Douglas, who, in right of his wife, 
as in old evidences, is designed Earl of DOUGLAS and MARR, and on his seals append- 
ed to them, the arms of Marr as above blazoned, are quartered with these of Doug- 
las; he had by the Lady Margaret, heiress of Marr, a son and a daughter; James the 
son succeeded his father, was Earl of Douglas and Marr, and had the arms of Marr 
quartered with these of Douglas : he died without lawful issue, being slain at the 
battle of Otterburn, on the 3ist of July 1388, and was succeeded in the earldom 
of Douglas by his half brother, Archibald Lord of Galloway; and in the earldom 
of Marr by his full sister, Isabel Countess of Marr, in right of her mother Mar- 
garet. She married, first, Duncan Drummond of Cargill, who died without issue ; 
and secondly, she took for her husband, Alexander Stewart, natural son of Alex- 
ander Stewart of Badenoch, Earl of Buchan, fourth son of King Robert II. He was, 
in right of his wife, Earl of Marr, and quartered her arms, before blazoned, with 
these of his own, or, a fesse cheque azure and argent (the arms of Stewart) between 
three open crowns gules ; which last were the armorial figures of the lordship of 
Garioch. He was a man of great parts, an ornament to his country, for its ho- 
nour and profit ; he died in the year 1436, without issue, lamented by all: and so 
the lineal issue of the earldom of Mair ended in his Lady Isabel Countess of Marr, 



128 OF THE CROSS, We. 

Sir Robert Erskine claimed right to the earldom of Marr, as descended of a daughter 
of Gratney Earl of Marr and as nearest of kin to Isabel Countess of Marr: so that, in 
the year 1438, lie was served heir to the Lady Isabel Douglas, tunquam legitimus fc? 
propinquiof Dares dictee Dominte Isabella:, and was designed Eail of Marr, Lord Ers- 
kine and Garioch, and quartered the arms of Marr and Garioch with his own : 
but King James II. reduced the Lord Erskine's right to the earldom of Marr, and 
annexed it to the crown, and afterwards gave it, with the lordship ot Garioch, to 
his third son John Stewart Earl of Marr, Lord Garioch in the 1460, who carried, 
quarterly, first and fourth, Scotland ; second and third, the arms of Marr as berore, 
azure, a bend betwixt six cross croslets feck e or, and, over all, an escutcheon or, a 
fesse cheque azure and argent, accompanied with three ducal crowns gules, for the 
Lordship of Garioch ; he died unmarried in the year 1479, and that noble feu re- 
turned again to the crown, and was bestowed by King James 111. on a mean man, 
Robert Cochran, a favourite of that king's; but he did not enjoy it long ; and then 
he gave that title to John, a younger son of his, who died young. Queen Mary 
bestowed that dignity on her natural brother James Stewart y but upon better ad- 
vertisement of John Lord Erskine, his right and pietensions to that earldom, James 
Stewart resigned it, and, in lieu of it, was made Earl of Murray, and the earldom 
of Marr was given to John Lord Erskine, and confirmed in Parliament 1567. from 
him is lineally descended the Earls of Marr, who quartered the arms ot Marr with 
these of Erskine as before : For an exact and full account of this nobie family, see 
Mr Crawford's Peerage, at the title of Marr. 

SOMERVILLE of Drum, representer of the Lord SOMERVILLE, carries azure, three 
stars or, accompanied with seven cross crosslets fitched argent, three in chief, one in 
the centre, two in the flanks, and the last in base; which figures so disposed I have 
seen on an ancient stone in the house of Drum, and which are so illuminated in 
our old books of blazon, supported by two hounds proper, collared gules ; and for 
crest, a dragon proper, spouting out fire behind and before, standing on a wheel or, 
(the story of which crest I shall give afterwards) ; with the motto, Fear God in Life. 
These were the armorial ensigns of the old Lords of SOMERVILLE ; the present James 
Somerville of Drum is the twenty-fifth in a lineal male descent from Sir Gaul- 
ter de Somerville, who came to England with William the Conqueror, and he is 
the heir and representer of the family of Somerville of Whichnour, in England, 
now extinct, and in Scotland, of Somervilles of Linton, Lord Somervilles of 
Carnwath and Drum, and undoubted chief of the name, as by a Manuscript of the 
family, handsomely instructed by old evidents, since King William the Lion, which 
I have seen. 

The name of RATTRAY or RATHRIE, azure, a fesse argent, between six cross croslets 
fitched or. In the reign of Malcolm 111. amongst the old surnames, Hector Boece 
mentions this, the principal of which was Rattray of that Ilk, in the shire of Perth. 
In the Register of the abbacy of Arbroath, there is a perambulation, of the date 
1250, between that convent and Thomas de Rattrav, about the lands of Kingeli 
drum : and, in the reign of King Robert the Bruce, Eustachius de Rattray was 
falsely accused in the Parliament of Perth for treason against that king, but was 
lairly acquitted. This family continued in a lineal male descent to the reign of 
King James V. which then ended in an heiress, Jean Rattray, who was married to 
John Stewart, Earl of Athol. 

The next heir male is RATTRAY of Craighall, who carries the foresaid armorial 
bearing, as~in Font's Manuscript. 

Lieutenant Colonel GEORGE RATTRAY, son to Sir JOHN RATTRAY, Lieutenant Colo- 
nel to the Scots Regiment in France, who was son to Mr James Rattray, son to 
Rattray of Craighall, heir male of Rattray of that Ilk, azure, a fesse argent betwixt 
six cross croslets fitched 3 and -} or ; crest, a dexter hand proper, holding a cross 
croslet or: motto, Ex hoc victoria signo. L. R. 

The name of CHEYNE is ancient with us, and in our old books of blazon, CHEYNE 
Lord CHEYNE carried gules, a bend betwixt six cross croslets fitched argent. For the 
antiquity of the name 1 shall here mention a charter (which I saw in the hands of 
the curious Mr William Wilson, one of the Clerks of the Session) without a date, 
granted by Reynald Cheyne, son of Reynald, who was son of Reynald of the lands 
of Durie, which he disponed to Gilbert, son, to Robert of Strathern ; and which 



oi- -;n IK CROSS, & f . I2y 

charter \vas afterwards confirmed by Adam of Killconhaugh, Earl of Carrick; and 
after that, King Robert the Bruce gives the lands of Dummany, which formerly be- 
longed to Roger Moubray, to Sir Reginald Cheyne, as that king's charter bears in 
the Earl of Haddington's Collections. 

CHEYNE of Esselmont, another old family of this surname, carried, quarterly, first 
and fourth azure, a bend between six cross croslets y^7.) ardent, for Chevne ; second 
and third argent, three laurel leaves slipped vert, for the surname of Marshall : 
which bearings, finely illuminated, are to be seen in an old genealogical tree of the 
family of Seaton, since Earls of Winton, impaled on the left side, for Christian 
Cheyne, a daughter of Esselmont, Lady of Sir Alexander Seaton of that Ilk, her 
husband, Captain and Governor of Berwick : who both, for their singular courage 
and love to their country (as all our histories testify) stood and saw their two sons 
hanged before their eyes, by the cruel and perfidious Edward III. of England; be- 
cause Sir Alexander would not deliver up the town of Berwick to him before the 
time agreed upon; for which one of his sons was a hostage, and the other a cap- 
tive. 

GEORGE CHEYNE of Esselmont matriculates his arms in our New Register thus; 
quarterly, first and fourth azure, a bend between six crosses patee fitched argent 
for Cheyne ; second and third argent, three leaves slipped vert, for the name of 
Marshall of Esselmont; and for crest, a cross patee fitched argent; with the motto, 
Patic-ntia vincit. 

CHEYNE of DufFus, another family which carried the like arms, but long since end- 
ed in an heiress, who ivas married to Nicol Sutherland, a younger son of Kenneth, 
Earl of Sutherland, who with her got the barony of Duffus. Of them is descend- 
ed the Lords of Duffus, who have been in use to compose with their own figures 
the three stars, and accompanied them with as many cross crodctsjitcbe, (of which, 
in another place) to perpetuate the memory of Cheyne of Duffus. 

The name of ADAMSON, argent, a- star gules, betwixt three cross croslets fitched 
azure. Workman's Manuscript. 

ADAMSON of Graycrook, argent, a crescent gules, betwixt three cross croslets fitch- 
ed azure, as in Font's Manuscript. I take the surname of ADAM to be the same 
with Adamson, for they carry the like figures, and the surname of EWE to be the 
contraction of Adam. 

DAVID EDIE of Moneaght, so recorded in the Lyon Register, argent, three cross 
croslets fitched gules ; and for crest, a cross croslet, and a skein saltier-ways; with 
the motto, Crux mihi grata quies. 

In the Chatulary of Dunfermline, and in the Earl of Haddington's Collections, Fol. 

577, there is a writ of King Robert the Bruce, the 14th year of his reign, declaring 

Adam the son of Adam, and his four sons, to be freemen, tituled Libertas Adami 

filii Adami coram justitiario nostro ; which bears these words, " Compertum &- de- 

' claratum est quod Adamus, filius Adami, non est homo noster, ligius seu nati- 

' vus, quin pro voluntate sua, &-c. propter quod prsefatum Adamum &- liberos 

' suos Robertum, Johannem, Reginaldum, &- Duncanum liberos nostros fore decla- 

' ramus, &- ipsos ab omni jugo & onere servitutis quietos reddimus, per praesentes 

' in perpetuum. In cujus rei testimonium &c. has literas nostras perpetuo dura- 

' turas, sibi fieri fecimus patentes, apud Aberdeen, loth September, regni nostri 

" I4th." These letters patent of King Robert the Bruce are the oldest documents 

I have met with for the surname of Adam or Adamson : and I take them to be the 

first of that surname with us. 

The surname of TULLOCH, or, on a fesse between three cross croslets fitched gules, 
as many stars argent. Balfour's Manuscript. 

I have seen a transumpt of an old charter (penes Comitem de Kinaird} taken be- 
fore William Tulloch, Bishop of Murray, to which his'seal of office was appended, 
having the image of a church-man in his proper habit, holding, with both his hands 
before his breast, a crucifix, and below his feet was the shield of arms of Bishop 
Tulloch, a fesse charged with s\vo stars, between three cross croslets fitched. The 
date of this transumpt was in the year 1481; the witnesses were Sir Thomas 
Moodie, and Sir Martin Tulloch. 

ACHANY of Sorbie, argent, a. cross croslet fitched, issuing out of a crescent sable. 

Kk 



130 OF THE SALTIER OR SAUTOIR.. 

Pout's Manuscript. And there others of that name carry argent, three roebucks' 
heads couped azure, collared or t and a bell pendent thereat gules. 

Before I end with the cross croslets fitche, so frequent in arms, I shall adJ some 
examples of foreign bearings. 

The country of GALLJCIA in Spain, azure, seme of cross croslets fitched ut the 
foot, and a cup covered or. The French, blazon them thus, efazur semt de croix 
recroisees, au pied fitch e, au calice couverte cCor. They tell us, as especially in that 
little book Jen tf Armories, that this country was erected into a kingdom by Fer- 
dinand the Great, 1060, in favours of his younger son : which country was after- 
wards annexed to the kingdom of Castile. The reason given for carrying, seme of 
crosses, is upon account of the frequent devotions of Pilgrims to St James of Com- 
postella in that country : and because the crosses there have not been so defaced 
and beat down as in other countries, by the incursions of the Moors. The Chalice 
or Cup is speaking and relative to the name of that country, Calice or Gallicia; as 
many armorial figures do in the arms of several countries in Spain : thus the king- 
dom of Leon carries a lion, and Castile a castle, &c. Many honourable families 
in England carry cross croslets, as the honourable families of the name of Howard, 
gules, a bend betwixt six cross croslets fitched argent, with suitable differences of 
their descent from the principle house. 

CAPEL Earl of ESSEX, gules, a lion rampant between three cross croslets fitcbe 
or. 

Arthur Lord CAPEL, by the special favour of King Charles II. in respect of his 
father's loyalty, was advanced to the title and dignity of Viscount Maiden and 
Earl of Essex, in the I3th of his reign, anno 1661. 

CRAVEN Lord CRAVEN, argent, a fesse betwixt six cross croslets fitcbe gules. This 
family was dignified with the title of Baron by King Charles I. 

CLINTON Earl of LINCOLN, argent, six cross croslets fitched sable, 3, 2, and i, on 
a chief azure, two mullets pierced gules.. 

WINDSOR Earl of PLYMOUTH, gules, a saltier argent between twelve cross croslets 
or, which properly is the bearing of Windsor. Thomas Lord Windsor was creat- 
ed Earl of Plymouth by King Charles II. 1682. 

WINDSOR Lord MOUNTJOY, the same as the Earl of Plymouth, with a crescent for 
difference, being a younger son of Thomas Lord Windsor, and Earl of Plymouth. 
RICHARD, Earl of WARWICK and HOLLAND, by King James I. cf Great Britain, 
gules, a cheveron between three crosses bottony or. 

CAIRLYLE or CARLYLE, argent, a cross flory gules^ Sir William Carlyle in An^ 
nandale married Margaret Bruce, a sister of King Robert I., as by a charter of 
that King to them of the lands of Crumanston, (Haddington's Collections.) After- 
wards the family was designed of Torthorald, and King James III. raised the fa- 
mily to the dignity of a Peer, by the title of Lord Carlyle of Torthorald, in the 
person of Sir James Carlyle, in the year 1473. Which dignity continued ia the 
family till it ended in an heiress, Elizabeth Carlyle, in the year 1580, who married 
Sir James Douglas of Parkhead, of whom came the Douglas Lord Carlyle, of whom 
before: The achievement of the Lords Carlyle of Torthorald, quarterly, first and 
fourth, argent,, a cross flory gules, for Carlyle ; second and third, or, a cross gules, 
for the name of Crosbie, and by way of surto.ut argent, a saltier azure; crest, two. 
dragons' necks and heads adosse vert ; supporters, two peacocks, proper : motto, 
Humilitate. So, illuminated in old books. 



CHAP. XVI, 

OF THE SALTIER OR SAUTOIB-. 

IT is formed by the bend-dexter and sinister, not lying the one upon- the other, 
__ but as if they were incorporate, ia the centre. In our old books of blazons, 
I find the arms of NEWTON, being sable, a. saltier argent, thus described ; sable, 
two bends in saltier argent : The French say, sautoir est dispose comme la bandt et> 
la barre ; the saltier is as it were composed of the bend and bar. The bend-sinister, 
by the French, is called a bar, as I have told before. 



OF THE SALTIER OR SAUTOIR. 1 3 1 

F.br the saltier, the Latins use the words, crux transfer salis, or decussis ; because 
it represents the letter X. This honourable ordinary with the English, possesses 
the fifth part of the field, the same being not charged ; but if it be charged, then 
it should take up the third part of the field. 

The Spaniards call this figure sometimes aspas, from the name of an instrument 
after the form of an X ; as Menestrier observes. Having given a description of 
its name and form, I shall now speak to its nature and signification, which arc 
various,, according to different authors. 

It is taken for a specific form of a cross, with us,, the English, and other nations ; 
and carried upon account of devotion to saints, who suffered upon such a cross, as 
that of St Andrew, on our ensigns. 

Menestrier will have it, in some armorial bearings,, to represent ail old piece of 
furniture, used by horsemen, which hung at their saddles in place of stirrups ; 
and that the word sautoir, comes from sauter to leap, he instances an old Manu- 
script of Laws of Tournaments, whereby knights were forbid to come with 
breeches of mail, and with sautoirs a selle, i. e. with saltiers at their saddles, which 
he says were made of iron, or cords like a decussis, covered with cloth or taffety ; 
as he found in the accounts of Estenne de la Faunton, cashier to the King of 
France, in the year 1352, in one of the Articles of Horse-furniture. 

Upton and Spelman, two famous heralds, say, that the saltier represents trees 
or long pieces of timber laid cross-ways, one over the other, for shutting the en- 
tries of parks and forests, called by the French saults ; and by the Latins saltus ; 
from which sautoir and saltier, and the Latin word commonly used for them, 
taltuarium. 

Gerard Leigh and his followers are of opinion, that it was an instrument used 
of old by soldiers, in place of ladders, to scale the walls of towns. Sylvanus Mor- 
gan, favouring, this opinion, says, though it may be taken as an instrument of 
manhood in scaling of walls, it may be likewise called scala cceli, for many have 
ascended to Heaven by this cross,. 

This figure, as well as others, may have various significations, and has been as- 
sumed upon different accounts in armories ; but the saltier here is generally taken 
for a cross, and that which contributes most to its frequent bearing in arms, was 
devotion to the Christian religion, and to patron saints, who suffered on crosses, 
after the form of the saltiers, as that of the Apostle St Andrew. Heralds tell us, 
some carry it plain , to show their willingness to suffer for the faith ; others raguled, 
to show the difficulty thereof, as these crosses of St James and St Laurence ; some 
bear them in their arms jStcbe, to show the sharpness of the cross, and others flory, 
to testify their victory over it. 

Fig. 27. Plate VI. Azure, a saltier (or St Andrew's cross} argent ; so called, be- 
cause he suffered upon one after this form. It has been anciently used by the 
Scots for their ensign, upon as well grounded a tradition for its appearing in the 
air, as other nations have for their crosses coming down from Heaven. Our historians 
are not wanting to tell us, that Achaius, King of the Scots, and Hungus, King of 
the Picts, having joined forces to oppose Athelstan, King of the Saxons, superior 
to them in force, they addressed themselves to God, and their patron St Andrew ; 
and, as a token that they were heard, the white saltier cross, upon which St Andrew 
suffered martyrdom, apppeared in the blue firmament : Which so animated the 
Scots and Picts, that they defeat the Saxons, and killed King Athelstan in East- 
Lothian ; which place to this day is known by the name of Athelstanford, cor- 
ruptly pronouced Elshinford. After the victory, the two confederate kings, out 
of a sense of singular mercy, went in procession to the church of St Andrew's, 
(where his arm was said to be kept as a. relic) to thank God and his apostle for 
the victory ; purposing, that they and their successors should, in all time coming, 
use on their ensigns the cross of St Andrew. How well the Picts performed I 
know not, being overcome and expelled afterwards by the Scots ; but it has been 
the constant practice of our kings to carry a white saltier cross on a blue banner. 

The Spaniards carry the crass of St James on their ensigns, since the famous 
battle in the plains of Toulouse; where Alphonsus, King of Castile, with his con- 
federates, Peter King of Arragon, and Sanchez of Navarre, gave a notable defeat to 
the Moors. In the beginning of the- fight there appeared a great many miracles 



13; OF THE SALTIER OR SAUTOIR. 

and prodigies, which, whether true or false, gave occasion to these- confederate 
kings, and their eminent subjects, to use such figures, as then appeared, afterward* 
on their ensigns and coats of arms. From St James appearing with his cross and 
a bloody sword, the Castilians took the red saltier cross ; and the-bloody sword be- 
came the badge of the Order of St James : And the King of Navarre placed on 
his ensigns the form of the chains which fortified the Moors camp, which he cut 
and broke by his own valour. This battle gave rise to many figures used by fami- 
lies in these countries, of which in another place. 

With us many families carry St Andrew's cross, upon the account that it is the 
badge of the kingdom. 

HAIG of Bemerside, an ancient family in the shire of Berwick, carries for arms, 
Plate VI. fig. 28. and in the Plate of Achievements, azure, a saltier cantoned with 
two stars in chief and base, with as many crescents adosse in the flanks argent. 
Some say this family is of a British extract, upon what account I know not, but 
the family is of an old standing ; for, in the reign of Malcolm IV. Richard Norvel, 
Constable of Scotland, gives a mortification of the chapel of St Leonards in 
Lauderdale, to the abbacy and Monks of Dryburgh, to which Petrus de Haga of 
Bemerside is a witness : And in a charter of William de Norvsl, to Henry de 
Sinclare, of the lands of Carfrae, amongst the witnesses is Petrus Odell de Haga ; 
which was in the reign of King William, as in the Chartulary of Dryburgh. 

In the Chartulary of Kelso, at Edinburgh in the Lawyers' Library, there are 
three charters, where Petrus de Haga is amongst the witnesses. The first is an 
amicable composition between the abbot and convent of Kelchow, and William de 
Veteri Ponte : The witnesses (not naming the church-men) are WiUielmo filio Wil- 
lielmi, Alano filio Rollandi de Galweya, Alano de Thurleston, Ricardo Nano, Alano 
de Claphan, Vicecomite de Lawder, Willielmo filio Rogeri, Petro de Haga. This 
charter is dated 1203, feria quarta ante Pentecasten. The second charter is granted 
by Alanus, filius Rollandi de Galaweya, Const abularius Regis Scotorum ; the wit- 
nesses there, beside church-men, are Thoma de Colewill and Petro de Haga : And 
in the third charter by the above Alanus, Petrus de Haga is a witness. These 
two last charters have no date ; it is thought they have been granted in the reign 
of Alexander II. or in the beginning of the reign of Alexander III. There is 
another charter granted by Petrus de Haga, Dominus de Bemerside, with the con- 
-ent of his son John, to the abbot and convent of Melrose, to pay yearly ten sal- 
mons, and half a stone of wax ; witnesses beside the church-men, WiUielmo de 
Rurdnn miiite, Hugone de Persibi, Vicecomite de Rokisburg, Willielmo de Hately,. Tboma 
Rymor de Ercildoun. This charter wants also a date, and I think it has been 
granted after the death of Alexander III. which was foretold by Thomas Rymer, 
being so designed in this charter, and afterwards, upon the account of his pro- 
phecies in rhyme, for in other old charters he is designed Thomas Learmount de 
Ercildoun, which is in the neighbourhood with Bemerside ; and what he, as neigh- 
bour to Bemerside, in his prophecies, mentions of this family, I have told, before in 
my marks of cadency. In the Ragman-Roll, Haig of Bemerside is one of the 
barons that submitted to Edward I. of England ; which family has continued, in a 
male descent, to the present Haig of Bemerside. 

Those, who undertook the expeditions to the Holy Land, for the most part were 
crossed with that form of crosses used by their own country ; so that many fami- 
lies with us carry saltlers. Sir James Balfour, in his Manuscript of the Nobility of 
Scotland, tells us, that Malcolm de Lennox f one of the progenitors of the Earls of 
Lennox, went to the Holy Land, and was crossed : for which he and his posterity 
carried for arms, argent, a saltier ingrailed gules, cantoned with four roses of the 
last ; Plate VI. fig. 29. This family was dignified with the title of Earl of Lennox 
by King William the Lion, and continued in a noble and splendid condition till 
Duncan Earl of Lennox was attainted of high treason, with his son-in-law, Murdoch 
Duke of Albany, in the reign of King James I. He was execute at Stirling, upon 
the 23d of May 1426, and his estate came to the crown by forfeiture. He left 
behind him three daughters, Isabel, married to Murdoch, Duke of Albany ; Eliza- 
beth to Sir John Stewart of Darnly, ancestor of the Stewarts, Dukes and Earls of 
Lennox ; Margaret to Robert Monteith of Rusky, by whom he had Robert Mon- 
teith of Rusky his son, who left two daughters co-heirs to him ; Agnes married to 



OF THE SALTIER OR SAUTO1R. , , 3 

Sir John Haldane of Gleneagles, and Margaret to Sir John Napier of Merchiston. 
All these families, upon the account of their alliance with the family of Lennox, 
carried the arms of that family as above bla/.oned, either marshalled with their 
own, or in place of their own; of whom in their proper places. 

MACKARLANE of Arroquhar, commonly designed of that Ilk, in the shire of Dun- 
burton, the principal family of the name, Plate VI. fig. 30. carries argent, a saltier 
waved and cantoned with four roses gules ; crest, a naked man holding a sheaf of 
arrows, proper, with an Imperial Crown standing by him : and for motto, This 
Fll defend. L. R. The first of this family is said to be one Pharline Lennox, a 
son of the old Earls of Lennox, who, for slaughter, fled to the North ; and his ;. 
ferity, after the Scot's way of patronimicks, were called Maciarlane, i. e. PharlintA 
son ; for this, they have a charter of Duncan, Earl of Lennox, to Duncan Mac- 
iarlane, in the year 1308; to which Umfredus of Colquhoun Dwninus de Luss, is 
a witness: and -they carry the arms of Lennox, with this difference, having the 
saltier waved instead of ingrailed. 

Plate VI. COLOJJHOUN, argent a saltier ingrailed, sable. Some will have the 
first of this name to be of the old house of Lennox, upon the account of the ar- 
morial figure ; but others say the first of this family came from Ireland, and was a 
son of the King of Conach there, in the reign of King Gregory ; and the lands 
which he got in Scotland, he called them Conach, now by corruption, Colquhoun ; 
and when surnames came in fashion, they took the name of Colquhoun from the 
lands. The family continued in a male descent to the reign of Robert II. that 
Colquhoun of Luss, a branch of the family, married the heiress of Colquhoun of 
that Ilk, since which time that family has been designed, promiscuously, some- 
times of that Ilk, and sometimes of Luss. In the beginning of the reign of King 
James II. say our historians, John Colquhoun of Luss, a noble person, was slain 
by the rebel Highlanders. 

Sir JOHN COLQUHOUN of that Ilk was Treasurer to King James III. and is so de- 
signed in a charter of the baillery of Coldinghame, with the consent of the prior, 
to Alexander Lord Home, 1465. From him is lineally descended the present 
Sir John Colquhoun of Luss, whose family was honoured with the title of Knight 
Baronet, the 3oth of July 1628 ; and, being chief of the name, carries the foresaid 
blazon, supported by two ratch-hounds argent, collared sable ; crest, a hart's head 
conped g ides, attired argent : with the motto, Si je puts, as in the Plate of 
Achievements. 

Having given examples of a saltier under accidental forms, and cantoned with 
figures, I shall here give an example of a saltier charged with fgures, and carried 
\fi!b a chief. 

POWRIE of Woodcocksholm, in the Shire of Linlithgow, argent, a saltier ingrail- 
ed gules, charged with another or, and cantoned with four bugles sable ; crest, a 
hunting-horn azure, garnished gules : motto, Vesbere fc? mane. Lyon Register 
Plate VI. fig. 32. 

The ancient Lords of ANNANDALE gave for arms, argent, a saltier and chief 
^ules. Plate VI. fig. 33. The field is or in several blazons. 

ANNAN of Auchterallan, argent, a chief and saltier gules, cantoned with two 
mascles, in the collar and base points azure, and in the flanks a spot qf ermine, or 
moucheture sable. As in our old books of blazons. 

Not only those of the surname of ANNAN carried a saltier and chief for their 
paternal figures ; but even other great families carried these arms for their own, 
when they came to get possessions in that country ; and their vassals carried the 
like, as arms of patronage. Robert BRUIS, or BRUCE, son of Adilind, of a Nor- 
man extract, having married Agnes de Annandia, heiress of that country, laid 
aside his paternal arms, viz. argent, a lion rampant azure, and carried those of 
Annan Lords of Annandale, argent, a saltier and chief gules : as the custom uas 
of old upon marrying of heiresses, before the use of marshalling many coats in one 
shield ; of which afterwards. All the descendants of this Robert carried the arms 
of Annan, making the field sometimes or, sometimes argent. Robert the Bruce, 
when he came to be King, carried the Imperial Ensign of Scotland ; but his bro- 
thers and others, descended of him, carried those of Annan, whose blazons I shall 
add with others, after I have given some various blazons of the saltier. 

LI 



'34 



OF THE SALTIER OR SAUTOIR. 



The EPISCOPAL SEE of BATH and WELLS in England, azure, a saltier, quarterly 
quartered, or and argent. 

The family of ROSE, in France, by Monsieur Baron, d 1 argent au sautoir alaisc 
de gueules, i. e. a saltier couped gules. And again, gules t a saltier ingrailed and 
couped argent. Sometimes three of these saltiers are borne in a coat, and then 
the word couped may be omitted, being understood to be so when they are re- 
moved from the centre of the escutcheon ; but when one, and in the centre of the 
escutcheon, couped must be added : argent, a sword gules, hiked and pommelled 
or, point upwards, ensigned with a mullet of the second, and surmounted of a sal- 
tier couped fable. Plate VI. fig. 34. 

Gules, a saltier engoulee of five leopards' mouths or. Engoulee is said, when the 
extremities of the bend, cross, saltier, and other such pieces enter the mouths of 
lions, leopards, dragons, &-c. as the arms of GUICHENON, Plate VI. fig. 35. And 
the arms of TOUAR in Spain ; ffazur a la bande d y or engoulee de deux tetes de lion 
de meme. 

' Argent, a saltier crossed, having little crosses at the ends. Some say it may be 
called a saltier saltiered, as we say a cross croslet, when its extremities are crossed. 
Gerard Leigh calls this St Juliarf-s Cross. 

When the extremities of the saltier end like the extremities of the crosses above- 
treated of, these denominations given to such a cross, may likewise be given to the 
saltier ; as to be anehorie, trejiee, jtower-de-lucy, patee, &-c. 

When other figures are situate after the position of the saltier, if they be small 
ones, as besants, torteaux, &c. they are said then to be in saltier ; as azure, five 
besants in saltier ; that is two, one and two, for which the French say, rangee en 
sautoir. If oblong things, we say saltier-ways, the French, posee en sautoir ; the 
Latins, in decussini trajecta. 

ECCLES of Kildonan, an ancient family of that name, nov/ possessed and repre- 
sented by Mr William Eccles, Doctor of Medicine, as in Plate of Achievements, 
argent, two halberts crossing other saltier-ways azure ; crest, a broken halbert : 
with the motto, Se defendendo ; so matriculated in the Lyon Register. And there 
ECCLES' of Shanock, decended of Kildonan, the same, within a bordure gules, for 
his difference. 

The EPISCOPAL SEE of PETERBOROUGH, gules, two keys saltier-ways, adossee, and 
cantoned with four cross croslets bottony, and fitched or. 

Having treated sufficiently of the saltier, and its various forms, I now proceed 
to give the arms of such families as carry saltiers according to the method pro- 
posed. 

JAMES COLQUHOUN of Dunyelder, descended of the family of Luss, argent, a sal- 
tier ingrailed sable, and in base a rose gules, for his difference ; crest, a branch of 
laurel slipped, pioper : motto, Dum spiro spero. L. R. 

JOHN COLQUHOUN of Kilmardinny, argent, a saltier ingrailed sable, with a flower- 
de-luce for difference ; crest, a stag's head erased, proper : with the motto, Festinti 
lente. His second son Walter Colquhoun, Merchant in Glasgow, has, for his dif- 
ference, added to his father's arms, a crescent in base gules : with the motto, Vlget 
tub cruce. 

ALEXANDER COLOJJHOUN of Garscadden, a cadet of Luss, has a buckle or on the 
saltier, for his difference ; crest, a man's hand proper, holding a buckle, with the 
motto, Omnia firmat. Which blazons are recorded in the Lyon Register. 

The surname of MAXWELL, argent, a saltier sable. According to our historians, 
it is amongst the first surnames, with xis, in the reign of Malcolm III. taken from 
the lands they then possessed in Dumfriesshire, called Macchus Macuswell, now 
Maxwell. They had also other lands of that name, both in Tiviotdale and East- 
Lothian. Sir James Dalrymple, in his Collections, page 406. says, he has often 
met with the 'name Macchus, which is likely a Saxon name, as witness in the 
tharter of foundation of the abbacy of Selkirk by King David I. and no doubt, 
says he, Herbert de Macuswell, the donor of the church of Macuswell, in the reign 
of King Malcolm. IV. and King William, has been possessor of these lands, which 
gave to this Herbert, and his successors, the surname of Macuswell, now Maxwell. 
John de Macuswell was Great Chamberlain and Sheriff of Roxburgh, in the be- 
ginning of the reign of Alexander II. ; and the next I meet with is Homer us ov 



OF THE SALTIER OR SAUTOIR. 135 

Eumerus dc Mat-unwell, who, in the same king's reign, was Justiciar of Galloway. 
According to some genealogical manuscripts, he married Mury Macgenchcn. 
heiress of Merns in Renfrewshire ; and with her got these lands, which continued 
with the family till the time of King Charles I. He had two sons, Sir Herbert, 
his successor, and Sir John, who was the first of the MAXWELLS of Nether-Pollock. 

Sir HERBERT MAXWELL, designed of Carlaverock, obtains a charter of the lands 
of Macuswell and Wester-Pencaitland in East-Lothian, from John de Pcncultland, 
in the year 12,74. The principal charter I saw in the hands of Maxwell of 
Middleby. The fourth head of the family in a lineal descent from this Sir Her- 
bert (as in Mr Cravvfurd's Peerage) was John, who designed himself Joannes de 
Macuswell de Pencaitlfind. And the third in descent from John, was Sir Herbert 
Maxwell of Carlaverock, who was one of the hostages for the ransom of King 
James 1. anno 1423. I have seen- (in the custody of Maxwell of Middleby) u 
principal indenture, passed betwixt a worshipful and honourable man, (the words 
of the indenture) Sir Herbert Maxwell, knight, Lord of Carlaverock, on the one 
part, and John Sinclair Lord of Herdmanston, on the other part ; in which they 
obliged themselves to stand, and submit to the arbitration and determination of. 
the gentlemen mentioned in the indenture, as judges betwixt them, about the 
holding of the lands of Macuswell and Bykerton in the barony of Pencaitland ; 
whether they ought to be holden of the Lords of Maxwell as Barons of Pencait- 
land, or of the Lord of Herdmanston. The indenture is dated at Edinburgh the 
ipth of January 1427; and, on the 2id of June 1428, sentence was pronounced 
by Robert Graham in favours of Herbert Lord Carlaverock. Herbert, designed 
Dominus de Carlaverock, in anno 1438, one of the conservators of a peace concluded 
betwixt Scotland and England (as in Crawfurd's Peerage), married first a daughter 
of Herbert, heiress of Tereagles, with whom he had Robert his successor, and Sir 
Edward, of whom the Maxwells of Finnald and Monreith ; and, after her death, he 
married Katharine, daughter to the Lord Seaton, widow of Sir Allan Stewart of 
Darnly, of whom descend the Maxwells of Garnsalloch, and the Maxwells of South- 
Bar in Renfrewshire. 

Robert, the first of the family, who is dignified with the title of Lord Maxwell, 
in the reign of King James II. was succeeded by his grandson John Lord Maxwell, 
who was slain at Flodden with King James IV. He was again succeeded by his 
son Robert Lord Maxwell, who had, by Janet his lady, Robert his heir ; and Sir 
John Maxwell of Tereagles, thereafter Lord Herries. Robert Lord Maxwell, mar- 
ried Beatrix, daughter of James Earl of Morton, who bare to him one son, John 
Lord Maxwell ; who being made Warden of the West-Marches by King James VI. 
was also created Earl of Morton, 1581, upon the death and forfeiture of James 
Earl of Morton the regent. About this time this earl's arms were illuminated, in a 
book of arms, now in my custody, thus ; quarterly, first argent, on a chief gules, 
two stars of the first, for Douglas of Morton ; second or, an eagle displayed sable, 
as Lord Maxwell ; third argent, three hurcheons sable, for Herries ; fourth gules, 
a cross or, for Crosbie ; and over all, by way of surtout, argent, a saltier sable, for 
Maxwell. The title of Earl of Morton did not continue long with him ; for 
Archibald Earl of Angus, nephew to the regent, was restored to the Earldom of 
Morton, 1585 : And Robert Lord Maxwell, brother of John Lord Maxwell, who 
was forfeited and beheaded at the Cross of Edinburgh, 2ist of May 1623, for mur- 
dering the laird of Johnston, in anno 1620. His brother was restored to the lordship 
uf Maxwell, by the favour of King James VI. and created Earl of Nithscjale, with 
the precedency from the time of his father's being Earl of Morton 1581. By 
virtue of which, he was ranked in the precedency of the Peerage, immediately be- 
fore the Earl of Winton, and took his place accordingly in the Parliament 1621. 
Robert his son and heir died unmarried 1667 ; so that his estate and honour de- 
volved to his cousin and heir-male John Lord Herries. This earl, so succeeding, 
married Elizabeth, daughter to Sir Robert Gordon of Lochinvar, ancestor to the 
Viscount of Kenmure, by whom lie had Robert Earl of Nithsdale, who married 
Lucy, daughter of William Marquis of Douglas, by whom he had Mary, married 
to the Earl of Traquair, and William his son and successor Earl of Nithsdale, who 
married Winifred, daughter of William Marquis of Powis of the Kingdom of 
England, and has issue with her,. 



136 OF THE SALTIER OR SAUTOIR. 

The achievement of the Earl of NITHSDALE, argent, an eagle displayed sable, 
beaked and membred gules, surmounted of an escutcheon of the first, charged with 
a saltier of the second, and surcharged in the centre with a hurcheon .or ; crest, a 
stag, proper, attired argent, couchant before an holly bush, proper ; supporters, two 
stags, proper, attired argent ; for motto, Revimco. Of the branches of this ancient 
and noble family, the eldest and principal one is Maxwell of Nether-Pollock, in 
the shire of Renfrew ; the first of which was Sir John, brother to Sir Herbert 
Maxwell of Carlaverock, in the reign of Alexander III. : Of whom is descended 
Sir John Maxwell of Pollock, possessor and representative of that family, who was 
honoured with the dignity of knight-baronet by King Charles II. the I2th of 
April 1682 ; and in the year 1699, came to be one of the Senators of the College 
of Justice, and Lord Justice Clerk. He carries for arms, argent, on a saltier sable, 
an annulet or, a maternal difference from the House of Eglinton ; crest, a stag's 
head; with the motto, / am ready ; supporters, two monkeys or apes, proper ; as 
in the Plate of Achievements. Which supporters I have seen on a seal of one of 
his progenitors, lairds of Pollock, in the reign of Robert III. appended to a charter, 
in the custody of the present Lord Pollock ; which is an early instance of barons 
having supporters. 

MAXWELL of Calderwood is a branch of Nether-Pollock ; the first of which 
House was Robert, second son of Sir John Maxwell of Pollock, from whom he got 
the lands of Calderwood, in the year 1401. He married Elizabeth, daughter and 
one of the co-heirs of Sir Robert Denniston of that Ilk, and got with her several 
lands ; upon which account the family for a long time has been in use to quarter 
the arms of Denniston with their own, thus, quarterly, first and fourth argent, a 
,-altier sable, and a chief paly of six pieces of the last and first, as in our old books 
of blazon, so illuminated, in the House of Falahall, with other barons, members of 
Parliament, in the year 1604: But, in the Lyon Register, Alexander Maxwell of 
Calderwood's arms are thus recorded ; quarterly, first and fourth argent, a saltier 
sable, within a bordure counter-componed of the second and first ; second and 
third quartees, argent, a bend azure, for Denniston ; crest, a man's head looking 
upright, proper : motto, Think on. 

Colonel WILLIAM MAXWELL of Cardiness, only son of Mr William Maxwell, 
\vhose grandfather was William Maxwell of Newland, a second son of Sir Gavin 
Maxwell of Calderwood, carries the quartered arms of that family as last blazoned, 
all within a bordure embattled gules, for his difference ; crest, a man's head looking 
foreright, within two laurel branches, disposed orle-ways vert : motto, Think on. 
Lyon Register. See the Plate of Achievements. 

EUSXACHE MAXWELL of Teyling in Angus, second son of Sir Herbert Maxwell of 
Carlaverock, got the lands of Teyling, by marrying Agnes, one of the daughters 
and co-heirs of Sir John GifFord of Yester, whose seal and arms had only a saltier, 
in the year 1421, as I told before in my Essay of the Ancient and Modern Use of 
Arms, page 98. He was the first of the family of Teyling, who afterwards had a 
suitable difference in the Lyon Register since the year 1601. 

PATRICK MAXWELL of Teyling, argent, on a saltier sable, a man's heart or; crest, 
a falcon looking to the sun, proper : motto, /'// bide Broadalbine. 

JOHN MAXWELL of Lackiebank, descended of the house of Teyling, argent, 
on a saltier table, between two stars in chief and base azure, a man's heart or ; 
crest, a falcon looking to a star : motto, Tendit ad astra. Lyon Register. 

Sir ALEXANDER MAXWELL of Monreith, Baronet, descended of Sir Edward Max- 
well, second son of Sir Herbert Maxwell of Carlaverock, and his Lady , 

daughter of Herbert Herris of Tereagles, progenitors of the Earls of Nithsdale, 
arries argent, a double eagle displayed sable, beaked and membred gules, on its 
breast an escutcheon of the first, charged with a saltier of the second, surcharged 
in the centre with a hurcheon, or ; all within a bordure gules, with the badge of 
Knight Baronet by way of canton, in the dexter chief point ; crest, an eagle ris- 
sable, beaked and membred gules: motto, Reviresco. Lyon Register. 

JOHN MAXWELL of Barucleugh, descended of a second brother of Kirkonel, who 

\\us descended of Thomas, a second son of Robert, first Lord Maxwell, argent, a 

if r sable, within a bordure of the last, charged with eight lozenges of the first; 



OF THE SALTIER OR SAUTOIR. TI- 

% / 

crest, an eagle's talon holding a writing quill, proper: motto, Non sine usu. L 
Register. 

WILLIAM MAXWELL of Loch, descended of the family of Nithsdale, ardent, a 
saltier within a bordure sable, the last charged with eight roses of the first ; c. 
A hart couchant, Ins attirings wreathed about with holly leaves, all proper : motto, 
Semper viridis. Lyon Register. 

ROBERT MAXWELL of Garnsalloch, descended of George, eldest son of Sir Her- 
bert Maxwell of Carlaverock, and his second Lady, Catharine, daughter to the Lord 
Seaton, argent, a saltier sable, with a bordure of the last, charged with eight cres- 
cents or, the figures of Seaton ; crest, a stag rising from an holly bush, proper : 
motto, tfresco tj? surgo. Lyon Register. 

Colonel THOMAS MAXWELL, Cuiarter-master General to his Majesty's forces in 
England, son to James Maxwell of Littlebar, who was a second son of Maxwell of 
Kirkonell, a second son of Robert, first Lord Maxwell, argent, a saltier sable, with- 
in a bordure embattled gules ; crest, a stag lodged under a bush of holly, proper : 
motto, Non dormio. Lyon Register. 

Many of the surname of NAPIER carry a saltier ; and some of that name carry a 
bend. The Napiers were numerous of old with us about the year 1296. In Prynne's 
History, page 655, there are Matthew de Napier le Aghelerk in Forfarshire, John 
le Napier in Dumbartonshire, and several others of that name who swore allegi- 
ance to King Edward the first of England. William Napier got from King David 
II. the lands of Kilmacheugh in Dumbartonshire, which formerly belonged to the 
co-heiresses of Sir William Montefix, as by that king's charter of the date 1346, 
in Pub. Arch. The armorial bearing of John Napier of Kilmacheugh, as record- 
ed in the Lyon Register, is, gules on a bend argent, three crescents azure, and, in 
the sinister chief point, a spur-rowel of the second ; crest, a man's head adorned 
with laurel, proper : motto, Virtute gloria parta. 

NAPIER of Wrightshouses carried or, on a bend azure, a crescent between two 
spur-rowels of the first, as in Mr Font's Book of Blazons. 

What NAPIER of Merchiston, the most eminent family of the name, carried of 
old, I know not ; but since John Napier of Merchiston married Margaret Mon- 
teith, daughter and co-heir of Murdoch Monteith of Ruskie, and one of the heirs 
of line to Duncan Earl of Lennox, in the reign of King James II. they have been 
in use to carry only the arms of Lennox, viz. argent, a saltier ingrailed, cantoned 
with four roses gules; their sons were, Archibald who succeeded, and John Napier 
of Balerno. Archibald's son, Sir Alexander Napier of Merchiston, lost his life at 
Flodden Field, pth September 1513, as did his son Alexander, at the battle of 
Pinkie, loth September 1547, whose son and successor, Sif Archibald, was knighted 
by King James VI. and made Master of the Mint 1587. He went generally by 
the title of Edinbelly, and married first Janet, daughter of Mr Francis Bothwell, 
one of the Senators of the College of Justice in the reign of King James V. ances- 
tor to the Lord Holyroodhouse; by whom he had John, his son and heir. After her 
death he married a daughter of Moubray of Bambougle, by whom he had Sic 
Alexander Napier of Lauriston, one of the Senators of the College of Justice in 
the reign of King Charles I. 

JOHN NAPIER of Merchiston succeeded his father, and was very famous for his 
learning, especially in the mathematics ; his logarithms, and his other works that 
have been published, remain as monuments of his sublime parts and penetration. 
He married, first, Margaret, daughter to Sir James Stirling of Keir, by whom he 
had Sir Archibald ; and after her death lie married Agnes, daughter of Sir James 
Chisholm of Cromlicks, by whom he had (as in Mr Crawfurd's Peerage) John Na- 
pier of Easter Torry, Mr Robert Napier, of whom the branch of the Napiers of 
Kilcroich, Mr Alexander Napier of Gellets, William Napier of Ardmore, of whom 
also is Napier of Craiganet, Adam, of whom the Napiers of Blackston are de- 
scended. The great Merchiston died ^d of April 1617, aged 67, and was suc- 
ceeded by his eldest son, who was Lord Treasurer Depute 1624, as also Justice 
Clerk, and afterwards by King Charles I. made a lord of Parliament, by the title 
of Lord Napier, in the year 1627. He stood firm in his loyalty to his Majesty in 
the worst of times, and accompanied James Marquis of Montrose to the battle of 
Philiphaugh, whose sister, Margaret, he had for his lady. She bore to him Archi- 

Mm, 



r$8. OF THE SALTIER OR SAUTOIR. 

bald Lord Napier, who married Elizabeth, daughter to John Earl of Marr, by 
whom he had Archibald, his son and successor, and John, who lost his life in the 
sea fight against the Dutch 1672 ; as also three daughters, Jean, married to Sir 
Thomas Nicolson of Carnock, Margaret to John Brisbane, Esq. Secretary to the 
Royal Navy, and resident from King Charles II. at the Court of France, and 
\Liry who died young. Archibald Lord Napier made a resignation of his honour 
in the hands of King Charles II. who was pleased to confer the title again by a 
new patent, of the date the 7th of February 1677, on him and the heirs of his 
body ; which failing, on the heirs of the bodies of his sisters successively. And 
he dying a bachelor 1683, the honour of Lord Napier devolved to 

Sir THOMAS NICOLSON of Carnock, his nephew, by his sister: but he dying young, 
the honour devolved on Margaret his aunt, who, by Mr Brisbane, her husband, had 
issue John Master of Napier, who died unmarried 1704; likewise a daughter Eliza- 
beth, married 1699 to Mr William Scott, then son and heir apparent to Francis 
Scott of Thirlestane, Baronet, to whom she had a son, Francis, the present Lord 
Napier, and daughters who died young. She dying 1705, and her mother Margaret 
Lady Napier 1706, the honour of Lord Napier devolved to her grandson by her 
daughter, Sir William Scot's son, Francis, the present Lord Napier, who quarters 
the arms of his father with these of the Lord Napier, thus, quarterly, first and 
fourth argent, a saltier ingrailed, cantoned with four roses g ules, for Napier; second 
and third or, on a bend azure, a mullet betwixt two crescents of the first, within 
a double tressure flowered and counterflowered of the second, for Scott of Thirle- 
stane; which arms are timbred with crown, helmet, and mantlings befitting his qua- 
lity, and issuing out of a wreath of his tinctures ; for crest, a right arm from the 
elbow grasping a crescent, proper; and above, on an escrol, for motto, Sans tache ; 
supported on the dexter by an eagle, proper, and on the sinister by a chevalier in 
a coat of mail, holding a spear with a pennon, all proper; and below the shield, by 
way of compartment, on the embattlement of a tower, argent, massoned sable, 
six lances disposed saltier-ways ; with this motto, Ready ay ready. 

The arms of the branches of this family, as they stand recorded in the Lyon 
Register, are these, 

ALEXANDER NAPIER, descended of a sixth son of Napier of that Ilk, argent, on 
a saltier ingrailed, between four roses gules, a flower-de-luce or, for his differ- 
ence ; crest, a dsxter hand erected, holding a crescent argent: motto, Sans tache. 

ARCHIBALD NAPIER of Balwhaple, descended of a third son of Napier, carries 
Napier with a mullet for difference ; crest, an eagle's leg erased in bend, proper, 
armed gules : motto, Usque fidelis. 

WILLIAM NAPIER of Ballikinranie, in the Lennox, one of the oldest cadets 
of Napier, carries Napier within a bordure gules; crest, a dexter hand holding an 
eagle's leg erased in bend, proper, armed gules : motto, Nil veretur veritas. 

Mr THOMAS NAPIER of Ballicharne, descended of a second son of Ballikinranie, 
carries as Ballikinranie ; but, for his difference, charges the bordure with eight cres- 
cents argent; crest, an eagle's leg erased, proper, armed gules, disposed fesse-ways : 
motto Vincit veritas. 

Mr ROBERT NAPIER of Falside carries Napier within a bordure indented gules, 
for his difference ; crest, two hands conjoined, and both grasping a sword, proper : 
motto, Absque dedecore. 

JAMES NAPIER of Harrieston, a second brother of Mr Robert Napier of Falside, 
carries the same with him ; but, for difference, charges the bordure with eight 
crescents argent. 

WILLIAM NAPIER of Tayock carries Napier, within a bordure indented gules, 
charged with eight martlets argent : motto, Patientia vlncit. 

WILLIAM NAPIER of Culcreuch, descended of a third son of the House of Napier, 
carries Napier, thus ; argent, on a saltier ingrailed betwixt four roses gules, five 
mullets of the field ; crest, a hand holding an eagle's leg erased, proper, the 
talons expanded gules : motto, Fides servata secundat. As in the Plate of Achieve- 
ments. 

GLENEAGLES of that Ilk in Perthshire, argent, a saltier ingrailed sable; which 

t'amily ending in an heiress, in the reign of Robert the Bruce, was married to 

'' Haldane of that Ilk, an ancient family in the south, descended from Haldenus a 






OF THE SALTIER OR SA0TO1R. 1 3.., 

Dane, who possessed these lands in the Borders, called after him Haldune, or Hal- 
denrig, progenitor of Roger de Halden, who had a charter from King William, of 
lands in Perthshire, as Sir James Dalrymple, in his Collections, page 392. He 
carried for arms, as I observe in our old books, and in Mr Font's Manuscript, gules, 
two leopards argent; but Haldane of that Ilk, it seems, when he married the 
heiress of Gleneagles, laid aside his proper arms, and carried these of his wife ; but 
retained the name of Haldane : Afterwards, this family, having matched with one of 
the name of Graham, quartered the arms of Graham, and that anciently : For 
Bernard Haldane of Gleneagles, who married a daughter of William Lord Seaton, 
has the arms of Graham, VVL. argent, on a chief sable, three escalops at; quartered 
with Gleneagles, before blazoned, impaled with his lady's, as is to be seen on the 
genealogical tree of the House of Seaton. His son, John, married Agnes Monteith, 
one of the co-heiresses of Monteith of Ruskie, and of Duncan Earl of Lennox by 
her mother. He left out the arms of Graham, and placed the arms of Montcith 
and Lennox, as now in the bearing of the present John Haldane of Gleneagles ; 
quarterly, first argent, a saltier ingrailed sable, for Gleneagles ; second argent, a 
saltier ingrailed, cantoned with four roses gules, for Lennox ; third or, a bend 
cheque, sable and argent, for Monteith of Ruskie ; and the fourth . as the first ; 
crest, an eagle's head erased or: motto, Suffer. Lyon Register. Supporters, two 
eagles, proper. For the aforesaid marriage with Monteith, I have seen a principal 
charter of John Haldane of Gleneagles, and his wife Agnes Monteith, to Matthew 
Forrester, of the lands of Ballen, 1463, wherein he is designed Johannes de Halden, 
filius bares apparens Bernardi de Halden de Gleneagles, y Agnes de Monteitb sponsor 
suee. His seal was appended to the charter, but it had only a saltier ingrailed ; 
and his wife used the seal of William Murray of Touchadam (of which after- 
wards), because she had not a seal of her own, as the charter bears, quia propriuni 
sigillum non habui. 

PATRICK HALDANE of Lanrick, as a second son of the family of Gleneagles, carried 
the same with Gleneagles, with a crescent in the centre for his difference. Lyon 
Register. 

KINNAIRD of that Ilk, in the shire of Perth gules, a saltier ingrailed and cantoned 
with four crescents or. This was the original family of the name, in the shire of 
Perth. Radolphus Rufus got the barony of Kinnaird from King William the Lion : 
The principal charter I saw in the custody of Mr George Kinnaird, brother to the 
late Lord Kinnaird, with another charter from the same king confirming it : From 
these lands Radolphus Rufus took his surname Kinnaird, which descended to all his 
issue. The principal family was long since extinct ; but the next branch thereof, 
was Kinnaird of Inchture, which began in Reginald Kinnaird, son of Sir Richard 
Kinnaird of that Ilk. He married Marjory, daughter and heir of Sir John Kirkaldy, 
and with her got the lands of Inchture, of which I have seen a charter of con- 
firmation to him and her, and to the children to be begotten betwixt them, grant- 
ed by King Robert III. dated at Perth, the 28th of January 1399, the loth year 
of his reign : Sir George Kinnaird of Inchture was created a Lord of Parliament, 
by the title of Lord Kinnaird of Inchture, in the year 1663, by King Charles II. 
whose achievement is, quarterly, first and fourth or, a fesse waved between three 
stars gules, upon what account I know not ; second and third gules, a saltier can- 
toned with four crescents or, for Kinnaird ; crest, a crescent arising from a cloud, 
having a star from between the horns thereof, all within two branches of a palm- 
tree, disposed orle-ways, proper ; supporters, two naked men wreathed about the 
head and middle, with oaken leaves, their hands, that support the shield, in chains, 
hanging down to their feet, and their other hands holding garlands of laurel, all 
proper ; and for motto, above the crest on an escrol, Erraniia himina fallunt, and 
below, on the compartment upon which the supporters stand, Certa cruce salus. 

Sir GEORGE KINNAIRD of Inchture, his arms recorded in the Lyon Register 1673, 
are, quarterly, first and fourth gules, a saltier between four crescents or, for 
Kinnaird ; second and third gules, three stars argent, for Kirkaldy of Inchture ; 
crest, a garland of laurel vert : motto, >ui patitur vincit. 

The Illuminated Book of the herald Esplin gives for arms to KINNAIRD of that 
Ilk, quarterly, first and fourth argent, three mullets azure, for the name of Innes ; 
second and third gules, three crescents argent, for Kinnaird. But Mr Pont, in hi; 



OF THE SALTIER OR SAUTOIR, 

Blazons, gives to Kinnaird of that Ilk, as before ; and to KINNAIRD of the Carss, 
quarterly, first and fourth gules, three crescents or, for his paternal coat ; second 
and third argent, three mullets azure, for Innes : So that I observe the family of 
Kinnaird has been very unfixed in their armorial bearing. 

WINTON of Strathmartin, ermine, a saltier sable ; Font's Manuscript; and so says 
JEsplin. But in our New Register, 

PATRICK WINTON of Strathmartin has argent, a cheveron betwixt three turtle- 
doves azure ; and for crest, a dove volant, proper. 

The name of CHAPMAN, vert, a saltier ingrailed betwixt four boars' heads erased 
argent ; as in Sir James Balfour's and Mr Font's Manuscripts. 

Some of the name of SMITH, or, a saltier azure, betwixt four crescents gules. 
Font's Manuscript. 

SMITH of Gibliston, argent, a saltier azure, between two crescents in chief and 
base gules, and as many garbs of the second in the flanks, banded or, in Sir George 
Mackenzie's Heraldry. 

JOHN SMITH, Portioner of Dirleton, argent, on a saltier azure, between three 
crescents gules, one in chief, two in the flanks, and a chessrock in base sable, a 
garb of the field ; crest, a dexter hand holding a writing quill, proper : motto, Ex 
usu commodum. L. R. 

The surname of ANDREWS, gules, a saltier or, charged with another vert. Font's 
Manuscript. And there, 

ANDERSON, argent, a saltier ingrailed sable, betwixt four mullets gules. 

JAMES ANDERSON of Wester-Airderbreck, argent, a saltier ingrailed, between 
two mullets in chief gules, and as many boars' heads erased in the flanks azure ; 
crest, an oak tree ; with the motto, Stand sure. Lyon Register. And there, 

JOHN ANDERSON of Dowhill, argent, a saltier ingrailed sable , betwixt a crescent 
in chief, and three mullets in the flanks, and base gules, all within a bordure 
azure. 

JOHN ANDERSON in Aberdeen, argent, a saltier waved, between two mullets in 
the flanks, and a crescent in base gules ; crest, a cross-staff erected, marked with 
the degrees of latitude ; with the motto, P&- mare. In the Lyon Register ; and 
there the following Andersons, via. 

WILLIAM ANDERSON, Merchant in Edinburgh, argent, a saltier ingrailed, canton- 
ed with a mullet in chief, two crescents in the flanks, and a cross crosletfocbe, in 
base gules. 

JAMES ANDERSON of Stabcross, argent, a saltier ingrailed sable, betwixt a crescent 
in chief, and two mullets in fesse, and one in base gules. 

JOHN ANDERSON, Captain and Merchant in Glasgow, descended of the family of 
Tillielum, argent, a saltier ingrailed, cantoned with two mullets in chief and 
base, as many crescents in the flanks gules ; crest, a cloud : motto, Recte quod 
boneste. 

ALEXANDER ANDERSON, Merchant and Bailie in Edinburgh, argent, a saltier in- 
grailed sable, betwixt a crescent in chief, and three mullets pierced of the field, 
two in fesse, and one in base gules ; crest, an eagle issuing out of the wreath ; with 
the motto, >iii boneste fortiter. 

The surname of ANDREW or ANDREWS, with us, does not carry the saltier as the 
Andersons, though their name be as much relative to St Andrew's cross as the 
former ; as in our own Register. 

PATRICK ANDREW of Clockmill, argent, on a fesse sable , three mascles or, in base 
a crescent gules, and on a chief azure, three mullets of the field ; crest,, a dexter 
hand holding a laurel branch, proper : motto, Virtute 1st for tuna. 

ROBERT ANDREW of Nether-Tarvet, parted per bend, argent and azure, three 
mullets counter-changed, two and one ; crest, a star or : motto, Give and forgive. 
Lyon Register. 

The COMPANY of SCOTLAND, trading to Africa and the Indies, established by the 
8th Act of the 5th Session of King William's Parliament, the 26th of June 1695, 
and endowed with many privileges, as also with power, as the act bears, to have a 
common seal, and to alter and renew the same at their pleasure, with advice al- 
ways of the Lyon King at Arms, carried azure, a saltier (or St Andrew's cross 
argent') cantoned, with a ship under sail, flagged of Scotland in chief, proper ; and 



OF THE SALTIER OR SAUTOIR. i 4 r 

in base, a Peruvian sheep, in the dexter flank, a camel loaded, and, in the sinister, 
an elephant bearing a turret, all of the second ; crest, a rising sun, proper, supported 
on the dexter by an Indian, and on the sinister by a negro, in their proper dress, 
each bearing on his shoulder a cornucopia, proper, standing on a table of com- 
partment, whereon are these words, Vis unita Junior, and above all, on an escrol, 
for motto, ^ua pttnditur orbis. Lyon Register. 

Which arms are to be seen on the one side of the medal that was struck by 
order of the Company for Colonel Alexander Campbell, of Finnab, of whom 
afterwards. See Plate of Achievements. 

PITTENDREICH of that Ilk, an ancient family, now extinct, argent, a saltier azure 
between four roses gules. 

BEATSON of Contle, or, a saltier vair; Sir George Mackenzie's Heraldry ; crest, 
a bridge of three arches, proper : motto, Pro patria. Lyon Register. 

The surname of WEDDEL, azure, a saltier cheque, or and gules, between four 
buckles argent. Font's Manuscript. 

LITTLE of Meikledale, sable, a saltier ingrailed argent. The same is carried by 
LITTLE of Libberton, as in Sir George Mackenzie's Science of Heraldry, with a 
crescent for difference ; crest, a leopard's head or : motto, Magnum in parvo. 
Lyon Register. 

POWR.IE of Woodcocksholm, in the shire of Linlithgow, argent, a saltier ingfailed 
gules, surmounted of another or, cantoned with four bugles sable ; crest, a hunt- 
ing-horn azure, garnished gules : motto, Vespere U" mane. Lyon Register. 

Sir MARK. CARSE of Fordelcarse, argent, on a saltier vert, betwixt four cross 
croslets fitched gules, five crescents of the field. But Pont gives to the name of 
Curse, azure, a fesse ingrailed between two mullets in chief, and a crescent in base 
within a bordure ingrailed or. 

The surname of CURRIE, gules, a saltier with a rose in chief argent. The same 
was borne by CURRIE of Newby ; and CURRIE of Kelwood carried the same with a 
chief sable, as in Font's Manuscript. 

CLARKSON, argent, a saltier vert, between two crescents gules in chief and base, 
and as many cross croslets fitched sable in the flanks. 

The surname of CHRISTIE, or, a saltier cantoned with four mullets sable . The 
same is carried by CHRISTIE of Craigton ; but the saltier is invected ; crest, a holly 
branch withered, with leaves sprouting out anew : motto, Sic viresco. Lyon 
Register. 

PATRICK CHRISTIE, Merchant in Aberdeen, or, a saltier indented betwixt four 
mullets sable. 

JAMES CHRISTIE of Balluchie, or, a saltier ingrailed between four mullets sable . 
Lyon Register. 

The name of WALSH, argent, on a saltier sable, five annulets or. Font's 
Manuscript. These of that name in England carry azure, six mullets, three, two, 
and one, or* 

RIGG of Carberry, argent, on a saltier azure, between four mullets, a crescent 
or. Font's Manuscript. 

I have seen the armorial seal of Mr Hugh Rigg of Carberry appended to a writ 
of his, as tutor to Margaret, daughter to George Lord Home, in the year 1546; 
upon which was a saltier between three mullets, one in chief, two in the flanks, 
and a crescent in base. 

Mr THOMAS RIGG of Riggsland, descended of Carberry, vert, a St Andrew's 
Cross ingrailed argent, between a mullet in chief, two garbs in fesse, and three 
roses in base or, within a bordure of the third, charged with eight crescents of the 
field ; crest, a cock sable, beaked and armed gules : motto^ Virtute *i3 labore. 
Lyon Register. * 

GARTHSHORE of that Ilk, argent, a saltier between four holly leaves vert; crest, an 
eagle displayed, proper : motto, / renew my age. Lyon Register. 

Having given before, in this chapter, the armorial bearings of the principal 
family of Bruce, I shall now add the bearings of some of the families of that 
name. 

BRUCE of Clackmanan, in our latter times, has worn out all brisures and marks 
of cadency, and carries now the principal bearing, or, a saltier and chiet g ules. But 

Nn 



X4 2 OF THE SALTIER OR SAUTOIR. 

I have seen a seal of arms of John Bruce of Clackmanan, appended to a writ in 
the year 1481, which had on the chief a star or mullet. 

The first of this family was ROBERT BRUCK, who got a charter of the castle and 
barony of Clackmanan from King David the Bruce : In which charter he is de- 
signed, by that King, Dilectits consanguineus noster. From the lairds of Clackman- 
an all the families of the Bruces, since the reign of that King, seein to be de- 
scended. 

BRUCE of Airth, the first of which family was David, second son to Robert the 
first laird of Clackmanan, and his wife Elizabeth Stewart, daughter to Sir Robert 
Stewart of Rosy th. This family carried of late as Clackmanan did of old; viz. 
or, a saltier and chief gules, the last charged with a mullet of the field. 

BRUCE of Blairhall, another branch of the house of Clackmanan, carries the 
same arms with Clackmanan, with some small difference. 

This family ended lately in an heiress married to Mr Dougald Stewart, Advocate, 
brother to James Earl of Bute. 

BRUCE Earl of Elgin in Scotland, and Aylesbury in England, being descended 
of Edward Bruce, a younger son of Bruce of Blairhall, a man of singular parts, 
was sent ambassador with the Earl of Marr, from King James, to Queen Eliza- 
beth ; and being eminently instrumental in the peaceful entrance of King James, 
after the death of that C^ueen, into the throne of England, by the intelligence 
which he privately held in her lifetime, with Sir Robert Cecil her Secretary of 
State. In recompense of this his faithful service, he had the great office of Master 
of tlie Rolls conferred on him for life, in the first year of the reign of King James 
I. of Great Britain ; and the next year, was advanced to the dignity of a Baron, 
by the title of Lord Bruce of Kinloss, and Earl of Elgin in Scotland. He died 
the i4th of January 1610, having issue by Magdalen his wife, daughter of Sir 
Alexander Clerk of Balbirnie, Edward and Thomas, and a daughter, Christian, 
married to William Earl of Devonshire. Edward succeeded his father in his ho- 
nours, but had the hard fate to be killed in a duel by Sir Edward Sackville, after- 
wards Earl of Dorset ; whereupon Thomas, his brother, became his next heir, and 
succeeded him in the honours, and had additional ones bestowed on him by 
King Charles I. the iyth year of his reign, being advanced to the dignity of a 
baron in England, by the title of Lord Bruce of Whorleton. His son and succes- 
sor Robert was, by King Charles II. in the i6th year of his reign, created Lord 
Bruce of Skelton, Viscount Bruce of Ampthil, and Earl of Aylesbury in England.. 
The arms of this noble family are, or, a saltier and chief gules, on a canton 
argent, a lion rampant azure ; which last are the original arms of the Bruces of 
Skelton, thus blazoned by Jacob Imhoff; Scutum, quo Comes Alisburry utitur, aureum 
est, decussim continent rubeum ccephaloque dist'mftum ejusdem colons ; cujus angulus 
dexter argenteus leonem caruleum defcrt. Which arms are supported by two savages, 
proper ; and for crest, a lion rampant : with the motto, Fuimus. 

The other cadet of the family of Blairhall was Sir GEORGE BRUCE of Carnock, 
third son to Edward Bruce of Blairhall, predecessor to the Earl of KINCARDINE ; 
who carry quarterly, first and fourth argent, a lion rampant azure, armed and 
langued gules, the ancient arms of the Bruces of Skelton ; second and third or, a 
^altier and chief gules, the arms of those descended of the Bruces of Annandale ; 
supporters, two men in armour with targets : and for crest, a naked arm flexed, 
issuing out of a cloud, and holding a man's heart, proper ; with the motto, Semper 
fidelis. This imily was honoured with the title of Earl of Kincardine by King 
Charles I. 26th December 1647. 

BRUCE of Kennet, carries the old arms of Clackmanan, viz. or, a saltier and 
chief gulfs, the last charged with a mwllet urgent', crest, a hand holding a sceptre, 
proper r motto, Fuimus. The first of this family was Thomas Bruce, a younger 
son of Robert Bruce, Dominus de Rate \S Clackmanan, who got from his father the 
lands of West-Kennet, as by the charter of the date the 2d May 1389 ; which is 
confirmed by another charter of King Robert 111. anno 1399 ; from whom is li- 
neally descended the present Laird of Kennet, Brigadier-General James Bruce. 

JAMES BRUCE of Wester-Kinloch, descended of the family of Airth, argent, a 
saltier and chief gules, with a mullet in the dexter chief point or ; all within a 



OF THE SALTIERS OR SAUTOIR. 

bordure indented of* the second ; crest, a star or ; with the motto, Ad summa zv; 
tus. Lyon Register. 

ALEXANDR BRUCE of Garvet, a cadet of Airth, or, a talticxgukt, on u chief em- 
battled of the same a mullet argent; crest, a, hand holding a sword, proper; with 
the motto, Venture forward. 

Sir WILLIAM BRUCE of Balcaskie, Baronet, descended of Clackmanan, or, a sal- 
tier and chief waved gules ; crest, a sun going down : motto, Irrtvocabilc ; sup- 
porters, two cranes proper. These three last UttOOfl are in the Lyon Register. 

BRUCE of Earlshall, sometime designed of Byrgham in the Merse. In the reign 
of King James IV. Sir Alexander Bruce excambed his lands called Escario, in France, 
which his predecessors had acquired by their valour there; with the Lord Mony penny, 
for the barony of Earlshall in Fife, which was anciently one of the seats of the old 
Earls of Fife. As in Sir Robert Sibbald, his History of Fife. The armorial bear- 
ing of this family is, of, a saltier and chief gules, in the collar point a flower-de- 
luce azure. 

BRUCE of Wester-Abten, descended of Earlshall, or, a saltier gules, on a chief of 
the last, three flower-de-luce's of the first. Lyon Register. 

BRUCE of Newton, argent, a saltier apd chief embattled gules ; crest, an eagle's 
head couped, proper : motto, Spes mea superne. Lyon Register. 

ANDREW BRUCE of Mowance, descended of the family of Cultmalins, quarterly, 
first and fourth or, a saltier and chief gules, the last charged with a mullet of the 
field ; second and third gules, a lion rampant within a bordure ingrailed argent, for 
the name of Gray ; crest, a dexter hand holding a heart, proper ; with the motto, 
Omnia vincit amor. 

WILLIAM BRUCE of Pitterthie, of the family of Standstill in Caithness, or, a saltier 
and chief gules, with two spur-rowels in the flanks of the last; crest, a horse-head 
couped and furnished, proper, with the word True. Lyon Register. 

Mr JOHN FRANK of Boughtridge, vert, on a saltier ingrailed argent, five flower- 
de-luces of the first; crest, a lion salient, with a forked tail, proper; and with the 
motto, Non omnibus nati. Lyon Register. 

The surname of WALKER, or, three pallets gules, surmounted of a saltier argent, 
and on a chief azure, a crescent of the third, between two spur-rowels of the first. 
Pont's MS. 

The surname of BAKER, argent, on a saltier ingrailed sable, five escalops of the 
first, and, on a chief of the second, a lion passant of the field. Pont's Manu- 
script. 

Many honourable and ancient families with us carry the saltier and chief; as 
those of the surname of JQHNSTONE gave for arms, of old, argent, a saltier and chief 
sable, on the last, three cushions of the field, as in our old books of blasons; but 
of late argent, a saltier sable, and, on a chief gules, three cushions or, as decended oi 
the Tribus Alani, of which that noble patriot, Thomas Randolph, w r as chief; the 
cushion being the paternal figures of the Randolphs. The JOHNSTONES were very 
numerous, says Hector Boece, in the reign of Robert II. Sir John Johnstone of 
that Ilk, upon that king's accession to the crown, defeat a great body of the Eng- ' 
lish invading Scotland, on the West Border ; and in the year 1448, according to 
Buchannan, the Maxwells and Johnstones obtained a noble victory over the English, 
in the battle at Sark, near Salway. This family was dignified with the title of 
Lord Johnstone by King Charles I. the 2Oth of January 1633; and thereafter with 
the title of Earl of Hartfield, which, by King Charles II. was changed to that of 
Annandale, and of late dignified with the title of Marquis of Annandale. The 
Right Honourable William Marquis of Annandale, chief of this name, carries the 
foresaid arms of Johnstone, quartered with or, an anchor in pale gules, having mar- 
ried the heiress of FAIRHOLM of Craigiehall : which arms are supported with two 
horses argent, furnished gules ; crest, a spur with wings or, and leather gules : 
motto, Nunquam non parntus. 

Sir GILBERT JOHNSTONE of Elphingston in East Lothian, was eldest son by a 
nid marriage of Sir John Johnstone of that Ilk, one of the progenitors of the 

present Marquis of Annandale, and his wife Dunbar, daughter to the 

Earl of March, and widow to John Lord Seaton. This Sir Gilbert married Agnes 
Elphingston, sole heiress of Elphingston of that Ilk; wlro, by the assistance of his 
uterine brother, George Lord Seaton, superior and Over-Lord of Elphingston, got 



144 OF THE SALTIER OR SAUTOIR. 

/ 

possession of these lands in the reign of King James II. He was succeeded by his 
son Gilbert Johnstone, and the family continued in a lineal male succession till the 
reign of King Charles II. who. carried for arms, quarterly, first or, three crescents 
within a double tressure flowered and counter-flowered gules, for Seaton, as superior 
and over-lord ; second argent, a saltier, and, on a chief sable, three cushions of the 
field for Johnstone; third azure, three garbs or, for Buchan, as carried by the Lord 
Seaton ; and the fourth as first which arms are curiously embossed and illuminat- 
ed ou a roof of a Hall in the house of Seaton. But in the Illuminated Book of 
Arms by James Esplin, Marchmont Herald 1630, they are, quarterly, first Sea- 
ton; third and fourth Johnstone, and the fourth for the name of Elphingston argent, 
a cheveron sable between three boars' heads couped gules. 

JOHNSTONE of Gratney, another cadet of Johnstone of that Ilk ; oil- an old stone 
on the front of the house of Gratney, of the date 1598, is the shield of arms of 
Johnstone of that Ilk, with the addition of two mullets, the one in the collar, and 
the other in base points; crest, a man armed cap-a-pie on horseback, brandishing a 
word: motto, Nunquam nmi paratus. But as matriculated in the Lyon Register, he 
lately carries argent, a saltier sable, and, on a chief gules, three cushions or; crest, 
as above ; with the motto, Cave paratus. As in the plate of Achievements. 

JOHNSTONE of Westraw, or Westerhall, is descended of Herbert Johnstone, cousin 
to John Johnstone of that Ilk, who got from him, for his concurring to oppose the 
rebellion of the Earl of Douglas against King James II. the lands of Westerhall 
and Pittenain, in Lanarkshire, from whom Sir William Johnstone of Westraw, 
Baronet, is lineally descended : the family has been in use to carry the principal 
bearing of the name, as before blazoned, and for difference, a man's heart ensign- 
ed, with an imperial crown, proper, in base, being a part of the Douglasses bear- 
ing, to perpetuate the memory of the apprehending of Douglas Earl of Ormond, 
then in rebellion, by his predecessor ; and for crest and motto, those of the Mar- 
quis of Annandale. As the plate of Achievements. 

JoiiNStoN of Hilton in the Merse, carries the principal arms of Johnston, and 
for difference, only ingrailes the saltier ; crest, a sword and dagger crossing other 
saltier-ways, with the point upward, all proper: motto, Paratus ad anna. L. R. 

JOHNSTON of Benholm, argent, a saltier and chief gules, the last charged with 
three cushions or, within a bordure of the first. 

JOHNSTON of Blackwood, argent, a saltier and chief sable, the last charged with 
three cushions or. As in Workman's MS. 

There was an ancient family of the name of Johnston in the North, designed of 
Caskieben : Sir George Johnston of Caskieben carried, quarterly, first and fourth 
argent, a saltier sable, and on a chief gules, three cushions or, for Johnston; second 
and third azure, on a bend between three hearts heads' erased argent, attired or, as 
jjiany cross croslets fitched of the second, for Marr, and Garioch of Caskieben, 
composed together in one coat, supporters, two Indians, proper, wreathed about the 
head and middle with laurel vert ; crest, a phoenix in flames, proper : motto, Vive 
ut postea vivas. L R. 

JOHN JOHNSTON of Polton, argent, a saltier and chief waved sable, the last char- 
ged with three cushions of the field : crest, a spur, proper, winged argent : motto, 
Sic paratior. L. R. 

JOHN JOHNSTON of Clathrie, sometime one of the Magistrates of Glasgow, argent, 
saltier invected sable, between two pellets in fesse, and, on a chief gules, three 
cushions or ; crest, a star issuing out of a cloud, proper: motto, Appropinquat dies. 
Lyon Register. 

Mr JOHN JOHNSTON of Wordmilns, argent, a saltier sable, between two esca- 
lops in fesse, and on a chief of the second, three cushions as the first ; crest ; 
j band, proper, holding an escallop gules : motto, Sine fraude Jides. Lyon Re- 
gister. 

PATRICK. JOHNSTON of Gormack, argent, a saltier and chief nebule sable, the 
charged with three cushions of the field ; crest, a spur-rowel within two 
branches of palm disposed in orle, proper : motto, Securior quo paratior. Lyon 
Register. 

The JAR.DINES of Applegirth, an ancient family, carries the same arms almost 
with the Johnstons, but iu place of the cushions, have mullets, viz. argent, a sal- 
tier and chief gules, the last charged with three mullets of the field, so painted or 



OF THE SALTIER OR SAUTOIR. 145 

the House of Falahall, and of late recorded in rhe Lyon Register, with the c: 
a .spur-rowel : motto, Cave adsum. 

GEORGE JARDINE, sometime Treasurer of Edinburgh, argent, on a saltier gules^ 
five besants, and on a chief of the second, two mullets or ; crest, a hand holding a 
bc-sant, all proper : motto, Ex virtute bonus. Lyon Register. 

KIRKPATRICK. of Kilosburn or Closeburn, in the shire of Nithsdale, argent, a saltier 
and chief azure, the last charged with three cushions or; crest, a hand holding a dag- 
ger in pale, distilling drops of blood ; with the motto, / make sure ; supporters, two 
lions gardant gules. This principal family has been in use to curry supporters since 
the year 1435, as by their evidents and seals, which I have seen by the favour of 
the lately deceased Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick of Closeburn ; a few of which 1 shall 
here mention. 

JOHN KiRKi'ATRicK. of Kilosburn obtains a charter of confirmation of the lands 
of Kilosburn, which belonged formerly to his ancestors, from King Alexander II. 
Roger Kirkpatrick, successor of the foresaid John, whom Buchannan calls Regents 
a Cella Patricii, was among the first of those worthies that stood up for the in- 
terest of King Robert the Bruce, as he was returning from smiting Red John 
Cumin in the church of Dumfries. This Roger Kirkpatrick vent into' the 
church, expressing these words, /'// make sicker, or sure, and there gave Cumin 
several stabs with a dagger, for which the family has used the dagger for a crest, 
and for motto, /'// make sure. Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick succeeded his father Roger 
in the barony of Closeburn ; who, for his father's, and his own special services to 
his king and country, got the lands of Redburgh, in the sheriffdom of Dumfries, 
as the charter of King Robert the Bruce bears, dated at Lochmaben the 4th of 
January, and 14th year of his reign. Sir Thomas was succeeded by his son Win- 
fr edits de Kirkpatrick, who got the lands of Torthorald. His son, or grandson, Sir 
THOMAS KIRKPATKICK. of Closeburn, makes a resignation of the baronies of Closeburn 
and Redburgh, in the hands of Robert Duke of Albany, Earl of Fife, and Go- 
vernor of Scotland, for a new charter of taihie to himself and his heirs-male, in 
which there are several substitutions in favours of his brethren and nephews, too 
long here to be mentioned. This charter is dated at Ayr the I4th of October 
1409; he was succeeded by his brother Roger Kirkpatrick, who was one of the 
gentlemen of inquest, in serving William Lord Somerville, heir to his father 
Thomas Lord Somerville, before Sir Henry Preston of Craigmillar, sheriff-principal 
and provost of Edinburgh, the loth of June 1435. To this writ of service (which 
I have seen in the custody of Somerville of Drum) Roger Kirkpatrick of Close- 
hum's seal is appended, upon which are the foresaid armorial figures, viz. a saltier 
and chief, the last charged with three cushions ; for crest, a hand holding a dag- 
; and for supporters, two lions gardant. This Roger's son and heir was 
Thomas, and from him was descended the late Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick of Close- 
burn. 

TWEEDIE of Drumelzier, an ancient family in Tweeddale, now extinct, argent, 
a saltier ingrailed gules, and a chief azure. Font's Pvlanuscript ; which are also 
illuminated in the House of Falahall 1604. 

GRIER or GRIERSON of Lag, in the shire of Nithsdale, sometimes used for arms, 
gules, a saltier and chief argent, the last charged with three cushions of the first, 
which I take for a coat of patronage : And at other times carried gules, on a fesse 
or, betwixt three quadrangular locks argent, a mullet azure. Font's Manuscript ; 
and in the New Register, Sir ROBERT GRIERSON of Lag, gules, on a fesse between 
three tetter-locks argent, a mullet azure ; crest, a fetter-lock, as the former : motto, 
Hoc securer. 

The surname of BOYKS, argent, a saltier and chief azure, as in old illuminated 
books of arms ; and Mr Font, in his Blazons, gives the same to BOYES of Pambride. 
Edmond Howes, in his History of England, says, when King William returned to 
Scotland, from his imprisonment in England 1174, he carried along with him seve- 
ral English gentlemen, amongst whom was one of the name of Boyes ; and our 
historian. Hector Boece, who should best know the origin of the family from 
which he was descended, tells us also, that the first of this name came from 
England, and p< . the castle of L^rquhart, which was bravely defended by one 
of that name against the usurping English, till death : His heir was saved by being 

Oo 



i 4 6 OF THE SALTIER OR SAUTOIR. 

carried by his mother to Ireland, and upon King David II.'s return from France, 
he was rewarded with the lands of Pambred or Balbred. 

MOFFAT of -that Ilk, sable, a saltier and chief argent ; and others of that name, 
argent, a saltier azure, and chief gules, as in Font's Manuscript. And there also, 

The name of COWAN, argent, a saltier and chief gules. 

The name of BLACKWOOB, argent, a saltier and chief sable, ; the last charged with 
three leaves of trees or. Workman's Manuscript. Of this name were the two 
famous brothers for learning, Henry and Adam Blackwoods; the first a famous 
physician in France, and the other a Counsellor of the Presidial Court of Poictiers, 
whom Sir Robert Sibbald, in his Appendix to his History of Fife, brings from a 
family of that name in Fife. 

TENNENT or TENNAND of Cairns, argent, a saltier and chief .gules, as in Font's 
Manuscript. James Tennent of Cairns married a daughter of Hugh Somerville ot 
Drum, he was one of the pages to King James VI. In the Lyon Register, James 
Tennent of Cairns, argent, a boar's head couped between three crescents sable : 
motto, Pro utilitate. 

In Sir James Balfour's Manuscript of Blazons I met with one Tennent of that 
Ilk, who carried argent, a boar's head couped in chief, and two crescents in the 
flanks sable. 

JAMES TKNNENT of Lynhouse is witness in a charter of James Lord of St John, 
Preceptor of Torphichen, Knight of the Order of St John of Jerusalem, to Gavin 
Dundas of Brestrnill, 1558 ; what this James Tennent of Lynhouse carried I know 
not: But MUNGO TENNENT, burgess of -Edinburgh, had his seal appended to a re- 
version of half of the lands of Leny, the 4th of October 1542, whereupon was a 
boar's head in chief, and two crescents in the flanks, and in base the letter M, the 
initial letter of his Christian name. 

WILLIAM TENNENT of Lennes, argent, a boar's head couped in chief, and two 
crescents in base, all within a bordure sable ; crest, a sail, proper : motto, Dabit 
Dem vela. L. R. 

FRANCIS TENNENT, sometime Provost of Edinburgh, a loyalist for Queen Mary, 
was taken prisoner righting valiantly against her enemies 1571 ; as in Mr David 
Crawfurd's Memoirs of that Queen. 

The name of DRYSDALE, argent, a saltier azure, between four crosses moline 
gules, and a chief of the second. Font's Manuscript. 

The name of BURRELL, or, a saltier gules, and, on a chief azure, a crescent 
argent, between two spur-rowels of the first. Font's Manuscript. And there 
also, 

TAIT of Pirn, an ancient and principal family of the name, in the shire of 
Tvveeddale, argent, a saltier ingrailed, and a chief gules. Which family ended of 
late in an heiress, married to Horsburgh of that Ilk, who quarters these arms with 
his own, as in the Plate of Achievements. 

WILLIAMSON, argent, a saltier betwixt a boar's head erased in chief, and three 
stars in the flanks, and base sable. Font's Manuscript. 

JOHN WILLIAMSON sometime Bailie of Kirkcaldy, argent, a saltier waved be- 
tween two boars' heads erased in chief and base, and as many mullets in the flanks 
sable ; with the motto, Modicum niodico erit magnum. Lyon Register. 

JAMES WILLIAMSON of Hutchiniield, argent, a saltier between three mullets 
in chief, and flanks sable, and a boar's head erased in base gules ; crest, a garb 
lying on its side unbound, proper : motto, Modice augetur modicum. Lyon Re- 
gister. 

The name of BLAW, azure, a saltier argent, and, on a chief or, three cushions 
gules : It is said that the first of this name was Johnston, who killed a man with 
a blow, for which being obliged to abscond, and change his name, he took that of 
Blaw. 

Having treated of the saltier, or St Andrew's cross, frequently so called with us, 
upon the account of its being the badge of the nation, under its variations of tinc- 
tures and accidental forms, and as it is joined with the ordinary the chief, where it 
is frequent in the bearings of those, who by descent, relation, or dependence, had 
any interest in the south-west parts of Scotland : We will find other figures as 
eminently predominating in other places of the kingdom, which is evident by the 



OF THE SALTIER OR SAUTOIR. j 47 

former and following blazons. In England the saltier is to be found -also often in 
the arm- of the best families of that nation, and on the ensigns of their episcopal 
sees, of which I shall mention a few before I end this chapter. 

The EPISCO: r.s'iER, argent, on a saltier ^w/w, an escalop or. The 

Episcopal See of Bath and Wells, as before. 

ancient and honourable surname of NEVILLE in England, gu/r-t, a Balder 
argent: The earls of that name are Salisbury and Warwick, who carried the same, 
with the addition of a label of three points : The earls of Kent, the same, witli a 
star sable on the centre ; and the Lord Latimer placed an annulet sable on tin- 
centre of the saltier ; and Neville Lord Abergavcnny placed a red rose in the centre 
of the saltier, for his difference, 

Sir FRANCIS LEAK.E of Sutton, descended of an ancient family, of very good ac- 
count in Derbyshire, was in anno 1611, advanced to the dignity of baronet, by 
King James I. of Great Britain ; and in the 22d year of that king's reign, uas 
made, a baron of England, by the title of Lord Deincourt of Sutton ; and in the 
2 ist of Charles I. was advanced to the dignity of earl, by the title of Earl of Scars- 
dale. He was eminently loyal ; and his two sons were killed in the king's service : 
And having himself suffered much for his loyalty in these ruinous times, he be- 
came so much mortified '(as the English observe) after the murder of his rightful 
sovereign Charles 1. that he apparelled himself in sackcloth, and causing his grave 
to be dug some years before his death, laid himself down in it every Friday, exer- 
cising himself in divine meditations and prayers. Of him is descended the present 
NICHOLAS LEAK.E Earl of SCARSUALE, Lord DEINCOURT, whose arms are argent, on a 
saltier ingrailed sable, nine annulets or. 

GEK.RARU Earl of MACCLESFIEKD, argent, a saltier gules, charged with an imperial 
crown or ; which charge is a late augmentation : For formerly the family used a 
crescent, in place of the crown, to difference themselves from the Gerards in Ire- 
land, as Imhorf observes, in his Blasonia Regum Pariumque Magna Britannia : 
" Solent uti eadem tessera gentilitia, qua Gerardini in Hibernia utuntur, nempe 
" decussis rubeus argento in solo, addere tamen consueverunt discerniculi loco 
" lunam falcatam nigram." This family was dignified with the title of Lord 
Gerard Brandon, in the county of Suffolk, and afterwards with the titles of Vis- 
count Brandon, and Earl of Macclesfield, in the year 1679, 

MIDDLETON of Leighton, in Lancashire, argent, a saltier ingrailed sable. 

When figures are situate after the position of the saltier, they are said (as before 
of the other ordinaries) to be in saltier, especially if small figures, but if oblong 
ones, saltier-ways, for which the French say range, or pose en sautoir, and the 
Latins, in decussim trajecta. 

ECCLES of Kildonan, argent, two halberts saltier-ways azure ; and for crest, a 
broken halbert ; with the motto, Se defendendo ; as in the Plate of Achievements. 

The representative of this family is Doctor William Eccles, an eminent physi- 
cian. 

ECCLES of Shanock, descended of Kildonan, the same with Kildonan, within a - 
bordure gules, for his difference : As in the Lyon Register. 

The Papal ensign is two keys saltier-ways adosse, i. e. their wairds outwards. 

The EPISCOPAL SEE of PETERBOROUGH, gules, two keys saltier-ways adosse, and can- 
toned with four cross croslets bottony, andfecbe or. 

The EPISCOPAL SEE of LONDON, gules, two swords saltier-ways argent, hilted and 
pommelled or. 

The EPISCOPAL SEE of LANDAFF, sable, two crosiers saltier-ways, the dexter or, 
Mirmounting the sinister argent, and, on a chief azure, three mitres, with labels of 
the second. 

The EPISCOPAL SEE of ST ASAPH, sable, two keys saltier-ways adosse argent. 

GLOUCESTER SEE, azure, two keys adosse, saltier-ways or. 

EXETER SEE, a sword pale-ways argent, the hilt or, surmounted by two ke\ 
>aJtier-ways adosse of the third. As Dale pursuivant tells us. 



I4 g OF THE CHEVERON 



CHAP, XVII. 

OF THE CUEVERON. 

THIS honourable Ordinary, the last of the nine, may be said to be made of 
the bend dexter-and sinister, issuing from the right and left base points of 
the escutcheon, meeting and ending pyramidically in the collar point. The French 
say, as Monsieur Baron, that it represents a pair of compasses half open ; and us 
Menestrie.r, in his La Science de la Noblesse, " Cheveron est une piece honorable, 
" qui represente deux chevrons de charpente assembles, sans aucune division, il de- 
" scend du chef vers les extremites de 1'ecu en forme d'un compas a demi-ouvert." 

The Cheveron, anciently, as appears by old seals and monuments, reached from 
the base to the top of the escutcheon, as fig. i. PL VII. But in latter times the 
top of the cheveron reaches no further than the collar point, as by the following 
examples. When the first is met within arms, it is said to be a cheveron transposed, 
by the English, and hausse by the French. 

What the cheveron represents, there are different opinions. Gerard Leigh will 
have it to represent the head-attire, which in old times the women-priests used to 
wear ; for which it is called by some, signum capitale. But how it came into ar- 
mories I cannot fancy, since no other herald is of his opinion. The author of 
Tresor Heraldique will have a cheveron to represent a horseman's spur ; a better 
fancy than Leigh's. 

Some derive the word cheveron from chevre, a goat, because it stands like the 
horns of a goat reversed. The Italians call the cheveron, capriolo ; and some, that 
write in Latin, say capriolus for a cheveron. 

Argot de Molina, a Spanish Herald, and others, will have it to represent a 
carpenter's rule, for which it is latined norma, as representing a mechanical instru- 
ment. The Spaniards seldom use it in their arms. Mr Peacham, an Englishman, 
in his book, is much of this opinion, and observes, that a cheveron is never to be 
seen in the armorial ensigns of Kings and Princes, nor as a brisure in the arms ot 
their descendants. 

Sir JAMES BALFOUR, sometime Lyon King at Arms, in a Manuscript of his, says, 
, no King nor Prince should carry a cheveron, because it touches geometry, and re- 
presents the couple of a house ; neither, says he, should they bear a Ba>\ because 
it is jhe baulk of a couple : whether he takes it here for a carpenter's rule, or the 
couple of a house, as the English do, I cannot be positive, but it is generally ob- 
served, that the cheveron is seldom or never carried by Kings or Princes. 

Menestrier says of the cheveron as of the saltier, and other traverse pieces of 
armories, that it may be supposed to be brought from the pieces of timber, which 
made up the barriers of tournaments, inclosures of parks, and entries, which are 
joined at the upper end, and severed below, like a cheveron. Sylvester Petra 
Sancta, in his chapter de Tesserario Cantherio, says, " Ita fit quasi duas institae uno 
" nexu jungantur, insistant vero divaricatae cruribus in modum circini, fceciales 
" capriolum seu cantherium vocant." 

The English generally take the cheveron to represent a pair of barge-couplings, 
or rafters, such as carpenters set on the highest part of the house; which is never 
complete till these be set up ; and say a. cheveron should be given to those who 
have brought any great design to perfection. So that it is the figure of an establish- 
ed house, as Guillim ; and is latined tignum, which comes from tego to cover : 
for upon couplings or top-rafters of a house is laid the covering of the building-. 

After this representation and meaning I find our heralds have taken the 
cheveron ; for in some of our old books of blazons, I find the cheveron represented 
just like the couple of a house ; as in the arms of GORDON Earl of Aboyne, a 
younger son of the family of Huntly, where a cheveron is added to the arms of 
Gordon, for a difference ; with these words for motto, Slant caetera tigno, to shew 
its signification, and his descent from an established house. 

Sir George Mackenzie, in his Science of Heraldry, tells us, that the cheveron is 
given by heralds, to such as have supplied and relieved their Prince and country : 
and thus the HEPBURNS carry gules, on a cheveron argent, two lions pulling at a 



'Tfatc, 7 x -/. 



A A A A A 

i-,--,,- -. r _, 




OF THE CHEVERON. 

rose of the first, fig. 7. PI. VII. because the Scots being in a buttle with the 

English, and like to be worsted, two brothers of the name of Hepburn opp 

ly came in with fresh supplies, and recovered the battle ; and therefore he will 

have the cheveron to signify the relief they gave, and the two lions to rc-pre 

themselves as Scots, pulling at a rose, the badge of England. But of these arm 

afterwards. 

Sir George observes also, that ROBERTSON of Struan got a cheveron added t<> 
his arms, for apprehending Graham, the murderer of King Jamc-, 1. and that the 
family has disused it of late, because of its being frequently used as a mark 
cadency : and Struan being chief of the name of Robertson, it were improper to 
him upon that account. 

The cheveron takes up the third part of the field by the French, but by the 
English only the fifth part, whether charged or not ; sometimes our painters and 
engravers follow the one or the other, as they think it fit, to make the cheveron 
less or more proportionable to the figures which accompany or charge it. 

1 shall proceed to treat of the cheveron, in the same method I have done of the 
former ordinaries, by giving examples of them plain, under accidental forms, 
charged, accompanied, of their diminution, and multiplication, with the blazons 
of other figures situate after the position of the cheveron ; and first of a plain 
cheveron. 

The old Earls of Carrick had for arms, argent, a cheveron g tiles ; as Sir James 
Balfour's Blazons, Plate VII. fig. 2. 

King William the Lion had given Carrick to Duncan the son of Gilbert, the son of 
Fergus of Galloway, and erected it into an earldom 1185, which also became a- 
surname to his descendants, who carried the same arms. 

Earl DUNCAN was succeeded by his son Niel Earl of Carrick, who was very li- 
beral to the monks of the abbacy of Crosragwell, which his father founded. He 
departed this life 23d of June 1250, leaving one daughter, Margaret, his sole heir, 
who married first Adam de Kilcojicath, who thereupon was Earl of Carrick. He 
dying in the Holy Land, without issue, she married again Robert de Bruce Lord 
of Annandale, who in her right was Earl of Carrick ; she bare to him Robert 
King of Scotland, and Edward Earl of Carrick, at last King of Ireland, who was 
slain at the battle of Dundalk, anno 1318. 

He left a natural son, Robert Bruce of Liddisdale, on whom his uncle King 
Robert the Bruce bestowed the earldom of Carrick. He was killed at the battle 
of Duplin, 1332, and was succeeded in that dignity by Alexander his brother, who 
lost his life at the battle of Hallidon-hill, 1333, leaving a daughter, Helen Countess 
of Carrick ; she died without issue, whereupon the earldom returned to the crown, 
and was by King David Bruce, in the 39th year of his reign, given to John Stew- 
art, Lord Kyle, his nephew John, eldest son of Robert Stewart of Strathern, who 
afterwards was created Earl of Carrick. He came to the crown 1390, by the name 
of Robert III. 

The surname of TELZEFER, ermine, a cheveroi> gules ; the principal family of 
which name is TELZEFER of Harecleugh. I have seen a charter granted by James 
de Lindsay Lord Crawford, the I2th of October 1390, of the lands of Harecleugh, 
to John Telzefer, which formerly belonged to his uncle William Telzefer ; which 
charter is confirmed by King Robert III. in a charter of Robert Duke of Albany, 
to John Stewart Earl of Buchan, of the lands of Dunlop, 1418, Andrew Tel/efer 
is a witness, and there designed Clerk of the Chancellory. 

The surname of FLEMING, gules, a cheveron within a double tressure, flowered 
and counter-flowered with flower-de-luces argent, Plate VII. fig. 2. 

Some say the cheveron was accompanied with lions' heads, and' others say with 
wolves' heads, but these have been long since disused by the family ; and the 
double tressure, says Sir James Balfour, was carried by FLEMIXG Earl of Wigton, 
in the year 1357. As for the signification and antiquity of the name; in the 
chartularies of Paisley and Kelso, it is written Flandrensis, Flaming, and Flamma- 
ticus. Which surname they had, says Sir James Dalrymple, in his Collections, 
page 425, from one residing in Scotland, who came from Flanders ; from whence 
the name Fleming, of which there are severals to be found witnesses in evident^ 
in the reigns of Malcolm IV. William the Lion, and the Alexanders. 



OF THE CHEVERON. 

Sir ROBERT FLEMING was amongst the first Scots patriots who stood up for the 
interest of King Robert the Bruce, and independency of Scotland ; for which he 
from iiis Majesty the barony of Cumbernauld, and several other donations. He 
had two SOBS, Sir Malcom his successor, and Sir Patrick Fleming, Sheriff of Pee- 
bles, who got the barony of Biggar, by marrying one of the daughters and co- 
heirs of Simon Frazer Lord of Oliver-Castle ; upon which account this branch of 
the Flemings quarters the arms of Frazer, viz. azure, three cinquefoils argent, 
Of old they were five cinquefoils, disposed in saltier, 2, i, and 2. 

Sir MALCOLM FLEMING of Cumbernauld was in great favour with King Robert I. 
who, for his own and his father's merits, made him Sheriff of the county, and 
governor of Dumbarton castle. He was succeeded by his son Sir Malcolm, who 
singularly stood for King David II. and the Brucian line, and was also made 
governor of Dumbarton castle. He discharged that trust with the utmost fidelity, 
when the King's interest was very weak, after the loss of the battles of Duplin and 
Hallidon-hill ; things growing worse and worse, and the King's person being in 
danger, Sir Malcolm was pitched upon to wait on the King to France, which he 
performed with safety and honour. After this he returned to his command of 
Dumbarton Castle, which he kept out against Edward Baliol and the English, and 
there happily preserved Robert Lord High Steward, afterwards King Robert II. 
whose blood was very much sought after. And when the King's affairs took ano- 
ther turn, Sir Malcolm went to France and attended the king home, 2d of July 
1342; and on the 9th of November the same year, his majesty was pleased to 
create him Earl of Wigton, by his royal charter : for which see Mr Crawfurd's 
Peerage. 

THOMAS Earl of WIGTON, grandson to Malcolm Earl of Wigton, having no issue, 
sold the earldom with its dignity to Archibald Earl of Douglas, in the year 1371. 
I find him designed in charters Thomas quondam Comes de Wigtoun : He died with- 
out issue. In our illuminated books of blazons, I have met with the arms of 
Archibald Douglas Earl of Wigton, thus, quarterly, first azure, a lion rampant 
argent, crowned or, for Galloway ; second and third gules, a cheveron within a 
double tressure counter-flowered argent, the arms of the Earl of Wigton ; fourth 
argent, a heart gules, on a chief azure, three stars of the first, for Douglas. 

MALCOLM FLEMING of Biggar, son of Robert, and brother to Sir Malcolm 
Fleming of Cumbernauld beforementioned, continued the succession of the family, 
which was dignified with the title of Lord Fleming, and afterwards by King 
James VI. the ipth March 1606, with the title of Earl of Wigton, whose repre- 
sentative is John Earl of Wigton. He carries, quarterly, first and fourth gules, a 
cheveron within a double tressure, flowered and counter-flowered argent ; second 
and third azure, three cinquefoils argent, as descended of the Lord Fraser above- 
mentioned. These are otherwise illuminated in James Esplin, Marchmont herald, 
his Book, viz. first and fourth or, a cheveron within a double tressure counter- 
flowered gules ; second and third czure, six cinquefoils, 2, 2, and 2 argent ; which 
in my opinion is a mistake, for in all other books they are as I have blazoned 
them : supported by two stags, proper, attired and unguled or, and collared azure, 
charged with three cinquefoils argent ; crest, a goat's head erased argent, horned 
or : motto, Let the deed sbaw. 

The FLEMINGS of Boghall, in Renfrewshire, were descended of a younger son 
of Biggar now Earl of Wigton. I have seen a charter of John Fleming of Bog- 
hall, of the lands of Sinton, to John Veitch, son and apparent heir of William 
Veitch of Dawick, whereunto the seal of Fleming of Boghall is appended, having 
his arms, quarterly, first and fourth a cheveron betwixt three wolves' heads ; second 
and third, on a bend, other three figures which were defaced. 

Sir WILLIAM FLEMING of Fern, Knight-Baronet, Commissary of Glasgow, 
descended of a second son of the Earl of Wigton, carries, quarterly, first and fourth 
Allies, a cheveron embattled within a double tressure counter-flowered argent, for 
Fleming ; second and third azure, three cinquefoiis argent, for Fraser ; and for. 
crest, a palm tree, proper ; with the motto, Sub pondere cresco. New Register. 
And there also, 

Lieutenant-Colonel JOHN FLEMING, descended of a third brother of the Earl of 
Wigton's family, carries, quarterly, first and fourth or, a cheveron within a double 



OF THE CHEVERON. 

tressure counter-flowered gules ; second and third azure, three cinqucfoiis ardent, 
with a martlet in the centre for difference ; crest, a goat's head erased ai^ent, 
aimed and collared azure, tlie last charged with three cinquefoils argent : motto, 
Let the deed shaw. 

There is another ancient family of the name of FLEMING of Barrochin, in the 
shire of Renfrew, in the reign of Alexander III. mentioned in a charter of Mai 
colm Earl of Lennox to Walter Spruel. And in another charier of James High 
Steward of Scotland, grandfather to King Robert II. in the reign of King James ! 
William Fleming of Barrochin is sheriff of Lanark, but was killed at the battle of 
Flodden with King James IV. anno 1513. He left issue by Marion, his lady, a 
daughter of the family of Houston, James his son and heir, who was father of 
William Fleming of Barrochin, from whom Patrick Fleming, now of Barrochin, 
is the fifth in a direct line ; as in Mr Crawfurd's History of the shire of Renfrew. 
He gives the armorial bearings of this family without naming the tinctures, thus, 
a fesse cheque, surmounted of a bend, with a martlet in base. It is strange that 
this ancient family carries nothing of the Flemings, but only the figures of the 
Stewarts, over-lords and patrons of that country ; and the martlet as a maternal 
mark from the House of Houston. 

The surname of FLOCK.HART, with us, argent, a cheveron sable- Font's MS. 

The family of WIDVILLE Earls of RIVERS in England carried argent, a cheveron 
gules, which Imhoft" blazons thus, Insignia Comitum Rivers e I'Vidwilana stirpe prog- 
nati : Usi sunt scuto argenteo cui norma impressa est rubea. Here the word nonna is 
used for a cheveron. 

FULFORD of Fulford in the county of Devonshire, g tiles, a cheveron argent. 

SWILLINGTON in England, ardent, a cheveron azure. 

When a cheveron is alone in the field, it is then the principal figure of the 
name by whom it is so carried, but if accompanied with other figures, it is not 
always to be looked upon as a principal, but as an additional figure ; but more of 
this afterwards. I proceed to give examples of a cheveron accompanied and charged 
with figures, by some principal families. 

The surname of ELPHINSTONE, argent, a cheveron sable, accompanied with three 
boars' heads erased gules ; Plate VII. fig. 4. The first of this name is said to have 
been a German, called Helphingston, which became a surname to his descendants. 
One of them, an eminent man in the reign of King Robert the Bruce, married 
Margaret Seaton, daughter of Sir Christopher Seaton of that Ilk, and his lady, 
Christian, sister to King Robert the Bruce ; and got with her lands in East- 
Lothian, which he called after his name, Elphinstone, which held of the family of 
Seaton. The family of Elphinstone of that Ilk continued, and, by marrying Mar- 
jory Airth, heiress of Airthland, or Airthbey, in Stirlingshire, got with her these 
lands, till Sir Alexander Elphinstone of that Ilk was killed in the battle of Pep- 
perden, in the year 1436. He left behind him a daughter, Agnes, his heir, mar- 
ried to Gilbert Johnston, who, in her right, was laird of Elphinstone, of whom be- 
fore. The other lands, belonging to this family in Stirlingshire, came to Henry 
Klphinstone, as heir-male to his brother Sir Alexander Elphinstone, and these lands 
they called Elphinstone. He was succeeded by his son John Elphinstone of that 
Ilk, father of Alexander Elphinstone, who was created lord of Parliament, by the 
title of Lord Elphinstone, by King James IV. This is evident by a charter, (in 
the Earl of Haddington's Collections) where that king dispones to him, there de- 
signed, Lord Elphinstone, and his spouse Elisabeth Barlow, an English lady, one 
of the maids of Queen Margaret, the lands of Quarrel, lying within the sheriftdom 
of Stirling, anno 1512, the 2pth of August. This Lord Elphinstone was killed 
with the king at the battle of Flodden, and being not unlike the king in face and 
stature, his body was carried by the English to Berwick for that of the king's. 
His son and successor, Alexander Lord Elphinstone, was killed at the battle of 
Pinkie, icth September 1547, and was father of Robert Lord Elphinstone, \\ho 
married Elisabeth, a daughter of John Drummond of Innerpeffry, and by her had 
several children. Alexander, the eldest, was by King James VI. made one of the 
Privy Council, and preferred to be Lord High Treasurer 1599. He had four sons, 
and as many daughters, by his lady, a daughter of William Lord Livingston : 
Alexander, the eldest, succeeded him ; James, the second, of Barns ; third, Jonn 



i 5 2 OF THE CHEVERON. 

of Mortle in Aberdeenshire, and Michael Elphinstone of Quarrel. Lord Alexan- 
der married the sister of James first Earl of Perth, with whom he had only a 
daughter, Lilias, his heir, so that the title of lord descended to his nephew Alex- 
ander Elphinstone of Barns, son of his brother James, who married the above 
Lilias. Their son John Lord Elphinstone, married Isabel, daughter of Charles 
Earl of Lauderdalc, by whom he has issue, and carries as before, argent, a cheveron 
sable, betwixt three boars' heads erased gules ; supporters, two savages, proper, 
with laurel garlands about their heads and middle, holding in their hands darts, 
with their heads upwards ; and for crest, a lady from the middle richly attired, 
holding a castle in her right hand, and in her left a branch of laurel ; with the 
motto, Cause caused it. 

I will make mention of families of this surname afterwards, with many others, 
who carry cheverons accompanied with figures. 

This ordinary, the cheveron, as others, is not only subject to accidental forms, 
but to be voided and charged with figures proper and natural ; as by the following 
examples. 

A cheveron voided is when the middle part of it is evacuated or cut out by even 
or straight lines, so that the field appears through it. 

Plate VII. fig. 5. MAIN of Lochwood, argent, a cheveron gules, voided of the 
field, betwixt two pheons in chief, and an unicorn's head erased in base sable ; as 
in Sir George Mackenzie's Heraldry, and in the Lyon Register ; for crest, a hand 
throwing a dart, proper : motto, Projeci. This figure is so irregularly cut, that it 
may be blazoned two cheverons. 

CHIESLY of Kerswall, gules, a cheveron voided between three cinquefoils or ; 
crest, an eagle displayed, proper : motto, Credo 13 videbo. New Register. And 
there also, 

CHIESLY of Dairy, argent, three roses slipped gules, and stalked vert ; and for 
crest, another rose of the same ; with the motto, Fragrat post funera virtus. 

The name of DOYLEY in England, azure, a cheveron ingrailed on the outer side 
or, and voided of the field. 

Camden, in his Blazons, for a cheveron voided, says, cantherium evacuatum. 
The voidure must be made of even lines, and not ingrailed, waved, or any other 
form in the inner part ; and when it is so, it is taken for a cheveron above a che- 
veron, because the accidental forms cannot be attributed to the voiding of the 
field, but to a figure : So that all voidings must be plain, and of the tincture of 
the field ; if of another tincture, it is then taken for a super-charge. Plate VII. 
fig. 6. 

COOPER of Gogar, argent, a cheveron gules, charged with another ermine, ac- 
companied with three laurel leaves slipped vert ; crest, a hand holding a garland, 
proper : motto, Virtute. L. R. 

When the cheveron, or any of the honourable ordinaries are only charged, and 
not accompanied with figures, it is then thought by some heralds to be a more ho- 
nourable bearing, than when accompanied, and especially the cheveron. Gerard 
Leigh says, when an ordinary is only charged, it is an honorary honoured ; but I 
iim loath to be positive in this, though I have observed, in our ancient bearings of 
principal families, the ordinaries have been oftener charged than accompanied. 

HEPBURN, gules, on a cheveron argent, two lions pulling at a rose of the first, 
Plate VII. fig. 7. I have seen these arms on the seal of Patrick Hepburn, as one 
of the members of Parliament, anno 1372, being the third year of the reign of 
Iving Robert II. appended to the Act of Recognition past in that Parliament, in 
favours of John Earl of Carrick, eldest son to the said king, to whom John suc- 
ceeded, by the name of Robert III. so that the Hepburns carried these arms be- 
: ; )i-c the battle of Otterburn, which was in the year 1388, and had not them from 
that battle. 

Besides what I have said before of these arms, with submission to the learned Sir 
George Mackenzie, I shall here add my conjecture about theai ; I think they 
have been assumed as arms of patronage, and, in imitation of these belonging to 
the Earls of Dunbar, (which were gules, a lion rampant within a bordure argent, 
charged with eight roses of the first) making use of the same tinctures and figures, 
placing the last upon a cheveron : and though there be two lions, and one rose up- 
on it, they are but situate to the form, of the cheveron for regularity and beauty ; 



OF THE CHEYERON. 

and so the same tinctures and figures of the arms of the Earls of Dunbar may be 
looked upon as arms of patronage, frequent in the days of their assumption. All 
writers tells us, that the first of this name was an Englishman, whom the Earl of 
Dunbar took prisoner, and brought to Scotland, and being a brave and valiant 
man, the Earl gave lu'rn several lands in East-Lothian ; for which see Hector Boece 
his History. 

As for the manner and time of their rise in Scotland I cannot be positive ; but 
I may assert there were of this name with us, in the reign of King Robert the 
Bruce, as by the Minute Book of old charters made by Mr George Lawson, Under- 
clerk of the Exchequer ; where Ada..i de Hepburn gets a charter of the lands of 
South and North Hales and Trapren, upon the forfeiture of Hugh Gourlay of Ben- 
ston, to be holden of the Earl of Dunbar and March : as also a charter of the 
lands of Mersington, Rollingston, and some lands of Cockburnspath, all holden of 
Patrick Earl of Dunbar. 

Dominus Patricius de Hepburn, son to the said Adam, is a witness in an original 
charter of Patricius de Dumbar, Comes Mortice IS Moravia, and (Black) Agnes his 
Countess, dated at the Castle of Dunbar, 24th May 1367, and he is ranked before 
George Dunbar, whom the Earl calls Consanguineus noster. The same Dominus Patri- 
cius de Hephurn is also a witness in a charter granted by Alexander de Lindsay Dominus 
de Ormistoun, in favours of his daughter and heir, Janet, upon the agreement betwixt 
him and Alexander de Cockburn, in the marriage of John de Cockburn, his only son 
of the first marriage, and the said Janet; wherein he gives the lands of Ormiston, 
with the manor-house Peaston, &c. to them. Which charter is confirmed by 
King David Bruce, the 39th year of his reign. This Sir Patrick is the same per- 
son whom I mentioned before, whose seal of arms is appended to the act of Parlia- 
ment recognizing John, eldest son and heir of King Robert II. 1373. Our his- 
torians make honourable mention of him, and his son Patrick, in the famous bat- 
tle of Otterburn, in the year 1388. 

PATRICK HEPBURN, the younger of HALES, (his father being then 81 years old) 
returning from an expedition into England, was unfortunately overtaken and kil- 
led at Nisbet, by George Dunbar, son to the Earl of that name, who came up 
with a party of horse to assist the English, in the year 1402. 

Sir ADAM HEPBURN of Hales, son of the said Patrick, was imprisoned in the 
Castle of St Andrews, with Hay of Yester, and other brothers, upon suspicion, by 
King James I. but was soon released and made governor of the Castle of Dunbar, 
in anno 1433. He was at the battle of Pepperden, in England, where the Scots 
gained a notable victory over the English, 1437. He left three sons, Patrick, Wil- 
liam, and George of Whitsome. 

Patrick succeeded his father, Sir Adam : and, in his charter to the Abbacy of 
Coldingham, the witnesses are Archibald de Hepburn, his uncle, William and 
CU-orge, his brothers : he was made a Lord of Parliament by the title of Lord 
Hales, by King James II. 1456. His son Patrick Lord Hales was advanced to 
the dignity of Earl of Bothwell, by King James IV. the first year of his reign. 
And the year after, I find him designed Comes de Bothwell fc? Dominus de Hales W 
Magister Hospitii nostri, as witness in that king's charter to George Home of Ay ton. 
This earl's seal of arms I have seen appended to a Precept of Seisin of James Bail- 
lie, in the lands of Carphin, anno 1489 ; on which were the arms of Hepburn, as 
before, supported by two lions gardant ; and for crest, a horse head and neck 
bridled. I have seen another seal of this earl's appended to another precept in the 
year 1498, which had a shield, quarterly, first and fourth, a bend, which I take 
for the arms of Vauss Lord Dirleton; second and third, Hepburn, as before. He 
was succeeded by his son Adam Earl of Bothwell ; and his successor, James Earl 
of Bothwell, was \vith all solemnity, in the Castle of Edinburgh, created Mar- 
quis of Fife and Duke of Orkney, by Queen Mary 1567; and was High Admiral 
of Scotland. I have seen his arms illuminated thus, quarterly, first Hepbum ; 
second azure, a ship or, with her sails furled up- argent, within a double tre^ure 
flowered and counter-flowered of the second, as Duke of Orkney ; third ermine, 
three chevronels gulfs, tor the Lord Soules ;- fourth or, a bend azure, for Vass 
Lord Dirleton, embellished with the fore-mentioned exterior ornaments, and be- 
hind the shield was an anchor, the badge of the office of Admiralty. He was for- 



I54 OF THE CHEVERON. 

feited by the Parliament, for the murder of Prince Henry, father to King James 

VI. Many families of this name suffered with him, and were brought to ruin. 
Some of these who are yet standing, I shall give their blazons about the end of 
this chapter. 

These of the surname of KER give for their proper figures, a cheveron charged 
with stars, which some blazon mullets ; but of the distinction betwixt stars and 
mullets afterwards. There were two principal families of this name in the county 
of Roxburgh, viz. Cessford and Ferniehirst, who are said to have their rise from 
two brothers, Ralph and Robert, sons of the family of KER of Kerhall, in Lan- 
cashire ; originally from the family of KER in Normandy, who came over with 
William the Conqueror, to England. Which of these two brothers were eldest, is 
not determined, nor the precise time when they came to Scotland ; but it is said, in the 
time of King David the II. and that Robert got from that king the lands of Auld- 
tounburn, lying upon the water of Beaumont, the original of the house of Cessford, 
Earls, and now Duke of Roxburgh. Their achievement is quarterly, first and 
fourth vert, on a cheveron between three unicorns' heads erased argent, as many 
stars sable, as Ker of Cessford ; they had formerly the field of their arms gules, as 
others of the name, till one of the Lairds of Cessford was killed fighting valiant- 
ly against the English in a green field, in the reign of King James IV. whereupon 
he ordered, for the future, that the field of arms of that family should be -vert, 
in remembrance thereof. As Sir George Mackenzie in his Manuscript of Genea- 
logies. I am much of the opinion that it was then that the family got, by way of 
concession, the unicorns' heads, being a part of the royal ensign; second and third 
gules, three mascles or, for the name of Vipont ; which arms are supported by 
two savages, proper, wreathed about the middle with laurel, holding battons over 
their shoulders, standing upon a compartment, whereupon are frequently these 
words, Omne solum forti patria est ; and for crest, an unicorn's head erased 
argent, maned and horned or ; with the motto, Pro Cbristo if Patria dulce peri- 
culum. 

The family of CESSFORD was first dignified with the title of Lord Ker of Cess- 
ford, by King James VI. and afterwards, in the year 1616, with the title of Earl of 
Roxburgh, in the person of Robert Lord Ker. He married first a daughter of Sir 
William Maitland of Lethington, and by her had three daughters, -idly, He mar- 
ried Jean, daughter of Patrick Lord Drummond, by whom he had a son, Henry 
Lord Ker, who died before the Earl, his father, and left a daughter Jean ; who, 
by her grandfather's appointment, married Sir William Drummond, younger son 
to John Earl of Perth. He, in right of his wife, was second Earl of Roxburgh ; 
of him is lineally descended John Ker, Earl and first Duke of Roxburgh. 

But to proceed to treat of the cheveron in its varieties, after which I shall add 
the blazons of the honourable family of the name of Ker and others. 

When there are more cheverons than one in the field, some English heralds 
call them chevronels, but we, with the French, though there be three of them 
in one field, call them still cbeverans, as we have formerly done of the like num- 
ber of bends, though they keep not their just quantity when multiplied. 

The old Earls of STRATHERN carried for arms, or, two cheverons gules', as Plate 

VII. fig. 8. 

The Earldom of STRATHERN was certainly one of the most ancient dignities in 
the kingdom ; for Maiise Comes Stradarnice is mentioned in the charter of erection 
of the Priory of Scoon by Alexander I. anno 1115. His son and successor was 
Fereth Comes de Stradern, witness in a grant by King Malcolm IV. to the Convent of 
Scoon. He left behind him three sons, Robert, his successor in honour ; Gilbert, 
thereafter Earl of Strathern ; and Maiise, to whom King William gave the lands 
of Kincardine in Perth, to be holden of his brother, Earl Robert. Gilbert erect- 
ed the convent of Inchaffry, and left issue, a son, Maiise, and two daughters, 
Annabella, married to Sir David Graham of DundafF, with whom he got the baro- 
ny of Kincardine, from whom is descended the present Duke of Montrose; Ama- 
tilda was married to Malcolm Earl of Fife. 

Maiise succeeded his father, Earl Maiise, in fortune and dignity ; He married 
Mary, daughter of Sir John Gumming of Badenoch, and with her had issue, Ma- 
iise, his son and heir, and a daughter Mary, married to Sir John Murray of 



OF THE CHEVERON. 155 

Drumshargard, who got with her the lands of Ogilvie, Abercuirnie, and Glenshi- 
rop ; from him is descended the present Laird of Abercairnie. As in Mr Craw- 
ford's Peerage. 

Malise, the next Earl of Strathern, had issue only one daughter, Johanna, coun- 
tess of Strathern ; who married the Earl of Warren, an English Lord, who en- 
gaged his Lady into treasonable practices against King Robert the Bruce ; for 
which she was forfeited, as were some of her associates, the Lord Brechin, and the 
Lord Soules, who also suffered death for the same. 

That earldom returned to the crown, and King David gave it to Maurice de 
Moravia ; but this new Earl was killed shortly thereafter, at the battle of Durham, 
1346. He left no issue behind him, and that earldom was again bestowed by 
King David on his nephew Robert, Lord High Steward of Scotland, who, when 
he succeeded to the crown, conferred that earldom on his eldest son, David Stew- 
art, by his second wife Eupham Ross ; but he dying without sons, his only daugh- 
ter Eupham, who, in evidents, was designed Comitissa Palatina de Strathern, mar- 
ried Patrick Graham, a younger son of Sir Patrick Graham of Kincardine, who, 
in her right, was Earl of Strathern for some time ; and afterwards, in lieu of it, 
was made Earl of Monteith. Of whom before. 

MACLELLAN of Bomby in Galloway, or, two cheverons sable ; this family was 
dignified with the title of Lord Kirkcudbright; their arms were supported on the 
right side by a man armed at all points, holding a batton in his hand, and on the 
sinister by a horse furnished; and for crest, a naked arm supporting on the point 
of a sword a Moor's head : with the motto, Think on. And at other times for crest, 
a mortar piece ; with the motto, Superbafrango. 

By all our historians, this family was anciently of great authority, being Sheriffs 
of Galloway. In the reign of King James II. the family fell under forfeiture, in 
resenting the murder of Sir Robert Maclellan of Bomby, the head of the family, 
by making unwarrantable depredations on the Douglasses lands in Galloway ; and 
it is given out by Sir George Mackenzie, in his Manuscript of Genealogies, and 
by Mr Crawford's Peerage, that the barony of Bomby was again recovered by the 
Maclellans, after this manner : In the same reign, it happened, that a company 
of Saracens or gypsies from Ireland infested the country of Galloway, whereupon 
the king emitted a proclamation, bearing, that whoever should disperse them, and 
bring in the Captain dead or alive, should have the barony of Bomby for his re- 
ward. So it happened that a brave young gentleman, the laird of Bomby's son, 
killed their captain, and brought his head on the point of his sword to the king, 
and thereupon was immediately put in possession of the barony of Bomby ; and to 
perpetuate the memory of that remarkable action, he took for his crest, a Moor's 
head on the point of his sword, and Think on for his motto. I am of opinion, that 
the other crest and motto, a mortar piece, with Superba frango, has been assumed 
since mortars and bombs came in use, as relative to their designation, Bomby. 

THOMAS MACLELLAN of Bomby, in the reign of King James IV. was very ser- 
viceable to the crown, as was his son William Maclellan of Bomby, who was 
knighted by King James IV. but was slain with the king at the battle of Flodden. 
Sir Robert Maclellan of Bomby was knighted by King James VI. and by King 
Charles I. 25th May 1633, was created Lord Kirkcudbright. For which see the 
Peerage of Scotland. 

SAMUEL MACLELLAN of Barclay, argent, two cheverons within a bordure ingrailed 
gules. Crest, a dexter arm issuing out of a wreath erect, holding on the point of 
a dagger a Moor's head proper : motto, Think on. As in the L. R. and in Plate 
of Achievements. He succeeded his elder brother, Robert Maclellan of Barclay, 
1717, who was a second son of Robert Maclellan of Barmagachan, son of another 
Robert, son of Thomas Maclellan of Barmagachan, son of William, and he again 
the son of Gilbert Maclellan, the first laird of Barmagachan, and his spouse Janet, 
daughter to the Lord Herries, who was the second son of Sir Thomas Maclellan of 
Bomby, and his wife Agnes, daughter of Sir James Dunbar of Mc-jhrum. 

Sir SAMUEL MACLELLAN, late Provost of Edinburgh, argent, two cheverons sable, 
each charged with a besant of the field ; crest, a moor's head and neck proper : 
motto, Sapit qui reputat. Lyon Register, and in Plate of Achievements. 



156 OF THE CHEVERON. 

WALTERSON, i. e. Filius Walteri, says Sir James Balfour, carried sable, a fesse 
between two cheverons or, in the year 1292. 

Plate VII. fig. 9. SOULES Lord LIDDISDALE, in anno 1278, carried ermine, three 
cheverons gules, which were afterwards quartered by the Earls of Douglas, for the 
title of Liddisdale. As for the antiquity of the name and family, Sir James Dal- 
rymple, in his Collections, tells us, that Ranulphus de Soules is a witness in 
King David I. his charters. He and his successors, in other Kings' charters, are of- 
ten designed Pincerna Regis, and in the chartulary of Newbattle, Gulielmus de 
Soules is designed Butellarius Regis, in the year 1320. This family was very power- 
ful in the time of the controversy betwixt the Bruce and Baliol, but they adhered 
to the latter. Sir William Soules was governor of Berwick in the year 1320. He 
was suspected and convicted of treason, and forfeited by King Robert the Bruce, 
and Sir Alexander Seaton of that Ilk was made governor of Berwick in his place. 
His lands, Souleston or Salton, in East-Lothian, came to the Abernethys, who 
were lords of Sulton ; and afterwards, by mariiage, to Fraser Lord Salton ; but the 
barony belongs now to Fletcher of Salton, of whom before. 
The surname of HORN in England, gules, three cheverons or. 
I shall add here some ancient instances of carrying three cheverons, as in a 
Manuscript of Arms of the Captains of William the Conqueror, said to be written 
and illuminated by the Monks of Ely, in that king's reign ; which Menestrier tells 
us, in his Rise of Arms, is to be seen in the college of the Benedictines at Douay : 
among these of William the Conqueror's captains, is Breanus de Clare, whose 
blazon is, I? or, a trois chevrons de gueules, which agrees with the seal of arms of 
Gilbert de Clare, Earl of GLOUCESTER and HERTFORD, whereon were three cheverons^ 
which Sandford in his Genealogical History gives us : as also, the arms of Sir WAL- 
TER MANNY", which were or, three cheverons sable . 

When the field is filled with pieces of metal and colour of equal numbers, after 
the form of cheverons, we say cheverony of so many pieces, as of these arms of 
the county of Ravousbergh in Germany ; cheverony of six argent and gules, Plate 
VII. fig. 10. THe French, Chevronne d 'argent et de gueules de six pieces ; and 
Uredus blazons them, Scutum senis ex argento y minio cantberiis exaratum. Mr 
Gibbon, in his Introduction Ad Latinam Blazoniam ; Clypeum in senas squales cocci- 
neas vicissim, y argenteas pro tignorum modo, delineatum. 

Plate VII. fig. ii. The cheveron, as other ordinaries, is sometimes carried 
couped. 

The name of JONES in England, argent, a cheveron couped purpure. 
The diminutive of a cheveron to the half of its breadth, is called by the English 
a chevronel, and the half of a chevronel as to its breadth, a couple doss ; but the 
last is not carried alone, say they, except when a cheveron is between two of 
them, as the endorses with a pale, of which before. The French call the English, 
Coupe doss estay or estai, " C'est un petit chevron dont on se sert pour etaier ou 
1 appuier quelque chose." The Latins, statumen, fultura, or an wider-prop. 

Sir NICOLAS RENTON, who was Lord Mayor of London, in the year 1632, car- 
ried sable, a cheveron betwixt two couples classes, and accompanied with three 
cinquefoils or, Plate VII. fig. 12. thus latined by the foresaid Mr Gibbon: " In 
' scuto pullo cantherium duabus hinc inde cantheriolis aureis praecinctum, & inter 
" tria quinque folia ejusdem metalli interpositum." 

The cheveron, besides the accidental forms, common to other ordinaries, may 
be said to have specific ones, as to be rompu, braced, couche, reversed, and contre- 
pointts. 

Rompu is said by the English of cheverons that are broken at the top, for 
which the French say, brlse, Guillim, in his Display of Heraldry, gives us an. 
example of a cheveron rompu, (or rampe} argent, in a field sable, but does not 
tell us, by whom, and for what reason it is so carried. Mr Holmes culls it a che- 
7WOM disjointed, and says the name of SORTON carries sable, a cheveron disjointed 
argent. Monsieur Baron gives us the arms of ANDREZEL in France, thus : de sable, 
a trois chevrons brise-z d'or, i. e. sable, three chcvronels bruised, or rompu or, 
Plate VII. fig. i^. The like arms are given by Menestrier to the family of VIOLLE 
in France, who instead of the word brise, uses eceme, which, (says he) " Se dit 
4 du chevron dont la pointe est coupee tout droit sans brisure," i..e.. when the top 



OF THE CHEVERON. 157 

of the cheveron is quite oft", without any brisurc ; so that brise is only said of a 
cheveron whose top is cut from tlie body, and remains in UK: field, as Plate VII. 
fig. 14. argent, a cheveron brise, guh-s. 

Such a one, says Holmes, is borne by the name of GREENWAY, but he calls it a 
cheveron double-douncet, or double-onset, and says it may be called coupe, and 
not rampe, as Guillim. 

i'.ccinc is said when the top of the cheveron is not only rompu or brise, but 

carried out of the field, as fig. 13. Which Sylvester Petra Sancta calls Capriolus 

fractus, diminutus ctipite, mutilus \3 pracisus, and on the margin he has the French 

terms, brise au ec/att', which Sir George Mackenzie has in his Science of 

Heraldry. 

1 have met with such a figure in the bearing of JAMES ALEXANDER of Kinglassie, 
parted per pale, argent and sable, a cheveron brised at the top, and in base a cre- 
scent, all counter-changed, (there brise is the same with cceme) quartered with 
the arms of the name of AYTON ; crest, a horse-head bridled, gules : motto, Ducitur 
non trahitur. Lyon Register. 

Some heralds are of opinion, as Sir George Mackenzie intimates, that when a 
cheveron is so broken in its top, it is a sign that the principal house was ruined, 
and sold ; and therefore the cadets take their cognizance bruised in its top. 

Braced is said when two or three cheverons are interlaced together, as fig. 15. 
argent, three cheverons braced in base, azure, and a soleil in chief, gules. And 
azure, three cheverons braced in base or, by the name of FITZ-HUGH. There 
was -a great baron of this name in Northumberland, to whom the Earl of Pembroke 
was heir, who, amongst his other titles, is designed Lord Fitz-hugh, for which he 
quarters these arms with his own : As also does GREY Earl of Tankerville ; these 
cheverons so joined, may be blazoned, fretted or, interlaced, as well as braced. 

Couche, is said when the top of the cheveron is turned to the left or right 
side, the French say, when to the right, tourne, and when to the left, contourne; 
Sylvester Petra Sancta, says, Nunc vibrat dextrorsum, nunc vibrat sinistrorsum. 
Holmes gives us the arms of the name of TOURNEY, or, a cheveron couched gules, 
fig. 1 6. 

If it be turned to the other side, says he, it is termed couched sinister; Sir John 
Feme, in his Glory of Generosity, p. 181, says the cheveron couche shows the 
house not to be altogether ruined, but to stand in a mean condition, since the 
cheveron is not reversed. 

A Cheveron reversed is said when its point is towards the base, azure, a che- 
veron reversed argent, by the name of RUMOR, as Mr Holmes gives us another ex- 
ample, as fig. 17. argent, two 'cheverons couched vert, by the name of COUCH- 
MASTER, others say, counter -cauch ant ; the French, contre-tourne . 

Counter-pointed is said when two cheverons meet by their point in the centre of 
the escutcheon, the uppermost being reversed, as PI. VII. fig. 18. The arms of 
TRAUIER in France, thus blazoned by Menestrier, d'argcnt, a deux chevrons con- 
tre-pointes d'azur. 

These last forms and attributes of the cheveron may be well said to be brisures, 
if not abatements of honour. 

When any other natural or artificial figures are situate in a shield, after the posi- 
tion ot the cheveron, they are said to be in cheveron, or cheveron-waya, as before 
of the other ordinaries. I shall add here one example, fig. 19. Plate VII. 

PEARSON of Balmadies ; argent, two swords cheveron-ways, piercing a heart in 
chief, proper, and in base a cinquefoil of the second ; crest, a dove holding an 
olive branch in her beak, proper : motto, Burn spiro spero. New Register. 

Having treated of the cheveron in its varieties', conform to which I shall add, 
for examples, the armorial bearings of several families and surnames in Britain. 

LIDDERDALE of St Mary's Isle, azure, a cheveron ermine. 

The surname of MASTERTON, argent, a cheveron gules, and chief azure ; some- 
times these arms are quartered with argent, an eagle displayed sable, armed and 
beaked gules, for the name of Ramsay. As in Font's Manuscript. And in the 
New Register. 

ADAM MASTERTON of Grange, in Perthshire, argent, a cheveron between two 

Rr 



OF THE CHEVERON. 

crescents in chief, and a mullet in base gules, on a chief azure, an eagie display - 
'ed or; crest, a dexter hand holding a scimiter, proper: motto, Pro Deo if Rege. 

Mr FRANCIS MASTERTON of Parkmilne ; argent, a cheveron gules, and u chief 
azure ; crest, a stag courant, bearing on his attire an oak slip, fructuated, proper. 
Lyon Register. 

ELPHINSTONE Lord BALMERINO carries the same arms with the Lord ELPHIN- 
STONE, of whom before ; and for difference, charges the cheveron with three 
buckles argent, for Monteith ; and has for crest, a dove argent, with a snake, 
proper, linked about its legs : motto, Prudentia fraudis nescia; and for supporters, 
two griffins, proper, beaked and armed or. The first of this family was Sir James 
Elphinstone, third son to Robert Lord Elphinstone, and Elizabeth Drummond, 
daughter to Sir John Drummond of Innerpeffry. He was Secretary of State, 
President of the College of Justice, and created a Lord of Parliament, by the title 
of Lord Balmerino, the 25th of April 1604, by King James VI. He married 
first Sarah Monteith, daughter of Sir John Monteith of Carse,' of which marriage 
is descended the present Lord Balmiranoch, for which his family carries the 
buckles. He married, secondly, a daughter of Maxwell of Newark ; she bore to him 
James Elphinstone, who was created a Lord of Parliament, by the title of Lord 
Coupar, and carried the same arms with the Lord Elphinstone, but charged his 
cheveron with hearts argent, because, (says Sir George Mackenzie, in his Science 
of Heraldry, p. 74.) his mother was a daughter of Maxwell of Newark. This 
family is extinct. 

The other families of the name of ELPHINSTONE, whose arms are matriculated in 
the New Register, are these : 

ELPHINSTONE of Calderhall, fifth son of Alexander Lord Elphinstone, and Ka- 
tharine his lady, daughter of John Lord Erskine ; argent, a cheveron sable, betwixt 
three boars' heads erased, within a bordure gules ; crest, two men's arms issuing 
out of a wreath, crossing one another saltier-ways, the one on the right side hold- 
ing a sword, and the other on the left holding a branch of laurel, all proper : and 
for motto, In utrumqus paratus. 

RICHARD ELPHINSTONE of Airth, eldest son and heir to Sir Thomas Elphinstone 
of Calderhall ; quarterly, first and fourth, as Calderhall ; second and third or, a 
saltier and chief gules, the last charged with a mullet of the field, for Bruce of 
Airth ; crest, a griffin seiant, holding in his dexter paw a sword erect, and on the 
point a Saracen's head, all proper : motto, Do well and let them say. 

JAMES ELPHINSTONE of Glack, argent, on a cheveron sable, between three boars' 
heads erased gules, an episcopal mitre of the first. 

Sir JAMES ELPHINSTONE, one of the Commissaries of Edinburgh, the same with 
Elphinstone of Glack, within a bordure gules, for difference ; crest, a right hand 
holding a writing pen feathered, proper ; with the word Sedulitate, to show his 
employment, being a Writer to the Signet. 

HENRY ELPHINSTONE of Melyholm, second lawful son of Sir Henry Elphinstone 
of Calderhall, as his father, within a bordure ingrailed gules ; crest, a griffin seiant 
sable, in its dexter paw a garland of laurel vert. 

ELPHINSTONE of Leys, argent, a cheveron ingrailed sable, between three boars* 
heads erased gules. 

The proper arms of the name of KENNEDY, argent, a cheveron gules, betwixt 
three cross croslets fitched sable. 

The first of this name and family is said to be one Kenneth, an Irish or Highland 
Scotsman, whose posterity was surnamed Kennedy from him. In the reign of 
King William, 1183, Henry Kennedy assisted Gilbert, eldest son of Fergus Lord 
of Galloway, in his wars ; as in Buchanan's History. In the Ragman-Roll, there 
are several of the name of Kennedy, as Dominus Alexander Kennedy. Prynne's 
History, page 652. 

In the reign of King David the Bruce, John Kennedy of Denure got several 
lands from that king, as by the Rotitla R. Davidis secundi. He added to his pa- 
trimonial inheritance the barony of Cassilis, by Mary his wife. He had two sons. 
Sir Gilbert, his successor, and Sir Hugh Kennedy of Ardstincher, who, for his 
valour in the wars of France against the English, was honoured with the arms of 
France, viz. azure t three flower-de-luces or ; which he and his descendants quar- 



OF THL: CHEVERON. r 59 

tercd with their proper arms, as I observed in my Essay on the Ancient anil Mo- 
dern Use of Armories, page 136. But there I was mistaken, in saying that Ken- 
nedy of Bargeny was descended of Sir Hugh, who was only uncle to the first Bar- 
geny, and likewise quartered the arms of France with Kennedy. 

Sir GILBERT KENNEDY, eldest son of Sir John of Denure, was one of the hostages 
sent to England for the ransom of King David Bruce, 1357. He was knighted by 
King Robert III. and was twice married ; first, to a daughter of Sir James Sandi- 
lands of Calder: She bore two sons, Gilbert, who died in the French service, with- 
out issue, and Thomas Kennedy of Bargeny, whose representative is Sir Thomas 
Kennedy of Kirkhill ; as in the Preface to Sir James Dalrymple's Collections, 
page 81. Secondly, Sir Gilbert married Marion, daughter of Sir William Maxwell 
of Calderwood, and with her had a son, Sir James, on whom his father settled his 
estate, by reason he married Lady Mary Stewart, daughter of King Robert Bruce 
III. which (says Crawfurd), occasioned Gilbert, the eldest son of the first marriage, 
and Sir James, to fall into a fatal quarrel ; in which the latter lost his life, leaving 
behind him, by Lady Mary, two sons, Gilbert Kennedy, who was the first Lord 
Kennedy, and James, Bishop of St Andrew's. They were both named to be go- 
vernors to King James III. and ever since the family has carried the double tres- 
sure, having matched with the royal family. In an act of revocation of the crown 
lands alienated by King James II. in the Parliament holden at Edinburgh, the 
nth of October 1464, Gilbert Lord Kennedy is there mentioned, whose son was 
John Lord Kennedy, father of David Lord Kennedy, who was created Earl of 
Cassilis by King James IV. 1509. I have seen a charter granted by that king to 
David Earl of Cassilis, and his wife Margaret Boyd, of the lands and castle of 
Cassilis, and of the lands of Kilkerran, which formerlv belonged to John Baird of 
Kilkenny. This Earl David had the misforture to e killed at the battle of 
Flodden, leaving behind him issue, of whom is lineally descended the present John 
Eavl of Cassilis, whose achievement is, argent, a cheveron gules, between three 
cross croslets fitched sable, all within a double tressure flowered, and counter- 
flowered with flower-de-luces of the second ; crest, a dolphin azure : motto, Avise 
la Jin: supporters, two swans, proper. 

THOMAS KENNEDY, the first of the family of Bargeny, was second son of Sir Gil- 
bert Kennedy of Denure, by his first wife, a daughter of Sir James Sandilands of 
Calder ; and carried, quarterly, first and fourth argent, a cheveron gules, between 
three cross croslets fitched sable, within a double tressure flowered and counter- 
flowered of the second, for Kennedy ; second and third azure, three flower-de- 
luces or, the arms of France, as in Mr Pout's Manuscript ; but by Esplin, and 
other illuminated books with me, the double tressure is not in the bearing. 

Sir THOMAS KENNEDY of Kirkhill is the lineal male representative of the family 
of Bargeny, and carries the quartered arms as above blazoned, so recorded in the 
Lyon Register ; with the crest, a hand grasping a dagger, proper : motto, Fuimus. 
VVhose son and representative is Mr THOMAS KENNEDY, now of Denure, sometime 
advocate to her late Majesty Queen Anne, and carries the aforesaid arms, as in the 
Plate of Achievements. 

And in that Register are the arms of ANDREW KENNEDY of Clowburn, some- 
time Conservator of the Scots Privileges with the United Provinces, son to John 
Kennedy, sometime Provost of Ayr. He was descended of the family of Bargeny, 
married Mary Weir, heiress of Clowburn, and bears, quarterly, first and fourth 
argent, on a fesse azure, three mullets of the first, for Weir of Clowburn ; second 
and third, quarterly, first Kennedy, with the double tressure ; second and third 
France, as the arms of Kennedy of Bargeny ; crest, a dexter hand holding a mili- 
tary girdle, with the words on it, Vires veritas ; and below the shield, for motto, 
Nunfallor. Lyon Register. 

KENNEDY of Blairquhan, quartered with the arms of Kennedy those of M'Dou- 
gal ; azure, a lion rampant argent, crowned or. But by the paintings of Falahall, 
beforementioned, the lion is not crowned. Sir John Kennedy of Blairquhan 
bought the lands of Dalwyne from John Dalrymple of Lauchet and Dalwyne 
in Carrick, as appears by a charter of the date 1487, and confirmed by King 
James III. He was descended of Alexander, son of John, second Lord Kennedy, 
and his second wife Elisabeth Gordon, daughter of the Earl of Huntly, in the reign 



i6o .OF THE CHEVERON. 

of King James III. From the same Alexander are likewise descended the Ken- 
nedys of Girvanmains, now represented by 

Sir GILBERT KENNEDY of Girvanmains, Baronet, argent, on a cheveron gules, be- 
twixt three cross croslets fitched sable, a boar's head erased of the first, and in the 
middle chief point, a man's heart of the second ; crest, a dolphin naiant, proper : 
motto, Avise la fin. Lyon Register. 

KENNEDY of Kirkmichael carries the same with Cassilis, with a boar's head 
erased sable, in place of the cross croslet in base ; crest, a palm branch slipped 
vert : motto, Malim esse probus quam haberi. Lyon Register. 

KENNEDY of Kilmuches in Aberdeen, argent, two keys saltier-ways gules, (as 
Constable of Aberdeen), and in base a cross croslet fitched sable, for Kennedy. 

KEJ NEDY of Lochan, quarterly, first and fourth argent, a cheveron indented 
gules, between three cross croslets fitched sable ; second and third azure, a lion 
rampant argent, crowned or. These are matriculated for Mistress Mary Kennedy, 
descended of Lochan, impaled with those of her husband Alexander Beaton of 
Longhermiston. 

AGNEW, argent, a cheveron between two cinquefoils in chief gules, and a saltier 
couped in base azure. These of this name are originally from France, being there 
written Agneau. The first of them came over with William the Conqueror, and 
from thence went to Ireland, where for many years he had a considerable estate in 
the county of Antrim, and were Lords Agnew, alias Lords of Lairn : As in Mac- 
kenzie's Manuscript. One of their sons came from Ireland to Scotland in the 
reign of King David II. where he got the keeping of the king's castle of Lochnaw, 
and was made heritable constable thereof, and of the shire of Wigton. Afterwards 
his successors, for their faithful services, got the gift of being heritable bailie of the 
bailiery of Lesswade, Munbrick, and Drumaston, which are distinct jurisdictions 
within the shire of Wigton ; but were sore oppressed by the Earls of Douglas, 
who demolished the castle of Lochnaw. Thereafter upon the fall of the Earls of 
Douglas, Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, beside the former offices, got that of 
heritable sheriff of the shire of Wigton, from King James II. the 2pth of July 
1452, as the gift bears, " Penes Dominum de Lochnaw, Jacobus Dei Gratia, &c. 
" Sciatis nos pro singular! favore zelo & dilectatione, quas gerimus erga dilectum 
" familiarem, nostrumque scutiferum Andream Agneu, &-c." All which offices, 
with the charters of Lochnaw, were again ratified by King Charles II. in his Par- 
liament at Edinburgh, the I2th of July 1661. This family sometimes carried 
argent, three right hands couped gules, as all these families that came from Ireland 
and settled in Scotland did carry, and do carry, of which afterwards. But now 
they make use of the above blazon, being early honoured with the dignity of 
knight-baronet, in the year 1629, 28th of July, and recorded in the Lyon Register 
thus: 

Sir ANDREW AGNEW of Lochnaw, Knight Baronet and Sheriff of Wigton, bears 
argent, a cheveron betwixt two cinquefoils, in chief gules, and a saltier couped, 
in base, azure ; with the badge of Nova Scotia, as baronet; crest, an eagle issuant 
and regardant, proper : motto, Consilio non impetu, and so carried by the present 
Sir James Agnew of Lochnaw, as in the Plate of Achievements. 

ANDREW AGNEW of Creech, now of Lochryan, Lieutenant-Colonel in the Royal 
Regiment of Dragoons in Scotland, eldest lawful son and heir of Captain Alexan- 
der Agnew of Creech, who was lineally descended and representative of a lawful 
brother of the family of Lochnaw, and which brother was anciently designed of 
Challech, bears argent, a cheveron between two cinquefoils in chief gules, and a 
saltier couped in base azure, all within a bordure of the second ; crest, an eagle 
issuant regardant, holding in his right foot a sword, proper : motto, Consilio fc? 
impetu. Lyon Register, as in the Plate of Achievements. 

ABERCROMBY, argent, a cheveron gules, betwixt three boars' heads erased azure. 
The principal family of the name was Abercromby of that Ilk, in the shire of Banff. 
There was another family of the name, designed of Pitmedden, both to be found 
in the Ragman-Roll, by Prynne. Ferquard Abercromby, Bishop of Caithness, is wit- 
ness in a charter of Agnes Mordjngton, daughter of Patrick Mordington, of the 
date 1321 : and in the year 1481, among the assizers who assoilzied Robert Lord 
Lyle, was Robert Abercromby of that Ilk, which family continued, according to 



OF THE CHEVERON. id 



Sir George M-tckci^ie, in a good respect, from Malcolm III. to- Charles I. and car- 
ried the foresaid blazon ; and for crest, an oak tree acorned, on u mount, proper ; 
with the motto, Tace. As in Font's Manuscript. 

ABERCROMBY of Biikenbog, since the extinction of the family of Abercromby 
of that Ilk, is looked upon as chief of the name, and honoured with the title 01 
Knight Baronet. He carrries the principal coat of the name, as above. 

FRANCIS ABERCROMBY of Fittermer, son and heir of Alexander Abercromby of 
Fetternier, son and heir of Hector Abercromby of Fitternier, second son of Alex- 
ander Abercromby of Birkenbog, argent, a cheveron ingrailed g ule s, betwixt three 
boars' heads erased azure ; crest, a cross croslet Jitcbe ; motto, In cnice salus. Lyon 
Register. He married the heiress of the Lord Semple, and was by King James VII 
; }d of July 1685, created a Lord of Parliament by the title of Glassford for life : 
Whereupon he carried quarterly, first and fourth argent, a cheveron cheque gules, 
and of the first, between three hunting-horns' sable, stringed of the second, for Sem- 
ple ; second and third Abeicromby, as before. The brothers of this Lord, by one 
mother, Jean Seaton, daughter of John Seat'on of Newark, are, John Aber- 
cromby of Aftbrsque, and Patrick Abercromby, Doctor of Medicine, who has ren- 
dered himself an ornament to his country, as well as to the family he sprung from, 
by a most exact and curious History of Scotland, rectifying the mistakes and er- 
rors of our former authors. 

ABERCROMBY of Glasshaugh, argent, a cheveron indented gules, accompanied 
with three boars' heads erased azure ; crest, a bee volant, proper : motto, Vive ut 
vivas. 

The surname of ARNOT, argent, a cheveron betwixt three stars gules. As in 
Balfour's Manuscript. The principal family of this name was Arnot of that Ilk in 
the shire of Fife. Michael Arnot dispones the lands of Cluny to the Monks of 
Cluny, in the reign of Malcolm IV. as Sibb. Hist, of Fife, tc. In the Chronicle 
called Stemmat aland Bruti, King Alexander II. sent Duncan Earl of Fife ambas- 
sador to Henry of England, accompanied with two Knights of Fife, viz. John de 
Morievill, and Malcolm tie Arnet, in the year 1240. MICHAEL ARNOT of that Ilk, 
was honoured with the title of Knight Baronet by King Charles I. which family is 
now extinct, and carried, as in Font's Manuscript, argent, a cheveron sable, be- 
tween two mullets in chief, and a crescent in base gules. 

ARNOT of Fern, a cadet of Arnot of that Ilk, azure, a cheveron between three 
stars argent, and a crescent in chief of the last. Balfour's Manuscript. 

ARNOT of Balcormo, argent, a cheveron sable, between three mullets gules, all 
within a bordure indented of the second : motto, Speratum \3 completum. Lyou 
Register. And there, 

ARNOT of Eastrynd, descended of Balcormo, the same ; but charges the bor- 
dure with eight crescents of the first. 

WHITELAW of that Ilk, sable, a cheveron or, between three boars' heads erased 
argent, some make them couped, as Pont. Other books give for arms to some of 
this name, ermine, on a chief gules, a boars' head couped, between two mullets or. 
As in Esplin's Illuminated Book. Severals of this name are mentioned in the Rag- 
man-Roll. And in the reign of King James III. one Archibald Whitelaw was 
an eminent prelate and Secretary of State to that King. 

WILSON of Croglin, argent, a cheveron between -three mullets gules ; aliter, 
argent, a cheveron between two mullets in chief gules, and a crescent in base azure. 
Font's Manuscript. 

WILSON of Plewlands, argent, a cheveron between three stars gules ; crest, a 
demi-lion of the last ; with the motto, Semper "vigilans. Lyon Register. And 
there also are the blazons of the following Wilsons : 

DAVID WILSON, Merchant in Edinburgh, argent, on a cheveron between three 
mullets gules, a talbot's head erased of the first, with the above motto. 

ARCHIBALD WILSON, Merchant in Queensferry, gules, a cheveron counter-embat- 
tled, between three mullets argent , crest, a talbot's head erased argent : Motto 
as before. 

GEORGE WILSON of Fingach, sable, a wolf salient or, in chief three stars argent ; 
crest, a wolf seiant or : motto, Exfrecta cuncta superne. 

Ss 



X 6z OF THE CHEVERON. 

. * 

GEORGE WILSON, Bailie of Fraserburgh, argent, a cheveron between two mullet* 
in chief, and a crescent in base gules : motto, Venture and gain. 

THOMAS WILSON, Merchant in Edinburgh, argent, a cheveron betwixt three 
mullets gules, and a crescent for difference ; crest, a talbot's head erased : motto, 
Semper vigil cms. 

The name of AUCHMENAN, argent, a cheveron betwixt two cinquefoils gules, and 
a saltier couped in base azure. 

BARROWMAN T , argent, on a cheveron between three martlets gules, a crescent of 
the first. Workman's Manuscript. 

STRANGE of Balcaskie, argent, a cheveron between three lozenges sable. Font's 
Manuscript. 

The name of ABERCORN, argent, a cheveron sable, betwixt three mullets gules. 
Mackenzie's Heraldry. 

M'BEATH, azure, a cheveron between two mullets in chief, and a crescent argent 
in base. Font's Manuscript. 

The name of BISKET, argent, on a cheveron ingrailed between two cinque- 
foils gules, and a mullet in base azure, a cross croslet fitched issuing out of a cres- 
cent of the field. 

HEPBURN of Waughton, carried quarterly, first, and fourth gules, on a cheveron 
argent, a rose betwixt two lions rampant of the first, for the name of Hepburn ; 
second and third argent, three martlets gules ; second and first, for the name of 
Gourlay; as in Sir James Balfouv's Book of Blazons. And they stand so illuminat- 
ed in the house of Falahall, with the names of other barons that were members of 
Farliament in the year 1604. This family has been sometime in use to marshal 
also with those above the arms of Rutherford : for I have seen the seal armorial of 
Sir Patrick Hepburn of Waughton and Lufness appended to a charter, granted by 
him, in the year 1587, to his cousin Patrick Hepburn of Smeaton, of the lands of 
Easter-Crucks ; upon which seal is a shield couche, having three coats quarterly, 
first Hepburn ; econd Gourlay, as above ; third the arms of Rutherford, viz. 
argent, an orle gules, and in chief three mullets sable, and the fourth as the 
first. 

Afterwards they laid aside the arms of Gourlay, and carried only Hepburn and 
Rutherford, quarterly. 

As for the antiquity of the family, and whether it was the principal one of the. 
name, I cannot be positive, not having seen their old evidents. But Mr Thomas 
Crawfurd, in his Notes and Observations on Buchanan's History, makes this family 
the principal one, where, at the title, De Familia: Antiquitate, page 17*3, he says, 
" For the Earl of Bothwell was descended of an Englishman, and thereafter ser- 
" vant to the Earl of March, in the days of King David Bruce, and is not so 
" ancient as Waughton." 

The eldest evident that I have seen belonging to this family, is a charter of ali- 
enation of the barony of Lufness, granted by William Bickerton, son and heir of 
Robert Bickerton of Lufness, to Sir John Hepburn of Waughton, dated at Hadding- 
ton, the 4th of February 1463 ; which charter is confirmed by King James III. 
The family all along married with the best families in the country, being both 
powerful and rich ; of late it ended in an heiress, who was married to Sir Andrew 
Ramsay, son and heir to Sir Andrew Ramsay of Abbotshall, sometime one of the 
Senators of the College of Justice, and Provost of Edinburgh. 

The next family of the name now standing, and male representative of Waugh- 
ton, by the documents that I have seen, is Patrick Hepburn of Sraeaton ; whose 
progenitor was Adam Hepburn of Smeaton, second son of Patrick Hepburn ot 
Waughton, Knight, and his Lady, Helen Hepburn, niece of Adam Earl of Both- 
well, that was killed at Flodden. He got from his father half the lands of Smea- 
ton, and the whole lands of Smeaton-Crucks, as by a.n instrument of seisin, of the 
date 1538, (penes Hepburn of Smeaton) which has these words, " Patricius Hep- 
" burn de Waughtoun, miles, accessit ad prinqipale Messwagium de Smiton, &-c. 
- in baronia de Waughton &- Constabularia de Haddington, &- ibi propriis mani- 
" bus dedit corporalem possessionem dimiditatis terrarum de Smiton, & totarum 
" terrarum de Smiton Crucks, probo adoloscenti Ads Hepburn filio suoJ' 



OF THE CHEVERON 

In the year 1549, this Adam Hepburn of Sraeaton made a resignation of the 
half of the lands of Craig, in the hands of Patrick Hepburn of Bolton, superior 
thereof; for a new charter in favours of himself in fee, and his mother Helen Hep- 
burn, relict of the deceased Sir Patrick Hepburn of Waughton, in liferent. In 
which instrument he is again designed Adamus Hepburn, Jilius legitimus quondam 
Ptitricii Hepburn de Waugbtoun militis; the witnesses are, Patricia Hepburn dc 
IVaugbton, ft at re germano died Adtr, Henrico Hepburn ejus avunculo. 

ADAM HEPBURN of Smeaton, married a daughter of Preston of Craigmillar, and 
with her had a son, Patrick, from whom is lineally descended the present PATRICK. 
HEPBURN of Smeaton. This family has been in use formerly to carry gules, on a 
cheveron, between three martlets argent, two lions pulling at a rose of the first, 
(as in Mr Thomas Crawfurd's Manuscript) ; and since, to carry as Waughtoun, 
viz. quarterly, first and fourth gules, on a cheveron argent, a rose betwixt two lions 
affronts gules, for Hepburn ; second and third argent, an orle gules, and in chief 
three martlets sable, for Rutherford ; crest, a horse argent, furnished gules, tied to 
a tree ; with the motto, Keep tryst. As in the Plate of Achievements. 

The cadets of the family of Smeaton were Sir Robert Hepburn of Alderston, 
Captain of King James VI. his life-guard, predecessor of Hepburn of Bearford ; 
Francis Hepburn of Beanston, another second son of Smeaton, predecessor of the 
present Robert Hepburn of Beanston. 

ADAM HEPBURN of Humbie, quarterly, first and fourth Hepburn, as before ; 
second and third argent, three laurel leaves vert, for the name of Foulis ; crest, 
an oak tree, proper, and a horse passing by the same, saddled and bridled, gules : 
motto, Keep tryst. So recorded in the Lyon Register. See the Plate of Achieve- 
ments. 

The first of this family was John Hepburn of Kirklandhill, brother to Sir Patrick 
Hepburn of Waughton, the father of Adam Hepburn of Smeaton ; of whom be- 
fore. By an instrument of the date I3th of August 1539, (in my hands at the 
writing hereof) William Brown, in Little-Markhill, alienates and dispones the half 
of the lands of Stotincleugh, yobanni Hepburn in Kirklandhill, fratri patricii Hep- 
burn de IVtuigbioun militis. His grandson, Adam Hepburn of Kirklandhill, acquired 
from James Lawson of Humbie the lands of Hartside, in the year 1586. He 
married Agnes, daughter to Henry Foulis of Collington, and his lady, a daughter 
of Haldane of Gleneagles. His son and successor was Sir Adam Hepburn of 
Humbie, one of the Senators of the College of Justice, who married Agnes, daugh- 
ter to George Foulis of Ravelston, and Master of the Mint 1629; and with her 
had three sons, Thomas, who died without issue-male : Adam, who succeeded him, 
quartered the arms of Foulis with Hepburn, upon the account of his mother and 
grandmother's being of that name, and had them so recorded in the Lyon Re- 
i ter. He died also without issue-male, and was succeeded by his brother David, 
father of John, the present laird of Humbie. See the arms in Plate of Achieve- 
ments. 

HEPBURN of Riccarton, descended of Hepburn of Whitsome in the Merse, who 
was a brother of Patrick Hepburn Lord Hales, about the year 1450, carried gules, 
on a cheveron argent, a rose between two lions combatant of the first, and a buckle 
in base or. Pont's Manuscript. 

PATRICK. HEPBURN of Blackcastle, descended of Riccarton, the same with Ric- 
carton : But the buckle is said to be argent, and after the shape of a man's heart ; 
crest, a horse-head couped, proper, garnished gules : motto, Keep tryst. Lyon Re- 
gister. 

GEORGE HEPBURN, Doctor of Medicine, the arms of Hepburn, with a star-stone in 
base, proper ; crest, a mort-head overgrown with moss, proper : motto, Virtute if 
prudent in. Lyon Register. 

KER Marquis of LOTHIAN carries, quarterly, first and fourth azure, the sun in his 
splendour, proper, as a coat of augmentation, when created Earl of Lothian ; second 
and third, parted per fesse, gules and vert, on a cheveron argent, between three 
masclts or; in chief, and an unicorn's head erased in base of the third, three mul- 
lets uf the first. But of late this family carries in the second and third quarter 
only gules, on a cheveron argent, three mullets of the first, as being heir of KER of 
Fernihirst, and Lord JEDBURGH. Which arms are supported on the dexter by an- 



OF THE CHEVERON. 

angel with wings displayed, proper; on the sinister, by an unicorn at^enf, anguled. 
mancd, horned or, and collared gules ; for crest, the son in its splendour : motto. 
Sero sed serio. 

MARK. KER, younger son of Sir WALTER KER. of Cessford, by Agnes his wife, 
daughter of Robert Lord Crichton of Sanquhar, was Abbot of Newbattle, anna 
1546. In this function he continued till the Reformation, and then renounced 
Popery, by which he held his benefice in commendam, and married a daughter of 
George Earl of Rothes. Their eldest son, Mark, was a Lord of Session, and had 
the lands of the abbacy of Newbattle erected to him into a temporal lordship, by 
King James VI. 1591 : And thereafter, on the icth of July 1606, was by that 
king dignified with the honour of Earl of Lothian. His son and successor, 

ROBERT 2d Earl of LOTHIAN married Annabella, daughter of Archibald Earl of 
Argyle ; who having no male-issue of his body, with the king's approbation, his 
estate and honours came to his eldest daughter Anne, and the heirs of her body. 
She married William Ker, son to Sir Robert Ker of Ancrum, to whom she bore 
Robert, Earl of Lothian ; who was honoured with the title of Marquis of Lothian, 
I3th June 1702. He had by Jean, his lady, daughter of Archibald Marquis of 
Argyle, William his successor ; Lord Charles, Director of the Chancery ; Lord 
John, and Lord Mark, brigadiers and colonels in the army ; and a daughter, Mary, 
married to the Marquis of Douglas, mother of the present Duke of Douglas. 

The eldest son, William, the present Marquis of Lothian, married Jean, daugh- 
ter of Archibald Earl of Argyle, by whom he has William Lord Jedburgh, his 
apparent heir. 

The other principal family of the name of Ker, which I mentioned before in the 
shire of Roxburgh, is Cessford, descended of Ralph Ker, who is said to have got 
from King David II. some lands on the water of Jed, upon which he or his suc- 
cessors built a house called Kersheugh. This was the seat of the family for 
seven generations, as by the Genealogical Account of the Family, till Sir Robert 
Ker of Kersheugh, removed it a mile off in the middle of a forest, called Ferni- 
hirst, 2. e. Fairniewood, from which he and his successors were designed. He had 
no issue-male of his body, but a daughter, Margaret, by his wife Katharine, 
daughter of Colvil of Ochiltree. Margaret married Thomas Ker of Smelholme, 
second son to the laird of Cessford, and he had with her Andrew, and Ralph of 
Wooden, of whom the family of Cavers. Andrew was laird of Fernihirst, and 
knight, and one of the Wardens of the Borders in the reign of King James V. 
He married Janet, daughter, of Sir Patrick Hume of Polwarth, and by her had 
John and Robert, of whom the Earl of Ancrum. Sir John was father of Sir 
Thomas Ker of Fairniehirst, who stood firm in their loyalty to Queen Mary. Sir 
Thomas married Janet, daughter and heir to Sir William Kirkaldy of Grange, 
Governor of the Castle of Edinburgh, who bore to him Andrew ; and after her 
death he married Jean, daughter to Sir Walter Scott of Buccleugh, who bore to 
him James Ker of Crailing, and Robert, who was Earl of Somerset in England. 
The.foresaid Andrew was, by letters patent, of the date 2d of February 1622, 
created Lord Jedburgh. His son was Andrew Lord Jedburgh, who died 1628 
without issue, having spent the fortune ; so that his brother Sir James Ker would 
not take upon him the title of honour ; but his son, Robert, reassumed the title, 
and recovered a part of the fortune : And having no issue, made a resignation of 
his honour in favours of William Lord Newbattle, son of Robert Marquis of Lo- 
thian, his nearest heir-male ; to be inherited by the eldest son of the family, as a 
distinct peerage for ever. 

KER Lord JEDBURGH, gules, on a cheveron argent, three mullets of the first ; 
(Sir James Balfour, in his Blazons, adds a stag's head erased in base or, and so 
illuminated in the House of Falahall) ; crest, a stag's head erased or, (Pont says, a 
buck's head cabossed, proper, armed or), supporters, two savages, proper ; (Pont 
^ives two angels, holding cornucopias in their hands) : motto, Forward. 

Sir ROBERT KER Viscount of ROCHESTER, and Earl of Somerset in England, car- 
ried for arms, as in Ashmole's Institution of the Garter, gules, on a cheveron argent, 
three stars or mullets of the first; and in the dexter chief point, one of the Lions 
of England. He was of the family of Fernihirst, and a younger brother to the 
first Lord Jedburgh ; he served King James VI. for a long time in the quality of a 



OF THE CHEVERON. 165 

page, and at that king's coronation in England, was made a Knight of the Bath, 
;:nd afterwards Baron of Branspeth, in the bishoprick of Durham ; in the year 
1611, Viscount of Rochester, and the same year was installed one of the Knights 
of the Most Noble Order of the Gaiter, and afterwards created Earl of Somrr-ct. 
He was also Lord Chamberlain of the King's Household, one of the Lords of the 
Privy-Council, and was a chief favourite at Court after the death of HUME Earl 
of Dunbar, by whose favour he did rise ; but fell afterwards into disgrace by his lady 
Frances Howard, daughter of Thomas Earl of Suflblk ; she bore to him a daugh- 
ter, Anne, his only heiress, who was married to William Russel, Earl of Bedford ; 
to whom she had issue. 

KER of Ancrum : The first of this family was Robert Ker, second son to Sir 
Andrew Ker of Fernihirst, and his spouse Janet Hume, daughter of Hume of 
Polwarth ; of whom was Sir Robert Ker, who was created Lord Nisbet in Teviot- 
dale, and' Earl of Ancrum by King Charles L He married first, a daughter of 
Murray of Blackbarcny, who bore to him a son, William, who became Earl of 
Lothian, by marrying the only heiress of Robert Ker Earl of Lothian. Secondly, 
he married a daughter of Stanly Earl of Derby ; and provided the title of Eail 
of Ancrum by the King's approbation to the heir-male of that marriage, Charles, 
who was Earl of Ancrum, who carried quarterly, first and fourth ermine, on a 
chief parti, argent and gu/es, a lion passant counter-changed; second and third 
gules, on a cheveron argent, three stars or mullets of the first ; crest, a stag's head 
and neck couped argent, collared gules, and charged with three mullets argent, is- 
suing out of an open crown or ; supporters, two stags proper, collared as the crest : 
with the motto, Tout droit. 

KER of Littledean,. descended of a second brother of Cessford, quarterly, first 
and fourth vert, on a cheveron argent, three stars gules, and in base, an unicorn's 
head erased of the second, for KER ; second and third azure, three crosses moline 
argent, for Ainslie of Dolphinton, as in the Plate of Achievements. But our old 
books give for arms to Ainslie of Dolphinton, .or, a cross-flory, gules. Sir ANDREW 
KER of Littledean got the barony of the Hirsel in the Merse, from King James V. 
because he was the first that brought the news to the king, that the Lord Home 
and his followers defeat the English at Haddonridge. This family was designed 
KER of Hirs>el, as above ; and their arms are illuminated in the house of Falahall, 
being vert, on a cheveron argent, three stars gules, and in base an unicorn's head 
erased of the second. The Earls of Home acquired the barony of Hirsel from Ker 
of Littledean, which is now the seat of the family of Home. 

Sir ANDREW KER of Greenhead, Bart, descended of Fernihirst, gules, on a 
cheveron argent, three stars or mullets of the first, a buck's head erased in base, 
and for difference, in chief, a crescent of the second. Lyon Register. As in the 
Plate of Achievements. 

KER of Chatto, the same with Greenhead, a cadet of that family, within a bor- 
dure azure. Lyon Register. 

KER of Cavers, descended of Fernihirst ; gules, on a cheveron argent, three 
stars ot the first, all within a bordure cheque of the second and first ; crest, a stag's 
head erased proper, with ten tynes or : motto, Tout droit. Lyon Register. 

KER of Sutherland-Hall, (representative of Ker of Yair, who was a cadet of 
Fernihirst) gules, on a cheveron argent, three stars of the first, in base, a stag's 
fiead erased, (some books, in place of it, give a hunting horn or, stringed argent,) 
all within a bordure invected of the second. ; crest, a dexter hand holding a dag- 
ger, proper : motto, Abest timor. Lyon Register. 

KER of Faldonside ; quarterly, first vert, on a cheveron argent, between three 
unicorn's heads erased of the last, as many stars gules ; second or, on a bend azure, 
three mascles of the first ; third as second, and fourth as the first, for Halyburton 
of Dirleton ; one of whose heiresses thia- family married. 

KER ot Fairnilee, a cadet of Cessford ; vert, on a cheveron argent, three stars 
gules, and in base a pelican vulnerate or. Font's Manuscript. And there also, 

KER of SamueKton ; argent, an unicorn salient sable, horned or, an old branch 
of the Kers, whether of Cessford or Fernihirst I know not, for the first of this 
family laid aside his paternal bearing, and took the arms of Samuelston of that Ilk 
in East-Lothian. This family ended in George Ker of Samuelston, in the reign 

Tt 



1 66 OF THE CHEVERON. 

of King James III. who had only one daughter, Nicolas Ker, who was married to 
the Lord Home. 

LORD Charles KER, Director of his Majesty's Chancery in Scotland, carries the 
same as the present Marquis his brother, with a suitable difference, crest the same; 
motto, A Deo lumen. 

KER. of Abbot-rule, son to Charles Ker of Abbot-rule, third son to William Earl 
of Lothian, carries the same with, the present Marquis of Lothian, but places, for 
difference, in the centre, an unicorn's head erased proper ; crest, the sun rising out 
of a cloud, proper : motto, J'avance. As in the Plate of Achievements. 

The surname of BALFOUR ; argent, on a cheveron sable, an otter's head erased 
of the first. Sir James Balfour, in his Blazons, says, Balfour of that Ilk, of old, car- 
ried argent, a cheveron betwixt three otters' heads erased sable. The lands of, 
Balfour or Ball-or, on the water of Or in Fife, gave name to the ancient heritors of 
these lands, and their descent is reckoned from the reign of King Duncan* See 
Sir Robert Sibbald's History of Fife. Ingillramus de Balfour is a witness in a char- 
ter of Alexander II. to the Monastry of Aberbrothick. In the parliament holden 
at Ayr, 1315, is Michael de Balfour, Sheriff of Fife, and David de Balfour, whose 
seals of arms are appended in taihieing the crown, and there were then several 
heritors of that name in Fife. In the reign of Robert II. Sir John Balfour of that 
Ilk died without male issue, leaving a daughter and heiress, who was married to 
Robert Bethune, who got with her the barony of Balfour, their issue retained the 
name of Bethune, but were designed of Balfour ; of whom afterwards. 

The next family was BALFOUR of Balgarvie ; King James II. gave to Sir John 
Balfour of Balgarvie the lands of Burleigh, from which he and his posterity were 
designed, who carried argent a cheveron sable, charged with an otter's head erased 
of the field, and in base a rose gules. Balfour's Manuscript. The family continu- 
ed till the reign of King James VI. that Sir James Balfour of Mountquhanny, Clerk 
Register, married Margaret Balfour, heiress of Burleigh. 

MOUNTQUHANNY carried argent, a cheveron sable, charged with an otter's head 
erased of the first, and in base a saltier couped of the second ; Balfour's Manu- 
script. Their son, Sir Michael Balfour of Burleigh and Balgarvie, was created 
Lord Burleigh, at Whitehall, by King James VI. July 16. 1607. He was then 
ambassador for that king to the Dukes of Tuscany and Loraine, and married a daugh- 
ter of Lundie of that Ilk, and had with her but one daughter, Margaret, his heir, 
Baroness of Burleigh. She married Robert Arnot of Fernie, who took upon him 
, the name and arms of Balfour, and, in her right, was Lord Burleigh. Of him is 
descended the present Lord Burleigh, who carries argent on a cheveron sable, an ot- 
ter's head erased of the first, supported on the dexter by an otter seiant, proper ; 
and on the sinister by a swan, proper ; and for crest, a lady standing on a rock 
holding in her right hand an otter's head, and in her left, a swan's head : motto 
Omne solurn forti patria* Some illuminated books represent the woman as a Mer- 
maid. 

BALFOUR of Grange, descended of the family of Mountquhanny, argent, on a 
chever.on sable, an otter's head erased of the first ; crest, a castle argent, on the 
embankment, a woman attired gules, holding in her hand an otter's head: motto, 
.Nil teinere. Lyon Register. 

Mr DAVID BALFOUR of Grange, (says Dr Sibbald) is representative of the an- 
cient family of Mountquhanny, who has a charter from King William the Lion. 

BALFOUR of Denmill, or, on a cheveron sable , accompanied with three cinquefoils 
vfrt, an otter's head erased of the field. Sir Robert Sibbald, in his fore-mentioned. 
History of Fife, tell us, that King James II. in the fourth year of his reign, gave 
the lands of Denmill to his beloved and familiar servant, James Balfour, son to Sir 
John Balfour of Balgarvie. From this James Balfour wa^ lineally descended Sir 
ja-nes Balfour of Denmill, Lyon King at Arms, in the reign of King Charles I. 
i[c \va r > a curious antiquary, and knowing in Heraldry, whose blazons I mention 
frequently in this treatise. 

S ; i- DAVID BALFOUR of Forret, a younger son of Sir Michael Balfour of Den- 

;ni!l, and one of the Senators of the College of Justice, or, on a cheveron sable, 

rfxt f/.vo. trefoil; in chief vert, and a lion rampant in base gules, an otter's- 






OF THE CHEVERON. 16;. 

head erased argent ; crest, an eagle rising, proper: motto, Diev aidant. Ly on Re- 
gister. And there also, 

MICHAEL BALFOUR of Randerston, third son of Sir Michael Balfour of Denmill, 
and same with Forret ; but in place of the lion in base, a garb vert bended or ; 
crest, a cresent. 

Sir ANDREW BALFOUR, an eminent and learned physician, a son of Denmill, car- 
ried the arms of that family with a filial difference. 

BALFOUR of Balbirnie, argent, on a cheveron, ingrailcd between three mullets 
sable, a selch's head erased. of the first; crest, a palm tree, proper; with the motto, 
ftrtus ad tfthera tend.it. Lyon Register. 

BALFOUR of Kirkton, vert, on a cheveron argent, accompanied with three cres- 
cents or ; an otter's head erased sable. B. M. 

BALFOUR of Carriston.^M/f.r, on a cheveron. or, betwixt two otters' heads in chief, 
and a flower-de-luce in base of the second, an otter's head erased of the first. 
This family ended in an heiress, married to a younger son of the Lord Seaton, now- 
designed Seaton. of Carriston, who quarters these srms with Seaton. Balfour's 
Manuscript. 

BALFOUR of Ballow, sable, a cheveron or, charged with an otter's head erased 
of the first, and in chief a label of three points gules. Balfour's Manuscript. 

BALFOUR of Lalethen, sable, on a chevenan argent, betwixt three roses of the 
second, an otter's head erased of the first. These last blazons, are in Sir James 
Balfour, Lyon King at Arms, his Manuscript of Blazons ; where he says, I con- 
firmed to Dr David Balfour of Lalethen his arms, in anno 1638. 

LANGLANDS of that Ilk, a family of a good standing in Teviotdale, argent, on a 
cheveron gules, three stars of the first, Mackenzie's Heraldry ; crest, an anchor in 
pale placed in the sea, proper : motto, Spero. Lyon Register. 

BALCASK.IE of that Ilk, -vert, on a cheveron argent, three trefoils slipped of the 
first ; Workman's and Font's Manuscripts. 

The surname of BOG, gules, on a cheveron argent, three stars sable. Work- 
man's Manuscript. Allter, argent, a cheveron between two cinquefoils in chief, 
nd a boar's head erased and erected in base gules. Font's Manuscript. And there 
also, 

Boo of Burnhouse, argent, a cheveron gules between two cinquefoils in chief, 
and a boar's head in base sable.. 

BACK.IE of Tankerness, argent, on a cheveron gules, accompanied with three 
flames of fire, a lion rampant betwixt two stars of the field; crest, a flame of fire: 
motto, Commodum non damnum, Lyon Register. And there also, 

DUNCAN of Ardounie, gules, on a cheveron between two cinquefoils in chief, and 
and a hunting horn in base, argent, virroled and stringed azure, three buckles of the 
last ; crest, a grey-hound issuing from the wreath, proper, collared or : motto, 
Vivat veritas. Lyon Register. 

DUNCAN of Seafield, now of Lundie, in Angus, gules, a cheveron or, between two 
cinquefoils in chief, and a hunting-horn in base argent, garnished azure ; crest, a 
ship under sail : motto, Disce pati; as in the Flate of Achievements. 

DUNCAN of Mott, gules, on a cheveron between two cinquefoils in chief, and 
n hunting horn in base, or, three buckles azure. Font's Manuscript. And there 
also, 

KNOWS of that Ilk, argent, a cheveron between three roses gules. 

The surname of Lr ARMONTH, Hector Boece places this amongst the oldest surnames 
in the reign of Malcolm III. The armorial bearing of this name, or, on a cheve- 
ron sable, three mascles of the first. The principal family of this name was Lear- 
month of Esselmont in the Merse, of which was Thomas Learmonth, commonly 
called the Rymer, who lived in the reign of Alexander III. A son of this family 
married Janet Dairsie, heiress of Dairsie ih Fife, for which he added a rose, a part of 
his wife's bearing, for his difference, carried by the Learmonths of Dairsie. 

LEARMOMTH of Balcony, quarterly, first and fourth or, on a cheveron sable, three 
mascles of the first, for Learmonth; second and third azure, on a bend argent, three 
roses g iti'ts, for Dairsie, some say Balcomy ; crest, a rose slipped gules : motto, S: 
Lyon 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

One of this family was. Master of the Household to King James IV. and pretend- 
ed that his progenitor was the eldest son of Dairsie, and took to himself the estate of 
Kalcomy, because it held of the King, preferred it to Dairsie, which held of the 
Bishop of St Andrews ; but both of these families are now extinct. 

CAKUTHERS or CARUTHERS, gules, two cheverons ingrailed between three flower- 
de-luces or. The chief of this name is Carruthers of Holmains in Annandale, 
who carries the same ; and for crest, a seraphim volant, proper ; with the motto, 
Promptus fc? fidelis. They have all along continued faithful to the Royal Family 
and country, as our historians tell us; when Robert, the High Steward, (afterwards 
king) took the field against Edward Baliol, for his sovereign and uncle King David 
II. Among those that early joinly him, was William Carruthers of Holmains, 
who, as they say, with his friends and followers, creeped out of their holes, having 
always withstood the government of the English, and continued firm in their al- 
legiance to their Kings. There is a charter of King James III. of the lands of Torry, 
with the patronage of St Mary's Kirk of Torry, within the shire of Dumfries, grant- 
ed to Thomas Carruthers of Holmains, for his special services in expelling the 
king's rebels and English out of the country : The words of the charter are these, 
" Dedisse dilecto nostro familiari Thomie Carruthers, pro suo fideli servitio nobis 
" prius ac novissime impenso in nostri regni defensione in bello & conflictu contra 
" Alexandrum Stewart, & Jacobum Douglass & alios regni rebelles, veteres 
" Anglos hostes, qui regnum nostrum hostiliter armis invaserunt." This charter 
is dated at Edinburgh the 25th of July 1484, and to be seen in the register in the 
lower Parliament House. This family was also eminently loyal to Queen Mary, as 
in Crawfurd's Memoirs of that Queen ; and the family continues still in a lineal 
descent. 

The surname of PAXTON, argent, two cheverons sable, between three mullets 
placed in yde gules; (aliter) azure, on a cheveron argent, five garbs sable. Pout's 
Manuscript. And there also, 

The name of GARDEN of that Ilk, argent, two cheverons ingrailed gules. 

GARDEN of Barrowfield, argent, a boar's head erased sable, between three mul- 
lets gules. 

GARDEN of Leys, argent, a boar's head erased sable, betwixt three cross croslets 
fitched gules. 

PEARSON of Balmadies, argent, two swords cheveron-ways azure, piercing a 
man's heart in chief, proper, and in base, a cinquefoil of the second ; crest, a 
dove holding an olive branch in her beak, proper : motto, Dum spiro spero* Lyon 
Register. 

PEARSON of Kippenross has the swords or daggers otherways, viz. argent, two 
swords or daggers issuing from the dexter and sinister chief points, their points 
downward, and conjoined in base, piercing a man's heart, proper, and a cinque- 
foil sable in the collar point ; crest, a tower, proper : motto, Rather die than 
disloyal. L- R. 



CHAP. XVIII. 

OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

FIGURES in armories are either proper or natural ; the first have their name 
from the Science of Heraldry, and in general are commonly called the or- 
dinaries ; which again are distinguished into honourable ordinaries and sub-ordi- 
naries. I have fully treated of the first, being nine in number, and I proceed now 
to the sub-ordinaries, so called, not upon the account that they are not so honour- 
able as the former, for all figures in armories are equally honourable, data paritate 
gestantium, as heralds speak ; but because the sub-ordinaries give place, and cede 
the principal point of the shield to the honourable ordinaries, when in one field to- 
gether; neither do they claim a proper and fixed place in the field, as the honourable 
ordinaries do : As also, because their names are more derived from nature, and 
other arts, than from this honourable science, though not altogether so free from 
armorial terms, as the natural figures, such as lions, bears, eagles, &c. So that the 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 169 

sub-ordinaries may be properly here treated of between the honourable ordinaries 
and natural figures, and are these ; the bordure, escutcheon, orle, tressure, point, 
pairle, pyle, git MI, framquarter, canton, points, cquipolles or cheque, fusils, lozenge, 
mascle, rustre, fret, billet, besant, tortcaux, -vires, annulet, pappelonne, gutte, diapre ; 
of all which I shall treat separately. 



OF THE BORDURE. 

THE bordure goes round the extremities of the shield, and, takes up the fifth parr 
of the field by the English : But by our practice, sometimes less, sometimes more, 
accordingly as it is charged or not charged, and suits with the figures, within a 
bordure gules. Plate VII. fig. 20. 

With the French it is looked upon as an honourable ordinary, and, as other or- 
dinaries, possesses the third of the field ; as Menestrier describes it, " Bordure est 
" une piece honorable qui prend tous les bords de 1'ecu en forme de ceinture selon 
" le fens de 1'ecu." Monsieur Baron says, it is as a shield surrounding a shield, 
diminished to a third part ; the Latins call it, bordura, linibus, margo, istjfimbta. 

With us and the English it is looked upon as an additional figure or difference, for 
the distinction of coats of arms of particular persons and families, descended from one 
and the same house and original stock ; and not as a principal figure, or one of 
the honourable ordinaries. By principal figures I understand those fixed ones used 
by the stems and chiefs of families, which are transmitted to all the descendants ; 
and by additional figures, those which cadets and descendants add (as marks of 
cadency) to the principal hereditary fixed figures of the stem, or chief of the fa- 
mily, that they may be differenced from it, and from each other among them- 
selves. 

The bordure, indeed, is more frequently made use of as an additional figure or 
mark of cadency than any of the honourable ordinaries ; yet it is, and has been 
frequently carried in arms, as a principal figure, by the stems or chiefs of several 
names, both with the French, English, and with us ; a few instances of which I 
shall here mention. 

In the Chronicle of Jonvil, and other French histories, we read that Charles the 
Great gave arms to several of his brave officers, and to Arnold Viscount of Coze - 
rans, or, a bordure gules ; where the bordure is not only the- principal, but the 
only figure, and without it the shield or would not be arms. Many of such in- 
stances I could add, but I forbear, since it is not questioned by the French, but looked 
upon by them as a principal figure, and an honourable ordinary, and carried by 
some chief families with us. The old Earls of DUNBAR and MARCH, without ques- 
tion chief of the name and family, carried gules, a lion rampant, within a bordure 
argent, charged with eight roses of the first. 

The Earl of PANMURE, of whom before, has his arms within a bordure ; which is 
carried by all the descendants of these families as a principal figure. And further, 
it may be said, for the honour of the bordure, that it should the rather be looked 
upon as a principal figure, since it has diminutives in heraldry, as the other ho- 
nourable ordinaries have, such as the orle, essonier, and tressure : With the last of 
which the French would never have recompensed the Scots, for the heroic assist- 
ance they gave them in their wars, had it been a figure that was never used but 
for a brisure, as all marks of cadency are ; neither would the Scots have retained it 
so carefully in their royal standards and ensigns if it had not been a principal and 
honourable figure. Nor would the Kings of Portugal have carried their arms 
within a bordure ; nor would Richard Earl of Poictiers and Cornwall, in the year 
1 225, have placed the feudal arms of the Earldom of Cornwall, being sable, bcsantic 
or, by way of bordure round the feudal arms of Poictiers, being argent, a lion 
rampant gules, crowned or. So that they are mistaken, who affirm that a bordure 
is never to be found in a coat of arms, but as a brisure and mark of cadency : I 
am therefore to treat here of it without further consideration, than as an armorial 
figure in its different forms and attributes, as I have done of the ordinaries before. 

Sir ALEXANDrR CUMING of Coulter, azure, three garbs within a bordure or: crest, 
a garb of the last : motto, Courage. Lyon Register. 

U u 



i 7 o OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

MURRAY of Deuchar, the arms of Philiphaugh, within a bordure g ule s ; crest, an 
esculop of the last : motto, Fidei signum. 

Sir JAMES DUNDAS of Arniston, one of the Senators of the College of Justice, 
descended of a younger son of Dundas of that Ilk, bears Dundas, viz. argent, a 
lion rampant gules, within a bordure ermine, Plate VII. fig. 21. Those who have 
had the honour of late to be Senators o? that Honourable Judicatory have chosen 
the furr ermine as senatorial, of which the additional figures are, as Sir Colin Camp- 
bell of Aberuchill, Sir Andrew Home of Kimmergham, and others, have their arms 
within a bordure ermine. 

Sir THOMAS STEWART of Bulcaskie, sometime one of the Senators of that learned 
and honourable Bench, descended of Stewart of Grandtully, charged the arms of 
that family within a bordure counter-ermine. Fig. 22. Plate VII. 

DOUGLAS of Earnslaw, of whom before, has his arms within a bordure vair. 
Fig. 23. Plate VII. 

DUNBAR of Heuiprigs, descended of the family of Kilbuyach, a cadet of Dunbar 
of Westfield, Westfield's arms within a bordure vair, or and gules. So much 
then for plain bordures. I proceed to others under accidental forms. 

GREY Lord GREY of Wark. in England, gules, a lion rampant within a bordure 
ingrailed argent ; thus blazoned by Imhoff, Scutum, quo Baro Gray de Werk utitur, 
rubst, sed margine dentato argenteo distinctum est, leonem qui continet, dicto tinctum 
metallo ; Plate VII. fig. 25. This family -represents the ancient Greys of Chil- 
lingham in Northumberland, and was dignified by the title of Lord Grey of 
Wark, the nth of February 1623, by King James I. of Great Britain ; and of late, 
Viscount Glendale in Northumberland, and Earl of Tankerville in Normandy. 
One of the heads of this family was honoured with the last title, long since, by 
King Henry V. of England. 

GRAY Lord GRAY in Scotland carries the same arms with my Lord Grey of 
Wark and Chillingham in England, supported by two lions gardant gules, armed 
or ; crest, an anchor in pale or : motto, Anchor, fast anchor. The first of this fa- 
mily was a son of Grey of Chillingham, or Ford, in Northumberland, in the reign 
of Alexander II. who came to Scotland, and gave his allegiance to that king, and 
got the lands of Roufield *, in the shire of Roxburgh : His issue has continued still 
in Scotland. I have seen a charter (in the custody of Lauder of Fountainhall) 
granted by Robert Lauder of Quarrelwood to Thomas Borthwick, in the reign of 
Alexander III. Amongst the witnesses is Andrew Gray ; and he, or another 
Andrew Gray, gets a charter of confirmation of the lands of Roufield from King 
R.obert the Bruce, as in the Earl of Haddington's Collections, in the Lawyers' 
Library : As also, in the pth year of that king's , reign, Andrew Gray got a charter 
of the lands and barony of Longforgan, with several other lands, which formerly 
belonged to Sir Edmund Hastings. Amongst the witnesses in the charters of 
King Robert II. is Johannes de Gray, Clericus Rotulorum, & Registri Regis ; and, 
i:i the reign of King Robert III. Sir Patrick Gray of Roufield is designed in a 
charter of Thomas Strachan of Glenkindy, nobilis & patens Dominus Patricius Gray 
miles, Dominus de Roufield ; and from the same king he gets a charter of confirma- 
of the lands of Longforgan, where he is called cons anguine us noster. His son Sir 
Andrew Gray married Janet Mortimer, heiress of Foulis, with whom he got the 
barony of Foulis. I have seen an instrument under the note and subscription of 
Patrick Nick, actornatus nobilis, iS potentis Domini Andrea Gray de Foulis, in anno 
1405: And it is thought he was the first lord of that family, which is now repre- 
sented by the present John Lord Gray. 

In the chapter of Partition Lines and their accidental forms, I showed that the 
two lines ingrailed and invected would be best understood when they formed bor- 
dures. The ingrailed line carries always its points into the field, and the invected 
into the figure or bordure it forms, with its gibbose or convex parts into the field ; 
and for these two attributes the French say engrele and candle, and the Latins or- 
dinarily, ingrediatus and invectus. The word ingrailed seems to be derived from 
ingrediar, to enter or go in, as Upton saith, quia ejus color gradatim infertur in 
campf). The invected bordure, called canelle by the French, is contrary to the for- 
mer ; for its points encroach into the bordure, and is called invectus, from inveho, 
to carry in. Mr Gibbon, in^his Introduction 4d Latinam Blazoniam, says ingredj.- 

* Browfield in Crawfurd and Douglas's Peerages. E* 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 1 7 1 

atus and invectus are too strait laced to breathe out their meaning ; wherefore he 
says, that these lines are made or' little semi-circles, like half moons ; and therefore, 
he adds to their blazon, Id est, ad or as in semi-lunulas delineatum, for ingraiUd, and 
for invected, i.e. ad oras, gibbis ( seugibbusisj liniis exaratum. For an example 
of the first, he gives us the bearing of THOMAS Lord COLEPEPER of Thorseway in 
Lincolnshire, son of John Lord Colepeper, which he blazons thus : Gerit baltbeum 
hunuralem satiguineum-utrinque ingrediatum, in pat ma argent e a, i.e. argent, a bend 
ingrailed gules ; and for instance of a bordure invected, he gives us the arms of the 
Levant, or Turkey Company in England, qui gerunt navim deauratam, (cui vela fcf 
vcxilla alba, cuncta crucibus rubeis insignita) mare inter duos scopulos {hac color is 
nativi) transeuntem ; caput autem scuti est argenteum. \3 invest urn ; hoc est (ad or as) 
gibbis, (sen gibbosis lineis) operatum vel delineatum, i. e. on a sea between two 
rocks proper, a ship dr, sails and pendants ensigned \vith crosses gules, a chief in- 
vected argent. This accidental form, viz. of the line invected or canelle, as the 
French say, is not so frequent in arms with us as the ingrailed line. 

CAMPBELL of Monchaster carries the arms of the Earl of Breadalbane, before bla- 
zoned, within a bordure invected sable. PI. VII. fig. 26. 

A bordure indented is latined limbus dentatus indentatns or denticulatus, because it 
is nicked and cut like teeth, after the fashion of contracts or indentures of old ; 
and is very frequent with the English. 

Sir FRANCIS OGILVIE of Newgrange, descended from the Earl of Airly, Plate VII. 
fig. 27. argent, a lion passant gardant gules, crowned with a close crown, and 
gorged with an open one, within a bordure indented of the second ; crest, a demi- 
lion azure, grasping in his dexter paw a garb, proper: motto, Marte IS Industria. 
Lyon Register. 

When the indentment or the teeth are large the figure is then said to be dan- 
cette ; by the Latins, denies decumani ; so that the word indented is borrowed from 
denies, teeth ; whereunto the same hath a resemblance. 

Sometimes we meet with plain bordures, which have two different tinctures 
conjoined by indenting, or otherwise, such as by ingrailing or embattling lines in 
the middle of the bordure, and then it is called a double bordure indents' of such 
tinctures, or a bordure counter -indented ; by some blazoned, a bordure parted per 
bordure indented ; and others say, as Holmes, a bordure azure, charged with ano- 
ther indented or. Plate VII. fig. 28. 

HAMILTON of Blanty re-Farm, a cadet of Hamilton of Boreland, a cadet of the fa- 
mily of Hamilton, gules, three cinquefoils ermine, within a double bordure indent- 
ed argent, and of the first ; crest, a trunk of an oak tree couped in pale, sprout- 
ing out two branches proper : motto, Non deficit alter. Lyon Register. 

Here the bordure is plain as to the line that forms it ; but indente, as to the 
joining of the t\vo tinctures within, for which it is variously "blazoned, as before : 
counter-indented bordures are frequent abroad, especially in Italy ; of which Syl- 
vester Petra Sancta says, they are taken from the hems of robes and garments of 
princes, and are ornamental, and signs of patronage. 

A bordure waved is formed on the inner side by a line, crooked like a wave of 
the sea, of which before. 

HAMILTON of Ladylands, descended of the family of Torrence, a cadet of Hamil- 
ton, now Duke of Hamilton, gules, a mullet between three cinquefoils, all within 
u bordure waved argent. Lyon Office. 

Bordure Nebule, when the inner line of the bordure is formed like clouds. 

GORDON of Rothness, a second son of the family of Lesmoir, azure, a fesse 
cheque argent, and of the first, between three boars' heads couped or, within a 
bordure nebule of the second. Lyon Register. 

Bordure embattled or crenelle is when the inner line is formed like the embat- 
tlements of a castle or fort, for which the Latins say, Limbus muralibus pinnis in- 
cinctus. HAMILTON of Olive-Stob, in East-Lothian, gules, a martlet between three 
cinquefoils argent, within a bordure embattled or. 

The bordure may be charged with all things animate or inanimate, and with 
proper and armorial figures ; of which there are many blazons mentioned in this 
Treatise, which I forbear here to repeat. But I cannot but acquaint my reader, 
that I do not follow the English in their fanciful words in blazoning of bordures, 



1 72 OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

when charged with different sorts of figures, but give my blazon of them, as we 
and other nations have been in use to do. I shall only briefly show their singulari- 
ty in blazoning of such bordures : If charged with inanimate things, as annulets, 
besants, escalops, &c. they say a bordure entoire, from the French word, entovre, 
i. e. About ; which is superfluous, for all bordures go about the shield ; as for ex- 
ample, Plate VII. fig. 29. The bearing of Mr JAMES SCOTT, sometime Sheriff- 
Clerk of Edinburgh, descended of the Scotts of Knightspottie, or, on a bend azure, 
a star between two crescents of the field, within a bordure gules, charged with 
eight besants of the first ; the English heralds would say, especially the old ones, 
a bordure g ules, entoire of eight besants. When the bordure is charged with ve- 
getables, they say verdoy of such flowers, fruits, or leaves, as in the bearing (Plate 
VII. fig. 30.) of SCOTT of Hedderwick, a younger son of Scott of Logic, argent, a 
fesse crenelle, between three lions' heads erased, gules ; within a bordure of the 
last, vcrdoy of six flower-de-luces of the first. 

When the bordure is charged with birds, it is called by them enaluron. Mr 
Skinner, in his Dictionary, says, that enaluron is the corruption of inorolatus, i. e. 
orle-ways ; but Sir George Mackenzie more properly brings it from the French, 
who say, a bordure en alerions, when they blazon a bordure charged with 
alerions ; so that the term enaluron by the English is certainly the corruption of 
alerion, a bird, very frequent in armories, of which afterwards. 

HAMILTON of West-Port, Plate VII. fig. 30. gules, three cinquefoils ermine with- 
in a bordure argent, charged with eight martlets of the first ; the English would 
say, enaluron off eight martlets ; which term the French and we omit as insignifi- 
cant and superfluous. 

When the bordure is charged with beasts, they term it a bordure enurny ; and 
so they would blazon the bordure in the bearing of ALEXANDER GORDON, some- 
time Provost of Aberdeen, whose father was a second son of Gordon of Tullyangus, 
who was a son of Gordon of Craig, azure, three boars' heads couped or, within a 
bordure waved of the last enurny (we say only charged) of three unicorns' heads 
erased sable, and as many stags tripping, proper, alternately. L. R. 

In the blazon of the arms of STEWART of Newark, or, a fesse cheque azure and 
argent, within a bordure gules, (the English would say enurny and entoire, upon 
the account it is charged with living and inanimate things) charged with three 
lions rampant, and as many ships at anchor of the first. L. R. 

When the bordure is of any of the furrs, they call it a bordure purjlew ermine, or 
pur/lew vair ; but the French and other nations use not these terms, but say only 
ermine and iair as we do ; and they who please to follow the English in these 
terms may so do, for I have shown them the way. 

Bordures are very frequent with us and other nations, and of different forms, of 
which I shall add some examples ; and first of bordures gobonated, or compone, 
counter-compone and cheque. 

A bordure gobonuted or compone, the last term is used by the French, when 

the bordure or any other figure is filled with one rank of square pieces alternately 
of metal and colour ; and is latined by Upton, gobonatuf ; we and the English 
say ordinarily for compone, gobone or, gobonated ; Mr Gibbon says, it is a word used 
in carving, as to gobon or nick a lamprey, or other fish, in seven or eight pieces ; the 
English sometimes, but we especially, use also the word compone. 

PHILIP Duke of BURGUNDY, surnamed the Hardy, the youngest lawful son of 
John King of France, encompassed the arms of France within a bordure gobonated 
or compone, argent and gules, Plate VII. fig 32. Which w r ere the ensign of Bur- 
gundy Modern, and quartered it with Burgundy Ancient, bande of six, or and gules, 
within a bordure of the last. Chiffletius blazons the arms of Burgundy Modern 
thus, Area ccerulea liliis aureis sparsa, limbo circumducto ex argento et coccineo an 
gularibus, compositus. Mr Gibbon takes this Latin blazon to task, and approves of 
the word compositus, for compone, but not of the word angularibus ; for angularis 
expresses a corner, and corners are of several forms : And therefore he mends the 
blazon thus, Limbus duSlu simplici vel singulari & talibus coloribus tessalatus, or, 
quadrangulatus, to show it is composed of square pieces, and of one tract ; this 
bordure has been of old of great esteem in differencing lawful sons ; for those arms 
of Burgundy, above blazoned, have been marshalled with those of Spain, and stood 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 






chief leader of all the other Arms of dukedoms and provinces in Belgium, marshal 
led in the achievement of that kingdom ; but of late the bordure gobonated is 
fallen into disgrace, by giving it to bastards, and their legitimates. Of which 1 
shall treat in the chapter of the Marks of Cadency. 

JAMES Duke of BERWICK, natural son to King James VII. carries the arms of 
Britain, within a bordure compone, gules and azure ; the first charged with lions 
passant gardant or, for England; the second with flower-de-luces of France, tin- 
bordure, thus latjned by Imhoff, Limbum e quadris rubeis & cxrulcis compos it urn, 
ita tit riibca leonibus Anglis, caruleae Liliis Francicis distinctie. 

Counter-compone , (which some say cbitnter-gobone) consists of two ranges or tracts 
of square pieces alternately of different tinctures : For the French say ordinarily, 
cojitre-compone , and sometimes eschequete, deux traits ; and the Latins, lirnbus duptici 
tractit tesselarurn cotnpositus. Plate VII. fig. 33. 

WILLIAM SCOTT, a second son of Bevelaw, his father's arms, as before, within a 
bordure counter-compone, or and azure. Lyon Register. And there also, 

BURNEX of Balleladies, descended of Burnet of Leys, the arms of Leys within a 
bordure counter-compone, argent and azure ; and for crest, a branch of holly, slipped, 
proper : motto, Necfluctu, necflatu. New Register. 

Bordure cheque consists of three ranges or tracts at least, or more, of square 
pieces alternately of different tinctures. 

BARCLAY of Touch, descended of Cullerny, azure, a cheveron or, betwixt three 
crosses patee argent, within a bordure cheque of the second and first ; of which 
before, Plate VII. fig. 34. Here the engraver is faulty in making the bordure two 
large. 

GRAHAM of Gartur surrounds the arms .of Graham, within a bordure cheque ; 
and so does Leslie of Findrassie with such a bordure. Many more examples are to 
be met with in this Treatise, which cannot be properly here repeated. The bor- 
dure is not only varied by accidental forms and charges, but likewise, as the shield 
may be parti, coupe, tranche, faille ; so that the bordure is a figure like a second 
shield, capable of many variations, to difference many descendants of one stem. 

Plate Vll. fig. 35. JOHN GORDON, Hneal representative of the family of Braco, 
descended of Gordon of Haddo, now Earl of Aberdeen, azure, three boars' heads 
couped or, armed and langued g ule s, within a bordure parti, argent and or. In. the 
Lyon Register. And there, 

GORDON of Nethermuir, another cadet of the Earl of Aberdeen, the same within 
a bordure coupe argent and or ; crest, a dexter hand holding an arrow bend-ways : 
motto, Majores seqttor : As Plate VIII. fig. i, and 2. : And in the Plate of Achieve- 
ments. 

ROBERT ARBLTHNOT, Merchant in Montrose, descended of the House of Por- 
terton, descended of the family of Arbuthnot of that Ilk, now Viscount of Ar- 
buthnot, azure, a crescent between three stars argent, all within a bordure indent- 
ed, and quartered of the second and first ; crest, a dove within an adder, disposed 
in orle, proper : motto, Innocue ac provide. New Register. 

Bordures quartered, {parti and coupe} are frequent with us ; Colonel Henry 
Graham, whose father William Graham was brother-german to John Earl of Mon- 
trose, Viceroy of Scotland in the reign of King James VI. carried Montrose';, 
quartered arms within a bordure, quartered, gules and sable. 

ROBERT HAMILTON of Presmennan, sometime one of the Senators of the College 
of Justice, (grandfather to the present Lord Belhaven) descended of Hamilton of 
Bruntwood, a lawful brother of the family of Hamilton, now honoured with the 
title ot duke of that name, gules, three cinquefoils ermine with a bordure quarterly 
vair, and counter-compone of argent, and the first. Lyon Register. The English 
would call this a bordure purflew, upon the account of the furr, as they blazon the arms 
of Henry Fitzroy Duke of Richmond, natural son to King Henry VIII. of England, 
who carried the imperial ensign of that kingdom within a bordure, quarterly, com- 
posed of purflew ermine, and counter-compone, or and azure. 

Fig. 3. Bordure, quarterly, per saltier, (tranche and tail I e} such an one sur- 
rounds the arms of Porto-Carrera in Spain, which Sylvester Petra Sancta blazons 
in French, bordure escartele en sautoir a' argent et de guailes, and such a bordnre 

Xx 



i 7 4 OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

goes round the arms of Palma Counts of Palma, charged with a cross gule s, on. 
the upper part argent. 

Plate VIII. fig. 4. The same author gives, us the same example of another bor- 
dure, which we would call girony of eight, argent and gules, round the arms of 
Castile and Leon, borne by the family of Valenzvelae in Spain ; which bordure 
he blazons on the margin of his book, escartele ' . contre-escartele, which is the 
same with parti, coupe, tranche, faille, called by the English, bordure quarterly 
quartered, being divided per cross and per saltier. As Mr Holmes in his Academy 
of Armory. 

Bordures are given us by these two last-mentioned writers, bendy, paly, and 
barry, to whom I refer the curious. 

Mr THOMAS CRAWFORD, a learned antiquary, in his Manuscript of Heraldry, 
says, a bordure is the best distinction for younger sons erecting families. First, 
Because it is in a manner a new coat, and may be put under accidental forms, 
parted and charged. Secondly, Because it showeth the principal bearing whole, 
and also unmixed, or composed with other figures in the middle. And, Thirdly, 
It puts in mind the bearer, that he ought to be as a bordure or wall of defence to 
the principal family he is descended from. 

I shall add here the blazons of a few families with bordures, conform to my 
former method. 

Plain bordures have been very frequent in England, and anciently used by those 
of the royal family. Edmund Earl of Kent, surnamed Woodstock, from the place 
of his birth, second son of Edward I. of England, by his second wife Margaret of 
France, carried the arms of England within a bordure argent. Thomas Duke of 
Gloucester, a younger son of King Edward III. carried France (seme} quartered 
with England, within a bordure argent. Humphry Duke of Gloucester, the fourth 
son of King Henry IV. carried France (reduced to three flower-de-luces), quarter- 
ed with England, all within a bordure argent ; though these three great men car- 
ried a bordure argent, yet their arms differed : The first, England alone ; the 
second, Old France quartered with England ; and the third, New France (that is 
when the flower-de-luces were reduced to three), quartered with England, and 
<>ach of those three princes had a plain bordure argent round their respective arms. 
Sandford, in his Genealogical History of England, has this observe, That the 
younger sons of England have deserted a plain bordure, since these last three emi- 
nent men, who carried a bordure argent, suffered violent deaths ; Edmund behead- 
ed, Thomas smothered to death, and Humphry poisoned. 

MONTAGU Duke of MONTAGU, argent, three lozenges in fesse, gules within a 
bordure sable. Sir Edward Montagu was advanced to the dignity of Baron of 
England, by the title of Lord Mbntagu of Boughton, in the ipth of James I. 
of Great Britain: His grandson, Ralph Montagu, was, in the year 1689, created 
Viscount Monthermer and Earl of Montagu; and in the year 1705, Marquis of 
Monthermer and Duke of Montagu. 

TUFTON Earl of THANET, sable, an eagle displayed ermine, within a bordure 
argent. This family was advanced to the dignity of a Baron of England, by the 
title of Lord Tufton of Tufton and Earl of Thanet by King Charles I. 

GRAY of Balligarno, gules, a lion rampant argent, holding between his paws an 
anchor or, within a bordure ingrailed of the second. 

GRAY of HAYSTON, afterwards designed of Endrighty, the arms of the Lord Gray, 
with a writing pen in the right paw of the lion, upon the account that his father 
w;i^ sheriff-clerk of Angus. Lyon Register. 

PRINGLE of Greenknow, azure, three escalops or, within a bordure ingrailed of 
the last. 

WALLACE of Ellerslie, gules, a lion rampant argent, within a bordure compone (or 
gobonated) azure, and of the second, as in Sir George Mackenzie's Heraldry : The 
arms are, by Mr Pont, ascribed to Wallace of Craigie ; and he gives to Wallace of 
Ellersly, quarterly, first and fourth gules, a lion rampant argent, by the name of 
Wallace ; second and third gules, a fesse cheque, argent and azure, for Lindsay. 

JAMES DUNDAS of Breast-Mill, argent, a lion rampant gules, within a bordure 
gobonated of the first and second j crest, a lion from the shoulders issuing out of a 
bush of oak vert ; with the motto, Essay ez. Lyon. Register _ 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 1 75 

FRASER of Phoppachy, azure, three cinquefoils argent, within a borclurc com- 
poned of the second and first; crest, a. phoenix, proper; with the motto, N'jn cx- 
tinguar. Lyon Register. 

CHARLES Duke of RICHMOND, natural son to King Charles II. had the arms of 
Great Britain within a bordure gobonated, argent and gules, the first charged with 
roses or the last. 

Thece is another form of a bordure, which Sir George Mackenzie gives in the 
bearing of KILGOUR, viz. argent, a dragon with wings displayed withiu a bordure 
inwardly circular sable,, charged with three crescents of the first. 



Or THE ORLE. 

THE orle is an inner bordure, which does not touch the extremities of the 
shield, the field being seen within, and round it on both sides. Menestrier says, 
orle est une bordure, qui ne louche pas les borus de fecit. Mr Gibbon Latins it, Limbus 
a latere scuti disjunctus : And Sylvester Sancta, speaking of orles, says, Hi enim 
sunt instar zontr, aut cinguli, it a ordinati, ut non tang ant fines postremos parmula tes- 
serarite : And to distinguish them from bordures, which lie calls limbos vel mar- 
gines continentes. He Latins orles, limbos vel margines intercisos dejunctosque. 

The breadth of the orle is not determined by heralds, being a diminutive of 
the bordure, proportionable to the extension of the field, and the figures within 
and without which accompanied it. By some it is taken for an inescutcheon void- 
ed ; and it is said by heralds to have been used in the arms of those who have given 
protection and defence to their king and country ; for as the bordure defends the 
figures that are within, so also doth the orle ; and may be thought, upon that ac- 
count, to have been carried by some ancient families with us, who were very ac- 
tive in defending the Borders of our kingdom against the English ; as the Dun- 
bar's Earls of March, the Landels and the Rutherfords, of whom immediately ; 
the double tressure, being of the nature of an orle, is said by some to be the badge 
of the mutual assistance and defence between France and Scotland against their 
enemies. 

The Spaniards use the orle more frequently in their arms than other nations do ; 
upon the account (says Sylvester Petra Sancta) of a noble maternal descent, as in 
his book Tesserae Gentilitite, cap. 69. pag. 603 : the double tressure is carried with 
us, upon the account of royal descent, by several families. Sir James Balfour, in 
his Blazons, gives us the paternal arms of John Baliol, pretended King of Scot- 
land, which he blazons or, an escutcheon gules, voided of the field, which is the 
same with the orle : It is true, it has the form of an escutcheon, but always voided 
of the field, or some other tincture ; and still after the form of an escutcheon, 
though the field or shield which contains it be either oval, triangular, round, or square. 
Mr Gibbon, in his Introductio ad Latinam Blazoniam, gives us the arms of John Ba- 
liol, of other tinctures, being one of the magnates of Henry III. gules, an orle 
argent : which, says he, yet stands in the body of Westminster Abbey Church, 
on the north side, and which are also the arms of Baliol's College, he being the 
founder thereof. This ancient surname and noble family came from Normandy, 
being writ Balluel, Baliol : And now, as some will, Baillie ; and were lords of 
great possessions in that country. Guy de Baliol came over to England with the 
Conqueror's son, William Rufus, and was possessed of the barony of Bywell, in 
Northumberland; for which lands his son did homage to King David I. of Scot- 
land. He was succeeded by his son Eustace, and he again by Hugh de Baliol ; 
whose eldest son John, married Dornagilla, daughter of Allan Lord of Galloway, 
and of Margaret, the eldest daughter of David Earl of Huntingdon ; in whose 
right he had many possessions in Scotland ; so that he was subject to three differ- 
ent sovereigns, the King of Scotland, the King of England, and the King of 
France, in whose dominions his lands lay. His son John Baliol, by the assistance 
of Edward 1. was declared King of Scotland ; but afterwards dethroned, and fled 
to Normandy 1287. His son Edward, by the assistance of Edward 111. of Eng- 
land, got possession of the kingdom of Scotland, but was soon expelled, and in 
him the direct line of this family ended. There were several collateral branches 



t 7 o OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

of this surname of Baliol in Scotland, donors and witnesses in our Cloister Regis- 
ters ; and in the Ragman-roll there are four or five of them of good account. 
Some say that the Baillies are descended from the Baliols, which last name being- 
odious to the nation they changed it to Baillie ; and it seems their arms too, for 
they are very different from the Baliols, of which afterwards. 

LANDELS Lord LANDELS, of old, in the shire of Berwick, carried or, an orle azure, 
Plate VIII. fig. 6. This family long since ended in an heiress, who was married to Sir 
ALEXANDER HOME of that Ilk, one of the progenitors of the present Earl of Home, 
which family has ever since perpetuate the memory of the family of Landel, by 
carrying the foresaid arms, by way of an inescutcheon, over their quartered ones. 
William dc Landelys or Landel, son to the Baron of Landelis in the Merse, (Sib. 
Hist, of Fife) being Provost of Kinkell, was consecrate Bishop of St Andrews 
1441, and sat bishop 44 years; he died 1485. 

LANDELS of Cowl, a cadet of the Lord Landel, gave the same arms, but, for differ- 
ence, put it under an accidental form, viz. or, an orle indented on the inner side 
azure. I have seen the seal of one Sir John Landels who had an orle between 
three cinquefoils, all within a bordure, appended to a Procuratory of Resignation, 
of the date 1426, granted by John Murray of Ogilfee, one of the progenitors of 
Murray of Abercairnie, because he had not a seal of his own ; as the words of the 
procuratory runs, " quia non habui sigillum proprium, ideo usus sum Sigillo Domini 
" Johannis Landel." Which is to be seen among the registers in the Parliament- 
house. 

RUTHERFORD, argent, an vslzguks, and in chief three martlets sable, plate VIII. 
fig. 7. The principal family of this surname, was Rutherford of that Ilk, an an- 
cient and potent family in Teviotdale, on the Borders with England : The orle is 
the principal armorial figure of the family, which may be thought to have been 
assumed by them, upon the account beforementioned, in defending the Borders of 
the kingdom against the English ; and the three martlets, to show that some of 
the heads of the family had been in the warlike expeditions in the Holy Land, 
against the Saracens, as these birds intimate, of which afterwards. 

I am not to insist on the original of the name through uncertain tradition ; viz. 
that one who guided Ruther King of the Scots through the river Tweed, in an 
expedition against the Britons, at a certain place, thereafter, from that, culled 
Ruthersford ; which was given to the guide. And when surnames came in use, 
his posterity took their surname Rutherford from the lands ; neither am I to give 
a complete genealogical deduction of the family and its branches, but those whom 
I meet with upon records with their armorial bearings. 

I have met with Nicolaus de Rutherford in Roxburghshire, in Prynne's Collections, 
page 651, with other Scots Barons, submitting to Edward I. of England ; and 
p;ige 655, Aymer de Rutherfurd is also a submitter. In Mr Barbour's History of 
King Robert the Bruce, there is Sir Robert Rutherfurd fighting valiantly for his 
king and country against the English : and the next I meet with of this family, 
is Sir Richard Rutherford, designed Dominus de Rutherfurd, a person of great in- 
terest and activity on the Borders, in the time of King Robert III. anno 1390, as 
by charters in Rotulis Roberti III, 

JAMES RUTHERFORD, designed Dominus ejusdem in the records, in the reign of 
King James II. who, with other barons on the Borders, viz. the Homes, Cranston 
of Cranston, and Ker of Cessfcrd, were conservators of the peace made with Eng- 
land, in the year 1457; for which, see Doctor Abercromby's 2d vol. of his Martial 
Achievements, page 371. This James Rutherford got a charter from King James 
II. 1451, of the barony of Edgerston, and married Margaret Erskine, daughter to 

Erskine, by whom he had two sons, Richard and Thomas ; the eldest, 

Richard, died before his father, and left a son, Richard, and two daughters, Helen 
and Katharine Rutherfords. In the year 1492, the above James Rutherford ob- 
tains a charter under the Great Seal, ratifying and confirming a chatter granted by 
William Douglas of Cavers, as superior of the lands of Rutherford and Well, to 
himself, and his grandson, Richard, his apparent heir, and his heir-male ; which 
tailing, to his second son Thomas, and his son and apparent Robert, and his heirs- 
male. 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 177 

In the year 1499, May 5, Richard is served heir to his grandfather James ; but 
he dying \vithout issue, hus uncle Thomas is served heir to him. Richard's sistea, 
Helen Rutherford, with her husband, John Forman of Devon, nephew to Andrew 
Fonnan, Bishop of Murray, afterwards of St Andrews, reduced Thomas's ser- 
vice to his nephew Richard ; Helen died without issue, having had several hus- 
bands. Her sister Katharine was married to James Stewart of Traquair, son to the 
Earl of Buchan, ancestor to the Earl of Traquair; upon which account the fa- 
mily has been in use to marshal the arms of Rutherford with their own. Katha- 
rine's grandson, Sir William Stewart of Traquair, caused serve himself heir to his 
grandmother's sister Helen, and got the lands of Rutherford and Well, but the 
barony of Edgtrston went to the heirs-male, the son of the above Thomas ; from 
whom was lineally descended John Rutherford of Edgerston, who caused his arms, 
as the principal bearing of the name of Rutherford, to be recorded in the Lyon 
Register 1668, viz. argent, an orle gules, and in chief, three martlets sable ; crest, 
a martlet sable ; with the motto, Nee sorte nee fato. He left behind him two sons, 
Andrew Rutherford of Edgerston, who died without lawful issue, April 1718, and 
Thomas Ruth^ilord of Well, who succeeded his brother, and is now designed 
Rutherford of that Ilk. He married Susanna, daughter and heiress of Waiter Riddel 
of Minto, and his spouse Katharine Nisbet, sister to Sir John Nisbet of Dirleton. 

RUTHEKFOK.D of Huntliill and Chatto, a younger son of Rutherford of that Ilk, 
as early as the reign of King James I. got the lands of Chatto from the Earl of 
Douglas in the year 1424; and carried for arms, as in the Lyon Register, or, three 
passion-nails, within an orle gules, and in chief, three martlets sable , till the fami- 
ly was advanced to the dignity of a lord, by the title of Lord RUTHERFORD ; the 
foundation of which honour was laid by a younger son of a cadet of this family, 
Lieutenant-General Andrew Rutherford. 

He was the son of WILLIAM RUTHERFORD of Quarryhole, by Isabel his wife, 
daughter of James Stewart of Traquair. He entered young into a military em- 
ployment in the French service, and, for his valour and conduct, having passed 
through many degrees of military honour, came at last to that of a Lieutenant- 
General in France : He came over to England with a singular reputation, upon 
the restoration of King Charles II. who honoured him with the title of Lord RU- 
THERFORD, by letters patent of the date the ipth of January 1661; which honours 
were to descend, not only to the heirs of his body, but even to whomsoever he 
should be pleased to name. His majesty made him Governor of Dunkirk, and, 
after the sale of that important place, he was dignified with the title of Earl of 
TEVIOT, and the heirs of his body, the second of February 1662 ; and shortly 
thereafter got the command of Tangier, where his Lordship died the 3d of May 
1664. He carried for arms, fig. 8. argent, an orle gules, and in chief three mart- 
lets sable, all within a bordure azure, charged with thistles, roses, flower-de-luces, 
and harps, alternately or ; and for crest, a mermaid holding a mirror in her right 
hand, and a comb in her left, all proper ; with the motto, Per mare, per terras ; 
and, in place of it, sometimes the word pi -ovide ; supporters, two horses, proper. 

The Lord RUTHERFORD having no issue, by his own destination the honour fell 
to Sir Thomas Rutherford of Hunthill. He, dying without issue 1668, was suc- 
ceeded in that title of honour by his brother Archibald Lord Rutherford ; who 
likewise dying without issue 1685, the peerage and arms fell to his younger bro- 
ther Robert, now Lord Rutherford, who has made over his estate, title and arms, 
by disposition, with a procuratory of resignation, in favours of Thomas Rutherford 
of that Ilk, chief of the name ; and he claims, in right thereof, and in that of 
his lady beforementioned, to carry, quarterly, first and fourth argent, a cheveron 
ingrailed gules, betwixt three ears of rye slipped and bladed vert ; for Riddel of 
Minto, second and third argent, on a cheveron gules, betwixt three boars' heads 
erased sable, as many cinquefoils of the field, and in the middle chief point, a 
thistle, proper, for Nisbet of Dirleton ; and over all, by way of surtout, the prin-, 
cipal coat of Rutherford ; and, to have them adorned with the exterior ornaments 
crest, motto, and supporters of the Lord Rutherford. Which not being approven 
as yet by authority, I have only caused engrave the arms of his father in the Plate 
of Achievements, as they stand matriculated in the Lyon Register, 

Yy 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

RUTHERFORD of Hundelee, argent, an orle gules, voided or ; and in chief, three 
martlets sable, as by Sir George Mackenzie ; and which are so illuminated in the 
house of Falahall. The first of this family was Nicol Rutherford, who was a 
brother's son of James Rutherford of that Ilk, and immediate elder brother to 
Robert Rutherford of Hunthill and Chatto, in the reign of King James I. of Scot- 
land. The family of Hundelee continued in a male descent till of late that it 
ended in an heir female, that was' married to Sir James Ker of Crailing. 

ROBERT RUTHERFORD of Fernilee, as descended of Hundelee, carries the same ; 
and for crest, a horse-head and neck : motto, Sedulus & audax. Lyon Register, 
and in the Plate of Achievements. 

GEORGE RUTHERFORD of Fairnington, descended of Rutherford of that Ilk, 
argent, an orle ingrailed gules, and in chief, three martlets sable ; crest, a martlet 
sable : motto, Amico fidus ad aras. Lyon Register. 

The surname of KNOX carries an orle, as in our old Books of Blazons. Severals of 
this name are to be found witnesses in the reigns of Alexander II. and III. in the 
charters to the Abbacy of Paisley ; the principal family of this name was Kivax of 
that Ilk, frequently designed of Ranfurly, and Craigends, (for which see Crawfurd's 
History of Renfrew) ; they carried gules, a falcon volant or, within an orle invect- 
ed on the outer side argent. Font's Manuscript. 

In our public records there is a charter of confirmation of King James III. oi: 
a- resignation of the barony of Ranfurly and Grief-castle, by John Knox of Craig- 
end, in favour of Uchter Knox, about the year 1474. This family failed in the 
person of Uchter Knox of Ranfurly, who had but one daughter : He sold the estate 
of Ranfurly 166^, to William first Earl of Dundonald; of this family several emi- 
nent persons in the Church descended, as the famous Mr John Knox, an eminent 
instrument in our Reformation from Popery ; and Mr Andrew Knox, a younger 
son of John Knox of Ranfurly, (and grand-uncle to Uchter Knox the last of the 
family) who was minister at Paisley, and, for his learning and piety, was promoted 
to the bishopric of the Isles, 1606 ; and in the year 1622,, he was translated to the 
Episcopal See of Rapho, in the kingdom of Ireland ; and his son, Mr Thomas 
Knox, a person of considerable learning and piety, was bishop of the Isles. As 
for the Achievement of Knox of Ranfurly, see it cut in the Plate of Achieve- 
ments, at the desire and expence of John Knox, Apothecary in Strathaven. 

THOMAS KNOX, Esq. in the kingdom of Ireland, lawful son to Thomas Knox, 
descended of the family of Ranfurly, in the kingdom of Scotland, so recorded in 
the Lyon Register, with his armorial bearing gules, a falcon volant, within an orle 
waved on the outer side, and ingrailed on the inner side, argent ; crest, a falcon 
perching, proper : motto, Moveo $3 proficior. 

The surname of NORJE, parted per pale, argent and sable , an orle ingrailed on 
both sides, and charged with four quarter-foils within a bordure, all counter- 
changed of the same. Pont's Manuscript. 

The orle, as I have said, being an inner bordure, is often surrounded with an 
outer bordure, as by the surname of Renton. 

The RENTONS of Billie in the Merse have charters of these lands, in the reign 
of Alexander 111. from the Dunbars Earls of March, whose vassals and followers 
they were, and as such, have carried arms in imitation of their patrons, but of 
different tinctures, viz. azure, a lion rampant argent, within an orle ingrailed on 
the inner side, and a bordure of the last, Plate VIII. fig. 9. Sir James Balfour 
blazons them azure, a lion rampant, within a bordure ingrailed argent, and voided 
of the field, which is the same with the former; Workman, in his Blazons, says, 
argent, a lion rampant azure, charged on the shoulder with a buckle or, within a 
double bordure of the second. 

When more than one orle are carried, ,they are called double orles, triple orles, 
or triple bordures ; for which see Sylvester Petra Sancta, who gives us several 
Spanish bearings of this sort, and says, " Insuper alii qui habent istum tractum 
" (/. e. orle) tripartitum vel quadripartitum, ut in armis episcopi coenomanensis, 
" qui portavit tractum triplicem de nigro, in campo aureo ;" and the same exam- 
ple Upton gives, as Mr Gibbon observes, Englished thus by Guillim ; " a certain 
" Bishop of Mentz bore a triple orle sable, in a field or." 

As the orle is the diminutive of the bordure, so I find it has again other dimi- 
nutives, as the essonier and tressure. 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 1 79 

The Essonitr with the French is of a smaller tract than the orle, and after the 
same lonn ; Menestrier, in his Origin of Anns, where lie gives the signification of 
many armorial figures, says the csswicr represents a girdle, or an inclosurc of 
ground fenced, which imports the same, as is said before of the bouluix and orle. 
In his La Science de la fcubtesse, he describes the Essomer thus : Lssonier est une 
espece d'orle ou ceinture, et <vient du Grec. <, qui signifte unc enceinte, ou 
cemturc. 

The English call this figure a tressure, as Holmes, in his Academy of Armories ; 
who brings it from the English word tract, it being only by a tract or line drawn 
about the sides of the field, and ever runneth answerable to the form of the shield : 
If triangular, it is triangular, if oval, it is oval ; and of whatsoever form the shield 
be, the tressure is answerable thereunto; argent, a rose gules, within a treasure 
sable , the bearing of Sir Josias Traleman in England. Upton says, some blazon 
such a coat, argent, a tract sable; which tract must be larger than the double 
tressure, of which immediately. 

When figures are situate in a field, after the position of the orle, or circular- 
ways, they are said to be in orle, or orle-ways ; by the French ranges en orle, and 
by the Latins, ml oram scuti posita. As for example, the arms of the MEDICIS, 
great Dukes of Florence, thus blazoned by Monsieur Baron ; d'or a cinque torteaux 
dc gueules ranges en orle, en chef une torteaux d'azur, charge de trois fleurs de Us, 
d'or, i. e. or, five torteauxes in orle gules, and one in chief azure, charged with 
three flower-de-luces of the first. 

ARBUTHNOT of Fiddes, Plate VIII. fig. 10. carries the arms of Arbuthnot of 
that Ilk, viz. azure, a crescent between three stars, within an orle of eight frases 
of the last, as being descended of a younger son of Arbuthnot of that Ilk, and his 
lady, Dame Margaret Fraser, daughter to the Lord Lovat. New Register. 

GLADSTANES of that Ilk, Plate VIII. fig. n. argent, a savage's head couped, dis- 
tilling drops of blood, and thereupon a bonnet, composed of bay and holly leaves, 
all proper; within an orle of eight martlets sable ; crest, a griffin issuing out of a 
wreath, holding a sword in its right talon, proper : motto, fide i virtute. Lyon 
Register. , 

GLAUSTANES of Whitelaw carries the same, within a bordure invected gules. 

KEITH Earl of KJNTORE, for his coat of augmentation, gules, a sceptre and sword 
saltier-ways, with an imperial crown in chief; all within an orle of eight 
thistles or. 



OF THE TRESSURE. 

THE Tressure or Trescbur, as the French write, is the diminutive of the orle : 
Menestrier says, " Treschur est une tresse ou orle fleuri, conduite dans le sens de 
1'ecu ;" so that it is a trace or tract flowered, surrounding the inner part of the 
escutcheon, as an orle. The Latins call it trica or tractus simplex, when a single 
tressure ; which Sylvanus Morgan gives, in his Heraldry, in the bearing of the 
name of Hubblethor in Yorkshire, sable, a mascle within a tressure flory, argent. 
Sir George Mackenzie will have it to represent, in arms, the traces of silver or gold 
lace which adorned surcoats, or coats of arms of old. 

When there are two of these tracts flowered and counter-flowered within and 
without, as these in the Royal Ensign of Scotland, it is called a double tressure; 
by the Latins, tractatus duplex, scutum circum circa interne percingens ; and Cam 
den, limbus duplex, which is well, if he had added, a latere scuti disjunctus, to dis- 
tinguish it from limbus, a bordure : Sylvester Petra Sifncta, speaking of it, says, 
" Celebris est duplaris limbus quern paralelce lines duae ac simul florentes descri- 
" bunt in Tesseris Regum Scotorum." 

The Imperial Arms of Scotland are, or, a lion rampant gules, armed and langued 
azure, within a double tressure, flowered and counter-flowered, with flower-de-luces 
of the second, Plate VIII. fig. 12. Menestrier thus, " Ecosse d'or, au Icon de 
" gueules en close dans une double treschur flenari et contre-fleuri de meme ;" 
and the German LmhorT, " Tessera Scotici Regni representat leonem rubeum lin- 
" gua & falculis cosruleis, limbo geminato cocciueo utrinque liliis stipato inclusum." 



i8o OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

This armorial figure has been of old used in the royal ensigns of the Kings of 
Scotland, to perpetuate the ancient and memorable league betwixt them and the 
Kings of France. 

It has been communicated by our Kings, (as I observe) first to their children, 
and afterwards to their eminent subjects : As for instance of the first, David Earl 
of Huntingdon, brother to King William, carried in his arms a double tressure ; 
and the English herald, Mr Miles, tells us, that Maud, the sister of King William, 
who was married to Henry I. of England, had, for her arms, the Lion of Scotland 
within the double tressure. 

By our ancient and modern practice, the double tressure is not allowed to be 
carried by any subject, without a special warrant from the sovereign, and that in 
these two cases : First, to those who were descended of daughters of the Royal 
Family ; and so to them it is a tessera of a noble maternal descent, as the orle 
before mentioned is to the Spaniards. And secondly, to these who have merited 
well of their king and country, as a special additament of honour. 

Sir ALEXANDER SEATON of that Ilk, son of Sir Christopher Seaton, and Christian 
Bruce, sister to King Robert the Bruce, was the first of the noble progenitors of 
the Earls of Winton who encompassed his paternal figures, the three crescents, 
with the double tressure flowered and counter-flowered gules, in a field or, upon the 
account of maternal descent and merit. And upon the same account, THOMAS 
RANDOLPH Earl of MURRAY, as another sister's son to King^ Robert I. carried 
the double tressure round his paternal figures, viz. three cushions gules, in a field 
argent, as by their seals of arms, appended to charters which I have seen. 

The MURRAYS, especially those of Tullibardine and Athol, upon the account of 
their royal maternal descent, had the double tressure round their proper figures. 
I have seen the seal of William Murray of Touchadam, constable and governor of 
the castle of Stirling, progenitor of Murray of Polmaise, appended to a charter in 
the year 1463, upon which seal was a triangular shield charged with three stars 
within a double tressure flowered, and counter-flowered with flower-de-luces. 

iWoN Earl of STRATHMORE as descended of a daughter of King Robert II. KEN- 
NEDY Earl of CAKILIS, and GRAHAM of Fintry, as descended of daughters of King 
Robert III. have the double tressure counter-flowered with flower-de-luces round 
their armorial figures. It is true, several other considerable families with us, 
though descended of the blood royal, by the mother-side, have never been in use 
to carry this celebrated tressure ; as the families of Hamilton, Douglas, &-c. Others 
again, merely upon the account of their special services to their king and country, 
have been honoured with this figure in their arms ; as Erskine Earl of Kelly, Ramsay 
Earl of Holderness, Scott of Thirlestane, and others, of whom in other places of 
this Treatise. 

Some again have the double tressure in their arms, and adorned with other 
figures than flower-de-luces ; as Gordon Earl of Aboyne, azure, a cheveron be- 
tween three boars' heads couped, all within a double tressure flowered with flower- 
<le-luces within, and adorned with crescents without or. Gordon Earl of Aberdeen, 
.i-zure, three boars' heads couped, within a double tressure, flowered and counter- 
flowered, with thistles, roses, and flower-de-luces alternately or. 

Our kings have been in use, as a singular piece of honour, to grant the tressure to 
foreigners. When King James VI. knighted Jacob Van-Eiden, a Dutchman, he gave, 
a concession to him, to use the double tressure in his arms, as an additament of 
honour ; and to several other foreign commissioners he gave the same, as their 
patents bear in the Chapel-rolls, entitled, Diversi tractatus amicitiarum tempore 
Jacobi Regis ; for which see Selden's Titles of Honours. Our kings, before their 
accession to the throne of England, were in use to do the same to foreigners ; amongst 
Sir James Balfour, sometime Lyon King at Arms, his Collections of Old Charters and 
Grants, there is one, " Charta fucta per Jacobum Quintum Regem Scotorum Ni- 
' colao Combet, in villa de Dieppe in Normania, Oriundo Gallo, constituendo & 
" creando eundum Nicolaum nobilem & generosum, &. sic pro perpetuo in 
" futurum reputandum & tenendum, dandoque sibi duplicem Regis armorum cir- 
" culum, vulgo double tressure floury contre-floury, praedicessoribus nostris per 
" bonas memoriae Carolum magnum concessum." These are the words of that 
charter of our king, which v/as dated at Stirling the xyth of September 1529. 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 



OF TH ESCUTCHEON, OR INESCUTCHEON. 

THOUGH this figure does represent the military shield, and may be treated of 
amongst the common charges, yet heralds place it amongst the lesser ordinaries, as a 
proper armorial figure ; and when there is but one of them in the field, it p 
the fifth middle part of it, and the rest of the field round it looks like a bordure ; 
it is called escutcheon, ox inescutcbe-on, being contained within the field, as other 
charges ; the French call it ecusson from ecu, and the Latins, scutulum or pannula. 

DAVID Earl of HUNTINGDON in England, and GARIOCH in Scotland, brother to 
King William the Lion, both grandsons to King David I. carried argent, an escut- 
cheon within a double tressure flowered and counter-flowered gules : These arms I 
have given in taillc-douce on the first Plate in my Essay of the Ancient and Mo- 
dern Use of Armories. Sir John Feme, in his Lacie's Nohili-ty, says, he took the- 
field argent, in place of or, the field of Scotland, because it was the field of arms of 
his grandmother Maud, daughter of Waltheof Earl of Northumberland and Hun- 
tingdon, (who carried argent, a lion salient azvrc t and a chief gules') to show his 
descent that way, and retained the double tressure to show his descent from the 
royal blood of Scotland ; and the escutcheon, says our author, did represent him, 
as the shield of his country in his brother the king's absence, and his valour when 
he was abroad with his countrymen in the Holy War ; it was not the practice in 
his time, as I have shown elsewhere, for the younger sons of sovereigns to carry 
the entire imperial ensigns of their fathers, as they are now in use to do, with 
minute differences, but to take only a part of them, and to join them, with other 
figures, that they may be more eminently distinguished from the sovereign ensigns, 
which were always looked upon to be sacred. 

Earl David married Maud, eldest daughter and heir of Hugh Kivilioc Earl of 
Chester, sister and heir to Randolph Earl of Chester, by whom he had John and 
three daughters : His son John, surnamed Scott, though he was of the royal family 
of Scotland, he did not carry the entire arms of that kingdom, but a part of them, 
viz. argent, three garbs within a double tressure flowered and counter-flowered 
^ules ; he had the garbs, the figures of Chester, in place of his father's escutcheon 
Ho died without issue 1237, and his sister's issue became die heirs of the crown of 
Scotland. 

I gave before the arms of Maule Earl of Panmure, with a bordure, as they are 
now in use to be blazoned ; but, meeting with a remnant of an old Book of 
Blazons, I found them otherwise blazoned, which I could not pass by here without 
giving it, viz. parted per pale, gules and argent, an escutcheon within an orlc of 
eight escalops, all counter-changed ; which blazon is more agreeable and suitable 
to the family, being the chief and principal one of the naae, than a bordure, 
charged and counter-changed ; but more of this family at the title of Escalop. 

Fig. 13, M' NAUGHT of Kilquharity, sable, an escutcheon cheque, argent and 
azure, between three lions' heads erased of the second, langued gules. Pont's Ma - 
nuscript. 

GEDDES of Radian, descended of Ceddes of that Ilk, now extinct, gules, an in 
escutcheon argent, between three pikes or ged-heads, couped or. Pont'o Manu- 
script. 

The surname of HAY, argent, three escutcheons gules, two and one. Syh' 
Petra Sancta, in his 66th chap. De Scutulis Insitltiis, says, " Tria ^:utula punicia 
" in laterculo argenti metalli sunt Abbevilleorum i. Gallia, Haionnn in Scotia &. 
" Rebeau preorum iterum in Gallia." Those of the Hays are lammi-i all F.urnp- 
over, upon the account of their rise, which our historians generally l:uvv givrn of tiif 
name and arms ; who tell us, that in the reigti of King Kenneth III. about the y 
980, when the Danes invaded Scotland, and prevailing in the battle of Loncartv. 
a country Scotsman, with his two sons, of gre.it strength and courage, having rural 
weapons, as the yokes of their plough, and sucli plough furniture, stopped th 
Scots in their flight in a certain defile, and, upbraiding them of cowardice, obliged 
them to rally, who with them renewed the battle, and gave a total overthrow to 
the victorious Danes : And it is said by some, after the victory was obtained, tlje 
old man lying on the ground, wounded and fatigued, cryed Hay, Hay ; which word. 

Z T. 



1 82 OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

became a surname to his posterity : He and his sons being nobilitate, the king 
gave him the foresaid arms, to intimate that the father and the two sons had been 
luckily the three shields of Scotland ; and gave them as much land in the Carse 
of Gowry as a falcon did fly over without lighting, which having flown a great way, 
she lighted on a stone, there called the falcomstone to this day : The circum- 
stances of which story is not only perpetuate by the three escutcheons, but by the 
exterior ornaments of the achievement of the family of Errol ; having, for crest, 
on a wreath a falcon, proper ; for supporters, two men in country habits, holding the 
oxen yokes of a plough over their shoulders, (sometimes they are represented as sa- 
vages wreathed about the head and middle with laurel, holding yokes of a plough in 
their hands) ; and for motto, Serva jugu'm. As for the antiquity of the name, it 
is as early to be found in our records as any other. There are severals of that 
name mentioned in the charters of King Malcolm IV. to the abbacies of Scoon 
and Cupar, amongst whom is Willielmus de Haia de Errol, who was succeeded by 
his son David de Haia, father of another William de Haia, 1305. Gilbertus de 
Haia Dominus de Errol (Dalrymple's Collections, page 75.) was, for his good ser- 
vices to King Robert the Bruce, made Lord High Constable of Scotland, and his 
heirs for ever ; as by that charter i2th November 1315. And, in a charter of 
confirmation of that king's (Haddington's Collections, page 66.) of the charter of 
Eva Kelor to Robert Harkars Miles, of the date the 1 8th year of King Robert's 
reign, among the witnesses, .is Gilbertus de Haia, Constabularies Scotite, of whom 
was descended William de Haia Lord Errol, Constable of Scotland, who was, by 
King James II. created Earl of Errol, the iyth of March 1452, and from him 
Charles the late Earl of Errol, High Constable. For a more full genealogical ac- 
count of this noble family, see Mr Crawfurd's Peerage of Scotland. 

The next eminent family of the name was HAY of Locharret, after designed 
of Tester, now of Tweeddale, who carries the same arms as Errol, marshalled with 
others. 

The first of this family was John Hay, son of William Hay, and brother of 
William Hay of Errol, in the reign of King William the Lion ; which Mr Craw- 
furd vouches in his Peerage. It seems he came from the north to the Lothians, 
and married the daughter and heir of Robert de Lyn, and got with her the barony 
of Locharret. Their son and successor was William Hay of Locharret ; for, in the 
Register of Newbattle, is to be found a charter to that abbacy by Willielmus de 
Haya,JUius Joannis de Hay a, miles & dominus de Locbus-we rivord, giving the liberty 
of a moss called Uulnestrocher, to the monks of that abbacy, which Robert de Lyn, 
the son of David, quondam domini de Locerworna, & ipsius Pater, illi dedit. See 
Sir James Dalrymple's Collections, Preface, p. 76. William was succeeded by his 
son Sir William Hay of Locharret, father of Hugh Hay of Locharret, who married 
a sister of King Robert the Bruce, and widow of Laurence Lord Abernethy, and 
with her had a son, Gilbert, as by the genealogical account of the family. 

Sir GILBERT HAY of Locharret married Mary, one of the daughters and co- 
heiress of Sir Simon Fraser Lord of Oliver-Castle, with whom he got a good estate 
in Tweeddale ; upon which account the family has been in use to marshal with 
their own the arms of Fraser of Oliver-Castle, of old; being azure, five cinquefoils 
argent, two, one and two, though now there are but three used, two and one. Their 
son, Sir Thomas, father of Sir William Hay of Locharret, was taken prisoner at 
the battle of Durham. 

Another Sir WILLIAM HAY of Locharret was employed in divers embassies, in the 
reign of Robert III. And, during the regency of the Duke of Albany, (Rymer r s 
Fadera Angl'id) he married Jean, the eldest of the four daughters and coheiress of 
John Gifford Lord Yester, and got with her the lands of Yester, upon which ac- 
count the family has also been in use to marshal the arms of Gifford ; with her he 
had four sons, Sir William, Thomas, David, and Edmund, the first laird of Lin- 
plum and Morham ; of whom were descended the Hays of Bara in the North. 

Sir William died without issue, and was succeeded by his brother Thomas, who 
was one of the hostages for the ransom of King James I. and was designed Dominus de 
Tester, (Rymer's Fader a Angli&ad annum 1423,) who died also without issue, and. 
was succeeded by 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

Sir David Lord Yester, his brother, anno 1434. I have seen an instrument un- 
der the hands of Alexander Clark, Notary, of the date 8th February 1445, men- 
tioning that Nobilis Dominus David Hay, miles, Dominus de Tester, recognosced 
some lands in Duncanlaw, because Edmund Hay, tenant thereof, had sold th<- 
same without his consent. He was succeeded by his son, 

John, second Lord Yester, father of John, third Lord Yester, father of John, 
fourth Lord Yester, who married Elizabeth Douglas, daughter of George, Master 
of Angus, son of Archibald Earl of Angus, by whom he had John, his son and 
heir, and a daughter, Elizabeth, married first to George Lord Seaton, and again to 
William Lord Salton. He married a second wife, a daughter and co-heir of John 
Dickson of Smithtield, of whom were descended the Hays of Smithfield. 

John, fifth Lord Yester, was taken prisoner at the battle of Pinkie, and car- 
ried prisoner to the Tower of London, where he continued till the pacification was 
concluded betwixt the two nations. He was succeeded by his son William Lord 
Yester, a zealous reformer, who married Margaret Ker daughter of Fernihirst, 
by whom he had William and James, successively Lords of Yester, and three 
daughters, Margaret married to William Lord Borthwick, Katharine to Sir John 
Swinton of that Ilk, to whom she bare but one daughter, Katharine Swinton, who 
was married to Sir Alexander Nisbet of that Ilk, grandfather and grandmother to 
the author of this System of Heraldry ; the third daughter Jean was married to 
Mr James Hay of Bara. 

William, seventh Lord Yester, departed this life 1591, having no issue-male, 
but daughters ; whose estate and honours devolved on his brother James, eight 
Lord Yester, who married Margaret, daughter of Mark first Earl of Lothian ; she 
bare to him John his successor, and Sir William Hay of Linplum. 

John, ninth Lord Yester, was, by King Charles I. advanced to the degree and 
dignity of an Earl by the title of Tweeddale, ist December 1646. He marned, first, 
Jean, daughter of Alexander Seaton, Earl of Dunfermline, and by her had only 
one son, John, his successor, Secondly, Margaret, daughter of Alexander Earl of 
Eglinton, by whom he had William Hay of Drumelzier. 

John, second Earl of Tweeddale, was raised to the dignity of Marquis of Tweed- 
die, by letters patent 26th December 1694. He married Jean Scot, daughter of 
Walter Earl of Buccleugh, by whom he had John his successor, Lord David, and 
Lord Alexander Hays, Lady Margaret married to Robert Earl of Roxburgh, and 
Lady Jean married to William first Earl of March. 

John succeeded his father, and was second Marquis of Tweeddale. He married 
Anne, only daughter to John Duke of Lauderdale, by whom he had Charles his 
successor, and John Hay Brigadier General, and two daughters, Anne married ta 
William Lord Ross, and Jean to John Earl of Rothes. 

Charles, third Marquis of Tweeddale ; he died I5th December 1715, leaving is- 
sue by the Lady Susannah, daughter of William and Anne Duke and Dutchess of 
Hamilton, widow of John Earl of Dundonald, John the present Marquis of Tweed- 
dale, Lord James, Lord Charles, Lord George, and three daughters. 

The armorial achievement of this ancient and noble family, is, quarterly, first 
and fourth azure, three cinquefoils argent, for Fraser : second and third gules, 
three bars ermine, for Gifford of Yester ; and over all, by way of surtout, the pa- 
ternate coat of Hay, viz. argent, three inescutcheons gules, second and first ; crest, 
a goat's head erased argent, horned or ; supporters, two bucks, proper, armed or, 
and collared azure, charged with three cinquefoils argent : and for motto, Spare 
naught. 

JAMES HAY Earl of Carlisle in England, son of Sir James Hay of Kinga-k, 
younger son of Hay of Megginch, carried the principal coat of Hay, viz. argent, 
three inescutcheons gules ; by the German Imhoff blazoned, parmulas tres rubeas 
solo argenteo impressas : He was the first Scotsman, after the union of Scotland and 
England in the person of King James VI. that was dignified with English titles 
of honour ; first with the title of Lord Hay of Sawley, in the county of York, anno 
1615 ; anno 1618, with the title of Viscount of Doncaster r And anno 1622, Earl 
of Carlisle by the said King, whose ambassador he was once to the Emperor's 
Court, and twice to France : He was also a Knight of the Most Noble Order of 
the Carter^ and a gentleman of the Bed Chamber to King Charles I. He died at 



Z 8 4 OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

Whitehall the 25th of April 1636, and was interred in St Paul's Cathedral, leaving 
only behind him a son, who married Margaret, a third daughter of Francis Earl of 
Bedford, and. died without issue 1660. 

HAY Earl of KINNOUL, quarterly, first and fourth azure, an unicorn effraye argent, 
horned, maned, and unguled or, within a bordure of the test, charged with eight 
half thistles vert, and as many half roses gules, conjoined pale-ways for a coat of 
augmentation ; second and third the arms of Hay as before ; crest, a hawk, proper, 
armed and belled or, perching upon the stock of a tree, with branches growing up 
before and behind : with the motto, Speravi in Domino. Supporters, two hawks,, 
proper, armed and belled or. The first of this noble family was George, a son of 
Hay of Meggins of the family of Errol (who carried the arms of Hay with an 
acorn between three escutcheons.) He was, in the year 1616, Clerk Register, and 
rhen Chancellor of Scotland, after the death of Seaton Earl of Dunfermline 1622.; 
and was advanced to the dignity of Viscount of Duplin, Lord Hay of Kinfauns, by 
King Charles I. the 4th May 1627, and afterwards honoured with the title of Earl 
of Kinnoul : He was succeeded by his son George Earl of Kinnoul, and he by his 
son William Earl of Kinnoul, father of Earl George, who died in Hungary 1687, 
and Earl William a bachelor, who died in France, loth May 1709; so that the 
honours devolved on Thomas Viscount of Duplin, who carried the arms of Hay 
within a bordure ermine : He was the son and heir of Thomas Hay of Balhousie, 
by his wife, a daughter of Sir Thomas Nicolson of Carnock, son of Mr Francis 
Hay of Balhousie, by Margaret, daughter of James Oliphant of Bachilton, son of 
Thomas Hay, brother to George the first Earl of Kinnoul. So that Thomas Vis- 
count of Duplin, as the next heir-male, was Earl of Kinnoul, and sat in Parlia- 
ment in that Dignity 1713, being elected one of the sixteen Peers from Scotland, 
and carried the achievement of the first Earl of Kinnoul, as above blazoned : He 
married /Elizabeth Drummond, daughter to William Viscount of Strathallan, by. 
whom he had two sons and two daughters ; he died 1719, and is succeeded by his 
eldest son George Earl of Kinnoul in Scotland, being before made a Peer of Great 
Britain, by the title of Lord Hay of Berwarden, the 3ist of December 1712 : He 
married Elizabeth Harley, eldest daughter of Robert Earl of Oxford. 

HAY of Park, sometime designed of Lochloy, an ancient family of the name, 
argent, three escutcheons within a bordure gules ; crest, the yoke of a plough 
erect in pale or, with two bows gules: motto, Servo, jugum subjugo. As in the 
Lyon Register, with the following blasons. 

FRANCIS HAY of Strorrzie, descended of Hay of Park ; the same with. Park, hav- 
ing the bordure charged with eight crescents of the field. 

HAY of Woodcockdale, descended of the family of Park or Lochloy, argent, a 
fesse between three escutcheons, all within a bordure gules; crest, a demi-arm, pro- 
per, holding an oxen yoke with bows gules : motto, Hinc incrementum. 

HAY of Carruber, a brother of Woodcockdale, the same ; but waves the fesse 
for his difference. 

HAY of Balhousie, descended of Meggins, the arms of Hay, within a bordure 
ermine ; crest, a demi-man ha-ving a blue cap on his head, and holding over his 
shoulder the yoke of a plough gules : motto, Renovate animos. 

HAY of Fitfour, descended of the family of Errol, argent, three escutcheons 
within a bordure cheque of the second and first. 

HAY of Dalgety, descended of Errol, argent, a cinquefoil between three inescut- 
tt/fj-; as in Workman's Illuminated Book, and in the house of Falahall; 
but some books give a fesse between the three escutcheons. 

JOHN HAY of Cardenie, sometime one of the Under Clerks of the Session, des- 
cended of Dalgetty, makes the fesse waved ; crest, an ox-yoke erect in pale, with 
bovrsgvJef: motto, Hinc honor 13 opes. L. R. 

Sir JAMES HA*- of Linpkun, Knight and Baronet, eldest son of Sir William 
Hay of Linplum, second son of James Lord Yester, and brother to John first Earl 
of Tweeddale, carries that Earl's quartered coat, all within a bordure argent; crest, 
a goat's head erased argent, horned or, and charged with a crescent azure ; sup- 
ported by two stags argent : motto, Malttm bono vince. L. R. 

Mr JOHN HA.Y of Hayston, sometime one of the Principal Clerks of the Session, 
descended of Tweeddale, the quartered coat of that family within a bordure vert, 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 185 

charged with unicorns' heads couped, and stars, alternately, argent ; crest, an ox- 
yoke in bend or, with bows gules : motto, Pro pair in. Lyon Register. 

ALEXANDER HAY of Muntan, the arms of Hay within a bordure ingrailed azure, 
seme of cinquefoils of the first. 

Mr ANDREW HAY of Craignethan, descended of the family of T \veeddale, cur 
ries, quarterly, first Fraser ; second Gifibrd ; third vert ; three unicorns' head . 
erased argent, for Ker ; fourth as the first ; over all a shield of pretence, the ui 
of Hay. 

HAY of Seafield, descended of Hay of Fudy, argent, a cheveron betwixt threr 
escutcheons gules. 

HAY of Leys, a second son of Errol, ermine, three escutcheons gules. 

HAY of Muchals, the first of this family was a second son of George Earl of 
Errol, and his spouse Margaret, daughter to Robertson of Struan, argent, a mul- 
let between three escutcheons. 

HAY of Auchencoy, argent, three escutcheons within a bordure ingrailed gules. 

HAY of Earnhill, sometime Minister at Cnimmond, the arms of Hay within a 
bordure ingrailed gules, with a star in chief. L. R. 

HAY of Broxmouth, argent, three escutcheons vert. This estate went long 
since off with an heiress who was married to a gentleman of the name of Home, 
of whom was descended Home Earl of Dunbar, and Home of Eccles, who quar- 
tered these arms with their own, of whom afterwards. 

HENRY HAY, Merchant in Leith, argent, three escutcheons gules, each charged 
with a garb or, banded of the second; crest, an ox-head couped, proper; motto, 
Nee abest jugum. Lyon Register. 

MONCUR of that Ilk, argent, a rose gules, and, on a chief of the last, three 
escutcheons of the first. Workman's Manuscript. 

In the charters of Robert I. and David the Bruce, I have met with this name of 
Moncur ; and in the reign of Robert III. Andreas Moiicur de eodsm is a \vir 
ness in a charter of Rait of Halgreen ; other books give to Moncur of that Ilk, 
argent, a fesse between three escalops gules. 

Fig. 15. The surname of SHIELDS, gules, on a bend ingrailed or, three escutcheons 
az:tre, being shields, they are relative to the name. W. Manuscript. 

The surname of CROOKS or CRUCK.S, gules, on a bend or, three escutcheons sable , 
Ibid. 

CECIL Earl of EXETER, and Baron of Burleigh, barry of ten pieces argent 
and azure, over all, six escutcheons sable, 3, .2, and i, each charged with a 
lion rampant of the first. William Cecil, descended of the Cecils in Lincoln- 
shire, was a great favourite of Queen Elizabeth's, who honoured him with the title 
of Lord Burleigh, and constituted him Lord Treasurer ; his son Thomas was, by 
King James I. of Great Britain, by letters patent, created Earl of Exeter, which is 
observed to be the first precedent whereby any man was advanced to the title of 
Earl of the principal city, when another had the dignity of the country. Charles 
Blunt being then Earl of Devonshire, his younger brother, Robert Cecil was, by 
the same king, about the same time created Lord CECIL of Essenden, Viscount Cran- 
burn, being the first of that degree that wore a coronet. He was soon after made 
Earl of Salisbury, Lord Treasurer, Knight of the Garter, and Chancellor of the 
University of Cambridge, and carried as his brother, Exeter, with a crescent for 
difference. 

The name of LOUDHAME, in England, argent, three escutcheons sable. 

To end with the escutcheon, in its various disposition in a coat of arms, I shall 
only give the ensign of the King of Portugal, which is argent, five escutcheon 
azure, placed cross-ways, each charged with as many besants of the first in saltier, 
and pointed sable (the arms of Portugal) all within a bordure gules, charged with 
seven towers or, 3 in chief, 2 in flanks, and as many in base. Which Blazon 
is thus latined by Julius Chiffletiits, " In scuto argenteo quina scutula coerulea, in 
" crucis modum collocata, quodlibet quinque nummis bysantiis argenteis, puncto 
" nigro impressis, &- in decussim depositis in ustum, limbus scuti coccineus sep- 
" tern castellis aureis inscriptis." The historical account of these arms, is, thau 
the first King of Portugal, Alphonso Henriquez, great-grandchild to Hugh Capet 
of France, overcame five Moorish kings at the battle of Ourique, anno 1134; 

3A 



x86 OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

who, in memory thereof, took, for armorial figures, five shields or escutcheons, 
which he placed in cross, and charged each of them with five besants in saltier, 
to represent the five victories. Some say, they represent the five wounds our Sa- 
viour received on the cross, and Alphonsus III. King of Portugal, did since add 
the bordure with castles, upon the account that his Queen was daughter of Al- 
phonsus, King of Castile, and with her got the kingdom of Algarve, in the year 
1278. 



OF THE QUARTER, OR FRANC QUARTIER. 

I DO not here mean such quarters as necessarily fall out by the partition lines 
parti and coupe, in a quartered bearing, where several coats of arms are marshalled in 
one shield ; but a square figure as a charge laid on the field, being formed (as 
Guillim in his Display) by two lines, the one drawn from the side of the shield in 
traverse to the centre, and the other perpendicularly from the chief, to meet it in 
the same place. He shows us the figure which he describes, but does not tell us 
by whom carried. Sylvester Petra Sancta gives us the arms of JOHN ARSIE of 
Arces, Cardinal of the Empire, azure, a quarter or ; which he thus blazons. Au- 
reus tetrans, in solo scuti cceruleo ; others latin it, quadra, or quadrans. Menes- 
trier says, " Quartier est une des quatre parties de 1'ecu ecartejie, ou en banniere, 
" ou en sautoir, il fait seul une des parties honorables, et on le nomme franc quar- 
" tier ;" he gives us, for instance, the bearing of LAMEIGNON in France, lozenge 
d'azur et d? argent, au franc quartier (Pennine, i. e. lozenge azure and argent, a 
free quarter ermine. 

This quarter, says Gerard Leigh, is given to none under the degree of a Lord 
Baron ; but his countryman Guillim says, it may be granted to those of a lesser 
nobility. I observe among all the figures we are treating of, it is never, or at 
least seldom used in Britain ; upon what account I know not, except that, when a 
field is plain, and no figures on it but a franc quartier, charged with the paternal 
figures, according to some writers, it was anciently a sign of illegitimation before 
the bastard-bar came in use ; as that learned anonymous author of the Observa- 
tiones EugenealogiccE, cap. 19. lib. 2. " Erat &- olim manifestum naturalitatis & ille- 
" gitimorum naturalium indicium, s quis in primo scuti quadrante paterna ges- 
" taret insignia, reliqua parte scuti vacua relicta, postea vero naturales barram 
" assumpsere." 

In all the books of Blazon in Britain I have perused, I never met with a. franc 
quartier but one, in Mr Thomas Crawfurd, his Manuscript of Heraldry, which he 
ascribes to Sir PATRICK HAMILTON, whom he calls brother to James, first of that 
name, Earl of ARRAN ; who carried gules, three cinquefoils argent, a. franc quartier 
or, charged with a sword fesse-ways azure. Plate VIII. fig. 17. This Sir Patrick 
is not only famous in our printed Histories, but in Manuscript, as in that of LIND- 
SAY of Pitscottie, for his strength and valour in Tournaments, where he did great 
feats in the reign of King James IV. of whom afterwards. I have given the quar- 
ter, absconding the cinquefoil in the dexter chief points, as all such cantons do 
of super-charges. 



OF THE CANTON. 

THIS is a square figure, less than the quarter, and possesses only the third part of 
the chief, as Sylvester Petra Sancta : " Aliquando aream angulus minor tetrante, 
" & qui solum continet partem tertiam scutariae? coronidis :" Here he latins the 
canton angulus, but Uredus more distinctly calls it angulus quadratus, because it 
is placed on the upper corners of the shield, which distinguishes it from a delph, 
which is a rebatement to him that revokes his challenge, being a square figure aK. 
ways placed in the centre of the shield. Others use the words quadrans or quadra 
: jfor a canton. The French call it a franc canton, to distinguish it from these can- 
tons or areas of the field, which necessarily fall out when the field is charged with 
a cross or saltier, as Menestrier : " Canton est une partie quarre'e de 1'ecu, un pen 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 187 

" plus petite que le quartier, les espaces que laissant les croix &. les sautoirs sont 
" aussi noinmc's canton" 

The canton is a square figure, an adclitament of honour, worthy to be used by 
all degrees of nobility, as our English and others tell us. 

Gerard Leigh, as 1 observed before, says, that the franc quartier should be given 
to the high nobility, and the canton to the lesser nobility, knights, esquires, and 
gentlemen, but upon what account he says so 1 know not ; neither does his own 
countrymen follow his opinion. In the year 1287, John Duke of BRETAGNE, in 
France, carried cheque, or and azure, abordure gules, (being the arms of the Counts 
of DREUX, of which family he was descended) a canton ermine, (the arms of the 
Earls and Dukes of Bretagne) fig. 18. Which arms were upon his seal appended 
to a deed of his, in the reign of Henry III. of England, whose daughter he mar- 
ried, with whom he had several children. Their tourth son, "Jobn de Dreux and 
his descendant were Earls of Richmond, and carried the same arms with the can- 
ton ; but, for difference, carried the bordure gules, with the Lions of England to 
show their descent ; for which see Sanderson's Genealogical History : And Sir 
John Feme, who stands up for the honour and antiquity of the canton, gives us 
an older instance of its bearing in the arms of Lord ZOUCH, Baron of Ashby, in 
the reign of King John of England, gules, ten besants or; who, for his merit, got 
from that king, as an additament of honour, a canton ermine. Which figure, I ob- 
serve to this day, has been given, especially in England, to well-deserving persons; 
and as an additament of honour. It absconds the figure in the dexter chief point, 
as fig. 

NOEL Earl of GAINSBOROUGH, an ancient family in the county of Leicester, of 
the house of NOEL of Dalby, was honoured with the dignity of a Baron, by King 
James I. with the title of Lord NOEL of Ridlington ; and his grandson Edward, 
who, by the favour of King Charles II. was created Earl of GAINSBOROUGH, car- 
ried or, fretty gules, a canton ermine. 

SHIRLEY Earl of FERRERS, descended of a knightly family, of which was Sir 
HENRY SHIRLEY of Stanton, who married Dorothy, sister and co-heir to Robert 
Earl of ESSEX; from which marriage these of the family, descended of her, have, 
and do still quarter the royal arms of England, as being descended from Anne 
Plantagenet, eldest daughter to THOMAS of WOODSTOCK, Duke of GLOUCESTER, 
sister, and one of the co-heirs to HUMPHRY PLANTAGENET, Earl of BUCKINGHAM ; 
Sir ROBERT SHIRLEY, one of the descendants of this family, was honoured by King- 
Charles II. with the title of Lord FERRERS of Chartley, anno 1677, and was ad- 
vanced afterwards to the dignity of Earl of FERRERS, and Viscount TAMWORTH, 
in the year 1711. The paternal coat of which family is paly of six, or and 
azure, a canton ermine. 

Sir STEPHEN Fox, a loyal gentleman, and follower of King Charles II. in his ex- 
ile, carried ermine, a cheveron azure, charged with three fox-heads erased or ; and 
got for an additament of honour, a* canton of the second, charged with a flower- 
de-luce of the last. And such another canton, by way of special concession, was 
granted by King James I. of Great Britain to Sir THOMAS ASHTON, viz. argent, 
a rose and thistle conjoined gale-ways, all proper ; whose eldest daughter Marga- 
ret, and co-heiress, was married to Sir GILBERT HOUGHTON, great-grandfather to 
Sir HENRY HOUGHTON of Houghtontower in Lancashire, the present Baronet, now 
third of England ; who carries sable, three bars argent, and the canton above- 
mentioned, and by way of surtout, the badge of an English baronet ; crest, a 
white bull passant : motto, Malgre le tort, and supported with two white bulls, as 
in Plate of Achievements. 

In Scotland, MURRAY Earl of ANNANDALE, azure , carried three stars with a cres- 
cent in the centre ; all within a double tressure flowered and counter-flowered or ; 
and, for a farther additament of honour, had a canton of the second charged with 
a thistle, ensigned with an imperial crown, proper. Plate VIII. fig. 19. 

DRUMMOND of Maderty, as before, carried a canton or, charged with a 1 
head erased gules. 

Lieutenant-General THOMAS DALYELL of Binns, a loyal gentleman, whose pater- 
nal arms were sable, a naked man, proper, was suitably honoured by a canton 
argent, charged with a sword and pistol saltier-ways gules, to show his honourable 
employment. And CAMPBELL of Cessnock, to show his maternal descent from. 



! 8 is OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

CAMPBELL Earl of LOUDON, carries the Earl's arms by way of canton, of which 

before. 

The canton has been of old and of late frequently carried both by nobility and 
gentry ; and not only used to contain armorial figures of honourable professions, 
employments, and descents, but also other signs of honour granted by sovereigns 
to their well deserving subjects, as by the examples above given ; to which I 
shall a4d a few instances of the Blazons of the Badges of the Orders of Baronets 
in England and Scotland, which are carried on a canton, or on an inescutcheon. 

The Order of Baronet in England was erected by King James I. of England, for 
advancing the plantation of Ulster in Ireland ; who, besides the privileges and 
precedencies given to the Knights of the Order, granted to them a badge, as an 
additament of honour to be carried in their arms, as that of Ulster, viz. a left 
hand pame (i. e. expanded) and couped gules, in a field argent, either by way of 
canton or inescutcheon, as shall best suit with the arms or please the bearer. 

The Order of Baronet in Scotland was erected for advancing the navigation to 
Nova Scotia in America, and for settling a colony there, to which the aid of the 
Knights was designed. The Order was only introduced by King James VI. be- 
fore his death; for, in his first charter of Nova Scotia 1621, there is no mention 
made of the Order ; as Sir George Mackenzie has observed in his Precedency, 
which see for more of this Order than what I am to speak of here. So that the 
Order was erected by King Charles I. anno 1625, who by and attour the privileges 
and precedencies given to the Baronets, his Majesty did declare and ordain, " That 
" the Baronets, and their heirs-male, should, as an additament of honour to their 
" armorial ensigns, bear, either on a canton or inescutcheon, in their option, the 
" ensign of Nova Scotia, being argent, a cross of St Andrew's azure, (the badge of 
" Scotland counter-changed) charged with an inescutcheon of the royal arms of 
" Scotland, supported on the dexter by the royal unicorn, and on the sinister by a 
" savage or wild man, proper ; and for crest, a branch of laurel, and a thistle 
" issuing from two hands conjoined, the one being armed, the other naked ; with 
" the motto, Munit h<ec fc? altera vincit." 

The badge so trimmed with supporters, crest and motto, I have never met with 
on any paintings ; neither can I conceive how it could be carried in a baronet's 
shield of arms, with these exterior ornaments, either by way of inescutcheon or 
canton. However, these exterior ornaments were soon taken away, for, in the year 
1629, after Nova Scotia was sold to the French, his majesty was pleased to 
authorise and allow the Baronets, and their heirs-male, to wear and carry about 
their necks, in all time coming, an orange tenne silk ribbon, whereat hung a 
scutcheon argent, a saltier azure, and thereon an inescutcheon of Scotland, with 
an imperial crown above the escutcheon, and encircled with the motto, Fax mentis 
honestte gloria. The wearing of which badge about the neck was never much 
used, but carried by way of canton or escutcheon, in their armorial bearings, with- 
out the motto, of which I have given some examples in Plate VIII. fig. 20. &-c. 
by way of canton, dexter, and sinister ; as also by way of an inescutcheon. There 
is this difference to be observed, when the badge of Nova Scotia is placed in a 
canton, and when on an escutcheon ; in the first, the inescutcheon of Scotland is 
ensigned with the imperial crown, whereas the canton cannot be ensigned by 
reason of its position ; in the last, the escutcheon which contains, is ensigned with 
the imperial crown, and not the inescutcheon contained. 

Sir PATRICK. NISBET of Dean, Baronet, argent, a cheveron gules, betwixt three 
boars' heads erased sable , with the canton of Nova Scotia. Plate VIII. fig. 20. 

ARCHIBALD FLEMING of Peel and Fern, descended of a second son of the Earl of 
Wigton, was made a knight-baronet by King Charles I. but his letters patent did 
not pass the seals till the 25th of September 1661. He was Commissary of Glas- 
gow, and married a daughter of Sir Alexander Gibson of Durie, one of the Sena- 
tors of the College of Justice. He was succeeded into his honours and office by his 
son Sir William; and he again by his son Sir Archibald Fleming of Peel and 
Ferm, Commissary of Glasgow, who married a daughter of Sir George Hamilton 
of Easter-Binning and Barnton, with whom he has issue, and carries as fig. 22. 
quarterly, first and fourth or, a cheveron crenelle, within a double tressure, coun- 
ter-flowered gules t for, Fleming ; second and third azure, three cinquefoils argent* 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES 

vtr all in the centre, by way of an escutcheon, the badge of a knight-baronet ; 
crest, u palm-tree, proper : motto, Sub ponde re cresco. 

Sir Wu.i.iAM HAMILTON of Barnton, late of Binning, gules, on a cheveron, accom- 
panied with three cinquctoils ardent, a buckle azure, between two musclieti:res 
sable, and surmounted (by way of an escutcheon) with a badge of a knight- 
baronet, all within a bordure of the second, charged with eight trefoils slipped vert ; 
crest, the branch of a tree, growing out from an old stock ; with tlie motto, 
Through God revived. Lyon Register. The canton, as all other supervenient 
charges, depresses ;ind absconds, at least pro tanto, the pre-existent figure in the 
dexter chief corner, as in the bearing of Colonel Rue Innes of that Ilk, and Pringle 
ol Stitchell. 

Sometimes the badge of a knight-baronet, by way of a canton, is placed in the 
sinister chief corner ; as in the bearingof OciLViEof Barras, giving place to the badge 
of Scotland, the thistle ensigned with an imperial crown in the dexter chief corner ; 
by a concession of the sovereign, for preserving the regalia in the time of the Re- 
bellion, as his charter bears, fig. 21. And Sir Archibald Stewart of Castlemilk has 
the badge of Nova Scotia by way of a canton in the sinister chief corner : Of 
. whom before. 

Sir John Feme, in his Book before cited, gives us also the example of two can- 
tons, dexter and sinister, borne by GUY Lord of WARWICK, in England ; and 
Sylvester Petra Sancta gives an example of a canton placed in the middle of the 
chief point, carried by the RUDEARFI in Bavaria, viz. sable, a canton argent in 
the middle chief point; but in Britain it would not be taken for a canton, but a 
delph. 



OF CHEQUE OR POINTS EQUIPOLES. 

WHEN the field, or any armorial figure, is of many square pieces, alternately of 
metal and colour, like the panes of a chess-board, consisting of three ranges-, (to 
distinguish from compone and counter-compone, of which before), it is said to be 
cheque, or echequete, which, as some say, is from the play of the chess. And they 
make these square pieces or panes represent battalions and squadrons of soldiers in 
line of battle. Others say, exchequire was anciently a compting-board, used by 
accomptants in their calculation of accompts in public offices; from which the 
Court of Exchequer has its name ; as those who write of the ancient state of 
England, say the English Court of Exchequer, called Scacarium Regis, is from a 
chequer-work carpet that covered the table, as the Court 'of the Green-Cloth, in 
the King's House, is so called from a green carpet. And Menestrier tells, ma- 
gistrates and judges of old wore cheque garments, called vestes scacatee, from which 
the Latins, for chequer-bearings, say anna scacata, or scacciata, and others tes- 
silata. Of figures so chequered I have given several instances in bends and fesses, 
especially these of the name of Stewart. As for whole fields cheque, it seems they 
are rare with us, for I have met with few or none of them : But I shall add here a 
few instances of fields cheque in England. 

Fig. 24. CLIFFORD Lord CLIFFORD of Chudleigh; in Devonshire, cheque, or and 
azure, a fesse gules, charged with a crescent of the first ; which family was digni- 
fied with the title of Lord by King Charles II. the 22d of April 1672. 

WARD Lord WARD of Birmingham, in Warwickshire, cheque, or and azure, a 
bend ermine ; this family was dignified by King Charles I. anno 1643. 

The Counts of VERMANDOIS in Picardy, cheque, or and azure, a chief of the last, 
charged with three flower-de-luces of the first : The last race of these counts added 
the chief of France. 

Cheque or chequer-bearing consists at least of three ranges or tracts of square 
pieces, which some blazoners mention to the number of 4, 5, or 6 tracts, which 
is superfluous : This the French heralds do not, yet they ordinarily mention the 
number of the square pieces or panes of cheque, to the number of fifteen. When 

qiie consists only of nine pieces, fig 25. they call them points eqmpties ; as Bara. 
in his Blazon of the Arms of the Seignory of Geneva, cinque prints d'or, equipollez, 
a qunrte d'azur. And Andrew Favin, in his Theatre of Honour, blazons these 

3B 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

arms thus, Un ecu compose de cinque pointes ffor, equipollez a quarte d'azur, i. e. 
cheque, or and azure, of nine panes. Sometimes the last author is very curt in his 
blazons of this kind, and only mentions the square figures (or panes) that are least 
in number, as the arms of GENTILI, one of the twenty -eight noble families in Ge- 
noa, (there are severals of this surname in Scotland, especially in Perthshire) 
d'azur a quatre pieces d'echiquier d'or, i. e. azure, four pieces of cheque or. In 
which blazon it must be understood, that the metal or colour first named, stands 
for the field, and that the panes of the first tincture are ot more number than 
those of the second : So in all blazons of cheque arms it is to be observed, that 
we must begin at the metal or colour, whose pieces are of most number, for then 
it is as the field, and the less number as the charge ; as was before observed in 
the diminutives of the ordinaries when multiplied in the fiekl. When the pieces 
of cheque are of equal number, then we begin with the tincture of the first upper- 
most panes, on the right hand. 

The above Favm mentions the number of cheque, if there be fifteen of them, as 
in his blazon of the arms of ARMILDE in Spain, echequete de huit pieces d? argent 
equipolles a sept de gueules, i.e. eight pieces argent equipoles to seven gules : But 
in Britain, if they exceed nine, the heralds say only cheque, and to number them 
further it is but superfluous. 



OF BILLETS AND BILLETTE. 

BILLETS are square figures, more long than broad, frequent in arms, as Me- 
nestrier, " Billettes sont des billets quarrez longs, fort uses en armories ;" and Syl- 
A r ester Petra Sancta, speaking of them, says, " Quadranguli & longi majus quam 
" lati scutarii lateres etiam ipsi extruunt familiarum nobilium gloriam, atque aedi- 
' ficant seu exornant symbolicas icones earum : So that billets are taken to repre- 
sent in armories bricks, for which they are latined, laterculi, or plinthides, as Im- 
hoft, in his Blazon of the Arms of ALLINGTON Lord ALLINGTON in England, Scu- 
tum nigrum, baltheitm argenteum dentibus aspersum & sex plinthidibus stipatum, i. e. 
sable, a bend ingrailed betwixt six billets argent. 

Sir George Mackenzie, in his Science of Heraldry, takes billets in this sense, 
where he tells us, that some families with us have them in their arms, to show their 
original was from England, w r here brick-tiles are much used ; but I find few names 
with us that carry billets, except that of Callender, which is originally Scots : But, 
before I speak of this family, I shall first show what others will have billets to re- 
present in armories. 

The book Le Trophee tfArms makes bricks to differ from billets, in that they 
show their thickness in perspective, which billets do not ; upon which considera- 
tion he and others will have billets to represent paper folded up in form of a missive 
letter, or scrolls of paper ; for billet, in French, signifies a missive letter, or piece 
of paper. Abbe Danet, in his Dictionary, says, billet is a term of blazon which 
signifies a sheet of paper ; and Guillim takes them for little bills of paper, made up 
more long than broad. 

Monsieur Baron and Menestrier will have billets to represent long square pieces 
of wood, bringing billet from billus, a club, which comes from an old word billot, 
which signified the trunk of a tree more long than broad ; for which the old 
heralds- said biHotte, as we now say billette, when they are of an indefinite number 
in the field. Mr Gibbon, Blue-Mantle Pursuivant, with Mr Morgan, supposes them 
to be billets of wood, as in the arms of COUDRY, gules, ten billets or; which 
Gibbon latins thus, " In scuto rubro decem calas aureas, in triqueto positas." 
As for the word cala, he is beholden to the old allusive Latin saying, viz. scinde 
calas ut caleas. Menestrier likewise tells us, that the square pieces of stuff of 
gold or silver, or of other tinctures, which were sewed or embroidered on garments 
or furniture of old, were called billets. 

The surname of CALLENDER carries sable, a bend betwixt six billets or. This 
surname is from the lands and castle of Callendar, anciently called Calloner, (as 
some tell us, especially the Dane Vanbassan in his Armories) from a Roman who 
founded that castle of Callendar, and called it after his own name Calloner, from 



Oi< i UK SUB-ORDINARIES. 

caio, a faggot or log of wood, whose office it was to provide fuel for the Ror. 
camp: And when arms came in use, these of that name took such figures. Otlu-i 
again say, with some more certainty, that these billets in the ;!lcndci 

represent sheets or scrolls of paper, upon the account that several of the !i 
the family of Callender of that Ilk, were comptrollers or clerks to our Kin;.; 
old ; but unluckily they joined with Baliol and the English against the Bruce, 
which they were forfeited. King David the Bruce, in the ijth year of his reign, 
made a grant of the barony of Callendar, in the county of Stirling, then in rn 
crown by forfeiture of Patrick de Callendar, to Sir William Livingston ; who, tin- 
better to fortify his title thereto, took to wife, Christian de Callendar, only daugh- 
ter and heir to the said Patrick de Callendar, and had with her his son and successor 
Sir William Livingston, father of Sir John Livingston of Callendar, who was slain 
in the service of his country, at the battle of Hamilton. From whom were de- 
scended the Earls of Linhthgow and Callendar, who have been in use to quartet 
the arms of Callendar, as above blazoned, with their own. 

JOHN CALLENDER of Mayners, sable, a bend betwixt six billets or, Font's Manu- ' 
script. After the extinction of Callender of that Ilk, this became the principal 
family of the name. 

JOHN CALLENDER in Kincardine, descended of the family of Mayners, sable, a. 
bend cheque, argent and gules, between six billets of the second ; crest, a hand 
holding a billet, proper : motto, / mean well. Lyon Register. 

ALEXANDER CHAPLIN, writer to the signet, gules, on a fesse nebul/ argent, be 
rwixt six billets or, a rose of the first, as in, the Lyon Register. 

Billets are more frequently to be seen in the English arms than in ours. 

DORMER Earl of CARNARVON, Viscount Ascot, Baron Dormer of Wenge, azure, 
ten billets, four, three, two, and one, or, on a chief of the last, a lion naissant, 
sable. Sir Robert Dormer, in the reign of Henry VIII. obtained a grant of the 
manor of Wenge in Buckinghamshire. His grandchild, Robert, was honoured 
with the title of Lord Dormer of Wenge, by King James I. of Great Britain; and 
his son Robert, Earl of Carnarvon, by King Charles I. who was killed fighting 
valiantly for his king at the battle of Newberry ; a man of singular parts, as ap- 
pears by the character the Lord Clarendon gives of him. He left no issue behind 
him ; and the title of Lord Dormer went to a branch of that family, with the- 
arms above blazoned, but not the title of Earl of Carnarvon. 

With us and the English, if the number of billets in the field exceed ten, and 
be irregularly placed, then the number of them is not expressed in the blazon, and 
we only say billette, as in the arms of NASSAU, Earl of ROCHFORD ; but the French 
mention their number till they exceed fifteen. 

The proper posture of the billet is to be erect in pale ; when in fesse or fesse - 
ways, they are said to be couche ; and when they be diagonally placed, they are 
said to be bend-ways. 

Seme of billets, or billette, which is all one, is said when the field is charged with 
more than ten billets irregularly situate, as in the arms of EW, a territory in 
Normandy, azure, billette or, (or seme of billets) a lion rampant of the last ; thus 
by Uredus, " Scutum coeruleum plinthidibus aureis, incerto numero spai 
11 & leone ejusdem metalli impressum." Plate VIII. fig. 27. 



OF THE PAIRLE. 

I r is an honourable ordinary with some of the French heralds ; and has a parti- 
tion in heraldry, after its form and name, as Tierce in pairle, of which before ; 
Plate II. fig. 24. It likewise gives a denomination to figures situate after its posi- 
tion ; of winch immediately. 

The Pairle may be said to be composed of half a saltier and half a pale, issuing 
from the base point of the shield to the centre, and then dividing into two equal 
parts, tending to the dexter and sinister chief angles, as Plate VIII. fig. 28. a~.urf t 
a pairle or. 

The armorial bearing of the family of PEPIN in France, given us by Monsieur 
Baron in his LArt Heraldique, d'azur, au pairle d'or, and Menestrier, in his La- 



193 OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

Science de la Noblesse, describes it thus : " Pairle est une fourche, ou un pal, qui 
" muuvant du pied de 1'ecu, quand il est arrive au milieu, se divise en deux autres 
" parties egales, qui vont aboutir aux deux angles du chef. Ce nom vient du 
" Latin pergula, qui est propre de ces fourches, qui soutiennent les treilles." So 
our author brings pairle from pergula, the prop of an house, or rather a forked 
stick, such as those used in churches of old, for hanging up of lamps and sacer- 
dotal vestments. 

It is also taken by some for an episcopal pall, as that carried in the arms of the 
Arch-Episcopal See of Canterbury. And again, by some for the letter Y, as in 
the arms of the town of Yssdun in England, being the first letter of its name, as 
Guillim and others write. 

Such a figure is carried with us by the name of CUNNINGHAM, upon what ac- 
count and meaning is uncertain. Some allege (I think without ground) that it is 
a cross fourchee, which one of the progenitors of the name took for his cognizance 
when he went in crusade to the Holy Land. Sir James Dalrymple takes it for an 
arch-episcopal pall used by the Cunninghams, whose first progenitor in Scot- 
land, was one of the four knights that murdered Thomas Becket, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and fled to Scotland. Neither of these two opinions seems to give 
the true meaning and occasion of the bearing of that figure : It cannot be called a 
cross-fourchee, crux furcata, as before, for it wants a traverse, which all crosses 
have, and this being but one branch of cross fourchee, cannot be properly called a 
cross : It may be more properly taken for an arch-episcopal pall, a badge of spi- 
ritual jurisdiction, but very improperly to be used by the murderer of an archbishop, 
which would be rather an abatement than a badge of honour. Besides, the mat- 
ter of fact is false, for the Cunninghams were in Scotland, and so named in the 
reign of King David I. long before that murder, as is evident by the Chartulary of 
the Abbacy of Kelso. Frederick Vanbassan, a Norwegian, and a very confident 
genealogist, wrote a Manuscript (now in the Lawyer's Library) of the rise of some 
families with us, amongst whom is that of the Cunninghams, whose first progeni- 
tor he calls Malcolm, the son of Friskine, who assisted Prince Malcolm, (after- 
wards King, surnamed Canmore) to escape from Macbeth's tyranny ; and being 
hotly pursued by the usurper's men, was forced at a place to hide his master by 
forking straw or hay above him ; and after, upon that Prince's happy accession to 
the crown, he rewarded his preserver Malcolm with' the thanedom of Cunning- 
ham, from which he and his posterity have their surname, and took this figure to 
represent the shake-fork with which he forked hay or straw above the Prince, to 
perpetuate the happy deliverance their progenitor had th'e good fortune to give to 
their Prince. 

Sir George Mackenzie, in his Science of Heraldry, says, that this family took 
their name from the country of Cunningham, and being, by office, Masters of the 
King's Stables and Horses, took for their armorial figure, the instrument whereby 
hay is thrown up to horses, which in blazon is called a shake-fork, being after the 
same form with the pairle. In his Manuscript of Scots Families, he says, William 
Cunningham was Master of Horses to King William, or had such like office,, and 
was married to a daughter of Richard Morville, Constable of Scotland ; the seat of 
which family was at Kilmaurs, in the country of Cunningham. Mr Crawford, 
in his History of Renfrew, and Peerage of Scotland, says, the surname of Cunning- 
ham, which properly signifies the King's habitation, has no doubt been taken 
from the bailliary of Cunningham, in the shire of Ayr, the patrimony of the 
Morvilles, formerly Constables of Scotland, to whom the Cunninghams of Kil- 
maurs were vassals. The first of that family that he has met with upon record, 
is, Robertas, JiUus Varnebaldi de Cunninghame, proprietor of Kilmaurs ; who, in 
the reign oT King William the Lion, gave, in pure and perpetual alms to the 
monks of the abbey of Kelso, the patronage of the church of Kilmaurs, " cum 
" dimidia carrucata ternc addictam ecclesiam pertinen. pro salute animae suae," 
which is ratified by Richard Morville before the year 1189. He was succeeded by 
his son Robert, and from him descended Sir William Cunningham of Kilmaurs, 
knight, father of William, who succeeded, and of Thomas, first of the house of 
Caprihgton, of whom came the Cunninghams of Leglan and Enterkine. 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 






Which William, in the reign of King Robert III. added to his old patrimonial 
inheritance the barony of Finlayston in kcniiewshire, Kilmarnock in the county 
of Dumbarton, Redhall and Collington in Lothian, by the marriage of Margaret, 
daughter and one of the co-heirs of Robert Denniston Lord of Denimton. With 
her he had Robert his successor, and William, first of the branch of Cunningham 
head in the shire of Ayr. 

Which ROBERT, by his lady Janet, daughter of Alexander Lord Montgomery, 
was father of Alexander first Lord of Kilmaurs, and after created Earl of Glen- 
cairn by King James 111. 28th of May 1488 ; from whom is descended the present 
Earl of Glencairn ; for which see the Peerage. The achievement of the family i-, 
argent, a shake-fork sable ; supporters two conies proper ; crest, an unicorn's head 
argent, maned and horned or ; and for motto, Over fork aver, to shew the signi- 
fication of the armorial figure. 

There are many goodly families descended of the Earls of Glencairn, whose 
blazons I shall here subjoin as I have met with them in our old and new Re- 
gisters. 

CUNNINGHAM of Glengarnock, descended of a second son of Henry Cun- 
ninghame of Kilmaures, and his spouse Riddel, heiress of Glengarnock. In the 
reign of Alexander II. this family was in use (as in Sir James Balfour's Manuscript 
of Blazons) to carry argent, a shake-fork sable, charged with a cinquefoil of the 
first : Which family was a long time since extinct ; and another branch of the 
family of Craigends, descended of the Earl of Glencairn, was designed of Glen- 
garnock. Of whom immediately. 

CUNNINGHAM of Polmaise, argent, a shake-fork sable; the first of this family was 
a son of Kilmaurs in the reign of Alexander III. 

CUNNINGHAM of Auchenharvy, descended of Craigends' family, charged his 
pairle or shake-fork with a mascle or. Balfour's Manuscript. 

CUNNINGHAM of Cunninghamhead, argent, a bishop's pall sable, (always so 
called by Mr Pont, in his blazons of the name) between two garbs, and a mullet 
Cities in chief. The first of this family was a second son of Sir W r illiam of Kil- 
maures, and his wife Margaret Denniston, eldest daughter and co-heir of Sir Robert 
Denniston of that Ilk, in the reign of Robert III. 

Sir WILLIAM CUNNINGHAM of Cunninghamhead, Baronet, has his arms matri- 
culated in the Lyon Register, in the year 1698, thus ; quarterly, first and fourth 
argent, a shake-folk and a mullet in chief sable , for Cunningham ; second and 
third grand quarters, quarterly, first and fourth argent, on a fesse azure, three stars 
of the first ; second and third azure, three garbs or, being the arms of Mure of 
Rowallan ; crest, a dexter hand issuing out of the wreath, holding the upper part 
ot an anchor by the ring ; with the motto on an escrol, Enough in my hand ; sup- 
ported on the dexter by a coney, and on the sinister by a falcon, both proper; as 
in Plate of Achievements. 

CUNNINGHAM o Barns, in the shire of Fife, another ancient cadet, who has a 
charter of these lands from King Robert II. (as in Sibbald's History of Fife) car- 
ries argent, a bishop's pall sable, and in chief, a stag's head erased gules, as in 
Font's Manuscript; but in Balfour's Manuscript, there is a star in place of 
the stag's head. 

CUNNINGHAM of Craigends, quarterly, first and fourth argent, a shake-fork sable, 
for Cunninghame ; second and third or, a fess cfaque, azure and argent^ for 
Stewart ; crest, an unicorn's head couped argent, horned and maned or, and 
gorged with a collar cheque, argent and azure : motto, So fork forward : As in our 
ancient and modern books of blazons. The first of this family was WILLIAM CUN- 
NINGHAM, a younger son of Alexander the first Earl of Glencairn, who obtained 
from his- father the lands of Craigends, anno 1477. He married Elizabeth Stewart, 
daughter and co-heiress of Sir Walter Stewart of Arthurly, who was one of the Stew- 
arts of Darnly, and with her got the lands of Arthurly; for which this family, and its 
descendants, have been in use to quarter the arms of Stewart with their own, with 
suitable differences. 

Their son and successor was William Cunningham of Craigends, father of Ga- 
briel ; of whom is descended Alexander, the present laird of Craigends, and several 
other brai* lies of that family, as Richard Cunningham of Glengarnock, a young<*r 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

son of the abovementioned Gabriel Cunningham, and his lady, Margaret, daugh- 
ter to Livingston of Kilsyth. He married Elisabeth Heriot, daughter to Heriot of 
Trabrown, by whom he had several children. The eldest, Richard Cunningham, 
was designed of Bedland, after the lands of Glengarnock were sold to the family 
of Kilbirny, now dignified with the title of Viscount of Garnock ; and carried,, as 
Cunningham of Craigends, with a crescent for his difference ; crest, an unicorn's 
head couped argent, maned and horned or : motto, Virtute 13 labore. 

ROBERT CUNNINGHAM, a younger brother of Richard, carries the same arms, 
within a bordure, for his difference ; who has purchased a considerable fortune in 
America, called Cayenne, in the Island of St Christopher, by his valour, and by 
marrying Judith Elizabeth, daughter to' Daniel de Bonefon of Martas in France, 
and his wife, Mary de Barat, sister to Charles de Bar at, Sieur De la Bodie, Lieu- 
tenant-General to the King of France, and Governor of the Citadel of Lisle in 
Flanders, and with her has numerous issue : For whose arms see Plate of Achieve- 
ments. 

CUNNINGHAM of Robertland, descended of DAVID CUNNINGHAM of Bartonhold, 
son of the first William Cunningham of Craigends, and his second wife, Marion 
Auchenleck, one of the daughters and co-heirs of Sir John Auchenleck of that 
Ilk. 

Mrs JEAN CUNNINGHAM, lawful daughter to Sir Alexander Cunningham of 
Robertland, and spouse to Sir Alexander Forrester, Secretary to the Duke of 
Lauderdale, has her arms matriculated in the Lyon Register, thus ; argent, a shake- 
fork sable, between a hunting-horn in chief, and two castles in the flanks sable ; 
1 take the hunting-horn for her husband Forrester, but I know not* upon what 
account the castles. 

CUNNINGHAM of Cairncuren, and CUNNINGHAM of Auchenyards, are cadets of 
Cunningham of Craigends, and carry the arms of Craigends, with differences. 

CUNNINGHAM of Caprington in Ayr, descended of a younger son of Sir WILLIAM 
CUNNINGHAM of Kilmaurs, in the reign of Robert III. got the lands of Capring- 
ton, by marrying one of the daughters and co-heirs of Wallace of Sundrum ; upon 
which account, sometimes the family quartered the arms of Wallace, gules, a lion 
rampant argent : And at other times carried only their own paternal coat of Cun- 
ninghame, with a star in chief sable. The direct lines of this family ended in the 
reign of King Charles II. and these lands were purchased by Sir John* Cunning- 
liame, baronet, a learned lawyer, a branch of the same family, now designed of 
Caprington and Lamburghton, who carries argent, a shake-fork sable, within a bor- 
dure ermine ; crest, a dexter hand holding a plum-rule, proper : motto, Ad admis- 
sum. Lyon Register. 

Sir JOHN CUNNINGHAM of Enterkin, argent, a shake-fork sable, within a bordure 
azure, charged with eight billets of the first ; crest, a demi-lion full-faced azure, 
holding in his dexter paw a scroll, and in his sinister a garb, proper : motto, Sedulo 
numen adest. New Register. And there, 

Sir ROBERT CUNNINGHAM of Auchenharvy, Baronet, Physician to King Charles 
II. the arms of Cunningham, with the addition of two lozenges in fesse sable ; 
crest, a dexter hand holding a lozenge or : motto, Cur a 5* candor e. 

ALEXANDER CUNNINGHAM of Balquhan, representative of Auchenharvy, in place 
of the lozenges, has two mascles gules ; crest, a boar's head couped azure : motto, 
Cur a y constantia. Plate of Achievements. 

Sir ALEXANDER CUNNINGHAM of Corsehill, Baronet, descended of a younger son 
of WILLIAM Earl of GLENCAIRN, who got from him, for his patrimony, the lands of 
Corshill, in the year 1532 ; which family of Corshill has been in use to carry the 
arms of Glencairn, with a crescent for difference. N. R. 

JOHN CUNNINGHAM of Aikenbar, lineally descended of a second son of the fa- 
mily of GLENCAIRN, quarterly, first and fourth Glencairn, within a bordure gules ; 
second and third argent, an oak tree growing out of a mount, in base, proper, sur- 
mounted of a fesse azure, on account of marrying an heiress of the name of WAT- 
SON ; crest, an unicorn seiant, grasping an oak-tree, with his fore feet, proper : 
motto, Mihi robore robur. Lyon Register. 

Mr JAMES CUNNINGHAM, Writer to the Signet, descended of CUNNINGHAM of 
Drumquhassell, in the Lennox, the armorial figure of Cunningham, accompanied 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 195- 

with three roses gules. Lyon Register; crest, a trunk of an oak tree, with a sprig 
vert : motto, Tandem. Lyon Register. 

WILLIAM CUNNINGHAM of Brownhill, sometime Provost of Ayr, the armorial 
figure of Cunninghame, with a rose in chief gules, surmounted of an annulet of 
the field : motto, I'irtute comes invidui. Lyon Register. 

ADAM CUNNINGHAM, sometime one of the Maeers to the Senator of the ' 
of Justice, descended of CUNNINGHAM of Drumquhassell, ardent, a shake-fork s/ible. 
between three roses gules, and a crescent, for difference. Lyon Register. 

THOMAS CUNNINGHAM, Merchant and residenter in Stockholm, SMII to Alexan- 
der Cunningham, Bailie of Grail, descended of BARNS, argent, a sJiakefork sable, 
within a bordure waved azure, charged with six besants argent ; crest, a mart , 
volant ; with the motto, Prospere qui sedulo. Lyon Register. 

CUNNINGHAM of Belton, the armorial figure of the name, accompanied with 
three stars, one in chief, and two in the flank , gules. 

This figure, as I observed before, is taken for an episcopal pall, and, by some of 
our heralds, blazoned a stole ; but by our modern, a stake-fork : Whatever names 
it goes under with us, it is the same with that of the French pairle, an honourable 
ordinary with them ; for it gives a denomination to a partition after its form, ot" 
which before : As also, to figures situate after its disposition, which are then said 
to be in pairle, as in the armorial bearing of SUNDIL in France, thus blazoned by 
Menestrier, de gveules, au trots billettes d'or mists en pairle, i. e. gules., three billets 
in pairle or. Plate VIII. fig. 30. 



or THE POINT. 

i 



THE French give the point as a proper figure in heraldry ; being a triangular 
form, issuing from the base dexter and sinister points of the shield, with the point 
towards the centre or collar point, as fig. 31. the arms of ST BLAISE in France, 
thus blazoned by Monsieur Baron, d'azur a la pointe d' 'argent. 

We, with the English, would take it for a partition per cheveron, and say parted 
per cheveron, azure and argent, which is the same when the point does not go 
higher than the centre or collar points. Which partition, as I observed before, the 
French have not ; but, in its place, the point, and if it does go beyond the 
collar point, and touch the top of the shield, the French take it then for a par- 
tition of the field, which they call tierce in mantle, of which before. Plate II. 
fig. 9. 



OF THE GIRON AND GIRONNE. 

THE giron is a French word, which signifies the lap: For suppose one sitting, 
the knees somewhat assunder, and a traverse line drawn from one knee to the 
other, the space within the two knees makes a giron, with the point in gremio : 
So all girons are of a triangular or conal form, broad at one end, and sharp at the 
other : The first is at the sides of the shield, and the other ends at the navel or 
centre point of the shield. They are said to represent triangular pieces of stun 1 ", 
commonly called gussets, placed in garments and womens' smokes, to make them 
wide below, and narrow above, as Menestrier, in his La Science de la Noblesse : 
" Giron est une piece d'etoffe taille'e en triangle, a qui on a donne le^nom de giron, 
" parceque les femmes en portoient ainsi sur le sein que Ton nomme giron de 
" gremiitm" 

This armorial figure is frequent in armorial bearings in Europe ; and, as others- 
beforementioned, ha c its rise in armories, from the robes, gowns, and coats of ar- 
mour used by the ancients : Menestrier, in. another treatise of his of the Ancient 
Use of Arms, chap. iii. of Symbolical Figures, gives examples of girons in the arms 
of the family of GIRON, in Spain, of which family are descended the Dukes of 
OSSUNA, who carry three girons in their arms ; which, siys he, represent three 
triangular pieces of stuff or gussets of the coat armour of Alphonsas \ I. King o: 
Spain, who, fighting in the battle, against the Moors, had his horse killed, and, be- 



196 OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

ing in danger, was rescued, and remounted by Don Roderico de Cissneres upon his 
horse, who, in the time, cut off three triangular pieces or gussets of the king's 
coat armour, which he kept as a testimony to show the king afterwards that he 
was the man who saved him : For which, the king advanced him to honour, and 
honoured his armorial bearing with three girons, Plate VIII. fig. 32. and adorned 
it with a horse for a crest, to perpetuate to posterity the opportune relief he gave 
to his king, and from which figures the family took the name of Giron, and these 
figures are frequent in Spanish bearings; neither are they wanting in several fami- 
lies in France. 

The girons in length do not exceed the centre of the shield, from whatever side 
they issue, and their points terminate and meet in the centre. Their ordinary 
number in Britain is eight, as these in the bearing of the name of Campbell, 
which fall out necessarily by the four principal partition lines. 1 shall here pro- 
ceed to describe them, as the English do, when of a lesser and greater number, 
and then show how the necessary girons difter from others, which fall not out by 
those partition lines. 

Guillim makes the giron an ordinary of two lines, drawn from the side of the 
shield, meeting in the centre or top. Again, if these two lines were extended to 
the other side of the shield, they would form two girons, which Guillim blazons 
argent, two girons gules, but does not tell how they stand, which is bend-ways, as 
fig. 33. if to this last example a diagonal sinister line be added, then the shield will 
be filled with six girons, as fig 34. and if to this a paler line be added, then the 
field is equally filled with them, falling out by the four principal partition lines, as 
before, by the name of Campbell. 

And I shall here add another instance of the achievement of Colonel ALEXAN- 
DER CAMPBELL of Finnab, in Perthshire (which he caused engrave in the Plate of 
Achievements) being a grandson to Archibald Campbell, who was son to Sir Dun- 
can Campbell of Glenorchy, and his wife Lady Stewart, daughter to the Earl of Athol, 
carry the arms of Glenorchy, now Earl of Breadalbane, viz. quarterly, first the pa- 
ternal coat of Campbell, parti, coupe, tranche, faille, or and sable ; and, as others 
Sa 7> gironne of eight, or and sable; second argent, a lymphad sable, and oars in ac- 
tion; third or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent, for STEWART of Lorn, and the fourth 
as the first, in surtout, by way of distinction; the arms of the African and Indian 
Company of Scotland, viz. azure a St Andrew's cross, cantoned with a ship in full 
sail in chief, and a Peruvian sheep in base, in the dexter flanque, a camel with a 
burden of goods passant, and, in the sinister flanque, an elephant with a tower on 
its back, all argent ; which are timbred with helmet and mantlings befitting his 
quality, and, on a wreath of his tinctures, for crest, a demi-man in a coat of mail, 
holding in his right hand a sword, and on his left arm a shield, charged with the 
head and neck of an unicorn ; with the motto, on an escrol above, 0$uid non prc 
patria ; supported on the dexter by an Indian in his native dress, with a bow in 
his hand, and quiver with arrows hanging over his shoulder ; and, on the sinister, 
by a Spaniard in his proper habit, standing on a compartment; out of which a ris- 
ing sun, with the epigraph, ^nu panditur orbis. The reason which made him as- 
same those additional signs, is as follows : the account of which I doubt not but 
\vill give satisfaction to the reader: 

The colonel having served as captain in that regiment, levied by his grace Archi- 
bald, late Duke of Argyle, in the year 1689, ( a ^ * *" s own name) during King- 
William's first wars in Flanders, until, among several others that regiment was dis- 
banded at the peace of Ryswick, in the year 1697, the African and Indian Com- 
pany of Scotland, having the affairs of their new settlement at Darien in extreme 
disorder, by the desertion and mismanagement of the first colony, did, about the 
i-t t>f December 1699, by their letters and commission, and assurance of all man- 
ner of encouragement, entreat him, being then at London, to ro straight to Darien, 
with the utmost expedition, in station of a counsellor ; which he accepted of, and, 
through many difficulties, occasioned chiefly by that unnatural proclamation for- 
bidding fire and water to any of that settlement through all the English plantations, 
which was then raging in full force, he got to Darien on the 2d of February 1700. 
The second colony being arrived about two months before him, and things at a 
very low pass, and unprecedented mortality amcng the men, and a spirit of uu- 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 197 

common division among the survivors. The second day after his arrival certain 
intelligence comes, that the Spaniards were upon their way to attack them, both by 
sea and land, and that considerable numbers from Panama, Sancta Maiia, and 
Carma, and other plantations of theirs on the South Sea, were upon a lull march 
to attack them by land; and that, in a few days, their fleet would be at the mouth 
of the harbour to block them up by sea. Things being in tins desperate situation, 
and no- long time left to deliberate on what was to be done, the other counsellors unani- 
mously gave him the command; and, as the safest course, he judged it absolutely 
necessary, first, to attack their land forces, and not wait their attacking of him ; ac- 
cordingly, on the 5th of February 1700, with two hundred men and proper officers, 
being all he had in health in the colony, with forty Indians armed with bows and 
arrows, he sets out towards them, directing his march up these inaccessible moun- 
tains, over the Isthmus of Darien, through such monstrous woods and untrodden 
paths, that for three days they seemed rather to creep and climb their way than 
march. Upon the third day, being the 8th of Februray, having then passed the sum- 
mit of the mountains, and beginning to descend towards the South West Sea, he got 
notice from his Indian spies, that he was very near the Spanish camp, where they 
had been for three days (ever since they got account of his setting off from Darien) 
felling of trees, and fortifying themselves on a little plain on the side of a mountain, 
at a place, by the natives called Toubocanti, and at the source of that river called 
Sancta Maria, which discharges itself in the Southern Sea, at the Spanish plantation 
of that name : Their fortifications were thick piles driven in the ground about the 
height of a man, and smaller branches of trees woven very close upon them, made 
out in form of redoubts and bastions, with faces, flanks, and angles. In this situa- 
tion, he could not possibly come at the 1 knowledge of their numbers, else, it is pro- 
bable, he had not attacked them ; and, had they known the smallness of his force, 
it is as likely they had not been at pains to fortify themselves. In this uncertainty 
he gave orders to attack them, with an huzza, sword in hand, ordering, in the mean 
time, a competent number of hatchet-men to cut down the pallisadoes ; they sus- 
tained a furious fire of the enemy a considerable time, but at length broke in up- 
on them, and put all to the flight or sword : Such as survived of the Spaniards 
threw down their arms, and betook them to their heels. He pursued the victory 
till evening, and lodged that night in the Spanish camp. In this action, he himself 
was shot in the joint of the shoulder, which so enraged his men, that, with much 
ado, he got the lives of only thirty prisoners spared, from w horn, and by the num- 
ber of the arms they got, they made account that the Spaniards consisted of about 
sixteen hundred men, under the command of Don Balthasar, Knight of the Order 
of St James. Among the rest of the plunder they got his equipage and coat, which, 
in embroidery, bore the device and embellishment of his order. The Spaniards 
hud above 200 killed upon the spot ; but the place being so surrounded with 
shrubs, thickets, and tall trees, it was not possible to know the full account of their 
slain, much less of their wounded ; and the Scots had about 30 killed, and 40 
wounded. Next morning they set out towards the colony, and arrived at it on 
the third day after, where they found things in the worst situation our enemies could 
wish ; for fifteen Spanish ships, of which were five tall men of war, commanded 
by Don Piomento, a Lieutenant-General, had blocked up the mouth of the harbour; 
a council being called, it was agreed to by a vast majority that they should capi- 
tulate, from which the Colonel strenuously dissented, and protested against their 
proceedings ; alleging, that it was much more honourable for them to defend the place 
to the last extremity, and then to make the best of their way through land, if 
provisions failed before a relief, and so leave things entire, rather than capitulate 
with so cruel and powerful an enemy, from whom no honourable terms could be 
expected. Upon this they separate ; and the Colonel, in a little sloop, with a few 
that stood by him in the protest, came safe to Scotland in the July thereafter, 
1700 : But it is observable, that not one of those who signed the capitulation ever 
returned. 

The Darien Company, in a grateful sense of his singular services, in full coun- 
cil, ordered a golden medal to the value of L. 16 Sterling, to be struck for him, 
and silver ones to the value of los. one of which is in the Advocate's Library, 
among their Collections, and severals in private hands. See both sides of this me- 

3D 



i 9 3 OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

dal cut in the Plate of Achievements, being taken off the original gold one in the 
Colonel's own possession, and, at the writing hereof, in my hands. I hope the 
reader will excuse ray being so particular in this narration, which I could not 
avoid, without being unjust to the valour of the man, and to the gratitude of our 
countrymen ; who have, in so signal a manner, taken care to perpetuate his me- 
mory and this singular action to after ages. I wish this testimony may excite 
others to acquire such honourable trophies for their country ; and thereby trans- 
mit their fame to after ages, which indeed is the true and solid foundation of ho- 
nour. 

Having treated before of these gironal arms, which are .made by the four princi- 
pal partition lines, and borne by the name of Campbell and others, I shall here 
add a few instances of those .whose arms are cut in the Plate of Achievements, 
before I speak of girons which are not made by the partition lines. 

The arms of CAMPBELL of Ardkinlas, and CAMPBELL of Lochwell, are blazoned 
in the end of the yth chapter, and cut in the Plates of Achievements, and there 
also the bearing of CAMPBELL of Shawfield, parti, ccupe, tranche, tattle, or and 
sable, (as others say, gironne of eight) within a bordure of the first, charged with 
eight crescents of the second; crest, a griffin erected, holding the sun betwixt his 
fore paws ; with the motto, Fidus amicis. And there, in the Plate of Achieve- 
ments, are the arms of Mr ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, Advocate, as a son of CAMP- 
BELL of Craignish, who carries the arms of that family, viz. gironne of eight, or 
and sable, with a crescent in the centre for his difference, hung upon the mast 
~j? a galley ; which they have assumed from the old seal of the family of Craig- 
nish, mentioned before, and cut in the Plate of Achievements ; but they have 
caused cut the girons after the fashion of these used by the arms of Campbell, 
and not after those on the seal. 

Some of the name of SPENCE, gironne of eight pieces, argent and azure, and on 
an inescutcheon of the first, an eagle's head erased sable, within a bordure gules, 
as in Sir James Balfour and Mr Pout's Manuscripts of Blazons ; but I find SPENCE 
of Wor-miston, and others of that >name, carried other figures, of which in another 
place. 

The surname of MATTHEW, gironne of eight pieces, sable and gules, in Sir Jame j 
Balfour's Manuscript of Blazons. And there, 

MATTHISON, gironne of eight pieces, sable and gules, a lion rampant or, armed 
and langued azure, all within a bordure of the third ; charged with eight cross 
croslets fitched of the second : Which arms, says Sir James, in his Manuscript, 
I gave under my hand and seal to Colonel George Matthison, the ist of October 
1639. 

Besides these girons, which necessarily fall out by partition lines, blazoned as 
before by the French, there are other gironal arms, which are not made by the 
principal partition lines, which are properly girons, as Plate VIII. fig. 34. 

Gironne of eight pieces, or and gules, by the family of BERANGER, in Dauphine. 
Here two girons do not meet in the angle of the shield, as in the former ; but the 
.ingles are filled with one giron. And further to explain it, it is as it were made 
up of a cross paiee and a saltier patee, their points meeting in the centre ; and so 
two girons stand exactly in pale, two in fesse, two in bend, and two in bend-sinis- 
ter ; which blazon Mr Gibbon brings from Segoing, viz. gironne cCor et de gueules 
de bull pieces ; and latins thus, " Conos octo aureos decussim, versus extremita- 
" tes ejus patulam, simulque crucem ejusdem formae referentes." Such another 
bearing is that of CAMPBELL of Craignish, as on the old seal of the family, cut in 
f.he Plate of Achievements. 

WILLIAM D'!PRE Earl of KENT, gironne of ten pieces, or and azure, an escut- 

'i' j on gules ; over ail a batton sinister argent, which Mr Gibbon latins, " scutum 

' segmentis denis, ex auro vicissim &- cyano cuneatum, quibus in umbilico impo- 

1 nitur scutulum sanguineum, &- dein super inducitur bacillus sinister argen.'eus, 

' oram scuti majoris mininie pertingens;" here he uses cuneatus, from the word cunc- 

us, a wedge, after which form is a giron ; in this last blazon there are ten girons, 

winch do not fall out by the four partition lines. Fig. 35. 

Gironal bearings were called by the English, of old, counter-coined coats, as the 
blazon of arms of BASSINGBURN in England, counter-coined of twelve pieces or 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. i 99 

and azure, so called upon the account that the tinctures of the arms do meet 
at the centre of the shield, which the old heralds called the con ; and the Lat:i,s 
said, " Fortat arnia contra conata ex duodecim partibus ex auro &- bladio," i. 
gironne of twelve pieces, or and gules : Upton, speaking of gironal arms, says, 
" Diversi surit nobiles qui portant arma contra conata, quia omnes ipsorum colores 
" invechuntur, ad unuin conum, sive ad medium punctum conatuni, quia omne 
"corpus triangulum magis longum quam latum est omnino conatum." The mo- 
dern heralds disuse the word coiiatus, which properly signifies one that endeavours 
any thing, and use the words cuneus a wedge, and conns, which signifies a geome- 
trical body, sharp at one end, and broad at the other, which answers to a giron. 

We meet with arms of sixteen girons, as these given us by Favin, in his Thea- 
tre of Honour, book 3d. page 55. Gironne de gueules & if ermines de seize pieces, 
i. e. gironne of sixteen pieces, gules and ermine, carried by John Cheswell, institu- 
tor of the Order of St Magdalen, in anno 1614. And Sylvester Petra Sancta gives 
us such another bearing by the Eecourti in France, which he thus describes, pinnulee 
trigonite sexdecim, jubar argenti atque ostri reciprocantes, i. e. gironne of sixteen 
pieces, argent and ~g ides : Bombax-, a herald, gives out, that such gironal arms re- 
present winding-stars, and signify that the bearers have been raised and exalted 
by their own merits. 

The girons are subject to accidental forms, as to be inf railed, nebule and wavey, 
of which 1 have given examples in the VII. chap, and I proceed next to piles, be^ 
ing figures much of the same form.. 



OF THE PILE. 

IT is an armorial figure more frequent in Britain than in other nations, and hard- 
ly known in France by that name. 

It is of a conal form, more oblong than the giron ; its point does not end in the 
centre, but proceeds farther into the field, and sometimes to the extremities of the 
shield. The English describe it an ordinary composed by a two-fold line, formed 
like a long wedge ; and when but one in the field, the great end possesses the 
third part of the shield, whereout it issueth, ending taper-ways, near to the oppo- 
site part of the shield, as Plate IX. fig. i. or, a pile ingrailed sable. 

The English ascribe to it many significations in arms. As first, Guillim says, it 
represents that ancient weapon peculiar to the Romans, called pilum, from which 
the pile is latined pila. 

Morgan says it is a fit figure to be given to generals and commanders, who have 
ordered their army in battle after the form of a wedge, and have obtained victory 
by that form. Others again, as the author of the ^book, entitled, The Art of 
Heraldry, advances, that the pile represents in armory such pieces of wood which 
make all the foundations of buildings and fortifications sure and firm, in marshy 
and watery ground ; and that it is a fit symbolical figure for those who have found- 
ed governments and societies ; and upon such an account they tell us, that Edward 
III. of England gave the pile to Sir John Chandos for his armorial figure, upon 
the account of his valour against the French, and as one of the founders of the most 
noble Order of the Garter; This Sir John was well known to the French ; for al- 
most all their heralds take notice of his arms : And Favin, in his Theatre of Hon- 
our, blazons them thus, D' 'argent a un pieu aiguise de gueules, i. e. argent, a pile 
fitchc gules, of which before of the Pale. Chap. IX. Plate III. fig. 2. 

I take the English pile, and the French pile aiguise to be all one, and represent 
the same thing, such as a stake of wood, sharp at the end, with \\hich soldiers forti- 
fied their camps ; and engineers, by driving- them into the ground, to make solid 
foundations for buildings, commonly called piles ofit'ood: For which the Lut 
ay, sub/ids dejixis sustentare : As Sylvester Petra Sancta, for a pile in armories, 
says, svblica gentilitia cuspidata in im/i parte: The English pile differs nothing from 
the French pale aiguise, but that the one is fitche , or sharp from the top, and the other 
turns sharp, but near the foot ; and heralds latin the first, palos cuspidatos, and 
the last, palos in imo cuspidatos. 



200 OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

Sylvanus Morgan, amongst his other fancies, and especially of the pile, a pe- 
culiar figure with the English, will have it to be the symbol of fire and water ; tui 
the pile among the ancients, says he, was the hieroglyphic of the element fire, 
which terminates in a point, mounting upwards, and, after its form, monuments of 
kings and princes were so built ; as the pile of fire purifies all things, so it is the 
emblem of a faithful man : He gives, for instance, the bearing of one of the name 
of FURNEAULX, who carried sable, a pile indented argent ; which, says he, was no 
other but a rebus for his name, showing the trial of the furnace ; with the motto, 
Probasti me. And again, as the pile represents water, it is the emblem of a patient 
man ; whose motto is, Irnmota triumphant. And our author tells us, that Sir Hugh 
Middleton, who brought in the river water of Thames to serve the city of London, 
in memory thereof, altered his old arms, being argent on a bend vert, three 
wolves' heads erased of the first, and in place of a bend, took a pile. And those of 
the name of WATERHOUSE in England, descended of an ancient family, designed 
AQUEDOME, in the county of Lincoln, whose seat was upon water, carried or, a pile 
ingrailed sable, as Plate IX. fig. I. 

Holmes, in his Academy of Armory, where he blazons the arms of Monsieur df 
la SUN or SUND, azure , a canton argent, with five piles issuing therefrom or, tells us, 
that the ensigns of English companies of soldiers, of old, were distinguished by 
piles ; the colonel and lieutenant-colonel's company's ensigns had only cantons ; 
but the major's company's ensign had a pile waved or plain, issuing from the 
canton ; and the eldest or first captain's company had two piles issuing from the 
canton ; and the second company's ensign, three piles, &-c.. So that I find the 
pile has been a distinguishing figure of old with the English. 

SEYMOUR Duke of SOMERSET, Earl of HERTFORD, Viscount BEAUCHAMP, Baron 
SEYMOUR, &-c. quarterly, first and fourth or, on a pile gules, betwixt six flower-de- 
luces in pale azure, three Lions of England of the first ; second and third gules, 
two wings conjoined in lure or, the paternal coat of Seymour, Plate IX. fig. 2. 
The first is a coat of augmentation, which King Henry VIII. conferred upon Edward 
Seymour of Trowbridge in Wiltshire, when he took his sister Lady Jeun Seymour 
to be his queen, who was the mother of Edward VI. He had the titles above- 
mentioned conferred upon him by Henry VIII. Upon that king's death, he was 
made Earl Marshal of England for life, and from the young king and his council 
he received his patent of Protector and Governor of the King and the Kingdom ; 
but, by an attainder in the year 1552, he lost his fortune, honours, and head, on 
Tower-Hill, January 24th ; so that his son Edward did not enjoy them till the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, and was honoured with the title of Lord Beauchamp 
and Earl of Hertford; and his son, William, again, by King Charles I. was made 
Marquis of Hertford ; and after the restoration of King Charles II. was again ad- 
vanced to the title of Duke of Somerset. I shall here add, to satisfy the curious, 
the blazons, of this noble family, by the German Jacob Imhoff", " Insignia Sey- 
" morum gentilitia, alas binas deauratas, sibi connexas t expansas, sed deorsum 
" versas in campo coccineo, representant ; his Rex Henricus VIII. honorificum 
" addidit auctarium cui priores partes locum tribuere solent, nempe, parmam au- 
" ream sex coeruleis liliis ornatam quae inter palus in cuspidem attenuatus, & tribus 
" Anglise leonibus, decoratus descendit." Here he latins the English pile as a pale 
fitche, pains in cuspidem attenuatus. The same author, in his blazon of HOLLIS Earl 
of CLARE, latins piles, pil<e.\ thus, " Insignia Holesise Comitis Clarae scuto con- 
" stant muris ponticae maculis resperso, cui pilie duae nigrte oblique positae & cus- 
" pide se prope tangentes inscriptae sunt," i. e. ermine, two piles issuing from the 
dexter and sinister chief angles, their points meeting in base sable, as Plate IX. 
fig. 3. which family was first dignified in the person of John Hollis of Houghton in 
Nottinghamshire, by the title of Lord Baron 1616, and Earl of Clare 1624, and 
afterwards with the title of Duke of Newcastle. 

Sir George Mackenzie, in his Science of Heraldry, says, besides the former sig- 
nifications of the pile, when there are three of them in a field, they are then to re- 
present the three passion-nails, as symbols, assumed by such as returned from the 
Holy Land, and generally in France and Spain, where these piles are gules, and 
meet in point, they are called passion-nails ; especially with the French, who know 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

nothing of the pile, as before ; wherefore, Sir George blazons the arms of WISHART, 
argent, three passion-nails gules, meeting in point, Plate IX. fig. 4. 

Jacob Vanbassan, a Dane, in his Manuscript, says, that one Robert, a natural 
son of David Earl of Huntingdon, being in the wars in the Holy Land, was to- 
named Guishart, from the slaughter he made on the Saracens ; and from him was 
descended the families of the name of Wishart. Sir James Dalrymple, in his Col- 
lections, page 217, says, that he has seen a charter granted by Gilbert Umfraville Earl 
of Angus, to Adam Wishart of Logic, anno 1272. Sir George Mackenzie, in his 
Manuscript, says, the chief of this name was Lord BRECHINT, whose succession failed 
in a daughter married with the old Earl of Angus ; for whic'i the Douglasses Earls of 
Angus still quarter those arms with their own ; and the other families of the name 
were Wisharts of Logic and Pittarrow, who carried the above bla/on, viz.. argent, 
three piles in point gules, and Pittarrow; for motto, Mercy is my desire; as in Esplin 
:md Font's Books of Blazons. Both these families are extinct. Doctor George 
Wishart, sometime Bishop of Edinburgh, was descended of Logic. Mr George 
Wishart, who was martyred for the Protestant religion, was of Pittarrow. The ba- 
rony of Logic was again purchased by Mr John Wishart, one of the Commissaries 
of Edinburgh, nephew to the bishop, and great-grandson to Sir John Wishart of 
Logic, who carries, as in the New Register of Arms, argent, three passion-nails 
joining in their points gules, and distilling drops of blood, proper ; crest, an eagle 
displayed sable, armed and membred gules, wounded with an arrow shot through 
the body, proper : motto; Avitos novit bonores. 

ANSTRUTHER of that Ilk, argent, three piles sable ; crest, two demi-arms holding 
a pole-ax with both hands, proper ; with the motto, Perissem ni periissem, sup- 
ported by two falcons, with wings expanded, proper, armed gules, chessed and 
belled or. This is an ancient family for its antiquity ; Sir Robert Sibbald, in his 
History of Fife, says, That in the Charter of Balmerino, Dominus Gulielmus de Candela 
D. de Anstrutber confirms a donation by his father William, to the Monks of Bal- 
merino, granting them, qiiandam terram adjacentem ex parte orientali villa: de An- 
struther, on the sea-coast, by the way leading to Crail, in the reign of Alexander II. 
For more of this family and its descendants, see the foresaid author. 

Sir JAMES ANSTRUTHER of Airdrie, Clerk to the Bills, and second son to Sir Philip 
Anstruther of that Ilk, carries as his father, within a bordure gules, for his differ- 
ence ; crest and motto as above, without supporters. Lyon Register. 

HALKET of Pitferran, sable, three piles conjoined in base argent : Esplin illumi- 
nates them, five piles argent, in his Book, (on a chief gules, a lion passant gardunt 
or : Mackenzie's Heraldry.) In the Register of Dunfermline there is a contract 
betwixt the abbot of that abbacy and David Hacket of Lussfennen, de perambula- 
tione terrarujn de Pitfaran, anno 1437; see Sir Robert Sibbald's History of Fife. 
The book entitled, The Art of Heraldry, gives us a family of the name of Hacket 
in England, originally from Scotland, carrying the same figures with a little varia- 
tion, thus; Sir Andrew Hacket of Moxhill in Warwickshire, knight, sable, three 
piles argent, on a chief of the second, a lion passant gules. 

The surname of LOGAN carries piles or passion-nails. For the antiquity of the 
name Dominus Robertus de Logan is mentioned in a charter in the I2th year of 
the reign of King Alexander II. and Thomas de Logan is witness in a charter of 
John de Stratbern, in 1278. Haddington's Collections. 

And, in Prynne's Collections, amongst the Scots barons who submitted and 
swore allegiance to Edward I. of England, in the ,year 1297, there is Walter 
Logan in Lanarkshire. In the reign of Robert Bruce, Sir Robert Logan was emi- 
nent : He accompanied good Sir James Douglas to Jerusalem, with King Robert's 
heart, as our historians, and Holinshed, in his History of Scotland, p. 329, say. 
Amongst the noblemen and gentlemen who accompanied Sir James in that expe- 
dition, the chief of them were Sir William Sinclair and Sir Robert Logan ; upon 
which account, these of the name of Logan have been in use to add to their arms 
a man's heart, which our heralds blazon thus, or, three passion-nails sable (instead 
<>f piles) conjoined in point, piercing a man's heart in base gules, as Plate IX. 
fig. 5. The principal family of the name was designed of Restalrig, near Edin- 
burgh, who carried the same arras, as by their ancient seals ; as that of Sir Robert 
Logan of Restalrig, which I have seen appended to his charter, whereby he grant- 

3 E 



202 OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

ed several privileges to the town of Edinburgh, as to pass through his lands to- 
Leith with carriages ; and, for more verifying that deed, he appends the seal of his 
cousin, William Cunningham Lord Kilmaurs ; and the charter ends thus, " In 
" cujus.rei testimonium sigillum meum praesenti scripto est appensum, & ad ma- 
" jorem rei hujus evidentiam, sigillum nobilis &- potentis viri & cousanguinei mei 
" clarissimi Domini Wilielmi de Cunningham, militis, domini de Kilmaurs, simili- 
" ter apponi procuravi, ultimo die Maii, 1398." This Sir Robert Logan was 
Admiral of Scotland in the year 1400; his son or grandson, John Logan ofRestal- 
rig, was made principal Sheriff of Edinburgh by King James II. in the year 1444. 
The family matched wi.-h the Ramsays of Dalhousie; after which marriage, they 
quartered the arms of that family with their own. Sir James Logaa of Restalrig 
married Margaret, daughter to George Lord Seaton, in the reign of King James V. 
Robert Logan of Restalrig, to his charter of the date 1560, (whereby he gives to 
his eldest son, John Logan, the lands of Redhall, Flures, and Nether-Flemington) 
appends his seal of arms ; upon which is a shield, quarterly, first and fourth, three 
piles conjoined in point, second and third, an eagle displayed, illuminated and 
blazoned in the herald books thus ; first and fourth or, three piles issuing from the 
chief, and conjoined in base sable. (Some books, as Workman, conjoin them -in 
a man's heart in base gules} for Logan ; second and third argent, an eagle display- 
ed with two heads sable, beaked and membred gules, for Ramsay. 

Which John was father of Sir Robert Logan of Restalrig, father of Robert Lo- 
gan of Restalrig, that was forfeited (for keeping correspondence with John Earl of 
Cowrie, in Jiis treasonable practices) in the year 1609, eight years after his death, 
which was in the year 1601. He left two sons, George and John, who went a- 
broad; the eldest died, John returned home and possessed a part of Restalrig, which 
he had from his father : His son was George, who married Isabel Fowler, daughter 
to Ludovick Fowler of Burncastle. Their son and successor, John Logan of Burn- 
castle, married Agnes Maxwell, daughter to John Maxwell of Hills, one of the 
i'amijy of Nithsdale ; his son and successor is the present GEORGE LOGAN of Burn- 
castle : He married Isabel Douglas, daughter to the laird of Pinziere of the family 
of Queensberry ; and, as representer of the Logans of Restalrig, carries the above 
arms of the family, as in the Plate of Achievements. 

I meet with other two families of the name in our books of arms ; as LOGAN of 
Cotfield, who carried or, three passion-nails sable, their points in a heart gules, as 
in Mr Font's Manuscript ; and, in the Lyon Register, there are recorded, in the 
year 1676, the arms of Mr GEORGE LOGAN of that Ilk, or, three piles in point, 
piercing a man's heart gules ; crest, a passion-nail piercing a man's heart, proper : 
motto, Hoc majorum virtus, for which see Plate of Achievements. 

The surname of LAING, argent, three piles conjoined in point, sable. Font's 
Manuscript. 

JOHN LAING, Rector of Newland, was Treasurer to King James III. Mr Thomas 
Laing is a witness in a charter of Alexander Forrester to his son Archibald, the 
1 2th of October 1464. Mr JOHN LAING of Red-house in East-Lothian carried the 
foresaid arms, quartered with argent, a pale sable, which are to be seen painted on 
the dwelling-house of Reidhouse. 

JAMES LAING, portioner of Morisland, parted per pale ingrailed, argent and sable, 
a chief indented, and counter-changed of the same. Lyon Register. Here the 
indentment is in place of the piles. 

The surname of LOCHORE, argent, three piles issuing from the chief, their points 
conjoined in base sable. 

ADAM de LOCHORE was Sheriff of Fife in the reign of Alexander II. and Hugh 
Lochore, in the reign of Alexander III. was also Sheriff of Fife ; see Sir Robert 
Sibbald's History of that Shire, who tells us, that though there were several gen- 
tlemen of that name who had lands, scarce one of them is now to be found. 

CALDWELL of that Ilk, in the shire of Renfrew, argent, three piles issuing from 
the chief sable, and in base, four bars waved gules and vert, to show water, equi- 
vocally relative to the name. This family, says Mr Crawfurd, in his History of 
Renfrew, continued for many hundred years in a good reputation, by inter-mar- 
i iages with many honourable families ; and ended of late in the person of John 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

Caldwell of that Ilk, one of the commissioners for the Shire of Renfre\7, about the 
year 1693. The lands are now possessed by John Earl of Dundonald. 

JOHN CALDWELL in Glasgow, as in our New Register, parted per pule, azurr 
and sable, a hart's head couped or, and in chief, three wells or fountains, proper. 

The surname of YOUNG curries piles ; as YOUNG of Oldbar, arg ent, three pile.-. 
sable, on a chiei' of the last, as many annulets or ; crest, a lion issuing out of u 
wreath gules, holding a sword in pale, proper ; motto, Rob^ii prudcnti i prxstat ; 
as in the Lyon Register. 

Sir JOHN YOUNG of Leny, argent on three piles sable, as many annulets or ; 
crest, a dexter arm holding a lance in bend, proper : motto, Press through. 
Lyon Register. 

THOMAS YOUNG of Rosebank, argent, three piles indents sable, on a chief of the 
last, as many annulets or ; crest, an anchor placed in the sea, and surmounted of 
a dove with an olive branch in its beak, all proper : motto, Sperando spiro. 

YOUNG, sometime Bishop of Edinburgh, argent, three piles sable, on a chief 
gules, as many annulets or, and a mullet for difference on the middle pile. Ex- 
tracted out of the Lyon Register, 1673. 

ANDREW YOUNG of Easttield, writer to his Majesty's Signet, argent on three 
piles sable, as many annulets or, with a star of six points of the first ; crest, a 
dexter hand holding a pen, proper : with the motto, Scripta tiianent ; all in the 
Lyon Register. 

YOUNGER of Hopperston, argent, on three piles in point sable, as many annu- 
lets or ; and, on a chief gules, a crescent between two mullets of the first. Font's 
Manuscript. 

The name of YOUNGER, it seems, is of the same stock with the Youngs-, by their 
arms, viz argent, on three piles in point sable, as many annulets or, and, on a chief 
gules, a crescent between two mullets of the first. Font's Manuscript. 

When we say piles in point, then the points of the piles meet and join together 
in the base of the shield. 

The surname of LOVELL, argent, three piles sable, surmounted of a fesse waved 
gules. Font's Manuscript. And the same was carried by LOVELL of Balumby. 

The surname of LAUTY, sable, three piles in point argent, surmounted of a fesse 
gules, charged with as many crescents or. Font's Manuscript. 

LAUTY of Teichonell charges his fesse with one crescent, and LAUTY of Myre- 
house added two stars. 

POLWARTH of that Ilk, in the shire of Berwick, argent, three piles ingrailed gules, 
and conjoined in point. This family ended in an heiress, in the reign of King 
James III. who was married to John Sinclair, eldest son of Sinclair of Herdman- 
ston ; to whom King James IV. grants a charter of the lands of Polwarth. He 
died without heirs-male, leaving behind him two daughters, who were co-heiresses 
of Polwarth, but not of Herdmanston, to which his brother, as heir-male, succeed- 
ed. The eldest was married to George Home of Wedderburn, and the other to 
his younger brother Patrick, afterwards designed of Polwarth, progenitor of the 
present Earl of Marchmont ; upon which account that family has been in use 
to quarter with their own the arms of Polwarth ; and, by their modern paintings, 
make the field gules, and the piles indented argent. 

When the piles issue from any of the sides or angles of the shield it is necessary 
to name the place from which they issue ; if from the chief, it may be named or 
omitted in the blazon. 

HENDERSON of Fordel, the principal family of the name, gules, three piles iss i- 
ing out of the sinister side argent, and, on a chief of the last, a crescent azure, be- 
twixt two spots of ermine; Esplin's Illuminated Book of Arms ; and they are so 
illuminated in Workman's Manuscript; but the crescent is there vert, and support- 
ed by two mertrixes ermine ; crest, a hand holding a star, surmounted by a cres- 
cent ; with the motto, Sola virtus nobilitat. Plate. IX. fig. 16. 

HENRY HENDERSON of St Laurence, Doctor of Medicine, parted per pale indent- 
ed, sable and argent, two attires of an hart counter-changed, on a chief gules a 
crescent or, betwixt two tufts of ermine; crest, a wheel: motto, Sic cuncta caduca 
Lyon Register. Here an indenting is in place of the piles, carried by Fordel. 



204 OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

When the field is not filled with an equal number of piles, the greatest number 
is taken for the field, and the lesser number for the charge, as before in the Multi- 
plication of the Abstracts of the Honourable Ordinaries ;. as in the bearing of RICHARD 
HULSE of Betherden in Kent, argent, three piles, one issuing from the chief, be- 
tween two. other transposed from the base sable, Plate IX. fig. 7. ; but, if there 
were two from the chief, which would make an equal number, filling the field 
equally with metal and colour, the English would blazon them paly pilie of so 
many pieces, argent and sable, as they do these, issuing from both sides of the 
shield, harry pilie ; which would be more proper to say, so many piles placed bar- 
ways, wedged, as it were, one in the other, and reaching quite traverse the shield,, 
as fig. 8. which Bara calls pointes en face ; the French, as I observed before, know 
nothing of the pile; and would blazon these arms, parti emanche, arg e nt and g ules, 
of eight pieces. 

" Emanche'," says Menestrier, " se dit des partitions de 1'ecu, ou les pieces s'en- 
" clavent 1'une dans 1'autre, en forme des longs triangles piramidaux," i. e. emanche 
is said of the partitions of the shield, whose pieces enter the one in the other, in 
long triangular piramidical forms ; so that, when the piles are counter-placed in 
pale, fesse, bend-Jexter and sinister, the French say, parti emanche, coupe emanche, 
tranche emanche and taille emanche, and the English, paly pilie, barry pilie, bendy 
pilie of so many pieces. Mr Gibbon says, the French term emanche cannot be 
well etymologized, and therefore cannot latinize it : yet, he offers the latin blazon 
of the arms of the territory of Landas of the same form with the figure 8, but of 
ten pieces, " Quinse (ex argento) pontis pilas traverse, totidemque, e minio vicissim 
" contrapositae, totum clypeum transeuntes ;" for which the French say, parti 
emanche d? argent, et de gueules de dix pieces ; and the English barry pilie of ten, 
argent and gules* As for the signification of the word emanche, Menestrier says, 
as the girons represent in arms gussets of garments, so do the manches, the sleeves, 
narrow below, and wide above towards the shoulders. 



OF THE FLANQUE, FLASQUE, AND VOIDER. 

THESE are terms of figures treated of by the English, which are to be found in 
their armorial bearings, but very rarely with the French : I have not met with 
them as yet in our blazons ; however I shall treat of them briefly here. 

Gerard Leigh would make them distinct, and subordinate to one another, but I take 
them to be all one ; and the first is only a term used in heraldry. Guillim says, 
they are made by an arch-line, drawn somewhat distinct from the corners of the 
chief, on both sides, and swelling by degrees to the middle of the escutcheon, and 
thence decreasing gradually in the base points. The flasque is lesser than the 
flanque, and the voider is the diminutive of both. Spelman will have them to re- 
present the facings of robes and gowns, and Guillim says, such figures are fit re- 
wards for learning, and especially for service performed in embassies ; and the 
voider, the diminutive of the flasque, a suitable reward for a gentlewoman that has 
dutifully served her prince or princess. Some heralds write them flanches. 

I shall add two or three examples of these figures in arms, taken out of the 
Dictionary of Arms, by Samuel Kent, printed in October 1717. 

ALDHAM of Shrimpling in Norfolk, argent, a leopard between two flanches. 

ANTONY of Suffolk, argent, a leopard between two flanches sable. 

APHENRY of Wales, gules, five plates between two flanches argent, on each a 
trefoil of the first. 

Mr Gibbon, in his Introduction ad Latinam Blazoniam, latins the flanque and 
fiasque, (the first signifying a side, in French) lotus or latusculum ; and from its 
form he puts the epithet gibbosum to it ; and the flanch, being the same with the 
flanque, are segments of a circular superficies, and latins them, orbiculi segmentum; 
as in his blazon of the arms of Sir HENRY HOBART of Blicklinge in Norfolk, " in 
" area nigra stellam octo radiorum auream gerit, inter duo orbiculi segmenta muris 
' armeniae vellere impressa," i. e. sable, a star of eight points, waved or, between 
two flanques ermine, as Plate IX. fig. 9. 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 205 

The French use the term fane, or flanquc, when figures are placed on the sides 
and flanques of the shield ; and especially when a shield of arms is parted per sal- 
tier ; the two sides are called the flanques, as in the blazon or' the arms of the 
kingdom of Sicily, d'or a quatre paux tie gueules, jlunque tf argent, u deux aigles de 
table, i. e. parted per saltier, above and below or, four pales gules, the two flanques 
argent, each charged with an eagle sable ; but here the flanques is no charge nor 
figure, but the sides of the field being the triangular areas made by the partition 
lines ; so that the French know little or nothing of those as armorial figures ; for 
figures, which canton the saltier at the sides, are said to be in Jiunques, as by the 
blazons of that figure in the chapter of the Saltier. 



OF THE LOZENGE AND LOZENGY, RUSTRE, MASCLE, FUSIL AND FUSILY. 

HAVING treated of square, triangular, and conal figures, I proceed now to rbom- 
bular ones, as, 

The lozenge, a figure that has equal sides and unequal angles, as the quarry of a 
glass-window, placed erect point-ways ; the Latins say, lozenga facto; sutti ad mo- 
dum lozangiorum in vitreis. 

Menestrier says, " Lozange est une figure de quatre pointes, dont deux sont un 
" peu plus etendues que les autres, et assisees sur une des pointes. C'est le rhombe 
" des mathematiciens, et les quarreaux de vitres ordinaries en ont la figure." 

Heralds tell us, that their use in armories came from the pavement of marble 
stones, of churches, fine palaces, and houses, cut after the form of lozenges ; 
which pavements the French and Italians call loze, and the Spaniards lozas ; and, 
when in arms, are taken for marks of honourable descent from some noble house. 
Sylvester Petra Sancta says the same, when he treats of lozenges, which he calls, 
" Scutulas oxigonias seu acutangulas erectas, & quasi gradiles, referri debere ad 
" latericias & antiquas domus olim, viz. nobilium quia vulgus, &. infamise sortis 
" homines, intra humiles casas vel antra inhabitantur." 

Some latin them in blazon, lozengias, rbombos, as Uredus ; and rhombulos, as 
Camden ; they are said by Sir George Mackenzie to be symbols of exact honesty 
and constancy, being figures whose right sides are always highest. 

When there is but one lozenge in the field, and that it touches the four sides of 
the shield, which is not ordinary with us) it is called a grand lozenge ; and the 
field that is seen a vestu, as in the arms of PUTED, in France, azure, a grand 
lozenge or, charged with a crescent of the first ; this by Menestrier, d'or vestu 
d'azur, au croissant de meme; here the angles of the shield is the vestu, fig. 10. 
And in his blazon of the arms of CARRARA, in Venice, " coupe d'argent et 
" d'azur, vestu de 1'un a 1'autre, ou coupe d'argent et d'azur, a une grande 
" lozenge, de 1'un a 1'autre aboutissante aux quatre flancs de 1'ecu," i. e. parted 
per fesse, argent and azure, a grand lozenge counter-changed of the same. As 
fig. ii. 

When the lozenge touches not the sides of the shield, and when more than one 
are placed on it, as 2 and i, as in other figures which accompany or charge ordi- 
naries, they are only called lozenges ; of which I shall add some examples. 

STRANG of Balcaskie, argent, a cheveron- sable, ensigned on the top with 
a cross patee azure, between three lozenges of the second. Font's Manuscript. 
Fig. 12. 

JOHN STRANG, Merchant and Citizen in London, descended of BALCASKJE, car- 
ries the same; but, for difference, makes the cheveron waved ; and, for crest, a 
cluster of wine grapes ; with the motto, Dulce quod utile. L. R. 

The surname of DALRYMPLE carries, for their armorial figures, lozenges. There 
was an ancient family of this name, in the shire of Ayr, who possessed the barony 
of Dalrymple, which John and Roland de Dalrymples did possess ; and their heirs 
made over the same to Sir John Kennedy in the year 1378. 

There was another family of this name, in the reign of Robert III. designed of 
Ingliston, as is evident by an obligation, from James de Dalrymple of Inglis>ton and 
Anniston, to Sir Robert Stewart of Durresdier, his superior ; wherein he obliges 
himself, and his heirs, not to build a corn-mill in the abovenamed lands, as the 

3* 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

obligation bears, dated at Perth the 2Oth of April 1402. Which obligation is in 
ID y custody for the present, to which his seal of arms is appended, being of red 
wax, upon white ; and thereupon a shield couche, charged with a saltier lozenge, 
(or as some say, eight lozenges in saltier) and in chief a buckle ; which last figure, 
I take to be a sign of his vassallage to the STEWARTS of Durresdier, who carried 
buckles, as descended of the STEWARTS of Bonkill : The shield is also honourably 
trimmed with helmet, capelon, and wreath ; upon which is a hart's head, for 
crest ; supporters, two lions gardant, and the legend round the seal S. Jacobi Dal- 
rymple. Which seal is cut in the Plate of Achievements. 

The same James Dalrymple was Cler'tcus Regis Roberti III. as by a charter of 
that king's (also in my hands), Dilecto Nepoti nostro Thom<z de Dishington, Jilio y 
baeredi Willielmi de Disbington mihti, of the lands of Kinbrachmount : Which 
charter ends thus, " Testibus clarissimo fratre nostro Waltero Coinite de Catness, 
" Johanne Sennsical de Achengowan, filio meo naturali, Johanne Barclay de Kip- 
" pow, Alexandro Vans, Willielmo Pog Capellano nostro, Thoma de Lecky, St 
" Jacobo de Dalrymple, clerico nostro, apud Lauchenan, 28th Nov. 1402, &. 
" regnt nostri tertio decimo." 

DALRYMPLE of Stair, or, on a saltier azure, nine mascles of the first. Pcnt's 
Manuscript. This family had its rise, (as Mr Crawfurd, in his Peerage) from one 
William Dalrymple, who married Agnes Kennedy, sole heir of the barony of Stair, 
about the year 1450; from whom was lineally descended James Dalrymple of 
Stair, who gave a beginning to the eminency of his family, being first a professor 
of philosophy at Glasgow, and then an advocate; and, in anno 1658, was one of 
the Senators of the College of Justice : In which office he continued after the Re- 
storation of King Charles II. and by that king made baronet and President of the 
Session. He was outed of that post 1681. His arms are matriculated in the Lyon 
Register, the 2d of June 1664: Thus, Sir James Dalrymple of Stair, knight and 
baronet, Lord President of the Session, bears two coats, quarterly, first and fourth 
'/;-, on a saltier azure, nine lozenges of the first, as his paternal coat, for Dalrymple; 
second and third or, a cheveron cheque, sable and argent, betwixt three water- 
budgets of the second, for the name of Ross ; crest, a rock, proper : motto, Allies- 
cam. Upon the Revolution, in the year 1689, he was restored to his post, as Pre- 
sident of the Session; and afterwards, in the year 1690, by letters patent, he was 
made Viscount of Stair. He died the 25th of November 1695. He had for his 
wife, Margaret, eldest daughter and heir of JAMES Ross of Balneel, and marshalled 
her arms with his own, as in the above blazon. Their eldest son, Sir John Dal- 
rymple, was Lord Advocate, in the year 1682. And in the year 1692, he w;is 
made one of the Principal Secretaries of State, and succeeded his father in the 
title of Viscount of Stair ; and afterwards was raised to the honour of the Earl 
of Stair, in the year 1703. He died 1707. He had for wife, Elizabeth Dundas, 
daughter and heir of Sir John Dundas of Newliston, with whom he had issue, John 
Earl of Stair, his successor, Colonel William Dalrymple of Glenmure, George 
Dalrymple, one of the Barons of Exchequer, and a daughter, Margaret, married to 
Hugh Earl of Loudon. 

The achievements of the Earl of STAJR, are, quarterly, first and fourth or, on a 
saltier azure, nine lozenges of the first, for Dalrymple ; second and third or, a che- 
vercn cheque, sable and argent, betwixt three water-budgets of the second, for Ross ; 
and over all, by way of surtout, an escutcheon argent, charged with a lion rampant. 
gules, for Dundas ; supporters, two storks, proper ; crest, a rock, proper : motto, 
Juries cam. 

Sir HUGH DALRYMPLE of North-Berwick, Baronet, and Lord President of the 
Session, third son of James Viscount of Stair, and his lady, Margaret Ross, carries 
for arms, as matriculated in the Lyon Register, or, on a saltier azure, betwixt two 
water-budgets in the flanks sable, nine lozenges of the first ; crest, a rock, proper : 
motto, Firm, supported on the dexter by a lion gardant gules, and, on the sinister, 
by a falcon, proper. See Plate of Achievements. 

HYDE Earl of CLARENDON, Viscount CORNBURY, and Lord Baron HYDE of Hin - 

don, azure, a cheveron between three lozenges or, thus latined by ImhofT, " Hey- 

' dence digna, cantherium aureum in scuto coeruleo, inter tres rhombulos priores 

" metalli interpositum represcntat." This ancient and noble family descends from 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES, 






Sir ROBERT HYDE of Hyde, in Com. Chest, living in the reign of Henry III. of 
whom was descended Sir EDWARD HYDE, who manifested his loyalty and fidelity 
to King Charles I. and was made Chancellor of his Majesty's Exchequer, and after- 
wards one of his Privy Council ; and was Secretary of State to King Charles II. 
when abroad, and after his Majesty's Restoration he was raised to the degrees of dig- 
nity as above. By the command of King Charles II. he wrote that excellent work 
called the History of the Rebellion ; which is, and will be a living instance of his 
great abilities. He held the office of Lord Chancellor till the year 1667, at which 
time, upon some disgust taken against him, he retired into France, and there died 
1674. He left three sons and two daughters behind him, the eldest Henry Earl 
of Clarendon ; the second, Laurence, was made Earl of Rochester by King 
Charles II. 1682, who carries the foresaid arms, with a crescent, for a brotherly 
difference : The third son, James, was drowned on board the Gloucester Frigate, 
attending his Royal Highness the Duke of Albany and York into Scotland. Hi -, 
eldest daughter, Lady Ane, married to his Royal Highness the Duke of Albany 
and York, afterwards King of England ; and his second daughter, Lady Frances, 
married to Thomas Knightly of Hartingfordbury in Corn. Hertford, Esq. 

FIELDING Earl of DENBIGH, argent, on a fesse azure, three lozenges or, for the 
paternal bearing of the ancient family of FIELDING, descended of the Earls of 
HAPSBURG, who were Counts Palatine in Germany : As appears by a letter of 
attorney, made by Jeffrey Fielding, in the pth year of the reign of Edward II. 
wherein he calls himself, Filius Galfridi Comitis de Hapsburg, &c. of whom was 
lineally descended William Fielding, who was knighted by King Henry VIII. and 
his successor. Another William was knighted by King James I. of Great Britain, 
and in the 8th year of the same king's reign advanced to the dignity of a baron 
of the realm of England, as also Viscount Fielding there ; and in the year ensuing 
was made Earl of Denbigh. He married Mary, daughter to Sir George Villiers of 
Ikockesby, son to George Duke of Buckingham ; she bore to him two sons, 
Basil, who succeeded his father in his honours, and George, the second son, who 
was created Lord Fielding of Caghe in Ireland, as also, Viscount Callan, and Earl of 
Desmond, by King James I. She likewise had four daughters, the eldest married to 
James Marquis of Hamilton in Scotland, afterwards Duke of Hamilton. 

MONTAGU Earl of MONTAGU, descended of EDWARD MONTAGU, who was first 
dignified with the title of Lord Montagu by King James I. of Great Britain, the 
29th of June 1621, carries argent, three lozenges in fesse gules, within a bordure 
sahle. And the same is carried by Montagu Earl of Manchester, and Montagu 
Earl of Sandwich, with the addition of a crescent and a mullet, as brotherly dif- 
ferences of the same family. 

Some of the name of ALLEN in England, argent, three lozenges sable, 2, and I. 

The name of LILBURN, sable, three lozenges argent. 

FREEMAN in Northampton, azure, three lozenges argent, 2, and i. 

The surname of CRISPIN in England, gules, ten lozenges argent, 4, 3, 2 and i, 
as in Morgan's Heraldry, fig. 13. 

When the field or any other charge is filled with lozenges alternately of metal 
and colour, (as cheque, of which before) they are then blazoned lozenge. 

" Lozenge," says Menestrier, " se dit de 1'ecu et figures couverte's des lozenges," 
/. c. when the field or any other figure is covered with lozenges, as in the bearing 
of CAON in France, lozenge, gules and or : The Latins ordinarily say, Plintheis sen 
rbcr-'iitlis repletus (sen ififcrstinctus') clypeus, i. e. lozengy, argent and gules, by' the 
family of CUDENHAM in Norfolk ; and the same was carried by FITZWILLIAMS, some- 
time Earl of SOUTHAMPTON. Fig. 14. 

When the field or figure is so covered with lozenges erect, we say only lozengy ; 
but if they incline diagonally to the right or left, we say lozengy in bend or bar ; 
and if they be horizontal in fesse, as Sylvester Petra Sancta suy-, " Hi rhombi 
" tcsserarii, quundo scuti symbolici universam paginam replenr, aut instar ta^cia> urn 
" sunt erecti, aut proni & obliqui more balteorum :" For examples he gives us 
first, lozengy in fesse, or and gules. The arms of BIAMONTI and GRAOVI in I 'lander , 
and the arms of BAVARIA, lozengy in bend, argent and azure ; the French call 
these lozenges, fusils, as Menestrier in his blazon of the arms of BAVARIA, fusile 
en bande, d' argent et d'azur ; of fusils afterwards. When the lozenges incline to 



208 OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

the left, they are said to be in bend sinister, or bar, as the arms of CONINGSECK in 
the Empire, given us by Sylvester Petra Sancta, loze.ngy or and gules, in bend, 
sinister. 



OF THE RUSTRE. 

THIS is a lozenge pierced round in the middle, so that the field appears through 
it ; named rustre by the French, and by the Germans, rutten ; which some wiij 
have represent the button at the end of lances, used in tiltings and tournaments ; 
and so is an armorial figure from these noble and manly exercises. Others will 
have rustre to represent a piece of iron of that form, which is sometimes interposed 
between the heads of nails fixed on ports of cities and castles ; Menestrier gives 
us an example of them in the arms of LEBARET in France, argent, three rustres 
azure, as fig. 15. 

Sylvester Petra Sancta observes, that these figures are very seldom used if* 
Germany and Italy ; his words are, " Rhombi tesserarii, nempe in orbem pertusi, 
" rariores obveniunt in gentilitiis parmulis :" I have never met with them nor 
their name in British Armories. Sir George Mackenzie observes, that we and the 
English call such muscles ; and to distinguish them, would call them mascles pierced 
round, instead of rustres. 



MASCLE OR MACLE 

Is a lozenge voided of the field ; that is, when the middle part of the lozenge js 
evacuate or cut out after a square form, like a lozenge, and so differs from rustre, 
which is pierced with a small round hole. " Macle," says Menestrier, " Est uue 
u maille de cuirasse, ou lozange, ouverte et percee en lozange." 

The Mascle has not only been anciently, but frequently carried in arms all 
Europe over. Heralds make it to represent different things ; as first, the eye, or 
ring to fasten a coat of mail, and so a piece of armour fit for a military badge. 

Others with Sir John Feme will have it to represent the mash of a net, and 
Latin it macula ; and some add the word cassium or retium macula, signifying that, 
the first assumer of it had been prudent and politic in military affairs. And our 
author instances the seven mascles granted by King William II. of England, to 
William Roumare, (who, in evidents and writs, is called de rubro mart) for his 
military conduct and bravery in the Holy Land agairut the Saracens. Some again 
more particularly tell us, that the mascles borne by the house of Rohan in France, 
viz. gules, nine macles, three, three and three, or, fig. 16. are upon the account, 
that all the carps and flint-stones of that duchy are marked with figures like the 
mascle so called there ; for which singularity, the Dukes of that country take ma- 
cles for their armorial figures, with a motto relative to them, viz. Sine macula 
mad a. Sir George Mackenzie, in his Science of Heraldry, thinks, that macles 
look like mirrors, and upon that account are carried by the name of PURVES with 
us, deriving the name from the French word Pouruoir, to see. In whatever sense 
the mascle may be taken, it is, as I said before, an ancient and frequent armorial 
figure all Europe over. 

ROBERT QUINCY who came over with William the Conqueror, and got many 
lands in England by that King's favour, carried gules, seven mascles, three, three, 
and ons, or. Some of his issue I shall here mention, since they had considerable 
interests and employments in Scotland. 

One Robert de putney is witness in a charter of confirmation of the lands of 
Seaton, Winton, and Winchburgh, by King William, to Alexander Seaton, son 
of Philip de Seaton ; (the principal charter I have had in my custody, and several 
others, where this Robert de ^uincy is a witness). His son was Sierus de ^iiincy, 
who was likewise a witness in the charters of King William, and was designed 
Earl of Winchester in England. The occasion of their being in Scotland with 
other English was, their being enemies to King John of England, and, in conjunc- 
tion with William King of Scotland for setting up Lewis, the eldest son of France, 



OF THE SUB-ORDIXARI1 

je King of England, and to dethrone King John; but atler 

Henry 111. by the conduct of RALPH, Earl' : . defeated the French Lewis, 

and his confederates the Scots and English in a battle at Lincoln ; the English 
who escapdd came to Scotland, amongst whom were the CUiincys, who got several 
lands, and married with the best families there. 

ROGER QHINCY, Earl of WINCHESTER, was High Constable of Scotland in right 
of his wife, the eldest daughter of ALLAN of Galloway, High Constable; as i- 
evident by many charters with us, to which I have seen appended their seals of 
arms, which were of an equestrian form, and on the shield, seven mascles, three, 
three, and one. Thefse of this name were worn out afterwards, for joining with 
the Baliols against the Bruce. 

The name of WEAPONT or VIPONT, in old writs de Vetere Ponte, carried for arm--. 
azure, six mascles, three, two, and one, (some books make the field gulesS) These 
of this name anciently possessed great estates in Scotland ; the Mortimers got the 
lands of Aberdour in Fife, by marrying Anicia, daughter and heiress Domini 
Joannis dc Vetere Ponte, anno sec undo Regni Davidis 1126. For which see Sir Ro- 
bert Sibbald's History of Fife. And in the Register of Kelso, Fol. 53. there is 
a. charter of William de Vetere Ponte, confirming a prior deed of Roger de Ov, of 
the church of Lunton to the abbacy of Kelso. The charter appears to have been 
granted in the reign of King William, for it bears, Pro salute dominorum nieorum 
Regis Millie/mi, & eorum filii Alexandra. The same William de Vetere Ponte gives 
donations to the abbacy of Holyroodhouse, out of the barony of Carriden in West- 
Lothian. His successors retained the possession of the lands of Langton in the 
Merse and Carriden in Lothian, till Sir William Weapont was killed fighting vali- 
antly for King Robert the Bruce, at the battle of Bannockburn, against the 
English, 1314. Afterwards these lands came to the COCKBURNS, now of Langton, 
upon marrying the heiress of WEAPONT of Langton ; for which the Cockburns ot 
Langton have ever since been in use to quarter the arms of Weapont with their 
own ; gules, six mascles, three, two, and one, or ; and these mascles are carried by 
other families, upon account of their descent from the Weaponts, as the KERS of 
Roxburgh and Lothian ; of whom before. 

The surname of PURVES, argent, on a fesse azure, between three mascles gules, 
as many cinquefoils of the first. Font's Manuscript. 

When the PURVESES assumed the mascles, representing mirrors, as equivocally 
relative to their name, as Sir George Mackenzie fancies, I know not ; but an- 
ciently they had no such figure, as by the seal of one William Pur-voys de Mos- 
pennach, appended to a charter of his, about the end of King William's reign, 
granting to the Monks of Melrose a free passage through his lands of Mospennoch. 
The seal thereto appended was entire (which I see in the custody of William 
Wilson, one of the Under-Clerks of the Session), and after an oval form, and had 
no shield upon it ; but in the middle was a very rude and irregular figure, which 
I cannot name : It is true, there were several families who lived about Earlston, 
in the west eud of the shire of Berwick, and the east end of Tev iotdale, who car- 
ried mascles, as the PURVESES and LEARMONTS. 

The eminentest family of late, of the name of PURVES, is that of Sir WILLIAM 
PURVES of that Ilk, in 'the shire of Berwick, fig. 17. azure,, on a fesse between 
three mascles urgent, as many cinquefoils of the first ; crest, the sun rising out of 
a cloud, proper ; with the motto, Ciarior e tenebris. New Register. 

The surname of BETUUNE or BEATON, anciently with us, azure, a fesse between 
three mascles or : I know that our modern books call lliem lozenges, and our old 
books wasclcs or lozenges voided, which is the same with mascle. As for the anti- 
quity of the family, 1 have met with Robert de Set/June, witness in a charter of Ro- 
gents dc tiincy, in the reign of King William, to Sayerus de Scion, of an annuity 
of the mill and mill-lands of Tranent ; and afterwards David de Ettbune miles, about 
the year 1296, and Alexander ds Betbuiif, is mentioned in the parliament held at 
Cambnskcimeth, the 6th of November 1314, in the ist year of the reign of King 
Robert I. Robertas de Betbune, fainiliarms Regis Roberii II. married the daughter 
and heiress of Sir JOHN BALFOUR of that Ilk, and with her got the lands of Balfour 
in Fife ; for which the family has been designed since, BETKUNE of Balfour : 
Which being the principal seat of the family, yet they retained the name of Be- 

3G 



zro OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

thune, and quartered the arms of Balfour with their own, viz. quarterly, first and 
fourth azure, a fesse between three mascles or, (as I observed before, they are 
called lozenges, especially in the New Register) second and third argent, on a 
cheveron sable, an otter's head erased of the first, for Balfour ; supporters, two 
otters, proper ; and an otter's head for crest, with the word Debonnaire : Of this 
family there were several eminent learned men, as James Bethune, Archbishop of 
St Andrew's, Chancellor of Scotland 1518 ; David Bethune, his nephew, was 
Archbishop of St Andrew's upon his death, and created Cardinal by Pope Paul III. 
and Bishop of Mirepoix by the French King; and Chancellor of Scotland 1522, till 
1549. James Bethune, his nephew, was elected Archbishop of Glasgow, and 
carried the foresaid quartered arms, as did David the cardinal ; supported by two 
men in priestly habits ; yet to be seen on his lodging in the foot of Blackfriar's 
Wynd. 

BETHUNE of Creigh, another goodly family in Fife of that name, was a younger 
son of Bethune of Balfour, in the reign of King James IV. and carried the foresaid 
quartered arms, with a cinquefoil, for difference. 

JANET BETHUNE, a daughter of Sir DAVID BETHUNE of Creigh, then his Majesty's 
High Comptroller, was married to James Earl of Arran, Lord Hamilton. She 
bore to him James Earl of Arran, his successor, and a daughter, Helen, who was 
married to Archibald Earl of Argyle, and Jane, to the Earl of Glencairn : This 
family continued till of late, and the estate is now united to that of Bethune of 
Balfour. 

DAVID BETHUNE of Bandon, descended of a second son of BETHUNE of Balfour, 
carries the quartered arms of that family, within a bordure or ; crest, an otter's 
head, couped argent. Lyon Register. 

JOHN BETHUNE of Blebo, whose father was a fourth brother of the House of Bal- 
four, carries the quartered arms of that family, but takes the fesse cheque, in the 
first and fourth quarters, for his maternal descent of the house of Lindsay ; with 
the crest and motto of the family. Lyon Register. 

ALEXANDER BETHUNE of Longhermiston, whose father was a -second brother of 
Bethune of Balfour, quarterly, first and fourth azure, a fesse cheque, argent and 
gules, between three mascles or ; second and third argent, on a cheveron sable, a 
selch's head erased of the first, all within a bordure indented or : His daughter and 
heiress, Grissel Bethune, was married to William M'Dowal of Garthland, so men- 
tioned and matriculated in the New Register. 

JAMES BETHUNE of Nether-Tarvit, descended of Cardinal Bethune, and Mary 
Ogilvie, daughter to the Lord Ogilvie. Their son was Alexander Bethune, Arch- 
dean of Lothian, and Laird of Carsgouny, who turned Protestant, and married : 
Of whom is descended Mr THOMAS BETHUNE of Nether-Tarvit, quarterly, first 
and fourth azure, on a fesse, between three lozenges or, a betune leaf slipped vert, 
as relative to the name of Bethune ; second and third Balfour, as before ; crest, a 
physician's quadrangular cap, proper : motto, Resolutio cant a. N. R. 

I observed before, that some of the name of BETHUNE have lozenges instead of 
. mascles, and that some have been in use to add a betune leaf on the fesse, as re- 
lative to the name. 

WARDLAW of that. Ilk, azure, three mascles or, fig. 18. This surname Hector Boece 
places amongst the first of surnames in Scotland, in the reign of Malcolm III. 

WARDLAW of Tony carried as the former : 1 have seen the seal of Henry Ward- 
law of Tony appended to his charter, granted by him to ALEXANDER Lord HOME 
Oreat Chamberlain of Scotland, in the year 1455 '> which seal of arms had only 
rhree mascles, 2 and i ; but afterwards that family was in use to quarter them with 
the arms of VALANCE, viz. azure, three water-budgets or, upon the account that 
the family matched with one of the co-heirs of Sir James Valange, and got with 
her Wester-Lochore in Fife : Of this family were two bishops of the name of 
WARDLAW with us. 

Sir HENRY WARDLAW of Pitrevie, Baronet, as descended, it seems, of this family, 
carried the quartered coa't thereof ; and for crest, a star ; with the motto, Faniilias 
fit-mat pittas. Lyon Register. 

WAXDLAW of Riccarton, azure, on a fesse argent, between three mascles or, as 
many crescents of the first, (some say gules} Font's Manuscript. In a charter of 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

ALEXANDER FORRESTER, of Corstorphine to his son Archibald, of the lands of CK 
uifiton, nth October 1464, amongst the witncs-rs i> John \Varulu\v of K 
In the year 1509, Walter Wardlaw of Ricc;irton resigns the lands of Piicstlk-1.:. 
proprietor thereof, in favours of Walter Chapman bur^c,- in Edinburgh : '! 
family is now extinct. 

WARDLAW of Warriston, azure, on a fesse, between three- muscles r ,i , u 
gules. 

BLAIR of that Ilk, an ancient family in the shire of Ayr, argent, on a s;i 
sable, nine mascles of the first. 

WILLIAM i'.c BLAIR, in anno 1205, is mentioned in a contract of agreement be- 
twixt RALPH de EGLINTON and the village of Irvine, which is in the Charter-Che if 
of the borough of Irvine. And in a charter of King Alexander 111. to the abL 
of Dunfermline, William de Blair is a witness. 

JOHN BLAIR of that Ilk gets a charter from King David Bruce of the lands of 
Airdblair, (as in Haddington's Collections.) From this family of Blair the land* 
of Bogton came to Sir ADAM BLAIR of Bogton, nephew of BRYCE BLAIR of that 
Ilk, (History of Renfrew.) The family of Blair have had inter-marriages with 
many honourable families, as Hamilton, Glencairn, Semple, &-c. And there are 
few families of any note in the western shires that are not related to them. 

The present WILLIAM BLAIR of that Ilk disponed his estate of Blair in favours 
of his only son John, reserving to himself a liferent. His son, John Blair, died 
without issue, and his sister Magdalen succeeded him. She married Mr WILLIAM 
SCOTT, Advocate, second son of JOHN SCOTT of Malleny, and to him she bore a 
son. He takes upon him the name and arms of Elair, which he quarters with 
Scott, viz. first and fourth argent; on a saltier sable, nine mascles of the first, for 
Blair ; second and third or, on a bend azure, a star between two crescents of the 
field, and in base, an arrow bend-ways, proper, feathered, headed, and barbed 
argent-, crest, a stag lodged, .proper : motto, Amo prsbas ; which are the arms of 
Scott of Malleny, of which before, as in the Plate of Achievements. 

The cadets of this family, with arms, that I have met with in our old and mo- 
dern books of bla/ons, are these, 

BLAIR of Adington or Adamton, argent, on a saltier ingrailed sable, five mas- 
cles of the first. Font's Manuscript. And sometimes a saltier and a chief- sable, 
the last charged with three mascles. W. M. 

BLAIR of the Carse, as descended of BLAIR of that Ilk, argent, on a bend sable, 
three mascles of the first. Ibid. 

JAMLS BLAIR of Milgerholme, sometime Provost of Irvine, argent, on a saltier, 
betwixt two crescents in the flanks, and garb in base sable, five mascles of the 
first : motto, Cod be our guide. Lyon Register. 

GILBERT BLAIR, sometime Dean of Guild of Aberdeen, argent, a saltier sable, 
betwixt a mullet in chief, and a crescent in base of the last : motto, NOH crux, sed 
lux. Lyon Register. 

The surname of PITCAIRN, argent, three mascles gules; as in Pont's Manuscript: 
But in our New Register they are called lozenges. 

PITCAIRN of that Ilk, quarterly, first and fourth argent, three lozenges gules. 
called) second and third argent, an eagle with wings displayed sable, for RAMSAY : 
They got the lands of Forthar by marrying the heiress : From which lands the 
family is now designed. And the lands of Pitcairn went on" uith> a younger son, 
of whom was lineally descended ALEXANDER PITCAIKX of Pitcairn, who curried the 
same quartered arms of PITCAIRN of that Ilk and Forthar, within a bordure in- 
grailed gules; crest, a moon in her complement, proper: motto, Plena refulgct. 
Lyon Register. Whicli family was represented by that learned and eminent phy- 
sician ARCHIBALD Pn CAIRN of that Ilk, who carries the arms of PITCAIRN only, 
within a bordure ermine. 

WILLIAM PITCAIRN of Pitlour, quarterly, first and fourth ardent, three lozenges, 
2 and i gules, for PITCAIRN ; second and third azure, a chevcron between three- 
crescents argent ; crest, an anchor in pale azure : motto, Sperabo. Lyon Re- 
gister. 

PITCAIRN of Dreghorn, argent, three lozenges, within a bordure gules ; as in the 
Plate of Achievements. 



212 OF THE SUB-ORDIN ARILS. 

The surname of TINDAL, in the year 1484, says Sir James Baltbur, carried azure, 
two mascles in fesse or. 

The name of TRAIL, argent, on a fesse gules, between three cross croslets fitched 
azun; as many mascles or. Font's Manuscript. 

The first of this name is said to have come from Tyrol in Germany, from 
whence the name, by corruption TRAIL. 

There was one HUGH TRAIL, in the reign of Robert III. who defeat an English 
champion in a tournament at Berwick, as our histories acquaint us. 

WALTER TRAIL, Bishop of St Andrews, eminent both in the church and state, 
in the reign of King Robert III. purchased the lands of Blebo ; which he gave 
to his nephew TRAIL of Blebo, who carried azure, a cheveron between two mas- 
cles in chief or, and a trefoil slipped in base argent. Balfour's Manuscript. 

ROBERT TRAIL, Merchant in Edinburgh, descended of the family of BLEBO, 
azure, a cheveron between two mascles in chief, and a trefoil slipped in base, 
within a bordure waved argent ; crest, a column, or pillar, set in the sea, proper : 
motto, Discrimine salus. Lyon Register. 

The surname of PHILPS, argent, a cheveron gules, between three mascles sable. 
Balfour's Manuscript. 

JAMES PHILPS of Amrycloss in Angus, azure, a cheveron between three talbot 
heads, couped argent ; in the New Register. 

The surname of MITCHELL, sable, a fesse between six mascles or. Workman's 
Manuscript. And in Font's Manuscript, sable, a fesse between three mascles 
argent ; and these families following, of the name, in the New Register, are, 

ALEXANDER MITCHELL of Mitchell, Writer to the Signet, sometime designed of 
Craigend, viz. sable, a fesse betwixt three mascles, two and one or ; and in the 
middle chief, a dagger erected, point upward, proper, handled of the second, all 
within a bordure argent, charged with eight cinquefoils g ules ; crest, a hand hold- 
ing a writing pen, proper ; and for motto, Favente Deo ; as yi fhe Flate of Achieve- 
ments. 

He married ALISIA LIVINGSTON, daughter and heiress of WILLIAM LIVINGSTON of 
Parkhall, grandchild and representative of JOHN LIVINGSTON, sometime designed 
of BALDARROW, and after of HAINING, brother of LIVINGSTON of Kilsyth. 

ALEXANDER LIVINGSTON, now of Parkhall, eldest son of the above ALEXANDER 
MITCHELL, and ALISIA LIVINGSTON, as representative of the said family, bears the 
name and arms of LIVINGSTON, with a suitable difference, of which in another 
place. 

DAVID MITCHELL of Wester-Newbirnie, sable, a fesse invected between three 
mascles or : motto, Omnia superat diligentia. 

ANDREW MITCHELL of Filligrige, Merchant in Aberdeen, sable, a fesse waved 
between three mascles or : motto, Secura frugalitas. 

JOHN MITCHELL of Barry, descended of the family of BANDRETH, sable, a fesse 
between three mascles or, within a bordure cheque of the second and first ; crest, 
three ears of barley conjoined in the stalk, proper : motto, Sapiens qui assiduus. 

Mr JOHN MITCHELL of Landath, sable, a fesse ingrailed between three mascles or: 
motto, Labor iinprobus omnia vincit. 

DON of Teath, vert, on a fesse argent between three crescents of the last, as 
many mascles sable. Font's Manuscript. 

Sir ALEXANDER DON of Newton, Baronet, vert, on a fesse argent, three mascles 
.(able; crest, a pomegranate, proper: motto, No/i decrit alter aureus. New Register 
and Plate of Achievement. 

PATRICK. DON, Baillie of Kelso, brother to the said Sir ALEXANDER DON of 
Newton, the same within a bordure argent, for a brotherly difference. Lyon 
Register. 

The name of LISK, argent, three mascles azure, and on a chief gules, as many 
mascles of the first. Font's Manuscript. 

DALEMPIT of Lackleid, argent, on a saltier ingrailed sable, nine mascles of the 
first. Font's Manuscript. And there the surname of 

St MICHAEL of Blackwater, sable , on a bend argent; between six mascles or, 
three cushions of the last. Font's Manuscript. 

St MICHAEL of Bramson, argent, a cheveron between three cushions sable, 
B. M. 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 213 

The name of BASSENDEN, gules, on a cheveron argent, between three mullets or, 
as many mascles azure. Font's Manuscript. 

And there these of the name of NICOL, azure, a fesse between six mascles 
argent. 

In England, CATERALL of Holderness, in Yorkshire, sable, three mascles argent. 
Morgan's Heraldry. And there, 

WHITAKER, sable, three mascles or. 

CARLETON of Ampthill, in Bedfordshire, argent, on a bend sable, three mascles of 
the first; the same are given by Mr Gibbon, to DUDLEY, Lord CARLETON of Ember- 
court, in Surry, (Viscount Dorchester in the county of Oxford) which he latins thus, 
" CMJ! gestavitin scuto argenteo, teniam obliquam nigram, tribus metalli prirni im- 
" pressam maculis." He says, because of the various significations of macula, it were 
not amiss to add cassitan and rctium, to maculis, which he takes to represent the mashes 
of a net ; and, in another sense, he latins them rhombulos evacuates, i. e. lozenges 
voided. 



FUSIL and FUSILLY. 

THE fusil is another rhombular figure like the lozenge, but more long than broad, 
and its upper and lower points are more acute and sharp than the two side points. 
Chassanus, with others, makes their sides round, as in his description of them, 
" Fusas sunt acutae in superiore &- inferiore partibus & rotundae ex utroque latere;" 
which description has occasioned some English heralds, when so painted or en- 
graven, to call them miller's picks, as John '-Boswell, in his Concord of Armory, 
Fol. ir. and others, to call them weaver's shuttles; but the French make their side 
angles more acute than round, and to-represent spindles. Menestrier says, " Fuse'es 
" sont plus entendues en longueur que les lozanges et affile'es en pointe, comme les 
" fuseaux, elles ont pieces d'architecture, ou bon se sert pour ornement de fusees et 
" de pesons," and gives us the arms of Loquet in Artois, " Porte d'azur a trois fusees 
" d'or, acollees en face," '. e. azure, three fusils in fesse or. 

Sylvester Petra Sancta says, " Fusi ex ingenio & opificio muliebri petantur," 
and that women's shields are after this form, upon which are placed their paternal 
figures, of which before in the chapter of Shields. For fusil, the ancients used 
the words, fusilhts, fusa, and fusus ; according to the last, Mr Gibbon blazons the 
arms of MONTAGU Earl of MANCHESTER, " Scutum argenteum cum ternis fusis coc- 
" cineis in loco fasciae dispositis, limbo nigro circumducto," i. e. argent, three fusils 
in fesse gules, bordure sable ; of which, speaking before, I gave them as lozenges, 
from other English writers, who take the one for the other, as they are painted or 
engraven, longer or shorter. 

With us, LEITH of Restalrig, argent, five fusils in fesse sable ; some say argent, 
2. fesse fusilly sable, as Sir George Mackenzie in the chapter of the Bar. 

LEITH of Overhall, or, a cheveron between three fusils azure ; crest, a turtle- 
dove, proper: motto, Semper Jidus. Fig. 19. 

LEITH of Leithhall, or, a cross croslet fitched sable, between three crescents in 
chief, and as many fusils in base gule s ; crest, a cross croslet fitched sable : motto, 
Trusty to the end. 

LEITH of Craighall, descended of LEITH of Harthill, or, a cross croslet fitcbe 
sable, between two crescents in chief gules, and in base, three fusils, 2 and i 
azure, all within a bordure of the third : motto, Trusty and bydand. New Regis- 
ter. As fig. 20. 

These of the surname of DANIEL, argent, five fusils in pale sable, and, as some 
say, a pale fusilly sable. Balfour's Manuscript. And there the name of LAM- 
BERTON, in the reign of King James IV. carried sable, a star between three fusils 
argent, 2 and i. 

LAMBERTONS of that Ilk were ancient in the Merse ; and are frequently met 
with as witnesses in charters granted by our old kings, David I. and King William, 
to the Church of Durham, and Abbacy of Coldingham. 

WILLIAM LAMBERTON was Bishop of St Andrews in the time of the Competition 
for the Crown of Scotland, by the Bruce and the Baliol: He adhered to the former, 

3 H 



2i 4 OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

and set out his cousin, good Sir James Douglas, with all necessaries to assist King 
Robert the Bruce. 

The name of SHAW, argent, a cheveron between three fusils erminois, so carried 
by SHAW of Eltham, in Kentshire, Baronet ; as in the Art of Heraldry, a little 
book lately set out. 

When the field is filled all over with fusils, alternately of metal and colour, it 
is then said to be fusilly ; the Latins, fusilatum ; or thus, fits is aureis 1st aeruleis 
interstinctum, i. e. fusilly or and azure, the arms of the ancient kingdom of Aus- 
trasia. 

DUEBECK., an ancient family in Normandy, fusilly, argent and gules, the French 
blazon fusele ff argent, et de gueules ; the same arms are borne by the GRIMALDI de 
Monaco in Genoa. 

As I said before of the lozenges, so now of the fusils, that when the field or 
any figure is filled with them, being erected in pale, they are then only blazoned 
fusilly; but, when they are horizontally, fusilly in fosse, or in bur; if diagonally to 
the left, in bend-sinister, and according to the French, bar-ways; and when diago- 
nally to the right, in bend ; for an example, I here give the arms of the Princes of 
BAVARIA in the Empire, fig. 21. which the French blazon thus, Fusele en bande 
d? argent et d'azur dc vingt-et-une pieces, qui est de Earner ; here the French num- 
ber the fusils ; but it is not usual with us to tell their number when there are so 
many, and the shield filled with them ; we only say, fusilly in bend-dexter, argent 
and azure. 

The Prince PALATINE of the RHINE, Elector, the Duke of BAVARIA, Elector, 
the Duke of DEUX FONTS and of NEWBURG, as descended from one stem. The 
house of BAVARIA carry the same arms, but differently disposed or marshalled, 
viz. the Elector of BAVARIA has three coats in distinct escutcheons, two acolle 
joined together, and one below. On the first, tha arms of the PALATINATE, viz. sable , 
a lion rampant or, crowned and langued gules contourne, after the German fashion ; 
looking to the other escutcheon of arms on the left, which is, fusilly in bend, argent 
azure, for BAVARIA ; and, the third escutcheon below both, is gules, charged with 
the imperial globes or, for the electorship. 

The Prince PALATINE of the RHINE carries the same three armorial bearings, 
otherwise marshalled in an escutcheon, viz. the PALATINATE, parti with BAVARIA, 
and ente in base, the globe, as elector. Which way of marshalling I have spoke 
to before in my Essay of the Ancient and Modern Use of Arms. 



OF THE FRET, FRETTED, AND FRETTY. 

I THOUGHT fit to treat of this figure here, because it is somewhat of kin to the 
mascle; for it is said to he composed of a mascle and two battons, dexter and sinis- 
ter, braced or interlaced together, as fig. 22. 

Mr Thomas Crawfurd, in the Fragment of his Manuscript of Heraldry, now to 
be met with, says, the fret is composed of a saltier and mascle, and is a badge of 
fastness and fidelity, like a knot or tie of ribbons. The English, I find, take it so, 
and call it the love knot ; and by some Harringtons knot, because carried by them 
lor their armorial figure ; with the motto, Nodo firmo. But since it is borne by 
other ancient and honourable families, it ought not to be appropriate to that family ; 
and is called by some English heralds, heraldorum nodus amatorim, the heralds' love 
knot ; because it is devised by them as an armorial figure ; and so Mr Gibbon blazons 
the arms of HARRINGTON, Clypeum atrum heraldico veri amoris nodo impressum ar- 
genteo \, e. sable, a fret argent, as fig. 22. 

The family of MALTRAVERS, in England, sable, a fret or; the English, of old, 
latined it, fretfum simplex ; and Imhoff, in the blazon of SPENCER Earl of SUN- 
DERLAND, latins it, clatbrum, a grate or lattice. 

With us, the surname of M'CULLOCH bears ermine, a fret gules. 

Sir GODFREY M'CuLLocn of MYRTON, Knight and Baronet, ermine, a fret in- 
grailed gules; crest, a hand throwing a dart, proper : motto, VI IS animo, as fig, 23. 
Lyon Register. 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 215 

Sir HUGH M'CULLOCH of Pilton, ermine, a fret gules, as descended of M'CuL- 
LOCH of CADBOL ; but our New Register makes the fret ingrailed, the same with 
Myrton; and for crest, the little creature ermine; with the motto, Sine macula. 

DANIEL FLEMING of Rydall in Westmoreland, gules, a fret urgent, and the same 
by EDWARD FLEMING of Eustow, in Devonshire, as in the English books ; and in 
the Dictionary of Arms, lately published, the arms of GLOUCESTER, or, a fret 
sable. 

Fretted or fretty is said when there are six, eight, or more pieces, such as, but- 
tons saltier-ways^ which fill the field ; are so changed, the spaces of the field that 
are left by them, formed like lozenges, and the fretty resembles a grate or lattice ; 
but, in this, they differ, that the pieces of fretty are interchangeably passing one 
over another, and under the other ; whereas, in grates or lattices, the pieces pass 
entirely all over the other, sometimes pale -ways and bar-ways, and are al\\ 
nailed at their joints or meetings; whereas, fretty is always bend-dexter and bend- 
sinister-ways, for fretted arms ; the ancients said anna frettata, and others, anna 
clnthrata, or cancellata, i. e. latticed arms : as Uredus blazons the arms of WILLOUGHBY, 
scutum aureum, clathris camlets, i. e. or, fretty azure ; but, Mr Gibbon, to distin- 
guish fretty from latticed arms, blazons more distinctly the same arms of WIL- 
LOUGHBY, or, fretty of eight pieces azure, thus, " Scutum aureum octonis bacillis 
" coeruleis impressum obliquis (quatuor dextris totidem sinistris) qui alius super 
" alium vicissim &- subter subalternatim interponitur ;" which handsomely distin- 
guishes fretted arms from latticed ones, of which I shall add some examples of 
the one and the other ; and first, of fretted arms. 

ALEXANDER M'CuLLocn of Drummoral, descended of the family of Myrton, 
ermine, fretty gules. Fig. 24. 

JAMES M'CuLLocn of Muil, descended also of the family of Myrton, ermine, 
fretty gules, within a bordure indented of the second, as in the New Register ; 
but here the blazon does not tell how many pieces the fretty is made up of. 

M'CuLLocH of Cardiness, ermine, fretty gules of eight pieces ; and on an escut- 
cheon azure, three wolves' heads erased argent, as in Mr Font's Book of Blazons. 

The surname of LAUDERDALE, of old, sable, fretty or; Workman's Manu'-^ript. 

St AMOND, of old, or de Sancto Amondo, or, fretty sable, and on a chief of the 
second, three besants of the first. B. M. 

LYLE or L'IsLE, gules, fretty or ; some say gules a frett or. The first of this 
name and family to be met with on record is WILLIAM L'!SLE, one of the wit- 
nesses in the charter of foundation of the Monastery of Paisley, by Walter, High 
Steward of Scotland, in the reign of Malcolm IV. anno 1164. These of this family 
had very soon a local designation, as Le Isle Domini de Duchal, a barony in the 
sheriffdom of Renfrew, in the reign of Alexander II. After the death of Alexan- 
der III. in the unhappy competition for the crown betwixt the Bruce and the 
Baliol, the family and surname of L'Isle were, as many others in the kingdom, 
divided in their, loyalty ; for Sir Walter and Sir William L'Isle were firm for King 
Robert the Bruce, and Sir Allan L'Isle was on the Baliol's side. Edward Baliol 
made him Sheriff of the Isle of Bute, which some say was their ancient possession; 
and from it came their name L'Isle, afterward named Lyle. He was also by that 
Edward made Lord High Chamberlain of Scotland. Sir John de Isle Dominus de 
Ducbal was in great favour with King David Bruce in the time of Edward Baliol's 
usurpation, and got from King David, (as in Rotulis David 77.) a charter of the 
barony of Boquhan in Stirlingshire ; he is there, and in other evidents, designed 
Johannes de Lyle Dominus de Duckul, Miles. His son and successor John de Lyle 
of Duchal married one of the co-heirs of the old Earls of Marr. His son and ac- 
cessor Robert is styled Cbe'valitr de Duchal, being one of the hostages for King 
James 1. as in Rymer's Fadera Anglia. UpQn the death of Alexander Stewart 
Earl of Marr, he put in his claim as one of the heirs of the earldom of Marr, to 
which he and the Lord Erskine should have succeeded by right and proximity of 
blood, but King James I. took possession of it; as Fordan's Continuator 
ftnno 1438, " Obiit Alexander Sewart, Comes de Mar, &- quia hastardus erat, Rex 
" illi successit quamvis jure hoereditario Domini Erskine & Lyle successisse de- 
" buissent." Both Robert de Lyle and the Lord Erskine, as having right to that 
earldom, marshalled the arms of Marr. viz. azure, a bend betwixt six cross croslets 



216 OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

filched or, in the first and fourth quarters, with their paternal arms, and which 
have been continued by their successors. 

ROBERT DE-LYLE was raised to the honour of a Peer, by the title of Lord LYLE, 
by King James II. About the year 1446, he carried, as by our old books of bla- 
zons, quarterly, first and fourth Marr, second and third Lyle, as above blazoned ; 
for crest, a cock or, crested and barbed gules: motto, An I 'may ; supported by 
two cats, proper. 

The Lord LYLE'S family continued in a lineal male descent to the reign of 
Queen Mary, when John Lord Lyle left a son James, who died without issue, and 
a daughter, Jean Lyle, his heir, who was married to Sir NIEL MONTGOMERY of 
Lainshaw, from whom is descended the present JAMES MONTGOMERY of Lainshaw, 
Clerk to the Justiciary ; and as representative of the Lord LYLE, marshalls the 
arms of that family with these of his own, as in the Plate of Achievements, of 
which in another place. See Plate of Achievements for the nobility. 

Many of the sons of this noble family went to England, France, and other 
foreign places, where some of them came to be great men. 

LYLE of Stonypeth, gules, fretty of six pieces or, with a mullet in chief for 
difference. Font's Manuscript. 

There are some of the name of LYLE or LYELL, in the north, who carry different 
arms from those of Lyle above, as in our New Register; whose blazons I shall 
here insert, lest I have not occasion afterwards ; and though their names seem to 
be one, yet they are distinct and different families. 

DAVID LYLE of Woodhead, descended of the family of Murthil, or, a cross azure, 
between four cross patees fitched gules, within a border ingrailed of the second ; 
crest, a swallow volant, proper : motto, Sedulo y Honeste. 

JOHN LYLE of Murthil, or, a plain cross azure, between four crosses patee, fitched 
gules ; crest, a dexter hand holding a sword erect, proper : motto, Fort non 
ignavo. 

THOMAS LYLE of Dysart, or, a plain cross azure, between four cross croslets 
fitcbe gules ; crest, a dexter hand holding a sword erect, proper : motto, Tutela. 

CHARLES CHEYNE of Chelsea, in the county of Middlesex, was created Lord 
Cheyne, Viscount of Newhaven in Scotland, by King Charles II. and carried for 
his paternal arms, cheque, or and azure, a fesse gules, fretted argent. 

The surname of ABEL in England, vert, fretty argent, and a fesse gules, Kent's 
Dictionary of Arms ; and there ALFORD of Northampton, gules, fretty ermine. 

Arms latticed differ from fretted ones, as before shown ; and are called by the 
French,, treille or treillisse, from which our word tirlace for a lattice ; these pieces 
which make it are not interlaced with one another, as in the fretty, but lie straight 
upon the undermost pieces, fixed with nails ; which, if of a different tincture, are 
mentioned also in the blazon, as in the arms of BARDONENCHE en Dauphine, by 
Menestrier, d 1 argent treillisse de g ueules clone d'or, i. e. argent, a lattice or tirlace 
gules, nailed or, fig. 25. Sir John Feme says, such arms were given to a French 
Knight, and continued by his posterity, for taking Gundemarus, King of Burgun- 
dy, prisoner in a battle, in the reign of Childebert, King of France. Which arms 
he thus blazons, sable, a musion (a cat) or, opprest with a treillisse gules, clone 
argent. 

Before I end this chapter I cannot but give account what some say of the fretty, 
who will have it to represent a flower garden ; especially when below the fretty, 
and in the interstices of the field, there appear flowers, as in the arms of 
GARDINER with us ; argent, on a fret of four pieces gules, as many hearts or, and 
in every interstice, a rose of the second, as in Font's Manuscript. 

Others again will have fretty to represent a net, as Guillim, who derives fretty 
from rete, which signifies a net ; and especially when fishes appear under it, as 
in the armorial bearings of some of the name of STURGEON in England; azure, 
three sturgeons naissant or, surmounted of fretty of six pieces gules ; some say a 
net gules, which Mr Gibbon thus latins, " Scutum coeruleum, tribus sturgionibus 
" (altero alteri impositis) impressum aureis & deinde filis sex rubeis reticulatum-." 

When there are three or four, or more figures, proper or natural, placed one 
over the other, and under the other alternately, then they are said to be fretted, as 
in the bearing of the surname of TARBET,. argent, three turbot fishes fretted, pro- 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 2 1 7 

per, one fesse-ways, looking to the sinister, and two to the dexter chief and 
think points ; Mackenzie's Heraldry, as fig. 26. 



OF ROUND FIGURES, BESANTS AND TORTEAUXES. 

ROUND figures, when of metal, are called besants ; when of colour, torteauxes , 
yet they have specific names with the English, of which immediately ; and then I 
shall treat of bowls and annulets as armorial figures. 

Besants represent, in armories, pieces of gold or silver, and have their name 
from the city Byzantium, now called Constantinople, where such pieces were coin- 
ed. Lewis Lejeune, as the French historians tell, in his return from the Holy Land, 
brought home a quantity of besants of gold, and made an offeratory of them ; 
and, ever since, the Kings of France, in the solemnities of their coronations, make 
an ofFeratory of pieces of gold, which they call besantines* The Kings of England 
have been in use to do the same, as Camden, in his Remains, tells us, that Edward 
HI. caused coin a piece of gold, called besantine, to the value of L. 15 ; for such 
an use, says he, there were two pieces of gold used at the coronation of the Kings 
of England ; which had on the one side a resemblance of the Blessed Trinity, 
with these words, In bonorem Sanctte Trinitatis, and, on the other side, the picture 
of the Virgin Mary, with the words, In honorem Sancta Marias Virginis. And 
these pieces were used by the Kings of England, in the offeratories at their coro- 
nations, till the accession of King James to the English throne, who likewise 
caused two besants to be made for himself and his Queen. That for himself had, 
on the one side, the picture of a king kneeling before an altar, with four crowns 
upon it, representing his four kingdoms, with the circumscription, %uid tribuam 
Domino pro omnibus, qua tribuit mihi ; " and on the other side of the besant was a 
lamb lying by the side of a lion, with these words, Cor contritum y bumiliatum non 
despiciet Deus. The besant for the Queen had on the one side a crown, protected 
by a cherubim, and over that an eye, with the word Deus, in a cloud, with the 
circumscription, Teg it ala summus ; and on the other side was pourtrayed a Queen 
kneeling before an altar, with these words, Pits preecibus, fervente fide, bumili ob- 
sequio ; but having digressed, I return to the besants as armorial figures. 

Besants, when they are armorial figures in armories, they have no impression or 
figure as coins, but plain ; Menestrier says, " Besans sont monnoyes d'or, ou 
" d'argent, sans marque, qui du nom de la ville Byzance ont en le nom de 
" besans." 

The Italian, Sylvester Petra Sancta, calls them nunanos Byzantii, liber sancti al- 
bani, talenta. Chifiletius and Uredus, nummos byzanteos aureos sen argenteos* 

They were generally assumed, as armorial figures, by those who had been in the 
expeditions to the Holy Land ; and by others since, upon the account they had 
possessed honourable and beneficial offices, as Treasurers, Comptrollers, Collectors 
of Public Taxes and Revenues. And carried by others, as a sign of power and 
liberty of coinage, as Sylvester Petra Sancta likewise observes, in his chapter of 
Besants, " Sunt qui pertinere arbitrantur ad aerarii supremos praesides, seu regios 
" quasstores, aut ad summos dynastas, qui monetam propriam cudendi jus ac po- 
" testatem habuerunt." 

The name of MERCER, or, on a fesse between three cross patees gules, as many 
besants of the first. Font's Manuscript. 

By these figures it seems the first assumer of them had been in the Holy Land ; 
one of this name that has been entrusted with a naval force by our Kings, as by 
the Histories of England and Scotland, and particularly that of Howe's, p. 281, 
who tells us, that in the year 1378, John Mercer, with many ships, set upon the 
English fleet at Scarborough, defeat and brought them to Scotland, &-c. 

The principal family of this name is MERCER of Aldie, in the shire of Perth, 
who carries or, on a fesse between three cross patees in chief gules, and a star in 
base azure, three besants of the first, supported by two savages with steel caps on 
their heads, holding battons downward, before their legs, and standing on a com- 
partment, with these words, Crux Christi nostra corona ; which supporters are to be 
seen, of old, finely cut in the house of Aldie ; and, for crest, the head and neck ol 



ai8 OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

a heron, holding in its beak an eel ; with the motto, on an escrol, the Grit povl, 
being the slughorn of the family, as on the Plate of Achievements. 

One of their predecessors, John Mercer, in Perth, purchased the lands of Meikle- 
our from Mauritius de Cramond, in the reign of King David II. which were con- 
firmed by that King, in the 33d year of his reign, and afterwards took the desig- 
nation from the lands of Aldie, of whom is descended the present Sir LAURENCE 
MERCER of Aldie, Bart.. 

FAWSIDE of that Ilk, in East Lothian, an ancient family, though now extinct. 
There are severals of that name with us, who carry gules, a fesse between three 
besants or. Pont's Manuscript. Fig. 27. 

ALLAN de FAWSIDE gives an obligation to the monks of Dunfermline, of the date 
1253, to pay yearly quinque solidos argenti out of his lands. 

ROGER de FAWSIDE gets a charter of the lands of Fawside from Robert the Bruce, 
and, in the year 1350, Thomas de Fawside, Miles, is witness in a charter of Duncan 
Earl of Fife, to the abbacy of Lindores. 

Mr JAMES FAWSIDE, designed eldest lawful son to the deceased John Fawside of 
that Dk, is witness in a charter of George Earl of Winton, to David Allan in 
Tranent, in the year 1666. The lands of Fawside belong now to Dundas of 
Arniston. 

The surname of HOPE carries besants. 

Sir THOMAS HOPE of Craighall, azure, a cheveron between three besants, or ; 
crest, a broken globe surmounted of a rainbow, proper : motto, At spes infracta. 
He was Advocate to King Charles I. 1628, whose father or grandfather came from 
Holland, and was the first of the name of Hope in Scotland. Sir Thomas had, by 
his wife Elizabeth Bennet, daughter of John Bennet in Tranent, and his wife 
Grissel Seaton, of the family of Seaton, first, Sir John Hope of Craighall, who 
was President of the Session ; second son, Sir THOMAS HOPE of Kerse, Bart, one of 
the Senators of the College of Justice, who carries azure, on a cheveron betwixt 
three besants or, a roebuck current of the first ; crest, a broken globe surmounted 
of a rainbow, proper : motto, Spes tamen infracta. Lyon Register. 

Third son, Sir ALEXANDER HOPE of Granton, Cup-bearer to King Charles I. 
carried the arms of Hope, and, for his difference, charged the cheveron with a rose 
gules, but kept the crest of the family ; with the motto, Spero suspiro donee. 
Lyon Register. 

Fourth son, Sir JAMES HOPE of Hopetoun, was one of the Senators of the College 
of Justice 1649, till that judicatory was dissolved by Oliver Cromwell, anno 1651. 
He married Anna, daughter of John Foulis of Leadhills, in the shire of Lanark, 
by whom he had John his successor, and a daughter Rachel, married to David 
Bethune of Balfour, in Fife. He married, for his second wife, Mary, eldest daugh- 
ter of William Earl Marischal, by whom he had one son, Sir WILLIAM HOPE of 
Balcomy, Bart, formerly designed of Granton, and late Depute-governor of Edin- 
burgh Castle ; who carries azure on a cheveron argent, betwixt three besants or, 
as many pallets gules, being his maternal figures of the name of Keith ; crest, a 
broken globe, with the rainbow as before : motto, At spes solamen. Lyon 
Register. 

Which JOHN HOPE of Hopetoun married Margaret, daughter of John Earl of 
Haddington, by whom he had Charles, his only son and heir, and a daughter, 
Eleanor, married to Thomas Earl of Haddington. Charles was raised to the 
honour and dignity of Earl of HOPETOUN, by letters patent, bearing date the i5th 
of April 1703, He married Henrietta, daughter of William, first Marquis of An- 
nandale, and with her has issue his eldest son John Lord Hope. The Earl's arms, 
as in the Plate of Achievements of the nobility, azure, on a cheveron betwixt 
three besants or, a bay leaf, proper, adorned with crown, helmet, tuid mantlings, 
befitting his quality, and on a wreath of his tinctures ; for crest, a broken globe 
surmounted of a rainbow, all proper : with the motto, on an escrol, At spes in- 
fracta ; supporters, two women, their hair hanging down, with loose garments, 
holding anchors in their hands. L. R. 

HOPE of Rankeillor, descended of Craighall, the same as Craighall, within a 
bordure, or, for his filial difference. Lyon Register. 
The. name of TORTHORALD, says Sir James Balfour, in his Manuscript, carried, in 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 219 

the year 1232^ or, a saltier and chief gules, the last charged with three besants of 
the fkst. 

The surname of LAIDLA\V, sable, three besants or. Balfour's Manuscript. 

The surname of GUID, argent, on a cheveron g ules, three be-ants or, and, in 
base, a dove with an olive branch in its beak. Herbert Quid is infeft in the 
lands of Auchencairn 1561, upon a charter granted by Robert Crawfurd of Craw- 
furdland, as superior. Herbert's grandchild, John Guid, is infeft in the said lands 
1625, whose grandchild- is Mr John Guid, minister at Carnwath, and possessor of 
Auchencairn. 

EDWARD FOUNTAIN of Loch-Hill, sometime Master of the Revels, argent, on a 
fesse azure, three besants ; crest, an eagle rising, proper : motto, Prcrclarius quo 
difficilins. 

ROBERT FEMNISON, Merchant in Edinburgh, gules, a fesse between three basants 
in chief, and a crane in base ; crest, a crane's head, proper : motto, Vtgilat fc? omul. 
Lyon Register. 

I have seen the arms of the name of M'MiLLAN painted thus, argent, on a che- 
veron, between three mullets sable, as many besants or. The M'MiLLANS are 
said to be BUCHANANS by descent, and to have changed their name upon account 
of slaughter. 

In England, the family of BISSET in Warwickshire has, for arms, azure, ten be- 
sants, 4, 3, 2 and i. 

When the besants are of gold, the metal may be named or not named in the 
blazon ; but if of silver, argent must be .named by the practice of all Europe, ex- 
cept with the English, who, from their particular fancy, call them plates. 

FOULIS of Ratho, descended of a younger son of Collington, argent, on a, che- 
veron, between three laurel leaves vert, as many besants of the first, (the English 
would call them plates ;) crest, a dove holding an olive-branch in her beak, pro- 
per ; and for motto, Pax. New Register, fig. 28. 

Sir JAMES FALCONER of Phesdo, one of the Senators of the College of Justice, 
descended of Falconer Lord Halkerton, a falcon's head, issuing out of a man's 
heart, proper, between three mullets azure, all within a bordure of the last r char- 
ged with eight besants argent ; crest, a falcon perching and hooded, proper : motto, 
Paratus ad tetbera. New Register. 

In England, the name of CLARKE in Somersetshire carries, as Morgan gives 
us, three plates ; and the name of TROTISHAM, gules, four plates, 2 and 2 ; and 
RAMSAY in Derbyshire, azure, six plates, 3, 2 and i ; and the name of SANDYS there, 
sable, six plates, 3, 2 and i. 

When the field, or other armorial figures,, seems to be filled with besants of an 
indefinite number, they are then said to be seme of besants, or besantie. The an- 
cient Earls of CORNWALL in England carried sable, besantie or, as in Sandford's 
Genealogical History. When Richard, second son of King John, was created Earl of 
Poictiers, and Earl of Cornwall in England, lie did not carry the arms of his 
father, but those of Poictiers and Cornwall, which he composed together, in one 
shield, thus ; argent, a lion rampant gules, crowned or, for Poictiers, within a bor- 
dure sable, besantie or, for Cornwall. 

ROCHTORD in England, quarterly, or and gules, a bordure azure, besantie or. 



TORTEAUX 

Is a round figure, always of one of the colours received in the science of he 
raldry ; which colour must be expressed in the blazon, as torteaux, azure, sable, &c. 
but the English appropriate particular names to them, as they are variously colour- 
ed, except to those of red colour, which they call only torteaux, without naming 
the colour. 

Torteaux represents, in armory, cakes of bread, called wastals, of old, lib a torta 
seu rotunda ; from which torteaux, the Italian Sylvester Petra Sancta, in the 43d 
chapter of his Treatise of Heraldry, entitled De Libis Tesserariis, calls them scu- 
t arias placentulas, which heralds take to represent in armories cakes and wastals, 
and are so taken by the Spaniards, as Menestrier tells us> from a story out of Argot 



220 OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

de Molina, a Spanish herald, speaking in his First Book of the Nobles of Andalusia, 
who carry in their arms torteauxes, upon the account, says he, that one of the Kings 
of Spain, being to give battle to the Moors, convened his principal captains and 
commanders to eat ; telling them, that so many cakes as they did eat, each of 
them would kill as many Moors : And, after a memorable victory, considering how 
many cakes each had ate, some five, eight, or twelve, took as many torteauxes in 
their arms, or added them to their ancient bearings ; and this is the reason why so 
many torteauxes are carried in the arms of the nobles of Andalusia. So that they 
are taken by the French, Italians, Spaniards, English, and us, for cakes of bread. 
Fig. 29. 

There are two ancient families in Scotland who contend for chiefship, but 
carry different arms ; BLAIR of Balthyock, in the shire of Perth, argent, a che- 
veron sable, between three torteauxes gules ; crest, a dove, with her wings expand- 
ed, proper : motto, Virtute tutus. Lyon Register. 

BLAIR of that Ilk, in the shire of Ayr, the other tamily, of whom before ; the 
controversy about the precedency of these two families is said to have been ad- 
justed by King James VI. ordering that the eldest man representer of these two 
families should precede- the younger : These two families are to be found in 
records in the reign of Alexander III. and have several families descended of 
them, whose blazons I have before mentioned, and shall here add as in our re- 
cords. 

Those descended of Balthyock are GEORGE BLAIR of Lethendy, descended of 
Balthyock, the same with Balthyock, with a martlet for difference ; crest, a 
garb, proper : motto, Nee temere, nee timide. Lyon Register. 

JOHN BLAIR of Balmill, a younger son of Balthyock, the same as his father, 
within a bordure sable ; crest, a Roman head ; with the motto, Fades quails mens 
talis. 

ALEXANDER BLAIR, residenter in France, descended of a second son of Bal- 
thyock, for his difference, makes the cheveron waved. Ibid. 

LAURENCE BLAIR of Overdurdy, descended of Balthayock, for his difference, in- 
vects the cheveron. 

Captain ANDREW BLAIR of Inchyra, descended of BALTHYOCK, embattles the 
cheveron for his difference. Ibid. 

The name of COURTNEY in England, or, three torteauxes : The first of this 
name came to England with Henry II. and afterwards his descendant, HUGH 
COURTNEY, was made Earl of DEVON by Edward III. in right of his mother, who 
was a daughter of William Rivers Earl of Devon. Morgan's Heraldry. 

The arms of the EPISCOPAL SEE of WORCESTER, argent, ten torteauxes, 4, 3, 2 
and i, as in Dale Pursuivant's Catalogue of Nobility. The name of BABINGTON 
in England carries the same arms, with a label of three points azure ; and it is 
pretty remarkable, says Kent, in his Dictionary of Arms, that Dr GERVASE 
BABINGTON, being made Bishop of Worcester, by Queen Elizabeth, his paternal 
coat was the same with the See, excepting only the label : Here the English, 
when they say torteaux, do not add gules, supposing it always to be red. 

The German Jacob Imhoff will have the torteaux to represent the yolk of an 
egg in arms, for he latins them vitellos, in his Blazons of the Nobility of Great 
Britain, as in these of EDMOND LANGLEY Duke of YORK, fifth son 01 Edward III. 
from whom issued the English kings, of the House of YORK, who carried France 
and England, quarterly, as his father ; and for a filial difference, added a label of 
three points argent, each charged with three torteauxes, which Imhoff calls vitellos, 
yolks of eggs. And the same in the arms of GREY Earl of KENT, and others, 
thus ; " Insignia familias Graia?, e qua Comites Canciie & Stanfordiae prodiere, 
" scuto senis transversis fasciolis ex argento & cyano exarato, tribus vitellis in 
" cephalo distincto constant," i. e. barry of six, argent and azure, in chief three 
torteauxes, and so of the rest of the nobility of England who carry torteauxes. 

When torteauxes are of the colour azure, we name them, as the French, tor- 
teaux azure, as in the arms of ARMSTRONG of Mangerton, argent, three tor- 
teauxes azure ; Balfour's Manuscript : But the English, upon some singularity of 
their own, call them hurts, without naming the colour, that is, marks of some 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

violent strokes, as Gerard Leigh; though Guillim will have them to represent 
hurtle-berries. 

When they are green, they call them pomies, i. e. apples, which Morgan thu^ 
blazons in the arms of the name of SMITH in Essex, erminf, three pomies, i. e. with 
us, three torteauxes vert. 

When black, they call them pellets, or ogresses, which they take to rcj>n 
bullets or balls ; as in the blazon of the arms of Sir ROHMRT Ci..v. nctinu- 

Lord Mayor of London, in the book entitled the Art of Heraldry, vi/., /agent, a 
cross sable between four pellets. We with others call them twtctni\ suhle. 

The surname of MYRTON of Cambo in Fife, now extinct, argent, a clieveron hi- 
tween three torteauxes sable : Those of this surname, MI\ > llr<ii li<ii-ce, were in 
the reign of Malcolm 111. and got the lands of Cambo in Fife, by marrying the 
heiress of the name of CAMBOYS in the reign of the Bruces ; which barony is now 
possessed by Sir ALEXANDER ERSK.INE of Cambo, Lyon King at Ann . 

When those round figures we have been treating of are of two tinctures, hall 
metal, and half colour, they are called besant torte/ui\ ; and when half colour, and 
half metal, torteaux besants, observing the tincture that lies on the right or uppc/ 
part of the roundlet. These ordinarily fall out when the field is parti, or coupi 
metal and colour, and then they are counter-changed of the field. I shall here 
add an example out of Tessera Gentilitix, given by Sylvester Fetra Sancta, as fig. 
30. parted per pale, argent and sable, a roundle counter-changed of the same. The 
French say, " Parti d'argent et de sable au torteaux besans, parti de 1'un en 1'autre :" 
And our author says, " Bizanti-libum semi-autrurn, semi-argenteum, in scuto tes- 
" serario, ad perpendiculum secto, & ad dextram argento, ad laevani atro : quod 
" est Klucheimiorum in Bavaria." Camden latins torteauxes, pilas vel globulas ; 
but these differ from torteaux, tor bowls in paintings are always shadowed; where- 
as torteaux, or flat roundles, and bowls, or globes, are different figures, and keep 
their own name, as those in the arms of the Duke of TUSCANY, viz. five bowls in 
orle gules, and in chief, a torteaux azure, charged with three flower-de-luces or : 
As Menestrier, en la Science de la Noblesse, " Or, a. cinque boules de gueules, en 
" orle ; en chef un torteaux d'azur, charge' de trois fleurs-de-lis d'or :" Some say 
they are blazoned bowls, from the reason of their first assumption by Averardo de 
Medici, who served under Charles the Great of France, upon his killing Mugello, a 
giant, who destroyed the inhabitants and passengers in. and about Florence, by a 
mace of iron, at which hung five iron bowls, which the Medicis took for armorial 
figures : Others say again, the bowls in these arms represent medicinal pills, in 
allusion to the name Medicis. 



ANNULETS, RINGS, VIRES AND VIROLES. 

THE first needs no description, being well known. Rings and annulets were an- 
ciently marks of nobility and jurisdiction with the Romans, and have been con- 
tinued as armorial ones of honour, and symbols of investiture in dominions. The 
Duke of SAVOY takes possession of his dominions by the ring of St Maurice. The 
DOGE of VENICE pretends dominion in the sea, which he is said to wed, by throw- 
ing a gold ring into it every year ; and bishops receive investiture of their 
sees by a ring and pastoral-staff. The ring has been also the prize of tournaments 
and joustings, and the riding at the ring was a part of these exercises : It also was 
the reward to those who behaved themselves best in such military exploits. All 
which may be said to have given occasion for rings to be frequent in armories. 

EGLINTON, the surname of an ancient and honourable family with us, carried 
gules, three annulets or, stoned azure. Some of this family are to be found wit- 
nesses in the charters of King William and the Alexanders II. and III. and were 
patriots for their king and country against the English, in the time of competition 
for the crown by Bruce and Baliol : And in the reign of King David II. Sir HUGH 
EGLINTON of that Ilk is Justiciarius Laodonii. This family ended in a daughter 
and heiress of Sir Hugh Eglinton, and his wife Giles, daughter of Walter High 
Steward of Scotland, and sister to King Robert II. who was married to Sir JOHN- 
MONTGOMERY of Eaglesham : He got with her the baronies of Eglinton and AT- 

3K 



222 OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

drossin, of whom were descended Montgomeries Earls of Egliriton, who have of a 
long time been in use to quarter the arms of Eglinton with their own, of whom 
afterwards. 

HUTTON of that Ilk, in the shire of Berwick, or, three annulets g ule /, Macken- 
zie's Heraldry. In our New Register, I find Doctor John Hutton said to be re- 
presenter of Hutton of that Ilk; he was chief Physician to their Majesties 1692, 
and carried other arms, viz. or, a lion rampant azure between three arrows, points 
downward, 2 and i, proper, headed and feathered argent, on a chief gules, as 
many besants; crest, a serpent, catching a finger of a man's hand, which issues 
from a cloud, all proper : ' motto, Si Deus, quis contra ? 

HIRTON of that Ilk, argent, three annulets gules. Font's Manuscript. 

MOLIN in Bretagne, azure, three heads of lances, within an annulet argent, up- 
on the account, says Menestrier, that one of that family, in a military exercise, 
before a great assembly, carried the ring three times on end. 

LEAKE Earl of SCARSDALE, in Derbyshire, Baron DEINCOURT, of Sutton, argent, 
on a saltier ingrailed sable, nine annulets, or : This family was dignified with the 
title of Baron, by King James I. of Great Britain, and in the reign of King 
Charles I. Francis Lord Deincourt was advanced to the dignity of Earl, by the 
title of Scarsdale, who, in the time of the late Civil Wars, being a man of a great 
fortune and bright parts, manifested his loyalty, in a most exemplary manner to 
King Charles I. ; for his two sons, dying in that king's service, and, having suffered 
much for his loyalty, in these ruinous times, he became so much mortified after the 
murder of his Sovereign King Charles I. that he apparelled himself in sackcloth, and 
causing his grave to be dug some years before his death, laid himself down in it 
every Friday, and exercising himself frequently in divine meditations and prayer, 
departed this life, at Sullen, anno 1655 ' He was succeeded by Nicolas his son, of 
whom is descended the present Earl of Scarsdale. 

LOWTHER Viscount LONSDALE, which family is of great antiquity in Westmore- 
land. The name is local from the town and manor of Lowther, /. e. lower than 
the hills that surround it. Of this family there have been many eminent branches 
of the name. 

Sir JOHN LOWTHER, son and heir of Sir JOHN LOWTHER of that Ilk, was created 
a Knight Baronet of Scotland, by King Charles I. but afterwards the family was 
raised to the honour of Baron Lowther of Lowther, and Viscount Lonsdale, in 
the year 1696. The armorial bearing of the family, or, six annulets, 3, 2, and i, 
sable. 

LUCAS, Lord LUCAS of Crudwell, in Wiltshire, argent, a fesse betwixt three 
annulets gules. Dal. Pur. 

The name of MUSGRAVE, azure, six annulets, 3, 2, and i, or. Ibid. 

The name of ADDISON, in England, ermine, on a bend gules, three annulets or, 
a chief azure, charged with as many leopards' heads of the second : these belong, 
$ays Kent, in his Dictionary of Arms, to JOSEPH ADDISON, Esq. one of the Members 
of Parliament for Malmsbury. And there also the name of AMERVILLE, parted 
per fesse indented, argent and gules, three annulets counter-changed. Also the 
bearing of AYLET, in England, azure, three annulets argent. 

When annulets or great rings are carried in arms, one within another, the French 
call them vires. 

" Vires" says Menestrier, " Sont anneaux passes les uns dans les autres, comme 
" aux armoiries de virieu : De gueules, a trois vires d'argent," i. e. gules, three an- 
nulets within one another, argent. As fig. 32. 

From vires, are the terms viroles, and virole, in the blazons of figures that have 
hoops and rings round them, such as casks, barrels, battering-rams, bunting-horns, 
and other utensils, of which afterwards. 



OF CUTTES AND GUTTE. 

THESE I mention in the end of the sub-ordinaries, because they receive divers 
terms of blazons, according to the tinctures they are of. Guttes are drops of things 
that are liquid, either by nature or by art ; if they be yellow, they are called 



OF THE SL'U-ORDINARIKS. 223 

gnuttcs d'ar, drops of liquid gold ; when white, gbuttcs tic /'cau, or larmes d' argent, 
i. e. drops of water or tears, such as these with which they use to besprinkle June- 
nil escutcheons and monuments of the dead on a black field. Thus the penit- 
of the Order of St Francis have, for arms, sable, seme de larmes, and a dove mov- 
ing from the chief argent ;. the emblem of true repentance, coining from the 
Holy Spirit, represented by the dove ; with the motto, Flabit spiritus ejits, fc^ Jlu 
cut aqua. 

When they are of red colour, they are called gwttes de sang, i. e. drops of blood; 
when blue, gouttes de larmes ; when green, gauttes de vert, which represent the oil 
of olive ; and, when black, gouttes de poix, from the French word which signifies 
pitch ; though sometimes they arc called gouttes de sable. These guttes may be 
disposed as other figures in armories, 2 and i ; and, if more, the greatest numbers 
are in chief ; and, if otherways, are after the position of the ordinaries. 

Sir JAMES TURNER, sometime Major-General to King Charles II. quarterly, 
first and fourth sable, a St Katharine's wheel argent, second and third argent, 3 
gouttes de sang, 2 and I ; crest, a heart flaming : motto, Tune cede malts. 

Mr ARCHIBALD TURNER, sometime one of the Ministers of Edinburgh, carries 
the same with Sir James, with a crescent for diffeerence, as in our New Register. 

The name of ATHELL of Northampton, in England, argent, a cheveron sable, 
goutte (Tor, Kent's Dictionary of Arms. 

The name of CROSBIE there, argent, three gouttes de poix. 

If these drops exceed the number ten, and irregularly sprinkle the field or charge, 
we then call them gutte. 

CORNWALLIS Lord CORNWALLIS of Eye, in Suffolk, sable, gutte argent, on a 
fesse of the last, three Cornish cheughs, proper ; Imhoflf, speaking of this family, 
says, " Scutum Baronis Cornwallis ita delineatum legi, nigrum lachrymis argenteis 
" respersum, & baltheo ejusdem metalli distinctum, cui tres moneduhe (i. e. jack- 
daws) nigne impressa? sunt." 

Sir FREDERICK. CORNWALLIS of Brome, in Suffolk, was made a Knight Baronet 
by King Charles I. who, for his loyalty to that king, suffered in his fortune and 
person, by imprisonment and exile ; but on the Restoration of King Charles II. he 
was created Lord CORNWALLIS, by letters patent, dated 2Oth April 1661. 

The ensign of the EPISCOPAL SEE of BANGOR, in Carnarvonshire, a bend argent, 
goutte de poix, between two mullets of the second. 

With us, the ancient name of MORTIMER, or, a lion rampant, sable, gutte of 
the first. Mackenzie's Heraldry. Fig. 34. 

MORTIMER of Vamouth, argent, a, lion rampant, sable, goutte de Teau. Balfour's 
Manuscript. 

MORTIMER of Craigievar, argent, a lion rampant, sable, goutte for, Font's Ma- 
nuscript. But MORTIMER of Auchenboddy, barry of six pieces, or and azure, on 
a chief of the second, two pallets of the first ; crest, a buck's head cabossed 
sable : motto, Acquirit qui tuetur~ Lyon Register. 

Mr Gibbon gives an ancient bearing of drops, by one of the name of DROP, 
Lord Mayor of London, in the year of Edward IV. viz. argent, gouttt de poix, 
on a chief gules, a lion passant gardant, or, which arms, says he, were standing 
in Cornhill, London 1666. He latins them thus, " Scutum argenteum, guttis 
" atris respersum, caput autem scuti est sanguineum & leone gradients aureo 
" (obverso ore) exaratur." 



OF PAPELONNE AND DIAPERING OF ARMS. 

I THOUGHT it was not amiss to add the explanation of these terms before I put an 
end to the first part of heraldry, that I might not seem to omit any figure or sha- 
dow of things that have their names from this science. 

Papelonne is said of a field or charge that is covered with figures like the scales 
of a fish, as Monsieur Baron in his VArt Heraldique, says, " Papelonne se dit de 
" 1'ecu qui est remple de figures semblables a des ecailles," and gives for example, 
the arms of MONTI, gueules. papelonne d 1 argent, fig. 35. ; and Menestrier says of it 



OF THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

papelonne se dit cun ouvrage a ecailles i. e. a work of scales ; and gives, for instance, 
the arms of A.-R.QViNVH.LiEKS,d'ermine papelonne degueules, i.e. ermine, papelonne gules. 
The same arms are given by Mr Kent in his Dictionary of Arms, and Feme gives 
us such another, argent, papelonne gules : This figure is only frequent with the 
French ; I have met with no English that has treated of it, but Holmes in his 
Academy of Armory, who has it from Feme, and says, it signifies any thing be- 
set with spangles ; and, in his judgment, they may be termed, according to the 
English language, instead of or papelonne, gules mailed or escaloppy gules, seeing it 
resembles both iron rings quilted in coats of mail, and the lower part of escalop- 
shells ; some artists say, he terms this in their profession, scallop-work, which, if 
this figure were in use for Engligh coats, would be so termed. 

Diapering is said when the field is shadowed with flourishings and various 
turnings by purfles of gold or silver, or other colours, after the form of flowers or 
leaves, as the weavers' diaper-napery ; the Germans practise it most in their illu- 
minated arms, but rarely the Britons ; such diaperings are to be found in armories ; 
it is only used but to beautify the field and figure, and is no part of the blazon. 



THE END OF THE FIRST PART. 



SYSTEM 

OF 

HERALDRY, 

SPECULATIVE AND PRACTICAL: 
WITH THE TRUE ART OF BLAZON. 



P ART SECOND. 

\ 

CHAP. L 
OF NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL FIGURES. 

THE COMMON CHARGES. 

HAVING treated of the proper figures in armories, I shall now give some 
general rules and observations relative to natural and artificial figures, called 
the common charges, with their attributes, which make the second part of this 
system ; in which I am to describe and blazon them in their proper and armo- 
rial terms, according to their position, disposition, situation, and number in ar- 
morial bearings. 

These, then, are the representations of all things, natural and artificial, animate 
and inanimate, which retain their own proper names and colours in this science, as 
they do in others, on which account they are called the common charges. 

Of old, only hieroglyphics, emblems, and devices, the early seed of armories, 
were composed of such figures ; for the ancientest arms in Europe are but old 
emblems and devices regulate into a form, and used as fixed hereditary marks of 
honour, to distinguish the noble from the ignoble. 

We are not here to consider those figures either as hieroglyphical or symbolical, 
nor as devices ; for then they would be but arbitrary and temporary, and might 
be used or laid aside by any person at pleasure, as serving only to show their incli- 
nations or intentions, and to represent their present conditions or future designs : 
But we are here to consider these figures as armorial ones, representing something 

3L 



226 OF NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL FIGURES. 

already performed, and as fixed marks of honour allowed by authority, and trans- 
missible to posterity, for distinguishing the noble from the ignoble. And, as it is 
said of nobility itself, of which they are signs, the older and longer its progression 
be, by descents, it is of more esteem and honour. The same may be said of the 
continued ensigns of ancient nobility. 

Heralds tell us, that the good and commendable qualities of figures which form 
armorial bearings, do not give preference to some bearings before others, which 
have not figures of the like commendable qualities ; but that all arms are of equal 
honour and dignity, data paritate gestantium, the bearers being of equal dignity. 
And though some consideration be had of the natural qualities of figures, by the 
first obtainers of arms, to represent the like virtues and good qualities in them- 
selves, yet these figures being hereditary, and descending to all the issue, they 
cannot be supposed to represent the like good qualities in all of them, but can on- 
ly be taken as a silent surname or tessera of their noble descent from the first as- 
sumers and obtainers of such arms ; that being the main end of armories, as be- 
fore defined, hereditary marks of honour, regularly composed of tinctures and fi- 
gures granted by Sovereigns, for distinguishing persons, families, and communities. 
Notwithstanding of which, it is to be observed, that there is a dignity, decent 
regularity, and beauty in armories ; proceeding from the quality of the bearings, 
the regular disposition of the figures in the shield, and a certain number of them, 
which gives preference and lustre to arms so formed ; of which I shall here briefly 
speak before I proceed to treat of the figures themselves. 

And first, It must be owned that some figures are of more honour than others, 
and have precedency in an armorial sense ; though not universally, yet in some 
certain places, as for instance, the armorial figures of sovereigns : Thus, the lion 
and double tressure are the most honourable figures that can be used in Scotland, 
because such compose the imperial ensign. In France they are not so honourable, 
for there the flower-de-luces have the precedency. In Sweden the crowns are pre- 
ferable to the lilies ; and in the Empire the eagle is preferred to all others. Figures 
then within their respective dominions and jurisdictions are to be considered, as 
feudal arms, being those of patrons, which the vassals and clients carry in imita- 
tion of their over-lords and patrons, may be reckoned preferable within their juris- 
dictions ; of which arms, I have treated in my Essay of the Ancient and Modern 
Use of Armories. 

Again, a fair shield of arms, regularly formed with decent figures, is more pre- 
ferable and praise-worthy than an irregular one with mean and obscure figures, un- 
fit to represent the honour and dignity of a w r orthy person. In remedy of which, 
I shall add here some general rules from heralds. 

I. In commendation of armories, say they, all creatures are presumed to be car- 
ried, upon account of their noble and best qualities ; as a lion for his magnanimity, 
and not for his rapacious nature. A fox for his wit and cunning, and not on ac- 
count of his pilfering and stealing. This is, says Guillim, the honour of a gentle- 
man of coat-armour (the first obtainer of arms) to have his virtues under these 
types, and to consider the commendable properties qf such tokens as he bears, 
thereby manifesting to the world that he hath the like good qualities in him- 
self. 

II. That every thing be placed in its natural posture, form, and colour ; be- 
cause nature is the chief model and pattern of art, providing there be no special 
reason for having them otherwise ; that is to say, though the proper colour of an 
eagle be black, yet a red, green, or blue one, carried for distinction's sake, or 
upon other special accounts, is as honourable arms as that of the natural colour ; 
data paritate gestantium, the bearers being of equal dignity. 

III. That magnanimous creatures ought to be represented in armories, in their 
fiercest postures, as lions, boars, &-c. rampant, that is erected ; because then they 
are presumed to show strength, as Bartolus de Insigniis says, " Animalia fera de- 
" brnt exprimi in actu ferociore." 

IV. Other creatures that are not wild or ravenous ought to be represented in 
their noblest positions ; as a horse salient, a grey-hound running, &c. 

V. Creatures that are remarkable for any posture ought to be carried in that 



OF NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL FIGURES. .27 

position, as a lamb passant, because it is naturally simple. A serpent gliding or 
circling in a knot, because remarkable for these postures. 

VI. All things that have fore and hind parts, ante and post, should be carried in 
armories, looking to the right side ot the shield ; if to the left, they are said to be 
contournc. When two animals are in one field, they are always placed ufronte, 
and look to one another, by the Germans, but not so by other nations. Of which 
afterwards. 

VII. Heralds tell us also, that when arms of subjects are set up, or painted, near 
the place where the sovereign ones are, all the creatures in the arms of the sub- 
jects are to be turned looking to the sovereign's. As Sylvester Petra Sancta, 
" Sicubi tamen simulacrum, aut stemma principis, fuerit medio loco a dextra le- 
" vaque, icones omnes gentilitium parmularum, eo convert! debere." And the 
same says Bartolus de Insigniis. When creatures are painted upon banners, they 
must look to the staff; when upon caparisons and other horse -furniture, they ought 
to look to the head of the horse or beast that bears them ; and so of all things 
whose parts are distinguished by ante and post. 

VIII. As the right side is nobler than the left, so the upper part of the shield is 
more noble than the lower part ; therefore, tokens granted by sovereigns to sub- 
jects are always placed in chief. 

IX. All things in arms, being of their own natural colour, are blazoned proper ; 
such as grapes, peacocks, &c. 

X. The most commendable part of any creature, in armories, is the head ; for 
that, say heralds, shows that the bearer feared not to stand before the face of his 
enemy. 

These are the general observations given by heralds concerning the common 
charges ; whose nature to describe is not the business of those who act the part of 
a herald, but rather that of a natural philosopher, or of those conversing in hiero- 
glyphics, emblems, and devices, which are composed only upon the consideration 
of the nature and qualities of the creatures ; whereas in armories there are many 
other reasons, occasions, facts, and events, which bring those creatures into armo- 
ries. These I may have occasion to mention, as I treat of them separately, in the 
arms of particular families, and blazon them in the terms of heraldry, as to their 
position, disposition, and situation in the shield. 

I have already treated of the position, disposition, and situation of figures, as 
they accompany the ordinaries, and shall here insist a little, as they are situate 
alone without the ordinaries, and especially as to the number of figures in a 
shield. Number is counted by some to be one of the elements of armory, without 
which arms cannot be, for in them there must be some number, either of lines, 
tinctures, or resemblances of things. 

Number then, (or rather things numbered in arms) is finite or indefinite. Finite, 
whose number is certain ; as one, two, three, or more : Indefinite, whose number is 
uncertain in armories, as when they exceed sixteen, and are irregularly situate. 

Arms may be looked upon as good and warrantable of whatsoever number of 
things they consist; yet the beauty of arms consists in a certain number of figures, 
keeping their due distance, fullness, and identity in the shield, which are called 
armorial numbers, and should be taken notice of, especially by those who give out 
arms to the public. 

By an armorial number of figures, whether even or odds, I understand those 
figures which, being alone in the shield, are so situate, that in every rank one de- 
creaseth to the base, and there end in one, which most agreeably declines to the 
form of a triangular shield, and gives a beauty to the eye. 

Of all even numbers, those of six and ten can be so situate ; as, for example, 
azure, six besants or, 3, z and i. And gules, ten lozenges argent, 4, 3, 2 and i, 
by the surname of CRISPIN in England, as in Plate IX. fig. 13. 

Figures of other even numbers cannot be so disposed to beautify the field, ex- 
cept they accpmpany other things, as two, a bend, four, a cross, and as many the 
saltier ; eight handsomely fill a bordure ; twelve may accompany a cross and sal- 
tier, placing three in each canton ; and also sixteen, the same two ordinaries ; 
placing four figures in each canton ; as in the arn\s of the ancient family ot 
MONX.MORENCV in France, or, a cross gules, betwixt sixteen alerions 



228 OF NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL FIGURES. 

As for the odd numbers, one is counted the best, being situate in the centre of 
the shield, and frequently to be seen in ancient paintings and engravings. Next 
to it is the number three, called of old ternio, or trias ; most frequently in arms, 
disposed 2 and i, towards the angles of the shield. And these figures, being all of 
one kind, (which the ancients call identity) are said to represent but one thing 
multiplied to 2 and i , for beauty's sake ; as, for instance, the ancient Earls of 
LEICESTER carried gules, a cinq