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Vol, III May, 1917 No. 2 

Board of Editors 

George T. Flom William A. Oldfather 

Stuart P. Sherman 


Under the Auspices of the Graduate School 
Urbana. Ilunois 

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Copyright, 1917 
By the University op Illinois^ 

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Table of Contents page 

Preface - 9 

List of Books and Articles consulted ! 13 

Texts in Phonetic Transcription and Translation.....: 16 

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This essay is purely linguistic in character and purpose. 

In taking phonetic notes on Tagalog I noticed that the pronuncia- 
tion of the speaker to whom I was listening, Mr. Alfredo Viola Santiago- 
(at present a student of architectural engineering in the University of 
Illinois) presented certain features of accentuation not mentioned in 
the descriptions familiar to me. With the intention of briefly describing 
these features, I took down more extensive notes and asked Mr. Santiago 
to tell me in Tagalog the stories of **The Sun'' and **The Northwind 
and the Sun,'' used as models by the International Phonetic Association. 

The data so obtained showed that the features of accentuation I 
had observed were in part distinctive (expressive of word-meaning), 
and, further, that certain other features, which were but imperfectly 
described in the treatises I knew (so especially the use of the '* liga- 
tures"), appeared in Mr. Santiago's speech in a regular and intelligible 
manner. A more extensive study was thus indicated. 

The results of this study were subject to two obvious limitations. 
The utterances I had transcribed were either translations or isolated 
sentences, and I could not determine to what extent the features of Mr. 
Santiago's speech which I had observed were general in Tagalog. 

The former of these limitations was fully overcome when I asked 
Mr. Santiago to tell me connected stories. In addition to fortunate 
endowments of a more general kind Mr. Santiago possesses, as I found, 
that vivacity of intellect and freedom from irrelevant prepossessions- 
which we seek and so rarely find in people whose language we try to 
study. This latter quality may be due in part to the fact that, as Mr. 
Santiago's education has been carried on entirely in Spanish and Eng- 
lish, his speech-feeling for his mother-tongue has not been deflected by 
the linguistic, or rather pseudo-linguistic training of the schools, so 
familiar to us. However this may be, I cannot be grateful enough to 
Mr. Santiago (and I hope that the reader will join me in this feeling) 
for the intelligence, freshness, and imagination with which he has given 
us connected narratives in his native language, — stories he heard in 
childhood and experiences of his own and of his friends. It is to be- 
hoped that some of these will be of interest to students of folk-lore (as, 
for instance, Nos. 9, 10, 11, the old Hindu fable in No. 4, and the Midas^ 

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story, much changed, in No. 5) ; the texts are here given, however, only 
for their linguistic interest. 

The second limitation could not be overcome. As there exists at 
present no adequate description of the dialectal differentiation of Taga- 
Icg, nor even an adequate description of any one form of the language, 
I can make no definite statement as to the relation of Mr. Santiago's 
speech to other forms of Tagalog. 

What is here presented is, then, a specimen of the speech of an 
educated speaker from Mr. Santiago's home town, San Miguel na 
JMatames, Bulacan Province, Luzon. It would have been possible to 
include in the description the speech of at least one other educated 
Tagalog from a different region (uneducated speakers are unfortunately 
not within my reach), as well as such data as might be gathered from 
printed Tagalog books: I have refrained from this extension because, 
at the present state of our knowledge, a single clearly defined set of 
data is preferable to a necessarily incomplete attempt at describing the 
whole language in its local and literary variations. Comparison of 
literary Tagalog (chiefly the translation of Jose Bizal's *'Noli me 
Tangere'' by Patricio Mariano, Manila, Morales, 1913* ) shows that Mr. 
Santiago's speech is not far removed from it. In most cases where my 
results deviate from the statements of the Spanish grammars, the evi- 
dence of printed books (and not infrequently the internal evidence of 
the grammars themselves) shows that the divergence is due not to dia- 
lectal differences but to the fact that the grammars are the product of 
linguistically untrained observers, who heard in terms of Spanish articu- 
lations and classified in those of Latin grammar. 

This study presents, then, the first Tagalog texts in phonetic tran- 
soription and the first scientific analysis of the structure of the language t. 
Although the nature of the problem forbade the use of any material 
other than that obtained from Mr. Santiago, I have examined all the 
treatises on Tagalog accessible to me. No experience could show more 
clearly than the reading of these books the necessity of linguistic and 
especially phonetic training for anyone who wishes to describe a lan- 

*An English translation by Charles Derbyshire was published in 1912 by the 
Philippine Education Company in Manila and the World Book Company in New 
York, under the title "The Social Cancer". 

tThe entire syntax and much of the morphology, especially whatever relates 
to the accent-shifts in word-formation, will be found to be new. I have of course 
refrained from any and all historical surmises beyond the indication of unassimi- 
lated loan-words. The system of transcription used is, with a few deviations, 
that of the International Phonetic Association. 

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167] PREFACE 11 

guage. Not one of the works in the following list • contains an intelli- 
gible description of the pronunciation of Tagalog. The only general 
work of scientific value is the excellent second volume of P. Serrano 
Laktaw's dictionary. Much as one may admire the pioneer courage of 
Totanes and the originality of Minguella, these venerable men were as 
little able to describe a language as one untrained in botany is to de- 
scribe a plant. Among the authors of monographs are several good 
names and one or two of the greatest in our science : nearly all of these 
authors mention the difficulty under which they labored for want of an 
adequate description of the language. 

*They were accessible to me chiefly through the courtesy of the Newberry 
Library in Chicago. 

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Alter, F. C, Uber die tagalische Sprache. Wien 1803. 

Blake, F. R., Contributions to comparative Philippine Grammar. (Journal of the 
American Oriental Society, vols. 27, 28, 29, 30). 

Brandstetter, R., Tagalen und Madagassen, Luzem 1902. (= his Malayo-poly- 
nesiche Forschungen, ser. 2, no. 2). 

Conant, C. E., The names of the Philippine langfuages. (Anthropos, vol. 4). 
The pepet law in the Philippine languages. (Anthropos, vol. 7). 

de Coria, J., Nueva gramatica tagalog. Madrid 1872. 

Cue-Malay, G., Frases usuales para la conversacion en espaiiol tagalo e ingles. 
Manila 1898. 

Doherty, D. J., The Tagalog language. (Educational Review, vol. 24). 

Duran, C. G., Manual de conversaciones en castellano tagalo e ingles. Manila 1900. 

Fernandez, D. E., Nuevo vocabulario 6 manual de conversaciones en espanol, tagalo 
y pampango. Binondo 1901. 

Francisco [Blancas] de San Josef, Arte y Reglas de la lengua Tagala. Manila 1832. 

Garcia, F., at Herrera, V., Manga onang turo sa uikang ingles. Maynila 1902. 

Caspar de San Agustin, Compendio de la Lengua Tagala. Manila 1879. 

Hevia Campomanes, J., Lecciones de gramitica Hispano-Tagala. Manila 1872. 
3d ed. 1883. 4th ed. 1888. 

von Humboldt, W., Die Kawi-Sprache, vol. 2, pp. 315 flf., 347 ff. (= Berlin Acad- 
emy Transactions, 1832, vol. 3). 

Kern, J. H. C, Over zoogenaamde verbindingsklanken in het Tagala. (Bijdragen 
tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indie, ser. 3, vol. 11). 
Sanskritsche woorden in het Tagala. (ib., ser. 4, vol. 4). 

Kirk, May, The Baldwin primer. Tagalog edition. New York [1899 and 1902 

Lendoyro, C, The Tagalog language. Manila 1902. 

MacKinlay, W. E. W., A handbook and grammar of the Tagalog language. Wash- 
ington 1905. 

Marre, A., Grammaire tagalog (Bijdragen, ser. 6, vol. 9). 

Merrill, E. D., A dictionary of the plant names of the Philippine Islands. Manila 
1903. (Publications of the Bureau of Government Laboratories, Department 
of the Interior, Philippine Islands, no. 8). 

Miles, J., Metodo teorico-prictico y compendiado para aprender el lengfuaje Taga- 
log. Barcelona 1887. 

Jiflinguella, T., Ensayo de gramitica Hispano-Tagala. Manila 1878. 

Metodo practico para que los niiios y nifias de las provincias tagalas apren- 
dan 4 hablar Castellano. Manila 1886. 


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Neilson, P. D., English-Tagalog Dictionary. Manila 1903. 

Tagalog-English Dictionary. Manila 1903. 
^igg» C, Tagalog English and English Tagalog Dictionary. Manila 1904. 
de Noceda, J., y de Sanlucar, P., Vocabulario de la lengfua Tagala. Manila i860. 
Paglinawan, M., Balarilang Tagalog [on cover : Gramatikang Tagalog] Maynila 1910. 
Pardo de Tavera, T. H., Consideraciones sobre el origen del nombre de los 

numeros en Tagalog (La Espafia oriental 1889). 
El Sanscrito en la lengua Tagalog. Paris 1887. 
Rizal, Jose, Die Transcription des Tagalog. (Translated by F. Blumentritt, Bijdra- 

gen, vol. 42). 
de los Santos, Domingo, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala. Manila 1835 (reimpreso). 
Serrano, R., Diccionario de terminos comunes Tagalo-Castellano. Ed. 3. Binondo 


Nuevo diccionario manual Espanol-Tagalo. Manila 1872. 
Serrano Laktaw, P., Diccionario Hispano-Tagalog. Primera parte. Manila 1889. 

Diccionario Tagalog-Hispano. Segunda parte. Manila 1914. 
deTotanes, S., Arte de la lengua Tagala. Manila 1745. Sampaloc 1796. Manila 

1850. Binondo 1865 (reimpreso). 
Wolfensohn, L. B., The infixes la li, lo in Tagalog. (Journal of the American 

Oriental Society, vol. 27). 

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1. Aq ulol na uggo^ at ag marunog na pagog. 

Mlnsan ag pagog habag naliligo sa Ilog, ay nakaklta sya na^j 
isa ^j puno-^j-sagig na lumuluta^j at tin&taxjay nag agos. Hinila 
niya sa pasigan, ddtapwat hindl nya madala sa lupa'. Ddhil dito 
5 tin&wag nya a^j kaybigan niya g uggo^ at iniyalay nya ag kaputol 
na^j puno-g-sagig kug itatanim nyk ag kanya ^j kapart^. Tumagd' 
ag uggo^ at hinate nil^ sa gitna^ mula sa magkdbila g dulo ag 
piino nag sagig. Inagkin nag uggo ag kaputol na mky maga 
d4hon, dahil sa panukala nya na iyon ay tutubo na mabuti k4y sa 
10 kaputol na wala g ddhon. 

Nag makaraan ag ila g &raw, ag puno nag uggo* ay namat^y, 
yamag ag sa pag6g ay tumubo haggag sa magbuga. Ag maga 
s4gig ay nahinog, d&tapwat hindi maakyat nag pagog. Dahil dito 
tinawag nyk ag kanya g kaybiga g uggo^ at inyalay nya ag ila g 
15 buga nag sfigig kug ^akyatin nya ag puno'. Ag uggo' ay umakyit 
at kumain nag mak^k&ya. 

Sinabi nag pagog : **Hulugan mo ak5." 

D&tapuwat isinagot nag uggo': **Balat man at malinamnam 
ay hindi kita huhulugan.'' 
20 Ag pag6g ay nagdlit at nagsabug sya nag tinik sa paligid 

nag puno*. Nag lumukso ag uggo ay natinik sya. Pinagbintagan 
nya ag pagdg at kanya g hinanap upag parus4han niya. Nahuli 
nya ag pagog sa kabUa nag isa g tood. 

Sin&bi nya sa pag6g : *'Kita ay Ski g parurus4han. MamHi 
25 ka sa dalawa. Dikdikin kita sa lusog o lunurin kita sa Ilog?" 

Ag marunog na pagog ay nagumpisi nag pagsisigaw at 
hinilig nya sa ugg6' na, kug maMre^ ay dikdikin siya sa lusdg. 

D&tapwat isinagot nag uggo': *'lblbigay kd sa iy6 ag parusa 
na hindf mo gustd." 
30 At inih&gis nya sa flog ag pagog. 

Nag dum&po ag pagog sa tubig ay nagsisigJiw sya at sin&bi 
nyk sa ugg6': **Sal&mat, kaybigan. ltd ag &ki g tirahan!'' 


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1. The foolish monkey and the clever turtle. 

Once upon a time, when the tui^le was swimming in the river, he 
saw a banana-tree adrift and being carried along by the current. He 
dragged it to the beach, but was not able to carry it up to the solid 
ground. Therefore he called his friend, the monkey, and offered him a 
half of the banana-tree, if he would plant his part for him. The monkey 
agreed, and they divided the banana-tree at the middle, half-way from 
either end. The monkey took the half which had leaves, because he 
thought it would grow better than the half which had none. 

When a few days had passed, the monkey's tree died, while that of 
the turtle grew until it bore fruit. The bananas grew ripe, but the 
turtle could not climb for them. Therefore he called his friend, the 
monkey, and offered him some of the fruits of the banana, if he would 
climb the tree. The monkey climbed up and ate for all he was worth. 

Said the turtle: ** Throw me some." 

But the monkey answered: ** Though sweet the skins, I'd throw 
you none." 

The turtle got angry and scattered spines round the foot of the 
tree. When the monkey jumped down, he landed on the spines. He 
suspected the turtle and looked for him, in order to punish him. He 
found the turtle behind a stump. 

Said he to the turtle : **I am going to punish you. Choose between 
the two: shall I bray you in a mortar or drown you in the river?" 

The clever turtle began to shout and begged the monkey, if it were 
possible, to bray him in a mortar. 

But the monkey answered: **I shall give you the punishment you 
don't want." 

And he threw the turtle into the river. 

When the turtle arrived in the water, he set up a shout and said 
to the monkey: ** Thank you, friend!" This is my home." 

Note. p. 16, 1. 2 aQ pagdq h&ba^ nalUfgo^ is unusual and no 
doubt traditional for h&ba\) ag pag5\) ay nalUIgo'. Similarly, p. 
16, 1. 18 Balat man at malinamnam ... is traditional (proverbial) 
for modem E&hit na malinamnam aQ maqa balit. 


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2. Ag pagtatakbuhan nag \XBk at nag susd^. 

Isi g usa g nagigin&in sa gubat ay nak&tagpd nag isa g suso' 
na gumag&pag sa d&hon nag buho^. Ag usa ay naghinto nag 
pagiginain at pinagmasdan nya ag mabdgal na pagg&pag nag 
5 suso'. 

Makaraan ag ila g sandali^ ay sin&bi nya sa sus6': **Ano g 
hina mo g lumakad! Bakit hindi ka magaral na lum^kad nag 
matulin? Gaya ko, aku y pardti g n&hah&bul nag maga &so, 
d&tapwat ag matulin ko g pagtakbo ay sya g nagliligtas sa 4kin 
10 nag dki g buhay. Ddtapwat gaya mo, kug ikaw ay habulin nag 
k&hit ano g ka&way, pap&no ag magyay&ri sa iyo g buhay ? Piho 
g ikaw ay mapapat^y." 

Pagkarinig nag suso* sa maga salita g ito ay tinignan nya 
ag us^ at kanya g pinagar&lan ag mainam nya g pagagatawan, 
15 ag kanya g mahahdba g paa, at ag malalakas nya g lamin. Inibig 
nya na siya man ay gaya rin nag us4 upag siyk ay makatakbo 
nag matulin. D&tapwat kanya g inakala' na, kug pilitin nya na 
sya y tumakbo, ay hindi sya mahiihule nag malaki sa usa. 

Sa gayon ay isinagot nya sa us4: '*Ikaw ay mapagmata. 
20 Hindi mo hinihin&la^ kug ano ag mag&gawa nag isa g may matibay 
na paggusto. Hinahamon kita na makipagtakbuhan sa akin mula 
rito haggag sa ilog na n4sa bandJ, g kalunuran mula rito.'' 

Ag us4 ay tum&wa nag malakJls at isinagdt sa suso^: **Bdkit 
mo inakala g tatalunin mo ako? Siguro g ikJ-w ay magdadfiya^ ! ' ' 
25 Isinagot nag suso', na hindi siya magdadaya^, at, upag mfty- 

roo g tumigin sa kanild, at magig hukom sa kanila g pagtatakbu- 
han, ay sindbi nyk na tum&wag silk nag isk sa maga kajdbigan 
nil&, na sya g magigig huk5m. 

Ag usa ay pum&yag, at tindwag nUk ag isa g kalaw, upag 
30 siya g magig hukdm. 

Nag magumpis4 silk nag pagtakbd ay malaki ag nagig pagk&- 
huli nag suso^. Sa kanya g pagtakbd ag usa ay nakarajln nag 
isa g may&bug na damuhan. "Naghintu sya upag magin&in, y&mag 
malaki ag pagk&una nya sa suso^. Bin&lak ny^ na pagkdtanaw 
35 nya na dumaratig ag suso' ay t&takbo syJi g muli^. D&tapuwat, 
nag sya y makapaginain, ay sinumpog sya nag katam&ran. Na- 
tulug sya sa panukala na magigisig syk bdgo dumatig ag sus6'. 

Ddtapwat, h&bag sya y natutulog, ay nakara^n ag susd*. Nag 
mfigisig sya ay mal&lim na sa hapon. Tumakbo sya nag ubus- 
40 lakas patugu sa ilog, at doon ay sinalubog sya nag suso^ at nag 
kanila g hukom na kalaw. 

**Ikaw ay talunan," winika pagd&ka nag kanila g hukom. 

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2. The race of the deer and the snail. 

A deer, grazing in the jungle, came upon a snail that was creeping 
over the leaf of a bamboo-plant. The deer ceased from his grazing and 
watched the slow creeping of the snail. 

When a few moments had passed, he said to the snail: **How 
slowly you walk! Why don't you learn to walk faster? Look at me, — 
I am often pursued by dogs, but my swift running is what saves my 
life. But look at you, — if you should be pursued by any foe, what 
will ever save your life? Surely you will get killed." 

When the snail had heard these words, he looked at the deer and 
scanned his fine physique, his long legs, and his strong muscles. He 
wished that he too might be like the deer, so that he could run fast. 
However, he thought that if he forced himself to run, he should not 
remain far behind the deer. 

Accordingly he answered the deer: *'You are overweening. You 
do not suspect what can be done by one who has a strong will. I chal- 
lenge you to race with me from here to the river that lies west of 

The deer laughed loudly and answered the snail: **How can you 
think you will defeat me? I suppose you are going to cheat." 

The snail answered that he was not going to cheat, and, so that 
there might be someone to watch them and be judge over their race, 
he suggested that they call one of their friends to be judge. 

The deer agreed, and they called an owl to be judge. 

When they began to run, the snail was soon left far behind. On 
his course the deer came upon a flourishing grass-field. He stopped to 
graze, since his start over the snail was so great. He planned that 
when he saw the snail coming, he would start running again. However, 
when he had done feeding, he was attacked by laziness. He went to 
sleep, with the thought that he would wake up before the snail arrived. 

However, while he was asleep, the snail passed by. When he 
awoke, it was already late in the afternoon. He ran with all his might 
to the river, and there he was met by the snail and their judge, the owl. 

**You are defeated," said their judge at once. 

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3. Isa g Biyarnes-S^nto. 

Si Hwan at ai] kanyi 13 kaybiga g si Pedro ay namamagka 

sa ilug patugo sa baya-g-Baliwag. Sa barjka' ay may-roon sila 

g isii g lar&wan nag Kristo na kanila rj inihahatid sa pare^ tipag 

5 mag^mit sa pagdadaus nag isa g Pitu g Wika^. Si Hwan ay 

sinisiglan nag t&kot. 

Sinabi nya kay Pedro: **Ag tawni n&tin sa bagka' ay tadtad 
nag sugat at hindl humlhiga. Sa akala ko y patay ag tao g 
iyan. Bak& tayu ag pagbintagan nag p&ri g fiti g paghihatdan 
10 sa kanya." 

Isinagot ni Pedro : * * Sasabihin natin sa kanya na, nag malu- 
lan sa 4ti g bagka' ag t&o g ito y ganyan na ag kanya g anyo'. 
Tkyu y mardmi g tagapagpatotoo, kanya hwag ka g matAkot/' 

Nag dumatig sila sa pare^ ay ibinigay nila ag lar^wan. 
15 Pinagsabihan sila nag pare^ na pumaroon sila sa simbahan kina- 
bukfisan nag hapon, upag makinig nag sermon. 

Si Hwan ay sinigli g muli nag takot, sapagkat hindi nya 
mapagktiro kug b&kit ibig nag pare' na sila ay pasa simbdhan. 
Par&ti sya g nakarinig nag maga tAo g kinumbida sa simbahan 
20 at doon ay hinuli nag gwardya-sibil. D&tapuwat hindi sya nag- 
wlka nag anu man kay Pedro, sapagk&t nakikita nya na itd y wala 
g t^ot. 

KinabukAsan nag h&pun ay naparoon sila sa simb&han, at 
do6n ay nikfta nili ag isa g Kristo g napapaku sa krus. 
25 WinikJ, ni Hw4n: '*Ag tAu g yaon, kug iyo g natitandain, 

ay sya n&ti g inihatid sa p&re'. Mabiiti tAyo y dumodn sa isa 
g lugAr na hindi maAabut nag matA nag pAre^'' 

EanyA silA g dalawA ay naparodn sa ilalim nag pulpito, lipag 
dodn nilA pakiggan ag sermon. NagumpisA ag Sy6ti-PalAbras, 
30 at ag pari ay dumaratig nA sa banda g hull nag kanya g sermon. 

WinikA nag pAri sa kanya g sermon: ''Magsisi kayd sa inyu 
g maga kasalAnan, malulupit na tAo. MasdAn ninyd ag maga siigat 
na hiniwa ninyu sa katawAn nag Ati g MAnanAkop/' 

PagkArinig nitd ni HwAn ay sya y siniglA g muli nag tAkot, 
35 sapagkAt inakAlA nya na siya y nApApagbintagan. 

KanyA' ag ginawA nya ay umalis sya sa ilAlim nag pulpito, 
hinarAp nya ag pAre^ at sinAbi nya: **Amog, hindi po kami ag 
sumugat sa tAo g iyAn. Nag sya y ilulan sa Ami g bagkA', ay 
sugatan nA sya antimAno/' 
40 Pagkaw^ nya nit5 ay bumalik sya sa ilalim nag pulpito. 

Hindi pinansin Hag pAri' ag maga nArinig nya g salitA', at ipina- 
tuluy nya ag kanya g sermon. 

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3. A Good Friday. 

Juan and his friend Pedro were canoeing on the river toward the 
town Baliwag. In their canoe they had an image of Christ which they 
were conveying to a priest to be used in the celebration of a Good 
Friday Mass. Juan was filled with terror. 

Said he to Pedro: ''This man of ours in the canoe is all chopped 
up with wounds and no longer breathing. I think this man is a corpse. 
I am afraid we shall be suspected by the priest to whom we are deliv- 
ering him.'' 

Pedro answered: '*We shall tell him that when this man was 
loaded into our canoe, he was already in this condition. We have many 
witnesses, so don't be afraid." 

When they reached the priest they gave him the image. The priest 
told them to come to church the next day in the afternoon to hear the 

Juan was again filled with terror, for he could not make out why 
the priest wanted them to go to the church. He had often heard of 
men being summoned to the church and there seized by the gendarmes. 
However, he did not say anything to Pedro, for he saw that the latter 
had no fear. 

On the next day in the afternoon they w^nt to church, and there 
they saw a Christ nailed to the cross. 

Said Juan : * * That man, if you remember, is the one we delivered 
to the priest. We had better go to some place out of sight of the 

So the two of them went under the pulpit, to hear the sermon from 
there. The Good Friday Mass began, and the priest was already getting^ 
to the last part of his sermon. 

In his sermon the priest said: '*Eepent ye of your sins> cruel 
people! Behold the wounds which you struck in the body of our 

When Juan heard this, he was again filled with terror, for he 
thought that he had fallen under suspicion. 

Therefore, what he did was to come out from under the pulpit^ 
face the priest, and say: ** Father, we are not the ones who wounded 
this man! When he was loaded into our canoe he was already 

When he had said this, he went back under the pulpit. The priest 
paid no attention to the speech he had heard, and went on with his 

**The day has come now, when ye sinners must repent. The por* 


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'*Dumatii3 na ag araw na kayo g marja makasalanan ay dapat 
magsipagsisi. Aq maija pintuan nai] lar)it ay nabuksan na sa 
pagkamatay na^ ati q M&nanakop, at kahit na sinu i] makasalanan 
ay makapap&suk sa l&r)it, kui] sila y magsipagsisi. Datapwat, 
5 kufl hindi kayo magsipagsisi, ay mapaparusahan kayo nag hirap 
na wala iq haggan sa ma^ja apuy sa infy^rno, dahiljin sa maiga 
hirap na ipinasakit ninyo sa &ti fl Manan&kop. Masdan niny6 
ag kanya 5 katawan na pum&pawis nag dugo', ag kanya g paa t 
kamay na napJlpako sa kras, at ag kanya g maga sugat mula sa 

10 pai haggag ulo. Wala g iba x} nagpapahlrap sa kanya at sumugat 
sa kanya g mahal na katawan, kui) hindi kayo, maga tawo g 
makasalanan, at, kug hindi kayo magsipagsisi, ay mahuhulug kayo 
sa infy^rno!'' 

Si Hwan ay hindi mS,palagay, at inakal^ nya na ag pari ay 

15 sinisilakbuhan nag g&lit laban sa kanya. 

Kanya^ hinarap nya g muli ag pare', at sinabi nya nag ubus- 
lakas: '*Amog, sinfibi ko na pd' sa inyo kanina na hindi ako 
kas&le g sumugat sa tao g iyan, kanyd hwag po ninyo ak6 g 
ipadala sa impyemo." 

20 Ag p&ri ay siniglan nag malaki g galit, kanya sinabi nya sa 

mag^ nakikinig: **Anu ba kay6, maga ugas na tao? Wal& baga 
ni isa sa inyo na makah&wak sa tao g it6 upag bigtihin?" 

Pagk&rinig nit6 ni Hwan ay tumakbo sya nag ubus-lakJis at 
sinagasaa g wal^ g patumagga ag maga tao g naluluhod at umiiyak 

25 sa pagsisisi nag kanila g kasal&nan. Sinundan sy^ ni Pedro at 
sila g dalaw^ ay nagtakbuhan nag wala g hinto hag gag sa dumatig 

f sila sa kanila g b&yan. At doon ay ipinamalita nila ag butas- 

^ kar&yum na niligtasan nila. 

4. Ag kuba' at ag bulag. 

30 Isa g kuba' at isa g bulag ay matalik na magkaybigan. Kug 

sila y nagldlakad ag kuba' ag umaakay sa bulag. Ag bulag 
nam^n ay sya g pumdpasan sa kuba kug m&y-roon sila g mahirap 
na nilalak&ran, sapagkit ag kuba' ay mahina' ag katawan. 

Minsan sila y nakaraan nag isa g puno-g-nyog. Ibig nila g 

35 pumitas nag bug a, datapuwat hindi nila malaman kug sino sa 
kanil^ g dalawa ag aakyat sa puno'. Sinabi nag bulag na hindi 
sya makaaakyat, sapagkat hindi nya makikita kug aim ag pipita- 
sin, yamag may-roo g maga mura g buga. Ag kuba' ay hindi rin 
ibig umakyat, dahilan sa kanya g kahinaan. Datapuwat malaki 

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tals of Heaven are open now through the death of our Savior, and 
every sinner can enter Heaven, if he repent. But if ye do not repent, 
ye shall come to be punished with sufferings without end in the flames 
of Hell for the sufferings which ye caused our Savior to undergo. Be- 
hold His body sweating blood, His hands and feet nailed to the cross, 
and His wounds from head to feet. No one other caused Him to suffer 
and wounded His dear body, than you, ye sinners, and if ye do not 
repent, ye shall fall into Hell.'' 

Juan could not remain in his place, for he thought that the priest 
was overflowing with anger against him. 

So he again faced the priest and said, as loudly as he could: 
** Father, only a moment ago I told you that I had no part in wounding 
this man, so do not send me, sir, to Hell.'' 

The priest was filled with great anger and said to the congrega- 
tion: **What sort of people are you, foolish folk? Is there not one 
among you who can take hold of this fellow and choke him?" 

When Juan heard this, he ran with all his might, trampling with- 
out regard the people who were kneeling and weeping in repentance 
of their sins. He was followed by Pedro, and the two ran together, 
without stopping, until they reached their home town. And there they 
told the story of their narrow escape. 

4. The hunchback and the blindman. 

A hunchback and a blindman were close friends. When they 
walked, the hunchback led the blindman; the blindman, on the other 
hand, carried the hunchback on his shoulders, when they had a hard 
road to travel, for the hunchback was weak of body. 

Once they came upon a cocoanut-tree. They wanted to pick some 
of the fruits, but they did not know which of the two of them should 
be the one to climb the tree. The blindman said that he should not be 
able to climb, because he should not be able to see which fruits to pick, 
since there were many unripe fruits. The hunchback also did not want 
to climb, on account of his weakness. However, he was very eager to 

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afl pagkagusto nya na kum&in na^) nyog. Kanya^ sa katapusin 
ay sinabi nya na siya ag aakyat. 

*'tJpag huwag k^ i] minakawan nag maga ilalaglag kd ^ 
buga, ay bibilfigin mo nag malakas ag kalabug sa lupa nag maga 
5 buga na ilalaglag ko, upag 4ki g matandaan ag bilag.'* 

Ag kiiba ay nagumpisa nag pagakyat, dfitapwat pagagalahati 
nya ay nahulug sya. 

**Isa!'' ag sabi nag bulag. 

Sin4bi sa kanya nag kiiba* na siyk ag kumalabog at hindi ag 
10 buga nag nyog. 

Umakyat sya ule*. Pagkarain nag ila g sandali* ay nahtilog 
nil sya. 

**Dalawa!" isinigaw nag bulag. 

Ag kuba ay nagalit, at sin&bi nya sa bulag na sya ay matilit. 
15 Winika nya: **Iyo g una g kumalabog ay ak6, ag ikalawi 

ay ako rin. Kanya^ wala pa g niyog ako g napipitas." 

D&tapuwat ag bulag ay nagak&la g gawi g katatawan&n ao 
pagkahulog nag kuba*. Kanya bin&lak nya na, kug makdrinig 
sy^ ule nag kalabog, ay sisigaw sya nag **Tatl6!'' 
20 Ag kuba ay umakyat na muli*, d&tapwat nahulog din sya.. 

Ag bulag ay sumigaw nag **Tatl6I'' at tumawa sya. Ag kuba 
ay naginit nag gdlit. Nilapitan nya ag bul^g at kanya g sinampal 
sa mukha*. Ag sampal ay tumdma sa maga mata nag bul^g, at 
d&hil dito ay nadflat ag kanya g maga matA. 

25 Cpag maghiganti sya ay sinipa nya ag kuba*. Tinamaan nya 
itd sa likod at dahil dito ay nJiunat ag kanya g kuba*. 

Sila g dalawa ay natw& sa nagy&ri at l&lo g tumlbay ag 
kanila g pagkakaybigan sa lug^r nag magkasira sillt. 

5. Ag h&ri g may sugay at si HwJin. 

30 Sa is4 g kapuluwan naghih&ri ag isa g t&wu g may dalawi 

g maiikli 9 sugay na natat4gu sa malagu nya g buhok. Hindi ito 
ntd&l&man nag kanya g maga pinaghliharian. Datapwat ag Ifhim 
na yt5 y nagumpisli g naibadya sa madlA* sa pamamagitan nag 
maga maggugupit na nakaputul nag kanyA g buh5k. 

35 Eanya sya y nagkarodn nag malaki ^ galit sa maga barb^ro, 

at inak&lA nya g lipulin ag maga barbero sa kanya g kahary^n. 
Iniyutus nya g humukay nag 4pat na malalim na balon sa harapd,n 
nag kanya g tirihan, at sa gitna nag &pat na hukay na yit5 ay 
nagpalagay sya nag isa g upuan. Isa g draw naupo sya sa tabu^ 

40 I'ete sa gitn4 nag ipat na hukay, at bawat t4o g nagdad,n ay 

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eat of the cocoanuts, so, finally, he said to the blindman that he would 
do the climbing. 

**To prevent your being robbed of the fruits which I shall throw 
down, do you count out loud the thud on the ground of the fruits as I 
drop them, so that I may keep track of the number/' 

The hunchback began to climb, but when he was half-way up, he 
fell down. 

*'One!'' said the blindman. 

The hunchback told him that it was he who had made the thud and 
not a cocoanut. 

He climbed again. After a few moments he took another fall. 

**Two!'' shouted the blindman. 

The hunchback got angry and told the blindman that he was 

He said: **That first thing that made a thud was I, and the sec- 
ond one was I again; I haven't yet picked any cocoanuts.*' 

But the blindman planned to make fun of the hunchback's falls. 
So he decided that, when he again heard a thud, he would cry ** Three !'^ 

The hunchback climbed again, but again fell. The blindman cried 
'* Three!" and laughed. 

The hunchback grew hot with anger. He went up to the blindman 
and slapped him in the face. The slap hit the blindman 's eyes, and 
through it his eyes came open. To take revenge he kicked the hunch- 
back. He struck him on the back, and through this his hump was 
straightened out. 

They both rejoiced at what had happened, and their friendship 
grew all the closer, instead of their becoming enemies. 

5. The king who had horns and Juan. 

On a group of islands there ruled a man who had two short horns 
hidden in his thick hair. This was not known to his subjects, but the 
secret began to spread among the people by way of the barbers who had 
cut his hair. 

On account of this he c<»ieeived a great anger against barbers and 
planned to exterminate the barbers in his kingdom. He ordered four 
deep wells dug in front of his residence, and in the center between the 
four pits he had a seat placed. One day he sat down on the chair 
between the four pits, and asked everyone who passed whether he knew 
how to cut hair. Whenever anyone said **Yes," he stopped him, gave 
him a pair of shears, and had him cut his hair. After a little while he 

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tinanuQ nya kug marunuQ maggupit. A^j biwat sumag6t na(| 
**Oo'' ay pinahintu nya upag bigyan nya nag guntig at syi y 
gupilAn. Pagkaraan nag ila o sandali^ ay itinanug nya sa bawat 
maggugupit kug ano a^j nakikita nya sa ulo nag hare*. Aq maoa 
5 maogugupit ay nagsipagsabi nag katotoh&nan at bawat isi sa 
kanila ay sumagot nag sugay a^j kanila g nakikita. Aq b&wat 
sumag6t nag ganito ay ibinulid nag h&re* sa isa sa maga hiikay 
sa paligid niy^. 

Nakaraan ag ila o draw at ag dalawa g hukay ay napunu 

10 na nag maga barbero at pinatabunan na nyk. Dumalag ag maga 

tao g nagd4daan na marunug maggupit, at ag hare ay nagakala 

5 napatay nk niya g lahat ag mag a barbero sa kanyi g kaharyan. 

Isa g draw ay naghintay sya sa kanya g upuan haggJig 

kataghalian b&go nagdaan ag isa g tao na nagsabi g sya y marunug 

15 gumupit nag buh6k. 

Itinanug sa kanyii nag h&re*: ''And ag pag&lan mo?" 
Isinagftt nag tao: **Ag pagalan ko p6* ay Hwan." 
**Gupit&n mo ak6, Hwan," iniyutus nag h&^e^ 
Lumdpit si Hwan sa hdre* at inumpisahan nyk ag paggu- 
20 gupit. 

Makaraan ag ila g sandali* ay itinanug nag hare*: '*An6 ag 
n&ldklta mo sa ulo ko, Hw&n?" 

Ag kanya g sagot ay ganit6: **Ag iyo p6 g Kamahalan, 
n^kita ko sa ulo niny6 ag korona." 
^5 Ito ay ikinatuwa nag hfire^ Kanya nagtindig syk sa iipuan 

at inakay nya si Hwan sa kanya g pal&siyo at ginawfi. nya si HwJLn 
na barbero nag*. Malaki ag suw4ldu na ibinigiy nya kay 
Hwan, at pinatabunan nya ag maga natitira g hukay. 

6. Tatl6 g estudyante. 

30 Si Hwan, si Pedro, at si Andres ay tatlo g magkakayiblga g 

estudyante g magkababayan. Nag dumatig ag pagbubukas nag 
maga p&aral^n ay n^laman nilk na sila ay magk&kahiwa- 
hiwalay. Iba t iba g b&yan ag kapipatuguhan nag b&wat isi sa 
kanila. B&go sUk naghiwa-hiwal&y ay nagtip&nan sUk nag pagtil- 

35 tagpuan nila g lugar paguumpis^ nag bakasyftn. 

Nakaraan ag isa g taon at dumatig ag pagsasara nag klase 
at ag maga estudy&nte ay naguwian sa kani-kanili g bayan, at 
ag tatlo g magkakaybiga g si Pedro, si Hwan, at si Andres ay 
nagtatagpo sa b&ya g tinubuan ni Pedro, upag do6n sila magpalipas 

40 nag bakasyon. 

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asked each hair-cutter what he saw on his, the king's, head. The hair- 
cutters all told the truth, and each one of them answered that he saw 
horns. Every one who answered thus was pushed by the king into one 
of the pits that were round him. 

A few days passed and two of the pits were already filled with 
barbers and were ordered by the king to be filled up with earth. The 
passers-by who knew how to cut hair grew scarce, and the king thought 
he had already killed all the barbers in his kingdom. 

One day he waited on his seat until mid-day, before a man came 
by who said he knew how to cut hair. 

The king asked him: * 'What is your name?" 

The man answered: **My name, sir, is Juan.'' 

**Cut my hair, Juan," commanded tiie king. 

Juan approached the king and began to cut his hair. 

After a short time the Mng asked: **What do you see on my 
head, Juan?" 

His reply was thus: **Your Majesty, I see on your head the 

This made the king glad. Therefore he got up from his seat and 
led Juan into his palace and made Juan barber royal. He gave Juan 
large wages and had the remaining pits filled up. 

6. Three students. 

Jiian, Pedro, and Andres were three students from the same towtt 
who were friends. When the opening of the schools came, they knew 
that they would part: each one of them was to go to a different town. 
Before they parted, they appointed a place where they would meet at 
the beginning of the vacation. 

A year passed, the closing of the schools arrived, the students 
returned to their home towns, and the three friends, Pedro, Juan, and 
Andres met in the town where Pedro had been brought up, to spend the 
vacation there. 

When they came together, after discussing various matters, they 
inquired how much each of them had learned in his study of the Spanish 

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NaQ silk y magkikita, pagkaraan naig iba t iba q b&gay na 

kanila q pinagusapan, ay nagsiyasat sila kuQ gan5 a^ n^tutuhan 

na^ b&wat isa sa kanila ^ pagaaral na^ wlka q Kastila^. Sinabi 

ni P^dro na sya ay mar&mi q nalalama ^) salita o Kastila^, datapu- 

5 wat ao maigi nya g natatandaan ay ag salita g **B&mos/' 

Sumagdt nam^n si Hwan: ^^Ako man ay marami ri q nalala- 
man, datapuwat sa gayon a^ n&lialaala ko ay a^ salita q 
*Matar.' '' 

Si Andres namin ay nagwika g wala sya g natutuhan ku^j 
10 hindl ag salita g ''Si." 

Makaraan a^ kanila q pagsas&litian ay nagyay4 si Pedro na 

sila ay mamagka sa ilog at magsipallgo tul6y. Nafl sila y namd- 

ma^kd na sa flog, sa pa^pd.^ ay nakitanaw sfla na^ iak ^ Eastfla^ 

na Ibig maligo^ Sin&bi ni P^dro na mabtiti ay makipagusap silk 

15 sa Eastfla^ upaQ sa gayu y maipakita nila ag kani-kanild. q dunoQ. 

Nagumpisi si Pedro at sinabi nya o **Bamos!" 

Si Hwan namiin ay sumagot: **Matar!" 

At sa hule ay si Andres ag kanya o **Si!'' 

NaQ m&rinig ito nag Eastfla^, ay siniglan sya na^ takot, 
20 sapagkat inak41& nya na papatain sya* nag tatl5 q namdma^k^^ 
Kanyfi,, kfi.hit na hindi sya marunug Inmagdy, ay nagtal6n sya sa 
flog at sya y nalunod. 

7. Isa ^) sund&lu ^) marunug nag Latin. 

Tatl6 XI magkakayiblgan, isa g p&rS^ isa g maggagamut, at 

25 isa Q sund&luy ay magkakasama g nagsipamaril nag maiflap na 

h&yup sa is4 Q mal&wak na gubat. Ag gubat ay malayu sa b&yan. 

Kany^^ sUk ay nagdala nag marami ^) baon, lipag hwag sili o 


Nakaraan ag fla 5 draw, datapuwat wala pa sila g nahuhuli 

'30 k&hit and. Aq kanfla q b&on ay umunti nag iimunti^ hagg^Q sa 

walk g n&tira kuQ hindi isa g hilaw na itlog. Dumatig sa kanflii 

ag araw na^l malaki x) gutom, d&tapuwat sila g tatld ay wal^ q 

pagk&in kwQ hindi ag itldg l&ma^l na n^titira. 

Sinfi,bi na^) pare* na, kwQ paghatian niUt ag isa itlftg, ay 
35 hindi makabiibuti sa kanflii, sapagkat hindi makap^p&wi^ nag 
kani-kanfla g gutom. Eaniya^ ipinayu nag p&ri^ na isii 14mag sa 
kanila g tatld ag kum&in nag itl5g na n^titir^, — ^at sa kanya g 
kasakimin ay ipindyu nya na kug sinu sa kanil^ ag pinakama- 
husay na magsalit& nag Latin ay sya l&mag k&k&in nag itl6g. 

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language. Pedro said that he knew a great many Spanish words, but 
that which he remembered best was the word **Vamos." 

Juan in turn answered: **I too know a great deal, but what I 
recall just now is the word *Matar/ '' 

Andres said that he had learned nothing except the word **SL'' 

After their conversation Pedro suggested that they go boating on 
the river and take a bath. 

When they were boating on the river, they saw on the bank a 
Spaniard who wanted to bathe. Pedro said it would be a good idea to 
speak to the Spaniard, so that each one of them might show his know- 

Pedro began and said **Vamos!'' 

Jiian answered **Matar!'' 

And last came Andres with his **Si!'' 

When the Spaniard heard this, he was filled with terror, for he 
thought that the three canoers were going to kill him. Therefore, even 
though he did not know how to swim, he jiunped into the river and 
w^as drowned. 

7. A soldier who knew Latin. 

Three friends, a priest, a physician, and a soldier, went together 
to shoot wild game in a deep jungle. As the jungle was far from the 
town, they carried plenty of provisions, so as not to be in want of food. 
A few days passed without their bagging anything. Their provisions 
grew less and less, until there was nothing left except one raw egg. 
There came to them the day of great hunger, but the three had no food 
except the egg that was left. 

The priest said that, if they divided the one egg, it would do them 
no good, for it would not slacken their hunger. Therefore the priest sug- 
fpested that only one of them should eat the remaining egg, and in his 
selfishness he suggested that whichever of them was best at speaking 
Latin should eat the egg all by himself. He thought that the soldier 
did not know Latin, and the doctor alone would be his opponent, and 
his knowledge he held in contempt. 

The doctor agreed to the advice of the priest, but the soldier did 
not want to consent, for he had not studied like the priest and the 
doctor, but there was nothing for him to do. 

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Inakala nya na ag sunddlu ay hindi marunu^j nag Latin at a^ 
mediko lamag ag sya nya ^) makakat&lo, at ao dunoQ nit6 y kanya 
Q minimat^. 

Ag mediko y umayiin sa h&tul nag p4ri', datapuwat ag 
5 snndalu ay ayaw pumayag, sapagkat hindi sya nagaral na gaya 
nag pdri* at nag mediko; gunit wald sya g magawa^ 

Kinuha nag parP ag itlug at itinukt6k nya sa isa g bato. 
Nag mab&sag ag itl6g ay sindbi nya: **Koron4tum est," at 
tinignan nya ag dalawa nya g kasama. 
10 Inabiit nag mediko ag basag na itlog, inalis nya ag balat na 

basag at nilagyan nyk nag asin at kapya g sin4bi: **S&.ltum 

Iniyabut nag maggagamot sa sundalu ag itlug, at ag pare at 
siya ay naghintay nag sasabihin nag sund&lo. Ito y walk g malama 
15 g sabihin, sapagkat katunaya g wal& sya g nMM&man k&hit isa g 
hota tugkul sa Latin. Sa kanya g pagiisip ay naala&la nya na, 
mlnsan pum&suk sya sa simb&han upag makinig nag Syeti-Pal&- 
bras, ay narinig nya sa pari* na ag kahulugan nag salita g **Kon- 
sumatum est" ay **Tapus na ag lahat." 
20 Kany& ibinuhos nya sa kanyJi g bibig ag itlog, at pagkalaguk 

nya ay kanya g sinabi: **Konsumdtum est." 

Ag dalawa nya g kasdma ay napagulat nag malaki sa hindi 
nila hininala g dunug nag sundalo. 

8. Ag pitu g dwende. 

25 Is4 g magasawa ay mdy-roo g pitu g anak na dwende. Ag 

ama ay wala g trabaho at hindi rin siya makakita nag trabfi-ho. 
Ag ina naman ay hindi kumikita nag salapi^ sapagkat mahina* 
ag kanya g katawan at parati sa sakit. 

Isa g taghali* sila y nauupu sa isa g bagk6' at pinaguusfipan. 

30 nUk ag kanila g pamumuhay na pinagdadaanan. Itinanug nag 
lal&ke kug and ag mabute nila g gawin sa kanila g marami g anak. 
Ipiniyu nag na kanila g ihanap nag trabaho ag mag a 
bata^ upag kumita sila nag kwalta. Datapuwat isinagftt nag 
lalaki na sa akklk nya ay hindi sila makakikita nag trab&ho, sa* 

35 pagkat siya rin ay wala g mJikita. Kanya' ipindyu nya na ag 
mabuti ay itapun nila ag maga bata^ 

It6 y ikinalugkot at ikin&iyak nag bab&ye. Ayaw sya g 
pumayag na itipon ag maga \)kta\ D&tapuwat ipinakita sa 
kanya nag kany& g as&wa na, kug hindi nila gawin iyon, sila q 

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The priest took the egg and tapped it against a stone. When the 
egg was broken, he said: **Coronatum est," and looked at his two 

The doctor took the broken egg, removed the broken part of the 
shell, put on some salt, and said: **Saltum est." 

The physician handed the egg to the soldier, and the priest and he 
waited for what the soldier would say. 

The latter did not know what to say, for he really did not kndwl 
a single iota of Latin. In his cogitation he remembered that once, when 
he went to church to hear the Good Friday Mass, he heard from the 
priest that the meaning of the words **Consummatum est" was **It is 
all over now." So he poured the egg into his mouth and, when he had 
swallowed it, he said: * * Consummatum est." 

His two companions were greatly astonished at the learning of the 
soldier, which they had by no means suspected. 

8. The seven dwarves. 

A certain married couple had seven children who were dwarves. 
The father was out of work and could not find any. The mother also 
was not earning any money, for her body was weak and often sick. 

One noon they were sitting on a bench and discussing the life they 
were leading. The man asked what they had better do with their many 
children. The woman suggested that they should look for work for 
their children, so that they might earn money. But the man answered 
that, in his opinion, they would not be able to find any work, since he 
himself had not been able to find any. Therefore he suggested that they 
had better abandon their children. 

This made the woman grieve and weep. She would not consent to 
abandon the children. But her husband made it clear to her that, if 
they did not do this, they would all die of hunger. Finally the woman 
consented and they agreed that they would take their children for a 
walk and leave them on the way. 

While they were discussing this, the seventh child was in a crack 

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lahat ay namamatay nag gutom. Sa kalaunan ay pumayag ag 
babae at pinagkasunduan nila na dalhin nila ^) magpasyal ag 
maga bata^ at kanila q iwan sa daan. 

H&bag pinaguusapan nila ito, ag ikapitu g bata ay nasa isa 
5 g bitak na^j bagko na kanila 5 iniiupan at narinig nya i] lahat 
ag gaga win sa kanil^ nag kanila q magulag. Pagkaraan nag 
kanila q salit4an ay hin&nap pagd&ka nag bata ag kanya q maga 
kapatid at ibinalita nya ag kanya ^) n&rinig. Sila ay nagiydkan, 
sapagkat hindi ipina&lam sa kanila nag kanila q magulag na sila 

10 ay nakablbigat sa kanila g pammnuhay. Inakal^ nila na, kvp] 
it5 y nM&man nild., kdhit na pap4no tutulog sila g maghanap 
nag kabuhfi-yan. Datapuwat pinagkasunduwan nila na sila y 
sum&ma pag niyaya sila 5 magsipagpasyal at paligaw sila. 

Kinabuk&san hin4nap sila nai] kanila q ami, pinapagbihis 

15 sila, binigyan sila nag mag a puto, at sin&bi g sila y magsisipag- 
pasyal. Nag sila y magumpisi ag ikapito g bata ay hindl kinain 
ag kanya g tinapay, datapuwat magmula sa kanila g taragkahan 
ay dinurog nya ag tin&pay at ibinudbod nya sa daa g kanila g 
nilakaran. Nag sila y malayti na ay naubusan sya nag tinapay, 

20 kanyfi, naghigi sya sa kanya g maga kapatid. D&tapwat hindi 
nila sya binigyan. Ito naman ay hindi sin&bi sa kanila kug bakit 
sya naubusan agad nag tinapay. Nag hindi sya makahigi nag 
tinapay ay namulot sya nag maga bato, at ito y sya nya g isa-isi 
g inilaglag sa kanila g pinagdaanan. 

25 Nag dumatig sila sa isa g gubat ay iniwan sila nag kanila 

g magulag at pinagsabihan sila na hantayin sila doon, at sila y 
b&balik agad. Sila y nalwan, d&tapwat nalalaman nila na hindi 
sila pagbabalikan nag kanila g magulag. 

Nag makaraan ag ila g sandali*, ay nakarinig sila nag isa g 

30 igay. Pinuntahan nila ag lugkv na pinaggagallgan nag Igay. 
Do5n ay nakita nila ag isa g malaki g hig&nte na naliligo sa tabi 
nag isa g balon. Tinignan nila ag paligid-ligid nag lugir, at sa 
tabi nag isa g k&huy ay nakita nila ag pananamit nag higante. 
Ag ikapitu g b&ta ay pinaalis ag kanya g maga kapatid at sinabi 

35 nya na magt&go sUk at kanya g nanak&win ag sap&tos nag higante. 
It5 ay kanila g ginawii^ at nin&kaw nag bata ag sapatos. 

Nag makapallgo^ ag higinte at siya y nagbiblhis ay hindi nya 
mikita ag kanya g maga sap&tos. Sya y nagalit at nagmura. 
Tum&wag sya nag tulog. Nag ito y marinig nag numakaw nag 

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of the bench on which they were sitting and heard what their parents 
were going to do to them. After they had finished talking, the child 
at once looked for his brothers and sisters and told them what he had 
heard. They all wept,^ because their parents had not told them that 
they were a burden to their life. They thought that, if they had known 
this, they would have done anything whatever to help them gain a 
living. However, they agreed that they would go along, if they were 
asked to go walking, and would allow themselves to be led astray. 

On the next day their father came to them, told them to get 
dressed, gave them some cakes, and told them that they should all go 
for a walk. When they started out, the seventh child did not eat his 
bread, but, starting at their gate, he crumbled it and scattered it along 
the road which they were walking. When they had gone some distance, 
he ran out of bread and asked his brothers and sisters for some. But 
they did not give him any. He did not tell them why he had run out 
of bread so soon. When he could get no bread, he picked up stones 
and these he dropped one by one on their path. 

When they came to a jungle, their parents left them, telling them 
to wait for them there and that they would soon come back. Their 
parents left them, but they knew that their parents would not come 
back to them. 

When a short time had passed, they heard a noise. They went 
toward the place from which the noise came. There they saw a great 
giant bathing by the side of a well. They looked round about the place, 
and by the side of a tree they saw the clothes of the giant. The seventh 
child sent his brothers and sisters away and told them to hide, and he 
would steal the giant's shoes. They did this and the child stole the 

When the giant had finished bathing and was getting dressed, he 
could not find his shoes. He got angry and cursed. He called for help. 
When the one who had stolen the shoes heard this, he quickly ap- 
proached. When the giant saw him, he did not suspect him, for, on 
account of his smallness, the giant thought that he would not be able to 
carry the shoes. 

Therefore the giant said to him: **If you will carry this bag of 
money of mine to my wife and tell her to buy some shoes and to bring 
them to me, I shall pay you much money.'' 

He said further that he could not walk without shoes, and there- 
fore he should hurry. Taking the bag of money, the child promised to 
return at once. However, when he had gone some distance, he called 
his hidden brothers and sisters, and when they were assembled, he 
suggested that they go home. But his brothers and sisters answered 

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sap&tos ay dali-dali sya g dumalo. Nag makita sya nag higJinte 
ay hindi sya pinagbintagan, sapagkat dahilan sa kanya g kaliit&n 
ay inak&la nag higante g hindi nya mad&dala ag sapatos. 

Kanya* ito y nagwika sa kanya: **Kiig iyo g dadalhin ito 
5 g supot ko nag kwalta sa aki g as4wa at pabilhin mo ayk nag 
sapatos at ihatid nya sa akin, ay uup&han kita nag mar&mi g 

Sinabi tuloy nya na sya y hindi nakalalakad nag wala g 
sapatos, kanya sya y raagmadali*. Nag makuha nya ag supot nag 

10 kwalta ay ipinag&ku nya g babalik syk agkd. Datapwat, nag 
milayo sya, ay tinawag nya ag maga nya g kapatid, at 
nag sila y maipon ay nagyayi sya g umuwS*. D4tapwat isinagot 
nag kanya g maga kapatid na hindi nila nMil&raan ag daa g 
pauwe*. ^Junit kanya g isinagot na tutuntunin nila ag kanya g 

15 inilaglag na bato at tin&pay sa dain. 

Sinibi nag isa nya g kapatid na, kug nal4man nya kug an6 
ag kanya g ginawa* sa tin&pay, ay binigyan s&na nya sya nag 
sy^ y maghigi*. Kanila g ikinalugkot ag ipinakita nila g kara- 
mutan sa kanila g kapatid. 

20 Hindi nal&on at natagpuan nila ag hil6ra nag maga bato sa 

da&n. Ito y tinunton nila at nakaratig sila sa kanila g b&hay, 
dal^ nila ag supot nag kwalta na kanila g ibinigay pagdaka sa 
kanila g magulag. Sil^ y nagatwd at nagalugk6t dahilan sa kanili 
g mali g inasal sa maga anak, — sila y natw4 sapagkat m4y-roon 

25 sila g ikabubuhay sa mal4o g panah5n. 

9. Isa g pulis na nagaswag-asw&gan. 

No6 g tagaraw nag ta6 g mile-nobisyentos-dos, h&bag ag 
maga hinog na buga nag k&hoy ay nagakabiydbit sa maga saga, 
lumagdnap ag balita sa boo g b4yan nag San-Ant6nyo na may-roo 
30 g aswag na naglilibot sa b&yan. 

Ag maga t&o-g-San-Antonyo sa maga tao g iyon ay may 

paniniw&la* sa maga nuno', aswig, dwSnde, at iba pk g katataku- 

tan. Earamihan sa kaniU y hindi nagkapalad na makapagaral, 

d4tapwat, kahit na ganito ag kalag&yan nila, sila y maga t4wo 

35 g mababait, matahimik, at masisipag. 

Ag maga bahay sa bfi.ya g ito ay malilut at nayay&ri nag 
pawid at kaw&yan. M4y-roon di g ila g bihay na tabla. Eara- 
mihan ay natatay6 sa malalaki g bakuran, at ag duluhan nag 
bakuran ay natatamnAn nag maga puno-g-k&hoy na masasarap ag 
40 buga, gaya nag tsiko, suha^ santol, mabulo, maggi, at iba pi. 

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that they did not know the way home. He however answered that they 
should follow the stones and bread he had dropped on the way. 

One of his brothers said that, if he had known what he had done 
with the bread, he would have given him some when he asked for it. 
They were sorry for the stinginess they had shown toward their brother. 

It was not long before they came upon the trail of stones along their 
way. This they followed and arrived at their house, bringing with 
them the bag of money, which they at once gave to their parents. The 
latter rejoiced and were sorry for their bad conduct toward their chil- 
dren, — ^they rejoiced because they had now the means of living for a 
long time to come. 

9. A policeman who played vampire. 

In the summer of the year 1902, when the ripe fruits of the fruit- 
trees were hanging from the branches, there circulated all through tlie 
town of San Antonio the rumor that a vampire was going about the 

The people of San Antonio in those years believed in ghosts, vam- 
pires, dwarves, and other objects of terror. Most of them had not been 
fortunate enough to get an education, but, in spite of this, they were 
kindly, quiet, and industrious people. 

The houses in this town were built of nipa-fibre and bamboo. There 
were also some frame houses. Most of them stood in large enclosures, 
and the rear part of these yards was planted with trees that have 
tasty fruits, such as the custard-apple, grape-fruit, santol, mabolo, 
mango, and the like. 

These fruits were just getting ripe, when the ruraor spread that, 

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36 TAG.UX)G TEXTS [192 

Kasalukuya ^) nagkakahinog ai) maga buga-^)-kahuy na yto 
nag lumaganap ag balita na may-roon na 5 ila g gabi na nama- 
taan naij ila g babae ag aswag sa iba t iba g duluhan. Ag maga 
bata at maga babae ay siniglan nag malaki g t&kot, kanya pagka- 
5 gat nag dilim ay agad-agad sila g nagsipanahimik sa.loob nag 
bahay. Karamihan nag maga lalaki ay nagatakot din, datapwat 
may-roo g ila g nagsipagsabi na sila y hindi natatakot, sapagkat 
hindi pa sila nakatagpo nag aswag, at sa ganito y hindi nila nalala- 
man kug dapat katakutan ag aswag. 

10 Ag aswag ay isa g tao g malaki ag kapagyarihan. Nakapa- 

giiba-t-iba sya nag pagagatawan. Kug minsan ay may katawan 
siya g para g tao, datapwat mait&m, kug minsan siya y isa g 
malaki g aso baboy. Sya y nag ag din nag tao, Idlu na nag 
maga bata^ D&tapuwat ag Iklo g mahalaga nya g pagkain at 

15 sya rin nam^tn nya g karanyua g kinakain ay ag bata g hindi pa 
naipagdganak at nasasa tiyan pa lamag nag kanya g ina. Kanya 
ag maga buntis na babdye sa b&ya g yaon ay lalo g malaki ag 
takot. Hindi nila pinattilog ag kanila g asawa sa pagbabantay sa 
kanila g tabi. Ag aswag ay mahirap mapatay nag patalim o 

20 baril, sapagkat may-roon sya g iisa lamag na lugar na dapat 

matamaan masugatan upag sya y mapatay, at ag lugar na yto 

ay lihim. Ag bagay lamag na kanya g iniilagan ay ag bdwag. 

Kany& ltd y malaki g kagamit^n sa pagpapalayas nag aswag. 

D&tapwat isa g b&gay na nakapagt&taka sa aswag na iyon ay 

25 ag kanya g inugali g pagtitir^ sa maga duluhan nag bakuran. 
Kataka-taka rin ag b&gay na maga dal&ga ag karamihan nag 
nagsipagsdbi g namat&an nila sa duluhan sa itaits nag suha* o iba 
pa g ptino-g-kahoy ag aswag na iyon. Ha g t&o g matalino ay 
nagsabi g ag bintJig nili y isa g magnan&kaw at hindi asw&g ag 

30 pinagkakatakuta g iydn. 

Isa g polls na may hindi karanyua g t&pag ay siya g tumiktik 
sa aswag na ltd sa duluha g bago g kinakitaan sa kanya. Pagdi- 
lim ay n&roon na sya sa kanya g kublihan. Hindi nalatinan at 
dumatig ag aswag, umakyit sa isa puno-g-suha*, at n&rinig niya 

35 g pumit^ nag mar&mi g buga. It6 y bum&ba^ at umalis, ddtap- 
wat sya y sinundan nag pulis hag gig sa b&hay na kanya g pina- 

Malaki ag nagig pagkagulat nag polls, nag dito nam41as nya 
g ag k&pwa nya polls nababdlot nag maitim na kumot, at ag 

40 supot na itim na puno nag suha^ ay kasalukuyan pa l&mdg niya 
g inil&lapig. 

Niyfi,ya nya sa munisipyo ag kapwa nya polls, at doon kina- 

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for several nights back, some women had caught sight of the vampire 
in various back yards. The women and children were filled with great 
terror; accordingly, as soon as darkness came down, they staid still in 
their houses. Most of the men also were afraid, but there were some 
who said that they were not afraid, because they had not yet come 
across a vampire and therefore did not know whether it was really to 
be feared. 

A vampire is a being of great power. It changes its body into 
various forms. At some times it has a body like a human being, but 
black, at others it is a large dog or pig. It eats people, especially chil- 
dren. But its favorite food, by far, and that which it most commonly 
eats, is the child yet unborn and still in its mother's womb. There- 
fore the pregnant women in the town had great fear. They did not 
allow their husbands to sleep, for watching at their side. A vampire 
is hard to kill with knife or gun, because it has but one place which one 
must hit or wound in order to kill it, and this place is secret. The only 
thing it flees from is garlic, which therefore is much used in driving oflE 

A surprising thing, however, about this vampire was its habit of 
keeping itself in back yards. Strange was also the fact that it waa 
mostly young girls who said that they had caught sight of this vampire 
in back yards, up in grape-fruit trees and other trees. A few bold men 
said that they suspected that this spook was a thief and no vampire. 

It was a certain policeman of more than usual courage who spied 
upon this vampire in a back yard in which it had recently been seen. 
When darkness came, he went to his hiding-place. It was not long 
before the vampire came and climbed on a grape-fruit tree, and he 
heard it picking many fruits. It came down and went away, but was 
followed by the policeman to a house which it entered. 

Great was the surprise of the policeman, when he saw here his 
fellow policeman wrapped up in a black sheet and just putting down 
on the floor a black bag full of grape-fruit. 

He sunmioned his fellow policeman to the town hall and there on 
the next day accused him before the judge. The policeman who had 
played vampire was put in jail for the crime of theft. 

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buk&san ipinagsumbd^ nyk sa presidente. Aq polls na nagaswaQ- 
aswdgan ay nabila^gd dahilan sa s41a j} pagnandkaw. 

I * 

10. Isa Q aswaQ na napatjiy. 

Isk Q gabl sa isk ^ bahay na pa^aserahan na^ ila ^ ma^a 
5 nagsisipagaral sa b&ya-Q-Malolos ay n&rinig ko q isinalaysay na^ 
isa 5 matanda^ na may gulag na siyam na pu o taon sa isa g 
umpukan ag sumtisun5d. 

No6 X} sya y bago g tawu pa Idmag ay sa bukid sya nagtitiri. 
lilan lamag sila g magkakdpit-bahay. Isa g araw ay namatayan 
10 ag isa nya g kapit-bahay. Sa pagsunod sa isa g matanda g kau- 
gallan ay dumalo syk sa kapit-b&hay na may hfi.pis. 

Nag dumatig sya do6n ay hindl nalaunan at nabalitian nyi 
na may aswig sa kanila g lugar. Sya ay may malaki at katutubo 
g g41it sa maga asw&g, kaniy& inakala nya g magbantay nag gabi 
15 g iyon. 

Nag malalim na ag gabi ay nanaog sya sa bahay at sa isa g 

karit6 g dl mal&yo sa bihay, do6n sya nahig^*. Kabilugan nag 

hwkn nag gabi g iydn, kanya malinaw ag pagkakita nya sa maga 

bfi-gay sa paligid-ligid. Wal& sya g n^m&las na mapaghihinal&a 

20 g isa g aswag, kanya sya y natulog. 

Kin£th&ti-g-gabihan ay nagisig syk at ag una g tinamaan nag 
kany^ g maga mata ay isa g bagay na maitim sa bubugan nag 
bdhay nag kinamatay^n. Ag maitim na iyon ay wala roon b&go 
sya natulog, kaniyd nagbintag sya na iyon ay ag aswag na nabali- 
25 nya. Ag aswag ay nagagain nag patay na t&o, kanya sina- 
pant4hd, nya na ag patay ag sadya doon nag aswag na iyon. 

Pumanhik sya sa bahay at dala nya ag isa g gulok. Ag maga 
t&o y natiitulog. Sa itaas ay may-roon sya g nakita g isa g 
bagay na nakalawit mula sa bubugan nag bahay. It6 y gay a nag 
30 bituka nag manok. Hum&ba nag humaba^ hagg^g sa ag dulo y 
pumasok sa bibig nag pat&y. Ag patay ay nagtindig sa kany^ g 
kinalalagyan pagkap&sok sa kanya g bibig nag b&gay na iyon. 

Ag ginawa nag b&go g tao ay lumapit siya sa nakatindig na 

patay at sa pamamagltan nag dala nya g gulok ay pinutol niya 

35 ag b&gay na iyon na p4ra g bituka nag manok. Nag itd y mapu- 

tol ay may kumalabog sa tabi nag bahay. Nan&og siya at do5n 

ay nakita nya ag patay na aswJtg. 

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10. A vampire that got killed. 

One evening in a students' boarding-house in the town of Malolos 
I heard an old man, ninety years of age, tell a company the following 

When he was still a young unmarried man, he lived in the country. 
There were only a very few neighbors. One day there was a death in 
the house of a neighbor. Following an ancient custom, he went to the 
house of mourning. 

When he arrived there it was not long before he was told that there 
was a vampire in the place. He had a great and inherited hatred of 
vampires and therefore decided to watch that night. 

Late in the evening he left the house and in a wagon not far from 
the house, there he lay down. There was a full moon that night, so 
that he had a clear view of things round about. As he saw nothing 
that could be suspected of being a vampire, he went to sleep. 

At midnight he woke up, and the first thing that struck his eyes 
was a black object on the roof of the house where there had been a 
death. This black thing had not been there before he went to sleep, 
so he suspected that this was the vampire he had been told about; 
Vampires eat dead people, ^so he concluded that the dead person was 
the thing for which the vampire had come there. 

Carrying a bolo-knife, he went up to the house. The people were 
asleep. Up above he saw something hanging down from the roof of 
the house. It was like the intestine of a chicken. It got longer and 
longer, until the end of it went into the mouth of the dead person.* 
The corpse stood up from the place where it lay, when this thing wentJ 
into its mouth. 

What the young man did was to walk up to the upright corps^ 
and, with the bolo he was carrying, cut the thing that was like tho 
intestine of a chicken. When he had cut this, something came down 
with a thud at the side of the house.. He went down, and there he saw 
the dead vampire. 


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11. A\) ma\)lmkiilam. 

Sa ila ^) pook sa Filipinas ay may lubos na paniniwala sa maij- 
kukulam a^) maiQa tao. Ayon sa kanila g paniwala^ ag magkukulam 
ay isa g tao i) may malaki i) kapagyarihan at ag kapagyariha g 
5 ito y galig sa dimoniyo o kaya y mana sa magulag. Bago makam- 
tan ag kapagyariha g iyon ag isa ay d&pat muna g makipagkay- 
bigan at magsilbe sa dimoniyo. Datapwat may ilan di g nanini- 
wala g napupulot o naaagaw ag kapagyariha g iyon sa gtibat o 
il&g na lugar na mahirap puntahan at karanyuwa y pinagkaka- 

10 takutan. 

Ag kulam ay siya g naaagaw, namamdna, o ibinibigay nag 
dimoniyo, at iyo y sya g pinaggagaligan nag kapagyarihan nag 
nagmeme-are^. Ag hitsura nag kulam ay hindi pare-pareho. Kug 
minsan ay isa g bato o isa g manika g maliit at masama' ag 

15 hitsura. Kug madilim ag kulam na ito y nagnlnignig na pdra g ali- 
taptap, datapwat ag nignig na ito y nawawala naman pag inibig nag 
kulam. Ag kulam at ag tao, kahit lalaki o bab&e, na nagaari sa kanya 
ay hindi naghihiwalay kahit isa g sandale' at kahit na sa pagpallgo^ 
ay dinadala nag magkukulam ag kanya g kulam. D&hil dito ag 

20 maga tao g mapagsyasat, pag ibig nila g mapagkilala kug magku- 
kulam ga^ o hindi^ ag isa g tAo g kanila g pinaghihinaldan, ay 
sinusubukan nila ito sa kany& g pagpaligo^ Eug hindi maigat 
at wala g hin414 ag magkukulam na syk y sinusubukan, ku^j 
minsan ay nagkakapalad ag nanunubok na makita nya ag kulam. 

25 Ag magkukulam ay may kapagyarihan di g it4go^ sa loob 

nag kany& g kataw&n ag kulam, at hindi bihira^ ag maga tao g 
naktikita nag magkukulam sa kanya g pagkamatay. Sa kahuli- 
huliha g sandali^ bago malagot ag hiniga, iniluluwa nilk ag^ 

30 It5 y nagyiyiri lamag kug dyaw ipamdna nag magkukulam 

ag kanya g kulam. Eug ipinamJLmdna nam&n ito, malwat p& 
b4go mamatay ag magkukulam ay tin&t&wag na nya ag kanya g 
ibig pamanahan, at dito y Ifhim na Ifhim nya g ibinibigay a^ 

35 Ag malaki g kapagyarihan nag magkukulam ay ginag&mit 

nya laban sa kanya g maga ka&way, sa maga t4o g kany& g kina- 
gjigalitan, o kaya y sa maga hayop nila, kug siya nya g ibig^ 
paghigantihan. Gayon din ginagamit nya ag kanya g kapagyari- 
han sa pagbibiro^ sa isa g t&o o h&yop na kanya g makatwaan. 

40 Ag kanya g pinasasakitan kadalasa y nagdanyo g para g ulol. 

Kug minsan ag kanya g kiniikulam ay dum&daig na masakit ag 
kanya g buo g katawan, nagsisisigaw, at hindi matahimik k&hit 

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11. Sorcerers. 

In some places in the Philippines the people have a firm belief in 
sorcerers. According to their belief a sorcerer is a person of great 
power, and this power comes from a demon or else is inherited from 
one's parents. Before one may gain this power one must first become 
friends with a demon and serve it. However, there are some also who 
believe that one may find or snatch up this power in a jungle or some 
uncanny place that is hard to reach and usually full of terror. 

The kulam is that seized, inherited, or given by the demon, and 
it is the source of the possessor's power. The appearance of the kulam 
is not always the same. Sometimes it is a stone or a small doll of ugly 
appearance. In the dark this kulam glows like a firefly, but this glow 
disappears when the kulam desires it. The kulam and the person, man 
or woman, who possesses it, do not separate even for a moment, and 
even when bathing the sorcerer carries his kulam. Therefore, curious 
people, when they wish to find out whether a person whom they suspect 
is really a sorcerer or not, watch him at his bath. If the sorcerer is not 
careful and has no suspicion that he is being watched, the watcher 
sometimes succeeds in seeing the kulam. 

The sorcerer has also the power of concealing the kulam inside 
his body, and the people are not rare who have seen a sorcerer at his 
death. At the last moment, before breathing ceases, he spits out the 

This happens only when the sorcerer does not wish to bequeath his 
kulam. If, however, he wishes to bequeath it, then, long before the 
sorcerer dies, he calls the person to whom he wishes to bequeath it and 
in all secrecy gives him the kulam. 

The great power of the sorcerer is used by him against his enemies, 
against people who have incurred his anger ; or against their live stock, 
in case he wishes to make this latter the object of his vengeance. He 
also uses his power in playing jokes on a person or animal that has 
gained his liking. 

His victim usually acts like crazy. Sometimes the person he has 
bewitched complains that his whole body is sore, keeps shouting, and 
cannot keep quiet even for a moment. In the case of animals, — ^usually 
the pig most valued by the owner, — ^the punishment he gives is like the 
disease of cholera, but more severe than this. The bowel-movement of 
the animal does not stop, and after a few hours, no matter how fat the 
animal, it becomes skin and bone. The bewitched person eats mightily^ 
like two men, and keeps asking for tasty food. Therefore people believe 
that the sorcerer who is punishing him shares in the eating of the sick 

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isa T) sandal^'. Sa hayop naman karanyuwa y a^ babuy na pina- 
kamahalagji sa may ari*, aiQ kanya i] ibinlbigay na parusa ay gaya 
naQ sakit na kolera, datapuwat l&lu x\ mabag^ kay sa rito. A;| 
pagdumi nag hfiyop ay wala 5 patid, at pagkara^n nag ila g 6ras, 
5 k4hit na gano kataba^ ag h&yop, ay nagigig butd t balat. Ag t&o 
g nakukulam nya ay malakas kumiin, katimbi^ nag dalawa katao, 
at mapaghUig nag masasarap na pagkfiin. Dahil dito ag pani- 
w&la nag maga tko y kasalo g kum&k&in nag may sakit ag magku- 
kulam na nagp&parusa sa kany^. 

10 Ag magkukulam ay may kapagyariha g pumaloob sa katawan 

nag kanya g kinukulam. It6 y sya g paniwala^ datapuwat kug 
pap&no ag para&n nag pagp&sok nag magkukulam at kug sa^n 
sya pumap&sok sa katawltn nag kanya g kinukulam ay wala g 
nakiaalim. |]unit ag kanya g nilMabasin ay ag hintuturo'. Ag 

15 b&gay na itd ay malaki g kabuluhan ukol sa paggamot sa nakuku- 
lam at gayon din sa pagpaparusa sa magkukulam. 

K&hit na malaki ag kapagyarihan nag magkukulam ay may- 
roon din sya g kinatitakutan, karanyfiwa y ag maga tao g mala- 
lakks, mat&pag, at wala g paniw41& sa kapagyarihan nag magku- 

20 kulam at iba pa g pinagkttkatakut&n nag maga iba g tao. Dahil 
dito y hindi bihira' na ag isk g t4o y pamagatA g **mediko-g- 
magkukulam" pagkara&n nag una ikalaw^ nya g pagpapagalig 
nag t&o sa sakit na ito. 

Minsan ay n&rinig ko g magbalita^ ag isa g tao g nakakfta 

25 nag paggagamot nag t4o g n&kukdlam. Ag t4o g itd y may isa 
g kapit-bahay na may anak na dalaga. Sa dalftga g ito y mar&mi 
g magliligaw, at ag is& sa kanila y pinaghihinal&a g magkukulam. 
Sa kasamaa-g-p41ad nito ay nagig isa sya sa maga hindi n&taggap. 
Sa malaki nya g gfilit ay magkasunod nya g Hnulam ag babaye 

30 at lalaki g magkaibigan. 

Inuna nya ag babaye at ito nami y agid na itin&wag nag 
mediko-g-magkukiilam nag kanyi g maga magulag. Nag duma- 
tig ag mediko at n^kita nya ag mky sakit, ay sinabi nya g nikuku- 
1am gi' ag babfiye. 

25 Sindbi nya sa maga tko dobn na hwag paaalaman sa nkkik- 

kulam na sy& y nardroon sa bahay. Pag ito y nilaman nag mky 
sakit, ay malal&man din nag magkukulam na n&sa lodb nag kanya 
g katawJtn, at maka&alis agad ag magkukulam. Ag mediko y 
lum&pit na hindi n&mal&yan nag bab4ye, at pagdaka y tinignan 

40 nyk nag mahigpit ag dalawi g hintuturo' nag babaye. ltd y 

lalo g inilak&s ag pagsigiw, at kuminig na para g isa g natatakot. 

Ag magkukulam, ayon sa paniw&l& nag maga tao, ay sya g 

nakariramdam nag ano mk g pasakit na ibigay sa katawan nag 

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The sorcerer has the power of entering the body of the person 
bewitched. This is the belief, but in what way the sorcerer effects his 
entrance or at what point he enters the body of the person he is bewitch- 
ing, there is no one who knows. However the place where he comes out 
is the forefinger. This fact is of great importance for the cure of peo- 
ple who have been bewitched and also for the punishment of sorcerers. 

Although the power of the sorcerer is great, yet there are some 
things which he fears, usually strong people who are bold and have no 
faith in the powers of sorcerers and other things that terrify other 
people. Therefore it is not rare that, after the first or second time he 
cures a person of this disease, some man receives the title of "witch-f 

I once heard someone who had seen the cure of a bewitched person 
tell the story. The narrator had a neighbor who had a young daughter. 
This young lady had many suitors, and one of them was suspected of 
being a sorcerer. He had the bad fortune to be one of those who were 
not accepted. In his great anger he bewitched, one after the other, the 
betrothed man and woman. 

He began with the woman, and her parents at once called in a 
witch-doctor for her. When the doctor arrived and saw the patient, he 
said that the woman was really bewitched. 

He told the people who were there not to let the bewitched person 
know that he was in the house. If the patient knew this, the sorcerer 
who was inside her body would have a chance to go away at once. The 
doctor w^ent up to the woman without her being aware of it and sud- 
denly seized her two forefingers in a tight grip. She shouted all the 
louder and trembled like one in terror. 

The sorcerer, according to people's belief, feels any pain that is 
given to the body of the person he is bewitching while he is within the 
latter 's body. Likewise, when one speaks with the patient, it is he who 

Therefore the doctor suddenly asked: '*What are you doing here, 
you brute?" 

The patient did not utter a word, but tried to get free. The 
strength she displayed was not the usual strength of a woman. 

But the doctor did not let her go, and asked her again: **What 
are you doing here ? Why have you come here ? If you do not answer, 
I shall torture you." 

The woman answered in a pitiful tone: **No, sir, I shan't do it 
again; let me go, sir; you are torturing me already." 

*' Shall I let you go?" asked the doctor at once. ** Promise me first 
that you won't come back." 

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kanya 5 kinukulam habai) sya y nasasa loob nag katawan nito. 
Gayon din, kug kansapin a^) may sakit, ay siya arj sumagot. 

Dahil dito y itinanog pagdaka nag mediko: **An6 ag gina- 
gawa mo rlto, salbdheT' 
5 Ag m&y sakit ay hindi kumibo^, datapwat nagpilit na 

magkawala^ Ag ipinaklta nya g lakas ay hindi karanyuwa g 
lakas nag babaye. 

Datapuwat hindi sya pinawalan nag mediko, at ito y tuma- 
nog na muli^: **An6 ag gin&gawa mo rito? Bakit ka naparito? 
10 Pag hindi ka sumagot, ay pahihirapan kita." 

Ag babaye ay nagmamakaAwa g sumagdt: **Wala po^ hindi 
na po^ uule^, pawalan p6^ ninyo ako, at ak6 y nahihirdpan na.'' 

**Pawalan kitaT' itinanog agad nag mediko, **Magaku ka 
miina sa 4kin na hindi ka na bibalik." 
15 ** Hindi na p6' ako bibalik," ag sagot nag babaye. 

*'Pag nahule kita ul6^ dito, ay papatayin kita. Hwag ka g 
salbdhe. Tumahimik ka sa iy6 g bfihay.'' 

**0 po^ 6 po^ hindi na p6' ako babalik. Pawal&n na po 
ninyo akd!'' 
20 Habag ag salitfia g ito y nagyayari ag babaye ay nagpipilit 

na magkawala', ibig nya g mabitiwan nag mediko ag kanya g 
hintuturo'. Pagkapagdko nag babdye ay binitiwan nag mediko 
ag dalawa nya g hintuturo'. Ag mukh4 nag babaye na dati ay 
nagpapakildla nag malaki g paghihirap gayo y nahusay, at sya y 
25 p&ra g gaga na pinagsa-uLan nag pagiisip. Sya ay tumahimik, 
pinutol ag pagsisigaw, at nakausap nag matwid. 

Ag lalaki namin ay nititira sa isa g baya g malapit. Nag 

sya y kinukulam na ay itiniwag sya nag maggagamot nag kanya 

g kapatid na lalake. Sa kalakhin nag galit nag kapatid na yt6 

30 ay sya nya g tinawag ag maggagamot na mabagsik at malupit sa 

pagtarato nya sa maga magkukulam. 

Lihim na dumatig ag maggagamot sa b&hay nag may sakit. 
Mula sa kanya g kublihan ay piniho muna nya kug ag magku- 
kulam ay n4sasa kataw&n gi' nag m&y sakit. Ito y napagkiki- 
*35 lala sa pagsisigaw, pagkilos, at pananalita g hindi tula-tul^^ 
nag may sakit. Ag maggagamot ay nagpatalim nag isa g 
gulok at pagkatapos ay maligsi sya g tumakbo sa tabi nag 
mky sakit. Tinagnan nya ag dalawi g hintuturo nito, dinaganan 
nya ag katawan, at tinag4 nya g mak&ilan ag mukha nag may 
40 sakit. ltd y nagsisigaw at nagkawaR^ datapwat nag makawala 
sya y may maga sugat na ag kanyi g mukh^^ at ag dugo y 
umafigos na wala g patid. Wal4 g kibu sya iniwan nag magga- 
gamot. Hindnap nito ag kapatid nag sugatan at kanya g sindbi 

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**No, I shan't come back, sir," answered the woman. 

**If I catch you here again, I shall kill you. Don't be troublesome. 
Stay still in your house." 

**Yes, sir; yes, sir; I shan't come back, sir. Please, let me go!" 

While this dialogue was taking place, the woman was struggling 
to get loose and trying to make the doctor let go of her forefingers. 
When the woman had made her promise, the doctor let go of her two 
forefingers. The face of the woman, which just before had been ex- 
pressing great suffering, now became quiet, and she was like a mad- 
woman who has got back her reason. She became quiet, stopped shout- 
ing, and was able to converse intelligently. 

The man lived in a near-by town. When he was bewitched his 
brother called a physician for him. In his extreme anger, this brother 
called a physician who was fierce and cruel in his treatment of sorcerers. 

The physician came secretly to the sick man's house. From his 
hiding-place he first determined at what time the sorcerer was in the 
body of the sick man. This showed itself in the shouting, movements, 
and senseless talking of the patient. The physician sharpened a bolo- 
knife and, when he had done this, quickly ran to the side of the 
patient. He then seized the latter 's two forefingers, leaned over 
his body, and cut several deep gashes in his face. The patient 
screamed and tried to get away, but when he did get away there 
were wounds in his face and the blood was flowing in a stream. 
The physician left him without a word. He sought out the 
brother of the wounded man and told him not to heed his brother 'rf 
wounds, for tomorrow they would go away and be transferred to the* 
sorcerer, for it was the latter whom he had reached in the body of his 
brother. On the next day the doctor went to the man whom he had 
cured with the knife and was much pleased when he found him well and 
without the marks of wounds in his face. A few days later they heard 
that a sorcerer in the neighboring town was in a serious condition^ 
owing to the unceasing flow of blood from some wounds in his face. 

There are also, however, some sorcerers who are quick and have 
not been caught by physicians. The physician, too, must be skilful and 
quick. Anyone at all can cure a person who has been bewitched, since' 
tiiere is no other method of cure than that of inflicting pain on the 
body of the bewitched person. The danger, however, is great, since, if 
the one who is attempting the cure is not quick, owing to lack of prac- 
tice, the sorcerer will be able to get away. In this event it is the 
bewitched person himself who will suffer from the punishment. It is 
related that there once happened something like this which follows. 

One of two brothers was bewitched by his rival in courtship. There 

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na hwag pansinm a^ ma^a sugat na^ kanya q kapatid, at kina- 
bukasa y mawdwala^ iy6n at malilipat sa magkukulam, sapagkat 
dinatnan nya ito sa katawan nag kanya ^) kapatid. Kinabukasan 
ay pinamnan na^) mediko ag kanya q ginamot nag patalim, at 
5 malaki ag tuwa nya nag ito y makita nya g mahusay at wala g 
bakas-sugat sa mukha'. Pagkarain nag ila g draw nabalitian 
nila na isa g magkukulam sa kdpit-bayan nila ay malubha' ag 
lagay dahilan sa pagdudugo g hindi maampitt nag mag a sugat 
nya sa mukhi^ 

10 May-roon din nama g magkukulam na maligsi at hindl na 

paaabot sa maggagamot. Ag maggagamdt nam&n ay kin&- 
kayilaga g bihdsa' at maligsi. Ag kahit sino y maaari g 
gumamot sa isa g nakuktilam, y&mag wala nami g iba g 
paggamot kug hindi' ag pagpapahirap sa katawan nag n^ku- 

15 kulam. D4tapuwat malaM ag pag&nib, sapagkat, kug hindi ma- 
ligsi, dahilan sa kawal^n nag sanay, ag gumAgamot, maaari g 
makawala' ag magkukulam. Kug magkfigayo y ag nakukulam 
mismo ag maghihirap dahilan sa parusa. MInsan ay mdy nabalita 
g nagy&ri na gaya nitd g sumusun6d. 

20 Ag is^ sa dalawa g magkapatid na lalaki ay kinulam nag 

kanya g karib&l sa pagligaw. Wala g mat&wag na m6diko-g- 
magkuk^am. Sa malaki g 4wa sa kanya nag kanya g kuya ay 
tinalaga nitd g gamutin sya k4hit na wala sya g pagkasanay. 
Hindi ga sya sanay, ddtapwat madal&s nya g napakiggan sa 

25 maga maggagamot ag paraan nag paggamot. Isa g h&pon, na^ 
inakala nya g nasa loob na naman nag katawan nag kanya g 
kapatid ag magkukulam, ay sinuggaban nya agad ag isa g gulok 
at pagk&lapit nya sa kanya g kapatid ay tinagd nya ito nag wala 
g tuos. Kinabuk&san sa lugar nag makita nya g magalig at wala 

30 g sugat ag kanya g kapatid ito y bagkay na lamag. Ag magku- 
kulam ay nakawali'. 

12. Ag laro g slpa' sa Filipinas. 

Ag laro g slpa sa Estados-Unidos at sa Filipinas ay lubha 
g malaki ag pagkak4iba. Sa lugar nag dalawa g.pagkat na nagta- 
35 tklo ag nagsisipaglaro' na gaya nag f utbol, sa sipa ay isa g pagkat 
lamag ag nagl&laro^ Sa sipa ag hagad nag nagsisipaglaro ay 
hindi ag talunin ag isa g kadway, datapuwat ag huwag bayaa g 
lumagpak sa lupa ag bola o sipa'. 

Ag bola g gamit ay malaki g malaki rin ag kaibhan. Ito y 
40 nayayari nag yantftk na tinilad at nilala g pabilog. Wala gi 

Digitized by 



was no witch-doctor within call. In his great pity for him, the older 
brother decided to cure him, even though he had had no practice. He' 
was not practised, to be sure, but he had often heard from physicians 
the manner of cure. One evening, when he thought that the sorcerer 
was inside his brother's body, he quickly seized a bolo, and, stepping 
up to his brother, cut him without care. On the next day, instead of 
his finding his brother well and unwounded, the latter was a corpse; 
The sorcerer had got away. ' 

12. The game of football in the Philippines. 

The games of football in the United States and in the Philippines 
are very different. Instead of the players belonging to two contending 
sides, as in American football, in **5ipa'' the players form but one 
party. In sipa the aim of the players is not to defeat an opponent', 
but to prevent the ball or sipa from falling to the ground. The ball 
used is also very different. It is made of split rattan woven into the 
shape of a sphere. Tbe inside is hollow and the eyes of the weave are 
large. Therefore the sipa, unlike the ball used in baseball, is light. 

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48 TAOALOa TEXTS [204 

laman ag loob, at ag maga mata nag sulihiya ay malalake. Dahil 
dito ay magaan ag sipa^, hindi gaya nag bola g gamit sa besbol. 

Mula sa dalawi haggag sa dalawa g pu^ ag bilag nag nagsi- 
sipaglaro^. Kng sila ay marami ag ayos ay pabilog. tJpag umpi- 
5 sahan ag paglalaro^ isa sa maga kasale ay ihinihitsa ag sipa na 
paitajts at pattigo sa isa sa maga nagsisipaglaro^, karanyuwa y sa 
isi g katapat nya. Ag tao g hinitsahan nag sipa^ ay ipinababalik 
ito sa naghagis sa kanya, hindi nag kanya g kamay, datapwat 
nag kanya g paa. 

10 Kug ag maga nagsisipaglar6 ay marurunog, napapupunta 

nil^ ag pelota sa kahit na sino sa maga kasale, kaya t bawat isa 
sa kanila ay nakaabag at naghihintay nag pagdatig nag sipa^ 
Ag bawat isa ay nagiigat na hwag bay&a g lumagpak sa lupa ag 
pel6ta. Kadalasan ag maga nagsisipaglaro ay nagpapakita nag 

15 sari-sari g ayus nag pagsipa*. Ag maga magandi g pagbabaluktot 
nag paa sa harapan o likuran, ag maligsi at magaa g lundag, ag 
banayad at magaa g pagsipa sa pelota, at ag pagpapadala nag 
sipa sa kahit na ali g bandi ay maga bagay na nagpapaganda sa 
laro g sipa'. Hindi rin bihira na ag balikat, ag siko, ag tuhod, o 

20 ag kamay ay sya g ginagamit sa pagbabalik nag pelota. 

Papdno ag pagkakatalo sa laro g ito? Ito y maaari lamag 
sa pagpapatagalan nag hindi paglagpak nag sipa sa lupa'. 

Kug halimbawa y Ibig makipaglaban nag isa g pagkat nag 
maga maninipa o siperos sa yba g pagkat, ag una y maghahamon 

25 sa alin ma g pagkit na kanila g mapile'. Kug ito y taggapin, 
ag araw, oras, at lugar nag paglalaro ay agad na g nababalita sa 
maga pahayagan. 

Sa oras nag paglalaro' ay hindi iilan lamag na libo g tao 
ag nagsisipanood. Ag maghahamun karanyuwa y umuupa nag 

30 isa g banda-g-musika at tinutugtugan ag bawat pagkat sa kanila 
g paglalaro'. Karanyuwa y dalawa g banda ag musika, sapagkat, 
kug ag hin&mon ay may kaunti g gilas, ay ibig dm naman nili 
g ipakita, at ddhil dito y nagdadala sila nag sarile nila g banda 
nag musika. 

35 Pagkaraan nag larft' ag hukom ay syk g nagpapahayag sa 

maga nanunodd kug ali g pagkat ag nan&lo. Pagkarinig nili nag 
pahayag nag huk5m ay agad-agad inuumpisahin ag pagisig&wan 
at maga pagpuri sa nanalo g pagkat. Ag mitnanalo g pagkat at 
ag kanila g maga kaybigan magkakas&ma g tinutugtugan nag 

40 kanila g blinda nag musika ay ag&d-agad na nagpapaseyo sa 
maga lugar na malapit sa kanila g pinaglaruan. Kinabukasan 
ag lahkt nag nagy&ri ay nakikita sa maga p&hayagan. 

Ag ganito g maga paglalar5 nag sipa ay hindi karanyuwan 

Digitized by 



The number of players is from two to twenty. When they are 
many, they stand in a circle. To begin the game, one of the party 
throws the sipa ball up into the air and toward one of the players, 
usually toward one opposite him. The one to whpm the ball is tossed 
returns it to the one who threw it to him, not with his hand, but with 
his foot. 

When the players are skilful, they direct the ball to each one of 
the party, so that each one of them is alert and ready for the coming 
of the ball. Each one is careful not to let the ball fall to the ground! 
Often the players display various manners of sending the ball. Thef 
graceful bendings of the legs forward and backward, the quick an^ 
light leaps, the gentle and light kicking of the ball, and the sending* 
of the ball in every possible direction, are features which give beauty^ 
to the game of sipa. Sometimes the shoulder, the elbow, the knee, oi* 
the hand is used in returning the ball. 

How is there any contest in this game? This can consist only in 
the test of endurance in keeping the ball from falling to the ground. 

When, for instance, one team of football-players or siperos wants 
to contend with another team, the former challenges whatever team it 
has picked out. If the challenge is accepted, the day, hour, and place 
of the game are at once announced in the newspapers. 

At the time of the game thousands of people look on. The chal- 
lenging party usually hires a band of musicians, and each team is 
played for during its innings. Usually there are two bands, for, if the 
challenged party has any pride, it wants to show it and so brings its 
own band. 

After the game the judge announces to the spectators which team 
has won. When the announcement of the judge has been heard, there 
begins at once the yelling and the honoring of the victorious team. The 
winning team and their friends and followers, accompanied by the 
music of their band, at once begin to parade through the places near 
to the field of the game. On the next day the whole story appears in 
the newspapers. 

Such games of sipa as these are not common in the little towns in 
the provinces, but only in the large cities, such as Manila. 

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sa ma^ja baya g maliliit sa provinsiya, ddtapuwat sa malalaki 
Mmag na bayan, gaya nag Maynila^ at iba pa. 

13. Ax\ kura tq si Patupat. 

Sa b&ya-iQ-San-MigM ay m^y-roo g nagtiri 5 isa q tao noo q 

5 maga hull q &raw nag panah5n nag Kastila^. Ag t4o g it6 y 

nag4ral at sa kanya g katalinuhan ay naintindihan nya ag maga 

masama g palakad nag maga kura na sya g maga maliliit na 

h&re sa kanila g bayin-bayan. 

Sa San-Mig^l ag kura g nadistino ay isa g mabagsik at mainit 
10 ag ulo. Ag tfiwag sa kanya nag maga tao ay **8i Patupat." 

Isa g liggo ag tiwu g n&baggit sa itaas nit5 ay naparoon sa 
simb&han upag makinig nag sermon nag pare'. Sapagkat ag p&ri 
g it5 ay nagakMa g maga wala g pinagar41an ag kanyi g sine- 
sermunan ay Mndi sya nagpHit na makapagsalita g matwid nag 
15 Tagalog. Ag kanya g pananalita' ay wal^ g puno t dulo, at halu- 
hfilo g para g kaldmay. Gayon din ag kanya g isin&sermun ay 
hindi naiiba sa infiyJrno, purgatoriyo, maga salbahi g tio-g-bayan^ 
at katapusan nag mund5. 

Nag ag sermon nya ay nagumpisa na, pumasok sa simbahan 
20 ag kti g kayblga g si Pransisko. 

6&ya nag karanyuwan inumpisaMn nag kura ag kanya g 
sermon sa ganitft g pananaliti' : *'Mani kapatir-konkristydnos ! " 

May 4pat na pu g taon na sya sa lupa g Katagalugan, ay 
hindi pa nya natuttiha g sabihi g matwid ag **Maga kapatid- 
25 Kogkristy4no8." 

Si Pransisko ay nat^tayu sa isa g Ingkr na malapit sa pulpito, 
pinakiggan nya g mabute ag sermon na noo y wala g iba kug 
hindi ag makalillbo na g intUit nag pdri g ito, at iyo y ukul sa 
maga hirap sa infiySmo at purgatoriyo at pagtutulus nag kandila' 
30 at pajgbibigay nag kwalta sa simb&han upag maligtasd,n ag maga 
hfrap na iydn. Si Pransisko ay siniglan nag malaki g g&iit, sa- 
pagk&t n&pagkil&la nya na nil516ko nag p4re ag kanya g maga 
t4o, at wala sya g iba g pakay kug hindi ag takutin 16mag ag 
maga namam&yan upag kanili g payam&nin ag simbahan at maga 
35 kura. 

Pagkaraan nag sermon ay hindi umw6 si Kiko na giya nag 
karanyuwan, ddtapuwat hinantiy nya g matipus ag misa. Pag- 
karaan nit6 y nagpaiwan sya sa simbfihan. Kumtiha sya nag maga 
papel at sumulat sya sa p&re nag ganit6: 
40 **Amog, nfirinig ko p6' ag inyu g sermon kanina g umiga. 

Digitized by 



13. The priest Patupat. 

In the last years of the Spanish time there dwelt in the town of 
San Mi^el a certain man. This man was educated and was intelligent 
enough to understand the evil ways of the priests, who were really little 
kings in their towns. 

In San Miguel the priest who had the parish was a violent and hot- 
headed man. The people called him ** Patupat." 

One Sunday the man above mentioned went to church to hear the 
sermon of the priest. As this priest thought that the people to whom 
he was preaching were uneducated people, he took no pains to speak 
Tagalog correctly. His speech had neither beginning nor end and was 
mixed up like rice-pudding. Moreover, what he preached about was 
never other than Hell, Purgatory, what brutes the people of the town 
were, and the End of the World. 

When the sermon began, our friend Francisco entered the church. 

As usual, the priest began his sermon with this utterance : **Brezren 
and faylow-Christiannes!" Although he had been for almost forty 
years now in the Tagalog country, he had not yet learned to say cor- 
rectly ** Brethren and fellow-Christians." 

Francisco stood in a place near the pulpit and listened carefully 
to the sermon, which on that day contained nothing except what had 
already been a thousand times repeated by the priest, namely about 
the sufferings in Hell and Purgatory, the offering of candles and the giv- 
ing of money to the church in order to escape from these sufferings. 

Francisco was filled with great anger, for he saw that the priest 
was fooling his people and had no other aim than to frighten the towns- 
people so that they should enrich the church and priests. 

After the sermon Kiko did not go home as usual, but waited until 
mass was over. After mass he staid in the church until he was alone. 
He took some pieces of paper and wrote to the priest as follows : 

** Father, I heard your sermon this morning. It is apparent to me 
that you believe that there is a Hell and that there is a Purgatory. I 
do not believe in these things. Next Sunday, if you wish, you may prove 
to the people in your sermon that there is a Hell and a Purgatory. 
When you are done, I sTiall try to prove to them that there is no Hell 
and no Purgatory. If the people believe you, I do not mind if you have 
me hanged for my defeat and my unbelief, but, if I am the victor, 

Digitized by 



Napagkikildla ko na kayo y naniniwala g may infiyerno at may 
purgatoriyo. Ako y wala iq paniwala dito. Sa liggo rj daratig, 
kill] ibig mo, prubahan mo sa iyo g sermon sa maga tao na mky- 
roo infyemo at purgatoriyo. Pagkatapos puprubahan ko na- 
5 man sa kanila na wala ij infiyerno ni purgatoriyo. Kug ikaw 
ag paniwalaan nag maga tao hindi bali g ipabitay mo ako dahi- 
lan sa aki g pagkatalo at hindl paniniwala^. Datapuwat, kug 
ako y manalo ag hinihilig ko lamag sa iyo ay pabayaan mo ako g 
makapagsabi sa madla^ na wala g infyemo ni purgatoryo." 

10 Ag ila g kopya nag sulat na yto ay idinikit nya sa maga 

pader nag simbahan at ag isa y ipinaabot nya sa kura. 

Nag ito y mabasa ni Patupat sumubo ag kanya g dugo^, at 
wala g pagkasyahan ag kanya g galit. Ipinatawag nya ag maga 
gwardya-sibil, at sa gabi din nag liggo g iy6n ay pinapanhikan 

15 at pinahanapan nya ag maga bahay-bahay sa boo g bayan, upag 
hulihin si Kiko^ Datapuwat si Kiko ay hindi nila nahule. Nag 
hapon di g iyon ay ibinalita ni Kiko sa ilan nya g matalik na 
kaybigan ag kanya g ginawa*, at sila y nagapamagha^. Itinanog 
nila kug bdkit niya ginawa iyon at kug hindi nya napagkukuro 

20 ag magyayari sa kanya. 

Ag isa sa kanila y nagsabi nag ganito: **Magbal6t ka na 
nag damit, at umalis ka gayon din, kug hindi mo gusto g mahuli 
ka nag maga sund&lo ni Patupat at maipabaril ka kinabukasan." 
Si Kiko ay ayaw sumunod sa kanya g p&yo, sapagkat inakali 

25 nya g tataggapin ni Patupat ag kanya g hdmon tugkol sa pagpa- 
pakilala sa maga tao na wali g infiyerno ni purgatoriyo at ag 
maga it5 y paghule l&mag nag maga p4re nag kwalta. Kanya 
sya y nagpaibot nag gabi sa b4hay nag isa nyk g kaybigan. 

Nag dumilim na at ag b4ya y nagugulo dahilan sa pagha- 

30 hanap nag maga gwardya-sibil ay sak4 pa 14mag nya napagkilala 

ag malaki g pag&nib na kanya g kinlibibigitan. Sapagkat ito y 

nabalitaan nya agad, kanya nagkaroftn sya nag panaho g maka- 

pagtAgo sa isa g lihim na sulok sa bahay nag kanya g kaybigan. 

Nag makaraan ag maga paghahanap&n sya y lumabas sa 

35 kanya g taguan, umwi sya, nagbalot nag ila g damit, nagpasigkaw 
nag isa g karumata, at pagkakuha nya nag maga b&la nag baril, 
binitbit nya ag baril, sumakay sya sa karumata, at napahatid sa 
lab^ nag b4yan. Pagkaraan nag ila g iraw ay namundok sytt, 
kasama nag ilk g maga t4o-g-b&yan na hindi makatira sa lo6b 

40 nag b&yan, sapagkat nakagalitan sila nag kura o nag iba pa g 
Kastila g may katugkulan sa bayan. 

Dito sa pamumundok nya sya y inabutan nag paghihimagsi- 
kan laban sa maga Kastila' nag tao g isa g libo walo g da^n wal6 
g pu t knim. 

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all I ask of you is to allow me to say to the people at large that there is 
neither a Hell nor a Purgatory.'* 

Several copies of this letter he pasted to the walls of the church, 
and one he sent to the priest. 

When Patupat read it, his blood boiled and his anger knew no 
bounds. He had the gendarmes called, and on the evening of that very 
Sunday he had all the houses in the town entered and searched, so as to 
catch Kiko. But they did not catch Kiko. That same afternoon Kiko 
told some of his intimate friends what he had done, and they were all 
astonished. They asked him why he had done this thing and whether 
he could not see what would happen to him. 

One of them spoke thus : * * Pack up some clothes and go away right 
now, if you don't want to be caught by Patupat 's soldiers and shot 
tomorrow. ' ' 

Kiko refused to follow his advice, because he thought that Patupat 
would accept his challenge about showing the people that there was 
neither a Hell nor a Purgatory and that these things were merely a 
device of the priests for getting money. Therefore he allowed himself 
to be overtaken by night in the house of a friend of his. 

Not until it was dark and the town was upset with the searchings 
of the gendarmes did he recognize the great danger which he was ip- 
curring. Since he had heard of this at once, he had time to hide in a 
secret comer of his friend's house. 

When the house-searchings were over, he went out from his hiding- 
place, went home, wrapped up some clothes, had a wagon hitched up,, 
and, taking some rifle-bullets, shouldered his gun, got into the wagon, 
and had himself driven out of town. After a few days he went to the 
mountains together with several townsmen who could not stay in the 
town because they had incurred the anger of the priest or of some other 
Spanish official of the town. 

There, in his stay in the mountains, he was overtaken by the revo- 
lution against the Spaniards in the year 1886. 

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14. Si Maryano at a^) pari g si Patupat. 

Si Maryano ay isa sa iila q botikariyo sa baya-rj-San-Migel. 

Sya y nagiQ isk sa ma^a nasawi-^-palad dahilan sa pagsway sa 

maga kautus^n nag kura ^j si Patupat. Sya y may familiya; 

5 bukod sa asawa ay may dalawa sya g an^k, isa g dadalawahi iq 

ta5n at isa q kabab&gu g paganak pa lamag. 

Isa 5 araw ag kanya 5 alila ay nagkasakit. Sya y may 
bayaw na mediko, kany& ag aJUa^ ay ipinagamut nya dito na 
wala g biyad, at ag gamot naman ay ibinigay nya na walk ^j bayad 

10 sa alila^. Na^) makaraan ag ila \) iraw ay gumalii) a^) alila' at ito 
y nagak41a g magpahiga g sandali' sa bukid. Kanya' binayaran 
nya ag kanya g utag at napaalam sya kay Maryano upag magtira 
sa bukid. Hindi nalaunan ag pagtitira nya sa bukid at ag alila 
g it5 y nagkasakit na muli', at ag nagig dulo y ag kanya g 

15 pagkamatiy. 

Sa Filipinas nag maga panaho g yaon ay hindi maa&ri g 
huwag pabendisyunan ag isa g patay b&go mabaon. It5 y hindi 
ipinahihintulot nag maga kura, ditapuwat ag pagsas&ma na hindi 
kasal nag isa g babaye at lalaki ay hindi nila masyado g pina- 

20 ^ pansin, palibhasa y gaw& rin naman nili. 

Ag patay na alili ni Maryano ay lubha g mahirap at ag 
kany^ g maga kamaginak ay mahihirap din at wala g ikak&ya g 
magbdyad sa halaga na sinisigil ni Patupat. Dahil dito y wala 
g magpabaon sa katawan nag alila'. 

25 Nag mal&man ito ni Patupat ay ipinatawag nya si Maryano 

at sinabi nya g siy^ ag dapat magpabaon sa patay at siya ag 
magbiyad nag gastos. Sa ak&la ni Mary&no ay lumalampas ag 
kasalbahihan ni Patupat. Kanyd sinabi nya na hindi nya sya 
babayaran sa pagbabaon nag pat^y, k&hit na ano ag magyare. 

30 Si Patupat ay sinubhan nag galit. Ipinabaon niya ag patay 

at sa araw di g iyon ay naparoon sya sa hukuman at ipinagsakdal 
nya si Mariyano upag pagbayaran siya nag gastos sa pagbebendi- 

! syon sa patay. 

Nag dumatig ag paghuhukuman si Maryano y naparoon at 

35 nag itinanog nag hukdm kug ano ag ibig nya g sabihin tugkol 
sa sakdal na iyftn, ay sinabi nya ito g sumusunod: 

**Gino6 g Hw&s, ag namatay na iyon ay wala na sa &ki g 
kapagyarihan, sapagkat hindi ku na sya alila nag sya y namatay. 
Noo g sya y mky sakit pa lamag ay ipinagamot ko sya g wala g 

40 b&yad, at binigj^an ko sya g wala g bayad nag gamot. Nagawa 
ku na ag 4ki g katugktilan sa aki g kapuwa tao at ag katugkula 
g iniy&tas sa akin ni Bathala'. Isa sa maga katugktilan nag 

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14. Mariano and the priest Patupat. 

Mariano was one of the very few apothecaries in the town of San 
Miguel. He was one of the people who fell into misfortune through dis- 
obeying the orders of the priest Patupat. He had a family ; beside his 
wife he had two children, one two years old and one new-born. 

One day his servant fell sick. He had a brother-in-law who was a 
doctor, so he had him treat the servant without charge, and he gave the 
servant medicine without charge. After some days the servant got well 
and decided to rest for a while in the country. Accordingly he paid his 
debt and took his leave of Mariano for a stay in the country. His 
stay in the country did not last long, before he fell sick anew, and the 
end was his death. 

In the Philippines in those days it was not allowable to bury a dead 
person without first having him blessed by a priest. The priests did not 
allow this, but they did not much mind the living together of a man and 
ivoman not married, for the reason that they did this themselves. 

The deceased servant of Mariano was very poor and his relatives 
also were poor and had not the means to pay the price demanded by 
Patupat. Thus there was no one to see to the burial of the servant's 

When Patupat learned this, he had Mariano called and said that 
it was his place to have the dead man buried and to pay the costs. In 
Mariano's opinion Patupat 's insolence was getting beyond bounds. 
Therefore he said that he would not pay him for the burying of the 
dead man, no matter what happened. 

Patupat boiled with rage. He had the dead man buried and on the 
same day went to court and sued IMariano for the cost of blessing the 
dead man. 

When the session of the court came, ^lariano was present, and 
when the judge asked what he had to say to this accusation, he spoke as 
follows : 

**Your Honor, this man who died was no longer in my care, for he 
was no longer my servant when he died. When he was still sick, I had 
him treated without charge and gave him medicine without charge. I 
have done my duty to my fellow-man and the duty placed upon me by 
the Lord. One of the duties of the priests is to provide burial for the 
dead. Now this man is dead, why cannot this priest do his duty with- 
out receiving pay, since even this would not happen, if the relatives of 
the deceased had means!" 

After asking some further questions of the priest and of Mariano, 
the judge closed the hearing and announced that Mariano was in the 
Tight and that the priest would have to put up with having blessed the 
'dead man without payment. 

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maga pare^ ay ai) magpabaon nai) marja patay. Qayo rj ag tao 
g iyon ay patay na, bakit naman hindi inagawa nai) pari g ito 
ag kanya g katugkulau na wala g upa, yamag ito naman ay hindi 
magyayari kug may kaya ag maga kamaganak nag namatayT' 
5 Pagkaraan nag maga ilan pa g maga tanog nag hukom sa 

kura at kay Mariyano ay tinapus nya ag paghuhukuman, at ipina- 
hayag nya g si Mariyano ay nasa katwiran at ag kura y dapat 
magpasyensya sa pagkabendisyon nya nag patay na wala g upa. 
Nag makaraan ito y lalu g lumaki ag galit ni Patupat kay 

10 Maryano, at pagkaraan nag ila g araw ay ipinagsakdal niya ^ 
mull si Mariyano. Qayon ay iba naman ag kanya g sakdal. 
Isinakdal niya sa hukuman na si Maryano ay isa g Mason, sa- 
pagkat sya y hindi nagsisimba ni hindi nagugumpisal ni hindi 
rin nagmamano sa pare^ Ag maga Mason ay ka&way nag Ro- 

15 manismo at sa makatwid ay kaaway din nag pamahalaan sa Fili- 
pinas nag maga panaho g iyon, at dahil dito y kanya g ipinayo 
na si Maryano y ipat&pon sa iba g lupain. 

Nag mabalitaan ni Maryano ag sakdal na yito ni Patupat 
ay inakala nya g wala na sya g pagasa kug hindi ag magtago o 

20 umilag sa maga maghuhuli sa kanya. Kanya^ ag ginawa nya ay 
lumwas sya sa Maynila^ at doon sya nagtago'. 

Datapuwat doon man ay nahuli rin sya nag maga gwardya- 
sivil. Kas4ma nag pitd o walo g taga iba t iba g bayan sya y 
inilulan sa isa g bapor at dinala sila sa ibaba nag kapulu^-g- 

25 Filipinas. At dodn pagdatig nila ag ihk sa kanila g magkaka- 
sama ay pinagb4baril nag maga sunddlo g naghatid sa kanila, 
sapagkat iyon ag utos nag pinuno g nagpatapon sa maga tko g 

Datapuwat si Marydno y hindi nagig isk sa maga nabaril na 

30 iyon. Dodn sya n&tira haggag sa pananalo nag maga Amerikdno 
ay nagkaroon sya nag kalayda g makababalik sa kanya g f amiliya. 
Nag ito y datnan ny^ ag isa nya g anak ay pito na g tadn ag 
gulag at ag ikalawa naman ay lima na g taon. 

15. Ag Intsik na magag4tam. 

35 Si Hwan ay isa g alw&ge na may kapit-b&hay na Intsek na 

aluwage rin. Ag Intsek na yto ay isa g magalig na alwage at 
ag kanya g kinis ay napagkikilala sa magalig nya g pagg4mit 
nag katam. Isa g firaw nakabili sya nag isa g piraso-g-kdhoy 
na may apat na pu g pai ag hfiba'. Itu y kanya g nilinis. Sinu- 

40 bukan nya kug makakukuha syk nag pinagkataman na wala q 

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When this had happened Patupat's wrath against Mariano greatly 
increased, and after a few days he again entered a charge against 
Mariano. This time he made a different accusation. He complained to 
the court that Mariano was a Mason, because he did not come to church, 
did not confess, and did not kiss the priest's hand. The Masons are 
enemies of the Catholic Church and, in consequence, were enemies also 
of the government in the Philippines in those days; and therefore he 
suggested that Mariano be deported. 

When Mariano heard of this accusation of Patupat, he decided that 
his only hope was to hide or to escape from those who were to arrest him. 
Accordingly what he did was to go down to Manila, and there he hid. 

But even there he was caught by the gendarmes. Together with 
seven or eight men from various towns he was put into a steamboat and 
they were taken to the southern part of the Philippine Islands. And 
when they arrived there some of their number were shot by the soldiers 
who accompanied them, for this was ordered by the oflScials who sent 
these men into banishment. 

However, Mariano was not one of those who were shot. He staid 
there until, after the victory of the Americans, he was given the liberty 
of returning to his family. When he came back to the latter, his one 
child was seven years old and the second, five. 

15. The story of the Chinese carpenter. 

Juan was a carpenter who had for neighbor a Chinaman who also 
was a carpenter. This Chinaman was a skilled carpenter and his clever- 
ness showed itself in his skilful use of the plane. One day he bought a 
piece of wood forty feet in length. This he proceeded to smoothe. He 
tried to see if he could obtain shavings without a break for the whole 
length of the wood. What with the excellence of his tools and his skill 

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patid sa bod iQ habi nag k&hoy. Dahilan sa husay nag kanyJi jj 
kasagk&pan at sa kanya g kabutihan sa pagaalwage, aq bagay na 
y6n ay nagig para iQ wali ^) ano mkn sa kaniyJi. . T wi g isusuluQ 
Biya a^ kat^m ay nakakukuha nag pinagkatam^n na wala q patid, 
5 apat na pu g paa ag haba^ tJpaiQ ipakilala nya sa kapit-bahay 
niya g aluw&gi q Tag&log ag kanyi g galig, ito y kanya 5 pina- 
dalhan nai) isa ^) pinagkataman 4raw-araw. 

Aq aluwagi i) Tagalog na si Hwan ay napagulat sa galig nag 
Intsek. tJpai) gantihin nya ag kany^ r) maga tina^jgap na pinag- 

10 kataman, sinubukan din nya \) kumatAm at ipadala sa Intsek ag 
pinagkataman. Datapuwat ag pinakamah4ba nya g nakuha na 
pinagkataman ay may-roon l&mag na labi g lima g paa. Ito y 
kahy4-hiya g ipadaU sa Intsek. 

Si Hw^n ay magalig gum4mit nag daras at siya y naka- 

15 pagp^pakinis nag tabla sa pamamagitan 14mag nag daras. Hindi 
na kayil&ga g gamitan nag kat&m ag ano mk g kahoy na kanya 
g darasin, datapuwat ag pinagdarasan ay maga tatal na maiiklf 
14mag, hindi sukat pagkakilanlan nag kanya g galig, at hindl nya 
maipadala sa Intsek. 

20 H4bag si Hwan ay wala g mal4ma g gawin, ag Intsik naman 

ay hindi naglulubay nag pagpapadali nag pinagkatama g maha- 
h&ba^ Siniglan si Hwan nag g&lit. Sinuggab^n nya ag kanya 
g daras at pinarun^n nya ag Intsek. ltd y napagulat at natakot 
nag makita si Hwan. 

25 Sin&be nito: "And ag gustu mu g sablhin sa maga ipinag- 

papadal^ mo g pinagkataman sa 4kinf Ako y binuwisit mo at 
itd y iyo g pagbabay4ran. Puputulin ko ag buhuk mo sa pama- 
magitan nag daras na itd.'* 

Ag Intsek ay natakot, sapagkat, pag ag ulo nya y tinamaan 

30 na nag daras na iydn, ay plho g hindi sya mabubuhay. Sya y 
nagk&kawala^ d4tapuwat sinuggaban sya ni Hwan, iginapus sya 
sa bagkd^ at inumpisahan nya g dinaras ag ulo nag Intsek. 

Ag daras ay isa g kasagk&pa g malaki, gdya nag isa g piko, 
at mabigat, datapuwat sa magalig na kamay ni Hwan itd y nagig 

35 p&ra g isa g guntig lamag. Ag lagpak nag daras sa ulo nag 
Intsik ay lubha g ban&yad, at ag maga buhdk lamag ag pinuputol 
nag patalim. 

Sa tdkot nag Intsek itd y nagsisigaw na sin&be: **Wapelo! 
Daluhan ninyd kd, masama t4o si Hwan, hindi Kilistyano ! ' ' 

40 ltd y narinig nag maga kipit-bdhay at ihk g nagsisipaglakJtd* 

Kanyd pum&sok sila sa giw&an nag Intsek at dodn ay sinabi 

sa kanila ni Hwan: **Hwag kayu g makialam dito! Ag Intsik 

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at carpentry, this feat went oflf as if there was nothing to it. Every time 
he pushed his plane he obtained a shaving without a break, forty feet 
in length. In order to show this his skill to his neighbor, the Tagalog 
carpenter, he sent him one shaving every day. 

The Tagalog carpenter, Juan, marvelled at the skill of the China- 
man. In order to make return for the shavings he had received, he too 
tried to use the plane and to send the shavings to the Chinaman. How- 
ever, the longest shavings he succeeded in getting were only fifteen 
feet. These it would have been humilating to send to the Chinaman. 

Juan was skilled in the use of the daras, and he was able to smoothe 
boards by the use of the daras alone. Any piece of wood which he had 
chopped smooth with the daras did not require the use of the plane ; but 
the pieces he chopped off were only short splinters, not suited to show 
his skill, and he could not send them to the Chinaman. 

While Juan did not know what to do, the Chinaman did not stop 
sending long shavings. Juan was filled with anger. He took his daras 
and went over to the Chinaman's. The latter was surprised and fright- 
ened when he saw Juan. 

The latter said: **What do you mean to say by sending me those 
shavings T You are offensive to me and you shall pay for it. I am going 
to cut your hair with this daras.** 

The Chinaman was frightened, for he knew that if that daras struck 
his head, he would surely not survive. He tried to escape, but Juan 
seized him, tied him to a bench, and began to use the daras on the Chi- 
naman's head. 

The daras is a large tool, the size of a pick, and heavy, but in Juan's 
skilful hand it was like a mere pair of scissors. The descent of the daras 
on the Chinaman's head was very gentle, and only the hair was cut by 
the edge. 

The Chinaman in his fright shouted and said: **Wapelo! Come 
helpee me, Juan bad man, not Chlistian!" 

This was heard by the neighbors and passers-by. 

Accordingly they came into the Chinaman's workshop, but there 
Juan said to them: ** Don't you mix in here! I am not hurting this 
Chinaman. I am just cutting his hair." 

And he kept on with his chopping. 

When the Chinaman's hair was completely cut, the onlookers were 
greatly astonished, for the Chinaman's hair was as if cut by the shears 
of a skilful barber. The Chinaman too, when he saw in the looking-glass 
that his head was unhurt, was greatly astonished and did not stop prais- 
ing Juan's skill in the use of the daras. 

Digitized by 



na yito y hindi ko sinasaktan. Akin lamag pinuputlan nai) 

At patuluy din ag kanya 5 pagdaras. 

Nai) maputul na nya q lahat ag buhok nag Intsek ay malaki 
5 ag nagig pagkamagha nag nagsisipanood, sapagkat ag buhok nag 
Intsek ay para g ginupit nag guntig nag isa g bihasa g barbero. 
Ag Intsik naman, nag makita nya sa salamin na wala g sugat 
ag kanya g ulo, ay malaki rin ag nagig pagkamagha^, at hindi 
mapatid ag pagpuri nya sa galig ni Hwan sa paggamit nag daras. 

10 16. Isa g t4o g may birtud nag usi. 

Minsan sa isa g bayan sa kapulua-g-Filipinas ay nahayag ag 
pagalan nag isa g tao sa kanya g maga kababayan at maga kapit- 
bayan, dahilan sa hindi karanyuwa g lakas nya sa pagtakbo at 

15 Sya y isa g t4o g hindi mayabag, datapuwat may kaunti g 

talino sa paghahdnap at gayon din may kaunti g tapag. Ag 
kanya g hindi karanyuwa g kapalaran ay hindi nya ipinagmaya- 
b^g ni hindi nya ipinagkayila^ kug and ag pinaggagaligan nag 
kanya g di karanyuwa g lakas. Sin&bi nya sa maga mapagusisa* 

20 na ag pinaggagaligan nag kanya g lakas ay ag agkin niya g 
birtud nag us^. Hindi nya sin&be kug papano ag pagkapasa 
kanya nag birtud na iyon, datapuwat siya y hindi mar&mot sa 
pagbibig^y-loob upag ikatulug niya sa maga kakilala o hindi^ ag 
kanya g lak&s. 

25 Sya y may pa^big na yum&man, gaya nag karamihan nag 

tao, at dito nya ginfimit ag kanya g lakas. Parati sya g nakiki- 
pagtakbuhan, at ag maga takbiiha g ito y lagi na g pinagkata- 
lunan nag mardmi g salapS*. Sya ay lagi na g may malaki g 
pusta. Wala sya g itinagi na pinakikipagtakbuhan. Kug minsan 

30 nakikipagtakbiihan sya sa k6pwa tao, kug minsan ay sa kabayo, 
sa &S0, at sa iba p^ g hayop na matuli g tumakbo. 

Pagkaraan nag ila g firaw ay dumami ag naipon nya g salapi* 
na pinanalunan sa pustahan. Gayon din ag kanya g maga kay- 
bigan na nagsipusta sa kanyi ay nagkaroon nag marami g kwalta. 

35 Nag mapagalaman nag maga tko na syk y may birtud nag usa 
ay hindi na sya ibig lab&nan sa takbiihan. Dahil dito y upag 
hwag mahinto^ ag kanya g pananfilo at pagkita nag kwalta, ay 
nagbibigay sy^ nag malalaki g palugit sa kanya g kinakalaban. 
D6hil sa kalakh^n nag maga palugit na ibinigay ny^ ay marami 

40 ri g tao g lumaban sa kanya. Datapuwat tuwi na y sya ag nagig 

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16. A man who had the power of a deer. 

In a certain town in the Philippine Islands there once became cele- 
brated the name of a certain man, both among his fellow-townsmen and 
the people of the neighboring towns, on account of his unusual strength 
in running and jumping. 

He was not a proud man, but he had some astuteness in money 
matters and also some courage. He did not let his rare good fortune 
make him proud, nor did he lie about the source of his unusual strength. 
He told those who were curious that the source of his strength was the 
power of the deer which he had made his own. 

He did not tell how this power had come into his possession, but he 
was not stingy about doing favors by helping with his strength both 
friends and strangers. 

Like most people, he wanted to get rich, and it was toward this end 
that he used his strength. He often entered into races, and these races 
were always means of winning much money. He always made large 
bets. He refused no one that wanted to race with him. Sometimes he 
ran races with people, sometimes with horses, with dogs, and with other 
animals that are fast at running. 

After a few days the money he had won in bets made up a large sum. 
His friends also, who had bet on him, got much money. When people 
came to know that he had the power of a deer, they did not want t4 
run against him. Therefore, so as not to stop winning and making 
money, he gave large handicaps to his opponents. The handicaps which 
he gave were so great that many people contended with him. Still he 
always came out the winner. In jumping-matches also he was always 

However, though the advantages which he gained through this 
power were great, yet there were also some disadvantages which he 
obtained through it. On account of these disadvantages he did not man- 
age to keep this power as his own through all his life. Through this 
power he had become very nervous. The sounds of falling bodies, noises^ 

Digitized by 



mananalo. Gayon din sa mag a pakikipagluksuhan parati nk iq 
sya a{) nan^nalo. 

Datapuwat, kuQ malaki man ag kabutiha q n&kamtan nyk 
sa birtud na yto, ay may-ron di g ila iq kahirapan na nakamtan 
5' sya dahilan dito. Dahilan din sa kahirapa g ito ay hindi nya 
natagala g agkinin h&bar) buhay nya ag birtud na iyon. Dahilan 
sa birtud na iyon sya y nagii) lubha g magugulatin. Ag maga 
kalabSg, igay, at tahol nag aso kur) gabi ay hindi nagpatulug sa 
kanya. Dahilan sa maga igay na yito, kug natutulug sya ay 

10 pal&gi g napapalukso. Lalu na, kug isa g tahol nag aso, halim- 
bawa^, ag makagisig sa kanya, sya y napapaluks6 nag lubha g 
mataas sa kanya g hihig^n, at bago sya pagsa-ulan nag sarile, 
ay nagtatatakbo na sya. Sa pagluksu nya g it6 na hindi sin&sa- 
dya^ ay wal4 sya g nagigig pagiigat at karanytiwa y umaabot 

15 sya sa ituktok nag bubugan, at sa kababaan nito y 14gi g nala- 
lamog ag kanya g katawan o kaya y nagkftkabukul sya sa ulo, 
dahilan sa pagk&hampas nya sa bubugan. Gayon din sa kanya g 
hindi sinasadya g pagtakbo pagkagisig nya dahilan sa pagkagu- 
lat, ay nagkakaumpog-umpog ag boo g katawan nya sa mag a 

20 dindig nag kanya g b4hay. 

Ito y isa g mahirap na tiisin, at inak41a nya g hindi sya 
mabubuhay na g malwat dahilan sa hindi pagkakatulog kug gabi. 
Kany4 inak&la nya g itapon ag birtud na yto pagkaraan nag 
ila g araw. Nag sumapit ag ikapitu g araw nag kanya g pa- 

25 gaare' sa birtud ay sya y lubha g hirap na at inakala nya g sya 
y mamamatay na sa hirap. Ag ulu nya ay bukulan. Ag mukhA 
nya ay mardmi g pasa^ at kahit na hindi sya nabalian nag buto, 
ag mag a laman naman nya ay lubha g lamog. 

Dahil dito y wala g kibu sya g naparoon sa isa g parag at 

30 itinapon nya doon ag birtud na napulut nya, yamag mar&mi na 
rin lamag siya g salapi g pinanalunan. 

17. Ag alila g uggo^ 

Siy Andres ay may-roo g isa g alila g uggo na kanya g lubha 

g minamahal, sapagkat ag uggu g ito y nagbibigay sa kanya nag 

35 malaki g serbisyo. Kug gabi ipinaglalatag sya nag banig nag 

uggo g ito; kug umaga ay inihahanda^ ag kanya g paghilamos, 

at ag ano ma g kanya g iyutos ay sinusunod nag uggo'. 

Gabi-gabi ag uggu g ito y natutulog sa il&lim nag katri g 

tinutulugan nag kanya g paginoon. Ito y hindi gusto nag kanya 

40 g paginoon, sapagkat, dahilan sa kanya g malaki g kabuluhan^ 

ay ibig ni Andres na sya y bigj^an nag isa g mabute g lugar na 

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and the barking of dogs at night, did not allow him to sleep. These 
noises often made him start up with a jump from his sleep. Especially 
when the barking of a dog, for instance, woke him up, he jumped high 
up from his bed, and before he recovered his wits he was running at 
full speed. He could exercise no care about his involuntary jumping 
up and usually went way up to the ceiling, and, since this was low, his 
body got full of bruises and his head full of bumps from striking against 
the ceiling. Likewise in his unintentional running whenever he woke up 
with a start, his whole body got knocked again and again against the 
walls of his house. 

This was hard to bear, and he thought that he should not live long, 
what with not sleeping of nights. Therefore he decided to get rid of 
this power in a few days. When the seventh day of his possession of 
the power came, he was very sore and thought he should die of soreness. 
His head was covered with bumps. His face was full of black and blue 
marks, and though he had broken no bones, his muscles were badly 

Therefore, without saying a word, he went to a forest and there 
abandoned the power which he had got hold of, seeing that he had 
already won much money. 

17. The pet monkey. 

Andres had a pet monkey which he prized very highly, because this 
monkey gave him much service. At night the monkey spread out his 
sleeping-mat for him ; in the morning it handed him his water for wash- 
ing, and whatever order he gave was obeyed by the monkey. 

Every night this monkey slept underneath the bedstead on which 
its master slept. This was not pleasing to the latter, for owing to its 
great value, Andres wanted to give it a good place to sleep in. How- 
ever, no matter what efforts Andres made to force it, his pet monkey 

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tulugan. Datapuwat, kahit na ganu r\ pagpilit ag gawiii ni An- 
dres, ay hindi nya mapatulog sa iba g lugar aij kanya g alila i) 

Siy Andres ay isa i) tawu g may takot at pagibig sa Dyos. 

5 Kanyd gabi-gabi bagu sya matulog ay nagkukurus sya at tumi- 

tawag sya sa Dyos. Sa oras nag kanya g paghiga gabi-gabi ay 

dinaratnan na nya na n4sa ilalim nag kanya g katri ag uggo^. 

Minsan man ay hindi sya nduna sa paghiga^ sa uggu g ito. 

Isa g draw ag pdrt sa b4yan ay dumdlaw kay Andres sa 

10 kanya g bahay. Pagkaraan nag ila g sandali g pagsasalitaan ay 
ibinaliti niy Andres sa pare* na sya y may-roo g isa g alila g 
uggd na lubha g malaki ag kabuluhin, sapagkat sya y pinagsisil- 
biha g mabute, at k4hit na and ag iyiitos nya ay sinusunod, at 
sinabi pa nya g masipag pa k4y sa maga iba nya g alila* ag uggo 

15 g iyon. 

Malaki ag nagig pagtataka nag pare*, at hinilig nya g ipa- 
kita sa kanya ag ugg6 g iyon. Kanya tinawag ny Andres ag 
ugg6*. Hindi gay a nag d&ti, na sa isit g t&wag 14mag niy Andres 
ay lumalapit agad-agad ag uggd*, gayon makasa-m-pu g tawag 

20 na ay wala pa sya. Siy Andres ay nagalit, nagtindig, at hinanap 
nya sa maga snlok-sulok nag bahay ag uggo*. 

Ito y nakita nya sa isa g sulok at nakak&pit na mabute sa 
isa g halige. Tindwag nya at kanya g pinaaalis sa sulok, datapu- 
wat ag ugg6 y ayaw umalis doon, kahit na ano ag gawin sa 

25 kanya. Dahil dito ay tindwag nya ag pare*, upag ito y doon 
tignin sa sulok ag alfla nya g uggo*. 

Pagkalapit nag pare* ag uggd y kuminig sa takot. Nagkaroon 
nag hinali ag p&rd* na ag uggu g iyon ay isi g dimonyo. KanyJi* 
ag ginawa nya y nagkurus sya at pagkabendisyon nya nag kaunti 

30 g tubig ay niwisikan nya ag uggo*. 

Pagdapo* sa katawJin nito nag tubig ay pumutok na p&ra g 
isa g baril, at sa hxgkr nag ugg6* ay wala Bilk g nakita kug hindi 
asu l&mag na agiid nawaU*. 

Pagkaraan nit6 siniy&sat nag pare si Andrte tugkul sa kanya 

35 g paniniwala sa Diyds. Sin&bi ny Andrfes na hindi nabab&go ag 
matlbay nya g paniniw&la* at gabi-gabi nagdddasal sya bago 
matulog. Siniyasat din nag p&re* kug sain tumilitulog ag ugg6*. 
Sin&be ni Andxds na itd y tumfilog gabi-gabi sa ilalim nag kanyjt 
g k&tri g tulugitn. 

40 Pagkaraan nitd y ipinakil&la sa kemyk nag p&re* na ag uggd. 

g iydn ay isit g dim6nyo na um&abag sa kanyii, at kug syk j 
sum41a nag pagt&wag sa Diyds bagu matulog, sa gabi di g iydn 
ay ihuhtilug sya nag dimonyo aa infydmo. 

Digitized by 



could not be brought to sleep in any other place. 

Andres was a man who feared and loved God. Therefore, every 
night, before he went to sleep, he made the Sign of the Cross and called 
upon God. At his bed-time every night he found that his monkey was 
already under his bedstead. Not once did he get ahead of the monkey 
in going to bed. 

One day the priest of the town visited Andres in his house. After 
some time had elapsed in conversation, Andres told the priest that he had 
a pet monkey which was very useful, because it served him well and 
obeyed his every command, and he also said that this monkey was more 
dilligent than his other servants. 

The priest was much surprised and asked that the monkey be shown 
to him. So Andres called the monkey. Usually the monkey came at 
once at a single call by Andres, but on this occasion it did not appear 
even when he had called ten times. Andres got angry, arose, and looked 
for the monkey in the nooks and corners of the house. 

He found it in a comer, clinging tightly to a post. He called it 
and tried to get it out of the corner, but the monkey would not come 
away, no matter what Andres did to it. Therefore he called the priest 
to look at his pet monkey there in the corner. 

At the approach of the priest the monkey trembled with fear. The 
priest conceived the suspicion that this monkey was an evil spirit. So he 
made the Sign of the Cross, and blessing a little water, sprinkled it over 
the monkey. 

When the water struck the latter 's body, there was a report like 
that of a gun, and in the place of the monkey they saw only some smoke, 
which soon disappeared. 

Thereupon the priest questioned Andr& concerning his faith in 
God. Andr6s said that his firm faith had not changed and that he 
prayed every night before going to sleep. The priest then asked where 
the monkey used to sleep. Andres answered that it slept every night 
under his bedstead. 

Thereupon the priest informed him that this monkey was an evil 
spirit which had been lying in wait for him, and that if he had ever failed 
to call upon God before he went to sleep, on that very night the evil 
spirit would have thrown him into Hell. 

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18. At) matand4 sa puns6 sa liwdnag naiQ araw. 

Si Pedro ay is4 r) matapar) na lal4ke. Par&ti sya iq naka- 
rinig naQ mafla kw^nto tugkiil sa asuwag, duwendi, maTjkiikulam, 
at maga matandd sa punso, datapuwat ag ipinagtdtaka ni P6dro 
5 ay ku:o bakit hindi sya mak4tagpo ni kahit isa nag maga bagay 
na ito. Ibig niya i] mak^ita nai) isa man lamag sa kanila, upa\) 
maldman nya kug tunay ga^ na sila y may-roo 5 maga kapagya- 
riha i) hindi karanyuwan sa karamihan nag t&o. 

Sya y nagl&lakad na isa g gabi sa isa g lugar na madilim 
10 at pinagkakatakutan, sapagkit dito y mardmi g nakakita nag 
matanda sa pnnso. 

Ag tab&ko nag matanda g ito y nakat^t&kot ag laki, at kng 
ito y hititin nya ag liwdnag na nagy^yari ay p4ra g liwanag nag 
isa g siga^. 
15 Sa gabi g iyon sa kanya g paglalak&d malfiyu pa syk y naka- 

kita na sya nag isa g liyab. Ag bnhuk nya y nagsitindig at 
inakala nya 9 bumalik, datapuwat napigilan nya ag kanya g 
tfikot at ipinatuloy din nya ag kanya g pagldkad. 

Sya y sinalubog nag nagtatabako. Pagk&lapit nya y inanl- 
20 naw nya ag katawan nag matanda g iydn, datapuwat hindi rin 
nasyahan ag kanya g pagsisy&sat, kanya inibig nya g makita sa 
sikat nag &raw ag matanda g iyon. tJpag itu y magy&ri d6pat 
nya g pigilin ag matandJt', sapagkat ag mag a ispiritu g it6 ay 
bum4balik sa kanila g tahanan sa impyirno iba pa mk g lugd,r 
25 sa paglfipit nag um&ga. 

Kanya^ ag ginaw4 nya y hinaw&kan nya agad ag matanda'. 
Ito y nakipagbuno sa kanyi. Kug minsan sya y nasa ildlim, kug 
minsan sya y n&sa ibabaw, ddtapwat hindi nya pinakawalan ag 
matanda'. Mahigpit na mahigpit ag kanya g kapit at tinalaga 
30 nya g sum&ma k&hit na saan sya daJhin nag matandS, kug ito y 
malakas kay sa kany&. 

Sila y nagbuno haggag alastr^s. Si Pedro sa oras na it5 ay 
pagod na pagod na at malaki ag paglalata', datapuwat hindi rin 
nya binitawan ag kanya g kabun6'. Nag magaalaskwatru nk ay 
35 naglubay nag pagkilos ag kanya g hawak. Nag makaraan ag 
kalahdti-g-6ras ag sinag nag araw ay nagumpisa nk nag pag- 
taglaw sa kanil^, d&tapuwat hindi pa rin lubha g maliw4nag 
upag mapagkilfila ni Pedro kug ano ag kanya g tagan. Nag 
dumatig ag alasigko ay malaki nya g pagk&magha', nag makita 
40 nya g sya y niaakap sa isk g haligi g hindi lubha g mataas k4y 
sa kany^, datapuwat n&tutfilus sa lupa at sundg na sondg. 

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18. The old man of the ant-hill by light of day. 

Pedro was a brave man. He had often heard stories about vam- 
pires, dwarves, sorcerers, and old men of the ant-hill, but what made 
Pedro wonder was why he had never chanced to meet even a single one 
of these creatures. He wanted to get a sight of at least one of them, so 
that he might know whether it was true that they had powers not com- 
mon to most persons. 

One night he walked about in a dark and haunted place, because 
he had heard that many people had there seen an old man of the ant-hill. 

The cigar of such an old man is of terrifying size, and when he draws 
at it, the light given forth is like the light of a bonfire. 

On this night he had gone some distance on his ramble, when he 
saw a flare of light. His hair stood on end and he thought of going 
back, but he overcame his fear and continued on his walk. 

He was met by the smoker. When he approached, Pedro examined 
the old man's figure, but as he did not succeed in gratifying his curiosity, 
he was taken with the desire of seeing the old man by daylight. To 
bring this about, he would have to hold the old man fast, for these spirits 
return to their abode in Hell or some other place of the kind as soon as 
morning comes. 

Therefore what he did was suddenly to seize hold of the old man. 
The latter began to wrestle with him. Sometimes Pedro was below, 
sometimes he was on top, but he did not let go of the old man. He held 
him as tightly as possible and made up his mind that he would follow 
no matter where the old man bore him, should the latter prove stronger 
than he. 

They wrestled till three o'clock. By this time Pedro was as tired 
as can be and ready to sink to the ground, but he did not let go of his 
fellow- wrestler. When four o'clock came his opponent ceased to move. 
When another half hour had passed, the rays of the sun began to fall 
upon them, but it was not yet light enough for Pedro to make out what 
sort of thing it was he had hold of. When five o'clock came, he was 
greatly surprised to see that he was embracing a post which was not much 
higher than he. It was, however, firmly fixed in the ground and com- 
pletely charred. • 

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19. Ag tiyanak ni Hwan. 

Isa 5 gabe si Hwan ay tumawid sa flog sa kanya 5 paglilibot. 
Nag sya y ndsa pasigan pa lamag, nakaramdam sya nag skhxxy 
nay buhagin sa kanya y likod, nag sya y matuntui) na sa kabu- 
5 harjinan. 

C Nag una ij gabe ito y hindi nya inino. Nag ikalawa g gab^, 
nag magdaan sya g ule sa pasiga g ito, nakaramdam sya g mull 
nag sabuy nag buhagin sa kanya g likod.^ Inak&la nya g subu- 
kan at hulfliin ag nagsas&buy sa kanya nag buhagin, kanya^ sa 

10 kanya g paglakad ay paminsan-mlnsan sya g pumipfliit na pa- 
bigla^ sa kanya g likuran, d&tapwat wala sya g maklta k4hit na 

Dahil dito y siniglan siya nag kaunti g takot at inakala nya 
g baka kug anu g matanda sa punso o tiyfinak ag kanya g naka- 

15 katugo. Kanya^ tinulinan nya ag pagtakbo, datapuwat h&bag 
nagtutulin sya ay lalu nama g dum&dalas ag pagd&pu nag buha- 
gin sa kanya g likod. Lumaki ag kanya g takot at dahil dito y 
bumalik sya sa kanya g bahay na patakbo nag ubus-lakas. 

Nag dumatig sya doon ay hinahfibul nya ag kanya g hinig^ 

20 at hindi sya makausap. Nag sya y makapaghiga na nag kaunte*^ 
ay saka pa l&mag sya nakasagot sa mar&mi g maga tanog nag 
kanya g amk at iba pJ, g kasa-g-bahay. Sin4bi nya sa kanya g 
ama na sya y sinusund&n nag maga dwende sa kanya g paglalakad 
at sinisabuyan sya nag buh&gin. 

25 Itinandg nag kanya g ama kug saan ag lugir na iydn at 

sin&bi nya g sa pasigan nag flog. Ag kanya g ama ay n&paha- 
lakhak nag tdwa at sin&bi nya g iyon ay hindi dwende, d&tapu- 
wat ag kanya lamag paa ag nagtitagJty nag buh4gin sa kanya 
g likod sa bawat kanya g paghakbag. 

30 Datapuwat si Hwan ay &yaw maniw&la^ at mky fla g &raw 

na hindi sya nandog nag bahay. D&hfl dito y inibig nag kanya 
g am^ na m^ipakil&la sa kanya ag katotoh&nan nag kanya g 
sinabe, at isa g gabe ay sin&bi nya kay Hwin na sya y magpasyal 
at magdaan sa lugkr di g iy6n at sya y kanya g sisamahan. 

35 Pum4yag si Hwjln at sila g dalawa y naparodn sa pasigan. 

Nag dumatig na sfla doon ay nagpahule ag ama ni H)Yin. Nag 
itu naman ay nagl&lakad nk sa kabuhaglnan at nag sya y naka- 
ramdam nag s4buy nag buh&gin sa lik6d, siniglan sya g muli 
nag t&kot at isinigaw nya sa kanya g am^ na nagumpisa n^ nag 

40 pagsdbuy nag buhagin sa kanya g likftd. 

Pinabalik nya si Hwan at kanya g pinaUkad na mul6^ 
Oayon ay sinusundan ny4 sa likur4n. D&hil dito y nikita na^ 

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19. Juan's goblin. 

One night Juan while rambling about, crossed a river. While he 
was still on the bank and just walking on the sandy beach, he felt some 
sand being showered on his back. T J He thought he would watch for the 
person who was throwing sand on him and catch him, so, while walking, 
he kept turning suddenly right about at short intervals, but he saw 

This frightened him a little, and he began to wonder if he was not 
perhaps dealing with some old man of the ant-hill or some goblin. 
Therefore he hastened his running, but the faster he went, the more fre- 
quent grew the striking of sand on his back. His fear increased and he 
returned home running with all his might. 

When he got there he was out of breath and unable to speak. It was 
only when he had rested a while that he was able to answer the many 
questions of his father and the other members of the household. He told 
his father that he had been pursued by dwarves on his walk and showered 
with sand. 

His father asked him where the scene of this was, and he said on 
the bank of the river. His father burst into peals of laughter and said 
that these were no dwarves, but only his own feet, which sent the sand 
up on his back at every stride he made. 

But Juan refused to believe this, and for several days he did not 
leave the house. His father therefore wanted to show him the truth of 
what he had said, so one night he told Juan to go for a walk to that same 
place, and he would accompany him. 

Juan consented and they both went to the river-bank. When they 
got there, Juan's father dropped behind. When Juan walked on the 
sandy beach and felt the sprinkling of sand on his back, he was again 
filled with terror and shouted to his father that they were already start- 
ing to throw sand on his back. 

He made Juan come back and walk on again. This time he followed 
at his back. Accordingly Juan's father saw that every time Juan took 
a step, the sandals he was wearing carried along some sand, and when 
he raised his foot the sand thus carried along was sprinkled on his back. 

His father now had him take off the sandals he was wearing and 
made him walk on again. This time, no matter how much ground Juan 
walked over, he felt no scattering of sand on his back. 

Prom this time on he had no more fear of old men, dwarves, vam- 
pires, and other spooks. 

Digitized by 



ama ni Hwan na twi j} sya y hahakbaij ag sinelas na soot nya ay 
nagt&ta^ay nar) buhd^in, at sa pagaalsi nit6 nag paS, ag buhdgi 
g tagay ay napJipasabuy sa likod ni Hwan. 

Ag ginaw4 nag kanya g amS, ay ipinaalis ar) soot nya g 
5 sinelas at pinal4kad sya g muli*. Qaydn, kahit na gano kalayo* 
ag lak4ran ni Hwan ay wala na sya g nariramdami g sabuy 
nag buh4gin sa kanya g likod. 

Mul4 noon ay nawalan sya nag t4kot sa maga matandJl^ 
i- duw^nde, asuwag, at iba pa g pinagkakatakutan. 

10 20. Si Hwa g magliligaw. 

Ag dalaga g si Marya ay balita nag ganda sa kanya g bariyo. 
D4tapuwat wala g magliligaw sa kanya, llban na 14mag kay 
Hwin. Ounit ag ama ni Mary4 ay malaki ag pagk4ayaw kay 
Hwan. Hindi makausap ni Hwan ag nililig4wan kug hindi pali- 

15 him, sapagkat pag nM4man nag ami ni Marya, ito y sinasaktan 
sila k4pwa^ sa pamamagitan nag pamalo^. Kug minsan at malald 
ag g41it nag ama ay bambo ag ginagamit nya kay Hwan, at sa 
ganito y malapit sya g maballan nag buto k4ylan man at sila y 
mahuli sa paguusap. 

20 Isa g gabi g madilim ag ami ni Mariya ay naglibot. Nag 

itd y mal4man ni Hwan pinarunan nya si Mariy4 iipag kaus4pin. 
Nalibag sila sa paguusap, kany4 sila y dinatnS,n nag ama ni 
Marya sa kanya g pagwe*. 

Siniglan sya agad nag g41it at pasigaw nya g kinausap si 

25 Hwan: **Anu ka, salb4he? Sinabi ku na sa iyo g hwag kk g 
tutuntog dito sa 4ki g pamam4hay. Ano ag ibig mo t naririto 

L ka?" 

f At pagkas4be nit6 y sinuggaban nya ag isa g bisig nag ka- 

wayan at inakmaan nya g bambuhin si Hwan. Sa malaki g takot 

30 nito ay nagtal6n sya sa bint4na^, d4tapuwat sinundan din sya nag 
ama. Kany4 ag ginawa nya y tumakbft sya nag ubus-lakas. 

Ag gabi ay madilim na p4ra g ulig, at hindi nya matumpa- 
kan kug sain ag parunan, d4tapuwat patuloy rin sya nag pag- 
takb6. Nagkagdad4pJL sya sa pagtakbo, d4tapwat maligsi syi g 

35 nagbabagon at patuluy din sa pagtakbo. 

Hindi nal4on at nakadaan sya nag isi g malaki at maitim 
na b4gay. Nakil41a nya g iyon ay isa g kalabaw, kany4 sya y 
lumundig agad sa likod nit6, at kanya g pinatakbo. 

Ag pagsakay sa kalabaw ay hindi lubha g mahirap sa kala- 

40 p4ran nag likod nit5 at sa kahin4an nag takbd. Kanyi^ k4hit 

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20. Juan the suitor. 

Young Maria was famed for beauty in her district. She had no 
suitors, however, except only Juan. But Maria's father had a great 
dislike for Juan. Juan could converse with the girl he was courting only 
in secret, for when Maria's father knew of it, he would punish them 
both with his stick. 

Sometimes, when the father's anger was great, he used a club on 
Juan, so that he was in danger of getting his bones broken whenever 
they were caught talking together. 

One dark night Maria's father had gone out. When Juan found 
this out, he went to Maria's to talk with her. They forgot themselves 
in their conversation, and so were surprised by Maria's father on his 

He was at once filled with anger and in a loud voice addressed 
Juan: **What do you want, you brute? I've told you not to set foot 
in my house here. What do you mean by coming here?" 

And when he had said this he seized a bamboo cane and made ready 
to give Juan a caning. In his terror the latter jumped out of the win- 
dow, but he was followed by the father. So he took to running with all 
his might. 

The night was dark as coal and he could not make out which way to 
go, but he kept running nevertheless. He fell on his face again and 
again as he ran, but he got up quickly and kept on running. 

It was not long before he came upon a large black object. He rec- 
ognized it as a caribou, so he leaped quickly on its back and made it run. 

Biding on a caribou is not very difScult, owing to the breadth of its 
back and the slowness of its pace. Therefore, even though he had no 
reins, Juan was not afraid to ride. Owing to the darkness of the night 
it happened that in his mounting he faced the tail-end of the caribou 
and not the head. 

He urged on the caribou. Now it happened that this caribou was 

Digitized by 



na wala ij pamitik si Hwan ay di natakot na sumakay. Sa kadili- 
man narj gabi sa kanya j} pagsakay ay nagyari g naharap sya sa 
buntutan nar) kalabaw at hindl sa uluhan. 

Pinatulin nya ag kalabaw. Narjyari nama g arj kalabaw na 

5 ito ay ari nag ama ni Marya. Hindi nalaunan at nakatanaw sya 

nar) bahay na mailaw sa pinatutuguhan nag kalabaw. Ag boo 

g dsa nya ag bahay na iyon ay sa kanya rj k&pit-bahay. Kanya 

bumaba sya sa kalabaw at patakbo sya r) pumanhik sa bahay. 

Malaki ai) nagig pagkalit6 nya at pagkat&kot nag pagkapan^ 
10 hik nya y sinalubog sya nag ama ni Marya, at binambft sya sa 
katawan at sinibi: **An6 t nagbalik ka pa? Hindi ba pinal4yas 
na kita, wala g hykV^ 

Nag pagsa-ulan si Hwan nag kanya g sarili ay nagtalon sya 
sa batalan at tumakbo sya g muli patugo sa kanya g b&hay, 
15 ddtapuwat gay6 y hindi na sya sumakay sa kahit and pa m^n. 

21. Si Mariya g maramot. 

Nag nabiibuhay pa si Mariya ay natira sya sa kanya g mai- 
nam na b&hay sa gitna nag isa g mal4wak na baktiran na may 
magagandJi g hardin at maga punu-g-kahoy. Sya y lubha g may&- 

20 man, kanya^ ag buhay nya y isa g panay na kaginhaw4han. 

Hindi sya nakaratig nag apat na pu g taon sa gulag at sya 
y namatay. Ag lahat nag kanya g yaman ay hindti nya sa kanya 
g kapatid at sa simb4han. Hindi nya naala41a ag mahihirap nya 
g kakil41a at il4 g kapit-b4hay. 

25 Ag kapatid na naiwan ay nagpamfsa nag sundd-sun&d sa 

loob nag pito g 4raw, upag ag kaluluwa ni Mariylt ay papastikiii 
ni Sam-P6dro sa pinttian nag 14git. 

Nag ag kanya g kapatid ay nabiiblihay pa ito y balfta g 
balita sa karamutan. Siya mismo ay bihira g magpamisa o mag- 

30 patulos nag kandfla^. Ag maga pulubi g nagpapalimos, kug> 
tum4wag sa kany4, ay pinalal4yas nya at hindi nililimusan. Eada- 
lasan ay ipinahah4bul pa nya sa 48o. Ag kanya g maga kasama 
ay pinapagtatrabaho nya nag wala g npa, at kug kanya g pakinin^ 
ay wala g ulam, — asin at k4nin 14mag. Sa panunuyo sa kanyk 

35 nag kanya g maga kasamli, twi g sil4 y nagslsiuwe^ ay nagdadala 
sila nag maga manok, itlftg, biik, at maga buga nag g61ay o hal4- 
man, upag ibig4y kay Mary^. Ag maga ala41a g itd ay hindi 
nila ibinibigay dahilan sa kanilli g pagmamah41 kay Marya, d4- 
tapwat para g isa g suhol, upag sila y hwag masiyadu g alipustain 

40 sa kanil4 g pagparodn sa kanya g b4hay. Eug si Maryli nam4i> 

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owned by Maria's father. It was not long before Juan saw a lighted 
house in the direction toward which the caribou was going. He confi- 
dently expected that this house was his neighbor's. Therefore he got 
down from the caribou and went up into the house on the run. 

Great was his surprise and terror when, upon entering, he was met 
by Maria's father and beaten all over his body and addressed: **What 
have you come back for? Haven't I got rid of you yet, you shameless 

When Juan came to himself he jumped from the porch and ran 
toward home, but this time he did not ride on anything. 

21. Maria the miser. 

When Maria was still alive, she lived in her pleasant house in the 
middle of wide grounds with beautiful gardens and trees. As she was 
very rich, her life was one constant pleasure. 

She had not reached the age of forty years, when she died. All 
her wealth she divided between her sister and the church. She did not 
remember the poor acquaintances and those of her neighbors who were 

The sister who was left had a series of masses said during the seven 
days after death, so that Maria's soul might be admitted by Saint Peter 
at the gates of heaven. 

When her sister Maria was still alive, she was known far and wide 
for her avarice. Sbe herself rarely had masses said or made offerings 
of candles. When beggars asking for alms called on her, she had them 
driven away and gave them no alms. Often also she had them chased 
with dogs. She forced her peons to work without pay, and when she 
gave them rations it was without meat or vegetables, — only boiled rice 
with salt. To propitiate her, her peons, whenever they went home, 
brought chickens, eggs, young pigs, and vegetables or fruits to give to 
Maria. They did not make these presents for love of Maria, but as a 
kind of bribe, so that they might not be too harshly treated during their 
stay in her house. But when Maria went to the country to her work- 
men, she appropriated without saying a word and without paying for 
it, everything she saw in their house that took her fancy. Wlien, for 
instance, she saw at her workmen's a new basket, tray, sieve, sack, mat^ 

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ay lumalabas sa bukid sa kanya ^ ma^a kasama, a^ b4wat m&kita 
nya sa pamamahay nila na kanya ig migustuhin ay kinukuha nya 
narj wala ^ kibd^ at hindi nya binabayaran. Kur) halimbawa y 
mak^klta sya sa kanya 5 ma^a kasamS, na^) isa ig bagu r) y4ri g 
5 bakol, bilao, bistay, bay or), banig, palay6k, lumbo, sandok, kaliu, 
o iba pa j} kasar)k&pan sa bahay, ay kinuktiha nyk at ipinadadala 
nya sa kanya g bahay. Kufl hindi nya magamit aij marja pinag- 
kikuha nya ay ipinagbibili nyk. Gayon din a^) gaw4 nya sa ma^a 
hay op nar) kanya ^ ma^a kasama. D&hil dito y yumaman sya ^) 

10 agid. 

Nar) sya y may-roon na x\ tatlu 5 araw na namamatay, ag 
kanyS, rj kapatid ay naroroon sa kany^ r) bahay at doon nagpa- 
palipas nar) pagdadalamh4te^. Isa q hapun nag sya y naglalakad 
sa h&lamanan, n4tabi sy4 sa bal6n na n4sa bakuran. Napagulat 

15 sya, sapagkat sa ilalim nag balftn ay may n4rinig sya g tumat4- 
wag sa kanya ig pag41an. Itinugu nya afl kanya r) ulo sa balon 
at doon ay 141u ig narinig ny4 j} mabute arj pagt4wag, datapuwat 
wal4 sya q ni4kita q tao na k4hit an5. 

Sin4bi narj b6ses: **Aki x) kapatid, ako ay si Mariya. Ag 

20 ginaw4 ku g pamumuhay na karamutan, kasakim^n, at kalupitan 
ay 4ki g pinagb4bayaran gay5n. Ako ay n^ririne sa parusahan 
ni Bath41& sa lahit nag makasalanan. Kug maaari ay hwag mu 
akd g tul4ran, at ikaw sana y humanap nag para^n npag mahago 
mo ako dito sa kumukulu g lagis na aki g tirahan gayon/' 

25 Ag kanya g kapatid ay lubh4 g malaki ag nagig pagkahapis, 

at sya y naparo6n ag^d sa p4re% upag ipagtan6g kug papano ag 
paraA g mag4gawa nya npag mah4go nya sa infyerno ag kanygi 
g kapatid. Ipin4yo nag pari^ na sya y magsadya sa isa g b4yan 
na may-roo g larawan ni Sam-Pedro na milagroso. Ag larawa g 

30 ito ni Sam-Pedro ay nakikipagusap sa maga t4o at nagh^hatol 
nag sari-s4ri g paralln upag makapasok sa 14git. lyun ag kanya 
g miligro. 

Ag kapatid ni Marj'^a ay nagsady4 agad-agid sa baya g kina- 
doroonan nag Sam-Pedro g milagroso. Nag dumatig sya roon at 

35 nakikipagusap na sy4 kay Sam-P6dro, sin4bi nya ag lahat-lahat. 
Sinabi nya g ag sabi sa kanya nag kanya g kapatid ay ag kanya 
g ginawa g karamutan, kasakiman, at kalupitan ay sya nya g 
ikinahtilog sa infy^mo. 

**Kug gayon,'' ag wlka ni Sam-Pedro, **hum4nap ka nag 

40 k4hit iisa g tao, hayop, a hal4man na ginawaan nag iyo g kapatid 
nag isa g kab4Itan. Kug ikiw ay makaklta na, bumalik ka g 
muli sa akin, at bibigyan kita nag paraa g ikahJihago mo sa hirap 
sa iyo g kapatid." 

Ag kapatid ni Marya ay umuwi ag4d sa kanila g bayan, at 

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pot, cup, dipper, brazier, or other household utensil, she took it and 
carried it off to her house. When she could not make use of the things 
she had taken, she sold them. She acted in the same way about animals 
that belonged to her servants. In this way she had quickly grown rich. 

When she had been dead about three days, her sister was at her 
house, spending the period of mourning. One evening, when she was 
walking in the garden she came to the side of a well that was in the 
yard. She was surprised, for from the depth of the well she heard 
someone calling her name. She turned her head toward the well and 
there she again clearly heard the calling, although she could see nobody 

The voice said: **My sister, I am Maria. I am paying now for 
my life of avarice, selfishness and cruelty. I am here in the Lord's 
place of punishment for all sinners. If it may be, do not follow my ex- 
ample, but seek some means to save me from the boiling oil here which 
is now my place of dwelling.'' 

Her sister was much grieved then and went at once to the priest to 
ask to what means she could resort to rescue her sister from Hell. The 
priest advised her to go to a certain town where there was a wonder- 
working image of Saint Peter. This image of Saint Peter talked with 
people and advised various means of getting into Heaven. This was its 

Maria's sister went immediately to the town where stood the mir- 
aculous Saint Peter. When she got there and talked with Saint Peter, 
she told him the whole story. She said that her sister had told her that 
her avarice, selfishness, and cruelty had caused her to be thrown into 

'*In that case," said Saint Peter, **find you but one single person, 
animal, or plant that was the object of an act of kindness on the part 
of your sister. When you have managed to find it, come back to me, 
and I shall give you a means to rescue your sister from damnation." 

Maria's sister went home to their town at once and there she in- 
quired of all the townspeople which of them owed any debt of gratitude 
to her sister, or which of them had been well treated or kindly spoken 
to by her. But not one of them wa^ able to answer. The animals also 
of the neighbors and on Maria's own grounds were interrogated by her, 
but here she found none that had been done a kindness by her sister. 

One dog, a creature of skin and bones, said to her: **One afternoon 
I was very hungry. I found a bone in her yard. I seized it and was 
carrying it off, when she saw me. She had me chased at once, and when 
I dropped the bone she had it buried in the ground. Was that an act of 

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dito y nagusisa sya sa lahat nar) namamayan kug siiio arj may 
litarj na loob sa kanya g kapatid o kaya kug sino arj kanya r) 
ginawan o pinagsalitaan nag mabuti. Datapuwat kahit isa ay 
wala Y\ makasagot. Ag inar)a hiyop narnan sa maya kapit-baliay 
5 at sa bakuran ni Marya arj kanya rj pinagusisa^ datapuwat wala 
rin sya ij nakita na ginawaan nar) mabuti narj kanya j} kapatid. 

Arj isa g aso g buto t balat ay nagsabi sa kanya: ''Isa g 
hapon ako y gutom na gutom. Nakddaan ako sa kanya g bakuran 
narj isa g buto. It6 y kinagat ko at aki g dinadala, narj makita 

10 nya ak6. Ipinahabol nya ako g agad, at naij bitiwan ko ag butd 
it6 y ipinabaon nya sa Itipa'. lyan ba y isa r) kabaitan ? ' * 

L41u g lumaki arj hapis nar) kapatid ni Mariya at unti-unti 
5 nawawala arj kanya r) pagasa na mahago sa hirap ag kanya g 
kapatid. Inumpisahan nya r) usisain ag maija halaman sa baku- 

15 ran nag kanya g kapatid. Inisa-isa nya g lahat ag maga kala- 
b&sa, upo, pipino, sile, milon, sigkamas, mane', talog, sitaw, at 
sibuyas, bawag, at iba pa g gulay. Sa kanila y wala sya g nakita 
nag kanya g hinahdnap. Isinundd naman nya ag maga puno- 
g-k4hoy. Siniyasat nya isa-isa ag maga puno nag siko, anunas, 

20 &tis, mabulo, suha^ dalandan, d4yap, at balubad. Qiinit wala ri 
g nagig katuturan ag kanya g pagod; iisa na 14mag pagk&t nag 
maga halaman ag hindi pa nya naiiusisa', at kug dito y hindi sya 
makakita nag kanya g h&nap, ay wala sya g magagawa sa pagdu- 
dusa nag kanya g kapatid. Nalibot nya sila g lahat, ditapuwat 

25 wala g nakapagsdbi na tumagg^p sila nag isa g gawa g kabaitan 
sa kay Maryi. 

Sa k^huli-hulihan pumaro6n ag kapatid sa tabi nag balon, at 
do5n inusIsJi nya g lahat ag maga dam6. Nal) dumatig ag gabi 
ay iisa na 14mag na punu-g-dam6 ag hindi nya nauusisa'. Ito y 

30 nilapftan nya na pun5 g punii nag takot at pagasa. 

Itinanug nya sa puno nag dam6 na natatanim sa tabi nag 
bal5n: **Nag nabubuhay ba ag 4ki g kapatid, ay ginawin ka nya 
nag isa g kabMtan?" 

Isinagftt nag damo: '*0! Ag iyo hk g kapatid? Siya ga% 

35 siylt ag nagbigay sa &kin najo b4go g buhay. No6 g tag&raw na 
nagda^n, lanta g lanta nk ag aid g maga d4hon at ako y malapit 
na g mamatay, d4tapuwat ag iyb g kapatid ay naligo* isa g h4pon 
sa tabi nag balo g itd. Sa kanya g pagpaligo' ay n&wisikan ak5 
nag tubig at d4hil dfto y lumakas ako g muli^ at ag maga lant& 

40 ku g dahon ay nanarlwa g muIi^" 

Wala g pagkisyahan ag nagig tuw4 nag kapatid ni Maryi, 
at sa gabi ri g iy6n ay nagbalik sya kay Sam-Pedro. Binigyan 
sy4 ni Sam-P6dro nag isa g das41an, at sin4bi sa kanya na umuwe 

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The grief of Maria's sister became much greater, and her hope of 
rescuing her sister from damnation was gradually failing. She began 
to question the plants in her sister's yard. She took one by one all the 
gourds, pumpkins, cucumbers, chile peppers, melons, sincamas, peanuts, 
egg-plants, cow-peas, and onions and garlic, and other vegetables. She 
did not find among them that which she sought. She also went through 
the trees. She made inquiry, one after the other, of the chico, anona, 
custard-apple, mabolo, grape-fruit, orange, lime, and casoy trees. But 
here too her labor gave no result ; only the group of the garden-plants 
she had not yet questioned, and if here she did not find what she sought, 
there would be nothing for her to do about the punishment her sister 
was undergoing. She went to them all, but there were not any Vho 
could say that they had received any kindness from Maria. 

At the very last the sister went to the side of the well, and there 
she questioned all the blades of grass. When night came there was only 
one head of grass which she had not yet questioned. Full of fear and 
hope she approached it. 

She asked the head of grass which grew by the side of the well: 
**When my sister was alive, did she ever do you an act of kindness T' 

**0h, your sister?'' answered the grass, **Yes, it was she who gave 
me new life. Last summer my blades were all withered and I was near 
to dying, but your sister bathed one evening by the side of this well. 
As she bathed, some water was sprinkled on me, so that I grew again and 
my withered blades became fresh once more." 

Maria's sister could not contain the joy which arose in her, and 
that very night she returned to Saint Peter. Saint Peter gave her a 
rosary and told her to go home and to hang this rosary down into the 
well. She was to call Maria and let her take hold of the rosary ; by this 
means her sister could be rescued from damnation. 

She went home at once, and hardly was the sun shining, when she 
•came to the yard of the deceased Maria. She approached the well, let 
down the rosary, and called her sister. Maria emerged from under the 
water and took hold of the rosary. Her sister began to pull at the ro- 
Bary and she was slowly lifted up. 

As she was thus being rescued, some other souls too wanted to es- 
cape from Hell. So they all took hold of Maria's feet, when they saw 
that she was being rescued from damnation. But when only Maria's 
feet were still under water, she shook her two feet, so that the souls who 
liad hold of her should have to let go. 

When she did this the rosary broke and she at once fell into the 
well, and from that time on her sister was never again able to communi- 
cate with her. 

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sya at ilawit nya sa balon ag das&la 5 iyon. Tawagin nya si 
Marya at pakapitin nya sa dasalan, at dahil dito y mahaharju 
nya sa hirap arj kanya g kapatid. 

Nagbalik sya 5 agad at sumisikat pa Idmag arj araw nag sya 
5 y dumatiij sa bakuran ni nasira i) Marya. Lumdpit sya sa balon, 
inilawit nya arj dasdlan, at tinawag nya ag kanya i) kapatid. Ito y 
lumitaw sa ibfibaw najQ tubig at humawak sa das41an. Inumpisa- 
han narj kanya g kapatid arj paghdtak sa dasalan at sya y nataas 
nk unti-unte'. 

10 Sa pagharjo i) ito sa kanya ay may-roo iQ iba r\ kaluluwa na 

ibig di I) makaalis sa infyerno. Kanya sila y nagsikapit sa paa 
ni Marya, nag makita nila na ito y nahah&gu sa hirap. D&tapu- 
wat narj ag paa ni Marya ay sya na l&maq nalulubog sa tubig ar| 
ginawa nya y ikinawag nya arj dalawa i) paa, nparj ag marja ka- 

15 luluwa 5 nakakapit sa kanya ay marjakabitaw. 

Nag itu y gawin nya ay napatid arj dasalan at agad-agad sya 
g lumiibug sa balon, at mulk noon ay hindi na sya nakatisap nag 
kanya g kapatid. 

Bumalik ito kay Sam-Pedro at ibinallta^ ag nagyare, datapu- 

20 wat sinabe ni Sam-Pedro na wal4 na sila g magagawa iipag ma- 
hago sa infyerno ag kanya g kapatid. 

22. Tatlo g kaluluwa g tumawag kay Sam-Pedro. 

Si Hwan ay isa g b6gu g tawu g makisig. Datapuwat nag 
dumatig sya sa gulag na dalawa g pu t dalawa, sya y nagkasakit 
25 nag malubha^ at di nalaiinan at namatay siya. Ag kanya g k4- 
luluwa ay naparoon sa lag it at tumuktok sa pinttian nito. 

Si Sam-Pedro ay sumagot sa kanya g pagtuktok at itinanog 
nito: **Sinu ka? Ano ag sadyd mo rito?" 

Isinagot nag kaluluwa ni Hwan : ** Ako ag kaluluwa ni Hwan* 
30 Buksan mo ag pinto^ at ibig ko g pumasok.*' 

Binuksan nag bantay-pinto^ ag pintuan, at bagu nya binay4a 

g makapasok ag kaluluwa ni Hwan ay siny&sat muna nya nag 

ganito: **Ano ag dahil at naparito ka? Ano ag kabanala g^ 

ginawa mo sa lupa' at nagakala ka g nababfigay sa yo ag kaginha- 

35 wahan sa lagit? Ikaw baga y may iniwa g asawaT' 

Ag kaluluwa ni Hwan ay nagsabi: **Nag ako y nasa lupa 
pa, madalas aku g magsimba, magdasal, at maglimos, d&tapuwat 
hindi ako nagkapalad na magasawa." 

Isinagot nag bantay-pinto' : ** Hindi ka dapat magtamo nag^ 
40 kaginhawdhan sa lagif 

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The sister went back to Saint Peter and told him what had hap- 
pened, but Saint Peter said that there was no longer anything that they 
could do to save her sister from Hell. 

22. Three souls who called upon Saint Peter. 

Juan was a gay bachelor. But when he reached the age of twenty- 
two he fell very sick and it was not long before he died. His soul 
went to Heaven and knocked at its gate. 

Saint Peter answered his knock and asked: **Who are you? What 
brings you here?" 

Juan's soul answered: **I am Juan's soul. Open the door, for I 
want to come in." 

The door-keeper opened the gate, but before he allowed Juan's 
soul to enter, he questioned him as follows: **Why have you come 
here ? What acts of piety have you performed on earth that you think 
you are entitled to the joys of Heaven? Have you left a wife behind 

Juan's soul said: **When I was still on earth I often went to 
church, prayed, and gave alms, but I did not have the good fortune to 
get married." 

The door-keeper answered: **You are not fit to partake of the 
joys of Heaven." 

Digitized by 



At pagkasabi nya Dito ay isinara nya arj pinto^. Arj kaluluwa 
ni Hwan ay hindl nakapasok sa larjit. 

Pagkaalis ni Hwan ay dumatiij namin ag isa pa ri iq kdlu- 
5 ''Sinu ka? At bakit mo gusto iq pum&sok sa larjit? Ikaw 

hk y nagas4wa naig n&sasa lupa paf ag maria tanur) na^ bantay- 

Isinag6t naig k41uluwa: "Aku y afl k&luluwa niy Andres. 
Nagasawa ak6 na^ akd y n4s^a luplt pa. Buksan mo a^) pint6^ 
10 at fbig ko ^ pum&sok." 

Agad-agad na binuksan ni Sam-Pedro ai) pintu nag l&^it at 
pagkikita nya sa k&luluwa niy AndrSs ay sinabi nya: ''6! Kk- 
w&wa ]g kaluluwa! Sa maig^ gaya mo natataan at narar4pat a^ 
ma^a kaginhaw&han sa lagit. Pum&suk ka!" 
15 Aq k41uluwa ni Andres ay tuwa ^ tw4 at pum4sok sa masaya 

Q t^anan. 

Pagk4sara naig pint6 ay may-roon na namS, ^ tumuktok. 

'*Sinu ka?" ag tanor) uli na^ bantiy. 

*'Ak6 y afl k41uluwa ni Mariy4no,'' ai) sag6t nai) tumuktok. 
20 ^'B4kit ka naparfto? Bakit ka nagak&la q marapat ka q 

magtamo na^) la^jit? Ikkw bagi y nagas4wa nag n4sasa lupa ka 

Sa ma^)a tanu^j na ito y isinagfit nag k41uluwa ni Mariyano: 
''Nag ak6 y n4sasa Itip^ pa madalas aku g magpamisa. Ag kala- 

25. h4ti nag y4man ko ay ibinigay ko sa simb4han sa pagpapamisa 
at maga pagpapatugtog nag kamp4na^ Ag naipatulus kd g 
kandHli ay hindi mahihUa nag tatlo g kalabaw, at kug sa pa- 
gaas4wa namJin/' idinugtug nyky ''akd y nagkaroon nag dalawi. 
Nal>4o aku at nagas4wa g muli^" 

30 "Aki g ikinalulugkot ag hindi ko pagkaari g papasukin kiti. 

Ag maga 16ku g g4ya mo ay wala g lugar dito sa kahariyan nag 

At isinara nyi ag pinto'. 

23. Si Hwi g bagkero. 

35 Isa g araw isa g KastHa' ay napat4tawid kay Hwan sa kanya 

g bagWt' sa ib4yo nag Hog. Ag Kastila g sakay nya ay marunug 
magsalit4 nag Tag41og. Kanya*, nag sila y nalalajni na sa pasigan, 
ay nagumpisa sya nag pakikipagusap kay Hwan. 

Ag Kastfla g it5 ay isa g marunog na t4o, siguro g isa g 

40 guru g balita sa Espanya, at it6 y napagkikil41a sa pagsasalit4 

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And when he had said this he closed the door. Juan's soul was 
not able to enter Heaven. 

When Juan had gone away, another soul arrived. 

**Who are you? And why do you wish to come into Heaven t 
Did you get married when you were still on earth?" asked the door- 

The soul answered: '*I am the soul of Andr&. I took a wife 
when I was yet on earth. Open the gate for I want to come in.*' 

At once Saint Peter opened the gate of Heaven, and when he saw 
the soul of Andres he said: **0h, pitiable soul! For such as you the 
joys of Heaven are reserved and fitting. Enter!" 

The soul of Andres was overjoyed and entered the abode of bliss. 

When the door was closed there was another knock. 

''Who are you?" the keeper asked again. 

'*I am the soul of Mariano," answered the one who had knocked. 

**Why have you come here? Why do you think that you deserve 
to partake of Heaven? Did you get married when you were still on 

To these questions the soul of Mariano answered: **When I was 
still on earth I often had masses said. Half of my wealth I gave to 
the Church for the saying of masses and the ringing of bells. The 
candles I offered up could not be drawn by three caribou, and as to 
getting married," continued the soul, **I was married twice. I be- 
came a widower and married again." 

''I am very sorry that I am not able to let you in. There is nd 
place for madmen like you in the Kingdom of Heaven." 

And he closed the door. 

23. Juan the canoer. 

One day a Spaniard was having Juan ferry him across the river 
in his canoe. The Spaniard, Juan's fare, was able to speak Tagalog. 
Accordingly, while they were still far from shore, he began a conver- 
sation with Juan. 

This Spaniard was a learned man, no doubt a famous scholar in 
Spain, and this showed itself in his discourse to Juan regarding geogra- 
phy, arithmetic, and various languages of Europe. 

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nya kay Hw&n tuigkul sa heyugrafiya, aritmetika, at iba t iba g 
wika sa Ewrupa. 

Nar) mat4pus aig kanya ig pagsasaliti^ ay nagtanui) syk kay 
Hwan naig gaiiit5: **IWlw ba y nagaral na^ hewgrafiyaT* 
5 ** Hindi po^'* ai) sagot ni Hwan, — at katunaya y uwala g 

mwafl si Hwan, sapagkat sya y lumaki sa hirap at sa gayo y panay 
na pagtatrabaho lama^ a^ pinagdadaanan nyk q biihay. 

Ag Kastila ay napagulat sa sagot ni Hwan at sindbe niya 
]g agad: * ' Dinaramdam ko, kaybigan, ai) hind! mu pagkaalam 
10 nar) hewgraflya, sapagkat d&hil dito y p4ra iQ nawala* a^ kala- 
hiti nag iyo g buhay." 

Si Hwan ay hindi kumibd* at patuluy din a^) pagsagwin. 

Hindi nalaunan at tumaniig namin ag Kastila*: ** Nagaral 
ka ba nag aritmetika?'' 
15 ** Hindi p6*," ar) sagdt ni Hwan. 

**Kug gayon, kaybigan, ay p4ra i) nawal4 sa iyo ai) ik&pat 
na bahage nag iyo g biihay.'' 

Si Hwan ay natakot nag kaunti^ sapagkat hindi nya mapag- 
kiiro ag ibig sabihin nag Kastila*. 
20 Sinibi nya sa kanya g sarili: **Kaw4wa ka, Hw^n, wal4 nk 

g natitira nag iyu g buhay, kug hindi isa g ikapat na part6 

Nag ag bagka nila ay nisasa mal41im na lugar na nag ilog, 

at habag ag Kastila naman ay pinagkukuro ag malaki g ka- 

25 magmagan nag maga tao g trabahadiir sa Filipinas, si Hwan ay 

tumanug nag ganito sa kanya g sak&y: **Marunog pu ba kayo 

g lumagoy?" 

'* Hindi*!" ag sagut agad nag Kastila*. 

**Kug gayftn," ag sagot ni Hw4n," ay hindi 14mag p4ra 
30 kayu g nawal&n nag bo6 g inyo g buhay, datapwat nawal4 na 
g4 g tunay." 

At sinabayan nya itii nag pagtataob nag bagk^ g sinasakyan 
nil4. Si Hwan ay lumaguy sa pasigan at ag Kastila naman ay 
tinagay nag 4gos. 

35 24. Ag kab^itan sa maga h4yop. 

Isa g gabi g madilim ay nagl41akad si Hwan sa maga kapa- 

raga g malalayo* sa maga bayan. Sya y patugo sa kanya g 

b4yan. B4gu sya makaratig dito ay kinakajdlaga g magdaan sya 

sa maga ilag na Ingar. 

40 Isa g gabi na sya y nagl41akad sa ganitd g lug&r bigla sya 

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When his discourse was ended, he asked Juan: ** Have you studied 

**No, sir/' answered Juan, — and in truth, Juan had no education, 
for he had grown up in poverty, so that his life at all times was nothing 
but ceaseless work. 

The Spaniard was astonished at Juan's answer and said at once: 
'*I am sorry, friend, that you do not know geography, for in conse- 
quence half your life, as it were, is lost.'' 

Juan did not utter a word, and kept on paddling. 

It was not long before the Spaniard again asked: **Have you- 
studied arithmetic T' 

**No, sir," answered Juan. 

**If that is the case, friend, a fourth of your life is lost to you, as 
it were." 

Juan became a little frightened, for he could not make out what 
the Spaniard was trying to say. 

He said to himself: '*You poor fellow, Juan, only a fourth of 
your life is left now." 

When their canoe had got to a deep part of the river, and while 
the Spaniard was reflecting upon the great ignorance of the working 
people in the Philippines, Juan asked his passenger this question: 
**Do you know how to swim, sir?" 

**No," answered the Spaniard at once. 

**In that case," answered Juan, **you have lost your whole life, 
not only as it were, but you have lost it in all truth." 

And while he spoke these words he tipped over the canoe they were 
riding in. Juan swam to the shore, but the Spaniard was carried away 
by the stream. 

24. Kindness to animals. 

One dark night Juan was walking in some forests far from any 
towns. He was on his way to his home town. Before he could arrive 
there, he had to pass through some uncanny places. One night, when 
he was walking in such a place, he was suddenly startled by the arrival 
of a black cat which purred and scratched at his leg. What he did 

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g napagulat sa pagdatig nag isa y pusa 5 itim na humuni at 
kinamot ay kanya 5 paa. Arj ginawa nya y ubus-ldkas nya ^ 
sinipa ag pusa^, at ito y napahits^ nay malayo^ Ipinatuluy nya 
aij paglalakad, d&tapuwat hindi nalaunan at nagbalik na naman 
5 sa kanya ay pusa'. Lalu q lumaki arj kanya g gdlit at sinipa nya 
T) mull' arj pusa'. Inakala nya y arj pusa rj iyon ay isa rj laru- 
wan narj tyanak asuwarj. Ipinatuluy nya ay paglakad. Hindi 
naluwatan at arj pusa rj item ay nagbalik na muli sa kanya. 
Qayon, sa lugar nag sipdin nya ay pusa', ito y hinawikan nya 

10 at dinala nya sa kanya y bisig, kanya y hinagod, at pinagtatapik, 
at sindbi nya sa pusa': *'Mabait na pusa', ano ay gusto mo? 
Sasama ka ba sa &ki y paglalakad f at ipinatuluy nya ay kanya 
y paglakad. 

Hindi nalaunan at sya y sinumpoy nay antok. Sa daan ay 

15 may nakita sya y isa y bdhay, d&tapuwat ay maya tao sa bayan 
ay may paniwala y iykantado ay bahay na iyon. Ddtapuwat wala 
y iba y matulugan si Hwan, kaniya' ay ginawa nya y pumanhik 
sya sa bahay upay doon matulog. 

Sya y nahimbiy, datapuwat nay naghah&ti-y-gabi na ay 

20 nagisiy sya sa kaluskusan nay maya daga'. Ay ginawa nya y 
pinagsisipa nya at pinagdagukan ay maya daga' upay kanya y 
patayin o kaya y palay&sin. D4tapuwat ay maya daga' ay du- 
mami nay dumami haygay sa napuno' ay kuwarto at sya y kanila 
y pinagkakagat. 

25 Ay ginaw4 ni Hwan ay kinuha nya ay kanya y pusa y itim 

at sinabi nya rito y patain nyk ay maya daga'. Ay pusa' ay 
yumiyaw at inumpisahan ay pagh&bol sa maya daga'. Malaki ay 
nagiy t&kot nay maya daga', at ay maya hindi n&patay nay pusa 
ay nagsipagtakbd sa kani-kanili y luyga'. Nay makita ni Hwan 

30 na wal4 na y n^titira sa maya daga kuy hindi d4dalawa lamay, 
ay pinapaghintti nya ay pusa'. Kanya y hinuli ay dalawa y 
daga' at kanya y in4mo' at inak&Ia nya y isama rin sil& na g4ya 
nay pus4 sa kanya y paglalakad. 

Kinabuk4san ay ipinatuluy nya ay kanya y paglalakad. Ina- 

35 butan sya nay gaW sa isa y lugar na wala y b&hay, kany& ay 
ginaw4 nya y ipinatuluy nya ay paglalakkd papnnta sa isa y 
bahay na ari nay isa y matand4'. Nagk4taon nam4n na ay ma- 
tanda y it6 y isa y eykantadftr. Pinatfiluy nya si Hwan at pina- 
tulog nya sa isa y silid. Si Hw4n ay natulog nay wal4 y pag- 

40 hihindlA nay anu man. 

Datapuwat, nay mdgisiy sya kinibuk&san, ay napagulat sya 
at nat4kot nay makita nya y sya y n4kiikul6y sa isa y kah5n na 
walli y biikasan. Pinagsip4 nya ay maya diydiy nay kah5n, d4- 

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was to kick the cat with all his might, and it was tossed a good distance. 
He kept on walking, but it was not long before the cat came back to 
him. His anger greatly increased, and he kicked the cat again. He 
thought that this cat was the plaything of some goblin or vampire. 
He kept on walking. It was not long before the black cat again came 
back to him. This time, instead of kicking the cat, he took hold of it, 
lifted it up on his arm, stroked it and patted it, and said to it : ' ' Good 
little cat, what do you want? Are you going to come along with me 
on my journey?" and he continued walking. 

After a while he was attacked by sleepiness. He saw a house by 
the way, but the people in his town believed that this house was en- 
chanted. However, Juan had no other place to sleep, so he entered the 
house to sleep there. 

He fell sound asleep, but at midnight he was awakened by the 
pattering of rats. He set about kicking and striking at the rats to 
kill them or drive them away. But the rats became more and more 
numerous until the room became full and they bit him and gnawed 
at him. 

It was then that Juan took his black cat and told it to kill the 
rats. The cat miewed and began to chase the rats. Great fear seized 
the rats, and those that were not killed by the cat ran to their holes. 
When Juan saw that there were no rats left except only a single pair„ 
he stopped the cat. He caught the two rats and petted them and 
decided to take them along on his journey, just like the cat. 

On the next day he continued his journey. He was overtaken by^ 
night in a place where there were no houses, so he walked on toward 
a house owned by a certain old man. Now it happened that this old 
man was an enchanter. He took Juan in and gave him an alcove ta 
sleep in. Juan went to sleep without suspecting anything. 

However, when he woke up on the next day, he was surprised and: 
frightened when he saw that he was locked up in a box without any^ 
opening. He kicked at the walls of the box, but was not able to do» 
anything: he could not open it. Great was his despair, and he did 
not know what to do, when he remembered that he had a cat and two 
rats with him in his prison. He took the two rats, petted them, and 
told them to make a hole in the box in which they were confined. The 
rats began to gnaw at the boards, and gradually they succeeded 'in 
making a hole in the thick board, until it was pierced through. When 
they had pierced it, they returned to Juan, and Juan had them again 
pierce the wall of the prison. When they had made holes again and 
again, they finally succeeded in making a large opening, and Junn 
was able to escape. 

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tapuwat wal& sya g magawa*, ito y hindi nya mabuksan. Malaki 
ag kanya g pagdadalamhate^ at wala sya g mal&ma ^j gawin, nag 
maalaala nya q sya y may kas&ma g isa q pusa at dalawa q daga 
sa kanya g kMugan. Kinuha nya ag dalawa ^j daga^ inamu- 
5 amii nya, at sinabi nya q bumutas sila sa kah5 g kanila ig kina- 
kukului)an. Ag maga daga ay nagumpisa nag pagkagat sa tabl^ 
at unti-unti sila g nakagawa nag hukay sa makapal na tabl^, 
haggag sa ito y nabutas. Nag makabutas na sila ay bumalik silk 
g mull kay Hwan at si Hwan naman ay pinabutas sili g muli' sa 

10 dindig nag kultigan. Sa paguulit-ulit nag kanila g paggawd nag 
mag a butas, sa kalaunan ay nakagawa sila nag isa g malaki g 
butas, at si Hwan ay nakawali^. 

Ag matanda ay hin&nap ni Hwan, dfitapuwat ito y hindi nya 
mikita kahit saan. Kanya ipinatuluy nyk ag pagw^^ at do6n nag 

15 dumatig sya ay ipinamalita nya ag malaki g serbisyo na ginaw4 
sa kanya nag kanya g tatl6 g kaybiga g isa g pusa* at dalawa g 

25. Si Hwa g magdudukit. 

Nab&sa ku sa isa g nobela g Kastlla* na ag pamagat ay ''La 
20 tumba de yerro'' ag sumusun6d. 

Si Hwan ay isa g b&ta g lilimahi g taon, anak nag isa g 
kasama nag mayama g si Andres. Si Hwan mul& pa sa pagka- 
b&ta* ay pipe, datapuwat hindi'^ bige. Gayon din ag pagkapipe 
nya ay hindi malubha^ sapagkat kadalasan sya y nakasIsigjLw, 
25 d&tapuwat hindi ga' lamag gdya nag tinig nag karanyuwa g bata' 
ag sa kanya. 

Isa g gabi si Andres ay dumalaw sa b&hay nag kanya g ka- 
sama na ama ni Hwan, at sa kanya g pagdfilaw na yto y isinama 
nya ag kanya g anak na babaye, lilimahin di g taon ag gulag. 
:30 Kahit na pipe si Hwkn ay nakipagkayibigan sya sa anak nag 
kanya g paginodn, at sila g dalaw& y nagsipaglaro* h&bag ag 
kanila g maga ama ay nagsasalit4an nag tugkol sa pananim. 
V Ipinakita nya kay Marya (na sya g pagalan nag kanya g ka- 
laro*) ag maga larwan nya na gawa nag kanya g sarHi g kamay 
^5 at talino. 

Ag kanya g maga laruwan ay sari-sari g mukha nag tao na 
ginawd nya at nayayari nag putik. Mar&mi rin dito ag maga 
bu6 g tao na may sari-sari g anyo^ Ag iba y nagtatanim, ag 
iba y nagsasayaw, ag ihk y nakahigi', at gayon din may maga 
40 nagbubuno^ nagtatakbuhan, at iba t iba pa g anyo*. Gayon din 
mky maga hdyop syk; ag iba y nayaydri nag ptitek at ag iba y 

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Juan looked for the old man, but did not find him anywhere. So 
he continued on his way home, and when he arrived there, he told of 
the great service which had been done him by his three friends, a cat 
and two rats. 

25. Juan the sculptor. 

I once read, in a Spanish novel entitled La tumba de hierro, the 
following story: 

Juan was a child of five years, the son of a workman of the wealthy 
Andres. Juan was dumb from birth, but not deaf. Moreover, his 
dumbness was not complete, for often he was able to cry out, though 
his voice was not like that of a normal child. 

One evening Andres visited the house of his workman, Juan's 
father, and on this visit he brought along his daughter, who also was 
five years old. In spite of his dumbness, Juan made friends with his 
master's child, and the two played together while their fathers were 
discussing matters of farming. He showed Maria (this was the name 
of his playmate) his toys, which he had made by his own hand and 

His toys were all kinds of faces of people which he had made, and 
they were made of clay. There were also many whole figures of people 
in all kinds of positions. Some were planting, some were dancing, 
some were lying down, and there were also some wrestling, running, 
and in many other positions. He also had animals; some were made 
of clay and others were made of wood. 

The two children became good friends and were engrossed in play. 
When their fathers had finished their conversation, Andres called 
Maria to go home, but Maria first asked her father to come to where 
Juan's toys were, so that he might see them. When Andres beheld the 

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nayayari na^ kahoy. 

Tumalik a^j pagkakaybigan nag dalawa g bata^ at nawili sila 
sa paglalaro^ Nag makatapus na ag kanila rj ama sa pagsasali- 
taan ay tin&wag ni Andres si Marya upag umwi na silA, datapu- 
5 wat niyaya muna ni Marya ag kanya g ama sa lugar na kinala- 
lagyan nag maga larwan ni Hwan, at upag ito y makita nya. Nag 
mamasdan ny Andres ag maga larwa g yon ay napagulat sya sa 
laki nag talino na ipinakikilala nag dumukit sa maga tao-taoha 
g iyon. Sin&bi ny Andres sa ama ni Hwan na ito y matalino at 

10 ddpat ipadala sa paaralan. Datapwat isinagot nag ama ni Hwan 
na sya y wala g kwirta upag ipapagaral kay Hwan. 

**Kug gayon/' sinabi ni Andres, ''ay ako ag uupa sa mayes- 
tro. Bukas ay paparoon sa kmi g bahay ag guro ni Marya. Sya 
y papagtutuluyin ku dito sa iyo, upag umpisahan nya ag pagtu- 

15 turo^ at pagbubukas nag isip ni Hwan." 

Napasalamat nag mar&mi g marami ag ama ni Hwan at sila 
y naghiwalay. Malaki ag ikinalugkot ni Hwan nag umalis na ag 
kanya g kalaro^. 

Mula sa draw na ito kadalasan si Hwan ay ipinasusundo nag 

20 ama ni Marya upag doon siya sa kanya g bahay makipaglaro^ kay 

Isa g hapon na sila g dalaw^ y naglalaro sa halamanan nag 
mal&wak na bakuran ni Andres ay nagdaa g lumllipad sa tab! nag 
dalawa g b4ta^ ag isa g parupard. It6 y kanila g hinabol. Nauuna 

25 si Marya at sumusunod si Hwan. Sa pagtatakbo nila ay nahulog 
si Marya sa isa g s&pa g mababaw na pabydyan nag maga isda^ 
niy Andr^. Si Hwan ay napasigaw nag malakd^ at pagsigaw 
nya g ito y napatirin sya nag laman sa lalamunan at nagdudugo' 
ag kanya g bibig. Hindi nya it& inalint&na at tumalon din sya 

30 sa s4pa^ upag iligtas si Mary^ sa pagkalunod. Sa kababawan 
nag s4pa^ ay hindl nagalunod ag dalawJi g b&ta^ datapuwat sinig- 
Ian lamag si Marya nag malaki g t4kot na sya nyk g ipinaghi- 
matay nag nfisasa tubig na sya. Kanya' ag ginawa ni Hwan ay 
hinawfikan nya si Marya sa likdd at itinaas nya upag hwag makai- 

35 nom nag tubig, hfibag sya ay nasisisid sa tubig. Ganitfi ag anyu 
nila nag mtidatnan sila nag isa g alila ny Andres at silk y hinago 
sa s&pa'. Malaki ag pagkagulat niy Andres at malaki ag nagig 
twa' nag ama ni Hwan nag si Hwan ay m&rinig nila g magsalita'^ 
at ibalitii, sa kanila ag nagy&ri. 

40 D4hil sa pagsasalita ni HwJin ay lalu g lumakJis ag kanya g 

pagsulog sa pagaaral, at gayon din Ifilu g tumalik ag pagkakaybi- 
gan nila ni Marya. Dumatig ag draw na sinabi nag guru nya 
na sya y dapat lumipat nag b&yan upag ipatuluy ag pagairal,, 

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toys, he was astonished at the great ability shown by the one who had 
shaped these manikins. Andres told Juan's father that Juan was gifted 
and ought to be sent to school. But Juan's father answered that he 
had no money with which to let Juan study. 

*'In that case," said Andres, **I will pay the teacher. Tomorrow 
Maria's teacher is coming to our house. I shall have him go on here 
to you, to begin the teaching of Juan and the opening up of his mind." 

Juan's father thanked him profusely, and they parted. Juan was 
very sorry when his playmate left. 

From that day on Maria's father often sent for Juan that he 
might play with Maria there in his house. 

One afternoon when the two were playing in the garden in the 
wide grounds of Andres, a butterfly came flying past the two children. 
They ran after it. Maria ran ahead and Juan followed. As they were 
running, Maria fell into a shallow pool which Andres used as a fish- 
pond. Juan gave a loud cry, and, as he cried out, a muscle in his 
throat broke and his mouth bled. He paid no attention to this and 
jumped into the pool to save Maria from drowning. As the pool was 
shallow, the two children did not drown, only Maria was filled with 
great fear, which caused her to faint while still in the water. So what 
Juan did was to take hold of Maria by her back and lift her up, so 
that she should not swallow any water, — ^he himself meanwhile being 
immersed. They were in this position when a servant of Andres came 
upon them and rescued them from the pool. 

Great was the surprise of Andres and great was the joy which came 
to Juan's father, when they heard Juan talk and tell them what had 
happened. What with Juan's talking, his progress in his studies be- 
came much greater and his friendship with Maria grew much stronger. 

There came the day when his teacher said that he ought to go to 
another town to continue his studies, for he could teach him nothing 
more. He told this also to Andr6s. Andres sent Juan to a school for 
sculptors, and there he studied for about six years. 

Juan and Maria grew up and their friendship turned into love. 
Every vacation Juan went home to their house on Andr§s' estate, and 
there he passed the days at Maria's side. 

There came a day for the exhibition of the sculptures of the artists, 
and Juan had planned a design which he was going to carry out for 
that day. The victor among the contestants was to be given a priijef 
that was to be accompanied by much money, in addition to a celebration 
in honor of the winner. For about a year Juan worked at his com- 

The day for presenting the statues arrived. Juan, his father^ 

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sapagkat sya y wala na 5 maituro sa kanya. It6 y sinabi rin 
nyk kay Andres. Ag ginawa ny Andres ay ipinadalS. si Hwan 
sa isa eskwfelhan nafl pagdudiikit, at dito sya nagaral na may 
anim na ta6n. 
5 Si Hwan at si Maryi ay nagsilaki at ag kanila 5 pagkakay- 

bigan ay nagig pagiiblgan. Twi g bakasyon ay umuwe' si Hw^n 
sa kanila q b&hay sa bukid ni Andres at dodn sya nagp^palipas 
nafl araw sa pllig ni Mariya. 

Dumatig ag isa t) araw nag pagtatanydgan nag mag a dinu- 
10 kit nag mag a artista, at d&hil dito y pinagar&lan ni Hwan ag 
isa g ayos na kanya g dapat dukitin para sa araw na it6. Ag 
manalo sa maga kas&le ay bibigyan nag isa g ganti g pala na 
may malaki g kas&ma g kwalta, buk5d sa pagdiriwag sa kar^gd- 
Ian nag mananalft. May isd g ta6 g nagtrabaho si Hwdn sa kanya 
15 g kumpusisyon. 

Dnmatig ag firaw nag pagtatanyag nag maga dinukit. Si 
Hw&n, ag kanya g ama, si Andres, at si Marya ay naparoon sa 
bahay na kinadoroonan nag maga dinukit. Lubhd g marami ag 
maga tao, d&tapuwat ag pinagkakalipnmpunan nila ay ag dinu- 
20 kit ni Hw&n. Si Marya ay napaiydk sa twa^ sa ganda nag 
dinukit ni Hwan. Si Andres nam&n ay wala g m&lama g sabihin 
sa pagpuri. Dumatig ag oras nag pagpapah&yag nag maga hu- 
kto kug sino ag nan&lo, at ag dinukit ni Hwan ay sya g binaggit 
na nakakuha nag ganti g pfila^. 
25 Ito y isa g grupo g may-roo g isa g babaye g nakatindig. 

Ag kaliwi g kamay ay may hawak na isa g 8ul6^ at ag kanan 
naman ay isa g korona g dahon. Sa banda g kanan nag babae 
at sa ilalim nag korona g oliva ay may isa g bin&ta g naluluhod 
ag k&na g pad. Sa kanya g kaliwa* ay may hawak sya g libr5 
30 at sa kanan ay isa g pamukp6k. Sa kanilJl g pa&nan ay nisasa- 
bug ag iba t iba g kasagkapan nag isa g nag^aral. 

Nag sila y umuwS^ ipinagtap&t nag dalawa g nagkak&ibigan 
sa kanila g maga magulag ag kanila g lihim. Ag ama ni Hwftn 
ay nalugkot lamag, sapagkat nMal&man nya na ag pagkakasal sa 
35 kanila g dalawS. ay hindi maaari*, sapagkat ag kanila g lagay 
ay gdya nag sa isa g busabos o alipin at isa g paginoon o hare^. 
Pagkaalam ni Andres sa bdgay na ito ay siniglan sya nag malaki 
g galit. Ipinat&wag nya si HwJtn at kanya g minura. Sinabi 
nya g sya y wala, g hya' at hindi martinog tumanaw nag utag 
40 na loob, hindi marunog kumil&la sa nagparunog sa kany^, at 
sinfibi nya g hindi sya maMri g mipakasal kay Mariya. Dahil 
dito y sya y umalis agad-agad na walk g nakaaal&m kahit sino 
nag kanya g patutuguhan. 

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Andres, and Maria went to the building where the statues were. Many 
people were there, but they were all crowding round Juan's statue. 
Andres did not know what to say in his admiration. The hour came 
when the judges announced who was the winner, and Juan's statue 
was that named as having won the prize. 

It was a group with a standing woman. Her left hand held a torch 
and her right a crown of leaves. At the right of the woman and under 
the crown of olive a youth was kneeling on his right foot. In his left 
hand he was holding a book, and in his right a hammer. At their feet 
lay scattered various implements of a student. 

On the way home the two lovers revealed their secret to their 
parents. Juan's father was merely grieved, for he knew that the 
marriage of the two was not possible, for their position was like that 
of a slave or thrall and a lord or king. When Andres learned of the 
matter, he was filled with great anger. He had Juan called to him 
and scolded him. He told him he was shameless and did not know 
how to appreciate favors, — did not know how to repay the man who 
had given him his education, and told him that he could not marry 
Maria. Accordingly Juan at once went away without anyone's knowing 
his destination. 

Five or six years passed, and Juan at his sculpture did not forget 

Maria passed these six years in her house. She was sunk at all 
times in a deep grief, and it was always Juan of whom she was think- 
ing. Maria fell seriously ill and was near to death. 

Her physician advised Andres that, if he wanted to save his daugh- 
ter, he would have to follow her desire regarding marriage to Juan. 
But when Andres consented, it was already too late. Maria's sickness 
went from bad to worse, and he did not even know where Juan was. 
He sent many messengers to the large towns to look for Juan, but even 
when many days had passed, not one of them had succeeded in finding 

At last one of them came upon him in the town of Kamalig in his 
workshop. When he was told that he was being sent for by Andres 
that he and Maria might be married, his joy was very great. But he 
was also much afraid that he might not find his loved one alive. He 
went home with all possible speed, and when he arrived at the house 
of Andres, he found there the body of Maria, mere bone and skin, 
stretched out on her couch. That very moment Andres sent for a 
priest, and Juan and Maria were married. While the marriage-cere- 
mony was being performed by the priest, Maria's breath ceased. When 
they were married, Juan had but time to kiss his wife before her breath 
left her, her face glad and her mouth smiling. 

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Nagdaan aig li^^ o ^nim na taon at si Hwan sa kanya ^ 
pagdudukit ay kaylan ma y hindi nalilimutan si Mary a. 

Si Mariya naman ay nagpalipas nag anim na tao i) ito sa 
kanya g bahay. Nalulugmok sya habag panahon sa isa g malalim 
5 na kalu^ktitan at tuwi na y si Hwan at) kanya g naaala&la. Si 
Marya y nagkasakit nag malubha' at malapit na g mamatay. ^ 

Ipinayu nag maggag&mot nya kay Andres na, kug Ibig nya 
g maligtas ag kanya g an^k, ay sundin nya ag gusto nitd tiigk61 
sa pagaasawa kay Hw&n. Datapuwat nag pumfiyag siy Andres 

10 ay lubha g huli nk. Palala nag palala* ag sakit ni Marya, at si 
Hwan nam&n ay hindi nya nalal4man kug saan ag kinadoroonlin. 
Mar4nii sya g inuttisan sa malalaki g bayan upag hanapin si 
Hw^n, ddtapuwat nakaraan na ag marami g araw ay wala pa g 
nagkapalad kfihit isa sa kanila na mak&tagp6^ kay Hw^n. 

15 Sa kalaunan ag isa sa kanila y natagpuan itd sa b&ya-g- 

Kamalig sa kanya g g^waan. Nag m^balit^an nya na ipinasu- 
sundo Byk ni Andres tipag ipakasal sila g dalawa ni Marya, ay 
lubha g malaki ag kanya g nagig twi^. Datapuwat gayon din 
malaki ag kanya g t&kot na bak& hindi nya abtita g buh^y ag 

20 kanya g iniibig. Sya y matuli g matuli g umwS' at nag dumatig 
sya sa bahay niy Andres ay nakita nya doon ag but6 t bal^t na 
pagagataw^n ni Marya nalalatag sa kanya g hihigan. Nag san- 
dall ri g iy6n ay nagpasundii si Andres nag isa g pare', at si 
Hwan at si Mary^ y ipinakasM. Habag ag pagkakasal ay idina- 

25 d&os nag p&re' ag hinig^ naman ni MaryJi ay pumapanaw. Nag 
makasal na sil^ ay nagkarodn lamag si Hw^n nag panahd g ma- 
hagkan ag kanya g asawa, at it6 y pinanawan nag hiniga na ag 
mukh^ y masaya at ntigigiti ag bibig. 

26. Si Marklta. 

30 Si Markita ay is& g dal&ga g mabait at magand^, datapuwat 

mahirap. Sya y m&y-roo g isa g n6byo na mahirap din, datapu- 
wat may empleyo sa gobyferno sa Maynila' at may-roo g mabuti g 

Si Markita ay may-roo g isa g kapit-b&hay na mayaman. Ag 

35 bahay ay tabla, at yero ag bubugin, malapad ag kanya g bukirin. 
Ag kapit-b&hay na yt6 y malaki ag pagkagusto kay Markita, 
d&tapuwat hindf n&tin mas&s4be kug tunay ag kanya g pagibig, 
sapagkat maluwig ag kanya g tornllyo. Lahat nag pagsuyo'^ ay 
ginawa nya kay Markita, datapuwat si Markita y isa g dalaga g 

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26. Marquita. 

Marquita was a good and beautiful young woman, but poor. She 
was betrothed to a man who also was poor, but had a position with the 
Government in Manila and received good pay. 

Marquita had a rich neighbor. His house was of wood, with an 
iron roof, and his estate was large. This neighbor had a great liking 
for Marquita, but we cannot say whether his love was true, for he 
had a screw loose. He paid every attention to Marquita, but Marquita 
was not a girl of fickle heart and paid no heed to all his attentions. 

So great was the desire of this suitor to win Marquita that he 
decided to employ force. One afternoon he went into the yard of Mar- 

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hindi sa-lawahan ag loob, at ag lahat nag kanya g pagsuyo' ay 
hindi pinansin. 

Sa kalakhan nag pagibig nag magliligaw na si Markita ay 
mapasa kanya, ag ginawa nya y gumamit nag lakas. Isa g hapon 
5 pumasok sa bakuran nila Markita at nagkubli sya sa isa g puno- 
g-sagig. Nag h&pu g yoon ay nagkataon nama g ag bakuran 
nila Markita ay marumi. Kanya ito y nanaog at niwalisan ag 
bakuran. Pagkatabi nya sa puno-g-s&gig na pinagkukublihan nag 
lalake, it6 y lumfipit pagdaka, tinagnan sya sa kamay at kanya 

10 sya hinagkan. 

Nalaldman na niny6 na sa mag a mahihinhi g t4o do6n sa 
atin ag isa g halik ay isa g malaki g kasiraan nag puri. Dahil 
dito nag si Markita ay pumanhik sa bahay na umiiyak, at nag 
malaman nag kanya g mag a magulag na sya y tinampalasan o 

15 hinagkan nag laldki g iyon, inakala nila na wala g iba g pagtakip 
sa kasiraa-g-puri g ito kug hindi ag ipakasal nila sa lalaki g 
iyon ag kanila g anak na si Markita. K4hit and g pagayaw ag 
ginawa ni Markita at kahit na nalalaman nila na ito y may kaibi- 
gan, ay kanila ri g ipinatuloy ag pagkakasal. 

20 Si Markita ay isa g b&ta g lubha g masuntirin sa kanya ^ 

maga magulag, kanya hindi sya makasuway nag totohanan gayon. 
Ag ginaw4 na l&mag niya ay isinulat nya sa kanya g novyo ag 
maga nagyari at magyaydri at sinabi nya g ag magigig pagka- 
kasal sa kanya ay isa lamag pagsunod sa maga magulag at siya 

25 rin ay kanya g iniibig. Sa maga magulag naman ni Markita ay 
kanya g sindbi na sya ay hindi nila pakikinabagan, sapagk&t ag 
pagkakasal nya sa tdu g kanya g kinabubuwisitan ay kanya ij 
ikamamatay na madalP. 

Ikinasal sila. Hindi nalaunan at inapuyan si Markita nag 

30 lagnat. Mula sa araw nag kanya g pagkakasal ay hindi sya ma- 
kakain nag kahit and, at araw-gabi sya y lumuliiha^ Ag maga 
magagalig na mediko sa bayan, ag lahat nag yaman nag kanya 
g asawa, at ag lahat nag maga panalagin nag kanya g maga 
magulag ay hindi makapagligtas sa kanya sa kamatayan. Pag- 

35 karaan nag pitu g araw nag kanya g pagkakasal ay sya y nama- 
tay. Ito y nagig malaki g kalugkutan nag kanya g nagig nobyo 
at isa g nakatulog sa nagig kasawia-g-palad nito sa kanya g buhay 
na dumatig. 

27. Ag magmag na pfire^ 
40 Sa baya-g-Baliwag ay may nadistino g isa g pari g wala gi 

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quita's family and hid in a banana-tree. It happened that on this 
afternoon Marquita 's yard was dirty. Accordingly she went and swept 
the yard. When she came near the banana-tree in which the man was 
hiding, he suddenly dropped down, seized her by the hand and kissed 

As you know, among reputable people in our country a single kiss 
is a great stain on a girl's honor. Therefore, when Marquita came 
into the house weeping and her parents found out that she had been 
roughly handled or kissed by this man, they decided that there was 
no other way of covering up this disgrace than marrying their daugh- 
ter Marquita to this man. No matter how much Marquita objected, 
and although they knew that she had a sweetheart, they nevertheless 
prepared for the marriage. 

Marquita was a daughter very obedient to her parents, so she 
could not actually disobey them now. All she did was to write her 
betrothed what had happened and what was going to happen and to 
tell him that her coming marriage was only an act of obedience to her 
parents, and that she loved only him. To her parents Marquita said 
that they would get no joy from her, for her marriage to the man 
whom she abhorred would soon be the death of her. 

They were married. It was not long before Marquita was stricken 
with fever. From the day of her marriage she was not able to eat 
anything, and she shed tears day and night. The skilful physicians 
of the town, all the wealth of her husband, and all the prayers of her 
parents, failed to save her from death. Seven days after her wedding 
she died. This caused much grief to her former betrothed and con- 
tributed to his misfortune in his later life. 

27. The ignorant priest. 

To the town of Baliwag there was once assigned a priest who had 

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muwag kahit anu man. Hinihinala* narj maga tao na sya y isa 
g sakatero lama^j sa Espanya na napadpad doon at idinistino sa 
kanila iq bayan upag magkaroon nag sweldo at sa gayo y maligtas 
sa pagkamatay nag gutom. Liggo-liggo sya y nagmlmisa, da- 
5 tapwat ag mag a nakikinig nag misa ay wala g m&rinig sa kanya 
kug hindi' ag salita g **Misa, misa, misa/* at iba pa. Papasi- 
pasyal sa harapan nag altar; kug mfnsan ay humaharap sa maga 
t&o, pinagd6doop ag kamay, at sa lahat nag pagkflos nya g it6 
y wala g patid nya g sinasabi ag **Misa, misa, misa,'' at iba pk. 

10 Ag maga tko y nagalit at ipinagsumbog sya sa arsubispo. 

Ag sagot nag arsubispo ay paparoon sya g isa g liggo at ma- 
kikinig nag misa, upag makita kug tunay gji,' ag sumbog nila. 

Dumatig doon ag arsubispo. Sa kanya y sin&bi nag p4ri^ 
na sya y hindi makapagmisa, sapagkat ag maga ulol na t&o ay 

15 nagaalisan sa simbahan paguumpisa nya nag misa. 

**Bukas," sinabi pa nyk, **ay mkmamasdan niny6 ag kanila 
g pagtatakbuhan sa pagbebendisyon ko pa lamag.'* 

Kinabukasan ay ligg6 at sa pagmimisa nya ay haharap ag 
arsubispo. Umisip sya nag parad.n nag pagliligtas sa kanya g 

20 sarile. Kanya^ bagu sya nagumpisa nag pagmimisa ay nagpa- 
kul6 sya nag lagis. Habag sya y nagbibihis ag maga tao naman 
at ag arsubispo ay n&uupu na sa simbahan. Ag arsubispo ay 
malapit sa altir at habag sya y nagbibihis ag lagis naman ay 
kasalukuya g kumukul5^. Nag makapagbihis na sya ay ibinuhus 

25 nya sa lalagyan nag tubig na bendita ag kumukulu g lagis. Ag 
ugali nya ay magbendisydn muna bagu magmisa, kanya'^ pagp&- 
sok nya sa simb&han ay sya ny^ g iniwisik sa maga t&o ag kumu- 
kulu g lagis sa lugar nag agwa-bendita. Ag maga tdo g dina- 
puan nag mainit na patak nag lagis ay nagsipagtindig at ubus- 

30 l&k^usa g nagsipagtakbuhan papalabas sa simbahan. Nag makita 
itd nag arsubispo ay hindi nya ipinatuloy ag pagmimisa sa draw 
na iy5n, sapagkat wala g natira sa simbahan ni isa m^n sa maga 

Sin&bi nag arsubispo sa p&ri* na sya y hindi maaalis sa baya 

35 g iy6n at hindi na nya pipansinin ag anu mk g ipagsumbog nag 
maga t4o. 

28. Ag p^Jnimpis&lan. 

Si Pari Mund6 ay sya g nadistinu g ila g tadn sa baya-g- 

Marikina. Sya y isa g tao g maibigin sa pagliliwaliw. Sa pagtu- 

40 pkd sa kanya g maga tugkulin sya y hindi nagkukulag k&ylan 

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no education whatever. The people surmised that he was only a grass- 
cutter in Spain, who had been cast hither by chance and assigned as 
priest to their town so that he might have some income and so be saved 
from dying of hunger. Every Sunday he said mass, but those who heard 
the mass could hear nothing from him, except only the word **Mass, 
mass, mass,'* and so on. He would walk round in front of the altar; 
at times he faced the people, brought his hands together, and, while 
making all these movements, he would keep saying his '*Mass, mass, 
mass,*' and so on. 

The people got angry and reported him to the archbishop, ^he 
answer of the archbishop was that he would come some Sunday and 
hear the mass to see if their accusation was really true. 

The archbishop arrived. The priest told him that he was not able 
to perform mass, because the silly people all left the church as soon 
as he began mass. 

** Tomorrow," he added, **you will see how they all run away as 
soon as I give the blessing." 

The next day was Sunday and at his mass the archbishop was to 
be present. He planned a way of saving himself. Accordingly, before 
beginning the mass, he caused some oil to boil. While he was putting 
on his vestments the people and the archbishop were seated in the 
church. The archbishop was near the altar, and, while the priest was 
putting on his vestments, the oil was boiling. When he had put on 
his vestments, he poured the boiling oil into the vessel for holy water. 
It was his custom to give the blessing before saying mass, so, when 
he entered the church, he sprinkled the boiling oil on the people instead 
of holy-water. The people, struck by the drops of hot oil, all jumped 
up and ran with all their might out of the church. When the arch- 
bishop saw this, he did not have the mass gone on with on that day, 
for there was not a single one of the people left in the church. 

The archbishop said to the priest that he would not have to leave 
the town and that hereafter he would not heed any accusation that the 
people made. 

28. The confessional. 

Father Mundo was the priest assigned for some years to the town 
of Mariquina. He was a man who liked amusements. He was never 
deficient in the fulfilment of his duties. Every day he said mass, and 

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man. Araw-araw sya y nagmimlsa at ku^) ligg6 ay makalawa 
sya 5 magmlsa. Gayon din sya y magbibinyag nag mag a bata^ 
nagbebendisyon nag patay, naghahatid nag biy&tiko, nagp&pa- 
kumpis&l, at nagpakinfibag. Ag lahat nag kanya g tugkulin ay 
5 sinusunod nya g mabute, datapuwat ag pagpapakumpisal ay nila- 
luan nya nag kaunti'. Sa gana g kanya siguro g ito y mabute 
tipag pauntiin ag mag a kasal&nan nag kanya g kinukumpisal, 
datapuwat sa iba sa kanya g mag a kinukumpisal it5 y may nagig 
masama g dulo. 

10 MInsan m&y-ro g isi g bab&i g dalaga na mapagsimba at 

mapagkumpisal. Nag dumatig ag daldga g it6 sa dalawa g pu g 
taon ag giilag ay iniwan na nya ag kabanala g pagkukumpisal, 
gayon din bihira g magsimba. Nag minsan usis&in ag babaye g 
ito ay nags&bi nag ganit6 : 

15 **Noo g una ag bo6 g ak&la ko si Pari Mundo ay isa g santo, 

datapwat gayo y napagkikil&Ia nag mar&mi na sya y isa g buwisit 
na tao. Kug balia' at ag mag a tao y nagasipamagka* sa baha', 
sya y sa bagka' nag maga babae nakikisakay at hindi sa maga 
lalaki. Kug umaga pagkamisa nya ay makikita na sya g nakata- 

20 lugko sa kanya g patyo na ag abito y nagugumun sa lupa' at sya 
y humalidgod nag manok kaliarap nag ib^ g sabugero. 

**Noo g una akd y madal^ magkumpisS,l sa kanya, datapwat 
dumatig ag isa g araw na pan^y na kaulul&n lamag ag ipagta- 
tanog nya sa akin sa kumpis&lan. Sukat ba g itinanog 

25 nya sa fikin kug ilan ag manlillgaw sa 4kin, ki^) sfno ag 
&ki g iniibig, at Inig saan akd makikipagtagpo^ ? Sa loob-lo6b ku 
lamag ay napakawala-g-hya' ag pari g itd. Kanya^ iniwan ku 
sya agad sa kumpisMan at mula noon ay hindi na ako nagumpi- 

30 29. Si Hwa g bibas. 

Si Hwin ay isa t4o g mapaggaw& nag kaululS-n, d&tapuwat 
ito y hindi nya sinasadya' upag magpagalit nag kapwa t4o, kug 
hindi yon ay talaga g sya nya g ug&li^ na &tas sa kanya nag kanya 
g pagiisip. 

35 Minsan sya y naparon sa fiySsta nag isa g bayan. May 

pasan sya g tatld g biik, upag ipagbilS sa b&yan. Nag sya y 
dumatig ni, naMta nya sa patyo nag simb&han ag mar&mi g tao 
g nalilipon at nakikimg nag binibigkas na talump&ti^ nag kapi- 
tan sa bayan. Masakip ag pagkak&tayo nag maga t4o, datapwat 

40 sya y n&lapit din sa paanan nag entablado na kinatatayuan nag 
nagtitalumpati*. H&bag nakikipagsiksikan sy&, ag tatlo g biik 

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on Sunday he said mass twice. Also, he christened children, said 
blessings over the dead, carried the sacrament, heard confession, and 
gave holy communion. He performed all his duties well, but the con- 
fessing he overdid a little. From his point of view this was perhaps 
useful in lessening the sins of those whom he confessed, but for some 
of the latter it had its bad side. 

Once there was a young woman who was fond of going to church 
and to confession. When this young woman reached the age of twenty 
years, she abandoned the pious duty of going to confession, and also 
went to church but rarely. Once when this woman was questioned, 
she spoke as follows: 

**At first I really thought that Father Mundo was a saint, but 
now the people realize that he is a horrid man. At flood-time, when 
the people are all canoeing on the flood, he rides along in the women's 
canoe, and not with the men. In the morning, after saying mass, he 
is seen squatting in his courtyard with his vestments trailing on the 
ground, petting fighting-cocks, in company with the other cock-fighters. 

**At first I often confessed to him, but there came a day when' 
the things he asked me in the confessional were nothing but foolishness. 
"Was it right for him to ask me how many suitors I had, whom I liked, 
and where I met them? What I thought was that this priest was 
extremely impudent. So I left him at once in the confessional, and 
since that time I have not been going to confession.'' 

29. Juan the joker. 

Juan was a man giving to doing nonsensical things, but he did 
not do them intentionally to anger his fellow-men ; it was merely his 
natural habit, prompted by his character. 

Once he went to the festival of a certain town. He was carrying 
three young pigs to sell in the town. When he got there, he saw many 
people gathered in the courtyard of the church and listening to a 
speech which the mayor of the town was delivering. The people stood 
in a dense crowd, but he succeeded in getting close to the foot of the 
platform on which the orator was standing. Wliile he took part in the 
crowding, the three pigs kept squealing. When he had arrived in 
front of the mayor, he held his hand over their mouths to make them 

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ay wala y lubay nay pagyak. Nag sya y makaratig na sa hara- 
pan nao kapitan, tinukup nya ag may a bibig, upay sila y pata- 
hanin, datapwat wala sya y magawa'. Naino narj kapitan ay 
maga iyakan nag biik at tinignan nya kug sino ag may dala doon 
5 nag maga biik. 

Nag makita nya si Hwan ay sinabi nya ag ganito : ' * Huwan ! 
Ano ag gustu mo g sabihin sa pagpapaiyak mo dito nag iyo g 
maga biik? Lumayas ka gayon din, at hwag ka g makatuntog- 
tuntog kaylan man sa lupa-g-Bustos!'* 

10 Si Hwan ay umalis at umwe^ sa kanya g bayan sa San- 

Ildeponso. Nakaraan ag isa g taon at dumatig na muli' ag 
fyesta sa b4yan nag Bustos. Inibig ni Hwan na pumaroon, da- 
tapuwat naalaala nya na tinagaan sya nag kapitan sa b&ya g 
iyon na, pag sya y nakita g muli^ sa lupa-g-Bustos, ay sya y 

15 ipabibilanggo' at pahihirapan. Umisip si Hwan nag paraan upag 

Nag dumatig ag fiyesta ay may-roo g isa g misa g malaki 
na dinaluhan nag libo-libo g tao. Si Hwan ay is^ sa maga tko 
g ito at sya ag napapansin nag marami g tao, dahilan sa any6 

20 nag pagkalagay nya doon sa loob nag simbahan. Di nalaunan 
at isa sa maga tao g nagmimasid sa kanya ay nagsumbug sa 
k4pitan at sinabi na si Hwan ay nas^a loob nag simb4han at 
nakasakay sa isa g kareta na hinihila nag kalabaw, at ag lah^t, 
kareta, kalabaw, at si Hwan ay ndsasa loob nag simb4han. Si 

25 Hwan ay hindi nanan4og sa kareta g kanya g tinutnntugan. 

Pumarun ag k&pitan sa simbahan upag hulQiin si Hwan. Nag^ 
mfilapit syk dito ay sinabi nya: ''Huw4n! Sumunod ka sa 4kin 
at ibibilaggu kita. Hindi ba sinabi ko nk sa iy6 t hwag ka g 
tutuntog nag lupa-g-BustosT' 

30 Isinagot namin ni Hwan: ''Qino6 g Kapitan! Sinabi gi^ 

po niny6 sa 4kin iyan. Kanya* ako y hindi makaalis sa aki g 
kareta. Ndldkita pu ba ninyo ito g lupa g lulan nag aki g kareta 
at sya kd g tinutuntugan ? Ito p6* ay hinde lupa-g-Bustos kug^ 
hindi lupa-g-San-Ildepdnso. Dodn ko p6* sa aki g b&yan kinuha 

35 ag lupa g ito." 

Pagkas&bi ni "Ewkn nit5 ay hindi napigilan nag k&pitan ag^ 
pagtawa, at sin&bi na lamag nya sa kanya g sarili na syk y wala 
g magigawa kay Hw4n, sapagk&t itd y n&sa katwiran. 

30. Tatld g magkakaybiga g magnan&kaw. 
40 Si Hwan, si Andres, at si Dy^go ay tatl5 g magagalig na 

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keep quiet, but he did not succeed. The mayor took notice of the 
squealing of the pigs and looked round to see who had brought the pigs 

When he saw Juan he addressed him as follows: **Juan! What 
do you mean by making your pigs squeal here? Get out of here at 
once and never again dare to set foot on the ground of Bustos!'* 

Juan departed and went home to his town of San Ildefonso. A 
year passed, and the festival in the town of Bustos came round again. 
Juan wanted to go there, but he remembered that the mayor of that 
town had threatened him that, if he were seen again on the ground of 
Bustos, he would have him imprisoned and tortured. Juan thought of 
a way of going there none the less. 

When the festival arrived, there was a high mass, which was at- 
tended by thousands of people. Juan was one of these people, and he 
it was whom all the people were watching, owing to the manner of his 
appearance there in the church. It was not long before one of the 
people who were watching him complained to the mayor, saying that 
Juan was in the church mounted on a wagon drawn by caribou, and 
that the whole thing, wagon, caribou, and Juan, was inside the church. 
Juan had not got down from the wagon on which he was standing. 

The mayor went to the church to arrest Juan. When he got there 
he said: **Juan! Follow me, I am going to imprison you. Didn't I 
tell you not to set foot on the ground of Bustos T' 

But Juan answered: **Mr. Mayor! You certainly did tell me 
that. That is why I cannot get out of my wagon. Do you see this 
earth, sir, with which my wagon is loaded and on which I am stand-^ 
ing? This is not the ground of Bustos, sir, but earth of San Ildefonso. 
I got this earth in my town." 

When Juan had said this, the mayor could not restrain his laugh- 
ter and only said to himself that he could do nothing to Juan, for the 
latter was in the right. 

30. The three thieves. 

Juan, Andres, and Diego were three expert thieves. They were 

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magnanakaw. Silk y ballta t) ballta^ at marami g tao ag nag- 
sisihule sa kanila, datapuwat sa galig nilk nag pafligilag at pag- 
nanakaw ay hindi sila mahule. Ag tatlo o itu y nagtipana i) 
minsan na magtatagp6^ sila sa isa g lugar na tahlmik at lihim 
5 upag pagusdpan nila ag kanila g pamumtihay at maga mabubuti 
^) bago g paraan nag pagnanakaw. Sila g tatlo ay nabubtihay 
sa pagnanakaw lamag. Ni isa man sa kanila ay wala g pagha- 
hdnap na mabute. Mul4 pa sa pagkabata^ ay ganito na ag kanila 
I) pamumtihay, kanya* sila y nagig matalino at lubha g makinis 
10 sa gawa g it5. 

Nag dumatig ag araw nag kanila g tipanan, madali g kraw 
pa lamag ay naroroon na sila. Malaki g pamamallta' nag b4wat 
isa at hindi magkamiyaw ag kanila g pagbabalitaan. 

Itinanog ni Hwan kay Dyego: **Ganu ka na ba kakinis 
15 gayon sa 4ti g trab4hor' 

*'Sa damdam kd/' ag sagot ni Dyego, *'ay ako ag pinaka- 
makinis sa 4ti g tatlo, sapagkat akd y nakapagnanakaw nag maga 
itlog na hinahalimhimin nag manok na hindi nMMdman nit6. At 
hindi itu lamag," idinugtug nya, **ag maga h&yop man na ma- 
20 babagsik ay njinanakdwan ku nag kanila g inakay nag wal4 sila 
g malay." 

**6anyan ba 14mag ag kinis mot" isinabad pagdaka ni An- 
dres, ''Ako ay nakapagnanakaw sa hay op at gayon din sa t4o. 
Ag maga alahas nag tao na ibig ko g nakawin ay nininakaw ko, 
25 kahit na natutulog o nagldlakad ag may 4re^. Minsan ay nina- 
kaw ko ag isa g sigsig na hinihigan nag may ari^ upag hwag 
manakaw, datapwat it6 y nan4kaw ko nag wala sya g m&lay." 

**Ganyan ba l&mag ag kinis ninyo?" itinanug ni Hwan, 
*'Wal& sa kalahdti nag kinis ko sa pagnan&kaw ag inyu g maga 
50 nagagawa'. Ako y nakapagnanakaw nag tao mismo at hindi nag 
kanila lamag na maga paga&re^" 

Napagulat ag dalawa nya g kausap, sapagkat hindi nila ina- 
kala g ag isa g tao g buhay ay maaari g manakaw nag hindi nito 
nalalaman, at upag subukan nila ag galig ni Hwan ay nakipag- 
'65 pustahan sila g dalawa kay Hwan. Sinfibi nila g nakawin nya 
ag pkn? sa bayan at ihatid nya sa lugar na kanila g kinadoroonan 
gayon. Kug itu y magawa nya, babayaran sya ni Andres at ni 
Dyego nag lima g daa g piso. Datapuwat kug hindi nya ma- 
gaw^^, babay&ran nya si Andres at si Dyego nag isa g daa g 
40 piso. Umayon si Hwan sa pustaha g ito at sila y naghiwa- 

Si Hwan ay napatugu sa bayan at pinakibalitaan nya kug 
saan natitira ag pare^ Nag mal&man nya ito ay nagisip sya nag 

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•259] TRANSLATION 103 

very famous, and many people were trying to catch them, but their 
cleverness at dodging and stealing kept them from being caught. The 
three once made an appointment to meet at a certain quiet and secret 
place to discuss their means of livelihood and new good methods of 
thievery. Not one of them had an honest trade. This had been their 
mode of life from childhood on, so they had become skilful and very 
clever at this activity. 

When the day of their meeting came, they were there already at 
dawn. Each one of them had much to tell, and, as they were all talk- 
ing at once, their stories were indistinguishable. 

Juan asked of Diego: **How skilled are you now at your workT* 

**In my opinion," answered Diego, **I am the most skilful of us 
three, for I am able to steal the eggs a hen is brooding on without its 
knowing it. And not only this,'' he continued, **I am able to rob wild 
animals of their young without their noticing it.'* 

**Is that all your skill?*' Andres quickly interrupted, **I am able 
to rob animals and men too. I have stolen all of people's jewelry that 
I wanted to steal, whether the owner was asleep or up and about. Once 
I stole a ring that the owner was sleeping on to keep it from bein^ 
stolen, — but I stole it without his noticing." 

**Is that all the skill you two have?" asked Juan. **The things 
you do don't come halfway up to my skill at stealing. I can steal peo- 
ple themselves, and not only their property." 

The two he was talking to were surprised, for they did not think 
that a live man could be stolen without his knowing it, and, to test 
Juan's ability, the two made a bet with Juan. They told him to steal 
the priest of the town and to bring him to the place where they now 
were. If he succeeded in doing this, Andres and Diego would pay him 
five hundred pesos. But if he could not do it, he was to pay Andr&s 
and Diego one hundred pesos. Juan agreed to this bet, and they 

Juan went to the town and found out by inquiry where the priest 
lived. When he had found this out, he figured out the plan he would 
pursue in stealing the priest. He entered the priest's household as a 
servant. During his stay as a servant he became acquainted with the 
habits of the priest. One of his habits, from which he never deviated, 
was praying a rosary before the image of a saint. The image was made 
of wood, and it represented Saint John. The size of this image was 
equal to that of a man. Juan had a carver make an image just like 
this one, but with an opening, and hollow inside. This opening inside 
the body of the image of the saint was such that a man could enter it. 

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paraa q gagawin nya na pagnfikaw sa par^^. Sya y pumasuk na 
alila^ sa pari ig ito. Sa kanya r) pagkapaalila g ito ay nakilala 
nya ag ma^ja ugali nag pdre^. Isa sa kanya g ugali^ na hindi 
nababali^ kaylan man ay ag pagdadasal narj rosariyo sa harapan 
5 na^j isa 13 poon. Ai) poo g ito ay nayayari naij kahoy, at ito y 
si Saij-Hwan. Ag laki nag poo g ito ay kasigpantay nag isa g 

Ag ginawa ni Hwan ay nagpagawa sya sa isa g mandurukit 
nag isa g poo g gdya rin nito, ddtapuwat hukay at wala g laman 

10 ag loob. Ag butas na ito sa loob nag katawan nag poo g ito ay 
maaari g sootan nag isa g t6o. Nag may&ri na ag poo g pagawa 
ni Hwan, ay pinalitan nya ag poo g si Sag-Hwan na tunay na&ri 
nag pare^. 

Isa g hfipun bagu dumatig ag orasyon ay kumuha sya nag 

15 isa g s&ko nag bigas at napaloob sya sa loob nag santo g ipina- 
gawa nya. Pagkahapon nag parP ito y pumaroon sa kwarto g 
kanya g pinagdadasalan lipag magrosaryo. Nag magkakalahati 
na ag kanya g pagdadasal at kataon nama g nagagawit na si 
^wan sa pagkatayo^, ay nagsalita ito: **Ihintu mu na, P&ri 

20 Liikas, ag iyo g pagdadasal. Ako y pinaparlto sa iyo iipag 
ihatid kita sa lagit.'' 

Nag una ay siniglan nag takot ag pare^ datapuwat inakali 
nya g ag kanya g podn ay nagmimil&gro at totoo ga g sinusundu 
sya upag ihatid sa kalagitan. 

25 Sa kany^ g hindi pagkibd^ ay nagsalita g mull si Hw&n nag 

ganitd: **Mar4mi na ag kabanfila g iyu g ginawa^ Matagal ka 
nag namumuhay nag mababa^ at d4hil dito y nat^taan sa iy6 ag 
lahat nag kaginhaw4han sa 14git. Sum4ma ka sa akin at ihahatid 

30 Isinagot nag pare^: **Pap&no ag gigawin ko g pagsama sa 

iydT Aku y matanda na at hindi ako makalalakad mula dito sa 
lupa^ hagg^g sa Idgit." 

Isinagot namin ni Hwin: "Ton ay hwag mu g alalahdnin. 
May-ron ako g isa g s&ko. Sumilid ka dito at papasanin kiti sa 

35 pagpunta sa lagit. ' ' 

At pagkis4bi nya nitd y iniladlad nyi ag sdko nag bigas. 
Pagk&silid nag p4re* ay tinalia g mahigpit ni Hwan ag sako. 
Lumabas sya sa lo6b nag podn at pinasan nyi si Pdri Lukas 
patugo sa bahay na kanya g pinagtipanan sa dalawa g kaybigan. 

40 Tiwala g tiwal4 si Pdri Lukas na sya y papunt^ sa Idgit, kanylt^ 
wal4 sya g kibo* sa lo5b nag sako. 

Datapwat, nag nagbabdtis na si Hwin sa isa g mababaw na 

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261] TRANSLATION 105- 

When the image which Juan had had made was ready, he replaced with 
it the image of Saint John which belonged to the priest. 

One afternoon before prayers he took a rice-sack and went intQ 
the inside of the saint he had had made. When the priest had eaten 
supper he went into the room in which he prayed, to say a rosary .• 
When he was halfway through his prayers, and just about as Juan was 
getting tired of standing up, the latter spoke: ** Cease your praying. 
Father Lucas. I have been sent here to conduct you to Heaven.'' 

At first the priest was filled with fear, but then he thought that 
his saint was doing a miracle and was really calling for him in order 
to take him to Heaven. As he did not say anything, Juan again spoke 
as follows: **Many are the works of piety which you have done. You. 
have been patient in living a lowly life, therefore all the joys of Heavens 
have been reserved for you. Come with me, and I shall conduct you." 

The priest answered: '*How shall I manage to come with you?, 
I am old and cannot walk from here on earth as far as Heaven. ' ' , 

Juan answered: ** Never you mind that, I have a bag here. Get^ 
into it and I will carry you on my way to Heaven." < 

When he had said this, he spread out the rice-sack. When th^ 
priest had got into it, Juan tied the bag tightly. He got out from inside^ 
the image and carried Father Lucas on his shoulder toward the house 
where he had his appointment with his two friends. Father Lucas, 
reaUy believed that he was going to Heaven, and so he staid still in the 

However, when Juan was wading through a shallow river, it oc-> 
curred to him that he was being fooled and that they were not goings 
to Heaven at aU. ( 

Therefore he asked Juan: **What river is this, and why must we 
cross a river on the way to Heaven T' . 

Juan answered : * * Shhh ! Don 't make any noise ! This is the river, 

The priest desisted from speaking. Juan kept on walking. WlieQ» 
he was already going up into the house that was their place of meeting,^ 
the priest was again surprised and again asked: ''What stairway is^ 
thisT Is this the way the staircase of Heaven looks t" > 

"I have told you already that yon must not make any noise," 
answered Juan, ''This is the stairway that leads to Heaven." 

When they had come up into the house, they were met by Diego» 
and Andr^. Juan dropped his burden and said to them: "I have 
brought here what you told me to steal. Have you brought the five 
hundred pesost" 

The other two did not believe him at once. So what they did was 

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flog, ay inakala nya 5 sya y nal616ko lamag at hindi sa lagit a^ 
punta nila. 

Kanya itinanuT) nya kay Hwan: "Anu i] ilog it6, at bakit 
tayo dapat tumawid nag ilog sa pagpunti sa lagit?" 
5 Isinagfit ni Hwan: "Sssst! Hwag kk ig maigay! ltd y ilog 

naiQ Hordan.'* 

Ar) pari ay nagtahan na^) pagsasalita*. Ipinatuloy ni Hwan 
aig pagl4kad. 

Nai) sya y pumfipanhik na sa bahay na kanila g tagpuan, 
10 napagulat na muli^ ar) pare^ at tumanui] sya 13 muli*: *'Anu 
g hagdanan ito? Ganito ba ag hitstira nag hagd&na g papunta 

**Sinabi ko na sa iy6 at hwag ka ^) maigay*', ar) isinagot ni 
Hwan, **Ito tjJi* ag hagddna 13 paakyJit sa lagit.*' 
15 Nag m&panhik ni sila sa bahay ay sinalubog sila ni Dyego 

at ni AndrSs. Inilapag ni Hwan a^) kanya ig dalJi, at sinabi nya 
sa dalawa: *'Dala ko rito ag iniyutos ninyo sa aki r) nakawin. 
Dala ba ninyd ag lima ^) daa g piso?" 

Aq dalawa y hindi naniw&la 13 agad. Kanya^ ag ginawd nila 

20 y binutas nila ar) s4ko at sinilip nilSi ag lamSin. Sa loob ay nakita 

nila ag ulo nag p4ri* na may satsat. Kanya* iniyabot nila kay 

Hwan ag lima ig daa r) piso, at sila r) lahat ay nanaog pagdaka. 

Iniwan nila ag pare* upag sya ay magpakawali* sa kanya 13 sarile. 

31. Ag paghuhuli nag maga uggo^ 

25 Hindi bihira* sa maga gtibat na matagpuan ag malalaki g 

k4wal nag maga uggo*. Kug walk g annas ag isa g napapasa 
kanila g lugar, sila y mababagsik, at may paganib na patayin 
nila ag tko g kanila g mapagkalipumpunan. Sila kug nagagalit 
ay nagsisipanaog sa maga punu nag kahoy at pinagtiitulug-tuluga 

30 g kinakagat ag tko g nasasa kapagyarihan nila. Dahil dito ag 
isa g tko g naglalakad sa maga gubat na marami g uggo* ay 
hindi magpapab&ya g magdala nag baril. Ag maga uggo* kug 
pinuputukan na nag baril ay wala g takot. Karamihan ay hindi 
nagtatakbuhan, datapuwat tinitignan nilk ag pinaggagaligan nag 

35 igay at nag as6. Ag maga dinaratnan naman nag bala ay sina- 
sagga it6 nag kanya g kamay, p&ra g sum&sagga sa isa g pukol 
lamag. Kanyi* ag maga palad nila ay nibubutas din nag bala 
kug sila y tamaan. 

Hindi bihira* ag maga tao y naghuhule nag buhay na uggo* 

40 tipag kanila g alilain at ipagbili sa maga taga iba t ihk g lupain 

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to make a hole in the bag and peep at the contents. In it they saw the 
head of the priest with the tonsure. Accordingly they handed Juan 
the five hundred pesos and they all quickly left the house. They aban- 
doned the priest, leaving him to get free as best he could. 

31. How monkeys are caught. 

In the jungle one not rarely meets with large herds of monkeys. 
When the one who comes into their haunts is unarmed, there is danger 
of their killing the man whom they overpower by their numbers. When 
angry, they climb down from the trees and all bite at the man who is 
in their power. Therefore a man who is going into jungles where there 
are many monkeys will not neglect to carry a gun. When the monkeys 
hear the noise of the gun, they are unafraid. Most of them do not run 
away, but look at the place where the noise and smoke come from. 
Those who are reached by a bullet try to ward it off with their hand, 
like one who is warding off a mere throw. Therefore, when they are 
shot, their palms too are pierced by the bullet. 

Not infrequently people catch live monkeys, so as to domesticate 
them and sell them to the various foreigners who come to the Philip- 
pines. The catching of live monkeys does not involve much labor, for 
the method of catching them is simply to trick them. 

When one wants to catch monkeys, one usuaUy cooks or has cooked 

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na nagsisipunta sa Filipinas. Ag paghuhule nai) buhay na uggo^ 
ay hindi nagagaila^jan nai) malaki 13 pagod, datapuwat ag paraan 
nag paghule sa kanila ay isa g pagloloko lamag sa kanila. Ito g 
sumusuDod ay isa g halimbiwa nag paghule sa kanila. 
5 Kug ag isa g t4o ay ibig humule nag uggo^, karanyuan ay 

nagluluto^ o nagpapaluto sya nag kakanin, at ito y hinahaluan 
pinahahaluan niya nag balasig. Ag balasig ay isa g buto nag 
halaman na nakalalasig o nakapagaantok nag mal&lim na antok 
sa maga hayop na makakain. Gayon din ginagamit ito sa paghu- 

10 hule nag isd4 sa ilog. Pagkalutd nag kakanin ito y dinddala nag 
tao sa lugar na kinaddroonan nag k4wal nag maga ugg6^ Da- 
tapuwat kug ito y ilagay nya nag mahusay sa lupSi^ ag maga 
uggo^ ay hindi magsisipanaog upag kumain. Hinihindla nila na 
ag kakani g iyon ay pain l&mag sa kanila upag sila y hullhin o 

15 patayin. Dahil dito ag ginagawa nag tao ay nagtatakut-takutan 
pagkatanaw nya sa maga ugg6^, at sya y nagtatakb6 na sunog 
ag bilao nag kakani g may balasig. Sa kanya g pagtakbft ay 
nagdadapa-dap&an sya, at d4hil dito y ag sunug nya g kakanin 
ay napapalagpak at nasasabog sa lupa^. Kug itu y magyari na, 

20 ipinatiituloy din nya ag kanya g pagtakbo, at sya y nagugubl^ 
sa isa g lugar, upag tanawin nya ag pagkakalnan nag maga 
uggo^ Pagkiklta nag maga uggo^ sa patakbo g pagalis nag tao 
at pagk4kubli nito, silk y nagsisipan&ug sa maga puno-g-k4hoy 
at nagsijsipagagaw^n nag kakanin. Nagkakadagan-dagan silk sa 

25 pagaagawan, at lubh^ g malaki ag igay, sapagkat ag bawat isa g 
kawal nag ugg6 ay m4y-roo g limk g daan o isa g libo ag bHag. 
Pagkakain nila hindi nalM4on at sinusumpog sila nag antok, 
nagsisipaghlna^ at hindi makaakyat sa kahoy. Isa g nakat^tawa 
g panoorin ag maga uggo g ito, matanda^ at bata^, ay nagatata- 

30 lugk6 sa Itipa* at nagsisipagyukayok bawat isa. Ag iba g hindi 
nagkap41ad na mak&agaw nag kakanin ay nagsisiyakyat sa puno- 
g-k4hoy at pinan6nood ag kanila g maga lasig na kasamahan. 
Pagaanyd^ nag ganit5 nag maga ugg5^ ag tao g nakiUkubli ay 
sak& pa lamag lumalapit at isa-is& g sinusuggaban ag maga na- 

35 tutulug na ugg5^ Hindi mal&o g panah5n ag pagubra nag bala- 
sig na itd, at ag maga uggd y nagsisihusay pagkarasLn nag ila g 

Ag ikalawJi g karanyua g gawin sa paghuhuli nag uggd^ ay 
ao pagpapdin sa kanila nag ny6g. Ag isa g bo6 g nydg ay nila- 

40 lagyan nag butas. A^ laid nag butas na itd ay hust5 Idmag na 
maipasuk nag ugg5^ ag kanya g kam&y kug wal^ g tagan. Sa 
lodb nag bao nag nydg ay inil&lagay ag isa g pir&su g laman nag 
ny^Sy at ag lah&t na itd y inil&lagay sa lug^r nag maga ugg6^ 

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some sweetmeats, and into these one mixes or has mixed some balasing. 
Balasing is the seed of a plant which intoxicates or puts into a deep 
sleep the animals which eat it. It is used also in catching fish in rivers. 
When these sweetmeats have been cooked, the man carries them to 
where the herd of monkeys is. However, if he should place it carefully 
on the ground, the monkeys would not climb down to eat it. They" 
suspect that these sweetmeats are only a bait for them, that they may 
be caught or killed. Therefore what the man does is to pretend that 
he is frightened and when he sees the monkeys, he starts running, car- 
rying on his head the tray of drugged sweetmeats. While running he 
pretends to take a fall on his face, so that the sweetmeats he is carrying 
on his head fall down and are scattered over the ground. When this 
happens, he keeps on running just the same, and hides somewhere or 
other to watch the monkeys eat. When the monkeys see the man run- 
ning away, and when he is hidden, they climb down from the trees and 
all start grabbing the sweetmeats. They all crowd on top of one an- 
other in their greed, and the noise is very great, for each herd of 
monkeys is about five hundred or a thousand strong. When they have 
eaten it is not long before they are attacked by sleepiness. They get 
weak and cannot climb into the trees. It is a laughable sight to see 
these monkeys, old and young, squatting on the ground and nodding, 
everyone of them. The ones who did not succeed in grabbing any 
sweetmeats climb up into the trees and look down at their drunken 
companions. When the monkeys are in this state, and not before, does 
the man who is hidden come up and take the sleeping monkeys one by 
one. The eflfect of the drug is not of long duration, and the monkeys 
get well after a few days. 

Another common way of catching monkeys is to use cocoanuts as 
bait. A hole is made in an unopened cocoanut. The size of this hole 
is just large enough for a monkey to put in his hand when it is not 
holding anything. Inside the cocoanut-shell is placed a piece of the 
meat of the cocoanut, and the whole thing is placed in a spot where 
there are monkeys. Monkeys like cocoanut, and when they see it, they 
l^rasp the meat tiiat is inside the shell. But when they have hold of the 
cocoanut-meat, they can no longer take their hand out through the 
opening, but they will not let go of the cocoanut-meat.. Consequently 
they are as though in stocks, and when the man who is catching them 
approaches^ they cannot get away, for the cocoanuts are heavy and 
sometimes are weighted in addition. So when the catcher comes up, 
he is able without difficulty to capture the handcuffed monkeys, grown 
or young. 

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Arj maya u\)g6^ ay magustuhin sa nyog, at pagkakita nila dito 
ay dinudukot nila ag lama 13 n&sa loob naij bao. Kug masugga- 
ban na naman nila ag laman nag nyog, aij kanila ^) kamay ay 
hindl nila mailabas sa butas, nl Ibig naman sila rj bitiwan aij 
5 lam^n narj nyog. Ddhil dito sila y para g nakapagaw at paglapit 
nag tAo I) maghuhule ay hindl sila makaalis, sapagkat ag niyog 
naman ay mabigat at kug minsan ay may-roo pabigat. Kanya^ 
pagMpit na^) mayhuhule, ay wala g hirap nya g nasusuggabJin ag 
marja uggo^ o matsig na nagapapagaw. 

10 32. Ag fiy^sta ni Sag-Hwan. 

Ai) abeynte-kwatru nag Hunyo ay sya g araw na kapyesta- 
han ni Sag-Hwan, at itd y ipinagdidiwag sa maga bayan-bayan 
sa lalawlgan nag Bulakan. Sa bwan nag Hunyo ay kasalukuyan 
ag ulan at maputik. Ag paniwdla nag maga tao si Sag-Hwan 

15 ay sya g santo g nagpapaulan, d4hil dito y maibigin sa tubig^ 
at putik. Kanya' ag maga pagdiriwag na ginagawa^ sa kanya 
g kaarawan ay lubha g malaki ag pagk&iba sa pagdiriwag na 
gin4gawa sa kaarawan nag iba g santo. Sa baya g malalfipit sa 
dagat kug bwan nag Hunyo ay bumabaha^, at ag tubig ay 

20 .umaahon sa b4yan. Sa maga baya g malalayo^ sa d&gat ay lubha 
g maulan din, at karanyuwa y ag maga pagbaha g ito at pagulan 
ay natataon sa kaarawan ni Sag-Hwan. Ag maga tao g kasali 
sa pagdiriwag ay nagsisipagbasa^ sa baha^ sa ulan. Sa maga 
b&yan nag Malolos at Hagimoy kug natataon ag fyesta g ito sa 

25 isa g baha g malaki, hfilos lahat nag tao ay naglulublob sa tubig^ 
o kaya y nagsisipamagka^ Kug hindi naman bah^^ ag maga 
t&o y nagsisipaglibot lamag sa ulan. Mar&mi g taga bukid 
at taga bariyo ay nagsisipagpalimos sa kaarawa g ito. Karamihan 
sa kanila ay maga bata^ o kaya y maga binata^. Bihira g m&y 

30 maga babaye. Pagkat-pagkat sila g nagsisipagpalimos, at b&wat 
isa g pagkat ay may maga kasama g musiku g bugbog. Ag maga 
hindi nagsisitugtog ag katugkulan ay kumanta o kaya y sumayaw. 
Sila g lahat ay uwala g pamamaro^ h&los, g&ya nag maga Igorote, 
datapuwat ag boo g katawan mula sa paa haggag ulo, pati maga 

35 matA at taiga, ay nakukulapulan nag putek. 

Ag maga pagkat na ito ay tumat&wag sa bahay-bahay. Naghi- 
hinto sila sa harapan nag bfihay, at dito y tumutugtog sila 
kaya y nagsisikanta nagsdsayaw. Ag karanyua g kanila g kan- 
tahin ay ukol sa nagig pamumuhay ni Sag-Hwan o kaya y nag 

40 iba g s^nto g kaybigan nito. Sa kanila g pagtutugtugan ag ka- 
nila g &yos ay makahilera g pabilog, kug minsan ay nakatayo'^ 

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32. The festival of Saint John. 

The twenty-fourth of June is the festival of Saint John, and it 
is celebrated in the various towns of the province of Bulac&n. In the 
month of June there is usually rain and mud. The people believe that 
Saint John is the saint who makes the rain fall, and therefore is fond 
of water and mud. Hence the celebrations performed on his day are 
very different from those performed on the days of other saints. In 
the towns near the sea there are floods in the month of June and the 
water comes up into the town. In the towns farther from the sea it is 
also very rainy, and usually these floods and rains fall on the day of 
Saint John. The people who take part in the celebration get them- 
selves drenched in the flood or in the rain. In the towns of Malolos 
and Hagunoy, when this holiday falls into a time of large flood, almost 
all the people get into the water or else go canoeing. If there is no 
flood, the people walk about in the rain. Many people from the coun- 
try and the suburbs go about collecting alms on this holiday. Most of 
them are boys or young men ; rarely are there any women. In separate 
groups they go about collecting alms, and each group has with it a band 
that plays on bamboo instruments. Those who do not play are sup- 
posed to have the task of singing or dancing. All of them are almost 
without clothing, like Igorots, but their whole body, from head to foot, 
including even the eyes and ears, is caked over with mud. 

These groups go calling from house to house. They stop in front 
of a house and there they play music or sing or dance. They usually 
sing about the life of Saint John or of some other saint who was a 
friend of his. While their music is playing, their order is in single 
file in a circle, sometimes standing, sometimes squatting or kneeling. 
When there is a singer or dancer, he is within the circle of musicians 
and there performs his singing or dancing. After two or three pieces 
of music, songs, or dances they stop and all go round asking alms of 
the people who are watching them. If they receive no alms, they take 

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kuQ minsan ay nakataluflkfi^ o kaya y nakaluhod. Kufl mdy-roo 
Q nagk&kanta o sumasayaw, it5 y nasasa loob nai) bflog naQ ma^a 
m&nunugtdg, at do6n nya ginagawa ag kanya q pagkanta o 
pagsayaw. Pagkaraan nag dalawa o tatl6 g tugtugan, kanta- 

5 han, o say4wan, sila y nagsisipaghintd^ at saMy-sabay na nagsi- 
sipaTjhioi* nag lim6s sa ma^ja t&o g naniinood sa kanil^. Kug 
sila y hindi limusan, kumukuha sUa nag putik sa kanila g ka- 
taw&n at pinupukul nili ag maga tao g mararamot. 

Ag bo6 g maghdpun ay inuubus mla sa ganitd g pagdiri- 

10 wag. Ag maga maglilimos na ito ay lubha g mar&mi rin, kanya* 
silk y nakatutulug na magpasiglti sa b4yan kahit na lubha g 

Sa maga pagbabagk&an naman ay hindi bihlra* ag magka- 
lunod ag maga t&o. Kanyk ag ugali g it5 ay unti-unti g naw4- 

15 wala^ Qayon din sa maga panaho g itd ag maga t6o y nagigig 
kurlput at bihira g maglimos. Kanya* ag maga maghihigi nag 
limus sa kaarawan ni Sag-Hwan ay unti-unti g nawawala*. 

33. Ag maga pagigflin nag maga kamaganak nag isa g namatay. 

Ag isa g agka g namamatayan ay hindi* ag kanila g loob 

20 at k&luluwa lamag ag nagtatamu nag hirap, kug hindi* pati ag 
bulsa rin nil&. Itu y dahilan sa lubha g malalaki g dami nag 
ginugugul nag namamatayan sa pagdad&os nag sari-s6ri g kau- 

Sa draw nag pagkamatfLy nag isa g tao, sa agkan nito ay 

25 marami g lubha* ag nagsisid&law, at ag maga nagsisid&law nama 
g ito ay hindi nafflsyah^n nag pakikipagdalamhati 14mag sa ka- 
maganakan nag namatay, datapuwat sila y nagttitumira sa bdhay 
nag namatay^n. D4hil dito ag agk^n nag namatay ay napipilita 
g maghandd nag pagpakdin sa maga dalaw. Karanyuwa y hindi 

30 inililibig agid ag patay, ddtapuwat ibinuburol muna g dalawa 
o tatlo g draw mul4 sa pagkalagut nag hiniga. Sa maga araw 
na ito araw-gabi ay wala g patid ag ddlaw nag maga tao. Ka- 
ramihan ay maga kamag&nak at iba y maga kaybigan, kapit- 
bdhay, o ihk g kakil41a sa bayan. Kug ag namatay ay isa g tao 

35 g mardmi g kaybigan o kamaganakan sa iba g bayan sila man ay 
dumadalaw rin, at sil^ y d&pat na bigyan nag tirahan at pag- 
kain nag agk^n nag namatay. Ito y ganitd sapagkat sa maga 
bayan-bay^n sa provinsiya ay wala g b4hay-tuluyan. 

Sa pagpapakain sa marami g dalaw na ito hindi bihira g 

40 nakauubus sil^ nag kabyak na baka at ila g tupa, kambeg, at 

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mud from their body and throw it at the stingy people. They spend the 
whole day in such celebration. As these alms-gatherers are very nu- 
merous, they help to make the town gay, even though it is very rainy. 

When there is canoeing it is not uncommon for people to get 
drowned. Consequently this custom is gradually disappearing. More- 
over, in these days people are getting stingy and rarely give alms. 
Hence the gatherers of alms on the festival of Saint John are gradu- 
ally disappearing. 

33. Family celebrations after a death. 

A family that has suffered a loss by death suffers not only in its^ 
mind and soul, but also in its purse. This is on account of the great 
expense borne by the bereaved ones in conforming with various customs. 

On the day when someone has died very many people call on his 
family, and these visitors do not content themselves with condoling 
with the dead person *8 family, but make a long stay in the house of 
mourning. Consequently the bereaved family is compelled to serve food 
to the visitors. Usually the dead person is not buried at once, but is 
first placed in state for two or three days from the time when he ceased 
to breathe. During these days people's visits stop neither by day nor 
by night. Most of them are relatives and others are friends, neigh- 
bors, and other acquaintances in town. If the deceased had many 
friends or relatives in other towns, they too come to visit, and they 
have to be given board and lodging by the dead person's family. This 
is because in the small towns in the provinces there are no hotels. In 
feeding all these guests they often use up half a cow, several sheep and 
goats, and innumerable chickens. The chef is usually hired, and the 
near relatives of the deceased help with the cooking. For this reason 
in the house of death the place where the deceased is lying in state is 
very quiet, and even when many people are there, when they talk it ia 
only in whispers. But in the dining-room and kitchen the noise is 
extraordinary. Everyone is giving orders to the servants, some are 

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hindi mabflag na maga man6k. Aq kosinero karanyiiwa y upa- 
han, at a^ malal4pit na kamaganak na^ namatay ay nagsisitnluQ 
na magluto*. D4hil dito sa bahay nag namatayan ag lugkr na 
kin^buburulan nag patay ay tahimik na tahimik at kahit na ma- 
5 rami i) tao ag narorodn, pabtddi) lamai) kug silk y magsalitaan. 
Datapuwat sa kainan at IntnJin ag igay ay hindi karanyuan. Isa 
t isa y naguutos sa maga alfla', may naghuhiigas nag piijgan o 
kaya y mag a palay6k, may nagpapakint&b nag maga tiniddr at 
kutsilyo, may naghdhanda^ sa lamesa, at iba pk. Sa kusina na- 

10 man ag sagitsit nag kaw41e* ay wala g lubtly. Ag pagtadtad 
nag kame ay wala g patid at ag tinig nag kosinero at kanya g 
alagad ay sya na l&mag niririnig. 

Datapuwat sa isa g silid naman nag b&hay ay do6n naroroon 
at nalulugmok sa pagdadalamhate^ ag maga agk&n nag namatay. 

15 Sila y nagslsiyak nag ubus-lakas at kug minsa y nagduduklay- 
dukl^y sila nag kug ano-and ag magyaydri sa kanila g pamumu- 
hay dahilan sa pagpanaw nag namatay. 

Kug mayaman ag namatay, ito y ipinadadapit sa p&re^ at 
inihahatid sa simb4han. Pagdatig doon sa simbahan binebendi- 

20 syunan nag par&* ag pat&y at pagkatipos ay inihahatid din nya 
sa libigan. Ag lahat nag maga dalaw ay kasama sa paglilibig 
na it6 at kadalasa y nasasakay sil^ sa maga karumata. Ag maga 
karumata g ito naman ay upahan, liban na lamag sa ila g ari nag 
maga dfilaw. 

25 Pagk&libig nag patay ag maga dalaw na taga iba g bayan 

ay doon din ag wS' sa bahay nag namatay. Kadalasan sila y 
nagsisialis agad, datapuwat kug magkabihira^ ay sila y nagtitira 
na tatlu g &raw upag makasale sa pagtatatlo-g-gabe. Ag tatlu 
g gabe ay idin^daos sa bahay nag namatay. Dito ay dumadalaw 

30 ag maga kamaganakan at sila y nagsisipagdasal. Sa pagdadasal 
na ito ay ag maga matatanda lamag ag kasali, at ag maga bi- 
nata at dalaga ay nagsisipagbugtugan naman. Ag ganito g 
pagigilin ay gindgawa sa loob nag tatlu g gabe. Sa katapusk g 
gabe karanyua y lubha g marami ag t&o, at ag handa^ ay malaki 

35 kay sa dalawa g gabi g nagdaan. Marami rin naman sa maga 
nagsisidal5 ag nagbibigay nag limiis sa namatay^. Karanyuwa 
y maga pagpakain sa maga dalaw. 

Sa maga agka g mahihirap ag maga pagigili g ito ay gina- 
gaw& rin, d&tapuwat ag pagd&pit at paghahatid lamag nag pari 

40 sa patay ay wala^ Sa pagbebendisyfin nag patay ag isa g tko y 
makababdyad sa pare' nag gustuhin nya. Ag pinakamura ay ag 
pagbebendisyon sa patay sa pinttian lamag nag simbahan at sa 
sahig nalalapag. Ag sumusunod ay ag pagbebendisyon nag patay 

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washing dishes or pots, some are polishing knives and forks, some are 
serving at the table, and so on. In the kitchen the sputtering of the 
frying-pans never stops, and one can hear only the voices of the chef and 
his assistants. 

But in one chamber of the house stays the immediate family of the 
deceased and is plunged in grief. They all cry as hard as they can 
and from time to time blurt out questions as to what will happen to 
them because of the departure of the one who has died. 

If the deceased is wealthy, a priest comes to get him and escorts 
him to the church. Arriving at the church, the body is blessed by the 
priest and after this the priest escorts it also to the cemetery. All the 
visitors are present at the burial, and usually they ride in carriages. 
These carriages are hired, except for a few which belong to some of 
the visitors. 

When the dead has been buried the guests who come from other 
towns go along back to the house of mourning. Most commonly they 
soon depart, but sometimes they stay three days, to take part in the 
Three Nights' Celebration. The Three Nights are celebrated in the 
house of the deceased. At this time the relatives call and all pray to- 
gether. In this praying only the older people take part, and the young 
men and young women teU each other riddles. These ceremonies are 
performed during the Three Nights. On the last night there are usu- 
ally many people, and the entertaining is more elaborate than on the 
two preceding nights. Many of those who come give presents to the 
bereaved ones. Usually these are things to eat for the guests. 

In poor families these ceremonies are also performed, but the 
priest's calling for and escorting the corpse does not take place. For 
the blessing of the corpse one may pay the priest whatever one desires. 
The cheapest thing is tiie blessing of the corpse at the door of the 
church and placed on the ground. The next in order is Ibe blessing of 
the corpse also at the door of the cboreh, bat with the oofBn placed on 
an altar. The most expenidve blessings are performed rig^t by ih» 
altar. The price of tiiese is from one-hundred to five-hundred pesos. 

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sa pintuan din, datapuwat napapatug lamar) ai) ataol sa isa ij 
altar. Ag mag a mahahalaga rj pagbebendisyon ay ginagawa^ sa 
tabi nag altar. Mula sa isa g daa g piso haggag sa lima g daan 
ag mag a halaga nito. 

5 34. Ag takbvihan sa Amerikano. 

Ag mag a tao sa San-Migel ay nagig para g mag a kawal nag 
hayop na umiilag sa maga pamalo' nag maga pastol at pagha- 
habol nag maga aso g mababagsik. Sila y lubha g maibigin sa 
katahimikan at kapayapaan. Gayon din sila y lubha g paniwa- 

10 lain sa sabi-sabi, at ito g maga bdgay na yito ay sya g hindi 
ikinap&tag nag marami sa kanila sa bayan sa panahon nag maga 
paghihimagsikan l&ban sa Kastila' at sa Amerikano. Totoo rin 
naman na marami sa kanila ay nagagsipagtakbo dahilan lamag sa 
katakutan o kadwdgan. 

15 Nag magyari ag paghihimagsikan laban sa Kastfla' nag tao 

g isa g libo walu g daan at siyam na pu t anim, ako y a4pat na 
ta6n pa lamag sa gulag. Ay on sa sinabi sa 6kin nag dki g nanay, 
kami ay nagsipunta sa Maynila' sa lugar nag um4hon sa bundok. 
Wala ako g mar4mi g natatandaan nag maga nagyari sa panahd 

20 ya6n, kug hindi ag b&gay nag 4mi g pagpunta sa estasy6n nag 
tren. Pagdatig sa Maynlla' ay hindi kami nakapasok sa loob 
nag bayan kug hindi' may pahintulot nag isa g pinuno' sa b&ya 
g iyon. 

Ag sumusunod na bagay na nktala? sa kin g pagaladla ay 

25 ag pagk&tira namin sa Bigaa, sa bahay nag isa g minanaggol na 
ag pagala y si Don-Nas&ryo. Ag dahilan nag ikinalipat ndmin 
sa b4ya g ito ay ag pagilag sa paglalabanan nag maga Katipunan 
at maga Eastfla' sa Maynila^ Sa Bigaa ay maga sunddlo q 
Tagalog sa kanila g pagsasanay sa pakikipagl4ban. 

30 Hindi nalatinan at kami ay ndpasa bayan nag Bustos. Ag 

baya g ito ay naslts&kup din sa maga panahd g iyon nag maga 
Eatipun^ros. Ag b4ya g iydn ay lubha g magand4 dahil&n sa 
sari-sare g hitsura nag maga b&^y-bagay na nakikita. Ag ilug 
ay lubha g mal4wak, ag pasigan ay mal4pad, may maga bunt&n 

35 nag bato at buhagin sa pasigan. Ag ami g maga kaybiga g tinu- 
luyan ay mababait na t4o. Ak6 at ag fiM g kapatid na babaye 
ay kanila g par4ti g ipinalilibag, at ag paglilibag na itd ay ag 
pagpapasisid nag p4to sa malinaw na tubig sa ilog. 

Eug and ag nagy&ri sa maga paglalabanan nag maga panaho 

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34. Fleeing from the Americans. 

The people of San Miguel were like herds of animals fleeing before 
the whips of the herdsmen and the pursuit of savage dogs. They are 
very fond of peace and quiet. Also they are very credulous toward 
hearsay, and these circumstances are what did not allow most of them 
to stay at ease in the town during the time of the revolutions against 
the Spaniards and the Americans. It is also true, however, that many 
of them ran away merely from fright or cowardice. 

When the revolution against the Spaniards of the year 1896 took 
place, I was only four years old. According to what my mother has 
told me, we went to Manila instead of going up into the mountains. 
I do not remember much of what happened at that time, except the 
fact that we went to the railroad station. When we arrived at Manila 
we were not able to enter the city unless we had a permit from an 
official of this city. 

The next thing which has become fixed in my memory is our stay 
in Bigai, in the house of an attorney, whose name was Don Nasario. 
We went to this town to escape the fighting of the forces of the Katipu- 
nan and the Spaniards in Manila. In Biga& were Tagalog soldiers 
drilling to take part in the fighting. 

A little later we went to the town of Bustos. This town also was 
at that time in the hands of the Katipunan. This town is very 
pretty because of the various aspect of the things one sees. The river 
is very broad, the banks are wide, and on the banks are hills of stone 
and sand. The friends with whom we stayed were kind people. They 
often played with my sister and me, and the game was to make ducks 
dive in the clear waters of the river. 

What took place in the fighting of those times I did not find out, 
for I was still small and had not yet any understanding. 

When the flight from the Americans came, I was already a little 
older, and I remember much of our flight to the mountains! When the 
Americans had defeated the soldiers of Aguinaldo the people of San 
Miguel were filled with terror. The report circulated in the town that 
the Americans were wild people, cruel and fierce, and without respect 
for anything. This no doubt was a rumor which the Spaniards caused 
to be spread, and especially the Spanish priests in the Philippines. 

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g iy6n ay hindi ku naalaman, dahilan sa kaliitan at kawalan pa 
nag m&lay. 

Nag dumatii] ag takbtihan sa Amerikano, ako y may gulag 
na nag kaunti^, at marami aku g natatandaan sa ami g pagtakbo 
5 sa bundok. Nag ag maga Amerikano ay nagsisipanalo na laban 
sa maga sundalo ni Aginaldo ag maga tao sa baya-g-San-MigM 
ay pinagsisiglan nag takot. Lumaganap sa bayan ag balita^ na 
ag maga Amerikano ay maga tao g salbfihe, malulupit, at maba- 
bagsik at wala g pit&gan sa k&hit anu pa m4n. Ito y sigtiru g 

10 isa g balita g pakalat nag maga Kastila^ at lalu na nag maga 
kura sa Filipinas. 

Dahil sa pagkat&kot nag maga t&o sa maga Amerik&no halus 
kami g lahat na nam^mayan ay nagsipagbalut at nagsiahun sa 
bundok. Kami ay natitirA no6n sa bahay nag isa g dli nag kki 

15 g nanay, at dodn ay kasuno rin ndmin ag agkin nag kuya nag 
aki g n&nay. Aki g natatandaan na m&y-roo g mahigit na sa m 
pu g araw ag pagbabastaan at ag paghabakutan nag maga ka- 
sagkapan nkmi g magkakasuno^. Ag maga kariton na mky lula 
g kasagkdpan ay gabi kug ipalakad, upag ag maga kalabaw na 

20 faumihila ay huw&g magsis4yad sa kainitan nag araw. Ag maga 
karitdn ay punuan haggag sa ituktok nag karag nito at ag maga 
kalabaw ay \uhhk g nahirapan sa paghila nag mabibigat na lulan. 
Nag wala na g natitira sa maga abubot ay kami nama g maga tao 
ag nagsilulan sa kariton upag ihatid sa bund6k. 

25 Ag lugar na kmi g pinarunan ay tinatawag na Paa-g-Bun- 

ddk, kalah&ti-g-4raw na lakarin mul4 sa Sibol. Do6n ag dinat- 
n4n nami g titirhan ay isa g kubo lamag na may atip na kugon 
at lubh4 g maliit. Ag sahig ay maga saga nag kahoy na pinu* 
tulan nag maga maliliit na saga, d4tapuwat hindi makikinis nf 

30 hindi pantay-pant4y. Gayon din lubha g maliit at pinapasok nag 
hagin at lanug. Gaaoon ag ami g tinirhan na may ila g bwan, 
sa lug4r nag b4bay na tabla nag &li nag 4ki g ndnay. 

Do6n sa Paa-g-Bund^ ay nakatagpu kami nag marami g 
kababayan na nagsiilag din, at ag maqa n4huli g nagsidatig ay 

35 nagbalita g ag lahat nag t4o sa bayan ay nagasa bundd^ na o 
kaya y nagasa ib4 g b&yan na. Ag biya-g-San-MigM ay nawala^, 
d4tapuwat ag maga bahay ay sya lamag naroroon. 

P^karaan nag ila g bwa g pagtitir4 n4min sa Pa4-g-Bund6k 
ay lumipat kami sa isa g lug4r na Ifhim. Ag lugar na iydn ay 

40 ls4 g kaigin sa kagubatan. Wal4 g naka4alam nf sinu man sa 
&min ag pagalan nag lug4r, at ag iba g nakaaaUm ay inilfhim 
na lubha^ upag hwag mapagalaman nag iba g t&o ag ami g 
Idn4t4taguan. Iy5n ay paraan nag pagigilag hindf sa ka4way 

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Owing to people's fear of the Americans, almost all of us townspeople 
packed up our belongings and went up into the mountains. We were 
living at that time in the house of an aunt of my mother's, and there 
dwelt with us also the family of my mother's oldest brother. I re- 
member that the packing and hauling of the goods of all of us who lived 
in the house took more than ten days. The wagons laden with our 
goods were despatched at night, so that the caribou that drew them 
should not get exhausted in the heat of the sun. The wagons were filled 
up to the top of the covering, and the caribou were much wearied by 
the drawing of the heavy loads. When no belongings of ours were left, 
we ourselves got into the wagon to be carried to the mountains. 

The place we went to was called Paang-Bund6c, half a day's walk 
from Sibul Springs. The dwelling we came to there was a mere hut 
with a roof of cugon-grass, and very small. The floor consisted of 
branches of trees with the twigs cut off, but not smooth or even. It 
was very small and was penetrated by wind and cold. Such was the 
place we lived in for several months, instead of the frame house of my 
mother's aunt. 

There in Paang-Bund6c there came to us many fellow-townspeople 
who were also fleeing, and the last comers reported that all the people 
of the town were by now in the mountains, or at any rate gone, and 
only the houses were left. 

After several months' stay at Paang-Bundoc we went from there 
to a secret place. This place was a clearing in the jungle. Not one of 
us was allowed to know the name of the place, and those who knew it 
kept it very secret, so that our hiding-place should not be known by 
any outsider. This was a way of escaping not only the enemy, but 
alao robbers and thieves. The house we lived in there was very large, 
a very long building, all under one roof. The building was cut up 
into rooms of equal size. The number of these was about eight. In 
each room one family lived. Here too we were compelled to stay for 
several months. 

When the Americans were already near the town of San Miguel, 
it was reported to us that these people were not as hearsay described 
them, so that our fear of them gradually gave way. Accord- 
ingly we left our deep concealment and went to Paho. This too 
is a place in the mountains, but nearer to the town. There we 
were met by many fellow-townsmen and people from various 
other places. Most of them were sick from staying in the mountains. 
Here the medicines which Mother had taken up into the mountains 
instead of leaving them in the town, were of great use. These medi- 
cines belonged to Father ; he had left them behind when he was ban- 

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14mai3, datapuwat sa tulisan at magnanakaw' din. A^j b&hay na 
tinirhan namin doon ay lubha 5 malaki, mahaba g mahaba^ sa 
ilalim na^) isa g bubu^jan. A^ kabahayan ay hinati nag magka- 
kasi^)lald 5 kwarto. May-roo g wal5 a^ bflag nitd. Sa bawat 
5 kwarto ay isk g ar)kan ag natira. DIto ay may-roon di fl ila i) 
bwan aQ ami q ikin&pagtira. 

Nag nudalapit na sa b4ya-g-San-Mig61 sliq maga Amerikano, 
n^balitaan n4min na ag maga t4o y} it5 y hindf gaya nag maga 
i^bi-sab^y kany4^ umunti nag umunti^ ag ami g takot sa ka- 

10 Qila. D4hil dfto y umalis kami sa ami g malalim na ta- 
guan, at naparoon kami sa Paho^. Ito y isa iq lugar sa bundok 
din, d4tapuwat mal4pit nag kaunti' sa b4yan. Dito y lubha 13 
mar4mi kami 13 dinatnan nag maga kababayan at taga iba t iba 
g lugar. Karamlhan sa kanila ay may maga sakit, dahilan sa 

15 pagtitira sa bundok. Dito nagkaro6n nag malaki g kagamitan 
ag maga gamot na ipina4hon ni Nanay sa bundok, at hindi iniwan 
sa b4yan. Ag maga gamdt na ito y ari ni Tatay at kanya g 
iniwan sa pagkapat4pun sa kanya nag maga kura sa Hold. Isa 
g umaga may-roo g tumawag sa 4mi g bahay upag bumili nag 

20 gamot. Hinanap ni N4nay ag kaho g kinalalagyan nag gamot. 
Nag ito y mabuksan nk ay nakita n4min ag isa g ahas na nakaikid 
at natutulog sa ibabaw nag ipa na natatabon sa maga bote. Ma- 
laki g twa^ nag iba g t4o g nakaklta, datapuwat si Nanay ay 
nat4kot lamag. Hindi nya nal&14man ag kahulugan nag ahas 

25 aa iyon. Pagkaraan nag katwaan ay itinanug ni Nanay kug ano 
ag dahil at sil4 y nagk&katwaan. Isinag6t nila kay Nanay na ag 
kahulugan nag ahas na iyon ay ag pagpatugo sa pagy4man nag 
may 4ri nag gamftt. Si N4nay ay napatawa 14mag sa kanila g 
sabi, at hindi sya naniniw41a sa maga b4gay na iyon. 

30 Nag makara^n ag ila g bwan ay iniwan namin ag Paho' at 

umwi kami sa b4yan. Nag kami ay dumatig na doon, marami 
sa ila g kasagk4pan na naiwan n4min ay pinagnakaw nag ila g 
t4o g nagaiwan sa bayan. Ag tabla na sahig nag bahay nag ali 
ni N4nay ay wal4 na, at hindi nila nal4man kug sino ag kumtiha. 

"35 Hindi nalaunan ag 4mi g pagdatig sa bayan at nabalita g ag 

maga sundalo g Amerikano ay mal4pit na sa b4ya-g-San-Migel. 
Kami ay hindi nabag4bag sa balita g ito, at hinintAy namin ag 
kanila g pagdatig. Isa g kataghalian ay matahimik ag bayan. 
Ag maga sund41u g nag4sa b4yan ay nagagsialis at ag iba g 

40 hindi umalis ay ipinagtap6n ag kanila g maga baril. Ag dahilJin 
nag b4gay na iydn ay ag pagpasok nag maga sundalo g Ameri- 
kano. Sa duluhan nag bakuran nag b4hay na 4mi g khiatirh^n 

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ished to Sulu by the Spanish priests. One morning someone called at 
our house to buy some medicine. Mother went to the chest in which 
the medicine lay. When it was opened, we saw a snake coiled up and 
sleeping on the rice-hulls that covered the bottles. The people who saw 
this rejoiced greatly, but Mother was only frightened. She did not 
know the meaning of the snake. When the rejoicing was over. Mother 
asked why they were all so glad. They answered that the meaning of 
the snake was that the owner of the medicine was going to get rich. 
Mother only laughed at what they said, for she did not believe in these 

After a few months we left Paho and went home to our town. 
When we got there, most of the few belongings we had left there had 
been stolen by the few people who had been left in the town. The 
boards of the flooring of the house of Mother's aunt were gone, and 
they did not know who had taken them. 

Not long after our arrival in town it was reported that the Ameri- 
can soldiers were now near to the town of San Miguel. We were not 
made uneasy by this news, and awaited their arrival. One noon the 
town was quiet. The soldiers who were in the town went away and 
those who did not go away threw away their guns. The reason for 
this was the entry of the American soldiers. From the back yard of 
the house in which we were living I saw the approach of the soldiers. 
Their trousers were khaki and their shirts blue. They carried their 
guns and ran in single file across the fields and came toward tiie road. 

When the Americans were in possession of tiie town, orders for 
some months were strict. Lights were ordered extinguished at six 
o'clock in the evening, and no one was allowed to walk about after this 
hour. In the mountains near San Miguel were many Tagalog soldiers, 
and they often attacked the town of San Miguel. On account of these 
attacks the Americans set fire to houses in San Miguel. Night after 
night when the soldiers attacked, the houses were regularly set fire to. 
Our neighbors came to us every night to sleep with us, because in our 
house the danger from the bullets of the contestants was not so great. 
The doctor of the American soldiers who were in the town of San 
Miguel had become a friend of my father's, and for this reason our 
house escaped being burned. Once this doctor told Father that he 
often accompanied the patrols and told them not to bum down our 
house. Finally, as the Tagalog soldiers did not succeed in driving the 
Americans out of the town, they stopped their attacks, and the town 
became quiet 

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ay nakita ko ag paglapit nag marja sund&lo. Ag salawal nilh ay 
kaki at a^Q kamiseta asul. Bitbit nila ag maga baril at nakahilera 
sila nai) pagtakbo sa bukirin at patiigo sila sa da^n. 

Nai) ag maga Amerikfino y sya na g namamahdla' sa bayan, 
5 may ila 13 bwa g ag maga utos ay mahihigpit. Ag maga flaw 
ay ipinap&patay sa alases nag gabi, at wala g tao rj pinahihintu- 
luta r) maglakad pagkaraan nag oras na ito. Sa maga bund6k 
na mal4pit sa San-Migel ay marami g mag a sundalo g Tagalog 
at madalas nila g sinalakayan ag b4ya-g-San-Migel. D4hil sa 

10 maga pagsalakay na ito, ag maga bahay sa San-Migel ay pinag- 
sunog nag maga Amerikano. Kug gabi-gabi ag pagsal^ay nag 
maga sundalo, gabi-gabi rin naman ag ginawa g panununog nag 
maga bdhay. Ag ami g maga kapit-b4hay ay nagsisilipat sa 
amin gabi-gabi upag doon makitulog, sapagkat sa 4mi g bahay 

15 ay hindi lubha g malaki ag pagdnib sa maga bala nag nagsisi- 
paglabanan. Ag maggagamot nag maga sundalo g Amerik4no na 
nasasa b4ya-g-San-]VIigel ay nagig kayblgan nag aki g tatay, at 
d4hil dito y n41igtas sa sunog ag ami g tirahan. Mfnsan ay sin4bi 
nag maggagamot na ito kay Tatay na madalas sya g sum4ma sa 

20 maga patrulya at sinasabi nya rito na hwag sunugin ag 4nu g 
bahay. Sa kalaunan, nag hindi mapaalis nag maga sund41o g 
Tagadog ag maga Amerik4no sa bayan, ay hinintuan na nila ag 
pananal4kay, at ag b&ya y tomahfinik na. 

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Vol. Ill August, 1917 No. 3 

Board of Editors 

George T. Flom Wiluam A. Oldfather 

Stuart P. Sherman 

pubushed by the university op illinois 
Ukdeb the Auspices op the Graduate School 


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Copyright, 1917 
By the University op Illinois^ 

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1. Distinctive sounds 134 

2. Syllabication 138 

3. Accentuation 141 

B. SYNTAX ^ 146 

1. Sentence and word ^ 146 

a. Syntactic relations 146 

6. Parts of speech 146 

c. Static and transient words ~™ 147 

d. Personal names « ™^ 147 

e. The object construction - 148 

/. Expressions of indefinite quantity 150 

2. Subject and predicate — - 151 

a. Non-predicative sentences „ 151 

6. The subject - 153 

c. The predicate - 153 

d. Subordinate predications .- ^ 159 

e. Omission of predicate 160 

3. Attributes - ^...^ 160 

a. Conjunctive attributes ~ 162 

6. Disjunctive attributes 170 

c. Local attributes 177 

d. Absolute attributes - 180 

4. Serial groups 205 

C. MORPHOLOGY _ _ 210 

1. Composition ^ « 210 

2. General features of word-formation 211 

3. Description of formations ^ 218 

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I. Primary groups (zero, pag-, pag-) ^ 218 

A. Simple static forms „ 218 

(1) Root-words _..„ 218 

(2) DoubUng ^...J,. 223 

(3) Reduplication 224 

(4) Prefix pao- „ 224 

B. Transients, abstracts, and special static words „ 226 

(1) Active with -um- and abstract with pag- 226 

(2) Active with mag- and abstract with pag- r™„ „ 231 

(3) Active with mag- and abstract with pag- r 239 

(4) Special static words 241 

(5) Direct passive, with -in - „ 243 

(6) Special static words „ 247 

(7) Instrumental passive, with i- „ 247 

(8) Special static words „ 250 

(9) Local passive, with -an ^ ^ 250 

(10) Special static words - 257 

II. Seccmdary groups - „..- ~ ^._ - 262 

1. Prefix si- „ „ „..„ .._ 262 

2. Prefix paki- „ 263 

3. Prefix ka- ....„ ^ -. _ 265 

(1) Simple static forms „ 265 

(2) Normal transients, abstracts, and special static 
forms...... .- » „ „ 268 

(3) Additional transients, abstracts, and special static 
forms 280 

4. Prefix pa- 298 

(1) Simple static forms ..™ ~ 299 

(2) Normal transients, abstracts, and special static 
forms ^ ^ *301 

(3) Transients and abstracts with pa- and ka- _.. ^ 309 

5. Prefix pati- „ 313 

III. Irregular derivatives ~ - 314 

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Note. — The following grammatical analysis of Mr. Santiago's 
speech can, of course, lay no claim to completeness : he surely uses some 
constructions and very many forms which I have not heard or have 
failed to note. Such fulness as will be found is due to Mr. Santiago's 
intelligence and patience under questioning and in conversation. A 
very few of the examples represent his form of sentences in MacKin- 
lay's Handbook, The full representation of derivatives of the root 
putol cut is due to Mr. Santiago's kindness in listing these forms, wher- 
ever they seemed possible to his speech-feeling, in accordance with my 
list of morphologic elements, and in then forming sentences to illustrate 

In the use of accent-marks and of the symbol y I have deviated 
from the practice of the International Phonetic Association. Where 
roots did not occur as independent words, I have prefixed a hyphen 
and given a theoretical meaning. In the explanation of constructions 
I have allowed myself the use of distorted English ; although this time- 
honored device does not really reproduce the foreign expression (sub- 
stituting, as it does, impossible constructions for natural ones), it does 
enable the reader to follow the general trend of the foreign idiom. 


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1. Distinctive sounds. 

1. The distinctive sounds are 

the following: 






Stops: unvoiced 





** voiced 




Spirants (unvoiced) 



Nasals (voiced) 




TriU (voiced) 


Lateral (voiced) 


High vowels 



Low vowel 



2. a is a low unrounded vowel, as in Standard English far, 
but more tense and with the comers of the mouth (lips) slightly 

15 drawn back : halamanan garden, 

3. i and u, in what may be regarded as the normal form, 
are about as high as the Standard (American) English vowels in 
pit and put, but more tense; moreover, the lips are well drawn 
back for i and well rounded for u: init heat, lutiiin be cooked, 

20 4. In the final syllable of a phrase (or of a word spoken 

alone) the tongue position of i and w is as a rule lowered, often 
all the way to mid position; the tenseness and lip position are, 
however, kept, so that the resulting sound often resembles French 
e and lower o, 

25 5. u is nearly always so lowered: bago new, buhok hair. It 

is not lowered in pu' ten, 

6. i is not lowered before dentals: kahit though, akin my, 
pigil compulsion. It is usually kept high also before velars : sahig 
flooring, sigsii) ring. Some words ending in velars more or less 

30 regularly have the lowering: putik, putek mud; so especially some 
proper names: Intsek Chinese, Loleg Lola, 

Even in other cases the higher variants of i are commoner 
than the lower; hindi^ not, kami we, gabi night, muli' again are 
commoner than these words with e; a very few words, such as 


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291] PHONETICS 135 

ul^^ again have oftener e than i; others, such as item black are 
fairly regular in their variation. 

7. Within a closely unified phrase the lowering is as a rule 
omitted: ull sya again he (ulft^), Hintu na! StopI (hinto^). In 

5 this regard the habits are variable ; the form chosen depends mostly 
on the speaker's momentary attitude toward the closeness of join- 
ing of the words. 

A dissimilative factor also seems to be involved: a following 

• or u favors the lowering: 

10 Natdtulug aQ fiso. The dog is sleeping. 

Natutulog si Hw^. Juan is sleeping, 

8. o occurs in a number of words as the vowel in the last 
two syllables : in all of them the intervening consonant is the glot^ 
tal stop: 6*0 yes, do*6n there; bo^i* whole has occasionally buW. 

15 The raised variant is not used within the phrase: 6*o p6*. Yes, 
sir. Yes, ma'am. do*6n sya there he. 

e occurs in the same way in le'Jg neck, beside lilg. 

9. In word-formation, when, by the addition of suffixes, the 

• or u is no longer final, it is not lowered: luto^ cook, lutuin be 
20 cooked; itJm black, itimin be made black. Occasionally, however, 

the lowered vowel is retained: t4o hum^n being, ka-ta6-han man- 
kind, beside katauhan, tao-ta6-han manikin, pupil of the eye, be- 
side tautauhan. 

The words with o*o (§8) keep the lowered vowel when un- 
25 contracted: pina-ro*on-an was gone to (do^6n there) ; these words 
are also reduplicated with o : kina-dd-ro^on-an is been in. 

10. e and o occur also in unassimilated loan-words : bdsbol 
baseball, Sila y nag-bd-bdsbol. They are playing baseball, estudi- 
yante, istudiyante student, polls, pulls policeman, sipero football 

30 player, bagk^ro canoer (both with Spanish suffix -ero added to 
Tagalog words: sipa* football, barjki* canoe). 
For e see also § 29. 

11. As the variation between t and e and between o and u 
is thus never distinctive, there is no need of indicating it in tran- 

35 scription; I have, however, used the characters e and o wherever 
I heard markedly lowered variants. 

12. t and u occur also as non-syllabics ; I use, respectively, 
the characters y and w: yadn that, g&ya like, wlka^ speech, word, 
t&wag ccM. In final position they are always lowered: thus in 

40 pat&y dead person, ikaw thou, y represents non-syllabic e, w non- 
syllabic 0. 

13. In word-formation before suffixes vowels are in certain 
cases lost, see Morphology : kanin be eaten, -kain eat with suffix -in. 

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14. The laryngeal (glottal) stop occurs as a distinctive sound 
only after a vowel at the end of words: b&ta^ child, boy, girl, 
hindP not, hintft^ stop. 

As a non-distinctive sound it is used as a vowel-separator 
5 wherever syllabic vowels follow each other without an intervening 
distinctive non-syllabic. In this use I shall not indicate it in 
transcription, as it may be taken for granted wherever vowels 
are written together. Such words as those in § 8 will therefore 
from now on be transcribed without the sign for glottal stop: 
10 dodn, 60, bo6^ So t4o (§ 9) means t&*o, etc. Cf. below. 

15. The distinctive final glottal stop is usually lost before a 
following word in the phrase: hindi sya not he, Hintu na! Stop! 

It is always lost before the words q, t, and y: a^ b4ta q 
mabait the good chUd. 

15 16. p, t, k are unvoiced fortis stops; they differ from the 

corresponding English sounds primarily in that they are only 
slightly aspirated. In sentence-final the implosion only is made. 

t (in contrast with the English sound) is postdental, often 
near to interdental. 

20 A; is always articulated in back velar position (as in Englisk 

coo), no matter what sound follows. The closure of A; is occasion- 
ally imperfect, so that a rather open velar spirant (resembling 
Slavic x) is heard: malax^ for malakas strong; this variation has 
not been noted in transcription. 

25 In word-formation p, t, k alternate, respectively, with m, n, 

; see Morphology. 

17. b, d, g correspond in position to p, t, k. They are fully 
voiced lenis stops ; in sentence-final often implosive only, and then 
weakly voiced. 

30 The closure of b is occasionally imperfect, so that a bilabial 

spirant is produced: tuVig for tubig water; this variation has 
been ignored in transcription. 

In word- formation b alternates with m ; see Morphology. 
Pinal d in word-formation is always replaced by r before the 

35 vowel of a sufSx : l&kad walk, lakar-an walking-party. 

Initial d becomes r in the sentence frequently after the final 
vowel of a preceding word and occasionally even after a final 
non-syllabic, in the words daan hundred (not in daan road), damo, 
daw, din, dine, dito, diyin, doon ; e. g. ako rin / too. 

40 In word-formation some words frequently change d to r after 

the vowel of a prefix or a reduplication, and others do not: pa- 
raan means (daJtn road, way), but i-pa-dala be sent (dal& bring. 

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293] PHONETICS 137 

carry). The words (or roots) that have changeable d- are those 
mentioned in the preceding paragraph and daan, -d&ka, damd^, 
dami, damot, da^al, dapa^, d&pat, d&ti, -d&tig, -datiQ, diBt, -dinig, 
-diwafl, -dukit, -dxunft, dunoQ, dusa. 

5 18. s is the normal unvoiced sibilant, spoken in postdental 

position. Before y and iy it is somewhat palatalized (more, for 
instance, than Russian palatalized s), — a variation that is not dis- 
tinctive and need not be noted in transcription : siy^, sya he, she, 
pronounced with palatalized s. 

10 s alternates in word-formation with n; see Morphology. 

In the afFricate combination is, which is felt and treated as a 
single sound, the s is always palatalized : Ints^k Chinese. 

19. A is the unvoiced glottal spirant ; as in English, it occurs 
only in syllable-initial : hindi* not, bihay house, mukhi* face. 

15 In word-formation h is often spoken before the initial vowel 

of a suffix that is added to a final vowel: -basa read, basa-h&n 
reading room. See Morphology. 

20. The nasals m, n, q correspond in position to the stops. 
In word-formation they alternate, respectively, with p, t, k; m 

20 also with b, and n also with s; q is often prefixed to an initial 
vowel; see Morphology. 

Both in word-formation and in the phrase the nasals are occa- 
sionally assimilated in position to a following consonant : s4 m pii^ 
ten (m for fl), Saa^ ka p&paronf Where are you going? (for 
25 saan). 

In the sentence, final n is lost before the words 5, t, and y: 
aQ aki Q ama my father (for &kin my). 

21. r is the voiced tongue-tip trill, postdental. It occurs be- 
tween vowels within simple, underived words: &raw sun, day, — no 

30 doubt as a substitute for d, which never occurs in this position; 
everywhere else r is merely a variant of d (§17). 

22. { is postdental; the timbre is much as in Standard 
French or (Jerman, the mid-tongue not lowered. 

23. / and V (both labiodental) occur in unassimilated for- 
35 eign words; they are occasionally replaced (especially in deriva- 
tives) by p and b. Filipinas the PhUippines, infiyfemo, impiyJmo 
HeU, fiyteta, piyista fiesta, but always ka-piyest&-han day of a 
festival, sivil, sibil civil, provinsiya province, bintana* window, 
baso drinking-glass. 

40 r occurs freely in all positions in foreign words (cf. § 21) : 

tren train, trab&ho work, krus cross, relds UHitch, sombrero hat, 
beside Tagalized sambalflo. 

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The occurrence of ^5 (§ 18) is probably limited to foreign 

24. When in word-formation a vowel is lost before a sufSx 
(§ 13), the non-syllabics thereby brought together are subject to 

5 various changes: sigl-an be filled, silid with suffix -an. See Mor- 

2. Syllabication. 

a. In the word. 

25. If a single non-syllabic follows a stressed vowel, the lat- 
10 ter is spoken with open syllable accent, and the non-syllabic begina< 

the following syllable : b&-hay house, su-su-lat tuUl write. 

If a single non-syllabic follows an unstressed vowel, the latter 
has close syllable accent, — ^that is, no stress-division is made be- 
tween the syllables (just as in English) : ito this, kasakimin self- 

15 ishness, sumu-lat wrote. 

If two non-syllabics intervene between two syllables, the syl- 
lable-division is made between the non-syllabics : luk-so jump, muk- 
hi* face, In-tsSk Chinese. Stressed ay seems, however, to have 
open syllable accent: kay-lan when? 

20 Syllables never follow each other without an intervening non- 

syllabic. If no other non-syllabic intervenes, a non-distinctive 
glottal stop is spoken. I have not written the glottal stop in this. 
position, as it may always be taken for granted (§ 14). Hence 
dafLn road is pronounced da'an, siik young pig si^k, do6n there 

25 do^6n, t4o human being tk%. 

Nor do more than two non-syllabics ever follow each other in 
a native word. The following are examples of unusual combina- 
tions in foreign words: An-dres, Pe-dro, beside Tagalized Piro, 
ka-tre bedstead, s^r-mon, traba-ho work, but in reduplication mag- 

30 ti-trab&-ho wM work, kriis cross, but in reduplication nag-ku- 
kurus crosses himself, cf. barfiso arm, lobo balloon (Sp. globo). 

26. In frequently used words, especially in more rapid 
speech, the intervocalic glottal stop is often lost. 

If like vowels thus meet, they coalesce into a single vowel of 

35 no more than normal length: pumaron went there beside puma- 

ro6n. When 00 is thus contracted, the resulting may be raised 

to u (cf. § 9) : pinarun&n was gone to, beside pinaronjtn and 


If unlike vowels meet, the non-syllabic corresponding to the 
40 higher vowel (i.e. y with ♦, e and w with u, o) takes the place 
of the glottal stop. So t&wo beside t&o. The combinations so^ 

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295] PHONETICS 139 

resulting are treated in every way like those discussed in the 
next §. 

27. If the non-syllabic intervening between two vowels is y 
or w, the combination involves no peculiarity, provided that neither 

5 of the vowels is homogeneous with the non-syllabic : ba-yan town, 
pag-diri-wag celebation, gayftn thus. 

If, however, one of the vowels is homogeneous with the non- 
syllabic (i.e. i, e with y and u, o with w) and is not stressed, it 
is spoken shorter than a normal unstressed vowel: in such words 
10 as iyon thai, buwan moon, month the i, u are spoken shorter than 
in other positions. So also in t4wo (see preceding §) the o. 

After consonants these short vowels are often entirely omitted : 
bwan beside buwan, syk he, she beside siyi. The syllable-division 
remains, however, as in the longer form: kapwa^ fellow- beside 
15 kapuwa^ is pronounced ka-pwa' (not kap-wa'). 

Even in other positions these reduced vowels are often omit- 
ted, especially in frequently used combinations: Ano yon? What's 
that? beside Ano iyon?, occasionally taw for tAwo, tko. 

28. Conversely, one hears now and then a superfluous short 
20 i, e with a y, and an u, o with a w : iya6n for yaon that, maye for 

may having, uwala^ for wala' without, 

29. The combinations ay and ai are occasionally replaced by 
a long open e: kelan beside kaylan when?, me b&hay beside m&y 
bahay wife, housewife, me are' beside may are' master, owner, 

25 teija beside taiija car. 

b. In word- formation, 

30. When in word-formation affixes or reduplicative sylla- 
bles are added to a root, the syllabication is as in a simple word: 
sula-tan be written to (sulat writing with suffix -an), sumu-lat 

30 wrote (same, with infix -um-), umuwe', umw^' (§27) went home 
(-uwe' go home, with prefixed -um-). 

When vowels meet, they are as a rule separated by the non- 
distinctive intervocalic glottal stop: maa-a-re' will be possible 
(are' property reduplicated and with prefix ma-). 

35 31. The intervocalic glottal stop is rarely reduced, except in 

certain much-used combinations, the commonest being those with 
the prefix i- and with the prefix ka- and the suffix -an in certain 
uses (see Morphology) : iniiitos was commanded (utos command 
with prefixes in- and i-), usually iniyutos; laruin, toy (lar6' play, 

40 game with suffix -an), usually laruwan, larwan, but (with a dif- 
ferent use of the suffix -an) laruan playground; kayibigan, kay- 

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bigan friend (Ibig love, desire, with prefix ka- and su£Sx -an), but 
kaibigan sweetheart and kaibigin affection. For -iwan abandon 
mth prefix i- only the contracted form Iwan be abandoned is 
spoken. Cf. further ika&pat, ikapat fourth (apat four with pre- 
5 fixes i- and ka-). 

32. Conversely, an original y or w ia sometimes under em- 
phasis replaced by glottal stop ; thus, for patayin be killed (patiy 
dead person, kill with suffix -in), occasionally patain. 

33. When a word is doubled, when two words are united in 
10 a compound word, and after the prefixes that end in g, the sylla- 
ble-division is however made as though separate words were meet- 
ing in a sentence, — that is, according to the rules in the following 

c. In the phrase, 

15 34. When words come together in the phrase, the word-divi- 

sion is maintained (as in English) as a syllable-division. 

In the case of initial consonants the division is thus like that 
within a word: Sumulat ka. Write (thou), Sumulat siya, Sumu- 
lat sya. He wrote, Sum&ma ka. Oo along, Sum&ma siya, Su- 

20 mama sya. He went along. 

Before a vowel-initial the word-division is maintained as a 
syllable-division by the use of a non-distinctive glottal stop (as in 
(Jerman) : Sumulat ako. / wrote, i.e. sumu-lat-^ako ; Sum&ma 
ako. / went along, i. e. suma-ma-'ak6. 

25 Doubled words, compound words, and forms with prefixes 

ending in g (namely, mag-, nag-, pag-, tag-) are similarly treated 
(§ 33) : agad-agid immediately (agad at once doubled), i.e. agid- 
'agad; bahay-aklatan library-building (compound of bahay hou^e 
and akl&tan place for books), i.e. ba-hay-'ak-la-tan ; pagsulat an 

30 act of writing (sulat writing with prefix pag-), i.e. pag-su-lat; 
nag&ral studied (aral teaching with prefix nag-), i.e. nag-'a-ral. 

Occasionally, in emphatic speech, the same division is made 
within other formations: umakiyat, umakyat climbed (-akiyit 
climb with prefixed -um-), occasionally, but rarely, um-'akiyit, 

35 usually umakiyat, umakyat (by § 30). 

35. Reduction of the glottal stop and contraction of vowels 
occur only in a few much-used combinations of words: si Andrfts 
(si is the article of proper names), also siy Andres, sy Andres; 
Ano iyan? What's that? , also Ano yan? and even An yan! ; na 

40 it6 this (na is a particle expressing attribution), also na yitft, 
na yt6. 

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297] PHONETICS 141 

36. Occasionally such reductions go even farther, as in an6 
in the preceding paragraph, and occur where the glottal stop is 
not involved : as, sk for isa one in si m pu* ten, for isa rj pu^. 

37. The words at, ay, and na have also a shorter form, t, y, 
5 and 5, respectively, which occurs only (but not always) after a 

final vowel, glottal stop, or n. When these forms are used, the 
final glottal stop or n is lost (§§15, 20) and the t, y, or fl is treated 
in every way exactly as though it were part of the preceding word : 
buto at balat, but5 t balat bone and skin, i.e. butftt-balit; lyon 
10 ay mabuti, lyo y mabuti. Thai's good, i.e. iyoy-mabu-ti ; ag 
b4ta^ na mabait (clumsy, as in the speech of a child just learning 
to speak, for:) ag b&ta 5 mabait the good child, i.e. a^-ba-tafl- 

3. Accentuation. 

15 a. Word-accent. 

38. In a word of more than one syllable at least one syllable 
is normally spoken with a greater degree of stress than the others. 

The unstressed syllables have short vowels (about as long as 
the vowel in English pit or put) and close syllable-stress (§ 25). 

20 39. A non-final syllable ending in a non-syllabic (i. e. a 

closed non-final syllable) never has the stress; such words as luk- 
s6 jump, muk-ha^ face, ak-lat book are therefore always oxytone. 
The only exceptions are syllables ending in ay; this combination 
seems to be felt as a unit capable of open syllable-stress: k&y-lan, 

25 ke-lan wheii ; further, the words min-san once, pin-san cousin, and 
nan-don, by-form of n&-ro6n is there; and, finally, unassimilated 
foreign words: bes-bol, sJr-mon, kwar-ta, kwal-ta money (Spanish 
ciiarto), but also Tagalized kwalti. 

Words like ka-pwa^ (beside k&-puwa^) are not exceptions, for 

30 the first syllable is not closed (§ 27). 

40. The stressed syllables fall into two grammatical classes 
which are only in part phonetically distinct; we may call them 
primary and secondary word-accent. 

41. The primary word-accent on a final syllable or (in the 
35 cases mentioned in § 39) on a closed non-final syllable, consists 

merely in greater stress than that of an unaccented syllable, ac- 
companied by a pitch-rise of about half a note.* I use the grave 

* I owe this and the following statements about the degree of pitch-rise to 
the kindness of Dr. C. Ruckmich of the Department of Psychology of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois. 

Digitized by 



accent-sign: gabi night, hindi^ not, kamiy hand, buh6k hair, nan- 
don is there, sermon sermon. 

42. On a non-final open syllable the primary word-accent 
involves an increase of stress (less than in English), a pitch-rise 

5 of two notes, lengthening of the vowel to about one and one-half 
times the duration of an unstressed vowel, and open syllable-stress 
(§25). I use the acute accent-mark: bahay house, bayan tovrn. 

So also, irregularly, syllables in ay : kaylan, kelan when? , and 
even finally : k&y, k6 than, may, me having ; also minsan, pinsan. 
10 If an unaccented syllable precedes, the pitch-rise really begins 

on the latter: in sumulat wrote, for instance, the first syllable is 
spoken above the usual pitch, and the two-note pitch-rise is merely 
completed in the accented syllable. 

43. The secondary word-accent on a final syllable has weaker 
15 stress than the primary accent in the same place, and ordinarily 

lacks the pitch-rise. Grammatically, it is recognizable by the pres- 
ence of the primary accent on another syllable; I use the grave 
accent-mark : 4akiyat, kakykt wUl climb, narinig was heard. 

44. On a non-final open syllable the secondary accent differs 
20 from the primary accent in similar position in two respects: its 

pitch-rise is less marked, varying from three-quarters to one and 
three-quarters notes, and its vowel-lengthening is greater, reach- 
ing twice the length of an unstressed vowel. I use the grave ac- 
cent-mark : susulat wiU write, 

25 When the primary accent is on the last syllable and therefore 

weak (§ 41), the secondary accent often approaches a non-final 
primary accent in character: the first syllable of a word like 
nabuksan came open is often phonetically the same as that of a 
word like narinig was heard, 

30 If an unaccented syllable precedes the secondary accent, the 

pitch-rise really begins in the former: in such a w^ord as sumusu- 
lat is writing the first syllable is spoken with higher than normal 
pitch, in the second syllable the pitch is brought up to a note and 
three-fourths above normal, and in the third the two-note rise is 

35 completed. 

Of two secondary accents following each other the preceding 
is the more marked: nararamdamin is felt (na- has more marked 
accent than ra-). This helps to make the primary accent distinct, 
for it is stronger than a preceding secondary accent: susulat will 

40 write (the second su- is stronger, not weaker, than the first) ; 
nalaldman is known (if the third syllable had a secondary accent, 

Digitized by 


299] PHONETICS 148 

it would be less marked than the first and second, but its pitch and 
stress are actually higher). 

b. Sentence-accent. 

45. Certain words are atanic, i.e. are always spoken un- 
5 stressed in the phrase : e. g. ag fiso the or a dog, sa akin to me. 

The atonic words are : ag, at, ay, kay to (not k&y, k6 than),kiiQ, 
na attributive (not nk already), nag, ni of (not ni nor), o or (not 
6 o/i),pag, sa, si. 

The short variants of at, ay, and na, namely t, y, and 5 
10 (§37), having no vowel, cannot be stressed; they are treated in 
every way as though they formed part of the preceding word. 

46. In closely united phrases the last word keeps its accent, 
while the preceding ones often weaken theirs. Especially a final 
syllable often loses its accent before another word in the phrase : 

15 dahil dito on account of this, often : dahil dito, 

ar) maga bahay the houses, often: ag ma^a bfthay, 

ag kanya g bahay his or her house, ag kanya bahay, 

ari malaki g b&hay the large house, ag malaki g b&hay. 

47. Opposed to the preceding rule is the treatment of cer- 
20 tain words which we may call enclitics. These very frequently, 

to be sure, receive the normal treatment : that is, they are stressed 
and the preceding word either keeps its stress or, if oxytone, often 
loses it; but frequently, instead, the enclitic loses its accent: 

Umakyat si3a, Umakyat sya. He climbed, but also UmakyAt 
25 sya. 

Aakyyt siya, Aakyat syi. He wUl climb, but also Aakyit sya. 

Gdnu ka na ba kakinis? How clever are you now? (ka, ni, 
ba are all enclitic). 

Enclitics have the further (and more easily recognized) pecu- 
30 ' liarity that they follow the first orthotonic (i.e. neither atonic 
nor pretonic, § 48) word of the expression to which they belong 
(either as modifiers or as subject) : 

ai] mahah&ba nya t] paa his (niya, enclitic) long legs. 

When several enclitics come together the last one is often 
35 stressed. Monosyllabic enclitics precede disyllabic: 

Nahanap na nya ag sombrero. He has already looked for the 
hat. (na and niya are enclitics; the latter is treated as disyllabic 
even when in the contracted form nyi). 

The enclitics are: 
40 (1) always: the monosyllabic forms of the personal pronouns, 

namely ka, ko, mo, and the words (particles) ba, baga, daw,* din, 
man, muna, na, namin, nawa,^ x^h?, pS, pala, p6', sana, tuloy. 

Digitized by 



(2) frequently or in certain senses: the disyllabic forms of 

the personal pronouns (including siy&, sy^ and niya, nya) except 

ikaw (which is never enclitic), the demonstrative pronouns, and 

the words dine, dito, diyan, doon, kayi', l&mag, ul^^; occasionally 

5 short phrases (§ 88). 

For details about these words see Syntax. 

48. Opposed to the rule in § 46 are also certain words (par- 
ticles) which we may call preionics. Their treatment is often 
regular: that is, the pretonic as well as the follo\ving word keeps 

10 its accent, or the pretonic loses its accent before a following word ; 
but sometimes the pretonic keeps its accent and the following word, 
if oxytone, is unaccented : 

m4y sakit, may sakit having sickness, i. e. sick, but also may 
sakit. Only m&y and n4sa actually appear with this accentuation. 
15 The other pretonics are so classed because they share with 

these two words the peculiarity that an enclitic belonging to the 
phrase follows not the pretonic word, but the first orthotonic 

May katawan sya o para g t&o. He has a body like a human 
20 being, (siyk he, enclitic follows not m&y, which is pretonic, but 
katawan body, the first orthotonic word of the predicate). 

The pretonics are the particles bawat, kahit, kapag, kina, 
magi, m&y, nagig (together with its other forms, § 250), nasa (to- 
gether with its other forms, § 212), ni nor (not ni of), nina, 
25 pagki, sink, taga (tiga). See Syntax. 

49. A final syllable ending in glottal stop (§ 14) often re- 
'ceives a higher degree of stress than a corresponding syllabic with 
a different final. 

If the syllable ending in glottal stop has not the word-accent, 

30 it often receives an accent resembling the secondary accent on a 

non-final syllable; this is especially common if the glottal stop is 

lost before another word in the phrase: pare', pare' priest, Pari 

Hwan Father Juan. 

If the syllable has a word-accent and the glottal stop is lost 
35 in the phrase, its accent is often spoken like a primarv^ word-accent 
on an open syllable: Wala sya. He has none (wala^), Naglalarii 
sya. He is playing (naglalaro^). 

If, however, the glottal stop is lost before t, y, or ij. this 
heightening of accent does not take place, since the syllabic is then 
40 treated as ending in t, y, or g : Sya y wala ij aklat (i. e. waldij- 
'ak-lat), Sya y wala g aklat. He has no book or no books. 

50. In a succession of otherwise unstressed syllables a rhvth- 

Digitized by 


301] PHONETICS 145 

mical movement is usually produced by means of grammatically 
insignificant stresses weaker than a secondary word-accent; the 
distribution, and, indeed, the occurrence of these is so variable 
that I have not tried to indicate them in transcription, especially 
5 as they are never distinctive. Thus, in the phrases in § 46 an 
accent of this kind may fall on the next-to-last syllables of the 
words that lose their normal word-accent: a^ m^^a bahay, aQ 
kinya g ama his father, ag maliki g b&hay. 

51. The successive accents in a sentence bear a well-marked 

10 relation to each other: the early and especially the middle ones 
have higher absolute pitch than the last; an accent on the last 
syllable of a sentence often entirely loses its pitch-rise. As a con- 
sequence of this rather fixed melody, the differences of pitch-move- 
ment between statements, questions, commands, and exclamations 

15 of various kinds are not so marked as in English ; the higher stress 
of emotionally dominant (emphatic) words, also, is less marked 
than in English. 

In exclamation or under emphasis the accent of a final sylla- 
ble may be like that of a medial syllable, and may, in addition 

20 take on a falling accent after the rise: Hwan! (with rising-falling 
stress and pitch) Juan! y for normal Huwan, Hwan. Other dis- 
turbances of accent also occur in exclamation. 

Digitized by 



1. Sentence and word. 

a. Syntactic relations, 

52. The sentence consists of one or more words: Ar4y! 
5 Ouch! Umuulan. It's raining. Ina ko! Mother of mine! (as 

exclamation). Sya y sumusulat. He or she is or was writing, 

53. The relations between the words in a sentence are the 
usual ones: (1) Attribution: Ina ko! Mother (of) mine! (2) 
Predication: Sumusulat sya. Literally: Is-writing he, (3) The 

10 serial relation : buto t balat hone and skin, 

54. Some of the particles (§ 55)) seem, however, to stand 
in none of these relations, but rather to express these relations 
themselves. Thus the particle t and in the preceding example is 
expressive of the serial relation. So further: malaki q bahay 

15 large house; the particle o expresses the attributive relation; Sya 
y sumusulat. The particle y expresses the predicative relation. 

It is to be remarked, further, that the sphere of attribution 
includes some case^ in which the attribute markedly alters the 
sense: sakit sickness: may sakit (may is an attribute) having 

20 sickness, sick.* 

h. Parts of speech. 

55. Tagalog distinguishes two parts of speech: full words 
and particles. 

The particles either express the syntactic relations between 
25 full words (as illustrated in § 54) or act as attributes of full words 
(so may in the example in § 54) : Hindi sya sumusulat. He is not 
writing. The particle hindi* not is an attribute of sumusulat. 

In contrast with the particles, full words act not only as at- 
tributes, but also as subject or predicate, and any full word may, 
30 in principle, be used in any of these three functions : 

(1) Subject: Ai) sumusulat ay si Pedro. The person writing 

*It might perhaps be more correct not to include such cases under the term 
attribution (as will be done in the following analysis), but to set up instead an 
additional syntactic type of "exocentric modification". 


Digitized by 


503] SYNTAX 147 

is Pedro. Ag pula nafl panyd ay mati^)kad. The red of the hand- 
kerchief is intense. 

(2) Predicate: Sya y sumusulat. He is writing. Puli ao 
panyo g ito. This handkerchief is red. 
5 (3) Attribute: ag b&ta o sumusulat the writing child, the 

child who is writing; ag pulJt q panyd the red handkerchief. 

56. Independent of this classification into parts of speech 
are certain less important groupings of words and certain phrase 
types, some of which will appear in the course of the analysis. 

10 Others, however, demand mention at the outset. 

c. Static and transient words. 

57. Transient words express an element of experience viewed 
as impermanent, i.e. belonging to some limited portion of time, 
so sumusulat above, as opposed, e. g., to siyi, puli, pany6, b&ta^ 

15 Pedro. Words which are not transient may be called static. Only 
a few particles are transient; among the full words the transient 
group is large and important. 

d. Personal names. 

58. Except in exclamations and in address, names of per- 
20 sons (or animals) are distinguished from other words by being 

always (but see § 78) preceded by the atonic particle si: Hw4n! 
Juan! si Hw^n Juan, si Salamm Glass, Mirror (as name of a dog). 

59. Many terms of relationship and titles may be used in 
place of the name of an individual and then belong to the personal 

25 name class : ag ami the father, ag &ki n ama my father, but : si Ama 
Father. Thus are used, further: si Ina Mother, si Tatay Papa, 
si Nanay Mama, si Kuya or si Kuyag Oldest brother, si Ate Oldest 
sister, si Igkog Grandfather, si IndJi' or si Impo Grandmother, si 
Ali or si Tiya Aunt, si M&ma* Uncle; si Bath&la' God, but: aij 

30 Dyos. 

So also phrases in which these and other titles as attributes 
precede a name, see § 256. 

60. The particle sina or sila, pretonic, in place of si forms 
an expression denoting the person named together with his family 

35 or group of adherents : sina HwJtn or sila Hwan Juan and his fam- 
ily or Juan and his crowd. With a series of names sina implies that 
those named form a group: si Hw^n, si Andres, at si Mariyano 
Juan, Andres, and Mariano; sina Hwan, Andres, at Mariyano the 
group consisting of Juan, Andres, and Mariano ; sina Hwan, sina 

Digitized by 



Andrfes, at sina Mariy&no Juan, Andres, and Mariano, each with 
his group. 

e. The object construction. 

61. When a word or phrase denotes an element of experi- 
5 ence viewed as an object, it is, with certain exceptions, preceded 

by the atonic particle aQ : enQ b&ta* the or a child, boy, girl; chil- 
dren, a^) bahay the, a house; houses, a^ bayan the, a town, a,^ 
kab^ltan goodness, kindness; an act of kindness, a^ katauhan man- 
kind, a^j pagstilat the or an act of writi7ig, arj mabute that which 
10 is good, the best thing. 

The following are the exceptions : 

62. Personal names preceded by si or sina (sila) do not take 
ag ; they always, of course, denote an object idea. See the exam- 
ples in § 58 flE. 

15 63. The personal pronouns (which always express au object 

idea) do not take ag. They are: ako /; kita we, i.e. thou and I, 
inclusive dual; tayo we, i.e. thou (or ye) and I (or we)y inclusive 
dual and plural; kami we (but not you), exclusive dual and plu- 
ral ; ikaw, ka thou (singular) ; kayo ye, you (dual, plural, and 

20 polite singular) ; siyi he, she; sili they. 

All of these except ikkw are often enclitic; ka is always so: 
Ikaw ay talunan. You are defeated. Sumiilat ka. Write (thou). 
Siya is used only of living beings, except for a single peculiar 
construction to be described below (§ 106 f.). 

25 Kita in the sense here given is not much used, tayo being com- 

moner: Palit kita nai) sombrero. Let's trade hats. Kita ay pu- 
maroon sa teyatro. Or, more commonly: Tayo ay pumaroon sa 
tey&tro. Let us go to the theatre. Kita is more used in another 
meaning, as we shall see (§ 182). 

30 Kami differs from these two words in excluding the person 

or persons addressed: Kakain tayo. We shall eat. Naldtuluy 
kami kina Pedro. We asked hospitality of Pedro's. In both of 
these sentences (as also in that with tayo already given) two or 
more people may be meant. It will be seen, therefore, that the 

35 distinction between dual and plural is not categoric (obligatory^). 

That between singular and plural is categoric in these pro- 

noiuis; everywhere else it is not obligatory; the idea of plurality 

is inherent in many words and forms, but these are used only 

where the idea of plurality is explicitly prominent. 

40 64. The demonstrative pronouns as object expressions also 

reject arj. They are: ire this (on the person of the speaker or 

Digitized by 


305] SYNTAX 149 

within his immediate reach) ; it6 this (more generally, of anything 
nearer to the speaker than to the person addressed) ; iykn, yan 
that (nearer to the person addressed) ; iyon, yaon, yoon, yon that 
(of things distant from both speaker and person addressed). 
5 It6 and iy6n are used also anaphorically : the former — the 


The demonstrative pronouns are often enclitic. 

A^) is omitted also before an object expression in which a 
demonstrative pronoun stands first as a modifier, see § 130. 
10 65. Similarly before object expressions in which) an inter- 

rogative pronoun stands first as a modifier, see §§ 131.168. 

66. The use of ag is optional before the numerative pro- 
nouns. The use of ag seems sometimes to lend these greater defi- 
niteness, sometimes to be indifferent. 

15 The numerative pronouns used as object expressions are : iba 

other, Hkn few, karamihan most, lahat all. (The other numerative 
pronouns, namely boo' whole and the particles bala any and b&wat 
every are not used as object expressions). 

ihk others; il«in a few; Ag ilan ay malalakas at arj iba ay 

20 mahihina'. Some are strong and others are weak. Lahat iiaij 
t&o sa b4ya i) it6 ay dapat umalis. All people (who arc) in this 
town ought to leave (nag tao of people, of the people is an attri- 
bute of lahat). Ag lahat nag tao sa baya ij ito ay may sakit. 
All the people in this town are diseased, karamihan sa kanila 

25 most of them; ai) karamihan the majority. 

The use of ag is optional also before object expressions in 
which a numerative pronoun stands first as an attribute, see § 132. 

67. The use of ai) is optional before the cardinal numerals: 
isa sa kanil&, or : ai) isa sa kanila one of them. 

30 The simple cardinal numerals are: isa one, dalawa two, tatlo 

three, apat four, lima five, knim six, pito seven, walo eight, siyam, 
syam nine. 

Similarly, the use of ai) is optional before an object expres- 
sion in which a cardinal numeral stands first as a modifier, see 
35 § 133. 

In dates and for the hours of the day the Spanish numerals 
are commonly used ; these demand ar) : aij abe3aite-kwatru nag 
Hiinyo the twenty-fourth of June. 

68. Ag is omitted, further, before object expressions begrin- 
40 ning with the particle ni (§253) and optionally before those be- 
ginning with the particle k&hit (§248). All object expressions 
lack ag when forming an indefinite object predicate (§109), in 


Digitized by 



expressions of indefinite quantity (§69), when used indefinitely 
after para (§275), haggJtfl (§293), pati (§305), and in exclama- 
tion or address (§§ 75.78). • 

/. Expressions of indefinite quantity. 

5 69. Object expressions are used (without ao, § 68) to ex- 

press indefinite objects (roughly speaking such as would lack the 
article the in English) or indefinite quantities of objects, when 
preceded by certain modifiers. These modifiers are the pretonic 
particle m&y, expressing existence or forthcomingness (§ 252), and 

10 the full words m&y-ro6n, equivalent with m&y ; wala* the negative 
of these; malaki great; malaon long; mararai much, many (§ 138). 
The phrases so formed may be described as expressions of indefi- 
nite quantity. Beside the omission of ai) before the object ex- 
pression, they have the peculiarity that in certain constructions 

15 they express (without further accompaniments) the possessor of 
that designated: may su^ay there are horns or having horns, 
horned; m&y-roo o aU&t there are books or having a book, books; 
wala g aWat there are no books or without a book, having no books; 
malaki g kagamitan great usefulness, there is great use, or having 

20 great usefulness; mal&o g panah5n long time or taking a long time; 
marami g salapfe* much money, there is much money or having 
much money; mar&mi q kaybigan many friends, there are many 
friends or having many friends. 

May expresses also approximateness (where the object expres- 

25 sion is one of number) : may &pat na pu o pai about forty feet 
or having, measuring about forty feet. 

70. An expression of indefinite quantity may, as a unit, stand 
in object construction; in this case the first three have possessive 
value, but not the others: a^) m&y sakit ^^e or a person having 

30 sickness, the or a sick person; ag m&y-roo o aklat the (a) person 
who has a book or books; ai) wala i) hiy4* the (a) shameless pcr-^ 
son; but: ag malaki i) bahay the, a large house; ag mardmi i) 
b&gay the many things. 

71. Marami may by itself stand in object construction; it 
35 then has the meaning : ag mardmi the many, the crowd, the people, 

hoi poUoi. 

* In the proverbial expression at i6,i8, balat skin, skins is used as an object 
expression without a^, contrary to the normal habit. 

Digitized by 


307] SYNTAX 151 

2. Subject and predicate. 

72. Most sentences consist of a subject and a predicate, show- 
ing the construction of Sumusulat sya, Sya y sumusulat (§§ 53. 
54). Indeed, this goes farther than in English; many commands, 
6 for instance, have the subject-and-predicate structure : Sumulat ka. 
Write thou, i. e. Write, 

Neverliieless, much of the syntax is determined by the use of 
constructions which lack subject-and-predicate structure. 

a. Non-predicative sentences. 

10 73. The sentences which lack subject-and-predicate structure 

are of two general types: (1) exclamatory, and (2) impersonal- 

74. To the exclamatory type belongs the use in independent 
sentences of certain particles, the primary interjections: Aba! 
15 Ah! Ar&y! Ouch! 0! Oh! 

As in other languages, some of these violate the normal pho- 
netic structure, that is, are ** inarticulate^': Sss! Whew! , uttered 
when the weather is very hot. One whistles when one wants the 
wind to blow. 
20 75. To the exclamatory type belong, further, words and 

phrases used as secondary interjectio7tss Ano! What! (unpleas- 
ant surprise). Ina ko! or: Ina k6! Mother of mine! Ano rj hina 
mo! What weakness of-you! i. e. How weak you are! 

As the second example shows, object expressions are here used 
25 without ai) (§68). 

76. Certain words with the prefix ka- expressing high degree 
of a quality (see Morphology), with their attributes: Kaitim naij 
gabi! What-hlackness of -the night! i. e. How black the night is! 

77. Certain words with the prefix ka- and reduplication ex- 
30 pressing recent completion of an act (see Morphology), with their 

modifiers : Kararatirj ko pa limaij ! Just-arriving hy-me still 
only! i. e. / have only just arrived. 

78. Vocatives, in calling or address : Kayo rj maya makasa- 
lanan! Ye sinners! In this use personal names lack si and all 

35 object expressions lack ag (§68): Hwan! Juan! Mama'! Sirt 
Ali! Madam! Wala rj hiya*! Shameless one! 

79. Commands of certain brusque or familiar types, used, 
e. g., to children, servants, animals, in haste or excitement : Hintu 
na! Stop! Hag na! Get out of the way! Suloi)! Go ahead! 

40 Hurry up! Panaog na sa bahay! Come down from the houset 

Digitized by 



Come on out! Tibi po* Look out please! (Cry of drivers to 
people on the street. The accent is irregular by § 51 for tabi). 

80. Certain set expressions, such as greetings: Maganda g 
araw p6'! Oood-moming! Salamat. Thanks. Sal&matsa iyo. 

5 Thank you, 

81. Expressions of affirmation and negation: Oo. Tes. Oo 
ija^ Yes indeed. T&ma^ That's right, Exactly. Hindi^. No. 
Wala^ None, Nothing, There isn't. 

82. The mere naming of an idea, as in counting or giving 
10 the title of a story: Isi, dalawa, tatlo, &pat, lima. . . One, two, 

three, four, five. . . 

83. (2) Of the impersonal-anaphoric type are many answers 
to questions or continuations of dialogue: Kah&pon. Yesterday. 
Ako. /, It's I, It was I. (Never *'It6 y ak6,'' or the like). 

15 84. Certain occurrences, especially meteoric phenomena, are 

not analyzed into subject and predicate: Umuulin. It's raining. 
Kabilugan nag bwan. Roundness of -the moon., i. e. There is a 
full moon. Bum&baha^ There is a flood. NaMre'. It is possible, 
allowable. Hindi nalaunan. It did not take long. It was not long. 

20 Taginit na. It is summer already. 

85. Very common in impersonal construction are expressions 
of indefinite quantity (§69). In this use they express existence 
or forthcomingness (or the opposite) of indefinite objects: May 
mar)a bab&ye. There are women. May-roo ^) aswa^j sa b&yan. 

25 There was a vampire in the town. WalS, g papM. There is no 
paper. Wala g anu mJln! There is nothing. Also: Not at all! 
You're welcome! Malaki g twa* nag iba i) tao. There was great 
rejoicing by the other people. Sa daI4ga g ito y marami g maglili- 
gaw. For this young woman there were many suitors. 

W 86. Less common in impersonal construction are expresssions 

of occurrences involving indefinite or indifferent persons or things : 
Humukay. One should dig. Nagumpisa na nag pagsabuy. ^^They" 
have already begun to throw. 

87. There is great freedom as to presence or absence of an- 

35 aphorically determined elements (i.e., such as have been recently 
mentioned or, less commonly, are about to be mentioned), includ- 
ing the subject; when this is wanting, the subject-and-predicate 
structure is, of course, lost : Hinila nya sa pasigan. W as-dragged 
by-him to-the shore, i. e. He dragged it or the tree (sc. ito, or: 

40 ag puno*, from the preceding sentence) to the shore. Hindi ma- 
kabubuti sa kanili. {It, the scheme mentioned) wUl do them no 

Digitized by 


309] SYNTAX 153 

Many constructions later to be noticed depend on this habit of 
omitting anaphorically determined elements, cf . e. g. : A^j puno^ 
ay tumubo ha^igag sa magbuQa. The tree grew untU (sc. it) bore 
fruit. Pagdatig niya ay sablhin mo o maghintiy. At-the-coming 
5 of -him be-said (impersonal) by-yoti that (sc. he) should-wait, i. e. 
When he comes, tell him to wait. 

b. The subject. 

88. The subject of a sentence is always an object expression. 
The only exceptions are complex sentences with entire predications 

10 (§115) or quotations (§329) as subject. 

89. The subject may have two positions: 

(1) Non-enclitic: it precedes or follows the predicate; in the 
former case the predicate is introduced by the atonic particle ay, 
y (y often after syllabic vowel, n, or *; see Phonetics) : Sum6- 

15 sulat ag b&ta^ The child is writing; or: A^j bata^ ay sumilsulat. 
Ag b&ta y sumustilat. Siyi ay sumusulat. Sya y sumusulat. He, 
she is writing. Here siya, sya is not enclitic. 

(2) Enclitic: it follows the first orthotonic word of the predi- 
cate : Hindi sya sumusulat. Not he is-iuriting, i. e. He is not writ- 

20 ing. Sumusulat sya nao liham. He is writing a letter, letters. In 
these examples siyi is enclitic. 

Not only enclitically used pronouns (§§ 63. 64), but even short 
phrases are thus used : Pinaputol nila si HwJln na^ k&hoy. Was- 
ordered'to-cut by-them Juan (subject) some wood, i.e. They or- 

25 dered Juan to cut wood. Here the position of si Hwin after the 
first orthotonic word of the predicate (pinaputol) but before the 
rest of the predicate (na^) k&hoy) shows it to be (like nili) an 
enclitic element. With the same subject not enclitically used the 
sentence would be : Pinaputol nila na^ k&hoy si HwS,n, and this, 

30 indeed, is the more usual locution. 

90. On the use or non-use of an anaphoric subject (siy&, 
sila, it6) see § 87. 

c. The predicate. 

91. The predicate may be (1) a transient word with its 
35 modifiers, (2) a static word with its modifiers, or (3) an object 


(1) Transient predicate. 

92. Transient words fall into four classes according to the 
four relations which a subject may bear to them when they are 


Digitized by 


154 TAGALOQ TEXTS ' [310 

used as predicate. We may designate these classes by the follow- 
ing names: 

1. active: the subject is viewed as an actor: Sumusulat sya 
nag liham. He (subject) is writing a letter, letters. Sya y pumu- 

5 tol nag kahoy. He (subject) cut some wood. Umalis sya. He 
went away. 

2. direct passive: the subject is viewed as an object fully af- 
fected or produced: Sinulat nya ag liham. Was-written by-him 
the letter (subject), i.e. The letter was written by him, He wrote 

10 the letter. Pinutol nya ag k&hoy. Was-cut by-him the wood (sub- 
ject), i.e. He cut the wood. 

3. instrumental passive: the subject is viewed as a means, an 
instrument, something given forth or parted from: Isinulat nya 
ag kwento. Was-written-down by-him the story (subject), i.e. 

15 He wrote the story. Ipinutol nya ar) gulok. Was-cut-udth by-him 
the bolo (subject), i.e. He used the bolo for cutting. He cut with 
the bolo. 

4. local passive: the subject is viewed as an object partly or 
less fully affected, as a place or sphere : Sinulatan nya ako. Was- 

20 written-to by-him I (subject), i.e. He wrote me. Pinutulan nya 
ag kahoy. Was-cut-from by-him the wood (subject), i.e. He cut a 
piece off the wood. 

For a detailed description of these classes of transient words, 
see Morphology. 

25 93. In general the choice between these four constructions 

is made in accordance with the logical situation: the definite, 
known object underlying the predication as starting-point of dis- 
course is chosen as subject: Binigyan nya ako nag aklat. Was- 
given-to (local passive) by-him I (enclitic subject) a book, books, 

30 i.e. He gave me a book, books. Ibinigay nya sa akin ag aklat. 
Was-given (instrumental passive) by-him to me the book (sub- 
ject), i.e. He gave me the book. In the first example the speaker 
is talking about himself, in the second about a certain book. 

94. However, the active construction is avoided whenever 

35 any object other than the actor is available as subject. Especially 
are active constructions with an anaphoric subject (siya, sila, ito) 
avoided wherever a passive construction is at hand. Thus, in the 
instance in § 93, even if **he'', the actor, were the real subject of 
discourse, one would rarely use the active construction: Sya y 

40 nagbigay sa akin nag aklat. He (subject) gave (active) yne a book, 
books. Even elements which we should look upon as somewhat 
indefinite are preferred as subjects to an actor: Kiniiha nya ag 

Digitized by 


311] SYNTAX 155 

isa ^) aklat. Was-taken (direct passive) by-him a book (subject), 
i. e. He took a (certain) book (he knew, or I know which one or 
what kind). 

The active construction is thus confined to instances in which 
5 the object-ideas other than the actor are entirely vague and unde- 
termined or lacking : Umalis sya. He went away. Sya y kumtiha 
nag aklat. He took a book, some books (no matter to him or to 
me which one or what kind). Sumusiilat sya nag liham. He is 
writing a letter, letters. Sya y pumutol nag k&hoy. He cut some 
10 wood. Kum&in sya nag k&nin. He ate some boiled rice; but: 
Kinain nya ag kanin. W as-eaten (direct passive) by him the 
boiled rice (subject), i. e. He ate the boiled rice. 

If, in spite of the presence of other definite objects, the actor 
is very decidedly emphasized, a diflPerent construction (§§104.107.) 
15 is used. 

(2) Static predicate. 

95. The predicate may consist of a static word with its 
modifiers : Ag b&ta ay mabait. The child is good. lya y masama*. 
That's bad, wrong. Fulk ag panyo g itd. This handkerchief is red 

20 96. This type of predicate is regular in word-questions: the 

question word is used as predicate ; it precedes the subject : Pano 
ag pagkagusto ninyo sa trab&ho - g - kanyunero? How (predicate) 
your liking for (i. e. How did you like) the^ artillery -service? 
Papdno ag pagsasdbi sa wika g Tagalog nag saliti g Inglfes na 

25 '^scissors"? How (predicate) the saying in the Tagalog language 
of the English word ^'scissors"? i. e. How does one say ''scissors" 
in Tagalog f Gaano ag pagkakagalit nila? Hotv great. How seri- 
ous was (predicate) their quarrel? 

97. This is the construction of the interrogative pronouns in 

30 questions asking for the identity of an object, — unless, indeed, 
these belong rather under type (3). The interrogative pronouns 
are the following: 

(a) sino who? (singular and plural), sino-sino (explicit plural, 
§63, end) is used of persons only, and then only when the answer 

35 expected is a name or the equivalent ; it asks for the identity of a 
person: Sinu ka? Who are (predicate) you (subject) f Sinu 
yan?— Ako. Who's that? i. e.Who's there? — I. Sinu ya g tumu- 
tuktok? Who's that knocking? Sino ag nagbigay sa iydf Who 
(predicate) the onc-who-gave (sc. it, anaphoric) to you (subject) f 

40 i. e. Who gave it to you? Sino ag nags&bi sa iyo? Who told you? 
Who told you so? Sino s& kanila g dalawa ag nagn&kaw? Which 

Digitized by 



of the two committed the theft f The two are known by name or, 
at any rate, as personalities. Sino-sino sa maga b&ta^ a^ iyo q 
ntihule sa paQuumitf Which ones of the children (predicate) did 
you catch pilfering f literally: the ones caught by you at pilfering, 
5 subject. 

(b) and what? what kind oft hkywf, explicit plural ano-and, 
asks for the identity of a thing or for the description, character, 
condition of a person or of a thing: Ano yknl — ltd y libro. What 
(predicate) is that you have there (subject) f — This is a book. An 

10 y6n? — Yo y sunog. What's that over there? — It's a fire. And aQ 
r)41an mot What is your name? Ano aQ s4bi mot What do you 
sayf Ano a^) Ibig mot What do you want? Ano-an6 aQ pinag- 
sabd ni Hwtin sa iy6t What things did Juan tell youf, literally: 
What things (predicate) the things said by Juan to youf Anu kat 

15 What sort of person are youf Ano a^ lagay nai) ma^a b&ta^t . . . 
nag asdwa mot . . .nag me bihay t What (or How) is the condi- 
tion of (i. e. How are) the children f . . .your husband or wifef 
. . .your wifef 

(c) alin which f which onef which onesf, explicit plural alin- 
20 alin, is used of persons and things; it asks neither for identifica- 
tion (persons, sino; things, and) nor for characterization (and), 
but for indication, by pointing or by description of the place or 
some other unessential feature,, of persons or things: Alin ag 
gustu mdt Which one, Which ones do you wantf Alin sa kanila 

25 g dalawa ag nagnakawt Which of the two (e.g., of these two 
strange men) committed the theft f Alin-alin sa maga punu-g- 
kahoy ag iyo g tinagi^t Which ones of the trees did you cut 

98 Of the numerative pronouns (§ 66), boo^ iba, and ilan 

30 (in this use interrogative) are used as static predicates: ltd y 
bud'. This is entire, complete, unbroken. Hindi ko gusto iyan; 
iba ag &ki g gustd. Not by -me wanted (static predicate) that 
(subject) ; different (predicate) that by-me wanted (subject), i.e. 
/ don't want that; what I want is different, I want something 

35 else. Ilan ag magliligawt How m^ny are the suitors f 

99. Of the modifiers of indefinite quantity (§ 69) several 
are used as static predicates: Sya y wala na. He is or was gone 
already. ltd y wala^ This does not take place, does not appear, 
falls away. Malaki ag sunog. The fire was great. Marami ag 

40 nagsasabi nitd. Many are they who say this. 

100. For the disjunctive forms of personal pronouns and 
of sino as static predicates, see § 169. For local expressions, see 

Digitized by 


313] SYNTAX 157 

§ 211. For entire predications as static predicates, § 112 f., quo- 
tations, § 114. 

(3) Object expression as predicate. 

101. If the predicate is an object expression, it may have 
5 three different forms: (A) definite, (B) circumlocutory definite, 

and (C) indefinite. 

102. (A) A definite object predicate consists simply of ^ 
word or phrase in the object construction (§ 61 ff.) ; it has there- 
fore the same structure as a subject. Usually this predicate pre- 

10 cedes and is emphatic (emotionally dominant) : It6 a^ &ki ^ 
tirihan. This is (predicate) my dwelling (subject), i.e. Why, it's 
here I'm at home! 

103. The definite object predicate is especially emphatic in 
sentences that have as subject a transient word (with or without 

15 modifiers) in object construction : Si Hwin aiQ nagnakaw. It was 
Juan who did the stealing. Siya rin a^) kanya i) iniibig. It was 
he whom she loved. Both nagnikaw and inifbig are transient 

104. When an emphatic actor cannot be used as subject of 
a transient predicate (owing to the presence of other definite ob- 

20 ject ideas, § 94), it is often used as the predicate in this con- 
struction, — the transient part of the sentence being put into object 
construction and used as subject. Thus, if, in the sentence: ltd 
y ginawfi ni Hwan. This (subject) was-done (direct passive) hy 
Juan, the idea of *'Juan", the actor, should become dominant, 

25 one would not use the active transient predicate (*'Si HwJln ay 
gumaw4 nit6''), for the idea of **this" is too definite to allow of 
the actor's functioning as subject; one says instead: Si Hwjtn a^) 
gumawa nito. It was Juan who did this, with '*Juan'' as definite 
object predicate and the rest of the sentence, objectivized, as sub- 

30 ject. So: Siya ag nagbigay sa 4kin nai) aklJlt. It was he that 
gave me the (or a) hook, hooks, (cf. §93). Ikaw r)i* a^) nags&bi 
niyan. It was you yourself who said that. 

105. Less commonly the subject precedes the predicate. In 
this case the construction is quite normal and unemphatic; if 

35 there is a transient element it usually stands in the predicate: 
Ito y ar) &ki \) tirahan. This (subject) is my dwelling. Si Hw&n 
ay a^i nagnakaw. Juan is the one who did the stealing. 

106. (B) In the circumlocutory definite object predicate 
the central element isi the pronoun siyi (in this use never en- 

40 clitic), which is followed by modifiers which express the real con- 
tent of the predicate. In this use siyi may appy to inanimate 

Digitized by 



objects and to two or more objects (§63). The subject, which 
has always a moderate degree of emphasis, usually precedes: It5 
ay sya k6 ^) tir&han. This is what is my home, i e. This is where 
I live. In most cases the real content of the predicate is a tran- 
5 sient word (with or without modifiers) : Si P6dro ay sya i) tumu- 
tukt6k. Pedro is the one (siyJl) who is knocking. (Less emphatic 
than the violently transposed Si P6dro a^j tumutuktdk. It's Pedro 
who is knocking, of type A). A^ pagk&tahol hbjq &so ay syk g 
ikinagisi^) na^j b&ta^ The harking of the dog is what woke up the 

10 child. Aq ma^a pa^gparikit ay sya k5 ^ pinamutfilan. The kin- 
dlings are what I have cut up. Occasionally the predicate pre- 
cedes: Bak& sya i) ikaptitol naQ piggd, a^ kabigatd,n na^ buh&i)in. 
Perhaps that which m^y break the carrying-pole (predicate) the 
weight of the sand (subject) , i. e. See that the weight of the sand 

15 doesn't break the carrying-pole. 

107. This construction, like that of type (A), is often used 
when a transient predicate is not permissible with an actor-sub- 
ject; here, however, the sentence is not, as in (A), reversed, but 
the actor is used as subject and the rest of the sentence as true 

20 content of the circumlocutory predicate: Si Hw&n ay syS, ^) 
gumawa nito. Juan is the one who did this. Si Pedro ay sya q 
nagbig^y sa dkin nag aklkt. Pedro is the person who gave me the 

108. A predicate of this type may, in its entirety and as a 
25 unit, be objectivized with ag and used as subject of a sentence of 

type (A) : Ag mediko l&mag ay sya nyi i) makakatalo. The 
doctor alone will be the one to oppose him (literally: he by-him 
who wUl-be-opposedy direct passive) : Ag mediko Ifimag ag sya 
nyS, g mak^kat&lo. It is the doctor alone who will be the one to 
30 oppose him. Ag bint4na g iyan ag syh i) kahuhulugan nag 
bata*! It's that window that wUl be the place where the child 
wUl faU out! 

109. (C) The indefinite object predicate has the structure 
of an object expression, but lacks ag (§ 68). In meaning it corre- 

35 sponds, roughly, to an English noun-predicate without the: ltd 
y libr6. This (subject) is a book (predicate). Yo y sunog. That's 
a fire. It6 y mabuti g libr6. This is a good book. Si HwJln ay 
isa g magnan&kaw. Juan is a thief. Masipag na tao ito. Indus- 
trious people (predicate) thes^ (subject), i.e. These are indus- 

40 trious people. 

110. As indefinite object predicates occur especially the ex- 
pressions of indefinite quantity (§69). In this use they have pos- 

Digitized by 


315] SYNTAX 159 

sessive value: Sya y m&y famflya. He has a family. May &pat 
na pu ^j pa4 ag haba*. Having forty feet (predicate) the length 
(subject), i.e. The length is dbovi forty feet, Sya y may-roo fl 
aklat. He has a book, books. Sya y wala i) aklit. He has no book, 
5 no books. Sya y marami i) salapS*. He has much money. Hindi 
mal&o :o panah6n ag kanya i) paghihimat^y. Her fainting-speU 
did not last long. ltd y malaki ^) kagamitan. This has great use, 
is mu^h used. 

It is to be noted that all the modifiers of indefinite quantity, 
10 except m&y, which is pretonic, are orthotonic and therefore fol- 
lowed by an enclitic subject (§ 89) : M&y-roon sya o akl&t. He 
has ^0 book. But : May dalawci sya o anak. He has two children. 

d. Subordinate predications. 

111. An entire predication may be used as subject, predi- 
15 cate, or attribute in a longer sentence. The use of such subordi- 
nate predications is, however, limited (as opposed, e. g., to English 
usage) by the habit of freely using transient words (with their 
modifiers) as attributes: ag supot nag kwalta na kanila g ibini- 
gay pagdaka sa kanila g magulag the bag of money by-them given 

20 at once to their parents, i.e. ... which they gave ... It is 
limited, further, by the freedom of omitting anaphoric elements 
(§ 87) : Ag puno* ay tumubo hagg&g sa magbuga. The tree grew 
untU (sc. it, subject) bore fruit. 

112. Predications as predicates occur very frequently. Ag 
25 ginaw& nya ay umalis etya. That done by-him (subject) was went- 

away he (predication, as predicate), i.e. What he did was, he 
went away. Ag mabuti ay it4pun nilk ag maga b4ta*. The best 
thing (to da) was that they should abandon the children. Ag 
isip ko y balat l&mag nag itl6g it6. My thought was (i.e. / 
30 thought) this was only an egg-shell. 

113. Especially common is a whole predication as a predi- 
cate describing or characterizing the subject: Ag kuba ay ma- 
hina^ ag katawan. The hunchback was: weak was his body, i.e. 
was weak of body. Ag ikapitu g b&ta* ay hindi kinain ag kanya 

35 g' tin&pay. The seventh chUd was: not was-eaten his bread, i. e. 
did not eat his bread. Ag isa nyk g anak ay pito ni g ta6n ag 
gulag. His one child was now seven years of age. This construc- 
tion, together with the use of impersonal expressions (§84) makes 
possible such a sentence as: Ag maga karit6n ... ay gabi kug 

40 ipalakad. The wagons . . were: it-was-night when (sc. they, ana- 
phoric subject) were-m^e-to-go, i.e. The wagons were driven at 

Digitized by 



114. Direct quotations as predicates are frequent: **Isi!" 
ag s&bi nag buUig. ^^One!'' was what the blvndman said, **Tunay 
bagi g akft y iniibig mot" ag tanog na\j dal4ga ni Andr&s sa 
kanya. *^Is it reaUy true that you love mef" was the question 

5 of Andres' young lady to him. 

115. A predication as subject is rare: Mabuti t4yo y du- 
modn sa isa Q lug^r. . . It is best (predicate) that we go to a 
place. . . Hindi bihira* a\j maga t4o y naghilhule nag buhay 
na uggft*. It is not rare that people go catching live monkeys. 

10 It will be noted that these predications are not objectivized, cf. 
§ 88. 

116. Occasionally, however, the predication used as subject 
is objectivized: Hindi bihlra^ ag magkalunod ag maga tAo. It 
is not rare that people get drowned, or The occurrence that people 

15 get drowned is not rare. Sukat ni ag ikaw ay magpasalaraat. It 
is fitting now that you be thankful. 

117. For predications as attributes see the section on attri- 

e. Omission of predicate. 

20 118. The use of a predicate, or of the central element of a 

predicate is (like that of any other element, § 87) optional when, 
if used, it would be anaphoric: (Si Hwan naman ay sumagot: 
**Matar!" at sa hulfe) si Andres ag kanya i) **Si!" (Then Juan 
answered ''Matar!" and last) Andres his ^^Si!" The form of 

25 the sentence with the predicate (which is anaphoric from the pre- 
ceding sumagdt answered) would be: . . si Andrfes ay isinagot 
ag kanya g **Si!" . . . Andres was: was-answered his *^8i!'\ 
i. e. AndrSs answered his ^^Sil'\ — a sentence of the kind described 
in § 113. 

30 3. Attributes. 

119. We may distinguish four constructions in which an 
attribute may stand: 1. Conjunctive attribution: the attribute 
is joined by means of the particle na or ^ : isa g tao a person, one 
person; 2. Disjunctive attribution: the attribute, which is always 

35 an object expression, stands in a special disjunctive form, ag, for 
instance, being changed to na^ : ag puno nag urjgo' the tree of 
the monkey; 3. Local attribution: the attribute, which is always 
an object expression, stands in a special local form, ag, for in- 
stance, being always changed to sa : naliligo sa ilog bathing in the 

40 river; 4. Absolute attribution: the attribute merely precedes or 
follows: hindi t4ma* not correct. 

Digitized by 


317] SYNTAX 161 

In a sense the last three constructions, which do not employ 
the particle na, g, stand opposed to the first, which does. Con- 
structions 2 and 3 make it possible to speak, in a very wide sense, 
of three ''cases" in which an object expression may stand: **sub- 
5 jective** ag flog the river, ''disjunctive" nag flog of the river, 
and "local" sa flog in the river; but it is to be observed that 
these "cases" are not confined to any class of words, but appear 
in any word or phrase when it stands in the object construction.* 
120. In position attributes may be : 

10 A. Loosely joined. In this position occur only attributes of a 

predicate (or of an entire non-predicative sentence). Their treat- 
ment resembles that of a non-enclitic subject (§ 89) : they either 
precede the rest of the sentence with ay, y, or follow at the end of 
the sentence: Do6n ay sy4 y nahigJt'. There (do6n, loosely 

15 joined) he lay down, Nah&nap ko n^ a^ sombrero sa lahat'na^ 
sulok. / have looked for the hat in every comer. The phrase 
beginning with sa is loosely joined; it follows all the rest of the 
sentence, including even the subject, a\j sombrero. 

In the placing! of enclitics a loosely joined attribute is ig- 

20 nored: Pagul^ ay gamftin mo ag kapote. When it rains use 
your rain-coat. The enclitic m6 follows the first orthotonic word 
of the predicate (which it modifies), not counting the loosely 
joined pagulan. 

When a loosely joined attribute precedes, the ay, y is in some 

25 cases left off: Dahil dito tinawag nya ag kayblgan nya. There- 
fore he called his friend. The position of the enclitic niy^ shows 
that dahil dito is loosely joined, but ay, y is not used. 

Occasionally a loosely joined attribute is preceded by the sub- 
ject and only one ay, y is used: Karanyuwa y a^ kosin^ro y 

30 upahan. TJsuaUy (loosely joined) the cook is hired; but also: Aiq 
kosin^ro karanyuwa y upahan. 

B. Closely joined. The attribute immediately precedes or fol- 
lows that modified: hindi tama* not correct; ag puno nag ugg6* 
the tree of the monkey. 

35 C. Enclitic. They follow immediately on the first word of 

the expression modified, counting closely joined attributes, but not 
loosely joined : Hindi ko n^al&man. Not hy-me (it) is-known, i. e. 

♦Although grammatical terms are necessarily and properly employed in diflfer- 
ent meanings when referring to different languages, the Tagalog constructions in 
question are so different from what is ordinarily understood by "cases" that the 
above terminology has been avoided in the following discussion. 

Digitized by 



/ don't know, ag mahahaba nya ^j paa his (niya enclitic) long 

121. Some attributes always precede (so e. g. hindi', § 239) ; 
others always follow (so, for instance, disjunctive attributes, 

5 §171). 

a. Conjunctive attributes. 

122. A conjunctive attribute is connected with the word or 
phrase which it modifies by the atonic particle na. Normally fl 
takes the place of na after a vowel, n, or the glottal stop (see 

10 Phonetics) : mabuti q akl^t good hook, or : aklat na mabuti. 

However, na and g are not exactly equivalent. Predications, 
longer phrases, and, frequently, transient expressions are joined 
with na even where g is possible : isa j} malaki j} higante na nali- 
ligo' a big giant who was bathing. 

15 On the other hand, some constructions use na rarely or not 

at all: where j} cannot be used the particle is then omitted and 
we have absolute attribution. These constructions will be de- 
scribed under the latter heading. 

In the formation of compound words (see Morphology) na is 

20 never used, while 5 is a regular element. This latter circumstance 
sometimes makes it difficult to determine whether a given expres- 
sion is a conjunctive phrase or a compound word. 

123. Conjunctive attributes are closely joined and either 
precede or follow; for this reason it is sometimes undetermined 

25 which of the elements connected is the attribute, which the ele- 
ment modified. 

124. The elements connected by conjunctive attribution are 
viewed as constituting a single larger element. Conjunctive attri- 
bution is the normal and general relation between modifier and 

30 modified and includes relations that in many other languages 
(such as English) are viewed in manifold ways. We may divide 
the construction roughly into three types, although these actually 
merge into each other: (1) quality, (2) manner, and (3) comple- 

35 Not included in this division are the cases where conjunctive 

attribution alternates with absolute (§ 122), which will be treated 
of under the latter heading, and a type which in meaning is so 
closely parallel with disjunctive attribution that it will be more 
economical to treat it under this head (§§ 165.168). 

40 (1) Conjunctive attributes of quality. 

125. Conjunctive attributes of the quality type are used 

Digitized by 


819] SYNTAX 163 

chiefly in object expressions. They have no fixed order: ag ma- 
buti Q sklkt the (a) goad book, or : a^ aUat na mabuti. a^ sumft- 
sulat na b&ta^ the turiting child, the child that is writing, or: a^ 
bata Q sumusulat. 
5 126. When they precede a personal name the whole expres- 

sion is preceded by ag, but when they follow si suffices : ag b&ta ^ 
si HwJin the child Jtuin, little Juan, si Hwa g Talunan Juan who 
is always defeated (as a nickname). 

127. Conjunctive attributes of quality tend to precede when 
10 they are emphatic or in contrast; when fixed they tend to follow: 

Ag marunog na pagog at ag ul61 na u^)g6*. The clever turtle and 
the foolish monkey. Si Hwa g Pipe ay nakita n&min sa tulay. 
We saw Dumb Juan on the bridge, ag b&o i) babaye the lower 
half of the cocoanut shell, a\) bao q malambdt the soft shell of the 

15 cocoanut, afl.wlka g Kastila* the Spanish language. Especially 
those expressing material tend to follow: a^ b&hay na bat5 a 
stone house, ag korona g tinik a crown of thorns, ag atsara fl 
pap&ya papaw salad, pickled papaw, ag tinola g mandk chicken 
stew, ag s4ko g pdlay a sack of rice. A modifier expressing the 

20 special kind always follows: a^ sala q pagnanakaw the crims 
which is (i. e. of) theft, ag bisyo fl pagindm the vice of drinking, 
ag lar6 g taguan the game which consists of hiding, the game of 
hide-and'Seek, kanina g umaga a little whUe ago in the morning, 
i. e. this morning, ila q 6ras na pagsas&litian a few hours of con- 

25 versation, a^ band& q kataasan (or: ita&s) the direction (which 
is) north, i.e. the north; so: ag banda g kababian (or: ibabi*) 
the south, sil&r)an (or: Edla^dnan) the east, kalunuran the west. 
a\j gawi g k&nan the right-hand side, kaliwa* the left. 

128. Titles and the like precede: ag hko g si Maryi the 
30 widow Maria. 

129. The personal pronouns precede their conjunctive attri- 
butes: sila g tatlo they three. Si Pedro ay sya g tumutuktdk. 
Pedro is the one who is knocking (§ 106 ff.). 

130. The demonstrative pronouns as conjunctive attributes 
35 usually follow: ai) t&o fl it6 this person, this man, a\j tatl6 g 

it5 these three, A^ korb&ta g irfe ay b&go. This necktie is new. 

Occasionally, however, they precede, especially with a longer 
expression. In this case ag is not used (§64, end) : ito g supot 
ko nag kwalta this bag of money of mine; iyo g una g kumalabfig 
40 that first thing which made a thud; It5 g bahay ag binili k6. 
This house is what I bought. It's thds house I've bought. This is" 
the house I've bought (§ 102 flf.). 

Under emphasis the demonstrative pronoun may both precede 

Digitized by 



and follow : ito g t4o 5 it6 this man here, iyo fl t4o ^ yadn that 
man over there. 

131. The interrogatiye pronouns precede; aq is not used 
(§65). See also kanino, §168. The meanings of the interroga- 

5 tive pronouns as conjunctiye attributes are : 

sino which f (of several known people) : sinu \j t&ot which 
onef which ones? 

alin which? (of several known things) : all g lugar which 

place, which places? all q bandat which( way? (e.g. at a cross- 

10 roads) all \j maga bu^jat which fruits? which ones of the fruits? 

and what? what kind of? (of persons or things not known), 

also, in exclamations, what . . . / what great . . . / Anu Q llog 

it6t What river is this? ano \j band^f what direction? which 

way? (of all possible points of the compass) anu q tao what sort 

15 of a person? what sort of people? who? Ano 5 hina*! What 


132. The numerative pronouns mostly precede, and the use 
of ag is optional (§ 66, end) ; ihk other, however, requires ag 
when, as conjunctive attribute, it begins an object phrase. Of the 

20 others, karamihan most and the particle b&wat every are not used 
in this construction, and lahat all occurs only as modifier of the 
personal pronouns, which (by § 129) precede. The particle bila 
any, on the other hand, occurs only as conjunctive attribute: a^j 
iba g bdhay the other house, another hov^e, sila \) lahat they all, 

25 all of them, b&la g tao any person, anyone, ag bala r) tao any one 
(of a given group), bod x^ b&yan aU the town, everybody in town, 
aq bo6 g b4yan the entire town, everybody in the town, ila ^ tao i) 
matalino a few intelligent men, ag ila g sandale* a few moments. 

133. The cardinal numerals usually precede; ai) is optional 
30 (§ 67) : isa fl itl6g one egg, an egg; ag isa g itldg the one egg. 

134. The tens, hundreds, etc. of the cardinal numerals are 
always modified by is& one or a higher unit. The phrase so formed 
precedes that counted. The higher numerals are: pu* ten, daan, 
ra^n hundred, llbo thousand, laksa' million, yuta^ billion: isa g 

35 pu g t&o, si m pu g t&o ten men, 4pat na raa g bahay four-hun- 
dred houses. 

135. The teens are expressed by labi preceding the simple 
numerals as conjunctive modifier: labi ij isa g aklat eleven books, 
labi fl tatld g &raw thirteen days. 

40 136. The Spanish numerals, however, (used in dates, §67) 

follow: at) ta6 5 mile-nobisydntos-dos the year 1902. 

137. sarUe self (see § 175) is used as a conjunctive attri- 

Digitized by 


321] SYNTAX 16& 

bute in the sense of own: Wal& sya q sarili j} bait. He has no 
self -respect (literally: oiun respect). 

138. Of the modifiers that form expressions of indefinite 
quantity all except may precede as conjunctive attributes; for 

5 examples see § 69 f. In object expressions malfion, malaki and 
mar&mi do not differ from normal conjunctive attributes; exam- 
ples in § 70. 

139. Expressions of indefinite quantity as units may stand 
in conjunctive attribution. They then have possessive value: ag 

10 h&re Q may su^ay the king who had horns; a^ kaputol na wala q 
dahon the part withmit leaves. 

140. Conjunctive attribution includes many cases which in 
English would be envisaged rather as appositions of two objects: 
ag b&ta ^j si Hwan the hoy Juan, si Hwa j} Bibas Juan the Jester, 

15 Sya y may taga g pam&lo^ He has hold of a stick. T&gan that 
grasped, thing grasped is conjunctive attribute of pam41o* club, 
stick. aQ maganak na sina Bantdg the Bantog family, tatio q 
magkakayiblga g estudyinte ^j magkabab&yan three friends (g) 
students (\j) fellow-townsmen, i.e. three student friends from the 

20 same town; a\) tatlu q magkakaybiga q si P6dro, si HwAn, at si 
Andres the three friends, Pedro, Juan, and Andres; ag salita g 
**b4mos'* the word ^^vamos". 

141. When a longer expression is used as a conjunctive at- 
tribute of quality, it usually follows, and na is often preferred 

25 to Q : a^ parusa na hindf mo gustd the punishment not by-you 
liked, i. e. the punishment you don't like; is& q usa j} na^iQinain 
sa gubat a deer grazing in the jungle; a\j iak (sa ma\ja kayblgan 
wlk) na sya q magfgig hukdm one (of their friends) who khU be 
judge; cf. the predicates described in § 106. afl ma^a kura na 

30 sya j] maga maliliit na h&re^ the priests (who are) those (who are) 
little kings, i. e. the priests, those veritable little kings. 

142. An object expression is frequently followed by an en- ^y^ 
tire predication of the type described in § 113, as conjunctive 
attribute : Ag tagahule ay isa q tio i) ag katuflkulan ay humule 

35 naq ano man o sino man. A catcher is a person (whose) duty i& 
to catch anything or anyone. aQ maga puno-Q-kahoy na masasa- 
rap a^j buga trees (whose) fruits are tasty; isa g tio g malaH ag 
kapagyarihan a person (whose) power is great. 

(2) Conjunctive attributes of manner. 

40 143. Conjunctive attributes of manner precede or follow. 

When they precede a predicate they stand as the first orthotonic 

Digitized by 



word and are immediately followed by enclitics (such as an en- 
clitic subject pronoun, § 89), after which comes the na or g, and 
then the central element of the predicate: Syi y mabute ^j tu- 
mugtfig. She plays (music) well. This example illustrates the 
5 identity of conjunctive attributes of manner and of quality, for 
mabute ^j tumugtog may be looked upon indiflferently as a tran- 
sient predicate (§92) with mabute well as attribute of manner, 
or as an indefinite object predicate (§ 109) a good player, in which 
mabute good is an attribute of qusdity. Other forms of the sam^ 

10 sentence are: Mabuti sya g tumugtog. (siya enclitic), Syi y 
tumugtfig na mabuti. So further : Islpin mo g mabuti. Consider 
it well. Literally: Be-considered by -you (md enclitic) weU. lydn 
ay tutubo na mabuti. It u)iU grow well. Sili y magkakasama ^ 
nagsipamaril. They as-companions (i. e. in company, together) 

15 went hunting. Or: They were companion (quality) hunters. 
Madali sya ^j tumakbd. Quickly he ran. Tala^ g mahigpit ag 
tapon na\j bote g iyan. The stopper of that bottle is certainly 
tight. Mahigpit tight, as central element of the predicate, is modi- 
fied by talag^ fated, by fate, by nature, certainly. Putika g du- 

20 matig si Salamin sa b4hay. ^^Mirror'' (as name of a dog) came 
homs aU muddy. Or: . . . was a muddy comer. Paput61 nya xj 
tinaga^ a^ bisig ni Hwin. He cut Juan's arm transversely. Ki- 
nalaykay k6 ^ patipdn a^ maqa sa^a q maliliit nag kahoy. I 
raked into-a-heap the twigs of-the trees. 

25 144. A phrase of more than one word usually follows that 

modified; frequently na is used instead of j}: Nadala nyk na 
hindf sin&sadya^ sa kanya q pagalis a^ &ki g p&yog. Was-taken 
by-him not intendedly in his departing my umbrella, i. e. In leav- 
ing he inadvertently took my umbrella. 

30 145. The numerative pronoun lahat is used as a conjunctive 

attribute of manner in the sense of entirely, completely. It fol- 
lows that modified: Ag ma^a lalagyin ay punua ^ lahat. The 
containers are entirely full. 

146. Expressions of indefinite quantity as conjunctive at- 
35 tributes of manner follow: Ag ma^a t&o ay nagtakbuha g wala 

I) tuto. The people all ran without order, in disorder. 

147. The particles lubha^ very and Iftlo' m^re usually pre- 
cede: Lubha g malaki ag gdlit ni Pedro. Pedro's wrath was very 
great. Lalu g lumaki ag kanya g galit. His wrath grew stUl 

40 greater. 

148. The particle muli^ again follows: T&takbo sya i) muli^ 
He wUl run again. Ag kamakalawa ay hindl na daratig na mule^ 
The day before yesterday will never come again. 

Digitized by 


323] SYNTAX 167 

149. A conjunctive attribute of manner may express the 
time throughout which: Syi y naggupit at nag&hit na malao ^j 
panahdn. He did hair-cutting and shaving for a long time. Sila 
y nagtftira na tatlu g &raw. They stay three days. May ila fl 

5 bwi g a\j maga utos ay mahihigpit. For several months (liter- 
ally: having several months, § 69, end) the orders were strict. 

150. A word repeated as its own conjunctive attribute of 
manner expresses a high degree (intensity) : Sya y bi\ji. He is 
deaf. Sya y bi^i ^j bi^ji. He is stone deaf. Init si Pedro. Pedro 

10 is hot, is angry. Init na init si P6dro. Pedro is in a rage, lihim 
na Ifhim very secretly, malald ^j malaM very large. 

(3) Conjunctive attributes as complements. 

151. The general sphere of conjunctive attribution includes 
cases where one element involves another as result or content. The 

15 latter follows and is in many instances plainly viewed as the 
attribute. In some instances, however, the former may just as 
well be looked upon as a modifier, usually of quality, sometimes 
also of manner. The transition from these latter types to that of 
the complement appears, indeed, in all possible stages, and no 

20 real boundary can be drawn. Sya y mabuti \j tumugtog (nag 
piyino). She is a good player (of the piano), or She plays (the^ 
piano) well, — see § 143 — can be analyzed also : She is good that 
(she, anaphoric subject omitted, § 87) plays the piano; and in 
some instances this last analysis is the only possible one. 

25 Other examples illustrating the merging of the three types 

we have set up are the following: Malapit na siya g makatapos 
na\j karera. He was already near that (he) end his course, i. e. 
near ending his course, almost through} his course; or: a near 
ender, cf. isa g baya g malapit a near-by town. Ag pagmamaru- 

30 nog ni Hwin ay gindgawa g katatawanan nag maga nak^kikilala 
sa kanya. Juan's pretending to be wise is made fun of by those 
who know him, literally: . . . i^-being-m^de (gin&gawa^) that (it) 
is a laughing-stock, or else : . . . a being-made laughing-stock. Cf . 
ag gawi g hukay the to-be-made ditch, i. e. the ditch that is to be 

35 made, where only the quality interpretation is possible. Magtulin 
ka g lum&kad. Walk faster. This can be interpreted as Be a fast 
walker, or Walk faster, or Be-quick that (you) walk; and this last 
interpretation comes nearest to the original in so far as magtulin 
is an active transient form used in commands rather than an ex- 

40 pression suited to an idea of quality or of manner. Sya y nag- 
dadahil^ g may sakit. He alleges that (he) is sick. Ag pagsak&y 

Digitized by 



sa kabayo ay hindl magaa g pagar&lan. Riding horseback is not 
easy that (it) be^leamed, i.e. not easy to learn, or: not an easy 
thing'to-be-leamed. ag pinakamahtisay na magsalilA^ na^j Latin 
the best that (he) should speak Latin, or: the best speaker of 
5 Latin; Hwag ki, Hwin, pum&suk na sekr^ta. Don't go as a spy 
(or to be a spy), J turn. Ginaw& nya si Hwin na barWro na^j 
h&re'. Was-made by-hdm Juan that (he) be barber of-the king, 
i. e. He made Juan barber royal. Si Hwan ay pinam&magatan 
nag marami na isa ^) dokt6. Juan is reputed by the people that 

10 (he) is (i. e. as) a learned man. 

152. The simplest cases are those where both of the expres- 
sions connected by na, g refer to the same person or thing, as in 
the above examples. The following are less doubtful cases of 
complement construction of this kind: NagpupumHit sya 5 ma- 

15 ttito. He strives to get educated. Si Hwin at si Maryi ay nag- 
k&sundo g pakasal. Juan and Maria have agreed that they (i.e. 
to) get married. Inany&han sila ni Hwin na magpasyal. They 
were invited by Juan that they (i. e. to) go walking. Madri mo 
ga 13 ihtilug sa kor6yo ag aki g sulatt Can you please mail my 

20 letter f Literally: maari . . . g ihtilug a possible thing-to-be 
thrown or capable that (it) be thrown. NaS.ari ak6 g maligo ma- 
kfilawa raagh4pon. / am able that (I) bathe (i.e. to bathe) twice 
a day. Pinabay&an niya kami 5 umalis. We were permitted by 
him to depart. Hinantiy nya g matapus ag mfsa. The m,ass was- 

25 awaited by-him that it end, i.e. He waited untU the m^s was 
ended. Ano ag gustu mu 5 sablhint What is desired by-you that 
(it) be-said? i.e. What do you mean to sayf Hindi ko gust6 g 
makatalo si Hwan. Not by-me desired that (he) be-opposed is 
Juan, i. e. / don't want Juan to be my opponent. 

30 153, Clear cases of the complement construction are those 

in which the two elements connected refer to different persons or 
things: Nagyaya sya 13 umuwS^ He advised that (they, anapho- 
ric) go home. (34, ,2.) An pagk&maffld nya sa ligit ay sya g 
nagpakil41a sa kanyi na uulan. His glance at the sky was what 
showed him thai (it, see § 84) was going to rain. 

154. When the former of the two elements is an object ex- 
pression (or similar element) the complement construction is evi- 
dent : ag kaibigJi g matuto the desire that (he) get educated, i. e. 
ike desire to get an education, ag pagk&gusto nyi na kum&in nag 

iO nydg his desire that (he) should-eat cocoanuts, i. e. to eat. . Anu 
T) tagal nya g sumlsid! What endurance of -him that (he) stay 
under water! i. e. How long he stays under water! Ano g hina 
mo T) lum&kad ! What slowness of-you that (you) walk! i. e. How 


Digitized by 


325] SYNTAX 169 

slowly you walk! Ag tagasuls^ ay isa q babaye j} may katugkula 
T) manahP o manulse na^ maga p^nit na^ damit. A darning- 
woman is a woman having the duty that (she) patch or mend the 
sm^ll holes in clothing, i. e. . . . whose duty is to . . . 
5 155. A further sign that the speech-feeling envisages the 

complement construction as different from the constructions of 
quality or manner appears when enclitics follow the first word 
of the complement (i. e. of the second of the connected elements) 
rather than the first word of the sentence: this shows that the 

10 complement is viewed as a relatively independent element within 
the sentence: Mafiri gi g ihulug mo sa kor6yo aQ &ki q sulatt 
Should'be-capable that (it) he-thrown hy-you into the mail (predi- 
cate) my letter (subject) f i. e. Can you please mail my letter? 
Cf . under § 152 above. 

15 156. Very frequently the complement ia an entire predica- y 

tion: ag panii&la' na ag puno* ay tutubo^ the thought that the \y 
tree wUl grow; pagkatanaw nya na dum&rati^j ag susd* (at the) 
seeing by-him i. e. when he sees that the snail is arriving; aQ &raw 
na kayd ay d&pat magsipagsisi the day that (i. e. when) you ought 

20 to repent; Nagkakap&lad a\) manunubok na mdkita nya a^ kulam. 
The spier has the good fortune, that be-seen by-him the magic 
principle, i.e. ... to see .. . 

157. A predication as complement is often parallel with a 
disjunctive object modifier, i.e.. with an object expression used 

25 as direct, instrumental, or local object (§ 184 ff.) : Sya y nags&bi 
^) sya y marunog gumupit nag buhdk. He said that he knew how 
to cut hair. Aq bulag ay nagakfila g gawi q katatawan&n a\) pag- 
kahulog nag kuba*. The blindm^n thought that the falling of the 
hunchback should be made (sc. niyi by-him, anaphoric) that (it) 

30 be a laughing-stock, i. e. decided to make fun of the falling . . ; 
that which one says or thinks, with s&bi and ak&la^, is also ex- 
pressed as a direct object. 

158. Similarly, predications as complements are, in imper- 
sonal constructions, parallel with a subject: Sinabi nya g sya y 

35 marunog gumupit nag buhok. Was-said by-him that he was able 
to cut hair, i. e. He said he knew how to cut hair. Hindi bihlra* 
na ag isa g tao y pamagata g mediko-g-magkukulam. It is not 
rarei that a m^n is reputed as a witch-doctor. Cf. the example 
of predication as subject in § 116. Hinilig nya sa uggo' na dikdi- 

40 Hn sya sa lus6g. It was begged by him of the m^onkey that he 6e! 
brayed in the m,ortar, i. e. He begged the m^onkey to bray him wiJ 
the mortar. Pinabaydan niya na karai y umalis. It was allowed 
by him that we depart, i. e. He allowed us to depart, a less usual 


Digitized by 



form than that in § 152. Totoo fla na ak6 y naparodn sa Balfwag. 
It is true that I went to Baliwag. Mai&ri pu ba g kayd y mag- 
hint6^ t WUl it he possible please that you shovld stop? i. e. Can 
you please stop? Infsip nya q magn&kaw sa isa q tind&han. It 
5 was planned hy him that (he) rob a shop, i. e. He planned to . . 
Iniyutus nya i) humiikay. It was ordered by him that (one, see 
§ 86) should dig, i.e. He ordered people to dig. Hindi mo gusto 
g mihule ka. Not by-you it-is-desired that you be-caught, i. e. You 
don't want to be caught. 
10 159. A direct quotation may have the same construction as a 

predication: Sinfibi nya g **Bamos!" It-was-said by-him, namely 
''Vamosr' i. e. He said ''Vamosr' 

b. Disjunctive attributes. 

160. Only object expressions are used as disjunctive attri- 
15 butes, and all object expressions have a special form for this use. 

161. Those beginning with a\j substitute for this particle the 
atonic particle nag : ag puno nag WQgiy^ the tree of the monkey, 
ag laruwin nag b&ta g si Hwan the toy of the boy Juan; little 
Juan's toy, toys. 

20 162. Those beginning with si (§§ 59. 126) substitute for this 

the atonic particle ni ; those beginning with sina (or sila, § 60) 
substitute nila (or nini), pretonic: ag ami ni Hwan Juan's 
father, ag b&hay nila Hwan the house of Ju^n and his family. 

163. The personal pronouns as disjunctive attributes take 
25 the following forms: ko my, nita of us two, natin our (inclusive), 

namin our (exclusive) ; mo thy, niniyo ninyo your; niya, nya his, 
her, nila their. 

The monosyllabic forms ko and mo are always enclitic, the 
others usually: Hindi ko nalal&man. / don't know, literally: Not 
30 by-me (it) is-known. ag b4hay nya his, her house, ag mahah&ba 
nya g paa his long legs, ag hindl karanyuwa j} talino nya his un- 
usual talents {niyk not enclitic). 

164. When these enclitics meet an enclitic subject, they pre- 
cede, unless by the general^ rule (§47) the monosyllabic subject 

35 ka precedes a disyllabic disjunctive (including niya, nya) : Saan 
mo sya nakftat Where by-you he was-seenf i.e. Where did you 
see himf Binigyan nya ako nag aklit. Was-given by-him I a book, 
i. e. He gave me a book. Bak& mo iyin mabulag. Perhaps by-you 
it might-be-blinded, i.e. See that you don't blind it. Hindi ka* 

40 n4min dinatnan. Not you by-us were found-there, i. e. We did not 
find you in. 

Digitized by 


327] SYNTAX 171 

165. The personal pronouns have another form, which is used 
as a conjunctive attribute of quality (cf. § 124, end) and always 
precedes that modified: its meaning, however, is the same as that 
of the disjunctive forms just given. These prepositive forms are : 

5 4kin my, kanitJ. thy and my, 4tin our (inclusive), amin our (ex- 
clusive) ; iyo thy, iniyd, inyo your; kaniya, kanyll his, her, kanil^ 
their, kanl-kanila their respective, several, various. 

Examples: Ano a^j iyo g gfilant What is your name? or: 

An6 a^ Q&lan mot aQ &ki q ama my father, or: a^ ama ko, a^ 

10 kanya i) bahay his, her house, a^ kanya q mahah&ba q paa his 

long legs, ag kanita ij kwaltJ. our money (i.e. thine and mine), 

ai] kani-kanil& q bahay their several houses. 

Only a demonstrative pronoun modifier precedes these pre- 
positive forms: iya j} iyo g sambalflo \j luma^ that old hat of 
15 yours. Exceptions are rare: ag karanyuwa g kanila g kantahin 
their usual song; what they usually sing. 

166. The demonstrative pronouns, whether standing alone 
(§64) or as modifiers at the beginning of an object expression 
(§ 130), have the following disjunctive forms: nirfe of this (right 

20 here), nito of this, niyan, nyan of that, niyon, nydn, no6n of that 
(over there). Ag kulay niri rj korb&ta ^j ire ay napapagitan sa 
item at sa pula. The color of this necktie (I have on) is between 
black a'iid red. ag dulo nito the end of this, ag anak niyon that 
ane^s child (e.g. with pointing gesture), afl b4hay niyo r\ t4o g 

25 yaon the house of that man over there, ag anak noo 5 t4o i) iyon 
the child of that man over there. The form noon is used chiefly 
when the disjunctive attribute expresses time (§192). 

167. The interrogative pronoun sino, whether used alone or 
standing first in an object expression as attribute (§131), has 

30 the disjunctive form nino whose? This form, however, is little 
used, for, while the interrogative pronoun is usually emphatic and 
tends to come first (§ 96), a disjunctive attribute follows that modi- 
fied (§171). Hence the form nino is used only under peculiar 
conditions of emphasis: Ag sambalilo nino! Whose hat (did you 

35 say)? Ibinigay sa iyd nino? CHven to you by whom? Sin&bi sa 
iyo nino? Told to^you by whom? 

168. Instead of nino a prepositive form, kanino, explicit 
plural kani-kanino, is ordinarily used; like the prepositive forms 
of the personal pronouns it stands in conjunctive attribution and 

40 precedes that modified. Before it the use of ag is optional (§§ 65. 
131) ; when ag is used the expression is more definite: Kanino g 
sambalilo! Whose hat? (the ownership of a given hat is inquired 

Digitized by 



after) Ag kanino fl sambalflo? Whose hatf (the ownership of 
each hat is known ; the question asks merely which of them is in- 
volved) Eanlno fl aklat iyint Whose hook have you there? 

169. The prepositive forms of the personal pronouns and of 
5 sino are used also as static predicates expressing possession: Aq 

librd ^) binibasa mo kah&pon ay akin. The hook you were reading 
last flight is mine, Eanino ag aklit na iyant Whose is that hookf 
Kanl-kanino ai) ma^a b&hay na itd? Whose are these houses? The 
personal pronouns may be followed by sarfle oum (cf. § 137) : Ag 
10 laruwi fl itd y 4ki ^) sarfle. This toy is my oum. 

170. All other expressions which lack ag, — ^that is, the re- 
maining interrogative pronouns, the numerative pronouns, the car- 
dinal numerals, and object expressions in which these as modifiers 
stand first (§ 131 ff.), — prefix na^, atonic, when used as disjunct- 

15 ive attributes: Sa itaas na^j and? On top of whaif Takip na^ 
all Q kah6n it5t Of which hox is this the covert an panuk&l& na^ 
karamihan the opinion of the majority; Nak^Ita akd nag isa ^j 
tao. I saw a man, 

171. All disjunctive attributes are closely joined and follow 
20 that which they modify. The only exceptions are the enclitic pro- 
noun forms and expressions of time (§192) . A disjunctive attribute 
precedes a subject: Binigyin nya nafl aklat si Hwin. He gave 
Juan some hooks. When the subject is enclitic, it of course pre- 
cedes: Binigyin nya si Hwan nag aklat. Real exceptions, in 

25 which a non-enclitic subject precedes a disjunctive attribute, are 
not common: Ipinakikipagputol ni Hw&n si Pedro nag labog. 
Juan is asking someone to cut some hamboo-shoots for Pedro. 

172. In meaning disjunctive attribution includes almost all 
cases in which an object element is viewed as the attribute of another 

30 element in the sentence. The only exception is the sphere of rela- 
tions expressed by local attribution (§ 195 ff.). The meanings may, 
very roughly, be divided into seven groups: (1) possessive-parti- 
tive, (2) agent, (3) direct ohject, (4) instrumental ohject, (5) 
local ohject, (6) manner, (7) time. 

35 173. (1) Possessive-partitive modifier: ag kanya ij bahay, 

ag bfthay nya his house, ag puno nag ux)g6' the tree of the monkey, 
ai) puno na\j kahoy the tree (literally head of wood), ag puno nag 
sagig the hananortree, Sa itaas nai) anot On top of what? 
Nasunog ag kalah&ti nag puno^ Half of the tree got humed up. 

40 Ag bdyad sa utag ni Pedro ay labis nag dalawa g piso. The pay- 
ment made to settle Pedltp's deht is too great hy two pesos. -^ afl 
oras nag alaskw&tro the hour of four o'clock, Isa g sundalo g 

Digitized by 


329] SYNTAX 173 

marunufl na^j Latin. A soldier who knew Latin, literally : having- 
knowledge of Latin. a\j s&ko na\j p&lay a rice-sack (cf. § 127), ag 
laru naQ baraha a game of cards, cf. a^ lard g tagu^n (§127) a 
game consisting of hiding, hide-and-seek, an katapusin nag gabi 

5 the end of the nighi; cf. ag katapusi g gabi the night which was 
the end, the last night, ai) il& g sandali nag pagsasalit&an a few 
moments of the conversation; cf . a^j ilk g sandali g pagsasilitaan 
a few moments (which consisted) of conversation. Note : a\j b&yan 
nag Baliwag the town of Baliwag, ag provinsya nag PampiUiga 

10 the province of Pampanga. 

174. The pronoun lah&t as an object expression is followed 
by this kind of attribute : lahat na\) t&o all (of) the people. 

175. As an object expression sarfle self is modified by dis- 
junctive pronouns : ag kanyJt ^) sarile his self. Similarly sarlle as 

15 conjunctive attribute, in the sense of own: Wala sya g bait sa 
kanya J} sarili. He does not do even himself any good, ag sarile 
nila ^) b&nda na\j musika their own hand of music; A\j kanya ^} 
sarili g baril ag kanya ^j gin&mit. It was his own gun he used. 
What he used was his own gun. Cf. §§137 and 169, end. 

20 176. The modifier may be an entire predication: sa lugiLr 

nai) magkasirfi sili in place of the (occurrence that) they should 
become enemies, i. e. instead of their "becoming enemies. 

177. Here belongs further the disjunctive attribute with 
words expressing association, companionship, or equality: Si 

25 Hwana ay siyi g kabulu^jan ni Maryi. Juana is the one with 
whom Maria is whispering. Ag m6sa g itd ay kasigktilay nag 
kahon. This table is of the same color as the chest. Si Hwin ay 
kapantay ni Pedro. Juan is of the same height as Pedro. Kalakip 
naij siilat ko g ito ay lima ^j piso. Enclosed with this my letter are 

30 five pesos, gaya ko like me. 

178. Similar is the use of a disjunctive modifier expressing 
one of the objects, with expressions involving dual or plural ideas : 
sila ni Marya they with Maria, i. e. Maria and he (88,42), si'^ 
dalawa ni Maryi (92,17). 

35 179. Here belongs the disjunctive attribute in exclamatory 

sentences expressing the high degree of a quality ; these are formed 
^\^th ano (§ 131) and with words with prefix ka- (§ 76) : Ano ^j 
hina mo! What weakness of -you! i. e. How weak you are! Anul 
T) luw&t nag hindi nya pagdatig ! What duration of his not arriv- 

40 ing! i. e. How long he is getting here! Kapula nag panyo ^) iydn! 
What-great-redness of that handkerchief! i. e. How red that hand- 
kerchief is! KarunoT) nag b&ta g si Hwan! How much little 

Digitized by 



Juan knows! Kaytipid na bata^ ni Hwin! How-saving a child 
of Juan! i. e. What an economical boy Juan is! 

180. In the preceding and related constructions the attribute 
may be an entire predication : KamuntI nag mitamaan a^j bata^ ! 

5 What'Uttle'lack of the (occurrence that) the child should-he-hitl 
i. e. How near the child came to being hit! MuntI nag maliguwak 
ag dala nya g pulot. Little-wanting of-the (occurrence that) 
should-be-spUled the boms by-him honey, i. e. The honey he was) 
carrying came near being spilled. 

10 181. (2) A disjunctive attribute expressing the agent cor- 

responds in sense to the subject of an active transient predicate. 
When it modifies a transient word, the corresponding active can 
be formed : Sinulat nya ag liham. He wrote the letter; literally : 
Was-written by-him (agent) the letter. Isinulat nya ag kwftnto. 

15 He wrote down the story. Sinul&tan nya ak6. He wrote to me. 
The corresponding active is: Syi y sumulat. . . He wrote . . . 
Cf. § 92. So further: Pinutol nya ag kahoy. The wood was cut 
by him; active: Syi y pumutol nag k&hoy. He cut some wood. 
Kinuha nya ag librd. The book was taken by him; active: 8yk 

20 y kumuha nag librd. He took some book. Aki g binitiwan ag 
bote. By -me was-let-go-of the bottle, i.e. / let go of the bottle; 
active: Bumitiw ak6. . . Ag hinir^m nya g kampit ay iyo g 
kunin. The borrowed by-him (agent) kitchen-knife by-you (agent) 
is to be taken, i. e. Take the kitchen-knife he borrowed. 

25 When the word modified is not transient no clear line can 

be drawn between disjunctive attributes of agent and of pos- 
sessor: ag kanyi g pagdatig his arrival, his arriving, or: the ar- 
riving by him, ag g4mit nya g librfi the book used by him, ag 
paup6 ni Hwi g sugalan the gambling-party invited by Juan, ag 

30 dala nyk g pulot the honey he is or was carrying, Ag laro g ta- 
gu&n ay gust6 nag maga b&ta^ The game of hide-and-seek is liked 
by children. Hindi ko gustS ag libro g it6; iba ag 4ki g gusto. 
/ don't want this book; it is a different one I want. 

182. When disjunctive agent is the speaker (ko by me 

35 or its substitute aki g) and the subject is the person addressed 
(ikiw, ka thou), the pronoun kita usually takes the place of both. 
This is the commoner value of kitll (cf. § 63) : Susugag&in kita. 
rU smash your face; the subject of this direct passive expression 
is the person addressed, the agent the speaker: Ikaw ay &ki g 

40 susugagain would be an unidiomatic equivalent. Ipagl&laba kita 
nag damit. / shall wash your clothes for you. The predicate is 
instrumental passive, with you, the person for whom, as subject. 

Digitized by 


331] SYNT.VX 175 

Hahatdan kita nag g4tas. I shall deliver milk to you; local 

Occasionally the agent is redundantly added: Kitit ay &ki q 
parurusahan. I shall punish you. 
5 183. A disjunctive agent is used with the words expressing 

recent completion o^ an act with prefix ka- and reduplication: 
(§ 77) : Kararatig ko pa 14mao ! I have only just arrived. Kaki- 
kain ko pa lamag ! I have only just finished eating. 

184. (3) A disjunctivei attribute expressing the direct oh- 
10 ject corresponds to the subject of a direct passive transient predi- 
cate : Sya y kum4in nai) k4nin. He ate some boiled rice. Passive : 
Kinain nya ag k4nin. Was-eaten by-him the boiled rice, i.e. He 
ate the boiled rice. 

It will be seen that when the direct object is definite it is 
15 more likely to serve as subject of a passive predicate (§ 94) ; hence 
the disjunctive attribute expressing a direct object has often an 
indefinite partitive value. Sya y sumulat nag liham. He wrote 
some letters. Sya y pumutol nag kahoy. He cut some wood. 
Bigyan mo ako niya g tubig. Give me some of that water. Ka- 
20 tatagpi ko niy^n! I have just finished mending that! Sya y 
naghintay nag sasabihin nag sundalo. He awaited that which was 
going to be said by the soldier. 

185. (4) A disjunctive attribute expressing the instrument 
corresponds to the subject of an instrumental passive transient 

25 predicate: Syk y sumfilat nag kw^nto. He wrote down a story, 
stories. Passive : Isinulat nya ag kw^nto. Was-written^down by- 
him the story, i. e. He wrote down the story. 

The indefinite value of the disjunctive attribute is here due 
to the same relation as in the preceding type. Pinutol nya nag 

30 gulok ag kdhoy. The wood was cut by him with a bolo; instru- 
mental passive: Ipiniitol nya nag kahoy ag gulok. Was-used-for- 
cutting by -him of wood the bolo, i.e. He cut wood with the bolo., 
Binigyan nya ako nag aklat. He gave me a book. 

186. So a direct quotation or^ an entire predication: Ag 
35 bulag ay sumigaw nag **Tatl6!" The blindman shouted ''Three!"; 

passive: Isinigaw nag bulag ag ''Tatld!'' Ag bawat isa sa kanili 
ay sumagot nag sugay ag kanila g nakikita. Each one answered 
that horns were what they saw. 

187. (5) Disjunctive attributes of place correspond to the 
40 subject of a local passive transient predication : Sya y pumanhik 

nag b&hay. He entered a house; passive: Pinanhikan nya ag ba- 
hay. He entered the house. Ag pagog ay nagurapisa nag pagsisi- 

Digitized by 



gkw. The turtle began (a) shouting; passive: Inumpisahan nag 
pag6i] ai] pagsisigiw. 

These attributes are in meaning rather close to local attri- 
butes (§203); as opposed to the latter they are, however, the 
5 real correspondents of the subject of a local passive transient 
predication, expressing a real participation of the object in the 
action or occurrence, — whereas the local attributes express the 
place of the action as something more or less unaffected and 

10 188. (6) Disjunctive attributes of manner do not corre- 

spond to any kind of subject. When they are used with a tran- 
sient word the sentence may, however, be reversed so as to make 
of the attribute a transient predicate of a sentence in which the 
action (as subject) is spoken of as being **raade such and such". 

15 Tumakbd sya nag matulin. He ran fast. The words narj raatulin 
are the disjunctive form of an object expression, ag matulin, 
which would resemble German das schnellc. Our sentence corre- 
sponds to a: Tinulinan nya ag pagtakbo. Was-niade-fast iy-him 
his running, He ran fast. Syh y tum&wa nag malakas. He 

20 laughed aloud, cf. Inilakas nya ag pagtawa. He made his laugh- 
ing loud. . . . mandkaw nag hindl nito nilalaman should be 
stolen in the vnamAier of not by-him known, i.e. should be stolei? 
without his knowing it. mataas nag kaunt^* higher by a little, a 
little higher. 

25 189. Expressions of indefinite quantity are used in this way : 

Sili y nagtakbuhan nag wala g hinto^. They ran without stop- 
ping. This construction is in rivalry with that of conjunctive 
attribution (§146). 

190. The demonstrative pronouns and the interrogative pro- 

30 noun an6 are not used as attributes of manner ; for this value they 
have separate derivatives: ganitd, ganiy&n, gaydn or ganodn, and 
ga4no or g&no. These forms, moreover, occur also as static predi- 
cates and as conjunctive attributes of quality: ag bawat sumagot 
nag ganit6 every one who answered in this way; this could be 

35 viewed also as an instrumental object. Ganitd ag kalagayan nila. 
Their condition was like this, ag ganito g maga paglalaro^ such 
games as this; Ganyan ba lamag ag kinis mo? 7s your skill merely 
like that? Nakisulat ak6 kay Hwan nag gayon dahilan sa malaki 
ko g pagkag&lit. I came to write like that (or such things, cf. 

40 instrumental object) to Juan through my great anger. Ganoon 
ag &ki g pagkarinig. That was the way (i.e. the form in which) 
I heard the thing. Ag gayu g pananalit^^ that manner of speak- 
ing, that expression, ganu g pagpflit? how much effort? Gaano 

Digitized by 


333] SYNTAX 177 

ag pagkakagalit nilaf How great, haw serious is their quarrel f 
(Cf. §96). 

191. A special case of the disjunctive attribute of manner 
is the repetition of a word as its own disjunctive modifier, ex- 
5 pressing continuity or insistence of action: Hum&b^ na^ hu- 
m&ba^. 7^ grew longer and longer. Ag kanila ^ b&on ay umunti 
nag umunti^. Their provisions grew les^ and less. Si Hwan ay 
t&wa nag t&wa. Juan laughs and laughs. Bill nag bill si Hwan 
nag palay. Juan keeps buying rice. 

10 192. (7) Disjunctive attributes of time express the time 

when of an occurrence in the past. They differ from other dis- 
junctive attributes in being often, loosely joined, in which case 
they may precede. Pumarodn sila nag hapon. They went there 
in the afternoon. So: nag umaga in the morning, nod g tagdraw 

15 (nag tao g mfle-nobisy^ntos-dos) in the summer (of the year 
1902). Nag umuld.n ay gin&mit ko ag kapote. When it rained I 
used my rain-coat. NM4kad sina Pedro nag hindi oras. Pedro 
and his party had to start at a time not planned; literally : when 
not tims. 

20 193. Complete predications as disjunctive attributes of time 

are common. It is as though the whole predication were objectiv- 
ized : Nag dumatig ako doon ay sya y wala na. When I arrived 
there he was already gone. Noo g sya y b&go g t&o pa 14mag. . . . 
When he was still hut a young man. . . . 

25 194. Anaphorically determined disjunctive attributes are 

often omitted. Ibig nya g kinin ag suha^. Desired iy-him that 
he-eaten (iy-him) the grape-fruit, i. e. He wants to eat the grape- 
fruit. Naghigi sya sa ^mya g maga kapatid. He asked his 
brothers and sisters (for some). Hindi nila sya binigyin. He was 

30 not given (any) by them. They did not give him any. 

c. Local attributes. 

195. An object expression in local attribution expresses a 
local circumstance of that which id modified, such as the place 
in, to, or from which, that from whose midst, that about which 

85 or owing to which, the person to whom, etc. 

196. In this construction initial si is replaced by kay 
(atonic), sink by kin^ (pretonic), and ag by sa (atonic) ; object 
expressions which begin with none of these particles take sa: Si 
P6dro ay galit kay HwJin. Pedro is angry at Juan. Nakituluy 

40 kami kina P6dro. We asked hospitality of Pedro's family. Sya 

Digitized by 



y nan&og sa b4hay. He came out of his house, sa boo g b&yan 
in the whole town. 

Rarely both sa and kay precede a personal name: 1th y 
nituto sa kay May^stro x\ Hw^n. This one got his training from 
5 Teacher Juan, ag pagkabuhay nag m6diko sa kay HwiLn the doc- 
tor's saving of Juan's life. 

197. The personal pronouns and sino take their prepositive 
forms after sa: Ibinigay nya sa akin a^j aklat. Was-given by-him 
to me the book, i. e. He gave ms the hook. 
10 198. In a peculiar construction these prepositive forms are 

preceded by the particle gana as a conjunctive attribute, in the 
sense of so far as ... is concerned: Sa gani ij 4kin sya y 
ma^ri rj umalis. So far as I am concerned he muy leave. 

199. The demonstrative pronouns and an6 never stand in 
15 local attribution, see § 263 f . 

200. "Wliole predications are rarely used as local attributes: 
Dumatii) ag dal&ga i) it6 sa dalawa ij pu g tadn ag gulag. 

This young woman arrived at (the time when) her age was twenty 
years, i. e. reached the age of twenty years. 

20 201. Local attributes are mostly closely joined and as a rule 

follow that which they modify, taking precedence of a disjunct- 
ive attribute or of a subject: ag nagbigiy sa 4kin nag aklat na 
ito the giver to me of this book, the one who gave me this hook 
(Bayad nk) ag utag sa 4kin ni Hwan. Juan's debt to me (has 

25 been paid). Ibigay mo kay Hwan ag librd. Be-given iy-you to 
Juan the hook, i. e. Chive Juun the book. 

Often, however, a disjunctive attribute which is felt to be- 
long closely to what precedes, comes before a local attribute: 
Bayad-utag ni Hwan sa dkin ag relos na ito. This watch is Juan's 

30 debt-payment to me. 

Occasionally the local attribute precedes the expression modi- 
fied: Syi y sa bagka^ nag maga bab&e nakikisakay. He goes 
along into the canoe of the women. Sa kabila g banda mo ibwal 
ag piino g iyan. Make that tree fall in the direction away from me. 

35 202. Very frequently, however, local attributes are loosely 

joined, preceding or following; in the former case ay, y is some- 
times omitted: Sa Baya-g-San-Migel ay nagy4re ag isa g na- 
kawan. In the town of San Miguel a robbery took place. Hindi 
makadddala si Pedro nag kahon sa kabigatan nila. Pedro wiU not 

40 be able to carry a/tiy boxes, oil account of their heaviness. Sai 
gana g akin sya y maa&ri g umalis. So far as I am concerned he 
can go. (§ 198). 

Digitized by 


335] SYNTAX 179 

203. We have seen that disjunctive attribution expresses 
the relation of objects (direct object, local object, instrumental 
object, §§ 184, 185, 187) to an action, provided that these objects 
are more or less indefinite. If they are quite definite, they are 

5 preferably made subjects in a passive construction. Frequently, 
however, they are instead put into local attribution, which thus 
competes with these types of disjunctive attribution, but involves 
a more definite object: A^ b4hay na bato ay ag &ki g pinagh^- 
hatdan na^j g&tas. The stone' house is the place to which I am 

10 delivering mUk (instrumental object), i.e. I am delivering mUk 
to the stone house; but: Ag b&hay na bat6 ay a^j aki g pinaghit- 
hatdan sa bdta^. The stone house is where I am bringing the child. 
(nag b&ta' would be a child or children). 

It follows that the personal pronouns, which always refer to 

15 definite persons, cannot stand as disjunctive objects of transient 
words, but stand instead in local attribution : Ag bihay na bato 
ay ag iki g pinagh&hatdin sa kanyi. The stone house is the place 
where I am taking him. 

Similarly a personal name: Ibigay mo kay Hw&n ag libro. 

20 (Hve Juan the hook; cf. Bigyan mo nag libro si Hwan. Give 
Juan a book; ** Juan'* could not figure as disjunctive local object. 

204. In many cases, however, these local attributes differ 
from disjunctive attributes and from the corresponding subjects 
of passive constructions: thiB local attribute represents the object 

25 as more externally involved and less thoroughly concerned in the 
occurrence: Humtikay sila nag bakuran. They dug up some 
yards. Hinuk&yan nili ag bakuran. They dug up the yard. In 
both sentences a serious change, such as unauthorized tampering, 
is implied ; but : Humukay sila sa bakuran. They dug in the yard, 

30 merely tells where they did their digging. Sya y pumanhik nag 
b&hay. He entered a house (or houses) y perhaps illicitly; the 
house is viewed as in some way affected or intimately involved in 
the action; so also: Pinanhikin nya ag b&hay. He entered the 
house; but: Sya y pumanhik sa bahay. He went into the houscy 

35 Ee went into his house. 

205. In other cases, where a transient predicate is not in- 
volved, the same difference appears: the local attribute is a mere 
scene or attendant circumstance, the disjunctive a real factor: 
Ag pagtat&bon nag maga hukay na it6 ay tapus na. The filing 

40 up of these ditches is now finished, i. e. These ditches are filled up 
now; but: Ag pagtatdbon sa maga hukay ay mahirap. Filling 
earth into ditches is hard work, karamihan nag maga t&o most 

Digitized by 



of the people; karainihan sa kanil^ most of them; sa ganito under 
these circumstances 'y nag ganito (§ 190) thus, in this mcmner. 

206. Expressions of time as local attributes denote future 
time when; occasionally also past time: P&paroon akd sa maka- 

5 lawa. I shaU go there the day after tomorrow. So : sa lunes next 
Monday, cf. nod g lunes last Monday. Pfho ako q paparoon sa 
alasiQko. I will surely go there at five o'clock. Sa gabi q iyon. . . 
That night. . . 

207. With jussive words with prefix pa- (see Morphology) 
10 the person ordered to do so-and-so is viewed as a local feature: 

Ipinagupit ko sa barbero j^ si Hwin a^| buhok ni Andr^. Was- 
ordered'tO'be-cut by-me of-the barber Juan the hair of Andres, 
i. e. / ordered the barber Juan to cut Andres' hair. 

208. Barely an expression ini local attribution is used as a 
15 conjunctive attribute in an object expression: it precedes and has 

the meaning of a disjunctive attribute of possessor: a^ sa iba q 
t&o g kawayan other people's bamboo, or: a^ kawayan nag ihk 
X^ tko. 

209. This construction is much commoner when that o\vned 
20 is anaphorically omitted : ag sa pagog that of the turtle, the tur- 
tle's, i. e. ai) puno nag pag6g. So: ag sa kanya his, hers. 

210. In other cases anaphoric omission of an element modi- 
fied by a local attribute is less common: ag pagsakay sa tren sa 
lugd^r nag sa karum&ta the riding on the train in place of the 

25 (sc. pagsakay riding) in the carriage. 

211. A static predicate may have the form of a local attri- 
bute: Sa ligg6 ag 4ki g lulan sa trftn. On (next) Sunday my 
embarking an the train, i. e. Next Sunday I shall take the train. 
Ag uupa g it6 ay sa h&re'. This seal is for the king. 

30 212. The particle sa has a number of derivatives which are 

transient in meaning, but otherwise have the sam^ construction 
as sa ; they are pretonic. Sya y n4sa Maynfla^. He is in Manila. 
Sya y nisa kanya g b&hay. He is in his house. Ag tinteruhan 
ay n&sa bigit nag lam^sa. The inkwell is at the edge of the table. 

35 For these forms see Morphology. 

d. Absolute attributes. 

213. Absolute attribution, in which no particle is used, is 

confined to certain expressions and types of expressions. Some 

absolute attributes and some of the particles introducing absolute 

40 attributes end in -g or -t; these may contain the particle g or at 


We may divide the cases of absolute attribution into six types, 

Digitized by 


337] SYNTAX 181 

although these are not fully distinct from one another: (1) en- 
clitic particles, (2) prepositive particles, (3) single words used as 
attributes of manner and time, (4) absolute complements, (5) 
words used with disjunctive and local attributes, (6) words intra- 
5 ducing subordiriate phrases or predications. 

(1) enclitic particles. 

214. The enclitic particles which are used as absolute attri- 
butes follow a monosyllabic enclitic pronoun (ka, k6, mo) but pre- 
cede a disyllabic enclitic pronoun (including niya, nya, siya, sya). 

10 Among themselves they follow the general rule: monosyllabic en- 
clitics precede disyllabic enclitics (§47). 

215. ba is expressive of interrogation in yes-and-no ques- 
tions and often in others: May-roon ba sila q ginawa^f Have they 
done anything? M&y-roon ka hk ^ gigawin? Have you anything 

15 to dof Ipinuputol mo ba ako na^ tubd? Will you cut some sugar- 
cane for met Pinapagpuputol ba nila sya na^ kihoy? Does he 
get ordered by them to cut wood? i. e. Do they have him cut wood? 
Ano hk a^ inilulutu mo! What is it you are cooking? Anu ba 
kayo? What sort of people are youf Hindi mu ba nakita si 

20 Hwan sa teydtro? Didn't you see Ju^n at the theatre? Ag iyo 
ba 5 kapatid? Your sister? See §§ 223. 229. 

216. baga throws more stress on thef interrogation: Ikaw 
baga y nagasawa! Did you (ever) get married? See §§ 290. 317. 

217. d&w, riw expresses that the sentence represents the 
25 saying of someone other than the speaker^ the person so quoted 

may be the agent of the sentence itself: Pagk4 pinapagputol mo 
raw sya na^ kawiyan ay lal4yas sya. When he is ordered by 
you to cut bamboo, he wiU leave, I am told, or : he will leave, he, 
says. Aq paguupu raw nya sa damo ay mabuti sa kanya. He 
30 says (or: They say) his habit of sitting on the grass is good for 
him. It is sometimes used pleonastically, see the example in 

218. din, rin expresses that the expression modified (which 
may be the whole sentence or an element within the sentence) is 

35 like a corresponding earlier idea : Ako rin ag nagpaligo sa bata^. 
It was I, too, that bathed the child (beside the other' things I 
did), i.e. I also bathed the child. Si Hwan din ag naglinis nag 
kabalyeresa. Juan also cleaned a stable or stables (beside the 
other things he did). Si Hwan ay naglinis rin nag kabalyeresa. 

40 Juan, too, cleaned stables. Here din is an attribute of naglinis 
nag kabalyeresa: this act has been performed by Juan even as 

Digitized by 



by others previously spoken of or known of. Si Hw&na ay nag- 
luto naQ estop&do; kamakalawd, naglutu rin akd na^) estop&do. 
Juana cooked meai-stew; day-hef ore-yesterday I too cooked meat- 
stew. lyo Q una q kumalabog ay ako, ag ikalaw^ ay ako rin. 
5 That first thing which came down with a thud was I, the second 
was I again. Nahiilog din sya. He fell down again. K4hit na 
madilim ag gabi ay nagpasyal din si Pedro. Although the night 
was dark, Pedro none the less (i.e. even as at other times) took 
a walk. 

10 Thus din is especially common in expressions of identity: 

Kah&pon ay nakakita ako nai] isa xj tdo sa Maynfla^, at gaydn 

ay nikita ko ag tdwo ri g iy6n sa b&ya g ito. Yesterday I saw 

a man in Manila, and today I saw the same man in this town. 

In some instances din modifies an element not actually iden- 

15 tical with another. Nagtalon sya sa bintdna*, datapuwat sinun- 
dan din sya nag ama. He jumped out of a window, but he was 
followed, too, by the father. See §§,(11). 

219. kay^^ expresses doubt or possibility of choice: An6 
kaya^ ag ipinagutos mo sa kanyat What perchance did you order 

20 him to dof Mipipagkuro^ kay& nya sa sulat na iykn ag fbig 
mo gawin nya. Perhaps he may be able to make out from this 
letter of yours what you want him to do. Bak& kayd.^ magkapu- 
tol ax) maga tubo sa kalakasan nag h&gi q ito. I am afraid that 
perhaps the sugar-cane m^ay all break off, what with the strength 

25 of this wind. 

For another use of kayi^ see § 297 ; cf . §§ 317. 321. 

220. l&maQ only: Isdi 14maQ ax) mans&nas na natira sa 
lamesa. Only one apple is left on the table. So : iisa l&mag only 
a single one. Sila g tatld ay wala g pagk&in ku^) hindi a^] itlog 

30 l&mai] na natitiri. The three had no food except only the egg 
that was left. 

Occasionally Idmag follows the expression it modifies: isa g 
ik&pat na parte lamai) only a fourth part. 

Sometimes a na is left off after Idmag: Akin Idmag pinu- 

35 putlan nag buhok. By-me (for akin . . . na, g) only {he, ana- 
phoric) is-getting-cut of hair, i.e. I am only cutting his hair. 
siya l&mag kak&in nai) itl6g he (who; normally this relation is 
expressed by na, rj ) will-eat the egg, i. e. the one who is alone to 
eat the egg. See §§ 227. 243. 

40 221. man expresses contrast with what precedes; it is the 

opposite of din, and the two are often used in one sentence to 
emphasize the point of difference and that of identity : Si Hwan 
mftn ay nagllnis (rin) na^j kabalyeresa. Juan, too, cleaned stables 

Digitized by 


339] SYNTAX 183 

(as did others). Lalu na lumald aq g&lit ni Hwd.n, na^ m^bali- 
t4an niya ^ ag ikalaw^ man nya fl aniLk ay nagsundilo rin. Jtian's 
anger grew even greater when he learned that his second son too 
had (like the other) become a soldier. 
5 With interrogatives mkn produces indefinites: Walk x\ &i^u 

man. There is nothing at aU; also: Not at all, i.e. You're wel- 
come. aQ ano mk q pas&kit any kind of injury; aQ alin ma x) 
paQkd,t any team; sinu mkn any person whatever, anyone at all. 
See §§ 227. 248. 262,(7. 10). 290. 317. 
10 222. muna expresses that that modified precedes another 

thing: Magiwitan muna tdyo, b&go tayo maghiw4-hiwalay. Let's 
sing a song together (first) before we part. Mag&ko ka muna. . . 
First promise. . . 

223. nk takes into view the maturity of a) situation (cf. 
15 German schon) : A^ libr6 y gamit nk. The book is used already, 

i. e. is second-hand. Agad nk g lalamig. It will soon be cold now. 
Pa41am na ako (sa iyo). Good-bye (to you). Nahdnap ko na aij 
sombrero. I have already looked for the hat. Nahanap na nyk 
axj sombrero. He has .... a^ malaon na nila xj pagpupuyat 

20 gabi-gabi their long staying up now every night, i. e. the fact that 
they have staid up late every night now. lisa na l&mag pagk^t 
only a single group now. It precedes bi (§ 215) : Nakahand4 na 
ba ag &ki g pa^pallgo*? 7s my bath ready? Gknxx ka na ba 
kakinis? How clever are you by this timef 

25 It is used also in brusque or familiar commands : Palu na sa 

kanya rj kamay ! Hit him on his hand! S&ma na sa 4kin. Come 
to me (to a child), flag ka na riyan! Be off there! See §§ 224. 
226. 227. 229. 242. 244. 

224. nam^n expresses transition to another subject, hence 
30 often also mild contrast: Habarj si Hwana ay nagluluto', si 

Hwin naman ay naglillnis nai) bahay. While Juana is cooking, 
Juan cleans the house. Anu ka ba nama ^ t4o? What sort of 
person are you, anyway? Ihk nam^n a^j gawin mo g luto sa ma- 
nok. You are to cook the chicken in a different way. siya rin na- 
35 man nya g karanyuwa rj kinakain that which, however, is usually 
eaten by him. 

The combination na naman means again: Malnit na naman. 
It's hot again. 

225. nawi^ pray, please expresses imprecation: Eaawaan 
40 nawa^ ninyo kami, poo xj Dyos ! Take pity on us, Lord! 

226. xji* is assertive and emphasizing : Oo g^^. Yes indeed. 
Ikaw ga? ag nags&bi niyin. You yourself are the one who said 
that. It is used in polite requests: Ituru ga ninyo sa dkin ag 

Digitized by 



dain. Please show me the way, Ipakipiitol mo ga*, Hwan, ag 
tiniban sa &ki ^ bakuran. Please, Juan, cut down for me the 
banana-stump in my yard. It follows nk: Pakiputol na x^h? ag 
sinulid na ito. Please cut this string for me. See § 229. 
5 227. pa expresses the immaturity or continuance of a situa- 

tion (cf. German noch) and stands in contrast with na. Its mean- 
ing is often emphasized by l&mag : mabiiti pa better yet, Ibig ko 
pi nao k&nin. I should like some more rice. Hampasin mo pa 
sya. Whip him some more. Sariwi pa ag damit. The clothes are 
10 stUl wet. It precedes din and min (cf. § 248) : ag isa pa ri t) 
kaluluwa another (i.e. one more) soul; Hindi pa rin lubha g 
maliw&nag. It was, however, not yet light enough. Kagigisig ko 
pa l&ma^. I have only just waked up. See §§ 243. 248. 

228. pal&, used after hindi' (§ 239), expresses contrast with 
15 one's expectation, reversal: Ag isip ko y balat l&mag nag itl6g 

it5, hindi pali, kun dl^ itlfig na bo6^ I thought this was only an 
egg-shell, but no, it was a whole egg. 

229. p6' is expressive of politeness toward the person ad- 
dressed: Oo pd^ Yes, sir; Yes, ma'am. Patitawarin p6'! Par- 

20 don me; used also in refusing to give alms. Patataw&rin po nag 
ila I) sandalfe^. Excuse me for a few moments, please. Maghintu 
pu kayo. Please stop (plural or polite singular). Magsihintu pu 
kayo. Please stop (explicit plural). Umupu po kayo. Please sit 
down. Maupu po kayfi. Please be seated. Ikinalulugkot ko p6' 

25 ai) kasawii-g-p61ad na nagyire sa iny6. I lament the misfortune 
which has come to you. ag iyo po g Kamahfilan your Majesty. 
p6^ precedes hk and follows n^ and g^': Kaawafi.n na p6^ ninyo 
kami, poo i) Dyos! Take pity on tis, Lord! Maa&ri pu ba g 
kayo y maghinto'? Can you please stop? Occasionally p6^ follows 

30 that modified: Magand^ g &raw p6'! Oood day; How do you dof 

230. sdna expresses unreal futurity in the past or doubtful 
futurity in the present ; in the latter sense it expresses modesty in 
a request : Ipagldlaba sana kiti nag iyo g damit, gunit wal^' ako 
g sabdn. I would wash your clothes for you, but I have no soap. 

35 Isiniilat ko sa kanya g pilitin s4na niya g maparito sa &tin, pag 
sya y ninrito sa baya g ito. I wrote to him to try to get round 
here to us when he gets to this town. 

231. tuloy further, in continuation: Sin&bi tul^y niya. . . . 
He said further. . . . 

40 232. ulS^ again, equivalent with muli^ (§148), has two ir- 

regularities : it is often not enclitic but closely joined postpositive, 
and, in this case, it may, entirely like mull', be conjunctive instead 

Digitized by 


341] SYNTAX 185 

of absolute: Nahulog uli sya. He fell again; but: XJmakyit sya 
uli'. Be climbed again; and even: . . . nag magdain sya g ulfe^ 
sa pasfga g itd. . . . when he again walked on this beach. 

(2) prepositive particles. 

5 233. Certain particles used as absolute attributes always pre- 

cede that modified. They fall into two groups: (A) regular closely 
joined modifiers, and (B) particles which immediately precede 
single words or short phrases. 

234. (A) The closely joined particles usually receive regu- 

10 lar treatment, being followed, for instance, by enclitics. Occasion- 
ally, however, the feeling seems to be that the particle is, as it 
were, placed before the whole sentence ; in this case a non-enclitic 
subject or a loosely joined attribute or a second closely joined 
attribute may follow the particle, and the last-named may (instead 

15 of the particle) be followed by some or all of the enclitics. 

In the case of huwftg (§ 240) we meet for the first time alter- 
nation of absolute and conjunctive attribution, which mostly fol- 
lows the principle that the latter construction is used where g (as 
opposed to na) is possible (§ 122). 

20 235. baki^ is expressive of an undesired contingency; it is 

the negative of wishes and fears: Bak& ka maputulan nag da- 
llri^, Hwin. Yon might get your finger cut off, Juan, i. e. See that 
you don't ... or / hope you won't. . . . Bak& nya ikdtawi ag 
iyo 5 sasabihin. Perhaps what you intend to say wQl only make 

25 him laugh. Baka tdjru ag pagbinta^jan nag p&re'. I am afraid the 
priest may suspect us. See § 317. 

236. bdkit why? B&kit ka naparito? Why have you come 
here? Bdkit mo inakila' . . .? Why do you think . . .f B&kit 
hindi ka mag&ral . . .? Why don't you learn . . .1 

30 237. di' not is often used instead of hindi^ (§239) before 

shorter expressions: dl mal&yo^ not far, di karanyuwan unusual, 
Si Hw&n ay di natakot na sumakiy. Jtuin was not afraid to mount. 
See § 301. 

238. gayftn (§190), in this use always followed by din 
35 (§ 218), also, furthermore: Sya y isa g t4o g may kaunti g talino 

at gayon din may kaunti xj tapag. He was a man of some clever- 
ness and also of some courage. 

239. hindi^ not is used where the specific negatives &yaw 
(§267), baka^ (§235), huwag (§240), and wali' (§§61.81.89) 

40 are not applicable. Occasionally it is replaced by di^ (§237). 
Hindi'. No. Hindi ako. (It is, was) not I; I don't, didn't, etc. 

Digitized by 



Hindi b&le. It doesn't matter. Hindi ko n^lM&man. I don't know. 
Hindi ko sya n&kita. I didn't see him. Hindi ko mabasa iyan. 
I can't read that. Ag tunay na laki nafl buwin ay hindi sya g 
naldkita na^ maga t4o kufl gahh. The real size of the moon is not 
5 that which people see at night, a^ kanya q t&kot na baka hindt 
nya abuta g buh^y a^ kanya g iniibig his fear that (perhaps) he 
should not see his loved one alive. 

Hindi* negates only the material part of a word, not its gram- 
matical (aflSxal) elements: Aij kamahalAn na^ manok ay sya ^ hindi 

10 ikabili nit5 nag mar&mi g t&o. The high price of chicken is that 
which not causes-to-huy it many people, i. e. causes many people 
not to buy it; the idea of buying is the material element of i-ka-bili 
(see Morphology) ; the causal idea, which is expressed by the pre- 
fixes i-ka- is not negated. Ag pagkukubli naij mar) a sundalo ay 

15 siya nila q hindi ikinamatay. The hiding of the soldiers is what 
caused them not to be killed, i. e. saved them from death. 

Note hindi rin (§218) also not, nor, and gaydn din hindi^ 
(§ 238) : Ag dal&ga q si Mariyi y sumayaw sa bdla q tao i) hu- 
milig sa kanya sa s^yawa x\ pinaroonan niya kagabfe : sya y hindi 

20 namili nag kanya i) sinamdhan at hindi rin nam&n namili nag 
tugtdg na kanya q sinayawan ; gayon din hindi nya inind ag bilag 
at ag kadalasan nag kanyi g pagsayaw. Miss Maria danced unth 
any man that asked her at the dance to which she went last night: 
she chose neither her partners nor the music to which she danced; 

25 nor did she mind the number and the frequency of her dances. See 
§§ 228. 237. 301. 319. 

240. huwag, hwag is the negative of commands, purpose, ob- 
ligation. Where g is possible conjunctive attribution takes the 
place of absolute : Ag hagad ay ag huw^ bay&a g lumagp^k sa 

30 lupa ag b61a. The aim is not to let the ball fall to the ground. 
(46, 86 ) Sinasabi nya rito na hwag sunugin ag ami g b4hay. He 
told them not to bum our house. Ag turo sa 4kin nag may^stro 
ay hwag ako g mapagaway. The teacher's order to me is that I 
must not be quarrelsome. Hwag md g taw4nan si Hw^n. Don't 

35 laugh at Juan. Hwag kk g umyak. Don't cry. Hwag ka, Hwan, 
pum&suk na sekreta. Don't go as a spy, Juan. See § 239. 

241. kaniya^ kanya* therefore, as a result, consequently: 
Bumitiw ag bata* sa lubid, kanyd n&parap^* ag kanya g kahata- 
kan. The chUd let go of the rope, and so the one he was pulling 

40 against fell. Kanyi* hindi tul^* ag kanya g kinant^. Therefore 
what he sang was disconnected. Kanya* sa katapusan ay sin&bi 
nya. . . Therefore in the end he said. . . Occasionally it is loosely^ 

Digitized by 


343] SYNTAX 187 

joined: Kanya y sya y umalis. Therefore he went away. See 

242. lalo^ (§ 147), in this use always followed by na (§ 223), 
especially, very: Lfilu na kug isa 13 tahol nag 4so ag makJtgisig sa 

5 kanya, sya y nstpapalukso. Especially when the barking of a dog 
awoke him, he would involuntarily jump. Sya y nao&giin nag 
t4o Idlil nk nag maga Mta^. It makes its food of people, especially 

243. saka' after that, then: Pagki pinapagpfiputol ko nk 
10 sya nag kahoy ay sak& sya nagdadahili g may saldt. As soon as I 

order him to cut wood, (then) he alleges that he is sick. 

Especially sak& pa lamag (§ 227) only then, not till then: Ka- 
pag ipinamumtitol na nya nag kahoy ag lagari^ ay sak& mo pa 
lamag kunin it6 sa kanya. When he tises the saw for cutting wood, 
15 only then do you take it from him. 

244. tuwS' when followed by na (§ 223) is used as a loosely 
joined prepositive attribute: every time: Tuwl n^ y syk ag nagig 
m&nanalo. He turns out victorious every single time. See §§ 307. 

20 245. (B) The particles of the second group are mechanically 

prefixed, as it were, to that modified. 

246. The pretonic particle bawat every precedes that modi- 
fied, forming an object expression with or without ag (§ 66, end) : 
Bawat marunug nag leksyon ay makaaalis pagdatig nag alasigko. 

25 Everyone who knows the lesson will be allowed to leave at five^ 
o'clock. Ag b&wat hindl marunug nag leksydn ay m^titira haggig 
alasfe. Every one of those who do not know the lesson will have to 
stay till six o'clock, b&wat t&o everyone, each person. 

247. gaano, gdno how? (§ 190) is used absolutely before 
30 words with prefix ka- expressing high degree of a quality (see 

Morphology and cf. §§ 76. 179) : g&no kataba'? How fatf gano 
kalayo^? How far? G&nu ka na ba kaklnis? How clever are you 

248. The pretonic particle k4hit precedes interrogatives and 
35 isa 07ie absolutely or with na; its force is generalizing, more em- 
phatically than mkn (§221). The expression so formed is an 
object expression used, with or without ag (§ 68) : ag k&hit na 
sino, ag k&hit sino, k&hit na sino, k4hit sino anyone, anyone what- 
ever, no matter who, k&hit and anything whatever, kahit na anu g 

40 tko any sort of person whatever, k&hit na sinu g tio any person 
whatever, sa k4hit ali g banda in any direction, kahit is4 anyone 
whatever, even one. 

These expressions are often strengthened by mkn (§221) or 

Digitized by 



pa man (§227) : Hindi na sya sumakay sa k4hit ano pa mkn. 
This time he did not ride on anything, k&hit sinu mkn anyond 
at all. 

Expressions beginning with k&hit have the peculiarity that 
5 iu the two normally conjunctive constructions in which they stand 
na^ Q is often omitted before them: 

After wal^' (§138) : Wal& kahit ano. There isn't a thing. 
Wala sila kahit ano. They haven't a thing. So even when wala^ 
does not immediately precede: Nabuksin ag pintu nao wala g 
10 nakamalay k4hit sinu mkn. The door came open tvithout anyone 
noticing it. Walk pa sila q n^huhuli k&hit ano. They had not 
yet caught anything, literally: anything that was caught. Wala 
sya ]} nM&laman k&hit isa ^ h6ta. He did not know a single iota. 
Occasionally na, q is used : Wali sya g m&kita ^ t&o q k&hit and. 
15 He saw no person whatever. 

As (normally conjunctive, § 149) attribute of time during 
which : Sya y hindi matahimik k&hit isa xj sandale^. He cannot 
keep quiet even for a single moment. See §§ 253. 294. 

249. k&puwa^, kapwa^ feUow-, equally, applied to one of a 
20 pair, is sometimes used with personal pronouns: in this case it 

follows (cf. § 129) : Si P^dro at si Hw&n ay dalawa g kapwa 
magnan&kaw. Pedro and Juan are two fellow thieves, ag k&pwa 
nya magnanakaw his fellow-thief, Kapuwa mainam ai) tinig nila 
\) dalawa. The voices of the two are equally pleasant. Kapwa 

25 sila malakas. They are equally strong. Sin&saktan sila k&puwa'. 
They "both get hurt. Redundantly: Namilog si Hw^n nag ulo 
nay kapwa nya kalaro'. Juan fooled (literally : rounded the head 
of) his (fellow) playmate. 

The word modified may be anaphorically omitted: Arj tawo 

30 y hindi dapat sumakit nag kanya g kapwa'. One must not injure 
one's fellow (sc. tao man). 

250. The transient pretonic particle magig and its other 
transient forms (see Morphology) express that the word or phrase 
modified is something coming into being, arising, at the time 

35 specified by the tense-form of the particle: Sya y nagig hukdm. 
He became judge, ay nagiy pagk&hule the faUing-hehind which 
arose, Nagiy isa sya sa maya hindi n&taygap. He turned out to 
be one of those who were not accepted. 

251. The pretonic particle maya is the sign of explicit plu- 
40 rality with object expressions. It precedes the central element 

immediately, not even the na, y necessitated by a preceding con- 
junctive attribute comes between ; only iba may come after may& : 
ay kanya y magulay, or: ay kanya y maya magulay his, her 

Digitized by 


345] SYNTAX 189 

parents, eq ma^a iba q t&o other people. Redundantly : Sa tapat 
nafl bahay ni Pedro ay mardmi ^ ma^)a bulaklik. In front of 
Pedro's house there are many flowers. A5 &raw ay sya 13 pin6- 
poon na^ ilk q maga salbahe sa Afrika. The sun is worshipped 
5 by some savages in Africa, And even : a^) ma^a ilan pa ^) ma^a 
tan6^) several further questions. With magi compare the prefix 
of the same form, see Morphology. 

252. The pretonic particle miy belongs here. For exampl'^e 
see §§ 69. 70. 85. 110. 139. 

10 253. ni pretonic, is a frequent substitute (Spanish) for k4- 

hit (§ 245) in negative sentences. The object expressions which 
begin with it never take ag (§ 68) : Ni isa y walk g n&tira. There 
isn't a single one left. Walk ni isa. There isn't a single one. 
Nabuksan ag pintu nag wala q nakamalay ni sinu man. The door 

15 came open unthout anyone noticing it. Walk q natira ni isa naq 
ma^a peras sa mesa. Not one was left of the pears on the table. 

Occasionally ni seems to take the place of na^ before k&hit: 
B4kit hindi sya mak4tagpo ni k&hit is^ na^ maija bagay na itdf 
Why could he not meet even a single one of these things? .Cf. 

20 § 319. 

254. The pretonic particle taga, tiga preceding an expres- 
sion of place forms an expression denoting a person from that 
place : Sya y isa ^) taga Kapamp&^an. He is a Pampangan. ag 
taga bukid, aq tiga bukid : a^ isa q tao q tubo sa bukid a country- 

25 ma7i: a person raised in the country, aQ may&ma fl taga iba 5 
b&yan the rich man from another toum, stranger, foreigner, a^ 
ma^a taga iba t ihk ^ lupain people from varums countries. So : 
taga bdyan, tiga bayan townsman, taga Filiplnas Filipino, taga 
Amerika A^nerican, taga Espanya Spaniard (beside Amerik&no, 

30 Kastila'). Cf. in Morphology, the prefix taga-. 

255. Numerative pronouns and cardinal numerals are used 
as absolute attributes before kat4o persons, men: sa m pu kat&o 
ten people, ten men; or: sa m pu q tao; Ilan katao (or: 11^ g 
tao) ai) bumuhat sa bdhay? How many men lifted at the house f 

35 256. The terms of relationship and titles which are treated 

as personal names (§59) precede a name as absolute attributes; 
after most of those that end in a syllabic, n, or *, i) is however 
used. Some titles occur only in this construction: si Kuya g 
Pedro my oldest brother Pedro, si Ati Lole^j my oldest sister 

40 Lola, si Igkdg Piro Grandfather Pedro, si Indk q Hw&na, or: si 
Impo g Hwana Grandmother Juana, si Ali g Marya, or: si Tiya 
Marya Aunt Maria, si Ma g Andrfe Uncle Andres, Don Andres, 
si Qinoo g Polikarpiyo Mr. Policarpio, si GInig Mirkes Miss or 

Digitized by 



Mrs. Marques, si P4rt Hwan Father Juan, si Mayestro js Pedro 
Teacher Pedro, Master Pedro, si B&o fl Mariya Widow Maria, 

(3) words used as absolute attributes of manner and time. 

257. The words used as absolute attributes of maimer and 
5 time resemble in meaning conjunctive attributes and are fre- 
quently used in the latter construction. As a rule they are 
lo6sely joined and absolute. In this way are used: 

258. Derivatives by doubling of words of time, in the sense 
of every (day, night, etc.). With these goes the compound araw- 

10 gabS day and night. For both formations see Morphology. 'Sink- 
hatdan ny^ ako nag g4tas &raw-&raw. He delivers miUc to me 
every day. Gabi-gabi ay tinutulugan nag bantiy ag fiM g bahay. 
Every night the sentry makes our house his sleeping-place. \ 

259. Words with prefix ka- referring to past time (see Mor- 
15 phology) : Ag pat4ya g nagy&ri; kagabi ay paglalasig ag nagig 

sanhS^. The kHUng that occurred last night had drunkenness as 
its cause. Ag maga 4so sa baya g ito ay nagtahulan kagabe. The 
dogs in this town all bayed last night. Ag kab&yo ay namatay 
ke^&pon. The horse died yesterday. Pumaroon ako kamakalawa. 

20 I went there day before yesterday. 

These may be followed by a disjunctive attribute telling the 
specific time when: Nagsiputol kami nag tubo kahapon nag 
hapon. We cut sugar-cane yesterday afternoon. So : kah&pon nag 
umaga yesterday miming. 

25 260. Words of time with prefix kina- and suflftx -an ex- 

pressing actual past time (see Morphology) : Kinah4ti-g-gabihan 
ay n&gisig sya. When midnight came he woke up. KinS,buk&san 
hinanap silk nag kanila g ami. On the next day they were called 
by their father. 

30 With disjunctive attribute telling the special time: Kina- 

bukasan nag hapun ay naparoon sila sa simb&han. On the next 
day in the afternoon they went to church. 

261. Words of time preceded by the pronouns boo^ and isa 
as conjunctive modifiers: Sila y nagsipagsugal gabi-gabi boo g 

35 magdamig. They gambled all night every night. Isa g &raw 
naupo sya sa tabur^te. One day he sat down on his chair. Ag 
iyo g kapatid ay naligo isa g h&pon. Your sister bathed one after- 
noon. Isa g gabi ay n&rinig ko. . . One evening I heard. . . 
So: isa g kataghalian 07ie midday, isa g liggo one Sunday, isa g 

40 taghale* one noon, isa g umaga one morning. As conjunctive 
attributes: Sya y nagl41akad na isa g gabi. He was walking one 

Digitized by 


347] SYNTAX 191 

night. P&paroon sya g isa o liQgo. He will come one Sunday. 
Those with boo^ also as local attributes: Nakatahul nJt a^) maga 
aso sa bod g magdamag. The dogs have been barking all night. 
262. Various words of time: 
5 (1) antimano beforehand (Spanish). 

(2) bukas tomorrow: Magpapaputol ba t&yo nag kahoy bu- 
kas? Are we going to have some wood cut tomorrow? With dis- 
junctive attribute of specific time: Magsisiputol kami nag tubd 
bukas nag um4ga. We are going to cut sugar-cane tomorrov^ 

10 morning. 

(3) dati for a long time already; formerly; it is sometimes 
closely joined: ag mukha nag bab&ye, na d&ti y nagpapakil&la 
nag malaki g paghihirap the face of the woman, which before 
had been showing great suffering; D&ti n&riyan ag mansS, g iykn. 

15 That spot has been there for a long time. As conjunctive attri- 
bute : D&ti sya g napaparlto sa fiM g b4hay. He has been coming 
to my house since long ago. 

(4) kadalasjin often, usually: Ag kanya g pinas^sakftan 
kadalasa y nagaanyo g pdra g ulol. The person he is injuring 

20 usually acts as if crazy. 

(5) kanina a little while ago, just now: Sin&bi ko na p6 
sa inyo kanina, na . . . / just told you a little while ago that . . . 

With a conjunctive attribute of the specific time in the 
phrase kanina g umftga this morning, which may be closely 
25 joined: Kumain ka ba kanina g um&ga nag kamSt — Hindi ako 
kumain nag kamS kanina g umaga. Did you eat meat this morn- 
ing f — I did not eat meat this morning. 

(6) karanyuwan mostly, usually: Ag kosin^ro karanyuwa y 
upahan. The cook is usually hired. 

30 (7) k&ylan, kelan when? K4ylan ako maliligo*? When shall 

I bathe f Kaylan pa kaya paghihinay&gan nag maga t4o ag 
maga ani g ta6n-ta6 y nasisira nag lukton o nag tuyot? When, 
pray, will the people regret the harvests every year destroyed by 
locusts or by drought? So k&ylan man at any time, ever, always 

35 (§§221.317): Kaylan ma y hindi nililimutan si Marya. Maria 
was never forgotten. 

(8) mak&lawa twice, when with magh^pon per day: Naiari 
ako g maligo mak&lawa raaghapun, dahilan sa kainitan. / can 
bathe twice a day on account of the heat. Alone mak&lawa is a 

40 conjunctive attribute: Mak&lawa ko g itinanug kug saan sya 
paparoon, datapuwat hindi nya ako sinagot. / asked him twice 
where he was going, but he did not answer me, Maghapon dojes 
not occur alone. 

Digitized by 


192 * TAGALOQ TEXTS [348 

(9) m&maya^ m&my^^ after a while y soon, with a disjunctive 
attribute of the specific time when: M&myk nag kaunti^ ay &alis 
ako. In a Utile while I am going. As conjunctive modifier; the 
phrase so formed is used like mamaya' alone: Mamaya t) gabi 

5 ay pap&sok t&yo sa tey&tro. This evening we shall go to the 

(10) minsan once, once upon a time: MInsan sila y naka- 
raan nag isa g puno-Q-nyog. Once upon a time they came across 
a cocoanut'tree. With mkn at any one time (§221): MInsan 

10 man ay hindi sya n&una. Not a single time did he succeed in 
getting ahead. As conjunctive attribute : Ag tatlo g itu y nagti- 
pana q minsan. These three once made an appointment. 

(11) gayon now, just now, today (cf. § 302) : Sya y nasa 
Maynlla gay6n. He is in Manila today. Qayon ay marjikakatu- 

15 log sila. Now they wUl he able to sleep. So gayon dm right noit} 
(§ 218) : Umalis ka gayon din. Oo away this minute. 

(12) par&ti often: Mahina ag kanya rj katawan at parati 
sa sakit. H^er body was weak and often in sickness. Also con- 
junctive : Ako y par4ti g nahih&bol. / am often pursued. 

20 (13) siySmpre (Spanish) always: Ag paggaUw na pagtagi- 

lid ay sySmpre (or: kaylan mkn ay) sa kaikliJin nag bagka^ da- 
tapuwat ag pagtikwJis ay sa kahabaan. The movement of rocking 
is always along the short axis of a boat, but pitching is along its 

25 263. Pour words of place, which serve also as local forms 

of the demonstrative pronouns (§199). They are, corresponding 
to the four demonstrative pronouns : dine, rine ; dito, rito ; diyan, 
dyan, riyan; doon, ro5n. They occur in every position which 
an attribute can have: 

30 Loosely joined, preceding: Dodn ay sinalubog sya nag suso*. 

There he was m^t by the snail. Dito n&m&las nya g . . . Herel 
he perceived that . . . 

Loosely joined, following; Taginit nk nag sya y dumatig 
dito. It was already shimmer when he arrived here. Ag alila^ ay 

35 ipinagamut nya dito. The servant was-ordered-to-be-cured by -him 
of'the-latter, i. e. He had the latter cure the servant. Alis dyan ! 
Get away there! (e. g. to a dog). Alis na riyan, Pedro. Oo away 
from there, Pedro. M&tira ka dyin. Stay there. 

Closely joined, preceding: Dine ako matiupo*. / am going 

40 to sit right here. Dito ka na makikain sa arain. Eat here with 
us. Dito nya gin&mit ag kanya g lakas. For this he used his 

Digitized by 


349] SYNTAX 193 

strength. Doon sila magpalipas naq bakasydn. There they are 
to spend the vacation. 

Closely joined, following: Hwag m6 g ilagay dito ag pala- 
t6n. Don't put the plate here. 
5 Enclitic: Dalhin mo rito iyo g librd q binab&sa ko kagabi. 

Bring here the book I was reading last night. Magdala ka dito 
nao kasapw^go. Bring some matches. 

These words often precede a local attribute: Hag ka dyan 

sa dain. Oet out of the road there. Nakituloy sila sa amin doon 

10 sa bukid. They asked us to take them in out there in the country. 

Note also: Sa isa fl karit6 fl di mal&yo sa b&hay, doon sya na- 

higk'^ In a cart not far from the house, there he lay douyn. 

264. Similarly sain where f which serves also instead of a 
local form of ano (§ 199). It is closely joined and, as a question- 

15 word, precedes: Sain n&roon ao kanya xj kapatidt — Hindi ko 
nMal&man kui) saAn n4roon a^ kanya i] kapatid. Where is his 
brother? — / don't know where his brother is. Saan nandon sya? 
Where is he? Saan mo sya n&kitat Where did you see him? 
SaAg ka manupft^T Where are you going to sit? SaAij ka gfiligt 

20 Where do you come from? (Cf., for the local value, the answer, 
e.g.: G&lig ako sa Maynila^ / come from Manila.) Saan ka 
naggagalig? Where are you coming from? Saan ka na^jgalig? 
Where have you come from? Salio ka p&paront Where are you 
going? Sain ka pupuntat Where are you bound for? So: kfihit 

25 sain anywhere at aU {^ 248) : ltd y hindf nya miikfta k&hit saan. 
He could not find the latter anywhere. 

As local form of ano, sain stands also in conjunctive attri- 
bution (§ 131) : Sai fl gawS^ muli rito aij biya-g-Kamilig? — 
Sa gawi 5 kinan muli rito a^ baya-^-Kamilig. In what direction 

30 from here is the town of Camalig? — The town of Camalig is td 
the right, of here. Pagkaisip mo, Hwin, ku^j saa i] biyan ka 
maghihinap-buhay ay sabihin mo sa akin. When you have de- 
cided, Juan, in what town you unU try to earn your living, tell 

35 As a question-word, further, sain may form a static predi- 

cate (§ 96) : Saan ag lagiyan mo nag iyo g sapatos? Where is 
your place for putting away your shoes? 

265. Several words of manner: 

(1) The particle agid at once and its doubled form agad- 

40 agid immediately (see Morphology) are closely joined; where g 

can be used, they are mostly conjunctive: Tumakbo sya agid. 

He ran at once, or: Tumakbo sya ij agad. Minulin nya agid ar) 

pagtatalumpite^ He at once began his speech. Agad ni lila- 

Digitized by 



mig. It wUl soon be cold now. Agad-agad inuumpisahan a^ pag- 
sisigdwan. At once the yelling begins. 

(2) halimb&wa^ for example, for instance is loosely joined: 
Kug halimb4wa y mak^kita sya na\) isa g b4kol. . . When, for 

5 instance, she saw a basket. . . isa x) tahdl na^ aso halimbawa'^ 
the barking of a dog, for insiance. > 

(3) h&los almost is closely joined: halos lahkt naQ t4o almogt 
all the people, waist q pamam^ro^ halos almost without clothing. 

(4) isa-isa one by one is closely joined; it is more often con- 
10 junctive than absolute: Siniy4sat nya isa-isa a^ ma^a puno*. 

She questioned the trees one by one. Ito y sya nya g isa-isa g 
inilaglig. These he dropped one by one. 

(5) karaka-r&ka right away, quickly (c£. pagdaka, pagka- 
raka, below) : ** Hindi ak6!" winika nya kar4ka-raka. *'7^ wasn't 

15 //'* he said at once. 

(6) katunayan truth, as absolute attribute, loosely joined, 
truly; in this sense also conjunctive : Katun&ya y uwal& g mwa^ 
si Hwan. Realltf Juan was ignorant. Katun4ya xj wala sya g 
nMal&man kahit isa q hdta. He really did not know a single iota. 

20 (7) mismo (Spanish) himself, herself, intensive: aij nakii- 

kulam mismo the beu)itched person himself; siya mismo he him- 
self, she herself. 

(8) palibh&sa^ is loosely joined and precedes. It expresses 
that what follows is stated as a reason ; the construction is appar- 

*^5 ently not subordinating, but parallel with that of halimb&wa* 
above: Aq pagsas&ma ... ay hindi nila pinapansan, palibhfisa 
y gawa rin namsln nila. The living together . . . was not minded 
by them, the reason being that they did it themselves. 

(9) pagddka and pagkaraka immediately, quickly (s3rnony- 
30 mous with karaka-raka above) : Pagddka y tina^nan nya a^ da- 

lawti xi hintuturo^ nag babaye. He quickly seized the woman's 
two forefingers. Also closely joined: Itinanog pagd4ka nag 
mediko . , . The doctor at once asked . . . 

(4) absolute complements. 

35 266. After certain words which are followed by a comple- 

ment construction, as described in § 151 ff., the conjunctive par- 
ticle is often omitted, especially where the form na is required; 
where g is possible its use is preferred. They are: 

267. ibig desired, synonymous with gusto (of whose regu- 

40 lar construction examples have been given in §§152.158), and 
&yaw the negative of ibig. These are usually accompanied by a 

Digitized by 


351] SYNTAX 195 

disjunctiye agent: Ano aQ fbig nya q sabihin? What is that de- 
sired by-him that (sc. by-him it, both anaphoric) be said? or: 
What is the desired by-him thing-to-be-saidf i.e. What does he 
want to sayf And a^ Ibig mo o gawin nyat What do you want 

5 him to dof Hindi na sya ibig labanin. He was no longer sought 
as an opponent, It6 y ibig na gawi ^j una. This is desired to be 
done first, i. e. One wants to do this first. A^ 4yaw ko g mJtkita 
ay isa g nuno^. What I don't want to see is a ghost. ltd y Ayaw 
nya i] gawin. He does not want to do this. 

10 Very frequently the construction is impersonal, in which case 

the complement (and quasi-subject, § 158) may consist of an 
entire predication: Ibig nya fl kum&in nag suha^. It-is-desired 
by-him that (he) eat some grape-fruit, i. e. He wants to eat some 
grape-fruit. Ibig nya g k&nin ag suha^. It-is-desired by-him that 

15 be-eaten (by-him) the grape-fruit, i. e. He wants to eat the grape- 
fruit. Ayaw ipam&na nag maokuktilam ag kanya ij kulam. The 
sorcerer does not want to bequeath his magic power. 

When the person desiring is at the same time the agent of 
the complement, the whole expression may serve as predicate or 

20 attribute of the person desiring; this construction is rarely used 
with other than active complements: Sya y ibig kum&in nar) 
suha^ He is desired (by-him) that (he) eat some grape-fruit, 
i.e. He wants to eat some grape-fruit,, equivalent to Ibig nya g 
kum&in na^) suha^. Ag kuba^ ay hindi rtn ibig umakyat. The 

25 hunchback too did not want to climJ>. isa t) Kastfla^ na Ibig 
raaligo^ a Spaniard who wanted to bathe. Ag sund&lo ay &yaw 
pum&yag. The soldier did not want to consent. 

Without complement (or with anaphorically omitted comple- 
ment) : An6 ag ibig mo? What is it you want? Ibig. ko pa 

30 nag kanin. There-is-desire by-me still of boiled rice, i.e. / want 
some m^ore boiled rice. Ag laro g taguin ay ibig na^j maga bfita^ 
Children like the game of hide-and-seek. Ayaw ko. I don't want 
to; less commonly: Ayaw ako. 

268. d&pat proper, necessary and sukat fitting, right: Ito 

35 y ddpat gawin. This ought to be done. Sya y d&pat paluin. Hd 
ought to be thrashed. An6 ag d&pat nya g gawin t What ought 
to be done by himf i.e. What ought he dof Aij isa y dapat 
muna g magsilbe sa dim6niyo. One must first serve the demon. 
Hindi mo sukat ikag&lit ag maga tuks5. It is not right for yoiu 

40 to get angry at jokes, literally: Jokes are not by-you a fittincf 
cause oj anger. 

Digitized by 



Without complement: It6 y sukat na. This is right, suffi- 

269. Words with prefix ma-, expressing the possessor of a 
quality, and their derivatives (see Morphology), have occasionally 
5 an al^lute instead of a conjunctive complement. Those so used 

(1) madalis often, frequent, regular: Ako y madalas mag- 
kumpisal. I was regular at going to confession, or : a regular con- 
fessor. But: Madalas nila 5 sinalak&yan ag bayan. They fre- 

10 quently attacked the town. 

(2) magaliQ skilful, clever, polite: Si Hwan ay magaliQ 
gum4mit na^ darius. Ju^n was clever aV using the adze, or: a 
clever user of the adze, or : cleverly used the adze. But : MagaliQ 
sya g tumugtdg nag piydno. She plays the piano well. 

15 (3) mahirap suffering, destitute, difficult (i.e. having hard- 

ship, actively or passively) : A5 aswig ay mahirap m&patay. A 
vampire is hard to-be-killed, i. e. hard to kUl. Regular construc- 
tions: Ag pagabut nag buga g it6 ay mahirap. The reaching 
this fruit is hard, i.e. The fruii is hard to reach, ag mahirap 

20 na kasami the poor laborer. 

(4) mahusay able, good (at doing something), in good shape: 
Ag maga t&o sa bayan ay mahuhusay sumunod sa kautusan. The 
people in the town are good law-ahiders. But: ag pinakamahu- 
say na magsalita^ the best at speaking; Ag lipa nag lupa' ay 

25 mahusay. The smearing (with sticky mud) of the ground (in 
the threshing-room for rice) is well done. 

(5) mainam pleasant, tasty, good: Ag manok na kawala^ 
ay hindl mainam patayin. Chickens that run free are not good 
for killing' Cf . : isa g mainam na sigslg a pretty ring. 

30 (6) malakas strong, powerful, loud: Sya y malakis kumain. 

He is great at eating, or: a great cater; also: malakas na kuradin. 
Cf . : ag maga t&o g malalakAs strong men, Sya y tumawa nag 
malakas. He laughed aloud. 

(7) maluwat, malwat long (in time), slow: Ag pagputol 
35 nag buhok ay maluwat m^tutuhan. Hair-cutting takes long to 

learn. Cf. : Syi y nagkalatimba g maluwat. He squutted on 
heels (as exercise or punishment) many times. Natutulog ako 
nag maluwat. / sleep late. 

(8) marunog unse, knowing how: Sya y raarunug gumupit 
40 nag buhok., He knew how to cut hair. But: Marunog sya g 

sumakay sa kab&yo. He knows how to ride horseback, ag maru- 
nog na pagftg the clever turtle; Isa g sundalo g marunug nag 
Latin. A soldier who knew Latin. 

Digitized by 


363] SYNTAX 19T 

(5) words used wUh disjunctive and local attributes, 

270. Certain words form with their attributes phrases that 
are used as absolute attributes, for the most part loosely joined. 
The phrase-forming attributes are either (A) disjunctive or (B) 

5 local. 

271. (A) ak&la^ a thoughfi followed by a disjunctive pos- 
sessor: as so-and-so thinks: Ak&la ko y gamit na ag sombrero g 
ito. / think this hat has been used already, is second-hand. More 
commonly these phrases are used as local attribute: Ag hararia 

10 Q iyon na nagydri kagabS sa ak&la ko y paharag ni Andres. The 
hold-up which took place last night was, in my opinion, planned^ 
by Andres, 

272. gaya like, resembling, in the manner of; for the dis- 
junctive attribute cf. § 177: ag maija puno-g-kdhoy, gaya nag 

15 tsiko trees like the custard-apple; G4ya nag karanyuwan inumpi- 
sahan nag kura ag kanya g sermon. As usual, the priest began 
his sermon. Magaan ag sipa^ hindi gaya nag bola g gamit sa 
b^bol. The football is light, unlike the bald used m baseball. 
These phrases occur also as conjunctive attributes: Hindi umuwe 

20 si Kiko na g&ya nag karanyuwan. Kiko did not go hom^ as usual. 
Normal constructions: Ag huni nag ibo g pipit ay g4ya nag 
isa g suts6t. The chirp of the humming-bird is like a whistling. 
ag maga gaya mo those like you, people like you. 

273. kas4ma (in normal constructions companion): as com- 
25 panion of, in compa/ny with: Namundok syk kas&ma nag ila 

maga tao-g-b&yan. He took the mountains along with a few fel- 

274. Abstracts of action with prefixes in p- (see Morphol- 
ogy) express the time when or (so pagka- and pagka-) the time 

30 immediately after which. They sometimes occur without a dis- 
junctive modifier. Cf. § 300. Pagul&n ay gamitin mo ag ka- 
p6te. When it rains use your raincoat, Pagdatig niya ay sabi- 
hin mo g maghintay. When he arrives tell him to wait, literally: 
At the arriving of him be-it-said by-you that (he) wait. Pagkat- 

35 sunog nag b&hay ay hininap nil^ ag al&has. When the house had 
burned down they looked for the jewelry. Pagakpakan mo si 
Hwan pagkaraan nag kanyi g talump&te^. Applaud Juan when 
his speech is done. 

275. pdra like is followed by a conjunctive (instead of a 
40 disjunctive) object expression whenever an indefinite object is 

meant (§68). The phrase so formed is often a conjunctive at- 
tribute. It is closely joined: Si Pedro min para ni Hwan ay 

Digitized by 



nabilaflg6\ Pedro too, like Juan, was put in jaU. But: May 
katawan sya ^ para g t4o. Ha has a body like a human being. 
Normal constructions: P&ra ka fl kura. You are like a priest. 
Ag lamig na^) kanya g kamJty ay p&ra g sa patay. The coldness of 
5 his hand is like that of a dead person. (Cf. § 209). 

276. s&bi saying, tha1{ said: Sabi daw nya ay malakl ai) 
sunog. He says, I am told, that the fire was big. 

277. (B) alintana despite: Nibdlot ko nk ag maga libro, 
alintdna sa karamfhan nitft. I hav& managed to pack the books, 

10 in spite of their number. 

278. ayon according to (giving the source of a statement) : 
Ay on sa s4bi nag mar&mi ay mipapaghuli na raw ag mag a mag- 
nan&kaw. According to what people say, the robbers are now near 
to being caught. 

15 279. buk6d beside, in addition to: Bukod sa as&wa ay may 

dalawi sya g anak. Beside his wife, he had two children. 

280. d&hil reason, cause and its derivative dahilan, both 
here in the sense: on account of: Hindi nakatahol arj &so ddhil 
sa kanya g kahinaan. The dog was not able to bark, on account 

20 of his weakness, i. e. was so weak that he could not bark. Hinule 
si Hwan nag pulis dahilin sa pagh&rag na ginaw& nya kina An- 
drfes at kanila g maga kaybigan. Juan^ was arrested by the po- 
liceman for having held up Andres' party and their friends. Da- 
hilan sa kanya g pagkigulat ay n&paupli sya. In his surprise he 

25 sank down on his chair. 

Note especially d&hil dito, dahil dito on account of this, there- 
fore; the omission of ay, y is especiall frequent, see § 120, A, and 
the example there given. D&hil dito ay nadilat ag kanya g maga 
mat&. Through this his eyes were opened. 

30 281. The particle kay, k6 than, more than: Ag buga g ito 

y matamis k&y sa asukal. This fruit is sweeter than sugar, mala- 
kks k6 sa kanyJt stronger than he. 

The combination k&y sa has so much unity that the sa is 
often repeated or used where unnecessary: so always before a 

35 proper name: Ag bata g si P^dro ay mataas nag kauntfe^ k&y 
sa sa lamesa. Little Pedro is a bit taller than the table, l&lu g" 
mabagsik k&y m rito more fierce than this; Ag bata g si P6dro 
ay mataAs nag kaunte^ k&y sa kay Hwan. Little Pedro is a bit 
taller than Juan. Sya y mabute g tumugtug ke sa kay Hw&na. 

40 She plays better than Juana. Si Hw&n ay magulag k&y sa kay 
Pedro. Juan is older than Pedro. 

Owing to the construction described at § 120 this construc- 

Digitized by 


355] SYNTAX 199 

tion may be ambiguous: Lfilo "Q malald ag g41it ni Hwan kay 
sa kay P^dro. Juan's anger is greater than Pedro's. 

282. Ifiban against: a^ gklit 14ban sa kanyti anger against 
him, Aq kapa^yarfhan ay ginagdmit nya laban sa kanya q ma^a 

5 kadway. He uses his power against his enemies. 

283. llban except: Aq mag a karum&ta fl ito ay upahan, 
llban na lima^ sa ilan. These carriages are hired, except only for 
a few. 

284. The particle muli^ from and its derivative magmula^ 
10 starting from: a\) gitna^ mula sa magk^bila ^ dulo the middle 

from both ends; a^ kanyli x) nia^a sugat mul& sa paa ha\)ga^ ulo 
his wounds from feet to head; mul4 rito from here. With dis- 
junctive attribute of time) instead of local attribute: mula noon 
from then on, from that tims. * 

15 285. Words of manner with prefix pa- (see Morphology) : 

Aq ma^a t4o ay nagsipagtakbuhan papalabas sa simb&han. The 
people ran leaving (i.e. out of) the church. Ipinatuluy nya ag 
paglalakid papunta sa isa q b&hay. He continued walking (di- 
rected) toward a certain house. 

20 Commonest is patugo directed towards, aiming for: Tumakbo 

sya patUQu sa flog. He ran towards the river. 

Eegular construction: Sya y papunti sa Idgit. He was on 
the way to Heaven. 

286. The particle para, pdra (Spanish) for, equivalent to 
25 ukol (§ 288) : Nagbwal sila nag isa iq b&ka p&ra sa fiy^sta. They 

slaughtered a cow for the fiesta. Humukay sila nag mal41im para 
sa patiy. They dug a deep pit for the corpse. Pumutol ka hk 
nag damo para sa kabayo? Have you cut any grass for the horse f 
Also as conjunctive attribute, modifying an object expression: 
30 Sulat na ag liham na p&ra kay Hw&na. The letter for Juana is^ 

287. tugkol about, concerning: Nasiyasat nag hukom ag 
lahat nag b&gay tugkftl sa kanila g tisap. The judge inquired into 
all the matters relating to their suit. Cf. : ag tugkul sa sunog 

35 the details about the fire. 

288. The particle ukol is synonymous with para (§ 286) 
and tugkol; Humukay sila nag malalim ukol sa patay. This 
phrase as predicate : lyo y ukol sa mag a hirap sa infiy^mo. This^ 
was about the sufferings in Hell. 

Digitized by 



(6) words introducing subordinate phrases or predications, 

289. Certain words precede words, phrases, and whole predi- 
cations which are thereby subordinated to the main sentence as 
absolute attributes, loosely joined. 

5 The syntactic relation of these words to the expressions 

which they introduce seems to be the peculiar one described in 
§ 54. However, somei of them are plainly joined to their phrase 
by na, g, and others end in -:o or -t. Most of them merely pre- 
cede the phrase, others are closely joined. 
10 Finally, in a few cases predications apparently not intro- 

duced by any subordinating word are used as absolute attributes. 

290. baga (§216), in this sense always followed by man 
(§221), although^ is less used than k&hit (§ 294). See also § 317. 
Baga mkn nakapagpasyal si P6dro, natira kami sa b&hay. Al- 

15 though Pedro managed to take a walk, we staid home, 

291. b&go, in this use before (in point of time), has closely 
joined position as regards its phrase: A^) maga kab&yo x\ gina- 
g&mit nai) maga kanyuneros nag gubyfemo ay pinaiinum muna, 
b&go pak&nin. The horses used by the artillery of the government 

20 are watered first, before they are fed. Nagkantahan sila b&go 
naguwian. They sang together before they went home. B&go sya 
y sumulat ay makipagusap ka sa kanya. Before he writes have a 
talk with him. Magisip ka b&go ka sumagdt. Think before you 
answer. Balatan mo ag magg^ b6gu mo k4nin. Peel the mango 

25 before you eat it. maluwat pa bago mamatay ag magkukulam 
long before the sorcerer dies. 

In normal constructions b&go has the sense of new, recent: 
arj b4gu g bdhay the new house; ag bago t) tko an unmarried 
man, a youth; ag maga manok na bago g bil^ the chickens just 

30 bought; B&gu. g galig sya sa sakit. He is recently recovered from 
an illness. 

292. h&bag throughout, during, while probably consists of 
haba^ length plus g. H&baT} sya y natutulog ay nakaraan ag 
suso^ While he was sleeping the snail passed. Hdbai] pinagusa- 

35 pan nilk ito ag ikapitu g b&ta* ay n&sa isa g bitak nag bagko^ 
While they were discussing this, the seventh child was in a crack 
of the bench. Nalulugmok sy^ h&bag panah6n sa isa.g malalim 
na kalugkutan. She was sunk constantly (literally: throughout 
time) in a deep sadness, A short phrase with habag may be 

40 closely joined : Hindi nya natagal^ g agkinin habag buhay nya 

Digitized by 


357] SYNTAX 201 

aQ birtud na iyon. He did not sv^cceed in keeping this quality 
as his own throughout (his) life* 

293. ha^gag as far as, to, untU may be haggin limit, end 
plus 1]; instead of the absolute construction the phrase is, how- 

5 ever, often in local form. For lack of ag in the phrase see § 68. 
Naghintay sya haggafl kataghalian. He waited tiU noon. Ag 
puno^ ay tumubo^ haggi^ sa magbuQa. The tree grew until (it) 
bore fruit. Silk ay nagtakbuhan ha^gaQ sa dumatiQ sila sa ka- 
nila fl bayan. They both ran untU they arrived in their town. 
10 As predicate: A^) kulaQ na^ g&tas ay ha^jgao sa leftg nag b6te. 
The lack of milk is as far as the neck of the bottle, i. e. The mtlfc* 
goes only up to the neck of the bottle. 

294. k4hit (§245), with or without na, in the sense of al- 
though, no matter (cf. §§290.317). The subordinate word or 

15 phrase has usually the form of a question; when it is an entire 
predication the predicate stands first: Tinalaga nya q sum&ma, 
k&hit na saan sya dalhin. He decided to go along, no matter 
where he was carried. K4hit na an& ag iyutos nya ay sinusunod. 
No matter what it was he ordered, (it) was obeyed. Kahit na 

20 madilim ag gabi ay nagpasyal din si P6dro. Though the night 
was dark, Pedro nevertheless took a walk. K4hit na bahagysi ag 
ulan ay nakabasa^ nag kars&da. Though the rain was scanty, it 
sufficed to wet the streets. Kahit ulol ag &so ay ay aw nya g pa- 
tayin. Although the dog was mod, he did not want to kiU it. 

25 Note the following instance, in which k&hit na precedes its 

phrase as a closely joined attribute: Nsiramdaman ko ag kalabit 
nya sa 4kin, kihit na ak6 natutulog. / felt his touch against me, 
even though 1 was asleep. 

Phrases with kahit may be closely< joined to the main sen- 

30 tence: N&puputol nya k&hit na wal& sya g kasagk&pan ag b&kal 
nag kanya g bilagguan. He managed, even though he had no 
tools, to cut the iron of his prison, ag t4o k4hit laldki o bab&ye 
na nag^&ri sa kany& the person, man or woman, who owns it. 

295. kaniyA^, kanyA* (§ 241) expressive of result, may with 
35 its phrase be subordinated. It then stands as a closely joined 

attribute of its phrase: Kany4 nya iniwan ag payog ay sapag« 
kat nagtigil ag ulan at lumiwanag ag l&git. The reason he left 
his umbrella (quasi-subject) was because the rain let up and th^ 
sky cleared. Accordingly we may analyze as subordinate! such 

*At i6, 2 haba^, instead of standing at the beginning of its clause, follows 
the subject, taking the place of ay. I take it that this sentence has been handed 
down in this form from an older generation of speakers. Cf . § 316. 

Digitized by 



clauses as the following : Naup6 sya sa tinik, kany4 sya n4patindig 
agid. He sat down on a spine, so as to jump at once, i. e. that is 
why he jumped up at once. Cf ., however, § 324. 

296. The particle kapag ♦/, in case (of single events viewed 
5 as completed in the future, synonymous with pagki, §304), see 

§ 300 : Ag hinirilm nya g kampit ay iyo g kunin, kapag ipinu- 
putol na nya nag k&hoy. Take away the knife he borrowed if he 
uses it to cut wood. 

297. kaya' (§219) is sometimes used exactly like kaniya^ 
10 (§ 295) : Kaya^ aku naparlto ay kukunin ku ag hiniram mo iq 

libro. / am going to take the book you have borrowed, so that I 
have come here, i. e. I have come here to . . . The act is ex- 
pressed as a subordinate element, the purpose as the principal 
sentence. Nagpuputol si HwJin nag k4hoy, kaya sya y wala rito. 
15 Juan is cutting wood now, that is why he is not here. 

298. The atonic particle kuQ preceding an expression of 
time states the time when of repeated occurrences: GumJtgamit 
kami nag makapal na damit kug tagulan. ^Ye use thick cloth- 
ing in the rainy season. Nagtitipon nag pagk&in ag mag a 

20 laggam kug tag^raw. The ants collect food in summer. Ag 
hunihan nag maga ibon kug um&ga ay nakalilig&ya. The chirping 
of the birds in the morning isi gladdening. Ag iba g t&wo y 
mabuti pa g makisama k&y sa isa g kapatid kug minsan. An 
unrelated person is better to associate with than a brother at 

25 times. So: kug gabS at night, of nights, kug fiy&rta nag bayan 
during the (periodic) fiesta of the town, kug madilim at dark, 
when it is dark, kug baha^ at flood-times, kug buwAn nag Hu- 
niyo in June. 

Occasionally the phrase with kug is closely joined: Hindi 

30 hasa^ kug minsan ag maga b&gu g patalim sa Filipinas. In the 
Philippines new cutlery is sometimes without an edge (i.e. sold 
without an edge, to be sharpened by the purchaser). 

299. With phrases in the form of a question (minus ba 
§ 215 or baga § 216) kug expresses indirect question. The ex- 

35 pression so formed stands as quasi-subject or quasi-object (cf. 
§§157.158) or as predicate: Naala&la nya kug pap4no ag pag- 
gawa' nag salamagkjL. He managed to recall how the trick was 
done. Ipin&yu nya na kug sinu sa kanila ag pinkamahusay na 
magsalita^ nag Latin ay siya limag kak&in nag itlog. He advised 

40 that whoever (kug sino) among them was the best at speaking 
Latin should be the one who alone ate the egg. Si Pedro ay 
nagiisip kug saan nya naiwan ag kanya g payog. Pedro is try- 
ing to recall where he left his umbrella. NalM&man mo ba kug 

Digitized by 


359] SYNTAX 203 

sajin sya naroont Do you know where he isf Ag ma^)a t&o-fl- 
b47an ay nagsiydsat kuQ maMri sila q magtay6 na\) isa q m4- 
kina na^ bigfisan sa kanUa q bdyan. The townspeople considered 
whether they could put up a machine for thrashing rice in their* 
5 toum, Ag siy4sat ni Hwan sa kanya g pagparlto ay kuQ ila g 
kura ag niriritft sa 4ti q b4yan. Juan's inquiry when he got here 
was how many priests there are in our town. 

300. Introducing other phrases kuQ has the sense of if, 
whenever (of non-actual occurrences viewed as unreal, hypotheti- 

10 cal, or repeated) ; compare disjunctive attributes of time (§ 192, 
single actual occurrence), pag (§ 303, single non-actual occur- 
rence, simultaneous), kap^ and pagki (§§ 296.304, single non- 
actual precedent occurrence), words with prefixes in p- (§ 274, 
single occurrence, actual or non-actual), tuwS^ (§ 307, repeated 

15 actual) : Kuq dumatiQ si Hw^n ay umalis ka. If Juan comes, 
go away. Kug dumatiQ sya ay sabihin mo o maghintiy. // he 
comes, tell him to wait. Kug uulan ay gamitin mo arj kap6te. 
If it rains, use your raincoat. Bibilhin ko arj kab&yo ^ iy6n kur) 
may-roon ako i] mar&mi ^j kwaltii. / should buy this horse, if I 

20 had enough money. Note: Kuq sa pagaasawa naman, ako y 
nagkarodn na^ dalawi. And as to (literally if) taking a wife, I 
had two. 

301. In the same sense kug with di^ (§237) or hindi* 
(§239) if not, precedes the second, positive member of a con- 

25 trast: unless, but rather, beside, except (Cf. pala § 228) : Hwag 
kk I) makapakik&in-k4in kuQ hindi ka inaanydhan. Don't be tak- 
ing meals with people unless you are invited. Walk g ihk x} 
nagpS-pahirap sa kanya kug hindi kayo. There is no one else 
who causes suffering to him, beside you. 

30 302. gayon (§262), when subordinating, is conjunctively 

joined to its clause : l]ay6 q &raw na yito y daratig sila. On this 
very day they will arrive. Xi^yb t) ag tao g iy6n ay patay na, 
bakit naman . . .? Now that this ma7i is dead, why . . .? 

303. The atonic particle pag gives the time when of a 
35 single non-actual occurrence; cf. § 274 and see § 300. Pag ako 

ay pagod, natutulug ako nag maluwit. When I am tired, I sleep 
late. Pag paputol mo g hiniwa^ ag pakuwan ay hindi mibibill 
ag banda g puno^ // you cut the watermeUyn crosswise, you wUl 
not be able to sell the stem-end. Magmumurahin sila g dalaw4 
40 pag nagkita. The two wHl revile each other when they meet. 

304. The particle pagka (synonymous with kapig, § 296) 
gives the time immediately after which of a single non-actual 

Digitized by 



occurrence; cf. § 274 and see § 300, Pagka ikJiw ay nahnlog ay 
masasaktan kk. When you have taken a faU you tinU he hurt. < 

305. The particle pati including; cf. § 68. ag boo g ka- 
tawSTn pati ma^a mata at tai^a the whole body, including eyes 

5 and ears. 

306. The particle sapagkat (sa pagUt at t) because, for: 
Sapagkit aQ p&ri q it6 ay nagakala ^ ma^a walk ^ pinagar&lan 
aQ kanya ^ sin^s^rmunan ay hindi sya nagpilit. . . Because this 
priest thought his hearers were uneducated people, he took nd 

10 pains. . . Ipinaputol nya a^ kanya fl dallre^ sapagkit tinubdan 
naQ k&nser. He had his finger amputated because there was a 
cancer on it. For a phraise with sapieigkAt as predicate see exam- 
ple under kany4^ § 241. 

307. The particle tuw6^ (§244) in this use tells the time 
15 when always of actual repeated occurrences: whenever, every 

time. It is conjunctively joined to its clause: Pinaghihatdan 
nya na^ g4tas a^ b&yan twi q um&ga. He delivers milk in the 
town every morning. Pumaparfto a^j m6diko twi g makalawd,. 
The doctor comes every other day. Si Hwan ay nakikipagluksu- 

20 han twi g idinJtd&os ag ma^a palaro^ kuQ fyfesta nag b&yah. 
Juan takes part in the jumping contest whenever games are held 
in the fiesta of the town. Twi q papfisuk ak6 sa sine sa aki q 
kuyag ay &yaw sya. Every thne I ask my brother to take me to 
the moving-picture show, he refuses. 

25 308. upao in order to, so that (upa pay, wages ?) : Sila y 

na6upo pa l&mag upag managh&le'. They are just sitting down 
to eat the noon meal. Syk y tumayo^ sa bubugan nag bahay 
upao tanawin ag sunog. He stood up on the roof of the h/mse 
to watch the fire. Kantahin ninyo ag may sakit upag sya y 

30 malibag. Sing for the sick man so that he may be cheered. Tin&- 
wag nila ag isa g k&law upag siya g magii} hukftm. They called 
an owl so that (it) might be the one who served as judge. 

309. y&mag while, as: Aiq puno nag uggo ay namatAy y&- 
mag ag sa pagog ay tumubo^. The tree of the monkey died while 

35 that of the turtle grew. 

310. Predications and similar phrases (impersonal or ana- 
phoric) as absolute attributes, in the meaning of disjunctive at- 
tributes of time, are not uncommon: Madali-g-firaw pa lamag 
ay n^roroSn na sila. (When) it was stUl but dawn, they were 

40 already there. Mak&sa-m-pti g tawag nk ay wal4 pa syk. (At) 
the tenth call he was still not there. Makaraan ag ila g sandali^ 
ay sindbi nya sa suso^ . . . (When) a few moments had passed, 
he said to the snail . . . May Spat na pu 'o taon na sya sa lupa 

Digitized by 


361] SYNTAX ^5 

g Katagaltigan ay hindl pa nya natuttihan . . . (When) he had 
already been m the Tagalog country for about forty years, he had 
not yet learned . . . MInsan pum&suk sya sa simb&han ay n&ri- 
nig nya . . . Once (when) he went to church, he heard . . . 
5 Other examples at 26,2i. 28,n. 66,15. 92,is. 

4. Serial groups. 

311. The serial relation is expressed in part explicitly by 
particles and in part by parataxis, parenthesis, and anacolouthic 

10 (1) coordinating particles. 

312. The most important of the coordinating particles is at, 
t; as some of the others end in -t, they may be felt to contain 
at ; cf . the similar ending in other particles, § 213 ; t is used after 
syllabics, n, and * (see Phonetics), but even here at is commoner. 

15 When a sentence begins with a coordinating particle, the 

latter gives expression: to the connection with the preceding sen- 
tence (as in English sentences beginning with And ... or 
But . . .) 

313. at, t and connects words, phrases, or entire predica- 
20 tions. baro t salawal blouse and trousers (native costume), ag 

tapunan nai) beha at up6s the place for throwing cigarette-ends 

, and cigar-stubs, dalawa g pu t dalawa twenty -two, kufl mfnsan 

at malaki aQ g&lit nag ami. . . . sometimes, when the father's 

anger was great. . . . (ku^j goes with both of the members con- 

25 nected by at). 

When more than two elements are connected, at is used gen- 
erally between the last two: sina P6dro, Hwan, at Andres the 
group consisting of Pedro, Juan, and Andres, isa g libo, walo g 
daan, walo fl pu t &nim 1886. 

30 314. at is used in a few common phrases : isfl t isi everyone 

iba t iba various: ag magi taga iba t iba g b4yan people from 
various towns; Iba t ibi ag kulay nag kanyag pananamit. His 
clothes are of various colors, at iba pa and so forth, and other; 
ag tsiko, stiha^ santol, ... at iba pa the custard-apple, grape- 

35 fruit, santol, and so forth; ag maga h4yop at iba pi g 4ri nag 
pamahalain the live stock and other belongings of the govern^ 

315. at has occasionally a decidedly adversative tone; so, 
for instance, at 78,8i. 

40 316. Frequently at has subordinative coloring, the second 

of the members joined expressing: 

Digitized by 



cause : Hintliy ka muna t hindi pa akd nakap&pahiiga. Mak& 
a halt firsi, for I am not yet rested. Ibig mo ba ig kum&in sa 
&mint — Sal&mat, &yaw ko t kak&k&in ko pa l&maQ. Do you want 
to eat with nst — Thank you, no, for I have only just eaten. Buk- 
5 san m6 ag pintd* at ibig ko ^ pumasok. Open the door, for I 
want to go in. 

result: Ano t di ka lum&kad na^ matulint Why don't you 
walk fastf Ano afl ibig mo t naririto ki? What do you want 
that you have come here? i. e. What have you come here for? So 
10 especially: ano afl dahil at . .t what is the reason that . .? 

purpose: Umalis sya t makikiputol nafl damo. He has gone 
to help cut grass. 

temporal succession: Hindi sya nakarati^) naig &pat na pu q 
taon sa gulafl at sya y namatiy. She had not reached forty years 
15 in her age, when she died. 

a subordinate quasi-subject: Sin4bi na^ maighuhula sa iyo 
t hindi maUyo rito ag kawawalan nafl iyo g sigsifl. The fortune- 
teller told you that the place where you would lose your ring is 
not far from here. Sin4bi ko nk sa iy6 at hwag ka 5 mai^jay. I 
20 have told you already not to make any noise.^ 

317. The subordinating value of at appears especially in 
certain expressions which it forms with other particles : 

(1) at baki* lest (cf. § 235) : Hwag ki ^j magpatihulog 
diyin sa k&tre at bak& ka masaktin. Don't throw yourself from 

25 that bed, for you might hurt yourself. 

(2) at na^ so that (cf. § 192 f.) : Magiinum ka nai] gatas 
at na^j ikaw ay tumabjl^ Drink milk so that you may grow stout. 

(3) baga mkn at although (cf. § 290) : Baga mkn at umu- 
vlkn ay nagsisipaglaro sil&. Although it is raining they are at 

30 play. 

(4) kaya^ at so that (cf. § 297) : Napapupunta nila ai] pe- 
lota kay& t bawat isa sa kanild. ay nakaaba^. They direct the haU 
so that every one of them is on guard. 

(5) k4ylan m&n at every time that, whenever, synonymous 
35 with tuwS g, § 307 (cf. k4ylan mAn § 262) : Si Hwan ay t&wa 

nafl t4wa k&ylan ma t marinig nya a^j ma^ja katatawana i) bah&gi 
nag kwSnto. Juan laughs and laughs every time he hears the 
funny parts of the story. 

♦Once, at 16, 18, at is used concessively, even though, and is placed not at the 
beginning of its phrase, but after the subject, where ay would normally stand. 
The sentence is no doubt traditional; it has currency as a proverb. See 168 and 
cf. §292. 

Digitized by 


363] SYNTAX 207 

318. d&tapuwat but is the commonest adversative coordinat- 
ing particle. It is used also when the two members are not logi- 
cally but only formally in contrast: Afl huni na^j pipit ay ma- 
hina^ datapuwat matais a^j t6no. The chirping of the stone-spar- 
5 row is weak, but high-pitched. Puputulin ko aQ lubid kug m4y- 
roon akd q las6ta, datapuwat wal& ako. I should cut the rope if 
I had a knife, hut I have none. Si Pedro ay hindl dumatiT), da- 
tapuwat iba g t&o ag naparlto. Pedro did not arrive; it was 
someone else who came here. 

10 319. The particles ni hindi^ (§§ 253.239) connect coordi- 

nate elements in the sense of nor: Sya y hindi nagsisimbi ni 
hindf na^uQumpisal ni hindf rin nagm£lm&no sa p&re^. He neither 
went to church nor confessed nor kissed the priest ^s hand. Thel 
hindi^ may, as an anaphoric element, be left off after another 

15 hindi^: Aq kanila q kamay ay hindi nila m&ilabas sa butas m 
ibig nam&n sila q bitfwan a^ laman naQ nyog. They cannot take 
out their hand^ from the opening, nor are they willing to let go 
the cocoanut-meat. 

320. The particle ^junit is equivalent with d4tapuwat, but 
20 is less common: Hindi sya nagisip, ^junit sumagdt kardka-r4ka. 

He did not reflect hut answered at once. 

321. The atonic particle o or (probably Spanish) : isa g 
malaki q 4so o bfiboy a large dog or pig; Dikdikin kit4 sa lus6^) o 
lunurin kita sa flog? Shall I hray you in a mortar or drown you 

25 in the river f Frequently the combination o kayi* (§ 219) is used; 
it is loosely joined: Aq kapagyariha fl it6 y gdli^j sa dimoniyo 
o kayi y m&na sa magula^. This power comes from a demon or 
else is inherited from oi%e*s parents. 

322. The particle subalit hut is less common than its equiva- 
30 lents d4tapuwat and gunit : Aku sana y p4paroon sa Baliwag, su- 

b&lit hindf ako n4tuldy, dahilan sa isa q karamdaman. / was 
going to Baliwag, hut I did not keep on, on account of an illness. 

(2) paratactic sentences. 

323. A vocative joins another sentence: Hintu na kayo, 
35 maga bata^! Stop, children! T6 na, bal4e! or: Tara na, balfie! 

Come on, old man! 

324. Contrast, cause, result, detail, etc. are sometimes para- 
tactically expressed ; in some cases it seems uncertain whether the 
second element is paratactic or subordinate, so especially when it 

40 begins with kaniya^ (§§ 241. 295) : Sina Pedro, Hwan, at Andres 
ay magkakasamaha rj nagt4nod sa isa rj dulo nag tulay; sina 

Digitized by 



Felipe, Anduy, at Mariy&no sa ikalawjl q dulo. Pedro, Juan, and 
Andres are standing guard together at one end of the bridge^ 
Felipe, Andoy, and Mariano at the other. Hindi ko gusto iyAn, 
iba afl 4ki fl gustd. / don't like that, I want something else. 
5 Hwag kk q umyik, MaryJt, bak4 ka himatayin. Don't weep, Maria, 
you might have a fainting-fit. A\j kanta na^j bfita \) si Hwan ay 
kanya q nalimutan, kanyli hindi tula^ aQ kanya q kinanta. Little 
Juan forgot his song, that is why what he sang was disconnected. 
Siya ga^, siya afl nagbigiy sa 4kin nafl b4go fl buhay. Yes, she; 
10 it was she who gave me new life. Sya y may familiya; bukdd sa 
asdwa ay may dalawJt sya ^ anjlk. He had a family: beside his 
wife he had two children. 

(3) parenthesis. 

325. Not infrequently explanatory elements are inserted into 
15 a sentence parenthetically: Tatld ^j magkakaybigan, isa \j pare^ 

isa Q maQgag&mut, at isa ig sund&lo . . . Three friends, a priest, 
a physician, and a soldier . . . sa h4yop naman, karanyuwa y a^j 
b4buy . . . against animals, usually a pig . . . wala i) ul4m, 
asin at kanin l&maQ there was no meat, only salt a fid boiled rice. 
20 Further cases at 54,,. 86,21. 100,23. 108,2^. 

326. Often the parenthetic element is descriptive : malakas 
kum&in, katimba^ naQ dalaw4 kat4o great at eating, a match for 
two persons; na^ pinagkatam^ na walk ig patld, 4pat na pu ig 
paa ag h4ba* shavings udthout a break, forty feet in length. Simi« 

25 lar cases at SO,^^. 86,29. 118,43. 120,2. 

327. Especially common are parentheses describing the tem- 
porary state or situation of something: Ag mananalo \) pagkat 
at ajQ kanila q maga kaybigan, magkakas4ma q tinutugtugan nag 
kanila q banda nag musika, ay agad-ag&d na nagpapaseyo. The 

30 winning team and their friends, all together accompanied by the 
playing of their band, at once form a parade. NakaratiQ sUa sa 
kanila ^j b4hay, d&lk nila a^j supot nag kwalta. Thsy arrived at 
their house, bearing the bag of money. Other cases at 92,22.98,21. 

35 (4) anacolouthon. 

328. In other cases a breaking oflE of the construction rather 
than an insertion seems to take place: Ag maga hindi nagsisi- 
tugtog ag katugkulan ay kumant4. Those who do not play, their 
duty is to sing. G&ya ko, ako y parati g nahjlhdbul nag maga 

40 aso. Like me, I am often pursued by dogs. Pabulftg Umag kug 

Digitized by 


365] SYNTAX 209 

fidli 7 magsalitfian. In whispers only (predicate) when they talk 
together. The organic congtruction would probably be : Pabulog 
lamaQ a^ kanila q pagsasUit&an. Their conversation is only in 
whispers. Kwq kanya g pak&nin ay wala g ulim. When (they, 
5 anaphoric) are fed it is without meat. 

329. While direct quotations often enter into normal con- 
structions as predicate (§ 114), as conjunctive complement (§ 159), 
or as disjunctive object (§ 186), they are often joined by a break- 
ing off of CQpstruction. In this case their relation to the rest of 

10 a sentence may resemble that of a subject; this happens especially 
when the sentence begins with the quotation or with part of it. 
If ay, y were used many of these sentences would be regular: 
''Magiral ka ig mabuti," sindbi ni Hwan sa kanya ig an&k. ^^ Study 
well" was saidi by Juan to his son. **Dalawa!" isinig&w nafl 

15 bulSg. ^^Twof was shouted by the blindman. **Sa damdam 
kd,'' afl sagot ni Dy6go, **ay ak6 a^ pinakamakinis.'' **/n my 
opinion/' was Diego's answer, **I am the cleverest.*' Similarly 
their relation may resemble that of a disjunctive object (instru- 
mental type, § 186), but na^ is not used. This happens if the 

20 quotation follows active words of saying: Si Hwan naman ay 
sumagot: **Matar!'' Juan then answered: ''Matar!*' 

330. This peculiar construction of direct quotations is ex- 
tended to some cases that are not exactly quotations but may be 
viewed as such: Aq bo6 q 4sa ko aQ kandid&to q si Manikis aig 

25 n&gugustuh^n na^ ma^a t&o; hindi pala, kuQ hindi aq kandid&to 
X\ si Santos. It was my whole expectation that the candidate 
Maniquis uxmld be the one chosen by the people; but no, it was^ 
the candidate Santos. Aq paniwfila na^ ma^a t4o si Saig-Hw^ 
ay sya ig ssLnto ^ nagp&paul^. It is the belief of the people that 

30 San Juan is the saint who makes rain. 

Digitized by 



1. Composition. 

331. Compound words (i. e. words resembling in form a suc- 
cession of two or more words, but diverging in meaning from 
5 such a succession) are treated phonetically like groups of words 
in the phrase (§§33.34). 

If the first member ends in syllabic, n, or glottal stop, the 
particle i) appears before the second member. 

In meaning, compound words resemble a phrase in which the 
10 word corresponding to the first member is modified, in disjunctive 
attribution, by the word corresponding to the second: b&hay-akl&- 
tan library-building: b&hay na^j akl4tan. The meaning of the 
compound is, however, more specialized than that of the phrase. 
Exceptions as to meaning are: (1) the copulative compound 
15 draw-gabi, formed on the model of doubled words, such as araw- 
araw, gabi-gabi (§§258.343.); (2) kapatid-ko^jkristiyanos, a for- 
eign product; (3) m4y-ro6n, equivalent to m4y, which has been 
viewed as a compound because its construction (§138) differs 
from that of the phrase mdy roon (which would not require the 
20 particle g, §§252.263). 

Similar in form to compound words are words derived from 
a phrase (§332). 

Examples of regular compounds: ag bdhay-b4ta^ the womb, 
b4hay-guya^ the womb of an animal (guya^ the young of an ani- 
25 mal), b4hay-pahayagan newspaper office, publishing house, B4hay- 
Paniki Bat-House (name of a town, panfM a bat), b4hay-pinta- 
han paint-shop; Ito y bigay-loob l&ma^j nya sa 4kin. This is 
merely a concession he m^akes to me as a favor; ag lalawlga-^j- 
Pampagga, ag provinsiya-g-Parapagga Pampanga Province, cf. ag 
30 provinsiya nag Pampagga; ag S^maha-g-Sumtilog the Sumulong 
Company; ag tanud-bahay the watchman of a house, t4nud-palay 
watchman of a rice-field. 

A member of a compound may consist of an entire phrase 

(cf. § 332) : Big4sa-g-Sumulog-at-Kasamahkn Rice-mill of Sumu- 

35 long and Company (equivalent to Bigasan nila Sumulog at Ka- 


Digitized by 


367] MORPHOLOGY 211 

samahan) ; aq dulo-]g-bandd,-^-k&nan the right-hand end (aq bandi 
Q k&nan the right). 

Specialization and transference of meaning are especially 
marked in hampas-lupa^ (literally : beating of the ground) tramp, 
5 vagabond; kfipit-b&hay not only neighboring house, but also neigh- 
bor: Ag b&hay ni Hwin ay &ki g kipit-bahay, but also : Si Hwan 
ay aki g k&pit-b&hay ; kipit-bdyan neighboring town, but also per- 
son from a neighboring town; Sawi-^-p&lad siya. He is unlucky 
(literally unhandy of the palm). 
10 For the other occurrences of compounds see Index under ba- 

hay, bakas, binda, bantiy, b4sag, b4yad, b4yan, hw^h, butas, daan, 
hfiiiap, flog, kalab&w, kapulu^n, kasamaan, kasawian, kasirain, 
kinamatayAn, lupa^ m6diko, pai, pamat4y, pantay, pilik, pir&so, 
puno^ sam&han, t4o, trab&ho, ubos. 

15 2. General features of word-formation. 

332. Many words are analyzed into (1) recurring affixes, 
(2) doubling, (3) reduplication, and (4) a recurring unanalyza- 
ble element bearing the material meaning, the root. The place of 
the root may be taken by a word in turn showing derivation by 

20 these processes, or by a compound word, or even by a phrase. 
Other words, root-words, contain only the unanalyzable element. 
Other modifications affecting the meaning are shifting of the 
accent toward; the end of the word, and the use of secondary 

25 Modifications not affecting the meaning, but merely accom- 

panying those already named, are sound-variation and retraction 
of the accent toward the beginning of the word. 

The same morphologic elements may be variously distributed ; 
it is most convenient and corresponds most nearly to the speech- 

30 feeling to describe these differences as though they were due to 

different successions in which the modifications are applied : sumu- 

sulat is sulat reduplicated and with infix -um-; but (nag-)tutu- 

mira is tirk with infix -um-, then reduplicated (plus prefix nag-). 

The part of a word to which a modification is (in this sense) 

35 said to be added will be called the underlying word (or phrase) : 
in sumiisulat the infix -um- is added to the underlying word 
susulat, in (nag-)tutumira reduplication is added to the under- 
lying word tumir^; in ikasa-m-pu^ the tenth the prefixes ka- and 
i- are successively added to the underlying phrase sa m pu^ ten. 

40 Roots not actually occurring in this book as independent words 

Digitized by 



will be written with a ^\yphen prefij^ (-k&in), except in unmis- 
takable lists of roots. 

333. The root. Except for some proijioun forms and parti- 
clesy the roots have two or more syllables ap<} are almost always 
5 accented either on the last (oxytone roots) or on the uext-to-last 
{barytone roots) : bihay house, kamay hand. 

Some disyllabic roots are formed as though a single syllable 
were repeated : bitbit, budbfid, bu^obog piece of unspUt bamboo, dam- 
dhm, dibdib chest (part of body), dikdlk, di^dig (dindi^), § 20), 
10 g4ga, hinhin, ladlad, laglag, li^kiQ, lubl6b, maigm&Q, ni^niQ, 
padp^d, paqp^, pukpok, satsat, sikedk, siQsiQ, sisi, susp breast, 
nipple, sutsdt, tadtad, tiktik, ti^tlQ (tintlQ), tugt5g, tuktok, tuQ- 
tog (tuntog), ulol. 

Of the roots of more than two syllables some similarly repeat 
15 one or two syllables: ala&la, babaye (see § 345), bulaklkk, lipum- 
pon (beside Upon). 

Others appear as thou^ a syllable -al- or -ag- were infixed 
(or prefixed)/ before the first syllabic: alag&d (cf. agadt), bala- 
hfbo fur, hair on the body, balikat, ballta*, Baliwag, balubad, 
20 baluktot, daldga, dalamhdte^ dalandin, dalaghita*^, dala^jin, halak- 
hak, hal4man, halige, halimbawa^, halimhlm, kalabdg, kal4kal, ka- 
lasiQ, kalaykay, kalu^ds, palakli^ salakab, sal&kay, salak5t a rain- 
hat of palm-leaves, salapfe^ salawM, salaysay, salita^ salubo^j, 
salukoy, talastis, talu:ok6^ — ^bag&bag, bagaso bare stalk, of sugar- 
25 cane or corn (Spanish brazo, whence Tagalog baraso arm, assimi- 
lated to this typet), Hagunoy, lagabld.b, laginap, pagakp&k, 
sag4sa^, sagitsit. 

In some instances roots of the same or similar meaning re- 
semble each other in form. This is commonest in loan-words, where 
30 different degrees of assimilation exist side by side: biroke, bitoke 
blow-gun buUet (Spanish bodoque) ; pal&nsa, pirinsa flatiron 
(Spanish plancha). It occurs also, however, in native (or an- 
ciently assimilated) roots: aniy&ya^ y&ya^; 4nib, sauib (for sa 
4nib ?) ; balita^ salita^; bitiw,, bitiw; bugdk, bulok; bugaga^ 
35 mouth, maw (naQ humd of the oven, naig kal&n of the stove) ^ 
suQ^Qa^ a blow on the mouth; dinig, kinig; ipon, Upon (lipumpon, 
above), tipon; lain, taan; luh6d, tuhod; ma^ha^, taqhi^; matay, 

When syllables of a root resemble affixes, there is always 

40 possibility that the root may be interpreted as a derived word by 

the speech-feeling, no matter whether historically it be such or 

not. Thus the Index will show many roots whose initial syllables 

Digitized by 


3§91 HOBPHOLOGY 213 

are identical with prefixes; the other cases will b^ mentioned under 
the various aflSxes. 

334. Affixation. Prefixes are added to the initial of the 
underlying word: nag-tira; infijoes before the first syllabic: t-um- 
5 irky um-alis ; suffixes to the end : tir4-han. 

Affixes are occasionally accompanied by retraction of accent: 
it6, d-ito. See §§ 343,c. 358,c.e. 481,c. 485,a. 523. 528,d. 

Id the following cases afSxes are accompanied by sound- 
variation : 

10 (a) prefixes: 

(1) The prefixes ending in g are treated phonetically as 
though they were separate words; this happens occasionally with 
other prefixes (§34). 

(2) Initial d of the underlying word becomes r after the 
15 syllabic of a prefix in the roots listed in § 17. The change is con- 
stant only in the commonest formations: always pa-ra4n, but 
nak&-da&n beside nak4-raan. Striking irregularities at §§ 407,a. 

(3) The prefix i- and in some formations the prefix ka- con- 
20 tract with a following syllabic (§31) : iy-&nib. (for i-&nib), iwan 

(for i-Iwan), ka-yiblg-an (for ka-ibig-an), kawawa' (for ka-&wa- 
awa^) . See §§ 368. 401. 421. 426,b. 475,a. 481,c. 485,a. 

(4) The prefixes ending in g (ma^j-, na^j-, pa^j-) alter a fol- 
lowing initial, always in much-used words, frequentiy in others. 

25 Before an initial i^llabic the ig is treated aa though it be- 

longed to the underlying word and not to the prefix. This appeara 
in reduplication (§336). 

Initial p, h, t^ d, s, are often, initial k is always changed to 
the corresponding nasal: pam&lo^ (p41o^ with pag-), but also pag- 

30 pa-rikit; pamilmit (bilmit), but also pag-bamb6; pan41i^ (tili^), 
but also paQ-takip; panal&qin (dala^in), but also pag-dillg; na- 
narlwa^ (sariwa^), but also pa^-sakay; na^apa^ (kapa^). Where 
the change is not made, the ^j may be assimilated to dentals (§ 20) : 
manduruMt beside ma^dudukit. 

35 Before nasals the g is usually lost: namah&la^ (mahila' with 


See pag- and mag- in List of Formations. 

(5) The prefix hin- and its compounds give rise to a few 
similar changes, see §§ 357,b. 376,a. 518. 

40 (6) For occasional irregularities of prefixes see §§ 347,b. 481,d. 


Digitized by 



(b) infixes: 

(1) Where -in- is infixed in a word beginning with I, w, or y, 
this initial is usually interchanged with the n, so that, practically, 
we have a prefixed ni- instead of an infixed -in-: ni-luto^ (beside 

5 less common 1-in-uto'), ni-walis (beside w-in-ika^), ni-y4ya^ See 

(2) Where words beginning with syllabic, h, I, w (and y) have 
the prefix i- and the infix -in-, the latter is almost always used 
as a prefix, preceding the i-: in-iy-utos, in-Iwan (for in-i-Iwan), 

10 in-i-halid, i-ni-luto^ (beside less common i-1-in-uto^) , in-i-wisik. See 

(3) On -um- see § 348,b. 

(c) sufSxes: 

(1) The sufSxes (-an and -in) after a syllabic take an initial 
15 h: luksu-han. 

(2) Pinal d always becomes r before a sufiSx: lakar-in 

(3) When used in the formation of transient derivatives, as 
well as in some other of their uses, the suffixes are accompanied 

20 by irregular modifications of certain roots. 

Some roots ending in syllabic are treated as if they ended in 
glottal stop ; they are ama, kfta, mati : ama-in, kita-an, mata-an. 

Others are treated as though they ended in n; they are paa, 
tfilo, t4wa: paa-n4n (beside regular paa-h4n), talu-nan, taw4-nan. 

25 Other roots lose the syllabic of the last syllable, as well as a 

final glottal stop which may follow this; if the syllabic is final, 
the suffix adds h: asin asn-JLn, big^y bigy-an, bill bil-h4n, mul^^ 
mul-an. The roots so treated are: asin, bigay, bill, bukas, dal4, 
hatid, higJt', iba (but also regular iba-hin), eskuwela, gawi', kain, 

30 kamit, lagiy, laki, likod, masid, muljt^ puno^ putol (but also 
regular putiil-an), sak&y, s&kit, subo, sunod, t4\)an, tiba^, tigin, tirk 
(but also regular tira-han), ulP, upo^, wala^. 

Still other roots add assimilation, dissimilation, or metathe- 
sis of consonants to the loss of vowel: 4nak agk-^n, atip apt-Jin, 

35 daniw ( ? see § 421) ka-raniytiw-an, datig datn-an, gilid ta-ligd-^n 
(beside regular ta-gillr-an), halik hagk-an, haggJt hagg-Jin (i.e. 
the h of -han is lost), kinig kigg-in, silid sigl-an, tanim tamn-^n, 
tuwid ka-tu-tur-an. 

Entirely irregular are the following: ala41a alala-h4nin (-h4- 

40 nin for -hin), aniyaya any4-han, h4ri^ ka-hariy-an ka-hary-in 
(beside regular pag-hari-an), ihip hip-an, flag inlag-an (for ilag- 

Digitized by 


371] MORPHOLOGY 215 

n&n t but also regular ilag-an), kaw&yan kwayan-&n (beside regu- 
lar kawayan-^), kil&la kilan-lAn (for kilal-n&n ?), kuha kti-nin, 
lar6^ laruw-£ln larw-in (beside regular laru-an), pulo* ka-puluw- 
kn ka-pulw-an (beside regular ka-pulu-^n), s41a sa^-lan (for sal- 
5 nan t also ka-sal&-nan and regular sal&-lian), sundd^ pagk^-sun- 
duw-^n (beside regular -sundu-in), t&o ka-taw-in (t see § 422, 
also regular ka-tau-han), totod tdto-h&nan (-h&nan for -ban). 

335. Doubling. In certain formations the underlying word, 
if disyllabic, is repeated; the phonetic treatment is the same as 

10 that of successive words in a phrase (§ 34) : agad-ag^d, gabi-gab!, 
&pat-&pat, pa-ligid-ligid. 

If the underlying word has more than two syllables, only the 
beginning of it, inclusive of the second syllabic, is repeated, and 
the final syllabic of this repeated part has a primary accent : kanl- 

15 kanino, kanf-kanila, nag-kag&-kagalit (underlying word ka-galit). 

336. Reduplication, In some formations the beginning of 
the underlying word, including the first syllabic, is repeated, su- 
sulat, &-akiyat. Words with reduced i or u (§27) reduplicate with 
i, u: maka-sl-siyi, maka-si-syi. 

20 Note the foreign words: krus nag-ku-kurus, trabaho nag-ta- 


Initial d of the roots listed in § 17 often becomes r after the 
reduplication: k-in-i-dd-roon-4n (doon), nag-d&-daan (daan). 
When a prefix which involves change of initial comes before 
25 a reduplcated form, the latter has the changed initial both in the 
reduplicative syllable and in the underlying part: n£l-r6-ro6n 
do6n), pa-^ju-gumit (umit with pag-, § 334,a,4; also: pag-u-umit) 
putol pa-mu-mutol (ptitol with pa^j-). 

337. Accent-shift. In certain formations the accent is dis- 
30 placed one syllable toward the end of the word : sulat sulat. This 

is especially the case before suflSxes forming transient words : sulat 
sul&t-an. In some formations with suflSxes the accent moves two 
syllables toward the end of the word : sulat sulat-in. 

Certain roots are especially given to this change and show it 

35 in formations where it is not regular. In these roots the accent- 
shift is more or less clearly and regularly connected with a modi- 
fication of meaning. The roots are: dbot overtake, with shift: 
reach for, take hold of, pass, hand; e. g. pa-4bot let oneself he 
overtaken, pa-abot something caused to he handed, akay, &lam, 

40 4wa^, ayaw, bdba^, bahay, hkya?, bulag, gdlit, gisi^j, hdyag, hfili, 
14kad, Idpit, 14yo^ mura, s&kit, s4ma, sira^ t41o, tama^, t4wa, tu- 

Digitized by 



loy, una. See Index. A few pairs of roots differing only in accent 
may possibly belong here, e. g. -dnak family and anik chiM. 

338. Secondary accents. (1) In some formations a second- 
ary accent is spoken on the initial syllable of the underlying word : 

5 alls aiis-an, ka-galit kigallt-an, iyik iy&k-an. If the first syllable 
is closed, the secondary accent is omitted: luksft luksu-han; so also 
if it is followed by consonant pins reduced vowel (§ 27) : taniyig 
tanyag tany4g-an; and also if its own vowel is reduced: niy6g 
nyog niyug-ah nyug-an. There are some irregularities. See 

10 §§ 377,b. 383. 421. 421,b. 426,b. 

(2) Prefixes and reduplications often take a secondary ac- 
cent: ni-ptitol (different in meaning from na-putol), su-sulat. 

These secondary accents have phonetically the quality of pri- 
mary accents when they come before short oxytone underlying 

15 words: n&-rinig, d-akiyat. If, however, the word is accented on a 
suffix, the accent on this is more audible and the secondary accent 
remains: n^-buks-an. So also if there are two secondary accents: 
n&-ri-rinig. Longer oxytone words not accented on a suffix vary; 
they have been transcribed as heard in each cade: nag-si-si-pag- 

20 laro^ nag-si-si-pag-laro^ 

339. Indications. In the following description formations 
will be indicated as follows: 

prefixes thus: nag-; infixes: -um-; suffixes: -an; secondary ac- 
cent on prefixes : ni- ; 

25 doubling by **D'', e.g. nag- D -an represents the formation 

seen in nag-asw&Q-aswd^-an; 

reduplication by **r'', with secondary accent by **R", e.g. 
pag- r (pag-pu-putol), nag- R (nag-pu-ptitol), -um- R (s-um-u- 
sulat), nag- R -um- (nag-td-t-um-iri) ; 

30 secondary accent on the first syllable of the underlying word 

by ''S'', e.g. S-an (Mis-an) ; 

accent-shift by **(1)" or **(2)'', e.g. (1) describes the for- 
mation of snlkt from sulat; (1) -an (sulat-an) ; (2) -an (sulat- 

35 340. Summary of formations. The various formations group 

themselves into eight classes: 1. simple formations without char- 
acteristic prefix, expressing simple actions, objects, etc. ; 2. f orma- 
mations with characteristic prefix pag-, expressing chiefly transi- 
tive actions ; 3. characteristic prefix pag-, deliberate actions ; 4. si-, 

40 action by more than one actor; 5. paki-, action along with others; 
6. ka-, reciprocal, involuntary, and accidental; 7. pa-, causative; 
8. pati-, reflexive. 

Digitized by 


37^1 MORPHOLOGY 217 

These indications are a mere rough guide : neither the charac- 
teristic prefix nor the meaning indicated runs through the entire 
group. The first three groups are the most important, and, to a 
large extent, each formation of the other five groups belongs also 
5 to one of the three primary groups. 

In each group there are four tjrpea of words: simple static, 
transient, abstracts of action, and special static. The simple static 
words involve no idea of active or passive; the transients are ac- 
companied by abstracts, in which the transient occurrence is viewed 
10 as a static concept, and by special' static words, which, though 
static, involve the idea of voice: simple static sulat a document, 
writing, letter; transient sumulat wrote, sul&tan is to he written 
to; abstract pagsulat an act of writing; special static sulatlin a 
writing-desk (with idea of local passive). 
15 Each (active or passive, § 92) transient formation exists in 

two modes, actual and contingent, and each of these has two as- 
pects, punctual and durative; the durative always has accented re- 
duplication. The actual mode envisages the occurrence as actually 
having taken place or taking place: in the punctual aspect the 
^0 occurrence is viewed in its entirety, without regard to duration, 
and hence always as past: nag4ral studied, learned; in the dura- 
tive aspect of the actual the occurrence is viewed as a process 
going on in time, past or present: nag^ral was studying, is study- 
ing, used to study, studied (repeatedly), studies. The contingent 
25 mode views the occurrence as not having actually taken place : the 
punctual aspect aspect views it as possible, hypothetical, or com- 
manded: mag&ral should study, study (as command) ; the dura- 
tive as future from the point of view of the past or present : ma- 
gadral will study, was going to study. The punctual contingent 
30 form is used not only in commands and hypothetical clauses, but 
in subordinate predications and complements generally, even, for 
instance, after na^j (§ 192 f.), and often, in such constructions, 
in competition with actual forms. It is often used, further, after 
hindi' (§ 238). When objectivized with a^], it expresses the pos- 
35 sibility or circumstance of the occurrence : a^] mag&ral a hypothet- 
ical studier, the circumstance that one might study. 

Thq abstracts of action are much used in the construction 
described at § 274. 

In addition to these more or less regular and systematized 
40 forms, there arel various isolated formations, which will- be dis- 
cussed after the others. 

A systematically arranged list of formations precedes the 

Digitized by 



3. Description of formations. 

I. Primary groups (zero, pag-, pa^j-). 

A. Simple static forms. 

(1) Root-words. 

5 341. The uses of root-words cover a wide range of meanings, 

the diversity of which is due to the various material meanings of 
the roots. The rough grouping here made is a matter of con- 
venience; the speech-feeling seems not to distinguish classes of 
roots or diverse employments of root-words. 
10 While a complete list of the examples occurring in the Texts 

and illustrative sentences will be given for nearly all other forma- 
tions, the root-words are so numerous that it will be expedient 
merely to refer to the Index. 

(1) Boot-words in many cases express object-ideas which are 
15 viewed as simple : ag b4hay house, afl t4o human being. 

(2) If the words containing a root have in common the idea 
of a quality rather than of an object, the root-word may express 
either the quality itself, or an object possessing the quality. 

(a) In the former case, it is generally a single occurrence of 
20 the quality that is expressed, not the quality in general, which is 

expressed rather by a collective with ka- and -an (§ 421 ff.), but 
this distinction is not fully carried out. The root-word generally 
stands in object construction. Examples: Ai) bute ni Hwan ay 
wal4 sa kanya g ulo, ddtapuwat n&sasa kanya ^j puso^. Juan's 

25 good quality lies not in his head, hut in his heart. Si Pedro ay 
t4o fl wala g da^jM. Pedro is a person without honor, ag Init 
nag tag&raw the heat of summer. Ag Idlim na^j bal6n ay isa g 
pantay-kawdyan. The depth of the well is the le'tigth of a bamboo- 
tree. Ag lamig sa Am6rika ay masy&do. The cold in America is 

30 excessive. Ag ligs^ na^j usa ay hindl gaya nag sa aso. The speed 
of the deer is not equal to that of the dog. Ag sam4 nag sdgig 
na ito ay nisa ugat. The trouble with this banana-tree is at the 
root, ag ta4s nag k4hoy the height of the tree. 

(b) When expressing an object endowed with a quality, the 
35 root-word is in competition with words formed with the prefix ma- 

(§ 454). It usually stands as a predicate or as conjunctive attri- 
bute of another word, ag ttibig na &lat salt-water, ag dagat na 
41at the salt-sea, the ocean. Ag pako^ ay baluktot. The nail' is 
crooked. Ag patalim ay b&wal sa maga b&ta^ Children are not 
40 allowed to have sharp tools. Ag itliig na yito y bugok (or : bu- 

Digitized by 


375] MORPHOLOGY 219 

16k) . This egg is rotten. Sya y bugok. He is crazy. a\) buwisit 
na alfla^ a repulsive servant. Ikaw ay bwisit. You are a bore. 
Maga gfliw ko fl ginod! Honored sirs! isa g t4u rj h4mak a no- 
account person, a^j t4u ^ lasi^j the drunken man. Sya y lasi^. 
5 He is drunk, a^j pulube g lumpo the lame beggar. Sya y lumpo. 
He is lame. Si Hwan ay isa g mah^ll na b&ta^ sa kanya ig ma^a 
magulafl. Juan is a child dear to his parents. Mura ag ma^a 
sfle sa panahd j} it6. Peppers are cheap at this time. Hindi pan- 
sin a^ piklat sa mukhi na^ dalaga q si Marya. The scar on young 

10 Maria's face is not noticeable, ag t&o g panot a bald-headed man. 
isa fl b6ya g pay&pa* a tranquil town. Sya y pipe. He is dumb. 
Ag pintk nafl bint&na^ ay putfe^ The window is painted white. 
Sagid a^j kanya fl gupit. His hair-cut is close. Sina Hwan ay 
sal£lt sa pananamit. Juan and his family are short of clothing. 

15 Ako y sawi sa pagsnsubo^ sa b4ta^. / am in an awkward position 
for feeding the chUd. Sdya^ a^j b4ta ^j si Hwan. Little Juan is 
to be regretted. Isa g t4o g sinugalig si Pedro. Pedro is a liar. 
Si Hwan ay isa fl tao g tanyig. J^ian is a renowned man. Tan- 
yag sya sa kanya ig U&se. He is at the head of his class. aiQj 

20 tigas nag k4hoy the hard part of the log. ar) daa g tumpik the 
right road, si Untfe' Shorty (as nickname). 

(3) If the words containing the root refer rather to an action 
or occurrence, the uses of the root-word are more varied. 

(a) The root- word may refer to the action itself; it is used 

25 of a single instance rather than of the action in general, which is 
expressed rather by abstracts of action, though the distinction is 
not always clear. The root-word so used is mostly in object con- 
struction. Examples: Ag anyfiya sa akin ni Hw&na ay dki g 
tinagg^p. / accepted Juana*s invitation. May ball' ag kaw&yan. 

30 The bamboo has a break in it. May buhay pa ag pusa g ito. This 
cat is still alive. Ag dalamhatl nag kanya g in£l ay malaki. His 
mother's grief is great. Sa damdam k6 y nagumpisa na ag mala- 
lamig na 4raw. I think (literally: In my feeling) the cold days 
have begun. Si Hw^n ay sya g pum&yag sa hilig nila sa kanya 

35 g sasakyan. Juan was the one who acceded to their request for 
his vehicle. Ag hugas nag piggan ay raarum^. The washing of 
the dishes is dirty y i. e. The dishes have been poorly washed. Ag, 
kanti nag Ibon ay mainam. The bird's song is pleasant. Ag ka- 
sal ni P^dro at ni MaryJi ay sa liggd. The wedding of Pedro and 

40 Maria wHl be on Sunday, ag 4ki g lulan sa tren my embarking 
(with all my goods) on the train. Ag pagakpak nag maga tdci 
ay nakabibigi. The applause of the people was deafening. Ai^ 

Digitized by 



p&go* sa pai ni P6dro ay malaki. The hum on Pedro^s foot is 
large. A^ putol naQ buhdk ni Hw&n ay baldl-baUl. Jtuin's hair- 
cut is uneven. Sa lunes aiQ tagpu nila sa da&-Q-Balfwag. They 
are to meet on the Baliwag road next Monday. aQ tahdl ni Bato 
5 T) B&kal the barking of Iron Stone (name of a dog). Ag tam& 
nao Mta* ay sa lilo. The chUd was struck on the head. Binigyan/ 
ni Hw&n naq isa q tapik a^ kaybigan nya q si Pedro. Ju^an gave 
his friend Pedro a nudge. Ag kanya 5 tulog ay mababaw. Hi^ 
sleep is light. A5 npu na^ IntAk ay patalu^kd*. The Chinese sit 

10 squatting. Butihan mo a^ y&ri na^ samballlo. Put a good finish 
on (the making of) the hat. 

(b) The root-word may express an object by virtue of which 
the action becomes possible or has concrete manifestation; this use 
closely approaches transient passives of various kinds. Root- 

15 words in this use are most commonly conjunctive attributes, but 
the object construction, especially in the predicate, is frequent. 
Ag &gaw nya 5 laruwJ,n ay inilagay nylt 1^ kahdn. The toys 
he sfiatched were put by him into a box. Sino sa maga t&o 
ag inako ni Mariy&no t Ajq &ko ni Mariy&no ay si P6dro. 

20 Which one of the men did Mariano relieve? — The one whom 
Mariano relieves is Pedro. Hwag kay6 g mamutol nag 
kawaya g hindi ninyo Ari*. Don't make a cutting of bamboo 
not owned by you; ag firi* property, ag may ari* the 
owner or master. Ag bigay nylt sa &kin nag Pask6 nag Pagaga- 

25 nak na nagda&n ay isa g tabakera. For last Christmas he gave 
me a tabatiere. ag bihis nya g damit the (good) clothes she has 
put on (in place of her others), isa g biro* a joke, ag byay na 
isda' sa palaisd&an the fish allowed to swim free in the fish-reser- 
voir, ag dali that carried; Dalit ni Hwan ag lumbo. Juan is car- 

30 rying the cup. ag dikit nag ap6y the blazing of the fire. Ag 
oras^n ni Hwan ay galig sa Paris. Juan's watch comss from Paris. 
Ag tomilyo g ito y g4mit sa m&kina. This screw is used in the 
machine, ag ganti nya g pala* the gift he gave in return; Ag 
kwako g ito ay ganti g p41a* sa akin ni Hwlin. This cigar-holder 

35 is a return-gift to me from Juan. May h&lo g iba g b&gay ag 
g^tas na ito. This mUk has something else mixed in u)ith it. h&ti 
g gabi midnight. Ag hamplts na tinaggap ni Hwan sa kanya g 
paginoftn ay isa g kaban. The whipping Juan got from his m^aster 
was twenty-five strokes. May h4rag na puno-g-k4hoy ag dsk g 

40 patugo sa b&riyo nag San-Visente. The road toward the district 
of San Vicente has a tree obstructing it. Hule si Hwan nag pulis. 
Juan was arrested by the policeman. Ag igib nya g tubig ay 

Digitized by 


377] MORPHOLOGY 221 

manim^. The - water he dipped from the spring is dirty. Afl 
binab&sa nya q librd ay 'kathk ni Bis&l. The book he is reading 
was written by Rizal. Lain (or: tain) kay Pedro aQ ala&la q ito. 
This present is reserved for Pedro. A5 likad ni Hwin ay a^j 
5 paqhihirim. Juan's errand is to borrow something. A^ lulan ni 
Hwan sa kanya q karitdn ay ma^a kahdn nag ilak. Juan's load 
on his wagon is cases of liquor; ag lula g kasa^k&pan the loaded 
utensils. A^j mandk na jdto y Into sa dnruan. This chicken is 
roasted on the spit. Nihiile si Hwin sa tabl na^ kanya g nikaw 

10 na kabayo. Juan was caught toith the horse he stole. Ajq pisak 
nafl ba^ka* ay bun6t na^j ny6g at pagkit. The boat is calked with 
cocoanut fibre and wax. A5 pigil ni Hwin ay a^ kabiyo. Juan 
is trying to restrain the horse. A5 pintis ko kay Hwin ay a^j 
kanya 5 bisyo fl paginora. What I don't like about Ju^n is his 

15 vice of drunkenness, a^j pnlot anything picked up; an adopted 
child. aQ isa Q putol na ptino-Q-k&hoy a tree that has been cut up; 
A5 putol nag kihoy ay napakaiklJ^ The wood has been cut too 
short. A^) librd ay ag sadya ko sa bihay ni Hwan. The book is 
what I went to Juan's house for. Ag sakay sa trSn ay limi 5 

20 kompanyi g sondilo. The people in the train are five cpmpanies 
of soldiers. Aq sa^kip na^ man6k ay kalabisa. The chicken is 
cooked unth pumpkin. ''Magsipagsisi kay6, maga tio ^ makasa- 
lanan," a^ sigiw naiQ k^ra mvlk sa pulpito. ''Repent, ye sin- 
ners," was the cry of the priest from the pulpit, isa ^ subo* d 

25 mouthful. Marimi sya g tigo 5 kwalta. He has much money 
saved away. Ag tanim na\) b6kid ay p41ay na malagkit. The field 
is planted unth a sticky rice. A^ ta^gip nya q bilin ay lubhi ^j 
marimi. The commissions he received were numerous. Malakis 
ag tawa ni Hwan. Juan's laughter was loud. Ag t&wag sa lugir 

30 na ito ay Kinamataya-g-Kabiyo. They call this place Dead Horse. 
ag tugtog that on which something stands; a m^t on which dishes 
are set (specific name: dikin). A5 t6ru nag bata* ay ag man- 
sdnas sa m^sa. The child is pointing at the apple on the table. Ag 
usisa* sa fikin ni Hwin ay kng saan nindon ag kanya g sombrero. 

35 What Juan asked me was where his hat was. Wala sya g uwi g 
mar) a libro. He did t\ot bring home any books. Ag talim nag 
gulok ay yari sa Yurupa. The cutting-edge of the bolo is made in 

(c) Especially with the particle ni (§ 223) the root-word 

40 • often expresses a brusque command ; in this use it is in competition 
with transient forms. Dali ka nag iyo g pagtakbo. Hurry your 
running, i. e. Run faster. Hampas na kay6, maga bita^ sa maga 

Digitized by 



la\)g&m. Whip at the ants, bays. H&ti na naQ mans&nas. Divide 
up the apples. Hintu na kayo, maga Mta*. Stop, children. Isip 
na kayd kuQ ano aig kahnlugan naQ &ki q bug^Q. Ouess the mean- 
ing of my riddle. L&yas nal Oet out! Ligu na! Take a bath! 
5 Luksu nk sa tinik na iyan. Jump across those spines. S&ma nk 
sa kanya. Oo to him. Tawag na naQ ma^a polls. CaU the police. 
Tayd^ Stand up. Upu na. Sit down. 

(d) Repeated with na^j (§ 191) root-words, as predicates, de- 
note an actor in repeated and continuous action: N^ta ko ]g 

10 putol nao putol si Hwan na^ tubo. I saw Juan cutting away at 
the sugar-cane. Similarly (see Index) bill and t4wa. 

342. Root-words with accent-shift. Barjrtone roots are used 
as root-words with shift of accent to the last syllable to denote 
something which has been affected by the action, quality, or (im 

15 fewer cases) thdng, which is denoted by the root. The particle na 
is usually added. Agaw nit sa sunog ax) maqa laruwiin. The toys 
have been snatched from the fire. Aw& na si Hw&n sa kanya g 
pinarurus4ha 5 enik. Juan is already overcome with pity for his 
child, whom he is punishing. Aig 4so ni Hwan ay bah&y. Juan's 

20 dog is grown up in the house, is completely domesticated. Ag 
bata xs si Hwan ay bahay. Little Juan is shy, is unused to strait- 
gers. Bayad nh ag utag sa 4kin ni Hwan. Juan's debt to me is 
paid now. Bihis na ag b&ta*. The child's clothes have been 
changed. The child is dressed up now. Bilag nk ag mag a itlog 

25 na ito. These eggs are already counted. Ag ulo ni Hwan ay bi- 
16g. Juan's head is round; or: Juan has been fooled; ag bil6g 
na tkho? the round dipper. Buhay ag &ki g ina. My mother is 
living. Sya y bulig. He is blinded; or: He is blind; ag babdye 
g hxdkg the blind woman. Daig na ag isdi*. The fish has been 

30 laid open, isa g t&o g gut6ni a hungry (or: gluttonous) person. 
Hati na ag tubo. The sugar-cane is cut in two. Huli na si 
Hw&na sa tr6n. Juana is late for the train. Ag karne ay ihaw 
na. The meat is done. Init na ag g4tas. The milk is heated. 
Kayas nk ag kaw&ya g ito. This bamboo is already smoothed. Ag 

35 pagkukunan nya nag itlog ay ag kaho g kulag na. He u)ill take 
eggs from the box that is already started (literally: incomplete, 
cf . Apat na s^ntimos ag kulag nitd. This lacks four cents, is four 
cents too little). Lipas na ag gamdt (ag pabago'). The medi- 
cine (the perfume) is stale, has lost its stre^igth. Lipas na ag 

40 aki g gutora. My hunger has disappeared. Pas6* ag lugar na ito 
nag kanya g kamiy. This spot on his hand is burned; ag paso* 
a pottery dish. Ag pagkak&galitan ni Hw^n at ni Pedro ay pawi 

Digitized by 


379] MORPHOLOGY 223 

nk. The quarrel between Juan and Pedro is now allayed. Pigil 
na afl kaMyo. The horse is under control now. Ag kahoy ay 
putul nk. The wood is now cut. lib y sirA na. This is already/ 
ruined. Sunftg ag damit na kanya g pinirinsa. The clothes which 
5 she ironed are scorched; sun6g na asukal burnt sugar. Tama na 
ag iyo g pagkw^nta. Now you have figured it correctly. Tipun 
na an maga kalabaw. Now the caribou are rounded up. Tulis 
nk ag l&pis. The pencil is sharpened. Turo* ag kanya g dallre^ 
His finger is stiff. 
10 This form occurs, in this book, also from the following roots 

(see Index) : bdsag, bunot, g&lit, g&mit, hasa^ kilala, l&pad, li- 
mag, p&god, sakop, sinay, sulat, t4pos, tiwdla^ tuloy. 

(a) In the case of some roots this form is used like a simple 
root- word without accent-shift ; these are roots in which the accent- 

15 shift expresses a modification of the material meaning; see § 337. 
So: alam that known (see Index); Bab4 na riy&n sa iyo g ki- 
nauupan! Come down from your perch! hakkd kami g umw6^ 
We went home on foot. Ag sakit na kanya g tinitiis ay ai] lagnat 
na tipus. The sickness from which he is suffering is typhoid fe- 

20 ver. (ag s&kit na kanya g tinitiis the grief he is enduring). Sama 
t&yo sa pagbili nag p&lay. Let us be partners in buying rice. Of. 
also hull, above. 

(b) In oxytone roots, where the accent-shift cannot occur, 
our form is homonymous with the simple root-word: Bigti nk si 

25 Pedro. Pedro is now strangled. Binyak ni Hwan ag kawiyan. 
Juan has split the bamboo. Bukas nk ag lata. The can is opened. 
Busug nk ag maga h&yop. The animals have been fed their fill. 
Hintu na ag tren nag ak6 y sumak&y. The train had stopped 
when I got on. Hubad nk ag b&ta^ The child is undressed now. 

30 Ag maga Igorote ay hubid. The Igorote go naked. Hugkuy nk 
ag bigas. The rice is fanned now. Sya y kasal. He (she) is mar- 
ried. Pantay n^ ag lupa^ The ground has been levelled. Nakita 
ko g patid ag samp&yan nag damit. I saw that the clothes-line 
was broken. Punii na ag b6te g it6. This bottle is already full. 

35 Tayti na ag bahay. The house is already erected. Tikwas na ag 
kahoy. One end of the log is down. 

Similarly are used: agkin, bill, tadtad, tuwa'. 

(2) Doubling. 

343. Simple doubling. Simple doubling expresses explicit 

40 plurality or repetition, often with the idea of variation, intensity, 

or diminution : &pat-apat four by four, four at a time, ag mata- 


Digitized by 



mati treUiS'Work. Aq duru nya naQ karayom ay hindi pare- 
par^ho. Her stitches with the needle are not even. Sabay-sabay 
sila Q umalis. They all went away at the same time. Similarly 
from: agJid, alin, and, 4raw, b4gay, baldl, baluktdt, bara, gabi, 
5 giba^, halo^ isa, lahat, libo, li^go, loob, pantiy, s&ri*, sino, sun6d, 
tnia*, unti*. 

(a) The simple root does not occur and the meaning is dis- 
crepant in paru-par6 butterfly. 

(b) From derived words, in the same meaning: kanl-kanila 
10 (ka-n-ili § 528), kani-kanlno (ka-n-i-no § 528), dala-dalawa two 

by two, two at a time (da-lawi § 345), tatlu-tatlo three by three, 
three at a time (ta-tl6 § 345). 

(c) With retraction of accent: D41i-d&li sya g tumakbo. He 
ran off like a flush. 

15 344. (1) D. In some cases the accent is shifted; the mean- 

ing is the same: Put61-put61 afl katawin ni Hwan nay aki y 
miklta. Juan's body was all cut up when I saw it. This form 
from: b&hay, bdyan, punit, s4bi, sulok. 

(3) Reduplication. 

20 346. Simple reduplication. In a very few cases the place 

of the root-word is taken by the root with reduplication. The 
only clear case is tutuli ear-wax, root -tuli. The numerals da- 
lawa tu)to and tatlo three seem to be irregularly reduplicated forms 
of roots -lawa and -tld (for -talo t), as a few of the derivatives 

25 seem to indicate. A number of words, treated in the following 
as simple roots, have, however, the aspect of this formation: ba- 
baye, bibiyki, bubuwit a kind of mouse, gagamb^, lal&ki, pap&ya 
(Spanish), tutubd, totod. 

346. Accented reduplication. Accented reduplication is used 
30 chiefly in, transient forms (§ 348) ; distinct from this use seems 

to be that of numerals, in the meaning of only so many: aapat, 
iilin, iisi; similarly da-dalawi only two (from da-lawa) § 345). 
m&may^^, mfimya* seems to be felt as a simple root-word and 
has been treated as such. 

35 (4) pa^).. 

347. Of the two prefixes round which primary forms are 
grouped (§ 340), pag- is used only for abstracts of action (§§ 348. 
350.351); with pay- are formed words denoting the thing used 
for doing so and so, or as such and such: Nawali* ag kanya g 

40 pagakala^ His power of thought left him. ay pagatlp that used 

Digitized by 


381] MORPHOLOGY 225 

for roofing^ a skingle. Ma^aputol ka, Pedro, nag maga kaw&ya 
g paigbikod. Have some bamboo cut for a fence, Pedro, ag pag- 
bambd a stick or dub used for beating, paqbayft instrument for 
pounding rice, pestle, pagdilig implements used for sprinkling. 
5 pagg&pas a slicer, a curved knife with saw-toothed edge. Ay gind- 
mit nya g pa^jgapit na guntifl sa damit ay mapurftl. The scissors 
he used for cutting cloth were dull; also simply : ag paggupit scis- 
sors, shears, ag paghampibs a whip. Ag ginawit g paghdrag sa 
dajln nag maga tulis^n ay isa g gibii g kariton. The robbers used 

10 a broken-down wagon to make the obstruction on the road. Agi 
laseta g it6 ay pagh&te* nag dayap. This knife is used for cutting 
limes, ag paglipa* the sticky mud used for smoothing ths thresh- 
ing-floor, ag panaginip a dream, pamitik a single rein (one guides 
the animal by flicking it in various ways, of. pitik a fiUip, a flick, 

15 a snap), pamatiy in pamatay-kuto thumb, literally: that uHth 
which one kills head-lice (klito). Pamutol nag buhdk ag guntig 
na ito. These shears are used for cutting hair. Ag salaw^l na 
yito y sya ko g pagsak^y sa kaMyo. These are my trousers for 
horseback-riding. Ag maga pintd g may pagsarjt na gamit ay 

20 sum&sara g kfisa^ Doors that have closing attachments close 
themselves automatically, ag pandli^ a halter or rope for tying 
up an animal. Ag kulilig na yt6 y sya ku g pan&wag nag alila*. 
This bell is what I use for ccMing th^ servants; also: pagtawag. 
Ag pagtayd nag hallge ay hindi dumatig. The instruments for 

25 setting up posts (i.e. the cranes) did not arrive. Ag kalaykJly 
ay sya ko g gin&mit na pagtfpon nag maga bundt na damo. / 
used the rake for piUng up the uprooted grass, ag panuro' a 
pointer, anything used for pointing. Sya y may salawM na pagu- 
pd sa damuhan at gay on din m&y-roon sya g pagupd sa sugfilan. 

30 He has trousers for sitting on the lawn and others for when he 
sits at the gaming-table. 

Similarly from, the following roots: ahit, 4ko*, alaala, ankk, 
bill, bilmit, dalfigin, gam6t, hilimos, huli, isip, g&lan, p&lo*, puk- 
p&k, s&bog, takip, tanim, tiw&la*. 

35 (a) This derivative from numerals denotes a thing used to 

fiU such and su^h a place: ag pagdpat that used as fourth, as: 
the fourth horse in a team; of similar meaning: paglimi fifth, 
pag&nim sixth, pamito seventh, pagwal6 eighth, pagsiyftm ni^ith. 
Prom the ordinal (§ 416,a) is formed paguna first. From phrases 

40 the higher numbers: pagsa-m-pu* the tenth (sa m pd^ ten), pag- 
labi-g-isi the eleventh (labi g is&), pagdalawa-g-pu^ twentieth, 
pamito-g-pft' seventieth. 

Digitized by 



(b) A few formations show irregularities: panuk&la^ equiva- 
lent to pa^ak^la*^ above, is felt to belong with ak&la'^; cf. the simi- 
lar insertion ot u in paub&ya* (§ 481,d) ; pa^inoon master, does 
not seem to be felt as a derivative of gino6 and has therefore been 
5 treated as a separate root. 

Second and third are derived from the reduplicated form 
(§ 345) and show phonetic irregularity: a^ pagalawi the second; 
one's second in a duel; pa^jatlo third, third horse, in a gun-car- 
riage; similarly pa^atlo-fl-pu* the thirtieth. 
10 (c) Prom root with accent shift (§ 337) only paiQhuld the 

last (of an established series). 

B. Transients, abstracts, and special static words. 

(1) Active with -um- and abstract with pag-. 

348. Of the active forms of the primary groups, that of the 

15 type with prefix zero expresses the actor in a simple action or 
process. Both of the punctual forms, actual and contingent, are 
made with infix -um-; the actual durative consists of the root re- 
duplicated, with infix -um-; the contingent durative is redupli- 
cated, but lacks the infix; the reduplication is in both cases ac- 

20 cented. The abstract of action consists of the root with prefix 
pag-. Thus the forms are: p-um-utol, p-um-u-ptitol, p-um-utol, 
pu-putol, pag-putol. Examples: 

Umaba^) ka na^j maglalakd nag gatas. Watch for a milkman. 
Sya y umagaw nag maga laruwan. He snatched some toys. Sya 

25 y um4hon sa Hog (sa bundok, sa gulod). He went up the river 
(up into the mountains, up the hill). Pumiitol ka, Hwltn, nag 
buJio^ pagahon mo sa bundok. When you go up into the mount- 
ains, Juan, cut some slender bamboo. Umamin sila Pedro sa ha- 
rapan nag hukom. Pedro and his band confessed before the judge. 

30 umamot sold, of other than a regular merchant. Um&nib ka kay 
Pedro. Let your mat overlap Pedro's, i. e. Sleep next to Pedro. 
Umagkin ka nag laruwan. Take some toys for yourself. Ag pa- 
gayaw nya g kumain nag kame ay sya g nakabubute sa kanya. 
His not being tviUing to eat meat is what does him good. Ag. 

35 halige nag bahay ay bumaba' sapagk&t hindl kaya nag lupa' ag 
bigat na kanya g din&dala. The post of the house sank because/^ 
the weight it was bearing was too great for the ground. Bkhkhag 
si Hwan nag kanya g kalaro^. Juan wUl fight with one of his 
playmates. Bumaluktot ka nag yantok. Bend a piece of rattan. 

40 Ag ahas ay bumaluktot. The snake doubled itself up. Bum&lot 

Digitized by 


383] HOBPHOLOGY 227 

ka naiQ suman (naiQ sigarllyo, na^ k&not). Roll up some suman 
(sticky rice cooked in banana-leaves; some cigarettes, a blanket). 
Afl pagb&sa ay mahlrap. Reading is hard. Sya y bumigtl na^j 
t&o. He choked a m^n to death. Aq pagbigti ay isa q pagpatjly 
5 sa kapwa t4o sa pamamagitan na^ pagsakM. Strangling is kiUing 
a person by means of choking. Bumflog si Hw&n naQ isa :() ta- 
mmpd. Jtuin turned out (on a lathe) a spinning-top. Bumlflit 
sya sa malaki q paQ&nib. He went (voluntarily) to the brink of 
a great danger. Bumitiw sa lubid ag isa sa iny6. One of you let 

10 go of the rope. Bumubuk&s a^) maqa bulaMak sa halamanioi. The 
flowers in the garden are opening. Sya y bumunot na^ damd. 
He plucked up some grass. Lahat na^) t4o sa b&ya g iyon ay 
bum6to sa kandid4to Xi si ManiMs. AU the people in that town 
voted for the candidate Maniquis. Aq halige ay dumddala na^j 

15 tahllan. The post bears up girders. Dumamd^m si Hwltn 
nao isa 5 mabigat na saHt. Ju^in felt a severe pain. Sya y 
dumapi^ He lay down on his face. Arj kanita g kwalta sa 
ba^ko ay kasaluktiya g gumag&na nag buwis. Your money and 
mine in the bank is even now earning interest, gumanti act in re- 

20 taliation. gumdpas cut with the paQg&pas. Aq may sakit ay ga- 
minh&wa. The patient became m^ore comfortable. ... ay gumi- 
ginh4wa ni . . . is getting more comfortable now. Sya y huma- 
lik sa kanya 5 nanay. She kissed her mother. Ag b&ta g si 
Hw^n aQ humamp&s sa an&k ni Ali q Marya. It was little Juan 

25 who hit Aunt Marians little boy vnth a whip, a^ pagh&nap a 
seeking (especially of one's daily bread). Sya y humdrai) ne^xi 
ma^a tao q nagh&hatid naQ kab&yo sa b&ya-Q-San-Mig^l. He held 
up some people who were taking horses to the town of San Miguel. 
Ako ay humati naQ mans&nas. / cut an apple in two. Hum&ti 

30 ako nag maga itlog na binilS ni Hw&na. I took half of the eggs 
Juana bought. Iqdtan mo ag pagh&wak sa m&kina 5 iyin, sapag- 
kJtt bak& ka maputulan nag daliri^ na g4ya nag nagyiri sa ibi. 
Be careful how you take hold of that machine, for you might get^ 
you finger cut off like others before you. Hnmin^ nag pagtakbo 

35 ag kab&yo. The horse lost its speed as a runner, ag paghigi^ a 
requesting, a request. Hihiram kami nag libr6 sa libreriya. We 
shall borrow books from the library, humiila^ predicted, prophe- 
sied, umigib get water by dipping from a well, spring, or stream. 
Ak6 y umiihip nag pito. I was blowing the small flute. Umiihip 

40 ag h&gi g hab&gat. The spring wind is blowing. Umllag ka. Oet 
out of the way. Ag kanyJi g maga pagilig ay lubhi g maklnis. 
His little dodges are very clever. Uminit ag plansa. The flatiron 

Digitized by 



became hot. Uminit aQ tubig. The water got hot. Aq paginum 
naiQ 41ak ay masama^. Drinking liquor is harmful. Sya y umi- 
num naQ gktas. He drank some mUk. Umisip ka, N&nay, naq 
isa g kwdnto. Try to think of a story, Mother. Ag pagisip nafl 
5 bugtdQ na ltd ay mahirap. This riddle is hard to solve, a^ kanya 
5 pagiyak her weeping, kumabiyiw press sugar-cane. Kumalus- 
k6s sa sulok a^ daga^. The rat pattered in the comer, i. e. I heard 
the pattering of a rat in the comer. Aq fbon ay kum4kanta. The 
bird is singing. Kumap& si Hwan naQ itlog sa pugad naQ mandk. 

10 Juan felt out some eggs in the hen's nest. Kumakapa sya na^ 
isa g palaka*. He felt around for a frog. Sya y kum&yas nafl 
isa Q kaw4yan. He smoothed a stick of bamboo. Hwag kk ^ 
kumurot ^aydn! Don't pinch now! Si PMro ay lumabius. Pedro 
went out. Aq aso y lunial4mon. The dog is feeding. Si Pedro 

15 ay lumM&mon at hindi kumak&in. Pedro is eating like an animal, 
not like a humar^ being. Lum&yag si ManuwM sa Amerika. Man- 
uel sailed (i.e. voyaged) to America (ag 14yag a sail). A5 ban- 
tay-p&lay ay lumayas. The watchman of the rice-field left his 
post. Isa Q sund41o ay lum&yas sa init naQ paglalabauan. A sol- 

20 dier deserted in the heat of the battle. Sya y lumlbot. He went 
for a walk. Magputol ka, P6dro, naq ma^a kugon, iipaq lumfnis 
a^ bukid. Ctit the cugof^grass, Pedro, so that the field may be- 
come clear. Si Pedro ay lomfpat sa iba g b&yan. Pedro moved 
to another town. Lumuhod k4, Hw&n. Kneel down, Juan. Si 

25 Hwin ay lumuhdd sa harap nafl h6re^ Juan knelt down before 
the king. Sya y ^jumfijiti^ She is smiling. Pumagitan sya sa 
dalawa j} dal&ga. He placed himself between two young ladies. 
Ak5 y pum&na na^ usa. / shot an arrow at a stag (pana^ an ar- 
row). Puminaw ag kanya g hiniqi. His breath departed, i.e. 

30 He gave up the ghost. Si Hwan aQ pum&so sa &ki q kulugo. It 
was Juan who burned out my wart for me. Huwag ka g pumatid 
nag samp&yan! Don't you break the clothes-line! Si Hwan ay 
sya g pum&yag sa para4 g ito. It was Juan who agreed to this 
plan. Sya y pumap&yag. He is unUing. Pumili ako nag malaki 

35 g mans4na8. I chose a big apple. Pumipilit sya. g magbukas nag 
kabi g b&kal. He was trying hard to open an iron safe. (But 
punctual : PumHit sya . . . He forced open . . . ). puinitik give 
a fillip, snap at uHth one's finger. Sya y pumupukpdk nag bunot 
nag nyog. He is pounding cocoanut husks. Pumuputol nag ka- 

40 wdyan si Mariy&no. Mariano is cutting baniboo. Puputol . . . 
wHl cut . . . Ag sunias4buy na tubig ay naggag^lig sa bubugan 
nag b&hay. The water that was splashing on us came from the 

Digitized by 


385] MORPHOLOGY . 229 

roof of the house, sumag^sa^ jostle, sumaguwan paddle, sum&hod 
put something under to catch what flows or faUs. Sya y sumasa- 
kay sa ba^kk^ na^ ak5 y dumatiQ. He was getting into the canoe 
when I arrived. Sumala siya sa sigsig. He missed the ring (in 

5 the juego de aniUo, in which one tries to catch a ring on a stick). 
sum41ok dip out water (aQ s&lok a dipper, a basket for catching 
fruit when it is cut from the tree; a net for catching insects). 
Sya y sumandok nafl sin4iQ. She dipped out some boiled rice. Su- 
minib ka kay P6dro. (same meaning as nmanib above). Sumikad ag 

10 kab4yo. The horse struck out, gave a kick. Snmikip ag daan sa 
karamihan nafl t4o. The road became crowded with the multitude 
of people. Sumikip aq damit. The garment shrank and became 
tight. Sumikdk si Hw^n sa ptiloQ naq maqa tao. Juan crowded 
his way into the gathering of people. Sumilakbd aQ apoy (a^) 

15 kanya ^) galit, ag kanya fl tuwa'). The fire (his anger, hvi joy) 
welled up. Aq pagsint& ni Pedro ay hindi tina\)gap na^ dalaga. 
The young lady did not accept Pedro's proffer of love. Siya aij 
sumuklay sa kanya q ankk. It uxis she herself who combed her 
child's hair (a^ suklay a comb), sumulid spin thread. sumuloQ 

20 push ahead, progress; also as family name: Snmulofl. Si P6dro 
ay sumundft* na^ pAre^ Pedro fetched a priest. Hindi sya nag- 
kap&lad sa pagsundd naQ m^diko. He did not succeed in fetching 
a doctor. Pagsuntok nya ay tumakbo ka. When he strikes you, 
run (suntok a blow on the head). Sya y sumusutsdt. He is whis- 

25 tli7ig. Aq b&ta y tumahimik. The boy quieted down. Tum&tahol 
a^j &S0. The dog u)as barking. Sya y tumamit sa hwitifl. He won 
in the lottery. Tum&tand& siya. He is getting old. Sya y tuma- 
nod sa b&hay sa bod i) magdamag. He guarded the house M night. 
TumanuQ akd kay Hw^. I asked Juan. TumaniiQ ako nao 

30 kwalta kay Hwin. / asked Ju^n for money, tuma^hi^ wonder. 
Sya y tumitagft^ He is wiUing, He assents. Tumitiwa siya. He 
is laughing. Ikkw a]g tum&wag kay Hwan. Do you call Juan. 
Narinig ko aq iyo q pagt&wag sa &kin. I heard you cMing me. 
Sya y tumayo*. He stood up. tumiba^ cut bananas off the tree. 

35 tumilad cut wood small along the grain, shave off, cut into snmll 
parts. Sya y tumimbi nag tubig. He drew water with a Imcket. 
ag pagtigin the act of looking at something, observation. Ag pag- 
tipid sa kwalta ay gin&gawa naQ mar&mi. Many people practise 
economy in the matter of money. Ag pagtlpon sa maga k&hoy 

40 kug tagulin ay mahfrap, sapagk&t maputik. It is hard to collect 
logs in the rainy season, on account of the mud. Tumira si Hwan 

Digitized by 



na isa 5 tadn sa b4ya-^j-Baliwag. Juan lived one year in ike toum 
of Baliuag. tumuki* pick tuith the beak (tuka* the beak of a fowl). 
Sya y tmnulak sa isinusuIoQ na kahd q Mkal He pushed (i. e. 
took part in pushing) at the iron safe they were moving, Alsot 
5 Sya y tumulak. He "shoved off'% i. e. He went away. Si Hw4n 
ay tumiilog sa b&hay ni P6dro. Juan went and slept in Pedro's 
hou^e. A5 kanya 5 pagtiilog ay mab&baw. His sleep is light. 
Tumii^o sya sa b&ya-^j-Baliwag. He went toward Baliuag. Afl 
pagubra na^ ma^a baril na yto sa pamamaril na^ kalab&w-ram5 
10 ay hindi pinakamabute. These guns are not the best for shooting 
wild caribou. Umubri a^ ininum nya 5 purga. The purge he 
drank took effect. Umubra sa kakanJtn a^j kanya g ginawii 5 la- 
mesa. The table he made was suitable for the dining-room. Umu- 
bra X) nag4mit aQ tornilyo ^ b&kal sa lugar naQ tansd. It was pos- 

15 sxble to use the iron screw instead of the copper. Sya y umupd^. 
He sat doum. A5 pagupd* sa hA^in ay isa 5 mahlrap na pardsa. 
** Sitting on the air'' (standing in sitting position u)ith the fore- 
fingers pointing up) is a hard punishment. Umuurux) ag trfen. 
The train is backing. Umtita^) ka ^la^ salapi kay P6dro. Borrow 

20 some money from Pedro. Umuw6 si Hwan. Juan went home, 
Yum&ya si Hwin nag kanya g ma^ji kaybfgan. Juan invited 
some of his friends, a^j pagy&ya* the invitation. 

Other roots occurring in these forms (and roots occurring 
above out of their alphabetical order) : ab&la, &gos, &kay, akiyat, 

25 alls, &sa, ayon, b&baw, hahh!^, balik, bllaQ, bill, b^at, butas, dalQ, 
dala, dalis, dalaw, dal6, d&mi, d&pit, dfipo^ daras, datig, dilim, 
dukit, duml, do6n, galaw, g&mit, gamot, g&pag, gast&, gawi^ gu- 
lag, gupit, gusts, h&ba^ hfibol, h&god, hakbag, hago^ har&p, h6- 
tak, hig^^, hfla, hillg, higa, hukay, huli, huni, ibig, kag&t, k&in, 

30 kalabog, k&pit, katim, kib6*, kil&la, kflos, kinig, kita, kuha, kulog, 
kuwfenta, Uban, laginap, lagpik, l&kad, lakis, laH, lamig, lam- 
pas, lag6y, l&pit, ligaw, lindol, lipid, litiw, liwinag, lubog, luha', 
luks5, luwas, n&kaw, giy^w, panhik, pasin, p4sok, patay, p&wis, 
pihit, pit^, pukol, puri, putok, sagot, sakM, s4kop, sal&kay, s4ma, 

35 sarjga, sdpit, sari, sayaw, sigaw, sikat, silid, sipa*, sisid, sub6, su- 

gat, stilat, sumpog, sunod, suwiy, suyo^, taba*, tagi^ takbo, t41ik, 

talon, taniw, taglaw, tar&to, tawid, tibay, tiktik, tikuwas, tfibo'*, 

tugtog, tuktok, tiilog, turjt&g, tupad, ulan, uli^, unti^ upa, yfiman. 

(a) Kumusta ki? How d'you dof may be felt to belong here.^ 

40 (b) An irregular inflection in which variation of the initial 

*Cf. Kern's derivation of liggo from Spanish domingo, felt as containing 
infix -um- (Sanskritschc woorden). 

Digitized by 


387] MORPHOLOGY 231 

consonant takes the place of the infix is known to Mr. Santiago from 
a few traditional phrases: Hwag k^ q mat^y (for: pumatay) naQ 
k&pwa t&o. Thou shalt not kiU. 

(c) Forms with accent shift owe this feature to the root 
5 (§ 337) : Umabdt ka naQ isa q mans&nas. Help yourself to an 

apple. Aq sumundd na silakbd naQ lagablab ay siya Xi umabot sa 
bubuQin. The next leap of the flame .reached the roof. Afl paga- 
biit nafl bu^a g ito ay mahirap. This fruit is hard to reach. Na- 
rinig ko sya sa kanya fl pagayaw sa sin&be ni Hwan. / heard him 
10 disagree with what Juan had said. Nag&lit akd sa kanya q paga- 
yitw sa lam6sa. / was angered a^ his leaving the table. Si P6dro 
ay umay&w na. Pedro has left the table. Similarly from baba* 
and s&kit. 

(d) Prom a phrase: Hindi marunoQ gumanti-fl-pala' si 
15 Hwan. Juan does not know how to make return for kindness 

(ganti g p41a*). 

(e) Prom derived words: tumagllid, pagtagilid (ta-gflid 
§523) ; tumalikod, pagtalikod (ta-likod § 523). See also §§ 404. 

20 349. The doubled root with the same formation is used of 

actions aimlessly repeated at intervals. N&tinik sya sa kanya q 
pagtakbd-takb6 sa bakuran. In his constant running about the 
yard, he got a splinter into his foot. Tumit4wa-tawa si Hwan h&- 
ba^j nagbibigkis na^ talump&te si Pedro. Juan kept laughing at 

25 intervals while Pedro was making his speech. Si Hwin ay tumi- 
t4wa-tawa na^ sya y hampasin ni Pedro. When Juan kept laugh- 
ing every little while, Pedro finaUy struck him with the whip. 

(a) Prom a root with accent shift (§ 337) : Tum&tawa-tawi 
si Hwin twi I) Akin sya ij mcimasd^n habaq nagbibigkas nag ta- 

30 lumpfite si Pedro. Juan kept snickering every time I happened 
to look at him while Pedro was delivering his oration. 

(2) Active with mag- and abstract with pag-r. 

360. Many roots form their active \^4th the prefix mag- for 
the contingent, nag- for the actual mode; the durative is redupli- 

35 cated before the prefix is added. The corresponding abstract of 
action has unaccented reduplication and prefix pag-. Thus: nag- 
putol, nag-pu-putol, mag-putol, mag-pii-putol, pag-pu-putol. These 
actives express, generally, a more deliberate action than those with 
-um- ; often also one involving more effect on external objects than 

40 do those with -um-. We take up first those roots from which forms 
with -um- do not occur in our material : 

Ako y nag&ant6k. I am sleepy. Arj lusog kay Hw^n sa 

Digitized by 



kanya q pagaar&ro ay nagsidatiQ na. The helpers for Juan in his 
plowing have arrived (a^j ar&ro a plow). Si PMro ay mag^as&wa. 
Pedro is going to take a wife. Si P6dro ay magiaadwa kay Hw4na. 
Pedro is going to marry Jtiana. Silk y naga&way. They are fight- 
5 ing. magb4hay buHd a house. Akb y nagbast^ nai) 4ki q damit. 
/ packed up my clothes. Sya y nagb4yad nag kanysi 5 ma^ja 
iitaQ. He paid off his( debts, magbayd pound rice in a mortar. 
raagbigas hull rice (i. e. make bigis, hulled rice, out of p41ay, rice 
in the grain). Sya y nagbig&y na^j libr6 sa &kin. He gave me 

10 some hooks. Sya y nagbfhis kanina ^ um&ga. She put on her 
good clothes this morning, Aq pagbibiy&bo ay isa q ug&li naQ 
nia^a Intsik. Swinging the feet when sitting is a habit of th^, 
Chviese. Nagbiyay si Hwan iiafl isdi* sa kanya g pal&isd&an. 
Juan put some fish into his fishpond, magbuhdl tie a knot. Nag- 

15 bwal sila nag isa g puno-^j-k&hoy. They feUed a tree. Atq sigifl 
ay nagdIidAhon. The banana-tree is putting out leaves. Arj pag- 
hahasa^ narj paq&hit ay mahirap. Sharpening razors is difficult. 
Sya y nagh4hatid nai) maga lar&wan sa simb&han. He is deliver- 
ing images to the church. Maghubad ki nag damit. Take off your 

20 clothes. Sya y naghuhugas nag piggin. She is washing dishes. 
Naghugkfiy sya. He fanned rice, magihaw roast (something). 
Nagkamit sya nag mardmi g tubo'. He obtained much profit. Sya 
y nagknkuble. He is in hiding, maglakd* peddle (something). 
Maglilaru na siya. He is going to play after all. Naglaru na 

25 ako. / have played enmigh now. Naglalaro sila. They are play- 
ing. Naglawit akd nag lubid sa bintina*. I hung a rope out of 
the window, magliigaw prepare rice-broth. NaglMuto siyk nag 
gulay. She is cooking vegetables. Sya y magp&pasyil. He is 
going to take a walk. Nagpupunas sya nag sahig. He is scrub- 

30 bing floors. Nagpiiyat ak6 kagabi. / staid up last night, mag- 
saig cook rice dry (with little water). Nagsampay sya nag damit. 
She hung ou\ some clothes. Sya y nagtabon nag isa g hukay. He 
dammed up a ditch. Magtah&n ka nag paglalaro'. Stop playing. 
Nag narinig nya iyon ay malaki ag kanya g nagig pagtataka. 

35 ^,Vhen he heard this, his surprise was great. Sya y nagtali nag 
babuy sa halige. He tied a pig to the post. Magturu ka nag 
wika g Kaparapagan sa iyo g piaralin. Teach the Pampanga lan- 
guage in your school. Sya y nagtuturo^ He is teaching. T&ma 
ag kanya g pagtutwid. His reckoning is correct. Sya y nagu- 

40 sisa'. He made inquiry. Sya y nagusisa nag mar&mi g bagay. 
He inquired into many things. Hindi ba akd nagutos sa iy5 g 
gumaw& itot Didn't I order you to do thisf Ag pagwawali nag 

Digitized by 


389] MORPHOLOGY 233 

raaj^k bfhag ay pinarurus&han iia]g kam&t&yan. The escaping of 
captives is punished with death. Sya y nagwawalis. She is 

Other roots so used : ak&la^ alaskuwatro, alsi, aluwfige, aniyd^ 
5 &ri*, ballta^ bantiy, bdgon, b&tis, ba^n, bigkis, bendisiyftn, bini- 
yag, binta^j, bun6*, bu^a, daan, dalamh&ti*, das&l, d&os, daya*, df- 
wa^, dug6^ dusa, rosariyo, higis, handa^ h&ri*, h&tol, hin&la*, 
hintky, hinto^ hirap, hiwal&y, i^at, kasM, kulag, kumpisil, kurus, 
kuwJnto, lasig, libag, libi^, ligtis, limos, lits6n, liwaliw, lub4y, lub- 

10 l&b, mahal, mino, masid, mil&gro, misa, mula^, ni^jni^), pasiyfen- 
siya, pas6yo, sabi, s&bog, sibo^j, sadiyi^ salita*, sdnay, silbi, simbi, 
sisi, siyasat, subo*, sugal, sumbd^, sund41o, tab&ko, tadtad, t4go^, 
t61o, talump&ti^ tam6, taniyig, ta^jay, ta^gol, tigil, tindig, tra- 
b&ho, tnlin, tulos, umpisa, usap, wika*. 

15 361. When a root is used both with -um- and mag-, the lat- 

ter form usually differs by adding another object affected (dumalJi 
bear, bear up: magdala carry to someone, to a place; bumalik go 
back; magbalik return to a place, to someone) ; in some instances 
the added object is the actor himself (reflexive) ; in others the 

20 mag- form expresses a general activity, that with -um- a specific 
act (so, in part, putol). Examples: 

Sya y nag&aral. He is studying (um&ral is known as an 
archaic word for teach morals, instruct; ag firal that taught, pre- 
cept, moral doctrine). Magbaluktot kk na^ yantok. Curve some 

25 pieces of rattan (bumaluktdt, § 348, intransitive or of a single 
specific transitive action). Magb&lot ka nag suman, nag sigarilyo. 
Roll up some suman, soms cigarettes (more general than -um-) ; 
Magb&lot ka nag kumot. Wrap yourself up in a blanket (cf. -um-, 
§ 348). Si Hwan ay nagbigtl. Juan hanged himself; ag pagbi- 

30 bigti suicide by hanging. NagbilS si Hw&na nag mar&mi g som- 
brero. Juana sold many hats. Nagbibile si Hw&na nag sombrero. 
Juana is selling hats (bumili buy). Siya y nagdddala nag tubig 
sa kab&yo. He is bringing water to the horse. Ag b&ta^ ay nag- 
d&dala nag k&hoy. The boy is bringing wood. Hwag kh g mag- 

35 damdam sa hindi ko pagkatup&d nag &ki g pagfiko^, sapagk^t iy6 
y hindi ko sinady^'. Don't feel bad about my not having fulfilled 
my promise, for I did not do it intentionally (dumaradam feel 
something). Si Hwan ay naghamp^ noo g Byeme-siinto g nag- 
dain. Juan performed flageUation last Oood Friday. Magh&nap 

40 kayd nag inyo g ikabubtihay. Oo and find a living for yourselves. 
Sya y nagh&rag nag puno-g-k&hoy sa dain. He blocked the road 
unth a tree. Ag paghah&rag sa dain ay b&wal. It is forbidden 

Digitized by 


234 TAGALOa TEXTS [390 

to make obstructions on the roads. Nagh&ti ako naq ma^a buQa- 
^)-kahoy sa ma^a b&ta'. / distributed fruits among the chUdren;^ 
. . . na^ damd sa ma^a kabayo . . . grass to the horses, aq pag- 
hahati na^ ma^a buQa-Q-k&hoy sa ma^a b&ta^ the distribution of 
5 fruits to the children. Naghini sya na^ pagtukt6k sa pinto'. He 
m^ade his knocking at the door gentle. Sya y nagifnit na^ gktas. 
She is heating some milk. Maglsip ka. Bethink yourself, Be rea- 
sonable. Si Hwan ay nagisip na nak&wan si Pedro. Juan planned 
to rob Pedro. Ag kanya g pagiisip ay mat&las (mahlna*). His 

10 thinking-power is acute (weak). Sila y nagkimayan nao mag- 
klta. They shook hands when they met. Maglabas k^ na^) maga 
silya. Bring out some chairs, ag paglalakad the drawing of some- 
thing on foot; Nagl&kad aq ma^a estudy^nte naQ isa x) karosa. 
The students drew a float. Sya y naglibot nag isa 5 bandila'. He 

15 walked about bearing a flag. Sya y naglillnis nag mesa. He 
cleans tables. Ag pagnanakaw ay isa i) kasalana ij mabiggit. Thiev- 
ery is a serious offense (num&kaw of a single theft). Nagpipllit 
sya g magbukas nag kaba g b&kal. He tries (often) to force open 
safes. Pagpuputol ni Hwan nag biiho* ay pnmaroon ka t tuliigan 

20 mo sya. When Jv^n cuts bamboo (as an occupation throughout a 
longer period of time), go along and help him. Magpuputol kami 
nag mag a kaw&ya g g^gamitin sa pagtatayo nag b4hay. We shall 
cut bamboo for use in building houses. Magpuputol ako nag kuko. 
/ am going to cut my flngernaUs (reflexive). Nagputol nag bu- 

25 hok ag Ints^k na si Yap. The Chinaman Yap cut his queue. Nag- 
sakky sya sa kanya g bagka nag dalawa g estudyante. He took two 
students into his canoe. NagsiKp ag daan. The road grew 
crowded (apparently equal to -um-, but cannot be used of a gar- 
ment) . Nagsisiksik si Hw&n nag bigas sa s4ko. Juan wa^ stuffling 

30 rice into the sack. Sya y nagsuklay. She combed her hair. Ag 
pagtatahol nag &so g ito sa maga nagdada&nan ay masama g 
ug&le^ This dog's woAf of barking at passers-by is a bad habit. 
Ag Kastlla' ay nagtAtanog. The Spaniard was asking questions. 
Nagtanug ako kay Hw4n kug saan ag daan. / asked Juan where 

35 the road was (mag- with indirect questions or questions implied). 
Si Hwin ay sya g nagtAwag nag bfigo g leyi. It was Juan who 
announced (as town crier) the new law. Ag pagtatAwag ni Hwin 
ay hindi m&rinig nag karamihan dahilan sa mahlna nya g tinig. 
Juan's announcement was not audible Ho the majority, owing t& 

40 his weak voice. Sya y nagtay6 nag b&gu g bahay. He built a new 
house. Ag pagtatay6 nag maga b&hay dito ay lubh^ g mahalagS,.' 
The building of houses here is very expensive. Nagtikwas si Pe- 
dro nag maga sul^ras nag bdhay. Pedro put some of the joists 

Digitized by 


391] MORPHOLOGY 235 

of the house out of level, Aq pagtitipid nag kwalta ay ginfigaw4 
nag mardme. Many people save money. Nagtipid si HwJin sa 
kanya g pananamit Juan was saving of his clothing, Ag pagti- 
tipon nag maga armas ay b&wal. Storing up arms is forbidden. 
5 Magtfpun ka nag kihoy. Store up some wood. Sila y nagtfpon 
nag kihoy sa likftd nag kanila g bihay. They stored up wood in 
the rear of their hoi^e, Nagtipon siya nag manft^ sa isa g sulok 
nag bakuran. He kept a pile of peanuts in a comer of his yard. 
Sya y nagttilak nag isiniisfilog na kahft g b&kal. He did the shov- 

10 ing of the iron chest that was being moved (-nm- shoved at, took 
part in the shoving). Maguubra ag karitft g it6 sa mahirap na 
daan. This wagon will be suitable for difficult roads. Nagup6 
sya nag maga b4ta sa bagko^ He seated some children on the 

15 Similarly: balik, bukis, kant&, saboy, s&ma, sara, sayiw, 

takbo, talon, tanod, tiri, yiya^ 

352. Transients with mag- are much used with derived 
words ; in so far as these belong to secondary groups, they will be 
treated below; see §§ 384. 405. 410. 427,a. 430,a.b.c. 453,a. 489. 

20 489,a. 513. 

(a) From phrases: Nagmamadali-g-&raw. The day is dawn- 
ing (madali g draw proximate day, i.e. dawn, daybreak), nag- 
mSm6-&ri^ is possessing, has mastery of (may firi' owner, master). 
naghahati-g-gabi It is midnight (hati g gabi midnight), pagta- 

25 tatlo-g-gabl the three nights' celebration (tatlo g gabi). 

(b) From compound words: pagbibigay-loob (bigay-lodb) ; 
Ag maghai^pas-lupa^ ay nakasislra^ nag puri. Being a vagabond 
is dishonorable (hampas-liipa^) ; magh^hdnap-buhay (hanap-bii- 

30 (c) From derived words: Transients with mag- from the 

contingent of transients with -um- express insistent and pro- 
longed action: E&hit na wal& sya g talino ay nagpupumilit sya 
g matuto. Although he has no gifts, he is trying very hard to get 
educated. Sya y nagpupumilit na pumaroon sa piknik. He is 

35 trying hard ik) be able to go to the picnic (pumllit). Similarly, 
nagtutumiri (tumiri). 

From words with prefix ma- (§ 454) in the sense of making 
something or making (claiming) oneself to have a quality: Mag- 
m&madali tayo nag pagl&kad, upag hwag tdyo g mihuli sa tren. 

40 We wUl hurry our pace, so as not to be late for the train (ma- 
dali^). Nagmamaligsi si Euljts sa pagsun6d sa maga titos sa 
kanya. Nicolas is quick about obeying the orders that are given 

Digitized by 



him (maligsi). Nagmalwat sya nag pagparito. He took a long 
time coming here. Hwag ka ^) magmaluw^t naq pagparito. Don't 
take too long about coming here (maluwat). Similarly, pagma- 
marunog (marunog). 
5 Prom various words: Sila y naghimagsik. They came to an 

armed conflict (-himag^ § 518). Si Hw&na ay naghlhiinatay. 
Juana is fainting (himat^y). Si Hw&na ay nagklikakanln. Juana 
makes sweetmeats (for sals) (kakanin, § 367,e). Sya y nagkala- 
timba nag marimi. He did the well-bucket exercise many times 

10 (kala-timbi^ § 519). 

(d) Especially common are transients with mag- from spe- 
cial static words with sufSx -an ; they express mutual or concerted 
action by two or more actors. 

From the forms in S -an (§ 377) : Nagjdfsan a^i magit alu- 

15 wage no g lunes na^i h&pon. The carpenters all left last Monday 
afternoon (alis-an). Naglalabfisan alk. They were all going out. 
Silli y nagpitfisan nag maga biy&bas. They aU picked guavas to- 
gether . Magsisigawan muna tayo b&go tapusin ag mitig. We uM 
all give a yell together before we close the meeting. Ag maga fiso 

20 sa b&va g. ito ay nagtahfilan kagab!. The dogs in this town aU 
harked last night. Similarly, from: bagki^ basta, daan, hukftm, 
iyak, kamiy, kanta, salita^ takbo, tampo, taniyig, tipan, tugt6g, 
uwi'. The form in S -an is itself from a derived word in : Nag- 
himagsikan ag ma^ii sund&lo g Tag&log at Kastfla^ The Tagalog 

25 and Spanish soldiers fought each other (himagslkan from -himag- 
sik, § 518). 

From the forms in S (1) -an (§378): Nag^witan sili nag 
ako y dumatig. They were singing in chorus when I arrived. 
Magibigan kayo. Love one another, Nagilbigan si P6dro at si 

30 Ilwana. Pedro and Juana love each other. Ag ginaw4 nya X) 
pagmumur&han nag kanya g mag^ kal&kal ay dahillin sa kanya 
Y\ paQagaildgan nag kwalta. His putting down the prices of his 
goods was due to his need of money. Similarly : hikot, kiin. 

From forms in (2) -an (§ 379) : Hwag kayo g magmurahin 

35 sa daan. Don't abuse each other on the street. Nagmumurahin 
sil^. They were engaged in an abusive quarrel. Ar) kilgalitan ni 
Petra at ni Kul&sa ay nat4pus sa hay4ga g pagmumurahin. The 
hostility between Petra and Nicolasa ended in an abusive quarrel 
in public. Nagpurihin ar) dalawa g magkaybigan sa kanila g pag- 

40 tatalumpate^. The two friends praised each other in their speeches. 
Nagpupurihan ar) maga kaybiga 5 ito sa pahayagan. This group 
of friends praise each other in the newspapers. Si Hwina at si 
Marya ay nagputulin nag kuko. Juana and Maria cut their finger- 

Digitized by 


393] MORPHOLOGY 237 

nails, Sila y nagsagasaan. They aU jostled one another. Ag pag- 
sasigasaan nar) maga t4o ay lubha r) magulft. The jostling of all 
the people was most confused. Nagsugatan sil^. They inflicted 
wounds on one another, magtaanan flee. Arj kanila 5 pagtutu- 
5 IxTQin ay hind! n&tulfty. Their plan to help each other was not 
carried out. Similarly: &gaw, ballta^ dihil, hanap, h&rag, l&ban. 
From diminutives in D -an (§ 381) : Magiaswa^-asw&Qan 
daw si P6dro sa kamabal. Pedro says he unU dress up as a bogey- 
man for the carnival. Hwag ki x) magaswi^-asw&^jan. Don^t 

10 play bogey-man. Nagmanok-manukan si Hw^n sa kamabM. Juan 
masqueraded as a rooster at the carnival. Sila y naguiqjgii- 
uflguan. They are playing at being monkeys. Nagusa-usihan 
siya. He pretended he was a deer. So also: dapi^ From (1) 
D -an : Sya y nagbabd-babaylhan. He went dressed as a woman. 

15 So also from t&kot. 

353. Transients with accent shift and mag- may owe the 
shift to the root; so from 4bot (§ 337) : Nag&abdt si Hwin na^ 
sigarilyo sa kanya ^ ma^ia kaybigan. Ju^n is passing cigarettes 
to his friends. Aq pagaabdt na^ sigarilyo ay isa q ug41i q mag&- 

20 lag. Passing cigarettes is a polite custom (umabftt, § 348,c, does 
not involve a person to whom). So also mfbra. 

In the great majority of instances, however, the accent shift 
is not peculiar to the root, but constitutes a special formation, 
which expresses a more plentiful and diverse action than the tran- 

25 sient with -um- or simple mag-. Sila y nagb&bab^. They are 
fighting each other. Magbaru ka. Oet dressed. Put on your 
clothes. Sya y nagbunot na^ damft. He plucked up a lot of grass. 
Maghanap kayo nag maga bulaklak sa p&rag. Oo and look for 
flowers in the woods. Pabayaan naw& niny5 na sya y maghanap. 

30 Please allow him to make an inspection. Naghati ako nag maga 
itlog na pinatigasan ni Hw&na. / halved a quantity of eggs which 
Juana had hard-boiled, ag paghahatfe nag maga mans&nas the 
halving of the apples. Magisip ki nag maga lugir na maairi g 
kinaiwanan mo nag iy6 g librfi. Think of the various places where 

35 you may have left your book. Si Hwan ay naglisip nag maga 
ih&handa nya sa fiySsta. Juan is thinking of what thigns he wUL 
serve at the fiesta. Hwag ka g magputdl nag abaka, Hwin. Don't 
cut up any hemp, Juan. Magpuputol kaml nag buho^ yantok, at 
bayxigin, pagdatig nfimin doon. We shall cut slender bamboo, rat- 

40 tan, and thick bamboo when we get there. Nagputftl si Hwan nag 
tubo sa pindsok nya g tubuhan. Jiian cut down a lot of sugar- 
cane in the cane-fisld he got into. Nagpuputol nag kaw&yan na 
hindi nya iri si Hwin. Juan cuts doum bamboo that does not 

Digitized by 



belong to him. Nagpuyat ak6 sa maQa gabi q nagda&n. / have 
repeatedly staid up late the last few nights. Hindi ko maputulan 
na^ tabid aQ k&tyaw, sapagkat itd y nagsisikiLd. I couldn't cut 
the rooster's spur, because it kept struggling with its feet. Sya y 

5 nagsisinuTjallQ. He is telling lies. Pagsusul&t nya na^ ma^a su- 
lat ay pumarodn ka t linisin mo ag kanyi g aralin. WhUe he is 
writing all his letters, go and dean his study. Aq paginod y nag- 
taw4g nag marja alila^ The master caUed various servants. Nag- 
t&tawag syii nag maga kit^^, na^) 4kin sya j\ datn&n sa bakuran. 

10 She was calling to a lot of little chicks when I came upon her trA 
the yard. Ar) pagtatawag nya sa maga kitfe^ at ag maga pnt4kan 
nag marja mandk ay nakabibigi. Her constant calling to the chicks 
and the clucking of all the hens made a deafening noise. Ag b&ta 
y nagtuturo nag kanya g gust6. The child points at the various 

15 things it wants. Hwag ki g magutag. Don't go about asking for 
credit. Ag magutag sa mar&mi g tind&han ay hindi mainam na 
ugile*. Buying on credit in many shops is a bad habit. Similarly 
from: b&lot, fgay, Ifikad, layag, libot, tago^ 

(a) When transients with mag- are made from derived words, 
20 the accent of the underljdng word is occasionally shifted, appar- 
ently without change of meaning: Sya y nagmayabarj. He boasted 
(mayibag, § 454). Similarly: magkiknvahati* (kalah&ti* §519). 

(b) In one such case there is not only accent shift, but also 
secondary accent on the first syllable of the underlying word : Sya 

25 y nagmdpuri. He praised himself. Sya y nagmimapuri. He is 
praising himself. Ag pagmam&puri ay hindi maganda ij ug&li'. 
Praising oneself is not a becoming habit (ma-piiri, § 454). 

354. The corresponding form from oxytone roots is made 
with unaccented reduplication of the underlying word: mag-si- 

30 sigaw, mag-si-si-sigaw, nag-si-sig&w, nag-si-si-sigaw ; the abstract, 
however, lacks the extra reduplication, coinciding with that of 
§§ 350. 351 : pag-si-sigiw. 

Sya y naggugupit nag, maga papSl. He cut some pieces of 
paper into bits. Sya y naggugugupit nag maga papM. He is cut- 

35 ting up some pieces of paper. Ag b&ta g si Hw&n, kug wali g 
m&gawa^ ay sya g naghihahampas sa maga punu-g-s&gig. It is 
little Juan who goes whipping at the banana-trees when he can't 
find anything to do. Hwag kft g magpupuk61 nag bato, sapagkit 
baka mo tam&an ag bintdna g salamin. Don't be ilways throwing 

40 stones; you might break a window. Nagpupuputik ag inahi g ma- 
nok na n&sa kulugan. The hen in the crate keeps up a constant 
cackling. Ilagan mo ag dumaratig na kab&yo na nagtAtatakbo. 

Digitized by 


395] MORPHOLOGY 239 

Look out for the horse that's coming there; it's a run-^way. 
Na^uupu sya sa dam6. He always sits on the grass. So also: 
dugo', inom, lund&g, sig^w, tagpo^ 

(a) In one instance a barytone root has this reduplication 
5 with explicit plural meaning: magkiklta see one another, meet (of 
more than two people, cf. magkita). 

355. Accent shift and reduplication of the root appear in 
barytone roots in the same sense as accent-shift alone, with per- 
haps a somewhat greater intensity of the action: Nagpupuputfil 

10 nag ret4so ag b4ta^ The child was cutting some rags into small 
hits. AiQ kdtyaw ay nagsisisikJid. The rooster kept struggling 
with its legs. Sya y nagtatatawag na^ maga kit^^ She kept calU 
ing to the chickens. 

356. With doubling of the root, transients in mag- express 
15 either action repeated at intervals or reciprocal action of explicitly 

more than two actors: Nagisd.-isa ag ma^a b&ta^ naq pagl&pit sa 
4kin. The children came to m£ one hy one. So from: dukliy, hi- 
waliy, ulit. 

(a) In one instance the root has accent shift: Naguna-una 
20 ag marja b4ta^ nag pagl4pit sa 6km. The children vied with each 
other for the first place in coming to me. 

(3) Active with mar)- and abstract with pag- r. 

357. The active with ma^- has the forms : ma-mtitol, ma-mu- 
mutol, na-mutol, na-mu-mutol, pa-mu-mutol (from putol) ; it ex- 

25 presses action more deliberate, selective, or in larger quantity 
(professional, habitual) than mag- ; like the latter, but more clearly, 
it is used for the making or using of such and such an object. 
Examples : 

Sya y nagabala sa imin. He made trouble for us. Nagano 

30 ka nag iyo g maga kalard^T What did you do to your play- 
mates? Nag&yap 16mag ag b&ta^ The child ate only relishes. 
Sya y nagb&bambo nag aso. He is a caning a dog. ag pama- 
magka^ canoing. Namili akft sa b&ya-g-Malolos. / shopped in 
Malolos, Sya y nagdidilig nag kars&da. He sprinkles streets, ag 

35 pagdidilig street-sprinkling (as vocation). Ag kasalatcln nina 
Hwan sa pananamit ay nagg&lig sa pagsusugal ni Hwan. Juan's 
family's want of clothing is due to his gambling. Hwag kaC g 
maghampas. Don't go whipping people. Sya y naghdrag nag maga 
t&o. He made a practice of holding people up. Sya y hinuli nag 

40 pulis dahilan sa paghaharag nag raaga t&o. He was arrested by 
the police for highway robbery. Nagh&te si Hwana nag kalakal. 
Juana shared orders for goods. Ag paghahate ni Hwana nag ka- 
l&kal na ipinagbibili nya ay sya nya g ikinaluge. Juana' s getting 

Digitized by 



her stock of goods for sale by sharing in orders of fellow-retailers 
is what made her lose money. Naghlna nag pagtakb6 ag kaMyo 
sa kalaunan nag pagk&g&mit sa kany^. The horse slackened its 
pace becaiise it had been driven too long. Sili y naqhina^ They 
5 grew faint. Maghiram ka nag palakdl. Oo borrow a hatchet. 
maghfila' practise fortune-telling. Naghuhuli kami nag isdi* sa 
kagamitan nag dala. We catch fish by means of nets. Ag kanya 
g maga pagigflag sa sakit ay lubhi g malak^. His precautions 
against sickness are elaborate. Sya y nagagabiyo. He rides 

10 horseback. Nagap& si P^dro nag isda^. Pedro caught fish in his 
hands (by feeling for them in mud-holes). Sya y nag4gasera. He 
eats in a boarding-house, mag&wit cut tvrigs with the kawit (a 
sm/ill, hook-shaped pruning-knife) ; also: get tired of a position or 
occupation. Ag bata g si Hwin ay nagagaya nag maga kapwa 

15 nya bita*. Little Juan lords it over the other children. Sya y 
nagugublS. He is keeping himself in hiding. Hwag ka g magu- 
rot, Pedro. Don't be pinching people y Pedro. Ag kanya g pana- 
naginip ay hindi n&tuloy, sapagkat n&gisig sya sa kalabog nag 
pusa'. His dream was interrupted by his being awakened by the 

20 falling of the cat. Sya y nanJlnaginip. He is dreaming. Aku y 
nanaginip kagabS. / had a dream last night. Namfiso sya nag 
daliri nag k4pwa nya bita^ He scorched his playmate's finger. 
Pamumutol nya nag kaw&ya y sundan mo sya t baka magliwaliw 
14mag sa kalakhin nag panahftn. When he goes bamboo-cutting, 

25 follow him to see that he doesn't loaf most of the time. Ag pa- 
mumutol nag kaw&yan ay mahfrap. Bamboo-cutting is hard work*^ 
Namutol si Hwin nag kawiyan. Juan cut bamboo. Namumiitol 
kaml nag dam6 upag ipagbilfe. We are cutting grass for sale. 
Mamumutol kami nag tubd sa bakfiran ni Ali g Petra. We are 

30 going to cut sugar-cane in Aunt Petra^s yard. Ag bita g may 
sakit ay namumuyat sa kanya g ina. The sick chSld keeps its 
mother awake. Ag maliwig na pananalita' ay hindi mainara. 
Rounabout speeches are not pleasant. P6dro, hwag kit g manya- 
sat nag gawa nag mky gawa^ Pedro, don't be inquiring into 

35 other people's business, ag panunulat writing in quantity, clerk- 
ship, ag pananahS^ the occupation of sewing, the being a seam- 
stress. Sila y nanahimik. They quieted down. Ag bata y nana- 
hfmik. The boy quieted down to take a rest, manawag call, sum- 
mon (people), ag panunuro' the act of pointing things out. Sya 

40 y naguna. He went first. He led. Sya y magiiguna. He will be 
in the lead. Ag b&ta y nagupo sa bunt5t nag s&ya nag bab&ye. 
The boy went and sat right down on the lady's train. Ag paguupo 

Digitized by 


397] MORPHOLOGY 241 

na^ Mta sa buntdt na^ saya ay ipinahintu sa kanya nag kanya q 
n&nay. The hoy's trick of sitting down on people's trains was 
put a stop to by his mother, Sya y naguslsa nag inaga bab4ye. 
She interrogated a number of women. Nagutaq sya sa akin na^ 
5 lim& Q piso. He made a loan of five doUars from me. 

Similarly from: &hit, &ko^ anak, b&hay, balita^ baril^ baro^ 

biyan, bflog, blro^ buhay, bnndftk, damit, dukit, gamot, gupit, 

h&bol, h&mon, biQl^ ig^b, flin, kain, kumpisM, lat^^ loko, mah&la^ 

nood, pagitan, pHi^ pulot, sal4kay, sariwa^, sigil, subok, suls^, su- 

10 nog, siiyo^ tilo, taghili*, tiw41a^ umit, y&ri. 

(a) From derived words: ar) paghdhimagsikan in the same 
meaning as paghihimagslkan (from himagsikan, § 377,a) ; so from 
kalaMti^ (§ 519), kiniin (§ 365). See also §§ 421,a. 422,a. 

(b) From words with prefix hin- (§ 518) we may derive, 
15 theoretically, the transients with prefix maghin-, though the un- 
derlying word in most cases does not exist. For the phonetic 
irregularities see § 334,a,5. 

Sila y naghimagsik. They cams to an armed conflict (bag- 
sik). Hwag k4 g maghiganti sa kanila, Hw&n; ay kababaan nay 

20 loob ay lilo js magandi. Don't take revenge against them, Juan; 
meekness of spirit is more becoming. Maghihiganti kami dahilan 
sa maya kalupitii y ginaw& nila sa &min. We wHl take vengeance 
on them for the m^ny cruelties they have committed against us^J 
mayhinuko cut the fingernails (kuko). Nayhihin&yay sila sa pag- 

25 kamatay ni Del-Pilir. They were mourning the death of Del Pi- 
lar. Malakl ag kanila y payhihin&yay sa namat^y na b&ta q si 
Hwan, dahilan sa hindf karanyuwa y talino nya. Their grief at 
little Juan's death was great, on account of his unustuil talents. 
(sayay). ma^hiniy^ pick the teeth (ay tiyi foreign substance be- 

30 tween the teeth), mayhinuld clean out the ears (tu-tul6 earwax, 
§ 343). 

(c) In one instance the root is doubled; its accent shift is 
due to the meaning of the root: Nanawi-naw4 si P6dro nay m4- 
rinig nya na sya y napHi y magiy b6bo sa lar6^ Pedro could not 

35 keep from snickering when he heard that the choice had fallen on 
him to be clown in the play. 

(4) Special static words. 

358. A few individual forms of the preceding group have 

static value; of transients, um&ga morning (§ 348) and ay ma- 

40 m&so^ a blister (pdso*) ; of abstracts, ay pagkain food (beside the 

act of eating) y cf. also pagdfika, § 265,9. The following are the 

regular formations of special static words of this type: 

Digitized by 


242 TAOALOO TEXTS [3fift 

(a) Dual collectives with mag-: ag magali aunt and rUece or 
nephew. A^ magama q si Maiyk at si Pedro ay naparoon sa bu- 
kid. Pedro and his daughter Maria have gone to the country. Aq 
magas4wa q P^dro at Hw4na ay naparodn sa teyatro. Pedro and 

5 his vnfe JvAina have gone to the theatre, Aq magatd ^ si MaryA 
at si Mary&no ay nagsipagpa^al. Mariano and his oldest sister 
Maria went for a walk. Sila y magat^. She is his oldest sister. 
aQ magbal&e q si Hwan at si Andres Jua^i and Andres, whose 
children have married each other, magbayaw two men, one of 

10 whom has married the other^s sister, magbil^ two men 'ibho have 
married two sisters (ag bil^ the husband of one's wife's sister). 
inaghipag two women, one of whom has married the other's brother 
(each of the two is the other's hipag). raagimpo grandmother and 
grandchild, magina mother and chUd. magkuya the oldest brother 

15 ind a younger brother or sister, magn&nay mother and child. 
magtatay father and chUd. 

Slightly divergent is maganak: it includes the whole family, 
a given person plus his a^k&n (§ 379) : Nagsimba aQ boo q mag&- 
nak. The whole family went to church, aq mag&nak na sina 

20 Hwan Erus the Juan Cruz family. Irregular in meaning are also 
magdam&g and maghapon, of periods of time. 

From a compound word: aQ magk&pit-b&hay two neighbors. 
From a phrase : Sila y magk&pwa-t4o. They act toward each 
other as fellow men should (kipuwi t&o). 

25 From a derived word: magamain uncle and nephew or niece 

(ama-in, § 367,a) ; see also §§ 408. 412,a. 490. 

(b) mag- r similarly forms explicit plurals: ag magaami 
the group of a father with two or more of his children, ag mag- 
babalae a group of three or more people whose children have in- 

30 term^rried. aQ magiina mother and children, a^ magkukuya a 
group of brothers and sisters including the oldest brother, magna- 
n&nay mother and children, magpiplnsan a group of cousins. 
magtat4tay father and children. 

From a compound: magkak&pit-b4hay. 

35 From a derived word: magkakasiijlaki (kasiglaki, § 520), 

See also §§ 412,a. 427,d. 

(c) mag- r also forms static words denoting a professional 
agent: ar) magaar&ro a plowman, magbibistay woman who sieves 
the rice in a mill, magnanakaw. 

iO ' From oxytone roots also with retraction of accent: a^ mag- 
bab&yo a rice-pounder, magbibigas a dealer in hulled rice. 

(d) Barytone roots usually shift the accent: ag maghuhug^ 
a dish-washer, maglalak^d traveller, maglilinis a cleaner, magli- 

Digitized by 


399] MOBPHOLOOY 243 

lipi^ plasierery maglulutfi* cook; Si Hwan ay isa g magpuputftl 
na^ kahoy. Juan is a woodrcuiter; a^ magsusulat a cleric^ scribe^ 
magsusuyod a harrower (siiyod a harrow), maguulAfl a habitual 
borrower. So also from : l&ko^ t4wag. 
5 (e) m^- r has the same value. The accent of the prefix can 

appear only in an open syllable (§ 338) ; a^i ma^i^isdi* a fisher- 
man; m&nanalakab fi^h-t rapper (salakab an inverted basket used 
as a fish-trap). So: dukit, h&mon, hula^, kulam, ligaw, s4kop, 
sipa^ ta^gftl, tugtdg. 

10 Oxytone roots often have retraction of accent: ma^gag&mot 

maggagamftt ; maggugupit maggugupit; Sya y m^giginum nag 
&lak. He is a drunkard; also: magiinom (with the prefix kept 
apart by glottal stop, § 34, and no effect on initial vowel) ; 
m&QaQatam m^arj&tam; maglilfmos ; ag mitnan&he^ a seamstress 

15 (a^) tahfe* a seam) ; a^) minananim a planter. 

(f) Barytone roots usually have accent shift: ag maQhuhu- 
gas a dish-washer, maglalagari^ a wood-sawer, m4mumul6t a 
gleaner (pulot) ; A^) maga miraumutdl na^) kdhoy ay nagsiahon 
ni sa bundftk. The wood-cutters have already gone up into the 

20 mountains, ag m&nunullit a scribe, clerk, ai) m^rjugutaQ a habit- 
ual borrower, a *^ sponger". So also from: k&yo, tilo. 

(5) Direct passive. 

359. The simple direct passive has sufSx -in with accent 
shift of one syllable in the contingent, infix -in- (§ 334,b,l) in the 

25 actual: putul-in, pu-putul-in, p-in-utol, p-in-u-ptitol. It corre- 
sponds to actives with -um- and abstracts with pag- and, to a 
large extent, also to actives with mag- and abstracts with pag- r. 
It expresses, transiently, an object viewed as fully affected, taken 
in by the actor, or created by a simple action. 

30 Irregularities of form are as listed in § 334,c. 

In4ko ni Hwan a^) utag ni Pedro. Pedro's debt was taken 
over (pledged for) by Juan. In^a&la ni P^dro ag kanya q inji. 
Pedro was thinking of his mother. Hindi nya inliala&la iydn. 
He docs not mind that. Hindi nya aalalah&nin iyon. He won't 

35 mind that (§334,c,3). Inaamin nya na ginawd nya iyon. 
He admits that he did it. Aaminin nya ar) kanya g kasa- 
14nan. He wUl own up to his misdeeds. Indarjkin nag bata q si 
Hw&na ag marja laruwin ni Marya. Little Juana appropriates 
Maria's toys. Arjkinin mo ag laruwan. Take the toy for your- 

40 self. Pag uulan ay araruhin mo ag punl4an. When the rains 
come, plow the germinating-plot. In^o nag inli ag kanya q 
b&ta^ The mother is running and shouting after her child (&so 

Digitized by 



a dog). In&yap n&min a^ ats&ra. We used the mixed pickles at 
a condiment. Aiq akl&t niya ^) kayblgan mo ^) binaggit ay aki q 
naMsa. / have read the book of thai friend of yours whom you 
mentioned. Binatis nya ag flog. He forded the river. Aiq tabo^ 
5 ay binflog ni Hwan. Jtmn turned the dipper (on a lathe). A^j 
tilo ni Hwan ay binibflog nag kanya ^) maga kalaro^ Juan's play- 
mates are fooling him (literally: turning his head). Dinaiq nya 
ag isdi^ He laid open the fish. Ag maga isda g ito ay dinila 
niya sa flog-P&sig. He caught these fish with the net in the Pasig 

10 river. Ydn ay 4ki ^) dindramdam. / am very sorry, That's too 
bad. Diligin mo a^ maga halaman. Sprinkle the plants. Duruin 
mo ag 4ki x} mamaso^ Prick my blister for me. Ginagabi kami. 
We were overtaken by night. Hanipin mo ag magnanakaw. 
Look for the thief. Hin4pis nya akd. He made me sad. Hin4ti 

15 ko BJQ mar)a bur)a-i]-k&hoy sa ma^a b&ta^ / distributed the fruits 
among the children. Inlhaw nya a^i kam^. He roasted the meai. 
Inlsip nya q magnakaw sa isa X) tinddhan. He thought of stealing 
from a store. Isipin mo kuQ sa&n mo naiwan ag iyo g sombrero. 
Think where you left your hat. Afl kabuti g ito ay hindl kina- 

20 k4in. One does not eat this mushroom, Ipatipid mo sa bat^^ ag 
kinak&in nya. Make the chUd be moderate in its eating, Kiuapa 
ko sa kadiliman ai) &ki q hig&an. / felt out my bed in the dark, 
Kunin mo ag aklat sa b4ta^ Take the book from the chUd. Hwag 
mo ako g kurutin. Don't pinch me. Nil&kad namin ag lahat 

25 nag daan. We walked all the way. Laniin mo ag bata^. Play 
with the chUd. Nililinis nya aig m6sa. She is cleaning the table. 
Nilusog mo ba ag balon? Did you go down into the well? Lu- 
sugin mo a^ balon. Oo down into the well, Niluluto niya ag 
gulay. She is cooking the vegetables (also: linuluto*). Min&ma- 

30 hal nag ma^ia magula^) a^ bita^. The parents love the child, pina- 
l^sa was ironed (palansa). Pinana ko ag xxak. I shot the stag 
with an arrow. Hindi nya pin&pansin iyon. He doesn't pay any 
attention to that, Pinatay ko a^) manok. / kUled the chicken, 
Ag pinfli nya 5 manok ay mataba^ The chicken she picked out 

35 is a fat one. Pinflit nya g gumawa na^) p4yog ag alfla^. He 
forced the servant to make an umbrella. Pitasin mo ag maga 
buga nag maggi. You pick the mangoes, Pinutol ni Hwan ag 
tanikala^ The chain was cut by Juan, Pagka pinutol mo ag lu- 
bid na iykn ay Idlagpak ag tulay. When you have cut that rope 

40 the bridge will fall. Pag pinutol mo ag buntot nag tuta^ ay ma- 
lapit iya g mamat&y. // you cut off the puppy's tail, it is likely 
to die, Pinuptitol ko ag kahoy. / ivas cutting the wood. Putu- 

Digitized by 


401] MORPHOLOGY 245 

lin mo a^ lubid. Cut the rope. Piiputulin nya ag buho^. He 
wUl cut the hamhoo. Pinuyat nya ako. He kept me up late. 
Hwag m6 j\ sagas&in, Lukas, a]g kainftan naQ &raw sa iyo q pagla* 
b^ sa bukid. Don't hit upon the hottest part of the day for going 
5 out to the field, Lucas. Sinisinta ni P6dro a^ dal&ga. Pedro is 
in love unth the young woman. Akd y sinip^ na^) kab&yo. / was 
kicked by a horse. Sinukl^y nya ag buhftk nag kanya xi an4k. 
She combed her child's hair; also: Sinuklay nya ag kanya g an^. 
Ag g&mit nya 5 librd ay sinulat ni Daruwin. The book he uses 

10 was written by Darwin. Kwq sinuntok nya ag b4ta^ ay suntuMn 
mo siyi. If he hits the boy, do you hit him. Sinusuntok nya a^ 
b4ta*. He hits the boy on the head. Tagpuin mo akd sa estasyon 
nar) trfen. Meet me at the railroad station. Tanawin mo ar) su- 
nog! Look at the fire! Ag tAbon sa flog ay tinagiy nag 6g08. 

15 The dam in the river was carried away by the current, Hwag 
md 5 ta^)gapin ag upa. Don't accept the pay. Tawigin mo si 
Hw4n. CaU Ju^n. Tinipid ni Hwan ag ibinigay ko g s&gig. 
Juan was saving with the bananas I gave him. Ag dusa q kanya 
g tinitiis ay hindi lubhi g mabigit. The sujfering he is undergo- 

20 ing is not very severe. Tinlsod ko ag bakya^ / kicked away the 
sandal. Intina si Hwan nag bukom. Ju^an was dealt with first by 
the judge. Inuslsa ako ni Hwan. Juan questioned me. Ag inu- 
sfsa sa &kin ni Hw^n ay kug saan nandon ag kanya q sombrero. 
What Juan asked m£ was where his hat was. Inutag ko iyd ij 

25 salapi g ibinigay ko sa kanya kah&pon. / borrowed that money I 
gave him yesterday. Niw&walis nyk ag alikabok sa m&a. She is 
sweeping the dust from the table (also: winiwalis). Ag niy&yi 
ko 5 magpasyal ay si Hwin. The one I invited to come for a walk 
was Juan. 

80 Similarly from: dgaw^ akila^ &kay, akiyat, alfla^ alint4na, 

alipuslA^ alls, imo^ aninaw, asal, b&lak, bambo, b&sa, bat6, biwi^, 
bigkas, bigti, bflag, bill, bitblt, buhat, butas, buwisit, dalsi, daras, 
dikdik, dukity dukot, g&mit^ gamdt, gantl, gawA^, gugol, guplt, 
gusto, giitom, h&bol, h&god, hampis, himon, hanlAy, h4^)o^ harag, 

35 harap, hitak, hila, hilig, hin&la^, hintAy, hirim, hitit, hiwa^ hu- 
kay, huli, ibig, in6, in6m, kagit, kalaykiy, kimot, kanta, kulam, 
kumbida, knmpisal, 161a, 16ko, lunod, lodb, mati, mura, n&kaw, 
p&lo^ pasan, p&sok, pigil, plho, piraso, pirinsa, pukol, sabi, sa- 
diya^ salubog, sampM, saggi, sapant4ha^ sflip, sigll, siy&sat, sum- 

40 p6g, sund6^ sun&d, sunog, sur)&Qa, tagi^, t4kot, talaga, tAlo, tam- 
p&las, t&pos, tukop, tunton, ubos, ug&li^, ulit, wfka^ 

(a) Prom derived words: Inuumiga sila sa kanila rj pagsa- 
sd.litaan. They were being overtaken by their morning in their con- 

Digitized by 



versaiion (um-&ga, § 358). Si Hw&na ay hinimatiiy. Juana was 
attacked by a fainting-fit (himat&y, § 518). 

(b) From root with shifted accent: In&abut naQ b4ta^ aQ 
gora. The boy was reaching for his cap. 
5 (c) Accent shift lacking: Minsanin mo, Hwiln, a^ pagindm 

na^ gamdt. Take the medicine aU at one swaUow, Jtuin. 

(d) From doubled root, with meaning of repeated action: see 
isa; barytcme root with accent shift: &mo^ 

360. A few roots which have actives with mag- form the 
10 direct passive from the root with pag- prefixed. On the analogy 

of other forms (cf. § 369) one should expect this to be the case 
with roots whose active with mag- stood) in contrast with -um- 
(§ 351) ; this is clearly the case, however, only in pag-isip-in, pag- 
i-isfp-in p-in-ag-fsip, p-in-ag-!-isip : Pina^ip nya ^ magn&kaw sa 
15 isa ^) tind&han. He laid plans for robbing a store (cf. in-isip, 
§ 359). The other roots which have pag- in the direct passive 
are : baril, dodp, kuro^ taplk. 

361. To the active with mag- (1) (§ 353) corresponds a di- 
rect passive with pag- and accent diift: pag-putul-in, p-in-ag- 

20 putol, etc (ptitol) : Pinaghatf ko a^ maqa itl^g na pinatigas^ ni 
Hw&na. / halved each of the eggs Juana had hard-boiled. Pina- 
gisip nya aQ kahulugiin na^ ma^a s&nyas na nitkfta nya q ibinf- 
bigay naQ isa j} sund&lo sa isa ny& ^ kasamaha q nahtile naq ka- 
&way. He figured out the meaning of the signals he saw a soldier 

25 make to a comrade who was captured by the enemy. Pinagpu- 
putul naQ b4ta^ ai) sinulid. The child is cutting the thread to 
bits. Pagputulin md, Hwlin, a^ ma;)a siit. Cut out the bamboo- 
spines, Juan. PinaguBis& na^ hukom a^ ma^a magnan4kaw. The 
judge cross-examined the robbers. Similarly from kuha, n4kaw, 

30 s&bi, sipa^ s6nog. 

362. Likewise, corresponding to the active with mag- r 
(§ 354), is a direct passive with pag- r; see gawi^ kag&t. 

Passive with pag- (1) r (cf. § 355) from sipa^ 

363. Passive with pag- (1) D (cf. § 356) : Pinagsabi-sabi 
35 nya sa ib& t iba ^ t4o na si P6dro ay n&htli sa pagnan&kaw. He 

told various people on various occasions, that Pedro was arrested 
for thievery. 

364. The direct passive is made from the root with prefix 
par)- to correspond to actives with mag- (§ 357) : pa-mitas-in, pa- 

40 mi-mitas-in, p-ina-mitis, p-in-a-mi-mitis (pitis). Examples: Ina- 
mutan ko si Hwan nag pinamili ko g maga libr6. / let Juan pur- 
chase from me some of the books I had bought up. Pinamimitas 

Digitized by 


403] MORPHOLOGY 247 

nUk BJQ ma^a kamatsil^. They picked the fruits of the tannic acid 
tree. Pamlmitas^ n&min aig ma^a bulak. We shall pick the ca- 
poc cotton. Pinamiilot n&min a^ maga laglilg na buQa. We 
picked up the faUen betel-fruits. PinaQuta^ ko iya i) salapi^ sa 
5 kany4. I had to borrow that money you have there from him. 
Also from no6d. 

(6) Special static words. 

365. The infix -in- produces static words denoting things 
which are produced by su^h and su^h a process or treated so and 

10 so: a^ pinftak each of the smaU sections into which a rice-field is 
divided by the irrigation trenches (pitak divide; as root-word, 
division). So from Mta^ hifli, k&in, lugaw, puno^ siifl, sulid. 

(a) With accent shift: inakay. 

(b) A number of roots (here treated as simple) have the form 
15 of words with infix -in- (cf. § 333) : hindla^ kin&baQ, linamn^m, 

sinuo&liQ, tin&pay, tin61a. 

366. -in- R: ag inaama godfather, iniina godmother; cf. 
§ 412,a. 

367. SuflSx -in with secondary accent on the first syllable of 
20 the underlying word forms static words denoting something which 

undergoes such and su^h an action: Ag kalasi^ na^ kwMta sa ib& 
y p4ra 5 isa 5 tugtugin. The clinking of money is for others 
(than the spender) like music. So from banda, damd^m, tiis (only 
here does the S show itself), tuQk61. 

25 (a) Static words with (1) -in, with irregularities (§ 334,b), 

person or animal like something: amain uncle; so from inJi. Also 
of things consumed: inumln drinking water, k4nin (kain) boiled 
rice ready to eat. 

(b) The same with pag- in pa-nati-hin guest, if from t4o. 

30 (c) (2) -in, collective, of places: bukirin estate, fields, ter- 

rain; lupain country, part of the world. Of animate creatures, 
tendency : gulatln scary, shy. 

From derived word, in the latter sense, with S on the first 
of three syllables: p4niwalain credulous (paniw&la^ § 347). 

35 (d) -in with reduplication, from numerals, in the sense of 

with so many: lilirafihin; from da-law^ (§345), da-dalawa-hin. 

(e) r (2) -in, with irregularity: ka-kan-in sweetmeat (k&in). 

(f ) The following roots end in -in (§ 333) : bayugin, buhigin, 
dalagin prayer, kaiQin, mul&win, salamin. 

40 (7) Instrumental passive. 

368. The instrumental passive corresponding to the active 
with -um- and, to a large extent, to that with mag-, is formed with 

Digitized by 



the prefix!- (§334,a,3); the actual taking also the infix -in- 
(§334,b,2): i-putol, i-pu-putol, i-p-in-utol, i-p-in-u-putol. It de- 
notes, transiently, an object given forth, parted from, or used dsi 
instrument or the person for whom in such and such an action 
5 or process. 

Iniyalis nili a^) hirag na^ dain. They removed the obstruc- 
tion on the road, ly&nib (or: is&nib) mo aij iyu r) banig sa kay 
Pedro. Make your sleeping-m/it overlap Pedro's, i. e. Sleep next 
to Pedro. Ibinab&gay na^ ma^kakayd a^ damit sa namimil^ sa 

10 kanya. The cloth-merchant is suiting the cloth to her customer, 
Ibin^bagay ni Hw&n sa kanya ^ kalag&yan a^ kanya q paggast^. 
Juan adapts his expenses to his situation, Ibinilaggo narj hukftm 
si Hwan. The judge has put Juan into prison, Ibini^)it nya sa 
lamesa a^) orasan. Ee put the clock on the edge of the table, 

15 Idaan mo sa b&hay ni P6dro a^| b&buy na ito. Leave this pig at 
Pedro's house as you pass, A^j bant&yan sa puno nag tulay ay 
inih&gis nag maga lasig na t4o sa flog. The sentry-box at the 
head of the bridge was thrown into the river by the drunken men. 
Ih&sa mo ag pag&hit na yt6. Sharpen this razor. Ihinukay nila 

20 nag mal&lim ag patay. They dug a deep grave for the dead. Iwan 
mo dito ag b&ta^ Leave the child here (so: i-iwan vjiU be left, in- 
iwan was left, in-i-iwan is being left). Inil&lain ko kay Pedro 
ag s4gig na ito. / am putting aside this banana for Pedro (also: 
itin&taan). Iniluluto nya ag gulay. She is cooking the vegetables 

25 (also: ilinuluto^). Ipinagitan sya sa dalaw^ t) dalaga. He was 
placed between two young women, Ipinayag ko sa hiniliy nili ag 
aki rj sasakyan. At their request I let them have my vehicle. 
Ipinutol nya ako nag sinulid. She cut off some thread for me, 
Iputol mo ako nai) mais. Cut some com for me, Ipuputol nya 

30 ikaw nag tubo. He will cut some sugar-cane for you, Ag kampit 
na iyan ay mapupurol kapag ipinutol mo nag kahoy. That kitchen- 
knife unli grow dull, if you cut wood with it, Kaw4yan ag isind- 
sahlg ni Pedro sa kanya g bdhay. Pedro is using bamboo for floor- 
ing his house, Pag pinuputol ko nk ag liig nag manok, ay is&hod 

35 mo ag magkok na lalagyan nag dugo^ When I am cutting the 
chicken's neck, hold under the basin to catch the blood, Isin&le 
nya si Hwan. He included Juan, Is41i mo si Hwan. Take Juan 
along. Isinampay nya sa kanya g ballkat ag kumot. He slung 
the blanket across his shoulder. Isigag m6 ag sin4ig. Put the rice 

40 on the fire, Isilid m5 sa b6te ag &lak. Put the unne into the bot- 
tle. Pagulin ay isoot mo ag kap6te. When it rains put on the 
rain-coat, Itin&wag nag magpapatawig ag b&go g kautusin. The 
crier cried out the new law, Itinayu nya ag b&hay. He erected the 

Digitized by 


405] MORPHOLOGY 249 

house, Itinira nyi sa &km ag tinipay. He left the bread for me. 
Ituni mu sa kany& aQ simb&han. Show him the church. Itura 
mo sa 4kiii a^ lar6^ Teach me the game. Iwali mo iyi fl iyo ij 
sambalflo 5 luma^ Oet rid of that old hat of yours. 
5 Similarly, from: 41ay, 4tas, bagsak, ballta^, bigiy, budbdd, 

biihos, build, btirol, buw41, d&os, diHt, distlno, dugtog, g&pos, h4- 
nap, hand^^ hatid, hinto^, hits4, htilog, kasal, kawag, labas, ladl^, 
l^y> lagl^gi l&kad, lakas, lap&g, lawit, libiQ, ligtas, lihim, Idlan, 
luw^^, p&yo, sab&d, s4boy, sag6t, sakdal, s&nib, sara, sig^w, sermon, 

10 sulog, sunod, taAn, tais, tigo^ t&li^, tanim, t4^)i^ t4pon, tuktok, 
tuloy, tu^)o, ubos, titos, wicdk. 

(a) Prom root with shifted accent: Iniy4abut nya sa 4kin a^i 
libr6. He was handing me the book. lyabut mo sa akin aij librd. 
Hand me the book. 

13 369. The instrumental passive is made from the root with 

prefix pag- when it corresponds to an active with mag- which 
stands in contrast with an active with -um- from the same root 
( § 351 ) ; it is used also to express the instrumental relation more 
explicitly than the simple form, especially the person for whom. 

20 Forms : i-pag-pu-tol, i-pag-pu-putol, i-p-in-ag-putol, i-p-in-ag-pu-pu- 

Ito g bahay ag ipinagbili ko. This house is the one I have 
sold (cf. bumil! buy, magbill sell). Ai) araw na^ kapaigiln&kan ni 
RisM ay ipinagdidfwaQ sa bod i) Filipfnas. RizaVs birthday is 

25 celebrated all over the Philippines. Sino aQ ipinaglMuto mot 
Whom are you cooking for? (inilMuto* in preceding section). 
Ipagputol mo gi' akft nag yantdk. Please cut some bamboo for 
m€. Ipagpuputol kita nag tubo. / unll cut you some sugar-cane. 
Ipinagputol mo ba akd nag pamilmltT Did you cut me a pole 

30 for fishing? Ipinagpuputol niya akd nag siit na gigawi g pipa. 
He is cutting me some bamboo reeds for cigarette-holders. Ag 
guntig na iyan ay mapupurul agid, kapag ipinagputol mo nag 
damit. Those scissors wUl get dull very soon, if you keep using 
them to cut cloth urith. Iyo g kunin ag guntig, kapag ipinagpd- 

35 putol nya nag kayo. Take the scissors, if he uses them for cutting 
cloth. Ag paupo ni Hwi g sugalan ay ipinags&bi sa pulis nag 
kanya g kipit-b&hay. The gambling party Juan invited was ex- 
posed to the police by hv; neighbor (sin&bi wa^s said). Ipinagsa- 
kay ko si Hwin sa aki g karum&ta. I took Juan into my carriage. 

40 Ag bago g l^yi ay ipinagt&wag ni HwJln. The new law was caUed 
out by Juan. Hindi ko ba ipinagutos sa iy6 g gawin mo itdt 
Didn't I order you to do this? 

Digitized by 



Also from: kayila^ labjt, 16tag, sakdU, snmbdx), taka, tand^),^ 

(a) From derived words: ipinaghimatay (himatay, § 518); 
Ipinagubus-llLkfisan niya a^l pagtakb6. He exhausted all his^ 
5 strength in his running (ubus-likdsan, § 377 ,b). 

370. i-pag (1), corresponding to mag- (1), § 353: from ta- 
pon; also from derived word ma-yabag (§ 454, cf. § 353,a). 

371. i-pag r, corresponding to mag- r (§ 354), from tandg. 

372. The instrumental passive from the root with prefix 
10 par)- corresponds to the active with mag-: Ipinagh&rag nila P6- 

dro ag maga baril na in&gaw nilk sa maga pnlls nag b&yan. In 
holding people up Pedro's gang used the guns they had snatched 
from the police of the district, Ipinamutol ko nag yantok ag 
gulok. I used the holo for rattan-cutting. Ipinamumutol nya ak6 
15 nag kaw&yan. He is cutting bamioo for me. Ipinamumutol nya 
nag kaw&yan ag b&go g gulok. He is using the new holo for ham- 
too-cutting. Ipamutol mo nag tubo ag kampit na it6. Use this 
kitchen-knife for cane-cutting. So also: dko^ balita^ 

(8) Special static words. 

20 373. Special static words with prefix i- express the part of 

something in such and such a direction, or the direction: ibabaw, 
ib4yo, il&lim, itaas, ituktok; with shifted root: ibabi*. 

(9) Local passive. 

374. The simple local passive, corresponding to the active 

25 with -um- and largely to that with mag-, has the suflSx (1) -an 
with the irregularities described in § 334. The forms of the actual 
mode have also the infix -in-: putul-an, pu-putul-an, p-in-utul-an, 
p-in-u-putiil-an. The local passive denotes the thing affected as 
place in which or the person to whom. 

80 Inabdtan ako nag ulan. I was caught by the rain. Agahan 

mo ag iyo g pagparito. Make early your coming here, i. e. Come 
here early. Pagkagupit nag aki g buhok ay inahltan nya akft. 
When he had cut my hair he shaved me. Alisan mo nag maga 
tinik ag &ki g salawM. Take the thorns out of my troitsers. Inan- 

85 y&han sila ni Hwan na magpasyil. They were invited by Juan 

to go for a walk. Ardlan mo ag maga Kapampdgan. Teach mor- 

• als to the Pampangas. Asnan mo ag daig na isda^ Salt the fish 

you lay open. Aptan mo nag p&wid ag b&hay. Roof the house 

urith nipa-palm. Awitan mo ag maga panauhin. Sing for the 

40 guests. Bakuran mo ag sagigan sa tab! nag Hog. Fence in the 
banana-grove by the river. Bakuran mo ag bihay. Put a fence 
round the house. Binalit&an ko si Hw&n nag maga nagyari sa 

Digitized by 


407} M(»PHOiiOOT 251 

&kin sa labanan. I related to Juan my adventures in the war, 
Bantayan mo a^ p&lay. Guard the standing rice. Bas&han mo 
ako naQ ma^a kwinto. Read me some stories. Bigasan md aQ 
tiii61a g manftk. Make the chicken-stew with rice. Si Pedro afl 
5 binilh&n ko na^ kab&yo Q itd. It was Pedro I bought this horse 
from. Sa katapns^ ay kanya j} napagkil&la a^ malaki q pa^&nib 
na kanya 5 biniflftan. In the end he recognized the great danger 
into which he had betaken himself. Binvikakn ni Hwan ag pinto^. 
Juan opened the door. Dinaan&n na^ ti^n a^ b4boy. The pig 

10 was run over by the train. Dinaanin ko si Hwin. I called for 
Juan on the way (and took him unth me). Dalhan mo na^ tiibig 
aQ kab&yo. Bring water to the horse. Dalian mo aQ pagdadala 
rito na^) libro. Bring the book here soon. A^j pab&sa sa bisita 
nag San-Antonyo ay dinaluh&n nag mar&mi y t4o. The reading 

15 at the chapel of San Antonio was attended by many people, Dina- 
mihan nya axi kinuha nya g s&gig. He took many bananas. Dina- 
muhan nya aQ damuha g mal4pit sa simbahan. He cut grass on 
the pasture near the church. Dinapuan nag ma\)a Ibon a\) sagjt 
nag k&hoy. Birds alighted on the branch of the tree. Dinatnan 

20 kami nag ul4n. We were overtaken by the rain. Dinilian nya 
ako. She stuck out her tongue at me (ag dfla^ the tongue) ; also: 
Dilfian mo ag mansinas. Lick the apple. Hwag mo g duruan 
nag kar&yom ag 4ki g panyo. Don't leave needles sticking in my 
handkerchief. Hagkan md si NAnay. Kiss Mother. Hinaluan 

25 nag 61ak ag gdtas. Some wine was mixed into the milk, Hinam- 
pasin ni P6dro ag mnkhd ni Hw«in. Pedro hit Jtuin in the face 
with a whip. Ag daan ay hinar&gan. The road was obstructed. 
Has&an mo ag gulok na ito. Sharpen this bolo, Hintuan md ag 
iyo g pagsusugil, Pedro, kug ibig mu g yum&man ka. Put a stop 

30 to your gambling, Pedro, if you want to get rich. Hinuhug&san 
niy^ ag maga piggan parii sa maga bab4ye. He is washing dishes 
for the women. Hulihan mo nag isdi* ag palaisdian. Catch fish 
in the fish-pond, Ag maga samp&y na damit ay hinipan nag 
hAgin, kany&^ nahulog sa lupa^ The clothes on the line were 

35 bloum by the unnd and fell to the ground. Hinipan ko ag pfto. 
I blew the whistle. Hinipan ko ag apdy upag palakihin. / blew 
on the fire to make it larger. Inil&gan nya ag simbfthan. He kept 
away from the church. . . . ag kab&yo. He got out of the way 
of the horse, Inlagan mo ag dum&ratig na tumfttakbo g kab&yo. 

40 Oct out of the way of the horse that is coming on the run. Itiman 
mo ag lubdg nag damit. Make the dye of the garment black. 
Inliyakdn ni Hw6na ag kanya g namat&y na kaybigan. Juana is 
weeping over her dead friend, Hwag m6 g kurutAn, PMro, ag 

Digitized by 



isda I) ndsa dulag. Don't you take a pinch from the fish on the 
table, Pedro. Hwag mil q lab4nan, P6dro, a^ kapatid mu q ma- 
tanda^ Don't oppose your older brother, Pedro. Afl landis na 
gawi xi kaliwi* ay a^ iyo 5 lak&ran. You mv^t take the path which 
5 goes to the left. Lakasan m5 a^ tulak sa ba^k^^. Push hard on 
the boat. Lakhan mo, Hw^, aQ pirasuhin mo ^ matamls. Break 
off a big piece of the sugar, Juan. Nilalfman nili a^ hukay nafl 
patay. The grave for the corpse was made deep by them. Afl 
bantliy na^ ma^a kanyon, ay nilay&san aQ kanya ^ lug&r. The 

10 guard of the cannon deserted his post. Ligsihan md a^ pagilag sa 
lugir na iyan. Oet out of that place quickly. Hwag m6 5 luksa- 
h^ aQ tinik na iykn. Don't jump on that spine. Lul&nan mo naQ 
maqga axi karitdn. Load up the wagon with mangos. Luluran 
mo si P6dro pagbabaMg ninyd. Kick Pedro in the shin when you 

15 fight him. Nilusu^an mo hk si P6drot Did you help Pedro f Lu- 
tuan mo na^ big&s a^ mandk. Cook some rice in with the (already 
cooked) chicken. Masdan mo aq bw^. Look at the moon. Mini- 
masdan kd a^ ma^a nagd&daa X) t&o. / am looking at the people 
who pass by. Minur&han nya ako sa pagbibili na^ taldq. He made 

20 me a low price on the egg-plant. Mur&han mo ax) pagbibili naQ 
labanos. Sell your large radishes cheap. Aq ta^gdpan nai) ma^a 
sagla* sa b4hay-8a^)14an ni P6dro ay ninak&wan kagab^. The re- 
ceiving-place of pledges in Pedro's pawn-shop was robbed hist 
night. Nakftwan mo syi na^ kanya ^ salap^^. Rob him of his 

25 money. Sa pagbubund* ni Hwin at ni P6dro si P6dro ay pinaahlUi 
ni Hwan. Juan caught Pedro by the leg (or: hurt Pedro in they 
leg) as they wrestled together; but: Pinaanan nyk ag kanya fl 
kapatid na natutulog. He lay down with his feet toward his sleep- 
ing brother. Hwag mo 5 paanan sa iyo 5 paghigi^ ag kapatid mo 

30 13 natutulog. When you go to bed don't lie with your feet toward 
your sleeping brother, Pinan&wan sya nag pagiisip. He lost his 
mind. Patay an mo na^) pitson ai) niltigaw. Kill a pigeon for the 
stew. Patisan mo ag isda g ito. Put shrimp-sauce on this fish. Pi- 
naydgan nya a^) paraA g ito. He agreed to this plan. Pilikin mu a^j 

35 isdi^ Cut the fins off the fish. Pintahan m6 aQ pad^r na ytd. 
Paint this wall. Hwag mo g pintasin ag damit na yan. Don't 
find fault with that garment. Pitasan mb nag buga ag maggi. 
Pick some fruits from the mango tree. Ag pinulutan nili nag 
manS* ay ag bakiiran ni Hw&na. The place where they gathered 

40 peanuts was Juana's yard. Pinupundsan nya a^) sahig. She is 
scrubbing the floor. Punan m6, P6dro, nag iak g salap^^ ag kwalta 
g ibinigiy mo sa &kin. Add half a dollar to the money you gave 

Digitized by 


409] MORPHOLOGY 253 

me, Pedro. Putikan mo a^ kanya X) salawal. Put mud on his 
troupers. Pinutulan ko na^ usbgQ ag ma^a kam6te. / cut shoots 
from the sweet-potatoes. Pinuputlan nya nag maga osuQk a^) k&- 
hoy na nabwU. He is cutting the branches off the tree that was 
5 hlown down. Put^an mo nag t^ga ag &8o. Cut the dog's ears. 
Putlan mb na^) sugay ag kalab^w. Cut the horns of the caribou. 
Paputulan ko nag sugay ag tis&. I shall cut off the stag's horns. 
PuputlAn daw nya nag buntdt aQ &80. He says he will cut off the 
dog's taU. Sinakyin n&min ag baQk& ni Hwan. We rode in 

10 Juan's canoe. Sakyan mo aq bagka g ito. Oct into this canoe. 
Hwag mu g sal&han aq iyo j} mag& pagp&sok sa eskw^lhan. Don't 
skip going to school, Don't play hookey; but: Sinaglan nya a^) 
sigsag. He missed the ring (in the juego de anUlo). Hwag mu ^j 
saglan ag us&. Don't fail to hit the stag. Sam&han mo si P6dro. 

15 Oo with Pedro. Sayawan m5 kaml, Hw&na. Dance for u^, Juana. 
Sinigawlm nag p4re* ag kanyft g munisilyd. The priest yelled at 
his sacristan. Sinik&ran nag kabayo ag karumftta. The horse 
kicked at the carriage. Siglan md nag alak ag b6te. FUl the bot- 
tle with wine. Unti-unti mo g subuan ag pitsdn. Feed the squabs 

20 little by little. Sinug4tan sya ni P6dro. He was wounded by 
Pedro. Sinukl&yan nya ag kanya g an^. She combed her child's 
hair. Sul&tan mo si P6dro. Write to Pedro. Tinabunan na ni 
Pedro ag hukay. Pedro has already filled up the hole. Tagalan 
mo ag pagkdbitbit nag tablft. Keep holding the board that way. 

25 Tagalan m6 ag pagtitira dfto sa &min. Stay here with us a long 
tim£. Tagpian mo ag biro g itd. Mend this shirt. Tagpuan m6 
nag iba g k6yo ag kaluwagan nag s4ya. FUl out (literally: caurse 
to meet) the u)idth of the skirt with other cloth. Tamnan md nag 
mag a puno-g-nyog ag bakuran. Plant the yard with cocoanut 

30 trees. Tinanuran nya ag b&hay sa boo g magdam&g. He guarded 
the house all night. Hwag mh g taggap^ nag upa ag kaybfgan 
ko g ihahatid mb sa estasydn nag tr^n, sapagk&t ak6 ag uupa sa 
iyo. Don't take any fare from my friend whom you u)%ll bring to 
the railroad station, for I shaU pay you. Tapunan m6 ag b6te. 

35 Cork up the bottle. Hwag md g taw&nan si Hwin. Don't laugh 
at Juan. Taw&gan mo si Bath&la^ Call on the Lord. Tinayuan 
iiya nag kam&lig ag bakuran. He erected a granary in his yard. 
Tigasan mo ag Into nag halaya. Cook the jelly hard. Tinirhin 
nya ako nag tin&pay. He left some bread for me. Tirhin mo ak6 

40 nag inuyat. Leave me some molasses; but: Hwag mb g tirah&n 
ag b&hay na iy4n. Don't live in that house. Ag b&hay na iy6n ay 
ag kanya g tinitirah^n. That house over there is where he lives. 

Digitized by 



Tinnlfnan nya aQ pagl&kad. He hurried his pace. Tulfsan mo a^ 
tas& na^ l&pis. Sharpen the paint of the pencil. Untian in6, P6- 
dro, aQ ibfbigay m6 5 damd sa kaMyo. Oive the horse less grass, 
Pedro. tJixpkn na^ ma^a panatihin a^ ma^a ba^kii ^ it5. The 
5 guests wHl sit on these tenches. Or&san mo aQ iyo q pagk&in. 
Have you meals at stated times. UtAgan mo nag salapf si Pedro. 
Borrow money from Pedro. 06han mo ag tandg. Answer the 
question in the affirmative. Niw&walisin niyk a^) sahig. She is 
sweeping the floor. 

10 Other roots: akmi^ &mot, ap6y, balat, biya^ b&yad, bigiy, 

bendisiyftn, bfiti, dagin, retr&to, gimit, gawi^, gupit, halimhim, 
hatid, hawak, higi^ hitsi, hfikay, hdlog, fgat, kamlt, kanti, lab^, 
lagiy, lalo^ lipit, ligaw, ligtAs, limds, mul^', pagakpak, palit, pan- 
hik, p&sok, prubjt, pnnta, putdk, sabjty, s&boy, sagasa^ s4kit, sala- 

15 kay, silakb6, subd, s6bok, san5d, suggab, sodt, t&li^ t&ma^, t&ga^, 
tixjan, tfbay, tib^^ tigin, tubo^ tugtdg, tfilad, tulog, tulo^), tugt^rj, 
lunpis^, upa, utos, wimk. 

(a) From derived words: Sya y tinagiliran ni P6dro. Pedro 
hit him in the side (ta-gilid, § 523), but: TinaligdAn ni Hwan si 

20 P6dro pagdadaan nit6 sa kanya u harap&n. Juan turned away 
from Pedro when the latter came before him. Tinalikdan ni Hwin 
si P6dro. Juan turned his back on Pedro (talikod, § 523). 

(b) Irregularly without accent shift before the suflBx : Aki g 
binitiwan (or: binitfwan) ag b6te. I let go my hold on the bottle. 

25 Bitiwan mo ag Mbid. Let go of the rope. Dina&nan siyst nag isa 
XI silakbd nag g&lit. A fit of anger came upon him. . . . nag isa 
X) masami g pagiisip. An evU thought came to him. Dinada&nan 
sya nag isa g malaki g kalugktitan. A great grief is upon him. 
. . . nag pagkaulol. He is under an attack of madness. Cf. da- 

80 an&n, above. Minat&an nag b&go g tao ag aswag. The young man 
looked round for the vampire. MatAan mo ag magnanakaw. Keep 
an eye open for the thief. So from : sSrmon. 

(c) From root with accent shift (so that the total shift is two 
syllables) : Ag utusan nag kapit^n ay tinamain nag b&la. The 

35 captain's orderly was hit by a bullet. Ag lul6d ni Pedro ay tina- 
main nag b&la. Pedro got shot in the shin. Tinamain nag kul6g 
(nag lintik) ag isa g punu-g-magga. A mango tree was struck by 
the thunder (by lightning). Tamain ka nag lintik! May the 
lightning strike you! (curse.) 

40 375. The local passive is formed from the root with pag- 

when it corresponds to an active in which mag- is contrasted with 
-um- (§ 351) or when the local relation, especially of person for 
whom, is highly explicit : pag-putul-an, pag-pu-putul-an, p-in-ag- 

Digitized by 


411] MORPHOLOGY 2&$ 

putul-an, p-in-ag-pu-putul-an. Examples: Aq pagsakiy sa ka- 
Myo ay hindi magall ^ pagar&lan kuQ salb&he aQ kab&yo. Biding 
horseback is not easy to learn if the horse is unruly. Hindi k&ya 
ni Hw^ aiQ kanya Xi pinagiar&lan. Juan's studies are too hard 
5 for him. Pagbabalikan kita. I will come hack to yon. Pagbalikaii 
mo ak6. Come hack to me. Aq uta^ ni Maryi ay pinagbay4ran 
na^ kanya q kapatid na babaye. Maria's deht was paid off hy her 
sister. Aq aki q kapatid na lalaki a^ pinagbilhan ko nito q b&- 
hay. / sold this house to my brother. Napatid aq lubid na kanya 

10 fl pinagbibiyabuhan. The rope on which he was swinging broke. 
Aq pinaghar&^an kina Hwdn ay isa q lug^r na mal4pit sa ma^gi- 
han sa daa-Q-Baliwag. The place where Juan and his company 
were held up was a spot near the m^ingo-grove on the Baliuag road. 
Pagharian mo q mabute a^j puld 5 itd. Rule righteously over this 

15 island. Paghas&an mo na^ ma^a pa^&hit aQ hasaJL q ito. Use this 
whetstone to sharpen razors on. Aq pinaghatdan ko naq g&tas ay 
mal&yo^. The place to which I delivered the milk was a long way 
off. Sa pasiga q ito y waist ^ Ingkr na pinaghiahubaran naQ damit. 
At this beach there is no place for undressing, a^ pinagibhan the 

20 point of difference^ the difference. Pagig&tan mo g dalhin a^) tiibo \| 
kristal na iyan, sapagkat bak& magkaputol-putol iyttn kuQ hindi ka 
mai^at naQ pagdadalli. Carry that glass tube carefully, because it 
might get smashed if you are not careful about the carrying it J 
Pinagkabyaw&n nila a^) lug&r na itft. This place is where the^f, 

25 pressed sugar-cane. Aq pinagkakabyawan n4min ay isa q lug^ na 
mataas kiy sa tubuhan. The place where we press sugar-cane is 
a place higher than the cane-field. Pagkabyawan niny6 na^ tubd 
afl b&go js kabyiwan. Press the cane in the new press. Pagkibya- 
wkn nila a^j b&go xi tay6 xi kabyiwan. They wHl press sugar-cane 

30 in the newly-erected press. Aq hw&taw ag sya rah 5 pagk&nan. 
The Chinese bowl is what you are to eat from. Si P6dro ag pinag- 
kunan nag maga kasa^jk&pa ^j ito. Pedro is the one from whom 
we got these tools. Si Migfel a^) pinagkukunan nya nag kwilta g 
pagbile nag kalabaw. Miguel is the one from whom he gets money 

35 to buy cariboti. Ag pagkunan mo nag p&lay ay ag sako g may 
kulag. The place for you to take rice is the sack that is alreadyi 
broken. Hwag rao g paglaruwan, Hwan, ag kutig, sapagkAt bak& 
mo iyan ra^bulag. Don't play with the kitten, Jtmn, for you might 
inadvertently blind it. Paglarwan md ag bola. Play (unth the) 

40 ball. Ag kutig ay nab&lot sa pinaglalaniwan nya g damit. The 
kitten got wrapped up in the piece of cloth with which it wa4 
playing. Pagmasdan mo ag bw^. Look carefully at the moon. 

Digitized by 



Hwag mo ^ pagputulan naQ ano mkn eq saQk&la q iyan. Don't 
cut anything on that cutting-block. PinagsalitaJtii ni Hw£in aQ 
kanyft ^ ma^a b&ta q kapatld. Jtuin gave his little brothers a 
5 Similarly: bintai), dain, daras, dasal, hati^ hin&la^ katAm, 

kubli, patay, pilit, sabi, silbi, sisi, tagpo^ tip&n, usap. 

(a) From a phrase: pinagsa-ul^n (sa ulfe^). 

(b) From a derived word: Maq^ pinagpipitag&nan ko 5 
gino5! Respected sirs, Dear sirs (in oral or written address). 

10 (c) Irregularly without accent shift: pinagdaanan (daan), 

cf . § 374,b. 

(d) With extra accent shift, corresponding to active with 
mag- (1) : Pagputuljtn mo, Hwan, na^ ma^a usboQ a^ kalab&sa. 
Cut a bundle of shoots from the pumpkin, Juan, 

15 As bitiw lacks the accent shift before -an (§ 374,b), the form 

with pag- and shift of one syllable belongs here: Pinagbitiwan 
nya arj marja raanuk na kanya ^) tagan. She let go of all the chick- 
ens she was holding. 

(e) With reduplication of the root, corresponding to the 
20 active with mag- r (§ 354) : pinagsisigUin (silid). 

(f) With both extra accent shift and reduplication, corre- 
sponding to § 355 : Pinagd&dadagukan nya aq maga kaaway ni3ra. 
He was dealing blows to his enemies right aiid left (dSgok a blow 
with the fist). 

25 (g) From doubled root (cf. the active, § 356) : pinagtutu- 

lu^)-tulu^)an (ttilo^)). 

376. The local passive with pag- corresponds to actives with 
mag- : pa-mutul-an, pa-mii-mutul-an, p-in-a-mutul-an, p-in-a-mu- 

30 Saan ag pinaggalfgan mot — ^Ag pinaggaligan ko ay ag baya- 

g-Maynfla^ Where have you come from? — I come from ManMa. 
Ag maga pinitak na kad&tig nag s4pa^ ay sya ny4 g pinaggiga- 
pasan (or: sya nyk g pinamumuttilan nag palay). The sections of 
the rice-field bordering on the ditch are the ones he is cutting rice 

35 from, Pinagitlug^n nag manok ag kaho g ito. The hen laid its 
eggs in this box, Hwag mo g pamitas&n nag bug a ag 6tis na nasa 
tab! nag balon. Don't pick the fruits from the atis tree by the 
side of the well, Siya k6 g pamimitasJin nag buga ag byabas na 
n&sa gitn& nag bakuran. I shall pick fruits from the guava tree 

40 in the middle of the yard. Ali g lug^r ag iyo g pinamutiilan nag 
damo? Which place did you cut grass from? Sinundo ni Pedro 
ag kapatld na bab&ye sa bihay na pinaninahlan. Pedro fetched 

Digitized by 


413] MORPHOLOGY 257 

his sisier from the house where she was working as seamstress. So 
also from: t&lo, tiwfila^ 

(a) With paQ-hin- the local passive corresponds to the active 
with ma^)-hin- (§ 357 ,b) ; the reduplication affects the hin- which, 
5 theoretically, we may regard as part of the underlying word. 
''Mag&ral ka ^ mabuti at paQhinay&Qan mo a^ mahalaga q pana- 
hdn," sin&bi ni H¥ran sa kanya q an^. ^^ Study hard and take 
account of the precious time," said Ju^n to his son. Kay Ian pa 
kayft pa^hihinay&Qan naq maqa t&o a^ ma^a &ni q taon-tad y na- 

10 driri nao luktftn o na^ tuyott When uM the people at last regret 
the harvests that are every year destroyed by locusts or by drought? 
Pinaghinay&flan nila afl n&lubog na ba^)ki^. They were sorry 
about the canoe that had sunk. PinaQhihinayftQan nftmin aq ma- 
r4mi ^ buhay na ginugol naQ bftyan sa pagtataQgol sa katwfran. 

15 We regret the many lives lost by the country in the defense of its 
rights, (s&ya^) ; similarly from ganti: pa^higantihan. 

(10) Special static words. 

377. With S -an special static words are formed from oxy- 
tone roots, without the irregularities described in § 334. In mean- 

20 ing they fall into two types, which, however, are not always clearly 

(a) They express an action by two or more actors, a kind of 
plural of root words of the type described at § 341,3,a. A^ alisan 
naQ ma^a aluw&ge ay sa lunes na^ hftpon. The leaving of the car- 

25 penters is fixed for Monday afternoon. aQ In&nan a drinking 
party. Aq ly&kan naQ maQa b&ta^ ay nfirinig ko sa kals&da. I 
heard on the street the crying of the children. Afl k&labugan na^ 
ma^a nalaglag na nyog dahiliin sa malakis na ha^in ay nftrinig 
haqg^Q sa mal&yo X) lug^r. The thud of the cocoanuts that were 

30 thrown down by the strong unnd was audible for some distance 
away. Aq kalasi^an na^ ma^ja kwalta q lagljtg sa bulsa ni Hw^ 
ay sya o nakagisig kay P6dro. The rattling of the coins falling 
from Juan^s purse was what woke Pedro up. Aiq kant&han nafl 
ma^a fbon ay ginagawA nila ku^ um&ga. The birds sing together 

35 in the morning. A^) kiirutan nili sa niluto ko g isdi* ay lubha xj 
madal^. They often pinched pieces out of the fish I had cooked. 
Ag litsunan nila Hwan ay hindi natulfty. The barbecue of Juan 
and his friends did not come off. Ag luksuhan nag maga lukton 
ay toto6 T) maiikl^^ The leaps of the small grasshoppers are very 

40 short. Ag p&gakp&kan nax) marja t&o pagkara&n nax) talump&te^ 
ay lubh& x) mahdba^ The applause of the people after the speech 
was very long. A^) pint&san ni Hw&na at ni Maryi ay par6ho xj 
hindi totoo. The criiicisms of Juana and Maria make of each other 

Digitized by 



are equally untrue. Afl kanya ^) ma^a lalagyan nag tubi^ ay pu- 
nua Q lahat. His containers for the sap are (M full. Ag kanila 
JS s^&yan sa tr^n ay sa liQg5 nag um&ga. They are aU to take the 
train Sunday morning. Naparodn akd kagab^ sa isa q siyftwan. 
5 I went to a dance last night. Aq ug&wan nag maga b&ta^ sa kal- 
s&da ay nakabfbiQl. The shouting of the children on the street is 
deafening, ag tahiilan nag maga &80 the baying together of the 
dogs, ag tiyian a staking, a putting up of stakes (a^) tayi^ a stake 
in a bet or game). Narinig sa isa xi upnan nag maga Ints&k aQ 

10 kwento xi ito. This story was heard in a gathering of Chinamen. 
Similarly, from: kaluskos, patiy, pusta, putak, saliti*, sugal, 
takbd, tipJin, tugtdg, umpdk. 

From derived word : Ag hlmagsfkan sa Pilipinas ay natapus 
nk. The fighting in the Philippines is over, (as though from a form 

15 -himagsik, see § 518). 

This formation underlies further derivatives, see §§ 352,d. 

(b) The other meaning of the formation S -an is that of an 
object viewed, rather explicitly (cf. § 380), as the scene of plural 

20 action or the place of things. So: ag big&san the place where 
hulled rice is made, threshing floor for rice, rice-miU. Si Hw&n 
ag bigayan nila nag kanild, g maga nin&kaw na al&has. Juan is the 
one to whom they give the jewelry they have stolen, ag bilanguan 
a prison (bjq bilaggo^ a prisoner). Aq kanila q bilihan nag p&lay 

25 ay sa kamfilig ni Hwiin. The place where they buy rice is in 
Juan's storehouse. Aq dJtinan nag maga sundalo ay ag landas na 
it6. The u^ual route of the soldiers is this path. aQ hamp4san the 
whipping-bench. Aq maga ma^ak6pit-b&hay na si Andrte, Eulas, 
at P6dro ay nagtat&lo tugkul sa kanf-kanil& q haggdhan nag bakti- 

30 ran. The neighbors Andres, Nicolas, and Pedro are disputing about 
the boundaries of their grounds. Sa pagitan nag b4ya-Q-Baliwag 
at baya-Q-San-Mig^l ay may-roo q isa Idmag na hintuan an maga 
naglalakad. Pedestrians have only one stopping-place between the- 
towns of Baliuag and San Miguel. Si Pedro ay sya q hiraman nag 

35 salapi^ nag maga t4o sa b&yan. Pedro is the one from whom the 
people in the town borrow money, ag hugkuyan a machine for 
fanning the pounded rice. Ag isa g taburete l&mag ag ginawa 
nila g lagdyan nag kanila g maga sombrero, sapagkat ag sabit^n 
ay punu na. A chair was all they had to lay their hats on, for the 

40 hat-rack was already full. Ag lagiiyan sa ilog ay bura&baw. The 
swimming-place in the river grew shallow, ag laruan the play- 
ground. Ag lib&gan sa maga bata* sa maga bapor na naglilayag 

Digitized by 


415] MOK>HOIi06T 

sa d&gat na^ Pasffiko ay lubhji q Tnalillnia na lugar. The play- 
rooms for children on the steamers that ply on the Pacific Ocean* 
are very neat places, a^j nytigan a cocoanut grove. A^ pitiyan 
naQ b&buy ay nasiinog. The pork daughter-house humed down. 
5 afl patisan a factory for shrimp-sauce (patis, made of the small 
shrimp called hipon). Ag Mro 5 punit-punit ay sya nya 5 ginawA 
Q tagplan na^ maqa ret&so. She sewed the patches all on to the 
ragged House. Aq kanila ^ tagp6an ay a^ daa-^-Balfwag. Their 
meeting-place is the Baliuag road, afl tanyagan an exhibition, ex- 

10 position, a^ timbftQan a pair of scales. ai3 tindahan a shop, store 
{sjQ imdk the goods for sale in a store). 

Similarly, from: aklat, banljiy, bigti, biniyag, buk^ buntdt, 
dasal, ga'w&^ hagdin, higi^ hukdm, kabiyftw, kubll, kuldq, liblQ, 
luksft, magga, pinti, pint6, pitiLg, punUi*, sampay, saQlIt^ simba, 

15 sahin, ta^gap, taraiok&y tira, up^^ 

A very few show irregularities : eskwti-han, pa6-nan, t5to-hfi- 
nan the truth (totoo) ; the secondary accent is lacking in dam6-han, 
tubd-han ; irreg^ilar in kumpls&l-an. 

From a compound word: libus-lak&san (ubos-lak^). 

20 f^m a phrase : s^-law&han changeable, fickle, as though from 

sa lawi ; for the latter see § 345. 

Prom derived words: ag inumfnan place for drinking-water, 
water-shelf (inum-in, § 367,a) ; ag sUa^&n-an the east (sila^-in, 

25 378. The formation (1) S -an is made from bar3rtone roots 

and corresponds in meaning to (a) in the preceding type ; the suf 
fix is added as a rule without irreg^ilarity. 

Aq ibfgan ni Maryi at ni Hw&n ay natapus sa pagtatampu- 
ban. The love-affair of Maria and Juan ended through their con- 

30 trariness. A^ Uy&san na^ ma^a sundftlo ay hindi maamp&t na^ 
kanila i) ma^ja pinuno^ The deserting of the soldiers could not be 
stopped by their officers. Sa miyirkules ai3 liil&nan nilft sa tr&n. 
On Wednesday they are to embark on the train. A^j pi^lutan nilk 
nao kwalti ay nfihinto* nag m&rinig nila ag putik. Their scram- 

35 bling for money ceased when they heard the crash. 
So : hfiyag, huni, kain, kilos, s4ma, tipon, tuloy. 
Irregular in form is : Ag taw&nan nila Hwan ay n&hinto dahi- 
Ikn sa kanila i) pagk&gulat. The laughter of Juan's crowd stopped 
on account of their surprise (tiwa). 

40 Irregular in meaning, as though local instead of plural, is: 

Ax} gulod na ito ay sya x} silfigan na^i 4raw. This hUl is the place 
where the sun rises (sfla^)). 

Digitized by 



379. The form from bar3rtone roots corresponding to the type 
in § 377,b and often also to type a, is: (2) -an, without irregulari- 
ties: Aq agawan naQ ma^a uqgo^ ay magul6. The grabbing by 
the monkeys WiM confused, afl basaMn a reading-room, library. 

5 Bulakan Bulacdn (name of a province, if from bulak a cluster of 
capoc cotton). Aq maliit na una q it5 ay sya k5 q duruan nag 
ma^a aspil^. This little cushion is where I stick my needles. aQ 
haluin a miocing-vessel. aq hugasan a place for washing dishes. aQ 
hulih&n nafl isda^ a fishing-expedition. Si Hw&na ay isa \) babaye 

10 Q kutuhan. Juana is a lousy woman. Aq labanan naQ maqa Tur- 
kos at lQgl6ses ay kasulukuyan pa l&maq. The warfare between 
the Turks and the English is only now taking place. Ag kanila Xi 
lakaran ay lubhi q masayi. Their walking party is very merry. 
Aq kanila q lusuQstn ay hindf nat&pus na mabute, sapagkat marami 

15 sa ma^a t&o ay matamltd. Their cooperative scheme did not turn 
out well, because most of the people were lazy. Aq murahan ni 
Hw&na at ni Maryi ay narinig na^ bod ^j biyan. The revilings of 
Juana and Maria were heard by the whole town. Sa baya-Q-San- 
Mig^l ay na^jyare ag isa 5 nakaw&n. In the town of San Miguel a 

20 robbery took place. Aq tabli ^ itd ay ginaw& q pakuin nag maga 
b&ta^ sa maga p&ku q aspil^ na kinuha nila. The children used this 
board for hammering in the tacks they had taken. Ag butas nag 
bagk&^ ay sya g ginawJt g pasakkn ni P6dro nag pagkit. The leak 
in the canoe was where Pedro calked in the wax. ag putikan a clay- 

25 pit; a person or thing covered with mud. Ag isi g labagan ay sya 
g nagig silagan kay Hesus. Jesus was bom in a manger; ag k&tri 
g silagan ni Hw4na the bed in which Juana^s children were bom. 
Sya y sugatin He is wounded; ag sugatin the wounded (as, after a 
battle) . ag sulatan a writing-desk. Ag sHog nag b4hay ay sya nyk g 

30 taguan nag maga kasagk&pan sa pagaalw&ge. The ground-floor of 
his house is where he keeps his carpentry tools. Ag kuwarto g ito 
ay sya kb g tulugan. This room is my sleeping-place. Ag tulugan 
nag bihay ni Hwan ay ndsa bubugan. The sleeping-quarters in 
Juan^s house are on the roof, ag utusan a servant, Ck waiter, an 

35 orderly. 

Similarly: dral, bukol, d&hil, haraij, hasa^ iliaw, flaw, kain, 
luto^ sabit, s4bog, tipon, tulis, ulo, upa, oras. 

With irregularities: hMaman&n garden , flower-pot (haliman) 
has secondary accent on the first of three syllables ; agkin the mem- 

40 bers of a given person's immediate family, not including himself: 
ag agkan ni Hwan Krus Juan Cruz' wife and children (from -anak, 
cf. mag-&nak, § 358,a) ; kwayanan, beside kawayanin (kaw&yan). 

Digitized by 


417] MORPHOLOGY 261 

With irregularity and reduplication: ka-kan-^ (-k&in). 
380. (1) -an with irregularities forms static words denoting 
objects by the action for which they are locally used or by the 
things they are the place of ; the local meaning is less explicit, and 
5 the object has more fixed identity apart from its local relation than 
is the case in the preceding forms. This distinction is very clear 
where both forms occur from the same root (cf. kul6g, lagiy) ; it 
may disappear where only one form is made (sagi^an, atisan have 
the same value as nydgan). 

10 aQ atisan a grove of atis trees. Bigas&n aQ kanya q sin&iQ. 

Her boUed rice has raw rice in it, is not done, Ag kanya q darait ay 
pulahin. Her clothes are all red. Sya y isa ^j pulahin. He is a 
Red, a member of the Bed party. aiQ siligan the east, also Siligan 
SHangan (name of a town), ag taanltn a fugitive, ag manok na ta- 

15 lunan the defeated game-cock; luto q talunan a dish in which the 
defeated game-cock is cooked with ginger. Similarly: aso, b&kod, 
bubdg, dulo, gaw4^, ha^)gi, harip, kul6Q, labag, laro^ likod, Ivlbd, 
pa4, s4giQ, tint^ro. 

(a) Some roots which begin with I and most of those whose 
20 irregularity involves contraction, have reduplication in this form: 

Aq lalagy&n ko nag librd ay aQ m6sa g it6. This table is my book- 
stand. Ag uupa Q ito ay gilgamitin nag maqa panauhin. The 
guests wm sit on these seats. Aq uup^ g ito ay sa h&re^ This seat 
is for the king. Similarly: hihigan (higi*), lalamunan (l&mon), 
25 lalawigan (l&wig), sasakyan (sakjty), titirh&n (tirjt). 

(b) Prom derived words: Napfitol nili ag puno-g-k&hoy sa 
kalahatian. They cut the tree at the middle. Nalag5t ag lubid sa 
kalahatian. The rope broke at the middle, (kalah&ti^ § 519). Ag 
biitas nag bagka^ ay n&sa tagiliran. The leak in the canoe is in the 

30 side. Nilagy&n ni Hw&n nag tagiliran ag kanya g b&hay. Juan 
put side-waUs on his house, (tagflid, § 523). 

381. D -an, with accent shift if the root is barytone, forms 
words denoting an object which is an imitation or miniature of such 
and such: ag dagat-dag&tan a lake; ag kab&-kabayiihan a play- 
Si horse; ag tao-tauhan a manikin, doU; the pupU of the eye; ag baril- 

barflan a toy-gun. Further derivatives from this formation, see 
§ 352,d. 

382. Many roots here treated, because felt, as simple, end in 
-an: bag&n, batalan, daland&n, hagd^, hal&man, k&nan, k&pitan, 

40 kapitan, kaw&yan, lardwan, pagitan, pakuwin, pagnstn a hand-bas- 
ket, pasigan (P&sig is the name of a river), pigg^, saguwan a pad- 
dle, sagk&lan, tampal&san, tahflan. 

383. Similar formations with pag- prefixed add the element 

Digitized by 



of meaning present in the tranaient formaticms with mag- and paQ- ; 
they have secondary accent on the pr^x, as though it formed part 
of the underlying word : 

(a) plt^)- -an (cf. § 877) : Afl kahd g ito ay sya 5 pj^jiUugan 
5 na^j manok. This box is the place where the hen lays its eggs. 

(b) pa^j- (1) -an (cf. § 378) : Si Hwin ay sya 5 par&ti q 
pamundan nag b&sag-ulo. Jtuin is the one who always starts the 

(c) pkiQ- (2) -an (cf. § 379) : p^qaserahjoi boarding-place. 

10 II. Secondary groups. 

1. Prefix si-. 

384. The prefix si- is used only in active transient forms, and 
is always preceded by mag- or nag- : mag-si-putol, mag-si-si-putol, 
nag-si-piitol, nag-si-si-putol. In meaning these forms are explicit 

15 plurals of the primary active forms. Occasionally the plural value 
is emphasized by infixation of -a^- into the mag- or nag-. 

385. From the simple root the explicit plural with si- corre- 
sponds to the primary actives with -um- or, in many cases, with 
mag-. Nagsiflag sila sa b&yan naq ito y pasukin naQ ma^a ka&way. 

20 They aU fled from the town when the enemy entered it. Aq ma^a 
&80 ay nagsisil&mon. The dogs are eating. Magsilig&ya kayd. Re- 
joice, Be glad. Aq ma^a laQgJim sy nagsisilipumpdn (or: nagsi- 
silfpon) sa nipatay nila ^ gagambjt. The ants are crowding aU 
over the spider they have kiUed. Nagslsiputol sila q lahat na^ tubo 

25 nag kami ay dumatig. They were cutting sugar-cane when we ar- 
rived. Magsiputol kay6 nag tubo. Do you all cut sugar-cane. 

So from: akiyit, alis, d&law, dalo, dati^j, huli, htisay, iyak, 
kantii, k4pit, laki, lipat, lulan, pigil, punta, pusta, s&yad, tindig, 
tugt6g, tulo^), tugo, uwi^ 

30 (a) Plurality emphasized: Nagagsiurog ag raa^)a sund&lo. 

The soldiers retreated. So also from alis. 

386. This formation is made from the root with pag- prefixed 
when it corresponds to primary actives with mag- in contrast with 
-um- (§ 351). Nagsisipag4ral sila. They are studying. Magsi- 

35 pag&ral kayo. Study. Arj maga b&ta* ay fi-yaw magsipagbihis. The 
children don't want to change their clothes, get dressed up. A13 
marja larjgam ay nagsisipagipon (or: nagsisipaglipon) nag pagkiin 
kug tagaraw. The ants store up food in the hot season. Magsi- 
pagptitol kayo, Pedro, nag k4hoy na gigamltin sa paglilitsftn. Pe- 

40 dro, do you folks cut some wood to be used in the barbecue. *'Mag- 
sisipagputol daw sila nag dikola,*' ag sabi ni Hwfina. ^^They say 

Digitized by 


419] MORPHOLOGY 268 


ihey are going to cui off ihe trams of their skirts/* said Juana. 
Napsipa^utol na^ buhok a^ maoa Intsdk. The Chinamen cut off 
their queues. Nagsisipagpiitol nag buhdk arj maga Ints^k na si 
T^Q at Ts^Q, nag sila y datnjtn ko sa kanila g tind4han. The Chi- 
5 namen Yeng and Chang were cutting their queues when I camA 
upon them in their shop. Nagsipagtipid ag sond&lo. The soldiers 

So from: basa^ das&l, hinto^ laro*, pawyal, sisi, sugjd, takbo, 
tindig, ynkaydk. 
10 (a) Plurality emphasdzed: nagagsipagtakbo. 

(b) The pag- is used when the underlying word is a derived 
word: Ag maga sund&lo g Tagfilog ay nagsipaghimagdk. The 
Tagalog soldiers revolted (-himagi^, § 518). Nagsipaghimagsf- 
kan sil4. They fought each other (himagsfkan, § 377 ,a). So 

15 from: agawan (§ 379), -bugtiigan (§377,a), labanan (§379), 
takbuhan (§ 377,a). Cf. § 406. 

(c) The same formation with accent shift of the root corre- 
sponds to primary actives with mag- (1), § 353. It occurs from: 
b&lot, 16kad, Ifbot. 

20 387. With pag- prefixed to the root, this formation corre- 

sponds to the primary active with mag- (§ 357). Magsipamagki 
tiyo. Let^s all go canoing Magsisipamiyabas kami sa maga gu- 
bat na malapit. We are going guava-picking in the jungles near 
here. Si P6dro at si HwAn ay lunihon sa bund6k upag magsi- 

25 pamutol nag k&hoy na asani^ Pedro and Juan went up into the 
mountains to cut asana. A&hon kami sa bundok at magdsipamu- 
tol kami nag mulawin. We are going up into the mountains to 
cut molave. 

So from : baril, hfna^ higi^, no6d, tahimik, t&lo. 

30 (a) With pag-hin-, cf. § 357,b: Sila y nagsipaghimagsik 

They made a revolution. 

2. The prefix paki-. 

388. The prefix paki-, which forms simple static forms, tran- 
sients, and abstracts, expresses that the subject of the sentence 

35 performs or undergoes the action along with others that were in- 
volved in it before, — ^this either through interference or by favor 
of someone else. 

389. Simple static form: ag pakikinfibag the obtaining of 
profit (kinibag) in trade with others; also: holy communion. So 

40 pakiputol, in command (cf. § 341,3,c), cut as a favor. 

390. The active transient and the abstract have the forms r 

Digitized by 



maki-putol, maki-ki-putol, naki-putol, naki-ki-putol, paki-ki-putol, 
i. e. the reduplication affects the syllable -ki-. 

Aq kapit^n ay nagpadalst na^ isa q sekr6ta sa lupft na^ ka- 

away upa^ makiramdam na^ kanila q kihisan. The captain sent 

5 a spy to the enemy's country to spy out (literally: perceive 

along) their movements, Makikik&in ako kina Lilay. I am going 

to Lilay 's for a meal. Si Pedro ay nakik&in kina Hwan. Pedro 

took a meal at Juan's house. Nakiputol ak6 na^ damd sa lup& 

iii Mariy&no. I obtained permission to cut grass from Mariano's 

10 land. Sila y nar6ro6n sa biikid ni P6dro at naMkiputol na^) damo. 

They have gone to Pedro's field and are cutting grass there by his 

permission. Pumaroon ka t makiputol naQ damd. Oo and ask 

them to let you cut some grass. Pakikiputol dito ni Hwan na^j 

damo ay si^)ilin mo a^ utao nya. When Juan asks to be allowed 

15 to cut grass here, dun him for his debt. Sila y nakisuno kay* 

Mariya. They had Maria let them live in her house unth her. 

So: sakay, sima, t61oy, tulog. 

(a) With accent shift of the root (§ 337) : makialAm look 
after someone, nose into others' affairs (filam). 
20 391. The root has pag- when the formation corresponds to 

a primary active with mag- in contrast with -um- (§ 351) : NaH- 
kipag&way ag b&ta Xi ito, kanyi^ hindf d&pat pahintuluta j} mada- 
las na manaog narj b&hay. As this boy gets into fights, he should 
not often be allowed to leave the house. Nakipag4way si Pedro. 
25 Pedro got into the fight. Nasaktftn si Hw&n sa kanya ij pakiki- 
paglaro^ Juan got hurt when he joined into the game. So from : 
buno^, dalamhati^, laban, tagpo^ tisap. 

(a) From derived words: Hwag ka 5 makipaglaQuyan, 
Hwan, at baka ka malunod. Don't go swimming with the crowd, 

30 Juan, I am afraid you might get droumed. ^ MaHkipaglagfiyan ka 
ba, Pedro? Are you going along swimming, Pedro f Nakipag- 
luksuhan si HwSn nag id&os ag maga lard^ Ju^an entered in the 
jumping-contest when the games were held. Similarly, from: 
pust&-han, siksik-an, takbu-han., All these belong under § 377,a. 

35 See also § 427,b. 

(b) Corresponding to primary active with mag- (1) § 353: 
Nakipagbabig si Pedro. Pedro got into a free fight (b&bi^). 

392. The root has pag-, corresponding to a primary active 
with mag- : Sya y hind! pinahintulutan sa kanya g pakikipamutol 

40 nag tubo. His request to be (Mowed to cut cane was not granted. 

393. In the passive the paki- expresses that the subject un- 
dergoes the action along with others, often as a favor on the part 
of the actor. So direct passive: paki-putul-in be cut, as a favor 

Digitized by 


421 ] MORPHOLOGY 265 

on the part of the one who does the cutting; the recipient of the 
favor is the speaker. 

394. In the instmmental passive the meaning is similar; 
sometimes, however, the instrumental passive is used with the per- 

5 son asking the favor as agent. 

Ma&ri mo x^k Q ipakihulog sa kur6yo aQ sulatt Witt you 
please mail my letter for met (literally: Can my letter please he 
throum-along'ivith'yours or thrown-as-a^favor into the mail hy 
youf), Ipinakihulog ni P6dro aQ &ki x) sfilat. Pedro mailed my 

10 letter (along vnth his or as a favor) for ms. IpinaMkihfilog ko 
l&ma^ kay P6dro aQ &ki q max)a sulat. I am asking Pedro to mail 
my letters for m£; here ipinaMkihulog is not that throum as a fa- 
vor, but that asked to be throvm as a favor. IpaMkiputol daw ni 
Hw^ aQ buhok na^ alfla nya X) Ints^k. Juan says he will ask 

15 someone to cut his Chinese servant's hair; ipaldkiptitol is here 
that asked to be cut as a favor, and the relation of asking is the 
only thing expressed by the instrumental (rather than the direct) 

395. The root has pag-, corresponding to § 351 : Ipakipag- 
20 putol mo Q&^ naQ buhdk aQ gnntiQ na itd, upaQ &ti ^ masubukan 

ftQ husay na^ talim. Please use this shears in cutting hair, so thai 
we may test the quality of the edge (genuine instrumental pass- 
ive). IpaMkipagputol daw nya ak6 na^j buho^ pag&hon nya sa 
bund6k. He says he unU cut some bamboo for me when he goeA 

25 up into the mountains, (genuine instrumental passive). Ipinaki- 
pagputol ak6 ni Hwin na^) tubo. Ju^n had someone cut ms som£ 
sugar-cane (literally: / was asked to be cut for as a favor). Ipi- 
nakikipagputol daw ni Hwlin si P6dro na^j laboQ. Juan says he 
is having someone cut bamhoo-shoots for Pedro. 

30 396. Local passive with paki-: pinakibalit&an was ascer- 

tained by the actor getting people to tell him as a favor. 

(a) From shifted root: pinakialaman. 

(b) With pag- (cf. § 352) : pinaHkipagtakbuhin. 

3. The prefix ka-. 

35 397. Secondary forms with the prefix ka- are of most varied 

meaning; the principal types express association of two individ- 
uals or groups and involuntari) action. In accented form the pre- 
fix kk' expresses chiefly accidental occurence. In certain passives 
associated with this group the prefix itself does not appear. 

40 (1) Simple static forms. 

398. Words with prefix ka- denote objects (or groups) stand- 

Digitized by 



ing in stich and ««ck a relation to another object (or group). Sya 
y &ki fl nagi^j kabal&e. He (she) has become my feUaw-parent-in- 
law, i. e. Our children have intermarried; the form ka-bal&e merely 
makes explicit the element of relation present in the simple word : 
5 Si Bantiig ay &ki ^j bal4e. Bantug's son (daughter) has married 
my daughter (son). Ajq ma^a &8o ay n^sa kabil& naq bakod. The 
dogs are on the other side of the fence (the simple -bilii^ does not 
occur; the idea of other side is always envisaged as relative). Afl 
btikid ni Hwan ay kar4tig na^j kay Pedro. Juan's field borders 

10 on Pedro's. Aq mesa x) ito y kak^y naQ kahon. This table is^ 
of the sams color as the chest. Si Hwan a^j kal4ban ny Andres 
sa laro j} d&ma. Juan is Andres' opponent at checkers. Kamatct 
si Hwan ni P6dro. Ju^n atid Pedro took to each other from first 
sight. Aq tagpl naq b&ro ni P6dro ay hindf kamukh& naQ b&ro^ 

15 The patch on Juan's blouse does not match the bUyuse. afl klA xi 
kapatid na si Hw&n my brother Juan, aij kki g kaputol iia si 
HwAn my brother Juan; ag kaputol narj tubo a piece (broken off) 
of the sugar-cane. Ag kasanib nag 41d ^j banig ay ag banig ni 
ManuwM. Manuel's sleeping-mat and mine overlap (kasdnib one 

20 of two things of which one overlaps the other), wala g kasa^k&p 
without accompaniments, trimmings, affixes. Si Mariy&no ag ka- 
sunod ko g lumM4kad sa kals&da. Mariano was the one who was 
walking behind me on the street; ag kasunod ko g naparoon sa 
simb&han the one who followed me in going to church (kasundd^ 

25 one of two persons one of whom is following the other), ag ka« 
tugo the person one is dealing with, the other party. Si Pedro arj 
kaug41i nag kanya g kayblga g si Hwan. Pedro has the same 
habits as his friend Juan. 

Similarly from: 4way, b&yan, biyik, bun6', ribal, harap, ki- 

30 lala, kldse, l&kip, lar6', pant&y, parti, sabuwat, s41i, s41o, s4ma, 
suno', tap&t, timbi^, unti^, usap, walli^. 

Divergent in meaning are katao (§ 255), kagabi, kah4pon 
(§ 259). Cf. also§ 520. 

(a) From derived words: Sya y isa ko g kamag&nak. He is 
35 a relative of mine (mag-&nak, § 358,a), and kamakalawi (§ 259, 

from maka-law&, § 453). 

(b) From a phrase: ag kasa-g-b4hay a person dwelling in 
the same house with another, a housemate (isa g bahay). 

(c) From shifted root (§ 337) : Si Hwan ay kagalit ni Pe- 
40 dro at ni Kulas. Juan is at odds with Pedro and Nicolas, ag 

kanyA g kagalit the person or persons with whom he is at odds. 
Si P6dro ag nagig kasira ni Hwin. It is Pedro with whom Juan 
is angry. Hindi ko katalo si P&ri Hwin. I don't play winning-^ 

Digitized by 


423] MORPHOLOGY 267 

and-losing games with Father Juan. Similarly from &lam, s4ma. 
(d) The root is reduplicated in a few cases: Si P6dro ao 
4ki 5 kabab&yan. Pedro is my fellow-townsman (beside kabiyan) ; 
katutubo^ native, ingrown^ iwftom, inherited. 
5 399. ka-ka-. With accented reduplication of the prefix these 

forms emphasize the incompleteness of the correlative object: Ki- 
kaputol lamaQ na tubd a^ &ki ^ n&kuha. / got only a little piece 
of the sugar-cane. So also kfikaunt^^. 

400. ka- R. With accented reduplication of the underlying 
10 word ka- forms words expressing the recent completion of an act; 

they are used impersonally (§ 77) or as conjunctive attributes. 
Ea^&way pa Idma^j ni Hwan sa kanya 5 kalaro'. Juan has only 
just now quarreled with his playmate. Kabkhkx^on ko. I have 
just got up. Eag&g&liQ sa bayan na^j kapatid ko bab&ye. My 

15 sister has just come hack from town. Kahihiga ko pa 14maQ. I 
had just then lain down. KalMaru ku pa l&maq sa b&ta^. / have 
just finished playing with the child. Kapuputol ko pa l&ma^) nag 
yantok. / have only just now cut some rattan. 

(a) ka-pag- R, with the usual value of pag- (§ 369, etc.): 

20 Kapagpuputol lima^j ni Hwan na^j kaw&yan. Juxin has just come 
from cutting bamboo. 

(h) ka-pag- R, corresponding to active with mag- (§ 357) : 
kapamumutol (putol). 

401. ka- D. With doubling of the root ka- has causative 
25 value : it expresses that which causes such and such an involuntary 

action, specifically, such and such an emotion: Ag dumatig na 
bdlag ay kat&kot-t&kot ag d&mi. The locu^s that came were 
frightful in quantity. So from hiya^, takk. Vowel-contraction in 
kiwawa^ pitiable, piteous (for ka-&wa-4wa^) . Slightly divergent 
30 in meaning is kar4ka-raka (§ 265,5). 

402. In a different use ka- has the form kay- in some words; 
these formations express a remarkable degree of a quality; they 
are used impersonally (§ 76), as predicate (§ 247), occasionally 
as conjunctive attributes: ka&lat kay&lat whai saltiness! (of 

35 water) ; kay-asul what blueness! Kat&yog nag puno-g-niyog na 
iy6n ! How tall that cocoanut tree is! Kayunti^ nag ibinig&y nya 
g laruwiin sa &kin! How few toys he gave me! So: kay-d&mot 
ka-r&mot, ka-runog, ka-itim, kaklnis, ka-l&yo^ ka-munti% ka-puUi, 
ka-taba^ kay-tipld. 

40 (a) With reduplication of the root, this form refers to the 

quality in an explicit plurality of objects : kaiitdm what blackness I 

Digitized by 



(of several things) ; EalalaHilg na^) paa nao maQa b&ta^! Haw 
cold i\e children's feet are! 

(b) With doubled root these fonns intensify the quality: 
Eayd&mot-damot naQ b4ta q it6! What a terribly stingy child! 
5 (kayd&mot, kar&mot what stinginess! a^i damot stinginess). 

403. A few forms with accented ka- prefixed to llie root 
envisage the accidental nature of the reciprocal relation: Aq 
ma^a damit na ito ay k^ya sa badl. These clothes wHl fit into 
the trunk. Akd aQ k&sundo* ni P6pe sa pagpapalard^ naQ btebol 

10 sa ma^a b4ta^ I am at one wUh Pepe as to letting the ohUdre^ 
play basebaU. H&baq akd y nagd&daltny kataon nam& q isin&buy 
nya aQ tubig. He threw out the water at the very time, it hap- 
pened, that I wcks passing by. aQ katiw&la^ a confidential agent, 
manager, overseer. 

15 The words k&luluwii and k&puw&^ which resemble this forma- 

tion, seem to be felt as simple roots and have been so treated here. 

(2) Normal transients, abstracts, and special static forms. 

404. k-um-a-. An active with -um- is made from ka-usap 
as underlying word: Si Hwlin ay kum&kausap sa &kin. Juan 

20 was talking at me, haranguing me. 

405. mag-ka- pag-ka-ka-. Actives with mag- and abstracts 
with pag- r from underlying words with ka- express a partial af- 
fection of the actor or of a group of actors ; ka- here has its invol- 
untary force: the actor is not a rational and voluntary agent. 

25 Nagkarodn ako naQ trab&ho kanina X) um&ga, sapagkjtt nagpasa- 
kky akd sa trdn nag ma^a kam&tis nsQ t&tay ko. / was kept bv^ 
this morning, for I attended to the shipping by train of my father's 
tomatoes. Nagkaroon sya na^ g&lit. He harbored iU-feeling. 
Nagkaguld aQ ma^a Amerikfino sa pagdatig na^ Ddytsland. The 

30 Americans were surprised at the coming of the ''Deutschland'\ 
Nagkagusto sya ^ kum&in naq suha^ He conceived a desire of 
eating grape-fruit. Nagk&kalfpon a^ ma^a la^g&m sa puto. The 
ants are getting all over the cake. Akd y nagkam&lay pagkara&n 
na\) ili ^j sandali ^ paghihimatay. I returned to conscuyusness 

35 after a few moments' fainting-spell. Nagkap&lad si Hwan na ma- 
karatifl dito ^ maluwalh&ti^ Juan was fortunate enough to get 
back here safe and sound. Afl pakw^ ay nagkasira^. The water- 
melon got partly spoiled. Aq ma^a s&gig ay nagkasira^ sa kalaA- 
nan nag pagklit&go^ sa lalagy&n. Some of the bananas got spoiled on 

40 account of the long time they were kept stored. N&sa simb&han 
Hilk na\) magkasunog. They were at church when a fire occurred. 
Twi Q papasukin ko sa kural a^ ma^a kalabJiw ay nagk&kawal& 

Digitized by 



Bilk. Every time I put the caribou into the corral, they get away. 
So : bukoly hindg. 

406. mag-ka- (1) pag-ka-ka- (1). Accent shift in this for- 
mation serves various uses: 
5 (a) It may be due to the root: Si Hwjin ay nagkasaldt noo 

Q bwa Q nagdaJtn. Jtum had a sickness last month. Si Hw&n ay 
hindf makaputol nag k&hoy, sapagkjit mahfnji pa sya dahil&n sa 
pagkakasaldt. Juan cannot cut wood, because he is still weak on 
account of his recent illness. 
10 (b) It expresses plurality: Magk&kaput61 aQ ma^a tubd. 

The sugar-cane uM get broken in numbers. Nagkaput61 aQ maqa 
tub6 sa lak&s naQ hkiQin. The sugar-cane broke in quantity under 
the violence of the wind. Nagk&kaputdl aQ maqa tobd sa kalaka- 
siin nax) h&Qin. Much sugar-cane is bre<iking under the force of 
15 the wind. 

So also from Idnod. 

(c) The form is really a simple active with mag- from an 

underlying word of the form ka- (1), § 398,c; three words of this 

kind occur : Sila y nagkagallt. They quarreled. aQ pagkakagallt 

20 the quarrel. Aq Hapon at aq Tsfna ay nagkasiril^ Japan and 

China had a break. SUk y nagkatald. They played a winning-and- 

losing game. Nagkatalu na aQ ma^a nagstisugal. The gamblers 

have lost and won, have finished their winning-and-losing game. 

In accordance with § 356, the underlying word is doubled with 

25 distributive plural meaning: Sila n &pat ay nagkagi-kagallt. The 

four of them aU got angry at one another. 

Similarly, an explicit plural with mag-si-pag- is formed (cf, 
§ 386,b) : Nagsipagkasir& wlk. They had a faUing out. 

4ffl. (a) mag-ka- r pag-ka-ka- r. The reduplication of the 
30 root expresses repeated action in a form with retraction of accent 
and irregular insertion of ^ after the prefix : Sya y nagkJikaQda- 
dfipa^ He kept falling on his face. 

(b) mag-ka- D pag-ka-ka- D. Doubling of the root seems a 
more regular expression of the same value: nagkjikaumpdg- 
35 umpdg. 

408. Special static words with mag-ka- are simply dual col- 
lectives with mag- (§ 358,a) from underlying wordB with ka- 
(§ 398) : A^ banlg ni Kwkn at ni P6dro ay magka&nib (or: mag- 
kas&nib) sa pagkil&tag. Juan's and Pedro's sleeping-mats over- 
40 lap each other as they are spread. aQ magkabal&e a pair of per^ 
sons related by intermarriage of their children (more insistent on 
the relational element, but practically equal to magbal&e, §358,a). 
Aq dalawa ^ manok ay magkabukdd naQ kulu^&n. The two chick- 

Digitized by 



ens were in separate crates. Afl bukid ni Hw&n at ni P6dro ay 
magkardtig. Juan's field and Pedro's border on each other. Si 
P6dro at si Hwin ay magkapantiy. Pedro and Juan are of the 
same height. aQ magkapatiid two brothers or sisters, a brother and 
5 a sister, sjq magkaputol na si Andr^ at si BafayM the brothers 
Andres and Rafael. Magkaputol kaml ni Hw^ na^ b&ro^ Juan 
and I have bUmses made of the sams doth. dalaw& x) b&gay na 
gagawi Q magkasundd two things that are to be done one after the 

10 (a) Prom kabab&yan (§ 398,d) : dalaw^ ^ estudyinte ^j mag- 

kabab&yan two students from the sams town. 

409. mag-ka-ka. As the explicit plural corresponding to 
these duals reduplicates the underlying word (§ 358,b), the sylla- 
ble ka- is repei^ted in this meaning: aQ magkakapatid a group of 

15 three or more brothers and (or) sisters; in the same meaning ao 
magkakaputol. So also from : bukod, s&ma, suno^. 

(a) The form magkababayan (§ 408,a) rejects the extra re- 
duplication, and is therefore plural as well as dual: tatlo ^j estu- 
dyante 5 magkababiyan three students from the same town. 

20 410. mag-k&- pag-ka-k&-. The transient with mag- and ab- 

stract with pag- r from underlying words with Isk- have the acci- 
dental value of the latter prefix, usually with a dual reciprocal 
meaning. Sa kabilA q banda mo ibwM aQ puno Q iy&n, sapagk^t 
kui) irfe ay ibuwal ko y bak& magk&dagan ag dalawa 5 puno^ 

25 Fell your tree in the direction away from me, so that if I fell this 
one, the two trees won't fall one on top of the other. Magk^&da- 
g^ aQ dalawa X) puno ^ it5, kapag hind! mo ibinwal sa kabila q 
bandi iya 5 pinupiitol mo. These two trees will fall one on top 
of the other, if you don't make the one you are cutting down faU^ 

30 the other way. Nagk&dagan aQ dalawa ^ b&ta^ naq mahulog sila 
sa hagdan. The two children landed one on top of the other when 
they fell from the ladder. Ilabas mb sa btikid, EuUs, ag dalawa 
Q s&ko Q p&lay na nagk&k^dagan na n&sa ba^an. Nicolds, take out 
to the field thed two bags of rice that are lying one on top of the- 

35 other in the granary. Aq pagkak&iba naQ ug&li ni P6dro at ni 
Hw&n ay g&ya naQ pagkak&iba naQ tfibig at na^ apdy. The dif- 
ference in character between Pedro and Juan is Uke the difference 
between water and fire, magk&hiwal&y part from each other (by 
force of circumstances, of two people). Aq ikinah&ti naq palaydk 

40 ay aQ masamA q pagkak&lagay nitd. What caused the rice-pot to 
break was the bad way it was placed, magkam&yaw harmonize, aQ 
pagkak&sabity the happening at the same time of two events. Sya 

Digitized by 


427] MORPHOLOGY 271 

y nagkas&la. He Hnned (against the moral order, Ood, etc.) Aq 
pagkak&sala kay Bath^a^ ay pinaruros&han sa infiy^mo. Sinning 
against Ood is punished in hell. Blbilhin kd aq kab4yo ^ iydn, 
kim magk&kasya aQ &ki q kwalta. I shcM buy this horse, if my 
5 money is sufficient. Walk sila q pagkak&sundd^ The two don't 
agree on anything, a^ pagkak&ta6n the coincidence in time of one 
event vnth another, of two events, a^j pagkakitayo^ the standing 
up together (even of more than two people). 

(a) Somewhat different are kuQ magkibihlra^ at odd times; 
10 ka\) magk&gaydn when things turn out thus, when this is the state 
of affairs. So also, with static value : A^ magk&bila xj dulo nao 
l&pis ay matulis. Both ends of the pencil are sharpened. 

411. mag-ka- D pag-ka-k&- D. With doubled root plurality 
is expressed : Nagkahiwa-hiwalay ag ma^a d4hun na^j libro. The 

15 leaves of the hook came apart. Ag maqa gin&gaw& nya 5 pa^Isip 
nar) ma\)a makabuluhit q f6tsa naq istdriya ay a^ pagkakasun5d- 
sunod at pagltan nila. He remembers the important dates of his- 
tory by their sequence and their intervals. 

(a) With accent shift, from a barytone root: Nagkaputol- 

20 putol a^j katawan nag t&o 5 nasagasdan na^j tr^n. The body of 
the m^n who was run over by the train got all mangled. Nagka- 
kiputol-put^l ag katawan nag bdla g t4o g misagas&an nai) trSn. 
The body of a person run over by a train is cut to pieces. Magka- 
kiputol-put61 ag tubo g kristAl na iyan kapag iyo g ibinagsak. If 

25 you drop that glass tube, it wUl break into a thousand pieces. 

412. ka- (1) -in, k-in-a-. The simple direct passive is formed 
from an underlying derived word with ka- with normal meaning. 
So from ka-14ban, ka-usap. 

(a) A special static word corresponding to those in § 366 is 
30 arj kinakapatid the child of one's godparents (from ka-patid). 

From it are derived the dual collective (§358,a) magkin&ka- 
patid a pair of such, and the plural (§ 358,b) magkikin&kapatid 
three or more, as a group. 

413. i-ka- i-k-in-a-. The instrumental passive with prefix ka- 
35 has a specialized meaning: it expresses transiently, an inanimate, 

or at least irrational and involuntary, object or circumstance 
which causes such and such an action: and this latter action is 
in turn also involuntary or out of control of the actor (as, for 
instance, the ability to do a thing), see § 432 ff. 
40 At) kawalan ni Andrfes nag h&nap-buhay sa b&ya g itd ay sya 

nya g ikinaalis. Andres' inability to make a living in this town 
is what forced him to leave. Ag mall g anyo nag pulube ay siyk 

Digitized by 


272 TAGAIiOO TEXTS [428 

X) ikinaiwa^ 8a kanya ni Hwan. The had condition of the beggar 
was what made Juan pity him. Aq pagsasaklty naQ kuts6ro na^ 
ma^a tko ^ may sakit na nakah&h&wa ay sya q ikinab4wi na^ 
kanya q pahintulot. The driver's taking people with contagious 
5 diseases into his carriage was what caused his license to be with-- 
drawn. Aq ikinah&rax) nai] ma^^ nagl41akad ay a^ pagkaalam 
naQ ma^a tulislin na silA y may dala q kwalta. What caused the 
wayfarers to be held up was the robbers' happening to know that 
they had money urith them. Ikinah4te ni Hwin sa buga ag kanya 

10 g laseta. Juan's knife enabled him to cut the betel fruit. A^j pag- 
kas41a nya sa sigsi^) ay ag hindi niya ikinakuha na\) ganti q p41a^. 
His missing the ring is what kept him from winning the prize. 
Yon ay 4ki g ikinalulur)k6t. / am sorry, I am sorry to hear that. 
Ag pa\)u\)ubli nag maga sundalo ay sya nila g hindi ikinamatay. 

15 The soldiers' keeping in hiding is what saved their lives. Ikina- 
putol nag yantdk na pam41o* ag pagk^p41u kay Hwan. The can- 
ing Juan got broke the rattan that was used on him. Ikinapupu- 
tol nag marami g tubd ag malak^s na h4gin. The stroyig wind is 
making much sugar-cane break. Ikapiipiitol nag maga saga nag 

20 k4hoy ag malakas na h4gi g it6. This strong wind wiU cause many 
branches of trees to break off. Ikapuputol nya sa maga kawayan 
ag paggulag nito. The aging of the bamboo plants wUl force him 
to cut them down. Ag pagkaliinod nag Kastila^ ay ikinatakot nag 
tatl6 g magkakaybigan. The drowning of the Spaniard frightened 

25 the three friends. Ag kany& g pagmamasid sa maga t41a^ sa gab! 
ay sya nyk g malaki g ikinatiituwa*. His observation of the stars 
at night is his great source of pleasure. 

Similarly, from: bigi, b6hay, buti, g41it, hago^ hulog, kaya, 
llpat, lugi, tiilog, wali^ 

30 414, i-pag-ka- i-p-in-ag-ka. With pag- this instrumental 

passive corresponds to the active with magka- (§ 405). The re- 
duplication of the durative forms affects the ka-. 

Ag ipinagkagusto nyk g kum4in nag sorbetes ay ag kainitan. 
It is the heat which makes him want to eat ices. Ipagk4kamatay 

35 nag maga manok ag masam^ g tubig. The bad water unll make 
the chickens die. Ag kalamigan sa tagulltn ay sya g ipinag- 
kikamu6 nag tiibig sa ilog. The cold weather in unnter is what 
mxikes the water in the river congeal. Baka ipagkawal4 nag 
maga manok sa kulugan ag pagpapap4sok mo dodn niya g 

40 4so. See that your putting that dog into the enclosure doesn't 
make the chickens try to get away. Ipagk4kawal& nag bihag 
^5 pagkabalita* sa kanyi nag parusa g k^kamtan nya. The cap- 
tive's being told of the punishment he wUl get make him try 

Digitized by 


429] MQBPHOLOGT 278 

to escape. Ipinagkawal& nya sa kuluqan aQ pagpapahirap sa 
kanyji. Their iorturvng him made him escape from his confine- 
meni. Ipinagk&kawal^ nya sa bilaQ^an aQ masama q pagpapa- 
kain sa kanya dito. The bad food they gave him in the jaU made 
5 him try to escape. 

415. Similarly, with accent shift this passive corresponds to 
the active with mag-ka- (1), § 406,b. IpinagkikabalS^ (or: ipinag- 
k&kaputdl) naQ ma^a sa^a na^ k&hoy aQ bagyd q itd. This hurri- 
cane is breaking off many branches of trees. NaQ ipagkaputol naq 

10 4ki 5 maga tub6 a^j h&^jin ay nalugk^t ako. When the wind broke 
dovm my sugar-cane I was dismayed. Ipinagkaputol naq maqa 
tubd aQ malak^ na ha\)i q nagdaan. The recent strong wind 
broke down much sugar-can^. 

Similarly: ipinagkasakit (sakit). 

15 416. Special static forms with i-ka- are made from the nu- 

meralSy with occasional contraction, forming ordinals and frac- 
tions: ika4nim ik&nim the sixth; ika&pat ik&pat the fourth, a 
fourth, a quarter; ikalawi the second; ikalima the fifth; ikapitd 
the seventh; ikatl6 the third. Cf. § 347,a. 

20 (a) The ordinal corresponding to isS, one is however the in- 

dependent root una first; half is kalahate^ § 519. 

(b) From phrases, of course, the higher numbers: ikaisa-\)- 
daan hundredth; ikaisa-\)-laks^^ millionth; ikaisa-Q-libo thousandth; 
ikasa-m-pu* tenth; ikalabi-g-isa eleventh; ikadalawa-^j-pu' twen- 

25 tieth; ikadalawa-Q-pd-t-is4 twenty-first. 

417. i-kk- i-k-in-i-. The instrumental passive from the root 
with accented ki- differs from that with unaccented ka- (§ 413) 
in that the action or occurrence caused is not only involuntary 
but accidental and entirely out of the control of the actor (see 

80 §458fl.). 

A^ ikinagiigusto ko sa kayiblgan ko 5 si Hwan ay ag kanya 
J} mabait na ug&li^ What m/ikes me have a liking for my friend 
Juan is his lovable character. Ai) ginawi nya g paggugupit sa 
ma^a ret&so 5 itinitigo na^ kanya 5 ninay ay sya nyi 5 ikini- 

35 palo^ His cutting up the patches his mother was saving is what 
made it necessary to thrash him. Ag ikin&sakay nyi sa kab&yo 5 
bara-bara ay a^) kawalin nya rf\n jbp -n kab&yo. What made him 
get on the unld horse was his lack of other horses. Ikin4tahol nafl 
aso ai) pagk4dap& ni Hwan. Juan's falling down made the dog 

40 bark. 

So also from : iySk, pfitag. 

(a) Accent shift is due to the root: Ag pagkitahol na^ iso 

Digitized by 



ay sya q ikinagisiQ naq natutulug na bata^. The barking of the 
dog was what made the sleeping child wake up. Ik&tlttawa nya aQ 
iyo 5 sisablhin. He won't be able to keep from laughing when 
you say that. Ikin&tatawli ni Hwan aq sin&bi ni Pedro. What 
5 Pedro said makes Juan laugh in spite of himself. 

418. Corresponding to primary actives with mag- contrasted 
with -um-, and with maQ-, we should expect pag- and paQ- to be 
retained before the root in these formations; the only example is: 
ikin4pagtir&, corresponding to magtira, in contrast with tumiril 

10 (§§348.351). 

419. ka- (1) -an, k-in-a- (1) -an. The local passive with ka- 
is used when the action is an involuntary one, especially an emo- 
tion, of a rational actor, or when the actor is inanimate or irra- 

15 Aq hulih4n naQ maqa kinagalltan ni Patupat ay idin&os naQ 

ma^ja gwardiya-sibil kagab^. The arrest of the people who have 
incurred Patupat 's anger was carried out by the gendarmes last 
night. Kahiyaan mo a^ tao o matanda'. Reverence the aged. aq[ 
kinahulugan nag b4ta* the place from which the chUd fell. Agj 

20 bint&na q iyan ag sy4 g kdiiihulugan nag b&ta^, pag hindi mo^ 
isinari. The child wUl fall out of that window, if you don't shui{ 
it. Bakd ninyo kaluniiran ag ilog, maga bata^. See that you 
don't get drowned in that river, children. Ag kanya g kalulunu-^ 
ran ay ag flog na ito. He will get drowned in this river som^e day^ 

25 ag b&hay na kinamatayan the house where someone died, ag b&hay 
nag kinamatayan the house in which someone died, the house of 
the bereaved family. Kinapatiran nag lubid ag lug^r na mal&pit; 
sa dulo-g-banda-g-kaliwa^. The rope broke at a point near the^ 
left-hand end. Ag kapapatiran nag sinulid ay malapit sa buhdl., 

30 The place where the thread wiil break is near the knot there. Kina-, 
takutan nya ag bahay na pinagpatayan sa kura^. He was afraid of 
thr. house where the priest was killed. Ag kinatatakutan nag maga 
bata^ ay ag nuno'. The children are afraid of the ghost. Kata- 
kutan ninyo ag nuno^ Tou had better be afraid of ghosts. Kina- 

35 tamaran ni Hwan ag kanya g pagaAral. J\mn became neglectful, 
about his studying. Nag katamaran ni Hwan ag kanya g pagadral 
ay malapit na sya g makatapos nag karera. Whe^i Juan became 
lazy about his studies^ he was already near the end of his course', 
Katatamaran nya ag kanya g pagafiral, pag binigyan mo sya nag 

40 marami g salape'. He wUl be lazy about his studies, if you give 
him too much mo^iey. 

Similarly from : buwisit, iwan, kita, wala^. 

Digitized by 


431] MORPHOLOGY 275 

(a) With shifted root: Isa q puliibe aq kinaaawaan ni Hw&n. 
It was a beggar who aroused Jnan's pity. 

430. pag-ka- (1) -an, p-in-ag-ka- (1) -an; pag-ka- (2) -an, 
p-in-ag-ka- (2) -an. Local passives with pag- before the ka- in- 
5 volve a plurality of actors. The durative reduplication affects the 
ka- ; barytone roots have an extra accent-shift. 

Aq kin&in na^ usa ay malaki ^ pinagk^agustuh&n na^ maqa 
I16ko. The Iloco are very fond of the contents of deers' stomachs. 
Pinagkakalipumpun^ na^ ma^a la^g&m a^ puto. The ants are 

10 swarming all over the cake. Aq pinagkamatayan naQ ma^a kam- 
b^Q ay aQ lug&r na itd. This is the place where the goats perished. 
Hwag mo ^ dalhin sa bund6k a^ maqa manok, sapagkat iy6 y ka- 
nilk Q pagk&kamatayltn. Don't take the chickens into the hUls, 
for they would die there. 

15 Barytone roots: Pinagkatakutltn nil& aQ b&hay na pinagpa- 

tayan sa kura^. They were afraid of the house where the priest 
was killed. Pinagk^katakutin nilA ag maga mababagsik na hfiyop. 
They are afraid of wild animals. Hwag m6 g ipamallta^ a^j ni- 
kita n4tin dito, sapagk&t bak& a\) lugar na ito y pagkatakutlln. 

20 Don't tell what we have seen here, for this place would he feared. 
Pagkd,katakutltn nillt a\) lugar na itd, pag nU&man nila a^ naQ- 
yari ^ paghahara^j^ dito. They unll be afraid of this place when 
they know of the hold-ups that occurred here, a^ pinagkatalunin 
that which was the occasion of winning by many (talo). 

25 421. ka- S -an. Special static words, corresponding to those 

with S -an (§ 377) are formed with prefix ka- from oxytone roots; 
in meaning they are collectives and abstracts of quality: a^j kas4- 
y&han gladness ; Aq kat&m&ran ni Patrisiyo ay katutubo* sa kanya 
lahi*. Patricio's laziness is inborn in his family. So from the 

30 roots: bait, banal, damdam, daqal, duwag, lagay, luok6t, luwi^, 
mahM, mali^ matAy, pint4s, sa^jkip, tu^kdl, tuwa^ tuwid. 

Divergent in meaning is a\) Kapamp4r)an a Pampanga, if from 

The secondary accent is lacking, irregularly, in kalayaan 

35 (laya^) ; with contraction in kayil&^an, kaylagan (beside kail4\)an, 
from ilag). 

(a) This latter word underlies an active with ma^)-, an ab- 
stract with pax)- r, and a simple direct passive : nag&gayil4]3an re- 
quires; ai) pagagayil&gan need, necessity; Okayilarjani g mag- 

40 dain si Pedro rito b&gu sya umalis. Pedro will have to come here 
before he leaves. 

(b) From a derived word, with the secondary accent irregu- 
larly placed : Boo q b&yan ay nagdIwaQ sa kapar)4n&kan ni Bis41. 

Digitized by 



The whole country celebrated Btzal's lirthday; also : aq 4raw na^ 
kapaQ&n&kan birthday, — from paqanak (§ 347). 

422. ka- (2) -an. Barytone roots have, in the same sense, 
an accent shift of two syllables, corresponding to § 379. Bo6 i) 

5 kabahay^ aQ njtkita n&min sa gitna na^ da&n. We saw a whole 
set of household goods in the middle of the road; also: ao kaba- 
hayan a house containing several dwellings. Mar&mi sa ma^a t&o 
aQ nakakikilala naQ kanila ^ karapat&n, d4tapuwat nakalilimot 
na^j kanila 5 katu^jkulan. Many are the people who know their 

10 rights but forget their duties. Ag karamutan nag p&re' ay na^Q 
kasabihin. The stinginess of the priest is proverbial. A^j kataku- 
tin sa Dyos ay isa g kab&itan. Fear of the Lord is a virtue, Ag 
pagbibigay nag sigarilyo ay isa sa maga matatanda g kaugalian sa 
Filipinas. Giving cigarettes is one of the old customs in the PhU- 

15 ippines. ag kawikaan a proverb. 

So from ab41a, firaw, bulo, gamit, hiilog, ibig, lag it, payapa', 
sira', t&pos, utos. 

With contraction: kahariy&n, kaharyan (hari'), and, if from 
t4o, katawan body. 

20 (a) From the latter word there is an abstract of action, with 

pag- r: ag pagagatawan physique (cf. pananamit, etc., § 357). 

423. ka- (1) -an. Corresponding to the formation (1) -an 
(§ 378), the collective-abstracts of this type with ka- have formal 
irregularities and, where there is any contrast (e.g. mahal), less 

25 explicit and more specialized meaning than the preceding two 

ag kaalatan saltiness (of water). Sa gabi g ito ag kabilugan 
nag buwan. The fullness of the moon is tonight. Ag kadalam- 
hatian ay isa g damd&mi g hindi nar^r&pat sa t4o. Orief is an 

80 emotion not becoming to a man or woman, ag karunugan wisdom. 
ag kahagalan foolishness (ag hagal a fool), ag kaibhan the differ- 
ence, ag kalinisan cleanness, cleanliness, ag kamatsigan monkey- 
tricks, naughtiness, ag kamur&han cheapness. Sawi* ag kanya g 
kapal4ran. His luck is bad. Sa kapanayan nag ulltn kug tagulan 

35 ay hindi masigli ag biyan. The town is not cheerful during the 
unabated rains of the rainy season. Ag maga t&o y marami g ka- 
sal&nan. People have many sins, ag kasamaan badness, kasawiin 
poor position, awkwardness, kasinugaligan falsehood, a lie. kasi- 
p&gan diligence. Ag desgrdsya g nagy&ri kay Hwan ay isa g 

40 hampas nag katalagahan. The misfortune which has come to Juan 
is a blow of fate. Ag kanila g pagilag ay hindi katapagan. Their 
fleeing was not a brave act. ag boo g katauhan aU mankind, ag 

Digitized by 



katipunan a meeting, Eatipunan a secret society organized against 
the Spaniards; a memher of thds. 

So from: baba^ b&baw, big&t, buh&Qin, buhay, hiti, daUus, 
d&mi, d&mot, daniw (if karaniyuwan is so to be analyzed), dillm, 
5 ginh&wa, gubat, h&ba^ hina^ hirap, ikli^ init, lakds, lakl, lamig, 
l&pad, l&on, lilt, 16ko, lunod, lupit, maMl, maQm^Q^ P^i*aD» fiy^sta, 
pxdo^ saldm, sal&t, salbahi, talis, Tag&log, tahimik, takaw, t&kot, 
talino, tampalasan, ta^h&li^, tulin, tunay, toto6, uldl, wala', yaba^), 
10 (a) From a phrase: Iy6 y kawala-fl-hyaan ni Pedro. That 

was a shameless action of Pedro's (waW, fl Mya*). 

(b) From derived words: ag Kakapampa\)4nan the Pampanga 
country (Kapamp&gan, § 421). 

ag bo6 ^j kamaganfikan nina Kriis, Bantog, at iba pa the whole 
15 relationship of the Cruz's, Bantogs, and so on; ag bo6 x\ kamaga- 
n4kan ni Pedro Vyola the whole family of Pedro Viola (maganak, 
§ 358,a). 

ag kapagyarihan power (-pagyari, as though by § 347). 

424. ka- r (1) -an, ka- r (2) -an. With reduplication of the 
20 root and accent shift of one syllable for an oxytone root, of two 

in bar3rtone roots, ka- and -an form special static words denoting 

something surprising or provocative of such and such an emotion. 

Ita y kagagaw^n ni Hwan! This is some of Juan's work! 

cf . Itu y gaw& ni Hwin. Juan did this, made this. Ag pagk&upo 

26 ni P6dro sa siigalan ay kagagaw&n na^ isa nya q kaybfgan. Pe- 
dro's sitting at the gaming-table was the work of one of his fine 
friends. A^ pat&ya xj na^y&ri kagabi ay kagagawan ni P6dro. 
The killing which occurred Uist night was some of Pedro's doing. 
So: katntur&n a correct outcome (tuwid). 

30 Barytone roots : Ag katatakutltn na^ bAta^ ay ao nuno'. The 

thing that arouses the child's fear is a ghost. Aq kanya i) kata- 
tawanin ay a^j uggo^ His source of laughter is the monkey, a^ 
salita fl katatawan&n a jest-word, a funny expression. 

425. With secondary accent on the first syllable of the un- 
35 derlying word, ka- and -an form also words denoting one of two 

reciprocal actors. This is the form for oxytone roots, a^j kabi- 
gayan a person with whom one exchanges gifts. Si Hwana ay siya 
H] kabuluTjan ni Marya. Juana is the one Maria whispers with. 
ag kahampfesan one of two who perform mutual flagellation, ka- 
40 hirdman one of two who borrow from each other, kainuman person 
one drinks with, kakalabitan one of two who touch each other. 
At) kap^t4yan ni Hwan ay si Pedro. Juan is engaged in a mortal 
conflict with Pedro. A\) kap&tlran ni Hwana nag sinulid ay aQ 

Digitized by 



kanya q kaybiga xi ^ Marya. Juana cuts thread with her friend 
Maria. aQ ka8d.lit4an the person with whom one converses. Si 
Hwltn ay kailliilan ni P6dro. Juan and Pedro fool each other. aQ 
kaupuan one of two who sit together. 
5 426. Barytone roots add accent shift of one syllable. Aq 

kahulugan nya naQ suha^ ay a^) kany& x) kapatiid. The one with 
whom he takes turns at dropping down grape-fruit from the tree 
is his brother, a^ kahunihan one of two birds that chirp at each 
other. aQ kaibigan one of two who love each other, a^ kaktiinan 
10 one of two who eat together. Si Hw&na ay siya X) kapiitdlan ni 
Maryli na^ kuk6. Juana and Maria cut each other's fingernails. 
a^) kasulitan one's correspondent, a^j katalunan one's opponent in 
a dispute. 

(a) The shift is due to the root in : Si Marya ay syk x) ka&bu- 
15 tan ni Hw&na na^ maqa maba^d q bulaklak. Maria and Juana 

hand each other fragrant flowers (as in some ceremony or game). 

(b) With contraction and lack of secondary accent: a^ kayi- 
blgan, kaybigan a friend (contrast kaiblgan above). 

(c) In a few instances barytone roots have accent shift of 
20 two syllables without secondary accent. Si Mary&no ay kahatak4n 

ni Kulas naQ Mbid. Mariano is putting at the rope against Nice- 
Ids. a^ kamurah^ one of two who curse at each other (with mean- 
ing ordinarily peculiar to the shifted root, § 337). SumuloQ at 
Kasamah&n Sumulong and Company, kasulatan one's correspond- 
25 ent (equal to kasul&tan, above). A^ katuruan ni P6dro ay aQ 
b&ta si Hwan. Pedro and little Juan are pointing at each other. 
427. These formations serve as underlying words of a few 
derivatives : 

(a) Active with mag- and abstract with pag- r (§ 352) : a^j 
30 pagkakayibigan the joining in friendship of two people. 

(b) Secondary active with maki- from the preceding: maki- 
pagkayibigan win one's way into someone's friendship, become 
friends with someone. 

(c) Dual collective with mag- (§ 358,a) : Si Pedro at si Hwan 
35 ay magkahir&man nag sambalflo at sandMyas. Pedro and Juan 

lend each other hats and sandals, magkaiblgan a pair of lovers. 
magkaybigan a pair of friends. 

(d) Where the dual value of the underlying form is weak, 
explicit plurals of the preceding with mag- r (§ 358,b) occur: ag 

40 magkakaybigan a group of three or more friends, a^j magkaka- 
samaha rj si P6dro, si Hwan, at si Andrfes the party consisting of 
Pedro, Juan, and Andres. aQ magkakasamahit q sina P6dro the 

Digitized by 


435] MORPHOLOGY 279 

• party of Pedro and his followers. Aq magkakasamahji q nagsi- 
pagpa^al ay sina Maryk, Hw&na, P6dro, at KuUls. The party 
that went for a walk consisted of Maria, Juana, Pedro, and Nico- 
Ids. A^ magkakasamahlt q napasa htilo^ at napaluw&san ay sina 
5 Mariy4no, P6pe, at Kulas at sina Pedro, Hulyo, at Andrfts. The 
groups that went upstream and doumstream were, respectively, 
Mariano, Pepe, and Nicolds and Pedro, Julio, and Andris. Aq 
tatlo Q man6k na yto y magkakasamaM q inihatid dlto, aQ iba y 
magkakabukod. These three chickens were brought here together, 
10 the others each by itself. 

428. k^- (1) -an, k-in-a- (1) -an. Local passives with Isk- 
denote the place where someone or something happens to be. Hwag 
kk x\ kumib6^ sa iyb x\ kinadoroonan. Don't stir from the spot 
(where you happen to be). Sa all q bandji ag kin^ddroonan na^ 

15 b&ya-Q-Kam&ligt — Sa band& 5 kaliwa^ In which direction is the 
town of Camaligf — Toward the left. Afl baya-5-Baliwag ay a^j 
kinamahallt q una Q una na^ p&lay. The town of Baliuag was the 
first place where rice got dear. Ag kap&patayin sa t&o 5 iyin ay 
SJQ bigtHian. This man wHl end on the gallows. A^) b4ya-Q-Bali- 

20 wag ag iyu q k&tutuQuhan pag tinuntun mo a^ land^ na iyjin. 
You wUl get to the town of Baliuag if you follow that path. \ 

Similarly from: biflit, burol, kulo^j, laglty, tago^ tayo^ tira, 

Divergent in meaning are kinabuk&san (§ 260) and, from a 

25 phrase, kinah&ti-Q-gabih^ (§ 260, h&ti q gabi). 

429. pag-kji- (1) -an, p-in-ag-k^- (1) -an. Local passives of 
this type with pag- reduplicate the ki-; they refer to other local 
passive relations than place in which; so: pagkakilanl&n be the 
occasion of shouting something; pagkasyah&n be the container of 

30 something that fits in; pagkasunduwin, pagk^undultn be agreed 

430. Special static words with ka- and -an are few and differ 
in meaning. 

(a) Aq k&galftan nila Andres, Hw^, at Mariy&no ay na- 
35 p&wi na. The quarrel between Andris, Juan, and Mariano has 

been appeased; this is no doubt merely a plural with S -an (§ 377 ,a) 
from the underl3ring word kagallt (§ 398,c). 

It forms the underlying word of a simple active with mag- and 
abstract with pag- r : a^ pagkakjigalltan a quarrel (of two or more 
40 people). 

(b) Si P6dro ay kaibfgan ni Marya. Pedro is liked by Maria. 
Sina P6dro, Kuljis, at Hw&n ay sya q ma^a kaibigan ni Mariy&no. 

Digitized by 



Pedro, Nicolds, and Juan are the ones whom Mariano likes. This 
is probably a real special static word corresponding to the transient 
withka- (1) -an (§428). 

Derived active with mag-: Nagkak&ibfgan si Pedro at si 
5 Hwana. Pedro and Juana are in love with each other, have come 
to like each other. 

(c) Aq kjitw&an ay n&hintd^ sa pagdatiQ na^ isa ^ magnan&- 
kaw. The rejoicing was stopped by the coming of a robber. This 
is, in form at least, a plurid with S -an from an underlying -ka- 
10 tuw4^, which is not known. 

Derived active with mag-: magk&tw&an rejoice together, be 
merry together. 

The same form is seen in kUi^kl^an ; little finger, fifth finger; 
if this is from a root -UqMq. 
15 431. k^ (1) D -an. With doubling of the root and radical 

accent shift: E4unii-un&ha ^ dumatl^ si Hwan. Jtian got there 
the very first. So : klihull-hulihan the very last. 

(3) Additional transients, abstracts, and special static forms. 

432. The prefix ka- in its involuntary meaning and the pre- 

20 fix kk' in its accidental meaning appear in an additional set of tran- 
sients and abstracts with maka-, mskk- prefixed for the active, ma-, 
ma- for the passives, and pagka-, pagk4- for the abstract. The 
meanings of these forms are most varied; especially in the direct 
passive, where the involuntary or accidental character of the actor 

25 sometimes reaches the point where an actor is entirely left out of 
view or lacking, and the passive borders closely on active meaning. 
For this reason it will be convenient to divide the uses into a num- 
ber of somewhat arbitrarily defined groups. The forms are as 
follows : 

30 433. The active forms with ka- are : maka-, maka- B, naka-, 

naka- B ; abstract pagka-. 

The active expresses an inanimate object or circumstance 
causing an emotion or feeling; the meaning, then, is the same as 
in the forms with i-ka- (§ 413), except that here the thing causing 

35 the emotion is viewed as an actor. Nakabubulag a^ flaw. The 
light is blinding, Aq gamdt na ito a\) nakaginh&wa sa m&y sakit. 
This medicine is what relieved the patient. It5 y makap&p&wi 
nag gutom (uhaw, giniw, Init, p4god). This wUl relieve the hun- 
ger (thirst, cold feeling, hot feeling, fatigue). Ag awit nag maga 

40 ibon ay nakatutuwi*. The song of the birds is gladdening. Simi- 
larly from : higkt, bigi, buti, lasig, lig&ya, sira*, tikot. 

434. The active expresses, further, an inanimate object 

Digitized by 


437] MORPHOLOGY 281 

which has got (in the past) into such and such a condition or 

Ajq baqki^ ay naka&yon sa &gos. The canoe is righted ivUh 
the stream. Ajq pagkain ay nakahand& n&. Dinner is served. Na- 
5 kas4bit sa pfiko^ a^ &ki q amerikana. My coat is hanging on the 
nail. Nakasigi^ a^ palayiik na^ sin&i^. The rice-pot is on the 
fire. Hindi ko blbilhin a^ kab&yo i] iydn, k&hit na makasisiya aQ 
&ki ^ kwalti. / would not buy this horse, even if my money should 
be sufficient. Similarly: da^, lawit, tfili^ t61o^. 

10 435. Very similar is the use of the active to describe an 

animate actor in such and such a position (into which he has 
got) : Nakadap&^ aQ ma^a t&o sa kanila x^ b&hay hkha,}} lumilin- 
dol. The people lay prone in their houses during the earthquake. 
Si P6dro ay nakah&wak sa tabur^te naQ i^a y retratuhan. Pedro 

15 had hold of a chair when he was photographed. Nakasakjiy sQ) 
b&ta Q si Hw&n sa &so na^ sya y makita ko sa bakuran. lAttle 
Juan was mounted (i. e. riding) on the dog when I saw him in the 
yard. Nakatay6 si P6dro naQ &kin sya q m&kita. Pedro u^as 
standing up when I saw him. Nakaup6 sya sa baqkd^. He was 

20 seated on the bench. So from: abi^, hil^ra, ikid, k&pit, luhdd, 
pa^aw, talu^kd^, tindig. 

436. The active may denote an animate actor who is able, 
succeeds in doing so and so; the involuntary element inheres in 
the matter of ability, which is not dependent on the actor's will: 

25 Sa gana q akin sya y maka&alis. 8o far as I am concerned, he 
may go. Sa tig^ nag kanya ^ lodb ay wala ^ makab&le^. There 
is no one (or, under the tjrpe in § 4S3, nothing) can break the 
firmness of his wiU. Nakag&gaw4^ a^ alfl& na^ p&yoQ. The ser- 
vant is able to make umbrellas. Nakagupit sya naQ makapM na 

-30 damit. He succeeded in cutting thick cloth. Si P6dro ay hindf 
makah&wak nag palakM, sapagkat masaklt a^ kanya ^ kamay. 
Pedro canmot hold an ax, because his hand is sore. NaiUlri j} i^a 
y makahigi^. He may lie down. Hindi ako makahiqf na^ kwalti 
kay Hwan. / cannot (bring myself to) ask Juan for money. Na- 

35 kahulog sya naQ isa ^ nydg sa kanya q pagpukdl sa kumpol. He 
succeeded in bringing down a cocoanut, in his throwing at the 
cluster. AfQ b&ta^ ay hindi makak&in, sapagkat kum&in sya na^ 
mar&mi q kakanin. The child can*t eat because he has eaten so 
mam/ sweets. Si Pedro ay hindi nakapupiitol na^) kihoy, sapag- 

40 kat b&gu \) g&liQ sya sa sakit. Pedro cannot cut any wood, for he 
has just recovered from sickness. Sa tantya raw nyi ay makapiL- 
putol na sya na^) k&hoy, sapagkiit i^a y malakas nk. He reckons 
he wUl be able to cut wood, for he is strong again. Nakas&sakay^ 

Digitized by 



sya sa kab&yo. He is able to mount the horse. A^ b&ta y naka- 
susulat na. The child is already able to write. EUndi ako maka- 
sulat. / can^t write. Ag m&y sakit ay nakat&tayu nk. The pa- 
tient is already able to stand up. Hindi ako nakatipon naQ maga 
5 d&hon, sapagk^t wal& ako q kidaykay. / was not able to pile up^ 
the leaves, because I had np rake. Ao htile g isdi ni Hwin ay 
nakawali^ The fish Juan caught got away. Similarly from : aki- 
yat, balik, b&yad, dal&, datiQ, kilos, kuha, l&kad, p&sok, sag5t, 
sigaw, suway, tahdl, takbd, tiril, ubos, usap. 

10 Abstracts : ' Aq m&kina ay syk ^ dahiUin na^ pagkagaw& ni 

Pedro naQ p&yog. The machine is the cause of Pedro's ability to 
m4ike umbrellas. Aq pagkasak^y nyk sa kab&yo j^ bara-bara ay 
hindi dahilan sa kanya q t4paQ, datapuwat dahilltn sa mar&mi q 
iba Q t4o ^ nagsipigU sa kab&yo. His ability to get on the u)ild 

15 horse was not due to his courage, but to the mam,y other people 
who controlled the horse. Aq kanya ^ pagkatipon sa maga kala- 
biw ay nagyiri dihil sa mar&mi j^ ttilog. His success in rounding 
up the caribou was due to much aid. 

437. Closely bordering on the preceding type is the active, 

20 mostly with the particle uk, expressing the actor of a completed 
action. Nakaalis na siyk. He has already (succeeded in going, 
i.e.) gone away. Nakaputul ni si P6dro nag kihoy. Pedro has 
now finished cutting wood. Si Pedro ay nakaputul ni nai) k&hoy, 
b&go ko Q inutusa g magigib. Pedro had already cut the wood, 

25 before I asked him to fetch water. Similarly from: butas, datig, 
kuha, limot, t&pos. 

The abstract lends itself especially to the use as absolute at- 
tribute (§ 274) : Pagkagawi nya nag bikod ay naglasig siyi. 
When he had finished making the fence, he got drunk. Pagkaha- 

30 rag nag maga tulisin sa kor^yo ay nagsitugo sila sa bunddk. 
When the bandits had robbed the mail, they took to the hills. Pag- 
kah&te ni Hwin nag maga mans&nas ay umalis sya. When Juan 
had distributed the apples, he went away. Pagkahuli nag pulis sa 
magnan&kaw ay dinala nya itd sa bilagguan. When the police- 

35 man had caught the thief, he took him to the jaU. Pagteapatiy 
nya sa t&o g kanyi g hinirag ay tumakbo syk. When he had 
killed the man he had held up, he ran away. Pagkaputol ni Hwin 
nag tabid nag kityaw ay nagdudugd' ag paa nito. When Juan 
had cut the spuri of the rooster, its foot kept bleeding. Pagkasa-* 

40 kiy sa kab&yo ay naparodn ako sa halamanin at pumitis ako nag 
isa g pakwin upag &ki g k&nin. When I had had my horseback 
ride, I went to the garden and picked a melon to eat. Pagkasa- 

Digitized by 


439] MORPHOLOGY 283 

iky ni Hwin sa trtn ay lum&kad ito q agJtd. When Juan had got 
on the tram, ii soon started to move. A\) pagkasunog na^ b4yan 
ay ikinaluQk6t nag mardmi. The people grieved at their town 
having burned down, Pagkatan^w na^j uQgo^ sa pagdg ay nag- 
5 balik sya sa puno-i]-s4giQ. When the monkey had looked at the 
turtle, he went back to the banana tree. Pagkatdwag nag pagog 
sa uggd^ ay sumun6d it6 agid. When the turtle had caUed th4 
monkey, the latter came at once. Pagkatayo nya sa kanya g 
upiian ay minul4n nya agad ag pagtatalumpdte^. When he had 

10 stood up from his seat he at once began making his speech. Pag- 
katlpon mo nag maga bayibas ay umuwl ka. When you have 
piled up the gv^vas, go home. Pagkauna nya sa takbuhan ay 
naghintu sya. When he had got ahead in the running, he stopped. 
Similarly from: alls, bendisiydn, gupit, h&pon, isip, k&in, kuha, 

15 lagok, luto^ misa, s4bi, s4nay, tipos, tipon, tupad. 

438. The forms of the direct passive are : ma-, ma- R ; na- ; 
na- E. 

The direct passive may correspond regularly to the active in 
§ 436, and denote the object directly affected by an action which 

20 an actor is able to perform. 

Hindi nya mab&sag ag bote. He did not succeed in breaking 
the bottle. Sa kalakasan ni P4blo ay nadala nya ag kabi g ba- 
kal. Pablo, with his strength, managed to lift the iron chest. 
Nadala nag bata^ ag kahoy. The boy managed to carry the wood. 

25 Hindi madala ni P6dro ag kahon sa kabigat&n. Pedro cannot 
lift the box; it is too heavy. Hindi ku mag4mit ag payog na ito. 
/ can't use this umbrella. Hindi nakain nag b&ta^ ag matig^ 
na tindpay na iyan. The child was not able to eat that hard bread 
of yours. Nak&ya ko g buh&tin ag isi g maliit na puno-g-kihoy. 

30 I managed to lift one smaU tree. Nak4k&ya ko ag paga&ral nag 
Iggl^s. I manage to get along with the study of English. Naka- 
yas ni Pedro ag bio. Pedro managed to smooth the cocoanut 
shell. Nal&kad nimin ag lahat nag da4n. We m/inaged to walk 
the whole way. NalUipon nag maga lagg^m ag kanila g pagkain. 

35 The ants succeed in amassing their food. Hindi ko mapatiy ag 
bita g itd. I cannot (get myself to) kUl this child. Hindi ko 
maputol nag kam&y ag b&kal na itd. I canH break this iron with 
my hand. Mapuputol daw nyk g wala g tdlog ag lah^t nag ka- 
w4ya g magulag. He says he tinB be able to cut all the old bam- 

40 boo ujithout any help. Hindi nya masira^ ag kand&ro nag pinto^ 
kfihit na iniytibus nya ag kanya g lak&s. He did not succeed in 

Digitized by 



hreakinjsi the lock of the door, although he used up all his strength, 
Nat4tala8t&s mo ba aQ sinas&bi ko sa iy5t Do you understand 
what I am saying to yout Similarly: &gaw, akiy&t, ala41a, ampat, 
gawi^ hiflo^ hila. 
5 439. Similarly, the direct passive may correspond regularly 

to the active of the type in § 437 and denote an object directly 
affected by an action which has been (successfuUy) completed by 
an actor. 

Na&so ko ni sa boo x^ b&yan aQ bata^ / have hunted and 

10 caUed the child all over town. Nabalot ko nit aQ ma^a libro. / 
have already wrapped up the books. Nab&sa ku nk aQ diy&riyo. 
/ have finished reading the paper. Nahampiis ko nk aq b&ta^. / 
have already whipped the child. Nah&nap na nyk a^ libr6. He 
has already looked for the book. Napatay ku na aQ mandk. / 

15 have already killed the chicken. Eapag napiLputol na nya aQ 
puno-Q-k&hoy ay sak& mo hat4kin a^ lubid na nakat&li sa asj^k 
nitd. When he is getting the tree cut, then do you pull at the 
rope that is tied to the branch. Natipid nya aQ pagkiin naQ k&- 
nin. He has been saving of the rice. Natlpon ko na ag maga 

20 d&hon. I have already heaped up the leaves. Natlsod ku nk a^ 
bakyi^ / have kicked off the sandal. Naunat ku nk ag balukt6t 
na k&wad na ibinigay mu sa &kin. I have straightened the bent 
wire you gave me. Nausis^ ku n& si Hw4n. I have already ques- 
tioned Juan. Similarly from: &gaw, gawa^, Ipon, Iwan, Ubot, 

25 sakop, siy4sat. 

440. We come now to direct passives which do not corre- 
spond regularly to any active ; these have their own abstracts with 

The commonest tjrpe expresses an object which undergoes or 

30 has undergone a process due to an inanimate actor or to no actor 
in particular; it differs from the simple direct passive in the in- 
voluntary and often perfectic nature of the action. Nab&le' a^ 
sao4 nag k&hoy. The branch of the tree is broken. A^j ttilis na^) 
l&pis ay nabale^. The point of the pencil is broken. Hwag m6 g 

35 ilagay dyan a^) palat6n, sapagkit bak& mab&sag. Don't put the 
plate there, for it might get broken. Ajq kanila g kalnan ay na- 
gambila sa pagdatig nag maga pulis. Their dinner-party broke 
up when the police arrived. Ag boo ^) bayan ay nagulo. The 
whole town became riotous. Nahite* ag mans4nas. The apple is 

40 in halves. Nalagdt ag lubid. The rope broke. Ajq kanya x^ da- 
liri^ ay nap&so^ His finger is blistered. Napatid ag lubid. The 
rope broke. Ag bato q hasain ay napir&so. The whetstone went 
to pieces. Napitas nk ag maga bulaklak. The flowers have been 

Digitized by 


441] MORPHOLOGY 285 

picked. Napuputol aQ ma^a saga na^ k&hoy sa lak^ naQ h&^in. 
The branches of the trees are being broken off by the force of the 
wind. Naputol nit a^j k&hoy. The tree has been cut down. Nap6- 
tol a^) dulo nag k&hoy. The end of the log is cut off. Naputol 
5 aQ 8a^)i nag k&hoy. The branch of the tree broke off. Nas&yag 
ag trab&ho ni Hwlin. Juan's work went for naught. Ag b^d 
ay naslra^ The field is waste. Similarly, from: 4ri^ b&go, bu- 
wal, dflat, gtimon, hinog, laglig, lamdg, laon, p4wi^, puno^, purdl, 
sunog, t&pos, ubos, ut&s, wal4*, y4ri*. 

10 The abstract is regular: daitn, hindg, lagdt, p&sok, sunog, 


441. The passive is used, further, to denote the animate 
performer of an involuntary act, which, then, is looked upon 
rather as an undergoing than as a performing. 

15 This is the clearest where the subject is undergoing an emotion 

or sensation : Na4w4 si Hw&n sa pulube. Juan pitied the beggar. 
Ajq bata g si Hwan ay nadudugd. Little Juan is bashful. Nagi- 
niw sya sa kanya g pagpallgo^. He got cold while taking his 
bath. Aku y nagugutom. / am hungry; isa g t&o g nag&gutom 

20 a hungry person. Nahih&pis siyA. He is sad. Nahihiyd ka bat 
Are you ashamsdf Nahihiyi sya. He is ashamed. Aku y nai- 
lag. I was nonplussed, I didn't know what to do. Ak6 y nalinip 
na nag paghihintay kay Hwan. I am impatient with waiting for 
Juan. Sya y nalimag sa kanya g pagbflag. He got confused in 

25 his reckoning. Sya nalulugk5t. He is sorry. Ak5 y naiLuhaw. 
/ am thirsty. So: bagabag, gilit, libig, tdkot, tuwi*. 

This form is used also of processes of life, especially physio- 
logical and morbid : Nalumpd syk. He got lame. Napipe sya. He 
got dumb. So: na4ri' got the ability, nab&o got widowed, nabu- 

30 hay lived, naigay was noisy, nakinig heard, nalunod got drowned, 
namatay died, natulog slept. 

It is used, finally, in nahulog fell (from a place to the 
ground), and, strangely enough, for two voluntary actions which 
consist of a relaxing of the muscles: Sya y nahiga' He lay 

35 down. Sya y nahihigi^ He was in the act of lying down. Naup6 
sya sa bagkd^. He sat down on the bench. Nauup6 sya sa tabu- 
rete. He was in the act of sitting down on the stool. 

Further, irregularly, in: Sya y naligo^ He took a bath. 
Sya y nan&og. He came doum from the house. See § 488,c. 

40 Abstracts : Ag pagka&wit ni Hw^ sa pulube Juan's pity for 

the beggar, ag pagkab&ta^ one's childhood, ag pagkabuhay ni 
Hesus the resurrection of Jesus. Ag pagkagulat ni Hw&na ay 
sya ny4 g ipinagkasakit. Juana's scare was what made her sick. 

Digitized by 



Pagkalunod naQ Eastila^ ay lumayas aQ ma^a estadyjuite. When 
the Spaniard had got drowned, the students hurried away, a^ 
kanya ^ pagkamat^y his death, aig kanya i] pagkas41a sa sIq^Qj 
his missing the ring. Pagkaupu nya sa ba^ko^ ay minulan nyaj 
5 a^ pagkukwdnto sa ma^a b&ta^ When she had sat down on the- 
bench, she began her story-teUing to the children. So: 4ri^, M- 
pis, hulog, litd, 16ko, pipi, t&kot, talo, uldl. 

442. An explicit plural of both active and direct passive ia^ 
formed by the infixation of -a^)- into the prefix. > 

.10 In the active the syllable after this infix often receives a sec-> 

ondary accent: Na^akaupti na silk sa pagkain, naQ kami ay dn- 
matii|. They had already sat down to their meal when we arrived^ 
So also from : bitiw, biyibit. 

With reduplication of the ka- instead of root initial: Na^i- 

15 kikaupo sili sa pagkain. They are able to sit up for their m^als. 

Direct passive: Aq dinala nya q ma^a man5k ay na^ama- 

tay. The chickens he brought all died. Nagaputol ag tubo sa, 

lakas nafl bagyi. The sugar-cane broke under the strength of the 

typhoon. Naqapuputol a^ karamihan nag tub6 na^ kasaluk^yan 

20 aQ bagy6. During the typhoon most of the sugar-cane got broken. 
So from : bulok, Iwan, lunod, lugkdt, takot, tuwi^. 

443. Prom a compound word, passive: najsawi-^-p&lad 
(saw! Q p41ad). 

From a derived vord, active: makataanin (taan^n, § 378). 

25 444. Accent shift is due to the root. Si Pedro ay nakaay^w 

nk. Pedro has left the table. So from ibot, s&kit. 

Passive: Naabut nya ag ilawan. He managed to reach the 
lamp. Hindi nya maabut a^) itl6g. He can^t reach the egg. Afl 
b&ta ]g si Hw4n ay nab&bah&y. Little Juan is shy. 

30 Abstract: see &bot. 

445. With pag- before the root, this active is| made from 
roots whose primary active has mag-. The reduplication affecta 
either the ka-, or tie pag-, or the root initial: mak^-ka-pag- or 
maka-pa-pag- or maka-pag- B. 

35 Aig b&ta^ ay nakapagdallt na^ k&hoy. The boy managed to 

bring the wood. Aq b&ta^ ay nakapagdadali (or: nakjikapagdal^, 
or: nakapapagdaUi) na^ k^oy. The boy is able to brin^ the 
wood. NakakapaglaslQ si Ano^], k&hit na sya y hindf bin&bay&an. 
naQ kanya q as&wa na makapagpabil^ na^ &lak. Anong maruiges to 

40 get drunk, even though his wife does not (Mow him to have liquor 
purchased for him. Nakapagptitol na si Hw&n na^ k&hoy. Jtum 
has finished cutting wood. Nakapagpuputol njt si HwJui na^ k&- 
hoy. Jua/n is already able to cut wood. Hindi makapagputol naQ 

Digitized by 


443] MORPHOLOGY 287 

k&hoy si Hw&n, dahilan sa sugat nya sa kam^y. Juan cannot cut 
wood, on account of the wound on his hand. 

Similarly: ant5k, &ral, bihis, ligtas, misa, n&kaw, pasiyjd, 
8&bi, saliti^ t&go^ taH. 

5 446. Direct passive: ma-pag-; ma-pag- B or ma-p4-pag-. 

Hindi ko mapag&yos a^) maiga damit na itd. I can't straighten 
out these clothes. Map^pag&yos nya a^ ma^a lii>&8 sa uso q da- 
mit na it5. She unll be able to fix these out-of-date clothes. Hindi 
ko mapagktiro^ kuQ and aq fbig nya \) sabfhin. I couldn't make 

10 out what he wanted to say. Na^ mapagk^5 ni Hwin ktp] and 
a^ maQy^y&ri, ay hindi nya itinuloy a^ kanya ig b&lak. When 
Juan saw what was going to happen, he did not carry out his plan. 
Hindi ko mapagkuro a^ kahulngin na^ sulat na it5. / can't get 
at the meaning of this letter. Napagtalastlls ko a^ maiga sinJLs&bi 

15 mo sa iyo ^ sulat. I understand all you say in your letter. Na- 
pagt4talast{ls (or: nap&pagtalastas) kd aQ fbig mo q sabihin. / 
understand what you mean. 

447. maka-pag- (1), cf. § 353. Nag nakapaghanap syk ay 
umuwe sya sa kanya q b&hay. When he had finished searching, 

20 he went home. Kuq makapaghanap syk ay uuwe sya. When he 
has finished searching, he unll go home. 

448. maka-paq-, corresponding to ma^-, § 357. Nakakapa^)- 
hirim kami nag kwalta kay Ali ^) Eul&sa. We can borrow money 
from Aunt Nicolasa. Mak&kapaQhir&m ka 5 wala 5 s&la kay 

25 Hwan nag isa q sombrero. You wiU surely be able to borrow a 
hat from Juan. Nakapag^igab&yo sya X) patay5^, sapagk&t hindf 
gulatin. aQ kanya g kab&yo. He is able to ride standing up, be- 
cause his horse is not given to shying. 
Abstract: pagkapagako^ (4ko^). 

30 (a) The root is reduplicated for plurality: A^) pagkapagha- 

h&raQ nila Hw&n ay hindi nila sana magawa^, kuQ hindi sa kara^ 
mihan nag t&o nila na m&y baril. The highway robberies by Juan 
and his gang could not have been perpetrated by them, if it had 
not been for the number of them that had guns. 

35 (b) From a derived word: raakapagin&in (kinain, §§ 365; 

357,a). V 

449. ma- D; expressive of slow activity: Hindi sya ma- 
matay-mat^y. He is lingering on the death-bed. At) p^gakp&kan 
nai] maija t&o ay hindi matapus-tdpus. The applause of the peo- 

40 pie could find no end. 

450. In the instrumental passive, which seems to occur only 
with pag- and par)-, the i- follows the ma-: At) pagkatdwag nag 
kura sa maija pulis ay hindi nya ikinabute, sapagkat sil^ y kk- 

Digitized by 


288 TAOAIiOO TEXTS [444 

kaunti l&maQ upaQ maipagta^gdl sya sa ma^a magnan&kaw. Th& 
priest's having called in the police did him no good, for they wenf 
too few to defend him from the thieves. 

With pag-: naipaigiganak (an4k, cf. § 357). 
5 451. The local passive has the prefix ma- and the su£Bx 

(1) -an. 

Namatayan sina Hwin. Someone has died in Juan's family.. 
Namatayan sa b4hay ni HwAn. There has been a death in Juan's 
house. Naputulan si Hwan nag dalire' sa pagpapal&kad na^) m4- 
10 kina. Jv^n got a finger cut off in runmng the machine. Napft- 
putulan nag mediko aij maga t&o nag kanila g kamiy o paa kug 
kayil&gan. When necessary, people get their hands or feet cuii 
off by a doctor. Mapuputulan ka nag dallri^ pag hindl ka na^-, 
gat sa iyo g pagtatrab&ho sa m&kina g iyan. You will get your. 
15 finger cut off, if you aren't careful about the way you work that 
machine. Nasakyan ko na ag kab4yo g bara-bara. I have suc- 
ceeded in mounting the wild horse. Naskyan ko na ag bagka g 
lib. I have already been in this canoe. Nawalkn nag mfilay ag 
bab&ye sa kanya g paghihimatay. The woman lost consciousness 
20 in her swoon. 

Similarly : bali^ bukas, halik, hirap, lion, limot, luwat, patid, 
pilit, sakit, slra^ siya, subok, sugat, suggJtb, tagil, tanda^ ubos. 

(a) bitiw lacks accent shift: mabitlwan, cf. § 374,b. 

452. Local passive with explicative pag-: Hindi n&min ma- 
25 paglagarian nag k&hoy ag kab&yo g k&hoy na ginaw4 mo. We 

cannot saw wood on the saw-buck you have made. Napagputulan 
n&min nag kawayan ag b&go g gawa mo g kab&yo g k&hoy. We 
were able to cut bamboo on the sawbuck you have just made. 

453. Special static words resembling the active; the follow- 
30 ing occur: Si Bantiig ay isa g t&o g makab&yan. Bantog is a 

patriotic man. dam6 g makahy^' the serisitive plant. Mimosa 

Of irregular use are makalaw& (§ 262,8), and makatuwid 
35 (a) From a word of this kind an active with mag- is derived 

in: nagmS,maka&wa^ provoking pity (as though from makaiwa'). 

(b) The abstract is like a special static word in: Ag bigas 
ay sya g pinakamahalaga g pagkabuhay nag t&o sa Filipinas. 
Rice is the m^st important staple food in the Philippines. Cf. 

40 also pagkar&ka, § 265,9. 

454. ma- forms special static words denoting that which by 
nature or circumstance possesses such and sv^h, usually a qu4iUty, 

Digitized by 


445] MORPHOLOGY 289 

Maalikabok nk a^] m^sa. The table is dusty already. Maasim aQ 
suka Q itd. This mine is sour. aQ puno-Q-k&hoy na mab&ba^ a low 
tree; isa ^ maMba ^ t4o a humble person. Aq lab^q ay mab&baw. 
The trough of the manger is shallow. Mad&la^ a^ ma^a lind51 
5 dlto. Earthquakes are rare here. Sya y isa ^) ginod q mag&la^. 
He is a polite gentleman. Magmhawa a^ umup6 sa silya q ito. 
This chair is comfortable to sit in. Si Maryi ay isa x\ babaye g 
mapuri. Maria is a decent wom^n. Maluwkj} aQ b&ro i) ito. This 
bUmse is too loose, matamis sweet, aj} matamis sugar. Matipid na 
10 b&ta^ si Hw4n. Ju^n is a saving child. 

The plural is made with ma- r: Ajq maga tao sa bdyan ay 
mahuhusay sumunod sa kautusin. The people of the town are all 
good law-abiders. 

These forms are made from so many roots that the Index will 
15 be as convenient as a list. 

Derivatives : §§ 352,c. 353,a.b. 370. 499,a. 500,b. 
(a) Note masiy4do excessive, extreme, as though from a root 
-siyado (and so listed), still felt by Mr. Santiago to be from Span- 
ish demasiado. 
20 (b) Accent shift due to the root in masaMt. 

(c) From derived words: Ag pagtayu sa buburjan ay ma- 
pa^dnib. It is dangerous to stand on the roof. So from kasal4- 
nan (§423), kabuluhAn (§ 422). 

455. ma-pag- someone given to doing so and so: Aq ind. ni 
25 P6dro ay mapagbigS,y sa kanya ^) ma^ja kaululin. Pedro's mother 
always gives in to his foolishness. Sya y mapagtipid. He is very 
economical. So from: gawa^, kumpisM, simba, siy&sat, uslsa^ 

(a) From a phrase, probably: Ag t4o xi si Hwin ay mapag- 
p4ku-m-babi^ That m>an Juan is ovehnodest (p&ko ^) babi^ low 

30 peg 1). 

(b) With accent shift: Mapaghunl aq maga kabayo g itd, 
kanya hindf d&pat dalhin sa labanan. These horses are given to 
neighing and therefore should not be taken to war. So also: ma- 

35 456. In the same sense, but transitive in value, ma-pag-: 

mapaiQgulat given to surprising or frightening people, mapaghd- 
gis given to flinging things; Ag t4o 5 si Hwan ay mapaghirim. 
The fellow Juan is a great borrower, mapaijhiyi' given to embar- 
rassing people, mapamukol given to throwing things. So from: 
40 hiliig, mati. 

457. In similar meanings, with su£Bx -in: 
(a) ma- S -in: So magustuhin, masunurin. 

Digitized by 


290 TAOAIiOO TEXTS [446 

(b) ma- (2) -in : Aq ma^a t&o y hindf maibigin sa pagkaka- 
s&la. People are not fond of sinning. 

(c) ma- r (2) -in: matatawanin easily made to lattgh; Sya 
y matutulugin. He is a sleepy-head. So also : magogulatin. 

5 458. The transients with k&- refer to accidental actions. The 

active has the forms: mak4-, makk- B, nakk-, nskk- B, but the re- 
duplication sometimes affects the ka- instead of the root initial. 
The abstract has pagka-. The meanings are various, much like, 
those of maka-. 

10 459. The active sometimes expresses an inanimate object §b 

the agent of an accidental action: Aq guntijg nag ma^gagam5t 
ay nak&gupit nag isa q ugat na malak^, kanya^ namat&y aQ kanya 
Q gin&gamdt. The physician's scissors accidentally cut a large 
artery, in consequence of which his patient died. Similarly, from 

15 gisiQ, h&wa. 

460. More frequent is a rational actor of an accidental ac- 
tion; as such is viewed any action the exact form of which is out 
of the actor's control. Si Pedro ay naklthawak nag k4wad na may 
elektrisidad. Pedro got hold of a charged wire. Hindi nya kilalJi 

20 aQ maQa kwayan^ ^ iy^i^> kaniyli nak^ptitol sya nag sa iba q 
tAwo 5 kaw&yan. As he did not know those bamboo-groves, he 
inadvertently cut some bamboo that belonged to other people. Sun- 
dan m5 sila sa kawayanan, sapagkat bak& sila nakkpuputol na^ 
kaw&ya q hindi nas&s&kop nag ati q lupa^. Follow them to the 

25 bamboo-grove, for they may be cutting some bamboo that is not 
included in our land. Hwan, usis4in mo q mabuti aQ haQg&han 
naq kawayan&n, b&go ka tumag& nag kawayan, sapagkat bak& ka 
mak&putol nag kaw&ya q hindi &tin. Ju^n, find out exactly the 
borders of the bamhoo-grove before you cut any bamboo, for else 

30 you might cut some bamboo that is not ours. Piho q makapuputol 
silk naq kaw&ya q hindi sakdp naq lupa^ kapag hindi mo sila 
pinakialaman, sapagkat aig ha^gahan naig lupa q iyon ay Ivibhk 
1] balu-balukt6t. They wUl surely cut some bamboo not included 
in the piece of ground, if you dont look after them, for the boun- 

35 dary of the land is very irregular. Nakatisod ak6 nag isa g &has. 
/ hit a snake with my foot. Nakitulog si Hwan sa b&hay na giba- 
gib^^ Juan hit upon a broken-down house as a place to sleep in, 
was constrained by circumstances to sleep in a broken-down house. 
Nakausisa sya narj nawala g kwalta. It came to her mind to in- 

40 quire about the lost money. Nakausisa sya naij isa i) tao g na- 
kJlaalam nag lihim. He happened to ask a man who knew the 
secret. Similarly: bill, daan, inom, kain, sulat, tagpo^ 

Abstract : In the abstract the element of accident often takes 

Digitized by 


447] MORPHOLOGY 291 

the form of expressing the way something turned out. Lim&Q aq 
pagk^bila^ nya sa ma^a itldg na ito. His count of these eggs has 
turned out wrong. A^) pagk&gaw& ni Hw&na sa piyog ay ma- 
sami^ The umbrella Juana made turned out poorly, A^) pagk&- 
5 gupit sa ulo na^i bita* ay hindi pantiy-pantay. The boy's hair- 
cut isn't (hasn't turned out) even. Ag pagkah&ti nag mans&nas 
ay hindi par6ho. The halving of the apple is not exact. Ag pag- 
k^isip nya sa bugtoQ ay hindi t&ma^ His guess at the riddle is 
not correct. Ajq pagk&lagok nya sa itlog ay kanya iQ pinagsislhan. 

10 He repented his having (in a moment of weakness) swaUowed the 
egg. Aq pagkap&sok ni Hwltn nag tapdn sa b6te ay mal&lim. 
Juan got the cork too deep into the bottle. Ag pagk&patay sa mag- 
nan&kaw ay hindi sinadyi^. The killing of the thief was not done 
on purpose. Aq pagk&patay sa mandk ay masama^. This chicken 

15 has not been slaughtered in the proper manner. Ag pagk^putol 
nai] p&loQ na^ k&tiyaw ay hindi sagid. The cock's comb is not 
cut off clean. Aq pagk&tahul na^ &so ay sya q inilal& na^ sakit 
nya sa lalamunan. The dog's barking made the pain in its throat 
worse. Ag pagkatanaw k5 sa puno-o-k4hoy ay itd y may madidi- 

20 l^w na d&hon. The way I looked at that tree made it seem as if 
it had yellow leaves. Aq kanya q pagk&tayd^ (or: pagk&tindig) 
ay dahilan sa kanya q pagkltgulat. He jumped to his feet because 
of his surprise. Aq pagkatipon naQ maga d&ho Q ito ay hindi 
mabfite. These leaves have not been well heaped up. So from: 

25 bendisiyftn, bitbit, hampis, higi', pilo^ tigo^ tiri, up6*. 

461. The active may denote a rational actor successful, 
thanks to outer circumstances, in such and such an action. Nak&- 
hampas aq b&ta q si Hw&n nag isa q tutub^. Little Juan suc- 
ceeded in hitting a dragonrfly with his whip. Nakah&te! cS' H^n 

30 naQ maQa mans4nas. Juan got a chance to divide up the apples. 
NiJ^ltkakap& sya na^ isa ^ palaki^. He has got hold of a frog (as, 
in grasping for frogs in mud-holes). Nak&p&na akd nag usa. I 
hit a deer with an arrow. Nak&tipun -nk akd nag maga d&hon, na\) 
pumaron si T&tay. By the time Father got there, I had already 

35 had time to get some leaves heaped up. So also : dgaw, hiigP, s41i. 

Abstract: Arj pagkibuhay nag m^diko sa kay Hwkn ay isa 

1] raalakl g ikinatwd nag kanya g kabab&yan. The doctor's saving 

of Juan's life was a cause of great gladness to his fellow-townsmen. 

Ag pagkatawag nya sa mediko g nagligtas nag buhay nag kanya 

40 g anak ay dahilan sa pagkagamit nya nag telefono. His chance 
of calling the doctor who saved his child's life was due to the use 
he was enabled to make of the telephone. Ag nagig pagkdgupit 

Digitized by 



nya sa makapal na damit ay nai]y&re dahilan sa pagg&mit nya na^] 
g^untiQ nai] l&ta. The foci that he was able to cut the thick doth was 
due to his using the tifn^shears. Ajq pagk&hampas nya sa ma^a b&ta^ 
ay dahilan sa kahab&an naq kanya xi pam&lo^ He can hit the chUr 
5 dren because of the length of his stick. Ajq pagkah&ra^ kina Hwan 
ay sya nila q ikinawal& nag kanila ^ salap^^. Juan and his party's 
having been held up was what deprived them of their money. Aq 
pagk4h&ti nya sa tubi ay hindf magyiy&re ktp] gum&mit sya na^ 
mapurul na gulok. He would not have been able to slice the sugar- 

10 cane down its length (as a game or trick), if he had used a dull 
bolo. Pagkaisip nya kiiQ and a^ d&pat nya q gawin sa magnan&- 
kaw na nAhuli nya, ay ginawd nya iyon ag^d. When he had at 
last hit upon the idea of what to do with the thief he had caught, 
he immediately carried it out. Naghin&ya^j aq boo g biyan sa 

15 pagk&patay kay BisM nag maga Kastfla^. The whole country 
mourned over the killing of Rizal by the Spaniards. Ajq Ami xi 
pagk&sakay sa bagkd,^ ay sya ig nagligtiis sa &mi q buhay. Our 
having been able to get into the canoe is what saved our lives. Aq 
pagkasunog nag ma^a magnanakaw sa b&yan ay pinarusahan na^ 

20 gubyfimo. The thieves' burning the town was punished by the 
government, Ag pagk&tayo nag isa g b&hay-pamahalaa g bat6 ay 
dahilan sa pagpapaalaala ni Hw^n nag pagdnib sa sunog. The 
fact that a stone govemment-buUding came after all to be buUt, 
was due to Juan's calling attention to the danger from fire. Ann 

25 g pagk&tipid ni Hwan! How saving Juan has been! So from: 
s&bi, tawag. 

462. The active is used of certain acts of sensation whose 
occurrence is out of the control of the subject : ag nakAkikilala, aQ 
nayLkakil41a one who has got knowledge of a person or thing, has 

30 come to know his habits, recognizes his nature. Ag pagkjtgulat ni 
Hw&na ay syi g ikin&tawd, nag mar&mi g nakakikita. Juana's 
astonishment amused many who saw it. With kil41a compare na- 
k&ramd&m felt; with kfta, nak&malay, nak&taniw, and nak&rinlg 

35 Abstract : Malfnaw ag pagk&kita ko sa naigy&re. I had a clear 

view of what took place. So: dinig, masid, tan4w. 

463. The direct passive has the forms ma-, mi- B, na-, 
ni- B. 

It may correspond regularly to the active type in § 460, and 
40 denote an object undergoing an accidental action of a rational 

Na&so ko sa boo g b&yan ai) b&ta^, kahit na hindl ko gustd. 

Digitized by 


449] MOBPHOLOOT 293 

/ was forced to go shouting after the child aU over town, though 
I didn't like to do it. Hindi mu ba nitb&sa sa diy&riyo a^ timkiU 
sa sunogt Haven't you come across the details of the fire in the 
paper f Baka mo m&b&sag, Hw4na, iy^ ^ pinaglalaruwan.m5 ^ 

5 kandel6ro. See that you don't break that candlestick you're play- 
ing with, Juana, N&dala nya nag hindi sin4sadylt^ sa kanya ^ 
pagalis aQ &ki Q p&yoQ. When he went away he inadvertently 
carried off my umbrella. Nagamb&la ku ag paga&ral ni Hwin 
dahilan sa aki ^ pagdati^ na wal& sa oras. / disturbed Juan in 

10 his studying by my untimely arrival. N&g&mit ni Hw&n aQ fiki q 
sombrero dahiUui sa kany& q pagmamadall nag pagalis. Jtuin 
used my hat in the haste of his departure. Nagisig nya sa kanya 
5 pagiiQ^y ag maiga b&ta^ What with his racket he woke up the 
children. N&hampas nag hindi sin4sady4 ni Pedro ag b&buy nag 

15 kanya ^) kapit-bahay. Pedro inadvertently hit his neighbor's hog 
u)ith his whip. Naiwan din nyh sa &kin ag kany& g anak, k4hit 
na it6 y 4yaw nya g gawin. She was also forced to leave her chUd 
with me, although she disliked to do this. N4palAy ko nag baril- 
barilan aig manok. / accidentally killed the chicken with my toy -gun. 

20 Kanin mo ai) milon, ku^j ijni q gusto, o kaya^ ag s&gig, kug sya 
mo it6 ^) nApipile*. — ^NApipfli ko ag milon. Eat the banana, if you 
like, or the melon, if you prefer it. — / prefer the melon. N&pitaa 
nya ai] bulaklik nag hindi sinisadya^. She picked the flower with- 
out intending to. NItputol ko nag hindi sin&sadyk^ ag lubid na 

25 itd. I chanced, without intending, it, to cut this string. Bak4 mo 
mJLsira^, Hwan, ag pat&go sa iyu g kwMta nag iya g kapatid. See 
to it, Juan, that you don't do away with your brother's moneyt 
that is entrusted to you. NausisS. ni Hw&na ag inumit na sigsig 
nag kanya g kapatid. Juana happened to inquire for the ring her 

30 sister had filched. So from: agkin, bulag, butas, hibol, patay, 

464. The direct passive may correspond regularly to the 
active described in § 461, and denote an object undergoing an 
action which a rational actor was enabled to perform by virtue of 

35 outer circumstances. 

Ag ulo ni Hwin ay n&bibilog nag kanya g kalaro*. Juan's 
playmates are succeeding in making a fool of him (literally : in 
rounding his head). N4gupit nyi ag makapM na damit. It 
turned out that he was able to cut the thick cloth. Hindi ku mai- 

40 pon ag maga kar&yum na nag^&bug sa lupa^ I did not succeed 
in gathering up aU the needles that were scattered over the floor. 
Hindi ko m&patay ag piisa g itd. I cannot kiU this cat (i. e. its 
life is tough, it gets away, etc.) Eapag naputol mo ag b&kal na 

Digitized by 



iyan, ikaw ay makawawal^^. // you can get a chance to cut 
through that iron, you can make your escape. Naputol nya aQ 
k&hoy. He got the wood cut all right. Hindi nya m&putol aQ 
lehg naQ mandk. He couldn^t get the chicken's neck cut through. 
5 M&puputol na raw nyk aQ puno na\) k&hoy na nabwal. He says 
he ujill be in a position to cut through the tree that has fallen. BiXjf 
kany4 q n&BiQil the money he was able to collect. Similarly, from : 
balot, gawa^, huli, kuha, kulam, n&kaw, pitiiit, s&bi, ta^, t4wag. 

465. Similarly, the direct passive is regularly used to corre- 
10 spond to the active in § 462, of objects of sensation. NJAiUla ko 

si HwJui dodn sa sHw&yan. / got acquainted with Juan at that 
dance. So from : alalia, dinlg, ind, kita, m&las, pansln. 

466. Other uses of the direct passive do not regularly cor- 
respond to any active, cf . § 440 f . ; these have their own abstract 

15 with pagkli-. 

The direct passive is used to denote an object which has acci- 
dentally got into such and such a condition; the actor is either in- 
different or entirely lacking. There seems to be no abstract prin- 
ciple clearly separating this form from the passive with na- 

20 described in § 440; where position of the object is involved, the 
accidental form is preferred. 

N&bute a^ kanyi q pagkat4kot. His fear reached a high 
point. Ajq kanya ^ ba^k^ y patu^o sa banda ^ kalunuran, datapu- 
wat pagkara&n nag il^ ^ sandali^ ay n&iba a^) kanya q band&hin. 

25 His canoe was headed toward the west, but after a while his direction 
changed. Aq inumfnan na^ b4hay ay d&pat malagay sa lug&r na 
malflim. The shelf for drinking-water of a hou^e should be in a 
shady place, N4sakay sa trdn a^ ipinahatid mo q ma^a dalax)hfta^ 
The tangerines you sent have been shipped. Nitulin ag pagpapa- 

30 dxxLka na^ b&ta ^ si Hwin sa p'dtek. Juan's sliding/ on the mud 
got faster and faster (in spite of him). 

Similarly from: b&gay, ballta^ ba6n, d&pat, doon, hinti^ 
husay, ibadiyi, k&pit, lap^, litag, ligtAs, liguwak, llpat, lub5g, 
lulan, mina, n4kaw, pagitan, p&ko^, pat&y, p4tur), sabog, taan, ta- 

35 bon, tago^, tala^, tanim, taon, tayo^, tira, tulos, unat. 

Abstract: Pagk4sakay nag raaga sako nag kamote sa trfin ay 
lum4kad it6 agad. As soon as the bags of sweet-potatoes had been 
put on board thee train, the latter started to move. So from : ba- 
lita^, gamit, iba, 14tag, libig, sara. 

40 466a. This irregular passive is used also of animate, rational 

subjects, whose actions, then, are viewed rather as an accidental 
undergoing; this type is not clearly definable from that with ma- 

Digitized by 


451] MORPHOLOGY 295 

in § 441, except where both forms are used in contrast (-higa') y 
the habit with regard to each root is, however, entirely fixed. 

In some cases the accidental actor is imaginable: N&aky^t si 
P^dro sa italLS na]g IkiQit dahilan sa ginaw& nya ]g pagk&pit sa 
5 pinalipjtd na 16bo. Pedro got carried up into the air owing to his 
grip on the loosed baUoon. Nah&raQ sina Hw4n sa daa-Q-Baliwag. 
Juan and his company chanced to get held up on the Baliuag road. 
Hwag k^, Hw4n, pum4suk sa sekreta, sapagkat bak4 ka mdhiga^ 
sa ihawan, kufl ikkw ay mahtile. Don't go as a spy, Juan, for you 

10 might get laid on the gridiron, if you got caught. Similarly : ba^- 
^t, baril, bila^jgd', distjno, hfili, ligtAs, pili', ta^jgap, tdwag. 

Processes of life: Sya y n&biQi. He got deaf. NJibute si 
HwAn sa kanya iq pagkatdkot. Juan was bettered by his fright. 
Si Pedro mt si Marya ay mdkjikasal. Pedro and Maria will get 

15 married some day. So: himbiQ, loko, tahimik, tinik, ttito, wlli. 

Abstract : Aq pagyigulat ni Hw&na sa mai^ay na put6k naQ 

kanydn ay sya nya q ikinabioi. Juana's shock at the loud report 

of the cannon was what mode her deaf. MalaM aQ kanila q nagiQ 

pagkagulat. Their astonishment was great. Aq pagktLsunog sa 

20 maQa sund41o sa loob nag bdhay ay na^y&ri d4hil sa pagkasara 
nag maoa bintAna^ The fact that the soldiers were burned in the 
house was due to the circumstance that the windows had been 
closed. Aq pagkatinik sa lalamunan nag b&ta^ ay sya nya xi 
ikinamat&y. The boy's getting a fishbone into his throat was what 

25 killed him. Pagk4tinik nag uogo' ay sya y nagalit. When the 
monkey had got a spine into his foot he got angry. Aq pagkjiwile 
ni Hwan sa bdhay ny Andres ay dahilan sa anjik na dalaga nito. 
Juan's being speU-bound in Andres' house was due to the latter 's 
daughter. So: gustd, kasil, maohi*. 

30 Movements, especially the resultant position: Nariyan kami 

sa iyo Xi b4hay kah4pon nag um4ga, d4tapuwat hindi ka n4min 
dinatn^. We were at your house yesterday morning, but we did 
not find you there. Naluhod sya sa kanya xi harap^n. He knelt 
down in front of her. Nipipagitan si Hwan sa dalaw4 g dal4ga. 

35 Juan chanced to get placed between two young ladies. Sila y 
niuupo'. They are seated. Similarly from : 4kap, alls, b41ot, dine, 
dfto, dul^, dodn, harap, kubli, kuldg, 14kad, lugmdk, padpad, pan- 
hik, sak4y, sisid, tabi, t4go^ tayd', tiri, tuQtftxi. 

Abstract: Aq ikin4tahol na^ ma^a 4so ay a^) pagk4dap4 ni 

40 Hw4n. What made the dogs bark was Juan's falling on his face. 
Pagk4sakay ni Hwan sa trdn ay lum4kad ito Xi agad. When Juan 
was on board the train, it soon started to move. So also: dxjlkB,, 
kubll, lag&y, panhlk, silld, tabl, tayd^ 

Digitized by 



467. The passive forms an explicit plural in which -a^)- is 
infixed into the nk-: Tib4yan mo a^ ma^a itdtayu mo X) kubo sa 
bukid, sapagkjit bak& iyo y max)&giba^ kim liimakfts a^) h&x)in. 
Prop up the huts you are going to buUd in the fields, for otherwise 

5 they might break down when the wind gets stronger. MaQ^gibi^ 
ax) max)a b&hay na it5, sapagkat hindf t&ma^ a^) pagkatayd^ These 
houses will break down, because they are not buUi right. So from : 
pax)&w, s&bog, taltpjkd^ 

468. An irregular form is n&ndon beside n&-rodn. 

10 469. Accent shift is due to the root: Aq pagpapatahdl ni 

Hwan sa kanya q &so ay nak&tlitawa. Juan*s making his dog bark 
is a funny sight. So alam, tuloy. 

Passive: N&abut nyk sa kany& q paglulund^ na may t&^a 

XI pam41o^ ag ilaw&n, kanyi^ itd y nabdsag. In his climbing with 

15 the stick in hand, he accidentally reached the lamp, and so it got 

broken. Sya y n&bul4g. He went blind. So: gisig, hayag, huli, 

Idpit, l&yo^ ttiloy. 

Abstract : Aq pagk&huli nag susd^ ay malak^. The snail was 
left way behind. So: &bot, alam, &yaw, gisi^, l&pit, una. 
20 470. From phrases: Ag pa4nan nag higaan ay nabjiband^- 

Q-kataas&n, ddtapwat ddpat mabanda-Q-ibab^^. The foot of the 
bed is turned toward the north, but should be turned to the south 
(band4 ]g ibab^^ bandji xi kataas&n). 

Prom derived words: Passive: NitatagHid ag ba^k4^ The 
25 boat has a list to one side (ta-gilid, § 523). 

(a) Passives from words with prefix ka- (§ 398) are frequent. 
Aq bukid ni Hwin ay naytkar&tig nag kay Pedro. Juan's field 
borders on Pedro's. Nakas41e nya sa kanya 5 paglalar6^ ag kanya 
X) pfnsan. He took his cousin for playmate. Si Marydno ay nika- 

30 t41o ni Hw&n. Mariano was Juan's opponent. Si Narslso ao 14gi 
X) nikakat41o ni PMro sa maga pagtatalo 5 idinaddos liggo-liggd 
sa kanila xi sam&han. Narcisso is always Pedro's opponent in the 
debates which they hold every Sunday at their chib. Si Lukas ag 
mikikatAlo ko. Lucas will be my opponent. nJikakatugo the per- 

35 son one happens to be dealing with, nakausap be by chance able 
to be conversed with. 

Underlying word non-existent : Nakatulog si Hwan sa panu- 
nood nao te4tro. Juan fell asleep wJvUe watching the play. Umu- 
\kn kagab! at lumamig, kaniya^ ako n&katulog nag mahimbig. Last 

40 night it rained and got cool; in consequence I fell sound asleep, 
got a sound sleep. Hindi ako mikatulog. / couldn't get any 
sleep. Abstract: ag pagk&katulog. 

(b) Explicit plural of the preceding: Nagak&katulog sila q 

Digitized by 


453] MORPHOLOGY 297 

labkty naQ pum&sok sa b&hay a^ magnanakaw. They had all fallen 
asleep, when the ihief came into the house. Pagpilitan ninyd x) 
hwag kayd q ma^ikatulog sa inyo q pagbabantay sa maQa h&yop 
at iba p ji q &ri naQ pamahala^. See to it that you don't fall 
5 asleep when on guard over the animals and other property of the 
government. l]aydn ay ma\)&k&katulog sila, dahil&n sa mal&on 
nila Q pagpupuyat gabi-gabl. Now they unll be able to sleep, owing 
to their staying up late night after night. 

471. Passive with pag- (cf. § 445) : the reduplication affects 
10 the pag-. Hindi ko mjipag&way a\) tamis at a]g &sim nag limon&da 

^j itd. / cannot produce a balance of sweet and sour in this lemon- 
ade. Sa kalaunan ay njipagkilfila ni Hwan a^ kanya Xi kamMlan. 
Finally Juan saw where he was wrong. Hindi nya napagkuro* 
ag^d kim and a^ g&gawin nyJL. He was not able to decide at once 

15 what he was going to do. Njip^pagkuril mo ba bjq lahat na^) sin&bi 
ko sa iyd kah&ponf Are you able to figure out aU I said to yow 
yesterday? Hindi ko m&pagkuro kim and ag ibig nya q sabihin. 
/ simply couldn't make out what he was trying to say. 

(a) Accent shift is due to the root: Ayon sa s&bi na^) ma- 

20 rdmi ay m^pipaghuli na raw a\) ma^a magnan&kaw. According to 
what people say, the thieves u)Ul soon be caught. 

472. Passive with paq-: N&panaginip niya q n&kita nya a^) 
kanya q am&. He dreamt he saw his father. 

473. mak4- D is used in prohibitions: Hwag ka q mak&- 
25 14ya8-layas! Don't ever run away! So from tugt6g. 

(a) with paki-: Hwag kk q maklipakik4in-k4in kuQ hindi ka 
inaanydhan. Don't ever take a meal u)ith people unless they in- 
vite you. 

474. The instrumental passive is rare: miilabis, miip&sok, 
30 raaituro'. 

475. Local passive with mk-. 

Nimamasdan kd mul4 sa banda ^ itd na\) bintAna' ag bdhay 
ni Ali ^) Mary4. / get a view of Mistress Maria's house from this 
side of the window. Pagigdtan mo ag iyo ^ kwalta sa buls4 pag- 

35 luwas mo sa Majrnila^ at na^ hwag ka ^ m^akdwan. Look care- 
fully to the money in your purse when you go to Manila, so as not 
to get robbed. Nipasukan nya sa kwJirto a^ magnandkaw. In 
entering the room he came upon the thief. Niputulan ku na^) ta- 
bid ao k4tyaw. / managed to cut the game-cock's spur. Nipiipu- 

40 tulan ko na na^ p41oo a^j k4tyaw. / am succeeding in cutting off 
the game-cock's comb. Mipuputulan daw ny4 na^ ma^a p41oQ 
a^ ma^a k4tyaw nya 5 pa^sAbo^. He will nuinage to cut off the 
combs of his pit game-cocks, he says. Nisagasaan na^j trdn ao isa 

Digitized by 



X) t&o. A man got run over by the train. Ntisakyan n&min eq 
bexika ni Hw^. We happened to get into Juan's canoe. Ag ka- 
m^t&ya Xi matagpu&n na^ isa q magnan4kaw ay l&gi x\ hindf ma- 
bute. The death a robber meets is usually not good. Bak& mu 
5 m&tamian aQ ulu nag b&ta^ See that you don't hit the child's 
head (and disfigure him). 

Similarly: balita^ bu^bs, damdJim, datix)> gustby intindi, ka- 

mit, kulipol, ligtas, milay, pigil, tanim, tulog, tump^k, tuto, wisik. 

(a) With contraction of prefix and initial: mal&man (41am). 

10 (b) Accent shift lacking: njimataan (mati). 

(c) Extra accent shift is due to the root: Kamuntf na^ mk- 
tamaan na^ kanya x) pnkdl a^ b&ta^. He nearly hit the chUd with 
his throw. Bakk mu m4tama4n aQ b4ta^ See that you don't hit 
the child. So also: n^lam&n (alam). 

15 476. Local passive with mi-pag-: Napaghihinalian na^ ka- 

pitan a^ mabait na si Hw4n. Even honest Juan faUs under the 
mayor's suspicion. Njip^paghinal&an nila si EulJis sa pagkawal4 
na^ al&has. They are capable of suspecting Nicolds in connection 
with the disappearance of the jewelry. Mapapaghinal&an ka x) ka- 

20 sabuw4t naQ ma^a sundalo sa bund6k, kapag hindf ka tumahimik 
sa b4hay. Tou wUl risk suspicion as having connection udth the 
soldiers in the mrountains, if you do not stay quietly in your house. 
Similarly: 41am, bint^Q. 

(a) Extra accent shift (plural) : m4-pag-alam-an. 

25 477. Local passive with ma-pa^-; the only example lacks ac- 

cent shift: n4-paQ-agin41do-han. 

478. Local passive with ma- from underlying word with ka- 
(cf. § 398) : nakagalftan, m&katuwa^. 

(a) with pagka-, corresponding to an active with magka- 
30 (§ 405) : mapagkalipumpunan (lipumpon). 

479. Special static words with mak4- are formed from nu- 
merals in the sense of so many times: mak44nim six times; mak4- 
law4 twice; mak41ima five tim^s; mak4siy4m nine tim^s. So: ma- 
k4il4n several times. 

35 Prom phrases, the higher numbers: makasa-m-pu^ ten times. 

With irregularities: mak4itld, makayitlo three times; ma- 
k44pat, makaipat four times. 

Beduplicated : mak41ilfbo a thousand times. 

4. The prefix pa-. 

40 480. The general sense of the prefix pa- is to denote some- 

thing caused or ordered to undergo such and such an action. With, 
accent pa- an increase of the action is expressed. 

Digitized by 


455] MORPHOLOGY 299 

(1) Simple static forms. 

481. The root with prefix pa- denotes an object or person 
ordered, caused, or allowed to undergo such and such an action. 
The person caused to undergo may be the same as the person or- 
5 dering or allowing. 

Aq paakyjtt ni Hw&na na puno na^ kakaw ay ai] nasa sulok 

nag bakuran. The cocoa-tree Juana ordered climbed is the one in 

the comer of the yard. Ag panyo iQ ito ay paalaAla Sa &kin niy 

Ali Maryi sa an4k nya 5 dalaga. This handkerchief is a sou- 

10 venir to me from Aunt Maria which she sent by her daughter. 

Inihandd na^i 4mi x\ kasera aQ atsara q papaya upag siya n4mi g 

magi^i pa4yap. Our landlady served some pickled papaws for us 

to use as condiment. Pabalik ni Hwan ao libru rj ito. Juan sends 

this book back. ltd ag pahdti^ isa &kin ni Pedro. This i^ what 

15 Pedro ordered me to deal out. Aq maga tubd ito ay paputol sa 

4kin ni Pedro. Pedro ordered me to cut this sugar-cane. A^i tao 

^) it6 BJQ pasakay ni Hw4n sa karumata ko. This is the man whom 

Juan asked me to take into my carriage. Ag binasa nif Hwa g 

kautusin ay patiwag nag kura. The ordinance Juan read was 

20 given out for proclamation by the priest. Ag b&hay na yto y pa- 

tay6 ni Hwan. Jua^i had this house buUt. Patlpon ni Hwin sa 

dWn ag maga ny6g na ito. Juan ordered me to gather up these 

cocoamits. Ag pauwe ni Hwin sa kanya g ina ay isa rj mainam 

na sigsig. What Juan sent home to his mother was a beautiful 

25 ring. 

As conjunctive attribute the word with pa- may express man- 
ner : ag dak g pabalik sa Ballwag the road back to Baliuag. Pah&gis 
nya g iniyabot sa akin ag akl&t. He handed me the book by toss- 
ing it. Pap&sok sya g lumJil&kad sa gitn& nag b&hay. He was 
30 goi7ig farther in toward the inside of the house. Pasakiy sya g 
lumukso sa kab&yo. He jumped on the horse as if mounting to 
ride. Nag mahulug ag b4ta^ sa kahoy, ay paupo sya g lumagpik 
sa liipa^ When the boy fell from the tree, he landed on the 
ground in a sitting position. Paurog sya i) lum&kad. He went 
35 backwards. 

With movements pa-, reflexive, is often weakened to a mere 
indication of direction: Paakyit sa punu nag kahoy ag uggo' 
nag sya y abutan nag lobo. The monkey was just clinibing the 
tree, when he was overtaken by the wolf. Pabalik si Hw4n. Juan 
40 is going back. Patugo si Hwin sa b4ya-g-BalIwag. Juan was 
headed for the town of Baliuag. 

Similarly: &lam, bigli^ bul6g, gawa^ hirag, kfilat, l&gi^ 
lala^, punta, sigaw, tigo', takb6, talugko^, tayo^, tuloy. 

Digitized by 



(a) Prom a derived word: paitaas (itais, § 373). 

(b) The peculiar meaning is weakened in some words: a^ 
pa4ga a kind of rice which matures early, a^i pakin&ba^) profit, ad- 
vantage, a^ palab&s a theatrical performance, a^j paligo^ a hath, 

5 aQ pamagat an appellation, a nicknams. So from: baQo^, basa, 
bayd, bigit, da&n, dusa, h&yag, hintulot, Ifikad, Ifgid, lugit, sfikit, 

(c) With retraction of accent and contraction: p&no (and). 

(d) Irregular: Aq pagk&paroon k6 sa btebol ay paub&ya^ 
10 na^i &ki x) gurd^ My going to the basebaU game was by permission 

of my teacher (b&ya'). 

482. pa- (1) is made from barytone roots when they express 
manner, or, more especially, direction : A^) ba^ki' ay hindi paaydn 
sa flog. The boat is not headed ivith the stream. Iniwan nya q 

15 paharaQ sa daan a\) kariton. He left the wagon blocking the road. 
PahariiQ nya ]g inih&gis sa flog a]g puno-Q-s&giQ. He threw the 
banana tree crosswise into the river. Ag paglak^ nag 14mat nao 
piflg^ ay pahat^^ The increase in the crack of the dish is going 
towards halving it. A^ bufla x) it6 y pahat^^ kim mapir&so pag- 

20 kahindg. This fruit goes into halves when it breaks on ripening. 
Similarly: Ifliim, putol. 

(a) The accent shift is due to the root and the value of the 
formation is as in § 481, in: A^) paabdt mo j} sulat ay tinaggip 
ko. / have received the letter you sent to me. Si Hwan ay isa \) 

25 bata j} pabaya'. Juan is a neglectful boy. 

(b) The accent shift is like that of a root word in: Paligu 
na ag maga b&ta^ The children are bathed now (pa-ligo'). 

483. pa- r, as explicit plural : see Abot. 

484. pa- D. . The action is repeated at short intervals ; the 
30 reflexive value is frequent. Sya y lumal4kad na pahint6-hint6^ 

He goes on, stopping every little while. Pamall-mali^ ag kanya xj 
pagbilaQ. His count contains repeated errors. Alam nyk ag ma^a 
pasikot-sfkot sa bdya-^-Baliwag. He knows all the ins and outs of 
the district of Baliuag. So from: iyik, ligid, minsan, pasiyil, 
35 tiilog. 

(a) Accent shift is due to the root: Patulog-tulog at pagied^j- 
gisiQ siya. He sleeps and wakes by fits and starts. PatawA-tawa 
at paiyAk-iyak siya. She giggles at one moment and weeps the next. 

485. pa-pa- has durative-iterative meaning: Papaalis sya 
40 nag akd y dumatiQ. He was just going away when I arrived. Pa- 

pauroQ fifya g lumal&kad. He was going backwards. So from 

Digitized by 


457] MORPHOLOGY 301 

(a) pap&no (ano) seems equivalent to p4no (§ 481,c). 

486. As appears in the example of paligo^ above (§ 482,b), 
the forms with pa- are apparently capable of all the modifications 
that are found in simple roots: Thus: 

5 (a) with prefix paQ- (§ 347) : Pa^pak&in sa b4ta^ a^ g&tas 

na it5. This milk is for the children's food. Paopak4in sa pana- 
uhin ax) pinatay ko xj tupa. The sheep I have slaughtered is for 
serving to the guests. PaQpatuk^ sa man6k a\) p&lay na it5. These 
rice-grains are to he given to the chickens to pick (tukjt^ the beak 
10 of a fowl). So from: diWit, llgo^ 

(b) with ka- B (§ 400) : Eapjipaputol ko pa 14maQ naQ 
ma\)a k&hoy na it6. / have just had this firewood cut. 

(c) with ka-pag- R (§ 400,a) : Eapagplipaputol ko l&ma^ 
na^ silt kay Hw4n. / have just ordered Juan to cut up the iam- 

15 boo spines. 

(2) Normal transients, abstracts, and special static words. 

487. The root with pa- is sometimes used as a transient con- 
tingent punctual, with the value of a reflexive passive ; more com- 
monly the form with ma-pa- (§ 506) fulfils this function. There 

20 are three types: 

(a) Genuine reflexive passive: Pa4but ka sa ma^a nagi^sih&- 
bul sa iy6. Let yourself be overtaken by your pursuers. Paakyat 
kk kay Hwan sa itaas na^ kahoy. Ask Juan to take you up into 
the tree. Twi q papasuk ako sa sine sa i&ki j\ kuya]g, ay nai^sir&an 

25 ag mdkina. Every time I ask my oldest brother to take me to the 
moving-picture show, something goes wrong with the machine. So : 
kasal, ligaw. 

(b) Reflexive of interest: one who orders that something un- 
dergo such and such an action for him: Paakyat ka kay Hwin na^ 

30 isa bufla-o-nydg. Ask Juan to climb for a cocoanut for you. 

(c) Reflexive of motion; the pa- has faded value; thus are 
used the local equivalents of the demonstrative pronouns and a few 
other words. Parini ka. Come here. Tuwi ^ aku y paroon sa 
kanya 5 b&hay ay hindi ku sya inaabutan. Every time I go to his 

35 house, I fail to find him in. 

(d) If the pa- is accented, the action is more intense: Pii&ga 
ka nao pagparito. Be very early in your coming here. 

(e) A contingent durative is formed with pa- R. (a) Paaak- 
yat ak6 kay Hwjin sa italLS na^ k&hoy. / shaU ask Juan to take me 

40 up into the tree with him. Pap4p&sok akd sa sine sa &ki x) k6ya\). 
/ shaU ask my brother to take me to the moving-picture show, (b) 

Digitized by 


302 TAGAIiOG TEXTS [458 

Pa&akyat akd kay Hwan nag isa x) bu]ga-Q-ny6g. / shall ask Juan 
io climb for a cocoanut for me, Papuputol ak6 na^ buh6k kay 
Hwan. / shdll a^k Juan io cut my hair. 

488. For the reflexive of motion (§ 487,c) a set of transients 
5 and an abstract are formed with -um- and pag-. These also are 

equivalent to the forms with ma-pa- (§ 506). 

(a) Eegularly from the four roots serving as locals of the 
demonstrative pronouns. Pumarini ka! Corns here! Pumarine 
ka sa &ki Q tabi. Come close here to my side. 

10 Mad&la\) a^ pagparito nag ma\)a bala^. Locusts come here 

but rarely. Piho ako ^ p&parfto sa alasigko. / will surely come 
here at five o'clock. 

P&pariyan s&na kaml, d&tapuwat nagkarodn kami na^ malaki 

]g kaabalahan, kanyjt hindf kami n&tuloy. We were coming to you, 

15 but we had so much trouble thai we did not carry out our intention. 

Pagparo5n ko ay sasabihin ko sa kany4 aQ ibinalit4 mo. 

When I get there I shall tell him what you have told me. Kita x) 

dalawA ay p&pai^n sa tey&tro. We two are going to the theatre. 

(b) Occasionally from lo6b: pumalo5b. 

20 (c) Also the abstracts pagpalfgo^ pagpanaog; these form the 

transient with ma- from the root (§ 441) ; and pagpatu^o, which 
forms its transient with -um- from the root, 
(d) Plurals: magsipaligo^ nagsisipan&og. 

489. mag-pa-, pag-pa-pa-. Active with mag- from the root 
25 with pa- denotes one who causes, orders, or allows such and su^h 

an action to be performed on something else or (reflexiuely) on 

Nagpa&yap a^j &mi xi kas6ra. Our landlady served a relish. 
Si Hw&n ay nagpabdya^ sa kanya g turjkulin. Ju^n grew lax 

30 about his duties, Nagpaby4y si Hwin na^j isd4' sa kanya ^) pa- 
laisd&an. Juan had some fish put into his fishpond. Aq mediko 
a\) nagpaginhawa sa m4y saldt. The doctor m/ide the patient feel 
comfortable. Nagpagupit ako sa barbero. / had the barber cut 
my hair. Ag pagpapagupit ko sa barbero j] si Hw^ ay hindl ko 

35 lubhi X) gustd. / donH like very much io have my hair cut by 
barber Juan. Pardti aQ ma^a pagpapah&ra^ ni Andrds sa maga 
tao X) nagldlakad. Andres often orders travellers to be held up. 
Si P6dro ay nagpah&te sa fikin nag p41ay. Pedro had rice dealt 
out to me. Ag k^tiwala y sy& ]g nagpahdti nag p&lay sa maga 

40 kasam4. It was the agent who ordered rice distributed to the 
field-workers. Aq pagpapah&te nag kMiwala sa maga lariyd sa 
ma]ga magkak&pit-b&hay ay hindi iniyutos nag paginoon nya q si 
Hwan. The agent's having bricks distributed among the neigh- 

Digitized by 


459] MORPHOLOGY 303 

tors was not in accordance tuiih the orders of his master Juan. 
Sya y nagpahfkaw sa kanya ^ alila^. She had her maid put her 
earrings on her. (hfkaw an earring). Si P6dro ay nagp^pahi^i. 
Pedro is taking a rest (literally: allowing himself to breathe). A^ 
5 ink y nagpahnbM (or: nagpahubad na^ damit) sa kanya q anak. 
The mother ordered her daughter to undress her. Sya y nagpa- 
k&in naQ gulay sa maga panauhin. She served vegetables to the 
guests. Sya y nagpipakas^ra. She keeps a boarding-house. Sya 
y nagp^palabas na]g lam6k. He is driving out the gnats. Nagp&- 

10 palab&s nag teydtro a^ s£lm&ha-Q-6pera. The opera company is 
producing a play. Nagpaligo si Hwjin naQ kab&yo. Ju^n bathed 
some of the horses, ag pagpapaligo^ the bathing something or some- 
one. Nagpaputol si Hwan na^ labd^. Juan had some bamboo 
shoots cut. Nagpapaputol kami nag kahoy. We are having some 

15 wood cut. Ajq pagpapaputol nya sa Ints^k nag buhok ay hindf 
sinunM nitd. When he ordered the Chinaman to cut his queue, 
the latter did not obey. A^ pagpapasakiy sa tr^n ni Hwan nag 
maija kam4tis ay hindi nautlis b4go lumdkad a^ tr^n. Juan had 
not finished having his tomatoes loaded on the train, when the traiii 

20 started. Si Hwana ay nagpas&kit nag mar4mi \) ma^liligaw sa 
kany&. Juana caused grief to many who wooed her. Si Hwana 
ay nagpasukl^y sa kanya o alila*. Juana ordered her maid to 
comb her hair for her. Ag pagpapasundti nya sa akin sa alila' ay 
ikinagdlit ko. His ordering me to fetch the servant made me 

25 angry. Sya y nagpapatalim nag isa o gulok. He is sharpening a 
bolo. Nagpat&wag ako na\) is& q kasam^. / had a workman 
called. A\) pagpapatawag ko sa ma^a alfla ay hindi sinun5d nag 
b4ta iQ si Hwjin. Little Juan did not obey my order to him to call 
some servants. Aq pagpapatawag nag kura sa 16yi ay hindi nk- 

30 tnluy, sapagkit binato nag maga t4o a^ magtatawag. The priest's 
order that the law be proclaimed was not carried out, for the crier 
was stoned by the people. Nagpatayo sya nag isa j} kubo. He had 
a hut buUt. Aq pagpapatay6 ni Hw4n nag isa g kubo ay hindi 
natdpus b&go sya natdwag sa pagsusunddlo. The hut Juan was 

35 having built was not finished before he was called to military ser- 
vice. Nagpatipid sya sa maga kasami nag kanila g pagkdin. He 
had his workers be sparing with their food. Nagpatipon si Hwin 
nag k&hoy sa kanya g maga kasama. Juan ordered his workmen 
to gather wood. Ag pagpapatipon ni Hwan sa maga kalabiw ay 

40 hindi sinunftd nag kanya g kitiw41a^ Juan's order that the cari- 
bou be gathered together was not obeyed by his overseer. Sya y 
nagpatotod sa usap ni Marj'i at ni Hw4na. She gave testimony 
in the lawsuit between Maria and Juana. Si Hw4na ay naparo5n 

Digitized by 


304 TAGAIiOG TEXTS [460 

sa 6km at siyi q nagpatoto6 na ikaw ay dumal6 sa isa q sabuQ^. 
Juana came to me and assured me that you had attended a cock- 
fight, Aq pagpapatotod nyi ay hindf tinaggap nag hnkom. The 
judge did not accept his testimony, Sya y nagpaupo' nag ila x) 

5 eskw^la. He had a few of the pupils sit down, Ag pagpapaupo 
nag maestro sa ma^a eskw^la ay hindl nila sinunod agad. The 
teacher's order to the pupils to sit down was not promptly obeyed. 
Magpauta^i ka na^j kwalta sa maga mahihirap. Lend money to the 
poor, Nagpauwi ba si Hw4n nag silya sa kanya o init — Hindi*. 

10 Ag kanya ipinauwS* ay isa g sigsiQ. Did Juan send a chair home 
to his mother? — No, he sent home a ring. 

Similarly: &bot, ala&la, balik, baon, daUi, dulas, dunoy, dusa, 
gaily, g41it, ganda, gawa', h4yag, hirap, huli, isip, iyak, kil&la, 
kin4bay, kintab, kita, kul6^ kumpisil, lagiy, lakad, laro^ layas, 

15 14yaw, limos, lipas, luto', magat, misa, pasok, sigla, siijkaw, sisid, 
tahol, tugtog, tulog, tulos, nlan. 

(a) Plural with magsi- (§ 386) ; nagsisipagpalimos. 

(b) From a derived word: Huwag kayo y magpaiimaga sa 
inyo pagsasilit4an. Don't let yourselves be overtaken by the 

20 morning in your conversation (umaga, § 358). 

(c) Boot with accent shift: Sya y nagpaabot naij siilat sa 
4kin. He had a letter handed to me, 

(d) The pa- is accented, expressing extreme degree of action ; 
from shifted root: Nagp4una si Hwan sa lakaran. Jua7i man- 

25 a{fed to get himself into the very first place in the walking-party. 
So from: iwan. 

(e) Doubled root, shifted: Nagp4una-un^ si Hwan sa laka- 
rin nag maga magkakasama. Juan got himself too far ahead in 
the boys' walking-party. 

30 (f) Special static word (of the kind in § 358,d) : ag magpa- 

pataw^g a town-crier, 

490. pa- (1) -in, p-in-a. The direct passive from words with 
pa- denotes the person ordered to do so and so, the thing caused 
to be so and so. 

35 Padal4r)in mo ay iyo y pagparito. Make your coming here 

infrequent, Pagka pinaputol ka nya nay k4hoy ay sumunod ka y 
agad. When he orders you to cut wood, do you obey at once, Pina- 
pupiitol namin nay tubo si Pedro. We are having Pedro cut some 
sugar-cane. Paputulin mo si Hwin nay kugon. Have Juan cut 

40 the cugon-weeds, Papuputiilin n4min kayo nay yantok. We shall 
ask you to cut some rattan. Pinatah^l ni Hwan ay kanya y 4so. 
Juan made his dog bark, Pinatalim nya it6. He made this sharp, 
Pinatay6 ni Hw^n sa kanya y p41ad ay kapatid nya y maliit na si 

Digitized by 


461] MORPHOLOGY 305 

Mary4no. Jtmn stood his little brother Mariano up on his open 
hand. Hindi ako pinatulog na;) pagtahdl nag &so. The harking 
of the dog kept me from sleeping. Patulugin mo ao b&ta^ Put 
the child to sleep. Pinaupu nya aQ ma^a eskw61a. He had the 
5 pupils sit down. Pinaupu ko a^) &K ^ bisita. / asked my visitors 
to be seated. 

Similarly: alls, balik, bill, butas, dito, hinto^, inom, kain, k&- 
pit, 14kad, Idyas, lipad, p&sok, tahjin, takb6, tawad, tulin, t^oy, 
untr, ydman. 

10 (a) With accented pk-: P&busugin md a\) ma^a Myop. Feed 

the animals till they have had enough. Pihampasin mo siya. Whip 
him harder. Hwag mb q piputiin arj pinta nag bahay. Don't 
paint the house too white. 

(b) pa- with accent shift: Pidalagin mo ao iyo g pagparito. 

15 Come here very rarely. 

491. pa-pag- (1) -in, p-in-a-pag-. The direct passive has 
pag- before the root when it corresponds to simple actives with 
characteristic mag- (§ 351). MapApahamak 14mag ag bata ij ito, 
kapag hindi n&tin pinapag4ral nag sap^t. This boy will turn out 

20 a mere good-for-nothing, if we do not make him study enough. 
Pinapaghubad narj ina ag kanya o maga anak. The mother or- 
dered her children to undress. Pinapagputol namin naij sagiy sina 
Hwan. We asked Juan and his people to cut bananas. Papagpu- 
tulin mo si Hwan nag buhfik. Tell Juan to get a hair-cut. Papag- 
25 puputulin nila kami nag kanila q marja kawayan. They wUl order 
us to cut all their bamboo. Pinapagsuklay ni Hw&na ag kanya g 
alila^ Juana told her maid to comb her (the maid's) hair. 
Similarly, from: bihis, hinto^, trab&ho. 
(a) From a derived word: Sya y pinapagkalatimba'. He was 
30 forced to do the well-btccket exercise (kalatimba', § 519). 
(b) With extra accent shift: papagtutuluyin (tuloy). 

492. With pag-: Par4ti g pinapaghahdrag ni Andres ag 
kanya g maga kampon. Andres often orders his compaydons to 
commit highway robberies. Papaghiramin mo si Pedro nag lubid. 

35 Have Pedro go and borrow some rope. Papamutulin mo nag damo 
si Pedro. Have Pedro cut grass. Papamumutulin sila ni Hwan 
nag damo. Juan will order them to cut grass. 

493. pa-pag-pa- (1) -in, p-in-a-pag-pa-. With both pag- and 
pa- preceding the root the direct passive with pa- denotes someone 

40 caused to cause something: Pinapagpatotoo nag tagapagtaggdl ni 
Andres ag t4o g si Mariy&no na syi g nakiklta sa nagyare. An- 
dres' lawyer called as a witness the man Mariano, who had seen 
the occurrence (cf. magpatoto6, § 489). 

Digitized by 



494. i-pa-, i-p-in-a-. The instrumental passive with pa- de- 
notes the object ordered, caused, or allowed to undergo such and 
such an action. 

Ipina&lam ko sa kanyji aQ maga bata^ / made known to him 
5 the departure of the children with me. Ipinaalis nila a^j h&ra^i na\) 
da4n. They ordered the obstruction of the road to be removed. 
A]g ipinadala m6 q sulat ay tina^gap ku na. / have received the 
letter you sent me. Aq sap&tos na may lap^ na suw61as na yit6 
ay syk 5 ipinagigamit na pagtayo' sa b4ta^. This flat-soled shoe 

10 is given children to be used in learning to stand up. Aq may&ma 
iQ taga iba b&yan na piparito ay ipinah4rao nag puno na^ tuli- 
san. The rich stranger who was going to come here was held up 
by order of the chief of the bandits. Ipinah4ti sa &kin ni P^dro a\) 
mansanas. Pedro ordered me to divide the apples. It6 y ipinahdte 

15 ni Pedro para sa akin. This was ordered by Pedro to be dealt out 
to me as my share. Isinakay sa tren a^ ipinahatid mo j} ma^a da- 
larjhita^ The tangerines you shipped were put on board the train. 
Ipinaisip nya sa ma^a eskwela ag f^tsa nag pagaAway nag maga 
Ruso at HapunSs sa Port-Artur. He asked his pupils to think of 

20 the date of the fighting between the Russians and the Japanese at 
Port Arthur. Ipakita mo ag dila' sa maggagamot. Show the doc- 
tor your tongue. Ipinapuputol ni Hwan ag maga k&hoy sa kanya 
g bakuran. Juan is having the trees in his yard cut down, Ipapi- 
ptitol ko ag maggas nag &ki g baro^. / am going to have the sleeves 

25 of my blouse cut off. Ipaputol mo, Hwan, ag iyo g kuk6. Eave 
your fingernails cut, Juan. Ag ipinasakay ni T&tay na maga suha^ 
sa trSn ay nagabulok sa daan. The grapefruit Father sent by train 
got spoiled on the way. Ipinasundu ko kay Hwan ag mediko. / told 
Juan to fetch the doctor. IpinatAwag ko sa allla' si Hwan. / had 

30 Juan called by a servant. Ipinatayo ni Hw^n ag b4hay na it5. 
Juan had this house buUt. Ipinatipid nya sa bata ag pagkdin nag 
lansones. He made the child eat sparingly of the lansones. Ipina- 
tipon ni Hwan sa kanya g katiwala' ag maga kalabaw. Juan had 
his agent gather the cartboti. Ipinatuluy nya ag pagkantii, k&hit 

35 na maigay ag mag& nakikinig. He went on with his singing al- 
though the audience was noisy. 

So: ahon, balik, baon, bilaggo', bitay, dapit, dusa, gamdt, 
gawa^, gupit, habol, h&yag, hinto', hintulot, kasal, kil&la, l&kad, 
libig, m4na, patiy, sakit, tApon, uwi^ 

40 (a) Different in meaning is the corresponding form from dito ; 

it is the primary instrumental passive corresponding to pumarito, 
etc. (§ 488) : Ag pagsakop niya nag tau g makasal&nan ay sya 

Digitized by 


463] MORPHOLOGY 307 

uyk ipinarfto. His saving of sinful man is what he came here 

(b) Accent shift is due to the root: Ipaal&m ka sa kanyi a\) 
aki ^ patutuouhan. Lei him know where I am going. Ipinaalam 

5 njk sa 6km a\) kanya X) nil61o5b. He made his intentions known 
to me. Ipinatuloy ni P6dro ao pagpapatayo nag b4hay. Pedro 
had them go on with the construction of the house. Similarly: 

(c) With pag- (cf. § 491) : ipapag&ral. 

10 (d) With pa- prefixed to the root, the instrumental passive 

with pa- denotes that ordered to he caused. The only example has 
radical accent shift: Ipinapatul6y ni Hwan sa kanya o kitiw41a^ 
aQ pagtatanim na]g ma]ga kasami. Juan had his agent order the 

#•• ^fi^ld'Workers to go on with the planting. 

15 495. i-pag-pa-, i-p-in-ag-pa-. When the relation of the object 

ordered to undergo an action is explicitly that of a thing given 
forth (§ 368), a kind of double instrumental passive is made by 
prefixing pag- to the pa- (cf. the explicit use of pag- in primary 
passives, §§ 369. 375) : Ipinagpah&te^ sa 4kin ni Pedro a^ palay. 

20 The rice was ordered by Pedro to be dealt out to me. A^ kwalta j} 
napagaginMdohan ni Hwin ay sya nyk q ipinagpasakiy sa tiyo- 
blbo sa kanya rj kapatid na maliit. Juan used his Christmas money 
to treat his little brother to a ride on the merry-go-round. A^ kau- 
tus^n ay ipinagpapat&wag nag kura. The law is bein^ called out 

25 by order of the priest. 

(a) With additional pa- (as in § 494,d) : ipinagpapadala. 
496. i-paki-pa-, i-p-in-aki-pa-. Before a word with pa- the in- 
strumental passive with paki- denotes the thing asked (as a favor) to 
be caused to undergo such and such an action. Hwag mo q ipakipa- 

30 putol ao puno-Q-k&hoy, d4tapuwat pakiputulin mo na mismo. 
DonH ask someone else to cut down the tree for me, but cut it down 
for me yourself. Ipakikipaputol ni Hwan sa iny^ ag ma^a tiniban 
sa kanya ]g bakuran. Juan will ask you to have the banana-stumps 
in his yard cut down. Ipinakipaputol nya kay Hwan ao maga 

35 damd sa bakuran. He asked Juan to have the grass cut in his yard. 

(a) The thing asked (as a favor) to be caused to do so and 

so: Ipinakipakdin 14maQ niya ag kanya Q an^k h4baQ sya y wala^ 

She asked someone else to feed her child while she was away. Ipina- 

kikipasuso Ifimag nya kay MaryA ag kanya x) anik, sapagkit wala 

40 sya j] g&tas. She is asking Maria to nurse her child for her, be- 
cause she has no milk. 

Digitized by 



497. pa- (1) -an, p-in-a- (1) -an. The local passive with pa- 
denotes that caused to undergo an action as local object. 

Paal4man mo sa kanya kwQ salin ka pdparon. Let him know 
where you are going. Pinaaauh^n ni Pedro a^ ma^a puno-g-ma^gi. 
5 Pedro smoked (i.e. warmed, so as to speed flowering) the mango 
trees. Pinabayian ni Hw4n a^j kanya ^ maga tu^jkulin. Juan neg- 
lected his duties. Pabayian mo syk. Leave him alone. Aq pag- 
patay sa ma^a magnan4kaw ay hindi pinarurus&han nag hnkom. 
The judge does not punish one for killing robbers. Pinahatian ako 

10 ni P6dro na^) p41ay sa kitiwila'. Pedro had the agent give me my 
share of rice. Pinahubaran nag ina a^ ma^a b&ta*. The mother 
had her children undressed. Pakiggin naw4 ninyo ao 4ki o pag- 
tawag. Pray give hearing to my caU. Pinaliliguan nag pag6Q ag 
flog. The turtle bathed in the river. Pinaliliguan nag babaye ag 

15 b&ta^ The woman was bathing the child. Hwag mo 5 pamalayan 
sa mar4mi na ikaw ay mar4mi q kayam4nan sa bahay, upag hwag 
k^ Q nak4wan. Don't let people know that you have many valuor 
bles in your house, lest you be robbed. Pinanaugan nya ag b4hay. 
He went down from the house. Pinaputtilan ni HwAn nag taiga 

20 ag kanya g maga bilk, upag hwag m4agkin nag iba g tao. Juan 
had the ears of his little pigs cut, so that they might not be inad- 
vertently taken by anyone else. Pinapuputulan ni Hwan nag bun- 
tot ag lahat nag kanya g maga manok. Juan has all his chickens* 
tails clipped (for identification). Paputulan mo nag kaunti^ ag 

25 raahaba mo g buhok. Have your long hair cut a little. Papuputu- 
lan ko nag buntot ag maga manok na b4go g bile. / shall have the 
tails clipped of the chickens I have just bought. Ag bagka g ito 
ay pinasakyin ko kay Hwan. I allowed Juan to ride in this canoe. 
Pinatun4yan sa 4kin ni Hwan na ikaw ay nagsusugal. Juan proved 

30 to me that you are gambling. Ano g banda ag kanila g pinatii- 
tuguhanf What direction are they headed forf 

So also: bendisiyon, dahi, hintulot, hirap, doon, kin4bag, ma- 
gat, mana, panhik, s4kit, tAbon, tig^, wala^ 

(a) Accent shift, due to the root: pabayaan, equivalent, how- 
35 ever, to pabayaan. 

(b) pa-: Paagdhan mo ag pagsulog. Get away very early. 
Painaman mo ag siilat. Write very neatly. Paitiman mo ag kulay 
nag tubig. Make the color of the water very black. Hwag mo g 
paputian ag pinta nag bahay. Don't put too much white into the 

40 paint for the house. 

(c) pa- also prefixed to the root: Pinapahatian ak6 ni Pedro 
nag p41ay sa katiwala^ Pedro told the agent to have me given my 
share of rice. Pinapahatian ni Pedro nag p41ay ag maga kasam^. 

Digitized by 


465] MCmPHOLOGY 309 

Pedro ordered that the laborers he given their share of rice, 

498. Special static words are formed with pa- and -an to de- 
note place or plurality of habitual causative action; barytone roots 
have accent shift of two syllables, sometimes optionally of one 

5 syllable : 

Ag maliit na s&pa q itd ay sya ]g pabiyayan ni Alfdnso naQ 
maliliit na isda q n&huhuli nya sa ilog. This little pool is where 
Andres turns loose the little fish he catches in the river. Aj} pa- 
la]guyan naQ ma^a pato ni Hw&n ay mal&lim. Juan's duck-pond i» 
10 deep. Aq kanila ^ patag&lan na^ pagsisid ay ginawa nila sa Si- 
bul. Their diving-contest took place at Sibol. 

bliq parusahan penitentiary; hell, ao p^ligu^n bathroom, bath- 

So also: piknmpisdlan, paaralan, pihayagan pahayfigan, pa- 
15 mahala^n pamahalaan. 

(a) Derived from these a transient and abstract in mag-: ag 
pagpapatagdlan a contesting for endurance. 

(3) Transients and abstracts with pa- and ka-. 

499. mag-pa-ka-, pag-pa-pa-ka-. The active with mag-pa- 
20 (§ 489) from words with ka- expresses a reflexive actor: Ag pag- 

papakahfrap sa paga4ral ay mdy ganti g p&la'. Exerting oneself 
at studies has its reward. Nagpakamatay si Lukas. Lucas commit- 
ted suicide. Magp&pakamatay si Lukas. Lticas wUl commit suicide. 
a^ pagpapakamatay the act of suicide. So also from : wala^. 

25 (a) From forms with ma-, in more intensive sense than mag- 

alone (§ 352,c) : Ag pagpapakamarunoQ serious effort at learning 

With irregularities of accent, as in § 353,a.b. : Sya y nagpaka- 
m&puri. He praised himself very much. Sya y nagpakamayabag. 

30 He boasted much. 

500. pa-ka- (1) -in, p-in-a-ka-. The direct passive with pa- 
ka- denotes something caused to be too much so and so: II wag md 
r) pakalalirain ag gawi rj hukay. Don't make the hole you are to 
dig too deep. Hwag mo i) pakalalalimin ag huhuk&in mo ii balon. 

35 Don't make the well you are going to dig too deep. Pinakalfilim 
ni Hwan ai] hukay. Juan made the ditch too deep. 

(a) The form with p-in-a-ka- occurs as special static word: 
pinakamahal most expensive, dearest; pinakamura cheapest. 

(b) More commonly from words with ma- (§ 454) : Si Risal ay 
40 sya rj nagig pinakamarunog na tao sa kapulua-Q-Pilipinas. Rizal 

was the most learned man in the Philippines, pinakamalakas 

Digitized by 



strongest; pinakamalinis cleanest. So from: buti, h&ba^ halagi, 
husay, kfnis. 

501. i-ki-pa-, i-k-in-a-pa-. The instrumental passive with 
i-ka- (§ 417) from words with pa- expresses the thing or circuni' 
5 stance caiising someone to be made to do so and so. Ikinlipaalis sa 
kany4 sa b&hay ni Hw4n a^ kanya tq pa^iiQumit. His petty thiev- 
ery caused him to be ordered to leave Juan's house ^ to be dismissed 
from Jvun's house. Ikinap&paalis nila sa kany4 a^) kanya fl pinag- 
gagawa q katampalasanan sa ma^a h&yop. His constant cruelty to 

10 the animals is forcing them to dismiss him. Aq kaibigan nya q 
mituto ay sya nya -q ikin&paroon sa Esp&nya. His desire to get 
an education is what m^ade him go to Spain. Bak& mo ikjtpah&mak 
afl iyo fl pagparo6n. / am afraid your going there may cause you 
to be unfortunate. Ikapapahdmak nya a^) kanya ^) pagsusund41o. 

15 His military service wUl cause him to fall into bad ways. 

(a) With pag- either before or after the ka- a voluntary actor 
is implied who is caused to make someone or something do or be 
so and so. Aq ipinagkapasakJLy ni Hwan sa kanya ^ m4y sakit na 
kapatid sa tr^n sa lugar na^ sa karumata ay aq katulinan na^ 

20 trfen. What made Juan have his brother ride on the train rather 
than in a carriage was the speed of the train. Nagpaisip sya sa 
kanya q ma^a eskwela nag maga paraa q ik&pagpapidak^ nil^ sa 
kanila q akl&tan. He had his students think of means that would 
help them to mxike their library (get) larger. 

25 502. pa-ka- (1) -an. Local passive with pa- (§ 497) from a 

word with ka- (§ 398) : pinakawaRn was allowed to go free. 

503. ka-pa- (1) -an. Local passive with ka- (§ 419) from a 
word with pa- (§ 481) : kapipatuguhan the place one will be 
headed for. 

30 (a) Static words with ka-pa- -an are forms with ka- -an from 

words with pa- : 

With S (§ 421) : Si Hwan a^) kap^tagdlan ni Mary&no sa 

pagsisid sa tubig. Juan contends with Mariano in staying under 

water as long as possible. 
35 With S (1), (§ 423) ; accent irregularly placed: Ag b4ta g si 

P6dro sltq sya tq kJipakitAan ni Maryi nag kanyi ^ larwJin. Little 

Pedro is the child to whom Maria showed her toys and who showed 

her his. 

With (2), (§ 422) : Ag kapabayaan nya sa maga timkulin ay 
40 syk Q malaM nya q kapintdsan. His neglectfulness of his duties is 

his great fault. 

504. maka-pa-. With maka- in the usual meanings (§ 433 ff.) 
a few transients are made from words pa-. Nakapahi^ji sa Illim 

Digitized by 


467] MORPHOLOGY 311 

aQ maga kalaMw. The caribou rested in the shade (irrational 
actor). Bay&an mo q makapahi^a ag ma^a dalk mo tq kalab&w 
h&ga ka bumalik sa biikid. Let the caribou that brought you rest 
before you go back to the country, Makapapahiga n^ ag ma^a 
5 h&yop bago sya dumati^. The caribou will have rested before he 
arrives. So from : doon, lIgo^ 

505. Commoner is maka-pag-pa- (corresponding to mag-pa-) ; 
the abstract has pagkapa-. Nakapagpaptitol na ak6 nag k&hoy na 
g^Lgamitin ko sa boo g tagul^n. / have already had wood cut for 

10 the entire rainy season. Si Lflay ay nakikapagpaputol nag kahoy 
sa alUa ni B[Ika^ LHay has permission to order Rika's servant to 
cut the wood. Hindi ako makapagpaputol nag tubo kay HwJto^ 
sapagkat mar&mi sya g trab&ho sa ib^. / cannot have Juan cut 
sugar-cane, because he has already too much work to do for other 

15 people. Makakapagpaputol ak6 nag labog, kug iyo g gusto. / can 
have some baniboo-shoots cut, if you unsh. 
So from : bill, kinis, t&pon. 

506. The passive with ma- from words with pa- varies in 
meaning, owing chiefly to the various values of words with pa-. 

20 (a) Genuine passive: Hindi nya napahindg ag mag a s&gig. 

He did not succeed in getting the bananas to ripen. Mapahihiram 
mo ba ako nag lima g piso g gintd T Can you let me borrow five 
dollars gold? Napap&sok ko sa kurM ag maga kalabaw. / suc- 
ceeded in bringing the caribou into the corral. Napat&talim ni Pe- 

25 dro ag mapurol na gulok. Pedro is able to sharpen dull bolos. So 
from: alls, punti, s4boy, t61og. 

(b) Reflexive passive: Ag m4y sakit ay napadapa^ sa maga 
nagaal4ga sa kany&, sapagkat sya hindf makakilos. The sick man 
had the people who were caring for him lay him on his face, be- 

30 cause he could not move, Napagisig si Hwan sa kanya g kapatid 
sa 6ras nag alaskw4tro nag um&ga. Juan had his brother wake 
him up at four o'clock in the morning, Napap&sok ako sa sine sa 
4ki g kuyag. / asked my oldest brother to take me to the moving- 
picture show, Mapapip&sok .... / shall ask to be taken in, 

35 Sila y napatutulog. They are asking for help. So: alam, hatid, 

(c) Reflexive of interest: Napaakiyat ako kay Hwan nag isa 
g buga-g-nyog. / asked Juan to climb for a cocoanut for me. Na- 
paputol sili nag k4hoy. They asked to have wood cut for them. 

40 Napapuputol ag maga anik nag kanila g kuk6 kay Nfinay. The 
children ask Mother to cut their fingernails. Napapuputol ako nag 
gagawi g plpa kay Hw4n. / am asking Juan to cut me some wood 
for a cigarette-mouthpiece. Napatilid ako nag tubo kay Nanay. 

Digitized by 



/ asked Mother to slice me some sugar-cane, 

(d) Movement: Napabiflit sya sa malaki fl pafldnib. He got 
into a very dangerous situation. Naparine sa tabi k5 a^ b&ta^ 
The child came up close to me, Ax\ magkaybiga q si Pedro at si 
5 Mary&no ay naparoon sa Maynlla^ The two friends, Pedro and 
Mariano, have gone to Manila. Sya y napa6o. He assented. So 
from: dito, loob, sal&mat, tu^o. Also from the derived word lu- 
w4san: napaluw4san. 

507. Instrumental passive only in : maipabaril. 

10 508. Passive with mk- (§ 463 ff.) from words with pa-. Bu- 

mitiw aQ b&t& sa lubid, kany& n&parap4^ aq kanya q kahatakan. 
As the child let go of the rope, the one who was putting against 
him fett on his face. Niparito si Hwan sa kanya ^) pagtatago^ sa 
ma^a tikt^k. Juxin happened to corns here in his hiding from the 

15 spies. NApiparito sya fl madalas. He often gets round here. Mi- 
paparfto raw sya sa b&ya fl ito. He wiU get round to our town, he 
says. Napah4mak sya sa ginaw& nya q pagsusugM at pagsasaboQ. 
He became good-for-nothing through his gambling and cock-fight- 
ing. Napapah&mak a^ b&ta q si Hw4n, dahilan sa lubds na pag- 

20 papalayaw sa kany4 nag kanya q ma^a magulaq. Little Juan is 
getting spoiled through his parents' complete indulgence. Hwag 
k& Q duwAg, Hwan, at na^ hwAg ka q mapah&mak 14maQ sa iyo q 
pagsusund41o. Don't he a coward, Juan, so that you may not 
merely come to misfortune through your military service. Mkj^- 

25 pah4mak lama^ a^ b4ta ^ ito, kapag hindi n4tin pinapagaral naQ 
sapat. This boy will turn out a good-for-nothing, if we don't make 
him study enough. Hindi napahindg na maaga ni Hwan ag ma^)a 
s4gi^). Juan didn't get his bananas ripe early enough. Hindi nya 
n£ipahindg a\) ma^a s4giQ, sapagk4t naubus agad. He did not get 

30 his bananas ripe, because they were all eaten up too soon. Si Pe- 
dro ay napapahiga. Pedro is resting. Napatayo si Pedro dahilin 
sa kanya X} pagkagulat. Pedro leaped to his feet in his surprise. 
Dahil4n sa kanya tq pagkigulat ay napaupu siya. In his surprise 
he fell into his chair. 

35 So from: gulat, halakhsik, hitsa, iy4k, kasal, lagay, lagpak, 

luksd, sig4w, tindlg. 

(a) Plural with -a^)-: Ag ma^a kalabaw ay naQ^pApahiga. 
The caribou are resting. So: naQapamaQha^ 

(b) Accent shift: NlipagisiQ si Hwan sa kalakas&n na^ pu- 
40 tok na^) baril. The report of the gun was so loud that Juan woke 

up. So: tiwa. 

(c) Abstract, of movements, pagkapa-. Aq d4hil naq kanya 

Digitized by 


469] MORPHOLOGY 313 

\) pagkiparlto ay a\) paniniQil. What brought him here was the 
collecting of debts. A^j pagk^pallgo nafl kab4yo ay marumfi. The 
horse has not been bathed clean. So from : alfla^, dodn. 

509. Instrumental passive, mii-i-pa-, from: dal&, kil&la, kfta, 
5 tulos. 

510. Local passive, m^pa- (1) -an. Mlipaparas&han kitiL / 
shaU have to punish you. So : kiiiig. 

511. Special static words with na-pa-ka- denote something 
having a high degree of such and su^^h a quality. Aq s&kit na iyo 

10 Q ipinardrusa sa &kin ay n&pakabigat. The grief you cause me is 
very severe. N4pakabtite a^ kanya q pagkat&kot. Her fear reached 
a high degree. Aq sakiy na tao na^ kuts^ro sa kamm&ta ay na- 
pakatabi^ The m>an the driver has taken into his carriage is very 
stout. So also: ikli^ 

15 (a) From a phrase: n4pakawala-Q-hiy&^ 

5. The prefix pati-. 

512. pati- before a root expresses that such and such a move- 
ment (of one's own person) is suddenly performed. 

513. With mag- it denotes the voluntary performer. Bary- 
20 tone roots seem to have accent shift. Ag bata y nagpatihigtl* sa 

sahig. The chUd suddenly lay doum on the floor. Nagpatihul5g si 
Pedro sa bint&na^ sa isa q pagsumpog nag kanya ^ pagkal6ko. 
Pedro suddenly threw himself from the window in an attack of his 
madness. Nagp^patihulog si Hw^n sa hagd&nan ku^ sinusumpoQ 

25 na\) kalok6han, kaniya^ sya y itin&li nila sa isa q haligi na^ b&hay. 
They tied Juan to one of the posts of the house, because when he is 
assailed by a fit of insanity he throws himself down the stairs. 
Magpapatihulog daw sya mul& sa ituktdk nag kanya tq bUa^guan 
upag sya y makataanan. He says he u)iU throw himself from the 

30 roof of his prison so (w to make an escape. Sya y nagpatiluhdd. 
He suddenly knelt down. A^j pagpapatiluhod nag b&ta^ ay sya g 
nakasakit sa kanya g tuhod. The boy's throwing himself on his 
knees is what injured his knee. 

514. The passive with m4- denotes the involuntary performer. 
35 Napipatihigi^ a^) b&wat m4dulis sa lugar na itd. Every one who 

slips at this place falls on his back. Hwag ka q magpadulJLs, ssK 
pagkJtt bak4 ka m4patihiga^ Don't slide, for you might fall on 
your back. Sya y napatiluhdd. He fell, landing in a kneeling po- 
sition. N4patiupu sya sa kanya g pagk&dul4s. He fell into a sit- 
40 ting position when he slipped. NApapatiup6* a^j b4wat t4o g mag- 
daan sa lug^r na it5, dsjiil^n sa madulas na Itimot nag lupa^. 

Digitized by 



Everyone who comes through this place falls and lands in a sitting 
position, owing to the slippery moss on the ground. 

III. Irregular Derivatives. 

(1) Transients and abstracts of the particles sa and -gi^. 

5 515. The particle sa has transient forms as follows : 

(a) A normal transient: with p^-sa, p&-p^sa, nd-sa, n&-si-8a. 
N&sa simb&han sila. They are (were) at church. N&sasa simb&han 
silA nag ma^iy&re a^) stinog. They were at church when the fire 
occurred. Nag p&sa simb&han siUt. . . . When they went to 

10 church. . . . P&pasa simbihan silA. They wiU go to church. 

Plural: Na^)asa simbahan sila. They are (were) at church. 

(b) An accidental passive (of movement) : m&-pa-sa, m&-pa- 
pa-sa, n4-pa-sa-, n&-pA-pa-sa- ; abstract: pagk&-pa-sa. Na\) m&pasa 
simb&han sila ay malalim nk ag gabi. When they got to the church, 

15 it was already late at night. M4p&pasa simb4han siUt sa gabi. 
They wUl strike the church at nightfall, a^) pagk4pasa simb4han 
a chance coming upon the church. 

516. The (transient) forms of -gig are ma-gig, ma-gi-gig, na- 
gig, na-gi-gig; abstract: pa-gi-gig. Magpuputol daw nag buhdk 

20 ag Ints^k na si Y6g pagigig biny4gan nya. The Chinaman Yeng 
says he wUl have his queue cut when he gets baptized. 

(2) Odd affixes. 

517. ba- seems to appear in ba-lasig. 

518. hin-, with irregular nasalization of initials, in one sim* 
25 pie derivative: Ag kanya g himat&y ay hindi nalaunan. Her 

fainting-fit did not last long (matiy). -himagsik (bagsik) does not 
occur, but underlies many derivatives, especially maghimagsik 
(§352,c) and himagsikan (§377,a). Many such underlying forms 
can be postulated from the various transients with maghin- 
30 (§ 357,b). 

(a) With r: ag hintuturo^ the forefinger (turo^). 

519. kala- in ag kalah4te^ a half; ag kalatimba^ dipping on 
the heels and rising, hands holding opposite ears (as trick or im- 
posed as a punishment) , from h4ti^ and timbA^ a welUhucket; these 

35 have various further derivatives, see Index. 

520. kasig- having such and such a quality in common u)ith 
something else; hence partly equivalent with ka- : Kasigkulay nag 
aki g b4ro^ ag kanya g salawJl. His trousers are of the same color 
as my blouse. Ag b61a g itd ay kasiglaki nag itlog. This ball is 

Digitized by 


471] MORPHOLOGY 315 

the same size as an egg. Si Hw&n ay kasi^ipantay ni P6dro. Juan 
is of the same height as Pedro. 

521. mala- (Spanish ?) derogatory: ag mala8uts6t a young 
loiU, a half -grown hoy (literally : a had whistler) . 
5 522. pala- expresses extreme tendency to such and such an 

action : 

(a) pala- S -in, from oxytone roots: Sya y isa i) palabin- 
tagin. He is very distrustful. Atq ma^)a isda y palabulukin sa 
tag&raw. Fish easily spoU in the hot season, aq palalugkutin a 

10 melancholy person, palaputikin a fowl given to cackling, palasum- 
bu^in tattle-tale, palasutsutin one who is always whistling, pala- 
tuntunin one who is always trying to follow up his stolen property, 
palatuw&in palatw&in one who is easily amused. 

Prom root with shifted accent: palasakltin person who is al- 
15 ways getting sick. Irregularly: palahunlhin an animal given to 
neighing, chirping, etc. 

Lack of secondary accent: palaiy4kin a cry-hahy. 

(b) pala- (2) -in, from barytone roots: palagalitin a hot- 
head, palagisi^)in a poor sleeper, palagutumin one who is always 

20 getting hungry, palagulatin nervous person, palahilawin a kind of 
rice that is hard to cook through; Palaputulin ag maga tigtig nag 
walls na yto. The fibres of this hroom are very hrittle. palataku- 
tin a tim^orous person. 

(c) pala- -an the place for such and such a thing: ag pali- 
25 isdaan a fish-pond, palasigsigan the ring-finger, the fourth finger, 

pal&tuntunan a set of rules, rules of order. 

523. ta- in ta-gilid the side; with retraction of accent: -ta- 

524. tag- in names of seasons: tag&raw, taguliin, the two 
30 Philippine seasons; ag taglamig cold weather, the (American) 


525. taga- person whose duty it is to do so and so, especially 
upon some particular occasion: ag tagaalis na^) gwamisydn nag 
kabfiyo the one detailed to unharness the horses, tagabilag account- 

35 ant, counter, tagaikid sa gawaan nag lubid the one who rolls up a 
rope in the rope-factory; Ikaw ay tagainum 14mag. Tour joh here 
is only to drink; so: tagak&in one whose only duty is to eat. Taga- 
putol nag k4hoy ag katugkulan niya. He is delegated to cut wood. 
tagasulat the one who does the writing; tagatah^^ one who does the 

40 seunng. So from: hull, sulsi. 

(a) Withpag-: tagapagbigay, tagapagtaggftl. 

(b) With pag-pa- one whose duty it is to oversee the doing of 

Digitized by 



SO and so: a^ tagapagpaalis na^ tapdn naQ ma^a bdte head bottle- 
opener; tagapagpainum sa fiy^sta bartender at a fiesta; Isa g taga- 
pagpaini^ ay isa ^ tagapagbigay na^ inumln sa ma^a h&yop o 
maqa b&ta^ So: aq tagapagpak&in who gives food to anintdls or 
5 children, tagapagpaligo^ who bathes children or horses, tagapagpa- 
sulat head writer, tagapagpatotoo witness. 

526. tara-y tra- is felt to be a prefix in : ag t&o q tarabuko, 
trabuko a bald-headed person, felt as derivative from buko smooth, 
unripe cocoanut. 
10 527. -^ro (Spanish) as suffix of agent; final vowel (or vowel 

plus n or glottal stop) is lost: baqk^ro, sabuQ^ro, sip^ro (sip^ros, 
plural); from derived word: B^tipuneros (ka-tipun-an, § 423); 
from compound word: b&sag-ul6ro a brawler, ruffian (b&sag-ulo). 

(3) Pronoun forms. 

15 528. The various forms of the pronouns and objectivizing 

particles show some regular derivation. 

(a) n- with irregularities, for disjunctive forms: n-a^, n-i 
(si), n-ina n-ila (sini sila), n-ino (sino), n-ir6, n-itd, n-iy4n, n-o6n 
(iyon, yaon) ; n-iti (kiti), n-iyi (siya), n-ila (sili). Prom the 

20 prepositive form: n-&tin, n-&min, n-iniy6. 

Similarly, the particle nawa^, root iwa^ pity. 

(b) ka- for local and prepositive forms: ka-y (si), k-ini 
(sina) ; from the disjunctive form: ka-nino, ka-nit&, ka-niyi. 

25 (c) With si compare si-no, with a^, a-no. 

(d) Local equivalents of the demonstrative pronouns (treated 
as separate roots) : d-ine (irft), d-Ito (ito), d-iyan, d-o6n. 

(e) Words of manner with ga-: ga-&no, g&-no (and), ga-ydn 
(iy6n). From disjunctive forms: ga-nito, ga-niyan, ga-no6n. Cf. 

30 also g&ya Uke. 

Of similar formation : Ag butd nag hal&ma 5 it6 y gabtitil 
na^) pilay. The seed of this plant is as large as a grain of rice 
(btitil a kernel of grain). 

(f ) saan (for sa and T) is felt as a simple word. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 




Vol. Ill November, 1917 No. 4 

Board of Editors 

George T. Flom Wiluam A. Oldfather 

Stuart P. Sherman 

pubushed by the university of illinois 
Undeb the Auspices of the Graduate School 
Ubbana, Ilunois 

Digitized by 


Copyright, 1917 
By the University op Illinois 

Digitized by 









Digitized by 


Digitized by 









Digitized by 


Digitized by 



The formations with irregular aflSxes (515 flf.) have been omitted 
from this list. 

The following regular features have been ignored : 

(1) Prefixes beginning with n-; these are the actual-mode forms 
of prefixes beginning with m-, and are treated in the same paragraphs 
as the latter. 

(2) Forms with doubling or reduplication of the root; also those 
with accented reduplication (of root or prefix) expressing durative as- 
pect; these are treated in the same paragraphs as the corresponding 
forms without reduplication. 

(3) Secondary accent, when not peculiar to prefixes. 

(4) Variations in position of accent. 
The numbers refer to paragraphs. 

A. Forma without prefix. 

(1) No affix: 332. 336. 338. 341- 
346. 348. 358. 

(2) Suffix only: 
-an 31. 334,c. 374. 377-381. 
-anan 377,b. 
-han, -hanan see -an. 
-hanin, -hin see -in. 
-in 334,c. 359. 367. 
-inan 377,b. 
-nan see -an. 

the -in- ex- 

-nm see -in. 

(3) Infix only: 

-in- 334,b,l. 359. 365. 366. 
-in- -um- 359,a. 
-um- 348. 349. 358. 

(4) Infix and suffix: 
-in- -an 374. 
-um- -in 359,a. 

B. Forms with prefix, 
i- 31. 334,a,2.b,2. 368. 373. 
i- -in- 368. 


ika- 413. 416. 

ikfi- 417. 

ikapa- 501. 

ikapag- 418. 

ik&pagpa- 501,a. 

ikin . . . see \k . , 
presses actual mode. 

ini- see i- -in-. 

ipa- 494. 

ipag- 369-371. 

ipag- -an- 369,a. 

ipagka- 414. 415. 

ipagksipa- 501,a. 

ipagma- 370. 

ipagpa- 495. 

ipaki- 394. 

ipakipa- 496. 

ipakipag- 395. 

ipag- 372. 

ipapag- 394,c. 

ipin ... 566 ip . . .; fke -in- ex- 
presses actual mode. 

Digitized by 





ka- 31. 76. 77. 179. 183. 334,a,2. 

398. 400402. 
ka- 403. 

ka- -an 419.421-426. 
ka- -an 428. 430. 431. 
ka- -anan 423,b. 
ka- -anin 421,a. 
ka- -in- 412. 
k&ka- 399. 404. 
kamag- 398,a. 
kamag- -an 423,b. 
kamaka- 398,a. 
kapa- -an 503. 
k&pa- -an 503, a. 
kapag- 400,a. 486,c. 
kapag- 400,b. 
kapa^j- -an 421,b. 423,b. 
kapapa- 486,b. 
kay- see ka-. 
kina- 412. 
kina- -an 419. 
kina- -an 260. 503. 
kina- -anin 421,a. 
kinapa- -an 503. 
kuma- 404. 

ma- 438 flP. 444. 449. 454. 
mi- 463 flP. 469. 
ma- -an 451. 
mi- -an 475. 
ma- -in 457. 

mag- 34. 334,a,l. 350. 353-356. 358. 
mag- -um- 352,c. 
mag- -an 352^(1. 
mag- -in 352,d. 358,a. 
magka- 405. 408. 409,a. 
magka- 410. 411. 
magka- -an 427,a,c. 
magka- -an 430. 
magkaka^ 409. 
magkaka- -an 427,d. 
magkinika- 412ya. 
magma- 352,c. 353,a. 

magmi- 353,b. 

magmaka- 453,a. 

magpa- 489. 

magpa- 489,d»e. 

magpa- -um- 489,b. 

magpa- -an 498,a. 

magpaka- 499. 

magpakama- 499,a. 

magpakami- 499,a. 

magpapa- 489 f . 

magpati- 513. 

magsi- 385. 

magsipa- 488,d. 

magsipag- 386. 

magsipag- -an 386,b. 

magsipagka- 406. 

magsipagpa- 489,a. 

magsipag- 387. 

mki- 474. 

maipa- 507. 

maipa- 509. 

maipag- 450. 

maipaQ- 450. 

maka- 433 flf. 444. 453. 

maka- 458 flf. 469. 473. 479. 

mAka- 470,a. 

maka- -an 443. 454,c. 

mika- -an 488. 

makapa- 504. 

makapag- 445. 447. 

makapagpa- 505. 

makapaki- 473,a. 

makapag- 448. 

makapag- -in 448,b. 

maki- 390. 

makipag- 391. 

makipag- -an 391, a. 

makipagka- -an 427,b. 

makipag- 392. 

mag- 334,a,4. 357. 358. 

mag- 358,e. f. 

mag- -in 357,a. 

maga- 442. 

Digitized by 





ma^jA- 467. 

ma^a- -an 421,a. 

magagsi- 385,a. 

ma^agsipag- 386,a. 

magaka- 442. 

ma^aka- 442. 470,b. 

maqapa- 508,a. 

mapa- 506. 

mipa- 508. 

m^pa- -an 510. 

mapag- 446. 455. 

mapag- 471. 

mapag- -an 452. 

mapag- -an 476. 

mapagka- -an 488,a. 

napaka- 511. 

mapaQ- 454,c. 456. 

mapa^j- 472. 

mapaQ- -an 477. 

mitpati- 514. 

pa- 207. 481-484. 487. 

pk- 487,d. 515,a. 

pa- -an 497. 

pa- -an 497,b. 498. 

pa- -in 490. 

pa- -in 490,a,b. 

pag- 34. 274. 334,a,l. 348-356. 

pag. -an 352,d. 375. 

pag- -anan 375,b. 

pag. -in 352,c. 360-363. 

pag- -um- 352,c. 

pagka- 274. 404. 433,flf. 444. 453,b. 

pagka- 274. 458 flf. 469. 

pagka- -an 420. 

pagka- -an 429. 

pagkaka- 405. 406. 407,a,b. 

pagkaka- 410. 411. 

pagkaka- 470,a. 

pagkaka- -an 427,a. 

pagkakit- -an 430,a,b. 

pagkApa^ 508,c. 

pagkapag- 445. 447. 

pagkapag- 471. 

pagkapa^j- 448. 

pagkapag- -in- 448,b. 

pagmama- 352,c. 353,a. 

pagmama- 353,b. 

pagpa- 488. 

pagpapa- 489. 

pagpapA- -an 498,a. 

pagpapa- -um- 498,b. 

pagpapaka- 499. 

pagpapakama- 499,a. 

pagpapakamA- 499,a. 

pai- 481,a. 

paka- -an 502. 

paka- -in 500. 

paki- 389. 

paki- -an 396. 

paki- -in 393. 

pakiki- 390. 

pakikipag- 391. 

pakikipag- -an 391,a. 

pakikipagka- -an 427,b. 

pakikipag- 392. 

pakipag- -an 396,b. 

panu- see pa^-. 

pa^). 334,a,4. 347. 357. 

pa^j- -an 376. 

paQ- -an 383. 

pa\). -in 357,a. 364. 367,b. 

pa^)- -in 367,c. 

pa^aqa- -an 421,a. 422,a. 

pa^pa- 486,a. 

papa- 485. 

p&pa- 488. 

papa^ -an 497,c. 

papag- -in 491. 491,b. 

papagpa- -in 493. 

papaQ- 492. 

pan- see pa-. 

pin ... see p ... ; the -in- ex- 

presses actual mode. 
puma- 488. 

Digitized by 



The words are arranged by roots, in accordance with the speech- 
feeling, so far as ascertainable. The forms dine, dito, diyan, doon have, 
however, been given separate places. 

In using the index the sound-variations described in § 334 should 
be kept in view. The forms are given with fullest accentuation and 
vocalism (iy for y, uw for w after consonant), regardless of actual 
occurrence. For e see i, for o see u. Foreign r is under d, f under p, 
V under 6. 

The brief indication of meaning after each form ignores shades of 
meaning that would require long definitions; so especially factors of 
involuntary or completed action and of ability (ka-, maka-, ma-) and 
of accident or ability due to external causes (ka-, maka-, mk-). 

The references to occurrence have been limited by considerations 
of space; the numbers refer to page and line; when in heavy tyi)e, to 
paragraphs of the Grammatical Analysis. 

The following abbreviations are used : arch. : felt as archaic. C. : 
Chinese, disj,: disjunctive form. E.: English. excl,\ exclusive, td.: 
the same meaning. incL: inclusive, intr,': English definition to be 
taken in intransitive sense, loc: local, n. : name. pl,\ the Tagalog 
form is an explicit plural, prep. : prepositive. S. : Spanish^, ir. : Eng- 
lish definition to be taken in transitive sense. 

^Where S. words are, as genuine loan-words, more or less fully Tagalized, 
the S. is enclosed in brackets. In cases where Mr. Santiago is not conscious of 
this origin, it would have been more consistent to omit the indication, but it would 
be very difficult to single these out. 

a- see ano, a\). (23). um&aba\) is lying in wait 64 

abi ah 151(14). (41). nakaabig is on guard 48 

abaka S. hemp 237(37). (12). 

-ab&la: pagabfila a bothering ; see &bito S. vestment 98(20). 

Corrigenda, nagab&la made trail- ab^ynte - kuw&tro S. twenty- 

hie 239(29). kaabalahan trouble fourth 110(11). 

302(14). abubot belongings 118(23). 

-ab&Q: umabaQ watch for 226 -&bot (a) overtake: abutan he 


Digitized by 





reached 92(19). 299(38). inabu- 
tan was overtaken 52(42). 84(34). 
250(30). iniabutan is being 
reached 301(34). paAbot let one- 
self he overtaken 301(21). paa&bot 
pi. 46(11). nagpaibot let himself 
he overtaken 52(28).— (b) tuith ac- 
cent-shift; reach for, take: umabot 
reach for 231(5). 237(20). reached 
for 231(6). umaabot reaches for 62 
(14). pagabdt a reaching for 231 
(7). nagdabdt is handing 237(17). 
pagaabot a handing 237(19). ina- 
bot was taken 30(10) . in&abot is he- 
ing reached for 246(3). iyabot he 
handed 249(13). iniyabot was 
handed 30(13). 106(21). iniyd- 
abot is heing handed 249(12). 
kaabutan one of two who hand to 
each other 278(4). maabot he 
reached 286(28). madabot will he 
reached 20(27). naabdt was 
reached 286(27). pagkaabot a 
reaching for see Corrigenda, na- 
abot was reached 296(13). pag- 
kaabot a reaching for see Corri- 
genda, paabot caused to he haiid- 
ed 300(23). nagpaabot caused to 
he handed 304(21). ipinaab6t was 
caused to he handed 52(11). 

-&ga: um&ga morning 50(40). 
62(36). 66(25). 120(19). 163(23). 
190(24). 241(39). 262(5). inu- 
um&ga is heing overtaken hy morn- 
ing 245(42). magpaum&ga let one- 
self he overtaken hy morning 304 
(18). ag&han he done early 250 
(30). maaga early 312(27). pa&ga 
early rice 300(3). pMga he very 
early 301(36). p^g&han he done 
very early 308(36). 

agad soon 32(22). 42(31). 48 

(26). 265(1). agad-agid immedir 
ately 36(5). 48(37.40). 265(1). 

figaw that snatched 220(17). 
agiw snatched 222(16). umigaw 
snatched 226(24). infigaw was 
snatched 250(11). agaw&n a grah- 
hing together 260(3). pagaaga- 
win a scramhling 108(25). nagsi- 
sipagagawan are scramhling 108 
(24), naafigaw can he seized 40 
(8). maka&gaw seize 108(31). 

aginildo S. Christmas present; 
as n. 118(6). nipa^jaginilduhan 
was given as a Christmas present 
298(26). 307(21). 

4gos stream 16(3). uma&gos is 
streaming 44(42). 

aguwa-bindita S. holy-water 96 

&hhs snake 120(21). 

-ahit: pa^j&hit razor 232(17). 
nagdhit did shaving 167(2). ina- 
hltan was shaved 250(32). 

-&hon: umahon go up 116(18). 
went up 226(25). umaahon is go- 
ing up 110(20). a&hon unU go up 
263(26). pag&hon a going up 226 
(27). nagsi&hon went up pi. 
118 ( 13 ) . ipinaahon was caused to 
go up 120(16). 

ak&la^ opinion 20(8). 98(15). 
271. pagak41a psLUvkUsi^ thought 
16(9). 224(40). 226(1). nagaki- 
la' thought, planned 24(17). 50 
(13). inak&la' was thought 18 
(17.24). iniak&la^ is heing thought 

-dkap: naa4kap is emhracing 

-fikay (a) lead: umadkay is 
leading 22(31). in&kay was led 
26(36). (b) with accent-shift ina- 

Digitized by 





kky young of animal 102(20). 

Akin prep, and loc. of ako: my, 
me, by me 165. 169. 182. 

-akiyit: umakiyit climb 22(39). 
climbed 16(15). Aakiyat will climb 
22(36). pagakiyat a climbing 24 
(6). nagsisiakiy^t are climbing 
108(31). &akiyatin tvUl be climbed 
16(15). makaakiy&t be able to 
climb 108(28). makadkiy&t wiU be 
able to climb 22(37). maakiyit be 
able to be climbed 16(13). n&aki- 
yat got carried up 295(3). paa- 
kiyat ask to be climbed urith or 
for; caused to be climbed or climbed 
for; climbing up 106(14). 299(6. 
37). 301(22.29). pa&akiyat wUl 
ask to be climbed unth or for 
301(38). 302(1). napaakiyJit asked 
to be climbed for 311{31). 

aklat book 154(28). aklatan li- 
brary 210(12). See bahay. 

-aknifi*: inakmaan was prepared 
for 70(29). 

ako I 16(17). 152(14). 63. Cf. 
&kin, ko. 

Ako' person relieved 220(19). 
pa^ako^ 233(35). ma^j&ko' prom- 
ise 44(13). indko' was pledged for 
220(19). 243(31). ipina^&ko^ was 
promised 34(10). pagkapa^fiko^ a 
having premised 44(22). 287(29). 

ala&la souvenir, present 72 (37). 
221(3). pagala&la memory 116 
(24). alalahdnin be minded 104 
(33). ^alalahanin will be minded 
243(34). inialaila is being remem- 
bered 243(32). naala&la was re- 
membered 202(36). naala&la was 
recaUed 30(16). 72(23). 100(13). 
naialaila is remembered, miala&la 
be recalled 86(3). paala&la caused 

to be given as a souvenir 299(8). 
pagpapaalaila a causing to be re- 
membered 292(22). 

-alaga^: nag^l&ga^ t^ attending 
to 311(28). 

alag^d assistant 114(12). 

al&has (S.) jewelry 102(24). 

&lak u)ine, liquor 221(6). 

-alala see ala&la. 

-alam (a) know: mal&man be 
known 22(35). 298(9). malalAman 
will be known 42(37). nalfiman 
was known 26(32). nMM&man it 
known 24(32). mapagal&man be 
generally known 60(35). paalam 
causing himself to be known (ae 
leaving) 183(17). ipina&lam woe 
caused to be known (as leaving) 
32(9). 306(4). paal&man be made 
known 308(3). paAal&man wUl be 
made known 42(35). napaalam 
caused himself to be known (as 
leaving) 54(12) — (b) with accent^ 
shift: alam known 300(32). ma- 
kialara interfere 58(42). 264(18). 
pinakialaman was looked after 
265(32). 290(32). kaalim accom- 
plice 267(1) and Corrigenda, na- 
kaaalam knows 42(14). pagk&alam 
a knowing 82(9). 272(6). n^a- 
man got known 118(1). 298(14). 
mapagalaman get generally k7iown 
118(42). 298(24). ipaalam be 
given out to be known 307(3). ipi- 
naalam was given out to be knoton 

alasigko S. five o'clock 180(7). 

alas^s S. six o'clock 122(6). 

alaskuw&tro S. four o'clock 172 
(42). magaalaskuw&tro will be four 
o'clock 66(34). 

alastrfis S. three o'clock 66(32), 

&lat salty 218(37). kaalat kay&. 

Digitized by 





lat what saltiness 267(34). kaald- 
tan saltiness 267(27). 

-41ay: iniy&lay was offered 16 

&li aunt, madam 118(14). 151 
(36). 59. 256. magali auni and 
niece or nephew 242(1). 

alikabok dust 245(26). maalika- 
bdk dusty 289(1). 

alfla^ servant, domesticated 54 
(7). 62(32). alil&in be domestica- 
ted 106(40). pagkfipaalfla' a mak- 
ing a servant of oneself 104(2). 

alin which? 22(37). 48(18.25. 
36).97. alin-alinpZ. 97. 

alint&na in spite 277. inalint&na 
was paid attention to 88(29). 

alipin slave 90(36). 

-alipusti' : alipustain be mis- 
treated 72(39). 

alls go away 192(36). umalis go 
away 52(22). went away 20(36). 
ialis tvill go away 192(2). pagalis 
a going away 108(22). nagslsialis 
are going away 114(27). na^ag- 
sialis went away pi. 120(39). ina- 
lis was removed 30(10). iniyalis 
was removed 248(6). hliakn be 
removed from 250(33). Mfsan a 
going away together 257(23). na- 
galisan went away together 236 
(14). nagaMisan are going away 
together 96(15). ikinaalis was the 
cause of going away 271(41). ma- 
kaalis be able to go away 78(11). 
raakaialis vnll be able to go away 
42(38). 281(25). nakaalis has gone 
away 282(21). pagkaalis a having 
gone away 80(3). mii^ls uMl be 
removed 96(34). papaalls going 
away 300(39). pinaalls was caused 
to go away 32(34). pina&alls is 
being caused to go away 64(23). 

ipinaalis was caused to be removed 
70(4). 306(5). mapaalis be able to 
be caused to go away 122(21). 
ikin&paalis was the cause of order- 
ing to go away 310(5). ikinap^ 
paalis is the cause of ordering to 
go away 310(8). tagaalis remover 
315(33). tagapagpaalis head re- 
mover 316(1). 

alitaptap firefly 40(15). 

Alf6nso S. n. 309(6). 

-als& S. : pagaalsi a raising 70 

altar S.oZ^or 96(17). 

aluwfigi (S.) carpenter 56(35). 
pagaaluwagi carpentry 58(2). 

am& father 30(26). 59. magam& 
father and child 242(2). magaama 
father and children 242(27). 
amain uncle 247(26). magamain 
uncle and nephew or niece 242 
(25). iniama godfather 247(17). 

&min prep, and loc. of kaml: 
our, us, by us excl. 165. 169. nk- 
min disj. of u^, by us 163. umamin 
confessed 226(28). &aminin will be 
owned up to 243(36). ina&min is 
being owned up to 243(35). 

Amerika S. America 189(29). 

amerik&na S. European coat 

Amerik&no S. American 56(30). 

-amp&t : maampat be able to be 
stopped 46(8). 259(30). 

-amo* (S. T) : inimo' was ca- 
ressed 84(32) inamu-amd^ was re- 
peatedly caressed 86(4). 

&mo5 (S.) sir, Father 20(37). 

-&mot seU, of other than profes- 
sional merchant: um&mot sold 226 
(30). inamutan was sold io 246 

Digitized by 





an see and. 

-anak: mag&nak family 165(17). 
242(17). kamag&nak relative 54 
(22). 266(34). kamagandkan clan 
112(26). 277(14). agkan one's 
famUy 112(19). 260(39). 

ansik son, daughter 30(25). pa- 
Qan4k infant 54(6). kapaQan&- 
kan birth, birthday 275(43). pa- 
Qaqanak a giving birth 220(24). 
naipa^&Qanak has just been bom 
36(16). 288 (4). 

AndrSs S. n. 26(30). 

And6y S. short-n. 208(1). 

ani harvest 191(32). 

-dnib : pafl&nib danger 46(15). 
mapaQ &nib dangerous 289(21). 
umanib make one's sleeping-mat 
overlap 226(30). iyanib be made 
to overlap 248(7). magka&nib over- 
lapping each other 269(38). 

dnim six 52(44). 67. pag4nira 
number six 225(38). ika&nim ikk- 
nim sixth 273(17). makJt&nim six 
times 298{S2), 

-anlnaw : inaninaw was scruti- 
nized 66(19). 

aniy&ya invitation 219(28). ina- 
niy&han was invited 250(34). inaa- 
niy&han is being invited 203(26). 

aniyo' aspect 20(12). nag&aniyo' 
is behaving 40(40). pagaaniyo* be- 
havior 108(33). 

antim&no S. beforehand 20(39). 
262 (1). 

antok sleepiness 84(14). nag&an- 
tok is sleepy 231(42). nakapag4an- 
t6k causes to get sleepy 108(8). 

an6, an what? what kind off 
18(6). 22(21). 97. 179. 190. 264. 
an6-an6 pi. 114(16). 97. nagano 
did what? 239(29). p4no howf 
155(21). 300(8). pap&no howf 18 

(11). 301(1). ga4no g4no how 
great? 28(2). 316(28). 190. 247. 
See also salin. 

anunas S. custard-apple, Anona 
reticulata i. 76(19). 

Ano^j S. short-n. 286(38). 

a^ the, a 45. 61-71. 75. 78. 108. 
109. 115. 116. 119. 126. 130-133. 
161. 168. 196. 246. 248. 253. naq 
disj. the, a, of the, by the; when 
45. 119. 116-194. 253. 317(2). 340. 
341 (3,d). 

-aqk see -&nak. 

agkin appropriated 60 ( 20 ) . 
umagkin appropriate 226(32). arj- 
kinin be appropriated 62(6). 243 
(39). inagHn was appropriated 
16(8). in&agkin is being appropri- 
ated 243(37): m4a^jBn get appro- 
priated 308(20). 

fipat four 24(37). 67. aapat only 
four 116(16). &pat-&pat four at a 
time 223(41). pa^apat number 
four 225(36). ikaipat ikipat 
fourth 82(16). makiapat makaipat 
four times 298(36). 

Afrika S. Africa 189(4). 

-apt see atip. 

apoy fire 22(6). inapuyin was 
inflamed 94(29) and Corrigenda. 

4ral doctrine 140(31). 223(23). 
umdral arch, teach morals 233(22). 
mag&ral study 18(7). 209(13). 
magaAral will study 217(28). na- 
garal studied 30(5). nagil&ral is 
studying 90(31). 233(22). paga&- 
ral a studying 28(3). magsipaga- 
ral study pi. 262(34). nagsisipagA- 
ral are studying 38(5). ar&lan be 
taught morals 250(36). aralan 
study -room 238(6). pagarilan be 
learned 168(1). pinagariUan was 
studied 18(14). pinag&ar&lan i^ 

Digitized by 





being studied 255(4). makapag&- 
ral be able to study 34(33). pina- 
pag&ral was caused to study 305 
(19). ipapagaral be used for caus- 
ing to study 88(11). paaralin 
school 26(32). 

ar&ro S. plow 232(2). pagaa- 
r&ro a plowing 232(1). magaar&ro 
plowman 242(38). araruhin be 
plowed 243(40). 

draw sun^ day 16(11). 66(1). 
See also madali', kalahfiti'. &raw- 
gabi day and night 94(31). 257. 
331. &raw-araw every day 58(7). 
331. kaaraw^n holiday 110(17). 
tagaraw sunny season 34(27). 315 
ariy ouch 151(15) 
ari' that owned 42(2). 220 (22). 
See also mky. nagaari' owns 40 
(17). pagaari' possession 62(24). 
102(31). ma&ri' be possible 168 
(18). maMri^ will be possible 16 
(27). 46(12). naari* was owned, 
became possible 104(12). 285(29). 
naaari^ is possible 152(18). pag- 
ka&ri* possibility 80(30). 

aritm6tika S. arithmetic 82(1). 
Jtrmas armas S. arms 106(26). 

arsubispo S. archbishop 96(10). 
artista S. artist 90(10). 
dsa expectation 72(7). 209(24). 
pag4sa hope 56(19). 76(13). 
-&sal : inasal conduct 34(24). 
asani' (S. T) o tree, Pterocarpus 
Indicus Willd. 263(25). 

as4wa husband, wife 30(39). 34 
(5). magas&wa take a wife 78(38). 
married coupU 30(25). 242(4). 
mag&as&wa will take a wife 232 
(2). nagasiwa took a wife 80(6). 

pagaas4wa the taking a husband 
or wife 80(27). 92(9). 

&sim sourness 297(10). maasim 
sour 289(1). 

asm salt 30(11). asn&n be 
salted 250(37). 

aspUS S. pin 260(7.21). 
aso dog 18(8). inaiso is being 
chased 243(41). naiso has been 
chased 284(9). nafiso got chased 

asd smoke 64(33). asuhan chim- 
ney 261(10) and Corrigenda. 
pinaasuhan was smoked 308(4). 
asukal ^. sugar 198(31). 
asul S. blue 122(2). kayasul 
what blueness 267(35). 

asuwag vampire 34(30). maga- 
suwag-asuw&^jan play vampire 237 
( 9 ) . mag^suwa^-asuw&gan wUl 
play vampire 237(7). nagasuw^g- 
asuw&gan played vampire 34(26). 
at t and; for, that, though 15. 
20. 37. 45. 49. 213. 289. 306. 312. 

dtas that prompted 98(33). ini- 
ydtas was enjoined 54(42). 
ata61 S. 'coffin 116(1). 
atS (C.) oldest sister 59. 256. ma- 
gat^ oldest sister vnth brother or 
sister 242(5). 

&tin prep, and loc. of tdyo: our, 
us, by us, incl. 165. 169. n&tin 
disj., of us, by us 163. 

atip roofing 118(27). pa^atip 
shingle 224(40). aptAn be roofed 

4tis custard-apple, Anona squa- 
mosa L. 76(20). atSsan grove of 
&tis trees 261(10). 

atsara sour preserves 163(17). 
Iiwa» (a) pity 46(22). kawawa^ 

Digitized by 





piteous 80(12). 267(29). ikina^ 
awa' was the canse of pitying 
272(1). na&wa' pitied 285(16). 
pagka&wa^ a pitying 285(40). nag- 
mAmakaiwa* is calling forth pity 
44(11). 288(36). (b) accent shift- 
ed: awi^ overcome hy pity 222 
(17).kaawain be the object of pity 
182(39). kinaaawaan is the object 
of pity 275(1). nawi' pray 47. 

-Away: nagJl&way is fighting 
232(4). paga&way a fighting 306 
(18). nakipag&way fought along 
264 ( 24 ) . nakikipagkway fights 
along 264(21). ka&way enemy 18 
(11). kaA4way there has just been 
quarreling 267(12). mapagaway 
quarrelsome 186(33). mipag&way 
be matched 297(10). 

dwit song 280(39). awltan be 
sung to 250(38). magawitan sing 
together 183(11). nagiiwitan are 
singing together 236(27). 

ay y is; then IS. 20. 37. 45. 49. 
89. 119. 

4yap condiment 244(2) and Cor- 
rigenda. na^Ayap ate relishes 239 
(31). in&yap was used as a con- 
diment 244(1). pa&yap given to be 
used as a condiment 299(12). nag- 
padyap served a relish 302(28). 

4yaw (a) not desired 30(5.37). 
40(30). 239. 267. pagiyaw unwH- 
lingness 226(32). (b) accent shift- 
ed: umayiw refused, left the table 
231(12). pagayaw refusal 94(17). 
231(9). nakaayaw has left the ta- 
ble 286(25). pagk&ay&w dislike 

ayon according to 40(3). 278. 
umdyon agreed 30(4). naka&yon 
has come to be in accordance 281 
(3). paayon conforming 300(13). 

dyos formation 48(4.15) 90(11). 
mapagayos be able to be straight- 
ened 287(6). map^pag&yos vnll be 
able to be put into shape 287(7). 


hk interrogative particle 47. 215. 
223. 229. 299. 

-b&ba* (a) bum&ba^ became low 
226(35). kababian loumess, south 
62(15). 163(26). 241(19). mab4- 
ba» low, humble 104(27). 289(2). 
(b) Accent shifted: bab^' low; 
come down 223(16) and see pako^ 
bumabi' descended 36(35). ibaba' 
south 56(24). 163(26). See also 

-b&bag: bab&bag wtll fight 226 
(37). nagb&babag are fighting each 
other 237(25). pagbababig a fight- 
ing together 252(14). nakipagba- 
big fought along 264(37). 

bum&baw became shal- 
low 258(40). ibdbaw top surface 
66(28). kababiwan shallowness 88 
(30). mababaw 88(26). 220(8). 

babiyi bab4i female, woman 30 
(32). 163(13). nagbab&.babayflian 
played woman 237(14). 

b&boypi^ 36(13). 

-badiyA: n&ibadiyi got spread 
abroad 24(33). 

bagi reallyf 22(21). 47. 216. 

-bag&bag: nabag&bag grew un- 
easy 120(37). 

-b4gal: mab&gal slow 18(4). 

b&gay thing, circumstance 28 

Digitized by 





(1). 36(22). b4gay-b&gay varUms 
things 116(33). ibinib&gay is be- 
ing adapted 248(9). n&b&bagay is 
suitable 78(34). 

bagiyd hurricane 273(8). 

-ba^k: ibinags^k was dropped 

-bagEdk: mabagsik violent 42(3). 
44(30). mababagsik pi 102(19). 
maghimagsik come to violence 314 
(27). naghimagsik came to vio- 
lence 236(5). nagsipaghimagsik 
revolted, pL 263(12). naghimagsik 
resorted to violence 241(18). nag- 
sipaghimagnk pL 263(30). himag- 
sikan internal warfare 258(13). 
314 ( 28 ) . nagtumagsfkan fought 
each other 236(23). nagsipaghi- 
magsfkan pi. 263(13). paghihi- 
magsikan internal warfare 52(42). 
116(12). paghihimagslkan id. 241 


b&go new; before 18(37). 36 
(32). 291. kabibdgo newly 54(6). 
nabab&go has been changed 64 

bahi' flood 98(17). 110(23). bu- 
m&bah&» there is a flood 110(19). 
pagbaha* a flooding 110(21). 

bahigi paH 82(17). 

bahagiyi slight 201(21). 

b&hay (a) house 34(21). See 
also k&pit, t&nod. b&hay-aklatan 
library-building 210(11). b4hay- 
b&ta' womb 210(23). blihay-guya^ 
womb of animal 210(24). b&hay- 
pihayagin newspaper-office 210 
( 25 ) . b4hay-pamahal&an govern- 
ment building 292(21). Bdhay- 
panfki place-n. 210(25). b&hay- 
pint&han paint-house 210(26). bk- 
hay-8a^jl4an paumshop 252 ( 22 ) . 
bahay-tiiluyan inn 112(38). bahiy- 

bahiy various houses 52(15). 110 
(36). magb&hay buHd a house 232 
(5). pamamAhay household 70 
(26). kabahayin house containing 
several dwellings 120(3). furnish- 
ings of a house 276(5). — (b) Ac- 
cent shifted: bahay tam^, shy 222 
(19). nab&bahay is shy 286(29). 

bait good conduct 165(1). ka- 
b&itan kindness, virtue 74(41). 
mabait well-behaved 84(11). raa- 
babait pi. 34(35). 

b4kaS. cow 112(40). 

b4kal iron 201(30). 220(5). 

bak^ mark, in: bak^s-sugat 
m^rk of a wound 46(6). 

bakasiyon S. vacation 26(35). 

-bakil: bakil-bakil uneven 220 

hiikit why? 18(7). 236. 

bakiyi* sandal 245(20). 

bikod fence 266(6). pa^jbdkod 
used in making a fence 225(2). 
bakuran be fenced in 250(40). 
yardf grounds 34(38). 

bakol open bamboo basket with- 
out haTidle 74(5). 

b41a any 186(18). 271(22). 66. 

b&la S. bvlUt 52(36). 

balahibo/wr 212(18). 

bal4e person whose son or daugh- 
ter one's daughter or son has mar- 
ried; old friend 207(35). 266(5). 
jnagbalae two people whose chil- 
dren have intermarried 242(8). 
269(42). magbabal&e pi 240(28). 
kabal&e one's bal&e 266(2). mag- 
kabaI4e two fellow bal4e 269(40). 

bdlak plan 287(11). bindlak was 
planned 18(34). 

bdlag locust 267(27). 

balat skin, sheU 16(18). 30(10). 

Digitized by 





Mli S. maUer, harm 52(6). 
42(5). balatan be peeled 200(24). 

b&li^ break 219(29). ipinagklt- 
kabalfi^ is the cause of breaking in 
numbers 273(7). makab41e^ be able 
to break 281(26). nabale^ was bro- 
ken 284(32). nabibdle' is inter- 
rupted 104(4). mabalian be bro- 
ken in 70(18). nabalian was bro- 
ken in 62(27). 

-balik: bumalik come back 66 
(17). 233(17). cams back 20(40). 
bibalik wiU come back 32(27). bu- 
mdbalik is coming back 66(24). 
magbalik corns back io 233(18). 
nagbalik cams back to 72(11). 283 
(4). pagbalikltn be come back to 
255(5). pagb&balikan vnll be come 
back to 32(28). 255(5). makabd- 
balik vnll be able to go back 56 
(31). pabalik going back 299(13. 
27.39). pagpapabalik a causing to 
go back 48(20). pinabalik was 
caused to go back 68(41). ipina- 
babalik is being sent back 48(7). 

balikat shoulder 48(19). 

balita' that reported; famed 34 
(29). 36(2). magballta^ relate 42 
(24). nagballta^ related 118(35). 
pamamalfta^ a relating of stories 
102(12). ibalita' be reported 88 
(39). ibinalita^ was reported 32 
(8). ipamalita' be related 275 
(18). ipinamallta' was related 22 
(27). binalitdan was narrated to 
250(42). pagbabalitaan a report- 
ing by many 102(13). pinakibali- 
taan was ascertained by report 
102(42). 265(30). naballta' got 
related 46(18). nibaballta^ gets 
related 48(26). pagk^balita^ a 
getting narrated 272(42). mabali- 
t&an be learned by report 56(18). 

n^balitAan was learned by report 

Ballwag place-n. 173(9). See 
b4yan, da^. 

balubad casoy, Anacardium oc- 
cideniale L. 76(20). 

baluktot crooked 218(38). balu- 
baluktdt variously bent 290(33). 
bumaluktat bend; bent 226(39). 
233(25). magbaluktdt bend in 
quantity 233(24). pagbabaluktot 
a bending 48(15). 

baldn a well 24(37). 

-bilot: bum&lot roU up 226(40). 
233(27). magb&lot roU up in quan- 
tity; wrap oneself up 233(26). 
magbalot roll up variously 52(21). 
nagbal6t rolled up variously 52 
(35). nagsipagbalot pi. 118(13). 
nab&lot has beefi wrapped up 284 
(10). nabib&lot is wrapped up 
36(39). nibdlot got wrapped up 
198(8). 255(40). 

bambo club 70(17). pa\)bamb6 
club for beating 225(2). na\)b&- 
bambd is beating 239(32). bambu- 
hin be beaten 70(29). binambd 
was beaten 72(10). 

-banil: kaban&lan act of piety 

ban&yad gentle 48(17). 

binda S. band, orchestra 48(31). 
bd,nda-Q-musika band of music 48 

band^ direction 18(22). bandi 
5 ibabi' south mabandi-g-ibaWt^ 
get turned towards the south 296 
(21). bandi rj kaliw^*, k&nan see 
dulo. band^ ^j kataasin north na- 
babanda-^-kataasan is turned to- 
ward the north 296(20). band&hin 
direction headed for 294(24). 

bandQa'S./la^ 234(14). 

Digitized by 





banig sleeping-mat 62(35). 

bantay watcher 80(18). ban- 
tay-palay rice-gxtard 228(17). ban- 
tay-pinto' door-keeper 78 ( 31 ) . 
magbantAy stand gttard 38(14). 
pagbabantay a giiarding 36(18). 
bantayan he guarded 251(2). ban- 
tayan senary-box 248(16). 

Bantog family -n. 165(17). 

ba^jan granary 270(33). 

-ba^jgit: bina^git was mentioned 
90(23). nabaQgit got mentioned 

bagka* can4>e 20(3). mamagka^ 
go boating 28(12). magsipamaQ- 
ki^ pi. 263(21). nam&magki^ is 
boating 20 ( 2 ) . nagslsipama^jki* 
pi, 98(17). pamama^ka^ a boating 
239 ( 32 ) . pagbaba^kaan boating- 
party 112(13). bagkero boatman 
80(34). 316(11). 

ba^)kiy corpse 46(30). 

bS-^ko S. banking-house 227 

baijko^ S. bench 30(29). 

-ba^o': mabagft* fragrant 278 
(15). paba^jo^ perfume 222(38). 

-b&Qon: nagb&baQon is getting 
up 70(36). kabab&gon there has 
been getting up 267(13). 

bapdr S. steamship 56(24). 

-bara: bari-bari unruly 273(37). 

bar&ha S. cards 173(3). 

baraso S. arm 138(31). 

barWro S. barber 24(35). 

baril gun 36(20). nagsipamaril 
went shooting, pL 28(25). pama- 
maril a shooting 230(9). pinagbi- 
baril is being shot 56(26). baril- 
barilan toy-gun 261(35). 293(18). 
maipabaril be caused to be shot 
52(23). 312(9). n&barU got shot 

bariyo S. district of a town 70 


b&ro^ bUmse 205(20). magbaro* 
put on one's clothes 237(26). pa- 
mam&ro' clothing 110(33). 

-bdsa: pagb&sa reading 227(3). 
bin&sa was read 299(18). bin^bdsa 
is bein^ read 172(6). bas&han be 
read to 251(2). basahin reading- 
room 137(16). mabasa be able to 
be read 186(2). nabdsa has been 
read 244(3). 284(11). mAb&sa get 
read 52(12). nabdsa got read 86 
(19). 293(2). pab4sa gospel-read- 
ing ordered by a communicant 251 

-basi^: nagsisipagbasi* are get- 
ting themselves wet 110(23). na- 
kabasa' caused to be wet 201(22). 

basag a breaking, in: b&sag-ulo 
a head-smashing, free-for-all fight 
262(7). b4sag-ulero ruffian 316 
(13). basig broken 30(10). ma- 
basag be broken 30(8). 283(21). 
284(35). nabdsag has been broken 
296(14). mibfisag get broken 293 

-bastA': hagbasta^ packed up 
232(5). pagbabast&an a packing 
up together 118(17). 

b&so S. drinking-glass 137(39). 

b4ta^ boy, girl 30(33). See also 
b4hay. bin&ta* young man 90(28). 
pagkabita^ childhood 86(22). 285 

batalin platform of house 72 

Bathdla' God 54(42). 59. 

-b4tis: nagbibatis is fording 
104(42). bin&tis was forded 244 

batd stone 30(7). 220(4). binatd 
was stoned 303(30). 

Digitized by 





bio cocoanui-shell 108(32). 163 

Mo tuidower, widow 163(29). 
256. nabio wa^ widowed 80(29). 

baol S. lox, trunk 268(8). 

b4on provisions 28(27). 

-baon: pagbabaon a burying 54 
(29). m6ba5n get buried 54(17). 
magpabaon cause to be buried 54 
(24). ipinabafin was caused to be 
buried 54(30). 

b&wal forbidden 218(39). 

b&wag garlic 36(22). 

b&wat every 24(40). 48. 66. 132. 

-b&wi': Wtbawlin wHl be taken 
back 244(4) and Corrigenda, iki- 
nab&wi' was the cause of being 
taken back 272(3). 

-b&ya' (a) bay&an be permitted 
46(37). 48(13). binayian was per- 
mitted 78(31). binibayian is be- 
ing permitted 286(38). paub&ya* 
permitted 300(9). magpapab&ya' 
wiU be neglectful 106(32). nag- 
pab&ya^ was negUctful 302(29). 
pabay&an be left alone 308(7). 
pinabayian was left alone, not in- 
terfered with 168(23). 169(42). 
308(6). (b) Accent shifted: pa- 
bayi' neglectful 300(25). kapa- 
bayaan neglectfulness 310(39). pa- 
bayaan be permitted 52(8). 237 
(29). 308(34). 

bayabas see biy&bas. 
b&yad payment 54(9). b&yad- 
utarj debt-payment 178(29). ba- 
yad paid 222(22). magb&yad pay 
54(23). nagb&yad paid 232(6). 
babayaran will be paid to 54(29). 
binayiran was paid 54(11). bina- 
bayaran is being paid for 74(3). 

pagbay&ran be settled with 54 
(32). pagbibayaran wHl be set- 
tled for 58 ( 27 ) . pinagbay&ran was 
settled for 255(6). pinagbibaya- 
ran is being atoned for 74(21). 
makabib&yad vM be able to pay 

bdyan town, district 22(27). 
See also k&pit, t&o. baya-^j-Ball- 
wag the toum of Baliuag 20(3). 
bdya-ij-Kainlilig 92(15). baya-i)- 
Malolos 38 ( 5 ) . b&ya-^j-Mariklna 
96(38). b4ya-o-Maynfla» 256(30). 
b4ya-g-San-Mig61 50(14). bayin- 
bayan various toums 50(8). nama- 
m&yan is dwelling in a town 50 
(34). kabab&yan fellow-townsman 
60(12). 267(3). 291(37). magka- 
babiyan two or more fellow-towns- 
man 26(31). 270(10.17). makaba- 
yan patriotic 288(30). 

bayaw wife's brother, sister's 
husband 54(8). magbayaw two 
msn, one of whom has married the 
other's sister 242(9). 

-b&yo: Myo far side 80(36). 

-bayo: pai)bay6 pestle 225(3). 
magbayo pound rice 232(7). mag- 
bab&yo rice-pounder 242(40). 

bayugin a tree, Pterospermum 

bayog palm-leaf sack 74(5). 

bibas jester 98(30). 

bibig mouth 30(20). 

BigaA place-n. 116(25). 

big^s hulled rice 104(15). mag- 
hi^s hull rice 232(8). magbibigas 
rice-dealer 242(41). bigasan be 
supplemented vHth rice 251(3)., 
containing uncooked rice 261(10). 
big&san rice-miU 203(3). Bigasa- 
g - Sumulog - at - KasamahJin Rice- 

Digitized by 





MUl of Siimnlong and Company 

bigat weight 226(36). kabiga- 
tan heaviness 158(12). nakablbi- 
gat is making heavy 32(10). ma- 
bigat heavy, grave 58(34). mabi- 
bigat pi. 118(22). pabigit weight- 
ing 110(7). n&pakabi^t too se- 
vere 313(10). 

bigay that given 220(24). bi- 
g^y-loob favar 210(27). pagbibi- 
gay-lo5b a doing favors 60(23). 
235(26). nagbigAy gave 76(35). 
nagbibigay is giving 60(38). ^pag- 
bibigay a giving 50(30). ibigay be 
given 42(43). ibibigay will he 
given 16(28). ibinigay was given 
20(14). ibinlbigay is being given 
40(11). bigyAn he given to 26(2). 
bibigyan will be given to 72(42). 
binigyan was given to 32(15). bi- 
gayan receiver 258(22). kabigd- 
yan ane of two who give to each 
other 277(36). mapagbig&y over- 
vidulgent 289(25). tagapagbig&y 
hander-out 315(41). 

-bigkas: nagbibigk&s is pro- 
nouncing 231(24). binibigkas is 
being pronounced 98(38). 

bigla^ suddenly 82(40). pabig- 
\h!^ in sudden manner 68(10). 

bigti strangled 223(24). biimigti 
strangled 227(3). pagbigti a 
strangling 227(4). nagbigti stran- 
gled himself 233(29). pagbibigti 
a strangling oneself 233(29). big- 
tihin be strangled 22(22). bigti- 
han gallows 279(19). 

beha cigarette-stnb 205(21). 

hihag captive 233(1). 

bih&sa^ skUled 46(12). 

bihira^ seldom, rare 40(26). 42 
(21). 72(29). 106(39). 110(29). 

112(13). magkibihira' occur at 
odd times 114(27). 271(9). 

blhis that donned 220(26). bihis 
dressed up 222(23). nagbihis 
dressed himself up 232(10). nag- 
bibihis is dressing himself up 32 
(37). 96(21). magsipagbihis dress 
up, pL 262(35). makapagblhis 
have dressed oneself 96(24). pina- 
pagbihis was ordered to dress him- 
self 32(14). 

bilk young pig 72(36). 

-bila^ kabilfi^ other side 16(23). 
266(6). magkdbila' be on both 
sides 16(7). 271(11). 

bilag number 24(5). bilaio 
counted 222(24). pagbflag a 
counting 285(24). bibildgin will be 
counted 24(4). mabilai) having a 
number 114(1). pagkabilag cou7it 
291(2). tagabllai) c^nin^er 315(34). 

bilaggo^pmo^i^r 258(24). ibibi- 
laggo* ivtU be put into prison 100 
(28). ibinilaggd^ was put into 
prison 248(12). bilarjguan prison 
201(31). n&bilaggd^ got jaOed 38 
(2). 198(1). ipabibilaijgo' will be 
caused to be put in prison 100(15). 

bilas wife's sister's husband 242 
(11). magbilAs two men whose 
wives are sisters 242(10). 

bil&o large flat basket 74(5). 108 

bill that bought 308(26). bill 
nay bill keeps buying 177(8). pa^j- 
bili used for buying 255(34). bu- 
mili buy 120(19). pagbili a buy- 
ing 223(21). magbili seU 249(22). 
nagbili sold 233(30). nagbibili is 
selling 233(31). pagbibili a selling 
252(19). namili bought in quan- 
tity 239(33). namimili is shopping 
249(9). bibilhm wUl be bought 

Digitized by 





203(18). binili was bought 163 
(40). pinamili ums botcghi in 
quantity 246(41). ipagbili be sold 
98(36). ipinabili was sold 249(21). 
ipinagbibili t* being sold 74(8). 
binilhan was bought from 251(5). 
pinagbilhin u>as sold to 255(8). 
bilihan market 258(24). ikabili be 
the cause of buying 186(10). na- 
k4bili happened to buy 56(38). 
mabibili wiU get bought 203(37). 
pabilhin be caused to buy 34(5). 
makapagpabill be able to cause to 
be bought 286(39). 

bilin commission, errand 221 

-bilmit: pamilmit itsed as fish- 
pole 249(28). 

bilog circle 112(2). bilog round- 
ed, round 222(25). bumflog turned 
on a lathe 227(6). namflog turned 
188(26). binilog was turned 244 
(5). binibilog is being turned 244 
(6). kabilugan roundness 38(17). 
152(17). 276(27). nabibilog gets 
turned 293(36). pabilog in a circle, 
spherically 46(40). 48(4). 110 

-bendisiyon S. : magbendisiyon 
give blessing 96(26). nagb^bendi- 
siyon is blessing 98(3). pagbeben- 
disiyon a blessing 54(32). binSben- 
disyiinan is being blessed 114(19). 
pagkabendisiyon a having blessed 
64(29). pagkabendisiyon a having 
chanced to bless 56(8). pabendi- 
syunin be caused to be blessed 54 

bendita S.: holy 96(25). 

-biniyig : nagbibiniyag is baptiz- 
ing 98(2). biny&gan person bap- 
tized 314(20). 

bintana^ S. window 70(30). 

binta^) suspicion 36(29). nag- 
bintag suspected 38(24). pagbinta- 
^)4n be suspected 20(9). pinagbin- 
tagan was suspected 16(21). n^pjt- 
pagbintaQ^n gets suspected 20 
(35). palabintAijin given to suspi- 
cion 315(7). 

bi^ji deaf 86(23). 167(8). ikina- 
bi^ji was the cause of being deaf 
295(17). nakabibi^ji causes deaf- 
ness 219(42). n4bi^)i got deaf 295 

bi^)it edge, brink 180(34). bu- 
mi^jit. went to the brink 227(7). 
ibinf^it was put on the edge 248 
(13). binigitan was approached up 
to the brink 251(7). kinibibiijitan 
is been on the brink of 52(31). 
napabi^jit go to the brink 312(2). 

birtiid S. occult quality 60(10). 

blro^ joke 220(27). pa^jbibiro* 
a joking 40(39). 

bir6ke S. blow-gun bullet 212 

b^sbol E. basebaU 48(2). nag- 
b^besbol is playing baseball 135 

bisig arm, stick 70(28). 84(10). 

bisita S. visitor, visitors 305(5). 
chapel 251(13). 

bisiyo S. vice 163(21). 221(14). 

bistAy sieve 74(5). raagbibislAy 
screener 242(38). 

bitak crack 32(5). 

-bitaw: binitawan was let go of 
66(34). 254(24). magikabitAw re- 
lax their hold 78(15). \j 

-bitay: ipabitay be caused to be 
hanged 52(6). 

bitbit that carried by a part of 
it 122(2). binitbit was carried 52 
(37). pagkabitbit the way of hold- 
ing 253(24), 

Digitized by 





-bitiw: bumitiw let go 174(22). 
bitiwan be let ga of 76(10). 254 
(25). binitiwan was let go of 44 
(22). pinagbitdw&n was variously 
let go of 256(16). mabitiwan he 
let go of ^{21). 288(23). 

bituka intestine 38(30). 

bitoke (S.) blow-gun buUet 212 

biydbas bayabas S. gv>ava^ Pisi- 
dium guayava L. 236(17). 256 
(38). 283(11). magsisipamiydbas 
will go guava-picking, pi, 263(22). 

-biy&bit : na^akabiydbit were 
hanging 34(28). 

-biydbo : pagbibiydbo swinging 
the feet 232(11). pinagbibiyabu- 
han is being swung on 255(10). 

-biyak: biniy^ was spUt 244(7) 
Corrigenda^ kabiyak half, side 112 

Biyames-S4nto Biyemesinto S. 
Good Friday 20(1). 

biydtiko S.: viaticum 98(3). 

biyay that given liberty in a 
closed space 220(27). nagbiyay set 
loose 232(13). nagpabiyay caused 
to be set loose 302(20). pibiydyan 
place for giving temporani liberty 
88(26). 309(6). 

Viyola S. famUy-n. 277(16). 

hobo clown 241(34). 

-bubog: bubugan roof 38(22). 

bubuwit a kind of mouse 224 

-budbod: ibinudbod was strewn 

bugto^) riddle 222(3). nagsisi- 
pagbugtiirjan tell each other rid- 
dles 114(32). 

bug6k rotten, crazy 218(40). 

buhdflin sand 68(4). kabuhaiji- 
nan beach 68(4). 

-buhat: bumuhat lifted 189(34). 
buhdtin be lifted 283(29). 

biihay Ufe 18(10). See also hd- 
nap. buhay alive 92(19). namil- 
miihay is leading a life 104(27). 
pamumfihay way of living 30(30). 
ikabubuhay unll be the means of 
livin{f 34(25). kabuhdyan liveli- 
hood 32(12). mabiibuhay uriU live 
58(30). nabuhay lived 285(29). 
nabubuhay t* living 72(17). pag- 
kabuhay a coming to life; staple 
food 285(41). 288(38). pagkabu- 
hay a lucky bringing to life 291 

biiho^ slender bamboo, Dendro- 
calamus 18(3). 

buhok hair 24(31). 

buhol knot 274(29). magbuhol 
tie a knot 232(14). 

-buhos: ibinuhos was poured 30 

biikas tomorrow 88(13). 262(2). 
kin&bukdsan when the next day 
came 48(41). 190(27). 279(24). 

hukks opened 223(26). bumubu- 
kas is opening, intr. 227(10). mag- 
bukas open, tr. 228(35).'pagbubii- 
kks an opening, tr. 26(31). buksin 
be opened 78(30). binuksin was 
ope)ied 78(31). bukdsan aperture 
84(43). mabuksan be opened 86 
(1). 120(21). nabuksan came open 
22(2). 188(9). 

bukid field, estate, country 38 
(8). 74(1). 90(7). bukirtn estate, 
fields 92(35). 

buko unripe cocoanut 316(8). 
tarabuko trabuko bald-headed 316 

bukod beside, in addition to 54 
(5). 279. magkabukod two sepa^ 

Digitized by 





rately 269(43). magkakabukod pi. 

-bukol: bukulin covered toith 
bumps 62(26). nagkakabukol is 
getting bumps 62(16). 

b61a S. 6att 46(38). 

-btilag (a) nakabubulag is caus- 
ing blindness 280(35). mabulag 
get blinded 255(38). (b) Accent 
shifted: hulkg blinded, blind 22 
(29). nabulig went blind 296 

bulak cluster of capoc cotton 247 
(2). Bulakan place-n. 110(13). 

bulaklak yioM;6r 189(2). 

-build: ibinulid was pushed off 

bulsa S. purse 112(21). 

-bulo: kabuluhAn importance 42 
(15). makabuluhin important 271 
(16). 289(23). 

bulok rotten 218(40). na^abu- 
Ibk became rotten, pi, 306(27). pa- 
labWukin easily decaying 315(8). 

-buldg: kabulu^)an one of two 
who whisper together 277(38). pa- 
biil6g in whispers 114(5). 

bundok mountain 116(18). See 
also paa. namundok took to the 
mountains 52 ( 38 ) . pamumund6k 
a living in the mountains 52(42). 

buntis pregnant 36(17). 

buntftn heap 116(34). 

buntftt taU, train 240(41). 244 
(40>. 253(8). buntutan tail-end 

-bun6^: nagbuno^ wrestled 66 
(32). nagbubund^ is wrestling 86 
(40) . pagbubuni^ a wrestling 252 
(25). nakipagbuno^ engaged in 
wrestling 66(27). kabund^ person 
with whom ons wrestles 66(34). 

-bunot: bunot plucked up 225 
(26). cocoanut-fibre22l{ll). \m- 
munot plucked up 227(11). nag- 
bundt plucked up in quantity 237 

buga fruit; beteUfmit 16(15). 
247(3). bu5a-^)-k4hoy fruit of a 
tree 36(1). magbu^a bear fruit 


bu^)aga^ maw 212(35). 

bugbo^ piece of unsplit bamboo 

-burol: ibinuburol is being laid 
in state 112(30). kinAbuburulan 
is being lain in state in 114(4). 

huskhoH slave 90(36). 

boses S. voice 74(19). 

Bustos S. place-n. 100 ( 12 ) . See 
also lupa^ 

bus6g satiated 223(27). pabusu- 
gin be well fed up 305(10). 

butas hole, hollow space 86(11). 
104(10). butas-kar&yom needle' s- 
eye 22(27). bumutas make a hole 
86(5). binutas was pierced 106 
(20). makabiitas have made a hole 
86(8). nabutas has been perfo- 
rated 86(8). nabubutas gets per- 
forated 106(37). pinabutas was 
caused to make a hole 86(9). 

bote' S. bottU 120(22). 

buti goodness 218 ( 23 ) . butlhan 
be done well 220(10). ikinabuti 
wa^ the cause of improvement 287 
(43). kabutihan excellence, ad- 
vantage 58(2). 62(3). makabu- 
biiti will cause to improve 28(35). 
nakabubuti causes to be well 226 
(33). mabuti good, weU 16(9). 
mabubuti pi. 102(5). n&buti got 
better, reached a high point 294 
(22). 295(12). pinakamabuti best 

Digitized by 





230(10). nipakabuti extreme 313 


botikariyo S. apothecary 54(2). 

butil kernel of grain 316(33). 
gabutil as large as a grain 316(31). 

.b6to S.: bumoto voted 227(13). 

but6 bone, seed 42(5). 108(7). 

bo&^ buo^ whole, entire 34(29). 
66. 98. 261. 

-buwil : nagbuwal felled 199 (25) . 
232(14). ibuwM be feUed 178(33). 

ibinuwil ivas felled 270(27) nabu- 
wkl has been felled 253(4). 294 

buwan moon, m^onth 38(18). 110 
(13). ^ 

buwis interest on money 227 

buwisit repulsive 98(16). 219 
(1). binuwisit toas annoyed 58 
(26). kinibubuwisitan is being 
abhorred 94(27). 


daan rain hundred 52(43). 17. 

dain way, road 32(3). daa-ij- 
Baliwag road to Baliuag 220(3). 
magdaan pass by 68(7). nagda&n 
passed by, past 24(40). 76(36). 
nagdadaan is passing by 26(11). 
pagdadain a passing by 254(20). 
idaan be left on the way 248(15). 
dinaanan was run over, was called 
for on the way 251(9). 254(29). 
dinaanan was assailed 254(25). 
dinada4nan is being assailed 254 
(27). pinagdadaanin is being 
gom through 30(30). 82(7). pi- 
nagdaanan teas traversed 32(24). 
256(10). di&nan usual route 258 
(26). nagdMadnan are passing 
on the way 234(31). makara&n 
have passed 16(11). nakarain has 
passed 18(38). pagkaraan a hav- 
ing passed 24(11). nakaraan na- 
kdda^n came upon 18(32). para&n 
manner, means 42(12). 

daga^ra^ 84(20). 

-dagin: dinaganan was lain 
upon 44(38). magk&dag&n be one 
on top of the other 270(24). mag- 
k^idagan will b4 one on top of 

the other 270(26). nagk&dag&n 
were one on top of the other 270 
(30). nagkAkadagan are one on 
top of the other 270(33). nagki- 
kadagan-dag&n pi. 108(24). 

d&gat sea 110(19). dagat-da- 
g4tanteA;e 261(34). 

dagok blow with the fist 256(23) 
pinagdadaguytn was variously 
struck at 84(21) and Corrigenda. 
pinagdidadagukin is being va^ 
riously struck at 256(22). 

d4hil cause 16(4). 78(33). 143 
(15). 206(10). 280. dahilin cause 
22(6). 280. nagdAdahilin i^ a^ 
leging as cause 187(10). 

dahon leaf 16(9). nagd&dihon 
is putting out leaves 232(16). 

Akixs that laid open 250(37). 
daiT) laid open 222(29). din&iQ 
was laid open 244(7). 

-daiQ : dum&daiQ is complaining 

-daka: pagdika immediately 18 
(42). karaka-r&ka at once 207 
(20). 267(30). pagkarfika at once 
288(40). 265(5.9). 

ddla fishnet 240(7). din&la was 
caught with the net 244(8). 

Digitized by 





dala that borne 34(22) 38(27. 
34). dumala bear up 233(16). du- 
midala t* bearing up 227(14). 
magdala bring, carry 106(32). 233 
(17). n&gdalk brought 28(27). 
nagdddali is bringing 48(33). 72 
(35). 233(32). pagdadalA a bring- 
ing 251(12). dalhin be carried 32 
(2). dadalhin will be carried 34 
(4). dinal^ was carried 56(24). 
dinAdala is being carried 40(19). 
dalhan be carried to 251(11). ma- 
kad&dala will be able to carry 178 
(39). nakapagdala was able to 
bring 286(35). nakapagd&dala na- 
kap&pagdala nakakapagdala is able 
to bring 286(36). madalA be able 
to be carried 16(4). 283(25). ma- 
didala wUl be able to be carried 
34(31). nadala was able to be 
carried 283(22). nidala got car- 
ried off 293(6). nagpadala caused 
to be carried, sent 264(3). pagpa- 
padala a sending 48(17). ipadal^ 
be sent 22(19). ipinadalk wa^ sent 
90(32). 306(7). ipinadMala is be- 
ing sent 74(6). ipinagpapadala 
were repeatedly sent 58(25). 307 
(26). pinadalhan was sent to 58 
(6). ra&ipadaia 5r6* 5en^ 58(19). 

dal&ga young woman 36(26). 

dalamh&ti^ grief 219(31). pag- 
dadalamh&ti^ a grieving 74(13). 
pakikipagdalamhati^ a grieving 
along 112(26). kadalamhatian 
^rie/ 276(28). 

daland^n orange 76(20). 

-d&lag: dum&la^) became infre- 
quent 26(10). mad&la^j infrequent 
289(4). padal&^in be made infre- 
quent 304(35). pidala^jin be made 
very infrequent 305(14). 

dala^jhita^ tangerine 294(28). 

-dali^in: panal4gin prayer 94 

-dal&s: dum&dalas is grouping 
frequent 68(16). kadalasan fre- 
qu£7icy, frequently 40(40). 186 
(22). 262(4). madalAs freqmnt 46 
(24). 269(1). 

d41aw visitor 112(29). dumala w 
paid a visit 64(9). dumadalaw 
pays a visit 112(36). nagi»sid&law 
pi. 112(25). pagdMaw a visiting 

dalawa sec -lawa. 

dali^ hasten 221(41). dali-dali' 
very quickly 34(1). 224(13). da- 
li^n be done quickly 251(12). ma- 
dam quick, soon 94(28). 102(11). 
166(16). madali i) araw: nagma- 
raadali-i)-&raw it is dawning 235 
(21). — raagmadall^ be quick 34 
(9). magmimadali^ iviU hurry 
235(38). pagmamadali^ a hurry- 
ing 293(11). 

daliri^ finger 185(21). 

-dal6: duraalo come for a pur- 
pose, to aid 34(1). 38(11). 304(1). 
na^isidalo are coming 114(36). 
daluhan be succored 58(39). dina- 
luh4n was attended 100(18). 251 

d&ma S. checkers 266(12). 

-damSg: magdam^g the whole 
night 190(35). 

damdam feeling 102(16). 219 
(32). dumamdim felt 227(15). 233 
(37) . magdamd^m feel oneself hurt 
233(34). din&ramdira t* being re- 
gretted 82(9). 244(10). damd&min 
feeling, emotion 276(29). maki- 
ramd^m spy out 264(4). karam- 
d&man illness 207(31). nakaram- 
d^m felt 68(3). 292(32). nakira. 
ramdam is feeling 42(43). naram- 

Digitized by 





damin was: felt 201(26). nkrk- 
ramdam&n is being felt 70(6). 

d4mi multitude 112(21). 267 
(27). dum&mi grew in number 60 
(32). flinamfhan was m^ade numer- 
ous 251(15). karamihan numer- 
ousness, majority 34(33). 198(9). 
66. 132. mar&mi many 20(13). 28 
(27).69. 71. 99. 110. 138. 

damit garment, cloth 52(22). 
169(2). pananamit clothing 32 
(33). 219(14). 

damo ramd grass 76(28). See 
also kalab^w, puno^ dinamuhan 
was cut grass from 251(16). da- 
muhan grass-field 18(33). 259(17). 

damot stinginess 268(5). kayd4- 
mot karamot what stinginess 268 
(5). kaydaraot-damot what great 
stinginess 268(4). karamutan stin- 
giness 34(18). maramot stingy 60 
(22). marar^raot pi. 112(8). 

-d&niw ? : karaniytiwan karani- 
yuan usual, usually 36(15). 40 
(9). 262(6). 

dagal honesty, honor 218(26). 
kararjalan honoring 90(13). 

-dapa^: dumap^' lay down on 
his face 227(17). nagdadap&-da- 
paan pretends to fall on his face 
108 (18).. nagkagdadapa^ sustained 
repeated falls on his face 70(35). 
260(29). nagkakagdad&pa^ is fall- 
ing repeatedly on his face 269(31). 
iiakadapa^ is prone 281(12). na- 
rapa^ fell on his face 295(30) Cor- 
rigenda, pagkfirapa^ a falling on 
one's face 295(39). napadapa^ 
had himself laid on his face 311 
(27). n4parapa^ fell on his face 

dapat necessary, fitting 22(1) 
36(9.20). 268. karapatin due, 

right 276(8). marapat deserving 
80(20). narirapat is appropriate 
80(13). 276(29). 

EafayMS.n. 270(5). 

-d&pit: pagddpit a calling for 
114(39). ipinadid&pit is being 
caused to be called for 114(18). 

-dapo^: dumapo^ struck, landed 
16(31). pagdipo^ a hitting, land- 
ing 64(31). 68(16). dinapuan was 
landed on, was hit 96(28). 251 

daras adze 58(14). pagdaras a 
chopping with the adze 60(3). da- 
rasin be trimmed with the adze 58 
(17). dinariis wa^ trimmed with 
the adze 58(32). pinagdaras^n was 
variously hewn off 58(17). 

Daruwin E. famUy-n. 245(9). 

-dasal (S.) : magdasal say pray- 
ers 78(37). nagdadasal is saying 
prayers 64(36). nagsisipagdasal 
pi. 114(30). pagdadas^l a praying 
104(4). pinagdadasal&n is being 
prayed in 104(17). dasalan rosary 

d&tapuwat but 16(4). 318. 322. 

dkti formerly; since long ago 44 
(23). 64(18). 262(3). parilti often 
18(8). 30(28). 262(12). 

-d&tig: kad&tig karatig border- 
ing on, next to 256(32). 266(9). 
magkar&tig bordering on each 
other 270(2). nAkakar&tig bor- 
ders on 296(27). 

-datiT): dumatig arrive 18(37). 
arrived 20(14). nagsidatig pL 118 
(34). 232(1). dumAratiT) is arriv- 
ing 18(35). daratirj urUl arrive 52 
(2). pagdatin an arriving 48(12). 
56(25). datnin be reached 56(32). 
dinatnin was reached 46(3). di- 
n&ratnAn is being reached 64(7). 

Digitized by 





kar&rati^) there futs been arriving 
151(31). makaratig have arrived 
82(38). 100(1). nakaratig has ar- 
rived 34(21). madatnan be come 
upon 88(36). 

-d&os: pagdad4os a performing 
20(5). id4o8 be performed 264 
(32). idin&os was performed 274 
(15). idinad&os is being per- 
formed 92(24). 114(29). 

daw raw he says, they say 17. 
47. 217. 

-d&ya^: magdadaya^ will cheat 

dayap the lime 76(20). 

dPw^ 38(17). 237. 239.301. 

-ribal S.: karilAl Hval 46(21). 

dihdih the chest 212(9). 

-dikdik: dikdikin be crushed 16 

dikin mat on which dishes are 
set 221(32). 

dikit blaze 220(30). pagparikit 
kindlings 158(10). 

-dikit: idiniki was pasted 52 

dikola S. (de cola) train 262 

dila^ tongue 251(21). 306(21). 
dilian be licked 251(22). dinUaan 
was shown the tongue (as insult) 

-dilat: nadQat came open 24 

-dilaw: madidilaw yellow , pi. 

-dilig: pagdilig implements for 
sprinkUng 225(4). na^jdidilig is 
sprinkling 239(34). pagdidilig a 
sprinkling 239(35). diligin be 
sprinkUd 244(11). 

dilira darkness 36(5). dumilim 
it grew dark 52(29). pagdilim a 

growing dark 36(32). kadilimiii 
darkness 72(1). raadilim dark 40 

Del-PUAr S. famUxj-n. 241(25). 

relosS. watch 137(41). 

dimoniyo S. dem/m 40(5). 

din rin also, again 18(16). 17. 
47. 218. 221. 227. 238. 239. 262 

dindig, see dirjdi^j. 

dine rine loc. of ire: here 316 
(27). 17. 47. 263. naririnS is here 
74(21). parine come here 301(33). 
pumarine come here 302(8). na- 
parine came here 312(3). 

-dinig: mak&rinig hear 24(18). 
nakarinig heard 20(19). 292(33). 
marinig be heard 28(19). narinig 
was heard 20(41). uaririnig is be- 
ing heard 114(12). pagkarinig a 
hearing 18(13). 176(41). 

di^dii) dindi^j wall 62(20). 

Risal S. famUy-n,, Rizal 275 

desgrfisiya S. misfortune 276 
(39). ^ 

-distino S. : idinistino was as- 
signed to the parish 96(2). nadieh 
tino got assigned 50(9). '^^^ ^ 

retaso S. patch 239 (10). 

-retrAto S. : retratuhan be pho- 
tographed 281(14). 

dito rito loc. of ito : here, hither; 
to him 16(4). 18(22). 316(27). 17, 
47. 263. 280. naririto is here 70 
(26). 184(36). 203(6). pumapa- 
rito comes here 204(18). papa- 
rito ivUl come here 302(11). 306 
(11). pagparito a coming here 
203(5). pinaparito is being sent 
here 104(20). ipinarito was come 
here for 307(1). naparito came 
here 44(9). nap^parlto comss 

Digitized by 





here 191(16). maparfto get here 
184(35). map&parito wiU get here 
312(15). niparito got here 312 
(13). nipaparito gets here 312 
(15). pagkaparito a getting here 
313(1). mak^pari-parito ^.ever 
come here 313(3) Corrigenda. 

-diwafl : nagdfwaQ celebrated 275 
(43). pagdiriwa^) a celebrating 90 
(13). ipinagdidiwag is being cele- 
brated 110(12). 249(23). 

diyan riyan loc, of iykn: there, 
thither, from there 182(27). 316 
(27). 17. 47. 263. n4riyan went 
there, was there 191(14). p&pari- 
yan will go there 302(13). 

diyAriyo S. newspaper 284(11). 

DiyegoS.n. 100(40). 

Diyos S. God 64(4). 182(40). 

-dugto^) : idinugto^) was said in 
contimiation 80(28). 102(19). 

dugo' blood 22(8). nagdudugo' 
bled profusely 88(28). 282(38). 
pagdudugo^ a bleeding 46(8). 

-diikit: dumukit carved 88(8). 
pa^jdudukit sculpture 90(3). maij- 
dudukit mandunikit carver, sculp- 
tar 86(18). 104(8). dukitin be 
carved 90(11). dinukit was carved 

-dukl&y : nagdiiduklay - duklay 
keeps blurting out 114(15). 

dokt6 S. learned man 168(9). 

-dtikot: idinudukot is being 
scooped out 110(2). 

dulaT) low table 252(1). 

-dulas: madulas slippery 313 
(41). m&dul^ slip 313(35). pag- 
k&dulis a slipping 313(39). mag- 
padulis let oneself sUde 313(36). 
pagpapadulas a letting aneself 
dide 294(29). 

dulo end 16(7). dulo-^j-banda- 
g-kaliwi^ left-hand end 274(28). 
dulo-Q-bandJL-Q-k&nan right-hand 
end 211(1). duluhan end part, 
back yard 34(38). 

Bomanismo S. Romanism 56 

-dumi: pagdumi defecation 42 
(4). marumi dirty 94(7). 219 

Don-Nasdriyo S. n. 116(26). 

duno^j knowledge 28(15). karu- 
no^) what wisdom 173(42). karu- 
nu^an wisdom 276(30). marunoQ 
wise, knowing, knowing how to 16 
(1). 26(1). 269(8). pagmamaru- 
nog a pretending to be wise 167 
(29). pagpapakamarunoQ a mak- 
ing oneself wise 309(24). pinaka- 
marunoT) wisest 309(40). maruru- 
nog pi. 48(10). nagparunoQ 
caused to be educated 90(40). 

-du^jd: nagdudu^)6 is shy 285 

duro^ stitch 224(1). duruin be 
pricked 244(1). duruan be stuck 
into 251(22). a spit 221(8). du- 
ruan place for sticking 260(6). 

-durog: dinurog was crumbled 

dusa suffering 245(18). pagdu- 
dusa a suffering 76(24). parusa 
punishment 16(28). nagpiparusa 
is causing to suffer 42(9). pagpa- 
parusa a causing to suffer 42(16). 
ipinarurusa is being caused to be 
suffered 313(10). parusdhan be 
punished 16(22). parurusdhan will 
be punished 16(24). pinarus&han 
was punished 292(19). pinaruru- 
sdhan is being punished 222(18). 
233(1). 308(8). pArusahan place 
of punishment 74(21). 309(12). 

Digitized by 





mapaparus&han tuill get punished 
22(5). 313(6). 

ros&riyo S. rosary 104(4). mag- 
ros&riyo pray a rosary 104(17). 

Ruso S. Russian 306(19). 

dodn ro6n ron loc. of iyon: 
there; to him, to it 18(40). 38(17). 
316(27). 17. 47. 263. dumoon go 
there 20(26). magkaroon get, have 
96(3). nagkaroonflro^,^^ 24(35). 
52(30). 268(25). kinadoroonin is 
been in 74(33). 90(18). 279(13). 
n&roon n&ndon got there, is there 
36(33). 193(15). 39. 468. nar6ro6n 
is there 42(36). 74(12). 264(10). 
parodn go there 301(33). puma- 
roon go there 20(15). went there 
76(27). pdparoon will go there 88 

(13). 207(30). 302(18). pagpa- 
ro6n a going there 72(40). 302 
(16). parun&n be gone to 70(34). 
pinaroonin pinaronan pinarunan 
was gone to 46(4). 138(37). ikin&- 
paro6n was the cause of going 
there 310(11). makaparon be able 
to go there 100(16). naparoon 
went there 20(23). 312(5). pag- 
k&paroon a getting there 300(9). 

-doop : pinagdodoop were 
brought together (hands) 96(8). 

duwag coward 312(22). kadu- 
wagan cowardice 116(14). 

duw^nde S. dwarf, elf 30(24). 

Doytsland TS, n. of a ship 268 


-gaan: magaan light easy 48(2). 

ga4nOj see and. 

gabi night, evening 36(2). See 
also &raw. gabi-gabi every night 
62(38). 331. gin&gabi is being 
overtaken by night 244(12). ka- 
gabi last night 190(15). 259. 

g&ga madwoman 44(25). 

gagamba spider 262(23). 

-g&laT) : magalaT) polite 237(19). 

-galaw: paggalaw a moving 192 

galii) coming from 40(5). 193 
(18). nar)galiii came from 193 
(22). naTjgagalii) is coming from 
193(22). pinarjgalirjan was come 
from 256(30). pinaggagaliijan is 
being came from 32(30). kagagd- 
liij there has just been coming 
from 267(14). 

galig skill 58(6). gumaliij got 
well 54(10). magalir) skilful; weU 
46(29). 269(2). magagali^ p/. 94 
(32). pagpapagalii) a causing to 
get well A2 (22). 

g&lit (a) an^er 22(15). ikag&lit 
be the cause of anger 195(39). iki- 
nag&lit tvas the cause of anger 303 
(24). kinagalitan was the object 
of anger 274(15). kinag&galitan 
is the object of anger 40(36). na- 
gdlit got angry 16(20). nagagalit 
gets angry 106(28). pagkagalit a 
getting angry 176(39). nakagali- 
tan happened to be the object of 
anger 52(40). 298(28). magpaga- 
lit cause to get angry 98(32). pa- 
lagalitin hot-head 315(18).— (b) 
Accent shifted: galit angry 177 
(39). kagalit at odds 26iS(39). 
nagkagalit had a falling aut 269 
(19). pagkakagalit a falling ant 

Digitized by 





155(27). 269(19). nagkagd-kaga- 
lit got angry at each other, pL 269 
(25). kagalltan quarrel 236(36). 
279(34). pagkakigalitan a quar- 
reling together 222(42). 279(39). 

-gamb41a^: nagamb41a^ was dis- 
turbed 284(36). n^gamb41a^ ivas 
unintentionally disturbed 293(8). 

g&mit that used 46(39). gamit 
used, second-hand 183(15). gam&- 
mit use 58(14). u^ed 94(4). gu- 
mag&mit is using 202(17). pagg&- 
mit a u^ng 56(37). gamitin be 
used 161^20). gagamftin wUl be 
used 234(22). gin&mit was used 
60(26). ginag&mit is being used 
40(35). garni tan be u^ed on 58 
(16). kagamitan use, employment 
36(23). 120(15). magdmit be able 
to be used 20(5). 74(7). 283(26). 
nag&mit was able to be used 230 
(14). nagdmit was accidentally 
used 293(10). pagkAgamit the way 
of using, chance ability to use 240 
(3). 291(40). ipinag^gdrait is be- 
ing caused to be used 306(9). 

garnet medicine 54(9). pa^)ga- 
mot means of curing 46(14). gu- 
mamot cure 46(13). gumdgam6t 
is curing 46(16). paggamdt a cur- 
ing 42(15). maggagamot magga- 
gamot physician 28(24). 44(28. 
30). 243(10). paggagamot curing 
42(25). gamutin be treated 46 
(23). ginamot was treated 46(4). 
ginagamdt is being treated 290 
(13). ipinagamot was caused to 
be treated 54(8). 

-g&na S. : gumag&na is earning 

gani concern 98(6). 281(25). 

ganda beauty 70(11). magandi 

beautiful 48(15). 152(3). maga- 
ganda pL 72(19).. nagp&paganda 
is causing to be beautiful 48(18). 

ganito, see it5. 

ganiyin, see iyin. 

ganti that given in return 90 
(12). 200(33). 272(11). ganti g 
p&la*: gumanti-rj-p&la^ return fa- 
vors 231(14). gumanti act in re- 
taliation 227 (19) . maQhiganti ^aA;e 
vengeance 24(25). 241(19). mag- 
hlhiganti unll take vengeance 241 
(21). gantihin be given return for 
58(9). pa^)higantihin be the object 
of vengeance 40(38). 

g&no, see an6. 

ganoon, see iy6n. 

-g^paq : gumag&pa^ is crawling 
18(3). pagg4paQ a crawling 18 

-g&pas: paggapas kind of knife 
225(5). gum&pas cut, slice 227 
(20). pina^)gagap&san is being ctit 
from 256(32). 

-g&pos: igin&pos was tied down 

-gast^ S. :, paggast& a spendii%g 

gastos S. expense 54(27). 

g&tasmflfc 175(1). 

gawa^ that done 54(20). 74(8). 
240(34). 277(24). gumaw4» do, 
make 244(35). paggawa* a mak- 
ing, doing 86(10). 202(36). gawin 
be done, made 24(17). gigawin 
wUl be made, done 32(6). 104(1). 
ginawa^ was done, made 20(36). 
ginfigawA^ is being done, made 44 
(3.9). pinaggagawi* was variously 
done 310(8). ginawa&n wa^ done 
to 74(40). 76(3.6). gawian work- 
shop 58(41). gawad.n factory 315 
(35). kagagawan surprisingly, it^ 

Digitized by 





licitly done 277(23). nakagawi^ 
succeeded in making 86(7). naka- 
g6gawa' is able to make 281(28). 
magawa^ be able io be done 30(6). 
56(2). mag4gawA^ wUl be able to 
be done 18(20). 74(27). nagawi^ 
has been done 54(40). nag&gawi^ 
can be done 102(30). pagkagawi^ 
a having made, ability to make 282 
(10.28). mapaggawA^ given to do- 
ing 98(31). migawi^ chance to be 
done 238(36). pagkigawA* the 
way making turned out 291(3). 
pagawi^ ordered to be made 104 
(11). nagpagawa^ 104(8). caused 
io be made, ipinagawi^ was caused 
to be made 104(15). 

gawi^ direction 163(28). 193 

g&ya like 18(8). 316(30). 272. 

gaydn, see iyin. 

giM^ broken-down 225(9). gib&. 
giba^ tumble-down 290(36). maga- 
giM* collapse, pL 296(3). maflA- 
gigiba* wiU collapse 296(5). 

gilas energy, enterprise 48(32). 

-gQid: tagQid side 315(27). 
tumagilid turned the side to 231 
(17). pagtagilid a moving side- 
ways 192(20). 231(17). tinagili- 
ran was hurt in the side 254(18). 
tinaligdan was turned the side to 
254(19). tagiliran side wall, side 
part 261(29). nitatagllid is in- 
clined to one side 296(24). 

gQiw respected 219(3). 

ginAw cold feeling 280(38). na- 
ginaw got cold 285(17). 

-ginhawa : guminhawa became 
comfortable 227(20). gumiginha- 
wa is getting comfortable 227(21). 
kaginhawahan comfort, bliss 72 
(20). nakaginh&wa caused to be 

comfortable 280 ( 36 ) . maginh&wa 
comfortable 289 ( 6 ) . nagpaginhd- 
wa caused to be comfortable 302 

gini^) Miss, Mrs. 256. 

gintb gold 311(20). 

ginoo Mr,, gentleman 54(37). 
100(30). 219(3). 289(5). 256. 

-giQ 48. 250. 516.: magiQ be- 
come 18(26). 314(18). magigifl 
will become, take place 18(28). 94 
(23). nagi^) became, occurred 18 
(31). 36(38). 144(23). nagigifl is 
becoming, arising 42(5). 62(14). 
pagigi^) a becoming 314(19). 

-gisifl (a) awaken, tr.: kagigisifl 
there has been awakening 184(12). 
makagisiq accidentally awaken 62 
(11). nakagisiq awakened 257 
(32). nAgisi^ was accidentally 
awakened 293 ( 12 ) . napagisi^ 
caused himself to be awakened 311 
(30).— (b) With accent shifted: 
wake up, intr.: ikinAgisi^ was the 
cause of waking up 158(9). m4gi- 
sir) wake up 18(39). migigisig uM 
wake up 18(37). n&gisifl woke up 
38(21). pagk&gisi^) a waking up 
62(18). pagisi^-gisiT) waking up 
now and then 300(36). n&pagisi^j 
woke up 312(39). palagisi^jin ^^ 
ful sleeper Zl^{\^). 

gitna^ middle 16(7). 24(38). 

grupo S. group 90(25). 

gubat jungle 18(2). kagubatan 
jungle country 118(40). 

gubiyemo S. government 92 
(32). 200(18). 

-gugol: ginugol was spent 257 
(14). ginugugol « fteingr speti^ 112 

gula^) age 38(6). 56(33). pag- 
gula^) a growing ripe 272(22). ma- 

Digitized by 





giila^) old, mature; parent 32(6). 

-^at: gulatin scary 247(32). 
pagkaglilat a getting scared 285 
(42). pagkagulat asionishment 36 
(38). mapag^at given to scaring 
289(36). magugulatin jumpy 62 
(7). 290(4). nipagTilat was aston- 
ished 30(22). 58(8). palagulatin 
nervous person 315(20). 

gvlAy vegetable 72(36). 

-gulo: nagkaguld was surprised 
268(29). maguli confused 237 
(2). nagulo became confused 284 
(38). nagugnlo is confused 52 

gulod hiU 226(25). 

gulok bolo 38(27). 

-gumon: nagugumon is trailing 

guntig shears 26(2). 

gupit a cutting with scissors, 
hair-cut 219(13). paggupit used 
for cutting, scissors 225(5). gu- 
mupit cti^ 26(15). naggugupit cui 
to bits 238(33). naggugugupit is 
cutting to bits 238(34). paggugu- 
pit a cutting to bits 273(33). mag- 
gupit cut hair 26(1). naggupit 
did hair-cutting 167(2). ma^)gu- 
gupit ma^gugupit hair-cutter 24 
(34). 243(11). paggugupit hair- 
cutting 26(19). ginupit was cut 
60(6). gupitin be sheared 26(3). 
nakagupit was able to cut 281 
(29). pagkagupit a having cut 250 

(32). nakagupit accidentally cut 
290(12). nfigupit chanced to be 
cut 293(38). pagkdgupit a chance 
cutting 291(4.42). nagpagupit al- 
lowed himself to be sheared 302 
(33). pagpapagupit an allowing 
oneself to be sheared 302(34). ipi- 
nagupit was caused to be cut 180 


g6ra S. cap 246(4). 

guro^ teacher 80(40). 

gu8t5 S.: desired, liked 16(29). 
52(22). 267. paggusto a desiring 
18(21). gustuhin be desired 114 
(41). nagkagusto conceived a de- 
sire 268(31). ipinagkagusto was 
the cause of desiring 272(33). iki- 
nagugusto is the cause of liking 
273 ( 31 ) . pinagkakagustuhAn is be- 
ing liked by many 275(7). magus- 
ttihin fond 110(1). 289(42). pag- 
k&gusto a coming to desire 24(1). 
92(36). magustuh&n happen to be 
liked 1^(2). nagugustuhan « itfced 

gutom hunger 28(32). gutom 
hungry 76(8). gutumin be assailed 
by hunger 28(28). nagiigutom is 
hungry 285(19). palagutumin one 
who easily gets hungry 315(19). 

guwirdiya-sibil guwardiya-sivil 
S. gendarme, gendarmerie 20(20). 

guwarnisiyon S. harness 315 

guya' young of animal, calf 210 
(24). fifeeb&hay. 


hdba^ length 56(39). humaba' 
grew long 38(30). kahab&an length 
192(22). mah4ba^ long 120(2). 
pinakamah&ba^ longest 58(11). 
mahah4ba^ pj. 18(15). 

habfigat spring wind 227(40). 

habag while, during 16(2). 292. 

-h&bol : nagsisih&bol are pursuing 
301(21). pagh&bol a pursuing 84 
(27). pa^hah&bol a chasing 116 

Digitized by 





(7). habulin le pursued 18(10). 
hinabol was pursued 88(24). hini- 
habol is being pursued 68(19). na- 
hah&bol gets pursued 18(8). ipina- 
habol was caused to be pursued 76 
(10). ipinahihabol is being caused 
to be pursued 72(32). 

hagdin ladder 270(31). hagdd- 
nan stairway 106(11). 

-h&gis: nagh&gis tossed 48(8). 
inihdgis was tossed 16(30). 248 
(17). mapa^jh&gis given to fling- 
ing 289(36). pahagis with a toss 
300(14) and Corrigenda. 

-hagk, see halik. 

-h&god: humah4god is stroking 
98(21). hinigod was stroked 84 

Hagunoy place-n. 110(24). 

-hakba^): Mhakb^g will take a 
step 70(1). paghakba^) a stepping 

-hakot: paghahakutan a carting 
together 118(17). 

halagi; price 54(23). mahalagi 
dear 36(14). 234(41). pinakama- 
halaga most valued 42(1). 288(38). 
inahahalaga pi. 116(2). 

-halakhak: n&pahalakhak burst 
into laughter 68(26). 

halaman garden-plant 72(36). 
halamanan garden, flower-pot 74 
(14). 260(38). 

halayAS.jfeHi/ 253(38). 

halige post 64(23). 

halik kiss 94(12). humalik 
kissed 227(22). hagkan be kissed 
251(24). hinagkin was kissed 94 
(10). mahagkan be able to be 
kissed 92(26). 

halimb4wa^ example 48(23). 62 
(10). 265(2). 

-halimhim : hinihalimhiman is 
being brooded on 102(18). 

hilo^ that admixed 220(35). 
h41u-h41o^ confused 50(15). hina- 
luan was mixed with 251(24). hi- 
nihaliian is being given an admix- 
ture 108(6). haluan mixing-vessel 
260(8). pinahihaluan is being 
caused to be gven an admixture 

halos almost 110(25). 265(3). 

h&mak unfortunate, no-account 
219(3). ikapah4mak be the cause 
of coming to grief 310(12). ikap4- 
pah&mak unll be the cause of comb- 
ing to grief 310(14). mipahamak 
come to grief 312(22). mipApaM- 
mak v)Hl become good-for-nothing 
312(24). napahdmak came to grief 
312(17). nip4pah&mak is getting 
spoiled 312(19). 

hampis whipping, whip 220 
(37). 221(42). hampis-lupa^ vaga- 
bond 211(4). maghampas-lupa^ be a 
vagabond 235(27). paghampas u^ed 
as a whip 225(8). humampas hi^ 
with a whip 227(24). naghamp^ 
whipped himself 233(38). nagha- 
hahamp^ is whipping about 238 
(36). maghampas whip people 239 
(38). hampasin be whipped 184 
(8). hinampasan was struck with 
a whip 251(25). hamp4san whip- 
ping-be7ich 258(27). kahampasan 
one of two who perform mutual 
flagellation 277(39). nahampas /wf5 
been whipped 284(12). nakftham- 
pS^ happened to hit 291(27). na- 
hampas was accidentally hit with a 
whip 293(14). pagkahampas a 
chance hitting 62{11),292{Z). p&- 
hampasin be whipped harder 305 


Digitized by 





hamon a chaUenge 52(25). ma^- 
hahamon wHl chaUenge 48(24). 
maghahdmon challenger 48(29). 
hinamon was challenged 48(32). 
hinahamon is being challenged 18 

hanap that sought 76(23). h&- 
nap-buhay livelihood 271(40). mag- 
hahanap-buhay wUl work for a 
livelihood 193(32). 235(30). hu- 
manap seek 74(23). pagMnap a 
seeking 227(25). magh4nap earn 
32(11). 233(39). paghah&nap the 
earning one's living 60(16). 102 
(7). maghan&p seek in quantity; 
search 237(28). paghahan&p a 
searching 52(29). han&pin be 
sought 92(12). 244(13). hin&nap 
tvas sought out 16(22). hinahanap 
is being sought 76(18). ihdnap be 
looked for for 30(32). paghahana- 
pan a searching through a place 
52(34). nahdnap has been sought 
143 ( 36) . makapaghan&p have 
searched 287(20). nakapaghan&p 
has searched 287(18). pinahan&- 
pan was ordered to be sought in 

handa* a serving food 114(34). 
maghanda' serve 112(29). naghfi- 
handa* is serving 114(9). ih&- 
handa^ will be served 237(36). 
imhandk'^ was served 299 (11) . ini- 
hahandi^ is being served out 62 
(36). nakahanda* is served 183 
(22). 281(4). 

-hanlAy: hantayin be awaited 32 
(26). hinantAy was awaited 50 

harjad aim, goal 46(36). 

hagAl fool 276(31). kahaoalan 
foolishness 276(31). 

-ha^jga: ha^gahan boundary 258 
(29). hsLX^gkn limit 22(6). 

haflgai) untU, up to 16(12). 68. 

hagin wind 118(31). 

-h&go^: peighkiQol^ a rescuing 78 
(10). hinkTQo'^ was rescued 88(36). 
ikahah&^)o^ wUl be the means of 
rescuing 74(42). mahd^o* be able 
to be rescued 74(23). mahah&go^ 
unU be able to be rescued 78(2). 
nahih&^)o^ is being rescued 78(12). 

h&pis grief 38(11). hindpis was 
grieved 244(14). nahah&pis is sad 
285(20). pagkah&pis a grieving 74 

Mpon afternoon 18(39). 190(23. 
31). magMpon whole day 112(9). 
262(8). kah&pon ^.yesterday 152 
(13). 172(6). 259. pagkahdpon a 
having supped 104(16). 

Hapin S. Japan 269(20). 

Hapun^s S. Japanese 306(19). 

h&rafl obstruction 220(39). pa^)- 
h&ra^ u^ed as an obstruction 225 
(8). hum&ra^j held up 227(26). 
pagh&nn) a holding up 198(21). 
nagMra^ made an obstruction 233 
(41). paghahirai) an obstructing 
233(42). naflh&rag held people up 
239(38). pa\jhah4ra^) highway rob- 
bery 239(40). hin&ra^ was held up 
282(36). ipinaQh&rar) was used in 
holding up 250(10). hinar&Qan 
was obstructed 251(27). pina^jha- 
r&flan was the place of holding up 
255(11). hara^an hold-up 197(9). 
paghaharagin a holding up to- 
gether 275(22). ikinahArai) was 
the cause of being held up 272(6). 
pagkah&raq a having held up 282 
(29). pagkapaghaharai) a having 
practised highway robbery 287 

Digitized by 





(30). nahirag got held up 295(6). 
pagkah4raQ a chance holding up 
292(5). pahirafl caused to be held 
wp 197(10). paharkx} crosswise SOO 
(15). pagpapah&ra^ a causing to 
he held up 302(36). pinapaQhahi- 
ra^) is being caused to practise 
highway robbery 305(22). ipina- 
h&ra^ was caused to be held up 

harAp front 228(25). hum&ha- 
rAp is facing 96(7). hdharip uM 
be present 96(18). hinar&p ums 
faced 20(37). harapan place in 
front of 24(37). kahariip facing 
98(21). nAharap came to face 72 

hardin S. garden 72(19). 

hari^ king 24(29). naghahiri^ is 
ruling 24(30). pagharian be ruled 
255(14). pinagh&harian is being 
ruled 24(32). kahariyan kingdom 
24(36). 276(18). 

-h&sa': hasi^ sharpened 202(30). 
paghahasa' a sharpening 232(16). 
ihasa* be sharpened 248(19). ha- 
saan be given a sharp edge 251 
(28). paghasaan be sharpened on 
255(15). hasaan whetstone 255 

-hatak: paghdtak a tugging 78 
(8). hatdkin be pulled at 284(16). 
kahatakan one of two who tug 
against each other 186(38). 

hati^ divide; that divided; mid- 
222 (1). hati gabi: nagMhAti- 
r)-gabi it is midnight 84(19). 235 
(24). kiniMti-^)-gabihlLn ums at 
midnight 38(21). 279(25). hati^ 
divided 222(31). parjh&ti* used 
for dividing 225(11). humiti^ di- 
vided, halved 227(29). nagh&ti^ 
distributed 234(1). paghahiti^ a 

distributing 234(3). naghati* di- 
vided up, divided in quantity 237 
(30). paghahati^ a dividing in 
quantity 237(32). nagh&ti* shared 
order* 239(41). pa^jhahati* a 5/iar- 
ing orders 239(42). hiniti' was di- 
vided 16(7). 244(4). pinaghatP 
was divided in quantity 246(20). 
paghatian be shared 28(34). iki- 
nahdti^ was the cause of breaking 
in two 270(39). of being able to 
divide 272(9). nah&ti* hm been 
divided 284(39). pagkah4ti* a 
having divided 282(31), nakaha- 
ti^ chanced to divide 291(29). 
pagkihiti* a chance dividing 291 
(6). 292(8). pahdti' ordered to be 
divided 299(14). pahati^ tending 
to halve 300(18). nagpah&ti* caus- 
ed to be divided 302(38). pag- 
papah4ti' a causing to be divided 
302(41). ipinh&ti* was caused to 
be divided 306(13). ipinagpahiti' 
was caused to be divided up 307 
(19). pinahatian was caused to be 
given his share 308(9). pinapa- 
hatian was caused to be caused to 
to be given his share 308(41). 
kalahiti' half 80(24). 273(21). 
314 ( 32 ) . kalaMti-^-araw half -day 
118 ( 26 ) . kalahati-g-oras half -hour 
66(36). magk&kalahatP wHl be 
half through 104(17). 238(22). 
pagagalahati^ a being halfway 24 
(6). 241(13). kalahatian middle 

-hatid: naghatid canveyed 56 
(26). nagh&hatid is conveying 98 
(3). paghahatid an escorting 114 
(39). ihatid be conveyed 34(6). 
ihihatid wUl be conveyed 104(28). 
inihatid was conveyed 20(26). 
inih4hatid is being conveyed 20(4).. 

Digitized by 





hahatdan wiU be conveyed to 175 
( 1 ) . hinAhatdan is being conveyed 
to 190(10). paghAhatd^n wiU be 
delivered to 20(9). pinaghatdan 
was delivered to 255(16). pinag- 
hahatdin is being delivered to 179 
(8). ipinahatid ivas caused to be 
conveyed 294(28). napahatid had 
himself conveyed 52(37). 

Mtol advice 30(4). naghAh&tol 
advisee 74(30). 

-h&wa: nak&hah&wa^ is contag- 
ious 272(3). 

h&wak that grasped 66(35). 
humiwak took hold 78(7). pag- 
Mwak a taking hold 227(31). hina- 
w&kan was taken hold of 66(26). 
makah&wak be able to take hold 
22 ( 22 ) . nakah&wak has taken hold 
281(14). nakAh&wak got hold of 

-hdyag (a) : pahdyag that pxib- 
lished 48(37). nagpapahiyag 
causes to become public, announces 
48(35). pagpapahdyag an an- 
nouncing 90(22). ipinahdyag was 
caused to become public, was an- 
nounced 56(6). pahay&gan pA- 
hayagan newspaper 48(27). 236 
(41). See b&hay. — (b) unth accent 
shift: hay&gan public affair, pub- 
lic 236(37). ndhayag got widely 
known 60(11). 

hkyop animal; caribou 28(26). 

-higA^: paghiga^ a going to bed 
64(6). himhigan is being slept on 
102(26). hig&an feed 244(22). hi- 
higan couch 62(12). kahihigi^ 
there has just been lying doom 267 
(15). makahigA^ be able to lie 
down 281(33). nakahigi^ has lain 
down 86(39). nahigi^ lay down 
38(17). 285(34). nahOiigA^ is in 

the act of Vying down 285(35). 
m&higi^ get laid 295(8). nagpati- 
higa^ suddenly lay down 313(20). 
m&patihiga^ fall on one's back 313 
(37). napapatihiga^ falls on his 
back 313(35). 

higAnte S. ^rian^ 32(31). 

-higit: mahigit with an excess 

-higpit : mahigpit firm, strict 42 
(40). mahihigpitpL 122(5). 

hikaw ear-ring 303(3). nagpa- 
hikaw caused himself to be adorned 
with ear-rings 303(2). 

-hfla : humihila is dragging 118 
(20). paghlla a dragging 118 
(22). hinlla was dragged 16(3). 
hinihfla is being dragged 100(23). 
mahihila unll be able to be dragged 

-hilamos: paghilamos water for 
washing hands 62(36). 

hilaw raw 28(31). palahilawin 
kind of rice 315(20), 

hilig request 219(34). humilig 
requested 186(18). hinilig was 
asked for 16(27). hinihiliT) is being 
asked /or 52(8). mapaghilig given 
to demanding 42(7). 

hilera S. row 34(20). makahilera 
be in single file 110(41). naka- 
hilera is in single file 122(2). 

-himbi^j : mahimbig sound, deep 
296(39). nahimbig fell sound asleep 

hina^ weakness 18(7). humina^ 
became weak, slow 227(34). nag- 
hlna^ made gentle 234(5). na^y- 
hina^ slackened wp. 240(2). nag- 
sisipaghina^ are getting weak 108 
(28). kahin&an weakness, slowness 
22(39). mahina^ weak, slow 22 
(33). mahihina^ pi. 149(20). 

Digitized by 





hinala^ suspicion 40(23). paghi- 
hm41a^ a suspecting 84(39). hin- 
m41a^ wds suspected 30(23). hini- 
hinala^ is being suspected 18(20). 
pinaghihinalaan is the object of 
suspicion 40(21). mipaghihinal&an 
m&papaghinaldan wiU get su^s- 
pected 38(19), 298(19). nipaghi- 
hinal4an napapaghinalaan gets sus- 
pected 298(15). 

hindi^ not, no 16(4). 152(7). 
228. 237. 239. 301. 319. 340. 

-hinhin: mahihinhin respectable, 
decent, pi 94(11). 

hintay wait 206(1). maghintay 
wait 153(4). naghintay awaited 26 
(13). 30(14). naghihinlAy is await- 
ing 48(12). paghihint^y a waiting 
285(23). hinintay was awaited 120 

hinto^ a stopping; stop 22(26). 
222(2). stopped 223(28). maghin- 
td' stop 170(3). magsihmto^ pi. 
184(22). naghinto' stopped, ceased 
18(3). 283(13). naghihinto^ stops 
110(36). nagsisipaghinto^ pi 112 
(5). ihinto^ be stopped 104 (19). 
hintuan be ceased from 251(28). 
hinintuan was ceased from 122 
(22). hintuan stopping-place 258 
(32). m&hinto^ come to an end 60 
(37). n4hmt5^ got stopped 259 
(34). pahinto-hinto^ stopping at 
intervals 300(30). pinahmt5' was 
caused to stop 26(2). pinapag- 
hinto^ was caused to cease 84(31). 
ipinahintd' was caused to be stop- 
ped 2il{l). 

-hinttilot: pahintulot a permit 
116(2). 272(4). ipinahihintulat 
is being permitted 54(18). pahin- 
tulutan be given permission 264 
(22). pinahintuliitan was given 

permission 264(39). pinahihintulu- 
tan is being given permission 122 

hindg ripe 34(28). nagk4kahin6g 
are in part getting ripe 36(1). 
nahindg got ripe 16(13). pagka- 
hindg a getting ripe 300(19). na- 
pahinog was able to be caused to 
ripen 311(20). napahinog came to 
be caused to ripen 312(27). 

-hiQ^: humihlQ^ is breathing 20 
(8). hinioi breath 40(28). 228 
(29). makapaghiQ^ be able to 
breathe 68(20). magpahioi rest 54 
(11). nagp4paliiQ4 is resting 303 
(3). makapaliiQ& be able to rest 
311(2). makap&pahi]]^ wHl have 
rested 311(4). nakapahi:ga ha$ 
rested 310(43). nakapipahi^ji has 
just rested, is rested 206(1). na- 
papahigi is resting, of animMs 312 
(31). naijApapahiga pL 312(37). 

higi^: paghi^i^ a requesting 227 
(35). maohioi^ beg 34(18). na^- 
higi^ begged 32(20). nagsisipa^)- 
higi^ are begging 112 ( 5) . mag- 
hihi^ji^ begger, beggar 112(16). ma- 
kahifli^ be able to ask for 281(33) 
makdhioi^ get by asking 32(22). 

hip, see -Ihip. 

hipag husband's sister, (wom- 
an's) brother's wife 242(13). mag- 
hipag two women, one of whom is 
married to the other's brother 242 

hipon kind of shrimp 259(6). 

-hiram : hihiram wHl borrow 227 
(36). marjhiram borrow 240(5). 
paioWhiram a borrowing 221(5). 
hinirim was borrowed 174(22). 
hlr^man person borrowed from 258 
(34). kahiraman one of two who 
borrow from each other 277(39), 

Digitized by 





magkahiraman two who borrow 
from each other 278(35). mak&ka- 
pa^jhirim wiU be able to borrow 
287(24). nak&kapaQhiram is able 
to borrow 287(22). mapaflhiiAm 
given to borrowing 289(37). papafl- 
hiramin be caused to go and bor- 
row 305(34). mapahihirim will be 
able to be caused to borrow, wHl be 
able to be lent to 311(21). 

Wrap misery 22(5). 50(29). hir- 
ap wearied 62(25). maghihirap 
will suffer 46(18). paghihirap suf- 
fering 44(24). kahir&pan hardship 
62(4). mahirap difficult, poor 22 
(32). 36(19). 269(3). mahihirap 
pi. 54(22). nahir&pan was pained, 
wearied 118(22). naliihir4pan is 
being pained 44(12). nagp^pahir- 
ap is causing to suffer 22(10). pag- 
papahfrap a causing to suffer 46 
(14). 273(1). pagpapakahlrap a 
taking pains 309(20). pahihir&pan 
urill be caused to suffer 44(10). 100 

HesusS.Je^T^ 285(42). 

-hitit: hititin be puffed at 66 

-hits4 (S.t) : ihinihitsi is being 
tossed up 48(5). hinitsahin was 
tossed to ..48(7). n4pahitsi got 
thrown upward 84(3). 

hitsura S. appearance 40(13). 
106(11). 116(33). 

-hiwa^: hiniwa^ urns slashed 20 
(33). 203(37). 

-hiwalay : maghiwi-hiwaliy part, 
separate, pi. 183(11). naghiwaliy 
parted (two persons) 88(17). nag- 
hiw4-hiwaiay pi. 26(34). 102(40). 
naghihiwaliy are parting 40(18). 
magk&hiwalky go apart (two invol- 
nntary actors) 270(38). magk^kA- 

hiwi-hiwaliy unU part, pi. 26(32). 
nagkihiwi-hiwaliy went apart, pi. 

hiyk^ shame 72(12). 90(39). ka- 
hiy4-hiyi^ arousing sham^ 58(13). 
kahiyaAn be revered 274(18). ma- 
kahiyA^ given to embarrassment 
288(31). nahihiyi^ is ashamed 285 
(20). mapaohiyi^ given to embar- 
rassing 289(38). 

heyngrafiya hewgrafiya 8. geog- 
raphy 82(1). 

hubad naked 223(29). maghubM 
undress oneself 232(19). pinaghu- 
hubar&n is being undressed in 255 
(18). nagpahubid had himself un- 
dressed 303 ( ( 5 ) . pinapaghubid 
was caused to undress himself 305 
(21). pinahubarin was caused to 
be undressed 308(11). 

hugas dish-washing 219 ( 36 ) . 
naghuhugas is washing 114(7). 
maghuhugis dish-washer 242(42). 
maflhuhugis id. 243(14). hiniihu- 
g4san is being washed 251(30). hu- 
gas^ place for dish-washing 260 

hukay hole, ditch 24(38). hukiy 
hollowed 104(9). humukay dig 24 
(37). 152(32). dug 179(26). huhu- 
k4yin huhuk4in wHl be dug 309 
(34). ihinukay was dug for 248 
(19). hinuk4yan was dug up 179 

hukdm judge 18(26). hiikuman 
court of justice 54 ( 31 ) . paghuhu- 
kuman session of court 54(34). 

-hula^: hurnula^ predicted 277 
(37). maohula^ teU fortunes 240 
(6). maflhuhula^ foHune-teller 206 

huU (a) that caught 220(41). 
282(6). pa^jhuli means of catching 

Digitized by 




52(27). humuli catch 108(5). 165 
(34). paghuli a catching 108(3). 
nag^ihuli are catching 102(1). 
naflhuhuli goes catching 106(39). 
240(6). paflhuhuli a catching in 
quantity 106(24). ma^jhuhuli catch- 
er 56(20). 110(6) hulihin be 
caught 52(16). 68(9). hinuli was 
caught 20(20). 84(31). hulflian be 
caught from 251(32). hulih&n a 
catching by many 260(9). pagka- 
hiili a having caught 282 (33). mk- 
hiUi get caught 52(22). 70(19). 
102(3). nahuli got caught 16(22). 
44(16). n^uhiili is getting caught, 
is caught 28(29). 309(7). nagpa- 
huli allowed himself to be left be- 
hind 68(36). tagahuli catcher 165 
(34). — (b) Accent shifted: hull 
late; last 20(30). 28(18). 222(31). 
paflhuli last 226(10). kahuli-huU- 
han very last 40(27). 280(17). m4- 
huli be late 235(39). m^huhuli iviU 
be left behind 18(18). n4huli u;as 
last 118(34). pagkihuli a being 
left behind 18(31). 296(18). ma- 
pApaghuli tviU all be caught 198 
(12). 297(20). 

Huliyo S. n. 279(5). 

Holds. Swiit 120(18). 

htilo^ source, upstream 279(4). 

-htilog: ihulog be dropped 168 
(19). ihuhiilog will be dropped 64 
(43). huliigan be dropped to 16 
(17). huhulugan wUl be dropped 
to 16(19). ipakihulog be dropped 
along 265(6). ipinakihulog was 
dropped along 265(9). ipinaHkihu- 
log is being asked to be dropped 
along 265(10). ikinahtilog was the 
cause of falling 74(38). kahuhulu- 
gan wiU be fallen from 158(30). 
kinahulugan was fallen from 274 
(19). kahulugan one of two who 


drop to each other 278(6). kahulu- 
gkn meaning 30(18). 120(24). na- 
kahiilog caused to drop 281(34). 
mahulog fall down 299(32). mahii- 
hiilog WiU fall down 22(12). nahti- 
log feU down 24(7). pagkahfllog 
a falling down 24(18). magpatihu- 
Ibg throw oneself down 206(23). 
magpipatihuldg vnll throw himself 
down 313(28). nagpatihuldg threw 
himself down 313(21). nagpapati- 
hulog throws himself down 313 

huni chirp 197(21). humuni 
purred 84(1). hunOian chirping to- 
gether 202(21). kahftnlhan one of 
two that chirp at each other 278 
(8). mapaghuni given to neighing 
289(31). palahunfliin given to 
neighing, chirping 315(15). 

Huniyo S. June 110(11). 

himkdy winnowed 223(30) nag- 
hugkdy ivinnowed 232(21). huQ- 
kuyan winnowing-machine 258 

Hordan S. Jordan 106(6). 

hurno S. oven 212(36). 

hiisay excellence 58(1). nagsisi- 
husay are getting well 108(36). 
mahiisay in good shape, excellent 
46(5). 108(12). 269(4). pinakama- 
husay most excellent 28(38). mahu- 
husay pL 196(22). nAhusay go* 
weU 44(24). 

husto S. just suited 108(40). 

hota S. iota 30(16). 

huwkg not, do not 20(13). 234. 
239. 240. 

Huwin S. n. 20(2). 

Huw4na S. n. 173(25). 

huwitaw (Ct) Chinese bowl 255 

huwSs S. judge 54(37). 

huwetii) (Ct) lottery 229(26). 

Digitized by 






iba other 22(10). 66. 98. 132. 
251. 314. iba t i\A: nakapagiiba- 
t-iba is able to alter 36(10). pin- 
agibhan was differed in 255(19). 
pagkakiibi a being different 46 
(39). 276(31). niiba got different 
294(24) nMiba changes 50(17). 
pagkaiba a being different 110(17). 
ibig liked, desired 20(18). 267. 
paglbig a desiring, loving 60(25). 
64 (4). inibig was desired, loved 
18(15). 40(16). iniibig is being de- 
sired, loved 92(20). ibigan mutual 
love 259(28). magibigan loved 
each other 236(29). nagiibigan are 
loving each other 236(29). pagiibi- 
gan a loving each other 90(6). kai- 
bigin desire, affection 140(2). 168 
(38). kaibigan one of two who love 
each other 94(18). 140(2). 278(9). 
raagkaibigan two who love each 
other 42(30). 278(36). kayibigan 
friend 16(5). 139(41). 278(17). 
magkayibigan pair of friends 22 
(30). 278(37). magkakayibigan pi. 
26(30). 278(40). pagkakayiblgan 
a being friends 24(28). 278(30). 
makipagkayibigan make friends 
with 40(6). 278(31). nakipagkayi- 
bigan made friends with 86(30). 
kaibigan person loved 279(41). 
nagkakaibigan are loving each 
other 90(32). 280(4). maibigin 
fond of 96(39). 110(15). 

ibon bird 197(21). 

-igi': maigi^ accurate 28(5). 

igib that dipped 220(42). umigib 
dip out 227(38). magigib fetch 
u;afer 282(24). 

Igorote S. Igorote 110(33). 

-fhaw: iMw roasted 222(32). 

magihaw roast, tr. 232(21). inlhaw 
was roasted 244(16) ihaw4n grid- 
iron 295(9). 

-Ihip: umiihip is blowing 227 
(39). hinipan was blown on 251 


ikaw thou 18(10). 47. 63. 182. 
See iyd, ki, md. 

-ikid: nakaikid is coiled up 120 
(21). tagalkid roUer 315(35). 

-ikli^: kaiklian shortness 192 
(21). maiikli^ short, pi. 24(31). 
nfipakaikli^ very short 221(17). 

flag go away 151(39). umflag 
get out of the way 56(20). nagsii- 
lag got out of the way, pi. 118(34). 
umiilag is running aumy 116(7). 
pagiflag a getting away 116(27). 
pagiflflag an avoiding 102(2). 118 
(43). 240(8). flagan inlag&n be 
avoided 238(42). iniligan was 
avoided 251(37). innl&gan is being 
avoided 36(22). 

ilkn a few; how many? 16(11). 
66. 98. fllan only a /cw 38(9). 48 
(28). mak&ilin several times 44 
(39). 298(33). 

ilai) uncanny 40(9). pagilag a 
tricking 227(41). kailar)an kayild- 
ijan necessity 58(16). 275(35). 288 
(12). nag^Tjaila^an requires 108 
(2). 275(38). paT)aT)ail&gan a need- 
ing 236(32). 275(39). kakaUaTifi- 
nin will be necessitated 275(39). 
kinakailagan is being necessitated 
46(11). 82(38). nailag wa^ non- 
plussed. 285(21). 

-flap: maiflap wildy pi. 28(25). 

flaw light, lamp 122(5). flawin 
lamp 286(27). maflaw illuminated 

Digitized by 





elektrisidad S. eleciriciiy 290 


-flin: paoioflin performing of 
ceremonies 112(18). 

Hog river 16(2). Ilog-P&sig Pa- 
sig river 244(9). 

I16ko S. Iloko 275(8). 

impiy^mo, see infiySmo. 

empleya S. employment 92(32). 

impd grandmother 59. 256. ma- 
gimpd grandmother and grand- 
cWW 242(13). 

ina mother 30(27). 151(22). 59. 
magini mother and child 242(14). 
magiina pi. 242(30). inahin female 
238(40). iniinA godmother 247 


-inam: malnam handsome, pleas- 
ant 18(14). 269 (5). painiman be 
made very pretty 308(37). 

indi^ grandmother 59. 256. 

-inip: nalinip is impatient 285 

init heat 134(19). init heated, 
angry 167(9). 222(33). uminit be- 
came hot 227(42). naglnit heated; 
grew angry 24(22). nagiinit is 
heating 234(6). kainitan heat 118 
(20). malnit hot 50(9). maiinit pi. 
96(29). and Corrigenda, taginit 
hot season 152(20). 315(11). and 

iniyd prep, and loc. of kayo: 
your, you, by you, pi. 165. 169. 
niniyo disj., by you, of you, 163. 

-inlag, see flag. 

infiy&mo impiyerno S. hell 22 

entablado S. platform 98(40). 

-intindS S. : naintindihan was 
understood 50(6). 

Intsek Chinese 56(34). 

-ind : inino was paid attention to 
68(6). n§Ani> got noticed lOO (3). 

-indm: uminom drank 228(2). 
paginom a drinking 163(21). ma- 
giinom drink much 206(26). ma- 
Qi^inom ma^iinoin boozer 243(11). 
ininom was drunk 230(11). inu- 
min drinking water 247(27). urn- 
minan water-shelf 259(22). inu- 
man drinking-party 257(25). kai 
numan one of two who dri^ik to- 
gether 277(40). makAinom acci- 
dentally drink 88(34). pinaiinom 
is being caused to drink 200(18), 
tagaindm one whose only duty it is 
to drink 315(36). tagapagpainora 
one whose duty it is to give drink 

intiyat molasses 253(40). 

-i^)at: nagi^jat was careful 288 
(13). nagii^jat is being careful 48 
(13). pagii^jat a being careful 62 
(14) igatan be done carefully 227 
(31). pagir)4tan be given due care 
255(20). malgat careful 40(22). 

iT)ay noise 32(30). pagiirj^y a 
making much noise 293(13). naS- 
]Oay made a sound 285(30). mai- 
gay mafce a sound 106(5). noisy 

Iggl^s Iggleses S. English 155 
(24). 260(11). 

igkantado S. enchanted 84(16). 

egkantador S. enchanter 84(38). 

igkog grandfather 59. 256. 

ipa rice-hulls 120(22). 

-Ipat, see dpat. 

-Ipon: nagsisipaglpon are gath- 
ering up 262(37). maipon luive 
been gathered 34(12). naSpon has 
been gathered 60(32). mMpon get 
gathered 293(39). 

irt this 163(36). 64. niri disj.. 

Digitized by 





of this, by this 316(18). 166. See 
also dine. 

iakskone,a 16(3). 67. 248. 261. 
314. iak iQ b&hay: kasa-Q-Mhay 
housemate 68(22). 266(37). isi 5 
da^n: ikais^-Q-daan hundredth 273 
(22). is^ Q lakA: ikais^-Q-laks&^ 
miUionth 273(23). isa llbo: 
ikaisa-o-llbo thousandth 273(23). 
isi X} pfi^ : paflsa-m-pu^ number ten 
225(40). ikasi-m-pu^ tenth 212 
(38). 273(24). makfea-m-pu^ ten 
times 64(19). lisa only one 36(20). 
isi-isa one by one 32(23). 76(19). 
265(4). nagisi-isi acted one by 
one 239(16). inisi-isa were taken 
one by one 76(15). 

isda^ fish 88(26). magigisda^ 
fisherman 243(6). paliisd&an ^fc- 
p(wid 315(24). 

Isip thought, intelligence; think 
88(15). 159(29). 184(15). 222(2). 
pagisip means of thinking 271(15). 
umisip think 228(3). thought out 
96(19). 100(15). pagisip a think- 
ing out 228(4). maglsip take 
thought 200(23). 234(7). naglsip 
took thought, planned 207(20). 
233(8). pagiisip a planning; think- 
ing-power, reason 44(25). 98(34). 
234(9). 252X31). 254(27). magi- 
sip think of various things 237 
(33). nagisip thought about, ran- 
sacked his mind 102(43). nagiisip 
is variously thinking of 202(42). 
pagiisip a searching through one's 
mind 30(16). isipin be thought of 
166(11). inisij) was thought of 170 
(4). pinagisip was planned 246 
(14). pinagisip was variously 
thought out 246(21). pagkaisip a 
having thought out 193(31). pag- 
kaisip a chance thinking out 291 

(7). 292(11). nagpaisip caused to 
be thought out 310(21). ipinaisip 
was caused to be thought of 306 

eskuw^la S. pupU 304(5). eska- 
wSlhan school 90(3). 

Espiniya S. Spain 80(40). 

ispirito S. spirit 66(23). 

Est&dos-Unidos S. United States 

estasiyon S. station 116(20). 

estudiyinte S. student 26(29). 

estop&doS.^ew 182(2). 

istoriya S. history 271 ( 6 ) . 

itim black 36(40). itiman be 
made black 251(40). kaitim what 
blackness 151(27). kaiitim pi. 267 
(41). maitim black 36(12). piiti- 
man be made very black 308(37). 

itl6g egg 28(31). pina^jitlugan 
was laid into 256(35). p&^itlugan 
place where eggs are laid 262(4). 

itd yito this, the latter, he, it 16 
(32). 64. nit5 disj., of this, by this 
20(34). 166. ganit5 in this manner 
26(7). 190. See also dito. 

-iwan: iwan {for i-iwan) be left 
32(3). 140(3). iiwan wiU be left 
248(21). iniwan was left 32(25). 
44(42). iniiwan is being left 248 
(22). kinaiwinan was left in 237 
(34). nsSwan has been left S2{27). 
naiQaiwan pi. 120(33). naiwan got 
left 293(16). nagp&iw&n caused 
himself to be left 50(38). 304(26). 

-iyJik: umiyik weep, cry 186 
(35). nmiiyik is weeping 22(24). 
nagsisiiyJlk pi. 114(15). pagiyak 
a weeping, crying 100(1). 228(6). 
iniiyjdcan is being wept for 251 
(42). iy&kan a crying by many 
100(4). 257(26). nagiy&kan wept 
together S2 {8). ikiniiyAk wa« the 

Digitized by 





cause of weeping 30(37). paiyik- 
iyak weeping at intervals 300(38). 
pagpapaiy&k a causing to cry 100 
(7). n4paiy&k hurst into tears 90 
(20). palaiyakin cry-baby 315 


iy4n ykn that 20(9). 64. niyAn 
disj., of that, by that 157(32). 166. 
ganiyin in that manner 20(12). 
102(22). 190. See also diyin. 

iy6 yo prep, and loc. of ikaw: 

by thee, thee, thy 16(28). 165. 169. 

iyon ydn yo6n yaon that, yon, 
the former 16(9). 64. niyon no6n 
disj., of that, by thai, 34(27). 38 
(8). 50(27). 166. gayon ganodn 
in that manner 18(19). 190. 238. 
239 magkagayon happen thus 46 
(17). 271(10). SeeaUoAoi^n. 

Eynrupa Yurupa S. Europe 82 
(2). 221(37). 

ki thou, enclitic form of ikaw 
47. 63. 182. 

kabaliyeresa S. stable 181(39). 

kab^n box; dry measure of 75 
litres, equal to 25 salop; twenty- 
five 220(38). 228(36). 

kabdyo S. horse 60(30). 288(25). 
See kinamatayan. nagagabdyo is 
riding horseback 240(9). kabd-ka- 
bayuhan hobby-horse 261(34). na- 
kapagagabayo is able to ride horse- 
back 287(26). 

kabiyaw: kumabiyaw press sug- 
ar-cane 228(6). kabyawan cane- 
press 255(28). pagkabyawan be 
used to press cane in 255(27). pag- 
kakabyawan will be ivsed to press 
cane in 255(28). pinagkabyawan 
was the place of pressing cane 255 
(24). pinagkakabyawan is the 
place of cane-pressing 255(25). 

kabuluhin, see -bulo. 

kabuti mushroom 244(19). 

-kagat: pagkagat a gnawing 36 
(4). 86(6). kinagat was gnawed 
76(9). kin&kagat is being gnawed 
106(30). pinagkakagat was vari- 
ously gnawed 84(24). 

kfihit although; no matter; any 

18(11). 22(3). 28(41). 48. 68. 248. 
253. 264. 290. 294. 

kahon S. box 84(42). 120(20). 

kahoy wood; tree 32(33). 34 
(28). 58(1). See bug a, piraso, 

-kain: kum&in eat 24(1). ate 16 
(16). kumak&in is eating 42(8). 
kkkkiu wUl eat 28(39). pagkdin 
an eating; food 28(33). 241(40). 
254(5). nagagdin makes his food 
0/36(13). k&nin be eaten 293(20). 
boiled rice 72(34). Unain was 
eaten 32(16). contents of stomach 
275(7). maginain graze 18(33). 
241(13). nagirjin&in is grazing 18 
(2). paQigin&in a grazing 18(4). 
makapagindin have grazed 18 
(36). kinakain is being eaten 36 
(15). kakanin sweetmeats 108(6). 
nagkakakanin makes sweetmeats 
236(7). pagkanan be eaten from 
255(30). kainan eating-party 284 
(36). pagkakainan an eating to- 
gether 108(21). kainan kakanin 
dining-room 114(6). 230(12). ma- 
kik&in eat along 192(40). makiki- 
k&in will eat along 264(6). naki- 
kain ate along 264(7). kakak4in 

Digitized by 





there has been eating 175(8). ka- 
kAinan one of two who eat together 
278(9). makak&in be able to eat 
94(30). 281(37). nakfiin was able 
to be eaten 283(27). pagkak&in a 
having eaten 108(27). makakiin 
happen to eat 108(9). makipaki- 
k&in-k4in ever eat along 297(26). 
paopak&in served as food 112(29). 
nagpakain caused to be eaten 303 
(6). pagpapakdin a causing to eat 
112(39). pakanin be caused to eat 
72(33). ipinakipakain was asked 
to be caused to eat 307(37). taga- 
kain one whose task is merely to 
eat 315(37). tagapagpakain one 
who is to serve food 316(4). 

kaigin a clearing 118(40). 

kakaw S. cocoa 299(6). 

k&kiS.ifc^iaW 122(2). 

kalabdsa S. pumpkin 76(15). 

kalabaw (S.) caribou 70(38). 
kalabaw-rarao grass-caribou, wild 
caribou 230(9). 

kalabit a touch 201(26). kaki- 
labltan one of two who touch each 
other 277(41). 

kalabog a thud 24(4). kumalabog 
fell with a thud 24(9). kMabugan 
thud of many objects 257(27). 

kal4kal merchandise 236(31). 

kalamay rice-paste 56(16). 

kalan stove, brazier 74(5). 

kalasig clink 247(21). k&lasigan 
clink of many objects 257(31). 

-kalat: pak&lat caused to be ru- 
mored 118(10). 


kalayk^y rake 225(25). kinalay- 
kky was raked 166(22). 

kaliijkigan, see -li^kiQ. 

kaliwa^ left-hand 90(26). See 

kaMda, see kars^da. 

k&luluwA soul 72(26). 268(15). 

-kaluskos: kumaluskos pattered 
228(6). kMuskusan a pattering by 
many 84(20). 

kamalig storehouse 253(37). Also 
as place-n., see b&yan. 

kam4tis (S.) tomato 268(26). 

kamatsili S. a tree, PithecoUh 
bium dulce Benth. 247(1). 

ksunky hand 22 (9). nagkimfiyan 
shook hands with each other 234 

kamb^O goat 112(40). 

kami we, excl. 20(38). 63. See 

kamiseta S. shirt 122(2). 

-kamit: nagkamit gained 232 
(22). kakamlAn wHl be received 
272(42). makamtan get obtained 
40(5). nikamtan got obtained 62 

kampdna^ S. church-bell 80(26). 

kampit kitchen-knife 174(22). 

kampdn S. comrade 305(33). 

-k4mot: kin^mot was scratched 

kam6te S. sweet-potato 253(2). 

kanan right-hand 90(26). See 

kandaro S. lock 283(40). 

kandidato S. candidate 209(24). 

kandfla^ S. candle 50(29). 

kandel^ro S. candlestick 293(5). 

kanila, see sila. 

kanina a little while ago 22(17). 
50(40). 262(5). 

kanfno, see sino. — kanitA, see 
kita. — ^kaniya, see siyi. 

kaniya^ therefore 20(13). 241. 
295. 297. 324. 

kaniydn S. cannon 252(9). 

Digitized by 





kaniyun^ro kaniyunSros S. can- 
noneer 200(18). See trabAho. 

kanser S. cancer 204(11). 

kantA S. song 208(6). kumant& 
sing 110(32). kum&kanta is sing- 
ing 228(8). nagsIsikanlA pL 110 
(38). pagkantA a singing 112(3). 
nagkakanta sings 112(2). kanta- 
hin be sung 110(38). kinantA was 
sung 208(7). kantah&n be sung 
for 204(29). kant&han song in cho- 
rus 112(4). nagkantahan san^g in 
chorus 200(20). 

-kapa^: kumapa^ felt out 228 
(9). kum&ksLpa? is groping for 228 
(10). nagapa^ caught with his 
^rkZ 240(10). kinsipk'^ was groped 
out 244(21). nakak^kapi' has 
come to be grasping 291(31). 

kapJigw;Aen,t/ 187(12) 248(31). 
48. 296. 300. 304. 

-kapal: makapM thick 86(7). 

Eapampi^an, see pa^jpag. 

k4pit that held; a hold 66(29). 
kapit-b&hay neighboring house, 
neighbor 38(10). 56(35). 211(5). 
magkipit-b&hay pair of neighbors 
242(22). magkakipit-Mhay pi. 38 
( 9 ) . k&pit - Myan neigKboring 
totvn; person from the next town 
46(7). 60(12). 211(7). pagkapit 
a holding on 295(4). nagsik&pit 
took hold, pi. 78(11). nakak&pit 
has taken hold 64(22). iiJ,kak&pit 
is clinging 78(15). pakapltin be 
caused to take hold 78(2). 

kapitan S. mayor 98(38). 

kapitin S. captain 254(34). 

kapote S. rain-coat 161(20). 

k&puwa^ fellow-; equally 36 
(39). 249. k&puwa tao: magka- 
puwa-t&o two fellow-men 242(23). 

karaniyiiwan, see -d&niw. 

k4raQ covering of wagon or boat 

kar4yom needle 224 ( 1 ) . See bu- 

kar^ra S. course 167(27). 

kar6ta S. wagon 100(23). 

karitftn S. cart 38(17). 

kamabJil S. carnival 237(8). 

kamS ^.meat, beef 114(11). 

kars4da kalsfida S. street 201 
(22). 257(26). 

karum4ta S. carriage 52(36). 

karosaS.yioaf 234(13). 

kasil (S.) wedding 219(38). 
married 54(19). 223(31). pagka- 
kasal a uniting in marriage 90(34). 
ikinasAl was united in marriage 94 
(29). makasal get married 92(26). 
makakasal wUl get married 295 
(14). pagk4kasil a getting mar- 
ried 94(35). pakasil get married 
168(16). ipakasal be caused to be 
united in marriage 92(17). ipina- 
kasal was caused to be united in 
marriage 92(24). mapakasal get 
married 90(41). 

kasalukuyan, see -salukoy. 

kasapuw6ga S. match 193(7). 

kas6ra S. landlady 302(28). na- 
^agasera eats in a boarding-house 
240 ( 11 ) . pa^aserahan boarding- 
place 38(4). 262(9). nagpipaka- 
sera keeps a boarding-house 303 

Kastlla^ S. Spanish, Spaniard 28 

kalAm a plane 56(38). kuma- 
tam use the plane 58(10). raaga- 
Xj&tam planer 56(34). pinagkata- 
man was variously planed off; 
shavings 56(40). 

katawan, see t4o. 

kathA^ that composed 221(2). 

Digitized by 





k&tiyaw fighting-cock 238(3). 

k4tre S. bedstead 62(38). 

katuturin, see -tuwid. 

kiwadtinre 284(22). 

-k4wag : ikin4wag was shaken 78 

k4wal herd, troop 106(26). 116 

kaw41e^ frying-pan 114(10). 

k4w4wa*^, see 4wa^ 

kaw4yan bamboo 34(37). See 
pantdy. kawayan4n kwayan4n 
bamboo-grove 260(42). 290(20). 

k4wit pruning-knife 240 ( 12 ) . 
mag4wit prune; get tired of 240 
(12). naQaQ4wit is getting tired 

kay, see si. 

k4ykef;ian 16(9). 281. 

k4ya ability, means 56(4). 226 
(35). 255(3). na5454ya has m>as- 
tery 240(14). ikakaya be the cause 
of ability; means 54(22). maki- 
k4ya unit come urithin the ability 
16(16). nak4ya came vnthin the 
ability 283(29). nak&k4ya comes 
within the abiUty 283(30). 

kaya^ eke 40(5). so that ^8(11). 
47. 219. 297. 317 (4). 321. 

-k4yas: kayas smoothed 222(34). 
kumayas smoothed 228(11). naka- 
vas was able to be smoothed 283 

-kayila^: ipinagkayil^^ was lied 
afeow^ 60(18). 

kaylan kelan whcnf 70(18). 92 
(2). 39. 262(7). (13). 317(5). 

kayo cloth 249(34). ma^kakayd 
cloth-dealer 248(9). 

kayd you, pi. 63. See iniyo. 

kibo^ least sound or movement 44 
(42). kumiba^ make the least 
sound, budge 279(13). made the 

least sound, budged 44(5). pag- 
kibo^ a making the least sound or 
movement 104(25). 

Kika^ (S.) short-n. (Prancisca) 

Kiko^ (S.) short-n. (Francisco) 

.kil41a: kilala famUiar 290(19). 
kumil41a make acknowledgement 
90(40). kakildleL person with whom 
one is acquainted 60(23). pagka- 
kilanl&n be v^ed as an advertise- 
ment 58(18). 279(28). nakildki- 
141a nakakdkil41a is acquainted 
with 167(30). 276(8). 292(28). 
nakil41a was perceived, got known 
70(38). 104(2). m4pagkil41a be 
found out 40(20). 66(38). nipag- 
kil6l€L was realized 50 {32). n4pag- 
kikil41a is being recognized 44(34). 
52(1). iiagpakil41a caused to be 
known 168(34). nagpapakil41a is 
causing to be known, showing 44 
(24). pagpapakiI41a a showing 52 
(25). ipakil41a be caused to be 
known 58(5). ipiiiakil4Ia was 
caused to be known 64(40). ipina- 
kikil41a is being shown 88(8). mii- 
pakiI41a corns to be shown 68(32). 

-kflos: pagkflos a moving, intr. 
44(35). 66(35). kilusan concerted 
movement 264(4). makakflos be 
able to move 311(28). 

kin4, see sina. 

kinabag profit 263(39). pakiki- 
n4ba^) profit; holy communion 263 
(38). pakin4bag advantage 300 
(3). nagpakin4bag caused to profit, 
gave holy communion 9S {4:). paki- 
kinab4Qan unll be profited from 94 

-kinlg: kominlg trembled 42 
(41). 64(27). 

Digitized by 





-kimg: makinig hear 20(16). 
30(17). makikinig tuiU hear 96 
(11). nakinig heard 285(30). na- 
kfkinig is hearing 22(21). 96(5). 
pakiQg&n be listened to 20(29). 
308(12). pinaki^gan was listened 
to 50(27). niipddQg&n happened 
to be fc€ard 46(24). 

kinis skiU 56(37). 102(22). ka- 
kinis what cleverness, how clever f 
102(14). makinis smooth, skilful 
102(9). pinakamakiiiis most skil- 
ful 102(14). makiklnis pi. 118 
(29). nakapagp&pakinis is able to 
make smooth 58(14). 

-kintab: nagp&pakintab is caus- 
ing to shine, polishing 114(8). 

-Mgg, see kinig. 

-kisig: makisig lively 78(23). 

-kita: kumita find, earn 30(33). 
kumikita is finding 30(37). pag- 
kita an earning 60(37). magklta 
see each other (two actors) 234 
(10). magkiklta pi. 28(1). 239 
(5). nagkita saw each other 203 
(40). kinakit&an was the place of 
seeing, was seen in 36(32). maka- 
kita happen to see, find 30(26). 66 
(6). mBkk\i\ki\A will happen to see 
30(36). nakikita happened to see 
16(2). 40(27). nakakaWta hap- 
pens to see 292(31). mikita get 
seen 30(25). 32(38). mikikita ti^iK 
be seen 22(37). nakita got seen 20 
(24). 32(31). nakikita is getting 
seen 20(21). 26(4). pagkakita a 
chance seeing 38(18). 80(12). 292 
(35). kapakitdan one of two who 
show each other 310(36). nagpa- 
pakfta causes to be seen, shows 48 
(14). ipakita be shown 48(33). 
306(21). ipinakita was caused to 
be seen, was shown 30(38). 34(18). 

m&ipakita come to be shown 28 

kita thou and I; thou by me 16 
(19). 18(21). 63. 182. niti disj., 
by, of thee and me 163. kanita 
prep, and loc, thy and my, thee 
and me, by thee and me 227(17). 
165. 169. 

kitS^ chicken 238(9). 

kl6se S. class, school 26(36). 

ImsiAlS. glass 255(21). 

kristiy&no (Chinese brogue: ki- 
listiydno) S. Christian 58(39). 

Kristo S. Christ 20(4). 

krus S. cross; also as family-n. 
20(24). 242(20). nagkurus crossed 
himself 64(29). nagkukurus is 
crossing himself 64(5). 

kd disj. of akd : of me, by me 47. 
163. 182. 

kuba^ hump; hunchback 22(29). 

-kubli: nagkubli concealed him- 
self 94(5). nagkfikabli is hiding 
(intr.) 232(23). pagkukubli a hid- 
ing 186(14). naflu^jubli is staying 
concealed 108(20). 240(16). parju- 
gubli a staying concealed 272(14). 
pinagkiikublihan is being hidden 
in 94(8). kubllhan hiding-place 36 
(33). nakrakubli is in hiding 108 
(33). pagk&kubli a being in hiding 

k&ho hut 118(27). 

kugon nipa, Imperata arundina- 
cea 118(27). 

-kuha: kumtiha took 50(38). ku- 
mukuha is taking 112(7). kunin 
be taken 202(10). kintiha was tak- 
en 30(7). 84(25). kinukuha is be- 
ing taken 74(26). pinagkiikuhi is 
being variously taken 74(7). pag- 
kunan be taken from 255(35). pag- 
kukunan will be taken from 222 

Digitized by 





(35). pinagkunan was taken from 
255(31). pinagkukunan is being 
taken from 255(33). ikinakuha was 
the cause of taking 272(11). maka- 
kukuha will he able to take 56(40). 
nakakuha has taken 90(24). naka- 
kiikuha succeeds in taking 54(4). 
pagkaktiha a completed taking 52 
(36). mAkuha get taken 34(9). ni- 
kuha chanced to he taken 58(11). 

kuko fingernail 234(23). maghi- 
nukd cut the fingernails 241(24). 

kulam magic principle 40(11). 
maQkukulam sorcerer 40(1). See 
mediko. kinulam was hewitched 
42(29). kinukulain is heing he- 
witched 40(41). nAkukdlam is 
hewitched 42(6). 

kulag lack 201(10). kulig made 
incomplete 222(35). nagkukulaQ is 
at fault 96(40). 

-kulipol: nikiikulapulan is en- 
crusted 110(35). 

Kul^ (S.) n. (for NicoUs) 258 

Kuldsa (S.) n. 287(23). 

kulay color 171(21). kakulay of 
the same color 266(10). kasigktilay 
id. 314(37). 

kuliliQ smM hell 225(22). 

kolera S. cholera ^2 {Z) , 

-kuld^ : kumukiild^ is hoUing, intr. 
74(24). nagpakuld^ caused to hoU 

kuldg thunder 254(36). 

kulugo wart 228(30). 

-kulog : kulugan place of impris- 
onment 86(4). kuluT)^n cage, crate 
238(41). kinakukuluoin is the 
place of accidental imprisonment 
86(5). nikiikulfig is imprisoned 84 

-kumbida (S) : kinumbidA was 
summoned 20(19). 

kompaniya S. company 221(20). 

-kumpis^l (S.) magkumpisal go 
to confession 98(22). pagkukumpi- 
sal a going to confession 98(12). 
nagumpisal practised going to con- 
fession 98(28). naguflumpisJtl goes 
to confession 56(13). kinukumpissil 
is heing given confession 98(7). 
kmnpisalan confession 98(24). ma- 
pagkiimpisal given to going to con- 
fession 98(11). nagpapakumpisal 
gives confession 98(3). pagpapa- 
kumpis^t a giving confession 98 
(5). p&kninpis&lan confessional 96 

knmpbl cluster 281 {35). 

kumpusisiydn S. composition 90 

kumustA S. como estdf 230(39). 

kumot hlanket, sheet 36(39). 

-kun, see — ^kiiha. 

kug when, if, whether 16(6) 45. 

kogkristiyanos S., see kapatid. 

k6piya S. copy 52(10). 

kura S. priest 50(3). 

kurilS. corral 268(42). 

korbata S. necktie 163(36). 

kurlpot stingy 112(16). 

koreyo S. mail 168(19). 

-kuro^: pinagkukuro^ is heing 
considered 82(24). mapagkuro^ he 
ahle to he divined 287(10). napag- 
kiikura^ is ahle to he divined 52 
(19). mipagkuro^ get figured out 
20(18). m^pipagkuro^ unU get fig- 
ured out 182(20). nipagkuro^ got 
figured out 297(13). napipagkuro^ 
is divined, is understood 297(15). 

kor6na S. crown 26(24). 

-kurus, see krus. 

Digitized by 





-kupot: kumurd* pinch 228(13). 
ma^jurot pinch people 240(16). ka- 
rutin be pinched 244(24). kurutAn 
be pinched from 251(43). kurutan 
n pinching by many 257(35). 

kusa^ of Us own accord 225 (20). 

kusina^ S. kitchen 114(9). 

kosinero S. cook 114(1). 

kutio A^i^^en 255(37). 

kutsOiyo S. table-knife 114(9). 

kutsero S. driver 272(2). 

kuto head-louse 225(16). See 
pamatAy. kutuhAn lousy person 

kuwAko cigar-holder 220(34). 

kuwaltA kuwilta kawirta (S.) 
m^ey 30(33). 141(27). 

kuwarto S. room 84(23). 

-kuwayan, see kawiyan. 

-kuwSnta S. : pagkuwinta a 
counting 223(6). 

kuwSnto S. story 66(3). pagku- 
kuwSnto a story-teUing 286(5). 

kuya kuyafl (C.) oldest brother 
46(22). 118(15). 59. 254. magkuya 
oldest brother with brother or sis- 
ter 242(14). magkukuya pi. 242 

laan that reserved 221(3). inila- 
laan is being reserved 248(22). 

-laba S. ipagl&lab4 wUl be 
washed for lUi^O). 

14ban against 22(15). 282. luma- 
ban complete 60(40). lab&nan be 
opposed 60(36). laban&n war 251 
(1). nagsisipaglabaniin are fighting 
each other 122(15). paglalaban&n 
a fighting, war, battle 116(27). ma- 
kipagl&ban engage in a contest 48 
(23). pakikipaglaban an engaging 
in a contest 116(29). kal&ban op- 
ponent 266(11). kinakalaban is be- 
ing opposed 60(38). 

labanos (S.) large radish 252 

labag trough 289(3). laba^jan 
manger 260(25). 

labas the outside 52(38). luma- 
bas went out 52(34). lum&labas is 
going out 74(1). paglab^ts a going 
out 245(3). maglab^s bring out 234 
(ll).ilabAs be brought out 270 
(32). nilalabasan is being come out 
at 42(14). naglalAbdsan are going 
out together 236(16). miilab&s get 

taken out 110(4). palabis theatri- 
cal performance 300(4). papalabas 
going out 96(30). nagp4palab^ is 
bringing out, presenting 303(9). 

labi added to ten, -teen 58(12). 
135. labi q isA : pa^labi-Q-isA num^- 
ber eleven 225(40). ika-Iabi-Q-isd. 
eleifenth 273(24). 

labis excessive 172(40). 

labdg bamboo-sprout 172(25). 

-ladled: iniladlad was dropped 

lagablAb blaze 231(6). 

-lag&nap: lumaganap circulated, 
intr. 34(29). 

lagari^ a saw 187(13). maglala- 
garP food-sawer 243(17). mapag- 
lagarian be able to be sawed on 288 

lag&y situ4ition, condition 46 
(8). 90(35). ilagAy be placed 108 
(12). inilagiy was placed 220(17). 
inil&lagay 108(42). nilagy^n was 
put onto, was covered 30(11). 261 
(30). nilalagyin is being put into, 
is being fitted 108(39). ligfiyan 
place where things are put 193 

Digitized by 





(36). 258(38). lalagyin receptacle 
96(25). 261(22). pagkakAlagJty a 
placing, position 270(40). kinali- 
lagyan is the place of putting 38 
(32). 88(5). kalAgdyan position, 
3tate 34(34). 176(35). malagiy get 
placed 294(26). pagkfilagiy chance 
placing, position 100(20). nagpala- 
gay caiised to he placed 24(39). 
mipalagiy chance to stay in a po- 
sition 22(14). 

l&gi^ frequently 60(27). 62(15). 
pal&gi^ia. 62(10). 

-lagldt: malagkit sticky 221(26). 

laglAg that faUing 247(3). 257 
(31). il41aglig unll be dropped 24 
(3). inilaglig was dropped 32(24). 
nalaglag fell down 257(28). 

lagnat fever 94(30). 

lagpak a falling down 58(35). 
luraagpak come down on, land 46 
(38). came down 299(32). lalagpak 
will fall down on 244(39). paglag- 
pak a faUing down onto 48(22). 
iiapapalagpik is falling down onto 

-lago^: malago' dense 24(31). 

-lagok: pagkalagdk a having 
swallowed 30(20). pagkalagok a 
' chance swallowing 291(9). 

-lagot: malagot break off, intr. 
40(28). nalagot broke off 261(27). 
pagkalagdt a breaking off 112(31). 

laMt aU 26(12). 66. 132. 145. 
174. lahat-lahat all the various 
things 74(35). 

lahi^ family, race 275(29). 

lakad a going, an errand 221(4). 
lakad on foot 223(17). Ium4kad go, 
walk 18(7). went 283(1). lumMa- 
kad is walking 115(15). paglfikad 
-a going 66(18). naglakad drew on 

foot 234(13). paglal4kad a draw- 
ing on foot 234(12). maglakad 
walk about 122(7). nagl41akad is 
walking about, journeying 22(31). 
66(9). nagsisipaglakad pi. 58(40). 
paglalakid a walking, journeying 
66(15). 84(4). maglalakid traveler 
242(43). lak&rm be traveled over 
118(26). nil&kad was walked over 
244(24). Iak4ran be gone to, be 
gone on 70(6). 252(4). nUakaran 
was travelled on 32(19). nilalakfi- 
ran is being walked on 22(33). la- 
karitn walking-party 260(13). ma- 
kalM4kad unll be able to walk 104 
(31). nakal&l&kad is able to walk 
34(8). nal&kad was able to be 
walked over 283(33). nalfikad 
chanced to walk 177(17) pal&kad 
course 50(6). pagpapal&kad a caus- 
ing to go 288(9) pinal4kad was 
caused to walk 68(41). ipal&kad 
be caused to go 118(19). 

lakis force 44(6). See ubos. lu- 
makhs grew strong 76(39) inilakis 
was made louder 42(41). lakasan 
be done unth strength 252(5) kala- 
kasan strength, loudness 182(23) 
malakis strong, loud 18(23). 269 
(6). pinakamalakis strongest 309 
(41).malalakispi. 18(15). 

laki size 66(12). lumald grew 
larger 56(9). nagsilaki pL 90(5). 
paglaki a grouping larger 300(17). 
lakhin be made big 252(6). kalak- 
han greatness, most 44(29). 60 
(39). malaH large 18(18). 69. 99. 
110. 138. malalaki pi 34(38). ikk- 
pagpipalaki will be the means of 
causing to grow larger 310(22). 
kasi^laH of the same size 314(39). 
magkakasiQlaki several of the 
same size 120(3). 


Digitized by 





14kip: kal4kip having the same 
cover, enclosed ivith 173(28). 

laks&' miUion 134. See isa. 

-14ko': maglAko' peddle 232(23). 
maglalako' peddler 226(23). 

-141a: nilala was woven 46(40). 

-laJA': inilaltt* was the cause of 
getting worse 291(17). paJaJi' get- 
ting worse 92(10). 

laJaki man, male 30(31). 

141im depth 218(27). ilalira un- 
der side 20(28). nilaliman was done 
deeply 252(7). malalim deep 18 
(39). pakalalimin he m^ade too deep 
309(33). pakalalallmin wHl he 
made too deep 309(34). pinakaJfi- 
lim was made too deep 309(35). 

lalo' more 24(27). 147. 242. ni- 
laluan loa^ exaggerated 98 ((5). 

-lam, see -61am. 

lam^n flesh, muscle, contents 18 
(15). 48(1). See piriso. 

Ifimag only 28(33). 47. 220. 227. 

lamat crack 300(17). 

-lambdt: malambot soft 163(14). 

lamig cold 118(31). lumamig he- 
came cold 296(39). l&lamig wHl he- 
come cold 183(16). kalalamig what 
coldness, pL 268(1). kaJamig&n 
coldness 272(36). malalamig cold, 
pi. 219(32). taglamig cold weather 

lamesa S. table 114(9). 

-Iamp4s: lumfilampfls is getting 
excessive 54(27). 

Iam6g hruised 62(28). naglala- 
mog is getting hruised 62(15). 

Iam5k gnat 303(9). 

-16mon- lumM4mon is feeding, 
intr. 228(14). nagsisilfimon pi. 262 
(21). lalumunan throat 88(28). 

landas path 252(3). 

lansones S. fruit of Lansium do- 
mesticum Jack. 306(32). 

lantA withered 76(36). 

laog^m ant 202(20). 

lagisoiZ 74(24). 

l&oit sky, heaven 22(2). kalag- 
itin heavenly regions 104(24). 

-lagoy: lumagoy swim 28(21). 
swam^ 82(33). lAQuyan swimming- 
place 258 ( 40 ) . makipaglaguyan 
go along swimming 264(28). ma- 
kikipaglaguyan will join the sunm- 
ming party 264(30). pMa^uyan 
place where something is allowed 
to swim 309 (S). 

-14pad: lapM widened 306(8). 
kalap&ran wideness 70(40). mala- 
pad wide 92(35). 

-lapag: inilap^g was placed on 
the ground 106(16). inilalapag is 
heing placed on the ground 36 
(41). nalalap^g is lying on the 
ground 114(43). 

14pis S. pencU 223(8). 

-lapit (a) lumapit came near 26 
(19). lum^l&pit is coming near 64 
(19). pagl&pit a coming near 66 
(25), nilapitan was approached 24 
(22). malapit near 44(27). malala- 
pit pi. 110(18).— (6) With accent- 
shift: m&lapit get near 100(27). 
malalapit wUl he near 120(7). na- 
lapit got near 98(40). pagk41apit 
a havifig got near 46(28). 

lar&wan ima^e 20(4). 

Iariy6 (S.) hrick 302(41). 

Iar6^ game; play 46(32). 241 
(34). magl&laro^ wUl play 232(24). 
naglar6^ played 232(24). nagsi- 
paglarfi^ pi. 86(31). naglalaro' is 
playing 46 ( 36 ) . nagsisipaglaro^ 
pi. 46(35). paglalaro^ a play- 
ing 48(5). laruin he played 

Digitized by 





toith 244(25). lirtian play-ground 
139(41). laruwan toy 84(6). peg- 
laruwan be used as a plaything 255 
(37). pinaglaruan was played in 
48(41). pinaglalaruwan is being 
used as a plaything 255(40). ma- 
kipaglaro' play along 88(20). pa- 
kikipaglaro' a playing along 264 
(25). kalaro^ playmate 86(33). ka- 
lalaro' there has been playing 267 
(16). palaro^ public games 204 
(20). pagpapalaro^ an allowing to 
be played 268(9). 

lasii) drunken 108(32). naglasir) 
got drunk 282(28). paglalasiQ a 
getting drunk 190(15). nakalA- 
lasiQ makes drunk 108(8). nak4- 
kapaglasiQ is able to get drunk 286 
(38). balasiQ an intoxicant plants 
Anamirta cocculus 108(7). 314 

laseta (S.) knife 207(6). 

lata tin; can 223(26). 292(2). 

-lata^: paglalalA^ extreme fa- 
tigue 66(33). 

-l&tag: ipinagl&l&tag is being 
spread for 62(35). nilal6tag is ly- 
ing stretched out 92(22). pagkild- 
tag a chance spreading 269(39). 

latin S. Latin 28(23). 

-laon: kalaiinan duration^ length 
32(1). 86(11). nal&on took long 
34(20). 70(37). nalaldon takes 
long 108(27). mal&on long, taking 
long 34(25). 108(35). 69. 110. 138. 
nalaunan lasted long 36(33). 38 
(12). 54(13). 

lawa, see sa. dalawa two 16(25). 
224(22). 67. dalawi o pu^: pafl- 
dalaw4-g-pu' number twenty 225 
(41 ) . ikadalawa-g-pu^ twentieth 
273(24). dalaw4 q pu t isi: ikada- 
lawi-\)-pi&-t-is4 twenty-first 273 

(25). dadalawa only two 84(30). 
224(32). dalfi-dalawi two by two 
224(10). pagalawa number two 
226(7). dadalaw&hin having two 
54(5). ikalaw^ second 24(15). ma- 
kalaw4 second day, day after to- 
morrow 180(4). 204(18). 288(33). 
kamakalaw^ day before yesterday 
166(42). 266(35). 259. mak&law^ 
fwnce 98(1). 262(8). 

-l&wak: malawak broad 28(26). 

-lawig: lalawigan province 110 
(13). lalawIga-g-Pampagga Pam- 
panga province 210(28). malawig 
roundabout 240(32). 

-lawit: naglawit hung out, tr. 
232(26). ilawit be hung out, down 
78(1). inilawit was hung down 78 
(6). nakalawit hung down 38(29). 

-laya': kalayaan liberty 56(31). 

14yag a sail 228(17). lumayag 
sailed, voyaged 228(16). naglalay- 
ag sails back and forth 258(42). 

l&yas get away 222(4). lum&yas 
go away 100(8). went away 228 
(18). IM&yas wUl go away 181 
(28). nilayasan was deserted 252 
(9). lay&san a deserting by many 
259 ( 30 ) . mak^layas-layas ever run 
away 297(24). pagpapalayas a 
driving aumy 36(23). palaydsin 
be driven away 84(22). puwddyas 
u>as driven away 72(11). pinala- 
layas is being driven away 72(31). 

-layaw : pagpapalayaw a causing 
to be fulfUled 312(19). 

-layo^ (a) : kal&yo^ what farness, 
how farf 70(5). malayo'^ distant, 
far 28(26). malalayo^ pi. 82(37). 
— (b) With accent-shift: milayd* 
be far away 32(19). 34(11). nk- 
IMayo^ is far away 80(37). 

Digitized by 





liban except 70(12). 114(23). 

-lib^g: paglilibag an amusing 
116(37). liMoan place for amuS' 
ing 258(42). malibao be diverted 
204(30). nalib^Q became engrossed 
70(22). ipinalilibao is being caused 
to be amused 116(37). 

-libiQ: paglilibig a burying 114 
(21). inilflibio is being buried 112 
(30). libioan burial-ground 114 
(21). pagkalibiQ a chance burying 

libreriya S. library 227(36). 

Ubro S. book 90(29). 
' llbo thousand 48(28). 52(43). 
134. See isa. Ifbo-Ilbo a thousand 
at a tims 100(18). mak&lilibo a 
thousand times 50(28). 298(38). 

-libot: lumlbot took a walk 228 
(20). nagllbot carried about 234 
(14). naglibdt went on his errands 
70(20). naglQibot is going about 
34(30). nagslsipaglibot pi 110 
(27). paglilibdt a going about 68 
(2). nalibot has been gone round 
to 76(24). 

-llgaw: pagligaw a courting 46 
(21). magliligaw manliligaw i(;ooer 
42(27). 70(10). nUiUg^wan is be- 
ing courted 70(14). 

-ligiw: paligiw aUounng him- 
self to be led astray 32(13). 

-lig&ya: magsilig6ya rejoice, pi. 
262(21). nakalUigaya is gladden- 
ing 202(21). 

-ligd, see -gilid. 

-ligid: paligid round about 16 
(20). 26(8). paligid-ligid dU 
around 32(33). 38(19). 

ligsd speed 218(30). ligsihAn be 
done quickly 252(10). maligGi 

quick 44(37). nagmfimaligsi acts 
quickly 235(41). 

-ligtjis: na^ligt&s saved 291 
(39). nagliligtas saves 18(9). pag- 
liligtAs a saving 96(19). iligtas be 
saved 88(30). niligtasan was es- 
caped from 22(28). makapaglig- 
tas be able to save 94(34). m&lig- 
lAs get saved 92(8). 96(4). nalig- 
tAs got saved 122(18). m^ligtasin 
get escaped from 50(30). 

ligo^ bathe, intr. 222(4). ma- 
ligo' bathe, intr. 28(14). 191(38). 
maliligo^ witt bathe 191(30). na- 
ligo^ took a bath 76(37). 285(38). 
nanilgo' is bathing 16(2). 32(31). 
pallgo^ bath 300(4). paligo^ baihed 
300(26). pagpallgo^ used for bath- 
ing 183(23). pagpallgo' a bath- 
ing, intr. 40(18). 76(38). 302(20). 
magsipaligo^ bathe, intr. pi. 28 
(12). 302(23). makapaligo^ have 
bathed 32(37). pagk^paligo' a 
chance bathing 313(2). p^ligoAn 
bathroom, bathtub 309(12). nag- 
paligo' caused to bathe, bathed, tr. 
181(36). 303(11). pagpapallgo* a 
bathing, tr. 303(12). pinamiguan 
is being caused to bathe, given a 
bath 308(14). is being bathed in 
308(13). tagapagpaligo*^ one whose 
duty it is to bathe, tr. 316(5). 

-liguwik : mfiliguwitk get spilled 

liham Utter 154(4). 

Ifhim secret 24(32). 40(33). li- 
him kept secret 36(22). inillhim 
was kept secret 118(41). palihlm 
secretly 70(14). 

liignecA; 135(17). 201(10). 

-lilt: kaliitin smMness 34(2). 
118(1). maliit small 40(14). ma- 
liliit pU 34(36). 

Digitized by 





leksiyon S. lesson 187(24). 

likod back 24(26). 68(4). liku- 
ran rear 48(16). 68(11). -talikod 
315(27). tumalikod turned the 
back 231(18). pagtalikod a turn- 
ing the back 231(18). tmalikdan 
was turned the back to 254(21). 

Lflay (S.) short-n. 264(6). 

IQim shade 310(43). malllim 
shady 294(27). 

limi five 56(33). 67. pa^limji 
number five 225(37). lilimAhin 
having five 86(21). 247(36). ikali- 
ma fifth 273(18). makalimi five 
times 298(33). 

-limaQ: limifl confuted 291(1). 
nalima\) became confused 285(24). 

limonada S. lemonade 297(10). 

lim^s alm^; ceremonial gift 112 
(6). maglimos give alms 78(37). 
maQlilimos alms-seeker 112(10). 
limus&n be given alms 112(7). nili- 
limus^ is being given alms 72 
(31). nagp&palimos is asking for 
alms 72(30). nagsisipagpalimfts pi. 
110(28). 304(17). 

-limot : nalimutan was forgotten 
208(7). nalilimdtan is forgotten 
92(2). nakalUimot has forgotten 

-linamniini : malinamniiin tasty 

-Ifnaw: mallnaw clear 38(18). 

lindol earthquake 289(14). lu- 
milindol there is an earthquake 281 

-linis: luminis get clear 228(21). 
naglinis cleaned 181(38). naglilf- 
nis is cleaning 182(31). magUUms 
cleaner 242(43). linfsin be cleaned 
238(6). nillnis was cleaned 56(39). 
nililinis is being cleaned 244(26). 

kalinisan cleamiess 276(32). pina- 
kamalinis cleanest 310(1). raalili- 
nis clean, neat, pL 259(1). 

lintik lightning 254(37). 

liQgo (S.) Sunday 50(11). 
Ii\)g6-lii)g6 every Sunday 96(4). 

-liQldg: kaligki^an little finger 

lipa' a smearing, plastering 196 
(24). paglipa^ used for plastering 
225(12). magliUpi^ plasterer 242 


-lipad: lumllipid is flying 88 
(23). pinalipad was caused to fly 

-lipas: lipAs elapsed, evaporated 
222(38). 287(7). magpalipas al- 
low to elapse 26(39). nagpalipas 
allowed to elapse 92(3). nagp&pa- 
lipas allows to elapse 74(12). 90 

-llpat: lumipat change one's 
abode, move 88(43). moved 118 
(39). 228(23). nagsisilipat are 
changing their abode 122(13). iki- 
nalipat was the cause of vnoving 
116(26). mililipat wQl go over 46 

-lipol: lipdlin be exterminated 

-lipumpdn: nagsisilipumpon are 
swarming over 262(22). pinagkli- 
kalipumpunan is being overrun by 
many 90(19). 276(9). mapagkali- 
pumpunjin get overrun by many 
106(28). 298(30). 

-Upon: nag^ilfpon are swarm- 
ing over 262(22). nagi^sipaglipon 
are gathering up 262(37). nagkit- 
kalipon is getting all over 268(32). 
nalllipon has been, is able to be 
gathered together 98(38). 283(34). 

Digitized by 





•litaw: lumit&w bobbed up 78 


-litsdn S. paglilitsdn a pig-roast- 
ing 262(39). litsfinan pig-roastvng 
party 257(37). 

-litd: pagkalito a having become 
confused 72(9). 

-liwaliw: magliwaliw he idle, 
loaf 240(23). pa^liliwaliw an 
amusing oneself, pleasure 96(39). 

liwanag illumination 66(1). lu- 
miw&nag became light 201(37). 
maliw4nag bright 66(37). 

liyab flams 66(16). 

Uyi S. law 234(36). 

Inhky cessation 100(1). naglu- 
b4y ceased 66(35). naglulubiy 
ceases 58(21). 

lubha^ very 46(33). 147. ma- 
lubM^ intense 46(7). 78(25). 

Itibid rope 186(38). 

-lublfib : naglulublob is splashing 
about 110(25). 

16boS.ti;oV 299(38). 

16bo (S.) balloon 138(31). 

lubdg immsrsion, dyeing 251 
(41). lumubog went under 78 
(17). ndlubog got sunk 257(12). 
nMulubog is immersed 78(13). 

lubds complete 40(2). 312(19). 

lugkr S. place 20(27). 

-liigaw: maglugaw prepare rice- 
broth 232(27). nilugaw rice-broth 

-lugi : ikinalugi was the cause of 
losing money 239(43). 

-lugit: palugit handicap 60(38). 

-lugmok: nMulugmfik is sunk 
(in an emotion) 92(4). 114(14). 

-liiha^: lumMuha^ is shedding 
tears 94(31). 

-luhM : lumuhdd kneel down 228 
(24). knelt down 228(25). naka- 

luh6d has knelt down, is on his 
knees 112(1). niluhod knelt down 
295(33). n41uluhdd is kneeling 22 
(24). nagpatiluhM suddenly knelt 
down 313(29). pagpapatiluhdd a 
suddenly kneeling down 313(31). 
n&patiluhftd fell on his knees 313 

Lukas S. n. 104(20). 

Iuks6 ^wmp over 222(5). lumuk- 
80 jumped 16(21). paglukso a 
jumping 60(14). luksuhan be 
jumped onto 252(11). luksuhan 
jumping by many 257(38). naki- 
pagluksuhan took part in a jump- 
ing-contest 264(31). nakikipag- 
luksuhan takes part in a jumping- 
contest 204(19). pakikipagluksu- 
han a jumping with others 62(1). 
n&papaluksd involuntarily jumps 
up 62(10). 

Iukt6n locust 191(32). 

loko S. crazy 80(31). pa^loWko 
a fooling 108(3). nil616ko is being 
fooled 50(32). kalok6han insanity 
313(25). pagkaloko a fit of insan- 
ity 313(22). nM616ko is fooUd 

lulan that loaded onto a vehicle; 
an embarking 100(32). 118(18). 
219(40). nagsilulan embarked, pi, 
118(24). ilulan be put on a vehi- 
cle 20(38). inilulan was put on a 
vessel 56(24). Iul4nan be laden 
252(12). Manan an embarking by 
many 259(32). m&lulan get put in 
a vehicle 20(11). 

L61eg (S.) short-n. 134(31). 

Iul6d shin 254(35). luluritn be 
hit on the shin 252(13). the shin 
261(25) Corrigenda. 

luma^ worn-out, old 171(4). 

Digitized by 





lumbd cocoanut'SheU drinking- 
cup 74(5). 

lumpo lame 219(5). nalumpo 
became lame 285(28). 

liimot moss 313(41). 

lundig a leap 48(16). lumundag 
leaped 70(39). paglulund^g a 
leaping about 296(13). 

lunes S. Monday 180(5). 

-lunod: lunurin be drowned 16 
(25). kalunuran be drowned in 
274(22). west 18(22). 163(27). 
kalulunuran will be the place of 
drowning 274(23). magkalunod 
have drownings 112(13). malunod 
get drowned 264(29). nalunod got 
drowned 28(22). nagalunod pi. 88 
(31). pagkalunod a drowning 88 
(30). 272(23). 

luflgJi^ toir, fcaJc 84(29). 

-Iu\)k6t: ikinaluflkdt was the 
cause of regret 32(37). 88(17). iki- 
naluluQkot is the cause of regret 
80(30). 272(13). kalugkutan mel- 
ancholy 92(5). nalugkfit became 
sad 90(34). naoalu^kdt pi. 34 
(23). nalulugkot is sorry 285 
(25). palalu^kutin given to grief 

lupa' landf ground, earth 16(4). 
24(4). 46(38). See harapas. lu- 
pa-g-Bustos groun^ of Bustos 100 
(9). lupa-g-San-Hdeponso ground 
of San Ildefonso 100(34). lupain 
land, country 56(17). 

-lupit: kalupitin cruelty 74(20). 
malupit cruel 44(30). malulupit 
pi 20(32). 

lusog aid 231(42). lusugin be 
gone down into 244(27). nilusog 
was gone doum into 244(27). nilu- 
sugan was gone to the aid of 252 

(15). lusuQan mutual aid 260 

Ius6g mortar 16(25). 

luto^ a cooking; that cooked 182 
(33). 221(8). magluto^ cook 114 
(3). nagluto' cooked 182(1). nag- 
luluto^ is cooking 108(6). maglu- 
lut6^ cook 243(1). lutuin be 
cooked 134(19). niluto^ was cooked 
257(35). nUuluto' linuluto^ is be- 
ing cooked 244(28). iniluliito^ ili- 
nuluto' is being cooked 181(18). 
248(24). 249(25). ipina^uluto^ is 
being cooked for 249(24). luttian 
be cooked uHth 252(15). lutu&n 
kitchen 114(6). pagkaluto* a past 
cooking 108(10). nagpapaluto*^ 
causes to be cooked 108(6). 

loob inside; spirit, vnll, opinion 
36(5). 40(25). 90(40). See big&y.' 
lodb-lodb modest opinion 98(26). 
niloloob is being intended 307(5). 
pumalodb go into the inside 42 
(10). 302(19). napalodb got into 
the inside 104(15). 

-luwi, see k&luluwa. 

-luwi^: iniluwi^ is being spat 
out 40(28). 

-luwig: maluwig loose, not well 
fixed 97(38). 

-luwalhati^ : maluwalh&ti' in 
good shape 268(36). 

-luwag : kaluwagan looseness, 
width 253(27). maluwag loose, too 
wide 289(8). 

-luwas : lumuwas go down-stream 
56(21). pa^luwas a going down- 
stream 297(34). riapaluw&san 
tvent down-stream together 279 
(4). 312(8). 

luwkt long duration 173(39). 
maluwat long 40(31). 62(22). 269 

Digitized by 





(7). raagmaluwat take much time 236(1). 
236(2). nagmaluwat acted slowly (8). 


(see also B, P). 

naluwat&n took long 84 

m, sec na. 

ma' Uncle, Don, Mr. 256. 

raabiilo a tree and its fruit 
Trichodesma zeylanicum 34(40). 

madia' populace 24(33). 

-raagat: pamagat title 86(19). 
300(5). pamagatan he given a 
name 42(21). pinamamagatan is 
being given a name 168(8). 

magigiy, magiQ, see -gig. 

mahal dear 22(11). pagmama- 
hal a holding dear 72(38). mina- 
mahal is being held dear 62(34). 
kamahfilan highness, majesty 26 
(23). karaahalAn dearness, high 
price 186(9). kinamahalan was 
got dear in 279(17). pinakamahal 
dearest 309(38)., 

-raahala': namiraahala' is rul- 
ing 122(4). pctmahalaiin pd,maha- 
l&an government 56(15). See M- 

maisS. maize 248(29). 

maestro mayistro S. master, 
teacher 88(12). 

m4kina S. mxichine 203(2). 

-m41as: namalas got perceived 
36(38). 38(19). 

malay consciousness 288(18). 
nagkaraalay became conscious 268 
(33). nakara&lay happened to no- 
tice 188(10). namal&yan got no- 
ticed 42(39). pamal&yan be caused 
to be tioftccd 308(15). 

mall' bad 34(24). 271(42). ka- 
mMian wrongness 297(12). paraali- 
mali** repeatedly wrong 300(31)'. 

Malolos place-n, 110(24). See 

mama' uncle, sir 151(35). 59. 

mamaya' m&miy&' soon 262(9). 

man too, as weU 16(18). 47. 221. 
227. 248. 262.(7). (10). (13). 219. 
317(3). (5). 

mana that inherited 40(5). nA- 
mam4na is inherited 40(11). ipa- 
mana be bequeathed 40(30). ipina- 
inAmana is being bequeathed 40 
(31). paman4han be bequeathed 
to 40(33). 

mane' peanut 76(16). 

manika' (S.) doU 40(14). 

Manikis S. family-n. 209(24). 

mansa S. spot 191(14). 

mansanas S. apple 182(27). 

-mano S. : nagm^mfino kisses the 
hand 56(14). 

manok hen, cock, chicken 38 
(30). 72(36). nagmanfik-manukan 
played rooster 237(10). 

Manuwel S. n. 228(16). 

raaoa plural sign 16(8). 143 
(16). 48. 251. 

maogJi S. mango 34(40). See 
puno'. maggahan m>ango-grove 255 


ma\)gas S. sleeves 306(24). 

-maoha' : pagkdraagha' a getting 
astonished 60(5). naQ&pamaQM' 
were astonished 52(18). 312(38). 

magkok (C.t) bowl 248(35). 

ma^jmag ignorant 94(39). ka- 
magm^O^n ignorance 82(24). 

map&pasa, m&pasa, see sa. 

Mariklna S. place-n. See biyan. 

Digitized by 





Mariyi S. n. 70(11). 

Mariyano S. n. 54(1). 

Markes S. famUy-n. 189(43). 

Markita S. n. 92(29). 

-masid: nagmfimasid is observ- 
ing 100(21). pagmamasid an ob- 
serving 272(25). masdan be looked 
at 20(32). minamasdan is being 
looked at 252(17). pagmasdan be 
observed 255 (42) . pinagmasd&n 
was scrutinized 18(4). pagk&ma- 
sid a chance looking at, a glancing 
168(33). mamasdan get looked at 
88(7). rnamaraasdan wUl get 
looked at 96(16). namaraasdan 
is visible 297(32). 

masiyado, see -siyado. 

Mason S. freemason 56(12). 

mata rye 20(27). See pilik. 
mata-mata trellis-work 223 ( 41 ) . 
minamata i.v being looked down on 
30(3). mataan be looked round for 
254(31). minat&an was looked 
round for 254(30). kamata coti- 
genial at sight 266(12). mapaQ- 
mata given to looking down on 
people 18(19). namatian got es- 
pied 36(3). 

-matay: ikamfimatiy will be the 
cause of dying 94(28). ikinamatay 
was the cause of dying 186(15). 
ipagk&kamatay will be the cause 
of a part dying 272(34). kinama- 
tayiin was died in 38(23). Kina- 
raataya-i)-kab&yo place-n. 221(30). 
pagkikamatayan will be died in by 
some 275(13). pinagkamatayin 
U)as died in by some 275(10). ka- 
raatAyan death 94(34). maraatay 
die 40(32). maraamatay will die 
32(1). 62(26). iiamatay died 16 
(11). nagamatay pi. 286(16). na- 
m&matay is dead 74(11). pagka- 

matay a dt/ingr 22(3). 40(27). ma- 
matay-matay be able to die off 287 
(37). namatayan was died from 38 
(9). namAmatayan is died from 
112(19). raagpapakamatay uAll 
commit suicide 309(23). nagpaka- 
matay committed suicide 309(22). 
pagpapakamatay suicide 309(24). 
himatay fainting-fit 314(25). nag- 
hlhimatay is fainting 236(6). pag- 
hihimat&y a fainting 159(6). hi- 
matayin be attacked by a fainting- 
fit 20S (5). hinim&tAy was attacked 
by a fainting-fit 246(1). ipinaghi- 
matay was the cause of fainting 
88(32). 250(3). 

matsiT) young monkey 110(9). 
kamatsiyan monkey-tricks 276 

may me there is; having; about 
16(8). 48. 69. 110. 138. 252. 331. 
m4y &ri^: nagm^me-ari^ has own- 
ership 40(13). may-roon same as 
m&y 18(25). 69. 110.331. 

-m&yaw : magkim&yaw harmo- 
nize 102(13). 270(41). 

mayestro, see maestro. 

Maynfla' place-n, 50(2). See 

mediko S. physician 30(2). 
mediko-g-maokukulam witch-doc- 
tor 42(21). 

MigelS. w. 255(33). 

milagro S. miracle 74(32). nag- 
mimil&gro is working a miracle 

milagroso S. miraculous 74(29). 

mile-nobisiySntos-dfis S. 1902 34 

milon S. melon 76(16). 

minsan once 16(2). 22(34). 39. 
42. 262(10). minsauin be done all 
at once 246(5). paminsan-minsan 

Digitized by 





once in a whUe 68(10). 

m^sa S. table 173(26). 

mlsa S. mass 50(37). magmlsa 
say mass 96(26). nagmimisa says 
nuiss 96(4). pagmimisa a saying 
mass 96(18). pagkamisa a having 
said muss 98(19). makapagmisa be 
able to say mass 96(14). magpa- 
mlsa have mass said 72(29). nag- 
pamlsa had mms said 72(25). pag- 
papamfsa a having mass said 80 

raismo S. himself 46(18). 72 
(29). 265(7). 

mitio E. meeting 236(18). 

miyerkules S. Wednesday 259 

mo disj. of ikaw: by thee; of 
thee 47. 163. 

mukhh? face 24(23). karaukhA' 
of the, same appearance 266(14). 

mula' from 16(7). 284. magmu- 
la^ start from 32(7). 284. minulan 
tvas begun 283(9). 

mulawin a tree, molave, Vitex 
litt oralis Dccne 263(27). 

muU' again 18(35). 20(17). 148. 

muna previously, first 40(6). 47. 

raundo S. world 50(18). 

Mundo (S.) short-n. 96(38). 

muniailiyd S. sacristan 253(16). 

munislpiyo S. toum-haU 36(42). 

munti^ little 174(6). kumunti* 
what almost-ness 174(4). 

miira (a) cheap 219(7). minura 
was scolded 90(38). murahan be 
done cheaply 252(20). minur&han 
was sold too cheaply 252(19). pag- 
mumur&han a making things cheap 
236(31). kamurdhan cheapness 276 
(33). pinakaraura cheapest 114 
(41).— (b) With accent-shift : lid^g' 
mura cursed 32(38). murahan 
mutual reviling 260(16). mag- 
murahan revile each other 236 
(34). magmumurahan will curse 
each other 203(39). nagmumura- 
hkn are reviling each other 236 
(35). pagmumurahan a mutual re- 
viling 236(37). kamurahan one of 
two who curse at each other 278 

mura' unripe 22(38). 

miisika S. music 48(31). See 

musiko S. musician 110(31). 

-muo': ipinagkakamuo^ is the 
cause of partial hardening 272 

miiway information 82(6). 

(See also D, 8, T.) 

iia rj m attributive 15. 20. 37. 45. 
49. 119. 122-159 and Syntax, pas- 

nk already 18(39). 47. 223. 224. 
226. 227. 229. 242. 244. 341 (3,c). 
342. 437. 

nagi&i»l, see -girj. 

-naginip: panaginip dream 225 
(13). nanaginip dreamt 240(21). 

iiananaginip is dreaming 240(20). 
pananaginip a dreaming 240(17). 
napanaglnip was dreamt 297(22). 

nagii), see -girj. 

ii&kaw tlmt stolen 221(9). numA- 
kaw stole 32(39). pagnakaw a steal- 
ing 104(1). magnakaw commit 
theft 170(4). 244(17). nagnakaw 
did some stealing 155(41). pagna* 

Digitized by 





n&kaw thievery 38(2). magnand- 
kaw thief, robber 36(29). nakiwin 
be stolen 102(24). nanakdwin 
wiU be stolen 32(35). nin&kaw ivas 
stolen 32(36). ninAndkaw is being 
stolen 102(24). pinagnakiiw wets 
variously stolen 120(32). nakawan 
be stolen from 234(8). ninakawan 
was stolen from 252(22). nakawan 
robbery 178(37). nakapagnandkaw 
is able to commit thefts 102(17). 
mAnikaw get stolen 102(27). nana- 
kaw got stolen 102(27). manaka- 
wan chance to be stolen from 24 
(3). n&nanak&wan chances to be 
stolen from 102(20). 

naman on the other hand, how- 
ever 22(32), 47.224. 

namin, see 4min. 

nanay mother 116(17). 59. mag- 
nanay mother and child 242(15). 
magnandnay pi. 242(31). 

nandon, see doon. — nenQ, see ag. 

Narsiso S. n. 296(30). 

n&sa, nasasa, see sa. — n&tin, see 

-n6og: mandog come down from 
one's dwelling 264(23). nanaog 
came down 38(16). nanandog is de- 
scending 100(25). paniog come 

down 151(40). pagpanaog a de- 
scending 302(20). magslsipan&og 
wUl descend, pi. 108(13). nagslsi- 
pan4og are descending 106(29). 
pinanaugan was come down from 

nawa^, see 4wa^. — ^ni, see si. 

ni S. nor; any, and, and not 22 
(22). 48. 68. 253. 319. 

nilk, see sili and sini. — nink, see 
sink. — ^niniyd, see iniyd. — ^nfno, see 

nig nig glow 40(16). nagnfnig- 
nig glows 40(15). 

nirS, see ir6. — ^nita, see kit4. — 
nito, see ito. — ^niyJt, see siyi. — ^ni- 
yin, see iykn. — ^niy6ya^, see yaya^ 

niybg cocoanut 24(1). See puno^ 
niyugan cocoanut-grove 259(3). 

niyon, see iybn. 

nobela S. novel 86(19). 

nobiyoS.yJawcc 92(31). 

niino' ghost 34(32). 

-nood : nanunodd is looking on 48 
(36). nagslsipanodd pi. 48(29). 
panunood a looking on 296(37). 
panoorin be looked at 108(29). 
pinanonood is being looked at 108 

noon, see iybn. 

(See also K.) 

g, see na. 

qA^ indeed, please 40(21). 47. 
226. 229. 

galan name 156(11). pag41an 
id. 26(16). 

gayon now, today 28(7). 262 
(11). 302. 

-giti^: rjumigiti' is smiling 228 
(26). nftrjiriiti^ is asmUe 92(28). 

-giy&w: gumiyaw mewed 84(27). 

gnnit but 30(6). 320. 322. 

P (F) 

pa stm, yet, more 24(16). 47. pai foot^ leg 18(15). PaA-g- 
226. 243. 248. 314. bundok place-n. 118(25). pinaaMn 

Digitized by 





was caught by the leg, hurt in the 
leg 252(25). paanan he turned the 
feet to 252(29). base, foot 98(40). 
pinaanan was turned the feet to 
252(27). pa&nan base, foot 90(30). 

Pablo S. 71. 283(22). 

paderS.waZi 52(11). 

-padpad: napadpad was cast by 
chance 96(2). 

pag when, if 32(13). 45. 300. 

pagakpak applause 219(41). 
pagakpakan be applauded 197 
(36). pagakpakan applause by 
many 257(40). 

pagigig, see -giQ. 

pagitan place between, interval 
258(31). 271(17). pumagitan took 
position between 228(26). pama- 
raagltan an acting as means 24 
(33). 38(34). ipinagitan was 
placed between 248(25). napapagi- 
tan is between 171(21). 

pagka as soon as, after, when 
181(27). 48. 296. 300. 304. 306. 

pagkit wax 221(11). 

p&god weariness 76(1). pagod 
tired 66(33). 

pagog turtle 16(1). 

Fkho^ place-n. 120(11). 

pain badt 108(14). pagpap&in a 
catching with bait 108(39). 

p4kay purpose, aim 50(33). 

pako' nail 218(38). pako g 
baM' : mapagpako-ra-baba* over- 
modest 289(28). pakuan naUing- 
place 260(20). napapfiko' is 7iailed 

pakuwan watermelon 203(37). 

paKi but otherwise 209(25). 47. 
228. 301. 

p&la' gift, prize, favor 90(12). 
See ganti. 

p&lad palm of hand 106(37). 
See kasamaan, kasawian, sawi^ 
nagkapalad had good fortune 34 
(3). 78(38). nagkakap&lad has 
the good fortune 40(24). kapal&< 
Tan fortune 60(17). 

palakk'' frog 228(11). 

palak61 hatchet 240(5). 

palansa plansa (S.) flat-iron 212 
(32). 227(42). pinalinsa was 
ironed 244(30). 

palasiyo S. palace 26(26). 

palaton S. dish 193(3). 

p&lay rice, standing or in huU 
163(19). See bantay , tanod. 

palayok earthenware pot 74(5). 

palibh&sa' for the reason, be^ 
cause 54(20). 265(8). 

palit exchange 148(26). pinali- 
tan was supplanted 104(12). 

p&lo' hit, strike 183(25). pam4- 
lo' club, cudgel 70(16). paluin be 
caned 195(35}. ikinipalo^ was the 
cause of getting thrashed 273 (34r). 
pagkapAlo' a thrashing that %cas^ 
got 272(16). 

pAlofl comb of rooster 291(16). 

faralliya S. family 54(4). 

Pampagga S. place-n, 173(9). 
See laJawigan, provinsiya. 

p&na' arrow 228(28). pumina^ 
shot an arrow at 228(28). pinina^ 
was shot with an arrow 244(31). 
nakap4na^ chanced to hit unth an 
arrow 291(32). 

panahon time 34(25). 50(5). 52 

-pdnaw: pum&naw departed 228 
(29). pura&panaw is departing 92 
(25). pagpanaw a departing 114 
(17). pinan&wan was parted from 

Digitized by 





panky constant 72(20). 82(6). 
kapanayin continuance 276(34). 

-panhik: pumanhik entered (a 
dwelling), went up into (a hou^e) 
38(27). 72(8). puraapanhik is en- 
tering 106(9). pinanhikan was en- 
tered 175(41). m&panhik get in 
106(15). pagkdpanhik a getting in 
72(9). pinapanhikan was caused 
to he entered 52(14). 

paniki hat 210(26). See Mhay. 

paniyo S. handkerchief 147(1). 

pansin noticeable 219(8). pan- 
sinin he paid attention to 46(1). 
pipansinin will be minded 96(35). 
pinansin was paid attention to 20 
(41). 94(2). pin&pansm is being 
paid attention to 54(19). n^pi- 
pansin gets noticed 100(19). 

pantiy leveled 223(32). pan- 
tAy-kaw4yan height of a bamhoo- 
plant 218 ( 28 ) . pantay-pan tAy 
even, aU Uvel 118(30). 291(5). ka- 
pantay of the same height 173(28). 
magkapantAy both of the same 
height 270(3). kasigpantay id. 
104(6). 315(1). 

pdno, see an6. — panuk&la^, see 

panot bald-headed 219(10). 

-pagAw: nakapa^Aw is pilloried 
110(5). nagApapaQaw have got 
into the pillory 110(9). 

paginoon master 62(39). 86(31). 

pa^kat group, team 46(34). 76 
(21). 110(31) . paijkat-paokat 
group by group 110(30). 

paijnan hand-basket 261(40). 

parjpaT) bank of stream 28(13). 
Kapamp&yan Pampanga 189(23). 
KakapampaQ&nan the Pampanga 
country 277(12). 

pap&no, see ano. — pipasa, see sa. 

papaya S. papaw 163(18). 

papel S. paper 50(39). 

p4ra like 36(12). 67. 275. 

para pfira S. for 90(11). 286. 

paray forest 62(29). kaparAoan 
wooded regions 82(36). 

p&ri^ S. priest, Father 20(4). 

pareho S. equal 257(42). par6- 
pareho aU eq^cal 40(13). 224(1). 

ParisS.Pam 220(31). 

part^ S. part 82(21). kapartft 
share 16(6). 

-paro: paru-paro butterfly 88 

p4sa, see sa. 

pasa' hniise 62(27). 

pasak that calked with 221(10). 
pasakan calking-place 260(23). 

pasan that carried on the shoul- 
ders 98(36). pum&pasan carries 
on the shoulders 22(32). papasa- 
nin will he carried on the shoulder 
104(34). pinasAn was carried on 
the shoulder 104(38). 

Pasifiko S. Pacific 259(1). 

PAsig the Pasig; see flog. 

pasigan beach 16(4). 

-pasiyAl (S.) : magpasiyal take a 
walk 32(2). magsipagpasiyAl pL 
32(13). raagpApasiyAl wiU take a 
walk 232 ( 28 ) . magsIsipagpasiyAl 
pL 32(15). nagpasiyAl took a walk 
182(7). nagsipagpasiyal pi. 279 
(1). nakapagpasiyal was able to 
take a walk 200(14). papasf-pasi- 
yal walking about at intervals 96 

-pasiyensiya S. : raagpasiySnsiya 
rest content 56(8). 

Digitized by 





-paseyo S.: nagpipafteyo forms 
a procession 48(40). 

pagkd S. Easter; Christmas 220 

pastol (S.) herdsman 116(7). 
p4so* a hum 220(1). pasd* 
burnt; pottery 222(40). pumiso* 
burned 228(30). mamfiso* a blis- 
ter 241(39). 244(12). namfiso^ 
scorched 240(21). napfiso^ has been 
burned 284(41). 

-p&sok: pumfisok go in, enter 78 
(30). went in 30(17). 38(31). 50 
(19). pumip4sok enters 42(13). 
pipasok unU -go in 192 
( 5 ) . pagp&sok a going in 
42(12). 96(26). pasukm be 
violently entered 262(19). pinisok 
was illicitly entered 237(41). pinA- 
pasok is being penetrated 118(30). 
pinasukan was entered 36(36). 
makap4sok be able to enter 74(31). 
makaplip&sok wiU be able to enter 
22(4). nakapdsok was able to en- 
ter 80(2). 116(21). pagkapfisok a 
having gone in 38(32). pagkap&sok 
the way of getting put in 291(11). 
maip&sok get put in 108(41). na- 
pasukan chanced to be come upon 
hi entering 297(37). papisok go- 
ing in; asking to be taken in; ask 
to be taken in 204(22). 299(29). 
301(24). papapasok wUl ask to be 
taken in 301(40). pagpapap&sok a 
causing to enter 272(39). papasu- 
kin le caused to enter 72(26). 80 
(30). mapapapasok will ask to be 
taken in 311(34). napapasok 
caused himself to be taken in; was 
able to be caused to enter 311(23. 

-p&tag : ikinapatag chanced to be 

the cause of staying quiet 116(11). 
patik a drop 96(29). 
patAy dead person 20(8). 38 
(25). pamatiy used for kOUng 
225(15). pamatay-kuto Uni^- 
kiUer, thumh 225(15). pumatay 
{arch. malAy) kia 231(2). pagpa- 
tAy a killing 227(4). patayin pa- 
tain be killed 84(22). pipatayin 
papatain wxU be killed 28(20). 44 
(16). pinatAy was killed 244(33). 
patayan be killed for 252(32). pi- 
nagpatayan was killed in 274(31). 
patAyan mortal combat; slaughter- 
house 190(15). 259(3). kapipata- 
ykn wHl be the place of killing 279 
(18). kapitAyan one of two who 
kUl each other 277(42). mapatiy 
be able to be killed 283(35). napa- 
tay has been killed 284(14). pag- 
kapatay a having killed 282(35). 
mipatay get killed 36(19). 293 
(42). map4patay will get killed 18 
(12). ndpatiy got killed 26(12). 
38(3). 84(28). pagkapalAy a 
chance killing 291(12). 292(15). 
ipinap&patAy is being caused to be 
extinguished 122(6). 

pati also, even 110(34). 112(20). 
68. 305. 

patid a breaking, an interrup- 
tion 42(4). 44(42). 58(1). broken 
223(33). pumatid break, tr. 228 
(31). kapatid broken from the 
same piece; brother, sister 32(8). 
266 ( 16 ) . kapatid-kogkristiyanos 
brother-Christians 50 ( 22 ) . 210 
(16). magkapatid two brothers or 
sisters, brother and sister 46(20). 
magkakapatid pi. 270(14). kind- 
kapatid child of one's godparents 
271(30). magkin&kapatid /ti;o peo- 
ple, one of whom is the child of 

Digitized by 





the other's godparents 271(31). 
magkikinakapatid pi. 271(32). ka- 
pJtpatirin ivHl be the place of 
breaking 274(29). kinapatirin was 
the place of breaking 274(27). ka- 
pjitfran one of two who break to- 
gether 277(43). mapatid break off, 
cease 60(9). napatid broke off 78 
(16). napatir^n wa^ broken in, 
suffered a fracture 88(28). 

patis shrimp-sauce 259(5). pati- 
s4n be spiced with shrimp-sauce 
252(33). patisan carmery for 
shrimp-sauce 259(5). 

pAtiyo S. court-yard 98(20). 

Patrisiyo S. n. 275(28). 

patruliya S. patrol 122(20). 

patoS.dwcft 116(38). 

patumaggi^ regard, considera- 
tion 22(24). 

-p&tuQ : napapitufl is placed on 

Patiipat derisive n. 50(3). 

-p4wi^: pawi^ allayed 222(42). 
nakapapiwi^ will allay 28(35). 280 
(37). napawi* has subsided 279 

p&wid nipa fibre 30(37). 

-p&wis: pumap&wis is sweating 

-p4yag: pum&yag consent 30(5). 
consented 18(29). pumipayag con- 
sents 228(34). ipiniyag was grant- 
ed 248(26). pinayagan was agreed 
to 252(33). 

peLy&pa!^ tranquil 219 (11). kapa- 
yapaan tranquility 116(9). 

p4yo advice 52(24). ipin&yo u;a^ 
suggested 28(36). 

p&yo^ umbrella 166(27). 

P^droS. n. 20(2). 

pigil that restrained 134(28). 
pigil under control 223(1). nagsi- 

pigil controlled, pi. 282(14). pigi- 
lin be brought under control 66 
(23). nipigilan got restrained 66 
(17). 100(36). 

-pihit: pumipihit turns round 

pflio surely 18(11). piniho was 
ascertained 44(33). 

pikl4t scar 219(9). 

piknik E. picnic 235(34). 

piko S. a pick 58(33). 

-pQi^: pumOi^ chose 228(34). 
mamQi' choose out 16(24). na- 
mlli* selected 186(20). pinili^ was 
chosen 244(34). maplli^ get chosen 
241(34). napipfli^ is preferred 

pilik fin, lash 210(30) Corri- 
genda. pilik-mat& eyelash 210 
(30). Corrigenda, pilikan have 
the fins removed 252(34). 

pilio side, proximity 90(8). 

Felipe S. n. 208(1). 

Filipinas S. the Philippines 40 
(2). See kapulu&n. 

-pflit: pumflit effected by trying 
hard 228(37). pumipQit is trying 
hard 228(35). pagpllit a trying 
hard 64(1). nagpilit tried very 
hard 44(5). 50(14). nagpipQit 
tries very hard 44(20). 234(17). 
nagpupumilit is making an ex- 
treme effort 168(14). 235(32). pi- 
litin be striven for 18(17). 184 
(35). pinilit was compelled 244 
(35). pagpilitan was striven for 
297(2). napipilitan is compelled 

pel6ta S. ball 48(11). 

pinsan cousin 39. 42. magpipfn- 
san group of cousins 242(32). 

pinta S. paint, painting 219(12). 

Digitized by 





pintahin be painted 252(35). pin- 
t&han place for paint; see b&hay. 

pinlAs that found fault unth 221 
(13). pintasin be found fault unth 
252(36). pintAsan mutual fault- 
finding 257(42). kapintasan rep- 
rehensible quality 310(40). 

pinto^ door 78 ( 30 ) . See bantiy . 
pintuan doorway 22(2). 

pioga carrying-pole 158(12). 

piggan dishes 114(7). 

pipa S. cigarette-mouthpiece 249 

PepeS.5*oH-n. 279(5). 

pipe dumb 86(23). napipe be- 
came dumb 285(28). pagkaplpe 
dumbness S6{2Z), 

pipino S. cucumber 76(16). 

pipit stone-sparrow 197(21). 

peras S. pears 189(16). 

pirdso (S.) piece broken off pi- 
riso-rj-k&hoy piece of wood 56(38). 
piraso-Q-laman piece of m£at 108 
42 Corrigenda, pirasuhin be bro- 
ken off 252(6). mapir&so go to 
pieces 300(19). napir&so went to 
pieces 284(42). 

pirinsa (S.) flat-iron 212(32). 
pininnsa was ironed 223(4). 

Piro (S.) n., for P^dro. 138(28). 

piso S. peso, half-dollar 102(38). 

-pitag: pitAgan respect 118(9). 
pinagpipitag&nan is being re- 
spected 256(8). 

pitak section 247(11). pinitak 
section of rice- field 247(10). 

-pitJts: pumitJts pick, pluck 22 
(35). picked 282(40). pitasin be 
picked 244(36). pipitasin wHl be 
picked 22(37). pamimitasin wHl 
be picked selectively, in quantity 
2A1 ( 2 ) . pinamlmitAs is being gath- 
ered 246(42). pitas&n be picked 

from 252(37). pamitasan be gath- 
ered from 256(36). pamimitasan 
win be gathered from 256(38). 
nagpitisan picked together 236 
(17). napilAs has been picked 284 
(43). nfipitis got picked 293(22). 
nipipitis is picked 24(16). 

pitik fiUip 225(14). pamitik 
single rein 72(1). pumitik give a 
filUp 228(37). 

P^tra S. n. 240(29). 

fetsaS.da^e 271(16). 

pitson S. pigeon 252(32). 

pito S. small flute, whistle 227 


pitcf seven 20(5). 67. pitd 5 
pii': pamito-o-pu' mimber seventy 
225(42). pamitd number seven 
225(38). iksLpitb seventh 32(^). 

piy4no S. piano 167(21). 

fiySsta piyesta S. fiesta 98(35). 
137(37). kapiyestAhan holiday 110 


plansa, see pal&nsa. 

PransiskoS. n. 50(20). 

presidSnte S. magistrate 38(1). 

-prubi S. : prubahin be proved 
52(3). puprubahan tviU be proved 

provingiya S. province 50(1). 
provinsiya-g-Pampigga Pampanga 
province 210(29). 

po' deferential particle 20(37). 
47. 229. 

pu' ^en 38(6). 134. See isa, da- 
lawa, etc, 

pugad nest 228(9). 

-pukpftk: pamukpok mallet 90 
(30). pumupukp6k is pounding 

pukol a throw 106(36). pagpu- 
kol a throwing 281(35). magpn- 

Digitized by 





pukftl throw repeatedly 238(38). 
pinupukol is being thrown at 112 
(8). mapamukol given to throwing 
things 289(39). 

pula red, redness 147(1). pula- 
hAn all red 261(12). kapuli what 
redness 173(40). 

Polikarpiyo S. famUy-n, 189 

polls S. policeman 34(26). 

pulpites, pulpit 20(28). 

pulo* island 255(14). kapuluin 
kapuluwin archipelago 24(30). 
kapului-^j-Filipinas the Philip- 
pine archipelago 56(24). 

puliibe heggar 72(30). 

puloQ cr(?ii;d 229(13). 

pulot that picked up 221(15). 
namulot gathered up 32(23). m4- 
mumulot gleaner 243(17). pina- 
mulot was picked up selectively, in 
quantity 247(3). pinulutan was 
picked up in 252(38). piilutan a 
scramble 259(33). napulot got 
picked up 62(30). nipupiilot gets 
picked up 40(8). 

pulot honey 174(7). 

-punas: nagpupunas is scrub- 
bing -232(29). pinupun&san is be- 
ing scrubbed 252(40). 

punit smM hole, tear 169(2). 
punit-punit full of small holes 259 

-punlA* : punl&an germinating- 
plot 243(40). 


punta S. direction of going 106 
(2). nagsipunta went to, pi. 116 
(18). pupunta will go to 193(24). 
nagsisipunti are going to 108(1). 
pagpunta a going toward 104(35). 
106(4). 116(20). puntahAn be 
^one to 40(9). pinuntah^n was 

gane toward 32(20). papunta to- 
wards 84(36). napapupunti is able 
to be directed ^8 {10). 

puno' head: of wood (i. e, tree) 
16(8). of grass (i. e. blade) 76 
(31). of bridge 248(16). stem end 
of fruit 203(38). chief 306(11). 
beginning 50(15). puno-^-damo 
blade of grass 76(29). puno-^-k&- 
hoy tree 34(39). puno-^-ma^gS. 
mango-tree 254(37). puno-^-niydg 
cocoanut-tree 22(34). puno-^-sigi^j 
banana-tree 16(3). puno-^j-siiha* 
grape-fruit-tree 36 ( 34 ) . pinuno* 
chief, official 56(27). 116(22). pA- 
muniian initiator 262(7). 

puno^ filled, fuU 36(40). 76(30). 
pun&n be completed, be added to 
252(41). punuan aU fuU 118(21). 
258 ( 1 ) . napunft^ became /wtt 26 ( 9 ) . 

purgk S. purge 230(11). 

purgatoriyo S. purgatory 50 

puri honor, respectability 94 
(12). See kasiraan. nagpuri an 
honoring 48(38). 60(9). nagpuri- 
hin praised one another 236(39). 
nagpupurihin are praising one an- 
other 236(41). mapuri honorable 
289(8). nagm&puri praised him- 
self 238(25). nagmamapuri is 
praising himself 238(25). pagma- 
m&puri praising oneself 238(26). 
nagpakamApuii praised himself 
much 309(28). 

Port-Artur S. Port Arthur 306 

-purdl: mapurdl duU 225(6). 
mapupurftl wiU get duU 248(31). 

pusa^ cat 84(1). 

pust4 S. a bet 60(29). nagsi- 
puistit made a bet, pi. 60(34). pu8t4- 
han a betting together 60(33). 102 

Digitized by 





(40). nakipagpustahan entered in- 
to a bet with 102(34). 

puso' heart 218(24). 

-putAk: nagpupuputak is cack- 
ling much 238(40). put&kan cack- 
ling hy many 238(10). palaputA- 
kin given to cackling 315(10). 

futbol E. foothaU 46(35). 

puti^ white 219(12). piputiin 
he m^ade too white 305(12). pipu- 
tian be made very white 308(39). 

putik mud, clay 86(37). puti- 
kan be made muddy 253(1). puti- 
k4n muddy place, person, thing; 
clay-pit 166(19). 260(24). mapu- 
tik muddy 110(14). 

puto cake, bun 32(15). 

putok crash, report 259(34). pu- 
inutok made a crash; there ivas a 
crash 64(31). pinuputukin is 
reached by a crash 106(33). 

putol a cut; that cut 220(2). 
221(16). p. nag p. cuts and cuts 
222(10). putftlcwf 223(3). putol- 
putol all cut up 224(16). pamu- 
tol used for cutting 225(16). pu- 
miitol cut 154(4).199(27).226(26). 
magsiputol cut, pi, 262(26). nag- 
siputol cut, did cut, pi. 190(22). 
pumuputol is cutting 228(39). 
nagsisiputol pi. 262(24). puputol 
will cut 228(40). magsisiputol pi. 
191(8). pagputol a cutting 196 
(34). magputol cut several things 
cut on oneself 228(21). magsipag- 
putol pi. 262(38). magpuputol 
wUl cut 234(21). magsisipagputol 
pi. 262(41). nagputol cut 234 
(24). nagsipagputol pi. 263(2). 
nagpuputol is cutting 202(14). 
nagfiisipagputol pi. 263(3). pagpu- 
putol a cutting 234(19). magpu- 
tol cut variously or repeatedly, cut 

up 237(37). magpuputdl wM cut 
237(38). nagputdl cut 237(40). 
iiagrpfiputol is cvlting 237(42). 
nagpupuputol is cutting to bits 
239(9). magpuputol cutter 243 
(1). mamutol cut selectively, in 
quantity, or as occupation 220 
(21). magripamutol pi. 263(24). 
mamumutol u)ill cut 240(29). 
magsisipamutol pi. 263(26). na- 
mutol cut 240(27). namumutol is 
cutting 240(27). mimumutdl cut- 
ter 243(18). pamumutol a cutting 
240(23). putulin he cut 244(42). 
puputulin tvUl he cut 58(27). 207 
(5). pinutol was cut, cut off, 
stopped 38(34). 44(26). 154(10). 
pinuputol is being cut 58(36). 248 
(34). pagputulin be cut up 246 
(27). pinagpuputol is being cut 
up 246(25). iputol be cut for 248 
(29). ipuputol will he cut for 248 
(29). ipinutol was cut for or with 
154(15). 175(31). 248(28). ipinu- 
putol is being cut for or with 181 
(15). 202(6). ipagputol be cut for 
249(26). ipagpuputol wUl he cut 
for 249(27). ipinagputol was cut 
for or with 249(28). ipinagpupii- 
tol is being cut for or urith 249 
(29). ipamutol be used for cutting 
250(17). ipinamutol was used for 
cutting 250(13). ipinamumutol is 
being cut with or for, in quantity 
187(13). 250(14). putulan putlin 
be cut from 253(5). puputulan 
puputlAn will be cut from 253(7). 
pinutulan was cut from 118(28). 
154(20). pinuputlin is being cut 
from 60(1). 253(3). pagputulan 
he cut on 256(1). pagputulin be 
cut from variously 256(13). pina- 
mutulan was cut from selectively: 

Digitized by 





or in quantity 158(10). 256(40). 
pinamumutiilan is being cut from 
256(33). nagputulin cut together 
236(43). pakiputol that cut with 
others or as a favor 184(3). 263 
(40). makiputol cut by permission 
264(12). maklkiputol unll cut 
along with others 206(11). naki- 
putol cut by permission 264(8). 
nakikiputol is cutting by permis- 
sion 264(10). pakikiputol a cut- 
ting by permission 264(13). paki- 
kipamutol a cutting, as occupation, 
by permission 264(39). pakiputu- 
lin be cut as a favor 264(43). ipa- 
kiputol be cut as a favor 184(1). 
ipakikipiitol will be asked to be 
cut 265(13). ipakipagpiitol be cut 
with as a favor 265(19). ipakiki- 
pagputol will be cut for as a favor 
265 ( 23 ) . ipinakipa^utol was 
asked to be cut for 265(25). ipi- 
nakikipagputol is being asked to 
be cut for 172(26). 265(28). ka- 
putol piece; brother, sister 16(5). 
266(16). magkaputol two such 270 
(5). magkakaputol pi. 270(16). 
kikaputol only a piece 267(6). 
kapuputol there has just been cut- 
ting 267(17). kapagpuputol there 
has just been cutting of several 
things 267(20). kapapamutoHftere 
has just been cutting in quantity 
267(23). magkaputol get broken 
in numbers 182(22). magk&kapu- 
tol wUl many of them get broken 
269(10). nsigksiputbl got broken in 
numbers 269(11). nagk&kaput51 i^ 
breaking in numbers 269(13). 
magk&putdl-putol break into many 
pieces 255(21). magk&k&putdl-pu- 
t61 unll break into many pieces 271 
(23). nagk4put61-put61 broke into 

many pieces 271(19). nagkAkipu- 
t61-put61 gets mangled 271(21). 
ikaputol be the cause of breaking 
158(12). ikapuputol u^Ul be the 
cause of breaking or involuntary 
cutting 272(19). ikinaputol was 
the cause of breaking 272(15). iki- 
napuputol is the cause of breaking 
272(17). ipagkaputol be the cause 
of breaking in numiers 273(9). ipi- 
nagkaputol was the cause of break- 
ing in numbers 273(11). ipinag- 
kdkaputol is the cause of breaking 
in numbers 273(7). kaputulan one 
of two who cut together 278(10). 
makaputol be able to cut 269(7). 
inakapupiitol wiU be able to cut 
281(41). nakaputol has c^it 282 
(22). nakapuputol is able to cut 
281(39). maputol have been cut, 
be able to be cut 38(35). 60(4). 283 
(37). mapuputol wUl be able to 
be cut 283(38). naputol has been 
cut, was cut 261(26). nagaputol 
pL 286(17). napupiitol has just 
been cut, is cut 284(15). 285(1). 
nagapuputol pi. 286(19). pagka- 
putol a having cut 282(37). ma- 
kapagputol be able to cut several 
things 286(43). nakapagputol has 
cut 286(41). nakapagpuputol is 
able to cut 286(42). maputiilan 
be cut from 185(21). mapuputu- 
lan wiU be cut from 288(13). na- 
putulan was cut from 288(9). na- 
puputulan is cut from 288(10). 
napagputulan was able to be cut 
on 288(26). mak&putol chance to 
cut 290(28). makipiiputol wUl 
clumce to cut 290(30). nakipiitol 
chanced to cut 24(34). 290(20). 
nakapuputol is by chance cutting 
290(23). miputol get cut 294(3). 

Digitized by 





mapuputol will get cut 294(5). nk- 
putol got cut 293(24.43). 294(2). 
napuputol gets cut, is cut 201(30). 
pagkaputol the way cutting got 
done 291(15). maputulan get cut 
from 238(2). mapuputulan will 
get cut from 297(41). nAputulan 
got cut from 297(38). n^puputu- 
lan gets cut from 297(39). papu- 
tol that caused to be cut 299(15). 
paputol transversely 166(21). ka- 
pipaputol there has just been 
causing to cut 301(11). kapagpji- 
paputol there has just been caus- 
ing to cut several things 301(13). 
papuputol unU ask to have cut 302 
(2). magpaputol cause to be cut 
225(1). magpipaputol will cause 
to be cut 191(6). nagpaputol 
caused to be cut 303(13). nagp4- 
paputol is causing to be cut 303 
(14). pagpapaputol a eating to 
be cut 303(15). paputulin be 
caused to be cut 304(39). papu- 
putulin wUl be caused to cut 304 
(40). pinaputol was caused to cut 
153(23). pinapuputol is being 
caused to cut 304(37). papagpu- 
tulin be caused to cut on oneself 
305(23). papagpuputulin will be 
caused to cut several things 305 
(24). pinapagputol was caused to 
cut 181(27). pinapagpiiputol is 
being caused to cut 181(16). pa- 
pamutulin be caused to cut select- 
ively, in quantity, or as occupation 
305(35). papamumutulin vnll be 
caused to cut 305(36). ipaputol 
be caused to be cut 306(25). ipa- 

piiputol will be caused to be cut 
306(23). ipinapiitol was caused to 
be cut 204(10). ipinapuputol is 
being caused to be cut 306(22). 
ipakipaputol be asked to be caused 
to be cut 307(29). ipaHkipaputoI 
ujill be asked to be caused to be 
cut 307(32). ipinakipaputol was 
asked to be caused to be cut 307 
(34). paputulan be caused to be 
cut from 308(24). papuputulan 
wiU be caused to be cut from 308 
(25). pinaputulan was caused to 
be cut from 308(19). pinapupu- 
tulan is being caused to be cut 
from 308(22). makapagpaputol be 
able to cause to be cut 311(12). 
makakapagpapiitol wiU be able to 
cause to be cut 311(15). nakapag- 
paputol has been caused to be cut 
311(8). nakikapagpaputol is able 
to cause to be cut 311(10). napa- 
putol asked to be cut for 311(38). 
napapuputol asks to be cut for 311 
(40). palaputulin brittle 315(21). 
tagaputol person whose duty it is 
to cut 315(32). 

podk place, district 40(2). 

poon lord, saint 104(5). 182 
(40). pin6po6n is being wor- 
shipped 189(3). 

-puwi*, see k&puwi** 

-puyat: nagpuyat staid up, 
watched 232(30). nagpuyat re- 
peatedly staid up 238(1). pagpu- 
puyat a repeated staying up 297 
(7). namumiiyat keeps from sleep- 
ing, keeps up 240(31). pinuyat 
ums kept up late 245(2). 


sa loc. particle 
195-212. 306, 515. 

16(2). 45. 49. 
sa lawa : sk- 

lawahan fickle 94(1). 259(20). sa 
ul^^ : pagsa-ulan be returned to 62 

Digitized by 





(12). 72(13). pinagsa-uian was 
returned to 44(25). 256(7). n&sa 
is in 18(22). 314(7). na^&sa pL 
118(35). n&s&sa is being in 36 
(16). 44(1). p&sa goi to 20(18). 
314(9). piphs8Lunllgoto3U{10). 
mapasa get to 94(4). m&p^pasa 
wiU get to 314(15). n&pasa went 
by chance 116(30). 279(4). n4pi- 
pasa comes by chance to 106(26). 
pagk&pasa a chance coming to 60 
(21). 314(16). 

sky see is&. 

sain loc. of anft: where? to 
what? 42(14). 64(37). 316(34). 

-sab&d: isinab^d was said in in- 
terruption, was thrust in 102(22). 

-sabay: sabay-sabtiy all at the 
same tims 224(2). sinabay^n was 
accompanied 82 ( 32 ) . pagkak&sa- 
\Ay a happening at the same time 

sabi that said 24(8). 74(36). 198 
(12). 276. sabi-sabi chance talk 116 
(10). 120(9). nags&bi said 26 
(14). 36(29). nagsipags&bi pi 26 
(5). nagsasdbi is saying 156(40). 
pagsasfibi a saying 155(24). sabl- 
hin be said 30(15). 50(24). sasa- 
bihin wUl be said 20(11). 30(14). 
sinabi was said 16(17). sinAs&bi 
is being said 96(9). pinagsabi tvas 
variously said 156(13). pinagsabi- 
sabi was repeatedly said 246(34). 
ipinags&bi was told about 249(35). 
pinagsabihan was told, uxis or- 
dered 20(15). 32(26). kasabiMn 
proverb 276(11). pagkas4bi a hav- 
ing said 70(28). makapags4bi be 
able to teU 52(9). nakapags4bi 
was able to tell 76(25). mas^bi 

unll get said 92(37). pagkisdbi a 
getting said 80(1). 100(36). 

-sabit: sabit^n clothes-rack 258 
(38). nakas&bit is hanging (from 
a nail, peg, etc.) 281(4). 

-sibog: nags4bog strewed 16 
(20). nasis4bog is lying scattered 
90(30). 108(19). na^asibog got 
scattered, pi 293(40). 

sabdn S. soap 184(34). 

-s&boQ : pa^js&bo^ v^ed for cock- 
fighting 297(42). pagsasdboQ cock- 
fighting 312(17). sabu^in cock- 
pit, cock-fight 304(1). sabu^^ro 
cock-fighter 98(21). 316(11). 

-sabuwit: kasabuwat accomplice 

s&boy a sprinkling 68(3). sumk- 
s&boy is splashing, intr. 228(41). 
pagsaboy sprinkling 68(40). nag- 
sisiboy is scattering 68(9). isini- 
boy was sprinkled 268(11). sini- 
sabuyan is being sprinkled at 68 
(24). napipas&boy faUs scattering 

sadiyi^ that come for 38(26). 78 
(28). 221(18). magsadiya^ go for 
one's purpose 74(28). nagsadiyi^ 
went for his purpose 74(33). sina- 
diyi* was done intentionally 233 
(36). sin&sadiyi* is being done 
intentionally 62(13). 98(32). 

sagiid close-cropped 219(13). 

-sag&sa^ : sumag&sa^ knock, jostle 
229(1). sagas&in be hit upon, be 
conflicted with 245(3). sinagasaan 
ums bumped into 22(24). nag- 
s^asaan jostled each other 237 
(1). pagsas&gasaJin a jostling each 
other 237(1). misagasaan get run 
into 271(22). nisagasaan got run 
into 297(43). 

Digitized by 





sagiQ banana 16(8). See puno^ 
sagf^an banana-grove 250(40). 

sagitsit sizzling 114(10). 

sagdt that answered 26(23). 44 
(15). sumagftt answer 44(10). an- 
swered 26(1). sum&sagot answers 
44(2). sinag6t was given an an- 
swer 191(41). isinagot was said in 
reply 16(18). makasagot be able 
to answer 76(4). nakasagot was 
able to answer 68(21). 

saguwan a paddle 261(41). su- 
maguwan paddled 229(1). pag- 
saguwAn a paddling 82(12). 

sahig flooring, floor 114(43). 
isin4sahig is being used as flooring 

-s4hod : sum&hod hold under 229 
(1). is&hod be held under 248(34). 

-skiiQ : magsaii) cook rice dry 232 
(30). sinai^i ration of rice, not 
yet served 229(8). 

saka' then,ii afterwards 52(30). 
68(21). 243. 

-sakal: pagsakM choking 227 

sakatero S. grass-cutter 96(2). 

sakay person carried in a vehi- 
cle 80(36). pagsakAy used for rid- 
ing or driving 225(18). sumak^y 
mount, ride 72(1). mounted 52 
(37). sum4sakay is mounting, is 
getting on or, in (a vehicle) 229 
(2). pagsak&y mounthig, riding 
70(40). 167(41). nagsakay took 
into a vehicle 234(25). pagsasa- 
kiy a taking inio a vehicle 272 
(2). isinak^y was put on a vehicle 
306(16). ipinagsakay was taken 
into a vehicle 249(37). sakyS<n be 
embarked in 253(10). sinakyan 
was ridden in 253(9). sinisa^^n 
is being ridden in 82(32). s&k&yan 

embarkation by mxiny 258(3). sa- 
saky&n vehicle 219(35). nakfkisa- 
kiy embarks along with others 98 
(18). ikin&sakAy was the cause of 
chance mounting 273(36). naka- 
sakiy; has mounted, is mounted 
100(23). 281(15). nakas&sakay is 
able to numnt 281(43). pagkasa- 
kky a past mounting, ability to 
mount 282(12.39). nasakyan was 
able to be mounted 228(16). na- 
sakky got put on a vehicle 294 
(28). nfls^kiy is in a vehicle 
114(22). pagk4sakAy a chance 
mounting or riding 292(17). 294 
(36). 295(41). nasakyan got 
mounted 298(1). pasaM.y that 
caused to be taken into a vehicle 
299(17). in riding position, astride 
299(30). nagpasakiy caused to be 
put on a vehicle 268(25). pagpa- 
pasakay a cau^ng to be put on a 
vehicle 303(17). ipinasakay was 
caused to be put on a vehicle 306 
(26). ipinagpasakay was caused 
to be used for riding 307(21). 
pinasakyan was caused to be 
mounted 308 ( 28 ) . ipinagk&pasa- 
kky was the cause of causing to 
ride 310(18). 

sakdal accusation 54(36). isi- 
nakdal was charged 56(12). ipi- 
nagsakdAl was accused 54(31). 

-sakim : kasakiman selfishness 
28(34). 74(20). 

s&kit (a) grief 223(20). pasi- 
kit suffering caused 42(43). nag- 
pas&kit caused suffering to be un- 
dergone 303(20). ipinasakit was 
caused to be suffered 22(7). pina- 
sisakitan is being caused to suffer 
40(40).— (b) Accent shifted: sa- 
kit pain, sickness 30(28). 42(3). 

Digitized by 





223(18). sumaHt hurt, injure 188 
(30). sinasaktan is being hurt 60 
(1), 70(15). nagkasakit got sick 
54(7). 78(24). pagkakasaMt a 
getting sick 269(8). ipinagkasaUt 
was the cause of getting sick 273 
(14). nakasakit caurse injury 313 
(32). masaldt sore 40(41). 281 
(31). masaktan be hurt 206(24). 
mas^saktan wUl be hurt 204(2). 
nasaktan got hurt 264(25). pala- 
siikitin one who easily gets sick 

sdko S. sack 104(15). 

-sakop: sakop included 290(31). 
pags&kop an including, a saving 
306(42). manan&kop savior 20 
(33). nasasakop is included, is 
under control 116(31). 

sala failure, offense 38(2). su- 
m&la faU, miss, 64(42). failed 229 
(4). salihan be omitted, skipped 
253(11). sa^jlan be missed 253 
(14). sinaolin was missed 253 
(12). nagkdsala sinned against 271 
(1). pagkakas&la a sinning against 
290(1). kasalanan sin 20(32). 98 
(7). makasalanan 22(1). 74(22). 
289(22). pagkasala a having 
missed 272(10). 286(3). 

salakab fish-trap 243(7). mana- 
nalakib fi^h-trapper 243(7). 

-salakay: pagsalakay an attack- 
ing 122(10). pananalakay a re- 
peated attacking 122(23). sinala- 
k&yan was attacked 122(9). 

salakot rain-hat of palm-leaves 

salamagka S. slcight-of-hand 
trick 202(37). 

salamat thanks 16(32). 152(4). 
magpasalamat give thanks, thank 

160(15). napasal&mat was thank- 
ful 88(16). 

salamin glass, looking-glass, eye- 
glass 60(7). 238(39). n. of dog 147 

salapi* m^oney; half-dollar 30 
(27). 252(41). 

salat needy 219(14). kasalat&n 
lack 239(35). 

salawal trousers 122(1). 

-salaysiy: isinalaysay was nar- 
rated 38(5). 

salbahi S. savage, brutal; brute 
44(4). 50(17). 70(25). kasalbahl- 
han brutality 54(28). 

-s&li: is&li be taken along, be 
included 248(37). isin&li was in- 
cluded 248(36). kasali participant 
22(18). 48(5). nakasali got taken 
as companion 296(28). mak^Ls&Ii 
chance to take part 114(28). 

salita^ word, speech 18(13). 20 
(41). magsalita' speak 28(39). 80 
(37). nagsalita^ spoke 104(19). 
pagsasalitA* a speaking 80(4(1). 
pananalita* manner of speaking 
44(35). 50(15). pinagsalitaan was 
spoken to 76(3). sMitaan conver- 
sation 32(7). 44(20). magsMi- 
taan converse 114(5). nagsis&li- 
tAan are conversing 86(32). pag- 
sasilitAan a conversing 28(11). 64 
(10). 88(3). kasalitaan one of two 
who converse together 278(2). ma- 
kapagsalita^ be able to speak 50 

-salo: kasalo fellow-partaker 42 

-saluboi) : sinaluboTj was met 18 
(40). 66(19). 

salok dipper; 605^^/229(6). sn- 
malok dipjout water 229(6). 

-saliikoy: kasalukuyan present^ 

Digitized by 





at the same time 361(1). 260(11). 

Salop a dry measure; see kaMn. 

sama (a) come along, go along 
182(26). 222(5). sumAina go along 
32(13). 66(30). went along 140 
(19). sisdma wUl go along 84(12). 
pagsama a going along 104(30). 
pagsasama a going together 54 
(18). is4ma he taken along 84 
(32). isinama was taken along 86 
(28). samihan he gone with 253 
(14). sinam&han was gone with 
186(20). sisamahan will he gone 
with 68(34). simihan society, 
company 296(32). samaha-^-Su- 
miolo^i the Sumvlong Co. 210(30). 
sam4ha-Q-6pera opera company 
303(10). makis&ma go along with 
202(23). kas&ma companion 30 
(9.22). 50(39). 273. magkaka- 
sama gronp of three or more com- 
panions 28(25). 48(39).— (b) 
With accent-shift: samk act as 
partners 223(20). kasami field- 
worker, peon 72(32). 86(22). ka- 
samah&n partner 108(32). 210 
(35). See SumuloQ. magkakasa- 
mahin group of three or more 207 
(41). 278(40). 

sam&^ hadness, injury 218(31). 
kasamaAn hadness, injuriousness 
276 ( 37 ) . kasamaa-Q-p&lad had 
fortune 42(28). masam^^ had, 
hurtful, ugly 40(14). 50(7). 58 

sambalflo (S.) hat 137(42). 

sampjtl a slap 24(23). sinam- 
pal was slapped 24(22). 

samp&y that hung across 251 
(33). nagsampiy hung across, fr. 
232(31). isinampiy urns hung 
across 248(38). samp&yan clothes- 
Jme 223(33). 

Sam-Pedro S. St. Peter 72(27). 
Sana in that case, then 34(17). 
74(23). 47. 230. 

San-Ant6niyo S. place-n. 34 
(29). See tAo. 

sanay practice 46(16). saniy 
practised 46(24). pasas4nay a 
drilling 116(29). pagkasanay a 
past practising 46(23). 

San-Visente S. place-n. 220(40). 

sandali^ moment, while, short 
space of time 18(6). 24(11). 

sand&Iiyas S. sandals 278(35). 

sandok cooking-dipper of cocoa- 
nut -shell 74(5). sumandok dipped 
out 229(8). 

sanhi' cause 190(16). 

-s&nib: sum&nib mxike one's 
sleeping-mat overlap 229(8). isi- 
nib he made td overlap 248(7). 
kasinib overlapping 266(18). 
magkasanib two that overlap 269 

San-Ildeponso S. place-n 100 
(10). See lupa' 

San-Mat6yo S. place-n., see b4- 

San-Mig61 S. place-n. 50(9). 116 
(6). See biyan. 

sinto S. saiwt 98(15). 104(15). 

SAntos S. family -n. 209(26). 

8ant61 fruit and tree of Sandorir 
cum Indicum L. 34(40). 

sa^^ hough 34(28). 118(28). 

-saQg&: sum&saQgii is wardtng 
off 106(36). sinasaQga is heing 
warded off 106(35). 

Sao-Huwin S. St. John 104(6). 

saQk&lan chopping^lock 256(1). 

sa^k&p accompofniment 221(22). 
kasaQk&p id. 266(20). 

Digitized by 





utensil, tool, appurtenances 58(2. 
33). 74(6). 

-sa^l, see sala. 

sanlA^ pledge 252(22). sagldan 
place for pledges, see b4hay. 

skps? pond 88(26). 

sapagkU because 20(17). 201 
(36). 306. 

-sapantaha^ : sinapantfiha^ was 
conjectured 38(25). 

sapit sufficient 305(19). 

sapfitos S. shoes 32(35). 

-s&pit : sumapit arrived, came 62 

-sara: pagsari instrument for 
closing 225(19). sumfisara closes, 
intr. 225(20). pagsasara a closing, 
tr. 26(36). isinara was closed 80 
(1). pagkasari a chance closing 80 

-sarip: masasarAp tasty, pL 34 

sfiri* sari-sari* various 48 ( 15 ) . 

sarfle self; own 48(33). 62(12). 
72(13). 137. 169. 175. 

sarlwa* moist; fresh 184(9). na- 
nariwa* got fresh 76(40). 

sats&t tonsure 106(21). 

sawi* awkward 219(15). 276 
(33). sawi-o-p&lad unlucky 211 
(8). nasawi-g-pilad became un- 
lucky 54(3). kasawiin awkward- 
ness 276(37). kasawiJt-X)-palad bad 
fortune 94.(S7). 

84ya S. dress, JJftir^ 240(41). 

-sayJL: kasiy&han gladness 275 
(27). masayi gay 80(15). 92(2S). 

-sayad: magsis&yad get wearied, 
pi. 118(20). 

sfiyax) that regretted 219(16). 
naohiniyao grieved 292(14). na^- 
hlhinayao is mourning 241(24). 

paghihinayai] a mourning 241(26). 
paghinay&oan be regretted 257(6). 
paghihinayagan will be regretted 
191(31). pinarjhinaydgan was re- 
gretted 257(12). pinaghihinay^o- 
an is being regretted 257(13). na- 
sdyag went for naught 285(5). 

-sayaw: sumayiw dance 110 
(32). danced 186(18). sum&sayiw 
is dancing 112(2). pagsayaw a 
dancing 112(4). nagsdsayaw is 
performing a dance 110(38). sa- 
yaw4n be danced before 253(15). 
sinayaw^ was danced to 186(21). 
siyiwan dance by many; ball 112 
(5). 186(19). 258(4). 

si siy particle of names 20(2). 
45. 58. 62. 78. 126. 162. 196. ni 
disj., of, by 45. 162. kay loc, to for 
45. 196. 

Sibol place-n. 118(26). 

sibuyas S. onions 76(17). 

siga* bonfire 66(16). 

-sigii^) : isigii^) be put on the fire 
248(39). nakasiga^ is cooking 281 

sigarHiyo S. cigarette 227(1). 

sigAw that cried 221(23). sumi- 
giw yetted 24(21). sisigiw wiU 
yett 24(19). pagsig&w a shouting 
42(41). nagsisigiw kept shouting 
16(31). 44(40). nagsisisigAw 
screams continually 40(42). pag- 
sisigiw a continual shouting 16 
(26). 44(26). isinigAw was cried 
out 24(13). 68(39). sinigawan was 
yelled at 253(16). sig&wan a shout- 
ing by many 258(5). magfids)g&- 
wan will yett together 236(18). 
pagsiftigitvaii a yetting together^ 
(37). nakasiiBigiw tr nhle to cry 
but 94(25). pasigSw in a shout 70 

Digitized by 





(24). n&pasig&w involuntarily gave 
a shout 88(27). 

-sigl, see silid. 

-sigIA: masiglA cheerful 276(35). 
magpasigla cause to be cheerful 

siguro S. no doubt 18(24). 80 

silt spines at base of bamboo- 
cluster 246(27). 

-sikad: sumikad kicked at 229 
(9). nagsisikad kicks repeatedly 
238(3). nagsfsisikad is kicking 
much and repeatedly 239(11). si- 
nikaran was kicked at 253(17). 

sikat ray of light 66(22). sumisi- 
kat is shining 78(4). 

-sikip: sumikip became narrow 
229(10). nagsikip grew crowded 
234(27). raasikip crowded 98(39). 

sekreta S. spy 168(5). 

-siksik: sumiksik crowded his 
way 229(13). nagsisiksik is stuffing 
234 ( 29 ) . nakikipagsiksikan takes 
part in the crowding 98(41). 

siko elbow 48(19). 

siko, see tslko. 

-sikot: pasfkot-sikot nooks and 
corners SOO(SS). 

sila they 18(27). 63. nilk disj., 
by them, of them 16(7). 163. kani- 
la prep, and loc, their, by them, 
them 18(26). 165. 169. kani-kani- 
la prep, and loc, their various, 
their respective 26(37). 165. 169.) 

sila, see sina. 

silakbo a flare, leap 231(6). 254 
(26). sumilakbo flared up 229(14). 
sinisilakbuhan is being welled up 
in 22(15). 

-silag : silagan place of rising 
259(41). silagan place of child- 
birth 260(26). silag&nan east 163 

(27). silaQan east; place-n. 163 
(27). 261(13). 

-silbS (S.) : magsilbS serve 40 
(7). pinagsisilbihan is being waited 
on 64(12). 

slle S. chUe pepper 76(16). 

silid smM room 84(39). 114 
(13). sumilid get into a small 
space 104(34). isilid be put in 248 
(40). siglin be fiUed 138(5). sinig- 
Ian was fiUed 20(17. 34). sinisiglin 
is being filled 20(6). pinagsisigl4n 
was variously filled 118(7). 256 
(20). pagkasilid a chance putting 
away 104(37). 

-silip : sinllip was peeped at 106 

sQiya S. c/iair 234(12). 

silog ground' floor, space under 
platform of house 260(29). 

-simba: magsimba go to church 
78(37). nagsimba went to church 
242(18). nagslsimba goes to church 
56(13). simbahan church 20(15). 
inapagsimbA devout 98(10). 

sina sila pL particle of names 48, 
60. 62. 162. 196. nina nila disj., of, 
by 48. 162. kina loc, to, for 48. 196. 

sinag ray 66(36). 

sine S. cinematograph 204(22). 

sinelas S. sandals 70(1). 

seniyas S. signals 246(22). 

-sinta : pagsinta a proffering love 
229(16). sinisinta is being loved 

sentimos S. centimos, cents 222 

sino who? 97. 167. sino-sino pL 
97. 131. nino disj., of whomf by 
whomf 167. 168. kanino prep, and 
loc, whose? by whom? 168. 169. 
kani-kanino pi. 168. 169. 

sinugalig mendacimis 219(17). 

Digitized by 





nagsisinuQaliQ tells lies 238(5). 
kasmu^aliQan falsehood 276(38). 

-siQil: paniniQil a dunning 313 
(1). sioilin be dunned for 264(14). 
sinisiQil is being claimed 54(23). 
nasi^il got collected 294(7). 

siokamAs (S.) Pachyrizus angu- 
latus Rich. 76(16). 

-siQk4w: nagpasiQk&w caused to 
be hitched lip 52(35). 

siQSiQ ring 102(2). palasi^sfqan 
the ring finger 315(25). 

sipa* that kicked away; football 
46(32). pagsipa' a kicking 48(15). 
maninipa* football-player 48(24). 
sipain be kicked away 84(9). sini- 
pa^ was kicked away 24(45). 84 
(3). pinagsipa' was variously 
kicked 84(43). pinagsisipA' was 
variously and repeatedly kicked 84 
(21). sipero football-player 316 
(11). siperos pi. 48(24). 

-sipag: kasipagan diligence 276 
(38). maslpag diligent 64(14). ma- 
sisipag pi. 34(35). 

-sira' (a) nagkasira' got partly 
spoiled 268(37). nakasisira* causes 
niin 235(27). masira* be able to bd 
destroyed 283(40). nasira^ was de- 
stroyed; deceased 78(5). 285(7). 
nasisiraan gets damaged 301(24). 
mAsira' get destroyed 293(26). nA- 
sisira^ gets destroyed 191(32). — 
(b) Accent shifted: sira' destroyed 
223(3). kasira' opponent in anger 
266(42). raagkasira^ break unth 
each other 24(28). nagkasira^ had 
a falling out 269(20). nagsipag- 
kasira' pi. 269(28). kasira&n ruin 
94(12). kasiraa-^-puri injury to 
honor 94(16). 

serbisiyo S. service 62(35). 

sermon S. sermon 20(16). isin^ 

sermon is being preached about 50 
(16). sinesdrmunan is being 
preached to 50(13). 

-sfsi: magsisi repent 20(31). 
magsipagsfsi pi. 22(2). pagsicdsi a 
repenting 22 ( 25 ) . pinagsifiifhan 
was repented 291(9). 

-sisid : siimfsid stay under water 
168(41). pagsisid a staying under 
water 309(10). nd^isisid is sub- 
merged 88(35). pagpapasisid a 
causing to dive 116(38). 

sitaw the cow-pea, Vigna catjang 
Endl. 76(16). 

siyi hCy she; that which 47. 63. 
106. myk disj., by him, of him, 47. 
163. kaniyA prep, and loc, his, by 
him, him 165. 169. kasiya sufficient 
268(8). magkakisiyi wUl be suffir 
cient 271(4). pagkisiyahin be a 
sufficient container 52(13). maka- 
slsiyA wUl be adequate 281(7). na- 
siyahan got what corresponded to 
it 66(21). nasisiyah&n gets what 
corresponds to it 112(26). 

-siyado (S. demasiado) imasiyi- 
do excessive 54(19). 289(17). 

siyam nine 38(6). 67. paijsiyam 
number nine 225(38). makasiyim 
ni7ie times 298(33). 

siyAsat that inquired into 203 
(5). nagsiyasat inquired 28(2). 
203(2). pagsisiy4sat an inquiring 
66(21). maniyisat pry into 240 
(33). siniyasat was interrogated 64 
(34). nasiyasat has been inquiring 
into 199(32). mapagsiyasat inquis- 
itive 40(20). 

siyempre S. always 262(13). 

siyete-pal&bras S. Easter Mass 
20(29). V 

subalit but 322. 

-subo: sumubo boiled over, intr. 

Digitized by 




52(12). sinubh^D tvas boiled over 
tn 54(30). 

siibo^ mouthful 221(24). pagsu- 
subo' a feedvig 219(15). subuaii be 
fed 253(19). 

-subok: nanunubok is spying 40 
(24). subiikan be watched for, put 
to a test 68(8). 102(34). sinubii- 
kan was put to a test 56(39). sinu- 
subukan is being spied cwi 40(22). 
masubukan be able to be tested 265 

-sugal (S.) : nagsusugal is gamb- 
ling 269(22). nagsipagsug&l gamb- 
led, pL 190(34). pagsusagal a 
gambling 251(29). su^an gamb- 
ling-party 174(29). 

sugat a wound 20(8). sumugat 
wounded 20(38). sinugatan was 
wounded 253(20). sugat&n wound- 
ed person, the wounded 20(39). 
260 ( 28 ) . nagsugatan wounded 
each other 237(3). masug&tan be 
able to be wounded 36(21). 

suha* grape-fruit 34(40). See 

suhola6r*6 72(39). 

siika* unne set to sour, vinegar 

sukat proper, fitting 58(18). 98 
(24). 268. 

suklJty comb 229(19). sumiikliy 
combed 229(18). nagsukl&y combed 
himself 234(30). sinukl&y was 
combed 245(7). sinuklayan id. 253 
(21). nagpasukl&y caused himself 
to be conibed 303(22). pinapagsuk- 
Iky was caused to comb himself 

Bulat that written, letter 52(10). 
sulAt written 199(30). siimtlat 
write 140(18). wrote 50(39). m- 
sdlat will write 138(11). sumufffi- 

lat is writing 146(5). pagsulat a 
writing 140(29). pagsusulit a writ- 
ing in quantity 238(5). panunu- 
lat id. 240(35). magsusulat clerk, 
scribe 243(2). m4nunulit id. 243 
(20). siniilat was written 154(8). 
245(9). isinulat was put into writ- 
ing 94(22). 184(35). sulatan be 
written to 154(19). sulatin irrtf- 
ing-desk 217(13). kasiil&tan kasa- 
latAn correspondent 278(12. 24). 
makasulat be able to u?rite 282(2). 
iiakasusulat is able to write 282(1). 
nakasulat happened to write 176 
(38). tagasiilat writer 315(39). 
tagapagpasfilat overseer of writers 

-sulid: sumtilid spin thread 229 
(19). sinulid thread 184(4). 

sulihiyi the weave 48(1). 

suleras S. joists 234(43). 

-sulsS (S.) : manulaft dam 169 
(2). tagasnlsfe darning-woman 169 


sulo^ torch 90(26). 

sulok comer 52(33). 64(22). mi- 
lok-sulok nooks and comers 64 

siilo^j go ahead 151(39). 8oiii6^ 
log push ahead 229(19). also as 
family -n. (SumuloQ at kasamahin: 
se^ big&san). pagsuloQ a pushing 
on; a going away 88(41). 308(36). 
isusoIoQ wiU be pushed forward 58 
(3). isinusuloQ is being pushed 
ahead 2S0{S). 

siiman steamed rice in banana- 
leaves 227(1). 

8ombr6ro 8. hat 137(41). 

snmboQ complaint 96(12). nag^ 
siimbo^) brought a charge 100(21). 
ipagsumboQ be complained of 96" 
(35). ipinagsumb^ was cam-^ 

Digitized by 





plained o/ 38(1). 96(10). palasum- 
btigin tattle-tale 315(10). 

-suinpSg : pagsumpoQ attack, fit 
313(22). sinumpo^j was overcome 
18(36). 84(14). sinusumpoi) is be- 
ing overcome 108(27). 

sundalo S. soldier 52(23). nag- 
sundalo became a soldier* 183(2). 
pagsusundalo military service 303 

-sundo': sumundo^ fetch 229 
(21) pagsundd' a fetching 229' 
(22). ginundo* was called for 256 
(41). sinusundo^ is being called for 
104(23). kasundo' agreeing 268 
( 9 ) . nagkasundft* agreed with each 
other 168(16). pagkakdsundd^ an 
agreeing with each other 271(5). 
pagkAsunduin pagk^unduwan be 
agreed upon 278(30). pinagkisun- 
dnin was agreed upon 32(2). nag- 
pasundo^ caused to be fetched 92 
(23). pagpapasund6* a causing to 
ht fetched 303(23). ipinasundo^ 
was caused to be fetched 306(28). 
ipinasasnndd^ is being caused to be 
fetched %%{\9).92{\%). 

sant&k blow on the head 229 
(24). pagsuntok a striking on the 
head 229(23). suntuBn be struck 
on the head 245(10). sinuntdk was 
struck on the head 245(10). sinxi- 
suntok is being struck on the head 

-suno*: nakisuno' dwelt along, 
dwelt with 264 ( 15) . kasfino^ feUow- 
guest 118(15). magkakasuno^ pi. 

•'sundd : san6d-Bun5d following 
dn one another 72(25). gmnnBod 
follow, comply, obey 52(24). 100 
(27). followed 231(6). gumumnftd 
is foUowmg 88(7). 46(19). pag^ 

sunod a following 38(10). 94(24). 
sundin be complied with 92(8). 
sinunod was complied with 303 
(16). sinusunod is being complied 
with 62(37). 66(13). isinunod was 
taken next, was made to follow 76 
(18). sundan be followed 240(23). 
sinundan was followed 22(25). 36 
(36). sinusundan is being followed 
68(23). kasunod foUounng another 
266(21). magkasunod two, one of 
whom follows the other 42(29). 
270(8). pagkak4sun6d-sun6d a foU 
Urwing one on the other 271(6). 
masunurin obedient 94(20). 

sunog a burning up, conflagra- 
tion 122(18). 156(10). sunog burwt 
66(41). 223(4). panununog a set- 
ting fire to, a burning 122(12). 
sunugin be burned up 122(20). 
pinagsunog wa9 variously burned 
up 122(10). magkasunog have a fire 
268(41) nasunog has been burned 
172(39). 259(4). pagkastinog a 
past burning 197(34). 283(2). pag- 
kisunog a getting burned 292(19). 

sunoQ that carried on the head 

suQ&Qa^ a blow on the mouth 212 
(37). susuQa^ain wiU be struck on 
the mouth 174(37). 

su^ay horn 24(29). 

-suQgJtb: sinuQgab&n was seized 
46(27). 58(22). sindsaQgab&n is 
being seized 108(34). masQQgab&n 
have been taken hold of 110(2). 
nasiisuQgab&n is able to be seieed 

supot bag 34(5). 

sorMtes S. sherbet 272(88). 

suflo breaet, nipple 212(11). ipi- 
nakikipasdMy is being asked to b0 

Digitized by 





caused to take the breast 307(38). 

suso* snail 18(1). 

sutsot a whistling 197(22). su- 
musuts6t is whistling 229(24). ma- 
lasutsot a young lout 315(3). pa- 
lasutsutin one who always whistles 

soot that worn 70(1). isodt be 
put on 248(41). soot^n be got into 

-suw&y: pagsuw^y a disobeying 
54(3). makasuw&y be able to dis- 
obey 94(21). 

suwelas S. soles 306(8). 

suwdldo S. pay 26(27). 

-suyo*: pagsuyo*^ a bribing 92 
(38). panunuyo^ a propitiating by 
bribes 72(34). 

suyod a harrow 243(3). magsa- 
y6d harrower. 


if see at. 

taltn that set apart 221(3). itin- 
4tain is being reserved 248(24). 
taanan fugitive 261(14). mag- 
taanan fiee 237(4). makataan&n be 
able to flee 286(24). 313(29). nk- 
lAtain is reserved 80(13). 

taas height 218(13). ita4s upper 
part, north 36(27). 163(25). pait- 
aks upward 48(6). itina^s was 
raised 88(34). kataas&n north 163 
(25). mata&s high 64(12). n&taJis 
got raised up 78(8). 

-taW: tumaba' grow stout 206 
(27). katabA' how fat 42(5). ma- 
taba^ fat, stout 244(34). n&paka- 
taba' very fat 313(12). 

tabakera S. tabatiire 220(25). 

tab4ko S. cigar 66(12). naglA- 
tab4ko is smoking a cigar 66(19). 

tabi side; step aside 32(31). 152 
(1). natabi got to the side of 74 
(14). pagk&tabi a getting to the 
side of 94(8). 

tabli S. board 34(37). 

tabo' dipper 222(27). 

t&bon dam 245(14). nagtibon 
dammed up 232(32). pagtatdbon 
a damming up 179(39). tinabunan 
was dammed up 253(22). n&titta- 
bon is covering, is piled over 120 

(22). pinatabunan was caused to 
6c ^Ked 26(10). 

tabur^te S. chair 24(39). 

tadtAd chopped up 20(7). pag- 
tatadtad a chopping up 114(10). 
and Corrigenda. 

tagi tigi coming from 56(23). 
48. 254. 

-tagi': tumaga' hew, chop 290 
(27). tinagi^ was chopped 44(39). 

tagd,l length in time, endurance 
168(41). tagalAn be done long 253 
(23). matagil long-enduring, pa- 
tient 104(26). natagal^n was able 
to be endured in 62(6). pitagalan 
contest of endurance 309(10). 
pagpapatagalan a contesting for 
endurance 48(22). 309(17). kap4- 
tagalan opponent in a contest for 
endurance 310(32). 

Tagalog Tagalog 50(15). 58(6). 
Katagalugan the Tagalog country 

tagllid, see -gilid. 

tagpi' a patch 266(4). tagpian 
be mended 253(26). tagpian place 
of patching 259(7). kat&tagpi* 
there has/ just been mending 175 

tagpo' a meeting 220(3). mag- 
tatagpo^ meet each other, pL 102 

Digitized by 





(4). nagtatagpo* met each other 
26(39). tagpmn be met by appoiyit- 
ment 245(12). tagpuin be joined 
up 253(26). pagtatagpuin wUl be 
met in 26(34). tagpuan meeting- 
place * 106(9). makfkipagtagpo^ 
will meet another 98(26). mak4- 
tagpo' happen to meet 66(5). 92 
(14). Dak4tagp6^ happened to 
meet 18(2). 36(8). matagpuin get 
met with 106(25). natagpuin got 
met with 34(20). 92(15). 

tkgd^ that put away 221(25). 
magtago' hide oneself 32(35). 
magtago^ keep oneself in hiding 56 
(19). nagtago' kept himself in hid- 
ing 56(21). pagtatago* a staying 
in hiding 312(13). itago^ be hid- 
den 40(25). itinatigo^ is being 
put away 273(34). tagalin place 
for safe-keeping; hiding-place; hid- 
ing 52(25), 120(10). 163(22). Id- 
n^tataguan is the place of conceal- 
ment 118(43). makapagtago* be 
able to hide onsself 52(32). nktA- 
tago' is hidden 24(31). 34(11). 
pagkatago* the way of storing 268 
(39). patAgo* given for safe-keep- 
ing 293(26). 

-tah^: magtahan cease 232 
(33). nagtahin ceased 106 
(7). tah&nan abode 66(24). pa- 
tahanin be caused to cease 100(2). 

-tahi*: manahi* sew, patch 169 
(2). pananahi^ sewing as occupa- 
tion 240(36). minan&hi* seam- 
stress 243(14). pinan^nahian is 
the place where sewing is done 256 
(42). tagatahi^ person appointed 
to sew 315(39). 

tabid spur of rooster 238(3). 

tahilan girder 227(15). 

tahlmik quiet 102(4). 114(4). 

tumahlmik become quiet, quiet 
down 44(17). became quiet 44 
(25). 122(23). nanahimik quieted 
down2^Q{2>l), nagsipanahimik p!. 
36(5). katahimikan quietness 116 
(9). matahimik quiet 34(35). 120 
(38). matahimik get quiet 40(42). 

tahdl a bark 62(8). tumatahol 
is barking 229(25). pagtahol a 
barking 305(2). pagtatahol a 
barking at 234(31). tahulan a 
baying together 258(7). nagta- 
hulan bayed together 190(17). iki- 
natahol was the cause of barking 
273(38). nakatahol has barked, 
was able to bark 191(2). 198(18). 
pagk&tahol a chance barking 158 
(8). pagpapatahol a causing to 
bark 296(10). pinatahol was 
caused to bark 304(41). 

taiga tega ear 110(35). 

-taka: pagtatakA a being sur- 
prised 64(16). 232(34). ipinagta- 
taka is the cause of surprise 66 
(4). kataki-taka exciting wonder 
36(26). nakapagtataka causes 
wonderment 36(24). 

takbo a run 70(41). tumakbo 
run 18(18). ran 18(39). tuma- 
takbo is running 251(39). t^takbo 
uriU run 18(35). pagtakbo aH run- 
ning 18(9). pagtakbo-takbo a run- 
ning about at intervals 231(22). 
nagtdtakbo runs (as repeated oc- 
currence) 108(16). nagsipagtakbo 
ran, pi. 84(29). na^iagsipagtakbd 
id. 116(13). pagtatakbo a running 
88(25). nagt&tatakbo is running 
wild 62(13). 238(42). takbuhan 
a running together 60(27). 116 
(5). nagtakbuhan ran together 
22(26). nagsipagtakbiihan pi. 96 
(30). nagtitakbiihan are running 

Digitized by 





together 86(40). 106(34). pagta- 
takbuhan a running together 18 
(1). 96(17). makipagtakbuhan 
join in a race luith 18(21). naki- 
kipagtakbuhan joins in a race 60 
(26). pinaHkipagtakbuhan is be- 
ing run with 60(29). 265(33). ma- 
katakbo be able to run 18(16). 
patakbo on the run 68(18). 72(8). 
pinatakbd wa^ caused to run 70 

takip cover 172(15). pa^takip 
used as cover 94(15). 

t4kot fear 20(6). takutin be 
frightened 50(33). nagt^takot-ta- 
kutan pretends to be frightened 
108(15). kat&kot-t4kot terrifying 
267(27). ikinatdkot was the cause 
of fearing 272(23). katakutan be 
feared 36(9). kinatakutan was 
feared 274(30). kinatAtakutan is 
being feared 42(18). pagkataku- 
tan be feared by many 275(19). 
pagk&katakutan wUl be feared by 
many ' 275(21). pinagkatakutAn 
was feared by many 275(15). pi- 
nagk^katakutAn is being feared by 
many 36(30). kataktitan timidity 
116(14). katakutan reverence 276 
(11). katatakutan terrifying 34 
(32). 277(30). nakatatakot is caus- 
ing fear 66(12), mtit&kot be afraid 
20(13). natakot grew afraid 58 
(23). na^jatdkot pi. 36(6). natit- 
takot is afraid 36(7). pagkatakot 
a being afraid 72(9). palatakutin 
easily frightened. 

tAla' star 272(25). 

-tala^: natala^ got fixed 116(24). 

talaga by fate, by nature, once 
for aU 98(33). 116(16). tinalaga 
was resolved upon 46(23). kata- 
lagahan fate 276(40). 

-tdlas: matdlas keen, clever 234 

-talastas: natatalasttis is able to 
be understood 284(2). napagtalas- 
tis wa^ entirely understood 287 
(14). uapagtdtalastas napfipagta- 
lastas is entirely understood 287 

-tAli^: panili^ u^ed for tether- 
ing, tying up 225(21). nagtali^ 
tethered 232(35). itinili* was 
tethered 313(25). tinalfan was tied 
up 104(37). nakat&li^ is tied 284 

-t41ik: tum&lik became close 88 
(2). matilik intimate 22(30). 52 

-talikod, see likM. 

talini cutting-edge 221(36). pa- 
talim cutting instrument 36(19). 
nagpatalim caused to be sharp, 
sharpened 44 ( 36 ) . nagpipatalim 
i^ sharpening 303(25). pinatalim 
was made sharp 304(42). napat4- 
talim is able to be made sharp 311 

talino (S.t) intelligence 60(16). 
katalinuhan id. 50(6). matalino 
inteUigent 36(28). 

-t41o (a) : nagtAtAlo is contend- 
ing 46(34). pagtat41o a contend- 
ing 296(31). maualo be victorious 
52(8). nan&lo won 48(36). nanA- 
n41o is victorious 62(2). nagsisi- 
pan&lo pi. 118(5). pananalo vic- 
tory 56(30). m&nanalo victorious, 
victor 48(38). 62(1). talunin be 
defeated 46(37). t^talunin wUl be 
defeated 18(24). talunan defeat- 
ed, loser 18 (i2). 148(22). 163(7). 
pinanalunan u^as won 60 
(33). katalunan one of 
two who are opposif%g each 

Digitized by 





other 278 ( 12 ) . pinagkatalunan 
was won in by many 60(27). 275 
(23). pagkatilo a being defeated 
52(7). mAkat41o turn out to be the 
opponent 168 ( 28 ) . mak&kat&lo 
v)Ul be an opponent 30(2). naka- 
t41o was the opponent 296(29). 
nakakatdlo is the opponent 296 
(31).— (b) Accent shifted: katalo 
opponent in unnning-and-losing 
game 266(43). nagkatald played a 
game 269(21). pagkakatald a unn- 
ning-and-losing 48(21). 

talumpiti^ oration 98(38). nag- 
td,taluinp&ti^ is making a speech 
98(41). pagtatalump&ti^ a speech- 
making 236(39). 

-talon: tomalon jumped down 
88(29). nagtalon jumped doum 
28(21). 70(30). 72(13). 

taldQ egg-plant 76(16). 

-taluQkd^ : nakatalu^kd^ has 
squatted down 98(19). 112(1). na- 
oAtataluQki* are in squatting posi- 
tion 108(29). pataliMjko^ in squat- 
ting position 220(9). 

t4ma^ (a) a hit, correct 152(7). 
220(5). tumima^W* 24(23). 229 
(26). tam&an be hit and destroyed 
or disfigured 238(39). matam&an 
get hit and disfigured 298(5). — 
(b) Acent shifted: tama^ hdt 223 
(5). tama&n be hit in some part 
106(38). tinamaan was hit 24(25). 
38(21). m&tamaan get hit in some 
part 36(21). 298(11). 

-tam&d: katamar^ be neglected 
274(36). katatamar&n wiU be neg- 
lected 274(39). kinatamar&n ivas 
neglected 274(34). katam&ran la- 
ziness 18(36). matamJUl lazy 260 

tamis sweetness 297(10). mata- 

mis sweet, sugar 198(31). 252(6). 

-tamn, see tanim. 

-tampal&san : tinampaldsan was 
roughly handled 94(14). katam- 
palasdnan roughness 310(9). 

-tampo: pagtatampuhan mutual 
contrariness 259(28). 

-tamo: magtamo partake 78 
(39). nagtdtami is partaking 112 

-tan&w : tumanaw take into view 
90(39). tanawin be observed 108 
(21). pagkatanaw a having looked 
283(4). nak&tanaw chanced to 
espy 28(13). 72(5). pagkdtanAw a 
chance espying, the way of seeing 
18(34). 108(16). 291(19). 

-tandi*: tumAtanda^ is getting 
old 229(27). matand^^ old 38(6). 
matatand^^ pi, 114(31). matan- 
dskn be able to be remembered 24 
(5). nat^tandaan is able to be re- 
membered 20(25). 28(5). 116(19). 

tanikala^ chain 244(38). 

tanim that planted 221(26). pa- 
nanlm used for planting 86(32). 
nagt&tanlm is planting 86(38). 
pagtatanlm a planting 307(13). 
mAnan&nim planter 243(15). it6- 
tanim wiU be planted 16(6). tam- 
n^n be planted in 253(28). nktk- 
tanim is planted 76(31). nata- 
tamnan is planted in 34(39). 

taniyAg much regarded 219(18). 
pagtataniyjig an exhibiting 90 
(16). tany&gan exhibition 259 
(9). pagtatanyagan the making 
an exhibition 90(9). 

tanso^ copper 230(14). 

tanti3rjL S. calculation, guess 281 


t&nod walchm^an t&nod-b&hay 
house-watchman 210(31). t&nod- 

Digitized by 





palay rice-guard 210(31). tuma- 
nod guarded 229(27). nagtAnod 
stood guard, formed a guard 207 
(41). tinanuran was guarded 253 

tanog that asked, question 56 
(5). 68(21). tumanog asked (with 
quotation or thing asked about) 44 
(8). 82(13). 106(10). 229(29). 
nagtanog put questions, asked 
(unth indirect quotation) 82(3). 
234(34). nagt4tan6g is putting 
questions 234(33). tinandg was 
inquired of 26(1). itinanog was 
asked 26(3). 30(30). ipagtanog 
be asked about 74(26). ipagtata- 
nog be repeatedly asked about 98 

-taga^: tinagaan was threatened 

tagan grasp; that grasped 66 
(38). 108(41). tinagnAn was 
grasped ^2(39). 

tagay that carried along 70(3). 
nagtatag^y is carrying along 68 
(28). tinagay was carried along, 
washed away 82(34). tin&tagiy is 
being borne along 16(3). 

taggap that received 221(27). 
tumaggap received 76(25). tagga- 
pin be accepted 48(25). 245(16). 
t&taggapin ujiU be accepted 52 
(25). tinaggap was received, ac- 
cepted 58(9). 219(29). taggap^n 
be taken from 253(31). tagg&pan 
receiving-place 252(21). nataggip 
chanced to be accepted 42(28). 

-taggol: pagtataggftl a defend- 
ing 257(14). m&nanaggol attor- 
ney 116(25). maipagtaggol be 

able to be defended 288(1). taga^ 
pagtaggdl attorney 305(40). 

-taghA^: tumagha^ wonder 229 

tagh&li^ noon 30(29). manag- 
h&li^ eat the noon meal 204(26). 
kataghallan middle part of day 26 
(14). 120(38). 

-t4gi^: itinigi* vms refused 60 

-taglaw: pagtagl^w an Ulumi- 
noting 66(36). 

-tagd^: tumag6^ consented 16 
(6). tumitago* consents 229(31). 

tapag courage 36(31). katap4- 
gan bravery 276(41). mat&pa^ 
courageous 42(19). 66(2). 

tapat space in front 189(1). ipi- 
nagtapat was owned up 90(32). 
katap^t facing 48(7). 

tapik a tap 220(7). pinagtAta- 
pik is being petted 84(1()). 

-t4pon: itapon be cast away 30 
(36). 62(23). itinapon was cast 
away 62(30). ipinagtapon was va- 
riously cast away 120(40). tapu- 
nan place for throwing away 205 
(21). nagpatipon caused to be ex- 
iled 56(27). ipatApon be caused 
to be cast out 56(17). pagkapata- 
pon a having caused to be banished 

tapon S. stopper, cork 166(17). 
tapunan be corked 253(34). 

-tapos: tapos ended 30(19). ta- 
piisin be ended 236(18). tin4pc» 
was ended 56(6). katapusin end, 
cessation 24(1). 50(18). 114(33). 
makatipos have finished 88(3). 
167(26). matipos com^ to an end 
50(37). 82(3). natapos ended 236; 

Digitized by 





(37). pagkat4pos a having ended 
44(37). 52(4). matdpos-tdpos be 
able to come to an end 287(39). 

tara come along 207(35). 

tarabukOy see biiko. 

-tara^jka : t4ra^jk&han gateway 

-tarato S. : pagtar&to a treating 

tasa (S.) point 254(2). 

t&tal splinters 58(17). 

tdtay father 120(17). 122(17). 
59. magt4tay father and child 242 
(16). magtat4tay pi 242(33). 

tatlo, see -tl6. 

tao person, human being 20(7). 
tao-g-bayan townsperson 50 ( 17 ) . 
tao-g-San-Antoniyo person of San 
Antonio 34(31). panauhin guest 
247(29). 250(39). t4o-tauhan 
manikin; pupU of the eye 88(8). 
135(22). katdo persons 42(6). 255. 
katauhaii mankind 135(21). ka- 
tawan body 20(33). 276(19). 
pagagatawan physique, body 18 
(14). 36(11). 

-taob: pagtataob a tipping over, 
tr. 82(32). 

taon year 26(36). taon-taon ev- 
ery year 191(32). k&taon at the 
same time 104(18). nagk4tadn 
happened at the same time 84 
(37). 94(6). pagkakitadn a hap- 
pening at the same time 271(6). 
natataon comes at the same time 

tdwa (a) laughter 68(27). t. nag 
t. keeps laughing 206(35). tu- 
indwa laughed 18(23). tumitawa 
is laughing 229(31). pagtAwa a 
laughing 100(37) tumit4wa-t4wa 
laughs at intervals 231(23). tawd- 
nan be laughed at 186(34). t4w4- 

nan laughter by many 259(37). 
katatawandn laughable, laughing- 
stock 24(17). 167(30).— (b) Ac- 
cent shifted: tumatawa-tawA snick- 
ers, giggles at intervals 231(28). 
nanaw^-nawa kept snickering 241 
(33). ik&tawa be the cause of 
laughter 185(23). ikfltAtawa wUl 
be the cause of snickering 274(2). 
ikin&tawa was the cause of laugh- 
ter 292(31). ikinitatawa is the 
cause of snickering 274(4). naka- 
tatawi causes irrepressible laugh- 
ter 108(28). matatawanin easily 
made to laugh 290(3). patawa- 
tawa snickering at intervals 300 
(38). n&patawa burst out laugh- 
ing 120(28). 

-tawad : palAtaw4rin will be par- 
doned, excused 184(19). 

tAwag a call; name 50(10). 64 
(18). pagtawag pandwag used for 
calling 225(22). tum4wag call 18 
(27). caUed 32(39). turaatawag 
is calling 64(5). pagtawag a call- 
ing 64(42). nagtawag announced 
234(36). pagtat4wag an announc- 
ing 234(37). nagtawig called in 
numbers 238(7). nagtatawig is call- 
ing in numbers 238(7). pagtataw^tg 
a calling in numbers 238(11). nag- 
t&tatawag is calling much and va- 
riously 239 ( 12 ) . magtatawig 
town-crier 303 ( 30 ) . maniwag 
summon 240(38). taw&gin be 
called 78(1). tin&wag was called 
16(5). tinatiwag is being called 
40(32). itinAwag was called out, 
was caUed for 42(31). 44(28). 248 
(42). ipinagt&wag was called out 
249(39). tawigan be called to 253 
(36). pagkatiwag a having called 
283(6). niAtiwag get called 46 

Digitized by 





(21). natawag got called 303(34). 
pagkatawag a chance calling 291 
(39). patawag caused to he called 
out 299(19). nagpatawag caused 
to he called 303(26). pagpapata- 
wag a cauMug to he called 303(27). 
magpapatawag town-crier 248 
(42). ipinatawag was caused to 
he called 52(13). 54(25). ipinag- 
papatawag is heing caused to he 
caUed out 307(24). 

-tawid: tumawid cross 106(4). 
crossed 68(2). napatatawid is 
causing himself to he taken across 

taya' stakes 258(8). tayaan a 
staking hy several 258(8). 

tayo wCy incl. 63. Cf. atin and 

tayo^ stand up 222(7). erected 
223 ( 35 ) . pagtayo^ used for setting 
up, for standing up 225(24). 306 
(9). tumayo^ stood up 204(27). 
pagtayo^ a standing up 289(21). 
magtayo^ set up, erect 203(2). 
nagtayo' erected 234(40). pagta- 
tayo^ an erecting 234(22). itk- 
tayo^ wiU he set up 296(2). iti- 
nayo^ was erected 248(43). tina- 
yuan was huUt in 253(36). pagka- 
katayo' a standing up together 98 
(39). 271(7). kinatatayuAn is he- 
ing stood on 98(40). nakatayo' is 
upright 110(41). nakatatayo^ is 
ahle to stand up 282(3). pagka- 
tayo^ a having stood up 283(8). 
natatayo^ is standing 34(38). 50 
(26). pagkatayo* a chance stand- 
ing up or erecting 104(19). 291 
(21). patayo^ caused to he erected 
299(20). in standing position 287 
(26). nagpatayo^ caused to he 
erected 303(32). pagpapatayo^ a 

causing to he huilt 303(33). pina- 
tayo^ was caused to stand up 304 
(43). ipinatayo^ was caused to he 
erec^rd 306(30). napatayo' jumped 
to his feet 312(31). 

-tayog: katayog tvhat taUn^ss 

U (tayo f) come along 207(35). 

te&tro, see teyatro. 

-tiba^: tumiba^ cut down ha- 
nanas 229(34). tiniban trunk of 
hananortree after fruit has heen 
gathered 184(2). 

-tibay: tumlbay grew firm 24 
(27). tibayan he propped 296(2). 
matlbay firm 18(20). 64(36). 

tiga, see taga. 

tigas hardness, hard 219(20). 
281(26). tigasan he done unth 
hardening 253(38). matigas hard 
283(27). pinatigasan was made 
hard 237(31). 

-tigil: nagtigil ceased 201(37). 

-tiis: tinltiis is heing endured 
223(18). tiisin hardship 62(21). 

tiktik spy 312(14). tumiktik 
spied 36(31). 

tikuw&s lowered at one end 223 
(35). pagtikuwas a getting out of 
balance 192(22). nagtikuwas tilted 

-tilad: tumilad split, cut up 229 
(35). tinilad was split 46(40). 
napatilad asked to he sliced for 

telefono S. telephone 291(40). 

timba' well-hucket 314(34). tu- 
mimba^ drew in a hucket 229(36). 
kalatimba' squatting on heels 314 
(32). nagkalatimbk^ squ^itted on 
heels 196(37). pinapagkalatimWi^ 
was caused to squat on heels 305 

Digitized by 





-timbag : tirabagan scales 259 
(10). katimbag equal 42(6) and 

tinapay bread 32(17). 

tinda (S.) goods for sale 259 
(11). tindahan store, shop 170 

-tindig: nagsitindig stood on 
end, pi. 66(16). nagtindig stood 
up 26(25). nagsipagtindig pi. 96 
(29). nakatindig is on his feet 38 
(33). 90(25). pagk&tindig a 
chance standing up 291(21). n&- 
patindig jumped to his feet 202 


tinidor S. table- fork 114(8). 

tinig voice 86(25). 114(11). 

tinik spine, splinter, fish-bone 16 
(20). 250(34). n4tinik got a splin- 
ter 16(21). pagk4tinik the getting 
a splinter 295(23). 

-tintero: S. : tinteruhan ink- 
stand 180(33). 

tinoldi stew 163(18). 

tirja foreign substance between 
the teeth 241(29). ma^jhinig^ pick 
one's teeth 241(29). 

-tiyin: tumigin watch 18(26). 
pagtigin an observing 229(37). 
tiijnan be looked at 64(26). tinig- 
nan was looked at 18(13). tinitiQ- 
nan is being looked at 106(34). 

-tigkAd: matigk^d intense 147 


tiytiy fibre, bristle, straw 315 

-tipan: pinagtipanan was ap- 
pointed as meeting-place 104(39). 
tipanan a meeting by appointment 
102(11). nagtip4nan made an ap- 
pointment to m£et each other 26 

-tipid: pagtipid a being econom- 

ical 229(37). nagtipid saved 235 
(2). nagsipagtipid pi. 236(6). pag- 
titipid a saving 235(1). tinipid 
was economized in 245(17). kay- 
tipid what savingness 174(1). na- 
tipid has been economized in 284 
(18). matipid economical 298(9). 
mapagtipid given to saving 289 
(26). pagkatipid a chance saving 
292(25). nagpatipid caused to be 
economized 303(36). ipa tipid be 
caused to be economized in 244 
(20). ipinatipid was caused to be 
economized 306(31). 

-tipon: tipon gathered 223(6). 
pa^tlpon used for gathering 225 
(26). pagtipon a gathering 229 
(39). magtipon store up 235(5). 
nagtipon stored up 235(5). nagti- 
tipon stores up 202(19). pagtitl- 
pon a storing up 235(3). iipunan 
meeting 259(35) Corrigenda, ka- 
tipunan a gathering; n. of a se- 
cret society 116(27). Katipun^ros 
members of the Katipunan 116 
(32). nakatipon succeeded in gath- 
ering 282(4). natipon has been 
gathered 284(19). pagkatipon abil- 
ity to gather, a having gathered 
282(16). 283(10). nakitipon 
chanced to gather 291(33). pagki- 
tipon a chance gathering 291(23). 
patipon that caused to be gathered 
299(21). patipdn into a heap 166 
(23). nagpatfpon caused to be 
gathered 303(37). pagpapatipon a 
causing to be gathered 303(39). 
ipinatipon was caused to be gath- 
ered 306(32). 

tipus S. typhoid 223(19). 

-tiiA: tumiiA dwelt^ staid 229 
(41). magtiiA dwelt 54(12). nag- 
tirk dwelt 50(4). nagtitirit is dweU- 

Digitized by 





ing, stays 38(8). 114(27). pagti- 
tir4 a staying 36(25). 54(13). nag- 
tutumira keeps staymg 112(27). 
itiniiA was left 249(1). tirahAn be 
dwelt in 253(40). tinitirah^n is be- 
ing dwelt in 253(42). tirMn be left 
for 253(39). tim'rhftn was dwelt in, 
was Uft for 118(3). 253(38). tlri- 
han dwelling 16(32). 24(38). ti- 
tirhan home, house 118(27). ikini- 
pagtira was the cause of dwelling 
120(6). Idn^tirMn was lived in 
120(42). makatirjt be able to stay 
52(39). m&tirit remain, get left 192 
(38). matitirA will have to remmn 
187(26). nAtira got left, dwelt 28 
(31). 56(30). nititira is left, 
dwells 26(28). 28(33). pagk&tirit 
a chance staying 116(25). 

-tisod: tinfsod was kicked atvay 
245(20). natisod has been kicked 
away 284(20). nak^tisod accident- 
aUy hit with the foot 290(35). 

-tiw&la^: tiwala^ persuaded, con- 
vinced 104(40). paniw&la^ belief 
40(3). maniwila^ believe 68(29). 
naniw&la^ believed 106(19). nani- 
niw41a* believes 40(7). 52(1). pa- 
niniwAla^ a believing, faith 34(32). 
40(2). paniwalain credulous 116 
(9). paniwal4an be given credence 
52(6). kitiwila^ confidential agent, 
manager 268(13). 

iiyk S. aunt 59. 256. 

tiyin womh 36(16). 

tiy4nak goblin 68(1). 

tey&tro teitro S. theatre 148 

tiyobibo S. merry-go-round 307 

-tlo: tatl6 three 24(18). 67. tat- 
16 ^1 gabi : pagtatatl6-\)-gabi a three- 
nights' ceUbration 114(28). tatl6 

T^ pu* : pa^atlo-o-pu^ number thirty 
226(9). tatld-tatlo three by three 
224(1). pa\)atld number three 226 
(8). ikatlft third 273(19). mak4it- 
16 mak6yitl6 three times 298(36). 

trabahadur S. laborer 82(25). 

trabdho S. labor 30(26). trabd- 
ho-Q-kaniyun^ro artilleryman's 
work 155(22). magt&trab&ho wHl 
work 138(30). nagtrabiho worked 
90(14). pagtatrabiho a working 
82(7). pinapagtatrab&ho is being 
caused to work 72(33). 

trabuko, see buko. 

tr^n S. train 116(21). 

Tsio C. n. 263(4). 

tsiko siko S. custard-apple, Ach- 
ras sapota L. 34(40). 

Tsina S. CWna 269(20). 

tuba^ sap 258(1). 

tubig water 16(31). 

tubo S. tube 255(20). 

tubd sugar-cane 181(15). tubu- 
han ca'm-field 237(41). 259(18). 

tubo"^ that grown; profit 189 
(24). 232(22). tumubo* grew 16 
(12). tutubo^ wUl grow 16(9). ti- 
nubuan was groum up in, urns 
grown on 26(39). 204(10). katutu- 
bo^inftom 38(13). 267(4). 

-tud, see -tuwid. 

tugt6g that played, piece of mus- 
ic 186(21). tamugt6g play music 
166(3). tumutugt6g is playing 
music 110(37). nagsisitagt6g pL 
110 ( 32 ) . m4nunugt6g musician 
112(3). tugtugin mime 247(22). 
tinutugtugjbi is being played for 
48(30). tugtugan piece of music 
by several performers 112(4). 
pagtutugtugan a playing together 
110(40). pagpapatugt6g a causing 
to be played 80(26). 

Digitized by 





tiihod knee 48(19). 

tuki^ beak 230(2). tumuki^ pick 
wtih the beak 230(2). paqpatukd.^ 
given to pick 301(8). 

tukso joke 195(39). 

-tuktok: tumuktdk knocked 78 
(26). tumutuktok is knocking 155 
(37). pagtuktok a knocking 78 
(27). itinuktdk was knocked 30(7). 
ituktok top, ceiling 62(15). 118 

-tukop: tinukop was covered 
with the hand 100(2). 

tul4^ connected 186(40). tuli- 
tuliL^ coherent U{S5). 

-tulad: tul&ran be limited 74 

tulak push 252(5). tumulak 
pushed at; wewt away 230(3). 235 
(10). nagtiilak pushed 235(9). 

tul&y bridge 163(12). 

-tul^: tutulfe ear-wax 224(22). 
maohinul^ clean the ears 241(30). 

-tiilin : magtulin go fast 167(35). 
nagtutulin is hurrying 68(16). ti- 
nulinan speed 310(19). matulin 
stoift 18(8). 60(31). nitulin got 
faster 294(29). pinatulin was 
caused to hurry 72(4). 

tulis point 284(33). tulis pointed 
223(7). tullsan be sharpened 254 
(1). tulisftn bandit 120(1). matu- 
lispcnn^ed 271(12). 

tulog sleep 220(8). tumulog 
slept in 64(38). tumutulog sleeps 
in 64(37). pagtulog a sleeping 230 
(7). tinutulugan is being slept in 
62(39). 190(12). tulug^n sleeping- 
place 260(32). raakitulog sleep 
along unth 122(14). matiilog go to 
sleep 64(5). 84(18). natulog went 
to sleep 18(36). 38(20). 84(39). 
natutulog is asUep 18(38). 38(28). 

62(9). matutulugln sleepy -head 
290(4). nakAtulog happened to 
sleep in 290(36). m&katdlog chance 
to fall asleep 296(41). ma^ikatu- 
log pi. 297(3). ma^^k^katulog wQl 
fall asleep, pi. 192(14). nlikatiilog 
fell asleep 296(37). naoakikatu- 
log are asleep 296(43). pagk&katu- 
log a falling asleep 62(22). m4tu- 
liigan get slept in 84(17). patu- 
log-tulog sleeping by fits and starts 
300(36). nagpatulog caused to 
sleep 62(8). patulugin be caused 
to sleep 305(3). pinatulog was 
caused to sleep 36(18). 84(38). 
mapatulog be able to be caused to 
sleep 64(2). 

tulo\) help 32(39). tutuloQ wiU 
help 32(11). nagsisitulog are help- 
ing 114(2). tulii!Qan be assisted 
234(19). pinagtiituluQ-tulu^an is 
being done by haphazard helping 
106(29). pagtutulu^an a mutual 
assisting 237(4). ikatuloQ be the 
means of helping 60(23). nakatu- 
loQ contributed 94(37). nakatutii- 
log is contributing 112(11). napa- 
tutuloQ i^ asking to be helped 311 

-tulos: pagtutulos an offering 
up 50(29). n^tu tulos is set up 66 
(41). nagpatulos caused to be set 
up 72(29). naipattilos was caused 
to be set up 80(26). 

-tuloy (a) : itinuloy was gone on 
with 287(11). tinuliiyan was staid 
with 116(35). tuluyan place of 
lodging; sec b4hay. nakituloy 
asked to stay with 148(31). patu- 
loy caused to go on; going on 60 
(3). 70(34). pinatuloy was caused 
to stay on 84(38). ipatuloy be 
caused to ao on, be continued 88 

Digitized by 





(43). ipinatuloy was continued 20 
(41). 66(18). 84(3). ipinatutuloy 
is being continued 108(20). — (b) 
With accent-shift: tuloy further 
28(12). 34(8). 47. 231. natuloy 
chanced to continue, got continued 
207(31). 237(5). 240(18). papag- 
tutuhiyin will be caused to go on 
88(14). ipinatuloy was caused to 
be gone on with 96(31). 307(6). 
ipinapatuloy was caused to be 
caused to be gone on with 307(12). 

tumpak correct 219(20). matum- 
pakan get ascertained 70(32). 

tunay true 66(7). 82(31). ka- 
tunayan truth, truly 30(15). 82 
(5). 265(6). pinatunayan was 
caused to be realized 308(29). 

-tunton: tutuntunin wiU be fol- 
lowed 34(14). tinunton was fol- 
lowed 34(21). palatuntiinin querxi- 
lant 315(11). palituntiinan set of 
rules 315(26). 

tono S. tone 207(4). 

tu^kol about, concerning 30(16). 
52(25). 287. 288. tu^jkulin concern, 
duty 96(40). katu^kulan duty^ of- 
fice 52(41). 110(32). 

tuot6\) a stand 221(31). tutun- 
t6o wia set foot on 70(26). 100 
(29). tinutuntugan is being stood 
on 100(25). makatimtog-tunto^) 
ever set foot on 100(8). mituntoQ 
happen to stand on 68(4). 

-tugo: tumugo went toward 230 
(8). nagsituQo pL 282(30). katu- 
^|o person dealt with 266(25). ka- 
tutuQuhan wUl turn out to be the 
place gone toward 279(20). naka- 
katu^jo is being dealt with 68(14). 
patuQo towards 18(40). 20(3). 48 
(6). 285. pagpatugo a going to- 
wards 120(7). 302(21). patutugu- 

han unil be headed /or 90(43). 307 
(4). pinatuturjuhan is being head- 
ed for 72(6). 308(30). kapapatu- 
giihan wUl be the place headed for 
26(33). 310(28). napatugo went 
toward 102(42). 

-tugo: itinu\)6 was bent over 74 

tupa sheep 112(40). 

-tupad : pagtupad a fulfilling 96 
(39). pagka tupad a having ful- 
filled 233(35). 

Turkos S. Turks 260(10). 

torniliyo S. screw 92(38). 

turo' that pointed out, a teach- 
ing 186(32). 221(32). turo^ ex- 
tended, stiff 223(8). panuro^ point- 
er 225(27). magturo^ teach 232 
(36). nagtuturo* is teaching 232 
(38). pagtuturo^ a teaching 88 
(14). nagtiituro^ is pointing out 
variously 238(14). panunuro* a 
pointing things out 240(39). itu- 
ro^ be pointed out, be shown 182 
(43). 249(2). katuruan one of two 
who point at each other 278(25). 
maituro^ get tattght 90(1). hintu- 
tiiro^ forefinger 42(14). 

turumpo S. spinning-top 227(6). 

tuta' puppy 244(40). 

tuto perception^ care 166(36). 
matuto get educated 168(14). na- 
tuto got taught 178(4). mitutii- 
han get learned 196(35). nitutu- 
han got learned 28(2). 50(24). 

tutubd dragon-fly 291(28). 

totoo true 104(23). 116(2). foto- 
hAnan actuality 94^21>. 25r.«'16). 
katotohanan truth 26(5. fiSf3*>>. 
nagpatoto'H trstifird, affirmed 303 
(42). pagpapatotoo a testifying 
304(3). pinapagpatotoo was caus- 

Digitized by 





ed to testify 305(40). tagapagpato- 
to6 witness 20(13). 

toods^ump 16(23). 

tuos care 46(29). 

tuwa^ joy, gladness 46(5). 76 
(41). glad 80(15). ikinatuwa^ was 
the cause of joy 26(25). ikinatutu- 
wa' is the cause of being glad 272 
(26). katwaan a rejoicing together 
120(25). magkatwaan rejoice to- 
gether 280(11). nagk^k&tw&an are 
rejoicing together 120(26). naka- 
tutuwa^ causes pleasure 280(40). 
natuwa^ became glad 24(27). na- 

ijatuwa^ pi. 34(23). makatuwain 
happen to be liked 40(39). 298 
(28). palatwain easily pleased 315 

tuwi^ every time, whenever 58 
(3). 60(40). 244. 300. 307. 317. (5). 

-tuwid: pagtutuwid a reckoning 
232(39). katuwiran the right 56 
(7). 100(38). 257(14). katuturin 
right outcome 76(21). makatuwid 
have figured out; consequence 56 
(15). matuwid correct 44(26). 50 

tiiyot drought 191(32). 


oSt or 16(25). 45. 321. 

d oh 76(34). 80(12). 151(15). 

6, see 00. 

'Uhrk (S.) : umbri took effect, 
was suitable 230(11). pagubril a 
taking effect 108(35). maguubra 
wriK^wt/ 235(11). 

Tibos exhaustion ubos-lakAs ex- 
haustion of strength 18(39). 22 
(16). ubos-lAk&san exhaustion of 
strength by several 96(29). ipina- 
gubos-lak&san was done u)ith ex- 
haustion of strength 250(4). inu- 
ubos is being used up 112(9). in- 
iyubos was expended 283(41). na- 
kauubos is able to use up 112(40). 
naubos was used up 312(29). nau- 
busan was exhausted o/ 32(19). 

ugdli^ habit 96(26). inugAli^ was 
m4xde a habit 36(25). kaug&li* ac- 
cordant in habits 266(27). kauga- 
Mkn custom 38(10). 112(22). 

ugit root, artery 218(32). 290 

uhaw thirst 280(38) nauuhaw 
is thirsty 285(25). 

likol with regard to, for 42(15). 
50(28). 288. 

lilam that eaten along with one's 
rice 72(34). 

xilan rain 110(14). umul^ 
rahied 177(16). umuulAn is rainr- 
ing 152(16). tiulan wUl rain 168 
(34). pagulin a raining 110(21). 
maulAn rainy 110(21). nagpipau- 
lan causes rain 110(15). taguld.n 
rainy season 202(18). 

ule^ again 24(11). 47. 232. See 
sa. liule* will do it again 44(12). 

oliva S. olive 90(28). 

ulig charcoal 70(32). 

-lilit: paguulit-ulit a manifold 
repeating 86(10). inulit was re- 
peated 50(28). maulit stubborn 24 

ulo head 22(10). 26(4). See bfi- 
sag. uluhin head-end 72(3). 

idol foolish, crazy 16(1). kaulu- 
14n foolishness 98(23). kaululan 
one of two who fool each other 278 
(3). pagkauldl itwan% 254(29). 

um&ga, see -aga. 

Digitized by 





-limit: pa^jugumit paQuumit 
petty thievery 156(3). 310(6). 
inumit was filched 293(28). 

-umpisjt: magumpisjt begin 18 
(31). 32(16). nagumpisA began 16 
(26). 20(29). paguumpisa a begin- 
ning 26(35). 96(15). umpisahan 
be begun 48(4). inumpisahan was 
begun 26(19). 50(21). inutimpisa- 
han is being begun 48(37). 

-umpdg : nagkdkaump5g-amp6g 
is getting repeated bumps 62(19). 

-umpok : umpukan assemblage 
for talking 38(7). 

una (a) first 24(15). 38(21). 
273(21). paguna number one 225 
(39). maouQuna toiU take the lead 
240(40). naouna took the lead 240 
(40). iniina was taken first 42 
(31). pagkauna a having got ahead 
283(12).— (b) With accent-shift: 
naguna-una competed for the first 
place 239(19). kauna-imahan very 
first 280(16). nkunk got ahead 64 
(8). niuuni is ahead 88(24). pag- 
kaun4 a getting ahead 18(34). nag- 
p&una got himself into the first 
place 304(24). nagpauna-iina got 
himself too far ahead 304(27). 

unan pillow 260(6). 

-linat: naunat has been straight- 
ened 284(21). naunat got straight- 
ened 24(26). 

unti' short 219(21). unti-unti' 
little by little 76(12). 78(9). u- 
munti^ grew less 28(30). untian be 
lessened 254(2). kaunti^ something 
sm^U, a bit 48(32). 60(16). kayun- 
ti^ what fewness 267(36). kakaun- 
ti* only few 267(8). pauntim be 
caused to be few, be reduced 98(7). 

ugas stupid 22(21). 

uggo' monkey 16(1). naguuQgu- 

uQguan is playing monkey 237 

upa pay 56(3). 72(33). iiupa 
will pay 88(12). umuupa hires 48 
(29). uupihan wUl be paid 34(6). 
upahan hired 114(1. 23). 

upag in order to, so that 16(22). 
18(16). 308. 

opera S. opera; see simahan. 

upo a vegetable, Lagenaria vul- 
garis Seringe 76(16). 

upo^ sit; a sitting 220(9). 222 
(7). pa^jupo^ used for sitting 225 
(28). umupo' sit 184(23). sat 230 
(15). pagup^' a sitting 230(16). 
nagupo^ seated 235(12). naguuu- 
p6* sits variously 239(2). pagau- 
p6^ a sitting variously 181(30). 
nagupo' mischievously sat down 
on 240(41). pafluupo^ a mischiev- 
ous sitting on 240(42). uupan unU 
be sat on 254(4). inuupAn is being 
sat on 32(5). upuan a sitting to- 
gether 258(9). seat 24(39). 283(9). 
uupan chair 180(29). kaupuan on« 
of two who sit together 278(4). 
kinauupan happens to be the place 
of sitting 223(16). nakaupo* is 
seated 281(19). nagakaupo^ pi 286 
(11). na\)akakaup6^ are able to sit 
286(14). maupd' sit down 184(24). 
mauupo^ wiU sit down 192(39). 
naupo' sat down 24(39). nauupo* 
w (in the act of) sitting down 204 
(26). pagkaupo^ a sitting down 
286(4). naupo^ happened to sit 
down 202(1). nauupo* is sitting 
30(29). 96(22). pagk4up6^ a 
chance sitting 277(24). paup6* 
that caused to sit 174(29). 249 
(35). in sitting position 299(32). 
nagpaupo* caused to sit 304(4). 

Digitized by 





pagpapaupd^ a causing to sit 304 
(5). pinaupo^ ivas caused to sit 
305(4). n&paupo^ involuntarily sa4 
down 198(24). nipatiupd* feU in- 
to sitting position 313(39). nkpk- 
patiupo* faUs on his seat 313(40). 

upos cigar-butt 205(21). 

6ra8 S. hour 42(4). 48(26). See 
kalah&ti^. or&san be done promptly 
254(5). oras&n watch, clock 248 

oragiyon S. prayer 104(14). 

-uroQ: umuuroQ is going back- 
wards 230(18). na^jagsiuro^i re- 
treated, pi. 262(30). pauroQ back- 
wards 299(34). papauroQ back- 
wards continually 300(40). 

wsk deer 18(1). nagus&-us4han 
played deer 237(12). 

usap law-suit 199(33). paguu- 
sap a conversing 70(19). pagus4- 
pan be discussed 102(5). pinagu- 
sapan was discussed 28(2). pina- 
guusipan is being discussed 30 
(29). makipagusap converse with 
28(14). nakikipagiisap is entering 
into conversation with 74(30). pa- 
kikipagusap an engaging in con- 
versation with 80(38). kausap per- 
son conversed with 102(32). ku- 
mAkausap i^ talking at 268(19). 
kaus&pin be conversed unth 44(2). 
70(21). kinausap was addressed 
70(24). makausap be able to con- 
verse 68(20). makausap get con- 
versed u)ith 70(14). njiausap got 
conversed with 44(26). 78(17). 

usbo^j edible shoot 253(2). 256 

usisa* that inquired about 221 
(34). nagus!sa^ made inquiry 76 
(1). naQusisa^ interrogated 241(3). 
usisdin be asked about; be interro- 

gated 76(14). 98(13). 290(26). in- 
usfsa^ 11^0^ questioned 76(28). pi- 
nagosisa^ was variously questioned 
76(5). nausfsa^ has been questioned 
284(23). nauusfsa^ has just been 
questioned 76(22). mapagosfsa^ in- 
quisitive 60(19). nak^usisa^ hap- 
pen to inquire 290(39). n&usisa^ 
got inquired for 293(28). 

uso S. fashim 287(7). 

Titao debt 54(12). 76(2). See 
b4yad. umtitaQ borrow 230(19). 
magutaQ borrow variously 238 
(15). maguutitQ habittud borrower 
243(3). nafluta^ borrowed 241(4). 
ma^uflutio habitual borrower 243 
(20). inuta^ was borrowed 245 
(24). pinaQutao was (reluctantly) 
borrowed 247(4). ut&^an be bor- 
rowed from 254(6). magpauta^ 
cause to be borrowed, lend 304(8). 

-utAs : nautjts was completed 303 

utos a command 56(27). 122(5). 
nagutos commanded 232(41). na- 
giiutos is commanding 114(7). 
iyutos be comm^inded 62(37). 64 
(13). iniyutos uhis commanded 24 
(37). 26(18). 106(17). ipinagfitos 
was given as an order 182(19). 249 
(40). inutusan was given an order 
92(12). utusAn servant, waiter, 
orderly 254(34). 260(34). kautu- 
sin decree, law 54(4). 

6o 6 yes 26(2). 44(18). o6han 
be answered affirmatively 254(7). 
napa6o assented 312(6). 

uwala^ see wal4^ 

uwfe^ a going home; that taken 
home 114(26). 221(35). umuwft^ 
go home 34(12). 76(43). went 
home 50(36). 52(35). uuwfe^ wiU 
go home 287(20). nagsisiuwfe^ are 

Digitized by 





going home 72(35). paguwS^ a go- 
ing home 70(23). naguwian went 
home together 26(37). pauwS^ thai 
caused to go home 298(23). home- 

ward 34(14). nagpauwfe^ caused to 
be taken home, sent home 304(9). 
ipinauwe' was caused to be taken 
home, was sent home 304(10). 


wala^ without, net having; there 
is not 16(10). 20(21). 69. 99. 110. 
239. 248. wal4 ^j hiyA^: kawal^-Q- 
hiyain shamelessness 277(10). nA- 
pakawala-^j-hiya^ most impudent 
98(27). pagwawali* a breaking 
away 232(42). iwala^ be got rid of 
249(3). kawalA^ partaking of free- 
dom 196(27). magkawal4^ get 
away 44(6). nagkawali^ got away 
44(10). nagkakawala^ is getting 
away 58(31). ikinawalA^ was the 
cause of being unthout 292(6). 
ipagkawala^ be the cause of getting 
away 272(38). ipagk4kawala' wnM 
be. the cause of getting away 272 
(41). ipinagkawala* was the cause 
of getting away 273(1). ipinagk4- 
kawali^ is the cause of getting 
away 273(2). kawiwalan will be 
the place of losing 206(17). kawa- 
\kn lack, absence 46(16). 118(1). 
makawal^^ be able to get away 44 
(40). makaw&wala^ wHl be able to 
get away 294(1). nakawal^^ suc- 
ceeded in getting away 46(31). 86 
(12). maw&wala^ wiU disappear 46 
(2). nawala^ disappeared 64(33). 
82(10). naw4wali^ is disappearing 
40(16). 76(13). pagkawalA^ a dis- 

appearing 298(17). nawalan has 
been deprived of 70(8). 82(30). 
pawalan be allowed to get away 44 
(12). pinawalan was allowed to get 
away 44(8). magpakawala^ get 
oneself away 106(23). pinakawa- 
lAn was allowed to get loose 66 
(28). 310(26). 

walls broom 315(22). nagwd wa- 
lls is sweeping 233(2). wina walls 
niw&walls is being swept away 245 
(26). niwalisan was swept 94(7). 
niwawalisin is being swept 254(8). 

walo eight 52(43). 67. pa^walS^ 
number eight 225(38). 

wapelo C. exclam/ition of distress^ 

wika^ language, word, words 20 
(5). 28(3). 74(39). nagwika^ 
spoke 20(20). winlka* was spoken 
18(42). kawikain proverb 276(15). 
pagkawfka^ a having spoken 20 

-wfli: n&wfli got spellbound 88 
(2). pagk&wfli a getting spdU 
bound 295(26). 

-wisik : iniwi»k was sprinkled 96 
(27). niwisikin was sprinkled on 
64(30). niwisffcin got sprinkled 
on 76(38). 

-yibag : kayab&gan pride 272 
(2) Corrigenda, mayabag proud 
60(15). nagmayabig boasted 238 
(21). ipinagmayabar) was boasted 

o/ 60(17). nagpakamayabag boast- 
ed of himself 309(29). 

-y&bo^: mayaboQ grassy 18(33). 

y&man wealth 72(22). 80(25). 

Digitized by 





yum&man get rich 60(25). got rich 
74(9). pagyiman a getting rich 
120(27). kayam&nan wealth 308 
(16). may&man wealthy 72(19). 
payamanin be caused to get rich 

yamao while 16(12). 18(33). 

yan, see iykn. 

yant6k ro^an 46(40). 

Yap C. n. 234(25). 

-yiri: maflydri happen 54(29). 
66(22). maoyiy4ri uku happen 18 
(11). 52(2)0). nagyari happened 
24(27). 46(19). na^yiyiri hap- 
pens 40(30). 44(20). kapagyari- 
han power 36(10). 40(4). 

y&ri^ that made; the make 74 

(4). 220(10). 221(37). mayiri^ 
ha4)e been m,ade 104(11). nayi- 
y4ri^ is made 34(36). 46(40). 

yadn, see iyon. 

-y&ya^: yum&ya^ invited 230 
(21). pagyiya^ an inviting 230 
(22). nagyayi^ urged 28(11). 34 
(12). niy&ya^ was invited, sum- 
moned 32(13). 36(42). 

Y^O C. n. 263(4). 

y^ro S. iron 92(35). 

yit6 yt6, see ito. — yb, see iyo. 

-yukayok : nagsfsipagynkaydk are 
nodding 108(30). 

y6n, see iybn. 

Yurupa, see Eyurupa. 

yuta^ billion 134. 

yoon, see iyin. 

Digitized by 



The following errors are due entirely to oversights on my part; 
they would have been far more numerous, but for the aocuraoy and 
intelligence of the tyi>esetter, Mr. Staley, and the unfailing 
of the editor, Professor W. A. Oldfather. — ^L. B. 



20 16 m£kinig 

22 2 nabuksan 

24 31 n 

32 1 nam&matay 

38 11 galian 

40 39 pagbibiro^ 

42 6 katimb&^ 

42 39 tini^nan 

44 2 sumagot 

44 40 nagsisig&w 

46 24 QJt 

^48 20 pagbabalik 

60 38 nagbibigay 

62 5 syk 

68 13 siniglan 

72 12 hya 

74 40 a 

84 21 pinagdaguk&n 

92 6 m&mat&y 

94 29 inapuyan 

96 29 mainit 

98 2 magbfbinyag 

98 39 Masaldp 

99 25 giving 
100 15 ipablbilan\)g6^ 
108 42 pirfisu q lam^ 
114 10 pagtadtid 




























Digitized by 


563] INDEX 407 

Volume II. 

Add: si nasira g Mariya the deceased Maria. 
Add example: pilik-matA eyelash (pilik fifty 
lash), and at 211(13) omit pilik. 
Omit: hagkao etc; the word m^y he 8. bagazo 

Add: hantay hintAy. 
Omit: Idkad. 

The example of lakad shoidd be transferred to 

Binyik etc.; transfer to 244(7). 
Add: (ag iyap condiment). 
Add example: Aq gulok na ykn ay bibawlin ko 
sa iyo, kapag ipinamutol mo nog kawdyan. / 
shall take back this bolo from you, if you use it 
for cutting bamboo. 
See on 224(25). 
Add: sagot. 
Add: lalU^ 

Add example: ai) tipunan a meeting; and omit 
tipon in next line. 
261 10 Add example: Afl asuhAn nag bahay ni Pedro ay 

nasdnog. The chimney in Pedro's house burned 
out; and omit aso from line 16. 
Add example: lulur&n shin. 
Add: So gisiQ, kdin. 

Add example: kayab&Qan pride; and omit yd- 
baQ, line 8. 
Add: salukoy. 

Add example: Pagkaab6t nog b&t& nog kanyA 
^j laruwan ay tumakbo sya fl ag&d. After reach- 
ing for his toys, the boy at once ran. Omit the 
words: see Abot. 
Omit: ibadyi. 

Add example: Sya y nirapi*. He fell on his 

Omit: khoty and add example: A^ pagk&abot 
nyA sa b6te ay hindi mag&laQ. The way he 
reached for the bottle was not polite. 
Add: badiyA. 

















































Digitized by 


408 TAGAIiOG TEXTS [564 

299 27 For pah4gis read pahagis, and transfer the ex- 

ample to 300(14). 

300 14 See preceding, 

313 3 Add: With maka- D (§473) from -parito: 

Hwag ki makApari-parito. Don't you ever 
come round here! 

315 31 Add: With accent-shift: taginit the hot season, 

322 42 Add reference: 28(7). 

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