Skip to main content

Full text of "The Tale of the Man of lawe: the Pardoners tale ; the Second nonnes tale ..."

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 


S'2 8' 

b, Google 


ilntttiftn |nit Striti 











New Edition, B«rlaed 



lAII rights nstrntd] 






Gkoup B. The Talk of the Man of Lawe . 
Group C The Words of the Host to the Phy- 
sician AND THE Pardoner . 

„ The Pardoner's Prologue . 

„ The Pardoneres Tale . 
Group G. The Proloque of the Second 1 

„ The Proem to the same 

„ The Seconde Nonnes Tale . 

„ The Prologue of the Canon's Yeoman's 

„ The Chanouns Yehannes Talk 

Group H. The Manciple's Prologue 
Group !. The Parson's Prologue 

Notes to Group B 

Notes to Group C . . . . 

Notes to Group G 

Notes to Group H 

Notes to Group I 

Glossarial Index 

Index of Names 

Index of subjects explained in the Notes 




For remarks upon Grammatical Forms occurring In Chaucer, 
I must beg leave to refer the reader to the Introduction to Dr. 
Morrb's edition of the Prologue, Knight's Tale, &c, ; and ttf' 
some further remarks in the Introduction to my edition of the 
Prioresses Tale, &c. (Clarendon Press Series), p. xlix. 

Remarks upon the Metre and Versification will be found in 
the Introduction to the Prioresses Tale, p. liii. ; followed by a 
Metrical 'Analysis of Part I. of the Squire's Tale, p. Ixvi, 

An account of the manner in which the text of the present 
edition has been formed will be found in the same volume, 
p. kxtii. It may suffice to repeat here that the test follows, in 
general, the readings of the Ellesmere MS. (called ' E,' in the 
footnotes), with occasional variations from sis others, viz, the 
Hcngwrt, Cambridge, Corpus, Petworth, Lansdowne, and Har- 
leian MSS,, denoted respectively by the symbols Hn., C, Cp., 
Ft., Ln., and HI, Of these, all but the Harleian MS. are printed 
in full in Mr. Fumivall's splendid Six-text Edition, published for 
the Chaucer Society; whilst MS. HI. is substantially the same as 
the text in Wright's, Morris's and Bell's editions. The text of 
Tyrwhitt's edition comes near to that of the Ellesmere MS., and 
does not much differ from that in the present volume. As in 
' The Prioresses Tale,' &c., the Grouping of the Tales and the 
numbering of the lines exactly correspond with those of the Six- 
test edition, for the purpose of convenience of reference. The 
Tales here chosen belong partly to Group B (see Introd. to 
Prior. Tale, p. xii.) ; partly to Group C ; and partly to Groups 
G, H, and I. Group G, containing the Second Nun's Tale and 
the Canon's Yeoman's Tale, is printed here in full. 


vill Iff TROD VCTION. 

In my former Introduction, 1 endeavoured to explain all thai 
seemed necessary for a right understanding of the test. But I 
have been reminded that I gave no explanation of the tillej of 
the various parts of the Groups, such as ' Man-of-Law Head- 
link,' and the rest; and I have been asked to explain what a 
'Head-link' means. The answer is, that all these titles are 
copied eKactly, for convenience, from Mr. Furnivall's Six-text 
edition, and that they were adopted by him, in the first instance, 
in order to show the exact condition in which the Canterbury 
Tales have come down to us in the existing MSS. Thus, before 
the Man of Law's Tale, we find, in reality, two introductory 
passages. The latter of these is the real Prologue, II. 99-ijj. 
But it was necessary to find another name for the preliminary 
dialogue in U. 1-98. The name fixed upon by Mr. Pumivall was 
a 'Link,' a term adopted in order so to name these connecting 
dialogues as to indicate the connection between the Tales. 
Thus the dialogue or Link connecting the Clerk's Tale with the 
Merchant's Tale (Group E, 11. i3ij-ia44, in Prioresses Tale, &e. 
pp. 100, loi) came to be called the ' Clerk-Merchant Link,' and 
so in other cases. Hereupon there arose, however, a new difficulty. 
The Tales are left in an imperfect state, in unconnected groups, 
and there is nothing to show what Tale was intended to precede 
that told by the Man of Law. The result is, that the passage now 
under discussion, i.e. the first 98 lines of Group B, turns out to be 
a ' Blank-Man uf Law Link.' To avoid this awkward expression, 
Mr. Fumivall determined to call it the 'Man-of-Law Head- 
link,' that is to say, a passage /rre/rfinf the Man of Law's Pro- 
logue, without anything to join it on to anything else. The 
same explanation makes clear the meaning of The Squire Head- 
link, Group F, II. i-S, a passage only eight lines long. Similarly, 
at the end of the Man of Law's Tale, there is a passage (Group 
B, II. 1163-1190) which has a deuik title; viz. Man-of-Law End- 
link, or Shipman's Prologue. Now for this double title there is 
a special reason. No doubt the passage is, properly, the Ship- 
man's Prologue, as it is rightly called in MS. Arch. Seld. B. 14. 
But it is convenient to have the alternative title, because in some 



MSS. it is wrongly called the Prologue of the Squire's Tale. 
The title Man-of-Law End-link expresses, therefore, that it is, 
in anj case, a pendant or tag to the Man of Law's Tale, and that 
it raust certainly follow that Tale, whatever other Tale it is to 
precede. These titles are, then, mere explanatory phrases, and 
are in all cases copied exactly from the Chaucer Society's Six- 
text edition. It is easy, by merely observing the names of these 
' links,* to understand and to remember the exact extent to which 
the Tales were partially arranged by their author. 


There is yet one other matter on which 1 have been asked 
to say somewhat, viz. the Pronunciation of Chaucer's English. 
This matter I purposely left untouched until students should 
have became somewhat more familiar with the nature of the 
Metre and Versilication, so far as that can be understood by 
using the modern pronunciation only. It is now, perhaps, high 
time to insist on the importance of making some attempt towards 
understanding, if only in a rough and approximate manner, the 
great changes that have occurred in our pronunciation since 
Chaucer's days, so tliat the beauty of his rhythm may not be 
marred by the application to it of that system of English pro- 
nunciation which is in use at the present day ; a system which 
might be applied to the reading of Dante or Boccaccio with 
the same fitness as to Chaucer, and with a very similar result 
as regards an approximation to the sounds with which the author 
was himself familiar. 

On the subject of Pronunciation, my guide is, as a matter of 
course, Mr. Alexander J. Ellis, whose standard work on Early 
English Pronunciation ' is well-known, at any rate by name, to all 

' On Eaily Engliib Pronunciation, with especial reference to Ehakspers 
■nd Chaucer. By Alexander J. Ellis, F.R.S., F.S.A., London, Triibner 
and Co. Part. 1 and 11 are daled 1869: Part HI ii daied 1870; Pan IV 
U dated 1874, extending la p. 1432. The work will be completed in two 



who have taken any interest in the matter. Mr. Ellis has treated 
the question so carefully and full7 that an attempt on my part 
at giving a general notion of his results would be hardly fair to 
him or satisfactory to the reader ; but he has, fortunately, Mmielf 
drawn up a brief abstract of his results, which was printed as 
Appendix A (pp. 253* — 164*) in the second issue of the Aldine 
edition of Chaucer, edited by Dr. Morris. It is here reprinted 
by permission of the publishers, after revi»on by Mr. Ellis, for 
the present work. 

I also draw attention to Mr. Sweet's boot on English Sounds, 
with its full Word-lists and abundance of examples'. The results 
there arrived at sufficiently agree with Mr. Ellis's, and fully con- 
firm them in all that is material. 

The pronunciation of English during the fourteenth century 
differed materially from that now in use. The following is an 
abstract of the conclusions at whichMr.Ellis has arrived respecting 
the pronunciation probably in use among the highly educated 
southern speakers for whom Chaucer wrote, and directions are 
subjoined for modem readers who wish to imitate it. 

A VaD.g''ab, as in father, nlms, ore; the usual continental 
sound of long a. The present pronunciation of a, as at in <wait, 
seems not to have become thoroughly established till the beginning 
of the eighteenth century. 

A short -££, the short sound of ab, not now used in received 
English, but still common in the midland and northern provinces; 
the usual continental sound of short a. The present very dif- 
ferent pronunciation, as a in cat, agreeing with the sound in the 
south-western and eastern counties, was not established till the 
seventeenth century ; those, however, to whom ih is difficult may 

AA, the same as A long. 

' A Hiitory of Eiiglisb Sounds, from the Militil period, with foil Word- 
liita. By H. Sweet, M.A. Oxfoid ; Claieudon Press, 1888. (Originally 
published for the Lundon I'hilological Socittj and the English Dialect 
Society in 1S64.) 



AI — ab'et, a diphthong consisting of ab pronounced brieSy but 
with a stress, uid gUding on to ee in one sellable ; sometimes 
used now in aye, and in the second syllable oi baiab, as distinct 
from the first ; the German sound of ai, neariy the Italian abil 
and the French at. Those who have a difGculty with this sound 
may use the ordinary pronoun I. The modern sound at, as in 
•wait, was not thoroughly established till the seventeenth century, 
although it began to make its appearance in the first half of the 
sixteenth. Almost all dialects treat this combination differently 
from long A. See EY. 

/iV^al/eo, a diphthong consisting of ab pronounced brieBy 
but with a stress, and gliding on to oo in one syllable : not used 
in modern English ; the German aa, neariy the Italian au in 
Laura, the French aou. Those who have a difficulty with this 
sound may use the ordinary ea in bouie. The modern sound of 
au, as in Paul, was not established till the seventeenth century. 

AW, the same as AU. 

AY, the same as AI. 

B, as at present. 

C = i before a, «, », or any consonant, and — i before c, (, /, It 
was never called jb, as in the present sound of vichtu, which 
then formed three syllables, vi-ei-ttu. 


CH •^ei, as in itub, cbteit, and in Greek words occasionally k, 
as at present. 

D, as at present. 

E long — * in there, ai in fair, a in dare; that is, as ai is now 
pronounced before r, or rather more broadly than before any 
other consonant, and without any tendency to taper into the 
sound of (e ; the German eh long, nearly the French e, and Italian 
open e. Those who find this sound too difficult may say at as in 
ail. The present use of the sound of n in eel was not established 
till the beginning of the eighteenth century, although two sounds 
off as in mere, there, were partially marked by ee and ta in the 
latter part of the sixteenth century, and ta very gradually changed 
to the sound of ee in the seventeenth. It is possible that a clow 



and open sound of this letter, as in the Italian r cbitua and r aptrtu 
(which are allowed to rhyme), or the French e and i (which are 
not allowed to rhyme), may have existed, but as they were allowed 
to rh;me in Chaucer, they cannot be separated with certainty. 
Dickens's Sai-rey Garop has the close sound, the usual Sarah has 
the open sound. 

E short — e in met, pen, <aicil. 

E final •• e, or short e lightly and obscurely pronounced, as the 
final « in the German eiai berrliehe gutc Gate ; nearly like the pre- 
sent a in i^a or finatn-when the /-is not trilled. This sound was 
always used in prose, when the final e was the mark of some final 
vowel in older forms of the language, when it marked oblique cases, 
feminine genders, plurals, inflections of verbs, advert>s, &c. But 
in poetry it was regularly elided altogether before a following 
vowel, and before bt, bu, bim, hire = her, hen = their, btm — them, 
and occasionally before both, baidt, have, bow, her, ^rf-bere. 
It was never pronounced in :6ifv<>her, :&rr'>i> their, ourv— our, 
jw«rt=yoar; and was frequently omitted ia badde —haA, vxre, 
time, more. It was occasionally, but rarely, omitted when neces- 
sary for the rhyme and metre, and for force of expression, in 
other positions, especially when it replaced an older vowel, or 
marked an oblique case, precisely as in modem Gennan. As 
this pronunciation of the final e gradually fell out of use during 
the fifteenth century, when most of the MSS. of Chaucer now in 
existence were written, the final e is often incorrect!}' inserted 
and omitted in their orthography, and has to be omitted or 
restored from metric and other considerations. Practically the 
reader should always insert it when necessary for the metre, and 
never pronounce it as our finals, but always as above indicated. 

EA, the same as long E, like ea in 6reai, great, to <aiear, to tear, 
hear ; seldom used except in the words raie, please. The modern 
sound of ea, as ee in eel, was not established till the eighteenth 

EE, the same as long E, that is, as ^e in ^er; in frequent use. 
The combination ee, with its modem sound of te, was not es- 
tablished till past the middle of the sixteenth century. 


FROlfUffCIA TlOtf, xiil 

EI, the same as AI, with which it was constantly interchanged 
by the scribes, that is, nearly as the present pronoun I, The 
modem sound as ft belongs to the eighteenth century. See EY. 

EO, the same as long E ; seldom used except in the word 
fr<ffl, often spelled pifel. The modem sound of «> as te, dates 
from the sixteenth century. 

ES final, the mark of the plural, was generally pronounced as 
ei or !t, even in those cases where the e is now omitted. 

EU. There is much difficulty in arriving at a satisfactory con- 
clusion respecting this combination, which is not frequent in 
rhymes. Very possibly it was = i« in the Scotch puir, the long 
sound of the French », German S, in all words of French origin. 
This became like our modem nu during the seventeenth century, 
and may be so pronounced by those to whom the French sound 
is too difficult. In words not of French origin, ra ••ai'eo, a diph- 
thong consisting of ai pronounced briefly, but with a stress, and 
gliding on to M in one syllable, as in the Italian £ur«^ii. Neither 
sound is now used in received English, but both occur pro- 
vincially. See EW. 

EW, like EU, had possibly the sound of ui in the Scotch pu!r, 
or else (h''oo, precisely as EU. The following words, generally 
written wiUi rw in Chaucer, seem to have the sound of hi, or 
French u ; blue, dut, uebevi, glue, a tnevi for hawks, rtmcai, Jlevi, 
tut. The following, on the other hand, seem to have had the 
sound of at'M: dronitlevi, ftvi, hew. but, knew, ntw, /vm — row, 
rue, 3pe^, lirevi, threw, true. 

EY, the same as AY, with which it is constantly interchanged 
by the scribe. The modem sound as « belongs to the eighteenth 
century. AY, EY were possibly pronounced as « in tbert during 
the fifteenth century, in the north and west midland counties, 
and hence occasionally interchanged with long t in the ortho- 
graphy of some later or northern MSS. Modem dialects treat 
them as they do ai and not as they do the long e. 

T"/, as at present. 

G— ; hard in all words not of French origin, and—/ before e, 
i, in words of French origin. Sometimes G was J before other 



vowels in words where the e usuall; inserted was omitted by the 
scribe, just as at present in judgment, goal. 

GE final, or before a, o, in French words =/, but the e was 
sometimes omitted in writing. 

GH—ib, the Scotch and German sound of ch, or kb as it is 
best written, produced by making the contact of the tongue with 
the soft palate for ^ so imperfect that a hissing sound can be 
heard. After e, i, the tongue was probibly raised higher, so that 
kh approached to the sound of a hissed j ; and after o, u, the 
lips were probably often rounded, giving the effect of the modem 
Scotch quB ; the former sound fell into ji and short i, the latter 
into lull aodf, or into ab, oo. Ob may be conveniently always 
spoken like the German and Scotch cb, that is ib, but it will have 
to be occasionally omitted where written, and pronounced where 
not written, on account of the negligence of the scribes of the 
old MSS.', and it is very possible that the changes above indicated 
were already more or less in vogue, and that the poet availedhim- 
self of either use according as it suited bis rhyme. This guttural 
is still in full force in Scotland and is even still heard in living 
use in England from a few old pteople. 

H initial "i, just as at present; but it seems to have been 
generally omitted in unaccented be. Ml, bint, bin-^her, bere— 
their', linM — them, and often in iatb, badd<, baue,'y^ as we still 
have Tilt teld'em; and in some French words, as ioil, boitaur, 
boneit, &c. it was probably omitted as at present. H final repre- 
sents a very faint sound of the guttural kb (see GH), into which 
It dwindled before it became entirely extinguished. 

I long was not at all the modem sound of I. It was the 
lengthened sound of i in ttill, which was nearly but not quite ee ; 
compare jtili, jteal, in singing ' Still so gently o'er me jfni/ing,' in 
which also the last syllables of gently and ttealing are lengthened 
with the same vowel. Those who think they find it difficult 
to lengthen tbte vowel which, when short, is extremely ci 




In English, but is not known in frencb and Italian', may say ee, 
as in mUn, mean, but they will be quite wrong if they pronounce 
it as at present in mhie. 

1 short=i, as in ^V, nlff, pin; not as in French or Italian. 
Compare English jfnnf, j£ij&, with French /nt, ^c&r. 

1 consonant -/ 

IE, before a consonant jn many MSS., but only in French 
words, was possibly the same as long E, with which it was often 
interchanged by the scribe. The modem sound of <* dates from 
the seventeenth century, I E final and unaccented as in ierie, 
merit, must be pronounced as two syllables i-i', the first prob- 
ably as the short I just described, and the second as the final E 
already described. But IE final, then more often written YE, 
has more frequently the accent on the I or Y, and then that 
letter was pronounced as Chaucer's long I, that is nearly as ee. 
Thus mtlodie (commonly written tnetodye) bad nearly the same 
sound as it has in modem French songs when sung. 

J "j, was not distinguished from I consonant in MSS. 

K, as at present. 

L, as at present. 

LE final, probably as at present in Httle = liei, except when <■' 
is infiectionai. 

LH (which does not occur in this edition) was the same as simple 
L. It was scarcely ever used, but In the thirteenth century it 
was probably a hissed /, not unlike (but not the same as) Welsh //. 

M, as at present. 

N, as at present Tliere is no reason to suppose that it was 
nasalized in French words as in modern French. An, on, in 
French words were often written aun, eon, and were probably 
always sounded as these combinations in Chaucer's orthography, 
that is as ai^oan, oon. 

I that the sound is Mill Tery con 
[ thinks be says « ii In ihrtt ; a: 
uce it when trying to sing our tt, th 



NG bad probably three values, as at present in ling, singer, 
Imger, change. It is not possible to determine with certainty 
whether it was generally a simple ng as in linger, or an ng fol- 
lowed by^, as at present in longer, li^ger,fiager, when medial or 
final, SO that the modern custom alone can be followed. 

O long was on in oar, boar, o in mere, that is a somewhat broader 
sound than oa in tnoan, o in stone, and with no tendency to taper 
into 00. It is stili heard in the provinces, and is lite the Italian 
open or aptrto ; approaching ou, but not so broad. Those who 
find the sound difficult to pronounce may say oh, which was not 
established till the seventeenth century. It had also the sound 
of 00, generally in those words where it is still ao, as prove, move, 
or where it has become u in but, as lo-ve, ibove. Just as E long 
and £E gave place to two sounds, written ee and ea in the latter 
part of the sixteenth century, as in laoAern peer, pear, so O long 
and 00 gave place to two sounds, written oa and oa in the latter 
part of the sixteenth century, as in modem boor, boar. It is pos- 
sible therefore that even as early as the fourteenth century, and 
perhaps still earlier, these changes were prepared by a division 
of both sounds into close (as in Italian ffde, srte, av^re, vend^, 
credfva, &c. ; omhra, ondo, amsre, amoroso, &c.) and open (as in 
Italian r^gola, prirdica, crdo, &c. ; buono, uomo, oro, poco, &e.), 
nearly modern ail, air, male, more, supposing ail, mole, not to have 
tapering vowels. Mr. Sweet has endeavoured to make these 
distinctions in his ' History of English Sounds,' but there is no 
evidence from rhymes, and dialectal investigations (as yet very 
incomplete) have so far failed to confirm the conclusion. 

O short was oa, the short sound of the last, the regular sound of 
short on the continent, very common in the provinces, but not 
so broad as the modem e in gat, which was not established till 
the seventeenth century, but may be used for Sa by those who 
find the proper sound too difBcult. In a few words short O 
had also occasionally the sound of short ii in btdl, push, put, 
where it replaced Anglo-Saxon u, and was pronounced u in the 
sixteenth century. These cases correspond almost precisely to 
those in which it is now pronounced as u in bid, as lenne, •aiomler. 



OA does not seem to have been used in Chancer. It w»s in- 
troduced for long a in the sixteenth century. 

OE is very rarely used, chiefly in poepel for peopli and In r/- 
pnxve for repreix, to show the change of sound. It was the 
same as long E. 

OI was perhaps generally otf'or, a diphthong consisting of the 
sound of 00 pronounced briefly, but with a stress, gliding on to it 
in one syllable, as sailors pronounce bu(y, almost as in viooing, or 
Italian Im, and very like French out, as distinct from oui. It may 
have occasionally had the sound of Chaucer's o short (open o, 
nearly o in got) followed by ee, nearly as modern _/(jc. 

OO, the same as long O, with which it is constantly inter- 
changed. The modem sound of oo in foal dates from after the 
middle of the sixteenth century. 

OU had three sounds : properly it was - modem oo long, as in 
Imd, bous, called had, boos ; occasionally it was used for u in iall, 
as in oiM [us], oulber ; and sometimes for the diphthong ou'de), that 
is, the sound of long O Riding into modern do, almost the same 
as in modern joul, except that the first sound was broader. TTie 
three cases may be distinguished pretty accurately thus: — OU 
was 00, where it is now pronounced as in leiiJ; OU was S, where 
it is now pronounced as in doubit; OU was oi/oo where it is now 
occasionally pronounced ol/oo as in job/. 

OUGH must be considered as OU followed by GH. In drought 
it vas droSibt, la plough it ■wdts phoib ; in Jbugbt, ieugla,vbere it 
has now the sound of au, it was probably oa'oo-ih, or nearly our 
modem tapering oh followed hyib ; but, if the reader feels any 
difficulty, he may use the modem ow in cow followed by the 
guttural ih, aajdviibt. Many modem dialects treat ought in this 

OW was the same as OU, but was more commonly used when 
OT was the same as 01. 
P, as at present. 
PH •=_/, as at present. 
QU, as at present 

"»-"■ ' ........Google 


R as r in ring, btrr'mg, carry; always trilled, aever as now in 
car, }erf, third, card. Hence it did not lengthen or alter the 
preceding vowel, so that ber in herd must have the r as well 
trilled as in ierriag, nearly the same as now in Scotland and Ire- 
land, but possibly not so strongly, when not preceding a vowel. 

RE final, probably the same as ER, except when i' was inflec- 

RH, where it is found in MSS, of the period (it is not in this 
edition), was probably r as now, but a trul; hissed rl> occurs in 
some dialects. 

S was more frequently a sharp t when final, than at present; 
thus <wyj, waj, h, all had t sharp. But between two vowels, and 
when the final ei had the e omitted after long vowels or voiced 
consonants, it was probably z, a letter which sometimes intcr- 
clianged with j, but was rarely used. S was never ib ot zi is at 
present, thus iiliim had three syllables, as •Bi-ji-aon. 

SCH was jI>, as in iball. 

SH sometimes used for SCH and pronounced as at present. 

SSH, used occasionally for double SCH when the sound of ji 
followed a short vowel. 

T, as at present, but final -tion was in two syllables, -li-oon. 

TH had two sounds, as in thin, then, and there is no means of 
telling whether these sounds were distributed differently from 
what they now are, except that with probably rhymed to imith. 
They can therefore be pronounced as at present. 

U long only occurred in French words, and probably always 
had the sound of Scotch ui in puir, or French u, German U, a 
sound which remained nearly to the eighteenth century. Those 
who find this sound too difficult, may pronounce as the present 
long English u in tunc, which was not considered to be the normal 
sound till the seventeenth century. 

U short was generally short S, as in ball, pull, the modem 
sound of u in but not haring been established till the seventeenth 
century. Occasionally, however, it was used for short ■ or short 
e, precisely as in the modem buiy, bury; these cases can generally 
be distinguished by seeing that they would be now so pro- 



nounced. Pos^bly the u then represented an ancient sound of 
short French a, 

U consonant— 'v. In the MSS. u and * are confused as vowel 
or consonant, and u vowel initial is commonly written v. 

V vowel, the same as U. 

V consonant, the same as at present. 

W vowel, used in diphthongs as a substitute for V, and some- 
times used absolutely for ac, as vAe^oode, herberw— ier&roo. 

W consonant, the same as at present. 

WH, a blowing through the lips when in the position for 
VI, something like a whistle; still generally pronounced in the 
north of England, but commonly confused with w In the south. 
To foreigners, when initial, it sounds bSS, as in whan=AoDoA« 
nearly, but lubahn correctly. In Chancer it often occurs final 
in place of GH (which see) when pronounced as the Scotch qub. 
It was the transition sound of GH from ih to the modern/: 

WR was probably pronounced as an r with rounded tips, 
which produces the effect of a iiu and r sounded together, as in 
the French ra. Those who find a difficulty in speating it thus, 
may pronounce tc'r, with the faintest sound of a vowel between 
the «) and r, almost werede for vjritf, but not making an addi< 
tional syllable ; such sounds are still heard provincially. 

X was ki, as at present , 

Y vowel, long and short, had precisely the same value as I long 
and short. 

Y consonant was generally written with the same character 
as GH, which resembled z (j), and may have had that sound of 
GH which resembled a hissed y. But probably it had become 
thoroughly^ in Chaucer's time, and should be so pronounced. 

Z — «, as now, and never %b. 

The position of the accent was not always the same as at pre- 
sent. French words seem to have been pronounced with equal 
stress on all the syllables, as at present. Some English termina- 
tions, as -and, -ing, -ly, always had a considerable stress, even when 
a preceding syllable was accented. 

If we adopt niost of the easy modern English substitutes for 



the difficult old sounds, as pointed out in the preceding table, but 
use Ji for the flat sound of tb in Ibee, u for u in bull, ui as in 
Scotch for French «, and ahyi abv) for aBei, aHon, as described 
under AI, AW, mark the pronounced final c by ?, and indicate 
the accent, when it does not faE on the first syllable only, by f), 
we may write the pronunciation of the first lines of the Canter- 
bury Tales as follows. Observe that the first line begins with 
an accented syllable, without a precedent short syllable, as is not 
unfrequent in Chaucer. 

Wh>n dhat Ah'picel' wilb 'li >hoocS> iwohtl 

Dhg drookht of March hath pened toh dhg rohts. 

And bahdhed e»ree yahyn in iwicb leeTioot' 

Of which ver'tui' enjen'dred ii dhi Door ; 

Whan ZcGrfii, aik, with 'is twaiie biaitEiS 

Enipee'red hith in eyre* holt and hailhB 

DhS tendre kropiii, and dhs ;iinge silaa 

Hatb in dlie cam 'it hills koon iriin'e. 

And imaUo fooles mahken melohdee'e 

Dhat ilaipea al dhe n^kht with ohpen ee'e,— 

Sah priketh 'eai nah'luir' ia her kohiaa'jei, 

Dhan iongea folk toh goha on pilgrimaa'jei, 

And palmeii Ibi toh laikcn ilrahwnjS itrondoi 

Toh fetnS halwKz kooth in tiindree londei, 

And ipet'ialce', Tiom eriee iheeiet coda 

Of Engelond, to Kahwn'teibei'ce dhahr wtodB 

Dhg hohlM bUiFul martecT for toh laike 

Dhat hem hath bolpea whan dhat dhihy wair laikS. 

Bcefel' dhat in dhat urzoon' on a dahy 

At Soothwerk at dhe Tib'aid' » Ee lihj. 

Rede; tab wendcn on met piigrimab'ie 

Toh Kahwn'twber'ee with (ul de»tiot' kohrah^!, 

At nlldit wat koom in'toh' dhat ostehce'a 

Well neen and tweatee in > kjimpanctfe 

Of lilndree folt bee ah'Ten'tnir' ifal'S 

In fel'ihw'theep', and tHlgrimz waii dhahy allS, 

Dhat tobwerd Kabwn'ttrbei'ee nolden reede. 

Dhe chahmbrez and dha ilahbiz walrec weed! 

And wel wai wairen aiied ita txite. 

And ihortlec, whan dhS tune wai toh restS 

Sob had Ee ipobken with 'em evreech ohn, 

Dhat Ee waj of 'ir fel'ahw'theep' anohn', 

And mabde foiwerd aiilee for tob reezS 

Toh tahk oot wahy dbair as Ee yoo deree'iB. 

^, Google 

PRONuifciArio:T. xxi 

It is proper to add that Mr. Ellis's results were chiefly obtained 
from a careful examination of the Harleian MS, (HI.), the spell- 
ing of which does not altogether agree with that of the EUesmere 
MS., here chiefly followed. The only result in which I do not 
feel full confidence is that which makes the sound of by iden- 
tical with that of ay. I look upon these rather as permiisibU 
rimes than as real ones, and should prefer to regard zy and ei 
as indicating the sound afee, that is, a diphthong consisting of e 
long (— < In ibfrt, or ai in pair) pronounced briefly but with a 
stress, and gliding on to te. I do not find that they are inter- 
changed by the scribe of the EUesmere MS. in all cases, though 
they are so frequently. There are certain words, such as ilc^, 
to die, tvttft^, twain, burgeys, a burgess, ^ghle, eight, qutynle, 
quaint, receyue, to receive, fleye, to play, &c. which seem to be 
spelt with ey rather than with ay; and, on the other hand, may 
be cited daye, a day, payt, to please, arrayed, arrayed, nay, nay, 
may, may, &c. which seem to be spelt with ov rather than with 
ly, I offer this criticism with diffidence, merely saying that 
[ am unable as yet to see how words like A.S. iveg, flcga, tiuegea, 
should have passed in Middle English into ivay, ptay, !<uiayn, as 
pronounced by Mr. Ellis, and have reverted nearly to their original 
sound in our <way, play, and twain. With respect to ivay (written 
way, iiity), which undoubtedly rimes, or seems to rime, with day, I 
would suggest that it may have had tivo pronunciations; as was 
certainly the case with tbye, to die, -which is also spelt dye, and 
made to rime with rimedye, a remedy. With regard also to such 
a word as our modem receive, we can easily understand that it 
was once pronounced so as to rime with the modem word rave, 
but the riming of its vowel very nearly with the modem rive is 
much less clear. On this point, therefore, I should plead that 
some doubt may be allowed to remain. 

I may-add here that the long sound of i is generally denoted 
by^in the EUesmere MS. C{.<wfy!om,p.i,\. ij4, with /-K-ft^ in 

■ Not in tbe Elletmere MS. only, bal in nearly all. Tvaye occurs 7 limn 
at ihe «nd of ■ line. In 5 plaoes it ii spelt with ity or «i rn all the 6 MSS. ; 
in I place, in 5 of themi and in the lad ioitince, in 4 of them. 



the line following. Our modem/ Is commonly written as capital 
1, as in lagemint, fi. 688 ; but the small i is sometimes used, as in 
iqjt, B. 409. When u is written between two i-owels, it stands 
for v; as in eaery {every), B. 15a ; dctgne [Jevyte), B. 154 ; lyuen 
{lyaeii), B. 175. In a few words, v is written for u, at the begin- 
ning ; as in Tip, -vie, -vnta, for up, tut, unto. 

I now proceed to some general remarks upon the Tales in the 
present selection. 

The Man of Law's Tde. The Introduction to the Man oi 
Law's Prologue {also called, for brevity, the Man-of-Law Head- 
link) and the Prologue itself, are printed in The Priertjiej Tale, &C. 
(Clarendon Press), pp. 1-5; See also the Introduction to that 
volume, p. KX. The Head-link and Prologue together contain 
ij3 lines, so that the Tale Itself begins, in the present volume, 
with 1. IJ4. I have already stated my belief that The Man of 
Law's Tale is a piece of Chaucer's earlier workmanship, and tliat 
it was revised for Insertion among the Tales, with the addition 
of a Prologue, about 1386. Tyrwhitt has drawn attention to the 
fact that a story, closely agreeing with The Man of Law's Tale, 
is found in Gower's Confessio Amantis, Book II. He was misled 
by the expression "som-men wolde sayn" in I. 1009 into suppos- 
ing that Chaucer took the story from Qower; see note to that 
line, p. 137. Chronology at once settles the question; for Chau- 
cer's tale, written b^are 1385, could not have been derived from 
Gower's, written about ijgo. The simple explanation of the 
matter is, that both our poets drew from a common source. 
That common source has, fortunately, been discovered, in the 
Life of Constance, as narrated in the Anglo-Norman Chronicle 
of Nicholas Trivet, written about a.d. 1334. Mr. Thomas 
Wright, in his edition of the Canterbury Tales, pointed out 
Trivet's Chronicle as containing the original of the story as told 
by Gower. That it also contains the original of the story as 
told by Chaucer, is evident from the publications of tie Chaucer 
Society, Trivet's version of the story was edited for that Society 
by Mr. Brock in 187 a, with an English translation, and a careful 


TEE MAN OF law's TALE. xxiii 

line-bf-line analfsis of it, shewing clearly the exact extent to 
which Chaucer followed hte original. The name of the publi- 
cation i$ ' Originals and Analogues of some of Chaucer's Canter- 
bury Tales,' published for the Chaucer Society; Part I, 1871; 
Fart II, 1875. To this I am indebted for much of the informa- 
tion here given'.- It appears that Nicholas Trivet was an English 
Dominican friar, who died some time after 1334. A short ac- 
count of him in Latin, with a list of works ascribed to him. Is to 
be found in Quetif and Echard's Scripterei OrdinU Praedicaloru't ', 
tom. i. pp. 561--5S5 ; also a notice in English of his life and sOme 
of his works, in the Preface to T. Hog's edition of Trivet's An- 
nales. Mr. Brock notices eighteen of his works, amongst which 
it will suffice to mention here {a) his Annales ab origins mundi ad 
Christum (Royal MS. 13 B. xvi, &c.) ; (b) his Annales sex Regum 
Angliae, qui a comitibus Andegavensibus [counts of Anjou] ori- 
ginem traxerunt (Arundel MSS. 46 and aao, Harl, MSS. 19 and 
4339, &cO ; and (e) his Anglo-Norman Chronicle, quite a distinct 
work from the Latin Aanaln {MS. Arundel 56, &c.). Of the 
last there are numerous copies, MS. Arundel 56 being one of the 
best, and therefore selected to be printed from for the Chaucer 
Society. The heading runs thus: — 'Ci comence les Cronicles 
qe Frere Nichol Trivet escript a dame Marie, la title moun 
seignour le Roi Edward, le iitz Henri ;' shewing that it was 
written for the princess Mary, daughter of Edward I, bom in 
1378, who became a nun at Amesbury in laSj. The story of 
Constance begins on leaf 45, back. Gower follows Trivet rather 
closely, with but few omissions, and only one addition of any im- 
portance, about JO lines long. 'Chaucer tells the same story 
as Trivet, but tells it in his own language, and in much shorter 
compass. He omits little or nothing of importance, and alters 
only the details. . . . Chaucer's additions are many; of the loai) 
lines of which the Tale consists, about 350 are Chaucer's addi- 
tions. Thepassagesarethese;—1!. 190-403; a7o-»87; 395-315; 



3JO-343; 351-357; 338-371; 400-410 J 4""-4»7; 449-4i5»: 470- 
504; 631-658; 701-714; 771-784; 811-819; 825-868: 915-945; 
i037-to4j; 1053-1078; 1133-1141' (Broct). 

Tynvhitt pointed out that much the same story is to be found 
in the Lay of Emar& (MS. Cotton, Calig. A. ii, foL 6g), printed 
by Ritson in the second volume of his Metrical Romances. He 
observes: — 'the chief differences are, that Emare is originally 
exposed in a boat for refusing to comply with the desires of the 
Emperour her father ; that she is driven on the coast of Galyi, 
or Wales, and married to the King of that country. The con- 
trivances of the step-mother, and the consequences of them, are 
the same in both stories.' 

Mr. Thomas Wright further observes: — 'The treachery of 
King Ella's mother enters into the French Romance of the 
Chevalier au Cigne, and Into Che still more ancient Anglo-Saxon 
romance of King Offa, preserved in a Latin form by Matthew 
Paris. It is also found in the Italian collection, said to have been 
composed in 1378, under the title of II Pecorone di ser Giovanni 
Fiorentino (an imitation of the Decameron), gior. x. no. i. The 
treason of the Knight who murders Hermengilde is an incident 
in the French Roman de la Violette, and in the English metrical 
romance of Le Bone Florence of Rome (printed in Ritson's col- 
lection) [ and is found in the English Gesta Romanorum, c. 69 (ed. 
Madden) ', joined, in the latter place, with Constance's adventure 
with the steward. It is also found in Vincent of Beauvais*, and 
other writers.' The tale in the Gesta Romanorum is called 
'Merelaus the Emperor' (MS, Harl. 7333, leaf aoi), and is printed 
in the Originals and Analogues (Chaucer Society), Fart I, pp. 57- 
70. Mr. Fumivall adds — 'This tale was versified by Occleve,who 
called Merelaus "Gerelaus;" and Warton quotes Occleve's lines 
describing how the " feendly man " stabs the Earl's child, and then 
puts the bloody knife into the sleeping Empress's hand — 

' Reprinled for the Early Eng. Toit Soc., ed. S. J. Herrtage. 1879 ; see 
pp. 311, 493 of ihii edition. 

' Warton givei the refeience. vii. to his Specahim Histonile, lib. rii. 
c. 90, fol. 86 a. 



'For men ihoulde hare nooa olUr deeming 
But ihe bad gilty ben or tbi> murdiing.' 

See Wirton, Hiit. Eng, Poetry, ed. 1S71, i. igS.' 

In the Originals and Analogues, Part i. pp. 71-841 !s also printed 
an extract from Matthew Paris, Fita Offae Frimi, ed, Wats, 1684, 
pp. 965-968, containing the story of 'King Offa's intercepted 
Letters and banished Queen.' 

Some account of Ser Giovanni is given in Dunlop's History of 
Fiction, 3rd ed. 1845, p. 1^7. He was a Florentine notary, who 
began his Tales in 1378, at a village in the neighbourhood of 
Forli. His work is called II Fecorone, i.e. the Dunce, 'a title 
which the author assumed, as some Italian academicians styled 
themselves Insensati, Stolidi, Ac., appellations in which there was 
not always so much irony as they imagined.' The ist tale of the 
loth Day is thus analysed by Dunlop. 'Story of the Princess 
Denlse of France, who, to avoid a disagreeable marriage with an 
old German prince, escapes in disguise to England, and is there 
received in a convent. The king, passing that way, falls in love 
with and espouses her. Afterwards, while he was engaged in a 
war in Scotland, his wife brings forth twins; but the queen- 
mother sends to acquaint her son that bis spouse had given birth 
to two monsters. In place of his majesty'* answer, ordering 
them to be nevertheless brought up with the utmost care, she 
substitutes a mandate for their destruction, and also for tliat of 
the queen. The person to whom the execution of this command 
is entrusted, allows the queen to depart with her twins to Genoa. 
At the end of some years she discovers her husband at Rome, on 
his way to a crusade ; she there presents him with his children, 
and is brought back with them in triumph to England.' Dunlop 
points out the likeness of this story to those told by Chaucer and 
Gower, mentions the Lay of Emari, and adds: — 'it is the sub- 
ject, too, of a very old French romance, published in 4to, with- 
out date, entitled Le Roman de la Belle Helene de Constan- 
tinople. There, as in Ernar^, the heroine escapes to England 
to avoid a marriage, Sec. At length she is ordered to be burnt, 
but is saved by the Duke of Gloster"* niece kindly offering to 



personate her on that occasion.' The storjr appears again In a 
collection of tales by Straparola, in the itli tale of the first 
night ; but Straparola merely borrowed it from Ser Giovanni. 
See Dunlop, Hist. Fiction, jrd ed. p. 168. 

It occurs to me that Shakespeare, in delineating Imogen, did 
not forget Chaucer's portrait of Constance. 

The Pardoner's Frologoe. In this Prologue, the Pardoner is 
made to expatiate upon the value of his relics. It is very likely 
that Chaucer here remembered one of the tales in Boccaccio's 
Decamerone (Day vi. Tate 10), concerning a certain Friar Ci- 
polla, of the Order of St. Anthony, of which Dunlop gives some 
account in his History of Fiction, jrd ed. pp. nj, 21S. 'He 
gave a long account (says Dunlop) of his travels as far as India, 
and told how on his return he had visited the Patriarch of Jeru- 
salem, who had shewn him innumerable relics: among others, 
a lock of the hair of the seraph that appeared to St. Francis, a 
paring of the cheijib's nail, a few of the rays of the blessed star 
that guided the Magi in the east, the jawbone of Lazarus,' &c. 
He adds — ' This tale of Boccaccio drew down the censure of the 
Council of Trent, and is the one which gave the greatest um- 
brage to the church. The author has been defended by his 
commentators, on the ground that he did not intend to censure 
the respectable orders of friars, but to expose those wandering 
mendicants who supported themselves by imposing on the cre- 
dulity of the people ; that he did not mean to ridicule the sacred 
relics of the church, but those which were believed so in conse- 
quence of the fraud and artifice of monks.' But it must have 
been hard to draw this line. In the note to I. 349, p. 145, 
I have drawn attention to Heywood's close plagiarism from 
Chaucer, in the passage from The Four P.'s, printed in the note 
to I. 7°' of Dr. Morris's edition of Chaucer's Prologue ; also to 
Sir David Lyndesay's Satyre of the Three Estates, II. 3037-3111. 

The Pardoner's Tale. A considerable part of this Tale is 
occupied with digressions; the Tale itself is told simply, briefly, 
and well, occupying II, 463-484, 661-894. M!""- Thomas Wright 
remarks — 'This beautiful moral story appears to have been 


THE pardoner's TALE. XXVll 

taken from a Fabliau, now lost, but of which the mere outline 
is preserved [as first noted by Tyrwhitt] in the Cento Novelle 
Antiche, Nov. Issxii, as well as the story itself by Chaucer.' 
Dunlop, in his History of Fiction, p. 203, says — 'It is evident from 
the title of the Cento Novelle Antiche, that it was not a new and 
original production, but a compilation of stories already current 
in the world. The collection was made towards the end of the 
13th century, and was formed from episodes in Romances of 
chivalry; the Fabliaux of the French Trouveurs; the ancient 
chronicles of Italy j recent incidents; or jests and repartees 
current by oral tradition. That the stories derived from these 
sources were compiled by different authors, is evident from the 
great variety of style j but who those authors were, is still a 
problem in the literary annals of Italy.' The story is not exactly 
the same in all the editions of the Cento Novelle; and two dif- 
ferent forms of it have been printed by Mr. Furnivall, in his 
Originals and Analogues (Chaucer Soc), Ft. ii. pp. iji-133. Of 
these, the former Is from the edition of 1515, with the title Le 
Ciento Novelle Antifce, where it appears as Nov. Ixxxiii. It is very 
brief, and to this effect. As Christ was walliing with his disciples 
through a wild country, some of His disciples espied some golden 
piastres, and said, < Let us take some of these fbr our use.' But 
Christ reproved them, warning them that they would soon see 
the fatal effects of avarice. Soon after, two men found the goldj 
and one of them went to fetch a mule to carry it off, whilst the 
other remained to guard it. On his return with the mule, the 
former offered to his companion two loaves which he had bought 
for him. The latter refused at the moment, and shortly after- 
wards took an opportunity of stabbing the other as he chanced 
to be stooping down. He then took the two loaves, gave one to 
the mule, and ate the other himself. The loaves were poisoned ; 
and man and mule fell dead. Then our Lord, passing by once 
more, pointed out to His disciples the three dead bodies. 

The other version is from the edition of 1572, entitled Libro 
di Novelle, et di bel Parlar Gentile ; where it is Nov. Ixxxii. 
This is much more like Chaucer's story, and Is occasionally 



quoted in the Notes as the 'Italian test.' Mr. Furoivall's ana- 
lysis of the story b as follows. 

'A hermit lying down in a cave, sees there much gold. At 
once he runs away, and meets three robbers. They see no one 
chasing the hermit, and ask him what lie is running away from, 
"Death, which is chasing me." "Where is he? shew him us." 
"Come with me, and I will." The hermit takes them to the 
cave, and shews them Death— the gold. They laugh at him, and 
make great joy, and say, "The hermit is a fool." Then the 
three robbers consult as to what they shall do. The second pro- 
poses that one shall go to the town, buy bread and wine and all 
things needful ; but the crafty Devil puis into the heart of the 
robber who goes to the town, that he shall feed himself, pioison 
his mates, and then have all the treasure, and be the richest man 
in that country. Meantime, the other rc^bers plot to murder 
their mate as soon as he comes back with the bread and wine, 
and then share the treasure. Their mate returns from the city, 
and they murder him at once. Then they eat the food he has 
brought, and both fall dead. Thus doth our Lord God requite 
traitors. The robbers found death. The wise man fled, and 
left the gold free.' 

As the original is not long, I here reprint it, for the reader's 

' Qui conta d' uno Romito che andando per nn luogo foresto 
trouo molto graode Tesoro. 

'Andando vn giomo vn Romito per vn luogo foresto: si 
trou6 vna grandissima grotta, laquale era molo celata, et riti- 
randosi verso 13 per riposar^, pen> che era assai aflaticato; 
come e' giunse alia grotta si la vide in certo luogo molto 
tralucere, impercio che vi hauea molto oro; e si tosto come 
il conobbe, incontanente si partio, et comincio a correre per 
lo deserto, quanto e' ne potea andare. Correndo cosi questo 
Romito s" intoppo in tre grandi scherani, liquaii slauano in 
queila foresta per mbare chi unque vl passaua. Ne gia mai si 
erano aecorti, che questo oro vi fosse. Hor vedendo cottoro, 
che nascosti si stauano, fuggir cosi questo huomo, non hanendo 



ptersona dietro cbe 'I cacciasse, alquanto hebbero temenza, ma 
pur se li pararono dinanzi per sapere perche fuggiua, cbe di cio 
molto si njarauigliaiiano. Ed elli rispose et disse. " Fratelli 
miei, io fuggo la morte, cbe rtii vien dietro cacciando mi," Que' 
non vedendo ne huomo, ne bestia, cbe il cacciasse, dissero: 
" Mostraci cbi ti caccia : ct menaci cola one ella h" Ailhora il 
Romito disse loro, " venite meco, et mostrerollaui," pregandoli 
tutta via che non andassero ad essa, impercio cbe elli per se la 
fuggia, Ed eglino Tolendola trouare, per uedere come fosse 
fatta, nol domandouano di altro. 11 Romito vedendo che non 
potea piu, et hauendo paura di loro, gli condusse alia grotta, 
onde egli s' era partito, e disse loro, " Qui h la morte, cbe mi 
cacciaua," et mostra loro I' oro che u' era, ed eglino il conobbero 
incontanente, et molto si cominciarano a rallegrare, et a fare 
insieme grande sollazzo. AUhora accommiatarono questo buono 
huomo; et egU sen' ando per i fatti suoi: et quelli cominciarono 
a dire tra loro, come elli era sempljce persona. Rimasero questi 
scherarii tutti e tre insieme, a guardare questo hauere, e incomin- 
ciarono a ragioaare quello che volcano fare. L'uno rispuose et 
disse. " A me pare, da che Dlo ci ha dato cosi alta ventnra, che 
noi non ci partiamo di qui, inslno a tanto che noi non ne porti- 
amo tutto questo hauere." Et 1' altro disse : " non facciamo 
cosi ; r vno di noi ne tolga alquanto, et vada alia cittade et ven- 
dalo, et rechi del pane et del vino, et di quello cbe ci bisogna, e 
di cio s' ingegni il meglio che pnote: faccia egli, pur com' elli ci 
fomisca." A questo s' accordarono tutti e tre insieme. 11 De- 
moaio ch' k ingegnoso, e reo d' ordinare di fare quanto male e 
puote, mise in cuori a costui che andaua alia citta per lo forni- 
mento, "da ch' io sard nella cittade" (dicea fra se medesimo) 
" io vogLo mangiare et here quanto mi bisogna, et poi fomirmi 
di certe cose delle quali io fao mestiere hora al presente : et [wi 
auuelenero quello che io porto a miei compagni : si che, da ch' elli 
saranno morti amendue, si saro io pol Signore di tutto quello 
hauere, et secondo che mi pare egU i tanto, che io saro poi i) 
piu ricco huomo di tutto questo paese da parte d'hauere:" et 
come li veune in pensieroj co^ fece. Frese viuanda per se 



quanto gli bisogno, et proi tutta 1' altra auuelenoe, e cosi la porto 
a que suoi compagni. Intanto ch' ando alia cittade secondo che 
detto hauemo : se elli pensoe et ordlnoe male per uccidere li 
suoi compagni, accio che ogni cosa li rimanesse : quell! pensaro 
di lui non meglio ch' elli di lore, et djssero tra loro ; " Si tosto 
come questo nostra compagno tomera col pane et col vino, et 
con r altre cose che ci bisognano, si 1' uccideremo, et poi mange- 
remo quanto uorremo, e sara poi tra noi due tutto questo grande 
hauere. Et come meno parti ne saremo, tanto n' baueremo mag- 
gior parte ciascuno di noi." Hor vlene quelli, clie era ito alia 
cittade a comperare le cose che bisognaua loro. Tomato a suoi 
compagttl incontanente che 1' videro, gli furono addosso con le 
lancie et con le coltella, et 1' uccisero. Da che ]' hebbero motto, 
mangiarono di quello che egli hauea recato: et si tosto come 
furono satoUi, amendue caddero morti : et cosi morirono tutti e 
tre : che I'vno vccise 1' altro si come vdito hauete, et non hebbe 
r hauere: et cosi paga Domenedio li traditori, che egli andarono 
cercando la morte, et in questo modo la trouarono, et si come 
ellino n' erano degni. Et il saggio sauiamente la fuggio, e I' oro 
rimase libero come di prima.' 

Mr. Fumivall has also reprinted Novella slit from the Novellae 
of Morlinus, ed. Naples, 1520 (reprinted at Paris in 1799) ; cor- 
rected by tiie Paris edition of Morlimis' Works, 1855. The 
story is very brief, being as follows. 

'De illis qui, in Tiberi reperto thesauro, ad inuicem conspi- 
ranfes, ueneno et ferro periere. 

' Magus magico susurro in Tiberi delitere thesaunim quadam 
in cauea spirituum reuelatione cognouit : quo reperto, cum mag- 
num siclorum cumulum aspiceret, communi uoto pars sociorum 
proximum oppidum seu castellum, epulas aliasque res compara* 
turi, accedunt : ceteri uero copiosum interea ignem itistruunt, 
thesaurumque cnstodiunt. Dumque in castellum conuenissent, 
radice malorum cupiditate afiecti, ut consocios thesauri parte 
priuaretit, diro ueneno illos tnterimere statuerunt : cum dicto, 
in caupona epulantes, ebrii ac uino sepulti, aliquatenus moram 
fecere. In Tiberi espectantes atque esurientes, consocios de 


THE SECOND nun's TALE. xxxi 

mora incusabant: louemque adiurauerunt, repedantes es op- 
pido atque castello et uita et thesauri parte priuare. Sicque ad 
iauicem conspirantes, non tnulto post adueniunt ex pago illi, 
uinarios, utres, puUos, pisces, aliaque tucetosi saporis pulmentaria 
atque prelectum hirciim ferentes, Quibus obuiam dederunt 
ieitrni, illosque omnes morti imparatos iacautosque insecauere 
atque crudeli strage perdidenint. Pone sumptis cibariis diro 
ueneno tabeiactis, insgni iocunditate gnauiter cuncta ministrare 
inctpiuat; alter uerrit, alter stemit, pars coquit, atque tuceta 
concinnat. Pone omnibus scitule appositis, ac raensa largiter in- 
structa edere ceperunt, omniaque iDgurgitauerunt. Commodum 
ex eis mensa erectis erant (ile) quod, morte preuenti, cum sociis 
uitam hto reddentes, sub elemento mortai et sepulti remansere. 

' Nouella indicat : nee esse de malo cogitandum : nam quod 
quis seminat, metit.' 

TIis Beoond Horn's Tale. There is a peculiar interest about 
this Tale, because, as compared with the rest, it so clearly shews 
us Chaucer's mode of compilation ; bis advance from close trans- 
lation to a more free handling of materials ; and his change of 
rhythm, from stanzas to rimed couplets. The closeness of the 
translation and the rhythm alike point to early workmanship ; 
and, most fortunately, we are not left to conjecture in this 
matter, since onr author himself refers to thb piece, by the Title 
of the Ljf ef Seint Ctci/e, m bis Prologue to the Legend of Good 
Women, 1. 436. It was probably written a considerable time 
before the Legend, Mr. Funiivall assigns to it the conjectural 
date of 1373, which cannot be very far wrong. The expression 
in 1. 78, 'Yet preye I yow that reiltn that I wryte' clearly shews 
that it was neither originally written as a tale of the series, nor 
properly revised ; and the expression in 1, 6 1, ' And though that 
I, vnworthy jone of Eue,' cannot fail to strike the reader as a 
singular one to be put into the mouth of a nun. We possess, in 
fact, the Tale in its original shape, without either revision or 
introduction. What is called the ' Prologue ' is, in fact, nothing 
of the sort ; it is merely such an introduction as was suitable for 
the Legend at the time of translation. We have no description 



of the Second Nim, no introduction of her as a narrator, nor 
anfthing to connect the Tale with those that precede it. There 
is no authority, indeed, for attributing it to the Second Nun at 
all beyond the mere rubrics printed at pp. 6i, 63, and Si. 

It is not even made quite dear to us who the Second Nun 
was. We may, however, conclude that, as the Prioresse was 
herself a Nun, i.e. the Jrit nun (see Prol. I. 118), the person 
intended is the ' Another Nonne ' mentioned in the Prologue, I. 
163, but mentioned nowhere else. The first line of the Canon's 
Yeoman's Prologue (p. 8a) merely mentions ' the !yf of Seint 
Cecile ' without any hint as to the supposed narrator of it. The 
Prioress herself, on the other hand, is properly introduced to us, 
and her Tale is carefully inserted in its right place. 

An analysis of the so-called Prologue to this Tale is given in 
the Notes, at p. 165 ; cf. note to I. S4, p. 169. Tyrwhilt pointed 
out that the Tale itself is translated from the Life of St. Cecilia 
as given in the Legenda Aurea (or Golden Legend) of Jacobus 
Januensis, or Jacobus a Vora^oe, who was archbishop of Genoa 
at the close of the 13th century. Tyrwhitt calls it 'literally' 
translated, but this is not quite the case ; for our author has made 
several judicious alterations, suppressions, and additions, some of 
which are pointed out in the notes; see, e.g. notes to 11. 346, 
3B0, 395, 44a, 489, 505, and 535. However, most of the altera- 
tions occur towards the end of the story, and Chaucer follows 
the original author closely as far as 1. 343 ; see note to I. 346. 
The best teW of this Life of St. Cecilia b that given in the 
second edition of the Aurea Legenda by Dr. Th. Grasse, pub- 
lished at Leipsic in 1S50. Mr. Fumivall has printed it at length, 
from Grasse's first edition, 1846, in his Originals and Analogues, 
Pt. ii, pp. 193-105; «de by side with the French version of La 
LegendeDorte, as translated byjehan de Vignay, printed at Paris 
in 1513. The su^estion was made in 'Bell's' edition of Chaucer 
(really edited by Mr. Jephson), that Chaucer's original was not 
the Latin, but the French text. A very slight comparison shews 
at once that this idea u wrong (as Mr. Fumivall points out), 
and that Chaucer unquestionably followed the Latin original ; see 



note to t. 319, p. 174. It Is, however, probable that Chaucer 
may have seen the French version also, as he seems to have 
taken from it the idea of his first four stanzas, II. i-zS. But he 
has taken thence merely the general idea, and no more; see 
notes to 1. I, p. 165, and to I. 7, p> iSS. The Invocation to the 
Virgin bears some resemblance to the Prioresses Prologue; see 
note to I. so, p. itiS. It contains, moreover, a passage which is 
a free translation of one in Dante's Paradiso; see note to 1. 36, 
p. 167. I may add here that Mr. Fumivall has also reprinted 
two more lives of St. Cecilia, one from GaTton's Golden Legende, 
in English prose, ed. 1483, fol, ccclxxvij, back; the other in 
English Terse, in a metre similar to that used by Robert of 
Gloucester, from MS. Ashmole 43, leaf 185, back, in the Bod- 
leiam library, Oxford. These do not throw much further light 
upon the matter ; and, in fact, the text that is most worth con- 
sulting is the Latin one of Jacobus a Voragine, which is fre- 
quently quoted in the notes. Of this Dunlop says, in his History 
of Fiction, 3rd ed. p. agfi — 'The grand repertory of pious fiction 
seems to have been the Legenda Aurea of Jacobus de Voragine, 
a Genoese Dominican, a work entitled Golden from its popu- 
larity, on the same principle that this epithet was bestowed on 
the 'Ass' of Apuleius. A similar composition in Greek, by 
Simon Metaphrastes, written about the end of the loth century, 
was the prototype of this work of the 1 3th century, which com- 
prehends the lives of individual saints, whose history had already 
been written, or was current from tradition. The Golden 
Legend, however, does not consist solely of the lives of saints, 
but is said In the colophon to be interspersed with many other 
beautiful and strange relations, which were probably extracted 
from the Gesta Longobardorum, and other sources too obscure 
and voluminous to be easily traced ; indeed, one of the original 
titles of the Legenda Aurea was Historia Lombardica. The 
work of [Jacobus a] Voragine was translated Into French by 
Jean de Vignai, and was one of the three books from which 
Caxton's Golden Legend was compiled.' 
In The Military and Religious Life in the Middle Ages, by 
VOL. ni. C 



Paul Lacroix, at p. 436, is the following brief account of Saint 
Cecilia. ' Under the reign of Alexander Severus, many illustrious 
martyrs vere put to death : St. Cecilia, her husband, and lier 
brother-in-law among the number. St. Cecilia was descended 
from a very ancient family which dated back to the time of 
Tarquin the Proud ; she belonged to the same house as Metella, 
many of whose children were raised to the honours of triumph 
and of the consulate in the heyday of the Roman republic. Her 
parents gave her in marriage to a young Roman patrician, named 
Valerian, But Cecilia had dedicated her virginity to God, and 
her husband, converted to the faith by her arguments and en- 
treaties, respected her vow, and himself converted his brother 
Tiburcius, They all three relieved their persecuted brethren, 
and this Christian charity betrayed them. In spite of their dis- 
tinguished birth, their wealth and their connections, they were 
arrested, and their refusal to sacrifice to the false gods led to 
their being condemned to death. We find a multitude of analo- 
gous occurrences in Gaul, and also in the most distant provinces 
of the East.' On the preceding f!^ of the same book is Itgured 
a copy of a piece of mosaic work of the third or fourth century, 
which was taken from the cemetery of St. Siitus, and is pre- 
served in the church of St, Cecilia, at Rome. It represents St, 
Cecilia and St. Valerian, with roses and lilies in bloom at their 
feet, and having on each side of them a palm-tree laden with 
fruit, a symbol of their victories and of their meritorious martyr- 
dom. Upon one of the palm-trees is a phoenix with a 'gloria' 
round its head, the ancient symbol of resurrection. 

The following interesting account of the church and statue of 
St. Cecilia is extracted from Mrs. Jameson's beautiful work upon 
Sacred and Legendary Art. 

'According to her wish, the house of Cecilia was consecrated 
as a church, the chamber in which she suffered mari^yrdom being 
regarded as a spot of peculiar sanctity. There is mention of a 
council held in the church of St. Cecilia by Pope Symmachus, in 
the year 500. Afterwards, in the troubles and invasions of the 
barbarians, this ancient church fell into ruin, and was rebuilt by 



Pope Paschal I. In the ninth century. It is related that, while 
engaged in this work, Paschal had a dream, in which St. Cecilia 
appeared to him, and revealed the spot in which she lay buried ; 
accordingly search was made, and her body was found in the 
cemetery of Calixtus, wrapt in a shroud of gold tissue, and round 
her feet a linen cloth dipt in her blood : near her were the re- 
maws of Valerian, Tibertius, and Masimus, which, together with 
hers, were deposited in the same church, now St. Cecilia-in- 
Trastevere. The little room, containing her bath, in which she 
was murdered or martyred, is now a chapel. The rich frescoes 
with which it was decorated are in a state of utter ruin from age 
and damp; but the machinery for heating the bath, the pipes, 
the stoves, yet remain. This church, having again fallen into 
ruin, was again repaired, and sumptuously embellished in the 
taste of the sixteenth century, by Cardinal Sfondrati. On this 
occasion the sarcophagus containing the body of St. Cecilia was 
opened with great solemnity in the presence of several cardinab 
and dignitaries of the Church, among others Cardinal Baronius, 
who has given vs an exact description of the appearance of the 
body, which had been buried by Pope Paschal in 820, when 
exhumed in 1599. "She was lying," says Baronius, "within a 
cofiin of cypress wood, enclosed in a marble sarcophagus ; not in 
the manner of one dead and buried, that is, on her back, but on 
her right side, as one asleep ; and in a very modest attitude ; 
covered with a simple stuff of taifety, having her head bound 
with cloth, and at her feet the remains of the cloth of gold and 
silk which Pope Paschal had found in her tomb." Clement VI 1 1 
ordered that the relics should remain untouched, inviolate ; and 
the cypress cofiin was enclosed in a silver shrine, and replaced 
under the altar. This re-interment took place in presence of 
the pope and clergy, with great pomp and solemnity, and the 
people crowded in from the neighbouring towns to assist at the 
ceremony. Stefano Maderno, who was then in the employment 
of the Cardinal Sfondrati as sculptor and architect, and acted as 
his secretary, was not, we may suppose, absent on this occasion j 
by the order of the Cardinal he executed the beautiful and cele- 


brated statue of " St. Cecilia lying dead," vtilcb was Intended to 
commemorate the attitude in whicb site was found. It is thus 
described by Sir Cliarles Bell :— " The body lies on its side, the 
limbs a little drawn up; the hands are delicate and iine,— they 
are not locked, but crossed at the wrists ; the arms are stretched 
out. The drapery is beautifully modelled, and modestly covers 
the limbs. The head is enveloped in linen, but the general form 
is seen, and the artist has contrived to convey by its position, 
though not oBfensively, that it is separated from the body. A 
gold circlet is round the neck, to conceal the place of decolla- 
tion{f). It is the statue of a lady, perfect in form, and affecting 
from the resemblance to reaUty in the drapery of white marble, 
and the unspotted appearance of the statue altogether. It lies 
as no living body could lie, and yet correctly, as the dead when 
left to expire, — I mean in the gravitation of the limbs." 

' It must be remembered that Cecilia did not suffer decollation ; 
that her head was not separated from the body ; and the gold 
band is to conceal the wound in the neck : otherwise, this 
description of the statue agrees exactly with the description 
which Cardinal Baronius has given of the body of the saint when 
found in 1599- 

' The ornaments round the shrine, of bronze and rare and 
precious marbles, are in the worst taste, and do not harmonize 
with the pathetic simplicity of the figure. 

' At what period St. Cecilia came to he regarded as the patron 
saint of music, and accompanied by the musical attributes, \ 
cannot decide. It is certain that in ancient devotional repre- 
sentations she is not so distinguished ; nor in the old Italian 
series of subjects from her life have I found any in which she is 
figured as anging, or playing upon instruments'.' 

The Canon's Teoman's FrologuSi Kod Tale. The Pro- 
logue, as well as the Tale itself, belongs to the very latest period 
of Chaucer's work. This is dear at once, from its originality, 
as well as from the metre, and the careless ease of the rhythm, 

* S<e my oote to L I34 of the Tale, p. 171, 


THE canon's TEOMAN'S TALE. xxxvii 

which sometimes almost degenerates into slovenliness, as tliough 
cmr author had written some of it in hot haste, with the inten- 
tion of revising it more carefully afterwards. Besides, the poet 
has boldly improved upon his plan of the pilgrims' stories as 
laid down in his Prologue. "We have there no hint of the 
Canon nor of his Yeoman j they are two new pilgrims who 
join themselves to the rest upon the road. A diqjute arising 
between the master and the man, the former is put out of 
countenance, and actually rides away for very sorrow and shame 
(I. 701); but the man remains, to denounce the cupidity of 
the alchemists and to expose their trickery. Tyrwhitt re- 
marks : — ' The introduction of the Chanouns Yeman to tell 
a tale, at a time when so many of the original characters re- 
main to be called upon, appears a little extraordinary. It 
should seem, that some sudden resentment bad determined 
Chaucer to interrupt the regular course of his work, in order 
to insert a satire against the alchemists. That their pretended 
science was much cultivated about this time, and produced 
its usual evils, may fairly be inferred from the Act, which was 
passed soon aiter, 5 Henry IV, cap. iv. to make it Felonie to 
tnultiplie gold or jiliur, or to -vie the art of mulliplieatiBn.' He 
adds — 'The first considerable coinage of gold in this country 
was begun by Edward III in the year 134J, and according to 
Camden (in his Remains, art. Momy), " the Alchemists did 
affirm, as an unwritten verity, that the Rose-nobles, which 
were coined soon after, were made by projection or multi- 
plication Alchemical of Raymund Lully in the Tower of 
London." Asbmole, in his Tbeatrum Cbemieum, p. 44], has 
repeated this ridiculous story concerning Lully with additional 
circumstances, as if he really believed it ; though Lully, by the 
best accounts, had been dead above twenty years before Edward 
III began to coin gold'.' 

' Tytwhilt further explains thil 1 poem \a Ashmole's volume, called 
Btrmis Bird, and by him attTibuted to Raymnad Lull}', is realiv a poem of 
Lydgate'i, printed by Caiton with the title Tkt Chorlt and lit Bird. 



The above-mentioned volume by Ashmole, entitled Theatmm 
Chemicum ', is a very singrilar production. And, perhaps, not 
the least singular circumstance ts that Ashmole actually gives 
' The Tale of the Chanoa's Yeman, written by our andent and 
famous poet, Geofiiy Chaucer,' Prologue and all, at full length 
(pp. tii~ts6), under the impression, apparently, that Chaucer 
was really a believer in the science I He says — ' One reason 
why I selected out of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales that of the 
Chanon's Yeoman was, to let the world see what notorious 
cheating there has beene ever used, under pretence of this 
true (though injur'd) Science; Another is, to shew that Chaucer 
himselfe was a Master therein.' It is indeed true that Chaucer 
had examined into alchemy very closely, but it fs perfectly - 
clear that he had made up his mind, with his strong English 
common sense, that the whole matter was a delusion. Had 
he lived in the present century, be could hardly have spoken 
out in more assured terms. In a similar manner be had studied 
astrology, and was equally a disbeliever in all but the terms 
of it and a few of its most general and vague assertions. He 
says expressly, in his Treatise on the Astrolabie (ed. Skeat, 
pt. ii. sec. 4, I. 34) — 'natheless, theise ben obseruauncez of 
iudicial matiere & rytes of paiens [pagans], in which my spirit 
ne hath no feith, ne no knowyng of hir borasct^m' But it 
is evident that the believers in alchemy had to make the best 
use they could of Chaucer's language, by applying it as being 
directed only against notorious cheats ; and accordingly, we 
find in The Ordinall of Alchimy, by Thomas Norton of Bristol, 
printed in Ashmole's collection, various passages imitated from 
Chaucer, such as, e. g. that at p. 17:— 

And again, George Ripley, In his Compound of Alchymie, 


THE canon's rSOMAN's TALE. xxxix 

dedicated to King Edward IV, printed in the same collection, 
says, at p. 15 j ; — 

' Their Clothei be bawdy and woryn threde-bare. 
Men may them imell for Multyplyers where they go," &e.' 

Ashmole's work contains several treatises which profess to es- 
pbin alchemy, nearly all alike couched in mysterious, and often 
in ridiculous language. Such are Norton's Ordinall of Alchimy, 
Ripley's Compound of Alehymie, Liber Patris Sapientiae, Hermes 
Bird (really Lydgate's poem of The Churl and the Bird), 
Chaucer's Canon's Yeoman's Tale {[), Pearce the Blacke Monke 
upon the Elixir, Chamock's Breviary of Naturall Philosophy', 
Ripley's Mistery of Alchymists, an extract from Gower's Con- 
fessio Amantis, Aristotle's Secreta Secretorum, translated by 
Lydgate; and so on. On the whole, the book is equally curious 
and dull. 

It would hardly be possible to give much idea of alchemy in 
a brief space, and it would certainly be unprofitable. The 
curious will find an esceltent article upon it (entitled ' Alchemy ') 
in the new edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; and a 
history of it, by no means uninteresting, in the first volume 
of Thomson's History of Chemistry. In Whewell's History 
of the Inductive Sciences, 2nd edition, 1847, vol. i. p. jzo, the 
following notice of it occure, which I quote for the reader's 
convenience. — ' Like other kinds of Mysticism, Alchemy seems 
to have grown out of the notions of moral, personal, and 
mythological qualities, which men associated with terms, of 
which the primary application was to physical properties. This 
is the form in which the subject is presented to us in the 
earliest writings which we possess on the subject of chemistry, 

' At p. 4^0, Ashmole gives a brief account of Chaucer, maile up from 
Speght, Bile, Piu. and others, of no pirticular vaiue. At p. ai6, he givei 
an eagraTiDg of the marble moaument elected to Chaucei'i memory in 
Wertminjter Abbey, by Nicholas Brigham, a.d, 1556. 

' Tbi) is somewhat amusing. Chamock describes bis numerous mis- 
adventures, and it it not clear Ihat be pieKived bit Eiilb in alchemy 



those of Geber of Seville, who is supposed to have lived in 
the eighth or ninth ceMury. The very titles of Geber's works 
show the notions on which this pretended science proceeds. 
They are, "Of the Search of Perfection;" "Of the Sum of 
Perfection, or of the Perfect Magistery;" "Of the Invention 
of Verity, or Perfection." The basis of this phraseology is 
the distinction of metals into more or less perfect ; gold being 
the most perfect, as being the most valuable, most beautiful, 
most pure, most durable; silver the next; and so on. The 
"Search of Perfection" was, therefore, the attempt to convert 
other metals ihto gold ; and doctrines were adopted which re- 
presented the metals as all compounded of the same elements, 
so that this was theoretically possible. But the' mystical trains 
of association were pursued much further than this ; gold and 
silver were held to be the most noble of metals; gold was 
their King, and silver their Queen. Mythological associations 
were called in aid of these fencies, as had been done in astrology. 
Gold was Sol, the sun ; silver was Luna, the moon ; copper, iron, 
tin, lead, were assigned to Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn. The 
processes of mixture and heat were spoLea of as personal actions 
and relations, struggles and victories. Some elements were 
conquerors, some conquered ; there existed preparations which 
possessed the power of clianging the whole of a body into a 
substance of another kind : these were called mag'ateriu '. When 
gold and quicksilver are combined, the king and the queen are 
marned, to produce children of their own kind. It will easily 
be conceived, that when chemical operations were described 
in phraseology of this sort, the enthu^asm of the fancy would 
be added to that of the hopes, and observation would not be 
permitted to correct the delusion, or to suggest sounder and 
more rational views. 

' The exaggeration of the vague notion of perfection and power 
in the object of the alchemist's search, was carried further still. 
The same preparation which possessed the faculty of turning 

> ThomioD't HiiL Ghcnuiliy, i. if. 



baser metals into gold, was imagioed to be also a universal 
medicine, to have the gift of curing or preventing diseases, 
prolonging life, producing bodily strength and beauty : the 
pbiltiapbtrt' tloBt was finally invested with every desirable effi- 
cacy which the fancy of the " philosophers " could devise.' 

See also Dr. WheweL's account of the doctrine of " the four 
elements" in the same work; vol. iii. p. izi. 

The history of the rise and growth of the ideas involved In 
alchemy is ably treated of in the article in the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica already referred to ; it is of some interest to note 
how some of the more important notions were developed. From 
ancient Persia came the idea of a correspondence between the 
heavenly bodies and parts of the human frame, alluded to in 
Chaucer's Treatise on the Astrolabie, and in Shakespeare's 
Twelfth Night, i. 3. 148*. From ancient India came the idea 
of a peregrination of sinful souls through the animal, vegetable, 
and even the mineral world, till they were absorbed into Deity. 
Hence was further evolved the notion of a transmutation of 
elements. The Greeks held that different deities had under 
their protection and guidance different types of men ; an idea 
still preserved in our words mercurial, Jo-vial, and latumiru. 
The school of Hippocrates held the doctrine of the four ele- 
meats, or primary substances of which all others were made, 
an idea first mentioned (it is said) by Empedocles; to which 
Aristotle added a fifth element, that of ether (Arist. de Caelo, 
i. 3). But this idea is probably older; for we 6nd five bhuta's, 
or elements, enumerated in Sanskrit, viz. earth, Are, water, 
air, and ether; see Benfey's Skt Diet. s. v. bhu, p. 658, 
Another very ancient notion is that male and female prin- 
ciples existed In all three worlds alike, animal, vegetable, and 
mineral ; from which it followed that Uie union of two metals 

' 'Sir To. What ihall we do else? Were we not bora under Tanrui? 
Sir And. Trarutl lhjt'« liilei and heart. Sir To. No, lit; if'i legs »nd 
thighs.' Both ue wrong, of course, ai Shakespeare knew. Chaucei sayi — 
■Ariel hith thin heoed [head], and TauiUE Ihy aiiie and iky ihrolei' 
AilfoUbie, pt i- »c 11. 1 go. 



could produce a third. It was argued that ' monstrosities are 
the productions of diseased metals (really alloys), which, if 
properly treated, may be cured, and will turn to gold, or at 
least silver. The secood stage in this imitation of nature is 
to obtain, by tincture or projection, solid or liquid gold, the 
cure of all evils;' Encycl. Brit. i. 463, col. 2. This notion 
is still preserved in the word arsenic {Gt. apmyixSv, male). It 
was universally believed that nature produced changes in the 
substance of various metals by slow degrees, and the great object 
of alchemy was to produce the same changes quickly. The 
chief names in connection with the progress of alchemy are 
Geber, a Sabaean, who flourished about a.d. 800 ; Avicenna, 
a native of Shiraz, bom a.d. 9S0, died June, 1037; Albertus 
Magnus, born about irgj, died Nov. 15, laSo, who uses much 
more intelligible language than alchemists usually indulge in ; 
Raymund Lully, bom at Majorca in 1135, a scholar of Roger 
Bacon, who was himself deeply imbued with the mystery of 
alchemy ; Arnoldus de Villa Nova (mentioned by Chaucer), so 
named because bom at Vitleneuve, in Provence, in 1240; and 
others. Paracelsus', a Swiss physician (bom in 1493, died 
1541) was something better than a mere alchemist. He did 
something towards destroying the notion of the necessity of 
consulting astrological EnSuences, and prepared the way for 
the discoveries of Van Helmont (bora at Brusseb in 1577, 
died 1644), with whom the history of modem chemistry may 
be said to begin. Van Helmont was the inventor of two new 
terms, gaj ^ and bla-i, the former of which remains in common 
use, though the latter is wholly forgotten. 

The great store-house of treatises upon alchemy is the Latin 
collection, in five volumes, called Theatrum Chemicum. I have 
made condderable use of the edition of this work published 
in i6fio, which I have frequently quoted in the Notes. We 

' See Browning't drama entitled ' Paracelim.* 

* It ii DKleu to try and discover an etymology for this word. It was 
invented wittingly. The moit that can be caid wu that Van Helmont 
was thinking (u he tells us himself) of cAoos I 



hence gather that most of the authors upon the subject 
wished men to believe that the true secrets of the science 
were known to tbemitl-ves only ; yet they all learnt more or 
less of a certain jargon which they continually repeated, attri- 
buting their empirical rules to Hermes, or Geber, or other 
supposed masters. The same ideas, alleged results, and sup- 
posed principles continually recur; and the brief statement of 
a few of these will at once shew what the reader of an al- 
chemical treatise may espect to find. Much depended on the 
supposed powers of certain numbers. Thus, there were three 
primary colours, black, white, and red ', from which all others 
were produced by combination ; Tbeat. Chem. iv. 536. Ac- 
cording to Gower, there were really three binds of the philo- 
sopher's stone, viz. animal, vegetable, and mineral. Some said 
it was composed of three parts ; body, spirit, and soul — torpus, 
spiritus, and anima; Ashmole's Th. Ch. p. 3E3. Agdn, there 
were /oar elements; four complexions of nature or tempera- 
ments; /oar colours (said some), viz. white, black, citrine, and 
red ; four savours, insipid, acid, sweet, and bitter ; fiur odours, 
sweet, fetid, intense, and slight {remlsjui), Theat. Chem. lit. 
Si. In particular, there were /bar spirits, sulphur, sal ammoniac, 
quick-silver, and arsenic; see note to line 778, p. 189; also 
four states or conditions, hot, cold, wet, and dry ; Theat. 
Chem. iv. 537. There were jeven planets; and because there 
were seven planets. It followed that every planet had a cor- 
responding note in the musical scale of le-veit notes. Every 
planet had its proper colour; and, in this view, there were 
leven colours, sable, vert, gales, or, argent, sanguine, and umber; 
Batman upon Bartholome, lib. 19, c, 37, Every planet had its 
proper metal; there were therefore leveit metals; see the 
extract from Gower, p. 193. Now, as all substances are made 
of the same four elements, it follows that if a substance can 
be decomposed, and reunited in different proportions, its nature 
may be so changed that it shall become another substance. 

' A itrangc leleclion; but due to Aristotle, De Sensu, ii. 



Many substances, If subjected to heat, are destroyed j but 
metals are not so, and therefore became the favourite subject for 
experiments. It was [aid down that one metal could be trans- 
muted into another, but only after having been first reduced 
into its primary elements; Theat, Chem, iv. 531. Ere long, 
it was accepted as an axiom that all baser metals could be 
transmuted either into gold, or jo/, typified by the sun, or 
into silver, or iuna, typified by the moon; these being the 
two extremes between which the other five metals were ranged. 
It was agreed that the chief agents in producing this transmu- 
tation vere quicksilver and sulphur, and of these quicksilver 
was the more important; so much so, that the mention of 
quicksilver meets us everywhere, and no alchemist could work 
without it'. It was also agreed that certain processes must 
be gone through in a due order, generally ten or twelve in 
number ; and if any ant of them failed, the whole work had to 
be begun afresh. They are commonly described as (i) calcin- 
ation, (a)solution, (3)separationof the elements, (4) conjunction, 
(5) putrefaction, (6) coagulation, (7) cibation, (8) sublimation, 
(9) fennentation, (10) exaltation, (11) augmentation or multipli- 
cation ; and (la) projection; Theat. Chem. ii. 175, and Ripley's 
Compound of Alchemy. By in^ting on the necessity of all 
these processes, they sufficiently guarded against all chances of an 
unfavourable result by securing that a result could not very well 
be arrived at. 

The moment that we attempt to analyse their processes mo^e 
closely, we are met by two difficulties that are simply insuper- 
able ; the first, that the same name is clearly used to denote 
quite different substances, and the second, that the same sub- 
stance is called by many different names. Hence also arose 
endless evasions, and arrogant claims to pretended secrets; it 

' The Indiin god Sim wis ictuatly worihipped uudir Ike form of guiek- 
lilvtr. Profesior Cowell refen me 10 Marco Palo, ed. Yule, ii. 300, and to 
bis own edition of Colebiooke'i Essayi, i. 433 ; ilto I0 the temi-nijthic 
lifp of Jaokua A'cbdrja, the great lefonnei of the eighth cenlury. 



was often said that the quicksilver of the alchemists was a 
substance ontf known to adepts, and that those who used 
only ordinary quicksilver knew nothing of the matter. The 
master could thus always mystify his pupils, and mate it appear • 
that he alone, and no one else, knew what he was talking 

Yet it was frequently alleged that the experiments ^succeed. 
The easiest explanation of this matter is, that the hopes of the 
alchemists were doubtless buoyed up by the fact that every now 
and then the experiments appeared to succeed ; and it is easy 
to shew .how. The close affinity of quicksilver for gold is well 
known, I copy the following from a book on experiments, 
which really suffices to explain the whole matter. ' If a sovereign 
be rubbed with mercury, it will lose its usual appearance, and 
appear as if silvered over ' ; the attraction of the gold for the 
mercury being sufficient to cause a coating of it to remain. 
When it is wished to remove the silvery appearance, dip the 
sovereign in a dilute solution of nitric acid, which will entirely 
take it off.' Now the alchemists tell us Chat quicksilver must 
always be used in all experiments ; and they constantly recom- 
mend the introduction into the substances experimented on of a 
imall quantity of gold, which they thought would be increased. 
The experiments constantly failed ; and whenever they failed, the 
pieces of molten metal were carefully saved, to be used over and 
over again. The frequent introduction of small quantities of 
gold caused that metal to accumulate; and if, by any favourable 
process, the quicksilver was separated from the mass, a con- 
siderable quantity of gold would now and then actually appear. 
This account is so much in accordance with all that we read that 
we may confidently accept the conclusion of Dr. Thomson, 
the author of the History of Chemistry, that the vaunted philo- 
sopher's stone was certainly an amalgam ^ gold; which, 'if 
projected into melted lead or tin, and afterwards cnpellated, 

eeking gold, tomctiinei rappoKd 



would leave a portion of gold; all the gold, of course, that 
existed previously in the amalgam.' He adds that 'the alche- 
mists who prepared the amalgam could not be ignorant that 
• it contained gold ; ' a statement which I am inclined to modify 
by suggesting that it may very easily have contained more gold 
than tbey luppoitd it did. In a word, we may conclude that 
some deceived themselves, and others were coDscioa» cheats. 

. The real secret of the long reign of alchemy, and of the 
tardy appearance of scientific chemistry, lies in this— that men, 
as a rule, have more faith in their theoretical notions than in 
the practical evidence of their senses. The history of alchemy 
is, in bict, full of instruction, and its lessons have not yet all 
been learnt. Not to apply them to any of the more popular 
delusions of the day (which would here be out of place), I 
would apply them to a subject in which students of Chaucer 
may be supposed to take a special interest, viz. that of Engliib 
etymology. A good deal of what is called ' etymology ' is the 
merest alchemy ; and the guesswork which is sometimes digni- 
fied by that name is often as baseless and as valueless as the 
dreams of the so-called adepts. Perhaps there is no book 
which better illustrates the history of the English language 
than Richardson's Dictionary; the value of the profusion of 
quotations, each with its proper reference, is very great. Yet 
the etymology is remarkably poor, owing to the number of 
guesses which were too rashly recorded there. Take, e.g. 
his account of the word bod. 'Had, perhaps baved, him'd, hod ; 
past part, of A. S, heafan, to heave. That which is becetied or 
raised,' &c. Yet the whole of this brealcs down when we re- 
member that bebbmt [not bet^an\ is a strong verb, and that its 
past part, became hoven, whilst stjll conjugated as a strong verb ; 
and afterwards bta-v'd, when it was treated as a weak one : the 
form bav'd being simply impossible either way. Students may do 
better than this, if they will bear in mind two or three leading 
principles, such as (i) that the investigation of the history of 
a word must precede all attempts to 'derive' it; (a) that it 
is of small utility to imagine how a word might have been 



formed, especiallj' when, as is sometimes the case, there is 
good evidence as to how it wai formed : (j) that the laws 
of language must be studied, it being absurd to make up words 
in opposition to all that we know of Anglo-Saxon grammar; 
and (4) that the light afforded by comparative philology is to 
be thankfully accepted, and not shut out as if it were non- 
existent. In particular, it is to be remembered that the history 
of many words is insufficiently recorded, and in such cases we 
have DO right to assume an origin which we cannot prove, but 
should be content to say that we do not know it. The one 
besetting sin of students of English etymology is that few are 
content to give up the pursuit of that which lies beyond them ; 
like the alchemists, men are prone to pretend to know that 
of which they can, after all, give no intelligible explanation. 
Like the alchemists, many invent their facts, or distort and 
wrest them, so as to make them agree with preconceived 
theories. This is strikingly esemplified in many of our older 
provincial glossaries, wherein the definitions of words, instead 
of being honestly stated, are often tortured into agreement 
with a supposed 'etymology,' Thus Ray, in bis excellent Col- 
lection of Provincial Words, defines Mi-ve as ' anon, by and by, 
or towards aigbt ; ' merely in order to introduce hia ' etymology,' 
that bcU-ve is a corruption of by the eve, with a substitution of 
the French le for the English the. Skinner's Lexicon contains 
hundreds of such absurdities, many of which were copied into 
Johnson's Dictionary, and some of them are certainly still be- 
lieved in. For a sample of these, see the ' Garland culled from 
Skinner ' in my Introduction to Ray's Collection of Provincial 
Words, pp. sxi-xxvi, published by the English Dialect Society. 
And to this day correspondents write to Notes and Queries about 
certain hard words, asking for the 'etymology ' of tbem, instead 
of asking for the history of them, which is the more important 
matter. No wonder that they often receive six or seven dif- 
ferent answers, all perhaps equally unsatisfactory and useless, 
and learn no more about the matter than they knew at first. 
Of course the etymology will explain a word, but only if it 



bapptui to be right ; the history of the word is, however, a surer 
guide, because it deals with quotatioDs and facts, not with 
theories and fancies. I fear that we English have still much to 
learn before we are finally delivered from the alchemy of those 
who only work by guess, and from the tyranny of ingenious 

A list of books most useful for explaining Chaucer, and of 
the Dictionaries used in compiling the Glossarial Index, is given 
Id my former Introduction, at p. Ixxvl. 

The present volume is, in the main, my own wort. My 
chief obligations have been to Mr. Furnivall's Six*text edition, 
and to Tyrwhitt's notes. I wish to record my thanks to Miss 
Gunning, of Cambridge, and Miss Wilkinson, of Dorking, who 
considerably lightened the labour of preparing the Glossary by 
copying out, with proper references, and in many cases, with 
explanations, the words explained there. I have added the 
explanations where they were omitted, and revised the whole ; 
the etymological remarks being my own throughout. A con- 
siderable part of the Notes is due to my own reading, and has 
not appeared before ; this is parlicularly the case with respect to 
the Canon's Yeoman's Tale. 

In the present (revised) edition, a few new notes have been 
added; and an Index has been subjoined, shewing where to lind 
at once the more important explanations of words and subject- 

Cambridge, Oct. j, 1879. 

NoTB OH THE Pardoner's Tale. 

It hit Ixen pointed out by Mr. Tawney and by Mr. Frmcli that Ihii tale 
occuTi in the Vcdabbhi Jitaka, the 48th in Fautbeil'i (dition. The tila 
wal therefore known to the Buddhiiti. 



In this edition several emendations have been made, and some 
errors have been corrected which had previously escaped notice. 

The following remarks are added, for the fuller information of 
the student. 

Note on p. xii, 1. 17. The remark by Dr. Ellis, that the final 
e'was never pronounced in hire =her' is liable to exception in 
the case where the word birr (usually btrt) happens to occur ai 
the end ef a line. This is particularlfnoted at p, I7t,inthe note 
to G 150. 

Note on p. xxi. It is now recognised, in Sweet's First Middle- 
English Primer, p. 4, that the diphthongs ei and ai 'were 
beginning to lie confused, probably through the a of ai being 
modified nearly to the soond of a in man ; ei probably had the 
broad sound of the diphthong in the Cockney pronunciation of 

Idonot hesitate to say that, in Chaucer, the diphthongs hi, iiViri, 
<rr, all rime together ; and thnt the common sound was that of ri as 
alwve described, very nearly that of a/, ejt in the modern English 
words fraf and pref. The ruling of Dr. Ellis, that their common 
sound was like that of ai in Iiaiah (p. xi), is quite untenable. 
Even Dr. Sweet seems to assume thatai had this sound originally; 
but we must not forget that English was spelt by Norman scribes, 
and there is no evidence that ai had the sound of ai in Iiaiah 
even in late Norman. On the contrary, M. Gaston Paris says, of 
the Norman ai . — ' Elle s'est original rement prononcfe ai [as ai 
in Iiaiab], mais deji k I'epoque de la demifire redaction du 
Roland elle se prononce i et assone avec e.' That is, the symbol 
ai denoted i (open t), which is much nearer to ei than to the 
original ai. I think the reader can hardly go far wrong if he 
pronounces ai, ay, ei, ey, as occurring in Chaucer, with the 
modern English sound ra praying at preying, 

VOL, 111, d 


The Han of Lawes Tale. It has been shewn, in Loiinsbury's 

Studies in Chaucer,ii. 3J3 (a work which deserves to be carefully 
consulted), that no less than /our of the stanzas io this Tale were 
cej'tainly taken from an earlier vork by Chaucer, of which the 
greater part is lost. 

In 11. 414-5 of the older Prologue to the Legend of Good 
Women, Chaucer informs us that he once wrote a piece entitled 
' Of the Wreched Engendring of Mankinde, As man may in Pope 
Innocent ylinde.' That is, he translated a well-known Latin 
treatise by Pope Innocent MI, entitled De Contemptu Mundi ave 
deMiseria Conditionis Humanae. This translation, as a whole, is 
lost ; but parts of it have been preserved by the fact that Chaucer, 
when revising the present Tale for insertion into the series, took 
occasion to insert three stanzas of his translation in The Prologue 
to the Man of Lawes Tale, and four more In the Tale Itself, at 
different places. 

The inserted stanzas occur at pp. ti, zj, and 36 of the present 
volume, and in an omitted passage noticed on p. 29. The lines 
are numbered 4JI-7, 77:-7, 925-31, and 1135-41. It is neces- 
sary to give the original Latiii of these passages, in order to prove 
the point. 

B 431-7 (p. 11). From De Cont. Mundi, lib. I. c. 23, entitled 
De Inopinato Dolore. ' Semper enim mundanae laetitlae tristitia 
repentina succedit. Et quod incipit a gaudio, desinit in moerore. 
Mundana quippe felicita'i multis amaritudinibus est respersa. 
Nouerat hoc qui dixerat: RIsus dolore miscebitur, et extrema 
gaudii luctus occupat [Prov. xiv. 13] . . . Aitende salubre con- 
siliuni : In die bonorum, non immemor sis malorum ' [cf. Eccies. 
vli. 14; xi. 8]. See note to 1. 421, at p. 129. 

B 771-7 (p. aj). From De Cont. Mundi, lib. ii. c. 19 ; De 
Ebrietate. ' Quid turpius ehrioso ? cui fetor in ore, tremor in 
corpore, qui promittit multa, prodit occulta, cui mens alienatur, 
fades transformatur ? Nullum enim secretum ubi regnat 
ebrietas' [Prov. xxai. 4; in the Vulgate]. See note to I, 771, at 
p. 134. 

B 925-31. From De Cont, Mundi, lib. ii. c. 21. 'O estrema 



libidinis turpitudo, quae non solum menlem effeminat, sed etiam 
corpus eneruat; non solum tnaculat animam, sed foedat per- 

B 1IJ5-4I (P- J6)- From De Cont Mundi, lib. L c. aa; De 
Breui Laetitia Hominis. ' A mane usque ad uesperam mutabitur 
tempus [Ecclus. xviii. a6]. ...Quis unquam uel unicam diem 
totum dusit in sua delectatione iucundum, quern in allqua parte 
diei reatus conscientiae, uel impetus irae, uel motus concupi- 
scentiae non turbauerit? Quern liuor inuidiae uel ardor auaritjae 
uel tumor superbiae non uexauerit ? Quern aliqua iactura, uel 
oifensa, uel passio non commouerit ? * See note to 1. 1 1 35, p. 1 39. 

It is now easy to understand the eiact meaning of the Latin 
sentences quoted in the margips of some MSS,, which closely 
agree with the above quotations. And it will be observed that 
the four stanzas above referred to are really digressions, having 
nothing to do with the story Itself, though they are introduced 
suitably enough. 

The question as to the relation of Chaucer's Tale to the same 
story as told by Gower is complicated by the fact that both of 
these poets really produced two editions of it The order of 
them appears to have been as follows; — 

(11) Chaucer's first edition. 

(i) Gower's first edition. 

[c) Chaucer's second edition. 

{d) Gower's second edition. 

Regarded in this light, it is possible that some of Chaucer's 
remarks refer to Gower, who copied several of Chaucer's 
expressions, and may have given some slight offence by doing so. 
(But it is now known that Gower's first edition was as late as 
1390; i.e. later than Chaucer altogether.) 

Tbe Pardoner's Tale. It is necessary to observe that 
Chaucer has inserted) in this Tale also, some passages from Pope 
Innocent's work just mentioned above. The lines which relate 
to It are C 483-+, 505-7, 513-6, 5!l-3. S'^-to, 5J4-6, SJ7-46, 
551-3, 560-1 ; all from De Cont. Mundi, lib. ii. capp. 17-19. 

The Second TSvld'o Tale. In addition to the Legenda Aurea 



(see p. xKsIi) Chaucer also consulted the Lives of Valerian aod 
TiburIiu5,asgiveniDthe Acta Sanctorum (April 14); see my note 
to I. 369, on p. 176. 

Dr. Kfilbing has further shewn (in EngUiehe Siudiin, i. 115) 
that Chaucer only followed the Legenda Aurca down to about 
I. 348, But ajier this point (and, in a few places, tefare it), he 
follows another Latin life of St. Ceciha, derived from Simeon 
MetaphrasCes. For this account, see Historiae Aloysii Lipomani de 
vitts sanctorum, pars IT, Lovanii, 1571, p. 3* ; or the edition 
entitled DeVitis Sanctorum, ab AloysioLipomano, Venetiis, 1581, 
p. 161. Some of the expressions in Lipomanus which agree 
with Chaucer are the following : — 

l.iSg: [Urbanus] ma^aj'aWio est affectus. 

II.31S-9: Inuenit Caeciliam , , . et Angelum Domini itantem 
prope tarn. 

L 165 : Quomoda hoc cognouisti. 

I. }i5 : £t nos quoque cum eo puniemnr, si inuenti fuertmus 
ad eum ambulantes. 

IL 349-J57 : Tunc Valerianus deduxit fratrem suum ad 
sanctissimum Papani Vrbanum. Cui postquam narrauit omnia 
. . . Deo egit gratias. Acceptum antem cum omni gaudio et 
exultatione Tibertium, cum . . . baptizasset, &.c. Quae quidem 
cum perfecta fuissent eius doctrina, post septem dies Chrisli 
militem restituit. 



[Tbe Introduction to the Man of Law's Prologue, and the 
Prologue itJtlf, are printed in The Prioresses Tale, Sec. (Qarendon 
Press Series), pp. 1-5. A long extract /rem The Tale iuelf 
{II. 13+-693} li gnien in Specimens of Earlj" Eugiisb, ed. Morris 
and Skeat, pp. 349-169.] 

Here begynnetli the man of lawe hia tale. 

In Suriye whylom dwelte a compajiye 

Of chapmen riche, and therto'sadde and trewe, ijj 

That wyde-wher senten her spicerye, 

Clothes of gold, and satins riche of hewe ; 

Her chanar was so thrifty and so newe, 

That eiiery wyght hath deyntee to chafTare 

With hem, and eek to sellcn hem her ware, 140 

Now fel it, that the maistres of that sort 
Han shapen hem to Rome for to wende ; 
Were it for chapmanhode or for disport, 

Noon other message wolde they thider sende. 

But comen hem-self to Rome, this is the ende ; 145 

And in swich place, as thoughte hem auantage 

For her entent, they take her herbergage. 

Soiourncd han tbise marchants in that toun 

A certein tyme, as fel to her plesance. 

And so bifel, that thescellent renoun i£o 

Of themperoures doughter, dame Custance, 

Reported was, with euery circumstance, 

VOL. m. B DMn;o;.,Go0^^lf 



Vn-to thise Surryen marchants in swich wyse ', 
Fro day to day, as I shal yow deuyse. 

This was the commune voys of euery man— 155 

' Our Emperour of Rome, god him see, ' 

A doughter hath that, sin the world bigan, 

To rekne as wel hir goodnesse as beautee, 

Nas neuere swich another as is she ; 

I prey to god in honour hir susteene, 160 

And wolde she were of al Europe the queene. 

In hir is Iiey beautee, with-oute pryde, 

Yowthe, with-oute grenehede or folye ; 

To alle hir werkes vertu is hir gyde, 

Huinblesse hath slayn in hir al tirannye. 165 

She is mirour of alle curteisye ; 

Hir hertc is verray chambre of holynesse, 

Hir hand, ministre of fredom for almesse.' 

And al this voys was soth, as god is trewe. 

But now to purpos lat vs turne agayn ; 1 70 

Thise marchants han doon fraught her shippes newe. 

And, whan they han this blisful mayden seyn, 

Hoom to Sunye ben they went ful &yn,- 

And doon her nedes as they han doon yore. 

And iyuen in wele ; I can sey yow no more. 175 

Now fel it, that thise marchants stode in grace 

Of him, that was the sowdan of Surrye ; 

For whan they came from any strange place, 

He wolde, of his benigne curteisye, 

Make hem good chere, and bisily espye iSo 

' E. iwich a wfiei but Ou olher MSS. omit a. 



Tydings of sondry regnes, for to lere 

The wondres that they myghte Been or here. 

Amonges othere thinges, specially 

Thise maxchants han him told of dame Custance, 

So gret noblesse in emest, ceriously, 1B5 

That this sowdan hath caught so gret plesance 

To han hir figure in his remembrance. 

That al bis lust and al his bisy cure 

Was for to loue hir whyl his lyf may dure. 

Farauenture in thilke large book tgo 

Which that men clepe the heuen, ywriten was 

With sterres, whan that he his birthe took, 

That he for loue sbulde han his deth, alias I 

For in the sterres, clerer than is glas. 

Is writen, god wot, who so coude it rede, 195 

The deth of euery man, withouten drede. - 

In sterres, many a winter ther-bifom. 

Was writen the deth of Ector, Achilles, 

Of Pompei, lulius, er they were bom ; 

The stiyf of Thebes; and of Ercules, ix 

Of Sampson, Tumus, and of Socrates 

The deth ; but mennes wittes ben so dulle, 

That no wyght can wel rede it atte fuUe, 

This sowdan for his priuee conseil sente. 
And, shortly of this mater for to pace, »oi 

He bath to hem declared his entente. 
And seyde hem certein, 'but he myghte haue grace 
To han Custance with-inne a Htel space. 
He nas but deed ; ' and charged hem, in hye. 
To shapen for bis lyf som remedye. >i< 

B2 D„-.....Goo^k- 


Diuerse men diuerse thinges seyden ; 

They argumenten', casten vp and doun; , 

Many a subtil resoun forth they leyden, , . ' 

They speken of magik and abusioun ; 

But finally, as in conclusioim, 3 

They can not seen in that non anantage, 

Ne in non other wey, saue manage. 

Than seye they ther-in swich difficultee 

By way of resoun, for to speke al playn, 

By cause that ther was swich diuersitee a. 

Bitwene her bothe lawes, that they sayn, 

They trowe ' that no cristen prince wolde fayn 

Wedden his child vnder oure iawcs swete 

That vs were taught by Mahoun our prophete.' 

And he answerde, ' rather than I lese a: 

CuBtance, I wol be cristned doutelees ; 

I mot ben hires, I may non other chese. \ 

I prey yow holde youre arguments in pees ; 

Saueth my lyf, and beth nought recchelees ■■^ " 

To getten hir that hath my lyf in cure ; 1, 

For in this wo I may not longe endure.' 

What nedeth gretter dilatacioun ? 

I seye, by tretys and embassadrye, 

And by the popes mediacioun, 

And al the chirche, and al the chiuah'ye, 3; 

That, in destruccioun of Maumettryc, 

And in encrees of crisles lawe derc, 

They ben accorded, so as ye shal here ; 

' Hail.. Corp. aigumeiitei ; biilutL liS. 



How that the sowdan and his baronage 

And alle bis lieges shulde ycristned be, s 

And he sbal ban Custance in manage, 

And cer^in ^old, I not what quantitee. 

And ber-to founden suffisant seurtee ; 

This same accord was sworn on eyther syde ; 

Now, fayre Custance, almyghty god thee gyde ! i 

Now wolde som men wayten, as I gesse. 
That I shulde tellen al the purveiance 
That themperour, of bis gret noblesse. 
Hath shapen for his doughter dame Custance, 
Wei may men knowe that so gret ordinance 
May no man tellen in a litel clause .. . 
As was aiiayed for so hey a cause. 

Bisshopes ben shapen with bir for to wende, 
Lordes, ladyes, knyghtes of renoun, 
And Oliver, folk ynow, this is the ende ; 
Anq^rlotifyed is thurgh-out the toun 
That euery wyght, with gret deuocioun, 
Sbnlde preyen crist that he this manage 
Receyue in gree, and spede this viage. 

The day is comen of bir departing, 
I sey, the wofiil day fatal is come, 
That ^her may tie no ienger tarying, 
Bu^iorthward tbey bem dressen, alle and some; 
Custance, that was with sorwe al ouercome, 
Ful pale arist, and dresseth bir to wende ; 
For wel she seeth ther is non other ende. 



Alias I what wonder is it though she wepte. 

That shal be sent to strange nacioun 

Fro frendes, that so tendrely hir kept^ 

And to be bounden vnder subieccioun 170 

Of oon, she knoweth not his condidoun. 

Housbondes ben alle goode, and han ben yore, 

That knowen wyues, I dar say yow no more. 

'Fader,' she sayde, 'thy wrecchcd child Custance, 

Thy yonge doughter, fostred vp so softe, ays 

And ye, my mooder, ray, souerayn plesance 

Ouer alle thing, !>ut-ial(en crist on lofie, 

Custance, .your child, hir recomandeth ofte 

Vn-to your grace, for I shal to SurryC, 

Ne shal I neuer seen yow more with yS. 3S0 

Alias I vn-to the Barbre nacioun 

I moste gon, sin that it is your wille ; 

But crist, that starf for our sauacioun, 

So yeue me grace, his hestes to fulfiUe ; 

I, wrecche womman, no fors though I spille. *8s 

Wommen are bom to thraldom and penance. 

And to ben vnder mannes gouemance.' 

I Irowe, at Troye whan Pimis brak the wal 

Or Ylion ' brende, at Thebes the citee, 

Nat * Rome, for the harm Ihurgh Hanybal ago 

That Romayns hath venquisshed tymes ihre, 

Nas herd swich tendre weping for pitee 

' All lit bnl SfSS. riad fuoa, whiek skmitd tktrtfbrt J* relainid; al 
hifort Thebei it iiutrUd Jrom l/U Canibiidge MS. Or it latd in tlu stnsi 
<j^ m, and brende I'l intnauilivt. 

■ Nit it (*» rtading of Ihe Elieiinere, Hcngwrt, aad Cimbridge MSS, ! 
but in iiii iattoHct il i$ friAably a tontratlion of ne at, insliad of htiiig 
'qmaltnl to not, m una/. Tkt Harl. MS, nods Ne at aetordingly. 



As in the chambre was for fair depaninge ; 

Bot forth she moot, wher-so she wepe or singe. 

O firste moeuyng cmel fiimament,, -■ ' i 

With thy diumal sweigh that crqwdest ny 

And hnrlest al from Est til Occident, 

That naturelly wolde holde another way. 

Thy crowding set the heuen in swich array 

At the biginnirig of this fiers viage, 3 

That cruel Mars hath slayn this manage. 

Infortnnat ascendent tortuous, / 

Of which the lord is helplees falle, alias I 

Out of his angle in-to the derkest hous. 

O Mars, O Atazh, as in this cas I • . 3 

feble moone, vnhappy ben thy pas I 

Thou knittest thee ther thou art not receyued, . ' ' 

Ther thou were wel, from thennes artow weyued. 

Imprudent emperour of Rome, alias I 

Was ther no philosophre in al thy toun i 3 

Is no tyme bet than other in swich cas i 

Of viage is ther non eleccioun, ■ ' ' 

Namely to folk of hey condicioun, 

Not whan a rote is of a birthe yknowe ? 

Mas I we ben to Jewed or to slowe. 3 

To sbippe is brought ' this woful faire mayde 

Solempnely with euery circumstance. 

' Now lesu Crist be with yow alle,' she sayde, 

Ther nis no more but ' farewel 1 faire Custance I ' 

She peyneth hir to make good countenance, 3 

And forth I lete hir sayle in this manere. 

And tume I wol agayn to my maCere. 

' E. come ; brought in ihi nsl. 



The mooder of the sowdan, welle of vices, 

Espyed hath hir sones pleyn entente, 

How he wol lete his olde sacrifices, 3 

And lyght anon she for hir conseil senle ; 

And Ihey ben come, to knowe what she menle.. i , ■- 

And when assembled was this folk in-fere,' • '/ 

She sette hir doun, and sayde as ye s^ herei 

' Lordes,' quod she ', ' ye knowen euerichon, 3 

How that my sone in point is for to lete 

The holy lawes of oure Alkaron, 

Yeuen by goddes message * Makomete. 

But oon auow to grete god I hete. 

The lyf shal rather out of my body sterte 3 

Than Makometes lawe out. of myn herte I 

What shulde vsTyden of tliis newe lawe 

But thraldom to our bodies and penance? ' 

And afterward ip helle to be drawe '; 

For we reneyeS M ahoun our creancc ? 3 

But, lordes, wol ye maken assurance, , ■,. .- 

As I shal seyn, assenting to my lore, ^^" ' 

And I shall make vs sauf for euermore V 

They sworen and assenten, euery man, 

To lyue with hir and dye, and by hir stonde ; 1 

And euerich, in the beste wyse he can. 

To strengthen hir shal alle his frendes fonde ; 
And she hath this emprise ytake on hondc. 
Which ye shal heren that I shal deuyse. 
And to hem alle she spak ryght in this wyse. 3 



' We shul first feyne V3 cristendom lo take. 

Cold water shal not greue vs but a lyte ; 

And I shal swich 3. feste and reuel make, 

Tha^ as I trowe, I shal the sowdan quyle. '' ' " ■■ ' 

For though his wyf be cristned neuer so whyle, 353 

She shal haue nede to wasshe awey the rede, 

Though she a font-fiil water with hir lede.' 


O sowdanesse, rote of iniquitee, 
Virago, thou S emyram the secounde, 
O serpent vnder femininitee, 
Lyk to the serpent depc in helle ybounde, 
O feyned womman, al that may confounde 
Vertu and Innocence, thurgh thy malice. 
Is bred in thee, as nest of euery vice 1 

O Satan, enuious sin tbilke day 
That thou were chased fro our heritage, 
Wei knowestow to wommen the olde way ! 
Thou mad^ Eua bnnge vs in seniage. 
Thou wolt lordoon flUs cristen manage. 
Thy instrument so, weylawey the whyle I 
Makestow of wommen, whan thou wolt begyle. 

This sowdanesse, whom I flius blame and warye, " 

Let priuely hir conseil goon her way. 

What shulde I in this tale lenger tarye i 

She rydeth to the sowdan on a day, 

And seyde him, that she wold reneye hir lay, ' 

And cristendom of preestes handes fonge, . 

Repenting hir she hethen was so longe, 



Biseching him to doon hir that honour. 
That she moste han the cristen men to feste; 3! 

' To plesen hem I wol do my labour.' 
The sowdan seith, ' I wol doon at your heste,' 
And kneling thanketh hir of that requeste. 
So glad he was, he niste what to seye ; 
She kiste hir sone, and horn she goth hir weye. 3! 
\ Explicit prima pars, ^eguitur pars secunda. 1^ 

Arryued ben this cristen folk to londe. 

In Suirye, with a greet aolempne route, 

And hastily this sowdan sent his sonde. 

First to his mooder, and al the regne aboute. 

And seyde, his wyf was comen, out of doute, 31 

And preyde hir for to ryde agayn the queene. 

The honour of his regne to susteene. 

Gret was the prees, and ricbe was tharray 

Of Surryens and Romajms met yfere ; 

The mooder of the sowdan, riche and gay, 31 

Receyueth hir with al so glad a chere 

As any mooder myghte hir doughter dere. 

And to the neste cite ther bisyde 

A softe pas solempnely they ryde. 

Nought trowe I the triumphe of lulius, 4 

Of which that Lucan maketh swicb a host. 

Was roialler, ne ' more curious 

Than was thassemblee of this blissful host. 

But this scorpioun, this wikked gost, 

The sowdanesse, for all hir flateringe, 4 

Caste vnder this fill mortally to stinge. 



The sovdan comth him-self soone after this 

So roially, that wonder is to telle, 

And welcometh hir with al ioye and blis. 

And thus in merthe and ioye I lete hem dwelle. 410 

The fruyt of this materc is that I telle. 

Whan tyme cam, men thoughle it for the beste 

That • reuel stinte, and men goon to hir reste. 

The tyme cam, this olde sowdanesse 

Ordeyned hath this feste of which I tolde, ^,5 

And to the feste cristen folk hem dresse 

In general, ye ! bothe yonge and olde. 

Here may men feste and roialtee biholde, 

And deyntees mo than I can yow deuyse. 

But al to dere they boughte it er they ryse. ^lo 

sodeyn wo I that euer art successour 

To worldly blisae, spreynd with bittemesse ; 

Thende ' of the ioye of our worldly labour ; 

Wo occupieth the fyn of our gladnesse. 

Herke this conseil for thy sikernesse, 4jj 

Vp-on thy glade day haue in thy mynde 

The vnwar wo or harm that comth bihynde. 

For shortly • for to tellen at a word. 

The sowdan and the cristen euerichone 

Ben al tohewe and stiked at the bord, ^,0 

But it were only dame Custance allone. 

This olde sowdanesse, this* cursed crone, 

Hath with her frendes doon this cursed dede. 

For she hir-self wold al the contree lede. 

, ■ E. The; That in Iki rttl. 

in Cimb. ; du rml kavt The tait. > So in Iht risl • E Mothly 

So in Pelw. and Hitl. ; i)u rtsi omil thit 



Ne ther ^ was Surryen noon that was conuerted 43 

That of the conseil of the sowdan wot. 

That he nas al tohewe er he asterted. 

And Custance ban they take anon, foot-hot, 

And in a shippe al sterelees, god wot, 

They han hir set, and bidde' hir leme sayle ^4 

Out of Snrryc agaynward to Itayle. 

A certein tresor that she thider ' ladde. 

And, sotb to sayn, vitaille gret plentee 

They ban hir yeuen, and clothes eek she haclde, 

And forth she sayleth in the salte see. n 

O my Custance, ful of benignytee, 

O empeiOQies yonge doughter dere, 

He that is lord of fortune be thy stere I 

She blesseth hir, and with iiil pitous voys 

Vn-to the croys of crist thus seyde she, 45 

' O cleere, o welful * auter, holy croys. 

Reed of the lambes blood full of pitee, 

That wesh the world fro the olde iniquitee. 

Me fro the feend, and fro his clawes kepe 

That day that I shal drenchen in the depe. 45 

Victorious tree, protecdoun of trewe. 

That only worthy were for to here 

The king of heueu with his woundes newe. 

The whyte lomb, that hurt was with the spere, 

Flemer of feendes out of hym and here 4(1 

■ So in til rat; E. omift ther. 

* Heng, and Cimb. bidde ; Corp, and PMw. bidden ; Linsd. bedcn 
biddelb; H>r1.b>d. 

* E. with bin ; bat Ikt rat iavt thider. 

* E. woful J lit* rtti, wetCul, wilful, wciefuL 



On which thy lymes feithfully extenden. 

Me keep *, and yif me myght my lyf tamenden,' 

Yeres and dayes fleet ' this creature 

Thurghout the see of Grece vn-to the strayte 

Of Marrok, as it was hir auenture ; 46$ 

On many a sory meel now may she bayte ; 

After her deeth ful of^en may she wayte, 

Er that the wilde wawcs wole hir dryue 

Vn-to the place *, ther she shal anyue. 

Men myghten asken why she was not slayn ? 470 

Eek at the feste who myghte hir body saue ? 

And I answere to that demaunde agayn, 

Who saued danyel in the horrible caue, 

Ther euery wyght saue he, maister and knaue, 

Was with the leoun fretc er he asterte ? 475 

No wyght but god, that he bar in his herte. 

God list to shewe hts wonderful miracle 

In hir, for we sbulde seen his myghty werkes ; 

Crist, which that is to euery harm triacle. 

By certein menes ofte, as knowen clerkes, 48a 

Doth thing for certein ende that fill derk is 

To mannes wit, that for our ignorance 

Ne coone not knowe his prudent purueiance. 

Now, sith she was not at the feste yskwe. 

Who kepte hir fro the drenching in the see ? 4S3 

Who kepte lonas in the fisshes mawe 

Til he was spouted vp at Niniuee ? 

Wei may men knowe it was no wyght but he 

' Camb., Landi. kep ; H<ng.. Petw,, Hart, kepe ; Corp. kecpe ; E. belpe. 
' E, flttelh ; but Iktform fle« oceun in Haig,, Corp,, and PelW. 
' Frobaily rtad placS ; Harl. i^on* instrli 11 nfitr ihtr. 



That kepte peple Ebrayk fro hir drenching, 

With drye feet thurgh-out the see passing, 491 

Who bad the foure spirits of tempest, 

That power han tanoyen lond and see, 

' Bothe north and south, and also west and est, 

AnoyeCh neither see, ne lond, ne tree V 

Sothly the comaundour of that was he' 49, 

That fro the tempest ay this womman kepte 

As wel whan she wook as whan she slepte. 

Wher myghte this womman mete and drinke baue ? 

Thre yeer and more how lasteth her vitaille ? 

Who fedde the Egypcien Marie in the caue, 501 

Or in desert ? no wyght but crist, sans faille. 

Fyue thousand folk it was as gret meruaille 

With loues fyue and fisshes two to fede. 

God sente his foyson at hir grete nede. 

She dryueth forth in-to our occean jo, 

Thurgh-out our wilde see, til, atte laste, 

Vnder an hold that nempnen I ne can, 

Fer in Northumberlond the wawe hir caste. 

And in the send hir ship stiked so &ste. 

That thennes wolde it noght of al a tyde, gn 

The wille of crist was that she shulde abyde. 

The constable of the castel doun is fare 

To seen this wrak, and al the ship he soughte, 

And fond this wery womman ful of care ; 

He fond also the tresor that she broughte. 51, 

In hir langage mercy she bisoughte 

The lyf out of hir body for to twinne, 

Hir to deiiuere of wo that she was inne. 



A maner latyn corrupt was hir speche, 

But algates ther-by was she vnderstonde ; 51° 

The constable, whan him list no lenger seche, 

This woful womman brought he to the londe ; 

She kneleth doun, and thanketh goddes sonde. 

But what she was she wolde no man seye, 

For foul ne fayr, tbogh that she shulde deye. 515 

She seyde, she was so mased in the see 

That she forgat hir mynde, by hir trewthe ; 

The constable hath of hir so gret pitee, 

And eek his wyf, that they wepen for rewthe. 

She was so diligent, with-outen slewthe, 530 

To serue and plese[n] euerich in that place 

That alle hir louen that looken on ' hir face. 

This constable and dame Hermengild his wyf 

Were payens, and that contree euery-where ; 

But Hermengild louede hir ryght as hir lyf, £jj 

And Custance hath so longe soiourned ' there. 

In orisons, with many a bitter tere. 

Til lesu hath conuerted thurgh his grace 

Dame Hermengild, constablesse of that place. 

In al that lond no cristen durste route, £40 

Alle cristen folk ben fled fro that contree 

Thurgh payens, that conquereden al aboute 

The plages of the North, by land and see ; 

To Walys fled the cristianitee 

Of olde Britons, dwellinge in this He ; f tj 

Ther was hu refut for the mene whyle. 

I E. and Camb. in ; iht rtU on. ' Hul. onlji hit heibcrwed. 



But yet nere cristen Britons so exiled 

That ther nere somme that in hii priuitee 

Honoured crist, and hethen folk bigiled; 

And neigh the castel swiche ther dwelten three. 55 

That oon of hem was blynd, and myghte not see 

But it were with thilke yen of his mynde, 

With whiche men seen, whan that they ben blynde. 

Bryght was the sonne as in that someres day, 

For which the constable and his wyf also jj 

And Custance han ytake the ryghte way 

Toward the see, a furlong wey or two. 

To playen and to romen to and fro ; 

And in fair walk this blynde man they mette 

Croked and old, with y6n faste y-schette. 56 

' In name of Crist,' cryede this blynde ' Brtloun, 

'Dame Hermengild, yif me my syghte agayn.' 

This lady wes affrayed of the soun, 

Lest that hir housbond, shortly for to sayn, 

Wolde hir for lesu cristes loue han slayn, 56 

Til Custance made hir bold, and bad hir werche 

The wil of Crist, as doughter of his chirche. 

The constable wex abasshed of that sight, 

And seyde, 'what amounteth al this fare?' 

Custance answerde, ' sire, it is Cristes might s?' 

That helpeth folk out of the feendes snare.' 

And so ferforth she gan our lay declare, 

That she the constable, or that it were cue, 

Conuerted *, and on Crist made * him bileue. 

■ E. oldc ; Hitl. old ; bid Ai ml blynde or blynd. 

' Hatl. Conuerted ; Camb. Conuertid ; tht risl Conueilelh. 

< £. makctb ; Laoid. miad ; Ikf rtsl aaie. 



This constable was no-thing lord of this place 575 

Of which I speke, ther he Cuatance fond. 

But kepte it strongly, nany wintres space, 

Vnder Alia, king of al Northumberlond, 

That was ful wys, and worthy of his hond 

Agayn the Scottes, as men may wel here, s8o 

But tume I wol agayn to my matere. 

Salhan, that euer vs waileth to bigyle, 

Sey of Custance al hir perfeccioun, 

And caste anon how he myghte quyte hir whyle, 

And made a yong knyght, that dwelte in that toun, 585 

Loue hir so hote of foul affeccioun, 

That verraily him thoughte he shulde spille 

But he of hir myghte ones haue his wille. 

He woweth fair, but it auailleth nought. 

She wolde do no sinne, by no weye ; j9o 

And, for despit, he compassed in his thought 

To maken hir on shamful deth to deye. 

He wayteth whan the constable was aweye, 

And priuely, vp-on a nyght, he crepte 

In Hennenglldes chambre whyl she slepie. 595 

Wery, for-waked in her orisouns, 

Slepeth Custance, and Hermengild also. 

This knj^ht, thu^h Sathanas ' temptaciouns, 

Al softely is to the bed ygo, 

And kitte the throte of Hermengild alwo, 600 

And leyde the blody knyf by dame Custance, 

And wente his weye, ther god yeue him meschance ! 

< £. and Heng. Sathins ; Hail. Salinu ; bul S>(hui» in Corp.. Fetw., 
td Lansd. 



Sone after comth this constable hoom agayn, 

And eek Alk, that king was of that lond, 

And sey his wyf despitously yslayn, 60s 

For which ful ofte he weep* and wrong his hond. 

And in the bed the blody knyf he fond 

By dame Custance ; alias I what myghte she seye i 

For verray wo hir wit was al aweye. 

To king Alia was told al this nieschance, 610 

And eek the tyme, and wher, and in what wyse 

That in a ship was founden dame Custance, 

As her-biforo that ye han herd deuyse. 

The kinges herte of pitee gan agryse. 

Whan he sey so benigne a creatnre £15 

Falle in disese and in misauenture. 

For as the lomb toward his deth is brought, 

So slant this Innocent bifoie the king \ 

This false knyght that hath this tresoun wrought 

Berth' hir on hond that she hath doon this thing. 6>o 

But natheles, ther was gret mooming • 

Among the peple, and seyn, ' they can not gesse 

That she hath doon so gret a wikkednesse. 

For they han se)Ti hir euer so vertuous, 

And louing Hennengild lyght as her lyf.' 6ij 

Of this bar witnesse euerich in that bous 

Saue he that Hennengild slow with his knyf. 

This gentil king hath caught a gret motyf 

Of this witnesse, and thoughle he wolde enquere 

Depper in this, a Crewthe for to lere. 630 

' E. Ha. weep or weep* ; Camb. Corp. Petw. wepte. 
SoinF.; Ihl ml Bejelb. • So an ; seinoU to I. 348. 


Alias I Custance I thou hast no champioun 

Ne fyghte canstow nought, so weylawey I 

But he, that starf for our redempcioun 

And bond Sathan (and yit lyth Iher he lay) 

So be thy stronge champioun this day I 635 

For, but-if crist open miracle kythe, 

Witbouten gilt thou shalt be slayn as swythe. 

She sette* her doun on knees, and thus she sayde, 
' Immortal god, that sauedest Susanne 
Fro false blame, and thow, merciful mayde, 640 

Mary I mene, doughter to Seint Anne, 
Bifore whos child aungeles singe Osanne, 
If I be giltlees of this felonye, 
- My socouT be, for * elles I shal dye !' 

Haue ye not seyn som tyme a pale face, 645 

Among a prees, of him that hath be lad 
Toward his deth, wher as him gat no grace, 
And swicb a colour in his face hath had, 
Men myghte knowe his face, that was bistad, 
Amonges alle the faces in that route : 6jo 

So stant Custance, and looketh her aboute. 

O queenes, lyuinge in prosperitee, 

Duchesses, and ladyes euerichone, 

Haueth som rewthe on hir aduersitee ; 

An emperoures doughter stant allone ; €5; 

She hath no wight to whom to make hir mone. 

O blood roial I that sCondest in this drede, 

Fer ben thy frendes at thy grete nede 1 

' E. sit ; Heng. Cimb. Pelw. selte. 
• E. or i Iki rest for, 


This Alia king hath swich compassioun, 

As gentil herte is fulfild of pitee, 660 

That from his y(in ran the water doun. 

' Now hastily do fecche a book,' quod he, 

' And if this knyght wol sweren how that sjipj-;^ ^ 

This womman slow, yet wole we vs auyse ■ ■ 

Whom that we wole that shal ben our lustyse.' 66s 

A Briton book, writen with Euangyles, ■' ' 

Was fet, and on this book he swor anoon 

She gilty was, and in the mene whyles 

A hand him smot vpon the nekke-boon, 

That doun he fd atones as a stoon, 670 

And both his yfin braste out of his fece 

In sight of euery body in that place. 

A voys was herd in generaf^audi^ce, , ' ■ 
And seyde, ' thou hast disclaiKclered giltelees 
The doughter of holy chirche in hey presence ; 
Thus hastou doon, and yet holde I my pees.' 
Of this meruaille agast was al the prees ; 
As mased folk they stoden euerichone, 
For drede of wreche, aaue Cuslance allone. 

Gret was the drede and eek the repentance i 

Of hem that hadden wrong suspeccioun 

Vpon this sely innocent Custance ; 

And, for this miracle, in conclusioun. 

And by Custancea mediacioun. 

The king, and many another in that place, < 

Conuerted was, thanked be cristes grace 1 



This false knyght was slayn for his vntrewthe 

By lugement of Alia hastily ; 

And yet Custance hadde of hts dethe gret rewthe. 

And after this lesus, of his mercy, 690 

Made Alia wedden ful solempnely 

This holy mayden, that is so bright and sheene. 

And thus hath Crist ymaad Custance a queene. 

But who was woful, if I shal nat ]ye, 

Of this wedding but Donegild, and na mo, 695 

The kinges moder, ful of tirannye f 

Hir thoughte hir cursed herte brast atwo ; 

She wolde noagj^t hir sone had do so ; 

Hir'thoughte a despk, mat he sholde take 

So strange a creature vn-to hi; v\a\p. ;oo 

Me list nat of the chaf nor ^ of the stree 

Maken so long a tale, as of the corn. 

What sholde I tellen of the roialtee 

At mariage", or which cours goth biforn. 

Who bloweth in a ' trompe or in an horn ? 705 

The fruyt of euery tale is for to seye ; 

They ete, and drinke, and daunce, and singe, and pleye. 

\lCi»g AUa is called awe^ to Scotland, to figkt against enemies ; 
he leaves Constance in the care of his Constable^ 

' E, Hr. mariagej ; Ln. {w mariige; l/u resi nuriage. 
' E. ttwi Hn. Ft. omil; Ihe rest a. 


The tyme is come, a knaue child she ber ; 

Mauricius at the fonttWen they him calle ; 

This Constable doth forth come a messager, 

And wroot vn-to his king, that cleped was Alle, 71 

How that this blisful tvdJng is Walk^ ^ ,^a , 

And othere tydings speedl'uT for to -^ye ; 

He taketh the lettre, and forth he goth his weye. 

Vn-to the kinges moder rydeth swythe, 

And salueth hir ful fayre in his langage, 

' Madame,' quod he, ' ye may be glad and Wythe, 

And tbanke ' god an hundred thousand sythe ; 

My lady queen hath child, with-outen doute. 

To loye and blisse of* al this regne aboute. 

Lo, heer the lettres seled of this thing, 
That I root bere with al the haste I may ; 
If ye wol ought vn-to your sone the king, 
I am your seruant, bothe nyght and day.' 
Donegild answerde, ' as now at this tym, nay ; 
But heer al nyght I wol thou take thy reste, 
Tomorwe wol I sey thee what me leste.' 

This messager drank sadly ale and wyn, 
And stolen were his lettres priuyly 
Out of his box, whyl he sleep as a swyn ; 
And countrefeted was ful subtilly 
Another lettre, vrought ful sinfully, 
Vn-to the king direct of this materc 
Fro his ConsUble, as ye shul after htte. 



The lettre spak, ' the queen deliuered was 
Of so horrible a feendly creature, 
That in the caste! noon so hardy was 
That any whyle dorste ther endure. 
The moder was an elf, by auenlure 
Ycome, by charmes or by sorceiye. 
And euery wyght ' hateth hir companye.' 

Wo was this king whan he this lettre had seyn, 
But to no wyghte he tolde his sorwes sore. 
But of his Owen honde^he wroot agayn, 
'Welcome the sonae of crist for "*"" 

To me, that am'now lemed in his lore ; 
Lord, welcom be thy lust and thy plesaunce. 
My lust I putte al in thyn ordinaunce I 

Kepeth this child, al be it foul or fayr, 
And eek my wyf, vn-to myn hoom-cominge ; 
Crist, whan him list, may sende me an heyr 
More agreable than this to my lykinge.' 
This lettre he seleth, priuely wepinge, , ^ 
Which to the messager was take sone, ' 

And forth he goth ; ther is no more to done. 

O messager, fiilfild of dronkenesse, J 

Strong is thy breeth, thy lymes fallren ay, ; 
And thou biwKvejt, alle secrenesse. 
Thy mynd is lorii.'thou langlest as a lay,' 
Thy face is turned in a newe array ! 
Ther dronkenesse regneth in any route, 
Ther is no conseil hid, with-outen doute. 

it wyght. 



Donegtld, I ne haue noon english digne 
Vn-to thy malice and thy tirannye ! 
And therfor to the fende I thee resigne, 781 

Let him eodyten of thy trailtijye I 
^" Fy, mannish, fyl o nay, ^parfayl, I lye, 

Tyj/undly spirit, for I dar wel telle, 1 

Though thou heer waike, thy spirit ia in helle I / 

This messE^er comth fro the king agayn, 18; 

And at the kinges modres court he lyghte^^ \ 

And she was of this messager fiil fa^n, Q '-■*" 

And plesed him in al that euer she myghte..^ 1 1 

He drank, and wel his girdel vnderpyghte. '^ '"j 

He slepeth, and he snoreth in his gyse 791 

Al nyght, vn-til ' the sonne gan aryse. 

• Eft were his lettres stolen euerichon 
And countrefeted lettres in this wyse ; 
' The king comandeth his Constable anon, 
Vp peyne of hanging and of hey luyse, 79; 

That he ne scholde sufTren m no wyse 
Custance in-with his regne for tabyde 
Thre dayes and a quarter of a tyde ; 

But in the same ship as he hir fond 

Hir and bir yonge son, and al hir gere, Hoi 

He sholde putte, and croude hir fro the lend, 

And charge hir that she neuer eft com there.' 

O my Custance, wel may thy gost haue fere 

And sleping in thy dreem been in penance. 

When Donegild caste al this ordinance! 8oj 



This messager on morwe, whan he wook, 
Vn-to the castel halt the nezte wey. 
And to the Constable he the lettre took; 
And whan that he this pitous lettre sey, 
Ful ofte he seyde ' alias I' and 'weylaweyl' 810 

^ ' Lord crist,' quod he, ' how may this world endure ? ^ 
So ful of sinne is many a creature I / ,^ -r 

O myghty god, if that it be thy wille, c ' 

Sith thou art ryghtful luge, how may it be 

That thou wott suffren Innocents to spille, 8i£ 

And wikked folk regne in prosperite? 

O good distance, alias I so wo is me 

That I mot be thy tormentour, or deye . 

On shames ' deeth ; ther is noon other weye !' } 

Wepen both yonge and olde in al that place, 810 

Whan that the king this cursed lettre sente, 

And Custance, with a deedly pale face, 

The ferthe day toward hir * ship she wente. 

But natheles she taketh in good entente 

The wille of Crist, and, kneling on the stronde, 8*5 

She seyde, ' lord I ay wel-com be thy sonde I ^ ■ ■' 

^ He that me kepte fro the false blame 
1 Whyl I was on the londe amonges yow, 

He can me kepe from harme and eek fro shame 

In salte see, al-though I se nat how. 830 

As strong as euer he was, he is yet now. 

In him triste I, and in his moder dere, 

That is to me my seyl and eek my stere.' 

' Sa aU bui HI., alUti hat Kbamful. * E. Ln. Ihei Iht r«st bir. 



Hir litel child lay weping in hir arm, 

And kneling, pitously to him she seyde, 655 

' Pees, litel sone, I wol do thee noon harm.' . ^ ^/-"'' 

With that hir kerchef ' of* hir heed she breyde. 

And ouer his litel ySa she it leyde ; 

And in hir ann she lulleth it ful faste, 

And in-to heuen hir yfin vp she caste, B40 

' Moder,' quod she, ' and mayde bright, Marye^- , ' "^ 

Soth is that thurgh womannes eggement '■ 

Mankynd was lom and damned ay to dye, 

For which thy child was on a croys yrent ; 

Thy blisftil y6n seye al his torment; 845 

Than is ther no cemparisoun bitwene 

Thy wo and any wo man may sustene. 

Thou sey Ihy child yslayn bifor thyn yfin. 

And yet now lyueth my litel ' child, parfay 1 

Now, lady bryght, to whom alle wofiil cry6n, Bjo 

Thou glorie of wommanhede, thou fayre may, 

Thou hauen of refut, bryghte sterre of day, 

Rewe on my child, that of thy gentillesse 

Rewest on euery rewful in distresse I 

litel child, alias I what is thy gilt, 855 

That neuer wroughtest sinne as yet, parde, 

Why wil thyn harde fader han thee spilt f 

O mercy, dere Constable 1' quod she ; 

' As lat my lilel child dwelle beer with thee ; 

And if thou darst not sauen him, for blame, 860 

So* kishim ones in his fadres name I' 

' Ln. HI. kercher; Pt kterchef; E. Ho, eouerchief; Cm. couerchif; 
Cp. coaerchcf. 
" E. Uii. Cm. outr (unvngly) ; the nd of. 
' E. Ln. em. Utdi durniUvil. < £. Veij ttirMSo. 



Ther-with she loketh' bakward to the londe, 

And seyde, ' far-wel, housbond rewthelees !' 

And vp she list, and walketh doun the stronde 

Toward the ship ; hir folweth al the prees, \ 86j 

And euer she preyeth hir child to holde his pees ; 1 

And taketh hir leue, and with an holy entente >' 

She blisseth hir; and in-to ship she wente. 

Vitailled was the ship, it is no drede, 

Habundantly for hii Tul longe space, Sj^o 

And other necessariesjhatfiholde nede < , 

She hadde ynoudK^efie'd' t>e goddes grace 1 . ' ' 

For wynd and weder almyghty god purchace 

And bringe hir hoomt I can no bettre seye; 

But in the see she dryueth forth hir weye. 875 

Explicit secunda pars. Sequitur pars krcia. 
Alia the king comih hoom, sone after this, 
Vnto bis castel of the which I tolde, 
And axeth wher his wyf and his child is. 
The Constable gan aboute his herte colde, 
And pleynly al the maner he him tolde 880 

As ye han herd, I can telle it no bettre. 
And sheweth the king his seel and [eek] ' his lettre. 
And seyde, 'lord, as ye comaunded me 
Vp peyne of deeth, so haue I doon certeyn.' 
This meaner ^nnented was ^ he 885 

Moste^knowe and tellcn, plat and pleyn, 
Fro nyght to nyght, in what place he had leyn. 
And thus, by wit and subtil enqueringe, 
Ym^ned was by whom this harm gan springe. 




The bond was knowe that the leltre wroot, 85 

And al the venim of this cursed dede, 

But in what wyse certeynly I noot. 

Theffect is this, that Alia, out of drede. 

His moder slow, that men may pleynly rede, 

For that she traylour was to hir ligeaunce. J 8; 

Thus endeth olde Donegild with meschaunce. 

The sonve that this Alia nyght and day 

Maketh for his wyf and for his child also, 

Ther is no tonge that it telle may. 

But now wol I vn-to Custance go, 9 

That fleteth in the see, in peyne and wo, 

Fyue yeer and more, as lyked cristes sonde, 

£r that hir ship approched vn-to * londe. 

Vnder an hethen Castel, atte laste. 

Of which the name in my text nought I fynde, 9 

Custance and eek hir child the see vp-caste. 

Almighty god, that saueth * al mankynde 

Haue on distance and on hir child som mynde, 

That fallen is in helhen land efl-sone. 

In point to spiUe, as I shal telle yow sone. 9 

Doun from the Caste! comth ther many a wyght 

To gauren on this ship and on Custance. 

But shortly, from the Castel on a nyght 

The lordes styward— _god yeue him meschaunoe I — • 

A theef, that had reneyed our creaunce, --'■ 9 

Com in-to * ship alione, and seyde he sholde 

Hir lemman be, wher-so she wolde or nolde. 



[TAe i/t>ry relaies thai, by Gois grace, the thief fell 
overboard and was drowned.'] 

How may this wayke womman han ihis stre^glhe 

Hir to defende agayn this renegat? ■ , ■ ■ ' ^ 

O Golias, vnmesurabk of lengthe, 1 f ' 

How myghte Dauid make thee so mat, *^ 5 

So yong and of annure so desolat P 

How dorste he loke vp-on thy dredful face? 

Wei may men seen it nas ' but goddes grace I 

Who yaf ludith corage or hardinesse 

To sleen him, Olofemus*, in his tente, g 

And to dcliueren out of wrecchednesse ^ ' 

The peple of god ? I seye for this entente, v. ■ 

That ryght aa god spirit of vigour sente 

To hem, and saued hem out of meschance, 

So sente he mj^ht and vigour to Custance. 9 

Forth goth hir ship thurgh-out the narwe tpouth I 

Of lubaltar and Septe, dryuing alway', i " 

Som-lyme WesCSid som-tym North and South, 

And som-tyme Est, ful many a wery day. 

Til cristes moder (blessed be she ay I) 9 

Hath shapen, thurgh hir endeles goodnesse, 

To make an ende of al hir heuinesse. 

> 5oE.Bl.; Ln.ii; iht resi f/it. 

■ E. Oloferne; HI. OUremei; lit rest Olornnat, Oteremm, or Otes> 

* E. alwiy i but lie rtil >y. Tht laltir woalii h* betltr, but it hardly 
aJmisiiblt on accaimt (/ ilt Itrmiiiaiiiig 1. 950. 



Now lat vs stinte of Custance but a throve, 

And speke we of the Romayn Emperour, 

That out of Surrye hath by lettres knowe 955 

The slaughtre of cristen folk, and dishonour 

Don to his daughter by a fals traytour, 

I mene the cursed wikked sowdanesse. 

That at the feste leet sleen both more and lesse. 

For which this emperour hath sent anoon 960 

His senatour, with roial ordinance, 

And olhere lordes, got wot, many oon, 

On Suiryens to taken hey vengeance. 

They brennen, sleen, and bringe hem to meschance 

Ful many a day ; but shortly, this is thende, 965 

Homward to Rome thei shapen hem to wende. 

This senatour repureth with victorie 

To Romeward, saylin^ ful roially, 

And mette the ship diyuing, as seith the storie. 

In which Custance sit lul pitously. 970 

No-thing ne ' knew he what she was, ne why 

She was in swich array ; ne she nil seye 

Of hir estaat, although * she sholde deye. 

He bringeth hir to Rome, and to his wyf 

He yaf hir, and hir yonge sone also ; 975 

And with the senatom' she ladde her lyf. 

Thus can our lady bringen out of wo 

Wofiil Custance, and many another mo. 

And longe tyme dwelled she in that place, 

In holy werkes euer, as was hir grace. 9E0 



The senaloures wyf hir aunle was, 

But for al that she knew hir neuer the more ; 

I wol no lenger tarien in this cas, 

But to king Alia, vbicb I spak of yore, 

That for his wyf wepeth ^ and syketh sore, 

I wol retoume, and lete I wol Custance 

Vnder the senatoures gouemance. 

King Alia, which that hadde his moder slayn, 
Vpon a day fil in swich repentance, 
That, if I shortly tellen ahaJ and playn. 
To Rome he comlh, to receyuen his penance 
And putte him in the popes ordinance 
In hey and low, and lesu Crist bisoughte 
Foiyeue his wikked werkes that he wroughte. 

The fame anon through Rome toun ' is born, 

Hoff Alb king shal come in pilgrimage, 

By'herDergeours'tfiat wenten him biforn; 

For which the senatour, as was vsage. 

Rood him agayn, and many of his linage. 

As wel to shewen his hey magnificence i 

As to don any king a if euerence. 

Greet chere doth this noble senatour 

To king Alia, and he to him also ; 

Euerich of hem doth other greet honour; 

And so bifel that, in a day or two, i 

This senatour is to king Alia go 

To feste, and shortly, if I shal nat lye, 

Custances sone wente in his companye. 



Som men wolde seyn, at requestc of Custance, 

This senatour hath lad this child to feste; ioi< 

I may nat tellen euery circumstance, 

Be as be may, ther was he at the leste. 

But soth is this, that, at his modres heste, 

fiifom Alia, during the metes space, 

The child stood, loking in the kinges face. loi, 

This Alia king hath of this child greet wonder, 

And to the senatour he seyde anon, 

' Whos is that fayre child that stondeth yonder?' 

'I noot,' quod he, '[parfay], and by seint John) 

A moder he hath, but fader hath he non , ion 

That I of wot' — but shortly, in a stoundCj 

He told Alia how that this child was founde. 

Now was this child as lyk vn-to Custance 1030 

As possible is a creature to be. 

This Alia hath the face in remembrance 

Of dame Custance, and ther- on mused he 

If that the childes moder were aught she 

That was his wyf, and priuely he syghte, 1035 

And spedde him fro the table that he myghte, 

' Parfey,' thoughte he, [fantom e is in my heed 1 

I oughte deme, of skilful lugement. 

That in the salie see my wyf is deed.' 

And afterward he made his argument — lo^a 

' What wot I, if that Crist haue ' hider ysent * 

My wyf by see, as wel as he hir sente 

To my contree fro thennes that she wente !' 

■ E. hane j iki rtst bath. ■ E. yscnt ; Cm. I-kM ; llu ncl teat. 




And, after noon, hoom with the senatour 0/^y •■ " 
Goth Alia, for to seen this wonder chaunce . 1045 

This senatoiir doth Alia greet honour. 
And hastily » he sente after Custaunce. 
But tnisteth wel, hir liste nat to daunce 
Whan that she wiste wherefor was that sonde. 
V pneth e vp-on hir feet she myghte stonde. 1050 


'/■' Whan Alia sey his wyf, fayre he hir grette, 
y'> And weep, that it was rewthe for to see. 
For at the firste look he on hir sette 
He knew wel verraily that it was she. 
And she for sorwe as domb slant as a tre ; 1055 

So was hir herte shet in hir distresse 
Whan she remembted his vnkyndenesse. 

Twyes she swowned in his owen syghte ; . 
He weep, and him excuseth pitously : — _ . 

go^,' quod he, 'and alle* his halwes bryghle 1060 
visly on ,my soule as haue mercy, 
That of your harm as giltelees am I 
As is Maurice my sone so lyk your face ; 
Elles the feend me fecche out of this place I ' 

Long was the sobbing and the bitter peyne i;^5 

Er that her woful hertes myghte cesse ; t . ■ ■ ■ 

Greet was the pite for to here hem pleyne *- * 

Thiugh whiche pleyntes gan her wo encresse. 

I prey yow al my labour to relesse ; 

I may nat telle her wo vn-til tomorwe, io;o 

I am so wery for to speke of sorwe. 



But fynally, when that the solh is wist 
That Alia giltelees was of hir wo, 
I trowe an hundred tymes been ' ihey kist. 
And swich a blisse is ther bitwix hem two lo; 

That, gaue the loye that lasteth eiiemio, 
Ther is noon lyk that any creature 
^ \ Hath seyn or shal, whyl that the world may dure. 

Tho preyde she hir housbond mekely, 

In relief of hir longe pttous pyne, io8 

That he wold preye hir fader specially 

That, of his m^estee, he wolde enclyne 

To vouche sauFsom day with him to dyne; 

She preyde him eek, he sholde ' by no weyc 

Vn-to hir fader no word of hir scye. 108 

Doth this message vn-to this emperour; 

But, as I gesse, Alia was nat so nyce , *" ' 

To him, that was of so souereyn honour 

As- he that is of cristen folk the flour, 1090 

Sente 3Jiy child, but it is bet to deme \..\ 

He wente him-selT, and so it maj lyel seme.^ . .~ ! 

This emperour hath gra'unted gentilly - '■" 

To come to dyner, as be him bisougbte ; 

And wel rede I, he loked bisily 1095 

Vp-on this child, and on his daughter thoughte. 

Alia goth to his in, and, as bim oughte, 

Arrayed for this feste in euery wyse 

As ferforth as his conning may suffyse. 

' So in all tlu snn JUSS. • E. wolde; lAt ril .holJe. 



The morwe cam, and Alia gan him dresse, 1100 

And eek his nyf, this emperour to mete ; 

And forth they ryde in loye and in gladnesse. 

And vhan she sey hir fader in the Strete, 

She lyghte doun, and falleth him to fete. 

' Fader,' qood she, ' your yonge child Custance 1 103 

Is now fill clene out of your lemembrance. 

I am your doughter Custance',' quod she, 

' That whylom ye han sent vn-to Surrye. 

It am I, fader, that in the salte see 

Was put allone and dampned for to dye. mo 

Now, good fader, mercy I yow crye, 

Send me namore vn-to noon hethenesse, 

But thonketh my lord heer of his kyndenesse.' 

Who can the pitous loye telle n al 

Bitwix hem thre, sin they ben thus ymette? 1115 

But of my tale make an ende I shal ; 

The day goth faste, I wol no lenger lette. 

This glade folk to dyner they hem sette ; 

In loye and blisse at mete I lete hem dwelle 

A thousand fold wel more than I can telle. itio 

This child Maurice was fithen emperour 

Maad by the pope, and lyued cristenly. 

To Crisles chirche he dide gret honour ; 

But I lete al his storie passen by, 

Of Custance is my tale speciaJly. lus 

In olde Romayn gestes may men lynde 

Maurices lyf ; I here it nought in mynde. 

SobtaUUu MSS. ; to hi rtad as Cditanca (ihrit yllaUn). Su llu uott. 
D 2 



This king Alia, whan he his lyme sey. 

With his Custance, his holy wyf so swele, 

To Engelond ben they come the ryghte wey, 1130 

Wher-as they lyue in loye and in quiete. 

But litel whyl it lasteth, I yow hete, 

loye of this world, for tjone wol nat abyde ; 

Fro day to nyght it changeth as the tyde. 

Who lyued euer in swich delyt day 1135 

That him ne moeued other conscience, 

Or Ire, or talent, or som kin ' affray, 

Envie, or pryde, or passion, or offence ? 

I ne sey but for this ende this sentence. 

That lilel whyl in loye or in plesance 1140 

LaGteth the blisse of Alia with Custance. 

For deth, that taketh of hey and low his rente, 

Whan passed was a yeer, euen as I gesse. 

Out of this world this king Alia he hente, 

For whom Custance hath ful gret heuynesse. 1145 

Now lat vs preyen ' god his soule blesse I 

And dame Custance, fynally to seye. 

Towards the toun of Rome goth hir weye. ' 

To Rome is come this holy creature. 

And fyndeth ther * hir frendes bole and sounde ; i tjo 

Now is she scaped al hir auenture ; 

And whan that she hir fader hadi yfounde, 

Doim on hir kne€s falleth she to grounde ; 

Weping for tendrenesse in hcrte blythe, 

She herieth god an hundred thousand sythe. 1155 

> £, lom kjnnei ; Cm. iumkni;t ; HI. lam manci ; Ha. Cp. Ft. lom kjn ; 

* E. praje to; HI. pray (hat 
■ Su^Udfrom HI. Tki n 



In vertu and in holy almes-dede 

They lyuen alle, and neuer a-sonder wende; 

Til deth depaOed hem, this lyf they lede. 

And fareth now wel, my tale is at an ende. 

Now lesu Crist, that of his myght may sende ii6e 

loye after wo, gouerae vs in his grace. 

And kepe vs alle that, ben in this place I Amen. 

Heere endeth the tale of the man of Lawe. 

[Here/ol/owt The Shipman's Prologue {miscalled in mast MSS. 
The Squire's Prologue), U, 1163-1190; printed in 'The Prioresses 
Tale, &C., ed. Skeat, p. 6. See that wlume/er an aeeouat a/ the 
rest ^Group B,] 



[Group C iesint tuitb The Phisiciens (or Doctor's) Tale, 

IL 1-186. jifier lubicb there folloiui—^ 

The wordes of the Hoost to the Phisioien and the 

Our hoste gan to swere as he were wood, 

' Harrow ! ' quod he, ' by nayles and by blood, 

This was a fals cherl and a fals lustise I 

As shamful deeth as herte may deuyse 190 

Come to thise luges * and her aduocats I 

Algate this sely mayde is slayn, alias 1 ' 

Alias I to dere boughte she beautee I 

Wherfor I seye al day, as men may see, 

That yiftes of fortune or ' of nature »9S 

Been cause of deeth to ' many a creature. 

Hir beautee was hir deeth, I dar wel sayn ; 

Alias i so pitousiy as she was slayn 1 * 

Of bothe yiftes that I speke of now 

Men han ful ofte more harm* than prow. 300 

' E. lake lugei ; bul no olJter MS. inserU falie. 

■ Li'his 191, 39], sUnd thus in E, Wa. Cm. Pt.; bul Cp. Am— So &llc 
rpod bii body and hit bona The dcojl I bekennc bim al at onei ; u also 
Ln. HI. 

■ E. Hn. ind; Iht risl or. 
* So E. Hu. ; Ikl rtsi of, 

' So Cp. Lo. HI. ; E. Hn, Cm. Pt. omi'/ H. »97, J98, 
Z. Hn. for barm ; ihi rtsI omit foi. HI. ormU 11. 199, 300. 

■ OO^^If 


But trewely, myn owen mayster dere, 
This is a pitous tale for to here. 
But natheles, passe ouer, is' no Tors ; 
I prey to god, so saue thy gentil cors, 


Thyn Ypocras, and eek thy Galianes, 

And euery boist ful of thy letuarie ; 

God blesse hem, and our lady seinte Marie I 

So mot I theen, thou art a propre man, 

And lyk a prelat, by seint Ronyan ! 310 

Seyde I nat wel ? I can nal speke in terme ; 

But wel I wot, ihou dost my herle to erme, 

That I almost haue caught a cardiacle. 

By corpus bones! but I haue triacle, 

Or elles a draught of moyste and corny ale, 31s 

Or but I here anon a meiy tale, 

Myn herte is lost for pUee of this mayde. 

Thou bel amy, thou pardoner,' he seyde, 

'Tel vs som mirthe or Tapes ryght anon.' 

' It shall be doon,' quod he, ' by seint Ronyon 1 310 

But first,* quod he, 'heer at this ale-stake 

I wol both drinke, and eten of a cake.' 

But ' ryght anon thise gentils gonne to crye, 

' Nay I lat him telle vs of no ribaudye ' ; 

Tel vs som moral thing, that we may lere 315 

Som wit, and thanne wol we gladly here.' 

' I graunte, ywis,' quod he, ' but I mot ihinke ' 

Vp-on som honest thing, whyl that I drinke. 

' HI. Ibii U ; Iht rat omil thii. 

' E. Hd. And ; lit nal Bm. 

* E. Hn. Cp. HI. tibaodyc ; Ln. rebaadie ; Cm. lAxaiijc ; Pi. rybandijc, 

■ For U. 316, 337, HI. Am— OUdly, quod he, and sayde a> ye ichal bccre. 

It ia the cuppe wil I me bethlnkc 



Heere folveth the Frologe of the Pardoners Tale, 
Radix malorum ai Cupiditas: Ad Thimotheum, sexto. 
Lordings,' quod he, ' in chJrches whan I preche, 
I peyne me to han an hauteyn speche, m< 

And rings it out as round as goth a belle, 
For I can al bj- rote that I telle. 
My theme is alwey oon, and euer was — 
" Radix malorum est Cupiditas!' 

First I pronounce whennes that I cotne, 331 

And than my bulles shewe I, alle and somme. 
Our lige lordes seel on my patente 
That shewe I first, my body to warente. 
That no man be so bold, ne preest ne clerk. 
Me to destourbc of Cristes holy werk ; 34< 

And after that than telle I forth my tales, 
Bulles of popes and of cardinales. 
Of patriarkes, and bishoppes I shewe ; 
And in Latyn I speke a wordes few^ 
To saffron with my predicacioun, ZM 

And for to stire men ' to deuocioun. 
Than shewe I forth my longe cristal stones, 
Ycrammed ful of cloutes and of bones ; 
Reliks been they, as wenen they echoon. 
Than haue I* in latoun a shoulder-boon 351 

Which that was of an holy lewes shepe. 
' Good men,' seye I,' ' tak of my wordes kepe ; 
If that this boon be wasshe in any welle. 
If cow, or calf, or sheep, or oxe swelle 
That any worm hath ete, or worm ystonge, 35, 

Tak water of that welle, and wash his tonge, 

' E. Hn. HI. hem ; ilu rtil men. ' E. omis I iy accidml. 

' E. Hn. I seye ; tif rtsl 117 I, laie I. 


OROUP C. THE pardoner's PROLOGUE. 41 

And it is hool anon ; and fortliermore, 

Of pokkes and of scabbe, and euery sore 

Shai euery sheep be hool, that of diis welle 

Drinketh a draughie ; tak kepe tek what I telle. 360 

If that the good-man, that the bestes oweth, 

Wol every wike, er that the cok him croweth, 

Fastinge, drinken of this welle a draughte. 

As thilke holy lewe our eldres taughte, 

His bestes and his stoor shal multiplye. 365 

And, sirs ^, also it heleth lalousye ; 

For, though a man be falle in lalous rage, 

Let maken with this water his potage. 

And neuer shal he more his wyfe mistriste, 

Though he the soth of hir defaute wiste. 370 

Heer is a miteyn eek, that ye may see. 
He that his hond wol putte in this miteyn. 
He shal haue multiplying of bis greyn, 
Whan he hath sowen, be it whete or otes. 
So that he offre pens, or elles grotcs. 

Good * men and wommen, o thing warne I yow. 
If any wight be in this chirche now, 
That hath doon sinne horrible, that he 
Dar nat, for shame, of it yshriuen be, 

Swich folk shul haue no power ne no grace 
To offren to my reliks in this place. 
And who so fyndeth him out of swich blame *, 
He * wol com vp and offre in ' goddes name, 

■ E. Hn, lire; ikt rtst litn, tin 
• E. fame ; llu rtst blame. 
' E. m ; H(i. i ; ilu rtst in. 


42 GROUP C, THE pardoner's PROLOGUE. 

And I assoille him * by the auctorilee 
Which that by bulle ygraunted was to me.' 

By this gaude haue I wonne, yeer by yere, 
An hundred mark sith I was Pardonere. 
I Etonde lyk a clerk in my puipet, 
And whan the lewed peple is doun yset, 
I preche, so as ye haue herd bifore, 
And telle an hundred False lapes more, 
than peyne I me lo strecche forth the nekke, 
And est and west vpon the peple I bekke, 
As doth a dowue sitting on a beme. 
Myn hondes and my tonge goon so yerne, 
That it is loye to se my bisynesse. 
Of auaiice and of swich cuisednesse 
Is al my preching, for to make hem fre 
-^To yeue her pens, and namely vn-to me. 

For my entent is nat but for to winne, 
N^And no-thing for correccioun of sinoe^^-^ 
I rekke neuer; whan that ' they ben beryed. 
Though that her soules goon a blakeberyed I 
For certes, many a predicacioun 
Comth ofte tyme of yuel entencioun; 
Som for plesatmce of folk and flaterye, 
To been auaunced by ypocrisye. 
And som for veyne glorie, and som for hate. ^ 
For, whan I dar noon other weyes debate. 
Than wol I stinge him with my tonge smerte 
In preching, so that he shal nat asterle 
To been defamed falsly, if that he 
Hath trespased to my brethren or to me. 
For, though I telle nought his propre name. 
Men shal wel knowe that it is the same 
' E. HI. hem ; Ikt nst him or hym. ■ E. HI. omil thai ; iht nil h 

GROUP C. THE pardoner's FROLOQUE. 43 

By signea and by othere circumstances. 

Thus quyte I folk that doon vs displesances ; 4^0 

Thus spitte I out my venim vnder hewe 

Of holynesse, to seme holy and trewe. 

But shortly myu entente I wol deuyse; 
I preche of no-thing but for coueityse,- 
Therfor my theme is yet, and euer was — 4"5 

" Radix rnalorum est cupidiias" 
Thus can I preche agayn that same vice 
Which that I vse, and that is auarice. 
But, though my-self be gilty in that sinne, 
Yet can I maken other folk to twinne 430 

From auarice, and sore to repenie. 
But that is nat my principal entente. 
I preche no-thing but for coueityse ; 
Of this matere it oughte ynough suEFyse. 

Than telle I hem ensamples many oon 43; 

Of olde stories, longe tyme agoon :. 
For lewed peple louen tales olde ; 
Swich thinges can they wel reporte and holde. 
What ? trowe ye that, whyles ' I may preche. 
And winne gold and siluer for I teche, 440 

That I wol lyue in pouert wilfully ? 
Nay, nay, I thoughle it neuer trewely I 
For I wol preche and begge in sondiy londes; 
I wol not do no labour with my hondes, 
Ne make baskettes, and lyue therby, 445 

Because I wol nat beggen ydelly. 
I wol noon of the aposdes counterfete ; 
I wol haue money, wolle, chese, and whete, 

So Hn. ; E. Pt. the whilei ; Cm. ihit whilif th»t ; Cp. Ln. whllei ihil ; 



Al were it yeuen of the pourest • page. 

Or of the pourest widwe in a village, 45 

Al sholde hir children sterae for famj^e. 

Nayl I wol drinke Lcour of the vyne I 

But herkneth, lordings, in conclusioun ; 

Your lyking is that I shal telle a tale. 45 

Now haue I dronke a draughte of corny ale, 

[Parfay], I hope I shal yow telle a thing 

That shal, by resoun, been at your lyking. 

For, though myself be a ful vicious man, 

A moral tale yet I yow telle can, 46 

Which I am wont to preche, for to winne. 

Now holde your pees, my tale I wol beginne. 

Heere bigynneth the FardonerB tale. 

In Flaundres whylom was a companye 
Of yonge folk, that haunteden folye, 
As ryot, hasard, stewes, and tauemes, 4C 

Wher as, with harpes, lutes, and gitemes. 
They daunce and pleye at dees bothe day and nyght. 
And ete also and drinken ouer her myght, 
Thurgh which they doon the deuel sacrifyse 
Wilh-in that deueles temple, in cursed wyse, 47 

By superfluitee abhominable ; 
Her othes been so gret and so dampnable, 
That it is grisly for to here hem swere ; 
Our blissed lordes body they to-tere ; 
Hem ihoughte lewes ' rente him nought ynough j 47 
And ech of hem at oiheres sinne lough. 

HI. pi-*»t«. 

So Cp. Ln. HI. i E. Hn. Cm, that lewM ; PI. lie Iwet 


And ryght anon than comen tombesteres 

Fe^s and smale, and yonge fruytes teres, 

Singers with harpes [eek, and] wafereres, 

Whiche been the verray deueles ofBceres 480 

To kindle and blowe the fyr of [luxurye], 

That is annexed vn-to glotonye j 

The holy vmt take I to my witnesse. 

That luxurie is in wyn and dionkenesse. 

Herodes (who so wel the stories soughte)*, 
Whan he of wyn was replet at his feste, 
Ryght at his owen table he yaf his heste 490 

To slcen the Baptist John ful giltelees. 

Senek seith eek * a good word doutelees ; 
He seith he can no difference fynde 
Bitwix a man that is out of his mynde 
And a man which that is dronkelewe, 495 

But that woodnesse, yfallen in a shrewe, 
Ferseuereth lenger than doth dronkenesse. 
O glotonye, ful of cursednesse, 
cause first of our confusioun, 
O original of our dampnacioun, joo 

Til Crist had bought vs with his blood agayn ! 
Lo, how dcre, shortly for to sayn, 
Abought was thilke cursed vilanye; 
Corrupt was al this world for glotonye ! 

Adam our fader, and his wyf also, 505 

Fro Paradys to labour and to wo 
Were driuen for that vice, it is no drede ; 
For why] that Adam fasted, as I rede, 

' E. Hn. Cm, Pt. Ml. agret htrt; Cp. Ln. hav timt additional Una, but 
Huy art probably spurious. 
* Cg.l.'a, eek; Iht nU omit il. 



He was in Paradys; and whan that he 

Eet of the fruyt defended on the tree, jio 

Anon he was out cast to wo and peyne. 

glotonye, on thee wel oughte vs pleyne I 
O, wiste a man how many maladyes 
Folwen of excesse and of glotonyes, 

He wolde been the more mesurable 515 

Of his diete, sittings at his table. 

Alias 1 the shorte throte, the tendre mouth, 

Maketh that Est and West, and North and South, 

In erthe, in eir, in water men ' to-swinke 

To gete a glotoun deyntee mete and drinke I sto 

Of this matere, Paul, wel canstow trete, 

' Mete vn-to wombe, and wombe eek vn-to mete, 

Shal god destroyen bothe,' as Faulus seith. 

Alias I a foul thing is it, by my feith, 

To seye this word, and fouler is the dede, 515 

Whan man so drinketh of the whyte and rede. 

That of his throte he maketh his pryuee, 

Thurgh thllke cursed superfluitee. 

The apostel weping seith ful pitously, 
' Ther walken many of whiche yow told haue 1, 530 

1 seye it now weping with pitous voys. 
That thai * been enemys of Cristes croys. 

Of whiche the ende is deth, wombe is her god.' 

How gret labour and cost is thee to fynde 1 5.17 

Thise cokes, how they stampe, and streyne, and grynde, 
And tumen substaunce in-to accident 
To fulfiUe al thy Itkerous talent I 540 

■ E. Ht. man ; Iht rest men. 

' Th»t thai is TjTwhiti'i rtading ; HI. Thij ; but ih* Ttti hovt Ther, 
prebabl^f nptaltd hy miilaitjrmn I. £30, 



Out of the harde bones knolke they 

The maiy, for they caste nought a-wey 

Thatinay go thurgh the golet softe and swole ; 

Of spicerye, of leef, and bark, and rote 

Shal been his sauce ymaked by delyt, 545 

To make him yet a newer appetyt. 

But cerCes, he that haunteth swich delices 

Is deed, whyl that he lyueth in tho vices. 

A [cursed] thing is wyn, and dronkenessc 
Is ful of Stryuing and of wrecchednesse. fjo 

O dronke man, disfigured is thy face, 
Sour is thy breeth, foul artow to embrace, 
And thurgh thy dronke nose senieih the soun 
As though thou seydest ay ' Sampsoun, Sampsoun ' ; 
And yet, god wot, Sampsoun drank neuer no wyn. 555 
Thoii fallest, as it were a stiked swyn. 
Thy tonge is lost, and al thyn honest cure; 
For dronkenesse is verray sepulture 
Of mannes wit and his discrecioun. 
In whom that drinke hath dominacioun, ^iGo 

He can no conseil kepe, it is no drede. 
Now kepe yow fro the whyte and fro the rede, 
And namely fro the whyte wyn of Lepe, 
That is to selle in Fishstrete or in Chepe. 
This wyn of Spayne crepeth subtilly 565 

In otbere wynes, growing faste by. 
Of which iher ryseth swich fumositee. 
That whan a. man hath dronken draughtes thre. 
And weneth that he be at hoom in Chepe, 
He is in Spayne, ryght at the toune of Lepe, 51" 

Nat at the Rochel, ne at Burdeux toun ; 
And thanne wol he seye, ' Sampsoun, Sampsoun.' 



But heikneth, lordings ', o word, I yow preye, 
That alle the souereyn actes, dar I seye, 
Of victories in the olde testament, 
Thurgh verray god, that is omnipotent. 
Were doon in abstinence and in preyere j 
Loketh the Bible, and ther ye may il lere. 

Loke, Attila, the grete conquerour, 
Deyde in his sleep, with shame and dishonour, 
Bledinge ay at his nose in dronkenesse ; 
A capiiayn shoulde lyue in sobrenesse. 
And ouer al this, auyseth yow ryght wel 
What was coraaunded vn-to Lamuel — 
Nat Samuel, but Lamuel, seye I — 
Redeth the Bible, and fynde it expresly 
Of wyn yeuing to hem that han lustise ; 
Namore of this, for it may wel suffise. 

And now that' I haue spoke of glotonye. 
Now wol I yow defenden hasardrye. 
Hasard is verray moder of lesinges. 
And of deceit, and cursed forsweringes, 
Blaspheme ' of Crist, manslaughtre, and wast also 
Of catel and of tyme ; and forthermo, 
It is repreue and contrarie of honour 
For to ben holdc a commune hasardour. 
And euer the heyer he is of estaat. 
The more is he hotden desolaat 
If that a prince vseth hasardrye. 
In alle gouernaunce and poKcye 
He is, as by commune opinoun, 
Yholde the lasse in reputacioun. 

' E. lordei; til risl lotdinges, lordynges, loidjngi. 

• E. Bl. om. that ; the rtsi havi II. 

' E. Blaiphemyng ; lit rest Biuphemi, 



Stilbon, that was a wys embassadour, 
Was sent to Corinthe, in fill greet honour. 
Fro Lacidomie, to make her alliaunce. 6oj 

And whan be cam, him bappede, par chaunce, 
That alle the grettest that were of that lond, 
Fleyinge atte hasard he hem fond. 
For which, as sone as it myghte be. 
He Stal bim boom agayn to his contree, 6i( 

And seyde, ' ther wol I nat lese my name ; 
Ne I* wol nat take on me so great defame, 
Yow for to allye vn-to none hasardours. 
Sendeth som * otbere wyse embassadours ; 
For, by my trouthe, me were leuer dye, Ci; 

Than I yow sholde to hasardours allye. 
For ye that been so glorious in honours 
Shul nat allyen yow with hasardours 
As by my wil, ne as by my tretee.' 
This wyae philosophre thus seyde he. 6k 

Loke eek that to ' the king Demetrius 
The king of Parthes, as the book seith vs, 
Sente him a paire of dees of gold in scorn. 
For he hadde vsed hasard ther-biforn ; 
For which he heeld his glorie or his renoun Ca; 

At no value or reputacioun. 
Lordes may fjnden other maner pley 
Honeste ynough to dryue the day awey. 

Now wol I speke of othes felse and grete 
A word or two, as oJde bokes trete. Cjc 

Gret swering is a thing abhominable. 
And fals swering is yet* more repreuable. 

' Hn.Ny; Cm, Niy (bolh pm /or He I) whiek thitas ikf sciviska. 

' Tyrwbitt inartt lam ; il is not in oar AfSS. 

■ Ha. Cm. Cp. Pt. toj aMck E. Ln. HI. omil. 

' Cp. Ln. HI. om, yet. __ 

VOL. III. Jl D,g,t,zoflb,GoOgle 


The heye god forbad swering at al, 

Witnesse on Mathew ; but in special 

Of swering seith the holy leremye, < 

' Thou shalt seye sooth thyn othes, and nat lye, 

And swere in dome, and eek in ryghtwisnesse;' 

But ydel swering is a cureednesse. 

Bihold and se, that in the firste Ubie 

Of heye goddes hesCes honurable, ( 

How that the seconde heste of him is this — 

' Tak nat my name in ydel or amis.' 

Lo, rather he forbedeth swich swering 

Than homicyde or many a ^ cursed thing ; 

I sey that, as by ordre, thus it stondeth ; < 

This knowen, that his hesCes vnderstondeth. 

How that the second heste of god is that. 

And forthcr ouer, I wol thee telle al plat. 

That vengeance shal nat parten from his hous. 

That of his othes is to outrageous. i 

' By goddes precious herte, and by his nayles. 

And by the blode of Crist, that it is in Hayles, 

Seuen is my chaunce, and thyn is cink and treye ; 

By goddes armes, if thou falsly pleye. 

This dagger shal thurgh-out thyn herte go ' — i 

This fniyt cometh of the bicched ' bones two, 

Forswerii^, ire, falsnesse, homicyde. 

Now, for the loue of Crist that for vs dyde, 

Leueth ' your othes, bothe grete and smale ; 

But, sirs, now wol I telle forth my tale. t 

Thise ryotoures three, of whiche I telle, 
Longe erst er pryme rong of any belle, 

' Hn. Cm. m. many a ; E. »ny ; Cp. P(, Ln. eny other. 

■ SaE, Cp. ; HI. bicchid; Ln. becched ; Hn. Cm.bicche ; Ft. thilk. 
• E. Hn. Lete ; rht rest Leueth, 


Were set hem in a taueme for ' to drinke ; 
And as they satte, they herde a belle clinke 
Bifom a core, was caried to his graue; 665 

That oon of hem gan callen to his knaue, 
'Go bet,' quod he, ' and axe redily, 
■ What core is this that passeth hcer forby ; 
And look that thou reporte his name we).' 

' Sir/ quod this boy, ' it nedeth neueradeL 670 

It was me told er ye cam heer two houres; 
He was, parde, an old felawe of youres; 
And sodeynly he was yslayn to-nyght, 
For-dronke, as he sat on his bench vpryght ; 
Ther cam a priuee theef, men clepeth deetb, 675 

That in this contree al the peple sleeth. 
And with his spere be smoot his herte atwo. 
And wente his wey with-outen wordes mo. 
He hath a thousand slayn this pestilence : 
And, maister, er ye come in his presence, 680 

Me thinketh that it were necessarie 
For to be war of swich an aduersarie : 
Beth redy for to mete him euermore. 
Thus uughte me my dame, I sey namorc.' 
' By seinte Marie,' seyde this tauemer, 685 

' The child seith sooth, for he hath slayn this yeer, 
Henne ouer a myle, with-in a greet village, 
Both man and womman, child and hyne, and page. 
I trowe his habitacioun be there ; 
To been auysed greet wisdom it were, 690 

Er that he dide a man a dishonour.' 
' Ye, goddes armes,' quod this ryotour, 

I Cp. Ft. HI. Cot ; which At rist OHnU 

^ ^ dmhio:^, Google 


' Is it swich peril with him for to mete ? 

I shal him seke by weje and eek hy strete, 

I make auow to goddes digne bones ! i 

Herkneth, felawes, we thre been al ones ; 

Lat ech of vs holde vp his hond til other, 

And ech of vs bicomen otheres brother. 

And we wol sleen this false traytour deeth ; 

He shal be slayn, which that so many slceth, 

By goddes dignitee, er it be nyght' 

Togidres han thise thre her trouthes plyght, 
To lyue and dyen ech of hem for other, 
As though he were his owen yboren ' brother. 
And vp they sterte al' dronken, in this rage, 
And forth they goon towardes that village, 
Of which the tauerner had spoke bifom. 
And many a grisly ooth than han they sworn, 
And Cristes blessed body they to-rente — 
' Deeth shal be deed, if that they may him hente.' 

Whan they han goon nat fully half a myle, 
Ryght as they wolde han troden ouer a style, 
An old man and a poure with hem mette. 
This olde man ful mekely hem grette, 
And seyde thus, ' now, lordes, god yow see I ' 

The proudest of thise ryotoures three 
Answerde agayn, ' what ? carl, with sory grace, 
Why artow al forwrapped saue thy face? 
Why lyuestow so longe in so greet age ?' 

This olde man gan loke in his visage, 
And seyde thus, ' for I ne can nat fynde 
A man, though that I walked in-to Ynde, 
Neither in citee nor in no village, 

' E, ybom ; Hn. jrbore ; Cm. boie ; Ft. bom i Cp. Ln. HI. iwome. 
' Hn. Cp. La. HI. al ; E. Cm. Pt. lod. 


That wolde chaunge his youthe for myn age ; 
And therfore mot I han myn age stille, 
As longe time as it is goddes wille, 

Ne deeth, alias I ne wol nat han my lyf ; 
Thus walke I, lyk a restelees caityf. 
And on the ground, which is my modres gate, 
I knokke with my staf, bothe erly and late, 
And seye, " leue moder, leet me in 1 
Lo, how I vanish, flesh, and blood, and skin ! 
Alias 1 wh^n shul my bones been at reste ? 
Moder, with yow wolde I chaungen my cheste, 
That in my chambre longe tyme hath be. 
Ye I for an heyre clowt to wrappe mel" 
But yet to me she wol nat do that grace, 
For which ful pale and welked is my face. 

But, sirs, to yow it is no curteisye 
To speken lo an old man vilanye, 
But he trespasse in worde, or elles in dede, 
In holy writ ye may your-self wel rede, 
" Agayns an old man, hoor vpon his heed, 
Ye sholde aryse," wherfor I yeue yow reed, 
Ne doth vn-to an old man noon harm now. 
No more than ' ye wolde men dide to yow 
In age, if that ye so longe abyde ; 
And god be with yow, wher ye go or ryde. 
I mot go thider as I haue to go.' 
' Nay, olde cherl, by god, thou shall nat so,' 
Seyde this other hasardour anon, 
' Thou partest nat so lyghtly, by seint lohn 1 
Thou spak ryght now of thiike traitour deeth, 
That in this contree alle our frendes sleeth. 

■ £. Hn. ihan that ; Iht rtH or 



Haue heer my trouthe, as thou art his aspye, 
Tel wher he is, or thou shalt it abye, 
By god, and by the holy sacrament ! 
For soothly thou art oon of his assent, 
To sleen vs yonge folk, thou false theefl ' 
' Now, sirs,' quod he, ' if that yow * be so leef 
To fynde deeth, tume vp this croked wey, 
For in that groue 1 lafte him, by my fey, 
Vnder a tree, and ther he wol abyde ; 
Nat for your host he wol him no-thing hyde. 
Se ye that ook? ryght ther ye shul him fynde. 
God saue yow, that bougbte agayn mankynde. 
And yow amende!' — thus seyde this olde man. 
And euerich of thise ryotoures ran, 
Til he cam to that tree, and ther they founde 
Of florins fyne of golde ycoyned rounde 
Wei ny an eighte busshels, as hem thoughle. 
No lenger thanne after deeth they sougbte. 
But ech of hem so glad was of that syghte. 
For that the florins been so fayre and bryghte. 
That doun they sette hem by this precious hord. 
The worste of hem he spake the firste word. 

' Brethren,' quod he, ' tak kepe what 1 seye ; 
My wit is greet, though that I bourde and pleye. 
This tresor hath fortune vn-to vs yeuen, 
In mirthe and lolitee our lyf to lyuen, 
And lyghtly as it comth, so wol we spende. 
£yl goddes precious dignitee I who wende 
To-day, that we sholde han so fayr a grace? 
But myght this gold be caried fro this place 
Hoom to myn hous, or elles vn-to yoiures — 

' E. Cm. ye ; So. HI. yovi ; Cp. PL La. to jou. 



For wel ye wot thai al this gold is owes — 

Than were we in hey felicitee. 

But trewely, by daye it may nat be; 

Men wolde seyn that we were theues stronge, 

And for our owen tresor doon vs honge. 790 

This tresor moste ycaried be by nyghte 

As wysly and as slyly as it myghte. 

Wherfore I rede thai cut among vs alle 

Be drawe, and lat se wher the cut wol falle ; 

And he that hath the cut with heite biythe ;g£ 

Shal renne to the' toune, and that ful swythe, 

And bringe vs breed and wyn ful priuely. 

And two of vs shul kepen subtilly 

This tresor wel ; and, if he wol nat tarie, 

Whan it is nyght, we wol this tresor carie 800 

By oon assent, wher as vs thinketh best.' 

That oon of hem the cut broughCe in his fest, 

And bad him drawe, and loke wher it wolde' falle; 

And it fi! on the youngest of hem alle; 

And forth toward the toun he wente anon. 805 

And al so sone as that he wa^ gon. 

That oon of hem ' spak thus vn-to that other, 

' Thou knowest we! thou art my sworen ' brother, 

Thy profit wol I telle thee anon. 

Thou wost wel that our felawe is agon ; Bio 

And heer is gold, and that ful greet plentee, 

That shal departed been among vs ihre. 

But natheles, if I can shape it so 

That it departed were among vs two, 

' HI. Ln. ihe; vrhich the rest omit. 

* E. Hn. Cp. wol; HI. wil; Cm. Ft. Ln. wolde. 

* E. omits of hem ; /*e rest have it, 

* Thhsetmsbat; E. Hn, Pi. swora ; Ciu-iwote; Cp. Ln. HI. twora*. 


Madde I nat doon a frendes torn to thee 1' Sij 

That other answerde, ' I not how that may be ; 
He wot how that the gold is with vs tweye. 
What shal we doon, what shal we to him seye ? ' 

' Shal it be consei! ?' seyde the firste shrewe, 
' And I shal tellen thee ', in ' wordes fewe, 8)o 

What we shal doon, and bringe it wel aboute.' 

' I grauntc/ quod that other, ' out of doute. 
That, by tny trouthe, I shal thee nat biwreye.* 

' Now,' quod the. firste, ' thou wost wel we be tweye, 
And two of vs shul strenger be than oon. Sjj 

Lok whan that he Is set, and ryght' anoon 
Atys, as though thou woldest with him pleye ; 
And I shal lyue him thurgh the sydes tweye 
Whyl that thou strogelest with him as in game, 
And with thy dagger lok thou do the same ; Bjo 

And than shal al this gold departed be, 
My dere frend, bitwixen me and thee; 
Than may we bothe our lustes al fulfille, 
And pleye at dees ryght at our owen wille.' 
And thus acorded been thise shrewes tweye 835 

To sleen the thridde, as ye han herd me seye. 

This yongest, which that wente vn-to the toun, 
Ful ofte in berte he rolleth vp and doun 
The beautee of thise florins newe and bryghte. 
' O lord I ' quod he, ' if so were that I myghte 840 

Haue al this tresor to my self allone, 
Ther is no man that lyueth vnder the trone 
Of god, that sholde lyue so mery as 1 1' 
And atte laste the feend, our enemy, 
* HL the ; whitk At nit omit. 
' E. Hn. Cm. in 1 : tii rest omit ». 

d ihinnc; Pi. Ln. md 
" "in. Cni. 



Putte in his thought iliat he shold poyson beye, 845 

With which he myghte sleen his felawes tweye ; 

For why the feend fond him in swich lyuinge, 

That he had leue him • to sorwe bringe, 

For this was outrely his ful entente 

To sleen hem bothe, and neuer to repente. 850 

And forth he goth, no longer wolde he tarie. 

Into the toun, vn-to a pothecarie, 

And preyede him that he him wolde selle 

Som poyson, that he myghte his rattes quelle; 

And eek ther was a polcat in his hawc, S$$ 

That, as he seyde, his capouns hadde yslawe, 

And fayn he wolde wreke him, if he myghte, 

On vennin, that destroyede him by nyghte. 

The pothecarie answerde, ' and thou shall haue 
A thing that, al so god my soule saue, 860 

In al this world ther nis' no creature, 
That ete or dronke hath of this confiture 
Nought but the mountance of a corn of whete, 
That he ne shal his lyf anon forlete ; 
Ye, Sterne he shal, and that in lasse whyle S65 

Than thou wolt f on a paas nat but a myle ; 
This poyson is so strong and violent.' 

This cursed man hath in his hond yhent 
This poyson in a box, and sith he ran 
In-to the neste strete, vn-to a man, 870 

And borwed of him large hotels thre; 
And in the two his poyson poured he; . 
The thridde he kepte dene for his* drinke. 
For al the nyght he shoop him for to swinke 

' E. Cm. heni ; llu rtsi hym or him. 

* E. Hn. Cm. iij tlu rtsi nyi or nil. * Tjr. of; iviiici t\t MSS. omit. 

* E. hEi owene ; but tht ml omit oweae. 


Ill caryinge or tlie gold out or that place. i 

And whan this ryotour, with sory grace, 
Had filled with wyn his grete hotels thre, 
To his fclawes agayn rep^reth he. 

What nedelh it to sermone of it more ? 
For ryght as ' they had cast his deeth bifore, f 

Right so they han him slayn, and that anon. 
And whan that this was doon, thus spak that oon, 
' Now lat vs sitte and drinke, and make vs merie, 
And afterward we wol his body bene.' 
And with that word it happede him, par cas, i 

To take the bote! ther the poyson was, 
And drank, and yaf his felawe drinke also. 
For which anon they storuen bothe two. 

But, certes, I suppose that Auicen 
Wroot neuer in no canon, ne in no fen, 8 

Mo wonder signes* of empoisoning 
Than hadde thise wrecchea twoj er her ending. 
Thus ended been thise homicydes two, 
And eek the false empoysoner also. 

O cursed sinne, ful of* cursednessel 8 

traytours homicyde, o wikkednesse I 
O glotonye, luxurie, and hasardiye I 
Thou blasphemour of Crist with vilanye 
And othes grete, of vsage and of pryde 1 
Alias ! mankynde, how may it bityde, g 

That to thy creatour which that thee wroughte. 
And with his precious herte-blood thee boughte. 
Thou art so fala and so vnkynde, alias I 

Now, good men, god foryeue yow your trespas, 

' E. M ai ; Ihi rist omit ta. 

' E. Hn. Cm. lignei; Cp. Ln. HI. sorwei; Ft. soroww, 

■ £. Hn. Cm. of lUe ; Cp. Ln. HI. ful of; Pt. full of il. 


And ware yow fro the siirne of auarice. 905 

Myn holy pardoun may yow alle warice. 

So that ye offre nobles or sterlinges, 

Or elles ^luer broches, spones, rlnges. 

Boweth your heed vnder this holy bulk ! 

Cometh' vp, ye wyues, offreth of your wolle I gio 

Your name ' I entre heer in my roile anon ; 

In-to the blisse of heuen shul ye gon ; 

I yow assoile, by myn hey power, 

Yow that wol offre, as dene and eek as cleer 

As ye were bom ; and, lo, sirs, thus I preche. 91s 

And lesu Crist, that is our soules leche, 

So graunte yow his pardon to receyue ; 

For that is best ; I wol yow nat deceyuc. 

But sirs, o word forgat I in my tale, 
I haue reliks and pardon in my male, 910 

As fay re as any man in Engelond, 
Whiche were me yeuen by the popes bond. 
If any of yow wol, of deuocioun, 
OfPEen, and han myn absoluciotm, 
Cometh' forth anon, and kneleth heer adoun, 915 

And mekely recejnieth my pardoun : 
Or elles, taketh pardon as ye wende, 
Al newe and fresh, at euery myles ende. 
So that ye offren alwey newe and newe 
Nobles and * pens, which that be gode and trewe. 930 
It is an hcmour to euerich that is heer. 
That ye mowe haue a suffisant pardoneer 
Tassoille yow, in contree as ye ryde. 
For auenlures which that may bityde. 

' E. Comi the rtsl Comelh, Comylh. 

» E. HI. n»mei ; Ihi ral name. 

* E. Ha. Com ; ihi rtil Comelh, ComTth. 

■'=•""■""*■""""'• „,„„Googlc 


Perauenture ther may fallen oon or two 93, 

Doun of his hors, and breke his nekke atwo. 

Lok which a seurtee is it to yow alle 

That I am in your felawship yfalle, 

That may assoille yow, both more and lasse, 

Whan that the soule shal fro the body passe. 941 

I rede that our host heer shal biginne, 

For he Is most envoluped in sinne, 

Com forth, sir host, and offre first anon, 

And thou shalt kisse the ' reliks euerychon, 

Ye, for a grote ! vnbokel anon thy purs.' 94; 

' Nay, nay,' quod he, ' than haue I Cristes curs I 
Lat be,' quod he, 'it shal nat be, so theechi ' 
Thou woldest make me kisse thyn olde breech. 
And Bwerc it were a relik of a seint I ' 

This pardoner answerde nat a word; 95' 

So wroth he was, no word ne wolde he seye. 

' Now,' quod our host, ' I wol no lenger pleye 
With thee, ne with noon other angry man.' 
But ryght anon the worthy knyght bigan, gfr 

Whan that he sey that al the peple lough, 
' Namore of this, for it is ryght ynough ; 
Sir pardoner, be glad and mery of chere; 
And ye, sir host, that ben to me so dere, 
I prey yow that ye kisse the pardoner. 961 

And pardoner, I prey thee, draw thee neer, 
And, as we diden, lat vs laughe and pleye.' 
Anon they kistc, and riden forth her weye. 

Hoere U ended the Fardonera tale. 

. m; ; Cm. myne ; Iht rtsi the. * So all but Hn. ; Hn. thee icb. 

The prologe of the Seconde Ifoimes tale. 

THE ministre and the norice vn-to vices. 
Which that men clepe in English ydeinesse. 
That porter of the gate is of delices, 
To eschue, and by hir contrarie hir oppresse. 
That is to seyn, by leueful bisinesse, 5 

Wei oughten we to doon al our entente. 
Lest that the feend tbui^h ydeinesse vs hente '. 

For he, that with his thousand cordes slye 

Continuelly vs w^teth to biclappe. 

Whan he may man in ydeinesse espye, lo 

He can so lyghdy cacche him in his trappe. 

Til that a man be hent ryght by the lappe, 

He nis nat war the feend hath him in honde ; • 

Wei oughte vs werche, and ydelnes withstonde. 

And though men dradden neuer for to dye, 15 

Yet seen men wel by resoun doutelees, 

That ydeinesse is roten * slogardye, 

Of which ther neuer comth no good encrees'; 

And seen, that slouihe hir* holdeth in a lees 

Only to slepe, and for to cte and drinke, 10 

And to deuouren al that othere swinke. 

' Hn. Cm. Cp. HI. htntt ; E. shenle. Pi. shent, Ln. ichent, virangly. 

* SaZ. Hn. P(. Ln.; Cm. role j Cp. holen ; HI. atei Jhu loten. 

■ E. Hn. no good nencreei ; Cp. Ft. Ln. noon encreic ; HI. good Cocret; 
Cm. cncrcci. 

* Cm, hire; Pi. hure; Hn. Cp. Ln. hit; HI. hor. 


And for to putte vs fro swich ydclnesse, 

That cause is of so greet confusioun, 

I haue heer doon my feithful bisinesse, 

After the legende, in translacioun 

Right of thy glorious lyf and passioun, 

Thou with thy gerland wrought of* rose and lilie; 

Thee mene I, mayde and martir sejnl ' Cecilie I 

Itmocacio ad Mariam. 

And thou that flour of virgines art alle, 
Of whom that Bernard list so wel to wryte, 
To thee at my biginning first I calle ; 
Thou comfort of vs wrecches, do me endyte * 
Thy maydens deeth, that wan thurgh hir meryte 
The eternal lyf, and of the feend victorie, 
As man may after reden in hir storie. 
Thou mayde and moder, doughter of thy sone. 
Thou welle of mercy, sinful soules cure, 
In whom that god, for bountee, chees to wone, 
Thou humble, and hey ouer euery creature. 
Thou nobledest so feiforth our nature, 
That no desdeyn the maker hadde of kynde. 
His sone in blode and flesshe to clothe and wynde. 
Withinne the cloistre blisfiil of thy sydes 
Took mannes shap the eternal loue and pecs. 
That of the tryne compas lord and gyde is. 
Whom erlhe and see and heuen, out of relces, 
Ay herien; and thou, virgin wemmeless, 

' Hn. Cp. Pi. of; E. Cm. Ln. HI. with. 

* Cp. Hn. Cm. Pt. Ln. maitir Mint ; HI. n 

• Hn. mendite iflmiing ihi seansiOH). 



Bar of thy body, and dweltest mayden puie, 
The crcatour of euery creature. 

Assembled is in thee magnificence 

With mercy, goodnesse, and with swich pitee 

That thou, that art the sonne of excetlence, 

Nat only helpest hem that prayen thee, 

But ofte tyme, of thy benignitee, 

Ful frely, er that men thyn help biseche. 

Thou goost bifom, and art her lyues leche. 

Now help, thou meke and blisful fayre mayde, 
Me, flemed wreccbe, in this desert of galle ; 
Think on the womman Cananee, that sayde 
That whelpes eten somme of the crommes alle 
That from her lordes table been yfalle ; 
And though that I, vnworthy sone of Eue, 
Be sinful, yet accepte my bileue. 

And, for that feith is deed with-outen werkea, 
So for to worchen yif me wit and space, 
That I be quit fro thennes that most derk is 1 
O thou, that art so fayr and fill of grace, 
Be myn aduocat in that heye place 
Ther as withouten ende is songe ' Osanne,' 
Thou Cristes moder, doughter dere of Anne I 

And of thy lyght my soule in prison lyghle. 

That troubled is by the contagioun 

Of my body, and also by the wyghte 

Of erthly luste and fats affeccioun ; 

O hauen of refiit, o saluadoun 

Of hem that been in somre and in distresse, 

Now help, for to my weik I wol me dresse. 



Yet preye I yow that reden that I wiyte, 
Foryeue me, that I do no diligence 
This ilke storie subtilly to endyte ' ; 
For both haue I the wordes and sentence 
Of him" that at the seintes reuerence 
The storie wroot, and folwe ' hir legende, 
And prey* yow, that ye wol my werk amende. 


Interpretacio ttominh Cecitie, quam ponti/raler lacohus 
lanuensis in legenda. 

First wolde I yow ' the name of seint Cecilie 1 

Expoune, as men may in hir storie see, 
It is to seye in english ' heuenes Ulie,' 
For pure chastnesse of virginitee ; 
Or, for she whytnesse hadde of honestee. 
And grene of conscience, and of good fame ; 

The sole savour *, ' lilie' was hir name. 

Or Cecile is to seye 'the wey to biynde,' 

For she ensample was by good techinge ; 

Or elles Cecile, as I writen fynde. 

Is ioyned, by a manere conioyninge 5 

Of ' heucne ' and ' lia' ; and heer, in figuringe. 

The ' heuen ' is set for thought of holinesse. 

And 'lia' for hir lasting bisinesse. 

' Hn, tendite (shitinng tht scaasion), 

' So E. Hn. Cm. HI. ; but Cp. Pi. Ln. hem. 

' Cm. folwe; E. Hn. HI. folwen ; Cp. Ft. Ln. folowcn. 

* E. I pray; Cp. And pray I; lit rtsi AnJ pray (or prei, or p'eje). 



Cecile may eek be seyd in this manere, 

'Wanting of blyndnesse,' for hir grete lyghle i 

Of sapience, and for hir thewes clere ; 

Or elles, lo I this maydens name bryglite 

Of ' heuene ' and ' leos ' comth, for which by ryghte 

Men myghte hir wel 'the heuen of peple' calle, 

Ensample of gode and wyse werkes alle. i 

For ' leos ' ' peple ' in english is to seye, 

And ryght as men may in the heuene see 

The sonne and mone and sterrea euery weye, 

Ryght so men gostly, in this mayden free, 

Seyen of feith the magnanimitee, ■ i 

And eek the cleernesse hool of sapience, 

And sondry werkes, bryghte of excellence. 

And ryght so as thise philosophres wryte 

That heuen is swift and round and eek brenninge, 

Ryght so was fayre Cecilie the whyte i 

Ful swift and bisy euer in good werkinge, 

And round and hool in good perseueringe, 

And brenning euer in charite ful bryghte ; 

Now haue I yow declared what she hyghte. 


Here bUcynneth the Seconde Konnes tale, of the lyf 
of Seinte Ceolle. 

This mayden bryght Cecile, as hir lyf seiih, i»o 

Was comen of Romayns, and of noble kynde, 
And from hir cradel vp fostred in the feith 
«"-"■■ ' D,,_.„Google 


Of Crist, and bar his gospel in hir myndt; 

She neuer cessede, as I writen fynde. 

Of hir preyere, and god to loue and drede, i 

fiiseking him to kepe hir majdenhede. 

And whan this mayden sholde vnto a man 

Ywedded be, that was ful jong of age, 

Which that ycleped qas Valerian, 

And day was comen of hir manage, i 

She, ful devout and humble in hir corage, 

Vnder hir robe of gold, that sat ful fayre. 

Had next hir flesshe yclad hir in an heyre. 

And whyl the organs ' maden melodye. 

To god alone in herte thus sang she ; i 

' O lord, ray soule and eek my body gye 

Vnwemmed, lest that I ' confounded be :' 

And, for his loue that deyde vpon a tree, 

Euery seconde or ' thridde day she faste, 

Ay biddinge in hir orisons ful faste. i 

[The tyme is comen, whan she raoste] gon 

With hir housbonde, as ofte is the manere, 

And priuely to him she aeyde anon, 

' O swete and wel biloued spouse dcre, 

Ther is a conseil, and ye wolde it here, i 

Which that ryght fayn I wolde vnto yow seye, 

So that ye swere ye shul me ' nat biwreye,' 

Valerian gan faste vnto hir swere. 

That for no cas, ne thing that myghte be. 

He sholde neuer mo biwreyen here .: i 

' III. Hn. orgam ; Ln. orgeni ; E. Otgats ; Cp. OrgI« ; Pt. Otgels. 
' E. it ; iht rtsi I. ' E. Hn. and j Ihi ml ox. 

• E. me; &tral it; uf /. 150. 



And thanne at erst to him thus seyde she, 
' I haue an angel which that louelh me. 
That with greet loue, wher so I wake or slepe, 
Is redy ay ray body for to kepe.' 

VaJerian, corrected as god wolde, 

Answerde agayn, ' if I shal tnisten thee, 

Lat me that angel se, and him biholde ; 

And if that it a verray angel be, 

Than wol I doon as thou hast preyed me ; 

And if thou loue another man, for sothe 

Ryght with this swerd than wol I sle yow bothe.* 

Cecile answerde anon ryght in this wyse, 
' If that yow list, the angel shul ye see, 
So that ye trowe in Crist and yow baptyse, 
Goth forth to Via Apia,' quod she, 
' That fro this toun ne slant but mylcs three. 
And, to the poure folkes that ther dwells, 
Sey hem lyght thus, as that I shal yow telle. 

Telle hem that I, Cecile, yow to hem sente. 
To ahewen yow the gode Vrban the olde, 
For secre nedes ' and for good entente. 
And whan that ye seint Vrban han biholde. 
Telle him the wordes whiche I ' to yow tolde ; 
And whan that he hath purged yow fro sinne, 
Tbanne shul ye se that angel, er ye twinnc' 

). HI. wbicbe Jnt I ; but Ha. Cm. Pt. offljt that 

F 2 I. . ..CoO^^lf 


Valerian is to the place ygon. 

And ryght as him was taught by his lerninge, 

He fond this holy olde Vrban anon 

Among the seintes buriels lotinge. 

And he anon, with-outen taryinge, 

£Nde his message ; and whan that he it toMe, 

Vrban for ioye his hondes gan vp holde. 

The teres from his y6n leet he falle — 
•Almyghty lord, O lesu Crist,' quod he, 
' Sower of chast conseil, herde of vs alle, 
The fruyt of thilke seed of chastitee 
That thou hast sowe in Cecile talc to thee I 
Lo, lyk a bisy bee, with-outen gyle, 
Thee serueth ay thyn owen thral Cecile 1 

For thilke spouse, that she took but ' now 
Ful lyk a fiere leoun, she scndeth here, 
As mekc as euer was any lamb, to yow !' 
And with that worde, anon ther gan appere 
An old man, clad in whyte clothes clere, 
That hadde a book with lettre of golde in honde, 
And gan bifora' Valerian to sConde. 

Valerian as deed fil doun for drede 
Whan he him sey, and he vp hente him tho, 
And on his book ryght thus he gan to rede — 
' Oo Lord, oo feiCh, oo god with-outen mo, 
Oo * Cristendom, and fader of alle also, 
Abouen alle and * ouer al euerywhere ' — 
Thise wordes al with golde ywriten were. 

' E. HI. right ; llu nst but. 

* E. Urorei HL to-fam; ikerta birom, biroinc, bcfbme. 

• E. Hd. Cm. O; HI. On ; Cp. Pt. Ld. Of, 
< Z. offlitt and ; Ae nsi havt il. 


Whan this was rad, than seyde this olde man, 

' Leuestow this thing or no f sey ye or nay.' 

' I leue al this thing,' quod Valerian, 

' For sother * thing than this, I dar wel say, 

Vnder the heuen no wyght cbinke may.' 

Tho vanisshed the ' olde man, he niste where. 

And Pope Vrban him cristened ryght there. 

Valeiian gooth hoom, and fynt Cecilie 
With-inne his chambre with an angel stonde ; 
This angel hadde of roses and of lilie 
Corones two, the which he bar in honde ; 
And first to Cecile, as I vnderstonde. 
He yaf that oon, and after gan be take 
That other to Valerian, hir make. 

' With body clene and with vnwemmed thought 

Kepeth ay wel thise corones,' quod he ' ; 

' Fro Paradys to yow haue I hem brought, 

Ne neuer mo ne shal they rolen be, 

Ne lese her sote sauour, trusteth me ; 

Ne neuer wyght shaJ seen hem with his yS, 

But be be chaast and hate vilanyS. 

And thou. Valerian, for thou so sone 

Assentedest to good conseil also, 

Sey what thee list, and thou shalt ban thy bone' 

' I haue a brother,' quod Valerian tho, 

' That in this world I loue no man so. 

I pray yow that my brother may han grace 

To knowe the trouthe, as I do in this place.' 

■ E. oothci ; At nsi tother. 

■ E. III). Cm. thii; P(. that; Cp. Ln.tbe; mnoit, 
' £. Ititce; HI. thrc; Iht nsl quod be. 

^, Google 


The angel seyde, ' god lyketh thy requesce, 

And bothe, with the palm of martirdom, 140 

Ye shullen come vnto his blisful feste.' 

And with that word Tiburce his brother com. 

And whan that he the sauour vndemom 

Which that the roses and the lilies caste, 

With-inne his herte he gan to wondre faste, 145 

And seyde, ' I wondre this tyme of the yeer 

Whennes that sote sauour cometh so 

Of rose and lilies that I smelle beer. 

For though I hadde hem in myn hondes two. 

The sauour myghte in me no depper go. 150 

The sote ' smel that in myn herte I fynde 

Hath chaunged me al in another kynde.' 

Valerian seyde, ' two corones ban we, 
Snow-wbyte and rose-reed, that shynen clere, 
Whiche that thyn yCn han no myght to see ; 155 

And as thou smellest hem thurgh my preyere, 
So shaltow seen hem, leue brother dere, 
^ If it so be thou wolt, withouten slouthe, 
Bileue aryght and knowen verray trouthe.' 

Tiburce answerde, ' seistow this to me i6a 

In sothnesse, or in dreem I berkne this?' 

' In dremes,' quod Valerian, ' ban we be 

Vnto this tyme, brother myn, ywls. 

But now at erat in trouthe our dwelling is.' 

' How wostow this,' quod Tiburce, ' in what wysc ? a6s 

Quod Valerian, ' that shal I thee deuyse. 

' 7^ MSS. ham (wele hiit; bi 
01c, tuote, ixctpl mete m Pt. ; » 
^ . Wtc ; HI. wote ; Cp. Pt. La. n 



The angel of god hath me the ' trouthe ytaught 

Which thou shall seen, if that thou wolt reneye 

The ydoles and be clene, and elles naught.' — 

And of the miracle of thise coronea tweye ajo 

Seint Ambrose in his preface list to seye ; 

Solerapnely this noble doctour dere 

Commendeth it *, and seith in this maneie : 

The palm of maitirdom for to receyue, 

Seint Cecilie, fulfild of goddes yifte, 175 

The world and eek hir chambre gan she weyue ; 

Witnea Tyburces and Valerians ' shrifte, 

To whiche god of his bountee wolde shifte 

Corones two of floures wel smeUinge, 

And made his angel hem the corones bringe : iSo 

The mayde halh broght thise * men to blisse aboue ; 

The world hath wist what it is worth, certeyn, 

Deuocioun of chastitee to loue. — 

Tho shewede him Cccile al' open and pleyn 

That alle ydolea nis but a thing in veyn ; aSj 

For they been dombe, and therto they been deue. 

And charged him his ydoles for to leue. 

' Who so that trowelh nat this, a beste he is,' 

Quod tho Tiburce, ' if that I shal nat lye.' 

And she gan kisse his brest, that herde this, ago 

And was ful glad he coude trouthe espye. 

• This day I take thee for myn allye,' 

Seyde this blisful fayre mayde dere ; 

And after that she seyde as ye may here : 

• E. Ln. HI. omit ihe ; iht rat havt ft, ' E, hjm ; Otrtil it. 
' Tkt MSS. havi Ceciliti, wrongly ; at IWU. 

* E. Hn, DfluV thitc ; but iht rtsl rila'm il, tueipt Cm., vildch has biought 
m to bljwe. ' Cp. Pt Ln. omit al ; bHi Uu itsi Tttim it. 



'Lo, ryght so as ihc loue of Crist,' quod she, jgs 

' Made me thy brotheres wyf, ryght in ihat wyse 

Anon for myn allye beer take I thee. 

Sin that thou wolt thyn ydoles despyse. 

Go with thy brother now, and thee baptyse, 

And make thee clene ; so that thou mowe biliolde 300 

The angels face of which thy brother tolde.' 

Tiburce answerde and seyde, ' brother dere. 
First tel me whider I ' shal, and to what man ? ' 
' To whom?' quod he, ' com forth with ryght good 

I wol thee lede vnto the pope Vrban.' 305 

' Til Vrban ? brother myn, Valerian,' 
Quod tho Tiburce, ' woltow me thider lede ? 
Me thinketh that it were a wonder dede. 

it Vrban,' quod he tho, 
' That is so ofle dampned to be deed, 3 

And woneth in halkes ahvey to and fro, 
And dar nat ones putte forth his heed ? 
Men sholde him brennen in a fyr so reed 
If he were founde, or that men myghte him spye ; 
And we also, to bere him companye — 3 

And whyl we seken thiike diulnilee 

That is yhid in heuene priuely, 

Algate ybrend in this world shul we be I' 

To whom Cecile answerde boldely, 

' Men myghten dreden wel and skilfully i 

This lyf to lese, myn owen dere brother. 

If this were lyuinge only and non other. 

I £. Hn. Cm. thzll; i/U ml omit Ibit 



But ther is better lyf in other place, 
That neuer shal be lost, ne dred Ibee nought, 
Which goddes sone vs tolde thurgh his grace ; 
That fadres sone hath alte ihinges wrought^ ; 
And al that wrought is with a skilful thought, 
The gost, that fro the feder gan precede, 
Halh sowled bem, withouten any drede. 

By word and by miracle goddes sone, 
Whan he was in this world, declared here 
That ther was other lyf ther men may wone.' 
To whorn answerde Tiburce, 'cluster dere, 
Ne seydestow ryght now in this manere, 
Ther nis but o god, lord in sothfastnesse ; 
And now of three how maystow bere witnesse f ' 

' That shal I telle,' quod she, ' er I go. 
Rygbt as a man hath sapiences three, 
Memorie, engyn, and intellect also, 
So, in o ' being of diuinitee, 
Thre persones may ther ryght wel be," 
Tho gan she him ful bisily to preche 
Of Cristes come, and of his peynes teche. 

And many pointes of his passioun ; 

How goddes sone in this world was withholde, 

To doon mankynde pleyn remissioun. 

That was ybounde in sinne and cares colde : 

Al this thing she vnto Tiburce tolde. 

And after this Tiburce, in good entente, 

With Valerian to pope Vrban he wente. 



That thanked god ; and wiih glad herle and lyghl 
He cristned him, and made him in that place 
Parfit in his leminge, goddes knyghL 
And after this Tiburce gat swich grace. 
That euery day he sey, in tyme and space. 
The angel of god ; and euery maner bone 
That he god axed, it was sped ful sone. 

It were fill hard by ordre for to seyn 

How many wondres lesus for hem wroughte ; 

But atte laste, to tellen short and pleyn, 

The geigeants of the toun of Rome hem soughte, 

And hem biforo Almache the prefect btoughte. 

Which hem opposed', and knew al her entente, 

And to the im^e of lupiter hem sente, 

And seyde, ' who so wol nat sacrifj'se, 

Swap of his heed, this is ' my sentence here.' 

Anon thise martirs that I yow deuyse 

Oon Mazimus, that was an office re 

Of the Prefectea and his comiculere. 

Hem hente ; and whan he forth the seintes ladde, 

Him-self he weep, for pitee that he hadde. 

Whan Maximus had herd the seintes lore. 
He gat him of the tormentourea leue. 
And ladde hem to his hous withoute more ; 
And with her preching, er that it were eue, 
They gonnen fro the tormentours to reue. 
And fro Maxime, and fro his folk echone 
Tlie false feith, to trowe in god allone. 



Cecilie cam, whan it was woxen nyght. 

With prestes that hem cristnede alle yfere, ^■ 

And aflerward, whan day was woxen l/ght, 

Cecile hem seyde wiih a fiil sobre ' chere, 

' Now, Cristes owen knyghtes leue and dere, 

Caste alle awey the werkes of derknesse, 

And armeth yow in annure of bryghtnesse. 31 

Ye han for sothe ydoon a greet bataille, 

Your cours is doon, your feith han ye conserued, 

Goth to the corone of lyf that may nat faille ; 

The ryghtful luge, which that ye han serued. 

Shall yeue it yow, as ye han it deserued,' 31 

And whan this thing was seyd as I deuyse. 

Men ladde hem forth to doon the sacnfyse. 

But whan they weren to the place brought, 

To tellen shortly the conclusjoun, 

They nolde encense ne sacrifice ryght nought. 31 

But on hir knees they setten hem adoim 

With humble herte and sad deuocioun, 

And losten bothe hir hedes in the place, 

Hir soules wenten to the king of grace. 

Tliis Maximus, that sey this thing bityde, v 

With pitous teres tolde it anon ryght, 

That he her soules sey to heuen glyde 

With angels ful of cleemess and of lyght, 

And with his * word conuerted many a wyght ; 

For which Almachius dide him so to-bete ' 41 

With wbippe of leed, til he his ' lyf gan lete. 

* E. Ha. HI. Tul itciferiit ; Cm. fill lobete ; Cp. Ft. Ln. lobre. 
' E. tbiii tlurnlW. 

* E. Ho. Cm. HI. <o bctc ; Cp. Ft. Ln. 10 u»bcu ; ut iht nott. 

* E. tba ; Hurtil hii. 



Cecile him look and buryed him anoon 

By Tiburce and Valerian softely, 

Withinne hir burying-place, vnder [he stoon. 

And after this Almachius hastily 41 

Bad his ministres fecchen openly 

Cecile, so that she myghte in his presence 

Doon sacrifice, and lupiter encense. 

But they, conuerted at hir wyse lore, 

Wepten ful sore, and yauen ful credence 41 

Vnto hir word, and cryden more and more, 

' Crist, goddes sone withouten difference. 

Is verray god, this is al' our sentence, 

That hath so good a seruant him to senie ; 

This with o voys we trowen, though we sterue 1 ' 43 

Almachius, that herde of this doinge, 

Bad fecchen Cecile, that he myghte hir see, 

And alderfirst, io 1 this was his axinge, 

' What maner womman artow ? ' tho • quod he. 

' I am a gentil womman bom,' quod she. 41 

' I axe thee,' quod he, ' though it thee greue. 

Of thy religioun and of thy bileue,' 

' Ye han bigonne your questioun fohly,' 

Quod she, ' that wolden two answeres conclude 

In 00 demande ; ye axed lewedly.' 43 

Atmache answerde vnto that similitude, 

' Of whennes comth thyn answering so rude ?' 

' Of whennes V quod she, whan that she was freyned, 

' Of conscience and of good feith vnfeyned.' 



Almachius seyde, ' ne tal:estow noon hede 
Of my power? ' and she answerde him this' — 
'Your myght,' quod she, ' ful litel is to drede ; 
For euery mortal mannes power itis 
But lyk a bladdre, ful of wynd, ywis. 
For with a nedles poynt, whan it is blowe, 
May al the bost of it be leyd ful lowe.' 

' Ful wrongfully bigonne thou,' quod he, 
' And yet in wrong is thy perseueraunce ; 
Wostow nal how our myghty princes free 
Han thus comanded and maad ordinaunce, 
That euery cristen wyght shal ban penaunce 
But if that he his cristendom withseye, 
And goon al quit, if he wol it reneye ?' 

' Your princes erren, as your nobley doth,' 
Quod tho Cecile, ' and with a wood sentence 
Ye make vs gilty, and it' is nat soth ; 
For ye, that knowen wel our innocence, 
t'or as muche as we doon a reuerence 
To Crist, and for we bere a cristen name, 
Ye putte on vs a cryme, and eek a blame. 

But we that knowen thilke name so 
For vertuous, we may it nat wiihseye.' 
Almache answerde, ' chees oon of thise two, 
Do sacrifice, or cristendom reneye, 
That thou mow now escapen by that weye,' 
At which the holy blisful fay re mayde 
Gan for to laughe, and to the luge seyde. 



' O luge, confiis in thy nycetee, 

Woltow that I reneye innocence, 

To make me a wikked wyght ? ' quod she ; 

' Lo 1 he dissimuleth here in audience, 

He staretb and' woodeth in his aduertcnce 1' 

To whom Ahnachius, ' vnsely wrecche, 

Ne wostow nat bow for my myght may strecche ? 

Han nought onr myghty princes to me yeuen. 
Ye, bothe power and auctoritee 
To maken folk to deyen or to lyuen ? 
Why spekestow so proudly than to me ?' 
' I speke nought but stedfastly,' quod she, 
' Nat proudly, for I seye*, as for my syde, 
We haten deedly tbilke vice of pryde. 

And if thou drede nat a soth to here, 
Than wol I shewe al openly, by ryght, 
That thou hast maad a ful gret lesing here. 
Thou seystj thy princes han thee yeuen myght 
Bothe for to sleen and for to quike a VQ'ght ; 
Thou, that ne mayst but only lyf bireue, 
ThOQ hast noon other power ne no leue I 

But thou mayst seyn, thy princes han thee maked 

Ministre of deth ; for if thou speke of mo, 

Thou lyest, for thy power is ful naked.' 

' Do wcy thy boldnes,' seyde Almachius tho, 

' And sacrifice to our goddes, er thou go ; 

I recche nat what wrong that thou me profre. 

For I can suffre it as a pbilosophre ; 



But thilke wronges may I nat endure 

That thou spekest of our goddes here,' quod he. 

Cecile anawerde, ' o nyce creature, 

Thou seydest no word sin thou spak to me, 

That I ne knew therwith thy nycetee ; 495 

And that thou were, in euery maner wyse, 

A lewed officer and a veyn lustise. 

Ther lakketh no thing to thjn utter ySn 

That thou nart biynd, for thing that we seen alle 

That it is stoon, that men may wel espyen, joo 

That ilke stoon a god thou wolt it calle. 

I rede thee, lat thyn band vpon it falle, 

And taste it wel, and stoon ihou shalt it fynde. 

Sin that thou seest nat with thyn ygn blynde. 

It ia a shame that the peple sbal 505 

So scome thee, and laughe at thy folye ; 

For coromunly men wot it wel oueral. 

That myghty god is in his heuenes bye. 

And tbise images, wel thou mayst espye. 

To thee nc to hem-self' mowe nought profyte, 510 

For in effect they been nat worth a myte.' 

Thise wordes and swiche otbere seyde she, 

And he weex wroth, and bad men sholde hir lede 

Hem til bir bous, ' and in hir hous,' quod he, 

' Brenne hir ryght in a bath of flambes rede.' 515 

And as be bad, ryght so was doon in dede ; 

For in a bath they gonne hir faste shetten. 

And nyght and day greet fyr they vnder hetten. 

' E. Lu. inurl ne h^t mowe ; Iht rtsi omit il. 


The longe nyght and eek a day also, 

For al the fyr and eek the bathes hete, 5 

She sat al cold, and feelede no wo, 

It made hir nat a dro[)pe for to swete. 

But in that bath hir lyf she moste lete ; 

For he, Almachius, with ful' wikke entente 

To steen hir in the bath his sonde sente. 5 

Thre strokes in the nekke he smoot hir tho. 

The tonnentour, but for no maner chaunce 

He myghte nought smyte at hir nekke alwo ; 

And for ther was that tyme an ordinaunce, 

That no man sholde doon man' swich penaunce 5. 

The ferthe strook to smylen, sofle or sore, 

This tormentour ne dorste do namore. 

But half-deed, wiih hir nekke ycoruen there. 

He lelle hir lye, and on his wey is* went. 

The cristen folk, which that aboule hir were, 5, 

With shetes han the blood ful faire yhent. 

Thre dayes lyued she in this torment. 

And neuer cessed hem the feith to teche ; 

That she hadde fostred, hem she gan to preche ; 

And hem she yaf hir moebles and hir thing, 5. 

And to the pope Vrban bitook hem tho. 

And seyde, ' I axed this at* heuene king, 

To han respyt thre dayes and namo. 

To recomende to yow, er that I go, 

Thise soules, lo I ■ and that I myghte do werche 5. 

Here of myn hous perpetuelly a cherche.' 

> E. Hn. > ful 1 Cm. a ; llu na Ait. 

* E. men ; Ha rtsi man. 

' Cm. i> went ; Ikt rtsi he wente (or he went) teronglf ; stt lh< note. 

* E.ati ilurttiot; tH06ii. 


Gkoxip G. The stcoNbE nonnes tale. 

Seint Vrban, with his deknes, priuely 
The' body fette, and buried it by nyghte 
Amot^ his othere seintes honestly. 
Hir hous the chirche of seint Cecilie hyghte j 
Seint Vrban haJwed it, as he wel myghte ; 
In which, into this day, in noble wyse, 
Men doon to Crist and to his seint seruyse. 

Heere is ended the Seoonde Nonnes tale. 

' E, Thii ! thi resl The. 

By Google 


The prologe of the Cbauons yemanneB tale. 

Whan ended was' the lyf of seint CecUe, 

Er we had riden fully fyue rayle, SSi 

At Boughlon vnder Blee vs gan aUke 

A man, that clothed was in clothes blake, 

And vndemelhe he wered a surplys'. 

His hakeney, that' was al pomely grysj 

So swatte, that it wonder was to see ; s6t 

It semed he* had priked myles three. 

The hors' eek that his yeman rood vpon 

So swatte, that vnnethe myghte it gon. 

Aboute the peytrel stood the foom ful hyc, 

He was of fome al flekked as a pye*. £6; 

A male tweyfold on' his croper lay. 

It semed that he caried lyt array, 

Al lyght for somer rood this worthy man, 

And in myn herte wondren' I bigan 

What that he was, til that I vnderstood 570 

How that his cloke was sowed to his hood ; 

For which, when I had longe auysed me, 

I demede him som chanon for to be. 

1 E. toold wu al ; Cm. told wai ; lite rest ended wai. 

' SoS.; Ihe Tta have And rndet ibat be badde ■ whit suiplli. 

' E. whicb |iat ; llu rest omil whicb. 

* E. 11 he ; Cm. that he ; ihe ml he. > E. hakeney ; lii ml hon. 

• E. OBuVi II. 564, 565 i Ihi ml rtlain Ihtm. 

' E. vpoD ; du rat <m. * £. to woodtea i lit r*U omil lo. 



His hat heng at his bak doun by a laas, 

For he liad riden more than trot or paas ; 575 

He had ay priked lyk as he were wood. 

A clote-leef he hadde vnder his hood 

For swote, and for to kepe his heed from hete. 

But it was ioye for to seen him swete 1 

His forhed dropped as a stillatorie, S^o 

Were ful of plantayn and of parilorie. 

And whan that he was come, he gan to crye, 

' God saue,' quod he, ' this ioly companye 1 

Paste haue I priked,' quod he, ' for your sake, 

By cause that I wolde yow atake, 585 

To ryden in this' mery companye.' 

His yeman eek was ful of curteisye, 

And seyde, ' sirs, now in the morwe tydc 

Out of your hostelrye I seyyou ryde, 

And warned heer my lord and my souerayn, 590 

Which that* to ryden with yow is ful fayn, 

For his desport ; he loueth daliaunce.' 

' Frend, for thy warning god yeue thee good' chaunce,' 
Than seyde our host, ' for certes*, it wolde seme 
Thy lord were wys, and so I may wel deme; 595 

He is ful iocund also, dar I leye. 
Can he aught telle a mery tale or tweye, 
With which he glade may this companye?' 

' Who, sir ? my lord ? ye, ye, withouten lyc, 
He can of murthe, and eek of lolite 600 

Nat but ynough ; also sir, trusteth me. 
And ye him knewe as wel as do I, 
Ye wolde wondre how wel and craftily' 

' E. loni ; ih* rtslfhu. ' E. omils that. 

' £. omiu good. * E, cerUiu i tlu nu ceitet. 

* fa E. Cm.i Iktrtit thriftily. 


He coude werke, and that in sondry wyse. 

He hath take on him many a greet empryse, 605 

Which were ful hard for any that is here 

To bringe aboute, but they of him it lere. 

As homly as he rit amonges yow. 

If ye him knewe, it wolde be for your prow ; 

Ye wolde nat foigon his aqueyntamice 610 

For mochel good, I dar leye in balaunce 

Al that I haue in my possessioun. 

He is a man of hey discrecioun, 

I wame you wel, he is a passing man.' 

' Wel,' quod our host, ' I pray thee, tel me than, 615 
Is he a clerk, or nooSmeKwhat he is.' 

' Nay, he is gretter than a'clerk, ywis,' 
Seyde this yeman, ' and in wordes fewe. 
Host, of his craft som-what I wol yow shewe. 

I seye, my lord can swich subtilitee — 6tQ 

(But al bis craft ye may nat wite at* me ; 
And som-what helpe I yet to his werkinge) — 
That al this ground on which we been rydinge, 
Til that we come to Caunterbury toun, 
He coude al clene turne it vp so doun, 6js 

And pane it al of siluer and of gold.' 

And whan this yeman badde thus' ytold 
Vnto our host, he seyde, ^bentdicittl 
This thing is wonder menieillous to me. 
Sin that thy lord is of so hey prudence, 6jo 

By cause of which men sholde him reuerence. 
That of his worship rekketh he so lyte ; 
His oversloppe nis nat worth a myle. 

^, Google 


As in effect, to him, so root I go I 

It is al baud/ and to-tore also. 635 

Why is thy lord so sluttish, I thee preye, 

And is of power better cloth to beye, 

IT that his dede accorde with thy speche ? 

Telle me that, and tliat I thee biseche.' 

' Why ? ' quod this yeman, ' wherto axe yc me ? 640 
God help me so, for he shal neuer thee I 
(But I wol nat auowc that I seye. 
And therfof kepe it secre, 1 yow preye). 
He is to wys, in feith, as I bileue ; 
That that is ouerdoon, it wol nat preue 64s 

Aryght, as clerkes seyn, it is a vice. 
Wherfor in that I holde him lewed and nyce. 
For whan a man bath ouer-greet a wit, 
Ful oft him happeth to misusen it ; 
So doth my lord, and that me greueth sore, 650 

God it amende, I can sey yow namore,' 

' Ther-of no fors, good yeman,' quod our host ; 
' Sin of the conning of thy lord thon wost, 
Tel how he doth, I pray thee hertely. 
Sin that he is so crai^y and so sly. 655 

Wher dwellen ye, if it to telle be ? ' 

' In the suburbes of a toun,' quod he, 
' Lurkinge in hemes and in lanes blynde, 
Wher as tliise robbours and thise theues by kjmde 
Holden her pryue fereful residence, €6a 

As they that dar nat shewen her presence ; 
So faren we, if I shal seye the sothe.' 

' Now,' quod our host, ' yit' lat me talke * to thee ; 

• Cm. HI. yit, vAiti tht rtst omil. 
■ E. telle i Cm. ipeke ; iht risl tilk«. 

86 GROUP a. THE canon's feoman's prologue. 

Why arCow so discoloured of thy face ?' 

' Peter I ' quod he, ' god yeue it harde grace, 665 
I am so vsed in the fyr to blowe, 
That it hatb chaunged my colour, I Irowe. 
I am nat wont in no mirour to prye, 
But swinke sore and leme multiplye. 
We blundren euer and pouren in the fyr, 670 

And for al that we fayle of our desyr. 
For euer we lakken our' conclusioun. 
To mochel folk we doon illusioun, 
And borwe gold, be it a pound or two, 
Or ten, or twelue, or many sommes mo, 1175 

And make hem wenen, at the leste weye. 
That of a pound we coude make tweye I 
Yet is it fais, but ay we ban good hope 
It for to doon, and af^er it we grope. 
But that science is so fer vs biforn, ASo 

We mowen nat, al though we hadde it' sworn, 
It ouertake, it slit awey so faste ; 
It wol vs maken beggers atte laste.' 

Whyl this yeman was thus in his talking. 
This chanoun drough him neer, and herde al thing 635 
Which this yeman spak, for suspecioun 
Of mennes speche euer hadde this chanoun. 
For Catoun seith, that he that gilty is 
Demeth al thing be spoke of him, ywis. 
That was the cause he gan so ny him drawe 690 

To his yeman, to herknen al his sawe. 
And thus he seyde vn-to his yeman tho, 
' Hold thou thy pees, and spek no wordes mo, 
For if thou do, thou shalt it dere abye ; 
Thou sclaundrest me heer in this companye, 6% 

' E. of oure : ihi nsl omit ol, ' E. cmiu it. 

■ ...Coogk- 


And eek discouerest that thou sholdest hyde.' 
' Ye,' quod our host, ' telle on, what so bityde ; 

Of al his' threting rekke^ nat a myte ! ' 

' In feith,' quod he, ' namore I do but lyte.' 

And whan this chanon sey it wolde nat be, 700 

But his yeman wolde telle his priuyte. 

He fledde awey for verray sorwe and shame. 
' A I' quod the yeman, ' heer shall aryse game, 

Al that I can anon now wol I telle. 

Sin he is gon, the foule fend him quelle I 705 

For neuer her-after' wol I with him mete 

For peny ne for pound, I yow bihete 1 

He diat me broughte first vnto that game, 

Er that he deye, sorwe haue he and shame I 

For it is ernest to me, by my feith ; 710 

That fele I we!, what so' any man seith. 

And yet, for al my smert and al my grief. 

For al my sorwe, labour, and meschief, 

I coude neuer leue it in no wyse. 

Now wolde god my wit myghte suffyse J15 

To tellen al that longeth to that art 1 

But' natheles yow wol I tellen part ; 

Sin that my lord is gon, I wol nat spare ; 

Swicb thing as that I knowe, I wol declare. — 719 

Heere endeth the prologe of the Chanouns 
yemaoneB tale. 

■ 5o E, ; ihi rtst thi>. 

' So E. Cm, ; Cp. tecehe I i HI. Pt. Ln. rtcche th«. 

• So HI. Cp, Pt. Ln, ; E. omiVi iifter, kaving heet only. 

• V. that . Ill, ml tn. >T.. And : ih, 



Heer Ij^umeth tlie Chanouns yeman Mb tale. 
[Prima pars^ 

With this chanotin I dwelt haue seuen yeer, 7: 

And of his science am I neuer the neer, 
Al that I hadde, 1 haue ylost ther-by ; 
And god wot, so hath many mo than I. 
Ther I was wont to be ryght fresh and gay 
Of clothing and of other good array, 7; 

Now may I were an hose vpon myn heed ; 
And wher my colour was bothe fresh and reed, 
Now is it wan and of a' leden hewe ; 
Who so it vseth, sore shal he rewe. 
And of my swink yet blered is myn yS, 7: 

Lo ! which auantage is to muldplye ! 
That slyding science hath me maad so bare, 
That I haue no good, wher that euer I fare ; 
And yet I am endetted so ther-by 
Of gold that I haue borwed, trewely, ■;; 

That whyl I lyue, I shal it quyte neuer. 
Lat euery man be war by me for euer I 
What maner man that casteth him ther-to, 
If he continue, I holde his thrift ydo. 
So* heipe me god, ther-by shal he nat winne, ^, 

But empte his pure, and make his wittes thinne. 
And whan he, thurgh his madnes and folye, 
Hath lost his owen good thurgh lupartye, 
Thanne he excyteth other folk ther-to, 
To lese her good as he him-self hath do. ^j 

For vnto shrewes ioye it is and ese 
To haue her felawes in peyne and disese; 
■ £. omfa 4. * E- Pt. Ld. For 10 J but Cp. ow's For, 



Thus was I ones lemed of a clerke. 

Of that no chaise, I wol speke of our werke. 

Whan we been ther as we ahul exercyse 750 

Our eluish craft, we semen wonder wyse, 
Our tennes been so clergial and so queynte. 
I blowe the fyr til that myn herte feynte. 

What sholde I tellen ech proporcionn 
Of thinges whiche that we werche vpon, 755 

As on fyue or sbte ounces, may wel be, 
Of siluer or som other quantite, 
And bisie me to teLe yow the names 
Of orpiment, brent bones, yren squames. 
That into poudre grounden been ful smal F 7G0 

And in an erthen potte how' put is al. 
And salt yput in, and also pepeer', 
Bifom thisc poudres that I speke of heer, 
And wel yconered with a lampe* of glas. 
And mochel other thing which that ther was ? 763 

And of the pot and glasses enluting, 
That of the eyre myghte passe out no thing ? 
And of the esy fyr and smart also, 
Which that was maad, and of the care and wo 
That we liadde in our matires sublyming, 770 

And in amalgaming and calcening 
Ofquik siluer, yclept Mercurie crude? 
For alle our sleightes we can nat conclude. 
Our orpiment and sublymed Mercurie, 
Our grounden litarge eek on* the porphurie, 775 

' E. omili how ; Ihi nil have !l. 

' Tht MSS. kmit papKT, piapcre. T^rarbitl riaifs pep«re. 

■ rhi MSS. iavt lampe, or laumpe. Sn Ihi noU. 

* E. in 1 Cm. Sc ; iht rtsi on. 


Of ech ofthise of onnces a certeyn 

Nought helpeth vs, our labour is in veyn. 

Ne eek our spiriCes ascencioun, 

Ne onr materes that lyen al fixe adoun, 

Mowe in our werking no thing vs auayle. j 

For lost is al our labour and trauayle, 

And al the cost, a* twenty deuel weye. 

Is lost also, which we vpon it leye. 

Ther is also ful many another thing 
That is vnto our craft aperlening ; 5 

Though I by ordre hem nat reherse can. 
By cause that I am a lewed man. 
Yet wol I telle hem as they come to mynde, 
Though I ne can nat sette hem in her kynde ; 
As bole armoniak, verdegrees, boras, ; 

And sondry vessels maad of erthe and glas, 
Our [many hotels] and our descensories, 
Violes, croslets, and sublymatories, 
Cucurbites, and alembykes eek, 
And othere swiche, dere ynough a leek. ; 

Nat nedeth it for to reherse hem alle, 
Watres rubifying and boles galle, 
Arsenik, sal armoniak, and brimstoon ; 
And herbes coude I telle eek many oon. 
As egremoin, valerian, and lunarie, '■ 

And othere swiche, if (hat me liste tarle. 
Our lampes brenning bothe nyght and day. 
To bringe aboute our craft, if that' we may. 
Our fourneys eek of calcinacioun, 
And of watres albificacioun, '■ 

1 B. And : llu rest Of. 

' E. Cm. a i Ln. in ; Ihe risl on, 

■ E. purpot if; tlu rtsi ciafl ir thaL 


Vnslekked lym, chalk, and gleyre of an' ey, 

Poudres diuerse, asshes, [and muk], and cley, 

Cered pokets*, sa! peter, vitriole ; 

And diuers fyres maad of wode and cole ; 

Sa,l tartre, alkaly, and sal preparat, Sio 

And combust materes and coagulat, 

Cley maad with hora or' mannes heer, and oile 

Of tartre, alum*, glaa, berm, wort, and argoile, 

Resalgar, and our materes enbiblng ; 

And eek of our materes encorporing, 815 

And of our siiuer citrinacioun, 

Our* cementing and fermentacioun, 

Our ingottes, testes, and many mo. 

I wol yow telle, as was me taught also, 
The foure' spirites and the bodies seuene, 8jo 

By ordre, as ofte I herde my lord hem neuene. 
The firste spirit qutk-siluer called is, 
The second orpiment, the thridde, ywis, 
Sal amioniak, and the ferthe brimstoon. 
The bodies seuene eek, lo 1 hem heer anoon : 815 

Sol gold is, and Luna siiuer we threpe. 
Mars yren, Mercuric quik siiuer we clepe, 
Satumus leed, and lupiter is tin, 
And Venus coper, by my fader kin I 

This cursed craft who so wol exercyse, 830 

He shat no good ban that him may suffyse; 
For al the good he spendeth ther-aboute, 
He lese shal, ther-of haue I no doute. 
Who so' that listeth outen his folye, 
Lat him come forth, and leme multiplye ; 8.15 

■ Tht MSS. aU nlain in. ^ ' Mhwriltm poltes I'a E. 

• E. and j Iki reil or. * " Acctni alom on Iki a, 

' E. And of onre ; iht rest omit Ani of. * E, jenene; (i« r»s( foiire, 
' E. omi'n to ; Iht ml havi il. i- I 


And eueiy man that ought bath in his cofre, 

Lat him appere, and weze a philosofre. 

Ascaunce that craft is so lyght to lere i 

Nay, nay, god wot, al be he monk or frere. 

Freest or chanoun, or any other wyght, I 

Though he sitte at his booli bothe day and nyght, 

In lemyng of this eluish nyce lore, 

AI is in veyn, and parde, mochel morel 

To leme a lewed man this subtilte, 

Fy I spek nat ther-of, for it wol nat be ; J 

Al' conne be letterure, or conne he noon, 

As in effect, he shal fynde it al oon. 

For Ixithe two, by my sauadoun, 

Concluden, in multiplicacioun, 

Ylylte wel, wlian they han al ydo; ( 

This is to seyn, tbey faylen bothe two. 

Yet forgat I to make rehersaille 
or watres corosif and of lymaille, 
And of bodies mollificacioun. 

And also of her induracioun, ! 

Oyles, ablucions, and metal fusible. 
To tellen al wolde passen any bible 
That owher is ; wberfor, as for the beste. 
Of alle thise names now wol I me reste. 
For, as I trowe, I haue yow told ynow G 

To reyse a feend, al loke he neuer so row. 

A I nay I lat be ; the philosophres stoon, 
Elbcir clept, we sechen faste echoon ; 
For, hadde we him, than were we' aker ynow. 
But, vnto god of heuen I make avow, S 

For al our crail:, whan we ban al ydo, 
And' al our sleighte, he wol nat come vs to. 

■ E. Cm. And ; Ih* riu Al. * E. it ; lU reU w^i 

• K Wiih : (At «« And, ■' " '^l'-' 


He hath ymaad vs' spenden mochel good, 

For sorwe of which almost we weiten wood, 

But that good hope crepeth in our herte, B70 

Supposinge euer', though we sore sraerte. 

To be releued by him afterward; 

Swich supposing and hope is sharp and hard ; 

I warne yow wel, it 13 to seken euer ; 

That iiilur temps hath maad men to' disseuer S75 

In trust therof, from al that euer they hadde. 

Yet of that art they can nat wexen sadde. 

For vnto hem it is a bitter awete ; 

So semeth it ; for nadde they but a shete 

Which that they myghte wrappe hem inne a* nyght, 880 

And a bak° to walken inne by day-IyghC, 

They wolde hem selle and spenden on this' craft; 

They can nat stinte til no thing be lafi. 

And euermore, wher that euer they goon. 

Men may hem knowe by smel of brimstoon ; 885 

For al the world, they stinken as a goot; ' 

Her sauour is so rammish and so hoot. 

That, though a man from hem a myle ^ be. 

The sauour wol infecte him, trusteth ' me ; 

Lo*, thus by smelling" and threedbare array 8ga 

If that men list, this folk they knowe may. 

And if a man wol aske hem piyuely. 

Why they been clothed so vnthriftily. 

They ryght anon wol rownen in his ere. 

And seyn, that if that they espyed were, S95 

' Cm. I-nud n ; Ml. i-made it ; R maad vs ; l\i rest vs made. 

' E. omili euet ; Iht rest havi il. ' CiQ. to, vihieh the rtsl omit. 

' E, Inna at ; tki Tat in a. ' E. brat ; tU ml bak ; m nau. 

■ E. the; Atratika. 

' E. a Mite from ban ; tht rat bom bnn a niyte. 

* E. tnule ; Iht rtst Irusieih. ' E. And ; iht rtu Lo. 

" E. nnel; tk§ rut imcllyng. 



Men wolde hem slee, by cause of her science; 
Lo, thus ihis folk bitrayen innocence [ 

Passe ouer this ; I go my tale vn-to. 
Er than ' the pot be on the fyr ydo, 
Of metals with a certeyn quaHtite, 900 

My lord hem tempreth, and no man but he — 
Now he is goon, I dar seyn boldely — 
For, as men seyn, he can doon craftily ; 
Algate I wot wel he hath swich a name. 
And yet ful ode he rennelh in a blame ; 905 

And wite ye how ? ful ofte it happeth so. 
The pot tobreketh, and farewel I al is go 1 
Thise metals been of so greet violence. 
Our walles mowe nat make hem resistence, 
But if they weren wrought of lym and stoon ; 910 

They percen so, and thurgh the wal they goon. 
And somme of hem sinken in-to the ground — 
Thus ban we lost by tymes many a pound — 
And somme are scatered al the floor aboute, 
Somme lepe' in-to the roof; with-outen doute, 91s 

Though that the feend nought in our syghte him shewe, 
I trowe he with vs be, that ilke shrewe 1 
In helle wher that he is lord' and sire, 
Nis ther more wo, ne more rancour ne ire. 
Whan that our pot is broke, as I haue sayd, gio 

Euery man chit, and halt him yuel apayd. 

Som seyde, it was long* on the fyr-making, 
Som seyde, nay t it was on the blowing ; 
(Than was I fered, for that was myn office) ; 
' Straw!' quod the thridde, 'ye been lewed and nycc. 



It was nat tempred as it oughte be.' 916 

' Nay ! ' quod the ferlhe, ' stint, and herkne me ; 

By cause our fyr ne was nat maad of beech, 

That is the cause, and other noon, so theechl' 

I can nat telle wher-on it was long', 9jo 

But wel I wot greet stryf is vs* among. 

' What 1 ' quod my lord, ' ther is namore to done, 
Of thise perils I woi be war eft-sone ;' 
I am ryght sikcr that the pot was erased. 
Be as be may, be ye no thing amased ; 935 

As vsage is, lat swepe the floor as swylhe, 
Plukke vp your hertes, and beth gladde and blythe.' 

The muUok on an hepe ysweped' was, 
And on the floor yeast a canevas, 
And al this muUok in a syve ythrowe, 940 

And sifted, and ypiked many a. throwe. 

' Parde,' quod oon, ' somwhat of our metal 
Yet is ther heer, though that we han nat al, 
Al-though this thing mishapped haue as now, 
Another tyme it may be wel ynow, 945 

Vs moste putte our good in auenture ; 
A marchant, parde ! may nat ay endure, 
Tnisteth me wel, in his prosperite ; 
Somtym his good is drenched in the see. 
And somtym comth it sauf vn-to the londe.' 950 

' Pees I ' quod my lord, ' the nest tyme I wol * fonde 
To bringe our craft al in another plyte ; 
And but I do, sirs ', iat me han the wyte ; 
Ther was defaute in som what, wel I wot.' 

Another seyde, the fyr was ouer hot : — ■ 955 

■ Cm. HI. tong ; thi rest along ; set 1. 911. ' E. T> ii ; Ike ml ii ti. 

* Cm. l-iw<pitl ; Ln. yiwepped ; E. fweped ; Cp. Pi. HI, yswoped. 

* E. ihil : Ihd nsl wol, wiL, wclc. * E, otmit tin ; Ik* nil kav4 il. 



But ', be it hot or cold, I dar seye this, 

That we concluden euermore amis. 

We fayle of that which that we wolden hauc, 

And in our madnesse euermore we raue. 

And whan we been togidres euerichoon, 96c 

Euery man semeth a Salomon. 

But al* thing which that shyneth* as the gold 

Nis nal gold, as that I haue herd it* told ; 

Ne cuery appel that is fair at ' ye 

Ne is ' nat good, what so men clappe or crye, 961 

Ryght so, lol^ fareth it amonges vs; 

He that semeth the wysest, by lesus 1 

Is most fool, whan it cometh to the preef; 

And he that semeth trewest is a theef ; 

That shul ye knowe, er that I fro yow wende, 97c 

By that I of my tale haue maad an ende. 

Explicit prima pars. Et sequiiur pars stcunda. 
Ther is' a chanoun of religioun 
Amonges vs, wolde infecte al a toun, 
Though it as greet were as was Niniue, 
Rome, AUsaundre, Troye, and othere three. 971 

His aleightes * and his infinit falsnesse 
Ther coude no man wryten, as I gesse, 
Though that he myghte lyue '" a thousand yeer. 
In al this world of falshede nis ^' his peer ; 
For in his termes so he wolde him wynde, 98c 

And speke his wordes in so sly a kynde, 

' E. And ; iht rest But. ' E. aurj ; Iht nil a), alls. 

• Cm. ichrnylh ; Ln. ichyneth ; HI. tchjneth ; E. seineth ; Cp. senietb. 

• Cp. PL Ln. it i E. Cm. HI. oniil it. • E. to j tht rtsi al, 

• K Nis ; iJurtstVt is. ' E. omib lo ; Iht rial htaie il. 

• E.wiii iMtmlit. Cf.I.987. ■ E. HI. ileighle ; ikt reuikigbtts. 
" E. lyue myghte ; Uu rtsI myghte lyue. 

" E. nu; Lo-ncli; Uu ml tit, aji. 


Whan he commune sbal with any wyght. 
That he wol make him doten anon ryght, 
But it a feend be, as him-seluen is. 
Ful many a man hath he bigyled er this, 985 

And wol, if that he lyue may a whyle ; 
And yet men ryde and goon ful many a myle 
Him for to seke and haue his aqueyntaunce, 
Nought knowinge of his false g^ouemaunce. 
And if yow list to yeue me audience, 9<)o 

I wol it tellen beer in your presence. 
But wOTshipful cbanouns religious, 
Ne demeth nat that I sclaundre ' your hous, 
Al-thougb * my tale of a chanoun be. 
Of cuery ordre som shrewe is, parde, 993 

And god forbede that al a companye 
Sholde rewe a singuler mannes folye. 
To sclaundre yow is no thing myn entente. 
But to correcten that is mis I mente. 
This talc was nat only totd for yow, 1000 

But eek for otbere mo ; ye wot wel bow 
That, among Cristes aposteltes twelue, 
Ther nas no traytour but ludas bim-selue. 
Than why sholde al the remenant haue blame * 
That giltlees were f by yow I seye the same. 1005 

Saue only this, if ye wol herkne me, 
If any ludas in your couent be, 
Remeueth him bitymes, I yow rede, 
If shame or los may causen any drede. 
And beth no thing displesed, I yow preye, loio 

But in this cas herkneth what I sbal seye. 

■ E. draclaandrc ; Ihe rtst iclanndte ; set \. 99S. 
' E. Al-lhough that; l\i real omil thit. 

■ E. HI. a blimc ; Ifie rest onuV 1. 

vot. m. H dmhio;., Google 


In London was a preest, an ' annueleer, 
That iherin dwelled hadde* many a yeer, 
Which was so plesaunt and so seruisable 
Vnto the wyf, wher as he was at table, lo 

That she wolde suffre him no thing for to paye 
For bord ne clothing, wente he neuer so gaye ; 
And spending siluer hadde he ryght ynow, 
Therof no fore ; I wol precede as now. 
And telle foith my tale of the chanoun, lo 

That broughte this preest to confusioun. 

This false chanoun cam vp-on a day 
Vnto this preestes chambre, wher he lay, 
Biseching him to lene him a certeyn 
or gold, and he wolde quyte it him ageyn. lo 

' Lene me a mark,' quod he, ' but dayea three. 
And at my day I wol it quj^n thee. 
And if so be that thou me fynde fals. 
Another day do hange me by the hals 1' 

This preest him took a mark, and that as swythe, 
And this chanoun him thanked o&a sithe, lo 

And took his leue, and wente forth his weye. 
And at the thridde day broughte his moneyc, 
And to the preest he took his gold ^ayn, 
Wherof this preest was wonder glad and fayn. lo 

' Certes,' quod he, ' no thing anoyeth me 
To lene a man a noble, or two or thre. 
Or what thing were in my possessioun. 
Whan he so trewe is of condicioun. 
That in no wyse he breke wol his day; lo 

To swich a man I can neuer seye nay.' 

a dwelled hadde (or hwl). 


' Whall' qnod this chanoun, 'sholde I be vntrewef 
Nay, that were thing • yfallen al of-newe. 
Trouthe is a thing that I wol euer kepe 
Vn-to ■ that day in which that I shal crepe 1045 

In-to my graue, and' elles god forbede; 
Bileuelh this as siker as your* crede. 
God Ibanke I, and in good tyme be it sayd, 
That ther was neuer man yet yue! apayd 
For gold ne siluer that he to me lente, 105a 

Ne neuer ^Ishede in myn herte I mente. 
And sir,' quod he, ' now of my priuetee, 
Sin ye so goodlich ban been vn-to me. 
And kytbed to me so greet genliliesse, 
Somwhat to quyte with your kyndenesse, 1055 

I wol yow shewe, and, if' yow list to lere, 
I wol yow teche pleynly the manere. 
How I can werken in philosophye. 
Taketh good heed, ye shul wel seen at yi. 
That I wol doon a maistrie er I go.' 1060 

' Ye,' quod the preest, ' ye, sir*, and wol ye so ? 
Marie ! ther-of I pray yow hertely I ' 

' At your comandement, sir, trewely,' 
Quod the chanoun, ' and elles god forbede ! ' 

Lo, how this theef coude his seruyse bede 1 1065 

Ful soth it is, that swich profred seruyse 
Sdnketh, as witnessen thise olde wyse ; 
And that fill sone I wol it verifye 
In Ibis chanoun, rote of al trecheiye, 
That euer-more delyt hath and gladnesse — 1070 

Swich feendly thoughtea in his herte impresse — 
' E. Cm. a thyng; iki rtsi omU a. ' E. Ln, In-ioj ikt ntl Vn-to. 

* E. or ; llu rtsl and. < E. the; HI. yoar ; ikt rtsI it jtntt. 
' E. if thM ; M( rest ind if (or yif). 

• Afltr lir, E. wrongly insirtt quoj he. 

H a DMn;o:^,GoO*^lf 


How Cristes peple he may to meschief bnnge ; 
God kepe va from his fals dJssimulinge 1 

Nought wiste this preest with whom thsit he ddte, 
Ne of bis harm cominge he no thing felte. 107 

O sely preest 1 scly Innocent I 
With coueityse anon thou shalt be blent I 
O gracelees, ful blynd is thy conceit, 
No thing ne artow war of the deceit 
Wtiich that this fox yshapen hath to^ thee 1 loS 

His wyly wrenches thou ne mayst nat flee. 
Wherfor, to go to the conclusioun 
That refereth to thy confusioun, 
Vnhappy man I anon I wol me hye 
To tellen thyn vnwit and thy ' folye, 108 

And eek the falsnesse of that other wrecche, 
As ferforth as that' my conning may strecche. 

This chanoun was my lord, ye wolden wene ? 
Sir host, in feith, and by the heuenes quene, 
It was another chanoun, and nat he, lo; 

That can an hundred fold more subtilte I 
He hath bitrayed folkes many tyme ; 
Of his falshede it duUeth me to ryme. 
Euer whan that I speke of his falshede. 
For shame of him my chekes wexen rede ," iw 

Algates, they biginnen for to glowe, 
For reednesse haue I noon, ryght wel I knowe, 
In my visage ; for fumes dyuerse 
Of metals, which ye han herd me reherse, 
Consumed and wasted han my reednesse. m 

Now tak heed of this chanouns cursednesse I 

' E, fori Ike rtsi to. ' E. his; Cm. heigh j the rtst thj. 

■ Cm. thit, viMck tttrm riquirid; yti Ihi rest omii it, 

■ OO^^If 


' Sir,' quod he to the preest, ' lat your man gon 
For quik-siluer, that we it hadde • anon ; 
And lat him bringen ounces two or three ; 
And whan he comth, as faste shul ye see 1 1 

A wonder thing which ye sey neuer er this.' 

Sir,' quod the preest, 'it shall be doon, ywis.' 
He bad his seruaunt fecchen him this thing, 
And he al redy was at his bidding. 
And wente him forth, and cam anon agayn ii 

With this quik-siiuer, sothly for to sayn, 
And took thise ounces thre to the chanoun ; 
And he hem ' leyde fayre and wel adoun, 
And bad the seruaunt coles for to bringe. 
That he anon myghte go to his werkinge. n 

The coles ryght anon weren yfet. 
And this chanoun took out a crosselet 
Of his bosom, and shewed it the ' preest. 
' This instrument,' quod he, 'which that thou seest, 
Tak in thyn hand, and put thy-self ther-inne i: 

Of this quik-siluer an ounce, and heer biginne, 
In the name of Crist, to wexe a philosofre. 
Ther been ful fewe, whiche that * I wolde profre 
To shewcn hem thus muche of my science. 
For ye shul seen heer, by experience, i 

That this quik-siluer wol I mortifye 
Ryght in your syghte anon, withouten' lye, 
And make it ' as good siluer and as fyn 
As ther is any in your purs or myn. 

' E. Cm. hadde it ; iht ml it hadde. • E. Cm. bem ; iht rat it 

■ E. to the ; tke rist omil to. 

■ £. to whiche ; Cm. to whiche that ; tii rat whiche that 

■ E. I wol nat ; HI. witb-oulen ; Cm. wJlA-outyn ; llu ml withoute (or 
without.) < £, amii$ it j ikt rta kavt U. 


Or elleswher, and make it malliable ; 113° 

And elles, holdetb me fals and voable 

Amonges folk for euer to appere I 

I haue a poudre heer, that coste me dere, 

Sbal make al good, for it is cause of al 

My conning, whicli that I yow * shewen shal. 1135 

Voydeth your man, and lat him be Iher-oute, 

And shet the dore, whyls we been aboute 

Our priuetee, that no man vs espye 

Whyls that we werke in this philosophye.' 

Al 33 he bad, fulfilled was in dede, 1140 

This ilke seruant anon-ryght out yede. 

And his maister shette the dore anon, 

And to her labour speedily they gon. 

This preest, at this cursed chanouns bidding, 
Vp-on the fyr anon sette this thing, 11+i 

And blew the fyr, and bisied him fill faste ; 
And this cbanoun in-to the croslet caste 
A poudre, noot I whcr-oPthat it was 
Ymaad, other of chalk, other ' of glas, 
Oi som what elles, was nat worth a flye, iijo 

To biynde with the preest ; and bad him hye 
The coles for to couchen al aboue 
The croslet, ' for, in tokening I thee loue,' 
Quod this cbanoun, ' tbyn owene hondes two 
Shul werchen ' al thing which shal heer be do.' 1 155 

' Graunt mercy,' quod the preest, and was ful glad. 
And couched coles * as the ° chanoun bad. 
And whyle he bisy was, this feendly wrecche. 
This fals chanoun, the foule feend him fecche 1 

' E. to jow ; lit rest emit to. ' E. or j Pi. ot ellis ; t\t risl other. 

* Thi MSS. have weichc, worchc, witch* ; spoiling lit mtin; sh 1. 105S. 
' E.CiD.colcj ihtrislcola. ' E.that; Cm.thatthei ikirisltbt. 


Out of his bosom took ' a bechen cole, 1160 

In which ful subtiily was maad an hole, 

And ther-in put was of siluer lymaille 

An ounce, and stopped was, with-outen fayle. 

The hole with wex, to kepe the lymail in. 

And vndersMndeth, that this false gin 1165 

Was nat maad ther, but it was maad bifore ; 

And othere thinges I shal telle more 

Herafterward, which that he with him broughte ; 

£r he cam ther, him to bigyle he thoughte. 

And so he dide, er that they wente atwinne; iijo 

Til he had tenied him, he coude not blinne. 

It duUeth me whan that I of him speke. 

On his falshede bjn wolde I me wreke, 

If I wiste how ; but he is heer and ther ; 

He is so variaunt, he * abit no wher. 1175 

But taketh heed now, sirs, for goddes lone I 
He took his * cole of which I spak abone, 
And in his bond he baar it priuely. 
And whyles the * preest couched busily 
The coles, as I tolde yow er this, nSo 

This chanoun seyde, ' frend, ye doon amis ; 
That is nat couched as it oughte be ; 
But sone I shal amenden it,' quod he. 
' Now lat me medle therwith but a whyle. 
For of yow haue I pite, by seint Gyle I 1185 

Ye been ryght hoot, I se wel how ye swete, 
■ Haue heer a cloth, and wype awey the wete.' 
And whyles that the preest wyped his &ce, 
This chanoun took his cole with harde grace °, 

' E. he took ; l/U rtU omit he. ' E. Cp. that he ; llu rest omit that. 

■ E.thii; riinitbii; ml. iiSg. * Aimttbii? SiiW. iigi, 1030. 

' So E. ; Cm. with lory grace (j« 1, 66s). A'"' MSS. havt 1 ihiewe hit 
face, and mah \, 11S8 t»d ti/ith him w;pcd hai. 


And leyde it vp aboue, on ' the tnidward 1 190 

Of the croslet, and blew wel afterward. 
Till that the coles gonne faste brenne. 

' Now yeue vs drinke,' quod the chanoun thenne, 
' As swythe al shal be we!, I vndertake ; 
Sitte we doun, and lat vs mery make.' 1195 

And whan that this chanounes bechen cole 
Was brent, all the lymaille, out of the hole, 
Into the croslet fil anon adoun ; 
And so it moste nedes, by resoun. 
Sin it so euen aboue ' couched was ; tioo 

But ther-of wiste ihe preest no thing, alas I 
He demed alls the coles yliche good, 
For of that sleighte he no thing vnderstood. 
And whan this alkamistre sey his tyme, 
' Ris vp,' quod he, ' sir preest, and stondeth' by me ; 
And for I wot wel ingot haue I noon, iiofi 

Goth, walketh forth, and brynge vs a chalk-stoon ; 
For I wol make oon of the same shap 
That is an ingot, if I may han hap. 
And bringeth cek with yow a boUe or a panne, luc 
Ful of water, and ye shul se wel thanne 
How that our bisinesse shal thryue and preue. 
And yet, for ye shul han no misbileue 
Ne wrong conceit of me in your absence, 
I ne wol nat been out of your presence, i:i; 

But go with yow, and come with yow ageyn.' 
The chambre dore, shortly for to seyn. 
They opened and shette, and wente her wey. 
And forth with hem they carieden the key, 

' I firopos* Ihis rtading ; E. Jajibouevp on; Cm, Ihi sami,bBt ornillingit 
HI. abouen on ; the rest vpan abouen. ' E. aboucn it ; ihi ml aboue. 
• Lichf. Cp. Pt. iiondeth; Ln. HI. itoadci Cm. [imd ; E. tit 



And come agayn with-outen any delay. tt 

What sholde I tarien al the longe day ? 
He took the chalk, and shoop it in the wyse 
Of an ingot, as I shal yow deuyse. 

I seye, he took out of his owen sleue, 
A teyne of siluer (yuel moot he cheue I) 12 

Which that ne ' was nat but an ounce of weighte ; 
And taketh heed now of his cursed sleighte ! 

He shoop bis ingot, in lengths and eek= in brede, 
Of this * teyne, with-outen any drede, 
So slyly, that the preest it nat espyde ; 11 

And in his sleue agayn he gan it hyde ; 
And fro the fyr he took vp his matcre, 
And in thingot putte it with mery chere, 
And in the water-vessel he it caste 
Whan that him luste, and bad the preest as faste, 1 1 
' Look what ther is *, put in thyn hand and grope, 
Thow fynde shalt ther siluer, as I hope ; 
What, [by myn honour,] sholde it elles be ? 
Shauing of siluer siluer is, parde I ' ' 
He putte his hond in, and took vp a teyne la 

Of siluer fyn, and glad in euery veyne 
Was this preest, whan he sey that ' it was so. 
' Goddes blessing, and his modres also, 
And alle halwes haue ye, sir chanoun,' 
Seyde this preest, ' and I her malisoun, 12 

But and ye vouche-sauf to techen me 
This noble craft and this subtilite ; 

' Cm. ne ; vMch tht rat omil. ' E. eek ; uhiek /fa rtsi onu'l. 

* Tyrwhitl nadi Of thilke ; / propost—Ai of this teyne. 

* E. Wbal that heer ii ; ihi nil Look what tbei is. 
' E. omUi 11. 1338, 1139. 

* £. Ul. mni't tbati iikfiundia Cm. Cp. Pt Lib 


I wdI be your in al that euer I maj I ' 

Quod the chanoua ', ' yet wol I make assay 
The second tyme, that ye may taken hede iij 

And been expert of this, and in your nede 
Another day assaye in myn absence 
This disciplyne and this crafty science. 
Lat take another ounce,' quod he tho, 
' Of quik-siluer, with-outen wordes mo, 115 

And do ther-with as ye han doon er this 
With that other, which that now siluer is.' 

This preest him bisieth in al that he can 
To doon as this chanoun, this cursed man, 
Comanded him, and £iste he blew the fyr, 116 

For to come to theSect of his desyr. 
And this chanoun, ryght in the mene whyle, 
Al redy was, the preest efl to bigyle, 
And, for a countenaunce, in his honde he bar 
An hotwe stikke, (tak keep and be war I) 116 

In thende of which an ounce, and namore. 
Of siluer lymail put was, as bifore 
Was* in his cole, and stopped with wex wel 
For 10 kepe in his lymaif euery del. 
And whyl this preest was in his bisinesse, 117 

This chanoun with his stikke gan him dresse 
To him anon, and his ponder caste in 
As be did er; (the deuel out of bis skin 
Him terve *, I pray to god, for his falshede; 
For he was euer fals in thought and dede) ; 137 

And with this stikke aboue the croalet, 
That was ordeyned with that lalse get *, 

' E. precit ; tit* nsl cbinoun. ' E. emits Wii ; iht rtsi havi it. 

* E. t«ire ; Cm. Pt. turne ; lAt rtst lorne. 

• E. Cm. let (-]«>; HI. get; U. gett : Cp. Pt. pile. 

■ OO^^If 


He stired the coles til relente gan 

The wex a^jn the fyr, as euery man, 

But it a fool be, wot wel it mot nede, 1280 

And a! that in the stikke wa,s out yede. 

And in the croslet hastily it fel. 

Now gode sirs, what wol ye bet than wel P * 
Whan thai this preest thus was bigyled ageyn *, 
Supposing nought but trewthe, soth to seyn, 1285 

He was so glad, that I can* nat expresse 
In no manere his mirthe and his gladnesse. 
And to the chanoun he profred eftsone 
Body and good; 'ye,' quod the chanoun sone, 
' Though poure I be, crafty thou shalt me fynde ; 1 190 
I wame thee, yet is ther more bihynde. 
Is ther any coper her-inne ? ' seyde he. 
' Ye,' quod the preest, 'sir, I trowe wel ther be.' 
* Elles go by vs som, and that as swythe, 
Now, gode sir, go forth thy wey and hy the.' 1295 

He wente his wey, and with the coper cam. 
And this chanoun it in his bondes nam. 
And of that coper weyed out but an ounce. 
Al to simple is my tonge to pronounce. 
As ministre of my wit, the doublenesse 1300 

Of this chanoun, rote of al cursednesse. 
He semed frendjy to hem that knewe him nought. 
But he was feendly bothe in herte and thought 
It werieth me to telle of his falsnesse. 
And nathelees yet wol I it expresse, 1305 

To thentent that men may be war therby. 
And for noon other cause, trewely. 

' Cp. Pt. Ln. The preen lupposede nothing bin wil. 

' Cp. Pt. Ln. But buiycd him fiite, and wai wondu fiyn. 

' E. ne km ; tht risl ondl ne. 


He puttc his ' ounce of coper in the croslet. 
And on the fyr as Bwythe he hath it set. 
And caste in poudre, and made the preest to blowe, 
And in his werking for to stoupe lowe, 131 

As he dide er, and al nas but a lape ; 
Ryght as him liste, the preest he made his ape; 
And afterward in thingot he it caste, 
And in the panne putte it at the laste 131 

Of water, and * in he putte his owen bond. 
And in his sleue, {as ye bifom-hond 
Herde me telle,) he ' hadde a siluer teyne. 
He slyly look it out, this cursed heyne — 
Vnwiting this preest of his false craft — ' 13J 

And in the pannes botme he hath it laft ; 
And in the water rombled to and fro, 
And wonder priuely took vp also 
The coper teyne, nought knowing this preest, 
And hidde it, and him hente by the breest, iji 

And to him spak, and thus seyde in his game, 
' Stoupeth adoun, [parde], ye be to blame, 
Helpeth me now, as I ' dide yow whyl-er, 
Putte in your hond, and loketh what is ther.' 

This preest took vp this siluer teyne anon, 133 

And thanne seyde the chanoun, ' lat vs gon 
With thise thre teynes, which that we han wrought. 
To som goldsmith, and wite if they been ought. 
For, by my feith, I nolde, for myn hood. 
But if that they were siluer, fyn and good, 133 

And that as swyihe preued shal it ' be.' 

Vn-to the goldsmith with thise teynes three 

Cm. hi.; E. the; 

; llu nsl Ih!.. 

' E. the ™at. 

r; llu 

KonuVshc; th, . 

rtsi have il. 

' E. . 


it thai ; La. tcbil he ; ikt rest thai it 


They wente, and putte thise teynes in assay 
To fyr and hamer ; myghte no man sey nay, 
But that they weren as hem oughte be. 1340 

This sotted preest, who was gladder than he ? 
Was neuer brid gladdei agayn the day, 
Ne nyghtingale, in the sesoua of May, 
Nas neuer noon ' that luste bet to singe; 
Ne lady lusder in carohnge 1345 

Or for to speke of love and wommanhede, 
Ne knyght in armes to doon an hardy dede, 
To stonde in grace of his lady dere. 
Than had this preest this sory crafl to lere ; 
And to the cbanoun thus he spak and seyde, 1350 

'For loue of god, that for vs alle deyde, 
And as I may deserue it vn-to yow. 
What shall this receit coste f telleth now I ' 

' By our lady,' quod this chanoun, ' it is dere, 
I wame yow wel; for, saue I and a frere, 135s 

In Engelond ther can no man it make.' 

' No fors,' quod he, ' now, sir, for goddes sake, 
What shal I paye ? telleth me, I preye.' 

' Ywis,' quod he, ' it is ful dere, 1 seye ; 
Sir, at o word, if that thee list it haue, 1360 

Ye shul paye fourty pound, so god me saue 1 
And, nere the frendship that ye didc er this 
To me, ye sholde paye more, y-wis.' 

This preest the somme of fourty pound anon 
Of nobles fette, and took hem euerichon 1365 

To this chanoun, for this ilke receit; 
Al bis werking nas but firaude and deceit 

' Sir preest,' he seyde, ' I kepe ban no I009 
Of my craft, for I wolde it kept were cloos ; 
* E. mio ; tki riU nowi (non). 

dmhio:^, Google 


And as ye loue me, kepelh it secre; 1370 

For, and men knewen al my sottlte, 

[Parde], they wolden tian eo greet eniiye 

To me, by cause of my ptiilosophye, 

1 sholde be deed, ther were noon other weye.' 

' God it forbede I ' quod the preest, ' what sey ye ? 
Yet hadde I leuer spenden al the good 1376 

Which that I haue (and ' elles wexe I wood !) 
Than that ye sholden falle in swich mescheef.' 

' For your good wil, sir, haue ye ryght good preef,' 
Quod the chanoun, ' and farwel, grant mercy 1' 1380 
He wente his wey and neuer the preest him sy 
After that day; and whan that this preest sholde 
Maken assay, at swich tyme as he wolde, 
Of this receit, farwei I it wolde nat be I 
Lo, thus byiaped and bigyled was he ! 13S5 

Thus maketh he his introduccioun 
To bringe folk to her ' destrucdon. — ■ 

Considereth, sirs, how that, in ech estaat, 
Bitwixe men and gold ther is debaat 
So ferforth, that vnnethes is ther noon. 1390 

This multiplying blent so many oon, 
That in good feith I trowe that it be 
The cause grettest of swich scarsete. 
Fhilosophres speken so mistily 

In this craft, that men can nat come therby, 1395 

For any wit that men han now a dayes. 
They mowe wel chiteren, as doon thise ' layes, 
And in her termes sette her lust and peyne, 
But to her purpos shul they neuer atteyne. 

' E. or ; Iht rtsi lad. * E. Cm. omit her. 

■ £, u that dooD ; Cm. u don ; iht rtsf u doon ihisc. 



A man may lyghtly leme, if he haue ought, 1400 

To multiplye, and bringe his good to nought 1 

Lo I Ewich a lucre is in this luaty game, 
A mannes mirthe it wol tome vn-to grame. 
And empten also grete and heuy purses, 
And maken folk for to puichasen curses 1405 

Of hem, that hao her good therto yient. 
1 ' fy I for shame ! they that han been brent. 
Alias I can thei nat flee the fyres hete 7 
Ye that it vsc, I rede ye it lete. 

Lest ye lese al ; for bet than ncuer is late. 1410 

Neuer to tbryue were to long a date. 
Though ye prolle ay, ye shul it neuer fynde ; 
Ye been as bolde as is Bayard the blynde, 
That blundretb forth, and peril casteth noon ; 
He is as bold to renne agayn a stoon 1415 

As for to gon besydes in the weye. 
So &re ye that multiplye, I seye. 
If that your y«ii can nat seen aryght, 
Loke that your mynde lakke nought lus syghL 
For, though ye loke neuer so brode, and stare, 1430 
Ye shul nat winne a myte ' in that chaffare. 
But wasten al that ye may rape and renne. 
Withdrawe the fyr,.lest it to faste brenne ; 
Medleth namore with that art, I mene. 
For, if ye doon, yowr thrift is goon ful clene. 1415 

And ryght as swythe I wol yow tellen here. 
What ' philosophres seyn in this matere. 

Lo, thus seith Arnold of the newe toun. 
As his Rosarie maketh □ 

uO;lluTtsl kavt it. 

It that )e ; tie mf'What that the {hadiyi. 


iia GRorrp a. the chanovns temankss tale. 

He seith lyght thus, with-outen any lye, 1430 

' Ther may no man Mercurie mortifye. 

But it be with his brother knowleching ; 

Lo, how' that he. which that first seyde this thing. 

Of philosophres fader was ', Hermes ; 

He seith, how that the dragoun, doutelees, 1433 

Ne deyeth nat, but if that be be slayn 

With his brother ; and that is for to sayn. 

By the dragoun, Mercurie and noon other 

He vnderstood ; and brimstoon by his brother, 

That out of sol and luna were ydrawe, 1440 

And therfor,' seyde he, ' tak heed to my sawe. 

Let no man bisy him this art for to seche, 

But if that he thentencioun and speche 

Of philosophres vnderstonde can ; 

And if he do, he is a lewed man. 1445 

For this science and this conning,' quod he, 

' Is of the secre of secrees ', parde,' 

Also ther was a disciple of Plato, 
That on a tyme seyde his maister to. 
As his book Senior wol here witnesse, 1450 

And this was his demande in sothEastnesse : 
' Tel me the name of the priuy stoon ? ' 

And Plato answerde vnto him anoon, 
' Tak the stoon that Titanos men name.' 

'Which is that?' quod he. 'Magnesia is the same,' 
Seyde Plato. ' Ye, sir, and is it thus ? 1456 

This is ignotum per ignotius. 
What is Magnesia, good sir, I yow prej'e ? ' 

'It is a water that is maad, I seye, 

' Tyr. Lo how j MSS. How ; tit 1. 14^8, 

■ E. fint wal; Iht rest emit 6nt. 

' E.Cm.ofdiciccrstei; Pt.oriccieei; HI. of Kcreli ; Ln. of ucretcit. 



Of elementes foure,' quod Plato. i, 

' Tel me the rote ', good sir,' quod he tho, 

' Of that water, if that ' it be your wil ? ' 
' Nay, nay,' quod Plato, ' certein, that I nil. 

The philosophres sworn were enerichoon, 

That they sholden discouere it vn-to noon, i 

Ne in no boob it wryte in no manere ; 

For vn>to god * it is so leef and dere 

That he wol nat that it discouered tte. 

But wher it tyketh to his deite 

Man for tenspyre, and eek for to defende t. 

Whom that him lyketh ; lo, this is the ende.' 
Than thus conclude I * ; sith that g:od of heuene 

Ne wol nat that the philosophres ncuene 

How that a man shal come vn-to this stoon, 

I rede as' for the beste, let it goon, i^ 

For who so maketh god his aduersarie. 

As for to werche any thing in contrarie 

Of his wil, certes neuer shal he thryue, 

Though that he multiplye tenne of his ' lyue. 

And dier a poynt; for ended is my tale ; m 

God sende euery trewe man bote of his bale I — 

Heere is ended the Chanouns Yemannes tale. 

' E. raole ; iht rtsi roche, rooche, Tochei, 

* Cm. that ; tahick lit rtst omit. 

* Sorh4 Licbfield MS. ; IHe rtsI lunt Criit ; sa 1. T476. 

' So TjT. ! MSS. conclDde 1 ihnl. • E. vi ; tht rtsl ai 

' Z. Cm. omil hii ; ikd ntt kaut il. 



Heere folwetli the Frologe of the Matmciples 

Wite * ye nat wher ther stant a litel loun 

Which that ycleped is Bob-vp-and-doun, 

Vnder the Blee, in Caunterbnry weye ? 

Ther gan our hoste for to lape and p!eye. 

And seyde, ' sirs, what ! Dun is in the myre I 

Is ther no man, for preyer ne for hyre, 

That wol awake our felawe heer' bihynde? 

A theef myghte him ful lyghtly robbe and bynde, 

Se how he nappeth 1 se ', for cokkes bones, 

As he wol falle from his hors at ones. 

Is that a cook of Londoun, with meschaunceP 

Do him come forth, he knoweCh his penaunce. 

For he shal telle a tale, by my feyl 

Al-though it be nat worth a hotel hey. 

Awake, thou cook,' quod he, ' god yeue the sorwe. 

What eyleth the to alcpe by the morwe? 

Hastow had fleen al nyght, or artow dronke, 

So that thou mayst nat holden vp thyn heed f ' 
This cook, that was ful pale and no-thing reed, 

' E, Hn. Wool ; Cp. HI. Wot ; Cm. Wote ; Pi. Ln. Wete ; bul Wile 



Seyd to our host, ' so god my soule blesse. 
As ther is falle on me swich heuinesse, 
Not I nat why, that me were leuer slepe 
Thui the heste galoun wyn ' ia Chepe.' 

' Wei/ quod the mauneiple, ' if it may doon ese 
To thee, sir cook, and to no wyght displese 
Which that heer rydeth in this companye, 
And that our host wol of his curteisye, 
I wol as ' now excuse thee of thy tale ; 
For, in good feith, thy visage is ful pale, 
Thyn y€n daswen * eek, as that me thinketh, 
And wel I wot, thy breeth ful soure stinketh. 
That sheweth wel thou art not wel disposed ; 
Of me, certein, thou shalt nat been yglosed. 
Se how he ganeth, lo, this dronken wyght, 
As though he wolde vs swolwe* anon ryght. 

Thy cursed breeth infecte wol vs alle; 

Fy, stinking swyn, fy ! foule mot thee ' falle I 

A I taketh heed, sirs, of this lusty man. 

Now, swcte sir, wol ye lusten atte fan ? 

Ther-to me thinketh ye been wel yshape I 

I trowe that ye dronken han wyn ape, 

And that is whan men pleyen with a straw.' 

And with this speche the cook wex wroth and wraw, 

And on the mauneiple be gan nodde faste 

For lakke of speche, and doun the hors him caste, 

Wher as he lay, til that men him vp ' took ; 

This was a fayr chiuache of a cook I 

' Tyr, W7n that i> ; MSS. nmil thai ii ; m nou. 

* £. omilt ii ; Ikt rtsi havt U. 

* So E. Ha. HI. ; Cm. daiwe ; Cp. dau 
' Se Cp. Ln. j th* rut iwolwe rj. ' 
' E. Hn. vp hym ; At ml him vp. _. 

) QROITP H. THE manciple's PROLOGUE. 

Alias I he nadde holde him by his ladel I 

And, er that he agayn were in his sadel, 

Ther was greet showuing bothe to and fro, 

To lifte htm vp, and mochel care and wo, 

So vnweldy was this sory palled gost. £9 

And to the maunciple than spak our host, 

' By-cause drink hath dominacioun 

Vpon this man, by my sauacioun, 

I trowe he lewedly' wold telle his tale. 

For, were it wyn, or old or moys^ ale, 60 

That he hath dronke, he speketh in his nose, 

And fneseth ' &ste, and eek he hath the pose. 

He hath also to do more than ynough 

To kepe him and his capel out of slough ; 

And, if he falle from his capel eft-sone, 6j 

Than shul we alle haue ynough to done. 

In liftinge vp his heuy dronken cors. 

Tel on thy tale, of him make I no fors. 

But yet, maunciple, in feith thou art to nyce. 
Thus openly repreue him of his vyce. 70 

Another day he wol, perauenture, 
Reclayme thee, and bringe thee to lure ; 
I mene, he speke wol of smale thinges, 
As for to pinchen at thy rekeninges. 
That wer not honeste, if it cam to preef.' 75 

' No,' quod the maunciple, ' that were a' greet mescheefl 
So myghte he lyghtl/ bringe me in the snare. 
Yet hadde I leuer payen for the mare 
Which * he rit on, than he shold with me stryue ; 
I wol nat wrathe him, al-so mot I thryue I Bo 

* E. Cm. Ln. fut lewedlj' hifort he. 

■ 80 E. Hn. C^. Ln. HI. i Cm. iiMielh ; Pt. galpctb. 

■ All lit 7 MSS. rtiaii t,; itt tkt tuUt. HI omils No. 
' E. Which that ; tht rtsi omit that. 


OROUP H. THE manciple's PROLOGUE. II7 

That that I spak, I seyde it in my bourde, 

And wile ye what ? I haue heer, in a gourde, 

A draught of wyn, ye, of a rype grape, 

And ryght anon ye shul seen a good lape. 

This cook shal drinke ther-of, if I may ; S.t 

Vp peyne of deeth, he wol nat sey me nay I' 

And certeinly, to tellen as it was, 
Of this vessel the cook drank faste, alias I 
What neded him*? he drank ynough biforn. 
And whan he hadde pouped in this hom, 90 

To the maunciple he took the gourde aga.yn ; 
And of that drink the cook was wonder fayn. 
And thanked him in swich wyse as he coude. 

Than gan our host to laughen wonder loude, 
And seyde, ' I se wel, it is necessarie, 95 

Wher that we goon, good ' drink we with vs carie. 
For that wol turne rancour and disese 
Tacord * and loue, and many a wrong apese. 

O thou* Bachus, yblessed be thy name. 
That so canst tumcn ernest in-to game 1 100 

Worship and thank be to thy deltee I 
Of that matere ye gete namore of me. 
Tel on thy tale, maunciple, I thee preye,' 

' Wel, sir,' quod he, ' now herkneth what 1 seye.' 

{Here/oiliKWJ The Manciple's Tale, II. 105-362, viilb ivMeb 
Group H eniij.] 

■ E. Pt. If that ; Oe ml omit that. 

* SoF..; Cm. nedith hym; Hn. HI. neded it ; At rtsi 1 

■ E. that ; Ihl ml good. 

' Sa E. Hn.; Cm. Cp. Ln. HI. To acotd ; Pc. To pen. 
' Ht. tliou ; which Iht ml omil. 



Heere folweth the Prologs of the FerBones Tale. 

By that the maunciple badde his tale al ended, 

The BOime fro the south lyne was* descended 

So lowe, that he nas nat, to my syghte, 

Degrees nyne and twenty as in hyghte. 

Foure* of the clokke it was tho, as I gesse ; < 

For eleuen foot, or litel more or lesse. 

My shadwe was at thilke tyme, as there. 

Of swich feet as my lengthe parted were 

In six feet equal of proporcioun, 

Thei-with the mones ' exaltacioun, v 

I mene * Libra, alwey gan ascende. 

As we were entringe at a thropes ende ; 

For which our host, as he was wont to gye, 

As in this cas, our loly companye, 

Seyde in this wyse, ' lordings euerichoon, i; 

Now lakketh vs no tales mo than oon. 

Fulfild is my sentence and my decree ; 

I trowe that we han herd of ech degree. 

Almost fiilfild is al myn ordinaunce, 

I prey to god, so yeue him ryght good chaunce, a 

That telleth this tale to vs lustily. 

Sir preest,' qnod he, 'artow a vicary? 

1 E. Cm. wii ; Ihi risl ii. ■ Tht MSS. havt Ten ; bul ut lU not: 
» Prriapi/<ir the monei m should riad Situmes ; ut Ihe nolt. 
* So nil bul HI., teliitk iei In mena. 


GROUP I. THE parson's PROLOGUE. 1 

Or art a person ? sey soth, by my fey I 
Be what thou be, ne brek thou nat our pley ; 
For euery man, saue thou, hatb told his tale, 
Vnbokel, and shew vs what is in thy male ; 
For trewely, me thinketh, by thy chere. 
Thou sholdest knitte vp wel a greet matere. 
Tel vs a tale anon, for cokkes bones I' 

This persone him ' answerde, al at ones, 
' Thou getest fable noon ytold for me ; 
For Paul, that wryteth vnto Timothee, 
Repreueth hem that weyuen sothfastnesse 
And tcllen fables and swich wrecchednesse. 
Why sholde I sowen draf out of my feste. 
Whan I may sowen whete, if that me leste? 
For which I seye, if that yow list to here 
Moralitee and vertuous matere. 
And than that ye wol yeue me audience, 
1 wol ful " fayn, at Cristes reuerence, 
Do yow plesaunce leueful, as I can. 
But trusteth wel, I am a Southren man, 
I can nat geste — rom, ram, ruf — by lettre, 
Ne, god wot, rym holde I but litel bettre; 
And therfor, if yow list, I wol not glose. 
I wol yow telle a mery tale in prose 
To knitte vp al this feste, and make an ende. 
And lesu, for his grace, wit me sende 
To shewe yow the wey, in this viage, 
Of thilke perfit glorious pilgrimage 
That hyghte lemsalem celestial. 
And, if ye vouche sauf, anon I shal 
Biginne vpon my tale, for which I preye 
TeUe your auys, I can no bettre seye. 
' Tfi. him ; vihick iJii MSS, omt. ' E. oniifs ful ; tht ritt katu it. 


But nalbeles, this meditacionn 5S 

I putte it ay vnder correccJoun 

Of clerkes, for I am nat textuel ; 

I take but the ' sentens, trasleth wel. 

Therfor I make protestacioun 

That I wol stonde to correccioun.' 60 

Vp-on this word we ban assented sone. 
For, as vs " semed, it was for to done, 
To enden in Bom vertuous sentence, 
And for to yeue him space and audience ; 
And bede our host he sholde to him seye-, 6; 

That alle we to telle his tale him preye. 

Out host hadde the wordes for vs alle : — 
' Sir prcest,' quod he, ' now fayre yow bifallel 
Sey what yow list, and we wol gladly here' — 
And with that word he seyde in this manere— 7c 

' Telleth,' quod he, ' your meditacioun. 
But hasteth yow, the sonne wol adoun ; 
Beth fructuous, and that in litel space, 
And to do we! god sende yow his grace I' 

Explicit prohemiiun. 
[Here follows The Parson's Tale, lujiih vibicb Group I endj.'\ 

' E. omi'n the ; Iht nsl Saw il. ' SoE.; iht rtsl il. »Sit* 11 inftrior. 




A stoiy, agreeing closely with The Man of LaweS Tale, is round In 
Book II. of Gowei '» Confessio Amantis, from which Tyrwhitt supposed 
that Chaucer borrowed it. But I have shewn, in the Preface, that 
Dower's version is later than Chaucer's, and that Chancer and Gower 
were both alike indebted to the version of the story ia French prose 
(by Nicholas Trivet) in MS. Arundel 56, printed for the Chancer 
Society in iSji, In some places Chaucer agrees with this French 
version rather closely, but he makes variations and additions at pleasure. 

The iirst ninety-eight lines of the preceding Prolc^e are written in 
couplets, in order to link the Tale to the others of the series ; but there is 
nothing to show which of the other tales it was intended to follow. 
Next follows a more special Prologue of thitty-flve lines, in live stanzas 
of seven lines each; Eo that the Iirst line in the Tale is t. 134 of Group 
B, the second of the fragments into which the Cauterbuiy Tales are 
broken Dp, owing to the incomplete stale in which Chaucer left them. 

Wherever a final > occurs, it is. in general, to be prononnced as a 
dbtinct syllable, unless elided before a vowel or k folbwing. In like 
manner -is and -td generally form distinct syllables. There are, in 
general, sufficient reasons for the fiill pronunciation of these final 
syllables, but these cannot here be stated. The reader is referred to 
Morris's edition of Chaucer's Prologue and Enightes Tale (Clarendon 
Press Series), p. xliv. and lothePrefacc to my edition of The Prioresses 
Tale, pp. xlviii.-Ltxii. for general rules; and to Ellis's Early English 
Pronunciation for a full discussion of the subject. In the Iirst stanza, 
for example, the word (r«H is dissyllabic being plural ; keie4 is so, 
because it is a dative case governed by the prep, of, which Ibmierly 
govemed a dative, though now associated with the idea of a possessive 
case ; nivt is so, because modified from the A. S. dissyllabic niuf. 
Chaffart (1. 1 39) is a gerund, and gerunds are commonly marked by 
the termination ■» or -tn (A. S. -aimt). Wart is dissyllabic, being the 
A.S. tvari. Sometimes an i is sounded in the middle of a word, as in 
iiyitoii.*w (three syllables). Observe also cIoihis(AS. ildCai). In some 
French words, such as tampanyt, the pronunciation of the t final is less 
certain, and seems to partake of poetic license ; yet there is nothing very 
remarkable in the amumption, imce the same word contains four 



syllables to this day, and is accented on tbe penultimate, both In 
Bpanish and Italian ; cf. Spaa, cemfania and Ital. cotnpagnia. Afiain, 
such words as grace, spacr, from the Latin graiiam, spativm, may fairly 
be allowed two syLabiea ; especially when we find caase (,Lat. causam) 
with two syllables; Cant. Tales, 414a, 5705. If, however, the final » 
be followed by a vowel, or (in some cases) by the letter A, it is elided, or, 
to speak more strictly, sloired over by rapid proounciilion. This is the 
case in the words Amlle <I34), riche, iaddi (135). and riche again (137). 
Chancer's lines, if read with attention, are beautifiilly melodious. 

Line 134. Sunye, Syria ; called Sarazint (Saracen-land) by N. Trivet. 

1. 143. Wire it, whether it were. 

1. 144. Jlf^iiUj^f, messenger, not message J see 1. 333, and the note. 

1. 145. Hie final ( in iionu is pronounced, as inl. 14] ; but thewords 
Ihe endt are to be run together, forming but out syllable, ihende; accord- 
ing to Chancer's usual practice ; cf. note to 1. 355. Indeed, io 1. 423, 
it is actually so spelt; just as, in 1, 150, vre have thauelleni, andinl. 151. 

1. igi. 2a«mfmjur«, the emperor's. Gower calls him Tiberius Con- 
stantine, who was Emperor (not of Rome, but) of the East, ajj. 57S, 
and was succeeded, as in the story, by Maurice, a.d. 5R3. His capital 
was Constantinople, whither merchants from Syria could easily, repair ; 
but the greater fame of Rome caused the substitution of tbe Western 
for the Eastern capital. 

I. 156. Gorf iitn SM, God protect him. Sec note toC, 715. 

1. 161. A! Europe. In the margin of MSS. E. Hn. Cp, Pt. La. is 
written tbe Dole ' Europa est tercia pars mundi.' 

I. 166. Mirour, mirror. Such French words are frequently accented 
on the last syllable. Cf. rninislr' in I. 168. 

1. 171. Han rfDon^oiil'S/, have caused to be freighted. All the MSS. 
have /ravgkl, not /raughle. In the Glossary to Specimens of English, 
I marked /raughl as being the infinitive mood, as Dr. Stratmanr 
supposes, though he notes the lack of the final 1, I have now no doubt 
Ihat/rmighl is nothing but the past participle, as in William of Paleme, 
1. 173^- 

' And feithliche/™Bg-A( ful of fine wines.' 
which is said of a ship. The use of this past participle afler aprr/al 
tense is a most remarkable idiom, hut there is no doubt about its 
occurrence in the Clerltes Tale^ Group E. iog8, where we find 'Hath 
doon yow itpl,' where Tyrwhitt has altered iipl to iept. On the other 
hand, Tyrwhitt actually notes the occurrence of ' Hath doon woaghl' 
in Kn. Tale, 1055, which he calls an irregularity. A better name for it 
is idiom. I find amilar instances of it in another author of the same 



'Thai strak his hed of, and syne it 
Thai haf girl sallil in-til a liyt." 

Barbour's Bruce, ed. Skeiit, xviii. 167. 
I. e. they haye caused it (lo ix) salted. And again in the same, bk. viif. 
1. 13, we have the expression ff* geri htld, at if 'he caused to be 
held;' tmt it may mean 'he caused to incline,' Compare also the 
following ; — 

'And thai sail Itl Ihame trwmpil ill;' id. xix. 71a. 
I.e, and they shall consider themselves as evilly deceived. 

The infinitive appears to have been/raHj'l(<n, though the earliest certain 
examples of this form seem to be those in Shakespeare, Cymb. i, i, 136, 
Temp. i. ». 13. The proper form of thepp. wBS>oiif*/*rf(as in Marlowe, 
} Tamb. i. 1. 33), hut the loss of final -4d in past participles of verbs of 
which the stem ends in t is common ; cf. sit, put, &c. Hence this form 
fraught as a pp, in the present instance. It is a Scandinavian word, from 
Swed.^ai/a, X)aa.fragie. At a later period we Rudfrtight, the mod. E, 
form. The vowel-change is due to the fact that there was an intermediate 
(onafril, borrowed from the French form ^ef of the Scandinavian word. 
This form fi-ii disturbed the vowel-sound, without wholly destroying 
the recollection of the original guttural gh, due to the Swed. i. For an 
example ot/rtt, we have only to consult the old black-letter editions of 
Chancer printed in 153a and 1561, which give ui the present line in the 
form — 'These marchanles ban don,^f her ships new,' 

L 185. Ciriously, with great minuteness of detail. Used by Fabyan, 
who says that 'to reherce cttyouily' all the conquests of Henry V 
would fill a volume; Chron., ed. Ellis, p. 589. It is the Low Latm 
itriosi, used in two senses ; (1) seriously, gravely ; (a) minutely, fully. 
In the Utter case it is perhaps to be referred to the Lat. strits, not strius. 
A similar word, cereally (Lat. urialim), is found three times in the 
Romance of Parteuay, ed. Skeat, with the sense of fa dut ardtr. 

1. ] 90. This refers to the old belief m astrology and the casting of 
nativities, Cf. Prol. 414-418. 

1. 197. Tyrwbitt shews tliat this stanza is imitated closely from some 
Latin lines, some of which are quoted in the margin of many MSS. of 
Chancer. He quotes them at length from the Megacosmos of Bemardui 
Silvestris, a poet of the twelfth century (extant in MS. Bodley 1165). 
The lines are as follows, it being premised that those printed in italics 
are cited in the raargm of MSS. E. Hn. Cp, Pt. and Ln, : - 
'Pneiacet in stellis series, quim longior letas 

Explicet et spatiis temporis ordo suis, 
Sciplra Pkoronei, frairum diicordia Thihh, 

Flnmma Phaelhontis. Deuealionk aque. 
In stellis Codri paupertas, copia Croesi, 
Incestus Paridis, Hippolylioae pudor, . , 

- .oogic 


la tlitlii Priami iptdn, auiatia Turid, 

StHtus Ulixtus, Htrcultuijut vigor. 
In stellis pngil est FoUax et nauita Typhis, 

Et Cicero rhelot et geomeira Tbales. 
Id stellis lepidum dtctat Mbto, Milo fievrat, 

Falgnnt in Latia nobilitate Nero. 
Aslra notat Fenii, jCgyptus paitnrit artes, 
Gnecia docta legit, prKlia Roma gerit.' 
The oantes Eetor (Hector), &c. ate too well Imown to require eoramoit 
The death of Tunius it told at the end of Vi^'t j^neid. 

U. 107, loS. Here Aon* seems to be used aa the foitn of the anziliai; 

verb, whilst Hon (for haunt] signifies possession. See inn a^ia in 1. 141. 

1. 311. Compare Squieres Tale, F. 309, 103, and the note thereoD. 

I, 114. Makoun, Mahomel. Tbe French version does not mention 

Mahomet. This is ux anachronism oo Chancer's part ; the Emperor 

Tiberius II died aj>. 58a, when Mahomet was bnt twelve years old. 

L uS. I prty jouholdt,! pray yon to hold. Hereio/diit the infini- 
tive mood, liie imperative pluntt would be holduh ; see itaitik, next line. 
1. 336. MaumtUryt, idolatry \ from the Mid. K nuunu/, an idol, 
corrupted from MabomeL Tbe confusion introduced by using tbe word 
Mahonut for an idol may partly account for the anacht-onism in 1. 114. 
Tbe Mahometans were &dsely supposed by our forefathers to be idolaters. 
1. 341, Sol, put for H tuot, know not. 

I. 14S. An imperfect line. There are a few such lines in Chancer, in 
which the ctesoral pause seems to count for a syllable. Scan it thus :— 

That thim | penSnr || — <if | bis gzit \ noblesse || 
Again, 1. 611 below may t« read in a similar marmer : — 

But n4 I tbel& ll — Oxii | was gret | moorning | 
]. 353. ' So, when Ethelbert married Bertha, danghter of the Christian 
King Chaiibert, the brought with her, to tbe court of het husband, a 
Gallican bishop named Lend hard, who was pennitted to celebrate mass 
in tbe ancient British Church of St. Martin, at Canterbnry." Note in 
Bell's Chaucer. 

1. 355. ynow, being plural, may talce a final t ; we should then read 
Hi'ntdi, as eiplaiaed in note to 1. 145. Tbe pL iao^t occors in the 

1. 163. ilJ/taiuJiDnu, collectively and individually; one and all. See 
Cler. Tale, E. 941. 

1. 37;. The word aili, being plural, is dissyllabic Tking is often a 

plural form, being an A.S. neuter noun. The words ouer, «ur, naitr 

are, in Chaucer, generally monosylkbles, or nearly so ; just as i^tr, *'ir, 

>i/«r are treated as monosyllables by onr poets in geneiid. Hence the 

ansion is—' O'er al 1 le thing | ,' &c. 

■. i8si. The word at is insetted ftoro the Cambridge M& ; all the 


other ai MSS. omit it, which niBkes the passaee one of extreme 
difficnlty. Tjiwhitt reads ' Or YUon brent, or Thebes the dtee.* Of 
course he nieani brtnde, past tease, not brtnt, the past participle ; and 
his cotqectaie amonnts to inserting or before Thebes. It is better to 
insert al, as proposed by Mr. Gilman. The sense is— 'When FjnhMS 
broke the wall, before Ilium bnnit, (nor) at the citf of Thebes, nor 
at Rome,' Sk. Tyrwhitl well observes that 'Thebes the citec" is a 
French phrase. He qnotei 'dedans Reaes la citi,' Froissart, v, i. 
c. 235. ChaHcec regarded lUnm as the tifadtl of Troy. 

I. 195. In the margin of the EUesmere MS. is written—' Vnde Ptholo- 
mens, libro i. cap. 8. Primi motus cell duo sunt, quorum vnus est qui 
mouet totam semper ab OHente in Occidentem vno modo super orbes. 
Sec. Item aliter vero motus est qui mouet orben stellamm currencium 
contra motom primum, videlicet, ab Occidente in OrienCem super alios 
duos polos.' ^ The old astronomy imagined nine spheres revolving round 
the central statiobaiy earth ; of the seven iimermost, each cairted with il 
one of the seven planets, vir, the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, 
Ja^nler, and Saturn ; the eighth sphere, that of the fixed stars, had a 
slow motion from west to east, to account for the precession of the 
equinOMs, whilst the ninth or outermost sphere, called the primum 
mobile, or the sphere of first motion, had a diunial revolution from east 
to west, carrying everything with it. This exactly corresponds with 
Chaucer's language. He addresses the outermost sphere or primum 
mabilt (which is the iiiaih if reckoning from within, but thejfiT/ from 
without), and accuses it of carrying with it everything in its irresistible 
westward motion j a motion contrary to that of the 'natural' motion, 
viz. that in which the sun advances along the signs of the zodiac. The 
result was that the evil influence of the planet Mars prevented the 
marriage. It is clear that Chaucer was tUnldng of certain passages 
in Boethins, as will appear from consulting his own translation of 
Boethius, ed. Morris, pp. ai, 11, ro6, and 110. I quote a few lines 
to shew this : — 

'O J>ou maker of twwhele>at bereji fe sterres.whiche )tat art fastned 
to >i perdurable chayere, and tnmest )« heuene wi^ a lauyssyng sumglii, 
and constreinest )>e sterres to snfFren \n lawe ;' pp. 11, 13. 

' ye regiouQ of l>e fire Jiat eschaufiji by pe swifte motuyng of^ifirma- 

The original is — 

' O stelliferi conditor orbis 
Qui perpetuo nixus solio 
Rapidum ci^um hirUnt amaa, 
Legemque pati sldera cogis;' 

Boeth. Cons. Phil. lib. i. meL 5, 
•Quique agili malu calet euhtriij' id. lib.iv. met. i. 

■ Goo^^lf 


Compare alio the /ollowiog passage : — 

'The earth, in roundoess of a perfect ball. 
Which as a point but of this mighty all 
Wbe Nature lixed, that permanent doth stij, 
Whetas the apheres hj a diurnal tviay 
or the first Mover carried are about.' 

Drayton: The Man in the Moon. 

1. igg. Crowding, pushiag. This is still a familiar word in East 
Anglia. Forhy, in his Glossary of the East Anglian Dia.tect, says — 
' Crouid, V. to push, shove, or press close. To the word, in its common 
acceptation, aumbtr seems necessary. ' With us, ont individual cac crowd 
another.' To trowd a wheelbarrow means to push it. The expression 
'(rod in a barwe,' i.e. wheeled or pushed alorig in a wheelbarrowi 
occurs in the Paaton Letters, *.d. 14J7, ed. Gairdner, iii. irj. 

1. 30a. A planet is said to ascend directly, when in a direct sign ; but 
tortuously, when in a tortuous sign. The tortuous signs ate those which 
ascend most obliquely to the horiion, vii. the signs from Capricomus to 
Gemini inclusive. Chaucer tells us this Ai'muj/'; see his Treatise on the 
Astrolabe, ed. Skeat, part ii. sect. j8. The most ' tortuous ' of these 
are the two middle ones, Pisces and Aries, Of these two, Aries is called 
the mansion of Mars, and we may perhaps suppose the ascending sign 
to be Aries, the lord of which (Mars) is said to have fallen 'from bis 
angle into the darkest house.' The words 'angle' and 'house' are used 
technically. The whole sphere was divided into twelve equal parts, ot 
'houses.' Of these, four were termed 'angles,' foor others ' succedents,' 
and the rest ' cadents.' It appears that Mars was not then situate in an 
'angle' or lucky 'house,'but in the unluckiest or'darkest' house; this 
was generally considered to be Che eighth, or, in the present case, 
Scorpio. And Mars in Scorpio portended great disaster. 

I. 305. The meaning of 'I'szir has long remained undiscovered. But 
by the kind betp of Mr. Bensly, one of the sub-librarians of the Cam- 
bridge University Library, 1 am enabled to explain it. Alazir or alacir 
is the Spanish spelling of the Arabic at-lasir, influence, given at p. 35) 
of Richardson's Pers. Diet., ed. 1819. Il is a noun derived from asaro, 
a verb of the second conjugation, meanmg to leave a mark on, from the 
substantive a^ar, a mark ; the latter substantive is given at p. 30 of the 
sanie work. Its use in astrology is commented upon by Doiy, who 
gives il in the form alacir, in his Glossaire des Mots Espagnols derives 
de I'Arabique, p. 307. It signifies the injiuiitci of a star or planet upon 
other stars, ot upon Ihe fortunes of men. In the present case it is 
clearly used in a bad sense ; we may therefore translate it by 'evil in- 
fluence.' On this common deterioration in the meaning of words, see 
■"rench. Study of Words, p. ga. The word craft, for example, is a 

V similar instance ; it originally meant sHU, and hence, a trade. 


«nd we find ilar-erafi used in particular to signify the science of 

1- 307. ' Thou art in conjimctioD in an vnfavourable position ; from 
the position in which thou wast favourably placedlhoo art moved away.' 

1. 312. 'Is there no choice as to when to fix the voyage ? ' The favour- 
able moment for commencing a voyage was one of the points on which 
it was considereii desirable to have an astrologer's opinion. Travelling, 
at that time, was a serious matter. Vet Ihis was only one of the many 
undertakings which required, as was thought, to be begun at a favour- 
able moment. Whole books were written on ' elections,' i.e. favourable 
times for commencing operations of all kinds. Chaucer was thinking, 
in particular, of the following passage, which is written in the margins 
of the Ellesmere and Hengwrt MSS. ' Omnes concordati sunt quod 
elecdones sint debiles nisi in diuitibus : habent enim isti, licet debiliten- 
lur eomm elecciones, radicem, 1. [id isf] nalinilatee eorum, que ctmfortat 
omnem planetam debilem in itinere.' The sense of which is — 'For all 
are agreed, that " elections " are weak, except in the case of (he rich ; for 
these, although their elections be weakened, have a "root" of their own, 
Ihat is to say, their nativities (or horoscopes) ; which root strengthens 
every planet that is of weak influeace with respect to a joumey.' This 
is eitracled, says Tyrwhitt, from a Liber Eleclionum by a certain Zael ; 
see MS. Harl. 80 ; MS. Bodley 1648. This is a very fair example of 
tbe jargon to be found in old books on astrology. The old astrologers 
used lo alter Iheir predictions almost at pleasure, by stating that their 
results depended on several causes, which partly counleracted one 
another ; an arrangjement of which the convenience is obvious. Thus, if 
tbe aspect of the planets at the time inquired about appeared to be 
adverse to a journey, it might still be the case (they said) that such evil 
aspect might be overcome by the fortunate aspect of the inquirer's 
horoscope ; or, conversely, an ill aspect in the horoscope could be 
counteracted by a fit election of a time for action. A rich man would 
probably be fitted with a fortunate horoscope, or else why should he 
buy one? Such horoscope depended on the aspect of the heavens at 
the lime of birth or ' nativity,' and, in particular, upon the ' ascendant ' 
at that time : i.e. upon the planets lying nearest to the poirit of the 
lodiac which happened, al (hat moment, to be asanding, i.e. just 
appearing above the horizon. So Chancer, m his Treatise on the Astro- 
labe, ed. Skeat, bk. ii. } 4, explains tbe matter, saying—' The assendent 
sottily, as wel in alle natiuitez as in questiouns and elecciouns oflynta, is 
a thing which ^t thise Astrologiens gretly obseruen ;' &c. The curious 
reader may find much more to the same rffect in the same Treatise, with 
directions to ' make roots' in pt. ii. J 44. 

The curious may further consult the Epitome Astrologife of Johannes 
Hispalensis. The whole of Book iv. of that work is ' De Electionibns,' 


and the title t>l cap. iv. is ' Fro Itmere.' See Chaacer's Astrolabe, ed. 

Skeat, pref. p. Uv. 

Lydgate, Id Ms Siege of Thebes, just at the beginning, describes the 
astrononiera w casting the horoscope of the infant (Edipus. Thejr were 

' to yeue a Judgement, 
The roote i-take at the ascendent, 
Tnilj' Bought out, by minute and degre. 
The seUe houie of his natintte. 
Not foiyet the heauenly mansions 
Clereljr searched by smaJe fraccions," Sec 
To take a different example, Ashmole, in his Theatnun Chemicum, 
165a, says in a note on p. 450—' Generally in all Elections the Efficacy 
of the Starrs ate (_sic) used, as it were by a certaine application made 
thereof to those unformed Natures that are to be wrought upon ; 
whereby to further the working- thereofi and make them more available 

to our purpose And by such Elections as good use may be made 

of the Celestiall influences, as a Physitian doth of the variety of herbes. 

But Nativities are the Radices of Elections, and therefore we 

ought chieSy to looke backs upon them as the principal Root and 
FoimdatioD of all Operations ; and next to them the quality of theThiag 
we intend to fit must be respected, so that, by an apt position of 
Heave>, and fortifying the Planets and Honses in the Nativity of the 
Operator, and making them agree with the thing ^gnified, the im- 
pression made by that influence will abundantly augment the Operation,' 
&c ; with much more to the same effect. Several passages in Norton's 
Ordinall, printed in the same volurne (see pp. 60, 100), shew clearly 
what is meant by Chaucer in his Prologue, II. 415-7. The Doctor 
conld ' fortime a person's ascendent,' i.e. render his horoscope lucky, by 
the election of a time. suitabU to that horostope, when the prescribed 
remedies were to be applied. 

1. 314. Rooli is the astrological term for the epoch from which to 

reckon. The exact moment of a nativity being known, the astrologers 

were supposed to be able to calculate everything else. See the last note. 

1. 333. Aliaron, the Koran ; at is the Arabic article. 

1- 333- Here JlfdilamtAisused iusteadof JVaAoun (1. 314). Seelrving's 

Life of Mahomet. 

Matagi, messenger. This is a correct form, according to the usages 
of Middle English ; cf. 1. 144. In like maimer, we find prUoit used to 
mean a prisoner, which is often puzzling at first sight. 
I. 340. ' Because we denied Mahomet, oar (object of) belief.' 
1. 360. 'O serpent under the form of woman, like that Serpent 
that is bound in hell.' The allusion here is not a little curious. 
It clearly refers to the old belief that the serpent who tempted Eve 


appeared to her viiik a woman's ktad, and it U sometimes so reprCKnted. 
1 obEerredl^ for instance, in the chapter-house of SalisbDry Cathedral; 
and Ece the woodcut at p. 73 of Wright's History of Caricatnie and 
Grotesque in Art. In Peter Comestor's Histoiia libii Genesia, we read 
of Satan — 'Elegit etiam qnoddam genus seipenlis (vt ait Beda) virgintuta 
vuUum habens.' In the alliterative Troy Boole, ed. Panton and Donald- 
eon, p. 144, the Tempter is called Lynyaton (i.e. I,emthao), and it is 
said of him that he 

' Hade a iace Tne fonrmet at a fr» mtgdan ;* 1. 4451. 
And, again, in Piers the Ptownian, B. xviii. 355, Satan is compared to a 
' Insarde [lizard] vath a lady vhagi,' In the Ancroi Riwle, p. 307, we 
are gravely informed that a scorpion is a kind of serpent that has a face 
somewhat like that of a woaum, and puis on a pleasant coDntenaiice. 
To remember this gives peculiar force to II. 370, 371. 

1. 367. Knaweuou is probably a trisyllable ; and llu oidi to be read 
ikolde. Bnt in L 37r, the word Maitsioio, being differently placed in the 
line, is to be read with the « slurred over, almost a dissyllable. 

1. 380. Mosli, might. It is not always used like the modem mmt. 

1. 401. See Lucan's Pharsalia. 

1. 404. There are nndoabtedly a few lines in Chaucer, in which the 
first foot consists of one syllable only ; this is one of them, the word 
£ii/sCaDding by itself as a fbotv So also in B, 497, G. 341, &c. See 
Ellis's Early English Pronunciation, pp. 333, 649. This peculiarity was 
pointed out by me in 1866, in the Aldine edition of Chaucer, i. 174. 
For the sense of scorpioa, see the extract from the Ancren Riwle, in 
note to 1. 360. So also viiiied goil means the Evil Spirit, the Tempter. 

L 431. Pronounce tuer rapidly, and accent tmcissour on the first 
syllable. In the margin of MSS. E., Hn., PI., and Cp. is the following 
note: 'Nota, de inopinato dolore. Semper mundane leticie tristicia 
repentina snccedit. Mundana igitor felicitas mollis amaritudinibDa est 
respersa. Extrema gandii luctus occupat. Audi ergo salubre consilinm ; 
in die bononun ne immemor sis malornm.' These maxims seem to be 
scraps taken from differoit authors. I have found one of them ul 
Boethins, De Consotatione Philosophice, lib. ii. pr. 4 — ' Quam mnllis 
amaritudtnibus humana: felicilatis dulcedo respersa est ;' which Chancer 
translated by — ''pi swetnesse of mannes wellfnhiesse is ysfraaid uri^ 
tnanyi bitltrnesset ;' ed. Morris, p. 41 : and the same expresdon is repeated 
here, in 1. 431, Gower quotes the sane passage from Boethiui hi ths 
prologue to bis Confessio Amantis. The next seitence is from Prov. 
xiv. 1 3 — ' Risus dolore miscebitur, et txtnma gotidii luclui oeeupal.' 
With the last clause, in IL 4ati, 437, compare Ecd. xl. 8. 

L 438. Compare Trivet's French prose venion : — ' Doant ele fist estotiei 
vne oeef de vitally de payn quest apele bisqnlt, & de peis, Sc de feues, de 
mere, Sc de meel, Sc de vyn, put snstenaunce de la vie de la pueele pur 


iTcii amiE ; e en cele neef fit mettre k richeue 8c le tmonT qne lemplte 
Tiberie auoit maimde one U pacele Coast&an<x, la fille ; e «n cde neef 
fist U loadane mettie la pncele uimi ligle, & saunti aeoironn, & laimtz 
chescone maner de eide de homme.' I.e. ' Then she canied a libjp to be 
stored with victuals, with tiiead that is called biscuit, with peu, beans, 
■agar, honey, and wine, to MStain (he maiden's life for three years. And 
in thl* sliip she caused to be placed the riches and treosnie which the 
Emperor Tiberius had sent witb the maid Constance bis dangbter ; and 
in tbis ship the Snltaneu caused the maiden to be pat, without sail or 
oar, or any kind of human Aii.' 

Faol-hoi, hastily. It occun in Gower, in Tbe Komannt of the Roie, 
1. 38i7,and inBarbour'sBmce.iii. 418, liii. 454. Compare the term Aw> 
tnd, explained by Sir W. Scott to mean the pursuit of maranders with 
bloodhounds ; tee note 3 H to the Lay of the Last MinstreL We a1«o find 
hot/oi, i.e. immediately, io the Debate of the Body and th« Soul, 1. 481. 
11. 451-463. Compare these lines with verses 3 and 5 of the hymn 
' Lustra sex qui iam peregit ' in the office of Lauds from Passiort 
Stinday to Wednesday in Holy Wedc incluuve, in the Roman brefiaty. 
'Crux fidelis, inter omnes 
Arbor una nobilis: 
• Silua talem nulla profert 

Froade, flore, germine: 
Dolce femun, dulce lignnoi, 
Dnlce pondus sustinent. . , . , . 
Sola digna tu. foisti 
Ferre mnndi nictimam ; 
Atqne portom praparare. 
Area mundo naufrago, 
Qnam sacer cmor penmxlt, 
FnsuE Agni corpore.' 
See the tiauslatloo in Hymns Ancient and Modem, Ko. g^, part a 
(new edition), beginning — ' Now the tbirty yean accomplished.' 

L 460. Bym and kiri, him and her, i.e. man and woman ; as In Piers 
the Plowman, A. Pass. 1. 1. 100. The allusion is to the supposed power 
of the ciOH over evil spirits. See The Legends of the Holy Rood, ed. 
Morris ; especially the story of the Invention of the Cross by St. Helen, 
p. 160— 'And anone, as he had made the [ago of the] crosse, >e gcete 
multitude of deuylles vanyshed awaye ; ' or, in the Latin original, 
^statiinqne nt edidit signum ciucis, onmis ilia daemonnm mnltitndo 
enannit;' Aniea L^enda, ed. Griisse, ind ed.p.311. Cf. Piers Plow 
man, B. xviii. 439-431. 

' 1. 461. Thereodingof thisline iscertain, andmnstnotbealtered- Bnt 
it is impassible to pant the line without at once noticing that tliere ia 
a great difficnlty in the eoDstrnctifui. The b^ solution is obtained by 


taUng wkieh in the tense of ivAom. A familiar example of thlt use of 
■oUcA far wAo occurs in the Lord's Prayer. See also Abbot's ShaliespeaiiaD 
Grammar, Sect 165. The constniction is as follows—' O Tictoiiona tree, 
protection of trae people, that alone wast worthy to bear the King of 
Heaven with His new wounds— the While Lamb that was hurt with the 
spear- O expellei of fiends out of both man and woman, on whom (i^, 
the men and women on whom) thine arms feithfnlly spread out,' &c 
Lymis means the arms of the cross, spiead before a. peison to protect liim. 

1. 464. Set 0/ Greece, here put for the Meditcnancsn Sea. 

1. 465, Marroi, Morocco; alluding to the Strait of Gibraltar; cf. I. 947. 

1- 474. Thir, where ; as usual. 

1 475- ' Was eaten by the lion ere he could escape.' Cf. 1. 437. 

L 491. See Revelation vii. i-J. 

1. 497. Here lit seems to form afoot by itself. See note to 1. 404. 

1. S«i- Alluding to St. Mary the Egj-ptian {Maria Bgipiiaca). who, 
according to the t^end, after a youth spent in debauchery, lived entirely 
alone for the last forty-seven years of her life in the wilderness beyond 
the Jordan. She lived in the fifth century. Her day is April 9. See 
Mrs. Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art ; Rotebuef, ed. Jubinal, ii. 
106-150 ; Manndeville's Travels, ed. Halliwell, p. 96 ; Anrea Legenda, 
ed. GiBSse. cap. Ivi. She was often confused with St. Mary Magdalen. 

1. 508. Norlktimberloitd, the district, not the county. Yorkshire is, in 
fact, meant, as the French version expressly mentions the Homber. 

L jio. 0/ al a Qiii, for the whole of an hour. 

1. 511. TheeonsiabU; named £7(fii by Trivet and Gower. 

1. 519. Trivet says that she answered Elda in his own langui^, ' en 
sessoneys,' in Saxon, for ^e had learnt many languages in her youth. 

1.515. The word fjlryi seems to have had two pronunciations; inl,644 
it is dyi, with a different lime. la fact, Mr. Cromie's ' Ryme-Index ' to 
Chancer proves the point. On the one band dtye rimes to aa/iyi, 
dtsoifyf, dreyt, friyi, styt, taeyt, tmye ,- and on the other dyt rimes to 
avoulryt, bigait^, eompaigi^, Enulyt, genlerye, lye, raaladye. Sec 

I. 517. Forgalkir myaiU, lost her memory. 

1. £31- The final t in pint is preserved from elision by the cgesnral 
pause. Or, we may read pltsit: yet the MSS. have pla: 

1. 578. AUa, i.e. .lEUa.king of Northumberland, A.n, 560-567; the 
same whose name Gr^ory (afterwards Pope) turned, by a pun, into Alie- 
kia, according to the version of the celebrated stoiy about Gregory and 
the English slaves, as given in Beda, Eccl. Hist. b. ii. c. i. 

1. 584. ^o"< 1"^ wkjl; repay her time; i.e. her pains, trouble; as 
when we say ■ it is wortii aluii.' Wilt is not intended. 

1. 535. 'The plot of the knight against Constance, and also her sub- 
sequent adventure with the steward, are both to be found, with some 
variations, in a stoiy in the Gesta Komanonim, ch. lol ; MS. Harl.< 


JJ70. Ocdeve has vereified the whole slofy;' TyiwUtt. See the 
Preface for further informatioa. Compaie the conduct of ladiimo, in 

1. 6jo. BtMh hir OB kond, affinns falsely; lit. beirs her in hand. 
Chancer nses the phrase ' to bere in hond ' with the Ecnse of false 
affirmation, sometimes with the idea of accusing falsely, as here and in 
the Wyf of Bathes Prologue, C. T. 5975 ; and sometime* with that of 
persuading falsely, C. T. jSif, 5961. In Shakespeare the sense is 
rather — ' to keep in expectation, to amuse with false pretences ; ' Nares's 
Glossary. Barbour ases it in the mote general sense of ' to affirm,' or 
'to make* etalement.' whether falsely or truly. 

1. 634, ' And bound Satan ; and he still lies where he (then) lay.' In 
the Apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus, Christ descends into hell, and 
(according to some versions) binds him with chains; see Piers Plow- 
man, B. xviii. 401. 

I. 639. Smannt; see the story of Susannah, in the Apocrypha. 

1. 641. The Vii^n's mother is called Anna in the Apocryphal Gospel 
of James. Her day is July a6. See Aurea Legenda, ed. Grasse, cap, 
cxxxi ; Cowper's Apocryphal Gospels, p. 4. 

1. 645. Here ^/e is proDonnced as a dissyllable. 

1. 647, ' Where that he gat (could get) for himself no favour.' 

1. 660. ' For pite renneth sone in gentil bertc ; ' Knightes Tale, 1. 903. 
And see note to Sq. Tale, F. 479. 

I, 66^. Vs aayse, deliberate with ourselves, conuder the matter egaiik 
Compare the law-phrase Ltroii'atiisira, by which the king refuses assent 
to a messnie proposed. 'We will condder whom to appoint as judge.' 

1. 666. I.e. a copy of the Gospels in Welsh or British, called in the 
French prose version ' linre des Ewangeiles.' A^eements were some- 
times written on the Dy-leaves of copies of the Gospels, as may be seen 
in two copies of the A.S. version of them. 

I. 669. A very sinikr miracle is recorded in the old alliterative romance 
of Joseph of Arimathea, 1. 361.. The French version has : — 'a peine anoit 
lini la parole, qe vne mayn close, com poyn de homme, apparut detmnt 
Elda et qnant questoient en presence, et ferri tiei coup en le haterel le 
feloim, qne ambedeus lei ens !ui enuolerent de la teste, & les dentz hors 
de la bonche ; & le feloun chai abatu a la tetre ; et a ceo dist vne voiz 
en le oyance de torn : Aduersus filiam matris ecdesle ponebas Scandalum ; 
hec fecisti, et tacui.' I.e. 'Scarcely had he ended the word, when a 
dosed hand, like a man's tist, appeared before Elda and all who were in 
the presence, and smote such a blow on the nape of the felon's neck that 
both his eyes flew out of his head, and the teeth out of his mouth ; and 
the felon fell smitten down to the earth ; and thereupon a voice said in 
the hearing of (Jl, " Against the daughter of Mother Church thou wast 

ying a touidal ; this hast thou done, and I held my peace." ' The 


icadiiiir laeui invests that, in 1. 676, ibe word hold4 shonld rather be 
held; but the MSS. do not recognise this reading. 

1. 697. fir fioi^&M. it leemed to her ; rioxj'&M 13 here impersonal ; so 
fn I. 6^. The French teit adds that Domulde (Donegild) was, more- 
orer, jealous of hearing the praises of Comlance's beanty. 

1, 701. Ml Hit tuu, it pleases me not, I do not wish to. He does not 
wish to give every detail. In tbismalterCliincer is often very judicious ; 
Gower and others often give the more naimportant matters as fully as 
the rest. Cf, L 706 ; and see Squyeres Tale, F. 401, 

1. 703. What, why, Cf. Squyeres Tale, F. 383, 398. 

1. 70;. Trivet says — ' Puis a vn demy aaa passe, vint nouele al Roy 
que les gentz de Albanie, qesountzles Escolz,furent passes lour boundes 
et guerrirent les terres le Roy. Count par comun counseil, le Roi assembla 
son ost de rebonter ses enemis. £t auant son departir vers Escoce. baila 
la Reine Constauace sa femme en la garde Elda, le Conestable du chastel, 
et a Lucius, leuesqe de Bangor ; si lour cbargea qe quant ele fill delineres 
deafaunt, qui liu feisoieot hastiuement sauoir ta nouele;' i.e. 'Then, after 
half-a-year, newl came to the king that the people of Albania, who arc 
the Scots, had passed their boonds, ajid warred on the king's lands. 
Then by common counsel the king gathered his host to rebut bis foes. 
And before his departure towards Scotland, he committed Queen Con- 
stance his wife to tbe keeping of Elda. the constable of the castle, and 
of Lucius, bishop of Bangor, and charged them that when she was 
delivered, they should hastily let him know the news.' 

1. 7}]. Knaai child, male child ; as in Clerkes Tale, E. 444. 

1. J13. Al iht/onisioon, i.e. at his baptism ; French text — 'albaptisme 

1. 739. To don hia auarUagi, to suit his convenience. He hoped, by 
going only a little out of his way, to tell Donegild the news also, and to 
receive a reward for doing so. Trivet says that the old Queen was then 
at Knaresborough, situated ' between England and Scotland, as in an 
intermediate place.' Its exact site is less than seventeen miles west ot 
York. Donegild pretends to be very pleased at the news, and gives the 
man a rich present. 

1. 736. Ltllrei ; so in all 7 MSS. ; Tyrwhitt reads Ullrt. But it is 
tight as it is. Lillris is sometimes used, like lat litirtB, in a singular 
sense, and the French text has ' les lettres," Examples occur in Piers 
Plowman, B. ix. 38 ; Bruce, li. £0. See 1. 744, and note to 1. 747. 

1. 738. ify» viol ought, if you wish (to say) anything. 

I. 740. DowgiW is dissyllabic here, as in 1. 69s, but in 1. 805 it appears 
to have three syllables. I have before remarked that Chaucer alters 
proper names so as to suit his metre ; see Pref. to Prioresses Tale, 
p. Ixiii. 1. 13, or p. Ixiv. 1. 11 (and ed.). 

I. 743. Sad/y. steadily, with the idea of long contmuance. I 


1. 747. Ltlirt; here the singular form is used, bat it is a matler or in- 
diflerence. Exactly the same vaiiation occur* in Baibonr't Bnic«, ii. So ; — 
' And, among oChir, Ititns ar gayn 
To the byschop off Andronii towne. 
That tauld how slayn va that baronn. 
The Ituir tauld hym all the deid,' &c 
This drcumstacce. of exchanging the roessenger's letters foi forged ones. 
Is fonnd ia Mattheir Paris's acconnt of the Life of Ofia the fiisti edi. 
Wats, pp. 965-968. See the Piefcce. 

L 748. Dintt, directed, addressed ; French text ' maandei.' 

L 7£i. Franonnce lumibU as in French. 

1. 759. The last vord in this line should certainlj be no) (— was 
not), as has kindly been pointed out to me ; though the seven MSS. all 
have vias. By this alteratioo we secure a true rime. 

1. 754. E}f; French text — 'etc fn maloeise es[Nrit en fooime de 
femme,'sbe was an evil spirit in form of woman. E\f is the A.S. alf, 
Icel. alJT, G. alp and tlft ; Shakespeare writes aupha for dv—. • The 
EddadistiDgnisbes between tjdsil^, the elves of light, and Dfikkilfar, 
elves of darkness ; the latter are not elsewhere mentioned either in 
modem fairy tales or in old wrtteis. ... In the Alvismil, elves and 
dwarfs are clearly distinguished as different. The abode of the elves in 
the Edda b 'Alfheimar, fairy land, and thur king the god Frej, the god 
of light. In the fairy tales the Elves haimt the hills ; hence their name 
Huldnfdlk, hidden people ; respecting their origin, life, and customs, see 
I'slenzkar )ij6Ssagur, i. I. In old writers the Elves are rarely mentioned; 
bat that the same tales were told as at present is clear ; ' note on the word 
aljr, in Cleaajiy and VigTusaon's Icelandic Dictionary. See also Kei^ht- 
Icy's Fairy Mythology, and Brand's Popniar Antiquities. The word is here 
used in a bad sense, and is nearly equivalent to witch. In the Prompt. 
Parv. we find— 'Elfe, spryte. Lamia;' end Mr. Way notes that these 
el res were often supposed to bewitch children, and to use them cruelly. 

L 767. Pronounce agrtMi as in French, and with an accent on Uie 
first syllable. 

L 769. Tait, handed over, delivered. Taki often means to give or 
hand over in Middle English ; very seldom to convey or bring. 

1. 77r. In the margin of MSS. E.,HD.,Cp., and Ptb written— < Quid 
turpius ebrioso, mi fetor in ore, tremor in eoipore, qui promit stulta, prodit 
occulta, cnins mens alienatur, faciei transformatut ? nnllnm enim latet se- 
cretum ubi regnat ebrietas.' This is no doubt the original of the stanza, 
ll-77'-7r7: cf.notetoC.sfii. Thcreisnothiugansweringtoit inTiivet. 

1. 778. ' O Donegild, I have no language &t to tell,' Sec 

I. 781. Ma-misk, man-like, i.e. harsh and duel, not mild and gentle 
tike a woman. Bnt Chaucer is not satisfied with the ejuthet, and say* 
!ie ought rather to call her ' fiend-like,' ,-. , 


I. J89. ' He stowed aw»y plenty (of wine) under hi* girdle,' i.e. drank 
his fill. 

1. 794. Prononnce considbl' mndi as If it were French, with an accent 
on □. In 1. 80S the accent is on a. lastly, in 1. SgS all three syllables 
are fnlly sonnded. 

1. 79S. 'Three days and a qnarler of an honr;* i.e. she was to be 
allowed only three days, and after that to start off a» soon as possible. 
Tide (like liS in Icelandic) sometimes means an hour. The French 
text says— 'deyni qnatre ionrs,' within four days. 

I. Sol. Croud*, push ; see 11. 196, 199 abore. 

II. 813-816. Lines8i3^8i9 are DOtin the Freach,and 11.810-836 are 
not at all close to the original. 

11. 817-833, The French text only has — 'en esperannce qe dnre 
comencement ameneta dien a bon fyn, et qil me puna ec la mere 
sauner, qi en mere et en terre est de tonte puissannce.' 

1. 835. The beauUM stanzas in 11. 834-86S are all Chaucer's own land 
of the next stanza, IL 869-B75, the Flench teit gives but the merest hint 

1. 84a. Eggtnaitl, incitement. The some word is nsed ui other 
descriptions of the Fall. Thus, in Piers Plowman, B. 1. 65, it ti said 
of Satan that 'Adam and Ene he iggtd to ille;' and in Allit. Poems, 
ed. Morris, B. 141, it is said of Adam that ' thoigh the *ggye of Ene 
be ete of an apple.' 

1. 859. As lai, pray, let. Sec note to Clerkes Prologue, E. 7. 

I. 873. Purehaa, provide, make provision. So in Troilos, bk. ii. 
1 1 15, the line 'And of some goodly answer yon purchace ' means— and 
provide yourself with some kind answer, i.e. be ready with a kind reply. 

II. 875-884. Mnch abridged from the French text. 

1. 885. Tormtniid, tortnred. However, the French text says the 
messenger acknowledged his drunkenness freely. Examination b; 
torture was so common, that Chancer seems to have regaided the 
mention of it as being the most simple way of telling the story. 

I. 893. Oirt 0/ dredi, without doubt, certainly ; cf. 1. 869. The other 
eqnally common expression out 0/ douti comes to mnch the same thing, 
because dmiie in Middle-English has in general the meaning oS fiar or 
drtad, not of hesitation. See Group E. 634, 1155 ; and Piol. 4S7. 

L 894. PUynly rtdt, fully read, read at length. In fact, Giaucer judi- 
ciously omits the details of the French text, where we read that King ^lla 
rushed into his mother's room with a drawn sword as she lay asl'eep, 
roused her by crying ' traitress I ' in a loud voice, and, after hearing the 
full confession which she made in the extremity of her tenor, slew her 
and cut her to pieces as she lay in bed. 

I. 901. Fliitih, floats. French tert — ' le quinle an de cest exil, come 
ele iaJlotauiU sui le mere,' &c. 

L 905. The name of the castle ia certainly not given In the French 


text, irhich merelj (ays it was ■ th chutel dan Admiral de paeos,' I.e. 
a castle of aa admiral of the Fagani. 

L gll. Gavrtn, gaze, Etaie. See note to Squ. Tale, F. 190. 

L 913. Shorilr, briefly ; becaiue the poet cooudeiably abridges thli 
part of th« uairalive. The steward's name was Thelous. 

11. 933-945. These two ttanxa* are wholly Cbancer's, plainly wntlen 
M a parallel passage to that in IL 470-504 above. 

L 934. Qoliai, Goliath. See I Samuel ivii. 15. 

1. 940. See the story of Holofemea in the Monkes Tale, B. 3741 ; and 
the note. I select the spelling Oto/tmus here, becaaae it is that of the 
majority of the MSS., and agrees with the title D> Olo/emo in the 
Monkes Tate. 

1. 947. In 1.465 Chancer mentions the 'Strait of Marrok,' i.e. 
Morocco, thongh there is no mention of it in the French text ; so here 
he alludes to It again, but by a diflereat oarue, vii. ' the month of 
Jabaltei and Septe.' yuballar (Gibraltar) is from the Arabic jabaiu'l 
larit, i,e. the mountain of Taiik ; who was the leader of a baod of 
Saracens that made a d es cent upon Spain in the eighth century. Stpit 
It Celta, on the opposite coast of Airica. 

L 965. ShorSy, Iniefly: because Chaucer here again abridges the origi- 
nal, which relates how the Romans burnt the Snllaness, and slew more 
than 11,000 of the Saracens, without a single death or even wound on 
their own side. 

1. 967. iSokUdw. His name was Arsemias of Cappadocia ; his wife's 
name was Helen. Accent viclorii on the 0. 

L 969. At UitA fht ttorii, as the history says. The French text relates 
tills circumstance fully. 

L 971. The French text tayi that, though Arsemius did not recognise 
Constance, she, on her part, recognised him at once, though she did not 

L 981. AtmU. Helen, the wife of Arsemius, was daughter of Sallus- 
tins, brother of the Emperor Tiberius, and Coostsnce's uncle. Thus 
Helen was really Constance's first cousin. Chaucer may have altered it 
purposely ; but it looks as if he had glanced at the sentence — ' Cest 
heleyne, la nece Constannce, taiuit tendiement Hma sa oece,' &c., and 
had read it as — 'This Helen. . . . loved her »'»« so tenderly.' In reatitj, 
the word niet means ' cousin ' here, being applied to Helen as well aa to 

L 981. Ski, i.e. Helen ; for Constance knew Helen. 

1. 99r. To rtayum, Le. to submit himself to any penance which the 
Pope might see lit to Impose upon him. Journeys to Rome were 
scto^ly made by English kings ; j^lfred was sent to Rome as a boy, 
and his &ther, ^hclwolF, also spent a year tbere, but (as the Chronicle 
*ella ns) be went 'mid micelre weoi^nesse,' with mndi pomjia 


1. 994. Witied vieria ; espedally the murda of his mother, as Trivet 
uys. See note to 1. 894. 

1. 999. Read him agayn, rode towards him, rode to meet him; cf. 
L 391. See Cler. Tale, E. 911, and the note. 

1. 1009. Som mm uoldi tayn, some relate the story by saying. The 
expression occnrs again in 1. 1086. On the strength of it, Tyrwhitt 
concluded tha.t Chaucer here refers to Gower, who tells the story of 
Constance in Dook ii. of his Confessio Amantis. He observes that 
Dower's version of the stoiy includes both the circumstances which are 
introduced bj this expression. But this is not conclusive. It appears, 
rather, that Gower's vereion of the story is the later one of the two, and 
there is no reason why the expression lom men may not refer to Nicholas 
Trivet, who also makes mention of these drcu instances. See this forther 
discussed in the Preface. In the present instance the French text has — 
'A ceo temps de la venuz le Roi a Rome, comensca Moris son diseotisme 
asn. Cist estoit apris privmuiU dt ta mtrt Coatianct, qe, quani il irrtil 
a la fall mi son itigaur U sinalour,' arc; i.e. At this time of the king's 
coming to Rome, Maurice began his eighteenth year. He was tiertdy 
imimtltdiy his tnollitr Conilanci, Ihm, what hi should go (0 Ihifiait wilh 
hit lord Ike xaalor, &c See also the note to 1. 1 0S6 below. 

L 1014. Mills i/aei, time of eating. This circumstance strikingly 
resembles the story of young Roland, who, whilst still a child, was 
instructed by his mother Bertha to appear before his ancle Charlemagne, 
by way of inttodudng himself. The story is well totd in Uhland's 
ballad entitled 'Kleb Koland,' a translation of which is given at 
PP- 335-34° of my ' Ballads and Songs of Uhland.' 
'They had but waited a little while. 
When Roland returns more bold; 
With hasty step to the king he comes. 

And seizes his cup of gold. 
'* What ho, there ! stop ! you saucy imp I " 

Are the words that loudly ring. 
But RoUnd clutches the beaker still 
With eyes fast fixed on the king. 
The king at the first looked fierce and dark. 

But soon perforce he smiled — 
"Thou comesl," he said, "into golden halls 
As though they were woodlands wild," " &o. 
The result is also similar ; Bertha is recondled to Charlemagne, much 
as Custance is to j^lla. 

1. 1034. Aaght, in anyway, at all ; lit 'a whit.' 
). 1035. SyjAte, sighed. So also /yj-*((, 'pitched;' //yfiw, 'plucked;' 
and shryghu, 'shrieked.' It occurs again in the Romauat of the Rose, 

■■■'<'■- . _ .Cougk- 


■TlioD took I with nyn hondci tweye 
The arwe, imd ful &ste it out ftyghit. 
And in the palling tort I tygha' 

L 1036. Thai ht myghit, as fast as he could. 

L 1038. 'I ought to suppoae, m accordance with reasonable opinion.' 
Cha.Dcer tella the stoiy quite io his own way. There is do trace of 
11. 1033-1041 in the French, and icaicely any of 11. 1048-1071, which is 
all in his own excellent strain. 

L 1036. Sktt, shnt, closed. Compare the deKription of GiiseUa in 
the Qerlies Tale. E. 1058-1061. 

1. 1058. Both fKTet and awn are dissyllabic 

1. 1060. AUt kii kalifB, all His saints. Hence the term All-hallow- 
mas, i.e. All Saints' day. 

1. 1061. Wisly, certainly. Ai haiK, I pray that he may have; tee 
note to 1. 859 above. ' I pray He may so surely have mercy on my 
GonL as that I am as innocent of your lufTeriag as Maurice my son is 
like yon in the face.' 

1. 1078. After this line, the French text tells us that King MHii 
presented himself before Pope Pelagius, who absolved him for the death 
of his mother. 

1. 1086. Here again TyrwHtt snpposes Chaucer to follow Gowei. 
But, in fact, Chaucer and Gower both consulted Trivet, who says 
here — ' Constaunce charga son fiti Morice del messier [or message] 
. . . . Et puis, qtuwt Morice estoit denannt lempereor venuz, oue la 
compaignie honnrable, et ancdt son message lest de part le Roi son 
pere,' &c. ; ie. ' Constance charged her son Maurice with the message 
.... and then, when Maorice was come before the emperor, with the 
hononrable company, and bad done hit message on behalf of the kmg 
his father,' &c. 

1. 1090. Aslu; used much ai we should now use 'as one.' It refers 
to the Emperor, of conrse. 

1. 1091. SeiUe, elliptical for 'as that he would send.' Tyrwhitt reads 
und ; bnt it is best to leave an expres^on like this ai it stands in the 
MSS. ItwasprobablyacoUoquialidiom; and. in the ne»t line, we have 
aimt. Observe that unit is in the subjunctive mood, and is equivalent 
to 'he would send.' 

L 1 107. Chaucer so frequently varies the length and accent of a proper 
name that there is no objection to the supposition that we are here to 
read Cdilanei in three syllables, with an accent ou the first syllable. In 
exactly the same way, we find Grialdis in three syllables (E. 94S), 
though in most other passages it is Grisild. We have had Cuslanct, 
accented on the first syllable, several times; see 11. 438, 556, 566, 
576, ac,; also Cuildnei, three syllables, 11. 184, 174, 319, 6ia, &c 
Tjtwhitt inserts a second your before Cialanti, bat without authority 


Terhaps It improves the line, bnC it ii belter to leave tlie text un- 

1. 1109. /( am 1; it is L It is the usual idiom. So in the A.S. 
version of St. John vi. »o, we lind ' ic hjt eom," i^. I it am, and im a 
Dutch New Testament, a.d. 1700, 1 find 'Iclt ben %' i.e. 1 am it. The 
Moeso-Gothic veision omits U, having simplj ' lie im ; ' so does WycUfs, 
which has ' I am,* TyndaJe, Aji. 1516, has 'it fs I.' 

1. 1113. Thonittli, pronounced ihmi'A; so also ijTlk, B. ii7it 
Aby^ih, B. 1175 : Frioiesses Tale, Sec. p. 6. So also lai'ih, 1. 1141 
below. Of, for. 

1. 1 1 33. The French text tells us that he was niuned Manrice of Cap- 
padock, and was also knowa, in Latin, as Mauriloa Chrisliamssimui 
Imperaior. Trivet tells us no more about him, except that he accounts 
for the title ' of Cappadoc[a ' by saying that Arsemius (the senator who 
found Constance and Maurice and took care of them) was a Cappado- 
cian. Gibbon says — 'The Emperor Maurice derived his origin from 
ancient Rome ; but his immediate parents were settled at Arablssus in 
Cappadocia, and their singular felicity preserved them alive to behold 

and partake the fortune of their august son Maurice ascended the 

throne at the mature age of 43 yeais ; and he reigned above ao yean 
over the east and over himself.' I>ecliDe and Fall of the Roman Empire, 
cap. xlv. Me was murdered, with all bis seven children, by his successor, 
Phocas the Usurper; Nov, a;, aj). 60a. His accession was in a j>. 583. 

1. ii>7. The statement ' 1 here it not in mynde,' i.e, I do not remem- 
ber it, may be taken to mean that Chancer conid lind nothing about 
Maurice m his French text beyond the epithet Chriuiatiaimut, which he 
has skilfully expanded into 1. 1113. He vaguely refers us to 'olde 
Romayn gestes,' that Is, to lives of the Roman emperors, for he can 
hardly mean the Quia Romanorum in this instance. In the Marchanotes 
Tale, where he really refers to the Gtua, he uses the definite article, and 
calls them 'Ihi Remain gestes;' C. T. 10158. Gibbon refers us to 
Evagrios. lib. v, and lib. vi. ; Theophjlact, Simocalta; Theophane^ 
Zonaras, and Cedrenus. 

1. 113J. In the margin of MSS. E., Hn., Cp., Pt. is written—' A mane 
usque ad vesperam mntabitnr tempus. Tenenttympanumetgaudentad 
Eonum oi^;ani, &c.' 

1. 1IJ5. In the margin of MSS. E., Hn., Cp„ Pt. is written— 'Quis 
vnquam vnicam diem totam duxit in sua dilectione [ixMelecIatione] 
iocmidam? quern in aliqua parte did reatus consciencie, vd impeluslre, 
vel motna concupiscende non tarbauerit ? quern linor Inuidie, vel Ardor 
Auaride, vel tomor superbie non vexaucrit? quem aliqna iaclnra vel 
elfensB, vel passlo non commouerit, &c' Cp. Pt. insert iiuU before non 
tarboHtrii. This corresponds to nothing in the French text, but IS what 
Chaucer in 1. 1130 calls ' a sentence,' i.e. a choice sayine. , 

■ OO^^If 


1- 1143. I gtsu, I Enppose. Chancer somewb&t alters the ttory. 
Trivet says that ^Ik died at the en'd of oiDC months after this. Half- 
A-year after, Constance repairs to Rome. Thirteen days altei her arrival, 
her father Tiberius dies. A year later, ConEtance herself dies, Mi St 
Clement's day (Not. 33), aj). 584, and is bnried at Rome, near her 
&ther. b St. Peter's chnrch. The dale 584, here given by Trivet, 
should rather be 583; the death of Tiberius took place on Aug. 14, 
fiSi ; see Gibbon. 

Tb» Words of the Host 

1. 1S7. ITrxxf, mad, frantic, furious ; espedalty applied to the transient 
mailness of anger. See Kn. Ta. 443, 471, 710 ; also Mids. Nt. Dream, 
ii. I. 191, Of. G. vnithend, n^HE- 

1. ]88. Hbttoib, also spelt hara, a cry of aslonbbment; see Non. 
Prest. Tale. 335. 'Saro, the andent Norman hue and cry; the 
exdamatioD of a person to procure assistance when his person or 
property was io danger. To cry out iaro on any one, to denounce 
bis evil doings;' Halliwelt's Dictionary. Spenser has it, F. Q. ii. 6. 43 ; 
see Somm in Kitchin's Gloss, to Spenser, bk. ii. 

On the oaths used by the Host, see note to 1. 651 below. 

1. 389. The Host is denouncing the decemvir Appius Ciaudint, whose 
fiilse judgment had previously been described by the Doctor, in telling 
the story of Vii|pnia. 

L 393. 'She (Vir^nia) bought her beauty toodear;' she paid too high 
%. price ; it cost her her life. 

1. 199. Boikt yifia, both (kinds oO gilts ; Le. gifts of fortune, such as 
wealth, and of nature, such as beauty. Compare Dr. Johnson's poem 
on The Vanity of Human Wishes, imitated from the tenth satire of 

1. 301. Pilout, piteous, pitiful. Such is the reading of all the seven 
best MSS. Tyrwhitt found the reading tmtfiil in some MSS., which he 
correctly supposes to be bad spelling for <rni/<i/, miserable, from AS.tarm, 
wretched ; see note to L 311. The meaning, in fact, is the same. 

1. 303. Ji HO Jon, it is no matter. Here il must be supplied, the fiill 
phrase bang ii it no fan. In some cases Chancer not only omits ir,but 
11 also ; writing simply ro fori, as in Group El, 1091, 3430. We also 
find I do HO forei, i.e. I care not, C. T. 6816 ; and Tk^ ynt ho forct. 


litej care not, Romaunt of the Rose, 4836. Palsgrave lias — ' I gyue no 
force, I care nat for a thyog, II m min chault.' 

1. 306, Ypocras is the usual spelling, in EngJisli MSS., of Htppacralii ; 
see Prologue, 1. 431. So also in the Book of the Duchess, 571, 571; — 
'Ne hele me may no physicien, 
Nought Ipocras, ne Galien.' 
Id the present passage it does not signify the physician himself, but 
a beverage named after bim. 'It was composed of wine, with spices 
and sugar, strained through a cloth. It is said to have taken its name 
from HippoeraUt' sltne, the term apothecaries gave to a strainerj' 
Halliwell's Diet. i.v. Hippocras. In the same work, s.v. Ipacras, are 
several receipts for making it, the simplest being one copied from 
Arnold's Chronicle ; — ' Take a quart of red wyne, an ounce of synamon, 
and half an unce of gynger 1 a quarter of an ounce of greynes. and long 
peper, and halfe B pounds of Sugar ; and brose all this, and than put 
them in a bage of wuUen clothe, made therefore, with the wyne : and 
lete it bange over k vessel, tyll the wyne be mne thorowe.' HalHwell 
adds that — ' Ipocras seems to have been a great favourite wilh our 
ancestors, being served up at every entertainment, public or private. It 
generally made a part of the last course, and was taken immediately 
after dinner, with vrafers or some other light biscuits;' &c See Pegge's 
Form of Cuiy. p. 161 ; Babees Book, ed. Fumivall. pp. 135-13S, 367; 
and Nares's Glossary, i.v. Hippocras. 

Qalianis. In like manner this word (hitherto unexplained as far as I 
tin anare) must signify drinks named after Gateo, whose name is spelt 
Galim (in lAtin, Galitnas) not only in Chaucer, but in Other authors, as 
potated ont by Tyrwhitt See the siith line on this page. 

1. 310. Lyk a prelai, like a dignitary of the church, like a bishop or 
abbot. Mr. Jephion, in Bell's edition, suggests that the Doctor was in 
holy orders, and that this is why we are Cold in the Prologue, 1. 43S, 
that ' his studie wai bat liCel on the bible,' I see no reason for this 
guess, which is quite unsupported. Chaucer does not say he ij a prelate, * 
but that he is !Ui one; because be bad been highly educated, as a 
member of a ' teamed profession ' should be, ^ 

Rorrfaa iahtrt of three syllables and rimes with man; Inl. 330 it is 
of two syllables, and rimes with anon. It looks as if the Host and 
Pardoner were not very clear about the saint's name, only knowing him 
to swear by. In Pilkingt on's Works (Parker Society), we find a mention 
of ' St. Tronian's &st,' p. 80 ; and again, of ' St. Rinian's fast,' p. 55 1, 
is a passage which is a repetition of the former. The forms Ronyan 
and Rinian are evidently corniptions of Ronan, a saint whose name is 
well known to readers of ' St. Ronan's Well." Of St. Ronan scarcely 
anything is known. The fullest account that can easily be found is the 
following i— 



'Ronaa, B. and C. Feb. 7. — Bejond the laffe mentioa of hb com- 
memonitioa >s S. Ronac, bishop >t KUmaionen, in Lereiiai, in the 
bod; of the Breviary of Abetdeen. there U nothing said about this 
caiqt- • ■ Camerarins (p. S6) makes this Rimanus the same as be who is 
mentioned b; Jteda (Hist. Ecc. lib. iii. c. 95). This Ronan died in 
Aj}. 778. The "^Jlster annals give at [aj.] 737 {736)— "Mors Ron^ 
Abbalis Cinngaraid." .Sngus places this saint at the gth of Febraaiy,' 
&C. ; Kalendars of Scottish Saints, by Bp. A. P. Forbes, 1871, p. 441. 
Kilmaronen is Kilmatonock, in the county and parish of Dumbarton. 
There are traces of St. Ronan m about seven place-names in Scotland, 
according to the Eame authority. Under the date of Feb. 7 (February, 
vol. ii. 3 B), the Acta Sanctorum ha.s a few lines about St. Ronan, who, 
according to some, flourished under King MaldnJn, lji. 664-684 ; or, 
according (o others, about 603. The notice concludes with the remark 
— ' Maiorem lucem desideiamos.' Beda says that ' Ronan, a Scot by 
nation, but iostracted in ecclesiasticsl truth either in France or Italy,' 
was mixed up in the controversy which arose about the keejnng of 
Easter, and was ' a most zealous defender of the true Easter.' This 
ccntroveray took pUce about ajj. 65a, which does not agree with the 
date above. 

1. 311. Tyrwhitt thinks that Shakespeare remembered this expression 
of Chaucer, when he describes the Host of the Garter as frequently 
repeating the pbimse 'said I well:' Meny Wives of Windsor,!. 3. iij 
ii. I. ja6; u. 3. 9,1, 99. 

Ill Itrna, in learned terms ; cf. Frol. 313. 

1. 311. Ermi, to grieve. For the ex[Janation of unusual vonft, the 
Glossary should, in general, be consulted ; the Notes are intended, for 
the most par^ to explain Mily phrases and allusions, and to give 
illustrations of the vx of words. Such jllnstrations are, moreover, often 
omitted when they can ea^y be found by consulting .such a woik as 
Stratmaun't Old English Dictionary. In the present case, for example, 
Stralmaim gives tea mstances of the use of tana or arm as an adjective, 
Kieaning wretched ; four examples of tnniic, miserable ; fou of tarmiitg, 
a miserable creature ; and live of larmlkt, misery. These twenty-three 
additional examples shew that the word was formerly well understood. 
It may be added, that a particular interest attaches to this word, in con- 
nection with Shakespeare. We may first note that a later instance ot 
trima or trmi, to grieve, occurs in Caxton's translation of Reynard tbe 
Fox. A.D. 1481 ; see Arber's reprint, p. 48, 1. j. ' Thenne darted he 
fro the kynge so heuyly that many of them trmtd,' i. e. then departed he 
from the king so sorrowfully tiial many of them mourned, or were 
greatly f^eved. Now it is my firm belief that this verb to ermt, 
rfightly corrupted to (rrw, is the source of the verb to lant m Shake- 
speare, which has been farther obscured by being changed into ytarn is 


modtni editioni. ExamplM are (oiing the modem corrupt spelling) i 
'Ityana me not when men my gannent) wear,' Le. it giiereime not; 
Hen.V. iv. 3. 16. 'Mjmanly heart doth jwora,' i.e. grieve; Hen. V. ii. 
3.3. 'FalEtaffheiidead.aad we most jrrant therefore;' HeD.V. iL 3.6. 
'That every like is not Ihe same, O Cxsar, The heart of Brutas 71am 
to Ibink upon;' Jal. Cesar, ii. a. 119. It is remarkable that Sbake- 
■peare ntver aaa the verb to yiam in the modem seDse ; he expresses 
that idea solely by the verb (o long, which he uses more than sixly 
times. The prefixed >, fonad sometimes in old editions also, means no 
more than Ihe jF in the prov. E.>a/« forol*. And cf. note to 1. 303. 

1. 314. The Host's form of oath is amusingly ignorant; he is con- 
fusing ihe two oaths ' by corpus Domini ' and ' by Christes bones,' and 
evidoitly regards lorpm as a genitive case. Tynrhitt alters the phrase 
to ' By corpus domini,' which wholly spoik the humour of it. 

Triatlt, a restorative remedy; see Man of l«wes Tale, Groap B, 
1 4J9- 

1. 315. Moyifi, new. The word letains the sense of the Lat. matltui 
and fimsAii. In Group H. 60 (seep. 116), welindniqj'iQ'n/tspokeDofas 
differing from old ale. But the most peculiar use of the word is in the 
Prologue, 1. 457, where the Wyf of ^th's shoe* are described as being 
mojtiU and nam. 

1. 318. Btl amy, good friend ; a common form of address m old 
Fiench. We also find biaui tfoia amii, sweet good friend ; as in — 
' Chariot, Chariot, biaus douif amis ; ' 

Rutebuef i La Disputoison de Chariot et du Barbier, I. 57. 
Btlamy occurs in an Early Eng. Life of SL Cecilia, MS. Ashmole 43, 
1. l6l. Similar forms are btau filtx, dear (on (Piers Plowman, B. vii. 
16a) ; btaa pert, g;ood father ; beau iiri, good sir. Cf. beldanu. 

L 311. Ale-iiaki, inn-sign. Speght interprets this by 'may-pole.' He 
was probably thinking of the ale-peHi, such as was sometimes set up 
before an inn as a sign ; see the picture of one in Larwood and Hotten's 
History of Signboards, Plate II. But Ihe aU-naiit of the fourteenth 
centmy were difierently placed; instead of being perpendicnlar, they 
projected hoiizontally from the inn. just like the bar which supports 
a painted sign at the present day. At the end of the ale-stake a large 
garland was commonly suspended, as mentioned by Chaucer himself 
(Prol. 667}, or sometimes a bunch of ivy, box, or evergreen, called 
a ' bosh ; ' whence the proverb ' good wine needs no busk,' i.e. nothing 
to indicate where it is sold ; see Hist Signboards, fp. 3, 4, 6, 133. The 
clearest infomoation about ale-stakes is obtained bom a notice of them 
in the liber Albus, ed. Riley, where an ordinance of the time of Richard 
JI is printed, the translatiou of which runs as follows: 'Also, it was 
orduned that whereas the alt-siata, projectmg in front of the taverns in 
Qiepe and elsewhere in the said city, extend too lar over the king's 



highways, to the impeding of riders and others, and, by reason of theii 
excessive weight, to the great deterioration of the houses to which they 
ue fixed, .... it was ordained, .... that no one in futnre should have 
a stake bearing liihir his sign or Itavei [i.e. a bush] extending or lying 
over the King's highway, of grtiUif Itnglk than 1 futat most' ice. And, 
at p. 191 of the same work, note 3, Mr. Riley rightly defines an ati-staie 
to be ' the pole projecting &om the house, and supporting a bunch of 

The word ali-slakt occurs in Chatterton's poem of JElla, stanza 30, 
where it is used in a manner whiiih shews that the supposed ' Rowley ' 
did not know what it was like. See my note oo this ; Essay on the 
Rowley Poems, p. xix. 

1. jaa. Of a caii ; we should now say, a bit of bread ; the modem 
sense of ' cake ' is a little misleading. The old cakes were mostly made 
of dough, wheuM the proverb * my cake is dough,' i.e. is not properly 
baked ; Taming of the Shrew, r. i. 145. Shakespeare also speaks of 
■cakes and ale,' Tw. Nt. ii, 3. 114- The picture of the ' Simnel Cakes ' 
in Chambers' Book of Days, i. 336, illustrates Chaucer's use of the word 
in the Prologue, 1. 668. 

1.314, The Pardoner was so ready to tell some ' mirth or japes ' thai 
the more decent folks in the company try to repress him. It is a curious 
comment on the popular estimate of his character. He has, moreover, 
to refresh himself, and to think awhile before be can recollect ' some 
honest (i.e. decent) thing,' 

U- 1*7, 33S. The Harleian MS. has— 

' But in the cuppe wil I me bethinke 
Upon som honest tal^ whil I drinke.' 

The FardonersB Prologua. 

TtTLK. The Latin text is copied from 1. 334 below ; it appears in the 
Ellesmere and Hengwrt MSS. The A. V. has—' the love of money 
is the root of aU evil; ' I Tim. vi. 10, It is weU worth notice that the 
novel by Morlinus, quoted in the Preface as a source of the Pardoner's 
Tale, contains the expression — ' radlce malorum cupidilate affecti.' See 
the Preface. 

1. 3j6. BuUts, bulls from the pope, whom he here calls bis ' liege 
luni ; ' see Frol. 687, and Pieis the Plowman, B. Piol. 69. 

Altt and sommi, one and all. Cp. Clerkes Tale, E g4r, and the note. 

1. 337. Parai/e; defined by Websteras'anofhcial document, conferring 
a right or privil^e on some person or party ; ' etc. It was so called 
because *patent' or open to public inspection. 'When indulgences 
came to be sold, the pope made them a p&rt of his ordinal? revenue ; 
and, according to the usual way in those, and even in nroch later times, 



of farming the revenne, he let them out usually to the DomLnican 
friars J ' Massingbeid, Hist. Eng. Refoimalion, p. 116. 

1- 345- 'To colour my devotion with.' For saffron, MS. Harl. readi 
savori. I^rrwhitt rightly prefeis the reading saffron, as ' more ex- 
pressive, and less likely to have been a gloss.' And he adds — ' Saffron 
was used to give colour as well as flavour.' For example, ia the 
Babees Book, ed. Fumivall, p. 175, we read of 'capons that ben 
coloured with saffron.' And in Winter's Tale, iv. 3. 4S, the Clown 
sayt — ' I must have saflron to colour the warden-pies.' Cf. Sir Thopas, 
Group "B, I. 1930. As to the position oSmiik. cp. Sq. Ta. 471, 641. 

1. 346. According to Tyrwbitt, this line is, in some MSS., replaced 

' In euery village and in eueiy toun. 
This is my terme, and shal, and euer was. 
Radix melonim tsl eupidilas.' 

I. 347, Cristal sioms, evidently hollow pieces of crystal b which relics 
were kept ; so in the Prologue, I. 700, we have — 

'And in & glai he hadde pigges bones.' 

1. 34S. Clutilts, rags, luts of cloth. ' The origin of the veneration for 
relics may be traced to Acts xix. ii. Hence clauis, 01 cloihi, are among 
the Pardoner's stock ; ' note in Bell's edition, 

1. 349. RiHh, In the Prologue, we read that he had the Virgin 
Mary's veil and a piece of the sail of St. Peter's ship. Below, we have 
mention of the shoulder-bone of a holy Jew's sheep, and of a miraculous 
mitten. See Heywood's impudent plagiarism from this passage in bis 
descriptioD of a Pardoner, as printed in the note to 1. 701 of Dr. 
Morris's edition of Chaucer's Prologue. See also a curious list of relics 
in Chambers' Book of Days, i. 587; and compare the hamorous 
descriptions of the pardoner and his wares in Sir David Lyndesay's 
Satj-re of the Three Estates, 11. lojj-iiii. 

1. 3£o. Laioun. The word laiitn is still in use in Devon and the 
North of England for plate tin, but as Halliwelt remarks, that is not 
the sense otlauma in our older writers. It was a kind of mixed metal, 
much resembling brass both in its nature and colour. It wai used 
for helmets (Rime of Sir Thopas, B. 1067), lavers {P. PI. Crede, 196), 
spoons (Nares), sepulchral memorials (Way in Prompt, Parv.), and 
other articles. Todd, io his Illustrations of Chaucer, p. 350, remarks 
that the escutcheons on the tomb of the Black Prince are of laloa 
over-gilt, in accordance with the Prince's instructions ; see Nichols's 
Royal Wills, p. 67. He adds — ' In our old Church Inventories a erosi 
c/lalon frequently occurs.' See Prol. 699. 

1. 351. The expression ■ holy Jew ' is remarkable, as the usual feeling 
in the middle ages was to regard all Jews with abhorrence. It is 
suggested, in a. note to Bell's edition, that it 'mult be understood of 
VOL. lU. L 


Eome Jew before the Incarnation.' Perhaps Ihe Pardoner wished it 
to be understood that the sheep was once the property of Jacob ; thii 
would help lo give force to 1, 365. Cp. Gen. xxi. 

The best comment on the virtues of a sheep's shouldei-bone ii 
afforded by a passage m the Persones Tale (De Ira), where we find — 
'Swering sodenly without avisement is also a gret sione. But let us 
go now to that horrible swering of adjuration and coniuration, as don 
thise false enchaoatoors and nigromancers in basins fill of water, or 
in a bright swerd, in a cerde, or in a fire, or in a tioldtr-bmtt of a 
litfn;' &c. Sit David Lyndesay inserts a cow's horn and a cow"i 
tail in his list of pardoner's relics ; cp. note to 1. 349 above. 

In Fart I of the Records of the Folk-lore Society is an article by Mr. 
Thorns on the subject of divination by means of the shonlder-bone of » 
sheep. He shews that it was still practised in the Scottish Highlands 
down to the beginning of the present century, and that it is known in 
Greece. He further dtes some passages concerning it from some scarce 
books; and ends by saying — 'let me refer any reader desirous of know- 
ing more of this wide-spread form of divination to Sir H. Ellis's edition 
of Brand's Popular Antiquities, iii. 179, ed. 1841, and to much curious 
infoimBtion respecting Spalalamancia, as it is called by Haitlieb. and an 
analogous species of divination ix anserino sirrao, to Grimm's Deutsche 
Mythologie, ind ed. p. 1067.' 

I. 355. The sense is — 'which any snake has bitten or stung.' The 
refereace is to the poisonous effects of the bite of an adder or venomous 
snake. The word amrm is used by Shakespeare to describe the asp 
whose bite was fttol to Cleopatra ; and it is sometimes used lo describe 
a dragon of the largest size. In Icelandic, the term 'mi^^ar^sormr,' 
lit. worm of the middle^atth, agnifies a great sea-serpent encompassing 
the entire world. 

1. 363. Fasi'mgi. This word is spelt with a final ( in all seven MSS. ; 
and as it is emphatic and followed by a slight pause, perhaps the final ( 
should be pronoimced. Cp. A.S. fmtmde, the oldest form of the pre- 
sent participle- 
It is not, perhaps, absolutely essential to the metre, for the word may 
be pronounced/asn'nf , with an accent on the first syllable, thus making 
the first foot consist of but one syllable. See other examples of this in 
my Preface to the Prioresses Tale, p. liiii (or p. Ixiv, and ed,). 

I. 3<36. For htltih, MS. HI. has idilh, >.e, cooleth. 

1. 379. The final 1 in sinnt must not be elided ; it is preserved by the 
oesora. Besides, * is only elided before * in the case of certain words; 
see Pref. to Prioresses Tale, p. liv (or p. Iv, and ed.). 

1. 387. ,<4iioi(;., Bhsolve. In Michelet's Life of Lather, tr. bj W. 
Hazlitt chap, ii, there is a very similar passage concerning Tet2el, the 
Dominican friar, whose shameless sale of iodolgeaces roused Luther 


to his famous dennndations of the practice. Teliel ' went about from 
toinl to town, with great display, pomp, and expense, hawking the 
commodity [i.e. the indulgences] in the diorches, in Ibe public streets, 
in tavems and ale-houses. He paid over to his employers as little 
as possible, pocketing Ihe balance, as was subsequently proved against 
him. The faith of the buyers diminishing, it became necessary to 
exa^erate to the fullest extent the merit of the speciAc .... The 
intrepid Telzel stretched his rhetoric to the very uttermost bounds 
of amplification. Daringly piling one lie upon another, he set forth, 
in reckless display, the toag list of evils which this panacea could 
cure. He did not content himself with enumerating known sins; 
he set his foul imagination to work, and invented crimes, infamous 
atrocities, strange, unheard of, unthought of; and when he saw his 
auditors stand aghast al each horrible suggestion, he would calmly 
repeat the burden of his song ; — Well, all this is expiated the moment 
your money chinks in the pope's chest.' This was in the year 151 7. 

1. 390. An htindnd marh, A mark was worth about 13s. 41/,, and 
100 marks about £66 131. 4/f. In order lo make allowance for the 
difference in tlte value of money in that age, we must at least multiply 
by ten ; or we may say in round numbers, tbat the Pardoner made 
•t least 16700 a year. We may contrast this with Chaucer's own pen- 
sion of twenty marks, granted him in 1367, and ailerwuds increased 
till, in the very last year of his life, he received in all, according lo Sir 
Harris Nicolas, as much as jGGi iji. 41/. Even then his income did not 
quite attain to the hundred marks which the Pardoner gained so 

1. 397. Dotime, A pigeon ; lit. a dove. Chancer, in the Milleres Tale, 
has a line very like this, viz. — 

'As any swallow sitting on a heme.' 

1. 401. Namdy, especially, in patticular ; cf, Kn. Ta. 410. 

L 406. Blalitbtryed, The line means — ' Though tiieii souls go 
•-blackberrying ; ' i.e. wander wherever they like. This is a well-known 
cruM, which all the editors have given up as unintelligible. I have been 
so fortunate as to obtain the complete solution of it, which was printed 
in Notes and Queries. 4S. x. 131, xii.45, and again in my preface to the 
C-text of Piers the Plowman, p. Ixxxvii, The simple explanation is 
that, by a grammatical construction wiiich was probably really due (as 
will be shewn) to an error, the verb go could be combined with what 
was apparmHy a past participle, in such a manner as to give the 
participle the force of a verbal substantive. In other words, instead 
of saying 'he goes a-hanting,' our forefathers sometimes said ' he goes 
a-hunted.' The examples of this use are at least six. The dearest is in 
Pieis Plowman, C, ii. tjS, where we read of 'folk that gon a-beg@ed,' 
i. e. folk that go a-begging. In Chaucer, we not only have an instance 


in the present passage, but another in the Wyfof Bath's Tale, Group D, 
!■ 3S4i where we have ' to gon a-caterwawed.' with the sense of ' to go 
a-caterwauling; ' and it is a fortunate circumstance tliat in both these 
cases the uausaal forms occur at the end of a line, so that the rime has 
preserved them from being tampered with. Gowcr (Conf. Amant. 
bk. i. ed. Chalmers, pp. 31, 33. or ed. Pauli, i. no) speaks of a king of 
Hungary riding out 'iu the month of May,' adding — 

' This king with noble pumeiance 
Hath for bim-selfe his chare [ear] atayed, 
Wher«D he wolde ryde anaytd' &c. 
that is, wherein he wished to ride ^-Maying. Again (in bk. v, ed. 
Chalmers, p. 114, col. 3, or ed. Pauli, ii. 13a) we read of adnmlien piitst 
losing his way : — 

' This prest was dronke, and goti astrayid ; ' 
ie. he goes a-straying, or goes astray. 

The explanation of this construction I take to be this ; the -ed was 
not really a ^gn of the past participle, bat a corruption of the ending 
•f/A (A.S.-a%) which is sometimes found at the end of a verbal snb- 
stantive. Hence it is that, in the passa^ from Piers Plowman above 
quoted, one oftlie best and earliest MSS. actually reads -folk thai gon 
a-b^getb.' And again, in another passage (P. PI. C. ix. 146) is the 
phrase ' gon abiybeth,' or, b some MSS., ' gon abrybed,' i e. go 
a-bribing or go a-thieving, since Mid. Eng. bribtii often means to rob. 
This form is clearly an imitation of the form o-hunUlk in the old 
phrase gon a-hmlelh or riden an honitih, used by Robert of Gloucester 
(Specimens of English, ed. Monis and Skeat, p, 14, 1, 387) — 

'As he rod on hanltth, and par-auntre [h]ij hors spnmde.' 
Now this honliih is the dat. case of a substantive, viz. of the A. S. 
huniaS or hunioV, This substantive would easily be mistaken for a part 
of a verb, and, particularly, for the past participle of a. verb ; just as 
many people at this day are quite unable to dislingnish between the 
true verbal substantive and the present partldpte in -in;. This mistake 
once established, the ending -td would be freely used after the verbs ga 

The result is that the present phrase, hitherto so puullng. is a mere 
variation for 'gon a blake^beiying,' i.e. 'go a-gathering blackberries,' a 
htimorous eipresuon for 'wander wherever they please.' A not very 
dissimilar expression occurs in the proverbial saying — ' bis wits are gone 

The Pardoner says, in effect, >I promise them lull absolution; 
however, when they die and are buried, it matters little to me in what 
direction their souls go.' 

L 407. Tyrwhitt aptly addacct a parallel passage from the R 
of the Rose, 1. E766— ,-- . 


' For oft good predicalioun 
Cometh of euil intentioun.' 
'Some indeed preach Christ even of envy and strife;' Fbil. i. 15. 

1.413. In Piers Plowman (B-teit), V, 87, it is said of Envy that— 
' Ecbe a worde that he warpe ■ was of an addres tooge.' 
Cf. Rom. iii. 13 ; Ps. cil. 3. 

1 . 440. Far I Itch*, because I teach, by my teaching. 

1. 441. Wilful poutrli signifies voluntary poverty. This is well 
illustrated by the following lines concerning Cluist in Piers Plowman, 
R XX. 48.49 :— 

* Syth he that irroughte al the worlde * was wilfulUth nedy, 
Ne neuer non so nedy ■ ne pouerer deyde.' 
Several examples occur io Richardson's Dictionary in which viilfuily has 
the sense of willingly or votaMarily. Thus — ' If they aylfvlly would 
renounce the sayd place and put them in his grace, he wolde vlterlye 
pardon theyr trespace;' Fabyan's Chronide, c. 114. It even means 
gladly; thus in Wydif's Bible, Acts ixi. 17, we hnd, 'britherin res- 
seyuyden vs wSfulli.' Speaking of palmers, Sp^ht says — 'The 
pilgrim travelled at bis own charge, the palmir professed wilful poverty.' 

The word viilfiil Btill means milling in Warwickshire ; see Eog. Dialect 
Soc. Gloss. C. fi. 

!■ 445. The context seems to imply that some of the apostles made 
baskets. So in Piers Plowman, B. xv. iSs, we read of St. Paul— 

'Poule, after his precbyng • panyen he made.' 
Yet in Acts xviii. 3 we only read that he wrought as a tent-maker. 
However, it was St. Paul who set the example of labouring with his 
hands ; and, in imitation of him, we find an early example of basket- 
making by St Arsenius, 'who, before he turned hermit, bad been the 
tutor of the emperors Arcadius and Honorius,' and who is represented 
in a fresco in the Campo Santo at Pisa, by Pjetro Laurali, as ' weaving 
baskets of palm-leaves;' whilst beside him another hermit is cutting 
wooden spoons, and another is Ashing. See Mrs. Jameson's Sacred and 
Legendary Art, 3rd ed. il. 757. 

1. 448. The best description of tbebouse-to-house system of begging, 
as adopted by the mendicant friars, is near the beginning of the 
Sompnour's Tale. They went in pairs to the &iTD-houses, begging a 
bushel of wheat, or malt, or rye, or a piece of cheese or brawn, or bacon 
or beef, or even a piece of an old blanket. Nothing seems to have 



The FardonereB Tale. 

For Gome account of the source of Ihis Tale, see the Vrelace. The 
account which I here quote as the 'Italian ' text is that contained Ed 
Novella btxxii of the Libro di Novelle. 

1. 463. Id laying the scene in Flanders, Chaucer probably followed an 
oriE""'' which is now lost. Andrew Borde, in his amusing Introduclion 
of Knowledge, ch. viii, says: — 'Flounders is a plentyfull coontre of 
fyshe Sc fleihe & wyld fowle. Ther shal a mao be clenly senied at his 
table. & well ordred and vsed for meate & drynke & lodgyng. The 
couatre is playn, & Eomwhat Sandy. The people lie gentyl, but the 
men be great drynkers ; and many of the women be vertuons and wel 
dysposyd,' He describes the Fleming as saying — 
'lam a Fleming, wliat for all that, 
Although I wyll be dronken other whyles as a rnt? 
"Buttermouth Flemyng" men doth me call,' &c. 

1.464. Haunlidm, followed after; cf. note to 1. 547. The same 
expression occurs la The Tale of Beryn, a spurious (but not ill-told) 
addition to the Canterbury Tales; — 

'Foty, I haunlid it euer, ther myght no man me let;' 1. ijig- 

1. 473. Oriily, terrible, enough lo make one shudder. It is exactly the 
right word ; Kce Che Glossary. The mention of these oaths reminds us 
of the admission of my Uncle Toby in Sleme's Tristram Shandy, ch. xi, 
that ' our armies swore terribly ia Flanders' 

1. 474. To-iirt, tear in pieces, dismember. Cf. la-rtnlt in Gloss, to 
Prioresses Tale (Clar. Press). Chaucer elsewhere says — ' For Ciistes 
sake Ewere not so sinnefuUy, in dismembriHg of Crist, by soule, herte, 
bones, and body ; for certes it semeth, that ye thinken that the cursed 
lewet dismembred him not ynough, but ye dismembre him more;' 
Persones Tale, Dt Ira. And see U. 6j9-65i) below. 

• And than Seint Johan seid — " These [who are thus toimented in 
hell] ben thei that sweren hi Goddes membris, as hi his nayles and 
other bis membris, and thei thus dismembrid God in horrible swerynge 
hi hislimmea;' Vi^on of Wm. Staunton (a.d. 1409), quoted in Wright's 
St. Patrick's Purgatory, p. 146. In the Plowman's Tale (Chaucer, ed. 
1561, fol. xci) we have — 

> And Cristes membres al to-tere 
On roode as he were newe yrent.' 
Barclay, in his Ship of Fools (ed. JamiesoD, i, 97), says — 
'Some Eweryth armes, naylys, herie, and Imdy, 
Terynge our Lord worse than the Jowes hym arayed.' 
And again (ii. tjo) he complains of swearers who crucify Christ afresh. 


sweating by ' his holy nwmbres,' by his ' Mode," by ' his face, his hette, 
or by bis croune of thorne,' etc. Todd, in his llInstratioDS of Chaucer, 
p. 164, quotes (from aa old MS.) the old second commandment in the 
following form : — 

■ II. Thi goddes name and b[e]aut(e 
Thou shall not take for wel nor wo j 
Dismembre hym not that on rode-tre 
For the was mad boyth blak and bio.' 

477. TonAtitrti, female dancers. 'Sir Ferdicas, whom that kinge 
Alysandre made to been his heire in Grece, was of no kinges blod ; his 
dame \moiher\ was a tombystere ; ' Testament of Love, Book ii. ed. 
1561. fol. ccxcvi b. 

Torabesliri is the feminine fono ; the A.S. spelling wonld be (vm6- 
tslrt; the masc. fonn is the A.S. tumbirt, which is glossed by taUalor, 
i. e. a dancer ; the verb is tumbian, to dance, used of Herodias's daughter 
in the A.S, version of Mark vi. 11. 

On the feminine terminatirai -sltr (formerly -tstrs, or -^Irt) see the 
remarks in Maish's Lectures on the English Language, printed in (the 
so-called) Smith's Student's Manual of the Ei^lish t.Bnguage, ed. tSSi, 
pp. 907, log, with an additional note at p. 317. Marsh's remarks are, in 
this case, less clear than usual. He shews that the termination was not 
always used as a femmine. and that, in fact, its force was eatly lost. It 
is, however, merely a question of chronology. That the termination was 
originally feminine in Anglo-Saxon, is sufficiently proved by the A.S. ver- 
sion of the Gospels. There we find the word aiuga frequently used in the 
seme of praphil; but, in one instance, where it is necessary to express the 
ftminint, we find this accomplished by the use of this very termbation. 
■ And anna wks uiiitgyitrt (another MS. viittgtstri) ;' i. e. and Anna was 
a firophiliss, Lnke ii. 36. Similar instances might easily be multiplied; 
see Dr. Morris's Hist, Outlines of Eng. Accidence, pp. 89, 90. Thus, 
wasiheslren (pi.) is used as the translation of tatricis; Old Eng. 
Homilies, ed. Monis, ii. 57. But it is also true that, in the fourteenth 
century, the feminine force of this termination was becoming very weak, 
so that, whilst m P. Plowman, B. v. 306, we find ' Belon the brewtsun ' 
applied to a female brewer, we cannot thence certainly conclude that 
' brewesCere ' was always feminine at that period. On the other hand, 
we may pomt to one word, tpimla; which has reniained femiiuiie to this 
very day. 

Dr. Morris remarks that lambalen is a hybrid word ; in which I 
believe he has been misled by the spelling. It is a pure native word, 
from the A.S. tambian, but the scribes have turned it from lumbtsien 
into lombisteri, by confusion with the French lotnbtr. Vet even the 
Fr. lombtr was once spelt lumb^ (Burguy, Roquefort), being, in fact, 
a word of Germanic origin. An acrobat can still be called a ttmbltr; 


we find ' ropeHjancers and tvmNtit ' id Locke ; Conduct of the Under- 
standing, i 4. Indeed, the Cambridge MS. has bere the true spelling 
lumbti/trii, whilst the Corpus, Petwoith, and I^nsdowae MSS. have 
IS and lomblisit 

As to the louret of the suffix sltr, it is really a compound suffix, due 
to composition either of the Aryan suffiies -«i- and -fcr-, or of -yant- and 
-Ur-i cf. Lat. mag-ii-ter, min-is-nr, potl-as-ltr. The feminine use is 
peculiar to Aoglo-Saxon and to some other Teutonic languages. 

1. 478, Fniyitsitrts, {eniaAe sellers of fruit; see note to last line. 

1. 479. Wafertrti, sellers of confectionery, confectioners. The faninine 
form viajnun occurs in Piets Plowman, v. 641. From Beaumont and 
Fletcher we leam that ' wafer-women ' were often employed in amorous 
embassies, as stated in Narea' Glossary, q. v. 

1. 483. U<ii aril. In the margin of (be HSS. E., Hn., Cp., Pt., and 
HL is the note — 'NoUte irKbriari vino, in quo est luxuria,' quoted from 
the Vulgate version of Eph. v. r8. 

L 4S8. • Herod, (as may be seen by any one) who would consult the 
"stories" carefully.' The Harleian MS. has the inferior reading irory ', 
but the reference is particular, not vague. Peter Comestor (died ij>. 
ll9S)was the author of an Historia Scholastica, on which account he wa* 
called 'the maister of stories,' or 'clerkofthesiories.'aseiplatoedinthe 
note to Piers Plowman, vii. 73 (CUr. Press). The use of the flural 
is due to the fact that the whole Uistoria Scholastica, which b a sort of 
epitome of the Bible, with notes imd additions, is divided into sections, 
nut of which is eiso called ' Historia,' The account of Herod occurs, 
of course, in tlie section entitled Historia Evaugelica, cap. Izxii ; De 
decollatione ioanois. Cf. Matt, xiv ; Mark vi. 

1. 491. SiM*, Seneca. The reference appears to be, as pointed out by 
Tyrwhitt, to Seneca's Letters ; Epist. bcxxiii : ' Extende in plures dies 
ilium ebrii habitum : numqaid de furore dubitabis ? nunc quoque non 
est minor, sed brevior.' 

I. 496. ' Except that madness when it has come upon a man of evil 
nature, lasts longer than does a fit of drunkenness.' 

1. 499. ' First cause of our misfortune ;' alluding to the Fall of Adam. 
See I. 505. 

1. 501, Boiighl ui agayn, redeemed ns; a translation of the I.atin 
ndimil. Hence we fmd Christ called, m Middle English, the Aiinbyir, 
'See now how dete he [Christ] boughle mar), that he made after his 
owne ymage, and how dere he aymboght us, for the grete love that he 
hadde to us ; ' Sir J. Maundevitle, Prologue to his Voiage (Specimens 
of Eng. 1398-1393, p. 165). Seel. 766 below. 

1. SOS- Here, in the margin of MS. E., Hn., Cp., PL, HI. is a 
quotation from ' Hieronymus contra Jovinianum ' (i.e. from St. Jerome); 
'Quamdiu ieiunauit Adam, in Faradiso fliit; comedit et eiectus estj 


■tatini dnxit nxorem,' S«« Hieron. contra Jov. Ub. ii. c 15 ; ed. Mif^e, 

I. 510. Dtftndid, forbidden. Even Milton bsi it; weF. Lost.xi. 8fi, 
See also 1. 590 below. 

1. 51*. 'Ogluttonyl it would much behove ua to compktn oF thee r 

1. 5>3. In ihe mai^n of MSS. £. and Hn. is written the quotation — 
' Esca ventH, et venter escia. Deus autem et hunc et illam destrnet." 
For illam, the usual reading of the Vulgate is has ; see I Cor. vi. 13. 

1. 536. Whyli and ndi, white wine and red wine ; >ee note lo Piers 
Plowman, B. prol. liS (Clar. Press), 

I. 539. Intheniai^inofMSS.E,andHn. is writlen — 'Ad FliilipeDses, 
capiCu!o teitio.' See Phil. iit. 18. 

1. S37- 'Howgreattoilandeipense(itis)to provide fortheel' Chaucer 
is here addressing man's appetite for delicacies. Of. fond, Non. Pr. 
Tale, 9. 

L 539. Here Chancer humoronsly allude* to tlie liunons dispntes 
in scholastic philosophy between tbe Realists and Nominalists. To 
attempt any explanation of their language is to become lost in subtleties 
of distinction. It would seem however that the Realists maintained 
that eveiything possesses a lubslaHct, which is inherent in itself, and 
distinct &om the atcidmis or outward phenomena which the thing 
presents. According to them, the form, smell, taste, colour, of anything 
are merely atciditus, and might be changed without affecting the 
tubstaaee itself. See the excellent article on SvbUaiitt in the EngL 
Cyciopsedia ; also that on Nonuitaliits. 

Accoiding to Chaucer, then, the cooks who toil to satisfy man's 
appetite change the nature of the things cooked so effectually as to con- 
foood mbilanct with acddtnt. Translated into plain language, it 
means that those who partook of the meats so prepared, could not. by 
means of tlieir taste and smell, form any precise idea as to what they 
were eating. The art is not lost. 

1, 547. Haant4lh, practises, indulges in ,' cf. 1. 464. In the margin of 
JISS. E. and Hn. is written — ' Qui autem in deliciis est, vinens mortnos 
est.' This is a quotation from the Vulgate version of I Tim. v. 6, but 
with Qui for qua, and morluus for morlua. 

1. S49. In the mai|^a of MSS. K. and Iln. is written — ' Luxuriosa res 
vinum, et contumeliosa ebrietas.' The Vulgate version of Piov, xi. i 
agrees with tliis nearly, but has Itimtdtvoia for eoalunuliasa. This is of 
course the text to which Chancer refers. And see note to B. 771. 

1. 554. He means that the drunkard's stertorous breathing seems to 
repeat the sound of the word Samfiioiia. Tbe word was probably 
chosen for the sake of its nasal sounds, to imitate a sort of gnint 
PronounM the m and b as in French, but with exaggerated emphasis. 
So also in 1. 571. 

154 trOTES TO GROUP c. 

L S5S- See note to the Monkes Tale, Group B, line 3145. In Jndget 
xiii. 4, 7, the command to drink no wine is addressed, not to Samson, 
but to his raotlier. Of S>mson tiitnself it is said that he was ' a 
Nazarite,' which implies the same thing; see Numbers vi. j, 5. 

1. s6i. In Chaucer's Tale of Melibeus (Sii-text, B. 1383) we find— 
'Thou sbalt also eschue Che conseiling of folk (hat been dronkelewe; for 
they can no conseil hyde ; for Salomoii seith, Ther is no priuetee ther-as 
regneth dronkenesse ;' and see B. 776, The allusion is to Prov. xitxi. 4 
— 'Noli regibus, O LamueL noli regibus dare uinum; quia, nullum 
secretum est ubi tegnat ebrietas.' This last clause is quite different 
from that in our own version ; which funiishes, perhaps, a reason why 
the allnsioQ here intended has not been perceived by previous editors. 

1- 5^3- A'obm/ji, especially. Tyrwhitt's note is as follows : 'According 
to the geoEraphers, Lepe Was not far from Cadiz. This wine, of what- 
ever sort it may have been, was probably much stronger than the 
Gascon wines, nsnally drank in England. La Rochetle and Boideanx 
(1- 571)1 the two chief ports of Gascony, were both, in Chaucer's time, 
part of the English dominions.' 

' Spanish wines might also be more alluring upon account of their 
great rarity. Among the Orders of the Royal Household, in 1604, is 
the following (MS. Harl. 193, fol. 161) : " And whereas, in tymes past, 
Spanish wines, called Sacke, were little or noe whit used in our courle, 
and that in later years, though not of ordinary allowance, it was thought 
convenient that noblemen . . . might have a boule or gtas, &c. We 
ondeistanding that it is now i«ed as common drinke . . . reduce the 
allowance to xii. gallons a day for Ihe court." ' &c. Several regulations 
to be observed by London vintners are mentioned in the Liber Albus, 
ed. Riley, pp. £14-618. Amongst them is — 'Item, that white wine of 
Gascoigne, of la Rocbele, of Spain, or other pUce, shall not be put in 
cellars with Rhenish wines.' See also note to 1. 565. 

I. 564. To cdli, for sale; the true gerund, of which to is, in Anglo> 
Saxon, the sign. So also 'this house fa Ut' is the correct old idiom. 
needing no such alteration as some would make. Cf. Morris, Hist. 
Outlines of Eng. Accidence, sect ago, subsect. 4. Fish Street leads out 
of Lower Thames Street, dose to the North end of London Bridge, 
The Harleian MS. alone reads Flat Strtei, which is certainly wrong. 
Considering that Thames Street is especially mentioned as a street 
for vintners (Liber Albus, p. 614), and that Chaucer's own father was a 
ThamesStreetvintner, there can belittle doubt about this matter. The 
poet is here speaking (rom his own knowledge ; a cimsideratioD which 
gives Ihe present passage a peculiar interest. Chip* is Cheapside. 

I. 56s. This is a fine touch. The poet here tells ns that some of this 
strong Spanish wine used to find its way mysteriously into other wines 1 
not (he ironical]} su^ests) because the vintners ever mixed their wines, 


but because the vines of Spain notoriously grew so close to those of 
Gascony that it was not possible to keep Ihem apart I Crifilh sublilly" 
finds its way. mysteriously. Observe the humour in the word growing, 
which expresses that the mixture of wines must be due to the proxi- 
mity of the vines producing ihem in the vineyards, not to any accidental 
proximity of the casks containing them in the vintners' cellars. In fact, 
the different kinds of wine were to be kept in different cellars, as the 
Regnlalions in the Liber Albus (pp. 615-618) shew. "Item, that no 
Tavemer shall put Rhenish wine and White wine in a cellar together.' 
'Iteni.that new wines shall not be put in cellars with old wines.' 'Item, 
that White wine of Gaseoigne. of la Rochele, of Spain, or otKer place, 
shall not be put in cellars with Rhenish wines.' ' Item, that white wine 
shall not be gold for Rhenish wme.' ' Item, that no one shall expose for 
sale wtaes connleifeit or mixed, made by himself or by another, under 
pain of being set upon the pilloty.' But pillories have vanished, and all 
such laws are obsolete. 

1. 570. ' He is in Spain ;' i.e. he is, as it w 
He imagines he has never left Cheapside, yet is 
he is, as we should say. 

1. 571. ' Not at Rochelle,' where the wines are weak. 

1- E79' 'Tie death of Attila look place in 453. The commonly 
received account is that given by Jomandes, that lie died by the bursting 
of a blood-vessel on the night of his marriage with a beautiful maiden, 
whom he added to his many other wives ; some, with a natural suspicion, 
impute it to the hand of his bride. Friscus observes, that no one ever 
subdned so many countries in so short a time. . . . Jomandes, De Rebui 
Geticis, and Priscus, Exrerpia di Legalionibus, furnish the best existing 
materials for the history of Attila. For modem compilations, see 
Buat, Hiiloire da Piuplis dt I'Europe; De Guignes, Hisl. des Huns; and 
Gibbon, capp. xiiiv and ixxv; ' English Cyclopaedia. And see Am^d^e 
Thieriy, Hisloiri d'Allila. 

Mr. JephsiKi (in Bell's ChaucerJ quotes the account of Atlila's death 
given by Faulus Diaconus, Gisl. Rom.Yih. xv; 'Qui reuersus ad piopHas 
(edes, supra plures quas habebat uxores, valde decoram, indicto nomine, 
sibi in matrimonium iutixit. Ob cuins nuplias profusa conuiuia 
exercens, dnm tantum nini quantum nunquam antea insimni bibisset, 
cum supinns quiesceret, eruptione sanguinis, qui ei de naribus solitus 
erat efHuere, sufibcatus et extinctus est,' 

1. 585. Lanniil, i.e. King Lemuel, mentioned in Prov. xxii, i, q.y. ; 
not to be confused, says Ciiaucer, with Samuel. The allusion is to 
Prov. xxxi. i, 5 ; and not (as Mr. Wright suggests) to Prov. xxiil. In 
fact, in the margin of MSS. E. and Hn. is written — ' Noli ninum dare,' 
words found in Prov. xxxi. 4. See note to 1. 561. 

L 591. Hasard, gambling. In the margin of MSS. E. and Hn. il 


written — ' Palicratid libra primo ; Mecdadonun et perinrianim nuitei 
est AIm.' This shew* that the lime is 4 qactation from lib. i. [cap. 5] 
of the PolycraticQi of John of Salisbury, bishop of Cbartres, who died in 
iiSo. See some account of this work in Ftof. Morley's Eng.Writeis, i. 
J97. ' In the fint book, John treats of temptations and duties and 
other Taiiities, such as hunting, diet, music, mimes and minstrelsji, magic 
and soothsaying, prt^ostication by dreams and astrology.' See also 
the account of gaining, considered asabrandi of Avarice in the Ayenbyte 
of Inwyt, ed. Morris, pp. 45, 46. 

1. 603. Siilbon. It should rather be Chiltm, Tjrwhitl remarks— 
' John of Salisbury, from whom our author probably took this story and 
the following, calls him Ckilon ; Polyccat. lib. i. c S' " Chilon Lacedce- 
monius, iungendte sodetatis causa missus Corinthum, duces et seoiores 
populi ludentes inuenit in alea. Infecto itaque n^otio renetsus est 
[dicens se nolle gloriam Spaitanomm, quonun uirtui constnicto 
Byzantio clarescebat, hac maculare infamia, ut dicerentur cimi aleatori- 
bns contraiisse aocietatem]." Accordingly, in ver. 11539 [^ **S]< MS. 
C. I [i.e. MS. Camb, Univ. lib. Dd. 4. 14] reads very rightly Lattdomyi 
instead of Calidont, the common reading [of the old editions]. Our 
author has used before Lacnbnu'f for Locuiixnian, v. 11691 [Frank. Tale, 
F ilSoV 

In the Petw. MS., tlie name Siilbon is explained as meaning Mercuriat. 
So, in Liddell and Scott's Gk. Lexicon, we have ' arixeav, -orTot, 6. iht 
ftaael Mireury, Aiist. Mund. 1. 9 J cf. Cic Nat. D. 2. so.' The explana- 
tion is clearly wrong in the present instance, yet it points to the original 
lease of the word, viz, ' shining,' from the verb ariX^tir, to glitter. 

1. 60a. The first foot has but one syllable, vii. Pity. Alit, for at tht. 
Tyrwhitt oddly remarks here, that ' alU has &equently been corrupted 
into at Iki,' viz. in the old editions. Of course am is rather, etymologi- 
cally. a corruption of ar t\i ; Tyrwhitt probably means that the editors 
might as well have let the form altt stand. If so, he is qaile right ; for, 
though etymoli:^ically a corruption, it was a recognised form at that date. 

1. 6ji. This story immediately follows the one quoted from John of 
Salisbury in the note to 1. 603. After ' societatem,' he proweds: — 
' Kegi quoque Demetrio, in opprobrium puerilis leuitatis, tali anrei a 
rege Parthorum dati sunt.' What Demetrius this was, we are not lold ; 
perhaps it may have been Demetrius Nicator, king of Syria, who was 
defeated and taken prisoner by the Parthians in 138 b.c, and detained io 
captivity by them for ten years. This, however, is but a guess. Compare 
the Etoiy told of our own king, in Shakespeare's Ueruy V, Act I sc 1. 

I. 61S. To dryut iMt day aieiy, to pass the time. The same phrase 
occurs in Piers Plowman, B. prol. 114, where it is said of the labourers 
who tilled the soil that they ' dryueo forth the looge day with Ditu tout 
laue, Danu imme,' i.e. amuse themselves with singing idle songs. 


1. 63J. In the mai^ of MSS. E., Hn., and Ft. is the qnotatioa 
'Nolite omnino inrare,' with a leference (in Hn. only) to Matt. v. The 
Vulgate version of Matt. v. j^ u — ' Ego aotem dico nobis, non inrare 
omnino, neque per caeltnn, quia thionus Dei est.' 

I. 635. Id the margin of MSS. E,, Hn., and Ft. is written — ■ lercmie 
quarto. lurabls in veritate, in Indido et Insticia ; ' see Jer. iv. 1. 

There are several points of resemblance betvreen (he present passage 
and one in the Peisones Tale (Di Ira), part of which has been already 
quoted in the note to 1. 474. ' Also our Lord lesu Crist saylh. b; the 
word of seint Mathew ; Ne shal ye nat swere in alls manere, neyther by 
heven, &c. And if so be that ihe lawe compclte you to eweic, than 
reulelh yon after the lawe of god in yonr swering, as sayth leremie ; 
Thou shalt kepe three conditions ; IhoQ sbalt Gwere in troulh, in dome, 
and in rightwisenesse, &c And think wel this, that euery giet swerer, 
not compelled lawfully to swere, the plage shal not depart fio his hous, 
while he useth unleful swering. Thou shalt swere also in dome, when 
thou art constreined by the domesman to witnesse a trouth ;' &c. So 
also Wyclif: — '^1 no man Echulde swere, nouther for life ne dethe, no 
but with these thre condidones, that is, in treuthe, in dome, and in 
rightwisenes, as God sais by the prophet leremye ; ' Works, ed. Arnold, 
iii. 483- 

1. 639. Th* first* lablt, i.e. the commandments that teadins our duly 
towards God; those in the second table teach be our duty to our 

1. 641. Stcondi lustt, second commandment. Formerly, the lirst two 
commandments were conudered as one ; the third commandment was 
therefore Ihe second, as here. The tenth commandment was divided 
into two parts, to make up the number. See Wydif's treatise on 'The 
ten Comaundements ; ' Works, ed. Arnold, iii. 81. Thus Wyclif says — 
' The seconnde maner maundemoit of God perteyneth to the Sone. 
Thow schalt not take the name of thi Lord God in veyn, net>)>er in word, 
neifrer in iyvynge.' And see note to 1. 474. 

1. 643. Raliur, sooner; because this commimdment precedes those 
which relate to murder, &:c. 

1. 646. 'T^ey that understand his commandments know this,' Sec. 

1. 649. Wydif says — ' For it is written in Ecdesiasticns, the thre and 
twenti chapttre, there he sdth this : A man mach sweringe schal be ful- 
filled with wickidnesse, and ventaunce schal not go away fro his hous ; ' 
Works, iii. 84. Chaucer here quotes the same text; seeEcdus-xxtii. 11. 

1. 651. So Wydif, iii. 483 — 'hit isnot Iceful to swere by creaturis, ne 
by Goddys bonys, sydus, naylns. ne anaas, or by ony memhre of Cristis 
body, as \t mosCe dele of men nsen.' 

lywhitt ■ays—' Aii aayln, i.e. with which he was nailed to the cross. 
Sir J. Maundevitle, c. vii— " And thereby in the wall* is th« placewheta 


the 1 Nsyles of otu Lord weren hidd ; for he had j in his hondes, and a 
in his feet : and one of theise the Emperonre of ConsUntrnoble mode 
abrydilUtohis bors, to here him in bataylle; nndthorgh vertne thereof 
he overcame his enemies," Sk. He had said before, c ii., thafonof Ibe 
oayles that Crist was naylled vith on the cross "was " at Constantynoble ; 
end on in France, in the kinges chapelle." ' 

Mr. Wright adds, wliat is doubtless tme, that these oails 'were 
objects of superstition in the middle ages.' Notwithstanding these 
opinions, I am not satisfied that these comments are gtalt correct. I 
strongly suspect that sweareis did not slop to think, nor were they 
at all particular as to the sense in which the words might be nsed. 
Here, for example, nails are mentioned between hearl and biaod ; in the 
quotation from Wydif in the note to 1. 651, we find mention of 'bones, 
lides, nails, and arms,' followed by 'any member of Christ's body.' Still 
more express is the phrase used by William Staunton (see note to 1. 474 
above) that 'God's members' include 'his nails.' On the other hand, 
in Lewis's Life of Pecock, p. 155 [or p. 107, ed. iSao], is a citation from 
ft MS. to the eBect that, in the year 1430, many men died m England 
'emittendo sanguinem per iuncluras et per secessnm, scilicet in illis 
partibu? corporis per quas horribiliter iurare consuenerunt, scilicet, 
per oculos Christi, per faciem Christ!, per latera Chrisli, per sanguinem 
Christi, per cor Christi preciosum, per clauaa Christi in suis manibus et 
pedibus.' A long essay might be written upon the oaths found in ouc 
old anthors, but the subject is, I think, a most repulsive One. 

1. 653. Here Tyrwhitt notes— 'The Abbey of Hailes, in Glocesler- 
shire, was founded by Richard, king of the Komans, brother to Henry 
ni. This precious relick, which was afterwards called " the blood of 
Haites," was broagbt out of Germany by the son of Richard, Edmund, 
who bestowed a third part of it npon his father's Abbey of Hailes, 
and some time after gave ttie other two parts to an Abbey of his 
own foundation at Asbrug near Berkhamsted. Hollinshed, vol. ii. 
p. 375.' 'A vial was shewn at Hales in Glocestershire, as containing 
a porticoi of our blessed Saviour's blood, which suffered itself to lie 
seen by do persim in a state of mortal sin, but became visible when 
the penitent, by his olTerings, had obtained foipveness. It was now 
discovered that this was performed by keeping blood, which was 
renewed every week, in a vial, one side of which was thick and opaque, 
the other transparent, and turning it by a secret hand as the case 
required. A trick of the same kind, mot« skilfully executed, is still 
•imually performed at Naples.' — Southey, Book of the Church, ch. xii. 
He refers to Fuller, b. vi. HlaL of Abbeys, p. 333 ; Burnet, i. 333. 
ed, 1681. See also the word Bala in the lodei to the works published 
by the Parker Society ; and Pilgrimages to Walsingham and Canterbury 
(by Erasmus), ed. J. G. Nichols, and ed. 1S7;, p. 88. 


1. 653. 'My chance is seven ; yours is five and three.' This is an allusion 
to the particular game called hazard, not to a mete comparison of throws 
to see which is highest. A certain tluow (here uvm) is called the 
caster's chaaet. This can tuily be nnderitood hj an acquaintance with 
the rules of the game. See the article Hazard ia Supplement to Eng. 
Cydopxdia, or in Hojie's Games. Cf. Man of LawesPtolc^e, B 114; 
Menkes Tale, B3851. Compare — 'Notunliketheuseof foulegamesteis, 
who having lost the maine by [i.e. according to] true judgement, Chinke 
to face it out with a false oath ; ' Lyly's Euphues and his England (qu. 
in Halliwell's edition of Nates, s.v. Main), 

I. 656. In the Towneley Mysteries, p. 341, when the soldiers dice for 
Christ's gaiments, one says — 

' I was falsly begyled withe thise bycJud boutt, 
Thei cursyd thay be,' 
On the following page (p. 141), Pilate addresses a soldier with the 
words — 'Unbychid, unbayn.' Uabayn (Icel. ti-htimi) means, literally, 
crooked ; metaphorically, perreise ; and is a term of reproach. This 
(uggests that unbychid coold be similariy used. 

The readings aie: — E. Cp. bicehid; Ln. btccked; HI. bicchid; Hn. 
Cm. Ucchi ; Ft and old edd. thUi, thUii (wrongly). Besides which, 
Tyrwhitt cites bichil, MS. Harl. 7335 ; becdud, Camb. Univ. Lib. Dd. 4, 
14 ; and, from other MSS., bicekid, bicclud, bilehid, bicchi. The generaj 
consensus of the MS. and the qnotation from the Towneley Mysteries 
establish the reading given in the text beyond all doubt. Yet Tyrwhitt 
reads bitclul, for which he adduces no authority beyond the following. 
' BUiil, as explained by Kilian, is Icdus, ovillus et lusorius ; and bicttlai, 
talis ludete. See also Had. Junii Nomencl. n. ZI3. Our dice indeed 
are the andent /latra (xiPoi) not tali {&irrpi-/aXoi) ; but, both being 
games of hazard, the implements of one might be easily attributed 
to the other. It should seem from Jnnius, loc. cit., that the Germans 
had preserved the custom of playing with the natural bones, as they 
have different names for a game with lali ovitli, and another with (oU 

I find in the Tauchnitz Dutch Dictionary.—' Biiid, cockal. BMiltn, 
to play at cockals.' Here cocial is the old name for a game with four 
hucktebones (Halliwetl), and is further made to mean Che hucklebcme 
itself. The same Dutch Dictionary gives — ' Biilmt, Co notch (the mill- 
In Wackemagel's Altdeutsches Handwottetbach, we find — 'Biciel, 
Pitid, Spitihacke; Wiirfel,' i.e. (i) a pick-aie ; (a) a die. Also 
'Bickdspit, Wiirfelspiel ; ' i.e. a game at dice. Wackemagel refeis the 
etymology to the verb bieiin ai pickia, to pick or peck, which is clearly 
the sanje as the Dutch bikkai, to notch. 
We may safely conclude (I) that the reading bicclud is correct; 


(») that the English term biciJud bom it equivalent lo the Dutch bAM, 
Ger. bicM, as In ta the general lenK u cODcemed, since they both 
Telate to things employed in games of chance. Nevertheless, despite 
Ibeii apparent similarity of form, there seems to be no etymological 
coonectioQ between them, bat they were named for quite differeat 
reasons. The Du. biiitl may be referred to the verb biUen, to notch, 
also to pick, peck, or mark ; so that the original sense of bikktl was 
'pick'axe'; however, it afterwards acquired the sense of ' buckle 'bone,' 
and finally, that of ' die.' The history of the word shews that the last 
sense arose from a transference of age, and not from the fact that the die 
was spotted or marked by maldng slight holes in its surface. Bat the Eng. 
bUchtd appears to have had the meaning of ' accnrsed ' or ' execrable ' ; 
see the New Ei^lish Dictionary, where it is shewn that it was applied to 
other things beside* dice; as, for example, to a basilisk, a body, a harden, 
and to the bwnaa conscience. It is evidently an opprobrions term, and 
teeins to be derived from the sb. bitch (M. E. bt'iclii) opprobrionsly used. 
Hence ikt bieeitd bomi Ana refer to ' the two accursed pieces of bone ' 
that are used in playing at haiard. 

I add a few more references by way of confirming the deriralion of 
the Datch biUtl. 

Hexham's Dutch Dictionary (ed. ififS) gives:— 'Een Bickel, ofte 
[or] Pickel, a hnckletione, or a die. Bicket, a pounce, or a graver, 
Bidttlen, ofte Ficketen, to play at dice. Blckelen, oAe Bicken, to cutt, 
pink, or engrave. Een Bickeler, ofte Bicker, a stone-hewer, a stone- 
carver, or a cutter. Bicken, to cnt or came.' The Icel. fMa means 
both to pick and to prick. The A. S. pinag means a stigma, or mark 
caused by burning. The German Picitl is eiplained by Hem^us as 
'ein kleiues Fleck, einkleines Geschwiir auf der Haul ;'and^icW'i, he 
says, is ' sanft picken, mit etwas Spitzigem leise beriihrea.' In Kiittner 
and Nicholson's German Dictionary I find ' Fickeo, to peck with the 
bill, as birds do. Ein Vogel, der nch picket, a bird that picks, pecks, 
or prcons itself.' This last throws a clear light on apikid in Chaucer's 
Prologue, 1. 365. 

1. 661. The Pardoner now lakes up the tale in earnest, beginning 
abruptly. The ' three rioters ' have not been previously mentioned, 
though the word ri'of occun in I. 465. 

L 66]. Prymt, about nine o'clock ; see notes to Non. Pr. Tale, 35 ; 
and to Gronp B. 9015 (SirThopas). Here it means the canonical hour 
for prayer so called, lo announce which bells were rung. 

1. 664. A hand-belt was carried t>efore a corpse at a funeral by the 
sexton. See Rock, Chuich of Our Fathers, ti. 471 ; Ciiodal's Works, 
p. 136. 



1. 666. That oea qfihem, the one or them i the old phiase for 'one of 
them.' Knaut, boy. 

1. 667. Go bti, lit. go better, I.e. go quicker; a. tem of encourage- 
men't Co dogs in the chase. So ia the Legend of Good Women (Dido, 
1. aSS) we have— 

'The heide of hartes fonndeo is uioii. 
With " hey I gobeil prick thou I let gon, let goni*** 
Halliwell says — ' Go bit, an old hunting cry, often introduced in a more 
general sense. See Songs and Carols, xt ; Shale. Soc. Pap. i. 58 ; 
Chancer, C T. 12601 [the present passage] ; Dido, j88 ; "^whitt's 
notes, p. 378 ; Kitson's Anc. Pop. Poetry, p. 46. The phrase is men- 
tioned by [Juliana] Becsen in the Boke of St. Atban's, and seems 
nearly equivalent to go along* It is strange that no editor has per- 
ceived the auai sense of this very simple phrase. Of. 'Keep btt my 
good,' i.e. take better care of my property ; Shipmannes Tale, thiid 
line from the end. 

I. 679. Thi> fesHlenct, doring this plague. Alluding to the Great 
Plagues that took place in the reign of Edward III. There were four 
Each, viz, in 1348-9, 1361-3, 1369, and t37S'6. As Chancer probably 
had the storf from an Italian source, the allusion must be to the first 
and worst of these, the effects of which spread nearly all over Europe, 
and which was severely felt at Florence, as we learn from the descrip- 
tion left by Boccaccio. See note to Piers Plowman, B. v. 13 (Clar. 

1. 684. My dame, my mother ; its in Piers Plowman, B. t. 37. 

1. 695. Atiow, vow ; to rnaki auaiu is the old phrase for M vow. 
Tyrwhitt alters it to a void, quite unnecessarily; and the same alteration 
has been made by editors in other books, owing to want of tamiliarity 
with old MSS. It is true that the form vote does occur, as, e.g. in 
P. Plowm. B.prol. 71 i but it is no less certain that □vou' occurs also, and 
was the older form ; since we have oon atiou (B. 334), and the phrase 
'Iinakeroynrivau,'P.Plowman, A, V. iiS; where no editorial sophistica- 
tion can evade giving the right spelling. Equally clear is the spelling 
in the Prompt. Farv. — 'Aww, Votum. Awoayn, or to mail aiBOUie, 
Voveo.' And Mr, Way says — 'Auoua, vea; Palsgrave, This word 
occurs in R. de Brunne, Wicli£ and Chaucer. The phrase " performed 
his auowe" occurs in the Legends Aurea, fol. aj.' Those who are 
familiar with MSS. know (hat a prefixed a is often written apart from 
the word : thus the word now spelt accord is often written ' a corde ;' 
and so on. Hence, even when the word is really ont word, it is still 
often written 'a now,' and is naturally printed a mw m two words, 
where no such result was intended. Tyrwhitt himself prints nun 
mum in the Knightes Tale, I, 1379, and again Ika avow in the same, 
!• 155^ ; where no error is possible. See more on ttiis word in my 

. vol- m, H 


note to 1. I of Cherj Chase, in Spec, of Eng. 1,194-1579. I have 
there said that the form voa does not occur in earlj writera ; I should 
rather hftve said, it is bf no means the hsho^ form. For the etymology, 
see the Glossary. 

1. 698. Bnlkir, i.e.swom friend; see Kn. Tale, 373, 189. In t. 704, 
ybortn brotktr means brother by Urth. 

1. 709. To-rmii, tare in pieces, dismembered. See note to t. 474 

L 7 13. This ' old man ' answere to the romila or hermit of the Italian text. 
Note an old (mdefinite), ta compared nith iht Bldg (definite) in 1. 7 14. 

1. 71J. Tyrwhilt, in his Glossary, remarks — 'God yov uil 7731. 
Oad him ml 4576. May God keep you, or him, in his sight! lo 
Troilus, iL S5, it is fuller : — God you sain and ste I ' Gower has — ' And 
than I bidde, Goif Air stel' Conf. Amant. bk. iv (ed. Chalmers, p. 116, 
col. a, or ed. PauU, ii. 96). Cf. ' now toke the owie lotde I' P. Plowman, 
& i. 107. See also 1. 766 below. 

1. 727, This is a great improvement upon the Italian tale, which 
representslhe hermit as jffeih^ from death. 'Fratelli miei, io fuggo la 
morte, che mi vien dietro cacciando mi.* 

1. 731. Ltut jBodtr, dear mother Earth. 

1. 734. C*«(«. Mr. Jephson (in Bell's edition) is puiiled here. He 
takes chttli to mean a coffin, which is certainly the sense in the Clerk's 
Prologue, E. 99. The simple solntioa is tbat ckiiU refers here, not to 
a cofRn, bat to the box for holding clothes which, in olden times, almost 
invariably stood in eveiy bedroom, at the foot of the bed. ' At the 
foot of the bed there was usnally an iron-bound hutch or locker, which 
served both as a seat, and as a repository for the apparel and wealth of 
tbe ovrner, who, sleeinng with his sword by his side, was prepared 
to protect it against the midnight thief; ' Our English Home, p. 101. 
It was also called a coSer, a hutch, or an aik. This makes the sense 
dear. The old man is ready to exchange his chest, containing all 
his worldly gear, for a ungle hair-clolh, to be used as his shroud. 

1. 743. In tbe margin of MSS. E., Hn., and Pt. is the quotation 
'Coram canuto capite ctmsurge,' from Levit. lix. 3). Hence we must 
understand Agayra in I. 743, to mean bifori, or in pristnci of. 

1. 748. God bi udih you is said, with probability, to have been the 
original of our modem unmeaning Gooif by I Go or ridt, a general 
phrase for locomotion ; go here means aali, Cp. ' ryde or go,' Kn. 
Tale. 493. Cf. note to 1. 866. 

1. 771. Tbe readings are :—E. Hn. Cm. an .viij.i la. a .vij.; Cp. Pt. 
HI. a stun. The word lighle is dissyllabic ; cf, A. S. tahta. Lat. ocio. 
IVtt ny an tighU bussjuli ^ very nearly the quantity of eight bnshcls. 
Tbe mention oi florins is quite in keeping with the Italian character of 
the poem. Those cobs were so named because originally coined at 



Florence, the first coinage being b 1351; note in Caiy's Dante, In- 
ferno, c xx«. The value of an English florin wm 6s. M.; see note 
to Piers Plowman, ii. 143 (Clar. Press). There is an excellent note 
on ftorina in Thjnne's Animadversions on Speght's Chaucer, ed. 
Fumivall, p. 43. 

). 781. In allasion to the old proreib — ' Lightly come, lightly go.' 
Cotgrave, i.v. FleuU, gives the corresponding French proverb thus ; — 
' Ce qoi est Venn par la Heute s'en retoume avec le tabonria ; that the 
pipe hath gathered, the taboar scattereth; goods ill gotten are com- 
monly ill spent.' In Gennan— 'wie gewonnen, so lerronnen.' 

L 7S1. Wtndt, would have weened, would have supposed. It is the 
past tense subjunctive. 

L 790. Door vi hongi, lit. canse (men) to hajig us ; we should now 
say, cause us to be hanged. ' The Anglo-Saxons nominally punished 
theft with death, if above iiij. value; but the criminal could redeem his 
Lfe by a ransom. In the 9th of Henry I. this power of redemption was 
taken away, i!o8. The punishment of theft was very lever^jn England, 
tillmitigatedbyPeel'sacts, gandioGeo, IV. tSjg.'— Haydn, i.v. TAc't. 

1. 793. To drata euti is to draw lots ; see Prologue, 835, 838, 845. 
A number of straws were held by one of the company ; the rest drew 
one ainece, and whoever drew the shortest was the one on whom the lol 
fell The shortest straw was the tW, i.e. the one cut short ; cf. Welsh 
cutau, to shorten; cwta, short; catua, a lot. In France the custom 
was reversed ; the lot fell on him who drew the longest ; so that their 
phrase was — ' tirer la longue paille.' 

1. 797. So in the Italian stoiy — ' rechi del pane e del vino,' let him 
fetch bread and wine. 

1. 806-894. Here Chaucer follows the general sense of the Italian 
story rather closely, but with certain amplifications. 

I. 807. That can. the one; thai olhtr, the other. 

I.8J9. Coiatil, a secret; as in P. Plowman. B. v, 168. We still 
gay — ' to keep one's own counsel.' 

1. 844. So the Italian story — ' II Demonio mise in cuore a costoi,' 

&c. ; the devil put it in his heart. 

1. 848, Leii4, leave. ' That he had leave to bring him lo sorrow.' 

1, 851-878. Of thisgraphic description there is no trace m the Italian 
story as we now have it CC Rom. and Juliet, v. t. 

1. 860. Al so, as. The sense i»— as (1 hope) God may save my soal. 
That our modem at is for ah, which is short for also, &om the A.S. 
lall-ivd, is now well known. This fact was doubted by Mr. Singer, 
but Sir F. Madden, in his Reply to Mr. Singer's remarks upon Havelok 
the Dane, accumulated such a mass of evidence upon the subject as to 
set the question at rest for ever. It follows that as and also are 
doublets, or various spellings of the same word. 


t. 865. Sitnit, die; A. S. sitorfan. The cognate Geiman stirhu 
relaiDs the old geoenl seose. See 1. SSS below. 

1. 866. Ooon a poos, yitik aX an ordmar? foot-pace ; so also, a Uld 
nxm tlian paai, a little faster than at a foot-pace, Frol. Sjg. Cotgrave 
has — 'Aller le pas, to pace, or go at a foot-pace; to walk fair aad 
softly, or ^re and leisurely.' Woi bai, no moie than only ; cf. Noith of 
England noMml, The time meant would be about twenty minutes at 

1. SSS. In the Italian stoty — ' ameodue caddeio morti,' both of them 
fell dead. 

1. SSg. Aaycen, Avicenna; mentioned in the Prologue, 1. 451. Avi- 
leona, or Ibn-Siua, a celebrated Arabian philosopher and pbysidan, 
bom near Bokhara a.d. gSo, died aj>. 1037. His chief work was a 
treatise on medidne known as the Canon (■ Killb al-KSnOn fi'l-Hbb,' 
that is, ' Book of the Canon in Medicine'). Hue book, alluded to in 
the next line, is divided into books and sections ; and the Arabic word 
for ' section * is in the Latin Tersion denoted bj/a, from the Arabic 
/arm, a part of any science. Chancer'a expression is not quite correct ; 
he seems to have taken carun in its uanal sense of rule, vhereas it is 
realty tbe title of the whole work. It is mach as if one were to speak of 
Dante's work in the terms — ' such as Dante never wrote in any Divina 
Conunedia nor in any caulo.' Lib. iv. Fen t of Avicenna's Canon 
treats 'De Venenis.' 

1. 895. Against this line is written, in MS. E. only, the word 
' Auclor j ' to shew that the paragraph contained in II. 6^5-90^ is a 
reflection by the author. 

1. 897. The final ( in gfulonyt is preserved by the oesnral pause ; bat 
the scansion of the line is more ea^y seen by suppodog it suppressed. 
Hence in order to scan the line, suppress the final t in glvionyi, lay the 
accent on the second u in lunirii, and slur over the final -ii in that 
word. Thus — 

O glut I ony' I loxu | riV and his | ardrye I 

1. 904. Good mtit is the common phrase of address to bearers in old 
homilies, answering to the modem > dear brethren.' The Pardoner, 
having told his tale (after which Chaucer himself has thrown in a 
moral reflection), proceeds to improve his opportunity by addressing 
the audience in his usual professional styb ; tee 1. 915, 

1. 907. tfobli, a coin worth 6s. Sd^ fint coined by Edward III. about 
1339' f>M note to P. Plowman, B. iiL 45 (Clar. Press). 

1. 90S. So b P. Plowman, B. prol. 75, it is said of the Panloner that 
he ' raughte with his ragman [bull] ryiigis and brocha.' 

1, gio. Camiti is to be pronounced Com'tk, as in Prol. S39 ; so also in 
1. 93 s below, 

1. gio, Male, bag ; see Prol. 694. 


I, 935. The tint two syllables In piriaiinian are lo be very rapidly 
pronounced ; it is not nncommon to find the spelling ptraunltr, as in 
P. Plomnan, B. li. 10. 

I. 937. Which a, what sort of B, how great a, what a. 

i. 945. TijfoT a grot; yea, even for a groat, i.e. 4if. 

1. 946. Satte I, may I have; an imprecation. 

1. 947. So tluech, a. colloquialism for io Ika ich, go may I thrive 
The Host proceeds to abuse the Pardoner in not very decent terms. 

L 96J. Ry^gkt inough, quite enough; ryglii is an adverb. Cf. L 960, 


For general remarlcs on this Talei see the Preface. 

Prolooub. This consists of twelve stanzas, and is at once divisible 
bto three parts. 

(i) The fitsC four stanzas, the idea of which is taken from Jehan de 
Vignay's Introduction to his French translation of the Legends Aurea. 
This Introdnctian is reprinted at length, from the Paris edition of 1513, 
in the OrigiQaU and Analogues published by the Chaucer Society, 
pt. ii. p. 190. 

(3) The Invocation to the Virgin, in stanias S'li; see note to 
11. »9. 3e. 

(3) An Envoy to the reader, id stanza 13 ; see note to 1. ;S. 

Line 1. Jehaade Vignay attributes the idea of this line loSt. Bernard, 
He saj3 — ' £t pour ce que oysinele est tant blasmee que saiiict Bernard 
dit qu'elle est mere di Irvffes [mother of trifles], mairastre de verbis : . . 
et fait estaiodre vertu et nourrir orgutil,' Sec. Chaacer says again, in 
his Peisones Tale (de Accidia) — 'And though that ignorance be the 
mother of alle baimes, certes, ntgUgmct is ihi norict.' 

I. }. Ydilnau, idleness; considered as a branch of Sloth, which was 
one of the Seven Deadly Sins. See Chaucer's Fersones Tale, C* 

L 3. Chaucer took this idea from the Romauot of the Rose; see 
11. saS-£94 of the English version, where a lover is described as 
knocking at the wicket of a garden, which was opened by a beaulifnl 
maiden named Idleness. He afterwards repeated it in the Knightes 
Tale, 1. io8»; and again In the Peisones Tale (de Accidia) — "Than 
Cometh ydelnesse, that is Che yate [gait] of all hannes. . . . Certes 
henen is yeuen to hem that will labour, and not to ydel folke.' 

1.4. To esehui, to eschew; the gerund. The sentence really begins 


wich 1. 6, aCtet which take the words lo tteiui; then take 11. i-J, 
followed by the rest of 1, 4 and by 1. 5. 

L7. JehandeVignay's Introduction begins thni: ' Monseigneor giinct 

hierosme dit ceste aucloiite— " Fays tonsiotin aacnue choae de bien, que 

le dyable ne te trouue oyseuz." ' That Is, he refeis us to St. Jerome for 

the idea. We are reminded, too, of the familiar lines by Dr. Watts — 

' For Satan finds some mischief still 

For idle hands to do.' 

L 8. Cf. Persones Tale (de Accidia)— 'An idel man Is like to a place 
that hath no walles, theras deuiles may enter on enery side.' 

I. 14. Cf. Pew. Tale (de Acddia)— 'Ayenst this roten sinne of accidie 
and slonthe shulde men exercise hemsclf. and use hemself to do good 
werkes;' tec. 'Laboiaie est oiare' was the famous motto of St. 

1. IJ. Tkougk nun draddta ntuir, even if men never feared. 

1. 17, Roitn, rotten; Tyiwhitt's test reads rou of, i.e. root of. 
Yet rottn seems right ; observe its occunence in the note to 1. 14 atiove. 

1. 19. 'And (men also) see that Sloth holds her in a leash, (for her) Co 
do nothing bnt sleep, and eat and drink, and devour all that olhen 
obtain by toil.' The reading Air refers to Idleness, which, as I have 
before eiplamed, was a branch of Sloth, and was personified by a 
female. See notes Co II. 2 and 3 above. Tyrwhitt has htm, which 
is not in any of our seven MSS. 

1. al. Compare Piers Plowman, B. prol. li, la — 

' In seltyng and in sowyng ■ swonken ful harde. 
And woonen that wastours ■ with glotonye destruyeth.' 

1. 15. Afltr tht Itgtndi, following the L^cnd; i.e. the Legenda 
Anrea. A very small portion is wholly Chancer'a own. He has 
merely added a line here and there, such as 11. 4S9-497, 505-511, 535, 
536. At I. 346 he begins to be less literal; see notes to 3S0, 395, 443. 

1. 37. St. Cecilia and St. Dorothea are both depicted with garlands. 
Mi^ Jameson tells us how to distinguish them in her Sacred and 
Lt^endary Art, jrd ed. 591. She also says, at p. 35 — 'The wreath 
of roses on the brow of St. Cecilia, the roses or fruits home by 
SL Dorothea, are explained by the legends.' And again, at p. jt-- 
' White and red roses expressed love and innocence, or love and 
wisdom, as in Che garland with which the angels crown St. Cecilia.' 
Rtd was the symbol of love, divine fervour, &c. ; vikiu, of light, purity, 
innocence, virginity. See 11. 110, 944, 179. The legend of St. Dorothea 
forms the subject of Massinger's Virgin MarCyr. 

L 19. Virgiats must be a trisyllable here; such words are often 
fhorteaed to a dissyllable. The word ihaa is addressed to the Vi^n 
Hary. In the maigia of MSS. £. and Hn. is written — 'Inuocatio 



1. 30. Speaking of St Bernard, Mrs, Jameson s>ys — 'One o/his most 
celebrated woriis, tbe Mistus ea, was composed in her honour [i.e. in 
honour of the Virgin] ■* Mother of the Redeemer i *nd in eighty 
Sermons on texts from the Song of Solomon, he set forth her divine 
perfection as the Selected and Espoused, the type of the Giurch (m 
earth ;' Legends of the Monastic Orders, md ei p, 144. 

See a further illustration of the great favour shewn by the Virgin 
to St. Bemard at p. J41 of the same voluine ; and, at p. 145, the 
description of a pabting by Murillo, quoted from Stirling's Spanish 
Painters, p. 1)14. See also Dante. Pamdiso, xxxi. 101. 

1. 3J. Canfort of ut wrtcdus, comfort of us miserable sinners ! see 
note to 1, 58. 

Do mi tndylt, cause me to iodite. 

1. 34. Of ihefiaid, over the Fiend. Tyrwbitt reads ovir for of, but it 
is unnecessary. Accent viclorii on tbe 0. 

1. 36. IJnes 36-51 are a free truuslation of a passage in Dante's 
Paradise, Canto xxxiii. 11. i-)i ; and are quoted in the notes to Cary't 

1. 36. ' Vergine madre, figlia del tuo Figlio, 

I. 39. Umile ed alta piii che creatura, 

Termine Qsso d'etemo consiglio. 
Tu le' colei che 1' tunaua natnra 

II. 40, 41. Nobilitastl si, che il suo Fattore 
11. 41, 41. Non disdegnb di &.rsl sua &ttura, 
L 4J. Kel ventre tuo si raccese 1' amore. 

I. 44, Per lo cni caldo cell' etema pace 

Cod i germinato questo fiore. 
Qui sei a noi meridiana' face 

Di carltade, e ginso, intra i mortali, 

S^' di speraoza fontana vivace. 
Donna, se' tanto giande, e tanto vali. 

Che qual vnol graria, e a te Don ricoire. 

Sua disianxa vnol volar senz' ali. 

II. 53. 54- I^ tna benigniii non pur soccorre 
It. 53, 54- A chi dimanda, ma molle liate 

11. 55, s6. Liberamente al dimandar preccrre. 

L SI. In te misericordia, in te pietale, 

L so. In t« magnificenza, in te s'aduna 

Quatunque b creatura h di bontate.* 
Tiie numbers at the side denote the corresponding lines. I add a 
literal prose rendering of the above passage : — 
Virgin mother, daughter of thy Son, 
Lowly and yet exalted more than (any other) creature. 
Fixed limit of the eternal counsel. 



Than Bit the tiha didst so ennoble 

Homaii natoie, that its MaW 

Disdained not to become His own creation. 

Within thj womb love was so rekindled. 

By the heat whereof in eternal peace, 

This Dower has thus budded. 

Here ait thou to ns the meridian torch 

Of love, aad beneath, among mortals, 

Thon art the living foontain of hope. 

Lady I thoa art so great, and art of tndi avail. 

That whoso desires grace, and does not resort to thee, 

His desire codeavonrs to fly without wings. 

Thy benignity not only brings succour 

To him who [nays for it. but many times 

Bountifully forerans the prayer. 

In thee is merC7, in thee is [nty. 

In thee is muniiicence, in thee is united 

Whatever excellence is in a created being. 
). 40, Nablidtsl, didst ennoble; Dante's ' nobilitasti.' 
1. 41. The tiai^tion is ioexact. Dante says — ' that its Maker (!.«- 
the Maker of human nature) did not disdain to become His own 
creature,' i.e. bom of that vei? hunaa nature which He had Himself 
created. Cf. 1. 49. 

1. 45. ' That is, Lord and Guide of the Qireefold space ; ' i.e. of the 
three abodes of things created, vii. the earth, the aca, and the heavens. 
I. 46. OuJ of rtUes, without release, i.e. without relaxation, without 
cea^g. Oaf q/" means teilhrail, as is clear from Piol. 4S7 ; Kn. Tale, 
aSj; and r^tn means aejuillaiut (O. Fr. rtiaii); see Cier. Tale, E. 
1S3, and Riltiit in Gloss. Index to Prioresses Tale, Bee. There has 
been some doubt about the meaning of this phrase, bat there need be 
none ; especially when it is remembered that fo rtbnx is another form 
of n rAm, so that rtlett = rtlaaadim, i.e. slackening. The idea is the 
same as that so admirably expressed in the Prolog im Himmel to 
Goethe's Faust. 

1. so, Asaembltd ir in Ihte, there is united in thee ; cf. Dante—' in le 
s'aduna.' This stania closely resembles the fourth stanza of the 
Prioresses Prol<^ue, B, 1664-1670 ; see Prioresses Tale, p. 10. 

1. 53. Somi. By all means let the reader remember that stmm was 
probably feminine in English in Chaacei's time, as it is in German, 
Dutch, and Icelandic to this day. It mil be found, however, that 
Chancer commonly identifies the sun with Phoebus, making it mas- 
culine ; see Prol. 8, Kn. Tale 635. Still, there is a remarkable example 
of the old me in the first rubric of Part ii. of Chaucer's Astrolabie 
-'To fynde the degree in which the sonne is day t^ day, alUr kir 


coura a-bowte .' So again. Id Piers Plowman, B. xviii. 843 — 'Andlol 
how the Sonne gan lonke her lights in lursilf.' 

I. 56. Hir lyua tit)i4, the physician of their lives (or life). 

L 58. Fltmtd urteeht, banished exile. The piopei sense of A. S. 
mracea it BO exile, a stranger ; and thence, a miserable being, on exile. 
The phrase ' fleming of wieccbea.' i.e. banithment of the miserable, occius 
in Cbancer't Troilus, iii. 933 (ed. Sbeat). And see above, B. 460. 

OaJli, bitterness. There is probably an allusion to the name Maiy, 
and to the Hebiew mar, fern, marah, bitter. Cf. Exod. sv. aj; Acts 
viii. a J ! Rath i. 10, Cf. Chancer'e ABC, 1. 50. 

1. 59. Womrnait Cananei. a translalion of ma/in- Chananaa in the 
Vulgate version of Mat, xv. 11. Wyclif calls her 'a v 

1. 60. Compare Wyclif '1 version — ' for whelpis elen of the ci 
that fallen doun fro tike bard of her lordis ; ' Mat. xv, 17. 

t. 61. Smu of Eui, ton of Eve, i.e. the author himself. This, as 
Tyrwhitt remarks (Introd. Discourse, note 30), is a dear proof that the 
Tale was never properly revised to suit it for the collection. The 
expression is nnsnitable for the snpposed narrator, the Second Nun. 

1. (i,. S«J.™il. 17. 

1. 67. Ful of grati ; allading to the phrase 'Aue gratia plena ' in 
Luke i. iS, 

1. 6S, j4iftn(fa<, accented on the penoltimate. 

1. 69. Tktr as, vrhere that. Osan«, Hosanna. i.e. 'Save, we pray,' 
from Fs. civiii. 35. See Concise Diet, of the Bible. 

1. 70. The Virgin Mary was said to liave been the daughter of 
Joachim and Anna ; see the Prolevangelion of James, and the Legenda 
Anrea, cap. cxxi — ' De natiuitate beatae MarJae nirgints.' 

1. 7s. Haum ofrtfui, haven of refuge. See the same term similarly 
applied hi B. 85J, above. Cf. Chaucei'l ABC,\. 14. 

1. 7S. Ridm, read, lliis is still clearer proof that the story was not 
originally meant to be narrated. Cf. note to 1. 61. 

L Si. Him, i. e. Jacobus Januensis ; see the Preface. Ai iht. Sec, oat 
of reverence for the saint. 

1. 83. Hir tigende, her (St. Cecilia's) legend as told in the Aurea 

1. 84. The five stanifls in 11. 85-119 really belong to the Legend itself, 
and are In the original Latin. Throughout the notes to the rest of tbis 
Tale I follow the ind edition of the Legenda Aurea, cap. cbdx, as 
editedbyDr. Th. Giiisse; Ldpsie, 1850. 

L 87, Several of the Legends of the Saints begin with ridiculous 
etymologies. Thus the Legend of S. Valentine (Aur. Leg. cap. xtti) 
begins with the explanation that Valentinus means ualorim mau, 
or else aalira lyra. So here, aa to the etymology of Cxcilia, vt arc 


eeneioDsly offered jfw Eolutions, ill of them being wrong. As it U 
hopeless to understand them without consnlting the original, I shall 
quote as much of it as is necessajy, amaged in a less confused order. 
The tru« etymology is, of couise, that CcecQia ia the feminine of 
Csdliul, a name bome by membera of the Cxcilia gens, which claimed 
descent from CeccuIus, an ancient Italian heio. son of Vnlcan, who is 
said (o have founded Piineste. Cjeculus, piobably a nickname, can 
hardly be other than a, mere diiDinutive of caciis, blind. The legendary 
etymologies are right, accordingly, only so far as they relate to cznii. 
Beyond that, they are strange indeed. 

The following arc the etymologies, with their reasons. 

(i) C3ecilia'Coelililia(ii<), i.t hiutnts UUi. Reasons:— 'Fuit enim 
coeleste lilium per nirginitatts pudorem ; uel dicitur lUium, quia habuii 
candorem mtmditiae, uirorem conscientiae, odorem bonae liunae.' See 
H- 87-91. Thus grm ( •• gieemiess) translates uirorem. 

(i) Ccecilia— cae^ nia, i.e. fA< v/ty lo btyadt, a path for the blind. 
Reason : — 'Fuit enim caecis uia per exempli infonnationem.' See 11. gi, 93. 

(3) C^lia is from codum and lya, ' Fuit enim . . . coilum per ingem 
conlemplatimiem, lya per assidnam operationem.' Here lya is the same 
as Lia, wliich is the Latin spelling of Leah in the Book of Genesis. Ix 
was osoal to consider Leah as the type of actiiily, 01 the active life, and 
Rachael as the type of the contemplative life. 

(4) Csedlia, 'quasi caecitale carens.' This is on the celebrated 
prindple of ' Incus a Don lucendo.' Reason : — ' fiiit caedtate carens per 
sapientiae splendorem.' See 11. 99-ior. 

(5) 'Uel dicitur a catla et lias, i.e. populus.' Finally, recourse is 
bad to Greek, viz. Gt, Xtiit, the Attic form of >jUs. Reason; — 'fuit 
et coelum populi, quia in ipsa tamquam in coelo spirituali populus 
ltd imitandnio intnetur coelum, solem, lunam, et Stellas, i.e. sapientiae 
perspicadtatem, fidei magnanimitatem et oirtulum uarietatem.' See 
II. 101-lia. 

11, 113-tiS. Chancer has somewhat varied the order ; this last stanza 
belongs in the Latin to derivation (3), though it may serve also for deriva- 
tion {5). It is probably for this reason that he has reserved it. The 
Latin is — ' Uel didtnr coelum, quia, sicut dicit Vsidorus, coelum 
philosophi nolubile, rotundum et ardens esse dinerunt. Sic et ipsa fuit 
uolubilis per operationem sollicitim, rotunda per perseuerantiam, ardens 
per caritatem succensam.' For the iviifinas and roundntss ai heaven, see 
note to B 395. The epithet burning is due to quite another matter, 
not eiplained in that note, The nine astronomical spheres there 
mentioned did not suffice lor [he wants of theology. Hence a Itnik 
sphere was imagined, external to the ninth ; but this was supposed 
to be fixed. This outermost sphere was called the impyraum (from 
G)t. inwvfos, boniing, which from tr, in, and wvf, tire) where the 


pme element of 6te subsisted alone, and it was supposed to be the 
abode of saints and angels. Milton, in hi* Paradise Lost, uses the 
y/ord impyreen six times, ii. 771, iii. 57, vi. 833, vii. 73, 633, x. 311 ; and 
the word impyrial eleven times. 

1. lao. Foisome account of St. Cxdlia, se« the Preface. 

1. 1,43. An htyrt, a bail shirt. The usual expression ; tee P. Plow- 
man, B. V. 66. Lat. text — ' cilicio erat induta.' 

1. 1 34. Thi organs ; laL ' cantantibos oiganis.' We should now sa]i 
' the oigan ; ' but in old aulhore the plaral form is commonly employed. 
Sometimes the word organ seems to refer to a single pipe ouly. and (he 
whole instrument was called ' the organs ' or ' a pair of organs.' where 
fair means a «(, as in the phrase 'a peite of bedes; ' Ch. Prol. 159. 
Thus, in a burlesque poem in Beliqaise Antiqux, i. 81, a porpoise is 
described as playing on the organ : — ' On tho argons playdc tho porpas,' 
Id a note to Sir J. CuUnm's Hist, of Hawsted, 2nd ed, p. 33, the expres- 
iioD 'pair of oi^^ans' is shewn to occur m three accounts, dated 1531, 
1536, and 1618 respectively. See another example in Dr. Morris's note 
to Nonse Piestes Tale, 1. 31, where Chaucer uses orgoaa as a plural, 
equivalent to the Lat. argana. On the early meaning of organum, see 
Chappell's Hist, of Music, i. 317. The invention of organs dates from 
the third century i.e. ; id. i. 315. See Dante, Purg, ii. 144, and the 
note to Caiy's translation. It is worth adding, that another interpre- 
tation of organs is equally possible here ; it may mean musical iostro- 
meots o/all kinds ; since St, Augustine says — ' organa dicuntur omnia 
instiumenla musicorum;' Comment in Psalm 56; Chappell's Hist. 
Music, L 375, note a. In accordance with this view, the Ktench text 
translates orgaidi by Us instmmau, 

St. Cecilia is commonly considered Che patroness of music; see 
Drydcn's Ode for St, Cecilia's day, and Alexander's Feast, 11, i3»-i4i. 
But the connection of her with music is not very ancient, as Mrs. 
Jameson explains. The rioion for this connection seems to me clear 
enongh, viz. the simple fact that the word organis occuis in this very 
passage. The workers at various trades all wanted patron saints, and 
must in many cases have been driven to select ihem on very trivial 
groundt. Thus, because St. Sebastian was shot by airows, he became 
tbe patron saint of archers; and so on. See several examples in 
Cbambera, Book of Days, iii. 38S. Besides, St. Cecilia is here repre- 
sented as singing htrulf — ' in corde soli domino dttaniabai dicens ; ' 
seel. 135' 

I. 145. Constii, a secret; Lat. 'mysterium.' And so in L 19), and m 
P. Plowm. B. V. j68! see note to C 819 above. And,\i. 

I, 150. Hen, her, ii a dissyllable in Chaucer whenever it ends a line, 
which it does six times; see e.g. B. 460; Kn. Tale 1199. This is quite 
correct, because the A.S. form kin is dissyllabic also. 1 

■ OO^^If 

lya yoTBS TO GROUP a. 

I. 173. Chancer has hen mistianslHted th« Latin. It b not said that 
the Via Appia (which led out of Rome through the Porta Capena lo 
Arida, Tres Tabeni% Appii Fomm, and so en towaidi Capua and 
Bmndusiimi) was situated three miles lioiD Rome ; but that Valerian ii 
to go along the Appion Way as far ai to the third milestone. ' Uade 
igitur in teitiam miUiariam ab urbe uia quae Appia nuncupator.' 

L 177. Vrbm. St. Urbao'i day is Ma/ 15. Thig is Urban I, popc^ 
who succeeded Calixtns, jU>. 311. Besides the notice of him m diis 
Tale, his legend is given separately in the Legenda Aurea, cap. Ltzvii. 
He vas beheaded Hay 15, ajo, and succeeded by Ponlianus, 

L 1 78. Siere ntdis, secret necessai7 reasons ; Lat. ' secieta mandata.' 

1. 181. Fargtd yota, viz. by the rite of baptism. 

L 1S6. SWnln hirifis, buiial-places of the saints ; Lat *iepalchTamar- 
tirum.' It is worth observing, perhaps, that the word buri^ is properly 
angular, not plural ; cf. A. S. bjrigelt, a sepulchre, and see the examples 
in Stratmann. In P. Plowman, B. -ax. 143, the Jews are represented 
as guarding Christ's body because it had been foretold that He should 
rise from the tomb^ 

' fat Jjat blessed body ■ of huritla ihulde rise.' 
Of course the mistake of supposing t to be the mark of a plural was 
made in course of time, and the singular form birysl was evolTcd. This 
mistake occurs as early as io Wyclif 's Bible, IV King^ xaiii, 1 7 ; see 
Way's note in Prompt. Parv. p. 37, note I. Consequently, it is matt 
likdy that Chaucer has made the same mistake here. 

There b here a most bteresdng allusion to the celebrated catacombs 
of Rome, which are subterranean passages cut in the rock, and were 
nsed by the early Christiani for the purpose of sepulture. See Chambers, 
Book of Days, i. loi, 101. 

Lot'mge, lying hid. In MS. E., the Latin word laiilaiiltm If written 
above, as a gloss. This was token from the Laiin text, which has 
— ' intra sepulchra martiium latitantem.' Stratmann gives six examples 
of Che use of lotiea or tutiiH, to lie hid. It occurs oace in P. Plowman, 
B. x«ii 101, where outlaws are described as lurking ia woods and 
nnder banks : — 

' For outlawea in Je wode ■ and vnder banke lotytlh.' 

1. 101. An old mm ; i. e. an angel in the form of an old man, vie 
St. Paul. Cf.'*ote to I. 107. 

L 301. Wiik Uttri q/' gold; Lat. ' tcnens librum aureis litteris scrip- 
turn.' L. 103 is not in the original. 

1. loj. ' When be (Valerian) saw hun (the old man) ; and he (the 
oM man) lifted up him (Valeriui) ; and Chen he (Valerian) began thus 
to read in his (the old man's) book.' Tliis is very ambiguous in 
Chaucer, but the Latin is clear. ' Quern nidens Valerianus prae nimio 
timiue quasi mortuus cecidit, et a lene leuatus sic leirit,* 1 

■ OO^^If 


1. S07. Oo lord, one lord. Tyrwbitt prints on, ' to guard against the 
mistake which the editions generally have fallen into, of con^dering a, 
in this passage, as fkt ^gn of the vocative case.' For the same reason, 
J have printed On, as in MS. Ft., in preference to the ungle 0, as in 
most MSS. Even one of the scribes has fallen into the trap, and 
has vrritten against this passage— 'Et lamentat.' See MS. Cp., m the 
Six-text editi<si. The fact is, obvioosl;, that 11. 107-209 are a close 
translation of £ph. iv. 5, 6, Hence the old man most be St. Paul. 

1, ao8. Ctn'Moiifam, baptism; Lat. ' baptisma.' Seel. 117. 

1. 116. We must read iJu before Mi, not ihU or Aat, because ■ in tlit 
must be elided ; otherwise the line will not scan. 

L iij. 114. Thai aoit, the one ; sometimes written ilu ion or the toon. 
Thai oiktr, the other; sometimes written /h* iolhtr. 'The ton' is 
obsolete; but *lhe tother' may still be heard. TTiel is the neuter of 
the A. S. de£ article u, tt6, >ii( ; cf. Germ, dtr, dit, das. 

Ai to the tignification of the red and white flowery see note to 
1. 17 above. 

Compare Act v. se. i of Masunger's Virgin Martyr, where an angel 
brings flowen from St. Dorothea, who is in paradise, to Theophilus, 
Sec note to L 148 below. 

1. 131. For, because ; Lat. 'quia.' 

L 136. Afterwards repeated, very neariy, in Kn. Tale, L 338. 

1. 143. Satnur imdtmom, perceived the scent; LaL 'senusset 

1, 148. Rett. We should have expected rota. Perhaps this is due 
to the peculiar form of the Latin text, which has — ' roseus hie odor 
et lilioimn.' 

Compare the words of Theophilus in the Virgin Martyr, v. i ; — 
'What flowers are these? 
In Diocletian's gardens the most beauteous. 
Compared with these, are weeds; is it not February, 
The second day she died? frost, ic^ and snow 
Hang on the beard of winter : where's the sun 
That gilds this summer? pretty, sweet boy, say. 
In what conntry shall a man find this garden ? ' 

1. 370. LI. 970-133 are certainly g^uine, and the passage is in the 
Latin text. It is also in Che French version, but it does nut appear in 
the Early English version of the story printed by Mr. Fumivall from 
MS. Ashmole 43, nor in the English version printed by CaxCon in 
1483. TytwhiCt's snppositiou is no doubt correct, viz. that this passage 
* appears evidently to have been at first a marginal observation and 
to have ctept into the |Xatin] text by the blunder of some copyist.' 
He truly observes that these fourteen lines ' interrupt the narrative 
awkwardly, and to Utile purpose.' 



L 171, AmbrBst, 'Huic miracalo de coronis rosarnm Ambroein) 
■ttestatur in prae&.tione, sic diceos,' Bca. I cannot lind anything of the 
Icind in the indices to the works of St. Ambrose. 

1. 176. Est kir chambri, even hlr marriage-chanibCT, i.e. even maniage. 
Wtytit, waive, abandon. Lat. 'ipsum mnndum est cum thalamis ex.- 
lecrata.' Weyue occurs again in (ome MSS, of ChiDcer's TVa/i. L ». 
. 1. 977. Skrifle, confession. Lat. 'testis est Ualeciani coniugis et 
Tiburtii prouocata confessio, quos, Domine, Angelica manu odorifeiis 
Boribus coronasti.' For Valerians, all the MSS. have Ctciliis. Whether 
the mistake i» Chaucer's or his scribes', I cannot say; but it is so 
obviuuslf a mere slip, that we need not hesitate to conect it. The 
French text is even clearer than the Latin ; it has— 'et de cest tesmoing 
valerien son mary et tibaicieo son frere.' Besides, the express mention 
of 'these men' in 1. a8l is enough, in my opinion, to shew that the slip 
was not Chaucer's own ; or, at any rale, was a mere oversight 

L iSi. ' The world hath known (by their example) how mach, in all 
truth, it is worth to love such devotion to chastity.' Lat 'mundns 
agnauit, quantum ualeat deaotio caatitatis ; — haec Ambiosius.' This 
is quoted as St. Ambrose's opinion. The parenthesis ends here. 

1. a88. Btsit, i.e. void of understanding, as a beast of the field is. 
Lat. ' pecus est.' 

1. 315. And at. Tyrwhitt remarks that ai should have beai bj. 
Bat a glance at the Latin text shews what was in Chaucer's mind ; he 
is here merely antidpating the 101 in I. 318. Lat. ' et boj in illius 
flammis panter inuoluemur, et dnm quaerimas diuinitatem latentem 
in coelis, incurremus furorem exurentem in terris.' The sentence is 
awkward; but vi was intended. The idiom has overridden the 

L 319. Ctdlt. This is one of the clearest instances to shew that 
Chaucer followed the Latin and not the French version. Lat. ' Cui 
Caecilia;' Fr. 'et valerien dist.' Mr. Fumivall has noted this and 
other instances, and there is no doubt about the matter. 

1, 330. Skilfully, reasonably; tbe usual meaning at this date. See 
1- 3'1- 

1. 337. 'And all that has been created bya reasonable Intelligence.' 

L 319. Hath iDii'In^. hath endoed with a soul, hath quickened; Lat. 

1. 335. Ofoif, one God. We must suppose this teaching to be in- 
clnded in the mention of Chrbt in I. 195 ; otherwise there is no allusion 
to it in the words of Cecilia. The doctrine had been taught to Valerian 
however; see U. ao7, J08. 

There are continual allusions, in the llyts ot the Saints, to the 
difficulty of this doctrine. 

1. 338. Chaucer is not luite exact. Tlie I.atin says that three things 


reside 1o • man's wisdom, the said wisdom being but oat, ' Sicut in 
Dna homlnii tapientia tria sunt iageninin, memoria et intellectus.' The 
DOlion lesembles that in a favourite passage from Isidore quoted in 
Pieri Plowman, B. xv. 39, to the efTect that the soal (jmima) has 
different Dames according to its fanctions. WhcQ engaged in lemem- 
beiing, we call it memory (numoria) ; when in judging, we call it 
reason {ratio) ; and so on. Compare ihe curioos illnstrations of the 
doctrine of the Trinity in Piers Plowman, B. Jtvi. J30-1J4, UTii. 137- 
149- The illustrstioii in the text is, u Mr. Jepbson pomts out, by 
no means a good one. 

1. 341. The word Thri stands alone in the first foot. 

Thrf I persdo [ es m&y | ther ryght | nel bj |[ 
See note to L 353. 

1. 343, CoDM, coming, le. incarnation; Lat. ' aduentu,' Tyrwhitt 
read simJt, i.e. sending, message ; but incorrectly. 

1. 345- WilihtUi, detained, constrained to dwell; LaL 'tentus;' 
Fr. ' tenn." 

1. 346. Hitherto Chaucer's translation ia, on the whole, very close. 
Here he omits a whole sentence, and begins to abbreviate tbe story 
and alter it to suit himself. See his hint in 1. 360. 

1.351. Tial, who. In MS. E. the wold is glossed by— ' qui, scilicet 
Vrbanus.' It is remarkable thai the relative who (aa a simpit relative, 
without to soSixed) is hardly to be found in English of this date, in 
the notninan'vi case. The A. S. had is only used interrogatively. 
' Htm (who) appears as a proper relative first in its dative team or loan 
m L&yamoo, ii. 631. iii. 50 [about aj>. 1100] ; in its genitive whas and 
dative viMam m Onnnlum, 3415, IO370 [about the same dale]. The 
nominative ivAo is found sometimes with a pronominal antecedent in 
Wyclifle, AJ>. 13S1-3 (Isaiah L 10), and becomes common as a fall 
relative in Bemers* Froissait, a.d. 1513;' March, Anglo-Saxon Gram- 
mar, p. 179. 

1. 353. Qodda inygki, God's servant, or rather, God's soldier; see 
L 3S3, and the note. Id the A.S. version of the Gospels Christ's 
disciples are called ' Icombg-caihlas.' Id the Ormulum and in Wyclif 
eniki or Mil sometimes means a servant, but more commonly a soldier. 
Priests ate called 'goddes knyghtea' m Piers Flowmaii, R xi. 304. 
In scanning thialuie, either leraingv is of three syllables (which I doabt) 
or else the first syllable In Farfyl forms a foot by itself; see note to 
L 341 above. 

1. 363. Almacht; Lat. 'Almschiaspraetectus.' The rdgning emperor 
was Alexander Severns (a.n. ta-ti^). 

t. 3G3. Opposed, questioned, examined ; written t^pottd In most MSS., 
not without good reason. The old editions have aposed. A similar 
confusion occurs in tbe Freres Tale, D, 1597, where only two MSS., 



liz. Ft. and Ln., have the later ipelling; afpost, as against five 
others which rightlf read offostn. The later spelling occdib in 
MSS. of Pieis the Plowman, where we find nppose, to question, B. iii. 5 ; 
apposed, i. 47 ; appostdtn, vii. 138. Skelton has it, in his Colin Clout, 

•For that they are not appond 
By iust examinacyon 
In connjTig and conuereacyon.* 
Mr. Dyce (note on this line) quotes from Hornian — 'He was apposed, 
or e]tamyned of his byleue, De religione appellatus est;' Vnlgaria, 
rig. Dii. ed. 1530. ii Prompt. Pair, it is confused with oppose. 
Wedgwood explains that appose, or poie, lit. to lay near (Fr. appour), 
was used in the particular sense of putting specific questions to a 
candidate for examination ; whence the phrase an apposite answer, 
applied to one that was to the point ; see his article on Pate. But the 
New E. Diet, gives oppose as the original form, 

1. 365. Sacrijyse, sacrifice to the idoL This Was the nsual test to 
which Christians were subjected ; see note to L 395. Compare Dan. 
iii. 14, 18. So in the Virgin Martyr, iv. 3 ; — 

' Bow but thy knee to Jupiter, and offer 
Any riight sacrifice; or do but swear 
By Cesar's forttue, aitd — be freet' 

1. 367, TUse martin ; note that this is an accusative case. 

I. 369. Cornictilere, a sort of officer. The note in Bell's edition, that 
the French veision has prevoti here, is wrong. The word frevost (Lat. 
frae/eclus) is applied to Almachins. Maximui was only a subordinate 
ofBcer, and is called in the Early Eng. veision (MS. Ashmole 43) the 
' gailer.' The expression ' Maximo Comiculario ' oceuis only Id the 
Lives of Valerian and Tibnrtius, in the Acta Sanctorum (April 14I. 

Riddle's Lat Diet, gives— 'Oirnm/oriiH, -i.m, a soldier who was 
presented with a eamictdum, and by means of it promoted to a higher 
rank; hence, an assittant of aa officer, Suetonius, Domit. 17; then also 
in the dvil service an asiist an i i)f a magistrate, a deri, registrar, 
tecreiary: G)d.Jnst' 

' Comieulum, -i. a. (dimin. of coma), i. A litilt lom, Pliny ; also, a 
tmall fUnatl of horn, Columella. An ornament in the shape of a horn 
viom on the helmti, with which oEEceri presented meritorious soldiers; 
tJvy. 10. 44; 

Ducange gives several examples, shewing that the word conirnonly 
meant a secretary, clerk, or registrar, Tyrwhitt refers us to Pitiscus. 
Lei. Ant. Rom. s.v. Comiculariui. 

L 37j. 'Hegotleaveforhimselffiromtheexectitionen.' Tormeatoiatt, 
rs; Lat. 'caraifices,' See I. 5*7. Cf. tormentor in Matt 
« Eastwood and Wright's Bible Word-book, 


1. 380. Pr««j, priests. The orieinal says that pope Urban dme himself. 

1' 3S3. KByglUis, soldiers; as in 1. ,:!i;3. Lat. ' Eia milites Christi, 
■bicite opera tenebrarnm, et induimini anna lucis.' See Rom. liii. 13. 

I. 386. Tyrwhitt nates a slight defect in the Dse of ydotin in 1. 386. 
followed by dom m 1. 387. The fiist sii lines in this stama are not in 
the original, but are imitated from 3 Tim. iv. 7, 8. 

1. 395. ' This was the crilerioQ. The Christians were brought to the 
image of Jupiter or of the Etnperor. and commanded to join in the 
sacrifice, by eating part of it, or to throw a few grains of incense into 
the censer, in token of worship ; if tbej refused, they were put to death. 
— See Pliny'a celebrated letter to Trajan. Those who complied were 
termed satrificaii and ikjirifieaii by the canons, and were excluded from 
the communion for seven or ten years, or even till thnr death, according 
to the circumstances of their lapse. — See Kngham's AiUiquUia, b. ivi. 
4. s.'— Note in Bell's edition of Chaucer. Cf. note to 1. 365. 

This stania is represented in the original (in spite of the hint in 
1. 394) by only a few words. ' Quarto igitur milliario ab nthe sancti ad 
statuam lovis ducuntur, et dnm sacrificare nollent, pariter decollanlur.' 

1. 405. To-bele, beat severely ; didt hitn » lo-bilt, caused (men) to 
beat him so severely, caused him to be so severely tieaten. I have 
no hesitation in adopting the reading of ed. 1531 here. To^/i is jnst 
the right word, and occurs in MSS. Cp., Pt., Ln. ; and, though these 
MSS. are not the best ones, it is clear that to-btU is the oiiginal reading, 
or it wonld not appear. I give two examples of the use of the word. 
' Ure men hi lo-biiii,' i.e. they severely beat oar men ; Layamon's Brut, 
1. 3308. 'Me la-biol hii cheoken, and spette him a schom;' men 
severely beat His cheeks, and spit upon Him tn scorn ; Ancren Riwte, 
p. 106. See Ta-rac4 and To-rmit in Gloss to Chaucer's Prioresses Tale, 
Sec. ; see also Didt in the same. To scan the line, slui over -I'u in 
Almachiui, and accent didt. 

1. 406. Whippi of leed, 1 e. a whip furnished with leaden plommetB. 
Lat. 'cum plumbatis tamdin caedi fecit.' &c. ; French text — "il ie fist 
tant batre de plombees,' &c. ; Caxton — 'he dyd do bete hym with 
plomettes of leed.' 

1. 413. Eaceme. offer incense to ; see note to 1 395. 

1. 414. Thry. Over this word is written, in MS. E.— 'scilicet 
Ministres.' The Latin original says that CedLa converted as many 
as 400 persons upon this occasion. Hence the expression a voys (one 
.oil.) In 1. 4.0. 

1. 417. Wiihouttn differtnct, i.e. without difference in might, majesty, 
or glory. 

1. 430. Lewedly, tgnorantly. The 'two answers' relate to her rank 
and her religion, subjects which had no real connection. 

L 434. Lat 'de conscientia bona et fide non hcta;' c£ i Tim. i. $, 
VOL. QL N [■■ ■_ • .,CpO(.)gk' 



1.437. ^^ i^'x^. to be feared; the gerund, &nd right according 
Id Ihe old idiom. We still say— 'he is to hlanu,' 'this house loUi.' 
March, in his Anglo-Saxoa Gtammar, p. 198. says — 'The genmd after 
the copula expresses what tmal, may, or should be done. 

' Ex. Manna sunn is 16 lyllannt, the Soo of Man mast be delivered up, 
Matt. xvii. 11;' Sea. 

1. 44]. Bigonnt, didst begin ; the right fuim, for which Tyrwhitt has 
hegonaiil. far the Mid. Eng. bigtnntn we commonly find onginnan 
in Anglo-Saion, and the form for the past tense is — ongim, onguniw, 
ongan ; pi. ougunnon. The (bnn in Middle English is — Mf aiti btgtmn* 
(or bigonne), bigaa ; pi, biguvun (or bigoniu). The very form here used 
ocean in the Ayenbite of Inwyt, ed. Moms, p. 7[. Tlie suffix -it does 
not appear in strong verbs ; cf. T%ou siy, B. S4S ; ihoa bar, G. 48. 

The whole of 11. 443-467 varies conaderably from the original, the 
corresponding passage of which is as follows: ' Cui Alniachius : "ab 
ininriis caepisti, et in iniuriis peiseaeias." Caecilia respondit : " iniuria 
QOQ dicitor quod nerbis fallentibus irrogatur ; unde aut iniuriam doce, 
si faka locDta sam, aut te jpsum corripe calamniam bferentem, sed nos 
sdentes sanctum Dei nomen omnino negare nco possDmns; melius est 
enim feliciter mori quam infeliciter oinere." Cui Almachios : " ad quid 
cnm tanta snperbia loqaeiis?" Et ilia: "non est luperbia, sed con- 
Etantia." Cui Almachins : " infelix. ignoras," ' &c. (1. 46S). However, 
Chancer has adopted an idea Irom this in U. 473, 475. 

1. 463. To scan this, remember that lagt has two syllables ; and 
accent eon/us on the first syllable. 

1. ^85. Lat. ' es igitur minister mortis, non uitae.' 

I. 487. Do uny. ^0 away with; Lat. 'depone.' The phrase occur* 
again in the Milleres Tale; C. T. 31S7, ed. TyrwhiH. 

II. 489-497, These lines are wholly Chaucer's own. 

1. 490. To scan the line, elide e in stiffri, and read p\Uas6phr: 

1. 49). Sptiisf, to be read as sptVtt. 

1. 49S. Vilir yta, outer eyes, bodily eyes. In MS. E. it is glossed by 
'exteiioribus oculis.' The Latin has— 'nescio ubi oculos amiseris; 
nam quos tu Deos dicis, omnes nos saxa esse uidemus; mitte igitur 
manum et tangendo disce, quod oculis non nales nidere.' 

1, 503. TaiU, test, try; lat. 'tangendo disce.' The word is now 
restricted to om of the five senses ; it conld once have been used also of 
the sense of feeling, at the least. Bottom even ventures on the strange 
expresdon — 'I trust to laiti of truest Thisbe's liglu;' Mid. Nt, Dream, 
V. t. iSo; such is the reading in the first folio. 

I. 505-511. This stania is all Chaucer's own. 

1. 515. Balk t^JlanJus rtdi; Lat. 'in buUiente balneo,' 

11,516-^11. "The Latin merely has— ' Quae quasi in loco frigido 
pe.mansit, nee modicum saltern sudoris peisensit.' 


!• 533' lAt- 'Mm semiaioam cruentus camirei deieliquiL' 

1. 534- ^s •'*"'. though only in the (taceUent) Cambridge MS., is the 
right reading; the test have hi vniu; somelimeE misspelt ki went. In 
the first place, is vient 11 a common phrase in Chaucer ; cf. German 
tr ill gigangm, and Eng. ht is gme. Ent secondly, the false rime detects 
the blander at once ; Chaucer does not rime the weak past tense viml'i 
with a past participle like yluiu. This was obvious to me at the first 
glance, but the matter was made sure by consulting Mr. Ctomie's 
excellent ' Rjme-Indei.' This at once givet the examples n wtnf, 
riming with pp. to-rtnl, E. 1013 (Clerkes Tale); it wtitl, riming with 
imlrununl, F. 567 (Sq. Tale); (s mini, riming with inaocint, B. 1 730, 
and bat wml, riming with pautmml, B. 1869 (^Prioresses Tale) ; all of 
which may be found in my edition of The Prioresses Tale, &c. Besides 
this, there are two more examples, viz. bt Ijity tetnl, riming with iacrtmini, 
E. 1701 ; and iha) he bi teenl, riming withitnr, A. 3665. On the other 
hand, we find tinnlt, senti, hmli, and to-rmit, all (weak) past tenses, and 
all riming together, in the Monkes Tale, B. 3446. The student should 
particularly observe an instance like this. The rules of rime m Chancer 
are, on the whole, so carefully observed that, when once they are leamt, 
a false rime jars upon the ear with such discord as to be unpleasantly 
remarkable, and should be at ondK detected. 

II- 535> 536' These two lirws are not in the original, 

I. 539. 'She began to [neach to them whom she had fostered,' i.e. 
convefled. To fotter is here to Durse, to bring up, to educate in the 
faith; see 1. 111 above. The lAtin text has — 'omnes qnos ad Edem 
cOQuerterat, Urbano Cfuscopo commendauit.' Tyrwhitt makes nonsense 
of this line by placing die comma after htm instead of siXer foilrid, and 
other editors have followed him. In MSS. E. and Hn. the metrical 
pinse is ri^tly marked as occurring after fostrid. The stoiy here 
closely resembles the end of the Prioresses Tale, B. 1801-1855. 

1. 545. Do uirchi, cause to be constructed. 

1. <;49. Lat 'inter episcopos sepeliuit.' 

1. 550. 'It it now a chtircbin Rome, and ^ves a title to acardmal,' 
note in Bell's edition. Id a poem called the Stacyons of Rome, 
ed. Fumivall, 1. 833, we are told that roo years' pardon may be obtained 
by going to St. Cecilia's church. Mr. W. M. RosseCti, in a note on 
this line, says—' The Church of St. Cecilia, at the end of the Trastever«, 
near the Quay of Ripa Grande, was built on the site of the saint's own 
house in 130; rebuilt by pope Paschal I. in 8ai, and dedicated to God 
and Sts. Mary, Peter, Paul, and Cecilia ; and allered to its present form 
%! T599 and 1715. In the former of these yeais, 1599, the body of (he 
saint was found on the spot, with a contemporary inscription identifying 
her: th« celebrated statue by Stefano Mademo, now in Ae church, 
represents her in the attitude she was discovered lying in. FraniUno 

„ J ■ .oogU 


does not name the loo years indulgence of the text, but plenniy 
indulgence on St. Cecilia's day," 

1' 553- After this line the Latin adds — 'Passa est autem circa, annos 
domini CC et XXIII, tempore Aleiandri imperatoris. Alibi autem 
l^tur, quod passa. sit tempore Marci Anrelii, qui imperaoit circa 
annos domini CCXX.* The confusion of names here is easily explained. 
Marcus Aurelius died in i8o ; but Marcos Aurelius Alexander Severus 
(for snch was his title in full) rdgned from 211 to 135. The true dale 
is geueially considered to be 130, falling within tiis reign, as it 
should da 


1.554. rA</)/o/Miii/C«i;f,i.e. theSecondNun'sTale. This notice 
is important, because It inseparably links the Canon's Yeoman's Tale to 
the preceding one. 

'- 555- Eyui mylt, five miles. Tyrwhitt says that it is five miles 
'from somt^ncf, which we are now utJable to determine with certainty.* 
He adds that he is in doubt whether the pilgrims are here supposeil 
to tw riding from or laaardi Canterbury; but afterwards thinks that 
'the manner in which the Veman expresses himself in ver. 16091, a 
[i.e. 11. 6)3, 634] seems to shew that he was riding lo Canterbury,' 

It is really very easy to explain the matter, and to tell all about it. 
It is perfectly clear that these two lines express the fact that they were 
riding (0 Caaterbary. It is even probable that evtry one of the extant 
Tales refers to the outward jonmey: for Chaucer would naturally 
write his first set of Talcs before beginning a second, and the extant 
Tales are insnfficient to make even the firat set complete. Consequently, 
we have only to reckon backwards from Boughton (see 1. 55G) for a 
five-mile distance along the old Canterbnry road, and we shall find the 
name of the place intended. 

The answer to thU is— Ospringe. The matter is settled by the 
discovery that Ospringe was, as a matter of fact, one of the halting-places 
for the night of tmvellers from London to Canterbury. Dean Stanley, 
in his Historical Memorials of Canterbnry, p. 937. quotes from a paper 
in the Archieoli^^ mv. 461, by Mr. E, A, Send, to shew that queen 
Isabella, wife of Edw. II, rested in London on the 6th of June, 1358: 
at Dartford on the 7th ; at Rochester on the Slh ; at Oipringi on the 
9th i and at Canterbnry on the loth and nth; and returned, on 
the I atli, to OspHngi again. See this, more at length, in Mr. Fumivall'i 
Temporary Preface to the Canlerbury Tales (Chaucer Soc.), pp. 13, 14. 


Mr. Furnivall quotes ci£Ud from M. Douet-d'Arcq. concerning a 
journey nude by king John of France iiom London to Dover, by way 
of C«aterbnry, in 1360. On June jo, 1360, king John left London and 
came to Eltham. On July i. he slept at Dartford ; on July a, at 
Rochester: on Jnly 3, he dined at Sitlingboume (noted as being 39 
miles and three-quarters from London), and alept at Oipringi; and 
on July 4 came to Canterbuiy (noted as being 54 miles and a half 
from London). 

These extracts clearly shew (1) that the whole journey was usually 
made to occupy three or four days; (1) that the usual resting-places 
were (at least) Dartford, Rochester, and Ospringe; and {3) that 
Sittingboume was considered as being aboat ij miles from Canter- 
Now, En passing from Sittingboume to Canterbury, we find that the 
distance is divided into lhre« very nearly equal parts by the situations of 
Ospringe and Bongbton, giring tive miles for each portion. The chief 
difficnlty is that raised by Tyrwhilt, that the distaoce from Ospringe to 
Canterbury, wily ten ntUes, leaves very Liltle to be done on the last 
day. Tliere is really no objection here worth considering, because we 
have Chaucer's express words to the contrary. Chancer says, as plainly 
as possible, that the pilgrims really did rest aU night on the road, 
at a place which can only be Ospringe; see 11. j88, 589. 

Mr. Fumirall also notes (Temp. Pref p. 39), that Lydgate, in hig 
Storie of Thebes (in Speght's Chaucer, 1601, fol. 353 back, col. 1) 
makes the pilgrims, on their retun-joumey, return from Canterbury (o 
Ospringe to dinner ; — 

'And toward morrow, as soon as it was light, 
Euery pilgrime, both bel and wors, 
As bad our host, tooke anone his hors, 
When the Sunne rose in the East ful clere. 
Fully in purpose to come to dinere 
Unto Ospring, and breake there our fast.' 

Further illustrations might, perhaps, be found ; but we scarcely 
require them. 

1, 556. Bougklon-unda-BIt. Here Blet is the same as /ht bite in 
Gronp H, I. 3, which see. It is now called Bleui Forest, end the 
village is called Boughton-iinder-Blean, in order to distingubh it from 
Other villages of the same name. I lind, in a map, for examples, 
Boughton Alnph between Canterbury and Ashford, Houghton Malherb 
between Ashford and Maidstone, and Boughton Monchelsea between 
Maidstone and Staptehurst. 

1' F57- ^ man, i.e. the Canon, This is an additional pilgrim, not 
described in the Piologae, and therefore described here in 11. s^-jSi, 
600-655, Sec. ,-. . 



'The name of Canon, as applied to an officw in (he Church, ii 
denved from the Gk. *atiiiv {ianSn) signifymg a rule or measure, and 
also the roll or cttalogne of the Church, in which the names of the 
Ecclesiastics were registered; hence the clerg? so registered were 
denominated Canonid or Canons. Before the Reformation, they were 
divided into two classes. Regular and Secnlai. The Secular were so 
called, because they caooniied in saculo, abroad in the world. Regular 
Canons were such as lived under a rule, that is, a code of laws pnblished 
by the founder of that order. They were a less strict sort of religious 
than the monks, but lived together under one roof, had ■ common 
dormitory and refectory, and were obliged to observe the statutes 
of their order. Tlie chief rale for these [regular] canons is that of 
St, Augustine, who was made bishop of Hippo in the year 395. . . . 
Their habit was a long black cassock with a white rochet over it, 
and over that a black coat and hood ; from whence they were called 
Btact Canons R^ular of St. Augustine.' — Hook's Church Dictionary. 

There were several other orders, sucti as the Gilbertine canons of 
Sempringham in Lincolnshire, the PrEemonstratemes or Whilt Canons, 
&c See also the description of them in Cutts's Scenes and Characters 
of the Middle Ages, p-19. 

I should imagine, from the description of the Canon's honsein 1.657, 
and from the general tenor of the Tale, that Chaucer's Canon was 
but a secular one. Still, their mle seems to have been less strict than 
that of the monks. 

1. 561. Priktd myla Arte, ridden hard for three miles. The Canon 
and his yeoman may be supposed to have ridden rather fast for the first 
two miles ; and then, finding they could not otherwise overtake the 
pilgrims, they took to the best pace they could force out of their horses 
for three miles more. 

1. s6a. yeman, yeoman, attendant, servant. His face was all dis- 
coloured with blowing his master's fire (11. 664-667), and he seems 
to have been the more honest man of the two. He is the teller of 
the Tale, and begins by describing himself; 1. 710. 

1. 565. ' He was all spotted with foam, so that he looked like a 
magpie.' The word He (like his in I. 566) refers to the Canon, whose 
clothing was blacKQ- 557) ; and the white spots of foam upon it gave 
him this appearance. The horse is denoted by ii (1. 563), the word hors 
being neuter in the Oldest English. Most MSS. read lu for ii m 1. 5G3, 
but there is nothing gained by it. 

1. j66, JlfaZ>hM)|^(f, a double budget or leathern bag; see Prol. 1. 694. 

1, 571. Chancer tells us that the Pardoner's hood, on the contrary, 
was not bstened to his cloak ; see Prol. 1. 6S0. 

1. S75- ' Rather faster than at a trot or a foot-pace.' Sud ironically. 
Cf. Prol. 815. ^_, , 


1. 577. Clolt-lttf, Ihe leaf of« bordocb. Cotgrave has — 'Lampovrdt, 
f. the Clooi or great Bum.' Also — ' Gloutrron, m. The dolt, Bane 
Docke, or great Butre.' And again — ' Bantam, 1 the Clolt, bnire-dock, 
■ or great Barre.' 

la tbe Prompt. Parr, we find — ' CJoM, herbe ; Lappa banlana, lappa 
rotuDda.' In Wydirs Version of the Bible, Hosea ii. 6, i. 8, we find 
etoii or cloale where the Vnlgate version has lappa. In Vergi!, Georg. i. 
153, we have — ' Lappaeque tribuliqne,' and a note in the Delphin 
edition, iSij, says — 'Xiappa, glontermi, bardane, bdkdoce; berba. 
capilnla ferens hamis aspera, qnae vestibns praetereuntinm adhaerent.' 
Tbe Glossary to Cockayne's 'Leecbdoma' explains A.S, diit ta arcHtim 
lappa, with numerons references. 

Tbe word is closely related to G. Wttlt, a bur, a burdock, O. H. G. 
eliUlla, thlitlt). Mid. Dn. Haddt, a bur (see HeiliBm) ; whence O. F. 
gUtoH, F. glouttron (see above). It is clear that clati originally 
meant the bur itsilf, just as the name of bar^rxli has reference to 
the same. The cloli is, accordingly, the Arcliam lappa, or Common 
Burdock, obtaining its name from the cloiis (i.e. burs or knobs) upon 
it ; and one of the lar^ leaves of this plant would be very suitable 
for the purpose indicated. 

After this we may safely dismiss tbe suggestion in Halliwell's 
Dictionary, founded on a passage in Gerarde's Herball, p. 674 D, 
that the CSoli here means the yellow water-lily. We know from 
Cockayne's 'Leechdoms' that the name dati sti )w animman teillt 
(i.e. swimming dote) was sometimes used for that flower (Nuphar 
luiea), either on account of its large loond leaves or its globose flowers ; 
but in the present passage we have only to remember tbe Canon's 
haste to feel assured that be might much more easily have caught Dp a 
bardock'leaf from the road-side than have searched in a ditch for a 

1. 578. Far amtt, to prevent svreat, to keep off the heat. See note to 
SirThopas, B. 3051. 

1. 581, Wiri fid, that might be full, that might chance to be fiill. 
Wiri is the subjunctive, and the relative is omitted. 

1. 588. Notii, Sec. ; lately, in the Ume of early morning. 

1. 589. This shews that the pilgrims had rested all night on the 
road ; see note to I. 555, and p. liii. of Pref. to Prioresses Tale, &c. 

1. 597. .^uf*/, in any way, at all. Cf.Kn.Ta.j187; and Prioresses 
Tale, B. 179a. 

1. 599. fe, yea. There is a diffeience between yt, yea, and jbj, yes. 
Ilie former merely assents, or answers a simple question in the aflinna' 
tive. The latter is roach more forcible, is used when the question 
involves a negative, and is often followed by an oath. See note to 
Specimens of Eng, 1394-1579, ed. Skeat, sect. ivii. (D), 1. aa; and note 


to )ia in the Glossary to n\y edition of William of Paleme. Set an 
example of JUS (yes) after a n^ative in Pieis the Plowman, B, v. tag. 
Similariy. nay ii the weaker, no the stronger fonn of negation. 

I. 609. A note in Bell's edition makes a difficulty of the scansion 
of tlii* line; It is perfectly easy. The CKSora (carefiiUy marird in MS. 
E. as occurring aftei knmt) preserves the daal t ia kani/t from elision. 

And ji I him kn^w | e, is | wel is | do 1 1 
Tynrhitt reads alio for the former as ; which is legitimate, because at 
and also are merely different spellings of the same word. 

It is tnie that the final 4 in aroHdrt, and again that in tetrit, are both 
elided, under Eimilar circamstances, in the two lines next following ; 
but the cases are not quite identical. The t in kntan, representing not 
merely the plnral, but also the aabjunctire mood, is essential to the 
conditional form of the aentence, and is of much higher value than 
the others. If this argtunent be not allowed, Tyrwhitt's suggestion 
may be adopted. Or we may read iatintn. 

1. 608. Rit, contracted from n'delh; see other examples in Pref. to 
Prioresses Tale, p. 1. See also tlil for slidilh in 1. GS) below. 

1. 611, Leye in balauHct, place in the balance, weigh against it. 

1. 610. Can, knows, knows how to exercise. 

I. 613. The Yeoman puts in a word for himself— 'and moreover, 
I am of some atiistanct to him.' 

1. 635, Vp 10 rfoun, i.e. upside donn, according to our modem phrase. 
Chaucer's phrase is very common; seePricke of Conscience, ed. Morris, 
1. 7130 ; F, Plowman, B. xx. 53 ; Gower, Conf. Amantis, &c. 

1. 63S. Stnidititi, pronounced bmdiiii, in Ihree syllables, tii in B. 
1170, 1974. See note (o B. 1170 (Fiioress's Tale, &c,). 

1. 63). Wars)up, dignity, honour ; here, respectable appearance, 

1. 633. Ouirslappt, upper garment. So in Icelandic, jfirslappr means 
an outer gown ; as, ' prestar skiyddir yfirsloppom,' i.e. priests clad in 
over-slops. Historia Eccle^astica, i. 473. The word slop is preserved 
in the somewhat vulgar 's/o^shop,' i.e. shop for second-hand clothes. 

1. 6.15- Sourfy, dirty. Ta-tort, torn in half. So in Piers Plowman, 
B, V. ig7. Avarice is descrilKd as wearing a 'tabard' which ia 'al 
to-tom and baudy.' 

1. 639. The second person sing, imperative seldom exhibits a Imal *; 
bnt it is sometimes foond in weak verbs, ttlim being one of them. The 
leadings are— ref/c, E. Cp. Ft. HI. ; TA, Ln. Cm. 

1. 641. J^, Sec; because he shall never thrive. The Yeoman blurts 
out the truth, and is tlien afraid he has said Coo mach. In L 644, 
he gives an evaure and politer reason, declaring Ihat his lord is 
'loo wise;' seel. 648. 

1. 645. That thai, that which. In the margin of MS. E. is written— 
' Omne quod est niminm, &a. ;' which is probably short for — ' Omqe 


quod est nimium nertitsT in aitiam.' We also find — ■ Omne nimium 
noccc' The corresponding English proverb is—' Too much of one thing 
is not good' (Heynrood); od which Ray lemaiks — ' Assez y asi trop a'y 
a ; FraaX. Ne quid nimis ; Ttnntitis. HijJiv Srinv. This is an apothegrn 
of one of the seven wise men ; some attribute it to Thales. some to Solon. 
Est modus in rebus, sunt certi denique fines ; Horat. Sat. i. i. 106. L'ab- 
bondanza delle cose ingenera bstidto ; Ilal, Cada dia olla, amargo el 
caldo; Sfanisk.' We also find in Hazlitt'g English Proverbs— ' Too 
mucii cunning undoes.'— ' Too mnch is stark nought." — 'Too much 
of a good thing,' — ' Too mnch spoileth, too liltle is nothing.' See also 
the collection of similar proverbs in Ida v. Duringsfeld's Spricbworler, i. 
J7. 3S- 

1. 648. Cf. Bntler's description of Hudibras :— 

' We grant, although he had mnch wit. 
He v/ai very shy of using it.' 

1. 65s. Thtr-fi/fio/ors, never mind about that. 

1.656. ^iffoM^Jfit, ifitmaybe told. Cf. note to 1. 437. 

1. 6j8. A Mini' lant is one that bas no opening at the farther end ; 
a cul dt sac. 

1. 659. Tknut by kyndi, thieves by natural disposition. 

1. 661. TTu solhe. the truth. The reader should carefully note the foil • 
pronimdatioQ of the final t in lolii. If he should omit to sound it, 
he will be put to shame when he comes to the end of the next line, 
ending with 16 iha. A very sinular instance is that of lymr. riming 
with by DH, G. 1104 below. The case is the more remarkable because 
the A.S. sdO. truth, is a monosyllable; but the truth is that the 
definite adjective lii tolht (A.S. Yat hSKi) may very well have supplied 
its place, the adjective being more freely used than the sobslantive 
in this instance. Chaucer has loihi at the end of a line in one more 
place, where it rimes with the dissyllabic bofke ; G, 168. 

We may remark that Ihi tollit is written and pronounced instead 
of lie saik (as shewn by the metre) in the Story of Genesis and Exodus, 
ed. Morris, 1. 74 : — 

■ He [ihiy] witen the sothe, that is sen.' 

1. 665. PttrrI by St. Peter. Tlie full form of the phrase— 'bi seynt 
Peter of Kome ' — occurs in Piers the Plowman, B. vi. 3. The shorter 
ixciamation—' Peter r also occurs in the same, B, v. 544; see my note 
on that line. 

1. 669. MulHpfye. This was the technical term employed by al- 
chemists to denote their supposed power of transmuting the baser 
metals into gold ; tbey thought to muliifly gold by (uming as much base 
metal as a piece of it would buy into gold itself; see 1. 677. Some 
such pDD seems here intended ; yet it is proper to remember that 
the term otiginally referred solely to the supposed fa^ that the strength 


of an elixir could be multiplied by repeated operations. See Ihe article 
'De Mnltiplicatione,' in Theatnim Chemicum, iii, 301, 818; cf. 131. 
Cf. Ben Jodsod's Alchemist, ii. i :— 

'For look, how oft I iterate the work, 
So man; times I add unto his yirtue. 
As, if at first one ounce convert a hundred. 
After his second loose, hell turn a thousand; 
Hia third solution, ten; his fourth, a hundred; 
After his fifth, a thousand thousand oimcea 
Of any imperfect metal, into pure 
Silver or gold, in all eiaminationi 
As good as any of the natural mine.* 
1. 6S6. To scan the line, accent yman on the latter syllable, as in 
U. 684, 7or. 

1. 687. To scan the line, pronoonce euer nearly as (V, and remember 
that Maddi is of two syUables. The MSS. agree here. 

1. 6SS. Caloun, Cato. Dionysius Cato is the name commcnly as- 
signed to the author of a Latin work in four books, entitled Dionysii 
Catonis Disticha de Moribus ad FiLom. The work may be referred 
to the fourth century. It was extremely popular, not only in Latin, but 
■ in French and English versions. Chaucer here quotes from Lib. i. 
Distich. 17:— 

' Ne cures ri qnis tadto sermone loqnatni; 
Conscius ipse sibi de se pntat omnia did.' 
See another quotation from Cato in the Nonne Prestes Tale, 1. no; 
and see my note to Piers the Plowman, B. vi. 316. 

It is worth notidng that Catoun follows the form of the Lat. Calontm, 
the accusative case. Such is the usnal rule. 

1. 694. D^t abyi, pay dearly for it. Aby (lit. to buy off) was cor' 
mpted at a later date to abidt, as in Shak. Jul. Caesar, Iii. r. 94. 

1. 703. Gamt, amusement. In L 708, it is used iionically. Cf. irnai 
i.e. ft serious matter, in 1. 710. 

•Rather than I'll be bray'd, sir, I'll believe 
That Alchemy is a pretty kind of game, 
Somewhat like tricks o' the catds, to cheat a man 
With charming.' — The Alchemist, ii. i. 


1. 720. This Tale is divided, in MS. E, into two parts. Pars prima b 

not really a tale at all, but ft description of alchemy and its professors. 

The real tale, founded on the same subject, is contwned in Pars 


Sicunda, beginning at 1. 971. The rubric means — 'Heie the Csuon's 
Veoman b^ni his tale.' The word lali is not to be taken aa a 

I. 7JI. Netr, nearer; this eiplains ntaria Macbeth, ii, 3. J46. 

I. 7»4. ITitr, where ; observe the use. In 1. 717, we have aitr. 

I. 716. Hoti, an old stocking, instead 0! a hood. 

I. 730. 'And, in return for all my labour, I am cajoled.' To 'Meri 
one's eye ' is lo cajole, to deceive, lo hoodwink. See Piers the Plow- 
man, B. prol. 74, and the note. 

I. 731. Wliieh, what sort ofa; Lat. juaUi. On mulliflyt, tee note to 

1. 739. ' I consider his prosperity as done with.' 

I. 743. lupartit. Jeopardy, hazard. Tyrwhitt remarks that the deri- 
vation is not from jtii ptrdu, as some have guessed, but from j'n parli. 
He adds — ' A jtu farii is properly a game, id which the chances are 
exactly even j see Froissart, v. i. c. 134— " Us n'estoienl pas ij™ parti 
contre les FiBn90is;' and v. ii. c. 9 — " si nous les voyous i jtu parti." 
From hence it signifies anything uncertain or hazardous. In the old 
French poetry, the discos^on of a proUem, where much might be said 
on both ddes, was called a ym parH. See Pmsiis dti Rey dt Nmiam, 
Chanson xlviii., and Qlou. in v. See also Ducange, in v. Jocvt 
Partilus.' Duconge hu — 'yucus parlitui dicebatur, cum alicni facultas 
concedebatnr, alteram e duobns proposilis eligendi.' Hence was 
formed not Only jtopardy, but even the verb to jtopard, ased in the 
A, v., Judges V. 18 : > Mace zi. 7. Also in Shakespeare's Plutarch, 
ed, Skeal, p. 139. side-note 3. 

I. 746. la the margin of MS. E. is written — 'Solacium miseriornm. 
&c.' In Marlowe's Fauslns, ii. i. 41, the proverb is quoted in the form 
'Solamen miseris socios habuisse doloris.' Dr. Wagoer says: 'The 
purport of this line may have been originally derived from Seneca. 
De Consol. ad Polybium, xii. a : est autem hoc ipsum solatii loco, inter 
multos dolorem snum dividere ; qui quia dispensatur inter plures, exigua 
debet apud te parte snbsidere.' Cf. Milton, P. R. i. 3g3. The idea is 
that conveyed in the fable of the Foi who had lost his tail, and wished 
to peisuade the other foxes to cot theirs off likewise. 

1. 751. 'The technical terms which we use are so learned and fine. 
See this well illustrated in Jonson's Alchemist, ii. r :— 
' What else are all your terms, 
Whereon no one of your writers 'grecs with other, 
Of your elixir, your lac virginis, 
Vonr stone, your medidne, and your chrysosperme, 
Your sal, your sulphur, and your mercury,' && 

1. 764. in the MSS. It is clearly pot for lamht, a cor- 
raption of O. Fr. lanu, Lat, lamina. Were there any MS. authority, 


it wonH be better to read lairu at once. CotgrsTC has — ' Lanu ; t 
a thin pUte of an; metall ; also, s blade,' &c. Nares has — ' Lamm, s. 
a plate, bom Lat. lamiaa. " But he strake FhalaatBS just upon the 
gorget, lo as he batred the lammi thereof, and made his head almost 
toQCb the back of his horse ; *' Fembr. Arcadia, lib. iii, p. 369.' Lutm 
in old French also means, the flat slab covering a tomb ; see Roquefort. 
So bei«. after the mgiedients haie all been placed in a pot, they are 
covered ovei with a plate of glass laid flat npixi the top. 

It it strange that no editor bas made any attempt to explain this vord. 
It obviously does not mean tamf t For the insertion of the p, cf, tolemptu 
lor Ktlarme, and nempat for Boant ; see Gloss, to Prior. Tale. 

I. 766. Ealudng. To nluu a to close with lute. Webster bas— 
' Lult, n. (Lat. lulum, mad, clay). A composition of day or other 
tenacious substance, used for stopping the joncture of vessels so closelj 
as to prevent the escape or entrance of air, or to protect them when 
exposed to beat.' 

The process is minutely described in a MS. by Sir George Gisldne, of 
Innertiel (temp, James I.), printed by Mr. J. Small in Ihe Proceedings 
of tbe Society of Aotiquaries of Scotland, vol. xi. r874-75, p. 193, as 
follows: — ' Thaiifoir when all the matter which most be in, is gathered 
tf^ether into tbe pot, tak a good lult maid of potters clay, and mii it 
with bolus and rust of iron tempered with whitts of eggs and chopt hair, 
and mingle and worke thame weill togither, and Inle joure pott ane inch 
thick thairwith. and male a stopple of potters earth wrill bnmt, to shut 
close in the hole that is in tbe top of tbe cover of the pott, and lute the 
pott and tbe cover very close tc^ther, so as no ayre may brek fiirth. and 
when any craks cam into it, in the drying of the Inte, dawbe them 
up againe ; and when the lute is perfectly drie in the sunne, then take a 
course linen or canvas, and soke it weill in the whitts of e^s mixt with 
iron nist, and spred this cloth roond about the luting, and then wet it 
Weill again with wbitts of eggs and upon the luting ; ' &c. 

1. 768. The alchemists were naturally very careful about the heat 
of the lire. So in The Alchemist, ii. i :— 

'Look well to the register. 
And let your heat still lessen by d^;rees,' 
And agab, in Ui. a : — 

■ We must now increase 
Our fire to ignis ardias, we are passed 
Fimut tjuinus, balnii, tineHs, 
And all those lenler heals,' 

I. 770, Maiira sublyming, sublimation of materials. To ' sublimate ' 
Is to render va[iorons, to cause matter to pass into a stale of vapour by 
■■be application of heat. ■ Philosophi consideran(eseorummaleriam,qure 

It in vase ino, et calorem sentit, evaporatur in speciem fumi. el ascsidit 


in capile vasi^ : et vocant ablimaiianim; ' Thcatrom Chemicum, i6;9, 
vol. ii. p. 135, 

' Subili, How do you soUinie him [mercury] ? 
Fact. With the calce of egg-shells, 

While marble, talc' The Alchemist, ii, i, 

1. 771- Amalgaming. To ' anialgamale ' is to compound or mix 
intimately, especially used of mixing quicksilver with other metals. 
The terra is still in use; thus 'an amaSgamoi tin' means a mixture of 
tin and quicksilver. 

Caltming, To ' calcine ' is to reduce a. metal to an oxide, by the action 
of heat. What is now called an oxide was formerly called ' a metallic 
calx;' hence the name. The term is here applied to quicksilver or 
mercury. For example — ' When mercury is heated, aod at the same lime 
exposed to atmospheric air, it is found that the volnme of the air is 
diminished, and the weight of the mercury increased, aud that it becomes, 
during the operation, a red crystalline body, which is the binoiide of 
mercDiy, formed by the metal combining vrith the oxygen of ihe air ; ' 
English Cyclopaedia, Div. Arts and Sciences, s. v. Oxygen, 'The 
alchemists used to keep mercury at a boiling heat for a month or longer 
in a matrass, or a flask with a tolerably long neck, having free communi- 
cation with the air. It thus slowly absorbed oxygen, becoming converted 
into binoxide, and was called by them mrrcuri-us precipilatus ptr u. It is 
now however generally prepared by calcination &om mercuric nitrate ; ' 
id.j S. V. Mtrcury. 

1, 77J. Mtrcurit crude, crude Mercury. See note to I. Sjo. See the 
description of Mercury in Ashmole's Theat. Chem. p. 171. The 
alchemists preteiided that iheir quicksilver, which they called the Green 
Lion, was something difTerent from quicksilver as ordinarily found. 
See treatise on 'The Greene Lyon,' in Ashmole's Theat. Chem, p. 180. 

1. 774. Note the accents — ' sdblymW Merciirie." 

1. J78. Here the 'ascension of spirits' refers to the rising of gases 
or vapours from certain substances ; and the ' matters that lie all fix 
adown' are the materials that He at the bottom in a fixed (i.e. in a 
solid) state. There were four substances in particular which were 
technically termed ' spirits ; * vii, snlphar, sal ammoniac, quicksilver, and 
arsenic, 01 (as some said) orpiment. See Thealrum Chemicum, iiL 8r, 
iJ9;ii.43o; 111.376. 

I. 7S1. Here a- in; being short for on, a variant of or, used in ihe 
old sense of 'ul.' The expression signifies, literally, in Ihe manner o( 
twenty devils, i. e. in all sorts of evil and accursed ways. 

1. 790. Sdle armoniak. The latter word should rather be Armtniat, 
i. e. Armenian, but we have armomti again below, in 1. 798 ; see note 
to that line. 

' Bole, a kind of line, compact, or eartby clay, often highly coloured 


with iron, uid varying ia shades of colour from white to yellowish, 
reddish, btuebh, and brownish. Fr, bol, Lat. bolus, Gk. 0al\of, a clod 
or lump or earth ; ' Webster'3 Diet., ed. Goodrich and Porter. Colgrare 
has — 'Bat, m. the astringent and medicinable red earth or minerall 
called Boliamunit .. .Bol OritrUal, et Bol Armemtn Oramal, Oriental 
Boleannenie : the best and truest kind of Bolearmenie, ministred with 
good eBect against all poisons, and in pestilent diseases ; and more red 
Ihan the ordinary one, which should rather be teanned Sinopian red 
earth than Boleanneny.' And again — 'Rabriqut Sinopiqui, Sinopian red 
earth, a heavy, massive, liver-coloured, and astringent earth, or minerall, 
which, put into water, soon moulders, and fals into pieces. This may 
»ery well be the orduiarie Botiamumii [sic] that is, at this day, used 
by many sui^eons in the staunching of bloodl, &:e., bot is not the tme 
(Orientall) one, redder then it, and not so easily dissolved by water as it.' 

Vtrdtgrtea looks at iirst like a corruption of vird-dt-pis, but that 
would mean 'green of gray,' which is nonsense. It is realty an English 
version of O. F. vtri de Greet, 'green of Greece;' which, possibly, was 
confused with the Eng. grtaii, from the notion that it is of a greasy 
nature, The French virderii is &om the Latin viridi arh, the green of 
brass. This term {viridt teris) is the common one in the old L^tin treatises 
on alchemy. See the chapter in Albertus Magnus — ' Quomodo viride 
leris lit, et qoomodo rubificalur, et super omnia vatet ad artem istam ; ' 
Theatrum Chemicnm, ii. 436. It is the bibasic acetate of copper. 

1. 794. Cucurhilis, vessels supposed to bear some resemblance to 
a gooid, whence the name (Lat. eucarbiia, a gourd). ' Cacurbita 
est uas quod debet stare in aqaa, usque ad juncturam Rrmatum in 
caldirio, iit Don moueatnr; nee cucurbits debet tangere foDduin, 
quia frangeretnrj ct cum aqua minuitur, fundas aliam, scilicet calldam 
et non frigidam, quia uas frangeretur ; ' Theatrum Chemicnm, ii. 451. 

1. ?9J. Diri ynough a leek, dear enough at the price of a leek. Cf, 
Clerkes Tale. E. 999. 

1. 797. Watra nibifying, reddening wateis. This is well illustrated 
by a ttmg passage in The Boke of Quinte Essence, ed, Fumivall, 
p. 13, where mstructions are ^ven for extracting the quintessence out of 
the four elements. After various processes, we are directed to pat the 
vessel into ' the fier of flawme right strong, and the ried moHr schal 
ascende ; ' and again — ' thanne yn the stillatorie, to the tier of bath, 
cleer water schalt asende ; and in the botum shall remayne the rttd 
walir, that is, the element of fier.' A long and unintelligible passage 
about ■ mbrilicatio ' and ■ aqoa sinritualis rubea ' occun in the Theatrum 
Chemicum, iii. 41. See also ' modus rubrificandt' and the recipe for 
'aqua lubeaj' id. Hi. no. 

1. 798. Arstaic was by some considered as one of the ' four spirits ; ' 
■ee note to 1. 778. For a long passage ' de aisenico," aee Theatrum 


Chcmicum, iii. 177; also p, no, and ii. 238. Sal armonlacum was 
another or them (see 1. 814) and is constantly meationed in the old 
treatises; see ' pneparatio s^ Annoniaci secnndnm Rasim;' Theat. 
Chem, iii, 179; also pp. 89, 94, loaj ii. 445. In vol. ii. p. 138 of the 
same work, it is twice called ' sal amumaeum,' See the account of 
sal ammoniac iu Thomson, Hist, of Chemistiy, L I34. Brimsiooa was 
also a ' spirit ' (aee 1. 814) ; it is only aoother name for sulphur. 

I. Soo. Egrimaiit, common agiimony, Mgrimonia o^cinalis ; valerian, 
Valeriana officinalis ; liatarii, a kind of fern called in &iglish moon-wort, 
BaOychium lunoria. The belief in the sirtue of herbs was very strong ; 
hence even Spenser says (F. Q. i. 3. 10) that the magician Archimago 
was thus enabled to turn himself into the shape of vaiious animals, 
adding — 

■ O who can tell 
The hidden power of herbs, and might of magic spell.' 
The root of valerian yields valerianic acid. The following quotation is 
from the English Encyclopiedia, s.v. BolryMum : — 

' In former times the ferns had a great reputation m medicine, not so 
much on account of their obvioas as their supposed virtues. The lunale 
shape of the piimieof thisfem {B. luaaria) gave itita common name, sod 
was the origin of mach of the superstilious veneration with which it 
was regarded. When used it was gathered by the light of (he moon. 
Gerarde says — " it is singular [i.e. sovereign] to heal green and fresh 
wonnds. It hath been used among the alchymists and wilchis lo do 
wonders wichall, who say that it will loose locks and make them (0 
fall from the feet of horses that grase where it doth grow, and bath 
been called of them Marlagon, whereas in truth they are all but drowsy 
dreams and illusions ; bnt it is singular for wounds as aforesaid." ' 

In Ashmole's Theatium Chemicum, p. 348, is a full description of 
'lunayrie,' with an engraving of it. It is there also called aslirioa, and 
we are told that its root is black, its stalk red, and its leaves round ; 
and moreover, that the leaves viax and v/ans uiith the moon, and on each of 
them is a mark of the breadth ofapemiy. See also pp, 315, 318 of the 
same work. 

1. 805. Atbificacioan, i.e, the rendering the water of a white colour, as 

distingoishiog from the reddening of it, meolioned in 1. 797. In a long 

chapter priated in the Theatnim Chemicum (iii. 634-648) much is said 

about red and white colours. Compare the Alchemist, ii. i : — 

' SubiU, I mean to tinct C in sand-heat tomorrow, 

And give him imbibition. 
Mammon. Of whilt oill 

Sublh. No, sir, of nd.' 
No doubt, too, tiraier is here nsed in the sense of the Lat. ajua, to 
denote any substance that is in a liquid state. 


t. EoS. Cired pokits. Tynvhitt reads SinJ poiella, and includes this 
jihrase in his short ' List of Fhrases not imdeistood ; ' and indeed, it has 
never been explained. But there is little difBculty about it. Poia is 
the diminutive of palii, a bag, and means a little bag. Cered (Lat. 
ceralus) means waxed. Thus Colgraye has—' Gri, m. -i; f. waxed, 
imnd; dressed, covered, dosed, or mingled, with wax.' In many MSS. 
the word is spelt send, but this makes no diHereoce, since Cglgrave has 
' seared ' in this very place. So we find both ' cere-cloth ' and ' sear- 
doth.' It U obvious that bags or cases prepared or closed with 
wax would be useful for many of the alchemist's purposes ; see Theat. 
Chem. iii. 13. There was a spedal process in alchemy called ctrotion, 
but this has nothing to do with it; it means the reduction of anj 
material to the consistency of soft wax ; Theat. Chem, iL 441. 

Sal ptier, Lat. sal ptira, or rock-salt, also called nitre, is nitrate 
of polassa. A redpe for preparing it ii given in Theat. Chem. iii. 

ViirioSt, i.e. sulphuric add. See 'vitnuli prxparatio;' TheaL 
Chem. iii. 95. 

1. 6to. Sal lartrt, salt of tartar, i.e. carbonate of potash; so called 
from its having been fonneily prepared from Cream of tartar. 

Sal pnparau, common salt prepared in a certain manner. See the 
section — ' quod ualeat sal commone, et quomodo prnparetur ; ' Theat. 
Chem. ii. 433, 435. 

1. 8ia. Maad, i.e. prepared, mixed. Oaiof lartrt, oil of tarlar. See 
the section — ' quomodo prgeparatur tartarum, ut oleum liat ex illo, quo 
calces Eoluimtur;* Theat. Chem. ii. 436; and again — 'ad fadeadum 
oleum de Tartars;' id. iii. 303. To scan 1. 813. remember to pro- 
nounce larlri as in Fiench, and to accent alum on the latter syllable. 
Of iSrtr" I alum | glas b&m | wort ind | argoile D 

I. 814. Rfsaigar, realgar, red orpiment, or the red snlphuret of 
arsenic; symbol (As S,) ; found native in same parts of Europe, and 
of a brilliant red colour. Risalgar is a corruption of the old Latin 
name, risigallum. The word is explained by Thymic in his Anim- 
adversions, ed. Fumivall, p. 36 — ' This risalgar is that whiche by some 
is called Ralesbane, a kynde of poysone named Arsenicke, whtcbe 
tbc chimicall philosophers call tbdr venome or poysone.' 

ErAibiHg, imbibition ; see this term used in the quotation Irotn The 
Alchemist, in the note to L S05. It means absorpiioo ; cf. Theat. 
Chem. iii. 13a. 1. a?. 

I. S16. Cilrinaeioiat. This also is explained by Thynne, who says 
(p. 3S) — ' Citrinatione is hothe a cooler [colour] and parte of the philo- 
phers stoone,' He then proceeds to quote from a Tractatus Avicenna, 
cap. 7, and from AmoIdu» de Nova Villa, lib. i. cap. 5, It was 
supposed that when the materials for making the philosopher's stone 


had been bTonEht into a state very favourable to the ultimate success 
of the expenment, they would assume the colour of a citron ; or, ai 
Thynne says. Arnold speaks of 'this citfioatione, peifecte digestione, or 
the cooler pcovinge the ptaosophers stoone broughte almosle to the 
heighte of his perfecliooe,' So in the Alchemist, iii. 1 ; — 

'How's the rooon now? eight, nine, ten days hence 
He will be silver potate ; then three days 
Before be cUroniit. Some fifteen da;s. 
The magisteiium will be perfected.' 
1. B17. Fimwaacioutx, fermentation. This term i% also noticed by 
Thyime (p. 33), who says — ' fermentadone ys a pecoller terme of 
Alchymye, deduced from the bakers fennenle or levyne ; " &c. See 
Theat, Cbem. ii. 115, ijs. 

1. Sso. Foure spirilts. Chaucer enumerates these below. I have 
already mentioned them in the note to 1. 77S; see also note to 1. 79S. 
Tyrwhitt refers us to Gowec's Confessio Amantis, bk. ir, where we 
find a passage very much to the point. I quote it from Chalmers' 
edition, correcting the spelling. Of. Pauli'a edition, ii. 84. 
' And also with gret diligence 

Thei fonde thilke experience. 

Which cleped is Alconomye. 

Wherof the silner mnltiplye 

They made, and eek the gold also. 

And, for to telle how it is so. 

Of bodies seuen in special, 

With foure spiriles ioynt withal, 

Stant the sotelance of this matere. 

The bodies, whiche I speke of here 

Of the planetes ben begonne. 

The gold is titled to the sonne ; 

The mone of silner halh his part ; 

And iron, that stanC vpoo Mart ; 

The leed vpoo Satume groweth ; 

And lupiter the bras bestoweth : 
. The copper set is to Venus ; 

And to his part Mercurius 

Hath the quick-siluer, as it falleth. 

The whiche. after the boke it calleth. 

Is first of thilke foure named 

Of spirites, whiche ben proclamed. 

And the spirit which is seconde 

In sal armoniak is foude. 

The tbridde spirit sulphur is. 

The fourthe, sewend after this, 

voi..m. o D„-...., Google 


ATsen[cum by name is bote. 

With blowing and with lyres bote 

In these tbinges whiche I sRye 

Thei worchm by diueree waye.' 
He farther explains that gold and silver are the two ' extremities,' and 
the other metals agree with one or other of them more or less, so as to 
be capable of transmutation into one of them. For this purpose, the 
nlchemist mast go through the processes of distillation, congelation, 
solution, descension, sublimation, calcination, and fiiatioo, after which 
he will obtain the perfect elixir of the philosopher's stone. He adds 
that there are really tliree plulosopher's stones, one v^etable, capable 
of healing diseases ; aaother animal, capable of assisting each of the 
five senses of man; and the third mineral, capable of tnnsformmg 
the baser metals into silver and gold. 

'It malceth multipUcacioun 

Of goMe, and the fiiai^ioun 

It causeth, and of his habile 

He doth the werk to be perfite 

Of Chilke elixir, which men calle 

Allconomye, as is befalle 

To hem that whylom were wyse. 

But now it slant al otherwyse. 

They spelten fcste of thilke stone. 

But how to make it now wot nonCi 

After the trewe experience. 

And natheles gret diligence 

They selten vp[on] thilke dede. 

And spiilen more then thei spede. 

For alway Ihei fynden i lette 

Which bringeth in pouerle and dette 

To him that riche were tofore. 

The losse is had, the lucre is tore. 

To gette a pound they spenden fyue. 

I not how suche a craft shal thryue 

It were better be refused 

Than for to werchen vpon wene [txpiclationl 
In thitig which slant not as thei wene.' 
It is easy to see how the various metals were made to answer to 
the seven planets. Gold, the chief of melals and yel[.>w, of course 
answered to the sun, and similarly iilvtr, to the paler moon. Mercury, 
the swiftest planet, must be the shifty quicksilver ; Saturn, the slowest, 
of cold and diiU influence, must be had. The etymology of eofptr 
suggested the connection with the Cyprian Venus. This left but two 


metala, iron and tin, to be adjusted ; iron was suggestive of Mais, 
the god of war. leaving tin to Jupiter. Tbe Dotion of thus natning Che 
metals is attributed to Gebei ; see Thomson, Hisl. of Cbemtstry, i. 117. 

Quicksilver, be it observed, is still called mtrcary; and nitrate of 
silvtr is Etiil lunar caustic. Gold uid silver are constitntly termed 
iol and Una in the old treatises on alchemy. See fiirther allusions 
in Chaucer's House of Fame, iii, 341-397, as pointed out in my Pref. 
to Cbaucer'B Astrolabie, p. Izvi. 

1. 834. ' Whosoever pleases to utler (i.e. display) his folly.' 

1. 83S. Aicanci, pos^bly, perhaps. See Glossary. 

1, 846. Al cotatt hi, whether he know. The use of oi atthe beginning 
of a sentence containing a supposition is common in Cbaucer; see ProL 
734. Cf. at be, Prol. 197 ; Kn. Tale, 313. And see 1. 861. 

1. S4S. Bollie tvio, both learned and unlearned alilce. 

1. E61. 'To raise a fiend, though he look never so rough,* i.e. for- 
bidding, cross. 

1. S74. It is to aim eair, it is always to seek, i.e. never found. In 
Skelton's Why Come Ye Nat to Court, 1. 314, the phrase 'they are 
to seke ' means ' they are at a loss; ' this latter is the commoner use. 

1. 875. Timps, tense. The editors explain it by ' time.' If Chaucer 
had mtanl time, it is reasonable to suppose that he would have said so. 
Surely it is better to take 'that fotur temps" in the spedal sense of 
' that future tense.' The allusion Is to the phrase ' to seken ' in the last 
line, which is not an iniliutive mood but a gerund, and often used 
as a future taae, as Chancer vety well knew. Compare the A.S. 
version of Matt. li. 3—' eart )m Je to cumenne eart ' — with the Lat. 
' Tu es qni uinturus es.' 

1.878. fii'ffcr smelt, i.e. a fatal, though alluring, pursuit. An 
example of oxymorouj cf. ' insajiieas sapientia,' Horat. Carm. i. 34; 

1. 879. Ifaddi ihe/ bat, if they only should have (or, were to have). 
Naddi is for nt haddt, past tense subjunctive. 

1. SSo. Innt, within ; A. S. innaa ; see 1. 83t. A nyght, for on nyght, 
in the ni^t Perhaps it should be ayghtt (with final <), and lyghie in 
1. SSi. 

1. S81. Bai, cloth ; any cough sort of covering for the back. So in 
most MSS. ; altered in E. to bnU, but unnecessarily. That the word 
bai was used in the sense of garment is quite certain from two other 
passages which I shall cite. That it meant originally a covering for 
the back, will appear from a third one. 

(1) In William of Paleme, ed. Skeat,l. 2096, we have — 
'Than brayde he brayn-wod Sc alle his batiis rente. 
His berde, and bis bright las for bale he to-twighi[e].' 
I.e. then he became brain-mad, and tare all his clothes; he^udccd 
02 ' "'^ 


asunder, for sorrow, his beard and his biighl hair. Note that It Is 
used here in all seriousness. 

(]) In Piers the Plowman, B. x. 363, men are blamed for hoarding 
np clothes, and meatioii is made of ' owre taUa that moth-eten be,' 
i.e. of our garments that are moth-eaten for want of ase. Here, in 
<Hie MS., the gloss 'panni' is written above; in another MS., the 
reading is ' bakclothis.' 

(3) In Piers the Plowman, A. xi. 184, we are reminded of the duty of 
piovidiog biead and clothing for the poor : — 

' Dowel it hatle [u calUO] 
To breke beggeris bred and batkta beiD with elothis.' 
Pronounce the words And a rapidly, in the time of one syllable. 
1. 907. Tb-brtitti, bursts in pieces. Oo, gone. This must bare been 
a very common result; the old directions about 'luting' and her- 
metically seating the vessels employed are so strict, that every care 
seems to have been (unwittingly) taken to secure an eiplosionj tee 
note to I. 766 above. So m the Alchemist, iv. 3. 

> Fatf. O, sir, we are defeated t all the works 
Are flown in fiimo, every glass is burst : 
Furnace, and all rent down I as if a bolt 
Of thunder had been driven through the house. 
Retorts, receivers, pelicans, bolt-heads. 
All struck in shivers 1 ' 
1. gtt. Chil, short for chidtik; so also hail for Jtoldtlh. 
1.911. Son stydi. I.e. one said; note that lom is here singular, 
as in Kn. Tale, 1173. Hence the ose of th> tkriddt, i.e. the third, 
in 1. 935. 

I. 919. So ihttck, for (0 Out ich, so may I thrive. See Pard. Tale, 
C. 947- 
1. 933. Efl-sont, for the fhtutt ; lit. soon afterwards. 
1. 934. ' I am quite sure that the pot was cracked.' 
1. 96]. The reading ihyntik is of course the right one. In the 
margin of MS, E. is written ' Non teneas aurmn,' Sec This proves 
that Tyrwhitt's note is quite correct. He says— 'This is taken from 
the Paraboke of Alanns de Insnlis, who died in 1194; see Leyser, 
Hiil. Po. Mtd. £vi, p. 1074. 

" Nod teneas aurum totnm quod splendet ut aumm. 
Nee pulchrum pomum qaodlibet esse bonum." ' 
Shakespeare has — 'All that glisters is not gold;' Merch. of Venice, ii. 7, 
65. Hailltt's English Proverbs has — 'AH is not gold that glisters 
(Heywood). See Chancer, Chan. Yeom. Prol. ; Roxbuighe Ballads, 
ed. Collier, p. 10a ; Udall's RoysUr DoysUr, 1566, where we read ; All 
things that shineth is not by and by pure golde (Act v. sc I). Fronti 
nulla fides, Juvenal, Sat. ii. 8. The French say. Tout ce qai luict n'est 


pBS or. Non k oro tutto qael cEie luce ; Ilal. No es todo or lo qae 
reluw ; Spaa.' So in German — ' Est ist nicht Alles Gold was glinzt ; ' 
and agab — 'Rothe Aepfel ^d anch faul.' See Ida v. Duripgsfeld's 
Sprichworler, i. 53, 107. Cf. Chaucer's Hoose of Fame, i. 27a. 

1. 97a. Part ueiaida. This is where the Tale begins. Even now, Ihe 
Veonian has some more to (ay by way of preface, and only makes a 
real start at 1. loii. 

I' 975' .^'<'iiii''H^*, Alexandria. JiKf ofio-dAnf.aDdthreemoieas well. 

1. 999. I menu, I intended ; as la L 1051 below. ' But my intention 
was to correct that which is amiss.' 

The reading l-mtnt, as a past participle, adopted by Mr. Wright, 
is incotrect, as shewn by Mr. Cromie's Kyme-Indeic Cf. Nonne Pr. 
Tale, 603 ; Sq. Tale, F. 108. See note lo G. 534, above, 

I. 1005. Bj yote, with reference to yon canons. See By in Eastwood 
and Wright's Bible Wordbook. 

1. loij. Amudier. So called, as Tyrwh! It explains, 'ftoni their being 
employed solely in singing anitvati or anniversary masses for the dead, 
without any care of souls. See the Stat. 36 Edw. III. c.viii, where the 
Chappelltins Parocluels are distinguished from others ehanlanz aanualts, 
tl a no-i dts almis luciS iniaidanu. They were both to receive yearly 
stipends, but the former was allowed to take six marks, the latter only 
five. Compare Stat, a Hen. V. St. i. c a, where the stipend of the 
Chapdleiii Paroehiii is raised to eight marks, and that of tlie CkaptlUin 
ttraiutlir (he is so named in the stattite) to seven,' 

I. loij. That is, lo the lady of the house where he lodged. 

1. lolS. Spmding silver, money to speod, ready money. The phrase 
occurs b Piers the Plovnnan, B. xi. a7B. 

1. 1034. A etrltyn, a certain sum, a stated sum. Cf. 1. 776. 

1. ioa7. At Dijr day, on the day agreed upon, on the third day. 

1. loag. Anolhtr day, another time, on the next Occasion. 

1. 1030. Him taoi, handed over to bim; so in 11. 1034, ma. 

I. 1055. ' In some measure to requite your kindness.' See note to Sq. 
Tale. F, 47r,andcf.I. 1151. 

I. 1059, Stm alyt, see evidently; lit. see at eye. 

1. 1066. 'Proffered service stfaketh* is among Heywood's Proverbs. 
Ray remarks on it — ' Merx ultronea putet, apvd Hieronymum. Erasmus 
Saith, Qob uulgo etiam b ore est, ultro delatum obsequium plerumqce 
ingratum ease. So that it seems this proverb is in use among the 
Dulclr loo. Id French, Merchandise offerte est i, demi vendue. Ware 
that is proffered is sold for half the worth, or at half the price.' The 
German is — 'Angebolene Hulfe hat keinen Lohu;' see Ida v. Diirings- 
feld's Sprichw<>rter, i. 86. 

1. 1096. Algalts, at any rate. Observe the context. 

L 1103. Thai lot it haddi, that we might have it. Hojiffisbere the 


mbjnnctive. Perhaps him (present) would be better, but it Udti 

1, 1126. Marine, mortirj'; atechoical tenn. Seenole to I. 1431. 

1. 1151. 'To blind the priest with.' See note to I. 1055. 

I. 11B5. Stilt! GyUs, saint Giles; a corrupted form of .<%idius. His 
day is Sept. i ; see Chanbers' Book of Days, ii. 396 ; Legenda Auiea, 
cap. citxx. 

II. 1304, 1105, The rime is given by lymS (two syllables, from A.S. 
lima) riming with by mt. The same rime occnis at least six limes in 
Cover's Confessio Amantis (ed. Chalmers, bk. ii. p. Go, coi. a ; bk. iii. 
p, 76. col, a; also pp. 103, 105,110, 157);— 

* Haue feigned semblant ofte tyme 

To hem that passen al day bjr me.' 
'And hindred roe ful ofte tyme 
When thei no cause wiste by me;' &c.. &c. 

In all six places, Mr. Chalmers prints bymt as one word. See hy tht 
(I.I29S); Myye{\. 137s). 

On referring to Prof. Child's Observations on the Language of Gower, 
I find snitn references ^ven for this rime, as occurring in the edition 
by Dr. Pauli. The references are — i. 217, 309, 370; ii. 41, 1(4, 377 ; 
iii. 369. Dr. Pauli also prints bymt as one word. 

1. i»io. Scan the line by pronouncing the words or a rapidly. The 
last foot contains the words — or a panne. 

I. 1138, 1339. MS. E.omitsthese two lines: the other MSS. retain them. 

1. 1 144. Hahmt is in the genitive plural. ' And the blessmg of all the 
saints may ye have, Sir Canon I' 

1. I >45. ' And may I have Iheir malison,' i.e. their curse. 

1. 1183. 'Why do you wish it to be better than well!" Answering 
nearly lo — ' what would you have belter ? ' 

1. 1391. A rather lax line. Is iher is to be pronounced rapidly, in 
Ihe time of one syllable, and htr-imi is of three syllables. 

1. 1 199. Pronounce simple nearly as in French, and remember Ihe 
final t in longe (A. S. tungi). 

1. 1313. His apt, his dupe. See Prol. Jofi. The simile is evidently 
taken from the isci that showmen used to carry apes about with them 
much as organ-boys do at the present day, Uie apes being secured 
by a string. Thus, ' to make a man one's ape ' is to lead him about 
at will. The word apeaardt occurs in Pieis the Powman, B. v. 540. 
To lead apts means to lead about a train of dupes. In the Prioress's 
Proli^^e, B. 1630, I have explained api by 'fool,' following former 
editors. It now occurs to me that the word 'dupe' expresses the 
meaning still better. (This is corrected in the Second edition.) 

1. 1319. Hiyne, wretch. This word has never before been properly 
explained. It is not m Tjrwhitt's Glossary. Dr. Morris considers it 


as another form of hytit, ■ peasant, or hiad. but leaves the phonetic 
<iiflereac« of vowel unaccounted for. It occurs in Skeltoo's Bowge of 
Courte, 1. 317 1— 

' It Is great scome to see suche an kayiu 
Ai Ihon arte, one that cam but yestecdaye. 
With VB olde seniBuntes snche maysters to playe.' 
Here Mr. Dyce also explains il by hind, or servant, whereas the context 
requires the opposite meaning of a despised masitr. Holliwell gives— 
' H4yHe, a miser, a worthless person ; ' in which sense it occnrs in UdalJ. 
C£ Lowl. Sc Main, to hedge in, preserve, spare; Low G. ktinm, to 
hedge in, spare, save; Icel. higna. 

1. J3>0. 'This priest being meanwhile unaware of his false practice.' 
See I. 1334. 

1. 1341. Allnding to the proverb — ' As fain as a fowl [i.e. bird] of a 
fair nonow ;* given bj Hailitt in the form—' As glad as fowl of a bir 
day.' See Piers the Plowman, B. i. 153 j Kn. Tale, 1579. 

1. 1348. Totlmdimgratt; cf. Prol. 88. 

1. 1354. By OUT! pronounced B/r, as spelt in Shakespeare, Mid. Nt. 
Dr. iii. i. 14. 

1. 136a. Ntre, for lutHrt; Meaning'were it not for.' 

1. 1381. iS>, saw. The scribes also use the form ity or sn'gli, as m 
Ku. Tale, loS ; Franklm's Tale, F. S50, in both of which places it rimes 
with htigk (high). Of these spellinga uy (riming with hiy) is to be pre- 
ferred in most cases. See note to Group B, 1. i (Prioresses Tale. &c.). 

1. 13SS. This liae begins with a large capital C in the Eiiesmere 
MS., shewing that the Tale itself is at an end, and the rest is the 
Yeoman's application of it. 

1. r 389, ' There is strife between men and gold to that degree, that 
there is scarcely any (gold) left.' 

1.1408. Alluding to the proverb — 'Burnt bairns fear fire.' This 
occurs among the Proverbs of Hendyng. in the form—' Brend child 
fnrdredeth.' So in the Romaunt of the Rose, 1. 1810—' Brent child 
oC fyr hath moche drede.' The Gennan is—' Ein gebrannles Kmd 
Girchtet das Feoer;' see Ida v. Diiiingsfeld's SprichwSrter, i. jji. 

1. 1410. Allndu^ to the proverb — 'Better late than never;' inFrecch 
'H vant mieux tard que jamais.' The German is — ■ Besser spat als nie;' 
see Ida v. Diiriogsfeld's Sprichwdrter. i. 104. 

1. 1411. In Haililt's Proverbs — ' Never is a long term.' 

1. I4r3. Bayard was a colloquial name for a horse ; see Piers Plow- 
man, B. iv, 53, 114; vi. ig6 ; and >As bold as blind Bayard' was a 
common proverb. See also Cbaneet's Troil. and Cress, i. 21S. 

1. 1416. 'As to turn aside from an obstacle in the road.' 

1. 1419. Compare this with the Man of Lawes Tale, B. 55}. 

1. 1411, Raft and rtnnt, seiie and plunder. The phrase is of 


Scanilinavlan origin. Rape is preserved in ihe Swedish rappa, to 
■dze, allied to M. £. rapi, tigoitymg ' haste ' ; cf. Icel. ri/sa, 
to plucdei, Icel. ri/a, to rive, to grasp. Renat is not connected 
with A.S. rainaii, to ran, but with Icel. rana, to lob. ran, seizure, 
plunder. The collocation of words is seen in the Icel. rifii ot 
rdnum, wi& pilfering and plpndering. Fommanna Si^r, i. Iig; 
ran oi rift, plunder and robbery, id. ii. 119, vi. 41, vU. 363 (s. t. 
ran and rifi in Cleasby and Vigfusson's Icelandic Dictionary). 
Hence the Cleveland form of the phrase is 'to rap and reeve,' some- 
times ' to rap and ree ; ' see Rap in Atkinson's Cleveland Glossary. 
Mr. Atkinson remarks that 'heo tupten, heo raefden' in Layanion, 
ii. 1 6. liist text, is eqiuvalcut to ' hii nipten. hii refdea ' in the second ; 
whilst the Ancren Kiwle ^ves the form arepm and arichta, with the 
various readings rapin and rinm, roptn and rinua. Ihre quotes the 
English ' rap and ran, per fm et nefas ad se pertrahere.' Mr. Wedg- 
wood remarlis that in rap and ran, to get by hoolc or crook, to 
seize wliatever one can lay hands on, the word rap is joined with 
the synonyrooos [verb connected with the] Icel. rdn, rapine- Palstave 
has — '1 rap or rtndi, je rapine.' Coles (Eng. Diet. ed. 1684) has 'rap 
an[d] na, snatch and catch.' The phrase is still in use in the (cor- 
rupted) form (0 rapt and rend, or (in Cleveland) to rap and ree. 

1. 1438. Arnoldns de Villa Nova wag a French physician, theologian, 
astrologer, and alchemist; bom ahoat a.d. 1135, died a.d. 1314. 
Tyrwhilt refers ns to Fabricius, Bihl. Med. Ml., in v. Arnaldus Villano- 
vanus. In a tract printed in Theatrum Chemicum, iii. 385. we have a 
reference to the same saying — ■ Et hoc est illud quod magni philosophi 
SCripsenmt, quod lapis noster fit en Mercurio et sulphure prseparatis 
et separatis, et de hoc opere et substantia dicit Magister Atnoldus in 
tractatu sao paiabolice, nisi granum framcnti in terra cadens mortnum 
fuerit, &c Intelligens pro giano mortuo in terra, Mercuriam martunm 
cum salepetrse et vitriolo Romano, et cum sulphure, el ibi mortiiicatnr, 
et ibi Eubhmatui cum igne, et sic multum fructus adfeit, et hic est 
lapis major onmibus, quem philosophi quaraiverunt, et inveotnm 
absconderunt.' The whole process is desciil>ed, bat it is quite un- 
intelligible to me. It is clear that two circumstances stand very much 
in the way of onr being able to follow out such processes ; these 
are (i) that the same substance was frequently denoted by six or 
seven diffeient names; and (3) that one name (sach as sulphur) de- 
noted live or six difTerent things (snch as salphnric acid, orpiment, 
salphuret of arsenic, &c.) 

1. 1439- Aomn't, i.e. Rosarium Fhilosophorum, the name of a treatise 
on alchemy by Amoldus de Villa Nova ; Theat. Cbem. iv. 5 1 4. 

1, 1431. The word mariificaiian seems to have been loosely used to 
denote any change due to chemical action. Phillips explains Mortify 


1. 1432. ' Unless it be with the knowledge (i.e. aid) of his brother.' 
The 'blether' of Mercury was sulphur or brimstone (see 1. 1439). The 
dictum itself is, X suppose, as worthless as it is obscure. 

1, 1434. Hermes, i.e. Hermes Trism^stus, fabled to have been the 
inventor of alchemy. Several books written by the New Platonists 
in the fourth centoiy were ascribed to him. Tyrwhitt notes that 
a treatise under his name may be fonnd in the Theatniin Chemicum, 
vol. iv. Sec Fabridns, Bibliotheca Grarea, lib. i. c. 10; and Smith's 
Classical Dictionaiy. The name is preserved in the phrase 'to seal 

Mr. Furnivall printed, for the Early Eng. Text Society, a tract called 
The Book of Quinte Essence, ' a tretice in Englisch brenely drawe out 
of the. book of quintis essendis in latyn, that hermyi the propbete 
and kyng of Egipt, after the flood of Noe, ladir of philosophris, 
hadde by leueladoun of an aungil of god to him sende.' 

I, 143S. Dragouix, dragon. Here, of course, it means mercury, or 
some compound containing it. In certain processes, the solid lesidunm 
was also called draco or draco fui eomtdit caudam mam. This draco 
and tbe eauda dratoais axt fiequently mentioned la the old treatises; 
see Theatrum Chemicum, iii. »g, 36, &c. The terms may have been 
derived from astrology, since 'dragon's head' and 'dragon's tail ' were 
common terms in that science. Chaucer menlions the latter in his 
Astrolabie, ii. 4. 13. And see the remarks on 'Draco' in Thcat. 
Cbem. ii. 456. 

1. 1440. SoioBrf/uno.goldandsilver. The alchemists called w/ (gold) 
the father, and luaa (silver) the mother of the elixir or philosopher's 
stone. See Theat. Chem. iii. 9, 24, 35 ; iv. 528. Similarly, sulphur was 
said to be the father of roiiKials, and mercury the mother. Id. iii. 7. 

1. 1447. Secre, secret of secrets. Tyrwhitt notes — ' Chaucer refers lo 
a treatise entitled Siertta Seerelomm, which was supposed to contain the 
sum of Aristotle's iostructions to Alexander. See Fabridus, Bibliotheca 
Grxca, vol. ii. p. 167. It was very popular in the middle ages. 
■'Egidius de Colmnni, a famous divine and bishop, about the latter 
end of the 13th century, built upon it his book De Regimine Frincipum, 
of which OQT OccleVB made a free translation in English verse, and 
addressed it lo Henry V, while Prince of Wales. A part of Lydgate's 
trajisladon of the Secreta Secretorum is printed in Ashmole's Theatnmi 
Chemicum Britannicam, p. 397. He did not translate more than about 
half of it, being prevented by death. See MS. Harl. 3lg[, and Tanner, 
Bibl. Brit. s.v. Lydgate. The greatest part of the viith Bookof Gower's 
Confessio Amantis [see note to 1. 810] is taken from this supposed 


work of Aristotle.' In the Theatrum Cbemicum, iii. 14. I find an 
allusion to the pbilosoptier's stone ending with these words — ' £t Aris- 
totele« ad AlexandrDm Regem dicit in libro de secretis secreloium, 
capitulo penultimo: O Alexander, acdpe lapidem mioeralero, vegeta- 
bilem, et animalem. et sepant elementa.' See WartOQ, Hist. Eng. 
Poetry, sect. 19 ; iii. 19 (ed. 1871), or ii. 130 (ed. i8^o). 

1- 1450. Tyrwhitt says— ' The book alluded to is printed in tbe 
Theatrum Chemicum, vol. y. p. 219 [p. igi, ed. 1660], under this title, 
Senioris Zadith fll. Hamuelis tabula Chemica. The story which follows 
of Plato and his disciples is there told, p. 149 [p. 314, ed. 166a], with 
lomc varjationa. of Solomon. " Dixit Salomon rex, Recipe lapidem qui 
dicitorThitarioE(«'i) . . . Dixit sapiens. Assigns mihi ilium. . . .Dixit, 
Est corpus maguesIiB. . . . Dixit, Quid est magnesia ? . . . Respoudit, 
Magnesia est aqua, composila," &c.' The name of Plato occurs thrice 
only a fea lines below, which explains Chaucer's mistake. W« find 
'Tilan Magnesia' in Ashmole's Theat. Ctiem. p. 175 ; cf. pp. 41, 447. 

L 1457. Ignotum per ignolius, lit, an onlinown thing through a thing 
more unknown ; i.e. an explanation of a hard matter by means of a 
tenn that is harder still. 

1. 1460. The theory that all things were made of the four elements, 
earth, air, lire, and water, was the foandalion on which all alchemy was 
built ; and it was the obstinacy with which this idea was held that 
rendered progress in science almost impossible. ' The words were used 
in the widest sense; thns air meant any vapour or gas; water, any 
liquid; earth, any solid sediment ; and fire, any amount of heat. Hence 
also the theory of the four complexions of men. See Gower, Conf. 
Amant. bk. vii ; Theat, Chem. iii. 8a ; iv. 533, 537. 

1. 1461. Rolt represents the Lat. radix. A similar use of it occurs in 
Theat. Chem. ii. 463, where we read that the philosopher's stone ' est 
radiii, de quo omnes sapienles tractaueniot.' 

1. 1469. 'Except where it pleases His Deity to inspire mankind, and 
again, to forbid wbomsoever it pleases Him.' 

1. 1479. "rmf 0/ Ail /jwf, during the whole term of his life. 

1. 1481. Daft o/Ais £ab, a remedy for his evil, help out of bis trouble. 


Line 1. Win ye, know ye. The singular is / uol, A. S. k teat, 
Mceso-Goth, it tvaii ; the plural is lit niilin or tot leilt, A. S. tee teiloa, 
Mceso-Goth. teelt tiiilsm. See 1. 81. where the right form occurs. 

1. 1. BolMip-iaul-doien. This place is here described as being ' under 
the Blee,' i.e. under Blean Forest. It is also between Boughton-ucdei- 
Blean (see Group G, 1. 556) and Canterbury. This situation suits very 

THE manciple's prologue. aoj 

veil with Haibledown, and it has generatly been supposed that Harble- 
down is here intended. Harblcdown is spelt IltrPaldouii in the accotmt 
of Queen Isabella's jonmey to Canterbuiy (see ForaiTftll's Temporary 
Preface, p. IJ4. 1. 18 ; p. IS7, 1. si), and H^badanae m the account of 
King John's jonmey (id. p, 131, 1. i). However, Mr. J. M, Cowjier, in 
a letter to the Aikmaum, D«c. 26, 1868. p, 886, says that there still 
exists a place called Up-and-down Field, in the parish of Hianninglon, 
which would snit the position equally well, and he believes it to be the 
place reallj meant. If ao, the old road must have taken a somewhat 
different direction from the present one, and there are reasons for 
supposing that such may have been the case. 

The break here between the Canon's Yeoman's and the Mandple's 
Tales answers to the break between the Hist and second parts of 
Lydgate's Storie of Thebes. At the end of Part I, Lydgate mentions 
the descent down the hill (i.e. Bonghton hill), and at the beginning of 
Part II, he says that the pilgrims had ■ passed the thorp of Boughtmi- 

1. 5. Dtm is in Iht mjn, a proverbial saying originally used b an old 
rural tpori. Dun means a dun horse, or, like Bayard, a horse in general. 
The game is described in Brand's Popular Autjqiiities, 4to. ii. 189 ; and 
in Gifford's notes to Ben JoQson, vol. vii. p. 183. The latter explana- 
tion is quoted by Nares, whom see. Briefly, the game was of this kind. 
A. large log of wood is brought into the midst of a kitchen or large 
room. The cry is raised that ' Dun is in the mire,' i.e. that the cart- 
hOTse is stuck in the mud. Two of the company attempt to drag it 
along ; if they ful, another conies to help, and so on, till I>un is 

There are frequent allusions to 
Beaumont and Fletcher's Worn: 

■let u 

Phrases, quotes a line — ' And all gooth bacwatd, and don it in tit myr.' 

1. 13. Do him comt JoTli, make him come forward. Cf, Group B, 
18S8, 1889 (Prioress's Enn-link). 

I, 14. A bolel hay, a bottle of bay ; similarly, we have a baitl alt. 
Monk's Prol. B. 3083. And see 1. 14 below. A bottle of bay was 
a small bundle of bay, less than a truss, as explained in my note 
to The Two Noble Kinsmen, v. 3. 45, 

1. rS. By Ihe monet, in the morning. There is no need to explain 
away the phrase, or to say that it means in the afternoon, as Tyrwhitt 
does. The Canon's Veoman's tale is the fiist told on Ihe third day, 
and the Manciple's is only the second. The Cook seems to have taken 
too much to drink over night, and to have had something more before 


Elaiting. The &«sli air has Iiept hipi awake for a nhile at first, but 
he is now very drowsy indeed. 

Tyiwhilt well remarks that there is no allusion here to the anfinished 
Cook's Tale in Group A. This seems to shew that the Manciple's 
Prologue was written before the Cook's Tale was begun. See my Prelace 
to the Prioresses Tale, p. xv. Note that the Cook is here excused ; 1, 19. 

1. 33. ' I know not why, but I would ralhet go to sleep than have 
the best gallon of wine in Cheapside.' Mi wtr Ituer slifi, lit. it would 
be dearer to roe to sleep. Cf. 1. 14. 

1. 24. Tkan constitutes the liist foot ; beslt is dissyllabic. 

I. 19, As HOW, for the present ; a cororoon phrase. 

1. 33. Not toil disposed, indisposed in health. 

I. ^t. Fan, the fan or vane or board of the quintain. The qaintain, 
as is well known, consisted of a cross-bar taming on a pivot at the 
top of a post. At one end of the cross-bar was the fan or boatd, 
sometimes painted to look like a (hield, and at the other was a clab 
or bag of sand. The jouster at the fan had to strike the shield, and 
at the same time to avoid the stroke given by the swinging bag. The 
Cook was hardly in a condition for this ; his eye and hand were alike 
unsteady, aod hb figure did not softest that he possessed the requisite 
agility. See Quintain in Nares, and Strutt's Sports and Pastimes, 
bk. iii. c. I ; As You Like It, i. 3. 163, on which see Mr, Wright's note 
tClar. Press Series). 

1. 44. Wya ape, ape-wine, or ape's wine. Tyrwhitt tightly considers 
this the same as the inn di iingt in Ihe Calendrier des Bergers, sign. 
1. ii. b., where the author speaks of the different effects produced by 
wine upon different men, according to their temperaraents. 'The 
Cholerick, he says, avia dt lyoa ; cat a dirt, quani a Um btu, veuU lamtr, 
noystr, tl batlrt. The Sanguine avin di singe ; quant a plus beu, lani est 
plus joyeux. In the same manner, the Phlegmatic is said to have 
via di moulon, and the Melancholick ui'n di porctau,' 

Tyrwhitt adds — ' 1 find the same four animals applied to illustrate 
the effects of wine in a little Rabbinical tradition, which I shall 
transcribe here from Fabricius, Cod. Pseuilepig. Veteris Testamenti, 
voL i. p. 375. '' Vineas plantanti Noacho Sataikam se juniisse me- 
morant, qui, dum Noa vites plantaret, mactaverit apud illas otitm, 
Uontm, simiam, et tvim; Quod principio potOs vini homo sit instar 
oiu'i, vinum sDmptom efficiat ex homine Imnmt, largius haustum mutet 
eum in saltantem iimiam, ad ebrielatem infusnin transformet ilium in 
pollutam et prostratam luem," See also Gesta Romanorum, c. 159, 
where a story of the same purport is quoted from Josephus, in libra 
da cnnf rerum naturalium' 

Warton (Hist. E. P. ed. i8;i, i. 383) gives a slight sketch of this 
chapter in the Gesta, referring to Tyrwhilt'i note, and explaining it 


in the words — ' vhta a. man beg[n9 to drink, he is meek and ignorant as 
the lamb, then becomes bold as the lion, his conriEe is soon transformed 
into the foolishness of the ape, and at lost he watiows in (he mire 
like a sow.' 

Barclay, in his Ship of Fools, ed. Jamieson, i. 96, spealdog of 
drunlieo men, says — 

'Some lotet-dronle, swaloyng mete without mesnre.' 
And agaJD— 

• Some are Jfr-dnah, taH of kaghter tuid of toyes.' 

The following interesting explanation by Lacroix is much lo the 
same effect :— 

' In Germany and in France it was the custom, at the public entries of 
kings, princes, and persons of rank, to offer them the wines made in the 
district, and commonly sold in the town. At Langres, for instance, 
these wines were pot into four pewter vessels called dmahis, which are 
still lo be seen. They were called the b'on, moniiy. tkeip, and pig 
wines — symbolic DSmcs, which expressed the different degrees or 
phases of drunkenness which they were supposed to be capable of 
producing : the lion, courage ; the monkey, conning ; the sheep, good 
temper ; the pig, bestiality.' — P. Lacroix ; Maimeis, Customs, and Dress 
during the Middle Ages. 187^, p. 508. 

A note in Bell's edition quotes an illustrative passage from a song in 
Lyiy'a play of Mother BomWe, printed in the Songs from the Drama- 
tists, ed. Bell, p. $6 -.— 

' O Che dear blood of grapes 
Tnms us to antic shapes. 
Now to show tricks liii apa, 
Now lion-Uli to roar ; ' &c. 
The idea here intended fs precisely that expressed by Earctay. The 
Cook, being very doll and ill-humoured, is ironically termed ape-drunk, 
as if he were 'f>dl of laughter and of toyes,' and ready to play even with 
a straw. The satire was too much for the Cook, who became excited, 
and fell from his horse in his attempts to oppose the Manciple. 

1. 50. Ckyuackt, feat of horsemanship, exploit. See ProL 85 for the 
serions use of the word, where in chmaehii means on an (equestrian) 

1. 51. 'Alasl he did not stick to his ladle 1' He should have been in 
a kitchen, basting meat, not out of doors, on the back of a horse. 

1. 5;f. Dominadoun, dominion. See note to G. 35a (Prioresses Tate, 
A:c.) Cf. 'the righteous shall have dominalion over them in the morn- 
ing;' Ps. llix. 14, Prayer-book Version, An early example of the 
word is In A Balade sent to King Richard, third stanza—' Uertue hath 
now no domiiiadouH' — printed at the end of Chaucer's works; ed. 1561, 
ioU cccixxv, back. See Chaucer's Mmor Poems, liv, 16, , 

■ OO^^If 


1. 61. Faanh, blows, puSs ; of which the reading sntstih a a poor 
corruption, though occurring in all the modem editions. Dr. Strat- 
mann gives— 'fn«)MB, sleraucre; fiust. Tale of Beryn, ed. Fumivall, 
1. 4a.' This instance is not a very clear one, and perhaps the reading 
(in Beryn) should leally be taezt. To fiust does not mean to sneeze, but 
to breathe hard. 

I hive no doubt that the word maingi in Job ili. 18, meaning 
not 'sneezings' bat 'hard breathings,' is due to the y/oii. /nesyng^ 
by which Wyclif translates the Latin utmulotio. In Jer. viii. t6 
Wyclif represents the snorting of horses by fiusting. Cf. A.S. fhasi, 
A puff, a blast, fiutslittS, the windpipe ; fatosimg, a hard breathing. 
Grimm's law helps us to a further Ulustiation i for, as the English / 
Is a Greek p, & cognate word is at once seen in the common Greek 
verb uriai, I breathe or blow (not I sneeie). For further examples, 
see fimsr, Owl and Nightingale, 44 ; fitatu, Havelok, 548 ; fnoiiid 
<pt. tense), Gawaine and the Greoe Knight, l^^oi ; fnast, AUileralive 
Troybrook, ed. Panton and Donaldson, 168. 878. 

L 7>. To Ttclaim a hawk is to bring it back to the hawker's band 1 
this was generally effected by holding out a lurt, or something tempting 
to eat. Here the Host means that some day the Cook will hold out 
a bait to, or lay a soare for, tbc Manciple, and get him into his power ; 
for example, he might eiambe the details of the Manciple's accounts 
with aa inconvenient precision, and perhaps the amounts charged, if 
tested, would not appear to be strictly honest. The Manciple replies 
in all good humour, that such a proceeding might certainly bring 
him into trouble. See Prol. 570-586. 

1. 76. Read rnaancipf, and pronounce «vi a rapidly. 

1. 83. ' Yea, of an excellent vintage.' 

1. 90. Pou/wi/, blown ; seeNonnePrestes Tale, 578. Here 'blown upon 
this horn* is a jocular phrase for 'taken a drink out of this gourd.' 


IJne I . Mauaclfle, manciple ; see Group H. The connection between 
this Group and the preceding is, ia reality, very slight. The best 
Bolutioo seems to be to suppose that the word mauncipli here was 
merely inserted provisionally. When the Manciple told his tale, it was 
still morning; see Groap H, 1. 16, and the note. The Pilgrims had 
bnt a very little way to go, however. Perhaps we may suppose that 
they baited on the road, having a shorter day's work before them than 
on the previous days, and then other tales might have been introduced ; 
10 that the lime wore away till the afternoon came. It is clear, from 
'. 16, that the Parson's Tale was intended, when the final revision was 

THE parson's prologue. 20? 

made, to be the last on the outward journey. Whatever difficulties 
exist in the arrangement of the tales may fairly be considered as due to 
the fact that the final revision was never inade. 

1. 4. Nynt and niwnfy. In my Preface to Chaucer's Astrolabie, p. Ixiii, 
I have explained this passage (iilly. In that treatise, part ii. sections 
41-43, Chaucer explains the method of taking altitudes. He here says 
that the sun was 19° high, and in 11. 6-9 he ^ys that his height was to 
his shadow in the proportion of 6 to 1 1. lliis comes to the same thing, 
unce the angle whose tat^ent is -^ is very nearly 29°. Chaucer would 
know this, as I have shewn, by simple inspection of an astrolabe, without 

1. 5. Foun, four p.m. The MSS. have Tm, but the necessity of the 
correction is uudoubted. This was proved by Mr. Brae, in his edition 
of Chaucer's Astrolabe, pp. 71-74. We have merely to remember that 
ttn p.m. would be qfier mnstt, to sec that some alteration mast be 
made. Now the altitude of the sun was 19°, and the day of the year 
was about April 20 (Pref, to Prioresses Tale, p. xiii) ; and these data 
require that the time of day should be about 4 p.m. Tyrwhitt notes 
that some MSS. actually have the reading Foare, and this gives OS 
authority for the change. Mr. Brae suggests that the reading Ten was 
very likely a gloss upon Foun; since j^>ur o'clock is the rst^&hour of the 
day, reckoning from 6 a.m. The whole matter is thus accounted for. 

1. 10. The moan maliacioun, the moon's exaltation. 1 have discussed 
this passage in my Preface to Chaucer's Astrolabie, p. Ixiii. My 
explanation is that Chaucer uses exaltalim here (as in several other 
passages) in its ordinary astrological sense. Tlie 'exaltation' of a 
planet is that siga in which it was believed to eiert its greatest 
influence ; and, in accordance with this, the old tables call Taurus 
the ' exaltation of the Moon,' and Ubra the ' exaltation of Saturn.' 
These results, founded on no reasons, had to be remembered by sheer 
effort of memory, if remembered at all. I have no donbt, acconlingly, 
that Chaucer (or his scribes) have made a mbtalie here, and that 
the reading should be 'Satumes,' as proposed by Tyrwhitt. The 
sentence then means — 'Therewith Saturn's exaltation, I mean Libra, 
kept on continoally ascending above the horizon.' This would be 
quite right, as the sign of IJbra was actually ascending at the lime 
supposed. Hie phrase ' I mene Libra ' may be paralleled by the 
phrase 'I mene Venus;' Kn. Tale, 135S ; see also Group B, i860, 
1141. jliuvy, continually, is common in Chancer; see Clerkes Tale, 
E. 458. 810. Gan ascndt, did ascend, is the opposite to gan desetnde; 
Clerkes Tale, E 391, It is somewhat remarkable that the astrologers 
also divided each sign into three equal parts of ten degrees each, called 
' faces ; ' mentioned in Chaucer's Astrolabie, ii. 4. 38, and in 1. so of the 
Squieres Tale. According to their arrangement, the lirst 10 degrees of 


Libra was called the ' face of the moon," or 'moncs face.' This sngfiesti 
that Chancer may, at the moment, have confused /act with rxaliaiion, 
thus giving us, as the portion of the zodiac intended, the first tea degrees 
of Libra. 

I doubt if the phrase is worth fiirther discussion. For farther 
infofmation see my Pre&ce to Chaucer's AstroUbie ; and, for an 
ingenious theory, offered in eiplanation of the whole passage, see 
Mr. Brae's edition of (he same, p. 74. 

1. 16. Thismesns that the Parson's Tale was meant to be the last one 
on the outward journey. Unfortunately, there lack a great many more 
tales than one, as the matter realty stands. 

1. 16. ' Unpack your wallet, and let us see what is in it.' In other 
words, tell us a story, and let us see what it is like. 

1. 3J. See I Tim. i. 4. iv. 7 ; a Tim. iv. 4. 

1. 43, Soulhrm. In my Essay on Alliterative Poetry, printed in 
vol. iii, of the Percy Folio MS., ed. Hales and Fumivall, I have shewn 
that neatly atl the alliterative poems are m the Northetn or We&t-Midland 
dialect, as opposed to the East-Midland dialect of Chancer, which 
approaches the Southern dialect Still, it is the Faison himsti/, not 
CtKiucer, who saya he is a Soulhemer; and perhaps tlie poet meant 
naturally ecough, to tell ns that he was a. Kenlish man. The dialect of 
Kent was properly Southern. Many Southern fonns occur in Gower. 

1. 43. Rom, rant, ruf are of course nonsense words, chosen to re- 
present alliteration, because they all alike begin with r. In most 
alliterative poetry, the number of words in a line banning with a 
common letter is, as Chaucer suggests, ihra. 

The word gitli here means no more than 'tell a sloty,' without 
reference to the form of the story. Properly, the gain were in prose ; 
see note to Group B, 1113. It is, however, worth noting that one very 
long alliterative poem on the siege of Troy, edited by Paoton and 
Donaldson (Early English Text Society), bears the title of ' Gtsi 
Hysloriale.' The number of distinctively Northern words in it is 
very considerable. 

I think that this line has been forced by some out of its true meaning, 
and made to convey a sneer against alliterative poetry which was by 
no means intended. Neither Chaucer himself nor his amiable parson 
would have spoken slightragly of other men's labours. The introdnc- 
tion of the words ram, rem, nif conveys no more than a perfectly 
good-humoured allusion. That this is the true view is clear from 
the very next line, where the Parson declares that 'be holds time 
but little better.' 

The most interesting question is — why should Chancer allude to 
alliterative poetry at all 7 The answer is, in my view, that he distinctly 
wished to recognise the curious work of his contemporary William 


whose Vision of Piers the Plowman had, by Ihis time, passed, as It 
were, into a second edition, having been extremely popular in London, 
and espedallj amongst the lower classes. The author was nu a 
Southerner, bat his poem had come to London, together with himself, 
before A.n. 1377. 

]. 57. Ttiuuil, literallj exactin ginng the text The next line means 
— ' I only gather (and give you) the general meaning.' Most quotations 
at this period were very mexact, and Chaucer himself was no more exact 
than others. 

1. 67. Haddt ihi vmrdis. Tyrwhitt says — 'This is a French phrase. 
It isapplied to the Speaker of the Commons in Rot. Pari. Jl Edw. IIL 
n. 87. "Mons. Thomas de Hongerfotd, Chivaler, qi avoit lis parolts 
pur les Commones d'Angleterre en cest Farlemeot," &c' It means — 
was the spokesman. 


In my Preface to the Prioress's Tale, ist ed. p. biii., and ed. p. Ixiv., 
I give some examples of lines in which the first foot consists of a single 
syllable. In the present volume, we may note similar lines, vli. B. 404^ 
497, G. 341. As lines of this description are somewhat rare in modem 
English poetry, I may point opt that there are twelve such lines in 
Tennyson's Vision of Sin, 1. 14-15. See farther m mj Pre&ce to Chancel's 
Legend of Good Women. 


Besides the Legenda Aurea (see p. xxxii), Chaucer also consulted the 
Lives of Valerian and Tibnrtius, in the Acta Sanctomm (April 14). 
See Dr. Kdlblng's paper in the Englische Studien, i. 1151 and see the 
note to L 369, on p. 176 above. Cf. Cockayne's Skrint, p. 149. 

^, Google 



B-armpB. C = GroupC. Q-GroupQ. H -Group II. I -Group I. 

The following ire the principil conliictioni used : — 
A.S. = Anglo-Sazon (L c. Old Englii 
' " Botworlh'l or Greii 



Lit.— Lalin. 

M.E. = Middl« Engliih (a-d. lajo- 

M.H.a.-Middlc High Gnmin. 
MiBio-Goth. or Oolh. — Mceso- 

O.F.— Old French (Burguy, Roque- 

Dan. - Daniih (Ferrall and Repp). 
Do. = Dutth (TauchniW edition). 
E.- Engliih. 
E£. = Uatiy EnglUh (a.d. lloo- 

F.- French (Brachet), 
Q. — Oerman. 

Gk. = Greek. ciety). 

Icel.- Icelandic (Cleasby and Vig< Sp.— finish (Meadowi)- 

fusKHi). Sw, ^Swediih (Tauchirilz edition). 

llal.-Italian (Meadowi)- W.-Wdih (Spurrell). 

Aho the following : v.-^vttb in lie injinilivi mood; pr. a. or pi. i. meant 
the /AirrfperiDD tingular of the preient or put tense, eicept when I p. or 3 p. 
(/«( penoQ or moiuf perion) ii added ; pr. pi. or pt. pi. meant, liltewite, 
the third perion plural of the preieal or past teoie ; imf, 1. meant the iteond 
penoQ lingnlar of the imperatiTe mood. Other contractioni, luch ait, for mb- 
•tantiTC,^. (or pait participle, will be readily nndeittood. In the referencei, 
when the letter it ibieni before a nomber, Mpply the letter lilt mentioned. 
The referencei aie to the Group and the lint. 

'Gloss. I,' meant the Gloitiry to Dr, Monis'i edition of the Piologne. 
Knighlei Tale, &c. ; ■ Qlou. II.' meant the Glouaiy to the Fiioretiei Tale, 
&c.; both in the Clarendon Preti Series. 

b.,/or on, prip. in, dnrinf; ; a nygkl, 
in the night, by night, G S80 ; 
a dayts, lit. on dayi, i. e. a-dayi, 
1 396. A. S. on, E. E. OR, a. 

Aboulied, pp. ashamed, discon- 
certed, B j6S. O.Fr. tibahir, 
to frighten ; cf. Ital. Bairt, to 
aitonit^ (given by Diei), wheniB 
Ital.i'hart (Dies); poiiibly from 
the inteljeclioa bak I of ailoniih- 

AbhominAble, adj. abominable, 
C 471, 631. Lat. abommor, I 
deprecate an omen ; from ab and 

Abluoioni, t. pi. ablutiont, vaih< 

Abought, pp. redeemed, atoned for, 

C S03. See Abjs. 



A.bU8fon, t. guile. Impoitnrr, dectit, 
B 114. 'Abusion, f. >n abuiing, 
an error, fallacy, impoiluie, guile, 
deceit ; ' Cotgrave'i French Dirt. 

Abye, V. to >ui!er for, paj (dearly) 
for, C 756, GG94; j^, Aboughl. 
atoned for. C 50,;. A. S. dbycgaii, 
10 pay lor ; liiioi byegaii, to buy, 
See Ahougiu in Olou, I. 

Aooide&t, t. any pcopettj or 
qualitj of I thing, not eisenlial 
to ill exittence ; the outwaid ap- 
pearance, C 539- See the note. 
(Lat. cadirt.) 

Aoootde, /r, Sm subj, may ^gree, G 
6j8 ; pf. Accorded, agreed. B 
138. Fi. atcorder, Lat accord- 
art, fcoRi eor, the heart. 

Adann. adv. down, O 111,1, 1 7' ; 
at the bottom, G 779. A. S. 0/- 
(ftiu, lit. off the down or hill { 
ftom ffiin, a hill, a domn. 

Aduenaria, s. enemy, G 1476. 
O. Ft. advtrsarit (Burguy), Lat. 
adumarim ; (una Lat ad, to, 
and utrlen, to turn. 

Adnerteuos, 1. mental attention, 
consideration oC a matter in hand, 
O467. The leiue iibroughtoul 
in Chaucer'i Troitm and Ccesiida, 
if. 69S, wbera Creisida U in a 
itate of abstraction — ' Her eduer- 
ttntt ii alwej elleiwhete.' From 

Aduooat, I. advocate, intercessor, 
G 68. Lat. ad^oean, from vox, 

Affrayi '■ fear, tenor, B 1137. 

See GIosi. II. 
Afitayed,^. afraid, frightened, B 

After, pnp. according to, G i; ; 

in expectation of, for. B 467. 

A.S. i^ar; lee Gloss. II. 
Agaat, adj. amazed, lerriBed, B 

677. See Glou. I. and II. 
AKayn, prtp. against, B 580, C 

417, G 1415; near. G 1179; 

Dppotile to, to meet, B 391 ; 

toward), to meet, B 399, G 1341. 
A. S. lyngldn, towardi, againlt. 

AKayna, prep, before, in presence 
of, C 743. Formed from A. S. 
ottgidn, with addition of (adver- 
bial) .affii.«. ThisMj:. agayni 
ii DOW corrupted to against. 

AgaTBWard, aifiF. back again, B 

A.£(m,pp. gone away, C 810; pp. 
as adv. Agoon, ago, 436. A. S. 
ligdn, pp. of verb dgdn, to go by. 
pats by, which ii equivalent to O. 

Agryae, v. to shudder, to be leiied 
with horror. B 614. A. S. dgrisan, 
to fear; cf. AS. grislU, giisly, 

Al, <i4r. all ; al a, the whole of, G 
996; al al, at all, wholly, C 633. 
A. S. tail, Goth, alh, all. 

Al, conj. whether, G 846 ; although, 
861,0449,451. At tD = as,B 
396, H 80. 

Alblfituuiloan, >. alblRcaiion, 
whitening, rendering of a white 
colonr, G 805. Lai. albificaHo- 
mm; from albus, white, and 
fattrt, to make. 

Aldarflrst, adv. fini of all, G 413. 
A. S. alra, laira, gen, pi. of call, 
all, which became M. £. alltr, 
aldir. and allhtr. (Gloss. I. II.) 

Alembykes, i.^. alembics, G. 794. 
' Alambiqut, a limbeck, a stilla- 
tory,'i.e.aveHel used in distiDing, 
a retort; Cotgrave'j French Diet 
From Span, ahmbipit, borrowed 
from Arabic al-ambik, which again 
■eems to have been borrowed 
from Ok. SitBit, a cnp, used by 
Dioscoridei to mean the cap of a 

Ale-Btaka, t. a slake projecting 
ftom an ale-house by way of a 
■igOi C 311. See the note. 

Algata, ado. 11 any rate, C 193, G 
318, 904. See below. 



iheteu, >1 any nie (>■<■ ^7 >" 
wiyi, by all meani), B jao, Q 
1096. Here gait meani a vay. 
Cr. led. j'ma, a path, toad ; 0. 
gata, 1 ttreot. Fiom the roal of 
ftl, lather than of go, 

Alkalr, I. alkali, O Sio. Arabic 
al-qali, Ihe aihes of the plant 
glau-wort ISalicornia), which 
abound! in loda. 

Alkomistie, 1. alchemiit, G 1304. 
Alcitmy ii Arabic a7-KmEii, where 
at it the Arabic udcle, and the 
tb. it borrowed trom the Ok. 
Xiltuta, chemiitry, equivalent to 
XV>«[<>, x^fMiwii, a mingline, from 
Xia, 10 pour. (Etym, of llie Gk. 

AUe Mid some, collectiTciy led 
individually, one and all, B 363, 

Alliftunaa, ». alliance, C 605, 
(Glosi. I, II.) 

AUye. I- ally, Q 191, 197. 

Almes-deds, i. almt-deed, almi. 
doing, B1156. 

AlmeBBo, 1. ahnt, B 16S. A,S. 
almesn, borrowed from Lat. «/«- 
mosyna, which from Gk. iAti}- 
liooiani, pity, a bounty; from 
iKtttv, 10 have pity. 

Al-so, ermj. ai, B 396, H So. A.S. 

Alum, J. alum, G 813. O.F.o/um, 
(Roquerort), Lat. a&nm. 

Alway, adv. continually, uaceai- 
ingly, regularly. I II. 

Am, in phr. it am Lit is I, B 

AmalgamlnB, i. the formation of 
anamalgam. 0771. kaamtdgam 
i) a paity mixtuie of meicury with 
other (ubiiancet (properly wilh a 
metal). The derivation ii from 
Gk. iii\aipa, an emollient, froni 
fmXAtiatir, to loften, 

Amued, pp. amazed. G 935. 

Amis, adv. wrongly, C 64 1. 
(GlM>. 11.) 

AmongeB, prip. amongtt, G 608. 

(Olou. II.) 
Amonnteth, fr. s. amounteth to, 

ligniiiei, meant, B 569, (Qha. 

Ajny, I. friend, C 31S, F. ami, 

Lat. amino. 
An, lit. one, a ; aa tighlt bussMs, 

1 quantity equal to eight biiiheli, 

C771. A.S.^. 
And, COB/, if, G 145, 601. 1371. 
Angle, I. angle (a technical term 

in atlrology), B 304. (See note.) 

Lat. Qxgulv.. 
Annexed, pp. attached, C 481. 
Annueler, s, a priect who received 

annuals (tee the note), a chaplain. 

Anon-iTsht, adv. immediately^ O 

Anoyeth. prts. s. imptrs. it annoyi, 

veies, 01036;, Anoyeth, 

injure ye, B 494. 
Apayd, fp. pleased; yuti apayd, 

ill pleased, dissatisfied, G 911, 

1049. (GIdsi. II.) 
Ape, t. ■ dupe (see the note), G 

13 1 3. 
Apertening, pre». pi. appertaining, 

G 785. O. F. aparllnir, Lat. ad 

and ptrtiiuTt. 
Apeee, v. to appease, pacify, H 98. 

F. apaisir, derived from O.F. 

pais, peace ; Lat. fatem, ace. of 

pax, peace. 
Apoitelles, t. pi. apottlei. G looi. 
Apposed, pi. s. quetlioned, G jtij. 

Sie the note. 
Argoilo, t. mod. E. argol, Q 813. 

Argoi ii the crust adhering to the 

inside of a wine-cask. 
Argtimenten, pr. pi. argue. B 1 1 3. 
Ariat, pr. t. (eoalr. from ariielh) 

arises, B 965. A. S. drisaa. 
Armetb, imp. a p. fl. arm, G 385. 
Armonisk, adj. ammoniac; ap- 



plied to boU, O 790, and sal, 
70S. In 1. 7go, it is a cociuplioa 
of lM.armeniacum, i.e. Anacnian, 
beioaging 10 Armenia. See notes. 

Aj^muie, I. iimour, B 936, Q 3S5. 
F. armor; O. F, amOur; matt. 
from Lt\, armiUtira. 

Arrofad, ;^. ananged, oidered, B 
153. O.F. arraitr, from ami, 
order ; which iioin ib. roi, from 
a ScaddinaTiio loarn. Cf. Swed. 
rtda, to prepare ; Qa^-ganudjan, 
to make read;. (Glou. I. 11.) 

Arseiiik, i. irMnic, O 7(|S. Lat. 
rn. Gk. d^iruc^v, a name 

1 moJi, from tbe Gk. 

ipaiiv, a male. 
Jjrtow, loalr./ar art thoo, B jo8, 

Cssa. 718. G4»t*^- 

ArTglit, sift', aiignt, rightly, G 
14 iS. 

As, tufltlivt, ixpnssing a loisk ; ai 
haut, ma; He have, B 1061 ; as 
lal, i. e. piay let, 859. 

Aa farfocth at, adv. at Tai u, O 

As now, i.e. juit now, B 740 ; on 
the present occation, G 944 ; for 
the pieient, with the matter on 
hand, G 1019. 

As awTthe, adv. u qnicklir a> 
poidble, O 1030, 1 1 94, 1394. 
M, E. uuflkt, quickly ; from A. S. 
lunlS, itrong, KTcre. 

Aaoaunoa, adv. perhapi, O 83S. 
Trrwhltt (noletoCT..!. 7337) 
r^en ui to the prcMDt pauige, 
to Tro. and Crest., i. 1S3, 191, 
and to Lydgate. It clearly means 
pachance, pethapt. The etymo- 
logy was diiciuied. incHectirely, 
in Notei and Querlei, 4 S. li. 
'SI, 34fi-'*7»i "!■ 1'. 99- '5?. 
ai;, 178. The diffieolty has 
arisen from confusion with the 
modem aiiaiut, with which 

y have 

hrng t, 

;laled rather 

to some form in Old French ; and, 
since the publication of vol. ri. of 
Godefroy's O. F. Dictionary, I can 
now solve the word entirely. The 
fact is, it is 1 hybrid compound, 
made op of E. as, and O.F. guaasa 
or jansii (with guotg pronounced 
ai *), signi^ng 'aj if." The E. 
01 is, accordingly, redundant, and 
merely added by way of partial ex- 
pbnation. The M. E. aslantts 
nieani 'at if in other passage*, 
bnt here means, 'as if h were,' 
i. e. 'possibly,' 'perhapi'; as said 
above. Sometimes the final t it 
dropped, as here ; tee examples of 
Aakaaci ot Athmcts in the New E. 
Dictionary; noting, that the'O.Do. 
quanliis ' there mentioned seems to 
be the O. F. word boriowed. The 
examples in Oodefroj make the 
sense'aiif'quitecertain. Heiefers 
US to Gallon Paris, in Roimnaa, 
xviii. 151 ; to Ftetiter'i edition of 
C'f«,45S3.»'>* the note; andlo 
Partemopt, ed. Ciapelet, 1. 44(15. 

ABoeaoioun, i. ascension, rising 
up. O 778. 

Aaoende, v. to atcend, rise (a term 
in astrology), 1 11. 

Asoendent, t. ascendant, B 30]. 
The > ascendant ' is that degree of 
the ecliptic which is rising above 
tbe horizon at the time of ob- 
serving a horoscope, and calcula- 

ting a 


.-louder, mb'. asunder, apart, B 
1157. A, S. o«-sii«dron, separate- 
ly, from suador, separate. 

Aspye, I. spy, C 755. From O. F. 
lipiir, to etpy, a word borrowed 
from O.H.O.i^obui, to look at, 
cognate with tat. ificiri (in coi- 
ipietrt), Skt. sjiaf. 

Aaisy, I. trial, Q 1349, 1338. F. 
eiioi, a trial; from Lat ixagium. 

Asaembled, pp. united, O 50. F. 
asstrnbltr, Lat. animulart, to 
collect, from Lat. maul, together. 


. .., '. * p. consenttd- 

ol, didtt pay heed, 133. 
AHshes, I. pi. iihci, Q S07. A. S. 

met, asm, a dnder. 
AiBoile, pr. s, t p. I abiolTe, 

psrdon, C 387, 913. O.F. as- 

soldrt, Lat. abioluert. 
AiterM, v. to cuape, C4141 pi. 

I. Asletted, Mcaped, B 437 ; pi. 1. 

labj. Aiteite, might (or coold) 

eicape. 475. Cf. E. tlarl, Du. 

uatta, to precipitate, niibi O. 

At, prtp. from, of (ustd with axed), 
O 541,611. 

'Blithe would I battle for the 
To aik one quettion al the 

Scott, Marmion, iii. 19. 

Atake, V. 10 orectabe, Q 556, 585. 
Cf. Icel, lalra. to take; the preGi 
IS probabljr A, S. on, Icel. i. Cf. 
Icel li/at, a touching. 

Ataafr, i. evil iaAnence, B 305. 
See note, p. ia6. 

Atoiias. adv. at once, B 670. 
(Gloii. 11.) 

Atto, conlr. fir at the ; ai in aUf 
fiat, H 41 ) alu hasard, C 60S ; 
aUifiillt, at the lull, in complele- 
neii, B 303 ; allt lasli, it the 
lait, B 506, C 844, O 6S3. 

Atwinns, adu. apart, G 1 1 70. 
Modified from on tvftinum, in two 
parti, where timSnum a dat. pL 
of A. S. iviiin, doable, twin, bj the 
influence of Icel, tuinttr, in pairs. 

Atwo, adv. in two, in twain, B 
600. 697, C 677, 936, Q 528. 
For on add. 

Auanlase, i. conreaience, proEt ; 
10 don hii autmtagt, to luit hii 
own inteteiti, B 719 ; adnnlage, 
Q 731. O. F. inanlag€, profit, 
from ptep. avani, before, which 
from Lat. ui anii. 

Auanlose, s. as adj. advantageous, 

B 146. 
Aoannood, pp. advanced, C 410. 

O. F. OBOtKir, from avml. 
Auotorltae, i. auihoriiy, C 38 7, 

O.F. aucloriltit, Lat. auclorita- 

AnentDTe, >. chance, adventure, 
B 465 ; peril, B ll£l, G 946 ; 
pi. Auenlutei, accidents, C 934. 
O.F. avtalwe, from venir, Lat, 

Anglit, adv. by any chance, in any 

way, B 1034; at 311,6597. 
AnnBelea, i. pi. angel$, B 64). 
Anew, I. vow, B 334, C 695. See 

note to C 695. 
Auowe, V. to arow, own poblicly, 

proclaim, G 64J. O. F. avoatr. 

ttvotr; fiora Lat. ad and imaen. 
Auter,!. altar, B 451. O.F.auttr 

(commonly aulet), Lat. allart. 
AuyB, 1. opinion, 1 54. F. avu; 

fiaca i and vis, I^t. sisum, a 

tlung leen, an opinion; from 

Anyn ua, o. refi. coniidet with 

oanelves, B 664 ; imp. pi. Auyt- 

cth, consider ye, C 583; pp. 

Auyted, well adviied, C 690 ; 

Auyied me, taken counsel with 

royteif, coniidered the matter, G 

571. See above. 
Awake, ir. to wake, H 7. (Qloss, 

Aweya, adv. away, from home, B 

593; aitray, 609. A. S. onwtg; 

(ce 01o». to Sweel'i A. S. Reader. 
Ai«, iBi^. J. atk thou, C 667 ; I p. 

s.prts. Axe, I aik, G 416; 1 p. 

pi. prts. aik ye, O 460 j pr. 1. 

Axelh, aslci, B 878 ; pi. i. Axed, 

Q 357 : ' f- '■ P'- A»e^. 54^ : 

pt. pi. 1 p. Axed, ye asked, 430, 

A. S. dctian. 
Azlnge, t. qneitianing, question, 

G 433. See above. 
A7, adv. aye, ever, for ever, B 396. 

Icel. a. 


BaUnnoe, i. balance, O 6it. 

Left in balauiui, lay in the bak 
ance, i.e. advance ai a pledge. 
Bale, I. mijforlune, loirow, Q 
1481. A. S. i<ala, lonnent, 
wickedneei ,' Ooth. baltofan, to 

Bar, pt. f. bore, cinied abont, B 
476 (cf. the name Ckriilofhtr), 
Q 111. 1964. SeeBer. 

Barbre, adj. barbirlin, B 381. 
Lu. barbia-ui. Ok. ffipffapoi. 

Buoaage, t. company of baroni, 
retinue of lordi, B 319. The 
moce usual O.F. form ii (the con- 
Iracted) baraagi; both from 
O.F. baron, a man, (Glou, 1.) 

origiD uiuiily itiigned 10 this word 

U wrong. 
Bataille, t. batlle, Q 386. P. 

balmUt, Low Lat. balalia, neut. 

[4. signifying combali. 
Bandy, adj. dirty, G 635. W, 

bataaidd, dirly, Am', dirt. 
Bayte, v. to bait, feed, eat, B 

466. Icel. btila, to feed, to 

make to bile ; the causal of hila, 

to bile. 
Bo. See Ben. 
Beatitee, i. beauty, B t6i. O.F. 

biavU, btlut, from Lat. ace. bttti' 

laltm; from Lat. itf/ui, fair. 
Bsohen, adj. beechen, made of 

beech, G 1 160. A.S. bieia, 

beechen, biet, bie, 1 beech ; cf. 

Bede, v. to ofler, proffer, G 1065 ; 

1 p. fl. pt. Bede, we bade, wo 

directed, I 65. A.S. btidaii. to 

offer, bid; Ooth. Uudaa. to bid. 
""^a, I. a bee, G igf. A.S. iti. 

An Old Sanskrit b\a (meaning 
bee) ii recorded in Bobllingk and 
Roth'i Ski. Dictionary. 
"- - 3h, s. beech-wood, G 918. See 

Bel amy, i. e. good friend, fair 
friend, C 3 1 8. See note. O. F. 
bit, bn, ami. friend. 

Belle, I. bell, C 66j, 664. A.S. 

Ben, t>. to be. B 117 ; pr. pi. Ben, 
are, 138; pr. 1. stibj. may be, ii, 
G 1 193 ; Be at be may, let it be 
as it may, G 935 ; imp. pi. Beth, 
beye, B JIQ, C683,G93irj/f. 
Be, been, G 161. A.S. iedn, to 
be; cf. Lal./orv, Skt. hhi. 

Bet, pi. I. bore. B 711. A.S. 
beran, pt. t. ic bar. See Bar. 

Berth hlr on bond, bearetli false 
witnets against her. falsely aftitmi 
concerning her, B 610. See Ihe 

Beiie, v. to bury, C 884 ; pp. 
Beryed, 405. A. S. tyrgan, to 

Berm, >■ barm, Le. yeast, G S13. 
A. S. btorma, barm, Iraven, yeast, 

Berne, s. dot. a barn, C 397. The 
proper form of the noni. is btm, 
from A.S. btm, eontr. from 
bettnt or btrt-tm, i. e. a place 
for corn ; from btn, barley, com, 
and eem, a place for itowing. 

Beate, i. bean, i.e. an loimal 
without reason, brute animal, G 
iS8;^. Beitn, cattle, C 361, 
365. O. F. btiU, Lit, batia. 

Beaydes, adv. on one side, G 


Bet, adj. eomp. better. B 311, 
1091, O 1410, A.S. btl, belter, 
from a base bat, (ignifying good ; 
cf. Goth, baliza, belter. 

Bet, adv. belter, G 1183, 1344; 
hence go bit, go more quickly. 



go u flit ai yaa can, C 667. 
See the note. 

Beth. See B». 

Bettien, pi. fl. kindled, O. 518. 
A.S. bilan, to kindle; lit. to 
mend, from bue bal, good. See 
Beti and Baete in Glois. 1. 

Bore, 0. to buy, C 845, G 637. 
A. S. bycgan. 

Bible, t. book, G 857. Gk. m- 
Aior, a little book, ffiSAdt, a book. 

Bicobed bonei, t. ^;. dice (lit. 
cril or iccuned bonei), C 656. 
See the note. 

BioUppe, gtr. to cliip, graip, 
cntnare, G 9. Allied to A. S. 
httlippOH, to beclip, embrace. 
The A.S, clappan i» to move, 10 
palpitate; the I«1. klappa a to 
■tiokej alio to clap the liandi. 

Biddo, pp. blddED, commanded. B 
440. Here Aan bidde -^ have 
bidden; Uddi is not the pi. pi, 
foi that takei the form btde. See 
B«d«. A.S. btidan; pt. t. ie 
bidd, pi. IM budon ; pp. iadm ; 
cf. G. biilm, to offer, 

Blddlnge, pns. part, pnying, O 
140. A. S. biddan, to ptaj ; cf. 
G. iailtn, to beseech. 

BUMlB, fr. t. tubj. may befal. I 
68; pp. befallen, B 716. A.S. 
bfftailaii, to happen ; from fial- 
im, to fall. 

Bifom, prrp. before, B 9g7, C 
66s i in ^nt °f. <3 679 ; before 
(in point of time), 763. A.S. 


p. didst begin, 
Q 4*1 ; pp. 428. Prefix 61, and 
A.S. giman, pt. t. gaia (» p. 
fufint), pp. gUTUiin. 
BlKyled, /•/. begoiled, G 98s, 
13S5. O. F. ^I'/e, guile, iioni 1 
Teutonic or S^ndinavian lource ; 
cf. Icel. vil, aa artiGce, v/iU. 

BUi«te, pr. I. 1 p. \ promiw. G 

707. Prefix bi and A. S. haJari, 

to command, promise. 
Blbolde, pp. beheld, G 1 79. A.S. 

bihtatdan, pp. bthieldta. 
Bihynde, adv. behind, i. e. to 

come, future, G 1191. A.S. 

Biknowe, v. to confess, acknow' 

ledge, B 886. Lit. to bt-hioui. 
Bileoe, t. faith, belief, G 63. Cf. 

' S. gtiedfa, creed ; with prefix 


. of bi. 

BUsueth, imp. pi. believe ye, Q 
1047. Cf. A.S, giUdfan, to 
believe ; with prefix gl for ii. 

Birene, v. to take anay, G 481. 
A.S. btrid/iaa. to take awajr, 

Biele, v. to Iiouble, busy ; biiii 
me, employ myself, G 758. A. S. 
bysgian, 10 occupy, from byigu, 
occupation, employment. 

Bislneise, s. buiy endeavour, Q 

Bistad, pp. hard bestead, greatly 
imperilled, B 649. Lit. placed ; 
from A.S. ittdi, a place, suad. 

Bitook, pt. I. delivered, gave, com- 
mitted (to the charge oQ, Q J41. 
Formed from look, with prefix bi-. 
See Took. 

Bitter, adj. bitter ; billtr taiu, G 
878. See the note. A. S. bitir, 
bitter ; from biuui, to bile. 

Bltwizen, prtp. betwixt, between, 
C 831. A. S. bttwtoa, bttwix. 

Bitymaa, adv. betimes, early, loon, 

Bltrda, V. to happen, C 900, G 
400. Prefix bi, and A. S. lidan, 
to happen ; from Ud, time. 

Biwreren, v. to betray, G 150; 
Biwreye, C Sjj, G 74;; pp. : 
a p. Biwreyett, disclosesi B 773, 
See Olosi. II. 

Bladdre, i. bhidder, G 439. A. S. 
bliiddrt ; from A. S. Mattan, to 
blow, puff oat. 


Blake, adj. pi. black, Q. 557, A. S. 
BlAkeberyedj a, a-black berrying, 

C 406. Set the note. 

Blent, fr, 1. bllndi, O 1391 ; pp. 
BJenl, blinded, de«iied, 1077. 
A.S. bltndiaa, to make blind (3 
p. I. pr. Utof, he blindi) ; from 
blind, blind. 

Blerod, adj. bleited, Q 730. S« 
the note. Probablf only motbtr 
form of blur. Cf. Birarian pirrr, 
amistbefoietheeyei (Wedgwood). 

Bleaaetb hir, fr. c cioisei herself. 


A. S. 'bU 
fromtJ,prefii,iiidIiniun, toceate. 

BlWul, adj. blened, B 845; 
hippy, merry, 403, A.S. blit, 
joy ; cf. blilkt. 

Blowe, pp. blown, filled ODt with 
wind, G 44a. A. S. bldiean, to 
blow; cf. Lit.jfor*. 

Blimdretb, pr. i. nm> heedleiily, 
O 1414; I f. pi. fr. Blundren, 
we ^11 into coaiiiiioa, we con- 
tuse ounelrei, become mazed, 
670. From Icel. bluada, to doze, 
Kandr, a doze ; connected with 
A. S. bltiidait, lo blend, confnie, 
ind iSnd, blind. 

Bl;nde, adj. pi. blind, O 658. 
A. S. blind. See abore. 

Blynda wKh, gir. to blind (the 
prieit) with, O 1151. 

celestial bodies (planets), G 820, 
Boist, t. boi, C 307. O. F. 6o(srt 
(Fr. boSlf<, Low LaU accut. 
boxida, buxida, from Gk. wviita, 
accui. ot ruift, a boi, a pjx ; 
properly a box made of boxwood j 
Gk.avfa>,Lat,iucus,the box-iiee. 

Bole Brmoniftk, Armenian clay, 
G 790. See the note. 

Boles, f(n. nn^. bull's, G 797. 

BoUe, I. a bowl, oflen a wooden 
bowl. Onto. A.S. 6oI/a. 

Bond, pi. s. bound, B 634. A. S. 
bindan, to bind ; pt. t. ic band. 

Bone, s. petition, prajer, G 134, 
356. Not from A.S. bin. a 
prayer, but from the cognate 
Scandinavian form ; Icel. b6n, a 
prayer. Now spelt boon. 

Boras, s. borax, Q 790. '£oraic, 
tnborate of loda ; a salt fotmed 
by a comtnnilion of boradc acid 
with soda. Fr. borax. Span. 
borran, Arabic 5i/raj, nitre, 
saltpeter; from Arab, baraqa, to 
shine ; ' Webster. But rather bor- 
rowed from Pers. birah, borai. 

Bord, s. table, B 430 ; board, i. e. 
meals, G 1017. A, S. bard, a 
board, a table. 

Best, I. boast, B 401, C 764; 
pride, swelling, G 441, Probably 
not of Celtic origin, as W. bast 
and Gael, bosd, a boast, are merely 
borrowed from English. Rather, 
connected with A. S. bog-ion, to 
boast; Liber Scintellar urn, $46. 

Bote, 1. relief, G I4S1. R boot, 
A.S, bdl, s remedy; from the 
base bal. good. See Bet. 

Botel, s. bottle (of hay), H 14 ; ^, 
Boleis, battles, CS71. 

Botme, I. dot. bottom, G 1311. 
A.S. bolm, dat. boinu; cognate 
with LaL/umfus, Gk, ■v^/i^i'. 

Bothe, oif. both, B I9i. 

Bonghte, pi. I. bought; bougku 
agayn, redeemed, C ;66. See 

sound, B 370. A.S. 

BotirdB, I. jest, H 81. O.F, 
bourdt, a jest, pleasantry; sup- 
posed to be a contiaclion of 
bohort, a mock tournament, 
knightly exercise, from kordt, a 


biniei, the liili. The prefix bo- 
il exfjained from O.P. io/, a 
blow, itroke. (But ihii etjmology 
i> now giren up.) 

Boiude, pr. «. i /. I jeit. C 778. 
See iboTe. 

Bcweth, imp, pi. t f. bow yt, C 
909. A. S. bigan, 10 bow, bend ; 
c£ Lit. fugar; to turn to flight ; 
Skt. bkaj, to bend. 

Brkk. pt. t. broke, B iSS. A. S. 
bncan, pt. t. brae. 

Brut, pi. s. bunt, B 697; pt. 
Bratte, 671. A. S. berslan, to 
burst ; pt. t. U barit. Either Ihe 
r wu trantpoied in courte o[ 
time, 01 thii form wai bionght 
about bj Daniih influeoce. Cf. 

Iccl. brisi 


sis; f-'-B' 

pp. Brent, burnt, G 759, iii 
1407 ; prii. pi. Brenning, O 11 
80a: Breuninge, O 114. Ii 
brtnna, to bum ; cf. A. S. hyrri: 
Golh. brinnan, G 

gibngdan or brtgdan, 
draw a iword; alio 


braid ; cf. Icel. irfj^a, to drai 
to braid. See Abrejrda 
Gloss. I. 
Brid, I. bird, O 134I. A. 
' ' ' the foang of birds. 

O 798, 814, 1439. Lit. barnine- 
tlODc ; cf. Icet. brinni-sliian, inl- 
phur ; from Irrinna, to bum, anil 

Broohes, s. pi. brooches, C 908. 

(Gloii. II.) 
Brode, adv. broadly, wide awake, 

BroUur, giM, aing, biolber's, Q 

brasl. (Gloii. L) 
Breda, s. breadth, O 1118. A.S. 
brddo, breadth; from brdd, 

Breeoh, 1. breeches, C 94S. A. S. 
br^c, breechei, broguei, pi. of 
brie, a brogue; the form brogui 
is Celtic ; cf. Gaelic briogais, 
breeches, M;, a shoe. The A. S. 
brie ttemi to be cognate wilh the 

Breke, v. to break, C 93G ; brtie 
his day, fail to pay at the ap 
pointed time, O 1040 ; imp, 1. 
Brck, inteirnpl, 1 14. A.S. 

Brennan, v. la bum, O 313 ; 
Bieune, O 1191; ^r. ^, Bcennen. 
B 964 i pr. t, subj. Brenne, may 
1, Q 1433; imp, s, Brenne, Q 

3. (tee Ihe nt 


r forcD of 
slry, G 

Businesse, > 

5. See BlBlnesBB. 
But, coaj. eiccpt, unleli, B 431, G 

741, G an, 984 ; Bnt-if, uolest, 

B 636. A. S. btUoH, bAlt, except ; 

from prcEi 61, aud (Jan, tilt, out. 
B7, prtp. about, coocerning, with 

respect to, Q 1005, I438. A. S. 

61, by. 
By, V. to buy ; go by, go to buy, 

G 1194. See Beye. 
Byiaped, pp. tricked, O 1385. 

Cooohe, V. to catch, G 1 1. 0. Fr. 

cachiir. Law Lat. caption, from 

Lat cap/art, (0 take captive. Its 

doublet is ihast. 
ClMst, I. caitiif, wretch, C 718. 

O. Fc. taili/ (F. chilif), from Lat. 

Cak«, s. loaf (lit. a cake), C 311. 
Icel. and Swed. iaka, Dan. Iragi. 


(Moening, i. ckldnatioD, O 771. 

From Lat. cnJfl. 
Coloiiuuiioun, I. calcinilioa ; o/c, 

1091. A.S. cann (l and 3 p.), 

CaueTsa, (. canvat,aq39. S, taut- 
van cf. Itxl. eaaattoccie. The 
derivation ii fcDiti Lat. carmaUs, 
Gk. *6rrafiit, hemp. 

Canon, t. the > Canan,' the title of 
a book bf Avicenna, C Sgo. See 

■elf, G 73S ; /i^. Cast, planned, 

deviled, C 880. ScaiidiiuTian ; 

Icel. iaua, to throw. (Glon. II,) 
Oatel, (. prapenT, chatteli, C 504. 

(Glou. II.) 
Cause, I. reuoD.B 151. 
Censntliic. >■ cementing, her- 

meticall; Haling, O S17. From 


CanstoT, conlT. 
B63a,C 5JI. 

Capel, t. hone, nag. H 64. From 
Lat. caballta, a Dag;' cf. W. 
»^, a hone. 

Ca^tarn, s. captain, C 581. 

Otmouna, I. fi- caponi, C 856. 

Cardiaole, s. pain about the heart, 
C 313. Cotgrave giro Cardi- 
ajvi, ai an adj., one meaning 
being ' wrung at the heart' The 
deriT. ii (rom Gk. Ko/Xa, the 

Care, >. anxiety, trouble, B 514; 
pi. Carei, Q 347. A. S. com, caie, 
anxictf ; f»< Lat. cvni. See Ciile. 

Caried6n, pt. fl. carried, Q 1 119. 
(Glosi. II.) 

Cai-I, I. chuil, coantry fellow, C 
717. A.S. carl, Icel. tarl, a man, 
male. The A. S. alio had eicrl, 
whence E. ehurl. 

Ottiolinge, s. diu. carolling, ting- 
ing, «ong, G 1345. (Qlosi. L) 

Carylnge, ». carrying, C 875. 

Caa, I. circnmstance, cate. condition, 
B 30s, 3ir. t»83. F. tas. Lat. 

Caste, pi. I. threw, H 48 ; can up, 
B 50B : imagined, contrired, de- 
viled, B 406, 584, 805; fl. ex- 
haled, emitted, Q 144; pr. pi. 
Caiten, cast about, debate, B 1 1 1 1 

Osred, pp. as adj. waxed, G 808. 
See the note. Cf. Lat. tirahim, 
> lalve whote chief compound i< 
wax, tera. See ciral in Bra- 
chet't Fr. Etym. Diet. 

Cerloiuly, adv. minutely, with full 
detaili (lee note), B 185. The 
word i> gloued by tir'ma in the 
Ellesmeie MS., and Ducange hai 
'Saiott, fute, minulatim, articn- 
lalim.' From Lat. ttriis, order. 

Certeln, adj. a certain qiuntity of; 
ctrtiin gold, ■ Mated turn of 
money, B 1411 errtiin Irisw, a 
quantity of treaiore, B 441 ; ai 
^„ Certeyn, a certain lum, a 
fixed qaantity, G 776, 1014. 

Cei^a, adv. certainly, G 1478. 
(Glosi. II.) 

Cessa, V, to ceue, B 1066; pt. 1. 
Ceisede, G 1141 Ceiled, 538. 
F. etsstr, Lat. ttssari. 

Chaffitre, i. chaffer, traffic, 01411; 
Cbaffiir, meichandiic, B ■ 38. For 
ehaf-/an; from A.S. talp, pnr- 
chaie, far, proceedings. (Gloss, 

Ch^hre, gir, to trade, barter, deal, 

traffic, B 139. See above. 
Chalk-Moon, s. a piece of chalk, G 

Chftmbro, s. chamber, B 167. F. 

thambrt, Lat. canura. 
Chation, I. canon, G 573 («ee the 

note) ; Chanoun, 971. 
Chapman, t. pi. traders, merchants, 

B 135. See OfaafBuB. 
Cbapmsnhode, t. trade, barter, 


burden, weight, im- 


portantx ; of thai no ehargt. Cot 
tfaat no matter, it [| of no import- 
ince, a 749- The oHgiiuI >«ns« 
is a burdto, load ; F. chargtr, to 
load, fiom Low I^t. earritare, to 

C 653 ; Inck, Q 593. O. Ft. 

eheaunct, Lat. tadmtia, that which 

Mil out, fiom cadtr; to fall 

(utcd in dice-ptiyiag), 
CtaeSB, imp. I, choose, O 458 ; pt. i. 

ch«e, O jS. See Chese. 
Cherohe, i. a church, G 54G. 
Cheie, (. cheer, i.e. mien, O 1133; 

entertiinmenf, B 180. O. Fr. 

ehirt, Low Lat cara, the face, 
Oherl, I. chuil.C 3S9. h.S.itorl; 

tee OkcI. 
Oheae, 1;, to chooie.B IVJ; imp. I. 

Chees, choote, O 45S ; pi. i. 

Chen, choie. 6 38. A. S. eidtan ; 

pt. t. ic ctds. 
Chene, in pkr. ytielmotbechene—^ 

ill may he end, or il! may he' 

thrive. G IMS- F. ehtvir, to 

compasi, manage, liom eJuf, Lat. 

Chit, pr. I. chidei (contr. from 
ckidtih), G 931. A.S. Man, to 

Chlteren, v. to chatter, prattle, G 

Chinaclia, i. feat of honeminihip, 
H so. 0. Fr. iheuatieiu, clu- 
vanelut, an eipcdition dd horse- 
back, from rb. clatiauclar, tht- 
valchtr, to ride a horse; which 
itom citvt^, a horse, Lit. ca- 

OhinalrjB, 1. chivalry, company 
of kaightt, B 135. Cf. E. cavalry. 

togctbcr, make a noise bj clap- 
ping. (Gk>si. IL) 

OUtuse, I. sentence, B 351. 

Clsemes, (. cleamets, brighlnesi, 
glory. G 403. O. Fr. cltr, Lat. 
clams ; with A. S. (ufGx -nm, 

Clsne, adv. clean, entirely, G 615, 
1415. The A. S. ait. cliiiu has 
the same sense. 

Olepe, I f. pl.fns, we call, name. 
G 8171 fr. pi, call, B 191, G 
i; pr. I. all, C 675 (here tle- 
peth is sing, rather than plural ; 
see Men), ilso^. Clept. named, 
G 86 J, A.S. clipian, tltopian, 
to can. (Olois. L) 

Clsrgial, adj. clerkly, learned, O 

Olerka*, t. pi. learned men, B x8a. 

Cloy, *. day, G 807. A. S. dig. 

CUnke, c to ring, sound, clink, 
tingle, C 664. Cf. icel. ItUngja, 
Swed. Uinga, Dan. i/inm. to 
tingle, ring ; alio Da. ilMtit, to 
tingle. The word is probably of 
A.S. origin, as shewn by the 
Dutch form. ' * 

Cloistro, I. ciraiter, G 43. 

Clokke, I. dal. clock, I £. 

OlooB, 114. close, secret, G 1 369. 

Clote-le^, I. a leaf of the burdock 
ot Clole-but (see note), G 577. 
A. S. dale, 1 burdock; cf. G. 
Ut«(, a but, burdock i Mid. Du 
Uaddt, a bur. 

Clowt, t. 1 cloth, C 7jC; p!. 
Cloutes, cloths, portions of a 
garment, rags, 348. A. S. ctil, 
■ little cloth. 

Coagnlat, pp. coagulated, doited, 
G 811. Lit. eoagvlalvs. 

CoCra, I. coffer, money-boi, G 836. 
O. Fr. cofii, cqfin. Lat. cophinu, 
Gk. nifitBi. > basket. 




Ookes, 1. ft. «H>lc>, C 5j;8. A. S. 
tit, but boiTowed from ht*. 

Gokkoi, a eorruptioK of Qoiia, 

H 9, 1 ig. 
Colds, u. to glow cold, B S79. 
Coles. .. ^. coll., G I M 4. A. S. 

CD/, roil. 
ComBimdoiir. : commander, B 

Oombml./i/, bamt, OSti. Lat. 

eavUimtiit, bonit ; frem a foim 

*bMr€rt; ct hatum. 
Come, V. to come; a>m« litrhj. 


it, O li 

fr. 9. Comth, comu, B 407, £03, 
C 781 ; ft. pi. Com(, came, G 
H30i Comen, B i45;/i^.Comeii, 
B 160 ; ben comen • lie come, 
1130. A.S.eumaii, 
Corns, (. coming, O .343. A. S. 
tynu, a coming ; from aimoJi, lo 

ConfoTt, s, comfort. O 3J. O. Fr. 
tan/orlrr, Lat. ton/brtor*. to 
(trcDgtben ; bom/arlis, itrong. 

Confounde. v. to biing to con- 
fuaon, B 363 ; pp. Confounded, 
oTerwhelmed with lin, destroyed 
ta loul, O 137. Cr. the phtiie— 
■Let me ne»er be eonfiiundtd ;' 
in Latin — ' ne toHjundar in aeter- 

OoDfuB, fp. as adj. put to con- 
fusion, convicted of folly, Q 463. 
O. Fr. confondrt, to confound ; 
pp. tonfiis ; Lat. eonfiiiidtrt, pp. 
eoHfiatii; liom fimdiri, 10 pour. 

CanloynblKe, i. conjoining, con- 
jnnction, Q 95. O.Fr. tonjointlre, 
Lat, amuHgire, to join together. 

Conns, pr. pi. I /. we can, are 
able. B 483 ; pr, t, tuhj, he may 
know ; ai conn* ki, whether he 
ma; know, O S46. A. S. eunnan, 
know, hai pr. pi. Rmnon; pr. 

lubj. c 

OompMirSi •■ companv, B 134. 
(Olou. 11.) 

OompBa, I, enclosure, conlinent ; 
Iryiu eompas, the threefold world, 
containing earth, tea, and hearen, 
G 45. O. Fr. tnmpas, measure ( 
from Lat. tvm and passus, a itep. 

Conoett. t. idea. G TI14. 

Conclude, v. to include, put to- 
gether, G 4191 to attain to a 
lucceaiful teiult, 773; 1 p. 1. pr. 
1 draw the concluiion, 1471. Lat. 

Oonoliufoun, t. remit, lucceuful 
end of an experiment, Q 67a. 

Confltnre, i. compoiition, C 863. 
Fr. conjitart, a mixture, preterve, 
from tonfin, lo preserve, pickle ; 
Lat. eoiyJiwe, in lite sense of lo 
'make up' a medicine; from /iMrt. 

OougitBreden, pi. pt. conquered. 
B 54J. O. Fr. coaqHBTi, to con- 
quer, acquire ; from qiurrt, Lat. 
quaerirt. to seek. 

Conaell, s. council, B 904 ; counsel, 
435; secrecy, 777; «sectet,56l, 
C 819. G 145, 193. Fr. amifil, 
Lat. eoatilium. 

Oonaerued, pp. kept, G 387. 

aonaideratli, imp. pi. 2 p. con- 
.ider, G 1388. 

Oonatabls, i. constable, governor. 
B 5IJ. O.Fr, contaAli. Low 
Lit. tannlobulus, a corruption of 
conastabvlia, 1 word formed by 
uniting coma slafmli (count of 
the ttibte) into one word. 

ConatiiblaBBe, t. constable's wife, 
B Ejg. See aboie. 

Oontenaunoe, 1. pretence, appear- 
ance, G 1 164. O. Fr. cominrmtt. 
countenance, from tonlmr, Lat, 



foiMuuTf, (o CDOlaIn: from Lat. 
Itaen. to bold. 

OontTBliBi adj. conlrar}' ; in coit- 
Irani, in conlridiclion, O 1477. 

Contree, 1. coontry, B 434. F. 
conlrtt, from Lit. tonlrala, the 
countrjF orer agiinit one, from 
confra, agiintl. (Gloii. I.) 

Coper, c. copper, O 819. Late 
Lat. cupnim, copper ; Iroiii Cy- 
prism ai, braa of Cypmt. 

Com, I. a grain, C 863. A. S. 
corn, a grain ; cognate with Lat. 
granum, Thiu torn and grain 
are donblett. 

Cornioulert, i. regixiai, lecretaiy, 
G 369. See the note. Lai. cor- 
niculariui, a regiitrar, clerli to a 
magittfate; from contiailum, a 
horn-thaped ornament; from eor- 
R», a horn. 

Comyi 111$. applied to ale, itiong 
of the com or mall, C 315, 456. 
See Com. 

Oorones, s, pi. ciownt, G 111, 
1 16. Lat, corona, 

Corosif, adj. conoiiTC, O S53. 

Coipos bones, an inuntionally 
nonseruical oalh, cmafostd of 
* corpui doQiini,* the Loid'i body, 
and 'bond,' C 314. See tbe 

Corree«loQii, : correction, 1 60. 
Cors, >. body, C 304, H 67 ; corpse, 

C 665. O. Fr. tors, Lat. corpus. 
Couolieii, gtr. to lay, G itja; 

pl.s. Couctaed, laid, placed, 1157; 

pf. Couched, laid, llS>, laoo. 

O. Fr. couchitr, coleMtr, to place. 

Lit. ii4tacar*; from locus, a 

Ooude, fr. I. could, G jgi. A. S. 

aiii, pt. t. of euaaan, to know, 

be able. 
CouaitTw, I. coTctouEDeii, C 414. 

O. Ft. coviitist, tovoilUi, Low 

Lat. tupidiHa, ttom tupidus, de- 

lirous ; which from cuptrt, to 

CouoDt, 1. convent, O 1007. O. 
coming together ; fiom uinirt, to 

CoonteifslO, V. to imitate, C 447 ; 

pp. Counlerfcted, imitated, B 746, 

793. (Glo«.II.) 
COUTB, t. couTie, B 704 ; life on 

earth, G 3S7. F. tours, Lai. 

eurna ; from turrirt, to run. 
Orad«l, I. cradle, O lla. A.S. 

cradel ; hardly of Celtic origin. 

The Irish craiUkal, a cradle, Gaelic 

cnalhalt, ire from Englith ; cf. 

Crafty, adj. ikillitl, clerer, Q 1 ago 

A. S. craft, knowledge, tkill. 
erased, pp. cracked, O 934. The 

O. F. only hai ticratir, to break, 

but thii ii formed ai if from craiir. 

It i> of Scandinavian origin ; cf. 

Swed. M i iras, to ditb id pieces. 
QreaDoe, i. belief, object of faith, 

B 340; Creiunce. creed, 915, 

O. F. crtasct, from troiri, to 

believe, Lat. trederi. 
CreatouT, s. Creator, C 901. 
CradA, I. creed, belief, G 1047, 
CMsUl, adj. crystal, C 347. O. F. 

trislal, from Lat. eryilailum, Gk. 

■pArraXXDi, ice, ciyital ; from 

Kpfwi, frost. 
Cristen, ad;. Christian, B iti. 
Orlstendom, i, the Christian re- 
ligion, B 351 1 Chtiilianily, G 

CiisteiiilT'i adv. in a Christian 

Cristianitoei t. company of Chris- 

tiani, B J44. 
Cristned, pp. bapliied. B 116, 355, 

G 3.? 2. 
CrommSI, ». pi. crumbs, G 60. 

A, S. cruma, a crumb, 1 fragment. 
CroDB, t. crone, hag, B 433. Ap- 

pirently of Celtic -origin; cf. 

Gaelic trlnnaa, prudent, peauii- 

ous, old, ancient; eriois, liltle, 

mean, (rion, 10 wither, decay 



Oroper, i. crupper, 566. Cf. 
F. craapiirt. From O. F. cropi, 
erupt (F. eroHpt), the rump of aa 
aaimil ; appaiinllf of Scandina- 
vian origin; cf. Icel. tryppa, 1 
hump, hunch ; Ictl. iroppr, m 
hump ( Dan. trcf, the imuk of 
(he body. SeeCroppa ioGlou.I. 

Croalet, i. 1 crucible, Q 11471 
also C^oiMlet, 1117 ; pt. Croilclt, 
793. A diminulire of crou, ap- 
parently intended ai a lort of 
translation of Lat. crucibidum. 
The Utter setmt to be from 

Applied to 1 lamp with four 

Cronde, v. lo puih, B Soi ; ^. i. 

i p. Crowdeit, doit preii, do!t 
push, 196 (lee note to I. 199}, 
A.S, cridtm (not found]. 

a court, Lat. cohorUm, icc. of 
mhon. (Gloii. II.) 
Out, I. a lot, C 793. W. oBtm, a 
lot ; originally the thorl itraw, 
from cuiia, thorl. (Gloit. L) 


Dagget, I. dagger, C S30. Prom 
the root dag, which appeari in 
dagga -^ pierce), and daggand* •> 
piercing, Morte Arthur, ed. Brock 
{E.E.T.S.), aroj, 3749. Not 
Celtic; perhaps Eittem; cf. Heb. 
daihaji, to ftiike. 

Daliauiuia, (. playful demeanour, 
G 591. (Qlou. I. and II.) 

Dame, 1. mother, C 684. F. dana, 
Lat. domina, bdy. 

DompmLbla, adj. damnable, C 

I. damnation, C 


See the n< 


Cuoiubilea, >. pi. cucurbitei, Q 
794. *Cvtvrbili, a chemical 

ihape of a gourd, but tometimei 
■hallow, with 1 wide mouth, and 
used in diitiilation;' Webster. 
From Lat. auurbila, a gourd. 

Cure, >. care, endeavonr, B iSS; 
booeil cure • care for honourable 
things, C S67! in cure-io her 
care, in her power, B ijo. Fr. 
CHTt, Lat. euro, can. 

CnnednaHe, i. wicked ness,C 400, 
498, 638, O lioi. A.S. eurs- 



D»r, pr. «. I #. I dare, B 173, G 
J14: pr. s. Dar, Q 311; 1 p. 
Daist, B 860 ; pi. s. Dorite, durst, 
B 753. G 533- A.S.UdtaiT,l 
dare.'At dearr, he dare; pt. t ie 

Daswen, pi. pi. daze, are dazed, 
are daiiled, H 31. Cf. Icel. 
dasasi (i. e. data-sk), to become 
weary ; dasoSr, exhauited ; cf. 
alto Swed. dasa, to be idle ; E. 

Date, I. a dale, term, period, G 
14II. F. dalt, Lat. dafion, a 
thing given. 

Day, (. day ; alio, an appointed day 
for the payment of a mm of 
money, O 1040. A. S. dag. 

DebMt, I. strife, G 13^. F. 
dibal, from vb. dfbaltre, which 
from balm, L>I. hataeri, 10 beat. 

Deed, pp. aa adj. dead, B 109, G 
64, ao4. 




Bsedlf, adv. deadly, martally, O 

Dbss, I. fl. dice, C 46;, 613. 

(aiou. 11.) 

Sefknw, (. diihononr, C 6ii. 
Defluned, pp. defamed, slandered, 
C 415. F. diffimw, Lm. diffa- 

Defonte, 1. fiul^ «□, C 370; > 
defect, G 954. (aioi..II.) 

Defenden, v. to forbid, C 50a ; 
gtr. Defende, Q 1470 ; pp. De- 
fended, foibidden. C 51a. F. 
di/mdrt. Lit. defenden. 

DeknOB, i. pi. deaconi, G 547. 
Lat. diaeoHvs. 

Del, I. pan ; nury dtl, every nhit, 
entltel)', O 1369. A.S. ddl, 1 

Delioes, I. pi. delight!, pleunrei. 
C J47, O 3. F, dilica, Lat. 

Delle, pi. t. 

I, froi 

divide, from d4!, a part. 

Selyt, s. delight, B 1 135, G 1070. 
O. F, dilil, dtliil ; from Lat. di- 
iMar; to delight. The modem 
ipelling delight a dne to an ab- 
■urd luppoEed connection with 

DsmBunde, 1. demand, qnestion, 
B47a; Deniande, G 430. O.F, 
dimande, froni Lat. di and man- 

Dbeobi v. to luppoM, B 1038 r to 
judge, conclude, 1091 ; to give a 
verdict, G S95 i pr. s. Demeth, 
fancies, 689; imp. pi. Demeth, 
nippose ye. 993. A.S. demon, 
to judge, from Jifnt, judgment. 

Deputed, pi. : parted, B 1158 ; 
divided, C 81J. 814. O.F. Ai- 
perlir, Lat. disparUrt, from dii 
and parlirt ; which from pars, a 

Devartlng, i. departure, B ]6o ; 

Depart inge, 293. 
Sepe, 1. the deq>, the tea, B 455. 

VOL. m. I 

A.S. dtdp, deep water, neut. sb. ; 

firom dtdp, adj. deep. 
Depper, adv. eomp, deeper, more 

deeply, B 6jo, G 150. 
Dere, adj. (i«c.) dear, D 447, G 

>57i 331- The Dounii also iiir#; 

the fiDaliiidne to the A. S. foim; 

A.S. di6rt, dyn, dear. 
Here, adv. dearly ; 10 dm, loo 

d earl J, C 393. 
Derkert, adj. saptrl. darkcit, B 

304. A.S. dtorc, dark. 
DoBoenaorles, 1. /J. G 791. 

' Dncinsoriis, TCtseU used in 

chemistry for extractiag oils ptr 

dtsetnaaa ; ' Tyrwhift. From 

Lat. dnttndm, to dcKead. 
Deaolast, adj. deierted, alone; 

koldtn dtsolaat, shanned, C 59S. 

Lat. dtsoSaha, from dtiolait, to 

waste, make lonely ; from di and 

solui, alone. 
Peaplt, I. spite, B 39t ; vexatioii, 

dishonour. 699, O.F. dispil{V. 

dipil), Lat. dtsptcha, a looking 

down upon ; from dt. down, and 

sptan, to look. (Olou. L) 
Seapitoiuly, ada. de^itefullx, 

malicionsly, B 605. 
Deaport, s. amntement. sport, O 

591. O.t. dtiporl ; from Lat. 

prefix dit and porlart, to carry. 

Similarly to divtrl ia from Lat. 

vtrUri, to turn. 
Destourbe. v. to disturb ; dultairht 

of, to disturb in, C 340. O. P. 

dtiUtrhrr, from Lat. prefix dit and 

turban, to confuse \ from tarha, 

Deae, adj. pi. deaf, G 186. The 
ling, is daf. From A.S. dtif. 

Denyse, v, to relate, tell, B 154, 
349. 6i3' O 1^- (OI0H. II.) 

Deya, ».todie,B5a5,59»; Deyen, 
O 47' ; P''- '■ Deyeth, dies, Q 
1436 i P*. '■ Deyde, died. C 580, 
G138. Scandinavian 1 Icel.dr)!^ 
to die. Swed. d6, Dan. d'a: 

Tt^fatMiodj.i^iiAj.Cimi atA., 




ipeciilot pecnliu pleuore, B 139 ; 
1. fl. Dejwcu, daimict, 419. 
O. F, dmntii, »g«e«bleoc« i from 
LaL ace. dignilaum, worlhiaeit. 

Dlgne, iii$. worthy, honoured, C 
^S; initible, B 778. F. digni, 
Lat. dignui, worthy. 

Dllataoloun, i. diffuseaeu, B ajl. 
Foimed like 1 French ib. from 
Lat. ace. i2i/iifiuii»»ni, which from 
dilatan, to make bioad, fcom 

Disolaundared, pp. alandered, S 

674. From O. F. prefix da. Lit. 

dh, and F. iselmdrt, (brmeily 

isctmdU, from Lat. seaBdalum, 

which from Ok. (rwirlaAot-. 
DUoonere, v. to rereal, O 1465 ; 

3 p. I. pr. DiscoDcrctt, leveateit. 

696 ; pp. Diuouered, rtrealed, 

1468. O. F. dacavrir, from Lat. 

prcfixa dii and eon, and operirt, 

In hide. 
StBeae, i. lack of ease, trouble, 

distreu, misery, B 616, O 747, 

DlspIesukOM, I. pi. (lispleaiurei, 

aunoyaDcei, C 410. 
BiiQiorti, t. pleasure, B 143. See 

Disposed, pp. inclined ; tatj dit- 

poud, \a good health (the con- 

rerse of indispostd), H 33. 
Diweuer, f«r. to part, Q 875. 

From O. F. tmrer, Lat. uparar4, 

to separate. 
DlBBimuletb, pr. t. diisimnlitei, 

acta rooUihlj, G 466. Lat. da- 

Btaslan, to pretend that a thing 

DUatmnliDKO, a. dissembling. O 

Dlnerae. a^.pl. diverse, B 111. 

Dooili V. to da, G 166; to onw, 
a> Id doon vt litHg*, cause >u lo 
be hung.C 790; do vnrcht, cause 
to be wrought or built, G 545 ; 
gtr. Done, to do. B 770, O 93} ; 
far la doiu, a St thing to do> I 

61; pr. I. 2 p. Doll, makeit,C 
311 ; pr. I. Dolh, caoiei, B 714; 
I'ni^. a. Do. mike, Hi); canie, 
Q 31 ; 1^0 ka«g, cause me to be 
hang, G 1019 ; dafieelu, cause 
to be fetched, B 661 ; rfo 09- 
put awiy, lay aside, G 487 ; imp. 
/I.Doth,daye,C74S; pp.Dooa, 
B 174: Do, done, G 745. 1155 i 
Doon, completed, 387. A.S. i^n, 
to do ; ori^nally 10 place, at in 
Skt. dhd, to place. Ok. rif^p, I 
place, Lat, ton-dtrt, to put lo- 

Domb, adj. dumb. B 1055; pl. 
Dombe, O 186. A. S. dumb. 

Dome, (. judgment, C 637. A. S. 
d6m (Gloss. II.) 

Domlnkeloiiii. i. dominalion, do- 
minion, C 560] power, H 57. 
From Lit. dominus, a lord. 

Doro, ..door, 01137,1143. IS17. 
Theword is dissyllabic; A.S. rfuni, 

Dorate. See Dar. 

Satan, v. to grow foolish, act 
foolishly, G 983. Cf. F. ra-doler, 
to dote : but the F. is borrowed 
from a Low-German source, which 
appears in (he Du. dutten, lo take 
1 nap, to mope, from dai, M nap, 
sleep, dotage. 

Doublenesoe, 1. duplicity, G 130a. 

Dougtatei, I. danghler, B 151. 
A. S. dohlar. 

Doute, t. doubt, B 777, O S33 ; 
out ^ doute, doubtless, B 390, C 
8»1. F. douU, doobt, from douUr, 
LaL dubitart, to doubt. 

Douteleea, adv, doubtless, C 49], 
O 16, 1435; without hesitation, 
B laG. 

Downe, 1. dove, pigeon, C 397. 
Of A. S. origin, thongh not easily 
found ; cf. Icet.ifii/a, Swed. dafva. 
Da. duif. (Somner'i A.S. Diet, 
gives the form dtma.) 

I>tndden, should dread, 
should fear, G 15. See Drede. 

Drat, I, draif, refuse, chaff, 1 35, 




A.S.i{raM<,Icci,iiregi; Du.Jni/, 
nrlll. hog't-msti j led. draf, diifF, 

Drsffoim, i. dragon, O 1435. F. 
dragon, Lat. ifracaiuin.Gk. l^niic- 

Drads, i, fear, G 104 ; doubt, C 
507 1 il is no drtdt, there ii no 
doubt, B 869; aithoulen dridt, 
without doubt, igfi. A.S. rfrirf, 
dread, fear. 

Drsden, «, to fear, O j»o; gtr. to 
<fr«/i, to be feared, 437; ip.a. 
pris.nhj. ihoDDUjesl dread, 477. 
A. S. drAdan, to fear. 

DTenohen, v. to be drowned, B 
46S [ pp. DrendiedjO 949. The 
A.S. drtacan u properly tianiilire, 
meaning, to make to drink, to 

DrenobTnf, t. droiming, B485! 
Dieucbiug. B 489. 

DreSM, V. to prepare (himielf), gel 
ready, B lloo; addieii (myielf), 
G 77 ! tr. rifi. addreu himicdf, O 
l»7l; pt. I. rtfi. Dietseth hir. 
pieparei berielf, B 165,' pr. pt, 
DieiKD, prepare Ihcnuelvei, let 
forward, B 1G3 ; Dreue, 416 j pr, 
pi. nfi. direct theniulTei, i. e. take 
their placet in order, 416. F. 
dntitr ; from Lat. diritlia, direct. 
(See Btachel.) 

Itronke, pp. dmnk, H 17. A.S. 
drvnctn, pp. of drincan, to 

Dtonkslave, adj. dmnken, over- 
come with drink, C 4gS- ^'om 
the A. S. reib drincan, to diiuk. 

Droitkeiieue, t. diunkennesi, B 
771, C 484. A.S. drunctwiti; 
from drincan, to drink. 

Sroppe, (. drop, 511. A diujl- 
labic word ; A, S. dropa, a drop ; 

DTOush. pi. '■ drew (hiouelO. Q 
6S5. A. 8. irnifan, to draw ; pt. 
t. ie dr6g or iV drih, I drew. 

Dryue, v, to drive ; dryue ih* day 

aiety, pau the time, C €18. A. S. 
drijiui, to drire. 
Dulls, dull, itnirid, B aai. 
A.S. dol, fooKih; put for dtml, 
u shewn by A. S. gidunlgod, a 
falie god or idol ; Goth, dwais, 
foolish j cf. Da. dol, mad, O. loll. 

Dulleth,^. t. makes dull, itupeGes, 

G1093, 1171, 
Dun, I. the dun hone, (tee note), 

H 5. A.S. ifun, dun ; of Celtic 

origin; cf. W. dam, dun, dniky, 

Gaelic donn, brown. 
Dure, v. to last. B 187, 1078. F. 

dvrir, Lat. dtirart, to last ; from 

(funis, hard. 
Dmlte, pt. s. dwelt, B 134; p!. 

Dwellen, 550. Gtein girei an 

A.S. daillm, to hinder ; cf. Icel. 

diiilja, to delay, Swed. dvaljas, 

to delay ; Sw. dvaia, torpor, coo- 

necti the word with A.S. dwal, 

dol. See DuUe. 
Dtc, v. to die, B 644 ; pt s. Dyde, 

died. C 658. See Dare. 

Ilsk, ad¥. moreover, alio, B 140, 
444. A. 8. ec, tdc, eke, alto. 

Eat, pi. t, ate, C 5 10. (Gtosi. II.) 

BffBOt ) in iffict, in fact, in reaKty, 

Bft, adv. again, B 791, G 1163, 
A.S. tfi, again, back; cf. A.S. 
aft, again, alh'ed to afitr, 

Xitaone, adv. loon after, 1188; 
tooD after thii, H 65 ; heieafter, 
G 933; »g"in. B 909. From 
A. S. ift, tsfl, again, and iifnii, 

ZiKSBmant, i. mitigation. Incite* 
meat, B 841. A hybrid word; 
the inSx -nuni il French, but 
the firit part ii from Iccl. 'ggja, 
I0 excite, from a root ag, cognate 
with the Indo-European root aJt, 




Hgromolu, t. igiimonj, Q 800. 
Lai. agrtmoaia, argmaaia. Ok. 
ipyt/mr^ ; w nlled, ippirenti;, 
became tnppotcd to cure 1 white 
ipol [o tbe eye. Gk. ipyt/ia; 
which frran ipn^, while. (Web- 

XUghU, (Rfm. eight. C 77). A 
ditsrlUlHG word ; A. S. taJUti, 
eight ; cognate with IM. ocio. 
Ok. 6rrii. 

Eleoolotin, >. choice, 'election' 
(a technical term), B jri. See 

MamenteB, (. fl. elements. Q 

Mt, 1. diij, B 7S4. A. g. d/, alf, 

an elf, 1 geoiui ; Icel. 4tfi; 
XEllea, adv. otherwite, Q 1131, 

1377, B 644 ! tUti god fitrbid; 

GoA forbid It ihonid be otherwite, 

G1046. A.S. lUa. 
Blleawlior, adv. eliewhete, O 

XUzir, t. elixir. G 863. Arabic «I 

iksir, the philofopher'i itoae. 
' ' , iu{i. 111. eiriih, implike, 

BnblbtoCi ). imbibition, abtorp- 
tion, Q 814. 

Snoenae, v. to offer idcente, G 
395' 413- F- f'tneer, from tb. 
*ttcvu, Lat. iaetnium (nxd by 
ludore of Seville), incense; which 
from Lat. iiKotdin, to burn. 

Enoorporlng, i. incotponlion, G 
815, From Lai. corpus, body. 

Bneraei, t. increase, B 937, G l3. 

o Increase, B li>63. 



of foolish, 7SI. 84*. Cf. Icel. 
difiiiigr, lilly, from dlfi; an elf, 

BmbtsBMloUT, I. ambauador, C 

ItnbMMKlTTe, 1. embaHy, nego- 

ciation, B 533- 

». poiioding, C 

I. poisoner, C 894. 
(Glou. IL> 

Ximprlas, i. enlerpriie, B 348 ; 
Empijie, G 605. O. F. impriu, 
■n enterprise; from the Tetb 
frtndri, Lat. firtluadiri, to 
take, with prefix «n- = in, 

Binptfl, V. to empty, make empty, 
G T41; Empten, 1404. A.S. 
gtJtml^ait, to disengage from. 
A.S. £iuig, vacant, at leisure; 
from imta, leisnie. 

SnoreBse, 1 


lie, froi 

Lai. irurtstirt, whidi from cm- 

ttrt, to grow, 
Snde, s. end, result, B 481. A 

dissyllabic word j A. S. tndi, end. 
Xndelag, 01$. eodleii, B 951. 
Bndettad, pp. indebted, G 734. 

O F. itndilir, to be indebted ; 

from O. F. dilt (F. diUt), a debt, 

Lat debila, bom dtbirt, to 

EndTten, ». to indite, write, B 
781 i Endyle. G 80. O. F, 
tndiliir, to iastmcl, from diliir, 
to write ■ work ; Lat. diilari, to 
dictate ; from dicirt, to (ly. 

Engyn, 1. genina, skill, G 339. 
F. tngim, Lat. itigtaium, [kill. 

SnlnbGlK, t, KCDting with ' lule,' 
daubing with clay, &c., so as to 
exclude ait. G 766. F. Ivltr, to 
lecure with 'lule,' from Lat. 
lutum, ciay. 

Uniiuere, v. inquire, leatch Into, 
B 69a. O.F, titquemr, to in- 
quire into ; O. F. juirrt, to seek ; 
Lat. quairtri, to seek. 

Dnqueritise, s. inquiry, B 888. 

UniunpleH, s. pi. examplei, C 
43S. O. F, msaaplt (Roque- 
fort) ; firom Lat. tatmplum. 

ESntenoloun, i. intention, intent, 

Ententa, s. will. B 814; inteo- 
tion, G 867. G 998 ; deugn, C 
43a ; plan, B I47, >ofi ; endea- 
Tour, G 6. O.F. tattnU, intent; 



from tnlndrt, to iotead, Lat. 

XatringB, pr. pari, entering, I ii. 
F. enlrtr. Lat. intrari. lo enttr. 

SnToIuped, pp. wnppcd up, en- 
veloped, inTolved, C 94J. O, F. 
ttamltiptr, to envelope, cover ; 
derived (lajit Brachet) from » 
radicil vel^, of nnknom origin. 
Perhipt thii ladiol ii the lame 
II in>"n in the M. E. verb to 
tetappt, u«d by Wyclif (bt lo 
arap \ and cf. E. wrap. 

mr, adv. before, B 410, O 1273; 
pnp. before, C 89* ; Er tha^ 
before ihat, Q 375. A.S. Ar, 
before, formerly. 

Brme, v. to grieve, to feel »d, C 
3I]. See the note. A. S. jntnoft, 
10 afflict, grieve, make unhappy, 

Icel, armr, Oolh. arva, Q. arm, 

Brit, adv. first ; at era, at fim, G 

151, 164; hag trsi IT, long first 

before, C 669. Superlative of ir. 

See Br. 
Baohue, v. to eschew, avoid, ihnn, 

G 4. O. F. ttcktvtir, ischiver, lo 

avoid (F. tichivtr); from 0. H. 

a. siiukaa, to avoid. From the 

same root we have A. S. ««(*. 

shy, and E. liew and sAy. 
Sse, J. pleasure. O 746 ; ease, relief, 

Hj5. Y.ais,. 
E<PT8, u. lo eipy, perceive, G 

391 ; to enquire about, B iSo ; 

pp. Espyed, obseived, 314. O. F. 

espitr, from O. H. O. tptin, lo 

spy (G. spihea). 
Est, ». East, B 297, 493 ; East. 

wards, 949, C 396 ; A. S. tdsl. 

(Glost. 11.) 
EstMLt, 1. rank. B 973. C 597, G 

138S. O.F. alal, Lat. uatua; 

from slart, to (land. 
Buaugyles, i. pi. gotpeli, B 666. 

Lat. luangditim. Ok. li/an/yiliiof , 

(igniting (t) a reward for good 

tidings; (1) glad tidings; from •!!, 
well, good, and <Iy7'^^^< * 
messengei ; frooi irffbAai, I an- 

Euo, t, evening, G 375. A.S. 

aftn, evening. 
Bnea, ado. evenly, exactly, G 

I!ueri<dk, fron. every one, all, B 
£31, 636, C 768; either of the 
two, B 1004. For totrtack; 
M. E. tutr, arid iekt, each. 

Baetiohon, every orke, B 330, G 
[365 ; Eneiichoon, G 960, 1 15 ; 

,adt. evennorc, always, 6 
1076. See Uo. 

BxMtmlOiui, I. exaltation (a term 
in astrology) ; see the note. I 
10. From Lat. inaUan.Xo exalt; 
from m, ont. and alha, high. 

Expert, adj. ikilfiil in petfomiing 
>n experiment, experienced, G 
1151. Lat ixptrlva, pp. of 
aiinrior. to try. 

•. to explain, O 86. 
ntrt, to expose ; from 
id poHtri, to put. 
• Pr- pl. are extended, B 
461. Lat. alaidert. 

Ey, inUr). eht what! C 78a. 
Dan. ti, eh I Icel. kd, eh I 

Br. '. egg, G 806. A.S. ag, an 
egg; cf. Icel. tgg, Swed. agg, 
Dan. ag ; also Da. ti, O. ti. 

Byletli, pr. i. aileth, H iC A.S. 
iglan, to moleil, aSict ; from 
igl, that which pricks, a thiille, 
also an ' ail' or beard of com ; 
from the tame root ai iggian, to 
indie. See EgKemant. 

Eyre, i. air, gat, O 767. F. air, 

Pable. t. fable, story, I 31, F, 
faUt, iM.fabala, 



Fador, i. father, B 174, O I434; 
gm. Fader, in ;ir. fader kin — 
l>lhei'i nee, inccilry, O 819. 
k.S./adtr, gen./adir. 

Paille, t. fail, doubt, B 101. F. 
/aillir, Lal./fll;.rt. 

Folte, IF. to happen, H ^oipi.t. 
Fil, fell C 804, a 104, "98; 
Fel, befell, B 141; pp. FiUe, 
B 303. A.S./(o//on, pi. t. in 
fidll. fp.fiaU«,. 

Falae got, cheating contrinnce, Q 
1177. See Oet. 

Falibttde, I. filieheod, Q 979, 
1174. O.F. Mt, Lit. /alius, 
fabe; with M.E. luffii -httd, 
A.S. had. 

Faltren, /r. pi. falter, bU, B 771. 
(Etjni. doobtful.) 

Tta, t. vaae, quiDlatn, H 4). A. R. 

Faatome, (. a phantom, delunon, 
B 1037. P. fanami, 0. F./oa- 
tmmt, Lat. phataasma, Qk. fxiv- 
ra/Ttui, an appearance, ^OFrdfiu, 
make to appear ; from ^tibial, I 

Fare, 1. bnuneii, going* on, B 
J69. A. S.fitm, a joDroe/, hence, 
proceedingi ; fioin faraa, to 
travel. See belov. 

Fftre, fr. t. i ^ I go, O 733: pr. 
pi. I p. Faten, we fitt, live, 601 ; 
t p. fxtt, ye fare, JO lucceed, 
14171 ^. (. Faieth, it turni out, 
966; imp. pi. Fareth well -fare 
ye well, B tI59{ pp. Fare, gone, 
B 511. A.S. faraa. to go, to 
fare. (Glos. I. and II.) 

Farewel, inUrj, firewelll It It all 
oyer, O 907, 13S0 ; used ironi- 
eally, 1384. 

F&at«, adv. quickly, G 145 ; oi 
fasU, Tety quickly, 1335. A.S. 
/atl, firm; adr. /siM, firmly, 
aJio quickly. 

Fute, fl. I. faded ; pro. part. 
Faitinge, C 363. A. S./ntfm, fatt- 
ing ; fittlvHg, the leuoD of Lent. 


Fftyn, adj. glad, H 93 ; ndi 

gladly, wLUingly, B 173, " 

A.S. fagn, fain, glad; 

Feootien, c to fetch, O 41 1 ; pi, 1. 

Fette, fetched, 548. 1365; pp. 

Fet, B 667. A. S. feecan ; pt. t. 

icfiakli. pp, i'yi/orf. 
Feelede, ^. I. felt. O 511. A.S. 

Jelian, 10 feel; pt. t. tcfitodi. 
Feend, i. £end, B 10G4, C 844 ; 

enemy, B 454; eril ipiiil, G 86 1 . 

A, S./(iia, to hate ; whence pret. 

pt. ft6nd, bating, 1 fiend; cf. 

Saaikrit /ii, to hate. 
Feendlr, odf. fiendlike, dcrilish, 

B JS". 783. Q 1071. 
Fsl,^, t. befell, happened, B 14! 


FoIawv, a. companion, H 7 ; //. 
Felawei, compaoioni, G 747 ; 
Comiadei, C 696. lai.filagi, a 
companion ; from fi, cattle, pro- 
perty ; and tag!, law, wciety ; 
applied to one who hai a ihaie in 
a property. 

Felonye, i. crime, B 643. Low 
Ut jm, /do, a traitor, rebel, 
ctimiaal j O. F./<I, cniel (Roque- 
fort). Of Dncerlaln and dii- 
' ^n ; perhapt allied to 
, Iruh /tall, W. ffa, 

Feminlnitee, t. feminine form, B 


Fen, 1. chapter, or labdiiiiion of 
ATicenna'i book called the Canon, 
C 890. See the note. 

Fends, i. dot. fiend, B 780. See 

For, adj. far, B 508, €58. A.S. 

FerforUt, adv. far, to inch a 
degree, O 1390; as /tt/orth ai, 
as far at, B 1099 j la/irforth, to 
tuch a degree, 57 1,040. SecFar, 



FermentBoloim, t. fermeatiiig. O 

8 1 7. From Lat. ftrnunlum. 
Perthe, orrf. adj. fourth, B 813, G 

S3I, 814, 917. A.S. fidrVa, 

fQuithj lToiafi6aiir,ii>iT. 
Fegt, I. fiit, C Boi t rfof. Feste, 

I iS- A.S. /jM, the Bit; cf. 

I.H. pugnus. 

Fesle, 1. 1 fcHt, fcttivity, B 418, 
I 4.7 ; M fitu, to the featt. M a 
reatt, B 1007, lOiO ; kan to 
fisU, to invite, 380. Here fati 
a a tb. throughout, not a rerb. 
O, f.fistf, from Lit.^ifum. 

Pet, Fetle. S« Feaohea. 

Pete, s.^. dot. feel J /o/(fe,athis 
feet, B 1104. A.S./il, > (ool ; 

Petyi, ()i$. well-made, neat, grace- 
ful, C 478. O.F. faitis (Lat. 
faelilius), well-made, neat; from 
O. F. fain, Lat. faetrf. (Glow. 

Fey, (. bith, C 761, H 13, I 33. 
O.F. fti,fnd, faith; Lat. »cc. 

Feyne, v. feign, pretend ; fiytit vi, 
pretend an regard* ouitelrei, B 
351. T.fiinart, iM.fingtn. 

Fiers, adj. fierce, B 300. O. F. 
jiw,' originally fitrs. Lat. ftrus, 
tierce. (Not from Ut. /«ro«.) 

FiKaTiiia:e, i. (imilitnde, ligore, G 

Fil. See FaUe. 

Fixe, pp. filed, lolidiEed, Q 779. 
From Ltt.figtre, to £1. 

FlambeB, I. pi. fiam«, O 515. 
O. f.Jlambt. Lit.flamma. The 
i i. a mere cxcrtKence ; Wedg- 
wood't derivation offiami from a 
radical jfii6 cannot be sustained. 

Fleen, ipl. fleai, H 17. h.S.Jttd, 


Fleet, ^. I. (caatr, from fieieth) 
floati, B 463. See Fleteth. 

Flekked, pp. ipotied, O 565. A 
Low. German word; O. Prieiic 
fitliia, to »pot <Richtofen>[ ef. 

a .pot. train. 
Flemed,^^. banished, G 58. A, S. 

Jliman,Jtim<xn. to baniih. 
Flemer, i. baniiher, drirei awaj, B 

460. Sec aboTe. 
Fleteth, pr. i, floateth, B 901. 

K.Z.fii6UiH, to Boat. 
Floriiu, I. pi. florint, C 770, 774. 

So aimed from haling beeo firit 

coined at Florence. 
Flour, s. flower, B 1090. O. F. 

fiour, flmr. Lit. fianm, ace. ot 

Flye, I. ■ fly, G 1150. A. S. 

Fneaeth, /r, t. breathei heaTJIj, 

pull'i.inorti, H61. Seethe note. 

A. S. fntraan, to puff, fnastiaHS, 

the windpipe, fhasi, a puff, blut ; 

cf. Ok. irr^w, I blow. 
FoUly, adv. fooliihly, O 41S, 

From F. fill, mad ; lee Biachet. 
Folweu, pr. pi. follow, C 514. 

Fome. See Foom. 
Fond, pi. I. found, B 514. 607, C 

608, O 185. A.S. /iadan, to 

find ; pL t. ic/arul, pp.fundea. 
Fonde, D. to endeavour, G 95I ; 

to try to permade, B 347, A. S, 

fandian, to Uj, tempt. 
FonBe, v. to receive, B 377. From 

a formfangan, appealing in A.S. 

in the contracted form fSn, to 

take i cf. Du.Minj»n,G./aBf*B, 

to take. 
Font-fal water, foniful of water, 

FoDtBtoon, I. font, B 713. 
Foom, I. foam, G 564 ; dal. Fome, 

S<i5- A.S./An{/™).foam. 
Foot-hot, adv. instantly, on the 

ipo^ B 438. See note. 
Fostred, pp. nurtured, brought 

(up), B 175, G i]a; nurtured in 

the faith, Q 539- (GIoi.. II.) 
Fotil, aij. foul, bad ; for foul ni 



/Vi by foul meaiti or fair, B 

515. A.3.fiil,foa]. 
VmmdeD, fp. found, B 611 ; pro- 

rided, 143, See Fod<L 
rotura, mim. four, B 491, Q 1460. 

A. S./nhwr. The word ii dixjl- 

labic, being treated u a /iHnil 

VtmmeTB, 1. famace, O 804. 
F.Joumaict, Horn Lat. icc. ./or- 

VoyaoD, (. abDudiace, B 504. 
O. F. faimit, from Lat. act 
fiisionem: whicb fn)m/inrf«-(,to 

For, eonj. becauie, B 340, C 440, 
O 33] ; in order that, B 478 ; 
pnp. became of, C S04; ai 
being, G 457. A.S.>r. 

Torbede, imp. dug. forbid, may 
(He) forbid, G 996 i .pr. i. 
Forbedeth, forbids, C 643. A. S. 
Jorbeidan, Qoih.faurbiudaH. 

VoTbj, adv. piit, by, C 668. 

JFordoon, r. to do for, to deiKoy, 
B 369. A. S./orrfdn, to deitroy, 
' do for ' ; cf. Lat. ptrdert. 

For-dronlM, ff. jay diuak, C 
674. Cf. A. S. fordrmcoH, 10 
intoucate. The jwefii .^ir- it 

FoTgon, V. to forgo (fimanoidy 
miaptil forego), G 610. A. S. 
Jargdn, to forgo ; Goth, /aur- 
gaggan, to pau by; ef. G. 
vtrgthai. Distinct from A.S. 
fangdn, to go before. 

Forleto, V. 10 giTe up, C S64. 
A. S. forlAlan, to let go, relin- 
quiiS ; cf. Du. tw/otot, to aban- 
don, Q. nrrlasstn. 

Port, (. heed ; mait ho fori, take 
no heed, H 6t ; ao/ors, it it no 
matter, it i> of no cooiequence, B 
a85, C 303. Q 1019. 1367. 
' I gyne no force, I care not for 
1 thing, II mi nun thauU ; ' Pill- 
giare't French Diet. 

^■>™irariii», a. perjury, C 637 i 


s. pi. Foriweringei, sgi. A. S. 
fiu-sweriaB, to (weir fajsely. 
Forth, ath. forth, forward, B 294, 
C660. A.S./M-5, forth, thence, 

PoFthenno, aJv. moreoter, C 594 J 
Fortbermore, 357. 

Forthor oner, adv. furthermore, 
moteovei, C 648. 

Porthwwd, adv. forward, B 363. 

FoF-woked, pp. tired out with 
witching, B 596, A.S. prefix 
fir, and tmeiaii, to watch. 

For-why, tonj. because, C 847. 

Popwrapped, pp. wrapped up, C 
718. A.S. pieSx/br< »"<l M.E. 
urappen, to wrap, closely related 
to lolappa, to wrap (used by 
Wyclif). See BuToluped. 

Foryeue, v. to forgire, B 994 ; 
imp, s. Foryeue, may (He) for- 
give, C 904 ; imp. pi, Foryeue, 
forgive, G 79. A. S. /orgifan, 
GoXh. fi-agibaa ; cf. G. vtrgibm. 

Frauxbt, pp. freighted, B 171. 
For an account of the idiom, see 
the note, p. 111. Cf. Swed. 
/rakia. Din. fragU, to freight, 
load; Swed. fiail. Van. /ragt, 
Du. vrachl, a load, bnrden. 

Fredom, s. liberality, bounty, B 
168. The A. S. Jrti means both 
f^ee and bountiful. 

FrsndBS. 1. pi, friends, B 169. 
A, S.frtiad. a friend ; pies. part. 
of a loit verb fredn, to love; 
this is ihewQ by Golh. /ryoiwti, a 
friend, prei.parl. of Goth.^ifon, 
to loie. Cf. Skt. pri, to lore. 

Preto, pp. eaten, devoured, B 475. 
A.S. frttan. to derour; contr. 
from /or-WoB, to eat up ; cf. Goth. 
fia-UoH. to eat up, from ilan, to 
eat. Thus fril ii short for for- 
tot I and G. frastn — vir-tssln. 

Preyned, pp. asked, qoeitiaued. G 
433. A.S. frignan. to ask; 
Goth.^oiAiian ; cf. Du. vragtn, 
Q.fiagtn, Lat. preeari. 



PniDtnoua. adj. fruitful, I 73. 

Lit. fincluotut, fruitful ; from 
fnaha, frait. 
ProTt, (. result (lit. frait), B 411. 

V. frail, l-aX. fnietut. 
VmytestereB, 1. pi. fim. fmit- 

sellcri, G 478. 
Fnlflld, pp. filled fbll, B 660 ; 

completed, fnUy performed, 1 17. 

A- to fill fall, p^orm, 

FtunoBltas, I. fnmei arising froio 

diunkeoneis, C 567. From Lai. 

fumus, fume, imoke. 
FuitonK way, a furlong'i distance, 

B 567. k.S.furhlang, ihe length 

of a furrow, a furlong. 
Fiuible, a^. fuiible, capable of 

being fused, Q 856. F. fusibli, 

from IM. fiindtn, to pone out. 
Fyn, s. end, B 414. F. fin, Lat. 

>«, end. 
PynaUy, adv. fioalljr, B 1071. 
F;nt, pr. s. finds, O 3l8. Contr. 

FjreB, 1. gtn. Ere'i, O 140S. A. 5. 

jjr, Do. vuur, Q. /turn; Dan, 

jyr, Gk. mp. 

a«lle, I. gall. G 58, 797. A. S. 

y*a/ia ; cf. Lat.>i Gk xf*-?- 
Qaloim, i. gallon, H 14. The 

fonni galona and f o/o are found 

id Low Lat. 
Oams, I, iport, Q 703, H 100. 

A.S. g-amm, a sport, play. 
Oui, pi. s. began, G 461 ; used as 

aux., did, B 614, I ti. A.S. 

giraum, to begin ; pt. t. ie ganH. 
Qaaett. pr. s. yawoeth, H 35. 

A. S. gattian, to yawn, gape. 
QU, pi. I. obtiiued, got (for him- 

lelO, B 647, Q 373. A. S. gilaa. 

Icel. |-*(a, to ge(. Thecc 

A. S. form ii giltm, pt. t. le gial, 

Oaude, i. trick, couite of trickery, 

Oftonn, gtr. to gaz^ sure, B 
9ti. (Glosi. n.) 

Gaye, adj. fine, G lolj. F. gat, 
£iy ; from O. H. G. waU, bright, 
gay. Not O, H. G. gdeh, go, 
G. jakt, qnick, biily; from 
O. H. Q. gdn, 10 goi 

OentiUeMS, s. kindnett, G 1054 ; 
condeiceatioD, B S53. O.F.geal- 
ilUtt, from gtnlil, gentle, noble, 
L>L gtntilis, belonging to a gira 

OentiUr, adv. conneonsly, B 1093. 

Gentila, ../J.genticfollti, C 313. 

Gere, 1. gear, properly, B 800. 
A. S. gtaniia, clolhing, prepara- 
tion ; gianmai, to prepare ; from 
gtaro. ready, yarr. 

Qecland, s. garland, G 17. Pro- 
ven^l garlanda ; cf, Itil. giUr- 
Inndtt, T.gvirlande. Elym. donbt- 
fHil ; Mr. Wedgwood faiU to 
explain the Ilaliaa form. 

O«M0, V. to imagine, B 611 ; t p. I luppoie, 146.1008,1143, 
G 977, Cf. Du. gUstti, Swed. 
g^ssa, to gneis; Icel. gizka, to 

Qestes, t. pi. gesli, talei (Lat. 
gisia), B 1116. 

Got, ». contriyance, G IJ77. Ap- 


A.S. I 

i aad-gtl, the undentanding. 

From ^on, to get. 
OeM, a p. I, pr, ye get, ye obtain, 

H 101. See Gat. 
Oiltleaa, adj. guiltless, B 643; 

OUteless, 1063, 1073. 
Gin, : mare, coatrivance, G 1165. 

Contracted from F. tngia, a 

GiMmea, s, pi. guitan, C 4C6. 
O. F, gtalirru, alto gidlirrt, 
fintorf, Lat. tilhara, Gk. *Mfa, 
1 stringed inttnunent. 



Qlade, V. to gladden, Q 598. A. S. 

glad, glad. 
Qleyra, i. while (of an egg), G 

806. ' Gltyrt of eyryne [i. e. 

•yys] at other lykf, glarta;' 

Prompt. Parif. F. glairt (which 

in Ital. is cidara), the while of 

an egg 1 comipled from ctairt, 

from Lai. elana, clear. 
Olooe, V. to fjatler. 1 45. F. glo$t, 

> clou, from Lit. glotsa, Gk, 

-f}Mm!a, the toneoe ; alio in ei- 

planatioo. (Olou. It.) 
Olotonyei, excesset, C 514. 

From O. F. glolon, (F. glcut«n). 

a glutton ; Lat. gluloium ; cf. 

Lai. glalire, to iwallow. 
Olyde, V. to glide, ucend, G 401. 

A. S. gHdan. 
Gode, adj.voc, good, B 11 it. 
Gold, >. gold, G 816 ; allmitm lo 

proverb— 'il\ 11 not gold that 

gliders,' 961. A.S.g'o;!*, 
Ooldamlth, I. goldimilh, G I3J3. 
Qolet, t. throat, gullet, C 543. 

Dimin. of 0. F. golt, the throat, 

Lat. gula. 
Oon, ». to go, B 38a ; Goon, 373 ; 

to go on, proceed, G 563 ; pr. t. 

Goth, goet, B 385, 704, 7385 
3 f. Gooil, gOMl, Q 56 ; I p. pi. 

pr. Go, ye walk, go on foot, 

C 748; pp. Go, gone, B 1006, 

Q 907. A. S. gaJI, Goth, giggan. ii3i P'-P'- 

hegan. O 376; did, 517, 1191. 

Good, 1. goodt, property, wealth. 

O 831, 868, 949, 1189. A.S. 

gSd, pi, gdd, goodi, wealth ; nent. 

adj. It lb., like Lat. bona. 
Qoadliohi adj. kind, bountiful, G 

1053. A.S. gidlit, kind, lit. 

Qood-nuili t. matter of the home, 

Ooan, V. to go i Ik iV jfoon, let it 

go, neglect it, G 147G. And lee 

Goot, I. 1 goat, G 886. A. S, git ; 
cognate with Lit. haedus. 

Ooat, 1. ipitit, B 404, S03 ; ghost 
(ironically), H 55; the Holy 
Ghoil, G 318. A.S. i-osf, breath; 
cf. G. giiH, Du. gust. 

Goatly, aA'. spiritually, mytticatly. 
G 109. /i.S.gdslUci, ipiritually, 
adv. from gast-lic, ghoit-tike. 

Gouemanoa, i. goverament, B 
tR9 ; Gouemaunce, C 600. From 
0. F. govtrntr, Lat. gubtrnare, 
10 direct, iteer. 

Gourde, <. dal. gourd, H 81. F. 
gourde, from Lat. eueurbita. 

Qrooe, I. faiour.G 1348: iirgraci, 
herfiTour (i.e. that of the blessed 
Virgin). B 980 ; pirdon, B 647 ; 
hard* grace, hardihood of de- 
meanour, boldness, G 665, 1 189. 
F. grace, LiUgralia. 

GrhoelesB, adj. roid of grace, un- 
favonred by God, G JO78. 

Orame, i. anger, grief, G 14OJ. 
A.S. grama, rage, from gram, 
- , crnel; cf, grim. 


Cf. a 

O, H. G. gram. 
Grant meroy, much thanks. G 
1380; Griunl mercy, 1156. F. 

£rand merci, great thinkj. In 
nglish corrupted to gramerey. 
Qiaxai'lia,fr. agree, consent, 

C 317. O. F, graiuir, to gnnt. 

(Gloss. 11.) 
Qrae, s. fivout, B 15. F. gri, 

indiiation ; from Lat. graha, 

Qrene, >. green, greennets, liTing 

evidence, G go. 
Granehada, s. greennets, wanton- 

ne», B 163. 
Orette, pi, 1. greeted, B 1051, C 

714. A. S. gritaa, pt. t. it 

Grisly, adj. horrible, grewtome, 

C 473. A. S. gri^ic, hideout, 

agriian, to ihndder at, 
Oropa, pr. pi, I p. we grope, G 




679; im^ 1. Oiope. 1136. A.S. 
grd^aa, to lay hold of; fioin 
grdp, X griip. Cf. grip, gripi, 
grasp, grab. 

OrotBS, s. pi, groati, faarpenny 
pi«ej, C 376. Dn. grool, the 
name of ■ coin, originallj' of laige 
lize ; from groal, great. Fint 
nied !□ Bremen, where the/ 
luperieded imaller coioi. 

Oroundan, pp. grouod, Q 760. 
A.S, grindiutt to grind; pt. t. 
ie grand ; pp. gnaidiH. 

GryB, t. gny, a 559- F. yWi, 
O. H. G.grij.gtay-haiTed; cf.G. 
grit!, a gtay-haired maa. 

Qjde, imp. s. may (He) guide, B 
145. O. F. guider, auothec form 
olgaitr. SeeOye. 

Qjd», I. gnide, Tuler, G 4J. 

Oyo, ger. to guide, regulate, I 13 ; 
imp. s, do thou guide, O, F. gyifr, 
to guide, halguidare; from O. 
San. uAiin, to obtcrre ; cf. O. H. G, 
tofzon, to obiene, whence G. 

Qjae, I. guile, wise, way; in Ait 

Habnnduitly, adv. abundantly, 
B 870. From 0. F. habmdir. 
Low Lat. habtrndarc, to nbound, 
written for Lat. abundart ; from 
ab and aada, a ware. 

Hokener, i. hick-horie, hackney, 
G 559. Cf. F. kaqutni; a Mg, 
Span, hacanea, a nag ; uid to be 
tpelt/aninra in Old ^anlsh, ind 
to haye ■ ihortet form faca 
(Web.ler, Diei.). 

HalksB, I. pi. comen, hiding- 
place., a an. ct Mid, Eng. 
faie, 1 receii. Owl and Nightin- 
gale, L t ; A. S. kcal, an angle, a 
comer ; probably (iom the veib 
htlaa, to hide. Cf. A. S. kulc, a 
cottage, cabin i iMiUor, a cavern. 

Hals, I. neck. Q I039. A. S. heals, 
Icel. id/j, G. fai/i. 

Halt, pr. I. hold) {ful/or holdeth), 
B S07 ; CDDiideri, Q 931. 

Halired, ^A 1. coaiecrited, hal- 
lowed, G 551. A. S. kdlgian, to 
hallow ; from Itdiig, holy. 

Halnrea, i.^. Eainti(Iit. holy ones), 
B 1060 ; gen. pi. of (all) sainu, 
G 1344. A.S. hdlig.ho\y. 

Hamei, i. hammer, Q 1339. A. S. 

Haa, V. to keep, retain, C 735 j 
to take away, 717 ; to obtain, 
a 134 ; to pouest (cf. ■ to /iove 
and to hold'), B loB ; pr. pi. 
Han, have, B I4J. A. S. habban. 

Hap, t, luck, Q 1109. W. hap. 

luck, Icel. happ, luck, chance. 
Happeth, pr. s. it chancei, O 649 ; 

pi. J. Happede, happeited, C 606, 

3S5. See above. 
Harrow, interj. alail C ]38. Sec 

ihe note. 
Haaard, 1. the game of haiard, C 

591, 68t. O. P. asarl (with ex- 

creiceat 1), Proven^l uxor. Span. 

azar, from Arabic al-zar, the 

die, which from Per., xdr, a die. 
Huardoor, i. gametter, C 596; 

pi. Haiardonrs, 613, 618. 
Haiardrye, i. gaming, playing at 

haiard, C spo. 599p 897- 
Hasteth, imp. pi. rtfi. hailen, 

make hajte, 1 71. C. F. hasltr, 

to hailen; from O. ftntf, hatte; 

cf. Icel. haslarligr, hasty. 
Haatoa,/>r hast thou, B 676. 
Haunteth, pr. 1. practises, G 547 ; 

pi. pi. Hauntedeo, practised, 464. 

F. hanltr, to haunt; of uncertain 

Hautejn, adj. loud, C 330. F. 

kaulain, haughty, from Aouf, O. F. 

AnJf, Lat. alius, high. 
Hawa, f. hav, yard, enclosuie, C 

855. A, S. haga, a hedge, a 




H«, vudfar it, Q 867, S68. 
Haed, I. head, H 19; pi. Weitt, 

beidt, O 398. A.S. lu6fod, 

M.E. haitd, conlr. to httd. 

(Glou. II.) 
Heeld,M.«.beM, etteemed, C615. 

A. S. ludldan, pt. 1. w htdld. 
Haer and ther. jtb*. now here. 

now there; oevcr long in one 

pbce, 01174. A.S. Aer. 
He«,i. bair. G 811. A.S. *ir, 

Du. and G. hoar. 
Helpeth, imp. pi. help jie, O ijzS. 

A. S. tc/^nn. 
HelDlees, adj. helpleu, B 303. 
Rem, fron. them, B 140 ; dal. to 

them, G 539, 540. A.S. htg, 

nom. they; gen. Siora, hira; 

dit. bom, himt icc. Aif. 
Hem-self, /ron. pi. natn, them- 

.el«t, B 145. 
Hens, pi. t. hung, O 574. A. S. 

h6n, to bang; pt t. if liing. 
Henne, adv. h^ce, C687. A.S. 

AconoR, Aimin, hence. 
Hento, V. to leiie, C 710 ; pi. i. 

Hente, feized, caughl, O 370, 

1315; caniht away, B II44; 

laiied, lifted, G 305 ; pr. i, subj- 

may lehe, G 7; pp. Hent, 

caoght, 11. A.S. ktnim, to 

Set, pTOH. pon. their, B 137, 138, 
140, 111, 373, C 891, G 363, 
1387. A.S. itoTYi, Wra.oftheaii 
gin. pi. of hi, he, 

Hentftarwkrd, adj. beieaftec, O 

HerberKOge, i. lodging, abode, B 
I47. O. F. itrbtrgagi (Roque- 
fort) ; from O. H. G. hiribtrga, 
A amp, an armj-theller ; ffom 
O. U. O. htri, an snoy, vid btrg- 
an, to hide, shelter. 

Herbergeours, (. pi. hirbingen, 
proTiden of lodging. B 997. See 
aboTB. Heoce the modem har- 
iingir, with excieicent (inserted) 

Her-bifom, adv. het«-be(bte, B 

Harde, 5, shepherd, Q 193, A. S. 

hyrdi, a guardian of a herd, from 

kiord, a herd. 
Here, v. to bear, B iSi ; ^.Hetd, 

heard, 613, G 371. A. S. Uron, 

Airao, to bear ; pp. gehhvd. CI. 

Du. hoom, Q. hSnn. 
Hera, /KTJ. fron. her, B 460. A.S. 

kiri, of her, gen. ting, of hid, 

Heriath,/r. i. praiieth, B1155; 

pi. Herien, G 47 ; pp. Heried, 

B 873. A. S. hirioH, to praise ; 

from ken, fame. 
Her-inne, adv. herein, G iigi. 

A.S. kir, bete; and the adr. 

svlEx innaa, within. 
Herfcnan, v. to hearken, listen to, 

G ^l ; Hetkne, 1006; i f. 1. 

pr. Herkoe, I hear, ]6l ; imp. pi. 

Herkneth, hearken ye, C 454. 

A. S. litorcnian, to listen to ; from 

hinai, to bear. 
Hemes,!. ^.comeri,G658. A.S. 

J cognate with Lai. 

Herte, i. heart, B 167, 1056, G 
870 ; fi. Hertei, hearts, B 1066. 
A diuyUabic word; A. S. AforM, 
pi. iiorlaii ; cf. Gk. KopSbi. 

Herte -blood, heirt'i-blood. C 90a. 
Here lurtt is the gen, sing, of the 
feminint subitantire lurlt ; the 
A. S. hiortt makes htcrUm in the 
genitive, not luorlts, 

Her-to, ado, for this pnipote, B 

Hesta, s. command, B 381. C 490, 
641 ; dal. B 1013; pi. Heites, 
commands, B 184, C 640. A. S. 
A Jt, a command, with added I. 

Hate, pr. s. l p.l piomiie, B 334, 

to promise ; cf, Q. htiutn, to 
H«t*,f.beat,Ol4o8. A.S. hita, 



jkfau, heat; Dn. hillt, Q. hilai 
shewing that ktit li diijIEabic. 
Hethen, oJj, heathen, B 904. A. S. 
jUSm, of 01 beloDging to 1 heath ; 
his, I heath ; ef. led. hiiSiim, a 
heathen, lifiiSr, heath, G. htidi, 
mate, a heathen, Tem. a heath. 
Cf. pagan fiom Ltt. pagia. 
HetheneaM, i. heathen lands, B 
nil. A.S. JUSmiui, heathen- 
iim. See atwre. 
Houens, gtn. beaTen'i, of heaven, 
O 543. A. S. luofint, fern. ; gen. 
ftn/bnilR ; we alio £nd \iqfon, 
masc, ; gen. hiofhta. 
Hews, c. dal. hue, coloui, B lg7, 
0718; pieteDce,C4]l. A.S. 
hiw, hae ; dat. Aiiiv. 
H»r> >■ bl]r. H 14. A.S. Iff ; Du. 

^Mi, O. ira. 

He7> adj. high. B 161, 151; 

severe, 795 ; dtf. Heye, C 633. 

A. S. itoi ; IceL har, Du. ftoof , 

a. jboct. 

Her ^°d. low. In, in high and low 

thiugi, i. e. in all reipectt, nhollj, 


Hsyar, adj, eomp. higher, C 597. 

HoTiie, >. a voithku peiton, Q 

1319. The true sense ii 'miier'; 

it it to used hj Udall, in hit 

Apophlhegmes (1564), bk. i. % ji, 

andiio6: 'Aaimsindniggaidei'; 

' a niggard or iain* Of Scand. 

origin ; cf. Icel. higita, to hedge 

in, Swed. hagaa, to fence, guard, 

protect. Low Q, lugim, 10 

hedge, protect, ipaie, save, 

(Liibben); Low). Sc. ham, 10 

hedge in, preserre, lare money, 

be penurious (Jamieson). 

Eerr, (. heir, B 766. O. F. Mr 

(F. Iioir), from Lat, ace tuurt- 

HoTTa, adj, hair, made of hair, 
C 736 1 cu ift. a bur ihirt, tack- 
dotb, O 133. A. S. liJtra, cloth 

made of hair, sackcloth ; confused 
with O, F. luun, bair-cloth. 

Hir, froB. fojj. her, B 164. From 
A.S. \iri, gen. case of pen. peon. 
heS, the. 

Biiea, pass. fron. hers, B 317. 

Hold, s. fori, castle, B 507. A.S. 
htold, a fort ; from luatdan, to 
hold, keep. 

Holde. pr. I. 1 pA consider, deem, 
^' 739 i fP- Holden, considered, 
kept, made to be, C sgS. A. S. 
htaldan, pt. t. I'c hiild, pp. 

Hole, adj. pi. whole, hale ; Mi 
and soundi, lafe and tonnd, B 
1150. A.S. kal, whole; pL 
)uUi. E. vihalt it misspelt ; it it 
the A.S. lidl, and shonld be hot*. 
The (brm \olt it dialectal ; from 
O. Northumbrian hSi. The Gr. 
tKai it from a totally dtflerent 
root, and goei with Lat. solidui, 
E. solid. See Hool.^. hollow, G 1165. The 
loot appears in A. S. hal, hollow, 
helu, a hole ; cF. A. S. holh, a 
bolbw, a caTcm. The Swedith 
bat the longer form hdiig, hollow. 

Horn, I. home, homewardi, B 3S5. 
A. S. ham ; G. Mm. 

Homlorde, 1. manslaughter, mur- 
der, C 644. Lai. homicidium ; 
from homo, a man, and caedtrt, 
to Mil. 

Eonde, I. dal. hand, O 13; oit 
konde, in hand, B 34S; pi. 
Hoadei, handt, C 39S, G 189; 
A. S. hortd, hand ; gen. and dat. 
hondt, hattdt, 

Htmest, adj. honourable, tecmlj, 
decent, C 33S; ft, Honette, H 
75 ; Lat, hoiuslus, bOQoorable ; 

HoneBtl7, ada. honourably, Q 



Hool, adj. sing, whole, pecfrct, Q 

III, 117; *eU, C 357- A.S. 

hdl. See Hole, the pi. fonn. 
Hoom, I. bome, homewatdi, B 173, 

603. A. S. ham. 
Hoom^comince, t. bome-coming, 

Hoor, a<$. hairy, gray, C 743. 

A. S. Sar, hoarj' ; led. idrr. 
Hoot, adj. hot, G 887. A. S. kdt, 

hot, Du. hill, a. kBss. 
Hope, t. hope, expectation, O S70. 

The word is diuyllabic. A. S. 

hopa, hope; cf. G. hoffen, to 

Hold, I. hoan], treaiute, C 775. 
From the (ime root 11 herd. 

Horn, s. homtmuucaliaitiumenl), 
H 90. A. S. horn ; cf. Lit. tonu. 

Hoie, s. hose, old ttocking, Q 796. 
A. S. io(e, hose, bieechet, corer- 

Hoalelr^e, 1. boitelry, G $8g. 
Ftom O.F, haslil (our *o«/) ; 
which from Lit. hospilaii (our 
kospital); from Lit. hospidm 
(our toM). 

Hoiu, I. home (a techtiicil term), 
B 304. See note to I. 301. 

Houabond, t. hmbaad, B S63 ; pt. 
Houihondei, 171. Commonly 
AtriitA (wrongly) from iouwind 
hand, whereai it >i the A. S. hAa- 
bonda, Ecel- h^bondi, coatr. from 
Ml buaiidi, the inhabitint of 4 
honte, Irom dia, to inhabit. 
The tenie it therefore thit of 
' oecnpier (i. e, mitter) of ■ houie,' 
The word a, accordingly, wholly 
unconnected with band or bond 
or bind; but connected with Dan. 
boadt, a peitant ; and igiiu with 
onr Aoor (1 word borrowed from 
the Du. boer), and with the lait 
tylliblein luighbour. 

HiimbleaH, i. humility, B 165. 

From Lit. iumilit, homble. 
HuTlut, pr. I. 1 pr. dott hud, 
-■ott whirl, B :97. Etj^. diffi- 

cult ; but It can b« ^ored to be 
a doublet (and an abbreviation) 
of the old word htirll; to dash, 
elaih; the frequentative of Avrt ; 
from F. hmrta; to dath. 

Hts, v. to baiten. G 1084 ; me hyt, 
hurty mjielf, make histe, 1151 ; 
Hy the, hailen thyself, be quick, 
lagj. A.S. \igan, higian, to 
hittca ; cf. Lat. alia, quick. 

Hre, I. haite ; ia hyt, in haste, B 
309. Extremely common in Bar- 
bour's Bruce. See above. 

Hysbte, pi. t. was called (appa- 
rrnily laed in a present tinse, i. e. 
;■ cilled), I 51; was called, G 

(Glass. L ind IL) 
Hyghte, i. dot. height, I 4. A. S. 
htdiSo; Icel. hiV, Du. hoogit, 

Eyne, i. hind, peasant, C 6SS. 
A. S. Waa, 1 domestic 1 Krvant ; 
whence modem E. kind, bj add- 


lalOQB, adj. jealous, C 367. O. F. 

jalous, Lat. zilossi, full of zeal, 

Thui jiaJaus it a doublet of 

laloiure, I. jealousy, C 3G6. 
lanKlBBt, pr. s. 9 p. chitlcrest, B 
774. O.F. jaagltr, to chatter; 

janiin, to howl, DM.jangilm, to 

laps, I. a trick, G 131a ; 1 jat, 
H 84 ; p;. Japes, jests, C 319, 394. 
Probably allied to F. gaber, to 
mock, Icel. gabba, to deceive! 
cf. E.jabbtr. 

lapa, gir. to jeit, H 4. 

lay, J. 1 jay, B 774 ; pi. byes, O 
' 397' ^- 7 «»> formerly gai ; 10 
named from its gay colours. Cf. 
Span, gayo, 1 jiy ; O. Span, foyo 




Xgnotnin, i. an unknown thing 
(tee D0le),Ol457. lM.ignotum, 
an unknown thing ; comp. igno- 
liia, a leit known thing. From 
noscm, to know, formerly g-noi- 
etrt, and cognate with out iKow. 

ImpreBse, ^. ^. force thcmselrei 
(upon), make an impression 
(upon), a 1071, From Lit. 
imprimtri, to p«it upon ; from 
premtri, [0 press. 

He, <. isle. B 545. F. at, o. ?. 

isJi, Lit.iasida, an islind. 
Ilks, ad;, time, O So, 1 366 ; very, 

50J., nme. 
In, I. inn, lodging, B log^. A. S. 

Indnraotonn, s. hardening, Q 855. 
From Lat. Jurui, hard. 

In-fere, aJv. together, B 398. Cf. 
A.S./ar, an eipeditioni whence 
M. E. in firi, npon an eipedi- 
tion, on a journey 1 hence, to- 

lufortimat, adj. uoForlunate, in- 
auspicious, B 30a. Lat. in, prefix, 
lad/ortunaius, fortunate. 

Znsot, I. an ingot, a mould for 
pouring metal iulo,G i3o6. taog, 
iiiitpl. Ingottei, G 818. From 

Inne, adv. within, O 8S0. A.S. 

iruHot, within ; from prep. in. 
IntBllwit, I. nndersUuding, G 339. 

lolitee, 1. joTialily, C 780. From 
F.joli, pieaunt, from a Scandi- 
narUn lonrce; lcel.j<ff,£. ruJr, 
a great feast held la midwinter. 

loyned, fp. joined, G 95. F, 
Joindn, to Join, Lat, iangm; 

Ire, ». anger, C 657. Lat. ira. 

Itige, I. judge. B 814. G 46) ; pi. 
luges, C sgr.', Lat. ace. 


lugement, t, judgment, o^dnlon, 
B I03S ! jndgment, 688. 

lupart^s, s. jeopardy, hisard, G 
743. O. F. jtu parti, Lat. locus 
partitas, a divided game, i game 
in which side* were taken. See 

luBten, V. to joust, H 4). O. F. 

jauslir (F. jaulir), to jonsl ; de- 
rived by Brachet (com a Low 
Lat iaxlan, to approach, from 
iuala, near. Cf. E.josdt. 

luatise, 1. t judge, B 665, C 189, 
G 497; the administration ol 
justice, C 587. The O. F.Justitt 
meant (i) jualice, and (a) the 
adminlitralor of justice; and this 
double nse of the word is letained 
m English. 

Inyse, i. juitice, judgment, B 795, 
Tbo word it jwys-t, in three syl- 
lables ; Roquefort gives the O. F. 
lb. juist, formed, by lost of d, 
from Lat. iudiei if. I care; Itipt hail, 
I care to have, G 1368; p/.pl. 
Kepte. regarded, tended, B j6q ; 
imp. pi. Kepeth, keep ye, B 764, 
G at6. A.S. cipaa, to keep; 
pi. t. ie t^pie. 

Kepe, I. heed; tai kept, take 
beed, 0353. 360. 

Kerohef, t. kerchief, B 837. From 
O.F. comr, to cover, and tie/, 
the head ; it meant, originally, a 
covering for the head. Cf. cur- 
few, from O. F. covrir, and fni, 

Ein, (.kindred, race, a Sag. A.S. 

cymt, a kin, lineage. 
Kin, adj. kind ; turn kin, of some 

kind, B 1137. A.S. c>nn, akin. 



EiiM, f- '■ ^a^, B 3S5; pi. 
KiMe, C 968 ; pp. Kist, rn pir. 
been tbc7 fciil-tbs; hava kiued 
eich Qtbu, B T074. A. S. cosi, 1 
kin I eytsan, to Uu; c(. O. 

Kitte, /f. I. cut, B 6oo. M, E. 
euMra, tn CM ; 1 Celtic word. C(. 

to ihotleni Gaelic eulaich, to 
curtail, ciuach, doclced; 

■ (No; 


C 666; oi cuJ;'. nuie, B jit. 
A. S. ow^ raa/a, a boy, G. 
Imabt, Icel. butpi, 1 tcrvanl-lad. 
Kuitte, ;(r. to knit, I 47; Kait- 
test thee, pr. i. a p. nf. Itnitleit 
tbytelf, joineit ibysclf, art in con- 
junction, B 307 ; Kc note an p. 
laT. A. S. cnyt'oit. to knit ; from 
t knot, cogrutc witb Du. 



1 (for ^omr*). 

aof-- '- - 
1431. In 
ihe lufEx it the conunon A.S. 
■uffii -<<ieiin 1 in the >b. inoiv- 
iMJlt (our himiiltdgi), the luHix 
seemt to have been iuggcsted by 

Knyght, i. knight, tervuit (of 
God). Q 353. A.S. eiiilu. > 
teirant; cf. G. huchl, 

Kynde, 1. dot. niture, O 41, 659 ; 
race, lineage, lal. A.S, tyad, 
nature. The final t ii due to ibe 
fact that Id all three paiugei it 
ii ■ dative cue. 

Kythe, pr. t. tubj. may shew. B 
636 ; pp. Kythed, ihewn, G 1054, 
A.S. t^Vmi, to niak« known 1 
flroni ntfi, known, which ii the 
p. p. of ciavum, to know. 

X>aM, I. liR, band, G 574. O. F. 

las, lax (F. toes), from Lit. 

laquaii, a nooie. Our Imso ii 

liom the O. Spanith form of the 

■aiue word. (Oioti. 1.) 
IiBbouTi I. endeavonr, B 3S1. 

O. F. labour, Lat. ace. labortm. 
976. a ijo. 

connected with A.S. ASim, to 

Iiadel, s. ladle, H 51. The A.S. 

hladtl meant Ihe handle of ■ 

windlais for drawing water ; from 

Marfan, to lade, draw. 
IiadyM, I. ^. ladiei, B 354. 

Pron. taadtt-ti, ai a trityliable. 

A. S. htdfdigt, ■ lady. 
Iiafte, pi.t.ip.1 left, C 761 ; pp. 

Lafi, G 883. 1311. k.S.lifan, 

to leave; l<A.liifn. 
I.akkstb,^.t. lacks, 0498. a 

Icel. lair, deficient. 
Iiunpe, 1. lamina, thin plate, G 

764.™, alhinplatt " 

1 of u- 

iamina. The i 

crescent f occurs 

wordt in Chancer ; ai in soltrafiu, 

dampru, tmpty, ntmpnm. 

DunpoB, 1. pi. lamps, G 8oa. 

Zdppe, I. skirt or lappet of a gar- 
ment, G la, A. S. lappa, a Jap, 
border, hem ; Du. lap, a remnant, 

I>uw, adj. leu, C 60). A.S. 

lat, leu ; alio Josio. 
XM, imp. permit, let, G 164 ; bt 

lake •= let u 

take, i»54. 

litlaa. to allow, let ; Du. laUH, 

IM«, a^. bte ; Ut llum nmr u 
latt, G 1410. A. S. lat, slow. 

Xifttoun, t. a kind of brass, C 351. 
See the note. O. F. latm (F. 
loiAin), from Low Lat. ace. laton- 




Iiatyiii I. Litb, B 519. 

IiKTi !■ religioui belief, faith, creed, 

B 376, 57*. O.F. W (F. loi), 

Itoai Lat. ace. ligtm. 
Lsohe, I. phjiidaQ, C 916, Q 56, 

A. S. lAee.i phyiician; lafRJan, 

to heal; Golh. I(i(ms, Uiktis, > 

Iiede, V. to goTern, B 434; pr. 1. 

subj. may bring, 357. A.S. 

tidan. SeeLadde. 
Leden, atf'. I«den, O 79S. 
Zieed, 1. lead, O 406, 8aS. A. S. 

Iniif, lead; Itddm, leaden; Du. 

lood, lead. 
Leef, mi/, dear, precious O 1467 ; 

yaa so tttf=so dear to joa, 10 

deiired by yaa, C 760. A.S. 

U/^. dear ; O. HA. The ^. ii 

f«u(, voc. ting. fdiE. See Iieue. 
Xieek, I. leek, i. e. thing of imaU 

value, a 79s. A.S. Udc, a 

herb ; whence gxt-lUi. 
Iises, I. leaih, Q 19. P. laisSM, 

from Lai. laiea, vied to mean a 

loow lope, fern, oilaxus, loose. 
I.eet, pi. I. let, cauwd (to be), B 

95g; let, O 190; im^. (. let, C 

731. See IiBt. 
ZienuuBii, s. (leaf- or lef^man) 

loTei; lit. dearman, B g 1 7. A.S. 

Itif, dear, man, a hunua being of 

ntber lei. Similariy Lannaas 

aoswen to A. S. hldfmastt. 
I>ene, gir. to lend, G 1014, 1037 ; 

fnf. I. lend, lOiG. A. S. Itinai, 

to lend ; from lau, 1 loan. The 

adtUlioQ of excrucent d appean 

alio in sound (F. ion), iind (A. S. 

IionKsr, adj. eomp. longer, B 161 ; 

adv. longer, B 374. A.S. tang, 

long ; comp. imgra, longer. 
ZiBoa, *. ri. people, G 103, 106 ; 

Gk.A(i£s. See the note. 
Leonn, s. lion, B 475. Q 19S. 

O. F. leon ; from Lat, ace. leon^ 

,Xjepo, pr. pi. leap, O 915. A.S. 
VOL. m. B 

Ktdpan, to leap, ran ; Du. loopm, 
to run (whence *4opt, biitr- 
loptr) ; cf. G. iflHftn, to ran. 

Iisre, gir. to learn, B iSi, 63a, C 
335, G 83S. 10.16, 1349 ; v., C 
B?8 ; pris. t. iw6j. may learn, G 
607. Chaucer uses the word 
wtougly; the A.S./i£ran,likeG. 
IthriH, meant to Uach. (Glots. 
II.) See below. 

Lems, ger. to teach, G S441 
Lemed of, taught by, G 74S. 
Chaucei uiei the word wiongly, 
and to doei mod. prov. English. 
The A.S.Inrnian meinC to/mm, 
like mod. O. lirntn. See above. 

EiamiDge, 1. initraction, 0184. 

Laaa, V. loloie, Gaag, 745,833; 

ftr. 0331; I p. I. pra. subj. 
may lose, B 935. A. S. Irdsan, 
to lose; Goth./ra-AuKin. 

IiOBlng, I, lie, a 479 ; pi. Lei- 
ingea, lie*, C 591. A.S. lidsung, 
a Eilsebood ; from A. S. leds, adj. 
meaning (i) looie, (1) filte. 

ZiBita, adj. aiptrl. least, B lOli. 

XiMte, pr. I. adij. impers. it may 
pleuB,B74]; ^. i. sui). It might 
pleaie, 1 36. A. S. lyslaa. 10 
chooie. gea. uied impersonally j 
from 'usl. with, deiire, pleatun. 

Iiet, pi. *. caused, permitted, B 
373. See Lat. 

Late, v. to forsake, B 395 ; gtr, 
331; to leare, 986; ». to let 
out, lose, G 406, s « ; ip.s. pr, 
I let, permit, B 311, 410, lligt let go, give up. G 1049, 
A. S. Itilan, Du. lalm, O. laism. 

Letts. «. to hinder, delay ; tisid 
tnlraia. to caoie delay, B 1117. 
A. S. ItUaii, to hinder ; Du. lillen ; 
Icel. htja, to hold back. From 
A.S.lai, late. 

Letterare, i. literature, book-lote, 
G 846. O. F. Itlrlir: Lat. 

Lettres, a. pi. letters, B 736. The 
M.E. mm, like Lat. liunu. 




often nieani a Uoir, in tbe 

Z>«tii>«i«, 1. dtdnarjr, C 307. 
Lite Lit dlcttiarium. (Gla». I.) 

IiBas, V. to give up, tetve, let 
alone, O 714; g'n-. 10 Toruke, 
aS? J im;. pi. Leueth, lesre ye, 
C 659. A.S. U/on, to leave, 
^TC op ; Icel. I«/a. 

Iiane, pr. i.i p.l believe, G 113 ; 
t p. Leneatow, believeil thou, 
ail. A.S. lyfm, Du. gt-lootitn, 
O. g4aubin, E. ifZiwf. 

Leas, t. leave, permluion, C 84S, 
G 373. A. S, I«i/; leave, 

Iiene, n^'. voe. dear, C 731 ; 
beloved, O 157; fj. lief, dear, 
3S3. The nam. (iag. ii Itif. Se« 

Iiraeflil, adj. peiminible, praite- 
worthy, allowable, Q 5, 1 41. It 
bat neatly the (enx of laafiil, 
but if totally unconnected with 
laa etymologically ; it ii for 
Uavt-ful ; from A. S. Iidf, leave. 

Iiener, adj. totap. rather ; mt airt 
Uutr, it would be dealei to mc, 
I had rather, C 615, H 13; adv. 
O 1376, H 78. Comparative of 
Ittf. Seel^ef. 

IiSwad, ai^. ignorant, B 315, C 
30J, Q 497. 647. 787- A.S. 
litttild, lay. a layman. 

Iiewedly, adv. ignoranlly, ill, O 
430, H 59- See above. 

Xieye, v, to lay a wager, bet, Q 
596 ; pr. we lay out, we 
expend, 783 ; pt. pi. Leyden 
forth, brought forward, B 313; 
pp. Lejd, Uid, O 441. A, S. 
Imgait, pt. L ie Irgdi, pp. plltd. 
Zifa, put for Lai. Lia, i.e. Leah in 
the book of aenecii, Q 96. See 

LloonT. i. Juice. C 451. O. F. 

liqtar, fiom Lat. ace. liquerm, 

liquor, )aice. 
Ideges, I. fl. lubject), R 140. 

F. ligt, bom O. H. O. Itdit (O. 

donbt from confuiion with Lat. 

ligari, to bind. 
Zdftinsa, I. lifting, H 67. 
Lige, adj. liege, C 337. See 

LiBoaunoe, i. allegiance, B 895. 

Iiikerona, adj. gluttonous, dainty, 
greedy, C 540. From O. F. 
Teclur, lichiir, to lick up, be glal- 
tonous, borrowed from O, H. Q. 
i«Aon, M. H. Q. lidUH (G. laim), 
to lick. The i ii due to remem- 
brance of A. S. liceera, a glntton. 
from the ume root. 

IdJie, <. lily, O 87. Lat. miam. 

Xdnage, i. liueage, kindred, B 999. 
O. F, liFiag4, kindred ; from Lat. 
litta. a tine. 

ZiiBt, fr. I. imptn. it pleaiei (him), 
B 510, joi, 766, G »34, I 69; 
pm. is pleated, pleatet, chooiet, 
B 477, G 30, 171 ; Liiteth, 
pleasei, 834 ; pi. 1. imptn. Liite, 
it pleated, 1048, O 1313. List 
it the contr. form of lismh. A. S. 
lyslaa, to please. 

Iiltarse, t. litharge, G 77s. *£i- 
ikargt, protoxide of lead, pro- 
duced bf elpoting melted lead to 
a current of air. It generally 
contain! more or leu ted lead : 
Webiler. Lat. lilkargjna, Gk. 
tkita^yufiu, icum of tilver, from 
AfOot, a itone (hard icum), and 
S/ryvpot, silver. (Gloii. L) 

Iiofbe, 1. {dai.) the air ; hence on 
lojl; in the air, aloft, B 177. 
A.S.;j!rt, air; cf. G. /«;», 

Zioketh, imp. pi. look ye, behold, 
G 1319 ; March ye, C 578. A.& 
Idcian, to look. 

Ziomb, (. lamb, B 459, 617. A.S, 
lomft, a lamb; Du. lam, G. 

Iioiide, (. (dot.) land, B £ia, O 



950. A.S. laid, land; tbe M.S. 

nam. cau it also land. 
IiOnSi P^P-i •'i* phriie whir-on 

, . long — long on uiher, along of 

whit, G 930 ; Long od, along or, 

because of, O 911. A. 5. getang, 

along of, because of. 
I.00S, t. Jiraise. G 1368. O. F. 

Jos, lotc, praise ; a mere adaplation 

of Lat, nom. laus, praiie. 
Itordiosa, i. pi. lin, B 573. C 

jag, I 15. 
Iiore, (. leaching, iniUnctlon, B 

343, O 414: leicning, B 761 ; 

Eludy, O ti4>. A.S. Iiir, teaching. 

Lorn, pp. lort, B 774, 843. A. S. 
lorta, loci ; pp. of li6ian, to 
low ; cf. G. virla-tn, pp. □( 

Iiorten, pt. pi. lost, Q 39B. 
lK>tiiit;ei prts, part, lurking, G 

186. (See the note.) A.S. 

Ittdatt, to lurk ; 11 in Sweet'i 

A. S. Reader, p. 9, 1. 41 ; from 

A. S. Wan, to bow, bend down. 
Lonea, i. pi. loavei, B 503. A. S. 

ktaf; pi. hldfas. 
Lough,/;. J. laughed, 0476,961. 

A. S. ilAhaa, to laugh ; pt. t. ie 

Luora, i. profit, G. 1401. Lit. 

Lono, s. the Moon, G 8>6; a 
name for lilver, 1440, Lat. 

Lunarie, 1. lunary, moon-wort, G 
800. See the note. 

Lore, I. a hawk'i lure, the bail hy 
which a hiwk wai tempifd to 
return to the fowlei'i hand, H 71. 
F. liurrt, a decoy; from Middle 
H. German luoder, > decoy, 

Iitut. I. will, pleaiore. deiire, wish, 
B i38, 761,0 ij^Sj pLLaaei. 

d»irer,CE33. A. S. lutf, pleasure, 

Liute, pt. s. imptrt. it pleated, O 

tiJS ; pers. wai pleated, deilted, 

1344, SeeLiBt. 
Lnstieri adj. camp, mote jojoui, 

Q 1345. 
JiXMjt ^dj. pleitant, O 1401 ; 

Insiy, H 41. Formnl from A. S. 

liat, pleaiore ; cf. Do. lutlig, 

Lntes, I. fl. Intel, B 466. A 

woid of Arabic origin ; lee Web- 

Lrnhte, imp. t. illamine, G 71. 

A.S. gilihtan, to lighten; fiom 

liihl, light. 
LrBlite, pt. a. ahghled, ditmonnted, 

B 786, I104. A.S. Uhtaa. lo 

alight from a horse. 
Lysbtly, adv. eaiily, G 1400, H 

8, 77. A.S. UK light (not 

■^ avy). 

Ltih, I. lime, G 806, 910. A.S. 

lim, lime ; Du, lijm, G, Itim. 
IiymaUle, 5. filings of any metal, 

G 8s3, Ii6a, ng; ; Lymail, 

1164, H67, 1369. From Lat. 

liman, to file ; lima, a fi)e. 
Lytnea, i. pi. linibt, B 461, 771. 

A.S. Jin,Icel. limr, a Umb. 
Lrt "dj. little, G 56J i at 16., « 

little, B 3S3. A.S. Ijt, little, 

few ; also med u a ib. 
Lyt«, adv. little, in a imall degree, 

G 631, 699. Formed from A.S. 

1^1, Utile, by adding the adTctbial 

luffii -«. 
Lytli, pr. I. lieth, i. e. he llei, B 

634. A.S. licgan, to he; pi. 1. 

Lyues, t. pi. gm. louli', lirei', G 

56. A.S./y. life. 
Lynestow, for tyueit thou, i.e. 

lireit thou, C 719. A. S. Ufian, 

tohTc; &Dmlir,iife. 


Uoad, pp. midc, a 1459. 
Uftgeates, t. nujeny, B 1081. 

Ion ; cf. magaus, great. 

Hagnetia, 1. nagaait, G 1455. 
Lit. magniua, to caUcd becauie 
found ia Migneiia, in Thcualy. 
The word magntt bai iti name 
from the ume tource. 

MftiitieB, 1. pi. muttri, B I41. 
O.F. nmisirt. Lit, icc. magii' 
mm ; cf. magaus, great. 

UaiatFie, 1. a maiteil; operation 
(un coup dt taattrt), O 1060, 
O. F. maistrU, from moisfrt, a 

UokeBtow, i. e. makett thou, B 
371 ■,pp.V^i]Lti,Q^Z^. (Chaocei 
aliohaiAfomf.q.T.) A.S.tnacioa, 
la malce; pp. tnaeod. From the 
I a me rool ai E. malch, an 

If ale, s. bag, wallet, G 910, G 566, 
I 16. O. P. audi (F. inaJZf), a 
budget; from O. H. O. malaha, 
a leathern bag. Cf, £. mail in 

HaUooun, 1. cune, O 1345. O.F. 
malitan ; from Lit. ace. mali- 
ditHonim; to alio iMison ii a 
doublet of bnttdklioH. 

UallUble, adj. malleable, luch a< 
can be worked by the hammer, G 
1130. From Lit. malltut, ■ 
hammer, nullef. 

Haust, I. manner, tort, G 414; 
maiur pUjt.kiad of game, CSif; 
manir cKnance, kind of luck, O 
517; nuow la^n, kind of Latin, 
B 519; Maoere, O 45, 141. 
O, F. manitn, manner; fiom 
Lit. moniM, th* hand. 

UanlLiUxhtre, 1. murder, C 593. 

A.S.jl<a>i. toitay, kill. 
Uaria, iaiaj. many, i.e. by St. 

Mary, G lo6a. 
Uuk, 1. 1 {nece of money, of the 

value of 131. ^d. in England, G 

1036 ; pi. Mirk, i. e. mirki, C 

390. See note to C 390. 
MWB (the planet), GS37. 
UuT, I.. marrow, C 543. A.S. 

mtflrA, marrow. (Glo... I.) 
Uued, pp. bewildered, B 5x6, 67S. 

(GloH. L) 


:uck dead, defeated 
ntterly, B 935. O. F. mal, de- 
feated, languid, feeble, G. maU, 
dull. Borrowed from the game 
of cheti, in which ckeei-mali is 
a corruption of Fenian titdh mal, 
the king ii dead ; Diez. 
Hatsre, s. nutter, lubject, affair, B 
333, 411, 581 ; pi. Mileres, 
material! (of 1 lolid chiractet), G 
776; gea. pi. Matirei, of the 
miterials, 770. O.F. matiert, 

JSaaznettija, s. Mihometaniim, 
B 336. Matmit a a corruption 
of Mahomet or Muhammed. 

Uaunolple, i. manciple, H 35, 69, 
103, I I. From Lit. nioB«*j, 1 


and, and capiri 

} tike. 

Uawo, >. ' maw, B 4S6. 

maga, the itomich. (Glois. II.) 
Hay, 1 p. a. pr. I can, B 131, 

1070; Maystow, mayestlhou, G 

336. A.S. magan, to be able; 

pr. t. I'c mieg ; pt. t. ie mikit ; 

Icet. mtga, Q. mogtn. 
May, «. maiden, B 851. A.S. mag. 

L kinsm 

; alio, I 

Maydenhede, t. miidenhood, Q 
I i6. A. S. raagdinhdd. 



Uedle, 1 

meddle, take part In, 
11S4; imp. fl. Medlelh, O 
1414. O. F. nidltr, given by 
Burguy ti inotheiform olnitslir, 
which is the Low L>t. misetilari, 
to mix ; Trom Lat. miscire, to mix. 
Meel, i. meal, B 46G.<iI, 

Uemoiie, i. memory, G 339. 

From Lit. mrmona. 
Hen, s. pi. men, people, folki ; i^tiit 

put for Man, one, with a verb in 

Ihi lingular, C 675. G 391 j gta. 

Mennii, men'i, B loi. 
llece, pr. t. i p. 1 mean, ipeik of, 

S 641, 1474, 1 II ; Menestow, 

m<an«tlhou,G309: I p. a. pi. 

Mente. intended, 099, lojl ; pi. 

I. B 337. A. S. mdnan, lo hive in 

Uene, a<^'. mein, inteimediate, B 
546. Q 1 261. O. F. miie«. moien 
(F. moyen), from Lit 

:ii Lai. n 


hap; from L 

J. lew. 

enger, B 144, 333. F. mn- 
loi-e, Low Lai. tmaalieum, » 
menage, nussaticus, a mcuenget ; 

MeMftger, i. meisen^et, B 714, 

785. F. ituaagtr; lee above. 
The n ii excrescent, at in paistn- 
gir, i. e. passagir. 
Henuttble, adj. moderate, C 515. 
O. F. mtstirablt, Lai. measura- 



Hones, 5. /I, I 

Mermuis, Mercury, the planet, G 

jiarourie, i. meicury. 1. e. qnick- 
lilver, G 77J, 774, 827, 1431, 

Uaaohancsi (. misfortune, B 6ai, 
610; Meichaunce, 896, 9141 
with meschaunce^with ill luck 
(tobim),HlI. O.t.maelieanc 

mirari, lo gaze, wonder at. 
Mia, adj. amiss, wrong, blame- 
woilhy, G 999. Iccl. mi'ssa, a 

Ui9»ueiituce, s. miifortune, B 6ifi. 
O.F. tMiovintiiri. (Note that 
in molt E. words taken fTom the 
French the prefix mis- IS a co> 
loption of O. F. mis, Lat, minus.) 
In native words it is the (totally 
different) A. S.piefij!niK-. 

Mlsbiloue, (. belief of trickery, 
SHspieion, G 1113. Here the 
pieEx is probibly the A,S, mis-. 




, C 369. 

i.e. badly, and cadenlia, 
(torn Lat. eadrri, to fill), happen. 

Mesoheef, s. ttibniatioo. tiouble, 
H 76; misfortune, G 1378; 
Mesthief, 713, IOJ2. O.F. 
vii5c}iie/; from Lat. minus, less, 
badly ; and caput, the head. 

Uesuge, I. errand, B 

J, mitten, glove, C %T>, 
'. milaint, explaiwed by 
■ome as a ludf-^an, from O.H.G. 
naitU, middle ; by othen, more 
probably, as being from a Celtic 
lource. Cr. Gaelic miolag, a 
worsted glove, Irish mitinigk, mil- 

Uodsr, (. mother, B 696 ; gm. 

Modiet,mother'i,C 719,6 1343. 

A.S. midar; cf Icel. m^ir, G. 

nrnlltr, Lat, nautr, Gk, ft^Tiifi, 

Skt. nutrti. 
Hoeblea, t. pi. movable goods, 

personal property, Q 540. From 


cf. F. iB(aN«, 




Hones, s. gtn. moon'i, 
rniina, gen. minaa; 
M. E. gen. u often m 

Uo, adj. mare (in number), B 419, 
C 891, G ao7, 675, 693, 713, 
818 ; othere mo— oiheri beiidet. 

Hot, pr. s.ip.l taast. I have to, 
B 217, 737, 0317, 725 J svbj. 
may, G 634, H 80 ; mot 1 iheen 
^-miy I ibrive, C 309; foule 
mot thee falle^foully (i.e. ill) 
may it happen to thee, H 40 ; ^. 
s. 1 p, Moste. I must, I ought, B 
2S2 ; pi. s. most, had to, B gg6, 
G 513; sabj. might. B 380; VI 
moile^it limit be for ni, i.e. it 
should be our reiolTe, G 946. 
A. S. ie mttt, I may ; pt. t. tt 
misit, 1 ought 10, 1 niusl. 

Xotyt, I. motive, incitement, B 
6a8. F. n«,lif: from mouvdr. 

! of o 


IS Ihec 

the word raort commonly nie 
greater in lize, uted » the coi 
of micili, great. 
Hooder, s. mothei, B 176. 

UoomlDKi I. mourning, B 6 

Hoot, pr. I. must, ii to, B a 
See Hot. 

ICoroUtea, i. molality, i. e. a mc 
tale, I 38. From Lat mo 

Uora and lesea, gieil 



Uountanoa, s, ai 
C 863. O. F. Bi 
value; from sionier. (0 mount; 
which from Bioni; a mounUin ; 

Mow, I p. s. pr. subj. mayeit.G 
460; pi. Mowe, may, can. Q 
510, 780, 909 J I p. pr. t'. 
Mowen. we cannot. From A. S, 
magaa, to be able. 

MojBty, adj, new (appUed to ale), 
H 60; Moiite, C 315. O.F. 
moUu (F. moirt); from " 
TnuueaSy adj. of mmtum. 

. rubbish, refuse, 

B 959. See 

s of 

Uortlfls, V. to mortify; lit. to 
kill; uted of producing change 
by chemtcil action, G 1431 (see 
note to the line); Mortifre, ll}6. 
From Lat. mors, death. 

Uorwe. (. moriow, morn ; by lii 
moruM, early in the morning, at 
dawn, H 16. A.S. norgta, 
morning. By change of £■ to lu 

by dropping n, which it mod. E. 
morroui. Direct contraction, with 
lou of g, give) mom. 


English, ed. Morris and Skeat. 

Mullai is a diminnlive. It is 

connected with mould. 
UultipIlcBcioun. s. multiplying, 

i. e. the art of alchemy, G 849. 
Uultiplye, v. to make gold and 

silver by tt 

s of alct 

9. 731- 
Mused, pi, s. pondered, considered, 

B 1033. F. ini,«r, to loiter, 

Myle. s. pi. miles. G 556; of. 

Myles in 1. 561. In the former 

case the older foini it retained j 



cS. A. S. mlla. the pl«r»l nom. 

the \ta, B 6>i, C 813, O 717. 

gen, and bcc. of mil. Urn. sb. 

A. S. na, not, >j, on that acconat. 

Ijnde, t. memoij, B 527; re- 

intltomental case ofs«, ui, ^al. 

menibranee,908, II»7; tomyiide 

Thus it means—' Dot leu on that 

= to (my) memory, 788. A.S. 

"lyd, gtmynd, memory, rrom 

NftuaM, adv. not, not 10, G iftg. 

mifflOB, gimunan, to remember. 

From mgiu, witli ni pieGzcd; E. 

It {> the S9 
Nft7, adv. no {anaeering a dmptt 
gitsliBn), B 740; nay. G 1339. 
Cf. Icel. aii, nay ; the A. S. ad 

From M.DIL mijt, mill, a very 

is our no 

■mall coin, a mite, a bit cut off. 

Nayles. ..V- n»il'. C aSS, 651. 

Cf. IceL IW.M. to cut. 

See note t^ C 65I. 

ITa. a*, not; nt doli, do ye not. 

C 745 i «>«J- "or, C 619. A. S. 


JTooessarie, adj. necessary; H 95. 

Nidde. /(, /;, had not, G 879, 

H51. ¥otBi hadde. 

ITede, s, dat. need, necessity, B 

Naked, pp. oi adj. destilDte, void, 

6j8 ; ^. NedGi, oecessaty things. 

weak, G 486. A. S. nacod, naked. 

business, 174J needs, G 178, 

a pp, form. The verb W aaii, 

A.S. nidd, need; cognate with 

to lay bare, is used by Chaucer in 

G. BO/i. 

"Staoypt. i. took.G. 1197. A.S. 

ii8o. Originall/ a dat. ate of 

niman, to take; pt. t. ic nam; 

the sb. See above. 

cf. Q. nehiaia, to take. 

Weda. u. to be necessary. B 871. 

JTamely. adv. especially, B 563, 

The A. S. niddaa, to compel, is 


usually transitive. 

St. mo, L t. no more, none else, B 

Ifadlea, 1. gtn, needle's. 440. 

. 693; Namo,Q543. See Mo. 

A.S. «iiH, a needle: G. nadil; 

ITamora, adv. no more, never 

cf. Lat. »tn, to sew. 

again, B Ilia, C 963, Q 65I, 

ITear, adj. neater. G 7JI, Com- 


parative of nnj-i (A. S. ntoK), 

ITappeth, pr. s. naps, slumbers, 

nigh. See below. 

nods, 118. A.S. hnappian, to 

Nalgh, pnp. nigh. B 550. A.S. 

B(dA,nigh; nigherj 

Nart. ybr ne art, i.e. art not. O 

superl. lUahsta, nikila, whence E. 



Has, for ne was, i.e. wis not, B 

fSS. I09' '9'' 938- 

111. neck-bone. B 669. A.S. 

Nat, adv. not, H aj ; Nat but. 

hntcca, the neck (whence niHi ji 

only, C 403. Cf, prov. E. floi6a( 

dissyllabic), and 6.iii, bone. 

{i.e. not but), only. 

Nempnen, t-. to name, B 507. 

H-at,ybr ne at, i.e. not at (see note. 

A. S. neamoB, to name ; from 

p. 6). B 390. So also Chaucer 

nama, a name; cf. Lai. nomm. 1 

has mn for » in ; see Gloss. 11. 

name. The p ii eieiescenl ; tee 

Iitunpe, Bnxpto. 




Wore, p. », ailj. wera not (put for 
ne wne>, B 54?, G 1361. 

NaiMr the neer, ^Ar. never the 
nearer, none the nuier, O 731. 

ITeueradel, adv. not 1 bit, C 670. 

See Del. 
Neoena, v. to name, O ii\; pr. 

pi- Affrf', miy aune, may mention, 

147 J. led. «^a, to name; 

no/fi, a name ; tee Nempne. 
Nexte, adj. next, nearest, B 807, 

C 870. See ireigh. 
ira, I /. s. /^. I will not. G 1463 : 

pr. 1. will not, B 978. A. S. 

nyltaa, to be unwilUnK ; cf. Lat, 

Via, for at ii,k not, B 319, C 861, 

tj, 919. 

irist«, ;/, s. knew not. B 384. Q 
tl6, A. S. nrtoii, not to know ; 
pt, t. ic nysle ; from nt, not, and 
wilan, to know. 

ITobledeBt, pi. >. 3 ^. ennoUedeit, 
dtdil ennoble, O 40. A tranib* 
lion of Dante'i nod'Iitaifi ; i«th« 

Nobles, I. fl. gold coins woith 
6j. 8d. ; C 907, a 1365. 

XToblesse, i. nobility, woitby be- 
harioui, B 185, J48. F. noMtsst j 
Low Lat Bobilitia ; fiota nobdis, 

Nobley, 1. nobility, assembly of 
nobles, O 441). Cf. O. F. labloier, 
to look noble. 

Nodde, V. to nod, H 47. A Low- 
German word, cognate with 
O.H.Q. BWWon, knolan, to shake. 
The Lit. nutrt, 10 nod, ihewi the 
root ; nulan is but 1 frequentitive, 
so that the I in it doei not answer 
10 the E. d. 

Kolde, for ne wolde, I would not, 

1 should not desire, G 1 334; pi. pi. 
Nolde, would not, 395. See Nil. 

Moot, jar ne wot, pr. i. i ;. I 
know not, B 893, loig, G 
II48; Not, B J43, C816.HS3. 

AS, ic udl, I know not, from 
nylan, not to know. 
lTorioe,s.niirie,Gi. O.T.norUi, 

ITo-thlilEi adv. in no respect, B 
576, 971, C 764 J not at all, C 
404. 433, G 1036. 

Notil^ed, pp. mide known, pro- 
claimed, B 156. Lat. notifieart, 
to make known ; no/us, known. 

JTought, I. nothing, C 54J. G 
I40T ; in no respect, B 40O. See 
Nausllt.^. foolish, weak, BioS8,G 
49J. ('47. 84), H 69, F. nki, Sp. 
nicio. Port, taseh, or nicio, Lat. 
neiciut, ignorant. See Glois. II. 

Nyoetee, >. folly, Q 463, 495. 

Nyglitlnsale, i. nightingale, G 

1343. A. S. raSw^-aS, kel. naar. 
gali, G. nachligall. The n is 
apparency excrescent. The word 
meani nighlsiagir ; A. S. galan, 

O, num. one, B IIJ6, Q 340. 
Shortened from on or son ; see 

Oooident, t. West, B »97. From 

Lat. ace. oecidmltm. 
Oooupletli, pr, 1. takes np, dwells 

in, B 434. From Lit. occapare. 
Of, prep, during, B 510; with, O 

6a6. A-S-o/. 
Offlreth, imp. pi. l p. offer ye, C 

910. A.S. offrian, to offer; 

merely borrowed from Lat. offtm. 
Of-newe, adv. newly, liiely, O 

1043. Hence E. antvi. 
Ofte, adv. often, 8278. 
Onaa, adv. 1 

C 696 ; 11 


^ II II 

Oo. ad}, one, Q 107. See Otn 

Ook, (. oak, C 765. 

mi, G, licit. 
Oon, adj. one, B »7I, 334, 

one and the same, C 333 ; 

oon-lhe one, £66. A.! 

led. «nn, Qolh, aim, Lat. 
OpprsBsa, V. to put down. 

From Lat, afprimtri. 
Or, arfv, «e, befoie, G 314: 

^ 373- A. S. or, before ; ai 

A. S. de, Icel, 


Oidliuitua*, c. ordaining, govern* 
ance, arrangement, B 763, Soj ; 
provliion, 350. See above. 

Otdte, >. order, diu, Q 995. F. 
ordrt, from Lat. ace. ortAium. 

OrganB, i. pi. 'organs,' the old 
■ If of organ, G 134; tee 

the 1 

Or i 

organa; from 01c. Spfivor, an 

Lmplemenl ; from lp-(t,v, to work, 

OrlBOns, J. pi. prayers, B 537, 

596. O, P. omoR, from Lat. ace. 

orplment, G 759, 
Irpimtni, iri-inlpbide 


774.813. ' Oi^frawa/, iri-iolpbi 
of anenic ; it occurs in nilnre ai 
an ore of anenic, and ii uinallj 
in combination with realgar, or 
led lulphuret of arfenic ; ' Weth 
.ter. P. orpiminl, Lai. a«ripig- 
miHium ; from aurum, gold, and 
pigmmlvm, a pigment or paint. 

A Hebcev pt 

we pray.' 

Otes, I. pi. oai 

!cel. ««■, - 

aie ; meaning ' lave, 
,0375. A.S. dta. 

Other . . . other, either ... or, B 
1136, G 1147. In the first 
initance, the second olhtr ii 
written in the contneted form or 
(which i) short for orter), 

Othsrea, pron. ting, each other**, 

lit, of the other, C 476. A. 
ifBtr, Dd. aadir, Icel. aiHC 
Qolh. anihar. llie E. form b 

Otier, prep, over, above (proa, 
rapidly), B 377 ; ouer her might 
- 10 encess, C 468. A. S. o/er, 
Icel. jr/lr, G. ubcr. 

Oneral, adv. everywhere, geneially, 
O 507. Cf. 0. ubtrall. 

Onerdone, pp. overdone, carried 
to exccH, G G45. A. S, ofinlia. 

Ouai -greet, adj. 

> great, G 

Onenaks, v. to overtake, attain 

to. G G8a. 
OnE^t, ». anything of value, Q 

1333. A.S. i^ir. 
Onshte, pi. t. became ; ai him 

1097 J 

1 fit, 

igtile be = it wai fit for tbem.O 
1340; pt. I. cubj. it would be- 
come, at in ougbte vs— it would 
become us, it wonld be our duty, 
14; 1 p. pi. pi. Oughien, we 
ought, 6. A. S. owe, to 
own ; pr. t. I'c ah, I own ; pt. t. 
it Aktt,l ought. 

OnnoeB, i. pi. ounces, O 7;6. 
From Lat. unci'a. 

Otires, fojj. ^s. outi, C 786. 

Outen, II, 10 come out with, otter, 
display, elhibil, G 834. 

10 put 0. 

cf. O. 

H. G.uzi 

OatraseoiiB, adj. violent, excet- 
nve, C 650. From F. aulrtr, 
O. F, ellrtr, to pats beyond 
bounds: O.F. ollrt, Lat, u/A-a, 

Ontrely, adv. utterly, C 849. 

OtLt-takoD, pp. excepted (tit taken 

It). I 





Overaloppe, j. upptr^girment, Q 
633. See note. Cf. led. »fr- 
iloppr, an upper or one gkciaeat ; 
ef. E. slop, in the eompouiid 
' siop-thop.' 

Owan, adj. own, B 105S, C 834 ; 
f/. Owene, Q I154. A. S. dgai, 
own ; from of an, to poiicsi. Cf. 
Icel. tiginn, awo, from lige, to 

Owethj ^. t. owneth. ovni, pos- 
Kuet, C 361. A. S. igan, to 
pouns; Icel. nga. 

Owher, a^. nifwhrre, G 83S. 
A, S, dhvAr, inywhera. 

Oyles, I. pi. oili, Q 856. Fiom 

Fftu, 1. pace, foot-pace, O 575 
(ice the note)j gon a pauago 
at a foot pice, C 866. From 


a fiTourite medicine;* Plowen of 
the Field, by C. A. Johni. • Pari- 
lairt, pelliloiy of the wall ; ' Cot- 
grare. From Lat. pants, a 

Pas, I. pace, B 399 ; pi. Pat, paeei, 

movementi, 306. See Faos. 
Foaaeii, v. to lurpais. outdo. Q 

857. SeePaoB. 
FoiBinBi adj. luipauiug, excellent, 

Patente, i, a letter of privilege, to 

called beauie opn to ail men's 

inspection, C 337. From Lat, 

paltri, to lie <^n. 
Paoe, V. to piTC, O 6a6. From 

Lai. pauiri, to tam or beat do¥m 

earth { cf. Ok. wnXfU', to itiike. 
Tajene, i. pi. pagani, B 534. F, 

paun, Lat. pagaaus, prop, a 

Tillager. See Heth«n. 
Peea, s. peace, G 44; in peel > in 

lilence. B 12E. O. F. pf, Lat, 


pau irom, D 105. F. paisir. 

Low Lat. passart, to past over. 

From pandirt. 
Palled, adj. enfeebled, languid, H 

55. It ii connected with palt, 

uot with W, pallv, to fail, W. 

^aU, loii of eneigjr, S^AppaUid 

in Mnrraj'i Diet. 
Ptlm, t. palmbranch, G 14a. Lat. 

Faimei t. a pan, O laio. A dis- 
tjUabic word. A. S. and Icel. 

PmnentuTs, adv. peiadvenlure, 

perhapi, B igo. 
Pai cu, by chance, B 8S5. 
Parde, inurj. F. pat Dieq, C 67*. 
PtK&r, imtrj. by ray faitb, verily, 

B&4g. O.P.par/ti. 
Parflt. adj. pwfect, G 353, F. 

par/ail, Lat. pir/iclus. 
Faritorie, i. pellilory, Pariilaria 

ojpniuju, G 581. • In rural di»- 

Pees, intirj. peace 1 i 
3 9S'- 

lb I 1 

Pens, >. pi. pence, C 376. (N. B. 

PtHS wai pronounced with iharp 

t, ai in paisHVt, not with z, *i iu 

thepl. Qf/«fl,) 
Fepeer, s. pepper, Q 761. From 

Lat. ^prr, Skt. pippali. 
PerauentiiTe, o^i;. perhapi, per* 

chance, C 935, H 71. See 

Peroen, pr. pi. pierce, O 911, F. 

Ferfit, adj. perfect, I 50. See 

Fsrseusratmoei s. continuance, G 

443. See below. 
FsFssnereUi, pr. s. btteth, C 497. 

From Lat. ptrsaarart. 
Psrseueiiiigei t. penererance, Q 

parMHl, I 33. FroED 



Peyne, i. pain, O 1398 ; peiultj, 
H S6. F. feint. Lit. poena. 

Peyne, pr. t. i p. refi. I peyne me 
= 1 like piins, C 330, 395; pr. 
I. Tefi. Peyneth hir, endearovct, B 

Peytrel, i. pcoperlr, (he breast- 
plate of a hone in aimour ; bete 
used for Ibe breast-plale of a 
borie'f hirnesj, G 564. Cf. O. F. 

elral (Roquefort), Ft, poilTaii. 
I. pfcioroU ; fram Lit. feclus, 

Philaaophis, i. pbilosopber, O 
490; pi. Philosophres, 1417. 

Pinohen, ger. to find fault, H 74. 
F. pincer, O. F. pinser (for pieer), 
from a Low Oerman souicej cf. 
Old Dutch ^Vun, to pinch ; Q. 
p/elztn, to cut; O.H. G. p/izzen, 
to pinch ; Dies. 

Pitee, s. pity, B 191, 660. F. 
/lind, O. F. piltd, Lat. ace. fnVfii- 
lem. (Olois. IL) 

Pitoua, oi^'. pitiful, sad, B 449. 

FitiOUBly, adv. piteously, B 1059, 

Plages, regions. B 543. From 
Lat. plaga, a tegion. Used twice 
by Chaucer in bis Treatise on the 
Astrolabe (ed. Skeat, i. 5. r, "■ 
31. 10) to signify 'quaiteri of 
the compao.' 

Flantayn, i. planuia, O 531. F. 
plaalain, from Lat. ace. planlagi- 
ntm. Cf. Romeo and Juliet, i. 1. 
5 J — *Yout plantain-leaf is eicel- 
lent For ibit.' The A. S. name 
was viegbrade, lit. way-broad {aol 
way bread) ; tee weg-bridt, in 
Gloss. 10 Cockayne's Xeechdomi. 

Plat, adv. bluntly, flatly, openly, 
phinly, B 886. C 648, ¥. plat, 
flat ; from O. H. O. ; G. plan. 

Playn, adv. plainly, cleatlj, B 99a. 
F. plain, Lat. planus. See 

Plesanoe, i. pleasure, will, delight. 
D I49, 17S, 762, 1140, F. 


iRCf; from Lat. plat. 

Fleyn, adj. plain, clear, B 314. 

F. plain, Lat. pianos. See 

Playn, adv. plainly, cleatly, B 886, 

G360. SeeahoK. 
Pleyn, adj. foil, G 346. F.pteia, 

L^t. plenum. 
Pleyne, v. to complain, lament, B 

1067, Cgli. F.plaiadre, Lat. 

FlsynteB, s. fl. compliinti. lamen- 
tations, B 106S. O. F. plainle. 

Lit plaaclus, a lament 
Plyght, pp. pledged, plighted, C 

702. A.S. pliktan, to pledge; 

pp. geplihl ; ptiki, a pledge ; G, 

fiflickt, 1 duly. 
Plyte, i. plight, .late, O 951. 

O. F. plisle, plyie, state, condition i 

Point, I. ; in point->Dn the point, 

ready (to), B 33., 9I0. F. 

^nf, Lat. pimclum. 
FoketB, J. pi. pockets, i.e. little 

bags, O SoS. Icel.^jli, a poke. 

! Norm 

I. poqut 

(F. poche), a pocket, pouch j with 
F. dimin. suffix. 

Pokkea, s. pi. pacta, pustules, C 
35S. A. S. poe. Du. foi, a pock, 
pustule. Small pon is a corrupt 
form of ' the small pocks." 

Polcat, 1. polecat, C 855. 

Polioye, I. public business, C 600. 
From Ok. v^ii, 1 itale, city; 
whence soAiTcfa, administration, 
Latinised ai polilia, and ttience 
adopted into French. 

Pomely, adj. dapple ; in the com- 
pound potnely gris, i. e. dapple- 
gtsy. G 559 i '^^- Prologue, 616. 
CotgraYe has — ' Gris pommtli, a 
dapple gray.' Also — ■ Pommeld,' 
daple, 01 dapled ; alio roand. or 
plump ai an apple.' And again 
— ' Pommeler, to grow round, or 
plump like an ipple ; also, to 




diple," Dapplt, by (he way, ii 
from ihe verb to dab, and Wedg- 
wood well rematki, — 'The re- 
■embtince of dappli-gray to O. N. 
apalgrdr, or apple gray, Fr. grit 
pommdi, ii accidental.' 

Foi^itinrla, s. porphyi/, i.e. iitab 
of porphjry used ai > moitar, 
Q 776- From Lm. porpkyrilts. 
Git. vo/rpvplTtti, like purple ; from 
wop^ipa, purple. 

Pose, s. a cold in the head. K 6a. 
A. S. gipost, a itnSing or cold 
in the head. 

Fotage, ■. broth, C 368. (GIoii. 


Fotheouls, (. ipotheciiy, C 851. 
Poadre, I. powder, Q 760; pi. 

Poudres. 807. F. pcaidre, O.F. 

poldre, Lat, tec. puluirtm, dust. 
Pouert, I. poTeily, C 441. O. F, 

poverli, "Lil. pauperlaltm. 
Pound, s. pi. ponndi, G 1364. 

A. S. pund, a pound; pi. pund. 

So we tiy,—^ a Rvt-pound note.* 
Ponped, pp. blown, H 90. An 

imitative word. See Qlou. I. 
Pooren, 1 p. s. pr. we pore, gaze 

steadily, O 670. 
Fonreat, adj. svptrl. poorect, C 

149. O. F. povn, Lat-pavpir. 
Poynt, I, a itop, O 1480. See 

FredloMloni), >. preaching, ter- 

moD, C 345, 407. From Lit. 

pratdicari, to preach. 
Preef, i. the tcti, H 75; a teit, 

proof, O 968, 1379. Ct F. 

prouvtr, Lat. probart, to prove. 

See Prsue. 
Frees, t. preis, throng, B J93, 64G, 

677. F. prtssti from Lat. prt- 

Prefectea, 1. pi. prefecli, Q 369, 
L,.t. pra.ficlu,. 

PreuB, i". to prove, i.e. bide the 
tHt, Q 6^s i 10 prove 10 be 
right, to lueceed when leitcd. 
Ilia; ^. Preued, teiled, 1336. 

Cf. F. prouvtr, Lai. prtAart, to 
test. But it ii not certain that 
provi is a French word ; we End 
also A. S. prdjjaa, Icel. prd/a, 
O. prU/tn, to prove, try. ' For 
^eof he bi% to prifianat, he is 
to be held to be a thief;' Laws 
of Ine (a. d. 689-738) ; cap, it. 

Frayde, pi. 1. prayed, besought, B 
391. O.F. prtiir, Lai. prtcari, 
to pray. 

Preyere, i. prayer, G 356 T Preyet, 

H 6, O.I.pritri.pritn. 
Prlked, pp. spurred, G 561. A. S. 

pricdm, to prick, goad ; Du. 

Friuea, adj. privy, private, secret, 

B 304, C 67s ; Priuy, G 1451. 

F. pnvi, Lat. priualus. 
Priuetee, s. secret connscl, secrecy, 

B 548, G losa, 1138; Priujte, 

Q 701. 
Pro&e, 1 p. I. pr. subj. mayst 

proffer, mayit ofiet, G 489. O. F. 

pTofrir, porofrir, to pro^; Lat. 

pro and offirn. 
VioMe, pr. pi. a p. ye prowl, ptowl 

abont, search widely, G J4II. 

See Prollyn, and Prollynge, in 

Prompt. Patv. The origin o! it 

is doubtful. 
Propl^i odj- ^"'i handrome, C 

309. F. proprt, proper; Lat. 

TioBe, I. prose, I 46. F. proa, 

Lat. prosa. 
Froteat&oioim, s. protest, I 59. 
Prow, J. profit, advantage, C 300, 

Q 609. O. F. prcu, prod, gain, 

advantage; the source appears in 

Lat. prod-tit, it is advantageous. 
Prye, v. to pry, look, peer, G 668, 

Origin unknown. Perhaps tt is 

merely a peculiar use of F. 

priir, to pray; also, to beseech, 

Prynui, 1. prime; uied in Chancer, 

apparently, to signify 9 a.m., C 

661. (Gloss. n.J 




fit, C 391. Lat. QuytB, 

Pulpet, • 

Furoluwen, gir. to parduce, ao 

quire, G 1405; imp. i. Puichice, 

ro*)- (He) proride. B 873. F. 

pourehassfr, to bunt after, acquire. 
FoTged, pp. abiolred, clMnEed 

(by biptiim), Q 18 1. Lat. 

purgart, to purify. 
FnrpoH, I. purpose, design, B 170. 

F. propos. Lit. proposihim. The 

verb to pvrpou it both proposer 

and purposer in Old French. 
Purses, s. ^. pursei, Q 1404. F. 

tourse, Gk. 0bpaa. a ikin. 
FuTveionoe, i. cquipmeut, B 147; 

providence, 483. F, pourvoir 

(O. F. porvoir), to purvey or 

provide ; Lat. prouidert. 
Pye, (.magpie. G £65. F.pit, 

Fyne, >. lufTering, B 1080. A.S. 
pin, pain ; Icel. piaa, to lornwnt. 


Quelle, V. to kill, C 854; imp. s. 
may (he) kill, G 705. M. E. 
cidltn, Icel. iolla, to h{t on the 
head, 10 harm, from Mir, head, 
top, givei E. kill; but qatll i> the 
A. S. ctiiellan. 

Queue, s. queen, G io8(); Qpeene. 
B 161. A. S. fu^ Gk. Tui^, > 
woman. It it remarkable that 
Chaucer makei it a diuyllabic 
word ; tee also Glofi. H. 

Queynte, adj. pi. itrange, Q 75a. 
O. F. coinli. iuitmcted, Lat. 
cognitia, known: but it leemt 
to have been influenced by Lat. 

repay (lit. quit), G 
736> 1015 ! Quyten, 1037 ; 
Quyte with-to repay , . . with, 
105s ; 'o 'atiify, pay in full, B 
354: Ql7'« ^'' whyle-requite 
her time or trouble, lit. repay hn 
time, i.e. her occupation, paiiii, 
trouble, B 584 ; I p. s, pr. I 
requite, C 410 ; pp. Quit, freed, 
G 66, 443. O. F. guiler (F, 
jwHtr), Lat. qaielari, to quiet. 

Bad, /i^. read, G III. See Bede. 

Bttmmisli, adj. ramlike, ilrong- 
icenled, O 887. Cf. IceL ramr, 
ifrong, fetid J which 11 probably 
closely related to A. S. ramm, a 

Bonoour, i. rancour, ill-feeling, H 
97. O. F. roncof, roBCVer, ran- 
tvri (F. Toncimt) ; from Lat. ace. 
rancorim, a rankling. 

Bape, V. to match up; rape and 
ream, teize and plunder, G I431. 
See the note. The Icel. hrapa 
meant to ntih, to hurry; the 
proper word to uie in thit phraie 
would rather have been rive ; but 
there wai probably a confution 

A,S. r 

or) has 1 


O 4S1. A. a. emccaa, 10 m 
alive ; cf. Icel. itiiina. to tevi 
from A.S. nuic, IceL kvHr, ali 

for the originul Icel. hrapa (or 

ri/sa) oi rana. See Benue. 

Bather, adv. iooner, earlier (in 

ike alive, quicken, point of lime), B its,. 335, c 

643, A.S. iroKe, toon ; AroSor, 

Bsttes, s. pi. rait, C 8 

. A. S. 

Baue, I p. pi. pres. vre rave, we 
■peak madly, C 959. Etym. 
doobtful. Roquefort givci i 



O. F. ravtr. to run about. Cf. 
Lit. rnbere, to be mad ; from 
which, hoircTcc, the F. bai enrager, 

Beoohe, i p. e. frts. I iccb. G 
489. A. S. ritan, let). r<xija, O. 
Flemiih rotktH. See Bekke. 

Zl«eahelee>>, adj. cirelest, indif- 
ferent (lit. iecklMi),B a 39. A.S. 
ntctltdi I cf. Du. roehloot. 

Beeeit, 1. lecetpt. i. e. recipe fi>r 
making » mixture. Q 1355, 1366. 
Rical li Itom Lat. pp. rKtfha ; 
TCcipi a the Lit. imperiti»e sin- 
gular from the same rerb, viz. 

H«oeyiied, pp. accepted (as con- 
genial), acceptable, B 307. F, 
rtitvoir, Lat. ncipm. 

Beolaynte, v. to reclaim, ai a 
hawk by 1 lure, i.e. check, H 72. 
From I^t. rt, back, and clamare, 
to call. 

Beoonuuidetli, pr. s. rift, com- 
mend, (herself), B 178; gcr. 

O 544. Lat. «, bad:; cm, 
with ; mBidart. to hand over. 

B«de, V. lo lead, G 206 ; \ p. s. 
pr. I read, B 1095, C 508; I 
advise, C 793. 941, G 501, looS, 
'475; PP- i^ad. "»d, G an. 
A.S. rtWoB, to read, lo advise; 
cf. G. rathm, to advise. 

Bede, adj. as A. red. 


ne, C 

516, sSj; pi. Rede, r. 

tags. A.S. ridd, red; Icei. 

roirffr. a, ro/A. The indef. form 

arttd.q.T.; r«c(< is def, or plural. 
Bedily, adv. quickly, C 667. A.S. 

rod, rSd, ready. 
Bead, i, coudkI, advice, C 744. 

A. S. rcirf; cf. G. riUi, 
Bead, ai$. ted, ruddy, B 45 a, H 

20. See B«de. 
Beednease, i. rednci*, G 1097, 

1100. See above. 
B«Ait, s. place of refuge, refuge, B 

546, Sj), Q 75. Cf. O. F. rtjui. 

refuge; 1,3.1. rtfugiar. 
-- ■ il for tt 

It is 

F. ffilt. Bight, from Lat. pp. 

Begne, 1. kingdom, realm, B 389, 
39»' 735 ; P'- Rtgn«. kingdoms, 
181. Y.regnt.lkl.ngnum. 

Bagnath, pr. >. reigneth, has 
dominion, B 776. From Lat. 

BalieTSe, v. to rehearse, recount, G 
786. O.F. nhtrctr, to repeal, 
lit. to hamnv over again ; from 
htrct, Lat. ace hrrpictm, a har- 
row (Varro). SeeGlou. L 

Behersallla, i. rehearul. enume- 
ration, a 85a. Sec above. 

Bekenmgiaa, s. pi. reckonings. H 
74. A.S. Ticaan, to reckon. 

Bakke, pr. s. 1 p.l reck, care, C 
405; imp. s. ceck, care, G 698: 
fr. I. Rekkclh, acconnts, cares, 
63], See Beootis. 

Bekne, gtr. to reckon, B 158. 
A. S. reman, to reckon ; G. 

Baleea, 1, relaxation, c 

ling i o^r 

o/rrf«s, without ceasing, O 46. 

O. F. rdis, rtlais, reTaxalion ; 

from the verb relessir (F. rdats- 

ttr), which ii the Lat. rilaicart. 

to relax ; from /mm, loose. 
Balente, v. to meh, Q 117S. 

From prefix rt-, again ; and Lat. 

Inlari, to bend ; from Lat. 

ttntvi, pliant. 
Belessa, v. lo relieve, relax, B 

1069. O.F.rtltiur(F.rilaisstr), 

to relax ; Lat. retaxari, to relax ; 

from laxus, lax, loose. 
Beleued, pp. relieved, made rich 

again, Q 873. Lat. rdtuari, to 

lift up again. 
BemaDBnt. i. rem: 

G 1004. From Lat n 



Banegat, i. reatgade, ipostale, B 
931. Low Lai, retagatvs, one 
vho bat abjured hit faith ; from 
lugart, to den/. See below. 

Beneye, v. to lenonnce, abjure, B 
376. Q j68, 448. 4S9 ! ip.s. 
pr. subj. I (may) renounce. 464 ; 
pi. pi. I p. we abjured, B 340 ; 
ff, Renejed, 915. Lat. rtnt- 
gart, to adjure, tenounce, deny ; 
kam nigart, to deny. Shake- 
ipeare usei tbe Lat. farm rtnegi. 
King Lear, ii. ». 84; Ant. and 
Cleop. i. 1.8. 

Beime, gtr. to nin, C 796. G 
I415 ; pr, I. Rennetb, runt, 905. 
A. S. rmnon, yman, 10 ran ; Icel, 

Benne, v. lo rantick, plunder ; but 
only in Ihi phrase rape and renne, 
teize and plunder, G 14]]. See 
the DOtfl. Icel. nvna, to phinder ; 
ran, plunder ; which ippeari in 
E. ransaci. The word tut been 
turned into rant, which properly 
meant lo run. See above ; and 

BflQte, <. rent, toll, B 114a. P. 

raili, from F. itndre. Lit. rid- 

dire, to reitore, render. 
Bepolreth, pr. i. retnrns, B 967. 

O. F. ripmriir— 111}, ripalriari, 

from Lit. patria, native country. 

Boplet, adj. full, replete, C 489. 
Lat. riplelus. 

Beprenable, adj. reprehensible, C 
631. See belov. 

Bepreue, v. to reprove, H Jo ; 
pr, t. Repreuetb, 1 33. From 
Lat. nprobari; whence G.F. 
riprover, to reprove. 

Bapnue, I, reproof, ihame, C 
595. See above. 

Seaalgai, 1. realgar, O Si 4. 
'RalgaT, a combination of sul- 
phur aud artenic, of a brilliant 
red colour as euiting in nature ; 
ted oipnient;' Webiier, F. 


rfalgar, answering to an O. F. 

risalgar. Low Lit. risigalltim. ■ 
B«ap7t, 1. respite, delay (of dea^), 

G 54^ O. F. nspil, (F. ripi/), 

Lat. nspiclut, 1 respect, regard, 

looking back. Hence rnpiu and 

rapM are doubleti. 
Besteleea, adj. restless, C 718. 

A.S. re$l, rest, r^ioie. Distinct 

remain, Lat. resiari. 
Bene, gir. to take away, G 37G, 

A. S. ridfian, to rob ; whence E. 

Bewa, V. to suffer for, do penance 

for, O 997 ; imp, s. have pity ; 

2 853 ; f. I. a p. Revest, hast 

pityi ^54. A.S. hridman, to 

grieve ; lioni hriAui, grief. 
BewfuJ, adj. lorrowful, sad, B 

854. See above. 
Bawtha, (. pity, ruth, B 519, G54, 

689 ; us adj. pittfnl, 1053. 

Formed from tbe verb to roBi 



hn&ui, grief. Still, the Icel. 
has hryggiS, 

Bewtha^B, adj. pitileit, B 863. 

BaTW, go: to raise, G 861. Icel. 
riUa. to raise; the A.S. it 
riraa, whence E. nor. 

Blbaudye, i. ribaldry, ribald jest- 
ing, C 334. O. F. ribald, Low 
t^t. ribaldus, a ribald, a worth- 
le» relloV. 

Biden, pi. pi. rode, C 968. See 

BiuBes, s. pi. ringi, C 90S. A. S. 
hring, Icel. hringr; cognate with 
Lat. ri«uj, whtnceE. «rc/». 

BiBt, pr, i. conir. tiseth, riiei, B SG4. 

Bit, pr, t. rides (conlt. from 
ridilh), a 608, H 79. 

Boioltae, s. royalty, B418. From 
F. roi, Lat. rix ; Sbt. rdjd, a king. 

Boinller, adj. tomp. royaller, more 

BoUetb, pr. I. roUi, tnmi over, C 
838. O.F. niir (F. rrndtr); 




Lskl. mtulare, to turn round ; 
rtom rola, a whed. 
Bom, tan\, rufi nonieasc wordi. 
to imitate tUiteratioii (kc aoVi), 

Borneo, v. to roam, B 558. Cf. 
O. F. romiia, romim, romitr, 
Ital. ronuo (Dinte), a pilgrim la 
Rom«. Hence rotata —to jp to 
Rome; the connection vith E. 
mam is likely. 

BohBi pl- '■ rang. C 661. A. S. 
kringan, to ring. 

BoBO-ieed, adj. ted u 1 rote, Q 
3S4- [Triiyllabie.) 

Bote> >• [oot; an aitrologicil 
term for the epoch of a niliTity, 
B 314 (tee note): the radix, the 
fundamental principle, O 1461; 
root, tource, B 358. G 1069, 
IJOi. leel. T6t, Swed. nn (Scan- 

Bote, in phr. by rote. Le. by 
heart C 331. O. F. roll, F. 
rouU ; allied to P. roulint, O. V. 
rotini. 'Par rolitxt, by role;' 
CotgiavG. See Boats. 

Boteii,/i/.rolten,Giy,aj8. A.S. 
rotian, to rot, putrefy, pp. geralod. 
The form rottn a Scandinavian ; 
Icel. radtiH, rotten, pp. ; roAia.ta 

Bound, adv. mnndly, flilly, melo< 
dioujlj-. C 331, F. rand. O.F, 
roond, Lai. rsftnifui. Cf. Lat. 
'ore rotundo.* 

Bonte, I. troop, throng, company, 
B 3B7, fiS", 776. F. rouli. from 
Lat. mpia, ■ broken (tand) ; 
from rumptrt, to break. Cf, O. 
rollt, a troop ; O. Flemish roll. 

Boute, v. to ammble in a com- 
pany, B 540. See aboYB. 

Bow, adj. rough, angry, forbidding, 

G 861. A. S. ruh, rongh, nigged, 

hairy; Du. rwu, rough, rugged. 

Bowiian, i;. to whiiper, G 894. 

A. S. runian, to whiipet j from 

myjtery ; O. Flemish ranitin, lo 
whisper. Hence rovnd, lo whis- 
per, in Shaknpeare. 

Bob]f]riiiK, I. tubefaclion, redden- 
ing, G 797. 

Brdinge, prts. pl. riding, G 0»,t. 
A.S. ridaa, Icel. riVa, to ride; 
pl. t. (c rdd, pl. tat ridtn ; pp. 

B7Et>twiaiiesBS, s. righleoosness, 
C 637. A.S. rihIvAi, righteoui; 
led. rilvki. Righltoui is a 
corrupt spelling of righlwist. 

'Rym, I. time (commonly misspelt 
rhyaa), I 44, The qielling 
rhymt, or rhime (with h inietled 
from ignorance) ii not older than 
A.D. 1550. From F.rinM; which 
however is, piobablv, from Lat. 
ace. rhylkman ; of Gk, origin. 

Byrne, *. to rime, to tpeik in 
verse, G 1093. See above. 

Byotonres, s. ^. rioters, loystereis, 
C 661. Roquefort ^ivei r'mltr. 
to dispute ; rtoli, noise, combat ; 
frdrt riati, to grumble, ^liipute ; 
riDi, a dispute, debate. The 
suggested coimection with Du. 
Tovollin, to romp, is unlikely. 

Byna, v. to live, pierce, C 818. 
Icel. ri/d, Dan. rive, tear; 
cf. Icel. hr^a, to catch, grapple. 

Sad, adj. sober, calm, settled, O 

397; //. Sadde, discreet, B 135. 

A. S. KBrf, sated, satiated (hence, 

settled, firm). 
Badel, t. uddle, H 51. A.S. 

Badly, adv. in a settled manner, 

i. e. deeply, unstintingly, B 743. 

See Bad. 




SaStrm with, 

J (iiige wilh 
. C 34S- F- 
tafran ; from the Arab, za/ar^ 

Bal armoniiA, i. ul immonac, G 
^rgg. 824. Lat. to/ 


'S-a; e 

a ihxrp, acrid taite ; . . . also called 
hjdrocUorite. or muiiate o[ am- 
moDia'i Webrter. The word 
armoaiae certainly uuweit lo the 
Lat. Armtaiacum in the old 
lre»liw>. Neverlhelesi the right 
ipelling it, pethapt, 
' d/ifuafioK^Pt t6, ti 
Toct-sall, Dioscorid 
and Scott. 
Sal peter, 9. taltpetre, Q EoS. 
' ■ I pttra, rock-aall 


rocksorviU&j nitrate of pota 
—called also nitre ' ; Webster. 

Sal prepaiat, t. prepared till, Q 
Sio. See [be note. 

Sal tMtre, 1. lalt of laHat, G 810. 
'Sail of tartar, cirboDate of 
potash ! ... at fiiW prepared from 
eream of tartar"! Webster. 

Salaeth, pr. t. ululeth, B 731. 
F. salutr, Lat. talulare, 

BanB, prtp. wilhoot, B 501. F. 
tani, O. P. tint, Lit. line. 

Baplance, i. wisdom, G 101, iii ; 
pi. Sapiences, kinds of intelligence 
(see note), 338. From Lat. 
saptri, to know. 

SatinH, I. pi. silins, B 137. F. 
saiia. Low Lit. alinus, adj. from 
Lat. uta, lilk; whence ilio F. 

Bsaaoloun, i. lalvation, B 183, H 

ip. .. 3 p. si»e. may (he) 
'36' ; pi- ^- 'f- Sauedsl, 
. B 639 i Savelh, imp. pi. 

save ve, J29. O, F. sau<r, Lat. 

BaxJ, adj. safe, B 343, G 950. F. 

iauf, Lat. caluus. 
Bauoiir, i. jivour, smell. G 887. 

F. saviur, Lat. ace. saporem. 
8awe, s. discrurse (Ul, saw. or 

uying), G 691 ; saw, saying. 

1441. A, S. sagu, a saying. 
Boabbe, i, scab, a disease of sheep, 

C jjS. A.S. stab, sciab. 

O.F. tscapir. said to be from 
Low Lit. cxcappari, to get out 
of one's cloak, 10 flee. See 

maniac, Brachet, i. T. eckapptr. 

Liddell Soariete, 5. scarcity, G 1393. 
O.F. tuharseli, tpaiingness, fru- 
gality! from O.F. eschars, or 
iscars. Low Lat. exiarpsus, pp. 
of excarptre -^ ixcerpert, to tetect. 
Boatered, pp. scattered, G 914. 

I from 

A. S. 


BolaODdre, pr. s.ip.l slander. G 
993! 1 p. Eclaundtesl, 695. F. 
isclandri ; from Lat. scaiuialum ; 

Bsore otaemete, secret of secrets. 

Lat. Secreta Secretorum (the name 

of a book), G 1447. 
Socreneasei i. secrecy. B 77,1. 
See, imp. s. 3 p. may (He) behold, 

or protect, B 156. C ;is. See 

note to the lilter passage, p. i6». 

See Seen. 
Baal, !. seal, B 88», C 337. O. F. 

sgel ; from Lai. sigillunt. 
Seen, v. to see, B 181. A. S. stin, 

to see. See Bee, and Bej. 
Bsistow, /or layest thou, G j6o. 

See Bere. 
Beken, gir. to seek, 1 




for (circh, G 874. A.S. Uciu, 

to leek ; ger, « «i™«. 
Baled, pp. loled, B 736. See Beel. 
8elL7> adj. bletsed, holj, B 68z ; 

iunoceal, C 191 ; till;, limplc, G 

1076. A. S. nilij', bippj. 
Bendsth, iiitf. 1 p. pi. icnd ;e, C 

614;^. i.w&y.SmM.wanldieiid, 


h. S. » 

Ssntenoe, (. judgment, order, 1 
17; verdict, Q 366; Senteat, 
general meiuiDg, I 5S. From 

Bepultura, t. tepDlchre, C 558. 

Lat, upulturOt burial- 
Bergeants, t. pt. lecgeantt, O 361. 

t'. itrgml, Lat. stniitMim, pre*. 

Beraione, gir. to prcacb, ipcak, C 
S7<|. From Lat. wmio, a dis- 

Beinuge, . 

de, thraldom. 

from F. ttrf, L»t. Mmirt. 
Baruiaable, oif;. lerviceable, ute- 

fiil, QiOM. 
Benoun, 1. leiton, O 1343. O. F. 

Bette, pt. t. Kl, B 1053 ; rift, (et 
heiHlf, i.e. at, 329; Kile bet on 
knccs-cait berietf on her kiien, 
633 i pi. rtft. Sette hem, leated 
themielvei, G 775 ; Setter) hem 
■donn, (ct themieltei, G 396 ; 
pp. Set, let, pUced, put. B 44O. 

Bey, pi. t. !»w. B 5S3, fiig, 809, 
I051, 1138,0961.0355.401; 
1 p. I «w, G 589 ; 3 p. Sej-, 
tbou nwal, B 848; 1 p. pi. 
Sey, ye law, G iI06; f. fi. 
Seye.iaw, BaiSi Seyen, Quo; 
p/. Seyii. i«n, B 17a, 634. A.S. 

Beyo, gir. 10 say, tell, i.e. to be 
told, B 706 ; I ^. 1. fr. Sey, I 
uy, 1139; pt. pt. Seydeu.iaid, 
B 311 ; I p. Seydetlow, laidit 
thoa, G 334. A.S. ttcgan, pt. t 
ic sagdt. 

Bludire, (. ihidow, 1 7. A.S, 

Shal, pr. I. ii to, mait, B 168, 
665 ; I ?. I am to (go), G 303 i 
1 p. Shallow, for thalt tbou, O 
357, A. S. (c urat. See 

BhaniSB, I. gtn. ofihame; thnma 
d4lh, death of ibanis. i. e. ihame- 
ful death, B 819. A,S. inlinu, 

Bhap, s. ibape, foim, G 44. A.S. 
gaetapu, tbape ; from icippan, to 

Shapao, v. to deviie, inrent, B 
110; pp. dJEpoied (themielvei), 
141 ; prepared, 149 ; appointed, 
353; planned, 9$!. A.S.icippan, 

BtUHilnK, t. a thin ilice, O 1 139. 

A. S. icafan, to ihave, iciape. 
Bhaena, adj. ihowy, fair, B 693. 

from leiaman, to (how. Cf. G. 
Khoa, fair. 

81>etli«ii, «. to ihut, enctoie ; goiiiu 
shtaen, did endoie, G 517; pi. 1, 
Shette, ihut, 1141 ; pt.fl, Sbetle. 
DlS;^. Shet, ihut'B 1056,0 
1 1 37. A.S. myOan, la lockup, 
pt. t. it uylladt, 

Shete, (. a iheet, Q 779; pi. Shetei, 
536. A.S. ttiik. 

Shine, u. to appoction, atsign, O 
378. A.S. lafian, uyflaa, to 
appoint, divide; Icel. ikifta, to 
divide, diilribute. 

Bholde. pt. I. bad to, wat to, G 
1381, I 65. A.S. ic tcoldt, 
uioldt, pt. t. of union. The 
pret. t. ii ID seta!. See Bttal, 

Bhoop, pi. t. formed, thaped, Q 



Ii3i; ihoop him ■• purpoied, 
intended, C 874. See Bhapen. 

Showuing, I. Ehoviag, piuhing, H 
53, A. S. leafiat, to puih, sbore. 

Bhrewe, adj. eril, wicked, 995 ; 
as 16., CTil one, 917; »a Ill-tem- 
pered (male) penoa, C 496 ; fl, 
ShKBre«,wickedmeD, rural.,835. 

746. 'SeJirtat, priTui;' 
Prompt, PitT. 

Bhul, fr, fl, ihall, may, C 733 ; 

1 f. 1 mutt, I bars to, B 351 ; 
1 p. fr. pi. Shullen, ye ihall, G 
141 ; pi. t.l p. Shulde, 1 ibould, 
I ought to, B 147. ScB Bhal. 

8iket, adj. lure, G 934 j ceitaiit, 
10471 life, S64. O. Friesic 
tihir, tOir ; O. Suod (Heliand) 
siior i Du. liifT ,- O. H. G. dkkut; 
G. lielur. 

Biksinease, t. lecuiii;, ulelj. B 

BUuer, c. (ilver, O S16. A. S. 

Similitude, s, compiritoa ; knct, 
propoiition, italemenl, G 431. 
Lit. BmiliOido. 

Sin, coHJ. lioce, B iSi, 1115. O 
495. 504; '"'"■ "ice. B >57' 

CadU. fioin A. S. aiSfinn. lince ; 

liom iliS, time. See Slthen. 
SlDKnler, adj. a tingle, Q 997. 

Lai. siagtdarii. 
Silb, cwij. NDce, B 4S4, 814.0 

I471; (iiA>, a^eiwatdi, C 869. 

See below. 
Sitlieii, adv. afierwardi, B II3I. 

A. S. ii^Son, afteiwaidi ; for iftE 

'Sam, lince then ; iriiere sf$ it 

from the adj. tlS, late; which 

from sin, a time. See below. 
8ith«, timei! off Utki,ia%nj 

time), O 1031, A.S. (US, a time. 

See Bythe. 
SkilAU, adj. diKeming, B 1038. Q 

319. Icel. till, ditcernment; 

tiilja, to separate. 
8BcilfiUl7i adv. reaionablj, with 

good leuon, O 390. (The M. E. 

liat oDea meint 1 reaion; ice 

Glosi. II). 
Slee, II. 10 ila}',a8[)5; Sle, 16S; 

Sleen, C 846] gir. SIccn, O 4S1 ; 

pr. t. Slcelh, i^ys, C 676, 754 ; 

pr. pi. Sleen, they day, B 964 ; 

pt. i. Slow, ilcw, B 617, 664. 

894. A. S. dtdt, pt. t. il6h, pp. 

tlagm, 10 itrike, ilay. 
Slelghte, I. dot. craft, (kfll, G 8G7 : 

pd. Sleightei, devicet, 773, 076. 

Icel. dagtS, ilyneu ; sliegr, tly. 
Blena, i. deere, G 1114, 1131. 

A. S. tU/, a ileete. 
Blewthe, s. ilolh, B Sjo; Slouihe, 

G158. A.S. tli^wiSjiloth; from 

Blit, ;. t. tlides (contr. from slidtth), 
Q 681. A. S. tlidan. See Blyd- 

Slagardye, i. iloth, dnggjtbneu, 

G 17. 'Sluggi, dcjcs, tegnitj' 

Ptorapt. Parv. 
Blough, s. mud, mire, H64. A.S. 

WifA, a dougb, hollow place. 
Slouthe, I. ilotb, O 358. See 

Blow, ^M. dew, B 617, 664, 894. 

See Slee. 
Sluttish, adj. ilovenly, G 636. 

Cf. Du. ilodde-. a doven ; iloi^- 

diring, tlovenly ; tloddirta, to 

hang lootely about. 
BbfiSxg, adj. unttabls, dipper;, O 

73a. See Blit. 
Smart, adj. bride (laid of a lire), 

G 76S. The word marl. >b.. i> 

properly uied of a saddtn pain. 
Smert, i. imart, pain, Q7I]. Du. 

smarl (O. Du. (nun), paiafnlncBi ; 

cf. G. tckmrn. 
Smepte, I p. ft. prts. mbj. may 

mart, may suffer, G 871. Cf. 

Du. tmarltn, to gire paid. 
Smot, pi. I. unoic, ctruck, B 669 ; 

Srooot, C 677. A.S. tntifon, to 

.mite; pt. l. " ■■ 



uaie ; Ewed. tnara, a toarr 

led. snara, to Iwlil li^hily. 
Snow-wJiyto, adj. while as 

G 354. 
Socour, I. loccouT, help. B 

O.F. Mcors, help; from 

Softe, ai^'. genlle, ilow, B 399 ; 
adv. lonly, tenderly. 175. A.S. 
s^/, G. soB/i, 10ft, mild. 

Sofliolyi adv. gentlj', quietly, O 

Boiourned, m, tojourned, dwell, 
B 148, 536. O. F. sohmtr. to 
dwell ; Ciom Lat. <u&, and rfmr~ 
Ron, to 6.t\ij, formed from 
■■ iBi, diily; which from **«. 


A.S. sand, a 


a day. 
Sol, Sol (the lun), Q S 

Bolempnfl, adj. magnilicent, illui- 
Irioui, B 387. O. F. 'lolemfnt, 
cStbie, de gnnde TeputilioD, 
tlluitre ; ' Roquefort Lat. lottn- 

80m, pron. bidif. one, a certain 
man, O 91]; som threwe i> — 
lome one (at leait) ii vricked. 

Somtym, ai«. tometitnei, G 949. 
Bond, s. (and, B 509. A. S. imd. 

Bonds, I. lending, mesiage. B 388, 
1049; diipenialion of providence, 
visitation, 760, 8j6; trial, 901; 
menage (or meuenger), Q jij, 

Icel. SI 

ill fem 

ilr, Du. , 

Sooth, adj. 

truly, C 6,i6. A.S. siJIS, true; 

cognate with Gk. itcoi (Cuctius). 
Borwe. s. lormw, grief. B 364, 

1035. A. S. inrg. sorrow. 
Bory, ad}. ill,C 87G ; miienble, H 

55. A.S. eirig, sore, wounded; 

from A. S, tar, a sore ; not from 

Bote, adj. dif. r 
347. ijl- Icel 
Goth. hUi, sweet. Cf.A, 

Both, adj. true, B 169, S4). See 

Both, i. true, B 1071, C 370; 

Sothe, a G61 (tee i^ote). A.S. 

nfS. truth ; fiom h)S. true. 
Bother, adj. comp. truer, G 314. 

See Booth. 
SothfuitDMBS, 9. truth, G 335, 

145'. I 33. A.S. saS/«*"'«. 

Sotllta, (. cran, tlcill, lit. subtlety, 
G 1371. From O.F. sublililiil. 
which from LaL ace ivhiiliiaieta. 

Sotted, adj. besotted, befooled, G 
1341. O.F. KM, fooliih; Low 
Lat. so'Aii ; of uncertaiu origin. 

SouereTii, adj. sovereign, chief, B 
176, 1089 ; ai lb., muster, G 590. 
O.F. lovirain. Low Lat. tupir- 
onus, one who is above ; from 
suptr, above. 

Sooshte, pi. 1. iubj. should search, 
were to search, were to examine, 
C 483. A. 5. lecaa, to seek ; p(. 
t. it siili. 

Boun, 1. sound, B 563. F. ion. 



Bowdftn, 1. Siiltin, B 177. F. 

ioudan, O. F. si^dan. Low Lit. 

soldania\ ftom Tuikith iiUiifn. 
SowdoneBHe, i. Sultanesi, B 358, 

Bowled, pp. endued with a loul, 

319. A. S. siivu/, loiil, life. 
Spaoa, I. oppoitunilf , I 64. Fro: 

. riiiklc. 
Squomes, s. pi. icalet, G 759. 

Lai, sjuamii, i telle, i small 

Stal, pi, I. re;!, itote avaj, tecietl)' 

retreated, C 6jo. A. S. uelm, 10 

itcal ; pt. t. ic (<ieI. 
Stampa, pr. pi. ilimp, bray in i 

mortar. C 538, Icel. itampa, to 

posh with the foot ; Swed. iiamfa. 

G3S7- A. S. ip^rfoB, to succeed ; 

sp^ij, success, (peed. 
Speedful, adj. idrantageous, B 

ScekeatOW, ipeikest Ihon, G 473. 
SpendlDE-BlIaeFi (. silvet (o 

spend, money in hand, Q loiS. 
8ploer;», 1. mixtuie of spices, B 

1 36, C 544. O. F. ispisct, tspia, 

spice ; fiam a peculiar use of tlie 

IJlt. sptcitt, a kind. 
Bpllle, V. to peiiih, die, B 5S7, 

81S, 910; I p. ,.pr.t«hj. may 

IdiciSsi /p. Spill, killed, 857. 

A. 3. ipiUaH, to destroy. 
Bpiritaa, i. pi. the (font) ipirits iu 

alchemy, O 810. See note. 
Bpitte, pr. t. I /. I spit, C 431. 

A. S. tpillan, Icel, ^yla ; from 

the same root as Lat. spi/en. 
Bpote.pp. spoken, G dSp. A.S. 

spneHH, 10 ipeak ; at a liter 

period altered to sptcan. The r 

is still retained in Du, ^reim, G. 

Sponaa, t. pi. spoons. C goS. A. S. 

sp6ii, a chip of vood. 
Bponted, pp. spouted, vomited, B 

487. A Low German woidi cf. 

Du. spuiltn, to ipout, to squirt. 
SprsTnd, pp. sprinkled, B 411, 

The inBn. is springtn <iee Gloss. 

ll.)i from A.S. tprtagaa, to 

H 1 

nl. From 

tiart, Skt. ithd, 10 stand. See 

Btarf, pi. t. died, B aSj, 633. 

A. S. sUorfan, to die ; pt. t. I'e 

Uarf, sliorf; cf. Du. sftrtmi, to 

die ; G. clirben. 
Btei^, 1. (l) pilot, tielmsmin, B 

448; (a) rudder, 833. (OA.S. 

Icel. slyri, a helm, tudder; A.S. 

Stereleea, adj. rudderless, B 439. 

aterllngaa, i. j^. pence of sterling 
monej, C 907. Sterling ii a. 
corruption of Eslerliag, an Easier- 
ling; a name giien to German 



Sterrea, 1. pi. stars, B 191. A. 3, 
s/eorro ; cf. Lat. sStlla (i. e. stir- 
u/a),a little star; Skt, idra (lor 

Blerte, v. to start, pass away. B 
335 i P^- P'- "»". >■« I'licWj. C 
705. Cf. Du. ilorleit, to plunge, 
fall, rash ; G. sturan, to dash. 

Btanie, v. to die, C 865 ; die of 
famine, 45' '• 1 P- f. pr. Kibj. 
may die, G 410. See Btarf. 

Btiked, pi. $. stuck, B i;o9; pp. 
Slabbed, 430; a sliked swyn^a 



ituck pig. C 556. A. 3. irfeiflM. 
to ilab, pietcc. 

SUkke, I. iiiclc, a 1165, 1171. 
A.S. sliica. 

atiUatorie, s. Mil], reud attA In 
dill illation, O 5S0. From L>t, 
uilla, ■ drop ; whence ifiljarf. 10 
fall in dtopi, diuil. 

8tint«, V. to leave off, dabt, celie 
to (peak, B 953; to ceaie, Q 
883 i fr. I, Bibj, rciij ceaic, B 
413 ; imp. I. lean off, celK, O 
917. A. S. tlinloH, to be blaiit. 

Stdr«, «. (o Hit, move, C 346. A, S. 

Stonds, V. to itand. B 1050; gir. 
G joj; pr. t. Stondeth. itandi, 
C G45 ; /'■ pi. Stode, (tood, B 
176; Stoden, £78; imp. pi. 
SioDdeth, itaod }>£, Q iioj. See 

lie, faim-ttock, C 365. 

839. 'Slrngotyn, t(roi»7yjf, or 
loggyn, coltuclorj' Prompt. Parv. 

Stronda, : ttraod, ihore, B 8ij. 
A. S. strand, Dn. ttrand, a ihoce. 

Style, I. ilile, gate to climb orer, 
C 719. A.S. alga, dimio. of 
slig, a path ; Trom iHgan, to 
climb. Du. i^'I, i itfle; slijgt", 

Btrw&rd, (. iteward, B 914. A. S. 
sligt, a ily, pen for cattle, and 
Bwanf, a keeper; cf. Icel.Ulintr^r, 
from slta, a (tj; but the Icel. 
word leemt to hare been borrowed 
from English. 

Sabiaooloon, 1. lubjection, obedi- 
ence, B 370. 

Sablymed, pp. labtimed, >ub1i mat- 
ed, O 774. Lat. tuUimare, to 
niw; froro luSUmis, exalted. 
' SubUmatt, to bring b7 heat into 
tbe [tale of vapour, which, on 
cooling, retnrnt again to the lolid 

Storle, I. (lory, legend, O SS. A 

doablet of kiuoiy. 
StoroMi, pi. pi. died, C S88. See 

Stounde, 1. honr, (hort time, B 

loil. A. S. tUmd, ■ ipace of 

Stoop*, gir. to iloop, O 1311; 

imp. pi. Stonpeth, itoop je, 1317. 

A. S. il&pian, (>tDii(u, ti. 34; 

cf. Swsd, itupa, to fall 
Straw, inttij. ■ ttrawl O 91;. 

A.S. urtia, IceU ttrd. 

ait, B 464. O.F. 

StFM, I. ttraw, B 701. O. Frieiic 
Stronger, adj. comp. slrouger, C 

Sublrmatoiiea, 1. /{. veueli for 
inblimation, Q 793. See Bub- 

Bubstmnoe, 1. the niential part 
of a thing, the thing itself, C 539. 
See the note. Lit. subslaiUia. 

Subtat«, 1. [kill, craft, O 844; 
Subtilite<v nibtletj, craft, lecret 
knowledge, 61a, See Botllta. 

BttborbM,). fl. laburbt, O 657. 
From Lai. tut, and to-bs, a towiu 

SuoMsaour, t. mcetaot, follower, 
B 411. From Lai. latttdtrt. 

BufflBBiit, adj. able, niliicieiit, B 
143, C 931. F. B^saal, prea. 
pt, of I'lffin, Lat. sufficm. 

Superfloitee, >.iuperAai(j,ezcest, 
C 471, 53S. Lat t«p*r, beyond, 
jlutri, to flow. 

Burplys, 1. lurplice, Q 558. F. 
surplis. Low Lit. iiifirptUictvm, 
from i«ptr, ova.pilliciuin, a coal 
of fur ; from ptilit, * ikin. 



BuatoenB. *. to rastsin, ophnU, 

Syketh, p. ,. sighelh. >igh>, B 

preserve, B 160. Lit. siiuinirt. 

985; /(. J. Syghle, sighed, I035- 

fluster, J. (iiier, G 33,. A. S. 

A. S. iltm. 10 ligli. 

Sythe, 1. pi. timei, B 733. 1.55. 

Lit. >oror (for K*or). 

A. S, jflf, a tinje, Icel. sfmii, Golh, 

Swap, imp. 1. itrike off. O 366. 

««f*. , 

Cf. >m«p. «wtp. 

B7T0, I. lien, G 040. A. S. w/*. 

fiwatte.^*. ., (weiled,a56o. See 

Df. wrt lift. » .iWe. 

Sweigh, «, iway, motion, B Jo6. 

Cf. Icel. aitigja, to smy 1 Du. 

znioai. a turn, nring ; Du. zuiaBij- 

m. to (Widg. 
Bwerd, 1. twotd. G 168. A. S. 

aiieord. Du. zieaard. 
Bwerlnc, i. twearing. C 631. 


Table, t. boaid ; M table - at 
board, i. e. entertained a) a 
lodger. G 1015, F. lablt, Lat. 

Bwol«, gtr, t 

t. Qs"; «■ 

, .560. A. S. 

twAian ; from swat, iweat. 
Swete, orf>. iweet, H 4a. A. 8. 

nw^(. See Bote. 
Swloh, adj. tach. B 146. G 719, 

1401. k.S.twylc,Go\\i.swaleiks, 

lit. to-like. 
Bwlnk, 1. labour, G 730. A, S. 

nciae. toil 
Bwinke, », to bbour. G 66g ; gir. 

to labour, toil, C 874; pr. pi. 

gain by labonr, work for, O 11. 

Bwolwe, V. to iwallow, H 36. 

A. S. autlgan. 
Sworen, pi. pi. ■ 



Swowsed, ft. I. iwooned, B 1058. 
Cf. A.S. nn'nrffw. to languiih; 
pt, t. ic TUianJ, pp. svmnden. 

Snythe, adv. quickly. B 730, C 
796; ai twythe — as quickly » 
pwfible. B 637, G 936. 1416. 
A.S, nviS. itiong, great; itetBe, 
greatly, niy ; Goth, smnlis, Icel. 

See Beye. 

Bj, pl.t. law, G l; 

ire, B 344 ; j!^. 
iwear ; pt, I. fc 

t, O 578. A. S. 

Taeord, fir to iccord, i. e. to 

agreement. H q8. 
Take, v. to give, deliver over, 

pnient, G 133; a p. 1. pr. 

Takeslow. i. e. takeit than, 435 ; 

imp. pi. Taketh, take ye, U 41 ; 

pp. Take, taken, B 769, G 605. 

Icel. lata; cf, Golh. Itian. 
Talent, i, doire, appetite, C i;40, 

Cotgrave givet "will, desire, ap- 
petite,' ■■ maningi of F. latial. 

From Lit. taiattum. 
TaUdng, t. discouree, G 684. 

Of Scand. origin. 
Tamenden, gir. to amend, B 462. 
Tanoyen, (/or to anoyen) v. to 

annoy, to injure. B49I. 
Tarlen, v. to tarty, B 983. O. F. 

targier, to delay ; confused with 

K. S. li 

Tartre, (. tartar, G 8 1 3. F. tarlri. 
Low Lat, lartanim. "An acid 
concrete lalt, deposited from 
wine* when peifectty feimented ; 
. . . wheD in the crude ttat^ it 
ii much nied » a flux in the 
acaying of orej;' Webiter, 

Titaaollle, amir. for toatioille. i.e. 
to .bwlve. C 9.13. 

Taate, imp. : feel, O J03. See 
the note. 




Tftuerner, i. InnkHper, C 6S5. 

Froui Lat. tabfma. 
Teohe, V. to tench, G 343, A.S. 

tikcan, to shew, point out i cf. 

B. tohn ; Gk. iiiHiniym, to 

TeUe, gtr. to Icll, relate, B 408. 
A.S. lellan, 10 count, tell; O. 
lahUn, trxiklea, 

Tempr«d, pp. tempered, 936. 
To Itmpir is to adjust or moderate 
the heat at which a thing is 
melted. Lit. timpiran. 

Temps, (. tense; fahir Ittnps, 
future tenie, fbturity, time to 
come, G 875. See the note, 

TenspTTB, for (0 enspirc, i. e. to 
inspire, O 1470. 

Termo, J. term ; in itrmi, in set 
terms or phrues, C 311 ; pi. 
Termei, set terms, pedantic ex- 
pressions, G ligZ; Urmto/hh 
lyut, ill his life-tln», 1479. 

Terve, Tomed ; see Tomed. 

Testea, s. pi. vessels for assa/ing 
metals (Tjrwhitt), G 8t8. A 
reisel called a 'teila' ii figured 
in Theatium Chemicnm, iii. 336. 
See Tfst in Wedgwood 01 Web- 

Taztael, ar$. literal, keeping strict- 
ly to the letter of the text, 1 57. 
Lat. latlum, Itxlut (from /aeirt), 
a weaving ; alio, a composition, a 
subject for discourse. 

Teyne, t. a thin (date of metal, G 
1315, 1119; pi. Teynes. 133). 
1337, Lat. tania, Gk. raii-ia, a 
band, Gllet, riband, strip; from 
rtlvtiv, to ittetehi Skt. laii, to 

Than, than ; ir ihan, loonei than, 

before, G 899. 
Than-iy.^r the amy, B 393. 
Thassemblee, conn-, from the 

issemblee. the assembly, B 403. 
That. coHJ. as, as well as, B 103G ; 

rel. pron. - with referei:ce to 

whom, O 136, That oon, the 

one, B g5i. A. S. \al, neat, of 

def. an. ; cf. Sanskrit tad. 
Tliee, V. 10 thrive, prosper, G 641. 

A.S. ]mi)h, to prosper, flourish, G. 

gideihiB. See below. 
Tbeeoh, coair./rom thee ich, i.e. 

may I thrive, C 947. G 939, See 

Tbetteot, for the eifrct, result, B 
S93, 1 361. 

Thame, t, text, thesis of 1 sermon, 
C 333' I-al. ihetna, Gk. Hia, a 
subject for discussion ; from n'- 
61,11., lUy down; cf. Ski. dhd. 

!, 151. 

Thande, conlr. fir the ende, the 
end, 8413,965, Qiaee. 

Thennes, mfv. thrnce, B 30S, 510, 
1043 ; usid as sb., the place that, 
Q 66. From A.S. ^aaon, thence. 

Thmittatdotm.fiir the cnlendoun, 
i.e. the intention, G I443. 

Th.entent,/or the enlent, purpose, 
end, G 1306. 

Ther, adv. where, B 307, 308, 
376, 602, 634; when, 474; 
whither, at which, 469 ; whereas, 
G 734. A. S. ]iar. 

Thar-abonte, adv. thereupon, 
therein, G 833. 

Ther - bifom, adv. beforehand, 
before the event, B 197, C 614. 

Thar-ont«, adv. outside there, O 

Therto, adv. there-to, moreorer, B 
13s. Thir (A.S. fir.) is the 
dal. fern. sing, of the def. article ; 
understand a fern, ib., such as 
mcK, sake ; and we have 16 ]firi 
lati, in addition to that matter. 

Thewea, i. pi. virtues, good quali- 
ties, G loi. A.S. fiilta, manner, 
quality; from ]>«cfa, to flourish. 
See Thee. 

TheioeUent, put for ihe excel- 
lent, B 150. 




Vhider, adv. thither, B I44, C 
749. A. S. Vider. 

Thlike, demon, pron. thai, B 190, 
365,0364; thatTerr.thattime, 
C 753. Q 19? J *!"' «ot *>f' J 50. 
A.S. tylf, from Jy, inslrumenuJ 
ca» of u, Hif, ^, and /Ic, like ; 
cf. Lat. fotit. 

Tblng, I. pi, potteitions, O 540. 
A. S. fling', » thing, aent. tb. ; pi. 
^ng (udcbinged). 

Thingot, /or the ingot, G 1233, 
1314. See Insottes. 

Thinketh, implrs.; mi Ihinleth, It 
seems 10 me, G 308. A.S. mt 
iiyice, it seeiiis to me j Q. mir 
dinkli ilightly dilferent from 
fvncnn, to tniok, Q.dfntm. 

Thinne, adj. pi. thin, poor, mnlj, 
hmiled, G 74I. A.S. ]iyii. thin; 
JKaion, to itietch; cf. Skt. Ian, 

Tho, aijv. then, G 105, 414, 487, 

693. A.S. H'hen. 
Thonketh, imp. 1 p. pi. thank ye, 

B 1113. A.S. jJoBrion, I«l. 

fxilia. G. iJdHim. 
Thoushte, pi. t. imptrs. it ieemed, 

B 1 46 ; Thoughte hem, it teemed 

to them, C 475. See Think- 

Tbral, s. lervant, O Ig6. A.S. 

^al. Icel. yaU. 
Thraldom, i, bondage, tlaverf, B 

V. n. to maintiin or inittt perti- 
luciousTy ; to repeat or reiterate 
obstinatelj'. A. S. pndpiaa, lo 
afflict, chide ; ' Atkinson'i Clere- 
land Glosiary. 
Threting, t, thteitening, menace, 
G 69S, A-.S. )ir«i/un|',ani]rging, 

Thridde, adj. ord. thin), C S36, G 
823, 915. A. S. ^ridda. third ; 

Thrift, I. lucceii, prosperitr in 

moneymaking, Q 739, 1425 

Icel. yifi., profit. 
Thrlity, adj. cheap, pioSlable to 

the buyer, D 138. See above. 
Thropes, t. gen. village's, I 13. 

A.S. \ra-p, Icel. Jmrp, G. (for/, 

Ooth. Ihaurp ; cognate with Lit. 

Throwe> t. a thoit space of time, 
B 953; lime, G 941. A.S. 
\r6h, yrig, » short space of time, 

Thryue, ger. lo thrive, prosper, G 
1411. Icel. Vrlfa-ik, to thrire, 
where the final si It reflexive, 
meaning ' self.' See Thrift. 

ThurKh,/r«;. ihrough, by, G 325. 
A. S. Jiuri, G. durck. 

Thurgh-ont, prip. throughout, all 
through, B 356, 464 ; quite 
through, C 6115. 

Til, prep, to, G 306. Icel. lit. 


, t. tin, d 8j(, 
a ihoitei^d form of an ' Old 
British word; cf. Irish s/im, Gael. 
slaoiit, Welsh yslatn; whence 

Tiraimye, s. tyranny, cruelty. B 
165. From Lat. lyraimus, Gk. 
Tvpatyoi, a tyrant. 

To, prip. to (used after iu case), G 
144.). A.S.W. 

To, adv. too, G 644 ; overmuch, G 
1423; To dere, too dearly, C 
393; To and fro, all ways, H 

To-bete, v. to beat severely, G 
405. See the note. A.S. /J-, 
preli](,>Q. zer-, Golh, and Lat. 
dii-, meaning, in twain, ipirti 
and btiilan, to beat ; whence 
A. S. li-bedlan, lo beat lo pieca. 

Tobreketh, pr. s. breaks in twain, 
breiks asunder, O 977. A.S. 
td-breean. lo break in pieces, 01 
in iwain. See aboTe. 

Togldrea, adv. together, C 703, Q 
960, A. S. iSgadre. 


Tohewe, pp. hewn In twain, hewn 

From 0. F. trailor. a tralloT; 

in piecei. B 430, 437. A. S. m- 

Lat. 3CC. Iradilortm, from trader*. 

teateaa, to hew in twain. 5« 

to hand oTei- 


Trappe, t. trap, Q 11. A.S. 

Tokenins, 1. token, proof, Q 

Irappt, a trap; hence <r(ij»p* ii 

1153. A. S. ^OHH, a token. See 


Ttohot, «. treatnre, B 441. C 779. 

0. F. insor, Lat. Husaums, Gk. 

gitlMil. f™d<ton.bler.,C477. 

(h,<ra>vi«: f""" TiA„«, 1 lay op 

A.S. l^mbian, to tnroble, dance ; 

in .tore. 

itrniUrt, a tombler ; tutabestn, a 

Trete, pr. pi. diKOone, treat, C 

dancing girl. See the note. 

630. F. Iriuter, Lai. traaart, to 

T0HKO, t. tongne, B 899. C 398. 


A. S, tungi, 0. zungi, Lat. lingua 

Tretse, 1. treatj, C 619. F. 

n- dingiia). Hence /ongt 
disiyllibic word. 

Took, pi. t. took, had, B igi; 
gave, handed o»er,G 1030, 1034, 
1365-891. See Take. 

To-rente, pi. pi. rent ainnder, C 


A.S. J 

; the comp. la- 
rtnda occDri in O. Frieiic- 

ToratMit, ■- torment, (uffning, B 
845. Ptom Lat. Mrnun/wH. 

Tormsntour, 1. tomenlor, i.e. 
eiecolioner. B 818, G 517, 531 ; 
pi. Tormenlourei, 373 ; Tormeo. 
louri, 376. See above. 

Tom, ). turn, C 8i.<;. See below. 

Toma, V. to tnm, Q 1 403. 

Tomed (10 in moit MSS.); Temed 
(f:),pp. flayed, O J171; TerTe 
(E.), imp. I. J p. flay, G I174. 
Low G. tanm. 

Tottuotu, adj. oblique, a technical 
term in ■Urology, nied of the 
>iz of the lodiaca] tigns which 
ucend moM obliquely, B 30J. 
Lat. larluona, twiitedi from 

To*Kwiiike, pr. pi. labour greatly, 
Cglg. PieHx (d-,ln twain (in- 
teniin), and nofnenH, to toiL 

To-tere,^r.^I. rend, tear in piecei, 
C 474; pp. Totore. torn in 
piieet. A.S. li-ieran, 10 tear in 
iwiin. See To-beta. 

Traitor7«, i. treacbeij, B 781. 

■ee, C 653. 

Tietya, 1. tieaty, B 133. Another 

form of the above. 
Tiewe, adj. pi. tme, B 135 ; Kwrf 

as it.-the futhfiil, 456. A.S. 

ftydiM, IceL inir, Q. iriu. 
Trewthe, a, troth, iiuth, B s*?- 

A.S. (rni»S. 

O. F. mi. trtii 

TriBcle> 1. ■ lOTereign remedy, B 
479, C 314. O. F. triad; Low 
Lat. Ihtriaaim, Gk. Ihjfiaiciy, a 
remedy againct the woundi made 
by wild beaitt; liom ()$p, a wild 

TriBte, pr. t.^p.l tratt. B 831. 

Troden, pp. stepped, C 71a. A.S. 

iredan, to tread. 
Trompe, 1. ttumptt, B 705. P. 

trotape, a trnmpel; from Icel. 

tnimba, a pipe, » trumpet. 
Trons, 1. throne (of God), heaven, 

C 842. F. irSai. O.F. tronr, 

Lat. ihronta, Glc SpoKU. a leat, 

Troutll«, (. tnith, O 138. A.S. 

Trotre, ger. to troit, beliei^ O 

378 \ 1 p. I. pr. I suppose, be- 
lieve, imagine. B 388, 400, 1074. 
C M9, G 66j, H 44; pr. pi. 
Trowe, sDppoie, believe. B lit; 
3 p. ye believe, Q 171: luppoie. 



Imagine jt, C 439. A. S. Irt6vi- 
ton, led. iria, to believe, think 
to be tru4. 

Tnutem, imp. pi. a p. tiuit jt, 
believe ye, B 1048, O 139, 88i|, I 
41. Icel. Iransl, sb. tiDit, Ireysla- 
tk, to tiutt ID. 

Trjne oomp**, the threefold 
woild, coQliining eaith, lei, and 
heaven, O 45. Lit. trima, three- 
fold, from trti, three. 

Twenty deu«l weye, s, in the 
minner of twenty devili. in all 
lOTtt oreril waj>, G 78a. 

T«»7e, mxm. adj. two, twain, C 
817, 8J4, 8jB, G 677. A.S. 
Iwigea, twain, uted in masc. ; 

Tweyfold, oS. twofald, double, Q 

Twinue, v. to tepirale, B 5171 
gtr. to depart (from), C 430; 
a p. pr. pi. ye depart, lit ye part 
company, a 181. From the root 
turo, A.S.lwdi cf. 

TwyoB, adv. twice, B lOgS. A. S. 
Iiayuia, tinva; but the M. E. 
laya ii formed from A. S. ttt^, 
doable, with adverbiil lutGi-tt. 

T;d«, I, a certain portion of time, 
an hour. B jla, 798 ; lee note to 
B79S; lime ofdaf, 1134. A.S. 
lid, Icel. US, O. ttil, a time. 

Tyden, v. to befal, B 337. A.S. 
lutaa, to happen J from lid. 

Tyme, t. time, O 1104. The 
word b dissyllabic, riming with 
by nu ; les the note. A. S. lima. 

ValeriftD, t. valerian, O Soo. Lat. 


TariauDt, adj. varying, changing, 
changeable, fickle, G 1175. From 
Lat uariart, to vary, varitfi, 

Vonqulsehed, pp. vanquished, B 

391. From 0,F. vmquU, pp. of 

• vincri, to coaquei. Lat. uiii. 

VerdegreBB, : verdigtii. G 791. 

Derived (lec the note) from O.F, 

vtrt dt Qrtei, green of Greece. 
Veimlm, s. vermin, C 858. From 

Lat. vcrmii. 
VoiTfty, adj. very. true. B 1^7, C 

576, G 165. O.F. viral (F. 

vrai), Lat ace. tieractm; from 

Viage, I. voyage, B 159. ^oo, 
ju. O.F. viiag; from Lat 

journey, then a journey, in Forlu- 

natut (Btacbet). 
Viouy, I. a vicat, I ij. From 

Lat uicarius, a deputy ; from 

Lat. uicis, change. 
Vllanys, i. diiconnesy, C 740; 

lieentiousnew. G J 3 1. O.F, 

vilam'i, from vilain, a farm- 

hbouier; from Lat. nilla, a 

ViolM, J. pi. vials, phlali, O 793. 

F.phialt, Lat. pUala, a sort of 

saucer, Gk. ifiiX^. Cot grave 

has — 'Phiolt, f. a vjoll, or small 

glass bottle,' 
Tiraso, t. virago, cnet woman, B 

359. Direct from Lat. virago. 

VltaiUe, I. lictuali, B 443. 499. 

O.F. vilamt, Lat. uieluGlia, 
victuals ; from vhiiri, to live. 

Tltailled,^;.victDall ed.provisioned , 
T) G69. See above. 

Vitrtole, 1. vitriol, G 806. E. 



vitriol. Lit, ullriotum; from ui- 
tnim, gbs>. Colgnve hu — 
' Vitriol, m. vilrioll, copperose.' 

Vnbokel, imp. t. unbuckle, undo, 
C 945. I 16. The prefii m- ii 
here not the eomnion negiiJve 
prefii, but cognate with G. m(- ; 
cf. enlbiadtn, to unbind. Bakil ii 
O.F. boelt (F. houeU), L»t. 
iumlii. bosi of 1 ihield. 

Vndemom, t'- '■ pstcei'ti G 
>43- A. S. undiritiman, 10 per- 
ceive, pt. t. tf mfirnam ; cf. G. un- 
Itrniknun. From A. S. ni'nuin. to 

Voderpfghte, />f. 1. itnfled, filled 
wndtrneath, B 789. Pyghit a 
pilclud, pt. 1. of M. E. picclt, to 
pitch, place, set. 

VnderHtQiideth, pr. pi. imder- 
■tand, C 646 ; imp. pi. onder- 
ttand, know, Q 1165 ; pp. Vn- 
derttonde, undeistood, B 590, 
Ftom A. S. ilandaa, to itand. 

Vnfeyned, pp. anfeigned, true, G 
434. Ficmi Lat./ngvrf. 

VnkyndBDeaBe. i. nnldndneii, B 
1057. From A.S. q-rni, nature. 
Uiddndnta u unnaha-olnta, what 
i> contrai]' 10 oatuial feeling. 

Vaaethe, adv. hardly, Kurcely, B 
1050, O 563 ; Vnnetbei (with 
adverbial luffix -is), O 1390. 
A. S. un-, not, idSt, eatilj ; from 
t&^, easy. 

Vufieiy, adj. nnhappy, G 468. 
See Selr. 

Vtulekked, adj. unilacked, Q 
S06. To ilaei li to deprive 
lime of coheiion by combining il 
with water. A.S. slacian, to 
ilacken, relax; iltac, (lack. 

VnthriftUy, adv. poorly, O B93, 
See Thrift. 

Vntrewthe, t. tintrulh, B 687. 

VnwBTi adj. nneipected. B 417, 

i, H 55. 


1.5. utaldan. 

I fear. 

leldy. ditlicult Walke, pr. 

VaweiataeA, pp. nnipoiied, O 
137. aij. A.S.H«ni,lc«l.i«iBim, 
Oath, ipanm, spot, blemiih. 

Vnwlt, 1. warn of wii, G 1085. 
A. S. gnuill, knowledge. 

VnwJting, pr. pari, unknowing, 
O 1310. A.S. tviVrVi, to know, 
G. <«'«(«. 

Touche-SBuf, v. to Touchsafe. 
grant, B 1083; t p. pr. pi. ye 
Tauchufe, G 1146, I ja. Heis 
vaueht ii the verb, and tau/the 

VoTa, (. voice, nimour. B is;;, C 

531. O.?.vcis^F.V0ix). Lat. 

■cc. loom, a voice; cf. Skt. 

mek. to speak. 
Vp, pnp. on, upon, B 795, 884. 

A. S. vp. 
Vp HO dotm, upude down, G 615. 

Tp-casM, ft. t. c*(t up, B 906. 

Icel. tana, to ihtovr. 
Vpryght, adv. upright, C 674. 

Viase, t. usage, cuilom, C 899. 
F. asagt; fiom Lat. uli, to 

Tae, pr. pi. a p. je me, O 1409. 

pp. Vted. accustomed. 666. F 

Utter, adj. outer, outward, G 458. 
A.S. lit, oat; li/ftra, ilira. 

Wafereres, maketi otgaufm 
or wafer-cakes, conriclioners, C 
479. FromanO.F.formioaB/re, 
commonly tpell gaufii; which 
from O. Low G. Cf. Do. wqfil. 



nuyest walk, B 784. A.S. wro/c- 
on, lomll; ilto, to walk. 
Wan, orfj,w»n, pile, G 728. A. S, 

Wot, adj. aware, Q 13. 1079 ; be 
war^beware, take becd, take 
warning, 737, A. S. tiiitr, waty. 

Wore, pr*t. 1. tubj, (or 
the) warn, cau.e you 
C 905. Cf. A.S. < 

id cf. Git 

imp.), may 
See ' Ch. 

Ptol. 66a 
Wora. 9. merchandise 

tmri, merchandise. 
Worente, v. to wat 

C33S. O.F.ii™™ 

warrant! from O. H.G. tiiirjaa, 

tuarjan, to protect, 
Warioe, c. to heal, cure, C 906. 

Formed from O. F. worir, garir 

(F. gadrir), to pteterve; from 

O. H. G. v/arjan, to protect. 
Waryet, 1 p. I curte, B 371, 

A.S. v/irgiaa, to cotse; leerg, 

Wuslie, pf. washed, C 353. A. S. 

wascan, uiascaH ; pt. t. unde, pp. 

UHcsetH, Se« WSBh. 
"Wut, t. vule,B593. A.S.Wsf*, 

A.S. tmig, 1 

Wayke, oi^. weak, B 931. 
loot, weak ; Icel. uitr, taiir. 

Wayto, V. to expect, B 467 ; Way- 
ten, 164 i pr.s. Wayteth, watchej, 
593. 0.?.irailer,guaiiir; from 
O. H.Q.fuaA/an, to witch. Cf. 

We, pron, apparently uted ai ace. 
- us, G 315. But tea the uote. 


Wesp, pi. J. wept, B 606. loja. G 
371. A.S. ivipan, to weep; pt. 
t. ai£p. See Wepen. 

Weez, p/. 1, waxed, grew, O 513. 

'Wei, adv. well, i.e. well placed, 

happUy or luckily situated, B 308. 

A, S. ael. 
W^ele, I. prosperity, B 175. A. S. 

teda, weal. 
WelfUl, adj. full of w«l, blessed. 

B451. See above. 
Welked, pp. withered, C 738. 

wither, ihrivel. Cf. G, niUm, 
to wither. [The foim is English ; 
not borrowtd from German.] 

Wello, «. well, source, B 313. A.S. 
lOflla, Icel. wlla, » well; the 
more usual Ibrm is A. S. leell. 

Wemmeleea, adj. staiidesi, G 47. 
A.S. uiem. Icel. vaam, Oolh. 

Weade. ger. to go, to wend, B 
14a. S53, 165 : pr. pi. Wende, 
go. 11S7; "/■ ye wend, travel, 
C917; Wente him, JM. J. turned 
himself, i.e. went bis way, Q 
1 1 10 ; pp. Went, gone ; btn meat, 
ate gone, B 173 ; is wnl, isgoiic^ 
G 534 (see note). A. S. wendaa, 
Q. uitndtn, to turn. 

Wenen, v. to ween, suppose, O 
676 ! Wene, 1088 ; pr. t. Weneth, 
imagines, C 569; Wenen, 
suppose, 349 ; pi. i. subj. Wende, 
would have thought, C 783. A. S. 
ta^OH, Icel. vana, Ooth. wtnjaa, 
O. tiidhntn, to imagine; from A.S. 
tuin, Icel. van. Goth, uem, G. 
wahn, expectation, hope. 

Wapen, pr. pi, weep, B 81a ; ^r. s. 
Wepte, wept, 167 ; Weep, 636, 
105J, O 371. See Weep. 

Werohe, i>. to work, do, make, 
perform, B 566, G 14, 1155, 
'477' ^- S- leeorcari, to work. 
See Werkes. 

Were, pi. i. mbj. ibonld be, might 




be, O sSt ; Wtre it, whether it 
weie, Le. eilhtr, B 143 ! Were, 
1 p. t. pra. indie, vut, B 366 ; 

S. ^. Weiea, weie, O 1340. 
.B. Tbe A. S. loh-i ii the 1 p. 
pt. indie, ai well ai lubj. ; the 
fornii UKUI, vm-t, are litet ; hence 
Chaucec'i ue af totrt in B 36G ii 
qidte coirect, and it need cot be 
taken u aq initance of the lob- 
JDnctive mood. From A.S. v/ttan, 
lo be : cr. Skt. ma, to dwell. 

Wered, pi. 1. wore, G JSS. A. 8. 
VHrian, to wear; pt. t. vitrodi. 
Ori^nallj a utak Tctb. Cr. Icel 
vfrja, Qoth. woijan, to put on 
clDlhing ; Lit. uufu, clothing. 

Werieth, pr. 1. weario, Q 1304. 

'Warkes, i. pi. wotki, B 47S, O 
64. A.S. iMorc, Icel. Mri,ak. 

Werklng, 1. work, mode of opera- 
tion, a 1367 i Wetkinge, aclioD, 

Weah, pi. t. waihed, B 453. See 

Wet«, s. wet, peitpi ration, Q 1187. 

A. S. Kiia, welnesi, moitlure. 
Was, c. wax, a 1164, ia68. A.S. 


Weze, v. to wax, becomi 
Wexen, 877; W 
come, 1095 ; i ^. we becoroe, 
869 ! I p. I. pr. ivbj. Wexe, may 
I become, 1374 ; pi. i. Wex, be- 
came, B 563, 568. A. S. utaxan, 
Icel. vaita, Goth, wahijan, 0. 
viachun, to grow. 

Weyo, .. wij. B 385. G 1374; 
manner, wise, B £90, Q 67G, 
A. S. foeg, waj, roid. 

Wered, pi, I. weighed, G lagS. 
A. S. aigaa, to weigh, Icel. vtga, 

Wejiawey, inlirj, well away 1 alai I 
B 37o> 633, 810. A. S. via la 

Weyua, v, to fornke, Q 176 ; pr. 

pi. Weyoen, vaira, let aiide, I 
33 i Pf- Weyued, removed, twung 
atide, B 308. O. F. wntvr, 
giatvfr, guttiir, to waive. 
' Guttver, to waive, reluie, aban- 
don, gira over, alio, to lorrender, 
give back, reugii, redeliver ; ' Cot- 

■What, why, B 333, 374, 703,0 
754. A.S. Aivat. 

What ao, whauoerer, O 711, 965. 

■Whelpea,!.^. dogi, OlSo. AS. 

Whennea, adv. whence, C 335, 
a47; of whennesifrora whence, 

43*. 433- A. S. kuanon. 
Wher, adv. wheierer, C 748, G 

7171 Wher-jis, where that, where, 

B647, ii3i,C466,H49. 
Wher-on ; lottgwher-on, i. e. along 

of what. becauM of what, G 930. 
Wher-BO> ado, whether, B 194. 
Wlkste, s. wheat, I 36. A.S. 

huHtti, wheaU 
Whloh, proa, what sort of, G 73 1 ; 

pi. Whiche. which. B 553. A. S. 

kuiylc, Goth, iaa-ltiki, (i. e. wbo- 

like), Lat. qvalis. 
Whlder, adv. whither, G 303, 

A. S. iaidtr. 
Wh7, adv. for what reaiQD 1 why ? 

1 35. A. S. Aivf, iptlrumentai cate 
of Ami, who. 

Whyle, I, lime, B 370,546; 
Vfhyta,lima; inthemenewhylei 
— during the mean while, 668. 
A.S. hwU, Goth, hviila, a lime. 

Whyl-or, adv. fbtmerly, G 1338. 
A. S. huil, a lime ; and ir. for- 

Whylom, adv. formerly, B 1 34, G 
463. A.S. totfun, dal. pi. of 
kwll, a time. 

WhyU, adv. while, G 1 137, A. S. 
hsrilii. gen. cing. of Aivil, a time. 

Whyte, adj. white ; uud as sb. 
while wine, C 536. 563. A.S, 
kwU, while; led. hvUr, Goth. 
AiMtti, O. uniit. 




,S; ^./J. would, Bi«. A.S. 

Wight, (. wight, man, B 656 

See TIPyBlit. 
WttB, .. week, C 36). A. S. ihV. 

viuci, vmeu, a week ; Icel. viia, 1 

WUke, oi^. wicked, O 534. CI 

A. S. voted, a wizard, v/icei, 1 

WUfiiliy, aiA>. witlinglj, of free 

wil1,bychoice.C44I. ' WylfuS; 

voluDlarius, iponuneiu;' Prompt. 


to get gain, C 461- 

"Wtaly, adv. certainly, B 1061, 
Cf. !ctl. viss. lore ; Du. gtvAs. G. 
gneiss, certain ; from the root of 
ailan, to know. 

Wite, V. to know, wit, Q 6)i. 
ma I ^ know ye, H 1, 
8a ;^'.ihonld know, knew, 
0370; (ifl»)tnew,Csi3;^;. 
Wist, known, B 1071, G iSi. 

wile, pi. t. ie aoldf. 
WoUe, I. wool, C 448, 910. A. S. 

u«H, wool, Icei. «U; but also 

diisjrllabic. ai iticwn by Golh. 

amlla, wool, G, uoJ^f. 
■Wombs, I. the belly, C 5IJ, 533. 

A. S. wamb, Goth. umniAa, 

A.S. t 

851, G 1346. 
Wonder, s. as adj. wondrous, 

wonderful, B 1045, C 891, G 308. 

A. S. vmndlr. 
Wonder, f. at adv. wondrously, G 

751 ; gteally, 1035 ; rery. H 94. 
Wone, gtr. to dweir. inhabit, G 

. 33»; 



A.S. t 

I, led. I 

Ski. vid, to know. See Woat. 
With, /rep. by, B 475, Q 1437. 
Withholde, pp. detained, G 345. 

A. S. UK'S, agalntt, and healdan. 

Wood, adj. mad, C 187. Q 450, 

576,869,1377. A. S. ifirf, Goth. 

aods. Icel. 4Sr, mad. 
Woode1ih,/r. J. play f tlie madman, 

■cli madly, G 467. A. S. unidiaii, 

ivddan^ to rage, G. viutkat. 
WoodneBBe, s. midnesi, C 496. 

A. S, leddias. 
Wook, pi. I. wai awake, B 497 ; 

awoke, 8c6. A. S. itucoH, pt. t. 

it aCc, pp. viattn. 

to bold. 
Withaeye, v. to renounce, Q 4+7. 

Wordes, .. pi- "ord,! WA iht 
uordts, wasspokesman (see note). 

457- A.S. wis. agaiwt, aud 

I67. A.S.word. 

ucgan, to Mjf. 

Worm, ., snake (lit. worm), C 355. 

Witnea, imp. t. let (it) bear wit- 

A.S.wyrma,wurm, kel.ormr, G. 

ness, 277. A. S. tailius, know- 


Wort, 1. unfermented beer, wort, 

G813. Somnei'i A.S. Diet, has 

B 101. A.S. wit, gewil, mind. 


Woat, tp. knowetl, C 834, 

Wo, adj. lad, B 757. A. S- lod, 

Q 653. A. S, wilaa, to know. 

woe, sb. ; but lometimes uaed ai 

has ilrong pt. t. used as present. 

an adjectii-e. 

viz. .V «5(, >« wrfi(, ** "^, I 

■Wol, pr. t. permits, H 18; tira/ 

wol, thou wost (wotlest). he wol 

adoun, ii about to set, I 71 ; pr. 

(«o(wots). SeeWlto. 

pi. Wole, will, B 468; Wol, G 

■Wostow, jW- wost thou, i.e. know- 

84; Wollow, will thou, G 337, 
464; t'- '■ 'Wolde, wished, B 

est ihou. G ,6i. 444, 469. See 





Wot, fr. I. knowi, B 195, 436, 
439, 963.0 713. SeeWost. 

WoxBii, pp. Riowo, waxed, G jjg, 
381. S» Wet 

Wowet*, /r, (, wood, B 589. 
A, S. tiiagan. 10 woo ; prob. oiig. 
to bend ; cf. A. S. teiSg, taik, 

Wrak, (. wreck, B 513. O.Friei. 
wrai, injared ; Du. m-oi, broken, 
alio a wrKk ; Icel. rM, a thing 
drifted ashoie. 

'Wia.vr, adj. iinge. fierce, angry, 
H 46. Apparently merely a 
corruption ofarolk (A. S. uriiS), 
wrathful; cf. led. re/fir. 


angry. See olber e»mple> of 

Wreohe, i. vengeance, B 679. 

A.S. uracv, vengeance. 
WrekO, V. 10 avenge, C 857. 

A. S. viraan. to iTenge, puniih. 
Wienohu, t. fi. fraudi, itnta- 

gemi, tricks, O to8i. A. S. 

W^riton, pp. 

Wrong;, pi. 1. wrang, B 
A. S. WTingan, to wring, ilrs 

Wroot, /(. t. wtoie, B 7J5, 
G S3. A. S. wrUan. to 1 
pt. t. forvff, pp. 

95- See 


Wroth, ad), wroth, angry, H 46. 
A.S. wriiS, angry; turd's, wiith, 
anger ; led. rfitJr, angry, mSi, 

Wrought, /ip.niide,Q3»6. A.S. 

looriM, I worked, 1 wrought. 

Wido-whar, adv. widely, every- 
where, B 136. 

Wyf, I. mutrui of a honidiold, O 
loij. A.S. viif, G. iwii, a 

Wyght, ». wight, man, B 139, 

103, G 115, 404, H 36. A.S. 

w&t, viuht, Goth, waiht, G. 

vAcht ; Fng. aright and vihil. 
Wyghte, t. wdghl, Q 73. A.S. 

wihl, weight. 
Wyn ape, lit. ap«-wlne, H 44. 

See the note. 
Wyude, f. to wind about, twist 

and tnm. G980. . A.S. vandaa, 

Tcel. tanda, G. vnndtn. 
Wyse, I. (ifaf.) wise, manner, way. 

B 153. A.S. win, a way; G. 

vitUi ; F. gaia ii from O. H. G. ; 

ui'u and j-uiM are doubleli. 
Wyse, adj. pi. as ib, wiie men, O 

1067. A.S. wli, wiie; from 

vjitan, to know. 
Wyto, I. blame, G 953. A.S. 

cf. viUan. to punish; Icel. vUa, 


Yof, p(. .. gave, B 939, 975, C 
41,0, 887, G 113; pt. pi. YiMca, 
gave, O 415. SeeTeuo. 

Tbleswd, pp. blejsed, H 99. A. S. 
»erfii'an, to consecrate ; from Nid, 
blood. The prefia y- aoswett to 

Tboren, pp. bom, C 704. A. S. 
6*™™, to bear ; pp. bortn, gtbor- 

Ybotmde, pp. bound, G 347. 

A.S. bindan, to bind ; pp.bundei, 

Tbrend, pp. burnt, G 318. A.S. 

baraaa.pp.bamtd. SeeBrenue. 
YoiKied,/;. carried, C 791. 0. F. 

Tcaat, pp. cast, thrown, G 939. 

See Caste. 
7oIad, pp. dotheJ. G 133. A. S. 

getladed, clothed. 



Yelaped, p/. clled, H 1,0119! 

978 ; Yetc. H 463. A.S.gXSr. 
Icel. dr, Goth. jir.G.jahr; the 

Ydipt, a 77a. SeeOlepe. 

Tcome. pp. come. B 755. A. S. 

A. S-pl. italwg-for. 

ttmoH, tu come; pp. huhx. 

Yemaa, s. yeonun, Krvint. O 


561, 587. Cr. 0. Fries, gaman. 

a villager ; from ga, a village ; 

Mor/an, 10 cut ; pp. tor/ia, gttor/- 

cf. Goth, gawi, Q. you, a dis- 

trkl. Note esp. gasman, > pei- 

wm, pi. gStileufi, ill Schmeller'i 
Bavarian Diet. col. 85,1;. 

FiomO.F.couru-.tocoTtr; from 

Lat. co-operirt. 

Teme. adv. briikly, glibly, C 398. 

Tooynod, pp. coined, G 770. F. 

A- S. giant, eager; gtomt. 

coin. Lit. eunnif, a wedge ; hence, 


TTet, orfv. moreover, G 631. A. S. 

gii, yet, slill. 

gecrammtd ; ef. Do. traminin, to 
fallen witb crampi or clamps. 
Totistned, pp. baptized, B 140. 

7dell7. adv- idly, C 446. A.S. 

tdtl, idle, vain ; tdillia. vainly. 
Ydo, pp. done, i. c. finished, done 

with, a 739, 850, 866, 899 ; 

Ydoon, fonght. lit. accomplished. 

386. A. S. ged^n. pp. of d*i, to 

Teue, w.togive,G390.I64; ger. 
to give, for giving, C 401, Q 
990 ; imp. t. give, G 1 193 ; 3 ^. 
may (Be) give, B 184, 601, H 
15 ; pp. Veoen, given, B 333, 
444. C 449, 779. gjj, G 470, 
480. A.S. gi/an, pt. t. g,^, 
g'"/' pp. g>M i I"'. S'fa, Golh. 

Teuing, t. giving; taya-yiuing, 
wine-giving, the gitiiig of wine. 

Tdra^rs, pp. 

1440. A.S, aragan, 10 arag, 

draw; fp. gidragin. 
Ye, adv. yea. verily. B 4IT. G 

47'. 599. 'ofi' ; y '"' ""X Tf» 

Of nay, Jia. A.S. gt, gtd, G. 

TS, t. (pronounced as long e in 
meet, jfei/ouW 6y s oJjchm), eye, 
B i8o; al yo-at eye. to tight, 
evidently, G 964, 1050 ; pi. Yen, 
tyei, B 5J), 6G1. G I90, 498, 
S04. 1418. A.S. idgi, pi tdgan; 
cf. E. lyiu. 

", >. went. G 1141. ia8l. 
A.S. ioik. Golh. iddja. I went; 
from the root i, 10 go ; cf. Skt. 
(, to go ; Lat. irt. to go. 

Yeer, >. //. yean. B 499, G 7ao, 
VOL. III. 1 

TfoUan, pp. fallen, turned out, 

happened, C 938, G 61, 1043; 

having come upon, having be- 

liken. O bllen, C 496. A.S. feallan. to 

, to drag, fall; pp. gi/iallin. 

Yfere, adv. together, E 394, G 
380. Cf. A.S. gtfera, a iravel- 
* ig companion; from A.S. 



Yfet, pp. fetched, G 1116. A.S. 


YKlosad, pp. flattered, H 34. 
Formed from F. ib. glost, > 
gloii, comment ; from Lit glioia, 
Gk. yXaivaa, the tongue, &c 

Ybo, ^. gone, B 599 ; Ygon, G 
183. A.S. gdn. to go; pp. 

TsTAimted, j^. granted, C 38S. 





Yhont, pp. loiied, cinght, C 8fi8, 

Q 136. A. S. htnlan, id lieze. 
rhid, /^ hid. G 317. A,S. 

h^dan, to hide ; pp. gik^ded. 
Tholde, pp. held. coasider«i], C 

601. A. S. /ualdaa, ID hold, pp. 

TUT, imp. s. give, g»ni. B 46). 

561, O 65. See Tlue. 
TiftB. 1 gift, G 175 ; pi. Yifte.. C 

J95. A.S.gifi. 
Tit, adv. yet, ttiJI, B 634. A. S. 

TtnowB, ?/. known, B 314. A.S, 
10 know : pp. f MxaiMR. 
lent, G nab. A.S. 
lanan. lo lend, give; pp. gi- 

Tliohs, adv. alike, equally, G 
1101. k.S. grlice, adr.; cf. G. 
gleith. SeeTlyks. 

TloBt, /•;. I011, G J11. A.S. 
;e<;<an, tD ioie ; pp. lorea. Iota. 

Tlyke. adv. alike, equally, G 8jO. 

See Tliohe. 
Ymoad, jip. made, caujed, B 69.^, 

G 868, 1149: Ymaked, made, 

CS45. A.S. make; 

pp. macoi/, gimacad. 
rmette, //>. met, B 1115. A.S. 

sUlan, to meet; pp. gtm4t. 
YnoT, iiiJ/. enoagb, tuffident, O 

loiS ; pi. Ydow, B 355. A. S. 

gtnog, lufficieut, Goth, ganohs. 
"Zaaw, adv. enough. G 864. 945. 
Tors, txdv. of old, fotmerly, fl 174, 

171. A.S, gtdra, fonneiiyj 

from gtdr, I year. 
Tcmres, pr<m. ^91. youn, C 671, 

785; Your, yoiin.G 1343. A.S. 

tiatr, of you ; whence your ; 

" y™. B 

id accol 

f. ye- 
Towthe, I. youth, B 1^. A.S. 

Tplked, pp. iHcked OTer, G 94I. 

Cf. A. S. pycan, to pick, pull 
Tpoorai, Hippocritei ; htnci ■ 
kinJ of cordial, C 306. See the 

TpocrlBys, t. hypocrisy, C 410. 
Tpat, pp. put, G 763. 

Tron, adj. iron, G 759; t. iion. 

Si;. A.S. frm, ken. icon ; G.nWn. 

Trent, pp. rem, torn, B 844. A, S. 

T-BOhette, pp. ihut, B f6:>. A. S. 

tdllaa, scyllan^Va lock up (Som- 

Ud'tl^Aia. ■ ■ ' - ■ 

t, ihut. 

Taeot, pp. «ent. B 104I. 

TBet,ifi.iealed(lit. iei,pul).C393. 

A. S. tiliait, to Kt : pp. gati. 
Yshape, pp. shaped, formed, H 

43 ; Yihapcn, ihaped, i. e. con- 

tiived, G loSo. A.S. tcippan. 

to thape, make; pp. tcaptn, 

Tihxiuan, pp. ihriven, C " 

A.S. tcHfan, to ihriie 

Talftwe, pp. ilain, B 484, C 856 ; 

Yilayn. slain. B 605, 848, C 673. 

A.S. tledn, 10 strike; pp. gt- 

ilagen; whe.icejii/ay'i, bychange 

of g into y. and yslaw* {lot 

yilaatn) by change 0/ g into w. 
Tstonse, pp. stung, C 355. A, S. 

aingan, pt. t. « Hang, pp. itung- 


t heie 

It pres( 

Ttake, pp. taken, B 348, 

Icel. laka. to take. 
Ytausht, pp. taught. G 267. 

ijtean, to leach ; pp. lAhl, gilSht. 
Tthroire, pp. thrown, O 940. 

A. S. ^roKon, to throw ; pi. L 

],rl6u,: pp. f™»m. f(Jwfli«n. 
Ttold,/p. told, G 61J, I 31. A.S. 

Iillan, pp. geitald, 



Tuel, adj. evtl, ill, C 408 ; adv. Twia, adv. ceilainlj, C 317, G 

tviil}, ill, G 911. (Pron. marly in 16,1, 439, 617, 689, 813, II07, 

o«ivllabl«.) A.S.y/il,Ootii. libils. 13S((. A. S. f ™;.. Do. ™/., G. 

G Sbil, tv\[,bid; A.S.j^di.eiillj. grmsi, tit. ccrliinly. Fima the 

Vweddsd, pp. wedded. G 118. lool of iMdn, to know. 

A,S, tuiddien, to pledge; pp. TwritoD, pp. wrillen, B I91, G 

iBiddoJ, gtanddtd; bom vnd, a SIO. A.S. un-lMn, to write j pi. 

pledge. t. wrAl, pp. gnerilm. 

^, Google 


N.B. Ulittf of the n>mn ue commented upon in the Notei. 

Aohlllea, B 198. 
Ad»m, C 505, 508, 
AIlHatindre. Alexandria, 975. 
AlkaroD, the Korin, B 331. 
Alia, JEWa. B 578, 604. 610, 659. 
- ■ - uhiufl, G 411,435,468, 4^17 ; 

Almache, 3( 


Ambrose, saint. O 171. 
Anne, St. Anai, S 64I. O 70. 
Apia, Tla, i.e. Via Appia, the 
AppiiQwajr, G17J. 

Arnold of tii« n«iire toon, 
AmoMui de Villi Nova, O 1418. 
See Thealrum ChemicDm, ir.514. 

AttlU, C S79- 

Auloan, Avicenoa, C S89. 

Baolina, Bacchni. S 99. 
Barard, > hoiie'i name, G I413. 

(So called from hU bay coloui.) 
Bernard, St. Becnatd, G 30. 
Blee, i. e, Blein, H 3. 
Bob-vp-and-down (lee note), 


Boughton Tnder Blse, Q 5j6. 

Oananee, adj. Cinaaniie. G 59. 
Cotoun, Cato (Dionytiuj Calo), G 

688. See the note. 
CannterbnTT, Canlerbiti]', 614, 

Ohep«, Clieapilde, C ;64, j6g. H 

Corlathe, Corinlh, C 604. 
Crist, Chriil, B 177, aSj, Sec. 
Custanoe, Conitance, B igi, 116, 
164, 319, 431, 438, &c. 

Donyel, Diniel. B 473. 
Dauid, Divid, B 935. 
Demetriiu, C 631. 
Donegild, B 695, 778, S96., 

Ebrsyk, adj. Hebrew, B 489. 
Bator, Hector, B 198. 
BK7P«i«° Marie, EgTptian Mar;, 

Sia. Maria Egyptian, B 500. 
Sngelond, England, B II30, C 

921, G I 

pe, Europe, B 1 61. 



QalianaB, i. pt. driaki Darned attei 

Galen, C 306. 
OoIiaB, Qoliath, B 934. 
Orsce. Oifece, B 464. 
Qyle, Si. QiUt, St. fgldiut, O 


Hanybal. Haaaibal, B 390. 
Hayles, the Abbey o( Hiilei, 

Qloueestenhire, C 65 j, 
HsrmenBild, HeimeDgild, B 533, 

539. 597i ^H: «"■ Hermen- 
■' ' •. 595- 

laremTB, Jeremtah, C €35. 
lamMlem, Jenualem, I Jt. 
lesu, Jctut, B 538. 
ZeweB, Jews, C 47S- 
Zaha Baptist, C 491. 
lohn, St. John, B 1019, C 751. 
louu, Jonab, B 486. 
Itayle, liily, B 441. 
lubaltar, Gibcaltai, B 947. 
Zndu, Judas, O 1003. 
ludith, Judith, B 939. 
lulluB, Juliui C»ar, B 199, 400. 
lupiter, Jupitet, G 364; the plimi, 

Itutdomis, Lacedxtnon, C 6oj. 

Lamual, Lemuel, C 584. 

Lepe, a town in Spain, C 563, 570. 

Ilia, Leah, G 96, gS. 

IiibiB, 1 lign ofthe zodiac, I II. 

IiOndoun, LondoD, H ti; Lou 

Mara, B 301, 305. 
Kaije, Mary. B 84 1 . 
Usthew, St. Matthew, C 634. 
MaiiiioiuB, Mauiice, B 7131 Mas- 
rice, B 1063, )iii ; get. Miu- 
- 1117. 

ITitiluee, Nineveh, B 487 j Niniue, 

ITorthumbarloDd, NotthnmbeF- 

land, B 508. s;8. 

FanuJyi, ». Paradiie, C 506, 509, 

Faithea, Paithia(ar,theParthiani), 

FboI, St. Paul,C 511, 1 31 ; Piului, 

PirruB, Pyrrhui, B 388. 
Plato, G 1448, 1453, 1460. 
Pompel, Poinpej, B 199. 

Soohel, Rochelte. C 571. 

Bomayn, adj. Roman, B 954; pi. 
Roniayni, the Roman people. 19I, 
394, O 111 ; Romayu geites, the 
gesta Romanon'tn, B 1136. 

Borne, B 141, 190, O 973. 

Bomewald, to, towaidt Rome, B 

Iiooui, B 401. 

Uuie, St. Mary the E^yptiin, B 


UATTokt Morocco, B 465. 

Salomon, Solomon, G961. 
Sampaon, Simion, B 301 ; Simp. 

foiiu,C 354,573. 
Samnol, C 585. 
Batluui, Satan, B 5S3, 634. 
Satoraiu, Saturn (the planet), O 




> book (»e 


Senek, Ecncca, C 491. 
Benjor, ihe name of 

note), a 1 450. 
Septa, Ceuta, in Morocco, B 947. 

Soantei, B 101. 

Sol, lit. the Sun, 1 name Tor gold, 

G 1440. 
Bpajme, Spain, C 565, 570- 
SlUbon, C 603. See note. 
Bnnre. Syria, B 134, 173, 177, 

379. 387, 9SS- 
Sarryan, adj. S<rriin, B IS3. 435 ; 

pi. Sunycni, (he Syriaiu, 394>96j. 

Th«bes, B 100, 1S9. 
Theseus (>ee note, p. 6), B 189. 
TibuToe, Tibuniut, Q 141, 360; 
giH, Tiborcet. 177. 

Timothea, Timothj, I 3 a. 
Tltanos. Titan, a name for mag 

Troya, Tioy, B aSS, O 975, 
Turaiu, B 30I. 

Valerian. O lig, 161, &c. ; gin. 

Vale riant, 177. 
Tantu {the planet), Q 819. 
Trban, pope Utbiin, Q 177, 1 79, 

185. ai7.303,&c 

Walya, Walet, B 344. 

TEda, India, C 711. 
Tpooraa, Hippr^tei ; also. 1 cor 
dill named after him, C 306. 



The more difiicatt ucrds are eiplaiaed In the Gloss-iry; but some are 
liirther commented on id the Noles. These are entered Id the following 
Index, and are distb^uhed by being ptbted k ilalics. The nomber^ 
refer to the pagei. 

abid. for aSjf. |86. 

Avicenna, 164. 

atcidrU, I S3. 

av^ytn (redecml, 153. 

agrimmj, igl. 

al, lue of, 105. 
Alanus de tawMa, 196. 

bai, 195. 

Barbour"! Bruce, 130, 134. 

Basket-malting by saints, 149. 

' Alchemist, the,' 1S7. 

Bayard, blind, 199. 

AlestaJtes, 143. 


Alliteration, 108. 

Bell, sounded before a corpse, 160. 

Amalgam, 189. 


Ambrose cited, 174. 

angU. 116. 

Bernard, Si, 167. 

Anna. St., 131,169. 

b,l. .61. 

aniaitlitr, 19,. 

W«*«fionrt, 159. 


Ape-wine, 104, 10 j. 

blind Ian,, iS^. 

Appianwaj, 171. 

Bob'UP-and down, 101. 

appoitd. 175- 'VO- 

Boethiua. l»5, IJ9. 

Arimathea, Joseph of. 131. 

boll (earth), 18 1, iqo. 

Araolduade Nova Villa, 191, aoo. 

Boughton-under-Blee, 181. 

Arsenic, 190. 

BulU, Popes', 144- 

■w. nse of, 135.138; etyniolc^y of. 

buriih, 17J. 


h. 197- 

Ascendwit i»8. 

AstroUbe, Chancer'i, is6, u;, 

Caecilia,etyinologyof, 170; cbnrch 

118. ao7, 108 

of, 179! date of death, 180; 

Astrology, 1*3, 116, 117. 

patrcmess of music, 171. 
Cakes, 144. 

Alazir. ,t6. 

aiu, i£6. 

Calcination, l8g. 

Attila, 155. 

Canon. 164. 




Cato, Dionysins, j86. 
etrid pokiis, 1^1. 
arioasly, 133. 
CeuCit, \%6. 
Chaucer's tather, 154, 

Chilon, 156. 

CilrinaCion, 191. 

doalaf, i8j. 

Clouts, 145. 

ConunandmcDb. ten, iji, IJ7. 

t'>m4il, 163. 171. 

Cook's Tale, 104. 

c^nicul^.. 176. 

crowd, I»(5, 135. 

evttiTbilts, 190. 

euls, to draw, 163. 

damt, l6f. 

Daate imitated, 167, 163. 
dcfindm, 153. 
Demetrius, 1 56, 
dtyt, dyt, 131. 
Dialects, aoS. 

Divinatioii b<r the blade-bone, 

DoroUiea. St., 166. 
dridi, O'll 0/, 13s. 
Drunkenness, 134. 153, 154, 
dryuc away ihi day, 156. 
Dun in the mue, 103. 

-nf, final, i 

■n (in Shakespeare), 14a. 
', 135- 

Election of voyage, 137, laS. 
Elements, the four, aoi. 
Elves, 134. 
Empyrean, 171, 

mn/ul, 140. 

Etymolt^es, strange, i Jo. 

Eve. son of, 169. 

ExalUtioa (in istiolcig;). 107. 

Face (in astrolc^), 208 
fan, 104, 
/ta (chapter), 164. 

Fermentation, 193, 

Fish Street, 154. 

Flanders, 150. 

ntmtd, 169. 

Florins, I0». 
fiattlk, 106. 
Jool-hol, 130. 
Jort, BO, 140. i8j. 

fraughl. I J J. 

Friars, 1 4 9. 

Goliants, 141. 

gaurm, rje. 

Gerund, use of fte, 154, 17S. 

Gesta Romauorum, 131, 139. 

gliU, 108. 

Gibialtar, 136. 

Giles, St., 198. 

gnod byi, 16a. 

Gospels, MSS. of the, rjl. 

Gower, 111, ijj, 129-131, 137, 

138, J4S, 193, 194, 198, »oi. 
griUy, I JO. 

Hailea, blood of, 158. 

karroa ! karo I, 140. 

Aounttn, 150, 153. 

Hazard, 159. 

here (hei), dissyllabic, 17I. 

Herbs, virtue of, 191. 

Hermes, 101. 

Herod, 15 a. 

h^-i. 198, 199. 

heyre, I7r. 

Hippocrates, 140, 141, 

Hood, how worn, 18a, 

Horoscope, 117, 138. 

House (in astrology), uB. 

hym and ktri (him and her), 130, 

Hymn, Latin, imitated, 130. 

hypocras, I40, I4I. 

Indulgences, sale of, 144-147. 
mfirtie, 1 87, 



lamjl* (kmlna), 187. 

taut, blind, i8j. 

latoua, 14s, 

Legends Aurea, 130, 165, i(>6, 

169. Ill, &C. 

Lemuel, king, 155. 

Lepe, town of, 1114. 

lillres, Ultre, ii« of, IJJ, 134. 

loling4, 171. 

laninit, 191, 

Ljdgale, liS. 

Mahomet, 114. 
mall (bag), 164, i8». 
Manuscripls ; stt Notes. 
Mark, value of a, 147. 
Mary of %ypt, 131. 
Matthew Pans, 134. 
Maumtliy, 114, 
Maurice, emperor, 13(1. 
Bwsioy* (messenger), Hi, 118. 
Metals, seven, 194. 
Morocco, straits of, 1 3 1 , 1 36. 
Mortification, 300. 
moysli, 143. 
muld^yi, 185, 1S6. 

namily, 147. 

Nativities, 137, 

naylts (an oath), 157. 158. 

Nicodemus, gospel of, 133. 

Nobles, 164. 

Nominalists, 1^3, 

Notes written m the margin in flie 
MSS.. 113, 135, 117, 139, 134, 
139. '5». 153. "SS-'SJ. "03, 
177. 184. 

Ospringe, pilgrims at, iSo, 181. 
miertloppt, 184. 
oughl (at all), 183. 
OxjmoroQ, 195. 

Panlons, 144-147, 

Past partidpte, I3i, ijq, 197. 

Past tense, second person of, 17S; 

compared with pp., 179, 197. 
paltnit, 144. 
Pestilences. 161. 
Purr I. 185. 
Peter Comestoi, 153. 
Piers Plowman, 149, 152, is3i ijCj 

Planets, ascension of, 1 16 ; position 

poiiU, cirtd, 193. 

Polycraticus, 156, 

fosi (verb), etymology of, 176. 

pouptd, 3o4. 

Prime, 160. 

Primam mobile, 135. 

Proper names in scansion, 138. 

Proverbs: — all that glisters, 196, 

197; ss fain as a fowl, 199; 

every apple, 196, 107; burnt 

bairns, 199; better late, 199; 

lightly come, 163 ; proffered 

. 197; 

r.a^, 1 

solamin mistrorvm, 187. 
Ptolemaic theory, 135. 

purehtKt, 135, 

rapt and rtrmt, 199, loc^ 
Realgar, 193. 
Realists, 153. 
Beclaim a bawk, 3o6< 

litis, out of, 168. 



(rideth), 184. 
Roland, young, 137. 
Romauol of toe Rose, 148, 165. 
Rome, jotunies to, 136. 

■ OO^^If 


Ronan, St., 141, til- 
Root (in »£trol(^), lay, i»8j (ii 

alchemy), 10 ». 
RnbriRcation. 190. 

K-Pv-, 145. 

Sal Ammoniae. 191. 

Sal Petrae, 191. 

Salisbary, Joho ol, 156- 

Samfisoua, I5J, 

Scansion, peculiarities of, 114, 119, 

138, 146, 164, 173, 173, 173. 

184-186, 198. 
M (protect). 111, i6a. 
Secreta Secrets ram. 101. 
Seneca quoted, 151 
Senior (a boolc), 101. 
Seipent in form of woman, 118, 

wnw (snnl, feminine. 168. 
tolht, dissyllabic, 185. 
tptnding tUutr, 197. 
Spheces, nine, 115. 
Spirits, four. 1R9. 193. 
^^4. -.»r. (suffix), ijl. 
.«™ (die), 164. 
Stilbon, 156. 
■Stories, the,' ifii. 
SubliEnation. i!s8. 
lubslaaee. 15.]. 
Suaumah, 133. 
Swearing, I50, I5I, 157. 
ty (saw), 199. 
^y*(« (sighed), 137. 

tmps (tense), 195. 
iixiud, ii». 

(lb, joined'^ to next woid, 1^ 
Hdi. 135, 

lombisltri, 151. 

Tortnou* signs, 1 16. 
Torture, 136- 
to-/erl, ISO. 
IriacU (treacle), 143. 
Trivet, Nicholas, cited, 11 
I31-133. I35-I40- 

Urban, St.. 1 71. 

vtrdtgrtis, 190. 

Vigny, Jehan de, 165. i6fi. 

Vintners, 154, 155. 

'Virgin Martyr.' 166, 173, 176. 

vou, old spelling of, 161. 

Wafer-women, 151. 
viiiu, h (is gone). 179. 
u«>r» (abandon), 174. 
White and red wines. 153, 
viha, as a relative, 17S. 
wilful, 149 

\Vinesof Spain and Rochclle, 154. 
Is of, 104 ; wine of ape. 


uiood (mad), I 
vxrdti, iaddi ihi, 109. 
worm (serpeol), 146. 



The Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. Edited, from 
nnmerous Manuscripts. In Six Volomes, demy 8to, with Porlrait 
and Facsimiles. 4/. i6j., or i&r. each volume. 

Chaucerian and other Pieces, being a Supplementary Volume 

to the above. Edited from numerous Mannscripts. Svo, 181. 

The Prologue to ike Canterbury Tales. {School Edition.) 

Extra icap, Svo, 1.1. 
The Prologue, The Knighles Tale, The Nmne Preestes Tale ; 

from the Canterbury Tales. Edited by R. Morris, LL.D. A New 

Kdition, with Collations and Additional Notes. Extra fcap. Svo, 

31. bd. 

The Prioresses Tale. Sir Thopas, The Monkes Tale, The 
Clerkis Tale, The Squierts Tale, &c. Seventh EditUn. Extra • 
fcap. Svo, 41. f>d. 

The Tale of the Man of Lawe, The Pardoneres Tale, The 
Second Nottnes Tale, The Chanouns Yemannes Tale : from the 
Canterbury Tales. /JloB J/eviseti Sdilion. Eitia fcap. Svo, 41. 6d. 

Minor Poems. Second Edition. Crown Svo, 10s. 6d. 

The Hous of Fame. Crown Svo, paper boards, 2s. 

The Legend of Good Women. Crown Svo, 6s. 

The Oxford Chaucer. Being a complete Edition of hb 
Works, edited from numerous MSS., with Introduction and 
Glossary. In one voL, ctowu Bvo, cloth, JJ. f>d. On India 
Paper, from 8j. 

Glossarial Index separately. Limp cloth, js. 6d. 

The Chaucer Canon. With a discussion of the Works 
associated with the name of Geoffrey Chaucer. 3.1. dd. ml. 

The Lay of Havelok the Dane. Circa a.d. 1310. Re-edited 
from the Unique MS. Land 108 in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 
Extra fcap. Svo, cloth, 41. dd. 

The Vision of William concerning Piers ihe Plmvman, in 

three Parallel Texts; together with Richard the Rcdeless. Ry 
WlLUAM LANGLANt) (about 1363-1399 A.D.). Edited from 
numerous Manuscripts, with Preface, Notes, and a Glossary. 
3 vols. Svo, il. nr. dd. 


Other Works by Professor Skeal. 

Tht Vision of William concerning Piers the Plowman, by 
William Langland. Edited witb Notes. Sixth Edition. Extra 
fcap. Sto, 41'. 6i/. 

Gamelyn, The Tale of. Edited, whh Notes, Glossary, &c. 
Seemd Edition, Revised. Extra fcap. Sto, stiff coven, is. 6d. 

An Etymological Diefionafy of the English Language, 
arranged on an Historical Basis. Third Edition. 4to, a/. 41. 
A Supplement to the First Edition of the above. 4to, 11. <id. 

A Concise Etymological Dictionary of Ihe English Language. 
New Edition, 1901, re-written and re-atranged alphabetically. 
Crown 8vo, is. 6d. 

Principles of English Etymology: 

First Series. The Native Element. Second Edition, Crown 8vo, 

lof. W. 
Second Series. The Foreign Element. Crown 8vo, las. 6d. 

A Primer of English Etymology. Third and Revised Edition. 
FJttia fcap. Svo, stiff covers, 11, 6d. 

Notes on English Etymology; chiefly reprinted from the 

Transactions of the Vhilological Society. With a portrait of ihe 
Antbor. Crown 8to, 8j, fui. net. 

A Student's Pastime: being a Select Series of Articles 

reprinted from ' Notes and Queiits.' Crown 8yo, ^j, M. net. 

Twelve Facsimiles of Old English Mamtscripis, with Tran- 
scriptions and an uitrodnction. 4to, paper covers, 7^. (>d. 

A Concise Dictionary of Middle English, from a.d. 1150 
to A.D. 1580. Intended lo be used as a glossaiy to the Ctaiendon 
Press Specimens of English Literature, &c. Viy A, L. Mavhew 
and W. W. Skbat. Crown Svo, half-roan, 71. 6d. 






(All boots are in extra fcap 8vo unless otherwise described) ' 


School Dictionaries 

Concise Etymological Dictionary, by w. w. Skeat. 

A new edition (1901), rewritten throughout and arranged alpha- 
betically. Crown 8vo, 676 pp. Ss. 6d. 

Saturday RevUw :—• Mr. Skeat's larger dittionaiy has estab- 
lished his title to the gratitude of all scholars ; and of his smaller 
dictionary we can only say that it is not less useful and valuable." 

Student's Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon, by h. SwEfrr. 

Small *to, 233 pp., printed in 3 eohimns. es..6d. net. 

iV(j(s» and Querks: — 'For the purpose of the student, no 
work so trustworthy, so convenient, and so valuable has seen 
the light.' 

Concise Dictionary of Middle English, from 

A.D, USOto A.D. 1580; intended to be used as a glossary to the 
Clarendon Press Specimens of English Literature, etc. ; by 
A. L. Mavhew and W, W. Skeat, Crown 8vo. 7s. 6d. 

Dr. Sweet's Grammars 

New English Grammar, It^cal and historical, in two 
parts, sola separately : Part I, Introduction, Phonology and 
Accidence, crown 8vo, second eiMtion, 523 pp.. Ids. 6d, Part II, 
Syntax, crown Bvo, second edition, 1*6 pp., 3s, 6d. 

School World:—' Xs an English grammar the book is of high 

value ; as an historical study it is of the deepest interest, while 
arness and careful style make it as 
is to the grammatical student.' 

its clearness and careful style make it as reaaabic to the literary 

Short Historical English Grammar, -in pp., 4s. 6d. 

Guardian: — * In the best sense of the word a scholarly book 

e that, we hope, will for a long time e: 
le teachingof English.' 
Educational Timet : — 'Excellent in every way.' 

n the teachingof English.' 
Educational Timet : — ' Exc 

Primer of Historical English Grammar, including 

added. ISO pp. 2s. 

^ D,g,t,ioflb,Google 


Dr. Sweet's Primers and Readers 

First Steps in Anfflo-Saxon, contdning 25 pages of 

grammar, 43 of leirt, and 40 of explanatory notes. 2s. 6d. 

Anglo-Saxon Primer. with grammar and glossary. 
Eighth edition, im pp. as. fld. 

Anglo-Saxon Reader, in prose and verse. With grammar, 
metre, notes, and glossary. Seventh edition, revised and 
enlarged (1898). Crown 8vo. tI4 pp. 9s. 6d. 

A Second Anglo-Saxon Reader, archaic and dialectal, 

220 pp. is. ed. 

Old English Reading Primers, being supplements to 

tiie Anglo-Saxon Readers. 
I ! Selected Homilies of iEIftic, Second ediHon. 2s. 
II 1 Extracts from Alfred's Orosius. Second edition. 2s. 

First Middle English Primer, with grammar and 
glossary. Second edition. Ss. 6d. 

Second Middle English Primer: extracts from 

Chaucer, with grammar and glossary. Second edition. 9s. 6d. 

Primer of Phonetics. Second e.ation (iws). 3s. 6d. 

EdiKational Tinuv: — *A concise, definite and practical 
primer, eminently the book for a beginner.' 

Primer of Spoken EngUsh. Second ed. revised. 3s. 6d. 

A Book for the Beginner in Anglo-Saxon. 

ByJ. Eahle. Fourth ediUon (1903). is. 6d. 

A Primer of English Etymology. By w. w. Skeat. 

Fourth and revised edition (1904). Stiff covers, 120 pp. Is. 6"d. 
Notet and Queries:— 'A work which facilitates the much- 
needed study of our language, and in the absence of other 
costlier and less concise and lucid works is indispensable.' 

' D.„„. Google 

Annotated Texts 

Old and Middle English 

Laurence Minot's Poems, edited by J. Hau. Second 

editioD. 4b. 6d. 

Gospel of St. Luke in Anglo-Saxon, edited by 

J.V. Bbtoht. 5s. 

Selections from Gower's Confessio Amantis, 

ediUd by G. C. Macaulav (1903). 302 pp. 4s. 6d. 

Miracle Plays, Moralities and Interludes, being 

specimens of the pre-Elizabethan drama. Edited, with intro- 
duction, notes, and glossary, by A. W. Pollahd. Fourth 
edition (1903), with ten illustrations. Crown 8vo. Ts. 6d. 

Specimens of Early English : with introductions, notes, 

and glossarial index. 
Part li From Old Enylkh Homilm to KSttff Horn {a.d. 1150 to 

A.D. 1300): by R, Mowiis. Second edition. 5T2 pp. 9s. 
Part 11: From Itolm-t^ GloiKeiilertc,Goie&r(_A.D. 1398to a.d. 1393): 

by R. MoBEis and W. W. Skeat. Fourth edition revised. 530 pp. 

Ts. 6d. 

Prof. Skeat's editions 

The Oxford Chaucer, containing in one volume the com- 
plete text of Chaucer's works; with introduction and glossarial 
mdex. Crown 8vo. 906 pp. 3s. 6d. On India paper, from 5s. 

The Minor Poems of Chaucer, with notes, etc. 

Crown Svo. Second edition. 586 pp. 10s. fid. 
■ The HOUS of Fame. Crown 8vo. 136 pp. 2s. 

The Legend of Good Women. Crown8vo. 28app. 6s. 
The Prologue, the Knightes Tale, the Nonne 

Prestes Tale, from the Canterbury Tales. R. Mohbis's edition, 
re-edited. 32+ pp. 2s. fid. 
The Prologue. School edition, SIS pp. Is. 

* DMn;o:^,GoO*^lf 

The Prioresses Tale, Sir Thopas, the Monkes 

Tale, the Clerkes Tale, the Squieres Tale, etc. Seventh editioD. 
413 pp. 4s. Gd. 

The Tale of the Man of Lawe, the Pardoneres 

Tale, the Seyond Nonnes Tale, the Chanouns Yemannes Tale, 
from the Canterbury Tales. New edition revised (190*). is. 6d, 

Langland's Piers the Plowman. Sixth edition, 

26* pp. is. 6d. 

The Tale of Gamelyn. Second edition, lo* pp. is. ed. 

WycIifFe's Bible : Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Eeclesiastes, and 
the SoDg of Solomon. 3s. fid. The New Testament, fis. 

The Lay of Havelok the Dane, tisos). With two 

illustrations. 43. 6d. 


^lore's Utopia, edited, with introduetion. notes, and full 
glossary (by Miss Muhbay), by J. Chubton Coluns (1904). 
Crown 8vo. 3.';, fid. 

EUzabethaii Critical Essays, selected and edited by 

Greoohy Sjlith ; with introduction on the value of Elizabethan 
criticism and notes ; containing Sidney's Apology for Poetry, 
the Harvey-Spenser correspondence, etc. Crown 9vo, 3 vofe. 
523 and 514 pp. I2s. net. 
The Oxford Shakespeare, containing the complete text 
of Shakespeare's works, edited, with glossary, by W. J. Cbaio. 
3s. fid. 13fi4 pp. Crown 8vo. On India paper, from 5s. 

Select Plays of Shakespeare, stiff covers. 

Edited by W. G. Claek and W. Aluis Whioht. 
Hamlet. 23. Merehant of Venice. Is. 

Macbeth. Is. 6d. Richard the Second. Is. (id. 

Edited by W. Alois Wright. 
As You Like It. Is. fid. King John. Is. 6i. 

Coriolanus. 3s. Gd. King Lear. Is. Sd. 

Henry the Eighth. 3s. Midsummer Night's Dream. Is. fid. 

Henry the Fifth. 2s. Much Ado about Nothing. Is. fid. 

Henry the Fourth, Parti. 3s. Richard the Third. 3s. fid. 
JuUus Caesar. 2s. Tempest, Is. fid. 

Twelfth Night. Is. fid. 


Marlowe's Edward II, edited, with iotroducUon and notes, 
by O. W. Tahcock, Third edition, 2s. and 3s. 

Marlowe's Dr. Faustus and Greene's Friar Bacon 

and Friar Bungay, edited by A. W. Ward. Fourth 
edition (1901). Crown 8va. iiS pp. 6s. 6d. 

Spenser's Faery Queene, Books i and ii, with intro- 
duction and notes by G. W. Kitchin, and glossary by A. L. 
Mavhew. 2s. fid. each. 

Hakluyt's Principal Navigations : being narraHves 

of the Voyages of the Elizabethan Seamen to AmeritM. Selection 
edited by E. J. Payke, containing tlie voyages- of Gilbert, 
Hawkins, Drake, Frobisher, Ralei^ and others. Crown Svo, 
with porliaits. First and second series. Second edition. 3'2i 
and 350 pp. 5s, each. 

Specimens from 1394 to 1579 1 see p. 3. 

Bacon's Advancement of Learning, edited by 

W. Aldh Wright. Crown Svo, with woodcuts. i3i pp. 3s. 6d. 

Bacon's Essays, by s. H. Reykoum. svo. isa. ad. 
Shakespeare as a Dramatic Artist. By R, G. 

MouLiOK. Thttd edition, enlarged. Crown 8to. 7s. 6d. 

Seventeenth Centuiy 

The Oxford Milton, edited by H. C. BEECHme. Demy 
Svo, with facsimiles, 7s. fid. ; crown Bvo, 3s. 6d. i or, India paper, 
from .Ss. i miniature edition, on India paper, 3s. fid. 
MUton's Poems, edited by R. C. BKOWNt. *22 and 3« pp. 
Two volumes, 6s. fid. s or separately, vol. I. 4s., vol. II, 3s. 
Paradise Lost : Book l, edited by H. C. Beechwu. 
la. 6d. Book II, edited by E. K. Chambeus. Is. fid. 
Together, 2s. fid. 
Samson Agonistes, edited by J. Churtok Coluns. 
SUff covers. Is. 

In paper covers 
I.! edited Lycidas.fid.! L' Allegro, 4d. ; II 
Penseroso, ■Id. i Comus, Is.; 
edited by O. Eltos. 
Areopagitica, edited by J. W. Hales. 3s. 

*, D,g,t,zoflb,GoOgle 


Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, and Grace Abounding, 

edited,with biographical introduction and notes, by E.VcN ABLER. 

Second edit., revised by M. Peacock, Ct.Bvo with portrait. 3s. 6d. 

Holy War and the Heavenly Footman, by M. Peawck. 

33. 6d. 

Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, Boot vi, 

edited by T.Ab.vold. Second edition. Crown 8vo. Ss. 
Selections from Dryden, including Astraea Redux, Annus 
Mitatiilis, Absalom and Achitophel, Relig^o Laici, and The Hind 
and tlie Panther : edited tiy W. D. CHHisne. Fifth edition, 

revised by C. H. Fikth. 373 pp. 3s, 6d. 

Diyden's Essays, selected and edited by W. p. Keb (1900). 
Two volumes crown 8vo. 404 and 334 pp. 10s. 6d. 

Dramatic Poesy, edited by T. Abmold. Third ediUon 

(190*) revised by W. T. Arnold. 3s. 6d. 
Mancketter Gaardian: — 'In its new form this book ought 
long to hold its place as the standard separate edition of one 
"■^ ■ ..-..■ . ofEnglishc;'' ' 

ir three finest achievements of English criticism.' 

Milton's Prosody, by R. Bhiboes. Crown 8vo. 5s. net. 

Eighteenth Centuiy 

Ijocke's Conduct of the Understanding, edited by 

T. FowLKR. Third edition, ■is. 6d. 

Selections from Addison's papers in the Spec- 
tator. By T. Abvold. 560 pp. 43. 6d. 

Selections from Steele, being papers irom the Tatler. 
Spectator, and Guardian, edited, with introduction, by Aiistix 
ISdbson. Second ed. Cr, flvo, with portrwt, 356 pp. Ts. 6d. 

Selections from Swift, edited, with biographical intro- 
duction and notes, by Sir HEunr Ckaik, containing the greater 
part of Tale of a Tub. Gulliver's Travels, Battle of the Books, etc. 
Two volumes crown 8vo, 4S4 and 48S pp. 7s. 6d. each. 

Selections from Pope, with introducUons and notes by 
Mabk P.vmaotj. (II Enaa;/ o« Man, sixth edition. Is. 6d. 
(3) i'adVw and E^tU», fourth edition, 2»,