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I ft 51 











We act to please, and not for public fame ; 
Our wish confess* J, we cannot mits our aim. 

L F. SMITH'S FUG, Puzcts, 


1JY. M. B. SOOIl, &. Co, 

Price 2 Rupees, 



B Y T HE T R A N S L A T O 11. 

I undertook this Translation lo begule the tediousness of time in- 
India, which must weigh heavy on every active inind that is not dedi- 
cated to official duties or literary pursuits. The work itself is the 
best and the most correct that has been composed in the Oordoo lan- 
guage ; a language which is both dulcet and elegant, and which was 
little known to Europeans until the zeal, labour, and talents of Mr. 
Gilchrist opened to us a perfect path to acquire it. Moreover the 
Bagh O Buhar is a classical work in the College of Fort William ; it 
highly deserves its distinguished fate, as it contains various modes 
of expression in correct language ; it displays a great variety of Eas- 
tern manners and modes of thinking, and it is an excellent introduc- 
tion not only to the colloquial style of Hindoostftn t but to a knowledge 
of its various idioms. The Tale itself is interesting, if we keep in our 
minds the previous idea, that no Asiatic Writer of Romance or His- 
tory was ever consistent, or free from fabulous credulity ; the cau- 
tious march of undeviating truth, and a careful regard to vraisemb lance 
never enters into their plan ; wildness of imagination, fabulous machi- 
nery, and unnatural scenes ever pervade through the compositions of 
every Oriental Author : even their most serious works on History and 
Ethics are stained with these imperfections. But as the Arabian 
Night Tales, the grand prototype of all Asiatic Romances, have these 
imperfections, and are still read with undiminished pleasure, I hope 
my friend Meer Ummun may rise a smile, or exhilarate a languid 
hour. He will likewise instruct those who wish to view the outre 
pictures of Eastern manners ; his Genii and his Demons, his Fairies 
and his Angels, formed parts of his religious creed ; he believed in 
their existence on the faith of the Q or an ; and as Mahometans are 
much more superstitiously attached to their Religion than we are to 
our's, we ought not to be surpised at their credulity. 

I have rendered the Translation as literal as possible, consistent 
with the comprehension of the author's meaning ; this may be con- 
sidered by some a slavish, dull compliance ; but in my humble 
opinion we ought to display the author's thoughts and ideas ; all \ve 


are permitted to do is to change their dress. This mode has one 
superior advantanga which may compensate for its seeming dullness : 
we acquire an insight into the modes of thinking and action of tho 
people, whose works we persue through the medium of a literal 
translation, and great conclusions may be drawn from this insight 
\Vhen an Asiatic moralist applauds untruth which has mercy for its 
object, we preceive at once their imperfect ideas of morals ; when ho 
talks of the seven heavens we smile at his ignorance, and regret his 
superstition ; for he says no more than his Qoran inculcates ; and 
when he teaches prostration before kings and princes, as the criterion 
of bienseance, we lament the slavery under which Asia has ever groan- 
ed. But when he recommends the fifth of one's income to be appro- 
priated to charity, as an indispensible and religious duty; when ho 
reprobates the smallest interest on money ; we must admire his prin- 
ciples, though we may not feel inclined to follow his precepts. More- 
over as I intended this Translation for the student, who wishes to 
acquire the Oordoo tongue with the help of Meer Umnutn, I have 
made it nearly literal, and preserved the original construction a3 far 
as possible, to facilitate the attainment of that useful if not elegant 
language. I might have made the Tale a pleasing Romance, which 
even Ladies could read in their languid moments j but I have formed 
it for the mere student, and sacrificed the ditlce to the ittile. 

The memorable saying of the immortal Clive would be a bad pre- 
cept in these days ; he never knew the language of India ; when 
asked why he never learnt it, he replied, " Why, if I had, 1 should 
not have conquered India; the black knaves would have led me, 
astray by their couning advice ; but as I never understo d them, I 
was never misled by them." This might be true in subduing 
India ; but India can never be retained, if the Civil and Military 
servants of the Company do not understand Hindoostanee ; a 
tongue which is undrestood from Hurdwar to Cape Comoriu, and 
from Lahore to Chittagong. The ignorance of their language, 
guided by rashness and folly, may one day kindle a flame in India, 
amongst the Native Troops, which the blood of all the Europeans 
in the country would not extinguish, Look at the momentous 
period of the massacre at Vellore ! The religious rites and the 
peculiar customs of the Hindoos, who compose the vast majority in 
the population of our Eastern possessions,, must be understood and. 
tolerated, from their pertinacious adherence to them ; they cannot 
be known without knowing their language. 


A nd blessings on his Posterity, who are tho twelve Einauin*, (!>) 

The Praise of God and tie Prophet ends here ; 

And now 1 bvgin, that which ia requ isite to be done. 

() God ! for the Bake ofthe Prosterity of your Prophet, (10) 

Render this humble address acceptable to all. 

The reasons for compiling this work are these, that in the year 
of the Hegira 121u and Anno Domini 1801, corresponding to the 
Fuslee jear 1207, in the time of the Noble of Nobles, Marquis 
Wellesly, Lord Mornington, Governor General, in whose praiae the 
judgment is at a loss, and the undrestanding perplexed ; and in 
whom God has centered all the excellent qualities that Great men 
ought to possess hi short it wns the good fortune of this Country, (11) 
that such :i Chief came here from whose happy presence mul- 
titudes enjoy t-use and happiness. No one can now dare to enjuro 
or wrong another ; and the Tiger and the Goat drink at the saina 
fountain ; and all the Poor bless him and live Science and Learn- 
ing came into vogue, and the Gentlemen of rank inbibed a taste for 
them, and perceived that by acquiring the Oordoo tongue, they 
might converse with Hincloostanees, and transact more perfectly tha 
affairs of the country ; for this reason many books were complied 
the same VL-ar, according to orders. To those Gentlemen, who are 
learned, and speak the language of HindoostuD, 1 address myself, 
and say, That this Tale of Four Durwesh was originally composed 
by Aincp.r Klivsra ( 12) of D/iailee on the following occasion; the 
Holy AY:/i oud deen Oulea Euruamed ZuircfzurlvlisJi, ( 13 J who 
was his Saint, and who>e holy residence was near ])]iaiL c, three coss 
from the fort, beyond the Red Gate, and outside of the Mirtteca 

9 The twelve Emanms are the descendants of the Prophet, by his ch tighter 
Fateema, who was married to his cousin <reru;an U//etf ; he is considered us the 
first Emauin; the other eleven were the following vu Uuxaun the son of Vllee 
Hussnin ditto Ullee, suvnumed Zuino .Inbdeen, the son of U*tssain, ^luhumud, 
Bngur son of Zainoulabd^en J/r Sadiy son of Mnhuinud teaqur, Noussa ool 
Qazim son of Jafur. Ulle Ruza s>on of &\ouss->, \jboo Jqfur Muhumud son of 
Ullte Ruza ; Utlee Ug*r$e.t0n ^t UZ/oo Jajur ; liustHu (Jni(/ueree,son of [}ilee 
\j*(jne)-ec ; Ahtliumud Mehdi, son of IJussuii [jy(]ucrce,who,(ho Mahometans sup- 
pose, js still alive, and is to appear at the second appearance of Jesus Christ. 

10 The twelve Emaums. See note Q. 

11 Of India. 

12 A celebrated Persian Poet ol Dliaillee ; his Odes are very elegant, and 
have gieat poetical yenms ; he was, as a t'ersi-in l j oet. inferior to none, except 
Hajii; he is the original Author of this Tale ofthe Four DurwesU. 

13 Zurrtc-iurbuksh means, the Lestowcr of gold ; A'izom ood dcen Oulea 
was a fanious h<>|\ peiaonago, of U bailee, and holds the liist rank in the list of 
the Saints of Hindoustan. His shrine isat l)huili.e,auA resorted to by tbou- 
cands of devotees and many talcs ;ire told of his inspired wiidom -,bis superior 
beniiicence , his couternpt ofthe good things of this world ; und his untominon ' 


(Jate, iifar the red hu; : e. He fell ill, and to amuse hi Saint's 
mind, Amet-r JT/^rcusedto repeat this Tale to him, and attend 
him during h ; s sickness, God in a few days removed his illness ; 
then he pronounced this benediction, on the day he performed th 
blution of cure ; (14) " That whoever will hear this Tale, will, 
with the blessing of God, remain in health." From that time thii 
Talt? was composed in Persian, and was generally red. Now the 
excellent .and liberal Gentleman, the judge of respectable men, Mr. 
John Gileliris't, may whose good fortune ever increase as long ai 
the Jumna and Ganges flow ! with kindness desired me to put this 
Tale into the pure Hindoo stance tongue, which the Oordoo people, 
both Hindoos and Moosit/mauns, hi^h and low, men, women, and 
children use to each other. According to his desire 1 have translat- 
ed it into the colloquial style of the Oordoo But first this guilty 
being Aleer Ummun of Dhailee. begs to relate his own story. 
That my forefathers, from the time of the King Humaioon, served 
every King, in regular descent, with zeal and fidelity / And the 
King?, with the eye of protection, ever justly appreciated and 
rewarded their services. Jageers, titles and rewards were plentifully 
bestowed on us ; and were called Lenial Slaves and old servants ; 
so that these epithets were enrolled in the royal archives' ( 15 ) 
When such a mighty Family, ( 16) owing to which all Families were 
prosperous, dwindled to snch a point ! which is too well known to 
require mention ; then Sooruj Mull, the Jant ( 17 ) confiscated our 
Jagec.r, and Uhnmud fC/iati, the Dooranee, ( 18) pillaged our Home. 
Having sustained such misfortunes, we abandoned that city, which 
was my native land, and the place of my birth. Such a vessel, 
whose pilot was such a King, was wrecked ; and 1 w as tossed on 
the sea of misfortune ! A drowiuing person catches at a straw, and I 

14 The Mahometans, after being cured of sicknes* or wounds ; or their 
women, after recovery from child-bed, always bathe in liike-warm water ; which 
is called the ablution of cure. 

( 15 ) The Family of Timoor or Tamerlane. A Pageant "f which at present 
nits on the Throne of Dnailec. under the protection of the British Government- 
Hois happier and has more comfort? of life than his Famil y have had for tho 
last sixty years he is called Ukbur oos-snnee or Ukbur, the second. 

( 16 )" 'How proud the slave seems of his chains / but such is the nature of 
Asiatic minds under the baneful influence of Asiatic Despotism. 

(17) The Founder of the Jaul princij ality ; they were once very powerful ?n 
Upper Hindoostan. Runjeet Sing, the late Rcjoh f Bhurtpore, who go gallantly 
defended that place against our arms, wa= a son of Sooritj Mull, who WHS killed 
whilst reconnoitring the Mo^hul army. The Jauis r.rethe best ngricultuii.ts in 
India, and good soldiers in self defence ; for since the spirit, which Soaruj Mull 
infused, evaporated, they have always perferred peace to war. They built some 
of the strongest places in India. 

[IS] Uhmnd Kha-i, the Dooranee or Cfykan, was th e King of Cab"ol, and the 
father uf Timoor 6haiv, who kept Upper Hindoostan in alarm for many years 
with threat* of inrn.eion. Soojn ool Moolk is descanded from him. 


eutiucil lifw foraome years in the city of Uztemabad. ( 19 ) After 
expe.'k'iieing good ami bad fortune there, I loft it also tho timo 
were not propitious ; leaving my family there, i embarked alone in 
a boat, and cuina to Calcutta, the Chief of Cities, for brend. 1 
romaiiiod unemployed for a short time, when it happened that Nawub 
Dilrnvar Jung sent for me, and appointed me Turtor to his younger 
Brother, Meer Mu/iWHUil Q<r:im Khan, I stayed with him t\v 
years ; hut flaw no advantage in remaining there any longer then 
through the assistance of Mesr Bithadur Ullee Moonshe* I wa 
introdnced to .Mr. John Gilchrist; may he ever prosper ! at last, by 
good fortune, I have acquired the protection of so liberal a person, 
that I hope better days ; if not, even this is fortunate, that I have 
bread to e.nt, and repose in quiet ; and that ten persons in my 
family, old and young, are fed ; and bless that Patron ; may 
accept their prayers ? The account of the Qordao tongue I 
thus heard from my Ancestors ; That the City of Dhnillee, accord- 
ing to the opinion of the Hind O3> was founded in the earliest times . 
and that their Rajahs and subjects lived there from the earliest peri- 
od, and spoke their BJiak^ha (20). From a thousand years th 
Mnnsirlmaunx have been master there. MuJimood Guznawee (21) 
came there first / then the Ghoree and Lodi (22) became Kings : 
owing to these changes the Bhak, ha tongue became a mixture of 
Hinduwee and Moosulmaun. At last Ameer Timoor, in whose fa- 
mily the name and empire remian to this day, conquered Hindoottan; 
from his coming and stay the Bnaar of his Camp was settled in the 
City / for which reason the Bazar of the City was called Gordon 
(23) Then King Uitonaigo*) annoyed by the Patans, went to Per- 
sia, his native country ; and at last, returning from thence, he punished 
tho Patatts, and no Foe remained to raise disturbances. When Ukbur 

[ 19 1 Uzeem'tbadi* the Mahometan name of Patna. On the Mahometan 
conquest all the Hildas names of Crties were ohan:ie><l, in puMic affairs, for 
Mahometan names, such as Jehangeerabad for I>acct>, Ukbitrabad for /fgrtr; S6a- 
jehanbad f"r Dhailte, &z 

'20 The B,hak.ah is the Hindoo dialect spoken in the B'iffbjbottrhond of 
Agn Muftra, &c. ; it is a verysc't language, and much ruhnr-e in UppT 
HinrHoslin , and is well adapted fur lifjht poetry. Mr. Gilchrisl has given som*? 
examples of it in his Or immar of the Hitzdoostatice language ; and it is to be 
r egretted tbat the B, ha\i, uh is not more generally known to Kuropeairs in thi* 

21 Mukmood. the first monarch of tho race of Guznee, was the son of the 
fam^ui Soobuc'u%een ; he invaded Hindoontan in A H 3 : J'i or A D. '0^2 The* 
dynasty was called Gknznee from its capital Ghitzna Muhmood is equally fumnu* 
as a lover. 

( 22 ) TMTO Dynasties of Kings who reigned in Upper rlindoostan before fh 
race of Timoor. See Dow's Hindoostnn. I rail Upper Hindoostan the coun- 
tries between Benires and Lahore. 

( 23 \ Tho Bazar, that part of a city where there are moat shops ; but th* 
word is applied to various parts of a city, where different articlos are sold A* 
the Cloth Bazar, the Jev.el Bazar, fyc.' 


aseended throne, tlion all casts of people, from all countries hearing 
of his goodness, justice, and liberity, and those of his unequalled 
family flocked to his Court. Though the tongue of each was dif- 
ferent, yet by being assembled together, they used to traffic and 
do business and converse with each other ; from which mixture 
of tongues arose the Gordon language' When the greal Sha Jeltan, 
SahibQrra i (24) built the Fort and the great Mosque, (25) and 
the walls of the City ; and inlaid the Peacock Throne (26) with 
precious stones and pitched a Tent made of Gold and silver brocade ; 
and Nawnb Ulhe. Murdaun Khun cut the Canal (27) to Doaillce 
then the King was pleased, and made great rejoicings, and made the 
City his Capital ; sinco that time it has been called Shaje.Jianabad ; 
and although the old City of Dhailee. is distinct from it, yet that is 
called the old City and this the new. He called the Bazar of Sha- 
jehnnnbad Oordoo Moulla. (28) From the time of Ameer Timoor 
im till the reign of Muhunwd Ska, 9 ml even to the time of Uhmud 
S/ift, and Alumgeer the 2nd, the Throne descended lineallv. In the 
end, the Oordoo language receiving repeated polish, was so refined, 
that the language of no City is to be compared to it; but an im- 
partial Judge is necessary to examine it. Such a one God has at 
last, after a long period 1 created in the learned, acute, and profound 
Mr, John Gilchrist, who from his own judgement, genius, labour, 
and research has composed books of Rules to acquire it. From this 
cause the language of Hindustan became general throughout the 
country, and was polished anew ; otherwise no one conceives his own 
turban, language, and behaviour to be improper. If you ask a 
Countryman he censures the Citizen's idiom and considers his own 
the best. But the learned know what is correct. When Vhmnd 
Sha., the Ubdallce, came from Kabool and pillaged the City of 

( 24 ) ShaJekan was the most magnificent king of DhaMet of the race of 
Timon?. Sahib Qeran is one of the royal titles of the Kmperors of Dhailee,ar\d 
means. Prince of the happy conjunction ; i. e. the conduction of all the Plenets, 
in one of the signs of the Zodiac ; which Asiatic historians say took plnce when 
the famous J immense Khan began his grand military expedition for the subjuga- 
tion of Asia 5 he accordingly took the title of Sahib Qernn and as Timoor was 
descended from him. he likewise took the title of f* a hip Qeran, which has ever 
since continued to his descendants, the Kings or Kmperors of Dhailee . 

( 25 ) The Fort, or rather fortified Palace, of Dhoilee and the great Mosque 
called the Jumm.i Musjid. See Daniel's correct views of them. 

f 26 ) The famous Tukhti Taoos, or Peacock Throne, made by the magniri- 
cient Sha Jehan ; the richest throne in the world ; it was valued at seven millions 
sterling. Tavernier, the French jeweller and traveller, saw it and describes it. 
It was carried away by Nadir Sha when he plundered Dhailee in 1739. 

( V7 ) The expensive and useless canal which brought fresh water to Dhailee 
whilst the limpid and salutary stream of the Jumna flowed under its walla. The 
advantages of irrigation to the country, through which it passed, Were-nothiog 
tompnred t< the expense of its construction. 

28 The Great Bazar. Oordoo Bazar ; Moulin, Creat. 


Some of the Notes will be superfluous to the Oriental Scholar 
who has been in India ; but iu this case I think it better to be 
redundant than risk the chance of being deficient. Moreover as 
the book may be perused by the curious in Europe, many of whom 
know nothing of India except having seen it iu the map of the 
world, those notes were absolutely necessary to understand the work. 
As 1 am no poet, I have translated the pieces of poetry, which are 
interspersed in the original, into humble and modulated prose. 

Calcutta) 1 st, September, 1811. 

P O S T S C R I JP T, 

Since writing the above, I am happy to find that all the Copies 
of the Cliuhar Durwesh in the Oordoo language, that were printed, 
have been sold, and that Gholam Ukbtir, an intelligent Moonshec, 
attached to the College of Fort William, has given the Public a se- 
cond Edition of that useful Work, which I would recommend to all 
those who wish to acquire the pure and correct Hindoostanee, I beg 
to conclude by offering my grateful thanks to Captain Thomas Roe- 
buck, Sub-Secretary and tixaminor of Hindoostanee in the College 
of Fort William ; and to Ensign Graves Chamney Haughtbn a Stu- 
dent in the same College, for the kind assistance they have afforded 
me in this Translation. 


In the name of Go>l, mo*t merciful. 

THM Ba^h. O Buhar, complied ( for the use of the mopt Excel 
lent of Great Nobles. Privy Counsellor to the Mighty Kiog of Eng- 
land, the Marquis Wcllesl-y, Governor General may he ever \.& 
great in d gnity ' who is tlie Protector and Patron of the College of 
Fort William ) by Meer Ummon of Dhallt.e fr^m the Noutourz Mor- 
ussa, which was translated by Utah Houssain Khftn, from the Per- 
sian Tale of the Foui Durwesb, at the desire of Mr. John Gilelirist, 
may ho ever be great J 


The water, with which I have purified ray style, 

IB dulcet, and superior in lus're to the water of the Pearl. 

My pen pays, that svv. etness of expressions 

Is a quality, which fiows spontaneous from my tongue. 

Konda now has done, prays, O pen ! 

That your friends may be happy, and your enemies confounded. 

Copy of the Petition which t&as presented to the Gentleman Mnit* 
gers of the College of Fort William* 

God preserve the Gentleman of great dignity, and the appieciators 
of respectable men. This Exile from his country, on hearing the 
Proclaimation ( 2 )> hath composed, with great labour and pain, the 
Bagh O Buhar in the Oordoo Afoblla tongue, (3 ) from the Persian 
tale of the Four Dunvesh. By the grace of God it has revived from 
the presence ( 4 ) of the Gentleman of the college. 1 now hope I 
may reap some fruits from it ; then the bud of my heart will 

1 Commonly called M^er Rujfee oos Sutida, the most celebrated Foot of 
Hindoostan, especially in the Oordoo langua ge that language which has been 
so correctly displayed to us by Mr. John Gilchrit, ami which was scarcely 
known and imperfectly studied, before he taugbt us to appreciate its merits. 
and acquire its eonsttuction 

2 The proclamation of tne Marquis Wellcsly, after the formation of the 
College of Fort William ^encouraging the pu'suit of Oriental Literature, Trans- 
lations, &c. 

3 Meet" Umn.un himself explains the derivatioa of these wor>is, in hispte- 
face,and we cannot appeal to a better authority. 

4 Alluding to the name of hisb ook, The Baffh O Buhar, i . The Ginlea 
and Spring : which may be better called, The Garden cf JSpring, and it is the 
name I have adopted throughout tha Work instead of tho li eral name which 
was only chosen that the persian letters, composing the words BagA O Buhar, 
might by their numerical powers amount to I2l7,the year of the Eiegirah the 
book vras finished. 

rnoc.M. e 

like A flower, as Hakim Firdjste ( 5 ) has said of himself in the 

Many sorrows I have borne for thirty years ; 

But I bave reveived Peraia by this Perbian history.' 

So I have likewise polished the Ovrduo tongue. 1 have metamor- 
phosed Bengal into Hindooatan (6). You Gentlemen can judge . 
There ia no occassion for me to say any thing. O God I may the 
star of their prosperity over shine ! The Petition of Mecr 
of DhaUee. 

( 5 ) Hakim Firdoseri the celebrated Poet of Persia, who wrote 
the History of Persia in Verse, the sublime Manama he is justly 
called the Homer of Persia See Herbelot. Bib. (Jrien. 

( G ) That is to say, he has introduced the elegance and correct- 
ness of the Oo doo language into Bengal. Jn fact very few of the 
best instructed Rengaleca would be understood at Agra or Dhfiilce, if 
they spoke, won what they call, the flindoostuitee ; and those two 
Cities are the be^t (sirco to acquire O'.e real Oordoo in perfection ; 
there the Inhabitants ppeak if not only correctly but elegantly. 


In the nctitte q/' God, nioxt merciful* 

THE pure God ! what an excellent workman He is! who with a 
handful of dust, what faces and figures of earth he has created ! Al- 
though of two colours, one white and one black, yet the same nose 
and ears , the same hands and feet He has given to all ; hut such 
variety of features has he formed, that no one is exactly like an- 
other in countenance and person ; among millions you may recog- 
nise him and know. The sky is u huble in his singular eatheral Sea, 
and the earth floats in it ; but i.s it not wo underfill that 'his sea 
beats continually against it, and yet does it no injury ? The ton- 
gue of man is impotent to sound the praise of Him who Las such 
power ! If it utter any thing, what cau it say ? It is best to bu si- 
lent where nothing cnn be said, 


From Earth to Heaven, whose work this is, 

If I wish to write his praise, then what power have I ; 

When the Prophet himself said, " He did not comprehend him," 

After this if any one attempts it he is a great fool, Day and 
night thfc Sun and Moon wander through their course, and behold 
His works but the looks of every one are the looks of surprise ! 
whose second or equal is not, or ever will be, To such unique God- 
head every way is fit , but so much I know, that He is a Creator 
and Nourisher. In every way may His Grace and favour be ever 
bestowed on me." And blessings on His Friend, for whose sake He 
created the Earth and Heavens, and bestowed on him the dignity 
of Prophet, 


The pure body of Mooztapha is an emanation from God, 
For which reason, it is well known, it threw no shaddow. (7) 
1 am unable to utter his pruiso 
But with Poets this is a general rule. 

7 The Mahometans believe that the body of their Prophet cast on shadow, 
which is a greater miracle than Joshua's stopping the course of the sun. Moos- 
iapha is one of Mahomet's Titles. 

8 To praise God :ind the Prophet in the Preface. 

1-0 Mil lUMfWESII. X 

diHitnd could no longer restrain himself 1 , but rnn and threw 
flit the King's feet. Ilia Majt-sty lifted up the Il r axeer 9 s 
luud with las hand*, and said, "'Thou hast at last seen me; art 
thou satisfied ? now go away, and go not disturb me more do thou 
govern the empire." Kherudmuml, no hearing this, wept nloud and 
tsaid, ' This slave, by royal favour and welfare, can govern the king- 
dom ; but ruin is spread over the empire from your Majesty ' 
Mich .sudden seclusion, and the end of it will not be prosperous. 
What strang- fancy has possessed the royal mind? But if to this 
lineal slave your Majesty will condescend to explain himself, it will 
be for the best that 1 may unfold whatever occurs to my judgement 
on the occasion. If you have bestowed honours on your slave it i 
for this exigency, that your Majesty may enjoy himself at his ease, 
and your slave regulate the affairs of the state for if your imperial 
highness is to bear this trouble, which God forbid, of what utility 
are the servants of the state ?" The King replied," Thou sayest 
true , but the sorrow which preys on my mind is beyond crue. 
H^ar, O Kherndmund ! my whole age has passed in vexatious toil to 
conquer this country, and 1 am now arrived at these years there is 
only death before me 1 have even received a message from him, 
for my hairs are turned white ; as the saying is, I have slept all 
night, and shall I not awake in the morning ? Until now 1 have not 
had a son, that 1 might be easy in my mind ; for which reason 
my heart is very sor;owful, and 1 have abandoned every thing in 
life. Whoever wishes my take the country and my riches, 1 have 
no need of them Moreover 1 intend some day or other to quit every 
thing, retire to the woods and mountains, and not show my face to 
any one / and pass thus my few remaining days. If sunie spot 
plesses me, I shall sic down on it, and by devoting rny time in pray- 
ers to God, perhaps my future state will be happythis world I 
have seen well, and have found felicity in it." After pronounce- 
ing these words, the King heaved a heavy sigh and became silent 
Kkerudinund had been the Wazee.r of his Majesty's father ; and 
when the King was only a Prince, he had loved him ; moreover he 
was wise and zealous he said to AzadBukht, " It is ever wrong to 
despair of God"s grace ; he who has created eighteen thousand spe- 
cies of animals ( 48 ) by one fiat, can give you children without any 
difficulty. Mighty Sire, banish these fanciful notions from you? 
mind, or else all your subjects will be thrown into confusion, and 

(48 ) The Asiatics increase the animal species to 18, (.00 ; a number whih 
even the fertile genius ct' Button has uoi attained. 


this cnapife, with what trouble and pi.ios your royal forefathers and 
youreelf have erected it ! will be lost in a moment ; and from want of 
care will be ruined ; and vou will be, which God forbid, censured 
for it. Moreover you will have to answer to God, in the day of 
judgment, when he will say, ' I had made tbee a King, and placed 
my creatures under thy care bnt thou hadst no faith in my bene- 
ficence, and hath afflicted thy subjects by abandoning thy charge.' 
What answer will your Majesty make to this accusation ? Then 
even your devotion and prayers will not avail you, for the heart of 
man is the abode of God, and Kings will have to answer for the jus- 
tice only of their conduct. Pardon your slave's want of respect ; 
Tnit to leave their homes, and wander in woods, is the occupation of 
hermits and mendicants, and not of Kings you ought to act accord- 
ing to your station the recollections of God, and devotion to him, 
is not fixed to woods or mountains your Majesty has undoubtedly 
heard this verse, ' God is near thee, and thou seckest him in the 
wilderness ; thy child is in thy arms, and thou lookest for it in the 
city.' If your Majesty will act impartially, and follow this slave's 
advice, in that case the best thing your Majesty can do is, to keep 
God in mind every moment, and offer up to him your prayers. No- 
one has yet returned hopeless from his temple. In the day arrange 
the affairs of state, and adminster justice to the poor and injured 
then the creatures of God will repose in peace and comfort under 
the shade of >our royal shadow, Pray at night, and after beseech- 
ng blessings from the pure Prophet, solicit assistance from recluse 
Durweshes, who are abstracted from wordly objects and cares 
bestow daily food on orphans, prisoners, poor parents of numerous 
children, and helpless widows. From the blessings of these good 
works and intentions, if God please, it is to be fervently hoped, that 
the anxious desire of your Majesty's heart will be fulfilled ; and 
the circumstance, for which the royal mind is afflicted, will likewise 
be accomplished, and your royal heart rejoice look towards the 
favour of God, for he can in a moment do what he wishes." In 
short Kkcrudmund Waiter's conference and admonition were such, 
that Azad Bukhfs heart took courage, and he said, " Well, let us 
try what thou advisest, and hereafter the will of God be done." 
When the King's mind was comforted, he asked the Wazeer. what 
the other nobles and ministers were doing, and how they were. 
He replied, " That ell the officers of state were praying for the life 
and prosperity of his Majesty ; and from grief for his Majesty's 
situation, they were all in confusion and dojected. Show the royal 


countenance to them, that they may be easy in their mmd they 
are now waiting in the Dewan Atim." On hearing this the King said, 
If God phase 1 will hold a Court to-morrow tell them all to at- 
tend." Kherudmund was quite rejoiced on hearing this promise, 
and lifting up his hands blessed the King " That as long as this earth 
and heaven exist, may your Majesty's throne and crown remain." 
Then taking leave of the King, be retired with infinite joy, and 
communica'.ed these pleasing tidings to the nobles they all return- 
ed to their homes with gladness of heart the whole city rejoiced, 
and the subjects became boundless in their transports at the idea 
that the King would hold a general Court the next day. 

In the morning all the servants of state, noble and menial, and 
all the great and little ministers of the throne came to the Court, 
stood in their respective places, and waited with anxiety to behold 
the royal presence. \Vhenthreehoursofdayarose, at once the cur- 
tain drew up, and the King came out and seated himself on the happy 
throne. The sounds of joy struck up in the Nowbuikhana^ ( 49 ) 
and all present made their obeisance, and offered the Nazurs ( 50 ) 
of congratulation. They were all rewarded according to their 
respective degrees of rank, and the hearts of all became joyful and 
easy. At mid-day his Majesty arose and retired to the interior of the 
palace ; and after enjoying the royal repast, retired to rest. From 
that day the King determined to hold his Court every morning, and 
pass the afternoons in reading and in prayer ; and after beseeching 
forgiveness from God, pray for the accomplishment of his desires. 

One day the King read in a book, that if any one is so oppressed 
with giief as not to be relieved by any mode, he ought to commit 
his sorrows to Fate, visit the tombs of the dead, and pray for the 
blessings of God on their souls, thrugh the mediation of the Pro- 
phet; and conceiving himself nothing, keep his heart free from the 
thoughtlessness of mankind : weep at the mystery of creation, and 
behold with awe the power of God ! ;; That anterior to me what 
mighty possessors of kingdoms and wealth have been born ; but 
the heavens involving them all in its revolving circle has mixed 
them with the dust. As it is justly said, that no beholding the 
moving hadmill, Kubeer y ( 51 ) weeping exclaimed, ' Alas ! no one 

(49 ) The Xowbutkhana, or the royal Orchestra, is, in general, a large toon 
over the outer gates of the Palace, for the martial music- 

( 50 ) Altizurx. presents made to kings, governors and masters, &c. on j< yful 
occasions, ami on public festives generally in silver and gold. 

( 51 ) A celebrated Hindoo 'oet of Upper Hindoos Ian ; his poetry is of a 
sombre hue, but natural and sympathetic; the simile here i, that no "creature 
h:\syet\8umveiithe pressure of the heaven and th" earth, which he compare* 
to the gr%ir l>et\vern the two utones ol the handmill. 


has yet iiuvived tlie pressure of the two bodies.'" Now if you look 
for those heroes, they have left no vest'ge behind them, except a 
heap of earth, All of them leaving their riches and possession?, 
their homes and offsprings, their friends and dependants, their horses 
and elephants, are lying alone ! All these worldly advantages have 
been of no use to them no one knows even their names, or who 
they were and their state within the grave cannot be known ; whe- 
ther worms, insects, ants, and snakes have eaten them up, or what 
has happened to them, or how they have settled their accounts with 
God, After meditating on these words in his mind, he should look 
on this world as a jestful farce ; then the flower of his heart will 
ever bloom, and it will not wither in any circumstance." When the 
King read this admonition in the book, he recollected the advice of 
Kherudiiiiind Wazeer, and found that they coincided, He wished to 
put it in execution ; but to mount, said his Majesty to himself, and 
take a retinue with me and go like a King, is not becoming it is 
better to change my dress, and go at night and alone to visit the 
graves of the dead, or some holy recluse, and keep awake all night 
perhaps by the mediation of these holy men the desires of this 
world, and the favours of the next, may be obtained. Having 
formed this resolution, the King one night put ou a coarse habit 
and taking some money with him, he stole silently out of the fort, 
and bent his way over the plains ; proceeding on he arrived .at a 
cemetery, and was repeating his prayers with a sincere heart at 
that time the wind blew with violence, and might be called a storm, 
Suddenly the King saw a flame at a distance which shone like the 
morning star he said to himself, in this storm and darkness this 
light cannot shine without art, or it is a talisman ; for if nitre and 
sulphur be sprinkled in the lamp, arround the wick, then let the wind 
be ever so strong, the flame will not be extinguished --or it is the 
lamp of some holy man which burns; let it be what it may, j 
out to go and examine it perhaps by the light of this lamp, 
the lamp of my house may be lighted, ( 52 ) and the wish of my 
heart fulfilled. Having formed this resolution, the King advanced ; 
when he drew near he saw four erratic Fakirs, ( 53 ) with Kuf- 

( 52 ) That he may have children. 

[ 53 ] Fakirs are holy mendicant^, who devote themselves to the expected 
joys of the next world, and abstract themselves from those of this silly transi- 
tory scene; they are in general fanatics and enhusiasts; sometimes mad, and 
often hypocrites. Old Diogenes was a Greek Fakir, and I have sometimes met 
his equal in this country. They are much venerated by the superstitious Asia- 
tics, and are allowed uncommon privileges, which they naturally often abuse. 


every thing in thy hidden treasury give me t* worthy son that 
my name nud Kingdom may remain with my posterity." In thia 
fervent hope the King reached his fortieth year / when ono day ha 
had finished his prayers in the Mirror Saloon, (39) and telling his 
beads,he happened to cast his eyes towards the mirrors, and perceiv- 
ed a white hair in his wiskers, which glittered like a silver wire ; 
on seeing it the King's eyes fi.led with tears, and he heaved a deep 
sigh, and then said to himself, Alas ! thou hast wasted thy years 
to no purpose, and for earthly advantages thou hast overturned the 
world And all the countries thou hast conquered, with advantage 
are they to tUee ? Some other race will in the end squander these 
riches Death hath already sent thee a messenger , ( 40 ) and even 
if thoa Hvest a few years, the strength of thy body will be less, and 
it appears clearly from this circumstance, that it is not thy destiny 
to have an lieir to thy throne. I must one day die, and leave every 
thing behind me ; so it is better for me to quit them now, and 
dedicate the rest of my days to recollections of my maker. Having 
made the resolve, he decended to his lllB garden, ( 41 ) dismissed 
his Courtiers, and ordered that no one should approach him in 
future ; but that all should attend the public hall of audience, ( 42 ) 
and perform their functions. 

After this speech the King reti red to a private apartment, spread 
the carpet of prayers, ( 43 ) and began to pray he did nothing bufc 
weep and sigh. Thus the King Asad Buhht passed many days ; 
in the evening ho broke his fast with a date and three inouthfuls of 
water, and lay all day and night on the sacred carpet of prayer, 
These circumstances became public, and by degrees the intelligence 

( 39 ) The Mirror Saloon, exiled by the Persians, and from them by the /7m- 
doostanees, theexh Aluhul, is a #raud apartment in all Oriental Palaces, the wai'8 
of which arc generally inlaid \vilh small mirrors, and their borders richly gilded. 
Those of Dhailee and Agra are the finest in Hindooslan. 

f4U ] The Messenger was the white hair in his Majesty's wiskers. 
41 J Called in the original Paeen-Ba%h, A 11 royal Asiatic gardens have a 
Paeen-ttaih, to which Oriental Princes deceud when they wish to relax with 
their courtiers. 

f 42 ) The Decezn Arim, or Public Hall of Audience in Eastern palaces, is a 
grand sulnou where Asiatic Princes hold a more promiscuous Court than in the 
Dewan-Khus, or the Private Hall of Audience. Those of Dhailee and Agra 
were perhaps the grandest in Asia. In the former stood the Tukht-i- Taoos r 
the pencork Throne, of Sha-Jvhan. which Tavurnier, the French traveller and 
jeweller, valued at seven milions sterling tiiis superb throne was earned away 
by the rapacious Nadir Sha, when he sacked t>hailee in 1 73 1). The plunder 
of the metropolis!) of llindoustan, on that occasion, is calculated at 170 miUon* 
srerling, in silver, gold and precious stones cut olV the l< 0, and still 70 milieus 
convey a surprising idea of the riches of the city. London itself would not 
yield more. 

( -43 ) The Mosulleh or Shujad. It is generally in persia a small carpet, but 
frequently u line mat in Ihndoi. stun. whit, h is spread lor the perfonmnce of prayer. 
The devote kneels and postrates himself upon it in hi* act of devotion. It it 


upred over the whole empire, that the King had withdrawn from 
public affairs, and became a recluse, In every quarter his enemies 
and rebels raised their heads, and stepped beyond the bonds of 
obedience whoever wished, seized provinces and became traitors 
whertver there were Governors, their orders were disregarded, and 
petitions of maladministration arrived from every province. All 
the Courties assembled, and began to confer and consult at last 
it was agreed, that as the Wazeer is wise, and in the King's 
confidence, and is first in dignity, we out to obey him, and hear 
what he thinks proper to say on the occasion. All the nobles went 
to the Wazcer, and said : such is the state of the King and King- 
dom, that if more delay takes place, this Empire, which has 
subdued with such trouble, will be lost for nothing, and will not be 
easily regained. The Wazeer vr&s an old faithful servant and wise ; 
his name was Kherudmund, and he fully answered his name : (44) H e 
replied, though the King has forbid us to come in his presence, yet 
let us go ,- I will also go-^a^ it please God that the King be 
inclined to call us to his pi'^Bpe. After saying this the Wazeer 
brought them all along with him to the Public Hall of Audience, 
and leaving them there, he went into the Hall of Private Audi- 
ence ( 45 ), and sent word by the Eunuch (46) to the royal presence. 
" That the old slave is in waiting, and for many days has not had 
the happiness to behold the royal countenance he is in hopes that, 
after one look, he may kiss the royal feet, and be at ease in his 
mind." The King heard this request of his Wazeer, and although 
his Majesty knew his length of services, his zeal, his talents, and his 
devotion to him ; and have often followed his advice, yet after a 
pause, he ordered Kherndmund to be called. At last when permis- 
sion was granted, the Wazeer appeared in the royal presence made 
his obeisance, and stood with crossed arms, (47) He saw the King's 
strange and altered appearance ; that from extreme weeping, and 
fasting, his eyes were sunk in their sockets, and his visage was pale. 

superfluous to lemark that the Mahometans pray with their face turned towards 
Mecca, as far as they can guess its direction. Jerusalem was the original point 
but the Prophet, in a fit of anger, changed it to Mecca. 

( 44 ) Kherudmiind means wise. 

( 45 ) The Dewan-Khas.or Hall of Private Audience, is a grand saloon where 
only the King's Privy Councellors or select Officers of State are admitted to an 
audience Those of Dhaille and Agra are Puperb ; made of white alabaster, 
and inlaid with beautiful mosaic of variegated marbles, cornelians, agates &c. 
The ceillings were formerly of sheets of pure g-oid -but they are vanished with 
the times. 

( 46 ) As Asiatic Princes in general pass the most part of their time in the 
Haram, or iu seclusion Eunuchs are the usual carriers of messages, <$'C* 

( 47 ) The posture of respect, is to stand motionless like a statue, the eyes 
fixed on the ground, and the arms crossed over the waist. 


Uhailee, Sha Alum was in the East. (29) No master OP Pro- 
tector of the Country remained, (30) and the city became without a 
head. True it is, that the City onJy flourished from the prosperity of 
the Throne. All at once it was overwhelmed with calamity ; the 
inhabitants saattered and fled where they could. To whatever coun- 
try they went their own tongue was adulterated by mixing with the 
people there; and there were many who after an absence of 10 or 
15 years, from some cause or other, returned to Dhaillee and stayed 
there. IJow can they speak the pure language of Dhaillce ? Some- 
where or other they will slip ; but the person who bore all misfor- 
tunes, ond remained fixed at Dhaiillec^ and whose five or ten ante- 
rior generations lived in that City ; and who mixed in the company 
of the Great and the Asembles of the people; \vho strolled in its streets 
for a lenth of time, and even after quitting it, kept his language 
pure from corruption, his language will certainly be correct and pure 
This humble being (31) has seen many Cities, and is now arrived 
here, at Calcutta. 

1 NOW commonce my Tale pay attention to it, aud be just to ita 
merits. In the Travels of the Four Durwesh, it is thus written, and 
the Narrator has related, that formerly in Asia Minor ( 33 ) there 
reigned a great King who was injustice equal to Nowsherwan, ("34 ) 
and in generosity to Hatim ( 35 ). His name was Azad Bidht, and 
his imperial residence was Const'intinoble. ( 3G ) 

29 Shu Alum, the Fmpcror ofDhnilce, was then towards Patna, a toll in the 
hands of Sooja ond dowleh the Nawitb of Lucknow and Qashn Ullee Khan the 
Kaioub of Moorshidabad. 

3 ) Alluding to the confusion which reigned in Upper Hmdoostnn after the 
.vsassination of Aittmyeer the 2d, and the flight of S/a Alum. Upper Hindoos- 
/an was then in a sad plight, ravaged alternately by the Ubdalees, the AJhorratta* 
and the Sauls the Ki -\% a pageant, the Nobles rebellious, theSubjects plundered 
and oppressed, and the country open to every Invader though this was near 
sixty years n^o, and although they hnd some government, justice, and security 
from 1782 to I $02, yet the country had n rv t recovered from the severe sh'ck. Jt 
is to be hoped the upright nature of British legislature will restore it to its 
former splendour, ot the times of Sha Jehan and Aurungzeb* 

31 Aleer Ummun here aliudesto himself. 

32 The word is used in the singular, both by Meer Ummun and the original 
auther, Ameer Kkosro so 1 have preserved it. 

33 The word in the original is Ro ,m, which means that part of Asia Minor 
in which Constantinople is situated, and called in mordern times Romania. 

34 Nowsherwan was a kin# of pert>ia, who reigned in A. D. 578. He is 
celebrated in Oriental history for his wisdom and justice. During his reign 
Muhumud the pi wphet was born. The peisian writings are full of anecdotes of 
Nowshenvnn's justice and wisdom. See Herb. Bib. Orien. 

ID Uajim, or rather Hatim Taee , is the name of an Arab in eastern ro- 
mance, who is celebrated for his generosity and his mad adventures, in an elegant 
persian work called Hatim Taee But after the mad man of Cervantes all others 
are insipid. 

30 Called also Qoostantecneea by the persians, and Mambole by the Turks, 
N. B. The Q in my mode of spelling Asiatic words, stauds for the pcrsian 
guttural Kaf. 





In his reign the peasant was tappy, the treasury full, the army 
satisfied, and the poor at ease. They lived in such peace and plenty, 
that in their homes the days were festive, and the nights joyful. 
Thieves, robbers, pick-pockets, swindlers, and all vicious and dis- 
honest persons were exterminated ; and no vestige of them remained 
in his kingdom. The doors of the houses remained uiishut all night, 
and the shops were open. The Traveller chinked gold as he went 
along, over plains and through woods ; and no one asked him, how 
many teeth hast thou in thy head, ( 37 ) and where art thou going ? 
There were thousands of cities in that King's dominions, and many 
Princes paid him tribute. Though he was so great a King, he never 
for a moment neglected his duties or his prayers to God. He 
possessed all the comforts of this world, but issue, which is the 
fruit of life, was not in the garden of his destiny for which reason 
be was often pensive and sorrowful, and after the five regulated 
hours of prayer, he used to address himself to his Creator and 
eay, " O God ! thou hast, through thy infinite goodness, blest thy 
creature with every comfort, but thou hast given no light to his 
dark abode. (38) This desire alone is unaccomplished, that I have 
no one to transmit my name, and support my old age. Thou hast 

( 37 ) This is an Asiatic proverb, and means an impertinent or rather a des- 
potic question. As nothing exemplifies the minds of different countries better 
than their common proverbs, i have given the literal sense of as many as I 

(38; The Asiatics consider mate children as the light or splendour of their 
house how often they have provedthe cnrse and destroyers of their existence. 
the Historic! of Tersiu and f/indcosin too sadly tell, 


next ( 64 ) on their bodies, and their heads reclined on their knees; 
sitting in profound silence, and senselessly abstracted their state 
was such as a traveller's, who separated from his country and his 
gect, friendless and alone, and overwhelmed with grief, is despond- 
ing and at a loss. In the same manner sat these four Fakirs like 
statues, and a lamp placed on a stone burnt very brightly ; the wind 
touched it not, as if the heavens itself had been its shade, and that 
it burnt without danger of bein extinguished. On seeing this sight, 
Axad Bukht was convinced that his desires would be fulfilled, by 
the prayers and mediation of these holy men ; and the withered 
tree of his hopes revive by their looks, and yield fruit. Go in their 
company, said the King to himself, and tell thy story, and join their 
society ; perhaps they may feel pity for thee.and pray forthee, BO 
as to be accepted by the Almighty. Having formed this determina- 
tion, he wished to step forward, when his judgement told him, O 
fo')l do not be hasty see a while what dost thou know who they 
are, from whence they come, and where they are going what know- 
est thou if they be deinoas or spirits of the wilderness, who assum- 
ing the appearance of men are sitting together ; in every way, to be 
in haste, and go amongst then and disturb them is improper ; at 
present hide thyself in some corner, and learn the story of these 
Dunveshes, At la^t the King did so, and hid himself in a corner 
with such silence that no one heard the s r mnd of his approach he 
kept his attention towards them to hear what they were saying 
amongst themselves. By chance one of the Fakirs sneezed aud 
said, God be praised. ( 55 )The other there Qulundurs, ( 56 ) awaked 
by the noise he made, trimmed the lamp the pot of fire was burn- 
ing, and each of them, sitting on his matrass, lighted .his hooka, 
and began to smoke. One of these Fakirs, said, O friends in mutual 
pain and faithful wanderers over the world ! we four, by the revolu- 
tion of the heavens and changes of day and night, with dust on 
our heads, have wandered for an age form clime to clime God be 
praised I that by his assistance and the decree of fate t we have to- 
day met each other on this spot The events of to-morrow are not 
known, nor what will happen , whether we remain together or sepa- 
ratethe night is a heavy load, and to retire to sleep so early is not 
salutary. It is far better that we relate to each other the events 
which have passed over out heads, and whatever has happened to 

[ 54 ] The Kufnee is a kind of short shirt without sleeves, of the colour of 
brick dust, which Fakirs wear. 

( 55 ) That a general exclamation when Asiatics sneeze, and with them, 
a* with the ancients, it is an ominous sign. 

( 56 ) Qulundurs, are a more fanatic sect of Fakirs. 


eaca of us, without admitting a particle of untruth in our natations 
then the night will pass away in words, and when little of it remains, 
lt us retire to rest. They all replied, O leader, we agree to what- 
ever thou commandest. First give us your own history, and relate 
n hat yon have seen ; we will be gainer and improves by it. 



THE first Durwesh lifting of his head and sitting at hig ease, re- 
lated thu"? the events of his travels. Beloved of God, turn to wards 
m, and hear this wanderer's narative. 


" II?ar, what has passed over my head, with attention ; 
" Hear how frovidence has raised and depressed rue," 

I am going to relate the misfortunes 1 have suffered hear the 
whole naration. O my friends, the place of my birth, and the conn- 
try of my fore fathers is Arabia Felix the father of this wretch was 
Mulik oot Toojjar, (57) and named Khoja Uhmud ; he was a rich 
merchant at that time no merchant or banker was equal to him ; he 
had factories and agents in many cities, for the purchase and sale of 
all shorts of goods ; in his werehouses were merchandise of different 
countries, and in his coffers thousands of pieces of silver and gold in 
ready money. He had two children born to him ; one was this 
pilgrim, who is now clad in Kufnte, and addressing these holy 
guides ; the other was sister, whom my father, during his life time, 
married to a merchant's son of another city ; she lived with her 
husband's family. In ?hort what bounds could be set to the 
fondness of a father, who had an only son nnd was so exceedingly 
rich ! This wanderer was brought up with great tenderness 
under the shadow of his father and mother, I learnt reading and 
writting, and the exercises of a soldier ; 1 likewise studied the art of 
commerce ; 1 passed fourteen years of my life in extreme delight and 
easy afluence ; no care of the world entered my heart. All at once 
in one year both my father and mother died by the decree of God. 

(57) mnlik ool Toojjar maans the chief of merchants; it is a Persian title. 
The frist title the East India Company received from the court of DhaiU-c; was 
Oon:?u oot Toojj'.tr. or the noble merchants. Hajee Khnlecl, the ambas-a.lor 
from Persia to the B;nga! government who was killed at Bombay, was Mulik 
ootJ'oojjarand alter him MuhumudNubee Khan, who likewise was ambassador 
from the 1'ersinn Court and cams to Bengal he has since experienced the sad 
uncertainty of Asmtic despotism j being despoiled of his property, blinded, and 
tamed into the streets of SAteraut to beg. 


1 wa? ovarwLtjluaed with such extreme grief that 1 cannot express 
its anguish. At once 1 became an orphan ! No alder of the family 
remained to watch over me- from this unexpected misfortune 1 wept 
night and day meat and drink was disregarded, and in this sad 
state I passed forty days. On the fortieth day, ( 58 ) after the 
death of my parents, my relations and friends of every degree 
assembled to perform the rites of mourning when I had finished the 
prayers for the dead, they tied on this pilgrim's head the turban 
of his father ; ( 59 ) they instilled into rne the precepts of patience, 
and made me understand, that in this world the parents of all have 
died, and 1 must one day follow the same path, " Look at your 
estate, said they ; you are now become its possessor in the room of 
your father be vigilant and diligent in your affairs and transactions.' 
After consoling me in this friendly manner, they took their leave. 
All the agents' factors and clerks of my late father came and wait- 
ed on me they presented their nazurs, and said, " That I should 
personally take an account of the cash in the coffers, and the mer- 
chandise in the warehouses." When I suddenly cast my eyes on 
this countless heap of wealth, my mir.d expanded and my ideas 
changed. 1 gave orders for the Hitting up of the Dewan- 
khana ; (60) the furr ashes (61) spread the carpets, and hung up the 
purdahs ( G2 ) and chicks, (03) which wero appropriated to the days 
of ceremony. 1 took handsome servants into my service, and 
clothed them in rich dresse*. This mendicant had no sooner taken 
possession of his fortune, and reposed himself in the vacant seat of 
his father, then he was surrounded by parasites, knaves, and syco- 
phants they became my favorites and friends 1 began to have them 
constantly in my company ; they amused me with the gossip of 
every place, and every idle, lying tittle tattle ; they urged, that as 1 
was in the flower of youth, 1 .should fill my cellars with choice wines, 
and send for beautiful mistresses to participate in the pleasure of 

( 5" ) The fortieth day is an important period in Mahometan rites ; it is the 
great day of rejoicing after birth, and of mourning after death To dignify thi 
number still more , sick ;tnd wounded persnr>s aie supposed, by oriental novelists, 
to recover and perform the ablution of cure on the fortieth day. 

(59) This is the general mode of investure in Ihndootlan, to offices, places, 
&c ; to \vhicb a \ilielut, or honorary dress is added . 

( O 11 ) Tint part of a dwelling.wheie male company are received. 

( 61 ) { G2 ) ( G3 ) Furnishes nre servants to spread carpets, sweep them and 
the walls ; plac* tlio musnnds. and hau<; up the purdahs n\\<\ chicks ; pitch tents. 
&e. Pitrd-.i: : -\ : > <\ niitod curtains, wnich hang before d >ors, &c. (-hic\is arc 
curtains, or hauling screens, made of fine slips of bamboos, nnd painted and 
bung up before dours and windows, to prevent the persons inside from being 
seen, and to keep out insects -, but they do not exclude the air, 01 the light from 
v.-jtho-jt. If there is no light in a room, a person may sit close to the cAtck, and 
not be seen by one who is without. However no description caa convey an 
adequate idea of purdahs and chicks to the mere European. 


the bottle, and enjoy myself in the most voluptuous manner. In 
short the evil genius of man is man my disposition changed from 
listening constantly to their pernicious ach ? ice. Wine, dancing, 
music, and gaming, occupied my thoughts and my time. At last 
matters came to such a pitch, that, forgetting commerce, and neg- 
lecting my affairs, 1 abandoned myself to women and extravagance 
My servants and false friends, when they perceived my careless 
habits, secreted all they could, and began to plunder my welth and 
property ; no account was kept of the money which was squander- 
ed ; from whence it came, or where it went. To the property of 
other's no mercy is ever shown. Had I possessed even the trea- 
sures of Korah, they would not have been sufficient to supply this 
vast expence and profusion. In a few years 1 squadered my for- 
tune, and found myself reduced to 9 bare skull cap for my head, 
and a rag about my waist those friends who used to share my 
board, and who so often swore to shed their blood for my advan- 
tage, disappeared ; and even if 1 met them by chance in the streets' 
they used to turn aside their looks frem me ; even my servants left 
me and went away no one remained to enquire after me, and be, 
wail my reduced stale, 1 had no companions left but grief and 
regret ; 1 then had not a penny worth of food to grind between my 
jaws; and give a relish to the water I drank ; I endured two or three 
Bevere fasts, but could no longer bear the cravings of hunger. At 
last, from stern necessity, covering [my face with the mask of 
impudenc , 1 formed the resolution of going to my sister ; but 1 
felt quite ashamed of myself, when 1 reflected, that since the death 
of my father I had kept up no friendly intercourse with my sister 
or even written her a line .; although she had written me two or three 
affectionate letters of condolence, 1 had not deigned to make any 
reply in my inebriated moments of prosperity. r ^ Shame, arising from 
my misconduct to her, made me reluctant to^go to my sister, but 
expect her house, 1 had no other to which 1 could resort for relief. 
In the best way 1 could on foot > without a farthing in my pocket, 
and after a long fatiguing journey, I arrived at the city where my 
sister lived, and reached her house. My sister* seeing my reduced 
wretched state, embraced me with affection and wept bitterly she 
distributed the customary offerings to the poor for my safe arrival, 
and said to me, Though my heart is rejoiced at this meeting, yet 
brother, in what sad plight do 1 see you ? I could make her no reply , 
but suppressing my tears, 1 remained silent. My kind sister sent 
me quickly to the bath, and ordered an elegant dress for me ; after 


bathing I put on these clothes she fixed on an elegant apartment, 
near her own, for my residence. I had in the morning shurbut, (04) 
orgeat and sweetmeats for my breakfast ; at noon, fresh and dried 
fruits for my luncheon ; and at dinner and supper she laid before me 
palaos. kubabs ( GJ ) and bread of the most exquisite flavour and 
delicious cookery she saw me eat them before she retired to her 
own apartment. In every way she took every care of me, and com- 
forted my harrassed mind. I offered my greatful prayers to God for 
enjo\ing such ease, after the hardships and misfortunes 1 had 
suiVcred. Many months passed in such undisturbed tranquility, that 
I never, put my foot out of my apartment. One day, my sister, who 
treated me like a mother, said to me, " O brother, thou art the 
delight of my eyes, and the emblem of v our deceased parents by 
your arrival the longing of my heart is satisfied, and whenever I see 
you, I am infinitely rejoiced ; yon have made me completely happy ; 
but God has created men to work, and they ought not to sit idle at 
home if a man becomes idle and stays at homo, the world casts 
r?tlec lions on him ; more especially the people of this city, both 
great and little, will say on your remaining with me and doing no- 
thingThat having lavished and spent his father's vast riches and 
wealth, he is now living on the scraps from his brother-in-law's 
board. This seeming want of pride will be our ridicule, and the 
subject cf shame to the momory of our parents ; or else I would 
keep thee near my heart, and from thee shoes of my skin, and make 
thro wear them. Now my advice is that you should travel ; please 
God the times will change, and in place of your present embarras- 
ment and want, gladness and prosperity may yet brighten your 
days." On hearing these words, though 1 felt ashamed, yet 1 
approved her advice, and replied, Very well, you are now in the place 
of my mothe/r , and I will cheerfully do whatever you wish. Having 
heard my determination, she went into her house and brought out, 
by the assistance of hot female slaves and servants, fifty bags of gold, 
and laid them before me, saying, A caravan of merchants is on the 
point of setting out for Damascus go and purchase with this money 
some articles of merchandise, and put them under the care of a mer- 
chant of probity and take a proper receipt for them from him , do you 
also proceed to Damascus,and when you arrive there in safety, receive 

(Gl) Shurbuts arc similar to lemonades , made in general with vegetable 
acids, sugar and water; sometimes of sugar and rose water only. 

( 65 ) Palaos, erroneously called I'ilaivs, is a common dish in Asia, and too 
well known to require explanation. Kubnh i* meat roasted or tried with spices 
sometimes In small pieces, sometimes minced, .sometimes on skewers, butnever 
in joints as with us; though they make kububs ct a whole lamb or kid'. 

6 lilfl TAI.E OF THE 

UK- amount sales of your gor fa, and the profit which may accrue, 
from the merchant ; or sell them yourself, as may be most convenient 
and advantageous. 1 took the money and went to the Great Ba- 
zar ; ( GG ) and having brought such articles of merchandise as would 
sell to advantage at Damascus, I delivered them over in charge to a 
considerable merchant, and took a satisfactory receipt from him. 
The merchant embarked with the goods on board a vessel, and set 
< ii' I y sea. and I prepared to go by land. When I took leave of my 
excellent sister, she gave me a rich dress and a superb horse with 
jewelled harness ; she put some sweetmeats in a leather bng, and 
hung it to the pummel of my saddle, and she suspended a flask of 
water from the cupper she tied a sacred rupee on my arm, ( G7 ) 
and having marked my fore-head with tier ; ( G8 ) Proceed, said she 
suppressing her tears, I have put thee under the protection of Gcd 
though showest thy back in going, in the same happy state >how me 
soon yur face. I also said, after repeating the prayer of welfare, 1 
joyfully accept your blessing, God be your protector also. Coming 
out from thence 1 mounted my horse, and putting myself umLr the 
protection of the Almighty, 1 set forward ; and marching two stages 
in one, I soon reached the neighbourhood of Damascus. In short 
when I arrived at the city gates, the night was far advanced, ?.ml 
the guards had shut them. 1 begged of them earnestly to open the 
gates, and added, " That I was a traveller who had come a long 
journey, at a great rate ; if you would kindly open the gates 1 could 
get into the city, and procure some refreshment for myself and my 
herse." They rudely replied from within, there is no order to open 
the gates at this late hour ; why did not you come sooner. When 1 
hoard this plain answer to my request, 1 alighted from rny horse 
under the walls of the city, and spreading my housing 1 sat down ; 
but to keep awake, 1 often rose up and walked about. When it was 
full mid-night, there was a dead silence, 1 saw a chest descending 
slowly form the walls of the city. When f beheld this strange 
sight, by the light of the moon, 1 said to myself with surprise, 
what talisman is this ? perhaps God, taking pity on my poverty 
and my misfortunes, has sent me this unexpected treasure. When 
the chest reached the ground, 1 approached it with fear, and per- 
ceived it was of wood instigated by avarice I opened it : f be- 

( 66 ) The grand street where are all the large shops ; the Strand of Asiatic 

(67 ) The sacrscl rupee or piece of silver, is a coin which is dedicated to 
Emawn Zanim, to avert evils from those who wear then tied on the arm, or sus- 
pended from tiie neck. 

(68) To rnar.8 the fore-head with tier, or curdled rniik, is a superstitious 


in it a beautiful lovely woman, at the sight of whom the senses 
would vanish, wounded arid weltering in her blood, with her eyes 
closed, and in extreme agonies. I was struck with horror at th 
cruel sight by degrees her lips moved, and these sounds issued 
slowly from her mouth" O faithless wretch ! O barbarouc tyrant.! 
Fs this cruelty the return 1 moritcd for all my affection and kind- 
ness ! O give me another blow, and complete thy savage deed 1 
commit our conduct to God, to do us justice." After pronouncing 
these words, even in that insensible state, she drew the end 01* her 
fJHwputta ( (59 ) over her face ; she did not look townrds me. Gaz- 
ing her, and hearing her exclamations, 1 became torpid, 1 said 
myself, what savage tyrant could wound eo beautiful a mistress '! 
what demon possessed his heart, and how could he lift his hancl 
upon a woman so lovely 1 she still loves him, who has murdered her, 
and, though dying, recollects him still 1 I was muttering this to 
myself ; the sound reached her ear drawing at ouee her veil from 
her face, she saw me, and her 1 >oks met mine, 1 nearly fainted, 
and my heart throbbed with difficulty I supported myself as weH 
as 1 could on my tottering knees, and taking courage, t asked her, 
" Toll me true, who art thou, and what sad occurrence is this 1 ! 
see ; explain it, and give ease to my anxious heart." On hearing 
these words, though she had scarce strength to spek, yet clie slow- 
ly uttered, " God be praised ! how can 1 speak ? my condition is 
60 weak, owing to my wounds ; 1 am a guest in this world for . 
fow moments only ; when my soul leaves me, then, for God's sake^ 
act like a man, and bury unfortunate me, in some place, in tilie 
chest ; that i may be freed from the tongue of the bad and good, 
and thou be worthy of future reward." After pronouncing these 
words she became silent. In the night I could apply no remedy 5 
1 brought the chest near me, and counted the hours of the remain- 
ing night. 1 determined, when the morning came, to go into the 
city and do all in my power for the cure of this beautiful woman. 
The short remaining night became so heavy a load on my heart, 
that 1 was quite restless ; however, after suffering much uneasiness, 
the morning approached the cock crowed, and the voices of men 

ceremony in Hindoostan, as a propitious omen, onbegining a voyage or journey. 
1 imagine it is borrowed from the Ilido os, though the Mahometans practise it 

( 69 ) The Uowputla is a large piece of cloth worn by women, which covers 
the head and goes round the body the act of drawing her dowpntia over her 
fare is mentioned as a proof of her modesty. Men likewise wore dowpitttt flung 
over the shoulders or wrapped round the waist. It is often gau^re aim 


iioarJ. Ai'ttT performing the morning 1 grayer, I lashed the 
on my horse, and jusi as the gates opened, 1 entered the city. 
1 enquired of every man 1 me where I could rent a house; and 
after much search, 1 found a convenient handsome house which 1 
rented. The first thing 1 did, was to take that beautiful woman" 
out of the chest, and lay her in an apartment on soft cotton ; I 
then placed a trusty servent near her, and went in search of a 
surgeon. 1 asked every person 1 met, who was the cleverest surgeon 
in the city, and where he lived. One person said, " A barber is 
unique in the practice of surgery, and the science of physic ; and 
in these arts is quite perfect if you carry a dead person to him, 
by the help of God, he will apply such remedies, as will bring him 
to life. He dwells in this quarter of the city, and his name is 
sai(. On hearing this agreeable intelligence, 1 "went in search 
of him, and after some difficulty, 1 found out his abode, from the 
sings 1 had received. 1 saw a man, with a white beared, sitting 
under the portico of his door, and many were grinding materi- 
als for plasters beside him. For the sake of flattering him, 1 made 
Lira a respectful sain in ( 70 ) and said, " Having heard your name 
and renown, 1 am come to solit it your assistaece. The case is 
this. I set out from my country for the purpose of trade, and took 
my wife with me, from the great affection 1 had for her ; when I 
arrived near this city, the evening set in ; 1 did not think it safe 
to travel at night in an unknkwn country ; I therefore rested under 
a tree onthe plains, At the last quarter of the night, 1 was attack- 
ed by robbers they plundered me of all the money and property 
they could find, and they were even so barbarous as to wound my 
wife, from avidity for her jewels. Being alone, 1 could make no 
resistance, and passed the remainder of the night as well as 1 could, 
and gave my poor wounded wife all the assistance in my power, 
Early in the morning 1 came into this city, and rented a house ; 
leaving her there, I am come to you to solicit your aid. God has 
given you great skill in your profession, favour this unfortunate 
traveller, and come to his humble dwelling ; see niy wife, and if you 
can save her life, you will acquire fame by your cure, and I will be 
beholden to you for life." Esau, the surgeon, was humane and de- 
vout ; he took pity on my misfortune, and aecompained me to my 
house. On examining the wounds, he gave me hopes, and said, 
*' By the blessing of God, this Lady's wounds will be cured in forty 

70) The word of salutation among Mahometans, or rather salamcilcykum. 

1- oi, it UUUWKsll. { J 

lay-. at most, and she shall at the t-iiil of that space of time perform 
the ablution of cure, 1 ' In short the good man washed all the 
wounds with the decoction of neem, ( 71 ) and cleansed them ; those 
that required to be sitchrd, he stitched ; and on the others he laid 
lint and plasters, which he took out of his box ; he tied up the 
wounds with bandages, and said with much kindness, " I well call 
morning and evening ; be thou careful that she remain perfectly 
quite, that the stitches may not give way ; let her food be fowl 
broth, in small quantities at a time, and give her often the spirit of 
JiuidmoosJiq, ( 7*2 ) with rose water, that her strength may he kept 
iu>." After giving these directions, he took his leave. 1 thanked 
him with joined hands, ( T3 ) and added," The hopes you give, have 
tfiven me life, else 1 saw nothing but death before her, from the 
wounds she has received ; God preserve you/' And after giving 
him I'ttur and Beetle, ( 74 ) I took leave of him. Night and day 1 
attended on that beautiful, cruelly-treated Lady with the utmost 
solicitude ; rest to myself 1 renounced as impious, and to the mer- 
cy of God I daily prayed for her cure.- By good luck the merchant, 
who had charge of rny merchandise, arrived at this critical period, 
and delivered over to me the goods I had entrusted to his care. I 
sold them as well as I could, and 1 began to spend the amount in 
medicines and remedies fur the wounded Lady. 1 procured her 
every convenience and comfort which her painful state required. 
The good surgeon was regular in his attendance, and in a short 
time all the wounds filled up, and began to heal ; a few days after 
she peformed the ablution of cure. What strange and joyful 
sensations arose in my heart ! A rich khetttt, ( 75 ) arid a purse of 
pieces of gold I laid before Esau the surgeon. 1 ordered elegant 
carpets to be spread, a rich musnud ( 70 ) to be laid, and placed 

(71 ) The A'tem is a large and common tree in India, the leaves of which 
are degitated and bitter, and used as decoction to reduce contusions and inflam- 
mations ; also to cleanse wounds. 

(~il ) The spirit drawn from the leaves of an aromatic tree which grows in 
Cushmeer, called Baidnwosyitis a ionic and exhilarating. 

(73 A humble deportment when addressing superiors in India and through 
complaisance used sometimes to equals. 

(74 ) An act of ceremony ever observed amongst the well-bread in India, 
when a visitor takes leave. Ulter is the essence of any flower, more especially 
of the rose ; and Beetle is the aromatic leaf so generally used in this country. 
The moment they are introduced , it is a hint to the visitor to take leave. 

( 75 ) The Ktielut is a dress of honour, in geuerall a rich one, presented by 
superiors, to inferiors. In tha zenith of the Moghnl empire these Kheluis were 
expensive honours, as the receivers were obliged to make rich presents tothe 
Emperors for the Kheluts they received. 

( 76) Musnud means litterally a sort of counterpane, made of silk, cloth or bro- 
cade which is spread on the carpet, where the master of the house sits and re- 
ceives company ; it has a large pillow beUiiul to lean the black against, and 



this beautiful Lady on it. 1 distributed large Bumsto t he poor on 
the rcjoiceful event, and that day 1 was as joyful as if 1 had gained 
possession of empire over the seven climes. ( 77 ) On that beautiful 
Lady's cure, such rosy, pure colour appeared in her complexion, that 
her face shone like the bright moon, and her eyes sparkled with ra- 
vishing lustre. I could not gaze on her without being dazzled. I 
devoted myself entirely to her service, and zealously performed what- 
ever she commanded. In the full pride of beauty and rank, if ever 
she condescended to cast a look on me, she said, " Take care, if my 
good opinion is desirable to thee, never hesitate to execute impli- 
citly my commands ; whatever 1 order, perform without delny or ob- 
jection ; never mix your opinions with mine, but keep a respectful 
distance, or else you will repent your rash presumption." Though it 
appeared, in spite of the hauteur of her manners, that the returu due 
to me for my services and obedience, was fully impressed on her 
mind. In all 1 did 1 consulted her will and pleasure, and obeyed all 
her commands with cheerful obedience. Months passed away in this 
mystery and submission 1 instantly procured for her whatever she 
desired. During this long period 1 spent all the money I had, from 
the sale of my goods and jewels in supplying her wants. In a 
foreign country where I was unknown, who would trust me ? that 
by borrowing, 1 might still go on in supporting her. At last 1 was 
distressed for money, even for our daily expences, and was quite 
embarrassed what to do. With this anxious solicitude 1 pined daily, 
and the colour fled from iny face ; but to whom could 1 impart the 
sufferings of my heart ? The grief of the poor only preys on his own 
vitals. One day the beautiful Lady, from the penetration of her own 
judgment, guessed my distressed state, and said, " O youth ! the 
services you have rendered me are engraven on my heart as indelbile 
as on stone ; but their return 1 am unable to make at present ; if 
you require any thing at present for necessary expences, do not be 
distressed on that account ; but bring me paper, pen, and ink." 1 
was then convinced that this fair Lady must be a princess of some 
country, or else she would not have addressed me with such hauteur, 
or spoken with such confidence. I instantly brought her pen, ink, 
and paper, and placed them before her she wrote a note, put her 

generally two small ones on each side. It also, metaphorically, implies the seat 
on which kings, nuwabs and governors nt the day they are invested with (heir 
royalty, c. So to say that Shah Allum sal on the' musnud such a day means that 
he was on that day invested with royalty. 

( 77) Asiatics divide the world into seven climies, so to reign over the seven 
climes means, metaphorically, to reign over the world , king of the seven climes 
is one of the titles of the kings of Dhaillee. 


signature to it, ( 78 ) delivered it to me and said, " There is a tree- 
poleea ( 79 ) near tlie fort ; in the adjoining lane is a great house, and 
the master of that house is called Seedee Buhar ; (80) go and deliver 
this note to him." 1 went according to her commands, and by the 
sings and the name she had given me, I soon found out the house- 
by the porter 1 sent up the contents of the note ; the moment it was 
delivered, a handsome young negro, with a flashly turban on his head, 
came out to me though his colour was dark, his countenance was 
pleasing. He took the note from my hand, but said nothing, and ask- 
ed no questions and hastily entered the house. In a short time he 
came out accompained by slaves, who carried on their heads eleven 
sealed trays covered with brocade. He told the slaves, " Go with 
this young man, and deliver these trays." I made my salutation and 
took my leave of him, and conducted the slaves with the trays to our 
house, I dismissed them from the door, and carried in the trays and 
placed them as they were before the fair Lady. On seeing them she 
said, " Take the eleven bags of gold contained in these trays, and ap- 
propriate the money to necessary expenoes God is bountiful. " 1 
took the gold, and laid it out as she directed in immediate necessaries 
though I became more easy in my mind, yet my thoughts were 
greatly perplexed and agitated. O God, said 1 to myself, what a 
strange circumstance is this! that a stranger should on the mere sight 
of a bit of paper, deliver over to me so much money without asking 
any questions and without knowing me. 1 cannot ask the Lady to 
explain the mystery, as she has beforehand forbid me to ask questions, 
or to be inquisitive in her affairs ; these restless reflections, oppressed 
me greatly and raised my fears. 


EIGHT days after this occurrence, the beloved Fair thus address- 
ed me, " God has bestowed on man the robe of urbanity, that it 

( 78 ) 1 use the English term in the original it is seal, as Asiatics do not 
sign their names, but put their seals to letters, bonds, papers, ffC. ; on the seal 
is 'engraven their names, titles, &c ; which absurd practice has given rise to 
much roguery, and even bloodshed in India; as it is so easy, by bribes, to get a 
seal-cutter to engrave another's name on a seal. Though the Mahometan laws 
punish with severe penalties, such trangressions, yet seal-cutters are not more 
invulnerable to the powers ot gold than other men. Kings, princes, nitwabs, 
&c. have a private mark, as well as a pnblio seal to official papers ; and a pri- 
vate seal and mark for private or confidential papers. 

( 79 ) Treepoleea means three arched gutos -, there are generally such which 
divide grand streets in Indian cities, and in.iy be compared to our Temple bar- 
in London. 

( 80 ) Ethiopian, or other African salaves. are commonly called Seedee* ; 
thongh correctly speaking- it is only appl'.cable to Abyssinian or Ethiopian 
slave*. They are held in great reunite fur honesty and attachment. 

Mitt TALK Oi : 

may not be torn or suih-d, anil although tatfen.-d i-iotlivs are io 
disparagement to his courtesy yet in the eyes 01 the world he has not 
credit for it, on account of his ragged appeance ; so take two bags of 
gold with thee, and go to the C'/toid', (81 ) to the shop of Eusnf the 
merchant, and buy there two rich suits of clothes and some rich 
jewels, and bring them with thee." 1 instantly took the two bags of 
g Id, mounted my horse, and went to the shop described 1 saw there 
a handsome young man, clothed in a saffron coloured dress, seated on 
a cushion ; his beauty was such that multitudes stopped in the street 
before his shop to gaze at him. 1 approached him with much 
pleasure, made my salutation, and sat down, and mentioned the ar- 
ticles 1 required. My pronoun ciation was not like that of the inha- 
bitants of that city. The young merchant replied with great kindness. 
" Whatever you require is ready, but tell me Sir, from what country 
are you come, and what are the motives of your stay in this foreign 
city ? If you will condescend to inform me on these points it will not 
be stepping beyond the limits of kindness. ' It was neither conveni- 
ent or agreeable to ms to relate my story, so I made an excuse, took 
the jewels and the clothes, paid their price and rose to take my leave. 
The young man seemed displeased and said. " O, Sir, if you wished 
lo be so reserved, it was not necessary to show such warmth of friend- 
ly greeting in your first approach ; amongst well bred people these 
amicable greetings are of much consideration, and give great claims." 
He pronounced this speech with such elegance and propriety, that it 
quite delighted my heart, and I did not think it courteous to be 
unkind and leave him so hastily ; therefore to please him, I sat down 
again and said," 1 agree to your request with all my heart, and am 
ready to obey your commands." He was greatly pleased with my 
compliance, and laughing said, " If you will favour your humble ser- 
vant with your company to-day, 1 will invite a few pleasant friends, 
and we shall amuse ourcelves for some hours in good cheer and hilari- 
ty," I had never left the fair Lady alone since we first met, and re- 
collecting her solitary situation, I made many excuses to the young 
merchant for declining his invitation, but he would not accept any ; 
at last I gave my promise to return as soon as 1 had carried home 
the articles 1 had purchased ; on this assurance he gave me leave to 
depart. 1 ctrried the jewels, and the clothes to the Lady, and laid 

( 81 ) The ChouJc, is in general a large square in Asiatic, cities, where 
are the richest sh jps ; It is sometimes a large wide street. 


tflem before her she asked the price of the different articles, and 
whut parcel at the merchant's. I related all the particulars of the 
purchase, and the teazing invitation I had received from him. She 
replied, fi It is incumbent on every person to fulfil the promises they 
make ; leave me under the protection of God, and go to yonr engage- 
ment ; the law of the prophet requires we should accept the offers of 
hospitality." I said, <f My heart does not wish to go, and leave you 
alone, but your orders must be obeyed ; and 1 am forced to go ; 
until 1 return my heart will be attached to this spot." Saying this 
1 trout to the merchant's ; he was waiting for me. On seeing me 
he said very graci >usly, ," Come good Sir, you have made me wait 
long for the pleasure of your company. " He instantly arose, seized 
lay Iruid, and led me into the house proceeding on, he conducted 
me to a garden it was delightful in the basons and canals 
fountains were playing fruits of various kin-is were in full bloom, 
and the branches of the trees were bent down with their weight 
birds of various species were porched on the boughs, and sung their 
merry notes, and elegant carpets were spread in every apartment of 
the grand pavilion, which stood in the centre of the garden there 
on th<3 border of the canal, we sat down in an elegant saloon; he 
yot up a moment after and went out, nnd then returned richly 
dressed. On seeing him, 1 exclaimed, ( - By the purity of God, let 
evil eyes' be averted from thy beauty." (82) On hearing this excla- 
niitiun, he smiled, and said, " It is fit you should Sir, also change 
your dress." To please him 1 put on other clothes that were fine- 
than those 1 wore. The young merchant had prepared an elegant 
entertainment for me, and had provided every article of pleasure- 
he was warm in his expressions of attachment to me, and his conver- 
sation was quite enchanting. At this moment the cup-bearer appear- 
ed with a crystal cup, and a flask of wine ; and meats of various de- 
licious kinds were sewed up, The sparkling cup circulated briskly 
and when it had performed three or four revolutions, four young danc- 
ing boys, very beautiful, with loose flowing tresses, entered the as- 
sembly, and began to sing and play. We were in such spirits, and so 
delighted with their songd an 1 performance, that had Tuttsain ( 83 ) 

( 82 ) The Asiatics suppose that uncommon qualities of beauty, fortune or 
health raise an ominous admiration, which injures the possessor; for which 
reason to tell parents that tlifir children are stout and healthy is a mal-a-propos 
compliment ; also to coi)>j;r.itiil itt> women on their healthy appearance is often 
unwelcome; the same ridiculous and superstitious ideas accompany all admira- 
tion of beauty, fortune, &c. 

( 3 ) A celebrated musical performer in upper Uindnostan, and considered 
as the tirst in his art; ha lived about '2<>U yeas ago. 


been present at that hour, he would have forgot his strains ; and 
Bucjou Bawurra, (84) on hearing them, would have gone mad. In 
the midst of this high festive scene, the young merchant's eyes filled 
suddemly with tears, and two or three drops trickled down his rosy 
checks he turned round and said to me, " To hide the secrets of our 
hearts from our friends is approved by no religion, and now that such 
sincere amity has taken root between us, 1 am going to impart a se- 
cret to you, in the confidence of friendship and without reserve. 1 
have a mistress, and if you will give me leave, 1 will send for her.and 
exhilarate my heart with her presence ; as without her 1 cann<t en- 
joy the pleasure which surrounds us." He pronounced these word* 
with such eager desire, that though 1 had no % t seen her, 1 was anxious 
to see a mistress so beloved, and replied, "1 wish to contribute to your 
pleasure, and what can be better than what you pro pose ; send for her 
without delay ; nothing, it is true, is agreeable without the presence 
cf our beloved," The young merchant made a sign towards the chid 
and shortly at black woman, as ugly as sin, on seeing whom one would 
die without the intervention of fate, entered the room, and sat down 
near him. 1 was frightened at her sight* and said within myself, la 
it possible this witch can be beloved by Bojbeautiful a young man, and 
is this the creature he praised so highly, and spoke of with such affea- 
tion ? 1 muttered the form of exorcism, and became silent. 

In this festive scene of wine and music, we passed three days and 
nights the fourth day, oppressed with wine, \ve fell asleep. In the 
ileep of forgetful ness, without any knowledge of what had happen- 
ed. I slept until next morning, when the young merchant awaked 
me, and made me drink some cups of wine to the health of his mis- 
tress, and said, " To distress our guests any longer, is contrary to 
good manners," He then took told of both my hands, and lifted me 
up, 1 begged leave to depart ; well pleased with my complaisance, 
he gave me permission to return home. 1 then quickly put on my 
former clothes, and bent my way homewrbs. 1 waited on the angelic 
Lady, but as it had never before occurred to me leave her by herself 
for a day, and remain out all night, 1 was quite ashamed of myself for 
being absent three days and nights. 1 made her many apologies, and 
related the circumstances of the invitation, and what had passed, and 
his extreme reluctance to my comming home sooner, She was well 
acquainted with the manners of the world, and smiling said. " What 

(84 J A celebrated singer in upper-Hindoostan, who lived about 600 years 
ago. Tansain and BawurrQ are worshipped by singers and musical performers. 


does it signify, if you remained at the entertainment so long, to oblige 
your friend 1 cheerfully pardon yoor fault ; when a man goes on 
occasions of this sort to any person's house, he returns when the other 
pleases to let him. But having been so well feasted for nething, will 
you remain silent, or give him a feast in return ? Now 1 think it 
proper you should go to the young merchant, and bring him with you, 
and feast him tow -fold greater than he did you. Give yourself no 
concern about the preparations for such an entertainment ; by tha 
favour of God, all the requisites will soon be ready, in art excellent 
styel and highly elegant." According to her desire. 1 went to the 
young merchant, and said to him. %< I have complied with your re- 
quest in >st cheerfully, now in return grant niy request, and to me the 
favour to come to my house. " He at first made some excuses, but I 
did not cease my solicitations until lie consented, and said. " I will go 
with you with all my heart. " 1 brought him with me to my house, 
but on the way 1 could not avoid making the sad reflection, that if 1 
had had my former means, 1 could receive ray guest in a style which 
would be highly gratifying to him; I am taking him with me, let ua 
ee what kind of a treat he is regaled with. Absorbed in this dejection, 
and these apprehensions, I drew near my house. Then how was 1 
surprised to see a great crowd and bustle at the door the street had 
been swept and watered silver mace and club bearers (85) were in 
waiting. 1 wondered greatly at what 1 saw, but knowing it to be my 
house, I entered, and perceived with still greater astonishment, that 
elegant carpets were spread in every apartment, and rich musnuda 
were laid out ; beetle boxes, golaub-paushes, utter dauns, peck' 
dauns (80) and spice boxes of g >ld, crystal, and silver; and china 
flower pots were all arranged with taste in their proper places In 
the recesses of the walls various kinds of orranges, and confectionary 
of various colours were placed On one side variegated screens of talc, 
with lights behind them were displayed, and on the other side tall 
branches of lamps, in the shape of cypresses and lotuses, were lighted 
up In the hall and alcove camphorated candles were burning on 
golden candlesticks, an<i rich glass shades were placed over them 
every attendant waited at his respective post. In the kitchen tha 
pots were boiling, and the aubdarfchana, (87) was equally grand 
fresh jars and water stood on silver stands, and near them cups of 

( 5 ) The insignia of state among the great in Hintfoostan. 

( 8G ) The golnitb-paush is a silver or gold like a French bottle, to 
sprinkle rose water on the company ; the uttnr daitn is one to hold essences, and 
peek dauns are of brass or silver tospit iu, called by the French craihoirs. 

( 87 ) The aubdarkluna, is a room appropriated to the cooling of water in ica 
or saltpetre ; by the servant called the aubdar. 


gold aiul crystal were placed further on poolf&'ss (8M) of Ice 
ni ranged, and the yitglets (80) were agitated in saltpeire. In 
every requisite for a princely entertainment was displayed Dancing 
girls and boys, singers, musicians and buffoons, in rich apparel, 
ware in waiting, and ready to begin their performances. 1 led the 
young merchant in, and seated him on the musriud ; (00 ) 1 was all 
auiazem nfc, and said to myself, O God, in so short a time how have 
fciich preparations been procured and arranged. I was staring around 
nnd walking about, but 1 could no where perceive the beautiful Lady 
searching for her I went into the kitchen, and all at once I saw her 
there in an adjoining apartment, with a common plain dress on and 
without any jetvla. Those 011 whom God hath bestowed beauty have 
no need of ornaments; the full moon appears beautiful without the aid 
of decorations. With a white handkerchief tied round her head, she 
was busily employed in the preparations of the feast, and was giving 
directions for the various dishes that they might be well made, and of 
a proper relish. It was surprising to see how that delicate frame 
toiled, at the prepartions for dinner. 1 approached her, and shower 
ing blessings on her, expressed my admiration of her good sense, and 
the propriety of her conduct. She was displeased at my praise and 
said, ' Men can do more than angels : what have 1 done that thou 
art so much astonished ? Enough 1 dislike loquacity ; but say what 
manners is this to leave your guest alone, and amuse yourself by star- 
ing about what will he think of your behaviour ? return to the com- 
pany, and attend to your guest and send for his mistress, that he may 
fully enjoy the pleasures of your entertainment." I instantly returned 
to the young merchant, and showed him every friendly attention. 
Soon after two handsome slaves entered with bottles of delicious 
wine, and cups set with precious stones, and served us the liquor. 
1 then observed to the young merchant, "1 am in every way 1 
your friend and servant ; that handsome mistress, to whom your 
heart is attached, had better come here ; it will be perfectly agree- 
able to me, and if you please 1 will send a person to call her." 
On hearing this, he was extremely pleased and said, " Very well, my 
dear friend, you have by your kind offer anticipated the wish of my 
heart." 1 sent an Eunuch to bring her. When half the night was, 

( 83 ) Small leaden mugs with covers for the congelation of Ice. 

( 89 ) To cool the water which thuy contain ; they are made of pewter. 

( 90 ) The musnudand its large back pillow are criterions of Asiatic etiquette. 
To an inferior or dependant, the master of the house gives the corner of the 
musiiud to sit on j to an equal or intimate friend, he gives pait of the large 
pillow to lean on ; to a superior, he abandons the whole pillow; and betakes 
himself to the corner of the musnud. 


past, that witch mounted on an elegant Chandole (91) arrived like 
an unexpected evil. To please my guest 1 was compelled to advance, 
and receive her with the utmost kindness, and place her near the 
young man. On seeing her, be came as rejoiced as if had received 
all the delights of the world, and the hag also citing round his neck 
with extacy tKe ludicrous bight appeared like th<- full moon eclipsed, 
when her black from shaded his bright person. As many as were in 
assembly put their for-finger between their teeth, (92) and exclaim- 
ed within themselves, ' How could such a witch subdue the affections 
of this young man ? ' Disregarding the amusements of the entertain- 
ment, the eyes of all were fixed on her, and the carecesses she bestow- 
ed Some one present observed, " O friends, there is a spite between 
judgement and love ; wluxt judgement cannot conceive, this cursed 
love will show. You must behold Lalay with the eyes of Mujnoo."' 
(93) All present exclaimed, " True, it is so." According to the di- 
rections of the Lady, I devoted myself to attending to my guests; 
and although the young merchant pressed me to eat and drink equal- 
ly with himself, yet 1 refrained from fear of the fair angel's displea- 
sure ; and did not give myself up to eating and drinking, or the 
pleasures of the entertainment. 1 pleaded the duties of hospitality, 
as my excuse, for not joining him in the good cheer. We passed 
three days and nights in carousing and enjoying the pleasures of the 
feast/ the fourth night, (94) the young meachant said tome with 
extreme fondness, " 1 now beg to take my leave; for your good 
company I have neglected ray afiairs these three days, and have at- 
tenden you pray sit near me fora moment, and rejeice my heart by 
participating in the pleasures of the feast.' 1 ' I imagined ho would be 
hurt if 1 did not comply with his request at his moment ; and good 
manners required 1 should please my new friend and guest ; on which 
account 1 replied, " I must, Sir, comply with your request, and your 
commands are superior to the respect 1 owe to my company.' (95) 
On hearing my compliance the yeung merchant presented me a cup 
of wine, and 1 drank it off; then the cup moved in such quick suc- 
cessive circles, that in a short time all the guests in the assembly 

(91) A kind of palankeen or sedan, for the women of the freat in India to 
travel in. 

(92) A sign ofafflictinjr surprise. 

C93) Ahijnoo, a lover of eastern romance, \vho long pined in unprofitable 
love for Lylay, au ugly hftrd-hearted mistress. The loves of Eusof nnd Zoolai- 
kAa Khoosroo and S/itvrv>i, and Lylay and Alujnno are the lettile sources o-l' 
all oriental romances, and the con-taut theius ol their poets. 

(9t) Tho Mahometans rcckou their df*y t'roiu suu-bet. 

(Uj) By sitting and driuKing with the young merchant, wlveu lie ought to 
wait on his guests, uud attend to thyir entertainment . 


became inebriated and senseless I also became senseless. Wnett 
the morning came, and the sun had risen the height of two 
spears, (96) my eyes opened, but I could see nothing of the prepa- 
rations, the assembly, or the beautiful fairy only the empt house 
remained but in a corner of the hall something lay folded up in a 
blanket I unfolded it, and saw with horror the corpse of the young 
merchant and his black mistress, with their heads served from their 
bodies, On seeing this horrible fight, my senses forsook me, and my 
judgement was useless in accounting for this wounderful change. 1 
was staring about me, with amazement and horor, when I perceived 
an Eunuch, whom I had seen in the preparations of the entertain- 
ment ; 1 was somewhat comforted on seeing him, and asked him an 
explanation of the strange events which confounded my understanding. 
He replied briefly, "What good will it do thee to hear an explanation 
of what has happened, that thou askestl" I also reflected in my mind, 
that what he said was true, and my question of no use ; however 
after a short pause I said to the Eunuch, " Well, do not tell it to me, 
but inform me where is the beloved Lady." He answered, ' ' Cer- 
tainly; whatever I know 1 will relate to thee,but 1 am surprised such a 
sensible man as thou art, fchouldst, contrary to the wishes of ray 
Lady, get did drunk with that young merchant, whom thou hast only 
known a few days and disregard her disapprobation ; what does th s 
mean \ n 1 became ashamed of my folly, and felt the justice of the 
Eunuch's reprobation, 1 could make no other reply but to say, " In- 
deed I have been gnilty, pardon me." At la<t the Eunuch becom- 
ing more gracious, pointed out the place of the beloved Lady's resi- 
dence, and took his leave, and went to bury the beheaded bodies 
thanks to God 1 had no hand in their death. I was anxious to 
meet the beautiful Lady, and searched for her sccording to the signs 
I bad received, but being late in the evening, 1 had great difficulty in 
finding out the place / at lest I reached it, and in a corner, near the 
gate of her abode, 1 passed the night in painful anxiety. 1 did not 
hear the sound of any person's foot-steps, nor did any one ask me any 
question. In this forlorn state the morning came upon me when 
the sun rose, the lovely Fair looked at me from a window in the bal- 
cony of the house. My heart only knows the joys 1 felt at that mo- 
ment ! 1 praised the goodness of God. In the mean while an Eu- 
nuch came up tome, and said, " Go and stay in the adjoining mos- 
que ; perhaps ycur wishes may be accomplished, and you may yet 

f96) A figurative expression to express two Gurrces, or 45 minutes after 
tun-rise. Eight gttrrees make one pufiur, and eight puhurs, adav and night. 


gain the desires of your heart." According t'> his advice, I got up 
from the place where I had pasped the night, and went to the inns- 
que, but kept my eyes fixed on the door of her house, to see what 
mitfht appear from behind the curtain of futurity. I waited for tha 
arrival of evening with the anxiety of a person who keeps lent ; (97) 
At last the evening came, and the heavy day was removed from niy 
heart ; all at once the same Eunuch, who had given me the directions 
to find out the Lady's house come to the mosque ; and after iiuUh- 
iug the evening prayer he came up to me. This obliging person, 
who was in all the Lady's secrets, gave me muuh comfort, an-i tak- 
ing me by the hand led me along with him proceeding on, we 
entered a garden, where he made me sit down, and said, " Stay hero 
until your desire of seeing your mistress be accomplished." He then 
took his leave, and went away ; perhaps to impart my wishes to tho 
beautiful Lady. I amused myself with admiring the beauty of the 
flowers which bloomed around me, the delight of the bright full moon, 
and the play of the fountains in the canuls but when I beheld tho 
roses, 1 thought of that beautiful rose-like angel, and when 1 gazed 
on the bright moon I recollected her refulgent face. All these de- 
lightful scenes without her were joyless to me ; but at last God made 
her heart favourable to me. After a little while that lovely Fair en- 
tered from the garden door, like the full moon from behind a sable 
cloud, adorned with a rich dress enriched with pearls ; and covered 
from head to feet with an embroidered veil, shestept along the garden 
walk, and stood at a little distance from me. By her coming, tbe 
beauties of the garden and my heart revived. After strolling for a 
few minutes about the garden, she sat down in the alcove on a rich 
musnitcL 1 ran, and like the moth that flutters round the candle, 
offered my life as a sacrifice to her, and like a slave stood before her 
with folded arms. At this moment the Eunuch appeared, and plead- 
ed for my pardon and restoration to her favour. Addressing myself 
to the Eunuch, I said, " 1 am guilty and highly culpable ; whatever 
punishment is fixed on me, let it be executed." The Lady, though 
she was displeased, said with hauteur, " The best thing that can L-o 
done for him now is to give him a hundred bags of gold, and let him 
get his things ready ; and return to his native country." On hearing 
these dreadful words I became a block of withered wood if any one 
had then cut my body in two, not a drop of biood would have issued 

f97) During the Mahometan lent, which begins the first day of the Itinar 
month Rumzan and ends the last day, no good AJoosulnmun. who keens the 
lent, cau eat or drink any thing, or smoke, from sun-vise until! sun-set \hich 
camrally explains the anxiety they feel or the arrival of evening. 


all the world began to appear dark before my sight ; an ah ! of des- 
pair burst involuntarily from my heart, and the tears flowed from my 
eyes. I had now no hope from any one except God ; driven to des- 
pair I ventured to say, *' Well, cruel Fair, reflect a moment, that if 
this unfortunate wretch had been guided by interested or worldly 
views, he would not have devoted his property and his heart to you. 
What, are the acknowledgements due to my services, and my having 
devoted my life to you, flown all of a sudden from this world, that you 
have shewn such disfavour to a wretch like me ? It is all well ; I also 
disregard life ; desperate lovers cannot survive their mistress's infide- 
lity." On hearing these words, she was greatly offonded, and frown- 
ing with anger, she exclaimed, " Very fine indeed ! What, thou art 
my lover ! Has the frog then caught cold? (98) fool ! for one in 
thy situation to talk any more is an idle fancy little mouths should 
not utter big words no more, be silent repeat not such presump- 
tuous language ; if any other had dared to Irahave so improperly, 1 
vow to God, I would have ordered his body to be cut into pieces,and 
given to the kites of the air ; but what have 1 done ? 1 recollect your 
services ; thou had'st best now take the road to thy home ; thy fate 
had decreed the food only until now in my house ?'' I then weep- 
ing said, " If my destiny is such that 1 am not to attain the desires 
of my heart, but to wander through woods and over mountains, then 
1 have no remedy left." On hearing these words she became voxed 
and said, et These hints and this flattering nonsense is not agreeabla 
to me ; go and repeat them to those who are fit to hear them ; then 
getting up in the same angry mood, she returned to her house. 1 be- 
seeched her to hear me. but she disregarded what 1 said. Having no 
resource, 1 likewise left the place, hopeless and sad. In short such 
was my condition for f >rty days that when I was tired of pacing the 
lanes of the city, I wandered into the woods, and when I became rest- 
less there, I returned to the lanes like a lunatic, i thought not of 
nourishment in the day, or sleep at night ; but was like a washer- 
man's dog, who belongs neither to the house or ike ghatrt ; ( 99 ) the 

(9?) As frogs live in wet, they are not likely to catch cold.- the smile i* 
introduced to ridicule the extravagant idea of a merchant's son presuming to be 
iu love with a princes. The smile is a proverb. 

(99) The G/iaut is the ferry or ford of a river those for foot passengers 
are in India made of stone or brick steps, It is a high object of orintal am- 
bition iu India to construct theaee ghauts, and this species of useful ostentation 
has produced shme grant ghauts on the rivers Ganges and Jomna which are 
of great public utility. Those of Benares are the grandest in India, though 
the neighbourhood of Calcutta will soon eclipse them. Washermen in India, 
in general^, wash the linen at these yhzuts, ;iad their dogs of course wander af- 
ter them from their homes to the- ghaut, and bac.c again. Tii'n is one of their 
proverbs, and answers to oar's of" Kicked from pillar tv past ." 


-xi.ttMue of man depends on eating ami drinking ; he is the worm of 
tin- grain ; and as I disregarded food, no strength remained in my 
body -becomin* feeble 1 lay down under the walls of th6 sairie inos- 
iju-j when out' day the same Eunuch came there to say his Friday 
prayers, and passed near me, 1 wart repeating at the time slow; from 
weakness, this Verse . 

" (Jive me strength of mind to bear the pangs of lore, or give me death; 
" Whatever my destiny may be, O God 1 let it be son." 

Though my appearance and looks were greatly altered, and my 
face was such that whoever had seen me formerly, would not have 
recognised me to he the same person , yet the Enriueh, hearing the 
sounds of grief, looked at me, and regarding me with attention, kflew 
me again, and pitied me, and with much kindness addressed me, Bay- 
ing " At last to this state thou hast brought thyself," 1 replied, 
" What was to occur has now happened ; I devoted my property to 
hear welfare, and I sacrificed my life likewise : her pleasure has 
been such ; then what shall I do ? On hearing this account he left 
a servant with me, and went into the mosque ; wfcen he finished his 
prayers, he returned to me, and putting me into a dolee, (100) had me 
carried along with him to the house of that indifferent Fair, and placed 
me near the chick of her apartment though no trace of my former self 
remained, but as I had been for long while constantly with the 
lovely Fair, she must have recognised me ; yet seeming to take ine 
for a stranger, she asked the Eunuch wTi,i 1 was. That excellent 
man replied, *' This is that unfortunate, ill- fated wretch who 
has fallen under your displeasure ; he is burning with the flame 
of love, for which reason his appearance is such ; how much 
soever he endeavours to quench the flame with the water of 
tears, yet it burns with deuble force, and his endeavours 
are vain ; moreover he is dying with the shame of his fault." 
The cruel Lady mocking said, ' Why dost thou tell lies ! 1 heard, 
many days ago, the news of his arrival in his own country ; God 
knows who this is, of whom you speak/' Then the Eunuch putting 
his hands together said,*' If security be granted to my life, (101) 
then 1 will be so bold as to address your highness." She answered, 
t{ Speak; your life is secure." The Eunuch said, " Your highness 
is a judge of things, for God's sake lift up the chick and recognise 

(100) A. litter fnr transporting tli sick and wounded ; when cov'erd 
for women. 

(IU1) A mode of humble add res*, when the inlVrier presume* Instate some- 
thing contrary to what the superior maintains or desires ; and as human Ufa 
in India is not only procarion-;. but Considered as insignificant, the oriental 
acts prudently by begging his life beforw he presumes to be randid. 

22 THE TALE u l Tllk 

him, and take pity on liis lameiitubie condition to misconceive mat- 
ters is not proper ; whatever compassion you may feel for his pre- 
sent condition is amiable and meritorious to say more would be to 
outstep the bounds of respect ; whatever your highness ordains is 
best." On hearing this speech of the Eunuch, she smiled and said, 
" Well, let him be who he will, keep him in the hospital ; when 
he gets well, then his situation shall be enquired into," The Eunuch 
answered, " If you will condescend to sprinkle rose water on 
him with your amiable hands, and say a kind word to him, then there 
Lopes of living ; dispair is a bad thing ; the world exists through 
hope.' 7 Even on tliis the cruel Fair said nothing to console me. 
Hearing this dialogue 1 became impatient of existence, and fearless- 
ly said, " 1 do not wish to live on these terms ; my feet are haning in 
the grave, and 1 must soon die ; my salvation is in the Lady's power; 
she may save me or not as she pleases." At last the Almighty softened 
that heart of stone ; she became gracious and said, " Send immidi- 
ately for the royal physicians." In a short time they came and assem- 
bled round ma ; They felt my pulse and examined my mine with 
great attention ; at last they pronounced "that it was clearly to 
be distinguished this person is in love with some one ; except the 
possession of the object he loves there is no other cure ', whenever he 
possesses her he will be well," When from the physicians, opinions 
also love was ascertained to be my camplaint, the fair Lady said, 
" Carry this young man to the warm bath, and after bathing him 
and dressing him in fine clothes, bring him to me." They instantly 
carried me out, and after bathing me and clothing me well, they led 
me before the lovely Angel then that beautiful creatures said with 
kindness, " 1 was secluded from the world and easy in my tnind but 
thou hast for nothing got me censured and dishonoured ; now what 
more dost thou wish to do with me ? whatever is in thy heart speak 
it plainly. " Dunoeshes (102) at that moment my emotions where 
such that 1 thougt I should have died with joy, and 1 swelled so 
greatly with pleasure, that my Jama (103) could hardly contain me 
my countenance and appearance changed visibly ; I praised God, and 

said to her, " This moment all the art of physic is centered in you who 
have restored a corpse like me to life with a single word behold 
what a change has taken place in my looks by the kindness you have 
shown," After saying this 1 went r und her three times, (104) and 

(102J Here the first Durwesh addresses himself directly to the other three. 

(103^ The Jama is an Asiatic dress: something like a modern female gown, 
only much more full in the skirts. It is made of white cloth or muslin. 

(104) A superstitious custom in India; it implies that the person who goes 
round, sacriiies his life at the shrine of her love, prosperity, health; &c. It is 
one of the aflectalions of Eastern love, and is only more ridiculous than those 
of Europe by being more outre. 

POUII DunwESH. 23 

standing before her I said, " Your commands are that 1 should speak 
whatever 1 have in my heart then be generous and accept this wretch 
keep me at your feet and elevate me ! this boon will be more precious 
to me than the empire of the -world." On hearing this ejaculation 
he became thoughtful for a moment ; then regarding me asknace 
she said. " Sit clown j your services and fidelity have been such that 
whatever you say becaniesyou ? they are also engrave on my heart. 
Well ? 1 comply with your request." 

The sarneday^in ah'ippy hour and under a propitious star, the 
Qua zee (105) performed the marriage rices. After so much trouble 
and affliction God shwwed me this happy day, when 1 gained the 
desires of my heart ; but in the same degrea that my heaat wished 
to possess this angulic Lady, it felt equally anxious and uneasy to 
know the explication of those strange event which had occoured 
Until that day 1 knew nothing abut who she was, or who was that 
brown, hanbsome Negro who on seeing a bit of paper delivered to me 
so many bags of gold ; and how that princely entertainment was 
prepared in three hours, and why those two innocent persons were 
put to death after the entertainment, and the cause of the anger and 
ingratitudes she showed me after all my servieces, and the airs I had 
b'-rne from her ; and then all at once to elevate this wretch to tho 
height of happiness. In short 1 was so anxiou? to develope these 
strange circumstances and doubts, that ivr eight days after the mar- 
riage ceremonies ; notwithstanding my great affection for her, 1 did 
not consummate the rites of wedlock, i slept with her at night and 
got up in the morning, One morning 1 desired the female servant to 
prepare some warm water in the bath to bathe, (100)my wife smiling 
said, " Where is the necessity for such an order ? " I remained silent 
but she was perplexed to account for iny conduct ; moreover in her 
looks the signs of anger were visible ; so much so that she one day 
said to me. " Thou art a strange man so warm before, an-d 
now so cold ! what do you mean ? If you had not powers suffi- 
cient, then why did you form so foolish H wish " I then boldly re - 
plic.l, " O my darling angel be just no person ought to deviate from 
the rules of justice." She replied, "What further justice do you 
require; whatever was to happen has taken place," I answered. " hi 

(105) The Qazee is the Judge and magistrate in Asiatic cities ; lie performs 
the rites of mariage, settles disputes, and decides civil and criminal causes. As 
the Mahometan laws are derived from their religious code, the Qoran, the 
Q'jsee possesses secular and ecclesistical powers. 

(10tiJ All good Mahometans bathe aft'T performing the rites of Venus ; they 
cannot say their prayers, they pretend to say, in a poluted state. Infatuated 
beings to suppose that the most exquisite bliss of life can pollute.' but tho 
Qoran says so, ami they luiuk it impious to doubt or question its mandates. 


truth, that which was my most ardent wish and desire 1 have gniii- 
td ; but my heart is uneasy with doubts, and the mind lilk-d with 
auspicious is ever perplexed he can tlo nothing, anil becomes difl'er- 
t-nt from other human creatures, I had determine! within myself, that 
after this marriage which is my soul's entire delight, 1 would request 
tif you to develope some circumstances which I do not comprehend, 
and which I cannot unravel ; that from your happy lips 1 might 
near their explanation ; then my heart would be at ease," The 
lovely Lady frowing said/ 4 How pretty I you have already forgotten 
what 1 told you > recollect, many times I have desired you not to 
search into my c >ncerns, or to oppose what 1 say ; and is it proper 
in you to take contrary to custom, such liberities ?" I laughing re- 
plied, ' As yuu have pardoned me much greater liberities, forgive 
this also/' That angelic Fair, changing her looks and getting warm, 
became a whiil wind of fire, and said in a rage, u You presume too 
much ; go and mind your own affjirs ; what advantantage can you 
derive from the explanation you require? 1 ' I answered," The grea- 
test shame in this world is the exposure of our person ; but it so 
happens,, from connections in life, that this repugnance is laid aside ; 
now as you have thought it right to lay aside this repuguauoe with me, 
then why conceal any other secrets from me ? .' r Her good sence made 
her comprehend my hint, and she became more tranquil and said, 
" This is true ; but I am very apprehensive, if wretch I, should di- 
vulge my secrets, it may cause great troubles and affliction," I an- 
swered, " What strange apprehensions you from! do not conceive 
such an idea of ine, and relate without restraint all the events of 
your life ; never shall they pass from my breast to my lips, much 
more reach the ears of any other." When she perceived, that with- 
out satisfying my curiosity .he would not be quet, necessity forced 
her to comply, and she said. < iM any evils attend jthe explanation 
you require, but you are obstinately bent upon it. Well, I must 
please you / for which reason 1 am going to relate the events of 
past life take care ; it is equally necessary to you to conceal them 
from the world." In short after many, injunctions, ghe began the 
relation of her life as follow : 


THE unfortunate wretch before you is the daughter of the King 
of Damascushe is greater than the other Sultan? ; he never had 

FOT.'tt I) UR WES If. 2:1 

any child except inc. From the day I was born I was brought up 
with grout delicacy ami tenderness, under the eye of my Father 
and Mother a I grew up 1 became attached to handsome and 
beautiful women, so that I kept near my person lovely young girls 
of noble families, and of my own age ; and hand.seme female servants 
of the like age, in my service I ever enjoyed the amusements 
of dincinor and Ringing, and never had a care of the world. Such 
was my happy state, that except the praises of God nothing else 
occupied my thoughts. It so happened that my disposition became 
u Idenly of itself 80 changed, that I lost all relish for the company 
of others, nor did the gay assembly afford me any pleasure ; my 
temper became crazy, and my heart sad and confused ; no one's pre- 
ppnce was agreeable to me, nor did I wish to hear the voice of any 
one seeing this sad condition of mine, all the female servants 
were overwhelmed with sorrow and fell at iny feet, and begged to 
know the cause of my gloom. This faithful Eunuch, who has long 
been in my secrets, and from whom no action of my life is concealed, 
seeing my melancholy saM. " If the Princes would drink a little of 
the exhilarating lemonade (107) she would certainly get well, and 
become cheerful.*' On hearing him say so, 1 had a desire to taste it, 
and ordered some to be prepared immediately The Eunuch went 
out to make it, and returned accompanied by a young Boy, who 
brought a gnglet of the lemonade, nicely prepared and cooled in ice ; 
I drank it, and perceived it produced the good effect ascribed to it ; 
for this piece of service I rewarded the Eunuch with a rich khelut, 
and desired him to bring me a guglet of the same every day at th 
same hour. From that day the Eunuch regularly came, accompani- 
ed by the boy who brought the lemonade and 1 drank it. When itt 
inebriating quality took effect. I used, in the elevation of my spirits, 
to jest and laugh with the boy, and beguile my time ; when his timi- 
dity wore off his babble became very agreeable, and he related many 
pleasants anecdotes ; he imitated moreover the affectation of woman 
in a very pleasant style ; his face was handsome and worth seeing; 
I began to like him greatly ; 1 was so pleased with his gambols, 
his fun and humour, that 1 daily gave him presents ; but the wretch 
always rppeared before me in the same beggerly clothes, and they 
were even dirty. One day 1 said to him you have received a good 

( 107,7 Called Woorqool-kheal ; it is made from the leaves of the Chorus, a 
*pcies of hemp; it is * common inebriating beverage in India; th different 
preparations of it in called Ganju. Rhan%, %c. 


deal of money from me; but your dress is as wretched as ever ; 
is the cause of it ? have you spent the money, or do you amass it ? 
When the Boy heard these encouraging words, and found that 1 en- 
quired into his condition, he said with tears in his eyes, " Whatever 
yon have bestowed on this slave, my tutor has taken from me ; he 
did not allow me to keep a farthing for myself; with what shall i 
make up other clothes, and appear better dressed before you ? it is 
not my fault, and I cannot help it." His humble words and poverty 
raised my compassion ; I instantly ordered the Eunuch to take charge 
of the Boy from that day, give him good clothes, educate him under 
his own eye, and not to allow him to mix with idle boys ; moreover 
that my wish was, he should be taught a respectful mode of behaviour, 
to fit him for my company and to wait on me. The Eunuch obeyed 
my orders, and preceiving how my inclinations leaned towards the 
Boy, he took the utmost care of him. In a little time, from ease and 
good living, his colour changed greatly, like a snake's throwing off 
its old skin ; I restrained my inclinations as much as 1 could, but that 
creature's sweet face was so engraven on my heart, that I fondly 
wished to keep him clasped to my bosom, and never take my eyes off 
him for a moment. At last I made him a complete associate, and 
dressing him in rich clothes and jewels, I used to gaze at him. In 
short by being always with me, my longing eyes were satisfied and 
my heart comforted ; I every moment complied with his wants and 
wishes ; at last my condition was such, that if he was absent for a 
moment from my sight I bocame quite uneasy. In a few years he 
became a youth, and the down appeared on his cheeks ; his body and 
limbs were well formed ! then the servants of the Palace began to 
talk about him, and the guards forbid him from entering the serail , 
so that his entrance into it was quite stopped, and I cculd not live 
without him ; a moment of absence was an age of pain, "When I 
heard this sad circumstance, 1 was as distracted as if death had ap- 
peared before me ; I was reduced to a distressing dilemma ; 1 could 
not express my wishes or divulge my feelings ; yet I could not live 
separated from him ; 1 had no means of relief ; O God, what could 
I do a strange kind of uneasiness overpowered my mind, and 1 was 
so distracted, that 1 addressed myself to the same Euuuch who was 
in all my secrets, and beseeched him to take care of the youth for my 
sake, and advised him to take a thousand bags of gold to set him up 
in a Jeweller's shop in the Chouk, that he may from the profits of bis 
trade live comfortably ; and to build him a handsome house near my 


residence ; to buy him slaves, and hiro him servant.*, and fix their 
pay, that lie may in every way live at his case," The Kunuch fur- 
nished him with a house and set up a Jeweller's shop for him to carry 
on the traffic, and prepared every thing that was requisite. In a short 
time his shop became so brilliant and showy, that whatever rich or superb jewels were required for the king and his nobles, 
could only be procured there ; and by degrees it became such a shop 
that all the rarities of every country were to be found there ; and the 
trade of all other Jewellers became languid. In short no one was 
equal to him in the city nor in any other country, and he made a 
great deal of money by his business ; but grief for his absence daily 
preyed on my mind, and injured my health ; no expedient could bo 
hit upon by which 1 might see him, and console my heart compelled 
at last to adopt some measure to gratify my ardent wishes, I sent for 
the same Eunuch to ask his counsel. When he came I said to him, " I 
can devise no plan by which I may see the youth for a moment, and 
inspire my heart with patience except one, which is to big a mine from 
his hou*e to the seraglio, and join them by communication under 
ground," I had no sooner expressed my wish than such a mine was 
dug in a few days, that on the approach of evening the Eunuch used 
to conduct the young man through it, in silence and secrecy to my 
apartment. We used to pass the night in eating and drinking, and 
every enj >yment 1 was delighted to meet him, and he was rejoiced 
to see me. When the morning star appeared, and the Mouzzin (108) 
gave notice of the time for morning prayers, the Eunuch used to lead 
the youth by the same way to his house. No one had any knowledge 
of these circumstances except the Kunuch, and two Nurses who had 
given me milk. 

A long period passed in this manner ; but it happened one day that 
the Eunuch went to call him, according to custom, and perceived that 
he was sorrowful and silent ; the Eunuch asked him, " Is all well to- 
day? why are you so sad? come to the Princess, she has sent for you/ 
The youth made no reply, but still kept his silence. The Eunuch re- 
turned alone with regret, and mentioned to me the young man's con- 
dition As the devil possessed me, even after this conduct, I could 
not banish him from my heart , if 1 had known that my love for sivh 
an ungrateful wretch would have at last brought shame and censure 

( I' & ) The Mwzzin* are criers, who ascend the turrets or minarets of 
mosques, and call out to the inhabitants the live hours of prayers ; which are. 
before sun-rise ; three hours before sun-set ; an hour and a half before sun-set ; 
auii an hour and a half after sun- set . 


on my head and ruined my character, 1 would not have formed such 
a connection for an instant, but have shunned it, and never again pro- 
nounced his name, or devoted my heart to the shameless fellow ; but 
it was to happen so , for thisreason 1 did not punish him as he deserv- 
ed, and his not coming 1 imagined to be the affectation and airs of a 
lover ; its consequences 1 have sadly rued, and thou art now also in- 
formed of these events without hearing or seeing them ; or else where 
teas you, and where was 1 ? Well, what has happened is past. Bes- 
towing notathout on the airs of that Ass, 1 again sent him word by 
the Eunuch, " That if thou wilt not come to me now, by some means 
r other 1 will cirri? to thee ;but there is much difficulty in my going 
to thee if our secret is discovered thou wilt have cause to rue it, so 
<lo not act in a manner to bring disgrace and ruin on us both ; it is 
best that thou comest quickly to me, or else imagine me arrived near 
thee." When he received this message he preceived that my love for 
him was unbounded, and came with disagreeable looks and airs. When 
he sat down by me 1 asked him, ' ' What was the cause of his anget 
ami coolness to day ; you never showed so much insolence and disres- 
pect before and always came without making any excuses." To this 
lie replied, " 1 am a poor fellow of an unknown name ; by your favour, 
and owing to you, I am arrived to such power, and with much ease 
and affluence 1 pass my days / 1 ever pray for your life and prosperi- 
ty ; 1 have committed this fault on the reliance of your forgivene8S > 
and 1 hope for pardon." As 1 loved him from my soul 1 accepted his 
well turned apology, and not only overlooked his knavery, but even 
asked him again with affection, " What great difficulty has occurred 
that you are so thoughtful ; mention it and it shall be 
instantly removed." In short, in his humble way he replied, 
" Every thing is difficult to me ; to you all is easy," At last 
from his round about discourse, it appeared tha,t an elegant 
garden, with a grand house in it was for sale, situated in the sen- 
tre of the city and near his house ; and that with the garden a fe- 
male slave was also to be sold, who sung admirably and understood 
music perfectly ; but they were to be sold together and not the gar- 
den alone, like a cat tied to a camel's neck ; and that whoever pur- 
chases the garden must also buy the slave ; the best of it was, the 
price of the garden was a- hundred pieces of silver, and the price of 
the slave five hundred thousand ; he concluded by saying, 1 cannot 
at present raise so large a sum. 1 perceived that his heart wa* 
greatly bent on buying them, and that for this reason he was 


thoughtful, grieved and embarrassed though he was eated near 
me, yet his looks were pensive and his heart sad ; as his happiness 
was dear to me, 1 ordered the Eunuch to go in the morning and 
settle the price of the garden and the slave ; get their billa of sals 
drawn up, and cliliver them to him, and pay the price from royal 
treasury. On hearing this order the young man thanked me, his 
looks brightened, and we passed the night as usual in laughing and 
delight ; in the morning he took leave. Tho Eunuch agreeaply to 
my orders, bought and dlivered over to him the garden and the 
slave. The youth continued his visits at night according to custom 
and retired in ihe morning. 

One delightful day in spring, when the clouds were hanging low, 
and the rain drizzling fell ; the lighting also glimmering flashed 
through the murky clouds, and the breeze played gently through the 
trees. In short it was a delightful scene when in the tauqs (109) 
various kinds of liquors of various colours, 1 saw arranged in elegant 
phials my heart longed to take a draught after I had drank two 
or three cups full instantly tho idea of the newly purchased garden 
struck me: in the exhilarated state of my spirits, both from the soft, 
scene and the wine, 1 had an ardent desire to view it for a moment, 
When the stream of misfortune flows against us, we struggle in vain 
against tide, (HO) I was quite happy, but excited by my desire to 
enjoy the delightful scene, I took a female servant with me, and 
went to the young man's house by the way of the mine ; from thence 
1 proceeded to the garden, and saw that the delightful place was in 
truth equal fo the clysian fields drops of rain on the green leaves of 
the trees appeared like pearls set in emerald, and the carnation of 
the flowers, in that cloudy day appeared as beautiful as tho ruddy 
crepuscle after the setting sun ; the bassonx and canals, full of water, 
seemed like sheets of mirrors. In short I was strolling about in that 
delightful garden, and admiring its beauties Lightened by the murky 
state of the sky, when the vanished and the darkness of niaht over- 
took me, At that moment the young man appeared on a walk in the 
garden ; on seeing me he approached with respect and great warmth 
cf affection, and taking my hand led me to the pavillion. On enter- 
ing it all the beauty of the garden vanished from my mind, BO superb 
was its appearance ; the illumination within was grand ; on every 
Bide girandoles in the shape of cypresses, and various kinds of lights 

(109; Tauqs are small r>ce?se in the wall* of apartments in Aeia, for 
hold ing flower -pots, vaiis o; wiu. iVuts. (fee. 

(llO)ln the original it is a proverb," When misfortune cornea the dog 
bites ths carnal.'' At another time he would not venture to do it. 


In variegated lamps were lighted up; even, the shulrat (11 1) with 
all its moonlight and its illuminations would appear dark in com- 
parfsionto the brightness which shone ill the pavillion ; on one side 
fire -works were displayed. In the mean time the clouds dispersed 
and the blight mron appeared like a lovely mistress clothed in lilac, 
who sudden strikes our sight ; the refulgence of the moon inspired 
us with fresh delight, and the yonng man said to me, " Let us now 
go and sit in the balcony which overlooks the garden.'' I had become 
so great a fool that whatever the wretch proposed 1 did without hesi- 
tation ; now he led me such a dance, that he dragged me above to the 
balcony, which'was so high, that all the houses of the city and lights 
of the bazar could be seen from it. 1 was seated in delight with my 
arms round the youth's neck, when a woman quite ugly and black en- 
tered, with a bottle of wine in her hand ; I was at that time greatly 
displeased at her sudden entrance, and on seeing her looks I became 
alarmed ; then sn conluison I asked the young man, " Who is this 
beloved hag ; from whence have you grubbed her up." Joining 
his hands together he replied, ' This is the slave who was bought 
with the garden through your generous assistance." I had perceived 
that the simpleton had bought her with much eager dosire, and 
perhaps his heart was fixed on her ; for this reason I became displeas- 
ed and remained silents; but my heart from that moment was disturb- 
edand my temper indignant moreover the wretch had the impudence 
to make his harlot our saqtc ; (112) at that moment I was drinking 
my own blood with rage, and was as uneasy as parrot shut up 
in the same cage with a crow : I had no opportunity of going away, 
and did not wish to stay. To shorten the story, the wine was so 
strong, that on drfnking it a man would become a beast. She 
plied the young man with two or three cups running of that fiery li- 
quor, and I also bitterly swallowed half a cupful at the importunity ^of 
the youth / at last the shameless harlot likewise got beastly drunk, 
and took very unbecoming liberties with Mm, and the mean wretch 
also, in his in'oxication, began to be disrespectful and behave indeli- 
catly. 1 was so mucli ashamed, that had the earth opend under my 
feet at the moment I would have willingly jumped into it / but so un- 
accountable was my passion for him that even after all these circom- 
stances I said nothing however he was completely a vile wretch nnd 

(111) The Foubrat is'a Mahometan festival which happens on the full moon 
of the month of Shabnn ; illuminations are made at night and (ire-works dis- 
played $prayers are said for the repose of the dead, and offerings of sweetmeats 
and viands made tothir manes. A luminous night-scene is therefore compar- 
ed /he to Shubrat. Shaban is tire eighth Mahometan month. 

(112) Sagee means cup-beaier The l j ersiau poet //q/zz invokes him in 
almost every od. 

FOUR nun WES H . 31 

did not fct-1 the value of my forbearbanoe. In tho fervour of intoxica- 
tion be drank two cups more, so that bis little remaining sencc vanish- 
ed, and be lost all respect and decency fur me. Withc/nt, shinu>, ami 
in the rage of lust, the barefaced villain consummated before me hi 
career of infamous indecency with his hideous mistress, who gave her- 
self many eirsand appeared very squeamish they were well mr-tched,- 
he was as ungrateful as she was shameless. My state of mind at the 
time can be better imagined than described ; I was crying shume on 
myself for having come there, and that I was properly punished for 
my folly. At last how could 1 bear it ? I was on fire from head to 
foot, and began to roll on coals, In my wrath I recollected the pro- 
verb, that no one sees tbe load thrown without the bullock kicks ; In 
saying this to myself I an se the drunkard guessed his ruin from my 
action, and perhaps thought. If I was offended now what then would 
be his treatment the next day, and how much he had to dread ; EQ 
he imagined it best to finish my existence whilst he had mo in his 
power. Having formed this resolution in his mind with the advice 
of 'the hag, he put his putka (113) round his neck and fell at my 
feet, and taking of his turban from his head began to supplicate my 
orgiveness in the humblest manner my heart was infatuated towards 
him ; he led me as ho pleased, and like the handmill he turned 
me as lie wished ; I implicitly complied with all ho desired some 
way or other, he pacified me and persuaded me to retake my seat ,. 
he again drank two "r three cup-fulls of the fiery spirit ami he induc- 
ed me to drink some also; 1 was already inflamed with rage, and 
drinking besides such strong liqur 1 soon became quite senseless no 
re-collection remained, then that unfeeling, ungrateful, cruel wretch 
wounded me with his sword, and thought he had killed me ; on re- 
ceiving the wounds my eyes opened, and 1 uttered these words, 
" Well , as I have acted, so 1 have been rewarded ; but screen thy- 
self from the consequences of shedding unjustly my blood / and wash 
my blood from thy clothes, lest some unrelenting heart may be thy 
prosecutor ; what has happened is past do not divulge our secret 
to any one ; I have not been wanting to thee even with losa of life.% 
Then placing him under the protection of God's mercy, 1 fainted from 
the loss of blood and knew nothing of what afterwards happened. 
Perhaps the butcher conceiving me dead, put me into the chest you 
saw, and let me down over the walls of the city, I wished no one ill ; 

(113) The imfca is a long narrow piece of cloth or silk,wh:ch is wrapped round 
the waist in Asia - among the rich a sftzii'l is tho general pitted : The act of 

throwing one's pitlku round the neck nnj prostrating one's sel i'al another'* 
tVct, is a most al\jt;ct man; ol'submissiou. 

32 Till TALE OF THE 

but these misfortunes were written iu ray destiny, and the lin^fi of fat* 
cannot be effaced ; my eyes have been tha cause of all these calami- 
tic* ; if 1 had not hftd a strong desire to behold beautiful persons, then 
that wretch would not have been my bane. God ordained that thou 
shouldest arrive where 1 lay weltering in my blood, and saved my life. 
After undergoing tliese,disgraces,l am ashamed to reflect that I should 
yet live and show my face to any one ; hut what can 1 do ? the choice 
of drath is not in our bands ,- God after killing me, hath restored 
me to life ; let us see what is written in my future fate. In appearance 
your services and zeal have been of use, that 1 have been cured of such 
wounds ; moreover thou hast been ready to forward my wishes with 
thy life and property, and whatever were thy means thoit hast offered 
them cheerfully. In those days seeing thee without money and sad, 
1 wrote the note the Seedee Bahar who is my cashier j that note 
mentioned that 1 was in safety and in such a place, and to convey 
the intelligence of my unfortunate situation to my excellent mother. 
The beedee sent by thee those trays of gold for my expences, and 
when 1 sent thee to the shop of Eusof the merchant, to purchase 
kh etuis and jewels, 1 expected that the illinannered wretch, who soon 
becomes friends with every one, conceaving you a stranger, would 
certainly, to form an intimacy with you and indulge his conceit, in- 
vite you to an entertainment ; my expectations turned cut right, 
and he dir what 1 foresaw ; then when you promised him to return, 
and you came to me and related the particulars of the invitation and 
that his obstinacy,! was well pleased at the circumstance,as I knew if 
you went to his entertainment you would invite him in return, and 
lie would eagerly come ; for this reason 1 sent thee back quickly to 
him. After three days, when 1 returned from the entertainment, 
nnd quite abashed made me many opolo^ies for staying away so long ; 
to make you easy in your mind replied, " .Never mind it, you could 
not come away before he gnve you leave, but to be without dilicacy 
is not proper, and we should not bear another's debt of gratitude 
without an idea of paying it ; now do you go and invite himself also 
and bring him with you." When you went away to his house I saw 
that no preparations could be got ready for the entertainment at 
our house, and if he should come what could 1 do? but it fortunately 
happened that from time immemorial, the custom of this country ha* 
been for the kings to remain out for eight months in the year, to settle 
the affairs of the provinces and collect the revenue?, and for four 
months during the rains to tay In the city, In those days the,thts 
unfortunate wretch's father, had gone into the provinces for two or three 


months to arrange their affairs. Whilst you was gone to bring the 
young merchant to the entertainment, Seedec Bahar imparted the 
particulars of my present situation to the queen my mother ; asham- 
erl of my guilty conduct I went to the queen and related to her all 
that happened to me ; from motherly affection and go^d sense she 
had used every means to conceal the circumstance of my disappear- 
ance, that God knows what might be the end of it ; she conceived it 
wrong,to make public my disgrace for the present, and for my sake she 
had concealed my errors in her maternal breast; but she had all along 
been in search of me. When she saw me in this condition and heard 
all the circumstances of my misfortune, her eyes filled with tears and 
she said, " O unfortunate unpromising wretch ! thou hast knowingly 
blasted the honor and glory of the throne ; a thousand pities that thou 
hast not perished also ; if instead of thee I had been brought to bed of a 
stone I should have been patient; even now it is not too late to repent: 
whatever was in thy unfortunate fate has happened; what wilt thou to 
next ? Wilt thou live or die ?** I replied, with extreme shame, " That 
in this worthless wretch's fate it was so decreed, that I should live in 
such disgrace and rlistrace after escaping such dangers ; it would have 
been better to have perished ; though the mark of infamy is stampt 
on my forehead, yet I have not been guilty of such an action as can 
disgrace my parents ; the great pain 1 now feel is, that those base vil- 
lains should escape my vengeance and enjoy their crime, whilst I suffer 
such affliction from their hands: It is alas, strange that I cannot 
punish them, t hope one favour from your majesty, that you would 
order your steward to^prepare^all the necessary articles for the enter- 
tainment at my, house, that I may, under the pretence of inviting 
them to it, send for those two wretches punish their crimes and re- 
venge myself ; in the same^manner that he lifted his hand upon me 
and w >unded me, mny I be enabled fo cut them to pieces, and quench 
the flame of vengeance which rages in my bosom, or else it 4 will re- 
duce me to ashes." On hearing this speech my excellent mother 
became kind from maternal fondness, and concealed my guilt in her 
own breast, and sent all tho necessaries fur the entertainment by the 
same Eunuch who is in my secrets every necessary attendant came 
also and were ready in their different occupations. In the evening 
you breught the base villain ; I wished the harlot should likewise 
come, f,r which reason I earnestly desired you to send fer her ; when 
she also caine and the guests were assembled, they all became in- 
toxieated and senseless by drinking largely of wine ; you also got 
drunk along with them and lay like a corpse. I ordered both their 


heads to be cut off' with sword by the Qibnaqnee ; (114) she instant- 
ly drew her sword and cut of both their head*, and dyed their i. 
with their blood. The cause of my anger towards thee that 1 had. 
given thee permission to entertain them, but not to get drunk with 
people thou hadst only known for a few clays I was certainly not 
pleased with this folly on thy part, for what constancy can be expect- 
ed from one who becomes scni-lcss from intoxication? but I am so 
bound injgratitude towards thee for the services thou hast rendered me> 
that I forgive thee thy past error,*.. And now behold I have related to 
thee all my adventures from the biginning to the end do you yet de- 
sire any other explanations. In the same manner that I have, in com- 
pliance with your wishes, granted all you 'requested, do you also in 
like manner perform what I desire ; my advice is, that it is no longer 
proper either for you or me to remain in this city , but you are master 
to do what you think best." O devoted to God! (Ho) the Frinccsa 
here ended her adventures, and I, who with heart and soul valued 
her wishes above every other consideration, and was entangled in the 
web of her affections, I repled, " Adorable princess ! whatever you 
advice, that is best, and I will without hesitation do all you desire." 


WHEN tho Princes found me ready- and willing to follow her- advice, 
she ordered two swift and strong horses to be brought from the royl sta- 
Lles and kept in readines*. I went and picked out just such horses as 
she required, and had them saddled arid-brought to our house. When 
a few hours of the night remained^ the- Princes put on men's clothes* 
and arming herself, mounted on one of the horses ; I got on the other 
completely armed and we set out. When the dawn appeared we 
arrived on the banks of a large tank ; alighting from our horses we 
washed our faces, breakfasted in haste, mounted again nnd set off. 
Kow and thee Princes spoke and said, " I have for your Bake, left 
jshame,. wealth, country and parents all behind me ; now so may it 
not happen, that you also should behave to me like that ungrateful 
savage. " Sometimes I talked of different matters to beguile the 
journey,, and semetimes replied tocher questions and doudts ; that 

(114) Sfoghul Prince* in the days of their splendour had guards of Kalrauc, 
or Qilmaq women for their seraglios ; they were chosen for their size and cour- 
age, and were armed j other Tartar women were likewise taken, but they all. 
went by the general name of Qilmaqnee*. 

(115) Here the tiret Durueth, atidresaej his three companies*- and call* tbecv 
" Devoted to God," . 


all men were not alike, and that there must have teen some defeat 
in that base villain's parentage, which made him act as he did that /. 
had sacrificed ray wealth and devoted my life to her, and she had 
dignified me in ^very way ; that I was now her slave without pur- 
chase, and if she made shoes of uiy .4. in and war them, 1 would not 
complain. In such conversation we passed the time, and devoted the 
day and night to travel on as fast as we could. If through fatigue 
we sometimes dismounted somewhere. We then killed birds and ani- 
mls of the wood, and striking a fire with our steels we used to roast 
and eat them with salt, which we had brought with us ; the horses 
we let loose to graze, and they generally found sufficient te satisfy 
their hunger. One day we readied a large even plain, where there 
was no trace of any habitation, and wher no human face could be 
Been ; even in this solitary and dreary scene, owing to the Princess' 
company, the day appeared festive and the night joyful. 

Proceeding on our journey we came suddenly to the banks of a 
large river, the sight of which would appal the firmest heart As we 
stood on its banks as far as the eye could reaoh, nothing was to be 
PC en but an expance of water no limit to it could be perceived, nor 
did we know its name, O God! cried I, how shall we pass this sea ; 
we stood reflecting on this and obstacle for a few moments, when the 
thought came into my mind to leave the Princess there, and to go in 
search of a boat ; and that until I could find some ineana to pass over,, 
the Prineees would have time to rest after the severe fatigue she had 
undergone Having formed this plan I said,*' O princess if you will 
allow m3 I will go and look out for a ferry." She replied, " I an* 
greaMy tir 1, au<l likewise hungry and thirsty ; I will rest hero a 
little, whilst thou fiude &t out some means to pass over the river."" 
On that spot was a large peepul (\16) tree of such extent, that 
if a thousand horsa ehelterered themselves under its wide-spread 
branches, they would be protected from the sun and rain. Leaving 
there the i'riuces, 1 set out, and was loolcng all around to find some- 
where or other ou she round- or the river some track of man. I 
kearched much, but found no trace of a human creature ; at last 1< 
returned hopeless, but did not find the Princes under the tree how 
can 1 describe the state oi my mind at that moment ! uiy sences for- 
sook me ami 1 and 1 became quite distracted ; sometimes 1 mounted 
the tree, ami looked for her amongst the leeves and branches some- 

(HGj The I'rcpul is n Urge tire india, venerated by the llindoot ; U 
affords great shade , and the leave* are large, in the shape oi' a heurL J I nevo? 
*a\v one that couid offord shelter to a thousand hoite, but 1 have iecn 
that would to a. hundred. 


times kiting go my bold, 1 fell on the ground and wnit round the 
roots of the tree was a sacrifice (117) sometime* 1 wept and shriek- 
ed at 1113* miserable condition now 1 ran from oast to West, then 
fr >m north to south. In short I raved and searhed, but could not 
find any trace of the rare jewel 1 had lost; when! at last I found 
1 could do nothing, then weeping and throwing dust over my head, 
1 looked for her every where. 1 fancied that perhaps sene fjenivs 
had carried her away and planted a dagger in my heart ; or else that 
some one Imd followed her from her country, and finding her alnne, 
had persuaded her to return to Damascus- distracted with thee fan- 
cies, 1 threw < ff my clothes and becoming a naked j'aqcer, I wander- 
ed in the province of Syria from morn until eve, in search of the 
adored Princess, and at night lay down to rest in the first place 1 
could find. 1 wandered over the whole province but could find no 
trace of her, nor hear any thing of her from any one, nor could 1 ac- 
certain the cause of her disappearance. Driven to despair 1 resolv- 
ed not to survive her loss. 1 perceived a mountain in the wilderness ; 
1 ascended it and formed the design of throwing myself headlong 
from its summit, that I might end my wretched existence in a mo- 
ment, by dashing my bead to pieces against the stones, and releive 
myself from my present misery. Having fromed this resolution 
within myself, 1 was on the point of presipitating myself from the 
mountain, and had even lifted up my my foot, when some one Had 
hld of my arm , in the mean while I regainedmy senses, and looking 
round, 1 saw a horseman clothed in green with a veil over his face, 
who said to me, " Why dost thou wish to destroy tby life it is im- 
pious to despair of Cod's mercy ; whilst wo breathe we out to hope. 
Three Dnrwe.s/tes will meet thee shortly in Syria, who are equally 
pfflicted with thyself, entangled in the same difficulties, and have met 
with adventures, similar to thine ; the name of the king of that coun- 
try is Azadbukht ; he is also in trouble ; when he meets you and the 
other three Durweshes, then the desires of the heart of each of you 
will be completely fulfilled. " 1 instantly laid hold of the stirrup of 
this guardian angel and kissed it, and exclaimed." O Messenger of 
God, the few words you have pronounced have consoled my afflicted 
heart ; but tell me for God's sake who you are, and what is your 
name." He replied," My name is Mourteza Ullee, (118) and 
my office is to extricate those who are in difficulty." Having said 

(117) S ee Note 16. 

(II <) Mourfexa Ullee, the son-in-law of the prophet ; h<s surname is Nooshkil- 
\iosha, or the remover of Difficulties. The Siuds who pretend to be dccended 
from Wise, weir green dresses, which is a sacred col HU among Mahometans. 


this, he vanished from my eight. In short, having deriven great 
.- .in fort from tho happy tidings I received from Ullet* the Remover 
of Difficulties, I formed the design to proceed to Constantinople. On 
the road I suffered all those misfortunes which were decreed me by 
fate ; with the hopes of meeting the Princes through the assist once 
of God, I am come here, and by good fortune 1 have met you ; the 
promised meeting has taken place between us, and we have enjoyed 
each other's society and conversation ; now it only remains for us to 
be known to be king Azadbi&ht also, and to gain his acquaintance ; 
after which we five will certainly attain the desires of our hearts.Ye 
also, O holy Durwe&hcs ; beseech the blessings of God and say amen! 
O ye holy guides! those adventures which have befallen this wan- 
derer have been faithfullyjrelated to you ; now let us see when my 
trouble and sorrows for the lassof the Princes will be changed intojry 
and gladness." Asad&a&At, concealed in silence in his corner, heard 
with attention the adventures of the first Durwcsk, and was greatly 
pleased, and prepared to listen to the adventures of the next 


WHBN it came t' the turn of the second Durwesh to speak, ha 
placed himself at his ease, and said 

friend's to this faqcer's story listen. 

1 begin, from first to the 'last listen ; 
VVho-e cure no physician can perform, 
My pnin is beyond remedy, listen. 

O clothed in rags! this wretch is a Prince of Pereia! men, skilled in 
evers science are b rn there, for which reason Ispahan is generally 
called half the world. In the seven climes there is no kingdom eqnal 
to that ancient kingdom ; the happy constellation of that country is 
predominant, and of all the seven constellation it is the greatest ; 
(119) the climate of Persia is delightful, and the inhabitant* are, 
handsome, and refined in their manners. My father, who was the 
king of that country, to teach me the rules and lessons of government, 
made choice of very \viso tutors in every art and science, and placed 

( 119) The Mahometan! divide (he world into seven climes, and suppose that 
a contellation presides over the destiny of each clime. 


them over me for my instruction from my infancy, So having re- 
ceived complete instruction of every kind, I am learned ; with the 
favour of God, in my fourteenth year 1 had leamed every science, 
polite conversation, and polished manners ; and 1 hatl acquaired all 
that is fit and requisite for kings to know , moreover my inclinations 
ever led me to associate with the learned, and hear the histories of 
every country, and ambitious princes and heroes. One clay a learned 
companion, who was well versed in history, and had seen a great 
deal of the world, said to me/' That though there is ni] icliance on 
the life of man, yet such excellent qualities are often found in him, 
that owing to them the name of some men will be pronounced with 
praise to the day of judgement.* 1 I begged of him to relate their re- 
nown, tint I roight hear it, and endeavour to attain it. Then my 
Companion related as follows, some of the adventures of Hatim Taee 
That there lived in the time of Hatim. a king of Arabia named Nou- 
fttl, who bore great enmity towards Hatim on account of his great 
good name, and having assembled some troops he went to give him 
battle. Hatitn was a good man, and feared God; he justly conceived, 
that if I likewise prepare for battle, then the creatures of God will be 
slaughtered, and much blood will be spilt, the punishment of heaven, 
for which, will fall on me ; reflecting on this, naked and alone, tak- 
ing merely his life with him, he fled and hid himself in a cave in the 
mountains. When the news of Hatim'3 flight reached Nouful, he 
confiscated all the property and dwellings of Hatim> and proclaimed 
publicly, that whoever would look out for him, and bring him before 
the king, should receive five hundred pieces of gold. On hearing this 
proclaimation all became avidious. and began to search for Hutlm. 
One day an old man and his wife, taking two or three of their young 
children with them to pick up wo ad, strayed near the cave 
where Hatim was concealed ; and began to gather fuel in the woods 
around it. The o'd woman exclaimed." If my days had been for- 
fuuate, I shold have seen Hatim somewhere or other, and seizing him, 
we should have carried him to Amtful ; then he would give us the 
500 pieces of gold, and we should live comfortably, and be released 
from this toil and care." The old woodman said / u What art thou 
prating about ? it was decreed in our fate, that we should pick up 
would every day, place it on our heads, and sell it in the bazar : and 
with its produce procure bread and salt; or one day the lious of the 
woods will carry us off piece, mind thy work ; why will Hatim fall 
into onr hands, and the king give us so much money 1" The old wo- 
man heaved a heavy sigh and held her tongue, Hatim heard what 
they were saying, and conceiving it unmanly and ungenerous to con- 


ceal himself to save his life, and not to afford those unfortunate 
wretches an opportunity to attain their desires, and make their for- 
tune*. True it is, that a man without humanity is not a human be- 
ing, and ho who has no feelings is a butcher, 


Man was created to exercise compassion. 
Or else Angels were not wanting for devotion. 

In short Hatim 9 s manly mind would not allow him to remain conceal- 
ed, aftgr what he had heard from tlio woodman he instantly came 
out, and said to the old man,"O friend, I am Hatim, lead me to 
Nouful ; on seeing me he will give theo what he has promised," (120) 
The old woodman replied/' It is true that my welfare advantage 
certainly lie in doing so,bat who knows how ho will treat thee ; if he 
put the to death, then what shall I do ? This I can never do that I 
should deliver over a man like thee to thine enemy for the sake of 
avarice ; many days shall I enjoy the promised wealth, and how long 
shall I live ? I must die at last ; then what answer shall I give to 
God ?" Hatim implored him greatly,and said, "Take me a long with 
thee I wish it ; I have ever desired that my wealth and life may ba 
of use to my fellow creatures, as it is the best purpose I can apply 
them to." But the old man could not be persuaded to carry Hatim 
along with him, and receive the proclaimed reward. At last becom- 
ing hopeless, Hatim said *' If you do not carry me in the way I wish, 
then I will go of myself to the king and say," This old man concealed 
me in a cave in the mountain.*' The old man laughed and said," If 
I am to receive evil for good, then hard will be my fate." During 
this conversation other men arrived and assembled round them ; con- 
ceiving the person they saw to be Hatim, they instantly seized him 
and carried him along ; the old man also followed them in silent 
grief. When they brought Hatim before Nouful, be asked who has 
seized and brought him here ? A worthless hard-hearted boaster an- 
swered, ' Who is able to perform such a deed except myself? this 
achievement belongs to me, and I have planted the standard of glory 
in the sky." Another vaunting fellow clamoared," I searched for 
him manydays in the woods and caught at last, and have brought 
him here ; have some consideration for my labour and give me what 
you have promised." In this manner, from avidity for the promised 
pieces of gold, every one said he had done the deed ; the old man 
alone, whe stood aloof in silence and heard all their boastings, and 
weht for Hatim. When each had recounted his act of bravery and 
( 120 ) This anecdote of Ha'im i founded on Arabian history 


enterprise, tlien VLatiw said to the King, fi If you wiwb to huowtho 
truth, J will tell you ; that old man who stands aloof from all, he 
has brought me here ; If you can judge from appearances, then as- 
certain the fact, and give him for my seizure what you have pro- 
mised ; for in the whole body the tongue is most valuable, and men 
ought to perform what they have promised ; for If God had given, then what would have been the difference 
between a man and other animals 1" NoufiiL called the old man near 
him and said," Tell the truth : what is the real case of the mat- 
ter , who has seized and brought ILttliui here ?'' The honest fellow 
related truely all that had occurred froai begining to end, and add- 
ed, " H'fthn is come here of his own accord for my sake." Nouful 
on hearing this manly act of Rat tin's was greatly astonished, and 
exclaimed, " How surprising is thy liberality ! even thy life thou hast 
not feared to risk for the good of thers!" To all those who laid the false 
claims for having seized Ha-litn, the King ordered them to have their 
hands tied behind their back, and instead of 500 pieces of gold to re- 
ceive 500 strokes of a shoe on their heads, that their lives may perish 
under the punishment. Instantly the strokes of the shoe beg^.n to be 
laid on in such a style, that in a short time their heads became quits 
bald. True it is, that to tell an untruth is such a guilt, <hat no 
other guilt equals it. May God keep every one free from this calamity, 
and form the habit of telling lies ; many people utter falsehoods, but 
at the moment of detection they are punished. In short, the liars 
\vere rewarded according to their deserts, and Nouful thought it con- 
trary to manliness of character to harbour enmity towards a man 
like Hatim; from whom multitudes received happiness, and who 
for the sake of the necessitous, does not even ^pare his life, and is 
entirely devoted to the ways of God he instantly seized Hatim's 
hand with great cnrdiality and friendship, and said to him, f * Why 
should it not be the case I (121) such a man as you are can perform 
such an action. Then the King, with great respect and attention, 
made Hatitn sit down near him, and he intantly restored him the 
lands and property he had confiscated, and bestowed on him anew 
the chieftainship of the tribe of Ta-ec, (122) and ordered the .500 
pieces of gold to be given to t"he old man from the treasury, who, 
blessing the King went away. 

When I had heard the whole of this adventure of ffatim'a great- 
ness of mind 1 was ashamed of myself, and reflected that he was 

(ISij Thacass is Hatim's supernatural philanlhrophy in respect to the old 
(122) T0eei an Arab tribe. 



only the chief of a tribe of Arabs, who by one act of liberality has 
gained such renown, that to this-day it is celebrated ; whilst I am 
by the decree of God> the King of all Persia ; and it would be a 
pity if I had not the good fortune to be equally renowned, It is 
certain that in this world no quality is greater than generosity ; 
for whatever a man bestows in this world, he receives its return in 
the next ; and if any one sows a seed, then how much does he reap 
from its produce! With these ideas impressed on my mind, I 
called for the Lord of the Buildings, and ordered him to erect as 
speedily as possible, a grand palace without the city, with forty 
high and wide gates, In a short time such a grand palace a I 
wished was built ; I used to go there every day and bestow pieces 
of gold and silver on the poor and helpless ; whoever asked charity 
I granted it to the extent 03 their desires. In short the necessitous 
entered daily through the forty gates, and received whatever they 

It happened one d<iy that a Faqeer came iri from the front gata 
and begged some aim*, 1 gave him piece of gold; then the same 
person entered through another gate asked and two pieces of gold ; 
though 1 recollected him to be same Faqeer, 1 passed over the cir- 
cumstance and gave them, In this manner he came in through each 
gate, and eucreased a piece of gold in his demand each time ; and f 
knowingly appeared ignorant of the circumstance, and granted hi* 
demand. At last he entered from the fortieth gate and asked forty 
pieces of gold this sum I likewise ordered to be given to him. 
After receiving so much, the Faqeer re-entered from the first gate, 
and again begged alms ; his conduct appeared to me highly impu- 
dent and I said, " Hear, O soul of avarice ! what kind of Faqeer 
art thou, that dust not even know the meaning of the three letters 
which compose the word faqee.r ; kfaqeer ought to act up to them." 
lie replied "Well, generous soul, explain them yourself." I an- 
swered " Fe means Faqa (fasting) Qaf s'gnifies Qrnaut (patience) 
and Re means Renznt (devotion) (123) whoever has not these three 
qualities, is not a Fuqeer ; thou hast already received a great deil ; 
eat and drink with it, and when it is done, return to me and receive 
whatever thou requirest ; this charity is bestowed on thee to relieve 
immediate wants and not to accumulate. () avidious ! from the forty 
gates thou hast received one pieces of gold up to forty ; add up the 
amount, and see how many pieces of gold it comes to ; and even 
after all this, they avarice hath brought thee back again through the 

(123) This and the following; jeu-dt-tHott cannot bt e*ilr rplainad to a 
person who do** not uuderitand Arabic or ftmian. 

THE r.vLv; <>; 

first gate. What wilt UK u do with go much money? A real /'a 
qeer ought only to think of the wants of the passing day ; the follow - 
ing day the Great Provider of Neee ? saries will afford thee a new 
pittance ; take shame now, have patience and be content, what 
mendicity is this that thy master hath taught thee.' ' On hearing 
these reproaches, he became displeased and angry, and throw down 
on the ground all the money ho had received, and said, " Enough 
Sir, do not be so warm ; take back your gift and keep it, and do 
not again pronounce the word Generosity ; it is very difficult to be 
generous ; you are not able to snpport the weight of Generosity, 
when will you deserve the epithet ? you are as yet very far from it. 
Sukhee (Generosity ) is also composed of three letters ; first act up 
to the meaning of those three letters, then you will be called gener- 
ous." On hearing this I became uneasy, and said to the Eaqetr r 
" Well, holy pilgrim, explain to me the meaning of thos three let- 
ters." He replied, " From Seen is derived Sumaee (power) ,- from 
Khni comes Khouf (fear of God) ; and from Yek proceeds Yead 
(recollection of nce's nature). TXo one can be called Generous until 
he possesses these three qualities ; and the generous man has this 
happiness, that although he acts amiss in other points, yet he is 
dear to his Maker on account of generosity, 1 have travelled 
through many countries, but except the princes of Bussorah I have 
not seen a person really generous ; the robe of generosity God hwth 
cut out on her person , others desire the name but do not act up 
to it." On hearing this speech 1 beseeclied the Faqeer, by all that 
was saered, to forgive my rebuke and take whatever he required. He 
would not accept my proffered gifts, but went away rep eating these 
word*-, " Now if all thy kingdom thou givest, 1 would not spit 
upon it." 

The pilgrim went away, but having heard such praises of tho 
Princes of BussoraJi, my heart became quite restless, and no way 
could 1 be easy ; so 1 became desirous to go to Bussorah, and see 
her by some means or other. In the mean time the king died, and I 
ascended the throne, and the Empire ; but the idea 1 had formed 
of going to- Bussorah did not leave me. I consulted the Wazeer and 
Nobles, who were the support of the throne and empire about it, and 
said to them, " I wish to perform the journey to Bussoruli , do ye re- 
main steady in your respective stations ; the time necessary to ac- 
complish the journey wilt be short, and if I live 1 will soon be back." 
No one seemed pleased at the idea of my going ; my heart \\as al- 
ready sad, and hrving no other resource I pent for the resourceful 
Wazeer ono day without consulting any one. and made him rege it 

porn uuinvKsji. 43 

tinting my, and placed iiim ut the head of the uil'nirs of the 
empire. 1 then put on tlu- habit of;*, pilgrim, and, assuming the ap- 
pt-aranee of a F(i'j<:cr, I took the road to Hitssorah alone. In a few 
davs I reached it-* boundrit-s, and sa\v this scene ; wherever I halted 
for the night, the servants < f the Princess advanced to receive me, and 
made me put up in an elegant house, and they laid before me what- 
ever refreshments 1 required in profusion ami excellence, and waited 
on me all night with the utmost n-speet ; the second day at the second! 
stage I experienced the same reception, and received the same atten- 
tions and hospitality throughout the rest of my journey. At last I re- 
ached Bnssorah. I had no sooner entered it than a gcod looking 
young man, well dressed and well behaved, who carried wisdom iit 
his looks, came up to me and said, with extreme- sweetness of address, 
" 1 am the servant of pilgrims ; I am always on the look out to con- 
duct to my house ail travellers or pilgrims who come to this city / ex- 
cept my house there is no other place here for a stranger to put up 
at , pray, holy Sir, come here and make me happy and exalted." I 
asked him his name ; he replied, " Your humble servent is called Bit- 
edftr Bukftt*' Seeing his excellent manners and appearence, I went 
along with him to his house, I saw a grand madsion fitted up in a 
princely style he led me to a grand apartment, and made me sit 
down ; and sending for warm water, he had my feet and hands wash- 
ed ; the cloth was laid before me, and the steward placed a profusion 
of dishes of various kinds, and large quantities of fruits and confection- 
ary. On seeing such a grand treat roy appetite Avas satisfied, and 
taking s, mouthful from each dish my stomach was filled / I then drew 
back my hand from eating ; ( 124) the young man became very press- 
ing and said, " Sir ! what have yon eaten ? all the dinner remains 
entire : eat some more without ceremony. * 1 replied, <* There is no 
.shame in eating ; God bless your house, I have eaten as much as my 
stomach can contain, and I cannot sufficiently praise the relish of your 
feast, and the delicacy and high flavour of the dishes ; now pray take 
them away," When the cloth was removed, an ewer and bason of 
gold was brought to wash my hands and face, with scented soap and 
warm water ;. then beetle was introduced in a box fcet with preciou* 
stones, and spices of various kinds ; whenever I called for water to 
drink, the servants brought it cooled in ice. When the evening c.une y 
comph orated candles were lighted up hi the glass shades, and the 

[young man sat down near 

(124) The Asiatics eat wMi their right hatul, and use no spoons, knives, or 
forks ; so to draw back the rrind from fating is to leave off Cdting spoons are 
ust'd by .Mahometans for broths, &c. \\liicli cannot be eaten by thy hand. 


me, and entertained me with his agreeable conversation. At 
ihe last quarter of the night, he begged of me to sleep in a 
rich bod covered with a canopy. ] said. " O Sir for us pil- 
grims a mat or a skin is sufficient ; ihese luxuriesGnd has or- 
dained tor men of the world. '* He replied, "All these things 
are for pilgrims ; they are not forme." He pressed me so ur- 
gently that a hist I lay clown on the heel which was softer than 
rose*; pots of roses and baskets of flowers were placed on both 
sides of the bedstead, and aloes and other aromatic gums 
Mere burning; whichever side I turned my senses were intox- 
icated with fragrance; in this state I slept. When the morning 
came, I had for breakfast dried and fresh fruits and shnrbuts. 
In this festive manner I parsed three days and nights; 
the fourth day I requested leave to depart ; the young man 
said with joined hands, "Perhaps I have been deficient in 
any attentions to you. for which reason you are displeased 
and wish to take an early leave." 1 replied with astonish- 
ment, u For God's sake what a speech is this ; the rules of 
hospitality require one to stay three days these I have ful- 
filled ; to remain longer whould trespass on good manners ; 
besides which I have set out to travel, and if I remain long 
at one place, I shall never complete my tour ; for which rea- 
son 1 beg leave to depart ; or else your kindness is such that 
my heart does not wish to leave your hospitable mansion " 
He then said, " Do as you wish ; but wait a moment, that I 
may go the Princess, and mention the circumstance to 
her ; nd as you wish to depart, I request you will accept 
the different articles which have been provided for your en- 
tertainment and reception ; they are now your property, and 
conveyance shall be provided to carry them along with you '* 
I answerer]. ' Cease to talk in this manner ; I am a pilgrim, 
and not an impudent beggar ; if I had been avidious of 
these treasures, then why should I have, turned pilgrim ;were 
worldly objects bad that I should have renounced them if I 
had esteemed them? "The youn^man replied, "If the Princess 
hears of your refusal, she will discharge me from my em- 
ployment; and God knows what other punishment I shall 
receive ; if you are so indifferent to possess them, then lock 
up all these articles in a room, and put your seal on the door, 
and you may hereafter dispose of them as you please.*' 1 
would not accept his offer, and ho would take no refusal. At 
last I was obliged to adopt the alternative of locking them 
all up in a room, and put my seal on the door, and waited 
with impatience for my dismission. In the mean time a con- 
fidential Eunuch came to me, well dressed, with a gold wand 
in his hand, attended by many good-looking servants carry- 
ing the different pparatus of their respective offices. He 

FOl'll DUnWESH. 4~> 

addressed me with snrlr kindness and complaisance that 1 
cannot express it. and added, "O Sir, it will not he too 
much for your benevolence to do me the favour and kindness 
to dignify my bumble dwelling with your presence ; perhaps 
the Paincess will henr that a traveller had been here and no 
one Lad received him as he deserved ; and that he had 
gone away as he came; for this reason God knows what 
punishment she will inflict on me, or how far her displeasure 
will be raised ; even my life may be end angered." I refused 
to listen to his request or accept his invitation ; but through 
'dint of solicitations he overcame my resistance and conduct- 
ed me to his house, which was better than the fist. Like 
the former hospitable host, he treated me for three days and 
nights with the same elegance and in the same superb man- 
ner; and when the time expired, he told me that I was the 
master of all the rich gold and silver dishes, carpets, &c. 
and that I might do with them whatever I pleased. On 
hearing these strange proposals I was quite confounded, and 
wished that I might by some means escape wirhout taking 
leave. On perceiving my embarrassment the Eunuch said, 
"' O creature of God, whatever your whats or wishes may 
be, impart them to me that I may lay them before the Prin- 
cess." I replied, " In the garb of a pilgrim, how can I desire 
the riches of this world which you offer me unasked, and 
which I refuse ?" He then said, " The wish to possess world- 
ly g-)-)ds forsakes the heart of no one, for which reason some 
Poet has said these verses. 

Pilgrims with nails nncut Pve seen ; 
Their heads with long locks 1 have seen ; 
Joyces (125) with split ears I have seen ; 
Holy, dnmbfageers I have seen ; 
Those with heads shaved I have seen, 
And cnver'd with ashes I have seen, 
Gamboling joyful on the green, 
And in the wilderness I've seen. 
Great wrestlers and the brave I've seen, 
The wise and ignorant I've seen, 
Immersed in their golden scene ; 
The ever contented I've seen ; 
Those who unfortunate have been ; 
But he who fond of wealth hasn't been. 
Hitherto I have never seen. 

On hearing these lines I replied. <; What you say is true ; 
but I want nothing except permission to send a note to the 
Princess, containing a request I have to make; if you will do 
me the favour to present it to her, I shall consider myself 

(125) .Topees are Hitttio foqeer* or fanatic? some of them let the nails 
grow through the palm of their hands by keeping their fists shut, c. 


as fortunate as if 1 had received all the riches of world/ 3 The 
Eunuch said, ' I will do it with pleasure, there is no harm- 
in it." Immediately wrote a note to the following purport : 
*' First, 1 began with the praise of God \ I then related my 
circumstances and situstijn, that this creature of God had 
been many days in the city, and from the munificence of her 
government had been taken cnre of in every way ; that I 
had heard such accounts of her generosity and munificence 
as had raised in me an ardent desire to see her, and that I 
had found those qualities four-fold greater than they hadbeen 
represented. Your servants now tell me to set forth before" 1 
you whatever wants or wishes I may have ; for this reason I 
beg to represent to you without ceremony the wishes of my 
heart. 1 am not in want of the riches of this world, I am 
also the king of my country ; my sole reason for coming so 
far and undergoing such fatigues, was the ardent desirel had 
see you, which motive only has conducted me here in this 
manner, naked and alone, 1 now hope through your bene- 
volence to attain the wishes of my heart ; I shall then be 
satisfied any further favours will rest with your pleasure ; 
but if the request of this wretch is not granted, then I shall 
wander as I have done, and sacrifice my restless heart to the 
passion it feels for you, and like Mujnoo and fur had (126) I 
will end my passion and my life in some wild or mountain.'* 
Having written my wishes I gave the note to the Eunuch ; 
he carried it to the Princess. After a short while he return- 
ed and called me,and conducted me to the door of the Serag- 
lio. On arriving there I saw a respectable old woman dress- 
ed in jewels sitting on ago^den stool, and many Eunuchs and 
other servants richly clothed were standing before her with 
arms across. I imagined her to be the head lady of the Prin- 
cess's household, and made her my obeisance ; the old Lady 
returned my salute with mucli civility, and begged of me to 
sit down, and said, f * You are welcome ; it is you who wrote 
an affectionate note to the Princess." 1 was ashamed, and 
hung down my head, and remained silent. After a short 
pause she said. tf 'O young man, the Princess has sent you her 
salam, and has c4esired mo to say for her that there is nothing 
wrong in my taking a husband; you have demanded me; but 
to say that you- are a king, and to conceive yourself a king, 
in this mendicant state, and to be proud of it, is quite cut' 
of place; for this reason, that all men among each other are 
certainly equal; although superior consideration ought to be 
due to those who are of the religion of Muhumud^ also have 

(126) Mnjnoo is a mad lover of Eastern romance, who pined in vain 
for the cruel Lady Furhad is equally celebrated as an unhappy 
j who perished for 

KOI' It IH.'K \vi Ml. 47 

wished for a long while to marry, and as you are indifferent 
to worldly riches, to nvo likewise God has given such wealth 
ns cannot be counted ; but no condition that you first of all 
fulfil the conditions of my marriage. The conditions of the 
Princess, added the old Lady, is one word if you can fulfil 
it." I replied, c * I am ready in every way, and I shall not b 
sparing of my wealth or life say what is the word, that I 
may hear it." The old woman then said, " Remain here 
to-day, and to-morrow I will tell it to you" 1 accepted her 
proposal with pk'asmo, and taking my leave I came out. 

The day had in the mean time passed away, and when the 
evening came an Eunuch called upon me and conduced me 
to the Seraglio.On entering I saw that the nobles, the learn- 
ed in the laws, and the sages of the Court were in waiting. 
1 likewise joined the assembly and sat down. Jntbemeau 
time the cloth for repast was spread, and a grand dinner serv- 
ed up ; they all began to partake of it, and solicited me ta 
join them. When dinner was over a female servant came out 
from the interior of the 5eraglio,and asked, (e Where is Bhai- 
rose '? call him." The servants in waiting brought him imme- 
diately ; his appearance was very respectable, and many keys 
of silver and gold were suspended from his waist. After salu- 
ting me, he sat dawn by me. The same female servant said, 
"O Bhairose I whatever thoo hast seen relate it fully to this 
Faqeer." Bhairose regarding me,l>egan the following miration. 

O friend ! our Princess possesses thousands of slaves, who 
are established in trade ; among them F am one of the hum- 
blest. She sends them to different countries with merchandise 
to a great arnount,of which they have the charge ; when they 
return from the respective countries to which they were sent 
to trade, then the Princess enquires of them the estate and 
manners and other circumstances relating to the countries 
they have visited, and heais their different accounts. Once 
it so happened that I went to the country and city of Neem- 
rose ( 127 ) to trade, and perceived that all the inhabitants 
were dressed in black, and that they sighed deeply every 
moment and it appeared to me that some sad calamity had 
befallen them, i asked the reason of these strange circum- 
stances from many, but no one would answer my enquiry. 
Many days passed in this state of astonishment. One dny,the 
moment the morning appeaved,all the inhabitants of the city, 
great and little, old and young, rich and poor, went out of it, 
and assembled on a plain; the king of the country went there 
also mounted on horseback, and surrounded by his nobles ; 
then they all formed a long line ; I also joined them to see 

(127) Ncemrosc is that part of Persia which comprehends the Pro- 
vinces of Segistan ami 


the strange s-ight, for it clearly appeared that they were wait- 
ing the arrival of some one. In an hour.s time n beautiful 
young man aqpeared from afar and approached the line ; he 
was of an angelic from, ad out 16 years of age. and made a 
loud noise, and roared and foamed at the mouth., and was 
mounted on a dun bull, holding something in one hand ; he 
descended from the bull and sat down on the ground* holding 
the halter of the animal in one hand, and a naked sword in 
in the other; a rosy coloured beautiful young attendant was 
\vith him ; the young man gave him that which he held in his 
hand ; the attendant took it and showed it to every one fro'n 
one end of the line to the other : but such was the strange 
object, that whoever saw it wept, loudly and bitterly at the 
strange sight In this way he continued to show it to every 
one, nnd made every one weep ; then passing along the fornt 
of the line he returned to his master ; the mo ment he came 
near him, the young man rose up in a rage, and with the 
naked sword severed the attendant's head from his body at 
one blow ; mounted his bull, and galloped off towards the 
quarter from whence he came, All present stood like statues, 
motionless with grief and horror. When he disappeared from 
their sight, the inhabitants returned slowly to the city in 
siient sorrow, I was aaxiously asking every one I met the 
meaning of the strange and astonishing scene Ihad seen, and 
even offered money to have it explained, and beseeched and 
flattered to get an explanation ; who the youngman was, and 
why he committed cruel act I had seen, and from whence he 
came and where he went, but no one would give me the 
slightest information on the subject, nor could {comprehend 
it When I returned here I related to the Princess the astoni- 
shing circumstance I had seen. Since then the Princess her- 
self has b^en amazed at the strange event, and distressingly 
anxious to ascertain its real cause,and quite sad to get a true 
account ; for which reason the condition of her marriage has 
been fixed on this point, that whatever mam will bring her a 
true nnd particular account of the strange circumstance, she 
will accept him in marriage; and he shall be the master of her 
\velth, her country and herself/' Bhairose concluded by say- 
ing, "You have now heard now every circumstance ; reflect 
within yourself if you can bring the intelligence which is re- 
quired respecting the young man,then undertake the journey 
towards the country of Neemrose and depart soon, or else 
refuse the conditions and the attempt, and return to your 
home." I answered, "If God please, I will soon assertain all 
the circumstances relating to the strange event, and return 
to the Princess and attain the fervent wishes of my heart; if 
my unfortunate fate should lead me to fail or perish in the 


attempt then there is no reincily ; but the Princess must give 
me her solemn promise on this head, that if I succeed, she 
will not swerve from what she engages to perform ; And now 
an apprehension arises in my heart, whether the Princess 
will have the benevolence to call me before her, and allow me 
to ait down beyond the chick, and hear with her own ears the 
request I have made, and what 1 have to say, and favour me 
with an answer from her own lips ; this will inspire my heart 
with confidence, and being fully satisfied on every point I 
will cheerfully undertake all she requires. "These my requests 
the female servant related to the Princess. At last to appre- 
ciate my motives properly, she ordered me tobe called before 
her ; the same female returned and conducted me to the 
apartment where the Princess was ; what a display of beauty 
I saw ; handsome female slaves and servants were drawn up 
in two linos, dressed in rich jewels* with their arms folded 
across, and each standing in her appropriate station. Shall I 
call them angles or celestial beings ? an involuntary sigh 
escaped from my breast; and my heart palpitated at the blaze 
of charms which surrounded me ; I needed all my firmness 
to support me, and regarding them all around I advanced on ; 
but my feet became as heavy as lead ; whenever I gazed on 
one of those lovely women, my heart was unwilling to pro- 
ceed on, and withdraw my eyes from her charms. At the 
end of the Saloon a chick was suspended, and a stool set with 
precious stones was placed near it, as well as a stool of 
sandal-wood ; the female servant made me a sign to sit down 
on the jewelled stool ; I sat down upon it, and she seated 
herself on the sandal-wood one ; she said, "Now whatever 
you have to say, do it fully and without reserve/ 5 I first 
extolled the Princess's excellence, bounty, and justice; I then. 
ad:ied, that ever since I entered the limits of her country, 
I saw at every stage grand accommodations for travellers, 
and found every where proper servants who waited on them 
and supplied their wants, and afforded relief to the poor. I 
have likewise spent three days at everyplace, and the fourth 
day, when I wished to take my leave, no one said with good 
will, you may depart ; and whatever articles and furniture 
had been applied to my use at those places, I was told 
that they were all mine, and that I might either take them 
away or lock them up in a room, and put my seal on it ; 
that whenever I came back I might take them away or 
dispose of them otherwise. I have done so ; but the wonder 
is, that if a pilgrim like me has met with such a princely 
reception, then thousand of pilgrims like me will resort to 
your country, and have heretofore passed through it, and if 


every one is received in the same manner as myself, sums 
incalculable must be spent ; from whence comes the great 
wealth to support such an expense; and of what nature is it? 
The treasures of Korah would not be equal to it ; and if \ve 
look at the Princess's territories and their extent, it would 
appear that their revenues would hardly suffice to defray the 
kitchen charges of such unbounded hospitality, setting the 
other expenses aside. If the Princess would condescend to 
explain this seeming wonder with her own lips and relieve 
my embarrasmsnt, I should then set out for the country of 
Neemroze with perfect ease of mind; and reaching it by some 
means or other, learn the particulars of the strange circum- 
stance, and return, if God spares my life, to devote my days 
to her ferviee, and attain the fervent desires of my heart." 
On hearing these words the Princess herself said. " O youth, 
if you have a strong desire to know the source of my wealth, 
stay here another day. I will send for you in the evening, 
and the circumstances of my vast riches shall be unfolded 
to you. without any concealment or diminution." After this 
assurance I retired to my place of residence, and waited 
anxiously for the arrival of evening to have my curiosity 
gratified. In the meantime an Eunuch brought some covered 
trays on the heads of porters, and laid them before me and 
said, " The Princess has sent you a dinner from her own 
table, partake of it. ''When he uncovered the trays before me, 
the rich fragrance of the meats intoxicated my brain and 
cloyed my appetite. I eat as much as I could and sent away 
the rest, and returned my grateful thanks to the Princess. 
At last when the sun reached his home, like a weary travel- 
ler who has journeyed all day and is quite overcome with 
fatigue ; and the moon advanced from her crepusculons 
palace, attended by her starry nymphs, then the female ser- 
vant came to me and said, " Come, the Prinee>s has sent for 
you.*' I went along with her ;. she led me tn the private 
apartment ; the effect of the lights was such that the full- 
mooned night was nothing compared to it. A superb mus- 
nud was spread on rich carpets with a pillow covered 
with jewels ; over it an awning of brocade was stretched with 
a fringe of pearls on silver poles studded with precious 
stones; and in front of the mvsnud shrubs, formed of pre- 
cious stones of various colours were erected in beds of gold, 
the leaves and fruits of which imitated nature ; and on the 
right and left beautiful female slaves and servants were in 
waiting with folded arras and downcast eyes, in respectful 
silence. Dancing women and female singers, with ready 
timed instruments attended to begin their performances. On 

FOUH i)i u\\ 51 

seeing such a scene and such splendid preparations, my senses 
were dazzlc^d and bewildered. I exclaimed to the female ser- 
vant who came with me, "That there was such gay sp'endour 
in the scene of the day, and such magnificence in that of the 
night, that the day might very justly be called Ead and the 
uight Shubrat ; moreover a King who possessed the whole 
world could not exhibit greater splendour and magnificence, 
Is it always so at the Princess's Court ?" The servant replied, 
" The Princess's Court ever displays the same magnificence 
you see now; there is no abatement or difference, except that 
it is sometimes greater ; sit you here, the Princess is in an- 
other apartment, I will go and inform her of your arrival. 5 ' 
Saying this she went, and returned quickly, and desired me 
to come to the Princess, The moment I entered her apart- 
ment 1 was dazzled and amazed. I C'mld not tell where the 
door wus,or where the walls,for they were covered with large 
mirrors, the frames of which were studded with precious 
stones ; the reflection of one fell on the other,and it appeared 
as if the whole room was inlaid with diamonds. At one end 
a punlak was hung, behind whi-jh the Princess sat; the 
female servant seated herself close to the purdah, and desired 
me to sit down also ; then she began the following narrative, 
according to the Princess's commands, 


HEAR, O sapient youth ! The Sultan of this country was a 
potent King ; he had seven daughters. One day the King 
bad a fete, and these seven daughters were standing before 
him superbly dressed. Something came into his mind, and 
he looked towards his daughters and said, " If your father 
had not been a King, and you had been born in the house of 
some poor man, then who would have called you Prin- 
cesses ! Praise God that you are so called ; all your good 
fortune depends on my life." Six of his daughters being of 
one mind, replied < ; Whatever your majesty says is true, and 
our happiness depends on your welfare. " But 'the reigning 
Princess, though she was the youngest of all her sisters, yet 
in sense and judgment, even at that age, she was superior to 
them all. She stood silent, and did not join her sisters iu 
the reply they made ; for this reason, that to say so was im- 
pious. Tho King looked towards her with anger and said, 
c Well, my Lady, you say nothing; what is the cause of your 
silence ?" Theu,the Princess, tying both her hands with a 
handkerchief, humbly replied, " If your nrtjesty will pardon 
my presumption, then this humble slave will unfold the die- 


tatcs of her heart." The King said, " Speak what thou bast 
to say." Then the Princess said, " Mighty King, you have 
heard that truth is best, for which reason, disregarding life at 
this moment, I presume to address your majesty, and say 
that whatever God has written in the t)ook of my destiny no 
one can efface, and in no way can way its decrees be avoided, 


Be thou either pleasVl or angry. 
Thou can'st not shun thv fate's decree. 

That King of Kings who has made you a King, he also has 
made me a Princess over his woiks no one has power you 
are my sovereign and benefactor, and if I put the dust which 
lies under your feet on my head, it would become me, but 
the destiny of every one is with every one." The King on 
hearing this speech became very angry ; the reply displeased 
him highly, and he said with anger, '' What great words issue 
from thy little mouth ! Now let this be the punishment of her 
presumption, that whatever jewels she has on, be taken off 
her ; let a mean garb be put on her and let her be set down in 
such a wilderness where no human traces can be found ; then 
\ve shall see what is written in her book of fate." According 
to the King's commands, at that late hour of a dark night, 
the Princess who had been reared with such delicacy and ten- 
dernes*?, and had seen no other place except her apartments, 
was carried by the porters in a litter, and set down in a plain 
where no animals existed, much less human creatures ; they 
left her there and returned; the Princess's heart was in such 
a state as cannot be conceived ; who in one moment was re- 
duced to what she wa> from what she had been ! Then to her 
God she addressed herself and said, Thou art so mighty, O 
Lord, that what thou wished thou hast done, and whatever 
thou mayest wish that thou wilt do ; whi!si life remains in 
my nostrils I shall not be hopeless of thy protection. Impres- 
sed with these thoughts she fell asleep. When the morn 
appeared she awoke, and called for water to perform her 
ablutions ; then recollecting the occurrences of last night she 
said to herself, where are thou and to whom dost thou call ? 
Saying this to herself she got up, and without ablution said 
her prayers and poured forth the praises of her Maker ! O 
youth, the heart is torn with anguish to reflect on the Prin- 
cesses sad condition at that time Ask that innocent and 
inexperienced heart what it felt ? In short, ahe sat in the litter, 
and putting her trust in God, she repeated to herself at that 
moment these Verses ; 

When I had no teeth then thou gavest milk, 
When thou gives teeth wilt thou not grant food ! 


lie who takes care of the fowls of the air, 

And of Jill the animals of the earth. 

He \villalso, O wretch ! take caro of thee. 

\Vhv art thou sad and thoughtful, simple food ? 

By being sorrowful thou"lt nothing get. 

Me who provides for the fool and wise. 

Will likewise with bounty provide for thee. 

It is I rue that when no resource remains then God is remem- 
bered. <>r else in their plans each thinks himself a Layman 
and a BootUllee Sina; (128) Now listen to the surprising 
ways of God. in this manner three days past in such fast, 
that a grain of food did not enter the Princess's mouth ; her 
delicate frame became quite exhausted, and her rosy colour 
became pale ; her tongue was parched with thirst, and her 
evvs sunk in their Buckets ; a feeble life only remained to 
animate her exhausted frame; but whilst there is life there is 
hope. In the inoining of the fourth day a Hermit appeared, 
bright in nppcarence like Kkezw,(\2$)and of an open heart. 
Seeing the Princess in that state he said, " O daughter, 
though your father is a King, yet these sorrows were decreed 
thee by fate; now conceive this old Hermit your servant, and 
think day and night of your Maker. God ever acts right." 
And whatever morsels the Hermit had in his wallet he laid 
them before the Princess ; he went in search of water and saw 
a well, but no bucket or rope wherewithal to draw it ; he 
pulled offsome leaves from a tree and made a cup.and taking 
off the cord which was tied to his waist, he drew up some 
water and gave if to the Princess. At last she regained her 
sonses. The holy man seeing her helpless and solitary state 
gave her every comfort and assurance, and began t weep 
himself When the Princess saw his sympathetic grief and 
heard his kind assurances, she became easy in her mind. 

Fr.nn that day the old man went regularly in the morning 
to the city to beg, and brought to the Princess whatever 
scraps or morsels he received. In this way a few days passed 
One day the princess designed to put some oil in her hair and 
comb it ; just as she opend the plaits of her hair a fine pearl 
dropped out. The Princess gave it to the Herniit,and desired 
him to sell it in the city and bring her the amount ; he sold 
it and gave her the money. Then the Princess desired thnt 
a small habitation might be erected on that spot for her to 
live in. The Hermit replied, " O daughter, do you dig the 
foundation for the walls and collect some earth, and 1 will 

( I2B) Loqman is supposed to be the Greek slave Esop. the author 
of the Fables. Jlon- Ulle -Sinu is the famous Arab physician and phi- 
losopher erroneously called Avicenna. 

(129 > The prophet Elias, 


some of these days bring some water and reeds and erect a 
room for you." The Princess on his advice began to dig the 
ground; when sh had dug a yard in depth a d-jor appeared; 
she cleared away the earth which lay before it and opened it, 
and entered a large room tilled with gold and jewels ; she 
took four or live hamlfulls of gold and closed the door, arid 
tilled up the place with earth. In the mean time the Hermit 
returned. The Princess desired him to bring good masons 
and carpenters, and workmen of every kind, that a grand 
palace might be erected on that spot equal to the palace of 
Cyrus, and superior to the palace of the kings of Hyto, (130) 
and that the walls for a grand city, a strong fort, a fine gar- 
den, and an extensive caravanserai be built as soon as possible 
but first of all let the master workman, draw out the plans 
;md bring them to me for approval. The Hermit brought such 
clever workmen that the erection of the different buildings 
was soon begun according to the Princess's directions, and 
clever and trusty servants for every office were chosen and en- 
tertained. The news of i he erection of such princely buildings 
soon reached the King, thePrinccss's father. On hearing it he 
became greatly surprised and asked every one, "Who is this 
person who has began to erect such e JificesV' No one knew any 
thing of the matter to be able to give a reply. All put their 
hands on their ears and said, No slave knows who is the builder 
of them. Then the King sent one of his nobles with the message 
that he wished to come and see those buildings, and to know 
also of what country she was a Princess, an cl of what family, and 
that lie wished much to ascertain these circumstances When 
the Princess received this agreeable message, she was greatly 
pleased, and wrote the following letter: " To the Protector of 
the World, prosperity ! On hearing the intelligence of your 
Majesty's visit to my humble roo 1 am infinitely rejoiced ; 
respect and dignity will accme to me from the royal condes- 
cension. How happy is the fate of that place where your 
Majesty's footsteps are impressed and on the inhabitants of 
which the shadow of your royal person is cast j may they 
both be dignified with the look of favour ! This slave hopes 
that to-morrow, being Thrusday and a propitious day, and to 
me more welcome than the day of Naoroze, (131) your Ma- 
jesty by coming here will, like the sun, give value with your 
rays to this worthless atom ; and partake of whatever his 
humble slave can provide; this will be complete benevolence 

(130) Hyra, the ancient Aria, and the modern Khorasan ; a pro- 
vince of Persia, the eapital of which is Herat. 

(131 ) The first day of the new Mahometan year, which is celebrat- 
ed with great splendour and rejoicings. 

FOUR nvmvEsn. 5q 

on the part of your Majesty to the poop and strnnrr ; t > say 
more would exceed the bounds of respect." To the Nobleman 
who brought the message she made some presents, and dis- 
missed him with ihc above reply- The King read the letter, 
and sent word that he accepted the invitation ami would 
certainly come. The Princess ordered the servants to get 
ready the necessary preparations for the invitation, with such 
propriety and elegance, that the King on seeing them might 
bo highly pleased, and that all who came with the King, 
great nml little, should be well entertained and return con- 
tent. From the Princess's strict directions the dishes were so 
deliriously prepared, that if the daughter of a Brahmun (132) 
had tasted them, she would have become a Mahometan. 
When the evening came the King went to the Princess's 
palace, seated on an uncovered throne ; the Princess with her 
ladies in waiting advanced to receive him ; when she cast 
her eyes on the King's throne, she made the royal obeisanco 
with such proper respect, that on seeing it the King was still 
more euprised; with the same profound respect she accompa- 
nied the King to the precious throne she had erected for him 
The Princess had prepared a platform of 125,000 pieces of 
silver ; (133) a hundred and one trays of jewels and pieces of 
gold and shawls, muslins, silks and brocades ; two elephants 
and ten Arabian horses, with caparisons set with precious 
stones, were likewise prepared for the royal acceptance. She 
presented them to bis Majesty, and stood before him herself 
with folded arms. The King asked with great complaisancy, 
"Of what country arc you a Princess, and for what reasons are 
you come here ?" The Princess, after making her obeisance, 
replied, " This slave is that offender who from royal anger 
was sent to this wilderne8S,flhd all that your Majesty sees are 
the wonderful works of God." On hearing tl'ese words the 
King's blood glowed with paternal warmih, and ri-ing up he 
pressed the Princess fondly to his' bosom, and seizing her 
hand he seated her near the throne ; but still th? King \va.s 
astonished and surprised at all he saw, ard ordered the Queen 
and Princesses to be sent for immediately. When they 
arrived, the mother and sisters recognised the Princess, and 
embracing her with fondness wept over her; and praird 
God ; the Princess presented her mother and sisters witU 
such he-ips of gold and jewels that the riches of the world 

(102) The Erahmunf, erroneously called B ram ins, do not eat mont. 

(1 33) The common nu-de to present large sums in specie to Prin- 
cely visitors is to form a platform with the money, spread the w?M*wm/ 
on it, and place the visitor on the rich seat. I have seen Asof ood Doit* 
Ich, the late Nawub of Lucknow. receive a lack of rupees in this way 
from his Kunuch, the late Altnas* 


could not equal their amount. Then the King made them 
all sit round him, and partook of the feast which had been 

As long as the King lived the time passed in this manner; 
sometimes theKing came to the Princess's palace, and some- 
times carried the Princess with him to his own, When the 
King died, the government of his Kingdom decended to this 
Princess ; for, except herself, no other person of her family 
was fit to govern. O youth, the past is what you have heard ; 
which clearly shows that heven-bestowed wealth never fails 
waen the intentions of the possessor are just ; moreover as 
much as is spent out of this providential wealth, so much 
also is the increase ; to be astonished at the power of God is 
net right in any religion. 



THE female servant after finishing the relation of the Prin- 
cess of Bussornh's adventures, added, " Now if you siill 
intend to proceed to tho country of Neemrose, and bring full 
intelligence of the strange circumstances you have heard, 
then depart soon." I replied, '' I am going this moment, 
and if God pleases I shall be back very soon. 3 ' At last tak- 
ing leave of the Pi ince-s, and relying on the protection of 
God, I sent out for that quarter. In a year's time, after 
encountering many difficulties, I arrived at the city ol Neem- 
roze. All the inhabitants of that place that I saw, noble or 
common, were dressed in black, and whatever 1 had heard, 
that 1 fully perceived After some days the new moon 
appeared, and being the first day of the mouth, all the in- 
habitants of the city, great and little, went out with the King 
*nd assembled on a hrge plain. I also in my sad wander- 
ing state, went along with the vast concourse ; separated 
from my country and possessions, in the garb of a pilgrim, I 
was standing in the crowd to behold the strange sight, and 
to see what results from the mysterious scene In the mean 
time a young man advanced fiom the woods mounted on a 
bull, foaming at the mouth, and roaring and shouting in a 
frightful manner. Though I had undergone such labour and 
overcome so many dangers, and had come there to ascertain 
the meaning of this surprising and mysterious sight ; yet on 
seeing the young- man, I was quite confoundcd.and remained 
silent with astonishment. The young man according to his 
usual custom did what he used to do, and returned to the 
woods ; the concourse likewise returned to the city. When 
I collected my scattered senses and recovered from my con- 

FOUR UUHWEbll. ->7 

sternation, I repented of what I had done, as I had to wait 
another month before I could pursue my research ; having 
no remedy I returned with the rest. 

I counted the days of that month like the month of 
Humzan ;(13t) at last the next new moon appeared, and 
was hailed by me as Ead (135) On the first of the month 
the King and the inhabitants again assembled on the same 
plain ; then I determined,that this time, let what will happen, 
I would bercs;>lute and profound this mysterious circum- 
stance. Suddenly the young man appeared,mounted accord- 
ing to custom on a yellow bull, and dismounting sat down 
on the ground; in one hand he held a naked sword, and in 
the other the bull's halter;he gave the vase to his attendant, 
who as usual showed it to every one, and carried it back to 
his master. The crowd on seeing the vase began to weep ; 
the young man broke the vase, and struck such a blow on 
the slave's nock as to sever his head from his body, and 
remounting himself the bull returned towards the woods. 1 
attempted to run after him ; but the inhabitants laid hold of 
me and exclaimed, " What art thou going to do? why know- 
ingly throw away thy life ? If thou art so tired of life, 
there are many other and better ways of dying, by which 
thou mayest end thy existence." How much soever I be- 
seeched them to let me go, and struggled to get out of 
their hold, yet I could not release myself; three, or four 
men siezed me and led me towards the city. You may 
readily imagine what painful inquietude I suffered for 
another tedious month ; when that month passed also 
and the first day of the next month arrived, all the inhabi- 
tants assembled on the plain in the morning in the same 
manner. I arose early in the morning, and separating my- 
self from the rcst,l went before all the others and hid my- 
self in the woods ; exactly on the road by which the young 
man was to pass ; for no one could there restrain me from 
executing my project The young man came in the usual 
manner, performed the same acts, remounting ; I followed 
him, and running up I joined him; the young man from 
the noise of my steps perceived that some body was run- 
ning after him. A.11 at once, turning round the halter of his 
bull, he gave a loud scream, and frowning at me with rage 
he forbid me from following him ; then drawing his sword, 
he advanced towards me, and wished to strike. 1 bent down 

(131) Rumzan is the ninth Mahometan month, during which they 
keep lent. 

(135)The Ead is the grand festival after the lent of Rumzan is over. 
There is another End, called ool qnorban in commemoration of Abra- 
ham's sacrifice ' the Ham, The first Ead is called Ead out-fit tur* 


with the utmost respect, and made him my sal am 9 and join- 
ing both my hands together I stood in silence. Being a 
judge of respectful .behaviour, he restrained his blow, and 
said to me, " O pilgrim thou wonldst have been killed for 
nothing, bnt thou hast escaped ; thy life is prolonged ; get 
away. Where art thou going ?" He then drew a je\\elied 
dagger from his wai>t, and threw it towards me and added, 
u At this moment I have no money about me to giveto thee; 
carry this dagger to theKing.and thouwilt get whatever thou 
askcst." His looks and his actions struck me with such awe 
and fear, that 1 could not move or speak ; my throat was 
choaked and my feet became stone. After saying this the 
brave young man gave a roar and went on. I said to my- 
self, let what will happen, to remain behind now is folly ; 
thou wilt never get such an opportunity to execute thy pro- 
ject ; regardless therefore of my life I followed him. He 
turned round again, and forbid me with wrath to follow him 
and determined to put me to death. I stretched forth my 
neck, and conjuring him by all that was sacred, 1 said, " O 
Koostum (138) of these days, strike such a blow that I may 
be cut clean in two ; let not a fibre remain together,and re- 
lease me from this wandering state of misery ; I pardon yon 
my blood." He replied, "O demon-faced? why dost thou for 
nothing bring thy blood on my head,and makest me crimin- 
al ; go thy road ; what ! is thy life a burthen to thee?' 5 I did 
not mind him but advanced; then he knowingly appeared not 
to regard me but proceeded on his way,and 1 followed him. 
Proceeding on about four miles we passed the wood and 
came to a square building; the young man went up to the 
door and gave a loud and frightful scream; the door opened 
of itself; he entered and I remained outside O God! said I, 
what shall I do I I was perplexed ; at last after a short 
delay a slave came out and said, " Come in, you are called ; 
perhaps the angel of death hovers over your head ; what 
evil fortune hath led you to this place !'*! replied, "Good for- 
tune."And without fear entered along with him into the gar- 
den ; he led me at last to a place where the youno man was 
8itting;on seeing him I made him a ver} 7 low salam ;he beckon- 
to me to sit down ; I sat down with respect. How surpieed 
I w r as to perceive the young man was sitting alone on a mus- 
?mrf,with the tools of a goldsmith lying before him; he had just 
finished a branch of emeralds. When the time came for him 
to rise up,all the slaves that were around the place concealed 
themselves in different rooms ; I also hid myself in a room 

(138) Roostum, a brave and famous hero of Persia, whose gigantic 
actions are celebrated in the Persian epic poora called the ShaHGrma, 
written by Firdosee, the Homer of Persia. See Herbelot's Bib. Oric'n. 


from fear; the young man ro?e up. and fastened all the locks 
of the different rooms, and went towards a corner of the gar- 
den and began to b at the bull ha rodr ; the anim-d, sroaring 
reached my car,nnd my heart quaked with fear; but as I had 
ran all these risks to devclopc this mystery,! forced the door, 
though trembling with fear, and ran behind a tree, and saw 
what was going on. The young man threw down the stick 
with which he was beating the bull, and unloked a room 
and entered it; then instantly coming out, he stroked the 
bull's back and kissed its muzzle, and giving it some grain 
and grass, he came towards me. On perceiving this I ran 
off quickly and hid myself in the room ; the youn man 
unlocked all the rooms, and the slaves came out, and some 
brought him water to wash. After washing his hands and 
face, he stood up to pray ; when he had finished his prayers 
he called out,where is the pilgrim? On hearing my self called; 
I ran out and stood before him ; he desired me to sit down: 
after making him a satam 1 sat down; the dinner was served; 
he partook of it and gave me some ; when the dishes were 
remo\ed,and we had washed dismissed 
his slaves and told them to go to rest. When no soul re- 
mained near us, he then spoke to me and asked, u O friend, 
what great misfortune has befallen thee that thou seekest thy 
death ?" I related in detail all the adventures, of my life, 
from beginning to end, and added, that from your goodness 
I have hopes of obtaining my wishes. On hearing this he 
heaved a deep 8igb,ftnd became senseless, and raved and ex- 
claimed, O God ! thou only knowestthe tortures of love ; 
who has not had the chilblains how can he know the pains of 
others ; he only knows the degree of pain who has felt the 
pangs of love ! 


The anguish of love ask of the lover. 
Not he who feigns, but of the true lover. 

A moment after coming to himself, he heaved a heavy sigh ; 
the room resounded \\ith it ; then 1 perceived that he w;^ 
likewise, tortured with the pangs of love, and w r as suffering 
under the same malady $is myself. On this discovery I 
plucked up courage and said, " I have related to you all th<* 
adventures of my life ; now do me the favour to impart to 
me the past events of your life ; I will then assist yon as fat- 
as 1 can, and ifpossible obtain you the desires of your heart." 
In short.that truelover conceiving me his fellow sufferer and 
companion in the secrets and pangs of love, began the rela- 
tion of his adventures in the following manner. 

Hear, () friend ! I, whose heart is tortured with 


the Prince of his country of Necmroze, the King, that is to 
say my father, at my birth collected all the astrologers to- 
gether, and ordered them to cast my horoscope, to ascertain 
what would be the events of my future life;they all assembled 
according to the King's order,and consulting together,they, 
from their muystical science, ascertained my future fate and 
said, u B/ the blessing of God the Prince is born under such 
a propitious planet, that he ought to be equal to Alexander 
in extent of dominion, and in justice equal to Noushairwan ; 
he will be moreover proficient in every science, and every 
branch of learning, and towards whatever subject his heart 
is inclined, he will accomplish it with perfection; he will in 
bravery and generosity acquire such renowns that mankind 
will no longer remember lioostum or Hatim ; but until he 
attains the age of fourteen he is exposed to great danger, if 
he sees the sun or moon; for it is to be feared he may became 
mad, and shed the blood of many ; and restless of living in 
society, he will fly to the woods, and associate with birds and 
beasts ; great and strict pains must be taken that he should 
never behold the sun or the moon, or cast a look towards the 
heavens. If these fourteen vears pass away without danger 
and in safety, then the rest of his life he will reign i'i peace 
and prosperity. On hearing this prognostication the King 
ordered this garden to be laid out, and raised in it many 
apartments of various kinds. I was directed to be brought 
up ia a vault, which was lined on the inside with felt, that a 
single ray of light from the sun or moon might not panetrate 
into my apartment. 1 had a wet nurse and other female ser- 
vants attached to me, and was brought up in this grand place 
with extreme care and tenderness. Learned tutors, who 
where skilled in public affairs, where appointed to superin- 
t^nd rny education. I was taught every science and art and 
every branch of learning, and my father always looked after 
me; the occurrences of every day and every moment were 
told to the King. I considerd that place as the world, and 
amused myself with toys and flowers, and had every delicacy 
the world could produce for my food; whatever I desired I 
had. By ten years of age I had acquire every species of 
learning and every useful science. 

One day in the dome of the vault astonishing flower 
appeared in the closed sky light, which increased in size as 
I gazed upon it ; i wished to seize it with my hinds, but as 
I stretched them towards it,it ascended and eluded my grasp, 
I was quite astonished, and was looking steadfastly at it, 
when the sound of a loud laugh reached my eer ; 1 raised 
my head to look towards the dome from which the noise 
proceeded, and saw that the felt was torn. and a face resplen- 

FolMl Dl'RWESH. 61 

dent as the fi.ll moon was | coping through the aperture. On 
In-holding it my senses vanished, and I tainted away. On 
coming to myself I looked up, and saw a throne of jewel* 
raised on the shoulders of fairies ; a person was seated on it 
with a crown of precious stones on her head, and clothed in 
a superb dress ; she held a cup of emeralds in her hand and 
was drinking wine ; the throne descended hy slow degrees 
from its height, and rested on the floor of the dome, ihcn 
the Fairy called me, and placed me beside her on the tin one 
she smiling used many expressions of endearment, ai:d 
pressed her lips to mine, and made me drink a cnp of rosy 
wine and said, " The sou of a man is faithless, but my heart 
loves thee. " In short her expressions were so endearing 
and so fascinating that my heart was enraptured, and I felt 
such pleasure as if I had tasted the supreme joys of life, and 
fondly conceived that I had only on that day entered the 
world of enjoyment ; the sad result is my present state ! but 
no one on earth hath ever tasted, seen or heard such cxstatjc 
pleasure ! in that zest, without molestation, we were both 
seated and enjoying ourselves, when all at once our joyw 
where dashed to pieces ! Now listen to the sad circumstance 
which produced thij sudden change. At the moment four 
fairies de- sendee! from the heavens,and whispered something 
into my beloved angel's ear. On hearing it her colour chang- 
ed, and she said to me, " O my beloved, I fondly wished to 
pass some moments with you and beguile my hear! ; and 
to repeat my visits in the same manner, or to take thee with 
me but cruel fate will not permit tivo persons to remain in 
one place in peace and felicity ; farewell my beloved ! may 
God protect you !" On hearing these dreadful words my sen- 
ses vanished, and my bliss fled from my grasp. 1 cried, a O 
my charmer, when shall we meet again ? what dreadful 
words have you made me hear ; if you return quickly you 
will find me alive, else you will regret the delay; or else tell 
me your name and place of residence, that I may from the 
directions search for you, find you, and throw myself at your 
feet." On hearing this she said, God forbid you should do so; 
may you live a hundred and twenty years ; (137) if we live 
we shall meet again ; I am the daughter of the King of the 
Fairies, and live in the mountains of Qaf.^ (138) On saying 
this the fairies took up the throne, and it ascended in the 

(137 The Oomre-tubuce or the natural life of man. which the Maho- 
metans reckon at a hundred and twenty yearsr 

(138) The mountains of Qaf or Caucasus are the celebrated abod-; at 
the Geni ; Purees* and Deves or Demons, and all the fabulous being qf 
Oriental Uomaiice.They are a fertile source for /he Eastern novelists to 
adorn their pages, aa much as enchanted castle& and spectre?, -Sa\with us- 


manner it had descended. Whilst the throne was in sight 
cur eves were fixed on each other ; when it disappeared my 
state was that of a lunatic ; a strange gloom seized my heart, 
and my understanding and consciousness left me ; the world 
appeared dark under my eyes ; distracted and confused^ 1 
wept bitterly, and scattered dust over my head, and tore my 
clothes ; I became regardless of food and drink, nor cared 
for good or evil. What strange evils doth this same love 
cause ! it fills the heart with sadness, and racks it with im- 

My misfortune was soon known to my nurse,and my other 
attendants; with fear and trembling they went before the 
King and said, a Such is the Prince's style ; we do not 
know bow this disaster has suddenly and of itself fallen upon 
him, that he has abandoned rest,food and drink. ?; On hearing 
these sad tidings the King immediately came to the garden 
where 1 resided,accompained by the Jraretf**,learned Nobles, 
wise physicians, true astrologers, and holy priests ; seeing 
my distracted, sighing, weeping condition, his mind became 
also distracted : he wept and with fond affection clasped me 
to his brest, and ave orders for my cure ; the physicians 
wrote out their recipes, in order to strengthen my heart and 
cure my head, and the holy priests wrote out charms (139) 
to be worn on the arm, and to be drank, and repeated the 
prayers of exorcism, the astrologers said this misfortune had 
happened owing U the revolution of the stars and planets, 
and that it ought to be averted by pious derations. In short 
every one advised according to his profession and his science; 
but what passed wiihin me my heart alone knew ; no one's 
assistance, advice, or remedy was of avail to my unfortunate 
destiny ; day after day my lunacy increased, and my body 
became emaciated from the want of nourishment ; I shrieked 
and moaned day and night. 

Three years passed in this sad state ; in the fourth year a 
merchant who was on his travels arrived at my father's court, 
and presented him rare and valuable articles of different 
countries, and was graciously received. The Km* favoured 
him greatly, and after inquiries after his health and his tra- 
vels, he said to hi^n, ' You have seen many countries, but 
have you any where ?een a truly learned physician, or have 
you heard of one 1" The merchant replied, t( Mighty Sir, this 

(ISO) The Mahometans have great confidence in charms; these writ- 
ten in astrological characters, or quotations from the Qoran,or often 
diluted in water, and drank as medicine in various distempers /as the 
Indian ink and paper can do no harm,they are probably more innocent 
than the physio administered by eastern physician?, who are the most 
ignorant of rheii profession, 'ine Hindoos likewise believe in diarms. 

FOI'U Dl It U KbH. Cii 

slave has travelled agrcat deal,but the best I have seen live sou 
a rock, in the middle of the Ganges River in Hindoostan; he 
is a Juttadharee Gnsanee, (140) and has built there a great 
pagoda to Muhadeo, C141) with a fine house and garden; he 
lives in it and his custom is this that once a year on the 
day of Sheorat, (142) he cornea out of his dwelling, swims 
in the river, and enjoys himself. After washing himself 
when he returns to his abode, then the siek and afflicted of 
various countries who come there from afar,assemble in great 
number near his door. The holy Gosanse* who ought to be 
called the Plato (143) of these days, examines the urine and 
feels the pulse of each, gives each a recipe and re-enters his 
room. (*od has given him such happy skill, that no taking 
his medicines their various maladies are entirely removed. 
These circumstances I have seen with my own eyes, and 
adored the power of God which hfis created such beings ! If 
your majesty orders it, I will conduct the Prince to that 
wonderful man and show the Prince to him ; I firmly hope 
ho will soon be cured ; moreover this scheme has another 
advantage in it, that from the change of air of each country 
and from the climate of different countries through which 
we shall pass,the Prince's mind will be amused and relieved." 
The Merchant's advice seemed very proper to the King, and 
his Majesty was pleased and said, t( Very well ; perhaps the 
holy man's remedies may prove efficacious and remove the 
lunacy of my son's mind." A confidential nobleman, who 
had seen the world and had been tried on various occasions, 
and the merchant were ordered to attend me, and every 
necessary was provided. We embarked on boats and set sail. 
After a long voyage we arrived at the place where the holy lived : from change of air and climate my mind 
became more composed ; but I was still insensible and 
silent, and often wept ; the recollection of the lovely Fairy 
was not effaced from my mind ; if I spoke sometimes it was 
only to repeat these lines : 

What Fairy has captivated me 1 do not know, 
But my heart was tranquil not long ago- 

(140) The Juttadharee Gosanee is a sect of fanatic Hindoo fapeers 
who let their hair grow and matted, and go almost naked. 

(141) Muhadco Is a Hindoo Idol ; the emblem of the creative power, 
and generally and naturally represented by the Lingum. Mnhadro may 
be compared to the Priapus of the Greeks and Romans. 

(142) SfaorrtT* a Hindoo festival which corresponds nearly with 
the Mahometan Shiibrat ; see Note 115. 

(143) Plato is supposed by the Mahometans to be not only a profound 
philosopher, bnt a wise plnsician. In short it is too general an idea 
with them that a clever man must be a g -od doctor. 


In short, when two or three months had passed away, nearly 
four thousand sick assembled on the rock, and all said, " if 
God please the Gosanee will shortly come out of the ptiyodu 
and bestow on us his advice,and we shall be perfectly cu; 
To. shorten my story; when that day arrived, the Gosanee 
appeared in the morning welcome as the sun, and bathed and 
swam in the river ; he crossed over it and returned,, and 
rubbed ashes over his body, and hid his fair from like live 
coals under the ashes ; he made a mark with sandal wood on 
his forehead, girted on his Jungotee. (144) threw his hand- 
kerchief over his shoulders, tied his longhair up in a knot, 
stroked his whiakerB and put on his sandals. It appeared 
from his looks that the whole world seemed nothing to him. 
He pin an ink-horn under his arm, felt the pulse and 
regarded the urine of each, gave them his recipes and came 
to me. When our looks met he stood still, paused for a 
moment, and then said to me, i: Come with me." I followed 
him. When he had done with all the rf st, he led me into the 
garden and desired me to reside in a neat private apartment 
which he pointed out, and went himself to his pagoch. When 
forty days had elapsed he came to me, and found me better; 
he then smiling said/' A muse yourself in the garden, and eat 
whatever fruits you like, "He gave me a china pot filled with 
majoon. (145) and added, <c Take without fail six mcs//as(l46) 
from this pot every morning fasting. " Saying this he 
went away, and I followed strictly his prescription and per- 
ceived that my body gained strength daily, and my mind 
composure; but mighty love was still triumphant;that Fairy's 
lovely form ever wandered hefore my eyes. One day I per- 
ceived a book in a rece s s in the wall; I took it down,and saw 
that all the science in the world and all that related to religion 
was comprised in it, as if a river had been compressed in a 
vase. I read it hourly and daily ; I became a perfect adept 
in the science of physic and the mystical art of philters 

A year passed in this manner and again the day of joy 
returned ; the Gosanee came out of his abode ; 1 made him 
my salam ; he gave me the ink-horn and said, (i Accompany 
me, " I followed him ; when he came out of the gate a vast 

(144 ) The lungo/ce is a piece of cloth which jusi conceals what civili- 
zation requires should be hid from public view. The whole account is 
very descriptive of afaqw. 

(l4t5)lMajoon is the extract from the intoxicating'plant called Churns 
or Bung,& species of Hemp; it is mixed with sugar and spices to render 
it palatable. The inebriation it produces fills the imagination with 
agreeable visions, and the effects are different from those of wine or 

(146^ Six mas/ias U about a quarter of an ounce; a Sicca Rupee 
weighs eleven mastitis' 


crowd showered blessings on him. The nobleman and the 
merchant seeing me with the Gosnnce, fell at his feet and 
poured forth their blessings on him for all he had <lone to 
me. The Gosanee went to the river according to custom and 
bathed and prayed, as he did every year ; returning from 
thence lie was proceeding alon-j the line and examining the 
sick. It happened that in the group of lunatics a handsome 
young man struck iheGosartec 3 * sight, who l-ad scarce strength 
to stand up ; he said to me, " Bring him with you." After 
delivering his prescriptions of cure to all, he went into his 
private apartment and opened a little of the young lunatic's 
skull ; he attempted to seize with his pinchers the centipede 
which wis curled on his brain. The idea struk me and I said 
quickly, <; If you could lay a burning coal on the centipede's 
back with the pinchers, it would be better, as it would then 
come out of its own accord ; but if you attempt to pull at oft' 
in this manner it will not quit its grasp on the brain; and 
the patient's life will be endengered." On hearing this the 
Gosanee looked towards me and rose up, and, without saying 
a word, he went to the corner of the garden, tied his long 
tresses to a tree, put a noose round his neck and hanged 
himself. As soon as I recoverad from my surprise, I went to 
the spot, and saw with astonishment that he was dead. I 
became quite afflicted at the sorrowful and strangely aston- 
ishing sight ; but as 1 could do nothing 10 restore him to 
life, I thought it best to bury him. TLe moment I began to 
take him down from the tree, two keys dropt from his locks; 
1 took them up, and interred that holy treasure of excellence 
in the earth. I applied the two keys to all the locks, and by 
chance opened the locks of two rooms with them, and per- 
ceived that they were filled with precious stones ; in a corner 
I saw a chest covered with velet, with clasps of gold, and 
locked ; 1 opened it and saw in it a book, in which was com- 
prised the modes to acquire the Great name of God, (147) to 
assemble the Genii and the Fairies and spirits, and how to 
subdue the sun. I became quite enchanted at the iden of 
having acquired such a treasure, and began to study it. 1 
opened the garden door, and said to the Nobleman ard to 
those who had come with me to send for tlie vessel v\hich 
had brought u? and charge with it the jewels, specie, mer- 

(147) The Ism Azim, or the great name of God, is an astrological 
word which the acquirer can apply to wouderful purposes. God huth 
among the Mahometans ninety nine names ; the J^ni Azim is one of 
number ; but it is only an astrologer or necromancer who can wlmh ; 
and unfortunately I am not one or the is melancholy to rtfltet 
that some of the strongest minds have believed in astrelogy ty<iiiu 


chandise and books; and embarked myself in a ?mall vessel 
and set sail from thence. Sailing on I reached my country. The 
King my fatlier,on hearing the tidings of our arrival, raounte I 
his horse and advanced to meet us ; with anxious affection 
he clasped rne to his bosom; I kissed his feet and said, "May 
this humble being be allowed to live in the former garden r* 
The King replied, " That garden appears to me calamitous, 
and I have forbid its being kept up ; that spot is not fit for 
the abode of man ; reside on any other place you please ; you 
had best choose some place in the fort, and live under my 
eyes, and form there such a garden as you v\ish to amuse 
yourself. I was strenuously bent on having the formea garden 
and embellisned it anew, and made a perfect Eden, and went 
to reside in it. 

There, at my ea=e, I set about subduiug the Genii to my 
will, according to the magical science I had acquired. I fasted 
and prayed for forty days, and quitted animal food, and began 
my magical operations. When the forty days were completed 
such a terrible strom arose at midnight, that great buildings 
fell down, and large trees were uprooted and scattered ; an 
army of Fairies appeared and a throne descended from the 
air, on which a person of haughty appearance was seated, 
richly dressd, with a crown of pearls on his head. On seeing 
him I sainted him with great respect; he returned my salta- 
tion and said; ' O friend, why hast thou raised this storm for 
nothing f what dost thoti want with me V I replied, This 
wretch has been long in love with your daughter, aud 
for her I have wandered about distracted ; and am dead 
though alive; 1 am now sick of existence, and have staked 
my life on the game I have played; all my hopes now rest on 
your benevolence; that you will crown this unfortunate wan- 
derer with your favour, and save my life by allowing me to 
behold your fair daughter; it will be an act of real charity." 
On hearing my wishes he said, " Man is made of earth, and 
we are formed of fire; connection and friendship between 
such different beings is very difficult." I swore I only desired 
to see her, and had no other wish. Then again the King of 
the Fairies replied, " Man does not adhere to his promises; 
in time of need he promises every thing, but soon forgets 
them ; 1 say this for thy good, and mark roe ; for if ever thou 
formest other wishes, then she and thou wilt be ruined and 
undone ; moreover endanger your lives." I repeated my oaths, 
and added, that whatever could injure us I would never do, 
and that all 1 desired was to see her sometimes. These words 
were passing between us, when suddenly the Fairy, of whom 
we were talking, appeared before us, completely adorned ; and 
the throne of the King of the Fairies remounted with him 

FOUR nuu \VESH. 67 

ill the air. I then embraced the Fair} 1 with fond eagerness, 
and repeated this Verse. 

Why should my mistress stay away, 
i^or whom 1 have paiued many a day. 

In that state of felie'ty we resided together in the garden, I 
dreaded through fear to think of other joys. I only tasted 
the pleasure of her roseate lips, clasped her fondly to my 
bosom, and gazed upon her charms. 'Vkc lovely fairy peeing 
me so true to my oath was surprized within herself, and used 
sometime to say. "O my be loved,you are ever strictly faith- 
ful to your promise ; but I will give you, by the way of 
friendships piece of advice; take care of your mystical book; 
some Genius,seeing you off your guard, will purloin it some 
day or other/ 5 I replied, " 1 guard this book as I would 
my life." 

It so happened that one ni^ht Satan led me astray ; my 
passions were aroused,and I srid to myself, let happen whnt 
will, how long can I restrain my desires. 1 clasped the lovely 
Fairy to my bosom, and attempted to revel in exstatie joys. 
Instantly a sound struck my ears saying. "Give me the book, 
for theGreat name of God is written in it;do not profane it.'* 
In that fervour of passion I was insensible to every other 
consideration ;I took the book from my bosom and delivered 
it, without knowing to whom I gave it, and plunged myself 
into the fervid joys of love. The beautiful Fairy, seeing my 
foolish imprudent conduct, said, " Alas i thou hast at last 
forgot thyself and my admonition " On saying this she 
became senseless, and I perceived a Genius standing at the 
head of the bed, who held the magical book in his hand ; I 
attempted to seize him, and beat him severely, and snatch 
away the book ; when another appeared, to.>k the book from 
his hand and ran off 1 began to repeat the incantations I 
had learnt; thcGenitts who was still standing near me became 
a bull ; but alas ! the lovely Fairy still lay quite senseless. 
Then my mind became perfectly distracted and all my joys 
were turned into bitterness. From that day man becuine my 
aversion. I live in a corner of this garden ; to beguile my 
mind 1 make this emerald vasc,and every month I go to th*e 
plain mounted on the bull ; break the vase and kill a slave ; 
with the hope that every one may see my sad state and pity 
me ; perhaps some creature of God may so far favour me and 
pray for me, that I regain the desire of my heart. O faith- 
ful friend, such as 1 have related to ihee is the sad tale of my 
ma r lness.' I wept at hearing it and said,O Prince, you have 
truly suffered greatly from love ; but I swear here by God, I will abandon my wishes and my designs, and will now 


roam among woods and mountains for your good, and do all 
J can to find out your beloved Fairy." Having made tbig 
promise I took leave of Prince, and for five years wari- 
lc-red like a mad man from clime to clim^, but found no trace 
oftheFairv. At last desponding of sucess, I ascended a 
mountain arid wished to thorw myself off from its summit, 
that a hone in my frame mibt not remain entire. The 
same veiled hor^ernaiK who saved you from destruction, (148) 
cum? up to me and said/' Do not throw away thy life; in a. 
leu days thou wilt ^ain the desires of thy heart. " O lioly 
Durzves/iesl I have at \-\*i seen and met you I have now 
hopes of beinu huppy thr.wg-i the grace of God, from which 
alone desponding creatures cm attain their wishes. 


WHEN the second Durwesh had likewise finished the relation 
of his adventures, the night ended and the morning appear- 
ed The Kincr Azadbukht returned to his palftce in silence 
and un perceived. On arriving there he said h s prayers, then 
vent to the bath, and dressing himself superbly he proceeded 
to the Dewon Aum, and mounted his throne, and ordered a 
messenger to go to such a place and to bring slong with him, 
with respect, four Durwes/ie* he would find there to the royal 
presence. The messenger went there according to orders and 
perceived that the four Durweshes, ofter performing their ne- 
cessary calls and ablutions, were on the point of setting out 
on thsir peregrinations and take their different roads. The 
Messenger said to them, " The King has called you four, come 
along with me." The four Dunuesfies began to stare at each 
other, and said to the messenger," Son we are the monarch a 
of our own actions what have we to do with the kings ofthe 
world. 3 '' The Messenger answered," Holy Sirs, there is no 
harm in it, and it is better you should go." The four Z)r- 
weshes then recollected what Ullee (149) had promise them, 
and saw that it had come to pass; they were pleased at the 
recollection and went cheerfully along with the messenger; 
when they reached the fort and appeard before the King 
they blessed his Majesty and wished him prosperty. The 
King retired to the Dcwankhans and called two or three of 
his confidential nobles near him, and ordered the four Dur- 
weshes to be brought in : when they appeared before his 

<1 48) The first Dnrtves/t-. 

(149) The veiled horseman who rescued the first and second Dur- 
from suicide. 

FOIK i>u it \VI:SH. 69 

majesty, he commanded them to sit down, and asked them 
their adventures ; from whence they had come, where 1 they 
were going to, and where they lived. They replied, ' The 
Ki HIT'S age and wealth he great ! we are Darweshes, and have 
wandered over this world tor a long while ; our backs are our 
homos, as the saying is, that a pilgrim's home is where the 
evening overtakes him; and all we have seen in this versatile 
world is too long a tale to relate." Azadbnkhl gave them 
every confidence, and sent for something for them to eat,and 
made them breakfast before him. When they finished their 
meal, the King said to them, ' Relate all your adventures to 
mo ; whatever services 1 can render you I will not fail to do." 
The Durweshes replied, "That whatever has happened to us 
we have not the strength to rclate,nor will the King be pleas- 
ed to hear it, therefore pardon us." The King then smiled 
and said, u Where you were sitting last night, and relating 
your ad ventures, there I was likewise ; moreover I have heard 
the adventures of two of you ; I now wish that the two who 
remain would also relate their's ; stay with me a few days in 
perfect confidence, as the presence of holy Durweshes scares 
away the evil genii." On hearing these words from the king 
they began to tremble, and hung down their heads insilence, 
and had not the power to speack, When Azadl>uk/it perceived 
that fear and awe deprive;! <hem of the power of speach, he 
said to revive there spirits, "There is no person in this world 
to whom rare and strange incidents have not occured;although 
I am a king, yet I have seen strange scenes which I will relate, 
to you, to inspire you with confidence and remove your fears." 
The Durweshes replied, u O King, you do us great favours 
condescend to relate them." 

Azadubkkt began his rdventnres and said, 


Hear, O Pilgrims, the adventures of the King, 

Whatever I have heard or seen, O hear ! 

I will relate to ye every thing. 

My story with heartfelt attention hear. 

When my father died and I ascended the throne, I was quire 
a youth, nnd all the kingdom of Romania was under my 
dominion It happened one year th ; U some merchant of 
fiudukfisfwn (,150) came to my capital, and brought a good 
deal of merchandise. The Reporter of Intelligence (151) re- 

(150) JlmlukhJtan is apart <f the grand province of Khorasan,*i\i( 
the city of Bulkh \* its metropolis, near which is a chain of mountains 
oe ebrated for producing fine liubies called the rubies of BvdiiA$kaii. 
N It The A r , with a circumflex over it, is nasal ; the French On. 

(151) All Asiatic princes have spies culled the Reporters of Jntelli- 


ported to me, that so considerable a merchant had never 
visited this city. 1 sent for him ; he presented to me the 
rarities of every country which were worthy my IKV 
Indeed every article appeared of inestimable value ; but the 
most valuable was a Knby in a box which weighed live 
misqals ; (152) of a fine shape and colour, high water and 
very brilliant. Though 1 was a King, I had never seen such 
a precious stone. 1 accepted it, and made the merchant 
many rich presents, and gave him passports for the roads; 
that throughout my empire no one should ask him any 
duties ; that he should meet kindness, and be treated with 
attention wherever he went; that he should be waited on and 
have guards for his protection, and that they should consider 
any loss he might experience as their own. The merchant 
attended the audience constantly, and was well verged in 
the forms of respect due to royalty ; his conversation was 
eloquent, and the anecdotes he related were worth healing. 
I used to send for the Ruby daily from the jewel office, and 
amuse myself by looking at it at. the time of public audience. 
One day I was seated in the dewanaum ) su\d the nobles and 
officers of state were in waiting in their respective places, 
and the ambassadors of different sovereigns, who had come 
to congratulate me on my accession to the throne, were like- 
wise present. 1 then sent for the lluby according to custom; 
the officer of the jewel office brought it ; I took it in my 
hand and began to praise it, and gave it to the ambassador of 
1he Franks to look at, On seeing it he smiled, and praised 
it by way of flattery ; in the same manner it passed from 
hand to hand,and every one looked atit.and all said together, 
f< Mighty Sire,the preponderance of your majesty's good for- 
tune has procured you such a stone ; for no monarch ever 
acquired so inestimable a jewel," At that moment my father's 
IVazeer, who was wise and held the same station under me, 
and was standing in his place, made his obeisance and said, 
(( I wish to impart something to the royal ear, if my life be 
granted." I ordered him to speak ; he said, u Mighty Sire, 
von are a King, and it does not become Kings to value so 
greatly a stone ; though it is unique in shape, colour, weight 
and brilliancy, yet it is but a stone ; and this moment the 
ambassadors of all countries are present ; when they return 
to their respective countries, they will assuredly relate this 

gence, who inform themselves of what passes in public and ever in 
private families, and report it to them. They are the pest of society , 
and generally corrupt. 

(152^) A misqalis four and half mashas ; our ounce contains twen- 
ty-four masftfis. So the Ruby weighed nwarly an ounce. 1 have seen 
eineral-ls much more heavy, 


nnecdote,that what a strange King he is,who has ir^i 
from somewhere, and makes- so mir.-h of it that I" 1 sends for 
it every day, and praising it him' elf the fii^t, shows it. to 
every one present ; then whatever King or liajnh ( 1 i'.'>) 
hears this anecdote will certainly laugh at it. Great Sin , 
there is a poor merchant in Nishaporc (154.) who has 
twelve rubies, each weighing seven iniaqils 9 (155) which 
he has sewed on ti dog's collar, and put ic round his cl< 
neck." On hearing this 1 became greatly displeased and said 
with anger, " Put this Wazeer t' death.'' The Executioners; 
immediately seized hold of his hands, and were going to lead 
him out to execution, when the ambassador of the Frank*! 
joining his hands in humble supplication stood before me. 
1 asked him what he wanted. He replied, <; 1 hope I may 
know the Wazeers fault " 1 answered, " What can be a 
greater fault than to lie, especially before Kings. He re- 
plied, "Your majesty has not yet ascetraiucd his falsehood ; 
perhaps what he has said may be true; now to put an inno- 
cent person to death is not right. r I said to him hi reply, 
;c I can never believe that a merchant, who for gain wanders 
from country to country and from city to city, and hoards up 
every farthing he can save, should sew twelve rubies which 
weigh seven misqals each on the collar cf a dog." The am- 
bassador in answer said, u Nothing is surprising before the 
power of God ; perhaps it may be the case ; such rarities of- 
ten fall into the hands of merchants and pilgrims; for these 
kind of people go into every country, and they bring away 
with them whatever they find rare in their travels. It is 
most advisable for your majesty to order the Wuzcer to be 
imprisoned, if he is as guilty as you suppose ; for Wasters 
are the advisers of Kings, and it appeals unhandsome in 
them on such an occasion, the truth and falsehood of which 
is as yet unascertained, to order them to be put to death, and 
that the services and fidelity of a whole life should be forgot- 
ten in a moment ; Mighty Sire, former Kings huve erected 
prisons for this very reason, that when their wrath is raised 
towards any one, he might he confined until their anger sub- 
sides, and time is allowed to prove hi* innocence, and save 
the King from the stain of shedding innocent blood, and not 
have to answer for it on the day of judgment. *' Though I 
wished to convict the IFuserr. yet the ambassador of the 

(1.53) The word Rnjdh is the Hindoo name of a Prince or Soverign. 
Raiiee Ids wife. 

(154) Nishapore was the richest and grandest city in the province 
of Khnrnsan. 

(155) Soven misqais are more than an ounce and a qaurter, See 
note (K>2,) 

,2 THK TALK ul I* UK 

1 Yanks gave such just replies tliat I could not confute him ; 
but said, " Well, I agree lo what you say, and I pardon him 
his life ; but lie shall be imprisoned ; if in the space of a 
year his words are proved to he true, that such rubies are 
round the neck of a do^, then he shall be released, or else 
lie shall he put to death with torments." I accordingly 
ordered the Wazeer to be carried to prison. On hearing thn 
ordsr the ambassador made me his humble obeisance and 
thanked me. 

When this sad news reached the Wazeer's family, weeping 
and lamentations took place and all was mourning. He had 
a daughter of about fifteen, very handsome, intelligent, and 
\velleducated; thelFazeer loved her greatly, and was extreme- 
ly fond of her ; so much so that he had erected an elegant 
appartment for her behind his Dewankfiana and had procured 
for her. the daughters of noblemen as her companions, and 
handsome female servants waited on her; with these she pass- 
ed happened that the day the Wazcer was sentts 
prison, the Girl was sitting with her young companions and was 
celebrating with infantile pleasure the marriage of her doll, 
music was playing on the happy occasion and sweetmeats were 
preparing for the joyful event,when her mother suddenly ran 
into her apartment, lamenting and weeping, with dishevelled 
tresses and naked feet ; she reproached her daughter and 
said, u I should have besn better pleased it God had given 
me a blind son instead of thee ; for he would have been the 
friend of his father." The Waster's daughter asked, u What 
use would a blind son have been to you? whatever he could do, 
I can do likewise. "The mother repJied,"Uttfor4unate wretch 
what canst thou do ? such a calamity hath fallen on thy father, 
that he is confined in the prison for having used some impro- 
per expressions before the King." The daughter asked, 
" What were the expressions ; let me hear them.' 5 Then her 
mother answered, " Your father said that there was a mer- 
chant in Nishapore, who had sewed twelve inestimable rubies 
on. his dog's collar ; the King would not believe him but con- 
ceived him a liar and has imprisoned him ; if he had had to- 
day a son, he would have exerted himself by every means to 
ascertain the truth of the circumstance; he would have assist- 
ed his father, besought the King's forgiveness, and have got 
my husband released from prison." The IVazeer's daughter 
said in reply, u O mother, we cannot combat against fate ; 
man under unmerited calamity ought to be patient and place 
his hopes in the bounty of God ; he is merciful and removes 
our troubles, weeping and lamentations are improperjperhaps 
our enemies may misrepresent the motive of our tears, and 
the teller of tales increase the royal anger towards us by 

FOUK nun WF.SII. ^ 

false represent -uions; instead of lamentations, let ns offer np 
on i prayers for the King's welfare; we arc his slaves and ho 
is our master ; he is wroth ; he will l><> gracious" The girl 
made her mother comprehend thsc things in such a manner, 
and with such good son*o, that she became patient, and re- 
turned qnietlv and in silence to her palace. When the night 
arrived the IVn^eer^ndce (150) sent for her nurse's husband, 
and fell at his feet, and besecched him greatly, and weeping 
said, 4 'I have formed a plan to. release my father, and wipe oft' 
the reproach my mother has cast OM me. If you will be faith- 
ful to the confidence I repose i n 3*011 and afford me your 
assistance,! will set out farNishapore^nd see the merchant 
who has such rubies round his dog's neck, and do all in my 
power to release my father. "The man mada some excuses at 
first; at last, after much solicitation, he agreed to her request. 
Then thellazeerzadrc ?aid, '-Make the preparations for the 
journey in secrecy and silence, and buy some articles of trade 
fit to be presented to Kings, and procure as many slaves and 
servants as may be required ; but do not let any one hear of 
the plan L have formed/' The man agreed to the project, 
and pet about the necessary preparations; when all was ready 
he loaded the camels and mules and spt out ; the fVaseer's 
daughter also put on the dress of a man and joined him. 
No one knew any thing of her deperture. When the morning 
came it wa^ mentioned in the Wazeer's family, that the 
Wazeerzadee. had disappeared, and that no one knew where 
she was gone ; at last the mother concealed the circumstance 
of her daughter's disappearance, from fear of the world's 

On the jurney the Waseerzadee c-dld herself the son of a 
merchant. Trsvelling stage by stage they arrived at Nisha- 
pore, and were pleased at having rached the end of their 
jurney ,-they pnt of at the carvanserni, and unloaded th^ir 
m rchandise. The MFaxeerzidee remained there that night ; 
in the morning she went tothe bath and put on reach dress 
according to the costome of the inhabitants of Romania, 
and went out to view the city ; rambling on she reached the 
chouk* and stood where the four great streets crossed each 
other ; a jeweller's shop apearecl on one side, where a great 
deal of precious stones were exposed for sale, and richlv 
dressed slaves were in waiting with crossed arms :and a man of 
Jibout fifty years < f age. who appeard to be the Khoja, (157) 
dressed like a rich person was seated their, with many 
elegant companions near him seated likewise on stools, and 

(loGJ Waztcre&dee means the ll^azwi-'s daughter. 
( I '>7J Khaja means chief, master, &c. 


were conversing among themselves. The Wa-Lceriadee, who 
had assumed the appearanre of a merchant's son, was greatly 
surprised at seeing the jeweller and his vast display of jewels 
and precious stones, and conceived within herself that it 
might be (.lie person she shout ; the thought rejoiced her 
greatly. God forbid, she said to herself, that my conjecture 
should be wrong ; perhaps this is the very merchant, the 
anecdote of whom my father mentioned to the KintrO great 
God, let my conjecture be fulfilled. It happend that on 
looking around her. she saw an adjacent shop in which two 
iron cages weresuspended.and two men wereconfind inthem; 
they looked \\keJMvfnoo in appearance, only skin and bones 
remained ; the hair of their heads and their nails were quite 
overgrown, and they sat with their head* reclined on their 
breasts ; two ugly negros completely armed were standing on 
each side of the cages. The Wazee i.adee was struck with 
amazement and exclaimed, God bless us ! When she looked 
round the other way, she saw another shop in which carpels 
were spread, on which an ivory stool was placed with a 
velvet cushion, and a dog lying on it, with a collar set with 
precious stones, and chained by a chain of gold ; two young 
handsome servants waited on the dog; one was shaking a 
chowree (158) over it with a golden handle set with precious 
stones, and the other held an embroidered handkerchief in 
his hand, with which he wiped the dog's mouth and feet.The 
Wazterzade'e looked at the animal tvitfa great attention, and 
perceived on its collar the twelve large rubi< s, as she had 
heard them described. She praised God, and b?gan to rumi- 
nate how she could carry those rubies to the King and show 
them to him, and get her father released ; she was plunged 
in these perplexing reflections ; meanwhile the pns^rs by in 
the streets, seeing her beauty and youth, were struck with 
astonishment, and gazed with admiration on her charms, and 
said to each other/' As yet we have seen no person so beauti- 
ful and so lovely." The Khoja also perceived her.and stnt 
a slave and told him, "Go thou and entreat that young 
merchant to come to me." The slave went up to hear and 
delivered his master's message, and said, " Be so kind as to 
favour my master with your company ;he wishes to see you 
and welcome you." The Waze.er7.adee wished it above all 
things and said in reply, very well. The moment she came 
near the Khaja, and he had a full view of her, the throbs of 

(158) Chowree.s are .fly Haps, to drive away those troublesome com- 
panions; the best kind us nutdo of the line white long tail ofthe moun- 
tain cow ; the others of the long feathers from the peak's tail, or the 
odoriferous roots of a species of grass called fJnts, They art- likewise u 
part of the paraphernalia of state in India. 

roru DURWICSH. 75 

attachment ngitateil his breast ; he rose up to receive- her, 
but his admiration of her extreme beauty bewildered his 
senses ; (he Wazeerzadee perceived that he was entangled in 
the n^t of her charms, and embraced him with satisfaction. 
The Klwja kissed the IVazzerzadee's forehead and mad-- l>er 
sit, down near him, and asked her with much kindness to 
disclose to him her name and parentage, from whence she 
came, and where she was going. She replied, v * This humble 
servant's country is Romania, and Constantinople has been 
for ages the bii'th place of my parents ; my father is a mer- 
chant, and as he is now from extreme age unable to travel 
from country to country on his commercial* has 
sent me abroad to learn the affairs of commerce ; and until 
now I had not put my foot out of our door : this is my fust 
journey. I could not come here by water, I therefore came 
by land ; but your excellence and good name is so renowned 
in this country of Ujmn, (169) that to have the pleasure only 
meeting you I have come so far ; at last by the favour of 
I have had that bonour,and have found your good qua- 
lities exceed your renown; the wish of my heart is gratified; 
God bless you ; I will now set out from hence." On hearing 
these last words the Kkajas mind was discomposed, and he 
exclaimed. " O my son, do not tell me such bad news; stay- 
some days with me ; pray tell me where is your baggage, your 
goods and your servants '(" The Wazeerzadee replied, " The 
traveller's lodgings is the Serai $ (160) leaving them there I 
came to see you." The Khaja said, " It is unbecoming a 
person of your consideration to put up in the Serai ; I am 
well known in this citv, and much celebrated ; send quickly 
for your baggage, &c; I will allot a house for them and your 
goods ; let me see the merchandise you have brought ;I will 
so manage it, that you will get here great profit on tliem 9 aud 
be pleased, and save the danger and fatigue of travelling 
any father for a market, and by staying with me a few days 
you will greatly oblige me." The Waseerxadee pretended io 
makesome excuses, but the Khijah would notaccept them, and 
ordered one of his agents to send some conveyance quickly 

(150J LJUM means in general Persia ; the Arabs use it in the same 
sense as the Greeks did the word barbarian ; and all who are not 
Arabs they call Ujiucc ; more especially the Persians. 

fltJO) ticrcti or Caravanserai are buildings for traveller? and mer- 
chants in cities, and on the great roads in Asia Those in I'pper //in- 
doostan, built by the Emperors of Z)A4t7/fe,are|grdbcl and costly ;they 
are either of stone or burnt bricks In Persia they are mostly of bricks 
dried in the Min. In Upper Htndopstan they are commonly twenty 
miles distant from ench other, which is a M nn-.'.l or stn^". They are 
gene-ally a square. >vith rooms for good-, men, and 


to the carravanseri, and bring the goods. &c. and lodge them 
in such a place; the Wuzeerzadee likewis-e sent a slave of her 
own with the agent to bring the merchandise and baggage, 
and remained herself with the Khaja until the evening. 

When the night came and the shop was shut, the Khaja 

went towards his house ; then one of the two slaves took the 

dog up under his arm, and the other took up the stool and 

carpet; and the two armed negro slaves pit ced the two cages 

on the heads of porters and went alongside of them. The 

Khaja took hold of the Wazeerzadee's hand, and conversing 

with her reached his house. The IFazeerzadee s-iw that the 

house was grand, and fit for nobles and princes to reside in; 

carpets were spread on the border of the canal, and before 

the 7nui>nud the different articles for the entertainment were 

laid out ; the dog's stool was placid ihere also, and the 

Ahajah and Wazeerzadee took their seats ; he presented her 

some wine without ceremony ; the} 1 both began to drink,and 

when they got merry the Kha^a culled for dinner; the cloth 

was spread, and all the delicacies of the country were, laid 

out ; tiist they put some meat in a dish and covered it with 

a cover of gold, and carried it to the dog, and spreading an 

embroidered napkin, laid the dish before him ; the dog 

descended from his stool, eat as much as he liked and drank 

some water out of a golden bowl, then returned 10 his stool. 

The slaves wiped his mouth and feet with napkins, and then 

carried the dish and bowl to the two cages,and taking the keys 

from the Khaja opened their locks, and took out the two men 

who were confined in them,gave them many blows with a thick 

stick, and made them eat the leavings of the dog and drink 

the same water; then locked them up again in the cages, and 

returned the keys to their master. When ail this was over the 

Jhii]<i began to eat himself; the Wazeeriadee was not pleased 

at these circumstances, and did not touch the victim's from 

disgust; how much soever the Kiiaja pressed her, yet she 

made excuses and refrained; then he asked the reason of her 

not eaiing; the JFazeerztfefce replied, "This conduct of yours 

appears disgusting to me for this reason, that man is the 

noblest of God's creatures, and not the most impure ; so to 

make two of God's noblest creatures eat the leavings of a dog 

is not according to any religion ; do not you think it sufficient 

that they are your prisoners ? otherwise they and you are 

equal. I doubt if you are a Moosulmaun ; who knows what 

you are ? Perhaps" you worship dogs ; it is disgusting to me 

to eat your dinner, until these doubts are removed from my 

mind." The Kha]a answered, O son, 1 comprehend pefect- 

ly what you say,and aui generally censured for these reasons ; 

for the inhabitants of this citythink me awoisbipper of dogs, 

PQII K DfHwi-.sii. i" 

and called me ?o, and have published it every where ; hut the 
curse of (jlod a light of the Impiuui ami the Inridel !'' The 
Khaja then said his prayers, and seiuovt-d the; l}'zvtrjwde ) & 
doubts, and snlUfied her mind; she then asked, " It' you arc 
realy a Muosul-maun in your liart, why du you act so strangely 
and get yourself generally censured /" The Klmju said in 
reply, k * O son, my name is reprobated, and 1 am generally 
blamed ; and 1 pay double taxes in this ciiy, ih.-it uo one may 
know the secret motive of my conduct ; 1 i at her pay the line 
than divulge it; it is a strange circumstance, which whoever 
hears, will get nothing bv, the recital but grief and indigna- 
tion ; you must likewise t ardon me frum,realaUug iti for 1 
shall not have strengthnrlotnind to recount it, i or will you 
have ihe composure of mind to listen to it." The l\ a'ntr- 
zadee thought within iii'sJlt', I have only to mind my o\vu 
business ; why should 1 to no purpose press him further on 
the subject ; she accordingly replied to the jfc/icija, ' Very 
well; it it is not proper to be related, do not mention it ;" 
and she began to partake of the dinner. 

The space of two months the Waieerzadee passed with the 
Khajci) with such prudence and circumspection, that no one 
found out that she was a woman ; and although she appeared 
as a man. yet the Khoju's affection for her increased daily, 
and he could not be a moment absent from her company 
without pain. One day in the midst of a drinking feat the 
WazeerLadee began to weep; on seeing it (heKliaja comforted 
her and began to wipe away her tears with his handkerchief 
and asked her the cause of her weeping. She answered, <4 O 
father, what shall I say ? if I had 3iot met you, I should not 
have felt the eilects of all the kindness you have shown me ; 
1 am now cruelly distressed between two difficulties ; 1 have 
no heart to leave you, nor can I stay here; it is necessary for 
me to go ; but in separating from you 1 have no hopes of 
life, such as been your taihcrly kindness to me." On hear- 
ing these words the Kha]a wept so loudly, that he was nearly 
choaked, and exclainmed, lt i) light of my eyes, are you so soou 
tried of your old friend, that you think of going away and 
leaving him in affliction ; banish from your heart the with 
of departing; as long as I have to live, remain here ; I shall 
not live a day in your absence, and will die before my ap- 
pointed hour ; the climate of Persia is very fine and congenial 
to our healths; you had best despatch a confidential servant, 
and send for your parents and property here; I will furnish 
whatever conveyances you require : when your parents come 
here, you can pursue your commercial concerns at your ease; 
I have also in my life gone through much trouble and misery, 
and have seen many countries - 9 I am now old, and have n< 


issue ; I love you dearer than a son, and make you may heir 
and the master of my properly ; take charge of my affair*, 
and give me bread to eat whilst I live ; when I die bury me, 
and enjoy my wealth." To this tue Wazeerzadce replied, " It 
is true you have been more than a father to me, and the 
kindness and affection you have shown me has been such, 
that I have forgotten my parents . but this humble culprit's 
father only gave me a year's leave : if I exceed it, he in his 
extreme old age will weep himself to death; a father's appro- 
bation is meritorious bcfjre God, and if mine should he 
displeased with me, then 1 fear lie may curse me, and I would 
be an outcast from God's grace in e nis world and the next ; 
now 1 hope from your kindness, tl ^,t you will give me leave 
to obey my father's commands and fulfil the duties af a son; 
] shall always bear in mind the rr^.oilection of your many 
favours and kindness, and pray for your prosperity; if 1 am 
even so fortunate as to reach my native country, I will still 
ever think of your goodness wiih my heart and soul; God is 
the cause of causes ; perhaps some such cause may occur 
through his goodness that I may again meet you.' 1 

In short the fVuzeerzadee urged such persuasive argements 
to the poor Khaja that he yielded to (heir force, and although 
he douted on her already, he said in reply,'' 5 Well, if you will 
not stay here I will myself go with you ; I love you dearer 
than my life; if yon *>'o away my life goes with yon, and of 
what use is a lifeless body? If you are determined to go then 
proceed and take me with you.' 3 Saying this to the \\azeer- 
zadee he began his preparations likewise for the journey, and 
gave orders to his agents to get ready quickly the neces- 
sary conveyance-. When the news of the Khajtis depar- 
ture became public, on hearing it the merchants of that 
city began likewise the : r preparations to set out with him 
The dog worshiping K/taja took with him specie and jewels 
to a grute amount many servants and slaves, and rich rarities 
and property, and pitched his tents outside of the city and 
went to them. All the merchants took articles of merchandise 
with them ^according to their means and joined the K/MJ*?; 
the assemblage appeared lite an Army, fixing on a propitious 
day to set out on its journey; the merchandise was ioade 1 
on thousand-^ of camels, and the jewels and specie on mulfs ; 
live hundred brave slaves of Kubchaq, Zunu and ttoma- 
nia, (161) completely armed and well mounted accompanied 
the caravan ; irt (he rear of all came the K//j and the 
Wazeerzadee, richly dressed and mounten on sedans : a rich 
litter was lashel on the back of a camel in which the dog 

(lol ) Tartar, African, and Turkish Skives, 


reposed on a cushion, and ihe onges of the two pi 
were shin g across a camel. At every stage they eamo to, nil 
the merchants waited on the ITAajfl an 1 rat and drank with 
bim. The Klia}n oflered ii]) his grateful thanks to the Al- 
mighty for the happiness of having the iruwr/.Hdee witli 
him, and proceeded on stage by stage 

At. last they reached the environs of Constantinople in 
salt ty, and cue imped without the city .The Wiw.eer/.ade. said 
to the Kha\fi, " O father, if you grant me permission, 1 will 
go nnd see my parents, and prepare a house for you, and 
when it is Mgrtcab't? to yon. yon can <jo and livein the city.*' 
The /f//tfj replied, " 1 am come so tar for your sake ; well, 
go and see your parens and return soon, and give me a 
place to liv in near your own." The Ji'tizeerzadee took leave 
of the JKk(t]a and came to her house. Al! the family of the 
l\'uzrer wore surprised and exclaimed, "'What man has enter- 
ed the house !"Th?rrzcer** daughter ran and threw herself 
at her mother's feet, and wept and said, " I am your child." 
On hearing this the Wazee's wife began to reproach her by 
sayinir, " C) vain girl, thou art. very cunning ; thou hast. 
disgraced th) self and brought shame on thy family : I had 
imagined thee lost, and after weeping for th?e had given up 
all hopes of seeing thee again ; get alone with the^ !" Then 
the \Vazeerzadee threw the turban oil* her head and said " (> 
dear mother, I did not %>. loan improper place and have 
don" nothing wrong; 1 have done all this according to your 
wishes to release my father from prison. God he praised, 
that though his assistance and your prayers, I have accom- 
plished the ohject,and am now returned ;lhave brought that 
merchant with me from Nhhapore, also the dog around 
whose neck nre those rudies, and have returned with the 
innocence you bcstwoed on me ; I assumed the dress and 
appenn-nfo of a man for the journey ; now one day's work 
remains :doing thatl will get my father released from prison, 
and return to my home; if you give me leave I will go back 
again and remain abroad another day, and then return to 
you *' VVhrn the mother throughly comprehended the affair. 
i bat her daughter had acted the part of a man, and had 
preserved her innocence and virtue, she offered up her grateful 
acknowledgements to God. and rejoicing at the event, clapped 
her daughter to her bosom and kissed her; she prayed for 
her, and gave her leave to go,saying,*'Do what thou thinkest 
best.; 1 have full confidence in thee." The Woveezadef 
again assumed the appearance of a man, and returned to 
the dog-worshipping Khaja. He had been in the mean time 
so much distressed at her adsence, that through impatience 
he had left his encampmentand was proceeding towards the 

80 T H R T A L E O F T H R 

city. Itsr> h append that a* the Wazeerindet was going out 
to join him and he was corning in to meet her, they met each 
other on the road near the city. On seeing her the Klia'yi 
exclaimed, "O child ! leaving this old man by himself } where 
wastthou gone ?'* She nnsweied, a I went to my house with 
yonr permission, but the desire I had to see you again would 
not allow me to remain at home, and I am returned to you " 
They preceived a shady Harden on the borders of the sea,and 
near the city gate; the /://#j/r.pitched his tents and descended 
there : the Wnzeer'Lftffee bud he sat down together and began 
fieir repast. When the evening approached they left their 
tents, and sit out on hiuh seast to view the country; it hap- 
pened that a royal chasseur passed that way : he was aston- 
ished at seeing them and their encampment, and said to 
himself, perhaps the Ambassador of some King is arrived ; 
he stood and amused himself by staring at them. The KAoja's 
attendants called him forward and asked him who he was 4 
He replied, (i I am thelving's head chasseur. '"The attendent 
mentioned him to the \\ha]a, who ordered a negro slave to 
go nnd tell the chasseur, that we are travellers. and if you are 
inclined to come and sit down, the Coffee and Pipe is 
ready (lb*2)When the chasseurheard the nameof the merchant 
lie wns stil more astonished, and came with the slave to the 
K/ia]a'j presence ; he saw on all sides an air of propriety 
and magnificence, and many slave* and attendants. To the 
K//aja and the young merchant, alias the IVazeeriadee, he 
made his salutations, and on seeing the dog'sstate and treat- 
ment his senses were confounded with amazement. The 
Kho]a asked him to sit down, and presented him coffee ;the 
chasseur asked the Khajas name ; and when he requested 
leave to depart, the K^aja presented him with some pieces 
of cloth and rarities and dismissed him. 

In the morning when the chasseur attended my audience 
he related to those present the circumstances of the K/iaja ; 
by degrees it came to my knowledge : I called the chasseur 
before me, and a-ked about the merchant. He related what- 
ever he had serin On hearing of the dog's state and the two 
men's confinement in the cage, I was quite indignant and 
exclaimed, " That reprobated merchant deserves death ! v I 
ordered some of my attendants to go immediately, and cut 
off and bring me the heretic's heade. By chance the same 
ambassador of the Franks was present; he smiled, and I 

(162) The coffee and pipe are always presented to visitors in Turkey, 
Arabia, and Persia,, and they are considered as tndisqensible in good 
prs. In indiu this u not the ca?e. Sometimes hot rose-water with 
is given in the three former countries, 


became still more angry and said, e 'O disrespectful ! to grin 
and show one's teeth without cause in the presence of kings 
18 highly insolent; it is better to weep then laugh out of sea- 
son/' The ambassador replied, "Mighty Sire, many ideas 
came across my mind, for wich reason I smiled ; the first 
was the IVazcer had spoken truth, und would now be re- 
leased from preson ; secondly, that your Majasty's renown 
will be unstained with the blood of the innosent Wazeer ; 
and the third was, that your Majesty, without cause or crime 
ordered the Merchant to be put to death ? at this latter 
circumstance I was surprised, that without any enquiry your 
Majesty should, on the tale of an idle fellow order people to 
be put to death ; God knows what is the Merchant's real case ; 
call him before the royal presence and ask his story ; if he is 
guilty, then your Majesty is master to do what you please 
with him." When the ambassador thus explained the matter 
to me, I also recollcted what the Wazeer had said, and 
ordered the Merchant, his son, the dog and the cagesto be 
brought in my presence imediatly. The Messegers set 
off quickly on the errand, and in a short time brought 
them all before me. I called them near me ; first the Khaja 
and his son, the young Merchant (163) approached' both 
richly dressed ; all present were astonished on beholding the 
young Merchant's extreme beauty ; he brought in his hand 
a golden tray loaded with precious stones, the brilliancy of 
which illuminated the room, and laid it before my throne, 
made his obeisance and stood in respectful silence. The 
Khaja also kissed the ground, and offered up his ejaculations 
for my prosperity ; he spoke as sweetly as if a nightingale was 
singing. I greatly admired his elegant and decorous speech ; 
but assuming the appearance of anger I exclaimed," Q satan 
in human form! what diabolical net is this that thou hast 
spread, and in t!iy path haih dug an infernal pit ; what is 
thy religion, and what rite is this I see; what prophet dost 
thou worship ? If thou wast an infidel, even then what sense 
is there in thy conduct ; what is the reason that thou actest 
thus? The Khaja calmly replied, " May your Majesty's years 
and prosperity ever increase ! this slaves religious creed is 
this, That God is one ; he has no equal, and Muhumud the 
pure's (the mercy of God be shown to him and his posterity ; 
may he be safe ! ) prayer I repeat. After him I consider the 
twelve Emaums as my guides; and my rite is this, that I 
say the five regulated prayers and fast, and I have likewise 
performed pilgrimage, and from my wealth give the nth in 
alms and charity, and I am called a Moosulmaun. But there 
(10,3) Alias the Jl r a;eerzadee. 

82 Till: TALE OF THE 

is a reason, which I cannot disclose, that I appear to posses 
nil those bad qualities which have raised your, Majesty's 
indignation, and for which I am condemned by every one. 
Though I am ever so much called a dog-worshipper, and pay 
double taxes, and I acknowledge all this; but the secrets of 
my heart I have not divulged to any one.' 5 On hearing 
these excuses^ my anger became greater, and I said, "Thou 
art beguiling me with words ; I will not believe them until 
thou explainest clearly the reasons which have made thee 
deviate from the right path that my mind may be convinced 
of their truth ; then thy life will be saved ; or else as retri- 
bution for what thou hast done, I will order thy belly to be 
ript up, that the exemplary punishment may deter others in 
future from transgressing the religion of Muhumud." The 
K^flja replied, U O King,do not spill the blood of this unfor- 
tunate wretch, but confiscate all the wealth I have, which is 
inestimable, and release me and my son, and spare us our 
lives/' I smiled and said, u O fool ! dost thou wish to bribe 
me with thy wealth ? thou canst no the released except thou 
speakest the truth." On hearin these words', the tears 
streamed profusely from the KAojfl's eyes ; he looked to- 
wards the Wazeerzadee, and heaved a deep sigh and said to 
her, '- I am criminal in the King's eyes ; I shall be put to 
death; what shall I do now ? to whom shall I entrust thee?" 
I threatened him and said, "O dissembler ! cease ; thou hast 
made too many excuses already ; what thou hast to say, say 
it quickly." The K/wj/i advanced forward, came near the 
throne and kissed it, end poured forth my praise and said, 
" O King of Kings, if you had not ordered me to be put to 
death, I would have borne every torture, and would not have 
disclosed my story ; but life is dear above every considera- 
tion ; no one knowingly jumps into a w r ell ; to preserve life 
then is right ; and not to do what is right is contrary to the 
mandates ofGod! Well, if such is the royal pleasure, then hear 
the past events cfthis oldman's life; but first ordered the two 
cages, in which the two men are confined, to be brought and 
placed near your majesty : I am going to relate my adven- 
tures; if I falsify any circumstance, then ask them to convict 
me and let justice be done." I approved of his proposal, and 
sent for the cages ; took them both out, and made them stand 
near the Khaja. 



THE Klmja said/'O King! this man who stands on the right 
is my eldest brother, and he who stands on the left is my 
second brother ; 1 am younger than them ; my father was a 
merchant in Persia, and when 1 was fourteen years of age my 
father died. When the burial ceremonies were over, and the 
rites of Seeoom (164) were finished, my two brothers said to 
me one day, " Let us now divide our father wealth, and 
let each do with his share what he pleases/' On hearing 
this proposal, I said, " O brothers, what words are these! I 
am your slave, and do not claim the rights of a brotherjour 
father is dead, but you both are alive, and in the place of 
that father ; I only want a dry loaf daily to pass through 
life, and wait on you ; what shall I do with shares or divi- 
sions? L will fill my belly with your leavings snd remain near 
you ; I am a boy, and have not learn to read or write ; what 
am 1 able to do ? educate me ; it is all I want." On hearing 
this they replied, i( Thou wishest to ruin and beggar us also 
along with thyself." I was silent and retired to a corner and 
wept, then reasoned with myself and said :My brothers after 
all are my elders ; they are angry with me for my good and 
improvement, that I may learn some profession; in these 
reflections I fell asleep. In the morning a messenger of the came, and conducted me to the Court of Justice ; I 
saw that both my brothers were there in waiting. The 
Qa7.ce asked me, " Why dost not thou divide thy father's 
property ?"I repeated to him what I had said to my brothers 
They said, " If he is sincere in what he says, let him give us 
a release, saying he has no claims on our father's property." 
Even then I thought,that as they were my elders,they advised 
for my good ; that if I got my share of my father's property 
I might spend it ; so according to their desire I gave them a 
release with the Qasee's seal. They were satisfied, and return- 
ed home. 

The second day after this they said to me, u O brother, we 
require the apartment in which you live ; hire another place 
for your residence, and go and stay there.' 5 'Twas then [ 
preceived that they did not wish 1 should even remain in my 
father's house. I had no remedy, and determined to leave it. 
O Protector of the World ! when my father was alive.when- 
rverhe returned from his travels he used to bring the rarities 

(104) The Seeoom are the rites performed for ihe dead cm the third 
day after demise ; it is likewise called tho Tefjn iu Hindmvue; /Seeoom 
in Persian. 


of different countrics,and give them to me by way of present 
Inv this reason that every one loves most the youngest child. 
I sold these presents, aud raised a small capital of my own ; 
with this sum I trafficked. Once my lather brought for me a 
female slave from Tartary, and he once purchased some horses 
from which he gave me also a promising young colt, and I 
used to feed it from my own little property. At last seeing 
the ingratitude of my brothers, I brought a house and went 
and resided there ; this dog followed me also. I purchased 
the requisite articles for house keeping, and brought two 
slaves for attendance ; with the remainder of my capital I 
opened a shop for clothes, and placing my confidence inGod 
I sat down quietly in it. I was contented with my fate, though 
my brothers had behaved unkindly to me ; but God was 
gracious. In three years time my shop encretsed so greatly 
that I became a man of credit ; whatever clothes or dresses 
were required in every great family went from my shop ; my 
profits were concederable, and I became affluent in my cir- 
cumstances ;every hour I offered up my prayers to the Pure 
God and lived at my ease, and often repeated these Verses 
on my ease: 

Why let the Prince be displeased, 
We have nothing to do with him, 
Except thyself, O Mighty Prince. (165) 
What other sovereign can 1 praise ? 
Lot my Brothers be displeased, 
Nothing can they to harm me do ; 
To thee alone we look for help, 
And to whom else shall we apply '( 
Let the friend or foe be dUpleas'd, 
Do thou vouchsafe to bear me through ; 
Let the World be wrathful with me. 
But thou dost for transcend the world ; 
If ihou art not displeas'd with me, 
Then all mankind may kiss my thumb, 

In happened that on a Friday I was sitting at home, when 
a slave of mine had gone to the Kazar for necessaries ; 
after a short time he returned in tears ; I asked him the 
reason, and what happened to him. He replied with anger, 
" What is it to you '( you enjoy yourself, but what answer 
will you give on the day of judgment ?" I said, " O Infidel, 
what demon has passed thee i" He answered, u This is the 
dreadful reiison ; your eldest brother's arms are tied behind 
his back in the Chouk by a Jew ; he beats him which roads, and 
laughs and says, "If thou dost not pay my money I will beat 

(165) Alluding to God. 


thec to deth, and if I lose my money by the act, it will be at 
least meritorious in the eyes of God. Such is your brother's 
treatment, and you are indifferent ; is this right ? and what 
will she world say ?" On hearing these circumstance from 
the slave my blood glowed with fraternal warmth ; I ran 
towards the Chouk with naked feet,and told my slaves to hasten 
with money ; when I arrived there I saw that all the slave 
had said was true ; blows fell on my brother ; I exclaimed to 
the magistrate's guards, "For God's sake forbear a while ; let 
me ask the Jew what great fault my brother has committed, 
ior which he is so severely punished. '' On saying this I went 
up to the Jew and said, " To-day is a sabbath day ; (166) why 
dost thou beat him r* The Jew replied, " If you wish to take 
his part, do it fully, and pay the money for him, or else take 
the road to your house." i said, "What money? produce the 
bond, and I will count thee the money. He replied, that he 
had given the bond to the magistrate. At this moment my 
slaves brought two bags of money. I gave a thousand 
pieces of silver to the Jew and released my brother ; he was 
in a sad plight ; naked, hungry, and thirsty. 1 brought him 
with me to my house, and had hino instantly bathed in the 
bath and dressed in new clothes, and gave him a hearty 
meal ; never asked him what he had done with our father's 
great wealth, lest he might feel ashamed. O King, they are 
both present; ask them if 1 tell truth or falsify some cir- 
cumstances. Well, after some days, when he recovered from 
the bruises and pains of the beating he had suffered, I said 
to them one day, <c O brothers, you have now lost your credit 
in this city, and it is better you should travel for some days, 
until the recollection of what has happened be some what 
effaced." On bearing this they were both silent ; but I per- 
ceived they were satisfied with my proposal. I began to 
make preparations for the journey, and having procured 
tents and conveyance, 1 purchased for them merchandise to 
the amount of 20,000 pieces of silver. A Qafeela (167) of 
merchants was going to Bokhara ; (168) I sent them along 
with it. 

After a year that caravan returned, but I heard no tidiogs 
of my brothers ; at last putting a friend on his oath, 1 asked 

(1G6) The Mahometan Sabbath is Friday. 

(167) A Qafeela means a company of merchants who assamble and 
travel together for mutual protection. It is synonymous with caravan. 

(168) Bokhara is a celebrated city in Tartary ; it was formerly the 
capital of the Province called Mawarunuhor before the Tartar con- 
querors fixed on Sumurqifndj and lies to the northward of the River 
Uxus or Gihoun, which divides Tartary from Persia, or as the Persian 

feographers term it, Iran from Tooran. Bokhara is celebrated by 
'ersian poets for its climate, its fruits, and its beautiful wemen. 


him what had become of them. He replied, " When they 
went to 'Bokhara, one of them lost all his property at the 
gambling house, and is now a sweeper at the same honse, and 
keeps the place of gambling clean, and waits on the gamblers 
who assemble there ; they by way of charity give him some- 
thing, and he goes on their errands. The other brother 
became enamoured of a bozeh Vender's (169) daughter and 
squandered all his property on her, and now he carries 
errands for the Bozeh shop, for which reason the persons of 
the Qqfeela do not mention these circumstance to you, as 
you will be ashamed and hurt at hearing them." On hearing 
these unfortunate circumstances from my friend, I was in a 
strange and sad state ; bungler and sleep vanished through 
grief; taking some money for the expences of the road I set 
out instantly for Bokhara. When I arrived there I searched 
for them both, and finding them, I brought them to the house 
I had taken. I had them bathed and clothed in new dresses, 
and to prevent their being abashed with shame, 1 said not 
a ward to them on what had happened. I again purchased 
some merchandise for them, and returned with them 
home. When we arrived near Nishapore^ I left them in a 
village with all the goods and came secretly to my house ; 
for this reason, that no one might hear of my return. After 
two days I gave out publicly, that my brothers were returned 
from their journey, and that I would go out to-morrow to 
meet them. In the morning, as I wished to set out, a former 
of that village came to me, and began to make loud com- 
plaints ; on hearing his voice 1 came out, and seeing him 
crying I asked, " Whey dost thou weep V 3 He answered, "My 
House has been p ] undered, owing to your brothers ; if you 
had not left them there, this would not have happened." I 
asked, "What misfortune has occurred V He replied, " A 
gang of robbers came at night and plundered their property 
and goods, and my house likewise." I pitied him and asked 
" Where are my brothers ?" He answered, " They are sitting 
without the city, naked and distressed." I instantly took 
two suits of clothes with me and went to them, and clothing 
them brought them to my house, the neighbours hearing 
the circumstances of the robbery, cameto see them, but they 
did not go out through shame. Three months passed in this 
concealment ; at last I reflected within myself, how long will 
they conceal themselves at home : if it can be brought about 
I will take them with me on some voyage of trade. 1 pro- 

(109) The Bozeh is an intoxicating drink made of spirits, the leaves 
of the churns plant, taree and opium, Tarce, erroneously called todee, 
is the juice of the plain tree. 


posed it to my brothres, and added, it' you please I will go 
with you. They were silent. I again made the necessary 
preparations for the voyage, purchased some goods for the 
trade, and set out, and took them with me. After I had 
distributed the customary alms for a prosperous voyage, and 
loaded the merchandise on the boat, we weighed the anchor 
and the boat set sail. This dog was sk-cpiug on the b'mks 
of the river; when he awoke and saw tjie boat in the middle 
of the stream, he was surprised, and barked and jumped in to 
the river and sawm towards the boat, 1 sent a skiff for 
him, and th^y brought the faith fid animal into the boat. 

One month passed in safety on the river ; some how my 
second brother became enamoured of my slave girl, and said 
one day to our eldest brother, Ci That to bear the load of our 
younger briber's favours is very shameful ; what remedy 
shall we happy to this evil ?'* The eldest answered, tf I have 
formed a plain in my mind; if it can be executed it will be a 
great thing/' Both at last consulted together, and settled it 
between them to destroy me, and seize all my property and 
goods One day I was asleep in the cabin, and the female 
slave was shnmpoing me, (170) when my second brother 
came in hastily and awaked me I started up in a hurry and 
ran on deck ; this dog also followed me. 1 saw my eldest 
brother leaning against the boat's side, looking at the stream 
of the river and calling me. 1 went up to him and said, u I 
hope all is well,' 5 He answered, " Behold this strang sight ; 
mer-man are dancing in the stream, with pearl oysters and 
branches of coral in their hands ; if any other had related 
this strange circumstance, I should not have believed it. " I 
imagined what my brother said to be true, and leand over 
to look at it ; but how much soever I looked I perceived 
nothing, and he kept saying, " Do you see it ?" But had 
there been any thing I should have seen it. Perceiving me 
by this trick off my guard, my second brother came behind 
me unperceived, and gave me such a push that I tumbled 
into the water,and they began to scream and cry aloud, " Run, 
run, our brother has fallen over board." In the mean time 
the boat went on, and the waves carried me away from it ; I 
was plunging in the water and drifting with the waves ; I was 

( 1 70) Agreateful and luxurious operation in the warm climate of India, 
more especially after the fatigue of travelling] it is generally performed 
by women among the rich orientals, and adds to the pleasure they fell ; 
with their delicate hands they press and gently beat the legs and thighf 
of the fatigued or indolent wretch, who is stretched out on a bed or 
carpet. Shampoing is an awkward word ; I do not know its etymology 
the French have a better word, masser. The natives say it has a phy- 
sical advantage, as it quickens their languid circulation , perhaps they 
are right. 


at last quite exhausted, and recalling God to my mind I gave 
myself up for lost, when all of a sudden m} 7 hand touched 
something; I looked at it and saw this dog ; perhaps when 
they pushed me over hoard, he also jumped after me and 
kept swimming by my side. I took hold of his tail, and God 
made him the cause of my salvation. Seven days and nights 
passed in this manner : the eighth day we reached the shore. 
I had no strength left, but throwing myself on my back, I 
rolled along as well as I could, and threw myself on the land. 
1 remained senseless the first day ; the second day the dog's 
barking reached my ears and I came to myself. I thanked 
God for my salvation, and looking around me I perceived a 
city at adistance, but where had I strength to go to it ? Hav- 
ing no other resource I crawled a few paces and then rested; 
in this way 1 proceeded a cone (171) by the evening; half 
way to the city 1 reached a mountain and lay there all night; 
the next morning 1 reached the city ; when 1 came to the 
bazar and saw the confectioner's and baker's shops, my 
heart grieved that I had not money to buy, nor did 1 wish to 
beg in this way I want along, saying to myself, I will ask 
something in the next shop; a^ last the little remains of 
strength I had filled me, and my stomach yearned with 
extreme hunger ; life was nearly quitting my body, when by 
chance 1 saw two young men coming along arm in arm, 
dressed like Persians ; on seeing them by spirits revived, as 
they seemed by their dress by to be my countrymen, perhaps 
some of my acquaintance, to whom I might relate my cir- 
cumstances. When they drew near I perceived they were my 
brothers ; and no perceiving this I was extremely rejoiced, 
and praised God that I should be saved from the humiliation 
of stretching forth my hands to strangers for subsistence, for 
1 did not then know the infernal villainy of their hearts; I 
went up to them and saluted them, and kissed my eldest 
brother's hand. On recognising me they made a great noise, 
and my second brother struck me so forcibly that I staggered 
and fell. I seized my eldest brother's robe, and thought 
that he would perhaps take my part ; but he geve a violent 
kick. In short they both pounded me well and behaved to 
me like Joseph's brothers did to him; though I besought 
them in God's name to desist, they felt no pity ; a crowd 
assembled round us, and demanded what fault I had com- 
mitted ; my brothers replid, " This rascal was our brother's 
servant, and pushed him overboard and seized all his property; 
we have been long in search of him, and have met him 
to-day by chance." They then turned towards me and said, 

(171) A cose is generally two English miles. 


" O villain ! what infernal idea entered thy mind that thon 
murderedst onr brother : what had he down to thec ; had ho 
behaved ill to thee that he had made thec superintendant of 
his affairs r ' They then tore their own clothes, and wept 
loudly with sham'grief for their brother, and beat and kicked 
me cruely 

In the mean time the soldiers of the Governor arrived, and 
ordered thorn to forbear and said, "Why do you beat him ?" 
And taking hold of my hand they carried me to the magis- 
trate. This two (172) also went with us, and repeated the 
same tale to him which they had told the crowd, and giving 
him a bribe demanded justice, and blood for blood. The 
majestrate asked me what I had to say Cor myself. I was so 
enfeebled from gunner and the blows I had received, that I 
had not strength to make a repliy ; hanging down my head, 
1 was standing in silence, and was not able to give an answer ; 
which circumstance perhaps induced the Majestrate to be- 
lieve that I was guilty, and he ordered me to be led to the 
plain ind placed on the stake, (173) O protector of the 
world (174) 1 had paid money and got these two here re- 
leased from the Jew's bondage ; in return for which they 
gave money to take away my life : they are both present ; 
ask them if in all I have related I have varied a hair's 
breadth from the truth. Well, they led me to the plain ; 
when 1 saw the stake 1 gave myself up for lost, and ex- 
cept this dog I had no one else to weep for me ; his state 
was such that he rolled on every one's feet and barked ; some 
beat him with sticks and others with stones,buthe would not 
stir from thence. I stood with my face towards the qibla, (175) 
and addressing myself to God, I said, " At this awful moment 
I have no one except Thee to intervene and save the innocent! 
No\v, if then sav>st, I am saved." After this address, 1 re- 
peated the prayer of shuhaditf.) (1/6) staggered, and fell. 

By the mercy of God it to happened, that the King of that 
country was attacked with a. stroke of the palsy ; the Nobles 
and Physicians assembled ; whatever remedies they replied 
produced no good : One holy man said, ; * The best of all 
remedies is, that alms be given to the poor and the prisoners 

(172) Pointing to his two brothers who were present and heard his tale 

(17S) The stake was a common nvuie of punishment in India in 
former days, and is still practised among the seiks* Mharratlas and 
other Asiatic Princes, who are independent of our Government. 

(174J Alluding to the King Azndbukht. 

poT ) The Qibla is the city of Mecca in Arabia ; all Mahometans 
must turn towards it when they prav. 

( \lft) The prayer of Martyrdom "among the Monsiihnniins. It is 
often repeated when they go into action againatChristiana audPagans. 


released ; for prayers are better than physic." Instantly the 
royal messengers flew towards the prisons ; by chance one 
came to the plain where I was, and seeing a crowd he im- 
agined they were placing some one on the stake ; struck 
with the thought, he galloped up to the stake and cut the 
ropes with his sword, and reproached and beat the Magis- 
trate's soldiers and said, " At such a time, when the King is 
in such a state, your are going to put a creature of God to 
death," and he got me realesed Upon which these two 
brothers went again to the Magistrate and urged him to put 
me to death ; as he had already laken a bribe from them, he 
readily acquiesced to their wishes and said, u Rest satisfied ; 
1 will now confine him in such a way that he will die of 
himself from want of food and drink, and no one will know 
any thing about it." They reseized me and brought me to 
the Magistrate, and kept me in a corner, about a cose with- 
out the city was a mountain, in which, in the time of 
Solomon, the Genii had dog a dark and narrow well ; it was 
called the prison of Solomon ; and whoever fell greatly under 
the King's wrath was confiened in that well, where he perished 
of himself from hunger and thrist. To shorten, my story these 
two borthers and the Magistrate's soldiers carried me at night 
in secrecy and silence to the mountain,and putting me into the 
well, they secured me returned. O King, this dog went 
with me, and when they put me into the well he lay on its 
brink ; I lay long senseless in the inside, and when I regain- 
ed a little consciousness I conceived my self a corpse, and 
that place my grave. A t this time I heard the sounds of two 
men's voices, who were saying something to each other, and 
conceived they were Nukeer and Moonkir, (177) the angels 
of death who were come to question me, and I likevush heart 
the rustling of ropes, as if something had been let down, I 
was wondering and began to fell about me, when bones came 
into my gripe ; after a moment a noise like some one mas- 
ticating struck my ears, and 1 exclaimed, ' c O creatures of 
God, who are ye, tell me for God's sake ?" They laughed 
and said, "This prison rs Solomon's, and we are prisoners." I 
asked them if 1 was alive. They again laughed heartily and 
replied, " You are as yet alive, but will soon die." 1 said, 
"What are you eating ? whatever it be, give me a little of it 
I beseech you." They then got angry and gave me a dry 
answer, but nothing else. After eating they fell asleep. Faint 
and weak 1 fell into a swoon ; and wept and dreamed of God 
Mighty Sire, I had been seven days in the sea, and so many 

(177) According to Mahometan superstition, Nufaer and Moonkir 
are to Angels who called tbe dead tu an account. 


days since without food, owing to my brother's false accusa- 
tion ; instead of food I had got a beating, and was now 
ingulphed in such a prison, that no appearance of release 
whatever came into my fancy ; at hist life was leaving 
me ; sometimes it left me, and then returned like the expir- 
ing light on an exhusted lamp. Sometimes a person came 
at midnight, and let down by a rope some bread tied up in 
an handkerchief, and a jar of water, and called out ; those 
two men who were confined near me used to seize it and eat 
it ; the dog (178) saw this constantly from above, and divine 
instinct led him to devise some means to convey some food 
to his helpless master, in the same manner, and save his life; 
conducted by this divine instinct lie went to tlie city, and 
saw round cakes of bread piled up at the baker's shop ; leap- 
ing up be seized a cake in his mouth, and ran off with it ; 
the people pursued him and pelted him with stones ; but he 
would not quit the cake ; they became tired of pursuing him 
and returned ; the dogs of the city ran after him ; he fought 
them and saved the cake; he came to the well and threw it 
in ; there was sufficient light for me to see the cake lying 
near me, and 1 heard moreover the dog bark, which made 
me look around me and 1 took up the cake. After throwing 
down the cake the dog went to look for water; near some 
village there was an old woman's hut; a full pot of water 
stood at the door, and the old woman was spinning ; the dog 
went up to the pot and attempted to seized it ; the old woman 
made a noise, and the pot slipt from the dog's mouth, fell, and 
broke ; she seized a stick, and rose up to beat the animal ; it 
seized the end of her clothes, and began to rub its mouth on 
her feet, and wag its tail, and than ran towards the mountain ; 
then returning to her, it sometimes seized a rope and some- 
times a bucket, and then pulled the end of her dress and 
howled most piteously The Almighty inspired the old woman 
with sufficient understanding to comprehend the meaning of 
the dog's strange actions and she took up the rope and 
bucket and followed the dog, he keeping hold of the end of 
her clothes, brought her out of the hut and went on before 
her and at last guided her to the mountain } the old woman 
imagined from the dog's conduct, that his master was con- 
fined in the well, and that he perhaps wanted water for him. 
In short he conducted the old woman to the mouth of the well, 
and she filled the backet with water and let it down. 1 seized 
it; eat some of the cake, and drank two or three gulps of 
the water, and satisfied my hunger and thirst ; I thanked God 

(173) Here I have changed the original a good -leal, to render it less 
absurd and less incredible. 


for this timely supply, and retired to a corner and waited 
with patience for the interference of the Almity to see what 
would happen. Jn this manner this dumb animal brought 
me bread, and by means of the old woman procured me 
water. When the bakers perceived that the dog always 
carried off bread in this way, they took compassion on him, 
and used to throw him a cake whenever they saw him, and 
if the old woman neglected to carry the water he broke her 
pots, which obliged her to let dawn a bucket of water every 
day ; by this means this faithful animal removed all my 
apprehensions for bread and water, and he always Jay at the 
mouth of the prison. 

Six months passed in this manner ; but what must be the 
condition of the man who is confined so long in such a prison, 
where fresh air could scercely reach him ? my skin and bones 
alone remained ; life became a burthen to me, and I used to 
pray to God to deliver me from such existence. One night 
the two Prisoners were asleep ; my heart was heavy and I 
began to weep bitterly, and besought the Almighty to end 
my woes At the last quarter of the night, what do I see 
that by the mercy of God a rope was hanging in the well, 
and I heard a low voice saying, " O unfortunate wretch ! tie 
the end of the rope tightly to thy hands, and escape from this 
place/' On hearing these heavenly words I imagined, that 
my brothers had at last felt compassion for me, and from the 
ties of blood were induced to come and take me out; with 
much joy 1 tied the rope t nightly to my waist; some one 
pulled me up; the night was so durk that 1 could not 
recognise the person who had hauled me up. When I was 
out, he said, if Come, be quick ; this is no place to tarry." I 
had no strength left and my limbs were si iff' through long 
confinement ; but from fear I rolled down the hill as I could. 
I saw at the bottom two horses standing ready saddled ; that 
person assisted me to mount one of them, and he mounted 
the other himself and took the lead. Proceeding on we 
reached the banks of a river, the morning appeared, and we 
had gone ten or twelve cose from the city. I then saw the 
young man very clearly ; he was well armed and mounted, 
and looking at me with great rage and bitting his lips, he 
drew his sword, and springing his horse towards mine he made 
a cut at me. I threw myself off my horse on the ground, and 
called out for mercy, and said, St 1 am faultless; why do you 
wish to kill me ? O kind Sir, from such a prison yon have 
taken me out, and now wherefore this unkindness?" He 
replied, " Tell me the truth, who art thou .?" I answered. " I 
am a traveller, and have been involved in numerited calamity ; 
by your humane assistance I have come out alive." And I 

FOWR DL'li \VE8H. 93 

addressed to him many othor softening expressions. God 
inspired his heart with pity. lie sheathed his sword and 
said, "Wcllj what God wills he does; go, I forgive thee thy 
life ? remount quickly ; this is noplace to delay." We push- 
ed the horses, and went on briskly; on the road I grieved, 
lepentcd, yet went along. By three o'clock in the afternoon 
we reached an island ; there the young man got off his horse, 
and made me alight, and took the saddles off the horses, and 
let them loose to graze; he took off his arms and sat down 
and said to me, "O unfortunate wretch, relate now thy story, 
that I may know who thou art." I told him my name and place 
of residence, and all ihathad befallen me I related to the end. 
When the young man heard all my adventures he wept, 
and looking at me he said, " O youth, hear now my story. 
I am the daughter of the Rajah of Zairbad, (179) and 
that young man who is confined in the prison of Solomon, 
his name is bafiunnund ; he is the son of my father's prime 
minister. One day the Rajah desired that all the Rajahs and 
Kounwurs (180) should assemble on the plain, which lay 
under the lattices of the seraglio, to shoot arrows and p'.av 
at chouyau (181) that the dexterity and horsemanship of 
each may appear. 1 was seried near the Ranee (182) my 
mother, behind one of the lattices of the highest story and 
beholding the amusement; the female servants and slaves 
were in waiting around. The minister's son was the hand- 
somest man among tham ; he caracoled his horse with great 
elegance, and performed his exercises with much andres? ; 
he appeared very agreeable in my eyes, and my heart bucame 
enamoured of him. 1 kept this circumstance concealed for 
a long while; at last when I became quite restless, I mention- 
ed it to my maid, and gave her many presents to gain her 
assistance. She contrived by some means or other to intro- 
duce the youth in secrecy into my apartment ; he then began 
to love me likewise, and many days passed in these love 
interviews ; but the sentinels saw him one midnight going 
armed into my apartment, and seized him and informed 
the Rajah of the circumstance ; the Rajah ordered him to 
be put to death ; through the solicitations of ail the officers 
of state his life was pardoned, but he was ordered to be 
thrown into the prison of Solomon ; and the other young 

(179) The name of the countries which lie, as the people of Hindoo- 
stan term it, below Bengal, i e. to the South Easi of it ; the name in- 
cludes the kingdoms of Avu and Pegue. 

(180) Kounwur in the Hindoo name for the 'son of a Rajah. 

(181) Chougan is a Persian sport performed on horse back, with a 
large ball, like a foot ball, which is knocked forward with blunt spears. 

(182) Ranee is the Hindoo iiame of a R&jah's wife. 


man who is a fellow prisoner with him, is his bosom friend, 
and was with him the night he was seized. Both were 
put into the well, and it is now three years since they 
were confined, but no one has yet found out why the 
youth entered the Rajalis palace ; God preserved my charac- 
ter from public exposure, and in return for His goodness 
1 conceived it my duty to supply the two prisoners with 
bread and water. Since their confinement I go there every 
eight days and let them down eight day's provisions at once. 
Last night 1 dreamt, that some body advised me to arise 
quickly and take horse, a dress, a rope-ladder and some 
money for expences, and go to the well and deliver the unfor- 
tunate prisoners ; this dream made me start upfrom my sleep, 
and bring greatly rejoiced at it, I dressed myself like a man, 
filled a casket with gold and jewels, and taking some clothes 
and these two horses wiili me, I went to the prison to draw 
them out with the rope-ladder; but it was your fate to be 
delivered from such a confinement through my means; no one 
knows what 1 have done ; perhaps your protecting angal sent 
me to enlarge you. Well, it was my ill fate that things should 
turn out as they have done, and it cannot now be helped." 

After finishing this relation, she took out some cakes and 
meat from her handkerchief: but first she dissolved some 
sugar in a cup of water, and put some spirit of Haidmooshq 
in it and gave it to me ; I took it from her hand and drank 
it, and then eat some breakfast. After a short while, she 
made me wrap a piece of cloth round my waist and led me 
to the river, and cut my hair and nails and bathing me, 
dressed me in the clothes she had brought, and made a new 
man of me, I turned to the Qibla and offered up my prayers 
for her welfare ; the beautiful girl regarded what 1 was doing, 
and when I had finished she asked me, " What hast thou 
done ?" I answered, " I have performed my devotions, and 
offered up my grateful acknowledgements to that Almighty 
and Incomparable being, who has created the universe, and 
who has delivered me from such a prison, and sent so 
beautiful a \voman to attend on me, and made thy heart kind 
towards me. 9 ' On hearing these words she said, u You are a 
Moosuhnaun" i replied. "Thanks be to God I am." My 
heart, said shr, is delighted wiih your pious expressions ; 
teach me also to repeat those prayers. I said to myself, God 
be praised that she is inclined to embrace our faith. In 
short I repeated our Creed, and made her repeat it ; then 
mounting our horses we set out from thence. When we 
halted at night, she talked of nothing else but our religion 
and faith; and listened with pleasure and attention to what 
I said on the subject. 



IN this way we journeyed on together for two months : at 
last we arrived in a countary which lay bet ween the boundaries 
of the kingdoms of Zairlad and ^urimdeep ; (183) a city 
appeared which was more populous than Constantinople, and 
the climate very fine ; the King of the country was as renowr- 
ed for his justice as Cyrus, and lor being the protector of 
the husband man ; my heart was greatly rejoiced at the si^ht 
of this city, where 1 bought a house and took up my resi- 
dence. After a repose of some days, when I had got over ihe 
fatigues of the journey, I purchased the necessary article and 
married the young Lady according to the rites of Muhumud 
and lived with her. In the space of three years I formed ac- 
quaintances with the great and small of that place, establish- 
ed my credit, and entered into an extensive trade, and at 
last surpassed all the merchants there 

One day I went to wait on the first IVazeer^ and saw a 
great crowd assembled on a plain ; I asked some one the 
cause of it, and learnt that two persons were caught in steal- 
ing and adultery, and perhaps in murder, and they were 
brought there to be lapidated. On hearing this circum- 
stance I recollected my own case ; that once I had likewise 
been led in the same manner to be staked, and that God 
preserved me. I know not, said I to myself, who these are 
that are involved in such calamity ; I do not even know if 
they are realty guilty, or like me are falsely accused. Press- 
ing through the crowd I reached the spot where the culprits 
stood, and perceived they were my Brothers, who were led 
along with their hands tied behind their backs, and with 
naked heads and feet. On seeing their sad state my blood 
glowed with fraternal warmth an:l my bowels yearned. I gave 
the guards a handful of gold, and besought them to delay 
the execution for a moment: and went full speed from thence 
on the horse to the Governor's house. 1 presented him a 
ruby of greal value and solicited their pardon. He replied, 
" A person has a plaint against them, and their crime is fully 
provided ; the king's mandate has been issued, and 1 can do 
nothing," At last, after much entreaty on my part, tho 
Governor sent for the complainant, and satisfied him by a 
promise of giving him five thousand pieces of silver, to 
with draw his complaint and forgive the culprits. 1 gave him 

(183) Zaitbod is Ava and Pegue See note 170. Snrundeep is the 
Hindoo name for the Island of "Ceylon ; also called Lunka from its 


the money and got his written engagement not lo prosecute 
them agiin, and had them released from their dreadful situ- 
ation. O Protector ! ask these two here if I tell truth or 
falsehood ; (the two Brothers stood in silence and hungdown 
their heads with shame) well, I got them released and brought 
them to my house, had them bathed and dressed, and gave 
them apartments to live in, in the dewankhana. I then did 
not show my wife to them ; I attended to all their wants, 
and eat and drank with them ; and at the hour of sleep 
returned to my apartment. 

They staid with me three years, and I saw nothing wrong 
in their conduct during that time at which I could be dis- 
pleased : when I went out they remained at home. It hap- 
pened that my good wife went one day to the bath ; when 
she came to the dewankhana, seeing no one there she took 
off her cloak ; perhaps my second Brother was lying down 
there ami awoke and saw her ; lie became enamoured of her, 
and imparted thecircumstance to our eldest Brother; ami they 
formed a plan together to murder me. I knew nothing of this 
circumstance at she time, but used to say to myself, God be 
praised that this lime, untill now, they have done nothing 
wrong ; thnir conduct is now correct; perhaps they have felt 
the effects of shame. One day after dinner, my eldest Brother 
began to weep and praised our native country, arid described 
the delights of jfm 5 ( !84)On hearing this the other Brother 
likewise began to sigh. I said, "If you wish to return to 
our native land, let us go ; I am devoted to yor.r wishes and 
it is also my wish ; now if it please God I will go along with 
you.'" 5 I related the circumstance of my Brother's afflictions 
10 my Wife, and also my intentions. That sensible woman 
replied, " You know best ; but they again design to deceive 
you ; they ore the enemies of your life ; you have fostered a 
snake in your bosom, and you still rely on their regard ; do 
what you please, but bewareof the worthless.*' 

Hastening matters as much as I could, the preparations 
for the journey were completed in a short time,aad the tents 
pitched on the plain. A <jreat qafeeli assembled and they 
agreed to make mo the Qafeela-bash>e(lS5) A propitious hour 
being ascertained we all set out ; but I was on my guard 
against my Brothers, though I obeyed their commands in 

f 184J Iran means Persia in it* limited sen.?o, i. e. Persia Proper. 

("185J The Qfifee'a- Bashee is the chief of the qnfcela or company of 
merchants, who travel in a body for mutual safety, and compose what 
is commonly called a Caravan, properly a Kfirtcmn ; the richest and 
most respectable merchant of the party i* gent-rally elected BashfB ; 
all the rest obey his orders, and he directs the movements of the Kar- 
u-an lie has moreover judicial powers. 


every way and made every thing agreeable to them. One day 
when we arrived at our stage my second brother said, " That 
one Jursookh (186) from this place in a fountain like SM/S- 
beel, (187) and in the circumjacent plain for miles around, lilies 
and tulips and narcissuses grow spontaneously ; in truth it is 
a delightful spot, and worthy to be seen ; if I had my will I 
would go there to-morrow, enliven my heart with the sight, 
and recover from my fatigues." I said, cc You are master 
here ; if you wish it we will halt to-morrow, and go to the 
spot, and view it, and amuse ourselves P' He replied, "What 
can we do better V I gave orders to advertise the qafeela that 
there would be a halt the next day, and said to my attendants 
to get breakfast of every kind ready to-morrow, as we should 
go on a excursion of pleasure. When the morning came 
thpse two brothers put on their clothes and armed them- 
selves, and begged of me to make haste, that we might arrive 
there in the cool of the morning and view the place. I order- 
ed my horse ; but they observed,'' That the pleasure we will 
derive by viewing the place on foot, we shall not have on 
horseback ; tell the groom to lead the horses after us." These 
two slaves (188) carried the quleean, (189) and coffee pot 
with us; we amused ourselves on the road by shooting 
arrows, and when we had gone some distance from the en- 
campment, they sent one of the slaves on some errand ; ad- 
vancing a little farther, they sent the other slave to call back 
the first. My unfortunate fate would have it that I remained 
silent, as if some one had put a seal on my lips, and they did 
what they wished,and occupied my attention in talk ; this dog 
was with me. When we bad advanced a considerable way, I 
saw neither fountains or flowers, but a plain covered with 
thorns and briars ; there 1 had an urinary call, and sat down 
to perform it ; I saw behind me the flash of a sword, and on 
looking back my second brother struck me with his sword 
and clove my skull ; before I could call out, u O savage ! 
why dost thou murder me, " my eldest brother gave me a 
blow on the shoulder ; both wounds were severe, and I 
staggered and fell ; then these two cruel savages mutilated 
me at their ease, and left me weltering in my blood ; this 
dog on seeing my condition flew at them, and they wounded 
him likewise. After this they gave themselves some slight 

The fursoot/i is a measure of distance in Persia, and contains 
(5160 yards ; it is sometimes called afursung. 

(187) Sulsabeel is the name of a fountain in Paradise, according to 
Mahometan superstition. 

(188) The two who guarded the iron cage in which the Brothers 
were confined. 

(189) The quleean is the Persian hooka, 


wnunds, ami ran back to the encampment with naked feet 
and heads and said, "That some robbers had murdered their 
brother on ihe plain, and wounded themselves also in the 
fight, and advised the qafeela to move off quickl} 7 or else the 
robbers would soon fall on them and rob them all.*' When 
the people of the qttfeela heard the name of robbers, they 
became alarmed and confused, and marched off with haste. 
My wife had already heard of these brothers' good qualities 
and their former conduct, and of all the treachery they had 
practised towards me ; hearing now from my false brothers 
of the accident which was said to have happened to me,she 
instantly stabbed herself to death with her dagger, and res- 
tored her soul to her Maker. 

O Durweshes / (190) when the dog-worshipping Khaja had 
in this manner brought the relation of his misfortune and 
adventures to this length, I wept involuntarily on hearing 
them ; he preceived my grief and said, " Lord of the World ! 
if it was not a want of respect, I would strip myself naked 
and show the whole of my body.*' Even on this, to prove the 
truth of what he related, he tore the upper part of his dresa 
and phowed his breast ; in truth there was not a space of 
four fingers on it free from wounds ; and he took off his 
turban before me from his head, and there was such a great 
dint in his skull that a whole pomegranate might be put 
into it. All the Officers of State who were present shut their 
eyes, and could not behold the shocking sight. The Khaja 
continued his narrative by saying, "O blessed Majesty ! when 
these brothers thought they had finished their work and went 
away, one side I and one side this dog lay wounded near me. 
I lost so much blood that I had no strength or knowledge left, 
and I cannot conceive how life remained. 

Where I lay was the boundary of the kingdom of Surundeep, 
and a very populous city was situated near the place ; there 
was in that city a great pagoda. and the King of that country 
had a handsome daughter ; many Kings and Princes were 
in love with her; the women of that country did not conceal 
themselves, for which reason the Princess used to go out a 
hunting all day with her companions ; near the spot where I 
lay was a royal garden ; she had that day got leave from her 
father and had come to the garden, and during her ride she 
chanced to pass over the plain where I lay ; some female 
attendants accompanied her on horseback and came to the 
spot where I was ; hearing my groans they stopped near me; 
but seeing me weltering in my blood they rode off to the 

(190J Here the King Azadlukht speaks in his own person, and ad- 
dresses himself to the Dtirweshcs. 


Princess and said, "That a man and a dog are lying weltering 
in their blood." On hearing this from them the Princess her- 
self came near me, and afflicted at the sight she exclaimed "See 
if any life still remains !" Two or three of the attendants dis- 
mounted and examined me, and replied, u He still breathes.' 1 
The Princess instantly ordered them to lay me on a carpet 
and carry me to the garden. When they brought me there 
the royal surgeon was sent r'oiymd ho was ordered to attend 
strictly to my and the dog's cure, and was promised great 
rewards. The surgeon wiped my whole body, cleaned the 
wounds, and washed them with spirits,stitched them, and put 
on plasters, and instead of water poured the spirit of Baid- 
mooshq into my throat. The Princess herself used to sit at 
the head of my bed and see that I was attended to ; and three 
or four times during the day and night she made me swallow 
from her own hands, some broth or shurlut At last when 
I came to myself I heard the Princess say with sorrow/ 4 What 
bloody tyrant hath used thee so cruelly ; did he not feat- 
even the Great Idol ?'' (191) After ten days, with the help 
of the spirit of Buidmooshq and thurbuts and majoon, I 
opened my eyes, and saw that elysian beauties were standing 
around me, and the Princess at the head of my bed ; I 
heaved a heavy sigh and wished to speak, but had not suf- 
ficient strength/The Princess said with kindness,"O Persian, 
be comforted and do not grieve, though some cruel savage 
hath used thee thus; but the Great Idol has made me favour- 
able towards thee, and thou wilt now recover." I swear by 
that God who is one and unequalled, that no beholding her 
charms I became again senseless ; the Princess perceived it, 
and sprinkled rose water over my face with her own fair 
hands. In twenty days my wounds filled up ; the Princess 
used to come regularly at night when all slept, and feed me. 
In short after forty days I got quite well and bathed ; the 
Princess was extremely rejoiced, and rewarded the surgeon 
largely and clothed me richly. By the grace of God and the 
care and attentions of the Princess, I became quite stout, 
healthy, and fat ; the dog also got quite well ; she made me 
drink wine every day, heard my conversation, and was pleased 
I used also to amuse her by relating some agreeable stones. 
One day she asked me to relate my adventures, and tell her 
who I was, and how this accident happend to me. 1 related 
all my adventures to hear from beginning to end. On hear- 
ing them she wept and said, " I will now behave to thee in 
such a manner that thou wilt forget all thy past misfortunes.' 5 
I replied, " God preserve you ; you have bestowed on me a 

(191 ) The Image of the Divine po\ver in that country of Pagans. 


new existence, and I am now wholly your's; for God's sake 
be ever equally kind and favourable to me." In short she 
used to sit all night with me alone ; sometimes the Nurse 
likewise staid with her, and heard my stories, and related 
others herself. When the Princess used to go away and L 
remained alone, I used to perform my ablutions, and con- 
cealing myself in a corner I used to say my prayers. Once 
it so happened that the Princess had gone to her father, and 
1 was repeating my prayers in perfect security, after having 
performed my ablutions, when suddenly the Princess entered, 
saying to her Nurse, " Let us see what the Persian is doing; 
is he asleep or awake ?" But seeing me not in my place,she 
was greatly surprised and exclaimed, " Hey day ! where is 
he gone ? I hope he has not formed any connection with 
some one." She began to examine every corner in search of 
me, and at last came to where I was saying my prayers. She 
had never seen any one perform his prayers ; (192) she stood 
in silence and looked on. When I had finished my prayers, 
and lifted up my arms to bless God, and prostrated myself, 
she langhed loudly and said, " What ! is this man become 
mad ? what is he about !" On hearing the sound of her laugh 
1 became alarmed. The Princess advanced and asked me, 
" O Persian, what wast thou doin<j ?" I could make no reply 
on which the Nurse said, " My dear Lady, it apears to me 
that this man is a Moosulmaun, and the enemy of Laut and 
Manaut ; ( 1 93) he worships God without seeing him.' 5 On 
hearing this the Princess exclaimed with regret and .displea- 
sure, " I did not know he was a Turk and a foe to our Gods, 
for which reason he drew on himself the wrath of our Idol ; 
I have to no purpose saved him and kept him in my house." 
Saying this she went away. On hearing her words I became 
disturbed, and alarmed to know how she would now behave 
to me ; sleep fled through fear, and untill morning 1 wept 
and bathed my face with tears. 1 passed three days and 
nights in this fear and perturbation and in tears ; I never 
shut an eye during this time. The third night the Princess 
came to my apartment flushed with wine, and the Nurse 
along with her. She was fall of anger, with bow and arrows 
in her hand ; she sat down outside of the room on the border 
of the chumun ; (194) she asked the Nurse for a cup of wine, 
and drinking it off, she said, (( O Nurse ! is the Persian who 

(192) That is to say Mahometan. 

(193) Laut and Munawt were the two great Idols of Hindoo wor- 
ship in former times See Dow's Hindoostan, 

(194) The Chumun is a small garden or parterre, which is laid out 
before the sitting room in the interior of the women's apartment , it 
means in general parterres of flowers. 

FUll DUUWESU. 101 

is in volved in our Great Idol's wrath, dead or yet alive ?" 
The Nurse answered, " Dear Child, some life still remains.'' 
The Princess said, * k He h;is now fallen in my estimation ; 
but tell him to eome out/' The Nnrse called me ; I ran out 
and perceived that the Princess's looks were red and inH;mi"d 
with rage ; I was sinking with fear : I sainted her, and join- 
ing both my hands together stood before her in silent respect. 
(ivin^ me a dreadful look, she said to the Nurse, ( - If 1 kid 
this enemy of our faith with an arrow, will the great Idol par- 
don my mult or not? I have committed a great crime by keep 
ing him in mv house, and supplying his wants." The Nurse 
answered, " What is your guilt ? yon did not conceive him an 
enemy when yon took him into your house; yon only took 
compassion upon him, and yon will receive good for the good 
yon have done, and this man will be punished by the great 
Idol for the evil he has done/' On hearing these words the 
Princess said, " Nurse, tell him to sit down/' The Nnrse 
made me a sign to sir. down ; I sat down. The Princess 
drank another cup of wine and said to the Nurse, "Give this 
wretch also a cup, that he may be killed with more ease/ 
The Nnrse presented me a cup of wine ; I drank it without 
hesitation, and made my salain to the Princess ; she would 
not look at me directly, but gave me a side look. When I 
became elevated with the effects of the wine, I began to 
repeat some verses ; among others 1 repeated this verse : 

I am in thy power, and if olive yot, what then ? 
Under the Dagger if one breathed awhile, what then ? 

On hearing this verse she smiled, and turning towards the 
Nnrse she said, " What, art thou sleepy ?" The Nurse guess- 
ing her motive, replied, " Yes, sleep overcomes me.'' She 
then took her leave and went away. After a short pause the 
Princess asked me for a cup of wine ; I quickly filled it 
and presented it to her ; she took it from my hand with 
;tirs and drank it off ; 1 then fell at her feet ; she passed her 
hand kindly over me and said, "O idiot ! what hast ihon seen 
bad in our Great Idol that thou worshipest an unseen God ?" 
I answered, (t He just and reflect a little, that that (tod is 
worthy of adoration who with a drop of liquor hath created a 
lovely creature like thee, and hath given such beauty that the 
hearts of thousands are entrance 1 in a moment ; what is an 
Idol that anyone should worship it? A stone-cutter shapes a 
black of stone into a figure, and spreads a net to entangle 
fools; whoever the devil beguiles, confounds the Creator with 
the Created, and he prostrates himself before that which his 
own hands have formed, I am aAfo9$w/#if{Kfl,and worship Him 


who created me. He hath created a Hell for those misguided 
fools, and a Heaven for us true Delivers ; if you place your 
faith in God,you will experience the delights of Heaven,and 
distinguish truth from falsehood, and find that your present 
devotion is false/' In short, on hearing these pious admoni- 
tions, her stony heart softened, and through the power and 
mercy of God she began to weep and said, " Well, teach me 
thy faith." 1 taught her our prayers, she repeated them with 
sincerity of heart, and renouncing her former faith became a 
true Moosulmaun. I then threw myself at her feet, and 
thanked her. Until the morning she repeated our prayers and 
adjured her own. 

Again she said, " Well, I have embraced your faith, but my 
parents are idolaters ; what shall we do for them ?" I replied, 
u What is it to thee ? as they act, so they will be treated. " 
She said, u They have betrothed me to my Uncle* s Son, and 
he is an idolater; if I should be married to him to-morrow, 
which God forbid, he would cohabit with me, and I should 
bear issue, which would be a dreadful misfortune ; we ought 
to think of some remedy for this now, that I may be freed 
from the pending calamity. " I replied, " What you say is 
right ; do whatever you think proper." She said, " I will 
remain here no longer, but go somewhere else.*' I asked, 
" How can you escape, and where will you go?" She answered, 
" First,do you leave me and put up with Moosulmauns in the 
serai, that every one may hear of it, and not suspect you ; 
do you there look out for tbe departure of vessels, and if any 
vessel sails for Persia, let me know ; for which reason I will 
send the Nurse to you frequently,and when you send me word 
that all is ready, 1 will join you, embark with you, and leave 
this place, and get out of these sad idolaters' hands." I re- 
plied, " I will devote myself to your welfare and your faith, 
but what will you do with the Nurse l' } She answered, u Her 
case can be easily settled ; I will give her a cup of strong 
poison.' ' The plan was fixed upon, arid when the day ap- 
peared, I went to the caravamerai and hired a private 
apartment and put up in it. During this absence I only 
lived in the hopes of meeting again. 

Two months after this event the merchants of Romania, 
Syria, and Persia collected together, and formed the project 
of returning by water, and embarked their merchandise on 
vessels ; from residing together I had formed acquaintances 
with many of them, and they said to me, u Well fcir, come 
along with us ; how long will you stay in this country of 
Infidels VI answered, "What have 1 where with I can return 
to my country > I have only a female slave, a chest, and a dog; 
if yow could give me a little room to stay in and fix its price, 


I shall then be at case and embark likewise. "The merchants 
allotted me a cabin, and I paid its hire. Having secured a 
cabin 1 went to the Nurse's house under some pretext and 
said, " O mother, I am come to take leave of thee and am 
now returning to my country; if I could through your kind- 
ness see the Princess for a moment, it would be a great sa- 
tisfaction to me."After some difficulty she complied with iny 
request. 1 said I will return at night, and wait in such a 
place ; she replied very well. Having settled this point I 
returned to the serai, and carried my chest and bedding on 
hoard the vessel, and delivered ihem in charge to the master, 
and added, '*! will bring my female slave on board to-morrow 
morning." The master said. ' Come early, as I shall weigh 
anchor to-morrow," I answered very well. When the night 
came I went to the place I had fixed upon with the Nurse 
and waited. After the first quarter of the night the gate of 
the seraglio opened, and the Princess came out dressed in 
dirty clothes, with a casket of jewels in her hand ; she de- 
livered the casket to me and went along with me. As soon 
as it was morning we reached the sra side, and embarking 
on a skiff we went on board the vessel ; this faithful dog 
also went with me. When the day was far advanced we weighed 
anchor and set sail; we were sailing along in perfect security, 
when the report of cannon was beard from the port ; all on 
board were surprised and alarmed ; the ship was anchored, 
and a consultation was held to know if the Governor of the 
port intended some foul play,and what could be the cause of 
the firing. It happened that the merchants had some hand- 
some female slave on board, and for fear the Governor of the 
port might seize them, they locked them up in chests; I did 
so likewise and shut my Princess up in my chest. In the 
mean while the Governor and his suite appeared on board a 
vessel sailing towards us ; he soon reached our ship. Perhaps 
the cause of his coming to us was this : That when the news 
of the nurse's death and the Piincess's disappearance was 
carried to the King, he was ashamed to mention the circum- 
stance, but sent orders to the Governor of the port saying, 
<v 1 have beared that the Persian merchants have handsome 
female slaves with them, and as 1 wish to buy some for the 
Princess, you will stop them and send all the slaves that may 
be in the vessel to the presence ; on seeing them I will pay for 
and keep whoever 1 like and return the rest." Acording to the 
King's orders the Governor of the port came himself on board 
our vessel for this purpose. Near my cnbin was the berth of 
another person, who had a handsome female slave locked up 
in his chest ; the Governor satdown on that chest, and began 
to collect all the slaves that could be found ; I praised God 


that no mention was made of the Princess. In short the 
Governor's people put into their boat all the female slaves that 
were to be found; and the Governor laughing asked ihe owner 
of the chest on which lie was sitting/'Tnou had>t also a female 
slave :" The block head was frightend and answered, *'I swear 
by your feet, I alone have not acted in this manner ; but all 
of us from fear of you have concealed our handsome female 
slaves in our chests.'' The Governor on hearing this con- 
fession began to search all the chests; my chest was likewise 
opened, and the Princess taken out. and carried away with 
the rest. I became quite frantic with rage and grief, and 
exclaimed to myself : Such a dreadful circumstance has oc- 
curred that thy life is gone for nothing, and Lord knows how 
the Princess will be treated ! In my grief for her I laid aside 
all regard for my own life, and spent the day and night in 
prayers to God for her safety. When the next morn arrived 
they brought back all the female slave to our vessels in their 
boat ; the merchants were well pleased and each look back 
his own. All returned but the Princess ! I asked what is the 
reason that my slave is not come back with the rest ? They 
answered that they did not know ; perhaps the King had 
chosen her. The merchants began to console and comfort 
me and said, u Well, what has happened is past, do not 
ulilict yourself; we \\ill all subscribe arid make up her price, 
and give it to you." I was quite distracted and said, " I will 
not now go to Persia ; and said to the boatmen. "O friends, 
take me with you and land me on the shore ; they agreed, 
and 1 left the vessel and stepped into the boat ? this dog 
likewise came with me. When 1 reached the port, I kept the 
casket of jewels which the Princess had brought with her, 
mid gave every thing else to the Governor's servants, I 
wandered every where in search of the Princess, that perhaps 
I might get some intelligence of her; but 1 could find no trace 
of her or get the smallest hint. One night I entered the 
King's seraglio by a trick, and searched for her, but got no 

For the space of a month 1 sifted every lane and house in 
Ihe city, and through toil and sorrow reduced myself almost 
to death's door, and wandered about like a lunatic. At last 
1 fancied that she must certainly be in the Governor's house, 
and no where else ; 1 regarded all round his house to find 
out some way by which 1 might enter it ; 1 perceived a 
sewer high enough to allow a man to go in and out, but 
there was an iron grating at its mouth ; 1 formed the plan 
to enter the house by the way of this sewer ; I took off my 
clothe?:, entered into the filthy channel, and broke the 
much difficult. * I entered the 

FOUR DL ill WES II. 105 

mtihnl, (19i>) through the sewer, and putting on the dress of 
a woman I began 10 search and examine around me ; a bound 
from a chamber reached my ear ; as if some one was praying 
fervently; advancing towards place the I saw it was the Prin- 
cess, who was weeping bitterly and prostrate before her 
Maker, and praying to Him that He would voncsafe, for the 
sake of his prophet and his pure offspring, (196) to deliver 
her from this country of infidels, and to restore to her in saf- 
ty the person who had t:iught the faith of Islam* On seeing 
her I ran and threw myself at her feet; she clasped me to 
her bosom and we both fainted away. When we regained 
our senses, I asked her what had happened to her ? she 
answered, u When the Governor of the port carried ail the 
female slaves on shore, I prayed to God that my secret 
might not be known, and that I might not be recognised, 
and your life endangered; His mercy is so great a concealer 
of our shame, that no one knew I was the Piincess. The 
Governor was examining every one with a view to purchase 
some for himself; when it came to my turn he chose me, 
sent me secretly to his house, and curried the rest to the 
King. When my father did not see me among the slaves, 
lie sent them all back. The whole of this scheme was laid 
on my account, and he now gives out that the Princess is 
very ill, and if I am not found my death will be publicly 
promulged in a f.w days ; then the King's shame will not 
be divulged; but 1 am now greatly distressed, as the Gover- 
nor has other designs upon me and always wishes to cohabit 
with me ; I do not agree to his dosires, though he doats on 
me; untill now he was waited for my cheerful acquiescence 
to his desires, and is silent and quiet ; but i dread to think 
hnw long matters can go on in this way ; for which reason 
I have determined within myself, that when he attempts 
any thing else I will put myself to death ; but now that 
have met the another thought strikes me, if God willing ; 
except this mode I see no other for my escape." I replied, 
* Let me hear it ; is your scheme V She said, " If you 
assist : and exert yourself it can be accomplished. 5 ' I said, 
'' I am ready t:> obey your commands ; If you order me I 
would leaf) into the burning flames, and if I could (iud a 
ladder I would for your sake ascnd to the sky, and would 
perform whatever you commanded.'' The Princess said, 
"Go then to the temple of the great Idol, and where shosc are 

(l!>o) The Chorc-muhul i n private scrail, where intrigues are 
curried on by the nm:ter in Asia, unknown to his other wives and mis- 
tresses ; those in th jvdacua of D bailee and Agra havo often heen ha 
sconse of every crime which lust, jealousy, or revt-nge can 
The twelve 


trikcn off (197) ihere lies a piece of black canvas ; the cus- 
tom of his country is, that whoever becomes destitute sits 
in that place and covers himself with the black canvas ; the 
people of this country who go there to worship, give him 
something according to their means ; in three or four days. 
when he collects some monry, the head priest gives him a 
kkelut on the part of the great Idol and dismisses him 
having acquired money he goes away, and no one knows who 
lie was. Go and sit under that covering, a'id hide well thy 
fare and body, and speak to no one. After three days the 
priests will give thee a khelut, and wish greatly to dismiss 
thee ; but do not get up from thence; when they entreat thee 
greatly then tell them, a 1 do not want money or riches ; I 
am an injured person, and am come to compUin ; if the mot 
ther of tirahmvns docs me justice, it is well ; or else the 
great Idol shall do me justice, and lie will himself have 
justice done to me by the person who has injured me. 1 ' 
Until the mother of the ttrahmum does not come hersebf 
to thee, let them entreat thee ever so much, but do no, 
mind them or a^ree to what they say ; for she will at last 
be obliged to come to thee herself ; she is very old, for she 
is two hundred and forty years of age, and six and thirty of 
her sons are the chief priests of the tempb ; she is highly 
respected by the great Idol, for which reason her power is 
so great, that all the great and little of this country think it 
a high honour to comply with her wishes ; whatever she 
commands they perform with all their heart and soul. Lay 
hold of her garment and say to her, " O mother, if }'ou do 
not do justice to this injured traveller, I will dash my head 
on the ground before the great Idol ; he will at last pity me 
and intercede for me with you." When she asks thee what 
is thy complaint ? Tell her, ct I am an inhabitant of Persia, 
and hearing of your justice I am come here from a great diss 
tance, and to see the great Idol ; my wife also came with 
me; I remained here many days sat my ease;she is young and 
handsome ; I do not know how the Governor of the port saw 
her,but he forcibly took her away from me and shut her upin 
his house ; the rule with us Moosulmauns is, that if a stran- 
ger sees our wives or takes them away, it is right that the 
stranger be put to death by whatever means it may be accom 
plished, and our wife be taken back, or else we must quit all 
food ; for whilst the stranger lives, that wife is forbidden to 
the husband. Now having no other resource, 1 am come 
here. Let us see what justice you do to me." 

When the Princess had iustructed me fully in all these 

f 197J The threshold of a pagoda or a mosque. 


circumstances, I took my leave and came out by the same 
sewer, and replaced the iron grating* As soon MS the morn- 
ihg came I went to the temple, and covering myself with tin; 
black canvas I sat down. In three days time so much gold 
and silver and linen wore heaped up near me, that it appeared 
like a mountain ; the fourth day the Priests came to me 
praying and singing with a khelut, and wished to dismiss 
me ; I would not agree to it and called on the great Idol for 
protection, and said 1 am not come to beg but to get justice 
from the great Idol and the mother of the Bhramuns ; and 
until 1 get justice I shall not stire from hence. On heating 
this determination they went to tfce old woman and related 
\vhat I had said ; after which a llrahnntn came to me and 
said, ' Come, ihe mother calls >ou." 1 instantly wrapt my- 
self up in the black canvas fro.n head to foot, and went to the 
threshold of her apartment; 1 saw that the great Idol was 
placed on a stool set with precious stones, and a rice cover- 
ing WHS spread on a stool of gold, on which was seated an 
old woman dressed in black, with .n air of dignity and with 
cushions around her; on her right left and set two boys of 
about ten or twelve. She called me before her; I advanced 
towards her with profound respect, and kissed the foot of her 
stool, and then took hold of the end of her, garment slio 
asked me my story ; I related it exactly as the Princess had 
instructed me to do. On hearing it she said, " Do moosul- 
muns keep their wives concealed;" I replied, " Yes, God 
bless your children ; it is ancient custom " She said, 6k Your 
religion is good; I will iiibtantly give orders that the 
Governor of the port and your wife appear here, and I 
shall punish that as in such a manner that he will not 
act so another time, and all will take warning and trem- 
ble/' She asked her attendants, " Who is the Governor 
of the port, that he dares to take away the wife of another 
by force?" They answered, He is such a one. On hear- 
ing his name she told the two Hoys wJio were sitting ncv-ir 
her, "Take this man along with you instantly and go 
to the King and say, * That the mother orders and the com- 
mands of the great Idol are, that as the Governor of the port 
forces people and does them injustice, an instance of which 
appears in the case of this poor man whose wife he has seized, 
and as his guilt is proved to be great, let an account be 
quickly taken of the delinquent's effects nnd propeity, and 
let them be delivered to this Turk, whom 1 esteem ; or else 
you will be destroyed to-night, and attract on yourself our 
wrath."' The two Boys rose up, came out of the place and 
mounted their horses; all the priests accompanied them, 
blowing their shells and singing hymns. In short the great 


and little of that country conceived the dust of the spot 
when* these boys trod as holy; they used to take it up and 
put it. to their eyes. In this manner they went to the fort 
where the King resided ; he heard of it and advanced wilh 
naked feet to meet them, conduct them with great respect, 
and placed them on the throne near himself and asked them, 
44 What h-is given me the honour of your visit to-day ?" The 
two young tirahmuns repeated on the part of their mother 
all that they had been told, and threatened him with the 
great Idol's anger. On hearing it the King said, " Very welP 
and ordered his attendants to send some soldiers immediately 
to bring the Governor and the woman before the presence, 
that his crime might be examined into and punisned. On 
hearing this order I was greately embarrassed and uneasy, 
and said to myself: This is not quite s> well ; for if they 
bring the Princess with the Governor of the port, the matter 
will be discovered ; what will be then my situation? Being 
extremely alarmed in my mind I looked up to God, but my 
whole frame trembled and 1 was nearly fainting with dread 
The Boys seeing rny color change, perhaps imagined that 
this order was not agreeable to my wish, for the}' instantly 
arose with anger and said harshly to the King, u O wretch, 
thou art it seems become mad, that them dost step out beyond 
the great Idol's obedience, and conceivest what we said to be 
untrue, that thou wishest to send for them both and examine 
the business; now take cure, thou hast fatten under the 
great Idol's wrath; we have delivered our orders : now look 
to ir, or the great Idol will look to thee." On hearing these 
words the King was so greatly alarmed, that joining both his 
hands together, he stood before the Boys and trembled from 
head to foot, and endeavoured to appease them by supplica- 
tions ; but the Boys would not sit down, In the mean time 
11 the Nobles who were present began unanimously to speak 
ill of the Governor and added, (i That he is such a wicked 
man and so tyrannical ; and commits such offences, as we 
cannot relate before the royal presence; and whatever the 
mother of the Brahmuns has sent word of is all true ; for it 
is the great Idol's decion ; how can it be false?' 5 When 
the King heard the same story from a'l, he was ashamed of 
what he had said ; and instantly gave a rich khelut, and an 
order written with his own hands and sealed with his paivate 
seal ; he also wrote a note to the mother of the Brahmuns^ 
and laid trays of gold and jewels before the Boy as presents 
and dismissed them. I return to the temple highly please- 
ed, and went to the old woman. The contents of the King's 
letter which had arrived were, after the usual compliments*, 
" Th-it according to your orders I have given this 


inaiin the place of the (Governor of the port, have likewise 
iriven him the khclut (198) for it ; he is now at liberty to 
put the former Governor to death, if ho wishes it; and all his 
effects and money now belong to this Moosulmauni he may 
do with them what he pleases; I hope my fault will be for- 
given." The mother ot the Bralununs was pleaded with the 
letter, and said/' Let the music strke up in the nowbnt- 
hhana of the qagoda.^ And she commanded five hundred 
solders, who were good mnrksmen, to go with me, and gave 
them orders to go to the port, seize its Governor, and deliver 
him up to this Moosulmaun ; and he may put him to death 
with what tortures he pleases, and take care that except this 
Moosulmnun no one be permitted to enter the Governor's 
seraglio, and deliver over his money arid effects untouched to 
the new Governor; when he sends you back with his own ac- 
cord, get a letter of approbation of your conduct from him arid 
return to me. She gave me a kkelut from the wardrobe of the 
great Idol, and desiring me to set out she dismissed me. When 
J reached the port a messenger proceeded before me, and in- 
formed the Governor of my arrival ; he was sitting in anxiety 
and alarm when I arrived ; my heart was alredy filled with 
rage ; on seeing him I drew my sword and struck him such 
a blow on the neck, that his head spun off his shoulders like 
a top I ordered the treasure, the clerks and officers of the 
port to be seized immediately, and got all their papers and 
accounts. I then entered the seraglio and met the Princess ; 
we embraced each other most tenderly, and wept and praised 
the goodness of God; we wiped each other's tears ; I then 
came out and sat on the musnud, and gave kheluts to the 
ofhcers of the port, aud re-established them in their respec- 
tive situations; to the servants and slaves I gave rewards; 
to those soldiers who had come as an escort from the temple 
1 gave presents, and to their officers hlieluts and dismissed 

After a week's stay at the port I returned to the temple, 
and took with me valuable jewels, gold, fine cottons, shawls, 
brocades and rarities of different,countries, as presents for the 
King, the Noble*, according to their respective ranks, the 
mother of the Krahmuns, and for the Priests, to be divided 
among them. I laid the presents before the old woman; she 
gave me another khelut of dignity and a title; I then went to 
^ the audience of the Kiug, and presented my paishcush. (199) 

^(198) Klirlut or dress of instalment, 

(l'\9) The puishciish is a sum of money which the Governor or Far- 
mer of i* province pays t< the Prince of the country, when lie is appoited 
to his sit Cation. It is the great source of emolument and peculation 
in Asia, frv m tl ' e smallest land holder to the King of the country. 


J addressed his majesty on the best means to remove the 
evil consequences of whatever acts of tyranny and injustice 
the former Govenor of the port had committed ; for which 
reason the King, the Nobles and the Merchants were all well 
pleased with me, and the King showered favours on me, and 
gave me a khelut titles, jageers, (200) and dignity; his 
Majesty then dismissed me. When I came out of the royal 
presence, 1 gave servants and attendants such presents 
that they all applauded me, and prayed for my welfare. In 
short I was quite delighted with the respect and attentions I 
experienced ; and 1 passed my days in that country in ex- 
treme ease and felicity, after marrying the Princess, and 
offered up daily my grateful thanks to God for the happiness 
I enjoyed. The inhabitants were quite happy through the 
equity of my administration ; and once a month I used to go 
to the temple and the King's levee ; his Majesty's esteem for 
me augmented daily ; at last he enrolled me as one of his 
privy counsellors, and did nothing without my advice. My 
life passed in extreme delight; but God only knows that I 
often thought on these two brothers, and was anxious to 
know how they were, and where they were, 
know how they were, and where they were. 

Two years after a qafeela of merchants arrived from the 
country of Zairbad at the port, and was bound to Persia ; 
they wished to return to their own country by sea. It was 
the rule at that port, that whenever a Caravan arrived there, 
the Chiefs of the Caravan presented the Governor with some 
rare presents of different countries; the second day the 
Governor went to the Chief's place of residence, and levied 
ten per cent, duties on the goods, and gave the necessary 
passports and permission to depart. In the same manner 
the merchants from Zairbad likewise came to wait on me, 
and made me rare and valuable presnts; the second day I 
went to their tents arid perceived two men dressed in rags 
who brought packages on their heads before me, and after i 
had examined the packages they carried them back ; they 
laboured hard and attended constantly ; I looked at them 
with great attention, and perceived they were my two brothers ; 
at that time shame would not allow me to see them in such 
servitude, so when I returned home 1 desired my servents to 
bring those two men to me ; when they brought them, I had 
clothes made up for them and kept them near me. But these 
incorrigible villains again laid a plan to murder me. On*. 
day at midnight (201) finding all asleep they came like 

ions of lands for military service, in th* strict 

en?eof the word ; though they are sometimes bestowed wijjjjj^ t j, at 
(201) As the Mahometans reckon their day after sun -set ,tl^ s i sno j )U i], 

Forn DURWISH. Ill 

ains to the head of my bed ; I had kept a guard at my door 
from apprehension for my life.nnd ihis faithful dog was asleep 
:it at the side of my hed ; the moment they drew their 
swords from the scabbard, the dog first barked then flew at 
them ; the noise he made awaked all ; I also ; started up 
and the guards seized them, 1 knew them to be my brothers; 
every one began to execrate them, that in spite of such 
kindness how infamously they behaved ! 

O King,I also became at Inst alarmed for my life. There 
is a common sayitu', a That the first and second fault should 
be pardoned, but the third punished. '* I determined then 
to confine them ; but if I had put them in the prison, who 
would have looked after them and taken care of them ? They 
might have perished from want of food and drink, or they 
might have escaped and done more mischief ; for which 
reasons I have confined them in a cage, that they may he 
always under my eye, and my mind be at rest ; lest being 
from my sight they may hatch further wickedness ; and [ 
show this dog such attention and care on account of his fide- 
lity. O great God, a man without gratitude is worse than a 
faithful brute ! These were the past events of my life, which 
I have related to yourMajesty ; now either order me to be put 
to death or grant me rny life ; it depends on the royal will." 


ON hearing this narrative I (202) praised that man of faith 
and said, * l Your kindness and forbearance have been un- 
bounded, and there has been no limits to these fel!ows'(203) 
shameless and villainous conduct ; so true it is, that if you 
bury a doa'stail for years, it will still remain crooked. ''(204) 
After this I asked the Kliaja how he got the twelve rubies 
which were in the dog's collar ? He replied, " May your 
Majesty live long ! After I had been three or four years 
Governor of that port, I was sitting one day on the top of 
my house, which was high, to view the country ami woods 
around. 1 was looking round me, when suddenly 1 perceived 
two human figures,who were lurdging along from ono side <>f 
the wood, where there was no highroad : I looked at them 
t'|'r p ough a glass, and saw they were of a strange appearance; J 

(202 ) Th e King Axadbukht. 
(208) The two Brothers in the iron cage. 

(204) \ proverb synonymous to our'a of " what is bred in the bon 
will never ge t out of the Hesh." 


sent a messenger to call them ; when they came I perceived 
they were a man and a woman ; I sent the woman into the 
seraglio to the Princess, and called the man before me ; I 
s suv he was a youth of twenty or twenty-two years of age,for 
the down appeared on his cheeks; but his colour was become 
quite black owing to the heat of the sun ; his hair and his 
nails were grown greatly, and he looked like a man of the 
woods ; he held on his shoulder a boy of three or four years 
old, and two sleeves of a garment filled with something were 
suspended round his neck ;he cut a strange appearance, and 
was oddly dressed. I was greatly surprised and asked him, 
'O friend, who artthou,and the inhabitant of what country, 
and in what a strange condition do I see thee V The young 
man began to weep bitterly, and taking off the two rilled 
sleeves from arround his neck he laid them before me and 
cried out, " Hunger, hunger ! for God' sake give me some- 
thing to eat ; I have subsisted for a long while on roots and 
herbs,and am quite famished." I instantly ordered him some 
meat, bread and wine ;he began to devour them. In the 
meantime the Eunuch brought from my haram many other 
bags which he found on the strange woman. 1 ordered them 
all to be opened, and saw that they contained fine precious 
stones of every kind, each of which equal in value to 
the amount of the king's revenue; ono was more valuable 
than another in weight, shape and brilliancy ; and the whole 
apartment was illuminated with variegated colours from the 
reflection of their different coloured rays. 

When the youriglad had eaten something and drank a cup 
of wine, his senses returned ; I then asked him, * Where did 
you get these stones ?" He answered," My native country is 
Uzurbejan ; (205) I left my parents and my home in my in- 
fancy and have undergone many hardships ; I was for a long 
while buried alive, and have often escaped from the jaws of 
death." I said, " Pray young man, give me the details, that 
I may fully comprehend your story." He began to relate his 
adventures as follows : 

My father was a merchant,and travelled constantly to Hin- 
doostan. China, Katay, Romania and Europe. When I was 
ten years of age he set out for Hindoostan and wished to 
take me with him, although my Mother and Aunts said that 
I was yet a child and not old enough to travel : my father 
did not mind them and said, " 1 am now old ; if he is no f 
formed whilst I live, I will carry the regret with me to 
grave; he is a boy it is true, but if he does not learn 
when will he learn ?" Saying this he took me wiil^ < \ {l 

(205) A province of Persia ; the ancient Mec r 


spite of their entreaties and we set out. The journey was 
performed in safety, and when we arrived in J/indoostan we 
sold some our goods there, and taking some rarities with 
us from thence, we set out for the country of Xuirbad. This 
journey was likewise performed in safely; there also we sold 
and brought goods, and embarked on board a ship to return 
the quicker to our country. After a month's voyage we were 
overtaken by a storm ; heavy rains fell, and the whole sky 
became dark, and the rudder broke ; the Master and Mate 
began to beat their heads ; for ten days the winds and waves 
carried us where they pleased ; the eleventh day the ship 
struck against a rock and went to pieces. I did not know 
what became of my father, our servants and our goods ; I 
found myself on a plank, which floated for three days and 
nights at the mercy of the waves ; the fourth day it reached 
the shore. 1 had just life enough remaining to get off the 
plank and crawl to the land. I saw some fields at a distance, 
and many people wore assembled there ; but they were all 
black, and as naked as the day they were born ; 1 crawled to 
them and they said something to me ; but 1 did not under- 
stand a word they spoke. The fields were of gram ; (206) 
the men lighting a fire, roasted and eat it ; some houses 
appeared near the spot ; perhaps this was their usual food, 
and that they lived in those houses ; they made me signs to 
cat also ; I plucked up some of the gram, roasted it and eat 
it ; and having drink a little water, I Inid down to sleep in 
a corner of the filed. After some time, when I awoke* a 
man from them came to me, and began to show me by signs 
the road ; I plucked up some more of the gram^ and followed 
the road he pointed out ; a great plain appeared before me 
vast as the plain on the day of judgement (207) I eat the, 
yrani and paced over this plain ; after a journey of four days 
1 perceived a fort ; when 1 went near it, I saw a high fort of 
stone, each side of which \vas near two coss in length, and 
a stone gate made of a single slab, which was shut with a 
large lock ; but I could see no trace of a human being. I 
proceeded on from thence and saw a hillock, the earth of 
which was as black as soorme/i ; (208) when I passed over 

(200) A king of pea common to India, and is tlio great food of horses, 
oxen, camels, &c. likewise of the natives, Mr.C. P Martyn, one of his 
Majesty's Justice^ of ihflYact- for tluTo\vn of Calcutta, *as sent smite 
of it to England to be tried there, 1 believe this is the first instance of 
its being sent to Europe. as it grows in winter in the high latitudes of 
tipper Hittdoosfan, it may succeed in summer in hngland. 

(207) The.Mahometans believe that on the day of Judgment,all who 

have died will assemble on a vast plain, to heurt'heii sentences from the 

mouth of U oil; so the reader may naturally conceive the sizo of the plain. 

(208) TUfe SiHsrineli is a black powder ui'tde of Antimony, which the 


the hillock I saw a large city, surrounded with a wall with 
bastions, and a wide river flowed on one side of the city ; 
proceeding on I reached the gate,and invoking God I enter- 
ed it; I saw a person who was dressed like an European and 
seated on a chair ; the moment he saw 1 was a travelieiymd 
heard me invoke God,he desired me to advance ; I went up 
to him and made him a salam ; he returned my salutation 
with great kindness, and laid on the table instantly some 
bread and butter, and a roast fowl and wine and said, " Eat 
thy belly full." I eat a little, and drank some of the wine, 
and fell sound asleep. When the night camel opened iny 
eyes, and washed my hands and face ; he gave me again 
something to eat and s:ud, " O son, relate thy story."! told 
him all that had happened to me. He then exclaimed, "Why 
art thou come here ?" I became vexed and replied, "Perhaps 
thou art mad ; after long hazards and fatigues I have at last 
seen the face of man ; God has conducted me so far,and thou 
askest me why I am come here. "lie answered/'Go and rest 
thyself now ; I will to-rnorrow tell thee what I have to say.*' 
When the morning came he said to me, " There are in the 
room a spade, a sieve and a leather bag ; bring them out.' 5 
I said to myself, God knows what lobour he will make me 
undergo because he has fed me ; having no help for it, I 
took up those articles and brought them to him. He then 
ordered me to go to the black hillock I had passed, and dig a 
hole a yard deep, and watevcr you find in it pass it through 
this sieve ; what does not pass through, put it in the leather 
bag and bring it to me. 3 I took those implements and went 
there, and dug as much as 1 was ordered, and passing it 
through the sieve put what remained into the bag as directed; 
I saw they were all precious stones of different colours, and 
my eyes were dazzled with their brilliancy. In this manner 
I filled the bag up to the mouth, and carried it to that per- 
son ; on seeing it he said, " Whatever is in the bag take it 
for thyself, and go away from hence ; for thy stay in this 
city will not do thee good." I gave for answer, " You think 
you have done me a great favour hy giving me these stones 
and pebbles ; but of what use are they to me ? When I am 
hungry I cannot eat them and fill my belly; and if you give 
me more of them, what use will they be to meV'He laughed 
and said, " I pity thee, for thou like me art an inhabitant 
of the north ; for this reason I advice thee against remaining 
here ; bin it rests with thee ; if thou art determined to stay 

Asiatic women use on their eyelids, to give a superior lustre to their 
Uaek or hazel eyes ; when used with taste it certainly has that effect. 
It is likewise used for sore eyes, but 1 cannot say with what success. 

KOUIl Dl'RWESIf, 115 

in this city, then take my ring with thce; when thou readiest 
the c/ton/c, thou wilt find silting there a man with a white 
beard ; his face is very like mine ; he is my eldest bro- 
there give him this ring ; he will then take care of thec ; act 
conformably to whatever he says, or else thou wilt lose thy 
lifo for nothing ; my authority only extends as far as this ; I 
hfive none in the city." I took the ring from him, and 
saluting him took my leave. I entered the city, and saw it was 
an elegant place ; the shops and streets were clean, and the 
HUM) and women unconcealed and without shame; they were 
buying and selling among themselves, and were all well 
dressed. I advanced on, viewing the city and amusing my- 
self; when I reached the choukl saw such a crowd assembled, 
that if you threw a brass plnte it would have skimmed over 
tho heads of the crowd ; they were so close to each other 
that one could hardly squeeze through the throng. When 
the concourse became less I pushed my way through it, and 
advancing forward I saw at last the person described, seated 
a chair, and a clianiafj (509) set with precious stones lay 
before him. I approached him, made him my salam, and 
gave him the ring ; he looked at me *vith anger and said, 
"Why art thou come here, and plunged thyself in calamity; 
did not my foolish brother forbid thee ? 'M replied, " lie 
did forbid me, but I did not mind him/' I then related to 
him all my adventures from beginning to end. lie got up 
and taking me with him, he went towards his house ; his 
residence was like the abode of a king, and he had many 
servants. When we retired to his private apartment, he said 
with mildness, "O son ! what folly hast thou committed, that 
with thy own feet thou hast came to thy grave ; what unfor- 
tunate blockhead ever comes to this enchanted city !'' I 
answered, " 1 have already related to you how fate brought 
me here ; but do me the kindness to let me know the cus- 
toms and ways of this place; then 1 shall know for what 
reasons you and your brother have dissuaded me from stay- 
ing here." The good man answered, " The king and all the 
inhabitats of this city are under the wrath of God ; strange 
*is their religion and manners ! In the pagoda here is ait 
Idol, from whose belly the devil tells the name,sect and faith 
of every one ; so whatever poor traveller arrives here, the 
king hears of it ; he is carried to the pag >da, and made to 
prostrate himself before the Idol ; if he prostrates himself, it 
is well ; or else they drown the poor wretch in the river, and 

(209) ChatntiQ is the Turkish name of a kind of baton set with r>ro 
cious stones, and used by some of the Officers of the place as :i 
ia of state , like our rods, wand.*, v\c. 


if he attempts to escape from ihe river his private parts 
elongate ; so much so that he drags them along the ground, 
and from their weight he cannot get along. Such talisman 
lias God ordained in this city, that I fell pity for thee on 
account of thy youth : but for thy sake I am going to -exe- 
cute a scheme I have formed, that thou mayest be able to 
live a few days and he saved from this impending calamity." 
I a^ked, t( What is the project you have formed? impart it to 
me 5 ' He replied, " 1 would marry thee, and get thee the 
Wazeer's daughter for thy wife." I gave for answer, " How 
can the JVazeer give his daughter to a wretch so poor and 
destitute as myself except I embrace his faith, and this I 
can never do. 1 ' He replied, " The custom of this city is this, 
that whoever prostartes himself before the Idol, It he be a 
beggar and demand the King's daughter, the Kind would 
deliver her up to him, to gratify his wish and not to grieve 
him. I am in the King's confidence and he esteems me, for 
which reason all the Nobles and officers of state of this place 
respect me; they go twice a week to the pagoda to worship \ 
so they will all assemble there to-morrow, and I will carry 
thee with me." Saying] this he gave me something to eat 
and drink, and sent me away to sleep. 

When the morning came he took me with him to the 
pagoda ; when we arrived there,! saw that people were going 
to and fro, and performing their devotions; the King and 
Nobles were seated on the ground with respect and uncovered 
heads before the Idol and near the priests ; handsome un- 
married boys and girls, like floor and G/iilmat?, (210) were 
drawn up in lines on the four sides. The good old man 
spoke to me and said, " Now do whatever I say.'' I agreed 
and said. ' Whatever you desire I will perform.'' He said, 
" First kiss the King's feet and hands, then lay hold of the 
end of the Wazeer*$ dress." I did so. The king asked, 
" Who is this and what does he went ? The good old man 
replied, " This young man is my relation, and he is come 
from fair to have the honour to kiss your Majesty's feet, and 
hopes the Wazeer will exalt him among his slaves by admit- 
ting him into his family, if the order of the great Idol and 
your Majesty's approbation be to that effect." The King 
said, 4 * If he will embrace our faith and sect and adopt our 
customs then, his wishes shall be granted." Immediately 
the drum of the ntivbut-khana of the pagoda struck up and 
1 was invested with a rich khelut ;they then put a black rope 

(210)//oo?-s are celestial ftmales,andCr/z*7;#flf heavenly boys who are 
to administer to the future bliss of all good Mahoin^tai^s in their Para* 
disc, accoidiDg to tatir ridiculous and abominable superstition. 


round my neck and dragged me before the seat of ihe Idol, 
and having made me prostrate myself before it they lifted 
me np. A sound issued from the Idol saying, u O youth, 
thou hist done well to eater into the number of my wor- 
shippers ; rely now on my favour and mercy." On hearing 
these words all present prostrated themselves, and be<:an to 
roll on the ground and exclaimed, " Long may you prosper ! 
you are great and good indeed ! v When the evening came, 
the K'm and the Wa-ieer mounted and went to the Wazeer's 
house. They married me to the Wazeer's daughter accord- 
ing to their rites, and delivered her to me ; they gave a great 
dowry with her and told me, that according to the commands 
of the great Idol they had givrn her to me ; they settled us 
both in one home. When I saw that beauty, I perceived 
that in truth she was as handsome as an angel ; her featues 
were regular and beautiful, and all we have heard of celestial 
forms was comprised in her lovely person. I cohabited with 
her without ceremony and with delight. I bathed in the 
morning and waited on the King ; he bestowed on me the 
khelut of marriage, and ordered that I should always attend 
his levee ; at last after some days I became one of his Majes- 
ty's counsellors ; the King was much pleased with my society, 
and often gave me presents and rich kheluls, although J was 
rich in worldly treasures, for my wife possessed so much gold, 
precious stones and property that they could not be valued. 
Two years passed in extreme delight and ease. It hap- 
pened that my wife became pregnant ; when the seventh 
and eighth months passed and she entered her full time, the 
pains came on ; the midwife came, and a dead child was 
brought forth ; its poison infected the mother, and she also 
died. I became frantic with grief and exclaimed, *' What a 
dreadful calamity has befallen me ! ' I was seated at the head 
of the bed and weeping ; all at once the noise of my lamen- 
tations spread through the whole house, and women poured 
in upon me from all sides ; whoever entered struck both her 
hands on my head, and exposing her nudities, stood before 
my face and began to weep ; so many women assembled 
round me that I was suffocated in the crowd, and nearly 
expiring. At this time some one behind me seized me by 
the collar, and dragged me along ; I looked up and saw it 
was the same man who had married me to the Wazeer*s 
daughter. He exclaimed, " O blockhead ! for what art thou 
weeping ?'' I replied, u O cruel ! what a question thou askest ! 
I have lost my empire and the repose of my house is gone, 
and thou demandcst why I weep .'" He said with a sneer, 
" Now weep for thy own death ; I told thee at first, that 
perhaps thy doom had led thec here to perish ; so it has 


turned out ; now except death thou hast no other release/' 
At last the people seized me, and led me to the pagoda ; I 
saw that the king, the Nobles and all the inhabitants were 
assembled there ; the wealth and property of my wife was 
all collected there, and every one took what he pleased and 
put down its price. In short all her property was converted 
into specie ; with this specie precious stones were purchased, 
and locked up in a box ; they then filled a chest with meat, 
bread, dried and green fruits, and other eatables ; and they 
put the corpse of my wife into another chest, and slung 
both the chests across a camc-1 ; they mounted me on it, and 
put the box of precious stones in my lap. All thettrahmuns 
went before the came! on which 1 was mounted, singing 
hymns and blowing their shells, and a crowd followed me 
wishing me joy. In this manner I was conducted out of the 
city through the same gate by which I entered the first day ; 
the moment the same keeper of the gate saw me, he began 
to weep and said, "O unfortunate, death-seized wretch ! thou 
wouldst not listen to me ; but by entering this city thou 
hast lost thy life for nothing ! 1 am not to blame ; I did 
disadvise thee/' fie said this to me ; but I was so con- 
founded, that I could not use my tongue to reply to him ; 
nor were my senses in their right place, to foresee what 
would become of me at last. They conducted me at last to 
the same fort, the door of which I had seen shut the first 
day I entered this country. The lock was opened with the 
assistance of many, and they carried in the corpse and the 
chest of food. A Brahmun came up to me and said, "Man 
is horn one day and one day dies ; such is the way of this 
world ; now these, thy wife, thy son, thy wealth and forty 
day's food are placed here ; lake them and remain here 
until the great Idol is favourable to thee " In my wrath I 
wished to curse the idol, the inhabitants of that place and 
their damned customs, and beat the Brahmun } but the same 
inhabitant of the north forbid me in his tongue and said, 
" Take care, do not open thy lips ; if thou sayest a word they 
will burn thee immediately ; be patient ; whatever was thy 
destiny, that has taken place ; rel} T now on the mercy of God; 
perhaps He will deliver thee alive from this place/' in short 
all of them left me by myself, and went out of the enclo- 
sure and shut the door. 

I then wept bitterly at my solitary and helpless state, and 
kicked the corpse and exclaimed, U O cursed corpse, if thou 
wast to perish in child-birth, why didst thou marry and 
become pregnant V After cursing and beating her I again 
sat silent. In the mean time the day advanced, and the sun 
became very hot ; my brains began to boil, and I was dying 


with tho stench ; on whatever side I looked I suu the b 
of the dead, and boxes of precious stones in heaps. 1 thru 
gathered some old chests together and placed them over 
each other, and formed a shed against the heat of the day 
and the night dews. I began to search for water, and on 
one side I saw something like a fountain, which was cut out of 
stone in the wall of the enclosure, and had a mouth like a 
pot In short 1 subsisted many days on the food they had 
left with me, and the water I h;ul found ; at last the victuals 
were done, and I became alarmed and complained to Go 1. 
lie is so beneficent that the door of the enclosure opened, 
and another corpse was brought in- an old man accompained 
it When they left him and went away, it came into my 
hea 1 to kill the old mm, and take his chest of provisions ; 
so taking up the leg of an old chest I went up to him ; he 
was, poor devil, reclined on his arms, which were across his 
knee;, and quite absorbed in grief. I came behind him and 
sfruck him such a blow, thit his skull was fractured and his 
brains came out, and he instantly expired; I seized his 
provisions, and began to live on it. Fora long while this 
was my way, that whatever living brings came in with the 
dead I used to kill them, and taking their provisions I fared 

After sometime a yonn* girl once came with a copse;she 
was very handsome, and I had not the hard heart to kill her; 
she espied me and swooned away through fear ; I took up 
her provisions, and cirried it to were I lived ; but I did not 
e-at it alone ; when I was hungry 1 used to carry her some 
victuals and we e it togther. When the young girl perceived 
tint I did not molest har, hor timidity lessened daily, and 
she became more fa niliar and used to come to my shed. 
Oae day I asked her her story and who she was; she replied, 
6 I am *the daughter of the King's Waks.eJ-oll-movtluq, (211) 
and was married to my uncle 's son ; On the marriage night, 
he was attacked with colic, and was in such agonies from the 
pain that the expired in a shori time ; they brought me 
here with his corpse and have left me" She then asked to 
hear my story, I also related the whole to to her and said, 
" God ha? sent thee here for me." She smiled and re- 
mained silent. In this way mutual affection arose between 
us in a short time ; I taught her the rites of / salam, ami 
mado her repeitour prayers. 1 then performed the marriage 
ceremony and cohabited with her; she also became pregnant 
and brought forth a son. Nearly three years passed in this 

(211 J The prime minister, or first odicer of state in the time of the 
Moghul empire, Duw'iit Ifoa-^a'mUtc.i i* the present Wakeel-oot- 


manner. When she weaned the child, I said to my wife, 
" How long shall we stay here, and how shall we get out 
from hence ?'' She replied, " If God takes us out then we 
shall get out ; or else we shall die here some day. 1 ' I wept 
bitterly at what she said and at our confinement, and con- 
tinuing to weep 1 fell asleep. I saw a person in my dream 
who said to me, a lt thou wishest to get out, get out through 
the drain.'* 1 stared up with joy and said to my wife, 
"Collect and bring all the old nails and bolts which belonged 
to the rotten chests, that we may with their help enlarge the 
the drain/' In short I endeavoured to enlarge the mouth of 
the drain with the nails and bolts until I became quite tried; 
however after a year's labour I widened the opening somuch 
thata man could get through it; I then put the finest precious 
stones into the sleeves of tbe habits of the dead and taking 
them with us, we three got out through the opening I had 
made, and blessed God for our deliverance. I placed the Boy 
on my shoulders, and we set out. It is a month since we 
quitted tbe hih road from fear, and have travelled through 
woods and mountains ; when hunger attacked us we fed on 
roots and berries. 1 have not strength left to say more jthese 
are my adventures which you have just heard. 

O mighty King, (212) I took pity on his condition, and 
sending him to the bath I had him well dressed, and made 
him my deputy. 1 hud many children by the Princess, but 
they ail died young ; one son lived to five years of age and 
then died ; from grief for him my wife died also, and I was 
greatly afflicted, and that country became disagreeable tome 
after her loss ; I became quite sad and determined to return 
to Persia. I solicited the king's leave to depart, and got 
the situation of Governor of the port transferred to the 
young man, whose story I have just related. In the mean 
lime the King died also ; I took this faithful dog and all 
my jewels and money with me, and came toNishapore That 
no one should know the story of my brothers, I was generally 
called the dog-worshipper; owing to this calumny 1 pay double 
taxes and duties to this day to the King of Persia, it so hap- 
pened that this young merchant came to Nishapore,&n& owing 
to him I have had the honour to kiss your Mejesty's feet. 1 
aske'l (218) the jKhnja, '' Is not this young merchant your 
son ?" He answered, "Mighty Sire, he is not my son, but one 
of your subjects ; bat he is now my son, or heir, or whatever 
you choose to call him,'' On hearing this I asked the young 
merchant, "What merchant's son art thou, and where do thy 

C 212) Here the Khnja resumes his own story to Azadlukht* 
(213) The King Az 


parents reside ?" The young merchant kissed the ground, 
and beseeching pardon for his life said, " This slave is the 
daughter of your Majesty's Wazcer ; my father came under 
the royal anger on account of this Khajas rubies, and your 
Majesty's orders were, that if in one year my father's words 
should not he verified, he should be put to death. Ou hear- 
ing the royal mandate, I assumed this disguise, and went to 
Nishapore. God conducted the Khaja, with the dog and 
rubies, before your Majesty, and you have heard all the 
circumstances;! now beseech my old father may be released." 
On hearing these circumstances from the Wazeerzadee, the 
Khaja gave a groan and fell down; when rose water was sprin- 
kled over his face,he recovered his senses and exclaimed," O 
dire mishap ! that I should have come from such a distance, 
with such toil and sorrows, in the hope that 1 would adopt 
the young merchant for my son, and make over to him by a 
deed of gift, all my wealth and property, that my name may 
not perish, and every one call \\\m Khajazada -, (214) but 
my fond hopes are all blasted and overturned ; he by be- 
coming a woman has ruined the old man. I fell into female 
snares, and the saying may be applied to me,* c Thou remain- 
edst at home and didst not go to pilgrimage, yet thy head 
was shaved and thou art scoffed by alL'" (215) To shorten 
my stoiy, I too!; pity on the poor Kliajas tears and groans 
and lamentations, and called him near me, and whispered in 
his ear the glad tidings that he should get her, and added, 
"Do not grieve ; I will marry thee to her, and if God willing 
thou shalt have children from her, and they will become thy 
heirs." On hearing these welcome words he became a little 
composed and comforted. I then ordered them to conduct 
the tPazeerzadee to the seraglio, and to take the Wazeer out 
of prison, bath, him in the bath, dress him in the khelut of 
Restoration to Favour, ('21 6) and bring him quickly before 
me. When the IVazeer arrived, 1 went to the end of the 
Jursh (217) to receive him, and conceiving him my superior, 
I embraced him, and bestowed on him anew the Inkhoru of 
the Wazeership, (218) I conferred also titles budjageers on 

(214) The Son of a Khaja. See note 157. 

( 215) When Mahometans go on pilgrimage to Mecca, they shave 
their heads on their arrival there ; the ridicule is, to have the trouble 
of the shaving without the merit of the pilgrimage. 

(216) (Jailed the Khelut otSurfurazee or exaltation, 

(217) The/wrjA is the carpet or cloth which is spread in the room, 
where company is received, or the King's audience is held ; for the 
King to advance to the end of the fursfi to receive the Wazeer is a 
mark of respect, which Asiatic princes seldom pay to their equals or 
even to any creature of God. 

(218) The insignia of the Wafer's office in India and Persia is the 
Inkhorn of State. 


the Khaja> and fixing on a happy hour I married him to the 
Wazeer's daughter. In a few years he had two sons and a 
daughter bom to him. In short the eldest son is now Mull- 
koot Toojjar, and the youngest the chief manner of my 
household. O Duriveshes, L have related these adventures to 
you for this reason, that last nijjht I heard the adventures of 
two of your number; now the two who remain, let them 
fancy I am still where I was last niglit, and think me your 
servant and my house your tuckeea ; (219)relate your adven- 
tures without fear, and stay some days w r ith me. When the 
Durweshes perceived that the King was kind to them, they 
said, " Well, as your Majesty condescends to from amity 
with Durweshcs, we both will also relate our adventures, 
hear them. 


Adventures of the Third Durwesh. 

THE third Durwesh putting himself at his case, began thus 
to relate the events of his travels. 


O'friencls, the story of this pilgrim hear ; 
That's to *ay what has happene'd to me, hear ; 
How the Kiug of Love hath behuv'd to me, 
I am going to relate it, hear ! 

This humble being is the Prince of Persia ; my father was 
King of that country, and had no children except myself. 
In my youth, 1 used to play wiih my companions at cards, 
dice, and backgammon ; or mounting my horse, I used to 
enjoy the pleasures of the chase. It happened one day, that 
I ordered my hunting party, and taking all my friends and 
companions with me, we sallied forth over the plains. Letting 
loose the hawks on partridges and ducks, w r e followed them 
on horseback. I advanced a great way, until a very beautiful 
piece of land appeared in sight ; on whatever side I cast my 
view, 1 saw for miles green plants, studded with red flowers. 
Beholding this delightful scene, we dropt our bridles, and 
moved on at a slow pace,admiring the charming prospect.Sud- 
denly we saw a black deer on the plain, covered with brocade, 
and a chain of gold set with precious stones, and gold bells 
round its neck ; fearless it grazed, and moved about the 
plain, where man or animals never come. Hearing the sound 

(219) The abode tf_%Faqeer is called a 


of our horses' hoofs, it started, and lilting up its head,look- 
ed at us, and moved slowly away. On perceiving it 1 wished 
to get it alive, and said to my companions, "Remain where 
you are; take care you do not advance a step, and do not 
follow me,*' I was mounted on such a swift horse, that 1 had 
often galloped him after deer, and confounding their bounds 
had seized them with my hand. I pushed after it; on seeing 
ins it began to bound and went like the wind ; my horse also 
kept pace with the wind, but could not overtake its speed; the 
horse streamed with sweat, and 1 was dying w'ijth thirst ; but 
there was no alternative; the evening was approaching, and 
I did not know how far I had come, or where I was. Having 
no other chance of getting the animal I stopt, and drew an 
arrow from the quiver ; 1 adjusted my bow, drew the arrow 
to its full length, aimed it at its thigh, and pronouncing the 
name of God, I let it fly; the arrow entered its leg, and it 
hobbled along towards the foot of the mountains; I dis- 
mounted from my horse, and followed it on foot ; it took to 
the mountains, and I went after it. After many ascents and 
descents a dome appeared; when I got near it, I perceived a 
garden and a fountain ; but the deer disappeared like a 
vision, I was greatly fatigued, and began to wash my hands 
and feet in the fountain ; all at once the noise of weeping 
and lamentation struck my ears, as issuing from the dome, 
and as if some one was exclaiming, U O child, may the arrow 
of grief stick in the heart of him, who hath struck thee with 
this arrow ; may he perish in his' youth and God make him 
a mourner like me. On hearing these words I went to the 
dome, and saw a respectable old man with a white beard and 
well dressed, seated on a musnud, and the deer lying before 
him; he was drawing the arrow from its thigh and cursing 
the shooter. I made him my salam, and joining my hands 
* together I said, * Respectable Sir,I have unknowingly com- 
mitted this fault ; 1 did not know it was your deer ; for God's 
sake pardon me.'* He answered, <* You have hurt a dumb 
animal ; if you have committed this cruel act through igno- 
rance, God will forgive you/ 5 ! sat down near him, and assist- 
ed him in taking out the arrow ; we pulled it out with great 
difficulty; we put some balsam to the wound and let the 
deer go ; we then washed our hands, and the old man gave 
me some victuals to eat, which was then ready ; after satis- 
fying my hunger I spread myself out on a bed, and being 
much fatigued 1 slept soundly. In my sleep the noise of 
weeping and lamentation struck my ears ; rubbing my eyes 
I looked round, but could not see the old man or any one 
else ; I was alone on the bed, and the room quite empty. I 
began to look around me with alarm,and perceived a purdah 


in a corner which was down ; going to it I lifted it up, and 
saw a platform covered with a rich covering, on which was 
seated an angelic woman of about fourteen years of age; 
her face was like the moon, and her locks were loose ; her 
looks were smiling, and she was dressed like an European, 
and had a most charming air in her regard ; the old man lay 
prostrate before her with his head on her feet ; he wept bit- 
terly and seemed quite senseless On seeing the old man's 
condition and the woman's beauty, I was quite lost, and fell 
down like a corpse ; the old man seeing my senseless 
state brought a bottle of rose water and sprinkled it over my 
face ; when I recovered, I got up and went up to the angelic 
woman and saluted her ; she did not return rny salute or 
open her lips, i said, " O lovely angel, in what religion is it 
right to be so proud, and not to return a salute ? 


" Although to speak little is becoming, yet not so much so ; 
" If the lover is dying, even then she would not open her lips," 

For the sake of Him who hath created thee, give me an 
answer ; I am come here by chance, and it is proper we 
should please our guests." I talked much to her, but it was 
of no use ; she heard ms and sat silent like a statue ; I then 
advanced, and laid my hand on her feet ; when 1 touched 
them they felt quite hard ; at last I perceived that this beauti- 
ful object was formed of stone, and that Azoor (220) had 
formed this statue. I then said to the old man, the worship- 
per of Idols, " I struck an arrow in thy deer's leg; but thou 
hast with the dart of love pierced my heart through and 
through ; your curse has taken place ; now tell me the par- 
ticulars of these strange circumstances ; why hast thou made 
this talisman, and leaving the city thou has preferred living 
in woods and mountains ? in short tell me all that has hap- 
pened to thee." When I pressed him greatly he said, "That 
which thou wishest to know hath ruined me ; dost thou also 
wish to perish by hearing it V I exclaimed, ' Hold, thou 
hast already made too many excuses ; answer to the purpose, 
or else I will kill thee. !> Seeing me angry and urgent he 
said, " O youth, may God keep afar every person from the 
scorch of love ; see what calamities this love hath produced ; 
for love the woman burns herself with her husband, and 
sacrificss her life ; (221) and all know the story of Furhad 

(220) Azoor the father of Abraham, was a famous statuary accor- 
ding to the ideas of the Mahometans. 

(221) Alluding to the Hindoo custom of the wife's burning herself 
with the corpse of her husband ; in these cases 1 imagine feur is a 
stronger motive than love. 

FOUR DURWEsn. 125 

and Mujnoo ;(222) what wilt tliou gain by hearing my story? 
then wilt leave thy home, fortune and country, and wander 
for nothing.'' I gave for answer, "Cease, keep thy friendship 
to thyself ; conceive me now thy enemy,and iflife is dear to 
thec tell me plainly thy story.'' Perceiving there was no 
alternative, his eyes filled with tears, and he said with a sigh, 
" This is this miserable wretch's story, This humble ser- 
vant's name is Neaman Suia; I was a great merchant; arrived 
to these years I have seen all parts of the world for tho 
purpose of trade, and have been admitted to all Kings. Once 
the fancy came into my mind that! had seen the four corners 
of the world, but never went to the European Island, (223) 
and never saw its King,soldiers and citizens; I knew nothing 
of its manners and customs ; that I ought to go there also 
for once. I took the advice of my acquaintances and friends 
and resolved on the voyage ; I took with me the rarities of 
every country which were lit for the European Island, and 
collecting a qafeeta of merchants, we embarked on board a 
ship and set sail. Having favourable winds we reached the 
Island in a few months and put up in the city. I saw a 
magnificent city, to which no city couLl be compared for 
beauty or grandeur ; all the streets and lanes were paved and 
watered, and kept so clean that a bit of straw could not be 
seen; much more dirt; the buildings were of various colours, 
and at night the streets were lighted by two rows of lamps ; 
without the city were delighful gardens, in which rare flowers 
and fruits were seen in rich profusion ; such as perhaps no 
were else conld be seen except in elygium. In short what- 
ever I may say in praise of this magnificent city would not 
exceed the truth. The arrival of our merchants was much 
talked of. A confidential servant, mounted on horseback, ind 
attended by many servants, came to our qafeela, and asked 
the merchants who was their chief ; they all pointed to me; 
he came to my place; I rose up to receive him with respect, 
and we saluted each other ; I seated him on the musnud. 
and offered him the pillow ; (224) after which 1 asked him 
to tell me what was the occasion which afforded me the 
pleasure of his visit ; he replied, " The Princess has heard 
that many merchants are arrived, and have brought much 
merchandise ; for which reason she has desired me to bring 

(222) Furk'.id and Mnjnoo are two mad lovers celebrated in Eas- 
tern romance. Set- Herbelet's Bibliothcque Orientale. 

(223) I really cannot conceive which Island my author alludes to ; 
it does not relate in the remotest degree to our noble Islands, except 
the lighting of the streets ; and thank God the manners ho describe, s 
are country to ours. 

(221) See Kote i)8 , relative to the etiquette of the musnud. 


the merchants to her ; so come, and take along with yon 
whatever merchandise may be fit for the Princess, and gain 
the happiness of kissing her threshold." I gave for answer, 
" I beg to be excused to-day, as 1 am greatly fatigued ; to- 
morrow I vvill meet her wishes with my life and propertp ; 
whatever 1 have by me I will present to the Princess, and 
whatever pleases her is her's." Having made this promise, 
1 gave him essence and beetle and dismissed him. I c tiled 
all the merchants near me, and whatever rarities each had I 
collected together,and those of my own I took also, and went 
in the morning to the door of the royal seraglio. 1 h? door- 
keeper sent word of rny arrival, and orders came to bring me 
to the presence ; the same confidential servant came out,and 
taking my hand in his led me along with kindness ;md 
friendly converse. Having pissed the apartments of the 
female attendants of the Princess, I was conducted into a 
noble apartment. O friend ! you will not believe it, but so 
beautiful was the scene, as if angels had been let loose there 
with their wings shorn ; on whatever side I looked, my 
attention was there tranfixed, and my limbs were ready to 
fail me from the extacy 1 felt ; I supported myself with 
difficulty, and reached the presence of the Princess. The 
moment I cast my eyes upon her, I was ready to faint and 
my limbs trembled: I contrived with some difficulty to make 
my salutation* Beautiful women were standing in rows to 
the right and left, with their arms folded across their lovely 
person. I laid before the Princess the various kinds of 
jewels, line clothes, and other rich rarities that 1 had brought 
with me : from these she selected some, although they were 
all worthy of choice. She was greatly pleased, and delivered 
them to her head servant, and said to me that their prices 
should be paid the next day according to the list. I made 
my obeisance, and was pleased within myself that under this 
pretext I should come again the next day. When I took 
my leave and came out, I was like a maniac : I said one 
thing and intended another. In this stnte 1 came to the 
serai ; but my senses were not right ; all my friends asked 
me what was the matter with me ; I replied, " My hoad is 
rather heated in going and returning so far" In short I 
passed that night in tossing and tumbling about in my bed. 
In the morning I went again to wait on the Princess, and 
entered the seraglio along with the confidential servant, and 
saw the game scene 1 had seen the day before The Princess 
received me kindly, and sent every one present away on 
various errands ; when she was left alone, she retired to a 
private apartment and called me to her ; and when I entered 
she desired me to sit down ; 1 made her my obeisance and 


at down. She said, ' Aa you have come hero and have 
brought these goods with vou,how much profit do you expect 
on thm ?"* 1 replied, *' I had an ardent desire to see your 
Highness, which (Jod granted, and now i have got all I 
wished ; I have acquired the prosperity of both worlds ; 
whatever prices are marked in manifest, half is the prime 
cost and half profit." She replied, " No, whatever price you 
have nnrked down shall be paid ; moreover you shall receive 
presents bcsides,on condition that yon will do one thing; if 
yon promls > to do it, I will then tell yon." I replied. "This 
slave's life and property are at your service, and I shall think 
my destiny happy if they can be of any use to yonr highness; 
I will perform what yon desire with my life and soul.'' On 
hearing these words she called for her ink-horn, wrote a note, 
put it into a small purse made of pearls, wrapt the purse in 
a line muslin handkerchief and gave it to me ; she gave me 
likewise a ring which she took off from her finger, as a mark 
by which I might make myself known ; she then said to me, 
" On the opposite side of the city is a large garden ;"its 
name is Delight of the Heart. Go yon there. A person 
named Kaihlwosro is the RUperin tend ant of the garden ; de- 
liver into his hands ihe ring, and bless him for me, and ask 
a reply to this note ; but return quick, as if you eat your 
dinner there and drank yonr wine here ; (225) I will reward 
you 8') for tills work that you will be quite delighted :" I 
took my leave, and went along enquiring my way. When I 
had gone about two coss I saw the garden, and when. I 
reached it an armed man seized me and led me into the 
garden gate. I saw there a young man with the looks of a 
lion ;he was seated on a stool of gold, with an air of dignity, 
and had on an armour like David's, with steel breast plates 
and a steel helmet. Five hundred young armed men were 
drawn up in a line, and ready to execute his orders. I made 
him my salarn, and he called me to him; I delivered him the 
ring, and paying him many compliments I shewed the hand- 
kercbief,and mentioned that I was the bearer of a note The 
moment he heard me, he bit his finger with his teeth and 
slapping his head he said, " Perhaps yonr evil destiny hath 
brought you here. Well, enter the garden; an iron cage 
hangs on a cypress tree, in which a young man is confined ; 
give him this note, receive his answer, and return quickly." 
1 immediately entered the garden ; it was not a garden but 
nn elysium ; parterres bloomed with variegated ilowers, the 
fountains wero playing, and the birds where warbling on the 
trees. I went straight on and saw the cage suspended from the 

'225) In the original it ia water ; the meaning is self- evident. 


tree,in which I perceived a very handsome young man; I bent 
my head with respect and saluted him,and gave him the enve- 
loped note through the bars of the cage. He opened the note 
and read it,;ind enquired about thePrincess with great affec- 
tion. We had not done speaking when an army of Africans ap- 
peared, and fell on me on all sides, and began to attack me 
without delay with their swords and spears ; what could one 
single unarmed man do ? I was in a moment felled to the 
ground,covered with wounds;! had no recollection of myself. 
When I recovered my senses, I saw myself on a bed which 
two soldiers were carrying on their shouldiers ; they were 
speaking to each other , one said, " Let us throw the corpse 
of this dead man on the plain ; dogs and crows will soon eat 
it up." The other replied, " if the King enquires and learns 
this circumstance, he will bury us alive,and grind our child- 
ren to paste ; what, is our lives a burthen to us that we 
should act so rashly ?" On hearing this conversation 1 said 
to the two, Gog and Magog, "For God's sake take some pity 
on me, 1 have still a spark of life left ; \vhen I die, do with 
me what you please ; the dead are in the hands of the 
living ; but tell me what has happened to me ; why have I 
been wounded and who are ye ? pray explain thus much to 
me." They then took pity on me and said, " The young 
man who is confined in the cage, is the nephew of the King 
of this country ; his father \vas at first on the throne; on his 
death he said to his brother, *' My son, who is heir to my 
throne,is as yet young and inexperienced; do you guide the 
i< flairs of state with zeal and prudence ; when he is a man, 
marry your daughter to him, and make him master of the 
empire and the treasury. " After saying this the King died, 
and his younger brother became King ; he did not attend 
to the late King's last injunctions, but gave it out that his 
nephew was mad and put him into a cage, and has placed 
such strict guards on the four sides of the garden that no 
one can enter it ; he has often given his nephew strong 
poisons ; but his life is stronger and has overcome their 
effects. Now the Princess and this Prince are lover and 
mistress ; she is distracted at home and he in the cage , she 
sent him a billet-doux by your hands ; the spies instantly con- 
veyed this circumstance to the King ; a body of Africans were 
ordered and treated you thus. The King has consulted his 
Wazeer on the means to murder this imprisoned Prince, and 
that ungrateful, artful wretch has persuaded the Princess to 
kill the innocent Prince with her own hands in the King's 
presence/' 1 said, " Let us go, that I may see this scene in 
my dying moments.'* They at last agreed to my request, 
and the two soldiers and myself,though dreadfully wounded. 


went to the scene and stood in silence in a retired corner. 
We saw the King seated on his throne ; the Princess held in 
her bond a naked sword ; the Prince was taken oat of the 
iron cage, and made to stand before the King; the Princes^ be- 
coming an exccutiom r advanced with the naked sword to 
kill her lover ; \\hen she drew near the Prince .she threw 
away the sword and embraced him ; the loving Prince said 
to her, i% I am willing to die so ; here I pesire thee, there I 
shall wish for tlu-e." (226) The Princess said, " I have nsni 
this pretext to behold thee." The King on seeing this scene 
became greatly enraged, ami reproached the Jl'azeer and 
said, ;; Thou hast brought me here to see this sight." The 
Princess's confidential servant separated the Princess from 
the Prince, and conducted her to the saraglio. The iVuzetr 
took up the sword ; and ilew with rage at the Prince to end 
with one blow his unfortunate existance ; as he lifted up his 
arm to strike, an arrow from an unknown hand pierced his 
forehead and he fell. The King seeing this mysterious event 
retired hastily into his palace ; and they put the young 
prince again inte the cage, and carried him to the garden ; I 
likewise came out from where I was ; on the road a man 
called me and conducted me to the Princess ; seeing me 
severely wounded she sent for a surgeon, and enjoined him 
very strictly to cure me quickly, and perfrom the ablution of 
cure, "Your welfaire depends on it, "added she, u as much 
care and attention yon bestow on him, so much presents and 
iavours you will receive from me." In short the surgeon 
used his skill and assiduity according to the Princess's in- 
junctions, and cured me in forty days, and presented me to 
the Princess. She asked me, Is there now any thing else 
to be done ? ' I replied, that through her humanity 1 was 
quite recovered. The Princess, then gave the surgeon a, 
iio\\Khelut and a good deal of money, as she had promised and 
even much more and dismissed him. I took all my friends 
and servants with me, and set out from that country to return 
home. When I reached this spot I desired my friends to 
return to their native country, and I erected on this hill this 
building, and got a statue made of the Princess. 1 took up 
my residence here, and having rewarded my servents aud 
slaves according to their respective merits, I dismised them 
saving, "Whilst I live provide me with food ; beyond this 
act you are your own masters." They supply me with sub- 
sistence from gratitude, and I worship this statue without 
molestation ; whilst 1 live this will be my sole care and employ 
ment ; these are my adventures which you have just heard." 

20) Meaning in this world and the next. 



O Durweshes \ on hearing his story I put on the habit of a 
pilgrim, and set out, from extreme desire to see the country 
of the Europeans, After long wandering over mountains 
and through woods I resembled Mvjnoo and Furhad. At last 
any strung desire carried me to the same European city where 
the old statue-worshipper had been ; I wandered through 
its streets and lanes like a lunatic, and I often remained 
near the seraglio of the Princess ; but I could get no oppor- 
tunity to see her. 1 was greatly vexed that I should not 
obtain the object for which 1 had undergone such misery and 
toil, and come so far. One day I was standing in the Bazai\ 
when all at once the people began to run, and the shop keepers 
shut up hastily their shops. What crowds there were a 
moment before, and how desert the place became all of a 
sudden ! But 1 soon perceived a young man rushing forward 
from a side street ; he was like tioostum in appearance, and 
roared like a lion ; he flourished a naked sword in each 
hand ; he was in armour, with a pair of pistols in his girdle, 
and kept muttering something to himself like an inebriated 
maniac; two slaves followed him clothed in woollen,and bear- 
ing on their heads a hearse covered with purple velvet. On 
seeing this sight, I determined to proceed with it; those I 
met dissuaded me from it, but I would not hear them.Push- 
ing forward, the young man went towards a grand house; f 
went along with him; he looked back, and perceiving me he 
wished to give me a blow and cut me in two ; 1 urged him 
by oaths to do it, and that I wished it ; " 1 forgive you my 
blood, "added I, u relieve me by some means or other from 
the misery of life, for I am quito impatient of existence ; I 
have voluntarily put myself in your way ; do not delay my 
execution. : ' Seeing me determined to die, God infused com- 
passion into his heart, and his anger cooled, and he asked me 
with gentleness, " Who art thou, and why art thou tired of 
life ?;> I replied," Sit down awhile that 1 may tell you ; my 
story is very long ; I am in the claws of love, for which rea- 
son 1 am desperate." On hearing this, he took off his arms 
and washed his hands and face ; took some food and gave 
me some likewise ; when he finished his meal he said, "Say 
what has befallen thee." 

I related all the adventures of the old man and the Prin- 
cess, and my meeting with him, &c. On hearing them he 
wept at first, and then said,"What numbers this unfortunate 
Princess has ruined ! VVell, thy cure is in my hands ; it is 
probable that through the means of this guilty being tbou 

For Ft DCRWE8II. 131 

wilt attain thy wishes ; do not he cast down; be confident." 
He then ordered the barber to shave me and bathe me ;(227) 
his slave brought me a suit of clothe?, and dressed me. The 
young man then suid to uuy This hearse which thou seest 
contains the corpse of the young prince, who was confined 
in the iron cage ; another Jl'tneer murdered him at lust 
through treachery ; though murdered, he is blessed through 
his innocence ! I am his foster-brother ; 1 put that Wawer 
to death with a blow of my sword, and made the attempt to 
kill theKing ; but he entreated mercy, and swore that he was 
innocent; I spurned him as a coward and spared his life. 
Since then my occupation has been to carry this hearse, 
in this rnanner,though the city on the first Thursday ofevery 
moon, and mourn for the murdered Prince.'' On hearing 
these circumstances from his mouth I became easy in my 
mind, for if he wished it, my desires would be accomplisheh; 
God favoured me greatly, since he made such a mad man 
favourable towards me ; so true is it, that if God is favour- 
able, all goes well. When the evening came and the sun set 
the young man took up the hearse, and instead of one of 
the slaves, he put it on my head and took me along with 
him. He said, " I am going to the Princess,and will plead 
for thee as much as I am able ; do not thou open thy lips, 
but remain silent and listen/' I replied, " Whatever you 
advice I will strictly do; God preserve you, for you feel pity 
on my case." 

We went to the royal garden, nnd when we entered it, I 
perceived an octagon marble platform in one of the squares of 
the garden, on which was spread an awning of silver tissue 
with pearl fringe, and erected on poles set with precious 
stones ; a rich brocade musnud with pillows was spread 
under the awning. The hearse was placed there, and we 
were both ordered to sit under a tree ; in a short time the 
lights of flambeaux appeared, and the Princess herself ar- 
rived, accompanied by some female attendants; melancholy 
and anger were visible in her looks; she mounted the phtt- 
frotn and sat down on the mnsnud ; the foster-brother stood 
before her with folded arms, then sat down at a respectable 
distance on a corner of \\\zfiirsh. The prayers for the dead 
were read, then the foster-brother said something ; I \va? 
listening with attention ; at last he said, u O Princess of the 
world, the prince of Persia hearing of your beauty and 
excellence, has abandoned his thronc,and becoming a pilgrim 
like Ibraheem Udhum, (228) he is arrived here, after 

("227) Barbers in A>ia not only shave but wash persons in the pri- 
vate and public b.iths. 
(228) A Prince of Persia who became &/<tpfrr from disappointed love 


coming many difficulties ami undergoing grout fatigue. The 
pilgrim hath quitted Bitlkh (229) for thee ; he hath wander- 
ed for some time through this city in distress and misery; at 
last forming the resolution to die, lie joined me; I attempted 
to alarm him with my sword ; he presented his neck and 
conjured me to strike without delay, adding that it was his 
wish. In short he is (irmly in l<)ve with you ; I have proved 
him well, and found him perfect in every way ; for which 
reason I have mentioned him to you ; if you take pity on his 
case end be kind to him, as he is a stranger, it would not be 
doing too much from one who fears God and loves justice." 
On hearing this speech the Princess said, " Where is he ? if 
he is really a Prince, then it does not signify, let him come." 
The foster-brother got up and'came to where I was,and took 
me with him j on seeing the lovely Princess I was so overjoyed 
that 1 lost nry senses and my sense ! I became dumb ; 1 had 
not power to speak ; the Princess shortly after returned to 
her palace, and the foster-brother came home. When we 
reached his house he said, " I have related all the circum- 
stances you mentioned to thePrincess from beginning to end, 
have likewise interceded for you ; now go there every night 
withont fail and enjoy yourself!" I fell at his feet; he lifted 
me up and clasped me to his bosom. 

All the day I counted the hours until the evening came 
that I might go and see the Princess. When the night ar- 
rived I took leave of the foster-brother, and went to the 
garden ; I sat down on the marble platform in the lower 
garden ; an hour after the Princess came -lowly, attended by 
one female servant only, and sat down on the musnud ; it was 
my good fortune that I lived to see this day ! I kissed her 
feet, she lifted up my head, and embraced me and said 
" Conceive this opportunity as fortunate, and mind my advice 
and take me from hence; let us go to some other country. 
I replied, " Come along." After this short speech we both 
got out of the garden, but we were both so confused, through 
wonder and joy, that we lost our road : we went along but 
knew not where we were going The Princess got angry and 
said, c ' I am now tried, where is your house ? let us hasten 
to get there, or else what dangers yon will expose us to ! my 
feet are so blistered that I shall be obliged to sit clown some- 
where on the road." I replied, " My slave's bouse is near, 
we shall soon reach it, be easy in your mind and march on." 
I told a falsehood, but I was at a loss where to take her to. 
Luckily a locked door appeared on the road ; I quickly broke 

(229) A celebrated city of Khorasan, famous in former times for its 

FOTR Df! II WEI II. 133 

the lock and entered the place,and found it a fine house laid 
out with carpetsjimd ilasks lull of wine were arranged in the 
recesses, and dinner was ready in the kitchen; we were greatly 
fatigued, and drank a bottle of Portugal wine each with our 
meat, and passed the night in mutual bliss. In this scene of 
felicity the morning dawned ; and an uproar was raised in the 
town that the Princess had disappeared ; proclamations were 
issued in every street and lane, and bawds and messengers 
were despatched with orders, that wherever she was to be 
found,she might be seized and brought to the King ; guards 
of royal slaves were posted at all the gates of the city with 
orders not to let an ant pass without, the royal permission, 
and that whoever would bring any intelligence of the Prin- 
cess should receive a khelut, and a thousand pieces of gold 
as a present The bawds roamed through the whole city and 
entered every house ; I, who was ill fated, did not shut the 
door. An old hag, the aunt of Satan, whom God blast, 
with a string of beads in her hand and covered with a veil 
from head to foot, rinding the door open entered, without 
fear, and standing before the Princess lifted up her hands 
and blessed her, saying, " May God preserve you long a 
married woman and your husband ; I am a poor beggar 
widow, and have a daughter who is in her full time and 
perishing in the pains of child birth ; I have not means to 
get a little oil for our lamp, food is outof the question ; if 
she dies how shall 1 bury her, and if she is brought to bed 
what shall I give the midwife, or how procure remedies for 
the confined ; it is now two days since she has lain hungry 
and thirsty. O good Lady ! give her a morsel of bread, that 
she may bear a drink of water." The Princess took pity 
on her, and called her near her, and gave her four loaves, 
some roast meat, and a ring from her little finger, that sell- 
ing it she might make jewels for her daughter, and live 
comfortably ; and she begged she would sometimes call and 
see her, for she should be welcome. The old hag having 
completely gained the object she came in search of, poured 
heartfelt blessings on the Princess, saluted her, and trotted 
off; she threw away the loaves and meat at the door, but 
kept the ring snug, as by it she possessed the clue to trace 
the Princess. As God wished to preserve us from this cala- 
mity, just then the master of the house arrived; he was a 
brave soldier, mounted on a horse with a spear in his hand, 
and a deer hanging by the side of his saddle. Seeing the 
door of his house open, the lock broken, and the old hag 
coming out of it, he was enraged and seized her by the hair 
and dragged her to the house ; he tied both her feet with a 
rope, and hung her on the branch of H tree with her head 


down. In a short time the old devil died in agonies. The 
moment I saw the soldier's looks, I was overcome with such 
fear that 1 turned quite pale, and my heart trembled with 
dread whilst 1 told my tale. The man seeing us alarmed, 
gave us assurances of safety and added, u You have acted 
very imprudently in opening the door. 5 ' The Princess smil- 
ing said, " The Prince said it was the house of his slave, and 
brought me here under a deception. 3 ' The soldier observed, 
(i The Prince said truly, for all the people are the King's 
slaves ; all are reared and fed from his favour aid protection; 
this worthless slave is your's ; but to conceal secrets is con- 
ionant to good sense. O Prince, you and the Princess's 
coming to his humble roof will be a source of happiness to 
me in both worlds ; you have dignified this slave, and I am 
ready to sacrifice my life for you ; in no way will I withhold it, 
and my property from your service ; yon may repose here in 
confidence ; there is no danger. If this vile bawd had gone 
away in safety, she would have brought calamity upon you ; 
remain here now as long as you please, and let this servant 
know whatever you require ; he will procure it. What is the 
King ! angels themselves shall have no tidings of your being 
here." The brave fellow spoke such words of comfort and 
gave such confidence, that we became more easy in our mind 
and replied, (i Well said, you are a brave fellow ; when 
I am able I will show you the return for this kindness ; 
what is your name V He answered, this slave's name is 
Behzad Khan. 

In short he performed for six months, from his heart and 
soul, all that duty required, and we passed our time very 
comfortably. One day my parents and my country recurred 
to rny recollection, which made me pensive and melancholy. 
Seeing my thoughtful looks, BehzadKhan joined his hands 
together and stood before me. (230) I said," For God's sake 
what hast thou to say ? thou hast behaved to us in such a 
manner, that we have lived in this city as comfortably as we 
had been at home ; for I had committed such an act that 
every one was my enemy. Who was such a friend to me, 
that 1 could have tarried here a moment ? God preserve thee, 
thon art a brave man." Bhezud Khan then said, 4i If you 
are tired of this place, I will conduct you in safety wherever 
you wish to go." " If 1 could reach my country," replied I, 
" I should see my parents ; I am in this state ; Lord knows 
what has been their condition ; I have attained the object 
for which 1 quitted my country, and it is proper I should 

(230) The attitude of respect when a servent in Asia has a request 
to make to his inasUr ; or a very inferior person from oni who if 
greatly his superior, 

For u iH'Kwrsu. ]J:> 

ROW return to my relations ; they have no tidings of me, 
whether I am dead or alive ; God knows what Borrows they 
feel." The soldiers leplied, " It is very proper ; let us go." 
Saying this he bi ought a Turkish horse for me which could 
travel a hundred coss a day, and a swift quite mare for the 
Princess, and made us both mount ; then putting on his 
armour and arming himself completely, he mounted on his 
horse and said, <; 1 will go before, do you follow me with full 
confidence." When we came to the city gate he gave a loud 
cry and with his mace broke the bolt and frightened the 
guards ; he vociferated to them, **Ye rascals, tell your master 
that Behzad Khun is carrying off the Princess Me/iurnrgah 
and the Prince Kamgar, who is thy son-in-law ; ifthou hast 
any spunk, came out and rescue her ; do not say that I car- 
ried her off in silence and by stealth ; or el?e stay in the fort 
and enjoy thy repose.' This news soon reached theKing ; he 
ordered the Wczesr and General to seize the three rebellious 
villains, and bringr them tied neck and heels to the royal 
presence, or cut off their heads,and lay them before the throne. 
A body of troops appeared in a short time, and the heavens 
and earth were darkened by a whirlwind of dust. Behzad 
Khan placed the Princess and me en the bridge, and turned 
about himself and pushed his horse towards the troops ; he 
rushed in among them like a growling lion ; the whole body 
dispersed like a flock of sheep, (231) and he penetrated to 
the two chiefs and cut off both their heads. When the Chiefs 
were killed, the troops dispersed, as the saying is. that all 
depends on the head ; when it is gone, all is lost. The King 
came immediately to their assistance with a body of aimed 
troops ; Behzad Khan completely defeated them also,and the 
King fled. So true it is. that God alone gives victory : but 
Behzad Khan behaved so bravely, that even Itoostum him- 
self could not have equalled his valour. When he saw that 
the field of battle was cleared, and that no one lemained to 
pursue him, and that there was nothing to apprehend, he came 
confidently to the } lace where we were, and taking the Prin- 
cess and me along with him, he pushed forward. A journey 
is soon ended ; we reached the boundaries of my country in 
a short time. I despathed a letter to the King my father 
mentioning my safe arrival ; he was quite rejoiced on reading 
it, and thanked God for my safe return. As the withered 
plant revives by water, ^ the joyful tiding renovated hia 
drooping sprits; he took his court with him, and advanced 

(231) In the original the word is Kahee, or the green gcum that 
floats on stagnate water, " KtJizad Kltan dispersed the Enemy as 
Kalme is dispered when n Btone is throv. n into the water," is nearly 
th original simile. 


as far as the banks of the river Qoolzoom (232) (o inrct me, 
and boats were ordered to cross us over. I saw the royal 
train from the opposite bank ; from engerness to kiss my 
father's feet I plunged my horse into the river, and swim- 
ming over I rode up to the King; he clasped me with eager 
fondness to his fraternal bosom ; but at this moment an 
unforeseen calamity overwhelmed me with despair. The 
horse on which I was mounted was pehaps the colt of the 
mare on which the Princess rode, or they had been perhaps 
always together; for seeing my horse plunge into the river, 
the mare became restive, followed my horse and likewise 
plunged into the river with the princess and began to swim; 
the princess being alarmed pulled the bridle ; the mare was 
tender mouthed and turned over; the Princess struggled, 
and sunk with the mare; so that they were not seen again. 
On seeing this circumstance Behzad Khan dashed into the 
river on horseback to save the Princess; he got into a whirl- 
pool, and could not extricate himself; all his efforts were 
vain and he also sunk. The King seeing this sad circum- 
stance sent for nets, and had them thrown into the river, and 
ordered the boatmen and divers to look for the bodies ; they 
swept the whole river, but could not find the bodies, O 
JDurweshes ! this dreadful occurrence affected me so much 
that I became mad ; I abandoned all worldly cares and 
pleasures ; I put on the habit of a pilgrim and wandered and 
raved, ever repeating these word?, u Such are the vicissitudes 
of this life ! thou hast seen its joys, now behold its griefs !" 
If ihe Princess had vanished or died, I should then have 
grievedless ; for I would have gone in search of her, or have 
borne the loss with patience ; but when she perished before 
my eyes in this dreadful manner, I could not support the 
shock, and determined to perish with her in the stream, that 1 
might meet her in death ; I accordingly plunged into the 
same river one night to drown myself, and went up to the 
neck in the water ; I was on the point of stepping forward and 
diving down, when the same veiled horseman who saved 
you two, (233) came up and seized my arm; he consoled me 
and told me to be comforted : that the Princess and Behzad 

(232) Qoolzoom is the Persian name of the Red Sea ; as the Prince 
could not see, without a miracle, across the Reel See, I hope for the 
sake of my friend Mcer Vmmwi's veracity that there may be .some 
river which empties itself iuto the Red Sea, and is called Dnare. Qoot- 
zoo;n, or the river of Qoolzoom ; for though the Ancients tell us that 
Hercules made a bridge, in a strange manner, across the Hellespont to 
pass over his mistress, yet 1 should regret that my Person frk-nd should 
believe that any human being could swim his horse, or see aerots the 
Buhure, Qoolzoom^ or the Red Sea, 

(233) The first and second Dunccsh. 

FOUR nunvvESH. 137 

K IHDI where alive, and that such events have occurred in the 
world; ''Why should you throw away," continued he, "your 
life for nothing ? Do "not despair of the help of God ; if you 
live, you will some day or other meet the two persons for 
whom yon are going to sacrifice your life. Proceed now to 
(Constantinople; two other unfortunate Durweshes are gone 
there already ; when you meet them you will attain your 
wishes." O Durweshes ! \ am come here to you according 
to the advice of my heavenly Mentor; 1 firmly hope that 
each of us will jjain the desires of his heart. These were 
this pilgrim's adventures, which he hath related to you from 
beginning to end. 


Adventures of the Fourth Ditrwesh. 

Tn E fourth Durwesh began with tears the relation of his 
adventures in the following manner : 


The sad tale now of my misfortunes hear, 
Pay come attention and my story hear ; 
From what cause a pilgrim I cam* here, 
1 will relate it all, the reason hear. 

O Guides to the path of God, (234) bestow a little attention 
This pilgrim, who is reduced to this wretched state, is the 
son ot the King of China ; 1 was brought up with tender- 
ness and delicacy and well educated ; I was unacipiented 
with the cares and evil of this world, and imagined my life 
would ever pass in the same maner. In the midst of this 
extreme thoughtlessness the sad event of my father's deth 
took place ; before his death he sent for his younger brother, 
who was my uncle and said to him, " I now leave my king- 
dom and wealth behind me and am going to depart; 'do you 
perfrom my last wishes and act the part of an elder, untile 
the Prience who is the heir to my throne, is a man, and has 
sense to govern his kingdom ; do you act as regent, and do 
not permit the army and the husbandman to he injured or 
oppressed ; when the Prince arrives at the years of maturity; 
give him advice and deliver over to him the government ; 
marry him to your daughter Roshun Ukhtur, and retire 
yourself from the throne ; by this conduct the sovereignty 
will remain in my family, and no harm will arrive to it." 

(234) One of the many epithets apylied to Durweshes in the East. 


After this speech the King expired and my uncle became 
King ; he began to regulate the alfurs of government, and 
ordered me to remain in the seraglio, and that I should not 
come out of it until I reached the years of manhood. 

Until my fourteenth year I was hronght up among the 
Princesses and female attendants, and amused myself with 
I h^ir society. Having heard of my intended marriage with 
my cousin I was quite happy, and on this hope 1 became 
thoughtless and said to myself, that I shall now in a short 
rune ascend the throne and be married; the world exists on 
hope. I used often to go and sit with Mobaruc. a negro 
.slave, who was formed in my late father's servie, and in 
whom he plced much confidence ; he was sensible and 
fathful, and had a great regard for me ; he beheld me with 
pleasure advancing to the years of manhood and used to say, 
" God be praised () prince, you are now a man, and God be 
willing your uncle will shortly fulfill the injunctions of your 
Lite father, and give you his daughter and your throne. 
One day it happened that a common fdmle slave gave me 
without cause such a slab, that the marks of her five lingers 
remained on my cheek : I went weeping to Mobaruc : he 
clasped me to his bosom, and wiped away my tears with his 
sleeve and said, " Come, 1 will conduct you to-day to the 
King ; he will perhaps he kind to you on seeing yu, and 
conceiving you mature in years he may give up to yon your 
rights." lie led me immediately to my uncle, who shewed 
me great affection before the Court, and asked me why are 
you so sad, and wherefore are you come here to-day? Mobaruc 
replied," He is come here to say something to your mujesty. 
On hearing this he said of himself, c; i will shortly marry the 
young prince.'' Mobaruc answered, " It will be a joyful 
event." The astologers were sent for instantly, and my uncle 
in appearrance asked them, in this year what month, what 
day and what hour is auspicious, that I may order the pre- 
parations for the prince's marriage. They perceived what 
were the King's real wishes, made their calculations and 
said, u Mighty Sire, the whole of this year is unpropitions ; 
no day in any of the months apears happy ; if this whole 
year pass in safety, then the next is most propitious for the 
marriage." The King looked to words Mobaruc and said, 
u Keconduct the prince to the seraglio; if god willing after 
this year is over, 1 will deliver rny trust over to him ; let 
him make himself perfectly easy, and attend to his studies." 
Mobaruc made his salam and taking me along with him, 
^conducted me to the seraglio. 

Two or three days after this I went to Molaruc; on seeing 
me he began to weep ; I was surprised and asked him why 


he wept, and hoped that nil w;. swell Then th it well wisher, 
who loved me most truly said, '* I conducted you the 
other day to a tyrant ; if I had known it 1 would not have 
carried you there." 1 was alarmed and asked him, %l What 
harm hns occured from my going, pray lell me?" Ho said, 
"That all the nobles and officers of state, great and little of 
your father's time, were greatly rejoiced on seeing you and 
said, God be praised that their Prince was now a man and (it 
to reign ; ho will now be shortly invested with his rights; 
i hen he will be justice to our merits, and appreciate the 
l(Mi'_rHi of our services. " This news reached the ears of that 
f 'lit hi' ss wretch, (J235)and entered his breast like a serpent; 
he sen' for me in private and said, "0 Mobarnr.< act now in 
such a manor that the prince may be destroed by some 
mouiice or other ; remove the dread of his existence from my 
heart that I may reign securely. 1 ' Sinco. I heard those cursed 
words I nm quite confounded, that your uncle is become the 
enemy of your lift'" When I hoard this dreadful news from 
j\[obari'c I was dead without being murdered, and fell at his 
foot from fear of my life and said, "For God's sake save my 
life in some way or other, and I relinquish my throne." The 
faithful slave lifted up my head, clasped me to his brest, 
and said, " There is no danger, a thought hns struck me ; 
if it turns out well then there is nothing to feat* ; whilst wo 
have life we ought not to despair; it is probable that by this 
scheme your life will be preserved, and you will attain your 
wishes/* 5 Giving me these hopes he took me with him. and 
went to the place where the deceased King my father used 
to stay, and gave me every confidence ; a stool stood thero 
he told me to lav hold of one of its legs, and taking hold 
of the other himself we removed the stool, and he lefted up 
ths carpet and began to dig the floor ; a window appeared 
suddenly, which was locked ; he called me near him ; I appre- 
hended within myself that lie wished butcher me, and bury 
hended within myself that he wished to butcher me, and bury 
me in the place he had dug : death appeared in all its hor- 
rors before my eyes ; but having no other alternative, I 
advanced slowly and in silence towards him, repeating within 
myself my prayers to God. I peeped into the window, and 
saw a building with four rooms, and in every room ten large 
vases of gold were suspended by chains; on the mouth of 
each vase was placed a brick of gold, on which was set the 
figure of a monkey inlaid with precious stones. I counted 
thirty vcses of this kind in the four rooms and sa*v one 
vase filled with pieces of gold, on the mouth of which there 
saw neither the brick nor the figure of a monkey ; 1 also saw 

(2:35) The Regent; the fourth V.'nrtsh's Uncle, 


a vat filled with precious stones: 1 asked iSlobarw what 
talisman this was, for what use were the figures, and whose 
place it was ? He replied, t4 The following is the story of 
those figures of monkeys which you see. Your father irom 
his youth formed a friendship and kept up an intercourse 
with Muliksadiq, who is the King of the Genii ; so that once 
every year he used to visit the Malik and sti:y a month with 
him, and carried with him many kinds of essences (236) and 
the rarities of this country, as a present for the King of the 
Genii; when he took his leave Afufksadiq used to give him 
the figure of a monkey set with precious Atones, and our 
king used to bring it and place it in these rooms ; no one 
but myself knew the circumstance. Once 1 observed to your 
father, "O mighty king you carry with you thousands of gold 
pieces worth of rarities and rich perfumes, and bring back 
from thence the figure of a monkey in stone ; what is the 
advantage of this exchan in the end V In answer to my 
question he smiling said, " Beware, and do not divulge the 
secret to any one ; but each of the lifeless monkies which 
thou seest has a thousand powerful demons (237) at his com- 
mand, ready to obey his orders ; but untile I have the num- 
bar of forty monkies complete, they are of no use and will 
be of no service to me.'' So one monkey was wanting to 
compleat the efficient number when the King died, and all 
his labour and expence were fruitless, and no benefit has 
accrued from it. O prince, I recollected this circumstance 
on seeing your forlorn situation, and determined within my- 
self to conduct you to Mulihsacliq by some means or other, 
and mention your Uncle's cruel tyranny to him; perhaps 
recollecting your father's friendship for him, he may give you 
the monkey which is wanting to complete the number ; then 
ivith their aid you may get your empire, and reign peaceably 
over China and Macheen, (238) and your life be rescued from 
present danger, if nothing else can done ; I see no other 
way to escape faom the hands of this tyrant except the plan, 
I propose. 

On hearing all thease consoling circumstance from Mobaruc 
I said to him, te () friend, you are now the disposer of my 
life ; do whatever is best for me. ' Giving me every confi- 

(236) According t<> the fabulous sestem of Genii, Deves, purees &c. 
in Asia it is supposed that the Geuii and puress live on essences, &c. 
the Dtves are malignant spirits or beings, and live on less delieatef'ood 
Mulik Means King. 

(237) Deves or Demons ; the malignant race of Genii. See Herbelot's 
Bib Orien. 

(238) Cheen find MacJteen is the general name of China among the 
Pereians, See Herbelot's Bib Orien. 


dence he went to the Kasar to buy frome ntt<r and bnk- 
hvre, (23!)) and what was fit to be carried as a present for 
Muliksadiq. The next day he went to my cruccl, uncle, who 
was a second Uboojiihul. (2 10) and said," Protecior of the 
world! I have formed a Plan to destroy the prince, and it' you 
order me I will relate it. The sanguinary wretch was quite 
pleased and said, "What is the plan?" If 1 murder him here, 
replied Mobaruc" your Majesty will be highly censured by 
every one ; but I will take him out to the woods, finish him 
bury him and return ; no on will know what is became of 
him." On hearing this plan of ftlobaruc's the King said, " It 
is an excellent plan ; 1 desire he may not live; 1 am greatly 
afraid of him, and if ihou relived me from this fear, I will 
reward thee greatly : take him where thou wilt, and finUh 
him and bring me tlr* welcome tidings." Heing in this 
manner sure ot the King, M baruc took me with him and the 
presents and set out from the tity at midnight ; we proceeded 
towards the north, and went a month without propping. One 
right we were truding along when Mobaruc observed, "God 
be praised, we are now arrived at the end ot our journey ." 
On hearing this exclamation I said, " O friend, what dost 
thou say ?" He replied, " O prince, do not you see the army 
of the Genii V I answerd, " I s?e nothing except you." 
Mobaruc then took out some soormeh (241) of Solomon and 
put it on my eyelids. I instantly saw the camp of the Genii 
and their tents ; they were all handsome and well dressed. 
Recognising Mobaruc they all embraced him, and rejoiced to 
see him Proceeding on we reached at last the royal tents and 
entered them ; I saw thee were well lighted, and stools of 
various kinds were arranged in double row r s, on which were 
seated men of learning, philosophers, dunves/ws, nobles and 
the officers of state ; servants with their arms across were iu 
waiting, and in the centre was placed a throne set with 
precious stones, on which was seated with an nir of dignity 
the King J\Juliksadiq,\\ r \i\\ a crown on his head. and clothed in 
a dress of pearls. T approached him and ma le my salutation; 
he desired me with kindness to sit down, ami -then ordered 
dinner; after which he looked towards Mobaruc. and asked my 
story Mobaruc replied, " 'I he Prince's uncle now reigns in the 
room of his father, and is become the enemy of his life, for 
which reson I have runoff with him from thence and have con- 
ducted him to your Majesty; he is an orphan and the throne 

(239) Buthorc is a kind of frankincense. 

(240) Ubovjuhul was the name of an Arab who \va? an inveterate 
enemy to Mu/tumudunr] his religion. 



i hi< flue ; hut no one cm do any thing without a protector; 
with your majesty's assistance he m;iy jet his rights ; recol- 
lect the return due Tor his father's services, aflbrd him your 
assistance andive him the fortieth monkey, that the number 
in y b a completed and the Prince get his rights with their 
*id, (242) and he will pray for yonr majesty's long life and 
prosperity : he has no other resource except your protection. 
On hearing all these circumstances Mulksadiq after a pause 
saiJ. < " In truih the return for the deceased King's services 
and his friendship for me are greate ; and considering that 
this helpless Prince is overwhelmed with misfortunes, that 
he has quitted his lineal throne to save his life and is come 
as far as this, and has placed himself under the shadow of 
our protection, I shall in no way be wanting to afford him 
my assistance as far as I am able, nor will I excuse myself ; 
but 1 have an affiir in h^ind ; if he can do it, and does not 
deceive me ; if he executes it properly and answers the trial, 
] then promise that I will be a greater friend to him than I 
was to the laie King h'is father, and that I will grant him 
whatever he asks." I joined my hands and replied, *' This 
servant will most cheerfully perform, as far as he is able, 
whatever services your Majesty may require ; he will execute 
them with prudence and vigilance, and without deceit, and 
think it a happiness to him in both worlds.*' The Kins: of the 
Genii observed, u You are now a child, for which reason I 
wran you so repeatedly that yon may not deceive me and 
plunge yourself in calamity, " I answered," God and the 
jiood fortune of your Majesty will make it easy to me, and I 
will as far as in me lies, excert myself to your satisfaction." 
Muliksadiq on hearing these assurances called me near 
him, and taking out a pap?r from his cabinet showed it to me 
and said, u Search where you think proper for the person 
whose portrait this is; find her out and bring her to me ; when 
you find out her name and place, go before her and express 
greate affection to heron my part ; if you perform this service 
hen whatever expectations you may have from me, I will 
exceed them in the performance ; or else you will be served 
s you deserve." When I saw the paper, 1 perceived such a 
beautiful portrait in it that a faintriess came over me, and I 
supported myself with diliculty through fear and answered, 
" Very well, I take my leave ; if God favours me, 1 shall 
execute what your Majesty commands." Saying this I took 
my leave and Mobaruc with me, and bent my course towards 

(142) The forty figures of monkeys would give the possessor a power 
ever the Dears or Genii ; and having them at his command he could 
eaiih overset the usurper, alia* his uncle, 

FOUR. nniwKs.ii. 143 

the wocds: and mountains. ( wandered from city, to pity from 
town to ton u,from village to village, and from country to coun- 
try, and enquired of every one I met the name and place of 
the fair whose portrait I had ; hut no one could give me any 
information. I passed seven yenr in this wandering state 
and suflered every misery ; at last I reached a oily which 
was populous, and contained many grand edifices ; every one 
there repeated the great Name (243) and worshipped God 
I saw a blind begger of Ulndoostnn begging alms, but n< 
one gave him a farthing (244} or a mouthful ; I wandered 
at it and pitied him ; 1 took out a piece of gold from my 
pocket and gave it to him ; he look it and said. 3> O donor ! 
God reward you ; you are perhapes a traveller, and not an 
inhabitant of this city." 1 replied, " It is true ; I have wan- 
dered for seven years, and cannot find the smallest trace of 
the object for which 1 set out, and have this day reached 
this city." The old man poured blessings on me and went 
on ; I followed him ; agrand building appeared without the 
city ; he entered it and I also followed, and saw that here 
and there the building had fallen do\\n, and was out ot repair; 
1 said to myself, this edifice was fit for princes when it was 
in order ; what an agreeable place it must have been, and 
now alas how deserted ! but I cannot conceive why it is 
abandoned, and why this blind man lives in it The blind 
man was going on feeling his way with his stick, when I 
herd a voice as if some one was saying, "O father I hope all 
is well ; why have you returned so early to-day ?" The old 
man on hearing this question leplied, "Daughter, God made 
a traveller compassionate my condition, and he gave me a 
piece of gold ; it is long since 1 have had a heliyfnl of good 
food, so I have brought meat, &c. and such clothes for you 
as were necessary ; cut them out, sew them, and wear them ; 
but first dress the dinner, that we may partake of it, and 
then offer up our prayers for the generous man who has beeu 
kind to us ; though 1 do not know the desires of his hean, 
but God knows and sees all, and will grant our prayers. 

When I heard the circumstance of his hard fare, 1 wished 
much to give him twenty pieces of <jold more ; but looking 
towards the quarter from whence the sounds came, I saw ;i 
woman who resembled exactly the portrait 1 had ; I drew it 
out and compared it, and perceived that there was no differ- 
ence; a deep sigh escaped from my bosom, and 1 became sense 

(24*) The /cflwi Asem or Great Name of God See Note 147 ? 

(244) In the original it is a cowree, species of shell (tiah), the 
smallest im-dinm of exchange in the world ; a rupee or h;ilf a crown in 
geiurul Cviituixis GOOO Cou-nts. 


less }iolanic took me in his arms and sat down, and began 
to fan me ; I recovered a little and was gazing at. her, when 
Moharuc asked, " What is the matter with you ?" I had not 
yet answered him, when the beautifnl female said, "O young 
man, fear God and do not look at the concealed honour of 
another ; (245) every one ougoht to have shame." She spoke 
with such property, that I was as much enchanted with her 
manners as her beauty ; Mobaruc comforted me greatly, but 
he did not know the state of my heirt; having no alternative 
1 called out and said, " O creatures of God and the inhabi- 
tants of this place, I am a poor traveller ; if you call me 
near ye, nnd give me some place to put up in, it, will be an 
act of charity " The old man called me to him, and recog- 
nising my voice, he embraced me and conducted me to where 
the lovely woman was seated ; she arose and hid herself in a 
corner. The old man asked me to tell my story ; why I had 
left my home and wandered over the world, and whom i was 
in search of? I did not mention Muliksadiq's name, nor did 
1 say anything about him; but thus told my supposed tale. 
" This wretch is the Prince of China and Macheen ; so that 
my father is still king; he purchased from a merchant this 
picture for four hundred thousand pieces of silver ; from the 
moment I beheld it my peace of mind fled, and I put on the 
dress of a pilgritn; I have searched the whole world, and 
have now found the object here ; she is in your power.'' On 
hearing these words, the old man heaved a heavy sigh 
and said, u O friend, my daughter is entangled in great 
misfortunes ; no man can presume to mary her and enjoy 
her." I replied, " I am in hopes you will explain yourself 
more fully." Then the old man related thus his story. 

" Hear, O Prince ! I am a noble and an inhabitant of this 
city ; my forefarthers were celebrated, and of a greatfamily ; 
God bestowed on me this daughter ; when she became* a 
woman, her beauty, and elegance of manners were celebrated 
over the whole country ; it was said that in such a person's 
house is such a daughter, that even angels are envious of her 
beauty ; how can humam nature therefore be compared to 
her ? The prince of this city heard those praises, and be- 
came enamoured of her without seeing her; he qutted food 
and drink, and became quite melanchholy ; at last the King 
heard of it and called me at night in private, and proposed 
a marriage between the prince and my daugter ; he coaxed 
me so with fine speeches, that at last he got my consent ; I 
likewise naturally reflected, that as a daughter was born to 

(245) Alluding to the Asiatic custom of the women being concealed 
from the view of, all except their husbands or very near relations. 

FOFIl I) UK WE SB. 145 

me, she must be married to some one ; then what can be 
better then to marry her to the prince ; this the King ai. o 
entreats : PO 1 accepted the proposal and took my I* 
From that day the preparations for the marriage were begun 
by both parties. and on an auspicious hour all the Qazccs and 
ffooftces. (246) the learned men and the nobles were conven- 
ed, and the marriage rites were performed : the bride was 
carried away with great eclat, and all the ceremonies were 
finished. At night when the bridegroom wished to consum- 
mate the nuptial rites, such a noise arose in the palace, that the 
gu.-irds who were outside were suprisedand alarmed, andat- 
tempeted to open the door of the room to see what was the 
matter ; but it was so fastened from the inside, that they 
could not open it ; a moment after the noise became less ; 
they then broke open the door, and saw the bridegroom with 
his head severed from his body, and weltering in his blood ; 
the bride foamed at the mouth, and rolled senseless in her 
husband's blood. On seeing this horrible sight, the senses 
of all present forsook them ; that such grief should succeed 
such felicity ! The dreadful intelligence was conveyed to the 
King ; he flew to the spot beating his head ; all the officers 
of state were soon assembled there, but no one's judgment 
was of any use in ascertaining the cause of this mysterious 
affair when no one could account for it, the King, in his 
distracted state, ordered the ill-fated luckless bride's heard to 
be cut off likewise ; the moment this order was issued from 
theKing's lips, the same clamour arose ; the King was alarm- 
ed, and from fear of his life he ran off, and ordered the bride 
to be turned out of the palace ;the female attendants convey- 
ed the unfortunate girl to my house. The account of this 
strange event soon spread over the whole kingdom, and who- 
ever heard it was amazed; and owing to the prince's murder, 
the King himself and all the inhabitants of this city became 
bitter energies of my life. When I had mourned forty days, 
according to custom, the King asked the counsel of the of- 
ficers of state what was next to be done ; they all said, no- 
thinor else ean be done to console your majesty's mind 
and inspire it with patience, than to put the girl and her 
father to death, and confiscate their property. When this 
punishment was determined on, the magistrate received or- 
ders to put it in execution ; he came and surrounded my 
house with guards, and wished to enter it to execute the 
King's orders, when such showers of stones and bricks were 

(240) the Qazees and Monftecs are the Judges in Tnrky, Arabia, 
Persia and Hindoostan, of all ciyil and religious causes : they likewise 
marry, divorce, t^c. 

Ii4i(> TWh 'P tft- i 

poured on them by some mysterious hand, that iliey could 
not stand against it and ran- away ; and these dreadful'sounds 
issued, which even the King himself Lizard in his palace r 
"What misfortune impels thee t what demon possesses thee !: 
if tbou desirest thy welfare, molest not that beauty, or else 
the fate that thy son met with by marrying her, thou shalt 
experience the like doom by being her foe; if thou now 
molested her, thou wilt rue its consequence." The King 
fell sick through fear, and instantly ordered that no one 
should molest these evil-fated persons; to say nothing to them, 
to here nothing from them, but to 1st them remain in their 
house, and that BO one use them ill. 

From that day the magicians conceiving this mysterious 
event to be witchcraft, have used all their exorcising arts to 
destroy its effects ; and all the citizens read prayers, and 
pronounce the Great name of God through fear. It is a long 
while since this awful scene took pkee, but to this day the 
mysterious secret has not been developed, nor do I know 
any thing about it ; I once asked the girl what she had seen, 
she replied, "I know nothing more than that when my hus- 
band wished to consummate our marriage, I saw the roof 
instantly open, a throne set with precious stones descended 
through the aperture, on which was seated a handsome young 
man richly dressed, and many persons accompanied him, 
who advanced to put the Prince to death \ the young man 
came up to me and said. "Well, my love, where will you now 
escape to from me T" They had the appearance of man, but 
with feet like goats ; my heart palpitated, and I fainted 
through fear ; 1 do not know what happened after." From; 
that period we have both lived in this condition in this ruin- 
ed place,, and from the fear of offending the King all our 
friends have forsaken us ;. when I go out to beg no one 
gives me a farthing ; (247) moreover they do not like I 
should even stand before their shops;. I pray daily to God to. 
end our miserable existence, or that the earth may open and 
swallow up this unfortunate girl ; she has not a rag to cover 
her nakedness, nor sufficient food to satisfy her hunger \ 
death is better than such existence ; God has perhaps sent 
thee here for our good, that thou tookest pity on me and 
gave us a piece of gold, which has enabled 105 to have good 
food and clothes for my daughter ^ God be pruned, and 
blessed be thou ; if she was not under the influence of some 
demon or genius, I would give her for thy service like a slave, 
and think myself happy. This is my wretched story ; do not 
think of her, but abandon all thoughts on that head," 

(247-) In tho original a Cowree* ee N-ote 24A.. 

FOI'H Ul'H.WBIH. 147 

After hearing this sad narrative, I entreated ihc old man 
to accept me as his son-in-law; and it' evil be my future doom 
then lot it come ; but she old man would on no accent agree 
to my request. When evening came 1 look my leave of 
him and went to the serai ; Mo&aruc said, "Well, Prince, 
rejoice* God has favoured you, and your labours are not 
thrown away." I answered, " I have to-day entreated the old 
man greatly to bestow his daughter on me, but he will not 
consent; God knows if he will give her to me or not." My 
mind was in such a state that I passed the night in great 
restlessness, and wished the morning was come that I might 
return and see her ; i sometimes fancied, that if the father 
should be kind and agree to my wishes, M&baruc would carry 
her away for Mulikxadiq ; I then said to myself; Well, let 
us once get her; I will the get over Alobaruc and enjoy 
her ; again my heart was filled wfih apprehensions, that 
even if Mobaruc should likewise agree to my project, the 
Genius would serve me as he served the prince ; moreover 
the Kind of this city will never consent, that after the murder 
of his son another should enjoy his bride. I passed the 
whole night without sleep, agitated by these hopes and (Vary. 
When the day appeared 1 went to the ehouk, and purchase! 
some preces of fine cloth and lace, and fresh and dried fruits, 
and carried them to the old man ; he was greatly pleased 
and said, u That to every one noting is dearer than life, hut 
even if my life could be of any use to thee, I would not 
grieve to sacrifice it, and gave thee now my daughter ; but I 
fear that by doing so 1 would endanger thy life, and the 
stain of this reproach remain upon me to the day of judg- 
ment." I answered, " I am now in this city, helpless it is 
true, and you are my father in every respect, but consider 
what pains, fatigues and miseries I have for a long while 
suffered to attain the object of my wishes, before I arrived 
here and traced her out ; God has likewise made you kind 
towards me, since you consent to marry her to me, and only 
hesitate on account of my safety ; be just for a moment, and 
reflect that to save our heads from the sword of love, and 
screen our lives from its dangers is not commendable in any 
religion ; let what will happen, I have lost myslef in every 
way* and to possess the object of my love I consider as exis- 
tence, and do not care if 1 live or perish ; moreover despair 
will finish my days without the assistance of fate, and i will 
demand justice of you on the day of judgment," In short, 
in such altercations, in hesitations,, between refusal and ac- 
quiescence, a tedious month passed heavily over my head, 
accompanied with future hopes and fears ; I devoted my 
services every day to the told mai>, and every day I entreated 
him to jirant m\ boon. 

14^ H r. TALE OF THE 

At last the old man fell sick; I attended him during his sirk- 
iiess ; 1 used always to carry his ease to the physician, and 
whatever medicines he ordered 1 used to gtthem and admi- 
nister them to him ; I used to dress his pish-pash with my 
own hands, and give it to him to eat. One day was un- 
commonly kind and said, " O young man. thou art very- 
obstinate ; 1 have repeatedly told thee of all the evils which 
will ensue if thou persistest in thy object, and have often 
warned the not to think of it ; whilst we have life we have every 
thing, but thou art determined to jump into the abyss ; well, I 
will to-day mention thee to my daughter ; let us hear what she 
says." O holy durweshes* on hearing this enchanting words 
I swelled so with joy. that my clothes could scarce contain 
me ; I fell at the old man's feet and exclaimed, " Yon huve 
now laid the foundation of my future happiness and xl-tence. 
I then took my leave and returned to my abode ; but for- 
getting food and sleep, 1 passed the whole night in talking 
with Mobaruc of my future bliss. Early in the morning I 
again went and saluted the old man ; he said, "We!!, I 
you my daughter ; God bless you with her ; I have pu? 
both under his protection ; whilst I have life, stay with me ; 
when rny eyes are closed, then do what you wish ; you will 
then be master of your own actions.'* A few days after this 
conversation the old man died ; we mourned for him and 
buried him. After the teeja, (248) Mobaruc brought his 
beatiful daughter to the serai in a dolee (249) and said to 
me, " She belongs pure and untouched to Mulik&adiq ; be- 
ware you do not touch her, and lose the fruits of your labour." 
I replied, " O friend, where is Muliksndiq ? my heart will 
not mind me, and how can I have patience ? let what will 
happen, whether i live or perish, let me now enjoy her." 
Mobaruc lost all patience and replied with anger, ' Do not 
act like a boy ; now, in an instant, matters will change dread- 
fully ; do you think Muliksadiq far off that you disregard 
his injunctions ? he explained every circumstance to youon 
taking leave and warned you of the consequences; if you, 
act according to his directions and convey her safe to him, he 
has a royal mind, and may regard the toils you have under- 
gone with a favourable eye and give her to you ; how differ- 
ent will the case be then ! yo-i will preserve his friendship 
and gain your mi<trees.*' At last from the force of his ad- 
monitions and the apprehension he inspired, I remained 
silent ; I brought tow camels, and mounting on a Rvjarca^ 
(250) we set out for the country of muliksadiq. 

(248) The Teeja is the same as the Seeoom, See Note 1G4. 

(249) A kind of litter for the conveyance of women and the sick. 

(250) A kind of litter for travelling in Persia and Arabia ; tow of them 
are slung across a camel or a mule; those for camels carry four persons. 



pursued our journey, and at last, reached a plain where 
ea were heard ; Mobaruc exclaimed, f 'Qod l)t? praised 
our toils and sutierim:* arc not fruitless, for lo ! the army of 
the Genii are arrived,'' fie met them at last and asked them 
where thy were going. They replied, " The King has sent 
us forward to meet you, and we are now under yon orders ; 
it' you command us, we will convey you in a moment to the 
King.'' Mobaruc turning to me said, " See how God has 
elevated us in the King's opinion ; after all our toils and 
dangers, what is the use of haste now ? it' some misconduct 
should occur, which God i'erbid, then the (miisofour labour* 
would be lob>t,and we should fall under the King's displeasure." 
Th'jy all answered, " You arc the best judge of this ; proceed 
as you please." Alihou we were com to table iin every way 
except that we marched day and night,yet when we approached 
the place where the King was, I, seeing Mobarac asleep feel 
at that beautiful woman,s feef, and bewailed to the her rest- 
less state of my heart and my helpless conditon, owing to 
the threats of Muliksadiq ; and that form the day I had 
seen her picture I had forsworn food and rest ; and now that 
fate th<it afforded my this favourable opportunity, I was 
estranged from her. She repled, " My heart is also inclined 
towards you, for what toils and dangers have you undergone 
lor my sake, and with what labour and dilliculty have you 
brought me away ; remember God, and do not forget me ; let 
us see what happens." On saying this she wept so loud that 
she was nearly suffocated. Such was my state, and such was 
her,s ! in the mean time Mobaruc awoke and seeing us 
both in tears, he was greatly affected and said, " Be comfort- 
ed ; 1 have an ointment which 1 will rub over her beautiful 
body, from the smell of which "the J\lulik will be disgusted, 
and he will perhaps abandon her to you " On hearing this 
consolatory plan of Mobaruc's I was greatly revived, and 
embracing him fondly I said, " O friend, you arc now a father 
to me ; owing to my life was saved, now also act so tht 
1 may no perish with grief.'' He gave me every friendly 

When the day appeared, we heard the noise of the Genii, 
and saw that many personal attendants of Mulihsudiq wer 
arrived, and had brought tow rich khdnts for me and a covered 
lirter xvith a covering of pearls accompanied them. Mobaruc 
rubbed the ointment over my beloved's body, dressed her 
richly, and piecing her in the litter he conveyed her to 
Mutiktatlig, On beholding her the King rewarded niegreatly^ 


and dignified me with a seat near himself and said, ({ I will 
behave to thee so as no one has as yet done to any one, the 
kingdom of thy father awaits thee, besides which thou as 
a son to me." He was talking to me in this gracious manner 
when the beautiful woman appeared before him, and suddenly 
the smell of the ointment raised such disgust, that he became 
faint; he could not support it. and getting up he went out and 
called iMobaruc. and me; he looked at Mobaruc and faid/'Well, 
Sir, you have truly performed the injunctions 1 gave ; I 
had warned you, that if you deceived me you would incur 
my displeasure ; what smell is this! now see how 1 will treat 
you.'* He was very angry; Mobaruc from fear opened hi 
trowserg, and showed his stute,(251j and said, "Mighty King, 
when I undertook this business, according to your commands, 
1 then cut off my privities, and put them in a hox sealed it 
and delivered it over in charge to your treasurer, and put- 
ting some ointment of Solomon on the mutilated parts, I set 
out on the errand." On hearing this reply from Mobaruc, 
the King of the Genii looked sternly at me and said, "Then 
this is thy doing."and getting into a rage he began to abuse 
me. I immediately-perceived from his words and looks 
that he would put me to death ; despairing of life 1 became 
desperate, and snatching the dagger from Mobarnc t s waist,. I 
plunged it into the King's belly ; on receiving the stab he 
bent down and staggered ; 1 wondered, for I thought I had 
killed him ; I then perceived that the wound was not so 
mortal as I imagined, and could not account for it ; 1 was 
staring with surprise, when he rolled on the ground, and 
assuming the appearance of a temis ball, he flew up to the 
sky ; he ascended so high that at last he disappeared ; a 
moment after flashing like lightning, and vociferating some- 
thing with rage, he descended arid gave me such p. kick, that 
1 beame dizzy and fell flat on my back and swooned away. 
Lord knows how long I remained in this state ; but when* I 
opened my eyes I saw r that 1 was lying in such a wilderness 
where except thorns and briars nothing else was to be seen; 
tit that moment my underrtanding was of no avail to fix on 
what I shuld do or where I should go ; overcome with 
despondence I gave a shigh, and followed the first path that 
offered ; if 1 met any one I enquired for Mnliksadiq ; he 
thinking me mad, answered that he had not even heard his 
name. One day climbing a mountain, I likewise determined 
tothrow myseit off it's summit, and end my existence ; just 
as I was jumping off, the same veiled horseman appeared 
and Raid, " Why do you throw your life ; man is exposed 

(25) Of castration. 


to every pain and misery ; your unhappy days IUP now over, 
and your propitious ones an cowing ; no quickly to Con- 
stantinople ; three afflicted persons like thec are gone there 
nlso ; meet them, and see the King of that country ; the 
wishes of nil five will b: fulfilled in tiia same place." This 
is my story which I have just related ; at last from the happy 
tidings of our preserving genius (2.J2) I am come here, and 
have nit.'t the King ; we ought all now to be comforted " 

This convi. r-ation was passing between the King Azatlbukht 

and the lour Dwrw^fhcs^ when an Eunuch came running 

from the roval serajjlio, und with respectful salutation wished 

his Majesty joy, and added, u This moment a Prince is born, 

before whose rcf-ilgcnt beauty the sun and moen are abashed. 

The King was surprised and asked, " No one was pregnant in 

appearance ; who has brought forth this son ?,, The Eunuch 

replied, " Mahroo^ the female slave, who for some time hath 

lain under your Majesty's dispealsure, and lived like a wretch 

in a corner of the seraglio, and no one from fear ever went 

near her or asked after her state ; on her the grace of God 

hath been such, that she hath borne a son like the moon." 

The King was so rejoiced, that he nearly expired from exces- 

sive joy ; the four Dunveshes also blessed hitn and said, 

''May you be ever happy and your son prosperous, and live to 

a good old age.' 5 The King replied, i% This is owing to your 

propitious arrival, for I had no idea of such an event ; if vou 

give me leave I will go and see him.'" The IJurweshcs an- 

swered, " Certainly, go. The King went to the seraglio and 

too the young Prince in his lape, atid tlutnked God ; his 

mind became easy ; pressing the infant to his bosom, he 

brought it and laid it at the JJurweshes* feet ; they blessed 

it and, exorcised all evill spirits from approaching it. The 

King commanded the preparations of rejoicing to be made 

on the happy occasion and the royal music struck up, 

and the treasure was opened ; with princely donations he 

made the poor rich ; on all the officers of state he bestowed 

lands and titles, and to the army he gave five year's p : ty as 

a present ; to the learned and holy he gave pensions and 

lands ; and the wallets of the baggers were filled with pieces 

of silver and gold ; and the ryots (253) were excused from 

paying any revenue for ihee years, and that whatever they 

cultivated during this period, they should keep for them- 

(252) The veiled horseman Ullce, 

(2u-3) Ryots are the husbandman in India ; the tillers of the soil wh 
rent small parcels of land from the Government, throngh the medium 
of tho Zumtendai*, who is a servent of Government, and not the proprie- 
tor of the laud, as some have orrono uely tfiippQ&d, The Wftld 
of tho land, and not the proprietor. * 


selves. The whole city rejoiced and fested, and all were as 
happy as princess 

In the midst of these rejoicings the sounds of lamentation 
and weeping issued suddenly from the seraglio; the femala 
servants and Eunuchs san out cry ing and lament ing, and said 
to the King, "When we had bathed the prince, and delivered 
him to the nurse, a cloud descended from the sky and 
enveloped the nurse ; a moment after \ve saw the nurse 
prostrate and senseless, and the little Prince gone ; what a 
dreadful calamity has occured ! " The King was thunder- 
struck on hearing this dreadful circumstance, and the whole 
country mourned for the sad event ; for tow days no one 
dressed any victuals, but fed on their grief for the prince,s 
loss ? in short all was despair and despondency. The third 
day the same could appeared, and a cardie set with precious 
stones, and with a covering of pearls descended from it into 
the area of the seraglio ; the cloud then disappeared, pnd 
the servants found the little prince in the cardie slicking his 
thumbs ; the mother took him up immediately, and pressed 
bsm fondly to ner bosorn ; she saw that he was dressed in 
fine muslin embroidered with pearls, and on his ankles and 
wrists were rings of gold inlaid with precious stones, and 
round his neck a collar of precious stones ; toys and bells 
were lying in the cadle alongside the child. AH were trans- 
ported with joy, and thanked God and blessed the infant. 
The King ordered a new grand place to be built and furnish- 
ed, and kept the four Durweshes in it ; when he was disen- 
gaged from the affairs of state he used to go there, and 
provided every thing for them and waited on them ; but oil 
the first Thursday night of every mouth the same could 
descended, and took away the prince, and after keeping him 
tow days it used tobring him back, with such rich toys and 
rarities of every country in his cardie, that on beholding 
them the minds of the spectators were confounded with aston- 

In this manner the Prince reached insafety his seventh year; 
on the birth day, the King AzadbuL'htsa.\d. to the Durweshes, 
44 O holy men, i cannot conceive who carries the Prince away 
and brings himback ; it is very wonderful ; let us see waht 
will be the end of it." The Durweshes said, u Do one thing; 
write a friendly note to this purport, and put it into the 
Prince's cardie : That having seen your friendship and kind- 
ness to my son, my heart wishes most anxiously to meet you. 
and if by way of amity you favour me with your tidings. 1 shall 
be higly gratified and my wonder will cease. The King ac- 
cording to the Durweshes advice, wrote a note to this pur- 
port and put it in the cardie ; the Prince according to custom 


disappeared; and in the evening AzadhMd was sitting with 
the vurwcthes and conversing with them, when a folded paper 
fell near the King ; he opened it and read it, and found that 
it w is an answer to his note ; these two lines were wiittcu 
in it : ' Conceive me likewise anxious to see you ; a throne 
goes for yon , it is best that you should come now. that we 
may meet ; all the preparations of enjoyment are ready ; you 
alone are wanting." The King took the Durwahes with him 
mid ascended the celestial throne ; it was like the throne of 
Solomon, and mounted into the air ; proceeding on it des- 
cended in a place where grand edifices and sumptuous pre- 
parations appeared ; but it could not be prcceived if any one 
was there or not. In the mean time some one rubbed some 
powder of antimony over the eyes of Azadbltk/ij and the 
Durweshes ; two drops o r tears fell from their eyes, and they 
saw an assembly of Genii who were waiting to receive the 
King, dressed in rich habits, with vial-- of rose-water in their 
hands to shower on him. Azadbukht advanced forward, and 
saw ten thousand Genii standing in double rows in respect- 
ful order, and in the center was placed an elevated throne 
inlaid with precious stones, on which was seated, with <DJ air 
of great dignity, Mulik She/i Baltlic sonof Sharcckh^a. beauti- 
ful little girl of the genii race was seated before him, and was 
playing with the youn^ Prince Uu/chteear; seats were a; rang- 
ed in rows on both sides of the throne, on which the nobles 
of the Geniijyrere seated. J\fulik S/ie/i Bal stood up on seeing 
the King Azabbukht, and decended from his throne and 
embraced him, and taking him by the hand he seated him 
on the throne beside himself, and they conversed together 
with much cordiality ; the whole day passed in feasting and 
hilarity, and music and dancing. 

The second day when the tow Kings met, S/ich Bnl asked 
Azadbukht the reason for bringing the Durwe&hts with him ; 
Azadbukht related fully their adventures anil intercede;! for 
them, and asked of the Genii's assistance and added, " That 
they had undergone great hardships, ond sHercit great 
misfortunes ; and if now throgh your favour they attain 
their wishes, it would be an act of great humanity, and 
also will be grateful for it through life ; by your kind assist- 
ance they will reach the summit of their desires. if Mulik 
Sheh tial, after hearing these adventures and the King's 
request replied, "Most willingly ; I will not fail to obey your 
command?, ' Saying this he looked sternly at the Genii who 
were present, and wrote to thr nreat Genii who were chiefs 
indifferent plases, and ordered them, that on receiving his 
commands they must repair speedily to the presence, and that 
if any one delays in coming he sh^ll be punished seized and 


brought ; and that whoever possessed any persons of the 
human species, male or female, he must bring them along 
with him ; that if they concealed any one and it be known 
hereafter, the concealer and his femily shall be extirminated. 
Receiving these written orders the Genii set out in all direc- 
tions. A great warmth of friendship arose between the two 
Kings, and they passed their time in amicable conversation, 
amidst which Mulilc Sheh Bal turning round to the Dur- 
weshes said, rj I had a grert wish to have children, and had 
resolved, if God gave me a son or a daughter, to marry it to 
the offspring of some King of the human race; after this 
resolve 1 learnt that my wife was pregnant ; at hist after 
counting with anxiety each day and hour, the full period 
arrived, and tlii^ girl was born ; according to my determina- 
tion 1 ordered the Genii to search the four corners of the 
world, and that whatever King had a Prince boru to him, 
to bring thn chiM pnickly to me with care ; agreeable to my 
orders the Genii Hew instantly to the four corners of the 
earth and after some delay brought this young Prince to 
me ; I thanked God and took the child in my lap, and loved 
it dearer than my daughter ; 1 could no bring myslf to 
separate him from my heart for a moment, but used to send 
him back for his reason, that is his parents did not see him 
they would be greatly afflicted ; for which reason I sent for 
him once every month, and keeping him with me a couple 
of days I sent him back ; if God willing, now that we ha\'e 
met, I will marry ihem to each other ; all are liable to death 
then let us whilst we are alive, see their marriage performed." 
Azcidbukht on hearing this proposal of Sheh Bat's and seeing 
his amiable conduct, was grealy pleased and said, " At first 
the prince's disappearance and re-appearance raised strange 
apprehensions in my breast, but I am now, from your con- 
versation, easy in my mind and perfectly satisfied ; this son is 
now your,s ; do with him whatever you please . ,, In short 
the intercourse between the to Kings was very agreeable, 
and they fuily enjoyed themselves. 

In the space of ten or twelve days, mighty Kings of the 
Genii race, from the Goolistan of Ireem, (254) and from 
mountains and Islands, to call whom the Genii had been 
despatched, all arrived at the court of Sheh Hal. First 
Mitliksadiq was ordered to produce the human creature he 
had in his possession ; he was much vexed at it and sad, but 
having on remedy he produced the rosy beauty. Next the 

(254) A famous garden in Arabia Felix, frctned by a king named 
Shvhhad it is also applied to the Garden in Paradise, in which all 
good Mahometans ro to revel afur death, aecording to the Qorai^ 


Genii King of Ommun* (2*55) daughter was demanded for 

whom the prince o Neemrozc. the bull rider, went mad ; ha 

likewise made nmny excuses, but produced her at la-t. 

When the daughter of the King of the European Island and 

Behzad Khan were demanded, all present denied having 

any Knowledge of them, and swore by Soloman ; at lose 

when the King of the river QooUoom was asked if he knevy 

any thing of them, he hung down his head and remained 

silent. Muik Sheh Hal had a deference for him, and entreat- 

ed him to give them up, and gave him hopes of future favour 

and even threatened him then the River King joined his 

hands together and said,* 4 Please yourMajesty, the particulars 

of that circumstance are as follows : When the King of 

Persia came to the river Qoolzoom to meet his son, and the 

prince from eagerness plunged his horse into the flood, it 

chanced that I had gone out that day to hunt ; I passed by 

the place, and stopped to behold the scene ; when the prin- 

cess's mare carried her also into the stream, my looks met 

hei's and 1 was enchanted, and gave instant orders to the 

Cenii to bring her to me, and the mare. Bchznd Khan 

plunged in also after her on horseback ; I admired his bra- 

very and gallantry, and had him seized likewise ; I took 

them with me and returned home ; so they are both safe, 

and with me." Saying this he sent for them both before? 

Alulik Shah Bui. Great searcu had been made for the 

daughter of the King of Syria, and strict enquiries were put 

to all present ; but no one acknowledged having her, or 

knowing any thing about her : Alulik She/i Bal then asked 

if any king or chief was absent, and if all were arrived ; the 

(jemi answered, '* Mighty sire, all are present but one named 

Afa&ulsnl Judoo. who has erected a fort, on the mountain Qa/ 

by the me-ms of magic ; he is not come from haughtiness, 

and w? your majesty, s slaves arc not able to bring him by 

force ; the place is strong, and he is a g'*eat devil/' On 

hearing this Mnlik $heh Bal was very angry, and an army 

of Genii and Deves were sent with orders, that if he came of 

his own accord and brought th^ princess with him, well and 

good, or else subdue him and bring him. tied hy the neck 

a4ul heels, and raze his fort to the ground. Immediately on 

the orders being given such numbers of troops tlew to the 

place, that in a day or tow the rcbelious haughty chief was 

Ommon is the name of the southern part of Yemnn or Arabia 
Felix; the country which lies between Nusqut and Aden, that is to. say 
between the mouth of the Persian Gulpli. and the mouth (if the Red 
fc;i : the sea which washes this coa<t is called the ?ea of Oi/itnan, or 
Buhnroot Ownriii, in Persia and Aradia ; as the Red sea is called 
2Jithii r ool Qaolzoox or the sea of Qoolzuatn, Buti-ur means sea, 


brought in irons to the presence. Malik Sheh /?/ repeatedly 
asked about the princess but the haughty robol gave no 
reply ; the King got angry and ordered him to be cut to 
pieces, and his skin stretched and rilled with chaff; (256) a 
body of Genii were ordered to go to ih-s mountain of Qaf 
and search for the princess ; they went and found her, and 
brought hvrtoMulikSheh Bal. All these presoners and the 
four Durwes/ies seeing the King of the Genii's strict orders 
and justice, were greatly rejoiced and admired him highly 
the King Azadbnkht was also much pleased. 
Mu/ik Shes/i Bal then orderd the women to the royal 
seraglio and the men to the palace; the city was ordered to 
be illuminated, and the preparations for the marriages to ba 
quickly completed; all was instantly made ready, as if the 
order alone was wanted to be given. A happy hour being 
fixed the upon, prince Bukhteear was married to the prices:* 
Roshun- Ukhtur ; and the young merchant of Arabia (257) 
was married to the princess of Syria ; and the prince of 
Persia (258) was married to the princess of Bussorah ; and the 
prince of Ujum (*259) was married to the European princess; 
Behzad Khan was marriad to the daughter of the King of 
Neemroxe ; and the prince of Neemroze was married to the 
Genii's daughter ; and the prince of China (260) was married 
to the daughter of the old blind man of liindoo&tan ; she 
who had been in the possession of Muliksadiq. Through the 
favour of Mulik She/i Bal every hopeless persoe gained his 
desires and obtained his wishes ; afterwards they all enjoyed 
themselves for forty days and passed their, lime in pleasures 
and festivity. At last Mulik $h<>h Bal gave to each prince 
rich and rare presents, and dismissed them to their different 
countries. All were pleased and satisfied, and set out and 
reached their homes in safety, and he^an their reigns ; but 
i$e/izad Khauand the Arabian Merchant of their own accord 
remained with the King Aiadbuknt, and in the end the 
merchant was made head steward to his Majesty, and Behzad 
Khau Generalissimo of the army of the fortunate prince. 
~&ukhtecr ; whilst they lived they enjoyed every felicity. () 
God ! as these four Dunseshcs and the King Azadbukht at- 
tained their wishes, in like manner grant to all hopeless 

(256) A mode of ponishmeut used iu former times in Persia, India 
aud Arabia, against great enemies or atrocious, delinquents, and what 
the poor Emperor Valerian experienced from the haughty Shabour 
or Sapor, king of Persia or Parthia. 
(257) The first Dunvesh. 
(25Q) The second Durtfe^h, 
(259) The third Durwrsh, 
(l>(50) The fourth Dunuesh. 


beings the wishes of their hearts, through thy power nnd 
poodness, and by the medium of the Five pure Bodies, (261) 
the twelve Emnums and the fourteen Innocents, (262) on 
all whom be the blessing of God ! 

When this Bo-k was finished through the favour of God, 
I took it into my mind to give it such a name, that the date 
should be found out trom the name ; (263) when I made 
the calculation, I found that I had begun to compose this 
work in th<> en I of the year of the Hegira 1215, and owinj 
to want of leisure it was not /inished until the beginning of 
the year 1217 ; I was rejecting on this circumstance when 
it occurred to me that the words Bah O Buhar was a 
proper name, as it answered to the date of the year when 
the wirk was finished ; so 1 gave it this name. Whoever 
sh ill read it will stroll through a Garden ; moreover the 
Gerden is exposed to the blasts of winter, but this Book is 
not; it will ever be in verdure. Verse; When this ttcigh 

ttuhar was finished, the year was 1217 ; stroll through 
it ntghc and day, as its name and date is Bagh O Buliar 
the bl ists of winter can do it no injury ; for this Buhar 
(2<U) is evergreen and fresh; it hath been nourished with 
the blood of my heart, and its (the heart's) pieces are its 
leaves and fruits ; all will forget me after death ; but this 
Book will remain as a souvenir ; whoever reads it, remember 
me; this is my agreement with the Reader ; if there is an 
error excuse it ; for in flowers lie concealed thorns : man is 
liaSleto errors, and he will fail, let him be ever so careful. 

1 hav only one wish, and this is my prayer: O God, that 
Tnoumayest ever preserve me in Thy ways, and thus pass 
my nights and days ! That I may not be questioned with 
severity on the day of death (265) and theday of Judgement 

(261) The five pure bodies are M nhunuti the prophet, Fafeemahi* 
daugh er, Ultee her husband, aud Hussun and ttoossai.t their chil- 
(262) The fourteen Innocents are the children of Hussun and 

(263) By an aritheratical operation, called in Persian Ubjud ; as 
Persian letters have arithmetical powers, the letters which compose 
the words Bagh Buhar added up, produce the sura 12 17. From 
the inscription on must Mahometan tembs and those on the gates of 
Mosques, the dates of demise and erection^can be ascertained. We 
had the same barbarous cu-tora in Europe ab ut the 13th and 14th 
Centuries ; see the Spectator on this ridiculour subject. They wer 
considered as proofs of ingennity. 

(264) A pun on the word Buhar which means Spring, when flowers 
are in fall bloom, but the French word Printemps conveys more exact- 
ly the c mpouud signification ; for Buhar not only mean* spring, 
but an agreeable spring. The Persians are fonder of these double 
entendres than any people I ko:iw ; their poetry is strewed with it, 
ana their prose is full of it. It tb seldom a pro -f of cUste taste. 


O God . f in both worlds slower thy favours onme, 
through the mediation of the Great Prophet ! 

(26o) The Mahometans velieve, according to the superstition incul- 
cated by the Qoran, that t\vo angels, Nukur and Moonkir, are de- 
puted by God to make a p roc e 8 verbal of all who die. Many a man 
of sound sense amongst the Mahometans, belives this idle tale as 
firmly as his own existence. This is a proof, if pi oofs were wanting:, 
how inconsistent is the human mind, and how the absurdity of early 
mal instruction may pervert the brightest understandings !* We aro 
taught in early youth five hundred ridiculous tales more absurd than 
the proces-vearbal of the two heavenly Commissionaire above noticed ; 
and many of us believe them, through life, and support then* stren- 
uously / others do not credit them, yet maintain them. The immort- 
al Johnson belived in second sight, or what is equally absurd, hrsi- 
tated to disbelieve it ; surely no understanding was stronger or more 
luminous than that oi the author of the Rambler, 



The following four Letters were published in the European 
Magazine and the, A uWtal Asiatic Register about the period 
thtj/ were written * and as they are illustrative of stain t'n i . 
Man t-rs (tnd Customs, I kuv: tliuugfit they mijht be 
added to f/iis work. 


I am just returned from a four month's excursion with his Excel- 
lency the N*ic4b, and as a sketch of our ramble may afford you 
some amousement in an idle hour, I shall detail a few of the most 
ngreeable and interesting circumstances which occourd : We left 
Litt-know on the 4th of October loss, and directed our course towards 
B traitch. Our Qafeela or party consisted of about 40, 000 men 
and ^u, 000 beasts, composed of 10, 000 soUliers 1, 000 cavalry, and 
mar 150 pieces of cannon ; 1. 500 Elephants, 3,000 Hackeries, and 
an innumerable train of Camels, Horses and Bullocks. Great numbers 
of Ruts or covered carriages for woman, drawn by Oxen, which were 
filled with the Nnwab's ladies ; many large and small boats car- 
ried on carts, drown by 30, 40 and .50 oxen each; Tiger*, Leopards 
mid Hawks ; fighting Cocks, lighting Quails, and Nightingales ; 
Pigeons ; Dancing women and Boys ; Singers, players, iiuti'oous and 
Mountebanks. In spo t his Excellency had every thing, every object 
which could pleace or surprise ; cause a smile or raise a sneer ; at- 
trac'. admiration, fix with wonder, or convulse with laughter ; cap- 
tivate the eye, lull the ear, or tickle the palate. Above 500 Coolee* 
or Porters were employed to carry his shouting apparatus. guns, powder 
shot, and ceteras ; hu has above a thousand dou le barrel, 
guns, the finest that Manton or Nock could make ; single barrels, 
pistoles, swor.l and spears innumerable. Religion consstiaitu'd him 
to stop some days at Barritch. to pay homage ut the tomb of a cele- 
brated Saint culled Su/ar Gkazva ; all good Mahometans wim ;ire ahlu 
reahort to worship this ho'y anchorite once a y vur ; g- iu-ra ly in the 
month of May ; his bones were discovered about four hundred years 
ago, and meuefesttd their sanctity by some miruculou^ marks*: the 
witty and unbelieving say they were the skuk ton f an ass, without 
thinking of the impiety in inuigiin'iig there is, any resemblance between 
an ass and a saint, whether dead or alive. 

From Baraifcli we steered towards Nanjjard, a small town in the 
fnst.rauge of mountains, commonly cnllt-d the f'otnmow Hill c , which 
eitcud from the Eastem extremity of UwtMi to tiurdwar and divide 

160 A r P r M> i x . 

Hindoostan from Tibet ami Napanl, Game of all shorts were destro- 
yed every moring and evning without number or distinction. His 
Excellency is one of the best marksmen 1 ever saw ; it would be 
strange if he was not, as one day with another he fires above a hun- 
dred shots, at every species of bards end animals. The first Tiger we 
saw and killed, was in the mountains ; we went to attack him about 
noon ; he was in a narrow valley, which the Nuwnb surrounded with 
above 200 Elephants , we heard him growl horribly in a thick bush 
in the. middle of the valley. Being accustomed to the sport and 
very eager, 1 pushed in my Elephant ; the fierce beast charged me 
immediately ; the Elephant, a timid animal, as they generally are 
turned tail and deprived me of the opportunity to fire ; 1 ventured 
again, attended by two < r three other Elephants ; the Tiger made a 
spring, and nearly reached the back of one of the Elephants on which 
were three or four men ; the Elephant shook himself so forcibly as to 
throw these men off' his back ; they tumbled into the bush ; 1 gave 
them up for lost, but was Agreeably surprised to see them creep out 
unhurt. His* Excellency was all this time < n a rising ground near the 
thickket, looking on calmly, and beckoning to me to drive the Tiger 
towards him, I made another attempt and with more success , he 
darted out towards me on my approach, roaring furiously, and la hing 
his sides with his tail ; I luckily got a shot and hit him ; he retrea- 
ted into the bush, and ten or twelve Elephants just theu pushed into 
the thicket alarmed the Tiger, and obliged him to run out towards 
the Nitwab, who instantly gave him a warm reception, and with the 
assistance of some of his OmraoM or noblemen, laid the Tiger sprawl- 
ing on his side, as dead as a stone. A loud shout of who, !wha ! pro- 
clalimed the victory, ?nd those who had been too timid to approach 
before, from idle apprehension, assumed their valour, and rushed on 
the fallen hero with slaughtering swords. On Elephants there is no 
danger in encountering these savage beasts, which you know from 
repeated trials. 1 have been at the killing of above thirty Tigers, 
and seldom saw any one hurt : if you recollect 1 was once at Ptassey 
thrown off my Elephant on a Tiger, and escrped with a bruise. 

The next sport we had of any magnitude was the attack on a wild 
Elephant, which we met a few days after the battle with the Tiger ; 
we espied him on a large plain overgrown with grass , the Nuwab 
eager for such divertion, immediately formed a semicircle with four 
hundred Elephant, who were directed to advance on and encircle him. 
This was the first wild Elephant 1 had ever seeii attacked, and confers 
I did not feel very easy , however 1 kept alongside of his Excellency, 
determind to take my chance, When the semicircle of Elephant got 
within three hundred yards of the wild one, he looked amazed, but 
not frightened ; two large mnsi (I) Elephaat of the Wmvatfs were 
ordered to advance against him ; when they approached 
within fifty yards, he charged them ; the hock was dreadfull ; 
however the wild one conquered, and drove the must Elephants 
before him. As he passed in, the Nuwab ordered some of the 
strongest female Elephants with thick ropes to go alongside of 
him, and endeavoured to entangle him with nooses and runing knots 
the atempt was vain, as he snapt every rope, and none of the tame 

(\) Must Elephant a-e those that are in high rut ; they are then very unman- 
ageable, bold, savge, and often very dangerous. The male Elephants become 
mustat a ceatain age, which some say is forty years; the mus t Klephan t are 
the only ones that will duir face a male wild one : they are also uaed in the 
Elephant lights exhibited before (he Princts of india. 


Elephant! could stop his progress. The Nuwab perceiving it impou 
tible to catch him, ordered his death, and immediately a voll-y >i 
above a hundred shots were fired ; many of the balls hit him, but he 
t-eeuied unconcerned, and moved on toward the mountains ; we kept 
up an incessant fire for near half an hour ; the Nww^i aud must of 
his Omraos used rifles, which earned two or three ounce balls ; i.ut 
they made very little impression ; the balls jnst entered the skin i.nd 
lodged there 1 went up repeatedly, being mounted on a femul- 
Elephant, within ten yards of the wild one, and fired my rifle at hia 
bead: the blood gushed out, but the skull wa.s invulnerable. Some of 
the Knnddher horse galloped up to the wild Klephant, and made cuts 
at him with their sabres ; he charged the horsemen, woudd<:d M-isie 
and killed others. Being now much exhrusted with the loss of blood, 
having received above three thousand shots and many strokes - f the 
sabre, ho slackened his pace ; quiet calm and serene, as if dedermined 
to meet his approaching end with the uudaunted firmness of a hero. 
1 could not ai this time refrain from pitying so noble an animal, and 
thought 1 saw in him the groat Kpaminondas encompassed by tho 
Lacedemonians at the batial of Mautinea. The horsemen Boeing him 
weak and slow, dismounted, nd with their swords began a furious 
attack on the tendons of bis hind lags; the} \vero soon cut. Unable 
to proceed, ihis noble monarch of the woods Daggered ; looked with 
an eye of reproach mixed with contempt ut his unfeeling foes, and 
then fell wfthout a groan .like a mountain thrown on its side. The 
hat fat men now advanced, and commenced an attack on his large 
ivory tusks ; whilst the horsemen and soldiers with barbarous insult, 
began a cruel and degrading assault on the extended hero : to try 
the sharpness of their swords, display the strength of their arm, and 
show their invincible courage ; the sight was very affecting/ he 
still breathed, and breathed without a groan ; he rolled his eyes wtih 
anguish on the surrounding crowd, and making a last effort to rise. 
be expired with a sigh thus has many a above Roman met his fate, 
overcome by superior numbers. Tho Nuwab returned to his tents. 
as much flushed with vanity and exultation as Achilles ; and the 
remainder of the day, and many a day after, was dedicated to repeat- 
ed narrations of bis victory, which was ornamented and magnified by 
a 1 1 the combined powers ol ingenious flattery and unbounded exag- 

"S.Toth'd with the strain the Prince grew vein, 

" Fought all his battles o'er again, 

" And thrice he routed all his foes, and thrice he slew the slain." 

From the mountains we directed our course to words 
Jheel were we arrived on the 4th of December. Bukrn Jhcel is a 
large lake about three miles iu circumference at its most contracted 
size in the dry season, and about thirtv in it's extensive period in 
the rainy season, surrounded by thck and high grass at the foot of the 
Goruekpore hills. The Jungle or wild which e.ntour the lke is full of 
wild lllephauts, Ulunoceros* Tigers Leoqard.s, wild Buffaloes, Deer, 
and every species of aerial game. This was the place destined for tho 
grand Hunt, which we were daily taught to expect with pleasing an- 
xiety by the florid descriptions of bis excellency. 

On the 5th day of December (early in the morning, we were sum- 
moned to the Sylvan war a line of twelve hundred Klephante was 
drawn up on the North of the lak--, facing the East, and we proceeded 
rapidly through the high gra;s,with roind glowing with the expectation 


of the grant! ?por* we should meet. Lay down your pipes, ye country 
squires. wh< boast in such pompous language the destruction of a poo'r 
Fox or Puss, and ?ay in what splendid lexicon could ye find terms to 
convey an idea of the senile I saw, and now endeavour to describle/ 
When we had arrived at the Eastern extremity of the lake, we per- 
ceived a large drove of wild Elephants feeding, and gambuling at the 
foot of the mountains, I counted above one hundred and seventy. At 
fiis critical moment Mr. Con way, a gentleman in the Nuwab's service, 
fell off his Elephant, wing to the animal's slipping his fore foot into 
a concealed hole: Mr. Conway was much bruised, pale and almost 
censel-ss. 1 he Nuiuab stopped to put him into a palankeen, and send 
him back t > the Encampment, This gave the wild Elephants time to 
gate on our dreadfull front, and r< cover from their nmaze ; many of 
them Bcnmpered of towards the hills. The Kuicab divided our line of 
twelve hundred Elephants into four bodies, and sent them in pur>uit < f 
the wild ones, which they were to take or destroy. 1 remained with the 
division attached to tha A it wait . we attacked a Lrge male > lephant. 
and after a long contest killed him in the ,-ame manner as the one 1 
have already described ; we kill also four Mimll* r one^. and our divi- 
sion, including the other thrte, caught twenty-one Elephants, which 
we led to our encampment in high triumph. 

I have only given a short account of the grand hunt, as, it is im- 
possible for the most splendid language to discribe what we saw 
and felt. The confusion, tumult, noise, firing, shrieking and roaring 
of twelve hundread tame Elephants, and their riders, attacked and 
attacking one huudread and seventy wild ones, "All in terrible dis- 
order tossed, " formed a dreadful melange, which cannot be imagined 
by the mo t luxuriant fancy , to attemt therefore a delineation would 
only injure the sublime subject. There were above 1000,000 shorts 
fired from all quarters and considering the confusion 1 am surprised 
the scene was not more blody on our side ; about twenty men were 
killed and wounded, and nearly half a dozen horses. 1 had two rides 
and two double barrels, and a boy to load for me in the khincas (-) 
yet I could not tiro quick enough, though 1 expended 
aboev four hundred ball--. Many of our tame Elephants 

*hat were mif-t. and brought to oppose the wild ones, 
were knocked down, bruised, pierced and made to fly. The largest 
Elephant we killed was above ten feet high, (3) and would have 
sold for 20,000 Rupees, if he had been caught. Our rrize of this day 
might without amplification, be estimated at 50 ,000 Rupees ; but 
you know the love of lucre was not our object. Pause for a moment, 
my dear Sir, and refluct on the scene 1 have described, and you will 
confess, though seen thorugh the imperfect medium of a languid des- 
cription, that it must have been the sublimest bight that ever was 
presented to the mind of man in the Sylvan war. Apollo would 
have been astonished, Acteon concerned, and Diana and her Ny- 
mphs frightened 3ut of their wits ; we expatiate on it with rupture to 
this day, and no one who was present will lose the remembrance of 
it as long as he enjoys his ranpellant faculties- 

(2) The Khuwas is a place in the rear of the Hou-da, where the attendant sits: 
the Howda is a carriage or box like l he body of a phaeton, tied ou the back of 
the b'lephant where the rider is seated. 

3 Travell ers say there are Elephant s>ixteeu feet high, but this is the exag 
Derated language of Truvellcis, who are in general more anxious to excite won- 
der than convey information. 1 never saw one eleven feet high, and I have seen 
some thousands, The Nutoab gives extravagant prices for uncommonly large 
Elephants, and he has none eleven feet high the h'rst we Killed was the highest 
I ever saw. Their general highest is about seven cr eight fett. 


Erom Balra Jhed wo came to l^dizalad ; were we reposed fur 
three weeks, to recover from the great fatigue we IKU! undi . 
After a gay scono of every species of oriental amusement and festive 
dissipation, we returned to this place ; having killed on our excur- 
sion eight Tigers, six Elephants ami caught twenty- one. To enumer- 
ate the other kinds of game, would require a sheet as ample as the 
Petition which was presented to JungQaizt Khttn* and might perhaps 
be treated hy you in the manner that Tnrtor conqiu ror tn-an-d the 
Petition. Adieu. 

I am, ni} doar Sir. 

Your's very sincen-ly, 

L. I 3. 

LIVKVOW, 2Bru l-'EiinriRY, 179.-1. 

As I have nothing bettor to amuse you with, and no domestio 
matter of sufficient consequence to write ahout, I shall heguile the 
tedinusness of time hy giving you an account of the celebration of ao 
Eastern Nuwab's marriage, at which 1 have heen lately invited. It 
was the nuptials of IVazeer U/tfe (4) the eldest son, real or preten- 
ded, of Nuivab Asitfood Dowleh, (5) the present Nnu'db of Oude, (G) 
whose capital is Lucknow. I .ay real or pretended^ aa public rumour 
confidently asserts that the Nuwalt is incapable of having children, 
though his seraglio contains above five hundred of the greatst beaut- 
ties of India. All his children ore by adoption, and, tluy 
amount to about sixty in number ; thirty-two sous and twenty- 
eight daughters* Pregnant woman are purchased or beguiled into 
the seraglio where they lie in. If a son, a royal salute is fired, 
which proclaims the birth of a young Nnw*b. if a daughter, the 
public knows nothing, ,as woman are in this country considered 
merely as a piece of necessary furniture to ornament the Haram, and 
the birth of a daughter occasions no joy the father. Judging from 
his own conduct, he foresees the treatment his child will experience, 
when she is consigned to the animal love of another ; that they will 
be merely slaves in purple and fine linen ; loaded with jewels to 
please the ej es of their tyrant*, and never allowed to step beyond 
the precints of the Znmana or Haram. except on occasional visits to 

4 Wuzeer Ullce , who is now confined iu Fort William for his atrocious 
murder of Mr. Cherry and othors at Banmes, 

5 The late Nuifab of \iiicknnw. 

ti Properly Uwutt :the country of tb Muwabs of 


some female friend ; nor ever suffered to behold the face of any mnn 
besides their masters, for they cannot be called husbands without 
outrage to the term, except through ihe latticed windows of their high 
walled prisons, called Zimanas or Harams to mollify the name .How 
different this, my dear Eliza, from the life and freedom of a British 
Fa>r / Bless (1od that you were not born in the unfeeling land of 
Hindo<>s((in,&nd cherish more the country which gave you birth ; a 
country which is equally renowned f >r Beauty as for Freedom and 
delicacy of sentiment / were the Fair tyransise over the wounded 
hearts of their admirer-; and were they often wear the breeches, and 
Kometime comb the heads of their pliant husbands with a slipper. 

But to return to the marriage, after this long digression : The 
Bridegroom was about thirt en, dark complexioned and not hand- 
some ; the Bride about ten, still darker and still more ordinary. 
\Ve went ill the evening to the celebration ; our Party consisted of 
about four Ludies and twelve Gentlemen. We went all on Elephant 
caparisoned. On the plaints which border on the city of Irftcknow 
the yVwzfltf&had pitched many Tents, but two large ones in particular 
made of strong cotton cloth lined with the finest English broad cloth, 
cut in stripes, of different colours ; with cords of silk and cotton 
these two large Tents cost five lacks of Rupees : they were each 
about 120 feet long and 60 board, and the poles about sixty feet high, 
and the walls of the tents about tea feet high The walls of one of the 
Tents were cut lattice work for the woman of the Nttwab seraglio, nnd 
those of the principal native Nobility, to see though. In front of the 
large tent destined for our reception, and for the reception of the pr ; n- 
cipal Nobility at the huwab't Court, was a large awning called &Shu- 
meeana of fine English board cloth, supported on about sixty poles 
covered with plates of silver; this awning or Shumeeana was about 100 
feet 1 *ng and tlte same in breadth. 

When we arived,the good humoured Nuwab recived us very polite- 
ly, a r )d conducted us to one of the large Tents destined for the men 
where we sat for about an hour ; he was covered ith jewels to the 
amount at least of two millions sterling ; we then went out and sat 
under the Shumeeana. which was lighted up with a couple of hundred 
elegant English Girandoles, and a* many shades, with wax candles ; 
and many hundred flambeaux ; the glare and reflection was dazzling 
and offensive to the sight. Here were above a hundrtad Dancing 
Girls, richly dressed, who went through their elegant, but rather 
lascivious dances and motions, and sung some soft aira of the country 
chiefly Persian, and Hindoo- Persian. Alout seven t night the Bride- 


groom, n'att-rr I' life, the young JVuira6, appeared, loadd so absurd- 
ly with jewels, that he could scarcely stagger under the precious 
Wright. Wo then mounted our Elephants to proceed to a rich and 
extensive Garden which was about a mile off. The procession waa 
grand beyond conception ! It consisted of above twelve hundred Ele- 
phants richly caparisoned, and drawn up in a regular line like a regi- 
ment of soldiers ; about a hundred of the Elephants, which were in the 
centre, had castles, called Utnbarees, lashed on their backs, which were 
covered with plates of silver. In the centre was the Nuwab, mounted 
on an uncommonly large Elephant, covered with cloth of gold, and a 
rich Vmbaree covered with plates of gold, aud inlaid with precious 
stones. Un his right hand was the British Resident at his Court, Mr 
George Johnstoue, and on his left the young Nuwab Wazecr Ulle.e ; 
the other English Gentlemen and Ladies and the Native Nobility. 
were intermixed on the right and left. On both sides of the road, from 
the Tents to the Garden,were raised artificial sceneries of bamboo work 
very high, representing bastions, arches, minarets and towers, coverd 
with lights in lamps, which made a grand and sublime display, And on 
each side of the procession, in front of the Elephants, were Dancing 
Girls, riehly dressed, carried on platfroms supported by men called 
Bearers, who danced as we went along, all these platfroms were cover- 
ed with gold and silver clothi, and there were two girls and tow musi- 
cians on each platfrora ; the number of these platforms were about a 
hundred on each side of the Procession. 

All the space of ground from the Tents to the Garden, over which we 
moved along, was inlaid with Fireworks, and at every step the Ele- 
phants took, the earth burst before us, and threw up artificial stars in 
the heavens to emulate those created by the hand of Providence ; be 
sides innumerable rockets and hundreds of wooden shells that burst in 
the air, and shotf >rth a thousand fiery serpents; which winding through 
the heavens, illuminated the sky and turned a dark night into a bright 
day .assisted by the light of the bamboo scenery. The procession moved 
on very slowly, to give time for the iirewo ks, which were inlaid in tho- 
ground, to g<> off, and the whole of this grand scene was furthei lighted 
by above three thousand flambeaux carried by men hired for the occa- 
sion Thus enlightened we moved on in stately pomp to the Garden, 
which though only a mile off, required tow hours. When we arrived at 
the Garden gate we descended frm the Elephants and entered the 
Garden,which we found illuminated by innumerable transparent paper 
lamps or lanterns of various,colours suspended from the branches of the 

Trees.In the centre of ihe Garden was a large edifice to which we as- 


eended,and were introduced into aGrandSalociijbrightened by innumer 
able Girandoles and pendant Lustres ofEnglishmanufacturelighted with 
wax candles. Here we had an elegant and grand collation of English 
and Native dishes, with wines, fruits and sweetmeats ; at the same 
time above a hundred Dancing Girls sung their sprightly airs, and 
danced their native dances. Thus passed the time untillthe dawn when 
we all returned to our respective homes, quite delighted and wonder- 
struck with this enchanting and subline scene, which surpassed in 
splendour every sight of the kind beheld in this country. The affable 
JNnwab rightly observed, with Asiatic vanity, that such a spectacle 
\vas never before seen in India, and never would be seen again. The 
whole expense of this marriage Fate, which was repeated for three 
successive nights,m the same manner 1 have described,cost above three 
hundred thousand pounds, or twenty-five lacks of Rupees. Now my 
dear Eliza, your heart must pant with delight, and you must regret 
that you was not present to beheld what I have so feebly described. I 
wish you were there ; it would have given a delight to this grand and 
elegant scene which I cannot describe ! Adieu ! Believe me ever your's 
very affectionately. 

L, F, S. 

LUCKNOW, 11 TH MARCH, 1795. 

In my last I sent you a description of a Hy menial Fete at which I 
was present ;iii this letter 1 shall offer for your amusement an historical 
sketch of the present Nuwab of Oude t called Asufood Dowleh. He is the 
eldest son of the famous Shuja ood Dowleh* the former JSuwab ofOude 
who was conquered by the irresistable arms of the British East India 
Company, directed by the invincible and wonderful Clive a man to 
whom the British Goverment ought to have raised an everlasting 
monument of adamant for having conquered an immense territory as 
large as England and France united, with numbers which would be 
scarce sufficient lo sterm a redoubt ill Europe. The founder of the 
Family that reigns as present in Oude (1 ) was Sadut Khan,* Per- 
sian soldier who came to Dhailee to seek his fortune, and who 
raised himself to rank, riches and power by his sword and his 
policy Shuja ood Dowleh was the son of Svfdur Jung who 
was married to this Saudui Khan's daughter, and 1 belive was of 
the family of Saudnt Khan, Shnja ood Duwleh died in 1775, leaving 

(7^ The present Xuii'ab is Sadut UM Khan the brother of Awf ozd Dou-te.\. 


the chracter of a bold, cruel, enterprizing and rapacious Prince. Amif 
oodDoivlelikis son succeeded to the Goverment by the assistance of the 
East India Company ; he is mild in manners, generous to extravagcnce, 
affably polite, and engaging in his conduct ; but he has no great mental 
powers though his heart is good, considering the education he has re- 
cived, which instilled the most despotic ideas ; he is fond of lavishing 
his treasures on Gardens, Palaces, Horses and Elephants ; and abovo 
all on fine English Guns, Lustres, Merrors and all sorts of Enropen 
more especially English ; from a towpenny deal board painting of 
ducks and drakes to the elegant paintings of a Lorraine 
and a Zophani ; and from a little dirty paper lantern to Mirrors and 
Lustres which cost tow or three thousand pounds each. Every 
year he expends about tow hundred thousand pounds in English 
goods of all sorts. He has above a hundred Gardens, twenty 
Palaces, twelve hundred Elephants three thousand fine saddle 
Horses, fifteen hundred elegant double barrell Guns, seventeen 
hundred superb Lustres, and thirty thousand Shades of various 
kinds and colours ; some hundreds of lar^e Mirrors, Clocks and 
Girandoles. He lately bought four Mirrors, which were the 
largest that hadjjever been made in Europe, of course in the world ; 
they were ordered expressly for him, and were made in London, where 
they cost eight thousand pounds ; they were twelve feet Icng and six 
feet broad within the frame, of single sheets of glass, in elegant gilt 
frames : he bought them and sent them to his Repository, where they 
will repose in peace and unnoticed until the time of the Religious Fete 
called the Mahnrrum, when they will be displayed with the rest of hi* 
Mirrors, Lustres and Girandoles, &c. in the Grand Hall of a Grand 
Religious Edifice called the Einaumburrn^ which cost a million sterling 
in building, and which is the largest building in Lucknow. Some of 
his Clocks are curious, and richly set with precious stones, which play 
tunes every hour, and have figures in them in continual movement ; 
a pair of these Glocks cost him thirty thousand pound-*. His Museum 
is curious, rich, mid rediculously displayed. You see a wooden cuckoo 
clock which perhaps cost a crown, alongside of a rich superb Clock 
which perhaps cost the price of a Cron ; an elegant Landscape of Lor- 
raine beside a deal board daub of ducks and drakes ; a Miperb Lustre 
of forty or fifty lihts, which cost perhap four or live thousand pounds 
hung up near a paper lantern of tow pence. 

Asufood JDoivleh is absurdly extravagant and rediculously curious ; 
he has no taste and less judgment. I have seen him more amused 
with a Tetotum than with electrical exprements ; but he is never- 


theless extremely avidituus of all that is aiegant and rare ; he has 
every insrmnent and every inn chin of every art and every 
sceince ; but he knows none. His IJtrrm is grand and contains 
above five hundred of the greatest beauties of Hindoostan 
who are immured in high walls,never to have it expect on their biers ! 
He has large Carriages drawn by one or tow Elephants, in which he 
may give a dinner to ten or twelve persons at their ease ; he has an 
immense number of domestic servants and a very large army, and he 
is always at peace with his neighbours ; moreover he is fully protected 
from hostile invasion by the Company's subsidiary Force, for which 
he pays five hundred thousand pounds per annum, Such is old Asuf 
ond Dowlctt, as he is generally called, though he is now only forty- 
seven years of age ; (8) n curious inexplicable compound of absurdity, 
generosity, candour, 'lenity, childish curiosity, devoid of taste, affable, 
polite, good humoured, weak, ignorant, and often detestably brutish in 
his private pleasures. In his public appearance and conduct he is 
admirable agreeable and courteous. In short he has some qualities 
to prise, some to detest and mony to laugh at. He has many 
adopted children, but none of his own ; he was married when 
young to one of the finest women in India, of high birth and 
high character ; but for these sixteen years he has not seen 
her, and report says he has never fulfilled the duties of a bus 
Land. He was once fond of drinking Europen liquors to excess espe- 
cially claret and cherry brandy ; but he has lately forsworn them, and 
now intoxicates himself with large quantities of opium, and a green 
inebriating leaf called Subsee, a species of the hemp, which is pounded, 
diluted in water and sugar, and drank ; he is very fond of the Keglish 
and English manners / he eats at table with them without the silly 
supersitious repugnance of other Mahometans, and he relishes a good 
dish of tea and hot rolls for breakfast, Once he was at table, and 
a roasted pig by mi%take was placed before him ; he smiled and said, 
<l Though I am fordid to eat that animal, I am not forbid to look at it. 
lie Revenues amount to about three millions sterling and he is 
generally in debt ; he never troubles his head about the goverment of 
his country, which is generally entrusted to rapacious ministers ; all 
he looks to is, that there be money sufficient for his private expences. 
His Jewels amount to about eight millions sterling .- I saw the whole 
the day before the marriage of his eldest adopted son Wazeer Ullee ; 

(8) \suf ood Oowlth died on the 2lst September 1797; aged 49 of adropsy. He 
was succeeded by his adopted eon Wazeer Ullee, who was soou dethroned for 
his voices and crimes. 


(0) he had them collected from all parts ; from hi* own gardrobe, hits 
women. #c,; they were accumulated sience the time of hisGrandfather 
Sufdur Jung, to hia own. I never saw such a precious sight, and I believe 
1 shall never see it again the good humoured Nuwab was in the midat 
of them,handing them like a child does its baubles, and in a philosophic 
sense they are more baubles. Do they add to a man's roal happiness ! 
do they cure a head-ache, or mitigate the pangs of the gout ! do they 
give a better appetite, or do they assist digestion ? do they acuse a 
more tranquil sleep, or do they retard the hand of death ? do they cnlm 
a guilty conscience, or do they elevate a pore one ? do they add grace 
to natural beaty, or do they add charms to deformity ? No ! No ! then 
in God's name why are they so eagerly pursued through paths of shame 
and villany ? Riches can only add to a reasonable being shappiness by 
the means they affoed of bestowing happiness on others in relieving their 
distress by brightening the face of misery and wiping the tear from 
the creeks of the unfortunate Ah my dear Eliza I which I possessed 
them ! not to buy peala or diornonda but to transport me to you ! 
Adiew ! Believe me ever yours affectionately, 

L. F. S. 

DHAILBB, 1st MAY, 1801. 

I was duly favoured with your kind letter requesting some inform 
ation respecting the rites of Birth, Marriage and Burial, observant 
among the Mahometans in this part of Jndia, and take up my pen 
to give you the beat information I have been able to collect on thoaw 
subjects. I do not know any writer who has written correctly or 
fully on these matter*, or I would refer you to him ; as the erratic 
life J lead doea not allow time for deep researches ; moreover the 
JMtiOsu/ma tins are tenacious of entering on these subjects ; 1 have 
therefore had some difficulty in acquiring the particulars I now trans- 
mit. To begin with the rites of Birth ; The custom of Mahometan* 
in Hindooitan of the opulent class is, that when a woman become** 
pregnant and enters into her seventh month they Bend for Domiives 
or female singers to celebrate the seventh month of pregnancy, and 
after this period the family prevent the woman from going to hr 
father's house, until the forty days after birth are elapsed. When 
she enters her nine month great rejoicings are made, and female 
friends and relations are invited ; but the pregnant woman doei not 
adorn herself in tine clothes or jewel* untill the ninth month ; the 

(9) Wazttr Ullee got the greatest part of them, after the death of ASM/ 
QQii Dowlthpud. u*ed them to the wont of purpose*. 


Rutjuga or religious vigils are kept by the woman, and tha suanuk 
or offerings to Fcitecma, the daughter of Mahomet, are performed 
by them. They then fill the except motlie'rs lap with the fruits and 
vegetables of the season and a cocoanat, and give her the Punjeera^ 
a mixture of flour, dried fruits, sugar and spices to eat. When the 
period of delivery approaches:, some of the nearest female relatives 
tir friends remain constantly with her, and fix on an apartment for 
the accouchement and a midwife comes from the woman's father 
to act as accoucheuse and cut the navel string. After the child ia 
born the Chuttce or sixth day is celebrated with great rejoicings ; 
female singers, Hijra*, (10) Cashmerians, and Buffoons assemble 
at the house, and perform their different parts. It is also a custom 
on the day of birth for the paternal uncle of the infant to repeat 
t-ie Uzsam, a form of commencement to prayers, into the child's ear, 
by which ceremony they consecrate him to their Prophet ; after 
which the mother and father give -the uncle money, sweetmeats, and 
flowers according to their means. On the Chuttec night they make 
a choiimook) or lamp of flour pase with four wicks, end put it into 
the mothers hand, place the child in her arms, and lead them out 
to behold the stars ; the mother aud the infant arc adorned with 
strings of flowers ; nt this time three woman are appointed to attend 
her ; one of whom holds the Quoran open before her, and retreats 
backwards, holding the book to words the mother ; the two others 
hold noked swords over her head to frighten away evil spirits ; the 
mother advances until she has counted seven stars ; the uncle shoots 
an arrow into the ceiling into the room which remains therefor forty 
days ; this ceremony is called Mirgmarn a; they then return to the 
apartment. Add it is likewise customary not to allow the mother 
to leave her apartment for forty days, except to see the stars as 
above described, and to perform the usual ablutions on the sixth and 
the twentieth clay after deli very *, For the first six days they give 
the mother nothing to eat but Uckwance and Suthora (11). The first 
six days after birth are celebrated with as much festivity and rejoic- 
ings as their means will admit. The rites of Uqet-pa or shaving the 
child is performed on the sixth day ; the infant is hair is shaved. 
and its weight in silver given to the barbar, and u he-goat which is 
SvheehooluKa or perfect, and of one colour, is killed, and his meat 

(10) Hijras are n race in India who have not the powers of manhood; they 
dress like women, and sing and dance at births, marriages, $c. 

(11) Vchioanee is a decoction made from different medicinal ingredien ; the 
Suthora is made of ginger, sugar, Hour and ghee, a kind of butter; they arw 
given to the Lridy in the etraw to cat and driuk during tix days. 


cut up in such matter that no bones may bebrukcn ; it is thin 
cooked and given to strangers. Th^ mother 1-nthe.-. oti tlie fixtli^ 
twentieth and the fortieth in warm water. ( '-n the great I'hilln or 
the fortieth day ereat rejoicings arc- made, and great care is tak<e 
of the Mother during these forty days, and every one is not admitted 
into her presence; whoever enters the apartment throws ifjmnd, * 
black grain, on the fire which burns constantly in the rrorn for 'fee 
forty days ; the ispund is burnt, that no evil spirits which may have 
accompanied the visitor be able to do any evil ; a piece of iron, ri<cl 
an old knife or the head of an arrow are always kept in the apart- 
ment, generally under the mother's pillow or bedding, On tiie 
fortieth night the lamp is kept burning all night in her apartniHtit, 
and four or five women keep watch by turns (luring the night , and 
great cnre is taken to prevent a Cat from entering the room daring 
the forty dnys nor is the name even to be pronounced. In this man 
ner the first forty days are passed ; after which all who attended 
the ceremonies, cS'c. bathe and return to their homes. The child'i 
maternal grandmother has, according t<> her means, large quantities 
of uncooked kirhrce (12) loaded on bullocks and covered with eff>ths 
of gold and silver tissue and sent the child ; also rupees and gold 
mohurs in trays, if she can nft'r<l it, and a cradle for the infant, and 
gold t*nd silver rings for its neck and wrists, and a hurkn! y a species 
of necklace which hangs down to the waist, and other jewels. After 
which the fchterchootftefi (13) of the child is celebrated with great 
rejoicings, also moof/iee Ixnidncc ; (14) at the latter celebration, when 
the child closes its fist and begins to crawl, then ntoornndaa < r ball* 
of purchased rice and sugar, are nvule and distributed to neor rela- 
tions. If the child is a girl, besides these ceremonies great rejoicings 
are made when her ears are bored. When the child is a year old, 
Ids birth-day is kept with hiah festivity ; relations and friends are 
invited, and the nights papsed in vigils by the women, and in re- 
joicings by all ; Hosvers, sweetmeats and dresses aro distributed, and 
the oldest of the family ties tbe first knot on a red string, for the 
first year of the new born, and receives presents of offerings from 
the child's family. In this manner the birth-day is celebrated evtry 
year for four years. The child is generally wenm d at two years ; 
a propitious day is fixed on for the ceremony, which is accompanied 

(l"2) Kit-hrte is a very common disli in India made of rice, yltee, and a pulso 
calu'il dunl. 

(13) The Kheerchiittaee is making the infant taste the Kuttr, which is riee 
an'Uu-,'ar boiled in milk. 

(14) Uoothee bandiiee is when the child shuts his fist and begin* to crawl. 


with festire rejoicing the child is richly dressed and adorned with 
flowers a new pot filled with water is placed before him, on which 
is laid a kind of sweetmeat called kkujoor, from its resemblance to 
a date, and the boy is told to take up some of them ; from the number 
he takes up they judge how many days he will cry for the breast 
the relations and friends present give the child money, and presents 
to the nurse. When the boy is four years, four months, and four 
days old, the Bismil/a, or the pronouncing the name of God, is cele- 
brated ; if a daughter the pulgoondhun (15) is likewise performed 
with the Bismilla ; for the son a silver slate is made, and they write 
on it the Soorey Jqra, a chapter in the Qorau, and make him repeat 
it ; at this time a master is keptfot him. The rites of circumcision 
may be performed at any period after the fortieth day until the end 
of the fifth year. A barbar performs the ceremony, which is attended 
with prayers and great rejoicings. The above details, as far as I can 
learn are, all that attend the ceremonials of Birth until the fifth 

When marriage is determined on, Mushutas or go-betweens are 
sen^ for, nnd desired to look out for a good match for the Boy ; and 
when a family is fixed on, the father's and grand father's names 
are written on red paper, put into a silver dish with rupee* and 
gold mohurs, according to their means, and sent to the father of the 
girl. When the marriage is determined on, the Bridegroom's mother, 
sister and aunt take a Gold ring and a handkerchief to the Bride, 
and put the former on the little finger of her right hand, and the 
handkerchief into the same liand. This ceremony is called the 
Mungnee or Betrothment ; after which a propitious hour is ascer- 
tained by Hindoo astrologers, called Pundits, and the day of marri- 
age is fixed. Ten or twenty days before, they put the Bride in what 
is called Maeoon or concealment, and rub her over with perfumes; 
the Bridegroom is likewise perfumed in the same manner. When 
the day of marriage approaches, two days before it the Sasuch goes 
at night from the Bridegroom's house to the Bride's parents, The 
Sachiik is a present of Suhagpoora, or perfumes and aromatics 
wrapped up in red paper, and es.senced oils and Missee, or the pow- 
der which the women rub on their teeth and lips to make them black, 
and other perfumes, aud a dress for the Bride, and jewels according 
to the Bridegroom's means, all which are sent with great pomp 
and rejoicings ; also coloured pots filled with fruits, sweetmeats and 

([$) Pttlgoondhnn is the plaiting of the little girl's side locks, which it done 
firt with the Bismilla. 


lugar. The Bridegroom's sister goe* with the Sac/wi, and adornn 
the Bride with the dress and jewels wliich are sent to her. The 
whole of ihis ceremony iscAlled the Saclnd- ; attended by musicians, 
singers, Klephants. horses and crowds with ornaments of talc, arti- 
ficial flowers, representations, &c. In short the pomp of a Sachitk 
cannot be clearly described, hut most who have been in India any 
time must have seen it in a Marriage Procession. One day befora 
the wedding the Maindhee (16) cornea at night fmm the Bride's 
house to the Bridegroom. The ceremony ol tho Maindhee is as 
follows : Lighted Candles are sent in a large tray and in another the 
Maindhee leaves pounded and made into a paste with water, and in 
other trays cardamum comfits and other confectionary, and a dresi 
for tho Bridegroom, and a gold ring set with some kind of precious 
stone, also a plin gold ring 1'ke ours. The Bride's sister and other 
women of tho family put the Mnindhee on the Bridegroom and take 
their customary present. After whic-h tho Bridegroom's relations 
MU! friends, mounted on Elephants, horses and palankeens, come to 
his house in the day time ; and when the Rural or Marriage Pro- 
cession proceeds at night from the Bridegroom's to the Bridu's, they 
all accompany it attended by branch-light-*, trumpeters, musicians, 
and singers; in the front and and the rear c.f the Procession nra 
large kettle drums carried on Klephants and Camels, with fireworks, 
&c. In short this is the most resplendent and pompous part of tho 
marriage ceremonies ; I have given a sketch of it in my account of 
Wazetr Ullee's wedding. When they reach and street in which 
the Bride iivos, the parents of the Bride heep the door of tho house 
bhnt, and do not lot the Bridegroom enter until they receive the cu->t<- 
mary sum, called the Dheegana^ which depends on the means of the 
Bridegroom, At th's time the'female singers, who are at the Bride's 
make a lamp <>f the scented ointment which has been used on Her 
body, and put A light in it, and show it to the Bridegroom ; this u 
called, to show she Jhilnee.lee, When tho Bridegroom descends 
from his horse, which he must ride to the Bride's if he is able, a strife 
arises between th<> rela>ions of both parties, who is to mount the 
horse; these altercations often end in bloodshed; it is intended a* 
a joke, but often becomes a serious di-pute, as jokes ol'ton aro on 
other occasions tluui those of marriage. \VJu-n the Bridegroom takes 

(16) The Muitnifiet or Ilinnn i? the green leaves of .1 *hrub cilleJ the Tn'liia 
myrtle, which tl> women inAsia Us to stiin their nails, ,^c of a beautiful icar- 

174 APPE.SD1X. 

his seat on the Musnnd. the Quazee performs the Neckah (17) or tha 
marriage contract, after which the gold ring called the Nuth is put 
into the Bride's rose, and the ceremony of the bhurbut (18) takes 
place, for which the Bridegroom and his relations and friends make 
presents according to their means. When the Bridegroom enters the 
female apartments, the Biide's female relations and friends perform 
the ceremony called the Tona t (19) and others which are customary 
on these occasions, and they then put lamps of sugar on the Bride's 
head, anu shoulder* and knees, and make the Bridegroom take them 
up with his lips this is called Nulat choonana the Bride is muffled ,- 
up during this sweet ceremony. They then make the anxious Bride- 
groom grind aromaties on a stone for the future wife, wh ; ch is the 
last remnant of her authority. After this the female singers chant 
hymenial songs and hymns to God, called Hnrarais. They then 
show the qoran to the Bridegroom and Bride, and a looking-glass 
is so placed that the face of hoth may he seen in it by both ; this is 
the first time the Bridegroom sees his Bride's face, and they both 
drink shurbut. The Bride's reletions and friends make presents in 
silver end gold to the friends and relations of the other party, for the 
mirror and shurbut ceremonies. When all these rites are o\er, pre- 
parations are made for the Bride's departure to her husband's house ; 
the ardent youth takes the panting fair in his arms and puts her in the 
Muhadole or palankeen, and the Bride's relation? send with her the 
usual presents called Duhaize or dowry, according to their means, 
and supplicate the relatirns of the other side with tears that they 
have given them a slave for the services of their Family. To shorten 
the account, when the marriage procession returns to the Bride- 
groom's house with the Bride, it is stopped near the place, and two 
ha-goats are killed, and some of the blood put on the Biides thumbs ; 
the Bridegroom then takes the Bride out in the same manner in his 
arms from the Muhadole, and brings her to the apartment destined 
for the performance of the rites of Hymen, The abashed fair is 

(17) In the ceremony of the Net\tah or marriage contract, great strictness is 
observed. Two agpnts from the Bridegroom and .'two from the Bride appear be- 
fore the Qazce or Judge, and at the time of the A'eeka^ they go to the mother of 
the Bride and ask her consent, as the poor girJ from the false ideas of delicacy 
amoriE the Moosulmanus. is not supposed to say yes or no, though she m*y do it 
by the^ Mahometan law- The Mvhur or settlement given by the Husband is'a con- 
tested point. Somesupl ose ten dirhems or about two rupees is the propersum, 
some J(>5 Rupees, seme say thousands this settlement is not paid; butin case 
of a divorce the wife claims it and ought to get it. Their prophet says, " that no 
one ought to agree to a greater mithiir than lie c an pay at the time ot divorce." 

fl8)"Thp Shurbut or ugar and water is given 'to the Bridegroom's party, 
who pay something each. 

(19) The Tona aie dovhlt-tnttndrt songs on the joyful occasion. 


placed on the hymeneal bed, urnl her feet washed wilth milk and 
then rubbed with the perfume of sandal wood. The parties are then 
left to themselves to consummate the happy marriage. In tin- m< rn- 
iug tumbole and punj^ree (20) are sent from the wife's relation- to 
the husband's, and distiibuted to them. This latter ceremony U 
enacted, that all may be know that the marriage has been eoiiMim- 
mated . The fourth day wife returns to her paternal homo and tho 
husband with her, accompanied by all his relations. Her relation* 
prepays ticks tntwined wich floweres and god and ulvc-r lace and 
gpsngles,and various kinds of vegetables ; the husband and wife and th 
relations of both parties now act the l.ymnial fight, and stru-k each 
other in fun and play. When this agreeable farce is over, the cere- 
mony of the Kheer Kh\i!ate or the eating of the khecr, or rice, milk 
and sugar boiled tcgetlier, takes place that is to >ay they make both 
parties, the husband and wife, eat the Lheer, arid amuse them?c-!vea 
by tantalising them and each other with it. After the rites of the 
fourth day the victuals of the iJuhora* or the marriage food are sent 
by tho relations of the wife to the husband and his relations for forty 
days ; these victuals are ofttn the subject of many jokes and much 

With respect to Burial*, the custom is that when n Moosn'maufr 
is near the point of death, all his friends and relations are collected 
near him, and he gives directions about the distribution of his pro- 
perty among his children and relatives, and these directions nra 
strictly followed. Written wills or testaments Are seldom made by 
the Mahoineuan*. It is likewise the custom at this awful period 
for the dying this person to supplicate forgiveness for his faults and 
crimes, and the calls on witnesses to bear testimony to his repentance 
aud vouch for him on the day of judgment. If he dies, well and 
good ; if he survives ho ought not to commit the same faults 411.1 
crimes. If he is too far gone to make this repentence, his friend* 
or relations do it for him, and ho confirms it by a sigh or a word. When 
the breath U leaving his body they read the soorr/ti'ttfeen. a chapter 
in the Qoran ; and when he dies, they prepare immediate] v ;n- tin- 
interment, by washing the body, and get white cloth, coarse or fine, 
according to their mean*, and after washing the corpse they \vruj> 
it up according to the directions of the I'rophet, and put camphor 
on the elbows, on the wrists, on the knees, navel and chest : they 
then place the bedy in a wooden coffin IT on a bier, and accompanied 

(20) 1 have already explained the I'-nnji r?t ; tlic tttmbole is anomalies and 
lightly inebi iating iugredients put iuto the beetle beat; 


the relatives they carry the corpse to the place of interment, 
.Sometimes when a holy person dies, he requests before hi* death, that 
some religious singers may accompany his body, and sing hymn-* in 
praise of ^God, to the grave, which is done accordingly ;' and grain, 
bread, and specie are carried along with the corpse. When they 
arrive at the place of burial, which is always out of the city, 
and the grave is ready, the people who have accompanied the 
body repeat the prayer for the dead standing, and twocorpse in 
of the nearest relatives descend into the grave ard the place the 
it with carp ; if the body is not in a wooden coffin, they 
place boards over it : they then fill up the grave with earth, and after 
repeating the prayers called the Fatihn,, taken from the Qoran, they 
rerurn home and all the urain, bread, find money that were carrieJ 
with the body are distributed to the poor. The elder of the Family 
then consoles the others, and preaches patience to them, and sends for 
an ewer and a bason, and has the bands and face of the chief mourner 
xvashed, who is in general the nearest relative. It is customary that 
no victuals are dressed in the lmu?e of the chief mourner for three 
davs. but food is seut ready cooked from relations or friends. On the 
seeoom or third day, all th~ relatives collect at the house of the chief 
mourner, which is generally the hou-e of the defunct, the women 
apart from the men, and flowers and sandal wood is brought into the 
assembly, and given to each person , when the Fateah Khair. a form 
of prayer, is read ; the qnran i< likewise read by the company, each 
reading a chapter, if it can be done ; but the whole of the Qoran must 
be read ; after this they all return to their respective homes. If the r 
means permit it, victuals are dressed on the third and twentieth, and 
fortieth day after demise, and sent to friends and relations. VictuuU 
are also distributed on the sixth and twelfth month after death. For 
forty days the relations of the deceased who lived with him. do not 
fclee'p on a bed, but on the ground or on a wooden platform ; soma 
observe this rule for a year, and do not celebrate any of the festivals 
or births or marriages during this period. The d.iy of demise is al- 
ways observed by the. near relations by the distribution of victual--. 
and prayers. The burial rites of women are nearly the same as for 
the men ; the mode of wrapping up the body is somewhat different ; 
the corpse both of men and women is laid in the <jfrave with its head 
to the north and the face is turned to the west, that is towards Mecca 
their point of prayer, or the point towards which they turn when 
they pray. Over the T< -.' of tin f/reat and opulent, the Qoran is 
read daily by religious people kept for the purpose, and lamps are 
placed ou it tidily the poor have only th -s act of piety every Thurs- 
day night, and on the religious festival called the Subbebrat, when 
lamps are lighted on tomb.-, and offerings of bread, sweetmeats, and 
flowers laid on them ; and victuals given to the poor and prayers read. 
Thus I have, my dear Sir, detailed to you a I I have been able to learn 
respecting the three grand period of life, as observed by the Maho- 
metans in India. Those of Arabia, Turkey and Pers'a and somewhat 
different ; however if I am correct in these, I shall be very well satis- 
fied, without extending my researches any further. 

I am, my dear Sir, ' 

Tour's very aincerly, 

L. F. S, 

F I JS" I S. 

PK Bagh o bahar 

2198 The tale of the four 

B313 durwesh 




W f