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Full text of "Tales; Kashmiri stories and songs;"



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IT 



HATIM'S TALES 



All rights reserved. 



INDIAN TEXTS SERIES 



HATIM'S TALES 

KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 

RECORDED WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF 

PANDIT GOVIND KAUL 
by SIR AUREL STEIN, K.C.I.E. 

AND EDITED WITH A TRANSLATION, LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS, 
VOCABULARY, INDEXES, ETC. 

by SIR GEORGE A. GRIERSON, K.C.I.E. 

WITH A NOTE ON THE FOLKLORE OF THE TALES 
BY W. CROOKE, CLE. 



itlj a Jroittt spiere 




LONDON 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 

PUBLISHED FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 
1928 



Printed in Great Britain by 
Stephen Austin and Sons, Ltd., Hertford, England. 



TO THE MEMORY OF 
PANDIT GOVIND KAUL 

WHOSE SCHOLARSHIP AND FRIENDLY DEVOTION 
EVER FURTHERED KASHMIRIAN RESEARCHES 

DEDICATED 
IN SINCERE AFFECTION AND GRATITUDE. 



CONTENTS 



Preface . . ... 

Introduction 

On the Folklore in the Stories . 

1. Mahmud of Ghazni and the Fisherman 

2. The Tale of a Parrot . 

3. The Tale of a Merchant . 

5. The Tale of the Goldsmith . 

6. The Story of Yusuf and Zulaikha . 

7. The Tale of the Reed-Flute . 

8. The Tale of a King 
10. The Tale of Raja Vikramaditya 
12. The Tale of the Akhun . 

On the Language used in the Tales . 
On the Metres of Hatim's Songs 

Sir Aurel Stein's Transcription, with Translation 

1. Mahmud of Ghazni and the Fisherman 

2. The Tale of a Parrot . 

3. The Tale of a Merchant 

4. A Song of Lai Malik 

5. The Tale of the Goldsmith . 

6. The Story of Yusuf and Zulaikha . 

7. The Tale of the Reed-Flute . 

8. The Tale of a King 

9. The Tale of the Farmer's Wife and the Honey -Bee 

10. The Tale of Raja Vikramaditya 

11. The Song of Forsyth Sahib, when he went to 

conquer Yarkand 

12. The Tale of the Akhun . 



PAGE 

ix 
xxvii 

XXX 
XXX 

xxxi 
xxxii 
xxxiii 
xxxiv 
xxxvi 
xxxvi 
xxxix 
xl 

xlvii 
lxxxv 

2 

4 
12 
18 
20 
32 
38 
44 
58 



78 
84 



viii CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Thb Text of the Tales as Transcribed by Pandit 

G6VINDA KAULA 

1 . Mal;mud of Ghazni and the Fisherman . . . 107 

2. The Tale of a Parrot 110 

8. The Tale of a Merchant 120 

4. A Song of Lai Malik 131 

5. The Tale of the Goldsmith 134 

6. The Story of Yusuf and Zulaikha . . . . 163 

7. The Tale of the Reed-Flute 161 

8. The Tale of a King 171 

9. The Tale of the Farmer's Wife and the Honey-Bee 194 

10. The Tale of Raja Vikramaditya .... 200 

11. The Song of Forsyth Sahib, when he went to 

conquer Yarkand 226 

12. The Tale of the Akhun 235 

Vocabulary 273 

Appendix I. Index of Words in Sir Aurel Stein's Text . 423 

Appendix II. Index in Order of Final Letters ... 485 

Addenda et Corrigenda 527 



PBEFACE 

rpHESE pages have to be written many years after the 
Kashmiri texts here presented were collected, and amidst 
urgent tasks concerning the results gathered in a wholly different 
field of work, that of my Central- Asian explorations. These 
conditions make me feel particularly grateful for the fact that 
Sir George Grierson in his Introduction has dealt so exhaustively 
with the manner in which those texts were originally recorded, 
and with all aspects of the linguistic interest which may be 
claimed for them. It has thus become possible for me to confine 
the preface he has asked for to a brief account of the circumstances 
which enabled me to gather these materials, and to some personal 
notes concerning that cherished Indian scholar friend, the late 
Pandit Govind Kaul, whose devoted assistance was largely 
instrumental in rendering them of value for linguistic research, 
and whose memory this volume is intended to honour. 

My interest in the language and folklore of Kashmir directly 
arose from the labours which, during the years 1888-98, I devoted, 
mainly in the country itself, to the preparation of my critical 
edition of Kalhana's Chronicle of the Kings of Kashmir and of my 
commentated translation of it. 1 The elucidation of the manifold 
antiquarian questions which these tasks implied, and which in 
various ways constituted their chief attraction for me, was 
possible only in close touch with Kashmir scholars, and needed 
constant reference to the traditional lore of their alpine land. 
In addition it was necessary for me to effect extensive archaeo- 
logical researches on the spot. What leisure I could spare from 
onerous and exacting official duties at Lahore for the purely 
philological portion of those tasks was far too scanty to permit 

1 See Kalhana's Rdjatararigini, or Chronicle of the Kings of Kashmir, edited 
by M. A. Stein, Bombay, 1892, fol. ; Kalhana's Rajatarangi?il, a Chronicle of 
the Kings of Kasmlr, translated with an Introduction, Commentary, etc., by 
M. A. Stein, Westminster, 1900, 2 vols., 4to. 

b 



x KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 

of any serious study of Kashmiri. But during the eight summer 
vacations which I was privileged to devote in Kashmir to my 
>hed labours, and particularly during those between 1891 and 
1894, which I spent mostly on archaeological tours elucidating the 
historical topography of the country and tracing its ancient 
remains, I had opportunities for acquiring some colloquial 
familiarity with the language. I should probably have been 
able to make more systematic use of these opportunities had not 
convenience and conservative attachment to the classical medium 
of Kashmir scholarship made me prefer the use of Sanskrit 
conversation with my Pandit friends and assistants at Srlnagar 
and wherever they shared my tours and campings. 

Meanwhile, Sir George Grierson had commenced his expert 
linguistic researches concerning Kashmiri. They were, for the 
first time, to demonstrate the full interest of the tongue and the 
true character of its relationship on the one hand to the Indo- 
Aryan vernaculars and on the other to the language group, 
called by him " Dardic " or " Pisaca ", the separate existence of 
which, within the Aryan branch, he has the merit of having 
clearly established. His Kashmiri studies were at the start 
directed mainly towards the publication of the remarkable works 
by which the late Pandit Isvara Kaul had endeavoured to fix 
the phonetic, grammatical, and lexicographical standards for 
what he conceived to be the literary form of Kashmiri. There 
was every prospect that these standards, through the exhaustive 
labours bestowed by Sir George Grierson upon their record and 
interpretation, would establish themselves for a language which 
so far I. a 1 remained free from the systematizing influence of 
Pandit grammarians. Pandit Govind Kaul, though a close 
personal friend of Pandit Isvara Kaul, and fully appreciative of 
his scholarly zeal and ingenuity, was inclined to doubt at times 
the thoroughgoing regularity in the application of all the 
•tic distinctions, inflectional rules, etc., laid down by this 
Kashrairian epiphany of Panini, 



PREFACE xi 

I should in no way have felt qualified to decide between the 
conflicting authorities, even if I could have spared time for the 
close investigation of the differences of detail concerned. But 
I realized the value which might attach to an unbiassed phonetic 
record of specimens of the language taken down at this stage 
from the mouth of speakers wholly unaffected by quasi -literary 
influences and grammatical theories. In the course of my 
Kashmir tours I had been more than once impressed by the 
clearness of utterance to be met with in the speech of intelligent 
villagers, very different from the Protean inconstancy which 
certain phonetic features of Kashmiri seemed to present in the 
mouth of the townsfolk of Srlnagar, whether Brahmans or 
Muhammadans. In addition, my interest had been aroused 
from the first by the rich store of popular lore which Kashmiri 
presents in its folk tales, songs, proverbs, and the like. 

So in the course of the second summer season, that of 1896, 
which I was enabled through a kind dispensation to devote to 
my Rdjatarangini labours in the alpine seclusion of my cherished 
mountain camp, Mohand Marg, high up on a spur of the great 
Haramukh peaks, I endeavoured to use the chance which had 
opportunely offered itself for securing specimens both of the 
language spoken in the Sind Valley below me (the important 
Laliara tract of old Kashmir) and of folklore texts. Ilatim 
Til a won u had been mentioned to me as a professional story-teller 
in particular esteem throughout that fertile tract. He was 
a cultivator settled in the little hamlet of Panzil, at the con- 
fluence of the Sind River and the stream draining the eastern 
Haramukh glaciers, and owed his surname to the possession of 
an oil press. When he had been induced to climb up to my 
mountain height and had favoured Pandit Govind Kaul and 
myself with his first recitation, we were both much struck by his 
intelligence, remarkable memory, and clear enunciation. His 
repertoire of stories and songs was a large one. Though wholly 
illiterate, he was able to recite them all at any desired rate of 



XII 



KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 



speed which might suit our ears or pens; to articulate each 
word separate from the context, and to repeat it, if necessary, 
without any change in pronunciation. Nor did the order of his 
words or phrases ever vary after however long an interval he 
might he called upon to recite a certain passage again. The 
indication of two or three initial words repeated from my written 
record would he quite sufficient to set the disk moving in this 
living phonographic machine. 

It did not take me long to appreciate fully Hatim's value for 
the purpose I had in view. He did not at first take kindly to 
the cold of our airy camping-place nor to its loneliness, heing 
himself of a very sociable disposition, such as befitted his pro- 
fessional calling exercised mostly at weddings and other festive 
village gatherings. But it was the cultivators' busy season in 
the rice fields, some 5,000 feet below us, and his ministrations 
were not needed by them for the time being. So I managed, with 
appropriate treatment and adequate douceurs, to retain him for 
over six weeks. Owing to the.pressure of my work on Kalhana's 
Chronicle it was impossible to spare for Hatim more than an hour 
in the evening, after a climb, usually in his company, had 
refreshed me from the strain of labours which had begun by 
daybreak. 

Progress was necessarily made slow by the care which 
I endeavoured to bestow upon the exact phonetic record of 
irntim's recitation and the consequent need of having each word 
where I did not feel sure of it, repeated, eventually several 
times. Whenever a story was completed I used to read it out 
to Hatim, who never failed to notice and correct whatever 
deviation from his text might have crept in through inadvertence 
Ql defective hearing. Though able to follow the context in 
general, I purposely avoided troubling Hatim with queries about 
particular words or sentences which I could not readily under- 
stand. I felt that the object in view would be best served by 
concentrating my attention upon the functions of a phonographic 



PEE FACE xiii 

recorder and discharging them as accurately as the limitations 
of my ear and phonetic training would permit. 

I could not have adopted this safe restriction of my own task, 
and might well have hesitated about attempting the record of 
these materials at all, if I had not been assured from the start 
of Pandit Govind Kaul's most competent and painstaking 
collaboration. The intimate knowledge which long years of 
scholarly work carried on in constant close contact had given me 
of his methods and standards, enabled me to leave certain 
essential portions of the work entirely to his share and with 
fullest confidence in the result. I could feel completely 
assured that with that rare thoroughness and conscientious 
precision which distinguished all his work on the lines of the 
traditional Sanskrit scholar, his record of Hatim's text written 
down in Devanagarl characters simultaneously with my own 
would be as exact as the system, or want of system, of Kashmiri 
spelling current among Srlnagar Pandits would permit. I was 
equally certain that he would spare no trouble to make his 
interpretation of it, both in the form of an interlinear word-for- 
word version and of an idiomatic Sanskrit translation, as accurate 
as possible. 

Sir George Grierson's remarks upon the advantages which he 
derived from Pandit Govind KauFs labours make it unnecessary 
for me to explain here the special value attaching to them. 
It will suffice to state that Pandit Govind Kaul's text as written 
down at the time of dictation was always revised simultaneously 
with my own. The interlinear translation was then added in 
the course of the following day, after reference to Hatim 
wherever doubts arose about the meaning of particular words or 
phrases. The preparation of the fair copy of both, with the 
idiomatic Sanskrit rendering added, was a task which helped to 
keep Pandit Govind Kaul occupied during my absence in Europe 
for part of 1897. During the summer of the next year I enjoyed 
once more the benefit of his devoted assistance in labours dear to 



XIV 



KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 



us 



both, and in the peaceful seclusion of my alpine camp. But 
my big Rdjatarangini task, then nearing completion, claimed all 
my energy and time. Thus the lacuna left in Pandit Govind 
Kaul's record of Hatim's last tale, due to the accidental loss of 
the concluding few pages of his original manuscript, escaped 
attention at the time. 

When it was brought to my notice by Sir George Grierson 
fully fourteen years later, I was encamped once more at the very 
spot where we had recorded those stories. But, alas, Pandit 
Govind Kaul was no longer among the living to give aid ; and, 
what with years of Central- Asian exploration and long labours 
on their results intervening, those records seemed to me as if 
gathered in a former birth. Fortunately, Hatim was still alive 
and quite equal to the stiff climb which his renewed visit 
demanded — the photograph reproduced here shows him as he 
looked then. His recollection of the story was as fresh as ever, 
though increasing years and prosperity had made him give up 
his peregrinations as a public story-teller. So it was easy for 
another old retainer, Pandit KasI Earn, to take down from 
Hatim's dictation the missing end of the story ; it ran exactly 
as my own record showed it. 

During the years which followed the completion of my main 
Kashmir labours the efforts needed to carry out successive 
Central-Asian expeditions and to assure the elaboration of their 
abundant results, kept me from making definite arrangements 
for the publication of those linguistic materials. They had 
meanwhile, together with my collection of Sanskrit manuscripts 
ironi Kashmir, found a safe place of deposit in the Indian 
Institute's Library at Oxford. But it filled me with grateful 
relief when my old friend Sir George Grierson, after a pre- 
liminary examination, kindly agreed in the autumn of 1910 to 
publish these texts, and thus enabled me , to leave them in the 
hands most competent for the task. 

It was the solution I had hoped for all along, and realizing 



PREFACE xv 

how much more difficult this task was than the original collection 
of the materials, I feel deep gratification at the fact that a 
kindly Fate has allowed him to complete it amidst all his great 
labours. In view of all the progress which Indian linguistic 
research for more than a generation past owes to Sir George 
Grierson's exceptional qualifications and powers of critical work, 
it would be presumption on my part to appraise how much of 
the value which may be claimed for this publication is derived 
solely from the wide range and precision of the scholarly 
knowledge he has brought to bear upon it. 

It is the greatness of his own share in the work which makes 
me feel particularly grateful to Sir George Grierson for his ready 
consent to its dedication to the memory of Pandit Govind Kaul. 
It affords me an appropriate opportunity for recording some 
data about the life of a cherished friend and helpmate whose 
memory deserves to be honoured for the nobility of his character 
quite as much as for his scholarly gifts and labours. The 
association of Pandit Govind Kaul during close on ten years with 
my own efforts bearing on the history and antiquities of Kashmir 
has always been appreciated by me as a special favour of Fortune, 
or — to name the goddess under her own Kashmirian form — of 
Silrada, who is the protectress of learning as well as of the alpine 
land which claims to be her home ; for he seemed to embody in 
his person all the best characteristics of that small but important 
class among the Brahmans of Kashmir to which the far-off and 
secluded mountain territory owes its pre-eminent position in the 
history of Indian learning and literature. 

I cannot attempt to indicate here the evidence to be gathered 
both from the Sanskrit literary products of Kashmir and from 
surviving local tradition, which makes me believe that high 
scholarly attainments and a special facility of elegant rhetorical 
or poetic expression were to be found among the truly learned 
in Kashmir more frequently combined than elsewhere in India 
with a keen eye for the realities of life, power of humorous 



XVI 



KASHMIBI STOBIES AND SONGS 



observation, and distinct interest in the practical affairs 
of the country. Kalhana himself, the author of the Rdja- 
farahf/im, with whose personality, I felt, I was becoming so 
familiar across the gap of long centuries, seemed aptly to 
illustrate this typical combination of features. 1 In Pandit 
Govind Kaul I found them all again and united with a high 
sense of honour, a bearing of true innate nobility, and a capacity 
for faithful attachment which from the first made me cherish 
him greatly as a friend, not merely as an accomplished mentor 
in most things appertaining to Kashmir and its traditional past. 
A brief account of his descent and early associations will best 
explain the growth of these strongly-marked characteristics. 2 

Pandit Govind Kaul was born in 1846 as the eldest son 
of Pandit Balabhadra Kaul (1819-96), who, by reason of his 
personal qualities, great scholarly attainments, and social position, 
was universally respected among the Brahman community of 
Srlnagar. Pandit Balabhadra's own father, Pandit Taba Haul, 
had been a Sanskrit scholar of great reputation in the closing 
period of Afghan rule in Kashmir. Being connected as 
hereditary ' Guru ' with the important Brahman family of the 
Dars he had enjoyed a substantial Jaglr, and this was allowed 
to continue when Maharaja Eanjit Singh's conquest in 1819 
established Sikh dominion over Kashmir. Pandit Blrbal Dar y 
his patron, had held an influential administrative position 
already under the Afghan regime. But he incurred tlje 
suspicion of 'Azlm Khan, the last governor from Kabul, and 
persecuted by him, he was obliged to flee from Kashmir to 
the Pan jab. Of the adventurous escape which he made with 

1 Cf. the sketch I have given of the information to be gathered from the 
irafigini about the personal character of its author in the Introduction to 
ray translation, i, pp. 21 sqq. 

* For the account here presented I have been able to utilize a series of notes 
which Pandit Govind Kaul's son, Pandit Nilakanth, collected at my request 
among the elder members of his family and also among the surviving repre- 
sentatives of the Dar family, their hereditary patrons. In addition my 
recollection of data verbally communicated to me by Pandit Govind Kaul has 
proved useful. 



PEE FACE xvii 

his young son Pandit Raj akak, in mid-winter 1818-19, across the 
snow -covered mountains, and of the cruel treatment endured 
by those of his family he was obliged to leave behind, 
Pandit Govind Kaul told me interesting traditions. The 
experienced advice which Pandit Blrbal supplied to Maharaja 
Ran jit Singh is believed to have contributed greatly to the 
success of the campaign, which, in the following summer, placed 
Kashmir in the power of the great Sikh ruler. 1 

The high administrative posts which Pandit Blrbal, and after 
his death his equally capable son Pandit Raj akak, held during 
the period of Sikh rule in Kashmir (1819-46), necessarily 
assured a prominent social position and relative affluence also 
for Pandit Taba Kaul and his son Pandit Balabhadra Kaul. 
The latter was thus enabled to devote himself during his 
youth solety to Sanskrit studies, and to lay the foundations 
of a scholarly renown which made him, from an early date, 
a prominent figure among the Pandits of Kashmir. But the 
far-reaching political changes which followed the accession of 
Maharaja Gulab Singh of Jammu to the rule of Kashmir at 
the close of the First Sikh War, in 1846, led to the loss of 
the family's Jaglr and threw a heavy strain upon Pandit 
Balabhadra's resources. Though restricted to what income his 
functions as hereditary Guru and as a teacher of Sastras could 
secure, and maintaining throughout his long life a dignified 
retirement, 2 Pandit Balabhadra succeeded not only in giving his 

1 Pandit Blrbal is said to have been personally present at the fight on the 
Div a sar Karewa in which the Afghans were finally defeated by Diwan Chand 
Misar and Sardar Hari Singh, Ranjit Singh's generals, and to have decided 
the issue by pointing out Jabar Khan, 'Azim Khan's brother and ablest 
commander, as the chief objective for the attack. I may mention as an 
interesting relic connected with this event that in the palace-like mansion of 
the Dar family, a monument of departed glory, I found a number of fine 
Persian carpets and elaborate felt rugs which according to family tradition 
Pandit Blrbal had been allowed to appropriate from the defeated Afghan 
governor's camp in recognition of the help he had rendered towards the Sikh 
success on that field of battle. 

2 During the latter half of his life he never left the house he occupied within 
the precincts of the Dar family mansion, though receiving frequent visitors 
from among those whom office or intellectual attainments placed high in the 
social world of Srinagar. 



XV111 



KASHMIBI STOEIES AND SONGS 



three sons an excellent education, but in accumulating also an 
important collection of Sanskrit manuscripts. 

His tasks were, no doubt, facilitated by the support he derived 
from his close connexion with the remarkably able men who 
succeeded Pandit Blrbal as heads of the Dar family. Pandit 
Rajakiik, the latter's son (1805-66), had distinguished himself 
as an administrator already during the troubled times of the 
closing Sikh regime, and quelled a rebellion in the hill tract 
of Drava. When conditions had become more settled under 
the Dogra rule he rose high in Maharaja Ghilab Singh's favour 
by greatly developing the shawl industry of Kashmir, then 
a monopoly and financial mainstay of the State. Endowed 
with a genuine love of knowledge and with that intellectual 
adaptability which has distinguished the best brains of Kashmir 
through successive historical periods, he had taken care to secure 
for his son, Pandit Ramjlv Dar (circ. 1850-83), not only a 
sound training in Persian and Sanskrit, but also some familiarity 
with English and with Western ways. It was no easy departure 
in days when close relations with Europeans were apt to be looked 
at askance as infringing upon the traditional policy of seclusion 
and the security it was meant to assure. 

It was in intimate association with Pandit Ramjlv Dar that 
Pandit Govind Kaul spent most of his early manhood. The 
experience he thus gained of the world of affairs, of rulers and 
ruled alike, did much to widen the horizon of his thoughts 
and interests beyond that of the traditional student of Siistras. 
Pandit Ramjlv seems to have been a man of an unusually active 
mind and of considerable practical energy. During his short 
but fruitful life he had the good fortune to serve a ruler so 
well qualified as the late Maharaja Ranblr Singh to appreciate 
his varied mental gifts and activities. It was the cherished aim 
of the late Maharaja to combine the preservation of inherited 
systems of Indian thought and knowledge with the development 
of his country's economic resources along the lines of modern 



PREFACE 



xix 



Western progress. Having proved his ability as an administrator 
of Kashmir districts, Pandit Eamjlv gradually became the 
Maharaja's trusted adviser in a variety of departments which 
were created to further that policy, including those of education, 
agriculture, sericulture, etc. The manifold administrative duties 
entrusted to Pandit Eamjlv did not divert his attention from 
scholarly interests, and consequently he kept Pandit Govind 
Kaul as much as possible by his side wherever his tours of 
inspection, etc., took him. Thus, Pandit Govind Kaul was able 
to acquire a great deal of first-hand knowledge of Kashmir and 
the neighbouring territories in all their varied aspects. 

Pandit Govind Kaul had, from his earliest youth, received 
a very thorough literary training in Sanskrit under his father's 
direct guidance. In accordance with the traditions of Kashmir 
learning he had devoted particular efforts to the study of the 
Alamkara-sastra and the poetic literature which is bound up 
with it. His stock of quotations from the latter seemed in- 
exhaustible. He was thoroughly at home also in Yyakarana, 
Nyaya and the Saiva-sastra, and he read widely in the Epics 
and Purilnas. As far as Sanskrit literary qualifications were 
concerned, he was well equipped for the charge of the "Translation 
Department ", to which he was appointed in 1874. By creating 
it together with a State Press it was the Maharaja's intention to 
diffuse a knowledge of Sanskrit works on law, philosophy, etc., 
among wider classes of his subjects through the medium of 
Hindi. Other branches of the same department were intended 
to secure the same object with regard to selected works in 
English and Persian. It is needless to discuss here the practical 
utility of the scheme or the causes which, owing to the lingering 
illness of the Maharaja, hampered its execution during the 
closing years of his reign. It is enough to remember that it 
provided suitable employments for such highly deserving scholars 
as Pandit Govind Kaul and the late Pandit Sahajabhatta, who 
was to become another of my Kashmir assistants, and that 



XX 



KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 



among the works undertaken, but never finished, there was also 
a Hindi translation of the Sanskrit Chronicles of Kashmir. 

In 1883 Pandit Ramjiv Dar was carried off by a premature 
death. Soon after, the Translation Department ceased to exist, 
together with several other institutions which had owed their 
creation to his stimulating influence. The last years preceding 
Maharaja Ranbir Singh's death in 1886 and the first of the 
reign of his son and successor were for Kashmir a period of 
transition. Traditional methods of administration and economic 
conditions bequeathed by long centuries of practical seclusion 
were giving way without there being the machinery as yet 
available to effect needful reforms on the lines developed in 
British India. It was in various ways a trying time for all 
those representing the intellectual inheritance of the valley, and 
after a short spell of work as a teacher in the Sanskrit Pathasala, 
maintained by the Darbar at Srlnagar, on scant pay — and that 
often in arrears — Pandit Grovind Kaul found himself without 
official employment. 

His learning and sound methods of scholarly work had already, 
in 1875, attracted the attention of Professor Greorge Biihler, 
when that great Indologist had paid his memorable visit to 
Kashmir in search of Sanskrit MSS. The very commendatory 
mention which Professor Buhler's report made of Pandit Govind 
Kaul's attainments and of the help he had rendered, 1 directed 
my attention to him from the start. The personal impression 
gained within the first few days of my arrival at Srlnagar at 
the close of August, 1888, was quite sufficient to convince me 
how amply deserved that praise was. I was quick to notice 
Pandit Govind Kaul's special interest in antiquarian subjects, 
such as made me then already form the plan of a critical edition 

1 Cf. Biihler, "Detailed Report of a Tour in search of Sanskrit MSS. made 
in KaHinir, Rajputana, and Central India," Extra Number of the Journal 
Bombay Branch, R.A.S., 1877, pp. 7, 17, 27. In the last-quoted passage 
Professor Buhler mentions Pandit Govind Kaul's shrewd identification of the 
old local name of Leh ( Loh in the Rajat. ), and rightly states : "His proceeding 
showed that he was possessed of a truly scientific spirit of enquiry." 



PREFACE xxi 

and commentary of Kalhana's Chronicle of Kashmir. I was 
equally impressed by his dignified personality, which combined 
the best qualities of the Indian scholar and gentleman. A short 
archaeological tour which we made in company to sites round the 
Dal Lake helped to draw us together in mutual sympathy and 
regard. So it was to me a great source of satisfaction when, 
before my departure for the plains, Pandit Govind Kaul, with 
his revered father's full approval, accepted my offer of personal 
employment and agreed to follow me to Lahore for the cold 
weather season. 

It was the beginning of a long period of close association 
between us in scholarly interests and work. It continued 
practically unbroken for nearly eleven years, throughout my 
official employment in the Pan jab University at Lahore, and 
down to Pandit Govind Kaul's lamented death in June, 1899. 
Neither my visits on leave to Europe nor an interval in 1892-3, 
when he was tempted to accept employment at the Court of 
Jammu on H.H. the Maharaja's private staff, implied any real 
interruption. It was, in the first place, my labours concerning 
the critical publication and elucidation of Kalhana's Chronicle of 
Kashmir, for which Pandit Govind Kaul's multifarious and ever 
devoted assistance proved of the greatest value. As to the 
character and extent of this help it is unnecessary here to give 
details. They have been recorded at length, and with due 
expression of my gratitude, both in the Introduction to my text 
edition of the Rajatarahginl, published in 1892, and in the 
Preface to the commentated translation of it, with which, in 
1900, on the eve of departure for my first Central- Asian 
expedition, I completed my labours bearing on the early history 
and antiquities of Kashmir. 1 

Nor need I give here details regarding the large share taken 
by Pandit Govind Kaul in another impdrtant if not equally 

1 Cf. Kalhana's Rdjataranginl, ed. Stein, p. xvii ; Kalhana's Rdjataranyiiri, 
transl. Stein, i, pp. xvii, xxii sq. 



XX11 



KASHMIRI STOBIES AND SONGS 



attractive task. I mean the preparation of a classified catalogue 
of the great collection of Sanskrit MSS., over 5,000 in number, 
which, through Maharaja Ranblr Singh's enlightened care, had 
been formed at the Raghunath Temple Library at Jammu. The 
support I received from successive British residents in Kashmir, 
including the late Colonels E. Parry Nisbet and N. F. Prideaux, 
and from my old friend the late Raja Pandit Suraj Kaul, then 
Member of the Kashmir State Council, furnished me with the 
means for organizing the labours by which, in the course of 
1889-94, this very valuable collection was saved from the risk 
of dispersion and rendered accessible to research. They were 
effected mainly through Pandit Govind Kaul and our common 
friend the late Pandit Sahajabhatta. A full acknowledgment 
of their devoted services will be found in the Introduction to 
the volume which contains the descriptive catalogue, together 
with the plentiful and accurate extracts prepared by them from 
previously unknown or otherwise interesting Sanskrit texts. 1 

It would have been quite impossible for me, burdened as 
I was all through my years at Lahore with heavy and exacting 
official duties, to undertake the big tasks referred to, had not 
a kindly Fortune provided me in Pandit Govind Kaul with 
a coadjutor of exceptional qualities. With a wide range of 
thorough traditional knowledge of the Sastras and a keen sense 
of literary form he combined a standard of accuracy and a 
capacity for taking pains over details which would have done 
high credit to any European scholar trained on modern philo- 
logical lines. Though he was no longer young when he joined 
me, he adapted himself with instinctive comprehension to the 
needs of Western critical methods, such as I was bound to apply 
to all my tasks. With infinite and never-failing care he would 
record and collate the readings of the manuscripts upon which 
I depended for the critical constitution of the Rdjatarangini 
] See Stein, Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Raghundtha Temple 
Jjtorary of 11. H. the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, Bombay, 1894, 
pp. vi sq., xi. J ' 



PREFACE xxiii 

text, and also those of other Kashmir ian works, almost all 
unpublished, reference to which was constantly needed for its 
interpretation. Yet I knew that scrupulously careful as he was 
about the formal correctness of his Sanskrit writing and speech, 
the exact reproduction of all the blunders, etc., to be met in 
the work of often ignorant copyists caused him a kind of 
physical pain. 

It was the same with the labours he had to devote to the 
collection and sifting of all the multifarious materials needed 
for the elucidation of antiquarian problems. However much 
wanting in style and other literary attractions the Kashmirian 
texts such as Mahatmyas, later Chronicles, etc., might be which 
had to be searched, I could always feel sure that none of their 
contents which might be of interest by their bearing on the 
realities of ancient Kashmir would be allowed by Pandit Govind 
Kaul to escape his Index slips. The value of the help he could 
give me in regard to the latter labours was greatly increased by 
the familiarity he had gained with most parts of the country 
and its varied population during the years spent by the side 
of his old patron Pandit Ramjlv Dar. Though for various 
practical reasons I had but little occasion to use Pandit Govind 
Kaul in that role of travelling camp literatus which made his 
worthy Chinese epiphany, excellent Chiang Ssu-yeh, so invaluable 
to me during my Central- Asian explorations of 1906-8, he was 
yet exceptionally well able to visualize topographical and other 
practical facts bearing on archaeological questions. 

But, perhaps, the greatest advantage I derived from his long 
association with my labours was the chance it gave me to study 
in close contact those peculiarities of traditional Indian thought, 
belief, and conduct which separate Hindu civilization so deeply 
both from the West and the East, and which no amount of 
book knowledge could ever fully reveal to a  Mleccha '. 
Pandit Govind Kaul's personality seemed to embody in a 
particularly clear fashion some of the most characteristic and 



XXIV 



KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 



puzzling features which constitute the inherited mentality of 
India, traceable through all changes of the ages. Attached with 
unquestioning faith to the principles and practices of his Brahman 
caste, he would make no concessions whatsoever in his own person 
to altered conditions of life. Yet he was- ever ready to explain 
to me how the slow adaptation in others was reconcilable with 
traditional tenets. His meticulous observance of religious rites 
shrank from no personal hardship or sacrifice; he would, e.g., keep 
the fast days enjoined by the three different systems of worship 
traditional in his family, even when the chance of the calendar 
would bring them together in most embarrassing succession. 
Yet, in the privacy of my study or in the solitude of my 
mountain camp he was fully prepared to brush aside in my case 
most of the outward restrictions to which the profanum rnlgus 
might attach importance. 

His strongly conservative notions were the clearest reflex of 
those which have governed the administration of Kashmir 
throughout its historical past. Their instinctive application by 
Pandit Govind Kaul to the modern conditions of his country 
helped me greatly in comprehending how limited in reality were 
the changes undergone by its social fabric in the course of long 
centuries, notwithstanding all foreign conquests from the north 
and south. In his unfailing grave politeness and courtly dignity 
I could recognize, as it were, the patina which generations of 
influential employment and social distinction have deposited on 
the best representatives of the true ruling class of Kashmir. 
Whenever Pandit Govind Kaul was by my side, whether in the 
alpine peace of my beloved Kashmir mountains or in the dusty 
toil of our Lahore exile, I always felt in living touch with past 
ages full of interest for the historical student of India. 

A kindly Fate had allowed me, notwithstanding constant 
struggles for leisure, to carry my labours on the oldest historical 
records of Kashmir close to their completion by the time when in 
the spring of 1899 my appointment to the charge of the Calcutta 



PEE FACE xxv 

Madrasa and the far more encouraging prospect of freedom for 
my first Central-Asian journey necessitated what seemed merely 
a temporary change in our personal association. In view of the 
new field of work which was soon to call me to the * Sea of 
Sand' and its ruins far away in the north, I felt anxious to 
assure to Pandit Govind Kaul scholarly employment in his own 
home, worthy of his learning and likely to benefit research. 
By what appeared at the time a special piece of good fortune, 
my friend Sir George Grierson was then anxious to avail 
himself of Pandit Govind Kaul's methodical help for completing 
and editing Pandit Isvara Haul's great dictionary of Kashmiri. 
It was a philological task of considerable importance, and for 
more than one reason I rejoiced when, before my departure from 
Lahore, this collaboration of the best Kashmirian scholar of his 
time with the leading authority in the field of Indian linguistic 
research had been satisfactorily arranged for. 

But Fate, with that inscrutable irony on which Pandit Govind 
Kaul, like another Kalhana, 1 loved to expatiate with appropriate 
poetic quotations, had decreed otherwise. The farewell I took 
at Lahore from my ever devoted helpmate was destined to be 
the last. From a rapid visit to Simla to see Sir George 
Grierson he brought back an attack of fever which, after his 
return to Kashmir, proved to be of a serious type and ultimately 
was recognized as typhoid. For weeks his strong constitution 
held out, supported by the loving care of his family and such 
proper medical attendance as I endeavoured to assure from afar. 
But in the end he succumbed, and separated by thousands of 
miles at the time in the strange mountains of Sikkim, I learned 
early in June, 1899, the grievous m news that my best Indian 
friend had departed beyond all hope of reunion in this janman. 

Pandit Govind Kaul left behind a widow, who, after years of 
pious devotion to his memory, has since followed him, and 
a young son, Pandit Nilakanth Kaul, who, while prevented by 

1 Cf. Kalhana' 8 Rdjatarahgini , transl. Stein, i, Introduction, p. 36. 

c 



xxvi KASHM1BI STOBIES AND SONGS 

indifferent health in early youth from following a scholar's 
career, has grown up worthily to maintain the family's reputation 
for high character and unswerving devotion to duty. 

The prolonged stays I was subsequently able to make in Kashmir 
before and after my successive Central-Asian expeditions had to 
be spent on work relating to regions far away, and wholly 
different in character, from what I have come to look upon as 
my Indian alpine home. But my love for Kashmir has remained 
unchanged, and so also my gratitude for the great boon it had 
given me in Pandit Govind Kaul's friendship and help. That 
I was enabled to prefix a record of his life to this volume and 
thus to do something to preserve his memory, is a privilege 
I appreciate greatly. I owe it solely to the scholarly zeal of 
Sir George Grierson, who has rescued and elaborated the 
materials which we had collected, in a previous common birth, 
as it were. For the personal service thus rendered the 
expression of my warmest thanks is due here in conclusion. 

Aurel Stein. 
23, Merton Street, 

Oxford. 

September SI, 1917. 



INTRODUCTION 

THE stories and songs in the following pages were recited to 
Sir Aurel Stein in June and July, 1896, at Mohand Marg, 
in Kashmir, by Hatim Tilawoii u , of Panzil, in the Sind Valley, 
a cultivator and professional story- teller. They were taken 
down at his dictation by Sir Aurel Stein himself, and, 
simultaneously, by Pandit Govinda Kaula, and were read again 
by Sir Aurel with Hatim in August, 1912. Sir Aurel Stein 
wrote the text phonetically in the Roman character, as he 
heard it, and Govinda Kaula recorded it in the Nagarl 
character, not phonetically, but spelling the words in the 
manner customary among Kashmir Pandits of Srlnagar. 
While there are necessarily considerable differences in the 
representation of Hatim's words, the two texts are in verbatim 
agreement. Only in very rare instances are unimportant 
words found in one omitted in the other. To the copy made 
by him from Hatim's dictation Govinda Kaula added an inter- 
linear, word for word, translation into Sanskrit, and, from this, 
he subsequently made a fair copy of the greater part of the 
text with a translation into idiomatic Sanskrit. 

All these materials were handed over to me by Sir Aurel 
Stein in November, 1910, and a perusal of them at once showed 
their great importance. They were a first-hand record of 
a collection of folklore taken straight from the mouth of one 
to whom they had been handed down with verbal accuracy 
from generation to generation of professional Rawls or reciters, 
and, in addition, they formed an invaluable example of a little- 
known language recorded in two ways, viz. : (1) as it sounded 
to an experienced scholar, and (2) as it was written down in 
the literary style of spelling. Moreover, Hatim's language was 
not the literary language of Kashmiri Pandits, but was in 
a village dialect, and Sir Aurel Stein's phonetic record of the 
patois, placed alongside of the standard spelling of Kashmiri 
Pandits, gives what is perhaps the only opportunity in existence 



XXV111 



KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 



for comparing the literary form of an Oriental speech with the 
actual pronunciation of a fairly educated villager. I, therefore, 
gratefully undertook the task of editing these tales with a view 
to their publication. 

As I progressed, various difficulties asserted themselves, and 
Sir Aurel Stein took advantage of a stay in Kashmir in August, 
1912, to interview Hatim once more, to read through the text 
with him again, and, by inquiry from the fount of inspiration, 
to obtain a solution of the puzzles. The result was a remarkable 
proof of the accuracy of Hatim's memory. As already intimated, 
he belonged to a family of Kawis, and delivered the stories as 
he had received them. After sixteen years, the text that he 
recited in 1912 was the same as that which had been copied 
down in 1896. It even contained one or two words or phrases 
of which he did not know the meaning. They were "old 
words" no longer in use, but he still recited them as he had 
received them from his predecessor. 

In the course of my examination of the papers, I found that 
Govinda Kaula's transcript was not quite complete. It extended 
only to the middle of paragraph 18 of Story xii. In the 
interval between 1896 and 1912 had occurred the lamented 
death of that excellent scholar, and his help was no longer 
available to supply the missing portion. This was, therefore, 
written down in August, 1912, from Hatim's dictation, and 
supplied with a Hindi translation by Pandit Kail Rama. 

The method employed by me in editing the text is as follows : 
Sir Aurel Stein's phonetic text is first printed with a free 
English translation. This is followed by a careful transliteration 
of Govinda Kaula's text, with an interlinear, word for word, 
translation into English. As this latter text is based on the 
Pandit's system of spelling, every word is spelt the same way 
every time that it occurs, and I was able to compile from it 
a very full vocabulary, which also served as an Index Verborum. 
As Hatim's pronunciation, like the pronunciation of all spoken 
words in any language, varied slightly almost every time that 
the same word was uttered, Sir Aurel Stein's phonetic transcript 
has necessarily no fixed system of spelling any particular word, 



INTRODUCTION 



XXIX 



each word being recorded as it sounded on the particular 
occasion of its being uttered, without reference to its pro- 
nunciation on other occasions. 1 Each word, therefore, appears 
under varying forms, all of which are, of course, of inestimable 
value for the study of the growth of dialect, but which render 
the text unsuitable as the basis of a vocabulary. For this 
reason, as stated above, my vocabulary is based on Govinda 
Kaula's text ; but, to make comparison easy, two further 
indexes have been added. The first is an index of all the 
words in Sir Aurel's phonetic text, showing in each case the 
corresponding word in Govinda Kaula's text. The second 
index takes the words in the latter text, but arranges them in 
the order of their final letters, it being the letters towards the 
end of a word that are most liable to change in the processes 
of declension or conjugation. For each word in this text the 
corresponding word or words in Sir Aurel's text are also given. 

The tales and songs are recorded in the order in which they 
were taken down by Sir Aurel Stein. They include six 
excellent folk-tales, three songs, and three tales partly in prose 
and partly in verse. The folk-tales speak for themselves. 
Of the songs, one (No. i) is a poetical account of an adventure 
of the famous Sultan Mahmud of Ghaznl with a fisherman ; 
another (No. iv) purports to give a resume of the origins of 
the Musalman religion ; and the third (No. xi) is an amusing 
account of the turmoil created in Kashmir by Sir Douglas 
Forsyth's mission to Yarkand in 1873-4. The tales partly in 
prose and partly in verse are, first, the well-known story of 
Yusuf and Zulaikha, told by Wahab Khar 2 (No. vi). The 



1 In regard to this point we may compare Noldeke's words in a review of 
Prym & Socin's account of the Dialect of Tur 'Abdln (ZDMG. xxxv, 221): 
"Die ungemeine Genauigkeit in der Wiedergabe der Laute zeigt iibrigens 
wieder besonders deutlich, wie verschieden oft ein und dasselbe Wort sogar im 
selben Zusammenhange, ja im selben Satze gesprochen wird : ein auch durch 
sonstige Niederschrift aus dem Volksmunde bestatigtes Resultat, durch 
welches allein schon das jetzt so beliebte Dogma von der ' unbedingten 
Wirkung der Lautgesetze ' als eine arge UebertreibuUg erwiesen wird. Man 
bedenke, dass diese Texte sammtlich aus dem Munde eines einzigen, vollig 
illiteraten Mannes aufgezeichnet sind." 

2 It is, of course, quite different from the long Kashmiri Yusvf Zulaikha, of 
Mahmud Garni, published by K. P. Burkhard in ZDMG. xlix, liii. 



XXX 



KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 



second is the lamentation of a reed, torn from its forest, and 
tortured by a carpenter till it becomes a flute (No. vii). The 
author is one Subhan. The third, which is anonymous, is 
a curious conversation between a bee and a farmer's wife 
(No. ix), in which the former complains of tyranny done to it 
by a bear and by a farmer who robbed it of its honey, while 
the latter complains of the tyranny done to her by grasping 
revenue officials. 

Three notes are appended to this Introduction. For the first 
we are indebted to the kindness of Mr. Crooke. In this note 
he has placed at the disposal of the readers of the following 
pages his great experience in the science of comparative 
folklore, and has discussed the relationships of Hatim's tales to 
similar stories current in other parts of the world. In the 
second note I have dealt with the natures of the two texts and 
with the philological lessons that may be drawn from them. 
In the third, Sir Aurel Stein discusses the metre of the songs. 

I 

ON THE FOLKLORE IN THE STORIES 

By Mb. W. CROOKE 

This collection of folk-tales and ballads from Kashmir presents 
many features of interest. In the following notes I have not 
attempted to discuss the general question of their value and of 
the sources from which they may have been derived. I have 
confined myself to collecting a series of parallels to the motifs 
and incidents of the stories, largely drawn from oriental sources. 
For several of these parallels I am indebted to notes prepared 
by Sir G. Grierson, Dr. E. Sidney Hartland, and Canon J. A. 
MacCulloch. These have been specially acknowledged. 

I. MAHMUD OF GHAZNI AND THE FISHERMAN 

In this story the Sultan Mahmud, famous for his series of 

raids in Northern India, like the Khallfah Harun-al-Rashid, 

is described as wandering through the city in the disguise of 

a Faqir in search of information. The tale, in fact, is possibly 



INTBODUCTION xxxi 

a reminiscence of one of the most interesting stories in " The 
Arabian Nights ", " Khalifah, the Fisherman of Baghdad," * 
where the Caliph becomes the partner of Khalifah, the fisherman. 
In the same collection there is a similar incident in the tale of 
'* Nur al-Din 'All and the Damsel Anis al-Jalis ", where the 
Caliph becomes partner of Karim, the fisherman. 2 

II. THE TALE OF A PARROT 
Sir G. Grierson compares with the tale the well-known story 
of Vikramaditya in the Pancatantra, of which numerous 
variants have been collected by M. E. Cosquin. 3 Dr. E. Sidney 
Hartland writes : " In addition to the variants cited by M. E. 
Cosquin at the reference given, see The History of the Forty 
Vezirs, translated by Mr. E. J. W. Gibb, 4 in which a king learns 
a charm from a Darvesh and communicates it to his Wazir, 
who practises it upon him at the first opportunity. The king 
is forced to enter and re-animate a dead parrot, which persuades 
the gardener to sell it to a courtesan. She claims a thousand 
sequins as her fee for a visit which she alleges she had paid to 
a merchant. She had, however, seen this incident only in 
a dream. The parrot judges between the parties, and is then 
sold to the king's chief wife. The Wazir, who has meanwhile 
succeeded in occupying the vacant body of the king, boasts to 
the queen of his knowledge of the charm. She persuades him 
to try it. The parrot, who is present, watching his opportunity, 
gets possession of his own body and kills the Wazir." The 
tale is an illustration of the folk-tale«cycle, " The Separable 
Soul." In a tale from the Panjab, while a man was asleep, 
his soul went wandering about. By and by the soul felt 
thirsty and went into a pitcher of water to get a drink. 
While it was inside the pitcher someone put on the lid and 
imprisoned the soul. When the soul of the man did not 
return he was believed to be dead, and his corpse was 

1 Sir R. Burton, The Book of a Thousand Nights and a Night, ed. 1893, 
vi, 296 ff. 

2 Ibid., i, 356 ff. 

3 Les Mongols, pp. 25-6 ; cf. C. H. Tawney, Kathd-Sarit-Sdgara of Somadeva, 
i, 21. 

4 London, 1886, p. 313. 



XXX11 



KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 



carried out for cremation. By chance someone took the lid 
off' the pitcher and released the soul, which at once returned 
to its proper owner's body. He revived amidst general 
rejoicings. 1 The parrot in the tale under consideration is 
what has been called " The Life-Index " of the king. 2 

III. THE TALE . OP A MERCHANT 
The plot turns on the intrigue of a dissolute woman with 
a beggarman. Sir G. Grierson quotes a variant from the 
Linguistic Survey of India. 2 In the JoHaha* the Queen 
Kinnara falls in love with "a loathsome, misshapen cripple". 
The king, when she is detected in this intrigue, orders that 
her hand should be chopped off. But his chaplain dissuades 
him : " Sire ! be not angry with the queen ; all women are 
just the same." In the collection of Somadeva, " The Story 
of the Wife of Sasin," the lady, in the absence of her 
husband, visits a man whose hands and feet are eaten away 
by leprosy ; and in another tale from the same collection, 
"The Story of the Wife of King Simhaksa, and the Wives 
of his Principal Courtiers," the ladies fall in love with the 
hump-backed, the blind, and the lame. 5 The stock example 
of this form of tale, the tragedy of which' is admirably 
enhanced by the contrast between a beautiful woman and 
her loathsome paramour, is the tale from " The Arabian 
Nights", "The Tale of the Ensorcelled Prince." 6 Here the 
vicious wife visits a hideous negro slave, a person who, in 
oriental tales, is often selected as a paramour by dissolute 
women. He lives in a hole amidst the rubbish-heaps of 
the city. " Uncover this basin," he says in a grumbling 
tone, " and thou shalt find at the bottom the boiled bones 
of some rats we dined on ; pick at these, and then go to 

1 Punjab Notes and Queries, iii, 166. On the question generally, see 
W. Crooke, Popular Religion and Folklore of Northern India, 2nd ed., i, 231 ff. 

I ?r' r , R ' Tem P le and Mrs - F - A - Steel, Wideawake Stories, ed. 1884, 404. 
Vol. ix, pt. in ("Bhil Languages and KhandesI "), pp. 304 ff. (specimen 
of Labani from Kangra). 

4 Cambridge translation, v, 234. 

8 Kathd-Sarit-Sagara, ii, 97, 116 ff. 

• Sir R. Burton, op. cit., i, 66 ff. 



INTRODUCTION 



XXXlll 



the slop-pot, where thou shalt find some leavings of beer 
which thou mayest drink." 

The tale then diverges into the common motif of the 
love of a mortal for fairies, who live in a world of their 
own to which there is access by a spring, the moral being 
that the merchant is no better than his erring wife. In the 
story of " The Queen of the Fairies ", the hero in this way 
finds Ratnamanjari, daughter of the king of the Vidhya- 
dharas, marries her by the Gandharva rite, and loses her in 
consequence of the violation of a taboo, a common incident 
in this cycle of stories. 1 With this may be compared 
Somadeva's stories : " The King who married his dependent 
to the Nereid," and " Yasah Ketu, the Vidhyadhaii Wife, 
and his Faithful Minister " ; and in " The Arabian Nights ", 
" The Second Kalandar's Tale ", and " Julnar the Seaborn 
and her Son. King Badr Basim of Persia". 2 



V. THE TALE OF THE GOLDSMITH 
This is based on a familiar folk-tale incident — the 
Language of Signs. In the tale of " The Prince and the 
Vizier's Son", 3 the princess " pointed to her breast, then to 
her head, and, lastly, she laid her hand upon a vessel which 
stood beside her ". This is interpreted to mean : When she 
put her hand on her forehead she showed that she was 
Cashma Rani, or " Eye Queen " ; when she touched her 
breast, " my heart shall be thine " ; when she touched the 
bowl, " my home is Lota, or the bowl." The closest analogy 
to the present tale will, however, be found in the tale in 
" The Arabian Nights " of " 'Aziz and 'Azizah ", 4 in which, 
like the wife in this story, the love-lorn cousin of the 
contemptible hero interprets for her husband the signs of 
her rival. In the present tale, when the hero goes to the 
assignation and falls asleep while he is waiting for the girl, he 

1 W. A. Clouston, The Book of Sindibad, 309 ff. 

2 Kathd-Sarit-Sdgara, ii, 267, 292, and cf. ii, 288 ff. ; i, 220 ff. ; Burton, 
op. cit., i, 106 f. ; vi, 54 ff. 

3 C. Swynnerton, Indian Nights Entertainment, 167 ff. 

4 Burton, op. cit., ii, 196 ff. 



XXXIV 



KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 



is advised, when he goes a second time, to cut his finger, so 
that the pain may keep him. awake. A good parallel to 
this incident occurs in " Gul-i-Bakawali ", when the prince, 
who is determined to keep awake in order that he may 
not fail to meet Bakawall, cuts his finger and rubs ' salt 
into the wound. 1 

The final test of the faithful wife is that she is ready to 
risk her honour in order to save that of her faithless husband 
and his paramour. Sir G. Grierson remarks that another 
version of the episodes in the garden, of the arrest of the 
lovers, and of the defeat of the Chief Constable, will be 
found in J. Hertel, Der Kluge Vizier, ein Kaschmirischen 
Volksroman. 2 This episode assumes various forms. In 
Somadeva's "Story of Saktimati", 3 Samudradatta is arrested 
with another man's wife in the temple of the Yaksa, 
Manibhadra, and both are placed in confinement. The wife 
of Samudragupta, Saktimati, exchanges clothes with the 
paramour of her husband, and allows them to escape. Similar 
to this is the tale of "Mohammad the Shalabi, and his 
Minister, and his Wife " in " The Arabian Nights ", in which 
Mohammad takes the Qazl's daughter to a place outside the 
city, where they are caught and imprisoned. Mohammad's 
wife dresses herself as a youth, enters the prison, and gives 
her clothes to the girl, who effects her escape. When 
Mohammad and his wife protest that they have been wrong- 
fully arrested, the king orders that the unfortunate Chief of 
the Police shall be executed, his house plundered, and his 
women enslaved. 4 

VI. THE STORY OF YUSUF AND ZULAIKHA 
This is the famous tale of Joseph and Potiphar's wife, one 
of the cycles of great oriental love stories, represented by 

1 W. A. Clouston, A Group of Eastern Romances and Stories, 318. 

2 Zeitschrift des Vereinsfiir Volkskunde, Berlin, 1908, pp. 169 ff., 379 ff. 
Kathd-Sarit-Sdgara, i, 90 ff. In his note to this tale Mr. Tawnev compares 

a story in the Bahar Danish, Nov. vii, pt. iv of Bandello, Novelle; H. H. 
Wilson, Essays, i, 224 ; and Miss R. H. Busk, Sagas from the Far East, 320. 
4 Burton, op. cit., xi, 384. 



INTRODUCTION xxxv 

" Yusuf and Zulaikha " by Abu'r- Rahman Jam! ; " Khusrau 
and Shirin" by Nizamu'd-Dln, who was the author also of 
" Majnun and Laila ". In the Qur'an 1 Zulaikha is wife of 
Qitfir, or Potiphar, the ultimate source whence this tale and 
that of the dream of Pharaoh are derived. 2 In the story 
under consideration we have the familiar incident of the 
Selection of a New King by an Elephant, for which, as 
Sir G. Grierson points out, we have several parallels from 
Kashmir. 3 In some of the Kashmir tales the hawk shares 
the power of selection with the elephant. The fullest 
discussion of the widespread incident is that by Dr. E. Sidney 
Hartland. 4 Dr. Hartland adds : " I have also given examples 
showing that in various places the choice of a king actually 
depended on omens from animals. Thus, Bapa, the hero of 
the Guhilots of Mewar, was selected as heir to the throne by 
an elephant which put a garland round his neck, not once, but 
thrice." 5 Selection of the heir by a cobra, which shields the 
child from the sun by its extended hood, is common. 
Colonel Tod gives several instances from Rajput traditions. 6 
The Nagasias and Kharias of the Central Provinces tell similar 
legends. 7 A legend from the French colony of Senegal-Niger 
tells of a bird, a metamorphosed hero, who decides the succession 
to the post of Chief Griot by taking up his abode with the 
Griot who is to obtain promotion. 8 In a Nubian story a 
blackbird decides the choice of a queen by settling on her head. 9 
We have a good example in Somadeva : " In that country there 
was an immemorial custom that an auspicious elephant was 
driven about by the citizens, and anyone that he took up with 
his trunk and placed on his back was anointed king." 10 

1 Surah xii, 23-5. 

2 Genesis xli. 

3 J. H. Knowles, Folk-tales of Kashmir, 17, 159, 169 f, 309. 

4 Ritual and Belief, 1914, 30 ff. 

5 R. V. Russell, Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces, 1916, iv, 462 : 
quoting D. R. Bhandarkar, Journal Asiatic Society of Bengal, v, p. 167, 1909. 

* Annals of Rajasthan, Calcutta reprint, 1884, i, 313 ; ii, 282, 384. 

7 Russell, op. cit., iv, 258 ; iii, 445. 

8 De Zeltner, Contes du Senegal et du Niger, Paris, 1913, p. 36. 

9 Journal Royal Asiatic Society, xliv, 410. 
10 Katha-Sarit-Sdgara, ii, 102. 



xxxvi KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 

VII. THE TALE OF THE REED-FLUTE 
There is a close resemblance, which we may suppose can 
hardly be accidental, between this personification of the flute 
and one of the most poetical passages in the " Arabian Nights " 
in the tale of " 'AH Nur-al-Din and Miriam, the Girdle Girl "? 
"The girl took the bag from him and opening it shook it, 
whereupon there fell thereout two-and-thirty pieces of wood, 
which she fitted one into another, male into female and female 
into male, till they became a polished lute of Indian workman- 
ship. Then she uncovered her wrists, and laying the lute on 
her lap bent over it with the bending of mother over babe and 
swept the strings with her finger-tips, whereupon it moaned 
and resounded, and after its old home yearned, and it 
remembered the water that gave it drink, and the earth whence 
it sprang, and wherein it grew, and it minded the carpenter 
who cut it and the polisher who polished it, and the merchants 
who made it their merchandise, and the ship that shipped it ; 
and it cried and called aloud, and moaned and groaned ; and 
it was as if she asked it of all these things, and it answered 
her with the tongue of the case, reciting these couplets " — for 
which reference must be made to Sir R. Burton's version, which, 
though it may be accurate, can retain little of the music of the 
original poetry. 

VIII. THE TALE OF A KING 
For the main story Sir G. Grierson refers to the Kashmir 
stories of "The Two Brothers" and "The Four Princes". 2 
The basis of the story is a moral apologue, enforcing the 
need of caution, which is a commonplace in folk-tales, as in 
the cycle of "The Seven Wazirs", "Haste in killing is a vile 
thing, for 'tis a grave matter : the quick we can kill, but the 
killed we cannot quicken, and needs must we look to the 
end of affairs". 3 "Often procrastination serves to avert an 
inauspicious measure," says Somadeva. 4 

1 Burton, op. cit., vii, 16 f. ; cf. xi, 267. 

2 Knowles, op. cit., 166, 423. 

3 Burton, op. cit., ix, 54. 

4 Kathd-Sarit-Sdgara, i, 279. 



INTRODUCTION xxxvii 

The tale diverges in various ways. 

First, we have the " Potiphar's Wife " cycle, and that of 
Phaedra and Hippolytus, with their numberless variants, in 
which a vicious woman fabricates a false charge against her 
continent stepson, or some other equally innocent person 
who has the ill-luck to come into contact with her. In 
Buddhist literature this appears in the tale of the love of 
Asoka's queen for Kunala, son of her co-queen, Padmavatl. 
On his refusal to accept her advances, the queen, to whom 
her husband, the emperor, had offered any boon she chose, 
asked to be allowed to assume roj^al power for seven days. 
During this time she sent officers to Taksasila and had 
Kunala blinded. He appeared before his father in the guise 
of a lute-player, was recognized, and the queen was burnt to 
death. 1 The same authority refers to the tale of Sarangdhara, 
who rejected the advances of his stepmother, and when she 
complained to the king, it was ordered that his limbs should 
be cut off, and that he should be exposed to wild beasts, 
a fate from which he was saved only by a miraculous Voice 
from Heaven. 2 

Then comes the incident of the king who slays his favourite 
falcon who dashes the cup out of his hand as he is about to 
drink the poisoned water. Canon J. A. MacCulloch kindly 
informs me that there is a version in the Persian Bidpai 
literature, in the Anwar-i-Suheli, 3 the reference to which has 
been traced by Sir G. Grierson. 

Sir G. Grierson also refers to two similar tales from Bengal, 
one of the tale of a snake in the room of a wedded couple ; 
the other, a full story, with tales of the three guardians, in 
one of which a horse is substituted for the hawk. 4 

Next, we have the well-known tale of the " Faithful Dog ", 
best known in the story of Beddgelert. Sir G. Grierson notes 

1 W. A. Clouston, The Book of Sindibdd, Intro., xxix f. ; quoting Orient 
and Occident, iii, 177. 

2 Ibid., xxx f. ; quoting H. H. Wilson, Catalogue of the MacKenzit 
Manuscripts. 

s vi, 3, Jarrett's edition (Calcutta, 1880), 402-5 ; Eastwick's translation 
(Hertford, 1854), 413-16 ; Wollaston's translation (London, 1904), 320-2. 
4 Lai Bihari Day, Folk-tales of Bengal, ed. 1912, pp. 43, 141, 146. 



xxxvm 



KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 



that it occurs in the Kashmir tale, "A Lach of Rupees for 
a Bit of Advice " 1 ; and he quotes the following parallel from 
Baluchistan : 2 " A shrine dedicated to a dog would be a bit of 
an oddity anywhere, and something more than an oddity in 
a Musalman country. Yet such a shrine is to be found 
in the Kirthar hills. And this is the pious legend that 
clings to it. Once upon a time there was a dog that changed 
masters in a pledge for a loan. Now he had not spent many 
days with his new master before thieves came at dead of 
night and took off ever so much treasure. But he slunk 
after the rogues and never let them out of his sight till he 
had marked down the spot where they had buried the spoil. 
And, on the morrow, he barked and he barked and made 
such a to-do, there was nothing for it but for the master of 
his house to follow him till he came to the spot where the 
treasure was buried. Well, the owner was pleased enough to 
get his goods back, as you may guess. And round the dog's 
neck he tied a label whereon was writ in plain large letters 
that the debt was discharged, and with that he sent him 
packing to his old master. So the dog bounded off home, as 
pleased as pleased could be. But his master was mighty angry 
to see him, for he was an honest fellow, and much as he 
loved his dog, he set more store on being a man of his word. 
And as a warning to all breakers of pledges he hacked him 
limb from limb. But when in the end he saw the label 
round his neck, and heard all that he had done, he was 
exceedingly sorry. So he gathered up the limbs and buried 
them in a grave. Had the limbs been the limbs of a true 
believer, and not the limbs of an unclean beast, he could not 
have made more pother over the burial. And to the grave 
of the faithful dog Jhalawan folk resort to this day. And 
there they sacrifice sheep, and distribute the flesh in alms, 
in the certain belief that whatsoever they seek, that they 
will surely find." 

In Western folklore the tale assumes various forms, the 

1 Knowles, op. cit., 36 ff. 

2 Baluchistan Census Report, 1911, p. 63, § 107. 



INTRODUCTION xxxix 

earliest version appearing in Pausanias. 1 It appears in the 
Gesta Romanorum, No. 26 (Herrtage, p. 98). In the Book of 
Sindibdd it appears as the story of " The Snake and the Cat ", 
the faithful cat killing the snake in the baby's cradle. 2 In 
the Pancatantra 3 and Hitopadesa 4 it is a mungoose which 
attacks the snake, and in Kalilah and Dimna a weasel. 
Somadeva tells it in the form of the " Story of the Brahman 
and the Mungoose ". 5 

The account of the shrine erected to the faithful dog in 
Baluchistan already quoted is not the only instance of worship 
of this kind in India. In the Central Provinces the tale is 
told of a Banjara who, after he killed his dog, "built a 
temple to the dog's memory, which is called the Kukurra 
Mandhl. And in this temple is the image of a dog. This 
temple is in the Drug District, four miles from Balod. 
A similar story is told of the temple of Kukurra Math in 
Mandla." 6 A similar tale has been localized at Rohisa in 
Kathiawar. When his master learned how basely he had 
treated the faithful animal, " he wept bitterly and caused 
the Chitrasar lake to be excavated, and built round at the 
spot where the dog fell dead, and on the little island in 
the lake he built a temple in which he placed his dog's 
image, which is there to this day." 7 The tale has migrated 
as far west as Ireland and as far east as China. 8 

X. THE TALE OF RAJA VIKRAMADITYA 
The episode of the princess beset by a serpent is, in 
a slightly different form, found in the tale in the Book 

1 Pausanias, x, 33, 9, with the note of Sir J. G. Frazer, v, 421 f. See the 
references in Clouston, The Book of Sindibdd, 236-41, 329, 359. But there 
is a much fuller account in Clouston, Popular Tales and Fictions, ii, 166 ff., 
177, n. A complete bibliography of the tale and its analogues will be found 
in The Seven Sages of Borne, edited by K. Campbell, New York, 1907, 
pp. lxviii-lxxxii. In the Welsh Fables of Cattwg the Wise the story is given 
and located at Abergarwan (Iolo MSS., 154, 561). There must, therefore, 
have apparently been more than one version current in Wales. 

2 Clouston, 56 f. 3 Book v, Fab. 2. 

4 Book iv, Fab. 13. 5 Kathd-Sarit-Sdgara, ii, 90 f . 

6 R. V. Russell, Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces, ii, 189 f. 

7 Bombay Gazetteer, viii, 641. 

8 W. C. Borlase, The Dolmens of Ireland, iii, 881 f. ; H. A. Giles, Strange 
Stories from a Chinese Studio, ii, 261. 



xl KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 

of Tobit, 1 in which, by the advice of Raphael, the devil is 
scared by the stench of the burnt heart and liver of a fish. 
Sir G. Grierson quotes a story from Bengal in which we 
have a princess from whose body a snake issues. 2 It is 
unnecessary to discuss this tale at length, because, as 
Dr. E. Sidney Hartland reminds me, it has been examined, 
with a full collection of parallels, by Mr. F. H. Groome. 3 

XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 
Sir G. Grierson remarks that there is a somewhat similar 
story in the Linguistic Survey of India, 4 of which the following 
is a copy : " There was a Thakur who had nothing to eat in his 
house, so he said to himself, ' Brother, I'm going to look for 
service.' There was also a bird of omen, but though he went 
every day she never gave him one. One day she went out to 
pick up some food, and before she started she told her children 
on no account to give an omen to anyone. While she was 
away the Thakur came as usual, and the chicks gave him the 
looked-for indication ; so he saddled his camel, mounted, and 
set off. 

Back came the omen-bird, and overtook the Thakur on his 
way. She assumed the form of a woman. ' Who are you ? ' 
said he. ' I'm your wife.' ' Come along ; one has become two.' 
So he took her up on his camel. They came to a tank full of 
water, and he was compelled to descend for a certain purpose. 
' I'll be back in a moment,' said he. * All right,' said she. 
On the bank of the tank he saw a snake pursuing a frog. 
' It's a shame to let the poor thing be killed,' said he. So he 
took out his pen-knife and cut bits of flesh out of his thigh 
with which he fed the snake till it could eat no more. Then 
he got up and went back to his camel. His thigh was all 
bloody.  What's happened ? ' said the omen-bird. ' A snake 
was going to eat a frog, so I threw it lumps of flesh from my 
thigh instead.' 5 Straightway, the omen-bird passed her hand 

1 Chaps, vi-viii. 2 La l Behari Day, op. cib., 96. 

 Folk-lore, ix, 226. * Vol. ix, pt. i, 351. 

6 Obviously a reminiscence of the well-known tale of Buddha giving his flesh 
to the tiger-cubs. 






INTRODUCTION xli 

over the wound, and it healed as it was before. Then they 
got up on the camel and went on their way." 

Sir G. Grierson remarks : " This is the end of the extract. 
The entire story, a long one, will be found on pp. 82 If. of 
Mr. Macalister's Specimens} The frog takes the form of 
a barber and overtakes the Thakur. The three then &o on. 
The snake, out of gratitude for his good meal, also joins the 
company as a Brahman. The four settle in a city, where 
the omen-bird gets the Thakur service under the king, on 
a salary of a lakh of rupees. The king's barber persuades the 
king to set the Thakur three apparently impossible tasks (to 
get a snake's jewel, to find a ring thrown into a well, and 
to get news of his dead and gone ancestors), all of which the 
Thakur performs with the aid of the snake, the frog, and the 
omen-bird. To carry out the third task, the omen-bird assumes 
the form of the Thakur, and gets the king to make a huge 
funeral pyre, on which she sits. It is lighted, and she flies 
away in the smoke. She then sends the Thakur to the king 
with the news that he has come back from the king's ancestors 
.and that they are all well, but want a barber. So the king 
makes another pyre, and sets his barber on it to go off to his 
ancestors. The pyre is lighted, and the barber is, of course, 
burned to death, and the king and the Thakur live happy ever 
afterwards." The tale belongs to the cycle of Friendly 
Animals represented in the West by Perraults' famous version 
of " Puss in Boots ". In this cycle the performance of 
seemingly impossible tasks by the aid of helping animals is 
common. 2 

The tasks set in the tale now under consideration deserve 
fuller treatment. 

The incident of the ruby with a worm inside it appears 
in three forms in the " Arabian Nights ". In the story of 
" Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his wife Fatimah ", Ma'aruf , when 
called on to examine a jewel, squeezes it between his thumb 

1 G. Macalister, Specimens of the Dialects spoken in the State of Jet/pore, 
Allahabad, 1898. 

2 J. A. AlacCulloch, The Childhood of Fiction, 225 ff., and other references 
in the Index. 

d 



xlii KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 

and forefinger, and shows that it is " only a bittock of 
mineral worth a thousand dinars. ' Why dost thou style it 
a jewel ? ' " 1 Again, in the " Tale of the King who kenned 
the Quintessence of Things ", the old man examines the jewels 
brought for sale. He decides that one of them is of small 
value, and the merchant asks : " How can this, which is bigger 
of bulk and worthier for water and righter in rondure, be of 
less value than that ? " The Shaikh decides that " in its 
interior is a teredo, a boring worm ; but the other jewel is 
sound and secure against breakage ". 2 Lastly, in the " Story 
of Three Sharpers ", the sharper says, " An thou determine 
upon the killing of yonder man, first break the gem, and if 
thou find therein a worm, thou wilt know the wight's word 
to have been veridical." The king smashes the gem with his 
mace and finds a worm within it. 3 

Further on, in the episode when the jeweller seizes the 
garment of one of the girls as she is bathing, we have a 
version of the Swan Maiden cycle, of which an early form 
appears in the legend of Krishna when he takes the garments 
of the Gopis as they are bathing in the Jumna. In many 
cases of tales of this cycle the Swan Maiden is captured to- 
be eventually married to the hero. Sometimes, as in the 
present case, she is held to ransom. It is unnecessary to 
discuss at length a cycle of tales which has been fully 
investigated by Dr. E. Sidney Hartland and by others. 4 
Again, we have the incident of the ruby emitting a brilliant 
light, a lieu commun in Eastern and Western folk-tales. In 
one of Somadeva's stories, " The Brave King Vikramaditya," 
the King Hemaprabha gives his daughter, Ratnaprabha, to 
Naravahanadatta, with " glittering heaps of jewels, gleaming 
like innumerable wedding fires ". 5 

1 Burton, op. cit., viii, 16. 

2 Ibid., ix, 139. 

3 Ibid., x, 364. 

4 The Science of Fairy Tales, 255 ff. Cf. in the "Arabian Nights", "The 
Story of Janshah", and "Hassan of Bassorah" (Burton, op. cit., iv, 291 ff. ;. 
vi, 188 ff.), and •■ The Swan Children " in " Dolopathos and the Seven Sages 
(Clouston, The Book of Sindibdd, 372 ff.). 

6 Kalhd-Sarit-Stlgara, i, 327. 



INTRODUCTION xliii 

At every word the fairy Lalmal speaks a ruby drops, or 
seven rubies fall daily from her mouth. In one of Somadeva's 
tales Marubhuti eats two grains of rice from food in which 
a child had been cooked, and thus gains the power of spitting 
gold. On this Mr. Tawney remarks : " In ' Sagas from the 
Far East' there is a story of a gold-spitting prince. In 
Gonzenbach's ' Sicilianische Marchen ' Quaddaruni's sister drops 
pearls and precious stones from her hair when she combs it 
— Dr. Kohler in his note on this tale gives many European 
parallels. In a Swedish story a gold ring falls from the 
heroine's mouth whenever she speaks, and in a Norwegian 
story gold coins. I may add to the parallels quoted by 
Dr. Kohler, No. 36 in Coelho's ' Contos Portuguezes ', in which 
tale pearls drop from the heroine's mouth." l 

Lalmal, the fairy, gave the Lapidary her ring and said : 
" Go thou again into the spring. Close by the side of it 
thou wilt find a great rock. Show thou my ring unto that 
rock, and it will arise and stand upright." We are reminded 
of the wonder-working ring of Aladdin in the " Arabian 
Nights". In a Kashmir tale, "The Charmed Ring," the 
merchant's son speaks to the ring, and immediately a beautiful 
house and a lovely woman with golden hair appeared. 2 
Sulaiman, or Solomon, entrusts his seal ring, on which his 
kingdom depends, to his concubine, Aminah. Sakhr, the JinnI, 
transformed into the king's likeness, takes it, after which 
Sulaiman is reduced to beggary. But after forty days the 
JinnI fled, throwing the ring into the sea, where it was 
swallowed by a fish, and eventually restored to its owner. 
The tale is Talmudic, and there is a hint of it in the Qur'an. 3 

In the tale of " Vinltamati who became a Holy Man ", in 
Somadeva's Collection, the Yaksa gives the hero a ring which 
averts all calamities known as iti, that is to say, excessive 
rain, drought, locusts, birds, and injury by foreign invaders; 4 



1 Ibid., ii, 453. 

2 Knowles, op. cit., 23. 

3 Surah xxxviii ; cf. the ring of Polycrates, Herodotus, iii, 41, 2. 

4 Kathd-Sarit-Sdgara, ii, 173. 



xliv KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 

and in another tale, " &rldatta and Mrgankavatl," we have 
a magic ring which counteracts the effects of poison. 1 

The Lady of the Rock turns the Lapidary into a pebble. 
Then her mother says : " Aha ! my girl, I smell the smell of 
a mortal man " — the " Fee faw f urn " of " Jack, the Giant 
Killer ", common in Marchen. The Italian demon, the Oreo, has 
" a demonic acuteness of scent ; he can tell, like a sea-monster, 
the approach of human flesh ". 2 The technical phrase in folk- 
tales from the Indian plains is manush-gandha, " the smell 
of man's flesh." In a Panjab story, the tale of " Lai Badshah, 
the Red King ", the ogre cries, " I smell man's flesh, I smell 
man's blood." 3 In a Bengal story the Raksasas cry : " How, 
mow, khow ! A human being I smell," or " Hye, mye, khye ! " 
with the same meaning. 4 

This tale, it may be remarked, contains a version of the 
Letter of Death. I have discussed this incident in connexion 
with the story of Bellerophon. In the Homeric version : 5 
" To Bellerophon the gods granted beauty and lovely man- 
hood ; but Proitos, in his heart, devised evil for him, and 
being mightier far drove him from the land of the Argives, 
whom Z,eus had made subject to his sceptre. Now Proitos' 
wife, goodly Anteia, lusted after him, to have converse in 
secret love, but no whit prevailed she, for the uprightness 
of his heart, on wise Bellerophon. Then spake she lyingly 
to King Proitos: 'Die, Proitos, or else slay Bellerophon, that 
would have converse in love with me against my will.' So 
spake she, and anger got hold upon the king at that he heard. 
To slay him he forbare, for his soul had shame at that ; but he 
sent him to Lykia, and gave him tokens of woe, graving in 
a folded tablet many deadly things, and bade him show these 
to Anteia's father, that he might be slain." So the king of 
Lykia imposed tasks upon him, and when he accomplished 



1 Ibid., i, 61. 

2 J. Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, ii, 486. 



5 Swynnerton, op. cit., 335. 

< Lai Bihari Day, op. cib., 72, 79; for other examples see MacCulloch, 
op. cit., 305, n. 

* Iliad, vi, 155 ff., trans. A. Lang, W. Leaf, E. Myers. In my paper 
(Folklore, xix, 156) I have collected several parallels. 



INTRODUCTION xlv 

them the king gave him his daughter in marriage and half of 
all the honour of his kingdom. Dr. Sidney Hartland writes : 
w Thucydides gives a similar story of Pausanias, Regent of 
Sparta. The episode of Uriah the Hittite (2 Samuel xi, 14) 
is another case. Shakespeare, drawing from Saxo Grammaticus 
(lib. iii), employs it in 'Hamlet'. Walter Map {Be Nugis 
Curialium, v, 4) recounts it of Count and Earl Godwin, but 
leaves the tale half told. It may almost be said to be a 
commonplace of folk-tales. It generally makes its appearance 
in tales belonging to the cycle of ' The Man born to be a King '." 
To this some oriental examples may be added. In Somadeva's 
" Story of Sivavarman " the king writes a letter to a neigh- 
bouring chief, asking him to slay his minister, Sivavarman. 
He escapes by announcing that God will not send rain for 
twelve years on that land in which he is slain. 1 In the 
Kashmir story of " The Ogress Queen " the queen writes 
a letter to her grandmother, a RaksasI, telling her to kill the 
lad, but a faqir reads it and tears it up. 2 In the Panjab story 
of " The Son of Seven Mothers " the queen gives the lad 
a piece of a broken potsherd, with these words inscribed on it : 
" Kill the bearer at once, and sprinkle his blood like water." 
It is read and altered by the hero's wife. 3 In the Bengal story 
of " The Boy whom Seven Mothers suckled ", the RaksasI queen 
sends the boy to her mother with a letter requesting her to 
devour him the moment he delivers the letter. 4 We have the 
same incident in " Brave Hiralalbase " and in " The Demon and 
the King's Son " in the collection of Miss Maive Stokes. 5 
Similar to this is the action of the Sultan in the story of 
" Ahmed the Orphan". 6 In Arabic folklore such letters are 
so common that they are known as " the letters of Mutalammis ", 
one of the intended victims of the trick. 7 

Sir G. Grierson reminds me that there is a good version of 

1 Kathd-Sarit-Sdgara, i, 27 f. ; cf. the tale of Parityagasena (ibid., i, 353). 

2 Knowles, op. cit., 48. 

3 Temple- Steel, Wideawake Stories, 103. 

4 Lai Bihari Day, op. cit., 116. 

5 Indian Fairy Tales, 53, 184. 

6 Clouston, The Book of Sindibdd, 138. 

7 Burton, op. cit., xii, 68. 



xlvi KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 

the " Letter of Death " tale in the Bkakta-mala, 1 in which 
Dhrstabuddhi gives a letter to Candrahasa, saying, " Take thou 
this to my house and give this letter into the hands of my son 
Madana, and say unto him, ' Prithee carry out what is written 
therein.' " But Candrahasa falls asleep in a garden where 
comes to sport with her damsels and her fellow-maidens the 
daughter of Dhrstabuddhi. " By chance she saw Candrahasa 
as he slept, and love for him entered her heart. So she led her 
companions away, and then leaving them she returned by 
another path and gazed enraptured at his beauty. In her 
yearning she saw by him a letter, with her brother's name 
upon it. She took it up and read it, and therein was written, 
 At once give thou poison (visa) to the one that beareth this 
letter. Delay thou not in this, or dread my anger.' When she 
read these words, wroth was she with her father, and filled 
with pity was she for the youth. Now the damsel's name was 
Visaya. Ink made she with the collyrium of her eyes, and 
after the word visa, poison, added she but one little syllable 
yd, so that visa became visaya." So Visaya was married to 
Candrahasa, and the plot laid by the vile Dhrstabuddhi came 
to naught. 

We have here also a version of " Jack and the Beanstalk ", 
fully discussed by Canon J. A. MacCulloch, who points out the 
connexion between mythology and folklore, where "a primitive 
mythological way of regarding the universe has suggested and 
given rise to the chief incident of one of our well-known 
nursery tales". 2 

On the question of eating the leathern peas ; Dr. Sidney 

Hartland writes : " It may be suspected that the real reason 

why the hero is forbidden to eat the leathern peas is, not that 

they are indigestible, but that to do so would be to eat the 

food of supernatural beings, and so unite himself with them 

permanently ; he might not be able to return ; he would become 

one of them. I have considered elsewhere similar incidents. 3 

o^ 6 his arfcicle > "Cleanings from the Bhakta- mala " : JRAS. April, 1910, 
p. 295. ^ 

 The Childhood of Fiction, 432 ff. 
* Science of Fairy Tales, 40 ff. 



INTRODUCTION xlvii 

A full discussion of the matter would be very lengthy, and 
would lead to inquiries into the rights of hospitality, magical 
belief, and so forth." 

When the hero marries the lady, she directs him to ask only 
for the skin mat, known as the Flying Couch. We may 
compare this with the flying horses of the " Arabian Nights ". 1 
In the Bengali tales the heroine is carried through the air by 
two birds, and a club and rope carry people across the ocean. 2 

Brahma, in the Hindu mythology, gives Kuvera the great 
self-moving car, called Puspaka. 3 We met with flying chariots 
and similar magical vehicles in the tales of Somadeva. 4 The 
closest parallel to the incident under consideration is the Flying 
Carpet of the tale of " Prince Ahmad and the Fairy Peri-Banou " 
of the " Arabian Nights ". 5 

W. Crooke. 



II 
ON THE LANGUAGE USED IN THE TALES 

As regards the text of these tales recorded by Govinda Kaula, 
it is, so far as its contents and wording go, in every way worthy 
of the reputation of that excellent scholar. But the spelling of 
the words is that customary among Kashmiri Pandits, and is 
based on no fixed system. These persons have no certain rules 
for representing the broken vowel sounds that form a prominent 
feature of the language, and Govinda Kaula, each time that 
a word containing one of these sounds recurred, spelt it as the 
spirit moved him at the time. A few examples will suffice. The 
word poda, manifest, is written t^ in ii, 1, and TfT^r in iii, 8 ; 
korun, he made, is written W^ in iv, 6, but ^J^«^ in vii, 4, 
although he writes efi^t m the vei T nex ^ ^ me '> ^ u * ne was > * s 
written "^m in ii, 4, but ITR^ and tSTPEJ in ii, 5. It is evident 
that to reproduce such spelling would render this work of little 

1 Burton, op. cit., i, 147 ; iii, 415 ff. 

2 Lai Bihari Day, op. cit., 130, 116. 

3 J. Dowson, Classical Dictionary, 174. 

4 Kathd-Sarit-Sagara, i, 259, 392 ; ii, 258, 553. 

5 Burton, op. cit., x, 249, who gives parallels. 



xlviii KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 

use to any person not perfectly familiar with the language, and 
would greatly complicate the preparation of any index or 
vocabulary. 

A uniform system of spelling Kashmiri in the Nagarl character 
was devised by the late Pandit Isvara Kaula, and was used by 
him in his KaSmlrasabddmrta, or Kashmiri Grammar in the 
Sanskrit language, which has been published by the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal. Although not perfect, this system has the 
merit of being an attempt to represent each sound in the 
language by one character, and by one character only. With 
a few minor alterations, it has been followed by me in 
various works on Kashmiri, such as my Essays on Kdgmlri 
Grammar, my Manual of the Kashmiri Language, and the Kiishmlrl- 
English Dictionary in course of publication by the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, and it is now, I believe, generally accepted by 
European scholars. 

In preparing the transliterated version of Govinda Kaula's 
text I have therefore first copied the latter, spelling the words 
according to Isvara Kaula's system, and have then rigidly 
transliterated that into the Eoman character. It must be clearly 
understood that this process has in no way altered the real text 
in any way. If Isvara Kaula were to read out the text written 
according to his system, and if Govinda Kaula were to read out 
what he himself had written, the resultant sounds would in every 
case be identical. The change has been one of spelling, and of 
nothing else ; in other words, it has been merely a change from 
unsystematic to systematic spelling. 

My text in the Eoman character can at once be mechanically 
converted into the Nilgarl character according to Isvara Kaula's 
system of spelling by the aid of the following table and 
appended instructions : — 

^ a, ^IT a, ^ i, t h ^ w, ^M^ ai , *ft o, ^sft au. 

^ ha, T§ kha, l\ ga, ^ na. 

^ ca, q£ cha, Kja, ^ ne. 

^ fea, ^ tsha, 3f za. 

"Z ta, *Z tha, m da, Uf na. 

7f ta, Yf t/ta, ^ da, *[ na. 



INTRODUCTION xlix 

T(pa, mp/ia, ^ ba, ?? ma, 
H ye, X ra t *T la, ^ ra, tea, 
^ she, *T 8a, f ha. 
It will be observed that the above agrees with the ordinary 
system of transliterating Nagarl, with the following exceptions : — 

(1) Kashmiri possesses no sonant aspirates. 

(2) The letters \g: and HJ" are each used only as a member 
of a conjunct consonant before a letter of its own class, as in 
^ nka, ^ nkha, ^ nga, "C^T nta, TQ ntha, T^J ncla. Under these 
circumstances I have not thought it necessary to add in either 
case a diacritical mark to the n, more especially because, in 
the Persian character, if, xjf, and «^ are all represented by ^. 

(3) After the letters "5J, ^, and If, the letter a is always 
pronounced e. Hence, I have transliterated them tie, ye, and 
she respectively. For IJ" I use she instead of se ; as in 
Kashmiri the sound of this letter is the same as that of the 
Persian *. The letter not only represents a Persian *, 
but also the Indian 1[ and Xf, the sound of all three having been 
conflated into one sound, that of the English sh in " shell ". 
Kashmiri possesses no cerebral sibilant, although in Kashmiri 
MSS. we sometimes find the letter isf. This, however, is only 
Pandits' affectation, who pretend that they ought to write TJVs , 
not xftlj, a flower, because there is a tf in the Sanskrit J^l^. 

(4) Attention may be called to the affricative letters ^ tsa, 
T£ tsha, and 5f za. The letter tsha is the aspirate of tsa, i.e. it is 
pronounced as in " cat's head" and not as in " cat-shark ". 

(5) The short vowels e (except in the cases of fie, ye, and slit) 
and 6 are represented by Jf and ^ respectively. They never 
commence a syllable. In other words, when ^ and ^ follow 
a consonant they are pronounced e and o respectively. Thus 
^ is he, not Jcye, and g? is Jed, not kica. Some Kashmiris, 
especially Hindus, always sound e and e as if there were a half- 
pronounced y before them, so that in their mouths ^5f sounds as 
k v e and % as k v e. The vowel e is generally sounded like the e 
in " met " and the vowel 6 like the o in " hot ". 

The various matra-vowels are represented as follows. For 
particulars in regard to them the reader is referred to the present 
writer's Essays and Manual 



KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 



3F^» 


k a k. 


-^ ^ 




fr 


k\ 


g? 


k u . 


v» 




** 


*•. 



The vowels a and « can never end a syllable. 

The various modified, or aprasiddha, vowels are represented 
and sounded as follows : — 

a written as in gjcR k a k, and sounded like a very short a. 

a. 



^ 


hW 9 


4m 


k°k u , 
k u k u , 
ak a k, 


^fa 


ak\ 


^ 


ok*, 


i 

^T^? 


uk u , 
ok a k, 


^rr^ 


ok\ 




6k u , 


ftlf 


kyuk u , 


^f 


kyuk u , 


^I^SaR j($jP% f 


^fti 


k8k\ 


^f 


kyok u , 




kek u 


8RpJ 


kok a k, 


sM* 


kdk 1 , 


if 


m u , 


*? 


kok u , 



>> »> >> 0' 

)> tf )» "• 

a „ ^J3j«R ak a k, „ something between a and o. 

a „ Ufa dk*, „ like a 1 in a*&. 

o ,, ^I3fi ok u , ,, „ the first o in 

" promote ", 

u „ "^cR #&*, ,, ,, a German u. 

o „ ^rN(3R ok a k, „ ,, prolonged German o. 



2^ 



e ,, ^Tfi fce#* ,, something like y ii. 

o „ W&m kqk a k, „ nearly the same as o. 

o ,, W^G kok 1 , „ like an ordinary o. 

8 ,, Iflcfi kgk u , ,, nearly the same as o. 

6 „ ^fi<K kok* 1 , „ nearly the same as u. 

6 m ^tg> kok u (for ^TTcr), sounded like the aw in 

"awful". 
u u ^ ku, sounded something like a much pro- 

longed German ii, approaching a long I. 



>> 


>j 




as 


written in 
character 


the Roman 


as 


written in 
character 


the Roman 


like e. 




as 


written. 





INTRODUCTION li 

As explained in the Kashmiri Manual, the sounds of e and 6 
are not affected by i-mafra, and hence, in this case, no diacritical 
marks are given to them in the Roman character, although they 
are marked as aprasiddha in the Nilgarl character. 

As regards Sir Aurel Stein's system of presenting the sounds 
uttered by Hatim, it is, of course, consistent with itself. Each 
letter employed by him represents one sound and one sound only, 
and each sound is represented by one letter and by one letter 
only. His system, however, is not the same as mine, and he 
authorized me, in preparing his materials for the press, to alter 
it to agree with mine, so long as the alteration was consistent. 
For instance, I was authorized to alter his & to my 6, provided 
that this was always done, that a was never altered to any other 
letter, and that no other of his letters was also altered to 6. 

His system of arranging consonants presented no difficulty. 
It is practically the same as mine, and only one or two changes 
were necessary. These are as follows. The fricative sound 
resembling that of an English ts is represented in my system by 
ts and in his by ts. The sound which corresponds to that of the 

Persian <£, and which in Nagarl is written ^J, is written s by 

Sir Aurel Stein and sh by me. I have throughout altered his 
ts to ts and s to sh. Similarly, the sound represented by the 
Persian * is written z by Sir Aurel Stein, and, for the sake of 

uniformity, I have altered it to zh, although the sound is not 
heard in Srlnagar Kashmiri or, consequently, found in Govinda 
Kaula's transcript. 

The labial semi- vowel in Kashmiri is a pure bi-labial, and not 
a dento -labial. Its sound is neither that of v or that of iv, but 
something between both, sometimes, especially before palatal 
vowels, tending towards a ^-sound, and sometimes, especially 
before a and before labial vowels, tending towards a w-sound. 
In my system I use both v and w for its representation, 
endeavouring so far as was possible to indicate the shade of 
sound to which, in my experience, it approximates. Sir Aurel 
Stein represents the labial semi-vowel uniformly by v, without 
regard to its exact shade of sound. I have not ventured to 
interfere with this, and have left his v's unchanged throughout. 



lii KASHMIBI STORIES AND SONGS 

Possibly his i and u are also semi-vowels, but the matter is 
doubtful, and will be referred to again under the head of vowels. 

It thus follows that, so far as the representation of con- 
sonants is concerned, the systems of transcription employed in 
the printed version of Sir Aurel Stein's copy of Hatim's text 
and in my copy of Govinda Kaula's text are, with the exception 
of the representation of the labial semi-vowel, identical. 

Turning to the representation of vowel-sounds, it might 
appear that the matter is equally simple. I thought so myself 
at first, and commenced transcribing his text with the altera- 
tions necessary to make it agree with my system. But before 
long I found that this was an impossible task. The range of 
vowel-sounds used by Hatim is not the same as that used in 
the Srinagar Kashmiri, w r ith which alone I am familiar. Hatim 
has sounds, such as the a in " cancelled " (Sir Aurel's a, my a), 
which so far as I am aware occurs only rarely in Srinagar 
Kashmiri, and then only in monosyllables ending in an 
aspirated surd — e.g. in the Hindu pronunciation of krakh, 
a noise, but not in the plural JcraJca. Again, on the other 
hand, Srinagar Kashmiri has two short o's — one, the first o in 
the English word " promote ", which I represent by o, and the 
other the o in " hot ", which I represent by 6. Sir Aurel Stein's 
system knows only the latter of these, which he represents 
by o. There are numerous other differences and cross divisions 
in the two systems, and a thorough examination of the whole 
of Hatim's text gives the following results : — 

On the one hand, some of Hatim's sounds have their exact 
equivalent in the Srinagar Kashmiri known to me. These are 
the a in " America ", the a in " father ", the ai in " aisle ", the 
e in " met ", the e like the a in " vale ", the o in " open ", the 
u in "put", the u in "rule", the 11 in the German "Kiirze", 
and the peculiar Kashmiri d, for which, so far as I am aware, 
there is no equivalent in any European language. In all these 
our transcriptions agree, except that Sir Aurel represents the 
e in " met " by e, while I use e. On the other hand, there is 
the greatest confusion between the two systems in their repre- 
sentation of the broken vowels, which play so important a role 



INTRODUCTION liii 

in Kashmiri pronunciation. One example will suffice. There 
is a modified a, which Sir Aurel Stein represents by a, and 
which he says is sounded like the u in " rut " prolonged. In 
Srlnagar Kashmiri the sound strikes my ear rather as a pro- 
longed German 6, although many Pandits, in certain words, 
sound it almost like the o in " note ",* and I represent it by 6. 
So far the matter is comparatively simple, and it might be 
possible to solve the problem of the two competing tran- 
scriptions ; but the case is complicated by the fact that this 
same modified a almost equally often has an altogether 
different sound — that of the aw in " awful " — which Sir Aurel 
represents by a, and which I represent by 6. This may occur 
in the same word when it occurs more than once. For instance, 
the word which I always transliterate as poda, and which 
means " manifest ", was sounded by Hatim as pada in ii, 1, and 
as pada in iii, 8. At other times it was sounded as 6, here 
following the example of the Pandits to which I have just 
alluded. Thus my moj^, a mother, is Hatim's moj in viii, 3, 
but maj in viii, 1. It is evident that it would be impossible 
to arrange any system of transcription such as mine, which is 
based on the Nagarl spelling of Kashmiri Pandits, so as to 
agree with a pronunciation varying so greatly as in the above 
examples. I have therefore decided to leavf Sir Aurel Stein's 
representation of the vowel-sounds untouched, and to print it 
exactly as it stands. This will give rise to inconvenience in 
comparing the two texts, but it is better that this inconvenience 
should occur than that any attempted alterations of mine 
should obscure the niceties of Hatim's pronunciation. 

The following is the system employed by Sir Aurel Stein in 
representing the vowel-sounds used by Hatim : — 

List of Vowel-sounds, as used by Sir Aurel Stein in his 

Transcription 
a as in "America ". 
a a very short a, but quite audible. 
a as in " l<7rge ". 

1 e.g. most Pandits pronounce the word kdm a , work, as if it rhymed with 
"home". 



liv KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 

a as in " cancelled ". 

? a very short a, having the quality of the u in "hut". 

a has the sound of the u in " hut ", but long. 

d as the aw in "<wful ". 

at as in " aisle ". 

du practically equal to the diphthong au t like the on in 

" sound ", but sometimes heard as a with a semiliquid v. 

e as in " m^t ". 

e as the a in " w/le". 

i as in "pm ". 

1 a very short i, but quite audible, 

z as the i in " p?'que ". 

o as in "hot ". 

o as the o in " open ". 

u as in " p«t ". 

u a very short n, but quite audible, 

w as the u in "r?de". 

u as in German " Kiirze ", Hungarian " wres ". 

ii a peculiar long vowel difficult to pronounce. See Kashmiri 

Manual, p. 17 (e). 

A few remarks may be made upon the above. 

The so-called ma^ra- vowels are, as in my system, represented 
by small letters a£>ove the line. Thus a , *, u . Sir Aurel Stein 
remarks about each of them that it is " very short, but quite 
audible ". As a rule, in Srlnagar Kashmiri, this is true of 
a and *, but to my ear a final u is hardly audible, if audible at 
all. Pandits tell me that they can hear it, but I have only 
occasionally been able to do so. This seems also to have been 
Sir Aurel Stein's experience. It is evident that what is meant 
by his statement that u is quite audible is that he has written 
it when it was audible and has not written it when it was not 
audible. A reference to the index of words arranged according 
to their final letters will show that there are hundreds of 
words ending in u in which he did not hear that letter, and 
consequently did not write it. ( The cases in which he did hear 
it are comparatively few. Such are bdguk u (iii, 9) and vot u mot 
(vii, 29). The inaudibility of this letter is well illustrated by 



INTRODUCTION lv 

words such as my amyuk u , which becomes in Hatim's 
mouth am v uk or amyuk in iii, 4, and atrnPuk in xii, 
17 ; and my dop u , which is represented not only by dop u 
(ii, 4; xi, 12), but also by dop (v, 9; viii, 1, 13; etc.), dup 
(xi, 2, 14; xii, 4), and even dup? (xi, 11). It is unnecessary 
to multiply examples. Many more will be found in the 
indexes, and it is sufficient to state here that, like me, 
Sir Aurel Stein has found that u-matra is very rarely audible. 

Regarding the sound represented by du, Sir Aurel Stein 
says that it is practically a diphthong au, like the ou in 
" sound ", but is sometimes heard as a with a semi-liquid v. 
As it struck me that possibly this u might be the equivalent 
of my w, I referred the point to Sir Aurel, and he wrote as 
follows in reply : — 

" As regards gaii, I am now certain that I do not mean w 
by the special u, but merely wished to indicate that the sound 
was not a usual diphthong. Hatim always keeps the pre- 
ceding long a [in du] quite clear of the u. This is all I wish 
to indicate by the marks I employed. It may be the semi- 
vowel v, but, in that case, it is exceedingly liquid." It will 
be observed that, as in gau above quoted, the u does not 
necessarily follow a long a. Sir Aurel also occasionally writes 
an i, to which the same remarks apply. 

The Kashmiri of these tales, as recorded by Pandit Govinda 
Kaula, is practically the same as that described by Pandit 
Isvara Kaula in his Kashmiri grammar entitled the Kasmira- 
sabddmrta, 1 and by the present writer in his Essays on 
Kdgmiri Grammar and in his Kashmiri Manual. There are, 
however, a few instances in which there occur forms not 
authorized by any of these works. Some of these are described 
as " village forms ", i.e. as not used in the city of Srinagar, 
and hence by purists banned from literary Kashmiri. Others 
are idioms peculiar to the Musalman dialect, Hatim, the 
narrator, being, of course, a follower of Islam ; while a few 

1 Published by the Asiatic Society of Bengal in the Bibliotheca Indica. 



lvi KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 

others are additional forms allowed in Srinagar, but not 
recorded by Isvara Kaula. 

As regards vocabulary, there are two unusual words which 
I have not met elsewhere. One of these is ration, to cause to 
seize, which is not in Isvara Kaula's very full Dhatupatha. 
It is the causal of the verb ratun, which is of frequent 
occurrence. The other is the word givdsh, instead of gash, the 
light of dawn, which occurs three times, and is therefore not 
a slip of the transcriber. The usual negative particle is the 
standard na, not ; but nu occurs once, and a poetical 
equivalent is nan. 

In Persian the words shah and padsliah, a king, sometimes 
appear with the a of the final syllable shortened, so that we 
also find shah and padsliah. The same is the case when these 
words are borrowed in the language of these tales, though, 
under the ordinary Kashmiri rule, a short a after sh becomes 
e, so that we get both shah and sheh (in shahmar or shehmar, 
a python) and patashah and patasheh. In the second word it 
will be observed that, as is frequent in borrowed words, the 
Paisaci Prakrit rule of hardening the sonant d to t is followed. 
On the other hand, Sir Aurel Stein always writes the word 
padshah or padshah with a d. From this we gather that 
while Hatim, like a good Musalman, adhered to the original 
borrowed form of the word, Govinda Kaula wrote the word as 
he was accustomed to hear it in the standard Hindu Kashmiri 
of Srinagar. 

As regards the vowel-sounds, Govinda Kaula almost always 
indicates the same sounds as those recorded by Isvara Kaula. 
According to the latter there is an important group of nouns 
ending in a r which indicate professions (iv, 99), such as 
rang a r, a dyer; son a r, a goldsmith; man a r, a lapidary, and 
so on. The only noun of this group occurring in the Tales is 
son a r, a goldsmith, and this G.K. persistently writes sonar, 
with a full a. In Kashmiri, when the vowel of a monosyllable 
is a followed by an aspirated surd consonant, the a takes the 
sound of the a in the English word "hat" (Essays, p. 6). 
Govinda Kaula attempts to represent this sound in the word 



INTRODUCTION lvii 

krakh, outcry, by e, and writes krekh. Possibly this represents 
a real variation of pronunciation. In villages d followed by 
i-matra is often pronounced i. G.K. has reproduced this in 
one instance in the word pandn i (iv, 7), which he here writes 
panin, and which Sir Aurel Stein represents by pan v en. 
Another instance of village pronunciation recorded by G.K. is 
the substitution of a for u in tshanandwun for tshunandwun, 
to cause to cast (x, 13). 

In the Kashmiri of Isvara Kaula the sound represented by 
o is changed to il before i-matra, i, or y. Thus from hod, 
imprisonment, we have Jcild i , a prisoner, with a dative singular 
kildis. G.K. never indicates this last change. Thus he writes 
kod 1 , kodis ; soty or sotin for silty or siltin, with ; pontsyum u 
for piintsyum u , fifth. 

As regards consonants we may first note that in the villages 
the letters d and r are frequently interchanged. This r is 
a dental letter, as elsewhere on the North-West Frontier. We 
see this clearly in words like khdlun or khdrun, to mount ; 
wdlun or wdrun, to bring down, in which r is in standard 
Kashmiri interchangeable with a dental I. We thus find that 
in the villages there is free interchange between a cerebral 
d and a dental r, which could not take place were it not that, 
as in all Dardic languages, in the common village talk of 
Kashmir there is a weak feeling of the difference between 
cerebrals and dentals. We shall see that in Hatim's pro- 
nunciation this want of differentiation between these two 
classes of sounds is remarkably evident. Govinda Kaula's 
spelling is more influenced by his literary training and 
familiarity with Sanskrit, but even he reproduces the inter- 
change of d and r in several instances, such as larun or 
ladun, to pursue ; kur u or kud u , a daughter ; mor u or mod u , 
the body ; thilr il -kani or thudP-kani, backwards ; tshddun or 
tshdrun, to seek. In all these the standard form sanctioned 
by Isvara Kaula is the first of each pair. The examples l mor u 
and mod u are very instructive. G.K. gives both forms, and 
so does Sir Aurel Stein in his transcription, but the two do not 
always agree. Where G.K. has d Sir Aurel often has r, and 



lviii KASHMIRI' STORIES AND SONGS 

vice versa. This illustrates how nearly akin these two letters 
were as they issued from Hatim's mouth. 

The pronunciation of the Persian letter j zdl in borrowed 
words varies. Sometimes we have z as kdkaz, paper, and 
sometimes d as in Jcdlcad, paper, and gudarun, to happen. 

There are two occurrences of the aspiration of a non-final 
consonant, viz. hatha for bdta, words (xii, 25), and thoth u for 
toth u , beloved (vii, 4). There are no other instances of such 
aspiration or disaspiration, although Sir Aurel's transcription 
teems with both. We have a solitary instance of the insertion 
of w in the word gwdsh for gash, already mentioned. It is 
probably connected with the Sanskrit Jcdsa-. 

In the declension of nouns there are a few examples of 
departure from the rules laid down by Isvara Kaula. 
According to him the suffix of the indefinite article is ah, as in 
kdldh, a time. Musalmans drop the h and write kdld. G.K. 
writes the article in each way with about equal frequency. 
A list of occurrences will be found in the vocabulary under 
the article ah, a. This is, however, rather a matter of spelling 
than one of pronunciation, as the h of ah is hd-e mukhtafi. 

The singular agent of the first declension ends in -an, as in 
tsiiran, by a thief. The word sonar (for son a r), a goldsmith, 
belongs to this declension, but in the one instance in which 
the agent of this word occurs (v, 4) it is sonar, i.e. the same 
as the nominative. Sir Aurel Stein's transcription shows that 
this is not a slip on the part of Govinda Kaula, and there can 
be no doubt that the mistake (if mistake it be and not 
a dialectic form) was made by Hatim. 

According to the rule laid down by I.K. the suffix un u of 
the genitive can be used only with nouns that are masculine 
proper names. But in poetry its use is more extended, and 
hence in xi, 13 we have sapharun u , of a journey. More 
directly contrary to the rule is the phrase as\i e hun u tab, the 
fever of love, in v, 10, a prose passage. 

According to I.K. the plural agent of the first and fourth 
declensions ends in -an, and of the second and third de- 
clensions in -yau. G.K. very often writes these -av and -iv 



INTRODUCTION lix 

respectively. In my opinion these are merely two different 
ways of recording the same sound, one that it is difficult to 
represent in the Nagari character. Elsewhere in Kashmiri 
the diphthong au is at the present day pronounced exactly 
like o, and is, in fact, a superfluous letter. But in the plural 
agent the u of au is almost consonantal. Perhaps w would 
represent its sound better than u, but aw could not represent 
the sound of the au. Sir Aurel Stein generally writes this 
diphthong au, and this is probably the best way of repre- 
senting the sound. In Kashmiri the sound of ^ is something 
between a labial (not a dento-labial) v and a labial w, some- 
times tending more to one and sometimes tending more to the 
other, and accordingly I myself sometimes transliterate it v 
and sometimes w, a confessedly inaccurate, if convenient, 
method. The following are examples of the use of -av by 
G.K. : asmdnav, doyav, khabarddrav, malakav, nawav, nazar- 
bdzav, phakirav, pirav, satav, tsorav, tsurav, yimav, zaminav. 
These all belong to the first or fourth declension. For the 
third declension we have modariv, zaniv. In one instance 
(x, 1) G.K. gives, in a conversation in the colloquial style, 
yimov for what I.K. would write as yimau, and this probably 
represents the pronunciation as nearly as the Nagari character 
(fsjjft"^) will permit. The above list is not complete, but on 
the other hand it must be understood that there are numerous 
examples of the more usual spelling with au and yau. 

The postpositions used are those commonly employed. 
Reference has already been made to the use of soty and sotin 
for sUty and siltin. The word peth means " on ", and petha 
"from on", but in x, 3 and x, 10 petha is exceptionally 
employed with the meaning of peth. 

As regards pronouns, the proximate demonstrative pronoun 
yih, this, has a masculine form in the nominative singular, 
yuh (xii, 5) or yuh (ii, 9, 11 ; x, 12). In xii, 5 yuh, as masculine, 
is opposed to yih as feminine. Yih, of course, is also used in 
the masculine. These masculine forms yuh and yuh are not 
mentioned by I.K. There are a number of emphatic forms, 
viz. yihoy, yihuy, yuhuy, yohay, yuhay (all masc.) ; yihay 



lx KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 

(fern.) ; and various inanimate emphatic forms such as yiy, 
yiy, and yi. None of these are mentioned by I.K. 

The defective pronoun noth, nomis, appears under the form 
nemis for the animate dative singular (v, 9 ; xii, 15). The 
other forms used (nom, noman, nomav) all have 6. The 
relative pronoun has its nom. sing. fern, yesa instead of I.K.'s 
yossa. Similarly the interrogative pronoun has its nom. sing, 
fern, kusa instead of kossa. Its inanimate dative singular is 
the regular form hath, with a colloquial form katho (xi, 11). 

The indefinite pronoun keh, anything, is pronounced keh by 
Musalmans, and this is followed by Hatim. Similarly we 
have the Musalman kentshdh for kentshdh, anything. There is 
a nom. plur. masc. keh* which is not given by I.K. 

The verb substantive is conjugated regularly. In two cases, 
apparently under the influence of a neighbouring y, u has 
been changed to e, so that a masculine form appears under 
a feminine guise. These are cheyey for chuyey, if there is to 
thee (ix, 6), and chey for chuy, he is verily (xii, 6). In one 
case os i , they were, is changed to osi, metri gratia. 

In the standard dialect the 2nd person singular of the 
imperative is the same in form as the root. Thus kar, make 
thou. But if a pronominal suffix is added, u is inserted as 
a junction-vowel, as in karu-n, make thou him. The explana- 
tion of this is that the 2nd singular imperative originally 
ended in u (as in *karu), and that this u has been dropped in 
the modern language. We have a survival of the old form in 
gatshu, go thou (xi, 11). To this also must be referred the 
forms khyuh (x, 5) and khyo (x, 12), eat thou. These represent 
the modern kheh and an older *khehu. The 2nd person plural 
imperative of trdwun, to let go, is troviv. In x, 5 we have 
a variant trovyuv. This is hardly more than a variation of 
spelling. 

In the past conditional the Hindu &rlnagar dialect makes 
the 1st person singular end in ho (e.g. karaho) and the 3rd 
person singular in he (karihe). Musalmans shorten these final 
syllables to ha and he respectively. G.K.'s transcription 
generally, but not always, follows the Musalman idiom. Thus, 



INTRODUCTION lxi 

while we have karaho (viii, 11), we have also wuchaha 
(viii, 10), I should have seen ; mdraha-th (ii, 11), I should kill 
thee ; wuchaha-n (ii, 5), I would see it. So, for the 3rd 
person, we have tsdrihe (vi, 14), he might pick out ; and 
shubiheh (xii, 5), she would have been beautiful. The final 
h in the last is hd-8 m ukhtafl. 

In the past tenses we have, for the first past, the irregular 
piirun, he put on (clothes), from pairun. For the second past 
and other pasts in ov there is a strong tendency to weaken 
the ov by the substitution of a short vowel. Thus gudariv 
(v, 9), it happened, for guzaryov ; gav (iii, 1), he went, for 
gauv ; khev (ii, 2), eaten, for khyauv ; pev (viii, 9), he fell, 
for pyauv. Similarly, for the plural, we have khey (x, 2), 
they were eaten, for khyey ; niy (v. 9), they were taken, for 
niy. In h a reyekh (x, 5), for h a ryeyekh, it (fern.) remained 
over and above for them, the omission of the first y is merely 
a matter of spelling, as a long e is commonly pronounced as if 
a y preceded it. 

There is a similar shortening in the perfect participle, as in 
gamot u (viii, 1, etc.), gone, for go r mot u \ mumot u (ii, 4, etc.), 
dead, for miimot u ; pemot u (viii, 9), fallen, for pyb~mot u . 

In the extremely village style of story xi we find the suffix 
of the k u genitive, instead of the usual suffix mot u , added to 
the past participle in order to convert it into an adjective. 
This is quite common in the Western Pahari language spoken 
immediately to the south-east. The examples are thov^k*, 
stationed, and nyov 1 !^, dispatched (both nom. plur. masc.) 
(xi, 6), for thov i -mdt i and nybvt-mat 1 respectively. 

There is an irregular form of the conjunctive participle in 
the same poem. It is kdrHhan (xi, 10), having made, in place 
of the standard karith. 

There are several variations in the forms of the pronominal 
suffixes added to verbs. Thus we have mokalawahun (x, 1) 
for mokaldwon {mokaldwaw -f ri), we shall complete it. The 
suffix wa of the 2nd person plural very often drops the final a, 
as in kheyev for kheyewa, it (fern.) was -eaten by you (x, 12) ; 
karemav for karem a wa, they (fern.) were made by me for you 



lxii KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 

(x, 6). This suffix is sometimes used in a very idiomatic sense, 
like the corresponding Panjabi singular suffix je. It adds no 
meaning directly to the verb, but, as it were, adds the idea of 
" I say to you " to the whole sentence. Thus bani, it will 
become, bani-v, (I say to you) it will become (ii, 7); dima-v, 
(I say to you) I will give (ii, 8) ; tsali-v, (I say to you) he will 
escape (ii, 8). Village forms using the suffix of this person in 
its full form are wanamowa for wana-wa, I will say to you 
(x, 1,2), and wanemowa for wanem a wa, they (fem.) were said 
by me to you (x, 1). I am informed that an alternative village 
form for wanamowa (wanawa) is wanowa. 

Instead of karukh, make thou them, we have (xii, 19) 
karuhulch. 

Before discussing the details of Hatim's pronunciation as 
illustrated by Sir Aurel Stein's transcription, it will be well to 
mention a few general facts. 

Words are frequently wrongly divided. Thus the word 
amis u y — which is amis, to him, combined with the emphatic 
suffix y, to which u-matra has been added as a junction-vowel 
— is invariably divided before the s, so that we get am 1 say, 
«m* sily, or some such form. So anehas, they brought (anekh) 
to him (as), is written anye has ; the corrupt Arabic aslama- 
laikum, may the peace be upon you, is written asld malaikum ; 
bbg a remay, I divided (bog a rem) verily (ay), is written bage 
remai ; and so on for hundreds of examples. On the other 
hand, two words are sometimes contracted into one, as in 
boh<*sa for boh hasa, I, Sir ; bebindqir 1 for bebi andar u y, within 
the breastcloth; and chetal for cheh tal, she is below. In 
reproducing Sir Aurel Steins text I have carefully allowed 
these seeming irregularities to stand. The frequency with 
which they occur, and the systematic way in which they are, 
recorded, show that they are not slips of the pen, but represent 
the actual manner in which Hatim, who, of course, knew 
nothing of Kashmiri grammar, pronounced the words. To 
him amis^y was two words — ami and s*y — and so on for the 
others. We thus have a valuable illustration of how languages 



INTRODUCTION lxiii 

change in the mouths of their speakers, and how dialectic 
variations and different stages of language take their rise. 

Reference may also be made to one particular word — that 
for " king ", which Sir Aurel Stein invariably records as 
pddsJidJi, with a d, while Govinda Kaula equally invariably 
records it as pdtashdh, with a t. Hatim was a follower of 
Islam, and apparently pronounced this borrowed Persian word 
in the form in which it was delivered to his language, while 
Govinda Kaula, a Brahman affected by no Musalman prejudices, 
wrote the word as it is pronounced in Srlnagar, with the 
typical Pisaca change of d to t. 

Turning to the vowel a, we find that it is occasionally 
interchanged with a-matra in an unaccented syllable. Thus 
we have both be bahd and beb a ha, priceless, and mahala Jean 
and maJiHaJcJidn, for G.K.'s mahalakhdn, the harem of a 
palace. Much more common is the interchange of a and a, 
as in bdgas and bdgas, G.K. bdgas, to a garden ; dalila and 
dalUa, G.K. dalild, sl story ; dar and dar, G.K. dar, in ; 
sauddgar and sauddgar, G.K. -gar, a merchant ; zandna and 
zandna, G.K. zandna, a woman ; and many others. Very 
similarly we have the interchange of a or a with a-matra, as 
in jdnavdr and jan^vdr, G.K. jdndwdr, a bird ; Jchabar and 
Jchabar, G.K. Jchabar, news ; Jcdvandas, Jcdvandas, Jcdvandas, 
khdv^ndas, and JcJidvandas, G.K. Jchdivandas, to a husband ; 
halamas and Jtal^mas, G.K. Jialamas, to a skirt ; and nidre- 
vdtalan and mdravdttlan, to executioners. 

The sounds a and e seem to be absolutely convertible. Thus 
we have ad?, ada, ad e , and ade for G.K.'s ada, then ; ana and 
dne for G.K.'s ona, a mirror ; cJia and cJie for G.K.'s cJieJi, she 
is ; cJias and ches for G.K.'s cJies, I (fern.) am ; daJdie ndvdn 
for G.K.'s daJcJiandwdn, leaning upon ; gud a , gud?, guda, and 
gude for G.K.'s goda, at first ; Jiasa and hase for G.K.'s Jiasa, 
Sir ; Jidv^nam (G.K. hawanam), they will show to me, and vale 
nam (G.K. wdlanam), they will cause me to descend, both in the 
same line ; Jiazrat, Jiazrat 1 , JiazraH 1 , Iidzret, and hazret*, all for 
G.K.'s Jiazrat-i, a certain title ; jdya and jdye, G.K. jdye, in a 
place, in two consecutive lines, also jai and jay e ; kata, JcatJia, 



lxiv KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 

and kathe, G.K. hatha, words ; 1st persons singular future, such 
as para, I shall recite ; but behe, I shall sit, hare, I shall do ; kal*, 
kala, and kale, G.K. kola, a head ; Icartg and karte, G.K. karta, 
please do ; mar?vatalan, mar^vatelan, maravdtrtan, mare- 
vatHan, marevatalan, etc., G.K. mdrawdtalan, to executioners ; 
peta, pyete, etc., G.K. petha, from on ; yil?, yela, and yele, G.K. 
yela, from restraint ; and hundreds of others. 

When a precedes i it is usually written a, as in ralit, G.K. 
ratith, having seized. Sometimes it is written a*, as in am 1 or 
gtm*, G.K. dm*, by him. It becomes a* in Wr 1 , G.K. iaW, at 
the side, and in one instance we have o, in maris or modis, to 
a body. The change of a to o, but without a following i, occurs 
in doh, doha, doha, doh°, or doho, G.K. doha, on a day. 

Other less common changes are the following. We have in 
one case a lengthened to a, in khabardarau, by the watchmen 
(elsewhere kha-). Cf. la l r l above. We have unaccented a- 
matra becoming i-matra in asanas or asanas, G.K. asanas, for 
being. In the word tulari, for G.K. t a l a ri, by a bee, a-matra 
appears as u. 

In standard Kashmiri, after sh, a is pronounced as e, and 
I have in such a case transliterated it by that letter. Thus 
the Persian shahr, a city, is in my transliteration of G.K.'s 
text shown as shehar. As a rule Hatim preserves the a, but 
there are also several instances of the change to e. Thus — 

Sir Aurel Stein's transcription 
My transliteration of G.K. of Hatim. 

sheh, six, she, 

shehara, from a city, shahtra and shehera, 

sheharah, a city, shehra, 

sherikh, a partner, sherik, 

and others. The number would be increased if we included 
several words that Hatim pronounced with a (it being 
remembered that a and e are with him interchangeable), as 
in shahan for G.K. stehan, to the six ; shahmaras, G.K. sheh- 
mdras, to the python. 

A final short a is sometimes dropped, as in gar, gar?, and 



INTRODUCTION lxv 

gara, G.K. gara, a house ; doh, doha, etc., G.K. ddha, on a day ; 
8ar, sar?, save, and sera, G.K. sam, investigation. 

In standard Kashmiri a borrowed word ending in a con- 
sonant preceded by a long a often adds a final short a. Thus 
jahaz, a ship, becomes jahdza ; nishdn, a sign, becomes 
nishdna, and so on. Sir Aurel Stein gives three words of this 
kind to which G.K. does not add a final a. These are chdldna, 
G.K. cdldn, an invoice ; Idl and Idl?, G.K. Idl, a ruby ; mal?, 
G.K. mai, property. We have also a added in dopusa, G.K. 
dopus, said to him, and chuka, G.K. chukh, thou art. 

In the standard dialect, when a is followed by u-matra it 
becomes il. Sir Aurel Stein usually represents this sound by 
a. A good example is the feminine genitive postposition 
which G.K. writes silnz u , and which Sir Aurel usually writes 
sanz. Occasionally he represents it by u. Thus we have also 
sunz ; dsus, G.K. os u s, she was to him. For G.K.'s thud u or 
thilr u , on the back, we have tad, tor, tar, and tilr. The 
syllable u y is represented by uy, ily, and ai. Thus G.K.'s 
tamis il y, to him verily, becomes tarn 1 suy or tarn 1 sily, while 
timan u y, to them verily, becomes tim?nai. Another example 
of the representation of ii by u is G.K.'s wutsh u , she descended, 
which becomes vuts (iii, 2), and the same word also represents 
G.K.'s wdtsh u , she went up (iii, 1, 3). 

The letter a or dh, when final and representing the indefinite 
article, is usually shortened to a or a, as in doha, G.K. dohd, 
a day ; dalila and dalila, G.K. dalildh, a story ; zdla and zdld, 
G.K. zdldh, a net. Similarly, although there is no suffix of 
the indefinite article, shora ga and shoragd, G.K. shora-gdh, 
an outcry. Often, however, as, for instance, in some of the 
above examples, the long d is retained. 

When d is followed in G.K.'s dialect by u-matra, by i-matra, 
or by i it becomes 6, and this same 6 also usually represents 
the pronunciation of the diphthong ai. Sir Aurel Stein some- 
times represents this 6 by a, which according to his phonetic 
system represents approximately the same sound. Thus — 



lxvi 



KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 



G.K. 




Hatim. 


boy*, brothers, 




bay, 


dodHaday, suffering, 




dd l d ye ladai, 


don il , a pomegranate, 




dan, 


dor 1 , holding, 




dar, 


goj^nas, he caused me 


to waste away, 


gdj a nas, 


khoris, for a khar wei 


g ht, 


kharis, 


kotydh, how many ? 




lc&Hra, 


mbj u , a mother, 




maj, moj, 


and others. 






For original ai we have- 






poda, manifest, 




pada, pada, 


gob, hidden, 




g$b, 


hod, imprisonment, 




had,' 


gov, different, 




gqtri, gar. 



About equally often this 6 is represented by a, corresponding 
to my 6, and therefore sounded something like the aw in 
" awful ". Thus— 

oils, to a nest, dlis, 

or u , a shoemaker's awl, dr, 

oziz, poor, dzlz, 

os u 8, she was to him, 

bdlbosh a , chirping, 

gum-royi, losing one's way, 

ash^ndv, relations, 



asus, 
bolbdsh, 
gurnard yiy, 
dshndii, ash 1 ndv, 
as if for bsh i ndv, 



and others. For original ai we have- 

bna, a mirror, 
pbda, manifest, 
and others. 



arte, ana, 
pada, pada, 



Very often this 6 is represented by a simple a, as in — 

bod^hdl, a prison, bdnd l hdl, 

dazbn*, verily burning, dazdn 1 , 

gos, they went for him, gas, 

judbyi, separation, zhuddi, 



INTRODUCTION lxvii 

G.K. Hatim. 

kbshir 1 , Kashmiris, kdshir*, 

zolith, having burnt, zdlit, 

and others. For original ai we have — 

gov, different, gar, g&ri, 

Jchordth, alms, khdrdt, 

solas, for an excursion, sdlas, 

and others. 

The word myon u , mine (fern.), appears in various forms, 
viz. meny, mye, m y en, myen, and m v eny, in all of which the 
6 is represented by e; whereas for the corresponding cybn u , 
thy (fern.), we have ch^dn, clV^an 1 , and ch v an v . 

We have seen that G.K. usually represents u by 6, as in 
hod 1 for kud*, sbty for silty. Sir Aurel Stein writes for these 
words k&d, ka^d*, and hud 1 , and sait, saP, etc., respectively. 

When a is followed in G.K.'s dialect by u-matra it becomes 
6, and Sir Aurel Stein almost always gives for it his sign a, 
which represents the same sound. Thus — 

G.K. Hatim. 

okhun, a teacher, dkhun, dJchun, 

6l u , a nest, at, 

6s u , he was, as, ds u , as, os, 

6y, he came to thee, ay, ay, 

bdwun, he explained, bdvun, 

and many others. It will be seen from the above that a, a, 
and o are also used to represent this sound. So, for khotuni, 
to the lady, we have khdtuni and khditini ; for Idyun, he 
struck, Idyun and Idyun ; for soruy, all, sdruy, saruy, soWi, 
and soira ; for bow u , manifested, bou. There are many other 
similar examples, and from the above it will be seen that G.K.'s 
o and 6 are represented indiscriminately by a, a, and a. 

The vowel e is, we have seen, interchangeable with a. It is 
also liable to be shortened to e-matra when final, as in bdye, 
bay 6 , or even bai, for G.K.'s bdye, to a wife. 

We have already noticed that in Kashmiri a after sh 
becomes e (i.e. Sir Aurel Stein's e). In one instance Hatim 



lxviii KASHMIBI STOBIES AND SONGS 

has o for this e, G.K.'s shekh, hesitation, being represented by 
shah or shok. 

It is well known that the average Kashmiri is unable to 
distinguish between the letters e and i, whether long or 
short. In this way Hatim gives e instead of G.K.'s I in the 

following— 

G.K. Hatim. 

bUh\ seated (m. pi.), bmh\ beth?, and bat\ 

gristf-bay, a farmer's wife, grist bay, 
phirith, having returned, pherith, pherith, or phirit, 
and others. It will be observed that, in the case of bat 1 , I has 
become a. Similarly, G.K.'s rinz*, balls, is represented by 
rinz, renz, or ranz ; and his tresh, thirst, by tresh or tras. 
Owing to the confusion of a and e and of i and e (Stein's e), 
we sometimes have a for i. Thus G.K.'s gristf-baye, to a 
farmer's wife, becomes grist? baye, gresta baye, or grest baye. 
Similarly, G.K.'s ddp^ziheJch, thou must say to them, is repre- 
sented by dabzi hek or dabza hek ; G.K.'s wds { zi, you should 
descend, by vaz l za ; and yith, to this, by yet, yath, yat, and yat. 
As regards u, we occasionally observe hesitation as to 
quantity. Thus G.K.'s dop u nas, he said to him, is represented 
by both dop u nas and dopunas ; and his yuswph, Joseph, by 
yusuf, yusuf, and yusuf. 

Just as in the case of e and i, so ordinary Kashmiris are 
unable to distinguish between o and u. There are numerous 
examples of this in Hatim's language. A few will suffice here — 
G.K. Hatim. 

borun, he filled, borun and burun, 

Jcodun, he brought out, Icodun, kudun, 

kut a walan, by the policeman, hotvalan, kutvalen, 
not u , a pitcher, nut, 

byuth u , he sat, bydth, byuth, 

purun, he put on, porun, purun. 

The Persian khubsurat, beautiful, becomes khobsurath in 
G.K., for which Hatim has Ichob surat and hhab surat. 

Once or twice we find u interchanged with other vowels. 
Thus we have che for chuh, he is ; and (once each) chiy or chi v 



INTRODUCTION lxix 

for chuy, he is verily. The imperative tshun, cast thou, is 
represented by tsiln, but elsewhere the u of this word is 
preserved. After y, u or o has a tendency to become ii, as in 
d v utuk, dyutuk, d y utuk, or d y ilthuk, for dyutukh, they gave ; 
h y utun or hyiitun, for kyotun, he began. 

An initial u in Kashmiri is always pronounced wu. This 
is not usually the case with an initial 6, but G.K.'s ora, 
thence, is represented not only by dra and similar forms, but 
also by voda. 

It is well known that e and e are usually pronounced in 
Kashmiri with a short y before them. Thus y e, y e. This y is 
not usually written in G.K.'s transcription, but it is everywhere 
to be presumed. Sir Aurel Stein as a rule writes this y either 
as a small letter above the line or as a full y. Examples will 
be found on every page of his text. A few are given here — 

O.K. Stein. 

khekh, thou wilt eat, kyek, 

khewdn, eating, khyavdn, khyevdn, k y avdn, 

keth, in, kh y ath, khyath, k y et, kyet, 

petha, from, peta, pyete, p y eth, p y etha. 

It will be observed that ya is sometimes used instead of e. 
Other similar cases are — 

ketha, how ? kyataj&etaj&etaj&itajclivatha 

khoni, on the haunch, kun y a } 

neza, railings, n y dza, 

zeni, he will conquer, za if ni, z y dni. 

Turning to consonants, we first draw attention to the 
well-known fact that, as in all Dardic languages, Kashmiri 
possesses no sonant aspirates. Original sonant aspirates are 
always disaspirated. This is fully borne out by Hatim's 
pronunciation. There is only one occurrence of an aspirated 
sonant consonant in the whole of Sir Aurel Stein's transcription. 
This is in the word ghdsh (viii, 9), for gwdsh or gash, light, 
which Sir Aurel writes elsewhere as gash (five times). 

But Hatim's pronunciation goes further. The aspiration of 
surd consonants is most irregular, many such sounds that are 



lxx KASHMIBI S TOBIES AND SONGS 

written by G.K. and elsewhere as aspirated surds are dis- 
aspirated, and many unaspirated surds are aspirated. In some 
cases this runs uniformly through every occurrence of a word 
or letter. Thus the verb gatshun, to go, is always written 
gatsun, and the letter c is almost invariably written ch. In 
other cases the aspiration or disaspiration is more capricious. 

In the Kashmiri of Isvara Kaula and other Hindus a final 
surd is always, with a few specified exceptions, aspirated, while 
Musalmans retain the unaspirated sound. Thus we have — 

Musalman. Hindu. 

krak, outcry, krakh. 

thap, seizing, thaph. 

rat, blood, rath, 

not, palsy, nath. 

kats, glass, katsh. 

The transcript of these tales by Govinda Kaula follows the 
Hindu custom and aspirates final surds. With Hatim it is, 
curiously enough, almost a question of date. The recording 
of Sir Aurel Stein's transcription commenced on June 16, and 
continued, with intervals, till July 31, 1896. In the earlier 
parts of this transcription final surds were not aspirated, but 
in recording the recitation of July 24, Sir Aurel wrote the 
word thaph (xii, 11), seizing, previously recorded as thap or 
tap, and makes a special note on the margin that in this 
instance the ph is a true aspirate. An examination of the rest 
of the text recorded on that day and on the following and 
final recitation of July 31, shows that the final surds are here 
much more consistently aspirated than had been the case 
previously. It is out of the question to assume that the non- 
recording of this aspiration in the earlier tales was due to 
faulty audition on the part of Sir Aurel Stein. He was, 
I know, perfectly aware at the time of this distinction between 
Musalman and Hindu pronunciation, and had previously corre- 
sponded with me on the subject. 

The following are examples of Hatim's disaspiration : — 
For the letter b we may take the Arabic borrowed word 
8ub a han, at dawn, for which H. has suban ; but how 



INTRODUCTION lxxi 

inconsistent he is in this is shown by the following cognate 
forms : subu for subuh ; subahanas for sub a hanas ; and subhas 
for sub a has. 

We have said that the letter c is almost always aspirated 
to ch. Similarly, the aspiration of ch (very common in the 
auxiliary verb chuh, he is) is generally retained. But, in one 
instance (i, 13), city is written for chuy, he is indeed. Another 
similar case is that of the verb wuchun, to see. In this the 
ch is usually retained ; but we have vucehan (ii, 5) for 
wuchahan, vucuk (ii, 4) for tvuchukh, and vucun (ii, 8) for 
wuchun. 

Of more frequent occurrence is the aspirate kh, and of this 
disaspiration is frequent. Thus — 

Initial. — While the borrowed Persian word khub, well, 
always preserves its aspiration, khdb, a dream, becomes kab 
and kdv ; khabar, news, is spelt kabar, etc., in the first five 
stories, and khabar, etc., afterw r ards ; and Khbdd, God, becomes 
Kudd, etc., in i-vi, and Khudd, etc., afterwards. Similarly — 

khalat-e-shdhi, a royal robe, becomes kalHi shdhi. 

khdm, unripe, „ khdm and kdm. 

khumdr, languishment, „ kumdr. 

khan, N.P., „ khan (ii,l) and kdn(ii, 12). 

khoni, on the haunch, „ kun y a. 

khar, an ass, „ khar (iii) and kar (v). 

khoran, to the feet, „ kuran. 

khash, a cut, „ kash. 

The verb khasun, to ascend, retains the aspirate, except in 
forms derived from the past participle khot u , in which the 
aspiration sometimes persists and is sometimes lost, giving 
forms such as khot u , khut, and kut ; khat 1 and kaHy ; katis ; 
khats and kats. 

khota, than, becomes khota, khuta, and kuta. 

khotHna, a lady, „ kotuna (v) and khdtun (x, xii). 

khatith, secretly, „ kaHith. 

khdwand, a husband, „ kdvand (i-viii) and khdvand (x-xii). 



Ixxii KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 

The verb khyon u , to eat, as a rule has 7c in the earlier tales 
and lch in the later, but this is not universal. Thus we have 
Jchyau for khev, eaten, in ii, 2. Occasionally also the cognate 
Shina language disaspirates in this word. 

Khazmath or Icliizmatli, service, becomes Ichismat (ii, 3) and 
kismat (xii, 3), and so many others. 

It will be observed that the disaspiration occurs 'whether 
the lch represents the Indian aspirate or whether it represents 
a Persian ~.. It will also be noticed that, generally speaking, 
but not universally, when there are two forms, one with and 
the other without the aspiration, the disaspirated forms occur 
in the earlier stories and the aspirated forms in the later 
stories. The same is true for the other instances of disaspira- 
tion, and I shall not trouble to refer to it again. It will, 
however, be understood that numerous, though not so numerous, 
instances of disaspiration occur also in the later stories. 

Medial lch is not so common, but we can quote palca for 
palcha, wings ; tdkhit (x, 12) and taJcit (xi, 13) for tdhkhith, 
certainly ; vutamalc 1 for wotamukh i , upside down. 

Final lch occurs in akh, one, which is represented both by ah 
and akh in all parts of the tales, though alch occurs only in i, 4, 
and four times in xii. For phakh, a stink, we have only phak. 
Initial ph is preserved in the phak just quoted. For phamb, 
cotton wool, we have phamb and pamb, both in viii. For 
phardd, on the morrow, we have parda ; while the verb 
pherun, to regret, loses its aspiration twice and preserves it 
once in viii. 

Medial ph occurs in naphtsas, for the belly, which H. pro- 
nounced naptsas (x, 3). 

Final ph occurs in the word thaph, grasping. It appears 
under the forms thaph, thap, and tap. 

Although not strictly an aspirate, we may here quote the 
shh in the borrowed Arabic word mashhur, celebrated, which 
H. (xi, 3) pronounced maushur: 

Initial th occurs in the following : in thud (thod u ), erect, it is 
preserved. For thur iL , a shrub, we have tier, and for thur u or 
thud u , on the back, we have tad, tar, and tor ; thiln^a, butter, 



INTBODUCTION lxxiii 

preserves the th ; but for thaph, grasping, we have thaph, 
thap, and tap. The common verb tltdwun, to place, generally 
preserves the th, but we have thdvum and tdvum, and, for 
thavHaw, taivtau. 

Medial th occurs in the following : atha, a hand, becomes 
both atha, etc., and ata, etc., the aspirated forms occurring 
most frequently in the later tales ; buth u , a face, is always 
but ; so, for ath u r il , the woodworm, atar ; for hatha, stories, 
hatha, etc., and kata ; neth a r, a wedding, neth/Jr (xii) and 
n v etar (viii) ; pathar, downward, pathar and patar, etc. ; woth u , 
descended, vut and vuth, and similarly in derived forms ; and 
similarly woth u , ascended, also becomes vut or vuth. Other 
examples are vatqtrith for watharith, having spread out, but 
this verb fluctuates as regards the aspirate in other forms ; 
wothus, arose to him, becomes vothus, etc., or votus ; and 
wdthith, having arisen, vuthit and vutit. Sdthdh, a moment, 
becomes sdtha or sdta. 

For final th the pronoun ath generally becomes at, except 
that we have both at and ath in xii. Conjunctive participles, 
such as wdthith just cited, almost always end in t, the th- 
termination being frequent only in xii ; the postposition keth, 
in, becomes k v et, etc., except in xii, where we have kh v ath, etc., 
with exceptional aspiration of the k. The distributive particle 
prath always becomes prat. Pronominal datives, such as tath, 
kath, etc., follow ath in sometimes dropping the aspiration and 
sometimes (in the later stories) keeping it. 

For initial th the only real example is thahardn, awaiting, 
for which H. has tah?rdn. 

There are more examples of medial th, such as bontha, in 
front, which always has the dental t, as in bont?, etc. ; byuth u , 
seated, and its derivatives also generally disaspirate the th, 
except in xii, which also retains the aspiration. Kuth u ,& room, 
also disaspirates except once in x, 7, where we have the dative 
kuthis, while in x, 8 we have kutis and kutis ; the ablative 
postposition petha occurs in several forms, peta, pyete, p v etha, 
p v eth, and p v etha, the aspirated forms occurring chiefly in the 
later stories. Similar is the treatment of poth 1 or pothin, like, 

/ 



lxxiv KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 

for which we have paH 1 , etc., and pqHht, etc., and patin and 
pdthin. The common word sethdh, very, much, appears as 
seta, etc., and setha, etc., it being noted that both forms occur 
in xii ; toth u or thoth u , beloved, is always tot, and zith 1 , long 
(m.pl.), becomes zU\ 

Initial tsh is always disaspirated by H. Thus the word 
bhunun, to throw, is always bunun, and so for all others. 

As for medial tsh, in the verb gabhnn, to go, to be proper, 
it is always disaspirated by H. The same applies to the 
indefinite pronoun kenbhdh, something, which appears under 
many forms, in none of which does an aspirated tsh appear. 
Similarly, we have matsa and mats v e for matshi, on the 
shoulder; rabeh^na for rabhi-hand, a little; vub for wobh il , 
she went up, and also for wubh u , she went down, and others. 

Turning now to aspiration, we may commence with the 
general statement that every c is aspirated by H. The solitary 
exception is the word ceshma, an eye (i, 3), w T hich appears as 
ceshma. Thus we have — 

G.K. H. 

cenda, a pocket, chanda. 

cith 1 , a letter, chit, 

bace, young ones, bache. 

bacdwiin 12 , to be released (fern.), bachdviny. 

7iayistdnihc ii , of the canebrake, nayis tan nach. 

racen, she took them (fern.), rachen. 

zace, rags, zache. 

Reference has already been made to the aspiration of g in* 
ghdsh, for gash, light. 

Examples of the aspiration of k are : — 

G-K. Hatim. 

kur u , a daughter, kud, khud. 

kombakas, for help, khumba khas. 

ketha, how ? l&eta, kh v atha. 

kenbhdh, something, kye ba, etc., or khye ba. 

kdsun, to shave (xii), khdsun. 
kot u , a son (xii), khuth. 



INTRODUCTION lxxv 

For the aspiration of p, we have put, puth, phot, or phut, for 
pot u , back again. Shina has phot for this word. 

For the aspiration of initial t, we have tal or thai, for tal 
below ; tot, tut, or tltuth y for tot u , thither ; and than for tdv, 
exhaustion. 

Medial t is also sometimes aspirated. The termination ta of 
the polite imperative often becomes thq, etc., as in karta or kar 
the, for karta, please to do ; tsuntha for tshunta, please to throw. 
So also the termination mot u of the perfect participle becomes 
muth in on muth, for on u mot u , brought ; vot u mut or vot u muth, 
for wdt u mot u , arrived. The t in dyut u , given, is aspirated in 
dyut or dyuth, for dyut u ; d v iltuk or d v ilthuk, for dyutukh, 
they gave ; dithin, for ditin, he gave them. Similarly — 
G.K. Hatim. 

kyut u , for, kh v ut, k v ut, kyut, khyuth, kyuth. 

rat a na, a jewel (in rotund, rothuna, rothuna. 

composition), 

sdta, at a moment, sa^, sdtha. 

soty, with, sa/i£, sg-^/t, sgtthv, etc. 

fo£ w , thither, fo£, £u£, thuth. 

wot u , arrived, vot, etc., or voth. 

The above is in no way a complete list of all the instances of 
disaspiration and aspiration. It is merely a selection of typical 
examples. 

The Dardic languages as a rule have no cerebral letters. 
Literary Kashmiri, however, preserves the distinction between 
cerebral and dental almost as carefully as is the case in India. 
There are, nevertheless, a few striking examples to the contrary, 
as in dutakh or dutakh, cutting in two ; dot or dal, a leaf ; and 
wothun, to arise, as compared with the Hindi uthnd. But even 
in the literary language the pronunciation of cerebral letters 
cannot be so definitely cerebral as in India, for in Kashmiri 
poetry cerebral consonants are permitted to rhyme with 
dentals, a thing which is impossible in Indian verse. Thus, 
in the Rdmdvatdracarita, the proper name Yindrazith, 
Indrajita, rhymes with dith il , seen, in verse 699, and with 
bith u , seated, in verse 872. 



lxxvi KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 

In the village Kashmiri of Hatim, the state of affairs is 
altogether different. Here the utmost confusion exists, dentals 
being used for cerebrals, and cerebrals for dentals, almost 
at random. From the numerous examples that follow it is 
evident that Hatim used an intermediate sound that at one 
time struck Sir Aurel Stein's ears as cerebral and at another 
as dental. If Hatim had pronounced real cerebral sounds, it 
is impossible to suppose that Sir Aurel, with his long 
familiarity with Indian languages, could have failed to notice 
them, more especially as some of the words written with dental 
letters, such as dak, a stage, are words that are in everyday 
use in India both in colloquial speech and in literature. It 
might be thought that here and there Sir Aurel may have 
omitted a subscript dot by a slip of the pen ; but the omissions 
are too frequent and too regular to permit this assumption to 
be taken as a general explanation, and, moreover, it will not 
account for those cases in which he has marked as cerebrals, 
letters which in the corresponding Hindi or Sanskrit are 
always dental. The following are examples of this confusion. 
The list is in no way complete : — 

A. Dentals where we should expect cerebrals — 



Literary Dialect. 


Hatim. 


t for t. 




gaff, skilful (f. sg.), 


gatij. 


gatH\ skilful (m. pi.), 


gatily. 


hatis, to the throat, 


hatis. 


khaiith, secretly, 


kaHith. 


not u , a jar, 


nut. 


phatun, to be broken. 




phut u 


phut. 


phut u wa 


phutu. 


phut a run, to break, 




phut°r u has 


phuttrhas. 


phut°rukh 


phuttruk. 


but phut a ryun 


phuta r v un 


ratun, to seize. 




rat* 


rat 1 . 



INTRODUCTION 



lxxvii 



Literary Dialect. 


Hatim. 


rot u 


rot, rut. 


rut u 


rat. 


rot u mot u 


rutmut. 


but (causal) rot u mot u 


rot?mut. 


rotun 


rotun, rutun. 


rut u nalch 


rut^nak. 


ratith 


ratit, ratit. 


rot u wa 


rutu. 


tahal 1 , servants, 


tahal, tahal*, tahal v . 


trop 1 , a necklace, 


trut. 


but tratis (sg. dat.) 


tratis. 


tsatahdl, a school, 


tsatahdl. 


tsatun, to cut. 




bot u 


tsot. 


isatdw 1 


tsaten*. 


tsatun u 


tsatun. 


tsapnam 


tsethiam. 


tsatanas 


tsatanas. 


but tsatanasa 


tsatan a sa. 


.tsatith 


tsaHith. 


th or t for th. 




6th, eight, 


dth. 


behun, to sit down. 




bith 1 


bap, bethy, teeth 1 . 


byuth u 


byut, byut, byoth, byoth 




byuth. 


byuthus 


b v uthus. 


bontha, before, 


bont a , bont?, bonta. 


but bonth 


bont. 


deshun, to see. 




dyuth u 


dyut, dyut. 


dyuthum 


dyuthum. 


dyuth u may 


dyot mai. 


dyuth u mot u 


dyutmut. 


dyuthuth 


dyuthut. 



KASHMIRI STORIES 


AND SONGS 


Literary Dialect. 


Hatim. 


kuth u , a room. 




lentil* 


kuti. 


kuth u 


kid. 


kuth u dh 


kuthd. 


kuthis 


kuthis, kwtis, kwtis. 


myuth u , sweet, 


myut. 


peth, on, 


pyet, p y et, pyet, pyet, 




pyeth. 


petha, from on, 


peta, pyete, p y eth, p y etha, 




p v etha. 


poth 1 , like, 


pqH\ pdHh\ paHh 1 , 




pdHhv, pdHhy, pdH y , 




paHy. 


pothin, like, 


pathin, patin. 


rafun, to seize. 




rath 


rat. 


rathta 


rath ta. 


sethdh, very, 


seta, seta, sethd, setha. 


thahardn, stopping, 


tah^ran. 


d for d. 




dakhandwan, leaning on, 


dakhe ndvdn. 


dakas, for a stage, 


dakas. 


deshwn, to see. 




deshan 


deshan. 


deshun u 


deshun. 


dishith 


deshit. 


gandun, to tie. 




gand 


gand. 


gand* 


gand*, gandi. 


gdndtmat 1 


gand^maty 1 . 


gdndin 


gandin. 


gondun 


gundun. 


gond u nas 


gund^nas. 


gandith 


gandit. 


gdndtzes 


gaud* zyes. 



INTRODUCTION 



lxxix 



This last change occurs only when d is initial or protected 
by a preceding n. A medial d is interchangeable with 
a dental r. See below. 

B. Cerebrals where we should expect dentals — 

Hatim. 



Literary Dialect. 
t for t 
bata, boiled rice, 
me ti, me also, 
rat a na, a jewel (in 

composition) 
tati, there, 
yetat 1 , where, 

th for th. 
hatha, words, 
Jieth, having taken, 



bat :, bata, batta. 
m v eti, map. 
rothuna, rothuna, 

rotun*, rutun?, etc. 
tat\ taHi, taH\ taV>. 
ye taH\ 

batha. 

het, hit, hvet, hveth, teeth. 



Compare rothuna and rothuna, for rat a na, a jewel, above. 
d for d. 
ad a la, from justice, adal. 

mud 11 , he died, mod, mud. 

In Kashmiri the letter r is a dental letter, not a cerebral 
as in the Indian Madhyadesa. We see this in the frequent 
interchange with a dental I, as in Hatim's mol or mor, for 
literary mol u , father. The same is the case in the North- 
Western languages, Sindhl and Lahnda. The village con- 
fusion between cerebrals and dentals hence explains the 
frequent interchange in Hatim's dialect, between medial d 
and medial r. Thus we have — 

A. d where we should expect r— 

Literary. Hatim. 

ora, thence, ar,etc.,foc?a,andevenac?a. 

garun (G.K. gadun), to make. 
garan 
gorun 
kor u , a bracelet, 
h&r* (G.K. also kud u ), a 
daughter, 



garan. 

gudun. 

Jcar, Jcur, hur 1 , hud. 

had, hhud, hur. 



lxxx 



KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 



kore 




kdd 1 , kdd y e, kodye, kod v i t 
kud y e, kor y e, korH. 


kori 




kodye, kod ye , kdd y i, kor y e. 


kur 1 




kud 1 . 


larun (G.K., also ladun), 


to 


pursue. 


laran 




Idrdn, ladan. 


ldryomot u 




ldd v 6mut. 


larydv 




ld l ryau, Wdyau. 


laryeyes 




ladeyes. 


mor u , he was killed, 




mor, mod. 


parun, to read, recite. 






porukh 




paduk. 


paran 




pardn, paddn. 


porun 




padun. 


thar (G.K. also thad), the back. 


thilr u 




tar, tor, tier, tad. 


tora, thence, 




tor?, tora, tore, tod?. 


B. r where we should expect 


<!- 




Literary. 




Hatim. 


kadun (G.K. also karun), 


to extract. 


kdd 1 




ka l r y . 


kod w 




kur. 


kddikh 




kgtdik, karik, ka l rik. 


kodukh 




kuruk. 


kud u kh 




kaduk. 


kadan 




karan. 


kaddn 




kaddn, karan. 


kaddn 




koron y . 


kadun 




karun. 


kadun u 




kadun. 


kodun 




kodun, kudun, korun, 
kurun. 


kud u n 




kadin. 


kadtnas 




kar y inas. 


kod u nas 




kuranas. 


kadith 




kq}rit, ka l rith. 



INTRODUCTION 



lxxxi 



ishadun (G.K. also tshdrun), to search. 
tshddan tsdrdn. 

tshddav tsdrau. 

yeddh, a belly, yerd. 

While Dardic languages show a general tendency to harden 
sonant consonants, Hatim shows occasional instances of the 
softening of surds. In every case except one the softened 
consonant is immediately followed by z. In the one exception, 
it is s that is softened to z. The examples are — 



G.K. 



Hatim. 

dabza hek. dabzi heJc. 



dabzilc. 

dap^zim. 
vqz l za. 
va^s* zina 

p v ez. 



ddphihekh, thou shouldst have 

said to them, 
ddptzekh, thou shouldst say to 
them, 
but ddp^hiiythou shouldst say to me, 

wds i zi, thou shouldst descend, 
but was i zi-na, thou shouldst not 
descend, 
pes, they fell on him, 
On the other hand, Hatim gives occasional instances of the 
Dardic hardening of sonants. Such are — 

G.K. Hatim. 

tab, fever, tap. 

rasad, assembly, rasat. 

mov lag, do not fix, maidalc. 

khazmath, service, Jcismat. 

khizmath, service, khismat. 

In this connexion we may again refer to G.K.'s pdtashdh 
H.'s pddshah, a king. 

Turning to individual consonants, we note — 

(1) We have prothesis of h before y in — 

G.K. Hatim. 

yun u , to come, 2/#», h y iln. 

yuthuy, as verily, yilthuy, h v ilthuy. 

(2) kh becomes h in — 

shekhtsd, a certain person, shahisa. 



lxxxii KASHMIBI STORIES AND SONGS 

Possibly shahtsa is a slip of the pen, for elsewhere Hatim has 
shakhtsan, shakhtsas, and so on., 

(3) The affricative ts sometimes becomes s, as in — 

G.K. Hatim. 

tsoce, loaves, suche, su cho, buche. 

(sopor*, in four directions, so pa { ri, tso patr*. 

It becomes z in — 

pants, five, points, panz. 

The representation of G.K.'s adalilts^-peth, in court, by 
addlat-p v eth, is probably a slip of the pen. 

With these changes of ts we may compare the interchange of 
ch and sh in Hatim's mach-tular, a bee, with the mash-tulari of 
the title of Story IX. Similarly, we have zh for j in zhama for 
jama, a coat. 

(4) ny and ny are interchangeable, as in Hatim's kanye- 
phul and kailye phul, a pebble. This is hardly more than 
a variation of spelling. 

(5) Hatim usually preserves a Persian /, while G.K. has ph 
instead. Thus, Hatim fakir, G.K. phaklr, a mendicant. For 
" thought " Hatim has both fikftr and phikir. 

(6) The letter sh is sometimes represented by s. Sir Aurel 
Stein's MS. represents the sound of sh by s, and the occasional 
apparent change of sh to s is probably due to the accidental 
omission of the subscript dot. An example is the word 
shemsher, a sword, for which we have sJtamsher, shamser, and 
samsher. 

(7) Vocalization of the semi-vowels y and v is frequent, as 
in gai for gay, they went ; gau or gaxi for gav, he went ; 
m&ryw for mariwa, (he who) may kill ; tsalau for tsaliv, flee 
ye ; dimau for dimav, we shall give ; and many others. 

(8) An example of metathesis is tsorasta for tsoratsh, a 
leather-cutter. 

(9) H. uses initial v for b in Vikarmajit- for G.K.'s 
Bikarmdjit-, Vikramaditya. Cf. kab or kav, for khab, a 
dream. 



INTRODUCTION lxxxiii 

(10) Three miscellaneous words are — 

G.K. Hatim. 

bakh a cbyish, a present, bakcayish, bakhsltayish. 

jalwa, glory, jafcva. 

but jelby, even glory, yala vai. 

sakHh, hard, sale, sakh. 

The processes of declension and conjugation employed by 
Hatim are on the whole the same as those employed by 
Govinda Kaula. The principal differences relate to the 
pronunciation of the forms, and to the representation of that 
pronunciation by Sir Aurel Stein's transcription. A few 
additional points may here be noticed. 

In the declension of nouns, Govinda Kaula, like Isvara 
Kaula, makes the dative singular of nouns of the first declension 
end in as, as in bagas, to a garden. Hatim sometimes has the 
termination as, and sometimes as. Examples of both will be 
found on almost every page. As a specimen, it will suffice to 
quote the two forms bagas and bagas both occurring close 
together in ii, 1. Similarly, in the genitive of the same 
declension, H. has sunasand 1 (v. 3) and sanasand 1 (v. 4), both 
for G.K.'s sona-sdnd 1 , of gold (m. pi.). In these genitives, 
also, H. sometimes drops the final a of the stem, as in sunar 
sanz, for G.K.'s sonara-silnz 11 , of the goldsmith (fern, sing.) 
(v. 1); iJddshah sund, for G.K.'s patashaha-sond u , of the king 
(vi. 11). There is a curious example of a feminine noun 
declined as if it were masculine in Jcudis-saHh (possibly a slip 
for kudi saHh), for G.K.'s kore-suty, with the girl (v. 10) ; and 
in xii, 15, we have the masculine form kuhiiy, used instead of 
the feminine kuh u y, only one. Instances like rlnz, rqnz, and 
renz, for rlnz 1 , balls ; soira, so^i, saruy, and sdruy for soruy, 
all ; za, ze, and z y i, for z a h, two, belong rather to phonetics than 
to declension. 

Similarly, the variations in pronominal forms are really 
matters of spelling or pronunciation. Boh, I, is represented by 
bo, bu ; for rayon 1 , my (m. pi. masc), we have men v , mye, and 
m v en, and for the fern. sing. mybn il we have meny, mye, m v en, 
myen, and m v efiy. For ts a h, thou, we have su, tsa, tsa, tsi, and 



lxxxiv KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 

isu, and for cyon u , thy, chun, ch y un, chon, chon y , chony, and 
ch v on, all with the aspirated ch. 

The proximate demonstrative pronoun yih, this, and the 
relative yih, what, appear under the forms yi and yu, and 
the emphatic forms yihuy, etc., appear under quite a number of 
variant spellings. The relative m. sg. nom. yus appears as yis, 
yus, and yds, and its fem. yesa as yesa (x, 1) and yasi (x, 6). 
In viii, 1, for yihunz™, of these (fem. sg. nom.), we have yihas. 
As for the remote demonstrative pronoun, its emphatic fem. 
sg. nom. say or soy, she verily, appears as sai, sai, say, and say. 
The indefinite pronoun Jceh, with its various case-forms, appears 
under a great variety of spellings. The principal of these have 
been dealt with under the head of phonetics. 

The representation of the various forms of the verb 
substantive is very irregular. A few examples will suffice. 

For chuh, he is, we have che (v. 4) ; for chuy, he is verily, 
chi, chi, chi v , chiy, and cuy (sic) ; for chivd, is he ?, cha ; for 
cheh, she is, cha, che, chu ; for chey, she is to thee, che and 
chay ; for chiwa, ye are, chu ; for chiway, if ye are, chu vol 
and chu vai ; and for chili, they are, che, chi, chu, and ch v a. 

As regards the conjugation of the active verb, there are 

numerous departures from G.K.'s spelling, nearly all of which 

fall under the head of phonetics. Here we may mention the 

following, which really appear to indicate difference of form : — 

O.K. Habim. 

sholan, burning, sholan. This form of 

the present participle 
is old, and nowadays 
appears only in poetry 
and dialects. 
yilch-na, wilt thou not come, yihna. 
dis, give to her, disa. 

hadon, we shall pass over it, karon v . 



INTRODUCTION lxxxv 

III 

ON THE METRES OF HATIM'S SONGS 

By SIR AUREL STEIN 

On my return to Kashmir at the close of 1917 Sir George 
Grierson asked me to inquire into the system of metrification 
followed in certain old Kashmiri poems of the Bhakti type in 
which he is interested. I have tried to comply with his 
request as far as it lay in me, i.e. in full consciousness of the 
fact that my philological training had never comprised any 
special study of metrics. After examining portions from 
a number of these compositions as recited by professional 
cyat-gar 1 , I arrived at the conclusion that the metre of these 
poems is based solely on the number of stress accent syllables 
counted in each line or pdda. No regard is paid to quantity, 
even where the structure of the verses is apparently modelled 
on the pattern of Hindi metres dependent on quantity. 
Pandit Nityananda Sastrl, of the SrI-Pratap College, Srinagar, 
a very competent Kashmiri scholar, to whom I submitted this 
view, has endorsed it. 

In order to test this conclusion with reference to the metres 
of Hatim's songs I secured a visit of the old storyteller, now in 
his 62nd year, in June, 1918, when my summer camp was once 
more pitched on Mohand Marg. I had him recite again the 
metrified story of Sultam Mahmud Ghaznavl, the one which of 
those heard from his lips in 1896 I had best in my recollection. 
He also gave me the benefit of several songs of lyrical contents 
(ghazal), some of his own composition, which used to be 
favourite numbers in his repertoire, showing more elaborate 
versification. 

In recording these with special regard to their metre 
I convinced myself that their verses, whether simple couplets, 
as in the case of the metrified story just referred to, or built up 
in more intricate stanzas, have for their constructive principle 
solely the number of syllables bearing the stress accent of the 
present colloquial speech. The system is based mainly on 
the counting of the primary stress accent of each word, but 



lxxxvi KASHMIRI STORIES AND SONGS 

permits also the counting of secondary stress accents for the 
sake of metrical convenience. This latitude, which reference 
to the last words in verses 1, 11, 12, 13 of Mahmud Ghaznavi's 
story may help to illustrate, has its parallel in the rudeness of 
the rhyme. In this, as verses 3 and 8 show, the vowel sounds 
of the closing syllables need not agree, as long as the final 
consonant is the same. 

The general rule is that throughout a song the lines, usually 
rhymed, composing a couplet or stanza, should have a certain 
fixed number of stress-accented syllables, in conformity with 
the scheme determining the length of each line. But this 
simple rule is on occasion ignored through " poetical license ", 
i.e. whenever the rustic poet's skill would be taxed too severely 
by strict adherence to his metrical scheme. The second line of 
verse 4 in Mahmud Ghaznavi's story with its seven accented 
syllables instead of the regular six is an illustration. 

The lilt of the musical air which, as in the case of Indian 
poetical compositions generally, is an essential concomitant of 
the recital, helps, no doubt, to smooth over such irregularities 
for the not very fastidious ears of the village audience. 
I regret that my total want of musical knowledge has 
precluded my ever noting down any of these popular Kashmir 
airs, often far more attractive to the untrained European ear 
than the melodies of India proper. 

In order to illustrate Hatim's metrical system, the stress- 
accents in the Mahmud Ghaznavl story have been indicated by 
appropriate marks. 



SIR AUREL STEIN'S TRANSCRIPTION 



WITH 



SIR GEORGE GRIERSON'S TRANSLATION 



i 



2 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 

I 

[The marks of accentuation, acute and grave, indicate the stress-accents on 
which the metre is based.] 

SMhanshah Sultan 1 Mahmud 1 Gaznavi I 

as u karan pane mulken paravi 11 1 

fakir lagit as u pheran van a van i 

myani ah a dai asi ma kah not u van h 2 

jaye akis as 1 karan dv°y u kar I 

adal tarn 1 sandi sat^ asak ceshma ser h 3 

jaya akis vucun a hanza akh alii i 

muhimma saitin as gommut suy zalil h 4 

muhimma saitin as travan ah tavosh i 

r r r_ f r 

muhimma saitin tasna rud a mut kahti hosh h 5 
yora zala as layan gata san i 
tora zalas asus na kya khasan ii 6 

dopusa shahan karme saitin baj a vat i 

L L Z r ' ' 

lay zala yadi Alia dilas rat ii 7 

layun zala tor a khutas gada hat I 

pad^hahas bont kun suy au hit ii 8 

gada hatas badal dyutanas mohra dyar i 

lal a nigin mal a muht a y vunta biir n 9 

rat barit pad^hahan dyutus nad i 

feiiy chuka my on sherik na murad ii 10 

muhim kas u vun hekamati Parvardigar i 

tap shuhul sarde garm nou bahar ii 11 

vana yey zan bande manzur zas a nuy I 

kafe a hekamafe muhim tagi kas a nuy ii 12 

at 1 andar cuy vustada vanan zar i 

jumala alam bande Ahmad vumedvar n 13 






I. MAIIMUD OF GHAZNl AND THE FISHERMAN 

Sultan Mahmiid of Ghaznl, the king of kings, used himself to 
watch over the protection of his kingdom. 

Disguised as a Faqlr, he used to wander from bazaar to bazaar, 
to see if any of his subjects were in distress. 

In one place were the people making prayers for his welfare, 
and their eyes were satisfied by his justice. 

In another place, he saw a wretched fisherman, brought low by 
poverty. 

5. In his poverty he was uttering sighs and groans. In his 
poverty even his sense had deserted him. 

Even where he skilfully cast his net, even there naught came 
into it. 

Said the King to him, " Make me thy partner, and fling one more 
cast of the net, keeping firm within thy heart the memory of God." 
• So he flung one more cast and, behold, within his net he caught 
a hundred fish, and brought them all before the King. 

In exchange for the hundred fish the King gave him wealth of 
money, rubies and jewels, possessions and pearls in camel-loads. 1 

10. After he had passed the night, the King called for him and 
said, " Verily thou becamest my partner without hope or expecta- 
tion of result (and yet thou hast thereby acquired great wealth). 

" It is the power of Providence alone that removeth poverty, (and 
giveth) sunshine and shade, heat and cold, and the new spring. 

" Verily I would say to thee, ' Know this, slave — accept thou 
(these as coming from the Almighty), for by how much power 
wouldst thou thyself have been able to remove thy poverty ? ' " 

Concerning this hath a certain teacher uttered this prayer, 
" The hope of this slave, Ahmad, is (on Him from whom pro- 
ceedeth) all the universe." 

1 The King rewarded him because instead of bringing him the worst fifty 
fish, he brought the whole hundred from which the King might choose his 
share. As a reward the King bought also the fisherman's share of the hundred 
for a very high price. 



4 HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES fi- 

ll. TOTAS UNZ KAT 

1. Dapan ustad shahar ak gau shehri Iran tat 1 as 
padshah tam^suy chu nav Bahadur Khan, tarn 1 as 
kurmut bag zananan kyut tat as na vat garzanas 
tat? bagas manz gau pada fakira nazar bazau kar 
nazar kabardarau niy kabar amis padshahas dopuk 
fakira teau bagas manz bozun padshahan hyiitun 
sait vazir gai tat bagas manz vucun a*ti fakir 

2. lache nan chiy har va^t 1 bina I 
boz vupha da^i anka ii 
ha fakiro yor kor feakhu I 
kati kochuk katye peta akhu n 

fakir dapan 

kurme sala tuhund khyau me kya I 
boz vupha dairi anka ii 

3. padshahas bont^ kan* posh^ tiir at 1 tal momut 
bulbula yeli yimau amis fakiras khashim kur til 1 
pyau fakir patar vasit momut bulbul gau thud vutit 
padshahas hovun yi vir^d gau nerit phirit beye au 
bulbul mod beye fakir gau beye zinda hyiitun nerun 
yimchis karan zara par dapan chis 

ha fakira khismat kare^ I 
dud* harik khasiho bare? ii 
khas^ pulau macama kyek na I 
boz vupha dairi anka ii 

4. yus vh^d fakiras as suy bavun amis padshahas 
am 1 padshahan bou vaziras 



II. THE TALE OF A PARROT 

1. This is what my Master told me : — 

There was a certain country, the land of Persia, and it was 
ruled by a king named Bahadur Khan. He had made a garden for 
his womenfolk, into which no stranger was allowed to enter ; but 
once there came into it a Faqir. The discerners then discerned 
him, and the newsmen gave the news to the King. Said they, 
" A Faqir has come into the garden." The King heard, and took 
with him his Vizier. To the garden they went, and there he 
saw the Faqir. 

2. The Almighty, who hath a hundred thousand names, watch eth 

over every path. 
Hark ye, loyalty is monstrous rare. 1 
" Faqir, how didst thou enter ? 

Where dost thou belong ? whence art thou come ? " 

Quoth the Faqir : — 

I came but for a stroll. What of yours have I eaten ? " 
Hark ye, loyalty is monstrous rare. 

3. It chanced that before the King there was a flowering plant, 
and at its foot a dead nightingale. As soon as they spoke angrily 
to the Faqir, he fell flat, lifeless to the ground, and as he did so 
the nightingale arose alive. Such magic power did he show the 
King. The nightingale flew out of the garden, and returned. 
Then it fell dead and the Faqir again became alive. He began to 
depart, but they entreated him, saying : — 

" Faqir, let me be thy servant ! 

Cups of the cream of milk will I fill for thee. 
Special pilaos and dainties wilt thou not eat '? " 
Hark ye, loyalty is monstrous rare. 

4. So the Faqir confided the secret of his magic power to the 
King, and the King confided it to his Vizier. 

1 Literally a phoenix, a vara avis, the Arabic 'anqd. In the original, the 
imperative "hark ye" is in the singular; I have put it into the plural, as 
more consonant with English idiom. 



6 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES [5- 

kar tara byat padshahan vaziras i 
sut 1 mah a ram kurun at 1 siras 11 
gai salas shikaras yeg ja I 
boz vupha dairi anka n 

tot u momut vucuk dar biya ban i 
ha vaziro asi he shuban 11 
zu amis manz thav u tan satha I 
boz vupha dairi anka n 

dop u vaziran padshaham yife? kol momut I 
phak chus yivan kabar kar chu gomut. 11 
chus na tah^ran vanta sa kare kya I 
boz vupha dairi anka 11 

5. padshah karan zar a par vaziras am 1 bapat bo 
vucehan tota kyut asihe shuban amy bozus na 
vaziran kye dapan vustad amis as dilas manz dagai. 
vuny feau pad^shah amis totas manz panun mud 
feunun travit totu vut thud chu pheran vaziran kar 
kom feav at padshah^ sandis modis manz yi? as amis 
dar dil. 

pyau pitarun padshahas panas I 
bor ludun vaziras na danas ii 
asus dagaye zagan dad kha I 
boz vupha da^i anka n 

6. tot u chu havaye asman vazir chu padshahas 
sandis maris manz vut thud. 

khut guris khal a kan manz gau I 

dopu nak vazir mud gur 1 pyete vasit pyau ii 

kabar darau niy e say kabara i 

boz vupha da^i anka ii 



-6] II. THE TALE OF A PARROT 7 

The King gave instructions to the Vizier, 
And he thus became proficient in the secret. 

They went out hunting together. 
Hark ye, loyalty is monstrous rare. 

In the forest they saw a parrot lying dead. 
" Vizier, how beautiful this must have been. 
Put thou, I beseech thee, thy life into it for but a moment." 
Hark ye, loyalty is monstrous rare. 

Said the Vizier :— 
" My King, for long hath it been dead. 

A stink cometh from it ; who knoweth when it died ? 
Stay here I cannot ; Sir, what am I to do ? " 
* Hark ye, loyalty is monstrous rare. 

5. For this did the King make urgent entreaty to the "Vizier. 
" Fain would I see how beautiful the parrot was," but the Vizier 
refused to listen to him. 

And, further, my Master told me : — 

Tn his heart there was treachery. At length the King himself 
abandoned his own body and entered into the parrot. Up rose 
the parrot, and flew about. Then the Vizier did a deed : he 
himself entered into the King's body. That was what had all 
along been in his heart. 

The burden which had been the King's to bear, 
That became laid upon the foolish Vizier. 

Treachery was watching in him like a petitioner. 
Hark ye, loyalty is monstrous rare. 

6. The parrot is flying in the air, and the Vizier is in the body 
of the King. He stood up. 

He mounted the (King's) horse and went irto the army. 

He said to them : — 

" The Vizier fell from his horse and is dead." 
That was the news that the newsman brought. 
Hark ye, loyalty is monstrous rare. 



/ 



\s 



8 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [7- 

7. am 1 vaziran yel 1 kar kom feau padshaha sandis 
maris manz tujy e n atas kyet shamsher at pananis 
maris korun reza at lashkara dopun ne^ryu tiran 
daz beye banduk baz yus ma^ryu tota tamis banyau 
bakcayish am 1 totan yel 1 boz ta teul gau tas fakiras 
nish yus tat bagas manz as tarn 1 doho. 

hukum dyutanay tiran dazan i 
kan taivtau myanen nazan ii 
tota maranas dyutanak photu va I 
boz vupha da^i anka ii 

8. yus asal as padshah su chu totas manz fakiras 
nisan su tota ka f si mor na doho aki drau yi padshah 
salas shikaras vot jaye akis at 1 vucum suna sanz 
ming e mar am 1 siiy karuk lar anyik lashkar 1 manz 
dopunak am 1 padshahan yas kan 1 yi fealau tas dimau 
gardan. 

9. dopan vustad am 1 mingy e mari tuj vut pad- 
shahasandi kala pyet teinyen vut fea^'y laris pata 
yus su tota as fakir as sahib 1 aga dopun amis totas 
yas manz yi padshah as dopunas gate 1 sa ner az 
labak panun mud yim che amis mingy® mari pata 
laran nakh* rozan chek na. 

10. dopan vustad at 1 as momut haput padshah 
teau amis hapatas manz la^yau yus yi padshah a sund 
mud as yi travun at 1 . 

shod bozun totan la^ryau I 
kul 1 dad^ri manz ho pra^ryau ii 
mud lobun kar 1 tos marhaba I 
boz vupha dato anka ii 



-10] XL THE TALE OF A P ABBOT 9 

7. When this Vizier had done the deed, and when he had 
entered into the King's body, in his hand he raised his sword, and 
into small pieces did he cut his own dead body. Then said he to his 
army, " Go forth, ye archers, and ye gunmen. Whoever of you 
killeth a parrot, to him will be given a reward." When the parrot 
heard this order he fled afar, and went to the Faqir, who on that 
day had been in the garden. 

He gave the order to the archers, 
" Pay ye heed, I pray, to my coaxing." 
He gave an order that the parrot should be killed. 
Hark ye, loyalty is monstrous rare. 

8. Now, as for the real king, he was in the parrot, and had taken 
refuge with the Faqir ; so that parrot was not killed by anyone. 
One day the Vizier-King sallied forth to hunt ; and when he had 
reached a certain place he descried a hind. After it they made 
pursuit. They brought it into the army, and he said to them, 
" T will cut oft the head of him who letteth her escape." 

9. And, further, my Master told me : — 

But the hind gave a sudden spring and leaped over the head of 
the Vizier-King himself. They pursued her. Now the parrot- 
King was with the Faqir, 1 and that Faqir was a magician clairvoyant. 
Quoth he to the parrot-King, " Go forth, your Majesty, to-day 
wilt thou regain thine own body." Meanwhile the hind had far 
outdistanced her pursuers. 

10. Furthermore, my Master told me : — 

There there lay a dead bear. The Vizier-King entered into the 
bear and pursued the hind, leaving the real King's body lying on 
the ground. 

The news of the Vizier-King's coming was heard by the parrot. 
Thither did he run. 
He waited, watching from a tree-hole. 
He again entered into his own body ; wish ye him all good 
luck ! 
Hark ye, loyalty is monstrous rare. 

1 A few words are here missing in Sir Aurel Stein's text. 



10 HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES [11- 

11. tota pyau at 1 patar yi teau padshah pananis 
maris manz yus yi vazir as su chu hap at as manz 
khut pad a shah asal yus as su khut guris pyet dopun 
yiman lokan ma^ryun haput 16y a has banduk phut a rhas 
zang anuk ratit padshahas nish dopunas padshahan 
feik a r tarn dagay bo mar^hat na kya kare ha 16k 
dapanam haput chus vazir feye chi? panun mud 
galmut vuma thavat tea haput vazir boha se marat. 

12. dapan vustad anuk zyun zaluk haput. 

hat va^nsi gau kam ya zhaday i 
au Bah a dur Kanas pyaday n 
kar Vahab Kare Allah Allah i 
boz vuph da 1 ! 4 anka ii 



-12] II. THE TALE OF A PARROT 11 

11. Down fell the parrot dead, and the King entered his own 
body, but he who had been the Vizier was now in the bear. The 
real King mounted his horse, and said to his men, " Shoot ye that 
bear." They fired with their guns at him, and brake his leg. 
They seized him and brought him before the King. Said the King, 
" Treachery was done by thee to me. What can I do but kill thee ? 
Otherwise people will say of me, ' He hath a bear for a Vizier/ 
Thou hast destroyed thine own body. Now no longer can I keep 
a bear like thee as a Vizier. Sir, I am about to kill thee." 

12. And my Master further said : — 

They brought firewood, and they burnt the Vizier to ashes. 
A hundred years passed, less or more. 

And then came the messenger of Death to Bahadur Khan. 
Wahb, the blacksmith, 1 cry " Allah, Allah ! " 
Hark ye, loyalty is monstrous rare. 

1 The name of the author of the story. 



12 HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES [1- 

III. SAUDAGARASUNZ KAT 

1. Saudagar gau sodahas ga*ri asus zanana say 
gaye mushtak fakiras akis varyahas kalas doh° aki 
au saudagar gar panun mal het padshahas gay e 
kabar saudagar vot padshah drau salas rat kyut 
vot saudagara sund chu at 1 vud a nye pahar chu 
gomut rate hund yi saudagar bai vufe vodye pyet 
hyeten bata trom padshah chu vuchan feuri patin 
saudagar bai draye bro-bro padshah chu pakan 
pata pata vat 1 maidanas akis manz at 1 as fakir 
nar a han zalit karis am 1 salam bata thounas bont a 
kan 1 dopunas k?e ami tul feot a layun amis saudagar 
baye dop u nas feir? kyazi ayak dop u nas aW phirit 
az asum amut panun kavand tarn 1 gom feer k^e tarn 
vuny bata dop u nas am 1 fakiran bo k^emay na 
guda^ny dim anit amis saudagarasund kal a ad e 
k^emai bat a padshah as vuchan yi k^enfea yimau 
doyau kata ka*ri ti boz padshahan saruy. 

2. dapan vustad draye saudagar bai vafe panun 
gar* khafe hyur padshah chu bun* kan 1 am 1 feot 
amis saudagaras kale vufe h^et rumali k^et che 
pakan bro-bro padshah chu pata pata vats amis 
fakiras nish tulun feot a layun amis saudagar bay e 
dop u nas fea sap a zak na amis pananis kavandasunz 
vuny sap a dak a mehy. 

3. padshah drau vot panun gar a travun aram 
gash phul vufe krak dopan che saudagar vafeau 
panun gar a suy mor feurau vafe atuy saudagar bai 
dapan che padshahas kavand ay am suy morham 
feurau padshahas che kabar yi saudagar kam* mor 



-3] 13 

III. THE TALE OF A MERCHANT 

1. A Merchant once went forth to trade, leaving his wife at home, 
and she for long became filled with love for a beggarman — a Faqlr. 
One day the Merchant came home with the chattels he had bought, 
and to the King came the news that " the Merchant hath returned ". 
At night the King went forth to wander through the city, and he 
reached the Merchant's house. While he was standing there, at 
the end of the first watch of the night, the Merchant's wife got 
up and went forth carrying a dish of cooked rice upon her head. 
The King watched her in secret. On ahead went she, and along 
after her followed the King. They arrived at a certain open space 
where the beggarman was seated over a little fire. She made 
salutation to him, and laid the dish of rice before him. Quoth she : 
" Eat ! " But straightway he raised a cudgel and with it struck 
the Merchant's wife. He said unto her, " Why hast thou come so 
late ? " She made reply to him, " My husband came home to-day, 
and hence was I delayed. Eat now, prithee, this dish of rice." 
But the beggarman said to her, " I will not eat. First bring me that 
Merchant's head. Then, and not till then, will 1 sup." Now all 
this time the King was watching, and he heard all this talk that 
passed between them. 

2. Furthermore, my Master told me : — 

The Merchant's wife went off, and came to her own home. 
She went upstairs, while the King stayed down below. She cut 
off her husband's head, and came down with it wrapped in a 
handkerchief. On ahead went she, and along after her went the 
King. She came to the beggarman. He raised his stick and struck 
the Merchant's wife. Said he to her, " Thou wast not true to thine 
own husband. Now wilt thou be true to me ? " 

3. The King departed. He returned to his palace and went to 
his bed. Morning blossomed forth, and there was raised a cry. 
They say : " The Merchant came home and thieves have killed 
him." To the palace came the Merchant's wife. She saith unto the 
King, " My husband came home to me, and he hath been killed by 
thieves." The King knoweth well who killed the Merchant, while 



14 BATIWS SONGS AND STORIES [4- 

fearan che pai saudagar kam 1 mor ka^i chu na 
khasan zima. 

4. dapan vustad kuruk yi saudagar zaluk atuy 
drau padshah bay 1 saM chu vuchan aya amisanz 
kulai yi che karan gat dapan che bot ye zala pan 
aye hifean vut feanehy naras manz padshah gos 
kar^nas tap dapan chus padshah yey ta ti kya ? 
t^ey ta yi kya dopunas m^e trau vil^ bo zala pan 
dopunas nagas akis p^et chai m^en dod* banye sai 
vane amyuk ma^nye travun yile zol am 1 pan pananis 
kavandas salt gay e khalas pag* drau padshah vot 
at nagas p^et vuchin at 1 zanana am 1 say zanana 
chu dapan padshah t^ey ta yi kya yey ta ti kya 
dop u nas am 1 zanana ath 1 dun? dapai bo amyuk 
javab. 

5. dapan vustad ath doh gai pat* kun padshahas 
pyau yad laMyau padshah tat nagas p^et vuchin sa 
zanana dop u nas vanum tarn 1 kat^ehund ma^ni 
dopunas gals an feavul beye nut anun feavul ta nut 
dop u nas vasyat nagas manz nut feun phirit dop u nas 
beye anun feavul kana ratit thavus natis p^et kalf 
dop u nas layus shamseri hanz feund. 

6. dapan la^yinas samsheri hanz feund am 1 sat* 
gafean padshah gab hangat* manga gab. 

7. dapan vustad yi che vatan bagas akis manz 
at 1 chu vuchan palang pa^it at 1 p^et padshah 
travun aram at 1 asa pa^iye yim* vuy nyu tulit 
padshah feanuk akis jaye manz sapud bedar vuchan 



i 



-7] ///. THE TALE OF A MERCHANT 15 

the people are seeking for a clue to find the murderers. But on no 
one can they fix the guilt. 

4. And, further, my Master said : — 

They brought out the Merchant's body and burnt it. The 
King went forth to the place of cremation and watched everything 
that should come to pass. There came up the widow, on her way 
to burn herself upon her husband's pyre. She was saying : " I also 
will burn my body." She came and prepared to leap into the flames ; 
but the King went near unto her, and caught her by the hand. He 
said unto her, " If this, then why that ? If that, then why this ? " 
Said she to him, " Let me go free, I will burn my body." Again 
said she to him, " By such and such a spring dwelleth my milk- 
sister. She will tell thee the meaning of this." So he let her go, 
and she was burnt beside her husband, and became released from 
the sorrows of the world. Next day went forth the King, and came 
to that spring. There saw he a certain woman, and to her he said, 
" If that, then why this ? If this, then why that ? " The woman 
made reply, " After eight days will I give to thee the answer." 

5. Said my Master : — 

Eight days passed, and then the King called to mind the 
woman's words. He ran to the spring. There saw he her and again 
asked he of her the meaning of those words. Quoth she, " Go 
thou, and bring hither a goat and a jar." He brought the goat 
and the jar, and then said she, " Descend thou into this spring 
and therein set thou the jar upside-down." And further said she 
to him, " Lead thou down the goat by the ear, and put its head 
upon the jar." (He did so), and she cried, " Strike thou it a blow 
with the sword." 

6. And my Master said : —  

He struck it a blow with his sword, and on the instant did the 
King of a sudden disappear. 

7. And furthermore my Master told me : — 

He found himself in a garden, and there was there spread a 
bed. On the bed he climbed and lay down and fell asleep. Now 
there were fairies there. They lifted him up and carried him off 
into a certain place. There he awoke, and seeth all round him 



16 HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES fe- 

cial janatach jay e at 1 lagimaty nagma padshah chu 
mushtak at 1 tamashas kun. 

8. dapan gay e yima pa^iye panas amis diteuk 
kunz dop u has yet kutis thau kulup vut ate andar 
teau andar at 1 vuchun gur zin ka^it kodun nebar 
tap ka^it nebar yeli korun chu vud a hye tap ka^it 
dop u has khas yemis guris khot u amis guris yi chu 
vuchan satau zemmau tsWti navau asmanau p^eti 
yi kefea Kuda saban pada kurmut ti vuch padshahan 
tat sa^hy gau mushtak gos pada Shetan dop u nas kya 
chuk vuchan dop u nas padshahan yi ken^fea Kuda 
saban pada kur ti chus vuchan dop u nas Shetanan 
phirit am 1 kuta havai bo yi chay meny kunz yat 
kutis thau kulup vut ate andar teau padshah andar 
vuch u n at 1 khar gandit dop u nas karun nebar khas 
am 1 say yi kehyfea Kuda saban pada kur tarn 1 p^eth 
kan 1 vuchak beye kye kut padshah amis kharas. 

9. dapan vustad barabar vatanavun panun gar 
kut hyiir phirit vut vuchun at 1 na khar padshahas 
au arman tarn 1 baguk u voh k^eta pa^thy vat^ e tut 
dapan gau at 1 nagas p^eth dopun tamis zanana m^e 
vante yey ta ti kya t?ey ta yi kya dop u nas ami 
zanana anun panun n^echu beye an nut beye an 
shamsher dop u nas vasyat nagas manz valun panun 
n?echu pavun pathar thavus natis p^eth kale kanas 
kar a nas thap am 1 padshahan tuh jin shamsher laye 
amis nyech a vis karis am 1 zanana thap at shamsher 1 
dop u nas yih gau ti ti gau yi tea gak mushtak 
bagas behye meny gaye mushtak fakiras. 



-9] III. THE TALE OF A MERCHANT 17 

a region of paradise. Fair women were dancing there, and smitten 
with love for the entrancing spectacle did the King become. 

8. And further saith my Master : — 

Departed these fairies and left him all alone, but before they 
went gave they him a key. Said they to him, " Unlock thou this 
room. Arise, and go within." He went within, and there he saw . 
a horse ready saddled. He led it without, and stood there holding 
it by the bridle. Said they to him, " Mount this horse." He 
mounted it, and, lo ! at once he seeth everything that God, the 
Master, hath made both below the seven earths and above the 
seven heavens. All that did the King see, and for it did he become 
smitten with love. Then before him appeared Satan ; and Satan 
asked him saying, " What is it thou dost see ? " Quoth the 
King, " Whatever God, the Master, hath created, that do I see." 
And Satan said to him in answer, " More than this will I show thee. 
Behold, here is my key. With it unlock thou this door. Arise and 
go within." The King went within and there saw he an ass tied. 
Said Satan to him, " Bring thou it forth, and mount it, and thou 
shalt see something more even than all that God, the Master, hath 
created." Thereupon did the King mount that ass. 

9. Furthermore said my Master : — 

Straightway the ass carried the King back unto his palace. 
He dismounted and went upstairs, and when he came down again, 
behold, he saw no ass there. Great longing for that garden of 
paradise came unto the King, but how was he to reach it ? They 
tell me that he went at once unto the spring and asked the woman, 
" Tell me, prithee, 'If that, then why this ? If this, then why that ? ' " 
And that woman said unto him, " Bring thou thine own son, and 
bring also a pitcher, and also bring thy sword." Said she to him, 
" Descend thou into this spring, and take down with thee thy son. 
Cast him down, and upon the pitcher lay thou his head." So the 
King took the lad by the ear, and drew his sword. With it would 
he have struck his son had not the woman seized it. Cried she, 
" This it is that is that ; and that it is that is this. Thou becamest 
smitten with love for the garden, and my sister became smitten 
with love for the beggarman." 



18 HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 

IV.— LALA MAL T KUN UNMUT G Y AVUN 

Dapan chu : — 
Daye zar van u mai Kudaye boz tarn tai i 

samsar bazi gar n 
hazrat 1 Adam gude lud a nam tay i 

ma^kau kur hai taiyar n 
phurtas Yib*lis tat 1 kur u nam tai i 

samsar bazi gar 11 
hazrat 1 Nu chi vuladi Adam tai i 

phirit gas kuphar 11 
ah tarn 1 kur nay 1 sar^gau alam tai i 

samsar bazi gar n 
hazrat 1 Isa k?e chu na kam tai I 

Sahib^sund tot yar 11 
feun asfmanan p^eth tarn 1 sabak dopu nam tai \ 

samsar bazi gar 11 
hazrat 1 Musai travuy kadam tai i 

Sahib^sund kare didar n 
Koh^e Tura p^etha tarn 1 kathe ka*ri nam tai i 

samsar bazi gar 11 
hazrat 1 Ibrahim k?e chu na kam tai i 

putalin kurun nakar 11 
tarn 1 kur din 1 Mahamad mahkam tai i 

samsar bazi gar 11 
marit kab*ra yeli vale nam tai i 

pan?en bai kya yar 11 
tat 1 Lala Ma^kas kya hav^nam tai i 

samsar bazi gar h 



19 

IV. A SONG OF LAL MALIK 

1. He saith : — 

God, supplication make I unto thee. Ah ! hear Thou me ! 
For this world is a deluder. 



2. First sent He the holy Adam ; yea, by the Angels was he 
made complete. Then Iblis ruined him, and thence (i.e. from 
Paradise) was he thrust forth. This world is a deluder. 



3. From Adam was sprung the holy Noah, and from him the 
infidels became estranged. A sigh he uttered, and the whole 
universe was flooded in his tears. This world is a deluder. 



4. In no way less than him was the holy Jesus. He was 
the beloved friend of God, the Master. Seated upon the four heavens 
did He utter His teaching. This world is a deluder. 



5. The holy Moses stepped forward, crying, " I would see the 
Master with mine own eyes." He gave forth (the ten) words from 
Mount Sinai. This world is a deluder. 



6. In no way less than him was the holy Abraham, who forbad 
the worship of idols. He it was who established the faith of 
Muhammad. This world is a deluder. 



7. When I shall die, and my brethren and friends will lower 
me into the grave, then what can they show to me, Lai Malik, but 
that this world is a deluder. 



20 HATIMS SONGS AND STOBIES [1- 

V. SUNERASUNZ KAT 

1. Vustad dapan Shehra ak chu asmut tat 1 chu 
sunar suy as featas bahan hatan hund zyut yiihay 
as garan vast padshahas sanzi kodye kit 1 tot as 
gatean sunar sanz zanana h^et ak 1 doho dopus am 1 
padshah kodr 6 sozun gafee panun kavand doho aki 
drau sunar sunasanz vajy h^et padshah sanzi kod^i 
kite am 1 pasand karus na dop u nas yat chi vad au put 
phirit vot panun gar* pyau bimar. 

2. amis as padshahasanzi kod 1 hund ashik gomut 
padshah kod^i as gomut amis sunarsund ashik 
dodfmaj 1 kun vanan padshah kud : — 

zargar nichuva pur kumar I 

deshit logsmai dod^maj muthai amar n 
dodfmaj ches vanan phirit: — 

mai kar kudye shiiri bashe i 

lagak ashkanye vale vashe n 
a u re kane dithai kud 1 kane da^i I 
ar ma lag^ham vu hf&ll h 

3. sunar chu bimar amis chu askun tap amis 
sunarsanz kulai che gatij amis tug bozun amisund 
dod dapan ches tea hech layin rinz beye gar 
sunasand 1 ranz ze. 

4. dapan vustad gar 1 am 1 sunasandi ranz ze drau 
atas k?et hitean ranz layan che apsta 1 ta yipaV 
layan kahyev 1 ta shastrev 1 vot ot padshahasanzi 
da^ri tal layin at 1 sunasand 1 renz ze padshahasanzi 
kod? 6 halamas manz ami havus are phirit tad kan 1 
ana beye travun daM kan 1 ab beye travun poshe 
gund beye travun kih beye tujen shastero salai 



-4] 



21 



V. THE TALE OF THE GOLDSMITH 

1. Now this is what my Master saith : — 

In days of yore there was a certain city, wherein there lived a 
goldsmith. He was head of his guild with twelve hundred guilds- 
men under him. He used to make articles for the King's daughter, 
and these his wife would take to her. One day the princess told 
the goldsmith's wife that in future her husband must himself 
bring the things, so one day he set out to her with a ring. When 
the princess saw it she took exception to it. " It is crooked," said 
she. So he took it back and went home, and there fell sick. 

2. The truth was that he had fallen in love with the princess, 
and she too had become enamoured of him. She cried to her 
foster-mother : — 

" Full of sweet languishment is that son of a goldsmith. 
I have seen him, nurse, and mad is my longing for him." 

But the foster-mother replied : — 

" Utter not, daughter, childish talk, 
Or thou wilt be caught within the net of love. 
Close thine ear, daughter, to such words, 
Or else thou wilt find thyself a mark for blame." 



3. The goldsmith lay sick of the fever of love, and his wife was 
a clever woman. She understood the cause of his pain, and said 
to him, " Practise thou pitching balls, and make two balls of gold." 

4. Saith my Master : — 

So he made two balls of gold and went out holding (them and 
other) balls in his hand. Hither and thither he pitched balls of 
stone and balls of iron as he went along, till he came below the 
princess's window, and through it he flung into her lap-cloth the 
two balls of gold. On this she turned her back towards him and 
showed him a mirror. Then she threw some water out of the 
window. Then she threw out a posy of flowers, and again a hair. 



22 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES [5- 

drutun at 1 da^i handis dasas kash am 1 sunar vuch 
au phirit vot panun gara dop u nas paneiiye zanana 
dop u nas kyaho karut am 1 vununas phirit renz hai 
lay&mas tim hai gas hai? mas manz tore hai haunam 
phirit tor kan 1 ane beye hai traunam da^i kan 1 ab 
beye traunam poshe gund beye traunam kih beye 
dyutun shiteravi salaya sa^th dasas pash dop u nas 
am 1 phirit tar kan 1 hau haunai ana kustany asmut 
chus vupar ab hau trau nai ab dava kan 1 gafee 
afeun poshe gund traunai bagas manz salaya sa^th 
haunai anun gafee pahre vav tat chiy poladevy 
nyaza tim gafean featen 1 kih traunai ches valan 
kangany. 

5. dapan vustad drau ye sunar shaman ba^g 1 
teavat bagas manz vuchun at 1 palang kut at 1 
palangas p^eth shikasta sa^th p^eyes nindar ayes 
yi padshah kud shanda ches karan khur khurachas 
karan shand yi k^e hushar gas na yutany gash 
lug phulen 1 padshah kud feaj gar? panun patkun gau 
hushar sunar yivan chu yit 1 panun gar* vanan ches 
panen kulai kyaho karut yichus dapan phirit sanai 
IsJe ayem dopunas am 1 zanana talau yiir 1 hund vula 
gau vuchus ami paneiiye zanana vuchus chandas 
vuchan at 1 renz ze sunasand 1 timai yim tarn 1 doho 
layanas hatemas manz dop u nas sa chai amufe su 
chuk na gomut hushar vo beye yeli gafeak kal^chen 
teli dapai bo sabak. 

6. dapan vustad nam da tulinas athan hand 1 akis 
as nas dyutmut sun kash dop u nas mor thas am 1 
dop u nas phirit ma 1 ! maji che sa feuhye mute nayid 



-6] V. THE TALE OF THE GOLDSMITH 23 

Finally she lifted up an iron stiletto and with it scratched the sill 
of the window. When the goldsmith had seen all this he returned 
home, and his wife said to him, " Well, dear, what did you do ? " 
Said he to her, " I flung, my dear, the balls to her, and they fell, 
my dear, into her lap-cloth. Then, my dear, she turned her back to 
me and showed me a mirror. Then, my dear, she threw some water 
out of the window. Then she threw out a posy of flowers, and 
then a hair. Then she made a scratch upon the window-sill with 
an iron stiletto." Replied she, " When she turned her back and 
showed the mirror, she meant that someone else was there ; when 
she threw out water, she meant that you must come in by the water- 
drain ; when she threw the posy of flowers, she meant that it was 
the garden into which you must come ; when she showed the 
stiletto, she meant that you must bring a file, as there are iron 
railings to be cut through ; and when she threw a hair, she meant 
that she was combing her locks." 



At eventide the goldsmith went forth, and entered the garden. 
There he found a bed and got up on to it. He was weak from 
illness, and fell asleep. While he so slept, there came the princess. 
From the pillow she walked to the foot of the bed, and from the foot 
back again to the pillow, but he never awoke to welcome her. By 
that time the dawn began to blossom forth, and the princess ran 
off home. Thereafter the goldsmith awoke, and returned to his 
house. Says his wife to him, " What, dear, did you do ? " Says 
he in reply, " She never came to me." Says she to him, " Come 
here, my dear." He went up to her, and she looked into his pocket, 
and found there the two golden balls that on the day before he had 
thrown into the princess's lap-cloth. Says she to him, " She did 
come to you, but you never stayed awake. Now, when you go 
again this evening, I will tell you what to do." 

6. And the Master further told me : — 

She set to work paring the ten nails of his hands, and as she did 
so, she gave to one of them a deep gash. Cried he, " You've been 
and killed me!" But she replied. " I was never taught barber's 



24 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES [7 

sabakas vu yeli gafeak teli dimai davahan am 1 
dyut a nas marfeevangan rafeeh a na beye nuna raise 
h a na dop u nas beye yeli tat palahgas p^eth khasak 
teli yeyiy nindar yi dava rafea han gand 1 zyes ada 
p y eyiy nindar shahij drau at 1 yi sunar dava rafe a 
han hifeun sa^th vot at bagas manz kut at palahgas 
pyeth chu praran feer tany yi kuni yivan ches na 
hiteanas yiny nindar atas chus dod at chu karit tap 
dopun vuny ayina yefeana ha bo daMis dava shahij 
karaha nindar yiithuy at daMis feunun dava tithuy 
pyos valinj 1 v^e chu lalavan thud vuthit. 

7. dapan vustad ayiye padshah sanz kud amis mut 
saruy dod karun amis sa^th yi karun gufe p^eyak 
nindar yutahy gash lug pholen 1 kutval chu vasan 
apa^r kan 1 agaye. vuchun at 1 padshahasanz kud 
beye sunar rat 1 am 1 kotvalan niny ratit karin havala 
feralin karik kad at 1 as pakan vat 1 akha ami siiy 
dopuk yimau kadyau doyau teahasa dizi krek sunar 
ata p^etha dabzik padshahas kar pyau kuhg^var 1 
kabar cha lot featan a sa k^inna hot featanas. 

padshahas kar pyau kuhg a varye I 

pakan dil gom tat 1 tare ii 
vir het vatun gote sulli gar^e i 

natatas padshah tat 1 mare it 

boz sunarsanza zanana draye bazar hifean feuche lazan 
kranj e draye hyet. 

shen kad kanan su cho bage remai i 
satyamis afeayo Bar Kodayu hay ii 



7] V. THE TALE OF THE GOLDSMITH 25 

work by my father and mother. When you go to-day, I'll give 
you a little remedy." So she gave him some red-pepper and salt, 
saying, " Next time you get up on to that bed and you feel sleepy, 
apply a little of this medicine to your cut finger and your sleep will 
become cool." l 

So the goldsmith went out, taking with him the medicine, and 
came to the garden, and got up on to the bed. He waited a long 
time, yet no one ever came. At length he began to feel 
sleepy, but his hand was too sore, and he caught hold of it (to 
relieve the pain). He said to himself, " She hasn't come. If 
I had only put some of that medicine on my sore finger I should 
have had a cool and refreshing sleep." So he put some of the 
medicine on the cut, and the smart was like a fiery poison in his 
heart. He jumped up, nursing his aching hand. 

7. And my Master went on to say : — 

Just then came the princess, and all his pain was forgotten. He 
did with her what was proper to the occasion, and they fell asleep 
in each other's arms. Meantime the dawn began to blossom forth. 
The chief constable came by on his rounds of inspection, and found 
there the princess and the goldsmith. He arrested them, making 
them over to his henchmen, and put them into jail. Just then 
a man happened to be passing along the road, and they called out 
to him, " Please, sir, make an outcry in the goldsmiths' market. 
You must say, ' The King's ass has trespassed in the saffron field, 
and who knows whether they will cut off its tail or cut its throat.' ' 
" The King's ass was caught in the saffron field, 
And as I went there, my heart became all full of anxiety. 
Thou must come at dawn with money to pay the fine, 
Otherwise the King will kill.it there and then." 
The goldsmith's wife heard this outcry. She went out into the 
market and bought some loaves. She put these into a deep basket, 
and went off (to the jail), crying : — 

" In six prisons have I distributed loaves. 
Now, God, would I enter a seventh." 

1 She means that the desire for sleep would become cool, and he would 
remain awake. But the silly fellow misunderstands her, and imagines that 
the medicine would bring him cool and refreshing sleep. 



26 HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES [8- 

8. dapan vustad bag a ren yima suche dopunak 
kavand chum bimar atfkya dop ham pirau fakirau 
suche gafean bag a ranye satan kadkhanen yi kyefea 
dapun chu ti dap a zim yora afe a vunuy ara neravun 
k^e dap a zim na me gafee shak dop u nak beye ma 
chu kaM 1 yeti dop has yimau pat^ami pahara ani 
mot 1 kutvalen ze kaM 1 tim che patkun vate yiman 
nish dopun amis pananis kavandas vony k^ita 
pa 1 ^ mokli yeti padshah kud tag?e mokalavany yi 
padshah kud dop u nas am 1 phirit ti yeli tagyeham 
ade kyazi lagaha kad. 



9. dapan vustad kudun nala panun poshak tsunun 
padshah kod^e padshah kodye hund kudun feunun 
panes k a rand difeanas vutamak 1 draye nebar padshah 
kud gaye panun gar kutvalen d^ut rapat padshahas 
dop u nas padshah kud beye as sunar bagas manz 
timai kya karim kad padshah drau adalat p^eth 
anik yim ratik kud 1 ze vuchuk yim bate ze sunar 
sanzi kulaye gand 1 gul 1 ze padshahas dop u nas 
padshaham as^ya as 1 gamat 1 salas tore kya ai ta 
vat 1 yat ch^anis sheharas manz gau feer ada feai 
ch^anis bagas manz at 1 vuch palang khat 1 at 1 pyeth 
kur aram are au chon kut a val am 1 kya niy ratit 
karin kad vut kutval dopun padshahas padshaham 
ch^an kud karnam kasam vignya nage pyetha dapan 
yus at 1 apuz kasam karehe su vutehena tat 1 thud 
su as tat 1 maran dop am 1 sunar sanzi zanana amis 
sunaras tag^e yi padshah kud bachaviny dop u nas 



-9] V. THE TALE OF THE GOLDSMITH 27 

8. And my Master said : — 

She went about distributing these loaves, saying, " My husband 
is sick. And what did holy men and medicants say to me but to 
distribute loaves in seven jails. If ye have ought to say to me, 
say it to me as I go in ; but say not ought to me as I go out, for 
that will risk the fulfilment of my vow." And then she continued, 
" I wonder if ye' have any prisoners herein." They replied, " At 
the last watch of the night the chief constable brought hither two 
prisoners. They are in there at the back." So she came up to 
them, and said to her husband, " How can we now get the princess 
free ? Have you any plan for releasing her ? " Said he, " If 
I had any plan, would I now be in prison ? " 

9. Said my Master : — 

She took off her clothes and put them on the princess, and took 
off the princess's clothes and put them on herself. Then she 
turned the basket upside down (over the princess's head, so as to 
conceal it) and the princess went straight out of the jail, and came 
home. In the meantime the chief constable reported to the King 
that the princess and goldsmith had been found in the garden, 
and, of course, had been put in prison. The King went forth 
into the judgment hall. They brought the two prisoners before 
him, and, lo and behold, they were the husband and wife ! 
The goldsmith's wife respectfully folded her arms and said to 
the King, " Your Majesty, we had gone to a marriage feast, and 
on our way back happened to pass through this city of yours. 
It was then late, so we went into your garden. There we chanced 
to see a bed, and got on to it and went to sleep. Well, your chief 
constable came along, and, as you see, arrested us and put us into 
prison." Then the chief constable got up and said to the King, 
" Your Majesty, let your Majesty's daughter make oath at the 
Vigifiah Nag. 1 People say that if anyone make a false oath there, 
he never rises up again, but falls down dead on the spot." 

Said the goldsmith's wife to the goldsmith, " Have you any plan 
for saving the princess ? " Said he to her, " Please tell me how ? " 

1 Vigifiah or Vigin u is the name of the tutelary goddess of the Kashmir 
forests. In the good old times she was often seen as she roamed over the 
mountains, but nowadays she is always invisible. A Vigifiah Nag is a Nag, 
or spring, sacred to her. 



28 HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES [10- 

havtam vat dop u nas ak trau saruy poshak kuran 
feiin krau beye mat sur lag gosony yeli ut vatenavan 
amis padshah kud^e chon gafee gafeun amis padshah 
kud y e gafee karin^ tap damanas dopun gafees ma 
ditta gude kharat sa kya haivi ada kasam chonuy 
mokratit dapi yahaz 1 vigiiya nage namis matis siva 
kya karum na kasi damanas tap. 

vigiiya nagas vafeayas sranas I 
kuv^ zana matfma ludnam ra n 

mat 1 tap layinam doili damanas I 
kuteval ganas gud^ryau kya 11 

sa^ri yar* goi panas panas i 

kut*val ganas gudfryau kya 11 

10. padshah kud gaye gar kuteval dyutuk phahi 
sunarsandi bate ze che gar 1 panan 1 yi gau sunar 
bimar kurnas yahoi ashkun tap yi as sunarsanz 
zanana gatij gudun moh^ra hathas akis rush yi 
gundun pananis kavandas pana logun sannyas amis 
paran gupal 1 vatanavun padshaha sund gara dopun 
amis padshahas yi cham bay kakiny yi chai fee 
havala mye chiy gafeun bayis nish su chum gomus 
(sic) sodahas yi chai mye gupal 1 havala yu tany as 1 
yimoy yi chai pak yi thaivzin pananye kudis sa^th 
aye phirit panen gar£ kye kala gau au yi sunar 
beye gar* punun. 

11. dapan vustad logun sodagar am 1 zanana vat 1 
at 1 padshaha sandis sheharas manz log ami beye 
sanyas kavand thavun deras pyeth saudagar lagit 



-11] V. THE TALE OF THE GOLDSMITH 29 

Said she, " In the first place, pull off all your clothes, and put wooden 
pattens on your feet. In the second place, rub ashes over your 
whole body, and pretend to be a mendicant devotee. As soon as 
they shall bring the princess to the Nag, you must go up to her and 
catch hold of her skirt, saying, " First of all, pray give me alms." 
She can then safely take oath and say, " holy Viginah Nag, save 
and except this mad fellow no one hath ever seized my skirt." 1 

She went down to bathe in the Viginah Nag. 
" I know not why this charge was brought against me. 
Only this mad one hath caught the skirt of my garment." 
Then what happened to the vile chief constable ? 
All the folk took their several ways to their homes. 
Then what happened to the vile chief constable ? 

10. So the princess went home in peace, and they took the chief 
constable and impaled him. The goldsmith and his wife also 
returned to their own house, and there he fell sick. He was sick 
with the fever of love for the princess. But the goldsmith's wife 
was very clever. She made a necklace worth a hundred dinars 
and put it on her husband. She dressed herself as a mendicant 
ascetic, and him as a dancing girl, and brought him to the King's 
palace. Said she to the King, " Here is my brother's wife, and I 
am putting her in thy charge. I must be off to my brother who has 
gone away on a trading expedition. So here is my dancing girl 
placed in thy charge until I return. She is yet a virgin and thou 
must keep her with thine own daughter." Saying this she (left the 
goldsmith there disguised as the girl and) returned to her own 
house. Shortly afterwards the goldsmith himself slipped away, 
and also went home. 

11. And again my Master said : — 

The goldsmith's wife dresses her husband up as a merchant, 
and arrives as if from a journey at the King's city. She herself is 
again made up as the mendicant ascetic. She leaves the pretended 

1 "To seize the skirt" has also a metaphorical meaning, which can be 
imagined. Hence, the princess was quite safe in saying it. 



30 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [12 

pane gaye padshahis gund^nas dava dim gupal 1 
divan achan dii dapan ches dim gupal 1 . 

praran doh gau me bal^e I 
sanyas amut gupal^e 11 

yi chus dapan padshah phirit. 

sanyas? maulak jande lolo I 

kotuna ak dimai danda 1616 ii 

sanyas chus dapan chus phirit. 

sanyas chusai be vastu 1616 I 

dand himai dukhtare khas 1616 ii 

12. dapan vustad moh a ra hatas gudun rush gundun 
panenye kudye karan havala sanyasas. 

tannana tannana tana nai i 

yim kar che karan zananai ii 

niyanta karan havale pananis kavandas dop u nas feu 
zan ta yi zan. 



12] V. THE TALE OF THE GOLDSMITH 81 

merchant in the tent, and herself goes to the King. She makes 
her petition to him. " Give me," said she, " my dancing girl." The 
King replies with abuse, and throws curses at her eyes, but she 
reiterates, " Give me my dancing girl " : — 

" Longing have I been for my girl as the days went by. 
The mendicant has come for his dancing girl." 
And the King replies to her : — 

" mendicant, fix not the banner of thy claim, tol-lol-lay. 
I will give thee another lady in compensation, tol-lol-lay." 

But the mendicant answers : — 

" An ascetic I am without worldly ties, tol-lol-lay. 
In compensation I'll take thine own daughter, tol-lol-lay." 

12. And finally said my Master : — 

He made a necklace worth a hundred dinars, and putting it on 
his own daughter, made her over to the mendicant ascetic. 
Taradiddle, taradiddle, tol-lol-lay, 
It is only womenfolk who can act this way. 
She took the princess and made her over to her husband. And 
she said to them, " You must learn, and she must learn." x 

1 i.e. learn the truth of the verse jusb quoted. They two must learn and 
know the power of women's wiles. There is perhaps an indication that the 
wiles would continue, and that the life of the husband and of the second wife 
might not be happy as they expected. 



82 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [1- 

VI SHAHI YUSUF ZALIKHA 

1. Shahi Yusuf Zulikha yar* bozak na it 

Z. 2. Salas yihna polau krekna i 

Yitam gah bega yar* bozak na ii 

3. Sat kut 1 larichim change 16 larichim I 

Beh tarn satha yar* bozak na ii 

4. Putal khanas Vyun Vyun panas I 

Kurnak parda yar* bozak na n 

Y. 5. At 1 kya thavut as 1 kona havut I 

Z. Dop u nas chum Kuda yar^ bozak na ii 

Y. 6. Kuda gau suy mane panenye kas duy I 
Shdlan chu shama yar* bozak na n 

7. Kuda chu kunuy jal^va dit drau nunnuy i 

Kanye manz cha muda yar^ bozak na ii 

8. Hazrat Yusuf Isul pat? ladeyes Zalikha ii 
Z. Yusuf tsalan Zalikha laran i 

Dop u nas yi pazya yar^ bozak na ii 

9. Nalas tap karit nyun ha tea karit I 

Gai peshe padshah yar* bozak na ii 



i 






-9] 33 

VI. THE STORY OF YUSUF AND ZULAIKHA 1 

1. Wilt thou not hear, beloved, (the tale of) Yusuf and 

Zulaikha ? 

2. (Zulaikha) " To the feast wilt thou not come ? Dainty meats 

wilt thou not eat ? 
In season or out of season, come thou to me. Wilt thou not 
hear, beloved ? 

3. " Seven rooms have I in the palace ; in my longing for thee 

have I prepared them. 
Sit thou, I pray, for but a moment. Wilt thou not hear, 
beloved ? " 

4. One by one she herself in the idol-house 

Covereth (each idol) with a veil. 2 Wilt thou not hear, beloved ? 

5. (Yusuf) " On what hast thou put a veil ? What hast thou 

displayed to us ? " 
(Zulaikha) " It is my god (that I have veiled). Wilt thou not 
hear, beloved ? " 

6. (Yusuf) " There is but one God. Cast from thy mind the 

belief in dualism. 3 
He is burning bright as a lamp. Wilt thou not hear, 
beloved ? 

7. " There is but one God, who hath manifested Himself in glory. 
What purpose can there be in a stone ? Wilt thou not hear, 

beloved ? " 

8. The holy Yusuf fled, and after him ran Zulaikha. 

Yusuf fleeing, Zulaikha pursuing. 
Cried she, " Is it thus that thou shouldest act ? Wilt thou not 
hear, beloved ? " 

9. She caught him by the neck. She made an accusation 

against him. 
They went before the King. Wilt thou not hear, beloved ? 

1 Yasuf is Joseph, and Zulaikha is Potiphar's wife. 

2 When Zulaikha tempts Joseph she puts a veil before the image of her 
household idol, that it may not become aware of her unchastity. This arouses 
Joseph's suspicions. 

3 D8y, duality, is a technical term of Kashmiri Saiva monotheism, and is 
here borrowed by Musalman theology. 



34 HATIMS SONGS AND STORIES [10- 

10. Aziza Misar as padshah amis as zid Hazret* 
Yusuf* sund. 

Yusuf kad khan kahchus na bozan I 
Mukli az Kuda yar* bozak na h 

11. Yeli Yusuf lug kad at 1 as prany kad timau 
dyut kab akis kurun ta^bir feima^i padshah mod 
padshahan beyis kurun ta^bir fea sapadak padshah 
sund peshkar mat 1 hasa paHrzi yad. 

KsMyau kav dyut ta^blr drak myut I 
Moklai parda yar^ bozak na ii 

12. Padshah Aziza Misar deshan kab. 

Aziza Misar kab^nish abtar gau bedar i 
Vut shora ga yar* bozak na n 

13. Kamyiik vut shoraga ? 
Malan baban piran fakiran i 

Banina hakima yar* bozak na ii 

14. Kamyiik hakim at 1 kabus yus manye tearihe 
yus am i Aziza Misren kab as dyutmut dop u nas 
gulaman kabuk ta^bir zane Hazret Yusuf. 

Kabuk t^bir Yusufas chu vaphir I 

Daden chiy dava yar* bozak na ii 

15. Unuk Hazret Yusuf dop u nas padshahan me 
dyut kab at 1 vanum ta^bir dop u nas Yusufan kya 
dyuthut dop u nas padshahan ak dyuthum huk 1 nag 



-15] VI. THE STORY OF YUSUF AND ZULAIKHA 35 

10. AzIz-8 Misr was the King, and he had enmity against Yiisuf. 
Yiisuf is in prison, no one heareth his complaint. 

But he will be released by the power of God. Wilt thou not 
hear, beloved ? 

11. When Yiisuf was put in prison there were there old 
prisoners. They each saw a dream. To one he interpreted it, 
saying, " Of a surety the King will kill thee," and the King did 
kill him. To the other he made interpretation saying, " Thou wilt 
become the King's chief clerk. Then, sir, I beseech thee, bear thou 
me in mind." 

The prisoners saw a dream. The interpretation turned out 

true * for them. 
On the morrow they were released from jail. Wilt thou not 

hear, beloved ? 

12. King Aziz-e Misr saw a dream. 
Aziz-e Misr became terrified by the dream. 

He awoke, and there was made proclamation. Wilt thou not 
hear, beloved ? 

13. What was the purport of the proclamation ? 

Among the priests, among the calendars, among the saints, 

among the mendicants. 
Can there not be found one learned man ? Wilt thou not hear, 

beloved ? 

14. Of what science was a learned man required ? One who 
could interpret this dream that had been seen by Aziz-e Misr. 
His servant said to him, " The holy Yiisuf knoweth how to interpret 
a dream." 

" Mighty is Yiisuf in interpretation of dreams. 
Verily he is the remedy of all pains. Wilt thou not hear, 
beloved ? " 

15. They brought the holy Yiisuf, and the King said to him, 
" I have seen a certain dream. Tell thou me the interpretation 
thereof." Said Yusuf, " What didst thou see ? " Replied the 
King, " In the first place saw I seven dry water-springs drinking 

1 Literally, "sweet." 



36 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES [16- 

sat yivan barren nagan satan chyavan beye dyuthum 
kam sat hil vuchun pukhtan satan helen ning a lan 
beye vuchun lagar gau sat yivan mast satan gavun 
ning a lan am 1 kuy vanum tatylr dop u nas Yusufan 
drag vuthi. 

16. Dapan vustad Yusufan moklau ta^bir vanit 
padshahas gau asar lajis boche dop u nak diyum bata 
am 1 vakta padshah k^avan as na am 1 asr a saHh 
dop u nak jal anyum dapan gai ta anuk bata yi ky§n 
dop u nak bey anyum aiiye has dega vok a vit anhas 
ta kyon taslika as na dapan at 1 bo che sa^thi gau 
marit dapan paga dife vazirau vurdi paga vas^u sa^re 
ldgah yas host nam 1 paz behe nyeche suy sapad 1 
padshah dapan vot 1 ldgah au host nam^au Yusufas 
paz au b^uthus nyeche banau Yusuf padshah. 

Yala vai havun host u mange navun I 
Yusuf padshah yar a bozak na ii 

17. Ta^if-i Yusuf par Wahab Kara khub I 

Gate paran la illah yar a bozak na ii 



-17] VI. THE STORY OF YUSUF AND ZULAIKIIA 37 

up seven full water-springs. In the second place saw I seven 
unripe ears of corn swallowing up seven ripe ears. Again I saw 
coming seven lean kine, and they were swallowing up seven fat 
kine. Tell thou me the interpretation of this." And Yiisuf said 
unto him, " A famine will arise." 

16. And my Master said : — 

Yiisuf finished telling the interpretation, and as he did so 
the power of the famine seized the King. He felt hunger, and cried 
out, " Give me food," although that was not his time for eating. 
Through the power of the famine he cried to them, " Speedily bring 
ye it to me." And people say that they hastened forth and brought 
him food. He ate it, and cried, " Bring ye more ! " They hauled 
it to him in cauldrons, and he ate it but could not be satisfied. 
And people say that (for all he ate) he died of starvation. They 
say that next day the Viziers gave forth this command, " Let all 
ye citizens descend to-morrow to the 'Id-plain, and he to whom the 
royal elephant will bow, and on whose thumb-ring the royal 
hawk will alight, shall become King. They say that they went 
down to the 'Id-plain. The elephant came and bowed to Yiisuf, 
and the hawk came and alighted on his thumb-ring. So Yiisuf 
became King. 

Majesty he displayed, he sent for the elephant. 

Yusuf became King. Wilt thou not hear, beloved ? 

17. Wahb, the blacksmith, well recite thou the praise of Yiisuf. 
Ever as thou goest recite the creed. Wilt thou not hear, 

beloved ? 



38 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES CI- 

VIL NAYE HANZ KAT 

1. Bana yas dod tas chu panas tinanan I 

Naye hund dod nay che panai ti vanan 11 

2. Nai che dapan Bar Sahib chi kunuy I 

Diya ta feakh^e nishi panai chi bytinuy ii 

3. Nai che dapan Bar Sahib mun* zat i 

Pane suy kun chi mushtak dokht a rat ii 

4. Hamud gafeyu tas Khudayas kun paran i 

Paxte kurun tot Muhammad mez^man ii 

5. Bar Sahiban sa^h dit^nas saman i 

Tsor yar chas sa^th sa^h shoban ii 

6. Nut* tam^sandi pada kurun Adam i 

Adfmas sa^h pada kurun idam ii 

7. Nai che dapan lodun Adam be nava I 

As mashiyat Wr l tala drayas Hava ii 

8. Nai che dapan kya zabar as suy sath i 

Yam 1 sathai pad* karun zur yat | 

9. Nai che dapan hal myo nuy boz tuy i 

DaM? 6 ladai cn^uta sata roz 1 tuy h 

10. Nai che dapan pat vanan asus pin ham i 

Shak* burgau sa^h 1 asus shoban ii 

11. Nai che dapan thud me asum bala pan i 

Sune kananuy graye duran ches divan ii 

12. Gai ma gum^ra yiy ta tarn 1 kuy gom badal i 

Pyom 1 gutfla la^ni feur vatit azal ii 



-12] 39 

VII. THE TALE OF THE REED-FLUTE 

1. Only to him is the burden of woe manifested who suffereth 

woe himself. 
The reed-flute herself is telling the reed-flute's woe. 

2. Quoth the reed-flute, " The Almighty is one and only one. 
God alone is of His own will devoid of wrath." 

3. Quoth the reed-flute, " Pure is the Almighty ; 

(As He alone is free from imperfection) only towards Himself 
can he yearn day and night. 

4. " Ever go ye giving forth praise to that God, 

In that He created Muhammad, the Beloved Guest. 

5. " The Almighty gave him instruments to be with him. 

Four friends 1 are illustrious as his companions. 

6. "By His glory He created Adam, 

And with Adam was created this world." 2 

7. Quoth the reed-flute, " Adam was sent forth into the world 

all alone, 
And at his wish Eve issued from his side." 

8. Quoth the reed-flute, " How excellent was that moment, 
In which the world with all its offspring was created ! " 

9. Quoth the reed-flute, " Hear ye, I pray, the tale of my woe. 
If ye suffer pain, remain, I pray, a moment by me." 

10. Quoth the reed-flute, " At the back of the forest was I hidden, 
Beautiful with my branches and my leaves." 

11. Quoth the reed-flute, " Upright was my youthful form, 

As (in the breeze) I waved the pendants of my golden ears. 

12. " I went astray, and thus happened that change of my estate. 

A woodcutter chanced upon me, a doom, a thief of my 
destiny." 

1 Muhammad's four friends were Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman, and 'All. 
The last two were his sons-in-law, and the first two his dearest friends. 

 The word yldam is a corruption of the Sanskrit idam, and comes 
curiously in a Musalman poem. 



40 HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES [13- 

13. Nai che dapan sakhme gom au suy kosur i 

Naz a ri tarn 1 sanzi sa^th 1 sapanum tok* sur h 

14. Nai che dapan feakh 1 hut mak chum* divan i 

Phal? b^iin b^iin chale mazas chum tulan ii 

15. Mad^ me asum had£ panas ches karan i 

Bah panas vale nai kafe chum karan ii 

16. Gay e zhuda sai zhudai chai vanan i 

As vadan al vida as suy karan ii 

17. Tat 1 valit vat 1 vat 1 tarn chum divan i 

Vale vunuy turke ch^anas chum u kanan ii 

18. Nai che dapan la^r 1 phir 1 phir 1 chum vuchan I 

Duri roz 1 roz toto dab sak chum divan ii 

19. Nai che dapan lit?ri sa^th yeli gaj*nas I 

Atar peyem yeli char kas khaj^nas n 

20. Dalil :— 

Yeli charkas kafe amis turke ch?anas nishi amis 
pyevan panen ham nishin yad yim^nuy kun che 
vanan k^efea ta kya vane. 

Nai che dapan ham nishin meny rod 1 katye I 
Vany bo dim^ hak turi ma rod 1 ad vatye ii 

21. Ham nishinan sir panunuy bava ha I 

Sin* mutoit dod panunuy hav^ ha ii 

22. Nai che dapan kya ba^am kut ches rivan i 

DaMe panane nab pharyad ches divan ii 



-22] 



VII. THE TALE OF THE REED-FLUTE 



41 



13. Quoth the reed-flute, " Terrible was the fault (i.e. calamity) 

that befel me. 
At once on his seeing me, I became crushed to dust." 

14. Quoth the reed-flute, " Wrathfully he striketh me blows 

with his axe, 
Bits of my flesh in splinters is he raising. 

15. "I had been full of pride, I had looked upon myself as the 

limit (of beauty), 
And how much humiliation doth he cast upon my fair young 
form ! " 

16. Far from the forest was she sundered, and of that sundering 

she tells. 
Lamenting was she, as she made her last farewell. 

17. "Down from the mountain forest he bringeth me, and wearieth 

me with the long, long road. 
And when he is come down, he selleth me to a carpenter." l 

18. Quoth the reed-flute, " He turneth me round and round 

sideways and inspecteth me. 
He standeth apart and giveth me terrible blows with an axe." 

19. Quoth the reed-flute, " When he melted my flesh with a saw, 
When he set me on his lathe, 'twas as though a wood-worm 

had attacked me." 

20. When she was set on the lathe in that carpenter's shop, the 
memory of her friends and companions comes to her. She says some 
words to them. What is it she would say ? 

Quoth the reed-flute, " Where stayed my friends and 

companions ? 
Messages would I send them. Would that I knew if they 

stayed half way. 

21. "I would tell my secret to my friends and neighbours, 

I would open my bosom, and display my grief." 

22. Quoth the reed-flute, "What hath befallen me! How 

much do I lament ! 
In my woe, I pour forth cries and calls for help." 

1 A torka-chdn is a carpenter who works on his own account in his own 
workshop, and who is not a village servant. 



42 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES [23- 

23. Nai che dapan nala dim* ha mar*kan i 

Banana rustoiau kah ti rozan marda zan ii 

24. Dapan vustad kya vanahe yiman ham nishman 
yiman vanahe yiy: — 

Naram kar kar baram panas chum karan i 
Vare vuch torn maz kota chum haran ii 

25. Vade na bo zade panas ta^i nam I 

Kham p&san zit 1 ata kat 1 dato nam ii 

26. Dapan vustad vu yeli kham pasan ayi kanana 
vuchus pyivan panun nayis tany yad at 1 nayis tanas 
kun che vanan kyelsa kya vane: — 

Nai che dapan nayis tanuk chum tama I 
Gar ze panane tsan>' jam arzo sama ii 

27. Nai che dapan nayis tan my an kyah chu jan i 

Zane kyah tat mane bozit gsfri zan ii 

28. Nai che dapan nayis tan myan kyah zabar I 

Zane kyah tat mane bozit be khabar n 

29. Nai che dapan nayis tan nach yas che zan i 

Zana suyyus as 1 vot u mut La Makan ii 

30. Nai che dapan kyah che vun^mufe masnavi I 

Zane suyyas as 1 p^imafe ashka chi ii 

31. Nai che dapan mudur mas ka^tya ch^avan i 

Sudar balai naye Subhan chiy vanan ii 



-31] VII. THE TALE OF THE REED-FLUTE 43 

23. Quoth the reed-flute, " In the assemblies cries would I give 

forth. 
No man or woman ever liveth free from his fated sorrow." 

24. And my Master saith : — 

What would she have said to her friends and companions ? 
To them verily would she have said this : — 

" He planed me and he made me smooth, and with an auger 
bored he my body. 
Prithee, behold me well. How much of my flesh is dropping 
from me ! 

25. " Shall I not weep ? Holes hath he made all o'er my body. 

For a petty farthing how often hath he stretched his arms 
upon me." 

26. Moreover my Master saith : — 

When she had been sold for petty farthings there came to her 
the memory of the canebrake where she was born. She addresses 
some words to it. What is it she would say ? 

Quoth the reed-flute, " Yearning have I for my canebrake, 
For this purpose searched I earth and heaven." 

27. Quoth the reed-flute, " How fair is my canebrake ! 

Can one who knoweth it not, understand its meaning, if he 
hear thereof ? " 

28. Quoth the reed-flute, " How excellent is my canebrake ! 
Can an ignorant man understand its meaning, if he hear 

thereof % " 

29. Quoth the reed-flute, " He only will have knowledge of my 

canebrake 
Who hath arrived at the true knowledge of God the Omni- 
present." 

30. Quoth the reed-flute, " What hath been said in these verses ? 
Only he will understand on whom hath fallen a particle of 

love." 

31. Quoth the reed-flute, " Many are they who drink sweet wine, 
But only on Sodarbal doth Subhan sing the tale of the reed- 
flute." 



44 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [l- 

VIII. PADSHAH SUNZ KAT 

1. Dapan vustad suy padshah as neran prat doho 
at 1 zun* dabi pyeth at 1 as pyeth kani al j ana varan 
hund yim as 1 prat doho yihas bolbash bozan yim 
as 1 padshah* sand seta khush gafean doho aki as na 
bolbash k7e gafean dop am 1 padshah baye, padshahas 
az kone che gafean bolbash dapan vuchuk at 1 alis 
at 1 manz bache ze momuty valik bun seta pyur 
yiman padshahas sandyan don bafean anik vazir 
gatily gatily. dophak noman vuch tuy kya chu gomut 
vuch hak yiman rot^mut kund hatis dana vaziran 
ak 1 dop u nak yi che yiman paneny maj momute am 1 
naran kurmute byek vurudz am 1 chu nak dyutmut 
ampa kane dyut^mut kund ami chi yim momuty 
padshah vanan padshah baye buy marai tea kar^zana 
kun 1 padshah bai vanan padshahas buy marai tea 
kar^zana kun 1 kur yimau driy kasm pane vany yi 
kya ze kuruk driy kasm dopuk as 1 che gabar ze 
timan kya ka^e vur maj ya mol yiy. 

2. kye kala gau padshah bai moye padshah kun 1 
karan chu na ti kya zi pane vany asuk doyau bafeau 
driy kasm kurmut varya kala gau ay vazir dopuk 
padshahas padshaham nyetar gafee karun varya kal 
bozan chuk na kur has zor vazirau kurun nyetar. 

3. yim padshah zade ze as tim 1 as padan sabak 
doh ak 1 kar yimau pane vany bar*nyau doyau 
muslahat maji gafeau salam hyet bar*k tramy lalau 
niginau gai hyet salami maje tramy rutenak vuchuna 



-3] 45 



VIII. THE TALE OF A KING 

1. Once upon a time there was a certain King, and my Master 
tells me that every day he used to go out to take the air in the roof 
summer-house of his palace. Now some birds had built their 
nests in its thatch, and each day the King and Queen used to listen 
to the chirping of the chicks, and much joy did the two derive 
therefrom. One day they heard none, and said the Queen to the 
King, " Why is there to-day no chirping?" And my Master tells 
me that they looked into the nest, and that they found therein only 
two dead chicks. They took them out and full of grief brought 
them down into the palace. There they summoned all their wise 
Viziers, and commanded them to inspect the dead chicks, and to 
say what had happened to them. So the Viziers inspected them, 
and found that a thorn had been stuck into the throat of each. 
Then said a very sage among the Viziers, "It is evident that the 
mother of these chicks died, and that the cock sought another mate 
and wedded her. She has been giving each of them a thorn to 
eat for food, and that is why they are dead." Said the King to 
the Queen, " If I die, thou must not wed again," and said the Queen 
to the King, " If / die, thou must not wed again." And so they 
mutually made vow and oath. Now, why was it that they made 
this vow and oath ? • " Because," said they, " we have two sons, and 
who knoweth but a stepmother or a stepfather may do this very 
thing to them." 

2. In the course of time the Queen died, and the King wedded 
not again, because of the mutual vow and oath that the Queen and 
he had made. A long time passed, and at length his Viziers came 
to him and said, " Verily, your Majesty should once more make 
espousal," but for a long time he paid no heed to them. Then at 
last his Viziers became urgent, and he took to himself a new Queen. 

3. Now, as we have heard, there were two young princes, and 
they were occupied in their lessons. One day the two brethren 
took advice of each other and decided to bring a complimentary 
present to their stepmother. So they filled a tray with rubies and 
other jewels and offered it to her. She accepted the tray, and as 
she did so her glance fell upon them. The princes then went off 



46 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [4- 

kurnak gai yim padshah zade ze sabakas yim che 
doha doha ithai pathin karan doha aki gau amis 
padshah baye khatir yiman vura nyech a vin hund 
yiman dopun tuh ths^vyu ma saHh 1 sala yimau 
dop u has fea chak moj as 1 chi gabar tea ta as 1 vat 1 na 
gai panas sabakas au padshah panun mah a lakhan 
padshah baye trop u nas kut dop u nas bar kyaV kurut 
band yi ches dapan padshah bai bu chasa cl^any 
kulai k^in na ch^anyen nech a vin hunz padshah chus 
dapan ti kya gau dop u nas tim am lekan gud a dim 
ti hanza valinje ze ada mufe a rai bar. 

4. dyutun hukum vaziran tim as 1 sabak paran 
feat a hal dop u nak mare vat a lan karuk havala timai 
marenak dapan vot vazir yiman padshahzadan 
nishan seta gos yin saf dop u nak vasyu bun 1sat a hal a 
dop u nak teal^u yemi shah a ra tim? teal? vaziran kar 
kom dopun mare vat a lan ma^ryuk honi ze karik 
yiman valinje ze lazak ta^kis gai h^et padshah bai 
dop u has anyai noma padshah zadan hanza valinje 
ze thau darvaza ta rat thavnak darvaza rachen 
yima valinje ze dop u has yim a chai padshah zadan 
don hanza byut at 1 padshahi karna. 

5, yim bai baran ze vat 1 biyas padshahas akis 
nish dop u nak padshahan tuh chu sh a hzada me yivan 
boz a ne tuh van 1 toy tuh k^eta pa 1 ^ chu yor lag^mat 1 
kya sabab chu yimau dop u has yi panun gud a run 
dop u nak bihu myenish nok a ri dapan beth? hazuri 
naukar amis as padshahas pran^ gulam ze yim zyi 
ti gai tsor feun zanen karin zima rateas feor pahar 



-5] VIII. THE TALE OF A KING 47 

to their lessons, and after that, day by day, they brought her a 
similar offering. One day, there arose in the heart of the Queen 
a passionate desire for the two youths, and she made proposals to 
them for an unlawful intrigue ; but they replied, " Thou art our 
mother ! We are thy children ! Between thee and us such may 
not be," and went off again to their lessons. In the evening the 
King came to the harem, but the Queen locked the door of her room 
and refused to allow him to enter. Said he, " Why hast thou shut 
the door ? " and she replied to him, "Is it of thee that I am the 
wife, or am I the wife of thy two sons ? " Said the King, " What 
is it that hath happened ? " Replied she, " They came to me and 
asked of me indecent things. Nor will I open the door to thee till 
thou give me their two hearts." 

4. And my Master saith : — 

He gave an order to his Viziers while the boys were studying 
their lessons in the school. Said he to the Viziers, " Make the 
princes over to the executioners, and let the executioners kill them." 
And my Master tells me that a Vizier went to the princes, and 
became filled with pity for them. Said he to them, " Come ye down 
from the school." Then he said, " Flee ye from this city." So they 
fled, and then the Vizier did a deed. He told the executioners to 
kill two dogs. So they killed two dogs, and tore out their hearts. 
These they put upon a charger and took to the Queen. Said they 
to her, " Here are the two hearts of those princes. Open thou the 
door and take them." So she opened the door and took the two 
hearts, as they said to her, "Here are they for thee straight from the 
bodies of the two princes." And thereafter the King lived on with 
her to sway the sceptre. 

5. The two brothers sought refuge with another king, and he 
said to them, " Ye appear unto me to be princes. Prithee tell ye 
me how are ye come hither, and what is the cause thereof." So 
they told him all their happenings, and he thereupon took them 
into his service. And my Master tells me that they were entered 
into the King's bodyguard. The King had already two old servants 
in his bodyguard, and with these two princes they made four. 
Each had to guard the king during one of the four watches of the 



48 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES [6- 

gud nyukuy pahar chu lagan amis padshah zadas 
zyithis hihis dapan pad^shaha sandyau doyau bateau 
travuk aram. 

6. dapan gulam chu vud*nye nazar ches padshaha 
sandin don bafeen kun yim* vuy syud log vasani 
shahmar tal* va kane. gulam chu vuchan yeli yi 
shahmar log vatane amis padshah baye handis 
badanas n^ezik au laran gulam layin shamsher amis 
shah maras hani hani karinas tukra teunun palangas 
thai shamsher 1 handis t^egas vulun phamb log amis 
padshah baye handis badanas vutherani dopun amis 
as 1 shahmar? sund zehar ladydmut ami mojub as yi 
vutheran padshah gau bedar vuchun gulam amut 
nezik shamsher h^et nanyi am^sund pahar mublyau 
au duyamis gulamasund pahar au n^ezik dop u nas 
padshahan ai gulam yus akha agas pyeth bevophai 
ka ! re tas kya vat 1 karun yi vuthus gulam phirit 
padshahan tas gafei kale featun beye basta valany 
padshaham bo vanai dalila tea thav tarn tat kan. 

7. dop u nas gulaman su as padshaha ak suy gau 
doha aki salas shikaras kunuy zun sa^th asus paz 
vot jaya akis lajis tras banan ches na kuni vuchun 
jaye akis ab? sreha hyu at 1 dyutun barsha sa^th 
dob^hana kurun bag^la manza pyala lodun at pyalas 
ab hyiitun chun as paz teununas traVit beye borun 
yi ab? pyala hyiitun chyun as beye yi paz teununas 
tra^vit doye lat 1 teununas traMt padshahas khut 
zahar treyimi lat 1 burun dach^a atha chu at pyalas 
tap kaMt khavur atha thavun nebar yiithuy hyiitun 
chun tyuthuy au paz teununas traVit dithas am 1 tap 



-7] VIII. THE TALE OF A KING 49 

night. Now the first watch of the night fell to the elder of the two 
princes, and my Master tells me that at this time the King and 
Queen went to their bed. 



6. Furthermore, my Master tells me : — 

The guard stood by, watching and warding the royal pair, and 
straight in front of them he saw a great python begin to lower 
itself from the ceiling. He fixed his eyes upon it, and as it 
approached the body of the Queen he ran up and struck at it with 
his sword. He hacked it into little pieces and thrust them under 
the bed. He then wrapped the blade of his sword in cotton-wool, 
and some of this he used to wipe the body of the Queen, " For," 
said he to himself, " haply some of the python's poison may have 
touched her." This, you must understand, was his sole and only 
reason for wiping her. But just then the King awoke, and he saw 
that his guard had come near him with a naked sword in his hand. 
By this time the period of his watch had passed, and the watch 
of the second guard was due. He approached, and the King said 
to him, " guard, what should be done to the man who is traitor 
to his lord ? " Replied the guard, " Sire, his head should be cut 
off, and he should be flayed alive. But, your Majesty, I would 
tell to thee a story. Prithee, lend thou me thine ear." 

7. Said the guardsman : — 

" Once upon a time there was a King. One day he went a-hunting 
all alone. He took with him his falcon, and when he had come to 
a certain spot he fell athirst, but could find no means of alleviation. 
A length he saw in one place a little moisture (on the face of a cliff). 
He thrust in his spear to make a hole, and pulled forth a cup from 
his pocket, which he filled with the water as it trickled forth. As 
he began to take it up to drink his falcon flew at him and upset it. 
So he filled the cup again, and was about to drink when again the 
falcon upset it. Poisonous anger rose in the heart of the King. The 
third time he filled the cup, holding it with his right hand, leaving 
his left arm free. Just as he began to drink, again came the falcon 



50 HATIMS SONGS AND STORIES [8- 

padshahan rutun latan thai hiteanas paka ze karyinas 
tan yi yeli mdrun pat? pyurus atat* vuny tresh 
chayen na gau vuch 1 ne at abas asi na kuna agur 
pakan chu padshah vot 1 jai akis vuchun at 1 shah 
mara ak shungit am 1 suy neran as u kan 1 lal yi ab 
as zahar yi chus vanan amis padshahas har ga kyey 
su padshah sa tresh ch^aye hye su marihye vunyai 
sargeh kari hye su padshah tas pazus ma marihe 
padshaham say che dalil sargi gatse karihy. 

8. muMyau amisund pahar tye au treyimi sund 
pahar ze gai panas byeth 1 padshah chu bedar dapan 
chu amis treyimis pah^ra valis dapan chus ai gulam 
yus akha agas pyeth dagai kato tas kya vaty e karun 
dop u nas phirit am 1 gulaman su gafee padshaham sang 
sar karun padshaham sargi gatee kariny bu vanai 
dalila fea thavum padshaham kan. 

9. dapan chus su as sodagar? ak su sodagar as 
seta bakhtavar tarn 1 siiy pyau muhyim tarn 1 siiy 
as hun byak sodagar a as dop u nas yi hun ma 
kan^han dop u nas kanan dop u nas karus mul kuranas 
mul rupia hat nyu sodagaran yi hun drau soda hyet 
vot jaye akis lajis rat rateli pyez feur nyu has yi 
mal hun chu vuchan am 1 kur 1 na kye ti sadau phul 
ghash sodagar gau bedar vuchun ta mal na kuni 
dapan chu yat kya gom au yi hun am 1 kar nas tap 
pushakas chus laman hun drau bro-bro pata-pata 
chus sodagar vate no vun maidanas akis manz 
vuchun at 1 feurau thau mut am 1 sund mal parze au 
vun anun panun mal yi asus ta ti beye as yimau 
Isurau bey en sodagaran hund nyumut titi anun 
vat^navun pananas deras gau seta khush dopun 



-9] VIII. THE TALE OF A KING 51 

and upset it. The King grasped the bird, and holding it under his 
feet tore off both its wings. As soon as he had killed it he was rilled 
with regret, and could not drink the water. He went to look for 
the source of the spring, and when he had found it he saw there 
a huge python lying asleep, and from its mouth spittle was dripping 
into the streamlet. The water was poisonous." And, added the 
guard to His Majesty, "If that King had drunk that water he would 
have died, and if he had only inquired into the matter beforehand 
he would not have killed the falcon. Sire, that is my story. Thou 
shouldst scrutinize before deciding." 

8. His watch also came to an end, and there came the third 
watch. The first two sat down to rest themselves, but the King 
was still wakeful, and he spoke to his third guard, saying, " guard, 
what should be done to him who showeth faithlessness to his 
lord ? " Said he in answer, " He should be stoned to death, but 
first, sire, investigation should be made. I would tell to thee a story. 
Lend thou me, sire, thine ear." 

9. Said the third guardsman : — 

" There was once upon a time a merchant blessed with all 
prosperity. But evil times befell him, so that he had naught 
left of his possessions but a dog. Another merchant asked him if 
he would sell it, and thereto did he agree. ' What is the price ? ' 
and they fixed it at a hundred rupees. So the second merchant 
paid the price and took away the dog. Shortly afterwards he went 
on a journey with some goods to do merchanting, and halted for 
the night at a certain place. In the night-time there came thieves 
and took away all his property. The dog watched them, but made 
no sound. When the morn blossomed forth the merchant awoke, 
and could not find his goods. While he was wondering what had 
befallen him, the dog came up and caught hold of his coat and pulled 
it. The dog led him out, going in front, while the merchant followed 
along behind. He brought him to a certain plain, and there he saw 
the spot where the thieves had stored his goods. He recognized 
them, and brought back to his lodging not only what had been 
taken from him, but all that these thieves had stolen from other 
merchants. He was filled with joy, and said to himself, ' That 

E 



52 HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES [10- 

tamis saudagaras tog u na amis hunis mul karun 
tamis as pyiimut muhim tami mukhe togus na. 

10. dapan vustad amis hunis kurun mul rupias 
panz hat lichin chit yi hay tinman amis hunis nal 
dop u nas fea gafe pananis kavandas nishin yi chit 
h?et gau hun vot nazdik amis sodagaras sodagaran 
vuch parze na vun yi hun dopun panenen bafeen 
dop u nak hun au phirit am 1 kur 1 k^a tany tahsir ami 
feunuk ka ! rit balki chus chalana nal sodagar gau 
phikri dopun vun kya kare rupia hat gom kharj 
kodun banduk lay^nas ta marun yeli marun ta ada 
phyurus gos nazdik bo vuch? ha amis kya kakad 
chu nal 1 yohay kuranas nala mufe^run ta vuchun 
at 1 lyukhmut rupias panz hat ad? phyurus seta 
padshaham say che dalil sargi gafee kariny harga 
hay su sodagar gudenyi vuch?he amis hunis kyah 
chu nal su hun ma marine gau amisund pahar. 

11. au feurimis gulamasanz dalil feurimis gulamas 
vanan padshah ai gulam yiis akha agas pyeth be 
vuphai ka^i tas kya vat 1 karun dop u nas gulaman 
padshaham tas gafei sar tsatun shehera manza dur 
kadun padshaham bu vanai dalila tsa tavum kan 
dopan chus gulam su as padshaha ak amis suy as 
nechiv za timanai moye panen 1 moj padshahan kar 
vurudz zanana sa gaye padshah zadan don vurfmoj 
padshah zada za as 1 sabakas tora ay amis vura maj 1 
niyak salam lalau niginau tram thavuk amis bont? 
kan 1 yim gai beye sabakas doha doha che karan 
padshah baye daj paneny ray kya dajis bo karaha 
yiman padshah zadan sa^h guna doha aki vunun 
yiman padshahzadan don me sa^h ka^u guna 



-11] VIII. THE TALE OF A KING 53 

merchant was not able to put the true value on his dog. Hard times 
had fallen on him, and he had to take what he could get." 

10. Moreover my Master said : — 

" He put the value of the dog at five hundred rupees, and wrote 
a note of hand to that amount. This he tied to the dog's neck, 
and told him to go home with it to his old master. The dog set 
forth and arrived at his old master's house. The latter saw him and 
recognized him. He said to his people, ' Here is this dog come back. 
No doubt he hath done some fault. Moreover, there is an invoice 
to that effect tied to his neck.' So he became filled with anxiety. 
' What,' cried he, * am I to do ? For I have spent the hundred 
rupees.' So he went and got a gun, fired it at the dog, and killed 
it. When he had killed it, he felt sorry and went up to look at 
the paper that was tied to its neck. When he took it off and 
opened it he saw written on it an order for five hundred rupees. 
Then, indeed, he felt very sorry. Your Majesty, that is my story. 
One should always scrutinize. If that merchant had first looked 
to see what was tied to the dog's neck he would not have killed it." 

With that the term of his watch expired. 

11. Now came the watch of the fourth guard, and this is his 
story. The King said to the fourth guard, " guard, what should 
be done to the man who is a traitor to his lord ? " Replied the 
guard, " Your Majesty, his head should be cut off, and he should 
be banished from the city. But, sire, I would tell thee a story. 
Lend thou me thine ear." 

And the fourth guardsman said : — 

" Once upon a time there was a King who had two sons. Their 
mother died, and the King made a second marriage, and thus gave 
the two princes a stepmother. While they were still at their lessons 
they brought her a tray filled with rubies and other jewels as a 
complimentary present. They laid it before her, and then went 
back to their lessons. They passed each day in this manner, and 
at length a design was aroused in the Queen. And this was her 
design. She said to herself, ' I would do sin with these young 
princes.' One day she said to them, ' Come ye and do sin with 



54 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [12- 

yimau duphas tea chak san? moj feyeta asi vat 1 na 
padshah zada gai sabakas padshah au darbar 
murkhas kaArit vot mahala kan padshah baya 
trupSnas darvaza darvaza ches na thavan dop u nas 
yi kyazi vufeus padshah bay dop u nas bu chasa 
chyan 1 kulai kina chanyen nechevin hanz dopunas 
padshahan ti kya gau dop u nas tim am lyekan 
padshah chus dapan vuny kya chu sala padshah 
bay ches dapan me gafee ta hanza valinja za tima 
khyema bo ada kya thavai darvaza padshahan 
dyut hukm vaziras dopunas yim shahzada za dik 
maravat^lan at 1 yiman karan valinja za gau vazir 
vot feat^hal yet 1 yim shahzada za as yiman kun 
karan nazar seta gas yim padshah zada za khush 
dilas pyos insaf dop u nak fealyu yami shah^ra 
dur fealy. 

12. dapan vustad marevatalan dyut hukam 
vaziran maryuk hun za maravat^lau mfc hun za 
ka ! rik yiman valinja za lazak takis manz gai hyet 
padshah baye thau darvaza padshah chu karan 
padshahi tat 1 . 

13. shahzada za ay fealan biyis padshahas nish 
padshahan ra 1 ^ yim gulam gudeiiyuk pahar au amis 
badis hihis shahzadas chu shama dazan pad^shaha 
sand 1 za bafe che palangas pyeth aramas yimaniy 
syud vasan chu shahmar yi gulam chu kadan 
shamsher amis shahmar as chu karan tukra ami 
pata chu shamsher 1 handis tyegas valan pamb amis 
padshah baye handis badanas as vutheran yi zahar 
amis shahmara sund dopun amis ma asim shahmara 
sund zahar as vutharany ta padshah gau bedar 



-13] VIII. THE TALE OF A KING 55 

me ' ; but they replied, ' Thou art our mother, between thee and us 
such may not be,' and then went off to their lessons. After this 
the King came home, when he had dismissed his court, and went 
to the harem ; but the Queen locked the door against him and 
refused to open it. Said he, * What meaneth this ? ' Then up and 
answered she, ' Is it of thee that I am the wife, or am I the wife 
of thy two sons ? ' Said the King, ' What is it that hath happened ? ' 
Said she, ' They came to me and asked of me indecent things.' 
Said he, ' What wouldest thou have me to do ? ' and she replied, 
' I must have their two hearts, that I may eat them. Then, and then 
only, will I open for thee the door.' So the King gave the command 
to his Vizier, and said to him, ' Make these two princes over to the 
executioners, that they may tear out both their hearts.' So the 
Vizier took his leave and came to the school where the princes were 
doing their lessons. He took one look at them and saw that they 
were both exceeding fair to behold, and pity filled his soul. He said 
to them, * Flee ye far from this city.' So they fled." 

12. And moreover my Master said : — 

" The Vizier told the executioners to kill two dogs. They did so, 
and tore out their hearts, which they placed upon a charger and 
carried to the Queen. Then she opened the door, and the King 
went in, and there did he sway his sceptre. 

13. " The two princes in their flight came to another King, who 
appointed them to be his bodyguards. The first watch of the night 
falls to the elder prince. A lamp is burning, and shows the King 
and Queen asleep upon their bed. Straight in front of them is 
descending a huge python. The guard draws his sword, and hacks 
it into little pieces. After this he wraps up the blade of his sword 
in cotton- wool, and some of this he uses to wipe off the python's 
poison from the body of the Queen. ' For,' said he to himself, 
4 haply some of the python's poison may be on her.' While he was 
still wiping her the King awoke. Said the King to himself, ' he hath 



56 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [14- 

dop padshahan yi am marani padshaham say che 
dalil har^gakyey su pad*shah sar* ka^rihe panenyen 
nechevin p^eth ma diyehe hukm mar&vatalan tuhy 
maryuk ada gai tim huna za mara padshaham agar 
bavar karak na su padfshah as sonuy mor yi 
padshah gak fea yi kya che shamsher at 1 kya chiy 
palangas thai shahmar ganyi ka^rit. 

14. seta gak padshah khush ak boy thavun vazir 
byak boy banavun padshah. 



-14] VIII. THE TALE OF A KING 57 

come to kill me.' Sire, that is my story. If that King had made 
inquiry he would not have ordered the executioners to kill his own 
sons, nor would those dogs have gone to death. Sire, if you believe 
not my story, then know that that King was our father, and this 
King wast thou. So, here is the sword, and there under the bed is 
the python cut to pieces." 

14. The King became mightily pleased on hearing this 
explanation. And one brother he made his Vizier, while the other 
he made a Pasha. 



58 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES [1- 

IX. GREST BAYE HANZ TA MASH TULARI- 

HANZ KAT 

1. Dapan vustad yi grest bay as feajamals kami 
bapat kardaran inuka daman asus kurmut zulm ami 
bapat che teajmate vate vanas akis manz otuy vateus 
mach tular amis ayi zaban dapan che amis gresta 
baye fea kyazi chak teajmafe dop u nas gresta baye 
m^e chu gamut zulm ami dop u nas pherit mach 
tulari m^e ti chu gamut zulm bo ches vadan tea 
thautam kan vanan mach tular grest baye kun. 

yi tai vesi paran pyimos karos zar^par i 
budai che sai mach tular vanuk janavar ii 

2. koh* kohay yura anyam asus ayal bar I 

balai pyiyen hapat ganas vanan teany nam lar n 

3. potyen tasanden a^nash kurun sahibo ayna ar I 
budai che sai mach tular vanuk janavar ii 

4. dapan amis gresta baye yi mach tular dop u nas 
yi hal kur nam vana manza hapatan vuny feajes 
vafeas gresta garas dapyam kare rahat vuch ta vuny 
kya kairim yi grost thau ta kan bu kya vanai. 

thanya matit kutha thaunam moteny chem 

band^nal I 
bagen* ayas grest garas sai mye gayem gal ii 

5. dratis sa^in kash* yeli fcet^am ka*tya katis 

mar i 
budai che sai mach tular vanuk janavar it 






-5] 59 

IX. THE TALE OF THE FARMER'S WIFE AND THE 

HONEY-BEE 

1. Saith my Master : — 

Here was a farmer's wife who had fled from her home. And why 
had she done this ? It was because the village overseer and the 
headman had shown her tyranny, and so she had fled. She reached 
a forest, and there there came a honey-bee. Behold, speech came to 
the honey-bee, and she saith to the farmer's wife, " Why hast thou 
fled ? " And she replied that tyranny had been shown to her. 
Then answered her the honey-bee, " I also have suffered tyranny, 
and therefore do I lament. Prithee, lend thou me thine ear." And 
thus speaketh the honey-bee to the farmer's wife : — 

Prithee hither come, my friend. Let us fall at God's feet, and 

make our prayers to Him. 
Lo, I am thy honey-bee, a poor winged creature of the forest. 

2. From hill to hill did I collect my flower-nectar, and become 

possessed of manifold progeny. 
May ruin seize that ruthless bear, for he it was that drove me to 
the forests. 

3. He utterly destroyed my little ones. God, why came there 

no pity to Thee ? 
Lo, I am thy honey-bee, a poor winged creature of the forest. 

4. Quoth the honey-bee to the farmer's wife, " Thus and thus 
was I driven from the forest by the bear, and now I fled. Then 
alighted I at a farmer's house, and he said unto me, ' I will give 
thee peace and comfort.' Behold what that farmer did unto me. 
Prithee, lend thou me thine ear. What shall I say unto thee ? " 
He made ready a hive as an abode for me, and rubbed it o'er with 

fresh butter. It became a prison of death for me. 
It was my fate that brought me to the farmer's house, and, of 
a truth, that fate was humiliation. 

5. With a sickle he cut off my honey-combs, and thereby there 
rose upon him the guilt of countless murders. 
Lo, I am thy honey-bee, a poor winged creature of the forest. 



60 HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES [6- 

6. moklau ami mach tulari vanit panun dad vu 
che dapan amis grest* baye chiyai kye gamut feati 
van vanan che vo vanan grest* bay dapan ches boz 
m^e kya zulm chu gamut. 

azal chavun chu samsaras chetal vasan 1 jai i 
budai chesai grest* bay yor nai rozan 1 ay ii 

7. sonta yeli mut^sa^h 1 grestren dilasa dina hai ay i 
mudr^au kathau yera barak zalas valena ay H 

8. harde vize dard motuk layine tim hai ay i 
budai chesai grest* bay yor nai rozan 1 ay ii 

9. yim phal vavim maje zemini tim hai papit ay i 
sumbrit sa^it kalas ka^rim hata bud 1 kharis dray ii 

10. chakla chakla mukadam ta patevar 1 tolani tim 

hai ay i 
budai chesai grest? bay yor nai rozan 1 ay ii 

11. aziz ta miskin kai t y a visyai halam dar dar ay I 
halam dit^mak mebar bari suy chu muklan pay ii 

12. kalama sa^in savab likhan yit^nai lagik gray i 
budai chesai greste bay yor nai rozan 1 ay ii 



-12] 



IX. FARMERS WIFE AND HONEY-BEE 



61 



6. So finished that honey-bee the story of her pain, and now 
saith she to that farmer's wife, " If aught hath happened unto thee, 
do thou also tell it." Then speaketh the farmer's wife and saith 
to her, " Hear what hath happened unto me." 

Each soul must dree its weird, and there is a place below to 

which it must descend. 
Lo, I am thy farmer's wife. We came not to this world as an 

abiding place. 

7. In the spring the tax-gatherers came to the farmers with soft 

encouragement. 
With sweet words did they fill their bellies, and enclosed them 
as in a net. 

8. In the autumn they forgot all their kindness. They it was who 

came to beat us. 
Lo, I am thy farmer's wife. We came not to this world as an 
abiding place. 

9. Crops sowed I in mother earth, and they it was that sprung up 

and ripened. 
I collected and piled them on the threshing-floor, hundreds of 
kharwdrs l in weight. 

10. From village-circuit to village-circuit to weigh the produce 

came the headman and the accountant. 
Lo, I am thy farmer's wife. We came not to this world as an 
abiding place. 

11. How many of the poor and needy, friend, came as beggars 

holding out their lap-cloths ! 
Their skirts I filled and filled, for that giveth an assurance of 
salvation. 

12. The recording angels will write down with their pens the reward 

of these good actions, so that they may ne'er be shaken. 
Lo, I am thy farmer's wife. We came not to this world as an 
abiding place. 

1 A kharwdr weighs about a hundredweisrht and a half. 



62 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES [1- 

X. RAJA VIKARMAJITENY KAT 

1. dapan vustad mahnyiu feor as 1 pakan vat 1 ak 
broho maidan at 1 maidanas yeli hyiituk pakun lag 1 
vaneni panevany talau van^o dalila yim maidan 
karony pata kan 1 ak byak shahfea amis dopuk tea 
vanta dalila yi maidan muk a lava hun am 1 dop u nak 
pherit boh a sa vanemo v dalil dalil hasa vanemau 
kathe panfe panfeen kathen gafee nam din 1 rupias 
panfe hat yimau dop u has pherit feor hat dimoi feor 
zan 1 panfeyum hat gai panenuy vanse kathe panfe 
dop u nak. 

dyar hase chu safrras i 

yar hase chu na asanas ii 
ash^nav hasa chu asanas i 

gaye tre kathe beye ze kathe hasa chyau 

sa zanana chyauvna paneny i 
yesa na asi panes sa^h ii 
beye hasa 

yus ratas bedar rozi I 

suy hasa za ! ni raje Vikarmajitehy kur n 

vanye nak yima kathe panfe yim chus dapan van 
sa dalil yi chuk dapan me hasa vaiiye mov kathe 
panfe mil e vuk ladai yim chus dapan rupias feor hat 
nyit dalil kye vanyit na ma £ dan chu vuiiye pakenai 
amis layuk yimau feorau za*nyau am 1 dop u nak pakyu 
sa yeti kis padshahas nish yisu dapi ti karau. 



■1] 63 



A 



X. THE TALE OF RAJA VIKRAMADITYA l 

1. This is what my Master saith to me : — 

Four men were once going along the road, and they came to a 
wide open plain. As they entered it they began to say to each 
other, " Come, let us tell a story to while away the journey across 
the plain." After a time they were joined by another man, and they 
asked him to tell a story to help the journey along. Said he, " Sirs, 
I will tell you a story. Moreover, sirs, as a story I will tell you five 
things, 2 but for the five things you must pay me five hundred 
rupees." Replied they, " We are four, and will give thee four 
hundred. The fifth hundred must be paid by thee as the fifth of 
us. So tell us, prithee, sir, the five things." Said he to them : — 
V Money, sirs, is for a journey. 

A friend, sirs, is for when there is no money. 

A near relation, sirs, is for when there is money. 
That makes three things, and, sirs, there are two others : — 

Thou canst only call thy wife thine own so long as she be 
with thee. 
And, again, sirs : — 

He only will win Raja Vikramaditya's daughter 

Who keepeth awake by night." 
When he told them these five things, they say to him, " Now, 
sir, tell a story." But he replies, " I have told you, sirs, the five 
things." At this they began to quarrel. Cry they, " You have 
taken our four hundred rupees ; but, sir. you have not told us 
any story. We have not yet got across the plain." So the four 
gave him a drubbing. Then he made this proposal, " Come, sirs, 
to the King of this country, and let us abide by what he says." 

1 The Indian monarch of glorious, pious, and immortal memory. He is 
throughout entitled "Raja", as opposed to the Musalman word " Padshah " 
used for the real hero of the stor\\ In translating I retain "Raja" 
unchanged, and translate "Padshah" by "King". 

2 The whole of the subsequent quarrel depends on the double meaning of 
the word kath, which like the Hindi bat means not only "story" but also 
" statement" and " thing ". The four thought they were buying five stories, 
but the fifth was only selling five statements. I translate kath by " thing ", as 
the nearest English word with a similar indefinite meaning. On the other 
hand I translate dalll by " story ". Its meaning is not indefinite. 



64 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES [2- 

2. dapan vustad vat 1 padshahas nish d?ut pheryad 
feorau zatoyau dop u has padshaham yim shakhfean 
khyaiy asi rupias feor hat dopun vanemo u kathe 
panfe padshahan dop amis shakhtsas van^sa kya 
vunthak yi votus pherit padshaham bo vanai kathe 
panfe rupias panfe hat gafee nam din? ada vanai bo 
kathe panfe padshahan ka 1 ^ rupias panfe hat dithin 
amis shakhfeas yim katon yim band pane katon 
kama am 1 padshahan padshahihund poshak travun 
gadoi yiye hund poshak porun beye gandin lal*sat 
gandin mafe y e drau yima kathe panfe sar kar*ni. 

3. dapan vustad gudehy drau behye handis 
shah^ras kun gur chus khasun vot 1 yeli n^azik at 
benye handis shahfras lazun sheen? amis behye me 
kya chu pyftmut mohim bo kya yimaha tor 1 ami 
lazanas benye phut pherit sheen? me kya rozan 
pama var?vis manz phut pherit lazanas beye sheen? 
me yeli na bani tor 1 yun toUi gaferem ladun napfeas 
k^efea lade hamai tat gafee gand karun p^etha 
gafe^es mohar kareny paneiiy ami kar behye kama 
lodun panenye kyenzi bata hana ya fe^ut ya shufe 
p^etha kar^nas paneiiy mohar korun revana amis 
bayis tarn 1 yeli vuch benye hanz mohar rotun at 1 
thavun dabavit. 

4. drau yarisanzi vat 1 yeli vot nyazik sozun amis 
mahhyu yar hasa ay padshahi chesna so hasa chiy 
mohim zad yaran yeli boz drau vot amis yaras nish 
dapan chus ha yara katfi goham yor paMa pakan 
chi dunuvai. amis as miskini hund poshak nal? 
dapan chus yar yi kaMi shahi ditta m^e yi myon 



-4] X. THE TALE OF RAJA VIKRAMADITYA 65 

2. Saith my Master : — 

They went to the King and the four laid their complaint before 
him. " This fellow," said they, " hath cheated us to the tune of 
four hundred rupees, for he promised to tell us five things." 
The King asked him, " What was it that thou saidst to them ? " 
And he up and replied, " Sire, I will tell thee the five things, but 
thou must pay me for them rupees five hundred. Then, and 
only then, can I tell these five things to thee." So the King sent 
for five hundred rupees, and gave them to him. (After he had 
told them) he tied up the money in his pouch, and the King did 
a deed. He doffed his royal garments, and donned those of 
beggary. Then he tied seven rubies under his arm and went forth 
to test these five things. 

3. Moreover my Master said : — 

First of all he went to the city where dwelt his sister. He mounted 
his horse, and when he arrived there he sent her this message, 
" I am fallen into poverty ; so what else could I do but come to 
thee." And this was the word which she sent back, " Verily, I 
shall be put to shame in my father-in-law's house (if thou come to 
me)." Again he sent her these words in answer, "If it be not 
possible for me to come to thee, thou shouldst at least send me 
somewhat wherewith to fill my belly ; and if thou send it, fasten 
thou it up carefully, and set thine own seal upon it." So this sister 
did a deed. She sent him a little rice in her bowl — it may have been 
orts, or it may have been fresh food. Upon it she set her own seal, 
and despatched it to her brother. As soon as he saw his sister's 
seal he accepted it, and there and then he buried it and hid it in 
the ground. 

4. Then he set forth upon the road to his friend. When he came 
near he sent a man on to say, " My friend, I am come to thee. 
I have no more royal state, for I have been struck by the blow of 
poverty." And when his friend heard this he went forth and came 
to his friend, and cried, " Ah, my friend ! Wherefore hast thou 
come to show thyself here (so far from my door) ? " So together 
the two walk on. As they walked the friend seeth that the 
King is clothed in the weeds of poverty, and saith to him, " My 



66 HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES [5- 

poshak feuntha fea yi as*na boz&na yi chu amis 
miskinl hund poshak yi as boz*na kal*ti shahl kami 
mukha mahabat sa^h gau va^t 1 yarasund gara 
yaran kiir*nas ziafat lay^ka padshah sap^nyes 
ottany za katha sar. 

5. drau vuny zanana handis shah*ras kun vot 
at sheharas and kun at 1 as bud zanana byut 
amisandi ga^i dopun amis buje zanana ditam drot 
bu ana yamis guris kn^ut gasa drau gasa anani 
vuchun at 1 gasa maidana at? chu lonan yi as rakh 
padshahasunz as ladan tahaly nyuk ratit pananis 
me j eras nish koruk kad rat aye amis chu gafean 
paMa zanana ak amis mejeras ziafat h^et yi chu 
bihit palangas p^eth ziafat thaunas bont? kan 1 at 1 
vat 1 khyeni don? vai hana h*reyek yi dyutuk amis 
kaMis kurhas alau hato ka*dyau yi khyau sa^ny 
feethan kaM rut khyan at 1 chu panani jaye behit 
yimau doyau kar tamis kuri at palangas phut tar 
kuruk alau amis kaMis 1sa vuch ta yat palangas 
phut tar Isima tagi am 1 dop u nak phirit any tagimna 
hamsai chyum ch^an dophas vula vot ot amis 
zanana parza nau panun khavand am 1 as parza nau 
mufe bront yeli yi battahan dife* has yi zanana che 
dapan amis mejeras vuny kya karau yi chu myon 
khavand yi gafee marun ratas rat hukm dyiitun 
maravatelan dop u nak niyun yi kaM gafee marun 
valinje galsyes yur* anan^ nyuk yi ka*d shahfras 
nebar am 1 dyut*nak saval ntfe trav^oh yela bo 
chalaha ata but Khudayas kun karaha zara par 
travuk yela vuchan ah* hana cholun atih ata but 



-5] X. THE TALE OF RAJA VIKRAMADITYA 67 

friend, prithee present me with this royal robe that thou dost wear, 
and put on my poor garment instead thereof." For he looked upon 
the King's garb not as the garb of beggary, but thought of it as a 
royal robe. And wherefore that ? It was because of the love he 
bare him. They went on and reached the friend's house, and there 
the friend made him a feast — such a feast as one should lay before 
a King. 

In this way the King had tested two of the things. 

5. Then went he forth to the city where dwelt his wife. When 
he had reached the outskirts he made his lodging in the house of an 
old woman, and asked of her a sickle that he might cut grass for his 
horse. So he went out to fetch the fodder, and came to a mead 
where he began to cut the grass. Now this mead was in the home 
farm of the king of that land, and the grooms ran up and seized 
him, and carried him to their officer, the Master of the Horse. 
They shut him up in prison, and when night fell he seeth a woman 
coming along with a dish of dainty meats for the Master of the 
Horse. He was sitting on a bedstead. She laid the dish before him, 
and they both sat down upon the floor to eat it. A few scraps 
remained over, and these they gave the prisoner. They called to 
him, " Ho, thou prisoner, eat thou these scraps and orts of ours." 
The prisoner accepted them and ate. And while he remained 
sitting by himself the two clipped and toyed together till the joint 
of the bedstead broke. Again they called to the prisoner, " Prithee 
see, the joint of this bed hath broken. Haply thou hast wit enough 
to mend it." He answered, a Yea, why should I not have wit 
therefor ? My neighbours are carpenters." Said they, " Come 
hither." So he came, and then the woman recognized him as her 
own husband ; though he had recognized her before when they gave 
him the scraps of food. So saith she to the Master of the Horse, 
" What now are we to do ? This is my husband, he must be killed 
this very night of nights." So the Master of the Horse gave his 
command to the executioners, " Take ye away this prisoner. He 
must be slain. Bring ye us back his heart." So they led him 
forth outside the city, and to them made he a petition. " Let me 
free," quoth he, " that I may wash my hands and face and make 
my prayers to God before I die. So they loosed his bonds, and he 



68 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES [6- 

Khuda sabas kun korun zara par ata p^os yiman 
lalan satan p^eth yim taU asis gand^maty 1 mafea 
yiman dopun maravaMan feun hata sa mye travyu 
yela nom chu lal sat 1sor chu tohyi feun zan^eri tre 
chu myen tohi nish. 

6. ot u tany ka^in tsor kathe sare panfeim kath 
gayas mashit au vot panen gara beye vanan chu 
timan panfeen zanen vanyu sa kya van^au tohyi 
pants kathe yi votus phot pherit padshaham kafee 
kathe ka*rit sare dop u nak padshahan feor kathe 
yimau dophas kusa kusa dop u nak padshahan. 
as 1 nav ch^a paz 1 pa^thy asanas I 

yar chu na asanas titi puzuy ii 
zanana sa chena paneny yasina panas sa^h che 
titi puzuy I 

dyar che bakar safaras titi puzuy ii 
yima tedr kathe karimau sar vuny van^um panfeyum 
kath dop u nas am 1 shakhfean phut pherit rupiya hat 
gafeyem dyun dyutanas padshahan dop u nas. 

yus ratas bedar rozi I 

suy zyani raje Vikarmajiteny kur n 

7. padshahan kar kam lagun fakir gau vot raja 
Vikarmajitun gara nazar bazau kar nazar khabar 
darau niye khabar amis rajas dop u has raja saba 
fakira ak gomut pa^da yohoi dapan bu z^enan rajas anz 
kur raja vanan chuk phut pherit az tany ka^ya 
raja zada gamaty atye mare vun gau yi fakir havalay 
Khuda ada ya lasa ya mari gafeyu kha^yun kuthis 
manz yat 1 yi rajasunz kur as palang travhas sherit 
khut fakir palangas pyeth amis khatuni ditsan zyer 



-7] X. THE TALE OF RAJA VIKRAMADITYA 69 

found a little water, wherein he washed his hands and face, and made 
his prayers to God, the Master. As he thus did his hands fell upon 
the seven rubies that he had tied beneath his arm when setting forth 
upon his journey. Then said he to the executioners, " sirs, let 
ye me go free. Here be these seven rubies. Keep ye four of them, 
one for each of you four, and keep the remaining three for me." 

6. In this way he had tested four of the things, but the fifth he 
had forgotten. So he returned home, and asketh the five men, 
" Sirs, tell ye me what those five things were." Then up and 
answered that man, " Sire, how many of these things hast thou 
tested ? " Quoth he, " Four." " Which ones ? " they asked. 
Said the King: — 

" True is it — a near relation is for when there is money. 
True also is it — a friend is for when there is no money. 
True also is it — thou canst only call thy wife thine own so long 

as she be with thee. 
True also is it — money is useful on a journey. 

These four things that ye told me have I tested. Now tell ye me 
the fifth." Replied that man to him, " A hundred rupees must thou 
give me." The King gave it, and he said : — 

" He only will win Raja Vikramaditya's daughter 
Who keepeth awake by night." 

7. And the King did a deed. He put on the garb of a mendicant 
faqir. He went forth and reached Raja Vikramaditya's palace. 
The discerners then discerned him, and the newsmen gave the news 
to the Raja. Said they, " Your Majesty, there hath appeared a 
faqir, and he saith, ' The Raja's daughter I would win,' " And the 
Raja said to them in answer, " Up to to-day, how many princes 
have gone to their death ! Now hath this faqir committed himself 
to God, that He may decide whether he live or die. Go ye, and lead 
ye him up to the chamber." And in the chamber where was the 
Raja's daughter, a bed was ready spread. The faqir climbed up 
upon it, and gave the lady a push. He conversed with her, and 



70 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [8- 

ka^in amis sa^th kathe kathe katot karun kam at 
poshakas korun shakal insan hish pane drau dur 
pahan byut naz^ri shama chu dazan amis khatuni 
handi shik^ma manza drau azhda teau at poshakas 
manz yat yi am 1 fakiran yinsan h^u kurmut as yiy 
chu donan teapy h^evan at 1 yelina insan as beye teau 
yi azhda amis khatuni shikmas manz am 1 fakiran 
kar sargi balai che amis khatuni handis shikmas 
manz nebar k^e che na au fakir vot beye at palangas 
nishi khatuni difean zer kathe ka^rin amis sa^h at 
poshakas korun beye insan h^u gau beye fakir 
byut duri pahan. shama chu dazan 1 athas k?et kadin 
shamsher amis khatuni handi shikma manza log 
na^ini yi azhda log at poshakas manz ateani tujen 
shamsher chu amis azhdahas kat e ran morun ka^inas 
ganye teunun at 1 palangas tal khut pane at palangas 
p^eth shamsher difean shand ta shung. 

8. rat gaye ada subu log yini raja Vikarmajitan 
dop mar*vatelan gafe^u yi fakir asi momut yohoi 
valyun az tany kaHya raja zada gamaty mar a ta yi 
ti asi momut karty at kutis manz vuchuk fakir vare 
kare zindai nazar bazau kar nazar khabar darau 
niye khabar rajas dop has raja sa fakir chu zindai 
raja sab khut pane at kutis manz karan chu mubarak 
amis fakiras dapan chus fakira tea vante k^eta pa^y 
bachok dapan chus fakir bedar rdzana sa^th raja sa 
kar nazar palangas tal rajan kar nazar vuchun 
palangas tal balaya ak trau mute fakiran ma^it 
dapan chu fakir amis rajas zaban kyah che karmute 
raja chus dapan puz chu Khuda chu kunuy fakir 



-8] X. THE TALE OF RAJA VIKRAMADITYA 71 

when they had finished conversing he did a deed. He folded his 
garments into the shape of a man, and went a short way off and 
sat down to watch. A lamp was burning, and by its light he saw 
a python issue from the lady's mouth. 1 It entered the garments 
which he had folded into the shape of a man. It shook them, and 
bit them over and over again, but when it found that there was no 
man within them, it retreated and again entered the lady's mouth. 
In this way did the faqir satisfy himself by his perscrutation that 
it was within the lady that there was an evil calamity dwelling, 
and that there was nought else outside her. Up came the faqir 
to the bed. He gave the lady a push, and held converse with her. 
He made his garments again into the shape of a man, and again 
went away a short distance to sit and watch. A lamp was burning, 
and in his hand he held his drawn sword. The python issued from 
the lady's mouth, and began to enter the garments. He raised his 
sword and smote it to pieces and slew it. He cut it into gobbets 
and thrust them under the bed. Then he climbed himself upon 
the bed, laid the sword beneath the pillow, and fell asleep. 

8. The night came to an end, and dawn began to come, and to 
the executioners said Raja- Vikramaditya, "Go ye. This faqir 
is surely dead. Bring him too down, as ye did the others. Up to 
to-day how many princes have gone to their death, and he, too, 
must have died ! " They went up into the chamber, and saw the 
faqir alive and safe and sound. The discerners then discerned 
him, and the newsmen gave the news to the Raja. Said they, 
" Your Majesty, that faqir is of truth alive." His Majesty, the 
Raja, himself ascended to the chamber, and made him gratulations, 
crying, " faqir, tell me, prithee, how thou didst escape." Quoth 
the faqir, " By remaining awake. Your Majesty, cast thou a glance 
below the bed." The Raja looked, and there saw he the calamity 
as the faqir had thrust it after he had killed it. Said the faqir 
to the Raja, " What was the promise made by thee ? " And quoth 
the Raja, " True it is. There is no God but the one God." Then 

1 Literally, "belly," but as the python certainly came out via the mouth 
I use a word more suitable for Western ears when dealing with a lady. 



72 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [9- 

chus dapan yi hasa chay at 1 paneny kur ma disa 
panun nishana difeanas vaj amis fakiras fakirasanz 
vaj rat am 1 raj an. 

9. drau fakir vot panun shahar fakiri hund 
zhama feunun ka ! rit padshah! hund poshak purun 
dyiitun hukum lashka^i neru sa m^e sa^h. 

10. dapan vustad gudeiiyi gau at benye handis 
shaharas yi padshah ti as baja taran ami suy 
padshahas anyin beiiye paniny thaunas bont^ ka ! ni 
sa tami dohuch ziafat yat tami benye mohar asus 
pyetha karmufe dapan chus yi ch^a mohur chany 
dop u nas pherit myenyiy che dapan chus yi padshah 
buy kya gas tami dohuk miskin paz pa^y chu 
ashnau asanas. 

11. hifean amis padshahas ti lashkar dyiitun 
kadam yarasund kun vot yaras nish yaran kar 
ziafat yiman don padshahiyan kite. rat kaduk at^ 
suban dray. 

12. dyiitun kadam at h7ahara sandis shaharas 
kun anan nad dit amis padshahas dapan chus anuk 
sa tahaly timau chu ch^anye rakh^e manza feur 
rutmut su kati chuk thaumut anik tahal 1 dop hak 
yus tohi feur rutu rakhi manza su kati chu thaumut 
yimau vun padshaham asi chu kurmut havale panenis 
afsaras mejaras anuk mejar dop has nomau tahaly au 
kuruy havala feur su kati thavut yi chuk dapan 
mye dyut na tahal chus karan gavai padshaham asi 
kur takhit amis havala dop u nak am 1 padshahan yus 
tami doho fakir lagit as suy chuk dapan anyuk 
maravatal feor tim vanan panai anik tim dapan 



-12] X. THE TALE OF RAJA VIKRAMADITYA 73 

said the faqlr to him, " Here, sire, is this thy daughter. Sire, 
give thou me the token (that I may claim her as my wife)." Then 
gave the Raja his ring to the faqir, and took in exchange the faqlr's 
ring from him. 

9. Then departed the faqlr and came to his own city. He put 
off his mendicant's weeds and clothed himself in royal robes. He 
gave the command to his army to set forth with him. 

10. And my Master said : — 

First of all went he to his sister's city. The king, her husband, 
was one of those that paid him tribute. He had his sister brought 
to him, and put before her the bowl of food that she had sent to 
him on that day, and on which she had set her seal. Quoth he to 
her, " Is this thy seal ? " Replied she, " Mine it is." Then said 
to her the King, "It is I who was the beggar-man of that day. 
True it is that a near relation is for when there is money." 

11. He took the army of that king also with him, and turned his 
footsteps towards his friend. And the friend made a feast in honour 
of the royalty of both these kings. The night they passed there, 
and at dawn they again set forth. 

12. He turned his footsteps towards the city of his father-in- 
law. He sent for that king and said to him, " Prithee, send thou 
for thy grooms. They have caught a thief in the mead of thy 
home farm. Where have they put him ? " They brought the 
grooms. Quoth he to them, " Where did ye put that thief whom 
ye seized in the mead of the home farm ? " Said they, " Sire, we 
made him over into the hands of our officer, the Master of the 
Horse." They brought before him the Master of the Horse. They 
said to him, " These grooms made over to thy custody a certain 
thief. Where hast thou put him ? " But he denied that he had seen 
him. Then the grooms gave testimony, " Sire, of a surety, we did 
make him over to this man's custody." Then quoth the King — 
the one who formerly had been dressed as a faqlr — " bring ye the 
four executioners. They themselves will say what hamoened." 



74 HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES [13- 

chuk yi padshah tohi nish chu amanat tas fakirasund 
su diyu yury yimau maravatalau kar kam kaMik 
yim lal sat thavik padshahas bont? kani satau manza 
tulin teor ka^inak havala dop u nak yim kam 1 asyu 
dyitamaty dop u has fakiran ak 1 tarn 1 kami bapat su 
as dyut^mut yem 1 mejaran marana bapat dapan chu 
padshah amis mejaras kun me chuk na parzenavan 
buy kya gos su fakir yus ka^d ostan kurmut gudeny 
ayi sa khatun ziafat h^et kheyau yek ja h^r^au fe^ut 
kuru me alau dopum volo ksMyau yi kh?au son teut 
tarn 1 pata as bo rot m^e khyau tarn 1 pata karu murde 
maza^ry phutu palangas tar kuru me alau tea ma 
zanak yat palangas vat ka^it me dop u mau any 
zanena ham saye chum ch^an palangas dyiit u mau 
vat kaMt am 1 panen^e zanana parzanavus dop u nai 
feye yii chu myon khavand yi chu amut fakir lagit 
yi gafee ratas rat marun kur thas havala noman 
marevatelan yiman au ar myon yimau trau has 
yele yiman ditim lal sat teor ditim feun zanen tre 
thaymak amanat ya*ty kya chyum tim lal tre teor 
chim dyiitmat noman feuan zanen ye*ty kya chiiy 
tim ti kolnas zima tahsir. 

13. dapan vustad dyiitun hukum panenye 
lashka^i kodun yi mejar ti paneny zanana ti 
khanenavun khod teananavin don u vai at khudas kar 
naviny kanye kan at 1 chu lekhan sahibi kitab 

shrak sarp makhri zan bevopha i 

14. drau at 1 phirit yi padshah vot at 1 raja 
Vikarmajitun gara divan che rajas khabar padshah 
chu amut paneneny bafean raja chuk dapan sa cha 



-14] X. THE TALE OF RAJA VIKRAMADITYA 75 

They brought them, and the King said to them, " Ye have in trust 
a deposit made by that faqir, give ye it here and now." Then those 
executioners dioVa deed. They brought forth those seven rubies 
and laid them before the King. He took up four of them, and 
gave them to them, as he said, " Who gave you these ? " Quoth 
they, " A certain faqir." " And for what purpose ? " " This 
Master of the Horse had made him over to us to be slain." Then 
said the King to the Master of the Horse, " Dost thou not recognize 
me ? It is I who am that faqir whom thou didst imprison. At 
first came that lady to thee with a dish of dainty meats. Ye ate 
together, and some scraps and orts remained over and above. 
You gave a shout and called to me, ' Come, thou prisoner, eat thou 
these scraps and orts of ours.' So I came and took and ate. 
After that you clipped and toyed together, till the joint of the bed 
became broken. You gave a shout and called to me, ' Haply, 
dost thou know how to mend this bed ? ' and I replied to you, 
* Yea, why should I not know ? My neighbours are carpenters/ 
I mended for you the bed, and my wife saw that it was I. Said she 
to thee, ' This is my husband, he must be killed this very night 
of nights.' Thou gavest me into the hands of these executioners, 
and to them came compassion for me, and they let me go free. I 
gave them seven rubies. Four gave I, one for each of the four, 
and three I left with them in deposit for me. Now, here I have 
these three rubies, and four have I just now given to these four men. 
There, in their hands, are they also for thee to see." And in this 
way was his guilt proved against him. 

13. And moreover my Master told me : — 

He gave the order to his army. He dragged forth the Master of 
the Horse and his own wife. He had dug a pit and had them both 
cast into it, and had them stoned with stones until they died. On 
this subject verily a master of books hath written : — 

Treacherous are a knife, a serpent, and the coquetry of a woman. 

14. Thenceforth went again the King and came again to 
Raja Vikramaditya's palace. Then gave they the news to the Raja, 
" A king hath come and asketh for his wife." Then said the Raja, 



76 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [14- 

fakirasunz padshahasunz che ne padshah chus dapan 
buy gos su fakir m^e nish chu ch^on nishana fe^e 
nishi chu my on nishana dapan chus raja tarn 1 dohuch 
fakiri kya gaye azich padshahi kyah gaye dapan 
chus padshah me asa hefeamafea kathe pante timai 
asus sar karan tarn 1 asum lag u mut fakir raj an 
kar kam ditinas sa^th paneiiy bate drau vot panenis 
sheh*ras manz chu karan raj. — vu salama vu ikram. 



-14] X. THE TALE OF RAJA VIKBAMADITYA 11 

" Of a faqlr she is the wife, not of a king." Quoth the King to him, 
" Verily, I am no other than that faqir. I have with me thy token, 
and thou hast with thee mine." Quoth the Raja to him, " What 
meant the faqirhood of those days, and what meaneth the royalty 
of to-day ? " Said the King to him, " I had bought five things, 
and them was I testing, and therefore dressed I myself as a faqlr." 
Then the Raja did a deed. He gave the King his wife to be with him. 
The King went forth and came to his own city, and there he swayed 
the sceptre of his rule. This is the end, and may peace and honour 
attend ye all. 



78 BATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES [1- 

XI. FORSYTH SAHIBAN SHAR YELI 
YARKAND ZENENI GAU 

Yi m^e dyot mai tih gate ta bozan i 

Yarkand anon zenan 11 1 

gudeny dup malkanye kus ka ! ri yohoi kar 

Forsat chu zoravar i 
raje be Yarkand baj> gate taran 

Yarkand anon zenan ii & 

Landana p^etha Yarkand yimau kur tai 

maushur ha feopor gai i 
gudeny Son* marga chavan posha madan 

Yarkand h 3 

huk u ma mah a raj Buttanis bro drau 

Balti turn age jao i 
piche jao Kashmir nale chalan 

Yarkand n 4 

rasat sai feopor karhai tarfan 

guda lug Maraj pargan I 
tim vadan as 1 kot lag 1 gar zan 

Yarkand ii 5 

timan Butta garan Kashir 1 thavik 

Butta bay broh n^avik I 
gur bat 1 dakas zumba che gasa saran 

Yarkand ii & 



-6] 



79 



XI. THE SONG OF FORSYTH SAHIB WHEN HE WENT 
TO CONQUER YARKAND. 

The Mission of Sir Douglas Forsyth across the Hindukush to 
Kashgar took place in 1873-4. It passed through Kashmir, where 
people were collected to serve in the camp. Sdbir, the author of this 
poem, describes the events attending the impressment of these camp- 
followers. He evidently believes that it was a military expedition 
to conquer Yarkand. 

1. What I have seen, to that attend and thou shalt hear. 
" Yarkand will we conquer for ourselves." 

2. First, said the Queen of England, " Who can do this work ? 
A mighty man is Forsyth." To him she gave the order, " Seat 
thyself upon the throne of Yarkand as its king, and from it levy 
thou tribute. Yarkand will we conquer for ourselves." 

3. They who wielded the sceptre of authority from London 
unto Yarkand became famous over all the world. First halted they 
in Sonamarg 1 to enjoy the delight of the flower-meads. " Yarkand 
will we conquer for ourselves." 

4. Ahead went the order of the Maharaj of Kashmir to Tibet. 2 
" Ye Baltis, advance ye and then hasten ye to Kashmir bringing 
passports with ye. Yarkand will we conquer for ourselves." 

5. The order for their assembling issued forth on all sides, and 
at first the people were collected in Maraz. 3 Lamenting were they 
and crying " Poor ignorant souls, whither are we come ? " " Yarkand 
will we conquer for ourselves." 

6. In houses of these Tibetans were Kashmiris quartered, and 
the brothers of Tibet were sent forward in advance. Horses were 
stationed for the post, and yaks for collecting and piling grass. 
" Yarkand will we conquer for ourselves." 

1 A celebrated upland in the Sindh Valley of Kashmir, famous for the 
beauty of its wild flowers. 

2 i.e. Little Tibet or Baltistan. The people of this country are excellent 
carriers. They are represented as being despatched in droves to the 
rendezvous in Kashmir. They are furnished with passports or certificates of 
dispatch. 

3 One of the two divisions — Maraz and Kamraz — of the Valley of Kashmir. 
Maraz is the southern part of the valley, on both sides of the River V6th above 
Srlnagar. 



80 HATIMS SONGS AND STORIES [7- 

ba rai khumba khas zananan clie sumb^ran 

zyiinte gase vartavan i 
aja ase pyav^la kye ase dujan 

Yarkand 11 7 

gur 1 manga nav^ai kukar gaman 

chuh karun yimna zanan i 
hari hari karan asi timan pakfuavan 

Yarkand n 8 

kal? kan 1 dumbij ches lati kan? lakam 

gasa raz kanyek mah kam i 
gasa gandi ta zache zin pa^it soira saman 

Yarkand ii * 9 

rasat kaftan anyhai nan gar 

mat 1 chuk pan paneny kar I 
gyaja ka*rik kralan gudeny l^eja saran 

Yarkand ii 10 

kraje dup* khavandas na dana kralau 

kathu kit konda valau i 
kam hau che pak*vany a^mi gafeu travan 

Yarkand ii 11 

gur dop u gur baye donovai nerau 

gau kite jay sherau I 
vudye pyeth hye gasu lau gau gatean laran 

Yarkand ii 12 

kunya kyet duda nut vari hyet ba^i drau 

lokan chu safarun thau 1 
takit duda gur janHuk bagvan 

Yarkand ii 13 



-13] XL THE SONG OF FORSYTH SAHIB 81 

7. Women were collected to help in distributing straw and fire- 
wood. Some of them were fresh from childbed, and others were 
heavy with child. " Yarkand will we conquer for ourselves." 

8. Horses were demanded from villages that had naught but 
fowls. Their drivers knew not how to say "tchk", and could say 
only "har 1 har 1 '," l as they urged them along. "Yarkand will we 
conquer for ourselves. " 

9. When they harnessed a horse they turned the crupper towards 
its head, and hung the bridle by its tail. Grass ropes did they use 
for strong binding-straps. 2 All the appliances that they had were 
pack-saddles 3 of straw and saddles made of rags. " Yarkand will 
we conquer for ourselves." 

10. Menial cultivators were impressed in proportion to the size 
of each village, and on the shoulder of each was laid the burden of 
some special duty. Like bundles of grass were they crowded 
together, as they carried cooking pots for the potters. " Yarkand 
will we conquer for ourselves." 

11. Said the potter's wife to the potter, " potter, thou art 
a fool. What need have we to put pots into the kiln ? The business, 
dear, is a travelling one, and we must leave all uncooked food 
behind us (and bring with us our food ready cooked)." " Yarkand 
will we conquer for ourselves." 

12. Said the cow-herd to his wife, " Let us both go forth and 
arrange a place for the cows. If we carry a wisp of grass upon our 
heads, the cows will follow at a run." " Yarkand will we conquer 
for ourselves." 

13. He went forth, milk-pail on haunch, and carrying his load 
of pots. The people all were exhausted by their march, and to 
them the kindly milkman seemed as blessed as a garden-watcher 
of Paradise. " Yarkand will we conquer for ourselves." 

1 "Tchk " is the click made to encourage a horse, "har 1 har 1 " is what is said 
for the same purpose to a cow. The impressed drivers were unaccustomed 
to horses, and knew only the bovine expletive. 

1 The kaiiMkh is the term used for the two straps or ropes attached at the 
back of a Kashmiri saddle to secure blankets, etc. (Stein). 

3 The gand 1 is the term used for the Turkistan pack-saddle, which consists of 
two straw-filled pommels joined in front (Stein). 



82 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES [14- 

vatal 1 dup vatiija bunai sera za 

chim mangan dale muy ta ka I 
feorasta ar h^et myeti hai pak*navan 

Yarkand 11 14 

(vatij vanan pherit) 
pherit dabza hek vatal ganau 

dabzi hek as^au zanau i 
dapyamak vataj k^e nai chum bozan 

Yarkand ii 15 

shumar boz hai tatfadaran 

mang*laj ahengaran i 
vodye p^eth yiran h^et shranz dakhe navan 

Yarkand ii 16 

karau ditti barau yingar kat 1 fearau 

van kat 1 jan sherau i 
hai kya kur hak nal gara navan 

Yarkand ii 17 

khush kya gosai amob gau jan 

pata nyuk nayid chan I 
batta daje at 1 h7et pata chuk laran 

Yarkand u 18 

musla hat karan tim?' asa panevany 

kusuy kaM nayiz ta chany i 
kata vany ka^it hai karau guzran 

Yarkand ii 19 

Sabir tilavanye tamat yiituy van 

yamat khabar bozan I 
tany e au sahib ba sb { ri saman 

Yarkand ii 20 



-20] XL THE SONG OF FORSYTH SAHIB 83 

14. The sweeper said to the sweeper's wife, " I shall never 
remember what I have to do. They expect me to provide leather 
and a cobbler's laces. They are sending me off, my dear, with a 
leather-cutter and a cobbler's awl." " Yarkand will we conquer 
for ourselves." 

15. And she replied, " Thou shouldst have answered them, 
pimp of a sweeper. 1 Thou shouldst have said, ' I know not how 
to use them.' ' "I did, my sweeperess, say that to them, but they 
heard me not at all." " Yarkand will we conquer for ourselves." 

16. The roll-call was cried for the artisans, and a demand was 
made for workers in iron. Each came bearing his anvil on his head, 
and leaning on his tongs as if they were a stick. " Yarkand will we 
conquer for ourselves." 

17. The blacksmiths grumbled and complained, " Where are we 
to look for coals ? How can we aright arrange our smithy ? " But 
somehow or other the officials made a makeshift for them, and set 
them a -forging horseshoes. "Yarkand will we conquer for 
ourselves." 

18. Very pleased did I become, and mighty good it seemed to 
me that last of all they impressed the barber and the carpenter 
(of my village), and that I saw them running after the others each 
with a kerchief of food in his hand. 2 " Yarkand will we conquer 
for ourselves." 

19. Their wives are holding a conference with each other. Say 
they, " Who is, then, now to support the barber's wife and the 
carpenter's wife ? We shall have to earn our livelihood by hiring 
ourselves out for spinning thread." " Yarkand will we conquer for 
ourselves." 

20. Sabir Oilman 3 only so much say, so long as they shall pay 
heed unto the news. At length came the Sahib with all his retinue, 
saying, " Yarkand will we conquer for ourselves." 

1 This is really a term of affection, much as we sometimes use abusive words 
in an affectionate sense, or talk of a "poor devil " in the language of pity. 

2 A thoroughly Kashmiri sentiment, quite in keeping, with the villager's 
indifference to the troubles of others. The author was evidently on bad terms 
with the barber and carpenter of his village (Stein). 

3 The name of the poet. 

G 



84 HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES [1- 

XII. AKHUNASANZ DALIL 

1. Tarn 1 siiy as nechiv feor tim* nai priifeun bo 
bud 1 as tuh 1 vanyu kyah kar ka^u ak 1 dopus bo 
kare yimamat bey dopus bo para bang bey dopus 
bo para vaz lokat hi feorim dopus bo kare feur doha 
ak banyau gau padshahas feuri vot yeli padshaha 
sund gara rtid vudanye tany neran tora vazir beye 
padshahasanz kur yi vuchuk at 1 vudanye dop u nak 
toh 1 kam chu yimau dop has feu kus chuk dop u nak 
bu chus feur yimau dop u has as 1 ti che feur ka^ik 
gur 1 za sapud savar ak yi akhun beye yi padshah 
kur dop u nas vazlran neryu toh 1 nasiyat hasa karai 
ak kat yina sa padshah koM sa^h kat kuni karak 
bo hasa yimau pata ta toh 1 neryu. 

2. yim chu pakan padshah koryi che na khabar 
yi chu na m^e sa^h akhun zada tas cha khabar yi 
chu vazir gash lug phuleni vat^ gur^au p^etha bun 
gaye yi padshah kur kul^e akis p^eth ata but chulun 
vuchun at kul e manz lal yi lal tulun ayi h^et amis 
akhun zadas nish tas che khabar yi chu vazir vazir 
kye as na yut gash chu pholan tytit chu yi lal gah 
travan parza nau am 1 padshah kor^e vazir na lal 
tuluk sa^h vat 1 shahras akis manz at 1 vuchuk 
paryehna at 1 manz byeth 1 . 

3. yi chu yivan amis padshahas nish am 1 
sheharakis dapan chus bo behe naukar yi chus 
dapan kya naukri karak dapan chus bo kare guryen 
hanz kismat yim che yimai kathe karan sakhfea 
ak au lal pharosh amis padshahas kanani lal chis 



-8] 85 

XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN. 

1. There was once upon a time an Akhun, 1 who had four sons. 
One day he said to them. " I am now grown old, tell me therefore 
what professions you intend to follow." Said one, "I'll be a 
prayer-leader in a mosque." Said another, "I'll call the people 
to prayer." Said another, " I'll preach sermons." But the fourth 
and youngest said, " I'll be a thief." So one day he went or! to 
the King's palace to steal something. As he stood outside it there 
came forth the Vizier and the King's daughter. When they saw 
him standing there he asked them who they were. " And who art 
thou ? " said they. " I'm a thief," said he. " So are we," said 
they. Now they had brought out with them two horses, and he 
straightway mounted on one of them, while the princess got on the 
other. Then the Vizier said to him, "Go ye two in advance, and, 
sir, pay thou heed to this one piece of instruction — thou shalt 
not hold any love-talk with the princess. I will join you later on, 
but go ye two in advance." 

2. So they went on, the princess thinking all the time that it 
was the Vizier, not the young Akhun, who was with her. By 
and by dawn began to blossom forth, and they dismounted by a 
stream, and to this went the princess and washed her face and hands. 
Her eye fell on a ruby lying in the stream. She picked it up and 
took it to the young Akhun, whom all the time she thought to 
be the Vizier, though it was not him at all. Then, as the dawn 
blossomed forth, the ruby emitted a brilliant light, and she saw 
for the first time that it was not the Vizier. So she kept the ruby 
to herself, and went on with him till they came to a certain city. 
There they found a small hut in which they made their lodging. 

3. The young Akhun went to the King of that city, and asked 
him for employment. " What canst thou do ? " asked the King. 
" I know how to look after horses," answered he. Now, even 
while they were yet speaking, there came a certain jeweller to sell 
precious stones to the King. He had two rubies with him. Then 

1 A Musalman religious teacher. 



86 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES [4- 

za yi vot 1 sayist yi chus dapan padshaham ak lal 
chu beb a ha byek chu khut at manz chu kyum dapan 
chus padshah ti kyata pa^hy ay fee bozana dapan 
chus yi phirit padshaham takit chus manz kyum 
phuta ryun harga kyum dras na ada yi padshahas 
khush ka*ri ti gafe y em karun har ga kyum dras 
tela gafeyem bakhshayish diny. 

4. dapan vustad phutouk yi lal am 1 manza 
drau kyum am 1 satha feun has sayist nau nahit lal 
shinak pyas nau gau yi lal shinak panun gara doha 
doha chu kadan ratas bihan chu panani ga^i dohas 
yivan chu lal pasand karani amis padshahasund 
nayid gafean chu mast khasani amis lal shinakas 
tat 1 chu vuchan amisunz yi zanana yi as khab 
surat seta au yi nayid vaziras mast khas^nas dop u nas 
ai vazira zanana che amis lal shinakas yi shuybehe 
vazlrasandi ga^i amis karte kyefea nukhta dop u nas 
ada kya yi vazir gau amis padshaha sanzi kodye 
dop u nas fea dap padshahas myegafee yis lal shinakan 
gudenyi lal pasand kur tat 1 hyu byak lal asun dup 
padshaha sanzi kod^i pananis ma^yis m^e gafee lalas 
hyu be baha lal asun au lal shinak dop u nas padshahan 
disa lal anit tat lalas hyu au voda lal shinak vot 1 
panenye zanana nish byut feop^ ka^ith yi chas dapan 
zanana fei kya zi chuk phikri gamut dop u nas pherit 
am 1 lal shinakan padshah chum lal mangan bebaha 
su ka ! ti ana dop u nas am 1 zanana gafe dap padshahas 
ritas kyut dim kharj bo dimai lal anit padshahan 
dyutus kharj ritasumb yi anun panun gara chu 
bihit khyavan nu chu gafean padshahas nu chu gafean 



-4] XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 87 

the young Akhun, who now called himself a groom, up and said, 
" Your Majesty, one of these rubies is beyond price, but the other 
hath a flaw in it in the shape of a worm." The King asked him 
how he knew this. Said he in answer, " Sire, of a surety there is 
a worm inside it. Break it and see. If no worm then come forth 
from it, do unto me whatsoever your Majesty may please. But 
if a worm do come forth, I shall deserve a present." 

4. Quoth my master : — 

They broke the ruby into pieces, and sure enough a worm issued 
forth from it ; and from that time they gave him the title of " Royal 
Lapidary " instead of that of " Groom ". So the Lapidary returned 
home, and the days passed. By night he stayed at home, and each 
day he attended court to examine rubies. The King's barber 
came one day to shave him, and there he saw the princess, who 
passed as the Lapidary's wife. Now she was very fair to look upon, 
and the barber went off on his rounds to shave the King's Vizier. 
" Said he, Vizier, that Lapidary hath a wife, and she would 
verily adorn the mansion of a Vizier. Thou shouldst find him 
guilty of some failure in his duty." Quoth the Vizier, " Willingly, 
and why not ? " and went off to the King's daughter. He told 
her to tell the King that she wanted another ruby just like the one 
that the Lapidary had first of all approved as beyond price. So 
she went to her father and quoth she, " Fain would I have another 
ruby beyond price, like unto the first." When the Lapidary came 
that day to the presence the King said to him, " Bring thou me 
another ruby like unto that one." The Lapidary returned home, 
and sat down there in silent consternation. Said the woman to 
him, " Why art thou so anxious ? " Replied he, " The King 
demandeth from me a ruby beyond price, and where am I to find 
it ? " Said she, " Go thou and say to the King, ' If thou wilt give 
me a month's expenses, I will bring thee the ruby.' " Well, the 
King gave him expenses sufficient for a month, and he brought 
the money home. There he stayed eating his food, not going to 



88 HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES [5- 

beye kun rit gau ada divan ches yi su lal yus tarn 1 
kulye manza tu jan gau h^et padshahas kar&nas salam 
lal thau nas bonta kani. 

5. drau pherit lal shinak vot panun gara ratha 
kadun paneni ga^i subhas au nayid mast khasani 
amis lal shinakas mast muk*lau nas khasit ta drau 
nayid panas vot 1 beye amis vaziras nish dopun 
vaziras kye tea karta amis lal shinakas amis che 
zanana khob surat sa shuybihe vazirasandi gato 
vazir au beye amis padshaha sanzi korye dop u nas 
tea mang padshahas lalan hund trnt dop am 1 padshaha 
sanzi kod y e pananis ma^is me gateiy asun lalan hund 
trut lal shinak au padshahas nish karnas salam 
padshah chus dapan lal hasa gate^nai asan* setha 
tratis sumb au lal shinak vot panun gara yi chas 
dapan zanana haft 1 paW kya zi chuk bihith yi chus 
dapan pherith padshah chum mangan az lalan hund 
trut su ka*ti ana bo dop u nas am 1 zanana k?e chana 
phikir gate padshahas gafee h y un tren ritan kyut 
kharj dyut u nas padshahan kharj au panun gara 
hyet. 

6. yi chu khyevan ta chyavan yuttany yim tre 
rit gai vu chas dapan yi zanana amis lal shinakas 
dapan ches ye ta^t 1 mye tami kulye manza lal tu 
jau tami kulye kulye gatee khasun hyur pahan ta 1 ^ 
chiy nag ta^t 1 nagas gatee andas kun dob khanun 
ta ! ty dobas manz bih zi kartith tath nagas pyeth 
yinai gudeny she zaWe sran kara^m timan kye 
ka^r 1 zina pata yiyiy timan shen zanyen hunz zith 
sa vasiy tat nagas sran kara^ni poshak traviy ka^ith 



-6] XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 89 

court or anywhere else. When a month had passed the woman 
gave him the ruby she had picked up out of the stream, and, 
taking it to the King, he laid it before him with a bow. 

5. The Lapidary then left the court and returned home, where 
he passed the night. Next morning the barber came to shave him. 
When he had finished he went off to the Vizier. Said he, " Prithee, 
do somewhat unto that Lapidary. His wife is very beautiful. 
She would verily adorn the mansion of a Vizier." So the Vizier 
went again to the King's daughter and told her to ask the King 
for a ruby necklace. Quoth she to her father, " Fain would I have 
a ruby necklace." In due course the Lapidary came to the presence 
and made his bow. Said the King, " Sir, thou must bring unto me 
a number of rubies sufficient for a necklace." He went home, and 
the woman whispered to him, " Why art thou sitting here ? " 
Replied he, " To-day the King demandeth from me a ruby necklace. 
Whence can I bring one 1 " Quoth she to him, " Thou needst 
not be anxious in the least. Go and take three months' expenses 
from the King." The King gave him the money and he returned 
to his house. 

6. So there he stayed eating and drinking till the three 
months were passed. Then the woman said to him. " Thou knowest 
the stream from whence I picked up that ruby. Go thou up it 
a little way, and thou wilt come to a spring. Thou must dig a 
pit close to the source of the spring, and hide thyself therein. 
At first six females will come to bathe in the spring. Do thou 
nothing unto them ; but afterwards thou wilt see coming the eldest 
sister of these six. She also will go down into the spring to bathe. 



90 HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES [7- 

Wthis pyeth chon gafee gafeun feu^r 1 patth 1 gafee ti 
poshak tulun. 

7. aye she zanye kur timau sran timan kye 
vunun na yiman pata ayi satimy zaW trov am 1 
poshak ka^rith ba^his pyeth pane vufe nagas manz 
au yi lal shinak feu^ 1 pa ! thy au ta tulun yi a^mi sund 
poshak gau ta byuth ath dobas manz am 1 kur sran 
kafe ba^his pyeth vuchun at 1 na poshak difeun krekh 
dapan che dyau chuka yinsan chuka tas khudayesund 
chi khasam yim p^da kuruk mye ma kar siras phash 
yi fea gafeiy ti dimai ami kurus alau am 1 dob^ manza 
dop u nas dim vadai Khuda yi bo mangai ti gafeyem 
bozun at 1 pyeth dyut u nas vadai Khuda dyut u nas 
poshak poshak feun am 1 na^y dop u nas kyah chum 
hukum dop u nas am 1 lal shinakan fee gafee hytin mye 
satthy pakan chu lal shinak broh broh yi che pakan 
pata pata. 

8. dapan vustad amis chu nav lal mal pato vaV 
amis lal shinakasund gar. 

9. dapan vustad ya a^mis kathen haran lal ya 
chis ashis haran lal doho sath sath rath gaye ada 
subu au lal sath tu*ly lal shinakan gau hyeth padshahas 
k arenas salam lal sath thau nas bonta ka^i padshah 
gau setha khush. 

10. lal shinakan hyiitus rukhsat vot panun gara 
patai votus yi nayid am 1 khosus mast mast khasit 
drau vot yi nayid vaziras nish amis ti khosun mast 
dapan chus ha vazir* amis lal shinakas gamuts az 
paMa byek zanana sa che setha khobsurat tamis gude 
nyechi handi khota setha khobsurat kyifea karta 



t 
-10] XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 91 

She will doff her clothes and leave them on the bank. Thou must 
then go secretly and carry off her garments." 

7. The six females came and did their bathing, but to them 
said he nothing. Afterwards there came the seventh female. 
She doffed her clothes, and leaving them on the bank descended 
into the spring. He came secretly and carried off her garments 
and hid himself again in the pit. When she had finished her 
bath she went up again on to the bank, and saw that her 
garments were no longer there. She uttered a loud cry, saying, 
" Be thou demon or be thou human being, I make to thee an 
oath by the God who created thee. Put not thou my secret parts 
to shame, and whate'er thou ask will I give to thee." He then 
called to her from the pit, "Swear thou to me by God that thou wilt 
hear and agree to whatsoe'er I shall demand from thee." When 
she had sworn by God he gave her her garments, and she put them 
on. Then quoth she, " What is thy command ? " and the Lapidary 
replied, " Thou must come with me." So they went along, the 
Lapidary in front, and the fairy following behind. 

8. Saith my Master :— 

Her name was Lalmal, the Fairy, and they came to the Lapidary's 
house. 

9. And moreover saith my Master : — 

I know not which it was, but either at every word she spoke a 
ruby dropped, or else seven rubies fell each day from her mouth. 
The night came to an end and dawn appeared. The Lapidary 
picked up seven rubies and carried them off to the King. Making 
his bow he laid the seven rubies before him, and mighty pleased 
became the King. 

10. The Lapidary took his leave from the presence and returned 
home. In due course came the barber and shaved him. When 
he had finished the barber went off to the Vizier and shaved him 
also. Said he, " Vizier, a second wife hath now appeared for 
that Lapidary. She is very fair to look upon, much more fair even 
than the first. Prithee do somewhat to him. One of the wives 



t 
92 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES [11- 

amis lal shinakas akh che la^ki vazir b?ek che m^e 
layak dop u nas pyom hasa beye vanun padshah kod^i 
gau yi vazir dapan chu amis padshah kod^i tea mang 
ma^lis m^e gatee asun rutuna kud gaye padshah kud 
pananis ma^lis dapan ches m^e gafee asun rutun* kud 
paga au lal shinak dapan chus padshah ansa rutun* 
kud. 

11. drau lal shinak vot panun gara dapan chu 
yiman zananan don padshah chum mangan rutun* 
kud su ka*ti ana bo pherith vuteus lal mal paM 
dop u nas gate padshahas mang tren ritan k?ut kharj 
dyut u nas padshahan au h^eth panun gara doha doha 
chu kadan tre r^eth gai ada lekhan che lal mal 
paM kakad dapan che a^mis lal shinakas gate tath 
nagas p^eth ye^rni manza bo aiiythas tatt 1 manz 
gatea yi kakad travun tod* khasi atho taV manz 
asi kud tart 1 ka ! rzi thaph pan* manz va^s 1 zina. 

12. gau h^eth yi kakad vot ath nagas p^eth 
travun yi kakad ath nagas manz h^iithuy yi kakad 
travun tyutuy khut ada atha a 1 ^ athas manz rutuna 
kud diteun ath thaph am 1 tha^i sa^hi av a^mis hofe 
neWth hols h^eth ti kud h^eth ti au panas vot panun 
gara rat gaye ada subahanas gau padshahas karun 
salam ka^hen thau nas bont* ka^ni padshah gos 
setha khush. 

13. h^iitus rukhsat lal shinakan au panun gara 
au beye yi nayid khasun mast a^mis lal shinakas 
mast kha^sith drau vot a^mis vaziras nish beye chus 
dapan yiy vazira a^mis lal shinakas chuk na tea 
vatan kunikaW a^mis karta kyefea gau yi vazir a^mis 



-13] XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 93 

is fit for a Vizier, and the other would suit me." Replied the Vizier, 
" I must, sir, again speak to the King's daughter." So he went and 
said to her, " Thou shouldst ask of thy father a jewelled bracelet." 
So the princess went to her father and quoth she to him, " Fain 
would I have a jewelled bracelet." On the morrow came the 
Lapidary to the presence, and to him said the King, " Bring me, 
sir, a jewelled bracelet." 

11. The Lapidary went forth and came to his home. Said he 
to the two women, " The King demandeth of me a jewelled bracelet. 
Whence am I to bring it ? " Then up and said to him Lalmal, 
the fairy, Go thou and ask the King for three months' expenses." 
The King gave the money to him, and he returned with it to his 
house. Each day passed day by day, and the three months became 
completed. Then Lalmal the Fairy took a paper and wrote upon 
it. Quoth she to the Lapidary, " Go thou to the spring from which 
thou hast brought me, and therein cast this paper. Then from the 
spring a hand will rise, and on it will be a jewelled bracelet. Take 
hold of it, but descend thou not into the spring." 

12. So he went off, taking the paper with him. He flung it into 
the spring, and even as he did so a hand wearing a jewelled bracelet 
rose from the water. He grasped hold of the hand, but did so with 
such force that he pulled the forearm off, and went off home with 
it and with the bracelet. The night came to an end and at dawn 
he went to the King. Making his bow he laid the bracelet before 
him, and mighty pleased became the King. 

13. The Lapidary took his leave from the presence and returned 
home. Again came the barber and shaved him. When he had 
finished his job he went straight to the Vizier, and again addressed 
him, " Vizier, thou dost not in any way get at that Lapidary. 
Prithee, do thou something to him." The Vizier went to the King's 



94 HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES [14- 

padshah kooM dapan chus tea chak padshah khud 
tea gafeiye asun akoy kud padshahas gatee mangun 
byak gaye yi padshah kud dopun pananis ma^is 
mye gatee asun byak kud au beye lal shinak karun 
salam dapan chus padshah byak kud gatee asun. 

14. au lal shinak vot panun gara dapan chu 
yiman zananan don az chum padshah mangan byak 
rotund kud divan ches lal mal pa^i paneiiy vaj dapan 
ches gate tath nagas p^eth ta^t 1 nagas ^kith kun chiy 
pal bud taV hau my en vaj su pal vu^hi thud ta^mi 
ta 1 ! 1 chai vath taW va*ti vaz^za bun ta*ti chai m^en 
vis say diyiy rutuna kur. 

15. drau yi lal shinak voth tath jaye havun tath 
palas vaj pal vuth thud vuth tatoi va*ti bun bun 
vuchin khatuna akh ku^niy zany a^i dop u nas ka*ti 
osuk aW dop u nas lal mal pa^riye dopuy rutuna kur 
a^mis khatuni pyau yad ta^misanzuy maj as sa yas 
rutuna karris sa^h 1 hufe gayau ne'rith tas che akay 
nur tas chu dod pananis dilas ray kar a^i khatuni 
yany myehy moj va 1 ^ nyeinis manoshas kheye yi as 
setha khobsurat a^is gau shok dilas bo kare a^mis 
saHh* nether vony yeli maje hund par tav? pyau ath 
jaye gau bunyul a^mis dyiitun shap kur^nas kanye 
phul thavun chandas vafeus maj uth dop u nas hatai 
kud^i m^e che yivan mantea buy yi chas na h^evan 
zima kye aW yeli zor kurnas dop u nas chu manosh 
tea dim gud* vadai Khuda bo kya karas na kye 
vadai Khuda dyiit u nas aW kur chanda manza kaiiye 
phul shap tul u nas manosh yuthuy as t? tiithuy rud 



-15] XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 95 

daughter, and quoth he, " Thou art a King's daughter, shouldst 
thou have but one bracelet ? Yet another shouldst thou ask of the 
King ? " So she departed. Quoth she to her father, " Fain would 
I have yet another bracelet." Again came the Lapidary to the 
presence, and to him said the King, " Thou must bring unto me 
another bracelet." 

14. The Lapidary took his leave and came to his own house. 
Said he to these two women, " To-day doth the King demand of 
me another jewelled bracelet." Then Lalmal the Fairy gave him 
her own ring. Quoth she, " Go thou again unto the spring. Close 
by one side of it thou wilt find a great rock. Show thou my ring 
unto that rock, and it will arise and stand upright. Thou wilt 
find a pathway opening at its foot. Descend thou underground 
by the path and thou wilt find my crony-girl. She will give to thee 
a jewelled bracelet." 

15. The Lapidary went forth and reached the spot. He showed 
the ring to the rock and it arose and stood upright. Down the path 
he went beneath the ground, and, deep down below, he saw a certain 
lady sitting all alone. Quoth she to him, " Whence comest thou ? " 
Saith he, " Lalmal the Fairy asketh of thee a jewelled bracelet." 
Then memory came to the lady. It was her mother whose forearm 
had been pulled off together with the former jewelled bracelet, 
and who now had but one arm. For that cause cherished the mother 
wrath within her heart. So the lady thought to herself, " So soon 
as my mother cometh she will devour this man." Now he was a 
mighty personable fellow, and her heart was filled with anxiety 
on his account, for she had determined to herself to marry him. 
Just then her mother's footsteps became audible, and the place 
was shaken by an earthquake. Thereupon the lady uttered a spell 
over him. She turned him into a pebble, and put it into her pocket. 
Then came to her her mother, " Aha ! my girl," cried she, " I 
smell the smell of a mortal man." But the lady refused to admit 
that he had been there. When at last her mother pressed her sore, 
she said, " There is indeed a man. But first swear thou to me by 
God that naught wilt thou do unto him." So the mother swore 
to her by God, and she drew forth the pebble from her pocket, 
and uttered a spell over it, so that it became a man exactly as he 



96 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [16- 

dop u nas yi chu myon ha^hi Khudai bo asan yiihoi 
tearan yiihoi lud*nam ma^'i Khudayen yi ches dapan 
moj zab?r gau bayen don lad kakad a^mi suy a^th 1 
dop u nas ma^iy lekh fetiy lyiikh a^i kakad dyiitun 
a^mis lal shinakas a^hi a^mi kur^nas alau khatuni 
dop u nas yi an kakad yury vuch a^mi khatuni ath 
lyiikhmut a^misanzi m^ji chu voi m^en gab?r yi gafee 
vat?- vunuy marun a^mis 6s a^i satha panun dod 
pyamut yad su hafe^uk yi kakad feun*nas fea^ith a^mi 
khatuni panun lyukh*nas kakad ath manz lyiikh*nas 
chu vai mye bay tuhund gafee jated yiin m^e kya chu 
yenyi val. 

16. lyiikhunas kakadas zabany kur*nas naVyat 
dop u nas tut yeli vatak kar* hak salam salam pa^ith 
diz> T ek kakad tim ananai khyen team ru kare ti 
chyon khyun gafe^na badal dyiit u nas sa^th 1 asl kare 
dop u nas yi khyezi ta*ti tihund fean^zi bebinda^r 1 
tra^vith panun khyezi ta^mi pata dap^nai tim kash 
na hana kareny tat khyuth dyiit u nas shast?ro panje 
dop u nas tim chi dyav^zath timan yiye tas^li shastervi 
panje sa^hi. 

17. drau a*ti na*siyat yad hyet voth thuth kariin 
timan salam dyiit u nak yi kakad a^is dyiituk khyen 
feam^ru kare aWuk tulan chu bus fe^nan bebindsr 
tra^vith panun chu kadan ti chu khyavan a^ii pata 
dop u has yimau khash^na h^na kar aW kur yi fet^ri 
pa^h 1 shast^ro panje chuk a^mi sa^h 1 divan zilla 
zilla yimau lyiikhas javab at kakadas lyiikhas asi 
chyena fursath hazra 1 ^ sulaiman chu divan nad hal* 
bismilla ka^u yenyivol. 



-17] 



XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 



97 



had been before. Quoth she to her mother, " This is he who is 
unto me as God. For him, and only for him, have I been seeking. 
It is he, and he alone, mother, whom God hath sent unto me." 
Then said her mother, " Good. So let it be. Send thou a letter by 
his hand unto thy two brethren." Quoth she, " My mother, let it 
be thou that writest." So the mother wrote a letter, and gave it 
into the hand of the Lapidary. But the lady called him to her, 
and asked him to give her the paper. She looked at it, and on it 
by her mother were written these words, "If ye be indeed my sons, 
on the instant that he cometh to you, must ye kill this man." 
The mother had written this because she still bore in her heart 
the memory of the pain of her lost forearm. But the lady tore the 
paper into little pieces, and wrote herself another, " If ye be indeed 
my brethren, quickly must ye come. And for why ? Because it 
is my wedding festival." 

16. She wrote for him the paper, and by word of mouth gave she 
him this instruction, saying, " When thou shalt arrive thither, 
make thou first a bow, and having louted low, give thou to them 
this paper. They will offer thee dinner made of leathern pease, 
but these thou must not eat." As a substitute she gave him real 
pease to take with him, and said, " These be what thou must eat. 
Drop thou their leathern pease into the fold of thy breast-cloth 
and eat thine own pease in their stead. Thereafter they will ask 
thee to give them a little scratching." For that purpose she gave 
him a set of iron claws, " For," said she, " they are of a demon 
race, and these iron claws will give them but a pleasant titillation." 

17. Bearing these instructions in his memory he set forth, and 
reached their abode. He made his bow to them and gave to them 
the paper. They offered him a dinner of leathern pease. He raised 
a gobbet of it to his mouth, but let it fall into the fold of his breast- 
cloth, while at the same time he took out his own pease and kept 
eating them. Thereafter they asked him to give them a little 
scratching. So he secretly donned the iron claws and with them 
scraped and scratched them. Then wrote they an answer to the 
letter after this manner. " We have no time to come unto thee, 
for we have been summoned by the holy Solomon. Haste ye, in the 
name of God, and make ye the wedding festival." 



98 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [18- 

18. vat ath hau nak yi kakad kakad paduk 
karuk a^is sa^th 1 yenyivol vu che yi khatun dapan 
a^is khav^ndas pananis yet 1 roz ka kina du^has 
manz gafeak bu chas tea ta^bya aW dop u nas duny^as 
manz gateau dop u nas a^mi khatuni vuiiy yeli nerau 
myen moj da^y khye tea mangum chony gateas 
mangun vatfranuk musla beye khye maWg^zas na 
vuiiy yeli yim sakhr^ai dopuk a^mi maje mangun 
khye tea dop u nas dim vatoanuk musHa tath chu nau 
vute^prang drau a*ti va^i panun gara gara va^ith 
karun taiyar rothuna kur gau h^eth padshahas yi 
lal shinak. 



19. na*ydan boz lal shinak vot gafean chus 
nayid gar* mast kas^ni a*ti vuchan chu triyim 
khatuna drau a*ti nayid puth phe^ith vot vaziras 
nish dapan chu a^mis vaziras ha vazira a^is lal 
shinakas che az triyim khatuna yiman don handi 
khuta khob-surath sa che layiki padshah akh che 
layiki vazir b y ek che m^e layak a^mis lal shinakas 
kar the khye tea dapan chus vazir az vane bo 
padshahas suy padshah ka^ri a^mis khye tea va*ry 
dath su m^ri zanana tre nyemau a^s* dop vazir an 
padshahas padshaham a^mis lal shinakas che zanana 
tre tifea chena padshahi manz padshaham ta^mis lal 
shinakas rath ta khye tea nukhta su gute galun tim* 
zanana tre kar u huk dakWi mahala khan padshahan 
kar fik^ra dopun manga has khyefea chiz ti chu anan 
saruy vuny dapas bo m^enis ma^isunz khabar galse 
anehy su cha jan? tas kina dozakas. 



-19] XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 99 

18. He returned to the lady and her mother, and showed them 
the reply. They read it and carried out the wedding between him 
and her. Then said the lady to him who was now her husband, 
" Here wilt thou stay, or wilt thou return unto the world of men ? 
Behold I am thy humble slave." So he said that he would return 
to the world of men, and quoth the lady to him, " Now, when we 
shall set forth, my mother will tell thee to ask of her a gift. And 
thou must ask for but one thing, a certain skin mat. Ask thou for 
it alone, and for naught else." So, as they were preparing for their 
journey her mother said to him, " Ask thou of me some gift," 
and he said to her " Give me the skin mat that is called the wutsha 
prang, or ' flying-couch '." Well, they went forth from there and 
reached his home. As soon as they arrived she made ready for 
him a jewelled bracelet, and the Lapidary took it to the King. 



19. The barber heard that the Lapidary had come home, and 
goes to his house to shave him. There sees he the third lady, and 
straight returns he to the Vizier. Said he to him, " Vizier, to-day 
that Lapidary hath a third lady, more fair to look upon than the 
other two. She is fit for the King. Another is fit for a Vizier, and 
yet another would suit me. Prithee, do thou somewhat to this 
Lapidary." Quoth the Vizier to him, " To-day will I tell the King, 
and His Majesty himself will lay some trap for him. Then he will 
die, and the three women will be ours." So the Vizier said to the 
King, " Your Majesty, that Lapidary hath women three, and women 
like unto them are not in the whole kingdom. Sire, prithee, seize 
thou upon some fault of this Lapidary, and destroy him. Then 
will the three women become inmates of thy harem." The King 
considered a while and said, " No matter what thou mayst ask of 
him, that all and sundry doth he bring. Now will I say unto him, 
" Thou must bring me news of my father, whether he be in heaven 
or whether he be in hell." 



100 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [20- 

20. dapan vustad au lal shinak padshahas karun 
salam padshah chus dapan az tany yi m^e vunmai 
ti bozuth fere az gatee m^nis ma^isunz khabar aneny 
su cha janatas manz kina dozakas drau lal shinak 
vot panun gara dapan chu a*ti yiman zananan tren 
az chum dapan padshah me^nis m^l 1 sunz khabfr 
aneny bo kya kare ath su che khabar ka^a va^i 
gamuty tas momHis yi vuteas khatun yi hoi yi yasa 
rothuna ka 1 ^ as karan sa as paM ba Khuda a^i 
dop u nas kh^e cha na fik*r gals has kharfj beye dapus 
padshahas chony gatee ziin somb^run maManas manz 
ziin gatee somb?run be shumar. 

21. somb^rau padshahan ziin beshumar a^t 1 pyeth 
khut yi lal shinak yi musl^han vata^ith a 1 ! 1 pyeth 
byoth pane a^mis dopun padshahas tea kya gateiy 
anun ma^sund nishana yi vothus padshah dop u nas 
akh gateiy anun jan* tukh myeva beye gateiy anun 
mye^nis ma^sandi daskata khath dopun yiman diyu 
yath zinis nar so pato. 

22. dapan vustad yimau yeli ath zinis nar dyuth 
yivan chu na kuni boz^na yi lal shinak lal shinakan 
dyuth ath musslas kas*m dop u nas mye gatee vatun 
panun gar* kah lagimna deshun dapan tuv*y a^ 1 
lal shinakan ach mute?rin ta vot u muth gara panun 
a^mi kha tuni kar kama habjoshi karun myeva janf 
tukh dan taiyar beye likhun khath ath karun a^mis 
padshah^sandis ma^sund daskath beye mohur a^t 1 
manz likhun padshahas chony gafea mye nish vatun 
vazir hyeth beye nayid hyeth tithai paW yitha 



-22] XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 101 

20. And saith my Master : — 

The Lapidary came to the King and made his bow. Quoth the 
King to him, " Hitherto hast thou hearkened unto whatsoever 
command I gave to thee. To-day must thou bring unto me news 
of my father, whether he be in heaven or whether he be in hell." 
The Lapidary departed and came to his own house. Quoth he to 
these three women, " To-day the King telleth me to bring news of 
his father. What am I to do ? How know I even how many years 
have passed since he hath died ? " Then up and spake the lady 
who had made the jewelled bracelet (now she was a fairy who was 
obedient unto God), " Let nothing prey upon thy mind. Go thou, 
and ask of him expenses. Then say thou to the King, ' Thou must 
gather together for me firewood. In the plain let there be gathered 
together bundles of fuel beyond count.' " 

21. The King assembled and piled firewood beyond count, and 
the Lapidary ascended thereon. He spread upon it the skin mat, 
and thereon he took his seat. Quoth he to the King, " What token 
from thy father shall I bring ? " and up and said the King, " First 
must thou bring unto me a fruit from the garden of paradise, and 
secondly must thou bring unto me a letter signed by my father. " 
Said the Lapidary to the people standing round, " Set ye the fire- 
wood alight on all four sides." 

22. And moreover saith my Master : — 

When they had set the pyre alight, the Lapidary could no longer 
be seen for fire and smoke. He uttered a charm to the skin mat, 
saying, " I would arrive at mine own house, but have a care that 
no one see it." He closed his eyes, and when he opened them he 
found himself at home. Then that lady did a deed. Of the seven 
metals l she prepared a fruit, a pomegranate of the Garden of 
Heaven, and moreover she wrote a letter to which she put the 
signature of the King's father, and sealed it with his seal. And 
this was what she wrote to the King : " Thou must come unto me 

1 The haft-josh is an amalgam of iron, antimony, lead, gold, tin, copper, 

and silver. 



102 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [23- 

pa^thy lal shinak m7e nish vot kakad karun havala 
a^mis lal shinakas beye dyuth u nas athas khyath 
yi dan. 

23. atany gai feor do yi nar gamut feeta path 
rodfmut sur yi lal shinak drau longu^h 1 ka^ith 
sula voth ath suras manz divan chu duleny nazfr 
bazau ka^r 1 naz*r khabardarau niye khab^r dop u has 
padshaham a^mi sura manza gatean che sus? rarai 
yi ma a^s 1 lal shinak amut yim che yimai katha 
karan nazar chak okun au voda lal shinak athas 
khyath hyeth dan beyes athas khyath hyeth khath 
kafrin padshahas salam dan thaunas bont* ka^ii 
khath thaunas bont* ka*ni yi khath mufe*run padun 
ath lyiikhmut bo kya chus jan* tas manz chony gafea 
vatun yury vazir hyeth beye nayid hyeth jal^d. 

24. padshah chu karan fik*ra mye dapyau yi lal 
shinak ga*li yi au ma^isanz mye khabar hyeth dapan 
padshah a^mis lal shinakas bu khyatha pa^thy vate 
tat janHas manz dop u nas lal shinakan yuth zyiin 
mye kyuth somb^ravuth tith* tre gafeun somb^rava 1 ^ 
jabd vatak jan* tas manz somb* rau padshahan zyiin 
beshumar a 1 ^ pyeth karanavun vatfrun aH 1 pyeth 
khuth pane beye vazir beye nayid dyUthuk zinas 
nar teo paV. 

25. dapan vustad dud yi padshah beye vazir 
beye nayid trim vai ga^l 1 vot ath lal shinakas nish 
su vazir yus vazir padshah kur hyeth as fealan ta 
sam* kukh akhun khuth suy vot a^mis lal shinakasund 
gara pane va^n* ka^ikh kathe batha vonus aW lal 



-25] XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 103 

with thy Vizier and with thy barber, just in the same manner as 
the Lapidary hath come unto me." This paper she made over to 
the Lapidary, and in his hand she laid the pomegranate. 

23. By this time four days had passed and the fire became 
extinct, leaving naught but ashes. The Lapidary went forth wearing 
only his loin-cloth, and rolled himself in these ashes. The discerners 
then discerned, and the newsmen brought the news. Cried they, 
" Your Majesty, there cometh a sound as of rustling from the 
ashes. Can it be that the Lapidary is returned ? " And while they 
were yet speaking these words and gazing towards the pyre, there 
came forth from it the Lapidary, in the one hand holding a pome- 
granate, and in the other the letter. Having made his bow to the 
King, he laid the pomegranate and the letter before him. The King 
opened the letter and read it, and this was its contents, "I, of a 
truth, am in heaven. Thou must come hither speedily, with thy 
Vizier and with thy barber." 

24. The King considered awhile, " I said unto myself that this 
Lapidary would come to destruction, and, lo, he hath come to me 
with news from my father." Quoth he to the Lapidary, " How can 
I convey myself to that abode of bliss ? " Replied the Lapidary, 
" Thou must gather together three times so much firewood as thou 
didst gather for me, and then speedily wilt thou arrive in heaven." 
The King gathered together fuel beyond count. Upon it he made 
them spread a mat, and upon it he ascended and sat, himself with 
the Vizier and the barber. They set the pyre alight on all four 
sides. 

25. And my Master saith : — 

Burnt up was the King, burnt up was the Vizier, and burnt up 
was the barber. The three became utterly destroyed. And from 
his home came to the Lapidary's house that first Vizier, the one who 
had been eloping with the princess when he met the young Akhun. 
Together held they mutual converse, and the Lapidary told him 
of his journey, and of all the villainy that the Vizier and the barber 



104 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [26- 

shinakan yi panun safar yus aW nayidan ta vaziran 
a^mis as pesh on muth dop u nas paneiiy khatun ninsa 
panas yesa yi lal mal pa^r 1 as tas dyiithun rukhsath 
yesa yi pata any en zenith sa thavun panas, 

26. dapan vustad su vazir byoth pad^shahi kar*ni 
lal shinak byoth vaziri kar^ni. — asla malaikum valai 
kum salam. 



-26] XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 105 

had done unto him. Said he to him, "Take, sir, thine own lady to 
thyself." But as for Lalmal the Fairy, he gave her leave to return 
to her home, while she whom last of all he had won for himself, 
her he kept with him as his wife. 

26. And saith my Master : — 

The Vizier ascended the vacant throne and ruled right royally, 
and the Lapidary was appointed by him to the Viziership. 
And may the peace be upon you, and on you be peace. 



THE TEXT OF TPIE TALES 

AS TRANSCRIBED BY 
PANDIT GOVINDA KAULA 

With interlinear translation into English 

I 

1. Shehan-shah Sultan-i-Mahmod-i-Gaznavi 

The-king-of -kings Sultan-of-Mahmud-of-Gbaznl 

6s u karan pana mulkan pbravi. 

was making himself (of-his-)lands protection. 

2. Phakir lbgith 6s u pheran wana-wan 

Faqir having-taking-the- he-was wandering from-shop- 
appearance-of to-shop 

" myani-ah a day asi ma klh n6tuwan. ,r 

" (In-)my-time may- I-wonder- anyone feeble." 
there-be if 

3. Jaye-akis bs* karan dwa-yi-khbr 

(In-)place-a-certain they-were making prayer-of-welfare 

ad^a-tam^sandi-sbty asakh ceshma ser. 

justice-his-by were-of-them the-eyes satisfied. 

4. Jaye-akis wuchun hanzah akh alii 

(In-)place-a-certain was-seen-by- a-certain- one wretched 

him fisherman 

muhima-sbtin 6s u gamot u suy zalil. 

poverty-by was gone he-verily brought-low. 

5. Muhima-sbtin 6s u trawan ah ta wosh, 

Poverty-by (he-)was emitting sighs and groans, 

muhima-sbtin tas na rud u mot u klh-ti hosh. 

poverty-by to-him not remained any-even sense. 



108 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES [6- 

6. Yora zalah 6s u layan gata san 

Whence a-certain-net (he-)was casting skill with 

tora zalas 6sus-na keh khasan. 

thence to-the-net was-for-him-not anything rising. 

7. Dopus shehan " kar me sbtin boj^-bath 

It-was-said- by-the- " make me with sharing 

to-him king, 

"lay zalah, yad-i-Alah dilas rath." 

"cast a-single-net, memory-of-God to-the-heart seize." 

8. Loyun zalah tora khot u tas gada-hath 

Was-cast- a-single- thence arose for-him fish-a- 

by-him net hundred 

patashehas bonth-kun av suy heth. 

the-king before came he-verily having- 

taken(-them). 

9. Gada-hatas badal dyut u nas mohara-dyar 

For-the-fish- in-exchange was-given-by- coin-wealth 
hundred him-to-him 

lal nigin mal moktay wfitha-bar. 

rubies jewels - property pearls-verily camel-loads. 

10. Rath barith patashehan dyutus nad 

Night having-passed by-the-king was-given- a-summons 

to-him 

"fe a y chukh myon u sherikh namurad. 1 

" thou- verily art my sharer without-hope. 

11. " Muhim kasawun u hekmat-i-Parwardigar, 

 Poverty expeller (is-)the-skill-of-Providence, 

u taph shehul u sarda garam now u bahar. 

" sunshine cold coolness warmth new spring. 

1 Namurad is the word given by Hatim. A version of the poem current 
in Srinagar has bd-murdd, with hope. In Kashmiri, nd-murad means " without 
hope or expectation ". 






-18] I. MAHMUD OF GHAZNl AND THE FISHERMAN 109 

12. " Wanayey, * zan banda monzur zasanuy I 

" i kafca-hekmuts* muhim tagiy kasunuy.' H 

by-how-much-skill poverty will-be-possible- to -be -expelled - 

for- thee verily.' " 

13. Ath^andar chuy wustadah wanan zar, 

This-verily-in is-verily a-certain-teacher saying prayer, 

"jumala alam banda Ahmad wumedwar." 

" (on-Him-from- world the-slave Ahmad (is-) hopeful." 
whom-is-)the-entire 



1 The meaning of the line is unknown. Hatim gives it as what he has 
learnt by tradition. As regard zasanuy, informants in Srlnagar tell me that 
it is not a Kashmiri word. Hatim says that it is an " old " word which is 
unintelligible to him. The Srlnagar version is : — 

"Wanay, *yiy zan, banda, monzur tee asunuy,' 

" I-would-say- ' this know, slave, accepted by- it-is-to-be,' 

to-thee thee 

which is intelligible. 



110 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [l- 

II.— TOTA-SUNZ* KATH 

PARROT-OF THE-STORY 
1. , Dapan wustad, — 

1. (Is) saying the-teacher, — 

Shehar akh gav, Shehar-e-Yiran. Tat 1 

Country one went (i.e. is), the-country-of-Iran. There 

6s u patashehah; tamis ti y chuh » nav 

there-was a-certain-king ; to-him-verily is the-name 

Bah a dur Khan. Tarn 1 6s u kor u mot u bag 

Bahadur Khan. By-him was made a-garden 

zananan-kyut u . Tath bs ti -na wath gbrzanas. 

women-for. For-it was-not a-path for-a-stranger. 

Tath bagas-manz gav pbda phakirah. 

That garden-in went (i.e. became) manifest a-certain-faqir. 

Nazar-bazav kiir ti nazar. Khabar-darav 

By -the- watchers was-made sight. By-the-informers 

niye khabar amis-patashehas. Dopukh, 

was-brought information to-that-king. It-was-said-by-them, 

** phakirah feav bagas-manz.' ' Buzun 

" a-certain-faqlr entered the-garden-in." Was-heard-by-him 

patashehan, hyotun sbty wazir. 

by-the-king, was-taken-by-him in-company the-vizier. 

Gay tath-bagas-manz, wuchun ati phakir. 

They-went that-garden-in, was-seen-by-him there the-faqlr. 

2. Lache-now u chuy har-wati binah* 

2. He-who-has-a-hundred is-verily on-every-path seeing, 

thousand-names (i.e. God) 

Boz, wophadbri ankah. 

Hear, loyalty (is) a-rara-avis. 



-3] II. THE TALE OF A P ABBOT 111 

11 Ha Phakiro, yor kor feakho ? 

" Ho Faqlr-O, here where didst-thou-enter-0 ? 

"Katiko chukh? Kati-petha akho?" 

" Of-where art-thou? Where-from didst-thou-come-0 ? " 

Phakir dapan, — 

The-faqir (is) saying, — 

" Kor u me sblah. Tuhond u khev me kyall? ,, 

"Was- by- a-stroll. Your was- by- what?" 

made me eaten me 

Boz, wophadbri ankah. 

Hear, loyalty (is) a-rara-avis. 

3. Patashehas bontha-kani poshe-thur tt . 

To-the-king front- towards (was) a-flower-shrub. 

Ath^tal mumot u bulbulah. Yeli 

It-verily-below (was) dead a-certain-nightingale. When 

yimau amis-phakiras khashem kor u , teli pev 

by-them to-that-faqir wrath was-made, then fell 

phakir pathar wasith, mumot u bulbul 

the-faqir downwards having-tumbled, the-dead nightingale 

gav thod u wothith. Patashehas howun 

became erect having-arisen. To-the-king was-shown-by-him 

yih vi^d. Gav nirith; phirith 

this magic-power. He-went having-emerged ; having-returned 

biye av, bulbul mud u biye, phakir 

again he-came, the-nightingale died again, the-faqir 

gav biye zinda. Hyotun nerun, yim 

became again alive. It-was-begun-by-him to-go-forth, they 



112 



HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 



[4- 



chis karan 


zara-para. 


Dapan 


are-to-him making 


entreaties. 


Saying 


chis, — 






they-are-to-him, — 







"Ha phakira, khizmath karay, 

" Ho Faqlr-O, service will-I-do-to-thee, 



"Doda-harak 1 

" Milk-cream-of 



khbs 1 ho baray. 

cups will-I-fill-for-thee. 



"Khasa polav macama khekh-na?" 

" Special pilaos (and) macdmas wilt- thou -not-eat ? 

Boz, wophadbri ankah. 

Hear, loyalty (is) a-rara-avis. 



4. Yus vi^d phakiras 

What magic-power to-the-faqir 

bowun amis-patashehas. 

was-confided-by-him to-that-king. 



bow u 

it-was-confided. 



waziras. 

to-the-vizier. 



Kor u tarbyeth 

Was-made instruction 



Suti 

He-also 



mah a ram 

intimately- 
acquainted 



patashehan 

by-the-king 

korun 

was-made- 
by-him 



0S U , 

was, 



suy 

that-verily 



Am^patashehan 

By-that-king 



Gay solas shikaras 

They-went for-excursion for-hunting 

Boz, wophadbri ankah. 

Hear, loyalty (is) a-rara-avis. 



waziras, 

to-the-vizier, 

ath-slras. 

for-this-secret. 

yeg-jah. 

together. 



-5] II. THE TALE OF A P ABBOT 113 

Tota mumot u wuchukh dar biyaban, 

A-parrot dead was-seen-by-them in the-forest, 

"Ha waziro, asihe shuban. 

" Ho Vizier-O, it-\vould-have-been beautiful. 

"Zuv amis-manz thavtan sathah." 

"(Thy-) soul this-one-in place-please-it for-a-certain-time." 

Boz, wophadbri ankah. 

Hear, loyalty (is) a-rara-avis. 

Dop u waziran, 

It-was-said by-the-vizier, 

" Patasheham, yii1s ti -k6l u mumot u , 

"King-my, for-a-long-time (it-is-) dead, 

w Phakh chus yiwan, khabar 

" Stink is-from-it coming, news (i.e. who knows ?) 

kar chuh gamot u . 

when it-is gone (dead). 

" Chusna thaharan ; wanta-sa kara kyah.'' 

" I-am-not waiting (i.e. able to say-please-sir I-shall-do what." 
stay here) ; 

Boz, wophadbri ankah. 

Hear, loyalty (is) a-rara-avis. 

5. Patasheh karan zara-para waziras 
The king (is) making entreaties to-the-vizier 

ami-bapath. 4< B6h wuchahan tota kyuth u 

this-for. " I would-see-it the-parrot how 

asihe shuban." Am 1 buz u nas-na 

it-would-be beautiful." By-this-one was-heard-by-him-for- 



him-not 



waziran keh. 

by-the-vizier anything. 



114 HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES [6- 

Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 

Amis 6s u dilas-manz dagay. Wun feav 

To-him was the-heart-in disloyalty. Now entered 

patasheh amis-totas-manz, panun u mod u fehunun- 

the-king this-parrot-in, his-own body was-dashed- 

trbvith. Tota woth u thod u , chuh 

down-by-him. The-parrot arose erect, it-is 

pheran. Waziran kiir u kbm a , feav 

moving-round. By-the-vizier was-done a-deed, he-entered 

ath-patasheha-sandis-madis-manz. Yiy 6s u amis 

that-king-of-body-in. This-verily was to-him 

dar dil. 

in heart. 

Pev petarun patashehas panas, 

(That-load- which) fell to-carry-out to-the-king himself, 

B6r u lodun waziras nadanas. 

(That-) load was-laid-by-him to-the-vizier the-fool. 

A _ 

Osus dagay zagan dadkhah. 

There-was-to-him disloyalty watching a-petitioner. 

Boz, wophadbri, ankah. 

Hear, loyalty (is) a-rara-avis. 

6. Tota chuh hawa-yi-asman, wazir 

The-parrot is (in) the-air-of-heaven, the-vizier 

chuh patasheha-sandis-maris-manz. Woth u thod u . 

is the-king-of-body-in. He-»arose erect, 

khoth u guris lashkari-manz gav. 

mounted to-the-horse the-army-in went. 



-7] //. THE TALE OF A PARROT 115 

Dop u nakh, "mud u wazir, guri-petha 

It-was-said-by-him-to-them, M died the vizier, horse-from 



wasith-pev." 




having-tumbled-he-fell." 




Khabardarav niye say 


khabarah. 


By-the-informers was-brought that-very 


one-piece-of-news. 


Boz, wophadbri ankah. 




Hear, loyalty (is) a-rara-avis. 





7. Am^waziran yeli kiir 11 kbm ti , tsav 

By-that-vizier when was-done the-deed, he-entered 

patasheha-sandis-maris-manz, tuj ti n athas-keth 

the-king-of-body-in, was-raised-by-him the-hand-in 

shemsher, ath-pananis-maris korun reza. 

a-sword, to-that-his-own-body was-made-by-him piece(s). 

Ath-lashkari dopun, "niriv tirandaz biye 

To-that-army it-was-said-by-him, " go-forth archers also 

bandukbaz. Yus mariwa tota, tamis 

gunners. Who will-kill-of-you a-parrot, to-him 

baniv bakh a cbyish." AnV-totan yeli 

there-will-become a-present." By-that-parrot when 

buz u , ta feol u . Gav tas phakiras- 

it-was-heard, then he-fled. He-went that faklr- 

nishe, yus tath-bagas-manz 6s u tami-doha. 

near, who that-garden- in was (on-) that-day. 

Hukum dyutun ti y tirandazan, 

Order was-given-by-him-verily to-the-archers, 

" Kan thav^av myanen-nazan." 

" Ear place-ye-please to-my-blandishments." 



116 



HATIMS SONGS AND STORIES 



[8- 



Tota 

The-parrot 



Hear, 



maranas 

for-killing 



dyut u nakh 

was-given-by- 
him-to-them 



Boz wophadon ankah. 



loyalty 



(is) a-rara-avis. 



photuwah. 

a-certain-decision. 



8. Yus as a l 6s u patashah, 

Who real was king, 

totas-manz phakiras-nishin. Suh 

the-parrot-in the-fakir-near. That 

Doha-aki drav 

On-day-one issued 

shikaras. 

for-hunting. 



mor u -na. 

was-killed-not 

solas 

for-excursion 



suh chuh 

he is 

tota kaisi 

parrot by-any-one 

yih 

this 



patasheh 

king 



Wot u jaye-akis. Ati 

He-arrived at-place-one. There 

wuch% mine-mur*. Amis ti y kur%h 

was-seen-by-him a-hind. To-this-one-verily was-made-by-them 

lar, Un^kh lashkari-manz. Dop u nakh 

pursuit, She-was-brought-by-them the-army-in. It-was-said-by- 

him-to-them 

yih fealiv, 

she may-escape, 



am^-patashehan, 

by-this-king, 

tas dimav 

to-him I-will-give 



" yes-kan 1 

" whom-from-near 

gardan." 

the-neck." 



9. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 

Ami-mihe-mari tuj ti woth, patasheha-sandi- 

By-this-hind was-raised a-leap, the-king-of- 

kala-peth 1 fehuh ti n woth, feirp. Lbris 

head-over was-thrown-by-her a-leap, she-fled. They-ran-for-her 






-10] II. THE TALE OF A PARROT 117 

pata. Yus suh tota 6s u , yiih 6s u phakiras- 

after. Who that parrot was, he was the-fakir- 

nishe, Phakir 6s u sohib-e-agah. Dopun 

near. The-fakir was a-master-intelligent. It-was-said-by- 

him 

amis-totas, yes-manz yih patasheh 6s u , 

to-this-parrot, whom-in this king was, 

dop u nas, " gafeh, sa, ner. Az labakh 

it-was-said-by- " go, sir, go-forth. To-day wilt-thou-take 
him-to-him, 

panun u mod u . ,, Yim chih amis-mine-mare-pata 

thine-own body." Who are this-hind-after 

laran, nakha rozan chekhna. 

running, near remaining she-is-to-them-not. 

10, Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 

Ati 6s u mumot u haputh. Patashah feav 

Here was a-dead bear. p The-king entered 

amis-hapatas-manz. Laryav. Yus yih 

that-bear-in. He-ran. Which this 

patashaha-sond u mor u 6s u yih trowun 

king-of body was this was-abandoned 

by-him 

atiy. 

there-verily. 

Shod u buzun totan. Laryav. 

News was-heard-by-him by-the-parrot. He-ran. 

Kuli-dadari-manz-hau praryav. 

Tree-hole-in he-waited. 



118 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



[11- 



Mor u 

The-body 

Boz, 

Hear, 



lobun. 

was-taken-by-him. 



Karros 

Make-please- 
ye-for-him 



wophadbri ankah. 

loyalty (is) a-rara-avis. 



marhabah. 

a-wish-of-good- 
luck. 



11. Tota pev atiy pathar. Yih feav 

The-parrot fell there-verily down. He entered 

patashah pananis maris-manz. Yus yuh wazir 

the-king. his-own body-in. Who this vizier 

hapatas-manz. Patashah as a l 

the-bear-in. The-king real 

suh khot u guris-peth. Dopun 

mounted horse-upon. It-was-said-by-him 



6s u , 


suh 


chuh 


was, 


he 


is 


yus 


6s u , 


suh 


who 


was, 


he 



yiman lokan, 

to-these people, 



1 moryun 

kill-ye-him 



bandukh, 

a-gun, 



phut°r u has 

was-broken-by-them- 
for-him 



ratith patashahas-nish, 

having-seized the-king-near. 



haputh." 

the-bear." 



zang. 

the-leg. 



Dop u nas 

It-was-said-by 
him-to-him 



L6y u has 

Fired-by-them- 
at-him 

Onukh 

He-was-brought- 
by-them 

patashahan, 

by-the-king, 



" fee kurHhain 

. by-thee was-done-by- 
thee-to-me 

kyah karahb ? 

what should-I-do ? 



chus 

is-to-him 



wazir.' 

vizier.' 



dagay. 

disloyalty. 

Lokh 

People 

Tse 

By-thee 



Boh marahath-na, 

I should-kill-thee- 
not, 



dapanam, 

will-say-to-me, 

chuy 

is-by-thee 



' haputh 

1 a-bear 

panun u 

thine-own 



-12] 



II. THE TALE OF A PARROT 



119 



mor u 

body 


gol u mot u . 

destroyed. 


Wumah 

Now-not 


thawath. T_s a h 

I-may-keep-tbee. Thou 


haputh 

a-bear 


wazir. 

vizier. 


Boh, 

I, 


has a, marath." 

sir, will-kill-thee." 


12. 


Dapan wustad,— 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 




Onukh 

There-was-brought- 


zyun u . 

firewood. 


Zolukh haputh. 

He-was-burnt- the-bear. 



by-them 



by-them 



Hath waisi gav, kam 

A-hundred (years) in-age, went, less 

Av Bah a dur-Khanas 

Came to-Bahadur-Khan 

Kar, Wahab-Khara, "Alah, Alah." 

Make, Wahb-the-blacksmith-O, " Allah, Allah." 



ya jyaday, 

or more, 

pyaday. 

the-messenger (of Death). 



Boz, wophadbri ankah. 

Hear, loyalty (is) a-rara-avis. 



120 



HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 



[1- 



III— SODAGABA-SUNZ* KATH 

MEECHANT-OF STORY 



1. Sodagar 

A-merchant 



gav 

went 



sodahas. 

for- trade. 



Gari 

At-home 



z an an a. 

the-wife. 



Say 

She-verily 



gaye 

went 
(i.e. was) 



mushtakh 

enamoured 



os u s 

was-to-him 

phakiras- 

for-mendicant- 



akis warayahas-kalas. Doha-aki 



one 

gara 

house 

gaye 

went 



for-a-long-time 



av 

came 



panun u 

his-own 

khabar 

news 



On-day-one 
mal heth. 

goods having-brought. 

"sodagar wot u ." 

" the-merchant arrived." 



drav 

issued-forth 



solas 

for-an-excursion 



rath-kyut u , 

night-by, 



sodagar 

the-merchant 

Patashehas 

To-the-king 

Patashah 

The-king 

wot u 

he-arrived 



sodagara-sond u . Chuh 

(at) the-merchant's (house). He-is 



atiy 

there-verily 



wodaiie, 

standing, 



pahar chuh gamot u rbfe ii -hond u , yih sodagar- 

a-watch is gone the-night-of, this merchant's- 

bay wofeh ti , wddi-peth hefe ti n bata-trom". 

wife arose, crown-of-head-on was-taken- a-cooked-rice- 

by-her copper-dish. 

Patashah chuh wuchan feuri-pbthin. 

The-king is watching theft-like (i.e. secretly). 

draye bruh-bruh, patashah 

went-forth in-front-in-front, the-king 

chuh pakan pata-pata. Wot 1 mbdanas- 

is walking after-after. They-arrived a-plain- 



Sodagar-bay 

The-merchant's-wife 



-1] 



III. THE TALE OF A MERCHANT 



121 



akis-manz. 

one-in. 

zblith. 

having-kindled. 

thow u nas 

was-placed-by-her- 
for-him 



Ati 

There 



OS 1 



was 



phakir 

the-mendicant 



Kiir ti s 

Was-made- 
to-him 



ami 

by-her 



salam, 
a-bow, 



bontha-kani, dop u nas, 

front-in, it-was-said-by-her- 

to-him, 



nara-han 
fire-a-small 

bat a 

cooked-rice 

" kheh." 

eat. 



Am 1 tul u fehota, loyun amis-sodagar-baye, 

By-him was-raised a-stick, it-was- to-that-to-the-merchant's- 

struck-by-him wife, 



dop u nas u feir 1 

it-was-said-by- " late 
him-to-her 



kyazi ayekh?" Dop u nas 

why didst-thou-come ? " It-was-said- 

by-her-to-him 



ami 

by-her 



phirith, 

in-answer, 



az 



to-day 



khawand, 

husband, 



tamiy 

by-that-verily 



osum 

was-to-me 

gom 

went-for-me 



wiin 

now 



bata." 

the-cooked-rice. 



Dop u nas 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-her 



amot u panun u 

come my-own 

feer, khetam 

delay, eat-for-me 

am^phakiran, 

by-this-mendicant, 



" boh khemay-na. Godan dim anith 

u I will-eat-for-thee-not. First give-to-me having-brought 



amis-sodagara-sond u kala. Ada 

this-merchant-of head. Then 

bata." Patashah 

cooked-rice." The-king 

yimav-doyav katha 

by-these-two words were-made, 

patashehan soruy. 

by-the-king all. 



khemay 

I-will-eat-for-thee 



wuchan, yih-kenfehah 

whatever 



os u 

was watching, 

kare, tih 

that 



buz u 

was-heard 



122 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [2- 

2. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 

Draye sodagar-bay, wofe* panun u 

Went-forth the-merchant's-wife, she-arrived her-own 

gara, khiife ti hyor u . Patashah chuh bona- 

house, she-mounted above. The-king is below- 

kani. Ami feot u amis-sodagaras kala, 

in. By-her was-cut for-that-merchant the-head, 

wiifeh 11 heth rumali-keth. Cheh 

she-descended having-taken (it) a-kerchief-in. She-is 

pakan bruh-bruh, patashah chuh pata- 

walking in-front-in-front, the-king is after- 

pata. Wofe u amis-phaklras-nish. Tulun 

after. She-arrived that-mendicant-near. Was-raised-by-him 

fehota, loyun amis-sodagar-baye. Dop u nas, 

the-stick, it-was-struck- to-that-the-merchant's It-was-said- 
by-him wife. by-him-to-her, 

"fe a h sapiiz%h-na amis-pananis-khawanda- 

" thou becamest-not (the wife) this-thine - own-husband- 

siinz 11 , wun sapadakha mybn ii ? ,, 

of, now will-thou-become mine ? " 

3. Patashah drav, wot u panun u gara. 

The-king went-forth, arrived his-own house. 

Trowun aram. Gash phol u , wofeh ti 

Was-released- repose (i.e. he Dawn burst-forth, there- 

by-him took repose). arose 

krekh. Dapan chih, " sodagar wafeav 

an-outcry. Saying they-are, " the-merchant arrived 



"4] 



111. THE TALE OF A MERCHANT 



123 



panun u 

his-own 



gara, 

house, 



suy 

he-verily 



mor u 

was-killed 



feurav." 

by-thieves.*' 

dapan cheh 
saying 



Wofe ti otuy sodagar-bay, 

Arrived there-verily the-merchant's-wife, saying she-is 

patashehas, "khawand ay am, suy 

to-the-king, " the-husband came-to-me, he-verily 

mor u ham feurav." Patashahas cheh khabar, 

was-killed-by- by-thieves." To-the-king is information, 
them-for-me 



«yih 

" this 

chih 

they-are 

kaisi 

to-anyone 



sodagar 

merchant 

pay, 

a-clue, 

chuna 

is-not 



kam* 

by-whom 

sodagar 

the-merchant 

khasan 

rising 



mor u V ' 

was-killed ? " 

kam 1 

by-whom 

zima. 

responsibility. 



Tsharan 

Seeking 

mor u , 

was-killed, 



4. Dapan wustad,— 

(Is) saying the-teacher,- 

Kodukh yih 

Was-brought-forth- this 

by-them 

Otuy drav 

There-verily went-forth 

wuchan. Aye am^sunz 11 

seeing. She-came him-of 

gath. Dapan cheh, 

the-suttee-procedure. Saying she-is, 

hefe ti n 

was-begun-by-her 

Fatashah gos, 

The-king went-to-her 



karan 

doing 

zala 

will-burn 

woth-fehuniin 11 

a-leap-to-be-taken 



pan/ 7 

(my) body." 



sodagar, 

merchant, 

patashah biye 

• the-king and-also 

kolay, 

the-wife, 



Aye, 

She-came, 



zolukh. 

he-was-burnt- 
by-them. 

sbriy chuh 

all is 

cheh 

is 

"bdti 

' I-also 



yih 

she 



naras-manz. 

the-fire-in. 



124 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



[4- 



kiir ti nas 

was-made-by- 
him-to-her 



thaph. Dapan 

hand-grasping. Saying 



"yiy, 

1 this-if, 

kyah?" 

what ? " 



ta 

then 



tih 

that 



Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by- 
her-to-him, 



kyah? 

what? 

"me 

" for-me 



chus 

is-to-her 

Tiy, 

That-if, 



patashah, 

the-king, 



ta 

then 



yih 

this 



trav 

let-go 



Boh zala pan." 

I will-burn (my) body." 



Dop u nas, 

It-was-said- 
by-her-to-him, 



yela. 

from-restraint. 

14 nagas-akis- 
" spring-one- 



peth 



on 



chey 

is-verily 



mybn 1 

my 



doda-bene. Say waniy 

milk-sister. She-verily will-tell- 

to-thee 



amyuk u 

of-this 

zol u 

was-burnt 

gaye 

she-went 



mane." 

the-meaning." 



Trbv ti n 

She-was-let-go- 
by-him 



yela, 

from-restraint, 



ami pan pananis-khawandas-sbty, 

by-her (her) body her-own-husband-with, 

khalas. Pagah drav patashah, 

(to) freedom Tomorrow went-forth the-king, 



(from existence). 



wot u ath-nagas-peth. 

he-arrived that-spring-upon. 

zananah, amis ti y zanani 

a-certain- woman, to-that-very woman 

patashah, "tiy, ta yih 

the-king, " that-if, then this 

ta tih kyah?" Dop u nas 

then that what ? " Was-said-by- 

her-to-him 



Wuch% 

Was-seen-by-him 



chuy 

is-verily 

kyah? 

what? 

ami 

by-that 



ati 

there 

dapan 

saying 

yiy> 

this-if, 

zanani, 

woman, 



-5] 



III. THE TALE OF A MERCHANT 



12* 



11 bthi-ddh 1 dapay boh amyuk u jewa^" 

''after-eight-days I-will-tell- I of-this the-answer." 

to-thee 



5. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 

6th doh gay, 

Eight days went, 

pev yad. 

fell memory. 

peth. Wuch% 

upon. Was-seen-by-him 



Ladyav 

Ran 



path-kun 

afterwards 

patashah 

the-king 



soh 

that 



M wanum 

" tell-to-me 

" gafeh, 

go, 

fehawul 

a-goat 



tami-kathi-hond u 

that-word-of 



an 

bring 

ta 

and 



nagas-manz, 

spring-in, 



fehawul 

a-goat 

not u . 

a-jar. 

not u 

the-jar 



biye 

and-also 



zanana, 

woman, 

mane." 

meaning." 

not u ." 

a-jar." 



patashehas 

to-the-king 

tath-nagas- 

that-spring- 

dop u nas, 

was-said-by- 
him-to-her, 

Dop u nas, 

Was-said-by- 
her-to-him, 

Onun 

Was-brought- 
by-him 



Dop u nas, 

Was-said-by- 
her-to-him, 

fehun-phirith. ,, 

put-having-reversed 
(it)." 



4 was yith- 

descend this- 



biye, " anun fehawul kana 

also, " bring-it the-goat by-the-ear 

thawus natis-peth kala." Dop u nas, 

place-of-it the-jar-upon the-head." Was-said-by 

her-to-him, 

shemsheri-hunz* feraid-V 

a-sword-of stroke." 



Dop u nas 

Was-said-by- 
her-to-him 

ratith, 

having-seized, 

" lay us 

11 strike- 
to-it 



126 



HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 



[6- 



patashah 

the-king 



6, Dapan,— 

(Is) saying (the- teacher), — 

Lby ti nas shemsheri-hunz u 

Was-struck-by- the-sword-of 

him-to-it 

sata gafehan 

moment (is) becoming 

hanga-ta-manga. 

unexpectedly. 

7. Dapan wustad,- 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 

Yih chuh 

He (i.e. the king) is 

Ati chuh 

There he-is 



feund*. 

blow. 



Ami- 

At-that- 

gbb 

invisible 



watan 

arriving 



wuchan 

seeing 



Athi-peth khot u 

It-verily-upon mounted 

aram. Ati asa 

repose. There were 

nev tulith 

was-conducted having-raised 



(him) 



patashah, 
the-king, 

pa^ye. 

fairies. 

patashah. 

the-king. 



akis-jaye-manz 

a-place-in. 

chuh 

he-is 

nagma. 

dances-of- 
women. 



jenatace 

heaven-of 



Sapod u 

He-became 

jaye. 

place. 



bagas-akis-manz. 
garden-one-in. 

palang pbrith. 

a-bed prepared. 

trowun 

was-released-by-him 

Yimav^y 

By-them-verily 

Tsonukh 

He-was-caused-to- 
enter-by-them 

Wuchan 



bedar. 

awake. 

Ati 

There 



Patashah 

The-king 



chuh 

is 



Seeing 

lbg^at 1 

were-being- 
carried-on 

mushtakh 

enamoured 



ath^tamashes-kun. 

this-very-spectacle-towards. 



■8] 



///. THE TALE OF A MERCHANT 



127 



8. Dapan, — 

(Is) saying (the-teacher), — 



Gaye 

Went 



dife%h 

was-given- 
by-them 



yima 

these 

kunz. 
a-key. 



par*ye panas. Amis 

fairies for-themselves (i.e. To-him 
away on their own business). 



Dop u has, 

It-was-said-by- 
them-to-him, 



" yith 

" to-this 



thav 

apply (i.e. open) 

Tsav andar. 

He-entered within. 

zin karith. 

saddle having-made. 



kuluph. Woth, afeh 

the-lock. Arise, enter 

Ati wuchun 

There was-seen-by-him 

Kodun nebar 

It-was-brought- outside 
forth-by-him 



karith. 

having-done. 

wodane 

standing-still 

u khas 

1 mount 



Nebar 

Outside 



yeli 

when 



kodun, 

it-was-brought- 
forth-by-him, 



kuthis 
to-room 

andar." 

within." 

gur u 

a-horse 

thaph 

hand- 
grasping 

chuh 

he-is 



thaph 

hand-grasping 



karith. 

having-done. 



yimis-guris. 

to-this-to-horse. 



Khot u 

He-mounted 



Dop u has, 

It-was-said-by- 
them-to-him, 

amis-guris. 

to-that-to-horse. 



Yih chuh 

He (i.e. the king) is 

ti nawav-asmanav-peth 1 

both the-nine-heavens-above 



Khoda-Sbban 

by-God-the-Master 

patashehan. 

by-the-king. 



pbda 

created 



wuchan, 

seeing, 

ti, 

also, 

kor u mot u 

(was) made 



satav-zaminav-tal 1 

the-seven-worlds-below 



yih-kenfehah 

what-ever 



tih 

that 



Tath^sbty 

That-verily-with 



gav 

he-became 



wuch u 

was -seen 

mushtakh. 

entranced. 



128 



HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 



[8- 



Gos 

Became-to-him 
chukh 

art-thou 



pbda 

visible 



wuchan ? " 



Shetan. Dop u nas, "kyah 

Satan. It-was-said-by- " what 
him (Satan)-to-him, 



seeing 



9 " 



Dop u nas 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-him 



patashehan, 

by-the-king, 



" yih-kenfehah 

" what-ever 



tih 

that 



chus 

I-am 



Khoda-Soban poda 

by-God-the-Master created 



wuchan." 

seeing." 



Dop u nas 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-him 



kor u , 

was-made, 

Shetanan 

by- Satan 



phirith, 

in-reply, 



"ami-khota 

11 that-than 



haway boh. Yih 

(more) will-show- I. This 

to-thee 



chey 

is-verily 

kuluph. 

the-lock. 

patashah 
the-king 

gandith. 

bound. 



mybn ti 

my 



kunz. 

key. 



Woth, 

Arise, 

andar. 

within. 



afeh 

enter 



Yith-kuthis 

To-this-room 

andar." 

within." 



Wuchun 

Was-seen-by-him 



Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by- 
him (Satan)-to-him, 



"kadun 

" bring-it- 
forth 



ati 

there 

nebar, 

outside, 



amis ti y. Yih-kenfehah Khoda-Soban 

to-that-very-one. What-ever by-God-the-Master 



kor u , 

was-made, 

klh." 

something." 



tami-peth^kani 

that-in-addition-to 



wuchakh 

thou-shalt-see 



thav 

apply 

Tsav 

Entered 

khar 

an-ass 

khas 

mount 

poda 

created 

biye 

more 



Khot* 

Mounted 



patashah 

the-king 



amis-kharas. 

to-that-ass. 



•9] 



III. THE TALE OF A MERCHANT 



129 



9. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 

Barabar watanowun panun u 

At-once he-was-caused-to-arrive- his-own 
by-him (the-ass) 



Khot u 

He -ascended 



hyor u . 

up. 



Phirith 

Returning 



woth u . 

he-descended. 



ati 

there 



na 

not 



tami-baguk u , 

of-that-garden. 



Tot u , dapan, 

From-there, (they-are-)saying, 



khar. Patashehas 

the-ass. To-the-king 

Wdh ketha-pbth 1 

how 

gav 

he-went 



av 

came 



gara. 

house. 

Wuchun 

Was-seen- 
by-him 

arman 

longing 



Now 



wati? 

will-he-arrive (there) ? 

ath^nagas-peth. 

that-very-spring-on. 



Dopun 

It-was-said-by-him 



tamis-zanani, 
to-that-to-woman, 



'me 

to-me 



wanta 

please- tell 



this-if, 

kyah ? " 

what ? " 



panun u 

thine-own 



ta 

then 



tih 

that 



kyah? 

what? 



tiy, 

that-if, 



ta 

then 



Dop u nas 

It-was-said-by- 
her-to-him 

necyuv u , 

son, 



ami zanani, 
by -that by -woman, 



yih 

this 

" anun 

bring-him 



biye 

also 



an 

bring 



an shemsher." 

bring a-sword." 



Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by- 
her-to-him, 



not u , 

a-jar, 

M was 

descend 






nagas-manz, 

spring-in, 

pawun 

cause-him-to-fall 



walun 

bring-down-him 

pathar, 

down, 



panun u 

thine-own 

thawus 

place-of-him 



biye 

also 

yith- 

this- 

necynv u , 

son, 

natis-peth 

the-jar-upon 



130 



HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 



[9- 



kala." Kanas kur ti nas thaph 

tbe-head." To-his-ear was-done-by- hand- 

him-to-him grasping 

patashehan, tuj% shemsher, 

by-king, was-raised-by-him tbe-sword, 

kur ti s ami-zanani 

by-tbat-by- 
woman 



amis-necivis, 

to-that-to-son, 



was-made- 
for-bim 



am 1 

by-tbat 



layi 

be-will-strike 

thaph 

band-grasping 



ath-shemsheri, 

to-tbat-to-sword. 



tih; 

that ; 



tiy, 

tbat-verily, 



Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by- 
her-to-him, 

gav 

became 
(i.e. is) 



yih. 

this. 



" yiy> 

this-verily, 

Ts a h 

Tbou 



mushtakh 

enamoured 

mushtakh 

enamoured 



bagas ; 

for-tbe-garden ; 

phakiras." 

for-tbe-mendicant. 



bene 

tbe-sister 



mybn a 

mine 



gav 

became 
(i.e. is) 

gokh 

becamest 



gaye 

became 



■8] 



IV. A SONG OF LAL MALIK 



131 



IV.-LALA-MALIKUN U WON u MOT u GEWUN 



LAL-MALLIK-OF 
Dapan-chuh, — 

Saying-he-is, — 



Daye, 

O-God, 

boztam 

please-to-hear-me 

Samsar 

The-world 



zar 

petitions 

tay, 



SPOKP]N 



wairmay, 

are-said-by-me-to- 
Thee, 



bbz^gar. 

(is) a-deceiver. 



2. Hazrat-i-Adam goda 

Saint Adam first 



lod u nam 

was-sent-by-Him- 
for-me 



Malakav 

By-angels 

Phor u 

Was-a-plunderer 
(i.e. ruined) 

tay, 



kor u hay 

he-was-made-by- 
them -verily 

tas Yiblis, 

for-him Satan, 



tayar, 

complete. 

tati 



SONG 



Khodaye, 

O-God, 



tay, 



kor u nam 



from-there he-was-expelled- 
by-him-for-me 



Samsar 

The-world 



bbz^ar. 

(is) a-deceiver. 



Hazrat-i-Noh 

Saint Noah 

Phlrith 

Having-become- 
hostile 



chuy 

is-verily 



wolad-i-Adam tay, 

a-descendant-of-Adam . . . , 



gos 

went-for-him 



kuphar. 

the-infidels. 



1 Hatim pronounces this word kWnam, but Snnagar pandits kii(f u nam or 
kodunam. 



132 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



[4- 



Ah tarn 1 

A-sigh by-him 

tay, 



kor u nay, 


sar* 


gav 


alam 


was-made- 


flooded (in 


went 


the-universe 


by-him-verily, 


his tears) 







Samsar bbz^gar. 

The-world (is) a-deceiver. 




4. Hazrat-i-Yisah 

Saint Jesus 


kih 

anything 


chuna kam tay, 

is-not less . . . , 


Sbhiba-sond u 

The-Master-of 


toth u 

beloved 


yar. 

friend. 


Tson asmanan-peth tarn 1 sabakh dop u nam 

Four heavens-upon by-Him lecture was-said-by- 

Him-for-me. 



tay, 



Samsar 

The-world 



bbz^gar. 

(is) a-deceiver. 



5. Hazrat-i-Musay 

Saint by-Moses 

Sbhiba-sond u 

The-Master-of 

Koh-i-Tora-petha 

Mount-of-Sinai-from-on 

tay, 



trowuy 

was-put-forth- 
verily 



kadam 

a-step 



tay, 



kara 

I-will-do 

tarn 1 

by-him 



didar. 

seeing. 

katha 

words 



karenam 

were-made-by- 
him-for-me 



Samsar 

The-world 



bbz^ar. 

(is) a-deceiver. 



-7] 



IV. A SONG OF LAL MALIK 



138 



6. Hazrat-i-Yibrahim keh 

Saint Abraham anything 

Putalen korun 

(Of-) idols was-made-by-him 

Tarn 1 kor u dm-i-Mahmad 

By-him was-made the-faith-of- 



chuna 

is-not 



kam 

less 



nakar. 
prohibition. 

mahkam 

established 



Muhammad 



Samsar 

The-world 



boz^ar. 

(is) a-deceiver. 



Marith kabari yeli 

Having-died in-the-grave when 



walanam 

they-will-cause- 
me-to-descend 



Panin boy 1 kyah 

My -own brethren or 

Tati Lala-Malikas kyah 

There to-Lal-Mallik what 



yar. 

friends. 

hawanam 

will-they-show- 
to-me 



Samsar 

The-world 



boz^ar. 

(is) a-deceiver. 



tay, 



tay, 



tay, 



tay, 



134 



HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 



[1- 



V.— SONARA-SUNZ* KATH 

THE-GOLDSMITH-OF STORY 



Dapan wustad,— 

(Is) saying the teacher,- 



Shehara 

A-city 



akh 

one 



chuh-6s u mot u . 

has-been. 



Tat 1 

There 



chuh 

is 



sonar. Suy 6s u featas bahan-hatan-hond u 

goldsmith. He-verily was (of-) pupil twelve-hundred-of 



zyuth u . 

the-superior. 


Yuhuy 

He 


6s u -gadan 

was-making 


wasth 

articles 


patasheha-sanze-kore-kit 1 . 

the-king's-daughter-for. 


Tot u 

There 


bs ti -gafehan 

was-going 


sonara-siinz* zanana heth. 

the-goldsmith-of wife carrying (them). 


Aki-doha 

On-one-day 


dopus 

it-was-said- 
to-her 


ami-patashah-kori, " sozun u 

by-that-king's-daughter, " is-to-be- 

sent 


gafehi 

it-is-proper 


panun u 

thine-own 


khawand." 

husband." 


Doha-aki 

On-day-one 


drav 

went-forth 


sonar, 

the-goldsmith, 


sona-sunz* 

gold-of 


wbj* 

ring 


heth, 

having-taken, 


patashaha-sanze-kore-kife*. 

king's-daughter-for. 


Ami 

By-her 


pasand 

approval 


kiir ti sna. 

was-made-for- 
it-not. 


Dop u nas, 

It - was -said- by - 
her-to-him, 


" yith 

M to-this 


chey 

is-verily 


wad." 

crookedness." 


Av pot u phirith. 

He-came (home) back returning. 


W6t u 

He -arrived 






V. THE TALE OF THE GOLDSMITH 



185 



panun u 

his-own 

2. 



ash g kh 

love 



gara. 

house. 



Pev 

He-fell 



bemar, 

sick. 



Amis 

To-him 



osus patashaha-sanze-kore-hond u 

was-to-him the-king's-daughter-of 



gdmot u , 

become. 



Patashah-kore 

To-the-king's-daughter 



6s u -gomot u 

was-become 



amis-sonara-sond u 

this -goldsmith -of 



ash g kh. Doda-maje-kun 

love. The-foster-mother-to 



wanan 

(is) saying 



patashah-kur",- 

the-king's-daughter,- 



" Zargar-necyuvah 

M A-goldsmith-son 

"Dlshith 



pur u -khumar. 

(is) full-of-languishment. 



" Having- 
seen-him 

hay 

0! 

Doda-moj* 

The-foster-mother 

"May 

" Do-not 

" Lagakh 

" Thou-wilt- 
be-caught 

" Ora-kani 

M In-that- 
direction 

"Ora 

" (So that) 
from-there 



doda-maji, 

O-foster-mother, 



log u m*y, 

is-attached- 
to-me-verily, 

amar." 

desire." 



ches-wanan phirith,— 

is-to-her-saying answering, — 

kar, kui^yey, shur^bashe, 

make, O-daughter, child-talk. 

ash g kane walawashi. 

love-of (in-) the-net. 



mot u 

mad 



ditay, 

give-verily, 



kur 1 , 

daughter, 



ma 

not 



lagaham 

mayst-thou-find- 
thyself-not 



kana-dbli. 

ear-closing. 

wdbali." 

in-blameworthiness.' 



136 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



[8- 



3. Sonar 

The-goldsmith 



chuh 

is 



bemar. 

sick. 



Amis 

To-him 



ash s kun u 

love-of 

gafj*. 

clever. 

dod u . 

the-pain. 

rinz 1 , 

balls, 



tab. 

fever. 

Amis 

To-her 

Dapan 

Saying 



Amis-sdnara-sUnz^-kolay 

That-goldsmith's-wife 



chuh 

is 

cheh 

is 



tog u bozun am^-sond 11 

it-was-possible to-understand him-of 



biye 

also 



ches, 

she-is-to- 
him, 

gar 

make 



"fe a h 

" thou 

sona-sand 1 

gold-of 



hech 

learn 



layan 1 

to-be-thrown 



rinz 1 

balls 



4. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 



Gar 1 

Were-made 

Drav 

He-went-forth 



am 1 

by-him 

athas-keth 

the-hand-in 



sona-sand 1 

gold-of 



rinz 1 
balls 



z a h." 

two." 



z a h. 

two. 



heth 

taking 



rinz 1 . 

balls. 



chuh 

is 

ta 

and 



apor 1 

in-that-direction 



ta 

and 



yipbr 1 

in-this-direction 



Layan- 

Throwing-he- 

kaniv 1 

stone-of 



shestrav 1 . 

iron-of (balls). 



W6t u ot u 

He-arrived there 



patashaha-sanze- 

the-king's- 



dare-tal. 

window-under. 



Lbyin 

Were-thrown- from-there 
by-him 



ati sona-sand 1 rinz 1 



gold-of 



z a h 

two 

howus 

was- shown  
to-him 



patashaha-sanzi-kori-halamas-manz. 

the-king's-daughter's-lap-cloth-into. 



balls 

Ami 

By-her 



ora phirith thiid ti -kani bna, 

there-from turning- backwards (a) mirror, 

herself 



■4] 



V. THE TALE OF THE GOLDSMITH 



137 



biye 

again 



trowun 

was-cast-by-her 



dari-kan* 

the-window- 
through 



ab, 

water, 



biye 

again 



trowun 

was-cast-by-her 

kih, 

hair, 



biye 

again 



poshe-gond u , 

(a) flower-bunch, 

tuj ti n 

was-lifted-up-by-her 



dyutun 

was-given-by- 
her 

sonar l 

goldsmith 

wot u 

he-arrived 



biye trowun 

again was-cast-by-her 

shestruv ti salay, 

a-made-of-iron spike, 

ath-dare-handis-dasas khash, 

to-that-window's-sill a-cut. 



Am ' 
By-that 



wuch 1 , 

they-were-seen, 



av 

he-came 



panun u 

his-own 



gara. Dop u nas 

house. It-was-told- 
by-him-to-her 



phirith, 

(home) returning, 

panaiie-zanani. 

to-his-own-wife. 



Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by-her- 
to-him, 

won u nas 

it-was-said-by-him- 
to-her 



11 ke-ho 

. what-Sir 

phirith, 

answering, 



koruth ? " 

was-done-by-thee ? 



Am 1 

By-him 



"rinz 1 hay loy^as. 

' the-balls were-thrown-by- 
me-to-her. 



Tim hay gbs halamas-manz. 

They went-for-her the-lap-cloth- 

into. 

how u nam phirith thiid u -kani 

was-shown-by- turning-herself backwards 
her-to-me 



Tora 

Therefrom 



bna, 
(a) mirror, 



hay 





trow u nam 

was-cast-by-her- 
to-me 



dari-kan 1 

the-window- through 



ab, 

water, 



hay 

o 

biye 

again 

biye 

again 



1 Sdnar is here the case of the agent ; the more usual form would be 

sdnaran. 



138 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



[5- 



trow u nam 

was-cast-by-her- 
to-me 

kih, biye 

hair, again 



poshe-gdnd u , 

(a) flower-bunch, 

dyutun 

was-given-by-her 



biye 

again 



trow u nam 

was-cast-by-her- 
to-me 



shestravi-salayi-sbty 

a-made-of-iron-spike-with 



dasas khash." Dop u nas ami 

to-the- (window) a-cut." It-was-said-by- by-her 
sill 



her-to-him 

thur ti -kani hav how u nay 

" backwards was-shown-by- 
her-to-thee 



bna, 

(a) mirror, 



phirith, 

answering, 

kus-tan 

somebody 



6s u mot u -chus 

was- (there) - for - her 

ab-dawa-kaii 

water-drain-by- 
means-of 



wopar ; 

other ; 

gafehi 

it-is-proper 



ab 

water. 



hav 





afeun u ; 

to-enter ; 



trow u nay, 

was-cast-by-her- 
to-thee 

poshe-gond u 

flower-bunch 



trow u nay, 

was-cast-by-her-to-thee, 



bagas-manz 

the-garden-in 



salayi-sbty how u nay, 

spike-by it-was-shown-by-her- 
to-thee, 



phaharawav, tath chiy 

(a) file, to-it are-verily 

tim gafehan featan 1 ; kih 

they are-proper to-be-cut ; hair 



galshi 

it-is-proper 

anun u 

to-be-brought 

poladav 1 

made-of-steel 



afeun ; 
to-enter ; 

gafehi 

is-proper 

neza, 

railings, 



trow u nay, 

was-cast-by-her- 
to-thee, 



" ches 
I-am 



walan 
causing- to-descend 



kangan. ,, 

a-comb." 



5. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 



•5] 



V. THE TALE OF THE GOLDSMITH 



139 



Drav yih sonar shaman-bog*, feav 

Went-off this goldsmith at-evening-about, he-entered 

Wuchun ati palang, 

Was-seen-by-him there a-bed, 



ath-bagas-manz. 

that-garden-in. 



khot u 

he-mounted 

peyes 

there-fell-to- 
him 



ath^palangas-peth. 

that-very-bed-upon. 



nend a r. 

sleep. 



Ayes 

She-came- 
to-him 



Shikasta-sbty 

His-weakness-owing-to 

yih patashah-kud u . 

this king's-daughter. 



"Shanda 

From-the-pillow 



ches-karan 

she-is-for-him- 
making 



khor, 

the-feet, 



khdra 

from-the-foot 



ches-karan shand." Yih 

she-is-for-him-making the-pillow." He 

Yutan gash 

In-the-meantime dawn 



keh hushyar 

at-all awake 



gos-na. 

became-for 
her-not. 



Patashah-kur 11 feuj ti 

The-king's-daughter fled 



panun u 

her-own 



log u 

began 

gara, 

house, 



gav hushyar 

became awake 



panun u 

his-own 

" ke-ho 

' what-Sir 



sonar. Yiwan-chuh 

the-goldsmith. Coming-he-is 

"Wanan-ches panun ti 

Saying-she-is-to-him his-own 

koruth ? " Yih chus-dapan 

was-done-by- He is-to-her-saying 
thee?" 



gara. 

house. 



44 sa 

' she 

zanani, 

woman, 



nay 

not-even 



keh 

at-all 



" talau 

"0 



ay em. 

came-to- 
me." 

yur^hond 11 

hither 



Dop u nas 

Was-said-by- 
her-to-him 

wola." 

come." 



pholani. 

to-flower. 

path-kun 

afterwards 

yiti 

from-here 

kolay, 

wife, 

phirith, 

answering, 

ami- 

by-that- 

Gav. 

He- went. 



140 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



[6 



Wuchus ami-panaiii-zanani cendas. Wuchin 

Was-looked- by-this-his-own-woman to-the-pocket. Were-seen- 

by-her 



for-him 

ati rinz 1 z a h 

there the-balls two 



sona-sand 1 , 

gold-of, 



timay yim 

those-very which 



tami-doha layanas halamas-manz. Dop u nas, 

on-that-day had-been-thrown- lap-cloth-in. It-was-said-by- 



by-him-to-her 



"sa 

" she 



chey 

is-to-thee 



amute ti , 

come, 



te a h 

thou 



hushyar. 

awake. 

kalacen, 

at-eventide, 



Wun, 

Now, 

teli 

then 



yeli 

when 

dapay 

I-will-say-to-thee 



her-to-him, 

chukhna gdmot u 

art-not become 



biye 

again 

boh 

I 



gatehakh 

thou-shalt-go 

sabakh." 

a-lesson." 



6. Dapan wustad,— 

(Is) saying the-teacher,- 



Nam 

Nails 



dah 

ten 



tul^nas 

were-raised-by 
her-for-him 



athan-hand 1 , 

the-hands-of, 



akis 

to-one 



6s u nas dyut u mot u son u 

was-by-her-to-it given a-deep 



khash. 

cut. 



" mor u thas." Ami dop u nas 

' killed (i.e. wounded)- By-her it-was-said-by- 

by-thee-am-I." her-to-him 



Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-her, 

phirith, 

answering, 



"mbl 1 

" by-father 

sabakas. 

to-lesson. 



maji chesna fehur^mufe* nbyid 

by-mother I-am-not put barber's 



Won 

Now 



yeli 

when 



gatshakh, 

thou-wilt-go, 



teli 

then 



-6] 



THE TALE OF THE GOLDSMITH 



HI 



dimay dawahan." 

I-will-give-to-thee a-little-medicine. 



marfea-wlgan 

of-red-pepper 



ratehi-hana, 

a-very-little, 



liana. 

little. 

peth 

on 

Yih 

This 



Dop u nas, " biye 

It-was-said-by- " again 
her-to-him, 

khasakh, teli 

thou-wilt-mount, then 



Ami 

By-her 

biye 

also 

yeli 

when 



dyut u nas 

was-given-by- 
her-to-him 

nuna rafehi- 
of-salt a-very- 

tath-palangas- 

that-bed- 



dawah 

medicine 



rafehi-han 

a-little-amount 



yiyiy, nend a r. 

will-come-to-thee, sleep. 

gand'zes, ada 

(thou) must-bind-it, then 



will-come-to-thee 
sonar, 

the-goldsmith, 



nend a r sheh u j ti ." Drav ati 

sleep cool." Went-forth from-there 



dawah 

the-medicine 



rafehi-han 

a-little-amount 



heVn 

was-taken-by- 
him 



sbty, 

with, 



wot u 

he-arrived 



ath-bagas-manz, 

•that-garden-in, 



palangas-peth, 

bed-on, 



chuh 

he-is 



praran 

waiting 



yih 

she 

yin* 

to-come 

chuh 

he-is 



kuni 

at-all 

nend a r, 

sleep, 

karith 

having-made 



yiwan-ches-na. 

coming-is-to-him-not. 



khot u ath- 

he-mounted that- 

feer tan, 

long-time during, 

Heb u nas 

There-began-for-him 



athas 

to-the-hand 

thaph. 

holding. 



chus 

is-for-him 

Dopun, 

It-was-said- 
by-him, 



dod u , 

pain, 



ath 

to- it 



wun 



aye-na, 

she-came-not, 



yith 

(if) to-this 



tshunahb 
I-had-applied 



b6h 

I 



" now-indeed 

dodis 

to-the-pain 



142 



HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 



' [7- 



dawah, 

the-medicine, 

ath-dbdis 

to-that-pain 

pyos 

there-fell-to-him 



sheh*j a 

(then) cool 



karahb 

I-should- 
have-made 



nend a r." Yuthuy 

sleep." As-verily 



fehunun 

was-applied-by-him 

wolinje 

to-the-heart 



dawah, 

the-medicine, 



vih, 

poison, 



chuh 

he-is 



tyuthuy 

so-verily 

lalawan 

caressing (it) 



thod u 

upright 



wothith. 

having- arisen. 



7. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacheiy 



Aye 

Came 

moth u 

was-forgotten 



yih 

this 

soruy 

all 



p atashaha-sUnz 11 

king's 



kur ti . Amis 

daughter. To-him 



yih 

what 



karun u 

to-be-done 



YutMan 

Here-up-to (by- 
this-time) 



gash 

dawn 



dod u . 

pain. 

gofeh u . 

was-proper, 

log u 



Koran amis-sbty 

Was-done-by-him her-with 

Peyekh nend a r. 

There-fell-to-them sleep. 



chuh 

is 



wasan 

coming- 
down 



apbr^kin 

on-that-side- 
from 



pholani. 

to-flower. 



agayi. 

for-inspection. 



Kut a wal 

The-chief-of- 
police 

Wuchun 

Was-seen- 
by-him 



ati patashaha-siinz* kur ti biye sonar. 

there the-king's daughter and the-goldsmith. 

Rat 1 am^ku^walan, nin ratith, 

They-were- by-that-chief- they-were-taken- having- 



arrested 

karin 

they-were-made- 
by-him 



of-police, by-him 

hawala feralen, 

in-custody to-the-constables 



arrested, 

karikh 

they-were-made- 
by-them 



-7! 



V. THE TALE OF THE GOLDSMITH 



148 



kod. 

imprisoned. 

akhah. 
a-certain-one. 

doyav, 

two, 



Ati 

There 



OS u 

there-was 



pakan 

going 



wati 

on-the-road 



Amis ti y dopukh yimav-kbdyau- 

To-him-verily it-was-said- by- these- prisoners- 
by-them 



M te a h, 

" thou, 



sonar-ata-petha. 

the-goldsmiths'-market- 
from. 



hasa, 

Sir, 

Dap^ekh, 

Thou-must-say- 
to-them, 



dizi 

must-give 



krekh 
an-outcry 



1 patashehas 

' for-the-king (the- 
king's) 



khar 

ass 

lot u 

tail 



pev kong-wari. 

fell in-the-saffron-field. 



teatanasa 

will-they-cut- 
for-him ? 



kina 

or 



Khabar chya 

News is-there? (there- 
is-not) 

tsatanas. 

they-will-cut-for- 
him. 



hot u 

throat 



Patashehas 

The-king's 



Pakan 

Going 

Vir heth 

Fine- having 



khar 

ass 

dil 

the-heart 



pev kong-ware. 

fell in-the-saffron-field. 



gom 

became -to -me 



tat 1 

there 



money 

Nata 

Other- 
wise 

Buz u 

Was-heard 

bazar, 

(to) the-market, 



taken 



tas 

him 



watun u 

to-arrive 

patashah 

the-king 



goteh u 

was-proper 

tati 

there 



tare. 

confused. 

soli-gare. 

at-dawn- 
time. 

mare/ n 

will-kill.' " 



ami-sonara-sanzi-zanani. Draye 

by-that-goldsmith's-wife. She-went-forth 

hefean feoce, lazan kranje, 

were-bought- loaves, were-placed to-a-basket, 
by-her by-her 



144 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES [8- 

draye heth. 

she-went-forth having-taken (them). 



4* 



Shen-kbd-khanan tsoce bbg a remay. 

" For-six-prisons loaves were-divided-by-me-O. 

Satimis afeayo, bar-Khodayo hay." 

To-the- I-will-enter-O, Great-God-0 alas." 

seventh 

8. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 

Bbg a ren yima-feoce. Dop u nakh, "khawand 

Were-divided- these-loaves. It-was-said-by- " husband 
by-her her-to-them, 

chum bemar. Ath 1 kyah dop u ham 

is-to-me sick. Therefore verily It-was-said-by-them- 

to-me 

pirav phakirav, 'fedce gatehan bbg a rane 

by-saints (and) by-faqirs, ' loaves are-proper to-be-divided 

satan-kbd-khana^' Yih-kenfehah dapun chuwa, 

to-seven-prisons.' Whatever to-be-said is-by-you, 

tih dap^em yora afeawunuy. Ora 

that you-must-say- from-here even-as-I-enter. From-there 
to-me 

nerawun 11 klh dap^em-na, me gafehi 

as-I-go-forth anything you-must-say-to- to-me will-occur 

me-not, 

shekh." Dop u nakh biye, "ma chuh 

anxiety." It-was-said-by-her- also, " I-wonder-if there-is 
to-them 

klh kbd 1 yiti?" Dop u has yimav, 

any prisoner here ? " It-was-said-by-them- by -them, 

to-her 



-9] 



THE TALE OF THE GOLDSMITH 



145 



" patimi-pahara 

" at-the-last-watch 
(of the night) 



an^mat* 

(were) brought 



kut a walan z a h 

by-the-chief-of- two 

police 



kbd 1 . 

prisoners. 



Tim 

They 



chih 
are 



path-kiin.' 

at-the-back." 



Wbte u 

She-arrived 



yiman-nish. Dopun 

these-near. It-was-said-by-her 



amis-pananis-khawandas, 
to-that-her-own-to-husband, 



u wun ketha-pbth 1 



now 

kur*? 

daughter ? 

kur* ? M 

daughter ? ' 

yeli 

when (if) 



how 

Tagiye 

Is-she-possible- 
for-thee 



mokali 

will-escape 



yiti 

from-here 



patashah- 
the-king's- 



mokalawun 11 yih patashah- 

to-be-released this king's- 



Dop u nas 

It-was-said-to- 
her-by-him 

tagihem, 

it-had-been-known- 
how-for-me, 



am 1 

by-him 

ada 

then 



kbd ? " 

imprisonment ? 



phirith, 

answering, 



"tih 

" that 



kyazi 

why 



lagahb 

should-I-have- 
remained (in) 



9. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 

Kodun nala panun u poshakh, fehunun 

Was-taken-off- from-the- her-own garment, it-was-put- 



by-her neck 

patashah-kore ; 

to-the-king's-daughter 

tehunun panas. 

was-put-on-by-her to-herself. 



on-by-her 

patashah-kore-hond u kodun, 

the-king's-daughter-of was-taken-off- 

by-her, 



Kriind* 

The -basket 



dife%as 

was-given-by-her- 
to-her 



146 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [9- 

wotamukh 1 , draye nebar patashah-kur u , 

upside-down, issued forth the-king's-daughter, 

gaye panun u gar a. Kut a walan dyut u 

she-went her-own house. By-the-chief-of- was-given 

police 

rapat patashehas. Dop u nas, " patashah-kur* 

report to-the-king. It-was-said-by- c the-king's-daughter 

him-to-him, (was) 

biye 6s u sonar bagas-manz. Timay 

and was a-goldsmith the-garden-in. They-verily 

kya karim kbd. ,, Patashah drav 

of-course were-made- (in) prison." The-king went-forth 
by-me 

adaliife ti -peth. Anikh yim-ratak^kbd 1 z a h. 

the-court-of- Were-brought-by- these-of-the-night- two. 
justice-on. them prisoners 

Wuchikh yim bote 11 z a h. Sonara-sanzi- 

Were-seen- these husband-and- two. By-the-goldsmith's- 

by-them wife 

kolayi gand 1 gul 1 z a h patashehas. 

wife were-fastened- the-fore-arms two to-the-king. 

together 

Dop u nas, " patasheham, as 1 kyah 

It-was-said-by-her- \ my-king, we of-a-truth 

to-him, 

bs 1 gamat 1 salas. Tora kyah 

were gone to-a-marriage-feast. From-there of-a-truth 

ay ta wot 1 yith-cybnis-sheharas-manz. 

(we) came and arrived this-thy-city-in. 

Gav feer. Ada 1say cybnis-bagas-manz. 

It-became late. Then (we) entered thy-garden-in. 



91 



THE TALE OF THE GOLDSMITH 



147 



Ati wuch u 

There was-seen 

kor u aram, 

was-made repose, 

Amiy kyah 



palang, khat* ath-peth, 

a-bed, (we) mounted it-upon, 

ora av cyon u kut a wal. 

from-there came thy chief-of-police. 

niy ratith karin 



By-hiin 
verily 



of-a-truth were-taken having-arrested (we) were-made- 

by-him 

kbd." Woth u kut a wal, dopun 

(in) imprisonment." Arose the-chief -of -police, it-was-said-by-him 

" patasheham, cybn a kur* 

" my-king, thy daughter 

kasam Vig^ah naga-petha. 

oath the-Vig'nah Nag-from-on. 

' yus ati apoz u kasam karihe, 

(People are) saying, ' he-who there untrue oath might-have-made, 



patashehas, 

to-the-king, 

karinam 

let-her-make-for-me 

Dapan, 



suh wothihe-na 

he would-have-arisen-not 

tatiy mar an/" 

there-verily dying.' " 

zanani amis-sonaras, 

to-that-goldsmith. 



tat 1 

there 



thod u , 

upright, 



suh 

he 



6s u 

was 



wife 



Dop u 

It-was-said 
[* tagiye 

' is-she-possible- this 
for- thee 

kur ti bacawuii* ? " Dop u nas, 

daughter to-be-caused-to- It-was-said-by- 
escape ? " him-to-her, 

wath." Dop u nas, M akh, 

a-way." It-was-said- by-her-to-him, ' (for) one (thing), put-off all 

poshakh, khoran fehun khrav, biye 

(thy) garments, to-the-feet put-on clogs, and 

math sur, lag guson u . Yeli ot u 

rub ashes, appear-like a-mendicant-monk. When there 

watanawan amis-patashah-kore, cyon u 

they-shall-cause-to-arrive this-king's-daughter, for-thee 



ami-sonara-sanzi- 
by-that-goldsmith's- 

yih patashah- 

king's- 

" havtam 

" show- please - 
to-me 

trav soruy 



148 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



[10- 



gafehi gafehun u , 

it-is-proper to-go, 

gatehi thaph 

is-proper seizing 

* me dita 

 to-me give-please 

havi ada 

will-show then 

ratith dapi, 

having-seized she-will-say, 

nemis-matis siwah 

to-this-mad-one except 



amis-patashah-kore kariin^ 

to-this-king's-daughter to-be-made 

damanas, dapun u gafehes, 

to-the-skirt, to-say it-is-proper-to-her, 

goda khbrath.' Sa kyah 

first alms.' She of-course 



damanas 

to-the-skirt 



thaph.'" 

seizing.' " 
nagas 



kasam, 

the- oath, 

' ha 
'0 

kyah 

certainly 



wufeh ti y 



cyonuy mokh 

thine-only face 

haz 1 Vig^ah-naga, 

holy O-Vig^ah-Nag, 

kur ti m-na kbsi 

was-made-to- by-anyone 
me-not 



sranas. 



"How 

Mat 1 

By-the-mad- 
one 



do-I- on-the- I-wonder- 
know, shoulder how 



Vig^ah 

To-the-Vig'fiah Nag she-descended- verily for -bathing. 

" Kuwa zana mati mah lod u nam rah ? 

was-loaded- the-fault ? 
for-me 

doli-damanas." 

to-the-skirt-of-the-gusset- 
of-(my) garment." 

kyah? 

what? 



thaph 

seizing 



lby%am 

was -struck 



gudariv 

happened 



Kut a wal-ganas 

To-the-chief -of -police 
the-pimp 

Sbriy yar gay panas 

All friends went voluntarily 

Kut a wal-ganas gudariv 

To-the-chief-of-police-the-pimp happened 

10. Patashah-kur* gaye gara 

The-king's-daughter went 



panas. 

voluntarily. 

kyah? 

what? 

kut a wal 

home, the-chief-of- 
police 



-10] 



V. THE TALE OF THE OOLDSMITH 



149 



dyutukh phahi, 

was-given- on-the-empalement- 
by-them stake, 



sonara-sand 1 

the-goldsmith-of 



bbfe* 

the-husband- 
and-wife 



z a h 

two 

bemar. 

ill. 

Yih 

This 



chih gari-panani. 

are in-the-house-their-own. 



Yihoy 

This-veriiy 



kor u nas 

was-made-by- 
him-for-her 



S6nar 

The-goldsmith 

ash g kun u 

of-love 



OS 1 



was 



Godun 

Was-made-by-her 

gondun 

was-tied-by-her 

logun 

was-made-to-appear- 
like-by-her 



sonara-siinz* 

the-goldsmith-of 

mohara-hatas-akis 



zanana 

wife 



rosh u . 



gav 

became 

tab. 

the-fever. 

gat*j ti . 

clever. 

Yih 



(of) mohars-a-hundred-one a-necklace. This 



pananis-khawandas. 

to-her-own-husband. 



samyas. 

an-ascetic. 



Amis 

As-for-him 



Pana 

She-herself 

por ti n 

she (he)-was- 
dressed-by-her 



gopbl 1 . 

(as) a-dancing-girl 



gara. 

at-the-house. 

chem 

is-to-me 



Watanbw ti n 

She (he)-was-caused 
to-arrive-by-her 

Dopun 

It-was-said-by-her 

bby^kakan, 

elder-brother's-wife, 



patashaha-sond u 

the-king-of 



amis-patashehas, " yih 

to-that-king, ' this (girl) 

yih | chey fee 

she is-to-thee to-thee 



hawala. 

a-deposit. 

Suh 

He 

chey 

is-to-thee 



Me 

To-me 

chum 

is-for-me 



chuy 

is-verily 

gamot u 

gone 



gatshun u 

to-be-gone 



sodahas. 

for-merchanting. 



bbyis-nish. 

to-the-brother- 
near. 

Yih 

This (girl) 



mybn u 

my 



gopbl 1 

dancing-girl 



hawala, 

a-deposit, 



yotah 

until 



150 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES [li- 
as 1 yimoy. Yih chey pakh, yih 

we shall-come-to- She is-verily pure, her 

thee. 

thbv^zen panaiie-kore-sbty." Aye phirith 

you-must-keep- thine-own-daughter-with." She-came returning 
her 

panun u gara. Keh kala gav, av 

(to) her-own house. Some a-time went, came 

yih sonar biye gara pamm u . 

this goldsmith again (to) home his-own. 

11. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 

Logun sodagar ami zanani. 

He-was-made-to-appear- a-merchant by-that woman, 
like-by-her 

Wot 1 ath-patasheha-sandis-sheharas-manz . 

They-arrived that-king's-city-in. 

Logu ami biye saniyas. 

He (she)-was-made-to- by-her again an-ascetic. 

appear-like 

Khawand thdwun deras-peth sodagar 

Her-husband was-placed-by-her a-tent-on a-merchant 

lbgith, pana gaye patashehas. 

being-made-to-appear- she-herself went to-the-king. 

like, 

Gond u nas dawah, " dim gopbl 1 ." 

Was-bound-by- a-claim, u give-to-me the-dancing-girl." 

her-to-him 

Diwan chuh achen d ti h. Dapan 

Giving he-is to-the-eyes smoke. Saying 

ches, " dim gopbl 1 . 

she-is-to-him, " give-to-me the-dancing-girl. 



•12] 



V. THE TALE OF THE GOLDSMITH 



151 



Praran 

Waiting 

Saniyas 

The-ascetic 

Yih chus 

This is-to-her 



ddli 
the-day 

amot u 

(is) come 

dap an 

saying 



gav me bale. 

went for-me for (-my) -girl. 

gopale." 

for-the-dancing-girl." 



patashah 
the-king 



phirith, — 

answering, — 



"Saniyasu, 

' O-ascetic, 

Khotuna 

A-certain- 
lady 



inov 

do-not 



lag 

fix 



akh dimay 

a I-will-give- 
to-thee 



jenda, 

the-flag (of 
your claim), 



luh-luh. 

luh-luh. 



danda, luh-luh. J ' 

in-exchange, luh-luh." 



saying 



is-to-him 



answering, — 



Saniyas dapan chus phirith, — 

The-ascetic 

" Saniyas 

, An-ascetic 

Danda 



chusay bewasta, luh-luh. 

I-am-verily without-worldly-ties, luh-luh. 



An-exchange I-will-take- 
from-thee 



hemay dukhtar-e-khasa, luh-luh." 

the-daughter-of- luh-luh." 

thee-thyself, 



12. Dapan wustad,— 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 

Mohara-hatas godun rosh u , gondun 

Of-mohars-a- was-made-by-him a-necklace, it-was-tied- 
hundred by-him 

panane kode. Kur ti n hawala amis 

to-his-own daughter. She-was-made- to-the- to-this 

by-him charge 

saniyasas. 

to-ascetic. 



152 



HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 



[12- 



Tanana 

Tanana 

Yim 

These 



tan a nana 

tananana 



kar 

actions 



cheh 



are 



tananay. 

tananay. 

karan 

doing 



zananay. 

women-only. 



• Niyen 

Was -taken - 
by-her 

khawandas. 

husband. 

yih 

(thou) this-woman 



ta 

and 



kiir ti n 

was-made- 
by-her 



Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by-her- 
to-him, 

zan. ,, 

know." 



hawala pananis- 

to-the- to-her-own- 

charge 



"fe a h 

1 thou 



zan, 
know, 



ta 

and 



-4] Vi. STORY OF YUSUF AND ZULAIKHA 153 

VI. YUSUPH-ZALIKHA KATH. 

YUSUF-ZULAIKHA STORY. 

1. Shah-i-Yusuph Zalikha, yara, bozakh-na? 

King-Yusuf Zulaikha, Friend, wilt-thou-not- 

hear? 

2. Zalikha cheh wanan,— 

Zulaikha is saying, — 



"Salas 

" To-the-feast 



yikh-na ? 

wilt-thou-not- 
come ? 



polav khekh-na ? 

puldo wilt-thou-not-eat ? 



Yitam 

Come-thou- 
please-to-me 



gah 

in-season 



begah ; 

out-of-season ; 



yara, 

Friend, 



bozakh-na ? 

wilt-thou-not-hear ? 



3. Sath kuth 1 

Seven rooms 



lare 

in-the-house 



chim, cyane- 

are-to-me, for-thy- 



ldhlari 

longing 



chim. 

they-are-to-me. 



Behtam satha ; 

Sit-please-for-me a-moment ; 



yara, 

Friend, 



bozakh-na ? " 

wilt-thou-not- 
hear?" 



4. Putal-khanas 

Of-the-idol-house 



byon u byon u panas 

separately separately of-her-own- 

accord 



Kor u nakh parda ; " yara, 

Was-made-by-her- a-veil ; Friend, 

for-them 



bozakh-na ? n 

wilt-thou-not- 
hear ? " 



154 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



[5- 



5. " Ati 

" Here 


kya thowuth, 

what was-placed-by-thee, 


ase-kun 

us-before 


howuth?" 

-shown-by-thee ? " 






Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by-her- 
to-him, 


" chum Khoda; 

" it-is-to-me a-God ; 


yara ?" 

Friend, etc. ? " 


6. " Khoda 

"God 


gav suy, mani-panane 

is He-alone, from-the-mind-thine- 

own 



kas doy. 

expel the-belief-in-two. 

Sholan chuh shemah ; 

Shining is the-lamp-flame ; 

7. Khoda chuh kunuy, 

God is one-only, 

drav nonuy. 

He-issued manifest. 



yara° ? 

Friend, etc. ? 

jalwa dith 

glory having-given 



Kane-manz chya 


moda? yara ?" 


Stone-in is-there 


meaning ? Friend, etc. ? " 


8. Hazrat-i Yusuph 


tsol u . Pata ladyeyes 


Saint Yusuf 


fled. After ran-to-him 


Zalikha. 




Zulaikha. 




Yusuph Isalan, 


Zalikha laran. 


Yusuf fleeing, 


Zulaikha running. 


Dop u nas, "yi 


pazya ? yara ? " 


It-was-said-by- " this- 


is-it-proper ? Friend, etc. ? " 



her-to-him, indeed 



-11] VI. STORY OF YUSUF AND ZULAIKHA 155 



9. Nalas thaph karith, nyun 

To-the-neck seizing having-done, he-was-taken- 

by-her 


hatha 

an-accusation 


karith. 

having-made. 




Gay 

They-went 


pesh-e-patashah 

before-of-the-king, 


Yara° ? 

Friend, etc. ? 


10. Aziz- 

Azlz 


i-Misar 6s u 

■i-Misar was 


patashah. Amis 

the-king. To-him 


6s u zid 

was hatred 


Hazrat-i Yusupha-sond u . 

Saint Yusuf-of. 



Yusuph kbd-khan, kah chus-na bozan. 

Yusuf (in) the-prison, anyone is-to-him- listening. 

not 



Mokali 

He-will-be- 
released 



az-Khoda. 
from-God. 



Yara D ? 

Friend, etc. ? 



11. 



OS 1 

were 



khab. 

a-dream. 



Yeli 

When 

prbn 1 

old 



Yusuph 

Yusuf 



log u 

became 



Akis 

To-one 



kgh 1 . 

certain-people. 

korun 

was-rnade-by- 



many 

will-kill-certainly 

Biyis 

To-another 



him 

patashah." 

the-king." 

korun 

was-made-by-him 



kbd, 

imprisoned, 

Timau 

By -them 

tbbir. 

interpretation. 



ati 

there 

dyuth u 

was- seen 

"Tse 

M Thee 



M6r tt 

He-was-killed 



patashahan. 

by-the-king. 



tbbir. 

interpretation. 



u Ts a h 
11 Thou 



156 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



[12- 



sapadakh patashaha-sond 11 peshkar. Me-ti, 

wilt-become the-king-of head-official. Me-also 

hasa, pbVzi yad." 

Sir, please-cause-to-fall memory." 



Kbdyau khab dyuth u , 

By-the- dream was-seen, 

prisoners 

myuth u . 

sweet. 

Mokaliy 

They-were-released- 
verily 



tbbir 



drakh 



interpretation issued - 
for-them 



pharda ; 

on-the-morrow ; 



yara ? 

Friend, etc. ? 



12. Patashah Aziz-i-Misar deshan khab. 

The-king Aziz-i-Misar (is) seeing a-dream. 



Aziz-i-Misar 

Aziz-i-Misar 



khaba-nishe 
the-dream-from 



abtar, 

terrified, 



Gav bedar, woth u shora-gah. Yara° ? 

Became awake, there- arose an-outcry. Friend, etc. ? 



' 



13. Kamyuk u 

Of-what 



woth u shora-gah? 

arose the-outcry ? 



Malan, 

Of-priests, 

Bani-na 
Will-there-not-be 



baban, 

of-calendars, 



piran, 

of-saints, 



hakima ? 

a-single-wise-man ? 



phakiran, 

of-mendicants, 

Yara° ? 

Friend, etc. ? 



14. Kamyuk u hakim, ath-khabas yus 

Of-what wise-man, to-this-dream he-who 



-15] VI. STORY OF YUSUF AND ZULAIKHA 157 
mane tearihe, yus am^Aziz-i-Misaran 

the-meaning might-bring- which by-this-AzIz-i-Misar 



out, 



khab 

dream 



OS 1 



was 



dyuth u mot u ? Dop u nas 

seen ? It-was-said-to-him 



golaman, " khabuk u tbbir zani 

by-the-servant, " of-the-dream the-interpretation will-know 

Hazrat-i Ynsuph. 

Saint Yusuf. 



Khabuk u tbbir Yusuphas chuh wbphir. 

Of-dream interpretation to- Yusuf is plentiful. 



Daden chuy 

Of-pains he-is-verily 



dawa. 

the-remedy. 



Yara ?" 

Friend, etc. ?" 



15. Onukh 

Was-brought- 
by-them 



Hazrat-i Yusuph, 

Saint Yusuf. 



patashehan, 

by-the-king, 



"me dyuth u 

" by-me , was-seen 



Dop u nas 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-him 



Ath 1 



wanum 

say -to -me 

" kyah 

" what 

"akh 

"One 

bariten 

full 



khab. 

a-dream. For-it- 

verily 



tbbir." 

the-interpretation." 

dyuthuth?" 

was-seen-by-thee ? " 



Dop u nas 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-him 



Yusuphan, 

by-Yusuf, 



Dop u nas patashehan, 

It-was-said-by- by-the-king, 

him-to-him 



dyuthum, hokh 1 nag sath 

was-seen-by-me, dry springs seven 

nagan satan cewan. Biye 

springs seven (were) drinking. Again 



158 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



[16- 



dyuthum, 

was-seen-by-me, 



kham 

unripe 



sath 
seven 



hel 1 

ears-of-corn 



wuchim 

were-seen- 
by-me 



pokhtan satan helen 

ripe seven ears 

wuchem lagar gov* 

were-seen-by-me lean cows 

mastan satan 

plump 



ningalan. Biye 

(were) swallowing. Again 



sath 

seven 



yiwan, 

(were) coming, 



seven 



gov u n 

cows 



wanum 
tell-to-me 

M drag 

11 a-famine 



tbblr." 

the-interpretation." 

w6thi. ,, 

will-arise." 



ningalan. Amyuk u 

(were) swallowing. Of-it 



Dop u nas 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-him 



Yusuphan, 

by-Yusuf, 



16. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the teacher,- 



Yusuphan 

By-Yusuf 



mokalow u 

was-finished 



patashehas gav asar. 

to-the-king happened a-result. 



tbbir 

the-interpretation 

Liifs 

There- was- joined- 
to-him 



wanith, 

having - 
spoken, 

boche. 

hunger. 



Dop u nakh, 

It-was-said-by-him- 
to-them, 



" diyum 

give-ye-to-me 



bata. ,J Ami-wakta 

food." At-that-time 



patashah 

the-king 



khewan 

eating 



6s u na. Ami-asara-sbty 

was-not. That-result-owing-to 



dop u nakh, " jel 

it-was-said-by-him- " quickly 
to-them, 



anyum. 

bring-ye-to-me." 



Dapan, 

(People are) 
saying, 



-16] VI. STORY OF YUSUF AND ZULAIKHA 



159 



gay ta onukh bat a. Yih khyon. 

they-went and was-brought- food. This \ms-eaten- 
by-them by-him. 

"biye anyum." Anehas 

" again bring-ye-to-me." Were-brought-by- 

them-to-him 



Dop a nakh, 

It-was-said-by-him- 
to-them, 



dega 

cauldrons 

khyon, 

it-was-eaten- 
by-him, 



wokavith. 

having-drawn-forth. 



tasali 

satisfaction 



keh 

any 



ath^bochi-sbtiy 

that-very-hunger-owing- 
to-only 

pagah dite* 

next-day was -given 



gav 

he-went 



On u has ta 

It-was-brought-by- and 

them-to-him 

as-na. 

came-to-him- 
not. 

marith. 

having-died. 



wazirau 

by-the-Viziers 



wasiv 

descend -ye 

nami, 

will-bow, 

sapadi 

shall-become 

vidian, 

to-the-'Idgah, 

Pbz 

The-hawk 

Yusuph 

Yusuf 



sbriy vidian. 

all (to) the-'Idgah. 



poz 

the-hawk 



behi 

will-sit 



wurdi, 

command, 

Yes 

To -whom 

nechi, 

(on) the-thumb- 
ring, 



Dapan, 

(People are) 
saying, 

Dapan, 

(People are) 
saying, 

11 pagah 

" to-morrow 

host u 

the-elephant 

suy 

he-verily 



patashah." Dapan, wath* 

king." (People are) saying, they-descended 



av host u , 

came the-elephant, 



av, 

came, 



byuthus 

sat-for-him 



namyov 

bowed 

nechi. 

(on) the-thumb- 
ring. 



Yusuphas. 

to-Yusuf. 

Banyov 

Became 



patashah. 

king. 



160 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES [17- 

Jaloy howun, host u manganowun, 

Gk)ry was-shown-by-him, the-elephant was-sent-for-by-him, 

bozakh-na ? 



Yusuph patashah ; yara, 

Yusuf king ; Friend, 



wilt-thou-not- 
hear? 



17. Tonph-e- Yusuph, par, Wahab-Khara, 

The-praise-of-Yusuf, recite, Wahb-the-blacksmith-O, 



khub. 

thoroughly. 



Gatsh paran "layila"; yara, bozakh-na? 

Go reciting " the-creed " ; Friend, wilt-thou-not- 

hear? 



-4] VII. THE TALE OF THE REED-FLUTE 161 

VII.— NAYE-HUNZ* KATH 

REED(-FLUTE)-OF TALE 

1. Bani yes dod u , tas chuh 

Will-happen to-whom pain, to-him is 

panas tiy nanan. 

to-himself it-verily being-manifest. 



Naye-hond u 

The-reed-flute-of 


dod u nay 

pain the-reed-flute 


cheh pan ay 

is herself 


tiy 

that-verily 


wanan. 

telling. 




2. Nay 

The-flute 


cheh dapan, 

is saying, 


" Bar-sbhib 

° The- Almighty 


chuy kunuy. 

is-verily one-only. 






Day 1 ta 

God-only and 


feakhi-nishe panas chuy 

anger-from of-His-own- is-verily 
will 


byonuy." 

distinct." 







3. Nay cheh dapan, "Bar-sbhib munazath. 

The-flute is saying, M The-Almighty pure. 

Panas ti y-kun chuy mushtakh ddh 

Himself-only-towards He-is-verily yearning day 

ta rath. 

and night. 

4. Hamud gafehiv tas-Khodayes-kun paran, 

Praise go-ye that-God-towards reciting, 



162 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [5- 



Pbda 


korun 


thoth u 


Mahmad 


mizman. 


Created 


was-made- 
by-Him 


the-Beloved 


Muhammad 


the-Guest. 



5. Bar-sbhiban sbty ditin saman. 

By-the-Almighty with (him) were-given-by- appliances. 

Him 

Tsor yar chis sbty sbty shuban. 

Four friends are-of-him with with glorious. 

6. Nura tam^sandi pbda korun Adam. 

By-the- Him-of created was-made- Adam, 

glory by -Him 

Adamas-sbty pbda korun yidam." 

Adam-with created was-made-by-Him this (world)." 

7. Nay cheh dapan, "lodun Adam 

The-flute is saying, " was-sent-forth- Adam 

by-him 



benawah. 

destitute. 

6s ti mashiyeth lari-tala drayes 

There-was a-wish, the-side-from- issued-for- 

under him 

Hawah." 

Eve." 

8. Nay cheh dapan, "kyah zabar 

The-flute is saying, " how excellent 

6s u suy sath. 

was that-very moment. 

Yemi-satay pbda kur% zuryath." 

At-what-time-verily created was-made- (the world with 

by-Him its) offspring." 



■12] VII. THE TALE OF THE REED-FLUTE 168 



9. Nay cheh dapan, 

The-flute is saying, 

buz^av. 

hear-please-ye. 



" hal myonuy 

condition my-verily 



DbdUaday chiv, 

Pained-if ye-be, 


ta 

then 


satha 

a-moment 


ruz^av." 

wait-please- 

ye." 


10. Nay cheh 

The-flute is 


dapan, 

saying, 


"path 

" behind 


wanan 
the-woods 


bs ti s pinhan. 

[-was concealed. 








Shakha-bargau 

Branch-leaves 


sbty 

with 


bs ti s 

I-was 


shuban." 

beautiful." 


11. Nay cheh 

The-flute is 


dapan, 

saying, 


"thod u me 

" upright to-me 



osum bala-pan. 

was-to-me the-youthful-body. 



Sona-kananay 

Of-the-golden-ears- 
verily 

diwan. 

giving. 

12. Gayemay 

There-happened- 
to-me 



graye duran ches 

wavings to-the-ear-pendants I-am 



gum-rbyi, ta tamyukuy 

going-astray, and of-it-verily 



gom badal. 

there-happened-to-me exchange. 



164 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



[13- 



Pyom 



me 



gutfla 



lbn^feur wbtith 



There-fell-to- to-me a-woodcutter a-fate-thief having- 



me 

azal." 

doom." 



arrived 



13. Nay cheh dapan, g< sak a th me 

The-flute is saying, "severe to-me 

gom suy kusur. 

happened-to-me that-very fault. 

Nazari-tam^sanzi-sbty sapodum toka-sur." 

Seeing-his-owing-to there -became -to -me crushing-to- 

powder." 



14. Nay cheh dapan, 

The-flute is saying, 

makh chum diwan. 

an-axe he-is-to-me giving. 

Phala byon u byon u 

Splinters separate separate 

chum tulan. 

he-is-of-me raising. 



" feakhi-hot u 

" rage-struck 



chela mazas 

pieces (of my) flesh 



15. Mad me osum, 

Pride to-me was-to-me, 

ches karan." 

I-am making." 



had panas 

the-limit (of) myself 



Bala-panas walanay kbfe 11 chum 

(Of my) youthful-body humiliation how-much he-is-to- 
me 

karan. 

making. 



■19] VII. THE TALE OF THE BEED-FLUTE 



165 



16. Gaye judah, s6y judbyl chey 

She-went apart (from that-very separation she-is- 
the forest), verily 



wanan. 

telling. 



6s u wadan, alvidah bs u y karan. 

She-was lamenting, last-farewell was-she-verily making. 



17. "Tati wblith wati wati 

" From-there having-brought- on-the-road on-the-road 
(me) down 

tarn chum diwan. 

weariness he-is-to-me giving. 

Walawunuy torka-chanas 

Immediately-on-bringing- to-a-private-carpenter 
(me) down (from the forest) 

k a nan." 

selling." 



18. Nay cheh dapan, 

The-flute is saying, 

phir 1 chum wuchan. 

turning he-is-me inspecting. 



Duri ruz 1 



ruz 1 



tori-dab 



chum 

he-is-me 



" lari phir 1 

on-the-side turning 



sakHh 

severe 



At-a-distance remaining remaining adze-blows 

chum diwan ." 

he-is-to-me giving." 

19. Nay cheh dapan, "litri-sbty yeli 

The-flute is saying, " a-saw-with when 

gbj u nas, 

was-caused-to-melt-by-him-I, 



166 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [20- 

AthV 1 peyem yeli carkas khbj%as." 

A-wool-worm fell-on-me when to-the-lathe was-caused-to- 

mount-I." 

20. Yeli carkas khiite 11 amis-torka- 

When to-the-lathe she-mounted that-private- 

chanas-nishe, amis pewan panan 1 hamnishin 

carpenter-near, to-her (are) falling her-own companions 

yad. Yiman ti y-kun cheh wanan kentsah. 

(in) memory. Them-only-to she-is saying something. 

Ta kyah wani ? 

And what will-she-say ? 

Nay cheh dapan, "hamnishin mybn 1 

The-flute is saying, "companions my 

rud 1 kati ? 

remained where ? 

Wan 1 boh dimahakh, tur 1 ma 

Messages I would-have-given- there- I-wonder- 

to-them, verily if 

rud 1 ada-wati ? 

they-remained on-midway ? 

21. Hamnishman sir panunuy bawahb; 

To-the-companions secret my-own- I-would-explain ; 

verily 

Sina mutsarith dod u panunuy hawahb." 

Bosom having-opened pain my-own- verily I-would-show." 

22. Nay cheh dapan, "kyah banyom? 

The-flute is saying, "what happened- 



to-me ? 



kut u ches riwan ? 

how-much am-I lamenting ? 



-24] VII. THE TALE OF THE REED-FLUTE 167 
Dadi-panani nala pha^yad ches diwan." 

By-the-pain-my- cries calls-for-help I-am giving." 

own 

23. Nay cheh dapan, " nala dimahb 

The-flute is saying, " cries I-would-have- 

given 

marakan ; 

(in) the-assemblies ; 

Banana-rost u nau klh ti rozan 

Fated-sorrow-without not anyone even remaining 

marda-zan." 

man- (or) woman." 

24. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 

Kyah wanihe yiman hamnishinan ? 

What would-she-have- to-these companions ? 

said 

Yiman wanihe yiy. 

To-these she-would-have-said this-verily. 

Narm kar 1 kar 1 bar a m panas 

Smooth making making auger(-hole)s to-the-body 

chum karan ; 

he-is-to-me making ; 



War a wuch^om, maz kotah chum 

Thoroughly inspect-please- the-flesh how-much is-to-me 
ye-me, 

haran. 

dropping. 



168 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



[25- 



25. Wadana boh, 

Shall-I-not-weep I, 

tbVnam, 

are-caused-to-pass- 
over-by-him-to-me, 

Kham-p5san zith 1 

For-cheap-pice long arms 



zade panas 

holes to- (my) body 



atha kiit 1 



do^nam. 



how-many are-place-by- 
him-on-me. 



26. Dapan wustad,— 

(Is) saying the-teacher,- 



Won 

Now 

chus 

is-to-her 

Ath 1 

To-this-very 

kentehah. 

something. 

Nay 

The-flute 



yeli kham-pbsan 

when for-cheap-pice 

pewan panun u 

falling her-own 

nay i stanas-kun 

cane-brake- to 



aye-k ft nana, won 

she-was-sold, now 



nayistan 

cane-brake 

cheh 

she-is 



yad. 

(in) memory. 



Kyah 

What 



wani? 

will-she-say ? 



cheh 

is 



dapan, 

saying, 



" nayistanuk u 

" of-the-canebrake 



wanan 

saying 



chum 

is-to-me 



tamah. 

longing. 

Garza-panani 

For-the-purpose- 



my-own 



fehljyam 

was-searched- 
by-me 



arz-o-sama. 

earth-and-heaven." 



27. Nay cheh dapan, "nayistan myon u 

The-flute is saying, " the-canebrake my 

kyah chuh jan ; 

how it-is good ; 



-30] VII. THE TALE OF THE REED-FLUTE 



169 



Zani kyah tath mane buzith 

Will-know ? of-that the-meaning having-heard 

gbr-zan ? " 



an-ignorant-person ? " 
28. Nay cheh dapan, 

The-flute is saying, 

kyah zabar ; 

how excellent ; 



" nayistan myon u 

the-canebrake my 



kyah 

9 



Zani 

Will-know 

be-khabar?" 

an-untaught-person ? 



tath mane buzith 

of-that the-meaning having-heard 



29. Nay cheh dapan, 

The-flute is saying, 

yes cheh zan ; 

to-whom is knowledge ; 



" nayistanuc tt 

" of -the-canebrake 



Zani suy 

Will-know he-only 

la-makan." 

at-Him-Who-has-no- 
abode-(i.e God)." 


yus 

who 


asi 

will -be 


wot u mot u 

arrived 


30. Nay cheh 

The-flute is 


dapan, 

saying, 


" kyah 

" what 


cheh 

is 


wun ii mufe ii masnavi ? 

said the-rhymed-poem ? 






Zani suy 

Will-know he-alone 


yes 

to-whom 


asi 

will-be 


pemufe ti 

fallen 


ash g ka chih. ,, 

(of) love a-particle." 







170 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



[81- 



31. Nay cheh dapan, 

The-flute is saying, 

kbtyah cewan, 

how-many (are) drinking, 



" modur u 

" sweet 



mas 

wine 



Sodurabalay 

In-Sodarabal-only 



nay 

the-(story-of- 
the) flute 



Subhan 
Subhan 



chuy 

is 



wanan." 



saying. 



-1] 



VIII. THE TALE OF A KING 



171 



VIIL-PATASHEHA-SUNZ* KATH 



KING-OF 



STORY 



1. Patashaha 

A-certain-king 

Suy patashah 

That-very king 

ath^zunadabi-peth. 

that-very-roof-bungalow-on 

61° 

the-nest birds-of 



os u . 

was. 

6s u 

was 



Dapan 

(Is) saying 



neran 

going-out 



Ath' 

Of-it-verily 

janawaran-hond u . 



os u 

was 

Yim 



prath-doha 

every -day 



yihiinz^ 

of- these 



They (king and queen) 
bolbbsh ti bozan. 



wustad, — 

the-teacher, — 

prath-ddha 

every-day 

petha-kani 

the-top-on 

OS 1 

were 



OS 1 

were 

khosh 

pleased 

bs ti na 

was -not 



patashaha-sand 1 

the-king-of 



the-chirping 

bbfe u 

husband-and- 
wife 



Yim 

hearing. They 

z a h sethah 

two very-much 



gafehan. 
becoming. 

klh 



Doha-aki 

On-a-day-one 
gafehan. 



any 



patashehas, 

to-the-king, 

bolbbsh ti ? " 

chirping? " 

Ath^manz 

It-verily-in 



occurring. 

"az 

" to-day 

Dapan 

Saying 

bace 

young-ones 



bolbbsh* ati 

the-chirping there 

Dop u ami-patashah-bayi 

It-was-said by-that-queen 

kona cheh gafehan 

why-not is occurring 

wnchukh ath blis. 

it-was-seen-by- to-that nest, 

them 



z a h 

two 



mumat 1 . 

(were) 



Wblikh 

They-were-brought- 
down-by-thein 



bon. Sethah phyur u 

down. Much regret-occurred 



dead. 

yiman-patasheha-sanden 

to-these-king's-two- 



172 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOEIES 



IV 



don-bafean. 

husband-and-wife. 

Dop u hakh, 

It-was-said-by-them-to- 
them, 



Anikh 

Were -summoned - 
by-them 



wazir gat^l 1 gat^l 1 . 

viziers skilful skilful. 



noman 

to-these 



wuch^av, 

please-look-ye, 



kyah 

what 



chuh 

is 



gamot u ? " 

happened ? " 



Wuch^akh. 

They- were -seen-by- 
them. 



Yiman 

To- them (was) 



rot u mot u 

caused-to-stick 



kond u 

a-thorn 



hatis. 

to-the-throat. 



Danah-waziran-ak 1 

By-a-wise-vizier-one 



dop u nakh, " yih cheh 

it-was-said-by-him- " this is 

to -them, 



yiman 

to- them 



moj ti mumuls*. Am^naran kur^mute* 1 

mother dead. By-this-male (bird) (was) made 



paniin 11 

their-own 

byekh 

a-second 



w6riiz u . 

second-wife. 

ampa-kani 

mouth -to -mouth - 
feeding-during 

mumat 1 ." 

dead." 



Ami chunakh 

By-her is-by-her-to-them 

Amiy 

By-this- verily 



dyut u mot u 

given 



kond u . 

a-thorn. 

Patashah 

The-king 



chih 

are 



yim 

they 



wanan 

(is) saying 



patashah-baye, 

to-the-queen, 



"boy 

" I-if 



maray, 

shall-die-if, 



fe a h 

thou 



kar^i-na kuni. " 

must-make-not at-all (a second 
marriage)." 



Patashah-bay 

The-queen 

maray, fe a h 

shall-die-if, thou 



wanan 

(is) saying 

kai^zi-na 

must-make-not 



patashahas, 

to-the-king, 

kuni. ,, 

at-all (a second 
marriage)." 



"boy 

" I-if ; 

Kor u 

Was-made 



-2] VIII. THE TALE OF A KING 173 

yimau driy kasam panawoii. Yih kyazi 

by-them a- vow oath mutually. This why 

korukh driy kasam ? Dopukh, " ase 

was-made-by- vow oath ? It-was-said-by- * to-us 

them them, 

chih gabar z a h; timan kyah kari 

are sons two ; to- them perhaps will -do 

wdramop ya mol u yiy?" 

a-step-mother or (step-)father this-very-thing? " 



2. Keh kalah gav, patashah-bay 

Some a-certain-space-of- went, the-queen 

time 

moye. Patashah kuni karan chuna, 

died. The-king at-all (a second making is-not, 

marriage) 

ti-kyazi panawoii osukh doyau batsau 

because mutually was-by-them by-the-two husband- 

and-wife 

driy kasam kor u mot u . Warayah kalah 

vow oath made. Very-long a-certain-space- 

of-time 

gav, ay wazir. Dopukh patashehas, 

went, they-came the-viziers. It-was-said-by- to-the-king, 

them 

''patasheham, neth a r gafehi karun u ." 

" my-king, marriage-arrangement is-proper to-be-done." 

Warayah kal k§h bozan chukhna. 

A-very-long space-of- anything hearing he-is-to-them-not. 
time 



174 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



[8- 



Kor u has 

Was-made-by-them- 
to-him 

neth a r. 

marriage-arrangement. 



zor 

force 



wazirau. 

by -the -viziers. 



Korun 

Was-made-by- 
him 



OS 1 



were 



3. Yim patashah-zada 

These princes (king's sons) 

paran sabakh. 

reading lesson(s). 



z a h 

two 

Doha-aki 

On-day-one 



OS 1 . 

were. 



yimau-panawbn-baranyau-doyau maslahath, 

by-these-mutually-brothers-two consultation, 



gafehav salam 

we-will-go a-complimentary- 
gift 



heth." 

taking." 



Bur%h 

Was-filled-by- 



them 



Tim 

They 

kiir ti 

was-made 

" maje 

" to-the- 
mother 

trbm 1 

a-copper- 
dish 



lalau 

with-rubies 



nigmau. 

with-jewels. 



Gay 

They -went 



heth 

having -taken (it) 



Trbm 1 riit^nakh, 

The- copper- was-accepted-by' 



dish 



Gay 

They-went 



salami maje. 

for-a-complimentary- to-the-mother 
present 

wuchunah kor u nakh. 

a-certain-look was-made-by-her-to-them. 

patashah-zada z a h sabakas. 

princes two to-their-lesson. 

doha doha yithay-pbthin karan. 

each-day each-day in- this- very-manner passing. 

gav amis-patashah-baye khbtir 

there-occurred to-this-queen carnal-desire 



her-from-them, 



yim 

these 



Yim 

These 



chih 

are 

Doha-aki 

On-day-one 

yiman- 

these- 



woraneciven-hond u . Yiman 

stepsons-of. To-them 



dopun, " toh 1 

it-was-said-by-her, " ye 









■4] 



VIII. THE TALE OF A KING 



175 



thbviv 

keep -ye 

"fe a h 

" thou 

Tse 

For-thee 



me-sbty salah." Yimau 

me-with consultation." By-them 



dop u has, 

it-was-said-by- 
them-to-her, 



chekh 

art 

ta 

and 



■d 



moj u , as 

mother, we 

ase wati-na." 

for-us it-will-not-be- 



sabakas. 

to-the-lesson 

mahalakhan. 

private-apartments. 

kuth u . 

the-room. 



suitable." 

Kalacen av 

In-the-evening came 

Patashah-bayi 

By-the-queen 

"bar 

" the-door 



Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-her, 



chiy gabar. 

are-to-thee sons. 

Gay panas 

They-went of-their-own- 
accord 

patashah panun u 

the-king (to) his-own 

trop u nas 

was-shut-by-her-to-him 

koruth 



kyazi 

why 



is-made-by- 
thee 



band ? " 

shut ? " 

"boh 

" I 



Yih 

She 

chesa 

am-I 



ches 

is-to-him 



neciven-hiinz 11 ? " 

sons-of ? " 

"tih kyah 

" that . what 



dapan 

saying 

kolay, 

the-wife, 

Patashah 

The-king 



cyon 

of-thee 



patashah-bay, 

the-queen, 
kina 



or 

chus 

is-to-her 



gav?" 

happened ? " 



cyanen- 

thy- 

dapan, 

saying, 

"tim 

u they 



am lekan. 

came-to-me for-(using-)indecent- 
language. 



Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by-her- 
to-him, 

Goda dim tihanza 

First give-to-me their 



wblinje 

hearts 



z a h, 

two, 



ada mufearay 

then I-will-open-to-thee 



4. Dapan, — 

(Folk are) 
saying — 



dyutun 

was-given- 
by-him 



hukum 

the-order 



bar." 

the-door." 

waziran. 

to-the-viziers. 



176 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



[4- 



Tim bs 1 

They were 

Dop u nakh, 

It-was-said-by-him- 
to-them, 



paran 

reading 



sabakh 

lessons 



hawala. 

in-custody. 

wot u 

arrived 

Sethah 

Very-much 



Timay 

They-verily 

wazir 

the-vizier 

gos 

occurred- 
to-him 



"marawatalan 

'* to-the-executioners 

maranakh." 

will-kill-them." 



featahal. 

(in) the-school. 

karyukh 

make-ye-them 

Dapan, — 

(Folk are) saying, — 



yiman-patashahzadan-nishin. 

to-these-princes-near. 



yinsaph. 

compassion. 



Dop u nakh, * * wasiv 



It-was-said-by- 
him-to-them, 



bon featahala." 

down from-the-school." 



Dop u nakh, 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-them, 



"tealiv 
" flee-ye 



come-ye- 
down 

yimi 

from-this 



shehara." 

city." 

kbm*. 

a-deed. 



Tim 

They 



Dopun 

It-was-said-by- 



feal 1 , waziran 

fled, by-the-vizier 

marawatalan, 

to-the-executioners, 



him 



kiir ti 

was-done 

"mbryukh 

1 kill-ye-for- 
them 



hun 1 

dogs 



yiman 

of-them 



z a h." 
two." 



Mbrikh 

Were-killed- 
by-them 



hun 1 

dogs 



z a h, 

two, 



kadikh 

were-extracted- 
by-them 



wblinje 

the-hearts 



z a h, 

two, 



lazakh 

they-were-put-by- 
them 



tbkis, 

to-a-tray, 



gay heth patashah-baye. Dop u has, 

they-went taking (them) to-the-queen. It-was-said-by-them- 

to-her, 



" aney noma 

are-brought-to-thee these 



patashahzadan-hanza 

the-princes-of 



-5] 



VIII. THE TALE OF A KING 



177 



wblinje z a h. Thav darwaza 

hearts two. Open the-door 

Thow u nakh darwaza, racen 

Was-open-by-her- the-door, were-seized- 
for-them by-her 

z a h. Dop u has, "yima chey 

two. It-was-said-by- " these are-for-thee 
them-to-her, 



ta 

and* 



rath." 

take-hold-of 
(them)." 



yima wblinje 

these hearts 

patashahzadan- 

the-princes- 



ddn-hanza." 

two-of." 

karani. 

for-doing. 



Byuth u at 1 patashbhi 

(The king) sat (i.e. remained) sovereignty 

there 



5. Yim bby^baran 1 z a h wot 1 biyis- 

These brothers-brethren two arrived another- 



patashehas-akis-nish. Dop u nakh 



king-one-near. 



It-was-said-by-him-to- 
them 



"ton 1 

ye 

Toh 1 

Ye 

yor 

here 



chiwa shahzada 

are princes 

wai^tav toh 1 

please-tell ye 



la^mat 1 . 

arrived. 



Timau dop u has 

By-them it-was-said-by- 



Kyah 

What 

yih 

this 



them-to-him 



Dop u nakh, 

It-was-said-by-him- 
to-them, 



M behiv 
M sit-ye 



me 

by-me 



patashehan, 

by-the-king, 

yiwan-bozana. 

being-thought. 



ketha-pbth 1 

in-what-manner 

sabab 

reason 

panun u 

their-own 

me-nish 

me-near 



chiwa 

are 

chuwa ? " 

is-to-you ? " 

gudarun. 

happening. 

n6kari. ,, 

in-service." 



178 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STbRIES 



[6- 



Dapan, — bith 1 

(Folk are) saying, — they-sat 



patashehas 

to-the-king 

ti bith 1 , 



pron 1 

old 

gay 



huzuri-nokar, 

(as) personal- 
servants. 

golam z a h. 



Amis os 1 

To-this were 



also sat, They-became four. 



zima 

in-charge 

pahar 

watch 



feor 

four 



Yim z a h 

servants two. These two 

feor. Tson-zanen karin 

To-the-four- were-made- 
persons by-him 

pahar. Godanukuy 

watches. The-first-verily 

amis-patashahzadas- 
to-this-prince- 

patasheha-sandyau- 

the-elder. (Folk are) saying, — by-the-king's- 

doyau-bafeau trowukh aram. 

two-husband-and-wife was-made-by-them rest. 

6. Dapan, — golam chuh wodaiie, 

(Folk are) saying, — the-servant is standing (by), 

nazar ches patasheha-sanden-don-bafean-kun. 

sight is-of-him the-king-of-two-husband-and-wife-towards. 



rates 

by-night 

chuh lagan 

is being-allotted 

zithis-hihis. Dapan, — 



Yimav a y-syod u log u wasani 

Them-verily-in-front began to-descend 

talawa-kani. Golam chuh 

the-ceiling-from. The-servant is 

yih shehmar log u watani 

this great-snake began to-arrive 

baye-handis-badanas-nizikh, av 

wife-of-body-near, he-came 



shehmar 

a-great-snake 

wuchan. Yeli 

watching. When 

amis-patashah- 

to-this-king's- 

laran golam, 

running the-slave, 



lby ti n shemsher amis-shehmaras, hani 

was-struck-by- a-sword to-this-great-snake, in-fragment 

him 



-6] 



VIII. THE TALE OF A KING 



179 



hani 

in-fragment 

palangas-tal, 

the-bed-below, 

phamb. 

cotton-wool. 



ka^nas tuk a ra, 

were-made-by-him- pieces, 
of-it 

shemsheri-handis-tegas 

the-sword's-to-the-blade 



fehunun 

was-placed-by-him 

wolun 

was-wrapped- 
by-him 



Log" 

He-began 



amis-patashaha-baye-handis- 

to-this-king's-wife's- 



badanas 

the-body 

asi 
will-be 



wotharani. 

to-wipe. 

shehmara-sond u 

the-great-snake-of 



Dopun, 

It-was-said-by-him, 



" amis 

to-this-one 



zahar ladyomot u . ,, l 

poison brought-into-contract- 

with. 



Amiy mojub 

For-this-very reason 

bedar. 



os u 

was 



yib 

he 



gav 

became 

nizikh 

near 

pahar 

the-watch 

pahar. 

the-watch. 



awake. 



wotharan. Patashah 

wiping. The-king 

Wuchun golam amot u 

Was-seen-by-him 



the-servant 



come 



shemsher heth niin u . Am^sond 11 

sword having-taken bare. This-one-of 

mokalyav, av d6yimis-golama-sond u 

was-finished, there-came the-second-servant-of 
nizikh. 



Av 

He-came 



near. 



Dop u nas 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-him 



patashehan, 
by-the-king, 



ay 

ho 



golam, 

servant, 

kari, tas 

may-do, to-him 

wothus 

arose -for -him 



yus-akhah agas-peth be-wophoyi 

whoever the-master-on infidelity 

kyah wati karun u ? " Yih 

what will-be-proper to-be-done?" This 

golam phirith, 4I patasheham, 

slave answering,  my-king, 



So Hatim. Gflvind Kaul writes laryomot*. 



180 



HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 



[7- 



tas gafehi kala teatun u , 

to-him is-proper the-head to-be-cut-off, 

waliin^. Patasheham, boh 

(is) to-be-brought- My-king, I 

down. 



Ts a h 



thavtam 



tath 



biye 

moreover 

wanay 

will-tell- 
to-thee 

kan." 



basta 

his-skin 

dalila. 

a-certain- 
story. 



Thou place-please-for-me for-that the-ear." 



7. Dop u nas golaman,— "suh patasheha 

It-was-said-by- by-the-servant, — "that a-certain-king 



him-to-him 



akh 6s u . 

one was. 

shikaras 

for-hunting 

wot u 

he-arrived 



Suy 

He-verily 

kunuy 

only-one 



gav 

went 

zon u . 

person. 



doha-aki 
on-day-one 



solas 

for-excursion 



Sbty osus pbz, 

With was-to-him a-falcon, 



jaye-akis, luj u s tresh. 

at-a-place-one, was-felt-to-him thirst. 



chesna kuni. 

is-for-him (alleviation anywhere, 
of thirst)-not 



Wuchun 

Was-seen-by- 
him 



aba-sreha 

water-moisture 



hyuh u , 

a-little. 



Atb 1 

At-it-verily 



dyutun 

was-given-by- 
him 



Banan 

Becoming 

jaye-akis 

in-a-place-one 

bai^shi- 

his-spear- 



sbty 

with 

pyala. 

a-cup. 

cyon u . 

to-drink. 



doba-hana. 
a-hole-small. 

Lodun 

Was-filled-by- 
him 

As 

Come-to-him 



Kodim 

Was-withdrawn-by- 
him 

ath-pyalas 

to-that-cup 



bagala-manza 

his-armpit-from-in 



ab. 

water. 



Hyotun 

He-began 



poz, 

the-falcon. 



1sbun u nas-trbvith. 

(the-cup) was-dashed-down- 
by-it-for-him. 



-7] 
Biye 

Again 

cyon u . 

to-drink. 



VIII. THE TALE OF A KING 



181 



borun yih 

was-filled-by-him this 

As biye 

Came-to-him again 



aba-pyala, hyotun 

water-cup, he-began 



yih 

this 



poz, 

falcon, 



fehun u nas-trbvith. Ddyi-lati fehun u nas-trbvith. 

(it) was-dashed-down-by- On-two-occasion(s) it-was-dashed-down- 

by-it-for him. 



it-for-him. 

Patashehas 

To-the-king 

borun. 

it-was-filled-by- 
him. 

thaph-karith ; 

having-held ; 



khot u 

arose 

Dachini 

With-the- 
right 



zahar. 

poison (i.e. 
anger). 

atha 

with-hand 



Treyimi-lati 

On-the-third-occasion 



chuh 

he-is 



ath-pyalas 

to-that-cup 



nebar. 

outside. 



Yuthuy 

Even-as 



khowur u 

the-left 

hyotun 

he-began 



atha thowun 

hand was-placed-by-him 



cyon u , 

to-drink, 



av poz, 

came the-falcon. 



fehun u nas-trbvith. 



Dife ti s 



it-was-dashed-down-by- Was-given- 
it-for-him. to-it 



tyuthuy 

even -so 

am 1 

by-him 



thaph, rotun latan-tal, hefeanas pakha 

seizing, was-held-by- the-feet-below, were-taken-by- the-wings 



him 

z a h, ka^nas tan. 

two, were-torn-off-by- the-limb 
him-of-it 



him-of-it 

Yih yeli morun, 

It when was-killed-by- 
him, 



pata phyurus ataty. Won tresh 

ifterwards regret-was-felt- in-that-very- Now (water to allay) 
to-him place. thirst 



ceyenna. Gav wuchani 

ras-drunk-by-him-not. He-went to-see 



i ath-abas 
1 to-this-water 



182 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



[8- 



asina 

will-there-not- 
be 



kuni 

somewhere 



agur f 

source ? 



Pakan 

Going 



chuh 

is 



patashah, 

the-king, 

ati 

there 



wot u 

he-arrived 
shehmara 

a-certain-great-snake 



bsa-kani 

the-mouth-from 



lal. 

spittle. 



Yih 

This 



chus 
is-to-him 



" hargah-kiy 

"if 



wanan golam 

saying the-servant 

suh 

that 



jaye-akis. Wuchun 

at-a-place-one. Was-seen-by-him 

shongith, amis ti y neran 

asleep, to-it-verily issuing 

Yih ab 6s u zahar." 

This water was poison." 

amis patashehas, 

to-this to-king, 



patashah 

king 



sa 

that 



ceyihe, 

had-drunk, 



suh 

he 



marihe. 

would-have- 
died. 



karihe, suh patashah 

he-had-made, that king 



Wiin^y 

Now-verily 

tas-pbzas 

to -that- falcon 



Patasheham, say cheh dalil. 

My-king, that-verily is the-story. 

gafehi kariin^." 

is-proper 



tresh 

(water-to-allay) 
thirst 

saragi 

investigation (if) 

marihe-na. 

would-not-have- 
killed. 

Saragi 

Investigation 



to-be-made.' 



8. Mokalyav 

Was-finished 



am^sond 11 

this-one-of 



pahar 

the-watch 



ti. 

also. 



treyum u 

the-third 

Patashah 

The-king 



pahar. 

watch. 

chuh 

is 



Z a h gay panas 

The-two became at-their-own- 
will 



bedar. 

awake. 



Dapan 

Saying 



Av 

Came 

bith 1 . 

seated. 

chuh 

he-is 



-9] 



VIII. THE TALE OF A KING 



188 



amis-treyimis-paharawblis. Dapan chus, " ay 

to-this-third-watchman. Saying he-is-to-him, " ho 



golam, 

servant, 

kari, 
may-do, 



yus-akhah 

whoever 



agas-peth 

to-the-master-on 



dagay 

faithlessness 



tas kyah wati karun u ? ,, 

to-him what will -be -proper to-be-done ? " 



Dop u nas phirith am^golaman, u suh 

It-was-said-by-him- answering by-that-servant, " he 
to-him 

gatehi sangsar karun u . Baki, patasheham, 

is-proper stoning-to- to-be-done. But, my-king, 
death 



Boh wanay 

I will-tell-to-thee 



saragi gatehi kariihA 

investigation is-proper to-be-made. 

dalila. Ts a h thawum, patasheham, kan." 

a-certain- Thou place-for-me, my-king, ear.'* 
story. 



9. Dapan 

Saying 



akh, 

one. 
pev 

fell 



Suy 

He-verily 

muhim. 

poverty. 



sodagara 

a-certain-merchant 



chus, 

he-is-to-him, 

6s u 

was 



"suh 

"that 

sethah 

very 



OS 1 



was 



baktawar. 

prosperous. 



Tamis^y 6s u hun u . 

To-him-verily was a-dog. 



sodagara 

a-certain- 
merchant 

Tamis 

To-him 

Byakh 

Another 



6s u . Dop u nas, 

was. It-was-said-by-him- 
to-him, 



ma k a nahan ? ' 

•wonder-if wilt-thou-sell-it ? 



Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-him, 



* yih hun u 

' this dog 

1 k a nan.' 

' I-will-sell-it.* 



184 HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES [9- 

Dop u nas, * karus mol/ Kor u nas 

It -was -said -by -him- ' make-of-it a-price.' Was-made-by- 

to-him, him-of-it 

mol ropaye-hath. Dyut u nas mol, 

the-price a-rupee-hundred. Was-given-by-him-to- the-price, 

him 

nyuv sodagaran yih hun u . Drav 

was-taken by-the-merchant this dog. He-went-forth 

soda heth, wot u jaye-akis. Lirps 

merchandize taking, he-arrived at-place-one. Came-on-for-him 

rath. Rat a li feas feur, nyuhas 

night. By-night entered-for-him thieves, was-taken-by-them- 

of-him 

yih mal. Hun u chuh wuchan, am 1 

this property. The-dog is seeing, by-him 

kor u -na keh-ti sadah. Phpl u gwash. 

was-made-not any-at-all sound-a. Broke the-dawn. 

Sodagar gav bedar. Wuchun ta mal 

The-merchant became awake. It-was-seen- verily property 

by-him 

na kuni. Dapan chuh, *yith kyah 

not at-all. Saying he-is, ' to-this what 

gbmV Av yih hun u . Am 1 kiir^nas 

happened-to- Came this dog. By-it was-made-by- 

me ? ' him-of-him 

poshakas thaph. Chus laman. Hun u 

to-the-coat seizing. He-is-to-him pulling. The-dog 

drav bruh briih, pata pata chus 

went-forth in-front in-front, behind behind is-of-him 

sodagar. Watanowun mbdanas-akis-manz. 

the-merchant. He-was-caused-to-arrive- to-a-plain-to-one-in. 

by-him 






-10] 



VIII. THE TALE OF A KING 



185 



Wuchun ati feurau thow u mot u 

Was-seen-by-him there by-the-thieves deposited 



mal. Parzanowun. 

property. It-was-recognized- 
by-him. 



Onun 

Was-brought- 
by-him 



panun 1 

his-own 



yih osus 

what was-of-him 



ta tih, biye 6s u 

both that, also there-was 

feurau biyen-sodagaran-hond u nyumot u , 

thieves other-merchants-of taken, 



onun, 

was-brought- 
by-him, 

sethah 

very 



watanowun 

it-was-caused- 
to-arrive-by-him 

khosh. 



pananis-deras. 

to-his-own-lodging. 



asond u 

his 

mal, 

property, 

yimau- 

by-these- 

ti-ti 

that-also 

Gav 

He-became 



happy. 



Dopun, 

It-was-said-by- 
him, 



* tamis 

' to-that 



tog u -na 

knowledge-how- was- 
not 

Tamis 6s u 

To-him was 



amis 

to-this 

pemot u 

fallen 



hun is 
dog 

muhim, 

poverty, 



mol 

a-price 



sodagaras 
merchant 

karun. 

to-make. 



tami-mokha 

on-that-account 



togus-na. ,,> 

knowledge-how-to-him-was-not.' " 

10. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 



"Amis-hunis korun mol 

11 For-that-dog was-made-by-him price 


ropayes 

(of) rupee 


)ants hath. Lichen cith 1 . Yihuy 

five hundred. Was-written- a-document. This-verily 
by-him 

fehun ti n amis-hunis nbl 1 . Dop u nas, 

vas-put-by-him to-that-dog on-the-neck. It-was-said-by-him- 

to-it, 



186 



HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 



[10- 



< fe a h galsh 

1 thou go 

cith* heth.' Gav 

document having- taken.' Went 



pananis-khawandas-nishin 

to-thine-own-master-near 



hun u , 

the-dog, 



wot u 

arrived 



yih 

this 

nazdikh 
near 



amis-sodagaras. Sodagaran dyuth u . Parzanowun 

to-that-merchant. By-the-merchant he-was- Was-recognized- 

seen. by-him 



yih hun u . Dopun 

this dog. It-was-said-by-him 

'hun u 

1 the-dog 



pananen batean. 

to-his-own family-members. 



Dop u nakh, 

It-was-said-by-him-to- 
them, 



kor u 

was-done 



kyah-tan 

some-or-other 



av phirith. Am 1 

came returning. By-it 

takhsir. Amiy 

fault. For-this-very (reason) 



tehunukh-kadith. Bal £ ki 

it-has-been-driven-out- Moreover 

by-them. 



nolV 

on-the-neck.' 



Sodagar 

The-merchant 



gav 

became 



chus 

there-is-to- 
it 

phikiri. 

in-anxiety. 



kyah kara? Ropaye-hath gom 

what shall-I-do ? The-rupee-hundred went-for-me 



calan 

a-letter-of- 
dispatch 

'Wun 

'Now 

khar a c.' 

expended/ 



Kodun 
Was-taken-out-by-him 

morun. 

it-was-killed-by-him. 



bandukh, loy u nas, ta 

a-gun, was-aimed-by-him-at-it and 



Yeli 

When 



phyurus. 

grief -came-to-him. 

amis kyah 

to- it what 



Gos 

He-went- 
to-it 

kakaz 

paper 



morun 

it-was-killed- 
by-him 

nizikh. 
near. 



ta ada 

then afterwards 



'Boh 
'I 



chuh 

is 



nolV 

on-the-neck. 



wuchaha 

would-see 

Yihuy 

This-verily 






-11] 



VIII. THE TALE OF A KING 



187 



kod u nas 



nala 



ta 



mufeorun, 



ta 



was-taken-off-by- from-the-neck and it-was-opened-by-him, and 
him-of-it 

wuchun ath lyukh u mot u r op ayes panfe 

was-seen-by- on-it (was) written (of-)rupee five 

him 

hath. Ada phyurus sethah. Patasheham, 

hundred. Then grief-came-to- exceedingly. My-king, 

him 

say cheh dalil. Saragi gafehi karun u . 

that-verily is the-story. Investigation is-proper to-be-made. 

Hargah-ay suh sodagar godaniy wuchihe 



If 



that merchant at-the-very-first- had-seen 

even 



amis-hunis kyah chuh nbl 1 , suh hun u 

to-that-dog what is on-the-neck, that dog 

ma marihe. ,, Gav am^sond 11 pahar. 

not he-would-have-killed." Went him-of the-watch. 



11. Av feurimis-zan^sond 11 pahar. Tgurimis 

Came the-fourth-person-of watch. The-fourth 

golama-siinz 11 dalil. 

servant-of story. 



Tsurimis-golamas wanan 

To-the-fourth-servant (is) saying 



patashah, 

the-king, 

bewophbyi 

infidelity 



M ay golam, 

" ho servant, 

kari, tas kyah 

may-do, to-him what 



yus-akhah 

whoever 



agas-peth 

the-master-on 



wati karun u ?" 

will-be- to-be-done ? " 
proper 



Dop u nas 

It-was-said-by-him- 
to-him 



golaman, 

by-the-servant, 



44 patasheham, tas 

" my-king, to-him 



188 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



[11- 



gafehi sar featun u , 

is-proper the-head to-be-cut-off, 

kadun u . 

(he-is) to-be-expelled, 



shehara-manza 

the-city-from-in 

Patasheham, boh 

My-king, 



I 



dur 

distant 



wanay 

will-tell-to-thee 



dalila, 

a-certain-story, 

chus 

is-to-him 



fe»h 

thou 

golam. 

the-servant. 



OS 1 



akh. Amis 

one. To-him were 



moye panun 1 

died their-own 



thawum 

place-for-me 

"suh 

" that 

neciv 1 

sons 
!ii 



OS 

was 



kan." Dapan 

the-ear." Saying 

patasheha 



z a h. 

two. 



moj u . Patashehan 

mother. By-the-king 



a-certain-king 

Timan^y 

To-them-verily 

kiir* 

was-made 



woruz u 

second-wife 

don 

to-the-two 



zanana. 

woman. 

wdramop 

stepmother. 



Sa 

She 



gaye 

became 



Yim 

These 



OS 1 

were 



z a h sabakas. 

the-two at-a-lesson. 



Tora ay, 

Thence they-came, 



patashahzadan 
to-the-princes 

patashahzada 

princes 

amis-woramaje 

to-this-stepmother 



niyekh salam, lalau niginau 

was-taken-by-them a-complimentary- (filled) with- with- jewels 

gift, rubies 

trbm 1 . Thbv ti kh amis bontha-kani. 

a-copper-dish. It-was-placed-by-them to-her in-front. 



Yim 

These 

chih 

they-are 

paniin* 

her-own 



gay 

went 



biye sabakas. Doha doha 

again to-the-lesson. Each-day each-day 

kadan. Patashah-baye wuz ti 

(thus) passing. To-the-queen was-aroused 

ray. Kyah wuz ti s? 'Boh 

intention. What was-aroused-in-her ? ' I 



-11] 



VIII. THE TALE OF A KING 



189 
gdnah.' 



karahb yiman-patashahzadan-sbty 

would-have-done these-princes-with sin.' 

Doha-aki wonun yiman-patashahzadan-ddn, 

On-a-day-one it-was-said-by-her to-these-princes-two, 

'me-soty kariv gona^' Yimav dop u has, 

do-ye sin.' By-them was-said-by-them- 



' me- with 



<fe a h 

* thou 



chekh 
art 



son 1 

our 



mbj 1 



fee 



to-her, 

ta 

and 



ase 

for-us 



mother ; for-thee 

wati-na.' Patashahzada gay sabakas. 

it-will-not-be-suitable.' The-princes went to-the-lesson. 

Patashah av darbar murkhas karith. 

The-king came the-court dismissed having-made. 

W6t u mahalakhan. Patashah-bayi 

He-arrived at-the-private-apartments. By-the-queen 



trop u nas 

was-shut-by-her-for- 
him 



darwaza. 

the-door. 



Darwaza 

The-door 



ches-na 

she-is-for-him- 
not 



thawan. Dop u nas, 'yih kyazi?' Wofeh u s 

opening. It-was-said-by- ' this why ? ' She-rose (in- 



him-to-her, 



reply) -to-hira 



patashah-bay. Dop u nas, 'boh chesa 

the-queen. It-was-said-by-her-to-him, ' I am-I 

cybn ti kolay, kina cyanen-neciven-hunz ti ? ' 

of-thee the-wife, or thy-sons-of ? ' 



Dop u nas patashehan, 

It-was-said-by-him-to- by-the-king, 

her 



'tih 

'that 



gav 



?> 



Dop u nas, 



happened ? ' It-was-said-by-her-to-him, 



Him 

1 they 



kyah 

what 

am 
came-to-me 



190 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



[11 



lekan.' 

for (-using) -indecent- 
language.' 

' wun kyah 

' now what 



Patashah 

The-king 



chus 

is-to-her 



dap an, 
saying, 



chuh salah ? p Patashah-bay 

"is (your) advice ? ' The-queen 

ches dapan, ( me gafehi tihanza 

is-to-him saying, • for-me is-necessary their 

wblinje z a h. Tima khema boh, Ada-kyah 

hearts two. Them I-will-eat I. Then-of-course 

Patashehan dyut u 

By-the-king was-given 

waziras. Dop u nas, 

to-the-vizier. It-was-said-by-him-to-him, 

z a h dikh marawatalan athi. 

two give-them of-the-executioners in-the-hand. 



thaway 

I-will-open-for-thee 

hukum 

an-order 

shahzada 

princes 

Yiman 

Of-them 



darwaza/ 

the-door.' 



'yim 

1 these 



wazir. 

the- vizier. 



kadan 

they-will-extract 

W6t u 

He-arrived 



wblinje 

the-hearts 



z a h.' 

two.' 



Gav 

Went 



yim 

these 



shahzada 

princes 

nazarah. 



z a h 

two 



OS 1 . 

were. 



Sethah 



a-single-glance. Exceedingly became- 

to-him 



featahal, yeti 

at-the-school, where 

Yiman-kun kur ti n 

Them-towards was-made-by-him 

patashahzada 

princes 



gbs 



yim 

these 



z a h khosh. 

two pleasing. 

Dop u nakh, 

It-was-said-by-him-to- 
them, 

Tsal 1 ." 

They-fled." 



Dilas 

To-the-heart 

< Isaliv 

1 flee-ye 



pyos yinsaph. 

fell-of-him compassion. 

yimi-shehar a dur. ' 

from-this-city far.' 



-13] 



VIII. THE TALE OF A KING 



191 



12. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 



" Marawatalan 

' To-the-executioners 



dyut u hukum waziran, 

was-given an-order by-the-vizier, 

'mbryukh hun 1 z a h.' Marawatalau mbr 1 

* kill-ye-them dogs two.' By-the-executioner were-killed 

hun 1 z a h, kadikh yiman wblinje 

dogs two, were-extracted-by-them of-them the-hearts 

z a h, lazakh tbkis-manz, gay heth 

two, they-were-placed- a-tray-in, they-went taking 

by-them 

patashah-baye. Patashah-bayi thow u darwaza. 

to-the-queen. By-the-queen was-opened the-door. 

Patashah chuh karan patashbhi tat 1 . 

The-king is doing ruling there. 



13. Shahzada z a h ay 

The-princes two came 

patashehas nish. Patashehan 

king near. By-the-king 

golam. G6danyuk u pahar 

(as) servants. The-first watch 

badis-hihis-shahzadas. Shemah 

the-elder-the-prince. A-lamp-flame 

Patashaha-sand 1 z a h bbts ti 

The-king two husband-and- 



tsalan 
fleeing 

rat 1 

were-taken 



aramas. 

in-rest. 



wife 

Yiman^y 

To-them-verily 



biyis 

to-another 

yim 

they 



av amis- 

came to-this- 

chuh dazan. 
is burning. 

chih palangas- 

are the-bed- 



syod u 

in-front 



wasan 

descending 



192 



HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 



[18- 



chuh shehmar. Yih 

is a-great-snake. This 

shemsher. Amis- shehmar as 

a-sword. To-this-great-snake 

tuk a ra. Ami pata chuh 

pieces. This after he-is 



gdlam chuh kadan 

servant is drawing 

chuh karan 

he-is making 

shemsheri-handis 

to-the-sword's 



tegas walan phamb. Amis-patashahbaye-handis- 

blade wrapping cotton-wool. To-this-queen's- 



badanas os u 

body he- was 

shehmara-sond u . 

great-snake-of. 

asim 

there-will-be-on-my 
(queen) 



wotharan 

wiping-off 

Dopun, 

It-was-said-by-him 



yih 

this 



shehmara-sond u 

the-great-snake-of 



wotharan 

wiping 



ta 

and 



patashah 

the-king 



Dop u patashehan, 

It-was-said by-the-king, 



< yih 

'he 



zahar 

poison 

'amis 

on -her 

zahar. ' 

poison.' 

gav 

became 

am 

came-to-me 



amis- 

that- 

ma 

I-wonder-if 

6s u 

He -was 
bedar. 

awake. 

marani/ 

for-killing.' 



Patasheham, say cheh 

My-king, that-verily is 

suh patashah sara 

that king testing 

neciven-peth ma diyihe 

sons-on not would-he- 

have-given 

'toh 1 mbryukh/ Ada gay tim 

'ye kill-ye-them.' Afterwards went those 

z a h mara. Patasheham, agar 

two to-death. My-king, if 



dalil. 

the-story 

karihe, 

had-made, 

hukum marawatalan, 

the-order to-the-executioners, 



Hargah-kiy 

If 

pananen- 

to-his-own- 



hun 1 

dogs 

bawar 

believing 



•14] 



VIII. THE TALE OF A KING 



198 



karakh-na, 

thou-wilt-not-make, 

mol u . Yih 

father. This 



suh 

that 

patashah 
king 



patashah 

king 

gokh 

art 



OS u 

was 



te a h. 

thou. 



cheh 

is 



shemsher, 
the-sword, 



shehmar 

the-great-snake 



atf-kyah chuy 

there-on-the- is-of-thee 
other-hand 

gane karith." 

pieces having-made." 



sonuy 

our-verily 

Yit'-kyah 

Here-on-the- 
one-hand 

palangas-tal 
the-bed-below 



14. 



Akh 

One 



Sethah 

Exceedingly 

boy u 



gokh 

became -with- 
them 



patashah 

the-king 



thowun 



brother was-appointed- 
by-him 



banowun 

was-made-by-him 



patashah. 

a-king. 



wazir, 

vizier, 



byakh 

the-other 



khosh. 

pleased. 

boy u 

brother 



194 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



[1- 



IX. — GRIST 1 - B AYE - HUNZ* TA 
FARMER' S- WIFE-OF AND 

HUNZ* KATH 
OF STORY 

1. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 



MACH-T A LARE- 

HONEY-BEE- 



Yih 

This 

bapath ? 

reason ? 

kor u mot u 

done 

Wbfe 11 
She-arrived 

mach-t a l ti r ti . 

a-honey-bee. 

cheh 

she-is 



gnstf-bay 

farmer's-wife 



had 



Kardaran ta 

By-the-overseer and 



feuj u mute ti . 

fled. 

mukadaman 

by-the-village- 
headman 



zulm. Amiy-bapath cheh 

tyranny. For-this-very- she-is 

reason 

wanas-akis-manz. Otuy 

forest-one-in. 



Kami- 

For-what- 

OSUS 

had-been-to- 
her 

feuj tt miife tt . 

fled. 

wbVs 



Amis 

To-it 

amis-gristf-baye, 

to-this-farmer's-wife, 



There-verily arrived-to-her 

Dapan 

Saying 

chekh 



aye zaban. 

came speech. 

" fe a h kyazi 

" thou why 



art 



feuj u muts ti ? M Dop u nas 



fled? 
chuh 

is 

phirith 

answering 

zulm. 

tyranny. 



Was-said-by-her-to- 
it 



gristf-bayi, 

by-the-farmer's- 
wife, 



a 



me 

to-me 



gdmot u 

happened 



zulm." 

tyranny." 



Ami 

By-that 



dop u nas 

was-said-by-it- 
to-her 



mach-t a l a ri, 

by-the-bee, 



Boh 

I 



ches 

am 



" me-ti 

* to-me-also 

wadan, 

lamenting, 



chuh gomot u 

is happened 

fe a h thavtam 

thou please-place-for- 
me 



-3] IX. FARMERS WIFE AND HONEY-BEE 195 

kan." Wanan mlch-t a l u r u gristf-bayi kun. 

the-ear." Saying (is) the-bee the-farmer's-wife to. 



" Yitay, 


vesi, 


paran 


pemos, 


" Come- 


friend, 


at-feet 


we-will-fall-of-Him, 


please, 









karos zarapar. 

we-will-make- ejaculations. 
to-Him 

Buday chesay mich-t a l fl r ti , wanuk u 

I-verily am-Thy honey-bee, of-the-forest 

janawar. 

a-winged-creature. 

2. Koha-kohai vyur u ah anam, bs ti s 

From-every- flower-nectar was-brought- I-became 

mountain by-me, 

ayalbar. 

possessed-of-a-large-family. 

Balay peyin hapath-ganas, wanan 

Calamity may-fall to-the-bear-pimp, to-the-forests 

febii ti nam lar. 

was-brought-in- running-away. 
by-him-to-me 

3. Poten tasanden bl^nash korun; 

To-the-young- of-it nest-destruction was-made- 

ones by-him ; 

Sbhibo, ay-na ar ? 

O-God, did-there-not-there- pity ? 
come-to- thee 



196 



HATIMS SONGS AND STORIES 



[4- 



Buday 

I-verily 



chesay 

am-Thy 



janawar. 

a- winged-creature . ' 



mSch-t a l ti r*, 

honey-bee, 



wanuk u 

of-the-forest 



4. Dapan 

(Is) saying 

m8ch-t a l a r ti , 

honey-bee, 



amis 

to-this 



gristf-baye 

farmer's-wife 



yih 

this 



"yih 

" this 



hal 

condition 



kor u nam 

was-made-by-him- 
for-me 



wana-manza 

the-forest-from-in 



hapatan. 

by-the-bear. 



wufeh ti s 

I-descended 



gristf-garas, 

to-a-farmer's-house, 



rahath.' 

ease.' 



Wuchta wun 

See-please now 

yih gryust u , thavta 

this the-farmer, place-please 

wanay ? 

shall-say-to-thee ? 



Wun 

Now 

dapyam, 

it-was-said-by- 
me (long ago), 

kyah 

what 



feajyeyes, 

I-fled, 

'kara 

1 1- will-make 

karem 

will-do-to-me 



kan. 

the-ear. 



Boh 
I 



kyah 

what 



Thiin ti a 

Fresh- 
butter 



mathith 

having-rubbed 



kuth u ah 

a -room 



thow u nam, 

was-placed-by-him- 
for-me, 



motun* 

of-death 

Bagan^ayes 

It-was-my-fate 

gayem 

became-to me 



chem 

it-is-to-me 



bSdi-hal. 

a-prison. 



gristf-garas, say me 

(in) the-farmer's-house, that-verily to-me 

gal. 

shame. 



■6] 



IX. FARMER'S WIFE AND HONEY-BEE 197 



5. Drati-sbtin kash* yeli featfnam, 

A-sickle-with the-honeycombs when were-cut-by-him- 

of-me, 

kbtyah khatis mar. 

how-many arose-for-him (guilt of) murders. 



Buday chesay 

I-verily am-Thy 

janawar." 

a-winged-creature." 



mlch-t a l fl r tt , 

honey-bee, 



wanuk u 

of-the-forest 



6. M6kalow u 

Was-finished 

panun u dod u . 

her-own pain. 



ami-mach-t a l a ri wanith 

by-this-honey-bee having-spoken 

Wun cheh dapan amis- 

Now she-is saying 



gristf-baye, "cheyey klh gomot u , 

farmer's-wife, " if-there-is-to- anything happened, 
thee 



to-this- 

fe a -ti 
thou-also 



wan. 77 

speak." 

Dapan 

Saying 

chuh 

is 



Wanan 

Saying 

ches, 

she-is-to-it, 

gdmotV 

happened." 



cheh 

is 

" Boz, 

11 hear, 



wun 

now 

me 

to-me 



gristf-bay. 

the-farmer's-wife. 



kyah 

what 



Azal chawun chuh 

Fate to-be-experienced is 

tal wasun* 

below to-be-descended 



samsaras, 

in-the-world, 



jay. 

a-place. 



Buday 

I-verily 



chesay 

am-Thy 



gristf-bay, 

farmer's-wife, 



yor 

here 



zulm 

tyranny 



cheh 

there-is 



nay 

not-verily 



rozani 

to-abide 



ay. 

we-are-come. 



198 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES ' [7- 

7. SSta yeli motastit* gresten dilasa 

In-spring when the-accountants to-farmers soothing 

dini hay ay, 

to-give ! came, 

Modaryiv-kathau yedah btir%h, zalas 

With-sweet-words a-belly was-filled-by-them, in-a-net 

walana-ay. 

we-were-surrounded. 

8. Har a da-vizi dard muth%h, layeni 

In-autumn-time the-affection was-forgotten- for-beating 

by-them, 

tim-hay ay. 

they-verily came. 

Buday chesay grist^bay, yor nay 

I-verily am-Thy farmer's-wife, here not-verily 

rozani ay. 

to-abide we-came. 



9. Yim phal wawim maje-zammi, 

What fruits were-sown-by-me in-mother-earth, 

tim-hay papith ay, 

they-verily ripened came, 

Somb a rith sbrith khalas karim, 

Having-collected having-piled on-the-threshing- they-were- 

floor made-by-me, 

hatabod^khoris dray. 

to-hundreds-of-kharwar- they -emerged, 
weight 



-12] IX. FARMERS WIFE AND HONEY-BEE 



199 



10. Cakla-cakla 

In-each-village- 
circuit 

tolani tim-hay 

to-weigh they-verily 



mukadam 

the-village-head- 



man 



ay, 

came, 



ta 

and 



pathwbr* 

the-village- 
accountant 



Buday 

I-verily 



chesay 

am-Tby 



rozani ay. 

to-abide we-came. 



gristf-bay, 

farmer's-wife, 



yor nay 

here not-verily 



11. Oziz ta miskin 

The-poor and penniless 

halam dor^dor 1 ay, 

the-lap-cloth holding-out came, 



kbtyah, vis^yiy, 

how-many, O-friend, 



Halam ditfmakh 

The-skirts were-given-by- 
me-to-them 

chuli mokalan 

is for-salvation 



me bar^bari, suy 

by-me filling, that-verily 

pay. 

a-means. 



12. 



yith-nay 

so-that-not 



Kalama sbtin sawab likhan, 

A-pen with the-reward-of-good- they-will- 

actions write, 

lagekh gray. 

will-happen-to-them shaking. 



Buday chesay gristf-bay, 

I-verily am-Thy farmer's-wife, 



yor nay 

here not-verily 



rozani ay. 

to-abide we-came. 



200 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



X.— RAJE BIKARAMAJETUN* KATH 

(In the original MSS. of this story, the Hindu word for " king M is 
regularly written raj&, instead of the more familiar raja or raza. 
This spelling is followed in the transcription.) 



1. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 



Mahaniv* 

Men 

Akh 



bor 

four 



There-came-to- 
them 



bruha 

in-front 



yeli 

when 

panawiin, 

mutually, 



hyotukh 

they-began 



OS 1 

were 

mbdan. 

a-plain. 

pakun, 

to-go, 



pakan 

going 

Ath 1 

(On) this 

lag 1 

they-began 



wati. 

by-road. 

mbdanas 
plain 

wanani 

to-say 



" talau, 

" ho, 



mbdan kadon." 

plain we-will-pass-over- 



wan^av 

tell-ye 

Pata-kani 

Afterwards 



shekhba. 
person -a. 

dalila, 

story-a, 



it." 

Amis 

To-him 



dopukh, 

it-was-said-by- 
them, 



dalila, 

story-a, 

akh 

there-came- 
to-them 

"b a h 

1 thou 



yih mbdan mdkalawahun." 

this plain we-will-complete-it." 



dop u nakh 

it-was-said-by-him-to- 
them 

wanamowa dalil. 

will-tell-to-you a-story 

katha panb. 

tales five. 



phlrith, 

in-answer, 



" boh, 

"I, 



yih 

this 

byakh 

other 

wanta 

tell-please 

Am 1 

By-him 

hasa, 

sirs, 



Dalil, hasa, wanamowa 

Story, sirs, I-will-tell-to-you 

Panban-kathan gabhanam 

For-five-tales they-will-be-proper-to- 

me 



-1] X. THE TALE OF RAJA VIKBAMADITYA 201 



din* 

to-be-given 

dop u has 

it-was-said-by- 
them-to-him 



r6payes 

of-rupee 



phirith, 

in -answer, 



pants 
five 

"feor 

" four 



hath." 

hundred." 

hath 



Yimov 

By-them 

dimoy 



hundred we-will-give- 
to-thee 



feor 

four 



zan*. 

persons. 



Ponfeyum u hath gay panunuy, 

The-fifth hundred became thine-own- 

only. 



Wan-sa katha panfe." Dop u nakh. — 

Tell-sir the-tales five." It-was-said-by-him-to-them. — 



" Dyar, 

" Monies, 

Yar, 

A-friend, 

Ash g nav, 

A-near- 
relation, 



hasa, chih sapharas. 

sirs, are for-a-journey. 

hasa, chuh na-asanas. 

sirs, is for-non-existence (of wealth). 

hasa, chuh asanas. 

sirs, is for-existence (of wealth). 



Gaye 

Went 



trih 

three 



katha. Biye z a h katha, hasa, 

tales. The-other two stories, sirs, 



chewa,— 

are-for-you,- 

Sa 

That 

yesa 

who 



zanana 

woman 

na 

not 



chewana 

is-for-you-not 



panun u , 

your-own, 



asi 

will- 
be 



panas-sbty. 

oneself-with. 



Biye, hasa, — 

Also, sirs, — 

Yus rat as 

He-who by-night 



hedar 

awake 



rozi, 

will-remain, 



202 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



[2- 



suy, 

he-only, 



hasa, 

sirs, 



zeni Raje-Bikarmajetuii^ 

will-win King-Vikramaditya's 



kur ti ." 

daughter.' 

Wanenakh 

Were-said-by-him-to- 



yima 

these 



them 



chis 

are-to-him 

chukh 

is-to-them 

katha 

tales 



dapan, 

saying, 

dapan, 

saying, 



11 me, 

by-me, 



katha 

tales 

wan-sa 

M tell-sir 

hasa, 

sirs, 



panfe. 

five. 

dalil." 

a-story." 



Yim 

They 

Yih 

He 



wanemowa 
were-told-by-me-to-you 



pants." 

five." 



Miluv%h 

Was-joined-in-by-them 



chis 

are-to-him 



Yim 

They 

nith; 

were-taken-by-thee ; 



dapan, 

saying, 

dalil 

story 



"ropayes 

" of-rupee 



feor 

four 



ken 

any 



chuh 



wune 

still 



pakanay." 

not-having-been- 
walked." 



wun ti th-na ; 

was-told-by- 
thee-not ; 

Amis 

To-him 



ladby 1 . 

fighting. 

hath 

hundred 

mbdan 
the-plain 

loyukh 

it-was-beaten 



yimav-feorav-zanev. Am 1 

by-these-four-persons. By-him 

" pakiv-sa yitikis-patashehas-nish 

walk-ye-sirs of-here-the-king-near. 

suh dapi, tih karav." 

he will-say, that we- will-do." 



dop u nakh, 

it-was-said-by-him-to-them, 

Yih 

What 



2. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher,- 



-2] X. THE TALE OF RAJA VIKBAMADITYA 20& 

Wot 1 patashehas-nish. Dyut u 

They-arrived the-king-near. Was-given 

pha^yad feorav-zanev. Dop u has, 

a-complaint by-the-four-persons. It-was-said-by-them-to-him, 

"patasheham, yim^shekhtean khey 

" my-king, by-this-person were-eaten 

ase ropayes tsor hath. Dopun, 

for-us of-rupee four hundred. It-was-said-by-him, 

' wanamowa katha panfe.' " Patashehan 

1 1-will-tell-you tales five.' " By-the-king 

dop u amis-shekhfeas, "wan-sa kyah 

it-was-said to-this-person, " tell-sir what 

won u thakh ? " Yih wothus 

was-told-by-thee-to-them ? " He arose-to-him 

phirith, "patasheham, boh wanay katha 

in-answer, M my-king, I will-tell-to-thee tales 

pants. Ropayes gafehanam din 1 

five. Of-rupee they-are-proper-to-me to-be-given 

pants hath. Ada wanay boh katha 

five hundred. Then I-will-tell-to-thee I the-tales 

panfe." Patashehan kad* ropayes 

five." By-the-king were-produced of-rupee 

pants hath, ditin amis-shekhfeas. Yim 

five hundred, they-were-given- to-this-person. These 

by-him 

karin band, pana kur ti n kbm u ah 

rere-made- tied-up, by-himself was-done-by- deed-a 

by-him him 



204 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



[3- 



Patashbhi-hond u 

Koyalty-of 

poshakh 

garment 



am^patashehan. 

by-that-king. 

trowun, gadbyiye-hond u 

was-put-off- beggary-of 

by-him, 

Biye gandin lal sath 

Also were-tied-by-him rubies seven 

drav yima katha pants sara 

he-went-forth these tales five testing 

3. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 



poshakh 

garment 

purun. 

was-put-on- 
by-him. 

matshi, 
on-the-arm, 

karani. 

to-make. 



Godaniy 

At-the-very- 
first 



drav bene-handis-sheharas-kun. 

he- went- his-sister's-city-towards. 

forth 



Gur u 

A-horse 

nizikh 

near 

shech 1 

a-message 

pemot u 

fallen 

tur i . ,, 

there-even. 

phirith 

in -answer 

pama 

reproaches 



chus 

is-for-him 



khasun u . 

to-be-mounted. 



W6t u 

He-arrived 



yeli 

when 



ath-bene-handis-sheharas 

to-that-sister's-city 

amis-bene, " me 

to-that-sister, " to-me 

muhim. 



luz ti n 

was-sent-by-him 

kyah chuh 

verily is 



poverty. 

Ami 

By-that 



Boh 

I 

luz ti nas 

was-sent-by- 
her-to-him 



shech 1 , " me 

a-message, " to-me 

wbVvis-manz." 

my-father-in-law's- 
house-in." 



kyah 

of-course 

beni 

by-the- 
sister 

kyah 

of-course 

Pot u 

Back-again 



yimahb 

should-come 

pot u 

back-again 

rozan 

will-remain 

phirith 

in-answer 



■8] X. THE TALE OF RAJA VIKBAMADITYA 205 



liiz ti nas 

was-sent-by- 
him-to-her 



biye 

again 



shech*, 

message, 



'me 

to-me 



yeli 

when 



bani tor yun u , to-ti gatehem 

will-be- there to-come, nevertheless it-is-proper- 
possible to-me 



naphfeas 

for-the-belly 

gatehi 

it-is-proper 

mohar 

the -seal 

beni 

by-the-sister 



kenfehah. 

something. 



Ladaham-ay, 

Thou-wilt-send- 

to-me-if, 



gand 

a-knot 



kariin ti 

to-be-made 



karun u , 

is-to-be-made, 



ii » 



panun 

thine-own." 



petha 

upon (it) 



Ami 

By-that 



na 

not 

ladun u 

to-be- 
sent 

tath 

to-that 



gafehes 

it-is-proper- 
for-it 

kur ti 

was-done 



kom^ah. Lodun 

deed-a. Was-sent-by-her 



panane-kenze 

(in) her-own-dish-cup 



bata-hana, ya fehyot u ya 

a-little-boiled-rice, (not caring whether impure or 
it was) either (leavings) 



Petha 

Upon (it) 

rawana 

dispatching 

bene-hiinz u 

the-sister-of 



thowun-dabbvith. 

was-buried-by-him. 



kur ti nas 

was-made-by- 
her-for-it 

amis-bbyis. 

to-that-brother. 



panun 1 

her-own 



Tarn 1 

By-him 



mohar, 

seal, 



ySli 

when 



mohar, 

the-seal, 



rotun, 

was-taken- 
by-him, 



shofeh. 

purity. 

korun 

was -made 
by-her 

wuch u 

was-seen 

atiy 

in-that- 
very-place 



206 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



[4- 



4. Drav yara-sanzi-wati. 

He-went-forth on-a-friend's-the-road. 



Yeli wot u 

"When he-arrived 



nizikh 

near 

hasa, 

sir, 

hasa, 

sir, 



suzun 

was-sent- 
by-him 



amis 

to-him 



mahanyuv u , 

a-man (saying), 



is-come-to-thee 



chuy 

is-verily 



Patashbhi 

Koyalty 

muhimzad." 

struck-by-adversity." 



chesna. 

is-to-him-not. 



"yar, 

" (thy) 
friend, 

Suh, 

He, 



buz u , 

it-was-heard, 



drav, 

he-went-forth, 



wot u 

he-arrived 



Yaran yeli 

By-the-friend when 

amis-yaras-nish. 

that-friend-near. 



Dapan chus, 

Saying he-is-to- 
him, 



<4 ha 
"0 



yor 

here 



pbda ? " 

manifest ? " 



yara, 

friend-0, 

Pakan 

Going 



kati 

whence 

chih 

they-are 



goham 

didst-thou- 
become-for-me 

donaway. 

both. 



Amis 6s u miskini-hond u poshakh nbl 1 . 

To-that-one was poverty-of garment on-the-neck. 



Dapan chus, 

Saying he-is-to-him, 



dita 

please-give 

fehunta 

please-put-on 



me. 

to-me. 

fe a h." 

thou." 



11 yara, 

" friend, 

Yih 

This 

Yih 

This 



yih khal a t-e-shbhi 

this robe-of-royalty 

myon u poshakh 

my garment 

as-na-bozana, " yih 

was-not-considered- " this 

by-him, 



chuh 

is 



amis 

to-that-one 



yih as-bozana 

this was-considered 



miskini-hond u 

beggary-of 

khal a t-e-shbhi ; 

a-robe-of-royalty ; 



poshakh " ; 

garment " ; 

kami-mokha ? 

on-what-account ? 



■5] X. THE TALE OF EAJA VIKRAMADITYA 207 



Mahabata-sbty. Gav. 

Affection-through. He-went. 



gara. 

house. 



Yaran 

By-the-friend 



Wot 1 

They-arrived 

kur ti nas 

was-made-by- 
him-for-him 



yara-sond u 

the-friend-of 

ziyaphath 

a-feast 



lbyik-e-patashah. 

worthy-of-a-king. 



Sapanes 

There-happened- 
to-him 



ot u -tan z a h 

there-up-to two 



katha 

statements 



sara. 

in-investigation. 



5. Drav 

He-went-forth 



W6t u 

He-arrived 

bs ti bud u 

w r as an -old 

Dopun 

It-was-said- 
by-him 



wun zanani-handis-sheharas-kun. 

now (his) wife's-city-towards. 

and-kun. Ati 



ath-sheharas 

of-that-city 

zanana. 

woman-a-certain. 

amis-buje-zanani, 

to-that-old- woman, 



the-outskirt-towards. 



There 



Byuth u am^sandi-gari. 

He-stayed in-her-house. 



u ditam 

" please-give- 
to-me 



drot u . 

a-sickle. 



Boh ana yimis-guris-kyut u gasa." Drav 



I 
gasa 

grass 



will-bring 

anani. 

to-bring. 



ath 1 

to-it-verily 



chuh 

he-is 



patasheha-sunz*. 

the-king-of. 



this-horse-for 

Wuchun 

Was -seen - 
by-him 

lonan. 

reaping. 

ds 1 

Were 



ati 

there 

Yih 

This 



grass." He-went-forth 

gasa-mbdana, 

grass- plain-a-cercain, 



OS 1 



was 



laran 

running-up 



rakh 

the-private- 
field 

tahal 1 . 

the-grooms. 



208 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



[5- 



Nyukh 

He-was-taken- 
by-them 

Korukh 

He-was-made- 
by-them 

cheh 

is 



ratith 

having-seized 



pananis-mejeras-nish. 

their-own-master-of-the- 
horse-near. 



kbd. 

imprisoned. 



Rath 

Night 



gafehan 

becoming 



amis-mejeras 

to-that-master-of-the- 
horse 



pbda 

manifest 

ziyaphatha 

dish-of-food-a 



aye. 

came. 



zanana 

woman -a 



Amis 

To-him 

akh, 

one, 



heth. Yih 

having- brought. He 



chuh 

is 



bihith 

seated 



carpayi-peth, 

a-bedstead-on. 



Ziyaphath 

The-dish-of-food 



thUv ti nas bontha-kani. 

was-placed-by-her- front-in. 



Ath 1 wath* 

To-it-verily they-descended 



for-him 



kheni 

to-eat 



donaway, 

both. 



Hana 
A-little 



dy utukh amis -kbdis. 

was-given-by-them to-this-prisoner. 



h a reyekh. 

remained-over-for- 
them. 

Kor u has 

Was-made-by-them- 
to-him 



" hato 

"ho 



kbdyau, 

prisoner- 0, 



yih 

this 



khyuh 

eat 



feheth-han." Kbd 1 rot u , khyon. 

waste-food- By-the-prisoner it-was-taken, it-was-eaten- 



a-little.' 

chuh 

he-is 

kiir* 

was-made 



by-him. 



Yih 

This 

alav, 

a-call, 

sbh u 

our 

Atiy 

There- 
verily 



panane 

in-his-own 



jaye 

in-place 



bihith. 

seated. 



tamaskhuri ; 

jesting ; 



ath-palangas 

to-that-bedstead 



Yimav-doyav 

By-these-two 

phut ti 

was-broken 



•5] 



X. THE TALE OF RAJA VIKRAMADITYA 209 



tiir ti . Korukh alav 

the-tenon. Was-made-by-them a-call 



amis-kbdis, " fe a h 

to-that-prisoner, " thou 



wuchta, 

please-see, 

ma 



yith-palangas phut u tiir tt , fee 

to-this-bedstead is-broken the-tenon, to-thee 



tagiy." 



I-wonder-if it-will-within- 
thy-power." 



Am 1 

By-him 



tagem-na ? 

will-it-not-be-within- 
my-power ? 

Dop u has, 

It-was-said-by-them- 
to-him, 



Hamsaye 

Neighbours 



dop u nakh, 

it-was-said-to- 
them, 

chim 

are-to-me 



'an, 

yes, 



chan. ,, 

carpenters.' 



" w61a. ,, 
<< ii 

come. 



W6t u ot u . Ami- 

He-arrived there. By-that- 



zanani 

woman 

Am 1 

By-him 

bata-han 



parzanow u 

he-was-recognized (as) 

bs^-parzanbv^mufe* 

she-had-been -recognized 

dife%as. 



food-a-little was-given-by-them-to- 
him. 



dapan amis-mejeras, 

saying to-this-master-of-the- 
horse, 

Yih chuh myon u 

This is my 



panun u 

her-own 

bronth, 

before, 

Yih 

This 



khawand. 

husband. 

yeli yih 

when this 



zanana 

woman 



cheh 

is 



wun 



now 



kyah karav ? 

what shall-we-do ? 



marun u 

to-be-killed 



ratas-rath. ,, 

this- very-night." 



khawand. 

husband. 

Hukum 

An-order 



Yih 

He 



gafehi 

is-proper 



marawatalan. 

to-the-executioners. 



Dop u nakh, 

It-was-said-by-him-to- 
them, 



dyutun 

was-given-by-him 

' niyun yih 

take-him this 



210 HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES [5- 

kbd 1 , gatehi marun u ; wbliirp gafehes 

prisoner, he-is-proper to-be-killed ; the-heart is-proper-of- 

him 

yur 1 aniiii*." Nyukh yih kod 1 

here-even to-be-brought." Was-taken-by- this prisoner 

them 

sheharas-nebar. Am 1 dyut u nakh sawal, 

the-city-outside. By-him was-given-by-him- a-petition, 

to-them 

"me trbv^tav yela, boh chalabb atha 

." me please-to-let-me- from-restraint, I would- the-hands 

loose wash 

buth u , Khodayes-kun karahb zarapar." 

face, God-towards I-would-make ejaculations." 

Trowukh yela. Wuch ti n aba-hana, 

He-was-let-loose- from-restraint. Was-seen-by- water-a-little, 

by-them him 

cholun atiy atha buth u , Khdda-Sbbas- 

was-washed- there-indeed the-hands face. God-the-Lord- 

by-him 

kun korun zarapar. Atha pyos 

towards was-made-by-him ejaculation. The-hand fell-of-him 

yiman-lalan-satan-peth, yim tati bsis 

these-rubies-seven-on, which there were-of-him 

gan^mat 1 matehi. Yiman dopun marawatalan- 

tied on-the-arm. To-these it-was-said- to-executioners- 

by-him 



tsdn, " hata-sa, 


me trbvyuv yela. 


Nom 


four, ' O-sirs, 


me let-ye-me from-restraint. 


These 


chiwa lal 


sath. Tsor chiwa 


tohe 


are-for-you rubies 


seven. Four are-for-you 


for-you 



-6] X. THE TALE OF RAJA VIKRAMADITYA 211 



fedn zanen. 

four persons. 

nish." 

with." 



Trih 

Three 



chiwa 

are -for -you 



myon 

mine 



tdhe- 

you- 



6. OtMan 

There-up-to 



karen 

were-made-by- 
him 



tor 

four 



katha 
statements 



Ponton* 

The-fifth 

wot u 

he-arrived 

timan 

to- those 



kath 

statement 

panun u 

his-own 

pantsan 

five 



gayes 

went-for-him 



mashith. 
forgotten. 



gara. 

house. 

zanen, 

persons, 



Biye 

Again 



wanan 

saying 



waiiewa tone panfe 

were-said-by-you by-you five 

wothus pot u phirith, 

arose-to-him back-again in-answer, 

" Patasheham, katea katha 

" My-king, how- statements 

many 

Dop u nakh patashehan, 

It-was-said-by-him-to- by-the-king, 
them 

Yimav dop u has, 

By-them it-was-said-by-them-to-him, 



wamv-sa 

say-ye-sirs 

katha." 

statements.' 



kareth 

were- 
made-by-thee 



sara. 

tested. 

Av, 

He-came, 

chuh 
he-is 

kyah 

what 

Yih 

He 



sara ? " 

tested ? " 



"feor 

" four 

"kusa 

" which 



katha." 

statements.' 

kusa ? " 

which ? " 



Dop u nakh 

It-was-said-by-him-to-them 



" Ash g nav 

. Relations 



chih 

are 



patashehan, 
by-the-king, 

paz^pbth 1 

really-truly 



asanas. 

for-existence (of 

wealth). 

p 



212 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



[7- 



Yar chuh 


na-asanas. 


Ti-ti 


pozuy. 




A-friend is 


for-non-existence That-also 
(of wealth). (is) 


true- verily. 




Zanana sa 


chena 


panuii* 1 , 


yesa na 




Woman that 


is-not 


one's-own, 


who not 




panas-sbty 


cheh. 


Ti-ti 


pozuy. 




oneself-with 


is. 


That-also 


true-verily. 




Dyar chih 


bakar 


sapharas. 


Ti-ti 




Monies are 


useful 


for-a-journey 


That-also 




pozuy. 










true-verily. 










Yima feor 


katha 


karemav 




These four 


statements 


were-made-by-me-for-you 




sara. Wun 


wanyum 


pbnfeim ti 


kath." 




tested. Now 


tell-ye-me 


the-fifth 


statement." 




Dop u nas am 1 


shekhtean 


pot u 


phirith, 




It-was-said-by- by-this 
him-to-him 


by-person 


back-again 


in-answer, 




" ropaye hath 


gatshem ( 


lyun 11 ." 


Dyut u nas 




' rupees hundred 


are-proper- to-be-given." 
to-me 


Was -given -by - 
him-to-him 




patashehan. 


Dop u nas, — 








by-the-king. It-was- 


said-by-him-to-him, — 






" Yus ratas bedar 


rozi, 






" He-who by-n 


ight awake 


will-remain 


> 




suy zeni Raje-Bikarmajetiin ti 


kur*." 




he-only will-win King-Vikramaditya's 


daughter." 




7. Patashehan 


kiir 11 


kbm ti . 


Logun 




By-the-king 


was-done 


a-deed. 


Was-imitated- 
by-him 





■7] X. THE TALE OF RAJA VIKRAMADITYA 213 



phakir. Gav, wot u Raje-Bikarmajetun u 

a-faqir. He-went, he-arrived King Vikramaditya's 

kiir ti 



gara. 

house. 



Nazarbazav 

By-the-watchers was-done 

khabardarav niye khabar 

by-the-newsmen was-brought news 



nazar, 
watching, 

amis-rajes. 

to-this-king. 



Dop u has, 

It-was-said-by-them-to- 
him, 



gamot u 

(is) become 

zenan 

will-win-her 

chukh 

is-to-them 



poda. 

manifest. 

raje-sunz* 

the-king's 

pot u 

back-again 



"raje-sbba, 

11 King-Sir, 

Yihuy 

He-verily 

kurV » 

daughter.' ' 

phirith, 

in-answer, 



phakira 

faqir-a 

dapan, 

(is) saying, 

Raje 

The-king 



akh 

one 

'boh 

'I 

wanan 

saying 



"az-tan kbtyah 

today-up-to how-many 
(are) 



gamat 1 

gone 

yih 

this 



rajezada 

princes 



ati 

here 



mara ! 

to-death ! 



Wun gav 

Now is-gone 



phakir 

faqlr 



hawala-y-Khoda, 

(in) the-care-of-God, 



ada 

then 



either 



lasi ya 

he-will-survive or 

kuthis-manz." 

the-room-in." 



man. 

he-will-die. 



Gatehiv, 
Go-ye, 



khblyun 

cause-ye-him-to- 
mount 



Yeti 

Where 



yih 

this 



bs ti , 

was, 



yih 

this 



palang 

a-bed 

phakir 

faqlr 



trow u has 

was-put-by-them- 
for-him 



raje-sunz 1 

king's 

shirith. 

having-made- 



kur tt 

daughter 

Khoth u 

Ascended 



ready. 



palangas-peth. 

the-bed-on. 



Amis-khotuni 

To-this-lady 



214 
dife*n 

was-given-by- 
him 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 
Karen 



zir 



amis-sbty 

a-push. Were-made-by- her-with 
him 



[7- 

katha. 

speeches. 



Katha karith 



kur ti n kbm ti . 



Speeches having-made was-done-by- a-deed. 

him 



Ath-pdshakas 

(Of) that-garment 



kur ti n 

was-made-by-him 



shekal 

a-form 



yinsan-hish ti . 

a-human-being-like. 



drav dur-pahan, 

went-forth distance-a- 
little, 



byuth u 

he-sat 



nazari. 

in-watch. 



Pana 

He-himself 

Shemah 

A-lamp- 
flame 



chuh 

is 

drav 

issued 

yeth 

which 

kor u mot u 

made 

hewan. 

(he is) taking. 



dazan. 

burning. 

aj a dah. 

a-python. 

yih 

this 

6s u . 

was. 

Ati 

Here 



Amis-khotuni-handi-shikama-manza 

This-lady's-belly-from-in 



Tsav 

It-entered 

am^phakiran 

by-this-faqir 



ath-poshakas-manz, 

that-garment-in, 

yinsan-hyuh u 

a-human-being-like 



Yih 

This 



yeli 

when 



chuh 

he-is 

na 

not 



d a nan, 

shaking, 



feap 1 

bites 



biye 

again 

manz. 

in. 

cheh 

is 

klh 

any 



Isav 

entered 



yih 

this 



Am^phakiran 

By-this-faqir 



aj a dah 

python 

kur* 

was-done 



yinsan os u , 

human-being it-was, 

khotuni-shikamas- 

(of)-the-lady's-belly- 



saragi. 

testing. 



amis-khotuni-handis-shikamas-manz. 

this-lady's-belly-in. 



chena. 

is-not. 



Av 

Came 



phakir, 

the-faqlr, 



wot u 

he-arrived 



Balay 

The-evil- 
spirit 

Nebar 

External 

biye 

again 



-7] X. THE TALE OF RAJA VIKRAMADITYA 215 



ath-palangas-nishe. 
that-bed-near. 



Khotuni 



dife% 



zir 1 



To-the-lady was-given-by- a-push, 
him 



katha karen amis-sbty. 

speeches were-made-by-him her-with. 

korun biye yinsan-hyuh u , 

it-was-made-by- again 



Ath-poshakas 

To-that-garment 



a-human-being-like, 



gav 

went 



biye 

again 



him 

phakir, 

the-faqlr, 



byuth u 

he-sat 



duri-pahan. Shemah chuh 

at-a-distance-a- A-lamp-flame is 
little. 



dazon 1 . Athas-keth kud% 

burning-verily. The-hand-in was-drawn-forth-by- 



him 

Amis-khotuni-handi-shikama-manza log u 

This-lady's-the-belly-from-in began 



shemsher. 

a-sword. 

nerani 

to-issue 



yih 

this 



aj a dah, 

python. 



Log" 

It-began 



Tuj ti n shemsher, 

Was-raised-by-. the-sword, 
him 



ath-poshakas-manz afeani. 

this-garment-in to-enter. 

chuh amis-aj a dahas 

he-is to-this-boa-constrictor 



kataran, 

cutting- to-pieces, 

fehunun 

it-was-put-by-him 

palangas-peth, 

the-bed-upon, 



morun, karenas gane, 

it-is-killed-by- were-made-by-him- lumps, 
him, of-it 

Khot u pana 

He-mounted himself 



ath-palangas-tal, 

that-bed-under. 



shemsher dife% shand, 

the-sword was-put-by-him (under) the- 

pillow, 



ta shong u . 

and he-went-to-sleep. 



216 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



8- 



8. Rath gaye 

The-night went 



ada, 

(to) com- 
pletion, 



subuh 

morning 



log" 

began 



ymi. 

to-come. 



Am^Raje-Bikarmajetan 

By-this-King-Vikramaditya 



dop u 

it-was-said 



marawatalan, 

to-the-executioners, 



" gafehiv. 
" go-ye. 



Yih 

This 



phakir 

faqir 



asi 

will-be 



Yohay 

Him-verily 

rajezada 

princes (are) 

asi 

will-be 



walyun. 

bring-ye-down-him. 



mara, 

to-death, 



ta 

and 



Az-tan 

Today-up-to 

gamat 1 

gone 

mumotV Khat 1 

dead." They -ascended 

Wuchukh phakir wara-kara 

Was-seen-by-them the-faqlr 

Nazarabazav kur ti 

By-the-watchers was-done 

khabar 

. news 



mumot u . 

dead. 

kbtyah 

how-many 

yi-ti 

this-one-also 



ath-kuthis-manz. 

this-room-in. 



safe-sound 
nazar, 

watching, 



zinday. 

living-verily. 

khabar darav 

by-the-newsmen 



mye 

was- brought 



rajes. 

to-the-king. 



Dop u has, 

It-was-said-by-them- 
to-him, 



" Raje-sa, 

" King-Sir, 



phakir 

the-faqir 



chuh 

is 



zinday." 

living-verily." 



Raje-sbb 

The-king-Sir 



khot u 

ascended 



pana 

himself 



kuthis-manz. Karan chuh 

the-room-in. Doing he-is 

mobarakh amis-phakiras. Dapan chus, 

congratulation to-this-faqir. Saying he-is-to-him, 

"phakira, fe a h wanta ketha-pbth 1 bacyokh." 

faqir-O, thou tell-please in-what-manner thou-escapedst." 

Dapan chus phakir, "bedar rozana-sbty. 

Saying is-to-him the-faqlr, " awake remaining-by. 



-9] X. THE TALE OF BAJA VIKRAMADITYA 217 



Raje-sa, 

King- Sir, 

kiir* 

was-done 

balaya 

evil-spirit-a 

Dapan 

Saying 

kyah 

what 

dapan, 
saying, 

kunuy." 

one-only." 



kar 

do 

nazar. 

looking. 

akh. 

one. 

chuh 

is 

chey 

is-by-thee 

w poz u 

" true 



nazar palangas-tal." Rajen 

looking the-bed-under." By-the-king 



Wuchun 

Was-seen-by-him 



palangas-tal 

the-bed-under 



Trbv ti mufe ti phakiran mbrith. 

(It-was) put by-the-faqir having- 



phakir 

the-faqlr 



amis-rajes, 

to-this-king, 



kur ti mufe ti ? " 

made ? " 

chuh, 

is, 



Phakir 

The-faqlr 



chus 

is-to-him 



Raje 

The-king 

Khoday 

God-verily 

dapan, 

saying, 



killed. 

"zaban 
" promise 

chus 

is-to-him 
chuh 

is 

"yih, 

1 this, 



hasa, 

Sir, 

di-sa 

give- Sir 



chey 



at 1 



panun 1 



is-to-thee here-verily thine-own 



kur*. Me 

daughter. To-me 



panun u 

thine-own 



nishana. ,, Dife u nas wbj* 

token." Was-given-by-him- a-ring 

to-him 



amis-phakiras. 

to-this-faqir. 

am^rajen. 

by-this-king. 



Phakira-siinz* wbj u rut* 

The-faqir's ring was-taken 



9. Drav phakir, 

Went-forth the-faqlr, 

Phakiriye-hond u 

Faqlrhood-of 



wot u panun u shehar. 

he-arrived his-own city. 

jama fehunun-kadith. 

coat was-doffed-by-him. 



218 HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES [10- 

Patashbhi-hond u poshakh purun. Dyutun 

Royalty-of robe was-put-on- Was-given- 

by-him. by-him 

hukum lashkari, " niriv-sa me sbty." 

order to-the-army, " go-ye-forth-sirs me with." 

10. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 

Godaniy gav ath-bene-handis-sheharas. Yih 

At-the-very-first he-went to-that-sister's-city. This 

patashah-ti 6s u baj tar an amis^y-patashehas. 

king-also was tribute paying to-this-very-king. 

Un ti n bene panun", thuv ti nas bontha-kani 

Was-brought- the-sister his-own, was-placed- in-front 

by-him by-him-to-her 

sa tami-d6huc ti ziyaphath, yeth tami- 

that of-that-day present-of-food, to-which by-that- 

beni mohar bs u s petha kur^mufe 11 . 

sister seal was-for-it on made. 

Dapan chus, "yih chya mohar cybn ti ?" 

Saying he-is- to-her, "this is seal thine?" 

Dop u nas phirith, "mybn^y chen." Dapan 

It-was-said- in-answer, "mine-verily it-is." Saying 

by-her-to-him 

chus yih patashah, "boy kyah gos 

is-to-her this king, " I- verily of-a-surety am 

tami-dohuk u miskin. Paz^pbth 1 chuh ash g nav 

of-that-day the-beggar. Truly is a-relation 

asanas." 

for-existence (of wealth)." 



-12] X. THE TALE OF BAJA VIKBAMADITYA 219 
11. Hete% amis-patashehas-ti lashkar, 

Was-taken-by-him of-that-king-also the-army, 

dyutun kadam yara-sond u kun. W6t u 

was-put-by-him footstep the-friend-of direction. He-arrived 



yaras-nish. 

the-friend-near. 



Yaran 

By-the-friend 



kiir* 

was-made 



yiman-don patashbhiyen-kite*. Rath 

these-two kingdoms-for. Night 



at*, 


sub a han 


dray. 


here, 


at-dawn 


they-went 
forth. 



ziyaphath 

a-feast 

kud%h 

was- passed - 
by-them 



12. Dyutun kadam ath-hihara-sandis-sheharas-kun. 

Was-put- footstep that-the-father-in-law's-the-city-towards. 
by-him 



A nan 

Bringing 



chuh 

he-is 



Dapan chus, 

Saying he-is-to-him, 



nad dith amis-patashehas. 

call having-given to-this-king. 

u anukh-sa tahal 1 . Timav 

11 bring-them-Sir the-grooms. By-them 



chuh 

is 

kati 

where 



cyahe-rakhi-manza Isur rot u mot u . Suh 

thy-private-field-from-in a-thief seized. He 



chukh 

is-by-them 



thow u mot u ? " Anikh tahal 1 , 

put ? " Were-brought- the-grooms, 

by-them 



dop u hakh, " yus tohe 

it-was-said-by- " what by-you 

them-to-them, 

rakhi-manza, suh 

the-private-field-from-in, he 



feur 

thief 



kati 

where 



rot u wa 

was-seized- 
by-you 

chuwa 

is-by-you 



220 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES [12- 

th6w u mot u ? ,, Yimav won u , "patasheham, 

put ? " By-them it-was-said, " my-king, 

ase chuh kor u mot u hawala pananis- 

by-us he-is made in-custody to-our-own- 

apsaras-mejeras." Onukh mejer. Dop u has, 

officer-the-master-of- Was-brought- the-master-of- Was-said-by- 
the-horse." by-them the-horse. them-to-him, 

" nomav tahalyav koruy hawala feur, 

"by-these grooms was-made- in-custody a-thief, 

to- thee 

suh kati th6wuth? ,, Yih chukh dapan, 

he where was-put-by-thee ? " He is-to-them saying, 

"me dyuth u -na." Tahal 1 chis karan 

"by-me he-was-seen-not." The-grooms are-to-him making 

gawby 1 , " patasheham, ase kor u tahkhlth 

witnessing, "my-king, by-us was-made certainly 

amis hawala." Dop u nakh am^patashehan, 

to-him in-custody." Was-said-by- by-this-king, 

him-to-them 

yus tami-doha phakir logith 6s u , 

he-who on-that-day faqlr having-made-himself- was, 

to-resemble 

suy chukh dapan, "anyukh marawatal 

he-verily is-to-them saying, " bring-ye-them the-executioners 

feor. Tim wanan panay." Anikh tim. 

four. They will-say themselves- Were-brought- they. 

verily." by-them 

Dapan chukh yih patashah, "tdhe-nish 

Saying is-to-them this king, " you-near 



■12] X. THE TALE OF RAJA VIKRAMADITYA 221 



chuh 

is 

diyiv 

give-ye 

kbm*. 

a-deed. 



amanath 
a-deposit-in-trust 

yur 1 ." 

here-verily." 



Kadikh 

Were-produced 
by-them 

patashehas bontha-kani. 

to-the-king in-front. 



tas-phakira-sond u , 

of-that-faqlr, 

Yimav-marawatalau 

By-these-executioners 

yim lal sath, 

these rubies seven, 



suh 
that 

kur u 

was-done 

thbvikh 

were-put- 
by-them 



tulin 

were-lifted- 
by-him 

"yim 



feor, 

four, 
kam 1 



kar^nakh 

were-made-by- 



hawala. 

in-charge. 



him-to-them 

bsVa ditfmat 1 ? " 



1 these by-whom 
"phakiran-ak 1 ." 

" by-faqlr-one." 



were-to- 
you 



given ? 



"Suh 

"He 



os u 



"Tarn 1 

"By-him 

dyut u mot u 

given 



kami 

on-what 



Satav-manza 

The-seven-from-in 

Dop u nakh, 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-them, 

Dop u has; 

Was-said-by- 
them-to-him, 

bapath ? M 
account ? " 

yim^mejeran 

by-this-master-of- 
the-horse 



marana-bapath." 

killing-for." 

amis-m e jeras-kun, 

this-master-of-the-horse-to, 



Dapan chuh patashah 

Saying is the-king 

"me chukhna parzanawan? 

" me art-thou-not recognizing ? 

Boy kyah gos suh phakir yus 

I-verily certainly am that faqlr who 

kbd 6s u than kor u mot u . Godan aye 

imprisoned was-by-thee-he made. At-first came 



sa 

that 



khotuna 

lady 



ziyaphath 

a-dish-of-food 



heth. 

taking. 



Kheyev 

Was-eaten 



222 



HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 



[12- 



yekh-jah. 

in-one-place. 

alav; 

a-call ; 



H a ryov 

Remained- 
over 

dop u wam, 

it-was-said-by- 
you-to-me, 



fehyot u . 

waste-food. 

wola 

'come 



Kor u wa 

Was-made- 
by-you 

kbdyau, 

prisoner-O, 



khyo 

eat 

Rot u 

Was-taken 

kiir ti wa 

was-made- 
by-you 

tur*. 

the-tenon. 



son u 

our 



fehyotV 

waste-food. 



me 

by-me 



ta 

and 



murdamazbr 1 . 

laughing-joking. 



Kor u wa 

Was-made- 
by-you 



me 

to-me 



zanakh 

thou-wilt-know 



yith-palangas 

to-this-bedstead 



Me 

By-me 

chum 

is-to-me 



dopum a wa, 

it-was-said-by- 
me-to-you, 

chan.' 

a-carpenter.' 



'an, 

1 yes, 



Tami-pata 

That-after 

khyauv. 

was-eaten. 

Phut ti wa 

Was-broken- 
for-you 

alav, 

a-call, 

wath 

joining 

zana-na ? 

shall-I-not- 
know? 



as 

came 



me 

to-me 

yih 

this 

boh. 
I. 



Tami-pata 

That-after 

palangas 

of-the-bedstead 



«fe a h 

' thou 



ma 

I- wonder - 
if 



Palangas 

To-the-bedstead 



karith ? ' 

having-made ? ' 

Hamsaye 

A-neighbour 

dyutum a wa 

was-given-by- 
me-for-you 



wath karith. Ami-panaiii-zanani parzanowus. 

joining having-made. By-this-my-own-wife I-was-recognized. 

Dop u nay fee, 'yiih chuh myon u 

It-was-said-by- to-thee, ' this is my 

her-to-thee 

khawand. Yih chuh amot u 

husband. He is come 



phakir 

a-faqir 






•18] X. THE TALE OF RAJA VIKBAMADITYA 228 



lbgith. Yih gafehi 

having-made- He is- proper 
himself-to-resemble. 



ratas-rath marun u . , 

this-very-night to-be-killed.' 



Kor u thas hawala 

Was-made-by-thee-I in-charge 

Yiman av ar 

To-them came pity 

yela. Yiman 

from-restraint. To-them 



noman-marawatalan. 

to-these-executioners. 

Yimav trow u has 

By-them was-let-by-them-I 

ditim lal sath. Tsor 

were-given- rubies seven. Four 



myon u 

of-me. 



ditim 

were-given - 
by-me 

Yitf-kyah 

Here-in-fact 

chim 

are-by-me 

chiy 

are-verily 



by-me 
feon-zanen, trih thbv^atf amanath. 



to-four-persons, three 



placed 



chim 

are-to-me 



tim 

those 



lal 

rubies 



trih, 

three, 



as-deposit. 
feor 

four 



ditfmat 1 

given 



tim 

those 



ti^ 

also." 



noman-feon-zanen. 

to-these-four-persons. 

Kh61 u nas 

Was-caused-to-mount- 
by-him-on-him 



Yiti-kyah 

Here-in-fact 

zima 

the- 
responsibility 



takhsir. 
(for) the-crime. 



13. Dapan wustad,— 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 



Dyutun 

Was-given- 
by-him 



hukum panani-lashkari. 

the-order to-his-own-army. 



yih 

this 



mejer 

master-of- 
the-horse 



ti, 

both, 



yih 

this 



panun u 

his-own 



Kodun 

Was -dragged - 
out-by-him 

zanana 
wife 



224 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



[14- 



ti. 

and. 



donaway 

both 



Khananowun 

Was-caused-to-be-dug- 
by-him 

ath-khodas, 
(into) that-pit, 



khod, fehananbvin 

a-pit, were-caused-to-be-cast 



karanbv ti n 

was-caused-to-be- 
done-by-him 



kane-kun ti . 

lapidation. 



Atiy 

Here-verily 



chuh 

is 

" Shrakh, 
11 A-knife, 

be-wopha." 

treacherous." 



likhan sbhib-i-kitab,— 

writing a-master-of-books, — 

sar a ph, makh a r-i-zan, 

a-serpent, coquetry-of-a-woman, 



14. Drav 

Went- 
forth 



ati 

from- 
there 



phlrith 

returning 



yih 

this 



patashah. 

king. 



W6t u 

He-arrived 



Ot u 

there 



gara. 

house. 



Diwan chih 

Giving they-are 

chuh amot u pananen-bafean. , 

is come for-his-own-people-of 



Raje-Bikarmajetun u 

King-Vikramaditya's 

rajes khabar, " patashah 

to-the-king news, " a-king 

Raje chukh 

The-king is-to-them 





the-house (i.e. wife) 


>» 




dap an, 

saying, 


"sa 

" she 


cheh 

is 


phakira-sunz ti . 

a-faqir-of. 


Patashaha-siinz 11 

A-king-of 


chena." 

she-is-not." 


Patashah 

The-king 


chus 

is-to-him 


dapan, 

saying, 


"boy 

" I-verily 


gos suh 

am that 


phakir. 

faqir. 


Me-irishe 
Me-near 


chuh 

is 


cyon u 

thy 


nishana, 

token, 


fee-nishe 

thee-near 


chuh 

is 



-14] X. THE TALE OF RAJA VIKRAMADITYA 225 



myon u 

my 



nishana." 

token." 



" tami-dohuc ti 

" of-that-day 

patashbhi 

royalty 

patashah, 
the-king, 



phakiri 

faqlrhood 

kyah 

why 



Dapan 

Saying 

kyah 

why 



gaye?" 



me 



by-me 



became ? 

asa 
were 



chus 

is-to-him 

gaye? 

was ? 

Dapan 

Saying 

hefeamatsa 
taken 



panls mol 1 . 

five at-a-price. 



Tamiy 

Therefore 

kur ti 

was-done 



osum 

was-by- 
me 

kbm ti . 

a-deed. 



Timay osus 

Them-verily I-was 

16g u mot u 

taken-the- 
semblance-of 

Dianas 

Were-given-by- 



sara 

tested 



phakir." 

a-faqir." 



raje, 

the-king, 

azic u 

of-today 

chus 

is-to-him 

katha 

statements 

karan. 

making. 

Rajen 

By-the-king 



sbty panan 1 

in-company his-own 



him-to-him 



bbfe*. 

people-of-the- 
house (i.e. wife). 



Drav, 

He-went- 
forth, 



wot u pananis-sheharas- 

he-arrived his-own-city- 



manz. 

in. 



Chuh 

He-is 



karan 

doing 



rajy. 

ruling. 



Wa-salam, 

And-the-peace, 



wa-yikram. 

and-respect. 



226 HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES [1- 

XI.— PHORSAT SOHIBUN u SHAR YELI 

XI.— FORSYTH SAHIB-OF POEM WHEN 

YARKAND ZENANI GAV 
YARKAND TO-CONQUER HE-WENT 

Yiy me dyuth u may, ti gafehta 

What- by-me was-seen-by-me-verily, that- please-go- 
verily verily thou 

bozan. 

hearing. 

Yarkand anon zenan. 1 

Yarkand we-shall-bring-it conquering. 1 

Godaii dop u Ma^kani, "kus kari 

First was-said by-the-Queen, "who will-do 

yuhay kar ? 

this -very work ? 

Phorsat chuh zorawar. 

Forsyth is powerful. 

Raje, ben Yarkand, baj gafeh 

O-king, sit-thou (in) Yarkand, tribute go 

taran. 

taking. 

Yarkand anon zenan." 2 

Yarkand we-shall-bring-it conquering." 2 

Landana-petha Yarkand yimav kor u 

London-from (up to) Yarkand by-whom was-done 

tay. 

authority. 



-5] 



XL THE SONG OF FORSYTH SAHIB 



227 



Mashhur, 

Celebrated, 



ha, 

Ha, 



Godan Sonamargi 

First at-Sonamarg 



fedpor u 

on-all-sides 

chawan 

(they-were) 
enjoying 



gay. 

they -became. 

poshe-mbdan. 

(the-odours-of) the- 

flower-meadows. 



Yarkand anon zenan. 

Yarkand we-shall-bring-it conquering. 

Hukm-i-Mahraj Botanis brbh 

The-order-of-the-Maharaja to-Tibet in-advance 

M Balti, tnm age jav. 

" O-Baltis, you ahead go-ye. 

Piche jawo Kashmir nale 

Afterwards go-ye to-Kashmlr with 



3 

3 

drav, 

issued, 



Yarkand 

Yarkand 



anon 

we-shall-bring-it 



Rasad say tedpor u 

Assembling that- on-all- 
very sides 



zenan. 

conquering. 

kur%ay 

was-made-by- 
them-for-you 



calan." 1 

a-certificate- 
of-dispatch." 

4 

4 

taraphan. 

in-(all) 
directions. 



Goda 

At-first 

Tim 

They 



log u 

was -reached 



Maraz-i-Pargan. 

Maraz-of-the-Pargana. 



wadan 

lamenting 



OSi, 
were, 



Yarkand 

Yarkand 

Timan 

In-those 



anon 

we-shall-bring-it 

Bota-garan 

Tibetan-houses 



" kot u lag 1 

' where (are we) 
arrived 

zenan. 

conquering. 

Kbshir 1 

Kashmiris (were) 



gbr-zan?" 

ignorant- 
ones ? " 

5 

5 

thbVk 1 , 

stationed, 



1 This speech of the Maharaja of Kashmir is meant to be in Hindi. 

Q 



228 



HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 



[6- 



Bota-bby* bruh 

The -Tibetan -brothers in- advance (were) 



Gur 1 

Horses 



bity 

were-stationed 



dakas, 
for-the-post, 



nybVk*. 

dispatched. 

zomba chih 

yaks are 



gasa 

grass 

Yarkand 

Yarkand 



saran. 
conveying-and-piling. 



anon 

we-shall-bring-it 



Baraye kombakas 

In-the-way-of for-reinforcement 

somb a ran, 

collecting, 



zenan. 

conquering. 

zananan 

women 



6 

6 

chih 

they-are 



Zyun u 

Firewood 

Aje 

Half (i.e. 
some) 

Yarkand 

Yarkand 

Gur 1 

Horses 



ta 

and 



gasa 

grass 



wartawan. 

distributing. 



asa pyawal, keh asa 

were fresh-from- some were 
childbed, 



anon 

we-shall-bring-it 



zenan. 

conquering. 



dujan. 

pregnant. 

7 

7 



manganbVhay 

were-demanded-by-them 



"Chuh" 

" Tchk " (is) 

"Bar 1 bar*" 

"Ha^har 1 " 



karun u 

to-be-made 
(by-those) 



yim 

who 



kokar-gaman, 

(in) -fowl-villages, 

na zanan. 

not know (how to 
make the sound). 



karan 

making 



OS 1 



they -were 



timan 

them 



pakanawan. 

causing-to-go. 



■9] 



XL THE SONG OF FORSYTH SAHIB 



229 



Yarkand 

Yarkand 



anon 

we-shall-bring-it 



Kala kan* 

Head in-the-direction 

kan 1 lakam, 

in-the-direction bridle, 



zenan. 

conquering 

ddmbij* 

crupper 



ches, 

is-to-it, 



8 

8 

lati 

tail 



Gasa-raz 

A-grass-rope 

(was) 



kannekh 

the-rear-binding- 



mahkam. 
strong. 



Gasa-gand 1 

G rass-packsaddles 2 

saman. 

appliance. 



rope 

ta 

and 



zace-zm 

rag-saddles 



piirith 

having- 
saddled 



soruy 

entire 



Yarkand 

Yarkand 



anon 

we-shall-bring-it 



Rasad karthan 

Proportionate- having- 

division made 



zenan. 

conquering. 

an^hay 

were-brought- 
by-them 



9 

9 

nan-gar, 

menial- 
cultivators, 



Mati 

On-the- 
shoulder 

Geje 

Bundles-of- 
grass 



chikh 

are-to- 
them 

karekh 

were-made- 
by-them 



panan^panan 1 

each-his-own 



kralan 

for-the- 
potters 



kar. 

works. 

godan leje 

at-first cooking- 
pots 



saran. 

conveying-and-piling. 

1 Karhlekh is the term used for the two ropes attached at the hack of a 
Kashmiri saddle, to secure blankets, etc. (Stein). 

2 gamp is the term used for the Turkestan packsaddle, which consists of 
two straw-filled pommels joined in front (Stein). 



230 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



[10- 



Yarkand 

Yarkand 



anon 

we-shall-bring-it 



zenan. 

conquering. 



10 

10 



Kraji 

By-the-potter's- 
wife 

kralau, 

potter-O, 

Katho-kit* 

What-for (pots) 



Kbm*, 

The-business, 

gafehu 

go 



dop u 

it-was- 
said 



khawandas, 
to-the-husband, 



1 ' nadana 

' foolish 



kondi 

into-the- 
potter's-oven 



walav ? 

shall-we-bring- 
down? 



hav, 
0, 



cheh pakawUii* 



IS 



one-that- 
marches, 



trawan." 

leaving-behind." 



bm 1 

uncooked 
(things) 



Yarkand 

Yarkand 



anon 

we-shall-bring-it 



zenan. 

conquering. 



11 

11 



Gur 1 

By-the- 
cowherd 



dop u 

it-was-said 



nerav, 

let-us-go-forth, 



Gov^-kite 11 

Cow-for 

Wodi 

The-head 



jay 

a-place 



gur^baye, 

to-the-cowherd's- 
wife, 



sherav. 

we- will-arrange. 



" donaway 

" both 



peth 

on 



gatehan 
will-go 



heh 

carry 

laran." 

running." 



gasa-low u , 

a-grass-handful, 



gov u 

the-cows 



-14] 



XL THE SONG OF FORSYTH SAHIB 



231 



Yarkand anon zenan. 12 

Yarkand we-shall-bring-it conquering. 12 

Khdni keth ddda-not u ware heth 

The-haunch on a-milk-pail earthen-pots taking 

drav. 

he-went-forth. 

chnh sapharun u tav. 

is of -the- journey exhaustion. 



bari 

in-a-load 

Lokan 

To-the-people 

Tahkhith 

Of-a-certainty 

Yarkand 

Yarkand 



doda-gur u Jenatuk u 

the-milk-herd of-Paradise 



bagwan. 

[is) the-garden- 
watcher. 



anon 

we-shall-bring-it 



zenan. 

conquering. 



Watal 1 

By-the- 
Mihtar 

zah. 

ever. 

Chim 

They-are- 
from-me 

Tsorafeh 

Leather-cutter 

hay, 

0, 

Yarkand 

Yarkand 

11 Phlrith 

" In-answer 



dop u wat a je, u b6-nay 

it-was- to-the-Mihtar's- " I-not 
said wife, 



mangan 

asking 

ta 

and 



dalomuy 

leather-only 



ta 

and 



or u 

awl 



heth, 

having-taken, 



13 

18 

sara 

shall- 
remember 



kah. 

cobbler's- 
lace. 

me-ti, 

me-also, 



pakanawan.^ 

(they are) causing- to-go." 



anon 

we-shall-bring-it 

dap^ihekh, 

you-should-have- 
said-to them, 



zenan. 

conquering. 



14 

14 



watal-ganau, 

Mihtar-pimp-O, 



23.2 



HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 



[15- 



Dap^zihekh, 

You-should-have- 
said-to-them, 

" Dapyamakh, 

" It-was-said (long ago) 
by-me-to-them, 

chim 

they-are-to-me 

Yarkand 

Yarkand 

Shumar 

Counting 

Mang 

A -request 



as 1 

' we 



nau 

not 



wat^j 1 , 

O-Mihtar's- 
wife, 

bozan." 

listening." 



zanav. 

know (how-to- 
use-them.' ") 

kih 

any-thing 



zenan. 

conquering. 

tbyiphdaran. 

of-the-artisans. 



anon 

we-shall-bring-it 

buz ti , hay, 

was-heard, 0, 

lirp ahan-garan. 

was-made for-iron-workers. 

Wocji peth yiran heth 

The-head on the-anvil having-taken 

dakhanawan. 

leaning-upon. 

Yarkand anon zenan. 

Yarkand we-shall-bring-it conquering. 

dit 1 barav, " yengar 

were- grumblings, " charcoals 
given 

feharav ? 

shall- we-search-for ? 

Wan kati jan 

A-shop where good 

(i.e. smithy) 

Hal 

Arrangement 



nay 

not 



15 

15 



Kharav 

By-the- 

blacksmiths 



shranz 

the -tongs 



16 

16 

kati 

from- 
where 



sherav ? " 

shall-we-arrange ? 



kyah 

somehow- 
or-other 

garanawan. 

getting-made. 



kor u hakh, 

was-made-by- 
them-for-them. 



nal 

horse-shoes 



-18] 



XL THE SONG OF FORSYTH SAHIB 



233 



Yarkand anon zenan. 

Yarkand we-shall-bring-it conquering. 



17 

17 



Khosh kyah gosay, amob u gav 

Pleased certainly I-became-verily, very it-became 



jan. 

good. 










Pata 

Afterwards 


nyukh 

w r as-taken- 
by-them 


nbyid 

barber 


ta 

and 


chan. 

carpenter. 


Bata-duj u 

Food- kerchief 


athi 

in-the- 
hand 


heth 

taking 
(others) 


pata 

after 


chikh 

are-to-them 


laran. 




- 






running. 










Yarkand 

Yarkand 


anon^ zenan. 

sve-shall-bring-it conquering. 


18 

18 


Maslahath 
Consultation 


karan 

making 


tima 

they (fern.) 


asa 

were 


panawbn. 

amongst- 
themselves. 



" Kusuy kari nayez u ta chbn tt ? 

" Who will-do (i.e. the-barber's- and the-carpenter's- 
support) wife wife ? 



Katawaii 

The-wages- 
of-spinning 



karith, 

having-done, 



hay, 

0, 



karav 

we-shall-make 



guzaran. 

a-livelihood." 



234 HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 

Yarkand anon zenan. 

Yarkand we-shall-bring-it conquering. 



Sbbir 

O-Sabir 

Yamath 

As-long-as 

Tan 

At -length 

Yarkand 

Yarkand 



Tilawani, 

Oilseller, 

khabar 

the-news 



tamath 

so-long 



yutuy 

this-much 



bozan. 

they-will-hear. 



[19- 

19 

19 

wan, 

say, 



av Sbhib ba-soruy-saman. 

came the-Sahib with-all-pomp. 



anon 

we-will-bring-it 



zenan. 

conquering. 



20 

20 






1] 



XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 



285 



XII.-OKHUNA-StJNZ* DALIL. 

XII.— RELIGIOUS-TEACHER-OP THE-STORY. 



1. Okhuna akh 

1. Religious-teacher- one 
a-certain 



OS u " 



was. 



Tamis^y bs 1 

To-him- were 
verily 



neciv 

sons 



feor. 

four. 



budyos, 

am-grown-old, 



tdh 1 

ye 



Ak* 

By-one 

Biyi 

By-the- 
second 

Biy 1 

By-another 



Lok^-hih 1 

By-the-youngest 



dopus, 

it-was-said- 
to-him, 



Timan^y 

To-them- 
verily 

waniv 

say-ye 

"boh 
"I 



pryutshun, 

it-was-asked- 
by-him, 



kyah 

what 



"boh 
"I 

kariv." 

ye- will-do." 



kara 

will-do 



dopus, 

it-was-said- 
to-him, 

dopus, 

it-was-said- 
to-him, 

feurim 1 

by-the- 
fourth 



"boh 

"I 

"boh 

"I 



para 

will -recite 



yimamath." 

leading-prayers- 
in-a-mosque." 

big." 

the-call- 
to-prayers." 



para 

will-recite 



waz. 

sermons.' 



dopus, 

it-was-said- 
to-him, 



"boh 

"I 



tsurV 

thieving." 

patashehas 

to-the-king 



Doha 

Day-a-certain 



akh 

one 



banyav, 

happened, 



kara 

will-do 



gav 

he-went 



feuri. W6t u 

for- He- 

thieving, arrived 



gara, 

house, 



rud u 

(while) he- 
remained 



wddahe, 

standing, 



yeli patasheha-sond u 

when the-king's 

tan neran tora 

in-the- (was)-coming- from- 
meantime forth there 



236 



HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 



[1- 



wazir 

the-vizier 

wuchukh 

was-seen- 
by-them 

kam 

who 

kus 
who 

feur." 

a-thief." 

tmr." 

thieves." 

sawar 

mounted 



biye 

and -also 

ati 

there 

chiwa ? M 

are?" 

chukh?" 

art?" 

Yimau 

By-them 

Kadikh 

Were-brought- 
out- by-them 



patasheha-siinz^ kur ti . 

the-king's daughter. 



wodane. 

standing. 

Yimau 

By-them 



Dop u nakh, 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-them f 

dop u has, 

it-was-said-by- 
them-to-him, 



Yih 

He 

tohi 

you 



Dop u nakh, 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-them, 

dop u has, 

it-was-said-by- 
them-to-him, 

gur 1 

horses 



"boh 

<< X 



" as^ti 

"we -also 



"1s a h 

11 thou 

chus 

am 
chih 

are 



akh 

one 



yih 

this 



okhun, 

reli'gious- 
teacher, 



z a h. Sapod u 

two. He-became 

biye yih 

and-the- this 

other 



patashah-kur ti . 

king's-daughter. 



Dop u nas 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-him 



tdh 1 . 

ye. 

kath, 

word, 

kuni 

in-any- 
respect 

pat a, 

after, 



Nasiyeth, 

Instruction, 

yina-sa 

that-not-Sir 

karakh. 

thou-wilt- 
make. 



hasa, 
Sir, 



waziran, 

by-the-vizier, 

karay 

I-will-make-to-thee 



" mriv 

" go-forth 

akh 

one 



patashah-kore sbty kath 

the-king's-daughter with conversation 



Boh, 
I. 



hasa, 

Sir, 



yimawa 

will-come- 
to-you 



ta 

and 



toh 1 

ye 



nirrvv 

go-ye-forth." 



-2] 



XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 



237 



pakan. 

going-along. 

"yih 

" this 



2. Yim chih 

2. They are 

chena khabar, 

is-not belief, 

okhun-zada." Tas cheh 

the-teacher's-son." To-her is 

chuh wazir." Gwash 

is the-vizier." Dawn 

Wath 1 guryau petha bon. 

They- the-horses from down, 

descended 

patashah-kur ti koli akis 

king's-daughter to-a-stream one 



Patashah-kore 

To-the-king's-daughter 

chuna me sbty 

is-not me with 



khabar, 

belief, 



log" 

began 



"yih 

" this 

pholani. 

to-break. 



Gaye 

She-went 



yih 

this 



buth u 

face 

lal. 

a-ruby. 



cholun. 

was-washed- 
by-her. 



Wuchun 

Was-seen- 
by-her 



peth, atha 

on, hands 

ath-koli-manz 

that-stream-in 



Yih 

This 



lal 



tulun, aye 

ruby was-taken- she- 
up-by-her, came 



heth 

taking (it) 



amis 

that 



okhun-zadas 

teacher's-son 

chuh 

is 



"yih 
" this 



nish. Tas cheh khabar, 

near. To-her is belief, 

wazir. ,> Wazir keh 6s u na. 

the-vizier." The-vizier anyone he-was-not. 

Yut u gwash chuh pholan, tyut u chuh 

As-soon-as dawn is breaking, so-soon is 

yih lal gah trawan. Parzanow u ami 

this ruby light giving-forth. He-was-recognized by-that 

patashah-kori wazir na. Lal tulukh 

king's-daughter the-vizier not. The-ruby was-carried- 

by-them 



238 HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 

wot 1 



[8- 



sbty, 

with they- 

(them), arrived 



sheharas 

to-city 



wuch ti kh pari-hana. 

was-seen-by-them a-small-hut. 



akis 

to-one 

Ath 1 

It-verily 



manz. Ati 

in. There 



manz bith*. 

in they-sat. 



3. Yih 

3. He 



chuh 

is 



yiwan amis atikis 

coming to-that of-that-place 



patashehas nish 

king near 



ami 

of-that 



sheharakis. 

city. 



Dapan 

Saying 



chus, 

he-is-to-him, 

dapan, 

saying, 

chus, 

he-is-to-him, 

khazmath." 

service." 



"boh 
"I 

" kyah 

* what 



beha nokar. ,> 

will-sit (as) servant." 



Yih chus 

He is-to-him 



nokari 

service 



karakh?" 

wilt-thou-do ? " 



Dapan 

Saying 



"boh 
"I 

Yim 

They 



karan. 

making. 

amis 

to-this 

z a h. 

two. 

dapan, 

saying, 

bekh 

the-other 



Shekhfeah 

Person -a-certain 

patashehas 

king 



Yih 

This 



woth u 

arose 



kara 

will-do 

chih 

are 

akh 

one 

k a nani. 

to-sell. 

sbyisth. 

groom. 



guren-hiinz* 

horses-of 



yimay 

these-verily 



katha 

words 



av lal-pharosh 

came ruby-seller 



Lai 

Rubies 

Yih 

He 



chis 

are-to-him 

chus 

is-to-him 



" patasheham, 

" my-king, 



chuh 

is 



akh lal bebaha, 

one ruby (is) priceless^ 

khot u . Ath manz chuh 

flawed. To-it in is 



-4] 



XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 



239 



kyomV 

a- worm." 



Dapan 

Saying 



chus 

is-to-him 



patashah, 

the-king, 



ketha-pbth 1 6y fee bozana ? " 

in-what-manner came-to-thee to-thee into- 

(forming passive) knowledge ? " 



"tih 
M that 

Dapan 

Saying 



chus 

he-is-to-him 

tahkhith 

certainly 

Hargah 

If 

patashehas 

to- the-king 

karun u . 

to-be-done. 

gafehem 

is-proper-to-me 



yih 

he 



phirith, 

in-reply, 



chus manz kyom u , 

there-is-to-it inside a-worm. 



" patasheham, 

" my-king, 

Phut a ryun. 

Break-ye-it. 



kyom u 

a-worm 

khosh 

pleased 

Hargah 

If 



dras-na, 

issued-from-it-not, 

kari, 

will-make, 
kyom u 

a-worm 



ada 

then 



tih 

that 



yih 

what 

gafehem 

it-is-proper- 
to-me 



dras, teli 

issued-from-it, then 



bakh a cbyish 

a-present 



din ti ." 

to-be-given.' 



4. Dapan wustad, — 

4. (Is) saying the- teacher, — 



Phut°rukh 

Was-broken-by-them 



kyom u , 

a-worm. 



Ami 

At-that 



yih 

this 

sata 

time 



lal. Ami 

ruby. From-it 

fehun u has 

was -cast- by - 



manza 

from-in 



drav 

issued 



" sbyisth "-nav 

" groom "-name 



nahith, 
having-cancelled, 



Gav 

Went 



yih 

this 



them-to-him 

< 4al-shenakh ,, 

11 lapidary " 

lal-shenakh 
lapidary 



pyos nav. 

fell-to-him name. 



panun u 

his-own 



gara. 

house. 



240 



HATIMS SONGS AND STOBIES 



[4- 



Doha 

Day-a 

behan 

sitting-down 

yiwan 

coming 



doha 
day-a 



chuh 

he-is 



chuh 

he-is 

panani 

in-his-own 



chuh 

he-is 



lal pasand 

rubies approved 



kadan. 
passing. 

gari, 

house, 

karani. 

for-making. 



patasheha-sond u 

king-of 

kasani amis 

for-shaving to-this 

wuchan *" ml 



noyid gafehan chuh 

barber going is 

lal-shenakas. Tati 

lapidary. There 



Eatas 

By-night 

dohas 

by-day 

Amis 

This 

mast 

hair 

chuh 

he-is 



seeing 

khobsurath 

beautiful 

waziras 

of-the- vizier 



anv-sunz" 

him-of 

sethah. 

very. 

mast 

the-hair 



yih 

this 



zanana. 
woman. 



Yih 

She 



ds u 

was 



ay 





wazira, 

vizier, 



lal-shenakas. Yih 

lapidary. She 



Av 

Came 

kos u nas. 

was-shaved-by- 
him-6f-him. 

zanana 

woman -a 

shubiheh 

would-have- 
been-becoming 



yih 

this 



noyid, 

barber, 

Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-him, 



cheh 

is 



amis 

to-this 



gari. Amis karta kentshah 

in-the-house. To-him please-make some 



wazira-sandi 

of-the-vizier 

ndktah." 

fault-a." 



Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-him, 



*'ada-kyah. ! 

" certainly." 



Yih 

This 



wazir 

vizier 



gav 

went 



amis patasheha-sanze kore, dop u nas, " fe a h 

to-that king-of daughter, it-was-said-by- " thou 

him-to-her, 



-4] 



XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 



241 



daph 

say 



patashehas, 

to-the-king, 



'me 

to-me 



gafehi 
is-necessary 



lal-shenakan g6daniy lal pasand 

by-the-lapidary at-the-very-first ruby approved 



yus 

what 

kor u , 

was-made, 



tath 1 

that-verily 

Dop u 

Was-said 

mblis, 

father, 



hyuh u 

like 



byakh 

another 



patasheha-sanzi 

by-the-king's 



lal 

ruby 

kori 

daughter 



asun 



u » >> 



u me gatehi lalas-hyuh u 

1 to-me is-necessary the-ruby-like 



lal 

ruby 



asunV 

to-be." 



Av 

Came 



lal-shenakh. 
the-lapidary. 



to-be.' " 

pananis 

to-her-own 

bebaha 

a-priceless 

Dop u nas 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-him 



patashehan, 

by-the-king, 



"dis lal anith, tath 

give-to-her a-ruby having-brought, to-that 



lalas hyuh u . ,, Av ora lal-shenakh, wot u 

ruby like." Came thence the-lapidary, he-arrived 



panane 


zanani nish. 


Byuth u 


fehdpa 


to-his-own 


woman near. 


He-sat 


silence 


karith. 


Yih ches dapan 


z an ana, 


"fe a h 


making. 


This is-to-him saying 


woman, 


11 thou 



kyazi chukh phikiri 

why art in-anxiety 



gomot u ? " Dop u nas 

become ? " It-was-said-by- 
him-to-her 



phirith 

in -answer 



am 1 



lal-shenakan, 

lapidary, 



by-this 

chum lal mangan bebaha. 

is-from-me a-ruby demanding priceless. 



"patashah 

M the-king 

Suh kati 

That from-where 



U42 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



[5- 



ana?" 

shall-I-bring ? 



Dop u nas 

It-was-said-by- 



ami 

by-that 



zanani, 
woman, 



"gateh, 

go, 



her-to-him 



daph 

say 

khar a j, 

expenses, 

Patashehan 

By-the-king 



patashehas, 

to-the-king, 



' retas 

for-a-month 



boh 

I 



dimay 

will-give-to-thee 



kyut u dim 

for give-to-me 

lal anith.' " 

a-ruby having-brought.' " 



dyutus 

was-given- 
to-him 



Yih onun panun u 

This was-brought- his-own 
*by-him 

khewan. Nu 

eating. Not-at-all 

nu chuh 

not-at-all he-is 



khar a j 

expenses 



gara. 

house. 



retas 

for-a- 
month 

Chuh 

He-is 



sumb u . 

adequate. 

bihith 

seated 



gav 

went 

lal, 

ruby, 

Gav 

He-went 



ada. 

completion. 
yus tami 

which from- 

that 



chuh 

he-is 

gafehan 

going 

Diwan 

Giving 

koli 

stream 



gafehan patashehas, 

going to-the-king, 

biye-kun. Reth 

other-where. The-month 



ches 

is-to-him 

manza 

from-in 



yih 



suh 

that 



tujyan. 

was -taken -up- 
by-her. 



heth 

taking (it) 



patashehas, 

to-the-king, 



lal 

the-ruby 

5. 

5. Went-forth 



kur ti nas 

was-made-by- 
him-to-him 

bontha-kani. 

in-front. 



salam, 

a-bow, 



panun u 

his-own 



thow u nas 

was-placed-by-him-of-him 

Drav phirith lal-shenakh, wot u 

back-again the-lapidary, he-arrived 

Rathah kiid ti n panani 

Night-a was-passed-by-him in-his-own 



gara. 

house. 



-5] 



XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 



243 



gari. 

house. 

amis 

of-that 



Sub a has 

In-the-morning 

lal-shenakas 

lapidary. 



av nbyid 

came the-barber 



mast 

hair 



kasani 

to-shave 



Mast 

Hair 



m6kalow u nas 

was-completed-by- 
him-for-him 



kbsith, ta 

having-shaved, and 

W6t u biye 

He-arrived again 



waziras, 

to-the- vizier, 



drav noyid ' panas. 

went-forth the-barber of-his-own-accord. 

amis waziras-nish. Dopun 

to-that vizier-near. It-was-said- 

by-him 

" kenfehah karta amis 

1 something please-to-do to-that 



lal-shenakas. Amis 

lapidary. 

sethah. 

very. 



Soh 

She 



gari." 

in-the-house. 



cheh zanana khobsurath 

To-him is the-woman beautiful 

shubiheh wazira-sandi 

would-have-been-becoming of-the-vizier 

Wazir av biye amis 

The-vizier came again to-that 



patasheha-sanze kore. 

king's daughter. 



Dop u nas, 

It-Avas-said-by- 
him-to-her, 



mang 

demand 

Dop u 

It-was-said 

pananis 

to-her-own 



patashehas 
to-the-king 

ami 

by-that 

mblis, 

father, 



lalan-hond u 

rubies-of 

patasheha-sanzi 

king's 



* me 

to-me 



lalan-hond u 

rubies-of 



trot u . ,, 

a-necklace. 



gafehiy 

is-necessary- 
from-thee 

Lal-shenakh 

The-lapidary 



' thou 

trot u ." 

necklace." 

kori 

daughter 

asun u 

to-be 



av 

came 



244 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



[o- 



patashehas 

to-the-king 



nish. 

near. 



chus 

is-to-him 

asan* 



dapan, 

saying, 

setliah 
many 



Kur ti nas 

Was-made- 
by-him 

"lal, 

' rubies, 



salam. 

a-bow. 

hasa, 

sir, 



to-be 

lal-shenakh, wot u 

the-lapidary, he-arrived- 

ches dapan 



tratis 

for-a-necklace 



sumb 1 ." 

adequate." 



panun u 

his-own 



gara. 

house. 



Patasheh 

The-king 

gafehanay 

are-required- 
from-thee 

Av 

Came 

Yih 

She 



is-to-him 
chukh 

art-thou 

phirith, 

in-reply, 

lalan-hond u 

rubies-of 

b6h? ,> 

I? " 



saying 

bihith ? w 

seated ? " 

(< patasheh 
11 the-king 

trot u . 

a-necklace. 

Dop u nas 

It-was-said-by- 
her-to-him 



zanana 

woman 



Yuh 

He 



lotf-pbth 1 , 

gently, 

chus 

is-to-her 



"kyazi 
" why 

dapan 

saying 



chum mangan az 

is-from-me demanding today 

Suh kati ana 

That whence will-I-bring 



ami 

by-that 



zanani, 
woman, 



chena phikir 11 . Gafeh, patashehas 

is-not anxiety. Go, of (i.e. from)- 

the-king 

hyon u tren retan-kyut u 

to-take for-three months-for 



Dyut u nas 

Was-given-by- 
him-to-him 

panun u 

his-own 



patashehan 

by-the-king 



khar a j, 

expenses, 



ta 

and 



^keh 

any 

gafehi 

it-is- 
necessary 

khar a j." 

expenses." 

av 

he-came 



gara heth. 

house taking (the money). 



-6] 



XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 



245 



6. Yih 

6. He 

YotMan 

As-soon-as 



chuh 

is 



yim 

these 



trih 

three 



khewan 

eating 

reth 

months 



ta 

and 

gay, 

went, 



ches dapan yih zanana 

she-is-to-him saying this woman 

lal-shenakas. Dapan ches, 

lapidary. Saying she-is-to-him, 

tami koli manza lal tujyav, 

from-that stream from-in the-ruby was-taken 



" yetat 1 

1 where 



cewan. 

drinking. 

wun 

now 

amis 

to- that 

me 

by-me 



up, 



tamiy 

along-that- 
very 



koli koli gafehi khasun u 

along- along- it-is-necessary to-ascend 

stream stream 

Tati chey nag. Tath 1 

There is-verily a-spring. To-that-verily 



andas-kun 

the-end-at 

dobas-manz 

pit-in 

nagas-peth 

spring-on 



dob 

a-pit 



khanun u . 

to-be-dug. 



hyor u -pahan. 

up-stream-a-little. 

nagas gafehi 

spring is-necessary 

Tath 1 

To-that-very 



beh^i khatith. Tath 

you-must-sit having-concealed- To-that 

yourself. 



ymay 

will-come- 
before-thee 



godaiiiy 

at- the- very - 
first 



sheh 

six 



zane 

females 



sran karani. Timan kSh kar^i-na. 

bathing to-do. To-them anything you-must-do-not. 

Pata yiyiy timan shen zanen 

Afterwards will-come- of-those six females 

before-thee 



246 



HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 



[7- 



zeth ti . 

the-eldest- 
sister. 

karani. 

to-do. 

peth. 

on. 

feuri-pbth 1 , 

thieving-like 
(i.e. secretly), 

7. Aye 

7. Came 



Sa 

She 



wasiy 

will-descend- 
before-thee 



tath 

to-that 



nagas 

spring 



Poshakh 

Garment 

Cyon u 

For-thee 

gatshi 

is-necessary 

shell 

six 



traviy kadith 

she-will-leave- having- 
before-thee taken-off 

gafehi 

it-is-necessary 



tih 

that 



zane. 

females. 



poshakh 

garment 

Kor u 

Was-done 



sran. 

bathing. 

pata 

after 



Timan keh wonun-na. 

T-o-them anything was-said-by-him-not. 



sran 

bathing 

bathis 

to-the-bank 

gafehun u 

to-be-gone 

tulun u ." 

to-be-taken- 
up." 

timau 

by -them 

Yiman 

To-them 



poshakh 

the-garment 

wtifeh* 

descended 

feuri-pbth 1 . 

secretly. 

am^sond 11 

her-of 



aye satim* 

came a-seventh 

kadith 

having-taken-off 



female, 



trow u 

was-left 



bathis-peth, 

the-bank-on, 



ami 

by -her 

pana 

she-herself 



nagas-manz. 

the-spring-in. 

Av 

He-came 

poshakh, 

the-garment, 



ta 

and 



Yih lal-shenakh av 

This lapidary came 

tulun yih 

was-taken-up-by-him this 



gav 

he-went 



ta 

and 



ath dobas-manz, 

to-that pit-in. 

Khiife* bathis 

She-ascended to-the-bank 



Ami 

By-her 

peth. 

on. 



kor u 

was-done 

Wuchun 

Was-seen-by-her 



byuth u 

sat 

sran. 

bathing. 

ati 

there 



-7] 



XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 



247 



poshakh. 

the-garment. 

" dev 

1 demon 



na 

not 

cheh, 

she-is, 

tas 

of-that 

pbda 

created 

siras 

of-my-secret disgracing. 



Dife ti n krekh. 

Was-given-by-her a-cry. 

chukha ? yinsan 

art-thou ? human-being 

kasam 



Khodaye-sond u chuy 

God-of is-to-thee 



korukh. 

thou-was-made. 

phash. 



Yih 

What 



Me 

For-me 

fee 

to-thee 



an-oath 

ma 

do-not 



Dap an 

Saying 

chukha ? 

art-thou ? 

yem 1 

by -whom 

kar 

make 



gafehiy, 

is-necessary- 
to-thee, 



tih 

that 



dimay." Am 1 

I-will-give-to-thee." By-him 



ami 

from-that 



doba-manza. 

pit-from-in. 



Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-her, 



korus alav 

was-made-to-her a-call 

14 dim wada-y-Khoda, 

give-to-me the-promise-of-God, 



yih 

what 



boh 

I 



mangay, tih gafehem bozun u . ,, 

shall-demand- that will-be-certainly- to-be- 
of-thee, for-me heard." 



Ath 1 

That-verily 

Dyut u nas 

Was-given-by- 
him-to-her 



peth 

upon 



dyut u nas 

was-given-by- 
her-to-him 



wada-y-Khoda. 

the-promise-of-God. 



poshakh. 

the-garment. 



ami nbl 1 . Dop u nas, 

by-her on-the-neck. It-was-said-by- 

her-to-him, 



Poshakh 

The-garment 

"kyah 

" what 



fehon u 

was-put-on 

chum 

is-to-me 



hukum ? " 

the-order ? " 



Dop u nas 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-her 



am 



by-that 



lal-shenakan, 

lapidary, 



248 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



[8- 



"fee 

" for-thee 

Pakan 

Going-along 



yun u 

to-come 



gafehiy 

it-is-necessary 

chuh lal-shenakh 

is the-lapidary 



pari 

fairy 



pat a 

after 



yih cheh pakan 

this is walking 

8. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 

Amis chuh nav Lalmal 

To-her is name Lalmal 

Wot 1 amis lal-shenaka-sond u 

They-arrived to-that lapidary's 

9. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 



me-sbty." 

me-with." 

bruh bruh, 

in-front in-front, 

pata. 

after. 



Pari. 

Fairy. 



gara. 

house. 



Ya 


amis 


kathan chih haran lal, 


Either 


for-her 


of-the-words are dropping rubies, 


ya 


chis 


bs^us 1 haran lal doha 


or they-are- 
to-her 


of-the- dropping rubies each- 
mouth day 


sath 


sath. 


Rath gaye ada. Subuh 


seven 


seven. 


Night went to-completion. Morning 


av. 


Lai 


sath tul 1 lal-shenakan. 


came. 


Rubies 


seven were-taken-up by-the-lapidary. 


Gav 


heth 


patashehas. Eur%as salam. 


He -went 


taking 
(them) 


to-the-king. Was-made-by- a-bow. 
him-to-him 


Lai 


sath 


thav^as bontha-kani. 


Rubies 


seven 


were-placed-by- in-front, 
him-of-him 


Patashah gav 


sethah khosh. 


The-king 


became 


very -much pleased. 


1 So GOvind Kaul. 


Stein's transcript has ashis, "for a tear." 



10] 



XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 



249 



10. Lal-shenakan 

By-the-lapidary 

W6t u panun u 

He-arrived his-own 



yih 

this 

kbsith 

having- 
shaved 

nish. 

near. 



nbyid. 

barber. 

drav, 

he-went- 
forth, 

Amis 

For-him 



Am 1 

By-him 

wot u 

arrived 



hyotus rukhsath. 

was-taken-from-him leave-to-depart. 

gara. Patay wotus 

house. Afterwards- arrived- 

verily to-him 

kosus mast. Mast 

was-shaved- the-hair. Hair 

for-him 



yih 

this 



ti 

also 



chus, 

he-is-to-him, 

gamUfe ti 

(is) become 



"ha 

"0 



kosun 

was-shaved- 
for-him 

Wazira, 

Vizier, 



nbyid 

barber 

mast. 

the-hair. 



waziras- 

the-vizier- 

Dapan 
Saying 



amis 

to-that 



lal-shenakas 

lapidary 



az 

today 



pbda 

manifest 



byakh 

another 



zanana. 

a-certain-woman . 



Sa 

She 



cheh sethah khobsurath. 

is very beautiful. 

khota sethah 

than more 

karta amis lal-shenakas. 

please-to-do to-that lapidary. 

cheh lbyik-i-wazir, 

is worthy-of-the-vizier 



godaiiice-handi 

first-one 

Kentshah 

Something 



byikh. ,, Dop u nas, 

worthy." It-was-said-by- 

him-to-him, 

wanun patasheh-k6re. ,, 

to-speak to-the-king's-daughter." 



bekh 

the-other 

"pyom, 

it-is-fallen- 
to-me, 



Gav 

Went 



Tamis 

Of-that 

khobsurath. 

beautiful. 

Akh 

One 

me 

for-me 

biye 

again 

wazir. 

vizier. 



cheh 

is 

hasa. 
sir, 

yih 

this 



250 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



[11- 



Dapan chuh amis patasheh-kore, 

Saying he-is to-that king's-daughter, 

1 me gafehi 

1 to-me is-necessary 

patasheh-kur u 

the-king's-daughter 



mang mblis, 

demand to (-your) -father, 



rat a na-korV " Gaye 

a-jewel-bracelet.' " Went 



"fe a h 
" thou 

asun 

to-be 

pananis 

to-her-own 



mblis. Dapan 

father. Saying 

asun r at a na-kor u . " 

to-be a-jewel-bracelet." 



ches, 

she-is-to-him, 

Pagah 

Next-day 



me 



Dapan chus patasheh, <4 an, 

Saying is-to-him the-king, " bring, 



gafehi 

to-me is-necessary 

av lal-shenakh. 

the-lapidary. 

sa, rat a na-kor u ." 

sir, a-jewel-bracelet." 



came 



11. Drav 

Went-forth 

gara. Dapan 

house. Saying 



lal-shenakh, 

the-lapidary, 



wot u 

he-arrived 



panun 1 

his-own 



chuh 

he-is 



"patasheh 

11 the-king 

Suh kati 

That from- 
where 



chum 

is-from-me 

ana 

shall-I- 
bring 



yiman 

to-these 

mangan 

demanding 



boh?" 

I?" 



zananan don, 

women two, 

rat a na-kor u . 

a-jewel-bracelet. 

Phlrith wofeh ti s 

In-answer arose-tp- 

him 



Lalmal 

Lalmal 



mang 

demand 



Pari. Dop u nas, 

Fairy. It-was-said-by- 
her-to-him, 

tren retan-kyut u 

for-three months-for 



" gafeh, 

go, 

khar a j." 

expenses." 



patashehas 

of (i.e. from)- 
the-king 

Dyut u nas 

Was-given-by- 
him-to-him 



patashehan. Av heth panun u gara. 

by-the-king. He-came taking (them) his-own house. 



•12] 



XII. THE TALE OF TEE AKHUN 



251 



Doha doha 

Day-a day-a 

gay ada. 

went to-completion. 



kakad. 

a-paper. 

" gafeh 

go 



Dapan 

Saying 

tath 

to-that 



chuh 

he-is 

Likhan 

Writing 

cheh 

she-is 

nagas 

spring 



kadan. 

passing. 

cheh 

is 

amis 

to-that 

peth, 

on, 



Trih 

Three 



reth 

months 



boh iin ti thas. 

I was-brought-by- 

thee-I. 



Tath^manz 

It-verily-in 



Lalmal Pari 

Lalmal Fairy 

lal-shenakas, 

lapidary, 

yemi-manza 

which-from-in 

gafehi yih 

is-necessary this 



kakad 

paper 

Tath^manz 

It-verily-on 



trawun u . 

to -be -thrown. 



Tora khasiy atha. 

Therefrom will-arise-to-thee a-hand. 



asiy 

will-be- 
for-thee 



thaph. 

seizing. 



Pana 

You-yourself 



kor u . 

a-bracelet. 



manz 

within 



Tath 1 

To-that- 
verily 



kar^i 

you-must- 
do 



was x zi-na. 

you-must-not-descend." 



12. Gav 

He-went 



heth 

taking 



ath 

to-that 

ath 

to-that 



nagas-peth. 

spring-on. 

nagas-manz, 
spring-in. 



yih 

this 



kakad. 

paper. 



Trowun yih 

Was- thrown -by-him this 



Yuthuy 

As-verily 



yih 

this 



Wot u 

He-arrived 

kakad 

paper 

kakad 

paper 



trowun, tyuthuy khot u ora atha. 

was- thro wn-by-him, so-verily there-rose from-there a-hand. 

Ath 1 athas-manz rat a na-kor u . Dife% 

To-that-very hand-on a- jewel- bracelet. Was-given-by-him 



252 



HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 



[13- 



ath 

to-it 

amis 

of-it 



thaph. 

seizing. 



Ami 

By-that 



thapi 

grasp 



sotiy 

by-means- 
of-only 



hofe u nirith. 

the-forearm coming-forth. 



Hofe u 

The-forearm 



heth 

taking 



av 

came 

ti, 

both, 



kor u 

the-bracelet 

panun u 

his-own 

Sub a hanas 

At-dawn 

salam. 
a-bow. 

Patasheh 

The-king 



heth ti, 

taking and, 

gara. 

house. 

gav 

he-went 

Kar^han 

The-bracelet 



av panas, wot u 

he-came for-himself he-arrived 

(home) (i.e. without opposition), 



gos 

became-to-him 



Rath 

The-night 

patashehas. 

to-the-king. 

thuv ti nas 

was-put-by- 
him-of-him 

sethah 

very-much 



gaye ada. 

went to-completion. 

Kur ti n 

Was-made-by-him 

bontha-kani. 

in-front. 

kliosll. 

pleased. 



13. Hyotus 

Was-taken- 
from-him 

panun u gara. 

his-own house. 

kosun mast 

was-shaved- the-hair 
by-him 

kbsith drav, 

having- he-went- 

shaved forth, 

Biye chus 

Again he-is-to-him 



rukhsath 

leave- to- 
depart 

Av 

Came 

amis 

for-this 

wot u 

he -arrived 

dapan, 

saying, 



lal-shenakan, 
by-the-lapidary, 



biye 

again 



yih 

this 



lal-shenakas 

lapidary. 



av 

he-came 



nbyid, 

barber, 

Mast 

Hair 



amis 

to-that 



waziras-nish, 

vizier-near. 



i ' Wazira, 

11 Vizier-O, 



amis 

to-that 



-14] 



XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 



253 



lal-shenakas 
lapidary 

kuni-kani. 

in-any-way. 



chukhna 

thou-art-not 



fe a h 

thou 



watan 

getting-at 

Gav 

Went 



yih 

this 

chus, 

he-is-to-her, 



wazir 

vizier 

"fe*h 

thou 



gafehiye asun u 

is-proper-for-thee to-be 



gafehi 

is-necessary 



Amis karta kenfehah." 

To-him please-to-do something." 

amis patasheh-kore. Dapan 

to-that king's-daughter. Saying 

chekh patasheh-kur*. Tse 

art the-king's-daughter. To-thee 

okuy kor u ? Patashehas 

one-only bracelet ? To-the-king 

byakh." Gaye yih 

another." Went this 



mangun u 

to-be-demanded 



patasheh-kur ti . 

king's-daughter. 



Dopun 

It-was-said-by-her 



panams 

to-her-own 



me 



gafehi 



for-me is-necessary 

biye lal-shenakh. 

the-lapidary. 



asun u 

to-be 



byakh 

another 



again 
chus 

is-to-him 

asunV 

to-be." 



Kiir ti n 

Was-made-by-him 



kor u ." 

bracelet.' 

salam. 

a-bow. 



patasheh, 

the-king, 



"byakh 

" another 



kor u 

bracelet 



mblis, 
father, 

Av 

Came 

Dapan 

Saying 

gafehiy 

is-necessary- 
for-thee 



14. 

gar a. 

house. 

"Az 

"today 



Av 

Came 

Dapan 

Saying 

chum 

is-from-me 



lal-shenakh, 

the-lapidary, 



wot u 

he-arrived 



chuh 

he-is 



yiman 

to-these 



zananan 

women 



patasheh 

the-king 



mangan 

demanding 



panun u 

his-own 

don, 

two, 

byakh 

another 



254 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



[15- 



rat a na-l 


korV 


Diwan ches 


Lalmal 


Pari 


jewel-bracelet." 


Giving is-to-him 


Lalmal 


Fairy 


panun* 

her-own 


wbj" 

ring. 


Dapan ches, 

Saying she-is-to-him, 


"gafeh 

go 


tath 

to-that 


nagas-peth. Tath 1 nagas akith-kun 

spring-on. To-that-very spring on-one-side 


chuy 

is-verily 


pal 

a-rock 


bod u . Tath 1 

great. To-it-verily 


hav 

show 


mybii 11 

my 


wbj ti . 

ring. 


Suh 

That 


pal wothiy 

rock will-rise-for-thee 


thod u . 

erect. 


Tami 

From-it 


tal 1 

below 


chey 

is-for- 
thee 


wath. Tamiy 

a-path. By-that- 
very 


wati 

path 


was ! zi 

you-must- 
descend 


bon. 

beneath. 


Tati 

There 


chey mybn ti 

is-verily my 


ves. 

crony. 


Say 

She-verily 


diyiy i 

will-give-to-thee a 


rat a na-kor u ." 

i- jewel-bracelet." 






15. 


Drav 


yih lal-shenakh. 


Wot" 




Went-forth 


this lapidary. 


He- arrived 


tath 

to-that 


jaye. 

place. 


Howun tath 

Was-shown- to-that 
by-him 


palas 

rock 


wbj tt . 

the-ring. 


Pal 


woth u 


thod*. Woth u 


tamiy 


wati 


The-rock 


arose 


erect. He-descended 


by-that-very path 


bon. 


Bon 


wuch^n 


khotuna 


akh, 


beneath. 


Beneath 


was-seen-by-him a 


-certain-lady 


one, 


kun ti y 


ziin 11 . 


Ami dop 


u nas, 


" kati 


a-single 


woman. 


By-her it-was-said-by- 
her-to-him, 


" whence 



■16] 



XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 



255 



osukh ? " Am 1 dop u nas, 

wast-thou ? " By-him it-was-said by- 

him-to-her, 



" Lalmal Pa^yi 

1 By-Lalmal Fairy 



dopuy rat a na-kor u ." 


Amis 


khotuni 


is-asked-from-thee a-jewel-bracelet." 


To-this 


lady 


pyauv yad. Tam^siinz" 


mbj ti 


bs ti sa, 


fell remembrance. Her 


mother 


was she, 


yes rat a na-karis-sbty 


hofe u 


gayav 


of-whom the-jewel-bracelet-with 


the-forearm 


went 


nirith. Tas cheh uk ti y niir 


K Tas 


going-away. Of-her is one 


•only arm 


Of-her 



chuh dod u pananis 

is pain to-her-own 



dilas. Ray kur ti 

heart. Consideration was-made 



ami 

by-that 

wati, 

will -arrive, 

6s u 

was 

shekh 

anxiety 

neth a r." 

marriage." 



khotuni, 

lady, 

nemis 

(to-)this 

sethah 

very 

dilas, 

to-the-heart, 

Wun 

Now 



"yan 

" as-soon-as 

manoshes 
man 

khobsurath. 

beautiful. 



mybn ti 

my 

kheyi." 

she- will-eat." 

Amis 

To-her 



map 

mother 

Yih 

He 



gav 

became 



"boh 

"I 



kara 

will-make 



amis-sbty 

this-one-with 



yeli maje-hond u partawa 

when the-mother-of sound-of-approach 



pyauv, ath jaye gav 



bunul u . 



Amis 



fell, 



to-that place there-became an-earthquake. To-him 



dyutun shaph. Kor u nas kani-phol u , 

was-given-by-her a-charm- Was-made-by- a-pebble, 



word. 



her-of-him 



256 
thowun 

it-was-put- 
by-her 

Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by- 
her-to-her, 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



cendas. 

in-the- 
pocket. 

" hat ay, 

" hullo, 



WWs 

Arrived- 
to-her 

koriy, 

-daughter, 



mbj* 

the-mother 



me 

to-me 



[15- 

Ot u . 

there. 

cheh 

is 



Yih 

She 



zor 

force 



yiwan mofea-boy." 

coming man-stink." 

kSh. Ami yeli 

anything. By-her when 

dop u nas, "chuh 

it-was-said-by-her- " there-is 
to-her, 

goda wada-y-Khoda ' boh 

at-first a-promise-of-God ' I 

Wada-y-Khoda 

Promise-of-God 



chesna hewan-zima 

is-to-her-not admitting 

kor u nas, 

was-made-by-her-to-her, 

manosh. Ts a h dim 

a-man. Thou give-to-me 



kyah karas-na 

verily will-do-to-him-not 



ken.' " 

anything.' 



kod u 

was-brought- 
forth 

tul u nas, 

was-raised-by-her- 
from-him, 



cenda-manza 

the-pocket-from-in 



dyut u nas. 

was-given-by-her- 
to-her. 

kani-phol u , 

the-pebble, 



Ami 

By-her 

shaph 

the-charm 



manosh yuthuy 6s u , ta 

a-man as (-before) -exactly he- was, and 



rud u , 



Dop u nas, 



tyuthuy 

so-exactly he-remained. It-was-said-by-her- 

to-her, 



"yih 

" this 



myon u 

my 

yihuy 

this-very-one 



hakh-i-Khoday. 

duty-of-God (i.e. husband as 
sacred to me as God). 



Boh 

I 



chuh 

is 

os ti san 

was-him 



fehadan. 

seeking. 



Yihuy 

He-verily 



lod u nam, 

was-sent-by-Him-to- 



me, 



■15] 



XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 



257 



majiy, 

O-mother, 
the-mother, 



Khddayen." 

by-God." 



Yih 

This 



ches 

is-to-her 



" zabar 

1 excellent 



gav. 

it-is. 



Bayen 

To-brothers 



dapan 

saying 

don lad 

two send 



kakad 

a -paper 



amis^y 

of-this-very-one 



athi." 

by-the-hand. 



Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by-her-to- 
her, 



" majiy, 

" O-mother, 

kakad 

the-paper 

athi. 

in-the-hand. 

Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by- 
her-to-him, 

Wuch u 

It-was-inspected 

am^sanzi 

by-her 



likh fe a y." Lyukh* ami, 

write thou-verily," Was-written by-her, 

dyutun amis lal-shenakas 

was-given-by-her to-that lapidary 



Ami 

By-that 



kor u nas 

was-made-by- 
her-to-him 



"yih 
" this 



ami 

by-that 

maji, 

mother, 



an 

bring 

khotuni, 

lady. 

"chiway 

<( .. 

ye-are-if 



alav 

a-call-of- 
summons 

kakad 

paper 



khotuni. 

by-the-lady. 



.i » 



yur 

even-hither." 



Ath lyukh u mot u 

(In)-to-it (was) written 

mybn* gabar, 

my sons, 



yih 

this-person 

Amis 

To-her 

pemot u 

fallen 

kakad 

paper 



gafehi 

is -necessary 



os u 

was 



ami 

at- that 



watawunuy 

immediately-on- 
arrival 

sata panun u 

time her-own 



u » 



yad suh 

(in) memory (viz.) that 
(pain) 



hafeyuk u . 

of-the-forearm. 



fehun u nas-featith ami 

was-torn-to-pieces-by-her-for-him by-that 



marun 

to-be-killed." 

dod u 

pain 

Yih 

This 

khotuni. 

lady. 



258 



HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 



16- 



Panun u 

Her-own 



lyukh u nas 

was-written-by-her- 
for-him 



kakad. 
a-paper. 



Ath manz 

To-that in 



lyukh u nas, 

was-written-by- 
her-on-it, 

gafehi 

is-necessary 



" chiway 

" ye-are-if 



myon 1 

my 



boy 1 , 

brothers, 



jel a d yun u , me kyah 

quickly the-coming, for-me verily 



tuhond u 

of-you 

chuh 

is 



yenewolV' 

a-marriage-f estival . ' ' 



16. Lyukh u nas 

Was-written-by- 
her-on-it 

nas^eth. 

instruction. 

karahakh 

thou-wilt-make- 
to-them 



kur^nas 

was-made-by- 
her-to-him 

watakh, 

thou-wilt- 
arrive, 



dizikh 

thou-must-give- 
to-them 

feamruw u 

leathern 

gatehi-na." 

is-not-proper." 



kakad. 

the-paper. 

kara. 

pease. 

Badal 
Instead 



kakadas, 
to- (on) -the-paper, 

Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by- 
her-to-him, 



zabbn ti 

by-word-of- 
mouth 



"tot u 

14 there 



yeli 

when 



salam. 

a-bow. 

Tim 

They 



Salam 

The-bow 



ananay 

will-bring- 
to- thee 



Tih 

That 



cyon u 

thy 



pblith 

having- 
fulfilled 

khen 

food 

khyon u 

eating 



kara. 

psase. 



Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by- 
her-to-him, 



dyut u nas 

were-given-by- 
her-to-him 

« yih 

" this 



sbty as a l 

with (him) real 

khezi tati. 

you-must-eat there. 



•17] 



XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 



259 



Tihond u 

Their (pease) 

panun u 

your-own 



fehan^zi 

you-must- 
let-fall 



bebi-andar ti y 

your-breast-pocket- 
within 



khezi. 

you-must- 
eat. 



Tami 

From-that 



pata 

after 



tim, ' kashena-hana 

they, ' scratching-a-little 

dyut u nas shestruw u 

was-given-by- an-of-iron 
her-to-him 



karunV" 

is-to-be-done.' " 



trbvith, 

having- 
let-go, 

dapanay 

they-will-say- 
to-thee 

Tath-kyut u 

That-for 



chih 

are (of) 



dewa-zath. 

demon-race. 



panja. 

claw. 



Timan 

To-them 



Dop u nas, " tim 

It-was-said-by- " they 
her-to-him, 

yiyi tasali 

will-come a-pleasant- 
feeling 



shestravi 

from-the-of-iron 



panja-sbtiy." 

claw-by-means-of-only." 



17. Drav ati na^yeth yad heth. 

He-went- from- the-instruction (in) memory taking, 
forth there 



W6t u 

He-arrived 

Dyut u nakh 

Was-given-by- 
him-to-them 



tot u , kiir u n 

there, was-made-by-him 

yih kakad. 

this paper. 



timan 

to-them 



khen 

food 

chuh 

he-is 



1samruw u 

leathern 

bus u , 

a-hand- 
mouthful, 



kara. 

pease. 



Amis 

To-him 



Amyuk u 

Of-it 



salam. 

a-bow. 

dyutukh 

was-given- 
by-them 

tulan 

raising 



fehanan chuh bebi-andar 

letting-it- he-is his-breast-pocket- 

fall within 

s 



260 



HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 



[18- 



trovith. 

having- 
let-go. 

khewan. 

eating. 



Panun u 

His-own 

Ami 

From-that 



chuh 

he-is 

pata 

after 



kadan 

taking- 
forth 



ti 

and 



" kashena-hana 

" scratching-a-little 

teuri-pbth 1 

secretly 



kar." 

do." 

shestruw 11 

of-iron 



dop u has 

it-was-said-by- 
them-to-him 

kod u 



chuh 

is 



yimau, 

by-them, 



Am 1 kod u yih 

By-him was-brought-forth this 



panja, 

claw, 



ami-sbty 

from-this-by- 
means-of 

jewab 

an-answer 



chena 

is-not 



diwan 

giving 

ath 

to-that 

phursath. 

leisure. 



z a la-z a la. 

a-scraping- 
a-scraping. 



Yimau 

By-them 



chukh 

he-is-to-them 

lyukhus 

was-written- 
to-it 



kakadas. 

paper. 



Lyukh u has, 

It-was-written- 
by-them-on-it, 



diwan 

giving 



nad. 

summons. 



Hazrat-i-Sulayman 

His-Highness-Solomon 

Hala ! bismilla, 

Be-quick ! in-the-name-of-God, 



ik ase 
11 to-us 

chuh 

is 

kariv 

make-ye 



yenewol u ." 

the-marriage-festival.' 



18. W6t u ot u , 

He-arrived there, 



Kakad 
The-paper 



how u nakh 

was -shown -by - 
him-to-them 



yih 

this 



porukh, 

was-read-by-them, 



korukh 

was-made-by-them 



yenewol u . Wun 

a-marriage -festival. Now 



cheh 

is 



yih 

this 



kakad. 

paper. 

amis-sbty 

him-with 

khotuna 

lady 



18] 



XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 



261 



dapan 

saying 

rozakha, 

wilt-thou- 
remain, 

Boh dies 
I am 



amis 

to-that 



kina 

or 

fee 

to-thee 



u dun^ahas-manz 

 the-world-in 



khotuni, 

lady, 



wun 

now 



map 

mother 



gafehes 

is-proper- 
from-her 

Biye 

Other 



yim 

they 



dapiy, 

will-say - 
to-thee, 



khawandas 

husband 

dun^ahas 

to-the-world 

tobiyah/' 

an-humble- 
servant." 

gatehav." 

we-shall-go.' 

yeli 

when 

kenfehah 

something 



panams, 
her-own, 



yit* 

here 



manz gafehakh ? 
in wilt-thou-go ? 

Am 1 dop u nas, 

By-him it-was-said-by- 
him-to-her, 

Dop u nas ami 

It-was-said-by- by-that 
her-to-him 



nerav 

we-shall-go-forth 

mangum/ 

ask-for-from- 
me.' 



mangun u 

to-be-demanded 



watharanuk u 

of-a-spreading-out 
(i.e. for a mat) 



ken 

anything 



mang^zes-na." 

you-must-demand- 
from-her-not." 



sakharyey, 

made-ready-to- 
set-out, 



dopukh 

it-was-said- 
to-them 



Wun 

Now 

ami 

by-that 



"mangun u 

is-to-be-demanded 



watharanuk u 

of-spreading-out 
(i.e. for a mat) 



kentshah.' 

something." 

musla. 

the-skin. 



Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-her, 



Tath 

To-it 



chuh 
is 



myon u 

my 

Cyon* 

Of-thee 

musla. 

the-skin. 

yeli 

when 



maji, 

mother, 

"dim 

M give- to- 
me 

nav 
the-name 



262 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



[19- 



1 wuteha-prang. 

' the-flying-couch.' 



Drav 

He-went- 
forth 



ati, 

from- 
there, 



gara. 

house. 



Gara 

The-house 



rat a na-kor u . Gav 

a-jewel-bracelet. Went 

lal-shenakh. 

lapidary. 

19. Nbyidan 

By-the- 
barber 



wbtith 

having- 
arrived 

heth 

taking (it) 



wot 1 

they- 
ar rived 

korun 

was-made- 
by-her 

patashehas 

to-the-king 



panun u 

their-own 

tayar 

ready 
yih 

this 



buz u , 

it-was- 
heard, 



" lal-shenakh wot u ." 

' the-lapidary (has) arrived." 



Gafehan 

going 

kasani. 
to-shave. 

khotuna. 

lady. 
phirith. 

returning. 

amis 

to-that 

lal-shenakas 

lapidary 



chus 

is-for-him 

At* 

Here-verily 

Drav 

Went-forth 

W6t u 

He-arrived 



noyid gara 

the-barber (to) the-house 



waziras, 

vizier, 

cheh 

is 



wuchan 

seeing 

ati 

from-there 

waziras-nish. 

the-vizier-near. 

"ha 

"0 



chuh 

he-is 

nbyid 

the-barber 

Dapan 

Saying 

wazira, 

Vizier-O, 



az 

to-day 



yiman don-handi-khota 

these two- than 

cheh lbyik-i-patashah, 

is worthy-of-the-king, 



treyim ti 

a-third 

khobsurath. 

beautiful. 

akh 

one 



mast 

hair 

treyim ti 

the -third 

pot u 

back-again 

chuh 

he-is 

amis 

to-that 

khotuna, 

lady, 

Sa 

She 

cheh 

is 



■19] 



XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 



263 



lbyik-i-wazir, byakh 

worthy-of-the-vizier, another 

Amis lal-shenakas 

To-that lapidary 

Dapan chus wazir, 

Saying is-to-him the-vizier, 



cheh 

is 



me 

of-me 



karta 

please-do 



lbyikh. 

worthy. 

kenfehah. M 

something." 



" az wana 

to-day I-will-speak 



bdh 

I 



patashehas. 

to-the-king. 



Suy 

That-very 



patashah 

king 



kari amis 

will-do to-him 



kentshah woridath. Suh mari, zanana 

some occurrence (i.e. device). He will-die, the- women 



treh 

three 



nimav 

we-shall-take 



as 1 ." 



we. 



patashehas, " patasheham, 

to-the-king, " my-king, 



Dop u 

It-was-said 

amis 

to-that 



waziran 

by-the- vizier 

lal-shenakas 

lapidary 



cheh 

are 



zanana 

women 



treh, 

three, 



titeha chena 

such (women) are-not 



patashbhi-manz. 

the-kingdom-in. 

lal-shenakas 

lapidary 



rathta 

please-seize 



Patasheham, 

My-king, 

kenfehah 

some 



Suh gofeh u galun u . Tima 

He was-proper to-be-destroyed. Those 

karuhukh dbkhil-i-mahala-khana. ,J 

make- thou- entered-of-the-private-apartments- 
them of-the-palace." 

kiir 11 phikirah. Dopun, 

was-made a-thinking. It-was-said-by-him, 



tamis 

to-that 

nokhta. 

point (i.e. fault). 

zanana treh 

women three 

Patashehan 

By-the-king 

u mangahas 

M (If) thou-wilt- 
demand-from-him 



264 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



[20- 



kenfehah ciz, tih chuh anan soruy. 

any thing, that he-is bringing all-even. 

Wun dapas boh, 'mybnis mbl^sunz 11 



khabar 



news 



say-to-him 


I, 'my 




father-of 


gatehi 


aniin a , 


suh 


chwa 


is-proper 


to-be-brought, 


he 


is-he-? 



jenatas kina dozakas.' " 

in-heaven or in-hell.' " 



20. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the -teacher, — 



Av 

Came 



salam. 

a-bow. 

yih 

what 

Az 

Today 

aniin u , 

to-be-brought, 



lal-shenakh, 

the-lapidary, 

Patashah 
The-king 



patashehas, 

to-the-king, 



chus 

is-to-him 



dapan, 

saying, 



kur% 

was-made- 
by-him 

" az-tan 

today-up-to 



me won u may, 

by-me was-said-by-me- 
to-thee, 



tih 

that 



buzuth 

was-heard- 
by-thee 



gatehi 

is-proper 



suh 

he 



myonis 

my 

chwa 

is-he-? 



mbl^stinz* 1 

father-of 

jenatas-manz 

heaven-in 



dozakas." Drav lal-shenakh, wot u 

hell-(in)." Went- forth the-lapidary, he-arrived 



gara. Dapan 

house. Saying 



chuh 

he-is 



at 1 

there 



tren, 

three, 



az 



" today 



chum 

is-to-me 



yiman 

to-these 

dapan 

saying 



fee. 

by-thee. 

khabar 

news 

kina 

or 

panun u 

his-own 

zananan 
women 

patashah, 

the-king, 



-21] 



XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 



265 



myonis 

' my 



mbr-sunz u 

father-of 



kyah kara ? Ath 

what shall-do? Of- that 



kotyah 

how- many 



warihy 

years (are) 



Yih wbteh ti s 

This arose (-in-reply)- 
to-him 

yesa rat^na-kar 1 

who jewel-bracelets 

pari ba-Khoda. 

a-fairy (who-obeyed-) 
' God. 



gamat 1 

gone 

khotuna. 

lady. 

bs a 

was 



khabar anunV B6h 

news (is) to-be-brought.' I 

sdh chya khabar, 

that is-there-? news, 

tas mumatis?" 

to-him dead ? " 



Yihai 

She-verily (was) 



karan. 

making. 



Sa 

She 



yih, 

she, 

OS* 

was 



Ami dop u nas, 

By-her it-was-said-by- 
her-to-him, 



" kentshah 



any 



chena 

is-not 

biye 

also 

zyun u 

firewood 

galshi 

is-proper 



phikir ti , 

anxiety. 

dapus 

say-to-him 



Gatsh, 

Go, 

patashehas, 

to-the-king, 



hes khar a j, 

take-from-him expenses, 



4 cyon u 

' of-thee 



spmb a run u ; 

to-be-collected ; 

spmb a run u 

to-be-collected 



mbdanas-manz 

the-plain-in 

be-shumar. n 

countless.' " 



gafehi 

is-proper 

zyun u 

firewood 



21. 

be-shumar. 

countless. 



S6mb a row u 

Was-collected 

Ath-peth 

It -on 



yih 

this 



musla-han 

the piece-of-skin 



patashehan 

by-the-king 



khot u 

mounted 



yih 

this 



watharith. 

spreading-out. 



zyun u 

firewood 

lal-shenakh 
lapidary 

Ath^peth 

It-verily-on 



266 

byuth u 

sat 

"fee 

11 to- thee 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



[22- 



pana. 

he-himself. 



Amis dopun patashehas, 

To-him was-said-by-him to-the-king, 



kyah gatehiy anun u 

what is-proper-to-thee to-be-brought 



nishana ? M 

token ? " 

dop u nas 

it-was-said-by- 
him-to-him 

jenatuk u 

of-heaven 



myonis 

my 

Dopun 

It-was-said- 
by-him 



Yih 

This 



"akh 

one 



wothus 

arose (in-reply) -to-him 

gafehiy 

is-proper-for- 
thee 



mbl^sond 11 

father-of 

patasheh, 
king, 

anun u 

to-be-brought 



mewa, 

a-fruit, 



biye 

second 



gafehiy anun u 

is-proper-for- to-be-brought 
thee 



mbl^sandi 

father of 



yiman, 

to-them, 



u diyiv 

" give-ye 



daskhata 

with-signature 

yith 

to-this 



khath." 

a-letter." 

zinis nar 

firewood fire 



fedpbr 1 ." 

on-the-four-sides." 

22. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher, — 



Yimau 

By-them 


yeli ath zinis nar dyut u , 

when to-this firewood fire was-given, 


yiwan 

coming 
(passive) 


chuna kuni 

is-not at-all 


bozana yih 

in-possibility-of- this 
seeing (passive) 


lal-shenakh. 
lapidary. 


Lal-shenakan 

By-the-lapidary 


dyut u ath 

was-given to-that 



-22] 



XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 



267 



muslas 

leather 

watun u 

to-arrive 

deshunV 

to-be-seen." 

ache. 

the-eyes. 



panun u . 

his-own. 

Hab-jushl 

Of-the-seven- 
metals 

tayar, 

prepared, 

korun 

was-made- 
by-her 

daskhath, 

signature, 



kas a m. 

a-charm. 



panun u 

my- own 



Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by 
him-to-it. 



M me 

'* for-me 



gatehi 
it-is-proper 



gara. Klh gafehem-na 

house. Anyone is-proper-for-me-not 



Tuvyeye 

Were-closed 

Mulsaren, ta 

They-were-opened- and 
by-him 



am 1 

by-that 



lal-shenakan 

lapidary 



Ami 

By-that 

korun 

was-made- 
by-her 



khotuni 

lady 



wot u mot u 

(he-was) arrived 

kiir 11 

was-done 



gara 

house 



kbm u . 

an-act. 



mewa jenatuk u dbn ti 

a-fruit of-heaven a -pomegranate 



biye 

also 

amis 

that 



lyukhun khath, ath 

was-written-by-her a-letter, to-it 



patasheha-sandis 

king's 



biye 

also 



mohar. 



lyukhun patashehas, 

was-written-by-her to-the-king, 



cyon u 

of-thee 



mbr-sond u 

father-of 

Ath^manz 

It-verily-in 

gatehi 

it-is-proper 



me-nish 

me-near 



watun u , 

to-arrive, 



wazir 

vizier 



heth, 

having- taken j 



biye 

also 



nbyid heth, 

the-barber having- 
taken , 



tithay 

in-that-very- 
kind-of 



pbth 1 , 

manner, 



yethay 

in-what-very- 
kind-of 



268 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



[28- 



pbth 1 lal-shenakh 

manner the-lapidary 



korun 

was-made- 
by-her 



hawala 

in-charge 



dyut u nas 

was-given-by-her-to-him 



me-nish 

me-near 

amis 

to-that 



wot u ." Kakad 

arrived." The-paper 

lal-shenakas, biye 

lapidary, also 



athas-keth 

the-hand-in 



yih 

this 



dbn», 

pomegranate. 



23. Otany gay feor 

There-verily went four 

gomot u feheta, path 

(was) become extinguished, behind 



doh. 

days. 



Yih 

This 



rud u mot u 

(was) remained 



nar 

fire 

sur. 

ash. 



Yih lal-shenakh 



This 

Suli 

At-dawn 

chuh 

he-is 



lapidary 

woth u , 

he-arose, 



drav 

came-forth 

ath 

that 



langut 1 karith. 

langoti haying-made (i.e. 
having-put-on). 



suras-manz 

ash-in 



dulan 1 . 

rollings. 

khabardarav 

by-the-informers 



Nazarbazav kiir 11 

By-the-inspectors was-made 

niye khabar. 

was-brought information. 



diwan 

giving 

nazar, 

inspection, 



Dop u has, 

It-was-said-by- 
them-to-him, 



"patasheham, 

" my-king, 



ami 

that 



sura-manza 

ash-from-in 



susararay, 

a-rustling. 

amot u ? " 

come ? " 

nazar 

sight 



ma 

I-wonder-if 



Yih 

This, 

Yim chih 

They are 

chekh 6-kun, 

is-to-them in-that-direction 



yimay 

these-very 



galshan cheh 

going is 

asi lal-shenakh 

will-be the-lapidary 

katha karan, 

words making, 

av woda 

came from-there 



■24] 



XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 



269 



lal-shenakh, athas-keth heth dbn u , 

the-lapidary, the-hand-in taking the-pomegranate, 



biyis 

the-other 

patashehas 

to-the-king 



athas-keth 

hand-in 

salam, 

a-bow, 



heth 

taking 



khath. 

the-letter 



bontha-kani, 

in-front, 



khath 

the-letter 



don* 

the-pomegranate 

thow u nas 

was-placed-by- 
him-of-him 



Kur ti n 

Was-made 
by-him 

thow u nas 

was-placed-by- 
him-of-him 

bontha-kani. 

in-front. 



Yih 

This 



khath 

letter 



mufeorun, 

was-opened- 
by-him, 



porun. 

it-was-read- 
by-him. 



Ath 

(In-) it 



lyukh u mot u , " boh, kya, 

(was) written, " I, of-a-surety, 

Cyon u gafehi watun u yur 1 , 

Of-thee is-proper to-arrive here-even, 

biye nbyid heth, je^d." 

also the-barber taking, quickly." 



chus jenatas-manz. 

am heaven-in. 



wazir 

the-vizier 



heth, 

taking, 

24. 



me 



" by-me 

Yih 

He 



Patashah chuh karan 

The-king is making 

dapyav, i yih lal-shenakh 

it-was-long- ' this lapidary 
ago-said, 

av mb^-sunz* me khabar 

came the-father-of to-me news 



phikirah, 

a-thinking, 



gali.' 

will-be- 
destroyed.' 

heth." 

taking." 

lal-shenakas, 

lapidary, 



Dapan patashah amis 

(Is) saying the-king to-that 

"boh ketha-pbth 1 wata tath jenatas-manz ?" 

" I how shall-arrive to-that heaven-in ? " 



270 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



[25- 



Dop u nas 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-him 

me-kyut u 

me-for 

gafehan 

are-proper 



lal-shenakan, 

by-the-lapidary, 

somb a r6wuth, 

was-collected-by-thee, 

somMrawan 1 ; 

to-be-collected ; 



"yuth u 



tithiy 

so-even 



zyun u 

firewood 

treh 

three (times) 



jel a d 

quickly 



watakh 

thou-wilt-arrive 



jenatas-manz." 

heaven-in." 



S6mb a row u 

Was-collected 



patashehan 

by-the-king 



zyun u 

firewood 



be-shumar. 

countless. 

ath^peth 

it-verily-on 

nbyid. 

the-barber. 



Athi-peth 

It-verily-on 

khot u 

he-mounted 

Dyutukh 

Was-given- 
by-them 



karanowun watharun u , 

was-caused-to- a-mat, 

be-made 

pana biye wazir biye 

himself also the-vizier also 



zinis 

to-the- 
firewood 



nar 

fire 



feopbr 1 . 

on-the- 
f our- sides. 



25. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the- teacher,- 



Dod u 

Was-burnt-up 

biye nbyid, 

also the-barber, 

lal-shenakas-nish 

the-lapidary-near 

patasheh-kur* 

the-king's-daughter 

samokhukh 

was-met-by-them 



yih 

this 



patashah, 

king, 



biye 

also 



wazir, 

the-vizier, 



trenaway gal 1 . W6t u ot u 

the-three were-destroyed. Arrived there 



suh 

that 

heth 

taking 



wazir, 

vizier, 

6s u 

was 



yus 

which 

fealan, 

fleeing, 



6khun-kot u , 

the-religious- 
teacher's-son, 



suy 

he-verily 



wazir 

vizier 

ta 

and 

wot u 

arrived 



-26] 



XII. THE TALE OF THE AKHUN 



271 



amis 

to-that 

karekh 

were-made-by- 
them 

lal-shenakan 

lapidary 



lal-shenaka-sond u 

lapidary's 

katha-batha. 

conversations. 



gara. 

house. 

Wonus 

It-was-said- 
to-him 



Panawbn 

Mutually 

am 1 

by that 



yih 

this 



panun u 

his-own 



saphar, 

travelling (i.e. experiences 
of his journey), 



yus 

which 

6s u 

was 



am 1 

by-that 

pesh 

in-front 



khotuna 

lady 

Lalmal 

Lalmal 

Yesa 

Who 



nbyidan 

barber 

on u mot u . 

brought. 

nin-sa 

take-her-sir 



ta waziran amis 

and by-the-vizier to-him 

Dop u nas, 

It-was-said-by- 
him-to-him, 



^paniin 11 

' thine-own 



panas. 

for thyself.' 



yih 

this 



Pari 

Fairy 
yih 

this 



OS 1 



was, 



tas 

to-her 



dyutun 

was-given- 
by-him 



Yesa 

Who 

rukhsath. 

leave-to-depart 



thowun 

was-kept-by-him 



pata 

afterwards 



panas. 

for-him-self. 



iin^n 

was-brought- 
by-him 



zinith, 

having- 
conquered, 



sa 

she 



26. Dapan wustad, — 

(Is) saying the-teacher,- 



Suh wazir 

That vizier 

Lal-shenakh 

The-lapidary 

Aslamalaikum, 

The-peace-be-upon-you, 



byuth u 

sat 



patashbhi 

sovereignty 



byuth u waziri 

sat viziership 

walaikum salam. 

and-upon-you be-peace. 



karani. 

to-do. 

karani. 

to-do. 



VOCABULARY OF ALL THE WORDS IN 
GOVINDA KAULAS TEXT 

[Roman numerals refer to the number of the story, and Arabic 
numerals to the section. To save space, when several Arabic 
numerals come together, tens are generally not repeated. Thus, xii, 
21, 6, means xii, 21, 26. The order of words is based on the 
alphabetical order of the consonants, without any regard to the vowels. 
The latter come into consideration only in cases in which the same 
consonant or consonants are followed or separated by different vowels. 
Thus, the different words containing the consonants kn will be found 
in the succession kan, kan 1 , kani, kina, kona, kun, kuni, and kun u . 
All words beginning with vowels are arranged together at the com- 
mencement of the Vocabulary, their mutual order being determined 
by their consonants. The letter n follows n, and ts follows t. For 
purposes of alphabetical order v and w are counted as the same letter. 
In other respects the alphabetical order is that of the English 
alphabet.'] 



a, 



e, interrog. sun*. ; gatshiye, is it proper ? xii, 13 ; sapadakha, 
wilt thou become ? iii, 2 ; iagiye, will it be possible for 
thee ? v, 8, 9 ; tsatanasa, will they cut off for him ? v, 7. 

interrog. suff. ; chwa, is he ? xii, 21. 

suff. of indef. art., see ah. 

i, y, izafat ; dukhtar-e-khasa, (your) own daughter, v, 11 ; khalH- 
e-shbhi, robe of royalty, x, 4 (bis) ; loyik-e-patashah, worthy 
of a king, x, 4 ; pesh-e-patashdh, before the king, vi, 9 ; 
sbhib-e-agah, master intelligent, ii, 9 ; shehar-e- Yirdn, the 
country of Persia, ii, 1 ; toriph-e- Yusuph, praise of Yusuf , 
vi, 17 ; Aziz-i-Misar, N.P., vi, 10, 2 (bis), 4 ; dbkhil-i- 
mahalakhana, brought into the harem, xii, 19 ; din-i- 
Mahmad, the faith of Muhammad, iv, 6 ; hakh-i-Khdddy, 
duty due to God, xii, 15 ; hukm-i-Mahrdj , order of the 
Maharaja, xi, 4 ; hekmat-i-Parwardigar, the power of 
Providence, i, 11 ; koh-i-Tora, Mount Sinai, iv, 5 ; loyik-i, 



I HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 274 

worthy of, xii, 10, 19 (bis) ; makh a r-i-zan, coquetry of a 
woman, x, 13 ; sohib-i-kildb, a master of books, x, 13 ; 
woldd-i-Adam, a descendant of Adam, iv, 3 ; ydd-i-Aldh, 
memory of God, i, 7 ; dwd-yi-khor, a prayer for welfare, i, 3 ; 
hawd-yi-asindn. the air of heaven, ii, 6 ; hawdla-y-Khodd, 
in the care of God, x, 7 ; wdda-y-Khodd, an oath by God, 
xii, 7 (bis), 15 (bis) ; irregular use, hazrat-i-Adam, and so on, 
iv, 2, etc. ; hazrat-i-Sulaymdn, his highness Solomon, xii, 17 ; 
hazrat-i-Yusilph, etc., his highness Yiisuf. etc., vi, 8, etc. ; 
Shah-i-Yusuph, id. , vi, 1 ; Sultdn-i-Mahmod-i-Gaznavi, Sultan 
Mahmud of Ghazni, i, 1 ; Maraz-i-Pargan, the Pargana of 
Maraz, xi, 5. 

1, interj . ; vest, female friend, ix, 1 ; cf. i yih. 

6 1, and ; arz o samd, earth and heaven, vii, 26. 

5 2, in 6-kun, in that direction, xii, 23. 

db, m. water, v, 4 ; v, 4 (bis) ; vii, 7 (bis) ; -dawa-kan, (enter) 
through the water-drain, v, 4 ; aba-hand, f . a little water, 
x, 5 ; -pydla, water-cup, vii, 7 ; -srehd, water-moisture, 
viii, 7 ; abas, to the water, viii, 7. 

abtar, terrified, vi, 12. 

dch 1 , f . an eye ; pi. nom. tuvyeye ache, the eyes were closed, xii, 22 ; 
dat. achen, diwdn chuh achen d u h, he is putting smoke in her 
eyes, i.e. he is abusing her, v, 11. 

ad, in ada-wati, midway, vii, 20. 

ada, then, iii, 1 ; v, 6, 9 (bis) ; viii, 3, 10 ; x, 2, 7 ; xii, 3 ; after- 
wards, viii, 10, 13 ; introducing apodosis of a conditional 
sentence, v, 8 ; -kydh, then of course, of course, certainly, 
viii, 11 ; xii, 4. 

add, m. completion ; — gatshun, (of a period of time) to be com- 
pleted, to come to an end, to elapse, pass, x, 8 ; xii, 4, 9, 
11, 2. 

od u , half ; f. pi. aje, half, i.e. some, xi, 7. 

adal, m. justice ; adHa soty, by means of justice, i, 3. 

addlaih, f. a court of justice ; addlilts^-peth, (went) to the court of 
justice, v, 9. 

Adam, m. N.P., Adam, iv, 2, 3 ; vii, 6, 7 ; sg. dat. ddamas-soty, 
together with A., vii, 6. 



275 VOCABULARY ah 1 

dga, m. a master ; sg. dat. dgas-peth, (infidelity) to a master, viii, 
6, 8, 11. 

age (Hindi), ahead, in front, xi, 4. 

dgdh, sohib-e-dgdh, an intelligent master, ii, 9. 

agar, if, viii, 13. 

dgur, m. source (of a stream), viii, 7. 

dgay, 1. information ; dgayi, for inspection, v, 7. 

ah 1, a, suff. of indefinite art. ; dohd dohd, each day, every day, viii, 
3 ; dalild, a story, viii, 6, 8, 11 ; x, 1 (bis) ; hakimd, a single 
wise man, vi, 13 ; hdtshd, an accusation, vi, 9 ; keh kdld (v, 10), 
or keh kdldh (viii, 2), some short time (elapsed) ; moddnd, 
a plain, x, 5 ; pardd, a veil, vi, 4 ; pdtashdhd, a certain king, 
viii, 1 ; sdddgdra, a merchant, viii, 9 ; shehmdrd, a python, 
viii, 7 ; shehard, a city, v, 1 ; shekhtsd, a person, x, 1 ; 
dba-srehd, st, water moisture, a trickle of water, viii, 7 ; sdthd, 
(sit, wait) a moment, vi, 3 ; vii, 9 ; ihurfid, a (piece of) fresh 
butter, ix, 4 ; z a ld z a ld, a scratch a scratch, a continuous 
scratching, xii, 17; zarama,awoman,x,5; xii, 4, 10; ziydphathd, 
a dish of food, x, 5 ; akhdh, a certain person, v, 7 ; yus akhdh, 
whoever, viii, 6, 8, 11 ; ankah, a rara avis, ii, 2, etc., see ankd ; 
hdnzdh, a boatman, i, 4 ; ko?n u dh, a deed, x, 2, 3 ; kuth u dh, a 
room, ix, 4 ; kotydh, how many a ! ix, 5,11 J xii, 29 ; marhabdh, 
a wish of good luck, ii, 10 ; necyuvdh, a son, v, 2 ; nazardh, 
a glance, viii, 11 ; phakirdh, a faqlr, ii, 1 (bis) ; photawdh, 
a decree, ii, 7 ; patashehdh, a king, ii, 1 ; phikirdh, a thought, 
xii, 19, 24 ; rathdh, a night, xii, 5 ; sadah, a sound, viii, 9 ; 
soldh, an excursion, ii, 2 ; sdthdh, for a short time, ii, 4 ; 
totfyah, an humble servant (fern.), xii, 18 ; wuchundh, a 
look, viii, 3 ; wdrayah kdldh, a long time (elapsed), viii, 2 ; 
wdraydh kdl, for a long time, viii, 2 ; wustdddh, a teacher, 
i, 13 ; vyur u ah, a little nectar, ix, 2 ; yeddh, a belly, ix, 7 ; 
za/aA, a net, i, 6, 7, 8 ; zatidndh, a woman, iii, 4. 

Followed by akh, dkhund akh, a certain religious teacher, 
xii, i ; baldyd akh, an evil thing, x, 8 ; dohd akh, one day, 
xii, 1 ; hdnzdh akh, a certain fisherman, i, 4 ; danah waziran 
ak 1 , by a certain wise vizier, viii, 1 ; khotund akh, a certain 
lady, v, 11 ; xii, 15 ; phakird akh, a certain faqlr, x, 7 ; 

T 



ah 2 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 21 Q 

patashehd akh, a certain king, viii, 7, 11 ; soddgdrd akh, a 
certain merchant, viii, 9 ; shehard akh, a certain city, v, 1 ; 
shekhtsdh akh, a certain person, xii, 3 ; zandnd akh, a certain 
woman, x, 5. 

ah 2, m. a sigh, iv, 3 ; pi. nom. ah, i, 5. 

ah a d, m. lifetime, time ; abl. sg. with emph. y, ah a day, i, 2. 

Ahmad, m. N.P., Ahmad. 

ahan-gdr, m. a blacksmith ; pi. dat. ahan-gdrdn, m.c. for -gdran, 
xi, 16. 

aj a ddh, m. a python, a boa-constrictor, x, 11 (ter) ; sg. dat. 
qj a ddhas (in sense of ace), x, 7. 

ok u , one, a, a certain ; with emph. y, masc. okuy, one only, xii, 13 ; 
fern. ukP'y, one only, xii, 15 ; ag.sg.masc. subst. dk { , by one (sc. 
son) ; adj. phakiran dk { , by a certain faqir, x, 12 ; ddndh 
waziran dk { , by a certain wise Vizier, viii, 1 ; sg. abl. 
masc. aki ddha, on a certain day, one day, v, 1 ; doha aki, 
id. ii, 8 ; iii, 1 ; v, 1 ; viii, 1, 3 (bis), 7, 11 ; sing. dat. 
masc. subst. akis, v, 6 ; vi, 11 ; adj. bdgas akis manz, in a 
certain garden, iii, 7 ; mohara hatas akis rosh u , a necklace of 
one hundred mohars, v, 10 ; moddnas akis manz, in a certain 
plain, iii, 1 ; viii, 9 ; ndgas akis peth, on a certain spring, iii, 4 ; 
phakiras akis, for a certain faqir, iii, 1 ; pdtashehas akis nish, 
(arrived) near a certain king, viii, 5 ; sheharas akis manz, 
(arrived) at a certain city, xii, 2 ; ivanas akis manz, in a certain 
forest, ix, 1 ; fern, akis jdye manz, into a certain place, iii, 7 ; 
jdye akis, in (at) a certain place, ii, 8 ; viii, 7 (ter), 9 ; jdye akis 
. . . jdye akis, in one place ... in another place, i, 3, 4 ; 
koli akis peth, (went) to the bank of a certain stream, xii, 2. 

akh, one, a, a certain one, a certain. In these tales, when used 
as an indefinite article, it follows the noun with which it is 
in agreement, as in dkhund akh, a certain religious teacher, 
xii, 1 ; baldyd akh, an evil thing, x, 8 ; doha akh, one day, 
xii, 1 ; hdnzdh akh, a certain fisherman, i, 4 ; khdtund akh, 
a certain lady, v, 11 ; xii, 15 ; phakira akh, a certain faqir, 
x, 7 ; patashehd akh, a certain king, viii, 7, 11 ; sdgdddrd akh, 
a certain merchant, viii, 9 ; shehar akh, a certain city, ii, 1 ; 
shehard akh, a certain city, v, 1 ; shekhtsdh akh, a certain 



277 VOCAB ULABY dna 

person, xii, 3 ; zandnd akh, a certain woman, x, 5. It will 

be observed that, except in one instance (ii, 1), the suffix 

a or ah of the indefinite article is always added to 

the noun. 

When used as a definite numeral the word precedes the 

noun in the one instance occurring in these tales, viz. akh kath, 

one word, xii, 1. So also when opposed to " other " in the 

following : akh . . . bekh (or bydkh), the one . . . the other, 

viii, 14 ; xii, 3, 10, 19 ; akh . . . biye, in the first place . . . 

in the second place, v, 9 ; vi, 15 ; xii, 1, 21. 

With suffix of the indefinite article, akhdh, a certain person, 

v, 1 ; yus akhah, whoever, viii, 6, 8, 11. 
akh, dkho, see yun u . 
dkhun, m. a religious teacher, a doctor of divinity, xii, 1 ; with sufT. 

of indef. art., dkhund akh, a certain religious teacher, xii, 1 ; 

6khun-kot u , the son of a r.t., xii, 25 ; -zdda, id., xii, 2 ; sg. 

dat. -zddas nish, (came) to the r.t.'s son, xii, 2. 
akith, on one side ; ndgas akith kun, on one side of the spring, 

xii, 14. 
6l u , m. a bird's nest, viii, 1 ; sg. dat. olis, viii, 1. 
Aldh, m. God, i, 7 ; ii, 12. 
alll, wretched, miserable, poverty-stricken, i, 4. 
alum, m. the world, the universe, i, 13 ; iv, 3. 
otf-ndsh, m. destruction of house and home, ix, 3. 
alav, m. a call, a cry ; — karun, to call out (to a person), x, 5 (bis), 

12 (bis) ; xii, 7, 15. 
alvidah (= al-widd'), m. — karun, to make a last farewell, vii, 16. 
dm, etc., see yun u . 

6m u , raw, uncooked ; masc. pi. nom., dm 1 , xi, 11. 
amdb u , very, excessively, xi, 18. 
amdnath, m., a deposit in trust, x, 12 ; — thdwun, to place as a 

deposit, to put in deposit, x, 12. 
dmpa, f. pi., the feeding of one bird by another, beak to beak ; 

-kani, by means of this method of feeding, viii, 1. 
amdr, m. desire, longing, v, 2. 
dmot u , dmuts", see yun u . 
ona, aina, m. a mirror, v, 4 (ter). 



un u HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 278 

un u , sign of gen., generally used with persons, but used with ash e kh 

(qsh*kun u ), love, v, 2, 3, 10. 
and, m., end, extremity ; andas-kun, at the end, at the extremity, 

xii, 6 ; w6t u sheharas and-kun, he arrived at the outskirts of 

the city. 
andar, adv. within, iii, 8 (ter) ; postpos. governing dat., within, 

in, i, 13 ; xii, 17 ; andar u y, id., xii, 16. 
anka (= 'anqa), m. a phoenix, a rara avis, something very rare ; 

with suff. of indef. art. ankdh, ii, 2 (bis), 3, 4 (ter), 5, 6, 7, 

10, 12. 

anun, to bring, to fetch, ii, 8, 11, 12 ; iii, 1, 5, 9 ; v, 4, 8, 9 ; vi, 
15, 16 ; viii, 4, 9 ; ix, 2 ; x, 5, 10, 12 ; xi, 10 ; xii, 4, 5, 10, 

11, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21 ; to bring, to call, summon, viii, 1 ; 
anun nod diih, having called to bring, to summon, send for, 
x, 12 ; pesh anun, to bring before (a person) ; to cause (him) 
to experience, to subject (him) to, xii, 25 ; anun zlniih (xii, 25) 
or anun zenan (xi, 1, 2, etc.), to conquer and carry off, to 
conquer and appropriate to oneself ; aniih dyun u , to bring 
and give, to bring to a person, xii, 4 (bis). 

inf. of purpose, anani, x, v ; fut. pass. part, with gatshun 1, 
anun, v, 4 ; anun u , xii, 21 (ter) ; fern, anun", x, 5 ; xii, 19, 
20 (bis) ; conj. part, aniih, iii, 1 ; xii, 4 (bis). . 

pres. part., forming pres. anan chuh, x, 12 ; chuh anan, 
xii, 19. 

1 past part, forming past, on u , fern. iln u ; m. sg. with suff. 
3 sg. ag. onun, iii, 5 ; viii, 9 (bis) 12, 4 ; with suff. 3 pi. ag. 
onukh, ii, 11, 12 ; vi, 15, 16 ; x, 12 ; with ditto and suff. 
3 sg. dat. on u has, vi, 16 ; m. pi. with suff. 3 pi. ag. dnikh, v, 9 ; 
viii, 1 ; x, 12 (bis) ; dn*hay (poet.), xi, 10 ; f. sg. with suff. 
2 sg. ag. and 2 sg. nom. iinHh-as, xii, 11 ; with suff. 3 sg. ag. 
un u n, x, 10 ; xii, 25 ; with suff. 3 pi. ag. unP-kh, ii, 8 ; f . pi. 
with suff. 2 sg. dat. aney, viii, 4 ; with suff. 3 pi. ag. and 3 sg. 
dat. anehas, vi, 16 ; perf. part. on u mot u ; m. pi. drfrndt 1 , 
v, 8 (for plup.) ; m. sg. forming plup. m. sg. 3 6s u on u mot u , 
xii, 25 ; 2 past part, anav, forming 2 past, with suff. 1 sg. 
ag. andm, ix, 2. 

fut. sg. 1 ana, x, 5 ; interrog. ana, xii, 4, 5, 11 ; pi. 1, 



279 



VOCABULARY 



asun 



with suff. 3 sg. ace. anon, xi, 1, etc. ; pi. 3, with suff. 2 sg. 
dat. ananay, xii, 16. 

impve. sg. 2, an, iii, 5, 9 (bis) ; xii, 10, 15 ; with suff. 
3 sg. ace. anun, iii, 5, 9 ; with suff. 3 pi. ace. anukh, x, 12 ; 

2 pi. with suff. 1 sg. dat. anyum, vi, 16 (bis) ; with suff. 

3 pi. ace. anyukh, x, 12. 
an, yes, x, 5, 12. 

apor 1 , in that direction, v, 4 ; -kin 1 , from on that side, v, 7. Cf. 

yipor*. 
apsar, m. an officer ; sg. dat. apsaras, x, 12. 
apoz u , untrue, v, 9. 
ar, m. pity ; dy-na ar, did not pity come to thee ? ix, 3 ; yiman 

dv ar mydn u , pity for me came to them, x, 12. 
or, there ; ora, from there, thence, v, 2, 4 ; xii, 4, 12 ; from there, 

equivalent to " from some unnamed place ", v, 9 ; from there, 

thereupon, then (opposed to yora), v, 8 ; ora-kani, in that 

direction, v, 2. Cf. ivoda. 
or u , f. a shoemaker's awl, xi, 14. 
aram, m. repose ; — kariin, to repose, v, 9 ; — trdwun, to repose, 

go to bed, lie down (on a bed), take rest, iii, 3, 7 ; viii, 5 ; 

sg. dat. aramas, at rest, sleeping, viii, 13. 
arman, m. longing ; — dv, longing came, iii, 9. 
arz-6-samd f . ( = arz o sama) earth and heaven, vii, 26. 
as, see yun u . 
os, m. the mouth ; osa-kani (issuing) from the mouth, viii, 7 ; 

chis 6s a s haran (rubies) are dropping from her mouth, xii, 9. 
qshkh, m. lo ve, v, 2 (bis) ; qsh*ka chVi, a particle of love, vii, 30 ; 

sg. gen. qsh*kun u (not qsh e kuk u ), v, 3, 10 ; do. f. dat. qsWkane, 

v, 2. 
asWndv, m. a near relation, x, 1, 6, 10. 
as a l, real, ii, 8, 11 ; xii, 16. 
asldmalaikum ( = as-saldm 'alaikum), the peace be upon you, 

xii, 26. 
asmdn, m. heaven, ii, 6 ; pi. dat. asmdnan peth, on the heavens, 

iv, 4 ; pi. abl. asmdnav peth*, above the heavens, iii, 8. 
asun, conj. 2, to be, to exist (as a verb subst.), i, 3 ; ix, 2 ; ii, 1, 4, 

7, 8, 9, 10 ; iii, 7 ; v, 1, 9, 10 ; vi, 10, 11 ; vii, 7, 8, 10 i 



asun HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 280 

viii, 1 (bis), 3, 5, 7 (bis), 9, 11 (ter), 13 (bis) ; x, 1, 5 (bis), 
7 (bis) ; xi, 7 (bis) ; xii, 1, 2, 4, 11, 15 (ter), 20, 25 ; to 
become, i, 3 ; ix, 2 ; xii, 15. Often used with dat. of 
possession, phaklras 6s u , the faqir had, ii, 4 ; amis 6s u , he 
had, ii, 5 ; vi, 10 ; x, 4 ; 6s u amis, he had, ii, 5 ; os^s, he 
had (a wife), iii, 1 ; dsum, I had, vii, 11, 15 ; 6sus, he had, 
viii, 7, 9 ; abas asind, has not the water ? viii, 7 ; tamis 6s u , 
he had, viii, 9 ; amis os\ he had (sons), viii, 11 ; tamis^y 
ds% he had (sons), xii, 1. 

inf. dsun u , xii, 4 ; sg. dat. asanas, for existence (of wealth), 
i.e. when wealth exists, x, 1 (bis), 6, 10 ; fut. pass. part. m. 
sg. asun, xii, 10 (bis) ; dsun u , xii, 4 (bis), 5, 13 (ter) ; with 
emph. y, dsunuy, i, 12 (v.l.) ; pi. dsdn { , xii, 5. 

past sg. masc. 6s u , was, ii, 4, 5 (bis), 7, 8, 9, 10, 11; 
v, 1, 9 (2idtashdh-kiLr u biye 6s u sonar bagas-manz, the 
princess and also the goldsmith were in the garden) ; vi, 
10 (bis) ; vii, 8 ; viii, 1 (bis), 7 (bis), 9 (bis), 11, 13 ; x, 4, 7 ; 
xii, 1, 15 (bis); 6s u -na, he was not, xii, 2 ; osnm, I had, 
vii, 11, 15; dsus, he had, viii, 7, 9; Jcati osukh, whence 
wast thou ? where have you come from ? xii, 15. 

Forming impf . 6s u gaddn, he used to make, v, 1 ; 6s u Jcardn, 
he was making, i, 1 ; 6s u laydn, he was casting (a net), i, 6 ; 
6s u mardn, he was dying, v, 9 ; 6s u neran, he used to go out, 
viii, 1 ; 6s u pherdn, he was wandering, i, 2 ; 6s u pahdn, he 
was going along, v, 7 ; 6s u taran, he was paying (tribute), 
x, 10 ; 6s u traivan, he was emitting, i, 5 ; 6s u tsaldn, he was 
absconding, xii, 25 ; 6s u wuchdn, he was watching, iii, 1 ; 
6s u woihardn, he was wiping, viii, 6, 13 ; hhewan 6s u -na, he 
used not to eat, vi, 16 ; dsus kardn, I was making, x, 14 ; 
6sus-na khasdn, was not rising for him, i, 6 ; dsus zdgdn, 
(disloyalty) was waking in him, ii, 5. 

Forming plup. 6s u on u mot u , had been brought, xii, . 25 ; 
6s u dyuth u mot u , had been seen, vi, 14 ; 6s u dyut u mot u , had 
been given, x, 12 ; 6s u gamot u , he had become, i, 4 ; 6s u 
gomot u , had befallen, v, 2 ; 6s u Jcor u mol u , had been made, 
ii, 1 (bis) : hor u mot u 6s u , had been made, x, 7 ; 6s u nyumot u , 
had been taken, viii, 9 ; 6s u pemot u , had fallen, viii, 9 ; xii, 



281 



VOCABULARY 



asun 



15 ; dsukh kor u mot u , had been made by them, viii, 2 ; dsum 
dmot u , (to-day) he came to me, iii, 1 ; phaklr dsum ldg u mot u , 
I dressed as a faqir, x, 14 ; 6s u nas dyut u mot u khash, she gave 
a cut (to one of) his (nails), v, 6 ; 6sus gemot", (love) befel 
him, v, 2 ; dsus kor u mot u , had been done to her, ix, 1 ; 6s u than 
kor u mot u , he was made by thee, x, 12. 

Forming plup. with conj. part. 6s u zolith, he had kindled, 



in, 1 ; 



<>s l 



logith, he had dressed himself as (a faqir), 



x, 12. 

m. pi. ds\ they were, etc., vi, 11 ; viii, 3, 5, 11 (ter) ; xii, 1 ; 
forming impf. ds l bozdn, they were listening to, viii, 1 ; os { 
gatshdn, they were becoming, they used to be, viii, 1 ; dt* 
Jcardn, they were making, i, 3 ; Jcardn ds\ they were making, 
xi, 8 ; os { lardn, they were running, x, v ; os i pakdn, they were 
walking, x, 1 ; os* pardn, they were reading, viii, 3, 4 ; waddn 
osi (m.c), they were lamenting, xi, 5. 

Forming plup. os* gamdt 1 , v, 9 ; bsis gan&mdV-, they had 
been tied (on) his (arm), x, 5 ; os { wa diVmdt 1 , they had been 
given to you, x, 12. 

f. sg. os", she was, etc., v, 10 ; vii, 7 ; x, 5 (bis), 7 ; xii, 4, 
15, 20, 25 ; os u na, it (f.) was not, ii, 1 ; ds il s, I was, vii, 10 ; 
I became, ix, 2 ; ds u s, he had (a wife), iii. 1. 

Forming impf. os u gatshdn, she used to go, v, 1 ; d$* Jcardn, 
she used to make, xii, 20 ; os" waddn, she was lamenting, 
vii, 16 ; os u na gatshdn, (chirping f.) was not occurring, viii, 
1 ; os u s shubdn, I (f.) was beautiful, vii, 10 ; os ti san tshdddn, 
I was seeking for him, xii, 15 ; ds ti y kardn, she verily was 
making, vii, 16. 

Forming plup. ds u parzandv u muts u , she had been recognized, 
x, 5 : os u tsiij u milts ii , she had absconded, ix, 1 ; os a s kur u miits ti ■, 
(a seal, f .) had been made on it, x, 10. 

f. pi. dsa, they (f.) were, iii, 7 ; xi, 7 (bis) ; dsakh, the (eyes 
f.) of them were (satisfied), i, 3. 

Forming impf. kardn dsa, they (f.) were making, xi, 19. 

Forming plup. dsa hetsamatsa, they (f.) were taken, x, 14. 

fut. sg. 3, dsi, he (etc.) will be, x, 1 ; dsind, will there not 
be ? i, 2 ; abas dsind, has not the water ? viii, 7 ; dsim (for 






asar HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 282 

dsem), there will be (on) my (queen), viii, 13 ; dsiy, there will 

be for thee, xii, 11. 
Forming fut. perf. ma dsi dmot u , I wonder can he have 

come, xii, 23 ; dsi ldryomot u , is probably polluted, viii, 6 ; 

dsi mumot u , he is probably dead, x, 8 (bis). 

Forming fut. subjunctive, dsi pemuts u , (on whom a particle 

of love) will have fallen ; vii, 30 ; dsi w6t u mot u , (he who) 

will have arrived, vii, 29. 
past cond. forming durative past cond. sg. 3, dsihe shubdn, 

it would be excellent, ii, 4, 5. 

perf. m. sg. 3, chuh 6s u mot u , has been, i.e. was, v, 1 ; 6s u mot u 

chits, (someone) was (near) her, v, 4. 
asar, m. a result, vi, 16 ; asara-soty, owing to the result, vi, 16. 
dt\ here, there (near), viii, 4 ; x, 11 ; xii, 20 ; here verily, x, 8 ; 

xii, 19 ; yitf-kydh . . . dV-kydh, here, on the one hand . . . 

there on the other hand, viii, 13 ; dtiy, in that very place, 

x, 3, 5. 
ati, here, there (near), ii, 1, 8, 10 ; iii, 1, 4, 7, (ter), 8 (bis), 9 ; v, 5, 

7 (bis), 9 (bis) ; vi, 5, 11 ; viii, 1, 7, 9 ; x, 5 (bis), 7 (bis) ; 

xii, 1, 2, 7 ; from there, v, 4, 6 ; x, 14 ; xii, 17, 18, 19 ; 

atiy, there verily, ii, 10, 11 ; iii, 1, x, 5 ; in regard to this, 

x, 13 ; sg. gen. atyuk u , of there ; m. sg. dat. atikis pdtashehas 

nish, (came) to the king of that place. 
ot u , there, v, 4, 9 ; x, 5, 14 ; xii, 15, 18, 25 ; ot u tan, up to there, 

by that time, x, 4, 6 ; otuy, there verily, iii, 4 ; ix, 1. 
[ath], this, that (near, or within sight). 

subst. an. m. sg. ag. am 1 , ii, 5 ; iii, 1 ; v, 4 (bis), 8 ; 

viii, 7, 9 (bis), 10 ; x, 1 (bis), 5 (ter) ; xii, 7, 10, 15, 17, 18 ; 

dmiy, by him verily, v, 9 ; an. m. sg. dat. amis, ii, 4 (of 

a dead parrot), 5 (bis) ; iii, 8 ; v, 2, 3, 7, 10 (dat. comm.) ; 

vi, 10 ; viii, 6, 10 (amis kydh chuh nop), what is on his neck ?), 

11; x, 1, 1 (amis Idyukh, they beat him, bhdve prayoga), 4 (ter), 

5, 12 ; xii, 4, 5, 10 (amis kdsun mast, he shaved him), 12 

(meaning of genitive), 13, 15 (bis), 18, 19, 21, 25 ; amis u y 

to this one verily, ii, 8 ; v, 7 ; viii, 7 (amisuy osa-kani, from 

its (an.) mouth) ; xii, 15 (amisuy athi, by the hand of this 

very one) ; sg. m. gen. dm i -sond u , v, 3 ; viii, 6, 8, 10 ; dm*- 



283 



VOCABULARY 



atha 



sunz", iii, 4 (bis) ; asond u , viii, 9 ; f. sg. ag. ami, iii, 1 (bis), 

2, 4 ; v, 1, 4 (bis), 6 (bis), 11 ; viii, 1 ; xii, 7 (ter), 15 
(quater), 20 ; f. sg. dat. amis, v, 3, 7 ; vii, 20 ; viii, 11 ; ix, 
1 ; x, 7 ; xii, 8, 9 (amis kathan, on her words), 15 (bis) ; i. sg. 
gen. dm i -so7id u , xii, 7 ; dm*-sandi, x, 5 ; dm*-sanzi, xii, 15. 

subst. inan. sg. abl. ami, ii, 5 ; iii, 8 ; viii, 13 ; xii, 4, 
17 (bis) ; amiy (for this very reason, etc.), viii, 1, 10 ; ix, 1 ; 
viii, 6 ; sg. gen. amyuk u , iii, 4 ; vi, 15 ; xii, 17 ; sg. dat. 
ath, v, 6, 9 ; viii, 10 ; xii, 3, 12, 15 (bis), 20 (ath khabar, 
news about that), 21, 22, 23 ; ath* (emph. *), i, 13 ; ii, 3 ; 
iii, 7 ; vi, 15 ; viii, 1 (bis), 7 ; x, 5 (sense of ace.) : xii, 2, 
7, 21, 22, 24 (bis). 

adj. an. sg. m. ag. dm*, ii, 4, 7 (bis), 8 ; iii, 1, 9 ; v, 4, 7 ; 
vi, 14 ; viii, 1,8; x, 2, 6, 7 (bis), 8 (bis), 12 ; xii, 4, 7, 22, 
25 (bis), dat. amis, ii, 1, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10 ; iii, 1, 2 (ter), 8 (bis), 
9 ; v, 2 (agreeing with gen.), 3 (do.), 8, 9 (bis), 10, 12 ; vii, 20 ; 
viii, 5 (bis), 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 (quater), 13 (ter) ; x, 1, 2 (bis), 

3, 4, 5, (quater) 7, 7 (for ace), 8 (ter), 11, 12 ; xii, 2, 3 
(bis), 4 (ter), 4 (with gen.), 5 (bis), 5 (with gen.), 
6, 8, 10 (bis), 11, 12, 13 (ter), 15, 18, 19 (quater), 
22, 22 (with gen.), 24, 25 ; (with emph. y), amis u y, iii, 8 ; 
x, 10 ; f. ag. ami, ii, 9 ; iii, 4, 9 (bis) ; v, 1, 5 (bis), 7, 9, 11 ; 
viii, 1 ; ix, 1, 6 ; x, 3 (bis), 5, 12 ; xii, 2, 4, 5, (bis), 15 
(quater), 18 (bis), 22 ; sg. dat. amis, ii, 9 ; iii, 1, 2 ; v, 9 (for 
ace.) ; viii, 3, 6, 6 (with gen.), 11, 13 ; ix, 1, 4, 6 ; x, 3, 5, 
7 (quater), 7 (with gen.), 10, 13, 15 ; (with emph. y), 
amisuy, iii, 4. 

adj. inan. sg. abl. ami, iii, 6 ; vi, 16 (bis) ; xii, 3 (with 
gen.), 4, 7, 12, 15, 23 ; sg. dat. ath, ii, 4, 5, 7 (bis) ; iii, 4, 9 ; 
v, 4, 5, 6 (ter), 11 ; vi, 14 ; viii, 1, 7 (ter) ; x, 3, 5 (bis), 7 
(sexies), 8, 10, 12, 13 ; xii, 2, 7, 12 (bis), 15, 17, 22 (bis), 23 ; 
(with emph. ') ath*, iii, 7, 9 ; v, 5 ; vi, 16 ; vii, 26 ; viii, 9 ; 
xii, 12. 

ath, m. a market ; sg. abl. ata-petha, v, 7. 

atha, m. a hand, forearm, viii, 7 (bis) ; x, 5 ; xii, 11, 12 ; pi. nom. 
vii, 25 (ztth* atha ddrdn*, to stretch out the arms) ; x, 5 (bis), 
xii, 2 ; sg. abl. athi, viii, 11 (athi dyun u , to make over to so 



oth HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 284 

and so), xi, 18 ; xii, 15 (bis) ; pi. gen. athan-handi, v, 6 ; 

sg. dat. athas, v, 6 ; athas-keth, in the hand, ii, 7 ; v, 4 ; x, 7 ; 

xii, 22 ( — dyut u , put into the hand), 23 ; aihas-manz, (a 

bracelet) on the hand, xii, 12. 
oth, eight, iii, 5 ; othi doh 1 , after eight days, iii, 4. 
aih^r", f. a wool- worm ; a wood- worm, vii, 19. 
otdny, there verily, xii, 33. 
ataty, in that very place, viii, 7. 
atsun, to enter (manz, into). 

impve. sg. 2, atsh, iii, 8 (bis) ; inf. and fut. part. pass. 

atsun, v, 4 (bis) (with gatshun 1) ; fo# u atsani, began to enter, 

x, 7 ; n. ag. atsawunuy, even as I enter, v, 8 ; fut. sg. 1, 

atsayo, I will enter, 0! v, 7. 

past m. sg. 2, tsdkho, didst thou enter, ! ii, 2 ; 3 tsdv, ii, 

1, 5 (bis), 7, 10, 11 ; iii, 8 (bis) ; v, 5 ; x, 7 (bis) ; pi. 3, tsdy, 

v, 9 ; tsds, they entered for him, viii, 9. 
dv, see yun u . 
ay 1, if ; yiy, if this, iii, 4 (bis), 9; tiy, if that, iii, 4 (bis), 9; dodHad-ay, 

if (ye are) pained, vii, 9 ; hargdh-ay, if (he had done), viii, 10 ; 

hargdh ki-y, if (he had done), viii, 7, 13 ; ladaham-ay, if thou 

wilt send to me, x, 3 ; chiway, if ye are, xii, 15. 
ay 2,0 \ kuriyay (addressed by a nurse to a princess), daughter ! 

v, 2 ; ay ivazira (addressed by an inferior), vizier ! xii, 4. 
ay, ! ay golam, slave ! (addressed by a superior), viii, 6, 8, 11. 
ay, dye, see yun u . 
*yiy, in visHfiy, friend (ves, fern.), ix, 11. Cf. i and (in v, 2) 

Jcu^yey. 
6y, see yun u . 
ayekh, see yun u . 

aydlbdr, possessed of a large family, ix, 2. 
ay am, ay em, dy-nd, dyes, see yun u . 
az 1, to-day, ii, 9 ; iii, 1 ; viii, 1 ; xii, 5, 10, 14, 19 (bis), 20 (bis) ; 

az tan, up to to-day, till now, x, 7, 8 ; xii, 20. sg. gen. f. azic", 

x, 14. 
az 2, from ; az Khodd, from God, vi, 10. 
azal, m. fate, doom, vii, 12 ; ix, 6. 
oziz, poor ; m. pi. nom. oz'iz, ix, 11. 



285 



VOCABULARY 



bagal 



Aziz-i-Misar, N.P., vi, 10, 12 (bis) ; sg. ag. -misaran, vi, 14. 

ba ; pari ba-Khoda, a fairy who obeys God, xii, 20 ; dv ba-sdruy- 

saman, he came with all (his) paraphernalia, xi, 20. 
be, be, prefix of privation ; be-baha, priceless, xii, 3, 4 (bis) ; be- 

shumdr, countless, xii, 20, 1, 4 ; be-khabar, untaught, ignorant, 

vii, 28 ; be-wopha, treacherous, x, 13 ; be-wophoyi, treachery, 

infidelity, viii, 6, 11 ; be-wdsta, without worldly ties, v, 11. 
baba, m. a holy man, a Calandar ; baban (among) Calandars, 

vi, 13. 
beb, f. the breast-pocket ; sg. dat. bebi andar (xii, 17) or bebi-andar^y 

(xii, 16), in the breast pocket. 
bace, m. the young of any animal ; pi. nom. bace, viii, 1. 
boche, f. hunger ; — lilj u s, he became hungry, vi, 16 ; bochi-sotiy, 

merely owing to hunger, vi, 16. 
bacun ; 2 past, bacyokh, thou escapedst, x, 8. 
bacawun, to save ; inf. fern, tagiye bacawun u , do you know how to 

save her ? v, 9. 
bod 1 , m. a prisoner ; b'dd^hal, f. a prison, ix, 4. 
bqd u ; hata-bod 1 , hundreds, ix, 9. 

bod u , great, xii, 14 ; badis-hihis, to the elder (prince), viii, 13. 
bud u , old ; bud u zanana, an old woman, x, 5 ; buje zanani, to the 

old woman, x, 5. 
badal, m. exchange, vii, 12 ; prep, governing dat. in exchange (for), 

i, 9 ; adv. instead, xii, 16. 
badan, m. the body ; sg. dat. badanas, viii, 6 (bis), 13. 
budun, to be old ; 2 p. m. sg. 1 budyos, I am grown old, xii, 1. 
bedar, awake, iii, 7 ; viii, 8 ; — gatshun, to wake (from sleep), 

vi, 12 ; viii, 6, 9, 13 ; — rozun, to keep awake, x, 1, 6, 8. 
bag, m. a garden, ii, 1 ; sg. gen. arman baguJc u , longing for the 

garden, iii, 9 ; dat. mushtahh bagas, enamoured of the garden, 

iii, 9 ; bagas-manz, in, or into, the garden, ii, 1 (ter), 7 (bis) ; 

v, 4, 5, 6, 9 (bis). 
bag, m. the Musalman call to prayer ; — parun, to cry the call to 

prayer, xii, 1. 
bog 1 , in shaman-bog 1 , at about evening, v, 5. 
began ; gah begah, in and out of season, vi, 2. 
bagal, m. : bagala-manza, from under his armpit, viii, 7. 



bagan* 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



286 



bdgdn 1 ; bagan* dyes, it was my fate, ix, 4. 

bog a run ; fut. pass. part, f . pi. bog a rane, (loaves) must be divided, 
v, 8 ; 1 p. f. pi. bog a ren, she divided (the loaves), v, 8 ; 2 p. 
f. sg. bog a rem-ay, I divided it (f.), ! v, 7. 

bdgivdn, m. a garden- watcher, a gardener, xi, 13. 

boh, I, ii, 5, 11 (bis) ; iii, 1, 4 (bis), 8 ; v, 5, 6 ; vii, 20, 5 ; viii, 3, 
6, 8, 10, 11 (quater) ; ix, 1,4; x, 1, 2 (bis), 3, 5 (bis), 7, 12 
xii, 1, 4, 11,. 19, 23; bo-nay, I (shall) not, xi, 14 (poet.) 
bo ti, I also, iii, 4 ; boy, if I, viii, 1 (bis) ; I verily, x, 10, 2, 4 
buday, I verily (poet.), ix, 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12. 

ase, us, to us, etc., viii, 1, 3, 11 ; x, 2, 12 (bis) ; xii, 17 
ase-kun hdwuth, thou showedst before us, vi, 5 ; ds { , we 
v, 9, 10 ; viii, 3 ; xi, 15 ; xii, 19 ; ds { -ti, we also, xii, 1. 

me, me, to me, etc., iii, 4, 9 ; v, 8, 9, 10, 11 ; vii, 11, 2, 3 
viii, 11 ; ix, 1, 4, 6 ; x, 3 (bis), 4, 5 (bis), 8, 12 (bis), 5 
xii, 4 (bis), 5 (bis), 7, 10 (bis), 13, 22, 24 (bis) ; by me, ii, 2 
(bis) ; vi, 15 ; viii, 5 ; ix, 11 ; x, 1, 12 (ter), 14 ; xi, 1 
xii, 6, 20, 4 ; me-kyut u , xii, 24 ; me loyikh, fit for me, xii 
10 (bis) ; me nish, near me, viii, 5 ; xii, 22 (bis) ; me nishe 
near me, in my possession, x, 14 ; me dsum, I had, vii, 15 
me sotin, (share) with me, i, 7 ; me soty, together with me 
viii, 3, 11 ; x, 9 ; xii, 2, 7 ; me-ti, to me also, ix, 1 ; me also 
vi, 11 ; xi, 14. 

bah, card., twelve ; tsdtas bahan-hatan-hond u zyuth u , the master 
of twelve hundred pupils, v, 1. 

Bah a dur Khan, m. N.P., Bahadur Khan, ii, 1 ; sg. dat. — Jchdnas, 
ii, 12. 

behun, to sit down, vi, 3, 16 (bis) ; x, 7 ; xii, 4 (bis), 6, 7, 21 ; to 
sit down in a place, take up a position, xi, 2 ; to be stationed, 
posted (at a particular place), xi, 6 ; to remain, stay (in a 
certain place), take up one's abode, viii, 4 ; x, 5 ; xii, 2, 4 ; 
to sit down at a work, set to work, xii, 26 (bis) ; to be employed 
(in a certain business), viii, 5 (ter) ; to sit down (after finishing 
a work), to rest, viii, 8 ; byuth u nazari, he sat watching ; 
nokar behun, to sit down as a servant, take service, xii, 3. 

conj. part, in sense of past part, bihith, seated, x, 5 (bis) ; 
xii, 4, 5 ; fut. sg. 1, beha, xii, 3 ; 3, behi, vi, 16 ; impve. sg. 2 



287 VOCABULARY banduk-baz 

beh, xi, 2 ; pi. 2, behiv, viii, 5 ; pol. impve. sg. 2, bihtam, 

sit please for me, sit to please me, vi, 3 ; fut. impve. beWzi, 

you must sit, xii, 6 ; pres. masc. sg. 3, beJidn chuh, xii, 4 ; 

past masc. sg. 3, byuth u , viii, 4 ; x, 5, 7 (bis) ; xii, 4, 7, 21, 

6 (bis) ; byuthus, sat (on) his (thumb-ring), vi, 16 ; m. pi. 3, 

67$*, viii, 5 (bis), 8 ; xi, 6 ; xii, 2. 
bahdr, m. the season of spring, i, 11. 
bdj, m. tribute ; — tdrun, to collect tribute, x, 10 ; xi, 2. 
bdj u , m. in bojt-bath, sharing, partnership, i, 7. 
bdki, conj. but. 
fteM, see bydkh. 

bakh a coyish, f. a present, a gift, ii, 7 ; xii, 3. 
bahdr, useful, x, 6. 
Bikarmdjeth, m. N.P., Vikramaditya ; sg. ag. bikarmdjetan, x, 8 ; 

gen. m. — jetun u , x, 7, 14; f. — jetiln ii t x, 1, 6. 
baktdwdr, prosperous, viii, 9. 
bdl, m. a child ; bdla-pdn, a youthful body, the graceful body of 

a child, vii, 11 ; sg. dat. -pdnas, vii, 15. 
bdl, f. a girl : sg. dat. bale, m.c. for bdli, v, 11. 
&o£, m. speech ; bol-bdsh' a , the chirping of birds, viii, 1 (ter). 
bulbul, m. a nightingale, ii, 3 (bis) ; with sufL of indef. art. bulbuldh, 

ii, 3. 
baPki, conj. moreover. 
Bald, m. a Baltl, an inhabitant of Baltistan ; voc. pi. balti, xi, 4 

(Hindostani). 
baldy, f. a calamity, evil (ix, 2), an evil genius, evil spirit, devil, 

fiend (x, 7, 8) ; with suff. of indef. art. baldyd akh, an 

evil spirit, x, 8 ; baldy peyin, may calamity fall on 

him, ix, 2. 
bemdr, adj. sick, ill, v, 1, 3 ; — gatshun, to become sick, v, 10 ; 

— pyon u , to fall ill, v, 1. 
bon, adv. down, below, xii, 15 ; — wasun, to descend, viii, 4 ; xii, 

2, 14, 15 ; bona-kani, below, down below, iii, 2. 
band, adj. shut, tied up ; bar band karun, to shut the door, viii, 3 ; 

kdrin band, he tied up (rupees), x, 2. 
banda, m. a slave, i, 13 ; voc. banda, i, 13. 
banduk-baz, m. a gunner ; pi. nom. banduk-baz, ii, 7. 



bandukh HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 288 

bandukh, m. a gun, viii, 10 ; — Idyun, to fire a gun, ii, 11 ; cf. 

viii, 10. 
bindh, m. one who sees, ii, 2. 
banun, to become, vi, 16 ; to be, vi, 13 ; to happen, ii, 7 ; vii, 22 ; 

viii, 7 ; xii, 1 ; to become, turn out, viii, 7 ; to be possible, 

x, 3 ; banun, inf., is used to mean " fate ", especially " evil 

fate ", hence banana-rost u , free from fated sorrow, vii, 23. 
fut. sg. 3, bani, vi, 13 ; vii, 1 ; x, 3 ; with v added 

(I say to you, " there will happen "), baniv, ii, 7 ; pres. sg. f . 3 

with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. bandn ches-na, viii, 7 ; II past, 

banyov, vi, 16 ; with suff. 1 pers. sg. dat. banydm, vii, 22 ; 

III past, banydv, xii, 1. 
bonth ; bontha-kani, in front (governing dat.), ii, 3 ; iii, 1 ; viii, 

11 ; x, 5, 10, 2 ; xii, 4, 9, 12, 23 (bis) ; pdtashehas bonth-kun, 

(laid) before the king, i, 8 ; cf. bronth. 
benawdh, adj. destitute, vii, 7. 
bandwun, to make ; I past with suff. 3 pers. sg. ag. bandivun, 

viii, 14. 
bene, f. a sister, iii, 9 ; x, 3, 10 ; sg. ag. beni, x, 3 (bis), 10 ; gen. 

bene-hond u , x, 3 (ter), 10 ; doda-bene, a milk-sister, a foster 

sister, iii, 4. 
bunul u , m. an earthquake, xii, 15 (gav, took place). 
bdpath, postpos. for ; mdrana bdpath, he was made over for killing, 

i.e. to be killed, x, 12 ; ami bdpath, for this reason, on this 

account, ii, 5 ; amiy bdpath, for this very reason, ix, 1 ; 

kami bdpath, for what reason ? why ? ix, 1 ; with what 

purpose ? x, 12. 
bar, m. a door ; — band karun, to lock the door, viii, 3 ; — mutsarun, 

to open the door, viii, 3. 
bar (1) ; Bar Khoddyo, O Great God ! v, 7 ; Bar-Sohib, the Almighty, 

vii, 2, 3, 5. 
bar (2) ; m. a load ; wunta-bdr (pi. nom.), camel loads, i, 9. 
bdr u , m. a load, ii, 5 ; sg. abl. heth bdri, taking in a load, xi, 13. 
bardbar, adv. at once, iii, 9. 

barg, m. a leaf ; pi. abl. bargau-soty, owing to leaves, vii, 10. 
broh, adv. (an order) in advance, beforehand, xi, 4. 
bruh, adv. in advance, in front, beforehand, xi, 6 ; bruh bruh, 



289 



VOCABULARY 



bith* 



(walking) in front, iii, 1,2; viii, 9 ; xii, 7 ; cf. pata pata, s.v. 

pata ; dkh bruh, there came to them in front, there appeared 

before them, x, 1. 
bar a m, m. an auger, a drill (poet, for barma) ; bar°m pdnas chum 

kardn, he is making auger(-holes) in my body, vii, 24. 
bdrdri 1 , m. pi. a pair of uterine brothers, viii, 5 ; ag. bdranyau, 

viii, 3. 
barun, to fill, ii, 3 ; viii, 3, 7 (bis) ; ix, 7, 11 ; rath barun u , to pass 

the night, i, 10. 
freq. part, bar 1 bdrl (for bar 1 bar 1 , m.c.), ix, 11 ; conj. 

part, barith, i, 10 ; fut. sg. 1, with suff. 2nd pers. sg. dat. 

baray, ii, 3 ; past masc. sg. with suff. 3 sg. ag. borun, viii, 

7 (bis) ; fern. sg. with suff. 3 pi. ag. biir u kh, viii, 3 ; ix, 7. 
bronth, adv. of time, before, previously, x, 5 ; cf. bonth. 
barish, f. a spear ; sg. abl. barishi soty, (dug) with his spear, 

viii, 7. 
borut u , adj. full ; pi. dat. (for ace.) bariten, vi, 15. 
bdrav, m. pi. grumbling ; — din*, to grumble, xi, 17. 
bardye, prep, for the sake of ; on account of ; for the purpose of ; 

by way of ; — kombakas, by way of reinforcement, in order 

to give help, xi, 7. 
bus u , m. a gobbet or mouthful of food put into the mouth at one 

time, xii, 17. 
bashe, f. babbling of a child ; shu^-bdshe, infantile talk, v, 2. 
be-shumdr, adj. countless, xii, 20, 1, 4. 
bismilld, interj., bi'smi'lldh, in the name of God ! xii, 17. 
basta, f. the skin ; — wdlun u , to flay, viii, 6. 
bata, m. cooked rice, iii, 1 (ter) ; food generally, vi, 16 (bis) ; -diij u , 

f. a cloth holding a quantity of boiled rice, xi, 18 ; -han, 

a little boiled rice, x, 5 ; -hand, usually f., but m. in x, 3 ; 

-tr6m u , a copper dish holding cooked rice, iii, 1. 
bath, m. boj^bath, sharing ; — karun, to divide into shares amongst 

partners, to take one's own share and give out the other 

shares, i, 7. 
bath, f . word, speech, language ; katha-bdtha, nom. pi. conversations, 

xii, 25 (we should expect -bata). 
bittf, see behun. 



bdta HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 290 

bdta, m. a Tibetan, esp. an inhabitant of Baltistan ; -boy 1 , m. pi. 
Tibetan brothers, xi, 6 ; -garan, in Tibetan houses, xi, 6. 

both u , m. the bank of a river ; bathis-peth, on the bank, xii, 7 ; 
(ascended) on to the bank, xii, 6, 7. 

bath u , m. the face, x, 5 (bis) ; xii, 2. 

botun u , Tibet, esp. Baltistan or Little Tibet, or Ladakh ; sg. dat. 
botanis, xi, 4. 

bots", m. the members of a family, the people of a house, viii, 10 ; 
a husband and wife, v, 9, 10 ; viii, 1 (bis), 2, 5, 6, 13 ; a wife 
(politely), x, 14 (bis) ; sonara-sdnd* bots* z a h, the goldsmith 
and his wife, v, 10 ; pdtasheha-sdnd* (z a h) bots u , the king and 
queen, viii, 1 (bis), 5, 6, 13 ; pi. nom. bots ti , v, 9, 10 ; viii, 
1, 13 ; x, 14 ; pi. dat. batsan, viii, 1, 6, 13 ; x, 14 ; ag. bdtsau, 
viii, 2, 5. 

bdwun, to make manifest, explain a secret, confide a secret, ii, 
4 (bis) ; vii, 21 ; past m. sg. bdw u , ii, 4 ; with suff. 3 sg. ag. 
bdwun. ii, 4 ; past cond. sg. 1, bdwaho, vii, 21. 

be-wopha, adj. treacherous, x, 13. 

be-wophoyi, f. infidelity, viii, 6, 11. 

bdwar, m. belief, faith ; — karun, to believe, viii, 13. 

be-wdsta, adj. without worldly ties, v, 11. 

bay, f . a lady, a mistress ; used as a suffix to indicate the wife of a 
man of a certain trade or profession ; thus, gur l -bay, a cow- 
herd's wife, xi, 12 ; grist i -bdy, a farmer's wife, ix, 1, 4, 6, 
8, 10, 12 ; pdtashdh-bdy, a king's wife, a queen, viii, 1, 2, 3, 
4, 6, 11, 12, 13 ; soddgar-bdy, a merchant's wife, iii, 1, 2, 3. 
sing. nom. iii, 1 (bis), 2, 3 ; viii, 1, 2, 3, 11 (bis) ; ix, 1, 

6 (bis), 8, 10, 2 ; dat. bdije, iii, 1, 2 ; viii, 1, 3, 4, 11, 2 ; ix, 
1, 4, 6 ; xi, 12 ; gen. bdye-hond u , viii, 6, 13 ; ag. bayi, viii, 
1, 3, 11, 2 ; ix, 1 ; grist 1 -bay i(ioi -bdye)-lcun, (saying) to the 
farmer's wife, ix, 1. 

biye (properly abl. of bydlch, q.v.), adv. again, once more, iii, 
3 (ter) ; v, 4, 5, 6, 10, 1 : vi, 15, 6 ; viii, 7 (bis), 11 ; x, 3, 6, 

7 (quater) ; xii, 5 (bis), 10, 3 (ter) ; again, also, ii, 7 ; 
iii, 5, 9 (bis) ; v, 3, 4 (bis), 6, 8 ; x, 1, 2 ; xii, 20, 2 (quater), 
3, 4 (bis), 5 (bis) ; biye Jceh, something more (iii, 8), anything 
else (xii, 18) ; biye Jam, anywhere else, xii, 4. 



291 VOCABULARY bozun 

conj. again, moreover, viii, 6 ; and, v, 7, 9 (bis) ; and 

also, iii, 4, 5 ; akh . . . biye, in the first place ... in the 

second place, both . . . and, v, 9 ; vi, 15 ; xii, 21 ; ta . . . 

biye, both . . . and, viii, 9. 
boy, f. a smell, scent, stink, xii, 15. 
bdy u , m. a brother, viii, 14 (bis) ; sing. dat. boyis, v, 10 ; x, 3 ; 

pi. nom. boy 1 , iv, 7 ; xi, 6 ; xii, 15 ; dat. bdyen, xii, 15 ; 

bdyt-bdrdn*, uterine brothers, viii, 5 ; boif-kdhan, an elder 

brother's wife, v, 10. 
biydbdn, m. a forest, ii, 4. 
bydkh, byekh, or bekh, pron. adj. another, the other, one more, 

hence often, " a second," in the sense of " one more " ; 

sing. nom. bydkh, viii, 9, 14 ; x, 1 ; xii, 4, 10 (fern.), 3 (ter), 

4, 9 (fern.) ; byekh, viii, 1 (fern.) ; bekh, xii, 3, 10 (fern.) ; sg. 

dat. biyis, viii, 5, 13 ; vi, 11 ; xii, 23 ; m. sg. ag. biy i , xii, 

1 (bis) ; fern. pi. nom. biye, x, 1 ; m. pi. dat. biyen, viii, 9. 
The sing. abl. of this word biye or biyi is used as an adv. 
meaning " again ", " once more ", " also ", and as a con- 
junction meaning " moreover ", " and ". See s.v. biye. 

byon u , adj. separate, apart. byon u byon u , adv. separately, each 
apart, vi, 4 ; vii, 14 ; byunuy, He alone is apart from all 
things, or discrete (of God), vii, 2. 

bozun, to hear, ii, 1, 2 (bis), 3, 4 (ter), 5, 6, 7 (bis), 10 (bis), 2 ; 
iii, 1 ; iv, 1 ; v, 7 ; vi, 1, etc. ; vii, 9, 27, 8 ; ix, 6 ; x, 4 ; 
xi, 20 ; xii, 7, 19 ; to listen to, ii, 5 ; vi, 10 ; viii, 1,2; xi, 
1, 15 ; to obey, heed, xii, 20 ; shumdr buz u , the counting was 
heard, i.e. the roll-call was read out, xi, 16. 

In the pass, this verb usually means "to be visible " 
(xii, 22), or " to be considered (as such and such) ", " to 
seem " (viii, 5 ; x, 4 (bis) ), or " to be known or recognized 
(as such and such) ", xii, 3. 

inf. bozun, abl. (forming pass.) bozana, viii, 5 ; x, 4 (bis) ; 
xii, 3, 22 ; fut. pass. part, gatshem bozun u , you must hear me, 
xii, 7 ; conj. part, buzith, vii, 27, 8 ; impve. sg. 2, boz, ii, 

2 (bis), 3, 4 (ter), 5, 6, 7, 10, 2 ; ix, 6 ; pol. sg. 2, with suff. 
1st pers. sg. ace. boztam, please to hear me ; pi. 2, buz { tav, 
please hear ye, vii, 9 ; fut. sg. 2 neg. interrog. bozakh-nd, 

u 



boz'gdr HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 292 

wilt thou not hear ? vi, 1 ff. ; plur. 3, bozan, xi, 20 ; pres. 
part, bozan, hearing, gatsh bozan, go attentively, xi, 1 ; pres. 
m. sg. 3 neg. with suff. 3 sg. ace. chus-na bozan, he is not 
listening to him, vi, 10; with suff. 3 pers. pi. ace. bozan 
chukh-na, he is not listening to them, viii, 2 ; m. pi. 3 with 
suff. 1 pers. sg. ace. chim bozan, they are listening to me, 
xi, 5 ; imperf. m. pi. 3, os l bozan, viii, 1 ; past m. sg. buz u , ii, 
7 ; iii, 1 ; v, 7 ; x, 4 ; xii, 19 ; with suff. 2nd pers. sg. ag. 
buzuth, xii, 20 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. buzun, ii, 1, 10 ; 
also with suff. 3 pers. sg. ace. and neg. buz u nas-na, he did not 
listen to him, ii, 5 ; f. sg. buz u , xi, 16. 
boz i gdr, m. a deceiver, cheat, iv, 1, etc. 
bazar, m. a market, a bazaar, v, 7. 

chih, f . a particle, a very small amount of anything, vii, 30. 
chuh 1, the cry used in urging on a horse, xi, 8. Cf. hdr* hdr\ 
chuh 2, verb substantive and auxiliary verb. 

(a) Verb subst. 1 sg. masc. chus, I am, xii, 1, 23 ; fem. 
dies, xii, 18 ; 2 sg. masc. chukh, thou art, i, 10 ; ii, 2 ; xii, 1 ; 
fem. chekh, viii, 3, 11 ; xii, 13 ; sg. 3 masc. chuh, he is, ii, 
6, 8, 11 ; iii, 1, 2, 7, 8 ; v, 1, 8 ; vi, 7, 14 ; vii, 27 ; viii, 
6, 8, 10, 1 ; x, 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 2 ; xi, 2 ; xii, 2, 3, 15 ; 
fem. cheh, she is, v, 3 ; vii, 29 ; viii, 7, 10, 3 ; x, 6, 7, 10, 4 ; 
xi, 11 ; xii, 10, 9 ; 1 pi. masc. chih, we are, xii, 1 ; 2 pi. m. 
chiv, (if) ye be, vii, 9 (poet.) ; chiiva, ye are, xii, 1 ; 3 pi. m. 
chih, they are, v, 8, 10, 3 ; x, 1, 6 ; xii, 16. 

neg. 3 sg. masc. chuna, he is not, iii, 3 ; iv, 4, 6 ; xii, 2 ; 
fem. chena, x, 6, 7, 14 ; xii, 2 (kore chena khabar, there is no 
news for the daughter, i.e. she does not know), 5, 20 ; 
3 pi. fem. chena, xii, 19. 

interrog. chesa, am I (fem.) 1 viii, 3, 11 ; chukha, art thou 
(masc.) ? xii, 7 ; chwa, is he ? xii, 19, 20 ; chyd, is she ? v, 7 ; 
vi, 7 ; x, 10 ; xii, 20. 

emph. chusay, I (masc.) am verily, v, 11 ; 3 sg. masc. 
chuy, is verily, ii, 2 ; iv, 3 ; vi, 14 ; vii, 2, 3 ; x, 4 ; xii, 14 ; 
fem. chey, iii, 4, 8 ; v, 1, 10 ; xii, 6, 14 ; 3 pi. masc. chiy, 
v, 4 ; x, 12 ; fem. chey, viii, 4. Possibly, in some of these 
cases, the final y is not the emphatic particle, but is the suffix 



293 



VOCABULARY 



chuh 2 



of the 2nd pers. sg. dat., used as a sort of dativus commodi. 
Note that chey, xii, 6, is apparently masc. although fern, 
in form. The true subject is kol in the preceding sentence. 
Cf. cheyey, ix, 6. 

Conditional. 2 pi. masc. chiway, if ye are, xii, 15. 

Used in possessive phrases (tamis, etc.) chuh ndv, (his) 
name is (so and so), ii, 1 ; xii, 8, 18 ; amis chuh tab, he has 
fever, v, 3 ; lukan chuh tav, the people have exhaustion 
(i.e. are exhausted), xi, 13 ; tas chuh d6d u , she has pain, 
xii, 15 ; me-nishe chuh nishana, I have a token, x, 14 ; fee 
nishe chuh nishana, x, 14 ; patashehas cheh khabar, the king 
has news, iii, 3 ; so tas cheh khabar, xii, 2, she has news, she 
believes ; similarly cheh in xii, 4, 5 (he has a wife), 15 (tas 
cheh uk u y niir", she has only one arm), 19 ; amis cheh zandna 
treh, he has three wives, xii, 19 ; ase chih gabar z a h, we have 
two sons, viii, 1 ; neg. ase chma phursath, we have no 
leisure, xii, 17. 

With pronominal suffixes. 1st pers. sg. masc. chum, 
v, 8 (my (husband) is (sick)) ; vi, 5 (chum khoda, it is my 
god) ; vii, 26 (chum tamah, I have longing) ; x, 12 (I have) : 
xii, 7, kyah chum hukum, (what order (have you) for me) ; 
fern, chem, v, 10 (chem bmf-kakan, she is my sister-in-law) ; 
ix, 4 (mdtun u chem bod i -hal, it is to me a prison-house of 
death) ; 3 pi. masc, vi, 3 (sath kuth 1 lari chim, there are 
seven rooms in my house) ; vi, 3 (cyane lohlari chim, they are 
(to fulfil) my longing for you) ; x, 5 (hamsdye chim, I have 
neighbours). 

2nd pers. sing., 1 fern, chesay, I (fern.) am thy, ix, 3, 5, 
etc. ; 3 sg. masc. chuy, is of thee, viii, 13 ; Khodaye-sond u 
chuy kasam, the oath of God is to thee, I adjure thee by God, 
xii, 7 ; fern, chey, she is of thee, v, 10 ; x, 8 (you have her) ; 
xii, 14 (there is a road (wath, fern.) for thee) ; conditional, 
cheyey, if there be to thee, ix, 6. N.B. — This last is masculine 
although feminine in form. Cf. chey in xii, 6. 1 pi. masc. 
chiy (as 1 chiy gabar, we are in the position of sons to thee). 

3rd pers. sing., 3 masc. chus, is to him, he has something 
masculine, ii, 11 ; v, 6 (athas chus ddd u , his hand is sore) ; 



chuh 2 HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 294 

viii, 9 {fata chus, he is behind him) ; viii, 10 {chus cdldn nop, 
he has a letter of dispatch on his neck) ; xii, 3 {chus manz, 
there is in it) ; fern, ches, viii, 6 {nazar ches batsan-kun, he 
looks towards the husband and wife) ; xi, 9 {kala-kdn* 
dombij u ches, the crupper is close to its head) ; neg. patashohl 
chesna, he has no royal state, x, 4 ; 3 pi. masc. led chis z a h, 
he has two rubies, xii, 3. 

2nd pers. plur., 3 sg. m. kydh sabab chuwa, what reason 
have you ? viii, 5 ; fern. neg. chewana paniln u , she is not your 
own, x, 1 ; 3 plur. masc. tsor chiwa tohe, trih chiwa mybn 1 tohe- 
nish, four are for you, and three are mine in your charge, 
x, 5 ; fern, chewa, they (fern.) are for you, x, 1. 

3rd pers. pi., 3 sg. fern, chhekh, nazar chekh o-kun, their 
look is (directed) thither, xii, 23 ; 3 pi. masc. chikh kar, 
they have works, xi, 10. 

(b) Auxiliary. (1) With present participle, sg. 1 masc. 
chus wuchdn, I see, iii, 8 ; fern, ches diwan, I give, vii, 22 ; 
ches kardn, I make, vii, 15 ; ches riwan, I lament, vii, 22 ; 
ches wadan, I lament, ix, 1 ; ches wdldn, I cause to descend, 
v, 4. 

sg. 2 masc. chukh wuchan, thou seest, iii, 8. 

sg. 3 masc. andn chuh, he brings, x, 12 ; chuh andn, xii, 
19 ; behdn chuh, he sits down, xii, 4 ; chuh cewan, he drinks, 
xii, 6 ; dapdn chuh, he says, iv, 1 ; viii, 8, 9 ; x, 8, 12 ; xii, 
10, 1, 4, 9, 20 ; diwan chuh, he gives, v, 11 ; xii, 23 ; chuh 
diwan, xii, 17 ; chuh dazdn, is burning, viii, 13 ; x, 7 ; gatshdn 
chuh, he goes, xii, 4 ; chuh gatshdn, xii, 4 ; chuh kaddn, he 
abstracts, he passes time, viii, 13 ; xii, 4, 11, 17 ; chuh 
khewan, he eats, xii, 6, 17 ; chuh kardn, he does, makes, 
viii, 12, 13 ; x, 8, 14 ; xii, 24 ; chuh katardn, he cuts, x, 7 
chuh lagan, he is being attached, viii, 5 ; chuh lekhdn, he 
writes, x, 13 ; chuh lalawdn, he caresses, v, 6 ; chuh lonan 
he reaps, x, 5 ; chuh laydn, he throws, v, 4 ; chuh nandn 
it is manifest, vii, 1 ; gwash chuh jpholdn, dawn is breaking 
xii, 2 ; chuh pherdn, it moves about, ii, 5 ; chuh pakdn 
he goes forward, iii, 1 ; pakdn chuh, viii, 7 ; xii, 7 ; chuh 
prdrdn, he is waiting, v, 6 ; chuh sholan, is flaming, vi, 6 



295 VOCABULARY chuh 2 

chuh tiildn, he is raising, xii, 1 7 ; chuh gdh trdwdn, is emitting 
light, xii, 2 ; chuh tshundn, he is letting fall, xii, 17 ; chuh 
wuchhdn, he sees, iii, 1, 4, 7, 8 ; viii, 6, 9 ; xii, 4 ; wuchdn 
chuh, iii, 7 ; xii, 19 ; chuh waldn, he wraps, viii, 13 ; wandn 
chuh, he says, x, 6 ; chuh wasdn, he is coming down, v, 7 ; 
wasdn chuh, viii, 13 ; chuh wdtdn, he arrives, iii, 7 ; cAwA 
yiwdn, he comes, xii, 3 ; yiwdn chuh, v, 5 ; xii, 4. 

sg. 3 fern, cheh dapdn, she says, vii, 2, 3, 7, 8 ; ix, 6 ; x, 5 ; 
xii, 18 ; dapdn cheh, iii. 3, 4 ; ix, 1 ; xii, 7, 11 ; cheh gatshdn, 
she goes, becomes, x, 5 ; gatshdn cheh, xii, 23 ; cheh kardn, 
she does, iii, 4 ; likhan cheh, she writes, xii, 11 ; cheh pakdn, 
she goes forward, iii, 2 ; xii, 7 ; cheh wandn, she says, vi, 2 ; 
vii, 1, 20, 6 ; wandn cheh, ix, 6 ; cheh yiwdn, she comes, 
xii, 15. 

pi. 2 masc. chiwa yiwdn bozana, you appear to be, viii, 5. 

pi. 3 masc. dajpdn chih, they say, iii, 3 (people say) ; diwdn 
chih, they give, x, 14 ; chih hardn, (rubies) are dropping, 
xii, 9 ; chih kadan, they pass the time, viii, 11 ; chih kardn, 
they do, make, viii, 3 ; xii, 3, 23 ; chih Idrdn, they run, ii, 9 ; 
chih pakdn, they go forward, xii, 2 ; pakdn chih, x, 4 ; chih 
somb a rdn, they collect, xi, 7 ; chih sdrdn, they collect, xi, 6 ; 
chih tshdrdn, they seek, iii, 3. 

pi. 3 fern, cheh kardn, they do, v, 12 ; cheh gatshdn, they 
occur, viii, 1. 

neg. sg. 1 masc. chusna thah a rdn, I am not standing, 
ii, 4 ; 2 masc. chukhna wdtdn, thou art not reaching, xii, 13 ; 
3 masc. chuna kardn, he does not make, viii, 2 ; yiwdn chuna 
bozana, he cannot be seen, xii, 22. 

neg. interrog. chukhna parzandwdn, dost thou not recognize, 
x, 12. 

emph. sg. 3 masc. chuy dapdn, he verily says, iii, 4 ; chuy 
wandn, he verily says, i, 13 ; vii, 31 ; fern, chey wandn, 
she verily says, vii, 16. 

With pronominal suffixes. 1st person ; sg. 3 masc. chum 
dapdn, he says to me, xii, 20 ; chum diwdn, he gives to me, 
vii, 14, 7, 8 ; chum hardn, my (flesh) is dropping, vii, 24 ; 
chum k a ndn, he sells me, vii, 17 ; chum kardn, he makes 



chuh 2 HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 296 

for me, vii, 15, 24 ; chum mangdn, he is asking from me, 
xii, 4, 5, 11, 4 ; mdzas chum tuldn, he is raising (bits of) my 
flesh, vii, 14 ; chum wuchdn, he is inspecting me, vii, 18. 

pi. 3 masc. chim bozdn, they listen to me, xi, 15 ; chim 
mangdn, they are asking from me, xi, 14. 

3rd person sing. ; sg. 3 masc. chus dapdn, he says to him 
or her, v, 5, 11 ; viii, 3, 11 (bis) ; x, 8 (bis), 14 ; xii, 3, 13, 
20 ; dapdn chus, iii, 4 ; v, 11 ; viii, 9 ; x, 8, 10 (bis), 14 ; 
xii, 3, 5, 10 (bis), 13 (bis), 19; chus lamdn, he pulls 
him, viii, 9 ; chus pewdn, falls to her, vii, 26 ; chus ivandn, 
he says to him, viii, 7 ; chus yiwan, (stink) is coming from 
it, ii, 4. 

3rd pers. plur. ; pi. 3 masc. pata chikh Idrdn, they are 
running after them, xi, 18. 

neg. bozdn chukhna, he is not listening to them, viii, 2 ; 
fern. neg. rozdn chekhna, she is not remaining for them, ii, 9. 

(2) With emph. pres. part, chuh dazon 1 , he is verily burning, 
x, 7. 

(3) With perfect participle, sg. 1 fern. neg. chesna 
tshun u muts u , I have not been set (to learn), v, 6 ; sg. 2 
masc. chukh gomot u , thou hast gone, xii, 4 ; neg. chukhna 
gomot u , thou didst not become, v, 5 ; fern, chekh tsu^muts* , 
thou hast fled, ix, 1. 

sing. 3 masc. chuh dmot u , he has come, x, 12, 4 ; chuh 
6s u mot u , he has been, v, 1 ; chuh gamot u , has gone, etc., 
ii, 4 ; iii, 1 ; viii, 1 ; chuh gomot u , ix, 1, 6 ; chuh kor u mot u , 
he has been made, x, 12 ; chuh pemot u , it has befallen, x, 3 ; 
chuh rot u mot u , he has been arrested, x, 12 ; fern, cheh mumuts", 
she is dead, viii, 1 ; cheh tsuj^miits" , she has fled, ix, 1 ; cheh 
wun u muts u , it (fern.) has been said, vii, 30. 

plur. 2 masc. chiwa ldg i mdt i , ye have arrived, viii, 5. 

plur. 3 masc. chih mumdt 1 , they are dead, viii, 1. 

With pronominal suffixes. 1st person ; sg. 3 masc. chum 
gamot u , he has gone for me (dativus commodi), v, 10 ; pi. 3 
masc. chim diV-mat 1 , I have given them, x, 12. 

2nd person sg. ; sg. 3 masc. chuy gol u mot u , thou hast 
destroyed, ii, 11 ; fern, chey dmuts^, she has come to thee, 
v, 5 ; chey kur^muts", thou hast made it (fern.), x, 8. 



297 



VOCABULARY 



cyon 



3rd pers. sg. ag. and pi. dat. ; sg. 3 masc. chunakh dyut u mot u , 
she has given to them, viii, 1. 

3rd pers. sg. dat. ; sg. 3 masc. kus-tdn 6s u mot u chus wdpar, 
somebody else was with her, v, 4. 

2nd pers. pi. ; sg. 3 masc. chuwa thdw u mot u , you have 
deposited, x, 12. 

3rd pers. pi. ; sg. 3 masc. chukh thdw u mot u , they have 
deposited, x, 12. 

(4) With future passive participle ; sg. 3 masc. chuh 
chawun, (one's fated lot) must be experienced, ix, 6 ; fern. 
cheh wasun", it is to be descended (a place, fern.), ix, 6 ; emph. 
chuy gatshun, (I) must certainly go, v, 10 ; with surf . 3rd pers. 
sg. dat. chus khasun, he must mount, x, 3 ; with sufi°. 2nd 
pers. plur. dapun chuwa, (whatever) is to be said by you, v, 8. 

(5) With conjunctive participle ; sg. 2 masc. chukh bihith, 
thou art seated, xii, 5 ; sg. 3 masc. chuh bihith, he is seated, 
x, 5 ; xii, 4 ; chuh karith thaph, he is holding (it), v, 6 ; viii, 7. 

(6) With negative conjunctive participle ; chuh pakanay, 
it is not yet walked over, x, 1. 

chel, f . a piece, fragment ; pi. nom. chela, vii, 14. 

chalun, to wash ; past sg. m. with sufT. 3rd pers. sg. ag. cholun, 

x, 5 ; xii, 2 ; past cond. sg. 1 chalaho, x, 5. 
chdn, m. a carpenter, x, 12 ; xi, 18 ; sg; dat. chanas, vii, 17, 20 ; 

pi. nom. chdn, x, 5. 
chon u , f. a carpenter's wife, xi, 19. 
chawun, to experience (ix, 6) ; to enjoy (xi, 3) ; fut. pass. part. 

sg. m. chawun, ix, 6 ; pres. part, chawdn, xi, 3. 
cakla, m. a group of villages, a village circle, ix, 10. 
cdldn, m. a letter of dispatch, an invoice, viii, 10 ; xi, 4. 
cenda, m. a pocket ; sg. dat. cendas, v, 5 ; xii, 15 ; abl. ccnda, 

xii, 15. 
carkh, m. a lathe ; sg. dat. carkas khalun, to put on to a lathe, 

vii, 19 ; carkas khasun, to be put on to a lathe, vii, 20. 
carpay, f . a bedstead ; sg. dat. carpayi, x, 5. 
ceshma, m. an eye ; pi. nom. ceshma, i, 3. 
cith*, f. a document, viii, 10 (bis). 
cyon u , to drink ; inf. hyotun cyon u , he began to drink, viii, 7 (ter) ; 



cyon u HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 298 

pres. part, cewdn, vi, 15 ; vii, 31 ; pres. m. sg. 3, chuh cewdn, 

xii, 6 ; past. sg. f . neg. with suff. 3 pers. sg. ag. tresh ceyenna, 

he did not drink water, viii, 7 ; past cond. sg. 3, tresh ceyihe, 

(if) he had drunk water, viii, 7. 
cy6n u , poss. pron. thy ; sg. m. nom. cydn u , v, 9 ; x, 14 ; xii, 16, 8 ; 

cy6n u gatshi, thou should st, v, 9 ; xii, 6, 20, 2, 3 ; emph. 

cydnuy, thine verily, v, 9 ; dat. cydnis, v, 9 (bis) ; pi. m. dat. 

cydnen, viii, 3, 11. 

fern. sg. nom. cyon u , v, 9 ; viii, 3, 11 ; x, 10 ; dat. cydne, 

vi, 3 ; x, 12. 
clz, m. a thing, xii, 19. 
dab, m. a fall from a height ; tori-dab, the fall, or blow, of an adze, 

vii, 18. 
dab, f. (in zuna-dab), a covered wooden balcony on the roof of 

a house ; sg. dat. dabi, viii, 1 . 
dob, m. a hole, or pit, in the ground, xii, 6 ; sg. dat. dobas, xii, 6, 7 ; 

sg. abl. doba, xii, 7 ; doba-hand, a small hole in the ground, 

viii, 7 (N.B. masc). 
dabdwun, to press, squeeze ; dabovith thdwun, to press into (the 

ground), to conceal (in the ground), x, 3. 
dachyun u , adj. right (not left) ; m. sg. abl. dachini atha, with the 

right hand, viii, 7. 
dod, m. milk ; doda-bene, f . a milk-sister, a foster sister, iii, 4 ; 

doda-gur u , m. a milk cowherd, a milkman, xi, 13 ; doda-har, 

m. cream of milk, ii, 3 ; ddda-moj u , f. a foster mother, v, 2 

(ter) ; doda-not u , a milk-pail, xi, 3. 
dod u , see dazun. 
dod u , m. pain, agony, anguish (mental or physical), v, 3, 6, 7 ; 

vii, 1 (bis), 21 ; ix, 6 ; xii, 15 ; sg. dat. dodis, v, 6 (bis) ; 

abl. dddi, vii, 22 ; pi. dat. ddden, vi, 14 ; tas chuh dod u 

pananis dilas, she has pain in her heart, xii, 15. 
dddkhdh, m. a petitioner ; dsus dagdy zdgdn dddkhdh, disloyalty 

(to the king) was watching in him as a petitioner, ii, 5. 
dod i lad, adj. pained, afflicted ; with ay, if, suffixed, dodHad-ay, vii, 9. 
diddr, adj. seeing ; s6hiba-sond u hara diddr, I will do seeing of the 

master, I will see the master, iv, 5. 
deg, f. a large metal pot, a cauldron ; pi. nom. dega, vi, 16. 



299 VOCABULARY dalll 

dagdy, f. disloyalty (cf. dadkhah), ii, 5 (bis), 11 ; dgas-peth dagay 
kariin u , to show faithlessness to one's master, viii, 8. 

d u h, m. smoke ; diwan chuh achen d u h, he puts smoke in (her) eyes, 
he abuses her, v, 11. 

dah, card., ten, v, 6. 

doh, a day ; doh gav, the day passed, v, 11 ; ddh (a rath, night and 
day (adverbially), vii, 3 ; with sufT. of indef. art. doha akh 
banyav, a certain day came, xii, 1 ; doha doha kadun, to pass 
each day, viii, 3, 11 ; xii, 4, 11 ; sg. dat. dohas, by day 
(cf. ratas, by night), xii, 4 ; abl. tami doha, on that day, 
ii, 7 ; v, 5 ; x, 12 ; doha, by day, on each day, xii, 9 ; aki 
doha (v, 1) or doha aki (ii, 8 ; iii, 1 ; v, 1 ; viii, 1, 3 (bis), 
7, 11), on a certain day ; prath doha, every day (adv.), viii, 1 
(bis) ; gen. dohuk u , x, 10 ; fern. dohuc u , x, 10, 14 ; pi. nom. 
doh gay, days elapsed, iii, 5 ; xii, 23. Note the adverbial 
form, othi doh 1 , after eight days, iii, 4. 

diij u , f . a square piece of cloth, a napkin, a kerchief ; bata-diij u , 
a kerchief containing food, xi, 18. 

dujan, adj. pregnant, xi, 7 (f. pi.). 

ddkh, m. the post (for letters) ; sg. dat. dakas, xi, 6. 

dokhil, adj. entered ; karuhukh dokhil-i-mahala-khana, bring them 
into your harem, xii, 19. 

dakhanawun, to lean upon (a stick or the like) ; pres. part. 
dakhanawan, xi, 16. 

dukhtar, f . a daughter ; dukhtar-e-khdsa, (your) own daughter, 
v, 11. 

dil, m. the heart, mind, soul, v, 7 ; dar dil, in the heart, ii, 5 ; 
sg. dat. dilas, i, 7 ; ii, 5 ; xii, 15 ; dilas pyos yinsaph, his 
heart was filled with pity, viii, 11 ; dod u dilas, pain in the 
heart, xii, 5. 

dbV, the gusset of a garment ; in doli-damanas, v, 9, to the skirt 
of the gusset of the garment, i.e. to the skirt of the 
garment. The sg. abl. ddli has been altered to doli m.c. 
See daman. 

doll, f. in kana-doli, closing of the ear, refusal to hear, v, 2. 

dalil, f. a story, tale, narrative, viii, 7, 10, 1, 3 ; x, 1 (quater) ; 
with suff. of indef. art. dalild, viii, 6, 8, 11 ; x, 1 (bis). 



datom* HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 300 

ddlom u , m. leather ; with emph. y ddlomuy, nothing but leather, 
xi, 14. 

dulun u , m. the act of rolling ; pi. nom. duldri* diwdn chuh, he is 
rolling himself, xii, 23. 

dildsa, m. soothing, consolation ; — dyun u , to soothe, ix, 7. 

dombij", f. a crupper, xi, 9. 

daman, the skirt of a garment ; sg. dat. ddmdnas thaph karun u , to 
seize the skirt of a person in entreaty, begging, in making 
improper advances, or the like, v, 9 (bis) ; doli-damanas 
thaph ldyun u , id., v, 9 (see dot 1 ), with the double meaning. 

ddndh, adj. wise ; ddndh waziran, by a wise vizier, viii, 1. 

din, m. faith, religion ; dm-i-Mahmad, the religion of Muhammad, 
iv, 6. 

ddn ti , m. a pomegranate, xii, 22 (bis), 23 (bis). 

dand, m. punishment, fine ; sg. abl. danda dyun u , to give in com- 
pensation (for harm, etc., done), v, 11 ; danda hyon u , to take 
in compensation, v, 11. 

d a nun, to shake out (clothes), to shake (clothes) ; pres. 3 m. sg. 
chuh d a ndn, x, 7. 

donaway, card. both, x, 4, 5, 13 ; xi, 12. 

duniyd, m. the world ; sg. dat. dun l ydhas, xii, 18 (bis). 

dapun, to say (the person addressed is usually put in the dat., 
sometimes with kun added, as in dapdn chuh amis mejeras 
hun, he says to this master of the horse, x, 12) ; to send word 
asking for something, xii, 15. 

inf. dapun gatshis, you must say to her, v, 9 ; fut. pass, 
part, dapun chuwa, (whatever) is to be said by you, (what- 
ever) you have to say, v, 8 ; pres. part, dapdn wuchukh, as 
they said (this), they looked, viii, 1. 

impve. sg. 2, daph, xii, 4 ; say to him, dapus, xii, 20 ; fut. 
dap i zem, you must say to me, v, 8 ; ddphem-na, you must 
not say to me, v, 8 ; ddphekh, you must say to them, v, 7 ; 
past, ddphihekh, you should have said to them, xi, 
15 (bis). . 

fut. sg. 1, dapay, I will say to thee, iii, 4 ; v, 5 ; dapas, 
I will say to him, xii, 19 ; 3, dapi, he will say, x, 1 ; she will 
say, v, 9 ; dapiy, she will say to thee, xii, 18 ; pi. 3, dapanam, 



301 



VOCABULARY 



dapun 



they will say to me, ii, 11 ; dapanay, they will say to thee, 
xii, 16. 

pres. (often used as historical pres.), dapdn (pres. part, 
alone used without auxiliary), say, (he or she) says, ii, 1, 2, 
5, 9, 10, 12 ; iii, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 ; v, 1, etc ; vii, 3, etc. ; 
viii, 1, 10 ; ix, 4 ; x, 7 ; xii, 4, 24 ; they say, i.e. people say, 
iii, 9 : v, 9 ; vi, 16 (ter) ; viii, 4 ; sg. m. 3, dapdn chuh, he 
says, iv, 1 ; viii, 8, 9 ; x, 8, 12 ; xii, 10, 11, 14, 19, 20 ; chuy 
dapdn, he says verily, iii, 4 ; dapdn chum, he says to me, 
xii, 20 ; he says to him or her, chus dapdn, v, 5, 11 ; viii, 
3, 11 (bis) ; x, 8 (bis), 14 ; xii, 3, 13, 20 ; dapdn chus, iii, 4 ; 
v, 11 ; viii, 9 ; x, 4, 8, 10 (bis), 14 ; xii, 3, 5, 10 (bis), 
3 (bis), 9 ; he says to them, chukh dapdn, x, 1, 12 (ter), 4 ; 
f . she says, cheh dapdn, vii, 2, 7, 8 ; ix, 6 ; x, 5 ; dapdn 
cheh, iii, 3, 4 ; ix, 1 ; xii, 7, 11 ; she says to him or her, 
ches dapdn, viii, 3, 11 ; xii, 4, 15 ; dapdn ches, v, 3, 11 ; 
ix, 6 ; xii, 10, 4 ; pi. m. 3, dapdn chih, they say, i.e. people 
say, iii, 3 ; they say to him, chis dapdn, x, 1 (bis) ; dapdn 
chis, ii, 3. 

past sg. 3 m. dop u , said, ii, 4 ; v, 9 ; viii, 1, 13 ; x, 2, 8 ; 
xi, 2, 11, 2, 4 ; xii, 4, 5, 9. 

dopum, I said ; I said to you, dopum a iva, x, 12. 

dopun, he or she said, ii, 7, 9, 11 ; iii, 9 ; v, 6, 8, 9, 10 ; 
viii, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 3 ; x, 2, 5 (bis) ; xii, 5, 13, 9, 21 (bis) ; 
asked from thee, dopuy, xii, 15 ; said to him, dopus, i, 7 ; 
v, 1 ; xii, 1 ; he said for me, dop u nam, iv, 4 ; she said to thee, 
dop u nay, x, 12 ; he or she said to him or her, dop u nas, ii, 9, 
11 ; iii, 1 (quater), 2, 4 (ter), 5 (quinquies), 8 (quater), 
9 (ter) ; v, 1, 4 (ter), 5 (bis), 6 (ter), 8, 9 (quater), 12 ; 
vi, 5, 8, 14, 5 (quater) ; viii, 3 (bis), 6, 7, . 8, 9 (ter), 10, 
1 (sexies) ; ix, 1 (bis) ; x, 6 (bis), 10 ; xii, 1, 4 (sexies), 

5 (bis), 7 (ter), 10, 1, 5 (septies), 6 (ter), 8 (ter), 20, 1, 
2, 4, 5 ; he or she said to them, dop u nakh, ii, 6, 8 ; v, 8 (bis) ; 
vi, 16 (ter) ; viii, 1, 4 (ter), 5 (bis), 10, 1 ; x, 1 (ter), 5 (bis), 

6 (bis), 12 (quater). 

dop u iva, you said ; you said to me, dop u wam, x, 12. 
dopukh, they said, ii, 1 ; v, 7 ; viii, 1, 2 ; x, 1 ; xii, 18 ; 



dar HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 302 

they said to me, dop u kam, v, 8 ; they said to him, dop u has, 

iii, 8 (bis) ; v, 8 ; viii, 3, 4 (bis), 5, 11 ; x, 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 

12 (bis) ; xii, 1 (bis), 17, 23 ; they said to them, dop u hakh, 

viii, 1 ; x, 12. 

3 past, 3 sg. m. dhpyav, said long ago, xii, 24 ; I said long 

ago, dapydm, ix, 4 ; I said long ago to them, dapydmakh, 

xi, 15. 
dar, prep, in ; dar biyaban, in the forest, ii, 4 ; dar dil, in the 

heart, ii, 5. 
dera, m. a lodging, a temporary residence, viii, 9 ; a tent, v, 11 ; 

sg. dat. deras, viii, 9 ; deras-peth, in a tent, v, 11. 
dor u , f . a window ; sg. gen. dare-handis ddsas, to the sill of the 

window, v, 4 ; abl. dari-kan*, (thrown) through the window, 

v, 4 (bis) ; dat. dare-tal, under the window, v, 4. 
dur 1, an ear-pendant ; pi. dat. duran, vii, 11. 
dur 2, distant ; dur Jcadun, to expel, banish, viii, 11 ; shehara dur, 

far from the city, viii, 11 ; abl. duri rozun, to remain at a 

distance, vii, 18 ; note, drdv dur-pahan, he went a short way 

off, x, 7 ; but byuth n duri-pahdn, he sat at . a little distance, 

x, 7. 
darbdr, m. a court (a king's), viii, 11. 
dard, m. affection, ix, 8. 
drag, m. a famine, vi, 15. 
ddrun, to place, etc. ; freq. part, halam dor 1 dor 1 , holding out the 

lapcloth, i.e. begging for alms, ix, 11 ; past masc. pi. 3, 

ztfh* atha dbYnam, long arms are stretched over me, vii, 25. 
drot u , m. a sickle, x, 5 ; sg. abl. drati-sotin, by means of a sickle, 

ix, 5. 
drdv, etc., see nerun. 
darwaza, m. a doorway ; — ihawun, to open a door, viii, 4 (bis), 

11 (bis), 2 ; — trop u nas, she shut the door against him, 

viii, 11. 
dray, etc., see nerun. 

driy, f. a vow ; driy kasam karun, to make a vow, viii, 1 (bis), 2. 
das, m. a window-sill ; sg. dat. ddsas, v, 4 (bis). 
deshun, to see ; fut. pass. part, hah gatshem-na deshun u , no one 

may see me, xii, 22 ; conj. part, dishiih, having seen, v, 2 ; 



303 VOCABULARY dyun* 

pres. part, (for pres. tense), deshdn, (is) seeing, vi, 12 ; past 
m. sg. 3, dyuth u , was seen, vi, 11 (bis), 5 ; viii, 10 ; dyuth u -na, 
was not seen, x, 12 ; dyilthum, I saw, vi, 15 (bis) ; dyuth u m-ay, 
I verily saw, xi, 1 ; dyilthuth, thou sawest, vi. 15 ; plup. 
m. sg. 3, 6s u dyuth u mot u , (a dream) had been seen. 

daskhath, m. a signature ; — Jearun, to make a signature, sign, 
xii, 21 ; abl. ath komn moV-sandi daskhata, she signed it 
with the father's signature, xii, 22. 

dwa, m. a prayer ; dwd-yi-khor, a prayer for welfare, i, 3. 

dawd (vi, 14), dawdh (v, 6 (quater)), m. a medicine, a remedy ; 
dawd-han, f. a little medicine, v, 6. 

dev, a demon, xii, 7 ; sg. abl. deva-zath, the demon-race, the tribe 
of demons, xii, 16. 

dav, m. a channel, drain ; abl. db-dawa-kan, (enter) through the 
water drain, v, 4. 

dawdh, see dawd. 

dawdh, m. a claim ; — gandun, to make a claim, v, 11. 

Bay, m. God ; day 1 , God only, vii, 2 ; voc. daye, God ! iv, 1. 

doy, the belief in two, dualism, as opposed to monotheism, vi, 6. 

doyum u , ord., second ; m. sg. dat. doyimis guldma-sond u , of the 
second servant, viii, 6. 

dyun u , to give ; to make over a person to another's charge, viii, 11. 
anith dyun u , to bring and give, xii, 4 ; dab dyun u , to give 
blows, vii, 18 ; dyutun bd^shi-soty doba-hand, he made a small 
hole in the ground with his spear, viii, 7 ; achen d u h diwdn 
chuh, he is giving smoke in the eyes, he abuses, v, 11 ; duldn 1 
din 1 , to roll oneself about, xii, 23 ; dildsa dyun u , to comfort, 
ix, 7 ; danda dyun u , to give in compensation, v, 11 ; tas 
gardan din u , to behead him, ii, 8 ; graye ches diwdn, I am 
causing to wave, vii, 11 ; hukum dyun u , to give an order, 
x, 5, 9, 13 ; halam bar 1 bar 1 dyun u , to fill the lap-skirt (of a 
beggar), to give alms, ix, 11 ; jalwa dyun u , (of God) to give 
forth glory, to become manifest, vi, 7 ; kadam dyun u , to set 
forth (kun = to), x, 11, 2 ; khashdyuri", to cut, v, 4, 6 ; krekh 
din u , to make an outcry, v, 7 ; xii, 7 ; karith dyun u , to do 
completely, x, 12 ; muslas dyut u kas a m, he pronounced a 
charm over the skin, xii, 22 ; makh dyun u , to hit with an 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 304 

axe, vii, 14 ; anun ndd dith, to send for (a person), summon, 
x, 12 ; xii, 17 ; ndla dimaho, I would give cries, vii, 23 ; 
ndr dyun u , to set alight (to), to set on fire (dat. of obj.), xii, 
21, 2, 4 ; phahi dyun u , to impale, v, 10 ; phanjdd dyun u , 
to lay a complaint, x, 2 ; phash dyun u , to rub, v, 4 ; rukhsath 
dyun u , to give leave to depart, xii, 25 ; rapat dyun u , to 
make a report, v, 9 ; shemsher dits u n shdnd, he put the sword 
under the pillow, x, 7 ; amis shdph dyun u , to pronounce 
a charm over him, xii, 15 ; sawdl dyun u , to present a petition, 
x, 5 ; tarn chum diwdn, he is causing me to be weary, vii, 17 ; 
thaph din", to seize (dat. of obj.), viii, 7 ; xii, 12 ; wdday 
Khodd dyun u , to swear by God, xii, 7 ; wurdi din", to give an 
order, vi, 16 ; wotamukh* dyun u , to put on upside down, 
v, 9 ; zir" din", to give a push, x, 7 (bis). 

inf. dyun" ; sg. obi. dini, in order to give, ix, 7 ; fut. pass, 
part. m. sg. ropaye hath gatshem dyun u , you must give me 100 
rupees, x, 6 ; so, m. pi. gatshanam din*, you must give them 
to me, x, 1 ; f . sg. gatshem bakh a coyish din", you must give 
me a present, xii, 3 ; conj. part, dith, vi, 7 ; x, 12. 

impve. sg. 2, dih ; di-sa, give, sir, x, 8 ; dim, give to me, 
iii, 1 ; v, 11 (bis) ; viii, 3 ; xii, 4, 7, 15, 8 ; dis, give to her, 
xii, 4 ; dikh, give to them, viii, 11 ; pi. 2, diyiv, give ye, 
x, 12 ; xii, 21 ; give ye to me, diyum, vi, 16 ; pol. impve. 
sg. 2, dita, please give thou, v, 9 ; x, 4 ; with emph. y, ditay, 
v, 2 ; please give to me, ditam, x, 5 ; fut. dizikh, thou must 
give to them, xii, 16. 

fut. sg. 1, dima ; I shall give to thee, dimay, v, 8, 11 ; 
xii, 4, 7 ; with irreg. suff. 2nd person pi. dimav, (I say to you) 
I shall give, ii, 8 ; 3, diyi ; she will give to thee, diyiy, xii, 
14 ; pi. 1, dimaw ; we shall give to thee, dimoy, x, 1. 

pres. m. sg. 3, chuh diwdn, he gives, v, 11 ; xii, 17 (bis), 
22 ; he gives to me, chum diwdn, vii, 14, 7, 8 ; pi. 3, diwdn 
chih, they give, x, 14 ; f. sg. 1, ches diwdn, I give, vii, 11, 22 ; 
3, cheh diwdn ; she gives to him, diwdn ches, xii, 4, 14. 

past m. sg. dyut u , he was given, v, 9 ; viii, 11, 2 ; x, 2 ; 
xii, 22 (bis) ; I gave for you, dyutum a wa, x, 12 ; gave to him, 
dyutus, i, 10 ; xii, 4 ; he or she gave, dyutun, v, 4 (bis) ; 



305 VOCABULARY gadun 

viii, 4, 7 ; x, 5, 9, 11, 2, 3 ; xii, 15 (bis), 25 ; with emph. y, 
dyutun u y, li, 7 ; lie or she gave to him or her, dyut u nas, 
i, 9 ; v, 6 ; viii, 9 ; x, 6 ; xii, 5, 7 (bis), 11, 5, 6 (bis), 22 ; 
he or she gave to them, dyut u nakh, ii, 7 ; x, 5 ; xii, 17 ; 
dyutukh, they gave, v, 10 ; x, 5 ; xii, 17, 24 ; pi. dit 1 , they 
were given, xi, 17 ; I gave, ditim, x, 12 (bis) ; I gave to 
them, ditfmakh, ix, 11 ; he or she gave, ditin, vii, 5 ; x, 2 ; 
he gave to him, diVnas, x, 14. 

f. sg. dits u , she was given, vi, 16 ; given to him, dits u s, 
viii, 7 ; he gave, dits^ti, x, 7 (ter) ; xii, 7, 12 ; he or she gave 
to him or her, dits u nas, v, 9 ; x, 8 ; they gave, dits u kh, iii, 8 ; 
they gave to him, dits u has, x, 5. 

perf. m. sg. chunakh dyut u mot u , she has given to them, 
viii, 1 ; pi. chim diVmat 1 , I have given, x, 12. 

plup. m. sg. 6s u dyut u mot u , had been given, x, 12 ; she had 
given to him, 6s u nas dyut u mot u , v, 6 ; pi. they had been given 
to you, oshva dit i mdt i ) x, 12. 

past cond. sg. 1, dimaho, vii, 23 ; I would have given to 
them, dimahakh, vii, 20 ; 3, ma diyihe, he would not have 
given, viii, 13. 

dydr, m. pi. coined money, wealth, x, 1, 6 ; mohara-dyar, coin- 
wealth, money in cash, i, 9. 

dozakh, m. hell ; sg. dat. dozakhas (for dozakhas-manz), in hell, 
xii, 19, 20. 

dazun, to burn ; pres. m. sg. 3, chuh dazdn, (a lamp) is burning, 
viii, 13 ; x, 7 ; with emph. *, chuh dazdn 1 , is verily burning, 
x, 7 ; past sg. m. 3, dod u , he was burnt up, xii, 25. 

gob, adj. invisible ; — gaishun, to become invisible, iii, 6. 

gobur, m. dial, for gpbur, s, son ; pi. nom. gabar, viii, 1, 3 ; 
xii, 15. 

gad, f . a fish ; gada-hath, a hundred fish, i, 8, 9. 

g*d u , a bunch or handful of grass or the like ; pi. nom. geje ; geje 
karane, to make bundles of grass, hence, met. to crowd 
together, xi, 10. 

god, m. a beginning ; abl. goda, first, at first, iv, 2 ; v, 9 ; viii, 3 ; 
xi, 5 ; xii, 15. 

gadun, i.q. garun, q.v. 



gddan HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 306 

godan, adv. first, at first, iii, 1 ; x, 12 ; xi, 2, 3, 10 ; emph. godaniy, 

at the very first, viii, 10 ; x, 3, 10 ; xii, 4, 6. 
godanuk u , adj. first, the first, viii, 13 ; with emph. y, godanuhuy, 

the very first, viii, 5 ; f. gen. godanice-handi khota, (more 

beautiful) than the first, xii, 10. 
gudarun, conj. 3, to happen, occur ; inf. gudarun, a happening, 

occurrence, viii, 5 ; 2 past m. sg. 3, gudariv, for gudaryov, 

v, 9. 
gadoyi, f . begging, mendicity, the condition of a beggar ; sg. gen. 

gadoyiye-hond u , x, 2. 
gdh, m. brightness, brilliancy, lustre ; — Irdwun, to emit light, 

x, 2. 
gdh, m. a place, a time, a turn ; gdh begdh, in and out of season, 

vi, 2 ; shora-gdh, a time or opportunity for outcry, a pro- 
clamation, vi, 13. 
geje, see ged u . 
goj u nas, see gdlun. 
gal, f. a feeling of shame caused by another's action, mortification, 

humiliation, ix, 4. 
gul u , m. the forearm ; gut 1 ganddri 1 , to stand in a reverent attitude, 

with the arms folded in front, v, 9. 
goldm, m. a servant, a slave, viii, 6 (quinquies), 7, 11, 3 (bis) ; sg. 

dat. goldmas, viii, 11 ; ag. goldman, vi, 14 ; viii, 7, 8, 11 ; 

voc. ay goldm, viii, 6, 8, 11 ; pi. nom. goldm, viii, 5, 13. 
galun, to be destroyed ; fut. pass. part, suh gotsh u galun u , he must be 

destroyed, xii, 10 ; fut. sg. 3, gali, xii, 24 ; past. m. pi. 3, 

gal 1 , xii, 25. 
gdlun, to destroy ; to cause to waste away ; past f . sg. goj u nus, 

he caused me (fern.) to waste away, he pared me down, 

vii, 19 ; perf . m. sg. chuy gdl u mot u , thou hast destroyed, 

ii, 11. 
gam, m. a village.; pi. dat. gdman, xi, 8. 
gumroyi, f . going astray ; gayem gumrbyl, I went astray (lit. going 

astray happened to me), vii, 12. 
gamot u , gomot u , gdmot u , see gatshun. 
gdn, m. the keeper of a brothel, a prostitute's bully ; used as a 

term of contempt after another noun, as in hapath-gdn, 



307 VOCABULARY gor 

a wretch of a bear (ix, 2) ; kut a wdl-gan, the wretch of a police- 
captain (v, 9) ; wdtal-gdn, a wretch of a sweeper (xi, 15). 
sg. dat. gdnas, v, 9 (bis) ; ix, 2 ; voc. gdnau, xi, 15 (used by 
a wife to her husband). 

gand, m. a knot ; taih gand karun, to tie it up (in a parcel), x, 3. 

gpnd u , m. a posy, bunch ; poshe-gdnd u , a posy of flowers, v, 4 (ter). 

gond u , m. the Turkestan pack-saddle, consisting of two straw-filled 
pommels joined in front ; pi. nom. gand 1 , xi, 9. 

gandun, to tie, to bind, iii, 8 (an ass was tied up), v, 6 ; the thing 
to which the object is tied is put in the dat. (v, 10, 2 ; x, 2, 5). 
gut 1 ganddn 1 , to stand in a reverent attitude with the arms 
folded, v, 9 ; ddwdh gandun, to present a claim in court, 
v, 11. Conj. part, (in sense of past part, pass.) gandith, 
iii, 8 ; impve. fut. gdn&zes, you must tie it, v, 6 ; past m. 
sg. gondun, he or she tied, v, 10, 2 ; ddwdh gond u nas, she made 
a claim to him, v, 11 ; m. pi. gand 1 , were bound, v, 9 ; gdndin, 
he tied them, x, 2 ; plup. m. pi. osis gdndhndt 1 , he had tied 
them on it, x, 5. 

gondii, m. sin ; — karun, to sin, viii, 11 (bis). 

gun", a piece or gobbet of flesh or the like ; pi. nom. gane karith, 
having cut up, viii, 13 ; chuh katardn gane, he cuts it into 
lumps, x, 7. 

gopoP, f. a female dancer, a singing girl, v, 10 (bis), 11 (bis). 

gar, see dhan-gdr and ndn-gdr. . 

gara, m. a house ; — gatshun, to go to a house, to go home, v, 9, 10 ; 
xii, 4 (bis), 19 ; — tsalun, to run away home, v, 5 ; — wStun, 
to arrive at a house, to reach home, iii, 2, 3 (bis) ; v, 1, 4 ; 
x, 4, 6, 7, 14 ; 'xii, 1, 5 (ter), 8, 10, 1, 2, 4, 8 (bis), 20, 2 (bis), 
5 ; — wdtandwun, to cause to arrive at a house, to bring 
(a person) home, iii, 9 ; v, 10 ; — yun u , to go home, iii, 1 ; 
v, 5, 10 (bis) ; xii, 11, 3 ; sg. dat. garas, ix, 4 (bis) ; abl. 
gari, at home, iii, 1 ; v, 10 ; xii, 5 (bis) ; gari behun, to sit 
down in a house, to stay at home, x, 5 ; xii, 4 (bis) ; pi. dat. 
gar an (for garan-manz), xi, 6. 

gdre, see gur u . 

gor, in gor-zdn, adj . an ignorant person, hence, an unknown person, 
a stranger, vii, 27 ; xi, 5 ; sg. dat. gor-zdnas, ii, 1. 



gur u HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 308 

gur u ; m. a horse, iii, 8 ; x, 3 ; sg. dat. guris-kyut u , (grass) for the horse, 
x, 5 ; guris khasun, to mount a horse, ii, 11 ; iii, 8 (bis) ; 
guris wothun, to mount a horse, ii, 6 ; abl. guri-petha wasith 
pyon u , to fall from one's horse, ii, 6 ; pi. nom. gur 1 , horses, 
xi, 6 > 8 ; xii, 1 ; gen. guren-hunz ti khazmath, service of horses, 
groom's work, xii, 3 ; abl. wdth* guryau-petha bon, they dis- 
mounted, xii, 2. 

gur u , m. a cowherd ; doda-gur u , a milk-seller, xi, 13 ; sg. ag. gur*, 
xi, 12 ; gur*-bdy, f. a cowherd's wife, xi, 12. 

gur u , f . a space of twenty minutes ; any particular moment of time ; 
abl. soli-gdre (m.c. for suli-gari), at dawn time, v, 7. 

gardan, f . the neck ; tas gardan din u , to behead him, ii, 8. 

garm, adj. warm ; used as subst., warmth, i, 11. 

garun or gadun, conj. 1, to make, form, fashion, forge, work metals ; 
impve. sg. 2, gar, v, 3 ; imperf . m. sg. 3, 6s u gaddn, he used to 
make, v, 1 ; past m. sg. godun, he or she made, v, 10, 2 ; pi. 
gar 1 , were made, v, 4. 

garandwun, conj. 1, to get made, to make (with help), prepare ; 
pres. part, garandwdn, xi, 17. 

gray, f. shaking ; — lagun u , shaking to be experienced, to be 
unsteady, impermanent, ix, 12 ; pi. nom. grdye dine, to 
cause to wave, vii, 11. 

gryust u , m. a farmer, ix, 4 ; sg. ag. grist 1 -bay, a farmer's wife, ix, 
1 (quater), 4, 6 (ter), 8, 10, 2 ; grisV-gara, a farmer's house, 
ix, 4 (bis) ; pi. dat. grlsten, ix, 7. 

gar a z, m. design, view, purpose ; abl. garza panani, for my own 
purpose, vii, 26. 

gorzdn, see gor. 

gdsa, grass, hay, x, 5 (bis) ; xi, 6, 7 ; gasa-gond u , a pack-saddle 
made of grass, xi, 9 ; gdsa-ldw u , a handful of grass, as much as 
is grasped by the hand near the root when cutting it, xi, 12 ; 
gasa-moddn, a grassy mead, a grass-field, x, 5 ; gdsa-raz, 
a hay or straw rope, xi, 9. 

gash or (viii, 9 ; xii, 2 (bis)) gwash, brightness, dawn ; — pholun, 
dawn to break, iii, 3 ; v, 5, 7 ; viii, 9 ; xii, 2. 

gusdn u , m. a mendicant monk, v, 9. 

gdta, m. skill, cleverness ; sg. abl. gdta-san, with skill, i, 6. 



309 VOCABULARY gaishun 1 

gath, f. in gath karua", (of a widow) to do the sail ceremony, to 
become sati, iii, 4. 

gdt u j u , see gdtul u . 

gdtul u , adj. skilful, clever; m. pi. nom. gatH 1 gdtH i i several skilful 
(viziers), viii, 1 ; f. sg. nom. gdt u j u , v, 3, 10. 

gutyul u , a man who wields a gutil, or axe for splitting logs into 
planks, a woodcutter ; with suff. of indef. art. gutfld, a 
certain woodcutter, vii, 12. 

gaishun 1, conj. 2, to be right, proper, advisable ; to be necessary, 
requisite. Constructed with the future passive participle, 
either actively or passively. It appears in these stories 
either in the future (sg. 3 gatshi, pi. 3 gatshan) or in the past 
tense (m. sg. 3 gotsh u ). In the future it has the sense of the 
present. The forms are all easily recognizable in the 
examples given below. 

A . Actively, ktih gatshem-na deshun u , no one may see me, 
xii, 22. 

B. Passively. Here the personal subject is either not 
expressed, or else is put in the dative or in the genitive. 

(a) Personal subject not expressed, anun u gatshi 
phaharawdv, a file is necessary to be brought, i.e. you must 
bring a file, v, 4 ; so, khabar (f.) gatshi aniin", you must bring 
news, xii, 19, 20 ; gatshi atsun u , you must enter, v, 4 ; g. hyon u 
khar a j, you must take expenses, xii, 5 ; dob g. khanuri", you 
must dig a pit, iii, 6 ; g. khasun u , you must go up, xii, 6 ; 
karun u g. gand, you must tie up, x, 3 ; neth a r g. karun u , you 
must arrange a marriage, viii, 2 ; sah g. sangsar karufi", 
lapidation is to be done (to) him, he is to be stoned, viii, 8 ; 
sargi g. kariin u , you must investigate, viii, 7, 8, 10 ; g. karun" 
thaph, you must seize, v, 9 ; g. mangun u bydkh, you must 
ask for another, xii, 13 ; yih g. marun u , you must kill him, x, 
5 (bis), 12, 5 ; sozun u g. sonur, you must send the goldsmith, 
v, 1 ; g. poshakh tulun u , you must take up the garment, 
xii, 6 ; g. kdkad trdwun u , you must throw the paper, xii, 11 ; 
tas g. kala (sar) tsatun u , you must cut off his head, 
viii, 6, 11. 

With pron. sufT. gatshem bakh a coish (f.) din u , you must give 



gaishunl HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 310 

me a present, xii, 3 ; gatshem bozun u , you must hear me, 
xii, 7 ; ropaye-hath gatshem dyun u , you must give me a hundred 
rupees (sing.), x, 6 ; tih gatshem karun u , you must do that 
to me, xii, 3 ; kentshah gatshem ladun u , you must send me 
something, x, 3 ; wolinj u gatshes anun u , his heart must be 
brought (here), x, 5 ; dapun u gatshes, you must say to her, 
v, 9 ; gatshes mohar karun"*, you must seal it, x, 3 ; tse kyah 
gatshiy anun u , what must (I) bring to thee ? xii, 21 ; kor u 
gatshiy asun u , I want a bracelet from thee, xii, 13. 

tsoce (f. pi.) gatshan bog a rane, loaves are to be distributed, 
you must distribute loaves, v, 8 ; tithiy treh gatshan 
sgmb a rdwdn i , you must collect three times as many, xii, 24 ; 
tim gatshan tsatdri 1 , they must be cut, v, 4. 

With pron. sufi . gatshanam din 1 ropayes pants hath, you 
must give me five hundred rupees, x, 1, 2 ; lal gatshanay 
asan*, rubies are required to be from thee, I want rubies 
from thee, xii, 5. 

suh gotsh u galun u , he was proper to be destroyed, you should 
have destroyed him, xii, 1 9 ; yih karun u gotsh u , (that) which 
was proper to be done, v. 7 ; watun u gotsh u , it was proper to 
arrive, I should have arrived, v, 7. 

(b) Personal subject expressed in dative, me gatshi asun u 
(kor u ), to me (a bracelet) is proper to be, i.e. I want (a bracelet), 
xii, 4 (bis), 10 (bis), 13 ; me gatshiy asun u trot u , I want a 
necklace from thee, xii, 5 ; me gatshi watun, I must arrive, 
xii, 22 ; yih tse gatshiy, (that) which thou wantest, xii, 7 ; 
gatshiy anun u meiva (khath), thou must bring a fruit (a letter), 
xii, 21 ; tse gatshiy e asun u okuy kor u , oughtest thou to have 
only one bracelet ? xii, 13 ; tse gatshiy yun u , thou must come, 
xii, 7. Note me gatshi tihanza wolinje, I want their hearts, 
where the grammatical subject is plural, while the verb is 
singular, viii, 11. 

(c) Personal subject expressed in genitive. cy6n u gatshi 
gatshun, thou must go, v, 9 ; xii, 6 ; tih cydn u khyon u 
gatshi-na, thou must not eat that, xii, 16 ; cyon u gatshes 
mangun u musla, thou must ask her for the skin, xii, 18 ; 
cydn u gatshi zyun u somb a run u , thou must collect firewood, 






811 



VOCABULARY 



gatshun 2 



xii, 20 ; cyon u gatshi wdtun u , thou must arrive, xii, 22, 3 ; 
tuhond u gatshi yun u , you must come, xii, 15. 
gatshun 2, conj. 3, to go, i, 4 ; ii, 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, et passim (the place 
or person to which one goes is usually in the dative, e.g. x, 10 ; 
xii, 4, 10, 2 ; cf. however, gaye kdli akis peth, she went to 
the bank of a stream, xii, 2) ; to go, disappear, die, ii, 4 ; 
to go, elapse (of a period of time), iii, 1, 5 ; v, 10, 1 ; viii, 
2 (bis), 10 ; xii, 6, 20, 3 ; to become, iii, 4, 9 ; viii, 11 ; ix, 4 ; 
xi, 3, 18; to happen, occur, ii, 12 ; v, 8 ; vi, 16; vii, 12 
(bis), 3 ; viii, 1 (ter), 3 (bis) ; ix, 1, 6 (bis) ; xii, 15, 23 (kyah 
gom, what happened to me ? viii, 9 ; kyah gav, what is the 
matter ? viii, 11 ; kyah gaye, what was (fern.) it ? x, 14 ; 
gaye trih katha, three stories happened, i.e. there, you have 
had your three stories, x, 1). 

The past tense " became " is often used in the sense of 
" am ", " is ", etc. Thus, ii, 1 ; iii, 9 ; v, 7 ; vi, 6 (khoda 
gav suy, God is He alone, i.e. God is one, there is no duality 
about Him) ; viii, 13 ; x, 1, 10 (kyah gos, of course I am, 
I am no other than), 2 (id.), 4 ; xii, 15 (zab a r gav, it is all 
right). 

Often in idiomatic phrases (mostly nominal compounds), as 
add gatshun, to be completed, come to an end (of night, 
a month, etc.), x, 8 ; xii, 4, 9, 11, 2 ; qsh s kh g., love to befall 
a person, v, 2 (bis) ; beddr g., to become awake, awake, 
wake up, vi, 12 ; viii, 6, 9, 13 ; g. bemdr, to fall sick, v, 10 ; 
gay panas bith 1 , they sat down at liberty from their turn of 
duty, viii, 8 ; gob g., to disappear, iii, 6 ; g. panun u gara, 
to go home, xii, 4 ; hushydr g., to become awake, to wake up, 
v, 5 (bis) ; khalds g., to go free, to be released from this mortal 
coil, to die, iii, 4 ; ropaye hath gom khar a c, expenditure of the 
hundred rupees happened to me, I have spent the hundred 
rupees, viii, 10 ; khosh g., to become pleased, happy, viii, 
1, 9, 14 ; xi, 18 ; xii, 9, 12 ; gos yi:n z a h khosh, these two were 
pleasing to him, he felt affection for them, viii, 11 ; mdra 
gatshun, to suffer a violent death, viii, 13 ; x, 7, 8 ; mushtdkhg., 
to become entranced, enamoured, iii, 8, 9 ; g. poda, to become 
manifest, appear, become visible, turn up, ii, 1 ; iii, 8 ; x, 



gatshun 2 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 312 

4, 5, 7 ; xii, 10 ; phikiri g., to go into anxiety, to become 
anxious, viii, 10 ; xii, 4 ; amis gav shekh, she felt hesitation, 
xii, 15 ; sar 1 gatshun, to be drowned, iv, 3 ; g. thod u wothith, 
to stand up, ii, 3 ; tser gav, it has become late, it is too late, 
v, 9 ; nar gomot u tsheta, the fire had become extinguished, 
xii, 23 ; gos yinsaph, he felt pity, viii, 4 ; me-ti chuh gomot u 
zulm, I also have experienced tyranny, ix, 1. 

With a present participle, gatshun indicates continuous 
action, as in gafshta bozdn, keep hearing, listen attentively 
to the whole, xi, 1 ; gatshiv paran, recite ye continually, 
vii, 4 ; similarly vi, 17 ; gatsh taran, take tribute, and go on 
doing so perpetually, xi v 2 ; gatshu trawan, go on leaving behind 
(at every stage), xi, 11. 

With a conjunctive participle it forms frequent compounds, 
most of them the so-called " Intensives ". Thus, heth gatshun, 
to take away (Hindi le jana), v, 1 ; viii, 3 (bis), 4, 10, 2 ; 
xii, 4, 9, 12, 8 ; marith gatshun (Hindi mar jana), to die, vi, 16 ; 
hath mashith gayes, he forgot the statement, x, 6 ; riirith 
gatshun, to go forth, ii, 3 ; xii, 15 ; phiriih gatshun, to become 
hostile, iv, 3. 

fub. pass. part, me chuy gatshun u , it is verily to be gone by 
me, i.e. I must really go, v, 10 ; cy6n u gatshi gatshun u , thou 
must go, v, 9 ; xii, 6 ; pres. part, gatshan, see pres. and 
imperf . ; past part. gamot u or gomot u , see perf. and plup. 

impve. sg. 2 gatsh, ii, 9 ; iii, 5. ; vi, 17 ; viii, 10 ; xi, 2 ; 
xii, 4, 5, 11 (bis), 4, 20 ; poetical, gatshu, xi, 11 ; pi. 2 gatshiv, 
vii, 4 ; x, 7, 8 ; pol. sg. 2 gatshta, xi, 1 . 

fut. sg. 2 gatshakh, v, 5, 6 ; xii, 18 ; 3 gatshi, v, 8 ; pi. 1, 
gatshav, viii, 3 ; xii, 18 ; 3 gatshan, xi, 12. 

pres. m. sg. 3 gatshan, iii, 6 ; chuh gatshan, xii, 4 ; gatshan 
chuh, xii, 4 ; with pron. sufi\ 3 pers. sg. dat. gatshan chus, 
he goes (to shave) him, xii, 19 ; f. sg. 3 cheh gatshan, x, 5 ; 
viii, 1 ; gatshan cheh, xii, 23 ; imperf. f . sg. 3 os ti gatshan, 
v, 1 ; neg. os u na gatshan, viii, 1 ; m. pi. 3 (two subjects, 
one masc, the other fern.), os l gatshan, viii. 1. 

I past m. sg. 1 gos, x, 10, 2, 4 ; emphatic, gosay, I verily 
became (pleased), xi, 18 ; m. sg. 3 gav, viii, 10, 1 (bis), 3 ; 



313 



VOCABULARY 



ha 



x, 4, 7 (ter), 10 ; xi, 1, 18 ; xii, 1, 4 (quater), 7, 9 (bis), 

10, 2 (bis), 3, 5 (ter), 8 ; with suff. 1st pers. sg. dat. gom, he 

went to me, etc., iii, 1 ; v, 7 ; vii, 12, 3 ; viii, 9, 10 ; with 

suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. gos, he went to him or her, etc., iii, 4, 

8 ; viii, 4, 10, 1 ; xii, 12 ; neg. gos-na, went not for her, 

v, 5 ; with sufL 3rd pers. pi. dat. gokh, he became (pleased) 

with them, viii, 14 ; m. pi. 3 gay, ii, 1,4; iii, 5 ; v, 9 ; vi, 9 

(he and she), 16 ; viii, 3 (ter), 4, 5, 8, 11 (bis), 2, 3 ; x, 1 ; 

xi, 3 ; xii, 6, 11, 23 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. gos, they 

went for him or her, etc., iv, 3 ; v, 4. 

f. sg. 3 gaye, iii, 1 (bis), 4, 9 ; v, 9, 10, 1 ; x, 8, 14 (bis) ; 

xii, 2, 9, 10, 2, 3 ; with sufL of 1st pers. sg. dat. gayem, ix, 4 ; 

emph. gayemqy, it (fern.) verily happened to me, vii, 12 ; 

with suff. of 3rd pers. sg. dat. hath gayes mashith (see above), 

x, 6 ; f. pi. 3 gaye, iii, 8 ; x, 1. 
II past, went a long time ago, m. sg. 3 gayav, xii, 15 ; 

f. sg. 3 gaye (for gayeye), vii, 16 ; viii, 11. 

perf . m. sg. 2 chukh gomot", xii, 4 ; neg. chukh-na gomot", 

v, 5 ; 3 gamot u , x, 7 ; gomot", xii, 23 ; chuh gamot u , ii, 4 ; 

iii, 1 ; v, 10 ; viii, 1 ; chuh goniot", ix, 1 (bis), 6 ; with suff. 

2nd pers. sg. dat. cheyey (not chuyey) gomot", (cf. chey nag, 

xii, 6), ix, 6 ; pi. 3 gamat 1 , x, 7, 8 ; xii, 20 ; f. sg. 3 gamuts", 

xii, 10. 
plup. m. sg. 3 6s u gamot u , i, 4 ; v, 2 ; with suff. 3rd pers. 

sg. dat. 6sus gomot", (love) had befallen him, v, 2 ; pi. 1 

os { gamat 1 , v, 9. 
gav, f. a cow ; sg. dat. gov", xi, 12 ; pi. nom. gov", vi, 15 ; xi, 12 

(bis) ; pi. dat. (in sense of ace.) gov"n, vi, 15. 
gewun, m. a song, iv (title). 
gwash, see gash, 
gaivby*, f . evidence, testimony ; chis Jcaran gawdy*, they give 

evidence to him, x, 12. 
Gaznavi, of or belonging to the town of Ghazni, i, 1. 
guzaran, m. a livelihood ; — Icarun, to make a livelihood, xi, 19. 
ha, O ! (inferior addressing superior) ; ha, Wazir-a, O Vizier, xii, 

19. Cf. the next. 
ha, !, ha ! ; as exclamation, xi, 3 ; governing voc, with -a ; 



hau HATUTS SONGS AND STOBIES 314 

ha phakir-a, Faqir, ii, 3 ; ha Viginah nag-a, Viginah Nag, 

v, 9 ; ha yar-a, friend, x, 4 ; ha Wazir-a (address by an 

inferior), Vizier, xii, 10 ; with -o ; ha phakir-o, Faqir, 

ii, 2 ; ha wazir-o, Vizier (address by a superior), ii, 4. 
hau, pleonastic sufL (poet.), ii, 10. 
ho, pleonastic sufL added to kyah, Mho, what ? (addressed by wife 

to her husband), v, 4, 5. 
hab-jushi, composed of the seven metals (liaft-josh), i.e. iron, 

antimony, lead, gold, tin, copper, and silver, xii, 22. 
hechun, to learn ; impve. sg. 2 hech laijdn 1 nnz\ learn to throw balls, 

v, 3. 
had, a limit ; had panas karun, to make a limit for oneself, to 

consider oneself perfect, vii, 15. 
hihur, a father-in-law ; sg. gen. hihara-sandis sheharas-kun, towards 

the father-in-law's city, x, 12. 
hakh, m. right, duty ; hakh-i Khoday, duty of God, i.e. (a husband), 

sacred to me as God, xii, 15. 
hokh u , dry (of a river) ; pi. nom. hdkh*, vi, 15. 
hakim, m. a wise man, a sage, vi, 14 ; with suff. of indef . art. 

hakimd, a single wise man, vi, 14. 
hukum, hukm, m. an order, command ; kyah chum hukum, what 

order have you for me, xii, 7 ; hukm-i-Mahraj , the order of the 

Maharaja, xi, 4 ; hukum dyun u , to give an order, ii, 7 ; viii, 

4, 11, 2, 3 ; x, 5, 9, 13. 
hekmath, f . cleverness, skill, contrivance ; hekmat-i-Parwardigar, 

the power of Providence, i, 11 ; sg. abl. hekmiits*, i, 12. 
hat, m. condition, state, vii, 9 ; ix, 4 ; hat kyah kor u hakh, an arrange- 
ment of affairs was somehow or other made by them, 

xi, 17. 
hat, f . a house ; bod^-hal, a prison, ix, 4. 
hala, inter j. expressing urgency, look sharp ! be quick, xii, 17. 
halam, m. a skirt, a lap-cloth, apron, ix, 11 ; halam darun, to 

hold out the lap-cloth for alms, to beg, ix, 11 ; sg. dat. halamas, 

v, 4 (bis), 5. 
hamud, m. praise ; h. parun, to recite praises, vii, 4. 
hamnishln, m. a companion, a familiar friend ; pi. nom., id., vii, 

20 <bis) ; dat. hamnishiTwn, vii, 21, 4. 



315 VOCABULARY hond u 

hamsaye, m. a neighbour, x, 12 ; pi. nom., id., x, 5. 

han, dim. suff. f. bata-han, a little cooked rice, a little food, x, 5 ; 
dawd-han, a little medicine, v, 6 ; kdr'-han, a small bracelet, 
xii, 12 ; musla-han, a piece of skin, xii, 21 ; ndra-han, a small 
fire, iii, 1 ; ratshi-han, a very little (of something), v, 6 (bis) ; 
tsheth-han, a little waste food, x, 5. 

hand, a small quantity, x, 5 ; dim. suff. (f. unless otherwise 
stated) aba-hand, a little water, x, 5 ; bata-hand, a little cooked 
rice, x, 3 (masc.) ; ddba-hand, a small hole or pit, viii, 7 (masc); 
kashena-hand, a little scratching, a small amount of scratching, 
xii, 16, 17 ; jpdri-hana, a small hut, xii, 2 ; ratshi-hand, a very 
little (of something), v, 6. 

hani-hani, in small pieces, in fragments, viii, 6. 

hun u , m. a dog, viii, 9 (sexies), 10 (quater) ; sg. dat. hunts, 
viii, 9, 10 (ter) ; pi. nom. hunt, viii, 4 (bis), 12 (bis). 

hond u , postpos. of gen. 

A. Added to fern. sg. nouns ; m. sg. nom. gaddyiye-hond u ; , 
of beggary, x, 2 ; kore-hond u , of the daughter, v, 2, 9 ; 
kathi-hond u , of a word, iii, 5 ; mdje-hond u , of a mother, 
xii, 15 ; miskirii-hond u ; , of beggary, x, 4 (bis) ; naye-hond u , 
of a reed flute, vii, 1 ; phakiriye-hond u , of faqirhood, x, 9 ; 
patashohi-hond u , of royalty, x, 2, 9 ; rots^-hondu, of night, 
iii, 1 ; dat. bene-handis, of the sister, x, 3 (bis), 10 ; bdye- 
handis, of the wife, viii, 6, 13 ; ddre-handis, of the window, 
v, 4 ; Jchotuni-handis, of the lady, x, 7 ; shemsheri-handis, 
of the sword, viii, 13 ; zandni-handis, of the wife, x, 5 ; abl. 
godanice-handi-khota, than the first, xii, 10 ; khotuni-handi, 
of the lady, x, 7 (bis) ; fern. sg. nom. bene-hunz u , of the sister, 
x, 3 ; naye-hunz u , of the reed flute, vii, 1 ; shemsheri-hunz", 
of a sword, iii, 5, 6. 

B. Added to plural nouns ; m. sg. nom. soddgdran-hond u , 
of merchants, viii, 9 ; uvraneciven-hond u , of step-sons, viii, 3 ; 
hatan-hond u , of hundreds, v, 1 ; jdndwdran-hond u , of birds, 
viii, 1 ; ldlan-hond u , of rubies, xii, 5 (ter) ; abl. don-handi- 
khota, than two, xii, 9 ; pi. nom. athan-hand 1 , of hands, v, 6 ; 
f. sg. nom. guren-hiinz", of horses, xii, 3 ; neeiven-hiinz", of 
sons, viii, 3, 11 ; yihiinz", of these, viii, 1 ; pi. nom. don- 



hangata manga HATIM'S , SONGS AND STOBIES 316 

hanza, of two, viii, 4 ; pdtashdhzddan-hanza, of princes, viii, 

4 ; tihanza, their, viii, 3. 

C. Added to an adverb ; yuri-hond u , hither, v, 5. 
hanga ta manga, adv. unexpectedly, iii, 6. 
hdnz u , m. a boatman ; with suff. of indef . art. hdnzdh, i, 4. 
hdputh, m. a bear, ii, 10, 1 (ter), 2 ; hdpath-gdn, a bear pimp, a 

bear referred to abusively, ix, 2 ; sg. dat. hdpatas, ii, 10, 1 ; 

ag. hdpatan, ix, 4. 
Aar 1, every ; ^ar wata', on every path (fem.), ii, 2. 
har 2, m. cream ; sg. gen. doda-hardk 1 , (cups) of milk-cream, ii, 3. 
hdr 1 hdr 1 , the cry used in driving a cow, xi, 8. Cf. chuh 1. 
harud, m. autumn ; har a da-vizi, in autumn time, ix, 8. 
hargdh, if ; hargdh drds-na, if it do not issue from it, xii, 3 (bis) ; 

hargdh-ay wuchihe, if he had seen, viii, 10 ; hargdh kiy ceyihe, 

if he had drunk, viii, 7 ; hargdh My karihe, if he had done, 

viii, 13. 
h a run, to remain over and above ; 2 past m. sg. 3, h a ryov, x, 12 ; 

f . sg. 3, with suff. 3 pers. pi. dat. h a ryeyekh, x, 5. 
harun, to drop ; pres. sg. 3 mdz chum hardn, my flesh is dropping, 

vii, 24 ; pi. 3 lal chih hardn, rubies are dropping (from her 

mouth), xii, 9 (bis). 
hasa, interj. sir! ii, 11 ; v, 7 ; vi, 11 ; x, 4 (bis), 8 ; xii, 1 (bis), 

5, 10 ; sirs ! x, 1 (passim). 
hosh, m. sense, i, 5. 

hushydr, awake ; — gatshun, to awake (intrans.), v, 5 (ter). 
host u , m. an elephant, vi, 16 (ter). 
hata, interj . ; Jiata-sa, sirs ! x, 5 ; hatay, hullo ! (a mother speaking 

to her daughter), xii, 15. 
hato, interj . ; hato kddyau, ho prisoner ! x, 5. 
hot u , smitten ; tsakhi-hot u , smitten by rage, full of rage, vii, 14. 
hot u , m. the throat ; — tsatun, to cut the throat, v, 7 ; sg. dat. 

hatis, viii, 1. 
hath, a hundred ; gdda-hath, a hundred fish, i, 8 ; hath waisi, 

a hundred (years) in age, ii, 12 ; ropaye-hath, a hundred 

rupees, viii, 9, 10 (with verb in sg.) ; x, 6 (ditto) ; ropayes 

pants hath, five hundred rupees, viii, 10 (bis) ; x, 1, etc. ; 

sg. dat. gdda-hatas, for the hundred fish, i, 9 ; mohara-hatas 



317 



VOCABULARY 



hyuh* 



(akis) rosh u , a necklace of one hundred mohars, v, 10, 12 ; 
pi. dat. tsdtas (sic) bdhan hatan-hond u , of twelve hundred 
pupils, v, 1 ; hata-bdd u , hundreds, ix, 9 ; hatabdtf-khdr", 
weighing hundreds of kharwars, ix, 7. 

hots u , m. the forearm, xii, 12 (bis), 15 ; sg. gen. hatsyuk u , xii, 15. 

hdtsh, f. an accusation ; with suff. of indef. art. hdtshd, vi, 9. 

hav, interj. (addressed by a woman to her husband), v, 4 ; xi, 11. 
Cf. hay. 

hawd, m. air, atmosphere ; hatvd-yi-asmdn, the air of heaven, ii, 6. 

hawdh, f. Eve, vii, 7. 

hawdla, m. deposit, consignment, charge, v, 10 ; hawala-y-Khddd, 
in the care of God, x, 7 : hawdla karun, to put in so and so's 
(dat.) charge, to make over (to) as a deposit, v, 7, 12 (bis) ; 
viii, 4 ; x, 12 (quinquies) ; xii, 22. 

hawun, to show, make manifest ; kasam hdivun, to make oath, 
swear, v, 9 ; impve. sg. 2 hav, xii, 14 ; pol. with suff. 1st 
pers. sg. dat. hdvtam, please show to me, v, 9 ; fut. sg. 1, with 
suff. 2nd pers. sg. dat. hdway, I will show to thee, iii, 8; 3, hdvi 
v, 9 ; pi. 3, with sufT. 1st pers. sg. dat. hdwanam, they will show 
to me, iv, 7 ; 1 past m. sg. with suff. 2nd pers. sg. ag. hdwuth, 
thou showedst, vi, 5 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. howun, 
vi, 16 ; xii, 15 ; ditto, with suff. 1st pers. sg. dat. hdw u nam, 
she showed to me, v, 4 ; ditto, with suff. 2nd pers. sg. dat. 
hdw u nay, she showed to thee, v, 4 ; ditto, with suff. 3rd pers. 
pi. dat. hdw u nakh, he showed to them, xii, 18 ; with suff. 3rd 
pers. sg. dat. hdwus, showed to him, v, 4 ; past cond. sg. 1 
hawaho, vii, 21. 

hay, interj. ! (addressed by a man to his wife), v, 4 (passim) ; 
xi, 14, 6, 9 ; (addressed by woman to woman), v, 2 ; 
ix, 7, 9. 

hay, interj., as exclamation, 0! v, 7. 

hyuh u , adj. like ; m. sg. nom. lalas hyuh u , like a ruby, xii, 4 (bis) ; 
tath 1 hyuh u , exactly like that, xii, 4 ; yinsdn hyuh u , like a 
human being, x, 7 (bis) ; dat. badis hihis, to the elder (prince), 
viii, 13 ; zithis hihis, to the elder (prince), viii, 5 ; ag. IdkH* 
hih\ by the youngest, xii, 1 ; f . sg. nom. yinsdn hish u , like a 
man, x, 7. 



hyol u HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 318 

hyol u , an ear (of corn, etc.) ; pi. nom. MP, vi, 15 ; pi. dat. helm, 

vi, 15. 
hyon u , to take, ii, 1 ; iii, 1, 2 ; v, 1, 4, 6, 7 (bis) ; viii, 7 ; x, 5, 11 ; 
xi, 12, 3, 4, 6, 8 ; xii, 5, 12, 20, 22, 23 ; to begin, hjotun cyon u , 
he began to drink, viii, 7 (ter) ; hyotun nerun, he began to go 
forth, ii, 3 ; hyotukh palcun, they began to go, x, 1 ; hets ti n 
woth tshuniiri u , she began to leap, iii, 4 j hets^nas yiii u nend a r, 
sleep began to come to him, v, 6. The conj. part. heth, having 
taken, may often be translated " with ", as in vir heth, with 
the fine, v, 7 ; drdv soda heth, he went off with merchandize, 
viii, 9 ; wazir heth, taking the Vizier, i.e. taking the Vizier 
along with you, xii, 23 ; pdtashdh-kiir* heth tsaldn, running 
away with the princess, xii, 25. 

danda hyon u , to take in compensation, v, 11 ; Jchabar 
hen a , to bring new3, xii, 24 ; mol* hyon u , to buy, x, 14 ; 
rukhsath hyon u , to take leave, depart, xii, 10, 3 ; tsdp i hen 1 , 
to take bites, to bite, x, 7 ; ydd hyon u , to keep in memory, 
xii, 17 ; zima hyon u , to take responsibility (for), to admit, 
xii, 15. 

heth gatshun (Hindi le jdnd), to take away, v, 1 ; viii, 
3 (bis), 4, 10, 2 ; xii, 4, 9, 12, 8 ; heth yun u (Hindi le and), 
to bring, i, 8 ; iii, 1 ; viii, 6 ; x, 12 ; xii, 2, 5, 11. 

fut. pass. part. m. sg. hyon u , xii, 5 ; conj. part, heth, 
i, 8 ; iii, 1,2; v, 1 (bis), 4, 7 (bis) ; viii, 3 (bis), 4, 6, 9, 10, 2 ; 
x, 5, 12 ; xi, 13, 4, 6, 8 ; xii, 2, 4, 5, 9, 11, 2 (bis), 7, 8, 22, 
3 (bis), 4, 5 ; impve. sg. 2, heh, xi, 12 ; with sufL 3rd pers. 
abl. hes, take from him, xii, 20 ; fut. sg. 1, with sufL 2nd 
pers. sg. abl. hemay, I will take from thee, v, 11 ; pres. m. 
sg. 3, chuh hewdn, x, 7 ; f . sg. 3, with sufL 3rd pers. sg. dat. 
and neg. chesna hewdn zima, she does not admit to her, xii, 
15 ; past m. sg. 3, with sufL 3rd pers. sg. ag. hyotun, ii, 1, 
3 ; viii, 7 (ter) ; with sufL 3rd pers. sg. abl. hyotus, took 
from him, xii, 10, 13 ; with sufL 3rd pers. pi. ag. hyotukh, 
x, 1 ; f. sg. with sufL 3rd pers. sg. ag. hets u n, iii, 1, 4 ; v, 6 ; 
x, 11 ; ditto, with sufL 3rd pers. sg. dat. hets u nas, v, 6 ; pi. 
with sufL 3rd pers. pi. ag. hetsan, v, 7 ; ditto, with sufL 3rd 
pers. sg. gen. hetsanas, viii, 7 ; perf . part, f . pi. hetsamatsa, x, 14. 



319 



VOCABULARY 



jay 



hyor u , adj . upwards ; — khasun, to go upstairs, iii, 2, 9 ; -pahan 

khasun, to go a short way up stream, xii, 6. 
hdz\ as a title of respect, holy, v, 9. 
huzilri nokar m. a personal servant, viii, 5. 
hazrath, a title of respect, saint ; hazrat-i- A dam, Saint Adam, iv, 2 ; 

hazrat-i-N oh, Saint Noah, iv, 3 ; hazrat-i-Yisdh, Saint Jesus, 

iv, 4 ; hazrat-i-Musdy, Saint Moses, iv, 5 ; hazrat-i- Yibrdhim, 

Saint Abraham, iv, 6 ; hazrat-i-Yusuph, Saint Joseph, 

vi, 8, 10, 14, etc. ; hazrat-i- Sulay man, Saint Solomon, xii, 17. 
judah, apart ; gaye judah, she went apart, she became separated, 

vii, 16. 
judoyi, fern, separation, vii, 16. 
jah, a place, in gay yeg-jah, they went together, ii, 4 ; kheyev yekh- 

jdh, (you) ate together, x, 12. Ci.jdy. 
jel, i.q.jel a d, quickly, vi, 16. 
jel a d or jel (q.v.), adv. quickly, xii, 15, 23, 4. 
jalwa, m. glory ; — dyun u , to give forth glory ; — dith, giving 

forth glory, in all His glory (of God), vi, 7 ; with emph. y, 

jaloy hdwun, he manifested glory, vi, 16. 
jaloy, see jalwa. 
jama, m. a coat, x, 9. 
jumala, m. entirety ; jumala dlam, (He who is the source of) the 

whole world, God, i, 13. 
jdn, adj. good, vii, 27 ; xi, 17, 8. 
jenda, m. a flag ; — lagun, to set up a flag, to insist on a claim, 

V, 11. 

jenath, m. heaven ; sg. dat. jenatas (for jenatas-manz), xii, 19 ; 

jenatas-manz, in heaven, xii, 20, 3, 4; sg. gen. m. jenatuk u , 

of heaven, xi, 13 ; xii, 21, 2 ; fern. pi. jenatace jaye, places of 

heaven, iii, 7. 
janawar, m. a winged creature, a bird, ix, 1, 3, 5 ; pi. gen. jdndwaran- 

hond u , viii, 1. 
jav, for Hindi jad, go ye, xi, 4. 
jawd, for Hindi jad, go ye, xi, 4. 
jewdb, m. an answer, reply, iii, 4 ; xii, 17. 
jay, f. a place (ci.jdh), ix, 6 ; xi, 12 ; sg. dat. panufiejaye, (seated) 

in his own place, x, 5 ; aih jdye gav bunul", there occurred an 



jyclday HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 820 

earthquake in that place, xii, 15 ; wdt u tath jdye, he arrived 
at that place, xiii, 15 ; wdt u jdye akis, he arrived at a certain 
place, ii, 8 ; viii, 7 (ter), 9 ; tsonukh akis jdye-manz, they led 
him into a certain place, iii, 7 ; jdye akis . . . jdye akis, 
in one place ... in another place, i, 3, 4 ; pi. nom. jdye, 
iii, 7. 

jydday, more ; kam yd jydday, (a hundred) less or more, ii, 12. 

ke, see kydh, 1. 

kabar, f . a grave, a tomb ; sg. dat. kabari wdlun, to cause to descend 
into a grave, to inter, iv, 7. 

kbd, m. prison ; — karun, to imprison, v, 7, 9 (bis) ; x, 5, 12 ; 
— lagun, to become imprisoned, v, 8 ; vi, 1 1 ; kod-khdn (not 
-khdna), a prison, v, 8 ; pi. dat. -khanan, v, 7, 8. 

kud u , see kur u . 

kod 1 , m. a prisoner, a person imprisoned, v, 8 ; sg. dat. kodis, 
x, 5 (bis) ; ag. kod 1 , x, 5 ; voc. kodyau, x, 12 ; hato kodyau, 
x, 5 ; pi. nom. (and ace.) kod 1 , v, 8, 9 ; ag. kodyau, v, 7, 
vi, 11. 

kadam, m. a step ; — dyun u , to set forth, x, 11, 12 ; — trdwun, 
to step forward, iv, 5. 

kadun, or (iv, 2 ; viii, 3) karun, to extract, pull out, viii, 4, 11, 2 ; 
to drag forth (e.g. a person from his house), x, 13 ; to bring 
forth, bring out, lead forth, iii, 4, 8 (ter) ; xii, 1 ; to take out 
(of a receptacle), viii, 7, 10 ; xii, 17 (bis) ; to bring forth, 
produce, exhibit, x, 2, 12; xii, 15 ; to tear out or off, dislocate, 
viii, 7 ; to take off (from something to which the object is 
attached), viii, 10 ; to expel, banish, iv, 2 ; viii, 11 ; to take 
off clothes, v, 9 (bis) ; xii, 6, 7 ; to draw (a sword), viii, 13 ; 
x, 7 ; to pass a (period of time), viii, 3, 11 ; x, 11 ; xii, 4, 5, 
11 ; to while away the time (on a journey), x, 1 ; kadith 
tshunun, to drive out, viii, 10 ; to take off, doff (clothes), 
x, 9. 

fut. pass. part. sg. m. gatshi kadun, he should be expelled, 
viii, 11 ; conj. part, kadith, viii, 10 ; x, 9 ; xii, 6, 7. Impve. 
sg. 2 with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ace. kadun, iii, 8 ; fut. pi. 1, with 
suff. 3rd pers. sg. ace. kadon, x, 1 ; pi. 3 kadan, viii, 11 ; pres. 
masc. sg. 3 chuh kaddn, viii, 13 ; xii, 4, 11, 17 ; pi. 3 chih 



321 VOCABULARY . khabar 

kardn, viii, 3 ; chih kaddn, viii, 11 ; past sg. ra. kod u , xii, 15, 7 ; 
with suff. 3 pers. sg. ag. kodun, iii, 8 ; v, 9 ; viii, 7, 10, 3 ; 
with ditto and suff. 1 pers. sg. dat. kor u nam, iv, 2 ; with 
ditto and suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. kod u nas, viii, 10 ; 
with suff. 3rd pers. pi. ag. kodukh, iii, 4 ; pi. kdd*, x, 2 ; with 
suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. and 3rd pers. sg. gen. kddSnas, viii, 7 ; 
with suff. 3rd pers. pi. ag. kddikh, viii, 4, 12 ; x, 12 ; xii, 1 ; 
f . sg. with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. kud u fi, x, 7 ; xii, 5 ; with suff. 
3rd pers. pi. ag. kud u kh, x, 11. 

kdh, f . the leather lace used by shoemakers for sewing together the 
parts of leather shoes or the like, used where English cobblers 
use thread, xi, 14. 

keh, anything, something ; m. sg. nom. kdh, anyone, i, 2 ; vi, 10 
xii, 22 ; kdh-ti, even anyone, vii, 23 ; kaisi, to anyone, iii, 3 
by anyone, ii, 8 ; kosi, by anyone, v, 9 ; kSh, anything, i, 6 
ii, 5 ; iv, 4, 6 ; v, 8 ; viii, 2 ; ix, 6 ; xi, 15 ; xii, 6, 7, 15 (bis) 
biye keh, something more, iii, 8 ; anything else, xii, 8 ; na keh, 
not at all, ii, 5 ; v, 5 (bis) ; xii, 2. 

As adj . kdh kod 1 , any prisoner, v, 8 ; kdh-ti hosh, any sense 
at all, i, 5 ; keh 1 pron*, some old (prisoners), vi, 11 ; keh, 
any (inanimate thing), vi, 16 ; viii, 1 ; x, 1, 7 ; xii, 5 ; some 
women, xi, 7 ; keh kdld(h), some little time, v, 10 ; viii, 2 ; 
keh-ti, any (sound) at all, viii, 9. 

ke-ho, see kydh 1. 

kih, m. loose hair (from the head), combings, v, 4 (ter). 

kdh, kdh, m. a mountain ; koh-i-tora, Mount Sinai, iv, 5 ; koha-kohai, 
on every mountain, ix, 2. 

klidb, m. a dream, sg. dat. khdbas, vi, 14 ; abl. khdba, vi, 12 ; gen. 
khdbuk u tobir, the interpretation of a dream, vi, 14 ; khdb 
deshun, to see a dream, have a dream- vision, vi, 11 (bis), 
2, 4, 5. 

khub, adv. well, thoroughly, vi, 10. 

khabar, f . information ; news, tidings, xi, 20 ; notice, care, heed, 
xii, 2 (ter) ; be-khabar, an untaught person, vii, 28 ; — anun u , to 
bring news, xii, 19, 20 (bis) ; (tas) cheh khabar, there is informa- 
tion (to him), (he) knows (all about it), iii, 3 ; there is heed (to 
him), (he) believes, (he) is under the impression (that), xii, 



khabardar HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 322 

2 (ter) ; chya hhabar, is there news ? hence, (I) don't know, 
how am (I) to know ? how can (I) know ? v, 7 ; xii, 20 ; 
hhabar din u , to give news, x, 14 ; las hhabar gaye, news went 
to him, information was given to him, iii, 1 ; hhabar heth yun u , 
to bring news, xii, 24 ; hhabar har, news when ? i.e. who knows 
when (such and such a thing happened) ? ii, 4 ; — nin", 
to bring news or information, ii, 16 ; x, 7, 8; xii, 23 ; hhabardh, 
a piece of news, ii, 6. 

hhabarddr, m. an informer, spy, scout, newsman; pi. ag. hhabarddrav, 
ii, 1,6; x, 7, 8 ; xii, 23. 

hhobsurath, adj. beautiful, xii, 4, 5, 10 (bis), 5, 9. 

hhod, a pit ; x, 13 ; sg. dat. hhodas, x, 13. 

Khodd, m. God, vi, 5, 6, 7 ; x, 7 ; Khoddy, verily God, God alone, x, 
8 : az Khoda, from God, vi, 10 ; bd-Khodd, one who believes 
in God, a true believer, xii, 20 ; wdda-y-Khodd, a promise of 
God, an oath by God, xii, 7, 15 (bis) ; hahh-i-Khoddy , the duty of 
God alone, i.e. a husband as sacred to the wife as God, xii, 15 ; 
sg. dat. Khoddy es, vii, 4 ; x, 5 ; ag. Khoddy en, xii, 15 ; gen. 
Khoddy e-sond u -chuy hasam, (I) adjure thee by God, xii, 7 ; 
voc. Khoddy e, God ! iv, 1 ; bar Khoddy 6, Great God ! v, 7 ; 
Khodd-Sob, God the Master, God, sg. dsit.-sdbas, x, 5 ; ag. 
-soban, iii, 8 (ter). 

hhoj u nas, see hhdlun. 

hhal, m. a threshing floor ; sg. dat. hhalas harun, to put (crops) on 
the threshing floor, ix, 9. 

hhdlun, caus. of hhasun, to cause to mount, to take (upstairs), 
x, 7 ; to fix (on to a lathe), vii, 19 ; zima hhdlun, to cause 
responsibility to mount, to prove responsible, x, 12 ; impve. 
pi. 2, with sufL 3rd pers. sg. ace. hholyun, cause ye him to 
mount, x, 7 ; past. masc. with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. and 
3rd pers. sg. dat. hh6l u nas, x, 12 ; fern, with sun\ 3rd pers. 
sg. ag. and 1st pers. sg. nom. hhojunas, vii, 19. 

hhalas, adj. free ; — gatshun, to die, iii, 4. 

hhalath, m. a robe of honour ; hhal a t-e-shohi, a royal robe of honour, 
a magnificent robe of honour, x, 4 (bis). 

hhdm, adj. raw, unripe, green, vi, 15 ; of small value, cheap; 
hham posa, the pice formerly current in Kashmir, of small 



323 VOCABULABY khrdv 

value compared to the British pice worth about a farthing, 

now becoming current ; vii, 25, 6. 
khumdr, m. intoxication ; languor of love, languishment ; pur u - 

khumdr, full of languishment, one who intoxicates another 

with love, v, 2. 
khan, a certain title, used as part of a proper name in Bahadur Khan 

= Bahadur Khan, ii, 1 ; sg. dat. — Manas, ii, 12. 
khdna, m. a house, sg. dat. khdnas, vi, 4 ; kod-khdna, a prison, 

sg. nom (m.c.) kod-khdn, vi, 10 ; pi. dat. kod-khdnan, v, 7, 8 ; 

mahala-khdna, a palace, xii, 19. 
khen, m. food, xii, 16, 17. 
khon, f . the haunch ; sg. dat. khoni-keth, (canying) on the haimch, 

xi, 13. 
khanun, to dig ; fut. pass. part. m. sg. gatshi dob khanun u , you must 

dig a pit, xii, 6. 
khanandwun, to cause to be dug ; past m. sg. with suff. 3rd pers. 

sg. ag. khanandtvun, x, 13. 
Jchar, m. an ass ; iii, 8, 9 ; v, 7 (bis) ; sg. dat. khot u kharas, he 

mounted the ass, iii, 8. 
khdr, m. a blacksmith ; sg. voc. khdra, ii, 12 ; vi, 17 ; pi. ag. 

khdrav, xi, 17 ; Wahab Khar, or Wahb the Blacksmith, is the 

name of the author of stories ii and vi. 
khdr (v, 5) or khdr (v, 9), m. the foot ; sg. dat. khdran, v, 9 ; shdnda 

karun khdr, to go from the pillow to the foot of the bed, v, 5 ; 

khdra karun shdnd, to go from the foot of the bed to the pillow, 

v, 5. 
khdr, m. welfare ; divd-yi-khor, a prayer for welfare, a blessing, i, 3. 
kh6r u , a thing which weighs a khdr or kharwdr, i.e. an ass's load ; 

sg. dat. hatabdd i -khdris dray, they turned out (i.e. amounted) 

to hundreds of kharwdrs, ix, 9. 
khar a c (viii, 10) or khar a j (xii, 4, etc.), m. expenditure ; expenses, 

money to be spent for any purpose ; xii, 4 (bis), 5 (bis), 11, 

20 ; khar a c gom, expenditure has occurred by me, I have 

spent, viii, 10. 
khdrdth, m. alms, v, 9. 
khrdv, m. the clog, patten, or wooden soles worn by Kashmiris in 

winter ; nom. (ace.) plur. khrdv, v, 9. 

Y 



khasa HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 324 

khdsa, adj. peculiar, special ; personal, own ; choice, select, 
excellent, ii, 3 ; dukhtar-e-khdsa, thine own daughter, v, 11. 

kh6s u , m. a kind of metal cup ; pi. nom. khos\ ii, 3. 

Mash, m. a cut ; — dyun u , to cut, v, 4 (bis), 6. 

khosh, adj. pleased, happy ; — gatshun, to become happy, to become 
pleased, viii, 1, 9 ; xii, 9 ; — gosay, I became pleased about 
thee, xi, 18 ; gos — , he became pleased with him, xii, 12 ; 
gdkh, — , he became pleased with them, viii, 14 ; gos — , 
they became pleasing to him, i.e. he loved them, viii, 11 ; 
yih pdtashehas — Jcari, that which will make the king pleased, 
whatever will please the king, xii, 3. 

khashem, m. anger, wrath ; yimau amis phakiras — kor u , by them 
to that faqir wrath was made, i.e. they were made angry 
with the faqir, ii, 3. 

khasun (1 p.p. khol u or khoth u ), to rise, arise ; to rise, come up 
(out of water), i, 6, 8 ; xii, 11, 2 ; to rise, go up, go upstairs, 
iii, 2, 9 ; x, 8 (bis) ; xii, 7 ; to get up on to (e.g. on to a bed, 
or a funeral pyre, governing dat., with or without peth), iii, 7 ; 
v, 5, 6, (bis) 9 ; x, 7 (bis) ; xii, 21, 4 ; to mount (a horse, etc., 
guris or guris-peth), ii, 6, 11 ; iii, 8 (quater) ; to ride (a 
horse), (gur u chus khasun u , he has a horse on which to ride), 
x, 3 ; carkas khuts u , she mounted on to the lathe, she was fixed 
on the lathe (for being turned), vii, 20 ; kali kali khasun, to go 
up stream, xii, 6 ; kalsi chuna khasan zima, the responsibility 
rises on no one, no one can be made responsible, or, as we 
should say, the responsibility falls on no one, iii, 3 ; kotyah 
khdtis mar, how many murders have risen for him, i.e. of how 
many murders is he guilty ! ix, 5 ; pdtashehas khot u zahar, 
poison arose to the king, i.e. he became enraged, viii, 7. 

Fut. pass. part. sg. m. khasun u , x, 3 ; xii, 5 (gatshi khasun u , 
you must go up) ; impve. sg. 2 khas, iii, 8 (bis) ; fut. sg. 2 
khasakh, v, 6 ; 3 with suff. 2nd pers. sg. dat. khasiy, xii, 11 
(there will arise before you) ; pres. m. sg. 3 neg. chuna 
khasan, iii, 3 ; imperf . sg. m. 3 with surl 3rd pers. sg. dat. 
neg. 6sus-na khasan, i, 6 ; 1 past sg. m. 3 khot u , i, 8 ; ii, 11 
iii, 7, 8 (bis), 9 ; v, 5, 6 ; viii, 7 ; x, 7, 8 ; xii, 12, 21, 4 
khoth u , ii, 6 ; x, 7 ; pi. 1 khdt 1 , v, 9 (we, i.e. one m. and one f.) 



325 VOCABULARY khyon" 

3 khdt\ x, 8 ; with sufL 3rd pers. sg. dat. khdtis, ix, 5 ; f. sg. 

3 khiits", iii, 2 ; vii, 20 ; xii, 7. 
khdta, postpos. than ; ddn-handi khdta, (more beautiful) than the 

two, xii, 19 ; gddafiice-handi khdta, (more beautiful) than 

the first (girl), xii, 10. In ami khdta haway bdh, iii, 8, I will 

show thee more than that, the word " more " is not expressed. 
khdt u , adj. false, base, counterf eit ; (of a jewel) flawed, xii, 3. 
khath, m. a letter, a document, xii, 22, 3 (ter) ; moV-sandi daskhata 

khath, a letter signed by (my) father, xii, 21. 
kJiatun, to conceal ; conj. part. khatith, having concealed (sc. 

yourself), secretly, xii, 6. 
khdtmia, f . a noble woman, a lady, x, 12 ; xii, 18, 9 (bis), 20, 5 ; 

with suff. of indef. art. khdtuna akh, a certain lady, v, 11 ; 

xii, 15 ; sg. dat. khdtuni, x, 7 (bis) ; xii, 15 ; ag. khotuni, 

xii, 15 (quater), 8, 22 ; gen. khotuni-handis shikamas-manz 

(x, 7) or khdtuni-shikamas-manz (x, 7), in the lady's belly; 

khdtuni-handi shikama-mafyza, from in the lady's belly, x, 

7 (bis). 
khotir, m. carnal desire, viii, 3. 
khawand, m. a master, a lord, viii, 10 (of a dog) ; a woman's husband, 

iii, 1, 2, 3, 4 ; v, 1, 8, 10, 1, 2 ; x, 5 (bis), 12 ; xi, 11 ; xii, 18 ; 

sg. dat. khdwandas, iii, 4 ; v, 8, 10, 2 ; xi, 11 ; xii, 18 ; 

khawandas nishin, (go) to (your) master, viii, 10 ; sg. gen. 

fern, khdwanda-sunz", iii, 2. 
kh6wur u , adj. left (not right) ; — atha, the left hand, viii, 7. 
khyon u , to eat ; to consume unlawfully, misappropriate, x, 2. 

inf. obi. wath 1 kheni, they got down (in order) to eat, x, 5 ; 

fut. pass. part. m. sg. tih cy6n u khyon u gatshi-na, you must 

not eat that, xii, 16 ; pres. part, chuh hihith kheivan, he is 

seated eating, xii, 4 ; impve. sg. 2, kheh, iii, 1 ; (dial.) khyuh, 

x, 5 ; (dial.) khyo, x, 12 ; pol. sg. 2, with suff. 1st pers. sg. 

dat. khetam, eat for my sake, iii, 1 ; fut. sg. 2, khezi, xii, 

16 (bis), 
fut. sg. 1 khema, viii, 11 ; with suff. 2nd pers. sg. dat. 

khemay, I will eat for thy sake, iii, 1 ; do. with neg. khemay-na, 

I will not eat for thy sake, iii, 1 ; 2, with neg. interrog. 

khekh-na, wilt thou not eat ? ii, 3 ; vi, 2 ; 3, kheyi, xii, 15. 



khazmath HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 326 

pres. m. sg. 3 chuh khewdn, xii, 6, 17 ; imperf. m. sg. 3, 

with neg. khewdn 6s u -na, he used not to eat, vi, 16. 

1 past m. sg. khyauv, x, 12 ; khev, ii, 2 ; with suff. 3rd 

pers. sg. ag. khyon, vi, 16 (bis) ; x, 5 ; pi. (dial, for khyey) 

khey, x, 2 ; f . sg. with suff. 2nd pers. pi. ag. (dial, for kheyewa) 

kheyev, x, 12. 
khazmath (xii, 3) or khizmath (ii, 3), f . service ; guren-hunz^ khazmath 

karakh, I will do service of horses for them, i.e. I will do groom's 

work, xii, 3. 
kdkad, m. paper, a piece of paper, xii, 11, 2, 5 (quinquies), 6, 7, 

8 (bis), 22 ; — likhun, to write a paper, xii, 11 ; sg. dat. 

kdlcadas, xii, 16, 7 ; cf. kakaz. 
kdkan, f . the wife of the eldest son in a Hindu family ; boy^kdkan, 

an elder brother's wife, v, 10. 
kokur, m. a fowl ; kokar-gdm, a fowl village, a village the speciality 

of which is rearing fowls, xi, 8. 
kakaz, m. paper, viii, 10. Cf. kakad* 
kal, time ; with suff. indef . art. keh kola gav (v, 10) or keh kalah gav 

(viii, 2), some short time passed ; warayah kalah gav, a very 

long time passed, viii, 2 ; warayah kal, for a very long time, 

viii, 2 ; sg. dat. wdraydhas kdlas, for (during) a long time, 

iii, 1. 
Jcala, the head, iii, 1, 5, 9 ; kala tsatun, to behead, iii, 2 ; viii, 6 ; 

abl. kala-kari 1 , in the direction of the head, at the head end 

(of an animal), xi, 9 ; kala-peth* tshunun" woth, to leap over 

(so and so's) head, ii, 9. 
kol, f . a small river, a stream ; sg. dat. koli-manz, in the stream, 

xii, 2 ; gaye koli akis peth, she went to the bank of a stream, 

xii, 2 ; abl. koli koli khasun, to go up along the stream, to 

go up stream, xii, 4 ; koli-manza, from in the stream, xii, 4. 
kdl u , adj. of or belonging to time ; yuts u -k6l u , of or belonging to 

a long time ago, ii, 4. 
kul u , m. a tree ; abl. kuli-dadari-manz, in the tree-hole, in the 

hole in the tree, ii, 10. 
kdlacen, adv. in the evening, at eventide, v, 5 ; viii, 3. 
kalam, m. a pen ; kalama sotin likhun, to write with a pen, 

ix, 12. 



327 



VOCABULABY 



kani 



kuluph, m. a lock. — thdwun, to open a lock, to unlock a door, 

iii, 8 (bis). 
kolay, f. a wife, iii, 4 ; v, 3, 5 ; viii, 3, 11 ; sg. ag. kdlayi, v, 9. 
tow 1, adj. less, deficient, iv, 4, 6; kamyd jydday, less or more, 

more or less, ii, 12. 
kam 2, Mm*, fojm?', see kydh 1. 
&om", f . a thing done, a deed : a business ; kom* cheh pakawiin u , 

the business is one that marches, i.e. it involves marching, 

xi, 1 1 ; in the stories, kiir u kom", he, she, or they, did a deed, 

is equivalent to the English, " what do you think he, she, 

or they did," " what did he do but," ii, 5, 7 ; viii, 4 ; 

x, 7 (bis), 12, 4 ; xii, 22 ; so, with suff. of indef. art. kur^n 

(x, 2) or kur u (x, 3) kbm^dh. 
kombakh, m. help, aid, assistance, the reinforcement (of an army) ; 

sg. dat. bardye kombakas, in order to help, by way of help, 

as a reinforcement, xi, 7. 
kamyuk u , see kydh 1 
lean, m. the ear ; — ihawun (ii, 7) or — thdwun (viii, 6, 8, 11 ; ix, 

1, 4), to apply the ear, to lend the ear, to listen attentively ; 

sg. dat. kanas kur u nas thaph, he seized him by the ear, iii, 9 ; 

abl. kana-doli din" (poet.), to give ear-closing, to refuse to 

listen, v, 2 ; kana ratith, holding (a goat) by the ear, iii, 5 ; 

pi. dat. with emph. y, kananqy, vii, 11. 
kan 1 , postpos. signifying — 

(a) direction, as in kala-kdn*, in the direction of the head, 
at the head end (of an animal), xi, 9 ; lati-kdn\ at the tail 
end, xi, 9. 

(b) route, as in ddri-kdri 1 , (cast) out through the window, 
v, 4 (bis). 

(c) direction from, as in yes-kdn { , from whom (it will escape), 
ii, 8. 

Cf . kani, kun, kdn, and kin. 
kani, postpos. signifying — 

(a) locality, as in bdna-kani, (he is standing) below, down- 
stairs, iii, 2 ; bontha-kani, in front, before (governing dat.), 
ii, 3 ; iii, 1 ; viii, 11 ; x, 5, 10, 2 ; xii, 4, 9, 12, 23 (bis) ; 
ath { -petha-kani, on the top of it verily, viii, 1. 



Una HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 328 

(b) direction towards, as in ora-Jcani, in that direction, v, 2. 

(c) direction from, as in tdlawa-kani, (down) from the 
ceiling, viii, 6 ; osa-kani, issuing from the mouth; viii, 7. 

(d) other miscellaneous relations as in thiir u -kani (v, 4) or 
thud u -kani (v, 4 bis), (turning) backwards (from there) ; 
pata-kani, afterwards, x, 1 ; kuni-kani, in any way, xii, 13 ; 
dmpa-kani, by means of beak-to-beak feeding, viii, 1 ; tami- 
peth x -kani, in addition to that, iii, 8. 

Cf. kdn 1 , kun, kdn, and kin. 
kina, conj. or. Used to indicate an alternative in an interrogative 

sentence, v, 7 ; viii, 3, 11 ; xii, 18, 9, 23. 
kona, adv. why not ? viii, 1 (why is there no chirping ?). 
kun, postpos. governing dat., meaning — 

(a) towards, viii, 6, 11 ; x, 3, 5, 12 ; similarly d-kun, in 
that direction, xii, 23 ; mustdkh kun, enamoured of, yearning 
for, iii, 7 ; vii, 3 ; biye-kun, (he does not go) anywhere else, 
xii, 4. 

(b) to (after verbs of saying, addressing, etc.), v, 2 ; vii, 
4, 20, 6 ; ix, 1 ; x, 5 (bis) ; x, 12. 

(c) in, at, bonth-kun, i, 8, (came) before (the king) ; w6l u 
sheharas and-kun, he arrived at the outskirts of the city, x, 5 ; 
andas-kun, at the end, xii, 6. 

(d) other meanings, ndgas akiih kun, on one side of the 
spring, xii, 14 ; ase-kun hdwuth, thou showed st before us, vi, 5 ; 
path-kun, afterwards, iii, 5 ; v, 5 ; at the back (of a place), 
in the rear, v, 8. 

(with gen.) ydra-sond u kun, (he set out) in the direction of 

his friend's abode, x, 11. 
Cf. kdn*, kani, kdn, and kin. 
kuni, adv. at all, in any respect, v, 6 ; viii, 1 (bis), 2, 9 ; xii, 1, 22 ; 

anywhere, viii, 7 ; somewhere, viii, 7 ; kuni-kani, in any 

way, xii, 13. 
kun u , num. adj., only one ; with emph. y, One only (of God), vi, 7 ; 

vii, 2 ; x, 8 ; kunuy zon u , only one person, all alone, viii, 7 ; 

fern. kunP-y zun u , xii, 15. 
konda, f . a potter's kiln ; sg. abl. kondi wdlun, to put (unbaked pots) 

into a lain for baking, xi, 11. 



829 VOCABULARY kdra 

kond u , m. a thorn, viii, 1 (bis). 

kangan, f. a comb ; ches walan kangan, I am combing (my hair), 

v, 4. 
kong-wor*, f . a saffron-garden or -field ; sg. dat. (for loc), kdng-wdri, 

or (m.c.) kdng-wdri, v, 7. 
k a nun, to sell ; inf. abl. dv k a nani, he came (in order) to sell, xii, 3 ; 

dye. k a nana (pass.), she was sold, vii, 26 ; fut. sg. 1 with suff. 

3rd pers. sg. ace. Jc a nan, I will sell it, viii, 9 ; 2, with same 

suff. md k a nalmn, I wonder if thou wilt sell it, viii, 9 ; pres. 

sg. 3, with suff. 1st pers. sg. ace. chum k a ndn, he is selling me, 

vii, 17. 
kentsdh (vii, 20) or (usually) kentshdh, indef. pron. something, 

vii, 20, 6 ; x, 3 ; xii, 18 (bis) ; — karun, to do something, 

esp. to do something malicious, xii, 5, 10, 3, 9 ; yih-kentshuh, 

whatever, iii, 1, 8 (ter) ; v, 8. 
As adj. some, xii, 4, 19 (bis) ; any, xii, 19. 
kenz", f . a kind of cup with a foot to it ; Musalman women eat 

their rice out of it. Sg. dat. kenze, x, 3. 
kunz, f. a key, iii, 8 (bis). 
kdn, postpos. by means of ; ab-dawa-kdn, (enter) by means of 

(i.e. through) the water-drain, v, 4. 
Cf. kdn 1 , kani, kin, and kun. 
kin (for kin*), postpos. in apor^kin, from that direction, v, 7. 

Cf. kdn 1 , kani, kun, and kdn. 
kiln", f . a stone ; sg. dat. kane-manz, in a stone, iv, 7 ; kane-kiin", 

punishment of death by stoning, lapidation, x, 13 ; abl. 

kani-phol u , a pebble, xii, 15 (bis). 
kannekh, ? gender, the apparatus consisting of two ropes -attached 

at the back of a Kashmiri saddle, to secure blankets, etc., 

xi, 9. 
kanuiv u , adj. made of stone ; m. pi. nom. kaniv 1 , v, 4. 
kuphdr, m. pi. infidels, non-Muslims (for kuffdr, Ar. pl f of kdfir), 

iv, 3. 
kar, adv. when ? ii, 4. 

kdr, m. an action, a deed, a work, xi, 2 ; pi. nom. Mr, v, 12 ; xi, 10. 
kara, m. a pea, pease, xii, 16 (ter), 7. 
kdra, in wdra-kdra, safe and sound, x, 8. 



kor HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 330 

kor, adv. where ? ii, 2. 

kor u , m. a bracelet, xii, 11, 2, 3 (ter) ; rat a na-kor u , a bracelet of 
jewels, xii, 10, 1, 2, 4 (bis), 5, 8 ; kdr^han, f. a little bracelet, 
xii, 12 ; sg. dat. rqt a na-karis-soty, xii, 15 ; pi. nom. rat a na- 
kdr l } xii, 20. 

Mr*, or (v, 5, 12) kud u , f. a daughter, v, 7 (bis), 9 ; x, 1, 6, 7 (bis), 
8 ; xii, 1 ; pdtashdh-kur u , (v, 2, 5, 8 (bis), 9 (ter), 10 ; xii, 
1, 2) or pdtashdh-kud u (v, 5) ; or pdtasheh-kur* (xii, 10, 3 (bis), 
25), a king's daughter, a princess ; sg. dat. kode, v, 12 ; kore, 
xii, 4, 5 ; pdtashdh-kore, v, 2, 9 (ter) ; xii, 2, 10, 13 ; pdtasheh- 
kore, xii, 10 ; kore-kyut u , for the daughter, v, 1 (bis) ; kore- 
soty, with the daughter, v, 10 ; pdtashdh-kdre-soty, with 
the princess, xii, 1 ; gen. kore-hond u , v, 2 ; pdtashdh-kore- 
hond u , v, 9 ; ag. kori, xii, 4, 5 ; pdtashdh-kori, v, 1 ; xii, 
2 ; abl. kori-halamas manz, in the lap-cloth of the daughter, 
v, 4 ; voc. kur\ v, 2 ; kur { yey, v, 2 ; kdriy, xii, 15 (all 
addressed by an elder woman to a younger woman). 

kdrddr, m. the Hindu overseer of a village, a government official 
whose duty it is to collect the Maharaja's share of the grain ; 
sg. ag. kdrddran, ix, 1. 

krqj u , f. a potter's wife ; cf. krdl ; sg. ag. krdji, xi, 11. 

krekh, f . an outcry ; — din u , to raise an outcry, to cry out, v, 7 ; 
xii, 7 ; — wothun", an outcry to arise, iii, 3. 

krdl, m. a potter ; cf. kroj u ; sg. ag. krdlan, xi, 10 ; voc. krdlau 
(addressed by a woman to her husband), xi, 11. 

karun 1 ; to do, ii, 4, 11 (bis) ; iii, 8 ; v, 4, 5, 7 (bis), 12 ; viii, 1, 
3, 4, 6 (bis), 8 (bis), 10 (bis), 1 (quater), 2 ; ix, 4 ; x, 3, 
5, 8 (bis) ; xi, 2, 19 (bis) ; xii, 1 (quater), 3 (bis), 6, 15, 
7, 20, 6 (bis) ; to make, i, 1, 3, 7 ; ii, 1 (bis), 2, 3 (bis), 4 (bis), 
5, 10, 2 ; iii, 1, 4, 8 ; iv, 2, 3, 6 ; v, 2, 5 (bis), 6, 9, 10 ; vi, 
9, 11 (bis) ; vii, 4, 6 (bis), 8, 15 (bis), 6, 24 (ter) ; viii, 1 (bis), 
2 (ter), 3 (bis), 5, 7, 9 (bis), 11 (bis), 3 (quater) ; ix, 3, 
4 (bis) ; x, 1, 3, 4, 5, 7 (bis), 8, 12 (bis) ; xi, 5, 8 (bis), 10 (bis), 
7, 9 (bis) ; xii, 1, 4, 7, 15 (bis), 7, 8 (bis), 9 (bis), 20 (bis), 
2 (bis), 3, 4, 5 ; to make something out of something else, 
to turn one thing into another, poshdkus kiir u n shekal yinsdn 
hish u , he made the shape of a man out of his clothes, he 



331 VOCABULARY karun 1 

folded them up to look like a man, x, 7 (bis) ; kdn'-phol" 
kor u nas, she (uttered a charm and) turned him into a pebble, 
xii, 15 ; to make another marriage, to take a second wife, 
(woriiz" zandna, or some such words, being understood), viii, 
1 (bis), 2 ; khalas karun, to put (crops) on the threshing floor, 
ix, 9 ; karith dyun u ( = Hindi kar dend), to complete, finish, 
x, 12. 

Nominal compounds are very commonly made with this 
verb. The following examples by no means pretend to form 
a complete list : dlav karun, to call out (to a person, dat.), 
x, 5 (bis), 12 (bis) ; xii, 7 ; ardm karun, to repose, rest, 
sleep, v, 9 ; band k., to tie up, x, 2 ; dlddr k., to do seeing, 
to see (gen. of obj.), iv, 5 ; driy kasam k., to swear, to take 
an oath, viii, 1 ; gane karane, to make into pieces, to cut 
flesh into gobbets, x, 7 ; gath karun", (of a widow) to perform 
the sail ceremony, to become suttee, iii, 4 ; gawdy { karun", 
to give evidence, x, 12 ; hawdla karun, to make over (to so 
and so, dat.) for safe custody, to put into so and so's charge, 
v, 7, 12 (bis) ; viii, 4 ; x, 12 (quinquies) ; kod karun, to 
imprison, v, 7, 9 (bis) ; x, 5, 12 ; khosh karun, to please, 
gratify (dat. of person), xii, 3 ; khizmath (ii, 3) or khazniath 
(xii, 3) karun, to do service, to act as a servant ; kom" karun", 
to do a deed (for the special meaning of this compound, see 
kom u ), ii, 5, 7 ; viii, 4 ; x, 2, 7 (bis), 12, 4 ; xii, 22 ; kentshah 
karun, to do something, esp. to do something malicious, 
xii, 5, 10, 3, 9 (bis) ; kashena-hand karun", to do a little 
scratching, to scratch a person (at his request), xii, 16 ; kasam 
karun, to make oath, to swear, v, 9 ; viii, 1 ; katha karane, 
to utter words, to speak, say, iii, 1 ; iv, 5 ; xii, 23 ; to converse, 
x, 7 (ter) ; xii, 3 ; langup harun", to put on a loin-cloth ; 
lar karun", to run after, pursue (dat. of obj.), ii, 8 ; mdhar 
karun", to seal (dat. of obj.), x, 3 (bis), 10; mtil karun, to 
fix a price, agree to a price, viii, 9 (bis), 10 ; putalen korun 
nakar, he prohibited idols, iv, 6 ; nds^yelh karun", to give 
instructions, xii, 16 ; neih a r karun, to make preparations for 
a marriage, to marry (amis soty, him), viii, 2 ; xii, 15 ; nazar 
karun", to look, x, 7, 8 (bis) ; xii, 23 ; poda karun, to create, 



karun 1 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 332 

iii, 8 (bis) ; xii, 7 ; pardd Jcarun, to veil, cover with a veil 
(dat. of obj.), vi, 4 ; pasand karun, to approve (ace. of obj.), 
v, 1 ; xii, 4 (bis) ; rdjy karun, to do ruling, to rule, x, 14 ; 
rawana karun, to dispatch, x, 3 ; maris karun reza, he cut 
the corpse to pieces, ii, 7 ; saldm karun", to make a salaam, 
to bow, xii, 4, 5, 9, 12, 3, 6, 7 ; sara karun, to inquire into, 
test, prove the truth about, investigate concerning, viii, 1, 3 ; 
x, 2, 6 (ter), 14 ; saragl karun*, id., viii, 7 (bis), 8, 10 ; x, 7 ; 
sran karun, to bathe, xii, 6 (bis), 7 (bis) ; thaph karun*, to 
seize, lay hold of, grasp (dat. of obj.), iii, 8, 9 (bis) ; v, 6, 9 
(bis) ; vi, 9 ; viii, 7, 9 ; xii, 11 ; tukara kardn 1 , to make 
pieces, to cut to pieces (dat. of obj.), viii, 6 ; tay karun, to do 
authority, to exercise sway, xi, 3 ; taydr karun, to make ready, 
to make and have ready, to make, xii, 22 ; tshopa karith, 
silently, in silence, xii, 4 ; wuchundh karun, to do a seeing, 
to take a glance at (dat. of obj.), viii, 3 ; wdriiz* zandna 
karun*, to take a second wife, (of a man) to make a second 
marriage, viii, 11 ; zulm karun, to exercise tyranny, ix, 1 ; 
gur u zin karith, a horse ready saddled, iii, 8 ; zor karun, to make 
force, to show force, to insist, xii, 1 5 ; zdra-pdr karun, to make 
lamentations, to lament, ix, 1 ; to utter pious ejaculations, 
x, 5 (bis) ; to make earnest entreaties, ii, 3, 5 ; ziyaphuth 
karun*, to make a feast, x, 11. 

inf. tamis tog u -na karun, he did not know how to make, 
viii, 9 ; sg. abl. forming inf. of purpose, karani, viii, 4 ; x, 2 
xii, 4, 6 (bis), 26 ; fut. pass. part. sg. m. sg. karun u , it is to be 
made, it must be made, xi, 8 ; gatshi karun u , viii, 2, 8 ; x, 3 
xii, 3 ; gotsh u karun u , v, 7 ; wdti karun u , viii, 6, 8, 11 ; f. sg 
karun*, it is to be done, please do, xii, 16 ; gatshi karun* 
v, 9 ; viii, 7, 8, 10 ; x, 3 ; conj. part, karith, iii, 8 (bis) ; vi 
9 (bis) ; viii, 11, 3 ; x, 7, 12 ; xi, 19 ; xii, 4, 23 ; zanakh 
karith, thou wilt know how to make, x, 12 ; in adjectival 
sense, zin karith, (a horse) ready saddled, iii, 8 ; chuh karith 
thaph, he holds, v, 6 ; viii, 7 ; irreg. conj. part. kdrHhan, 
xi, 10 ; freq. part, kar* kar 1 , vii, 24. 

impve. sg. 2 kar, i, 7 ; ii, 12 ; v, 2 ; x, 8 ; xii, 17 ; neg. 
ma kar, xii, 7 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. gen. karus, viii, 9 ; 



333 



VOCABULARY 



karun 1 



with suff. 3rd pers. pi. ace. (irreg.) Jcaruhulch, make thou them, 
xii, 19 ; 3, with suff. 1st pers. sg. dat. karinam, let her make 
for me, v, 9 ; pi. 2 kariv, viii, 11 ; xii, 17 ; with suff. 3rd 
pers. pi. ace. karyukh, make ye them, viii, 4 : pol. impve. 
sg. 2 karta, xii, 4, 5, 10, 3, 9 ; pi. 2 with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. 
kdrHos, please make ye for him, ii, 10 ; impve. fut. kdr l zi, 
xii, 11 ; neg. kdrhi-na, viii, 1 (bis) ; xii, 6. 

fut. sg. 1 kara, ii, 4 ; iv, 5 ; viii, 10 ; ix, 4 ; xii, 1 (bis), 
3, 15, 20 ; with suff. 2nd pers. sg. dat. karay, ii, 3 ; xii, 1 ; 
with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. and neg. karas-na, xii, 15 ; 2 
karakh, xii, 1, 3 ; neg. karakh-na, viii, 13 ; with suff. 3rd 
pers. pi. dat. karahakh, thou wilt make to them, xii, 16 ; 
3, kari, viii, 1 ; xi, 2, 19 ; xii, 3, 19 ; with suff. 1st pers. sg. 
dat. karem, ix, 4 ; pi. 1 karav, x, 1, 5 ; xi, 19 ; with suff. 
3rd pers. sg. dat. karos, ix, 1 ; 2 kariv, xii, 1 ; pres. subj. 
sg. 3 kari, viii, 6, 8, 11. 

pres. m. sg. 3 karan, he (is) making, ii, 5 ; chuh kardn, 
viii, 12, 3 ; x, 14 ; xii, 24 ; karan chuh, x, 8 ; neg. chuna 
karan, viii, 2 ; with suff. 1st pers. sg. gen. or dat. chum karan, 
vii, 15 (dat.), 24 (gen.) ; pi. 3 chih karan, viii, 3 ; xii, 
3, 23 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. chis karan, ii, 3 ; x, 12 ; 
f. sg. 1, ches karan, vii, 15 ; 3 cheh karan, iii, 4 ; with suff. 
3rd pers. sg: dat. ches karan, v, 5 (bis) ; pi. 3 cheh karan, 
v, 12. 

imperf. m. sg. 1, 6sus karan, x, 14 ; sg. 3 6s u karan, i, 1 ; 
pi. 3 6*6* karan, i, 3 ; karan os i , xi, 8 ; f . sg. 3 os u Jcaran, xii, 
20 ; emph. os u y karan, vii, 16 ; pi. 3 dsa karan, xi, 19. 

past m. sg. kor u , ii, 2, 3, 4 ; iii, 8 (bis) ; iv, 6 ; v, 9 ; viii, 
1, 9, 10, 2 ; xi, 3 ; xii, 4, 7 (bis). 

With suff. 2nd pers. sg. dat. koruy, x, 12 ; ag. koruth, 
v, 4, 5 ; viii, 3 ; with do. and suff. 1st pers. sg. nom. kor u thas, 
x, 12 ; with do. and suff. 1st pers. sg. dat. kor u tham, 
ii, 11. 

With suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. korus, xii, 7 ; ag. korun, ii, 4, 7 ; 
iv, 6 ; v, 7 ; vi, 11 (bis) ; vii, 4, 6 (bis) ; viii, 2, 10 ; ix, 3 ; 
x, 3, 5, 7 ; xii, 18, 22 (ter) ; emph. kor u nay, iv, 3 ; and with 
suff. 1st pers. sg. dat. kor u nam, ix, 4 ; and with suff. 3rd pers. 



karun2 HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 334 

sg. dat. ~kor u nas, v, 10 ; viii, 9 ; xii, 15 (ter) ; and with sufL 
3rd pers. pi. dat. kor u nakh, vi, 4 ; viii, 3. 

With sufT. 2nd pers. pi. ag. kor w wa, x, 12 (bis). 

With sufT. 3rd pers. pi. ag. korukh, viii, 1 ; x, 5 (bis) ; xii, 7, 
18 ; and with surl. 2nd pers. sg. dat. Jcor u Jiay, iv, 2 ; and with 
sufT. 3rd pers. sg. dat. kor u has, viii, 2 ; x, 5 ; and with sufL 
3rd pers. pi. dat. kor u hakh, xi, 17. 

pi. with sufT. 1st pers. sg. ag. kdrim, v, 9 ; ix, 9 ; with 
sufT. 2nd pers. sg. ag. kdrith, v, 7 ; with sufT. 3rd pers. sg. 
ag. kdrin, v, 7, 9 ; viii, 5 ; x, 2 ; and sufL 3rd pers. sg. gen. 
kdr { nas, viii, 6 ; and sufT. 3rd pers. pi. dat. kdr l nakh, x, 12. 

f. sg. kur ti , ii, 1, 5, 7 ; viii, 3, 4, 11 ; x, 3, 5, 7 (ter), 8 (bis), 
11, 2, 4 ; xii, 15, 9, 22, 3 ; with sufT. 1st pers. sg. dat. and 
neg. kilr u m-na, v, 9 ; with sufT. 3rd pers. sg. dat. kur^s, 
iii, 1, 9; and neg. kiir^sna, v, 1; ag. kiir^n, v, 12 (bis); 
vii, 8 ; viii, 11 ; x, 2, 7 (bis) ; xii, 12, 3, 7, 20, 3 ; and sufT. 
3rd pers. sg. dat. kur u nas, iii, 4, 9 ; viii, 9 ; x, 3, 4 ; xii, 4, 
5, 9, 16 ; with sufT. 2nd pers. pi. ag. kur u wa, x, 12 ; with sufT. 
3rd pers. pi. ag. kiir^kh, ii, 8 ; and sufT. 3rd pers. sg. dat. 
kur u hay, xi, 5. 

pi. kare, iii, 1 ; with sufT. 1st pers. sg. ag. and 2nd pers. 
pi. dat. (irreg.) karemav, x, 6 ; sufT. 2nd pers. sg. ag. kareth, 
x, 6 ; with sufT. 3rd pers. sg. ag. karen, x, 6, 7 (bis) ; and 
sufT. 1st pers. sg. dat. karenam, iv, 5 ; and with sufT. 3rd pers. 
sg. gen. karenas, x, 7 ; with sufT. 3rd pers. pi. ag. karekh, 
xi, 10 ; xii, 25. 

perf. m.sg. chuh kor u mot u , x, 12 ; f. sg. with sufT. 3rd pers. sg. 
dat. for ag. chcy kur^muts* , x, 8. 

plup. m. sg. kor u mot u , iii, 8 ; 6s u kor u mot u , ii, 1 ; kor u mot u 
6s u , x, 7 ; with sufT. 2nd pers. sg. ag. and 3rd pers. sg. ace. for 
nom. 6s u ihan kor u mot u , thou hadst made him, x, 12 ; with sufT. 
3rd pers. sg. dat. osus kor u mot u , ix, 1 ; with sufT. 3rd pers., 
pi. ag. dsukh kor u mot u , viii, 2 ; f. sg. kiir ii muts ii , viii, 1 ; with 
sufT. 3rd pers. sg. dat. os ti s kur^muts", x, 10. 

cond. past sg. 1, karaho, ii, 11 : v, 6 ; viii, 11 ,- x, 5 ; 
3, karihe, v, 9 ; viii, 7, 13. 
karun 2, see kadun. 



335 VOCABULARY kati 

krund u , f. a basket, v, 9 ; kranjg ladun, to put into a basket, 
'v, 7. 

karandwun, to cause to be made ; past m. sg. with suff. 3rd pers. 
sg. ag. karandwun, he caused (a mat) to be made (i.e. spread), 
xii, 24 ; f. sg. with same suff. as karanov u n, x, 13. 

kaisi, kosi, see keh. 

kus, kusa, kusuy, see kyah 1. 

kosh u , a honeycomb ; pi. nom. kdsh\ ix, 5. 

Kashmir (Hindi, not Kashmiri), Kashmir, xi, 4. The Kashmiri 
word is Kashir u . Cf . J:6shyur u . 

kashun, to scratch ; inf. abl. kashena-hand kariin u , to do a little 
scratching, to scratch (somebody) a little, xii, 16, 7. 

k6shyur u , m. (f. koshir"), an inhabitant of Kashir u , or Kashmir ; 
pi. nom. koshir 1 , xi, 6. 

kasam or (xii, 2, kas a m), m. an oath ; a charm, an incantation ; 
Khoddye-sond u chuy kasam, there is an oath to thee of God, 
I adjure thee by God, xii, 7 ; — karun, to take an oath, to 
swear, v, 9 (bis) ; driy kasam karun, to take an oath, to 
swear, viii, 1 (bis), 2 ; — hdwun, to take an oath, swear by, 
v, 9 ; muslas dyut u kas a m, he uttered a charm over the skin 
(cf. shdph), xii, 22. 

kdsun, to expel, i, 12 ; vi, 6 ; to shave (hair) ; mast kdsun, to shave 
(so and so, dat.), xii, 4 (bis), 5 (bis), 10 (ter), 3 (bis), 9. 

inf. obi. (inf. of purpose) kdsani, xii, 4, 5, 19 ; fut. pass, 
part, with emph. y, muhim iagiy kdsunuy, poverty will be 
able to be expelled for thee, thou wilt know how to expel 
poverty, i, 12 ; conj. part, kosith, xii, 10, 3 ; must mdkaldic u nas 
kosith, he finished shaving him, xii, 5. 

impve. sg. 2, kds, vi, 6 ; past m. sg. with suff. 3rd pers. 
sg. ag. (amis) kdsun mast, he shaved him, xii, 10, 3 ; with 
ditto, and suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. mast kds u nas, he shaved 
him, xii, 4 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. kdsus mast, shaved 
him, xii, 10. 

kusur, m. a fault ; gom suy kusur, that very fault happened to me, 
i.e. that was my bad luck (for some fault of mine), vii, 13. 

kdsawun u , one who expels, i, 11. 

kati, adv. where ? (kdt 1 of the grammars), vii, 20 ; x, 12 (ter) ; xi, 17 ; 



kot u HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 336 

from where ? whence ? (kati of the grammars), x, 4 ; xi, 17 ; 
xii, 4, 5, 11, 5 ; hati-petha, from where ? whence ? ii, 2. 

kot u , adv. where ? xi, 5. 

kot u , a son, esp. a clever son ; 6khun-kot u , the son of a doctor of 
divinity, xii, 25. 

A;t^ u , pron. adj. how much ? pi. how many ? m. sg. nom. to M , 
vii, 22 ; kotdh, vii, 24 ; pi. nom. hut*, vii, 25 ; kaityah, ix, 
5, 11 ; hbtydh, vii, 31 ; x, 7, 8 ; xii, 20 ; f. sg. nom. kots u , vii, 
15 ; ag. kdtsa, i, 12 ; pi. nom. katsa, x, 6. 

K^afr, f. a book ; sohib-i-kitdb, a master of books, a celebrated 
writer, x, 13. 

kath, f. (this word is the equivalent of the Hindi bat), a word, an 
uttered word, ix, 7 ; xii, 9 ; a word, a statement, iv, 5 ; 
x, 4, 6 (many times), 14 ; a matter, circumstance, affair, 
iii, 5 ; xii, 1 ; a story, tale, narrative, v (title) ; vii, 1 ; 
viii, 1 ; x, 1 (many times), 2 (many times) ; katha-bdtha, 
pi. conversations, xii, 25 ; hatha-harane, to converse, iii, 
1 ; x, 7 (ter) ; xii, 3 ; to say (such and such) words, xii, 23 ; 
hori sbty kath hariin", to hold speech with the girl, i.e. to 
make improper overtures to her, xii, 1. In x, 1 ff., the point 
of the story consists in a misunderstanding of the word 
hath, one person of the company means " a statement ", 
the others mean " a tale ". 

sg. nom. kath, v, 1 ; vii, 1 ; viii, 1 ; x, 6 (bis) ; xii, 1 (bis) ; 
gen. kathi-hond u , iii, 5 ; pi. nom. hatha, iii, 1 ; iv, 5 ; x, 
1 (many times) ; 2 (many times), 4, 6 (many times), 7 (ter), 
14 ; xii, 3, 23, 5 ; dat. kathan, x, 1 ; xii, 9 ; abl. kathan, 
ix, 7. 

kaiho, see kyah 1 

keth, postpos. governing dat. in, on ; athas keth, in the hand, ii, 7 ; 
v, 4 ; x, 7 ; xii, 22, 3 (bis) ; khoni-keth, on the haunch, 
xi, 13 ; rumali keth, in a kerchief, iii, 2. 

ketha, adv. ; ketha-potti, how ? in what manner ? iii, 9 ; v, 8 ; 
viii, 5 ; x, 8 ; xii, 3, 24. 

kotdh, see kut u . 

kuth u , m. a room, viii, 3 ; with suff. of indef. art. kuth u ah, ix, 4 ; 
sg dat. kuthis, iii, 8 (bis) ; x, 7, 8 (bis) ; pi. nom. kulh 1 , vi, 3. 



337 



VOCABULARY 



kydh 3 



Jcatiko, adj. of or belonging to where ? ii, 2 (poet.). Cf. kati. 
katarun, to cut to pieces ; pres. m. sg. 3, chuh katardn, x, 7. 
kut a wdl, m. a chief of police, a kotwdl, v, 7, 9 (bis), 10 ; sg. ag. 
kut a wdlan, v, 7, 8, 9 ; kut a wdl-gdnas (sg. dat.), to the wretch 
of a police captain, v, 9 (see gdn). 
katawan, f . the wages of spinning ; — karun a , to earn money by 

spinning, xi, 19. 
kaitydh, kotydh, see kut u . 
katsa, kdtsa, see kut u . 
kits", see kyut u . 
kots u , see kut u . 
kuwa, adv. how ? v, 9. 

kiy, in hargdh-kiy, if, viii, 7, 13. See hargdh. 
kyd, see kydh, 1 and 4. 
kydh 1 or kyd 1, interrog. pron. who ? what ? 

As subst. an. m. sg. nom. kus, who ? xi, 2 ; xii, 1 ; kusuy, 
who verily ? xi, 19 ; ag. kdm\ by whom ? hi, 3 (bis) ; x, 12 ; 
pi. nom. kam, who ? xii, 1. 

subst. inan. kyd, what ? vi, 5 ; kydh, what ? ii, 2, 4, 11 ; 
iii, 4 (quater), 8, 9 (bis) ; iv, 7 ; v, 9 (bis) ; vi, 15 ; vii, 
20, 2, 4, 6, 30 ; viii, 1, 3, 6, 8, 9, 10 (ter), 1 (quater) ; 
ix, 4 (bis) ; x, 2, 5, 6, 8 ; xii, 1, 7, 20. 

ke-ho, what, sir (colloquial, addressed by a woman to her 
husband), v, 4, 5 ; dat. kath ; poet, colloquial, kathb-kiV- 
(pots) for what ? xi, 11 ; abl. kami-bdpath, for what ? why ? 
on what account ? ix, 1 ; x, 12 ; kami-mokha, on what 
account ? x, 4 ; gen. kamyuk u , of what ? vi, 13, 4. 

%aA sabab chuwa, what is your reason ? viii, 5 ; kydh 
gatshiy anun u nishdna, what is to be brought to thee as a 
token % xii, 21. 

adj. f. inan. nom. kusa kusa, which (of several) ? x, 6 (bis). 
me kydh zulm chuh gomot u , (hear) what tyranny has happened 
to me, ix, 6. 

an. masc. kus-tdn wopar, some one else, v, 4 ; inan. kydh-tdn 
takhsir, some fault of other, viii, 10. 
kydh 2, adv. why ? x, 14 (bis) ; how ? vii, 8, 27, 8. 
kydh 3, an expletive implying interrogation, vii, 27, 8. 



kyahi HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 338 

kyah 4 or kya 2 (v, 9 ; xii, 23), an expletive common in the colloquial 
language, impossible to translate, but approximately equivalent 
to the English " why ! ", " of course," " certainly,' , " verily," 
" you see," or something of the sort, v, 8, 9 (many times) ; 
viii, 1 ; ix, 10 ; x, 3 (ter), 12 ; xi, 18 ; xii, 15 (bis), 23 ; yifi 
kyah, " here, in fact," or " here, you see," x, 12 (bis) ; yit* 
kyah . . . at 1 kyah, here on the one hand you see . . . there 
on the other hand you see, viii, 13 ; ada-kyah, then of course, 
of course, certainly, viii, 11 ; xii, 4. 

kyah 5, conj., or, iv, 7. 

kyom u , m. a worm, xii, 3 (ter), 4. 

kyut u , postpos. for. This, like the postpositions of the genitive, 
is adjectival, and agrees with the governing noun. Thus : 
m. sg. nom. bag zananan-kyut u , a garden for the women, ii, 1 ; 
guris-kyut u gasa, grass for the horse, x, 5 ; retas-kyut u kharj, 
expenditure for a month, xii, 4 ; tren retan-kyut u kharj, 
expenditure for three months, xii, 5, 11 ; tath-kyut u shestruw u 
panja, an iron claw for that, xii, 16 ; zyun u me-kyut u , firewood 
for me, xii, 24. With a special adverbial meaning indicating 
time, rath-kyut u , by night, iii, 1. 

m. pi. nom. waslh patasheha-sanze kore-kit 1 , articles for the 
king's daughter, v, 1 ; katho-kit 1 , (pots) for what ? xi, 11. 

f. sg. nom. wqj u patashaha-sanze kore-kits u , a ring for the 
king's daughter, v, 1 ; ziyaphath patishohiy en-kits", a feast 
for the kingdoms, x, 11 ; gov" kits" jay, a place for the cow, 
xi, 12. 

kyuth u , adv. how ? ii, 5. 

kyazi, adv. why ? iii, 1 ; v, 8 ; viii, 1, 3, 11 ; ix, 1 ; xii, 4, 5 ; 
ti-kyazi, because, viii, 2. 

la, mLa-makan, without a dwelling-place, an epithet of the Deity, 
vii, 29. 

labun, to take ; fut. sg. 2, labakh, ii, 9 ; past m. sg. with suff. 
3rd pers. sg. ag. lobun, ii, 10. 

lach, m. a hundred thousand, a lakh ; lache-ndw u , m. He Who has 
a hundred thousand names, an epithet of the Deity, ii, 2. 

lichen, see likhun. 

ladun, to send, iv, 2 ; vii, 7 ; x, 3 (many times) ; xii, 15 ; to put 



339 VOCABULARY lagun 

or place (into or on a receptacle, such as a basket or tray), 
v, 7 ; viii, 4, 12 ; to fill (a cup with water, pyalas ah laduri), 
viii, 7 ; to place or impose (a burden), ii, 5 ; mati rah ladun, 
to impose a crime on the shoulder, to charge (a person, gen. 
or dat.) with a crime, v, 9. 

fut. pass. part. m. sg. gatshem ladun u kentshah, you must 
send me something, xii, 15 ; impve. sg. 2, lad, xii, 15 ; fut. 
sg. 2, with suff. 1st pers. sg. dat. and conditional suff. 
ladaham-ay, if thou wilt send to me, x, 3 ; past m. sg. with 
suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. lodun, ii, 5 ; vii, 7 ; viii, 7 ; x, 3 ; 
ditto and with suff. 1st pers. sg. dat. lod u nam, iv, 2 ; v, 9 ; 
xii, 15 ; f. sg. with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. liiz^n, x, 3 ; ditto and 
with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. luz^nas, x, 3 (bis) ; pi. with 3rd 
pers. sg. ag. lazan, v, 7 ; with suff. 3rd pers. pi. ag. lazahh, 
viii, 4, 12. 

ladun 1 and 2, see larun 1 and 2. 

laddy\ f. fighting ; miliiv u kh ladoy 1 , fighting was joined by them, 
i.e. they began to quarrel, x, 1. 

lagun, to be joined (to), connected (with) ; to be felt, experienced, 
(amar lagun, desire to be felt, v, 2 ; boche lagun a , hunger to 
be felt, vi, 16 ; tresh lagun u , thirst to be felt, viii, 7 ; in all 
these cases the person is put in the dat.) ; to come into 
existence (mang luj u , a demand was made, xi, 16) ; to occur, 
happen, become (rath lagun u , night to come on, viii, 9) ; 
to become liable to, to incur (Jcod lagun, to incur imprisonment, 
to be imprisoned, v, 8 ; vi, 11) ; to be experienced (gray 
lagun u , shaking to be experienced, to be unsteady, to be 
impermanent, ix, 12, dat. of pers. experiencing) ; to be 
attached (to), find oneself in a certain condition (lagun wobali, 
to find oneself in blameworthiness, to incur guilt, viii, 5) ; 
to be caught (walawashi lagun, to be caught in a net, v, 2) ; 
to arrive at (a place), viii, 5 ; xi, 5 ; (conversely), (of a place), 
to be reached, to be arrived at, xi, 5 ; (of a work) to be allotted 
(to so and so), viii, 5 ; to begin. 

In the meaning " to begin ", this verb is used with the 
oblique infinitive in -ni of another verb to form inceptive 
compounds. Thus, atsani lagun, to begin to enter, x, 7 ; 



lagun HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 340 

nerani l. : to begin to issue, x, 7 ; phofani I., (of the dawn) 
to begin to break, v, 5, 7 ; xii, 2 ; wanani L, to begin to 
say, x, 1 ; wasani I., to begin to descend, viii, 6 ; wolharani L, 
to begin to wipe, viii, 6 ; wdtani I., to begin to arrive, viii, 6 ; 
yini I., to begin to come, x, 8. In all these cases, the verb 
lagun is in the past tense. 

fut. sg. 2, lagakh, v, 2 ; with prohibitive neg. repeated as 
a suff. ma lagah-a-m, mayst thou not find thyself, v, 2 ; 
3, lagi, with suff. 3rd pers. pi. dat. lagekh, ix. 12 ; pres. m. 
sg. 3, chuh lagan, viii, 5. 

past m. sg. log u , v, 5, 7 ; vi, 11 ; viii, 6 (ter), 7 (bis), 8 ; 
xi, 5 ; xii, 2 ; with suff. 1st pers. sg. dat. and emph. y, log u m u y, 
v, 2 ; pi. lag 1 , x, 1 ; xi, 5 ; f. sg. lilj u , xi, 16 ; with suff. 3rd 
pers. sg. dat. luj u s, vi, 16 ; viii, 7, 9 ; perf. m. pi. 2, chiwa 
lagt-mat 1 , viii, 5. 
cond. past sg. 1, lagaho, v, 8. 

lagun, to apply ; to fix {jenda lagun), to fix a flag, set up a flag, 
insist on a claim, v, 11) ; to assume the character of (so and 
so), make oneself look like (so and so), dress oneself up as 
(so and so), disguise oneself as (so and so), i, 2 ; v, 9, 10, 1 (ter) ; 
x, 7, 12 (bis), 4 ; to cause to come into existence, to be carried 
on (log 1 mat 1 nagma, dances were being carried on, iii, 7). 

conj. part, logith, i, 2 ; v, 11 ; x, 12 (bis) ; impve. sg. 2, 
lag, v, 9, 11 : past m. sg. with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. Idgun, 
v, 10, 1 (bis) ; x, 7 ; perf. m. pi. (auxiliary omitted), l^mat 1 , 
iii, 7 ; plup. m. sg. with suff. 1st pers. sg. ag. dsum l6g u mot u , 
x, 14. 

lagar, adj. lean, thin ; f. pi. nom. lagar, vi, 15. 

luh-luh, a meaningless refrain added in songs, v, 11 (four times). 

lohlur u , f. longing, eager desire ; sg. abl. lohlari, vi, 3. 

lej u , f. a cooking pot ; pi. nom. leje, xi, 10. 

liij", luj u s, see lagun. 

UJch, f . indecent language, immoral proposals made to a woman : 
pi. dat. UJcan, viii, 3, 11. 

lokh, m. pi. people ; pi. nom. ii, 11 ; dat. lokan, ii, 11 ; xi, 13. 
According to the Kasmirasabdamrta (II, i, 6Q), in standard 
Kashmiri this word is lulth, and retains the long u throughout 
all its cases. 



841 VOCABULARY lar 

likhun, to write ; impve. sg. 2, likh, xii, 15 ; fut. pi. 3, likhan, 
ix, 12 ; pres. m. sg. 3, chuh likhan, x, 13 ; f. sg. 3, likhan cheh, 
xii, 11 ; part. m. sg. lyukh u , xii, 15 ; with surf. 3rd pers. sg. 
ag. lyukhun, xii, 22 (bis) ; ditto and with suff. 3rd pers. sg. 
dat. lyukh u nas, xii, 15 (bis), 6 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. 
lyukhus, xii, 17 ; with suff. 3rd pers. pi. ag. and 3rd pers. 
sg. dat. lyukh u has, xii, 17 ; f. sg. with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. 
lichen, viii, 10 ; perf . (auxiliary omitted) m. sg. lyukh u mot u , 
viii, 10 ; xii, 15, 23. 

lakam, m. a bridle, xi, 9. 

lokut u , adj. small ; lokut u hyuh u , the younger of one or more 
brothers, sg. ag. IdkH* hih\ xii, 1. 

lal 1, m. a ruby, xii, 2 (quater), 3, 4 (many times), 6 ; sg. dat. 
tath lalas hyuh u , like that ruby, xii, 4 (bis) ; pi. nom lal, 
i, 9 ; x, 2 ; 5, 12 (ter) ; xii, 3, 5, 9 ; dat. lalan-peth, on the 
rubies, x, 5 ; gen. ldlan-hond u , xii, 5 (ter) ; abl. lalau, viii, 
3, 11 ; lal-phardsh, m. a ruby-seller, a jeweller, xii, 3 ; loil- 
shendkh. m. a ruby-tester, a lapidary, xii, 4, 5, etc. ; sg. dat. 
lal-shendkas, xii, 4 (bis), 5, 6, 10, 1, 3, 5, 9 (several times), 
22, 4, 5, gen. ldl-shendka-sond u , xii, 8, 25 ; ag. -shenakan, 
xii, 4 (bis), 7, 9, 10, 3, 22 (ter), 4, 5. 

lal 2, f. spittle, saliva, viii, 7. 

Ldlmal, N.P. f. xii, 8, 11 (bis), 4, 5 (indeclinable in composi- 
tion), 25. 

Ldla-Malikh, N.P. m. ; sg. gen. Lala-Malikun u , iv, title ; dat. 
Ldla-Malikas, iv, 7. 

lalawun, to caress ; to caress, in order to relieve pain, to soothe, 
fondle, stroke, v, 6 ; pres. m. sg. 3, chuh lalawan, v, 6. 

lamun, to pull, drag ; pres. m. sg. 3, with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. 
chus lamdn, he is pulling him, viii, 9. 

I6n u , m. fate ; lon^tsur, a fate-thief, a destroyer of good luck, 
vii, 12. 

Landan, m. London ; sg. abl. Landana-petha, xi, 3. 

langut 1 , i. a loin-cloth ; — karith, wearing only a loin-cloth, xii, 23. 

lonun, to reap ; pres. sg. 3, chuh lonan, x, 5. 

lar, f. the side (of the body) ; sg. abl. lari, vii, 18 ; lari-tala, from 
under the side (of Eve's birth from Adam), vii, 7. 



lar HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 342 

lar, f, running, pursuit ; running away, fleeing ; — karun", to 

pursue, ii, 8 ; lar tsdnun u , to pursue, ix, 2. 
lur u , f. a house ; dat. tare, vi, 3. 
larun 1 or (iii, 5 ; vi, 8) ladun 1, to run ; pata larun, to run after, 

to pursue (ii, 9 ; vi, 8 ; xi, 18). 

pres. part. Idrdn, vi, 8 ; viii, 6 ; xi, 12 ; pres. m. pi. 3, 

chih Idrdn, ii, 9 ; with suff. 3rd pers. pi. dat. chikh Idrdn, 

xi, 18 ; imperf. m. pi. 3, os i Idrdn, x, 5 ; 1 past m. pi. with 

sufT. 3rd pers. sg. dat. loris, ii, 9 ; III past m. sg. Idrydv, ii, 10 ; 

ladydv, iii, 5 ; f . sg. with sufT. 3rd pers. sg. dat. ladyeyes, vi, 8. 
larun 2 or ladun 2, to be brought into contact with, to touch (of 

oil or other liquid dirtying a person) ; perf. ldryomot u 

(Govind Kaul) or lddyomot u (Hatim), viii, 6 (amis zahar l. t 

the poison has touched her). 
lashkar, f. an army, x, 11 ; sg. dat. lashJcari, ii, 7 ; x, 9, 13 ; lashkari- 

manz, in the army, ii, 6, 8. 
lasun, to survive (a danger) ; fut. sg. 3, lasi, x, 7. 
lot u , adj. light, gentle ; IdP-pothK gently, xii, 5. 
lot u , the tail of an animal, v, 7 ; abl. lati-kdn 1 , in the direction of 

the tail, towards the tail (and not towards the head), xi, 9. 
lath, f . a foot ; pi. dat. rotun latan tal, he held it under his feet, 

i.e. he stood upon it, viii, 7. 
lath, f . an occasion, time, turn ; sg. dat. doyi lati, on two occasions, 

twice, viii, 7 ; treyimi lati, on the third occasion, viii, 7. 
lit u r u , f. a saw ; abl. litri-soty, with (by means of) a saw, vii, 19. 
I6w u , m. in gdsa-low u , a bundle of grass, xi, 12. 
lyukh u , etc., see likhun. 
loyikh, adj. fit, worthy ; me loyikh, worthy of me, xii, 10, 9 ; 

loyik-e-pdtashdh, worthy of a king, x, 4 ; loyik-i-wazir, worthy 

of a vizier, xii, 10, 19 ; loyik-i-pdtashdh, worthy of a king, 

xii, 19. 
Idyild, the Musalman creed, a corruption of the Arabic la ildha 

illa-lldhu, there is no god, but the God, vi, 17. 
Idyun, to strike, hit, beat, iii, 1 (dat. of obj.), 2 (dat. of obj.), 9 (dat. 

of obj.) ; ix, 8 ; x, 1 (amis Idyukh, they beat him, bhdve 

prayoga) ; (shemsheri-hilnz u tsund u ldyun u , to strike a blow 

with a sword, iii, 5, 6 ; thaph ddmdnas ldyun u , to strike a 






343 VOCABULARY mach-fPr* 

grasp to a skirt, to seize the skirt, v, 9; bandtikh layun, to 
aim and fire a gun, ii, 11 ; viii, 10) ; to east, to throw, 
i, 6, 7, 8 ; v, 3, 4 (ter), 5. 

inf. clat. (inf. of purpose) layeni, ix, 8 ; fut. pass. part. m. 
pi. hech laydn 4 r%nz\ learn to throw balls, v, 3 ; impve. 2, 
lay, i, 7 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. layus, iii, 5 ; fut. 
sg. 3, layi, iii, 9 ; pres. m. sg. 3, laydn chuh, v, 4 ; imperf. m. 
sg. 3, 6s u laydn, i, 6. 

I past m. sg. with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. Idyun, i, 8 ; iii, 
1,2; ditto and suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. I6y u nas, viii, 10 ; with 
suff. 3rd pers. pi. ag. Idyukh, x, 1 ; ditto and suff. 3rd pers. 
sg. dat. I6y u has, ii, 11 ; pi. with sufT. 1st pers. sg. ag. and suff. 
3rd pers. sg. dat. loy i mas, v, 4 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. 
loyin, v, 4 ; f . sg. with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. loy u n, viii, 6, 
ditto and suff. 1st pers. sg. dat. loy u nam, v, 9 ; ditto and suff. 
3rd pers. sg. dat. loy u nas, iii, 6. 

Ill past m. sg. with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. and 3rd pers. 
sg. dat. laydnas, he had thrown a long time ago to her, v, 5. 

liiz u , see ladun. 

ma or (poet, v, 2) may, prohibitive adv., used with impve. ma kar, 
do not make, xii, 7. Cf. ma 1. 

ma 1, or (poet, v, 11) mov, prohibitive adv. With 2 sg. fut., in v, 2 
it is repeated, under the form of m, as a suffix to the verb, 
md lagaham (lagakh+a+m, in which the a is a junction vowel), 
mayst thou not find thyself. It is also used as a negative 
m the apodosis of a conditional sentence, as in hargdh-ay 
wuchihe . . . md mdrihe, if he had seen ... he would not 
have killed, viii, 10 (but cf. mdrihe-na, viii, 7) ; hargdh-kiy 
sara karihe . . . md diyihe hukum, if he had investigated, . . . 
he would not have given the order, viii, 13. Cf. ma and na. 

md 2, or (poet, v, 9) mail, adv. indicating a question asked with 
hesitation, equivalent to " I wonder if ", " can it be possible 
that ? " i, 2 ; v, 8, 9 ; vii, 20 ; viii, 9, 13 ; x, 5, 12 ; xii, 23. 

me, see boh. 

mobdrakh, adj. blessed ; — karun, to congratulate, x, 8. 

mach-tHV , f. a honey-bee, ix, 1 (ter), 3, 4, 5 ; sg. ag. mdch-l a l a ri, 
ix, 1, 6. 



macama HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 344 

77iacama, m. N. of a certain dainty, a kind of rice pudding, cooked 

with ghi and spices, and coloured, ii, 3. 
mad, m. pride, vii, 15. 

modd, f. (Ar. mudda'd), meaning, object, vi, 7. 
modu, see mor u . 
mud u , see marun. 
moddn, m. an open field, plain, x, 1 (quater) ; with sufT. of 

indef. art. gdsa-moddnd, a certain grass plain, x, 5 ; sg. dat. 

moddnas, iii, 1 ; viii, 9 ; x, 1 ; xii, 20 ; pi. nom. (ace.) poshe- 

moddn, the flower-meadows, xi, 3. 
modur u , adj. sweet, vii, 31 (wine) ; pi. abl. modaryiv kaihau, with 

sweet words, ix, 7. 
mdh, see md 2. 
mahabath, m. affection, love ; sg. abl. mahabata-soty, through 

affection, x, 4. 
mahkam, adj. made firm, firm, stable, strong, xi, 9 (of a rope) ; 

strong, established, which cannot be abrogated, iv, 6 (of a 

religion). 
mahala-khdn, or (xii, 19) -Jchdna, m. the private apartments of 

a palace, the harem, viii, 3, 11 ; ddkhil-i-mahalak7idna, (of 

a woman) brought into the harem, xii, 19. 
muhim, m. poverty, i, 11, 2 ; viii, 9 (bis) ; x, 3 ; sg. abl. muhima- 

sotin, through (i.e. owing to) poverty, i, 4, 5 (bis) ; muhim- 

zad, poverty stricken, x, 4. 
Mahmad, m. N.P. Muhammad, iv, 6 ; vii, 4. 
Mahmod, m. N.P. Mahmud ; — -i-Gaznavi, Mahmud of Ghaznl, 

i, 1. 
mahanyuv u , m. a man, x, 4 ; pi. nom. mahaniv 1 , x, 1. 
mohar, f . a seal, x, 3, 10 ; xii, 22 ; N. of a certain coin, a gold 

mohur ; mohar karufi?, to seal, x, 3 (bis), 10 ; mohara-dydr, 

wealth of mohurs, much money, i, 9 ; mohar-hatas rosh u , 

a necklace worth a hundred mohurs, v, 10, 12. 
mdhrdj, m. (a Hindi word), the Maharaja of Kashmir, xi, 4. 
mah a ram, adj. familiar (with), intimately acquainted (with), ii, 4 

(with a secret, dat.). 
moj ti , f. a mother, viii, 1, 3, 11 (bis) ; xii, 15 (quater), 8 ; sg. 

dat. mdje, viii, 3 (bis) ; gen. mdje-Jwnd u , xii, 15 ; ag. mdji, 



315 VOCABULARY mdl 

v, 6 ; xii, 15, 8 ; voc. mdjiy, xii, 15 (bis) ; mdje-zamin, 

mother- earth, ix, 9 ; wdra-moj", a stepmother, viii, 1. 
mqjub, m. a reason ; amiy mojub, for this reason, viii, 6. 
mejer, m. a major (corr. of the English word), a superior officer, 

e.g. a master-of-the-horse, x, 12, 13 ; sg. dat. mejeras, x, 5 (ter), 

12 (bis) ; ag. mejeran, x, 12. 
mulcadam, m. a certain revenue official, the village headman, ix, 

10 ; sg. ag. mukadaman, ix, 1. 
makh, m. an axe ; match dyun u , to apply, or wield, an axe (dat. of 

obj.), vii, 14. 
moJch, m. the face ; molch ratun, to seize the face, gaze on the face, 

v, 9 ; abl. mokha, on account of ; tami mokha, on that account, 

viii, 9 ; kami mokJia, on what account, x, 4. 
malch a ra, m. coquetry ; makh a r-i-zan, a woman's coquetry, woman's 

wiles, x, 13. 
mokalun, to be completed, finished, viii, 6, 8 ; to be released, to 

escape, v, 8 ; vi, 10, 1 ; mohalan pay, a device for escape, 

a way of salvation, ix, 11. 
inf. obi. abl. mokalan (poet, for mokalana), ix, 11 ; fut. sg. 3, 

mokali, v, 8 ; vi, 10 ; 1 past m. pi. with emph. y, mokdliy, 

vi, 11 ; 3 past m. sg. mokalydv, viii, 6, 8. 
mokaldtvun, to finish, to complete, vi, 16 ; ix, 6 ; x, 1 ; xii, 5 ; 

to release, set free, v, 8. 

waniih mokaldwun, to finish speaking, vi, 16 ; ix, 6 ; 

kosith m., to finish shaving, xii, 5. 
fut. pass. part, f . sg. tagiye mokaldwun u , do you know how 

to get her released ? v, 8 ; fut. pi. 1, with suff. 3rd pers. sg. 

ace. mokaldwahun, we shall complete it, x, 1 ; 1 past m. sg. 

mokaldiv u , vi, 16 ; ix, 6 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. and 3rd 

pers. sg. dat. mdkaldw u nas, he finished (shaving) him, xii, 5. 
makdn, m. a dwelling-place, see Id. 
mokta, m. a pearl ; pi. nom. with emph. y, ?noktay, pearls verily, 

i, 9. This word is elsewhere usually spelt mokhta. 
mdl, m. goods, property, i, 9 ; iii, 1 ; viii, 9 (quater). 
mala, m. a Musalman priest, a Mnllah ; pi. dat. malan, vi, 13 
mdl, m. the price (of anything), viii, 9 ; — karun, to fix the price, 

viii, 9 (bis). 



mol u HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 346 

mdl u , m. a father, viii, 13 ; ivora-mdj u yd mdl u , a stepmother or 
(step)father, viii, 1 ; sg. dat. molis, xii, 4, 5, 10 (bis), 3 ; 
gen. mol i -sond u i xii, 19, 20 (bis), 1 (bis), 2, 4 ; ag. moV, v, 6. 

Malikh, N.P. See Ldla-Malikh. 

malakh, m. an angel ; pi. ag. malakav (for malakau), iv, 2. 

mulkh, m. a country, district ; pi. dat. mulkan, i, 1. 

rndPhdn*, f. a queen, esp. Queen Victoria of England ; sg. ag. 
mdPkdni, xi, 2. 

milawun, to join, unite (transitive) ; 1 past f. sg. with sufi\ 3rd 
pers. pi. ag. mililv^kh ladoy i , righting was joined by them, 
they began to fight among themselves, x, 1. 

mumot u , see marun. 

man, f. the mind ; sg. abl. mani, vi, 6. This word is usually m., 
but here it is certainly feminine, with a fern. adj. (panane, 
for panani, m.c.) in agreement with it. 

mane, m. meaning, purport, iii, 4, 5 ; vii, 27, 8 ; khdbas mane 
tsarun, to tell the meaning of a dream, vi, 14. 

mang, f. a request ; — ladun u } to make a request, make a demand, 
xi, 16. 

manga, see hang a ta manga. 

mangun, to ask for, demand ; fut. pass. part. m. sg. mangun u , 
it is to be demanded, you must demand, xii, 18 ; with gatshi, 
xii, 13, 8 ; impve. sg. 2, mang, xii, 5, 10, 1 ; with sutT. 1st 
pers. sg. dat. mangum, ask from me, xii, 18 ; fut. with suff. 
3rd pers. sg. dat. and neg. nidrighes-na, you must not ask from 
her, xii, 18 ; indie, fut. sg. 1, with sufT. 2nd pers. sg. dat. mangay, 
I shall ask from thee, xii, 7 ; 2, with sutT. 3rd pers. sg. dat. 
mangahas, thou wilt demand from him, xii, 19 ; pres. m. sg. 3, 
with sufl. 1st pers. sg. dat. chum mangdn, he is asking from 
me, xii, 4, 5, 11, 4 ; pi. 3, with same sufl. chim mangdn, they 
are asking from me. xi, 14. 

manganaivun, to send for, summon (by another) ; past m. sg. 
with sufl*. 3rd pers. sg. ag. mangandwun, vi, 16 ; pi. with sufL 
3rd pers. pi. ag. and with emphatic suffix ay, gur 1 manganov^iay, 
they actually sent for horses, xi, 8. 

manosh, m. a man, a human being, xii, 15 (bis) ; sg. dat. (for ace.) 
manoshes, xii, 15. 



347 VOCABULARY manza 

manz, adv. inside, xii, 11 (descend inside). 

postpos. governing dat. in ; on (in special cases only) ; 
into. 

in, ath-manz, in it, xii, 3, 15 ; attt-m., in it verily, viii, 1 ; 
xii, 2, 22 ; bdgas-m., in the garden, ii, 1. 7 ; chus manz, he 
is inside it, xii, 3 ; ddbas-m., in the pit, xii, 6, 7 ; dadari-m., in 
the hollow, ii, 10 ; dilas-m., in the heart, ii, 5 ; hdpatas-m., in 
the bear, ii, 11 ; janatas-m., in heaven, xii, 20, 3 ; kdli-m., 
in the stream, xii, 2 ; kane-m., in a stone, vi, 7 ; maris-m., 
in the body, ii, 6 ; patashbhl-m., in the kingdom, xii, 19 ; 
suras-m., in the ashes, xii, 23 ; totas-m., in the parrot, ii, 8 ; 
worHis-m., in the father-in-law's house, x, 3 ; yes-m., in whom, 
ii, 9. 

on, athas-m., (a bracelet) on the hand (arm), xii, 12 ; 
moddnas-m., on the plain, xii, 20 ; tokis-m., (jewels) on a tray, 
viii, 12 ; tath i -m., (a bracelet) on even it (sc. a hand), xii, 11. 

into, (on to), amis-m., (put) into this (bear), ii, 4 ; bdgas-m. , 
(went, entered, arrived) into the garden, ii, 1 (bis) ; iii, 7 ; 
v, 4, 5, 6, 9 (bis) : dunUjdhas-m., (go) into the world, xii, 18 
(bis) ; halamas-m., (throw, etc.) into the lap-skirt, v, 4 (bis), 5 ; 
hdpatas-m., (entered) into the bear, ii, 10 ; janatas-m., (arrive, 
etc.) into heaven, xii, 24 (bis) ; jdye-m., (enter) into a place, 
iii, 7 ; kuthis-m., (ascend) into the room, x, 7, 8 (bis) ; 
laskari-m., (go, etc.) into the army, ii, 6, 9 ; moddnas-m., 
(arrived) on to a plain, iii, 1 ; viii, 9 ; mad(r)is-m., (enter) 
into a body, ii, 5, 6, 7, 11 ; ndgas-m., (descend, throw) into a 
spring, iii, 5, 9 ; xii, 7, 12 ; ndras-m., (leap) into the fire, 
iii, 4 ; poshdkas-m., (entered) into the garment, x, 7 (bis) ; 
sheharas-m., (entered, arrived) into the city, v, 9, 11 ; x, 14 ; 
xii, 2 ; shikamas-m., (entered) into the belly, x, 7 (bis) ; 
tath { -m., (throw) into it verily, xii, 11 ; totas-m., (entered) 
into the parrot, ii, 5 ; wanas-m., (arrived) into a forest, 
ix, 1. 
manza, postpos. governing abl. from in ; ami-manza, from in it, 
xii, 4 ; bagala-m., from in (i.e. from imder) the armpit, viii, 7 ; 
cenda-m., from in (i.e. out of) the pocket, xii, 15 ; ddba-m., 
from in the pit, xii, 7 ; kdli-m., from in the stream, xii, 4, 6 ; 



monzur HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 348 

rakhi-m., (seized) from in (i.e. seized in and brought from) the 
field, x, 12 (bis) ; shehara-m., from in (i.e. from) the city, 
viii, 11 ; shikama-m., from in the belly, x, 7 (bis) ; sura-m., 
from in the ashes, xii, 23 ; satav-m., from in (i.e. from among) 
the seven, x, 12 ; wana-m., from in the forest, ix, 4 ; yemi-m., 
from in which, xii, 11. 

monzur, approved, accepted, i, 12. 

munazdth (= munazzat), pure (of God), vii, 1. 

mine-miir u , f . a hind, ii, 8 ; dat. -mare, ii, 9 ; ag. -mari, ii, 9. 

mar, m. killing, slaughter ; mam gatshun, to die a violent death, 
x, 7, 8, 13. 

mor u , or (ii, 5, 9) mod u , m. the body of man or beast, ii, 5, 9, 10 (bis), 
1 ; sg. dat. maris, ii, 7 ; maris-manz, ii, 6, 7, 11 ; madis-manz, 
ii, 5. 

miir", f . see mine-mur u . 

mard, m. a man ; marda-zan, man or woman, vii, 23. 

murdamdzbn, f. laughing and joking, amorous sport, x, 12. The 
word is a corruption of the Persian mardum azdri. In that 
language mardum azdr, a tormenter of men, is colloquially 
used to mean " a lovely woman ". Hence mardum azdri 
would mean lit. " the conduct of a man with a lovely woman ", 
i.e. " amorous sport." 

marhabd, interj. welcome! hail! God bless you!; with sufT. of 
indef . art. JcdrHds marlwbdh, make ye a God bless you for him, 
wish him good luck, ii, 10. 

mdraka (= ma'raka), m. an assembly; pi. dat. mdrakan, (in) the 
assemblies, vii, 23. 

murkhas (= murakhkhas), dismissed, allowed to depart ; — karun, 
to dismiss (a court), viii, 11. 

marun, irreg. to die ; conj. part, marith, having died, i.e. after death, 
iv, 7 ; marith gatshun (= Hindi mar j ana), to die, vi, 16. 

fut. sg. 1, boy mara-y, if I shall die, viii, 1 (bis) ; 3, mari, 

x, 7 ; xii, 19 ; imperf. 6s u mardn, he was dying, he used to 

die, i.e. (in former times, if he did so) he always died, v, 9. 

past sg. m. 3, mud u , ii, 3, 6 ; sg. f. 3, moye, viii, 2, 11. 

perf . part. m. sg. mumot u , dead, ii, 3 (bis), 4 (bis), 10 ; 

dat. kotydh warihy gamdt 1 mumatis, how many years have 



349 VOCABULABY vias 

passed for him dead, i.e. how many years it is since he died, xii, 
20; pi. mumat*, viii, 1 ; perf. m. pi. 2>,chxhmumdt\ they have 
died, viii, 1 ; fut. perf. dsi mumot u , he is probably dead, 
x, 8 (bis). 

cond. past sg. 3, marihe, viii, 7. 

mdrun, to kill ; to strike, wound (v, 6). 

inf. dat. mdranas, for killing, (a decision) to kill, ii, 7 ; 
abl. mdrana-bdjmth, (given) for killing, x, 12 ; dm mdrani, 
he came to kill me, viii. 13 ; fut. pass. part, gatshi mdrun u , 
he must be killed, x, 5 (bis), 12, 5 ; conj. part, morith trdwun 
(— Hindi mar ddlnd), to kill, slay, x, 8. 

impve. pi. 2, with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ace. moryun, ii, 16 ; 
with suff. 3rd pers. pi. ace. or dat. moryukh, viii, 4, 12, 3 ; 
indie, fut. sg. 1, with suff. 2nd pers. sg. ace. mdrath, ii, 11 ; 3, 
mare (m.c. for mdri), v, 7 ; with emph. y, mdriy, vi, 11 ; with 
suff. 2nd pers. pi. gen. yus mdriwa, he who among you will 
kill, ii, 7 ; pi. 3, with suff. 3rd pers. pi. ace. mdranakh, viii, 4. 
past m. sg. mdr u , iii, 3 (ter) ; vi, 11 ; neg. mdr u -na, ii, 8 ; 
with suff. 2nd pers. sg. ag. and 1st pers. sg. nom. md^thas, 
thou didst wound me, v, 6 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. morun, 
viii, 7, 10 (bis) ; x, 7 : with suff. 3rd pers. pi. ag. and 1st 
pers. sg. dat. mdr u ham, they killed him for me (dat. ethicus), 
iii, 3 ; pi. mor\ viii, 12 ; with suff. 3rd pers. pi. sg. morikh, 
viii. 4. 

cond. past 1, with suff. 2nd pers. sg. ag. and neg. 
mdrahath-na ; 3, neg. ma mdrihe, he would not have killed, 
viii, 10 ; mdrihe-na, he would not have killed, viii, 7 ; both 
being in apodosis of a cond. sentence. 

martsa-ivagun, m. red pepper ; martsa-wcigan ratshi-hand, a little red 
pepper, a small amount of red pepper, v, 6. 

marj-ivatul, m. an executioner ; pi. nom. (for ace.) mdrawdtal, x, 12 ; 
dat. mdraivatalan, viii, 4 (bis), 11, 2, 3 ; x, 5 (bis), 12 : ag. 
mdrawdtalau, viii, 12 ; x, 12 ; Cf. wdtul. 

Maraz, m. N. of the south-east end of the Valley of Kashmir ; 
Mardz-i-pargan, the Pargana, or fiscal division, of Maraz, 
xi, 5. 

mas, m. wine, vii, 31. 



Musa HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 350 

Musd, Moses ; sg. ag. musdy, iv, 5. 

mashhur, celebrated, renowned, xi, 3. 

mashun, to be forgotten ; (with subj. in dat.) to forget ; conj. 
part, kath gayes mashith, he forgot the statement, x, 6 ; 
past part. m. sg. amis moth u , he forgot, v, 7 ; f. sg. 1 with 
sufT. 3rd pers. pi. dat. muth^kh, (love, fern.) was forgotten to 
them, they forgot (love), ix, 8. 

mushtakh, enamoured (of), entranced (with), usually governing dat., 
iii, 1, 9 (bis) ; m. ath 1 tamdshes-kun, enamoured of that 
spectacle, iii, 7 ; m. tattf-soty, entranced with that also, iii, 
8 ; pdnas u y-kun mushtakh, (God has) yearnings only for Him- 
self ; i.e. He alone is free from imperfections, and if He has 
yearnings, they can only be for Himself, as all things consist 
in Him, vii, 3 ; mushtakh gatshun, to become entranced, etc., 
iii, 1, 7, 8. 

mashlyeth, f. a wish, vii, 7. 

miskin, m. a beggar, one who is poverty-stricken, x, 10 ; pi. nom. 
miskin, ix, 11. 

miskirii, f. poverty, beggary ; sg. gen. -hond u , x, 4 (bis). 

musla, m. a piece of skin, xii, 18 (bis) ; dim. musla-han, f. a piece of 
skin, xii, 21 ; sg. dat. muslas, xii, 22. 

mashhath, f . consultation ; — karun u , to consult together, viii, 3 ; 
xi, 19. 

masnavi, f . a rhymed poem, vii, 30. 

Misar, see Aziz-i-Misar. 

mast, m. hair ; mast kdsun (personal obj. in dat.), to shave, xii, 4 
(bis), 5 (bis), 10 (ter), 3 (bis), 9. 

masHh, adj. plump, well-favoured (of cattle). This adjective is 
here inflected to agree with a fern, noun in dat. pi., mastan, 
vi, 15. 

mot u , adj. mad, v, 2 ; subst. m. a mad man ; sg. dat. nemis matis 
siwah, except this madman, v, 9 ; ag. mat 1 , v, 9. 

mot u , the space between the shoulders, the upper part of the back, 
sg. abl. mati, v, 9 ; xi, 10. 

moth, m. death ; Death personified, hence sg. gen. f . motiin", (a 
prison-house) of Death, ix, 4. 

mathun, to rub ; conj . part, mathith, having rubbed (butter on 



351 VOCABULARY 



na 



something), ix, 4 ; impve. sg. 2, math, rub (ashes on the body), 
v, 9. 

motasut* (for mutasaddl), m. an accountant ; pi. nom. mdtasiit*, 
ix, 7. 

matsh, f. the arm ; sg. abl. matshi, x, 5. 

mdtsh, m. a contemptuous term used by demons or the like for a 
man ; sg. abl. m8tsha-bdy, f. the smell of a man, xii, 15. 

mutsarun, to open ; — a door (viii, 3) ; — a letter (viii, 10 ; xii, 
23) ; — the eyes (xii, 22) ; slna — , to open the bosom, to 
declare one's inmost thoughts and sorrows (vii, 21). 

conj. part, mutsarith, vii, 21 ; fut. sg. 1, with suff. 2nd 
pers. sg. dat. mutsaray, viii, 3 ; past sg. m. with sufL 3rd 
pers. sg. ag. mutsorun, viii, 10 ; xii, 23 ; f. pi. with same 
sufi\ mutsaren, xii, 22. 

mewa, m. a fruit, xii, 21, 2. 

mov, poet, for ma 1 (v, 11), q.v. 

may, poet, for ma (v, 2), q.v. 

moye, see marun. 

myon u , possess, pron. my, i, 10 ; vii, 27, 8 ; x, 4 ; 5, 12 (bis), 4 ; 
xii, 15 ; with emph. y, mydnuy, vii, 9 ; m. sg. dat. myonis, 
xii, 19, 20 (bis), 1 ; abl. myani, i, 2 ; pi. nom. myon 1 , vii, 20 ; 
x, 5 ; xii, 15 (bis) ; dat. myanen, ii, 7 ; f. sg. nom. myon", 
iii, 2, 4, 8, 9 ; v, 10 ; xii, 14 (bis), 5, 8 ; with emph. y, myon a y, 
x, 10. 

myuth u , adj. sweet, pleasant, vi, 11 (of the interpretation of a 
dream). 

maz, m. flesh, vii, 24 ; sg. dat. mazas, vii, 14. 

mizman, m. a guest, vii, 4. 

na, adv. neg. not. It is not used with the simple or with the 
polite impve. (see ma, ma 1), but is used as a prohibitive 
with the fut. imperative. In a direct statement it is usually 
suffixed to the verb, as in mdr u -na, did not kill, and if the 
verb has pronominal suffixes it follows them, as in marahaih-na, 
I should not have killed thee. Before it the suffix kh does not 
become h, as in chukh-na, not chihana, thou art not. It is 
used in this way. suffixed to a verb in i, 6 ; ii, 1, 4, 8, 9, 11 ; 
iii, 1, 2, 3 ; iv, 4, 6 ; v, 6 (ter), 9 (bis) ; vi, 10, 6 (bis) ; viii, 



na HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 352 

I, 2, 3, 7 (ter), 9 (bis), 11 (bis), 3 ; x, 1 (ter), 4 (bis), 6, 7, 12, 
4 ; xii, 2 (bis), 3, 7, 15 (bis), 6, 7, 22. With the fut. impve., 
we have ddp i zem-na, you must not say to me, v, 8 ; kdr l zi-na, 
you must not make, viii, 1 ; xii, 6 ; wds i zi-na, you must not 
descend, xii, 11 ; mdnghes-na, you must not demand from 
her, xii, 18. 

It is also occasionally employed in other parts of the 
sentence, as in na rud u mot w , there was not remaining, i, 5 ; 
wuchun ati na Jchar, he did not see the ass there, iii, 9 ; wuchun 
ta mat na kuni, he saw that there was no property, viii, 9 ; 
uruchun ati na poshdkh, she saw that her clothes were 
not there, xii, 7. This is most common in subordinate 
clauses, as in yeli na bani, when it is not possible, x, 3 ; yesa 
na pdnas-soty cheh, (the woman) who is not with you, x, 6 ; 
yeli na yinsdn 6s u , when it was not a man, x, 7 ; yim na 
zanan, they who do not know, xi, 8. 

It is sometimes used as a privative prefix, as in na-dsanas, 
for non-existence, x, 1, 6. 

With emph. y, it becomes nay 1, as in sa nay keh ay em, 
she did not come at all to me, v, 5 ; ydr nay rozani ay, we did 
not come here to stay, ix, 6, 8, 10, 2 ; yith nay lagekh gray, 
so that they may not be at all shaken, ix, 12 ; bo-nay sara 
zah, I shall never remember, xi, 14 ; keh na/ chim bdzctn, 
they do not listen to me at all, xi, 15. This word should not 
be confused with nay 2, q.v. 

na, negative interrogative suffix in dsi-nd, will there not be ? 
viii, 7 ; dye-nd, did there not come ? ix, 3 ; bani-nd, will there 
not be ? vi, 13 ; bozakh-nd, wilt thou not hear ? vi, 1, etc. ; 
khekh-nd, wilt thou nob eat ? ii, 3 ; vi, 2 ; chukh-nd parzandwdn, 
dost thou not recognize ? x, 12 ; tagem-nd, will it not be 
within my power ? i.e. of course it will be, x, 5 ; wada-nd, 
shall I not weep ? vii, 25 ; yikh-nd, wilt thou not come ? 
vi, 2 ; zdna-nd, shall I not know ? x, 12. 

nau, i.q. na (poet.) ; nau kah-ti, no one at all, vii, 23 ; nau zdnav, 
we do not know, xi, 15. 

nu, adv. neg. in nu chuh gatshdn pdtashehas, nu chuh gatshdn biye-kun, 
he goes neither to the king not does he go anywhere else, xii, 4. 



353 VOCABULABY nokar 

nebar, adv. outside, iii, 8 (ter) ; viii, 7 ; x, 7 ; postpos. shcharcs 
nebar, (he was taken) outside the city, x, 5. 

nechi, see neth u . 

necyuv u , m. a son, iii, 9 (bis) ; with sufT. of indef. art. zargar- 
necyuvdh, a goldsmith's son, v, 2 ; sg. dat. (for ace.) neeivis, 
iii, 9; pi. nom. neciv 1 , viii, 11; xii, 1; dat. neciven-peth, 
on the sons, viii, 13 ; gen. neciven-hunz u , viii, 3, 11. 

add, m. a call, a summons ; nod dyun u , to summon, i, 10 ; x, 12 ; 
xii, 17. 

ndddn, m. a fool ; sg. dat. ndddnas, ii, 5 ; voc. nddana, xi, 11. 

nag, a spring (of water) (usually looked upon as sacred, where it 
issues from a mountain side), xii, 6 ; sg. dat. ndgas, v, 9 ; 
xii, 6 ; ndgas-manz, (descended, etc.) into the spring, iii, 5, 9 ; 
xii, 7, 12 ; ndgas-peth, (went, etc.) up to, or on to the bank of, 
a stream (a common idiom), iii, 4 (bis), 5, 9 ; xii, 6 (bis), 
11, 2, 4 ; ndgas akith kun, on one side of the spring, 
xii, 14. 

sg. abl. kasam ndga-petha, an oath from by the stream, 
an oath made on the bank of the spring, calling the spring 
to witness, v, 9 ; voc. ndga, v, 9 ; pi. nom. nag, vi, 15 ; dat. 
(for ace.) ndgan, vi, 15. 

nagma, m. a melody, song ; in Kashmiri, a dance of women ; pi. 
nom., id., iii, 7. 

nigin, m. a jewel ; pi. nom. id., i, 9 ; ag. niginau, (a tray filled) 
with jewels, viii, 3, 11. 

Noh, m. Noah, iv, 3. 

nahith tshunun, to cancel, make void, xii, 4. 

nakha, adv. near, ii, 9. 

nokhta (xii, 19) or nokta (xii, 4), m. a point ; hence a particular on 
which one can condemn a person ; tamis rath-ta kentshah 
nokhta, seize some point (in) him, bring a charge of some fault 
against him, get up something against him, catch him 
tripping, xii, 19 ; so kar-ta kentshah noktdh (with suff. of indef. 
art.), xii, 4. 

nakar, m. prohibition ; — karun, to prohibit (dat. of obj. pro- 
hibited), iv, 6. 

nokar, m. a servant ; nokar behun, to sit down as a servant, to take 



nokari HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 854 

service, xii, 3 ; pi. nom. huzuri-nokar behdri 1 , to sit down as 

personal servants, to be employed as such, viii, 5. 
nokari, f . service ; Icyah nokari karakh, what service wilt thou do ? 

what employment dost thou want ? xii, 3 ; behiv me-nish 

nokari, be employed (in) my service, take service with me, 

viii, 5. 
nokta, see nokhta. 

ndl 1, m. a horse-shoe ; pi. nom. ndl, xi, 17. 
ndl 2, m. the neck ; sg. dat. ndlas, vi, 9 ; abl. ndla, v, 9 ; viii, 10. 

Cf. noP. 
ndla, f . pi. cries, lamentation ; nom. (ace.) ndla dine, to utter cries, 

to lament, vii, 22, 3. 
ndle, postpos. (Hindi), with, xi, 4. 
noP, adv. on the neck (cf. ndl 2), viii, 10 (ter) ; — tshunun, to put 

round the neck, viii, 10 ; amis 6s u poshdkh noP, he had 

garments on his neck, i.e. he was wearing garments, x, 4 ; 

poshdkh tshon u ami noP, she put the garment on her neck, 

i.e. she dressed herself, xii, 7. 
nam, a nail (of the finger or toe) ; pi. nom. nam, v, 6. 
namun, to bow ; fut. sg. 3, nami, vi, 16 ; 2 past m. sg. 3, namyov, 

vi, 16. 
nemis, see noih. 
ndmurdd, adj. unsuccessful ; in Kashmiri, without hope, without 

expectation, i, 10. 
non u , adj. naked ; bare (of a sword), viii, 6 ; manifest, hence, 

glorious, vi, 7 ; with emph. y, nonuy, vi, 7 ; f. sg. nom. 

nun", viii, 6. 
nun, m. salt ; sg. abl. nuna-ratshi-hand, a little salt, v, 6. (Elsewhere 

the word is written nun.) 
nend a r, f . sleep ; — karun u , to sleep, v, 6 ; — pen", sleep to fall, 

v, 5, 7 ; — yin u , sleep to come, v, 6 (ter) ; yiyiy nend a r 

sheh u j u , sleep will come to thee cold, i.e. thou wilt cease to be 

sleepy ; but it also means " cool sleep will come to thee ", 

and is misunderstood by the hearer in this sense, v, 6 (bis). 
ningalun, to swallow ; pres. part, ningalan, vi, 15 (bis). 
nan-gar, m. a menial cultivator, xi, 10. 
nanun, to become manifest ; pres. m. sg. 3, chuh nandn, vii, 1. 



855 VOCABULARY nish 

naphts, m. the belly ; sg. dat. naphtsas, x, 3. 

nar, m. a male ; (of a bird) a cock, viii, 1 ; sg. abl. naran, viii, 1. 

nar, m. fire ; zinis nar dyun u , to set fire to the firewood, xii, 21, 
2, 4 ; nar gomoV* tsheta, the fire (had) become extinguished, 
xii, 23 ; sg. dat. ndras-manz, (leap) into the fire, iii, 4 ; abl. 
ndra-han zolith, having kindled a little fire, iii, 1. 

nur, m. light, brilliancy, glory ; sg. abl. nura, vii, 6. 

nur*, f . the arm (from shoulder to wrist), xii, 15. 

narm, adj. smooth, vii, 24. 

nerun, irreg. to go forth, come forth, issue, emerge ; to issue, 
turn out, happen (as the result of something), vi, 11 ; to be 
issued (of an order), xi, 4 ; hatabod^khdris dray, they turned 
out (i.e. amoimted to) hundreds of kharwars, ix, 9 ; riiriih 
gatshun, to issue forth and be gone (Hindi nihil jdna), ii, 
3 ; xii, 15 ; riirith yun u , to come forth (Hindi nikal ana), 
xii, 12. 

inf. hyotun nerun, he began to go forth, ii, 3 ; log u nerani, 
began to issue, x, 7 ; conj. part, riirith, ii, 3 ; xii, 12, 5 ; pres. 
part, neran, viii, 7 ; impve. sg. 2, ner, ii, 9 ; pi. 1, nerav, 
xi, 12 ; 2, niriv, ii, 7 ; xii, 1 (bis) ; riiriv-sa, go ye forth, 
sirs, x, 9 ; indie, fut. pi. 1, nerav, xii, 18 ; imperf. neran, 
xii, 1 ; m. sg. 3, 6s u neran, viii, 1. 

1 past m. sg. 3, drdv, ii, 8 ; iii, 1, 3, 4 (bis) ; v, 1, 4, 5, 6, 9 ; 
vi, 7, 11 ; viii, 9 (bis) ; x, 2, 3, 4 (bis), 5 (bis), 7 (bis), 9, 14 (bis) ; 
xi, 4, 13 ; xii, 4, 5 (bis), 10, 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 20, 3 ; with surT. 
3rd pers. sg. dat. drds, issued from it, xii, 3 ; drds-na, did not 
issue from it, (if it does not) issue from it, xii, 3 ; pi. 3, dray, ix, 
9 ; x, 11 ; f. sg. 3, draye, iii, 1, 2 ; v, 7 (bis) (draye bazar, 
she went forth to the bazaar), 9 ; with sufT. 3rd pers. sg. dat. 
drdyes, she issued from his (side), vii, 7. 

nerawuri", n. ag. one who goes forth ; as adv. as I go forth, v, 8. 

?idsh, m. destruction, see ol l -ndsh, ix, 3. 

nish, near, the equivalent of the Hindi pas, and governing the 
dative ; me-nish, near me, by me, viii, 5 ; forming datives 
of possession, tse-nish, in thy possession, x, 14 ; tdhe-nish, 
in your possession, x, 5, 12. After a verb of motion, and 
governing a noun signifying a person, it means " to ". Thus : 

▲ a 



nishe 1 HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 356 

okhun-zddas nish, (brought it) to the teacher's son, xii, 2 ; 
bbyis-nish, (go) to the brother, v, 10 ; ldl-shendkas-n., (came) 
to the lapidary, xii, 25 ; me-n., (came) to me, xii, 22 ; 
mejeras-n., (brought him) to the master of the horse, x, 5 ; 
phakiras-n., (came) to the mendicant, iii, 2 ; pdtashdhas-n., 
(brought him) to the king, ii, 11 ; pdtdshehas-n., (came, etc.) 
to the king, viii, 5, 13 ; x, 1, 2, 3, 5 ; waziras-n., (came) to 
the Vizier, xii, 5, 10, 3 ; yiman-n., (she came) to these 
(persons), v, 8 ; ydras-n., (came) to the friend, x, 4, 11 ; 
zandni-n., (came) to the woman, xii, 4. Cf . nishe 1 and nishin. 

nishe 1, i.q. nish, q.v. ; phakiras-nishe, (he was) near (i.e. with) 
the" mendicant, ii, 9 ; torka-chdnas-nishe, near (i.e. in the house 
of) the cabinet maker, vii, 20 ; me-nishe, in my possession, 
x, 14 ; governing dat. of person and following a verb of 
motion, me-nishe, (came) to me, xii, 22 ; phakiras-nishe, 
came to the mendicant, ii, 7 ; waziras-nishe, (he came) to the 
vizier, xii, 19 ; governing inan. noun, palangas-nishe, he came 
near the bed, x, 7 ; Cf . nish and nishin. 

nishe 2, postpos. governing abl. ( = Hindi pds-se), from near, 
from ; khdba-nishe abtar, terrified from (i.e. at) the dream, vi, 

12 ; tsakhi-nishe byonuy, distinct from (i.e. absolutely without) 
anger, vii, 2. 

nishdna, m. a token (given as a sign of recognition), x, 8, 14 (bis) ; 
xii, 21. 

nishin, postpos. governing dat, i.q. nish and nishe 1 ; phakiras- 
nishin, (he was) near (i.e. with) the mendicant, ii, 8 ; 
khdwandas-nishin, (go) to (your) master, viii, 10 ; pdtashdh- 
zddan-nishin, (came) to the princes, viii, 4. Cf. nish and 
nishe 1. 

nasiyeth (xii, 16, 7) or nasiyeth, f. admonition, advice (xii, 1), 
instruction ; — karun u , to advise, give instruction, xii, 16 ; 
nasiyeth karay akh kath, I will give thee one piece of instruc- 
tion (xii, 1). 

nata, conj. (if) not then, (if so and so does) not (happen) then, 
otherwise, v, 7. 

not u , m. a jar, a pitcher, iii, 5 (ter), 9 ; doda-not u , a milk-jar, xi, 

13 ; sg. dat. natis-peth, on the jar, iii, 5, 9. 



357 VOCABULARY nyun u 

neth see ndih. 

ne f h a , f. a thumb-ring ; sg. abl. nechi, vi, 16. 

ndih or neth, pronoun defective, said to be used mainly by villagers, 

as the equivalent of yih 1, this. It has no nominative, and 

neth is the inan. sg. dat. In declension it runs parallel to 

ath, q.v. 
As a substantive we have m. pi. dat. (for ace.) ndman, 

(look at) these, viii, 1. 
As adjective we have m. sg. dat. nemis matis siwdh, 

excepting this madman, v, 9 ; nemis manoshes, to this man, 

xii, 15 ; m. pi. nom. nam lal, these rubies, x, 5 ; f. pi. nom. 

noma wolinje, these hearts, viii, 4 ; dat. ndman mdrawdtalan, 

to these executioners, x, 12 ; ndman zanen, to these persons, 

x, 12 ; ag. nomav tahalyav, by these grooms, x, 12. 
neth a r, m. a marriage-arrangement ; — karun, to make a marriage, 

to marry (so and so, amis soty, xii, 15), viii, 2 (bis) ; xii, 15. 
notuwan, adj. feeble, i, 2. 
nav, card, nine ; pi. abl. nawav asmdnav-peth\ above the nine 

heavens, iii, 8. 
nav, m. a name, ii, 1 ; xii, 4 (bis) ; amis chuh nav, her name is, 

xii, 8 ; tath chuh nav, its name is, xii, 18. 
now u , adj. new, i, 11. 
n6w u , see Lache-ndw u , s.v. lach. 
nay 1, see na. 
nay 2, f . a reed-flute, vii, passim ; gen. m. naye-hond u , vii, 1 ; 

f. naye-hiinz", vii, 1. 
nayid, m. a barber, xi, 18 ; xii, 4 (bis), 5 (bis), 10 (bis), 3, 9 (bis), 

22, 3, 4, 5 ; noyid-sabaJch, a barber-lesson, instruction in 

barber's work, v, 6 ; sg. ag. noyidan, xii, 19, 25. Cf. nayez*. 
nyun u , irreg. to take, v, 12 ; vi, 9 ; viii, 9 (ter), 11 ; x, 1, 5 (bis) ; 

xi, 18 ; xii, 19, 25 ; to bring (news), ii, 1, 6 ; x, 7, 8 ; xii, 23 ; 

ratith nyun u , to arrest, capture (a prisoner), v, 7, 9 ; x, 5 ; 

tulith nyun u , to lift up and take away, to raise (a person from 

a bed) and lead (him) away, iii, 7. 
impve. sg. 2, with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ace. nin, xii, 25 ; pi. 2, 

with same suff., niyun, x, 5 ; indie, fut. pi. 1 nimav, xii, 19. 
1 past m. sg. nyuv, viii, 9 ; nev, iii, 7 ; with suff. 3rd 



nayistan HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 358 

pers. sg. ag. nyiln, vi, 9 ; with suff. 3rd pers. pi. ag. nyilkh, 
x, 5 (bis) ; xi, 18 ; with ditto, and also suff. 3rd pers. sg. 
gen. nyuhas, viii, 9 ; pi. niy, v, 9 ; with suff. 2nd pers. sg. 
ag. riith, x, 1 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. nln, v, 7. 

f. sg. niye, ii, 1, 6 ; x, 7, 8 ; xii, 23 ; with suff. 3rd pers. 
sg. ag. niyen, v, 12 ; with suff. 3rd pers. pi. ag. niyekh, 
viii, 11. 
plup. m. sg. 6s u nyumot u , viii, 9. 

nayistan, m. a place where canes or reeds grow, a cane-brake, vii, 
26, 7, 8 ; dat. nayistanas-kun, (saying) to the cane-brake, 
vii, 26 ; gen. m. nayistdnuk u , vii, 26 ; f . nayistanifc", vii, 29. 

nyawun, to cause to be taken, to cause to be taken away, to have 
dispatched ; 1 p.p. nydw u . In xi, 6, this is given a pleonastic 
suffix ku, forming nydw u -k u , of which the m. pi. nom. is 
nyov i -k i . 

nay'ez u , f. a barber's wife, xi, 19. Cf. noyid. 

ndz, m. blandishment, coaxing ; pi. dat. nazan, ii, 7 (applied by 
a man to soldiers). 

neza, m. a spear ; iron railings or the like round a garden, etc. 
(v, 4) ; pi. nom. neza, v, 4. 

nazdikh, postpos. near; sdddgdras-n., (he arrived) near (i.e. came 
to) the merchant, viii, 10. 

nizikh, adv. near, viii, 6 (bis) ; x, 4 ; gos n., he went near it, viii, 
10 ; postpos. governing dat., near, badanas-n., (came) near the 
body, viii, 6 ; sheharas-n., (he came) near the city, x, 3. 

nazar, f . look, regard, glance ; observation, inspection, watching ; 
— ches batsan-kun, his sight is (i.e. eyes are) directed towards 
the married pair, viii, 6 ; — chekh 6-kun, their eyes were 
directed thither, xii, 23 ; nazarah, a single glance ; nazardh 
karun", to take one look at a person, viii, 11 ; nazar karun 1 
to look at, observe, inspect, watch, ii, 1 ; x, 7, 8 (ter) ; xii, 23 
dat. byuth u nazari, he sat for looking, he sat in watch, x, 7 
nazari tdm^sanzi soty, owing to his looking at (me), vii, 13. 

nazarbaz, m. a watcher, a watchman, a detective ; pi. ag. nazarbdzav, 
ii, 1 ; x, 7, 8 ; xii, 23. 

piche (Hindi), adv. afterwards, xi, 4. 

poda, adj . born, created ; manifest, manifested ; — karun, to 



359 VOCABULARY pahdn 

create, iii, 8 (ter) ; vii, 4, 6 (bis), 8 ; xii, 7 ; — gatshun, 
to become manifest, to become visible, to come into sight, 
ii, 1 ; iii, 8 ; x, 4, 5, 7 ; xii, 10. 

pagdh, adv. to-morrow, iii, 4 ; vi, 16 ; on the following day, next 
day, vi, 16 ; xii, 10. 

phahi in phaki dyun u , to impale, v, 10. 

phaharawdv, m. a file, a rasp, v, 4. 

phakh, m. an evil smell, a stink, ii, 4. 

phakir, m. a religious mendicant, a faqir, i, 2 ; ii, 1, 2, 3 (bis), 9 ; 
iii, 1 ; x, 7 (many times), 8 (many times), 9, 12 (bis), 4 (bis) ; 
— lagun, to dress oneself as a faqir, pretend to be a faqir, 
x, 12 ; with suff. of indef. art. phakirdh, ii, 1 (bis) ; phakird 
akh, x, 7 ; sg. dat. phakiras, ii, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9 ; iii, 1, 2, 9 ; x, 
8 (bis) ; ag. phakiran, iii, 1 ; x, 7, 8, 12 ; gen. phakira-sond u , 
x, 12 ; f . — siinz u , x, 8, 14 ; voc. phakira, ii, 3 ; x, 8 ; phakird, 
ii, 2 ; pi. dat. phakiran (for gen.), vi, 13 ; ag. phakirav, v, 8. 

phakiri, f. the condition or state of a religious mendicant, faqir- 
hood, x, 14 ; sg. gen. phakiriye-hond u , x, 9. 

phikir", f . thought, consideration, reflection ; concern, solicitude, 
anxiety ; keh chena phikir u (xii, 5) or ketshdh chena phikir* 
(xii, 20), there is no anxiety, there is no reason to be anxious ; 
with suff. of indef. art. phikirdh kariin", to do a thinking, to 
consider, reflect, xii, 19, 24 ; phikiri gatshun, to go into 
anxiety, to become anxious, viii, 10 ; xii, 4. 

phal 1, m. a fruit*; pi. nom. phal, ix, 9. 

phal 2, f. a small piece, a splinter ; pi. nom. (for ace.) phala, vii, 14. 

phol u , m. a grain, hence any small round object, such as a pearl, 
etc. ; kani-phol u , a pebble, xii, 15 (bis). 

pholun, to flower ; to break (of the dawn), iii, 3 ; v, 5, 7 ; viii, 9 ; 
xii, 2 (bis) ; inf. obi. phdlani logun, to begin to break, v, 5, 7 ; 
xii, 2 ; pres. m. sg. 3, chuh phdldn, xii, 2 ; past m. sg. 3, 
phql u , iii, 3 ; viii, 9. 

pliamh, m. cotton- wool, viii, 6, 13. 

pahdn, a dim. suff. drdv dur-pahdn, he went forth a little distance, 
x, 7 ; byuth u duri-pahdn, he sat down at a little distance, 
x, 7 ; khasun hyor u -pahdn, to go a little distance up-stream, 
xii, 6. 



pahar HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 360 

pahar, m. a division of time consisting of three hours, an eighth 
part of a day, a watch, viii, 5 (bis), 6 (bis), 8 (bis), 10, 1, 3 ; 
rots u -hond u pahar, a watch of the night, iii, 1 ; sg. abl. patimi 
pahara, at the last watch (of the night), v, 8 ; pi. nom. pahar, 
viii, 5. 

phardd, adv. to-morrow, on the morrow, vi, 11. 

pharun, to cause loss, to be a plunderer or robber ; past m. sg. 3, 
phor u tas Yiblis, Satan caused loss to him, plundered him, 
ruined him, iv, 2. 

pherun, to go round, wander about, i, 2 ; ii, 8 ; to return, go back ; 
to feel regret, be grieved, viii, 1, 7, 10 (bis), (all with dat. of 
subject) ; thud u -kani pherun, to turn oneself backwards, 
to turn the back (on a person), v, 4. 

conj. part, phirith, having returned ; with or without pot u , 
very common in the meaning " back again ", as in phirith 
yun u , to come back, return, ii, 3 ; v, 10 ; viii, 10 ; esp. to 
return home, go home, v, 1, 4 ; so phirith nerun (x, 14) or 
phirith pot u nerun (xii, 19), to go forth back again ; phirith 
wasun, to come down again (after going upstairs), iii, 9 ; with 
verbs of saying, it means " in answer " ; thus, phirith dapun, 
to say in answer, to reply, iii, 1, 8 ; v, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11 (bis) ; 
viii, 8 ; ix, 1 ; x, 1 (bis), 6, 10 ; xi, 15 ; xii, 3, 4, 5 (bis) ; 
so phirith wanun, to reply, v, 2, 4 ; wanun pot u phirith, 
id., x, 7 ; phirith ladun, to send (a message) in reply, x, 
3 (bis) ; with wothun, to arise, we have wothus phirith, he up 
and replied to him, viii, 6 ; x, 2 ; wothus pot u phirith, id., 
x, 6 ; w5tsh"s phirith, she up and answered him, xii, 11. 
With gatshun, we have phirith gatshun, to go having turned 
away, i.e. to become hostile, iv, 3. 

pres. m. sg. 3, chuh pheran, ii, 5 ; imperf . m. sg. 3, 6s u 
pheran, i, 2. 

past m. sg. 3, phyur u , viii, 1 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. 
phyurus, viii, 7, 10 (bis). 

phirun, to turn something round ; freq. part, phir 1 phir*, turning 
(me) round and round, vii, 18; conj. part, phirith tshunun, 
to turn upside down, iii, 5. 

pharosh, m. a seller ; lal-pharosh, a ruby-seller, a jeweller, xii, 3. 



361 VOCABULARY pdldduw* 

Phorsat, m. N.P., Sir Douglas Forsyth, xi, 2. 

phursath, f. leisure, freedom from duties, xii, 17. 

paharawol u , m. a man who keeps a watch, a watchman, sentry ; 
sg. dat. -wolis, viii, 8. 

phdrUjdd, m. a lamentation, cry for help or redress, complaint ; 
— dyun u , to lay a complaint, cry for redress, vii, 22 ; x, 2. 

phdsh, m. abusive language reflecting on a woman's chastity ;. 
me ma kar siras phdsh, do not accuse my secret (parts) of 
unchastity, do not disgrace me by letting me remain naked, 
xii, 7. 

phatun, to be broken ; past f. sg. 3, phiit a , iii, 5 ; with suff. 
2nd pers. pi. dat. phut ti wa, x, 12. 

phufrun, to break (trans.) ; impve. pi. 2 with suff. 3rd pers. sg. 
ace. phut a ryun, xii, 3 ; past m. sg. with suff. 3rd pers. pi. 
ag. phufrukh, xii, 4 ; ditto and 3rd pers. sg. dat. phut°r u has, 
ii, 11. 

photuwdh, m. a decree, order, ii, 7. This word has here the suff. 
of the indef. art. added. 

phyur u , etc., see pherun. 

pakh, f. a wing ; pi. nom. pakha, viii, 7. 

pdkh, adj. pure, spotless, undefiled, virginal (of a woman), v, 10. 

pokhta, adj. ripe ; as subst. pi. dat. (for ace.) pokhtan, vi, 15. 

pakun, to walk, to go, to go along ; inf. hyotukh pakun, they began 
to go, x, 1 ; neg. conj . part, moddn chuh wune pakanay, the 
plain is still not having been walked, i.e. we have not yet 
passed over it, x, 1 ; pres. part, pakdn, going, i.e. as I go, 
v, 7 ; impve. pi. 2, pakiv-sa, go ye, sirs, x, 1 ; pres. m. sg. 3, 
chuh pakdn, iii, 11 ; pakdn chuh, viii, 7 ; xii, 7 ; pi. 3, chih 
pakdn, xii, 2 ; pakdn chih, x, 4 ; f . sg. 3, cheh pakdn, iii, 2 ; 
xii, 7 ; imperf. m. sg. 3, 6s u pakdn, v, 7 ; pi. 3, os* pakdn, 
x, 1. 

palcandwun, to cause to go, to set on the march (xi, 14) ; to drive 
an animal (xi, 8) ; pres. (aux. omitted) m. pi. 3, pakanawdn, 
xi, 4 ; imperf. m. pi. 3, 6s i pakandwdn, xi, 8. 

pakawun u , n. ag., f. sg. nom. pakawunP-, one who marches, xi, 11. 

pal, m. a rock, xii, 14 (bis), 15 ; sg. dat. palas, xii, 15. 

pdladuw u , adj. made of steel ; m. pi. nom. p5ldddv i , v, 4. 



palun HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 362 

pdlun, to protect ; saldmpdliin", to make a bow, to salute reverently 
(xii, 16) ; conj. part, pblith, xii, 16. 

palang, m. a bedstead, cot, bed, iii, 7 ; v, 5, 9 ; x, 7 ; sg. dat. 
palangas, v, 5, 6 (ter) ; viii, 13 (bis) ; x, 5, 7 (quater), 
8 (bis), 12 (bis) ; palangas tur u , the tenon of the bedstead, 
x, 5, 12. 

poldv, m. a dish made of rice boiled in soup, with flesh, spices, 
etc., vi, 2 ; pi. nom. polav, ii, 3. 

pdm, f . a reproach ; pi. nom. me rozan pama, reproaches will remain 
(upon) me, i.e. I shall get a bad name, x, 3. 

pan, m. the body, the human body, iii, 4 (ter) ; bala-pdn, a youthful 
body, a youthful condition, vii, 11, 5 ; sg. dat. panas, 
vii, 24, 5. 

pdna, reflex, pron. self; myself, vii, 15; thyself, xii, 11,»25; 
himself, i, 1 ; ii, 5 ; vi, 4 ; vii, 1, 2, 3 ; x, 2, 7 (bis), 8 ; xii, 
5, 12, 21, 4 ; herself, v, 9, 10, 1 ; vii, 1 ; xii, 7 ; oneself 
(indef.), x, 1, 6, ; themselves, iii, 8 ; viii, 3, 8 ; x, 12. This 
word is equivalent to the Hindi dp. 

sg. nom. pdna, i, 1 ; v, 10, 1 ; x, 7 (bis), 8 ; xii, 7, 11, 
21, 4 ; with emph. y, sg. nom. pdnay, vii, 1 ; pi. nom. pdnay, 
x, 12. 

dat. (sg. unless otherwise stated), ii, 5 ; iii, 8 (pi.) ; v, 9 ; 
vi, 4 ; vii, 1, 2, 15 ; viii, 3 (pi.), 8 (pi.) ; x, 1, 6 ; xii, 5, 12, 
25 (bis) ; with emph. y, pdnas^y, vii, 3 ; had panas ches kardn, 
I am making a limit for myself, i.e. I consider myself perfect, 
vii, 15. 
ag. sg. pdna, x, 2. 
gen. panun u , q.v., s.v. 

The dat. panas is often used adverbially, to signify 
" voluntarily ", " of one's own free will ", " of one's own 
accord ", vi, 4 ; vii, 2. Especially, with verbs of motion, it 
signifies " to go of one's own accord ", hence, simply, " to go 
off", " start off ", as in panas gatshun, to go away on one's own 
business, to go away, to go home, iii, 8; v, 9; viii, 3; panas 
nerun, to go forth on one's own business, xii, 5; panas yun u , to 
set out home, xii, 12 ; so gay panas Kith 1 , they sat down free 
from duty, they rested after finishing their turn of duty, 



363 VOCABULARY pdnawon 

viii, 8 ; gay panas panas, they went away each on his own 

business, or each to his own home, v, 9. 
pinhdn, adj. secret, hidden, concealed. 
panja, a claw, xii, 16, 7 ; sg. abl. panja-sotiy, only by using the 

claw, xii, 16. 
panun u , poss. adj. reflex, (usually considered as the genitive of 

pclna) own, the equivalent of the Hindi apnd. My own, iii, 1 ; 

iv, 7 ; vii, 21 (bis), 2, 6 ; x, 12 ; xii, 22 ; thine own, ii, 9, 11 ; 

iii, 2, 9 (bis) ; v, 1, 10 ; vi, 6 ; viii, 10 ; x, 1, 3, 8 (bis) ; 

xii, 16, 25 ; his own, ii, 5, 7, 11 ; iii, 1, 3 (bis), 9 ; v, 1, 4 (bis), 

5 (ter), 10, 2 ; viii, 3, 9 (bis), 10, 3 ; x, 5, 6, 9, 10, 3 (bis), 

4 (ter) ; xii, 4 (quater), 5 (quater), 10, 1 (bis), 2, 3, 4, 7, 
20, 2, 5 ; her own, iii, 2, 4 ; v, 5, 8, 9 (bis), 10 (bis), 2 ; vii, 
20, 6; viii, 11 ; ix, 6; x, 3 (bis), 5; xii, 4, 5, 10, 3, 4, 5 (ter), 8; 
one's own (indef.), x, 6 ; our own, x, 12 ; your own, x, 1 ; 
their own, v, 10 ; viii, 1, 5, 11 ; x, 5 ; xii, 18 ; panuri" 
panuri", each his own, xi, 10. 

m. sg. nom. panun u , ii, 5, 9, 11 ; iii, 1 (bis), 2, 3 (bis), 
9 (ter) ; v, 1 (bis), 4, 5 (bis), 9, 10 ; vii, 21, 6 ; viii, 3, 5, 9 ; 
ix, 6 ; x, 5, 6, 8, 9 ; xii, 4 (bis), 5 (ter), 10, 1 (bis), 2, 3, 4, 

5 (bis), 6, 7, 8 (bis), 20, 2 (bis), 5 ; with emph. y, panunuy, 
x, 1 ; dat. pananis, ii, 7 ; iii, 2, 4 ; v, 8, 10, 2 ; viii, 9, 10 ; 
x, 5, 12, 4 ; xii, 4, 5, 10, 3, 5, 8 ; abl. panani, v, 10 ; vii, 21, 
2, 6 ; xii, 4, 5 ; pi. nom. pandn 1 , vii, 20 ; x, 14 ; pandn 1 
pandn 1 , xi, 10 ; panin (m.c. for panda 1 ), iv, 7 ; dat. pananen, 
viii, 10, 3, 4. 

f. sg. nom. panun u , v, 5 ; viii, 1, 11 (bis) ; x, 1, 3 (bis), 

6, 8, 10, 3 ; xii, 14, 25 ; dat. panane, v, 4, 10, 2 ; x, 5 ; xii, 4 ; 

ag. panani, v, 5 ; x, 12 ; abl. panani, x, 3, 13 ; panane (m.c. 

for panani), vi, 6. 
pants, card, five ; hatha pants (f. pi. nom.) five statements, x, 1 

(several times), 14 ; pants hatha, x, 6 ; ropayes pants hath, 

five hundred rupees, viii, 10 (bis) ; x, 1, 2 (bis) ; pi. dat. 

pantsan hathan, for five statements, x, 1 ; pdntsan zanen, 

to the five men, x, 6. 
pontsyum u , ord. fifth, x, 1 ; f. sg. nom. pontsim", x, 6 (bis). 
pdnawon or pdnaivun, adv. mutually ; pdnawon, viii, 1,2; xi, 19 ; 



papun HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 364 

xii, 25 ; pdnawun, x, 1. This word is equivalent to the Hindi 

dpas-me. 
papun, to ripen ; conj. part, papith yun u , to become ripe, ix, 9. 
par, m. a foot ; pi. dat. paran, (we fall) at (his) feet, ix, 1. 
para, see zdra-pdra, s.v. zdr. 
pari, f. a fairy, xii, 7, 8, 11 (bis), 4, 20, 5 ; sg. ag. par*yi, xii, 15 ; 

pi. nom. par ir ue, iii, 7, 8. 
pr, m. a saint, a spiritual guide or father, the head of a religious 

order ; pi. dat. (for gen.) piran, vi, 13 ; ag. pirav, v, 8. 
pdr u , f . a hut ; dim. f . sg. nom. pdri-hand, a hovel, a small hut, 

xii, 2. 
piir u , adj. full, in pur u -khumdr, full of languishment, v, 2. 
parda, m. a veil ; with suff. of indef . art. pardd kor u nakh, she put 

a veil over them, she hid them under a veil, vi, 4. 
pargan, m. a certain fiscal division, a parish, a " pargana ", xi, 5. 
pr6?i u , adj. old, of former times ; m. pi. nom. prori, vi, 11 ; viii, 5. 
parun, to read, xii, 18, 23 ; to read, study, viii, 3, 4 ; to recite 

(a holy name, or a charm, etc.), vi, 17 (bis) ; vii, 4 ; xii, 

1 (bis), 
pres. part, paran gatshun, to go reciting, i.e. to recite 

continually, vi, 17 ; vii, 4 ; impve. sg. 2, par, vi, 17 ; indie. 

fut. sg. 1, para, xii, 1 (bis) ; imperf. m. pi. 3, 6s l paran, 

viii, 3, 4 ; past m. sg. with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. porun, xii, 

23 ; with suff. 3rd pers. pi. ag. porukh, xii, 18. 
pdrun, to prepare, make ready (a bed) ; conj. part, (in sense of 

past part.) palang poriih, a bed prepared, iii, 7. 
porun, to put (a garment) on, x, 2, 9 ; to clothe (a person), v, 10 ; 

past m. sg. with suff . 3rd pers. sg. purun, x, 2, 9 ; f . sg. with 

same suff. por^n, v, 10 ; pilrith, having put on (a saddle to 

a horse), xi, 9. 
prang, m. a bed, a couch ; wutsha-prang , a flying couch, = the magic 

carpet of our fairy tales, xii, 18. 
prdrun, to wait for (a person), v, 6, 11 ; to watch (for an 

opportunity), ii, 10 ; pres. part, prdrdn, v, 11 ; pres. m. sg. 3, 

chuh prdran, v, 6 ; 2 past m. sg. 3, prarydv, ii, 10. 
prath, a distributive preposition, as in prath-doha, on each day, 

every day, viii, 1 (bis). 



365 VOCABULARY pata 

pritshun, to ask ; 1 past m. sg. 3, with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. 

timan^y pryutshun, he asked them, xii, 1. 
partawa, m. the sound of a footstep, a footfall, xii, 15 (pyauv, fell). 
poravi, f. following ; hence (in Kashmiri) protection ; — kariin*, 

to protect, i, 1. 
Parwardigdr, m. the Cherisher, the Provider, Providence, an epithet 

of the Deity, i, 11. 
parzandwun, to recognize ; pres. m. sg. 2 neg. interrog. chukh-nd 

parzandwdn, dost thou not recognize ? x, 12 ; past m. sg. 

parzandw u , x, 5 ; xii, 2 ; with suff. 1 sg. nom. parzanowus, 

1 was recognized, x, 12 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. 
parzandwun, viii, 9, 10; plup. f. sg. 3, 6s u parzandv u muts u , x, 5. 

posa, m. N. of a small copper coin, a pice ; Jchdm posa, see khdm. 
pi. dat. posan, vii, 25, 26. 

pesh, adv. and prep., in front, before ; gay pesh-e-pdtashdh, they 
went before the king, they were taken into the king's presence, 
vi, 9 ; amis pesh anun, to bring before him, to cause him to 
experience (trouble), xii, 25. 

posh, m. a flower ; poshe-gpnd u , a bunch of flowers, a nosegay, 
v, 4 (ter) ; poslie-moddn, a flower-meadow, a field of flowers, 
xi, 3 ; pdshe-thur u , a flower-shrub, ii, 3. 

poshdkh, m. a robe, a garment, v, 9 (bis) ; x, 2 (bis), 4 (ter), 9 ; 
xii, 6 (bis), 7 (several times) ; — trdwun, to put off a garment, 
disrobe oneself ; sg. dat. ath poshdkas kur u n shekal yinsdn- 
hyuh u or ath poshdkas korun yinsdn-hyuh u , he made the 
garment into the shape of a man, x, 7 ; poshdkas-manz, 
(entered) into the garment, x, 7 ; am 1 kur^nas poshdkas thaph, 
he (the dog) caught hold of his coat, viii, 9. 

peshkdr, m. a certain high official ; in vi, 11, a chief clerk. 

pasand, adj. approved ; — karun, to approve of, v, 1 ; xii, 4 (bis). 

pata, adv. after, afterwards, viii, 7 ; xi, 18 ; xii, 6, 25 ; with 
emph. y, patay y xii, 10 ; pata-kani, afterwards, x, 1 ; with 
verbs of motion, pata pata, (to go along) after, to follow, iii, 1, 

2 ; viii, 9 ; xii, 7. Cf. brith bruh, s.v. bruh. 

postpos. This governs the dative in the case of animate 
objects, and the ablative in the case of inanimate objects. 
It also governs pron. suffixes in the dative. Thus : — 



pot u HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 366 

A. Animate dative, mine-mare pata lardn, running after 
the hind, ii, 9 ; yiman pata, after these (women came another), 
xii, 7. 

B. Inanimate ablative, ami pata, after this, viii, 13 ; 
xii, 17 ; tami pata, after that, x, 12 ; xii, 16. 

C. Governing suffixes, loris pata, they ran after her, 
ii, 9 ; pata ladyeyes, she ran after him, vi, 8 ; yimawa pata, 
I will come after you, I will follow you, xii, 1 ; pata chikh 
lardn, they are running after them, xi, 18. 

pot u , backwards, back again ; — yun u , to come back, return, v, 1 ; 

— pherun, id., xii, 19 ; — phirith, common as adv., back again, 

in return, in reverse, esp. common with verbs of saying, to 

say back again, to say in reply, x, 3, 6 (bis), 7. 

put u , the yoimg of any animal or insect, esp. a dear child ; pi. dat. 

poten, ix, 3 (young ones of a bee). 
path, adv. behind ; path rozun, to remain behind, remain over and 
above, xii, 23 ; path-kun, afterwards, iii, 5 ; v, 5 ; in the 
rear, v, 8. 

prep, governing dat. path wanan, at the back of the forests, 
deep in the forest, vii, 10. 
peth, postpos. governing dat., on, upon, in various shades of 
meaning. Thus : — 

on, upon, asmdnan peth, on the heavens, iv, 4 ; palangas- 
peth, (lying) on the bed, viii, 13 ; wodi-pUh, (carry) on the 
crown of the head, iii, 1 ; xi, 12, 6. 

on to, upon, lalan-peth, (the hand fell) upon the rubies, 
x, 5 ; natis-peth, (put) upon the jar, iii, 5 ; cdrpdyi-peth, 
(sat down) upon the bed, x, 5, so ath-peth, (sat) on it, xii, 21 ; 
atfr-peth, on it verily, xii, 21 ; zunadabi-peth, (going forth) on 
to the roof-bungalow, viii, 1. 

on to (with verbs of mounting, etc.), guris-peth, (mounted) 
the horse, ii, 11 ; ath 1 peth, (got up) on to it (a bed), iii, 7 ; 
so palangas peth, (got up) on to the bed, v, 5, 6 (bis), 9 (ath) ; 
x, 7 (bis) ; bathis-peth, (ascended) on to the bank of the river, 
xii, 7 ; atfc-peth, (ascended) on to it (a pyre), xii, 24. 

down on to, bathis-peth, (put) down on the bank, xii, 6, 7. 

With certain words it is used in the sense of " to " after 



367 VOCABULARY pdth* 

a verb o: motion. Thus addliits^-peth, (went) to the court 
of justice, v, 9 ; kdli-akis-peth, (went) to (the bank of; a 
stream, xii, 2 ; ndgas-peth, (arrived, etc.) at the spring, (went) 
to (the bank of) the spring, iii, 4, 5, 9 (bis) ; xii, 6, 11, 2, 4. 

on, close by, ndgas-peth cheh, she is (i.e. lives) close by a 
spring, iii, 4. 

It means " in " in khdwand thdwun deras-peth, she put her 
husband in a tent, v, 11. 

It means ".on", i.e. "with regard to", "towards", in 
agas-peth (infidelity) to a master, viii, 6, 8, 11 ; neciven-peth, 
(an order) concerning or against (his) sons, viii, 13. 

Forming adv. ath i -peth, thereupon, xii, 7. 
petha, postpos. governing abl. from on, as in guri-petha, (fell) from 
on (his) horse, fell off his horse, ii, 6 ; guryau-petha, (dis- 
mounted) from (their) horses, xii, 2 ; Koh-i-Tora-petha, 
(commandments given) from on Mt. Sinai, iv, 5. 

from (generally), as in kati-petha, where from ? whence ? 
ii, 2 ; Landana-petha, from London, xi, 3 ; sonar-ata-petha, 
(a cry raised) from (i.e. in) the goldsmiths' market, v, 7. 

In special cases it means simply " on ", like peth, as in 
petha kilr u nas mohar, on it she put a seal, x, 3, in which 
petha governs the dat. pron. suS. as. Similarly x, 3 (again), 
and x, 10. 

Another special meaning occurs in karin kasam ndga petha, 
let her make an oath from on (the bank of) (i.e. by) the spring, 
v, 9. 

petha-kani, on the top of (it = ath% viii, 1. 
peth 1 , postpos. governing abl., on, above, in various shades of 
meaning. Thus : — 

nawav asmdnav peth 1 , above the nine heavens, iii, 8. 

kala-peth 1 , (leaped) over (his) head, ii, 9. 

tami-pettt-kani, in addition to that, iii, 8. 
poth i or pothin, adv. used with other words to indicate manner. 
It may be added either to adjectives or to adverbs, and in the 
latter case is pleonastic. It converts adjectives into adverbs 
of manner, and when the adjective is declinable it is put, 
before poth\ into the case of the agent. Thus : — 



pathar HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 368 

Added to an adjective, loV-poth* (lpt u ), gently, xii, 5 ; 
pdz'-poth* (poz u ), really, truly, x, 6, 10. 

Added to an adverb, ketha-poth 1 , how ? in what manner ? 
iii, 9 ; v, 8 ; viii, 5 ; x, 8 ; xii, 3, 24 ; tithay-pbth 1 , in that 
very manner, exactly so, xii, 23 ; yethay-poth* , in what very 
manner, exactly as, xii, 22 ; yithay-pothin, in this very manner, 
exactly thus, viii, 3. 

We occasionally find this word added to the agent case of 
a substantive. Thus, from tsur u , theft, we have tsuri-potte, 
theft-like, i.e. secretly, xii, 6, 7, 17 ; so tsuri-pothin, iii, 1. 

pathar, adv. on the flat ground ; hence, down, in phrases such as 
pathar wasun, to fall to the ground, ii, 3 ; pathar pyon u , id., 
ii, 11 ; pawun pathar, to throw down on the ground, iii, 9. 

pathwor 1 , m. a village accountant, ix, 10. 

putol u , an idol ; pi. dat. putalen, iv, 6 ; putal-khdna, an idol house, 
a temple or room in which idols are worshipped, sg. dat. 
-khdnas, vi, 4. 

petarun, to be responsible for the carrying out of any work ; pyon u 
petarun, a load of responsibility to fall on a person, ii, 5. 

pdtashah (xfTrnnf ) or P^asheh (xTRT^Tf ) a k^g- Tnis word is 
given with either of these spellings almost at random in the 
stories as written in the nagari character. I have followed 
them in this. 

sg. nom. pdtashah, ii, 8, 10, 1 (bis) ; iii, 1 (ter), 2 (bis), 
3, 4 (several times), 5, 6, 7 (ter), 8 ; v, 7, 9, 11 ; vi, 9, 10, 
1, 2, 6 (quater) ; viii, 1 (bis), 2, 3 (bis), 6, 7 (ter), 8, 11 
(ter), 2, 3 (quater), 4 (bis) ; x, 4, 10 (bis), 2 (bis), 4 (quater) ; 
xii, 3, 4, 9, 19 (bis), 20 (bis), 4 (bis), 5 ; -bay, a king's wife, 
a queen, viii, 1 (bis), 2, 3 (quater), 4, 6 (bis), 11 (quater), 
2 (bis), 3 (bis) ; -hud* (= -kur u , bel.), v, 5 ; -kur u , a king's 
daughter, a princess, v, 2 (bis), 5, 8 (bis), 9 (several times), 
10 ; xii, 1 (bis), 2 (ter). With suff. of indef. art. patashahd, 
viii, 1. 

patasheh, ii, 5, 8, 9 ; xii, 5, 10, 1, 2, 3, 4 ; patasheh-kur", 
a princess, xii, 10 (ter), 3 (ter), 5, 21, 5. With suff. of indef. 
art. pdtashehd akh, viii, 7, 11 ; patashehah, ii, 1. 

sg. dat. patashdhas, iii, 3 ; viii, 1. 



369 VOCABULARY pydla 

pdtashehas, i, 8 ; ii, 1, 3 (bis), 4, 5, 11 ; iii, 1, 3, 5, 9 ; 

v, 7 (bis), 9 (ter), 10, 1 ; vi, 16 ; viii, 1, 2, 5 (bis), 7 (bis), 13 ; 

x, 1, 2, 10, 1, 2 (bis) ; xii, 1, 3 (ter), 4 (quater), 5 (ter), 9, 

11, 2, 3, 8, 9 (bis), 20 (bis), 1, 2, 3. 
sg. ag. pdtashdhan, ii, 11 ; vi, 11 ; viii, 5. 
pdtashehan, i, 10 ; ii, 1, 4 (bis), 8 ; iii, 1, 8 (bis), 9 ; vi, 

15 (bis) ; viii, 6, 11 (ter), 3 (bis) ; x, 2 (ter), 6 (bis), 7, 12 ; 

xii, 4 (bis), 5, 11, 9, 21, 4. 

sg. gen. patashaha-sond u , ii, 10; v, 10; vi, 11; sand* 

(m. pi.), viii, 1, 13 ; -siinz", v, 7 (bis) ; viii, 1 ; x, 14 ; -sanze, 

v, 2, 4 ; -sanzi, v, 4 ; xii, 4. 
pdtasheha-sond u , xii, 1, 4 ; -sandis, ii, 5, 6, 7 ; v, 11 ; 

xii, 22 ; -sandi, ii, 9 ; -sanden, viii, 1, 6 ; -sandyau, viii, 5 ; 

-sum", x, 5 ; xii, 1 ; -sanze, v, 1 (bis) ; xii, 4, 5 ; -sanzi, xii, 5. 
pdtashdhi, f. royalty, sovereignty, the state or condition of a king, 

x, 2, 4, 9 ; a kingdom, x, 11 ; xii, 19 ; — karun u , to rule, 

exercise sovereignty, viii, 12 ; x, 4 ; xii, 26 ; sg. loc. patashdhi- 

manz, xii, 19 ; gen. -hond u poshdkh, a royal robe, x, 2, 9 ; 

pi. dat. pdtashohiyen-kyut u , x, 11. 
pdtasheham, inter j. my king! your Majesty! ii, 4 ; v, 9 (bis); 

viii, 2, 6 (bis), 7, 8 (bis), 10 (bis), 3 ; x, 2 (bis), 6, 12 (bis) ; 

xii, 3 (bis), 19 (bis), 23. 
pdtashahzdda, m. a king's son, a prince ; sg. dat. -zddas, viii, 5 ; 

pi. nom. -zdda, viii, 3 (bis), 11 (ter) ; dat. -zddan, viii, 4 (bis), 

11 (bis) ; gen. -zddan-hond u , viii, 4. 
patyum u , adj. last, final ; m. sg. abl. patimi pahara, at the last 

watch (of the night), v, 8. 
pdwun, to cause to fall ; impve. sg. 2, with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ace. 

pdwun patliar, cause him to fall down, iii, 9 ; fut. impve. 

me pbvhi ydd, cause memory of me to fall, i.e. make (so and 

so) remember me, vi, 11. 
pay, m. a clue (for discovering a thief, etc.), iii, 3. 
pay, m. a means ; mokalan pay, a means of salvation, ix, 11. 
pydday, m. a messenger ; the messenger of death, x, 12. 
pydla, m. a cup. viii, 7 ; dba-pydla, a water-cup, viii, 7 ; sg. dat. 

lodun pydlas db, he filled the cup with water, viii, 7 ; pyalas 

chuh ihaph kariih, he holds the cup, viii, 7. 



pyon u HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 370 

pyon u , to fall, vii, 19 ; x, 5 ; to fall, throw oneself down (before a 
person, in humility), ix, 1 ; to fall (into a place), to trespass 
(into a garden or the like), v, 7 (bis) ; to fall (of sound, on 
a person's ears), xii, 15 ; to fall to a person's lot, to happen 
to him, to be felt by him, vii, 30 (love) ; viii, 9 (bis) (poverty), 
11 (pity) ; ix, 2 (calamity) ; x, 3 (adversity) ; to fall (of 
sleep), v, 5, 7 ; to fall (in a person's way), to be encountered, 
vii, 12. 

wasiih pyon u , to fall down (= Hindi gir parnd), ii, 3, 6 ; 
pyon u pathar, to fall to the ground, to fall down, ii, 11 ; 
bemdr pyon u , to fall sick, v, 1 ; pyon u petarun, a load of 
responsibility to fall (on a person, dat.), ii, 5 ; pyom wanun, 
it is fallen to me to speak, I shall have to speak, xii, 10 ; 
pyos ndv, a name fell to him, he was named (so and so), 
xii, 4 ; ydd pyon u , memory to fall to so and so, so and so to 
remember, iii, 5 ; vii, 20 ; xii, 15 ; amis dod u 6s u pemot u ydd, 
she remembered the pain, xii, 15 ; chits pewdn nayistdn ydd, 
she remembers the cane-brake, vii, 26. 

impve. sg. 3, peyin, ix, 2 ; indie, fut. pi. 1, with suff. 3rd 
pres. sg. dat. pemos, ix, 1 ; pres. m. sg. 3, with suff. 3rd pers. 
sg. dat. chus pewdn, vii, 26 ; m. pi. 3, pewdn, vii, 20. 

past m. sg. 3, pyauv, xii, 15 (bis) ; pev, ii, 3, 5, 6, 11 ; 
iii, 5 ; v, 1, 7 (bis) ; viii, 9 ; with suff. 1st pers. sg. dat. 
pyom, vii, 12 ; xii, 10 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. pyos, 
v, 6 ; viii, 11 ; x, 5 ; xii, 4 ; f. sg. 3, with suff. 1st pers. 
sg. dat. peyem, vii, 19 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. peyes, 
v, 5 ; with suff. 3rd pers. pi. dat. peyekh, v, 7. 

perf . m. sg. 3, chuh pemot u , x, 3 ; plup. m. sg. 3, 6s u pemot u , 
viii, 9 ; xii, 15 ; fut. subj. f. sg. 3, dsi pemiits u , vii, 30. 

pydwal, adj. (of a woman), fresh from childbirth ; f. pi. pydwal, 
xi, 7. 

poz, m. a hawk, falcon, vi, 16 (bis) ; viii, 7 (quater) ; sg. dat. (for 
ace.) poms, viii, 7. 

poz u , adj. true, x, 8 ; with emph. y, as adv. pozuy, x, 6 (ter) ; m. 
sg. ag. pdz i -poth i , really, truly, x, 6, 10 ; see poth*. 

pazun, to be proper = gatshun 1, and used in the same way, the 
future being used in the sense of the present. 



371 VOCABULARY rasad 

fut. sg. 3, interrog. yl pazya, is this proper ? is this right ? 
vi, 8. 

racen, see ratun. 

rud 1 , rud u , riid u ?not u , see rozun. 

rah, m. a fault ; mati rah ladun, to impose a fault on (so and so's) 
shoulder, to charge a person with a crime, v, 9. 

rahaih (? gender) (=pers. rdhat), rest, repose, ease, tranquillity. 
kara rahath, I will make ease, I shall be at ease, ix, 4. 

raje, m. a king (esp. a Hindu king) (the usual form of this word is 
raza, but in these stories it only occurs in Nos. x and xi, 
and, there, under the form raje), x, 7, 8, 14 (ter) ; sg. dat. 
rdjes, x, 7, 8 (bis), 14 ; ag. rdjen, x, 8 (bis), 14 ; gen. rdje- 
sunz u , the king's (daughter), x, 7 (bis) ; voc. raje, xi, 2 
(addressed by Queen Victoria to Sir Douglas Forsyth). 

In composition we have voc. rdje-sa, Your Majesty ! x, 8 
(bis) ; raje-sob (nom. sg.), His Majesty, x, 8 ; voc. rdje-sbba, 
Your Majesty ! x, 7 ; rdje-bikarmdjeih, King Vikramaditya, 
ag. -bikarmajetan, x, 8 ; gen. f . -bikarmdjetun", x, 6. 

rajy, m. ruling (as a king) ; — karun, to rule, x, 14. 

rajezdda, a prince ; pi. nom. rajezdda, xi, 7. 

rakh, f. a plain kept for the pasturage of the king's cattle, x, 5 ; 
sg. dat. rakhi, x, 12 (bis). 

rukhsath, m. permission to depart, leave of absence, conge ; — dyuri", 
to give a person leave to depart, to dismiss, xii, 25 ; — hyon u , 
to take leave to depart, to take leave, xii, 10, 3. 

rumdl, f. a handkerchief, kerchief, towel ; sg. dat. rumdli-keth, 
in a kerchief, iii, 2. 

rinz\ see ryunz u . 

rapat, m. a report (the English word) ; — dyun u , to make a report, 
v, 9. 

ropay, m. a rupee ; ropaye-hath, a hundred rupees, viii, 9, 10 ; 
x, 6 ; ropayes tsor hath, four hundred rupees, x, 1, 2 ; rdpayes 
pants hath, five hundred rupees, viii, 10 (bis) ; x, 1, 2 (bis). 

rasad, f. assembling of provisions, etc., xi, 5 ; share, portion, 
quota, proportionate division, xi, 10; — karun 11 , to collect 
supplies, xi, 5 ; — kdrHhan dn l hay nan-gar, menial cultivators 
were brought in (from the villages), (each village) providing 
its proportionate quota, xi, 10. 

Bb 



rosh u HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 372 

rosh u , m. a necklace, v, 10, 12. 

rost u (f. rutsh"), an adjectival suffix signifying " without " ; banana- • 
rost u , without what is fated, (no one) escapes from what is 
fated, vii, 23. 

rath 1, m. night ; sg. dat. rotas, by night, x, 1, 6 ; xii, 4 ; rdtas- 
rdth, on this very night, x y 5, 12 ; sg. gen. m. pi. rdtak 1 , of 
last night, v, 9. 

rath 2, f. night ; — aye, night came, x, 5 ; — bariin", to pass the 
night, i, 10 ; — lagun u , night to come on, viii, 9 ; — kadiin*, 
to pass the night, x, 11 : xii, 5 ; — gaye add, the night went to 
completion, the night came to an end, x, 8 ; xii, 9, 12 ; 
with suff. of indef. art. rdthdh, xii, 5 ; sg. gen. rots^-hond" , 
iii, 1. 

rath 3, adv. doh ta rath, day and night, i.e. always, continually, 
vii, 3 ; rdth-kyut u , by night. Cf . ratsas. 

reth, m. a month, sg. dat. retas, pi. nom. reth, dat. retan, as in the 
following : retas-kyut u khar a j or retas khar a j, a month's 
expenditure, salary for a month, xii, 4 ; tren retan-kyut u khar a j, 
salary for three months, xii, 5, 11 ; reth gav add, a month 
went to completion, a month came to an end, xii, 4 ; trih 
reth gay add, three months came to an end, xii, 11 ; trih 
reth gay, three months passed, xii, 6. 

ratHi, adv. by night, viii, 9. 

rqt a n, m. a jewel ; rat a na-kor u , a bracelet of jewels, xii, 10, 12, 
14 (bis), 15 (bis), 18, 20. 

ratun, to take hold of, grasp, seize, iii, 5 ; to seize, capture, ii, 11 ; 
to arrest (a prisoner), v, 7 (bis), 9 ; x, 5, 12 (bis) ; to take 
hold of, take, accept, viii, 3, 4 (bis) ; x, 3, 5, 8 ? , 12 ; goldm 
ratun, to engage as a servant, viii, 13 ; latan tal ratun, to 
hold under the feet, viii, 7 ; mokh ratun, to seize (so and so's) 
face, to look intently at, v, 9 ; ketshdh nokhta ratun, to find 
some fault with (dat.), to get up some charge against, xii, 19 ; 
ydd ratun, to seize the memory, to keep on the memory, 
i, 7. 

conj. part, ratith, ii, 11 ; iii, 5 ; v, 7, 9 (bis) ; x, 5 ; impve. 
sg. 2, rath, i, 7 ; viii, 4 ; pol. sg. 2, rathta, xii, 19 ; past sg. m. 
rot u , x, 5, 12 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. rotun, viii, 7 ; x, 3 ; 



373 VOCABULARY sa 2 

with sufl. 2nd pers. pi. ag. rot u wa, x, 12 ; pi. rat\ v, 7 ; viii, 

13 ; f. sg. ruf, x, 8 ; with sufl. 3rd pers. sg. ag. and 3rd pers. 

pi. abl. rut u nakh, viii, 3 ; pi. with sufl. 3rd pers. sg. ag. racen, 

viii, 4 ; perf. m. sg. 3, chuh rot u mot u , x, 12. 
rdtun, to cause to be grasped, to cause to stick ; perf. part. m. sg. 

rdt u mot u , viii, 1 (of a thorn). 
ratsh, f ., a very small amount of (anything) ; ratshi-han, v, 6 (bis), 

or ratshi-hand, v, 6 (bis), id. 
rdtsas, adv. by night, viii, 5. Cf . rath, 3. 
rawdna, adj. dispatched, sent ; — karun, to dispatch, x, 3. 
riwun, to lament ; pres. f. sg. 1, ches riwdn, vii, 22. 
ray, f . belief, judgment, opinion ; thought, meditation, deliberation ; 

an intention, viii, 11 ; — karun* , to consider, think, xii, 15. 
ryunz u , a ball (such as children play with) ; pi. nom. rinz*, v, 

3 (bis), 4 (several times), 5. 
raz, f. a rope ; gdsa-raz, a grass rope, xi, 9. 
reza, m. a piece, a fragment ; — karun, to cut to fragments. 
rozun, to remain, continue, i, 5 ; ii, 9 ; vii, 18, 20 (bis), 3 ; x, 1, 

6, 8 ; xii, 1, 15, 8 ; to wait a while, to wait, vii, 9 ; to abide, 

continue in one place, ix, 6, 8, 10, 2 ; path rozun, to remain 

behind, to remain over and above, to be all that is left, xii, 23 ; 

pdma rdzan, reproaches will remain, i.e. (1) shall get a bad 

name, x, 3. 

inf. abl. beddr rozana-soty, by means of remaining awake, 

x, 8 ; forming inf. of purpose, rozani ay, came in order to 

stay, x, 6, 8, 10, 2 ; freq. part, ruz* ruz { , remaining con- 
tinually, vii, 18 ; pres. part, rdzan, vii, 23 ; perf. part. 

rud u mot u , i, 5 ; xii, 23 ; impve. pol. pi. 2, ruz^v, vii, 9 ; 

indie, fut. sg. 2 interrog. rozakha, xii, VS ; 3, rozi, x, 1, 6 ; 

pi. 3, rdzan, x, 3 ; pres. f . sg. 3, with sufl. 3rd pers. pi. dat. 

nakha rdzan chekh-na, she does not remain near them, ii, 9 ; 

past m. sg. 3, rud u , xii, 1, 15 ; pi. 3, rud', vii, 20 (bis). 
sa 1, see tih. 
sa 2, a vocative sufl., equivalent to our " sir " or " sirs ". 

Attached to : — 
(a) A noun, rdje-sa, Your Majesty ! x, 8 (bis). 
(6) Verbs, ansa, bring, sir, xii, 10 ; anukh-sa, bring them, 



SO i 



HATIATS SONGS AND STORIES 374 



sir, x, 12 ; di-sa, give, sir, x, 8 ; gatsh-sa, go, sir, ii, 9 ; nin-sa, 
take her, sir, xii, 25 ; niriv-sa, go forth, sirs, x, 9 ; pakiv-sa, 
walk, sirs, x, 1 ; wan-sa, tell, sir, x, 1 (bis), 2 ; wanta-sa, 
please tell, sir, ii, 4 ; waniv-sa, say, sirs, x, 6. 

(c) A conjunction, yina-sa, that not, sir, xii, 1. 

(d) An interjection, hata-sa, 0, sirs, x, 5. 

sob (= sahib), an honorific suffix; rdje-sbb, His Majesty, x, 8; 

sg. voc. rdje-soba, Your Majesty ! x, 7 ; Khodd-Sob, God ; 

sg. dat. Khodd-Sbbas, x, v ; ag. Khodd-Soban, iii, 8 (bis). 
sabab, m. a reason, cause, viii, 5. 
subuh, m. morning, dawn, x, 8 ; xii, 9 ; sub a han, adv. in the 

morning, at dawn, x, 11 ; sub a hanas, id., xii, 12 ; sub a has, id., 

xii, 5. 
Subhdn, m. N.P., Sublmn, N. of the author of the 7th story in 

this collection, — The Tale of the Reed-flute. 
sabakh, m. a lecture, lesson, reading ; sabakh dapun, to teach a 

lesson, iv, 4 ; v, 5 ; — parun, to read a lesson, to study, 

viii, 3, 4 ; sg. dat. sabakas, viii, 3 (bis), 11 ; sabakas dsun, 

to be at a lesson, to be at school, viii, 11 ; ches-na tshun"- 

muts u nbyid sabakas, I (fern.) was not taught a barber's lesson, 

I did not learn barber's work, v, 6. 
Sbbir Tilaiv6n u , m. N.P., Sabir, the oilseller, N. of the author of the 

11th story in this collection, — How Forsyth Sahib went to 

conquer Yarkand. 
saddh, .m. a sound, viii, 9. 
soda, m. goods, wares, merchandise, viii, 9 ; marketing, bargaining, 

acting as a merchant, iii, 1 ; v, 10 ; sg. dat. soddhas, iii, 1 ; v, 10. 
sodagar [iii, 3 (bis), 4] or soddgar [iii, 1 (ter), 3 ; v, 11 (bis) ; viii, 

9 (bis), 10 (bis)], m. a merchant ; with suff. of indef. art. 

sodagard, viii, 9 ; soddgard akh, viii, 9 ; sg. dat. soddgaras, 

iii, 2 ; soddgaras, viii, 9, 10 ; ag. soddgaran, viii, 9, 10 ; 

gen. soddgara-sond u , iii, 1 ; soddgdra-sond u , iii, 1 ; pi. gen. 

soddgdran-hond u , viii, 9. 

soddgar-bdy, f . a merchant's wife, iii, 1 (bis), 2, 3 ; sg. dat. 

-baye, iii, 1, 2. 
Sodurabal, m. N. of a place in Kashmir ; with emph. y, Sodurabalay, 

only in Sodurabal, vii, 31. 



375 VOCABULARY shthmar 

soh, suh, see tih. 

shech 1 , f. a message ; — ladun u , to send a message, x, 3 (ter). 

sohib, m. a possessor, owner, lord, great man ; a European gentle- 
man, xi, 20 (referring to Sir Douglas Forsyth) ; a title of 
courtesy added to the name of a European gentleman, 
Phdrsat sohibun u (of Mr. Forsyth), xi, title ; God, iv, 4, 5 ; 
ix, 3 ; sohib-e dgdh, an intelligent master, i.e. a master of 
recondite learning, a profound magician, ii, 9 ; sohib-i-kitah, 
a master of books, a famous author, x, 13 ; sg. gen. Sohiba- 
sond u , of God, iv, 4, 5 ; Phdrsat sohiburi" (treated as part of 
a proper name), xi, fcitle ; sg. voc. Sohibo, God ! ix, 3. 
Bdr-Sohib, the Almighty, vii, 2, 3 ; ag. — Sohiban, vii, 5. 

shubun, to shine ; to be beautiful, ii, 4, 5 ; vii, 10 ; to be beautiful, 
to be glorious, vii, 5 ; to be becoming, to suit, be worthy, 
be proper, xii, 4, 5. 

pres. m. pi. 3, with suff. 3rd pers. sg. gen. chis shubdn, 
vii, 5 ; imperf. f. sg. 1, os u s shubdn, vii, 10 ; durative past 
conditional, dsihe shubdn, it would have been (i.e. it must 
have been, it probably was) beautiful, ii, 4 ; (I would see) how 
beautiful it was, ii, 5 ; past cond. sg. 3, shubiheh, xii, 4, 5. 

shod", m. news, intelligence, ii, 10. 

shah, sheh 1, m. a king; shehan-shah, a king of kings, an emperor, 
i, 1 ; shdh-i-yilsuph, King Joseph, vi, 1 ; sg. ag. shehan, i, 7. 

sheh 2, card. six. sheh zane, six females, xii, 6, 7 ; pi. dat. shea 
kbd-khdnan, for six prisons, v, 7 ; shen zanen, for (of) six 
females, xii, 6. 

shohi, f . royalty ; khalH-e-shdhi, a robe of honour of royalty, a 
royal robe, x, 4 (ter). 

shehul u 1, m. coolness, cold, i, 11. 

shehul u 2, adj. cool ; (of sleep) cold, the reverse of deep, v, 6 ; 
f. sg. nom. yiyiy nend a r sheh u j u , sleep will come to thee cold, 
i.e. you will lose the desire to sleep, but it also means cool 
(refreshing) sleep will come to you, and is misunderstood by 
the hearer in this sense, v, 6 (bis). 

shehmdr, m. a great snake, a huge poisonous python, viii, 6 (bis) ; 
13 (bis) ; with suff. of indef. art. shehmdrd, viii, 7 ; sg. dat. 
shehmdras, viii, 6, 13 ; gen. shehmdra-sond u , viii, 6, 13 (bis). 



shehar HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 376 

shehar, m. a city, x, 9 ; a country, ii, 1 ; shehar-e-Yirdn, the land 

of Persia, ii, 1 ; with sufT. of indef. art. shehard, v, 1. 

sg. dat. sheharas, (went) to the city, x, 10 ; riizikh sheharas, 

(arrived) near the city, x, 3 ; sheharas and-Jcun, (arrived) at 

the outskirts of the city, x, 5 ; sheharas-kun, (went, etc.) 

towards the city, set out for the city, x, 3, 5, 12 ; sheharas- 

manz, in the city, v, 11 ; x, 14 ; into the city, v, 9 ; sheharas 

akis-manz, (arrived) at a certain city, xii, 2 ; sheharas nebar, 

(he was taken) outside the city, x, 5. 
gen. sheharakis, (to the king) of the city, xii, 3. 
abl. shehara dur, far from the city, viii, 11 ; shehara- 

manza, from in the city, viii, 11 ; tsaliv yimi shehara, flee ye 

from this city, xiii, 11. 
shdhzdda, a prince ; sg. dat. -zadas, viii, 13 ; pi. nom. -zdda, viii, 

5, 11 (bis), 3. 
shalch, f . a branch ; shakha-bargau-soty, (beautiful) with the leaves 

of (my) branches, vii, 10. 
shekh, m. anxiety ; — gafshun, anxiety to occur, anxiety to be felt, 

v, 8 ; xii, 15. 
shekh a ts, m. a person, an individual ; with suff. of indef. art. 

shekhtsd, x, 1 ; shekhtsdh akh, xii, 3 ; sg. dat. shekhtsas, x, 

2 (bis) ; ag. shekhtsan, x, 2, 6. 
shekal, f . a form, shape ; poshdkas kur u n shekal yinsdn-hish ti , he 

folded his clothes into the shape of a man, x, 7. 
shikam, m. the belly ; sg. dat. shikamas-manz, (entered) into (her) 

belly, x, 7 (bis) ; abl. shika?na-manza, (issued) forth from (her) 

belly, x, 7 (bis). 
shikar, m. hunting, sport, the chase ; sg. dat. shikaras, ii, 4, 8 ; 

viii, 7. 
shikast, m. weakness, sickness ; sg. abl. shikasta-soty, owing to (his) 

weak condition, v, 5. 
sholun, to shine, flame (of a lamp) ; pres. sg. m. sg. 3, sholan chuh, 

vi, 6. 
sham, m. evening ; shaman-bog 1 , at about evening, at eventide, 

v,5. 
shemdh, m. the flame of a lamp, vi, 6 ; viii, 13 ; x, 7 (bis). 
shumdr, f . counting, enumeration ; shumdr buz u , the counting was 



377 VOCABULARY sakharun 

heard, i.e. the roll-call was heard, the roll was called, xi, 16. 

Cf. be-shumdr. 
shemsher, f. a sword, viii, 6, 13 ; x, 7 ; — kadun u , to draw a sword, 

viii, 13 ; x, 7 ; — layun", to give a blow with a sword, viii, 6 ; 

— tuliin", to raise a sword (in order to strike), ii, 7 ; iii, 9 

(ter) ; x, 7 ; sg. dat. kilr u s thaph shemsheri, she seized the 

sword, iii, 9 ; gen. shemsheri-hond u teg, the blade of a sword, 

viii, 6, 13 ; shemsheri-hunz* tsund u t a blow of a sword, a 

sword-cut, iii, 5, 6. 
sJidnd, m. a bed-pillow ; shdnd dyun u , to put (anything) under 

one's pillow, x, 7 ; khora ches kardn shdnd, she goes from the 

foot of the bed to the pillow, v, 5 ; sg. abl. shdnda, v, 5. 
shortgun, to go to sleep; past m. sg. 3, shpng u , x, 7. The conj. 

part, shongith, having gone to sleep, is used as an adjective, 

meaning " asleep ", viii, 7. 
shendkh, m. one who recognizes, in lal-shendkh, one who recognizes 

rubies, a lapidary. See lal-shendkh, s.v. lal 1. 
shdph, m. a charm, spell, incantation ; amis shdph dyutun, she 

pronounced a spell over him, xii, 15 ; shdph tul u nas, she took 

the spell off him, xii, 15. Cf. kas a m. 
shdr, m. a poem, xi, title. 
shor, m. in shora-gdh, an outcry, vi, 12, 3. 
shur u , m. an infant, a child ; shur^bdshe, child-talk, infantine 

babbling, v, 2. 
shrdkh, f. a knife, x, 13. 
sherikh, m. a sharer, partner, i, 10. 
sherun, to put in order, to arrange ; conj. part, shirith trdwun, to 

make ready (for a person), x, 7 ; fut. pi. 1, sherav, xi, 12, 7. 
shranz, 1 m. a blacksmith's tongs, xi, 16. 
shestruw u , adj. made of iron, xii, 16, 7 ; m. sg. abl. shestravi, xii, 16 ; 

pi. nom. shestrdv', v, 4 ; fern. sg. nom. shestriiv", v, 4 ; abl. 

shestravi, v, 4. 
Shetdn, m. Satan, iii, 8 ; sg. ag. Shetdnan, iii, 8. 
shotsh, m. purity, the condition of not being denied, hence (x, 3) 

pure (i.e. undefiled) food. 
sakharun, to prepare to set out, make ready to depart. 
II past, m. pi. 3, sakharyey, xii, 18. 



sak a th HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 378 

sak a th, adj. hard, severe, vii, 13, 18. 

sal, a feast, vi, 2 ; a wedding feast, v, 9 ; sg. dat. solas, v, 9 ; 

vi, 2. 
sol, m. a stroll, ramble, walk, taking the air, excursion, with sufl. 

of indef. of art. solah, ii, 2 ; sg. dat. solas, ii, 4, 8 ; iii, 1 ; 

viii, 7. 
sul u , dawn ; suli, at dawn, xii, 23 ; soli-gare (m.c. for suli-gari), 

at dawn time, v, 7. 
salah, m. advice, viii, 11 ; thaviv me-soty salah, make ye a con- 
sultation with me, i.e. have an understanding with me, have 

an intrigue with me, viii, 3. 
salam, f. peace (in Arabic formulas), x, 14 ; xii, 26 ; a bow, saluta- 
tion ; a complimentary present, viii, 3 (bis), 11 ; — karun u , 

to make a bow, to salute, iii, 1 ; xii, 4, 5, 9, 12, 3, 6, 7, 20, 3 ; 

— pdlun u , id., xii, 16 ; sg. dat. salami, viii, 3. 
sultan, m. a Sultan ; Sultdn-i-Mahmod-i-Gaznavi, Sultan Mahmiid 

of Ghaznl, i, 1. 
salay, f. a spike, v, 4 ; sg. abl. salayi-soty, with, or by means of, 

a spike, v, 4 (bis). 
Sulaymdn, m. N.P. Solomon, xii, 17. 
sama, m. heaven ; arz o samd, earth and heaven, vii, 26. 
sumb u , adj. ; adequate (for), sufficient (for) ; retas sumb u , (money) 

sufficient for a month, xii, 4 ; m. pi. nom. lal tratis sumo 1 , 

rubies enough for a necklace, sufficient to make a necklace, 

xii, 5. 
sgmb a run, to collect, bring together, amass ; fut. pass. part. m. sg. 

cydn u gatshi sgmb a run u , you must collect, xii, 21 ; conj. part. 

sgmb a rith, ix, 9 ; pres. m. pi. 3, chih somb a ran, xi, 7. 
sdmb^rawun, i.q. sgmb a run ; fut. pass. part. m. pi. gatshan 

somb^rawan 1 , they must be collected, xii, 24 ; past m. sg. 

sombar6w u , xii, 21,4; with surf. 2nd pers. sg. ag. somb a r6wuth, 

xii, 24. 
samakhun, to meet a person, have an interview with, to encounter ; 

past m. sg. with suff. 3rd pers. pi. ag. samokhukJt, xii, 25. 
saman, m. requisites, materials, appliances, vii, 5 ; xi, 9 ; pomp and 
circumstance, xi, 20 ; sdruy saman, the entire appliance, xi, 9 ; 
ba-s6ruy-samdn, with all pomp, xi, 20 ; pi. nom. saman, vii, 5. 



379 



VOCABULARY 



sond* 



samsdr, the world, iv, 1, etc. 



son 
sdn 



sg. dat. samsdras, for samsdras- 
manz, in the world, ix, 6. 
sdn, postpos. with ; gdta-sdn, with skill, skilfully, i, 6. 
sina, m. the bosom, vii, 21. 

son, m. gold ; sg. gen. sona-sond u , made of gold ; m. pi. nom. 
sona-sdnd*, v, 3, 4 (bis), 5 ; f . sg. sdna-siinz*, v, 1 ; sdna-kan, 
an ear adorned with golden ears ; pi. dat. with emph. y, sdna- 
kananciy, vii, 11. 

adj . deep ; — Jchash, a deep cut, v, 6. 

possess, pron. our, x, 12 ; with emph. y, sonuy, viii, 13 ; 
f. sg. nom. son u , viii, 11 ; x, 5. 
sond u , postpos. of gen. Added 

A. to masc. sg. animate nouns. goldma-sond u , of the 
servant, viii, 6 ; khoddye-sond u , of God, xii, 7 ; lal-shendka- 
sond u , of the lapidary, xii, 8, 25 ; mbl i -sond u , of the father, 
xii, 21, 2 ; phakira-sond u , of the faqlr, x, 12 ; pdtashdha- 
sond u t of the king, ii, 10 ; v, 10 ; vi, 11 ; pdtasheha-sond u , 
of the king, xii, 1, 4 ; soddgara-sond u , of the merchant, iii, 1 ; 
sdddgdra-sond u , id., iii, 1 ; Sohiba-sond u , of the Master (i.e. of 
God), iv, 4, 5 ; shehmdra-sond u , of the python, viii, 6, 13 ; 
sonara-sond u , of the goldsmith, v, 2 ; ydra-sond u , of the friend, 
x, 4, 11 ; Yusupha-sond u , of Joseph, vi, 10 ; zdn i -sond u , 
of the person, viii, 11. 

hihara-sandis, of the father-in-law, x, 12 ; pdtasheha-sandis, 
of the king, ii, 5, 6, 7 ; v, 11 ; xii, 22. 

mbli-sandi, of the father, xii, 21 ; patasheha-sandi, of the 
king, ii, 9 ; wazira-sandi, of the vizier, xii, 4, 5 . 

pdtashaha-sdnd 1 , of the king, viii, 1, 13 ; sonara-sdnd* , of 
the goldsmith, v, 10. 
pdtasheha-sanden, of the king, viii, 1, 6. 
pdtasheha-sandyau, of the king, viii, 5. 
goldma-silnz u , of the servant, viii, 11 ; Jchdwanda-sunz", 
of the husband, iii, 2 ; moP-sunz", of the father, xii, 19, 
20 (ter) ; phakira-siinz u , of the faqlr, x, 8, 14 ; pdtashdha- 
sunz u , of the king, v, 7 (bis) ; viii, 1 ; x, 14 ; pdtasheha- 
silnz ii , of the king, x, 5 ; xii, 1 ; rdje-sunz u , of the king, x, 
7 (bis) ; sonara-siinz", of the goldsmith, v, 1, 3, 10. 



sangsdr HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 380 

pdtashaha-sanze, of the king, v, 2, 4 ; pdtasheha-sanze, 
of the king, v, 1 (bis) ; xii, 4, 5. 

pdtashaha-sanzi, of the king, v, 4 ; xii, 4 ; pdtasheha-sanzi, 
of the king, xii, 5 ; sonara-sanzi, of the goldsmith, v, 7, 9 
(bis) ; ydra-sanzi, of the friend, x, 4. 

B. Used with masc. sg. inan. noun, to indicate the material 
of which a thing is made, sona-sand*, made of gold, v, 3, 
4 (bis), 5 ; sona-siinz", id., v, 1. 

C. With sg. an. pron. m. or f. dm i -sond u , of him, v, 3 ; 
viii, 6, 8, 10 ; of her, xii, 7. 

drrf-sandi, of her, x, 5 ; tdm'-sandi, of him, i, 3 ; vii, 6. 
dmt-sunz*, of him, iii, 4 ; xii, 4 ; dmt-sanzi, of her, xii, 15 ; 
tdm i -silnz ii , of her, xii, 15 ; nazari tdnf-sanzi-soty, owing to his 
seeing (me), vii, 13. 
sangsdr, m. lapidation, stoning (the punishment), viii, 8. 
Sonamarg, f . N. of a marg or mountain plateau in the Sind valley 
of Kashmir, celebrated for its flowery meads. It is a favourite 
camping ground for European visitors ; sg. dat. Sonamargi, 
at Sonamarg, xi, 3. 
sonar, m. a goldsmith, v, 1 (bis), 3, 5 (bis), 6, 7, 9, 10 (bis) ; sg. dat. 
sonaras, v, 9 ; gen. sdnara-sond u , v, 2 ; -sand 1 (m. pi. nom.), 
v, 10 ; -sunz* (f. sg. nom.), v, 1, 3, 10 ; -sanzi (f. sg. ag.), 
v, 7, 9 (bis). 
sg. ag. irreg. sonar (for sonaran), v, 4. 
sonar-ath, the goldsmiths' market, the goldsmiths' quarter 
(of a town), v, 7. 
This word is more usually sonur or son a r. 
saniyds, m. a kind of Hindu ascetic, a Samnydsin, v, 10, 11 
(quater) ; sg. dat. saniydsas, v, 12 ; voc. (poet.) saniydsu, 
v, 11. 
sapadun, sapanun, to become. 

fut. sg. 2, sapadakh, vi, 11 ; interrog. sapadakha, iii, 2 ; 
3, sapadi, vi, 16 ; past m. sg. 3, sapod u , iii, 7 ; sapod u saivar, 
he became mounted, he mounted (a horse), xii, 1 ; with suff. 
1st pers. sg. dat. sapodum, there became to me (crushing), 
I became (crushed), vii, 13 ; f . sg. 2 with neg. suft\ sapuz u kh-na, 
thou didst not become, iii, 2 ; pi. with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. 



381 VOCABULARY sarun 

sapanes z a h hatha sara, two statements became tested for 
him, i.e. he had two statements tested, x, 4. 

saphar, m. travelling, a journey, xii, 25 ; sg. dat. sapharas, x, 1, 
6 (bis) ; gen. (poet, for sapharuk u ) sapharun u , xi, 3. 

sapanes, see sapadun. 

sar, m. the head ; sar tsatun, to behead, viii, 11. 

sara 1, m. investigation, testing, x, 4 ; sara karun, to test, viii, 13 ; 
x, 2, 6 (ter), 14. In this phrase, the grammatical object is the 
thing tested, as in karen tsor katha (f. pi.) sara, he tested four 
statements (x, 6). Similarly sapanes z a h katha sara, two 
statements became tested for him, i.e. he had two statements 
tested (x, 4). Cf. saragi. 

sara 2, see sarun. 

sdr*, an old word, now used in compounds such as sar* gatshun, 
to be flooded, to be covered with a flood of water, iv, 3. 

ser, adj. satisfied, contented, i, 3. 

sir, m. a secret, a mystery, ii, 4 ; sir bdwun, to explain a secret, 
vii, 21 ; me ma kar siras phdsh, do not accuse my secret 
(parts) of unchastity, i.e. do not disgrace me by letting me 
remain naked, xii, 7. 

sdr u , adj. all. This word is always used with emph. y; m. sg. 
nom. sdruy, iii, 1 ; v, 7, 9 ; xi, 9 ; xii, 19 ; bd sdruy sdmdn, 
with all pomp, xi, 20 ; pi. nom. soriy, iii, 4 ; v, 9 ; vi, 16. 

sur, m. ashes, xii, 23 ; sur mathun, to rub ashes over one's body 
(like a Hindu ascetic), v, 9 ; toka-sur, ashes of crushing, 
i.e. crushing into a powder like ashes, crushing to powder, 
vii, 13. 

sg. dat. suras-manz, in the ashes, xii, 23 ; abl. sura-manza, 
from amid the ashes, xii, 23. 

sarda, m. coolness, i, 11. 

saragi, f. investigation, testing, viii, 7 (bis), 8, 10 ; x, 7. Cf. sara 1. 

sreh, m. moisture ; with suff. of indef . art. aba-srehd, a water- 
moisture, a slight trickle of moisture, viii, 7. 

srdn, m. bathing ; — karun, to bathe (oneself), xii, 6 (bis), 7 (bis) ; 
sg. dat. srdnas, v, 9. 

sarun, to remember ; fut. sg. 1, sara, xi, 14. 

sarun, to carry goods from one place to another, and there to 



sar a ph HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 382 

collect them, to pile up ; conj. part, sorith, ix, 9 ; pres. part. 
sdrdn, xi, 10 ; pres. m. pi. 3, chih sdrdn, xi, 6. 

sar a ph, m. a serpent, x, 13. 

susurdray, f. a rustling sound, xii, 23. 

suti, see tih. 

sath, card, seven ; (preceding noun) sath kuth 1 , seven rooms, vi, 3 ; 
sath hel 1 , seven ears of corn, vi, 15 ; (following noun) nag sath. 
seven springs, vi, 15 ; gov u sath, seven cows, vi, 15 (fern.) ; 
lal sath, seven rubies, x, 2, 5, 12 (bis) ; doha lal sath sath, 
seven rubies each day, xii, 9. 

pi. dat. satan kbd-khdnan, to seven prisons, v, 8 ; satan 
helm (for ace), seven ears of corn, vi, 15 ; satan gov u n (for 
ace.) seven cows (fern.), vi, 15 ; ndgan satan (for ace), seven 
springs, vi, 15 ; lalan satan petit, on the seven rubies, x, 5 ; 
abl. satav-manza, from among the seven, x, 12 ; satav zamlnav 
tdl\ below the seven worlds, iii, 8. 

sath, m. a particular instant of time, a moment, vii, 8 ; with sun\ 
of indef. art. sdthdh, during a moment of time, for a short 
time, ii, 4 ; sdthd, id., vi, 3 ; vii, 9. 

sg. abl. ami sata, at that time, iii, 6 ; xii, 4, 15 ; with 
emph. y, yemi sdtay, at what time verily, vii, 8. 

soth, m. the season of spring ; sdta, in the spring time, ix, 7. 

sethdh, adj. very much ; sethdh yinsdph, great pity, viii, 4. adv. 
very, very much, exceedingly. With adj. preceding the word 
qualified, as in viii, 1, 9 (bis) ; or following it as in khobsurath 
sethdh, very beautiful, xii, 4, 5 ; but sethdh khobsurath, xii, 
10, 5 ; khota sethdh khobsurath, much more beautiful than, 
xii, 10. With a verb, sethdh gav khosh, became much pleased, 
viii, 11 ; xii, 9 ; so sethdh gokh khosh, viii, 14, but gos sethdh 
khosh, xii, 12 ; sethdh phyur u , they regretted extremely, 
viii, 1 ; phyurus sethdh, he regretted extremely, viii, 10. 

sotin, postpos. i.q. soty, q.v. governing dat. ; me-sotin, (share) 
with me, i, 7. 

Governing abl., with, by means of ; drdti-sotin, (cut) with 
a sickle, ix, 5 ; kalama-sotin, (write) with a pen, ix, 12 ; with, 
by means of, owing to ; muhima-sotin, owing to poverty, 
i, 4 (bis). 






383 VOCABULARY soty 

soty, adv. with, together with ; soty dyun u , to give with (a person), 
to give as a companion, vii, 5 ; x, 14 ; xii, 16 ; soty hyon u > 
to take (a person) with (one), to take as a companion, ii, 1 ; 
v, 6 ; soty tulun, to carry along (with one), xii, 2 ; soty -soty, 
continually in (one's) company, vii, 5. 
postpos. governing dat. and abl. 

A. Governing dat. with, together with, in various shades 
of meaning ; thus, 

amis-soty, in company with her, v, 7 ; khdwanda^-soty, 
(burnt) together with her (dead) husband, iii, 4 ; kore-soty, 
(keep her) in (your) daughter's society, v, 10 ; me-soty, in 
company with me, in my company, xii, 2 ; (come) with me, 
xii, 7 ; (go) with me, x, 9. We have it governing a pronominal 
suffix in the dat. in soty 6sus, (a falcon) was with him, 
viii, 7. 

With, in the sense of consultation with, etc., me-soty 
(intrigue) with me, viii, 3 ; (sin ye) with me, viii, 11 ; 
pdtashdhzddan-soty, (sin) with the princes, viii, 11. 

Together with, simultaneously with ; adamas-soty, (created) 
simultaneously with Adam, vii, 6. 

Together with, along with ; karis-soty, (the arm was pulled 
off) together with the bracelet, xii, 15. 

(a marriage) with (so and so) in amis-soty, xii, 15, 8. 

(conversation) with (so and so), amis-soty, x, 7 (bis) ; kore- 
soty, xii, 1. 

Special meanings are panas-soty, with oneself, under one's 
own control, x, 1, 6 ; tath-soty mushtdkh, enamoured of that, 
iii, 8. 

B. Governing abl., with, by means of ; ami-soty, (scratches) 
with it, xii, 17 ; bd^shi-soty, (dug) with (his) spear, viii, 7 ; 
litri-soty, (cut) with a saw, vii, 19 ; beddr rozana-soty (escaped) 
by keeping awake, x, 8 ; salayi-soty, (scratched) with a spike, 
v, 4 (bis) ; with emph. y,panja-sotiy, (a pleasant feeling arose) 
merely owing to (the application of) the (iron) claw, xii, 16 ; 
thapi-sotiy, merely by means of the grasp, xii, 12. 

With, by means of, owing to ; ad a la soty, (contented) 
. owing to his justice, i, 3 ; asara-soty, owing to the result, 



satyum u HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 384 

vi, 16 ; bargau-soty, owing to the leaves, vii, 10 ; mahabata- 
sdty, owing to affection, x, 4 ; nazari-soty, owing to (his) 
seeing (me), vii, 13 ; shikasta-soty, (fell asleep) owing to 
weakness, v, 5 ; with emph. y, bochi sotiy, owing only to 
hunger, vi, 16. 

satyum u , ord. seventh ; m. sg. dat. satimis, v, 7 ; f. sg. nom. 
satim u , xii, 7. 

sawab, m. meed, reward (of good works, of faith, etc.), ix, 12. 

siwdh, postpos. with the exception of, except, save ; nemis matis 
siwdh, with the exception of this madman, v, 9. 

sawal, m. asking, questioning ; solicitation ; a petition, applica- 
tion ; — dyun u , to present or make a petition, x, 5. 

sawdr, adj. mounted, riding (on) ; sawdr sapadun, to mount, ride, 
xii, 1. 

say, soy, suy, see tih. 

syod u , adj. straight ; as adv. yiniau syod u , straight in front of them, 
viii, 6, 13. 

soylsth, m. a horse-attendant, a groom, syce, xii, 3, 4. 

sozun, to send ; fut. pass. part. m. sg. nom. sozun u gaishi panuri" 
hhdwand, you must send your husband, v, 1 ; past m. sg. 
with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. silzun, x, 4. 

ta 1, conj. and, i, 5 ; iii, 5 ; v, 4, 9, 12 ; et passim ; ta — biye, both 
. . . and, viii, 9. 

ta 2, conj. introducing the apodosis of a conditional sentence, as 
in yi-y, ta tih Jcydh ? ti-y, ta yih Jcydh ? if this, then (ta) what 
(is) that ? if that, then (ta) what (is) this ? iii, 4 (bis), 9 ; 
so vii, 9 ; after yeli, when, yeli buz u , ta tsol u , when he heard, 
then he fled, ii, 7 ; yeli mdrun, ta ada phyurus, when he had 
killed (the dog), then afterwards he grieved, viii, 10. 

ta 3, illative conjunction, hardly translatable, equivalent to the 
Hindi to. In the following passage translated " verily ", but 
this is merely written for want of a better word, viii, 9. 

ti, conj. also, viii, 5, 8 ; x, 10, 1, 2 ; xii, 10. Often used as an 
enclitic, as in ds { -ti, we also, xii, 1 ; me-ti, me also, vi, 11 ; 
ix, 1 ; xi, 14 ; su-ti, he also, ii, 4 ; ti-ti, that also, viii, 9 ; 
x, 6 (ter) ; ts a -ti, thou also, ix, 6 ; yi-ti, this one also, x, 8. 
and, xii, 17. 



385 VOCABULARY tagun 

even ; kdh-ti, any even, i, 5 ; anyone even, vii, 23 ; keh-ti, 
any at all, viii, 9. 

ti . . . ti, both . . . and, iii, 8 ; x, 13 ; xii, 12 ; to-ti, 
nevertheless, x, 3. 

ti, see tih. 

to, in to-ti, nevertheless, x, 3. 

tab, m. fever, v, 3, 10. 

to¥, e.g. an humble servant, a subject ; with suff. of indef. art. 
tbVyah, f. (of a woman), xii, 18. 

tobir, m. interpretation (of a dream), vi, 11, 4 (bis), 5 (bis), 6 ; 
— karun, to interpret, vi, 11, 16. 

teg, m. the blade (of a sword) ; sg. dat. tegas, viii, 6, 13. 

tagun, to be known how to be done, to be possible, used as a quasi- 
impersonal passive, to make potential compounds. It is 
generally used to indicate mental possibility, while hekun 
(which does not occur in these tales) indicates physical 
possibility. Its use with the infinitive or future passive 
participle will be clear from the following : — 

fut. sg. 3, tagi, it will be possible ; with sufT. 1st pers. 
sg. dat. and interrog. neg. tagem-na, will it not be possible 
for me ? i.e. of course I can, of course I know how, x, 5 ; 
with sufL 2nd pers. sg. dat. muhim tagiy kasunuy, poverty 
would have been known how to be verily expelled for thee, 
thou wouldst have been able to expel poverty, i, 15 ; tse ma 
tagiy, I wonder if (ma) it will be possible for thee, I wonder 
if you know how (to make it right), x, 5 ; with the same suffix 
and the interrogative suffix tagiye mfikalavoiin", will she be 
possible for thee to be released ? do you know how to release 
her ? v, 8 ; tagiye yih patashah-kur u bacawiiri*, can you save 
this princess ? v, 9. 

past m. sg. amis tog u bozun dM u , to her the pain was 
possible to be understood, she could understand the pain, 
v, 3 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. and neg. togus-na (or tamis 
tog u -na) mol karun, to fix a price was not known how to him, 
i.e. he did not know how to fix a price, he could not fix a 
fair price, viii, 9 (bis), 
cond. past sg. 3, with suff. 1st pers. sg. dat. tih yeli tagihem, 



till 



HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 



386 



if that had been known how to me, i.e. if I had known how, 
v, 8. 
till, pron. he, she, it, that. 

ANIMATE. Subst. Masc. sg. nom. suh, ii, 8, 11 (bis) ; 
v, 9 (bis), 10; viii, 7, 8 ; x, 1, 4, ]2 (quater) ; xii, 5, 
19 (ter), 20. Used idiomatically in introducing the hero of 
a story, as suh pdtashehd dkh 6s u , that king one was, equivalent 
to " once upon a time there was a king ", viii, 7 ; so viii, 
9, 11 ; su-ti, he also, ii, 4 ; suy, he verily, i, 4, 8 ; iii, 3 (bis) ; 
v, 1 ; vi, 16 ; viii, 7, 9 ; x, 12 ; xii, 25 ; he only, he alone, 
vi, 6 ; vii, 29, 30 ; x, 1, 6. 

dat. tas, to him, i, 5, 8 ; ii, 8 ; iv, 2 ; v, 7 ; vii, 1 ; viii, 
6 (bis), 8, 11 (bis) ; tamis, ii, 7 ; viii, 9 (bis) ; iamis u y, 
to him verily, ii, 1 ; viii, 9 ; xii, 1. 

ag. tarn 1 , by him, ii, 1 ; iv, 3, 4, 5, 6 ; x, 3, 12. 

gen. (tdm i -sond u ) 1 his ; tdm^sandi, i, 3 ; vii, 6 ; -sanzi, 
vii, 13. 

pi. nom. tim, they, v, 4 (bis), 8 ; viii, 3 (bis), 4 (bis), 11 ; 
x, 12 (bis) ; xi, 5 ; xii, 16 (ter) ; timqy, they verily, v, 9 ; 
viii, 4 ; tim-hay, they verily, ix, 8, 9, 10. 

dat. timan, to them, them, viii, 1 ; xi, 8 ; xii, 16, 7 ; timan u y, 
to them verily, them verily, viii, 11 ; xii, 1. 

ag. timau, by them, vi, 11 ; timav, x, 12. 

gen. tihond u , their, xii, 16 ; tihanza, viii, 3, 11. 

Fem. sg. nom. sa, she, v, 5 (bis), 9 ; viii, 11 ; x, 14 ; 
xii, 6, 10, 5, 9, 20, 5 ; soh, xii, 5 ; say, she verily, iii, 1, 4 ; 
xii, 14. 

dat. tas, to her, xii, 2 (bis), 15 (bis), 25. 

gen. (tasond u ), her, tasanden, ix, 3 ; (tdmt-sond"), tdm { - 
sunz", xii, 15. 

pi. nom. tima, they, them (ace.) (fem.), viii, 11; xi, 9; 
timay, them verily (fem.), x, 14. 

dat. timan, to them (fem.), xii, 6 (bis), 7. 

ag. timau, by them (fem.), xii, 7. 

Adj. Masc. sg. nom. suh, that, ii, 8, 9 (bis) ; viii, 7 (bis), 
10 (bis), 3 (bis) ; x, 12 (bis), 4 ; xii, 25, 6 ; suy, that very, 
xii, 19. 



387 VOCABULARY tih 

dat. tas, to that, that, ii, 7 ; vii, 4 ; viii, 7 ; x, 12 ; xii, 7, 20 ; 
tamis, to that, viii, 9 ; xii, 19. 

pi. nom. tim, those, viii, 13. 

dat. timan, to those, x, 6. 

Fem. sg. nom. sa, that, x, 1, 6, 12 ; sdh, iii, 5. 

dat. tamis, to that, iii, 9 ; xii, 10. 

ag. tami, by that, x, 10. 

pi. nom. tima, those, xii, 19. 

INANIMATE. Subst. (m. or f.). sg. nom. tih, that, iii, 
4 (bis), 9 ; viii, 3, 9, 11 ; x, 1 ; xii, 3 (bis), 7, 16, 9. As a 
correlative to a preceding relative, iii, 1, 8 (bis) ; v, 8 (bis) ; 
xii, 7, 20 ; ti-kydzi, because, viii, 2 ; ti-ti, that also, viii, 9 ; 
x, 6 (ter) ; tiy, that verily, vii, 1 (bis) ; iii, 9 ; fi, that verily, 
xi, 1 ; tiy, (for tih + ay), if that, iii, 4 (bis), 9. 

dat. tath, for that, for it, ii, 1 ; v, 4 ; vii, 27, 8 ; viii, 6 ; 
x, 3 ; xii, 16, 8 ; tath 1 , to that verily, iii, 8 ; xii, 4, 11 (ter), 4. 

ag. tdmiy, by that verily, iii, 1. 

abl. tami pata, after that, x, 12 ; xii, 16 ; tami-peth 1 Jcani, 
in addition to that, iii, 8 ; tami-tdV, below it, xii, 14 ; tamiy, 
therefore, x, 14. 

gen. tamyukuy, of it verily, vii, 12. 

Adj. As an adjective the masculine and feminine forms 
are commonly used in the sg. nom., even when agreeing with 
inanimate nouns. In one case the inanimate form of the 
pronoun is used, viz. tih poshakh, that garment, xii, 6. Other 
examples are : — 

Masc. sg. nom. suh, that, xii, 4 (ruby) (bis), 11 (bracelet), 
4 (rock), 5 (pain) ; suy, that very, ii, 4 (magic power, corre- 
lative) ; vii, 8 (time), 13 (fault) ; ix, 11 (action). 

dat. tath, to that, etc., ii, 1 (bis), 7 ; iii, 5 ; v, 6 ; xii, 4, 
6 (bis), 11, 4, 5, 24 ; tath 1 , to that very, xii, 6 (bis), 14. 

abl. tami, from that, etc., ii, 7 ; v, 5 ; viii, 9 ; x, 12 ; 
agreeing with inan. gen. masc. iii, 9 ; x, 10 (bis), 4. 

pi. nom. tim, those, x, 12 (bis) ; timgy, those very, v, 5. 

dat. timan, to those, xi, 6. 

Fem. sg. nom. sa, that, viii, 7 (thirst) ; x, 10 (dish of food) ; 
sdh, xii, 20 (news) ; say, that very, ii, 6 (news) ; viii, 7 

cc 



toU HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 388 

(story), 10 (id.), 3 (id.) ; ix, 4 (prison) ; xi, 5 (assembling) ; 
soy, vii, 16 (separation), 
dat. tathjdye, at that place, xii, 15. 

abl. tami koli manza, from in that stream, xii, 4, 6 ; tamiy 
koli koli, along that very stream, xii, 6 ; tamiy wati, by that 
very road, xii, 14, 5. 
gen. tami kathi-hond u , of that story, iii, 5. 

tohe, toll 1 , see ts a h. 

thad or thar, f. the back ; sg. obi. thud u or ihiir* 1 (for thiir* 2, see 
s.v.) ; sg. abl. thiid^-kani (v, 4, bis), thiir^-kani (v, 4), (turning 
herself) backwards (from there). 

thod u , adj. erect, upright, standing up, ii, 3 ; vii, 11 ; — wdthun, 
to stand up, ii, 5, 6 ; v, 6, 9 ; xii, 14, 5. 

thaharun, to stay in expectation, to await, wait ; pres. f. sg. 1, 
neg. chus-na thahardn, I am not waiting, i.e. I am not going 
to stay here, I cannot stop here (on account of the evil smell), 
ii, 4. 

tdhkhith (for tahqiq), adv. of a certainty, certainly, assuredly, x, 12 ; 
xi, 13 ; xii, 3. 

tahol u , m. a groom, x, 5, 12 (quater). 

tihond u , tihanza, see tih. 

tuhond u , possessive pron. your, ii, 2 ; xii, 15. Cf. ts a h. 

thihn", f. fresh butter. With suff. of indef. art. thun u a, ix, 4. 

thaph, f . a grasp with the hand ; sg. abl. thapi-sotiy, merely by means 
of the grasp, xii, 12. 

— din", to seize, take hold of, thaph dits u s, he seized it, 
viii, 7 ; dits u n ath thaph, he seized it, he grasped it, xii, 12 ; 
— kariin u , to take hold of ; kur^nas thaph, he took hold of her, 
iii, 4 ; hirH thaph shemsheri, he took hold of the sword, 
iii, 9 ; kanas kur u nas thaph, he took hold of him by the ear, 
iii, 9 ; kariin* gatshi thaph ddmdnas, you must seize hold of 
(her) skirt, v, 9 ; kur u s-na k~bsi ddtndnas thaph, no one has 
seized hold of (my) skirt, v, 9 ; dm* kurunas poshdkas thaph, 
he caught hold of him by his garment, viii, 9 ; tath 1 kdrhi 
thaph, you must take hold of it, xii, 11 ; thaph karith, having 
(previously) grasped, i.e. holding, iii, 8 (bis) (of holding the 
bridle of, or leading, a horse) ; athas chuh thaph karith, he is 



389 VOCABULARY thawun 

holding (his) hand, v, 6 ; nalas thaph karith, holding him by 
the neck, vi, 9 ; chuh thaph karith pyalas, he is holding the 
cup, viii, 7 ; — layiin*, i.q. — kariin", v, 9 (poet.). 

thur ti 1, see thad. 

thiir" 2, f . a shrub ; poshe-thur a , a flower-shrub, ii, 3. 

th6th u , adj. beloved, dear, vii, 4 ; i.q. t6th u , q.v. 

thdvW, see thawun. 

thawun or thawun (this verb is the equivalent of the Hindi rakhnd), 
to place, put, deposit, ii, 4 ; hi, 1, 5, 9 ; v, 11 ; vi, 5 ; viii, 
7, 9, 11 ; ix, 4 ; x, 5, 10, 2 (quater) ; xii, 4, 9, 12, 5, 23 ; 
to keep, ii, 11 ; v, 10 ; xii, 25 ; to station (a person in a certain 
place), xi, 6 ; to appoint (a person to a post), akh boy u thdwun 
wazlr, he appointed one brother Vizier, viii, 14. 

amandth thawun, to place as a deposit, to give in trust, 
x, 12 ; thdwun dabdvith, to press (into the ground), to hide in 
the ground, to bury, x, 3 ; thdwun darwaza, to open a door, 
viii, 4 (bis), 11 (bis), 2 ; thawun kuluph, to unlock, iii, 8 (bis) ; 
thdwun kan, to apply the ear, to give ear, attend, pay attention 
(to), listen (to), ii, 7 ; viii, 6, 8, 11 ; ix, 1, 4 ; thdviv me-sdty 
salah, keep an understanding with me, have an intrigue with 
me, viii, 3. 

perf. part. m. sg. nom. thow u mot u , viii, 9. 
impve. sg. 2, thdv, iii, 8 (bis) ; viii, 4 ; with suff. 1st pers. 
sg. dat. thdwum, viii, 8, 11 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. gen. 
thawus, iii, 5, 9 ; pi. 2, thdviv, viii, 3 ; pol. sg. 2, thdvta, ix, 4 ; 
with suff. 1st pers. sg. dat. ihdvtam, viii, 6 ; ix, 1 ; with suff. 
3rd pers. sg. ace. thavtan, ii, 4 ; pi. 2, thdv'tav, ii, 7 ; fut. with 
suff. 3rd pers. sg. ace. thdvhen, v, 10. 

fut. and pres. subj. sg. 1, with suff. 2nd pers. sg. ace. wumdh 

ihdwath, I may not now keep thee, ii, 11 ; with suff. 2nd pers. 

sg. dat. thdway darwdza, I will open for thee the door, viii, 11. 

pres. f. sg. 3, with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. and neg. ches-na 

thdwdn, viii, 11. 

past masc. sg. thow u , viii. 12 ; with suff. 2nd pers. sg. ag. 
thdwuth, vi, 5 ; x, 12 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. thdwun, 
v, 11 ; viii, 7, 14 ; x, 3 ; xii, 15 ; with same, and also 
with suff. 1st pers. sg. dat. thow u nam, ix, 4 ; with same, and 



tuj* HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 390 

also with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. ih6iv u nas, iii, 1 ; xii, 4, 23 (bis) ; 

with same, and also with suff. 3rd pers. pi. dat. thdw u nakh, 

viii, 4, 9. 
pi. with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. and also with suff. 3rd pers. 

sg. dat. thav i nas, xii, 9; with suff. 3rd pers. pi. ag. thovikh, x, 12. 
fern, with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag., thov^n, xii, 25 ; with same, 
and also with sufT. 3rd pers. 

sg. dat. thilv^nas, x, 5, 10 ; xii, 12 ; with suff. 3rd pers. pi. 

ag. thovikh, viii, 11. 
perf. m. sg. with suff. 2nd pers. pi. ag. chuwa ih6w u mot u , 

x, 12 ; with suff. 3rd pers. pi. ag. chukh ih6w u mot u , x, 12 ; 

pi. (without auxiliary) thovhndt 1 , x, 12. 

Altogether irregular is the peculiar form thov^k 1 (xi, 6). 

This is the m. pi. of the past thdw u , with a pleonastic suffix -k u 

added. So that we get th6w u -Jc u , m. pi. nom. thov^-kK 
tuj u , tujyav, etc., see tulun. 

tdk u , m. a tray ; sg. dat. tokis, viii, 4 ; tokis-manz, viii, 12. 
tokh, m. crushing ; sg. abl. toka-sur, ashes of crushing, crushing 

into powder like ashes, crushing to powder, vii, 13. 
takhsir, m. a crime, a fault, viii, 10 ; x, 12. 
tukara, m. a piece, fragment ; pi. nom. tuk 9 ra karan 1 , to break or 

cut into pieces, viii, 6 ; shehmdras chuh karan tuk a ra, he cuts 

the python to pieces, viii, 13. 
ti-kyazi, see tih. 
talt adv. below ; tal wasun, to descend, ix, 6 ; postpos. governing 

dat., below ; atfr-tal, below it verily, ii, 3 ; ddre-tal, under 

the window, v, 4 ; latan-tal, under the feet, viii, 7 ; palangas- 

tal, under the bed, viii, 6, 13 ; x, 7, 8. 
tola, postpos. governing abl. ; lari-tala, issued from under the side, 

vii, 7. 
tdP, postpos. governing abl. ; satav zaminav tal 1 , below the seven 

worlds, iii, 8 ; tami tap, below it, xii, 14. 
talau, interj. ! Ho ! v, 5 (addressed by a woman to her husband) ; 

x, 1 (addressed by men to men). 
teli, adv. then, ii, 3 ; v, 5, 6 (bis) ; xii, 3. 
tolun, to weigh (something) ; inf. sg. obi. tolani ay, they came to 

weigh, ix, 10. 



391 VOCABULARY timav 

tulun, to raise, take up, lift up, iii, 1, 2, 7 ; v, 4 ; x, 12 ; xii, 2, 4, 
, 6 (bis), 7, 9, 17 ; mdzas chum tuldn, he is raising bits of my 

flesh, i.e. cutting bits out of me, vii, 14 ; nam tuldn', to cut 

(another's) nails, to manicure, v, 6 ; shemsher tulun*, to raise, 

i.e. to draw, a sword, ii, 7 ; iii, 9 ; x, 7 ; shdph tulun, to raise 

(i.e. undo) a charm, xii, 15 ; tulun soty, to carry along with 

one, xii, 2 ; wdth tulun", to leap, ii, 9. 
fut. pass. part. m. sg. gatshi pdshdkh tulun u , you must take 

up the garment, xii, 6 ; conj. part, tulith, iii, 7 ; pres. m. 

sg. 3, tuldn chuh, xii, 17 ; with suff. 1st pers. sg. gen. chum 

tuldn, vii, 14 ; 1 past m. sg. tul u , iii, 1 ; with suff. 3rd pers. 

sg. ag. tulun, iii, 2 ; xii, 2, 7 ; with ditto, and with suff. 

3rd pers. sg. gen. tul u nas, xii, 15 ; with suff. 3rd pers. pi. ag. 

tulukh, xii, 2 ; pi. tul\ xii, 9 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. 

tulin, x, 12 ; with ditto, and with suff. 3rd pers. sg. gen. 

tuPnas, v, 6 ; f . sg. tuj", ii, 9 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. 

tuj u n, ii, 7 ; iii, 9 ; v, 4 ; x, 7 ; 3 past m. sg. tujydv, xii, 6 ; 

with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. tujydn, xii, 4. 
t a l u r u , f. a bee ; mdch-t a l u r u , a houey-bee, ix, 1, 3, 4, 5 ; sg. ag. 

-t a l a ri, ix, 1, 6. 
tdlav, m. the ceiling of a room ; sg. abl. tdlawa-Jcani, down from the 

ceiling, viii, 6. 
tilaw6ri u , m. an oil-seller, an oilman ; sg. voc. tilawdni, xi, 20. 
tarn, m. weariness (from walking, travelling, etc.) ; — dyun u , to 

cause such weariness, vii, 17. 
tarn 1 , tami, tim, tima, timau, see tih. 
turn, you (Hindustani), xi, 4. 
tamdh, m. longing, longing desire, vii, 26. 
timan, see tih. 
tamis, see tih. 
tamdshe, m. an entertainment, exhibition, sight, show, spectacle ; 

sg. dat. mushtdkh tamdshea-kun, enamoured of the spectacle, 

iii, 7. 
tamaskhuri, f. jesting, joking. 
tdmath, adv. so long (of time) ; tdmath . . . ydmath, so long . . . 

as, xi, 20. 
timav, tamiy, tdmiy, timay, timqy, see tih. 



tan HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 392 

tan, m. a limb of the body ; pi. nom. tan, viii, 7. 

tdnana, tan a nana, tananay, meaningless words, introduced into a 

verse, like our " fol-de-riddle-i-do ", v, 12. 
tan, adv. and postpos. as far as, up to, as in ot u -tdn, up to there, 

i.e. by that time, x, 4, 6 ; az-tdn, up to to-day, until to-day, 

x, 7, 8 ; xii, 20 ; tser-tan, up to lateness, i.e. during a long time, 

v, 6 ; yot u -tan, up to where, i.e. as soon as, xii, 6 ; yut u - 

tdn, up to here, i.e. by this time, in the meantime, v, 7. 
Used as a suffix implying indefiniteness added to an 

interrogative pronoun, as in kus-tdfi wopar, someone else, 

v, 4 ; hjdh-tan takhsir some fault or other, viii, 10. 

By itself, tan is used in the sense of yut u -tdn, abl., xi, 20 ; 

xii, 1. 
tdph, m. sunshine, i, 11. 
tare, see tor", 
tor 1, m. Mount Sinai ; sg. abl. tora-petha, from on Mount Sinai, 

iv, 5. 
tor 2, adv. there, x, 3. 

tora, adv. therefrom, thence, i, 6, 8 ; v, 4, 9 ; viii, 11 : 

xii, 1, 11. 

tur 1 , adv. there verily, even there, vii, 20 ; x, 3. 
tor", f. delay; sg. abl. tare (m.c. for tdri), with delay, hence, as 

adv. confusedly, v, 7. 
tur 1 , see tor 2. 

tur", f. an adze ; sg. abl. tori-dab, the blow of an adze, vii, 18. 
tur", f. a tenon (in carpentry), x, 5, 12. 
tarbyeih, f. instruction, tuition, ii, 4, where the word is treated as 

m. It is usually f. 
treh or trih, card, three ; trih, x, 1, 12 (as subst.) ; trih hatha, three 

statements, x, 1 ; lot trih, three rubies, x, 12 ; trih reth, three 

months, xii, 6, 11 ; zandna treh, three women, xii, 19 (ter) ; 

tithiy treh, three times as much, xii, 24 ; pi. dat. tren retan- 

Jcyut" Jchar a j, expenses for three months, xii, 5, 11 ; yiman 

zananan tren, to these three women, x, 20. 
tdrJca-chdn, m. a carpenter, turner, cabinet maker, who is not a 

village servant, but who works independently on his own 

account ; sg. dat. -chdnas, vii, 17, 20. 



393 VOCABULARY trawun 

trom\ f. a copper dish, or tray, viii, 3 (bis), 11. 

trom u ,i. i.q. tram*, iii, 1. 

tdrun, to cause to pass over; bdj tdrun, to take tribute (from a 

subordinate king, etc.), x, 10 ; xi, 2 ; zade patios tdrane, to 

cause holes to pass over a person's body, to bore holes in it, 

vii, 25 ; pres. part, tdrdn, xi, 2 ; imperf . m. sg. 3, 6s u tdran, 

xi, 2 ; past m. pi. with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. and 1st pers. 

sg. gen. tor'nam, vii, 25. 
tiranddz, m. an archer, a bowman ; pi. nom. tiranddz, ii, 7 ; dat. 

tiranddzan, ii, 7. 
trenaway, card, all three, the three, xii, 25. 
taraph, m. a direction ; pi. dat. as adv. taraphan, in all directions, 

xi, 5. 
torlph, m. praise : toriph-e- Yusuph, praise of Joseph, vi, 17. 
trapun, to shut (a room, viii, 3), (a door, viii, 11) ; past m. sg. 

with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. and 3rd pers. sg. dat. trop u nas, she 

shut (the door, — room) against him, viii, 3, 11. 
tresh, f. thirst ; — cen ti , to drink thirst, i.e. to drink water to allay 

thirst, to drink water, viii, 7 (bis) ; — lagiin*, thirst to Ibe 

felt, to become thirsty, viii, 7. 
trot u , m. a necklace, xii, 5 (ter) ; sg. dat. lal tratis sumo*, rubies 

sufficient for a necklace. 
trawun, to let go, let loose ; to abandon, leave behind, ii, 10 ; 

xi, 11 ; to emit, give forth, i, 5 (sighs) ; xi, 11 (light) ; to 

cast, throw, v, 4 (many times) ; xii, 11, 2 ; to put off, doff 

(garments), v, 9 ; x, 2. 
trawun dram, to take repose, iii, 3, 7 ; viii, 5 ; trawun 

kadam, to put forth a step, to step forward, iv, 5 ; trawun 

yUa, to let go free, to release, iii, 4 (bis) ; x, 5 (ter), 12. 
tshanun trovith, to let drop, throw down, xii, 16, 7 ; tshunun 

trovith, to throw or dash down and cast away, ii, 5 ; viii, 

7 (bis) 
trawun kadiih, to take off, doff (clothes), xii, 6 ; trawun 

mbrith, to kill ( = Hindi mar ddlnd), x, 8 ; palang trawun 

shirith, to make ready a bed, x, 7. 

fut. pass. part, gatshi kdkad trdwun u , you must throw the 

paper, xii, 11 ; conj. part, trovith, ii, 5 ; viii, 7 (bis) ; xii, 



treyum" HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 394 

16, 7 ; pres. part, trawan, xi, II; perf. part. sg. f. trov"- 

muts u , x, 8. 
impve. sg. 2, trav, iii, 4 ; v, 9 ; pi. 2, trovyuv (for troviv), 

x, 5 ; pol. pi. 2, trovHav, x, 5 ; fut. sg. 3, with suff. 2nd pers. 

sg. dat. traviy, xii, 6 ; pres. m. sg. 3, chuh trawan, xii, 2 ; 

imperf. m. sg. 3, 6s u trawan, i, 5. 

past m. sg. trdw u , xii, 7 ; with emph. y, trdwuy, iv, 5 ; 

with sufL 3rd pers. sg. ag. trdwun, ii, 10 ; iii, 3, 7 ; v, 4 (ter) ; 

x, 2 ; xii, 12 ; with ditto, and sufL 1st pers. sg. dat. trdw u nam, 

v, 4 (ter) ; with ditto, and suff. 2nd pers. sg. dat. trdw u nay, 

v, 4 (ter) ; with sufL 3rd pers. pi. ag. trdwuhh, viii, 5 ; x, 5 ; 

with ditto, and suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. trdw u has, x, 7, 12. 
past f. sg. with sufiF. 3rd pers. sg. ag. trov u n, iii, 4. 
treyum u , ord. third, viii, 8 ; m. sg. dat. treyimis, viii, 8. 

f. sg. nom. treyim", xii, 19 (bis) ; abl. treyimi lati, on the 

third occasion, viii, 7. 
tas, tasond u , see tih. 
tasali, m. satisfaction; — as-na, satisfaction did not come to him, 

he did not become satisfied, vi, 16. 
tat 1 , adv. there, in that place, ii, 1 ; v, 1, 7, 9 ; viii, 12. 
tati, adv. from there, thence, iv, 2 ; vii, 17 ; there, in that place 

(for tat 1 ), iv, 7 ; v, 7 ; x, 5 ; xii, 4, 6, 14, 6 ; with emph. y, 

tatiy, there verily, v, 9. 
tota, m. a parrot, ii, 4, 5 (bis), 6, 7 (bis), 8, 9, 11 ; sg. dat. Mas, 

ii, 9 ; tdtas-manz, ii, 5, 8 ; ag. totan, ii, 7, 10. 
tot u , adv. there, in that place, v, 1 ; xii, 7, 16 ; from there, thence, 

iii, 9. 
tath, tath*, see tih. 

tdth u , adj. beloved, iv, 4 ; i.q. thdth u , q.v. 

tithay, adv. ; tithay poth 1 , in that very manner, xii, 22. Cf. tyuth u . 
tdv, m. fever caused by starvation ; hence, exhaustion generally 

as in sapharun u tdv, exhaustion of the journey, exhaustion 

from long travel, xi, 13. 
tuwun, to close (the eyes) ; 2 past f . pi. tuvyeye ache, he closed his 

eyes, xii, 22. 
tay 1, a pleonastic word put at the end of a line of verse, iv, 1 if. 
tay 2, m. authority ; — karun, to rule, xi, 3. 



395 VOCABULARY tshanun 

tiy, that verily ; if that ; see tih. 

toyiphddr, m. an artizan ; pi. dat. -damn, xi, 16 (for genitive). 

taydr, adj. ready, complete ; — karun, to make ready, to complete, 

prepare, iv, 2 ; xii, 18, 22. 
tyut u , adv. so soon ; yiit u . . . tyut u , as soon as ... so soon, 

xii, 2. 
tyuth u , adj. such, of that kind ; m. pi. nom. with emph. y, tithiy 
treh, three times so many, xii, 24 ; f. pi. nom. titsha, such 
(women), xii, 19. 

tyuth u (with emph. y, tyuihuy) is often used adverbially to 
mean " so ", " exactly so ", v, 6 ; viii, 7 ; xii, 12, 5. Cf. 
tithay. In viii, 7, it means " at that very time ". 
tyulh u is correlative of yuih u , and tyuthuy of yuthuy. 
tse, see ts a h. 
tsoce, see tsdt*. 

ts% thou, ii, 11 ; iii, 2 (fern.), 9 ; v, 3, 5, 7, 12 ; vi, 11 ; viii, 
1 (bis), 3 (fern.), 6, 8, 10, 1 (fern, bis), 3 ; ix, 1 (bis) ; x, 1, 
4, 5, 8, 12 ; xii, 1, 4 (bis), 5, 10, 3 (bis), 5 ; ts a -ti, thou also, 
ix, 6 ; ts a y, thou verily, i, 10 ; xii, 15. 

sg. acc.-dat. tse, v, 10 ; vi, 11 ; viii, 3, 11 ; x, 5, 12 ; xii, 
3, 7 (bis), 13, 8, 21 ; tse-nishe, in thy possession, x, 14. 
ag. tse, i, 12 (v.l.) ; ii, 11 (bis) ; xii, 20. 
gen. For this, the possessive pronoun cy6n u is used, q.v. 
pi. nom. toh*, viii, 3, 5 (ter), 13 ; xii, 1 (quater). 
acc.-dat. tohe-nish, in your possession, x, 5, 12. 
ag. tohe, x, 12. 

gen. For this, the possessive pronoun tuhond u is used, q.v. 

tshddun or tshddun, to seek for, search for ; imperf. f. sg. 1, with 

sufT. 3rd pers. sg. ace. os u san tshdddn, I (fern.) was seeking for 

him, xii, 15 ; 3 past m. sg. with suff. 1st pers. sg. ag. tsMjyam, 

I searched (earth and heaven), vii, 26. Cf. tshdrun. 

tshajydm, see tshddun. 

tshanun or tshunun {tshanun is used only in villages), to cast, 
throw ; to put, place, viii, 6 ; x, 7 ; to put on (clothes), 
v, 9 (bis) ; x, 4 ; to apply (an ointment, medicine, etc.), 
v, 6 (bis) ; — not 1 , to put on the neck, tie on to the neck, 
viii, 10 ; to put on (clothes), xii, 7 ; — sahakas, to put to 



khananawun HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 396 

a lesson, to teach, v, 6 ; woth tshuniin u , to throw a leap, to 

leap, ii, 9 ; iii, 4 ; — kadith, to drive out, expel, viii, 10 ; 

to doff clothes, x, 9 ; — nahiih, to cancel, xii, 4 ; — phirith, 

to put upside down, iii, 5 ; — troviih, to let drop, throw down, 

xii, 16, 7 ; to dash down and cast away, ii, 5 ; viii, 7 (bis) ; 

— tsatiih, to tear to pieces, xii, 15. 

fut. pass. part, f . sg. tshuniin", iii, 4 ; perf . part, f . sg. neg. 

chesna tshun^miits" sabakas, I have not been taught, v, 6. 
impve. sg. 2, tshun, iii, 5 ; v, 9 ; pol. sg. 2, tshun-ta, x, 4 ; 

fut. tshari i zi, xii, 16. 
pres. m. sg. 3, tshanan chuh, xii, 17. 
past m. sg. tshon u , xii, 7 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. 

tshunun, ii, 5 ; v, 6, 9 (bis) ; viii, 6 ; x, 7, 9 ; with ditto, and 

with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. tshun u nas, viii, 7 (bis) ; xii, 15 ; 

with suff. 3rd pers. pi. ag. tshunukh, viii, 10 ; with ditto, and 

with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. tshun u has, xii, 4 ; f. sg. with 

suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. tshunun, ii, 9 ; viii, 10. 
past cond. sg. 1, tshunaho, v, 6. 
tshanandwun (village form for tshunanaimri), to cause to be cast ; 

past pi. m. with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. tshananovin, x, 13. 
tshopa, in tshopa karith, having made silence, in silence, xii, 4. 
tshdrun, a dialectic form of tshddun, q.v., to search for, seek ; pres. 

m. pi. 3, tshdrdn chih, iii, 3 ; fut. pi. 1, tshdrav, xi, 17. 
tshela, adj. extinct ; ndr gomot u tsheta, the fire had become extinct, 

xii, 23. 
tshdta, m. a stout stick, a club, iii, 1, 2. 
tshdwul, a he-goat, iii, 5 (ter). 
tshyot u , m. remains or leavings of food, orts, refuse, offal ; hence, 

food which, as such, is considered to be defiled, x, 3, 12 (bis) ; 

fern. tshet ti -han, a little waste food, x, 5. 
tsiij u , etc., see fsalun. 
tsakh, fern, rage ; sg. abl. tsakhi-hot u , m. full of rage, vii, 14 ; tsakhi- 

nishe, from anger, vii, 2. 
tsalun, to flee, run away, ii, 7, 9 ; v, 5 ; vi, 8 (bis) ; viii, 4 (bis), 

11 (bis), 3 ; ix, 1 (ter), 4 ; xii, 25 ; to escape by flight, ii, 8. 
pres. part, tsaldn, vi, 8 ; viii, 13 ; impve. pi. 2, tsaliv, viii, 

4, 11 ; pres. subj. sg. 3, with irreg. suff. 2nd pers. pi. dat. 



897 



VOCABULARY 



tsur 



tsaliv, (I say) to you he may escape, ii, 8 ; imperf. m. sg. 3, 
6s u tsaldn, xii, 25. 

1 past, m. sg. 3, tsol u , ii, 7 ; vi, 8 ; pi. 3, tsdl { , viii, 4, 11 ; 
f . sg. 3, tsuj u , ii, 9 ; v, 5. 

2 past, f. sg. 1, tsajyeyes, I (fern.) fled, ix, 4. 

perf. f. sg. 3, cheh tsuj u muts u , ix, 1 ; 2, chekh tsuj^muts*, 
ix, 1 ; pluperf. f. sg. 3, o's" tsuj^muts* , ix, 1. 

tsamruiv u , adj. made of leather, leathern, xii, 16, 7. 

tson, see tsor. 

tsiind u , f . a blow, a stroke ; — ldyun u , to strike a blow (with a sword), 
iii, 5, 6. 

tsdnun, to cause to enter ; to bring in ; past m. sg. with suff. 3rd 
pers. pi. ag. tsonukh, iii, 7 ; f . with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. and 
1st pers. sg. tson u nam lar, he caused pursuit to enter for me, 
i.e. he caused me to run away, ix, 2. Causal of atsun, q.v. 

tsop u , m. a bite ; pi. nom. tsdp i hen*, to take bites, to bite repeatedly, 
x, 7. 

tsop6r u , adv. on all four directions, on all sides, ii, 3, 5 ; (sopor*, 
id., xii, 21, 4. 

tser, m. delay ; — gatshun, delay to occur (to a person), to be 
delayed, to be late, iii, 1 ; v, 9 ; tser-tdn, up to lateness, 
during a long time, v, 6. 

tsir 1 , adv. late, iii, 1. 

tsor, card, four, x, 12 (ter) ; gay tsor, they became four, viii, 5 ; 
following qualified noun, mahaniv* tsor, four men, x, 5 ; 
mdrawdtal tsor, four executioners, x, 12 ; neciv* tsor, four 
sons, xii, 1. 

Preceding qualified noun, tsor doh, four days, xii, 23 ; 
tsor hath, four hundred, x, 1 (bis) ; tsor hatha (f.), four state- 
ments, x, 6 (ter) ; tsor pahar, four watches, viii, 5 ; tsor ydr, 
four friends, vii, 5 ; tsor zdn\ four persons, x, 1 (bis). 

pi. dat. mdrawdtalan tson, to four executioners, x, 5 ; ts&n 
asmdnan-peth, on the four heavens, iv, 4 ; tsdn zanen, to 
the four persons, viii, 5 ; x, 5 (bis), 12. 
ag. tsdrav zanev, by four persons, x, 1, 2. 

tsur, m. a thief, x, 12 (ter) ; xii, 1 ; lort-tsur, a fate-thief, a destroyer 
of good luck, vii, 12. 



1sU+* HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 398 

pi. nom. tsilr, viii, 9 ; xii, 1 ; ag. tsurav, iii, 3 (bis) ; tsurau, 

viii, 9 (bis), 
fewr", f . theft ; — kariin", to do thieving, to be a professional 

thief, xii, 1 ; sg. dat. gav tsuri (for tsure), he went to steal, 

xii, 1 ; ag. tsuri-pdth 1 , like theft, secretly, xii, 6, 7, 17 ; 

tsuri-pothin, id., iii, 1. 
tsrdl u , m. a police spy, a detective. In v, the word is used in the 

sense of a police constable, pi. dat. tsrdlen, v, 7. 
tsdrun, to pick out, select ; past cond. sg. 3, mane tsdrihe (for tsdrihe), 

he who might pick out (i.e. explain) the meaning, vi, 14. 
tsoratsh, (?) f., a leather-cutter (the tool), xi, 14. 
tsilryum u , ord. fourth ; m. sg. dat. tsurimis, viii, 11 (ter) ; ag. tsurim*, 

xii, 1. 
tsot?, f. a loaf ; pi. nom. tsoce, v, 7 (bis), 8 (bis). 
tsdth, m. a pupil ; sg. dat. tsdtas bdhan hatan-hond u , (a leader) of 

twelve hundred pupils, v, 1 . 
tsdtahdl, m. a school, viii, 4, 11 ; abl. -hdla, viii, 4. 
tsatun, to cut, to tear, tsatith tshanun, to tear (a paper) to pieces, 

xii, 15 ; sar (or halo) tsatun, to behead, iii, 2 ; viii, 6, 11. 
fut. pass. part. m. sg. tas gatshi kala (or sar) tsatun u , his 

head should be cut off, viii, 6, 11 ; pi. tim gatshan tsatdn 1 , 

they must be cut, v, 4 ; conj. part, tsatiih, xii, 15 ; fut. pi. 3, 

with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. tsatanas, they will cut for him, 

v, 7 ; do. interrog. tsatanasa, v, 7 ; past m. sg. tsot u , iii, 2 ; 

pi. with sufT. 3rd pers. sg. ag. and 1st pers. sg. gen. tsdfnam, 

ix, 5. 
wa, conj . used in the corrupt Arabic phrase, wa-saldm, wa-yihrdm, and 

the peace, and the respect, a polite ending to a story, equivalent 

to " may peace and respect be upon the hearers ", x, 14. 
wobdl, f. a guilty condition, blameworthiness ; sg. dat. wobdli 

(m.c. for wobdli), v, 2. 
wuchun, to see ; to look at, inspect, v, 5 ; vii, 18, 24 ; viii, 1, 3 ; 

to watch, iii, 1 ; viii, 6, 9. 
inf. nom. with sufL of indef. art. wuchundJi hor u nahh, she 

made a look at them, i.e. she looked at them, viii, 3 ; abl. 

forming inf. of purpose, wuchani, in order to see, viii, 7. 
impve. pol. sg. 2, wuchta, ix, 4 ; x, 5 ; pi. 2, wuchHav, 



399 



VOCABULARY 



wbdaM 



viii, 1 ; with suff. 1st pers. sg. ace. wuchHom, please inspect me, 

vii, 24 ; indie, fut. sg. 2, wuchakh, iii, 8. 

pres. m. sg. 1, chus wuchan, iii, 8 ; 2, Jcydh chukh wuclvdn, 

what dost thou see ? iii, 8 ; 3, chuh wuchan, iii, 1, 4, 7, 8 ; 

viii, 6, 9 ; xii, 4 ; wuchan chuh, iii, 7 ; xii, 19 ; with suff. 1st 

pers. sg. ace. chum wuchan, vii, 18 ; imperf. m. sg. 3, 6s u 

wuchan, iii, 1. 
past m. sg. wuch u , iii, 8 ; v, 9 ; xii, 15 ; with suff. 3rd pers. 

sg. gen. wuchus chendas, (she) looked into his pocket, v, 5 ; 

with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. wuchun, i, 4 ; ii, 1 ; iii, 8 (bis), 9 ; 

v, 5, 7 (with two singular grammatical subjects — one fern., 

the other, the nearer, masc.) ; viii, 6, 7 (bis), 9 (bis), 10 ; 

x, 5, 8 ; xii, 2, 7 ; with suff. 3rd pers. pi. ag. wuchukh, ii, 4 ; 

x, 8 ; xii, 1 ; aih blis wuchukh, they looked at that nest, 

viii, 1 ; pi. wuch 1 , v, 4 ; with suff. 1st pers. sg. ag. wuchim, 

vi, 15 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. wuchin, v, 5 ; with suff. 

3rd pers. pi. ag. wuchikh, v, 9 ; with ditto, and also suff. 

3rd pers. pi. nom. wuch { hakh, they were seen by them, 

viii, 1. 

f . sg. wuch u , x, 3 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. wuchan, ii, 8 ; 

iii, 4, 5 ; x, 5 ; xii, 15 ; with suff. 3rd pers. pi. ag. wuchukh, 

xii, 2 ; pi. with suff. 1st pers. sg. ag. wuchem, vi, 15. 

past cond. sg. 1, wuchaha (for -ho, similarly the next), 

I would see, i.e. I should like to see, viii, 10 ; with suff. 

3rd pers. sg. ace. wuchahan, I should like to see it, ii, 5 ; 

3, wuchihe, viii, 10. 
wad, f- crookedness, v, 1. 
wdda, m. (wa'da), a vow. With izafat, wdda-y-Khoda, a vow by 

God ; waday-Khodd dyun u , to swear by God, to make a vow 

in God's name, xii, 7 (bis), 15 (bis). 
wod, f . the crown of the head ; sg. dat. wodi-peth, on the crown of 

the head, iii, 1 ; xi, 12, 6. 
wdda, adv. from there, xii, 23. Cf. ora, s.v. dr. 
wadun, to lament, to weep ; fut. 1, neg. interrog. wadand, shall 

I not weep ? vii, 25 ; pres. f. sg. 1, ches waddn, ix, 1 ; imperf. 

f. sg. 3, 6s u ivadan, vii, 16 ; m. pi. 3, waddn ds\ xi, 5. 
wodane, erect, standing up, iii, 1, 8 ; viii, 6 ; — rozun, to remain 



waday HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 400 

standing, to stand, xii, 1 ; yih wuchuhh ati wodane, they saw 

him standing there, xii, 1. 
waday, see wdda. 
Viginah, m. N. of a certain forest goddess ; Viginah Nag, a spring 

sacred to her, v, 9 (ter). 
Wahab, m. a Musalman proper name, Wahb. Wahab-Khar, Wahb 

the Blacksmith, N. of the author of stories ii and vi ; voc. 

Wahab-Khara, ii, 12 ; vi, 17. 
vih, m. poison ; pyos wolinje vih, poison fell into his heart, i.e. he 

became in an agony of pain, v, 6. 
w8h, adv. now, iii, 9 ; i.q. won, q.v. 
woj u , f. a finger-ring, v, 1 ; x, 8 (bis) ; xii, 14 (bis), 15. 
wakth, m. time ; sg. abl. ami wakta, at that time, vi, 16. 
wokawun, to draw forth, bring out ; conj. part, anun wokavith, to 

draw out (e.g. from a store-room) and bring, vi, 16. 
wola, see yun u . 
ivolad, m. offspring, issue, progeny ; woldd-i-Adam, a descendant 

of Adam, iv, 3. 
walaikum (borrowed from Arabic), and on you, xii, 26. Cf. wa. 
walun, to wrap round anything ; tegas walun phamb, to wrap 

cotton wool round the blade (of a sword), viii, 6, 13 ; zdlas 

walun, to wrap round in a net, to entangle in a net, ix, 7. 

Inf. abl. forming pass, walana yun u , ix, 7 ; pres. m. sg. 3, 

chuh waldn, viii, 13 ; past m. sg. with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. 

wolun, viii, 6. 
walun (causal of wasun), to cause to descend, to bring down, iii, 9 ; 

vii, 17 (bis) ; x, 8 ; xi, 11 ; bon walun, id., viii, 1 ; basta 

walun ti , to bring the skin down, to flay a person alive, viii, 6 ; 

kabari walun, to cause to descend into a tomb, to bury (a 

dead man), iv, 7 ; kangan walun", to cause a comb to descend, 

to comb the hair, v, 4. 
fut. pass. part. f. sg. ivalun", viii, 6; conj. part, wolith, 

vii, 17 ; n. ag. m. sg. nom. with emph. y, wdlawunuy, 

immediately on bringing down, vii, 17; impve. sg. 2, with 

suff. 3rd pers. sg. ace. walun, iii, 9 ; pi. 2, with same suff. 

wdlyun ; indie, fut. pi. 1, wdlav, xi, 11 ; 3, with suff. 1st pers. 

sg. ace. walanam, iv, 7 ; pres. f. sg. 1, ches waldn, v, 4 ; past 

m. pi. with suff. 3rd pers. pi. ag. wdlikh, viii, 1. 



401 VOCABULABY wanun 

wdlinj", f. the heart, x, 5 ; sg. dat. wolinje, v, 6 ; pi', nom. wolinje, 

viii, 3, 4 (ter), 11 (bis), 2. 
wdlanay, f . bringing down ; humiliation, humbling (a proud person), 

vii, 15. 
wdlawosh*, f . a kind of net made of hair (will), for catching birds or 

animals ; sg. dat. (in sense of loc.) -wdshi (poet, for wdshe), 

v, 2. 
wumedwdr, adj. hopeful, i, 13. 
wumdh, a negative adv. signify " now not ", as in wumdh thdwath, 

now I may not keep thee, how can I keep thee now, ii, 11. 
wan, m. a forest, a wood ; sg. dat. wanas akis-manz, (she arrived) in 

a certain forest, ix, 1 ; abl. wana-manza, from in the forest, 

ix, 4 ; gen. wanuJc u , ix, 1, 3, 5 ; pi. dat. wanan, ix, 2 ; path 

wanan, at the back of the woods, vii, 10. 
wan, m. a shop, i, 2 (bis) ; a shop, in the sense of a working place, 

e.g. a blacksmith's shop, xi, 17 ; abl. wdna-wdn, from shop 

to shop, i, 2. 
won u , m. a thing said (properly past part, of wanun) ; wan 1 din 1 , 

to give sayings, to send messages, xi, 20. 
wanun, to say, speak, till ; wanun phirith, to say in reply, to answer, 

v, 4 ; wanun pot u phirith, id., x, 7. 

inf. pyom wanun, it fell to me to speak, I shall have to 

speak, xii, 10 ; abl. lag 1 wanani, they began to say, x, 1 ; 

conj. part, wanith, vi, 16 ; mdkalow u ami wanith, she finished 

telling, ix, 6 ; perf . part. won u mot u , a thing said, iv, title ; 

f. wun^muts", vii, 30. 

impve. sg. 2, wan, ix, 6 ; xi, 20 ; wan-sa, tell, sir, x, 1 (bis), 

2 ; with sufL 1st pers. sg. dat. wanum, tell (say) to me, iii, 5 ; 

vi, 15 (bis) ; pi. 2, waniv, kydh Jcariv, say ye what ye will do, 

xii, 1 ; waniv-sa, say ye, sirs, x, 6 ; with sufL 1st pers. sg. 

dat. wanyum, tell ye me, x, 6 ; pol. sg. 2, wanta, iii, 9 ; x, 

1, 8 ; wanta-sa, say please, sir, ii, 4 ; pi. 2, wdn { tav, viii, 5 ; 

x, 1. 
fut. sg. 1, wana, xii, 19 ; with sufT. 2nd pers. sg. dat. 

wanay, I shall (would) say to (tell) thee, i, 12 (v.l.) ; viii, 

6, 8, 11 ; ix, 4 ; x, 2 (bis) ; with sufT. 2nd pers. pi. dat. 

wanamowa, (a village form), x, 1 (bis), 2 ; 3, wani, vii, 20, 6 ; 



won HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 402 

with suff. 2nd pers. |g. dat. waniy, iii, 4 ; pi. 3, wanan, 
x, 12. 

pres. m. sg. 3, (without auxiliary) wanan, v, 2 (to, kuri) ; 
viii, 1 (bis), 11 ; ix, 1 ; wanan chuh, x, 6 ; with emph. y, 
chuy ivanan, i, 13 ; vii, 3 ; with sufL 3rd pers. sg. dat. chus 
wanan, viii, 7 ; with suff. 3rd pers. pi. dat. wanan chukh, 
x, 7 ; f. sg. 3, cheh wanan, vi, 2 ; vii, 1, 20, 6 ; wanan cheh, 
ix, 6 ; with emph. y, chey wanan, vii, 16 ; with suff. 3rd pers. 
sg. dat. ches wanan, v, 2 ; wanan ches, v, 5. 

past m. sg. won u , x, 12 ; with suff. 1st pers. sg. ag. and 
2nd pers. sg. dat. won u may, I said to thee, xii, 20 ; with 
suff. 2nd pers. sg. ag. and 3rd pers. pi. dat. won u thakh, thou 
saidst to them, x, 2 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. wonus, 
said to him, xii, 25 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. wonun, he 
said, viii, 11 ; neg. wonun-na, xii, 7 ; with suff. 3rd pers. 
sg. ag. and 3rd pers. sg. dat. won u nas, v, 4 ; pi. with suff. 
1st pers. sg. ag. and 3rd pers. sg. dat. watfmay, iv, 1. 

f . sg. with suff. 2nd pers. sg. ag. wunHh, x, 1 ; pi. with suff. 

1st pers. sg. ag. and 2nd pers. pi. dat. wanemowa (a village 

form), x, 1 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. and 3rd pers. pi. dat. 

wanenakh, x, 1 ; with suff. 2nd pers. pi. ag. wanewa, x, 6. 

past cond. sg. 3, wanihe, vii, 24 (bis). 

won, adv. now, v, 6 ; vii, 26 (bis) ; viii, 7. Cf. wdh. 

wun, even now, now indeed, now, immediately, ii, 5 ; iii, 1, 2 ; 
v, 5, 6, 8 ; viii, 10, 1 ; ix, 4 (bis), 6 (bis), x, 5 (bis), 6, 7 ; 
xii, 6, 15, 8 (ter), 9 ; wurie, now and on, still, still more, x, 1 ; 
wunP-y, i.q. wun, viii, 7. 

wopha, see be-wopha. 

wophadori, f. loyalty, fidelity, faithfulness, ii, 2 (bis), 3, 4 (ter), 
5, 6, 7, 10, 2. 

wophoyl, see be-wophoyi. 

wophir, adj. (m.c. for wophir), abundant, plentiful ; tobir Yusuphas 
chuh wophir, there is abundant interpretation to Joseph, 
i.e. he is full of interpretation, vi, 14. 

wopar, adj. other ; kus-tan wopar, someone else, v, 4. 

warn 1, adj. well, safe, in good condition ; wara-kara, safe and 
sound, x, 8. 






403 VOCABULARY wasun 

wdra 2, adv. well, thoroughly, properly, vii, 24. 

vir, ? gend., a fine (in money) ; vir heth, bringing the money (to 

pay a fine), v, 7. 
w'w* 1, f. a kind of small earthen pot ; pi. nom. ware, xi, 13. 
ww* 2, f. a garden, a field plot in which flowers (e.g. saffron) are 

cultivated ; sg. abl. wdri and (m.c.) ware, in the (saffron-) 

field, v, 7. 
vir*d, m. skilled practice ; hence, magic skill, magic power, ii, 3, 4. 
wwiddth, ? gend. an occurrence, incident ; kari amis kentshdh 

woriddth, he will do some occurrence to him, i.e. he will devise 

something against him, xii, 19. 
warihy, m. a year ; pi. nom. warihy, xii, 20. 
wora-moj*, f. a step-mother, viii, 1, 11 ; sg. dat. -mdje, viii, 11. 
wwa-necyuv u , a step-son ; pi. gen. -neciven-hond u , viii, 3. 
wartdwun, to deal out (to), distribute, apportion, dispense ; pres. 

m. pi. 3, (chili) wartdwdn, xi, 7. 
wdraydh, adj. very much, excessive ; wdraydh Jcdl (viii, 2) or 

— kdldh (viii, 2), or — kdlas (iii, 1), for (during) a very long 

time. 
wwyuv u , m. the house of a man's father-in-law, the house of a 

wife's father ; sg. dat. worivis-manz, x, 3. 
woruz*, f . the second wife of a widower, — kariln*, (of a widower) 

to take a second wife, viii, 1, 11. (The word also means a 

woman who has married a second time, after the death of her 

first husband.) 
ves, f . a female friend, a female crony, xii, 14 ; sg. voc. vest, ix, 1 ; 

vis^yiy, ix, 11. 
wals, f . the age (of a person) ; sg. dat. hath waisi gav, he went in 

age a hundred (years), i.e. he lived for a himdred years, 

ii, 12. 
wosh, m. a sigh, a groan ; pi. nom. 6s u trdwdn dh ta wosh, he was 

emitting sighs and groans, i, 5. This word is more usually 

written wosh. It is here probably altered to wdsh for the 

sake of rhyme. 
wasun, to descend, go down, come down, iii, 2, 5, 9 (bis) ; v, 9 ; 

vi, 16 (bis) ; viii, 6, 13 ; ix, 4, 6 ; x, 5 ; xii, 6, 7, 11 ; to 

come down (in the sense of coming along), to descend (upon 

Dd 



wustdd HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 404 

a place), v, 7 ; wasun bon, to descend, get down, viii, 4 ; 
xii, 14, 5 ; tal wasun, to go down below, ix, 6 ; wdth 1 guryau 
petha bon, they dismounted from the horses, xii, 2 ; wasith 
pyon u , to fall down, tumble down, ii, 3, 6 (= Hindi girparnd). 
inf. sg. obi. log u wasani, he began to descend, viii, 6 ; 
fut. pass. part, f . sg. cheh tal wasun" jay, there is a place to 
be descended below, i.e. there is a place to which one must 
(in the end) descend (sc. the grave), i.e. we must all die, 
ix, 6 ; conj. part, wasith, ii, 3, 6. 

impve. pres. sg. 2, was, iii, 5, 9 ; pi. 2, wasiv, vi, 16 ; viii, 4 ; 
fut. wdshi, xii, 14 ; with neg. wds { zi-na, xii, 11 ; indie, 
frit sg. 3, with sufT. 2nd pers. sg. dat. wasiy, she will descend 
in thy presence, xii, 6. 

pres. m. sg. 3, chuh wasdn, v, 7 ; wasdn chuh, viii, 13. 
past m. sg. 3, wotk u , iii, 9 ; xii, 15 : pi. 3, wdth 1 , vi, 16 ; 
x, 5 (m. and f. subject) ; xii, 3 (m. and f. subject) ; f. sg. 1, 
wiltsh^s, ix, 4 ; 3, wutsh", iii, 2 ; xii, 7 ; with emph. y> 
wutsh a y, v, 9. 

wustdd, m. a preceptor, tutor, teacher ; esp. the teacher from whom 
the reciter learnt the stories in this book. Very common in 
the phrase dapan wustdd, " the teacher says," as in ii, 1, 5, 
9, 10, 2, et passim ; wustdddh, a certain teacher, i, 13. 

wasth, m. an article, a thing ; pi. nom. (for ace.) wasih, v, 1. 

vis { yiy, see ves. 

wath, f. a way, a road, a path, v, 9 ; xii, 14 ; tath os u -na wath, 
there was no path into it, i.e. no one was allowed to enter it, 
ii, 1 ; sg. abl. wati, (going) by or along a road, v, 7 ; x, 1 ; 
xii, 14, 5 ; drav yara-sanzi wati, he went forth by the road of 
his friend, i.e. he took the road to his friend's house, x, 4 ; 
ada-wati, on half the road, half-way, mid-way, vii, 20 ; har- 
wati, on every path, ii, 2 ; wati wati, along the road, vii, 17. 

wath, m. joining, uniting, junction, repairing something broken ; 
wdth harun, to repair, join broken pieces, x, 12 (bis). 

wdth, f . a leap, jump ; — tulun", to leap, ii, 9 (bis) ; — tshunurC 1 , 
id. iii, 4. 

woth u , see wasun. 

wpth u , see wothun. 



405 VOCABULARY watun 

wuth, m. a camel ; abl. wwtha-bdr, m. pi. camel-loads, i, 9. 
wdthun, to arise, rise, ii, 3 ; iii, 1, 8 (bis) ; v, 6, 9 ; vi, 12, 3 ; xii, 

3, 23 ; to arise (of some immaterial thing), to come into 

existence, to happen, iii, 3 (an outcry) ; vi, 15 (a famine) ; 

(with dat. of person), to rise in reply to a person, to up and 

answer, viii, 11 ; xii, 20 ; phirith wdthun, having replied to rise, 

to rise and answer, to up and answer, viii, 6 ; x, 2, 6 ; xii, 11 ; 

wdthun thod u , to rise erect, to stand up, ii, 5, 6 ; v, 6, 9 ; xii, 

14,5. 
conj. part, wothith, ii, 3 ; v, 6 ; impve. sg. 2, woth, iii, 8 (bis) ; 

indie, fut. sg. 3, woihi, vi, 15 ; with sufT. 2nd pers. sg. dat. 

wothiy thod u , (the rock) will stand up before thee, xii, 14. 
past m. sg. 3, woth u , ii, 5, 6 ; v, 9 ; vi, 12, 3 ; xii, 3, 15, 23 ; 

with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. wgthus, he up and answered him, 

viii, 6 ; x, 2, 6 ; xii, 21. 

f. sg. 3, wotsh*, iii, 1, 3 ; with sufL 3rd pers. sg. dat. wotsh*s, 

she up and answered him, viii, 11 ; xii, 11, 20. 
cond. past sg. 3, neg. wothihe-na ihod u , he would not have 

stood up, i.e. he would not have been able to stand up, v, 9. 
watharun, to spread out ; inf. sg. gen. watharunuk u musla, a skin 

of spreading out, a leather mat, xii, 18 (bis) ; conj. part. 

wathariih, xii, 21. 
watharun u , m. a mat, a carpet, xii, 24. 
woiharun, to wipe clean ; inf. obi. log u woiharani, he began to wipe 

clean, viii, 6 ; imperf. m. sg. 3, 6s u wothardn, viii, 6, 13 (bis). 
wdt u j u , see watul. 
watul, m. a sweeper, a mihtar ; sg. ag. wdtdV, xi, 14 ; voc. (addressed 

by his wife) wdtal-ganau, pimp of a mihtar, xi, 15 ; f. 

wdt u j u , a mihtar's wife, sg. dat. wdt a je, xi, 14 ; voc. wdt"j\ 

xi, 15. Cf. mdra-wdtul. 
wotamukh 1 , adv. upside down, v, 9. 
wdtun, to arrive, come to, come up to, reach, ii, 8 ; iii, 1 (ter), 

2 (bis), 3 (ter), 4, 7, 9 ; v, 1, 4 (bis), 6, 7, 8, 9, 11 ; vii, 12, 29 ; 

viii, 4, 5, 6, 7 (bis), 9, 10, 1 (bis) ; ix, 1 (bis) ; x, 2, 3, 4 (ter), 

5 (bis), 6, 7 (bis), 9, 11, 4 (bis) ; xii, 1, 2, 4, 5 (ter), 8, 10 (ter), 

1, 2 (bis), 3, 4, 5 (ter), 6, 7, 8 (ter), 9 (bis), 20, 2 (quater), 

3, 4 (bis), 5 (bis) ; to arrive at (a person, dat.), get at (him), 



watun HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 406 

circumvent (him), xii, 13 ; to be suitable, to be proper, to be 
convenable (in this sense, the fut. is used in the sense of the 
present, like gatshi, see gatshun 1) ; tse ta ase wdti-na, is not 
proper for thee and for us, viii, 3, 11 ; kyah wati karun u , 
what should be done ? viii, 6, 8, 11. 

In the sense of " arriving " if the object is a person, it is 
usually put in the dative governed by nish, as in wot u 
lalshendkas-nish, he came to the lapidary, xii, 25 ; so 
me-nish, to me, xii, 22 (bis) ; waziras-nish, to the vizier, 
xii, 5, 10, 3, 9 ; ydras-nish, to (his) friend, x, 4, 11 ; zanani- 
nish, to the woman, xii, 4. Or it may be indicated by a 
pronominal suffix, as in wdtus, he came to him, xii, 10 ; 
wots u s, she came to her, ix, 1 ; xii, 15. 

If the object is not a person it may remain simply in the nom. 
form of the ace. as in wdt u panun u shehar, he arrived at his 
own city, x, 9 ; wdt u gara, he reached the house, iii, 3 ; v, 1, 
4 ; x, 4, 6, 14 ; xii, 1, 5, etc. ; or it may be put in the dative, 
as in w6t u tath jdye, he arrived at that place, xii, 15 ; or a 
postposition may be used, as in wdt u sheharas-kun, he arrived 
at the city, x, 5 ; or (with manz) chuh watan bdgas-manz, he 
arrives in a garden, iii, 7 ; so janatas-manz, in heaven, xii, 
24 (bis) ; sheharas-manz, in the city, x, 14 ; xii, 2 ; wanas- 
manz, in a forest, ix, 1 ; or (with peth) wdt u ndgas peth, he 
arrived at the spring, iii, 4 ; xii, 12. It will be observed that 
the word shehar, a city, may be used either by itself or with 
Jcun or with manz. 

inf. bbl. log u wdtani, he began to arrive, viii, 6 ; fut. past 
part. m. sg. nom. gotsh u wdtun u , v, 7 ; gatshi wdtun u , xii, 22 
(bis) ; perf. part. m. sg. nom. wdt u mot u , xii, 22 ; conj. part. 
wotith, vii, 12 ; xii, 18. 

fut. sg. 1, wdta, xii, 24 ; 2, wdtalch, xii, 16, 24 ; 3, wati, iii, 
9 ; viii, 6, 8, 11 ; xii, 15 ; neg. wdti-na, viii, 3, 11 ; pres. 
m. sg. 2 neg. chukh-na watan, xii, 13 ; 3, chuh watan, iii, 7. 

past m. sg. 3, w6t u , ii, 8 ; iii, 1 (bis), 3, 4 ; v, 1, 4 (bis), 6 ; 
viii, 4, 7 (bis), 9, 10, 1 (bis) ; x, 3, 4 (bis), 5 (bis), 6, 7 (bis), 
9, 11, 4 (bis) ; xii, 1, 4, 5 (ter), 10 (bis), 1, 2 (bis), 3, 4, 5, 7, 
8, 9 (bis), 20, 2, 3, 5 (bis) ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. ivdtus, 



407 VOCABULABY wazir 

xii, 10 ; pi. wot 1 , iii, 1 (m. and f. subject) ; v, 9 (ditto), 
11 ; viii, 5 ; x, 2, 4 ; xii, 2 (m. and f. subject), 8 (ditto), 
18 (ditto). 

f . sg. 3, wots u , iii, 2 (bis), 3 ; v, 8 ; ix, 1 ; with suff. 3rd 
pers. sg. dat. wots^s, ix, 1 ; xii, 15. 
fut. perf . m. sg. 3, dsi wdt u mot u , vii, 29. 
3 past m. sg. 3, wdtsdv, iii, 3. 

wdtandivun, to cause to arrive ; fut. pi. 3, wdtandwan, v, 9 ; past 
m. sg. with suff. 3rd pers. sg. ag. wdtandwun, iii, 9 ; viii, 
9 (bis) ; f. sg. with same suff. wdtandwan, v, 10. 

wdtawun u , n. ag. of wdtun, one who arrives, with emph. y, as adv. 
wdtawunuy, immediately on arriving, xii, 15. 

wots u , see wdtun. 

wotsh u , see wothun. 

wutsh u , see ivasun. 

wutsha-prang , m. a flying couch, equivalent to the flying carpet 
of English fairy-tales, xii, 18. 

wots u s, wdtsdv, see wdtun. 

wawun, to sow ; past m. pi. with suff. 1st pers. sg. ag. wdwim, 
ix, 9. 

vyur u , m. flower-nectar ; with sufl. of indef . art. vyur u dh, a little 
nectar, a drop of nectar, ix, 2. 

wdz, m. a sermon (Musalman) ; pi. nom. (for ace.) wdz, xii, 1. 

viz, f. a time, a season ; abl. harda-vizi, in the autumn season, ix, 8. 

wuzun, to awake, be awakened, aroused ; past f . sg. 3, wuz u , 
viii, 11 ; with sufl. 3rd pers. sg. dat. wuz*s, viii, 11. In 
both cases of an evil desire. 

wazir, m. a prime-minister, a vizier, ii, 1, 6 (bis), 11 (ter) ; viii, 
4, 11, 4 ; xii, 1, 2 (quater), 4, 5, 10 (bis), 3, 9 (bis), 22, 
3, 4, 5 (ter), 6 ; sg. dat. waziras, ii, 4 (bis), 5 (bis) ; viii, 11 ; 
xii, 4, 5, 5 (nish), 10 (nish), 3 (nish), 9, 9 (nish) ; ag. waziran, 
ii, 4, 5 (bis), 7 ; viii, 1, 4, 12 ; xii, 1, 19, 25 ; gen. wazira- 
sandi gari, in the vizier's house, xii, 4, 5 ; voc. ay wazira 
(addressed by a subordinate), xii, 4 ; wazira (ditto), xii, 13 ; 
ha wazira (ditto), xii, 19 ; ha wazira (ditto), xii, 10 ; ha wazlro 
(addressed by a superior), ii, 4 ; pi. nom. wazir, viii, 1, 2 ; 
dat. waziran, viii, 4 ; ag. wazirau, vi, 16 ; viii, 2. 



waziri HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 408 

wazlrl, f . the post or office of a vizier, viziership, xii, 26. 

y (izdfat), see e, i, y. 

yd, conjunct, or, ii, 12 ; viii, 1 ; yd ... yd, either ... or, x, 
3, 7 ; xii, 9. 

yi 1 (izdfat), see e, i, y. 

yi 2, yi, see yih 1. 

Yiblis, m. Iblis, Satan, the Devil, iv, 2. 

Yibrdhim, Abraham (the Patriarch), iv, 6. 

ydd, m. memory, remembrance ; ydd-i-Aldh, memory of God, i, 7 ; 
nds^yeth ydd heth, keeping the advice in mind, xii, 17 ; ydd 
pdwun, to cause memory to fall, to cause to be remembered, 
(dat. of obj. remembered), vi, 11 ; ydd pyon u , memory to fall, 
remembrance to come (to so and so), iii, 5 ; vii, 20 ; xii, 15 ; 
amis ddd u 6s u pemot u ydd, to her the pain has fallen (as) 
memory, i.e. she bore in mind the pain, xii, 15 ; chus pewdn 
nayistdn ydd, the canebrake falls to her as a memory, she 
remembers the canebrake, vii, 26. 

yed, f. the belly ; with suff. of indef. art. yedah, ix, 7. 

yidam, m. (corruption of the Sanskrit idam), this (world), 
vii, 6. 

yufrkdh, m. an 'Idgdh, the common outside a town where Musulmans 
celebrate the 'Id services (put by an anachronism in Joseph's 
time), vi, 16 (bis). 

yeg-jah, see yekh-jdh. 

yih 1, pron. demonstr. this ; (referring to a person or thing near by, 
or just referred to), he, she, it. See noth or neih. 

ANIMATE. Subst. Masc. sg. nom. yih, this (referring 
to a male), xii, 2 (bis), 15 ; he, ii, 9, 11 ; iii, 7, 8 ; v, 5 ; 
viii, 6, 13 ; x, 1, 2, 5 (bis), 6, 12 (bis) ; xii, 1, 3 (quater), 
6, 15, 24, and others ; yuh (for yih u ), he, xii, 5 ; yuh, this, 
ii, 9 ; x, 12 ; with emph. y, yihuy, he verily, x, 7 ; xii, 15 ; 
yohay, him verily (nom. form of ace), x, 8 ; yuhuy, x, 1 ; 
yi-ti, this one also, x, 8. 

pi. nom. yim, they (masc), ii, 3 ; viii, 1, 3, 13 ; x, 1 (bis) ; 
xii, 2, 3, 23 ; they (one masc. and one fern.), xii, 18. 

dat. yiman, to them (masc), vii, 24 ; viii, 1, 3, 11 ; x, 12 
(bis) ; xii, 21 ; to them (masc. and fern.), v, 8 ; in sense of 



409 VOCABULARY yih 1 

gen., of them, viii, 1, 4, 11, 12 ; with emph. y, yiman u y, to 
them verily, vii, 20 ; viii, 13. 

ag.-abl. yimau, by them, ii, 3 ; viii, 1, 3, 5 ; xii, 1 (bis), 
17 (bis), 22 ; yimav, v, 8 ; viii, 11 ; x, 6, 12 ; yimov, x, 1 ; 
with emph. y, yimav^y syod u , in front of them verily, viii, 6 
(m. and f.). 

gen. (f. nom.) yihilnz", of these (birds, masc), viii, 1. 

Fem. sg. nom. yih, this (referring to a female), v, 10 (ter), 
12 ; x, 8 ; xii, 25 ; she, ii, 8 ; iii, 4 ; v, 6, 10 (ter) ; viii, 3 ; 
xii, 4 (ter), 15, 20 ; with emph. y, yihay, she verily, xii, 20. 

pi. dat. yiman pata, after them, xii, 7. 

ag. with emph. y, yimav^y, by them verily, iii, 7. 

Adj. Masc. sg. nom. yih, this, ii, 8, 9 ; iii, 3, 4 ; v, 5, 
10, 1 ; viii, 6 (bis), 7, 9 (ter), 10, 3 (bis) ; ix, 4 (bis) ; x, 5, 
7 (bis), 8, 10 (bis), 3, 4 ; xii, 1, 3, 4 (ter), 7, 10 (ter), 3 (bis), 
5 (bis), 8, 21 (ter), 2, 4, 5, and others ; yiih, in yus yiih wazir 6s u , 
he who was this vizier, ii, 11. 

dat. yimis, to this, iii, 8 ; x, 5. 

ag. yim\ by this, x, 2, 12. 

pi. nom. yim, these, v, 9 ; viii, 1 (m. and f .), 3 (bis), 5 (bis), 
11 (quater). 

dat. yiman, to these, ii, 11 ; vii, 24 ; viii, 1, 3, 4, 11 (bis) ; 
x, 5. 

ag. yimau, by these, v, 7 ; viii, 3, 9 ; yimav, iii, 1 ; x, 1, 5 ; 
x r 12 (bis). 

Fem. sg. nom. yih, this, iii, 1 ; v, 7, 8, 9, 10 ; viii, 1 ; 
ix, 1, 4 ; x, 7 ; xii, 1, 2, 4 (bis), 5, 6, 7, 13, 5, 8, 20, 5, and 
perhaps others. 

pi. nom. yima, these, iii, 8. 

dat. yiman, to these, xii, 11, 4, 9, 20. 

INANIMATE. Subst. Masc. sg. nom. yih, this, iii, 4 
(bis), 8, 9 (bis) ; vi, 16 ; viii, 7, 11 ; x, 4, 5 (bis), 7, 12 ; 
xii, 4 (bis), 16, 23, and others ; it, viii, 7 ; with emph. y, yl, 
this indeed, vi, 8 ; yihuy, this verily, viii, 10 (bis) ; yiy, 
this very thing, viii, 1 ; this verily, ii, 5 ; yiy, this verily, 
vii, 24 ; iii, 9 ; with conj. ay, if, yiy, if this, iii, 4 (bis), 9. 

dat. yiih, to this, v, 1, 6 ; viii, 9 ; xii, 21. 



yih 2 HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 410 

pi. nom. yim, these (referring to masc. inan. things), x, 
2, 12 ; yima (referring to fern. inan. things), viii, 4. 

Adj. sg. nom. yih, this, ii, 3, 10 (bis) ; v, 6 ; viii, 1, 5, 

7 (bis), 9, 10, 3 ; x, 1, 4 (bis), 5 ; xii, 7, 11, 2, 5 (bis), 7 (bis), 
8, 22, 3 (bis), 5, and others ; with emph. y, yihoy, verily this, 
v, 10 ; yuhay, this very, xi, 2. 

dat. yith, to this, iii, 5, 8 (bis), 9 ; v, 9 ; x, 5, 12. 

abl. yimi, from this, viii, 4, 11. 

pi. nom. yim, these (masc. things), v, 12 ; x, 12 ; xii, 6 ; 
yima, these (fern, things), v, 8 ; viii, 4 ; x, 1, 2, 6 ; with 
emph. y, yimay (fern.), these very, xii, 3, 23. 

dab. yiman, to these, x, 5. 

It will be observed that when emph. y is added to yih, 
the word takes several varying forms. As occurring in these 
tales they are as follows : yihuy (an. m. and inan.), yihay 
(an. f.), yihoy (inan.), yuhuy (an. m.), yohay (an. m.), yuhay 
(inan.), yiy (inan.), yiy (inan.), y% (inan.). 
yih 2, pron. rel. who, which, what. In construction, the antecedent 
clause as a rule contains a demonstrative or other pronoun 
as correlative, but in the following cases there is no correlative 
pronoun : — 

(a) Eelative clause preceding antecedent clause, ii, 9 ; 
xi, 3, 8. 

(b) Antecedent clause preceding relative clause, v, 7. 
When there is a correlative pronoun it is most usually 

some form of the demonstrative pronoun tih, q.v., as in — 
(a) Eelative clause preceding antecedent clause, ii, 4, 7, 

8 (bis), 11 ; iii, 1, 8 (ter) ; v, 8, 9 ; vi, 16 ; vii, 1, 29 ; viii, 6, 
8, 9, 11 ; ix, 9 ; x, 1 (bis), 6, 12 (bis) ; xi, 1 ; xii, 3, 7 (bis), 
20, 2. 

(6) Antecedent clause preceding relative clause, ii, 7 ; 
v, 5 ; vii, 8, 29, 30 ; x, 1, 6, 10, 2 ; xii, 4, 7, 11, 5, 25. 

Or the correlative pronoun may be some form of yih 1, 
as in (in every case the antecedent clause preceding), x, 5 ; 
xii, 20, 5. 

Or it may be some form of the pronoun ath, as in (antecedent 
clause in each case preceding), ii, 9 ; vi, 14 ; x, 7. 



411 VOCABULARY yih 2 

In vi, 14, the antecedent is the genitive of the interrogative 
pronoun kydh, i.e. kamyuk u , of what ? 

Sometimes the correlative pronoun is used twice, once 
immediately after the relative, and again in the antecedent 
clause, which in this, case follows the relative clause. The 
repeated correlative is not necessarily the same as the one 
after the relative pronoun. Thus, yus suh iota 6s u , yuh 6s u 
phakiras nishe, who he (i.e. he who) was the parrot, he was 
with the faqir, ii, 9 ; so yus yiih wazir 6s u , suh chuh hdpatas- 
manz, he who was the vizier, he is (now) in the bear, ii, 11 ; 
yus yih pdtashdha-sond u mor u 6s u , yih trdwun, that which was 
the body of the king, that he abandoned, ii, 10 ; yesa yih 
Ldlmdl Pan os u , tas dyutun rukhsath, she who was the Fairy 
Lalmal, to her he gave leave to depart, xii, 25 ; yesa yih fata 
uil u n zinith, sa thov u n panas, she whom he had won and after- 
wards brought home, her he kept for himself, xii, 25. 

Like the demonstrative pronouns, the relative pronoun 
has animate and inanimate forms, and either of these may be 
substantival or adjectival. But in some cases in which we 
should look upon the relative as a substantive it is treated 
as an adjective. This is specially the case when the 
antecedent correlative is an adjective. In such a case the 
relative, even if not in direct agreement with a noun, also 
takes the adjectival form. Thus, suh lal, yus tujydn, xii, 4, 
that ruby which she had taken up. Here we have the in- 
animate adjectival form yus, because the antecedent 
correlative, suh, is an adjective. The inanimate substantival 
form would be yih. Similarly, yih panun u saphar, yus 
noyidan 6s u pesh on u rrwt u , this (yih) his suffering, which he 
experienced at the hands of the barber, xii, 25. 

The following forms of this pronoun occur in these tales : — 

ANIMATE. Subst. Masc. sg. nom. yus, ii, 7 (bis), 8, 11 ; 
v, 9 ; vi, 14 ; vii, 29 ; x, 1, 6, 12 (bis) ; yus-akhdh, whoever, 
viii, 6, 8, 11. 

dat. yes, ii, 8, 9 ; vi, 16 ; vii, 1, 29, 30. 

ag. yem i , xii, 7. 

pi. nom. yim, ii, 9 ; xi, 8. 



yuh HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 412 

ag. yimav, xi, 3. 

Fem. sg. nom. yesa, x, 6 ; xii, 20, 5. 
dat. yes, xii, 15. 

Adj. Masc. sg. nom. yus, ii, 9, 11 ; x, 12 ; xii, 25. 
Fem. sg. nom. yesa, x, 1 ; xii, 25. 

INANIMATE. Subst. sg. nom. yih, v, 7 ; viii, 9 ; x, 1 ; 
xii, 6, 7 (bis), 20 ; with emph. y, yiy, what verily, xi, 1 ; 
yih-kentshdh, whatever, iii, 1, 8 (ter) ; v, 8. 
dat. yeth, x, 7, 10. 
abl. yemi, xii, 11. 
pi. nom. (masc.) yim, v, 5 ; x, 5. 
Adj. sg. nom. yus, ii, 4, 10 ; vi, 14 ; xii, 4, 25. 
abl. yemi sdtay, at what time verily, vii, 8. 
pi. nom. (masc.) yim, ix, 9. 
yuh, yuh, see yih 1. 
yihunz", see yih 1. 

yihay, yihoy, yihuy, yohay, yuhay, yuhuy, see yih 1. 
yikh, see yun u . 
yekh-jdh, adv. in one place, (of two persons) together, x, 12 ; yeg- 

jdh, id., ii, 4. 
yikrdm, in wa-saldm wa-yikrdm, inter j. (may) both the peace and 

respect (be on you) (corrupt Arabic), x, 14. 
yel, m. pulling (with the arms), restraint ; abl. yela trdwun, to 
release from restraint, to let a person go, iii, 4 (bis) ; x, 
5 (ter), 12. 
yeli, relative adv. when, at what time, ii, 3, 7 (bis) ; iii, 8 ; iv, 7 ; 
v, 5, 6 (bis), 9 ; vi, 11 ; vii, 19 (ter), 26 ; viii, 6, 7, 10 ; ix, 
5, 7 ; x, 1, 3 (ter), 4 (bis), 5, 7 ; xi, 1 ; xii, 1, 15 (bis), 6, 8, 22. 
In v, 8, " when " is used in the sense of " if ". 
yem 1 , yemi, see yih 2. 
yim 1, yima, yimau, yim 1 , yimi, see yih 1. 
yim 2, see yih 2. 
yimaho, see yun u . 

yimdmath, ? gender, the office of a leader of prayers in a mosque, 
boh kara yimdmath, I shall act as prayer-leader in a mosque, 
I shall adopt the profession of such a leader, xii, 1. 
yiman, yiman^y, yimis, see yih 1. 






418 VOCABULARY yun u 

yamath, adv. as long as, tdmath . . . yamath, so long ... as, 
xi, 20. 

yimav 1, yimdv, yimav u y, see yih 1. 

yimav 2, see yih 2. 

yimawa, see yun u . 

yimay, see yih 1. 

yimoy, see yim". 

#ina, conj. that not. kmy akh hath, yina-sa kath karakh, I say to 
thee one word, viz. that, sir, you will not make conversation, 
i.e. I tell you one thing, — do not converse, xii, 1. 

yini, see yun u . 

yun u , to come, i, 8 ; ii, 2, 3, 12 ; iii, 1 (bis), 3, 4 (bis) ; v, 5 (quin- 
quies), 6 (bis,) 7, 9 (bis), 10, 1 ; vi, 2 (bis), 15, 6 (bis) ; viii, 
2, 3 (bis), 6 (bis), 7 (ter), 8, 9, 11 (ter), 3 (ter) ; ix, 1, 3, 6, 
7, 8 (bis), 12 ; x, 1, 3 (bis), 4, 5, 6, 7, 12 (quinquies), 4 ; xi, 
20 ; xii, 1, 3 (bis), 4 (quater), 5 (ter), 6 (bis), 7 (quinquies), 
10, 2, 3 (bis), 4, 5 (bis), 6, 20, 3 (bis), 4. 

dv armdn, longing came (to the king), i.e. he felt longing, 
iii, 9 ; bdgan 1 yun u , to come by (one's) share, to obtain on 's 
» share allotted by fate, to receive one's fated portion, ix, 4 ; 
bruha yun u , to come in front, to be seen in front of a person, 
to come into sight, x, 1 ; boy yin", a smell to come, a smell to 
be perceived, xii, 15 ; gar a panun u yun u , to come to one's 
own house, to go home, v, 10 (bis) ; xii, 5, 13 ; Idrdn yun u , 
to come running, viii, 6 ; nend a r yin u , sleep to come, v, 6 (bis) ; 
dv tsurimis zdn i -sond u pahar, the watch of the fourth man 
came, i.e. it was now the time for him to go on watch, viii, 11 ; 
phakh chus yiwdn, a stink comes from it, i.e. it stinks, ii, 4 ; 
rath dye, night came, x, 5 ; subuh log u yini, morning began 
to come, x, 8 ; so subuh dv, morning came, xii, 9 ; tasali ds-na, 
satisfaction did not come to him, i.e. he was not satisfied, 
vi, 16 ; dye zabdn, speech came, i.e. she became able to speak, 
ix, 1. 

With conj. parts, we have heth yun u , having taken to 
come, i.e. to bring, to take with one (Hindi le and), iii, 1 ; 
viii, 6 ; xii, 2, 5, 11, 2 ; ninth yun u , to come forth, xii, 12 ; 
phiriih yun u , to come back, to return, v, 1, 4, 10 (bis). 



yun u HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 414 

With the abl. of the infinitive of another verb yun u forms 
a passive, as in k a nana yun u , to be sold, vii, 26 ; walana yun u , 
to become wrapped up, ix, 7. The passive of bozun, to hear, 
bozana yun u , means (1) (potentially) to be visible, xii, 22 ; 
or (2) to be considered as such and such, to appear to be 
such and such, viii, 5 ; x, 4 (bis) ; or (3) to be known, recognized, 
as such and such, xii, 3. 

inf. me na bani yun u , to come will not be possible for me, 
i.e. I shall not be able to come, x, 3 ; tse gatshi yun u , thou 
must come, xii, 7 ; tuhond u gatshi yun u , you must come, 
xii, 15 ; abl. subuh log u yini, morning began to come, x, 8 ; 
fut. pass. part. f. hets u nas yin u nend a r, sleep began to come 
to him, v, 6 ; perf. part. m. sg. dmot u , come (H. dyd hud), 
viii, 6. 

impve. sg. 2 (irreg.) wola, v, 5 ; x, 5, 12 ; pol. sg. 2, yita, 
with emph. y, yitay, ix, 1 ; with suff. 1st pers. sg. dat. yitam, 
please come to me, vi, 2. 

fut. sg. 1, yima, with suff. 2nd pers. pi. dat. yimawa, I will 
come to you, xii, 1 ; 2, with neg. interrog. yikh-nd, wilt thou 
not come ? vi, 2 ; 3, yiyi, xii, 16 ; with suff. 2nd pers. sg. 
dat. yiyiy, will come to thee, v, 6 (bis) ; xii, 6 ; pi. 1, yimav, 
with suff. 2nd pers. sg. dat. yimoy, we shall come to thee, 
v, 10 ; 3, yin, with suff. 2nd pers. sg. dat. yinay, they will 
come before thee, xii, 6. 

pres. m. sg. 3, chuh yiwdn, xii, 3 ; yiwdn chuh, v, 5 ; xii, 4 ; 
neg. yiwdn chuna, xii, 22 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. abl. chus 
yiwdn, is coming from it, ii, 4 ; pi. 2, chiwa yiwdn, viii, 5 ; 
f. sg. 3, cheh yiwdn, xii, 15 ; with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. and 
neg. ches-na yiwdn, v, 6 ; imperf . f . pi. 3 (auxiliary omitted) 
yiwdn, vi, 15. 

1 past m. sg. 1, as, x, 12 ; 2 (with vocative suff. 5) akho, 
ii, 2 ; 3, dv, i, 8 ; ii, 3, 12 ; iii, 1, 9 ; v, 1, 4, 9, 10 ; vi, 16 
(bis) ; viii, 3, 6 (ter), 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 (bis), 3 ; x, 6, 7, 12, 20 ; 
xii, 3, 4 (ter), 5 (quinquies), 7 (bis), 9, 10, 11, 2 (bis), 3 (ter), 
4, 20, 3, 4 ; with suff. 1st pers. sg. dat. dm, viii, 13 ; with suff. 
2nd pers. sg. dat. 6y, x, 4 ; xii, 3 ; irreg. with neg. interrog. 
dy-nd, did there not come to thee ? ix, 3 ; with suff. 3rd pers. 



416 VOCABULARY yora 2 

sg. dat. as, viii, 7 (bis) ; x, 4 ; with neg. ds-na, vi, 16 ; x, 4 ; 
with suft\ 3rd pers. pi. dat. dkh, x, 1 (bis). 

pi. 1, ay, v, 9 (m. and f.) ; x, 6, 7, 8, 12 ; 3, ay, viii, 2, 
11, 3 ; ix, 7, 8 ; with sufE. 1st pers. sg. dat. am, viii, 3, 11. 

fern. sg. 1, ayes, ix, 4 ; 2, ayekh, iii, 1 ; 3, dye, iii, 4 (bis) ; 
v, 5, 7, 10 ; vii, 26 ; ix, 1 ; x, 5, 12 ; xii, 2, 7 ; with neg. 
dye-na, v, 6 ; with neg. interrog, ix, 3 ; with surT. 1st pers. 
sg. dat. dyem, v, 5 ; pi. 3, aye, xii, 7. 

3 past m. sg. 3, dydv, with suft\ 1st pers. sg. dat. dyam, 
iii, 3. 

perf. m. sg. 3, dmot u (without auxiliary), v, 11 ; chuh 
amot u , x, 12, 4 ; f . sg. 3, with sufE. 2nd pers. sg. dat. chey 
dmiits u , v, 5 ; plup. m. sg. 3, with sufE. 1st pers. sg. dat. 
bsum dmot u , iii, 1 ; fut. perf. m. sg. 3, ma dsi dmot u , I wonder 
if he has come, xii, 23. 

cond. past sg. 1, yimaho, x, 3. 
yengur, charcoal, pi. nom. yengar, xi, 17. 
yinsdn, m. a human being, a man, x, 7 ; xii, 7 ; -hyuh u , like a 

human being, x, 7 (bis) ; fern. -hish u , x, 7. 
yinsaph, m. compassion, — gos (viii, 4) or dilas yinsaph pyos (viii, 

11), he felt compassion. 
yinay, see yun u . 
ydn, adv. as soon as, xii, 15. 
yin u , see yun u . 

yenew6l u , m. the bridegroom's party in a marriage festival ; hence, 
a marriage festival (from the bride's point of view), xii, 15 ; 
— karun, to hold a marriage festival, xii, 17, 18. 
yipor 1 , adv. in this direction, v, 4. Cf. apor 1 . 
ydr, m. a friend, iv, 4 ; x, 1, 4, 6 ; sg. dat. yarns, x, 4, 11 ; ag. ydran, 
x, 4 (bis), 11 ; gen. ydra-sond u , x, 4, 11 ; yara-sanzi wati, 
on the friend's road, on the road to (his) friend, x, 4 ; voc. 
ydr a, friend, vi, 1, etc. ; x, 4 (bis) ; pi. nom. ydr, iv, 7 ; 
v, 9 ; vii, 5. 
ydr, adv. here, in this place, ii, 2 ; viii, 5 ; ix, 6, 8, 10, 2 ; x, 4. 
yora 1, adv. hence, from this place, v, 8. 

yora 2, rel. adv. whence, from what place (with torn as correlative), 
i, 6. 



yur* HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 416 

yiir 1 , adv. emph. form of yor, even here, hither ; diyiv yur 1 , give 

ye (them) even here, produce them, x, 12 ; wolinj u gatshes 

yur 1 anun", bring his heart here (hither), x, 5 ; an kdkad 

yur 1 , bring the paper here (hither), xii, 15 ; cy6n u gatshi 

wdtun u yur 1 ', you must come here (hither), xii, 23 ; sg. gen. 

yurt-hond" wola, come here ! v, 5. 
YdrJcand, m. the town of Yarkand, in Central Asia, xi, 1, etc. 
yiran, f. an anvil, xi, 16. 
Yiran, m. Iran, Persia, ii, 1. 
yes, yesa, yus, see yih 2. 
Yisdh, m. Jesus, iv, 4. 
Yusuph, m. Yusuf, Joseph, vi, 1, etc. ; sg. dat. yusuphas, vi, 14, 16 ; 

ag. yusuphan, vi, 15 (bis) ; gen. yusupha-sond u , vi, 10. 
yeti, adv. where, in the place which, viii, 11 ; x, 7. 
yit 1 , adv. here, xii, 18 ; yiV-kydh . . . aV-kydh, here you see on 

the one hand . . . there you see on the other hand, viii, 13 ; 

yitf-kydh . . . yitf-kyah, here you see . . . and here you see, 

x, 12. 
yiti, adv. from here, hence, v, 5, 8 ; here, v, 8 ; sg. gen. yityuk u , 

m. sg. dat. yitikis pdtashehas-nishe, to the king of this place, 

x, 1. 
yi-ti, see yih 1. 
yot u , adv. where ; yot u -tdn, up to which place, i.e. until, as soon as, 

xii, 6. Cf. yotdfi. 
yut u 1, adj. this much, with emph. y, yutuy, xi, 20. This word is 

usually spelt yut u . 
yut u 2, adv. yut u -tdn, up to here, i.e. in the meantime, v, 7. Cf. 

yutdn. 
yut u , adv. yut u . . . tyut u , as soon as ... so soon, xii, 2. 
yelh, see yih 2. 
yiih, see yih 1. 

yith-nay, conj. so that not, in order that not, ix, 12. 
yetha, adv. how, in the manner which ; with emph. y, yethay poth 1 , 

in what very manner, exactly as, xii, 2. 
yitha, adv. thus, in this manner ; with emph. y, yithay pothin, in 

this very manner, viii, 3. 
yuth u , adj. and adv. as, of what kind, xii, 24 (correlative tyuth u ) ; 



417 VOCAB ULABY z a h 

with emph. y, yuthuy, as verily, even as, exactly as (correl. 

tyuthuy), v, 6 ; xii, 12, 5 ; even as, at the very time that, viii, 7 

(correl. tyuthuy). 
yitam, see yun u . 

yotdn, adv. until, (contraction of yot u -tdn, see yot u ), v, 10. 
yutdn, adv. in the meantime, (contraction of yut u -tan, see yut u ), 

v, 5. 
yitay, see yun u . 

yetdt 1 , adv. where, in the place where, xii, 6. 
yutuy, see yut u 1. 

yuts u , adj. much, very, yiits u -k6l u , for a long time, ii, 4. 
yiwan, see yun u . 
yiy 1, 2/^?/, see yih 1. 
yiy 2, see yih 2. 
y»yi, yiywy, see yun u . 
zabdn, f . tongue, speech, language ; — kariln u , to say a thing ; 

hence, to promise, x, 8 ; — dye, speech came (to it), it became 

able to speak (of a bee), ix, 1 ; sg. abl. zabdn", by word of 

mouth, xii, 16. 
zab a r, adj. superior, excellent, vii, 8, 28 ; — gav, it became excellent, 

as an interj. all right ! xii, 15. 
zace, see zut u . 
zdda, m. at end of compound, a son ; dkhun-zdda, the son of a 

religious teacher, xii, 2 ; sg. dat. okhun-zddas, xii, 2 ; pdtashdh- 

zdda, a king's son, a prince, sg. dat. -zddas, viii, 5 ; pi. nom. 

-zdda, viii, 3 (bis), 11 (ter) ; dat. -zadan, viii, 4 (bis) 11 (bis) ; 

gen. -zddan-hond u , viii, 4 ; shdh-zdda, a prince ; sg. dat. 

-zddas, viii, 13 ; pi. nom. -zdda, viii, 5, 11 (bis), 3. 
zod u , m. a hole ; f. ziid" (pi. nom. zade), a small hole, vii, 25. 
zid, m. hatred; amis 6s u zid Yusujpha-sond u , he hated Joseph, vi, 10. 
zdgun, to watch for, to be wide awake and on the alert ; imperf . 

m. sg. 3, with suff. 3rd pers. sg. dat. dsus dagdy zdgdn dddkhah, 

disloyalty, (like) a petitioner, was watching in him, ii, 5. 
z a h, card, two, viii, 8, 11 ; following noun qualified, bace z a h, two 

young ones, viii, 1 ; bmf-bdrdn 1 z a h, two brothers, viii, 5 ; 

bots u z a h, the two members of a family, husband and wife, 

v, 9, 10 ; viii, 1 ; gabar z a h, two sons, viii, 1 ; gul* z a h, the two 



zah HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 418 

fore-arms, v, 9 ; goldm z a h, two servants, viii, 5 ; gur 1 z a h, 
two horses, xii, 1 ; hurt* z a h, two dogs, viii, 4, 12 (bis), 3 ; 
hod 1 z a h, two prisoners, v, 9 ; lot chis z a h, he has two rubies, 
xii, 3 ; neciv* z a h, two sons, viii, 11 ; pdtashah-zdda z a h, two 
princes, viii, 3 (bis), 11 ; rinz 1 z a h, two balls, v, 3, 4 (bis), 5 ; 
shdh-zdda z a h, two princes, viii, 11 ; wblinje z a h, two hearts, 
viii, 3, 4 (ter), 11, 2 ; yim z a h, these two, viii, 5. 

Preceding noun qualified, z a h hod 1 , two prisoners, v, 8 ; 
z a h hatha, two statements, x, 1, 4. 

sg. abl. doyi lati, on two occasions, viii, 7. 
pi. dat. don, viii, 11 ; following noun qualified, bdyen don, 
to the two brothers, xii, 15 ; pdtashdh-zddan don, to the two 
princes, viii, 11 ; yiman don pdtashohiyen kits", for the 
kingdoms of these two, x, 11 ; zandnan don, to two women, 
xii, 11,4; preceding qualified noun, don bdtsan, to the husband 
and wife (see hots" z a h, ab.), viii, 1, 6. 

pi. gen. pdtashdh-zddan don-hanza, of the two princes, 
viii, 4 ; yiman don-handi-khota, than these two, xii, 19. 

pi. ag. baranyau doyau, by the two brothers, viii, 3 ; hodyau 
doyav, by the two prisoners, v, 7 ; yimav doyav, by these two, 
iii, 1 ; x, 5 ; doyau bdtsau, by the husband and wife, viii, 2, 5. 

zah, adv. ever, at any time ; na zah, never, xi, 14. 

zahar, m. poison, viii, 6, 7, 13 (bis) ; pdtashehas khot u zahar, poison 
rose to the king, i.e. he became enraged, viii, 7. 

z a l, m. scratching (with the nails) ; with sufT. of indef. art. zHd-z a ld, 
a continuous scratching, xii, 17. 

zal, m. a net ; with suff. of indef. art. zdldh layun, to cast a net (to 
catch fishes), i, 6,7, 8; sg. dat. zdlas, i, 6 ; zdlas walana yun u , 
to be caught in a net, ix, 7. 

Zalikhd, f . N.P. Zulaikha (the wife of Potiphar, in the story of 
Joseph), vi, 1, etc. 

zalil, adj . brought low, humbled, i, 4. 

zulm, m. tyranny ; — karun, to do tyranny, ix, 1 ; me chuh 
zulm gomot u , tyranny has been done to me, ix, 1 (bis), 6. 

zdlun, to set on fire, to kindle, to burn ; conj. part, zolith, iii, 1 ; 
fut. sg. 1, zdla, iii, 4 (bis) ; past m. sg. z6l u , iii, 4 ; with sufT. 
3rd pers. pi. ag. zdlukh, ii, 12 ; iii, 4. 



419 VOCABULABY zanana 

zima, m. responsibility ; zima karun, to make a responsibility ; 
tson zanen kdrin zima tsor pahar, four watches were made 
a responsibility to the four men, i.e. each was put in charge 
of a watch, viii, 5 ; zima hyon u , to take responsibility, i.e. 
to confess, admit, yih ches-na hewdn zima keh, she does not 
admit anything, xii, 15 ; zima khdlun, to cause a responsibility, 
to mount ; khdl u nas zima takhsir, he caused the responsibility 
(for) the crime to mount on him, i.e. he proved him guilty, 
x, 12 ; zima khasun responsibility to mount ; kalsi chuna 
khasan zima, on no one does the responsibility mount, i.e. no 
one could be proved guilty, iii, 3. 

zomba, m. a Yak ; pi. nom. zdmba, xi, 6. 

zamin, f. earth, land, ix, 9 ; the world, land, as opposed to the sky, 
iii, 8 ; sg. dat. maje-zamini, in mother earth, ix, 9 ; pi. abl. 
satav zaminav tap, below the seven worlds, iii, 8. 

zan, f . a woman ; marda-zan, man or woman, vii, 23 ; mqkh a r-i-zan, 
the coquetry of a woman, x, 13. 

zan, f. knowledge, understanding, vii, 29 ; gor-zan, adj. ignorant, 
vii, 27 ; xi, 5. 

zm, m. a saddle ; gur u zin karith, a horse ready saddled, iii, 8 ; 
pi. nom. zace-zin, rag-saddles, saddles made of rags, xi, 9. 

zon u , m. a man, a male person ; kunuy zon u , only one person ; 
gav kunuy zon u , he went alone ; sg. gen. zdn^sond^*, viii, 11 ; 
pi. nom. zan 1 , x, 1 ; dat. zanen, viii, 5 ; x, 5, 6, 12 (bis) ; ag. 
zanev, x, 1, 2. Cf. ziin". 

zun, f . moonlight ; zuna-dab, f . a kind of roof-bungalow, or small 
erection on the roof of a house, in which people sit to enjoy 
the moonlight ; sg. dat. -dabi, -jpeth, on the roof-bungalow, 
viii, 1. 

zinda, adj. living, alive, ii, 3 ; with emph. y, zinday, x, 8 (bis). 

zang, f. the leg, ii, 11. 

zanana, f. a woman ; ii, 1 ; iii, 4 (ter), 5, 9 (ter) ; v, 5 (bis), 11, 2 ; 
viii, 11 ; x, 1, 5 (several times), 6 ; xi, 7 ; xii, 4 (several 
times), 5 (ter), 6, 10, 1, 4, 9 (ter), 20 ; a wife, iii, 1 ; v, 1, 
4, 7, 9, 10 ; x, 5, 12, 3. 

sg. nom. iii, 1, 5 ; v, 1, 10 ; viii, 11 ; x, 1, 5, 6, 13 ; xii, 
4 (bis), 5 (bis), 6 ; with suff. of indef. art. zanana, x, 5 ; xii, 



zdnun HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 420 

4, 10 ; zandndh, iii, 4 ; zandnd akh, x, 5 ; sg. dat. zandni, 
iii, 4, 9 ; v, 4 ; x, 5 ; xii, 4 ; ag. zandni, iii, 4, 9 (bis) ; v, 5 
(bis), 7, 9, 11 ; x, 5, 12 ; xii, 4, 5 ; gen. zandni-handis, x, 5; 
pi. nom. zandna, xii, 19 (ter) ; with emph. y, zandnay, only 
women, v, 12 ; dat. zandnan, ii, 1 ; xi, 7 ; xii, 11, 4, 20. 

zdnun, to know ; to know how, x, 12 ; xi, 8, 15 ; impve. sg. 2, 
zdn, i, 12 ; ts a h zdn ta yih zdn, (a woman addressing a man and 
a woman) do thou (the man) know, and do this x woman 
(i.e. thou, this woman) know, v, 9 ; fut. (often in sense of 
pres.) kuwa zdna, how do I know, v, 9 ; with neg. interrog. 
zdna-nd, do I not know ? i.e. of course I know, x, 12 ; 2, 
zdnakh kariih, thou wilt know how to make, x, 12 ; 3, zdni, 
vi, 14 ; vii, 27, 8, 9, 30 ; pi. 1, ds i na zdnav, we do not 
know how (sc. to work), xi, 15 ; 3, yim na zdnan, who do not 
know how (sc. to make a certain sound), xi, 8. 

zenun, to conquer (xi, title) ; to win (x, 1, 6, 7) ; zendn anun, to 
conquer (a country), xi, 1, 2, etc. ; zinith anun, to capture 
(a person), xii, 25 ; inf. obi. (inf. of purpose) zenani, xi, title ; 
conj. part, zinith, xii, 25 ; pres. part, zendn, xi, 1, 2, etc. ; 
fut. sg. 3, zeni, x, 1, 6 ; pi. 3, zenan, x, 7. 

zinis, see zyun u . 

ziin u , f. a female person, a woman, xii, 7, 15 ; pi. nom. zane, xii, 
6, 7 ; dat. zanen zeth", the eldest of the females, xii, 6. Cf. 
zon u , of which this is the fern. 

zdr, a prayer, supplication (made in misery or sorrow), i, 13 ; pi. 
nom. zdr, iv, 1 ; zdra-pdr, m. ejaculatory prayers, ix, 1 ; 
x, 5 (bis) ; zdra-pdra, m. entreaty, coaxing request, 
ii, 3, 5. 

zdr, m. force ; — karun, to use (moral) force, to insist, viii, 2 ; 
xii, 15. 

zir u , f. a push, shove, nudge ; — din", to push, etc., x, 7 (bis). 

zargar, m. a goldsmith ; zargar-necyuvdh, a young goldsmith, v, 2. 

zdra-pdr, zdra-pdra, see zdr. 

zordwdr, adj. powerful, mighty, xi, 2. 

zurydth (for zurriyat), f. progeny, offspring ; hence, the offspring 
of God, the whole world, vii, 8. 

zdsanuy, a word used by Hatim in i, 12, but the meaning of which 



421 VOCABULABY zyuth u 

is unknown to him ; he gives it as part of the traditional 

text, a variant reading is fee dsunuy. 
ziif, f . a rag ; sg. dat. zace-zin, rag-saddles, saddles made of rags, 

xi, 9. 
zdth, f. a race, tribe, caste ; dewa-zdth, of demon race, xii, 16. 
zeth u , see zyuth u . 
zlth 1 , see zyuth u . 
zuv, m. the soul, ii, 4. 
zyun u , m. firewood, ii, 12 ; xi, 7 ; xii, 20, 1, 4 (bis) ; sg. dat. zinis, 

xii, 21, 2, 4. 
ziydphath, f . a feast, a dinner-party, x, 4, 11 ; a dish of food brought 

as a present, a present of dainty food, x, 5 (bis), 10 ; with 

sufT. of indef . art. ziydphathd, x, 5. 
zyuth u , adj. old, elder, eldest ; m. the head or superior of a guild 

of artizans, v, 1 ; m. sg. dat. zithis-hihis, to the elder (of two 

brothers) (cf . hyuh u ), viii, 5 ; f . sg. nom. zeth u , the eldest 

(sister), xii, 6. 
zyuth u , adj. long ; m. pi. nom. zith 1 atha damn*, to stretch out the 

arms, vii, 25. 



APPENDIX I 



INDEX OF WORDS IN SIR AUREL STEIN'S TEXT, 

SHOWING THE CORRESPONDING WORDS IN GOVINDA 

KAULA'S TEXT 

Figures between marks of parenthesis indicate the number of 
times, when there are more than one, that a word occurs 
in the passage to which reference is made. The word 
" caret " indicates that the word referred to does not occur 
in Govinda KauUis text. The order of words is the same 
as that employed in the Vocabulary. 



a (e), x, 4. 

a (i), xi, 4. 

ai (ay), x, 3 ; xii, 4. 

ai (ay), viii, 11. 

ai (ay), viii, 6, 8. 

5* (fy), v, 9. 

au (caret), vii, 13. 

du (dv), i, 8 ; ii, 3, 12 ; iii, 
1, 9; v, 1, 4, 9, 10; vi, 
16 (2) ; viii, 3, 6 (3), 7, 8, 9, 
10, 1 (2), 3; x, 6, 7, 12; 
xi, 20 ; xii, 3, 4 (3), 5 (5), 
7 (2), 9, 10, 1, 2, 3 (3), 4, 
20, 3, 4. 

i (e), vi, 17 ; x, 4 (2). 

i (i), x, 13 ; xii, 10, 5, 7, 9 (3). 

o (6), vii, 26. 

db (db), v, 4 (4) ; viii, 7 (2). 

db* (aba), viii, 7 (2) ; x, 5. 

ibrdhim (yibrahim), iv, 6. 

abas (abas), viii, 7. 

dbtqr (abtar), vi, 12. 

ach (ache), xii, 22. 

achqn (achen), v, 11. 

ad (ada), vii, 20. 

adr (ada), viii, 10. 

adq (ada), v, 6, 9 (2) ; viii, 3, 10, 
' 1, 3 ; x, 2, 7 ; xii, 3, 4. 



ad e (ada), iii, 1. 

ode (ada), v, 8. 

ada (add), x, 8 ; xii, 4, 9, 11, 2. 

adq (ora), xii, 12. 

Idgdh (yuV-kdh), vi, 16 (2). 

qdalat (addluts^), v, 9. 

adql (ad a la), i, 3. 

ddam (ddam), iv, 2, 3 ; vii, 6, 7. 

dd*mas (ddamas), vii, 6. 

idam (yidam), vii, 6. 

afsqrqs (apsaras), x, 12. 

age (age), xi, 4. 

dga (dgdh), ii, 9. 

agar (agar), viii, 13. 

dgur (dgur), viii, 7. 

dgqs (dgas), viii, 6, 8, 11. 

dgqye (dgayi), y, 7. 

ah (ah), i, 5 ; iv, 3. 

ah a dai (ah a day), i, 2. 

ahmqd (ahmad), i, 13. 

ahengdrqn (dhan-gdrdn), xi, 16. 

a& (aM), ii, 1 ; v, 1, 9, 11 ; 

vi, 15 ; viii, 7, 9, 11, 4 ; 

x, 5, 7, 8 ; xii, 1 (3), 3 (2). 
ak (caret), viii, 7. 
ok 1 (aki), v, 1 ; viii, 3. 
ok 1 (dk { ), viii, 1 ; x, 12 ; xii, 1. 



aki 



HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 



424 



aki (aki), ii, 8 ; iii, 1 ; v, 1 ; 

viii, 1, 3, 7, 11. 
ak (dkh), x, 1 (2). 
akh (akh), i, 4 ; xii, 10, 5, 

9,21. 
aklna (akhah), v, 7 ; viii, 6, 8, 11. 
dkhu (dkho), ii, 2. 
dkhun (dkhun), xii, 1, 2 (2). 
dkhun (dkhun), xii, 25. 
okun (6-kuri), xii, 23. 
ikrdm (yikrdm), x, 14. 
a^s (akis), i, 3, 4 ; ii, 8 ; iii, 

1 (2), 7 ; v, 6 10, 1 ; viii, 

5, 7 (3), 9 (2) ; ix, 1 ; xii, 2. 
akis (akis), iii, 4, 7 ; xii, 2. 
a%^ (akith), xii, 14. 
a&<^ (uk"y), xii, 15. 
a&o?/ (okuy), xii, 13. 
afau (akw), x, 5 (2), 12 (2) ; 

xii, 7, 15. 
dl (6l u ), viii, 1. 
alii (alii), i, 4. 
alia (aldh), i, 7. 
ilM (aldh), ii, 12 (2). 
iWaA, see la illdh, vi, 17. 
alam (alam), i, 13 ; iv, 3. 
dVndsh (oP-nash), ix, 3. 
dlis (olis), viii, 1. 
al vida (alviddh), vii, 16. 
am 1 (ami), v, 1 (2), 4, 5, 6 (2), 9, 

11, 6 (2) ; viii, 1 (2) ; x, 12 ; 
• xii, 2, 3, 4 (3), 5 (2), 7 (3). 
am 1 (am*), v, 4 (2) ; vi, 14 ;" viii, 

7, 9 (2). 
am 1 (dmiy), v, 9. 
am 1 kuy (amyuk u ), vi, 15. 
am 1 sund (asond u ), viii, 9. 
am 1 suy (amis u y), viii, 7. 
ami (ami), iii, 9 ; v, 4, 5, 11 ; 

viii, 13 ; ix, 1 ; x, 3. 
ami (amiy), viii, 1, 6, 10 ; ix, 1. 
ami suy (amis^y), v, 7, 



am 1 (ami), ii, 5, 9 ; iii, 1, 2, 4 (2), 

6, 8, 9 ; xii, 7, 12. 

am f (dm*'), ii, 4, 7 (2), 8 ; iii, 1 (2), 
9 ; v, 4, 7, 8 ; viii, 1, 8, 10 ; 
x, 1 (2), 2, 5 (3), 6, 7 (2), 8, 
12 ; xii, 4, 7 (2), 10. 

am* 5a?/ (amis u y), iii, 4, 8. 

a?w* sm?/ (amis u y), ii, 8. 

ami (ami), ix, 6 ; x, 3. 

ami suy (amisuy), x, 10. 

dm (dm), viii, 3, 11, 3. 

aV (ami), xii, 15. 

a^ (dm*), xii, 17, 25. 

a l mi (ami), xii, 15 (8), 7 (2), 8, 
20. 

a*mi suy (amisuy), xii, 15. 

a*m* (ami), iii, 1. 

a*'m** (dm 1 ), xii, 15, 8, 22, 5. 

a l mi (ami), xii, 18, 22, 3. 

a*mi sund (dm i -sond u ), xii, 7. 

d l mi (dm 1 ), xi, 11. 

amob (amob u ), xi, 18. 

amdnat (amdnath), x, 12 (2). 

dmpa (dmpa), viii, 1. 

amd> (amdr), v, 2. 

amis (amis), viii, 6 ; ix, 1 (2), 4 ; 
xii, 4, 5. 

amis (ami), x, 5. 

amis (amis), ii, 1, 3, 4 (2), 5 (3), 
9 (2), 10 ; iii, 1 (2), 2 (4), 
8 (3), 9 ; v, 2 (2), 3 (3), 7 (2), 
8, 9 (3), 10 (2), vi, 10 ; vii, 
20 (2) ; viii, 3, 5 (2), 6 (3), 

7, 8, 9, 10 (5), 1 (2), 3 (5) ; ix, 
6 ; x, 1 (2), 2 (2), 3 (2), 4 (4), 
5 (6), 7 (8), 8 (3), 11, 2 (3) ; 
xii, 2, 3 (2), 4 (4), 5 (4), 6, 

8 (2), 10 (4). 
amis (caret), x, 7. 
amis suy (amis), viii, 11. 

a l mis (amis), xii, 15 (3), 7, 8 (2), 

9 (3), 25. 



421 



INDEX TO SIR AUEEL STEIN'S TEXT 



ase 



a'mis (amis), xii, 9, 11, 2, 3 (5), 

5 (3), 9 (2), 21, 2 (2), 4, 5. 
qm>sund (dm i -sond u ), viii, 6. 
qmisandi (dm i -sandi) ) x, 5. 
amisund (dm i -sond u ), v, 3 ; viii, 

8, 10. 
qmisqnz (dmt-siinz"), iii, 4. 
qmisunz (dm i -sunz ii ), xii, 4. 
atmisqnzi (dm i -sanzi), xii, 15. 
amw£ (amot u ), iii, 1 ; v, 11 ; viii, 

6 ; x, 12, 4 ; xii, 23. 
dmuts (amuts u ), v, 5. 
qm y (dm 1 ), ii, 5. 
qm v uk (amyuk u ), iii, 4. 
qmyuk (amyuk u ), iii, 4. 
a { m v uk (amyuk u ), xii, 17. 
an (aw), iii, 5, 9 (2) ; xii, 15. 
ana (ana), x, 5 ; xii, 4, 5, 11. 
am mot 1 (d^mat 1 ), v, 8. 

ana (ona), v, 4 (2). 

dne (ona), v, 4. 

and (and), x, 5. 

andar (andar), i, 13 ; iii, 8 (4). 

andas (andas), xii, 6. 

qnhas (on u has), vi, 16. 

aw&a (ankah), ii, 2, 3, 4 (3), 5, 6, 

7, 10, 2. 
cm&a (ankah), ii, 2. 
am& (dnikh), v, 9 ; viii, 1 ; x, 12. 
emw& (anukh), x, 12. 
am'& (dnikh), x, 12. 
am£& (onukh), ii, 11, 2 ; vi, 16 ; 

x, 12. 
wnn/j (onukh), vi, 15. 
on mw^ (on u mot u ), xii, 25. 
anan (anan), x, 12 ; xii, 19. 
anqnai (ananay), xii, 16. 
anqni (anani), x, 5. 
awcm (anon), xi, 1, 2. 
anwn (anun), iii, 9. 
amm (anun u ), v, 4 ; xii, 21 (3). 
qnun (anun), iii, 5. 



anww (onun), iii, 5 ; viii, 9 (2) ; 

xii, 4. 
anqn v (anun* 1 ), x, 5. 
awe% (anun u ), xii, 19, 20 (2). 
ansa (an sa), xii, 10. 
insaf (yinsaph), viii, 11. 
msan (yinsan), x, 7 (3). 
am'Z (anith), iii, 1 ; xii, 4 (2). 
a%ai (amy), viii, 4. 
a%6 /ias (anehas), vi, 16. 
a% (an), x, 5, 12. 
qn y hai (dn l hay), xi, 10. 
qnyik (un^kh), ii, 8. 
any ilk (anyukh), x, 12. 
any am (anam), ix, 2. 
qnyum (anyum), vi, 16 (2). 
anyen (iln^n), xii, 25. 
an?/m (un^n), x, 10. 
anythas (unHhas), xii, 11. 
apaV (apor 1 ), v, 7. 
apqtr* (apor 1 ), v, 4. 
ajrnz (apoz u ), v, 9. 
a> (a>), ix, 3 ; x, 12. 
dY (6>a), v, 2. 
dV (or"), xi, 14. 
dra (ora), v, 8. 
are (ora), v, 4, 9. 
d u re (ora), v, 2. 
aram (aram), iii, 3, 7 ; v, 9 ; 

viii, 5. 
arman (armdn), iii, 9. 
aramas (aramas), viii, 13. 
Iran (ylran), ii, 1. 
arzo (arz 6), vii, 26. 
as 1 (ase), vi, 5 ; viii, 1, 3. 
as 1 (as 1 ), v, 10 ; viii, 3. 
asi (ase), viii, 11 ; x, 2, 12 (2) ; 

xii, 17. 
as 1 (ds { ), xii, 1. 
as (as), viii, 7 ; x, 4, 12. 
as (6s u ), viii, 9. 
ase (asa), xi, 7 (2). 



as 



IIATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 



426 



as* (dsi), vii, 29, 30 ; viii, 6. 

as* (ds { ), viii, 1, 4 ; xi, 5. 

dsi (dsi), i, 2 ; viii, 7 ; x, 1, 

. 8 ( 2 K 
dsi he (dsihe), ii, 4. 

aV (as*), xii, 19. 

a i s i (dsi), xii, 23. 

as* (os { ), v, 9 ; x, 1. 

as (as), vi, 16 ; viii, 7. 

as (os*), vi, 11 ; viii, 3 (2), 5, 
11 (2) ; x, 5 ; xii, 1. 

as (os*), ii, 1 ; v, 1, 10 ; vii, 7, 
16 ; viii, 1 ; ix, 1 ; x, 5 (3), 
7 ; xii, 4, 15, 20 (2), 5. 

as (6s u ), i, 4, 5, 6 ; ii, 1 (2), 4, 
5 (2), 7, 8, 9 (3), 10 (2), 
11 (2) ; iii, 1 (2) ; v, 1 (2), 
2, 7, 9 (2) ; vi, 10 (2), 4 ; 
vii, 8 ; viii, 1 (2), 6, 7 (2), 
9 (5), 11, 3 (3) ; x, 4, 7 (2), 
10, 2 (2) ; xii, 15 (2), 25 (2). 

as (dsus), v, 2. 

as, see bud* as, xii, 1. 

as na (6s u na), xii, 2. 

as na (ds-na), vi, 16. 

as na (6s u na), vi, 16. 

as nas (6s u nas), v, 6. 

as suy (os u y), vii, 16. 

dsa (dsa), iii, 7. 

dsa (dsa), x, 14 ; xi, 19. 

as* (ds { ), i, 3 ; viii, 1, 11 ; xi, 8. 

dsi (dsiy), xii, 11. 

as 1 ndv (ash g ndv), x, 6. 

ds u (dsa), viii, 7. 

ds u (6s u ), i, 1, 2. 

isd (yisdh), iv, 4. 

os (6s u ), xii, 15. 

dsihe (dsihe), ii, 5. 

ashkq (qsh g ka), vii, 30. 

qshik (qsh e kh), v, 2 (2). 

qshkun (qsh g kun u ), v, 10. 

ashkanye (qsWkane), v, 2. 



as^* new (dsh e ndv), x, 1. 

dshndu (dsh^ndv), x, 10. 

asfos (os"s), xii, 9. 

asa& (dsakh), i, 3. 

dsw& (dsukh), viii, 2. 

6sw& (dsukh), xii, 15. 

askun (ash s kun u ), v, 3. 

as l kya (as 1 kydh), v, 9. 

asaZ (as a Z), ii, 8, 11. 

as/ (as a Z), xii, 16. 

asld malaikum (asldmataikum), 

xii, 26. 
dsim (dsim), viii, 13. 
dsum (dsum), iii, 1 ; vii, 11, 5 ; 

x, 14. 
asmdn (asmdn), ii, 6. 
asmdnau (asmdnav), iii, 8. 
as^mdnqn (asmdnan), iv, 4. 
dsmut (6s u mot u ), v, 1, 4. 
qs i nau (as* nau), xi, 15. 
ds^na (ds-na), x, 4. 
dsqn* (dsdn 1 ), xii, 5. 
dsun (dsun), xii, 10 (2). 
dsun (dsun u ), xii, 4 (2), 5, 13 (3). 
dsan(ds u san), xii, 15. 
asanas (asanas), x, 1 (2), 10. 
ds i nas (asanas), x, 6 (2). 
asar (asar), vi, 16. 
asr ? (asara), vi, 16. 
asis (osi's), x, 5. 
dsus (dsus), i, 6 ; ii, 5 ; viii, 

7, 9 ; ix, 1 ; x, 14. 
dsus (os^s), iii, 1 ; vii, 10 (2) ; 

ix, 2 ; x, 10. 
ustdd (wustdd), ii, 1. 
ostan (6s u than), x, 12. 
dsyu (os^a), x, 12. 
at (ath), ii, 5, 7 (2) ; iii, 9 ; v, 

6 (4) ; viii, 7 (3) ; x, 3, 5 (2), 

7 (5), 8, 10, 2, 3 ; xii, 2, 3, 
17. 

at (caret), x, 7, 8. 



427 INDEX TO SIR AUBEL STEIN'S TEXT 



az 



at, see fsdvat, v, 5. 

ata (atha), vii, 25 ; x, 5 (3) ; 

' xii, 2. 
ata (ata), v, 7. 
at 1 (aii), ii, 8, 10 ; iii, 1, 7 (2), 

8 (2), 9 ; v, 4, 5 (2), 6, 7 (2), 

9 (2); vi, 5, 11; viii, 7, 9; 
x, 5 (2), 7, 14 ; xii, 1, 2, 7. 

at 1 (at 1 ), viii, 4, 13 ; x, 8. 

at 1 (ot u ), x, 14. 

at 1 (ath), ii, 4 ; v, 4, 9, 11, 4 ; 

viii, 1, 10. 
at* (ath 1 ), ii, 3 ; iii, 7, 9 ; v, 5 ; 

vi, 15, 6 ; vii, 26 ; viii, 1 (3), 

7 ; xii, 2, 7. 
at 1 (athi), viii, 11 ; xi, 18. 
at 1 (atiy), ii, 10, 1 ; iii, 1 ; x, 13. 
at (ath), iii, 4. 
at* (ati), iii, 4, 7 (2). 
at* (ath), x, 7. 

at* (ath*), i, 13 ; iii, 7 ; x, 1, 5. 
o$*' (atiy), x, 3, 5. 
a^ (ath*), xii, 22. 
a*£i (orfi), ii, 1 ; xii, 17, 8, 9. 
a*ti (at*), xii, 19, 20. 
q*t* (ath), xii, 21. 
q*t* (ath*), xii, 21, 4 (2). 
ot (ot u ), v, 4 ; x, 5. 
ut (ot u ), v, 9. 
ath (ath), xii, 7, 12 (3), 5 (3), 20, 

2 (3), 3 (2). 
atha (atha), viii, 7 (2) ; xii, 12. 
atho (atha), xii, 11. 
atih (atiy), x, 5. 
ath (ot u ), xii, 18, 25. 
ath (6th), iii, 5. 
ath* (othi), iii, 4. 
aW (athi), xii, 15. 
a*$i (a£fo), xii, 15. 
ithai (yuthay), viii, 3. 
nth (oi u ), xii, 15. 
athan (athan), v, 6. 



a^Aas (athas), x, 7 ; xii, 12, 22, 

3(2). 
at*kyd (ath 1 Jcyah), v, 8. 
qtdny (otdny), xii, 23. 
qtqr^th^r* 1 ), vii, 19. 
atas (athas), ii, 7 ; v, 4, 6. 
afc (afc£), iii, 8 (2). 
atsqni (atsani), x, 7. 
afewrc (atezm"), v, 4. 
ats a vunuy (atsawunuy), v, 8. 
atsayo (atsayo), v, 7. 
ottdny (ot u -tdh), x, 4. 
otHdny (ot u -tdn), x, 6. 
ato£ w (ataty), viii, 7. 
aZ v e (ata), x, 7. 
a* v (at*), x, 11. 
a* v (a*#), x, 5. 
atuy (otuy), iii, 3, 4. 
a*** (a^'j, xii, 12. 
otuy (otuy), ix, 1. 
ay (dv), xii, 12. 
% (%)» y iii> 2, 11, 3 ; ix, 6, 

7 (2), 8, 9, 10, 1. 
ayq (dye), iii, 4. 
aye (aye), iii, 4 ; v, 10 ; x, 5 ; 

xii, 7. 
ayi (aye), vii, 26 ; ix, 1 ; xii, 2, 7. 
ay£ (aye), x, 12. 
ay (6y), x, 4. 
dy (6y), xii, 3. 
aya& (dyekh), iii, 1. 
aya7 6a> (aydlbdr), ix, 2. 
ayam (ay dm), iii, 3. 
ayem. (dyem), v, 5. 
aywa (ay -no), ix, 3. 
dyinq (aye-na), v, 6. 
ayas (ayes), ix, 4. 
ayes (dyes), v, 5. 
ayiye (aye yiA), v, 7. 
az (az), ii, 9 ; iii, 1 ; vi, 10 ; 

viii, 1 ; x, 7, 8 ; xii, 5, 10, 

4, 9 (2), 20 (3). 



azich 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



428 



azich (azic*), x, 14. 

qzhda (qj a ddh), x, 7 (3). 

qzhdqhas (qj a ddhas), x, 7. 

azal (azal), vii, 12. 

azql {azal), ix, 6. 

aziza (azTz-i), vi, 10, 2 (2), 4. 

az^z (oziz), ix, 11. 

6a (6a), xi, 20. 

bai (bay), viii, 1, 2, 3. 

fow (bdye), viii, 4. 

6ai (%), iii, 1 (2), 2, 3. 

6ai (boy 1 ), iv, 7 ; viii, 5. 

be (beh), xi, 2. 

bo (boh), ii, 5, 11 ; iii, 1, 4 (2), 8 ; 
v, 5, 6 ; vii, 20, 5 ; viii, 6, 
10, 1 (2) ; ix, 1 ; x, 2 (2), 3, 
5, 12 ; xii, 1 (6), 3 (2), 4, 5, 
7, 11 (2), 5 (3), 9 (20), 20, 3. 

bou (bdio u ), ii, 4. 

bu(boh), viii, 3, 8, 11 (2) ; ix, 4 ; 
x, 5, 7 ; xii, 1, 18, 24. 

beb a hd (bebaha), xii, 3. 

be bahd (bebaha), xii, 4. 

bebaha (bebaha), xii, 4. 

baban (baban), vi, 13. 

bebindrr (bebi andar), xii, 17. 

bebindqtr 1 (bebi andar u y), xii, 16. 

bache (bace), viii, 1. 

bo che (bochi), vi, 16. 

boche (boche), vi, 16. 

bachok (bacyokh), x, 8. 

bachdviny (bacawufi"), v, 9. 

budai (buday), ix, 1, 3, 6. 

bud* (bod 1 ), ix, 9. 

bud (bud"), x, 5. 

bud (bod u ), xii, 14. 

badal (badal), i, 9 ; vii, 12 ; xii, 16. 

badanqs (badanas), viii, 6 (2). 

badqnas (badanas), viii, 13. 

bedar (bedar), vi, 12. 

bedar (bedar), iii, 7 ; viii, 6, 8, 
9, 13 ; x, 1, 6, 8. 



bud 1 as (budyos), xii, 1. 

bqdis (badis), viii, 13. 

bag (bag), ii, 1. 

bqSg* (bog 1 ), v, 5. 

begd (begdh), vi, 2. 

baguk u (bdguk u ), iii, 9. 

bagHq (bagala), viii, 7. 

bdgen 1 (bdgdn*), ix, 4. 

fragre remai (bog a remay), v, 7. 

bdg°ren (bog a ren), v, 8. 

bdg a ranye (bog a rane), v, 8. 

fracas (bdgas), ii, 1 (2) ; iii, 9 ; 

v, 4, 5, 6, 9 (2). 
bdgas (bdgas), ii, 1, 7 ; iii, 7. 
bdgvdn (bdgwan), xi, 13. 
6aM, see 6e 6aM, xii, 4. 
fcefo (behi), vi, 16. 
6eAe (beha), xii, 3. 
fo'Aw (behiv), viii, 5. 
bah°dur (bqh a dur), ii, 1. 
bqh a dilr (bqh a dur), ii, 12. 
2>afom (bahan), v, 1. 
foAaw (behdn), xii, 4. 
6aMr (bahar), i, 11. 
6o7ia se (6oA hasa), ii, 11. 
boh°sq (boh hasa), x, 1. 
2>eM (bihith), x, 5. 
fo/b'£ (bihith), x, 5 ; xii, 4. 
bihith (bihith), xii, 5. 
6eA to?n (behtam), vi, 3. 
fo'A zi (bettzi), xii, 6. 
6a^ (6a/), xi, 2. 
&a/a (6a?'), x, 10. 
&w;e (buje), x, 5. 
bdjtvat (bof-bath), i, 7. 
bakcdyish (bakh a coyish), ii, 7. 
6e Jchabar (be-khabar), vii, 28. 
bd-khudd (bd-khodd), xii, 20. 
bakhshayish (bakh a coyish), xii, 3. 
bakhtdvdr (baktdivdr), viii, 9. 
6aMr (bakdr), x, 6. 
Mai (balqy), vii, 31. 



429 



INDEX TO SIR AUBEL STEIN'S TEXT 



bat- 



balai (baldy), ix, 2 ; x, 7. 

bal* (bald), vii, 15. 

balq (bdla), vii, 11. 

bqHi, see vu bqHi, v, 2. 

bulbul (bulbul), ii, 3 (2). 

bulbula (bulbuldh), ii, 3. 

bolbdsh (bolbdsh"), viii, 1 (3). 

balki (baPki), viii, 10. 

balti (baltl), xi, 4. 

baldyq (baldyd), x, 8. 

bdl v k'(bdle), v, 11. 

bimdr (bemdr), v, 1, 3, 10. 

bimdr (bemdr), v, 8. 

6<m, see ?m/a 6<m, ii, 4. 

banq (bani), vii, 1. 

bandu (banydv), vi, 16. 

6am (bani), x, 3. 

6ma (blndh), ii, 2. 

fom (6<m), viii, 1, 4 ; xii, 2, 14, 

5(2). 
bun® (bona), iii, 2. 
bunai (bo-nay), xi, 14. 
6a^ (band), viii, 3 ; x, 2. 
fomde (banda), i, 12, 3. 
bdnd { hdl (bod^ial), ix, 4. 
banduk (bandilkh), ii, 11 ; viii, 

10. 
banduk baz (bandukbdz), ii, 7. 
6ara# (bag), xii, 1. 
banana (banana), vii, 23. 
banan (banan), viii, 7. 
banina (bani-nd), vi, 13. 
6cm£ (bonth), i, 8. 
6ow£ ? (bontha), ii, 3 ; iii, 1 ; viii, 

11; x, 5, 10, 2; xii, 12, 

23 (2). 
bonta (bdntha), xii, 4, 9. 
6e warn (benawdh), vii, 7. 
bandvun (bandwun), viii, 14. 
banyau (baniw), ii, 7. 
banyau (banydv), xii, 1. 
bqnye (bene), iii, 4. 



6e%e (bene), iii, 9 ; x, 3 (4), 

'10 (2). 
6e%e (beni), x, 3 (2), 10. 
bunyul (bunul u ), xii, 15. 
ban v dm (banyom), vii, 22. 
6apa£ (bdpath), ii, 5 ; ix, 1 (2) ; 

x,12(2). 
6a rai (bardye), xi, 7. 
6ar (6ar), viii, 3 (2). 
bar (bar*), see mebar, ix, 11. 
6an (6dr*), ix, 11. 
bar (bar), i, 9 ; v, 7 ; vii, 2, 3, 5. 
bar, see a?/a7 6ar, ix, 2. 
6araw (bdrav), xi, 17. 
6aVi (6an), xi, 13. 
66r (bdr u ), ii, 5. 
6ro {broh), xi, 4. 
bro-bro (bruh-bruh), iii, 1, 2 ; 

viii, 9. 
barabqr (bardbar), iii, 9. 
burgau (bargau), vii, 10. 
6roA (6mA), xi, 6 ; xii, 7 (2). 
broho (bruha), x, 1. 
6ar?& (bur u kh), viii, 3. 
6ara& (bur^kh), ix, 7. 
barqm (bar a m), vii, 24. 
6aran (bar an 1 ), viii, 5. 
borun (borun), viii, 7. 
burun (borun), viii, 7. 
6row£ (bronth), x, 5. 
bdr?nyau (bdranyau), viii, 3. 
barshq (bdr^shi), viii, 7. 
6an£ (barith), i, 10. 
barVen (bariten), vi, 15. 
6are y (baray), ii, 3. 
6ws (bus u ), xii, 17. 
6asAe (bdshe), v, 2. 
6e shumdr (be-shumdr), xii, 20. 
beshumdr (be-shumdr), xii, 21, 4. 
bismilla (bismilld), xii, 17. 
6asfo (basta), viii, 6. 
bat*\bata), iii, 1. 



bata 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



430 



bata (bata), iii, 1 (3) ; vi, 16 (2) ; 

x, 3. 
bat 1 (bith { ), xi, 6. 
bat (buth u ), x, 5 (2) ; xii, 2. 
bdthq (batha), xii, 25. 
bqkhis (bathis), xii, 6, 7 (2). 
b'eth y (bitfr), viii, 5. 
batta (bata), xi, 18. 
buttq (bota), xi, 6 (2). 
battqhqn (bata-han), x, 5. 
buttqnis (botanis), xi, 4. 
6oF 6 ' (6o^), iii, 4. 
batsau (batsau), viii, 2, 5. 
bats (bote*), v, 9; viii, 13; x, 

14. 
bats (bdts*), v, 10. 
batsan (batsan), x, 14. 
batsan (batsan), viii, 1. 
bdtsen (batsan), viii, 6, 10. 
bavq ha (bawaho), vii, 21. 
bdvun (bdwun), ii, 4. 
bevophd (be-wophd), x, 13. 
bevophdi (bewophoyi), viii, 6. 
be vuphai (bewophoyi), viii, 11. 
framr (batvar), viii, 13. 
be vastu (bewasta), v, 11. 
6a?/* (biye), iii, 4. 
6a?/ (fea?/), viii, 11 (2) ; ix, 1, 

6 (2). 
bay a (bayi), viii, 11. 
bay 6 (baye), iii, 2. 
fcaye (baye), iii, 1 ; viii, 1, 3, 
' 6 (2), 11, 2, 3 ; ix, 1, 4, 6 ; 

xi, 12. 
baye (bayi), viii, 1, 3 ; ix, 1 (2). 
bay (boy*), v, 10 ; xi, 6 ; xii, 15. 
bey (biye), vi, 16. 
beye (biye), ii, 3 (3), 7 ; iii, 5 (2), 

8, 9 (2) ; v, 3, 4 (8), 5, 6 (2), 

7, 8, 9 (2), 10, 1 ; vi, 15 (2) ; 

viii, 6, 7 (2), 9, 11 ; x, 1 (2), 

2, 3, 6, 7 (4) ; xii, 1 (2), 4, 



5 (2), 10, 3 (3), 8, 20, 1, 2 (4), 

3, 4 (2), 5 (2). 
bey (biy% xii, 1 (2). 
boy (bdy u ), viii, 14. 
boy (bdy u ), viii, 14. - 
buy (boy), viii, 1 (2) ; x, 10, 2, 4 ; 

xii, 15. 
biya ban (biyaban), ii, 4. 
b v ek (byekh), viii, 1. 
b v ek (bydkh), xii, 10, 9. 
b v ek (bekh), xii, 10. 
byak (bydkh), viii, 9, 14 ; x, 1 ; 

xii, 4, 13 (3), 4. 
byek (bekh), xii, 3. 
bdyen (bdyen), xii, 15. 
beyen (biyen), viii, 9. 
6fyim (byon u ), vi, 4 (2). 
6 w iift (byon u ), vii, 14 (2). 
b v iinuy (byonuy), vii, 2. 
fraz/is (boyis), v, 10 ; x, 3. 
beyes (biyis), xii, 23. 
fee?/is (biyis), vi, 11. 
foyas (biyis), viii, 5. 
foyis (biyis), viii, 13. 
fo/aZ, see torn fo/a£, ii, 4. 
byut (byuth u ), x, 7 (2) ; xii, 4. 
byut (byuth u ), viii, 4 ; x, 5. 
b y eih l (bith*), viii, 8 ; xii, 2. 
byoth (byuth u ), xii, 26 (2). 
byoth (bydth u ), xii, 21. 
fo/w£A (byuth u ), xii, 7. 
b y uthus (byuthus), vi, 16. 
fraz, see bqnduk bdz, ii, 7. 
bdzau, see nazar (nazqr) bdzau, 

ii, 1; x, 7, 8; xii,' 23. 
6oz (66z), ii, 2 (2), 3, 4 (3), 5, 6, 

7, 10, 2 ; ix, 6. 
bdz (buz"), ii, 7 ; iii, 1 ; v, 7 ; 

x, 4 ; xii, 19. 
bdz (buz"), xi, 16. 
bdzi gar (bdztydr), iv, 1, 2, 3, 4, 

5, 6, 7. 



431 



INDEX TO SIB AUBEL STEIN'S TEXT chem 



bozak (bozakh), vi, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 

6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7. 
bozdn (bozdn), xi, 1. 

bozana (bozana), x, 4 (2) ; xii, 22. 
bdz°ne (bozana), viii, 5. 
bozan (bozan), xi, 20. 
bozana (bozana), xii, 3. 
bozan (bozan), vi, 10 ; viii, 1, 2 ; 

xi, 15. 
bozun (bozun), v, 3. 
bozun (bozun u ), xii, 7. 
bozun (buzun), ii, 1, 10. 
bazar (bazar), v, 7. 
&03WS (buz u nas), ii, 5. 
602^ (buzith), vii, 27, 8. 
bdzuth (buzuth), xii, 20. 
6oz torn (boztam), iv, 1. 
6oz to (buz^tav), vii, 9. 
c/*a (chya), v, 7. 
c^a (chrvd), xii, 19, 20. 
cAa (cheh), x, 14 ; xii, 2. 
cAa (chya), vi, 7. 
cto (chey), iii, 4 ; v, 5, 10 (3) ; 

vii, 16 ; viii, 4 ; xii, 14 (2). 
che (cheh), iii, 2, 3 (2), 4 (2) ; v, 

3, 12; vii, 1,2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 

1, 3, 4, 8, 9, 20 (2), 2, 3, 6 (2), 

7, 8, 9 (2), 30 (2), 1 ; viii, 
1 (2), 7, 10, 3 (2) ; ix, 1 (2), 
6 (2) ; x, 5, 6, 7, 10 ; xi, 11 ; 
xii, 2, 4, 5, 7 (2), 10 (3), 1 (2), 
5 (2), 8, 9 (5), 23. 

che (chih), ii, 9 ; iii, 3 (2) ; v, 

8, 10; viii, 1,3, 11, 3; x, 6, 
14 ; xi, 6, 7 ; xii, 1, 3, 23. 

che (chuh), iii, 7 ; v, 4. 

che (chey), x, 8. 

che (chya), xii, 20. 

che, see bo che, vi, 16. 

chi (chih), viii, 1 ; x, 4 ; xii, 16. 

chi (chey), v, 1. 

chi (chiy), viii, 3. 



chi (chuy), iv, 3 ; vii, 2, 3 ; xii, 7. 

chi (chih), vii, 30. 

chi (chuy), vii, 2. 

cho, see su cho, v, 7. 

c^w (cheh), x, 5. 

c^w (chih), x, 1 ; xii, 2. 

dm (cfcuA), ii, 1, 4, 5, 6 (2), 8, 11 ; 
iii, 1 (4), 2 (2), 4, 7 (3), 8 (2) ; 
iv, 1 ; v, 1 (2), 3 (2), 5, 6 (3), 
7, 8 ; vi, 6, 7, 14 ; vii, 1, 27 ; 
viii, 1, 5, 6 (2), 7 (2), 8 (2), 
9 (2), 10 (2), 1, 2, 3 (5) ; ix, 

1 (2), 6 (2), 11 ; x, 1 (3), 3, 4, 
5 (4), 6 (2), 7 (4), 8 (5), 10, 

2 (6), 3, 4 (4) ; xi, 2, 13 ; 
xii, 2 (4), 3 (4), 4 (8), 6, 7, 8, 
10, 1 (2), 4, 5 (4), 7 (4), 8, 
9 (3), 20, 3, 4. 

chu (chiiva), viii, 5 (2) ; x, 5 (3) ; 

xii, 1. 
chu (chuwa), v, 8 ; viii, 5 ; x, 12. 
chu (chuy), iii, 4. 
chuh (chuh), xi, 8. 
chak (chekh), viii, 3, 11 ; ix, 1 ; 

xii, 13, 23. 
chek (chekh), ii, 9. 
chuk (chikh), xi, 10, 8. 
chuk (chukh), iii, 8 ; viii, 2 ; 

x, 1, 7, 12(5), 4; xii, 1, 4, 

5, 17. 
chuka (chukh), i, 10. 
chuka (chukha), xii, 7 (2). 
chakla (cakla), ix, 10 (2). 
chuk na (chukhna), v, 5 ; xii, 13. 
chale (chela), vii, 14. 
chalqha (chalaho), x, 5. 
chdldn (cdldn), xi, 4. 
chdldnq (cdldn), viii, 10. 
cholun (cholun), x, 5. 
chulun (cholun), xii, 2. 
chqm (chem), v, 10. 
chem (chem), ix, 4. 



chim 



HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 



432 



chim (chim), vi, 3 (2) ; x, 12 ; 

ad, 14, 5. 
chum (chum), v, 8, 10 ; vi, 5 ; 

vii, 14, 5, 7, 8 (2), 24 (2), 6 ; 

x, 12 ; xii, 4, 5, 7, 11, 

4, 20. 
chum? (chum), vii, 14. 
chum u (chum), vii, 17. 
chanq (chena), xii, 5. 
chdn (chdn), xi, 18. 
chq na (chena), xii, 20. 
che na (chena), x, 7. 
che na (chena), xii, 2. 
chena (chena), x, 6 ; xii, 19. 
che ne (chena), x, 14. 
ch*dn (cyoh ii ), v, 9. 
chdn (cyon u ), v, 9 (2) ; xii, 6. 
cAw na (chuna), iii, 3. 
cAim (cyon u ), viii, 7 (2). 
cAw na (chuna), iv, 4, 6 ; viii, 2 ; 

xii, 2, 22. 
chandq (cenda), xii, 15. 
chandqs (cendas), v, 5 ; xii, 15. 
cAw ra&& (chundkh), viii, 1. 
cAan v (chdn ii ), xi, 19. 
chdn v e (cyane), vi, 3. 
cAow y (c?/^ tt ), xii, 20, 2, 3. 
cAawy (chyon ii ), x, 10. 
chonuy (cydnuy), v, 9. 
cAom/ (cydn u ), xii, 18. 
chan v en (cydnen), viii, 11. 
cAar &as (carkas), vii, 19. 
charkas (carkas), vii, 20. 
cAas (ches), xii, 4, 5, 6, 18. 
cAas (chis), vii, 5. 
c^as, see khurachas, v, 5. 
c^asa (chesa), viii, 3, 11. 
c#e sa (chesna), v, 6. 
cto (cAes), v, 2, 3, 4, 5 (2), 6, 11 ; 

vii, 11, 5, 22 (2) ; viii, 3, 6, 

7, 11 (2) ; ix, 1, 6 ; xi, 9 ; 

xii, 4, 6 10, 4 (2), 5. 



che sai (chesay), ix, 1, 3. 

chesai (chesay), ix, 6. 

chis (chis), ii, 3 (2) ; xii, 3, 9. 

chus (chis), x, 1 (2), 12. 

chus (chus), ii, 4 (2), 11 ; iii, 4, 8 ; 

v, 4, 6, 11 (3); vii, 26; 

viii, 3, 7, 8, 9 (3), 10, 1 (2) ; 

x, 3, 4 (2), 8 (4), 10 (2), 2, 

4 (3) ; xii, 1, 3 (7), 5 (2), 

10 (2), 3 (3), 9 (2), 20, 3. 
chus, see yichus, v, 5. 
chusai (chusay), v, 11. 
chas na (chesna), xii, 15. 
chus-na, see kahchus na, vi, 10. 
chesna (chesna), x, 4. 
chit (cith 1 ), viii, 10 (2). 
chetal (cheh tal), ix, 6. 
chu vai (chiway), xii, 15. 
chu voi (chiway), xii, 15. 
chavan (chawan), xi, 3. 
chavun (chawun), ix, 6. 
chi y (chuy), ii, 11. 
ch v q (chih), x, 6. 
c^ w a (chya), x, 10. 
c/i^aw (chewa), x, 1. 
cAaz/ (chey), x, 8. 
cAa^ (chey), iii, 8. 
cAw/ (chiy), v, 4. 
cA% (chey), xii, 6. 
cAiy (chuy), ii, 2 ; v, 10 ; vi, 14 : 

vii, 31 ; viii, 13 ; x, 4 : 

xii, 14. 
chiyai (cheyey), ix, 6. 
cM?/ (chiy), x, 12. 
ch v um (chim), x, 5. 
chyum (chim), x, 12. 
cA^aw (chdn), x, 5, 12. 
cA^aw* (cyon u ), viii, 11. 
ch y enq (chena), xii, 17. 
cA^ow (cydn u ), x, 14 ; xii, 16. 
cA%w (cy6n u ), viii, 7. 
chayen (ceyen), viii, 7. 



433 



INDEX TO SIB AUBEL STEIN'S TEXT duMy 



ch v dnqs (chdnas), vii, 17, 20. 
ch v dnis (cydnis), v, 9 (2). 
ch v qn v (cydn"), viii, 3. 
ch v dnye (cydne), x, 12. 
ch v dnyen (cydnen), viii, 3. 
ch v utq (chiv ta), vii, 9. 
ch v avdn (cewdri), vi, 15 ; vii, 31 ; 

xii, 6. 
ch v auvna (chewana), x, 1. 
ch v aye h v e (ceyihe), viii, 7. 
chiz (ciz), xii, 19. 
ceshmq (ceshma), i, 3. 
city (chuy), i, 13. 
da (dah), v, 6. 
do (doh), xii, 23. 
dii (d u h), v, 11. 
dab (dab), vii, 18. 
dafo, see zv/n? dabi, viii, 1. 
dob (dob), xii, 6. 
do&? (doba), xii, 7. 
dob^hqnq (doba-hand), viii, 7. 
do&os (dobas), xii, 6, 7. 
dqbdvit (dabovith), x, 3. 
da&za 7ie& (ddp { zihekh), xi, 15. 
<2a&2i /*e& (ddphihekh), xi, 15. 
dqbzik (ddp i zekh), v, 7. 
dactfnq (dachini), viii, 7. 
dad (ddd u ), ix, 6. 
c^'de (dddi), vii, 22. 
oW ? (doda), iii, 4. 
dod (dod"), v, 3, 6, 7 ; vii, 1 (2), 

21 ; xii, 15 (2). 
dud (dod u ), xii, 25. 
dud® (doda), ii, 3. 
dudq (doda), xi, 13 (2). 
dad kha (dddkhdh), ii, 5. 
dod^mdf (doda-mdje), v, 2. 
dod^mqj (doda-mdj"), v, 2. 
dod^mqj (doda-mdji), v, 2. 
dadew (ddden), vi, 14. 
dad ? n (dadari), ii, 10. 
dwZar (dlddr), iv, 5. 



da^'s (dodis), v, 6 (2). 

da i d ve Mai (dod i laday), vii, 9. 

da^ai (dagdy), ii, 5 ; viii, 8. 

de#a (dega), vi, 16. 

dagdy e (dagdy), ii, 5. 

da^ay (dagdy), ii, 11. 

eM (do^), iii, 5 ; v, 11. 

doh (doha), viii, 3. 

doha (doha), viii, 11 (2) ; xii, 

4(2). 
doha (doha), viii, 3 (2) ; xii, 1, 

11(2). ' 
doha (doha), viii, 3, 7, 11. 
doh (doha), iii, 1. 
doho (doha), ii, 7, 8 ; v, 1 (2), 5 ; 

viii, 1 (3) ; x, 12 ; xii, 9. 
dohuch (dohuc"), x, 10, 4. 
dohuk (dohuk u ), x, 10. 
dohas (dohas), xii, 4. 
duh? (doh 1 ), iii, 4. 
daje (diij u ), xi, 18. 
da/ (wuz u ), viii, 11. 
dujdn (dujdn), xi, 7. 
daj^s (wuz u s), viii, 11. 
di& (dikh), viii, 11. 
ddkhHi (ddkhiUi), xii, 19. 
aaMe ndvdn (dakhandwdn), xi, 

16. 
dukhtare (dukhtar-e), v, 11. 
dokht a rdt (doh ta rath), vii, 3. 
da&as (dakds), xi, 6. 
da*Zi (do7T), v, 2. 
di7 (diQ, ii, 5 ; v, 7. 
doili (doli), v, 9. 
dalil (caret), vii, 20. 
dalil (dalil), viii, 7, 10, 1, 3 ; x, 

1(4). 
dalilq (dalild), x, 1. 
dalila (dalild), viii, 8, 11 ; x, 1. 
dalilq (dalild), viii, 6. 
dale muy (ddlomuy), xi, 14. 
duleny (dulan*), xii, 23. 



dilas 



HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 



434 



dilas (dilas), i, 7 ; ii, 5 ; viii, 11 ; 

xii, 15 (2). 
dlldsa (dildsa), ix, 7. 
dim (dim), iii, 1 ; v, 11 (2) ; viii, 

3, 4 ; xii, 7, 15, 8. 
dimai (dimay), v, 6, 11 ; xii, 

4,7. 
dimau (dimav), ii, 8. 
dimoi (dimoy), x, 1. 
dumbij (dombij u ), xi, 9. 
dim 9 ha (dimahb), vii, 23. 
dim 9 hak (dimahakh), vii, 20. 
daman, see muka daman, ix, 1. 
ddmdnas (ddmdnas), v, 9 (3). 
ddna (ddndh), viii, 1. 
ddna, see nd ddna, xi, 11. 
dan (don*), xii, 22 (2), 3 (2). 
dina (dini), ix, 7. 
dm* ((foV), x, 1. 
diHn 1 (din-i), iv, 6. 
dow (don), viii, 1, 4, 6, 11 (2) ; 

x, 11 ; xii, 11, 4, 5. 
dand (danda), v, 11. 
danda (danda), v, 11. 
don handi (dob-handi), xii, 19. 
duWhas (dun^ydhas), xii, 18. 
donan (d a ndn), x, 7. 
ddnqs, see wa ddnas, ii, 5. 
dow" ww (donaway), x, 5. 
donovai (donaway), xi, 12. 
don u vai (donaway), x, 13. 
dunuvai (donaway), x, 4. 
dm* (dm*), x, 2. 
dm?/ (din"), xii, 3. 
duny i lias (dutfydhas), xii, 18. 
daj? (daph), xii, 4 (2). 
dapai (dapay), v, 5. 
dapai (dapay), iii, 4. 
dap (dapi), x, 1. 
dap (dapi), v, 9. 
dop (dop u ), v, 9 ; viii, 1, 13 ; 

x, 2, 8 ; xii, 5, 19. 



dop u (do^ tt ), ii, 4 ; xi, 12. 
dup (dop u ), xi, 2, 14 ; xii, 4. 
dw^ (do^ M ), xi, 11. 
dop hak (dop u hakh), x, 12. 
dophak (dop u hakh), viii, 1. 
dop ham (dop u ham), v, 8. 
dophas (dop u has), x, 5, 6. 
dop has (dop u has), v, 8 ; x, 8„ 

12 ; xii, 1. 
dop u has (dop u has), iii, 8 (2) ;: 

viii, 3, 4 (2), 5 ; x, 1, 2, 7,. 

12 ; xii, 1, 17, 23. 
daphas (dop u has), viii, 11. 
dop«& (dopukh), ii, 1 ; v, 7 ; 

viii, 1, 2 ; x, 1 ; xii, 18. 
dop u mau (dopum a wa), x, 12. 
dopum (dop u wam), x, 12. 
dap 9 nai (dapanay), xii, 16. 
dapan (dapan), ii, 1, 2 ; iii, 2, 

3, 4 (4), 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 (2) ; 
iv, 1 ; v, 1, 3, 4, 5 (2), 6, 7, 
8, 9 (2), 11 (4), 2, 6 (5) ; 
vii, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1, 3, 4, 

8, 9, 20, 2, 3, 4, 6 (2), 7, 8, 

9, 30, 1 ; viii, 1 (2), 3 (2), 

4, 5, (2), 6, 8 (2), 9 (2) ; 
viii, 10, 1, 2 ; ix, 1 (2), 4„ 
6 (2) ; x, 1 (4), 2, 3, 4 (2),. 

5, 7, 8 (5), 10 (3), 2 (5), 3, 

4 (4), 8 ; xii, 3 (6), 4 (2),. 

5 (3), 6 (2), 7, 8, 9, 10 (4). 
1 (2), 3 (3), 4 (2), 5, 8, 9 (2), 
20 (4), 2, 4, 5, 6. 

dapan (caret), xii, 22. 

dapan (dapan), ii, 3, 5, 12 ; viii,lL 

dopan (dapan), ii, 9, 10 ; iii, 3 ; 

viii, 11. 
.dapun (dapun), v, 8. 
dopun (dopun), ii, 7, 9, 11 ; iii,. 

9 ; v, 6, 8, 9, 10 ; viii, 3, 4, 

6, 9, 10, 3 ; x, 2, 5 (3) ; xii, 
13, 9, 21 (2). 



4 Hi 



INDEX TO SIR AUBEL STEIN'S TEXT ddsas 



dopun (caret), viii, 10. 

dopun (dapun u ), v, 9. 

dop u nai (dop u nay), x, 12. 

dop u nak (dop u nakh), viii, 1 ; x, 1. 

dop u nak (dop u nakh), v, 8 ; vi, 
16 (3) ; viii, 4 (3), 5 (2), 10, 1 ; 
x, 1 (2), 5 (2), 6 (2), 12 (2) ; 
xii, 1 (2). 

dopu nak (dop u nakh), ii, 6. 

dopunak (dop u nakh), ii, 8 ; v, 8. 

dqpqnam (dapanam), ii, 11. 

dopu nam (dop u nam), iv, 4. 

dop u nas (dop u nas), v, 4 ; viii, 7 

dop u nas (dop u nas), iii, 1 (3) 
2, 5 (4), 8 (4), 9 (3) ; v, 1, 4 
(2), 5, 6 (3), 8, 9 (4), 12 
vi, 5, 8, 14, 5 (4) ; viii, 3 (2) 
6, 8, 9 (3), 10, 1 (5); ix 
1 (2), 4 ; x, 6 (2), 10 ; xii, 1 
4 (6), 5 (2), 7 (3), 10, 1, 5 (7) 
6 (3), 8 (3), 20, 1, 2, 4, 5. 

dop u nqs (dop u nas), iii, 4. 

dopunas (dop u nas), iii, 1, 4, 5 



v, 5 ; -viii, 11. 



dopunqs (dop u nas), ii, 9, 11 : 

iii, 4. 
dapas (dapas), xii, 19. 
dapus (dapus), xii, 20. 
dopus (dopus), v, 1 ; xii, 1 (4). 
dopusq (dopus), i, 7. 
dqtpty (dapiy), xii, 18. 
dapyau (dapydv), xii, 24. 
dopuy (dopuy), xii, 15. 
dap y am (dapyam), ix, 4. 
dap v dmak (dapydmakh), xi, 15. 
dap^zim (ddp { zem), v, 8 (2). 
dar (dar), ii, 5. 
dqr (dar), ii, 4. 
ddrau, see kabar dar an, ii, 6. 
ddrau, see khabqr ddrau, x, 7, 8. 
ddhi, (ddri), v, 4. 
dqr (dor 1 ), ix, 11 (2). 



dqSri (dare), v, 4 (2). 

dqtri (ddri), v, 4. 

ddWi, sec vuph d&ri, ii, 12. 

dd^ri, see vupha d&ri, ii, 5, 6, 7, 
10. 

dqSri, see vupha dq^ri, ii, 2. 

dqiri, see vupha ddiri, ii, 3, 4 (3). 

rfain, see vupha ddiri, ii, 2. 

dwr (dur), viii, 11 (2) ; x, 7. 

dwn (duri), vii, 18 ; x, 7. 

draw (drdv), ii, 8 ; iii, 1, 3, 4 (2) ; 
v, 1, 4, 5, 6, 9 ; vi, 7 ; viii, 
9 (2) ; x, 2, 3, 4 (2), 5 (2), 
7 (2), 9, 14 (2) ; xi, 4, 13 ; 
xii, 4, 5 (2), 10, 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 
9, 20, 3. 

dqrbdr (durbar), viii, 11. 

dard (dard), ix, 8. 

drag (drag), vi, 15. 

drdk (drdkh), vi, 11. 

duran (duran), vii, 11. 

dqtri nam (do^nam), vii, 25. 

deras (deras), v, 11. 

derqs (deras), viii, 9. 

drds (dras), xii, 3 (2). 

drot (drdt u ), x, 5. 

drdtis (drdti), ix, 5. 

darvdza (darwdza), viii, 4 (2). 

dqrvazq (darwdza), viii, 11 (3), 2. 

dray (dray), ix, 9. 

<7ra>? (drdye), iii, 1, 2 ; v, 7 (2), 9. 

drqy (dray), x, 11. 

dn?/ (driy), viii, 1 (2), 2. 

drdyas (drdyes), vii, 7. 

(fo'sa (di-sa), x, 8. 

fca (di's), xii, 4. 

deshdn (deshdn), vi, 12. 

deshun (deshun u ), xii, 22. 

deshit (dishith), v, 2. 

daskatq (daskhata), xii, 21. 

daskaih (daskhaih), xii, 22. 

dasas (ddsas), v, 4 (2). 

Ff 



dit 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



436 



dit (dith), vi, 7 ; x, 12. 

ddth, see va l r v ddth, xii, 19. 

dithai (ditay), v, 2. 

dithin (ditin), x, 2. 

dithas (dits^s), viii, 7. 

cfo'tam (ditam), x, 5. 

dtto'm (ditim), x, 12 (2). 

ditfmak (diVmakh), ix, 11. 

ditfnas (ditin), vii, 5. 

ditinas (diPnas), x, 14. 

<ftfr ((ftfe*), vi, 16. 

<fe? has (dits u has), x, 5. 

dtfedb (dits u kh), iii, 8. 

dfo'feaw (ditsH), x, 7 (2). 

ditsan (dits u ri), x, 7. 

(&6mw (ditsan), xii, 7, 12. 

ditsqnas (dits u nas), v, 9 ; x, 8. 

d^Zta (cfo'to), v, 9 ; x, 4. 

<ft&» (^*), xi, 17. 

dava (dawdh), v, 6. 

dava (dawa), vi, 14. 

dava (dawdh), v, 6 (3). 

dava (dawa), v, 4. 

tt (dawdh), v, 11. 

davahan (dawahan), v, 6. 

rfiwm (diwan), v, 11 ; vii, 11, 4, 

7, 8, 22 ; x, 14 ; xii, 4, 14, 

7 (2), 23. 
(fo°?/ M (dwd-yi), i, 3. 
da?/e (daye), iv, 1. 
t%a (fe/*)> vii, 2. 
c%i£ (diyiv), xii, 21. 
<%w (diyiv), x, 12. 
doi/aw (doyav), iii, 1 ; v, 7 ; viii, 

2, 3, 5 ; x, 5. 
doye (<%i), viii, 7. 
<% (<%), vi, 6. 
eft/aw (dev), xii, 7. 
<%eAe (diyihe), viii, 13. 
dtyum (diyum), vi, 16. 
duyamis (doyimis), viii, 6. 
<ft/im (dyun u ), x, 6. 



<fo/ar (dyar), i, 9 ; x, 1, 6. 
dtotf (d?/w* tt ), v, 9 ; x, 2. 
d?/wZ (dyut u ), viii, 11, 2. 
dyu* (dyuth u ), vi, 11 (2). 
(fyw£ (dyuth u ), vi, 15 ; x, 12. 
dyuih (dyut u ), xii, 22 (2). 
d y ilthuk (dyutukh), xii, 24. 
dyuthum (dyuthum), vi, 15 (2). 
d y iithun (dyutun), xii, 25. 
dyiith u nas (dyut u nas), xii, 22. 
dyuthut (dyuthuth), vi, 15. 
d y utuk (dyutukh), v, 10. 
d y iituk (dyutukh), xii, 17. 
dyutuk (dyutukh), x, 5. 
tfo/6£ www (dyuth u may), xi, 1. 
dy1it u mau (dyutum a wa), x, 12. 
dyuflmut (dyut u mot u ), viii, 1. 
dyutmut (dyut u mot u ), v, 6 ; viii, 1. 
dyutmut (dyuth u mot u ), vi, 14. 
d y iltniat (diVmat 1 ), x, 12. 
dyutmut (dyut u mot u ), x, 12. 
dHtamqty (diVmdt*), x, 12. 
d y utun (dyutun), v, 4. 
d y utun (dyutun), x, 5. 
dyutun (dyutun), v, 4 ; viii, 4, 7. 
dyutun (dyutun), x, 9, 11, 2, 3, 

5(2). 
dyut^nak (dyut u nakh), x, 5. 
dyutanak (dyut u nakh), ii, 7. 
dyut u nak (dyut u nakh), xii, 17. 
d y ut u nas (dyut u nas), xii, 16. 
dyutunas (dyut u nas), v, 6. 
dyutanas (dyut u nas), x, 6. 
dyutanas (dyut u nas), i, 9. 
dyut u nas (dyut u nas), xii, 5, 7 (2),. 

11. 
dyut u nas (dyut u nas), xii, 15, 6. 
dyutanay (dyutun u y), ii, 7. 
dyutus (dyutus), i, 10 ; xii, 4. 
dyav^zath (deva-zdth), xii, 16. 
<%i?/ (diyiy), xii, 14. 
daz, see ^raw daz, ii, 7. 



437 



INDEX TO SIB AUBEL STEIN'S TEXT 



ga l li 



dizi (dizi), v, 7. 

ddzakas (ddzakas), xii, 19, 20. 

dazdn (dazdn), viii, 13 ; x, 7. 

dazdn 1 (dazdn 1 ), x, 7. 

ddzqn, see tiran ddzqn, ii, 7. 

dlz v ek (dizikh), xii, 16. 

fakir a (phakir a), x, 7. 

fakir (phakir), i, 2 ; ii, 1, 2, 
3 (2), 9; iii, 1 ; x, 7 (5), 
8 (6), 9, 12 (3), 4 (2). 

faklra (phaklrdh), ii, 1 (2). 

faklra (phaklra), ii, 3 ; x, 8. 

fakirau (phaklrav), v, 8. 

fakiri (phaklriye), x, 9. 

fakiri (phakirl), x, 14. 

faklro (phakird), ii, 2. 

filflr (phikir"), xii, 20. 

fikrra (phikirdh), xii, 19, 24. 

faklran (phaklran), vi, 13 ; x, 12. 

faklran (phaklran), iii, 1 ; x, 
7 '(2), 8. 

fakiras (phaklras), iii, 9. 

fakir as (phaklras), x, 8. 

faklrqs (phaklras), ii, 3, 4, 7, 8 ; 
iii, 1, 2 ; x, 8 

faklrqsund (phakir a- sond u ), x, 12. 

faklrqsqnz (phakir a- sum"), x, 8. 

faklrqsunz (phakir a- silnz"), x, 14. 

forsat (phorsat), xi, 2. 

fursath (phursath), xii, 17. 

#a (gdh), vi, 12. 

#a, see har ga, viii, 7. 

#a (gdh), vi, 13. 

#a, see har ga, xii, 3. 

0<w (gay), ii, 1, 4 ; iii, 5 ; vi, 9, 
16 ; viii, 3 (3), 4, 5, 8, 11 (2), 
2, 3 ; x, 1 ; xi, 3 ; xii, 6, 11, 
23. 

gau (gav), ii, 3 (3), 6, 7, 12; 
iii, 1, 8, 9 (3) ; v, 5, 9, 10 (2), 
1 ; vi, 6, 12, 6 ; viii, 2 (2), 
3 (2), 6, 7 (2), 9 (2), 10 (3), 



1 (2), 3 ; x, 4, 7 (3), 10 ; xi, 
18 ; xii, 1, 4 (4), 7, 9 (2), 10, 

2 (2), 3, 5 (3), 8. 
gau (gov"), xi, 12. 
gau, see sq^gau, iv, 3. 
gau (gav), ii, 1. 

gau (gov"), xi, 12. 

gdu (gav), v, 5 ; vi, 16. 

gau (gav), ii, 1. 

gau (gov"), vi, 15. 

goi (gay), v, 9. 

gab (gob), iii, 6 (2). 

gab*r (gabar), xii, 15. 

gabqr (gabar), viii, 1, 3. 

gddq (gdda), i, 9. 

gddq (gdda), i, 8. 

gud a (gdda), viii, 3. 

gud* (gdda), xii, 15. 

guda (gdda), xi, 5. 

gude (gdda), iv, 2 ; v, 9. 

gudun (godun), v, 10, 2. 

guda l ny (gddan), iii, 1. 

gudenH (gddaniy), viii, 10. 

gudeny (gddan), x, 12 ; xi, 2. 

gudeny (gddan), xi, 3, 10. 

gudeny (gddaniy), x, 3 ; xii, 6. 

gudenyi (gddaniy), xii, 4. 

gudenyl (gddaniy), x, 10. 

<7W(fe nyechi hqndi (gddanice- 

handi), xii, 10. 
gudenyuk (gddanyuk"), viii, 13. 
$W nyukuy (gddanukuy), viii, 5. 
gud°run (gudarun), viii, 5. 
gud?ryau (gudariv), v, 9 (2). 
</adoi yiye (gadoyiye), x, 2. 
(7a& (#aA), vi, 2 ; xii, 2. 
goham (goham), x, 4. 
#MsA (gwdsh), viii, 9. 
gqj^nas (gdj u nas), vii, 19. 
</a& (gdkh), iii, 9 ; viii, 13, 4. 
#<JZ (groQ, ix, 4. 
gaHi (gali), xii, 24. 



gcfl* 



HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 



438 



gaH* (gdV), xii, 25. 

guP (guV), v, 9. 

gulam (golam), viii, 5, 6 (6), 8, 11 

(2), 3 (2). 
gulaman (goldman), vi, 14 ; viii, 

11. 
gulaman (goldman), viii, 7, 8. 
gulamas (golamas), viii, 11. 
guldmasund (golama-sond u ), viii, 6 . 
guldmasanz (golama-sunz u ), viii, 

11." 
gdlmut (g6l u mot u ), ii, 11. 
#afom (galun u ), xii, 19. 
<7<u ma (gayemay), vii, 12. 
^dm (gom), iii, 1 ; v, 7 ; vii, 12, 3 ; 

viii, 9, 10. 
gommut (gamot u ), i, 4. 
gdman (gdman), xi, 8. 
gurnard yiy (gum-royi), vii, 12. 
gomus (gamot u ), v, 10. 
gamut 1 (gamdt 1 ), v, 9. 
^mw« (gomot u ), ix, 1 (2), 6 (2) ; 

xii, 4, 23. 
gomut (gamot u ), ii, 4 ; iii, 1 ; 

viii, 1 ; x, 7. 
gomut (gomot u ), v, 2 (2), 5. 
gamat y (gamdt 1 ), x, 7, 8. 
gamuV (gamat 1 ), xii, 20. 
gamuts (gamuts*), xii, 10. 
ganau (gdnau), xi, 15. 
<7w?ia (gonah), viii, 11 (2). 
#<mi (gand), x, 3. 
gremd* (gand 1 ), v, 9. 
#awd^ (gand 1 ), xi, 9. 
#?md (#fod tt ), v, 4 (3). 
gand^maty 1 (gand i mat i ), x, 5. 
gandin (gdndin), x, 2 (2). 
gundun (gondun), v, 10, 2. 
gund^nas (gond u nas), v, 11. 
gandit (gandith), iii, 8. 
(jraftrf* zyes (gdnd { zes), v, 6. 
<7<mas (ganas), v, 9 ; ix, 2. 



ganas (ganas), v, 9. 

#aw v ^ (gane), viii, 13. 

<7aifo/e (gane), x, 7. 

$w^aF (gopoV), v, 10 (2), 1 (2). 

gwpaPe (gopale), v, 11. 

#ar (flfar), v, 3. 

#ar (gara), iii, 1, 9 ; v, 9, 10 ; 

xii, 8. 
#ar? (£ara), iii, 2, 3 (2) ; v, 1, 

5 (2), 10 (2) ; xii, 19, 22. 
gara (gara), v, 4, 10 ; x, 4, 6, 7, 

14 ; xii, 1, 4 (2), 5 (3), 10, 

1 (2), 2, 3, 4, 8 (2), 20, 2, 5. 
gar 1 (gar 1 ), v, 4. 
gar* (gari), v, 10. 
gar, see nan gar, xi, 10. 
gar (gor), xi, 5. 
gar, see bdzi gar, iv, 1, 2, 3, 4, 

5, 6, 7. 
gaWi (gari), iii, 1 ; x, 5 ; xii, 

4 (2), 5 (2). 
ga l ri (gor), vii, 27. 
gur (gur 1 ), xi, 6. 
gur (gur u ), iii, 8 ; x, 3. 
gur\ (gur 1 ), xi, 8 ; xii, 1. 
gur 1 (guri), ii, 6. 
#wr (gur 1 ), xi, 12. 
<7wr (gur u ), xi, 13. 
<jrwr 6a?/e (gur^-baye), xi, 12. 
gar dan (gar dan), ii, 8. 
#arra (garam), i, 11. 
#ar<m (gar an), xi, 6. 
garan (gaddn), v, 1. 
#ara navan (garandwan), xi, 17. 
#aras (garas), ix, 4 (2). 
^m (guris), ii, 6, 11 ; iii, 8 (2) ; 

x, 5. 
#ros£ (gryust u ), ix, 4. 
#res£ &a?/ (gristf-bay), ix, 1. 
#resZ 6a?/e (grist 1 -bay i), ix, 1. 
(7resZ ? 6% (grist i -bay), ix, 6 (2). 
#resZ ? 6%e (grist 1 -bay i), ix, 1. 



439 



INDEX TO SIR AUBEL STEIN'S TEXT 



ha 



grest" baye (grist 1 -baye), ix, 6. 

gresta baye (grist 1 -baye), ix, 1, 4. 

grest garas (grist 1 -garas), ix, 4. 

gresta garas (grist 1 -garas), ix, 4. 

gresVen (gresten), ix, 7. 

gar v e (gdre), v, 7. 

gray (gray), ix, 12. 

graye (graye), vii, 11. 

gur v au (guryau), xii, 2. 

gur v en-hqnz (guren-hunz*), xii, 3. 

(jrar ze (garza), vii, 26. 

garzanas (gorzanas), ii, 1. 

#as (0ds), iv, 3. 

gasa (gasa), x, 5 (3) ; xi, 6, 9 (2). 

gase (gasa), xi, 7. 

(jasw (gasa), xi, 12. 

#as (gos), viii, 11. 

#as (#os), v, 4. 

^ra5 (^os), v, 5 ; x, 10. 

gos (gos), iii, 4, 8 ; viii, 4, 10 ; 
x, 12, 4 ; xii, 12. 

gdsai (gosay), xi, 18. 

gash (gash), iii, 3 ; v, 5, 7. 

gash (gwash), xii, 2 (2). 

gosdny (gusdn u ), v, 9. 

gat (gath), iii, 4. 

(/afo (gata), i, 6. 

gatij {gdfy), v, 3, 10. 

</w^a (gutHa), vii, 12. 

#a% (gafP), viii, 1 (2). 

#afe (gatsh), iii, 5 ; vi, 17 ; viii, 
10 ; xi, 2 ; xii, 4, 5, 11 (2), 
4,20. 

gatsq (gatshi), xii, 11, 22, 3. 

gatsau (gatshav), viii, 3 ; xii, 18. 

gatse (gatshi), v, 1, 4 (2), 8, 9 (2) ; 
viii, 2, 8, 10, 1 ; x, 3, 5 (2), 
12 ; xii, 4 (2), 5, 6 (4), 10 (2), 
3 (2), 5 (2), 9, 20 (3), 2. 

gatse (gatshiy), xii, 7, 13. 

gatse (gatshi), viii, 7, 8. 

gats* (gatsh), ii, 9. 



<jrafci (gatshi), viii, 6, 11. 
#afcw (gatshu), xi, 11. 
#ofc (gotsh u ), v, 7. 
#wfe (gotsh u ), v, 7 ; xii, 19. 
gatsak (gatshakh), v, 5, 6 ; xii, 18. 
gats°nq gatshi-na), xii, 16. 
gats^nai (gatshanay), xii, 5. 
gatsan (gatshan), v, 4, 8 ; xi, 12. 
gatsan (gatshan), iii, 6 ; v, 1 ; 

viii, 1 (3) ; x, 5 ; xii, 4 (3), 

19, 23. 
gatsun (gatshun u ), v, 9, 10 ; xii, 

6, 24. 
gatse nam (gatshanam), x, 1, 2. 
gatsqs (gatshes), xii, 18. 
gatses (gatshes), v, 9. 
gats tq (gatshta), xi, 1. 
gatsi v (gatshiy), xii, 5. 
gats v u (gatshiv), x, 7, 8. 
gatsiy (gatshiy), xii, 7, 21 (3). 
gatsiye (gatshiye), xii, 13. 
gatsyu (gatshiv), vii, 4. 
gats v em (gatshem), x, 3, 6 ; xii, 

3 (2), 7. 
gats v es (gatshes), x, 3. 
gatsyes (gatshes), x, 5. 
garni (gawdy 1 ), x, 12. 
gdvun (gov u n), vi, 15. 
gayau (gayav), xii, 15. 
gay 6 (gaye), iii, 1, 4. 

gaye (gaye), iii, 1, 9 ; v, 9, 10, 1 ; 

viii, 11 ; x, 1, 14 (2) ; x, 8 ; 

xii, 2, 9, 10, 2, 3. 
9 a V e {gaye), iii, 8. 
g y m (Me), xi, 10. 
gayem (gayem), ix, 4. 
gayqs (gayes), x, 6. 
gaznavi (gaznavi), i, 1. 
guzran (guzaran), xi, 19. 
ha (ha), xii, 19. 
ha, see 6at?a Aa, vii, 21. 



ha 



HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 



440 



ha, see hav* ha, vii, 21. 

ha, see dim? ha, vii, 23. 

M, see hare ha, ii, 11. 

M, see vuch 9, ha, viii, 10. 

ha, see yetsanq ha, v, 6. 

M (M), ii, 2, 3, 4 ; x, 4 ; xi, 3 ; 

xii, 10. 
hai (hay), v, 4 (4) ; ix, 7, 8, 9, 

10 ; xi, 14, 6, 9. 
hai, see kur hai, iv, 2. 
M*, see muthai, v, 2. 
tat (Mv), v, 4 (2) ; xi, 11. 
hau (hdv), xii, 14. 
he, see asi M, ii, 4. 
hi (hih 1 ), xii, 1. 
ho (hau), ii, 10. 
M, see k v qho, v, 5. 
M, see kyqho, v, 4. 
Ao*, see yi Mi, xii, 20. 
ho (ho), ii, 3. 

habjoshi (hab-jushi), xii, 22. 
McA (hech), v, 3. 
Md ? (Md), vii, 15. 
hihis (hihis), viii, 5, 13. 
hak, see dim" hak, vii, 20. 
M&, see dop hak, x, 12. 
M&, see kar? hak, xii, 16. 
M&, see kur hak, xi, 17. 
hak, see wcA M&, viii, 1. 
hak, see tfa&za M&, xi, 15. 
hek, see aa&zi hek, xi, 15. 
/m&, see kar u huk, xii, 19. 
/m&* (hoW), vi, 15. 
htfkhi (hakh-i), xii, 15. 
hakim (hakim), vi, 14. 
hakima (hakimd), vi, 13. 
hukqm (hukum), viii, 12. 
hukum (hukum), ii, 7 ; viii, 4 ; 

x, 9, 13 ; xii, 7. 
huk u mq (hukm-i), xi, 4. 
/m&m (hukum), viii, 11, 3 ; x, 5. 
hekqmati (hekmat-i), i, 11. 



hekqmats (hekmiits"), i, 12. 

MZ ? (kla), xii, 17. 

MZ (MZ), vii, 9 ; ix, 4 (2) ; xi, 17. 

Ml (MP), vi, 15. 

halam (halam), ix, 11 (2). 

haP mas (halamas), v, 4. 

haPmas (halamas), v, 5. 

halamas (halamas), v, 4. 

Mew (helen), vi, 15. 

km, see dop ham, v, 8. 

hamai, see Zade hamai, x, 3. 

Mm, see £>m Mm, vii, 10. 

himai, (hemay), v, 11. 

hamud (hamud), vii, 4. 

Mm nishin (hamnishin), vii, 

20 (2). 
Mm nishman (hamnishinan), vii, 

24. 
Mm nishman (hamnishinan), vii, 

21. 
hamsai (hamsaye), x, 5. 
Mm saye (hamsaye), x, 12. 
/ma (hand), see pdr v ehna, xii, 2. 
A ? na, see rafee A"na, v, 6 (2). 
th"na (hand), xii, 17 (2). 
han (han), iii, 1 ; x, 5 ; xii, 21. 
hana (hand), x, 3, 5. 
han (han), x, 5. 
han, see rats a hqn, v, 6. 
han, see rafra Mn, v, 6. 
Mna (hand), xii, 16. 
Mna (hand), x, 5. 
Mna (hand), viii, 7. 
Mm (Mm), viii, 6 (2). 
hdunai (hdw u nay), v, 4 (2). 
Mn (Mn), xii, 13. 
Aoni (hun 1 ), viii, 4. 
/km, see mukHdvq hun, x, 1. 
Awn (Awn'), viii, 12 (2). 
hun (hun u ), viii, 9 (6), 10 (4). 
hunq (hun 1 ), viii, 13. 
handi (handi), x, 7. 



441 



INDEX TO SIR AUREL STEIN'S TEXT hitsun 



hand* (hand 1 ), v, 6. 

handi (handi), x, 7 ; xii, 10, 9. 

hund (hond u ), iii, 1, 5 ; v, 1, 2, 5, 

9 ; vii, 1 ; viii, 1, 3, 9 ; x, 

2 (2), 4 (2), 9 (2) ; xii, 5 (3), 

15. 
handis (handis), v, 4 ; viii, 6 (3), 

13 (2) ; x, 3 (2), 5, 7, 10. 
hangqt? manga (hanga-ta-manga), 

iii, 6. 
hdu nak (hdw u nakh), xii, 18. 
haunam (hdw u nam), v, 4. 
hunis (hunis), viii, 9, 10 (3). 
hanza (hanza), viii, 11. 
hqnz (hunz u ), iii, 5, 6 ; viii, 11 ; 

x, 3 ; xii, 3. 
hanza (hanza), viii, 4. 
hanza (hanza), viii, 3, 4. 
hanza (hanzah), i, 4. 
hunz (hunz u ), viii, 3. 
hunz (caret), xii, 6. 
hdpat (hapath), ix, 2. 
haput (haputh), ii, 10, 1 (3), 2. 
hapqtan (hapatan), ix, 4. 
hapqtas (hapatas), ii, 10, 1. 
Mr (Mr), ii, 2. 
Mrde (har a da), ix, 8. 
Mr #a (hargah), viii, 7. 
Mr #d (hargah), xii, 3. 
hargd (hargah), xii, 3. 
Mrgw to/ (hargah-ay), viii, 10. 
har°gak y ey (hargah-kiy), viii, 13. 
Mn Mn (Mr* Mr*), xi, 8. 
harik (har&W), ii, 3. 
Jbron (haran), vii, 24 ; xii, 9 (2). 
h*r v au (h a ryov), x, 12. 
h°reyek (h a reyekh), x, 5. 
h"sq (hasa), x, 1. 
M se (hasa), ii, 11. 
Ms, see anye has, vi, 16. 
has, see do^p Ms, v, 8 ; x, 8, 12 ; 

xii, 1. 



has, see dits? has, x, 5. 

has, see &wr has, viii, 2. 

Ms, see manga has, xii, 19. 

Ms, see nyu has, viii, 9. 

Ms, see tray, has, x, 12. 

Ms, see tsun has, xii, 4. 

Msa (hasa), vi, 11. 

Msa (hasa), x, 1 (6), 4 (2), 8 ; 

xii, 1 (2), 5, 10. 
hasa, see tsahasq, v, 7. 
Mse (hasa), x, 1 (2). 
Ms (Ms), xii, 20. 
^sA (hish u ), x, 7. 
Aos^ (hdsh), i, 5. 
hushar (hushyar), v, 5 (3). 
Ms* (MsP), vi, 16 (2). 
host" (host u ), vi, 16. 
hat (hath), i, 8 ; ii, 12 ; viii, 9, 

10(2); x, 1 (4), 2 (3), 6. 
hat, see muslq hat, xi, 19. 
hat (hath), viii, 10. 
hatq (hata), x, 5. 
hatai (hatay), xii, 15. 
hato (hato), x, 5. 
M£ (heth), iii, 1 ; v, 7. 
^ (heth), i, 8. 
M£ (Mp), v, 7. 
fori (Mi u ), vii, 14. 
hatq bud 1 (hata-bdd { ), ix, 9. 
hathas (hatas), v, 10. 
hatan (hatan), v, 1. 
Mfos (hatas), i, 9 ; v, 12. 
Mta's (hatis), viii, 1. 
M fed (hdtsha), vi, 9. 
Mfe (Mfe u ), xii, 12 (2). 
huts (hots u ), xii, 15. 
hetsqmatsq (hetsamatsa), x, 14. 
hitsan (hetsan), v, 7. 
hitsan (hetsan), x, 11. 
Aifean (M^), v, 4. 
hitsan (hetsan), iii, 4. 
hitsun (hets u n), v, 6. 



hitsanas 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



442 



hitsanas (hets u nas), v, 6. 

hitsanas (hetsanas), viii, 7. 

hats v uk (hatsyuk u ), xii, 15. 

ham (hawdh), vii, 7. 

M (hdway), iii, 8. 

Mm (havi), v, 9. 

Aav ? Aa (hdwaho), vii, 21. 

havdla (hawala), viii, 4. 

havala (hawala), v, 7, 10 (2), 2 ; 

x,*12(4), 22. 
havale (hawala), x, 12. 
havale (hawala), v, 12. 
havdlq v (hawdla-y), x, 7. 
Aavww (hdwun), vi, 16 ; xii, 15. 
Aovww (hdwun), ii, 3. 
hdv^nam (hdwanan), iv, 7. 
Acmms (hdwus), v, 4. 
AavwZ (hdwuth), vi, 5. 
havtam (havtam), v, 9. 
havdye (hawd-yi), ii, 6. 
A*6 (AeA), xi, 12. 
A v e, see cA^aye A v e, viii, 7. 
h v e, see &an A v e, viii, 7. 
An* (A?/wA u ), x, 7 (2) ; xii, 4. 
hay (hay), v, 7. 
to/, see hargq hay, viii, 10. 
Aa?/, see yi hay, viii, 10. 
hyu (hyuh u ), viii, 7 ; xii, 4 (2). 
h v qhqrq (hihara), x, 12. 
A y ww (hyon u ), xii, 5. 
A y ww (yun u ), xii, 7. 
A%r (hyor u ), xii, 6. 
A?/w> (hyor u ), iii, 2, 9. 
to (MA), iii, 2 ; v, 1 (2), 7 ; 

viii, 3 (2), 4, 6, 9, 10, 2 ; x, 5, 

12 ; xi, 13, 4, 6, 8 ; xii, 2, 4, 

5, 7. 
A*^A (Acta), xii, 9, 11, 2 (2), 8, 

22 (2), 3 (4), 4, 5. 
A»e*A (heth), xii, 12. 
h v uthuy (yuthuy), xii, 12. 
h v utuk (hyotukh), x, 1. 



Altera (hets u n), iii, 1. 

h v iitun (hyotun), viii, 7 (3). 

hyiitun (hyotun), ii, 1, 3. 

h v utus (hyotus), xii, 10, 3. 

h v evdn (hewdn), x, 7 ; xii, 15. 

Aaz*, see ydhaz 1 , v, 9. 

hazuri (huzuri), viii, 5. 

AazraJ (hazrat-i), vi, 8. 

hazrqV- (hazrat-i), iv, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 

hazrqH* (hazrat-i), xii, 17. 

AazreZ (hazrat-i), vi, 15. 

hazret 1 (hazrat-i), vi, 10. 

Aazretf (hazrat-i), vi, 14. 

ja (jaA), ii, 4. 

ja(jah), x, 12. 

jai (jdye), viii, 7. 

jjai 0%), ix, 6. 

jao (jdv), xi, 4. 

jao (jaw 5), xi, 4. 

jaw, see Zw jdu, xii, 6. 

jaZ (je/) vi, 16. 

jalU (jel a d), xii, 15, 23, 4. 

jal^va (jalwa), vi, 7. 

jam, see tsdn v jam, vii, 26. 

jumqlq (jumala), i, 13. 

jaw (jaw)> vii, 27 ; xi, 17, 8. 

jaw, see tu jan xii, 4. 

jm, see tuh jin, iii, 9. 

jande (jenda), v, 11. 

janqtqch (jenatace), iii, 7. 

janHuk (jenatuk u ), xi, 13. 

jaw? Jw&A (jenatuk u ), xii, 21, 2. 

janHas (jenatas), xii, 24. 

jaw 9 £as (jenatas), xii, 19, 23, 4. 

janatas (jenatas), xii, 20. 

jdn^var (janawar), ix, 3. 

jdnqvdr (janawar), ix, 1, 5. 

janavdran (jdnawaran), viii, 1. 

josA£ (jushl), xii, 22. 

javdb (jewab), iii, 4 ; xii, 17. 

i<% (W)» xi > 12 - 

ja>? (jdye), i, 4 ; viii, 7. 



443 INDEX TO SIR AUREL STEIN'S TEXT khobsurat 



jdy e (jaye), iii, 7. 

jaye (jaye), i, 3 ; ii, 8 ; iii, 7 ; 

viii, 7, 9 ; x, 5 ; xii, 15 (2). 
ka (kdh), xi, 14. 
kq, see roz kq, xii, 18. 
kq, see taslikq, vi, 16. 
kdb (khdb), 'vi, 11, 2, 4, 5. 

Cf. kdv. 
kdbuk (khdbuk u ), vi, 14 (2). 
kdb^nish (khdba-nishe), vi, 12. 
kab"rq (kabari), iv, 7. 
&a&ar (khabar), ii, 1, 4 ; iii, 1, 3 ; 

v, 7. 
kabara (khabardh), ii, 6. 
&a&ar ddrau (khabarddrav), ii, 6. 
kabarddrau (khabarddrav), ii, 1. 
M£ws (khdbas), vi, 14. 
kochuk, see tot kochuk, ii, 2. 
Md (Md), v, 7, 8, 9. 
teZ (kod), v, 7 ; vi, 11 ; x, 5. 
had (kefc), vi, 11. 
Wd (kod), x, 12. 
Ara'cZ (hod*), x, 5 (3). 
fca'd* (kod*), v, 8 (2). 
Md (kod), v, 9. 
&o(Z* (kore), v, 2. 
&wda (khoda), iii, 8 (3). 
&wZ ( W), xii, 10 (3), 1 (2), 2 (2), 

3 (3), 4. 
&woa (khoda), vi, 5, 6, 7, 10. 
kud (kud"), v, 5. 
ifcud (fair*), v, 2, 5, 7 (2), 8 (2), 

9 (4), 10 ; xii, 10, 3. 
kud 1 (kod 1 ), v, 9. 
kud 1 (kur 1 ), v, 2. 
kqWhen (kdr^han), xii, 12. 
kq i dik (kddikh), x, 12. 
&o<Ztt& (kud u kh), x, 11. 
&ad Maw (kod-khdn), vi, 10. 
kddkhdnen (kod-khdnan), v, 8. 
kadam (kadam), x, 11, 2. 
kadam (kadam), iv, 5. 



kaddn (kaddn), viii, 13 ; xii, 4, 

11,7. ' 
taZm (kudyri), x, 7. 
kqdun (kadun u ), viii, 11. 
kqdun (kud^n), xii, 5. 
kodun (kodun), iii, 8 ; viii, 10 ; 

' x, 13. ' 
kudun (kodun), v, 9 (2). 
kudis (kore), v, 10. 
fopfe (kodis), x, 5 (2). 
kodyau (kodyau), v, 7. 
kd { dyau (kodyau), vi, 11 ; x, 5, 

12. 
koddyu (khoddyo), v, 7. 
&od v e (kori), xii, 5. 
^o^ e (kori), v, 4. 
&a#" (&6n), v, 1. 
&o^e (kore), v, 9 (2) ; xii, 4. 
&dd w i (kore), v, 1, 2 ; xii, 1, 

'10(2), 3. 
&od^ (kori), xii, 4. 
A^da^e (kore), v, 1. 
kuddye (khoddye), iv, 1. 
M y e (&dae), v, 12. 
fcud'e (A:ore), v, 9 (2). 
kud v i (koriy), xii, 15. 
kudye (ku^yey), v, 2. 
MA (kdh), i, 2 ; vii, 23 ; xii, 22. 
kih (kih), v, 4 (3). 
koh? (koha), ix, 2. 
Ma, see dad kha, ii, 5. 
khub (khub), vi, 17. 
Ma6?r (khabar), xii, 20, 3. 
khabar (khabar), vii, 28 ; xii, 19. 
khabar (khabar), x, 7, 8, 14 ; xi, 

20 ; xii, 2 (3), 20 (2), 4. 
khabar ddrau (khabarddrav), x, 

7,' 8. 
khabarddrau (khabarddrav), xii, 

23. 
khdb surat (khobsurath), xii, 4. 
khobsurat (khobsurath,) xii, 15. 



khob surat 



HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 



444 



khob surat (khobsurath), xii, 5. 
khobsurat (khobsurath), xii, 10 (2). 
khobsurath (khobsurath), xii, 19. 
kahchus na (kah chus-na), vi, 10. 
khod (khod), x, 13. 
khuda (khoda), x, 5, 7 ; xii, 7 (2), 

15 (2), 20. 
khuda (Midday), x, 8. 
khudai (khoday), xii, 15. 
khud (kitr"), xii, 13. 
khudas (khodas), x, 13. 
khudayen (khodayen), xii, 15. 
khudayas (khodayes), vii, 4 ; x, 5. 
khudayesund (khodaye-sond u ), xii, 

7. 
khqtfnas (khdj u nas), vii, 19. 
khal a kan (lashkari), ii, 6. 
khalds (khalas), iii, 4. 
khqHyun (khalyun), x, 7. 
Mam (kham), vii, 25, 6. 
khumba khas (kombakas), xi, 7. 
Man (khan), ii, 1 ; vi, 10. 
Man (khana), xii, 19. 
khdnen, see kadkhanen, v, 8. 
khanun (khanun u ), xii, 6. 
khanendvun (khanandwun), x, 13. 
khanas (khanas), vi, 4. 
Mar (Mar), iii, 8, 9. 
Mwr (khor), v, 5. 
khurachqs (khora dies), v, 5. 
Mar? (khar a j), xii, 4 (2), 5 (2), 

11. 
Mar; (khar a c), viii, 10. 
Mar^' (khar a j), xii, 20. 
kharas (kharas), iii, 8. 
khqris (khoris), ix, 9. 
kharat (khorath), v, 9. 
Mas (khas), iii, 8 (2). 
Mas, see khumba khas, xi, 7. 
Mas£ (khasiy), xii, 11. 
Mas (khasa), v, 11. 
Mas 9 (khasa), ii, 3. 



MwsA (khosh), viii, 1, 11, 4 ; xi, 

18 ; xii, 3, 9, 12. 
khush (khosh), viii, 9. 
khasihb (khos i ho), ii, 3. 
khashim (khashem), ii, 3. 
khash 9 na h^na (khashena-hana), 

xii, i7. 
khasak (khasakh), v, 6. 
khasam (kasam), xii, 7. 
khismat (khizmath), ii, 3. 
khasan (khasan), i, 6 ; iii, 3. 
khasun (khasun u ), x, 3 ; xii, 6. 
khasqni (kasani), xii, 4, 5. 
khasun (kdsun), xii, 13. 
khosun (kdsun), xii, 10. 
khds^nas (kds u nas), xii, 4. 
khdsus (kdsus), xii, 10. 
khasit (kosith), xii, 5, 10. 
kh&sith (kosith), xii, 13. 
MM (MA ^), i, 5. 
Map (Map), v, 9. 
MoZa (khota), xii, 10. 
Mo£" (Mor), iii, 8. 
Mn£ (MoP), ii, 11 (2) ; viii, 7 ; 

x, 7, 8 ; xii, 12. 
khut (khoth u ), ii, 6 ; x, 7. 
khut (khot u ), xii, 21. 
khut (khqt u ), xii, 3. 
khutq (khota), xii, 19. 
MaiA (khath), xii, 21, 2, 3 (3). 
khuth (khot u ), xii, 24. 
khuth (kot u ), xii, 25. 
khdtunq (khdtuna), xii, 19. 
khdtuni (khdtuni), xii, 15. 
khdtuni (khdtuni), xii, 15 (2), 8. 
khdtun (khdtuna), x, 12 ; xii, 18, 

20,5. 
khdtunq (khdtuna), xii, 15, 9. 
khdtuni (khdtuni), x, 7 (3). 
khdtuni (khdtuni), x, 7 (3) ; xii, 

khd tunl (khdtuni), xii, 22. 



445 INDEX TO SIB AUREL STEIN'S TEXT kan* 



khdtir (khdtir), viii, 3. 

khutas (khot u tas), i, 8. 

khats (khuts u ), iii, 2. 

khdvand (khdwand), x, 5 (2), 12. 

khdv°ndas (khdwandas), xii, 18. 

khdvqndas (khdwandas), xi, 11. 

khdvur (kh6wur u ), viii, 7. 

kh y au (khyo), x, 12. 

kh v e (kentshdh), xii, 20. 

kheyau (kheyev), x, 12. 

kheye (kheyi), xii, 15. 

khyau (khyuh), x, 5. 

khyau (khyauv), x, 12. 

khyau (khev), ii, 2. 

khye (keh), xii, 18. 

&%£ (kentshdh), xii, 18. 

&oA y e (koh-i), iv, 5. 

&oM?/ (kohai), ix, 2. 

kh v ema (khema), viii, 11. 

khydn (khyon), x, 5. 

&%en (khen), xii, 16, 7. 

khyeni (kheni), x, 5. 

khyun (khyon u ), xii, 16. 

M%* (kyut u ), x, 5. 

M v a^ (MA), xii, 23 (2). 

kh v qtha (ketha), xii, 24. 

khyqth (keth), xii, 22. 

khyuth (kyut u ), xii, 16. 

M v £ &a (kentshdh), xii, 19. 

khyetsa (kentshdh), xii, 19. 

jfc%e fca (kentshdh), xii, 18, 9 (2). 

khyavdn (khewdn), xii, 4, 17. 

khyevdn (khewdn), xii, 6. 

kh v aiy (khey), x, 2. 

khyezi (khezi), xii, 16 (2). 

kakqd (kdkad), xii, 22. 

M (kdkad), xii, 11 (2), 2 (3), 

5 (5), 6, 7, 8 (2). 
kdkad (kdkaz), viii, 10. 
kdkadas (kakadas), xii, 16, 7. 
&wM, see sam? kukh, xii, 25. 
kdkin v (kdJcan), v, 10. 



&w£ar (kukar), xi, 8. 

M ? (kala), iii, 1, 5 ; xi, 9. 

&aZa (kala), ii, 9. 

Me (kala), iii, 2, 9 ; viii, 6. 

kdl (kdl), viii, 2. 

Ma (kala), v, 10. 

Ma (kdldh), viii, 2 (2). 

M (M u ), ii, 4. 

&aZai (kolay), iii, 4 ; v, 3 ; viii, 

3, 11. 
M* (kuli), ii, 10. 
kdlrchen (kdlacen), v, 5. 
kalqma (kalama), ix, 12. 
kolnas (kh6l u nas), x, 12. 
Mwp (kuluph), iii, 8. 
Mas (khalas), ix, 9. 
M^ (khal a t-e), x, 4 (2). 
M y e (Mi), xii, 2 (2), 4, 6 (2). 
kulye (koli), xii, 6. 
km (kam), ii, 12 ; iv, 4, 6 ; xii, 1. 
kam, see maA to, xi, 9. 
kami (kami), ix, 1 ; x, 4, 12. 
kam (khdm), vi, 15. 
kdma (komPdh), x, 2, 3. 
kqm i (kam 1 ), iii, 3 (2) ; x, 12. 
kam (kom*), x, 7 (2), 12, 4 ; xi, 

11. 
Mww (kdm u ), xii, 22. 
A;dm (kom ii ), ii, 5, 7 ; viii, 4. 
kum, see vdlai kum, xii, 26. 
kumdr (khumdr), v, 2. 
kam v uk (kamyuk u ), vi, 13, 4. 
to (Axrn), ii, 7 ; viii, 6, 8, 11 ; 

ix, 1, 4. 
kan (kiln""), x, 13. 
Mia (kana), iii, 5. 
A*ane (Mia), v, 2. 
Mie (kani), v, 2 ; viii, 1, 6. 
Jean* (Jeani), ii, 3 ; iii, 1, 2, 8 ; 

v, 4 (3) ; viii, 11 ; x, 1, 5. 
kan* (Jean), v, 4. 
Jean 1 (kan 1 ), v, 4 (2). 



han % 



HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 



446 



Jean* (kin), v, 7. 

Jcani (kani), viii, 1 ; x, 12 ; 

xii, 4. 
kdn, see mahalq kdn, viii, 11. 
kqn 1 (kani), viii, 7. 
&<m* (&dw*), ii, 8 ; xi, 9. 
ka l ni (kani), x, 10 ; xii, 9, 12, 

23 (2). 
fa (kind), viii, 11 ; xii, 18, 

9,20. 
kona (kun), vi, 5. 
&owe (kona), viii, 1. , 
&ww (kun), i, 8 ; iii, 5, 7 ; v, 

2 ; vii, 3, 4, 20, 6 ; viii, 6, 

11 ; ix, 1 ; x, 3, 5 (4), 11, 

2 (2) ; xii, 4, 6, 14. 
&ww, see patkun, v, 5, 8. 
kunq (kuni), viii, 7. 
&ww* (kuni), viii, 1 (2), 2. 
kuni (kuni), v, 6 ; viii, 7, 9 ; xii, 

1, 22. 
kondq (kondi), xi, 11. 
kund (kond u ), viii, 1 (2). 
kangqn v (kangan), v, 4. 
kung^var 1 (kong-wari), v, 7. 
kungVvar y e (kong-ware), v, 7. 
kqn^han (k a nahan), viii, 9. 
kun i kq i n y (kuni-kani), xii, 13. 
kqnanq (k a nana), vii, 26. 
kanqni (k a nani), xii, 3. 
kqnan (k a nan), viii, 9. 
kqnan (k a nan), vii, 17. 
kanan (khanan), v, 7. 
kanqnuy (kananqy), vii, 11. 
kanas (kanas), iii, 9. 
kanas (khanas), ii, 12. 
kanye (kane), vi, 7. 
&ara/e (kani), xii, 15. 
&<m w (Mn*), xi, 9. 
&a*w v (kani), xii, 13. 
A:wn v a (khoni), xi, 13. 
ku*niy (kun ti y), xii, 15. 



&wnw/ (kunuy), vi, 7 ; vii, 2 ; 

viii, 7 ; x, 8. 
kanyek (kannekh), xi, 9. 
fomz (fomz), iii, 8 (2). 
&a%e (kane), x, 13. 
fomi/e (&emi), xii, 15. 
ken v tsa (kentshah), iii, 8. 
ken y tsa (kentshah), iii, 8. 
kanyev i (kaniv*), v, 4. 
kuphar (kuphar), iv, 3. 
&ar (to*), ii, 4 ; v, 2 ; x, 8 ; xii, 

7, 17. 
kar (khar), v, 7 (2). 
karai (karay), xii, 1. 
karau (karav), x, 1, 5 ; xi, 19. 
kare (kara), ii, 4 ; iv, 5 ; viii, 10 ; 

ix, 4 ; xii, 1 (2), 3, 15, 6 (2), 

7, 20. 
kar (kar), v, 12 ; xi, 2, 10. 
kar (khor), i, 3. 
kar (caret), xii, 1. 
kara (khara), vi, 17. 
karau (kharav), xi, 17. 
kare (kara), x, 8. 
kare (khara), ii, 12. 
kar (kar), ii, 12. 
kar (kdr% vii, 24 (2). 
kar (kor u ), ii, 4. 

&ar (kur u ), ii, 1, 5, 7 ; viii, 3, 4, 
' 11 ; x, 3, 5, 7 (2) ; x, 7, 8 (2), 

11, 2, 4 ; xii, 15, 9, 22. 
kqru (kur^wa), x, 12. 
ka { ri (kare), iii, 1. 
to'n (kari), viii, 8, 11 ; xi, 2 ; 

xii, 3. 
ka l re (kari), viii, 6. 
AaVe (kari), viii, 1. 
&aV (to-*), xii, 20. 
kqY (kiir*), xii, 23. 
&a*n (kari), xi, 19 (2). 
jfcor (kor), ii, 2. 
&wr (M"), xii, 15, 7. 



447 INDEX TO SIB AUREL STEINS TEXT katrin 



kur (kor u ), ii 3; iii, 8 (2); 

iv, 6 ; v, 9 ; viii, 1 ; x, 12 ; 

xi, 3 ; xii, 4, 7 (2), 14, 5, 8. 
kur 1 (kor u ), viii, 9, 10. 
kuri, see tamas kuri, x, 5. 
kuru (kor u wa), x, 12. 
kuru (kor u wa), x, 12. 
kur (kur*), x, 1, 6, 7 (2), 8; 

xii, 1 (2), 2, 25. 
krdu (khrdv), v, 9. 
kdrddran (kdrddran), ix, 1. 
karqha (karaho), v, 6 ; viii, 11 ; 

x, 5. 
kare ha (karaho), ii, 11. 
karehe (karihe), v, 9. 
karhai (kur u hay), xi, 5. 
kur hai (kor u hay), iv, 2. 
karihe (karihe), viii, 13. 
&ar ? Aa& (karahakh), xii, 16. 
&ar M tofc (karuhukh), xii, 19. 
&wr Aa& (kor u hakh), xi, 17. 
kurhas (kor u has), x, 5. 
&wr /ias (kor u has), viii, 2. 
&an /^e (karihe), viii, 7. 
&ra?e (krdji), xi, 11. 
&ra& (krekh), iii, 3. 
&re& (krekh), v, 7. 
&ara& (karakh), viii, 13 ; xii, 

1,3. 
&m& (kddikh), viii, 4. 
&an& (kdrikh), v, 7. 
&arw& (korukh), xii, 18. 
&am& (kiir u kh), ii, 8. 
&an£& (karyukh), viii, 4. 
ka l rik (kddikh), viii, 12 ; xii, 1. 
&aWb (karekh), xi, 10. 
koruk (korukh), x, 5. 
kuruk (kodukh), iii, 4. 
kuruk (korukh), viii, 1 ; x, 5 ; 

xii, 7. 
ka l rikh (karekh), xii, 25. 
&reM (krekh), xii* 7. 



krdlan (krdlan), xi, 10. 
krdlau (kralau), xi, 11. 
&anm (kdrim), v, 9. 
karimau (karemav), x, 6. 
karme (kar me), i, 7. 
kqrum (kiir u m), v, 9. 
ka l rim (kdrim), ix, 9. 
kairim (karem), ix, 4. 
kurme (kor u me), ii, 2. 
kurmut (kor u mot u ), ii, 1 ; iii, 8 ; 

viii, 2 ; ix, 1 ; x, 7, 12 (2). 
karmuts (kur^miits*), x, 8, 10. 
kurmuts (kur u muts u ), viii, 1. 
karani (karani), x, 2 ; xii, 26 (2). 
kardn (kardn), i, 1, 3 ; ii, 3, 5 ; 

iii, 4; v, 5 (2), 12; vii, 

15 (2), 6, 24 ; viii, 2, 3, 12, 3 ; 

x, 8, 12, 4 (2) ; xi, 8, 19 ; 

xii, 3, 20, 3, 4. 
kardn (kaddn), viii, 11. 
karqn (kadan), viii, 11. 
karqn (kur u n), v, 12 (2). 
karani (karani), xii, 4. 
karani (karani), xii, 6 (2). 
karun (kadun), iii, 8. 
karun (karun), viii, 9. 
karun (karun u ), v, 7 ; viii, 2, 6, 

8 (2), 11 ; x, 3 ; xi, 8 ; xii, 3. 
karun (kur u n), xii, 12. 
kariin (kur^n), xii, 17. 
karnq (karani), viii, 4. 
karqn (kiir u n), viii, 11. 
kqrin (kdrin), v, 7, 9 ; viii, 5. 
karun (korun), v, 7 ; xii, 18, 

' 22 (3). 
karun (kur u n), vii, 8 ; x, 7 ; 

xii, 13, 20. 
kaWin (karen), x, 6, 7. 
kaWin (kdrin), x, 2. 
ka { rin (kiir ti n), x, 2. 
kq'rin (karen), x, 7. 
&aVm (kur*n), xii, 23. 



korun 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



448 



korun (kodun), iii, 8. 

korun (korun), ii, 7 ; x, 3, 5, 7. 

korun (kiir u n), x, 7. 

kurqn (khoran), v, 9. 

kurun (kodun), viii, 7. 

kurun (korun), ii, 4 ; iv, 6 ; vi, 

11 (2) ; vii, 4, 6 (2) ; viii, 

2, 10 ; ix, 3. 
k"rqnd (krund u ), v, 9. 
kranj 6 (kranje), v, 7. 
kq l rinak (kdr^nakh), x, 12. 
kurnak (kor u nakh), vi, 4 ; viii, 3. 
kqrnam (karinam), v, 9. 
&a*n warn (karenam), iv, 5. 
&wr nam (kor u nam), ix, 4. 
&wr M mw (kor u nam), iv, 2. 
kar^nas (kurqnas), x, 3. 
karinas (kd^nas), viii, 6. 
&ar nas (kurqnas), viii, 9. 
kqr a nas (kurqnas), iii, 9. 
kqr^nas (kurqnas), xii, 4, 9. 
kqr^nqs (kilr u nas), iii, 4. 
kqrnas (kur u nas), xii, 5. 
kaSrinas (karenas), x, 7. 
kurunas (kor u nas), xii, 15. 
kurunas (kiir u nas), xii, 16. 
kurqnas (kor u nas), viii, 9. 
kurqnas (kod u nas), viii, 10. 
kurnas (kor u nas), v, 10 ; xii, 15. 
kurqnas (kor u nas), xii, 15. 
kiirunas (kiirunas), x, 4. 
karanavun (karandwun), xii, 24. 
ftar naviny (karanov^n), x, 13. 
karin v (karun u ), v, 9 ; viii, 10. 
koron v (kadon), x, 1. 
to* wa?/* (kor u nay), iv, 3. 
Icareny (kariin"), x, 3 ; xii, 16. 
kariny (karun u ), viii, 7, 8. 
torn* (karas), xii, 15. 
&aros (karos), ix, 1. 
torn (karus), viii, 9. 
km (kur^s), iii, 1, 9. 



&a*m (karis), xii, 15. 

&wrws (korus), xii, 7. 

&arws wa (kiir u sna), v, 1. 

&arfo (karta), xii, 5, 10, 3. 

&arte (karta), xii, 4. 

&anY (kariih), v, 6. 

&an£ (kariih), vi, 9 (2). 

&arw£ (koruth), v, 4, 5. 

&a*n£ (kadith), viii, 10. 

fcaViY (kareth), x, 6. 

k'n'i (karith), iii, 8 (2) ; viii, 13 

x, 7. 
fcaViJ (kadith), x, 9. 
A»Vi£ (karith), iii, 8 ; viii, 7, 11 ; 

x, 12 (2) ; xi, 19. 
&tmf£ (koruth), viii, 3. 
&ar ZAe (karta), xii, 19. 
ka { rith (kadith), xii, 6, 7. 
ka { rith (karith), xii, 4. 
kq l rith (karith), xii, 23. 
tor ZAas (kor u thas), x, 12. 
& ? r torn (kiXrHham), ii, 11. 
kcfrtqn (kdrHhan), xi, 10. 
kr* 2ds (kdrHos), ii, 10. 
&are v (karay), ii, 3. 
&aV v (&ad*'), x, 2. 
&aV% (kariv), viii, 11 ; xii, 1, 

17. 
&or v e (kori), xii, 2. 
Ajor^e (kore), xii, 5. 
^or^t (kore), xii, 2. 
torn?/ (koruy), x, 12. 
kqrHnas (ka&nas), viii, 7. 
&aVzi (kdrhi), xii, 11. 
kar l zqnq (kdrhi-na), viii, 1 (2). 
&aV zma (ka^zi-na), xii, 6. 
&as, see c^ar &as, vii, 19. 
Ms (kas), vi, 6. 
&<m (kSsi), v, 9. 
&a^ (kalsi), ii, 8. 
M*'st (kalsi), iii, 3. 
to, see 2/e£i to, x, 1. 



449 



INDEX TO SIB AUREL STEIN'S TEXT 



k v e 



kus (kus), xi, 2 ; xii, 1. 
kusa (kusa), x, 6 (2). 
kash (khash), v, 4, 6. 
kash 9 (kdsh i ), ix, 5. 
kashmir (kashmir), xi, 4. 
&asA wa (kashena), xii, 16. 
kashir 1 (koshir 1 ), xi, 6. 
kas"m (kas a m), xii, 22. 
kasam (kasam), v, 9 (3). 
&asm (kasam), viii, 1 (2), 2. 
kismat (khazmath), xii, 3. 
kcLs^ni (kasani), xii, 19. 
kas^nuy (kasunuy), i, 12. 
towr (kusur), vii, 13. 
kustany (kus-tari), v, 4. 
kas u vun (kasawun u ), i, 11. 
fom«/ (kusuy), xi, 19. 
to (kath), xii, 1 (2). 
toa (katha), iii, 1. 
kat^kati), xi, 17 (2). 
toi (toi), x, 12 (3). 
to* (Jb&O, vii, 25. 
to^i (toi), xii, 5, 11, 5. 
kqHi (kati), xii, 4. 
kit (kit% xi, 11. 

i# (K^j, v, i. 

to (to u ), xi, 5. 

kbta (kotah), vii, 24. 

kut (khot u ), iii, 8, 9 ; v, 5, 6. 

kut (kuth u ), viii, 3. 

kuta (khota), iii, 8. 

kut 1 (kuth*), vi, 3. 

kilt (kut u ), vii, 22. 

HZafr (kitab), x, 13. 

kath (kath), x, 6 (2). 

katha (katha), x, 4 ; xii, 23. 

kathe (katha), iv, 5 ; x, 1 (6) ; 

2 (4), 6 (5), 7 (3), 14 ; xii, 3, 

25. 
kathau (kathau), ix, 7. 
to/m (katho), xi, II. 
to&a (kuth u ah), ix, 4. 



kathen (kathan), x, 1 ; xii, 9. 

kuthis (kuthis), x, 7. 

toi kochuk (katiko chukh), ii, 2. 

kotuna (khdtuna), v, 11. 

kat e ran (kataran), x, 7. 

tow (khdtis), ix, 5. 

tois (kuthis), iii, 8 (2) ; x, 8. 

tois (kuthis), x, 8. 

kqHith (khatith), xii, 6. 

kutval (kut a wal), v, 7, 9. 

to*vaZ (kufwal ' v 9 (3), 10. 

kotvalqn (kut a walan), v, 7. 

kutvalen (kut a walan), v, 8, 9. 

toa ray (katawan), xi, 19. 

to*e (tot), vii, 20. 

to y i (kati), x, 4. 

to* v (&to*')> x, 8. 

kqH v a (kotyah), xii, 20. 

to Z w a (kotyah), ix, 11. 

toye (toi), ii, 2. 

kaHya (kotyah), vii, 31 ; ix, 5 ; 

" x, 7, 8. 
kaVehund (kathi-hond u ), iii, 5. 
katse (katsa), x, 6. 
kats? (katsa), i, 12. 
&afc (khiits*), vii, 20 ; xii, 7. 
Mfe (kots u ), vii, 15. 
te (A»fe fi ), v, 1 ; x, 11 ; xi, 12. 
ketsa (kentshah), iii, 8. 
kav (khab), vi, 11. Cf. kdb. 
kuv? (kuwa), v, 9. 
kdvand (khdwand), iii, 1, 3 ; v, 

1, 8, 11. 
kavandas (khawandas), v, 10, 2. 
kavandas (khawandas), iii, 4 ; 

v, 8. 
kavandas (khawandas), viii, 10. 
kavandqsunz (khawanda-sunz*), 

iii, 2. 
& w a (kyah), viii, 10. 
& v e (MeA), iii, 1. 
£ v e (Uh), v, 5 ; x, 1. 



m 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



450 



tee (keh), iv, 4, 6 ; v, 5, 8, 10 ; 
viii, 1, 9 ; x, 7 ; xi, 15; 
xii, 5, 15. 

kya (Jcyd), vi, 5. 

kya (kydh), ii, 2, 11 ; iii, 4 (4), 
8, 9 (2) ; iv, 7 (2) ; v, 9 (5) 
vi, 15 ; vii, 8, 20, 2, 4, 6 
viii, 1 (2), 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 (2) 
1 (5), 3 (2) ; ix, 4 (2), 6 
x, 2, 3 (2), 5, 6, 10, 2 (3), 4 
xi, 17, 8 ; xii, 3, 4, 15, 20, 1. 

Jcya, see as*kya, v, 9. 

kyd (Jcyd), v, 9 ; xii, 23. 

kyd (kydh), ii, 4 ; v, 9 ; x, 3 ; 
xii, 15. 

kyd, see at x kyd, v, 8. 

kyd, see ti kyd zi, viii, 2. 

kya (keh), i, 6. 

kye (kih), ii, 5 ; iii, 8 ; viii; 2 ; 
ix, 6 ; xi, 7 ; xii, 2, 6, 7, 
15. 

kuy, see am* kuy, vi, 15. 

kuy, see tarn* kuy, vii, 12. 

k v aho (ke-ho), v, 5. 

kyah (kydh), vii, 27 (2), 8 (2), 30 ; 
viii, 10 ; x, 8, 14 ; xii, 1, 7. 

kyaho (ke-ho), v, 4. 

kyek (kyekh), ii, 3. 

k v eknd (khekh-nd), vi, 2. 

k y emai (khemay), iii, 1. 

%wm (kyom u ), xii, 3 (4), 4. 

k v emdy (khemay), iii, 1. 

fo/on (khyori), vi, 16 (2). 

Kw rat (kina), viii, 3. 

k v inna (kina), v, 7. 

k y entsa (kentshdh), iii, 1. 

kyenzi (kenze), x. 3. 

& y eZ (&&A), iii, 2 ; v, 4 ; x, 7 ; 
xi, 13. 

k v eta (ketha), iii, 9. 

k v etq (ketha), viii, 5 ; x, 8. 

kHta (ketha), v, 8. 



k v ut (kyut u ), xii, 11. 

fo/ata (ketha), xii, 3. 

%e£ (MA), ii, 7. 

%wZ (kyut u ), ii, 1 ; iii, 1 ; xii, 

4, 5. 
%w£ (kyuth u ), ii, 5. 
& v e torn (khetam), iii, 1. 
%wZA (kyut u ), xii, 24. 
& v efca (kentsah), vii, 20. 
^efea (kentshdh), v, 8 ; x, 3. 
& v lfca (kentshdh), vii, 26 ; xii, 10. 
kyetsa (kentshdh), xii, 4, 13. 
&z/e fea (kentshdh), xii, 5. 
k v avdn (khewdn), vi, 16. 
& w e?/ (A%), viii, 13. 
%ei/ (fay), viii, 7. 
fo/a 26 (kydzi), viii, 1. 
%azi (kydzi), iii, 1 ; v, 8 ; viii, 

11 ; ix, 1. 
kyd zi (kydzi), xii, 4, 5. 
kydh 1 ' (kydzi), viii, 3. 
% (I6w u ), xi, 12. 
Za6a& (labakh), ii, 9. 
Zo&tm (loburi), ii, 10. 
ZacAe (lache), ii, 2. 
fo'cAm (lichen), viii, 10. 
Zadai, see da*d ve ladai, vii, 9. 
Zad (Zad), xii, 15. 
Za$w (laddy 1 ), x, 1. 
Me hamai (ladaham-ay), x, 3. 
Zacfam (ladun u ), x, 3. 
Www (hdun), vii, 7 ; viii, 7 ; 

x, 3. 
ludun (loduri), ii, 5. 
Idddn (lardri), x, 5. 
ludnam (lod u nam), v, 9. 
lud a nam (lod u nam), iv, 2. 
lud^nam (lod u nam), xii, 15. 
Wdyau (ladydv), iii, 5. 
ldd v omut (lddyomot u ), viii, 6. 
Iddeyes (ladyeyes), vi, 8. 
Za<7* (Zagr*), xi, 5. 



451 INDEX TO SIR AUREL STEIN'S TEXT lashka*ri 



lag (lag), v, 9. 

lag* (lag*), x, 1. 

log (log-), viii, 6 (3) ; x, 7 (2), 8. 

log (I6g u ), v, 11. 

lug (log u ), v, 5, 7 ; vi, 11 ; xi, 

5 ; xii, 2. 
lagaha (lagaho), v, 8. 
lag^ham (lagaham), v, 2. 
lagak (lagakh), v, 2. 
lagik (lagekh), ix, 12. 
log^mai (log u m u y), v, 2. 
lagimna (gatshem-na), xii, 22. 
lqg i mat i (lag^mdt*), viii, 5. 
Zd# u mut (ldg u mot u ), x, 14. 
Iqgimaf (ldg*mdt*), iii, 7. 
fa^an (lagan), viii, 5. 
Z%wn (Idgun), x, 7. 
ZtN/wft (Idgun), v, 10, 1. 
Za#ar (lagar), vi, 15. 
Za^'Z (logith), i, 2 ; v, 11 ; x, 

12 (2). 

to? (%'*)* xi> 16. 

fajfo's (luj u s), vi, 16 ; viii, 7, 9. 

Idk, see maulah, v, 11. 

Za*&i (loyik-i), xii, 10. 

Z6& (lokh), ii, 11. 

feM (Zi£/i), xii, 15. 

lekhan (UJchan), x, 13 ; xii, 11. 

UJchan (likhan), ix, 12. 

likhun (lyukhun), xii, 22 (2). 

lakam (lakam), xi, 9. 

Ze&aw (lekan), viii, 3. 

Zo&aw (lokan), ii, 11 ; xi, 13. 

Zoto (Zo£<T), xii, 1. 

lal (lal), viii, 7 ; x, 5, 12 (3) ; 

xii, 2 (4), 3 (2), 4 (9), 6, 

9 (4). 
lal* (lal), i, 9. 
lala (lala), iv, 7. 
lalau (lalau), viii, 3, 11. 
Zofo (luh-luh), v, 11. 
ZoZo (luh-luh), v, 11 (3). 



Za i7Za^ (layild), vi, 17. 

ZaZ maZ (lalmal), xii, 8, 11 (2), 

4, 5, 25. 
lalan hund (lalan-hond u ), xii, 

5(3). 
lal pharosh (lal-pharosh), xii, 3. 
lalan (lalan), x, 5. 
Id larichim (Idhlari chim), vi, 3. 
lalas (lalas), xii, 4 (2). 
lal shindk (lal-shendkh), xii, 13. 
lal shindk (lal-shendkh), xii, 4 

(4), 5 (3), 7 (2), 10, 1, 3, 4, 5, 

etc. 
lal shindkan (lal-shendkan), xii, 

4 (2), 7, 9, 10, 3, 22 (3), 

4,5. 
lal shindkas (Idl-sMndkas), xii, 

4 (2), 5, 6, 10, 1, 3, 5, 9 (5), 

22, 4, 5. 
lal shindkasund (lal-shendka- 

sond u ), xii, 8, 25. 
lal 9 sat (lal sath), x, 2. 
lalqvan (lalawan), v, 6. 
Za niakan (Id-makan), vii, 29. 
laman (laman), viii, 9. 
Za*m (Z6V), vii, 12. 
landana (landana), xi, 3. 
longu*th* (langut*), xii, 23. 
Zoram (lonan), x, 5. 
Zar (Zar), ii, 8 ; ix, 2. 
lq*r* (lari), vii, 7, 18. 
larichim, see Zo larichim, vi, 3. 
larichim (lare chim), vi, 3. 
Zaran (lardn), ii. 9 ; vi, 8 ; viii, 

6 ; xi, 12, 8. 
laris (loris), ii, 9. 
Wryau (laryav), ii, 10 (2). 
lasa (lasi), x, 7. 
lashkar (lashkar), x, 11. 
lashkqrq (lashkari), ii, 7. 
lashkar* (lashkari), ii, 8. 
lashka*ri (lashkari), x, 9, 13. 



lat* 



HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 



452 



lat 1 (lati), viii, 7 (2). 
lati (lati), xi, 9. 
lot (hV 1 ), v, 7. 
luH* (lot 1 ), xii, 5. 
latan (latan), viii, 7. 
lit*ri (litri), vii, 19. 
lay (lay), i, 7. 
laye (layi), iii, 9. 
I6y*has (I6y u has), ii, 11. 
i^e/a (%'e), xi, 10. 
IdyVJcq (loyik-e), x, 4. 
layak (loyikh), xii, 10, 9. 
layiki (loyik-i), xii, 19 (2). 
Idyuk (Idyukh), x, 1. 
» (lyukh u ), xii, 15. 
Pukhmut (lyukh u mot u ), xii, 15, 23. 
lyukhmut (lyukh u mot u ), viii, 10. 
Pukh^nas (lyukh u nas), xii, 15 (2). 
Pukhunas (lyukh u nas), xii, 16. 
Pukhas (lyukh u has), xii, 17. 
Pukhas (lyukhus), xii, 17. 
Pekan (lekan), viii, 11. 
Iqy^mas (loy i mas), v, 4. 
Za?/cm (layan), i, 6 ; v, 4 (2). 
Zaym (layan 1 ), v, 3. 
Za^'n (loyin), v, 4. 
layine (layeni), ix, 8. 
Za?/m (loyiri), viii, 6. 
Za?/im (Idyun), iii, 1, 2. 
Z%im (Idyun), i, 8. 
layinam (loy^nam), v, 9. 
lay anas (lay anas), v, 5. 
lay^nas (I6y u nas), viii, 10. 
Wyinas (loy u nas), iii, 6. 
Z%ws (layus), iii, 5. 
ZazaA; (lazakh),. viii, 4, 12. 
Zaz<m (lazan), v, 7. 
Zazww (luz u n), x, 3. 
laz^nas (luz u nas), x, 3. 
lazqnas (luz u nas), x, 3. 
ma (ma), viii, 10 ; x, 5, 12 ; xii, 
23. 



ma, see mafma, v, 9. 

ma (ma), i, 2 ; v, 2, 8 ; vii, 20 ; 

viii, 9, 13 (2). 
ma (na), viii, 7. 
ma (ma), xii, 7. 
wet (me), v, 9 ; viii, 3 ; x, 8. 
ma, see #ai ma, vii, 12. 
mai (may), v, 2. 
mai, see (fo/oJ mai, xi, 1. 
me (me), i, 7 ; ii, 2 (2) ; v, 8, 11 ; 

vi, 15 ; vii, 11, 3, 5 ; viii, 

5, 11 (2) ; x, 1, 3 (3), 12 (4), 

4 ; xii, 5. 
mebar (me bar 1 ), ix, 11. 
mubdrak (mobdrakh), x, 8. 
mdch tulari (mdch-t a l a ri), ix, 6. 
mdch tular (mtich-tHV), ix, 1 (3), 

3, 4.* 
mdch tulari (mdch-t a l a ri), ix, 1. 
macdmq (macdma), ii, 3. 
mad 9 (mad), vii, 15. 
mod (mud u ), ii, 3. 
mod (mdr u ), vi, 11. 
muda (modd), vi, 7. 
mud (mod u ), ii, 5, 9. 
mud (mor u ), ii, 10 (2), 1. 
mud (mud u ), ii, 6. 
mdddn (modan), xi, 3. 
ma { ddn (modan), x, 1. 
maiddn (modan), x, 1 (3). 
maiddna (moddnd), x, 5. 
maidanas (moddnas), viii, 9; x, 1. 
maiddnqs (moddnas), iii, 1. 
m&ddnas (moddnas), xii, 20. 
mudur (modur u ), vii, 31. 
mudr v au (modaryiv), ix, 7. 
modis (madis), ii, 5. 
mahabat (mahabata), x, 4. 
ma^ &am (mahkam), xi, 9. 
mahkam (mahkam), iv, 6. 
mahalq (mahala), xii, 19. 
mahHqkhan (mahalakhan), viii, 3. 



458 



INDEX TO SIB AUBEL STEIN'S TEXT momut 



mahala kdn (mahalakhdn), viii, 

11. 
mohim (muhim), x, 3. 
muhim (muhim), i, 11, 2 ; viii, 9. 
mahamad (mahmad), iv, 6. 
mahmud 1 (mahmod-i), i, 1. 
muhimma (muhima), i, 4, 5 (2). 
muhammad (mahmad), vii, 4. 
mohim zad (muhimzad), x, 4. 
mahnyiu (mahaniv*), x, 1. 
mahnyu (mahanyuv u ), x, 4. 
mohra (mohara), i, 9. 
moh a ra (mohara), v, 12. 
mohara (mohara), v, 10. 
mohqr (mohar), x, 3 (3), 10. 
mohur (mohar), x, 10 ; xii, 22. 
mah a rdj (mdhrdj), xi, 4. 
mqh a ram (mah a ram), ii, 4. 
muht^ v (moktay), i, 9. 
muh v im (muhim), viii, 9. 
maje (mdje), viii, 3 ; ix, 9. 
mo/e (mdji), xii, 18. 
maj^maje), v, 2 ; viii, 11. 
mdjij^mdje), viii, 3. 
mdjij(mdji), v, 6. 
majljijnaji), v, 2. 
majl(moj u ), v,\2 ; viii, 1 (2) ; 

' xii, 15 (2). •• 
ma i y& (mdji), xii, 15. 
ma l ji (mdjiy), xii, 15. 
mo; (mdj u ), viii, 3, 11 (2) ; 

xii, 15 (2), 8. 
mojub (mojub), viii, 6. 
maje /mna5 (mdje-hond u ), xii, 15. 
mej'ar (mejer), x, 12, 3. 
mejqran (mejeran), x, 12. 
mejqras (mejeras), x, 12 (2). 
mejeras (mejeras), x, 5 (3). 
mqtjiy (mdjiy), xii, 15. 
ma& (makh), vii, 14. 
mukadam (mukadam), ix, 10. 
mw&a daman (mukadaman), ix, 1. 



mukhq (mdkha), x, 4. 
mukhe (mdkha), viii, 9. 
makhri (mqkh a r-i), x, 13. 
moklai (mdkdliy), vi, 11. 
moklau (mdkaldw u ), vi, 16 ; ix, 6. 
moHi (mokali), v, 8. 
mwA;^ (mdkali), vi, 10. 
muklan (mdkalan), ix, 11. 
mukHdu nas (mokal6w u nas), 

xii, 5. 
muklan (mdkalan), ix, 11. 
mukHdva hun (mdkaldwahun), 

x, 1.' 
mokaldvany (mdkaldwun u ), v, 8. 
mukHyau (mokalydv), viii, 6, 8. 
makdn (makdn), vii, 29. 
mokrqtit (mokh raiith), v, 9. 
mat (mdl), iii, 1 ; viii, 9 (4). 
mdl, see lal mdl, xii, 8, 11 (2), 

4, 5, 25. 
ma7 ? (ma7), i, 9. 
mqH (mbV), v, 6. 
mo7 (m6Z u ), viii, 1. 
mul (mdl), viii, 9 (3), 10. 
maPkau (malakav), iv, 2. 
mauldk (mov lag), v, 11. 
malaikum, see as£a malaikum, 

xii, 26. 
mulken (mulkan), i, 1. 
malkdnye (mdVkdni), xi, 2. 
maVkas (malikas), iv, 7. 
malan (malan), vi, 13. 
ma'fo's (molis), xii, 5, 10 (2), 3. 
m&Vsandi (mbV-sandi), xii, 21. 
mqWsund (mbV-sond"), xii, 21, 2. 
mdHisqnz (mbV-siinz*), xii, 24. 
mdW-sunz (mbV-siinz*), xii, 20. 
mdHisunz (mbV-sunz*), xii, 19, 20. 
miVvuk (miluv^kh), x, 1. 
mdHyis (molis), xii, 4. 
momut (mumot u ), ii, 3 (2), 4 (2), 

10 ; x, 8 (2). 



momHis 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



454 



momHis (mumatis), xii, 20. 

momuts (mumuts u ), viii, 1. 

moimuV (mumdt i ), viii, 1 (2). 

mane (mani), vi, 6. 

mane (mane), vii, 27, 8. 

ma l ni (mane), iii, 5. 

mang (mang), xii, 5, 10, 1. 

manga (manga), iii, 6. 

mangai (mangay), xii, 7. 

manga has (mangahas), xii, 19. 

mangHqj (mang liij"), xi, 16. 

mangum (mangum), xii, 18. 

m% e mar (mine-mur u ), ii, 8. 

mangan (mangan), xi, 14 ; xii, 
4, 5, 11, 4. 

mangun (mangun u ), xii, 13, 8 (2). 

manga natfhai (manganov^hay), 
xi, 8. 

mange ndvun (mangandwun), vi, 
16. 

ming ve mqri (mine-mare), ii, 9. 

ming ve mqri (mine-mari), ii, 9. 

mentis (myonis), xii, 20 (2). 

manosh (manosh), xii, 15 (2). 

manoshas (manoshes), xii, 15. 

mantsq (mOtsa), xii, 15. 

matnye (mane), iii, 4. 

manye (mane), vi, 14. 

men v (my on 1 ), vii, 20. 

ma^g^zqs (mangles), xii, 18. 

wans; (mcmz), ii, 1 (3), 4, 5 
(3), 6 (2), 7 (2), 8 (2), 9, 
10 (2), 1 (2) ; iii, 1, 4, 5, 7 
(2), 9 ; v, 4 (3), 5 (2), 6, 9 
(3), 11; vi, 7; viii, 1, 9, 
12; ix, 1; x, 3, 7 (5), 8 
(2), 14; xii, 2 (3), 3 (2), 
6, 7 (2), 11 (3), 2 (2), 5, 8 
(2), 9, 20 (2), 2, 3 (2), 4 (2). 

manza (manza), viii, 7, 11 ; 
ix', 4; x, 7 (2), 12 (3); 
xii, 4 (2), 6, 7, 11, 5, 23. 



manzur (mdnzur), i, 12. 

mun* zat (munazaih), vii, 3. 

meny (myon"), iii, 2, 8, 9. 

mar (mar), ix, 5. 

mar a, see s^aA mara, viii, 7. 

mam (mara), viii, 13 ; x, 8. 

mar (mur u ), ii, 8. 

marai (maray), viii, 1 (2). 

mare (mara), x, 7. 

mare (mare), v, 7. 

man (mare), ii, 9. 

man (mari), x, 7. 

man, see ming ye mari, ii, 9. 

wio'n (mari), xii, 19. ; 

maVi, see tsim&ri, vi, 11. 

mor (m^ u ), viii, 13. 

mor (mdr u ), ii, 8 ; iii, 3 (3). 

mardq (marda), vii, 23. 

murad (murad), i, 10. 

murde mazatry (murdamazor 1 ), 

x, 12. 
margq, see son 9 margq, xi, 3. 
marine (marihe), viii, 7. 
mqrihe (marihe), viii, 10. 
marhaba (marhabah), ii, 10. 
morham (mdr u ham), iii, 3. 
marshal (mdrahath), ii, 11. 
marih v e (marihe), viii, 7. 
mqraj (maraz-i), xi, 5. 
murkhas (murkhas), viii, 11. 
mdr^kan (marakan), vii, 23. 
mar an (maran), v, 9. 
marqnq (marana), x, 12. 
marqni (mdrani), viii, 13. 
marun (mdrun u ), x, 5 (2), 12, 5. 
mdrun (mdrun), viii, 10 (2). 
morun (mdrun), viii, 7 ; x, 7. 
mdrenak (maranakh), viii, 4. 
marqnas (mar anas), ii, 7. 
marqs, see sAaA mar as, viii, 6. 
mam (maris), ii, 6, 7 (2), 11. 
mara£ (marath), ii, 11. 



455 INDEX TO SIR AUREL STEIN'S TEXT 



mye 



mqrit (marith), iv, 7 ; vi, 16. 
mcprit (morith), x, 8. 
mor thas (morHhas), v, 6. 
martsevangan (martsawdgan), v, 6. 
mdravdtHau (mdrawdtaiau), viii, 

12. 
mdrqvdtal (mdrawdtal), x, 12. 
mdrqvdtqlau (mdrawdtaiau), x, 12. 
maravdtHan (mdrawdtalan), viii, 

11. 
mdr^vdtalan (mdrawdtalan), viii, 

13. ' 
mdr^vdtelan (mdrawdtalan), x, 8. 
maravdtHan (mdrawdtalan), x, 

5(2). 
mdrevdtHan (mdrawdtalan), x, 12. 
mare vdtHan (mdrawdtalan), viii, 

4. 
mdrevdtalan (mdrawdtalan), viii, 

12. ' 
mare vdtHan (mdrawdtalan), viii, 

4. 
mq l r v (mor*), viii, 12. 
ma'ryu (mdriwa), ii, 7. 
mdr v uk (moryukh), viii, 12, 3. 
md l ryuk (moryukh), viii, 4. 
mxprijun (moryun), ii, 11. 
mas (mas), vii, 31. 
mas, see hal? mas, v, 4. 
musdi (musdy), iv, 5. 
mdVi talari (mdch-t a l a re), Title 

of ix. 
maushiir (mashhur), xi, 3. 
mqshit (mashith), x, 6. 
mashiyat (mashiyeth), vii, 7. 
mushtdk (mushtdhh), iii, 1, 7, 8, 

9 (2) ; vii, 3. 
miskln (miskln), ix, 11 ; x, 10. 
miskirii (miskini), x, 4 (2). 
musla (musla), xii, 18. 
musHq (musla), xii, 18. 
musfchan (musla-han), xii, 21. 



muslahat (mqslahath), viii, 3. 
mws/a Aa< (mqslahath), xi, 19. 
musHas (muslas), xii, 22. 
masnavl (masnavi), vii, 30. 
misar (misar), vi, 10, 2 (2). 
misren (misar an), vi, 14. 
masZ (masO, xii, 4 (2), 5 (2), 10 

(3), 3 (2), 9. < 
mast (mastan), vi, 15. 
mat (math), v, 9. 
mat 1 ' (mat 1 ), v, 9. 
mat 1 (mati), xi, 10. 
mat 1 (me-ti), vi, 11. 
mot 1 , see ani mot 1 , v, 8. 
mut (moth u ), v, 7. 
mw£, see Za# u mut, x, 14. 
mw£, see thdu mot, viii, 9. 
mwZA, see on muth, xii, 25. 
muthai (mot u hay), v, 2. 
motuk (muth u kh), ix, 8. 
mapma (mati mdh), v, 9. 
mbteny (mdtun u ) } ix, 4. 
mato's (matis), v, 9. 
mata'Z (mathith), ix, 4. 
ma&a (matshi), x, 5. 
mwfe, see parzq ndu muts, x, 5. 
mwfe, see fraw muts, x, 8. 
mwfc, see tsunye muts, v, 6. 
muts^rai (mutsaray), viii, 3. 
muts?rin (mutsaren), xii, 22. 
muts^run (mutsorun), viii, 10 ; 

xii, 23. 
muts*rit (mutsarith), vii, 21. 
mut^sqHh* (mdtasilt 1 ), ix, 7. 
mats y e (matshi), x, 2. 
mov, see vanye mov, x, 1. 
m v e (me), iii, 4, 9 ; ix, 1 (2), 4, 6 ; 

x, 4, 5 (2), 9, 12 (2), 4; 

xi, 1 ; xii, 2, 4, 6, 7 (2), 10 

(3), 3, 5 (2), 9, 20, 2 (3), 4 (3). 
mye (me), v, 10. 
mye (myon 1 ), xii, 15. 



mye 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



456 



mye (mydn"), v, 10. 
moye (moye), viii, 2, 11. 
muy, see dale muy, xi, 14. 
m y egatse (me gatshi), xii, 4. 
m v en (mydn 1 ), x, 5 ; xii, 15. 
m v en (myon u ), iii, 4 ; xii, 14. 
myani (myani), i, 2. 
mydn (my6n u ), vii, 27, 8. 
myen (mydn a ), xii, 14, 8. 
mydn (my6n u ), i, 10 ; x, 4, 5, 

12 (2), 4, 5. 
myanen (myanen), ii, 7. 
m v enis (myonis), xii, 19. 
m v e i nis (myonis), xii, 21. 
m v enish (me-nish), viii, 5. 
wm/o ww/ (mydnuy), vii, 9. 
m v eny (mydn*), xii, 15. 
myenyiy (mydnuy), x, 10. 
m v e^ (me-ti), xi, 14. 
?m/w£ (myuth u ), vi, 11. 
m v eva (mewa), xii, 21, 2. 
moz (maz), vii, 24. 
mez^mdn (mizmdn), vii, 4. 
mdzaWy, see mwrde mdzdWy, x, 

12. 
mazas (mdzas), vii, 14. 
wa (wa), ii, 8 ; iii, 1, 9 ; v, 6, 8 ; 

vi, 10 ; viii, 1, 2, 3, 7, 11 (2), 

3 ; x, 1 (3), 4, 6 (2), 7, 12 ; 

xii, 2, 7 (2), 18. 
na (nd), vi, 2, 13 ; viii, 7 ; 

ix, 3 ; x, 5, 12. 
na, see h v in na, viii, 3. 
na (na), i, 5, 6 ; ii, 1, 4, 5, 9, 11 ; 
' iii, 2, 3 ; v, 5, 9 ; vi, 16 (2) ; 

viii, 1 (2), 2, 7, 9 (4) ; x, 

1, 3, 4, 6, 7 ; xi, 8 ; xii, 

2 (3), 3, 5, 6, 11, 3, 5 (2), 6, 

7, 9, 20, 2 (2). 
na, see dyinq, v, 6. 
wa, see chu na, iv, 4, 6 ; viii, 2 ; 

xii, 2, 22. ' 



na, see chuk na, v, 5 ; xii, 13. 
na, see &ams wa, v, 1. 
na, see &asA wa, xii, 16. 
na, see vutehenq, v, 9. 
wa (wa), i, 10 ; ii, 3 ; vi, 1, 2 
(2), 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 
1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 ; x, 12. 
na, see mde wa, vii, 25. 
nd, see ^>arze nd vun, viii, 10. 
na* (nay), vii, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1, 
3, 4, 8, 9, 20, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
30, 1 ; ix, 6, 12 ; xi, 14, 5. 
nai, see sanai, v, 5. 
wai, see tana nai, v, 12. 
wai, see tim? nai, xii, 1. 
nai, see <rau nai, v, 4. 
nai, see va7e nai, vii, 15. 
nai (nay), vii, 3. 
nau (nau), vii, 23 ; xi, 15. 
ndu (ndv), xii, 4 (2), 18. 
waw, see parzq nau, xii, 2. 
watt (now u ), ii, 2. 
waw, see parzq ndu, x, 5. 
watt, see parzq ndu muts, x, 5. 
ndu, see ^arze waw vun, viii, 9. 

we (wa), x, 14. 

ne, see vwcA* ne, viii, 7. 

wo, see vote no vun^, viii, 9. 

ndu (now u ), i, 11. 

ww (wu), xii, 4 (2). 

ww (woA), iv, 3. 

nebar (nebar), x, 5. 

nebqr (nebar), iii, 8 (3) ; v, 9 ; 
viii, 7 ; x, 7. 

nqch, see wayis Jaw nqch, vii, 29. 

nechiv (neciv*), viii, 11 ; xii, 1. 

nichuva (necyuvdh), v, 2. 

nech*vin (neciven), viii, 3. 

nechevin (neciven), viii, 11, 3. 

wad (wad), i, 10 ; x, 12 ; xii, 17. 

nd ddnq (ndddna), xi, 11. 

wa ddnqs (ndddnas), ii, 5. 



457 



INDEX TO SIR AUREL STEIN 1 S TEXT 



nas 



nag (nag), vi, 15 ; xii, 6. 

ndge (naga), v, 9 (2). 

nagmq (nagma), iii, 7. 

ndgan (ndgan), vi, 15. 

nigin (nigiri), i, 9. 

niginau (niginau), viii, 3, 11. 

ndgas (ndgas), iii, 9 (2) ; v, 9 ; 

xii, 6 (3), 11, 2 (2), 4 (2). 
ndgas (ndgas), iii, 4 (2), 5 (2) ; 

xii, 7. 
wafo'Z (nahith), xii, 4. 
wa&, see chu nak, viii, 1. 
na£, see dop u nak, viii, 1 ; x, 1. 
nak, see dojtra na&, ii, 6. 
wa/c, see Mw nak, xii, 18. 
wa&, see vanye nak, x, 1. 
waM ? (nakha), ii, 9. 
nukhta (noktdh), xii, 4. 
nukhta (nokhta), xii, 19. 
naMr (nakar), iv, 6. 
naukar (nokar), viii, 5. 
naukri (nokari), xii, 3. 
naukar (nokar), xii, 3. 
ndk°ri (nokari), viii, 5. 
wa£ (no7), xi, 17. 
rcaZ (nol*), viii, 10 (3). 
ndl? (ndla), vii, 22. 
na7a (ndla), v, 9 ; vii, 23 ; viii, 

10. 
ndle (ndle), xi, 4. 
na7*' (noZ*), viii, 10. 
nalas (nalas), vi, 9. 
ndl v (noP), x, 4. 
na l V (nbl 1 ), xii, 7. 
nam (nam), v, 6. 
nam, see dopu nam, iv, 4. 
nam, see dqtri nam, vii, 25. 
nam, seegatse nam, x, 1, 2. 
nam, see A:a*>i nam, iv, 5. 
nam, see &w nam, ix, 4. 
nam, see kur u nam, iv, 2. 
nam, see tq { ri nam, vii 25 



nam, see fcany nam, ix, 2. 

nam, see vafe nam, iv, 7. 

nam* (nami), vi, 16. 

nom (nto), x, 5. 

noma (ndma), viii, 4. 

nomau (ndmav), x, 12. 

noman (ndman), viii, 1 ; x, 12 

(2). 
nqmis (7iemis), v, 9. 
nam v au (namyov), vi, 16. 
nnna (nuna), v, 6. 
nindqr (nend a r), v, 5, 6 (4), 7. 
ning a ldn (ningaldn), vi, 15 (2). 
nan aar (nan-gar), xi, 10. 
nandn (nanan), vii, 1. 
nunnuy (nonuy), vi, 7. 
nmsa (m'w sa), xii, 25. 
nanyi (nun u ), viii, 6. 
winy {win), v, 7. 
naptsas (naphtsas), x, 3. 
na> (nar), xii, 21, 2, 3, 4. 
ner (ner), ii, 9. 

neraw (nerav), xi, 12 ; xii, 18. 
neru (riiriv), x, 9. 
nur (nur u ), xii, 15. 
na> ? (nura), vii, 6. 
ndr^hqn (ndra-han), iii, 1. 
narqm (narm), vii, 24. 
naran (naran), viii, 1. 
n&rini (nerani), x, 7. 
neran (nerdn), xii, 1. 
neran (nerdn), viii, 1, 7. 
nernn (nerun), ii, 3. 
naras (naras), iii, 4. 
nm< (nirith), ii, 3. 
ne*rith (nirith), xii, 12, 5. 
neravun (nerawun u ), v, 8. 
ner v w (nin'o), xii, 1. 
nert/tZ (wotd), xii, 1. 
ne { ryu (niriv), ii, 7. 
nas, see as nas, v, 6. 
nas, see aVp u nas, v, 4 ; viii, 7. 



nas 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



458 



nas, see kar nas, viii, 9. 

nas, see mukHdu nas, xii, 5. 

nas, see than nas, xii, 9. 

nas, see thdu nas, xii, 4, 12. 

nash (nash), ix, 3. 

m'sA (nish), ii, 11 ; iii, 2 ; v, 
8, 10; viii, 5, 13 ; x, 1, 
2, 4, 5 (2), 11, 2 ; xii, 2, 3, 
4, 5 (2), 10, 3, 9, 22 (2), 5. 

nish (nishe), ii, 7 ; x, 14. 

msA, see kab a nish, vi, 12. 

m'sA, see m v enish, viii, 5. 

m'aAi (nishe), vii, 2, 20 ; x, 7, 
14. 

nishan (nishin), viii, 4. 

nishana (nishdna), x, 8, 14 (2) ; 
xii,' 21. 

nishin (nishin), viii, 10. 

nishin (nishin), vii, 20 (2). 

nishinan (nishinan), vii, 24. 

nishinan (nishinan), vii, 21. 

m'scw (nishin), ii, 8. 

nasiyat (nasiyeth), xii, 1. 

na i s i yat (nasiyeth), xii, 16. 

na l siyat (nasiyeth), xii, 17. 

ntrt (rcoP), iii, 5 (3), 9 ; xi, 13. 

nether (neth a r), xii, 15. 

nqtis (natis), iii, 5, 9. 

natatas (nata tas), v, 7. 

not u vdn (ndtuwdn), i, 2. 

mwa, see &e warn, vii, 7. 

navau (nawav), iii, 8. 

nav (wav), ii, 1 ; xii, 8. 

nav, see as* nav, x, 6. 

nav*hai, see manga ndtfhai, xi, 8. 

navan, see daMe navan, xi, 16. 

navan, see <jrara navan, xi, 17. 

navim, see mange ndwun, iv, 16. 

naviny, see to* naviny, x, 13. 

m/w (we?;), iii, 7. 

wyw (nyuv), viii, 9. 

nay (wm/), vii, 1. 



nay*, see &wr nay', iv, 3. 

na?/e (naye), vii, 1. 

wa?/e (way), vii, 31. 

?m/ (niy), v, 9. 

my (niye), ii, 1. 

my 6 (niye), ii, 6. 

wiye (niye), x, 7, 8 ; xii, 23. 

wwy, see m?/d nwy, vii, 9. 

n y ech?, see wra n y ech? vin, viii, 3. 

n v eche (nechi), vi, 16. 

n v echu (necyuv u ), iii, 9 (2). 

nyeche (nechi), vi, 16. 

nyechi, see ywie nyechi handi, 

xii, 10. 
n y ech a vis (necivis), iii, 9. 
nayiaJ (noyid), v, 6 ; xi, 18 ; 

xii, 4 (2), 5 (2), 10 (2), 

3, 9 (2), 22, 3, 4, 5. 
ndyidan (ndyidan), xii, 25. 
na { ydan (ndyidan), xii, 19. 
nyu has (nyuhas), viii, 9. 
nyuk (nyukh), x, 5 (2) ; xi, 18. 
niy ok (niyekh), viii, 11. 
nyukuy, see gud nyukuy, viii, 5. 
n y emau (nimav), xii, 19. 
n y emis (nemis), xii, 15. 
nyumut (nyumot u ), viii, 9. 
m/im (nyun), vi, 9. 
niyun (niyun), x, 5. 
niyanta (niyen ta), v, 12. 
wa^'s Jaw (nayistan), vii, 27, 8. 
nayis Jaww& (nayistanuk u ), vii, 26. 
wayts Jaw wac^ (nayistaniic"), 

vii, 29. 
nayis Janas (nayistdnas), vii, 26. 
naze's Jan v (nayistan), vii, 26. 
w v i£ (mJ/i), x, 1. 
ft v #ar (neih a r), viii, 2 (2). 
n v avik (nyovik 1 ), xi, 6. 
w v aza (neza), v, 4. 
ndyiz(ndyez u ), xi, 19. 
n y azik (nizikh), x, 3, 4. 



459 INDEX TO SIR AUREL STEIN'S TEXT pddshahan 



n v ezik (riizikh), viii, 6. 

n v ezlk (riizikh), viii, 6. 

nazdik (nazdikh), viii, 10. 

nazdik (riizikh), viii, 10. 

nezik (nizekh), viii, 6. 

nazan (ndzan), ii, 7. 

naz a ri (nazari), vii, 13. 

naz*r (nazar), xii, 23. 

nazari (nazari), x, 7. 

nazar (nazar), ii, 1 ; viii, 6. 

nazar (nazardh), viii, 11. 

nazar (nazar), x, 7, 8 (3) ; xii, 23. 

naz*r bdzau (nazarbazav), xii, 23. 

nazar bdzau (nazar-bdzav), ii, 1. 

nazar bdzau (nazarbazav), x, 7, 8. 

pai (pay), iii, 3. 

^ncAe (piche), xi, 4. 

2>ada (poda), iii, 8. 

2?ad ? (poda), vii, 4, 8. 

2?ada (poda), vii, 6 (2). 

2?a<fa (poda), iii, 8 (3). 

2?ada (poda), ii, 1. 

^a'dta (poda), x, 4, 5, 7 ; xii, 7, 
10. 

paduk (porukh), xii, 18. 

paddn (paran), viii, 3. 

padun (poruri), xii, 23. 

padshah (pdtashdh), iii, 4 (3), 
5, 8 ; vi, 16 ; viii, 3, 11 (2), 
12, 3, 4 (2) ; x, 10 (2), 2 ; 
xii, 4, 9, 24, 5. 

padshah (patasheh), xii, 5 (2), 
10 (4), 1, 3 (4), 4, 21, 5. 

padshah* (pdtashdha), viii, 1. 

pddshaha (pdtasheha), ii, 7; v, 11. 

pddshaha (pdtasheha), viii, 6. 

pddshaha (pdtasheha), viii, 7, 11. 

padshah (pdtashdh), ii, 8, 10, 1 ; 
iii, 1 (4), 2 (2), 3, 4 (2), 6, 
7 (3), 8 ; v, 1, 2, (2), 5 (2), 
7, 8 (2), 9, (8), 10, 1 ; vi, 
9, 10, 1, 2, 6 (3) ; viii, 1 (5), 



2(2), 3 (6), 4, 6 (2), 7 (3), 8, 11 

(5), 2, 3 ; x, 4, 12, 4 (4) ; 

xii, 1 (2), 2 (3), 3, 19 (2), 

20 (2), 4. 
padshah (pdtashdha), v, 1 ; vi, 

11 ; viii, 6. 
padshah (patasheh), ii, 5, 8, 9 ; 

xii, 12. 
padshah (pdtashehdh), ii, 1. 
padshah* (pdtasheha), ii, 5. 
pddshaha (pdtashdha), v, 10. 
pddshahi (patashdhi), viii, 12. 
padshdhi (patashdhi), viii, 4 ; 

x, 4, 9, 14 ; xii, 19. 
pdd a shdh (pdtashdh), ii, 11. 
pad* shah (pdtashdh), viii, 13 (2). 
pad*shdh (patasheh), ii, 5. 
pdd*shaha (pdtasheha), viii, 5. 
pdd*shdha (pdtashdha), viii, 13. 
pad*shdhi (patashdhi), xii, 26. 
padshah bdye (pdtashah-baye), 

viii, 13. 
pddshdhihund (pdtashohi-hond u ), 

x, 2. 
pddshaham (pdtasheham), v, 9 (2) ; 

viii, 2, 6, 7, 8 (3), 10 ; x, 

2 (2), 12 (2); xii, 3 (2), 

19 (2), 23. 
pddshaham (pdtasheham), ii, 4 ; 

viii, 11 (2), 3 (2) ; x, 6. 
pddshahan (jpdtashehari), x, 2 ; 

xii, 4, 11, 9, 24. 
pddshahan (pdtasheham), viii, 6. 
pddshahan (patashahan), ii, 11 ; 

vi, li. 
pddshahan (pdtashehan), ii, 4, 8 ; 

iii, 1, 8 (2), 9 ; vi, 15 (2) ; 

viii, 5, 6, 13; x, 2 (2); 

xii, 5, 21. 
pddshahan (caret), viii, 7. 
pddshahan (pdtashehan), viii, 11 ; 

xii, 4. 



pddshahan HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



460 



pddshahan (pdtashehan), ii, 1, 4 ; 

viii, 11(2), 3; x, 6 (3), 7, 12. 
pddshahan (pdtashehan), i, 10. 
pddshahas (pdtashehas), iii, 9 ; 

v, 7 (2), 9 (2) ; x, 2 ; xii, 

4 (4), 5 (3), 9, 11, 2, 3, 8, 9, 

(2), 20 (2), 1, 2. 
pddshahas (pdtasheha), ii, 6. 
pddshahas (pdtashdhas), ii, 11 ; 

viii, 1. 
pddshahas (pdtashehas), ii, 3 (2), 

4, 5 ; iii, 1, 3, 5 ; v, 9, 10 ; 

vi, 16; viii, 1, 2, 5 (2), 7 

(2), 13 ; x, 1, 10, 1, 2 (2) ; 

xii, 3 (3), 23. 
padshahis (pdtashehas), v, 11. 
pddshahas (pdtashehas), xii, 1. 
pddshahas (pdtashdhas), iii, 3. 
pddshahas (pdtashehas), ii, 1. 
pddshahas (pdtashehas), i, 8. 
pddshdh sund (pdtashdha-sond u ), 

vi, 11. 
pddshahasandi (pdtasheha-sandi), 

ii, 9.' 
pddshahq sund (patasheha-sond u ), 

xii, 1. 
pddshahasund (pdtasheha-sond u ), 

xii, 4. 
pddshdh a sund (pdtashdha-sond u ), 

ii, 10. 
pddshahrsandis (pdtasheha- 

sandis), xii, 22. 
pddshahas sqndyan (pdtasheha- 

sanderi), viii, 1. 
pddshahasanzi (pdtashdha- 

sanzi), v, 4. 
pddshaha sanzi (pdtasheha- 

sanze), xii, 4. 
pddshahqsanz (pdtasheha- siinz"), 

xii, 1. 
pddshahq sanzi (patasheha-sanzi), 

xii, 5. 



pddshahq sanzi (pdtasheha- 

sanze), xii, 5. 
pddshahq sanzi (pdtasheha- 

sanzi), xii, 4. 
pddshahasunz (pdtasheha-sihnz"), 

x, 5, 14. 
pddshdh sanz (pdtashdha-sunz u ), 

v, 7. 
pddshdhasanz (pdtashdha-siinz"), 

v, 7. 
pddshahasanzi (pdtashdha- 

sanze), v, 2, 4. 
pddshahas sanzi (pdtasheha- 

sanze), v, 1. 
pddshahiyqn (pdtashohiyen), x,ll. 
pddshah zdda (pdtashdhzdda), viii, 

11. 
pddshdh zdda {pdtashdhzdda), 

viii, 11 (2). 
pddshahzddqn (pdtashdhzddan), 

viii, 4, 11. 
pddshdh zddan (pdtashdhzddan), 

viii, 4 (2),' 11, (2). 
pddshdh zddqs (pdtashdhzddas), 

viii, 5. 
W? (^aA), iii, 4. 
2?a#a (pagdh), vi, 16 (2) ; xii, 10. 
phahi (phahi), v, 10. 
2?foi& (phakh), ii, 4. 
phikri (phikiri), viii, 10 ; xii, 4. 
phikir (phikir u ), xii, 5. 
2?M (phal), ix, 9. 
2?M ? (phala), vii, 14. 
2>M (pfcoZ"), xii, 15 (2). 
phul (phgl u ), iii, 3 ; viii, 9. 
pholdn (pholdri), xii, 2. 
phulen 1 (pholani), v, 5. 
pholen 1 (pholani), v, 7. 
phuleni (pholam), xii, 2. 
phamb (phamb), viii, 6. 
pahan (pahdn), x, 7 ; xii, 6. 
pahqn (pahdn), x, 7. , 



461 INDEX TO SIB AUBEL STEIN'S TEXT panun 



phir 1 (phir*), vii, 18 (2). 

pahar (pahar), iii, 1 ; viii, 6 (2), 8. 

pahar (pahar), viii, 5 (2), 8, 

io, 3. 

paharq (pahara), v, 8. 
pherdn (pherdn), i, 2 ; ii, 5. 
pharosh (pharosh), xii, 3. 
pherit (phirith), ix, 1 ; x, 1 (2), 

2, 3 (2), 6 (2), 7, 10 ; xi, 15 ; 

xii, 4, 5. 
pherit (caret), xi, 15. 
phirit (phirith), iii, 5. 
phirit (phirith), ii, 3 ; iii, 1, 8, 9 ; 

iv,3;v,l,2,4(5),5, 6,8, 10, 

1 (2) ; viii, 6, 8, 10 ; x, 14 ; 

xii, 3. 
phirit (caret), x, 5. 
pherith (phirith), xii, 5, 11. 
phtfrith (phirith), xii, 19. 
phurtas (phor u tas), iv, 2. 
pahre vdv (phaharawdv), v, 4. 
pahara vdlis (paharawolis), viii, 8. 
pharydd (phdr { ydd), vii, 22. 
pherydd (phdr { ydd), x, 2. 
phash (phash), xii, 7. 
phot (pot u ), x, 6. 
phut (pot u ), x, 3 (2), 6, 7. 
2?/b£ (^Mr), x, 5 (2). 
phutu (phuf"wa), x, 12. 
phut^rhas (phut°r u has), ii, 11. 
phutfruk (phut°rukh), xii, 4. 
2?Awfa r v un (phut a ryun), xii, 3. 
^o£w va (photuwdh), ii, 7. 
ph v urus (phyurus), viii, 10 (2). 
_2?a&a (pakha), viii, 7. 
2?a& (pdkh), v, 10. 
pukhtan (pokhtan), vi, 15. 
pakdn (pakdn), iii, 1, 2 ; v, 7 (2) ; 

viii, 7 ; x, 1, 4 ; xii, 2, 7 (2). 
pakun (pakun), x, 1. 
pakenai (pakanay), x, 1. 
pak?ndvdn (pakandwan), xi, 8, 14. 



pakrvany (pakawun u ), xi, 11. 
pakyu (pakiv), x, 1. 
2?a£ (paZ), xii, 14 (2), 5. 
poldu (poldv), vi, 2. 
^m&m (poldv), ii, 3. 
polddev v (pdldddv 1 ), v, 4. 
palang (palaiig), v, 9 ; x, 7. 
palahg (palang), v, 5. 
palang (palang), iii, 7. 
palangas (cdrpdyi), x, 5. 
palangas (palangas), v, 6 ; viii, 

6; x, 5 (2), 7 (4), 8 (2), 12 (3). 
palangas (palangas), v, 5, 6. 
palangas (palangas), viii, 13 (2). 
2?afos (palas), xii, 15. 
paHith (polith), xii, 16. 
2?ama (pdma), x, 3. 
2>am& (phamb), viii, 13. 
_^6m (pandn 1 ), xi, 10. 
jp<m tpan), iii, 4 (3) ; vii, 11. 
^<m" (pdna), xii, 11. 
2?awa (pdna), v, 10. 
^araw (pdnas), vii, 2. 
2?<mat (pdnay), vii, 1 ; x, 12. 
2>eme (pdna), i, 1 ; v, 11 ; x, 2, 

7 (2), 8 ; xii, 7, 21, 4. 
2»w ham (pinhdn), vii, 10. 
jxm/e (panja), xii, 16 (2). 
jt?a%6 (panja), xii, 17. 
panqne (panani), vii, 22, 6. 
panan 1 (panani), v, 10. 
panani (panani), xii, 4. 
panani (panane), x, 5. 
panen (pandn { ), vii, 20. 
panen (panun u ), v, 10 ; x, 6. 
panen (paniln u ), v, 5. 
panen* (panun*), viii, 11. 
paneni (panani), xii, 5. 
panun (panun u ), ii, 5, 9, 11 

iii, 1 (2), 2, 3 (2), 9 (3) 

v, 1 (2), 4, 5 (2), 9 (2), 10 . 

vii, 26 ; viii, 3, 5, 9 ; ix, 



panenen 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



462 



6 ; x, 5, 8, 9 ; xii, 4 (2), 5 

(3), 10, 1 (2), 2, 3, 4, 5 (2), 6, 

7, 8, 20, 2 (2), 5. 
panenen (pananen), viii, 10. 
paneneny (pananen), x, 14. 
panqnqs (pananis), viii, 9. 
panqnis (pananis), ii, 7, 11 ; 

iii, 2, 4 ; v, 8, 10, 2 ; viii, 

10 ; x, 5 ; xii, 4, 5, 10, 3, 5, 8. 
panenis (pananis), x, 12, 4. 
panqn v e (panane), v, 10. 
panen v (paniin"), viii, 1, 11. 
panen v e (panani), v, 5 ; x, 12. 
paneny (pandn% x, 14 ; xi, 10. 
paneny (paniln u ), x, 1, 3 (2), 

6, 8, 13 ; xii, 14, 25. 
panenye (panane), v, 4, 12 ; x, 

3 ; xii, 4. 
panenye (panane), vi, 6. 
panenye (panani), x, 13. 
paniny (paniin"), x, 10. 
panenuy (panunuy), x, 1. 
panunuy (panunuy), vii, 21 (2). 
panen v en (pananen), viii, 13. 
2?<mas (panas), v, 9 (2) ; vi, 4 ; 

vii, 24, 5 ; x, 6 ; xii, 5, 25. 
panas (panas), ii, 5 ; iii, 8 ; 

vii, 1, 15 (2); viii, 3, 8; 

xii, 12, 25. 
panes (panas), v, 9 ; x, 1. 
pane suy (panas ti y), vii, 3. 
pants (pants), x, 1 (5), 2 (6), 6, 14. 
pdntsim (pontsim ii ), x, 6. 
pantsen (pdntsan), x, 1, 6. 
pants v um (pontsyum u ), x, 1. 
pqnts v um (pontsim u ), x, 6. 
pawe vaW (panawon), xii, 25. 
pane m" (panawon), viii, 2. 
pawe t>cm?/ (panawon), viii, 1. 
panevdny (panawon), xi, 19. 
panevany (panawiin), x, 1. 
pane veiny (panawon), viii, 3. 



pan v en (panin), iv, 7. 

panz (pants), viii, 10 (2). 

papiJ (papith), ix, 9. 

pra (para), xii, 1 (2). 

par (para), ii, 3, 5. 

2>ar, see zara par, x, 5 (2). 

paV (pari), xii, 25. 

2?a*n (pan), xii, 8, 11 (2), 4, 20. 

pepr 1 , see feo paV, xii, 24. 

pq l ri, see so pq l ri, xii, 21. 

_praw (pirav), v, 8. 

pwr (p7r tt ), v, 2. 

parda (parda), vi, 4. 

paraa (pharda), vi, 11. 

pargan (pargan), xi, 5. 

par an (par an), ix, 1. 

par an (paran), vi, 17 ; vii, 4 ; 

viii, 4. 
pqrqn (pdr u ri), v, 10. 
pmm (piran), vi, 13. 
porun (purun), x, 2. 
purun (purun), x, 9. 
prcm# (prang), xii, 18. 
pran w (pron*), viii, 5. 
prdny (prdn% vi, 11. 
praran (praran), v, 6, 11. 
prqhyau (praryav), ii, 10. 
jora£ (prath), viii, 1 (2). 
pa f n'Z (porith), iii, 7. 
2>a*n'£ (piirith), xi, 9. 
par to ? (partawa), xii, 15. 
prutsun (pryutshun), xii, 1. 
pdravi (poravl), i, 1. 
parvardigar (parwardigar), i, 11. 
parvahab (par wahab), vi, 17. 
pq*riye (par { yi), xii, 15. 
pq l riye (par l ye), iii, 7, 8. 
par v ehna (pari-hana), xii, 2. 
parza wau (parzandw u ), xii, 2. 
par2^ mit (parzan6w u ), x, 5. 
parza wdw mwfe (parzanov u - 
muts"), x, 5. 



463 INDEX TO SIB AUBEL STEIN'S TEXT pyete 



parze nd win (parzandumn), viii, 

10. 
parze ndii vun (parzandwun), 

viii, 9. 
parzendvdn (parzandwdn), x, 12. 
parzqndvus (parzandivus), x, 12. 
pash (khash), v, 4. 
pesh (pesh), xii, 25. 
peshe (pesh-e), vi, 9. 
posha (poshe), xi, 3. 
posh" (poshe), ii, 3. 
poshe (poshe), v, 4 (3). 
poshak (poshdkh), v, 9 (2) ; x, 

2 (2), 4 (3), 9 ; xii, 6 (2), 

7(5). 
pushdkas (jposhdkas), viii, 9 ; x, 

7(4). 
peshkdr (peshkdr), vi, 11. 
pqsan (pbsari), vii, 26. 
pqsan (posan), vii, 25. 
pasand (pasand), v, 1 ; xii, 4. 
pasqnd (pasand), xii, 4. 
2?a2 (path), vii, 10. 
^ ? (pata), vi, 8 ; viii, 7. 
2?ata (pata), ii, 9 (2) ; iii, 1 (2), 

2 (2) ; viii, 9 (2), 13 ; x, 1, 

12 (2) ; xi, 18 (2) ; xii, 1, 6, 

7 (3), 16, 7, 25. 
patai (patay), xii, 10. 
pqH 1 (pottt), v, 8. 
petq (petha), ii, 2. 
put (pot u ), v, 1. 
path (path), xii, 23. 
pqHh 1 (pdth { ), xii, 6, 17. 
pqHh 1 (pbW), xii, 5, 22. 
puth (pot u ), xii, 19. 
pathin (pothin), viii, 3. 
pathar (pathar), iii, 9. 
pqHh y (pbW), x, 6 ; xii, 3, 7. 
#a*^ v (poi#)* iii, 9 ; xii, 22, 4. 
patkun (path-kun), v, 5, 8. 
pat* kun (path-kun), iii, 5. 



putal (putal), vi, 4. 
putalin (putalen), iv, 6. 
j?a£m (pothin), iii, 1. 
pata-pata (pata-pata), iii, 1 (2), 

2 (2)'; viii, 9 ; xii, 7. 
2?ator (pathar), ii, 3. 
^afar (pathar), ii, 11. 
pitarun (petarun), ii, 5. 
pafvdr 1 (pathwor 1 ), ix, 10. 
2>a ; '£ v ($»&')] viii, 5 ; x, 8. 
^?a% (poth 1 ), x, 10. 
paVqmi (patimi), v, 8. 
pbVen (poten), ix, 3. 
pdvun (pdwun), iii, 9. 
pd { vzi (pbv l zi), vi, 11. 
#yai* (^ev), ii, 3, 5, 6, 11 ; iii, 5 ; 

v, 1, 7 (2) ; viii, 9. 
pyau (pyauv), xii, 15 (2). 
pay (pay), ix, 11. 
pydday (pydday), ii, 12. 
joyaZa (pyala), viii, 7 (2). 
pydlqs (pydlas), viii, 7 (2). 
^P2/om (pyom), xii, 10. 
pyom 1 (pyom me), vii, 12. 
peyem (peyem), vii, 19. 
pHmbs (pembs), ix, 1. 
p v umut (pemot u ), x, 3. 
pyqmut (pemot u ), xii, 15. 
pyiimut (pemot u ), viii, 9. 
pHmats (pemuts*), vii, 30. 
£> v wr (phyur u ), viii, 1. 
p v ilrus (phyurus), viii, 7. 
2> v os (pyos), x, 5. 
^yds tPyos), xii, 4. 
pyos (pyos), v, 6 ; viii, 11. 
^ (p>^), iii, 4 (2), 5. 
2> v e£i (^M* Zi), iii, 8. 
p v et (peth), iii, 5, 7. 
pyet (peth), iii, 1. 
pyet (peth 1 ), ii, 9. 
pyet (peth), ii, 11. 
^yete (petha), ii, 6. 



p v eth 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



464 



p v eih (peth), x, 5. 
p v ethq (petha), x, 3, 10. 
p v eth (peih), iii, 9 (2) ; iv, 4 ; 
V; 5, 6 (2), 9 (2), 11 ; viii, 

I, 6, 8, 11, 3 (2) ; x, 5, 7 (2) ; 
xi, 12, 6 ; xii, 2, 6 (2), 7 (3), 

II, 2, 3, 4, 21 (2), 4 (2). 
p v eth (petha), viii, 1. 
p v eth (pe'th% iii, 8. 

p y ethq {petha), iv, 5 ; v, 7, 9 ; 

x, 3 ; xi, 3 ; xii, 2. 
pydvHq (pydwal), xi, 7. 
p v evdn (pewdn), vii, 20. 
p y ivdn (pewdn), vii, 26. 
p v eyak (peyekh), v, 7. 
pHyen (peyin), ix, 2. 
p v eyes (peyes), v, 5. 

2> v ez (fras), viii, 9. 

pqz (pdz 1 ), x, 10. 

pqz 1 (pdz 1 ), x, 6. 

pdz (pdz), vi, 16 (2) ; viii, 

' 7 (4). 
puz (poz u ), x, 8. 
2?azws (pozas), viii, 7. 
j9az?/a (pazyd), vi, 8. 
2?wzim/ (pozuy), x, 6 (3). 
ra (raA), v, 9. 
rai (rdye), xi, 7. 
rau, see somfr 9 raw, xii, 24. 
ru, see feaw rw, xii, 16. 
rachen (racen), viii, 4. 
rod 1 (rutt), vii, 20(2). 
rwa' (rud u ), xii, 1, 15. 
rod^mut (rud a mot u ), xii, 23. 
rild^mut (rud u mot u ), i, 5. 
raAaJ (rahath), ix, 4. 
raj (rdjiy), x, 14. 
raja (ra^), x, 7 (3), 8 (5), 14 (3). 
rdje (rdje), x, 1, 6 ; xi, 2. 
rajaw (rdjen), x, 8 (2), 14. 
rajas (rdjes), x, 7, 8, 14. 



rajas (rdjes), x, 8. 

rdjqsqnz (rdje-sunz u ), x, 7. 

rdjqsunz (rdje-silnz u ), x, 7. 

raja zaaa (rdjezdda), x, 7, 8. 

raM (rakh), x, 5. 

raM^ (rakhi), x, 12. 

rukhsat (rukhsaih), xii, 10, 3. 

rukhsath (rukhsaih), xii, 25. 

rakh v e (rakhi), x, 12. 

remai, see 6a^e remai, v, 7. 

rumdli (rumdli), iii, 2. 

rawz (riwz'), v, 3, 4 (2). 

rniz (rw'), v, 4 (2), 5. 

rmz (rmz*), v, 3. 

rupia (ropaye), viii, 9, 10. 

rupias (ropayes), viii, 10 ; x, 

1 (2), 2 (3). 
rupias (rdpayes), viii, 10. 
rapqt (rapat), v, 9. 
rup*yq (ropaye), x, 6. 
rarai, see sus 9 rdrai, xii, 23. 
rwsA (rosh u ), v, 10, 2. 
rasa* (rasad), xi, 5, 10. 
rustfnau (rost u nau), vii, 23. 
raZ (rath), i, 7 ; viii, 4. 
rai (rfiV 8 ), x, 8. 
rat (rath), i, 10 ; iii, 1 ; viii, 9 ; 

x, 5 (2), 8, 11, 2 (2). 
rat, see dokht a rdt, vii, 3. 
rat 1 (rdt% v, 7. 
roi (ro£ u ), x, 12. 
rit (reth), xii, 4, 6. 
rw£ (ro£"), x, 5. 
rutu (rot u wa), x, 12. 
ra^ (rath), xii, 9. 
raYAa (rdthdh), xii, 5. 
rothunq (rqt a na), xii, 20. 
rothunq (rqt a na), xii, 18. 
ra^A Za (rathta), xii, 19. 
ra£i& (rdtdk 1 ), v, 9. 
ra£ ? Zi (rdtHi), viii, 9. 
rotfmut (rdt u mot u ), viii, 1. 



465 INDEX TO SIB AUBEL STEIN'S TEXT sauddgar 



rutmut (rot u mot u ), x, 12. 

ritan (retan), xii, 5, 11. 

rotun (rotun), x, 3. 

rotun 9, (rqt a na), xii, 14. 

rutun (rotun), viii, 7. 

rutun* (rqt a na), xii, 10 (2), 1. 

rutuna (rat a na), xii, 10, 2, 4, 

5 (2). ' 
rutfnak (rut u nakh), viii, 3. 
rdtas (rdtas), x, 5, 12. 
rdtqs (rdtas), x, 1, 6 ; xii, 4. 
ritas (retas), xii, 4. 
ritasumb (retas sumb u ), xii, 4. 
rqtit (ratith), ii, 11 ; iii, 5 ; x, 5. 
rqtit (ratith), v, 7, 9. 
rata'Z, see mokrqtit, v, 9. 
r^f* (m^), viii',' 13. 
rats (rots"), iii, 1. 
rats a hqn (ratshi), v, 6. 
ratsq hqn (ratshi-han), v, 6. 
ratse h?na (ratshi hand), v, 6. 
ratseh^na (ratshi-hand), v, 6. 
rdtsqs (rdtsas), viii, 5. 
revdnq (rawdna), x, 3. 
nwim (riwdn), vii, 22. 
ray (my), viii, 11 ; xii, 15. 
r v un, see phuta r v un, xii, 3. 
r v eth (reth), xii, 11. 
raz (raz), xi, 9. 
reza (reza), ii, 7. 
roz (rwz*), vii, 18. 
rbz 1 (ruz 1 ), vii, 18. 
rozi (rozi), x, 1, 6. 
roz kq (rbzakha), xii, 18. 
rozan (rozan), x, 3. 
rozqnq (rozana), x, 8. 
rozan (rozan), ii, 9 ; vii, 23. 
rozan 1 (rozani), ix, 6. 
roz* to (ruzHav), vii, 9. 
5a (sa), ii, 9 ; v, 5, 9 ; viii, 7, 11 ; 

x, 1, 2, 10 ; xii, 10. 
sa, see che sa, v, 6. 



«a (sa), ii, 4 ; x, 1 (2), 5, 6 (2), 
' 8 (3), 9, 12 (2), 4 ; xii, 1, 6, 
10, 5, 9, 20, 5 (2). 
sq (soh), iii, 5 ; xii, 5. 
sai (say), xi, 5. 
sai (soy), vii, 16. 
sai, see che sai, ix, 1, 3. 
sai (say), iii, 4 ; ix, 4. 
se (sa), x, 1. 
se, see boha se, ii, 11. 
so (suh), x, 4. 
su (suh), ii, 8 (2), 9, 11 (2) ; v, 

9 (2), 10 ; viii, 7 (4), 8, 9, 

10 (2), 1, 3 (2) ; x, 1, 12 (6), 
4; xii, 4 (2), 5, 11, 4, 5, 
9 (3), 20, 5, 6. 

su (soh), xii, 20. 

su (suy), viii, 9. 

su (ts a h), v, 5. 

sa&a (sbba), x, 7. 

sa& (56*6), x, 8. 

subu (subuh), x, 8 ; xii, 9. 

sabab (sabab), viii, 5. 

subhdn (subhdn), vii, 31. 

subahanas (sub a hanas), xii, 12. 

subhas (sub a has), xii, 5. 

sabak (sabakh), iv, 4 , v, 5 ; 

viii, 3, 4. 
sabakas (sabakas), v, 6 ; viii, 

3(2). 
sabakas (sabakas), viii, 11 (3). 
sa6a?i (soban), iii, 8 (3). 
suban (sub a han), x, 11. 
safrir (sbbir), xi, 20. 
5a6a6- (sbbas) t x, 5. 
swcAe (fedc£), v, 8 (2). 
su cho (tsdce), v, 7. 
.saaaw (saddh), viii, 9. 
soaa (soda), viii, 9. 
sauddgar (sbddgdr), iii, 1 (2). 
sauddgar (sbddgar), iii, 1 (4), 

2 (2), 3 (4), 4. 



saudagar HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



466 



saudagar (sddagar), v, 11. 
sauddgqrq (sodagara), iii, 1. 
sodagqr (sddagar), viii, 9. 
sddagar (caret), viii, 9. 
sddagar (sddagar), v, 11 ; viii, 

9, 10 (2). 
sddagar 9 (sodagara), viii, 9. 
sodagara (sodagara), viii, 9. 
sddagaran (sddagaran), viii, 10. 
sddagar an (sddagaran), viii, 9 (2). 
sauddgdrqs (sodagaras), iii, 2. 
sauddgdrqs (sodagaras), viii, 9. 
sodagaras (sodagaras), viii, 10. 
sauddgarasund (sdddgdra-sond u ), 

iii, 1. 
sddahas (sddahas), v, 10. 
sddahqs (sddahas), iii, 1. 
swaar Mat (sddurabalqy), vii, 31. 
sa/, see ?/m sa/, viii, 4. 
safar (saphar), xii, 25. 
safarun (sapharun u ), xi, 13. 
sapras (sapharas), x, 1. 
safqras (sapharas), x, 6. 
s/ie (sheh), xii, 6, 7. 
saAz'6 (sohib), vii, 2, 3 ; xi, 20. 
saM>* (sdhib-e), ii, 9. 
sa/wfo* (sdhib-i), x, 13. 
sahibd (sbhibd), ix, 3. 
shdban (shuban), vii, 5, 10. 
shuban (shuban), ii, 4, 5. 
sahiban (sohiban), vii, 5. 
sahib* sund (sbhiba-sond u ), iv, 4,5. 
sAecA^ (sMc/^), x, 3 (3). 
sM (s/*od u ), ii, 10. 
shahi (shah-i), vi, 1. 
shdhi (shdhi), x, 4 (2). 
shqhij (shehY)> v, 6 (2). 
shuhul (shehul u ), i, 11. 
shahmar (shehmar), viii, 6 (2). 
sAa/i mam (shehmar a), viii, 7. 
shahmar* (shehmara), viii, 6. 
shahmdrq (shehmara), viii, 13 (2). 



shahmar (shehmar), viii, 13 (2). 
sAaA marqs (shehmaras), viii, 6. 
shqhmdrqs (shehmaras), viii, 13. 
shqhqn (shehan), i, 7. 
shahqnshah (shehan- shah), i, 1. 
shah*ra (shehara), viii, 11. 
shah*rq (shehara), viii, 4. 
shahar (shehar), ii, 1 ; x, 9. 
shehra (sheharah), v, 1. 
sAeAn (shehar-e), ii, 1. 
sheherq (shehara), viii, 11. 
sheharqkis (sheharakis), xii, 3. 
shahras (sheharas), xii, 2. 
shah*ras (sheharas), x, 3 (2), 5 (2), 

12. 
shahqras (sheharas), x, 10. 
sheharas (sheharas), x, 14. 
sheharas (sheharas), v, 9, 11 ; 

x, 5. 
shahtsa (shekhtsd), x, 1. 
sh a hzddq (shdhzada), viii, 5. 
shahzdda (shdhzada), viii, 11 (2), 

3. 
shahzddqs (shdhzddas), viii, 13. 
sAa& (shekh), v, 8. 
sM& ? (shdkh), vii, 10; 
s^o& (shekh), xii, 15. 
shakhtsqn (shekhtsan), x, 2, 6. 
shakhtsas (shekhtsas), x, 2 (2). 
shakql (shekal), x, 7. 
shikma (shikama), x, 7. 
shikrmq (shikama), x, 7. 
shikmas (shikamas), x, 7 (2). 
shikdrqs (shikdras), ii, 4, 8 ; 

viii, 7. 
shikasta (shikasta), v, 5. 
shdlan (shdldn), vi, 6. 
shamd (shemdh), vi, 6 ; x, 7 (2). 
shqmd (shemdh), viii, 13. 
shaman (shaman), v, 5. 
shumdr (shumdr) xi, 16 ; xii, 

20. 4. 



467 



INDEX TO SIR AUREL STEIN'S TEXT 



sun a 



shamsher (shemsher), ii, 7 ; iii, 
9 (2) ; viii, 6 (2), 13 (2) ; 
x, 7 (3). 

shamsher 1 (shemsheri), iii, 9 ; 
viii, 6, 13. 

shamseri (shemsheri), iii, 5. 

shen (shen), v, 7 ; xii, 6. 

shdnd (shdnd), v, 5 ; x, 7. 

shdndq (shdnda), v, 5. 

shung (shong u ), x, 7. 

shungit (shongith), viii, 7. 

shindk (shendkh), xii, 4 (4), 5 (3), 
7 (2), 10, 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 
20 (2), 1, 2 (2), 3 (3), 4, 6. 

shindkan (shendkan), xii, 4 (2), 

7, 9, 10, 3, 22 (2), 4, 5. 
shindkas (shendkas), xii, 4 (2), 

5 (2), 6, 10 (2), 1, 3 (2), 5, 
9 (4), 22, 4, 5. 
shindkasund (shendka-sond u ), xii, 

8, 25. 

sherau (sherav), xi, 12, 7. 
sMn (shur*), v, 2. 
s^ora #a (shora-gdh), vi, 12. 
shorqgd (shora-gdh), vi, 13. 
sAra& (shrdkh), x, 13. 
$Am& (sherikh), i, 10. 
shrdnz (shranz), xi, 16. 
sAm£ (sh'irith), x, 7. 
shasftro ^shestruw u ), xii, 16, 7. 
shast^ro (shestriiv"), v, 4. 
shastrev 1 (shestrdv 1 ), v, 4. 
shast^rvi (shestravi), xii, 16. 
shetdn (shetdn), iii, 8. 
shetdnqn (shetdnan), iii, 8. 
shWrqvi (shestravi), v, 4. 
sM& (shotsh), x, 3. 
s&op (shdph), xii, 15 (2). 
shuybehe (shubiheh), xii, 4. 
shuybihe (shubiheh), xii, 5. 
sa& (sak a th), vii, 18. 
sakhme (sak a th me), vii, 13. 



sakhr v ai (sakharyey), xii, 18. 

sakhtsa (shekhtsdh), xii, 3. 

saZa (saldh), viii, 3, 11. 

safoi (salay), v, 4. 

so7a (soldh), ii, 2. 

saZa (sa?i), xii, 23. 

sa£^ (sofo), v, 7. 

saZam (saldm), iii, 1 ; viii, 3, 11 ; 

xii, 4, 5, 9, 12, 3, 6 (2), 7, 20, 

3,6. 
salami (salami), viii, 3. 
sqldmq (saldm), x, 14. 
sulaimdn (sulaymdn), xii, 17. 
saZas (sdlas), v, 9 ; vi, 2. 
saks (solas), ii, 4 ; iii, 1 ; viii, 7. 
sd/as (solas), ii, 8. 
sultan 1 (sultdn-i), i, 1. 
salqyq (salayi), v, 4 (2). 
sama (samd), vii, 26. 
samo (sumb 1 ), xii, 5. 
swmfr (sumb u ), xii, 4. 
som6 ? raw (sgmb a rdw u ), xii, 24. 
somb"rau (sgmb a r6w u ), xii, 21. 
somb^run (sgmb a run u ), xii, 20 (2). 
sumb-rdn (somb a rdn), xi, 7. 
sumbrit (spmb a rith), ix, 9. 
somb*rdva i n i (sd}rib a rdwdn i ), xii, 

24. 
sdmb?rdvuth (somb a r6umth), xii, 

24. 
sam ? &aM (samokhukh), xii, 25. 
sdmdn (sdmdn), vii, 5 ; xi, 9, 20. 
samsheri (shemsheri), iii, 6. 
samsar (samsar), iv, 1, 2, 3, 4, 

5, 6, 7. 
samsdras (samsdras), ix, 6. 
sana i (sa wa?/), v, 5. 
sem (son), i, 6. 
sm ? (sma), vii, 21. 
son (son u ), x, 12. 
saw (son"), v, 6. 
sana (caret), ii, 8. 

Hh 



sune 



HATIMS SONGS AND STORIES 



468 



sune (sona), vii, 11. 

sand 1 (sand 1 ), viii, 13. 

sand 1 , see sunasand* , v, 3. 

sand 1 , see sunasand*, v, 4, 5. 

sandi (sandi), vii, 6 ; xii, 21. 

sandi (sand 1 ), v, 4. 

sandi, see sunqsandi, v, 4. 

sandi, see sunarsandi, v, 10. 

sawd (sand 1 ), viii, 1. 

5awc?i (sandi), i, 3 ; ii, 9 ; x, 5 ; 

xii, 4, 5. 
stmd (sond u ), ii, 10 ; iii, 1 (2) ; 

v, 10 ; vi, 10, 1 ; viii, 6 (3), 

8, 9, 10, 3 (2) ; x, 4, 11, 2 ; 

xii, 1, 4, 7 (2), 8, 21, 2, 5. 
sund (caret), viii, 8. 
sund, see qmisund, v, 3. 
sund, see sahib* sund, iv, 4, 5. 
simd, see sunqrsund, v, 2. 
sqndin (sanden), viii, 6. 
sandis (sandis), v, 11. 
sqndis (sandis), ii, 5, 6, 7 ; x, 12 ; 

xii, 22. 
sandyau (sandyau), viii, 5. 
sandy an (sanden), viii, 1. 
sa?w7 sar (sangsar), viii, 8. 
son ? margq (sonamargi), xi, 3. 
sqnnyas (saniyas), v, 10. 
swmr (sonar), v, 1 (2), 3, 4, 5 (2), 

6, 7 (2), 9, 10 (2). 
sunqras (sonaras), v, 9. 
sunarsandi (sonara-sdnd 1 ), v, 10. 
sunqrsund (sonara-sond u ), v, 2. 
sunar sanzi (sonara-sanzi), v, 

9 (2). 
stmar scmz (sonara-sunz u ), v, 1. 
sunar sanz (sonara-sunz"), v, 3, 

io.' 

sunar sqnzq (sonara-sanzi), v, 7. 
sunasand 1 (sona-sdnd*), v, 3. 
sunasand 1 (sona-sdnd 1 ), v, 4, 5. 
sunqsandi (sona-sdnd 1 ), v, 4. 



sunqsqnz (sdna-sunz u ), v, 1. 
sowto (sdta), ix, 7. 
somw/ (sdnuy), viii, 13. 
sqnyas (saniyas), v, 11 (4). 
sqnyas* (saniyasu), v, 11. 
sqnyasas (saniyasas), v, 12. 
sa?m (sanze), xii, 4. 
sanzi (sanzi), v, 9 (2) ; vii, 13 ; 

xii, 5. 
sanz (sunz*), iii, 4 ; v, 7 ; viii, 

11 ; x, 7, 8 ; xii, 1, 24. 
sanz (caret), ii, 8. 
sanz, see rdjasqnz, x, 7. 
sanz, see swwar sanz v 1. 
sanz, see sunar sanz, v, 3, 10. 
sawz, see sunqsqnz, v, 1. 
sanz, see pddshahasqnz, v, 7. 
sqnzq, see sunar sqnzq, v, 7. 
sanzi (sanze), v, 1 ; xii, 5. 
sanzi (sanzi), x, 4 ; xii, 4, 15. 
sanzi, see pddshahqs sanzi, v, 1. 
sanzi, see padshahasanzi, v, 4. 
sanzi, see padshahasanzi, v, 2, 4. 
swnz (sunz u ), iii, 2 ; x, 5, 7, 

14 (2) ; xii, 4, 19, 20 (2). 
simz, see rdjqsunz, x, 7. 
swnz (sunz u ), title of V. 
sqnziiy (sunz u ), xii, 15. 
san v (son"), viii, 11. 
sa*n?/ (son u ), x, 5. 
sapqd 1 (sapadi), vi, 16. 
sapud (sapod u ), iii, 7 ; xii, 1. 
sap* dak* (sapadakha), iii, 2. 
sapadqk (sapadakh), vi, 11. 
sqpqnum (sapodum), vii, 13. 
sap*nyes (sapanes), x, 4. 
so 2?a*n (tsopor 1 ), xii, 21. 
sap*zqk (sapilz u kh), iii, 2. 
sar (sar), viii, 11. 
sar (sard), x, 2, 4, 6, 14. 
sar ? (sard), viii, 13. 
sare (sard), x, 6 (2). 



469 



INDEX TO SIR AUREL STEIN'S TEXT 



suy 



sdr (sdr), viii, 8. 

sq l re (soriy), vi, 16. 

scpri (soriy), iii, 4 ; v, 9. 

sera (sara), xi, 14. 

ser (ser), i, 3. 

sir (sir), vii, 21. 

soirq (sdruy), xi, 9. 

sd { ri (sdruy), xi, 20. 

silr (sur), v, 9 ; vii, 13 ; xii, 23. 

sura (sura), xii, 23. 

sards (sarda), i, 11. 

sargi (saragi), viii, 7. 

sar<jrl (saragi), viii, 8, 10 ; x, 7. 

sqr l gau (sdr 1 gav), iv, 3. 

sargeh (saragi), viii, 7. 

sreAa (srehd), viii, 7. 

sraw (srdn), xii, 6 (2), 7 (2). 

5amw (sdrdn), xi, 6, 10. 

srdnas (srdnas), v, 9. 

sarp (sar a ph), x, 13. 

sTras (siras), xii, 7. 

slras (siras), ii, 4. 

swras (siiras), xii, 23. 

saW (sorith), ix, 9. 

swraZ, see khobsurat, xii, 15. 

swra£, see Mao swra£, xii, 4 ; 

Mo6 sural, xii, 5 ; JchobsUrat, 

xii, 10 (2). 
surath, see khob-surath, xii, 19. 
sarw?/ (sdruy), iii, 1. 
sarwy (sdruy), v, 7, 9 ; xii, 19. 
sws ? ra/m (susardray), xii, 23. 
sa£ (sa^), vi, 3, 15 (3) ; x, 2, 5, 

12 ( 2 >- 
sato (safaw), iii, 8 ; x, 12. 

sat* (sdta), iii, 6. 

sdtq (sdthd), vii, 9. 

salt (soty), ii, 1 ; iii, 4. 

se*a (sethdh), viii, 1 (2), 4, 9 (2), 

10, 1, 4. 

se/a (sethdh), xii, 4. 

swZ* (swZi), ii, 4. 



sa^ (sa^), xii, 9 (4). 

sath (sath), vii, 8. 

sdtha (sdthd), vi, 3. 

sdtha (sathdh), ii, 4. 

«a^a (sdta), xii, 4, 15. 

sdthai (sdtay), vii, 8. 

sa*^ (soty), v, 4 (2), 5, 6, 7, 10 ; 

vi, 16; vii, 5 (3), 6, 19; 

viii, 7 (2), 11 (2) ; x, 1, 4, 

6, 7 (2), 8, 9, 14; xii, 1, 
2 (2). 

sa^/i* (soty), vii, 10, 3 ; viii, 3 ; 

xii, 15 (2), 6, 7, 8. 
*aW (sotiy), xii, 16. 
sa^i (sotiy), vi, 16. 
sa^M (sotiy), xii, 12. 
se^M (sethdh), xii, 5, 9, 15. 
se^a (sithdh), xii, 10 (2), 2. 
saW (soft/), iii, 8 ; xii, 7. 
sqtim? (satim u ), xii, 7. 
safcm (satan), v, 8 ; vi, 15 (3). 
safam (satan), x, 5. 
sewYm (sotin), i, 4. 
6a%n (sotin), ix, 5, 12. 
sai'Zm (sotin), i, 5 (2), 7. 
sd7 v (soft/), i, 3. 
satyqmis (satimis), v, 7. 
siw (siwdh), v, 9. 
sam6 (sawdb), ix, 12. 
sava7 (sawdl), x, 5. 
savar (sawar), xii, 1. 
say (say), viii, 13 ; xii, 14. 
say, see am* say, iii, 4, 8. 
sa?/e, see ham sdye, x, 12. 
say (say), ii, 6 ; iii, 1 ; viii, 

7, 10. 

suy (suy), i, 4, 8 ; ii, 4 ; iii, 3 (2) ; 

v, i ; vi, 6, 16 ; vii, 8, 13 ; 

viii, 1, 7 ; ix, 11 ; x, 1, 6, 

12 ; xii, 19, 25. 
suy, see am* suy, viii, 7. 
suy, see ami suy, x, 10. 



suy 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



470 



suy, see a i mi suy, xii, 15. 

suy, see amis suy, viii, 11. 

suy, see as suy, vii, 16. 

suy, see pane suy, vii, 3. 

suy, see am^ 5%, v, 7. 

5%, see am' 5%, ii, 8. 

suy, see torn* siiy, viii, 9 (2) ; 

xii, 1. 
s y ud (syod u ), viii, 13. 
syud (syod u ), viii, 6. 
sqyist (soyisth), xii, 3, 4. 
suyyas (suy yes), vii, 30. 
suyyus (suy yus), vii, 29. 
sozun (sozun u ), v, 1. 
sozm (suzuri), x, 4. 
Z°, see dokht a rdt, vii, 3. 
^ (to), xii, 15. 
t°, see hangqt 9 , iii, 6. 
to (to), viii, 11. 
to (to), ii, 7 ; iii, 4 (4), 5, 9 (2) ; 

v, 4 (2), 9, 12 ; vi, 16 (2) ; 

vii, 2, 9, 12, 20 ; viii, 3, 4, 

9 (2), 10 (3), 3 ; ix, 10, 1 ; 

x, 7, 8 ; xi, 9, 14, 9 ; xii, 1, 

5, 6, 7 (2), 22, 5 (2). 
to, see gats tq, xi, 1. 
to, see niyantq, v, 12. 
to, see rath tq, xii, 19. 
to, see than tq, ix, 4. 
to, see vuch tq, ix, 4 ; x, 5. 
tai (tay), xi, 3. 
tai, see yi tai, ix, 1. 
tai (tay), iv, 1, 2, 3 (2), 4 (2), 

5 (2), 6 (2), 7 (2). 
te (to), xi, 7. 
ti (ti), vii, 23 ; viii, 5, 9 (2) ; ix, 

1, 6 ; x, 6, 8, 10, 1, 2, 3 (2) ; 

xi, 14 ; xii, 1, 10, 2 (2), 7. 
ti (tih), iii, 1, 4 (2), 8 (2), 9 (2) ; 

v, 8 (2); viii, 3, 9, 11; 

x, 1 ; xii, 3 (2), 6, 7 (2), 16, 

9, 20. 



ti (tiy), iii, 9. 

ti, see tqHti, iii, 8. 

ti, see 2> tf eta', iii, 8. 

ti, see yi ti, x, 8. 

JT (%), vii, 1. 

f, see ma£*, vi, 11. 

ttibir (tdbir), vi, 11 (3), 4 (2), 

5 (2), 6. 
tq ( bya (to&yah), xii, 18. 
tad (thud*), v, 4. 
£od ? (torn), xii, 11. 
t&fqdarqn (toyiphdaran) , xi, 16. 
to#i (tagiy), i, 12. 
to#i (tagiy), x, 5. 
fop (to# M ), v, 3. 
tagimna (tagem-na), x, 5. 
tog u nq (tog u -na), viii, 9. 
fogws (togus), viii, 9. 
to# v e (tagiye), v, 8. 
tag* ye (tagiye), v, 9. 
iag v ehqm (tagihem), v, 8. 
*Mw (thav), iii, 8 (2) ; viii, 4. 
<Mm (£av), xi, 13. 
thdu (th6w u ), viii, 12. 
zAe, see Jcar the, xii, 19. 
tih (ti), xi, 1. 
to/**' (tdh*), xii, 1 (3). 
toAi (tohe), x, 5, 12 (2). 
tuh (toh% viii, 3, 5 (3). 
tuh 1 (toJi 1 ), xii, 1. 
thud (thod u ), ii, 3, 5, 6 ; v, 6. 9 ; 

vii, 11 ; xii, 14, 5. 
tuhjin (tuj a n), iii, 9. 
thai (tai), viii, 6, 7, 13. 
tqhql (tahdl 1 ), x, 12. 
toAaZ* (tahdl/), x, 12. 
to,W (toM*), x, 5, 12. 
tqhqlyau (tahalyav), x, 12. 
thaumut (th6w u mot u ), x, 12. 
thdu mut (thow u mot u ), viii, 9. 
thaumut (thdw u mot u ), x, 12. 
tihund (tihond u ), xii, 16. 



471 



INDEX TO SIR AUREL STEIN'S TEXT tamd 



tuhund (luhond u ), ii, 2 ; xii, 15. 
thaunam (lhdw u nam), ix, 4. 
thaunas (thow u nas) , xii, 23 (2). 
thaunas (thuv^nas), x, 5, 10. 
thay, nas (thaunas), xii, 9. 
than nas (thow u nas), xii, 4. 
thau nas (lhiiv u nas), xii, 12. 
thdunas {thow u nas), iii, 1. 
thanya (thiln u a), ix, 4. 
fa Aawza (tihanza), viii, 11. 
to Acmza (tihanza), viii, 3. 
^aj9 (thaph), iii, 9 (2). 
$Aa*p (thapi), xii, 12. 
fAajoA (thaph), xii, 11, 2. 
tah^ran (thaharan), ii, 4. 
fAas, see &wr f/?as, x, 12. 
thas, see mor £/*as, v, 6. 
toAsIr (takhsir), viii, 10 ; x, 12. 
fM?/ fa (thavta), ix, 4. 
*Wa (for), xii, 17. 
thautam (thavtam), ix, 1. 
thavai (thaway), viii, 11. 
thavik (thovik 1 ), xi, 6. 
thavik (thovikh), x, 12. 
thdvulc (thov u kh), viii, 11. 
thavum (thawum), viii, 8. 
thavan (thawan), viii, 11. 
thdvun (thdwuri), v, 11 ; viii, 7, 

14 ; x, 3 ; xii, 15, 25. 
thavnak (th6w u nakh), viii, 4. 
thdvus (thawus), iii, 5, 9. 
thavat (thawath), ii, 11. 
thdvut (thowuth), vi, 5 ; x, 12. 
thav tarn (thavtam), viii, 6. 
thdv u lan (thavtan), ii, 4. 
tha l vyu (thoviv), viii, 3. 
thaivzin (thovhen), v, 10. 
toA** (foAe), x, 5, 6. 
ft/./** (tdh { ), viii, 13. 
thaymak (thov^mdt*), x, 12. 
% (fc*f*), ii, 9. 
iujan (tujyav), xii, 6. 



lu/ero (tuj u n), v, 4 ; x, 7. 

tujan (tujyan), xii, 4. 

tujy e n (tuj u n), ii, 7. 

fo^ (tftfra), vii, 13. 

fwM, seejan? tukh, xii, 21, 2. 

faMlf (tahkhith), x, 12. 

fw&ra (tuk a ra), viii, 6, 13. 

£a'Hs (tokis), viii, 4. 

faHs (tokis), viii, 12. 

fa&7f (tahkhith), xi, 13 ; xii, 3. 

to" kyd zi (ti-kyazi), viii, 2. 

tal (tal), ii, 3 ; v, 4 ; ix, 6 ; x, 

7, 8 (2). 
faZa (faZa), vii, 7. 
talau (talau), v, 5 ; x, 1. 
WP (tdl { ), xii, 14. 
feZa (teli), xii, 3. 
tell (teli), v, 5, 6 (2). 
til 1 (teli), ii, 3. 
tul (tul u ), iii, 1. 
tuluk (tulukh), xii, 2. 
tolani (tolani), ix, 10. 
fw/aw (tulan), vii, 14 ; xii, 17. 
tulin (tulin), x, 12. 
fwZtm (tulun), iii, 2 ; xii, 2, 7. 
tulun (tulun u ), xii, 6. 
tulinas (tuPnas), v, 6. 
tul u nas (tul u nas), xii, 15. 
fwZar (*W), ix, 1 (3), 3, 4. 
fwfon (t a l a ri), ix, 1, 6. 
fa'/to' (tdP ti), iii, 8. 
fwfo'f (tulith), iii, 7. 
fa£ ? va (talawa), viii, 6. 
tilavanye (tilawani), xi, 20. 
*m*Z v (to^')> xii, 9. 
tarn (tarn), vii, 17. 
tarn,' see oeA fam, vi, 3. 
tarn, see 602 torn, iv, 1. 
tarn, see & v e tarn, iii, 1. 
torn, see fMv tarn, viii, 6. 
fam, see tsik°r tarn, ii, 11. 
fawm (tamdh), vii, 26. 



tarn 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



472 



torn* (tami), ii, 7 ; iii, 9 ; v, 5 ; 

x, 12 (2), 4 ; xii, 4. 
tarn 1 (tamiy), x, 14. 
tami (tami), viii, 9 ; x, 10 (3), 2 ; 

xii, 6. 
tami (tamiy), xii, 6. 
tarn* (tami), iii, 5, 8. 
tarn 1 (tarn 1 ), i, 3 ; ii, 1 ; iv, 3, 4, 

5, 6 ; vii, 13 ; x, 3, 12. 
tarn 1 (tamiy), iii, 1. 
to'm* (tamiy), xii, 14. 
ta l mi (tami), xii, 16. 
ta x mi (tamiy), xii, 15. 
tq l mi (tami), xii, 14. 
tim (tim), v, 4 (2), 8 ; viii, 3, 4, 

11, 3 ; x, 12 (4) ; xi, 5 ; xii, 

16 (3). 
tim 9 (tima), xi, 19 ; xii, 19. 
timq (tima), viii, 11. 
timai (timay), x, 14. 
timai (timqy), v, 5, 9 ; viii, 4. 
timau (timau), vi, 11 ; xii, 7. 
timau (timav), x, 12. 
tim* (tim), viii, 3. 
torn, see vuch torn, vii, 24. 
turn (turn), xi, 4. 
tim hai (tim-hay), ix, 8, 9. 
tim hay (tim-hay), ix, 10. 
torn* kuy (tamyukuy), vii, 12. 
timan (timan), viii, 1 ; xi, 6, 8 ; 

xii, 6 (2), 7, 16, 7. 
timan (timan), x, 6. 
tim* nai (timan^y), xii, 1. 
timanai (timan^y), viii, 11. 
tomis (tamis), ii, 7 ; iii, 9 ; viii, 

9 (2) ; xii, 10. 
ta x mis (tamis), xii, 19. 
tamashas (tamashes), iii, 7. 
tamis kuri (tamaskhuri), x, 5. 
tqm i sandi (tdm i -sandi), vii, 6. 
ta x misqnzuy (tdm i -sunz iX ), xii, 15. 
tqm x suy (tamis li y), ii, 1. 



torn* 5% (tamis u y), viii, 9 (2) ; 

xii, 1. 
tdmat (tamath), xi, 20. 
tim v (tim), viii, 4. 
ton (tan), viii, 7. 
Zcm, see nqyis tan, vii, 27, 8. 
tan, see na^'s ton nacA, vii, 29. 
turn, see Ma turn, xii, 22. 
tanuk, see wayis tanuk, vii, 26. 
towa raw (tananai), v, 12. 
tannana (tan a nana), v, 12. 
tannqnq (tdnana), v, 12. 
tinandn (tiy nanan), vii, 1. 
tonas, see nayis &mas, vii, 26. 
Z<m v , see nqyis tdn y , vii, 26. 
Zany, see kustdny, v, 4. 
ton?/* (tan), xi, 20. 
Ja% (toil), v, 6 ; viii, 10 ; x, 4, 6, 

7, 8 ; xii, 1, 6, 20. 
tdny, see yutdny, v, 7 ; ?/a 

tdny, v, 10. 
Zap (too), v, 3, 10. 
to^> (thaph), iii, 4, 8 (2) ; v, 6, 

9 (3) ; vi, 9 ; viii, 7 (2), 9. 
tap (tdph), i, 11. 
frw (Zrav), iii, 4 ; v, 9. 
tre \treh), xii, 19 (3), 24. 
tre (trih), x, 1, 5, 12 (2) ; xii, 6, 

11. 
tar (thiir"), v, 4. 
tor {tvr*) t x, 5 (2), 12. 
tare (tare), v, 7. 
tor (thud u ), v, 4. 
Zor ? (torn), i, 8. 

£ora (Zora), i, 6 ; viii, 11 ; xii, 1. 
tore (tora), v, 4, 9. 
tor 1 (tor), x, 3. 
tor 1 ' (tur 1 ), x, 3. 
to x ri (tori), vii, 18. 
tfara (tora), iv, 5. 
Jari (Jar*), vii, 20. 
tur (thiir% ii, 3. 



473 



INDEX TO SIB AUREL STEIN'S TEXT 



tut 



tqrq byat (tarbyeth), ii, 4. 
tqtrif-i (toriph-e), vi, 17. 
tarfan (taraphan), xi, 5. 
trail has (tr6w u has), x, 12. 
turke (torka), vii, 17, 20. 
tram (trdm*), viii, 11. 
trail muts (trov ti muts u ), x, 8. 
tram* (trdm 1 ), viii, 3 (2). 
trdm (tram ti ), iii, 1. 
trdunai (trdiv u nay), v, 4 (2). 
trdu nai (trow u nay), v, 4. 
tren (tren), xii, 5, 11, 20. 
twran (tar an), x, 10 ; xi, 2. 
firan daz (tirandaz), ii, 7. 
iirqn dazqn (tirandazan), ii, 7. 
fa l n warn {tor 1 nam), vii, 25. 
traunam (trow u nam), v, 4. 
traunam (trdw u nam), v, 4. 
traunam (tr6w u nam), v, 4. 
/rm ? vai (trenaway), xii, 25. 
trop u nas (trop u nas), viii, 3. 
trup^nas (trop u nas), viii, 11. 
/ras (tresh), viii, 7. 
frM (*res&), viii, 7 (2). 
£m£ (frof), xii, 5 (3). 
£ra£is (tratis), xii, 5. 
£rdy (Zrchtf"), xii, 7. 
trdvhas (trdw u has), x, 7. 
trdvuk (trowukh), viii, 5 ; x, 5. 
travan (trawan), i, 5 ; xi, 11 ; 

xii, 2. 
travun (trdivun), v, 4. 
travun (trov u n), iii, 4. 
travun (trowun), iii, 3. 
travun (trawun u ), xii, 11. 
travun (trdwun), ii, 10 ; iii, 7 ; 

v, 4 (2) ; x, 2 ; xii, 12 (2). 
trq l vit (trovith), viii, 7 (4). 
trdvit (trovith), ii, 5. 
trqvHoh (trovHav), x, 5. 
tr&vith (trovith), xii, 17. 
trafvith (trovith), xii, 16. 



trqvyii (trovyuv), x, 5. 
2raw?/ (traviy), xii, 6. 
trdvuy (trdwuy), iv, 5. 
triyim (treyim*), xii, 19 (2). 
treyimi (treyimi), viii, 7. 
treyimi (treyam u ), viii, 8. 
treyimis (treyimis), viii, 8. 
fas (fas), ii, 7, 8 ; vii, 1, 4 ; viii, 

6 (2), 7, 8, 11 (2); x, 12; 

xii, 2 (2), 7, 15 (2), 20, 5. 
fas, seesaw? fas, xii, 19, 23, 4. 
fas, see natatas, v, 7. 
fas, see phurtas, iv, 2. 
£os, see &ar* tds, ii, 10. 
fas ? Zi (tasali), xii, 16. 
taslikq (tasali keh), vi, 16. 
faswa (fas wa), i, 5. 
tasqnden (tasanden), ix, 3. 
tat \tath), ii, 1 (2), 7 ; iii, 5 ; v, 4, 

6 ; vii, 27, 8 ; viii, 6 ; x, 3 ; 

xii, 4, 6, 16, 24. 
tat (tath 1 ), iii, 8. 
tat 1 (tati), iv, 2, 7 ; v, 7 ; vii, 

17 ; xii, 4. 
tat 1 (tat 1 ), ii, 1 ; v, 1, 9. 
tat* (tatiy), v, 9. 
tat 1 (tat% v, 7 ; viii, 12. 
tat* (tath% xii, 4. 
taH* (tath% xii, 14 (2). 
taH 1 (tath% xii, 6. 
fafyi (tati), xii, 14. 
fa^ (fa£i), xii, 6. 
taH* (tath 1 ), xii, 11 (3). 
tqH 1 (tath 1 ), xii, 6 (2). 
faT, see ?/e tqH 1 , xii, 6. 
titi(ti-ti), viii, 9; x, 6(3). 
fa* (far), v, 1. 
tot (th6th u ), iv, 4 ; vii, 4. 
iota '(tota), ii, 5, 7 (2), 8, 9, 11. 
*dr (tota), ii, 4, 6. 
2dfo« (tota), ii, 5. 
Jw£ (fa*"), iii, 9 ; xii, 16. 



tath 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



474 



tath (tath), xii, 6, 11, 4, 5 (2), 8. 

tithai (tithay), xii, 22. 

tith' (tithiy), xii, 24. 

tithuy (tyuthuy), v, 6. 

tiiihuy (tyuthuy), xii, 15. 

£oto (totan), ii, 7. 

tfofcm (totan), ii, 10. 

Jofos (totas), ii, 8. 

Zotas (totas), ii, 5, 9. 

fo'tea (titsha), xii, 19. 

to^ (ta^), x, 5. 

to^ (foZA), ii, 1. 

totH (to-ti), x, 3. 

ta^ v (tath'), xii, 6. 

taw ? , see par tav°, xii, 15. 

£ou, see van' toy, viii, 5. 

tuy, see 602 to, vii, 9. 

tuy, see ro2 l to, vii, 9. 

to, see iwc& tuy, viii, 1. 

tavum (thawum), viii, 11. 

tavosh (ta wosh), i, 5. 

taivtau (thdv'tav), ii, 7. 

tofy (tuvyeye), xii, 22. 

£ w a, see Am Z v a, ix, 11. 

t v e (ti), viii, 8. 

Vi (ti), x, 3. 

Zay (tay), iv, 2. 

^egras (tegas), viii, 6, 13. 

foiyaV (tayar), iv, 2 ; xii, 18, 22. 

ft/uJ (tyut u ), xii, 2. 

Vuthuy (tyuthuy), viii, 7. 

tyutuy (tyuthuy), xii, 12. 

^e*/ (%), iii, 4 (2), 9. 

tsa (caret), xii, 18. 

tsa, see khye tsa, xii, 18, 19 (2). 

tsa, see kh v e tsa, xii, 19. 

tea, see kye tsa, xii, 5. 

tsa (tse), viii, 3 ; xii, 7, 13, 8, 21. 

tea (ts a h), ii, 11 ; iii, 2, 9 ; v, 3 ; 
vi, 11 ; viii, 1 (2). 3, 6, 8, 10, 
1 (2), 3 ; ix, 1 (2) ; x, 1, 4, 5, 
8, 12 ; xii, 4, 5, 10, 3 (2), 5. 



tsa, see ha tsa, vi, 9. 

tsai (tsay), v, 9. 

tsau (tsav), ii, 1, 5,^7,|_10, 1 ; 

'iii, 8 (2) ; x, 7 (2). 
tse (tse), v, 10 ; xii, 3, 7. 
tsi (ts a h), xii, 4. 
tsu (ts a h), v, 12 ; xii, 1. 
tsuche (tsoce), v, 7. 
tsahasa (ts a h hasa), v, 7. 
tsaj (tsiij u ), v, 5. 
tsajmats (tsiij il muts ii ), ix, 1 (2). 
tsqjamqts (tsuj u muts u ), ix, 1. 
tsajes (tsajyeyes), ix, 4. 
tea^y (tew;'"), ii, 9. 
tsakh' (tsakhi), vii, 14. 
tsakhu (tsakho), ii, 2. 
tsakh v e (tsakhi), vii, 2. 
fci& ? r tarn (tse kurHham), ii, 11. 
tsul (tsol u ), ii, 7 ; vi, 8. 
tsalau (tsaliv), ii, 8. 
tsalan (tsaldn), vi, 8 ; viii, 13 ; 

xii, 25. 
tsal v u (tsaliv), viii, 11. 
tsal v (tsdP), viii, 4. 11. 
tsql v u (tsaliv), viii, 4. 
teima (tee ma), x, 5. 
tsam^ru (tsamruw u ), xii, 17. 
team nt (tsamruw u ), xii, 16. 
tsimd'ri (tse mariy), vi, 11. 
tsun (tshon u ), xii, 7. 
tsun (tson), iv, 4 ; viii, 5 ; x, 

5 (2), 12. 
tsuan (tson), x, 12. 
fetm (tshun), iii, 5 ; v, 9. 
teim^ (tsund u ), iii, 5, 6. 
teawa ha, see yetsanq ha, v, 6. 
teim /*as (tshun u has), xii, 4. 
tsdnuk (tsonukh), iii, 7. 
tsunuk (tshunukh), viii, 10. 
ts^ndn (tshanan), xii, 17. 
tsunun (tshunun), ii, 5 ; v, 6, 

9 (2) ; viii, 6 ; x, 7, 9. 



475 INDEX TO SIR AUREL STEIN'S TEXT vuch* ha 



tsun^nas (tshun u nas), xii, 15. 
tsununas (tshun u nas), viii, 7 (2). 
tsununqs (tsfam u nas), viii, 7 (2). 
tsqnqndvin (ishananovin), x, 13. 
tsqneny (tshuniin"), iii, 4. 
tsunthq (tshunta), x, 4. 
tsan v jam (tshdjyam), vii, 26. 
tsunye muts (tshurfimuts"), v, §. 
feany warn (tson u nam), ix, 2. 
tsin v an (tshun^n), viii, 10. 
tsinyen (tshun u n), ii, 9. 
tsqn^zi (tshdtfzi), xii, 16. 
feo£> ? (tshopa), xii, 4. 
fro jwV (tsopor*), xii, 24. 
feopor (tsop6r u ), xi, 3, 5. 
fea^ v (tsdp*), x, 7. 
feamw (tsharav), xi, 17. 
feer (feer), iii, 1 ; v, 6, 9. 
feoraw (tsorav), x, 2. 
fear (fear), vii, 5 ; viii, 5 (2) ; x, 

1 (4), 2, 5, 6 (3), 12 (4) ; 

xii, 1, 23. 
tsorau (tsorav), x, 1. 
tsur (tsur), vii, 12 ; viii, 9 ; x, 

12 (3) ; xii, 1 (2). 
tsur (tsur"), xii, 1. 
tsurau (tsurau), viii, 9 (2). 
tsurau (tsurav), iii, 3 (2). 
tsuri (tsuri), iii, 1 ; xii, 1. 
tsu { r { (tsuri), xii, 7. 
fewV* (tsuri), xii, 6. 
tsu l ri (tsuri), xii, 17. 
tsarike (tsarihe), vi, 14. 
tsralin (tsralen), v, 7. 
feoWm (tsurim 1 ), xii, 1. 
tsurimis (tsurimis), viii, 11 (2). 
fearaw (tsharan), iii, 3. 
fearaw (tshddan), xii, 15. 
tsorastq (tsoratsh), xi, 14. 
felr v (fetr*), iii, 1. 
fea^ (fe a -*4 ix, 6. 
feeta (tsheta), xii, 23. 



fedY (feor), iii, 2. 
feo^ (ts'hota), iii, 1, 2. 
fewi (tshyot u ), x, 12. 
tsatahal (tsatahal), viii, 4. 
tsatahal (tsatahal), viii, 11. 
tsatahal* (tsatahala), viii, 4. 
tsethan (tsheth han), x, 5. 
tsateri (tsatdn { ), v, 4. 
feato (tsatun u ), viii, 6, 11. 
tsetfnam (tsdtfnam), ix, 5. 
tsatanas (tsatanas), v, 7. 
tsatan a sa (tsatanasa), v, 7. 
featos (tsdtas), v, 1. 
tsqHith (tsatiih), xii, 15. 
feaw (feav), ii, 5. 
feawZ (tshdwul), iii, 5 (3). 
feam£ (feai> a£A), v, 5. 
fe^e (fee), x, 12, 4 ; xii, 20. 
tsye (fee), ii, 11. 
fe% (ts a y), i, 10 ; xii, 15. 
ts v eta (fee to), viii, 11. 
ts v ut (tshyot u ), x, 12. 
ts v ut (tshyotu), x, 3. 
va, see photu va, ii, 7. 
va, see tdl* va, viii, 6. 
vai, see c^w vai, xii, 15. 
vai, see aow 9 vai, x, 5. 
vai, see <nw ? vai, xii, 25. 
vat, see yalq vai, vi, 16. 
vo (wun), v, 5 ; ix, 6. 
voi, see c^w vol, xii, 15. 
vw (wa), x, 14 (2). 
vu (won), v, 6 ; vii, 26. 
vu (wun), ix, 6 ; xii, 6. 
vu (wun), xii, 18. 
vu bqHi (wobdli), v, 2. 
vuch (dyuth u ), viii, 10. 
vuch (wuch), xii, 15. 
vwc& (wuch 1 ), v, 4. 
vwc^ (wuch u ), iii, 8 ; v, 9. 
v?/c^ (wuch"), x, 3. 
vwc^ ? Aa (wuchaha), viii, 10. 



vuch"he 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



476 



vuch^he (wuchihe), viii, 10. 
vuch hak (wuctthakh), viii, 1. 
vuchak (wuchakh), iii, 8. 
vuchuk (wuchikh), v, 9. 
vuchuk (wuchukh), viii, 1 ; x, 8 ; 

xii, 1. 
vuchuk (wuchakh), xii, 2. 
vuchan (wuchdn), iii, 1 (2), 4, 

7 (2), 8 (3) ; vii, 18 ; viii, 

6, 9 ; xii, 4, 19. 
vuchan (wuchiri), v, 5. 
vuchan (wuchiri), x, 5. 
vuchin (wuchan), iii, 4, 5 ; xii, 15. 
vuch u n (wuchun), iii, 8. 
vuchun (wuchem), vi, 15. 
vuchun (wuchim), vi, 15. 
vuchun (wuchun), iii, 8, 9 ; v, 5, 

7 ; viii, 6, 7 (2), 9 (2), 10 ; 

x, 5, 8 ; xii, 2, 7. 
vuchuna (wuchundh), viii, 3. 
vwcA* we (wuchani), viii, 7. 
vucehan (wuchahan), ii, 5. 
vuchus (ivuchus), v, 5 (2). 
vuchus {won chus), vii, 26. 
twcA to (wuchta), ix, 4 ; x, 5. 
m«c^ £om (wuchHom), vii, 24. 
m*c7i tow (wuchHav), viii, 1. 
VMCW& (wuchukh), ii, 4. 
vwctm (wuchun), ii, 8. 
vucun (wuchun), ii, 1. 
vucun" (wuchun), i, 4. 
wwfai (wdday), xii, 7 (2), 15 (2). 
vwfa, see ai w'da, vii, 16. 
vad (wad), v, 1. 
voda (ora), xii, 4. 
^ocfa (woda), xii, 23. 
wzcZaw (waddn), vii, 16 ; ix, 1 ; 

xi, 5. 
vade na (wadand), vii, 25. 
vudanye (wodane), iii, 1 ; viii, 6. 
vudanye (ivodane), xii, 1. 
vudanye (wodane), iii, 8. 



vudanye (wodane), xii, 1. 

vo^e (wodi), xi, 16. 

VMe£ v e (wodi), xi, 12. 

vocfo/e (wodi), iii, 1. 

vignya (vig l ndh), v, 9 (3). 

w>A (wo/?), iii, 9. 

vahab (wahab), ii, 12. 

vahab, see parvahab, vi, 17. 

wy (woj"), x, 8. 

wx; (woj u ), x, 8 ; xii, 14 (2), 5. 

«a/ v (woj u ), v, 1. 

vikarmdjitan (bikarmdjetan), x, 8. 

vikarmajitun (bikarmdjetun u ), x, 

7, 14. 
vikarnmjiteny (bikarindjetun"), x, 

1, 6. 
wita (wakta), vi, 16. 
vokrvit (wokavith), vi, 16. 
mfow (wdlav), xi, 11. 
wf£, see ?/em/i vaZ, xii, 15. 
wZo (wold), x, 12. 
vwZa (ivola), v, 5 ; x, 5. 
vulddi (woldd-i), iv, 3. 
mZi& (wolikh), viii, 1. 
vaZat fcwm (wdlaikum), xii, 26. 
vafcm (waldn), viii, 13. 
m&m (waldn), v, 4. 
vafctfi (wdlun), iii, 9. 
valena (wdlana), ix, 7. 
vate raw (wdlany), vii, 15. 
wtfom (wolun), viii, 6. 
vdlinja (wolinje), viii, 11 (2). 
vdlinje (wolinje), viii, 3. 
vdlinje (wolinj"), x, 5. 
vdlinja (wolinje), viii, 12. 
vdlinje (wolinje), viii, 4 (3). 
vdlinj 1 (wolinje), v, 6. 
mfe warn (wdlanam), iv, 7. 
vdlqny (wdlun u ), viii, 6. 
wfos, see pah^ra vdlis, viii, 8. 
vafo'£ (wolith), vii, 17. 
mZe vunuy (wdlawunuy), vii, 17. 



477 INDEX TO SIR AUREL STEIN'S TEXT vupha 



vale vaslie (wdlawdshi), v, 2. 

valyun (wdlyun), x, 8. 

vuma (ivumdh), ii, 11. 

vumedvdr (vumedwdr), i, 13. 

van (wan), ix, 6 ; x, 1 ; xi, 20. 

vana (wana), ix, 4. 

vanai (wanay), viii, 11 ; ix, 4 ; 

x, 2 (2). 
vanai (wanay), viii, 6, 8. 
vane (wana), xii, 19. 
vane (wani), vii, 20, 6. 
vane (waniy), iii, 4. 
van (wan), xi, 17. 
iw^n*, see j3ane vqtn 1 , xii, 25. 
ww, see vara n v ecti* vin, viii, 3. 
vun (wun), viii, 10 ; x, 7. 
van (won u ), x, 12. 
van, see parze nd vun, viii, 10. 
vun, see ^arze mf^ vun, viii, 9. 
van, see vdte no vun, viii, 9. 
wnahe (wanihe), vii, 24 (2). 
vanuk (wanuk u ), ix, 1, 3. 
vunmai (won u may), xii, 20. 
vanemau (ivanamowa), x, 1. 
vanemo u (wanamowa), x, 2. 
van u mai (wanhnay), iv, 1. 
vanum (ivanum), iii, 5 ; vi, 

15 (2). 
vanemo v (ivanamowa), x, 1. 
vanan (wanan), vii, 10. 
vanqn (wanan), x, 12. 
vanan (wanan), ix, 2. 
vanan (wanan), i, 13 ; v, 2 (2), 

5; vii, 1, 16, 20, 6, 31; 

viii, 1(2), 7,11; ix, 1,6(2); 

x, 6, 7. 
vanan (caret), xi, 15. 
vaneni (wanani), x, 1. 
vanun (wanun), xii, 10. 
vunun (wonun), viii, 11 ; xii, 7. 
vununas (won u nas), v, 4. 
vanse (wan-sa), x, 1. 



van°sq (wan-sa), x, 2. 

vanas (wanas), ix, 1. 

vqtnsi (waisi\ ii, 12. 

vonas (wonas), xii, 25. 

van£a (wanta), ii, 4 ; x, 1. 

vante (wanta), iii, 9 ; x, 8. 

vanHo (wdnHav), x, 1. 

vam£ (waniih), vi, 16 ; ix, 6. 

vanfo (ivutha), i, 9. 

vunthak (won u thakh), x, 2. 

van* Zov (wdnHav), viii, 5. 

vdn a vdn (wana-wan), i, 2. 

van y au (wanewa), x, 6. 

van v (war^), vii, 20. 

van?/, see katq vqny, xi, 19. 

vqnyu (waniv), x, 6. 

van y , see pane vdn v , viii, 2. 

van?/, see pane vdny, viii, 1. 

vony (wun), v, 8. 

vnn v (wun), ii, 5 ; viii, 11 ; ix, 4. 

vun v ai (wun u y), viii, 7. 

van?/ (won), viii, 7. 

van?/ (wun), ix, 4. 

vana ?/e?/ (wanay ey), i, 12. 

vanyu (waniv), xii, 1. 

va%, see ^ane van?/, viii, 3. 

vony (wun), xii, 15. 

van?/ (wun), iii, 1, 2 ; v, 6 ; x, 

5 (2), 6 ; xii, 18 (2), 9. 
vunye (wune), x, 1. 
vunuy, see vale vunuy, vii, 17. 
vunuy, see va7 ? vunuy, xii, 15. 
vqn y um (wanyum), x, 6. 
vun v muts (ivunPmuts*), vii, 30. 
van?/e mov (wanemowa), x, 1. 
vanye na& (wanenakh), x, 1. 
vanyit (wiinHh), x, 1. 
vuphdl (wophoyi), viii, 11. 
va^ aaVi (wdphdddri), ii, 12. 
vupha dd'ri (wdphdddri), ii, 5, 6, 

7, 10. 
vupha dqWl (wdphdddri), ii, 2. 



miphaddirl HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



478 



vupha ddiri (wophddori), ii, 2, 3, 

4(3)! 
vapliir (wophir), vi, 14. 
vupar (wopar), v, 4. 
vdre (warn), vii, 24. 
vdre hare (wdra-kdra), x, 8. 
vdri (ware), xi, 13. 
vq l ri (warihy), xii, 20. 
vir (vir), v, 7. 
mr^ (vir l d) } ii, 3, 4. 
^wr^ (wurdi), vi, 16. 
vurudz (woruz u ), viii, 1, 11. 
«w mo; (woramoj"), viii, 1. 
vur^noj (wdramoj u ), viii, 11. 
flwra rnaj' (ivoramdje), viii, 11. 
twra n v echr vin (woraneciven), 

viii, 3. " 
vartavdn (wartdwdn), xi, 7. 
vqr^vis (wdr^vis), x, 3. 
mn/a (wdraydh), viii, 2. 
wya (wdraydh), viii, 2. 
va'r* da7& (woriddth), xii, 19. 
vdryahqs (ivdrayahas), iii, 1. 
t?m («), ix, 1. 
vis (ves), xii, 14. 
vdshe, see t>a7e t>as/ie, v, 2. 
?;6sA (wosh), i, 5. 
vasan 1 (wasun u ), ix, 6. 
vasqni (wasani), viii, 6. 
wzs<m (wasdn), v, 7 ; viii, 13. 
ms£ (wasth), v, 1. 
wmY (wasith), ii, 3, 6. 
t'asZw, see be vdstu, v, 11. 
vustad (ivustdd), vii, 26. 
vustdd (wustdd), ii, 5, 9, 10, 2 ; 

iii, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9 ; v, 1, 4, 5, 6, 

7,8,9,11,2; vi,16; vii, 24 ; 

viii, 1, 10, 2 ; ix, 1 ; x, 1, 2, 

3, 10, 3 ; xii, 4, 8, 9, 20, 2, 

5, 6. 
vustddq (wustdddh), i, 13. 
vas y u (wasiv), vi, 16. 



vasyu (wasiv), viii, 4. 

visydi (vis l yiy), ix, 11. 

vasiy (wasiy), xii, 6. 

msyatf (was yiYA), iii, 9. 

vasyqt (ivas yith), iii, 5. 

vats 1 zinq (wdshi-na), xii, 11. 

vat (wath), ii, 1 ; v, 9. 

txtf* (wato'), v, 7 ; vii, 17 (2) ; 
x, 1, 4. 

vat 1 (wath 1 ), x, 5. 

vdte (ivdta), xii, 24. 

vat* (wdti), viii, 3, 6, 11 (2). 

vat 1 (wot 1 ), v, 9 ; viii, 5 ; x, 2. 

vat 1 (wot 1 ), iii, 1 ; xii, 2. 

vat (wot u ), xii, 18. 

vat 1 (wot 1 ), v, 11. 

wty (wati), ii, 2. 

mYi (wati), xii, 14, 5. 

tw^ (wati), xii, 15. 

f>o# (woY**), x, 4 ; xii, 8. 

vtiW (wot 1 ), xii, 18. • 

vot (wot u ), ii, 8 ; iii, 1 (2), 3, 4 ; 
v, 1, 4 (2), 6 ; viii, 4, 7, 9, 
10, 1 (2) ; x, 4 (2), 5 (2), 
6, 7 (2), 9, 11, 4 (2) ; xii, 1, 
5 (2), 10 (2), 1, 2 (2), 3, 9 (2), 
20, 2, 5 (2). 

vot 1 (wath*), vi, 16. 

vot* (woth u ), xii, 3. 

vot 1 (iv6t u ), viii, 7 ; x, 3 ; xii, 
4,5. 

vut (woth u ), iii, 9. 

vut (ivoth), iii, 8 (2). 

vut (woth u ), ii, 5, 6 ; v, 9 ; vi, 
12,3. 

vut (woth), iii, 4. 

va£ (waiA), x, 12 (2). 

vot (w6th u ), xii, 14. 

vut (woth), ii, 9 (2). 

vath (wath), xii, 14. 

voth (woth u ), xii, 23. 

voth (wdt u ), xii, 15, 17. 



479 INDEX TO SIB AUREL STEIN'S TEXT 



ya 



vuth (woth u ), xii, 15. 
vuth (woth u ), xii, 15. 
vuthi (wothi), vi, 15. 
vuHhi (wothiy), xii, 14. 
vutehenq (wothihe-na), v, 9. 
vutherqni (wotharani), viii, 6. 
vutherdn (wothardn), viii, 6, 13. 
vuthqrdn v (wothardn), viii, 13. 
vothus (wothus), xii, 21. 
vuthus (wothus), viii, 6. 
vuthit (yjothith), v, 6. 
vatoj (wat^f), xi, 15. 
va£y (caret), xi, 15. 
vdtujq (wdt a je), xi, 14. 
vdtak (wdtakh), xii, 16, 24. 
vdtql (watal), xi, 15. 
wztoZ* (watal 1 ), xi, 14. 
vdFlan (wdtalan), viii, 4. 
vdt^lqn (wdtalan), viii, 4. 
vutamak 1 (wotamukh 1 ), v, 9. 
vot u mut (wdt u mot u ), vii, 29. 
vot u muth (w6t u mot u ), xii, 22. 
vdtqne (wdtani), viii, 6. 
wzfrlm (wdtdn), iii, 7 ; xii, 13. 
mftm (wdtun u ), v, 7 ; xii, 22 (2), 3. 
vafe wo mm (wdtanowun), viii, 9. 
vatqndvun (wdtandwun), iii, 9. 
vdt 9 ndvan (wdtandwan), v, 9. 
vatqndvun (watanbwun), viii, 9. 
vatqndvun (wdtanowun), v, 10. 
vaFrun (watharun u ), xii, 24. 
vat"ranuk (watharanuk u ), xii, 18 

vatq l rith (watharith), xii, 21. 

w>£ws (wothus), x, 2, 6. 

vo7ws (wdtus), xii, 10. 

wfta'£ (wotith), vii, 12. 

w/taZ (wothith), ii, 3. 

vdHith (wotith), xii, 18. 

vo£ 9 vunuy (wdtawunuy), xii, 15. 

m^ y (wdth { ), xii, 2. 

m£ v e (wa£i), vii, 20. 



m^ ve (wdti), iii, 9 ; viii, 8. 

vdtsau (wdtsdv), iii, 3. 

wfe (titffc*), iii, 2 (2), 3 ; ix, 1. 

vats (wots u ), v, 8. 

vwfe (wotsh u ), iii, 1, 3. 

mjfe (wutsh u ), iii, 2 ; xii, 7. 

vuts^prang (wutsha-jrrang), xii, 18. 

mfeas (wutsh u s), ix, 4. 

m&ws (wots u s), ix, 1. 

vdtsus (wots u s), xii, 15. 

iwfeas (wotsh u s), xii, 20. 

vutsus (wbtsh u s), viii, 11 ; xii, 11. 

vatsqyqs (wiitsh u y), v, 9. 

vav, see £>a^re vav, v, 4. 

vavim (wdwim), ix, 9. 

v v e (vih), v, 6. 

vmz/, see yim? vuy, iii, 7 ; viii, 6. 

vaz (wdz), xii, 1. 

vize (to), ix, 8. 

vazir (wazir), ii, 1, 6 (2), 11 (3) ; 

viii, 1, 2, 4, 11, 4 ; xii, 1, 

2 (4), 4, 5, 10 (2), 3, 9 (2), 

22, 3, 4, 5 (3), 6. 
vazir? (wazira), xii, 10. 
vazirq (wazira), xii, 4, 13, 9. 
vazirau (wazirau), vi, 16. 
vazirau (wazirau), viii, 2. 
mzm (waziri), xii, 26. 
vaziro (wazir 6), ii, 4. 
vaziran (waziran), xii, 1, 19, 25. 
vazirqn (waziran), ii, 4 (2), 5 (2), 

7*; viii, 1,4, 12. 
vaziras (waziras), xii, 5 (2), 10, 

3, 9, (2). 
vaziras (waziras), ii, 4 (2), 5 (2) ; 

viii, 11 ; xii, 4. 
vazirqsqndi (wazira-sandi), x, 4 ; 

xii, 5. 
vqz l zq (wdshi), xii, 14. 
ya (yd), ii, 12. 
yd (yd), x, 3 (2), 7 (2) ; viii, 1 ; 

xii, 9 (2). 



ye HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 480 

ye (yih), v, 5. yele (yela), x, 12. 

ye, see ayiye, v, 7. t/eZ* (yeli), ii, 7 (2). 

yi (yl), vi, 8. i/eZi (yefo), ii, 3 ; iii, 8 ; iv, 7 ; 

yi (yih), ii, 3, 8 (2), 9, 10 (2), 1 ; v, 5, 6 (2), 8, 9 ; vi, 11 ; vii, 

iii, 1 (2), 3, 4 (4), 7, 8 (5), 19 (2), 20, 6 ; viii, 6, 7, 10 ; 

9 (2) ; v, 5 (2), 6 (3), 7, 8 (2), ix, 5, 7 ; x, 1, 3 (3), 4 (2), 

9, 10 (7), 11, 2 ; vi, 16 ; 5 ; xii, 1, 15 (2), 6, 8 (2), 22. 

viii, 1 (2), 3, 5, 6 (3), 7 (5), yil 9 (yela), iii, 4. 

9 (5), 10 (2), 1, 3 (4) ; ix, 1, yile (yela), iii, 4. 

4 (3) ; x, 1 (2), 2, 4 (5), yelina (yeli na), x, 7. 

5 (10), 6, 7 (5), 8 (2), 10 (3), yala vai (jeloy), vi, 16. 

2 (5), 3, 4 ; xii, 1 (3), 2 (6), yam 1 (yemi), vii, 8. 

3 (6), 4 (10), 5, 6 (2), 7 (5), yami (yimi), viii, 11. 

10 (5), 1, 2 (3), 3 (3), 5 (8), 6, yem* (yim*), x, 12. 
7 (2), 8 (3), 20 (3), 1 (3), 2 (2), yemi (yimi), viii, 4. 
3 (4), 4 (2), 5 (4). ye { mi (yemi), xii, 11. 

yi (yuh), xii, 5. yim (yih), x, 1. 

yi (yuh), ii, 11. yim (yem 1 ), xii, 7. 

yi (yit% viii, 13. yim (yim), ii, 9 ; v, 5, 9 (2), 12 ; 

yi (yiy), xi, 1. viii, 1 (3), 3 (3), 5 (2), 11 (4), 

yil (yuh), x, 12. 3 ; ix, 9 ; x, 1 (2), 2, 5, 12 (2) ; 

yibHis (yiblls), iv, 2. xii, 2, 3, 6, 18, 23. 

yichus (yih chus), v, 5. yim (yim 1 ), x, 2. 

yad (yad), iii, 5 ; vi, 11 ; vii, 20, yim (caret), x, 2. 

6 ; xii, 15 (2), 7. yima (yima), iii, 8. 
yddi (ydd-i), i, 7. yim 9 (yima), viii, 4 (2). 

yeg (yeg), % 4. xjima (yima), v, 8 ; x, 1, 2, 6. 

yahoi (yihoy), v, 10. yimai (yimay), xii, 3, 23. 

yih (yiy), iii, 9. yimau (timav), x, 12. 

yi hoi (yihai), xii, 20. yimau (yimau), ii, 3; viii, 1, 3 

yohoi (yihuy), x, 7. (2), 5, 9 ; xii, 1 (2), 17 (2), 22. 

yohoi (yohay), x, 8. yimau (yimav), iii, 1 ; v, 7, 8 ; 

yohoi (yuhay), xi, 2. viii, 11 ; x, 1, 5, 6, 12 (2) ; 

yuhoi (yihuy), xii, 15 (2). xi, 3. 

yihna (yikh-na), vi, 2. yimau (yimov), x, 1. 

yihas (yihunz^), viii, 1. yimau (yimawa), xii, 1. 

yi hay (yihuy), viii, 10. yimchis (yim chis), ii, 3. 

yohay (yihuy), viii, 10. yimqha (yimaho), x, 3. 

yuhay (yuhuy), v, 1. yimdmat (yimamath), xii, 1. 

yahaz 1 (ha hdz 1 ), v, 9. yimna (yim na), xi, 8. 

yek (yekh), x, 12. yiman (yiman), ii, 11 ; v, 8 ; 

2/eZa (2/efa), x, 5 (3). vii, 24 (2) ; viii, 1 (3), 3 (2), 



481 INDEX TO SIR AUBEL STEIN'S TEXT yitha 



4 (2), 11 (3) ; x, 5, 11, 2 (2) ; 

xii, 7, 11, 4, 9, 20, 1. 
yiman (yiman), viii, 11, 2 ; x, 5. 
yimqniy (yiman u y), viii, 13. 
yim?nuy (yimaniy), vii, 20. 
yqmis (yimis), x, 5. 
yemis (yimis), iii, 8. 
ydmat (ydmath), xi, 20. 
yim" vuy (yimav u y), iii, 7 ; viii, 6. 
yimoy (yimoy), v, 10. 
yina (yina), xii, 1. 
yinai (yinay), xii, 6. 
yini (yini), x, 8. 
yiln (yun u ), x, 3 ; xii, 15. 
yingar (yengar), xi, 17. 
yin sdf (yinsdph), viii, 4. 
yinsdn (yinsdn), x, 7 ; xii, 7. 
ymy (yin u ), v, 6. 
yony (yaw), xii, 15. 
yenyi vol (yenew6l u ), xii, 15. 
yeny^ol (yenewdl u ), xii, 18. 
yenyivdl (yenew6l u ), xii, 17. 
yip&r 1 (yipor 1 ), v, 4. 
?/a> (ya>), iv, 4, 7 ; vii, 5 ; x, 1, 

4,6. 
ydr (ydra), x, 4. 
ydr 9 (ydr), v, 9. 
ya>? (ydra), vi, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 

7, 8, 9, 10, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7. 
t/ara (ydra), x, 4. 
yera (yedah), ix, 7. 
ydr (ydr), ii, 2 ; viii, 5 ; ix, 6 ; 

x, 4. 
ydra (ydra), i, 6 ; v, 8. 
f/wr* (yur 1 ), x, 5. 
ywr* (yur { ), v, 5. 
ywra (vyur u dh), ix, 2. 
ydrkand (ydrkand), xi, 1, 2 (2), 

3 (2), 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1, 2, 

3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 20. 
ydrqn (ydran), x, 4 (2), 11. 
yiran (yiran), xi, 16. 



ydras (ydras), x, 11. 

yams (ydras), x, 4. 

ydrqsund (ydra-sond u ), x, 4, 11. 

ydrisqnzi (ydra-sanzi), x, 4. 

ywr v (ywr*), x, 12 ; xii, 23. 

yury (yur*), xii, 15. 

yas (yes), ii, 8, 9 ; vi, 16 ; vii, 

1, 29, 30 ; xii, 15. 
yasq (yesa), xii, 20. 
yesq (yesa), x, 1 ; xii, 25 (2). 
yis (yus), xii, 4. 
yisu (yih suh), x, 1. 
yus (yus), ii, 4, 7 (2), 8, 9, 10, 

1 (2) ; v, 9 ; vi, 14 (2) ; vii, 

29 ; viii, 6, 8 ; x, 1, 12 (3) ; 

xii, 4, 25. 
yus (yus), viii, 11 ; x, 6 ; xii, 25. 
yusuf (yusuph), vi, 1, 8. 
yusuf (yusuph), vi, 8, 10, 1, 4, 

5, 6 (2), 7. 
yusuf 9 (yusupha), vi, 10. 
yusuf an (yusuphan), vi, 15 (2), 6. 
yusuf as (yusuphas), vi, 16. 
yusufas (yusuphas), vi, 14. 
yqsinq (yesa na), x, 6. 
yaZ (yeth), x, 7, 10. 
ya£ (y^&), iii, 8 ; v, 1, 9 ; viii, 9 ; 

x, 5, 12. 
yat, see vasyat, iii, 9. 
yqt (yith), iii, 5. 
yat, see zur yat, vii, 8. 
ya£*' (yeti),x, 7. 
ye£ (y^A), iii, 8. 
yet 1 (yeti), viii, 11. 
yet 1 (yit 1 ), xii, 18. 
yeta (yiti), v, 8 (2). 
yi tai (yitay), ix, 1. 
yi li (yi-ti), x, 8. 
ytf (yiti), v, 5. 
yw£ (yut u ), xii, 2. 
ya£A (yith), xii, 21. 
ytYAa (yetha), xii, 22. 



yilth 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOEIES 



482 



yuth (yuth u ), xii, 24. 

yitthuy (yuthuy), v, 6 ; viii, 7 ; 

xii, 15. 
yeti kis (yitikis), x, 1. 
yitam (yitam), vi, 2. 
yiftnai (yith-nay), ix, 12. 
yutany (yut u -tdh), v, 7. 
yutany (yutdn), v, 5. 
2/w £a% (yotdn), v, 10. 
2/e to'i* (yetdt 1 ), xii, 6. 
yuttdny (yot u -tdn), xii, 6. 
yflrt* ##)> x, 12. 
ye'fy (jfOO, x, 12. 
^tefti^ (yutuy), xi, 20. 
2/i'fe ? (yiits"), ii, 4. 
yetsana ha (yiih tshunaho), v, 6. 
paw (yiwdn), ii, 4 ; v, 5, 6 ; 

vi, 15 ; viii, 5 ; xii, 3, 4, 15, 

22. 
yivdn (caret), vi, 15. 
yi y (yiy), ii, 5. 
yey (yiy), iii, 4 (2), 9. 
yey, see wma yey, i, 12. 

y*y (y*y)» viii , i- 

yiy (yiy), vii, 24. 

yiy (caret), xii, 13. 

yiy, see gumPra yiy, vii, 12. 

y»y« (w)> xii > 16 - 

yiye, see yaefoi yiye, x, 2. 

W (W!f). xii > 6 - 
za (zdh), xi, 14. 

za (z a h), viii, 11 (7), 2 (3), 3 (3) ; 

x, 4 ; xii, 1, 3. 
ze (zi), viii, 1. 
ze (z a h), v, 3, 4 (2), 5, 8, 9 (3), 

10 ; viii, 1, 3 (3), 4 (4), 5 

(2), 7, 8; x,l. 
ze, see gar ze, vii, 26. 
ze, see kyd ze, viii, 1. 
zi, see bih zi, xii, 6. 



zi, see kyd zi, xii, 4, 5. 

zi, see fo' %a zi, viii, 2. 

zw (zm>), ii, 4. 

za&aw (zabdn), ix, 1 ; x, 8. 

zabdny (zabdn 11 ), xii, 16. 

za&ar (zabar), vii, 8. 

za6 ? r (zabar), xii, 15. 

za&ar (zabar), vii, 28. 

zacAe (zace), xi, 9. 

zad (zad), x, 4. 

za<fe (zade), vii, 25. 

zada (zdda), viii, 11 (3) ; xii, 2. 

zada, see pddshdh zdda, viii, 

ii (2). 

zac^a, see raja zada, x, 7, 8. 

za^e (zdda), viii, 3 (2). 

z^ (zz'a'), vi, 10. 

zddqn (zddan), viii, 4 (2), 11 (2). 

zddas (zddas), xii, 2. 

zaaas (zddas), viii, 5. 

zia/aZ (ziydphath), x, 4, 5, 10, 

1,2. " 
zia/aZ (ziydphathd), x, 5. 
zdyaw (zdgdn), ii, 5. 
zhudd (juddh), vii, 16. 
zhudM (judoyi), vii, 16. 
zhdday (jydday), ii, 12. 
zhdnia (jama), x, 9. 
zaAar (zahar), viii, 7 (2), 13 (2). 
zeAar (zahar), viii, 6. 
zd7a (zala), iii, 4 (2). 
za7a (zdldh), i, 7, 8. 
zaTa (zdldh), i, 6. 
zoZ (zdZ M ), iii, 4. 
zaZw& (zolukh), iii, 4. 
zafo^ (zdlukh), ii, 12. 
zalikhd (zalikhd), vi, 8 (2). 
zulikhd (zalikhd), vi, 1. 
ziZfa (z a Za), xii, 17 (2). 
za^ (zalil), i, 4. 
zu£m (zulm), ix, 1 (3), 6. 
zdTas (zdlas), i, 6. 



483 INDEX TO SIR AUBEL STEIN'S TEXT zHthis 






zdlqs (zdlas), ix, 7. 

zdlit (zoliih), iii, 1. 

zima (zima), viii, 5. 

zima (zima), iii, 3 ; x, 12 ; xii, 15. 

zumbq (zomba), xi, 6. 

zeminau (zaminav), iii, 8. 

zemini (zamini), ix, 9. 

zan (zan), i, 12 ; vii, 23 ; x, 13. 

zan* (zan 1 ), x, 1. 

zan (zan), v, 12 (2) ; vii, 27, 9 ; 

xi, 5. 
zana (zana), v, 9. 
zana (zani), vii, 29. 
zdnau (zdnav), xi, 15. 
zdne (zani), vi, 14 ; vii, 27, 8, 

30. 
za l ni (zeni), x, 1. 
zinq, see kq i r i zinq, xii, 6. 
zinq, see vq i s i zinq, xii, 11. 
zin (zin), iii, 8 ; xi, 9. 
zun (zon u ), viii, 7. 
ziln (zyun u ), xii, 20 (2), 1. 
zindq (zinda), ii, 3. 
zindai (zinday), x, 8 (2). 
zun" dabi (zunadabi), viii, 1. 
zang (zang), ii, 11. 
zdnak (zdnakh), x, 12. 
zandna (zandna), iii, 1 ; xii, 19. 
zqndnq (zandna), iii, 5 ; v, 1, 10 ; 

viii, 11 ; x, 1, 5, 6, 13 ; xii, 

4 (2), 5 (2), 6, 19 (2). 
zandna (zandna), x, 5 (2) ; xii, 

4, "10. 
zandna (zandni), iii, 4 (2), 9 (3) ; 
' v, 4, 5 (2), 7, 9, 11 ; x, 5 (3), 

12; xii, 4(2), 5. 
zqndnq (zandndh), iii, 4. 
zqndnai (zandnay), v, 12. 
zdnan (zdnan), xi, 8. 
zanen (zanen), viii, 5 ; x, 6, 

12 (2). 



zdnena (zdna-nd), x, 12. 
zendn (zendn), xi, 1, 2. 
zqndnan (zandnan), xii, 11. 
zqndnqn (zandnan), ii, 1 ; xi, 7 ; 

xii', 14, 20. 
zinas (zinis), xii, 24. 
zinis (zinis), xii, 21, 2. 
zany (zun""), xii, 15. 
za l n v (zun"), xii, 7. 
za { n v e (zane), xii, 6. 
zaifa/e (zane), xii, 7. 
zq l nyau (zanev), x, 1, 2. 
zan v en (zanen), x, 5. 
zanyen (zanen), xii, 6. 
zar (zar), i, 13 ; iv, 1. 
zdr* (zdra), ii, 5. 
zdrq (zdra), ii, 3. 
zer (zir"), x, 7. 
zor (zor), viii, 2 ; xii, 15. 
zargqr (zargar), v, 2. 
zdr^pdr (zdrapdr), ix, 1. 
zara par (zdrapdr), x, 5 (2). 
zordvdr (zordwdr), xi, 2. 
zw ydt (zurydth), vii, 8. 
zds°nuy (zdsanuy), i, 12. 
zaZ, see mun* zdt, vii, 3. 
z^*' (zitW), vii, 25. 
za£A (za^), xii, 16. 
zith (z&th u ), xii, 6. 
zH (z a h), viii, 5. 
z v qni (zeni), x, 6. 
z v im (zyun u ), xii, 24 (2). 
zyww (zyun u ), ii, 12. 
z y enan (zenan), x, 7. 
z v imte (zyun u ta), xi, 7. 
z y eniih (zinith), xii, 25. 
z v er (zSr*), x, 7. 
zyes, see gand i zyes, v, 6. 
zyut (zyuth u ), v, 1. 
z v i7Ais (zithis), viii, 5. 



APPENDIX II 

INDEX OF WORDS IN GOVINDA KAULA'S TEXT, 

ARRANGED IN THE ORDER OF FINAL LETTERS, 

SHOWING THE CORRESPONDING WORDS IN SIR AUREL 

STEIN'S TEXT. 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


Words ending in a 


dega 
ndga 


dega. 
ndge. 


aba 


db 9 . 


hanga-ta-manga 


hangqt 9 manga. 


doba 


dob*. 


ha 


ha. 


zomba 


zumbq. 


beha 


behe. 


soba 


sdbq. 


ddha 


doh, doha, dohq, 


ada 


ad*, ada, ade, ad e . 




doh°, doho. 


ada 


ad. 


wuchaha 


vuch 9 ha. 


doda 


dud^, dudq, dod 9 . 


pdtashdha 


padshah 9 , 


gdda 


gdda, gdda. 




pddshdh, 


gdda 


gud a , gud 9 , guda, 




pddshdhq, 




gude. 




pdd 9 shdhq. 


banda 


bande. 


pdtasheha 


pddshaha, 


cenda 


chandq. 




pddshahq, 


danda 


dand, danda. 




pddshdh 9 , 


shanda 


shanda. 




pdd 9 shahq, 


jenda 


jande. 




pddshaliqs. 


zinda 


zindq. 


koha 


koh 9 . 


poda 


pddq, pad 9 , pqda, 


sapadakha 


sap 9 dak 9 . 




pqda, p&dq, 


chukha 


chukq. 




Jidda. 


shakha 


shdk 9 . 


har a da 


harde. 


mdkha 


mukhq, mukhe. 


marda 


marda. 


nakha 


nakh 9 . 


sarda 


sarde. 


pakha 


pakq. 


woda 


vodq. 


rozakha 


roz kq. 


zdda 


zddq, zdde. 


yusuplia 


yusuf 9 . 


shahzada 


shahzada, 


bruJia 


broho. 




sh a hzddq. 


atha 


athq, atlio, atq. 


pdtashdhzdda 


pddshah zddq, 


bdtha 


bdthq. 




pddshdh zddq. 


katha 


katha, kathe, 


rajezdda 


raja zddq. 




katq. 



kttha 



HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 



486 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


ketha 


kh v qthq, k v eta, 


ceshma 


ceshma. 




k v etq, kHta, 


jama 


zhdmq. 




kyatq. 


shikama 


shikma, shik^mq. 


bdntha 


bont 9 , bontq. 


kalama 


kalama. 


petha 


p v eth, p v ethq, 


noma 


noma. 




p v ethq, petq, 


pdma 


pdmq. 




pyete. 


tima 


tim", timq. 


yeiha 


yiiha. 


yima 


yima, yim 9 , yima 


wMha 


vuntq. 


zima 


zima, zima. 


titsha 


titsq. 


na 


ma, na, na, ne. 


panja 


panje, panje. 


ana 


ana. 


qsh g ka 


ashkq. 


bna 


ana, cine. 


tdrka 


turke. 


bdna 


bun 9 . 


tdka 


tofr, 


ndddna 


na ddnq. 


bdla 


bdl 9 , bdla. 


landana 


landana. 


ad a la 


adql. 


tog u -na 


tog u nq. 


bagala 


bagHa. 


chena 


chq na, che na, 


hala 


hal*. ' 




che na, che ne, 


chela 


chale. 




chanq, chena, 


mahala 


mahala. 




ch v enq. 


phala 


phal*. ' 


chuna 


chu na, chu nq. 


tsdtahdla 


IsaPhal*. 


wdthihe-na 


vutehenq. 


kala 


kal 9 , kale, kala. 


khdna 


khan. 


cakla 


chaklq. 


chukhna 


chuk nq. 


lata 


Idlq. 


kashena 


kash na. 


jumala 


jumqlq. 


nishdna 


nishdna. 


ndla 


ndl 9 , ndla. 


gatshi-na 


gats°nq. 


musla 


muslq, musHq. 


kana 


kana, kane. 


tola 


tola. 


kina 


kina, k v in na, 


wola 


volo, vulq. 




k v inna. 


hawdla 


havdla, havdlq, 


kdna 


kone. 




havdle, havdle. 


wdlana 


valenq. 


yela 


yela, yele, yil?, 


yeli na 


yelina. 




yile. 


gatshem-na 


lagimnq. 


pydla 


pydla. 


yim na 


yimnq. 


zdla 


zdla. 


nuna 


nuna. 


ma 


ma. 


banana 


banana. 


mamma 


macdmq. 


k a nana 


kqnanq. 


nagma 


nagma. 


tan a nana 


tannana. 


khema 


kh v ema. 


tdnana 


tdnnqnq. 


muhima 


muhimma. 


zandna 


zandna, zqndnq. 



487 



INDEX IN ORDER OF FINAL LETTERS 



ta 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


pdna 
mdrana 


pan*, pdnq, pane, 
mdrqnq. 


kara 
kdra 


kare. 
kdre. 


6s u na 
ds-na 


as na. 
ds?nq. 


phakira 
wdra-kdra 


fakirq. 
vdre kdre. 


sina 


sin*. 


tuk a ra 


tukrq. 


sona 


sune. 


mdra 


mdra, mare. 


chesna 


chesna, chqs na, 


shehmdra 


shahmdr?, 




che sa. 




shahmdrq. 


kah chus-na 


kahchus na. 


nura 


nur?. 


kur^sna 


kqrus na. 


para 


para. 


tas na 


tasnq. 


para 


par. 


yesa na 
khdtuna 


yqsinq. 
khdtuna, khdtun. 


sara 


sar, sar?, sare, 
sera. 


rqt a na 


rothunq, rothunq, 


sura 


sura. 




rotunq, rutun?, 


asara 


asr?. 




rutunq. 


torn 


tod?, tor?, torq, 


wana 


vanq, vane. 




tore, turq. 


chewana 


ch v auvna. 


wdra 


vdre. 


rawdna 


revdnq. 


ydra 


ydr, yar?, ydra. 


dye-na 


dyinq. 


yora 


yora. 


yina 


yina. 


zdra 


zdr?, zdra. 


zdna 


zdna. 


wazira 


vazir?, vazirq. 


bozana 


boz?nq, bdzqnq, 


sa 


sa, sa, se. 




boz?ne. 


dsa 


dse, dsa, dsa. 


kdrhi-na 


karhqnq, kq { r { 


dsa 


ds u . 




zinq. 


di-sa 


disq. 


rbzana 
wds i zi-na 


rozqnq 
vq i s i zinq. 


gdsa 
hasa 


gdsa, gase, gdsu. 
ha se, h?sq, hasa, 


tshopa 

dmpa 

ora 


tsop? 

dmpa. 

ddq, dr, drq, are, 


chesa 
bdh hasa 


hasq, hase. 
chqsq. 
boh?sq, boha se. 




d u re, vodq. 


ts a h hasa 


tsahasq. 


gara 

soddgara 

hihara 


gar, gar?, gara. 

sauctdgqrq. 

h v qhqrq. 


khdsa 

kusa 

dildsa 


khds, khds*. 

kusa. 

dildsa. 


shehara 


shah?ra, shah?rq, 


an sa 


ansa. 




sheherq. 


nin sa 


ninsq. 


khdra 


karq, kdre. 


tsatanasa 


tsatan a sq. 


mdhara 


mohrq, moh a rq, 


wan-sa 


vanse, van?sq. 


pahara 


moh?rq. 
pahara. 


yesa 
ta 


yasq, yesa. 
t?, ta, ta, te. 



ata 



HATIWS SONGS AND STOBIES 



488 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


ata 


ata. 


dawa 


davq. 


hata 


bat", hata, battq. 


chewa 


ch v au. 


bota 


buttq. 


chiwa 


chu. 


mahabata 


mahabat. 


chuwa 


chu. 


dita 


dittq. 


kuwa 


kuv". 


gdta 


gdtq. 


jalwa 


jaPva. 


hata 


hata. 


tdlawa 


tal* va. 


wuchta 


vuch tq. 


mewa 


m v eva. 


khota 


hutq, khotq, 


wanamowa 


vanemau, 




khutq. 




vanemo u , 


nokhta 


nukhtq. 




vanemo v . 


daskhata 


daskatq. 


wanemowa 


vanye mov. 


rathta 


rath tq. 


dopum a wa 


dop u mau. 


tsheta 


tsetq. 


dyutum a wa 


dyut u mau. 


tshota 


tsof. 


yimawa 


yimau. 


gatshta 


gats tq. 


wanewa 


van v au. 


wakta 


vaktq. 


kor u wa 


kuru, kurit. 


tshunta 


tsunthq. 


kiir u wa 


kqru. 


wanta 


vantq, vante. 


mdriwa 


mqtryu. 


niyen ta 


niyantq. 


os { wa 


dsyu. 


zyun u ta 


z y unte. 


phut u wa 


phutu. 


fata 


pat", patq. 


rot u wa 


rutu. 


pata-pata 


patq-patq 


partawa 


par tav?. 


Jcarta 


kartq, karte, 


neza 


n v qzq. 




kar the. 


hanza 


hanzq, hanza, 


sdta 


sat?, sdthq. 




hqnzq. 


sdta 


sontq. 


tihanza 


tq hanzq, 


basta 


basta. 




ti hqnzq. 


shihasta 


shikasta. 


manza 


manzq. 


bewdsta 


be vdstu. 


reza 


rezq. 


tota 


tota, tota, tot u , 


garza 


gar ze. 




totu. 


darwdza 


darvdza, dqrvdzq. 


tseta 


ts y eta. 






chiv ta 


ch v utq. 


Words ending in a 


thdvta 


thdu tq. 


ba 


ba. 


wdta 


vdte. 


add 


dda. 


Jcatsa 


katse. 


khodd 


kudd, kudd, 


Jcdtsa 


kdts*. 




khudd. 


motsa 


mdntsq. 


bd-khodd 


bd-khudd. 


hetsamatsa 


hetsamatsa. 


modd 


mudd. 


wa 


vu. 


pardd 


parda. 






489 



INDEX IN ORDER OF FINAL LETTERS 



tsurau 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


phardd 


parda. 


khotund 


khdtunq, kotuna 


soda 


soda. 


dy-nd 


dyna. 


ha 


ha. 


thun ti d 


thanyd. 


bebahd 


be bahd, beb a hd, 


soddgdrd 


soddgdr", 




bebahd. 




soddgarq. 


dohd 


doha. 


phakira 


fakirq. 


pdtashehd 


pddshaha. 


shehmdrd 


shah mdra. 


zalikhd 


zalikhd, zulikhd. 


shekhtsd 


shahtsa. 


be-wophd 


bevophd. 


dawd 


davd. 


srehd 


sreha. 


chwa 


cha. 


ziydphathd 


zidfat. 


yd 


ya, yd. 


sdthd 


sdtha, sdtq. 


chya 


cha, cha, che, 


hdtshd 


ha tsd. 




ch v d. 


kdld 


kdla. 


kyd 


kya, kyd. 


dalila 


dalilq, dalila, 




Cf. kyah. 




dalila. 


baldyd 


baldyq. 


bismilld 


bismilla. 


pazyd 


pazyd. 


gutHd 

Idyild 

z a ld 


gutHd. 
Id illdh. 
zilla. 


Words ending in ai 
kohai kohdy. 
yihai yi hoi. 


ma 
hakimd 


ma, ma. 
hakima. 


tandnai 


tana nai. 


samd 


samd. 


Words ending in au 


tsemd 


tsima. 


bargau 


burgau. 


na 


na, na. 


hau 


ho. 


mbddnd 


maiddna. 


kathau 


kathau. 


wadand 


vade na. 


lalau 


lalau. 


hand 


h*nd, hana, hqna, 


kralau 


kralau. 




hand, hqna, 


talau 


talau. 




hna. 


mdrawdtalau 


mdrqvdtqlau, 


doba-hand 


dob^hqnq. 




mdrqvdtHau. 


khekh-nd 


k v eknd. 


timau 


timau. 


yikh-nd 


yihna. 


yimau 


yimau. 


ratshi-hand 


ratseh^na, 




Cf. yimav. 




raise h°na. 


nau 


nau. 


khashena-hand 


khash^nq h°nd. 


ganau 


ganau. 


pdri-hand 


pdr v ehna. 


nigmau 


niglnau. 


tagem-nd 


tagimna. 


as* nau 


qs l nau. 


bani-nd 


banina. 


rost u nau 


rust^nau. 


zdna-nd 


zdnend. 


tsurau 


tsurau. 


zandnd 


zandna. 




Cf. tsurav. 



wazirau 



HATIWS SONGS AND STORIES 



490 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


wazirau 


vazirau, vazirau. 


kranje 


kranj e . / 


batsau 


batsau. 


raje 


raja, raje. 


doyau 


doyau. 


wat a je 


vatujq. 


kodyau 


kqfdyau, kqdyau. 


loyik-e 


lay^kq. 


sandyau 


sandyau. 


me 


ma, me, m v e, 


baranyau 


baranyau. 




mye. 


guryau 


gur y au. 


sak a th me 


sakhme. 






pyom me 


pyom 1 . 


Words ending in e 


kar me 


karme. 


e 


a, i. 


kor u me 


kurme. 


sohib-e 


sahib 1 . 


bene 


bqnye, benye. 


bace 


bache. 


wodahe 


vudanye, 


jenatace 


janqtqch. 




vudanye, 


tsoce 


su cho, suche, 




vudanye, 




tsuche. 




vudanye. 


zace 


zache. 


gane 


gan v i, ganye. 


kode 


kud v e. 


kane 


kanye, kanye. 




Cf. kore. 


qsh e kane 


ashkanye. 


zade 


zade. 


mane 


mane, matni, 


ache 


qch. 




mdnye, 


boche 


boche. 




matnye. 


lache 


lache 


panane 


panqni, 


toriph-e 


tqhif-i. 




panqn v e, 


tsarihe 


tsarihe. 




panenye. 


bdshe 


bdshe. 


bog a rane 


bag a ranye. 


khaba-nishe 


kab°nish. 


wune 


vunye. 


nishe 


nish, nishi. 


cyane 


chdn y e, ch y anye. 


pesh-e 


peshe. 


zane 


za^e, zanye. 


poshe 


posha, posh?, 


dare 


da l ri. 




poshe. 


shehar-e 


shehri. 


tohe 


tohi, tohH. 


kare 


ka l ri. 


aje 


ajq. 


kore 


kod 1 , kudis, 


buje 


buje. 




kod v e, kod v i, 


geje 


g v m- 




kud v e, kodye, 


leje 


l v ejq. 




kb~r v e, kor v i. 


maje 


maje, maj 1 , mdji. 




Cf. kode. 


doda-mdje 


dod°mdj i . 


mare 


mqri. 


woramaje 


vurq maj 1 . 


mine-mare 


ming ve mqri. 


wolinje 


vdlinjq, valinje, 


ware 


vdri. 




valinjq, valinje, 


ase 


as*, asi. 




valinj 1 . 


khal a t-e 


kalni. 



491 



INDEX IN ORDER OF FINAL LETTERS 



hih* 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


tse 


tsq, tse, ts v e, tsye. 


wuchihe 


vuch^he. 


dye 


dyq, dye, dyi, 


wanihe 


vanqhe. 




dyx. 


karihe 


karehe, ka x rihe, 


bdye 


bai, bdy e , baye. 




kari h v e. 


biye 


bay 1 , bey, beye. 


marine 


marih v e. 


pdtashdhbdye 


pddshah bdye. 


marine 


mcirihe, mdriJie. 


gur l -bdye 


gur bdye. 


dsihe 


dsi he, dsihe. 


grist l -bdye 


grist" bdye, 


ceyihe 


ch v aye h v e. 




grestq bdye. 


diyihe 


diyehe. 


daye 


daye. 


bale 


bdVe. 


khoddye 


kuddye. 


ndle 


ndle. 


gaye 


gay e , gaye, gay 6 . 


gopdle 


gupdVe. 


tagiye 


tag v e, tag l ye. 


panane 


panenye. 


gatshiye 


gatsiye. 


gdre 


gdr v e. 


jdye 


jai, jdyq, jdy e , 


mare 


mare. 




jdye. 


tare 


tare. 


moye 


moye. 


dukhtar-e 


dukhtare. 


naye 


naye. 


kong-wdre 


kung°vdr v e. 


niye 


niy, niy e , niye. 


gaye 


gay e - 


ropaye 
rdye 


rupia, rup % yq. 
rai. 


Words ending in * 


bardye 


ba rai. 


sumb* 


sumb. 


drdye 


drdye. 


bod 1 


bud 1 . 


grdye 


grdye. 


hata-bod 1 ' 


hatq bud 1 . 


phakiriye fakiri. 


kdd i 


ka x r v . 


par x ye 


pq l riye. 


ko'd 1 


kq x d, kq x d x , kud 1 


hamsdye 


hamsai, ham 


gdnd i 


gand 1 , gandi. 




sdye. 


hand 1 


hand*. 


gadoyiye 


gadoi yiye. 


sand* 


sand 1 , sandi, 


tuvyeye 


tuv x y. 




sand. 


kenze 


kyenzi. 


sana-sdnd* 


sunasand*, 


same 


sanzi, sanzi. 




sunqsand*, 


pdtashdha-sanze 


pddshdhasqnzi. 




sunqsandi. 


pdtasheha-sanze 


pddshahq sanzi, 


sdnara-sdnd 1 


sunqrsandi. 




pddshahq sanzi, 


rud* 


rod*. 




pddshahqs 


bog 1 


My. 




sanzi. 


w 


lag\ lag 1 . 






sheen* 


shech v . 


Words ending in e 


wuch* 


vuch. 


age 


age. 


ddh* 


duh v . 


fUehe 


piche. 


hih* 


hi. 



kill* 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



492 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


keh* 


kqd. 


tsdl* 


tsqV. 


hokh* 


huk*. 


dm* 


am*, am*, a*m*, 


wotamukh* 


vutamak*. 




q*m*, qm v . 


hash 4 


kash". 


dm* 


q*mi. 


ath* 


at*, at*, a*t*, a*t*, 


kdm* 


kqm*. 




qt v ,a*V. 


trom* 


tram, trqm v . 


dth* 


at*. 


tsurim* 


tsorim. 


toh* 


toh*, tuh, tuh*, 


tarn* 


tqm*. 




tuh v . 


yem* 


yim. 


bith* 


beth v , b v eth*, 


yim* 


yim, yem*. 




bat*. 


din* 


din*, din v . 


cith* 


chit. 


bdgdn* 


bdgen*. 


kuth* 


kut*. 


hun* 


hun, hunq, hdni, 


peth* 


p v eth, pyet. 


kdn* 


kan*, kqn* t kqn v . 


poth* 


pqHh*, pq*th*, 


Ion* 


lq*ni. 




pqH*, pd*th v , 


duldn* 


duleny. 




pq*th v , pq*ty, 


pandn* 


pan, panen, 




pq*V. 




paneny. 


tath* 


tat, tat*, ta*t*, 


bdrdn* 


barqn. 




tqH*, to, 1 ?. 


pron* 


prdny, prdn v . 


wdth* 


vat 1 , vot*, vat v . 


dsdn* 


dsqn*. 


zith* 


Zlt*. 


tsatdn* 


tsaten*. 


wat'j 1 


vdtaj. 


wan* 


vqn v . 


dk* 


ok*. 


8dmb a rdwdn* 


sombvrdvtfn*. 


hardk* 


harik. 


laydn* 


Idyin. 


raidk* 


raiik. 


myon* 


men v , mye, 


thovik* 


thdvik. 




m v en. 


nyovik* 


n v dvik. 


zdn* 


zan*. 


gal* 


gq*l*. 


dazon* 


dazdn*. 


gul* 


gul*. 


tsdp* 


tsqp v . 


Ml* 


Ml. 


bar* 


bar, bari. 


tahdl* 


tqhql, tqhql*, 


mi bar* 


mebar. 




' tqhqi v . ' 


dor* 


dqr. 


mol* 


mq*l. 


gar* 


gar*. 


nbl* 


ndl, ndl*, ndl v , 


gur* 


gur, gur*. 




nq*l v . 


gur* 


gur. 


gdpol* 


gupdl*. 


phir* 


phir*. 


tdi* 


ta*l*. 


hdr* hdr* 


hqri hqri. 


tul* 


tu*l v . 


ihuf 4 


shuri. 


gdtH* 


gdtily. 


koshir* 


kdshir*. 


wdtdl* 


vdtal*. 


kdr* 


kqr, kq*r*. 



5 



493 



INDEX IN ORDEB OF FINAL LETTERS pftdti 



KAULA 

*wr* 


RKU 

fc#o\ 


KAULA 

■mmmm 4 


STUN 


■mV 


m&r*. 


mmmmmf* 


ndttjpy, 


CjmV 


<.T,i\l : r, wpQnr* 


/. ..-,, .-. 


MM%Mr\ 


MMJMf 


so jwVt, t» yoV. 




mmimv**. 


m** 


IfijtfV. 


!*• 


1* ^ 


tm* 


for*, fiirt. 


l%< 


|£ %. 


:<>.r-' 


B*» 


i*< 


(i MM 

1 . • 


MMMtM^ 


 '.Kir . 


fatty 1 


m^mI 


yfir* 


yitr*> f&r 9 , afiir*, 


f"*V 


«•*£. 




3f*>* 


lift* 


ygj^tB* 


mmmmmmmV 


mturde maz&ry. 


rMVr* 


re&w, rmr, rl«c 


it* 


OS*, as*, oV. 


M* 


MM, mm* 


fit* 


oV , ^ as, aV. 


-:.:• 


ro:. r . : s . 


<* 


ol*, a*ft, of*. 






A* 


AM 


Wards ending in t 


/(ru^Mf 


kmgi?th\ 


% 


ft k 


few 


«y*/wp. 


MMMfWl 


am'tfaok 


*»v 


*•> , &*»; 


mmnV* 


«*#*. 


Htl* 


ip*. 


mm 


*?* 


(&W 


blot 


wttN 


mMK 


UK 1 


fart* 


ma&mojrf-t 


MMMNM^ 


m* 


■Ml 1 , 


ImmV 


mmmTi, Aanii 


mMSm* 


%J%AmM Mrvf##^j % 


kmtmmm] 


dtmhamii* 


j*m& 


y%mmHM*i yttifHJf , 


l(MMh 


1ag*m& 


Im/mmI*, 


I&mK 


ldMM> 


lifmit 


igMjMMft 


Mmi 


mmm^minK 


mtt'ndr 


MWil#, 


1 \Tu M R c 1 1 - >'. hmK 


" i~. \\ " . ' > : " " 


jm*w*it 


a*imot\ 


mot^MmiK 


rmVl'&indL 


iifmit 


L - MMMVMMMl 


rtw'^mrf* 


mmmmmK. 






tdm^-sand* 


{(im^nnmKi 


thovhrnit* 


mm mm 


KtlClfO^SMMn 


tt::7r:*\: ''.,::. 


t*f 


raf, ra*f». 


sapath 


$apq&* 


M&MnW 


tmrf*«lW. 


«*di 


i\\i\\ cu..:\\ 


fdf 


tol*, taf\ 




«otf><\ 


y*jf 


jeta'k 


y*M 


j ^»^« i • 


' *# 


fw*. «jK*, wff\ 


sfaamHtrai 


MM%MWWk 




««*, «#*•; 


mi 


^'■.f'. 


art** 


3f*» *< a**** 


:. | .;,, 


6or** 




Oc-77. 


ftfell 


n%MMj nmimWi 


InmV 




niWi&t imqAi, 






ihdh-t 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



494 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


shdh-i 


shdhi. 


nami 


nam 1 . 


kbh-i 


koh v e. 


tami 


tarn 1 , tami, tgm 1 , 


hakh-i 


ha l khi. 




ta l mi, tqtmi. 


rahhi 


rakhi, rakh v e. 


patimi 


paVqmi. 


tsakhi 


tsakh 1 , tsakh v e. 


yemi 


yam 1 , ye*mi. 


bar l shi 


barshg. 


yimi 


yqmi, yemi. 


wdlawdshi 


vale vdshe. 


treyimi 


treyimi. 


athi 


aHW, aHhi, at 1 . 


bani 


bang, bani. 


othi 


ath\ 


dini 


ding. 


wothi 


vuihi. 


din-i 


din*. 


gatshi 


gatsg, gatse, 


hani 


hani. 




gatse, gatsi. 


dachini 


dach { ng. 


me gatshi 


m v egatse. 


wucJiani 


vuch* ne. 


matshi 


matsq, mats v e. 


kheni 


khyeni. 


ratshi 


rats a hgn. 


khoni 


kun v g. 


mdji 


mdje, mdji, 


kani 


kane, kan*, kani, 




mgj, md^ji. 




kgn { , ka*ni, 


doda-mdji 


dod^maj. 




kg l n v . 


krdji 


kraje. 


kuni-kani 


kun i kg i n v . 


aki 


ak\ aki. 


kuni 


kung, kuni, 


baVki 


balki. 




kun 1 . 


loyik-i 


Wki, layiki. 


pholani 


pholen*, phuleni, 


doli 


doili. 




phulen 1 . 


gali 


gaHi. 


tolani 


tolani. 


dokhil-i 


ddkhHi. 


mani 


mane. 


koli 


kul v e, kulye. 


zamini 


zemini. 


kuli 


kul\ 


anani 


angni. 


mokali 


mokli, mukli. 


k a nani 


kangni. 


rumdli 


rumdli. 


panani 


pangne, pangn 1 ^ 


soli 


sulli. 




pangni, 


suli 


sulg. 




paneni. 


teli 


tela, teli, til\ 


wanani 


vaneni. 


rdtHi 


rdtHi. 


zandni 


zgngng, zgndnq 


yeli 


yell, yeV. 


wotharani 


vuthergni. 


ami 


am 1 , ami, am 1 , 


karani 


karng, karani, 




ami, a l m l , 




kargni, 




a l mi, flW, 




karg l ni. 




g*mi, amis. 


mdrani 


mdrgni. 


kami 


kami. 


nerani 


nghini. 


hukm-i 


huk u mq. 


kdsani 


kdsani, khdsgni. 


salami 


salami. 


wasani 


vasani 



495 



INDEX IN ORDER OF FINAL LETTERS hazrat-i 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


khdtuni 


khdtuni, 


lashkari 


lashkqrq, 




klidtuni, 




lashkqr*, 




khdtuni, 




lashkq { ri, 




khd tuni, 




khal a kan. 




khdtuni. 


lari 


WrK 


sultdn-i 


sultan 1 . 


t a l a ri 


tulqri. 


atsani 


atsani. 


mdch-t a l a ri 


mdch-tulari, 


wdtani 


vatqne. 




mdch-tulqri, 


wani 


vane. 




mdsh-tulqri. 


yini 


yini. 


mari 


mqri, mqWi. 


layeni 


Idyine. 


mine-mari 


ming ve mqri. 


mydni 


mydni. 


tori 


to { ri. 


zdni 


zdnq, zdne. 


litri 


lit?ri. 


zeni 


za*ni, z v dni. 


tsuri 


tsuri, fewV, 


rozani 


rozqn 1 . 




fcwV, tsu { ri. 


beni 


benye. 


kdng-wdri 


kung^vdr*. 


kani 


kanye, kanye. 


nazari 


naz a ri, nazari. 


mdPkdni 


malkdnye. 


dsi 


ds i , dsi, 5V. 


panani 


panen v e, 


kaisi 


ka i sl, kcfsi. 




panenye. 


kbsi 


kdsi. 


tilawdni 


tilavdnye. 


lasi 


lasq. 


dapi 


dapi, dapi. 


waisi 


v&nsi. 


ihapi 


tha*pi. 


ti 


tt, t v e, Vi. 


bdri 


bdWi. 


ati 


at 1 , at 1 , aHi, aVe 


kabari 


kab^rq. 


bdti 


bot v \ 


ddri 


dd l ri, dq f ri. 


k&h ti 


kahti. 


duri 


duri. 


peth* ti 


p v eti. 


dadari 


dadari. 


kati 


kat 1 , kati, kaHi, 


gari 


gar 1 , ga*ri. 




kqHi, kat v e, 


guri 


gur 1 . 




kaVi, katye. 


mqkh a r-i 


makhri. 


lati 


lot*, lati. 


shemsheri 


shamsher* \ 


tdV ti 


tdHti. ' 




shamseri, 


mati 


mat\ 




samsheri. 


me-ti 


mat 1 , m v eti. 


kari 


ka*re, ka { re, 


hekmai-i 


kekqmati. 




katri, kq { ri. 


drdti 


drdtis. 


kori 


kod ve , kod y e, 


hazrat-i 


hazrat, hazrqt*, 




kdd ve , 




hazrqH*, 




kd'dH, 




hazret, 




kdr v e. 




hazret* , 


phikiri 


phikri. 




hazret. 



suti 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STORIES 



496 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


suti 


sut*. 


rozi 


rozi. 


tali 


tat*, ta*ti, ta*t*, 


kdr*zi 


kq*rzi. 




tat v . 


mardz-i 


mqrdj. 


ti-ti 


titi. 


wds*zi 


vqz*zq. 


to-ti 


toVi. 


vizi 


vize. 


ts a -ti 


tsqti. 


pov*zi 


pq*vzi. 


wati 


vat*, vaH*, va*ti, 


kydzi 


kydzi, kyd ze, 




vat v e. 




kyd zi, kyd*z i , 


wdti 


vat*, vd*t*, vdt ve . 


ti-kydzi 


ti kyd zi. 


yeti 


yqt*, yet*. 


aziz-i 


aziza, aziza. 


yi-ti 


yi ti. 






yiti 


yeti, yit*. 


Words ending in 1 


hdvi 


hd%vi. 


wurdl 


vurdi. 


shestravi 


shast?rvi, 


saragl 


sargi, sargi, 




shWrqvi. 




sargeh. 


bdyi 


bdyq, baye. 


shohl 


shdhi. 


gnst*-bdyi 


grest baye, 


pdtashdhi 


pddshdhi, 




grest 9 baye. 




pddshdhi, 


doyi 


doye. 




pdd 9 shahi. 


dgayi 


agqye. 


jushi 


joshi. 


kheyi 


klieye. 


hab-jushi 


habjoshi. 


layi 


laye. 


wobdli 


vu bq*l%. 


salayi 


salqyq. 


doll 


dq*li. 


cdrpdyi 


palangas. 


tasali 


tasUi. 


par*yi 


pq*riye. 


miskirii 


miskini. 


dwd-yi 


dv°y u . 


wophddori 


vuph dq*ri, 


hawd-yi 


havdye. 




vupha dq*ri, 


yiyi 


yiye. 




vuphd dq*ri, 


zi 


ze. 




vupha dqiri. 


dizi 


dizi. 


tamaskhurl 


tamis kuri. 


beh*zi 


bih zi. 


phakirl 


fakiri. 


khezi 


khyezi. 


nokari 


naukri, nokari. 


tshdn*zi 


tsqn^zi. 


pari 


pq*r*, pq*ri. 


sanzi 


sanzi, sanzi. 


huzuri 


hazilri. 


pdtashaha-sanzi 


pddshahasqnzi. 


waziri 


vaziri. 


pdtaslieha-sanzi 


padshahq sanzi, 


vesi 


vesi. 




padshahq sanzi 


tl 


tih. 


dmt-sanzi 


a*misqnzi. 


balti 


balti. 


sonara-sanzi 


sunqr sanzi, 


masnavi 


masnavi. 




sunqrsqnzq. 


gaznavi 


gaznavi. 


ydra-sanzi 


yarisqnzi. 


poravi 


pdravi. 



497 



INDEX IN ORDER OF FINAL LETTERS 



tog u 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


tfi 


yi. 


bod u 


bud. 


juddyl 


zhudai. 


dod u 


dud. 


wdphoyi 


vuphdl. 


d6d u 


dad, dod. 


be-wdphoyl 


bevophdi. 


shod" 


shod. 


bewophoyi 


be vuphdl,. 


thod u 


thud. 


gum-royi 


gurnard yiy. 


kod u 


kur. 






mod u 


mud. 


Word ending in 6 


mud u 


mod, mud. 


ke-ho 


k v qho, kyqho. 


ggnd u 


gund. 






hond u 


hund. 


Words ending in 6 


pdtashohi-hond u 


pddshdhihund. 


6 


0. 


kathi-hond u 


kafehund. 


sohibo 


sahib 6. 


mdje-hond u 


mdje hund. 


ho 


ho. 


ldlan-hond u 


Idlan hund. 


khos 1 ho 


khqsiho. 


tihond u 


tihund. 


dkho 


dkhu. 


tuhond u 


tuhund. 


tsdkho 


tsdkhu. 


kond u 


kund. 


katho 


kathu. 


sond u 


sund. 


phakiro 


fakiro. 


asond u 


am* sund. 


waziro 


vaziro. 


sohiba-sond u 


sdhib^sund. 


hato 


hato. 


pdtashdha-sond u 


pddshdh a sund. 


jdwo 


jdo. 


pdtasheha-sond" 


pddshahq sund, 


khoddyd 


koddyu. 




pddshahqsund 


khyo 


kh v au. 


shendka-sond u 


shindkqsund. 


atsayo 


atsayo. 


mbl i -sond u 


nupVsund. 


arz 6 


arzo. 


dmt-sond" 


qm*sund, 
qmisund, 


Words ending in o 




a'mi sund. 


lagaho 


lagaha. 


goldma-sond" 


guldmqsund. 


chalaho 


chqlqha. 


soddgara-sond" 


sauddgdrqsund. 


dimaho 


dim? ha. 


phakira-sond u 


fakirqsund. 


yimaho 


yimqha. 


sonara-sond u 


sunqrsund. 


yith tshunaho 


yetsanq ha. 


ydra-sond u 


ydrqsund. 


karaho 


kare ha, karqha. 


khoddye-sond" 


khuddyesund. 


bdwaho 


bdvq ha. 


sapod" 


sapud. 


hdwaho 


hdv* ha. 


rud u 


rud. 






syod u 


syud, s v ud. 


Words ending in M 


log" 


log, lug. 


am6b u 


amob. 


I6g« 


log. 


sumb u 


sumb. 


shdng u 


shung. 


retas sumb u 


ritasumb. 


'tog" 


tug. 



ivuch u 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



498 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


wuch u 


vuch. 


kdl u 


kol. 


lyukh u 


Pukh. 


mol u 


mbl, mor. 


rosh u 


rush. 


bunul u 


bunyiil. 


buih u 


but. 


tul u 


tut. 


khoih u 


khut. 


boP 


tsul. 


thdth u 


tot. Cf. tdjh*. 


yenewdP 


yenyi vdl, 


'kuth u 


kut. 




yenyivol, 


moth u 


mut. 




yenyh'dl. 


td'th u 


tot. Cf. thotli u . 


zdl u 


zol. 


woth u 


vut, vuih. 


kyom u 


kyum. 


woth u 


vot 1 , vut, voth, 


treyum u 


treyimi. 




vuih. 


pontsyum u 


pdnts v um. 


yuth u 


yuth. 


kadun u 


kqdun. 


byuth u 


byiit, byut, 


ladun u 


ladun. 




byoth, byoth, 


mangun u 


mangun. 




byuth. 


hun u 


hun. 


dyuth u 


dyut, dyut, 


deshun u 


deshun. 




dyuth u , vuch. 


tshon u 


tsun. 


kyuth u 


kyut. 


gatshu?i u 


gatsun. 


myuth u 


myut. 


qsh 6 kun u 


qshkun, qskun. 


zyuth u 


zyut. 


galun u 


galun. 


gotsh u 


gots, guts. 


tulun u 


tulun. 


hyuh u 


h v u, hyu. 


anun u 


anun. 


khdbuk u 


kdbuk. 


khanuri" 


khanun. 


bdguk u 


bdguk u . 


panun u 


panen, panun. 


dohuk u 


dohuk. 


dapun u 


dopun. 


watharanuk u 


vat^ranuk. 


spmb a run u 


somb^run. 


nayistdnuk u 


nayis tdnuk. 


sapharun u 


safarun. 


wanuk u 


vanuk. 


watharun u 


vat^run. 


jenatuk u 


janHuk, jan* 


karun u 


karun. 




tukh. 


mdrun u 


mdrun. 


amyuk u 


am* kuy, qm v uk, 


sdn u 


son. 




qmyuk, 


sqn u 


sun. 




a { m y uk. 


dsun u 


dsun. 


kamyuk u 


kam v uk. 


khasun u 


khasun. 


godanyuk u 


gudenyuk. 


bikarmdjetun u 


vikarmdjitun. 


hatsyuk u 


hats y uk. 


tsatun u 


tsatun. 


6l u 


dl. 


wdtun u 


vdtun. 


phol u 


phul. 


atsun u 


atsun. 


phql u 


phul. 


won u 


vun. 


shehul u 


shuhul. 


nerawun u 


neravun. 



499 



INDEX IN ORDER OF FINAL LETTERS 



host' 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


trdivun u 


trdvun. 


khdt u 


khut. 


kdsawun u 


kds u vun. 


kot u 


kot.' 


yun u 


h v un, yiin. 


kot u 


khuth. 


byon u 


b v iin, b l yun. 


kUt u 


kut'. 


cyon u 


chun, ch v un. 


lot" 


lot. 


cydn u 


chon, chon v , 


amot u 


dmut. 




chony, ch v 6n. 


rud u mot u 


rdd°mut, 


dyun u 


dyun. 




rud"mut. 


hyon u 


h v un. 


gamot u 


gommut, gomus, 


Jchyon u 


khyun. 




gomut. 


mydn u 


mydn, mydn. 


gomot" 


gamut, gomut. 


zyun u 


ziin, z v iin, zyiin. 


ldg u mot u 


ldg u mut. 


zon u 


zun. 


dyuth u mot u 


dyutmut. 


bozun u 


bbzun. 


lyukh u mot u 


Pukhmut, 


sozun u 


sozun. 




lyukhmut. 


gus6n u 


gosony. 


g6l u mot u 


gdlmut. 


dop u 


dop, dop u , dup, 


mumot u 


momut. 




dup". 


on u mot u 


on muth. 


bdr u 


bor. 


pemot u 


p v umut, pyamut 


modur u 


mudur. 




pyiimut. 


gur u 


gur. 


kor u mot u 


kurmut. 


gur u 


gur. 


6s u mot u 


dsmut. 


phor u 


phurtas. 


rot u mot u 


rutmut. 


kor u 


kud, kar, kur, 


r6t u mot u 


rotfmut. 




kur\ 


wdt u mot u 


vot u mut, 


mor u 


mud. 




vot u muth. 


m6r u 


mod, mor. 


dyut u mot u 


dyutmut, 


pur u 


piir. 




dyutmut, 


tsopdr u 


tsopdr. 




dyiit^mut. 


khdwur u 


khdvur. 


thow u mot u 


thdu mut. 


hyor u 


h v ur, hyiir. 


thow u mot u 


thdumut, 


phyur u 


p v ur. 




thdumut. 


6s u 


as, as, ds u , os. 


lddydmot u 


ldd v omut. 


bus u 


bus. 


nyumot u 


nyumut. 


ot u 


al\ ot, ut, qth, 


not" 


nut. 




uth. 


pot u 


phot, phut, put, 


hot u 


hut. 




puth. 


hot u 


hot. 


rot u 


rot, rut. 


khot u 


khot u , khut, 


drd't" 


drot. 




khut, khulh, 


trot" 


trut. 




hut. 


host" 


lwst, host". 



Kk 



gryust 1 



HATIM'S SONGS AND STOBIES 



500 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


gryust u 


grost. 


krund* 


k?rqnd. 


tot u 


ihuth, tot, tut. 


tsiind* 


tsund. 


tsot u 


tsot. 


wuch* 


vuch. 


wd't u 


vat, vot, vol 1 , 


bolbosh* 


bdlbdsh. 




vot, voth. 


hish* 


hish. 


yut u 


yut. 


zeth* 


zith. 


dijut u 


d v ut, dyut, dyutli. 


wdtsh* 


vuts. 


kyut u 


kh v ut, khyuth, 


wiitsh* 


vuts. 




k v ut, kyut, 


dombij* 


dumbij. 




kyuth. 


duj* 


daje. 


tshyot u 


tsut, ts v ut, ts v ut. 


sheh*j* 


shqhij. 


tydt u 


tyut. 


liij* 


Iqj. 


hots u 


hots, huts. 


mang liij u 


mangHqj. 


bdw u 


bou. 


moj* 


mqj, moj. 


thdw u 


thdu. 


doda-mqj* 


dodrmqj. 


I6w u 


lau. 


woramoj* 


vur mqj, 


mokaldw u 


moklau. 




vur°moj. 


ndw u 


ndu, ndu. 


wolinj* 


valinje. 


parzandw u 


parzq ndu, 


tuj* 


tuj. 




parzq ndu. 


gaff 


gatij. 


sgmb a rdw u 


somtyrau, 


tsuj u 


&«/. teqijy. 




somb* rau. 


woj* 


vaj, vqj k vaj v . 


tsamruw u 


tsam ru, tsamPru. 


kom* 


kdm, kdma, kom. 


trdw u 


trov. 


trbm* 


trom. 


shestruw u 


shast^ro. 


satim* 


sqtim v . 


necyuv u 


n v echu. 


pontsim* 


pdntsim, 


mahanyuv u 


mahnyu. 




pqnts v um. 


Uy u 


boy, boy. 


treyim* 


triyim. 


buz u 


boz. 


don* 


dan. 


pgz u 


puz. 


zabbn* 


zqbdny. 


apoz u 


apuz. 


din* 


diny. 






chon* 


chan v . 


Words ending in * 


kiln* 


kan. 


dohiic* 


dohuch. 


walun* 


valqny. 


nayistanuc* 


nay is tan nqch. 


nun* 


nanyi. 


azic* 


azich. 


anun* 


anqn y , aneviy. 


bud* 


bud. 


tshunun* 


tsqneny. 


thud* 


tad, tor. 


paniln* 


panen, paneri 1 , 




' Cf . ihiir*. 




panen v , 


kud* 


kud. See also 




paneny, 




kur*. 




paniny. 



501 INDEX IN ORDER OF FINAL LETTERS pltakira-sunz* 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


kariin* 


karin v , kareny, 


amuts* 


dmuts. 




kariny. 


gamuts* 


gamuts. 


son* 


san v , sqSny. 


tsuj*muts* 


tsqjmqts, 


wasiin* 


vasan 1 . 




tsqjqmqts. 


bikarmdjetiin* 


vikarmajiteny . 


hekmiits* 


hekqmats. 


motun* 


moteny. 


mumuts* 


momuts. 


bacdwiin* 


bacMviny. 


tshun*muts* 


tsunye muts. 


pakawiin* 


pakPvany. 


wun*muts* 


vun v muts. 


mdkalawun* 


mokaldvany. 


pemiits* 


pHmats. 


yin* 


yiny. 


kiir*muts* 


kqrmuts, 


cyoh* 


ch { dn, chPan 1 , 




kurmuts. 




ch y qn v . 


par zanov* muts* 


parzq ndu muts. 


chyon* 


chdny. 


trbv*muts* 


trau muts. 


myon* 


mye, meny, m v en, 


rots* 


rats. 




my en, m v eny. 


wots* 


vats, vats. 


ziin* 


zany, za { n v . 


yiits* 


yits*. 


or* 


dr. 


gov* 


gau, gau, gau. 


Mr* 


tar, tur. 


shestriiv* 


shast-ro. 




' Cf. thud*. 


buz* 


boz. 


qth*r* 


qtqr. 


hiinz* 


hqnz, hunz. 


kur* 


kild, kur, khud. 


guren-hiinz* 


gur v en-hqnz. 




See also kild*. 


yihiinz* 


yihas. 


kiir* 


kqr, kqtr 1 . 


siinz* 


sqnz, sunz, 


phikir* 


fik?r, phikir. 




sqnziiy, siinz. 


Pl*r* 


tulqr. 


khdwanda- siinz* 


kavandqsunz. 


mach-H*r* 


mdch tulqr. 


patashaha-siinz* 


padshah sqnz, 


milr* 


mar. 




padshdhasqnz. 


mine-milr* 


ming e mar. 


patasheha-siinz* 


padshahqsqnz, 


niir* 


nur. 




■pddshahqsunz. 


tur* 


tar. 


raje-sunz* 


rajqsqnz, 


tsur* 


tsur. 




rajqsunz. 


zir* 


zer, z v er. 


mbV-silnz* 


mqH—sunz, 


os* 


as. 




mqHisqnz, 


phut* 


phut. 




mqHisunz. 


rUt* 


rat. 


dm^sunz* 


qmisqnz, 


lots" 


bats, bats. 




qmisunz. 


dits* 


dits. 


goldma-siinz* 


guldmqsqnz. 


khuts* 


khats, kqts. 


tdm^-siinz* 


ta'misqnziiy. 


kits* 


kits. 


sdna-siinz* 


sunqsqnz. 


kots* 


kdts. 


phakira-siinz* 


faklrqsqnz, 


adaliits* 


qddlat. 




fakirqsunz. 



sd7iara~siinz u 


BATIM'S SO 


KAULA 


STEIN 


sonara-sunz" 


sunqr sqnz, 




sunqrsqnz. 


w6ruz u 


vurudz. 


wuz^ 


dqj. 


ndyez u 


ndyiz. 


Words ending in u 


gatshu 


gatsu. 


nu 


nu. 


Word ending in u 


saniydsu 


sqnyas?. 


Words ending in b 


db 


db. 


sabab 


sabab. 


dab 


dab. 


dob 


dob. 


gob 
khdb 


gab. 
kab, kdv. 


khub 


khub. 


sbhib 


sahib. 


wahab 


vahab. 


par wahab 

mojub 

phamb 

sob 


parvahab. 
mojub. 

phamb, pamb. 
sab. 


tab 
kitdb 


tap. 
kitdb. 


jewdb 
sawdb 


javdb. 
savdb. 


Word ending in c 


khar a c 


Jcharj. 


Words ending in d or d 


had 


had*. 


khod 


khod. 


kdd 


kdd, kdd, kdd, 
kq l d. 


kdkad 


kdkad, kakqd. 


lad 


lad. 



T D STOBIES 5C 


KAULA 


STEIN 


jel a d 
mad 


jaM. 
mad?. 


hamud 


hamud. 


ahmad 


ahmqd. 


mahmad 


mahamad, 




muhammad. 


ndd 


ndd. 


and 


and. 


band 


band. 


gand 
shdnd 


gand. 
shdnd. 


ydrkand 

pasand 

khdwand 


ydrkand. 
pasand, pasand 
khdvand, 




kdvand. 


dard 


dard. 


murdd 


murdd. 


vir*d 


vir*d. 


rasad 


rasat. 


wustdd 


ustdd, vustad, 




vustdd. 


wad 


vad. 


ydd 

noyid 

phdr*yad 

zad 


ydd. 

ndyid. 

pharydd, 

pherydd. 
zad. 


zid 


zid. 


muhimzad 


mohim zad. 


Words ending in g 


bag 

bag 

lag 

mov lag 


bag. 
bang, 
lag. 
mauldk. 


nag 
palang 


nag. 

palang, palang, 
palang. 


mang 


mang. 


prang 
wutsha-prang 


prang, 
vuts^prang. 






503 



INDEX IN ORDER OF FINAL LETTERS nazdikh 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


zang 


zang. 


sheh 


she. 


drag 


drag. 


shehan-shdh 


shdhqnshdh. 


ytg 


yeg- 


pdtashdh 


pddshah, 
pddshdh, 


Words ending in h 




pdd°shdh. 


ah 


ah. 


pdtasheh 


pddshah, 


beh 


be. 




pddshdh, 


boh 


bo, bu. 




pdd°shdh. 


marhabdh 


marhaba. 


kuth u dh 


kutha. 


subuh 


subu. 


rathdh 


rdtha. 


hech 


hech. 


sdthdh 


sdtha. 


wuch 


vuch. 


setJidh 


seta, seta, sethd, 


dah 


da. 




setha. 


doh 


do, doh. 


kenfshah 


kh v i kh v e tsa, 


d*h 


dil. 




khye, khye tsa, 


judah 


zhudd. 




khyetsa, ken v tsa, 


qj a ddh 


azhda. 




ken v tsd, ketsd, 


saddh 


sadau. 




k v entsa, k v etsa, 


wustdddh 


vustadq. 




k v etsd, k v etsa, 


alviddh 


al vida. 




k v etsd, kye tsa, 


yeddh 


yera. 




kyetsa. 


gah 


ga, ga, gah. 


jah 


ja> ft. 


dgdh 


aga. 


akh 


ak, akh. 


begdh 


bega. 


dkh 


dk. 


pagdh 


pag?, paga. 


hah 


ka. 


hargdh 


har ga, har ga, 


kah 


kah. 




harga. 


keh 


khye, k v e, k v e, 


shdra-gdh 


shora ga, 




kygZ, kye. 




shorqga. 


kih 


kih. 


heh 


h v e. 


bekh 


b v ek, byek. 


shubiheh 


shuybehe, 


labakh 


labak. 




shilybihe. 


sabakh 


sabak. 


cheh 


shq, che, chu. 


dikh 


dik. 


chih 


che, chi, chu, 


kddikh 


kq^dik, karik, 




ch v q. 




ka'rik. 


chih 


chi. 


kud u kh 


kaduk. 


chuh 


che, chu, chuh. 


kodukh 


kuruk. 


pdtashehdh 


padshdh. 


bandukh 


bqnduk. 


kheh 


k v e. 


sapadakh 


sapadqk. 


akhah 


akha. 


ytd*kdh 


Idgdh. 


dadkhah 


dad kha. 


nazdikh 


nazdik. 



gokh 



HATIATS SONGS AND STOBIES 



504 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


gokh 


gdk. 


chunakh 


chu nak. 


lagakh 


lagak. 


ishunukh 


tsunuk. 


lagekh 


lagik. 


shendkh 


shinak. 


chekh 


chak, chek. 


dop u nakh 


dop u nak, 


chikh 


chuk. 




dop u nak, 


chukh 


chuk, chukq. 




dopu nak, 


wuchakh 


vuchak. 




dopunak. 


wuchikh 


vuchuk. 


kdr { nakh 


kq i rinak. 


wuchukh 


vuchuk, vucuk. 


kor u )iakh 


kurnak. 


wuchakh 


vuchuk. 


mdranakh 


mdrenak. 


wucfchakh 


vuch hak. 


rut u nakh 


ruPnak. 


katiko chukh 


kati kochuk. 


dyut u nakh 


dyut?nak, 


khekh 


kyek. 




dyutqnak, 


samokhukh 


sam? kukh. 




dyiit u nak. 


dimahakh 


dim 9, hak. 


tsdnukh 


tsdnuk. 


phakh 


phak. 


how u nakh 


hdu nak. 


dop u hakh 


dop hak, dophak. 


thow u nakh 


thdvnak. 


karahakh 


kar* hak. 


zanakh 


zdnak. 


kor u hakh 


kur hak. 


un u kh 


qnyik. 


karuhukh 


kar u huk. 


kannekh 


kanyek. 


shekh 


shak, shok. 


wanenakh 


vanye nak. 


qsh s kh 


qshik. 


pd'kh 


pdk. 


poshdkh 


poshdk. 


dopukh 


dopuk. 


milth^kh 


motuk. 


rakh 


rakh. 


won u ihakh 


vunthak. 


bilr^kh 


bar?k, bqrqk. 


gatshakh 


gatsak. 


mobdrakh 


mubdrak. 


daphihekh 


dabzq hek, 


drdkh 


drak. 




dabzi hek. 


shrdkh 


shrdk. 


likh 


lekh. 


sherikh 


sherik. 


lokh 


lok. 


krekh 


krqk, krek, 


tasali keh 


taslikq. 




krekh. 


tulukh 


tuluk. 


karakh 


karak. 


wolikh 


valik. 


karekh 


kqhik, ka { rikh, 


zdlukh 


zdluk, zdluk. 


kdrikh 


kqrik. 


makh 


mak. 


korukh 


kqruk, koruk, 


ditfmakh 


dit^mak. 




kuruk. 


dapydmakh 


dap v dmak. 


kur^kh 


kqruk. 


ankdh 


anka, ankd. 


porukh 


paduk. 


dnikh 


anik, qnik. 


phut°rukh 


phutfruk. 


anukh 


anuk. 


dsakh 


dsak. 


onukh 


qnuk, unuk. 


dsukh 


dsuk, dsuk. 



505 



INDEX IN ORDER OF FINAL LETTERS 



phdsh 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


khasakh 


khasak. 


sbldh 


sdlq. 


mushtdkh 


mushtdk. 


zdldh 


zdlq, zdld. 


wdtakh 


vdtak. 


shemdh 


shamd, shqmd. 


dyutukh 


d v uthuk, 


kom*dh 


kdma. 




d v utuk, 


tamdh 


tamd. 




d v utuk, 


mati mdh 


maVma. 




dyutuk. 


wumdh 


vuma. 


hyotukh 


h v utuk. 


noh 


nu. 


dits^kh 


ditsuk. 


bindh 


bind. 


thovikh 


thdvik. 


ddndh 


ddnq. 


thov u kh, 


thdvuk. 


gondh 


guna . 


mililv^kh 


7nil e vuk. 


wuchundh 


vuchuna. 


trdwukh 


trdvuk. 


zandndh 


zqndnq. 


yekh 


yek. 


vig { ndh 


vignya. 


dyekh 


dyak. 


daph 


dap. 


bydkh 


b y ek, bydk. 


thaph 


tap, thap, thaph 


byekh 


b y ek. 


shdph 


simp. 


bacydkh 


bachok. 


kuluph 


kulup. 


loyikh 


Idyak. 


sar a ph 


sqrp. 


Idynkh 


Idyuk. 


yinsdph 


insdf, yin sdf. 


nyukh 


nyuk. 


yusuph 


yusuf, yusuf. 


anyukh 


qnyuk. 


tdph 


tap. 


niyekh 


niyak. 


rah 


ra. 


peyekh 


p v eyak. 


brdh 


bro. 


h a reyekh 


hHeyek. 


bruh 


broh. 


karyukh 


kqruk. 


khabardh 


kabara. 


moryukh 


mdr v uk, 


bruh-bruh 


bro-bro. 




nwSryuk. 


shehardh 


shehra. 


bozakh 


bozak. 


phakirdh 


fakira. 


dizikh 


diz y ek. 


phikirdh fik?ra. 


lazakh 


lazak. 


treh 


tre. 


nlzikh 


n y qzik, n y ezik, 


trih 


tre. 




n y ezik, nazdik, 


vyur u dh 


yura. 




nezik. 


nazardh 


nazar. 


dap i zekh 


dqbzik. 


sdh 


sq, su. 


sapuz^kh 


sap^zqk. 


suh 


so, su. 


qldh 


alia, allqh. 


gash 


gash. 


bulbuldh 


bulbula. 


hdsh 


hdsh. 


luh-luh 


lolo, lolo. 


khash 


kash, pash. 


kdldh 


kdla. 


khdsh 


khush, khush. 


saldh 


said. 


phdsh 


phdsh. 



yih suh 



HATIATS SONGS AND STORIES 



506 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


yih suh 


yisu. 


rahath 


rahat. 


ndsh 


ndsh. 


mdrahath 


mdr^hat. 


nish 


nish. 


dishith 


deshit. 


bV-ndsh 


dVndsh. 


mashith 


mqshit. 


mandsh 


mandsh. 


mathith 


matit. 


me-nish 


m v enish. 


wothith 


vuthit, vutit. 


fish 


pesh. 


dyuthuth 


dyuthut. 


phardsh 


pharosh. 


kath 


kat, kath. 


tresh 


trqs, tresh. 


keth 


k v et, kyet, 


wdsh 


vdsh. 




kh v qth, 


gwdsh 


ghdsh, gash. 




khyqth. 


ta wdsh 


tavosh. 


akith 


q l kiih. 


ylsdh 


isd. 


kotdh 


kdta. 


bakh a coyish 


bakcdyish, 


noktdh 


nukhta. 




bakhshdyish. 


sakHh 


sak. 


ath 


at, at 1 , at, at 1 , 


polith 


pqHith. 




qH l , ath. 


tulith 


tulit. 


oth 


ath. 


wolith 


vdlit. 


tih 


ti. 


zolith 


zdlit. 


bojt-bath 


bajHat. 


math 


mat. 


dith 


dit. 


yimdmath 


yimdmat. 


kadith 


ka { rit, kqWit, 


tdmath 


tdmat. 




kahith. 


ydmath 


ydmat. 


gandith 


gandit. 


khazmath 


kismat. 


woriddth 


va { r v ddth. 


khizmath 


khismat. 


gath 


gat. 


nith 


nHt. 


logith 


lagit. 


anith 


qnit. 


shongith 


shungit. 


bbnth 


bdnt. 


hath 


hat, hat. 


amdnath 


amdnat. 


heth 


het, hit, hitsqn, 


bronth 


bront. 




h v et, h v eth, 


wanith 


vanit. 




h v eth. 


zinith 


z v enith. 


bihith 


behit, bihit, 


wunHh 


vanyit. 




bihith. 


path 


pat, path. 


khath 


khath. 


peth 


p v et, p v et, pyet, 


tdhkhlth 


tdkhit, tdkit. 




pyet, p v eth, 


daskhath 


daskath. 




p v eth. 


mqslahath 


muslq hat, 


bdpath 


bapat. 




muslahat. 


hdpath 


hdpat. 


nahith 


nqhit. 


hdputh 


haput. 


ziyaphath 


zidfat. 


papith 


papit. 



507 



INDEX IN ORDER OF FINAL LETTERS 



gabh 



KAULA 


STEIN 


KAULA 


STEIN 


rath 


rat, rath. 


wasith 


vasit. 


reth 


rit, r v eth. 


soyisth 


sqyist. 


rath 


rat. 


tath 


tat, tath, tqt v . 


barith 


barit. 


khatith 


kqHith. 


sdmb a rith 


sumbrit. 


ratith 


rqtit, rqtit. 


khordth 


Marat. 


mdkh ratith 


mokrqtit. 


phirith 


phirit. 


tsatith 


tsqHith. 


phirith 


pherit, phirit, 


wotith 


vdtit, vqHith. 




pherith, 


dabovith 


dqbdvit. 




phirith. 


wath 


vat, vath. 


shlrith 


sherit. 


wath 


vat. 


watharith 


vatqtrith. 


woth 


vut. 


kareth 


ka l rit. 


wdth 


vut, vut. 


karith 


karit, k