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Full text of "Tamil grammar self-taught in Tamil and Roman characters"

B E aai 3Efi 



rLBOROUQH-8 SELF-TAUGHT series 



■[arT\U Grammar 
Self-Taught. 

(In Tamil and Roman Charaotebs.) 




Second Edition 

BY 

Don M. de ZILVA WICKREMASFNQHE, 

Epigraphist io the Ceylon Governvtent ; 
Librarian and Assisiatit Keeper of the Indian Institute^ Oxford. 

Author of 
" Tamil Self-Taught," and " Sinhalese Self-Taught."" 

Companion Volume; 
"Tamil Self-Taught. *» 



London : 
MARLBOROUGH & Co., 51, Old Bailey, E.G. 4. 



tAlt Rights Reserved.] 



TO 



Te^ Eev. G. U. pope, m.a., d.d., 



I DEDICATE THESE PAGES 



AS A TOKEN 



OF SINCERE GRATITUDE FOR ASSISTANCE 



RECEIVED 



IN MY TAMIL AND TELUGU STUDIES. 



M. DE Z. WiCKREMASINGHE. 



Pi Li^c;-^ 



PREFACE. 



)°l^h 



The present work is chiefly intended for the use of those who wish 
to acquire a knowledge of the grammar of colloquial Tamil within a 
comparatively short time, either Tor practical purposes or as the 
preliminary to a thorough study of the language. 

Particularly bearing in mind students who work without a teacher, 
I have devoted some pages wholly to the subject of pronunciation, and 
have given the transliteration of all the Tamil words occurring in the 
grammar, side by side with the native character. This will enable 
the beginner gradually to acquire the Tamil character as he proceeds 
with the study of the grammar itself, thereby avoiding a needless waste 
of time and trouble. 

The chapter on euphonic changes will specially appeal to those 
who ha\e a philological turn of mind ; for this gives the key to the 
solution of many difficulties that beset an ordinary student in the way 
of analysing Tamil words and sentences and of mastering their 
relationship to one another. 

1 have added a few exercises in translation into and from the 
Tamil, followed by a key ; also a Tamil-English vocabulary containing 
not only all the words found in the text of the grammar and in the 
exercises but also very many others that are in common use. For a 
regular series of progressive exercises in the Tamil character the 
student is referred to Dr. Pope's Handbook, published by the Oxford 
Clarendon Press. 

Such are the scope and the arrangement of the present work, and 
it only remains for me now to acknowledge my manifold indebtedness 
lo Dr. G. U. Pope, who has guided my Tamil and Telugu studies, and 
to whom this work is dedicated. My thanks are also due to the 
present editor of the Self-Taught Series of Languages, for many 
valuable suggestions and emendations. 



M. DE ZILVA WICKREMASINGHE. 



Indian Institute, 

Oxford, September, 1906. 



P.S. — A companion volume, " Tamil Self-Taught," will be 
published shortly, and will include an English-Tamil alphabetical 
vocabulary, in addition to a large number of vocabularies and con- 
versations classified according to subject. These two works will 
■enable one speedily to acquire as much Tamil as is necessary for 
business purposes, and also to lay a scientific foundation for the serious 
study of Tamil literature. 



304 



PBEPATORY NOTE 
By the Rev. G. U. Pope, m.a., d.d. 



The author of this grammar has asked me to write » 
few words of introduction to it. It gives me much pleasure- 
to say that on carefully examining it I find that it gives a 
very correct and lucid summary of the chief facts of the 
spoken language, and that it will be a valuable introduction, 
to the larger books. It cannot be too strongly impressed, 
upon the student that every word must be connected in the- 
mind with some useful sentence, which must be repeatedly 
written and pronounced. Nothing will compensate for the 
absence of this mechanical drill. It is of real importance 
that the student should carefully note the pronunciation of 
the Tamil character ^ when it occurs singly in the middle 
of a word, as explained on page 9 ; otherwise the use of 
the transliterative symbol d for this sound of the letter 
might be a stumbling-blojk. I sincerely hope that the book 
may have a wide circulation ; and that in any future edition^ 
ill may be substituted for d, 

G. U. P. 

Oxford, 1906. 



CONTENTS. 

PART I. 

GRAMMAR and SYNTAX. 

PAOE 

The Alphabet and Pronunciation ... ... ... 7 

Vowels ... ... ... ... ... ... 8 

Consonants ... ... ... ... ... ... 9 

SylJabics ... ... ... ... ... ... 11 

Conventional Characters ... ... ... ... 13 

Phonetic Pronunciation of Tamil ... ... ... 14 

Rules of Euphony ... ... ... ... ... 17 

The Sounds of the Tamil Alphabet ... ... ... 18 

Vowels with Vowels ... ... ... ... ... 19 

Vowels with Consonants ... ... ... ... 20 

Consonants with Vowels ... ... ... ... 21 

Consonants with Consonants ... ... ... ... 21 

The Pauts of Speech ... ... ... ... ... 25 

Articles ... ... ... ... ... ... 25 

Nouns ... ... ... ... ... ... 25 

Gender and Number ... ... ... ... ... 25 

Declension ... ... ... ... ... ... 27 

Pronouns ... ... ... ... ... ... 29 

Personal ... ... ... ... ... ... 29 

Demonstrative ... ... ... ... ... 32 

Interrogative ... ... ... ... ... 34 

Reflexive ... ... ... ... ... ... .34 

Distributive... ... ... ... ... ... 34 

Adjectives ... ... ... ... ... ... 35 

Derivative Nouns ... ... ... ... ... 36 

Numerals ... ... ... ... ... ... 88 

Cardinals ... ... ... ... ... ... 38 

Ordinals ... ... ... ... ... ... 40 

Fractions ... ... ... ... .... ... 41 

Verbs 41 

Tenses ... ... ... ... ... ... 41 

The Negative ... ... ... ... ••• 44 

Models ... ... ... ... ... ... 47 



6 CONTENTS. 

Verbs, continued. 

PAGE 

Participles ... ... ... ... ... ... 5^^ 

Verbal and Abstract Nouns ... ... ... ' ... 55- 

Infinitive Mood ... ... ... ... ... 58 

Imperative Mo6"d ... ... ... ... ... 59 

Potential, Optative, and Desideiative Verbal Forms ... 60 

Verbal Forms signifying Condition and Concession ... 62 

Auxiliary and Defective Verbs ... ... ... 61 

Passive Voice ... ... ... ... ... 67 

Causative and Denominative Verbs ... ... ... 68' 

Adverbs ... ... ... ... ... ^ ... 69 

Postpositions ... ... ... ... ... ... 69 

Conjunctions ... ... ... ... ... ... 70 

Interrogatives ... ... ... ... ... ... 71 

Emphatic Particles ... ... ... ... ... 72 

Interjections ... ... ... ... ... ... 73 

Syntax ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 74 

Subject ... ... ... ... ... ... 74 

Object ... ... ... ... ... ... 75 

Predicate ... ... ... ... ... ... 76 

Adverbial Clauses ... ... ... ... ... 77 

Comparison ... ... ... ... ... ... 73 

Quotations ... ... ... ... ... ... 79 

Ellipsis ... ... ... ... „, ,.. 80 



PART II. 

EXERCISES 81 

KEY to the Exercises ... ... ... ... ,„ 85 



PART III. 
TAMIL- ENGLISH VOCABULARY ... ' 91 



TAMIL GRAMMAR SELF-TAUGHT, 

Part I. 
GRAMMAR with SYNTAX. 



The Alphabet and Pronunciation. 

1. The Tamil language is spoken by more than sixteeo 
millions of people, who form the principal inhabitants of the 
extreme south-eastern portion of India and of the Northern 
Province of Ceylon, irrespective of the large Tamil communi- 
ties found in the tea-plantations and other agricultural and 
industrial centres of Burma, Ceylon, West Indies, Straits 
Settlements, <fcc. 

2. Its alphabet is derived from the Brahml script employed 
in the ancient inscriptions of India, and consists of thirty 
primary letters — twelve vowels and eighteen consonants. 
The so-called secondary letters consist mostly of the various* 
combinations of consonants with vowels. 

3. Strictly speaking, there are only five primary vowel- 
sounds, namely a, i, w, e, and o. These, together with their 
long forms d, i, u, e, and o, and the two diphthongs ai and 
au, make up the twelve. 

These vowels are written in two different ways. When 
they are initial, they are represented separately by regular 
letters; but when they are medial, that is to say, when a 
vowel is pronounced immediately after a consonant, the 
former is shown by one or more vowel signs attache' I to the 
consonant. The short vowel a, however, being inherent in 
the consonant, is not indicated by any sign. Hence, its. 
absence is generally (though not always in MSS.) marked by 
a dot or a small circle over the consonant; e.g. -s = ka, but 
«=&; u=pa, and u=p. 



« VOWELS. 

4. Vowels or uyir-eruttugal ('* life-letters ") : — 



Tamil Characters. 


|i 




Pronxuiciation. Phonetic 






c -^ 




Initial. 


MediHl. 


r 




Signs.* 


^ 




at 


Like 


u ill cw^, or a in America 


u,ii 


^ 


"■» O 


a 


5> 


a in rather or car 


ah 


^ 


S 


it 


)) 


i in »i^ 


i 


fFor^ 


r» 


U 


»> 


i in routine, or ee in mee^ 


ee 


a. 


G» h ^ 


u 


»» 


?< in /m^, or oo in good... 

Wiien final, it is pro- 
nounced very slightly, 
and often like i. 


u 


■-f>err 


O' cJ>j «^» -^ 


u 


»» 


u in rule, or oo in fool... 


00 


SJ 


Q 


e| 


M 


e in e/feow 


e 


-^ 


(? 




>» 


a in flfeZe, ^a?ie 

Wlien initial, the short 
and long e are pro- 
nounced like ye in 


ay 


9 


60), I 

Q /r 


ai 
ai 






yes and yea respec- 
tively ye,yay 

ai in aisle, or ei in height i 
When final, it is invari- 
ably pronounced like ei 

in t;e/Z ay 

in pot 


^ 


(?/r 





t* 


in 7ioble 


oh 


^etr 


O etr 


au 


J» 


oiv in now 


ow 



* These phonetic signs are employed in the third column on dp. 
15-17. 

t ^ a before nr r, eo I, (sii I, i^ r, m n, and sm n, at the end of a 
polysyllabic word, is pronounced somewhat like e in 'pen. 

X Before the cerebrals iL d, zsur n, tp r, dr /, and /^ r, these vowels 
Are pronounced with some modification, as a " modified vowel " (umlaut) 
•in German. 



CONSONANTS. 9 

5. Consonants or mey-eruttugal (" body-letters ") : — 



Tamil 

Charac 

tors. 



Trans- 
literation. 



Pronunciation. 



Phonetic 
Signs. 



ft 






Like k in kite when initial, doubled, mute, 

or immediately after lL t or p t 
Like g in regard in all other instances ... 
When iutervocal, in Ceylon 

JAkQ ng in song 

When doubled, or after iL or /d, it has 
the sound of ch in church 

Alter @ rl it is pronounced like j 

In the case of words borrowed from San- 
skrit, it generally retains the sound of 
the original letter. 

In all other instances it is between » in 
8un and sh in short 

Like ny in Bunyan (the Spanish n) 
When followed by y, like ng soft 

Ks din door 

When mute or doubled, it has the sound 
of t in hut 

Cerebral* n uttered with the tip of the 
tongue turned up and drawn back so 
as to touch the roof of the dome of the 
palate 

Wlien initial, mute, or doubled, it has 
a sound between that of th in Thames 
and th in theory. 

In all other instances it is pronounced 
like the English ih in the words then, 
these 

In Sanskrit derivatives it more or less 
retains the sound of the original. 



k 
h 

ch 
J 



sh 

ny 

ng 

d 



th 



th 



• "Cerebral' 
mouth. 



indicatei sounds made high np in the roof of the 



10 



CONSONANTS. 



Tsmil 

Cliniac- 

ters. 


Trans- 
literation. 


Pronunciation. Phonetic 
Signs. 


^ 


n 


JjikQn'mnut ... ... 


n 




; p 
I ^ 


Like_p when initial, mute, or doubled ... 


I 


u 


Like h when intervoeal 




(In Sanskrit derivatives it often retains 








the sound of the original letter.) 




ih 


m 


As in English 


m 


lb 


y 


do. do 


J 


IT 


r 


do. do. ... 


r 


eb 


1 


do. do. 


1 


€U 


V 


do. do 


V 


iP 


r 


A cerebral having the combined sound of 
r and soft I, and pronounced by turn- 
ing up the tip of the tongue as far 








back as possible 


T 






In Ceylon, however, it is pronounced like 








an ordinary English I 


1 






In the Tamil country it has often the 








sound of the s mpleasure (the French.^) 




err 


I 


A cerebral / 


I 




1 I 


A hard, vibrating, half- palatal, half- 




P 




rerebral r 


IT 




1 t 


When mute or doubled, it is pronounced t 


t 


eisr 


n 


Nearly the English n 


n 






SOT /D wra is pronounced wc?ra 


ndra 


• 0, cSfu 


h 


This letter is called the dydam, and is 
pronounced like ch in the Scotch word 
loch. It is u^ed in poetry, when 








necessary for the metre 


ch 



6. The following table shows how the twelve medial-vowel 
signs are attached to the foregoing eigliteen consonants, 
tliereby producing 216 syllabic characters : — 



SYLLAHiCS. 



11^ 



(Continued over,) 



Cox- 

BONAJfTS, 


Absence 
of dot = 

a 


a 


i 


i 


u 

(g kii 


u 


& k 


<« ka 


<^fT kd 


9iki 


S kl 


cffiL ku 


ik n 


IE] iia 


fEin nd 


IhSl 111 


f^ III 


Ibj iiu 


^ nil 


*5 


•SF ga 


s'lr Qd 


, 9^1 


^ gi 


•Br Qll 


<'S '^w 


© n 


(^5 iia 


(Cj/r ild 


(s^ ni 


<^ iii 


j5/ rlu 


^F ni't 


'^4 


L- d<i 


t—[T dd 


LQ. di 


U2. di 


® du 


(§ da 


eisr n 


€m na 


1^1 nd 


6e3n ni 


SQ^f 7ll 


r^ na 


^:j,i nil 


^ t 


^ta 


^.r td 


^ti 


^ tl 


J3 tit 


,i^ir tu 


pn 


IS na 


jSiT nd 


jS ni 


ji ni 


^ nil 


jTfir nH 


up 


u pa 


utT pd 


lSI pi 


iS pi 


L^pU 


y>i^^ 


ih m 


La nia 


La:T md 


uS^ mi 


/J? ml 


(Lp mil 


eyj md 


Lu y 


uj ya 


LUfT yd 


n9 iji 


uS yl 


'H //'* 


^ y^ 


IT r 


IT ra 


jriT rd 


^] ri 


/f ri 


(5 ra 


^ rd 


ev I 


6v la 


evir Id 


6SI li 


€^ li 


^jlu 


^iT Id 


€U V 


eu va 


eniT vd 


sSl vi 


cS vi 


(2)^ VU 


)it ^^ 


ipr 


Lt) ra 


Lp;T rd 


L^i ri 


h^ n 


(LP ra 


(Lp r« 


(St / 


m la 


mn- Id 


eifi li 


€1? It 


(^ la 


p^^ Id 


pr 


fo ra 


Qtj rd 


fiS ri 


^ n 


^ ru 


£)!r rd 


eisr n 


etsr na 


^ nd 


6Dfl ni 


«5f ni 


^i na 


^)ij nu 



12 



SYLLABICS. 



(Continued.) 















Conso- 


e 


e 


ai 





6 


au 


nants. 


G)<s5 he 


Q& Tee 


«j)<£5 Jcai 


©(fiF/r ho 


QcsiT ho 


Q-3B<sn hail 


•ih 


QiEi he 


QiEi he 


60) E/ I'lai 


QrwiT ho 


QfSJfT ho 


QfEiofT hau 


ik n 


Q.F ^e 


Q<3= qe 


(dSiff^ Qai 


Qs'fr QO 


Q<3'rr QO 


Q^FsfT Qau 


<F q 


©(Cj ne 


Q(^ ne 


eo)^ nai 


Q(^!T no 


l(^iT no 


Qf^miiau 


(^ n 


Qi^de 


Ql- de 


eoiL- dai 


Qt^rr do 


Ql.it do 


Ql-stt dau 


^4 


'Qem ne 


Qem ne 


dsm nai 


©(COT) no 


Q(^) no 


Q(om(Sfrnau 


sabr H 


Qp te 


Q^te 


^€CD^ tai 


Q^rr to 


Q^iT to 


Q^m tau 


^ t 


QjB ne 


Qjs ne 


€0)/5 nai 


Q151T no 


Q(5iT no 


QjE<5fr nau 


^n 


Qu pe 


Qu jpe 


eou pai 


Quit po 


QufT p6 


Qu&r pan 


up 


Qlc me 


CoUi me 


<sG)Ui mai 


QidfT mo 


QinfT mo 


Qui<c(r man 


LD m 


Qiu ye 


QiLi ye 


<sa)uj yai 


QujiT yo 


QiufT yd 


Qujetr yau 


iLy 


Ojr re 


Qir re 


eoijr rai 


Qinr TO 


QjTir ro 


Qirm rau 


/r r 


Qev le 


Qeo U 


35U lai 


Qeoir lo 


QevfT Id 


Qevm lau 


ebl 


Qeu ve 


Qeu ve 


«j)fflj vai 


Qeurr vo 


QeuiT vo 


©Qjerr van 


euv 


©LQ re 


Qifi re 


eoLp rai 


©tp/r ro 


QipiT ro 


Qipm rau 


tpr 


QiM le 


Q&r le 


Ssrr lai 


Q<Bfrfr lo 


Qmn- Id 


Q<sfr<sfr lau 


ml 


QjD re 


QfD re 


0s>p rai 


Qqj; ro 


Qqtj' ro 


QfD&r rau 


pr 


Qssr ne 


Q66r ne 


^oGT nai 


Q^ no 


(o(G0) no 


Qesretr nau 


esr n 



CONVENTIONAL CHARACTERS. 



7. To the foregoing must be added the following Grantha 
'etters and conventional abbreviations, commonly found in 
official documents and in manuscripts : — 



<^ hsha 
& job 
g ma 
ei^ sha 



^ or «^|2/ = 

^im := 

ah. =: 

8 = 

6L. — 

tSP — 

& = 

^ = 

y^ = 

L^ = 

tS^ = 





eiu 


sa 




fiJD 


ha 




<& 


kJca 


(^ 


or @ 


hhu 



^ tta 

^ (ta 

^ sri 



jij^) and, an anna. 
^(SfTLD alam, a salt-pan. 



^tf dga, 



total. 



^!in<gF !TiT<ff=erv^rfi irdja rdjastiri, most honour^ 
able (a title). ^ 

&60Lh halam, a measure of grain. 

.ffiQLo hajam, a yard. 

siTSi- hdruy cash. 

<£S/r6e3fi Ajtin?, the fraction -^, 

(^ifi Tcuriy a square (yard). 

^iT<^^<sn qiranjlva, "live l^ng," a polite title- 
used in addressing a junior in rank. 

^6U(Si7/r65rii> gilvdnam, and odd. 

(o^^ iedi, day of the month. 

jBihufr namhar, number. 

^sorQ<ff=iu nangey, wet cultivation. 

jSfTUj&ick ndyagan, headman. 

^[T&r^ ndladu, current. 

jSevLd nilam, ground. 

j§lff^<sj)(S}j niluvdi, remainder or balance f 
arrears. 

Q(5eo^ nelluy paddy. 

u&sonh pananif money. 

Lips' pattu, received. 

UfTffLa jparaWf weight of 500 lbs. 

uir ^L^iu^UfTGi^^^ jpd ahiyatpdahand, a form 
of greeting. 

LS/efrSsTT pilldiy caste title. 



^4 PHONETIC PRONUNCIATION. 

L^mfi = L^mQs'iu pungey, dry cultivation. 

d^u = (sou'd'n- jpaiqd, a pie. 

Qtl. = QuiTssr pon, a gold coin equal to ten fanams. 

uS^ = LD ITS' LB md(-am, a month. 

^^ = (Lps^&o rtiudal, first. 

Q19. = dLo;cL'L9- metpadi, aforesaid, as above. 

up = u^/ti yum, and. 

'^'" ^^ ^ = ^uiTiu ruhay, rupee. 

^^ = <sv<5S)SiUffiT vagdiyardyh^ongiTLgi^f et Cdetera. 

^j = (fflj#Lb vagam, charge, control. 

g4j_ = (a/ir(Si^ varavu, receipts. 

rsf^ = <siJinT<35€or vardcjan, a pa.goda coin. 

@D or ^ = fflj^si^LD variisliam, year. 

@Vor^ = (aj(sroir<ffi@/i vardihhum, until. 

€>![/ = (smla vum, and. 

^ = Q<s)j6Si veil, a land measure about 6 acres. 

See also the section on Numerals, para. 19. 

Phonetic Pronunciation of Tamil. 

8. The words and phrases below illustrate the sounds of the 
Tamil language, the pronunciation being added in accordance 
with Marlborough's system of phonetics. 

The student is recorrmiended to master the pronunciation 
at the outset, with the help of this list of examples. The 
precise use and value of each phonetic sign is shown on pages 
8-10, which should be studied carefully. The following 
additional explanations will also be of service : — 

The principles on which this system of phonetics is based 
.are: (1) the employment of English characters with their 
ordinary pronunciation (or one of their sounds, where more 
than one), witli as sparing a use as possible of diacritic signs; 
and (2) ONE SIGN, one sound. ^Vliere, therefore, a "sign" 
(i.e. letter or letters) might be variously sounded — and this 
applies to each of the English vowels and some of the con- 
sonants—its particular u^e in the scheme of phonetics should 
be carefully noted, and each sign must always be sounded in 



PHONETIC PRONUNCIATION. 



l» 



the same manner wherever it occurs (one sign, one sound). 
Any letter or letters printed in italics or with any mark 
added has a special use which must be learnt. Thus : — 

u represents {always and only) the sound of i^ in hun, sum. 
the sound of e in other, filbert, &c. 
„ i* in pull, or 00 in foot. 
„ u in itcde, or oo in boor. 
„ I or y in pity. 

„ i in mi7ie or I (i.e. a diphthong). 
„ tf in mcji, merry. 
„ a in able, pane (i.e. a simple sound, 

not diphthongized). 
„ ay (dipljthong) in day, play. 
„ ch in the Scotch word loch, 
gh is written for g l)efore e or i to preserve the hard sound 

of g as in regard. 
ow represents the sound of ow in cow, tww. 

rr I, one strong sound, the two r's not to be sounded 

separately. 
th », the sonnd of th in ivith, both. 

th (ital.),, „ „ th in they, breathe. 

For the cerebrals 7i and I, also for ng, ny, and ry, 
see Alplia))et. 
It should be noted that the first or root syllable of a Tamil 
word has, as a general rule, a fuller intonation than the re- 
maining syllables of the word. 





tne 


00 


It 


1 

i (ital.) „ 




e 


»» 


ay 


»» 


ay (ital.),, 
ch{\iA\.)„ 


•t 



Tamil. 


Transcript. 


Pronunciation, 


^.sseoLD (Breadth) 
(5(T5«6u (Darkness) 
^&<£BLh (Weiltb) 
@/5j(?.5 (Here) 
2_LL«/r(T5fiC?/r)«Jr (I sit 
down) 
<F/E;g^LQ (Song) 


agalam 

Icarugal 

dkkam 

tnge 

utkdrugiren 

gaiigidam 


ugtiinm 

kurugiil 

ahk-kum 

ing-gay 

iitkahru-ghirrayn 

shung- ghee^^iim 



to 



PHONETIC PRONUNCIATION. 



Tamil. 


Transcript. 


Pronunciation. 


u9 (Hunger) 


;pa(^i 




pushi 


u<F<9=!fl9 (Eaw rice) 


paccarigi 




puch-churishi 


£=itiL9 (Evidence) 


gdfci 




shaht-chi 


Qptut'oB (Effort) 


muyatd 




muyiitchi 


«@^ (Rice gruel) 


Jcanji 




kuii^-ji 


(^:tu3^ (The sun) 


ndyiru 




nyah-yirru 


^is^ (A stick) 


tadi 




thudi 


fiL.L-trsk (A gold- 


tatfan 




thuttahn 


smith) 








^smi—Ln (A staff) 


tandam 




thundiim 


^<oGS<SijrrssrL^i—€6)eu 


tanivdnapudavdi 


thuwivahnupiidiivay 


(Inferior cloth) 








fi^es)^ (Father) 


tanddi 




ihunthay 


^iB^^^ (It twisted) 


tirittadu 




thirith-thuiAu 


^LD^ (Our) 


namadu 




mxmuthn 


Udf-uQum (I shall 

learn) 
SlQ^u^ (Twenty) 


padippen 




pudippayn 


iruhadu 




irubii^^u 


u/rtiiq (A snake) 


pdmhu 




pahmbfi 


ji\i3ui3ff[T[nih (Inten- 


ahippirdyam 


ubippirah-yiim 


tion) 








u^0s>Goiu(f^s^ (A moun- 


maldi-y-aruvi 


mul-ay-yuruvi 


tain torrent) 








*«(Lpsj)^ (An ass) 


haruddi 


(kalu- 


kuryuthay 




ddi, in the 


South) 


{k\Au.thay in the S.) 


•^ip^ero^ (An infant) 


huranddi 


(Tcu- 


kiiryun^Aay 




landdiy in 


the S.) 


(kiilmithay in the S.) 


*ffl//r6B>ipULJtpLb 


vdrdi-p-param 


valirya2/ppuryum 


(Banana fruit) 


(vdldi-p-palam, 


(vahk^/ppulum, S.) 




in 


the S.) 





* In Ceylon and in Tinnevelly, &c., Lp is pronounced like &r, so much 
so that there is very little difference in the pronunciation of the words 
&6SI (kali) "noise," «t^ {hart) **stick," and «6yfl (kali) "joy." 



EULBS OP EUPHONY. 



IT 



Tamil. 


Transcript. 


Pronunciation. 


ajbQ'^rDssr (I study) 


katkiren 


kut-kirrayn 


spQjr)ssr (I studied) 


Jcatten 


kuttayn 


^ JQ} ,^ ^Q (iTf scr j^ 
(Six hundred & one) 


arunuUonru 


uriinoot-tondru 


ereerQroevr (I said) 


enren 


endrayn 


jilo\^ (That) 


ahdu 


uchthu. 


♦q^ia^bsar (A man) 


purusan 


purushiin 


j5(^i—Lh (Loss) 


nasi am 


nushtum 


^Qj<osrLa (Livelihood) 


jivanam 


jeeviinum 


&u^i? (A woman) 


stirl {for SU.8trl) 


sthiree 


(j^u^ (Husband of 
S'ri, i.e. Vishnu) 


sri'pati 


shree-puthi 


«r>^soar(J3 (A moment) 


Jcsanam 


kshu/mm 


QiMiT^sh^ih (Heaven) 


moksam 


mohkshum 


LD^fTinT&esr (Great 
king) 


mahdrajan 


muhali-ralijiin 



Rules of Euphony. 

Note. — These Rules of Euphony are inserted here for reference. 
The student should read them carefully, but need not at the outset 
attempt to master them. Frequent reference, and practice in applying 
the rules, will gradually make them familiar to him. 

9. In Tamil, as in Sanskrit, practically all combinations of 
suffixes with roots or stems, of the separate members of 
compound words and even of those of a sentence, are more or 
less governed by certain euphonic laws. A knowledge of 
these laws will, therefore, be found most useful — nay, in- 
dispensable to the student in analysing, and mastering the 
construction of, Tamil sentences. 

According to the leading principle of these rules of euphony, 
the sounds of the Tamil alphabet may be classed as follows: — 



• For the Grantha letters found in this and the succeeding words,. 
■ee p. 13. 

Tamil amnmar S.-T. 



RULES OP EUPHONY. 





Hard. 

(surd) 


Soft. 

(sonant) 


Nasal. 


Liquids 
and 
Semi- 
vowels. 


Voyrels. 

Diph- 
Short. Long. thongs. 


•Gutturals 


<sk,ooOT^f^h* 


<ffigf (medial) 


/Q n 






Palatals 


<Fg, nor 


^j n 


^n,ssr n 


Lu y 


Cerebrals 


, • f (when 

'- ? doubled) 


^4 


6asr n 


i^r,<sfrl 




Dentals 


^t 


^d „ 


^n 


^ r, ebl 




Labials 


up 


uh „ 


ih m 


QJV 





10. Of these letters, any vowel may begin or end a word ; 
but out of the eighteen consonants, only nine may be used as 
initials, namely Jc, q, n, t^ n, p, m, y, v, and eleven as finals, 
namely ii, n, 71, n, m, y, r, I, v, r, and /. In the word nanam 
(jsi'osrLj:), which, however, is never used without one of the 
demonstrative prefixes a (that), i (this), and u (that yonder), 
or the interrogative e (which) and yd (what), as aniianam 
^isjiEi&sriM "in that place," ^ibiEi&snh innanam, **in this place,'* 
Ac, the letter n may be regarded as an initial. Further, the 
letters ?i, n, and v are very rarely, if ever, used as finals. 

11. (a) As r and Z ure not permitted initials, every word 
etymologically beginning with either of them takes, as a rule, 
one of the vowels a, i, or w as a euphonic prefix ; e.g. arangam 
jijiTibsLDy for Sanskrit ranga; irattam ^f^^im, for Prakrit 
rattam; irdgam ^}irfr&Lh, for Skt. rdga; uruva/m S-Q^guld, 
for rupam ; Ilaiigdi @6u/b«5)<£e, for Lanka ; ulagam &.6v<sld, for 
loka] &c. 

(6) The initial y also often takes the prefix i for the sake 
of euphony, or it becomes e vulgarly ; thus, Sanskrit yama=z 
iyaman @a_'LD«<jr or eman (onusk. 

12. When two or more words or parts of a single word 
<5ombine, certain changes, in the nature of assimilations, take 
place at the points of combination under the following cir- 
cumstances : — 



• This is the so-called aydam, which is only a guttural aspirate, and 
is never combined with a vowel. According to Tamil grammarians, it 
is in some places pronounced like a vowel, in others like a consonant, 
but is neither the one nor the other. It always stands quite by itself, 
hence it is called TantJuTat, "solitary letter." 



RULES OF EUPHONY. 19 

Vowels with Vowels. 

i. Between the final vowel* of one member of a comj ound 
and the initial vowel of the following member, y or v is in- 
serted to avoid hiatus. Final i, i, and ai take y before an 
initial vowel ; final e takes eiiher y or v, and the others v. 
Thus:— 

nari+ dl-^nariydl jBtflLuireo **by a fox." 
ni+um=niyum j^il^ld "thou also." 
]panai-\-dldi=zpandiydldi udosrQiLiiT^ "palmyra leaf." 
(^+adi=z(^<ivadi (o^<sni^ "red foot"; Q€ + aga'm=r.eyagain 

Q'ff=uj<SLh " red grain." 
para + araru^^paravara/^u unsnus- "foreign king." 
kudd-\-orukkam=:ikuddvorukJcam A-L_/rO<2i/;r(i^^«t£) "im- 
proper conduct." 
pa^u-\- ddu=paQUvddu usi-QeuiT® "with a cow." 
mu + ainduzzimuvdindu ^soa;;?^^ "three times five." 
kd-\-il=kovil Q&fTsEleb (also koyil (o£BfTu9&j) "king's 
abode," temple or church. 

Exceptions : — 

(a) The final short i* of a dissyllabic word of which the 
first syllable is long, as mddu oi/r®, or of words of 
more than two syllables, as padittu uu^^^, is elided 
before a following vowel ; e.g. mddu + e=mdde im^Qi-. 
" O bullock ! "; padittu -|- irukkiren = padiWirukkiren 
ui^^^^sQQpecr " I have learnt" (lit. having learnt, 
I am). If the short u happen to be attached to d or 
r, the consonant is commonly doubled ; as, mudu + odu 
^:^mdf(6duf Ln!TiLQi—u® "with the bullock"; dru-\-il=z 
dttilX ^tb/iSeo " in the river." 

(6) After the demonstrative prefixes a, i, and u and the 
interrogative e, v is inserted and doubled before a fol- 
lowing vowel; a,8 J a -\-aragu=^avvaraQU ^su^Jirsr "that 
king "; i-\-irdi-=iivvirdl §)SiJoSl6a)ro "this lord "; u-^ddu 
uwddu &.(SL6uir® "that (yonder) sheep"; e + alavuz=: 
ewafavu tsjeueumei^ " what extent, how much ? " 

• Whether resulting from an ellipsis or not. 
t d when doubled is transcribed and pronounced tf. 
X T when doubled is transcribed and pronounced tt- See p. 10 and 
p. 17, col. 8. 

C ' 



20 RULES OF EUPHONY. 

(c) The relative participle ending in a does not, as a 
rule, combine with the initial vowel of the following 
word; a.B, tagwida uttaravu s^^jji^ ^^^u-(sq "proper 
leave." 

Vowels with Consonants. 

ii. After the demonstrative prefixes a, i, and u, and the 
interrogative e, all initial consonants are doubled ; as, a(p)padi 
^uui^ "in that manner"; i(p)padi ©ljlj^l "in this manner"; 
e(p)pcidi OTu/Ji^L "in what manner?"; u{rti)mddii s-LDiMfr®. 
" that bullock yonder." 

Exceptions. — When the initial is y, v is inserted ; as, e(v)yutti 
<o\eu\L\s^^ "which expedient?" Compare also para. 12, i., 
exception h. 

iii. After vowel-finals the hard initials h, q, t, and p are 
doubled; as, un pvMagattaiic) Ginna(p) paiyanukhu{lc) Jcodu 

^6sr Ljmj^<sB^ (SOSES' ^esrsoTLj (SJ)uuj^^<so^<s Q<sB[r® " Give your 
book to the small bov." 

Exceptions. — The hard initials are not doubled after the 
final vowel of the following : — 

(a) Relative participle ; as, pona kdlam Courrsor sn-eoLD 
"past time"; nan Icodutta panam jpfr(ssr Q^tr®^^ 
uescTLD "the money I gave." See also 12, i. c. 
(6) Finite verb; as, oduginrana kudirdigal ^®Qmm&sr 
(^^:<s^rr<sBm " the horses run." 

(c) The third or ablative of connection, the sixth or 
genitive, and the vocative cases ; as, avanodu po j^(su 
(D(^(b) Quit " go with him"; enadu kaigal (Si&sr^ €o&S(srr 
"my hands"; avanuddiya tambi ^6n^}]iyS)i^tij ^lb\3 "his 
younger brother"; jiaiyane qollu <oouiuQ<sffr Qs^ireb^j 
" O boy, say ! " 

(d) A pronoun; as, adu huridu jtj^ (§/^^ "that is 
short." 

(e) A numeral; as, oru qaiigadi 90 <f/e/<£e^ "an affair." 
(/) A verbal ellipsis, i.e. a verbal root used as an adjec- 
tive; as, varu pnnal <suq^ i^sereo "the flowing waters 
(of a river)." 

{g) An interrogative, or the particles of emphasis, e and 
0; as, ivand gonndn ^<su{^ Q) <a= it <m ^,<osr "did this man 
say ? "; aiige po ^iki(o<s Quit " go there." 



BOLES OF EUPHONY. 



Consonants with Vowels. 

iv. A final consonant combines with an initial vowel without 
any change, except in the manner of writing; as, ariycn + 
enrdn ^fStQiu&sr (oTsk^rr^sar := ariyenenrdn j^fSQiuQoSTohQr^&a- 
" he said, * I do not know/ " 

Exception: — The final consonant of a short monosyllable 
is doubled before an initial vowel; as, Jcal-{-ardi=ka1lardi 
Aeveoso/D "a rock-cave," **a sepulchre"; kal + dgdri=: 
kalld<;dri aeoeoii^'trtf-} "a stonemason." 



Consonants with Consonants. 

V. A final consonant other than y often takes the increment 
t before an initial y, the consonant being doubled in the case 
of a short monosyllable ; as, man+yddti=^manniyddu tasxresSi 
[uiT^ *' what soil ? " 

vi. After a final y or ai of a monosyllable, the initial A:, ^, 
», t, n, p, or (rarely) m is doubled; as, poy + Jcdl=poykkdl 
QunCuk&iieo "false leg"; ndy + hutti=ndykkut{i is(TujS{^L-iif. 
"a puppy"; vdy+pirappu=^vdyppirappu (Sij mi ulS/duli "a 
declaration; kai+pidi=kaippidi &si<a5ULSii^ " a handful"; A;ai+ 
mu{ti=kaimmu{{i €s><siJD(LfiLLu^ "the clenched fist." 

vii. Final r or r often doubles the initial k, g, t, or p; as, 
nlr-\-guru=nirccdru ^h<FQ<Fn^ "boiled rice kept over night 
in water"; kur+pdndiz=kurppdndi <ak.L^uun-^sar "a pap-pot." 

viii. The remaining consonants often undergo the following 
changes in euphonic combinations : — 

n+k=tk: a8,-f ^^? +Jcudam^matkudamU ^^^^^^^ ^^., 

Compare, however, kavan + kdran=kavankdran seusir 
<s[Tir&sr " a slinger." 

n+c=!c: asJ""*? +f"''".'-='««;<^«''r l-mud wall." 

j an +tagdi=zdndagdi l"a person be- 
n-\-t^nd', as,-^^^_^_^^^^__^^^^^ /fitting, a king." 

Cf. also kanden «swr(^i_6ar "I saw," from kan + t + en. 



RULES OF EUPHONY. 



n + n=:^nn or simply «; as, 

f man +nilain:=mannilam ) ,, _.u tj 
< : ; n . : -n . >** earth"; 

f <r.« + «a«r" = tumnru \ ,, ^^^ .^^^ j^ ^^^,r 

^ , , X {man +pdttiram. =manpdttiram \ 

n H-«=:^« (rarely); as, -? • ' ^ . ^ . •/ •«,.,•«.< 

or •< . .^ • V earthen vessel. 

, __ , fj90w +]cudam=potkudam ) "gold 

n+k^tfc; as,-^g^^^_^_^^^^^ =QLj.r,i:.;^L_m f pitcher/' 

_ Ji^ow +garadu=potcaradu ) "gold 

-■^^-- ' ^^'"\0L,'/r^ + <Fir® =0un-;f)<Fir® J wire." 

n+^=« or nr ; as, 

fjtjow +tattdn =pottattdn )"agold- 

\QuiT£sr -\- s^LLi—[T6srz=iQun fi)nr)LLi—rrssr j smith"; 

j pon +iimdi =zponrlmdi 1 "the evil of 
\QuiT6er + ^oS)Lnz=Qurr<ssr/S€a)LD f gold.'' 

n-^n=:nn or »; as, 

j ^o« +«a?r« =ponmnru ) ., j^ j^ ^^^.. 

I —^ . , ii^^? +panidi =potpanidi )"gold 
- "~-P ^ *\Qun-esr-{'U(3SisFi^=zQutT(bu(o5sfl^ f jewels." 

. 1 . ^ f maram+Jcal =zmaranqal ] ,, ^ ,, 
m+ii = ng', as,-< . •. . ^.- y" trees. 

^ ( LDITLD •\'<S<Sn=L£ijriSl<35(orr j 

m + Q=^n^; as, 
J vinnappam + gey den =vinnappanQeyden \ 

'* I presented a petition." 
m+t=nt; as, 
j visam -{-th-umpiHu z=visantirumpiUu "|" the poison 
\ s^:(Siit.t:o-\-B((3LDiS'jb^=zsSei^^^Q^i:aLSln)^ j ^^ counter- 

acted. 



RULES OF EUPHONY. 28^ 



i cern +ndy =Qenndy ) "a reddish 

m is sometimes dropped before an initial consonant, and 
the latter, if bard, is doubled ; as, 

j maram-\-nay zi^mara-nay \,, pole-cat." 

J2iakkam + Qol =paUaccol* ^ 1 "a friendly 

l^k-tk' as I ^'^. +^'-r'^ • =^^'f7^5 . i"I learn." 

l^r-tc- e.si^^^ +^''-^''^' =^^^!'^^'!^ V'trousers- 
*-t-9— ic, "-^'^ ^.^6^_|.^j_505L_=:«/rn9.FL.«0L_ I 

l-^t=nr,tt or r, or hr (o'o/p); as, 

jnil+t+en =nrnr^ . I" I stood"; 

J kadal+turdi =:kadatturdi 1 ..3, geaport"; 

Jt^-Z +mu=verulu I . ^art is evil "; 

i «^ . +^iT """-rii V'no class." 

l-^n=^Jin or n ; as, 

] nal +neri =n,a?nent K, ^^^ conduct"; 

J pal + nanru =:pdnanru \ ,, ^^^ -^ ^^^^ „ . 
\u[r&J +(5 SOT £ii=^u[r66r (osr^ j 
f iZ ^ninru —ininru 1" standing from," sign 
\ @6u + ;§^jii = g)6ofls^^ j of 5th or ablative case. 
i kdl +padi=hdtpadi Y'2i(\\X2iXter 
i+i)=«p; ^S'l ^^rev + uif = &iTp)Uisf- j measure." 

/ weZ +makkal=menmakkal V'g^®^* 
Z+m=»m; as,-< Q,^gj^_^^^^^_.(5^g^ijj^^gT7- j" men."" 

* .f p when doubled, or after iL or ^, is transliterated c, and pro. 
nounced like ch in church. 

t Similarly, naZ-.^2li=nanptll (^6^,^6u) " good system," name of 
Tamil Grammar by Pavananti. 



RULES OP EUPHONY. 



) I— J. i ^l +^ai/ccal -^uthdyccal ) "internal 

• "^ • ' ^^'\^m-\-<ssinh<F<!Feoz=^iL&ndjS'<feo] fever." 

/+c=<c: as.! "-'.tf"'/"^ ="•«?»»'■ l" under vest." 
j-{-t=.tt or d, or nd ; as, 

j kel ^ +t +en =zketten ^ l"I asked "• 

j ndl -Riorum =zndddrum ),, -, „^ 

/«/ +«+e-» =a«rfe« I. a ruled." 

7+n=ww or n ; as, 

f A;o/ -i-nanru =konnanru 1 ** gram is 

( G)«-Tsfr+ fl?ssrji; = QrfF/rsK5rs253rgOT-^ j good"; 

{ arul +nddan =arunddan 1 ,, i j i. >) 

i • . -. • - . v " lord of grace. 

J+p= ip ; as, -I "•' . +i'«3»'=«fWSi ) " 



internal 
enmity.* 
7j_*«_««v, . oo J '"^'^l +mudi—munmudi ) "crown of 

( (tp0fr+(LD^L =(LpsaJ5r(LpL9. j 



thorns.' 



ix. To these must be added a few anomalous formations, 
•such as pananJcddu u6gtie]^it® " a palmyra forest," from _pawai 
-^hddu ; iVZdw ^eljgu/rssr or ildn ^evfresr, from illddavafi @6u 
-eoiT^eusky and the like, mostly found in poetry. Also a few 
Sanskrit vowel-combiuations, chiefly in words borrowed from 
that language : — 

a + a or d=d; as, deva + at{devan=devdHdevan Q^<sxiiT^ 
Q^eneisT " God of gods "; deva-j-dQt7'vddam=zdevdgJrvd' 
diim Q <$ <su rr^ IT (sn IT ^LD " Grod's blessing." 

a + i or i=ze; as, nara+indiran=znarendiran jeQf^^it^ 
" man's lord, king." 

a + w or w=o ; as, para +upakdram= par opahdram uQirir 

u<sB[Tinh "kindness to others." 
n-\-u or u-=zu-^ as, guru + upade(;am=gurupade(^m (^^ 

uQ<s<FLo "teacher's instruction." 



THE PARTS OF SPEECH. 



Articles. 



a 



13. In Tamil there is no article to represent the English 
("an") or "the." Thus, La<s6sr (magan) may mean 
*' a son " or ** the son," just as Latin ^Ziws or Sanskrit putrah. 
But 9(5 (orii) and ^fr (Or), the adjectival forms of e^sar^ 
(onru) "one," are sometimes used as substitutes for "a" 
or ** an," the former before a consonant and the latter before 
a vowel, as 9(5 Locssar (one magan) "a son" and ggr ^Ssor 
(or dndi) *' an elephant." Besides the demonstrative ]>refixes 
^, g), and e. (see paras. 10 and 16 B), and a few postpositions 
of emphasis, such as ^6or(SU(ssr (dnavan), ^esreu&r (dnaval)f 
^SBT^ (d/jadu), (oTesrueuek (enbavan), <fec., Tamil has no 
equivalent for the English definite article " the." 



Nouns. 
Gender and Ntjmber. 

14. i. All Tamil nouns are divided into two main classes, 
namely, s.uj/r^/8s<33r iiyar-tindi, "upper class," a.nd j)j 00 fiSl^sssr 
ahrindi (i.e. al + tindi, see § 12, viii.), "no class." 

The former comprises all rational beings, as gods, men, 
&c., and has, therefore, two genders, masculine and feminine ; 
while the latter, which includes all irrational beings and 
inanimate objects, as cats, dogs, trees, truth, goodness, &c., 
has only the neuter gender. Hence, words such as QuL.eo)L- 
peffdif "a hen," Qu6^(^^(sa>jr jpen-Jcudirdi, "a mare," though 
really feminine, yet are treated as neuter nouns, the verbs 
agreeing with them being always put in the neuter; as, 
(oiuesaT(§^es)sr Q<ff^^(u)(Sufrs6r^ pen-kudirdi Qetiu(jp)pdnadu 
(neut.), " the mare died" (not pondl, fern.). 



26 



^OUNS. 



ii. The gender is also indicated by means of the termina- 
tions : n {an 01 an) tor the masculine singular nominative; 
/ (al or dl), i, and di for the feminine ; and du or adu for the 
neuter ; e.g. 

F. N. 

he ,^<su(sfr ehe ^^ it 

aval 

LD<s(sh daughter 
magal 

LDrTiSl aunt 
mdmi 



M. 
avan 



son 



magan 

LaiTLDm uncle 
mdman 



mattadu 



adu 

the other 
thing 
euQ^Sino^^ the act of 
varugiradu coming 

The gender of nouns that do not have these endings can 
only l)e kno^vn by their meaning ; e.g. 



M. 

^^<o6)^ a father 
tanddi 



a mother 



tamhi 



a younger 
brother 



F. 

tdy 

^ih'oSi'S a younger 

tangdi sister 



Ls^jTLn a tree 
maram 

(d£=sv6v a cock' 
Qeval 



iii. There is but one Plural for both masculine and femi- 
nine nouns. It is formed by adding r (ar) or Jcal (set) to 
the crude form. 

Those nouns which end in n or / in the nominative singular 
take r (sometimes 7'Jcal ^r^gfr), before which n and / are 
dropped. Thus: — 



Suig. 
^sussT avan he 
^suet aval she 
Q^eiisi^ tevan god 
LDiSsir magan son 
Lns^m magal daughter 



I 



Plur. 

^(Sufr^&eh) avar(gal) 
Q^€uit(£B(S{t) tevar{ga}) 
Ln^sfr magar 



Other nouns (masc. and fem.) take either r (ar) or kal ; 
I, ;3jsi^;fpiuir tanddi-y.ar, " fathers "; ^inurr tdy-ar/' mothers'"; 



* Tills is, strictly speaking, a masculine noun, but as it belongs to 
^e%;6ldom- ahrindi class, it is treated as a neuter. In the same 
manner, all nouns, masculine or feminine, of this class of irrational 
beings are treated as neuters. 



NOUNS. 



2r 



QussBTU^ir pendir, or Qusscr(B>'S<sn pendugal (pi. oi pendu, "a 
wife," VTilg, for Q u ssar dF fr ^i penQddi); LSlprr^''S(srr pilldi-gal, 
' children." 

Some add tlie terininatiou dr (prob. a contraction of ava/r) 
or mar (more or less as an honorific plural) ; as, ^<sBuu(G6)ir 
tagappan-dr, ^<£ELJLJs<jrLD/rn-<a^apj;an-war, "fathers"; ^ihiSuoifrir 
tamhi-mdr, " jounger brothers." 

Tho neuter nouns ending in du either simply drop du in 
the plural, or change it into na, or more often to vdi, to which 
Teal is sometimes added. Other neuter nouns simply add hal 
to the singular nominative. Thus : — 

Sing. Plur. 

BjjSliu^ that which is little 3 q'^„.JL" /^;. 
(;iriyadu 



< s-ijDiuj<56r Qiriyana 



a snake 



pdmhu 

paQic 

maram 
See also Derivative and Verbal Nouns, paras. 18 and 32-38. 



a cow 



a tree 



LJfrLoi_/«(sfr pdmbugal 

£J<£FF<«<£5<si7" pUQU-k-Jcal 

mirikism marangal 



Declension. 
15. In the following model, the case endings are separated 
from the stem bv hyphens for the sake of clearness. These 

ENDINOS ARE THE SAME FOR ALL NOUNS, SINGULAR AND 
PLURAL. 



(a) 1. Nominative. 
2. Accusative. 

8. Instrumental 
or Ablative 
of connection. 

4. Dative. 



GU [T ^ ^ iSS SOT 

varttagan 
varttagan-di 
varitagan-dl 
varttagan-odu 

i<nil fir c^ <9 <S 6C)I <sS c^ 
varttagan-ukhu 
varttagan-ukkdga 



a merchant 
a merchant 
by a merchant 

(together) with 
a merchaur 
to a merchant 

for a merchant 



J8 



NOUNS. 



5. Ablative of 
place whence. 



6. Genitive. 



7. Locative. 



8. Vocative. 



varttagan-il 

varttagan ■ ilirundu* 
eu ir s^ ^ <9S icofl (SSn ssr ^ 
varttagan-ininruf 

varttagan- 1 1 del iya 

varttagan-in 

eu fr ^ ^ -^s 6sr ^ 
varttagan-adu 

(Sijfr ^^&S(^GO 
varttagan-il 

varttagan- idattilX 

varttagan-e 



from a 

mercbiiiit 



of a merchant 



at, in, or with 
a me re bant 

O merchant ! 



(5) The plural of varttagan is, as explained above, sviT^^<3sh 
^arttagar or 6urr^^<sErir<as(siT varttagargal. To this, case-termina- 
tions are added as in the singular; e.g. Ace. <snh^^<s^jr 
vartta^ardi or enHr^^'SEiT&'bsfr varttagargaldi, Insir. (snif^^'SS'fTeo 
varttagardl, &c. Similarly, Ace. pi. of lofld maram=-u^iT!b<s'^ 
marangaldif Instr. LnFi5i<sB<s(r[T6o marangaldl, &c. 

(c) Observe that all these case-endings begin with vowels. 
Hence, when they are affixe^i to nouns ending in vowels or 
consonants, the euphonic changes explained in par. 12 (i. and 
iv.) take place; e.g. maldi+di=zmaldiydi lb2sv(^lu (Acc.) ; 
2)7di + dl=^puliydl L^eStun-eo (Instr.) ; 2)aQU-\-uhkio=paQuvukku 
Lj«3F(a/«@ (Dat.) ; tdlu+uhhu-=:.taluhhu ^fr^j&(^ (Dat. ; see 
§ 12, i., exc. a); ddu + uJc1cu=:dttuJcJcu ,^iL®<bi^ (Dat.; see 
§ 12, i., exc. a); goru+ukhu^i^dUukku Qs'rrib^<S(^ (Dat.); 

* Literally means ** being from." §)Q^^^ irundu is the gerund or 
adverbial participle of iru, "remain." See below, para. 31, ii. 

+ Jnirt^ti is a euphonic combination of ^&o+jSssr^ il-\-ningu 
" standing from." See above, para. 12, viii. Ninru is the gerund of 
^il. See below, para. 31, ii. 

J Idattil itself is the locative of idam, " place." 



PRONOUNS. 29 

kal-{-(n=kalldi ^eu&u (Ace.), but kdl+di=Jcdldi sirosv (see 
§ 12, iv.). 

Exceptions : — 

(1) Nouns ending in m change m into ttu in the singular 
before adding the case- suffixes ; as, marattu (from 
maram LairLa)-\-di, marattdi lq ir^ero^ (Ace.) ; manam 
Ln..,LO, however, becomes usually manaddi Loissrso)^ 
instead of manattdi. 

(2) The increments attu and in are often inserted be- 
tween the noun and the case-endings ; e.g. gila-\-attu-\- 
di=zQilavattdi ^eoeu/bssifD ; Qila + attu-\-in + di=r^ilavat' 
tindi &6v<supj£l'^ ; kal + in + di =: hallindi .seusiSSoor ; 
marattu (from maram) -{• in + di=^ mar attindi ldjt^^'^. 

Pronouns. 

16. Pronouns are declined in the same way as nouns, and 
with the same case-endings. In the oblique cases, however, 
some of them change root, as may be seen from the following 
models : — 

A. Personal Pronouns. 

Singular. 

1 XT ( jprrek nan 7 t 

1. Nom. I ^p^^^ ^-^ y.^^ j I 

2. Ace. (oTssr^eBT en-n-di* me 

q J , C €Teisr(^&j en-n-dl by me 

' ^^ ^' \ (oTsirQt^Q en-n-odu with me 

AT)*. I <5TS5r<ffi@ en-ahhuf to me 

( €r&5r<k<siT<s en-akhdga for me 

i <oT sir <osfl 6v en-n~il \ 

6. Abl. \ (oTssreofleSQ^^^ en-n-ilirundu > from me 
f STsareofleoflsar^ en-n-ininru ) 
i (oT(ssr en, sreor^ en-adu J 

6. Gen. < si^^^eai—iu en-n-uddiya > of me. 
( (or6k<oafissr en-n-in ) 

. Loc. "< • o . ^~ 'J n'l Mn or witn me 

( OTcweafli-^^eu en-n-idattil ) 

* For the doubling of final p, see above, § 12, iv., exo. 
t This short form of the root takes afefcw, not uhlcu. 



30 FKUNOUXS. 

Plural. 
1. Norn. \ '""T 'T"" .. ^^'*?^^' """" ^""'^ r we 



( jsiTLD nam* (Poet, (u/rtii yam) ) 

\ /smkis&T ndn-gal 5 

„ . C ^LDoOLci nam-m-di ) 

Ace. I g7,Q^2^rew-gfa/-/u (Poet. (STLb«Da)ew-m-<i?) ) 



us 



;5'Lfl/j0ff"6U, ST fkl <EB 'ofT tr &0 , ((STLDfJQ/T sl)) bj US 



o -r i J nam-m-dl, engal-dl, (em-m-dl) 

) jBLaQioif®, ST fk <9i(o <s(r IT ® , ((oT/i(?L£i/r©) with us 

\.nam-m-odu, engal-ddu, (em-m-odu) 

r n}LDi(§, sTikj&^.s.'^,, (sTL£>&c^), sTfk'^il.(^ to us 

4. Dat. < nam-ahhu, engal-ukku, (em-ahJcn), engat-hu 

{ fBLCi''5-siT<s, nani-al'Jcdga, &c. for us 

/BLhu9ev na m -m - / / 
jSLoiSie^lThn:,^ na m-m-il- irundu 

5. Abl. \ (oT IB .<E (srfl &u engal-il J^froni us 
<oT /Q <£5 orfl (sS iF 4i' e ngal-il-irwidu 
(^(oTLBL^eo em'm-il)y &c. 
jBLo nam, sribsm engal, (ctld em) 

jb'La^^ ST lb <s err i^ , (stld^;) 
/. p J tiam-adu, engal-adu, (em-adu) (of us, 

!BLCi(Lp<3s>L-iLi nam-m-uddiya [ <^^r 

OT/5J<fi5(erpeo3L_(ij engal-uddiya 
jSLDL^ssr nam-m-in, STikj<s5srfieer engal-in 



7. Loc. 



) nam-m-idattil, nam-m-il f 

) (STii'ssrf^L-^^ieb engal-idattil i 

V (oTE/dBgrfleij engal-il, {sTthuSev em-m-il) 1 



in or 
with us 



1. 


Norn. nl Si"g"lar. 


thou 


2. 


k f S-ssrSajr un-n-iil 
^' {(Poet. j9 J '^ nln^n-di) 


Ithee 


3. 


Instr. ) (i^^®^^ nin-n-dl) 
j s_sstQ(^(Si ufj-fi-Odu 
\ (0odiQ^Q niji-n-udu) 


>by thee 
I with thee 



* "Nam " we '* including those that are spoken to ; nangal excludes 
them. '" 



PRONOUNS. ai 

f ^.-osrsr^ unahlcu "I . 

4 Dat ) i^^^k^ninahhu) |- to thee 

(&.6or«-s ,'/-<« imaJcJidga \ ,. ,-, 

{iSm^sns ninakkdga) |-tortJiee 

/ &.sisT(^iev unnil 

K AKi ) ^^^^Q^^hmi unnilirundu I j. ^. 

*• ^^'- i».«r«>fl^T»rji, unnininru ( ^'■°'" *^^ 

\^ (^^(5/(50^61) 7iinnil, &c.) y 

&-eor^ unadu 

6. Gen. -{ ^dr^^i^L-Lu unnuddlya ^ of thee 
a. ^tV 6ofl «jr www /« 
(^^(jr nin, &c.) 

7. Loc. -j C;^«Jrsofl6ij ninnil) > in or with thee 

( Q-Qfirsifli—^^ev unnidattil ) 

Plural. 

1. Nom. I ^p_^^^ _^^;^ ^.^.^^ • j-you or ye 

r e_Lr)«&LD um-m-di 

2. Ace. < 2_/Q<i£'SsYr unyal-di J- you 

(^ (Poet. ^t3iiD)L£» uum-m-di) 
s_LnLoiT&o umindl 
2_/o%<srry7 6l> uiigaldl |» by vou 

5. Instr. ^ ^ /o, - , ^ 

s.ik<s(o6rr,r® ungalOdu ^ with you 

(^LoQiniT® nummodu) 



4. Dat. 



/' a.LD«'^ umakhu '\ 

) '^iw<as(^<S(^ unijaluhhu > to you 

^ {^Lo&(§ numakhu) ) 
\^Q.L£>s<siT<fE umakkdgaj <fcc. for you 

C ©.tioyeu ummil ^ 

6. Abl. < ^ib&isi^Go ungalil > from you 

{^^lc^lBcHq^^^ ummilirundUf &c. j 



Nir is used as an honorific plural, as *' you " in English. 



PRONOUNS. 



r S.LQ um, (^LJD num), SLiksm ungal' 

6. Gen. lumadu, (numadii), nngaladu \oijon 
I ^LD(Lp<5S)i—uj ummuddiya 
V &.fki<35i^(oG)t—Uj ungaluddiya 
^ihu9d) ummil, (^ldlSIgo nummil)^ 

^LnuSL^ff.^ev ummidattil ( in or 

^miE€i^e^ ungalil f with you 

&./E;«(STftL-^^6t> ungalidattil J 

B. Demonsteativb Peonotjns 
(or Personal Pronouns of the Third Person). 



Loc. 



1. Nom. — 

M. 

^mm avan, he 

2. Ace. — 
avan-di 



Instr. — 

^(aL/(C0)6i) 
avandl 



avanodu 
4. Dat.— 

avanuJchu 
(Poet. ^eijib(§) 
avathu 

avanuTckdga 
5.- Abl.— 

avanil, &c. 



Singular. 

F. 

jfl&j&r aval, she 

^eu'^r aval-di 



avalal 



avalodu 



avalukku 



avalukkdga 
avalil, &c. 



N. 
^^ adu, it 
(Poet. j)joo^ ahdv} 

^<5S)^ ad-di 
^^doGT ad-an-di* 

' ^^neo addl 
^^cSireu attdl 
ji\^i^eo adindlf 
^^^eo adandl* 
'"^--^adodu 




adanodui 



( ^;Sfi)(^ adatku* 
\ j>i^ijb(^ aditkuf 
1 ^^«@ adukku 
V.c^^,^<ffi(^ adanukku*' 
^fSjb<ssn'<s adatkdga* 

' &Q 



j)j^&) adil 
^^s^eo adanil, &c. 



* Here the increment an is inserted between adu and the 
ending, with due observation of the rules of euphony, 
f Here in is inserted. 



PRONOUNS. 



33^ 



6. Gen.— 

^susir avan ^<sn&r aval j^j^ieoiadiK^^^sffradan' 

^ewssr^ avanadu jtjswsiTzF^ avaladu j>\S'<ssr^ adinadu 



avanuddiya 
^euiccflsk avanin 

Loc. — 
avanil 



avunidattil 



1. N..m.— 



avaluddiya, &c. 



aval it 
avalidattil 



Plural. 



M. &F. 



adinuddiya, &c. 



adil, adanil 
adinidattll 
adanidattil 



N. 



^euir avar* 
^(Suir<BS<siT avaryal* 

2. Ace— 

^6ii(ss)ff avar-di 
^■Q/fr«'S?ir avargal-di 

8. Iixstr.— 

j^(^jriT&j avardl 

^ eu ir <s (SfT fT &j avargaldl 

^euQiTfrQ a/varodu 
jtieufrsQ&rfT® avargalodu 

4. Dat.— 

^eufT<s^'Sa(^ avargaluhhu 
^(Siiir&L-(^ avargatJcuX 
^eu([^<s(^ avai-uhku 
^(SviT,S(^ avarJcku 

avargalukhdga, &c. 



j)j(scD(su aval 
^60)<a;<S(gT7 avdigal 
^^s&T adugal 

^65)ffljaBSsTr avdigal-di 
^(Sup&Sip av-att-dif 

^(SS)(Sus(3frfTev avdigaldl 
^ennoQTf&o avattdl 
^enrr)fSl<^&o av-att-in-dl 
( j>l<5Si(Su&Q(Sf:n(^' avdigalodw 
\^<sufbfiSIQi^® avattinddu 



^€S}6u<s^S(^ avdigaluTcku 
^(snpfico(^ av-att-it-ku 

^ so 6U cSS iCf^ S <S IT <£S 

avdigalukkdga, &c. 



* Used also in the singular honorifioally. 
t Attn is inserted here (§ 16, c, exc. 2). + 0fr + (^=tl(5» 

Tamil Grammar 8.-T. ^ 



34 PfiONOUNS. 

5. Abl.— 

^(SuiT<S(srf^(sb avargalil ^(gs)en<sB(s^&o avdigalil 

^eutfl&j avaril, &c. ^eup)f6l&o avattil, &c. 

^. Gen.— 

^sviT avar ^<8Si^ 3: (^■cis)i_uj avdigaluddiya 

^euirsm avargal ^.^fhj]5l^^&3)L-Ujavattinudiihja 

^6ij(i^6B)L--Lu avaruddiya ^svibfiSl^t^ avaUin 

j)j<SiJiT'sBi^&S)L-Lu avargaluddiija 

7. Loc. — 

^(Si/fflei; avaril ^'S5)in>i<3iofP.&o avdiijalil 

j)lsxjcrseff^&o avargalil, &c. ^svjd/jSI&j avattil, &c. 

In the same way are declined : — 

Demonstrative. 

M. F. N. 

@Qj..i3T ivan ^enmival ^ji^iidu this person or thing 
e. 6b ear uvan ^(qij&t uval O-^ udu that yonder person or thing 

Interrogative. 

M. F. N. 

■crajssr evan ^(SiKsrr eval ot^ edu ") which person 

.lurreuern- ydvan tufreum ydval lutr^ yddu j or thing? 

The Interrogative luffr ydr or .^ir dr, "who," is used for 
both masculine and feminine, and for both numbers, sr dr m 
enna, "what," is an indeclinable, but lonrgr&sJLa en/jam, which 
is sometimes used for ifc, is declined like lditld maram. by 
changing the final m to ttu ; as, Dat. (otsw S3r^^cs@ ennattukku, 
*'for what." 

Tbe Keflexive Pronoun ^irssr tan (pi. ^itlo tdm or s'lrrkissm 
tdngal), '* self," is shortened to ^sk tan (pi. ^th tarn or ^iki^m 
iaugal) in the oblique cases; as, Ace. sing. ^siJfSlsor tamidl, pi. 
<SLa<oG)L£i tammdi, ^iEj<as'2(Stf tangaldi; Instr. ^esri^&u tanndl, 6iQ. 

The Distributive Pronouns " each," &c., are expressed by 
•doubling the pronouns ^eussr avan, ^svm aval, j^j^i adit, 
and ;#£'V tan-, as, ^<snscr(su^^hG)'^uj avanavanuddiya, " of each 
person" (masc); ^esr^sai aiKfiujui tan-tan-kdriyam, "their re- 
spective business." 



ADJECTIVES. 35 

Adjectives. 

17. (a) Attributive words are not declined, and are placed 
before the nouns they qualify, as in English. These words are 
either the inflectional bases of nouns, or verbal roots, or adjec- 
tives and relative participles; e.g. .^jb^* lEo^ CiUk. mln, "river 
fish"; cflrS) r^it Qudunir," hot wsiter" (rudu, "to be hot"); Qu(fhu 
enir^^'sdr periya varttagan, " a* great merchant "; (SiQ-p^iesr 
<s5rniS^Lh erudina Jcdyidam, *' the written letter" (see para. 31, i.). 

(6) The Demonstrative Adjective ^^^ anda, "that," 
** those," g)^,<§^ inda, " this," '* these," and the Interrogative 
Adjective <ojjs;S tnda, " which ? " are also indeclinable ; as, 
j){!3<tf LJ*«c5(eT5«rffl5 anda paruhkaluTcku, " to those cows." In 
the same way are used the prefixes a, i, tc, and e, respectively 
to point out things at a distance, things near, and things 
yonder, and to ask a question (of. § 10 and 12, i. b). 

(c) The past relative participle (see below, para. 31, i.) of ^ a, 
"to be," "to become," namely =^«jr ana or ^Quj dgiya (forms 
of ^i,iiS'cQi dyina and ^Si^sr OAjina), added to any noun will 
put this noun in attributive relation to the one following ; as, 
^ievLDif<o6i l^l-(SCj£u nllam-dfia pudavdi, "blue cloth" {ti'dani 
being the colour blue) ; same as /euuL/i-KDo.' nUa-p-pudavdl. 
So also ^<F#(60)£)uj QajiTQ<9=u taccan-dgiya Yucep, "Joseph the 
carpenter," and QiuaQ-d^Qus'si ^jjl'o ^s^-g^^ Yocep e?i?jnm taccan, 
" the carpenter who is called Joseph " (ennum being the future 
relative participle of en, " to say or call "). The {present srdrQir) 
engira is colloquially used for the future ennum. 

The relative participles ^mm ulla, "containing, possessing 
within itself" (from root ul), ^prn atta (from j^ru aru, "to 
cease"), and ^evevn-^ illdda (from ^&o il, "not"), as well as 
iv^oor ma (Sanskrit hina, "devoid of," pp. p. of root ha), are 
added to nouns to form adjectives in the same way as dtja. 
<xenerally uUa and ana have the same difference in meaning 
as their negatives atta and illdda ; e.g. Qj5<3'(Lp<s(Te{r ^itlu iwqam- 
ulla tdy, "affectionate mother"; QjF'ff'LnjbjD Qussars^fr^ neram- 
atta pen(;ddi, " affection- less wife." 

For the Comparative and Superlative Degrees, see Syntax. 

* This is the inflectional base of c^.i9^ . Nouns ending in ajn may, 
instead of following this rule, simply drop final m; as, pana-p-pe({i, 
"money-box." Cf. also irvppu-k-kadavu, "iron door," iruppu being 
the adj. form of irumhu, "iron." Similarly maruttUy adj. form of 
'narundUf "medicine." 



36 DEUIVATIVES. 

Derivative Nouns. 

18. From primitive stems of nouns, adjectives and verbtr. 
Derivative Nouns iji Irequent use are formed by the addition 
of the following suffixes : — 

ia) (srotn maz=Eiio;lish -ne>s or -hood; as, ^ tl, "fire^ 
evil," ^«5)/.n ti-mdiy "'.wickedness, vice"; Q^ Qirttr 
"small," Qljnif^LD (;irumai, " smalhiess "; f^eo naly 
"good," fbsb&oLB namndi, "goodness" {I -\- 111=^71711) \. 
r-X^l^dr dl or ^s>3cr an, "man," ^^^ohe,:::Lo dnmdi, "manli- 
ness" (/+m=«m); ^.■ir^ loofi hrmrji, ' maiden," :^ skssfc:^:-:: 
A-aw/?rm(M, " maidenhood or virginity." See a'so Verbal 
Nouns, paras. 32-37. 

(b) (BviTsri van, Lancer undn, <sr'' irsca kdran (from Skt. vat, mat 
and Icdra), ^etfl dli (m. and f.), ^mek dlan (m.), ^l.^l 
dtti (P.), cF/'oiS (;ali (m. and f.), &c. ; as, jEl ■^ (sn it sisr niQa- 
vdn, "honest man," <s0osS'Lc>i(osr lalvi-ynOn, "learned 
man," fh.. eii s -s: n u sk IcuH-h-Jcdran, " hibourer," u.^^-^.id) 
putti-cMi, "wise person," nk.iLL-.:f&f\ hutt-dli, "colleague." 

(c) Tho personal termination?,* or lather the contracted; 
forms of the personal pronoun of the third person., 
namely : — 

Singular. Pluial. 

avan, an, on, an U^^S ^^^ f^'S =5^^ 
„ ~. 7 ."-,"., civar, ar. Or, ar 

hem. ^SL&: aval, ^^m al, ^_(ov. a I ' 

Neut. j^i^ adu, ^ du ^ss^en avdi, ^<sot ana, ^ a 

Final u of adjectives often becomes i before these suffixes.. 
^sk&sr c.imia, " small." 
r M. Qsisr&sr(diJ6sr Qinnavan, a lad 

Sing. -< F. ^(osreareum rirmaval, a lass 

(N. ^mm^ qinnadu, that which is small 

M.F. ^£(jrsorsu/r(«6ff) rinnavar (gal) , s mall people 



Plar. < N. BsarisGr60<su(<sm)riTmavdi{yal) 



small thinors 



or ff/szTSsr <;iima, j " » 



* Personal terminations of the first and second persons also can be 
added to nouns to form conjugated appellatives, as pdvi-y-en^ "I a»' 
sinner" {pdvi, "sinner"). See para. 50. 



DERIVATIVES. 87 

QuQ^ peril, " great." 

j' M. OuifliLKSLKssr peri-y-avan, . a great man 

SiiiLT. - F. Qi u M iu (Sum per ly aval, a great woman 

In. QuiBcu^ periyadii, a great thing 

i M. F. Gud-lQiLifrir periydr, great persons 

riiir. N. Quir)ujeo<su{<3im) i>eriyavai{gal),l ,. 

( or Qu&liu periya, ' j ^^'^^* tlungs 

uirQ^iff'Lb* paraderam, "foreign land." 

CM. ujr(n;:5<F^;Siif^'paradcraft-d/j, a foreign man 
ng. -N F. u[rQ^<F^<?iii eir paraderatfdl, a foreign woman 
(^N. uiiQpcf^jS^paraderattadu, a foreign thing 
/' M. F. ujrQsiF^ifirn («^r" ) ) 

pi,„. ) paradcrattaiigal). I ^"*"''^" i'"""'""' 

( parade,-"Uavai(gal). j *°'''^'g" t'''"g^ 

l^'rom the adjectives oT6U6u/r elld and <5==£aj ragaJa (Skt. 

'k-aJa), both meaning "all," are formed the nouns .sTgusv/r^ai 

' llrir-um (or sreuC^toV/r^tii ellOr-um) ;nid ^.aeu^as <^agalar-um, 

' ;ill persons"; OT6V6u/rLn elldm and -r<«w(LLif.D ragahim-um, 

* all animals " or " all things." These, being words ex- 

j-rcssing universality, take the affix '^/n am. When thev are 

a-lJHctives, tlie ultix um is added to the noim which they 

ijiuiHfv ; as. bin):evif lSI ov'^^i <S'^-i sjLn elld pilldigaluJcJc'-um, "to 

all clnldren"; #c5su j,;«j)ir '/-/(caflaj.CTjt/:) ragala iurdirdnigal-uiu, 

•* all ladies." 

The noun-forms elldr-uia and raqalar-um are declined like 
itvar (see para. 1(>. b), adding nm. to each case- termination ; as, 
. • oi)fi\):i Qh-if^LB elldvuhlc-um, "to all persons." 

^T6U6u nh tlldm (i.e. Md-\-uin) is declined with the insertion 
of the increment aHji ( para. 15, c, 2); as, Dat. sreuaj/rsij/D^^^Lb 
elld-v-attii-kk'-am. Gen. (p.eo<f!\):^ ^jrtB^Di'r^ elld-v-att-in-um ; 
whilst ^<ai6U(Lp(h ragalam-um follows the declension of nouns 
endiug in m (j^ara. 15, c-, 1) ; as, Dat. .-f&tiv/s^i's^La ragaJattu- 
hlc-tini, Loc. ^^(io^^^^ryji.h ragidaiV-ll-um, the affix um l)eing 
added each time. 



* The personal en'liiio;s nro added to the inflectional bases of nouns 
(cf. para. 15, c, exc. i). 'Ihis word is often written and pronounced 



38 



NUMERALS AND NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. 



The Numerals. 



19. 



Cardinals. 



6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 



Tamil 
Signs. 



IK. 






Name. 



(^ssr^ onru 
(vulg. (o^ss^^t! onnu) 

^rrsm® irandu 
(vulg. QirsssT® rendu) 



^m^^ munru 
(vulg. ^^0)1 munu) 



jFfT^j ndlu, 
jS'^sisr,^ ndngu 



^jFj^ aindu 
(vulg. <j)/©<5^ anju) 



^^ dru 
(qJq^ eru 
(oJiL® ettu 
(S^eoiu^ onhadu 
u^^ pattu 
u^Q^sw-rn padin-onru 



Adjectival Form. 



90 on/, before con- 
sonants* ; gp/'r Of 
before vowels f 
g)(V5 iru, FFi'r Ir, 
^(Tsm® irandu 
(g)(i7ifflj/r iruvar, 
" two persons ") 
(Lp mu, ^ TtlU, 

^serjj/ munru 
(^(oiirr mfivar, 
"three persons") 

ndngu, /strssr nan 
(r^ir&b(SijiT adlvar, 
"four persons") 
gg ai, ^/i aimy 

^/?.^ aindu 
(^<affr aivar, 
''five persons") 
^^ aru, r:^joi dru 
(oT(Lp eru, ^(Lp eru 
(STsssr en, istlL® ettu 
[_padin 
u^ padu, u^ek 
u^!Q(^(f^padin-oru 



* As 9(5 QufTi^LUsk oru podiyan, " a boy." 

t As gofT <5T(Lp^^ 6r eruttu, "a letter"; cg^susw oruvan or 90^ 
fisk oruttan, "a certain male person"; 90^^ orutti, **a certain 
female." 



THE NUMERALS. 



39 





Tamil 




Signs. 


12 


(Da. 


13 


udm. 


14 


(d^ 


15 


u)(5) 


16 


a)<Sr 


17 


a)(5T 


18 


a)=(y 


19 


iDa 


20 


a_(D 


21 


2_« 


22 


a_a. 


23 


2_/S. 


30 


/HLU) 


40 


v^iD 


60 


©iD 


60 


4fr(D 


70 


STU) 


80 


«^(D 


90 


<*iD 


100 


(XT 


101 


irrs 


200 


S-ffT 


800 


iR.rrr 


400 


^frr 


600 


@irr 


600 


Srirr 



Name. 



uesTsaftireksr® pan-n-?randu* (u^(safl({^(avir 
pan-n-h'uvar, "twelve persons") 

u^POJQ^sk^ paclln-munrn 

ufii^^j padindlu,f u^^esri^ padi'ndnguf 

u^i^scrjs^ padin-aindu 

u^<^^ jb%din-aru 

u^i'J&5r(ip padin-nru 

u^Q&stlL® padin-etiu 

u^Qfiirmu^i patf 'Onhadu 

@(5LJ^ iru'hadu, or ^_x)q^su^^ iru-vadu 

^(iT^u^Q;SireorjQi iru-haW -onru, or ^Q^^fSy 
Q;S!ir&kr^)j iruvatf onnu 

^(mu<s^F^® iruhatt^-irandu 

^Q^u^^^ip^^ iruhatiu-TnunrM, &C. 

(ipuu^ muppadu 

jS(Tp)U^ ndt-padu [i.e. iidl+padu] 

gg/.DU^ aim-hadu 

^^u^ aru-hadu 

(oT(Lpu^ eru-badu, or (oT(Lp<su^ eru-vadu 

ST(saoTU^ en-hadu 

Q^fTsm,^}irsJ tonnuru [i.e. tol+nuru] 

^n)i niiru (Adjectival — ,m^<S>^ vuttu) 

^rn)G(fri'ssrjx nuU'-onru ; 103, nuttu-munru^ 

@Qy)MSi iru-mlru L<*^- 

(ip^^^ mu-n-nuru 

jFir ^i rmi nd^-nuru 

^^^iTMii ain-nuru 

^j3/^f ji/ aru-nunc 



* Pan is a contracted form of padin. Here final & is doubled before 
nitial i. See above, para. 12, iv., exc. 

t Combinations of fadin + noXu and of padin + nangu. H ere n -♦- n = ».. 
See iibove, para. 12, vlii. 



40 



THE NUMERALS. 





Tamil 




Signs. 


700 


erm- 


800 


^frr 


000 


SifTT 


.1000 


^ 


1001 


^d5 


1100 


^fTT or 




<s<sa)(D 


1200 


^2^iTr or 




<fEc2_(D(D 


1900 


sd;<3i,,ifr or 




<sBSi,idiD 


1906 


^is^rrrsr 


2000 


^^ 


3000 


fTLSk 


100.000 


m^ 



Name. 



sT(Lp.^^ eru-nuru 

(ST6m^}ir^ en-nuru 

Q^fr<dtr'ofrfT[iSrrLD tol-l-dyiram 

^uSl/rLD dyiram (Adj. — .^r.uSl[r^^ dyirattu) 

^n3(j^Q^fT€sr^ dyiraW-onrifj 

^iiSiT^Q^frQ^^^ dyiraW 'Oru-nuru 

^j,ii^F^^(i^^^^ dyiraW -iru-nUru 

^ii^F^,^^Q^fTm(S(rnaSlFLh dyiraUu-t-toI-l- 

[dyiram 
^ir(T[j^^^^^Qp.\ <sh (off J aSi J £ ^ J ^ 

[or-dyirattu-t-tol-l'dyiratV-dru 
^jTimi—iTijSnLo ir and' -dyiram 
^<su IT liSiij Lc Tn.u-v-dyiranif &c. 
•^eviL'S'Lh Hat ram 



Ordinals. 

20. Ordinals are formed by the addition of ^^th dm or 
4^^^- <^vadu to the cardinals, Mdth the exception of ^sk^ 
onru, which makes (ip^el mudal, (tps^sDirm mudal-dm, or 
(ip^6u/ra/^ mudal-dvadu, "first," and In compounds ^ij.jCa 
or-dm,a,s (il^uu^(J^,Tri ir^h mupjmW-nrdm, " the thirtv-tirst." 
The form in dm is used only as an adjective, as ^/ssGT^aCa 
^(ohj,^.^Lh iranddm pustagnm, "the second book"; that in dvadu 
may be either an adjective or an adverb, as rF.rsk ;5;reo,r^^ 
QutrQeoTssr ndn ndldvadu pOnen, " I went fourth." 

21. By rej. eating the first shortened svllable or letter of 
the numbers up to ten, with the exception of nine, Distribu- 
hves are lormed ; thus : — 

^!SuQ<ou[Tmjrij ovvonru, one bv one • 

^djs£lirmn® ivvirandu, two by two, in twos; 

QpLo^'shrjrx muuimunru, three by three; 

jf^,^e^, namidlu, or ;B^ou^drr&) 'iianndiuiu, by fours; 



VERBS, 41 

^60)uj^^ aiyaindu, or ^<su<c6)'su^^ aiwaindu, by fives; 

^eu<3uir^ avvdru, by sixes ; 

^Qj(osij(Lp evvtlni, by sevens; 

'irrGLiQeuLL® fvvettu, by eights; 

uuua^^ pappattu, or usuensi^ pawattu, by tens. 

22. Fractions. 



^V 8 <S'iT@sS kdni 

/o ^ (if^-k<3Bi(SsS mukhdni 

■Yu u LoiT md\ ^^Q a^ ardi-md 

y_ ^ ^ C Lc>tT<sir(os6h md-gdni, or 
° ( (sS.tfL^ vJraui 

^n ^, ( is) ii" '^«5r &Ln[r i ra ?idu- 



1 6 



2 O 






"^^ T ( wi a, or g) Lo rr /nt- m d 



-2 fJv) ^<iar^LCiiT munru-md 

■«% «^ ( jBii^jLDtr ndln-md, or 

i-e.\ \jBii^(^Lni! ndnrju-md 

\ fi^ ^(8S)sr<k<siTeo ardik-kdl 

^ ^ ^looir ardi 

^ ^ (Lps<sir6v mukhdl 



[N.B.— In mixed fractions, as IJ, the final u of the numeral 
is dropped before an initial vowel, or is changed into e 
Ix'lore a consonant, as onra -\- ardl=^ onr ardi,\\,2i\i^ o/iru + 
kdl=.onrc kdl, 1^, not oni kdl, which means 'one quarter.'] 



Verbs. 

23. (a) The Tamil verb has three principal tenses, namely, 
the Present, the Past, and the Future, and one Negative 
form without any indication of time ; e.g. 

r^sfP.'skiConosia kuli-kkir-erij I bathe, Istpers. sing. Present. 

{^<sS^Q<!j^ kali-tt-en, I bathed, „ „ Past. 

f^biBuQujjj kuli-pp'tn, I shall bathe, 

il do not bathe, or 
I did not bathe, or 
I shall not bathe, 



Future. 

(Nega- 
tive.) 



Let us now analyse these lour forms. We see that tliey 
all have the unmodified root kuli, and the ending en, the sign 
of the 1st person singular. TIjo first three, moreover, have 
each a middle increment, different in eacii case, whicii obviously 
distinguishes tlie tense; whilst, in tlie fourth ther-- is no such 
middle- particle, the personal ending being added directly to 
the root with due observation of the usual rules of euphony. 



42 



VERBS. 



(h) The personal endings are : — 

Singular. 

1st pars. en {al, an, and en*) 

ay (i and ai*) 



2nd 



3rd 



Masc. an (an*) ") 

Fern, dl (al*) j 

Neut. du or aclu, ru (or 
itUi) {a and ddu con- 
fined to the negative 
verb), and um ffuture) 



Plural. 
am (am, dm, em, em*) 
ir or Irgal (ir*) 

dr or drgal (ar*) 

a, ana* (a confined to the 
negative verb), adugal 
(vulgar), and um (future) 



24, The personal endings are added to verbs as follows : — 
(a) Present Tense. 
Singular. 
1st person (^(Sffi'kQQ/D^ kuli-hkir-en 



2nd 



ST bathe, 
I 



3rd 



am bathing 
thou bathest 
he bathes 
she bathes 



1" 



bathes (neut.) 



we bathe 
> you bathe 



r^.s^'kQQrj'Cu Jculi-kJclr-dy 
(^<oif)iQ(n?ssr kuli'lckir-dn 
(f,'^,iS^n;(srT kuli-kk ir-dl 
@ srfl 5 «//0^ kuii-kkir-adu 
(^siB'sQsarp^ kuli-kkinr-adu 

Plural. 
1st person (^e^^kSiQ^nr^ia kuli-kkir-6m 
2nd 1 (§<3ifl<s>&f§a kuli-kkir-ir 

" \('ff)<si^mQjBh<s(5(T kull-kkir-irgal 

( ^,(3rt\i'&i(rrriT kuli-kklr-dr 7,, , ^, , - > 

\ @6rB^^.'(^/f*^" kuU-kkvr.drgal j they bat he(m.f.) 
j (^srfl-sQssrjDesr kuli-khinr-ana ") they bathe 
V (^ oYf) ^ Qp^ <s m kuH-kkir'adugal ) (neut.) 

[n and aw in kulikkinradu and in kuUkkinrana are probably 
euphonic insertions. See also para. 1 5, c, exc. 2.] 

(h) Fast Tense. 

Singular. 
1st (§<s^^Q^sir kuli-tt-en I bathed 

2nd (^^rfl^.^/riL kuli-tt-dy thou bathedst 



3rd 



* Poetical or rare forms hardly employed in common Tamil. 



VEEB8. 



43 



C @ sS^;S a esr kuli-tt' an 

3rd< (^etf^^^rren kull-tt-al 

(^@6tfl^^^ huli-ti-adu 



Plural. 



im 



1st f-^^^ ^Q ^ rr La kuli-tt- 
2nd (§etf^ 5^iT(<B5&r) kuli-tt-ir (or -irgal) 
3rd I ^3^.3i^^fr{<£Bm) kuli-tt- dr {gal) 
( (gerfl^^a^ssr huH-tt-ana^ 



he bathed 

she bathed 

it batlied (neut.) 



we bathed 
you ])athed 
they bnthed (m. f .) 
they bathed (neut.) 



[' The singular is generally used for this form.] 



(c) Future Tense. 

Singular. 

1st (^(sSuQuQsr kuli-pp-en 

2nd (^eSuuAiL kuli-ppdy 

( (^(srf^uufreiir kuli-pp-dn 

3rd •< (^erf^uuir&T kuli-pp-dl 

( @ stP<«(^ld kuH-hk-um * 



I shall bathe 
thou wilt bathe 
he will bathe 
she will bathe 
it will bathe (neut.) 



Plural. 

1st @6yf?LjG*u/rzi kuli-pp'()m we shall bathe 

2nd (§&fiuLSiT(s(crT) kuli-pp-lr(gal) you will bathe 

3rd I (S^^^'^'^i'^^) kuli-pp-dr{gal) they will bathe (m. f.) 

\ (^syfi«(^LD kuli-kk-iim" they will bathe (neut.) 

[* The third person neuter of the future is the same in the 
singular and the plural. It is formed by adding kkum 
to the roots of those verbs which take the middle incre- 
ment (or tense-sign) kkiru in the present, and utyi to those 
which take kiru{\.Q. giru, see para. 27), y and v being often 
inserted for the sake of euphony; thus, (suen-Q^QCorDesr 
valai'(u)-gir-en, "I grow," makes (SumQ^Lo valar-um; Q<3'uj 
QQpelsr Qey-gir-en, ** I do," 0<^tZj(L/tii Qey-y-um ; ^^uQjD^ 
irdi-gir-adu, "it roars," ^66)iriqLD irdi-y-um ; jtjQpQQjnear 
aru-gir-en, "I weep," ^(ip<a/^h aru-v-um; but ^(LpQ^^ 
dru-gir-adu, from root ^i^ "be depressed," gives ^cLpLn 
dr-um (cf. § 12, i. a); suq^QQjdsot varu-gir-en, "I come," 
ei]QT)U^ var-um; ^(r^QCo/Dssr taru-gir-en, '*! give," ^q^ld 
tar-um (the roots being taken as var and tar, not vd and 
td). There are, however, a few roots which take kum 



,^ VERBS. 

(or gum) instead of um; as, iS&j nil, ** stand," Sjh'-^Lh 
nit-kum (l + lc=tjc) ; (J-ssfr hel, " hear." Q<sel1(^lo het-hum 
{l-\-h=tk)\ Qr5iT nd,"Siche," (Dj5iTr^Lh no-gum or Q.^.t^^lo 
nO'V-um ; Quit po, ** go," Qurrr^Lh po-gum, contracted to 
QuiTLct pom.'] 



(d) Negative. 
Singular. 




^etf^Coiusk Jculi-y-en 
'~:sif^iun i/j hull- y- ay 
,i5if^Luii 6sr huli-y-dn 
^etf^Luir&T kuli-y-dl 
(^eiBtufT,^ kuli-y-ddu | 
(@<oYflaj/r huli-y-d) ) 

Plural. 

1st (^isif^QiufTLD kuli-y-dni 
2nd ^siflLSir(d5m) kuli-y-ir(gal) 
o J ( @(srf)(L'ff/r(<«6rr) kull-y-drijgaV) 
\@6iftujn kuli-y-d 



I do not bathe 
thou dost not bathe 
he does not bathe 
she does not bathe 

it does not bathe (neut.) 



we do not bathe 
you do not bathe 
they do not bathe (ni. f.) 
they do not bathe (neut.) 



25. This regular negative, with the exception of some 
persons of it, is not much used colloquially. The one in 
common use is obtained by the addition of (g'guSou illdi, " not," 
to the so-called infinitive of the verb, without any regard to 
time, number, or person. Thus, ri^(oiflm& kulikka being the 
infinitive of kuli (see below, para. 38), we get 



Singular — > 

^fT(oi!i ndn 
ni, or //r nir 
^eusir avan 
^sum aval 
eSV^' cidu 
Plural— 
^ T/i nam, or P5n-rk)<s<s{r ndngal 
jiiT nlr, or ^n&m nir gal 
^(suiT avar or ^ sw /r « err avargal 
^srosi; avdi (neut.) 



kulikka- 
v-illdi 



I 

thou 
he 
she 
it 

we 

you or ye 

thev 



do, did, 
shall, or 
will not 
bathe 



VEIIBS. 



•4& 



^ 26. A still more common neo-ative is formed by the addi- 
tion of illdl to the neuter participial noun (§ 32 -83), present, 
past and future ; as, 



j^T^^r [kallJcJciradu-\-illdi ^culikkiracV illdi j 

y thou, 



P ui, \kulittadu +illdi =lculittadHlldi 

&C. I ^6lfiLJU^i-\-§)&0^z=(^orf^LJU^Gb'uc. i 

\ kulippada + tllai = kulippad'lllill J 



do not 

bathe 

did not 

bathe 

'will not 

bathe 



[See also para. 47 on Auxiliary and Defective verbs.] 

27. In the foregoing example, the middle increment or siun 
of thi" present tense is kkir, that is kkijni, («ffi'^) witli the 
elision of the final short u beloie the personal terminations; 
the sign of the past is it. (^s^), and that of the future is 
pj) (tl'LJ). These are strong forms, and are, as a rule, used 
in the conjui^'ation of verbs with an '* active -transitive " or 
causative sionifieation. There are, however, very many verbs, 
both transitive and intransitive, which either take the weaker 
FORMS kir or kiru, pronounced giru (Sjoi), in the present, 
t or d (^) or nd (j^^) or irj* (@5?r) iu the past, and p or b 
(u) or V (qj) in the future, or follow a middle course by 
taking the strong forms kkir and consequently pp in the 
present and future, and the weak or middle form nd in the= 
past. Thus: — 



Koot. 


Present. 


Past. 


Future. 




fQjBii Q(Srr)ek 


Qf^tuQ^sk 


Q^iL-Gcsusar 




neij-gir-en 
I weave 


ney-d-en 
I wove 


ney-v-(?rj 

I shall weave 




Qrsuji^'cfy^i'u 


QjSiu^rrdj 


Qj^i'u^iinu 


we.ive 


7iey-(jlr-dy 
thou weavest 


ney-d-dy 
thou wovest 


ney-v-dy 

thou wilt weave 




QjSl'u^QT/SSr 


QiSii'^Tssr 


Gj IE i'u (Sv 1' (sk 




ney-gir-dn 
he weaves 


ney-d'dn 
he wove 


ney-v-dn 

he will weave 




N &c. &c. 


&c. &c. 


&c. &c. 



* Strictly speaking, i is the sign of the past, n being only a euphonic 
insertion. 



46 



VERBS. 



fresr 
sav 



/ (oTei^QQrosk 
V en-gir-en 
\ I say 

en-rfir-dy 
thou say est 



or 

ap- 
proach I 



revu-gir-tjn 
I approach 

reru-gir-dy 
thou 

approacliest 

&c. &c. 






speak ) I speak 
\ &c. Ac. 

nadi-hhir-en 
I walk 

naf/a-kkir-dy 

thou walkest 

&c. &c. 



;f. 



walk 



en-r-en 
I said 

en-r-dy 
thou saidst 
&c. &c. 

qer-nd-en 

I approached 

rer-nd-dji 
thou didst 
approach 
&c. &c. 

'j)t(;-in-en 
I spoke 
&c. &c. 

nada-vd-en 
I walked 



en-h-^n 
I shall say 

(oJsi)TUlT\L 

en-b-dy 
thou wilt say 

&c. &c. 



reru-v-en 

I shall approach 

(J<F(75(Slin-tL./ 

Qeru-v-dy 

thou wilt approach 
&c. etc. 

pegu-v-en 
I shall speak 

&c. etc. 
(Bi—uQwok 
nada-pp-en 
I shall walk 



nada-vd-dy nada-pp-dy 

thou walkedst thou wilt walk 

&c. &Q.. i&C. i&C. 



Exceptions : — 

(a) Short dissyllabic roots of this weak conjugation, 
which end in (^ hu, ® du, and ^ r-w, do not often take 
the " middle- increment " in the past, but simply drop 
the final n and double the consonant Jc, d, or r before 
adding the personal terminations; as, jF'^Qsosk nak-h-tn, 
past tense of ;f@ nagu, " laugh "; <c^lLG'l_£OT- QUt-t-c/j, of 



* i.e. ST si)T ^ ^ + <qj isisr (ew+t+en), ear -|- ^ having become ^jb. See 
para. 12, viii. 

t The final sliort u of roots such as geru, pefu, not being radical, is 
often eb'rled. CA'. para. 12, i. (a). 



VERBS. 



47 



4F® (ludu, "bum"; and QuroQfDz^ pet-t-cn, of Qu^ 
^erw, "obtain." (Cf. 12, iv., exception.) (Sufr® pddu. 
"put," also follows this rule, as its past tense is 
Q u fT lLQ i^ek pot-t-en. Thus : — 



Eoot. 
nayu 
(;tidu 
idu 



> laugh 
y burn 

] 



give 



Present. 
\ nrnju-gir-en 
\ r^udu-fjir-en 
\ idU'Cjlr-en 



Past. 
nak'h-en 

r^ut-t-en 



it-t'Pn 



Future. 
nagu-v-en 
(;udu-v-en 
idu-v-en 



peru, ) \ peru-gir-en pet-t-i 



vn peru-v-Cn 



{h) Some verbs of this class form their past teuses in 
both ways ; e.g. 



Root. 



^(3 I 
tagu ) 



befit 



Present. 
-gir-en 



Past. 






^ > exceed 
migu ) 



migu-gir-en 



aru 



cease 



aru-gir-en 



ssr 

tagu-nd-en 
or ;is-i(S^^ 
tak-k-en 

migii-nd-en 

or LSi-iCn&sir 
mik-k-en 

aru-nd-en 

or ^pQpssT 
at't-en 



Future. 
tagu-v-en 



migu-ven 



aru-v-en 



28. The following verbs may serve as models for the forma- 
tion of the present, the past, and the future, as well as the 
infinitive treated of in para. 38 : — 



1. Root: Lj^L padi, "learn or read." 

Present. Past. Future. 

{jiif.-&£^Qrossr uis^^(S^asr ui^uQuek 



padi-kkir-en padi-tt-en 



padi-pp-en 



Infinitive. 



48 



VERBS. 



2. Root : l9[^ pidi, " seize.' 



iSiiS^-k&'^niD'oer 



1)1(1 i-kkir -en 

3. Root: seifl kali, 

ka/i-kkir-en 

4. Root: eun^vdci, 

vdci-kkir-en 



fidi- It-en 

rejoice. 

kal -ff-en 



pidi-pp-en 



kali-pp-en 



read. 



(SUil 

vdrA-tt-en 






vdcl-pp-en 



Root: ^soLp ardi, "invite." 



ard'i-kkir-en 



ardi-tt-en 



ardi-pp-en 



6. Root : <B!T Jed, " preserve. 



kd'kkir-en hd-tt-en kd-pp-en 

7. Root: u® padu, " lie down." 



padu-kkir-en 

8. Root: 

iru-hkir-en 

9. Root: 

ira-hkir-en 



U® ^^;S<ok 

padu-tt-en 
D(75 iru, " be." 

iru-nd-en 
ira, " die." 

ira-nd-en 



-PP' 



^rj^Lj(DU(Ssr 
iru-pp-en 



ira-pp-en 



pidi-kka 
hali'kka 



vdri-kkou 



ardi-kka 



hd-kka 



padu-kkc^ 



iru-kka 



ira-kka 



10. Root: ^Lp dr (or ^(ip dru), "be deep." 

dru-gir-adu dr-nd-adu dr-um dr-a 

11. Root : ^«l5 igar (or @<ffi(ip igaru), " reproach." 

igaru-gir-en igar-nd-en igaru-v-en igar-a. 

12. Root: (?<9=/r ger (or Q.F(f^ qeru), " approach." 

Q<FQ^S>QfD6sr Qfg^rr^Q^ssr Q<3'Q^Qeu<oir Q^jr 

qeru-gir-en Qer-nd-en qeru-v-en cer-a 



VERBS. 4^ 

13. Eoot: Q(su ve (or Q(Sij(^ vegu), "■ buru." 

su^Qn)eifr Qsu^C^^^ QsijQ(Sussr Q<su6u 

ve-gir-en ve-nd-en ve-v-en, or ve-v-a, or 

(root shortened) (^evrs^leieor Qsu <as 

v^gv-v-en vega 

14. Eoot: QiB(T no (or Qjsrrc.^ nogu), "ache." 

%0-gir-en no-nd-en nO-v-iJn, or no-v-a, or 

(root shortened) Q js n (s.Q gu sir Q_!5fr<EB 

vogu-v-en nog -a 

15. Root: <^/r qd (or <f^@ (^dgu), *' die." 

(^d-gir-en ge-tt-en gd-v-en, or gd-v-a, or 

(irregular) <f tr (^'J eu sisr ^n-,f5 

gdgu-v-en (^dg-a 

16. Root: *^(T5 taru (or ^tr td), ** give." 

taru-gir-en ta-nd-en taru-v-en tar-a 

17. Root: *(su(if) varu (or oi/r vd), " <ome." 
eisQ^QQpsisr su^Q^ear eu(mQ<siJsin- euF 
varu-gir-en va-nd-en varu-v-en var-a 

18. Root: Q<ffiu r^ey, "do." 

Q^iiQQpsar Q^iiiQ^ear Qi^LuQeueBr Q<9=ujuj^ 

gey-gir-en Qey-d-en Qey-v-en <^^y-y-(x 

19. Root: Qui'u /iey, "scatter, raiu." 
QuLuQQ/Desr QudjQ^ssr QuujQeueisr Quiutu 
pey-gir-en pey-d-en pey-v-en pey-y-a^ 

20. Root: eaeu vai, "abuse." 

sOiouQQpear e6)eu(v^<osr <5o<sij(D(SU(ssr eoeuiu 

vai-gir-en vai-d-en vai-v-en vai-y-a 



* Except in the past tense and in the imperative, these two verbs? 
add the conjugational terminations regularly to ^((5 taru and a; (75, 
varu. 

Tamil Grammar S.-T. K 



^ 



VERBS. 



21. Eoot; QufT(^poru,"&ght" 

QunQ^SlQ/D^ QufT<T^Q^ssr Q u fr (fi^Q eu sir 

j>oru-gir-en poru-d-en poru-v-en 

22. Root: ©^/r(ip ^om, " worship." 
G)^rr(LpQQpeor Q^ir(LpQ<sesr Gl ^ rr (i^Co en 
toru-gir-en toru-d-en toru-v-en 

23. Eoot : SKsisr en, " say." 
crmQQpssr isi&srQpsk (sreisrQusQr 



G)U!rjr 
por-a 

tor-a 



en-r-enr 



en-h-en 



sresr en-a, 
or (oTskissr 
en-n-a 



tin-ga, or 
tin-n-a 



en-gir-en 

24. ^cw- tin (or ^sk^a timu), "eat." 

iin-gir-en, or tin-r-en* tin-b-en 

tinnu-gir-en 

25. Root : s-der un (or &.sm^i} unnu), " eat." 

^smQQrosk ^smQi—'sk 9-SssrQueor ^ssGrssor 

un-gir-en un-d-enf un-b-en un-n-a,QX 

s.6Qsrs un-ga 

26. Root: siYsm- hdn (or ssssr lean), " see." 
tEBrr^QQpssr <£E53crCoL_s3r <£Bfrsm-CoUiosr -srrstssr 
Jcdn-gir-en han-d-enf hdn-b-en hdn-a 

27. Root: 0GO nil (or 0eo&ju nillu), "stand, stay." 

^pQQp'sk fiskQrossr jBpQushr i§fl)<ss 

nit-hir-i'nX, or nin-r-en^ nit-p-en\\ nit-Jca 

nillu-gir-en (nillu-v-en) 

28. Root: 0<F6u ^Z (or Q^eo^ Qellu), "go, pass." 

(^ellu-gir-erif or ?ew-r-ew§ qellu-v-en QeUl-a 

r^el-gir-en 

29. Root: g)<s6u igal (or ^s^ igalu), "hate, oppose." 

igan-r-en § igalu-v-en igal-a 



igalu-gir-en 



^+t=nr (pronounced nd/r) . 



t n+t=nd. X l+Tc=Pi 



VERBS. 51 

30. Root: «6u Teal, "learn." 

hit-Jcir-en* Jcat-t-en\ hat-p-mX hat-Tea 

31. Root; ^(sir dj (or ^(cr^ dlu), "rule." 

^^SlQrceiir ^^sogtQu.(^ ^'^Qsuesr ,M<Bfr 

dlu-gir-en dn-d-en^ dlu-v-en dUa 

32. Root: Q<s,[Tm hoi (or QstKBn^ hollu), "take, contain." 

hollu-gir-cn hon-d-en^ hollu-v-en hol-Ua 

33. Root: (?«CTr A;e7, "listen, ask." 

Q<SLL^Qn)m (odBLLQi^ek QstlQuesr Q,slL<sb ■ 

Jcet-hir-en\\ ke(-t-en § het-p-en^ het-ha 

34. Root: ^ik}(^ tungUy "sleep." 

^^iki(^^(Bro&T ^ikiQ^ssr^ ^jii's}'^Qeu<asr ^ihs 
tungu-gir-en tung'-in-en tuiigu-v-en tung^-a 

35. Root: (oT(L^^ erudu, "write." 

<oT(Lp^lSlQrDSBr <SJ(ip^(v66rsi{r (oT(Lpj^QlSlJ6Sr ^(Lp^ 

^rudu-gir-en erud'-in-en erudu-v-en erud^-a 

36. Root: G<^jv;^^ qeluttu (causative of ^eZ, no. 28), 
"cause to go, expend." 

{-eluttu-gir-en qelutV-in-en qeluttu-v-en relutf-a 

37. Root: Quit po (or Quitil^ poyu, or Qu[r(^pdgu), "go." 
QuirSlQrossr QuituSCdSSTsst QuffCoGusir (oUfr<S5 
po-gir-en poy-in-en, or po-v-en, or pog-a 

QuirQeGTssr CouiT(^^6iJssr 

po-n-en** pogu-v-en 

38. G<Fn-6u qol (or Qs^sreo^i qollu), "speak." 

0<&=iTevsyiQQrD(Ssr Q<ff=tTssrQssresr Q<3=iTeu^(oeusir Q<fiT&oeo 
rollu-gir-en (^onnetj (for r^ollu-v-en qoll-a 

Qoll-in-en) 

* l-\-]c = tk. t l-^t = tt (see para. 12, viii.). J l'\-p = tp. 

I l+t=nd or tt. \\ l+k=tk. ^ l-\-2^ = tp. 

** The contracted form in common use. Cf. root ^ d (or ^(^ 
dgu, ^(L/ dyu), "become," d-gil-en or dgu-gir-en, d-n-en or dy-in-en, 
•di'-en, dg-a. 



VKRBS. 



[N.B. — Polysyllabic roots ending in*-?*, and also dissyllabic 
roots of which the first syllable is long, as Qlis^ peru^ 
"speak," <^-.rilQkattu," show,'' ^iKDliattu* '' i\Q,'' u sm ^}} 
pnnnu* " make," follow more or less the conjugation of 
nos.' 34-38.] 

29. As mentioned before (§ 27), the strong middle in- 
crements or tense-signs Ichir, tt, and pp are used as a rule 
by transitive or causative verbs, and the weak forms, gir, dr 
&.Q., by intransitive verbs. Hence, the same root may some- 
times take both the forms, with transitive and intransitive 
siguifications ; e.g. 



Root. 


Present. 


Past. 


Future. 


Infinitive. 




f Qlo ' ■ &;D^:51 


(oLDium^^ 


Qli^[L\lc, 


Qlblu 


(dLCHU 


\ mey-gir-adu mey-nd-adu 
J (the cow) grazes 


mey-um 


mey -a 


mey 


] (ou^' <k£i\vrosk 


(oLnCu^Q^esT 


(oLniL'LjQuidr 


QiDLU-S^ff 




1 mey-hh'tr-en 
M feed (cattle) 


mey -it-en 


mey-pp-en 


mey-kka 




r ^^ s'QlrDsk 


^sGi^^QjStsk 


^66)<6=Q(SlJsir 


jtimy-B'uu 


^SO)^ 


\ aQcii-g'ir-tn 
J 1 trem ble 


ardi-nd-en 


aqdi-v-en 


ardi-y-a 


ardi 


1 ^oe'¥^QQrosor 


^S6)S=^Q<sdr 


^^rg^uQusisi 


^SO)<F«'?^ 




1 aQCb'i-hkir-en 
^ I shake 


ac.di-tt-en 


ardi-pp-en 


a(;di-kka- 


vir 
or 


r ■^i^hQfo&sr 


<sSi^^Q^esr 


(^(L^Qqjsot 


<a?Lp 


\ vir-qir-en 
1 1 fall" 


vir-nd-en 


viru-v-en 


vir-a 


(^i^^Q^ek 


(sStpuQuiosr 


(^y-rs^ 


vJru 


1 vlr-kh r-en 
^ I cause to fall 


vlr-tt-en 


vir-pp-en 


vlr-kka 




/■ s}9 $1 Ql /D ^ 


■s^ilQu-esr 


■s3(S)Q<suek 


sSu. 


nSi® 


I viduglr-en 
] I leave 


vit-t-enf 


vidu-v-en 


vid-a 


vidu 


1 shlGi-^QC^/o^ 


shiQ^Q^ek 


s£l®uQusir 


£)9®^& 




1 v'du-hMr-en 
VI dismiss 


vidu-tt-en 


vidu-pp-en 


vidu-kka 



* The first syllable is " long by position." 



t Cf. § 27, exc. a. 



VERBS. 63 

Q<sQQ(ofr)esr Q<slL(ol^^ Ql^QQsvsk Q'Sl, 
kef/u-glr-Sn ket-t-en Jctdu-v-en ked-a 

Qs>Q J I perish 

kedu-kkir-Bn kedu-lt-en kedu-pp-en kedu-kka 

I destroy 

See also Causative Verbs, para. 49. 

30. From all the foregoing examples it is evident that, in 
conjugating a verb, the learner has tirst to find out the root, 
and then the particular middle increment which it takes in 
the present, past, and future tenses. A thorough mastery of 
the rnles and explanations given above will make this com- 
paratively easy. In case of doubt it is always best to consult 
the dictionary.* 

Participles. 

31. Participles are of two kinds, Eelative and Adverbial. 

i. The Utlat.ve Participle ( nuiuQos=iFLh peyar-eccam) is a 
w rhal adjective ivith an affirmative or negative signification^ 
Maiulivg in attributive relation to the noun ivhicli follows it. 

In the Affirmative, its present and ])ast forms are obtained 
by tlroppiiijj: tlie personal endings of the present and past 
tenses, and adding a to the conjugational base. 

Thus, f^(b)^\viv^ Odiigir-en," L run," gives <^(BSifD udugir'ay 
^'running," and g^'^GsorscJr Odin-en, "I ran," ge^Lsor ddin-a, 
■"run"; .^^^iCo/Dsa/ (Igir-en, ''I become," ^Qp dgir-a, "be- 
coming," and r^Qccr<^ dn-en or ^uS^ssrdr dy-in-en, "I 
bec:inie," ^/,=^ dn-a or ^g,tiS/sor dyin-a. 

Hence, ^©^/y (yF^wir.ir ndugira kudirdi=*^ a running horse " 
{i.e. a horse that runs, or is running), and fjif ssr (^^eoir 
ddina ku(iir(iiz='' n horse that ran." 

The Future form is the same as the third person neuter of 
the future tense ( 'i4. c). Thus, r^^^&c^u- gp^oD hudirdi ddum-= 
"the horse will run," whilst ^®lo (^^stm^i Odum kudirdi= 
'"the horse that will run " (or, that runs as matter of habit). 

The Negative Relative Participle for all tenses is obtained 
by adding ^^ dda or simply ^ a (chiefly in poetry) to the 



* For a classification of Tamil verbs, see paragraphs 55 to 70 of 
Dr. Pope's '* Handbook of the Ordinary Dialect of the Tamil Lan- 
guage," Oxford, 1904. 



64 VEKBS. 

root, with due observation of euphonic rules; as, odu+dda 
(or a)-=^jL—iT^ ofdda or ^l—it od'd and <s^i—rT(^) (^^!<5orr od'dda 
(or od'd') Jcudirdi=" a. horse that did not, does not, 07^ will not 
run." So, gey C' do ") + dda or d=Q<3'iijiun-^s qey-y-dda or 
O'ff'iiujn gey-y-d, and ^<oG)^<3'Q<FUjaj(r^ La(SGBs^ssr adai-C'Cey' 
ydda manidan=^** a man who did not (does or will not) do it." 
Although this participle qualifies nouns of any gender, 
number, or case (just like an English adjective) without itself 
undergoing any change, yet when it is formed from a transi- 
tive verb it has its usual governing power ; e.g. 

^[T<ck ^iLis^e^ (^S'!<o5)ir ndn ottina Icudirdi, "ahorse that I 
drove" (lit. I-driven horse), and r^^:<5B)ir(56)iu (S^iLuf-esr jsam- 
kudirdiydi ottina ndn, * I who drove a horse." Ottina is 
the causative form of odina, both from root odu (see 
para. 49). 
er^^ s.u5(5roiru-/LD (o)<Bn-<5V6vfr^ e^(T^ <F^0ujfT^ enda uyirdi- 
y-um Tcolldda oru ganniydgi, " an ascetic who does (did or 
will) not kill any life whatever." Here uyirdi is in the 
accusative case governed by holldda. 



ii. The Adverbial Participle or Gerund (sj9§s5r OT<F<Fti 
vindi-eccam) also has affirmative and negative forms. 

A. The Affirmative is obtained in two ways : — 

(a) Those verbs which take ©esr in as their middle particle 
of the past simply drop the final n of the conjugational base. 
Thus, from u^&sofiesr pann-in, the conjugational stem of the 
past tense pannin-en, "I made," we get the gerund Ui5m(o5i^ 
panni, " having made," by dropping the final n. So, in the 
word (5T(Lp^iQs^ sk erudin-en, '* 1 wrote," the conjugational base 
is sr(Lp^§esr erudin, and the gerund is therefore stq^^ erudif 
"having written." 

(h) All other verbs add ^ w to the conjugational base of 
the past tense. Thus, urriir^^ pdrtt is the conjugational base 
of uirh^Q^viv pdrtt-en, "I saw "; add 2_ t^ to it, and you get 
the gerund urrrr^^ pdrtt-u, "having seen." So, Q<flu^ 
geyd-u, "having done," from Q^FiuQ^esr Qeyd-en-, @0^^ 
irund-u, "having remained," from §)Q^^Q^ek irund-en; 
<oT6sr^ enr-u, " having said," from (sr^Qpssr enr-en. 

B. The Negative Adverbial Participle is obtained by the 
addition of ddu or dmal to the root. One of the forms is, 



VERBS. 6& 

therefore, the same as the third person sincrular neuter of the 
negative verb. Thus, from root i^s^sS hull, "to bathe," are 
obtained (^sii^uj(T^ kuli-y-ddu and r.^sft\iuiTLnGo Jculi-y-clrnal,. 
" not bathing." 

c. As the gerund is only an adverbial extension of the predi- 
cate, it requires a finite verb to complete the sentence ; e.g. 
^suo^ 01— js^ <SL'^;^iTsm avail nadandu vanddn, "he came- 
walking " (lit. he having walked, came). 

QeoT'ok nan vi(tuk]ai vandu, tdydrdl-k-krndu, a-c-cangadi* 
Qomjrfi, " I came h^^me, saw the mother, and told her that 
matter " (lit. 1 to the house having come, the mother 
having seen, that matter related) 

Thus, in translating into Tamil, whenever a subject has two 
or more verbs, it is best to render all of them except the last 
by the gerund. The Tamil language recognizes only one finite 
verb in a sentence, simple or compound. 

Verbal ant) Abstract Nouns. 

32. Participial Nouns. —By the addition of the personal 
terminations of the third person, an, al, du for the singular^ 
and ar or argal, viii (avdi) or vdigal or a for the plural (§ 23, 6), 
to the present, past, and negative relative ])articiples, a large- 
number of participial nouns in frequent use are formed. Thus, 
from the relative participles of kuH (namely rs^sS^Qfo kulik- 
hira, (^6i9t^^ kulitta, and @«Yf)uj.r^ kuliydda) are obtained : — 

Present. 

Masc.(^sYft«@/r)siys(ir he who ^ c§<s^^Sp<siJiT \ 

kulikkira-vf-an bathes \ kulikkira-vf-ar ( "^Y 

*^ o • o • • r wno 

Fem. (^^^sQ;D<su<s(r she who J (§3tfl-s<sirDsnfrs;£iT V j^^^j^^ 

kulikkira-vf-al bathes V kulikkira-vf -argal J 
Neut.(-^sTB^&/9^ that which r.g-^sS^i9(Do6)ai(<ss(T) those 
kulikkira-duX bathes, -r kulikkira-vdi or which 

the bathing -vdigal bathe 



» For accavgadi-y-di ; the accusative case-ending of neuter nouns is, 
as a rule,, not expressed, 
t u is a euphonic insertion. 
X This is the same as the 3rd sing. neut. indie, present. 



^ 



VERBS. 



Past. 



hulitti(-v*'an 



Pern. 



kiiUtta-v*-al 



kulUta-duf 



Masc. 



Jcvlhj'di/a-v-an 

Fein., ('^'■oifi I- iTs^su&r 
kul'njdda-v-al 

Neut. {^isrtlMjif^^ 
Jcullycida-du 



he who 
bathed 

she who 
bathed 

that which 
bathed, or 
the having 
bathed 

Negative. 
he who does (did, 
&c.) not bathe 

she who does (did, 
&c.) not bathe 



kulitta-v*-ar 

kulittor (contracted 
form) 

(^ Srfi^^ 6ro (SU ( « (of ' ) 

kulitta-vili or 
■vdigal 



((^ &(fi^^ SOT 
kuldia-n-aX 



thev 
who 
bathed 



those 
which 
bathed 



\ kuliydda-v-ar 
\kulii 



'i/dda-v-argai 
thatwhich dof^s (did, r^srfliufr^so(S}j(<se(T) 
&G.) not bathe, or kuliydda-vdi or 
the non-bathing -vdigal 

33. Participial Nouns of the Future tense are obtained by 
"the addition of the same personal terminations of the third 
person to a ])artidpial adjective of the future tense (not in 
use), fonned like the nd. | art. of the ] -resent and past by 
affixing a to the conjugational base of the future tense, lj _p 
being substituted for tinal (sn v of iho weak base, except in the 
neuter singular. Thus, tlie conjugational base of (^srf'.uQusisr 
kulippm, " I shall bathe," is kullpp- (see above, para. 24, c.) ; 
those or ^gstQu^ tinben, " 1 shall eat," and Qi<3'Ci.jQ(aijm reyven, 
"* I shall do," are ^ivwu tinb- and Qr^iueu (;eyv-. By adding a 
and substituting p for v, we get the future participial forms 
(not in use) (^sifluu kullpp-a, ^sau tinh-a, and Q<3=l'uu ceyb-a 
-or Qs'iueij <ieyv-a. From these, by ihe further addition of 
personal endings, we o' tain the following participial nouns 
-with a future signification : — 

@orf)LJu<a/£<Jr kulippa-r-an he who will bathe 

(^srf^uueijek kullppa-v-al she who will bathe 

@(Sffluu^ kuUppa-du that which will bathe 

* V is a euphonic insertion. 

f Same as the 3rd sing. neut. indie, past. 

J ^ is a euphonic insertion. 



VERBS. 57 

^sffluu^'(T(^f^) hul'ppa-v-ar{gal) thej who will bathe 
(§sif\uu£S)Si.{^<m) kuHppi-vai(gal) ihose which will bathe 
^ssruisusk tinha-v-an Q^tiuiaKsifr re ,ba-v-an 

(he who \ville:it) * (he wbo will do) 

^musLQ^T tlnba-v-al Q'd^iiusu&r Qyyha-v-al 

'^ohu^ t',nha-du Q ^Tii^j^ Qei/Vd-du 

sin U(SU!r(^ .r,v ) tinba-var(gal) Q .^f ij u £ij I'r (<3i nii) ce>/ha-var(gal) 
^::-(n uss)sij(^h nil) flnba-v<i'(gal) 0-€=LuUnS)5u(s&r) Qeyba-vdi(gal) 

34. All these p irti- ipial noun< usually take a subject, and hn ve 
ihe same j^'overuin;^ power a-^ the verbs from which they are 
derived. They are, moreover, declined like any other noun; e.g. 

^eu'^ ■i'rJd>rsoi fjOQ^cor ^suaor avandi-k-honravan iwaw, " this 

is he that killed him." 
^<oG)^<ff-Q<8'iL<dij,^ ,ff&iuj&jf^ addi'C'Ceyradu Qari-y-alla, "it is 

not proper to do that " (lit. the dumg that iti a future 

time is not proper). 

kdran po'j ronnavaldi-t-tanditldn, " the jud'je punished the 
Avoman who spoke the untruth " (ronnavaldi, ace). 

35. Annther rl.ss of verbal nonns is formed by adding 
^ro^ kdi (pronounced gdl), ^lev al {^w taJ, ^sv kal, and 'Sj/^ov 
Jcudal) to the roots ot verbs which take the middle increment 
Qjoi kirn (i.e. giru) in the present, and <f5(^« kkdi, ^J'&o ttal, 
<k<Boeo kkal, -^-^d-eo kkudal to 1 hnse which take -iB'^j}! kkiru. 
They express t lie act or its results, and have in son:ie instances 
the same governing power as participial nouns. That in kdi 
is frequently used in the locative case to signify an adveibial 
clause of time; e.g. 

addi (attain to) +H? = c^ot)/_6d:c5 addigdi, "attainment." 
pndii (lie down) -\- kkdi = u®^so<s padukkdi, "the lying 

prostrate," "a bed or litter." 
varu (come) -{■al=wu-6v varal, "a coming." 
pcru (lalk) + tal—Qu<(jr^eo peqiidal, "a speaking or speech." 
*a (become) +A:<ii = _^ 450)^ dgdi, "becoming." 
„ „ -\-kal=^'Sffo dgal. 

„ „ -{-kudal=^^S.^*'^ dgudal. 

* Probably ^(§ dgu was the base, and the suffixes are at, al, and 
tal, the finafu of the base being dropped before a vowel. Cf. Qu.i^mcS 
pogai, (^Ljn-^eb pogal, (SuiT(^fiso pogudal, from root po {pog»t), "go." 
The verbal noun Quir^eo podal is from root podu, "be sufficient." 



68 VERBS. 

padi (re?id) -\- ttal=uis;L^^6v ;paditfal, ** reading, learning." 

edu (take) -|-^-^'a7=sT©«<«6u edukkal. 

jBfTssr 2./Q<5SsY/ «(5;i_LjL9©scDc5(i96l) 71 dn uiigaldi-Jc-Jcu]jpidv^diyil 

(locative), " while I was calling you." 
jsirm L^(5{u^'6s^o6)^uui^^^<si) f5&osv^ nan pustagattdi-p^ 

padittal nalladu, ** my (lit. I) reading the book is good." 

36. Verbal nouns expressing only the abstract idea, and 
with no governing power, are also formed by the conversion 
of verbal roots into nouns, with or without modification, and 
the addition of such terminations as di, am, vi, vdi, u, vu, hu^ 
pu, ti or di, gi, &c. ; e.g. ^q^iL® runUtu, " a rolling up, cigar "; 
<3?p^ QUttu, " circuit "; dh-jb^j JcuUu, " proclamation " (from 
root d^^i); cSi-cFcF/i Jcuccam, "shyness" (from rt. <5f._<gF); Q^® 
Tcedu or (?<»© Tcedu, " ruin" (fr. Q&®) ; (5T(Lp^^ eruttu, "writing,, 
letter" (ir.tor(Lp^i); ^(SOL-uddi, "garment" (I'r.s.©); QtEn^<BLa 
nokkam, "look, view" (fr. G°^/r^(^) ; Q^pyroLo tettam, "assur- 
ance " (fr. Q^^); Q<£B(shsS kelvi, "hearing, question " (fr. 
(o<S(ofr); ^iT€6)su Urvdi, "decision, toll " (fr. ^/f) ; ^)p(si] tirdvu 
or ^^fouL^ tirappu, " opening " (fr. s'lro) ; /«@ nlkku or 0&<sLn 
nikkam, " separation " (fr. /) ; Ql^<si^ kirivu, "a rent or tear" 
(fr. ^ifi); jbiLl] natpu, "friendship" (fr. ^^efr); Qenn^uL^ ve- 
rippu, "drunkenness" (fr. ©(Siy/35,'); Qs^iflui^ ierippu, '^ miorm- 
ing, communication" (fr. Qs^rf}) ; ^®^ vidudi, "leave" (fr. 
6£t®) ; Q<s®^ kedudi, "loss (ir. Q<s®)', Q ^fr i-.fr <fB todarcci 
or Q^fTL-iTL^ todarbu, "pursuit" (fr. Q^fri—ir); s.(Sssrir<F^ 
unarcci, "consciousness" (fr. ©.CTsr/f). 

37. The suffix mdi (see para. 18, a), which is more or less 
restricted to classical Tamil, is added to the relative participle 
(present, past, future, or negative) to form verbal nouns ; as, 
(^eff)-sS(sisrfD<3S)Lc> kulikkinra-mdi, ^' the hsithmg*^; r^<si^^^'SQu:i 
kul'tta-mdl, "the having bathed"; r^srfluu(oSiLn kulippa-mdiy 
"the (future) bathing " (see para. 33) ; and c^sif^iuireoLn kuliyd- 
mdi, "the not bathing." So, Q^CuQskp^s^uh geyginra-mdi, 
"the doing"; G)<g=(Zj#srom geyda-mdi, Q<3'LLJU6S)Ln geyha-mdi, 
and (o)<g=Luujn'€iDLD geyyd-mdi. 

Infinitive Mood. 

38. There is yet another class of verbal nouns of frequent 
ocurreiice, which in some respects answers to the English 
infinitive mood. To fonn them, you add «« kka to the roots 



VERBS. 59 

of those verbs which take rkQ^j Jckiru in the j^resent, and ^ a 
(lu ya or <su vn) to the roots which take &ijrL Uru (giru) ; as^ 
(B)srf^4.<s5 kidi-kka, "to bathe," from @srfl«9(?/r)oJr hulihlclrcn; 
Q-B^LULu (-ey-y-a, "to do," from Qis^CuQQrossr (;eygiren. (See 
para. 28 for other examples.) A few weak roots take « ka 
instead of simply ^a; as, G'.^.il* ketka/*to\\Q\r'' (C?^(oiT + <£5); 
jElrD.i£ nithi, ''to i^tand" {^eo + s,); &n)<s katka, "to learn" 
(i56u-|-«). Compaie para. 24, c, note. This infinitive, being 
itself a verbal noun, has the governing power of one in du, 
such as Qs^'i k'lnojj. rei/glradu or G)^(L(ffi.'^j reyvadu (§ 34). Its 
use may be understood from the following exiinples : — 

jS ^sS-*£ds Qeu.^&Lo nl hulikka vendum, "you must bathe'' 
(lir. you to bathe is necessary). Here ni is the subject 
of kullkka, which itself is the subject of vendum. 
iSiTscT ^ois)^s=Q<ff=iuuj Qsussar^LD nan addi(c)ceyya vendum, 
"I must do that " (lit. I to do that is necessary). Nd7i 
is t^he subject and addi the object of (leijya. 
^(SiJ)^<#0<j=(L'Uj G'aj«OTr®Lb addi(c)ceyya vendum, "that must 

be done " (lit. to do that is necessary). 
^su&r (^m^^CSev @«rf?«<5LJ(2'Lj/7@)6fr aval kujattil-e kulik- 

ka-p-pfmal, " she went to bathe in the tank." 
ersk ^^LDiSliooiLi eu w •s'Q 'ff n GO ^] en tamhiydi vara'C-coUu,''t^H 

my (younger) brother to come." 
^Q^eusi-T ^L-, (o^(iT)<su<sir u rr (hi S (frf' est oruvan a da, oruvan pddu- 

girdn, "while one dances, the other sings." 
L£>6U)Lp QuiuLu<k(^<3(rLC) ^oorpiLju:! mavdi ptyya-k-kulam ni' 

rdiyum. "if rain fall, the tank will be tilled." 
(oT66r<s>(§uu€sm^ ^]T(SijLo emkku-p-panan tara-v-um, " (please) 
give me money." * 

Imperative Mood. 

39. The simple root or the crude base of a Tamil verb is its 
2nd person singular imperative; as, @syfi kuli, "bathe!" 
jFL- nada, " h alk ! " ^^ tin, " f^at ! " Qssk kel, " hsten or 
ask!" *€ij;r m, "come!" ^^/r fa, " give ! " Gun- _?>d, " go ! " 

The 2nd person plural is obtained by the addition of 2.m 
nm or ^m&m ungal to the singular; as, f5u.<si\LD nada-v-um, 
^KL_ffl^s/.«<STr nada-v-ungal ; fi^-^si^^ih tin-n-um, ^ekj^ihsm 
ti/jnungal; Q<sm)LDkel-um,Q&(^i5i<sm kelungal; Q.'iT((hLcvdr-um, 
^ii!'(^it<S(Sfrvdrungal-, ^[tq^lo tdr-um, ^iT(T^fE}<s&: id, ungal {ihese 



^ VERBS. 

two v<^rbs are irregular ; see p. 49, note) ; Quit^ld pog-um 
(usually contracted to (ouirth pom), Quirw^sm ■poiigal. Both 
these forms are used honorifically for ihe singular; the form in 
nhgal is used when you wish to be extra polite. A polite impera- 
tive is also formed by the addition of um to the uifinitive ; as, 
ui^'Sssi^ih padilvka-v-um, " please read." In poetry, the plural 
terminations are ir, ~ir, and 7nin ; as, QurS^i't pO-d-ir, /Fi—uS'iGer 
nnda-min, (£ <s ^ li9 (S^ it keti-mtn-Jr {hil+min^cenmin). 

40. The negative imperative, or ** prohibitive," is formed by 
the addition of the particle of t^mphasis, e, to th*' 3rd sinoular 
neuter of the negative verb (i.e. in other words, by adding 
Cide, ddeyum, and ddCyuiigal to the root). Thus, from vara (hi, 
"it comes not," are formed — 

Sing. eurrirQ^ var-dde, "don't come." 

Plur. <su]T(T(o^[L\Ln var-dde-y-um, " don't jeconie'^ (or "don't 
come, sir "). 
(Su]T'.TQ^vL\ik}&&T var-dde-y-uiigal, „ „ (or " please, 
sir, don't come "). 
Similarly, 

QuiT<sn(D^ pog-dde, " don't go." 
QufraEn-Q^iLjLc pogddeyum, "don't go, sir." 
Qu!T<3i(TQ^[Uik&>£ir pdgddeyuiigal, "(I pray you, sir) do 

not go." 
f^<oSuu'r(r^ hull-y-dde, "don't bathe"; also r^(sS<s<3i(TQ^ 

kulikkdde (with increment kku). 
^L-Qj/rO?,^ nada-v-dde, and fFi—s<asn(c^ nadakkdde, "don't 
walk." 

In high Tamil the suffixes al and el for the singular, and 
'Onmin (i.e. al + min) for the plural, are added to the root; as, 
!5t—<su(r\' nada-v-al or jst—Qeu&j nada-v-el, "walk not!" y^t— 
Sijsiru9dr nada-v-anmin, "walk ye not!" Q<9=iL'UJsii uQsk c^ey- 
y-anmin, " do ye not ! " 

Potential, Optative, and Desidekativb Verbal Forms. 

41. A verbal form answering to the Englisli potential mood 
is obtained by the addition of ^®Lh kudum h> the infinitive, 
-or eg^'.D dm to the verbal noun in al or kkal dmra. 35). Kudum 
is the 3rd person neut. future of ktldu, "join with, be fit," 
here signifying "ability " or "possibility."' Am is evidently 
a contraction of dgum, the 3rd person neut. future of a, " to 



VERBS. er 

become " (pp. 43, and 51 note), implying here the idea of " per- 
mission." Thus : — 

jEiTsisT (^ffff^^is^Bi^CBih nan Jculikka-Jc-Jciidum, ** I can bathe " 

(lit. I to batlie will be possible). A'an is the subject of 

hulilcka, which, being a veibal noun, is the sul.jeut of 

hudum. See jibov»', para. 38. 
eouuj'o^ji^^o^SQs'iL uja<5fi-®/Q paiyatj nddi-c-ceyya-h-hudum, 

*' the boy can do that " (lit. the boy to do ihat will be 

possible). ^ (suiTB-5<s^c3^&LDij n'l vdrihJca-Ji-Jcudum-d," cslii 

you read ?" 
^Q-ieir j5t-'Stf-S'ji^QLh (St &st rn? sr^r aval nadahka-lc-hddum enrdn,. 

" he said that she could walk." 
^ iiiw ^^jrtnSl Jov (^ siB i <3' ov IT ih ndTi dff'ihj kill kkal-dm. "I may 

bathe in tlie river." Here ndn is the subject of kulikkal,. 

which is itself the subject of dm. Attll is the loc. of ^^^g^ 

dru, " river," and e, the enclitic particle of emphasis. 
^■svoSTfiG)^ ^Q-^i'ljuj(svii ix> avtin addi-n-ceyyal-dm, " he may do 

that " (lit. he doing that will become). 
j^iTsk Quii<{BriV!TLc> STssr(Tr/>m nan pogal-dm enrdn, *' he said 

that I might go." 
Tl)e ne^L^ative of kudum is sk-i—fr^ kudddu (of. para. 24, d);. 
that uf dgiini or dm is r^sir^ dgddu. 

^jra '^T^ ^^.^pcSlGo (^sSk^-kai^-i—iT^ ndn inda dttil kulikka- 

k-kfidddu, " I cannot bathe in this river "; but inda dttil 

kullkka-k-kudddu, — *' it is not possible to bathe in this 

river." 
ji ^Csuu^<pQs'iTGo^:^<so ^b^t^ ni appadi-c-colludal dr/d. lU, 

•* it is not proper for you to say so " (lit. you saying in 

that manner is not becoming). 
^^Il'u Li;L:^^c-^iT^^.^'iG<Sir &Tmev^'£5[r^rrniippadi-c-certtu-k-- 

koUal djddd, ''ought you not to have saved up (money) 

in this way ? " Here knUal is the subject of dgddd, and 

nl that of rertttikkollal. 

42. Optative or Desiderative verbal forms can be obtained 
by the addition of — 

(a) 'Ihe enclitic « ka to the root of a verb. This form 
occurs chiefly in poetry, and is the same for all numbers and 
persons; e.g. 

jFjzk uu^-ioB ndn padi-k-ka, " let me read." 

//f jSjb<s nlr nit-ka (nil+ka), "may you remain." 



63 VERBS. 

{h) ^<s dga (pronounced more like aha) to the future 
tense ; as, 

(SjioSuQ'uGw JcuhppJn, " I shall bathe"; (ff^^^uQu.^ts kulip- 

pendga, "may I bathe ! " " I desire to bathe ! " 
u fT Q <su ir-dr pdduvdl, " she will sing"; un Qsun mii <s pdduvdl- 

dga, *' may she sing ! " 
^.5Yf)LJu^/r<5 Icullppaddga, ''may it bathe! " 
[N.B.— In forming the neuter optative, dga is added to the 
neuter participial noun of the future tense, instead of to 
the 3rd person neuter future of the verb. Cf. para. 33.] 

(c) The conjugated forms of the defective verb «i_ hada, 
'' ought," to the infinitive ; as, 

/ (^sSiD^'fE-^i—<sniTCu m ktilihka-h-kadavd'j, ''you ought or 

must bathe." 
j^605;^<FG<fF(Laj-«<55/_©;j^ addi-r-ceyya-k-kadavadic, "let that 

be done " (lit. to do that is desirable). 
^ji' ^L^iU'k<su.<SL>^ a hi ariya-k-kadavadu, " let it perish." 

(d) lIQld ttum (probably for ep l©/i ottum), &./i um, and 
G(a/s5OT®LD vendum to the infinitive; as, 

j5iT^ (^sif^s<sBLL®Lc> ndyi kuUkka-ttiim, "let me bathe." 

^(suesr Qu[T<SLL®Lh avan pOga-ttum, "let him go." 

^ffljssr (auir(ajii avan vara-v-um, "let biiii come" (polite 

imper., § 39). 
f5!T<ok f5i—s,'B Q(SiJ6m®Lc> ndii nadakka vcndum, "Imust walk." 



Verbal Forms signifying Condition and Concession. 
("If," "although," &c.) 

43. There are two ways of obtaining a Subjunctive or 
Conditional form. The first is by adding ^60 dl to the con- 
jugational base of the j'tist tense. It is of common occurrence, 
and is the same for all numbers and persons ; as, 

QuirQssTfok pOn-en, " I went "; Qu[j;^&o pi'm-dl, " If (I, vou, 

&c.) go." 
(^■sSk&i!i<5sr kulitt-dn, "he bathed"; @&?1^;Sitgo kulitt-dl, 

" If (I, you, &c.) bathe." 

The other form, chiefly occurring in poetry, is by affixing 
il or in to the roots of verbs which take the middle increment 



VERBS. 63 

liru {(jiru) in the present, and Jckil or Wn .to those taking 
kJciru ; as, 

LD<30)Lp Quiiii^Jeo mariii pey-y-il or QuCu^i^o'sr 'pey-y-in, " if it 
rain." (OuiuS)/!)^^! pf'/Z-^iV-acZt*, ** it rains.") 

fBirm (^srfisQev nan Jculi-kkll or r^srfl^iSo.v Jculi-JcJcin, "if I 
bathe." {(^etBeQQro^ kuH-khir-en, "I bathe.") 

44. ^Qev dgil (in poetry ^ti9sor dyin) and ^j,;^bv dndl, 
subjunctives of a, " become," are used as " quasi-con junc- 
tions"; e.g. 

^uuL^ ^(S^eu nppadi anal, " if (it be) so." 

j^jsuir j^UfB'scr ^@)6l) avar arar.an dndl, "if he be the king." 

In colloquial Tamil tiiese are often added to the future or 
the past teuse of a Unite verb to express condition; as, 

j^uQuiTQQji\v iidn inda-k-kulattil-e ku!lpiH~n-d//dl (or dgil) 
irandu-p'pnvCn, " if I bathe in this tank I shall die off " 
(lit. irandu, "having died." pdven, "I shall go"). So 
also, @syfii5(2'^@)@)6u kulitten-dndl, "If I were to bathe, 
or if I bathed." 

Sometimes (jr e is added for the sake of emphasis ; as, ^avssr 
€U(f^€u(T(oSffr ^(eo)6u avan vavuvdn-e dndl, "if he will (really) 
come." 

The Negative Cori'^itional clause is commonly expressed l>y 
adding sbiilL-nev viftdl (the subjunctive oividu, "leave," § 29), 
or <^((?)^^iTeo irnnddl (that of iru, "remain, exist"), or even 
QuiK^Go pondl (subj. oi pd, "go"), to the negative gerund or 
adverbial participle of the verb in question (para. 31, ii. b). 
Thus :— 

^&STS(^,<S^(§(o(SlJZOr^ (LpL^tUirLDGO '^i (ff, ^ ^ IT &0 OV (LptU^lL'ir 

sSiLLu.ir6v <FLhu<sfrLa tSiLi^uQushr nl inda vi^ldi ippoinidu 
mudittdl nn Qamhalam unakku-t-taruven, mudi-y-dmal 
inmddl or mudi-y-d vittdl camhalam pidippi^n, " if you 
finish this work now I shali give you your pay, if you do 
not finish it (lit. if you leave or remain without finishing 
it) I shall stop the pay." So r^sifiujiTLan) Quu^^so kuli- 
ydmat pondl, " if you do not bathe." 
The negative gerund ^levevir ilia (i.e. illdmal), of root ^su 
tZ, from which illdi (§25 and 47, g) is also formed, is often 



64 VERBS. 

pretixetl to v'ttnl to express " i^" not" or "otherwise"; e.g. nJ 
enfni'-h-kf'/ppidiiv'iy anal varaven, ilia v'lttdl viva vidtten, '* if 
you will call me, I shall come; if m)t, I will not come " (§ 47,'?). 

45. ST oil (fr 60 enrdl nn-l oTos^/c'j enil, subjunctives of otsst e«. 
" say," are often used to express a reason ; e.g. 

(5Tuuu^ (oJsotiov eppadl mil, *' if vou say * how.' " 
(57537- <5Tssr(7rf6v en ejjrdl, " if you say ' why.' " 
Both aie rendered in English by " for " or " because"; e.g. 

(S7«W- S'lki^^' ^■S(Drr.S(§30^lti'ULr), (oTLJUtfL SToOf/fel), -SirevQuO, 

^^ (oTebsvifLn j;tjS)j0'Sc^dfQ'g=fT<ok(D&5ri>ifT eti caiigadi tu- 
rdi/:ku-'-teriyum, eppadi end, hdlame aclti elldm avaruklm-c- 
connen, " the gentleman know*! my aliair, because I told 
him a'l about it this morning." 

CT off? sr^uu^Qiuibi'S&iro^ ndn v7ttul-hu-c-curuJdd2j-p-puga 
vendum, en enrdl enak'Jni-p-paQi-y-Lfhd'lnrdcu, " I must go- 
home soon, for I am getting hungry." 

46. By the addition of 2_ld uin to the, subjunctive explained 
above, or to the gerund of a verb, an adverbial clause of con- 
cession can be formed, with present or ])ast signitica'i n ; as, 

(g)'off^sj^n(sv lulit dl (subjunctive of hult)-{-^in um = r^^^ 

^iT £y/n hujittdl-um, " a though (I, you, etc.) bathe, or ma\^ 

(or shall) bathe" (present tense). 
Q«F(LiiS'5u Qeyyil (sul)j. of Qey)-^umz=Gs:>J lSi^^l'd (^/yijihimy 

" although (I, you, &c.) do, or may do." 
^£'c)^iin (igil'Um, ^^ry:Lc> dndl-um, "although it be" (cf.. 

§ 44 . 
(gerfl^ ^ huldtu (gerund of hnl'i) + lun = « srf),! pj ih IculiWuniy 

** although (I, \ou, &c.) bathed" (past t^nse). 
QuQpegi (o-er. < \ipPj:^i) + um= QuQii^ ._l peQi-y-um, "although 

(I, we, they) spoke." 

Auxiliary and Defective Verbs. 

47. The following are some of the commonest : — 

(a) @0 iri*, " be," §)(f^^^'Qp€ar irulcJciren, ^:^^Q^m irun- 
den, '§)((hXjQucir iruppen, §)QP)^-bs irulcka. 

These, added to the <,^erund, give the perfect, pluperfect, and 
future perfect tenses ; as, (§<3i?i^^i kuliitu (having bathed) -h 
^^^^^sSlQpssr irukhiren (I d^m) = (^6^^^(^&QQpsi5r kuUWiruk- 
kirerif " I have bathed." 



VERBS. 65. 



Similarly, Tculitiu-^h-unden (T was) = @6yf^^^0/&(?^s<;r 
5*irw/ir?Jw,**I had bathed"; hulittu-\-iruppen=r£^<oif)^0oT)U 



_ kuiit- 

firii/ide?t,*'lhsid bathed"; Jculittu-\-iruppen= r^(oifi^^i qt^uQ us^ 
ktijitfiruppen, *' I shall have bathed." 

From these can be formed the whole series of particijJes 
and ])articii»ial nouns, as explained in paras. 31-84; e.g. Jntlit- 
firuH-ira, Iml tVirunda, kulliV imhkum, Imlift irimdu, &c. 

Iru added to the infinitive gives the snn^se of "to be about 
to"; as, (§s(f)iss)9nTskiQm^ kulikJca-v-iruJckiren, "I am 
about to bathe, or I am just going to bathe;" the same as 
(^srf^-ssuQuir^i Qro sin kn likka-p-pogireii . 

(b) QsiraUr kol (take or obtain for oneself), Qs^r&yi^QQpcST 
kollu-qlrC'n, Otfus^CvL-s^r konden, Q ^ it &! (^Q (sn zb kolluve?j,. 
Q^^rWknfla (§ 28, no. 32). 

This verb also is a<lded to the gerund of another verb either 
to L!;ive the latter a reflexive signification, or to express a con- 
tinued nction ; e.g. 

^(svm @opi^ (SuinEj^'-iOsFfT^L-nea- avan iddivd/'igi-k-kotiddn^. 
"he boupfht this for himself" (vdngi, having bought 
(ger. of vdiigu) and konddn, he took). 

0-S!TS5tn(bi QuirQrr) Qu:i_sFj (^-^^UUS^ld 0^6i;^;G*L£i.T 
Q -^ ^ (^ rr Q .T n Q £u S3r jj}] Qu&iQ-zn ■ffkn—n h si^- liiudar avci' 
ndi-p-p dittn, anda-p-pannttdi-p-pidungi-k-kondu por/ira 
podu, inda-p-}mnam <;ell'nn-o (■ellndo*-v-enni prrik-ko?i-- 
ddrgal, "the thieves seized (lit. havii.g seized) him. and 
robi)ed him of the money (jo?rf"y/ 7/, having snatched, konduy 
havintr taken), and, whilst going away, they said to one 
another {pe(;i-k-konddrgal), ' Will this money pass current 
(rellum-o) or will it not pass current (QrlJddO) ? ' " 
The continuous action is more stiongly expressed by the 
addition of the double auxiliary G) d ,1 sht^ rr^ kond'^ru to the 
gerund of the principal verb. Kondiru is composed of kondUy 
gerund of hoi, and root hu, explain d above, i hus : — 

^iTiT&siT gila kurudargal or idattil ceindu irandu-k-kond^- 
irunddrgal, "some blind men having assembled in one 
place, went on begging alms." 

€^(fF, ^S)<a'<suzk LJ '35OT<5=LL/4L'«0Tr Qs^.'j^ o^ ff) ^ ff ^ su 'osi in u.-=mr 
osS <bQs.t >o«jr is^Qr)iQ(nj<oisr OTU ku';avari pdndi-gattigal geydu 



* gellddo = <^€llddu+Oi the enclitic expressing doubt. 
Tami; Grammar S.-T. ' 



^6 VERBS. 

vittu-c-civanam panni-k-Tcond'irukkirdn, " a potter is getting 

his livelihood by making and selling pots and pans" (glva- 

nam=Skt. jivana, livelihood, und panni, ger. oi pannu, to 

effect or cause). 

The verb si/<t vd or (suf^ varu (§ 28, no. 17) is similarly added 

"to a gerund to express continuous action ; e.g. avan addi-c- 

<ieydU'k-hondu varu-gdiyil, " whilst he was doing that " (varu- 

gdiyilz=z\oQ,. of the verbal noun in ero^? ; see § 35). 

(c) Qeusm® vendu, Qen^QQQro^ vendu-giren, Q<suo6stu^ 
QoS^zk vrndincfj, (o(susm®(o(ousk vtnduven, Qisusmi— venda. 

As a transitive verb, meaning "to entreat" or " to desire," 
it is regularly conjugated. But as an intransitive verb, mean- 
ing "to be necessary," "to be wanted," it is defective, the 
forms in common use being Q(su€m®LCi vendum (vulg. Q^'sspah 
venum, 3rd neut. fut.), "it (or they) will be necessary"; the 
corresponding negative, Qsufsm-i—iTLa vdnddm (vulg. vendm or 
vdndm), formed irregularly; the relative participles (jlsusmT 
•QQro vcndugira), (oSusmu^S6r vendina, and (dsusi^l^lu vendlya. 
These govern the dative case ; as, 
©-L£i<«(^ (ST^'oST (o6ij<om®Lc> umakku enna vendum, "what do 

you want ? " (lit. to you what is necessary ?) 
'Sisor<Sb(^ is^&n^LC: Qeu^sscTL-fTLh enakku 07ir\im venddm, "I do 
not want anything " (lit. to me even one thing is imneces- 
sary) . 
^S5)^<fQ<5^>'1 ■ft.ifoprr^ Qsuc'h'L^LLJ ussstld u^^ ^urriLi addi-c- 
ceyglradafJu I vetijlya panam pattu richdy, "the money re- 
quired to do it is ten rupees." 

These, when used as auxiliaries, are attached to the infinitive 
of the verb ; as, 

fiafTsisr (sElL®^(^uQu[ts Q<susQOT®LCi ndn vittukku-p-poga ven- 
dum, "I must go home " (lit. I to go home is necessary). 

^(ausor Qs=Lu.s (^jh/D^^&Dp^ ji IT LD sir (soft s :35 Q<3usi5ur® ih avan 
qeyda kuf_t_attdi nlr mannikka vendum, " you must (please) 
forgive the fault he has committed." 

S.lkl>S(^-iD(^£bQ<S[T®,SB<SB QSUSSSTLS^LU <3^ ch U m La J5 n'^boTT Sf-^&QtSIT 

QuCSusir ungalukku-k-kodukka vendiya ramhalam ndldik- 
ku'k-koduppen, " I will give (you) to-morrow the wages 
that ought to be given to you." 

(d) ^ik.®La kudum, " it can be "; sl-i—it^ kudddu, " it cannot 
be." See para. 41. 



VERBS. 67 



OJ 



(e) LnrnLCSL-sk mdtten,''! will not;' ''IcsLiinot"', LamL'^^riL 
mattny, u^iTiLi_[Tek mdttCui, &c. (negative of mdttu), with the 
infinitive; as, 

^ot),<^<fQ<5=(luj mtrtlQi-eai addi-c-ceyya mdtten, "I will not 

doit." 
/ enir LuiTilL-inufr nl vara mdttdy-d, " will you not come ? " 
(/) Similarly are used Quirr^Cn pdgum, " it will go (oi- do)," 
Quit SIT, e^ pogddu, " it will not do "; Quit^lq pddum, " it will 
suffice," QufTjSiT^ podddu, " it will not suffice "; ^(^^h tagum, 
"it will fit," ^<siT^ tagddu, "it is not fit"; ^3;..^ld dg^im or 
^i,Lh dm, "it is proper," "it may" (§ 41), ^&7t^ dgddti, "it 
is not proper"; ^ir^ih okkum, "it will agree," and £^<su(suit^ 
ovvddu, " it does not agree." 

'^uu(Sf.<3^Q<5=.l uuuQuiT&iT^ ippadi-c-ceyya-p-pOgddu, "it is 

not fitt rh<]j to do so." 
QuiTi'u Q<sFiiGoj^;Qro_^ ^(^LaiT poy collugiradu tagumd, "is 

it proper to tell lies ? " 
(g) To the above may be added ^em® undu, "there is {or 
are)," from ^<av -fjj? (§ 17, c); ^euSsi; iJlili, "there is {or are) 
not"; and ^eoev alia, " it is {or they are) not." (Cf. § 17, c, 
44, and 52.) 

Q^aiLi—d ^Qeo usi-sssir a.s?xjr© tottc^ttile paQuhhal iindu, 

" there are cows in the garden." 
@/bG'<« Qun<osr e.«jbr® Inge pan iindu, "there is gold here." 
^mQ<tB QuiTfok ^euSoD iiige pan illdi, " there is no gold here.'* 
^ff^j Oujear ^eoeo idu pari alia, "this is not gold." The 
difference between illdi and alia is that the foi-mer denies 
the existence of the subject, and the latter denies some- 
thing said concerning it. 
{h) Further, the verbs @® idu, " give" (p. 47), s£i® vidu, 
*' leave" (§ 29), Quit® pddu, "put" (p. 47), Quit po, " go," 
&s)(sij vdi, " put," in all their inflections, are commonly added 
to gerunds either to intensify an action or to emphasize its 
completeness. 

Passive Voice. 

48. (a) By the addition of u® padu ("suffer") in all its 
inflections (cf. § 27, exc. a) to the infinitive, a compound verb 
answering to the Passive Voice can be formed. Thus : — 

uif^cft padihha, "to read" (inf. of padi) ; uu^^i&CuL. 
padil'ha-p-pada, "to be read." 



68 VERBS. 

Q<S[r&J6v Tcolla, "to kill" (inf. of hollu) ; QcasfrevGouuLLi—frek 

kollii'p-pattdn, " he was killed." 
^^^uL-\'^v^<SLD <oT i=sr ^(o <ov ul^-eS'SuulLl-,^ andtt-p-pusta- 

gam enndl-epadiJcha-p-pattadu/' thsit book was read by me.'* 

STSSr^l'oQL-lU ^LC>l3 ^ ^T) L— ir -^ ofT [T GO Q <S [T &0 <oVLJU lLl-IJ SST eUnU- 

ddiya tamhi tiriidargaldl Jtolla-p-pattdn, "my (younger) 

brother was killed by thieves." 
Sometimes padu is added to the root instead of to the infini- 
tive; as, ^u^ULLi—fTeir adi-pattdn (instead of adUcka-p'pattdn)^ 
" he was beaten." 

(h) Q.3m un, "eat, enjoy, suffer": ^^^}]£i(Snn-^ unnu- 
gire?i, ^'om(oL-s^sr tmden, ^c^ctQuv^ unben or g-55cr sgg^ /G^ojgar un- 
riuvtn, ^skrsim unna. This verb is also added to the root of 
another to form the passive ; as, Q<3bn-eo^]smL—iTek Jcol-l-unddn, 
" he suffered death." 

N.B. — This passive construction is not elegant, and should 
not be used often. 



Causative and Denominative Verbs. 

49. Causative verbs are formed in several ways : — 

(a) By adding lSI pi or 5^ vi to the root; as, fEuu^QQrosk 
naya-Tckiren, "I love," (5iuui3'S>QQp:5sr naya-p-pi-kkiren, "I 
cause to love "; <sfb&)^^psir katkiren, " I learn " (from ^^ kal)^ 
<s>piSi{EQQpok kat-pi-kkiren, "I teach"; Qs=i'uQ(vjr)<sor Qeygiren^ 
"I do," GffiuQhl<sQ(Sn^ssr Qey-vi-kkiren, "I cause to do." 

(h) By doubling the final consonant of the root; as, g^® 
Qcjrnissr, odu-giren, "I run," ^LL.®Q'^fDsk ottu-giren, " I cause 
to run, I drive" (here d is doubled to tt) ; (qj^ "ascend," 
(gyps' ''cause to ascend." 

(c) By strengthening the root ; as, ^q^loL] tirumhu, " turn," 
^QF)U\-\ tiruppu, " cause to turn." 

(d) By one of the suffixes r^ ku, <s- gu, (B du, ^ iu, q pu,. 
Si ru ; as, Gu/r-^^ po-k-ku, " cause to go "; uiTLus^si- pdy-c-cu, 
" cause to flow "; jsi—^^ nada-t-tu, " cause to walk." 

(e) By means of the strong middle increment or tense- sign ^ 
as, ^ifi'S^Dpzsr ari-giren, " I perish," ^ifi<ssQ(opssr ari-kkiren, 
"1 destroy." See also para. 29. 



ADVERBS, POSTPOSITIONS. 69 

50. The following are few examples of verbs derived from 
nouns and adjectives : — 

uujsQp^ payakkiradUf "it yields fruit" (from payan, 

Skt. phala, fruit) . 
iSffsn9ik&i'^rosk piragdgikJciren, "I shine" (from piragd- 

^am, Skt. prakd.s'a). 
eueSlQQ/Desr valigiren, "I force" (from vali, Skt. halin, 

"strong"). 

Adverbs. 

51. (a) A number of infinitives serve as adverbs ; e.g 

' nv«c« palakka, "loudly," ^qt^lBs^ orumikha, "together," 
huuL- oruppada, "together," Qlosv&j mella, "slowly," 
'3 ka(/uga, "speedily." 

(b) As a rule, however, adverbs are formed from substantives 
V the iiddition of ^li ay or 4:^^ dga; e g. •fn-SLn Qugam, "health," 
•ldhuj rugain-dy, "well"; jssk^ nanru, "that which is good," 
jE^QTHLj niTirdy, " well." 

j)j^ck (xLn(vev jS^e6ruufT<s: ^'^^ip^sireor adan mele nindipp*- 

dga irunddn, " he was (lost) in thought upon it." 
^^'u or c^5« added to a noun shows it to be a complement 
of the predicate (§ 61). 

^.£5 is also used in adding up; as, 
<s (T <ov /b <s 'T w ir & (sir jsir^ QuiuHr <stT<ouev!T(offi3sm u^^ Quuurr 
^« u^^s)^jQuuj(T kdvatkdrargal ndlu peyar kdval-dligal 
paitu peyar dga padindlu-peyar, "four watchmen and ten 
prisoners, altogetlier lourteen persons." 

Postpositions. 

52. Some of these are infinitives and govern the nouns 
which they follow; as, ^s^ir tavira, "except" (inf. of tavir, 
remove) : 

erek LD<s^sor^^sQir Lapp er&jeorrQ^u^ en^^^rr&m en maga- 

ndi-t-tavira matta elldrum vanddrgal, "all others came 

except my son." 

Similarly, Qufreo pola (inf. of polu, resemble) and (^ip giira, 

" round " (inf. of guru, surround) govern the accusative. But 

QiIl. hitta, "close" by" (inf. of kittu, approach) takes the 



70 



CONJUNCTIONS. 



genitive or dative; as, j^^^ QlLl. adin hitta or j^js^jhrs^ 
QlL^. (I datku-Jc-ki t ta, " nenY it"; and «^/_ Jcuda, " to^eih^^r" 
(inf. of ki'idu, ji»in) the instrumental in odu; as, ^o-G^^® 
si^L- (suj avanOdu Jcuda vd, " come with liim." Q<siro6cr® hondUy 
the tjerund of Q^Birdi- hoi, "to take" (para. 47 6), is similarly 
used with an accusative. It has then the signification " by 
means of," "thi-.u^h"; as, ^(56)^-iQ^ir.^& addi-h-honduy 
" by means of it " (lit. by taking or using it). So also, (§rSl^^ 
kurittu (i^emnd of kuri), "concerning"; urbfiS! patti (ger. of 
pattu), " regarding "; Q;SJii® tottu (ger. of todu), "touching." 

Other postpositions in common use are; — 



^L-SN udan, together with. 
^& dga, for; as, ena..hlga, 

"for me ' ' {enahkii + Cuja) . 
OuiTQ^iKbi poruttu, I for the 
^i£i^3Lanii>ntta'm, ) sake of . 
Q_<ov ul, within. 
q/T'^-o jpuraw, outside. 
(ipssr nmn. before. 
iSsi^ pin, after. 
Qld3v met, upon (vdth gen.). 
(Lp^&b mudal (or mudaldga), 

begimiing from. 
euL^ vari (or variydga), by 

way of. 
^Lg Jcir, below (with gen.). 



^s3OTi5E)L_ anddi, near. 

<sij<ooiriULo vardiywn (vardik- 
kum, vardii/ilum), up to 
the limit, as long as. 

Quifl&o peril, upon, concern- 
ing. 

LaiLQia mattum, until. 

^GOo\}jLnGo illdinal, without. 

<§),sisrrSl inri, without. 

^eoovn Lceo allclmal, besides 
(with ace). 

^m cf)l anri, except. 

ui^ padi (or padikku), as. 
according to. 

@ l1(D ittu (ger. ) , on account of. 



Conjunctions. 

53. {a) s./-*Q um added to two or more words means "and." 
When affixed to a sinp^le word it has the signification of " also,'* 
"too," or "even," according to the context; e.g. 

(^^(oiy)]T'i:3^frrr_^'i'n QsiiTL-i—-ksn fr^nh <sn ^ ^ [t fr <s &t kudirdik- 
kdran-um tOttakkdran-um vanddrgal, "the horsekeeper and 
the gardener came." 
^s.'^^jLo Quir^ok avan-um pondn, " he also went, or even 

he went." 
Vm is also added to interrogatives to express universality ; 
e.g. uuiifrLiT ydvar, "who?" (pL), luitsijq^lJd "all people"; 
Luifioosu ydvdif "what things?" oj/reroeuii^zii "all things"; 



INTEREOGATIVES. 71 

(oTfEj^ eiigu, "where"; <5Tfb(^Lh "everywhere"; (Stuuu^. eppadi^ 
** how ? " GJuuL^LLjih " by all means." 

Observe also the following uses of um : 

Qld&u mel, "over," mel-um, "moreover." 
iSlsoriJsar pinne, " after," plnne-y-um, " besides." 
si6V6vrr LSlmbsif^(&^ih did i>llldigal-um, "all children." 

Ella requires the addition of mn to the noun which it quali- 
fies, in whatever case it may be ; as, elld idlldigaldi-y-um (ace). 
But si6v6vir(if.Lh eUdr-um, "all people," (5r^)evifir^ elldm (for 
elld-7(m), " every thintij," being pronouns, immediately follow" 
the nouns to which they are in apposition ; e.g. 

(^ixL^a^err loTgbeu/r.j^/b Q.y^^/uG°Lj''^/f<5;(oTr kudigal dldr-um 
(•ettu-p'ponargal, " all the villagers arc dead and gone." 

Elldm (i.e. elld-\-um) is declined by affixing ^jbs^ attu 
(^ 15, c, 2) to elld to form the inflectional base, and then, 
adding the case- terminations with um ; thus the ace. of elldm 
would be loi&jejii <suii)>r6)ni)iLiLh elld-v-attdi-y-um. (Here v and 
y are euphonic insertions; attu + di becomes att'di, see para. 
12, i. a). 

For other uses of um, see paras. 24, c, 38, 39, and 46. 

(h) " Or" ■= ^eoeo ^ alia d.u (the neut. participial noun of at). 

The correlatives "either . . .or" must be translated by 
^ichj-]^ dvad'i (part, noun neut. fut. of a, "be") . . . dvaduy. 
or by ^^^a,vLo dgilum . . . dijilum, or by c^t^^ji'^ dndlum . . . 
dndlum, added to the alternative subjects. ^S^jyjLf) djilum 
also means "although," "soever"; as, ^zk nis'uuiiiu(^'d>s^La 
c'tnnn-p-payyan dgilum, "although a small boy"; (oitkj^os ^Q' 
gy/Lo eiige dgilum, " wheresoever." 



Interrogatives. 

54. (a) To ask a question, you simply add ^ a to the end 
of a sentence or to any word in it on which you wish to la^r 
stress ; as, 

^isu&sr (o^rri^L-S<s5frrri^ avan tottahJcdran-d, " (is) he a. 
gardener? " or avan-d tottakkdran, " (is) he tlie gardener? '" 



"72 EMPHATIC PARTICLES. 

(b) If you add ^ o, jou express a certain amount of doubt 
or hesitation ; as, 

(ipmC^m QuiTusraisir (Fi^su^S'iujQ^ mvnne ponavaji vdit- 
iiijan-d, "is he the doctor (I wonder) who went in front?" 
|& is also affixed to an interroiiative or to the last word of 
a clause containing an interrogative, to give it an indefinite 
.-signification; as, oi/sG'db enge, "where?" ^'irkQcsQajn- einjc-y-o, 
""somewhere or other"; ct^ (si—<S(^QLDPr, ^^ jBi—^^^ih edu 
ynadaJi'kum-o, adu nidakhum, "whatever will happen, (tbat) 
will liappen." 

(c) As already mentioned in para. 10. the letters ir e and 
ojiT yd (or ^ a) are prefixed to words to form interrogatives ; 

;as, ioTLJLJLCL eppadi, "in what manner?" "how?" ^uQuiJ(l£:^ 
epporudu, '' tit Avhat time?" "when?" <sTSi.isk evan, 'which 
man? " ^6)jeheval, " which woman? " ot^; < du, "which thing? " 
(among several) ; iSTsk&nr enna {^siirserLD, dec-liDable form ; cf. 
p. 34), " what ? " and sjsw- en, " why ? " (e is lengthened). So 
-.also ojiKSijssr ydvan, " what man ? " LUfrii ydr or ^fr Cir, " who ? " 
^4urT^ yddu, "wliat?" (neut.). E.g. 

^evsk j^eo^Q Luuuu^ (or Quj'ljQufTCLp ■-) <h=Qs=lu^S!I sur avan 
addi-y-eppadi (or -y-epporudu)-C'Ceyddn, " how (or when) 
did he do that ? " ' 

g,/B'3« <su_!3SisiaT (oTsu^ inge vandaval eval, "who (is) she 

that came here ? " 
CT^ uSi^^sxiLD jseveu^ edu migavum nalladu, "which is the 

best?" 
:2_s3r Quit ioTeisn56T un per enna, " what is your name? " 
^^ ujiTQ^eoL-oj a?® idu ydruddtya vldu, " whose house is 

this?" 
•^isor QufTiii Q 'ff' a eo c^jQ (nj lu en poy gollugirdy, "why do you 

speak falsehood ? " 
^Q^Q&si6sr(fr/eo {=:adu + en-\-enrdl) or ^Q^Qsiv^ev (adu 
+ en + enil)y "if (you) say why that is (i.e. wherefore)." 

Emphatic Particles. 

55. The vowel ^ e is added to words for the sake of em- 
phasis; as, 

iSB<5aiL.uSQ<sv ^i^rjoJiSlev^sx) haddiyiUe onrum illdi, "there is 

nothing in the bazaar." 
€UQr)&(nr/'(o(56i varugirdne, "he does come." 



INTERJECTIONS. 73 

The reflexive pronoun ^nek Lin is also used to emphasize 
nouns ; as, 

^susor ^suudr ^/fejr avan tagappan tun, "he (is) indeec 
the father." 

The two participial nouns ^Gsrnussr dmvan and (Stswljs sw- 
enbavan, of roots <7, "be," and <m, "say," lu all the genders 
singular and plural, are employed in the same way ; e.g. 

ioO^^^S,^'iLi<^)osr(suf'iaT jseoeo LDi8aPi;Sr,sT vaitliijan cinavan nalla 

manidan, ** the floctor is a good man." 
^LLi—dSLnii&ST^ uS.^o^Lh Qj5i9-ii^ L£!(r^<SLCi otfagam dnadu miga- 

vum nediya mirugam, " the camel is a very tall animal." 

Also j^&ofj\)Q(Suir allav'', or allO; as, ^(sum j^ieoQeoii smm^ 
ivan alio kalian, " is not indeed this man the rogue ? " 



Interjections. 

56. The following are some of them : — 

^QtuiT diyo, alas! I g)G'^/r ido, lol 

^etoiuQujir diydiyo, alas 1 alas ! j gp|5 do, oho ! 



SYNTAX. 

57. The syntactical arrangement of a Tamil sentence 
((SLiiT&QiuLD, ISkr. vakija) is in many respects similar to tbat 
of an ordinary Sanskrit sentence. As a rule, first comes the 
subject with its attributes, second the object with its enlarge- 
ments, third the extension of predicate, and lastly the verb. 

As in classical Sanskrit, so in Tamil there is the usual 
predominance or gerunds (para. 31, ii.) and the clauses formed 
by them, of relative participles which take the place of rela- 
tive clauses ([jara. 31, i.), and of oratio recta instead of oratio 
obliqua (para. 65). 

58. The Subject (<or(Lp<3ij[Juj eruvay). — If this is only a 
pronoun, it is often not expressed, being understood from the 
finite verbal form after the manner of Latin and Sanskrit, 
P'.ovided that its omission does not involve ambiguity or make 
the subject less emphatic; e.g. Qi'FiuQQpzk geygirm, *' I do" 
(not nan ^fygiren) ; ^<o6)^4'Q<3'iu^n-iosr addi-c-ceyddn, "he did 
it" (not avan addi-c-ceyddn, unless for the sake of emphasis). 

59. The Extension of the Subject (sT(Lp(sun-Lu<g5(^ s.fflcF 
Qs^ird) eruvdi/Jd'u uriccol). — This consists of dependent nouns 
or pronouns, adjectives (para. 17), and relative clauses with 
or without subordinate adverbial clauses. All these precede 
the subject ; e.g. 

OTcw- ^L£)l5),^sd)l_uj Queir^^rr^ Q<f^^ljQu!T(^(S(t en tamhi- 
nuddii/a joengddi qettu-p-pondl, ""my (younger) brother's 
wife is dead." 

6&0 jB&o<oo QLai'uuu<oofiiE}Q& 61] ^ IT sk 07'u Tialla meyvpan iUge 
vanddn, " a good shepherd came here." 

(vLn(^<ov Quni^ok enda uyirdi-y-um kolldda oru r^anniydgi 
oru eri-Tc-Jcardi mele pondn, " an ascetic who never killed 
any living creature went along the bank of a lake." 



SYNTAX. 75 

tsueSi^Ln ^iF^ Lc>^0^^-mQ&b2tsv it'ige odi vandu inda pil- 
laiydi-i-tukki y-eduJckuni valimdl anda manidanukJc' illdi, 
"to that man there is not the strength to run up l^ere 
and lift this child." Here valimdi is the subject, and 
all that precedes it is the extension of the subject, the 
i^oninds Odi vandu and tukki being enlargements of the 
future relative participle edukkum. 

60. The Object {Gls'iULJu^QuiiQTfm <}eya-p-padu-porul) is 
jHit in the accusative case, and in colloquial Tamil the sign of 
the case is always expressed if the object denotes a rational 
l)t'ing (§ 14, i.), otherwise the nominative is generally used; 
;is, r^jrjDLo ussin-(o5iin:CS)fh "he committed a fault." As in the 
(•;ise of the subject, the attributes of the object generally pre- 
cede the object itself ; e.g. 

ST (su nS)l ;£ tj:i ^ S5r QslLl— 6i'fTrr^05)^<£^r{qLD Qus'itQ^ evvida- 
mdna krtta vdiildigaldi-y-um perdde, "don't speik bad 
language of any kind wbatever." 

Quotations and noun-scnteuces with <5T6k^ enru often form 
the object of a sentence ; e.g. 

^eueisr ^L[LUjfT ssieu^sor ^(as)LpuLSl<osr^ (qJsst ^lLs5jL-&Ql^'^ 
^uQu.j iii^ frQtusisrjoi (o<Sili—iTsaravanku(Hydfiavandl ardip- 
piftu en r7ttdi-k-kirittu-p-pottdy erjru ketUln, " he, having 
summoned t!ie villager, asked him, ' Why did you tear up 
the receipt ? ' " 

61. Thk Extension of Predicate (jj,'so)L_Qai^L|9 addi- 
,„ori).— This includes gerundial clauses and words and phrases 
denoting time, ].lace, manner, j.urpose, <fec. They always 
precede the pred-ca^e, and sometimes even the principal 
sentence ; e.g. 

jSfTLD j^i'b^^s l£^ iSisx-'^sQujuuiSf-u'^uiTQahJiTu:^ nam aiige 
mm pidikka-y-eppadi-p'pdv6m, "how shall we go there to 

fish ! " ■ . , 

ji sTuQufT,^ <BBeo!r ^^(SuiTLu nl eppodu karai eruvdy, "when 
will you get on shore ? " 

fEiTiS'skiis^roi § 0ij/£<jrsor Q^iuiLevsrCa nam inrdikku y-enna 
reyyaiam, "what may we do to-day? " (ndni, "we," in- 
cludes the person addressed ; §16). 

^£u^ is^iKbi'irsu'^ufTi'u ^oTO^^QcfiF.L'^/ro^ avan vlttukku-p-^ 
poy [for poyi] addi-c-ceyddn,"he, havi n g gone home, did it. 



76 SYNTAX. 

^ifi¥^^^'j^hr rdvagdrl adugaldi tan vittile Jcondu pay vdltV- 
iruiiddn, *' the banker, having taken those things to his 
house, kept (them there)," 
For examples of subordinate sentences, see the following 
paragraphs. 

62. The Predicate (uuj66B^ payaTiildi) must, of course, 
agree with its subject in gender, number, and person, except 
in the case of neut. plural, when the sing, is often substituted. 

(ti) In Simple sentences the verb "to be" is generally 
omitted ; as, 

^sieor (sishr u^&sk ivan en magan, "this (is) my son." 

Tt is sometimes expressed (less elegantly) by the verb irn 
-with ay added to the noun preceding it(§ 51, h) ; as, en tanddi 
kafjtakkan or kanakhan-dy irukkirdn, "my father is an ac- 
countant." 

When in English an adjective (or a past participle) follows 
the verb " to be," in Tamil this adjective is usually turned 
into a noun agreeing with the subject in gender, number, and 
case (cf. § 18). Thas, "she is good"=: aval nallaval (not 
aval nalla) ; " you (masc.) are learned '' = nlr (tdn) padittovar ; 
^* that is not bad ''=adti kettadu alia. 

If the subject consists of two or more nominatives of dif- 
ferent persons, the verb in the plural agrees with the first 
person, or with the second if there is no first; as, hdn-utn, 
nl-y-um en magal-um povom, " you and I and my daughter 
will go "; nl-y-um, aval-um povii-gal, " she and you will go." 

Verbs in a sentence which have the same subject are ex- 
pressed by gerunds, except the last. (See para. 31, ii. c.) 

(6) In Complex sentences the adverbial clauses of condition 
and concession ("if," "although," "but," &c.) must always 
precede the principal sentence ; e.g. 

c^^ JI^LJUU^ ii9 (f^ IE ^ IT 6v , jirb<S€rr Qu!t<s Q (Su ssst l- it th adu 
appadi y-irunddl, nlngal pnga venddm, " if that be so, you 
must not go " (see paras. 43-44). 

^ib&m ioT<5Gr<B(^-9'<s'LnU'mLh Q&tT®^s;rr^jLr, Qeu'Seu Q<3=luuj 
LnniLQu-sk nlngal enakku-c-cambalam koduttdlum, veldi 
geyya mdtten, "although you may give me wages, yet I 
will not do the work (§ 46)." 



SYNTAX. 77 

(c) Similarly, adverbial clauses of time, cause, &c. ; as. 

<3S&r ndlvnr Jcudi-k-kondu Or urukhu-p-piraf/dna-p-pattu-p- 
pogdii/il, viriyil dr pana-mudippu-k-kandu iduftdrrjal, 
" while four people were together making a journey lo a 
village, they saw and picked up a purse of money on the 
way." 
LSir/r(SJ53f]«(cr5-«(^ jsire^jij &itgo<b&t ^:^-kS^ip uiSLtLirev ^jsi<s 
{^■i^ jSif j:i}]^!TGo(?(QuasT (oTS3i\^La QuiT pirdnigalukku ndlu 
kdlgal irukkira padiydl adugalukku ndlukdUjwan ennum 
per, "as animals have (each) four legs, they are called 
quadrupeds." 

63. (a) The Adverbial Clauses of Time are formed by the- 
addition of Qj^k mun, (ipssrCoSGr munne, (LpsarsBrLD munnam, 
(Lf^sb osiQld munname, or (Lpsarq munhu (all meaning " before ") 
to the future relative participle ; and i^sm pin, iSldrn pinhu, 
LSr>'_§ piragu, or iSpu.i® pitpddu ("after") to the past rela- 
tive participle; as well as Quaq^,^ porudu or (its contracted 
form) (ouiT_^ pOdu, sfrevLci kdlam, <FLCiUJLCi Qamayam ('^ tinie^') 
to the relative participle, past, present, or future ; e.g. 

^SiJcir (^sifisC'^ih (Lfi^t^CoLn ^oO^<g'Qs^iu^iT6Br avan kulik- 
kum munname addi-c-ceyddn, "he did that before he 
bathed." 
^(Suoh- (^ifjotf)^^ lS.-hitl/ ^<ss)^s'Q<3'U-^its^ avan kulitta pinbu 

addi-c-ceyddn, " he did that after he had bathed." 
^ Ell sir Qi<ff-^0 (suir^^ jEtjm ^(LpQcsesr avan qetta podu ndn 
aruden, " I wept when he died." 

The infinitive and the locative of the verbal noun in kdi are 
also used for the same purpose. See paras. 35 and 38. 

(h) The Adverbial Clauses of Cause ("because," "as," 
" since," &c.) are formed either by means of the instrumental 
in rd of the participial or verbal noun (§ 32 and 35), or by 
adding uisjuuireo padiydl (instr. oipadi, "step") to the relative 
participle of the respective tense ; e.g . 

^iLi^Qex) ^^\& ^(7^<BQfD^^&^> J5frdr <s66)L-'i(§u(Su[r<s 
■shlev^ vlttiUe arigi irukkiradijidl nan kaddikku-p-poga-v- 
illdi, " I do not go to the bazaar, because there is rice in- 
the house." 



78 SYNTAX. 

jSevLo Qld^^ r^jjuq ^(S6)3>ujiTev, ji U(oOoa)<as Qufri— Q(SU(FrJsr 
(BIld nilam meita caiuppu dcjdiydl, ni palagdi poda venduni, 
** as the ground is very marshy, you must lay down a 
plank." 

jBHssr Q(sii26v<S'^uQu[T<fB Q en ssar lql LU ul^luit&o, ^-isQn Lnin'u 
(o^Qlo&s)<f ^£511.® Ld ndnveldihku-p-]Jocjciven(litjapa(jiydl, 
c/tkhiramdy te-megdi dgattum, "' please get the tea ready 
soon, as I must go to work," 

<s\^ ^L-i^Qev (Sun jb^Qu^ {iSiirf-kSiro ut^iuirev, fsir^wQ'S 
<aij^(o;^Gsr en v'lttil-e vdndi-pedi y-iricMcira padiydl, nCiri iiige 
vauden, "I came here because there is cholera in my house " 
(this can also be expressed by iruhklrctdindl instead of 
irukhb^a padiydl \ compare also para. 45). 

(c) To form Clauses of Purpose, ui£^ padi, ui^<k(^ padUd'u, 
ui^ LUiT'S padiydga, or QuiTfif)'!.® poruttu is used with the 
future relative participle ; as, 

0*^/7 d5 §55' ^Q«.'r©-^@LD ULS^L (or ui^ii^-s}, &c.) ^eu^r enjB^iTsk 
Qodamli-k-hodttJcJium padl (or padihku, &c.) avan vanddn, 
**he came for the purpose of being examined." 

The same may be expressed by the simple infinitive or by 
the participial noun, neut. sing, present or future, in the 
dative ; as, Qddajidi-k-hodukJca (or kodukkiradatku) va7iddn. 

64. Comparison.- — (a) Similarity or likeness is commonly 
■expressed either by the words uai padi, 'FLDtTssrLh c^amdtjuin, 
<Fifl rari, Lon^tf} mddiri, and tbe like, or by the ver])al root 
Quneo pol or its infinitive Qutr&j pola, preceded by the noun 
{verbal or otherwise) with which the comparison is made ; e.g. 

^(SU^ffT QuSrS)nO UUjL (or LDfT^lfl) ^ISir^^Lh (oU<3= Q<SUZSi5T®Lh 

avan pecugira padi (or mddiri) itdn-um pega vendum, "as 

he speaks, I also must speak " (padi preceded by the 

relative participle). 
@/H^ (^^i<ss)ir ^j^i-PBr^s'S'Lnn^isrLCi inda kudirdi adukku-c- 

camdTiam, " this horse is like that one " (lit. ** similar to 

that"). 
w<fB<sir ;5iT<ss>iuuQu(rGb ^(f^sQ(fr/<5iT magal tdydi-p-pOl iruk- 

kirdl, *' the daughter is like the mother " (pol or j^ola 

governs the ace, § 52). 
jsnsk uu^'S&IrD^^ Qufrev, 0[l\u^ uu^ks Q6us5ar®La nan padih- 

kiradu pola, nl-y-um padikka vendunif " as I learn, you 

also must learn." 



SYNTAX. 79 

^(Su^oBTuQufrev jBiresr f5'^eosi]^uSl((^isQQro^ avandi-p-p6la, 

nan nallavandy irukkircn, " 1 am as good as he." 
^,^'Ljl9@)6u Qurreb anuppindl pol, " as if one would send." 
Tlie correlatives sT(su€U6fr(Si^ . , . j)] cu en (ofr si^ evvalavu 
avvahiva, " how much ... so much," OTLJutf . . . j)juuu;l 
eppadi . . . appadl, " as . . . so," are also iised for purposes 
of comparison. 

(6) To express the Com|>arative Degree, you put the noun 
with which the comparison is made either simply in the dative 
or in the ablative of place whence, with or without the addi- 
tion of uni ; e.g. 

^oi^jga/^C^ ^siifcr j5Goev(Sii^<sr avanuklcu Ivan nallavan, "^tliis 

person is better than he." 
j^^^ (i£iLii^zyj o (or £lLis^ 6u) ;§) :j^ ^i^sin^^ anda vltt'd-um 

(or vltt'd) idu arugdnndii, " this house is more beautiful 

than that." 
uii iTss pthkhi (inf. oi par, " see," >f 38), U'r/r-'oS^/zh pdrk- 
kiluin ("although you see," § 46), and the inf. sB^^ vida ("to 
leave ") are also used to express the comparative ; as, 

^(Su^bsBTuuiihiBs, (or uirh-k^^vLa or q)9l_) (^(su-ssr Q blL'SS)'^ 

lu IT <o6i €1} 1^ avandi-p-pdrkka (or pdrkkiluiii or vida) Ivan 

nettdiydtiavan, "this man is taller than he." 

(c) Similarly, with the additional aid of a word denoting 
universality, the Superlative Degree is expressed; e.g. 

jajeu:' seir (sr&jevirffl^jLh ^susifr m^ii^^iisurm avargal I'lldril-um 
ivan puftimdn, "this man is the wisest of them all" (see 
p. 37). 
The Sanskrit words 0(5jr:l/_i-b rin'ttam (for srestka), s.^ 
^LDLo uttamam, and the like are often used for this purpose. 

65. Quotations. — (a) As in Sanskrit iti, so in Tamil GTsin jqi 
enru (the i^erund of ^sir en, " say," § 31, ii. a) is used at the 
end of a direct quotation instead of quotation marks. Some- 
times the infinitive srsor eTia, the participial nouns srsmu,^ 
enbadu and ^eisrQfiD^ engiradUy and the finite verbal form otsst 
(iT^sk cnrdn ("he said "), are used for the same purpose; e.g. 

jp[Tissr uiTi—Lo ui^^Q^Q<oi5rek^ Q<3=ir6ir(m)ssr ndn pddam pa- 
ditten enru qonndn, " he said, ' I have learnt the lesson.' " 

euir <bim eijj vd ena vd, "when he says 'Come,' come" (see 
para. 38). 



80 SYNTAX. 

f'"udan enhaddi nan vlriivd'^ikJcx v-illiii, " I do not believe 
that (which will say) * He is a thief.' " 

^/Q^soT'oBT <sL(SQL- (oUfreQjn-iiWyCv^ <5Tsir(7r/>ssr id/enna kattdi 
pol irulchuoCe enrdn, "he said, * What is this which is indeed 
like a log of wood ? '" 

(h) When the quotation is not quite exact, ^ib ay or .^m 
dga is added to ersw^ enru, &c. : 

jgrrek Qunuj Qrffireoex) maLL(oi-Q(oN-sij(fr/'<ss'Qs'ii issr^sii nan 
poy Qolla mdtten enr dga-c-connan, '* he said (what amounts 
to) 'I will not speak falsehood.' " 

(c) When it is indirect, ^<£b dga aloiie is used ; as, 
^rrdr <snrif>(3u^fT£B<FQ^frsar(^cor tdn varuvad' dga-c-conniin, "he 
said that he would come." 

QQ. Ellipsis. — In poetry ellipsis is very frequent. In col- 
loquial Tamil the sign of the genitive singular of neuter nouns- 
is omitted, and, as a rule, that of the accusative singular ; so 
also the plural sign <s&t after a numeral ; e.g. 

LaLT^^uuL^Ld marattu-jp-param, "the fruit of a tree." 

c^/b^ iSsk dttu min, " a river-fish." 

Here the genitive termination is omitted. Both marattu and 
dttu are the inflectional bases of maram and dru (see paras. 
12, i. a, and 15, c, 1). 

(oTevr iS0^ Q:3BfT(Ei en hatti hodu, ''give (me) my knife" 

Qcatti for hattiydi, ace). 
^^ <s5irssoru^ (sufrikQ^Q^siTs^k-® eun- dru karandi vdngi-k- 

kondu vd, "buy and bring six spoons." 



[The student will find in Tamil Sblf-Taught (the companion 
volume to the present), a large number of conversational phrases and 
sentences for every-day use, classified according to subject, which will 
serve as very useful and practical exercises in translation into and 
from the Tamil ; also many classified Vocabularies, and an English- 
Tamil alphabetical Vocabulary.] 



Part U. 
EXERCISES. 



[Do not overlook the euphonic insertions, elisions, and changes oF 
letters occurring in the following exercises. For Key to the Exercises^ 

see p. 85.] 

I. 



1. ^rb(o£B (SUIT. 2, euQ^Q'^/sssT, ggwjfr. 3. a.£3r U5«( 
.5fL-i_ 6vir Qeusm(biLCi. 4. ^eu[T<s^r 2.(sfrG*(srr eujr<3=Q<fFfT&bjFyi. 

eujsjS Qufr(Lp^ (or (Suit^^ (oTssT'Si^ (oT^eviTLa Q<9=ii <osr<^oor.. 

7. ^(SOLDuSeS^/F^ QjPirfTiU eU^^mUIT ? 8. <oT<oSr 6a)as(o<£5lT(S0- 

10. ^lL®k(^LjQuiT, 

II. 

1. Open the door. 2. Please look at the rice-fields. 3. They 
are green. 4. The sky is blue. 5. There are trees in our 
ganU'n. 6. Those are not trees. 7. Call the servant. 8. Give 
me some water. 9. I have no water. 10. I must wash my 
hands. 

in. 

1. jprrib'SB&r Q,g=sirserLJUL-L-€saT<g^,SB(^u(DUfr<s GayOTrOfi.. 
2. ^^^^ffl&j '?=mikis&] (oT^^'^? 3. ^lEiQ-s ^C5.^-^ =^^ 

6. <SiJL^[i^(o6v (qj^ireu^ ^u[TLL'(LfiS6srL-.[r ? 6. /FfTi^ lSI F ^u rr >5usr ua 
(ouirQeviTLD, (SUIT. 7. jsitlo <3s<soL^<S(^u(oU[rLu Q<sfr(^s'Lh ^ifiB,. 
Q/^i'u, cBSfiS, lq^.tSsu (SiJfTfk](§(o(SutTih. 8. Q<sijQrr)sor66r (snamm 
Qeu^iLD. 9. Qf5eb€ULU&o<S(srf^(oev ^®Qp Quifluj uj/r§5OT<ffi3srr 
QjBj^Q uirQ^iki^eir. 10. ujfT'856ra9sk ^lclSI<sb'SO<s uSaet^Lh- 

IV. 

1. My elephant bathes every day in that tank. 2. I do not 
know whether there is good water in it or not. 3. Look ho\\r 
many men and women are going to drink. 4. The coolies pub. 

Tamil Grammar 8.-T. ^ 



«2 EXERCISES. 

•down their loads, and go and drink, and then return and take 
them up again. 5. Having acquired much wealth hy selling all 
his goods, he proceeded to return home. 6. On his way, in a 
forest, thievt's attacked liiiu and took away all his property. 

7. Afterwards they both became poor and arrived at their home. 

8. He spoke like one who has know^n me for many days. 9. That 
person whom you told yesterday to come in the morning has 
now come here. 10. We cannot wait for a month, you must 
48end it to-morrow morning. 



^Lfiuqub'^ ioieiirSln) utpQiaTL^uui^ ^sst^Q^itjjjld Q^sn-^-fim 

■€uiTssr. 2. Qu<9?Qrr)Quir_^ ^6sr<F^^LCi (^LJUU^aS^m'SsSlro^^iT 
^uuL^Qiu (suiiB^QroCouir^Ln @(5««LL®Lfl (§ 42, d). 

e\)ti(sn^ <ST(L^S&s)^km-L-LS^ a.65r«;^_c2rQ^rfl£L//r sSiLi—rr&j (§ 44) 
:^eor <su J ^ ^ jj IT <ss) If kQ ^s m . 5. ^sniT jaj ^ ^ s^ £" ssr iki s'^sfr ^ s c6m & 

jfsrfr&m. 7. ^uQuiT(Lp^ ^q^ (^q^l-'J it iT !S eujks^ ^^/(^^(^ 

(ip^UiT<S5 aS(Lp^£i] (SUeSCriEjQ, ^S6UTL-eijQir ^LCi<S(9)'SF^^^Ln[r 

^U)ev, !o] (ch'bssr <E <3r ^ ^ Lct IT 'h <s ^iMLct[Teo ^(^Lxt <oT 6ur rn? Sir . 8. ^eu 
■^^^ ^LLu(y^(y^&r!e>tr^'Bocr^^^^j2n^k£i<sQ,SirsfkrL-iTiT&6k. 

VI. 

1. At that time the inhabitants of Britain were in a barbarous 
•condition. 2. They were divided into a number of petty states, 
independent of one another. 3. The manners and language of 
■the inha!)itants of the southern p»rts were similar to those of the 
•Gauls. 4. Hence it was inferred that they w» re sprung from 
that people. 5. They wtre as warlike as the Gauls, but less 
•civilized. 6. Their religious superstitions in particular were 
among the most bloody which have been known in any part of 
the world. 7. The Druids, or priests, were venerated for the 
strictness of their lives, and dreaded for the cruelty of their rites 
■and sacrifices. 



EXEftClSES. g8 

vn. 

fiPfm. 2. j^isum <^Llu;L6v^'QF,®Lauu^<s(§ (§ 63, c) 90 ^/rsrf? 

iriT^fiffi^^Q^ ^Q^l_SOrSU^_^ UfKoSSshrQu^PT) U^[kj9^Q^frcSGTL^ 

^^S(^ <oT6oresrQuifli-6vrrui (§ 41) <oTesr(n7m. 4. ^^^^ 
^en&r e.Lo<ffi(^ otulj^l im^stQ^^t ^ul/^l Q<B-iLLU6V{TQLas^sr(7r^<sh-. 

Quiuir ^ffl;6W63OT60)i_ cSlLQ^ ^Scuuj/rrMu Quiuirn-eay&tuaeb, 

<SB!r^6aTL9s^^irsk. 8. ^L-Qssrujeu&srjB^Js^Qi^i—^SBruLSL^^^ ,slL 
u^-BQ&ir^® QuitCu ■sQlLu.it m. 

vni. 

A few days later, fiudiiig his end approaching, this brave but 
cruel monarch commanded that the gold, silver and jewels in 
his treasury, with all the spoils and tropliies he had won, should 
be placed before him. On these he long fixed his eyes and 
burst into tears. The following day he ordered a review of his 
army, his camels, horses, and elephants, with which having for 
some time feasted his eyes from his magnificent throne, he burst 
a second time into tears, and retired in dejection to his palace. 
Out of his vast kingdom he bequeathed to his eldest son Masood 
only the province called Persian Irak, and appointed his youngest 
son Mahamad to rule over the rest. He died soon after, in the 
sixty-third year of his age, and the thirty-fiflh of his reign, in 
the year 1030. 

IX. 

uj/r« euiTip^0Q^_i^e6r. j^^^s'^QjF'S^'^^'k QsntL Qs^ireib^^ 
^j^jUi S-QeoiTU (^6m'(ip(ip&f&r ^(f^ j^sfi <ouj5^ Q<s®^^Q^eir ^ 
QsFireveVy iriT^(^u^mriTaerr jfjQ^uui^QuJ&sr, Q£=nLD<g=iTLDir 
Q<Ffr^eo^Q^(rt—isjQi^<oisr : — 

Q^€sri^L-is;LQ6v LaQipfT^uiSlajQuieor^nh uCL-<omT^^0o 

G * 



84 EXERCISES. 

eu ij^^ La IT &pQ<S6reifrQ(Trf'(rf) 6uir^^<ss6oft((^^^tTeifr. ^(sv_^&(^ 
Qeu(^ u&scru9 ijjs^Lh ^sk^0)j(Sf,'3=u:iurT^<s<a5 (o<su65sr(hiQLnsir&lp 
^6ro<F(i5@)6u L^ek (SUQ^SlfDUL^ ^(c6vir^<s<SG0irt^sir. tun; 

QeiJSSsr(BlLD. s=LCiUir^^;S&s)^<SB ^sauufr/bp Cc<si;(S3?5r®Lb. <sbitlj 
uiT fDjBs^sG)^ sSir^^LJsm&ssr (I<S}Jcm®Lh. sSl fir ^ ^ u ssansBofi sbt 

QeusmQih, <sfrLJun'jh(W^ ^U'sSluld jSfr<3=LoiT(^LD. ■sQfr^^u&icr 

^jLCt '^eisr UQJ^La L^.Tm&SsfluJQplkj ^IT^^ILILD LD<5afl^(l^<SSC;^(S(T(o(Sfr 

<SB(sir &.ev<s^^i(cev jS'SS)i~ui3®ssrL£iiJ(Si)iTh<S(3n-. ^(55)«5a5@)^'Lb 
Qidick Qidg^K^ s^LDurr^^LJuQ^ Quuir<sQujGlLctsir(frf'(c6VfTQ^^,gs 



An Official Letter. 

Q^dr(^n),sbfT®sf-u[r ^sis^m &Q<oL^<kiLi—!T<snrr<s(e{riTQ[u (§ 17, c) 
Qu^&v^fr ^frn^ un'smi-j[fl^<oa)jriueijiTS<5rT ^(Lps^^'S-^^. 

Q^UL_L£)U/r U^ ffLlD SL. (fL<oT JBLdUfflso •3' fT ^ IT IT uS (f^ ^ S5 ^STSSST 

L^iTisu^ S-<^^F(Sij <sn^^ Q<SFfT ^^ UTTiT^^rgsQsfTe^Qi—ssr. 

^^^^jfffrff}jjs[T3Seb 6S> Q^eu&u^rr&sTuSQF^^sQp^ jtj^eb @ 
jr^dJr© Q^(Sij<dh^!T&5r^^<S(^LCi QajiTiBiu^an' 6ii<oiS)<sn'n' sfr Qufr 

(olFn<k<S (SiJ([^LhuU^<S^tTir(T^'S''^LJa <SS00r'ffi(^ ^UJ[TjrTTS(!^<kQp^. 
LC^pp ST Q^(Sn(d(U^n'<oSJ ^^'3o(^ 'SSeSSr<So<SfrS[TL£^6SQ^sQpUL^liSl(^ 

Qeo ^TTLD &fT ^^'.TS&'^GTr ^<3'irfT(^LCiUL^ <ssscrL^LJUfTuj ^^^wm 

<S^^^ ^^}JUL-fQ(Dpisk. ^^ <Flk]<S^ LD^^Sij Qcff'LU^ G)<Sfr<5m 



KEY TO THE EXERCISES. 

I. 

1. Inge vd,^ come here. 2. Varugiren, aiyd, I am coming, 
8ir. 3. Un maganorfu Jcilda^ vara^ vendum, (you) must come 
to^etlier with your son. 4. Avargaldi' ullo vara'^-c-collu, tell 
lliem to come in. 5. Ipporudu varugira manklan hanahhan-d, 
is the man who is coming now the accountant ? (§ 54). 6. Avan 
iitgc viindd ponidu^^ (or fiddu) etiahku elldm ron/idn, when he 
ramc here, he related all to me. 7. Qlmdiyil^-irundu nerdy 
vnddij-d, did you come direct from' Europe (or from abroad) ? 
^. En kai-k-h'd^ kondu vd, bring my walking-stick {lit. having 
taken my hand-stick, come). 9. Palli-k-kudaifukku vdrtingal,^ 
■liijd, come to the school, sir. 10. VlttuM-u-p-po, go home. 

II. 

1. {Bi£sx\ Sir) kadavu tira.^ 2. Q/FeLxsuu&us^isirLJuiTQ^rkj-s&r 
nel-vayalga I i i-jy-pdruiigal . 3. ^■S6)eu^(rm- us^'SOLnuu'j[!^c(^-k(^j^ 
av'iigal parumi"ii-y-dy^ irnkkuduJ 4. (Suir<osrLh (or ^\.<si s'ld) 
jisvLn[r'd^(j^kS/D^ vunam (or dgdram) nllam-dy irukhiradu. 



* Vd is the 2n(l .'^in^ular inxperativo of variiijiren, "Icome" (see 
§39); ingu, " here " + e particle of ein))hasis = i/i/e. 

b Kudu ji^ovcriis the 3rd or iubtr. case in 6du (§ 52). 

c Vara is the infinitive of varugiren (p. 49, no. 17). 

*i Lit. "• he here eouie time," vanda being the rel. pa. p. of vckrugiten, 
Cjualifvidg porudu. 

e rfiwcii - Skt. sima, "boundary or limit." In colloquial Tamil it 
means "country," " empire," or "Europe." 

f Kol for koliii : neuter nouns do not, as a rule, take the accusatire 
ending; tow^/u = gerund of A:o/, "to take." 

S Variiugal = po\ite imperative of va i§ 39). 

^ Kadavu for ace. kadanii. (see Exer. I., note f). 

> Sec ptiras. 51, h, and 62, a. 

i Corrupt form for irnkkiradu, 3rd singular neuter present of iru, " to 
be." Colloquially, a singular neuter verb is used with a plural neuter 
nominative as here. 



86. KEY TO THE EXERCISES. 

5. (oT/E-sefr Q^iTL-i—^^iQ&o Lnrribs^'ssirr® engal tdttaitil-e^ ma^ 
raiigal undu. 6. ^m>(Sij&m LEiffib<B-mGo<sy) avdigal marangal 
alia (§ 47, g). 7. Qisu^'SB'Sfrir'Bsar^sk.LJL^Q vdldi-k-kdrandi-k- 
hilppidu. 8. 'cJssr,fB(^&Q-sn'(^<FLD ^'skr(SSsfiT<sQsn ® enakJcii-k- 
honjam tannlr-Tc-hodu. 9. (sr-sk QlLi— ^iS^soafrfleiiSou en hitta 
tanmr illdi (lit. there is no water near me). 10. <o\&sr iss)£5<s&r 
&(Lp<su Qeu0hr(SlLa en hai-gal Tcaruva vendum. 

III. 

1. Ndngal Qema^ppattanathihhu-p-pdga vendum, we must go- 
to Madras. ^^ 2. Inda-v-uril^ canangal ettandi, what (is) the 
population of this village ? 3. Inge irundu a-p-pattanaitiilcliii 
e-vv-alavu tilram, what (is) the distance from here to that town? 
4. Enakku't-teriyddu, I do not know (lit. it is not known to 
me). 6. Varlyil-e eddvadu abdyam und'd, is there any danger 
on the road? 6. Ndm piraydna7)i pdvum, vd, come, let us go- 
on the journey {lit. we^^ shall go, &c.). 7. ^dm IcaddiJcku-p- 
pOy koiijam ariri, ney, karl, mardldi vdiiguvom, let us go to the 
bazaar and buy some rice, ghee, and curry- stuff {lit. having 
gone to the bazaar, we^^ shall. &c.). 8. Verfenna vdi'iga venum^ 
what else^ need*" we buy ? 9. Nel-vayalgalil-e odugira periya 
ydndigaldi nokki pdrungal, please looks and see the big ele- 
phants that run in the rice-fields. 10. Ydndiyin tumhi-k-kdi 
migavum valiyadu, the elephant's trunk is very strong. 

IV. 

1. GTssJLuir'BsGr ^^i^&(^m^^Qeo jerrCvL-fr^LD ^erf^sQrn^. 

iSaJo^sii'Si^La QussBT LSl&T'^r^(ef^Lh QunQ((rfrr&Q<sn-sisr^ uirir. 



a « is added to the locative for the sake of emphasis, 

b Qenna-p-pattanam = Tamil name for Madras. Poga = infinitiye (of 
Tpo, " go") depending upon vendum. 

•- Inda-v-iiril : r is a euphonic insertion. 

<' Observe the use of 'itdm here and nangal in sentence no. 1 (of. p.. 30). 

«? Vefeijna — veru-^cnna (§ 12, i. a). 

' Veiiwii corrupt form of vendum. 

S NolcM pd>-vn'jal = iit. "having looked, (please) see." 

h Aii-filldi<j(il=iit. "male ch;ldjen," but generally "persons of the 
male sex," jusr. as pen-pi!ldigal = '' persons of the female sex," i.e. 
" women." 



KEY TO THE EXERCISES. 87 



ULj Lf/DLJUtLi—rresr . 6. (SUL^'iiSQevfTiT^sinLi^Qeo ^(Sv s^i oOl-UJ 

Q U J (J^^^FfT Q iU &b so IT LT, <S3h m IT U^^ ^UUfiSl 3^^ sQ <SfTSm L-.[T iT<ss<siT,, 
7. L9iOTL/ ^(l^eUQ^ih '3^^^.JinTiL^^ <SIEJSm e^© (SU^^ Q<3=TT^ 

sifTiTSiSfr. 8. <oT£?t8oqt Q(su(^ jBfTsfrrTiiiurSljh^eu'BoSTLjQufTeo (ou 
^<^-sk. 9. ^irQjBpj^&TTGoQu^ euTT^Q-^iTsk'onff u^isi^.^sSuQun 
^!k]Q<fS eu^^Q^sQ^^-esT, 10. /5<Tfk}<sm e^Q^ ir^iT^La sv&?)!inSl&> 
SfT^^i^&^fB-'ESn-t-.ir^, ji /5(T'bsn >i s^.'S'SireoCnLn ^m)^uu^}]L.iu 

V. 

1. However foolish one may be, if he were to continue reading 
ever so little (it may bo) every day, he will in the end improve 
his learning, as the saying is "a stone becomes hollowed by the- 
crawling of ants." 2. Let the tone of your voice be the same- 
in Kiading as it is in speaking (lit. when speaking, what sort 
your voice is, let it be that sort, when you read). 3. If you- 
meet with a word you do not know, do not simply think that it 
may have such (a meaning). 4. Having spelt it first, if you (still) 
do not know, (then) ask your teacher. 5. '' And seeing the 
multitudes, he went up into a mountain ; and when he was set,, 
his disciples came unto him." G. " When he was come down 
froui the mountain, great multitudes followed him." 7. Thett 
" tliere came a leper and worshipped him (by falling before him) 
saying, * Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean.' " 8. All 
the members of a family elected the bravest and the most intelli- 
gent amongst them as their head. 

VI. 

1. ^SBSfTeo^^eo LSjS^^esofis (§ui&&t ^u.^^eor€a)LauS6& 

(T^J^^ITfrSfifT. 2. ^eU!T<Sm ^(ff)6iJ(f^-BQ<!ElTQT)QJIT,FLaU^;gUUl^(r 

L06U ujhuso ^jb/D jrJir&<SB<c!rriTLiuLSl(flji^i(f}^i3^^triT<sm. S.Q^e^ir 

(Gaul) {S^s=^^iT(if)kQs!T^^({f,%^^. 4. ^m^ujiTeo ^<s^i'r<s&r 

* Notathe use of the gerund in this sentence (§ 31, ii. c). 
^ Lit. " having becom'e poor men." 

c Tenri(;aiyil = ten + tigdiyil^ '* in the southern part " {n+ t = ntf. 
§ 12, viii.). 



S^ KEY TO THE EXERCISES. 

^ s" rr eS <ss £{r iruSl ((^ ^ ^ IT IT <B !sir . 6. ^<su/r<5(er55D)L_(ij Q<su^^^^'k(§ 
Siu ^L-U^^csQmrr ^Qeo[T<B^^iQm s^^66),3'u^m^LCi (§ 53) 

.efr&s)<sU'SmiTii9(T^i5^s6r. 7. ^^sSl^fr (Druids) <5\^^^!b(^,^k 
^m (§ 17, c) ^iba!^<dS)L.uj (p. 34) (a^LL9/n> <ajn-Lei«<a5)«5(iSl^'i>-o/r) 

VII. 

1. In a certain village (o?- icnl) (ihere) lived a koniutti (a 
iirader of tiie Banian ca>te), possessing some money. 2. One 
.night a thief entered his honse for the purpose of stealing, and 
liid himself in the loft. 3. The komutti having become aware 
of this (fact) looked at his wile and said, "Where is our infant 
■cldld '^ Whai name may we give it?'' 4. To this she 
replied, " You may do (i.e. give) what (name) you please " 
(lit. to you wiiat way the mind is, ihat way you may do). 
-5. " Then we will give (it) the name of Verigade9an." So 
-saying, he bawled out loudly [the name] Veiigade^'a. 6. This 
Jiame being (also) the name of the police-officer (who lived) in 
the adjoining house, as soon as he heard his name, took his 
-arms, and coming into his (i.e. the trader's) house, asked, *' Why 
did you call for me ? " 7. The Banian by beckoning in- 
timated to the police-officer the fact that the thief was in the loft. 
«8. He at once caught the thief, bound him and took him away. 

VIII. 

•&sm® cgsk <s iofj- ^ ^nu i3 ^ <o^ I'J^ ji- ,<if Qua sir Qsijm<orPi ji^^S6rihm 



a See para. 46. 

« For uyir {v being a euphonic insertion). 

* K^OiVuriyavandan^ from ^"kt. <;auryavanta (strong form), " valiant.' 



KEY TO THE EXERCISES. 89 

i5iT<s(T pssr U€OL-<s&r c^iLL-^ihsm (§^l€G)ir<EB<s(r lUfr'Bsor^Em @66)su 

LD^lUU^lLjISJ ^S6Sr<SS^^^IT^^ sSl <B= SOT ^Q ^ IT Q ^ [T La'Bsoi uSl &b 

Quirdj ^^euirm ^sor inrs=9uj^^(srr Quir&ajrrdr ii3 ir it ssQ £5 sir 

(§&Q'BtT(Si^^ sSlilQ ^iiin> irirs=9luj^60)^ujii(^Lhuu^ (§ 63, c) 
ii9^ ujrS)Lnfr IT i^Sliu Lt^<SLCiQ^ebru(sn'^ i§(Uu9^^<F<SFpj)j G/sjr^ 
^i^uSiT sSiLi^iTeor. j^CsQuiT^^ Q<su^^rS(^euuj^^u^^ ^ek 

J)JLD ULLL-LDlTS^t-eur[^(Si^La (LfSUU^eO^ ^ ^ LatrQuj ^fE.ld LD 

.,j^&s6n—iTLh.**- 

IX. 

In a certain forest dwelt in very close friendship a lion and 
an ox. A backbiting (h')l-\-Qolludal) and covetous fox having 
<5ome, destroyed that Iriondship. When he (i.e. Somasarma) 
said so, (and) the princes asked,t> "How (was) that?" Soma- 
sarma proceeded to relate (llu; story). 

in a certain town named (ennum^ § 17, c) Mahirariippiyam, 
in the Southern country, ilieie lived a merchant named {enra, 
rel. part.) Vardhamana. Although he had much wealth (§ 46), 
yet, owing to his dt-sire {drdiyindl) that he should gain more, 
he began to think (dldrikkal + dndn) as follows: " Whatever is 
difficult to be acquired must be acquired. Whatever is acquired 
must be taken care of. Whatever is taken care of must be 
increased. Whatever is increased must be enjoyed by one's- 
self, and be spent upon persons worthy of receiving gifts 
(uttama pdttirattil). The substance which is not taken care of 
will be destroyed. Whatever is not increased (by industry) 
becomes less. It is said in the S'astras that (the wealth) which 
is not spent for one's own use, and for the use of others who 
are worthy of receiving boons, is wasted. Further, who possesses 
pleasure, merit, reputation, greatness among men, (extensive) 
friendship, power of accomplishing what was determined ? 
These are only po.-^sessed by those who have treasured up riches 
(lit. money). Those who are destitute (of riches) are in 
the eyes of the public like corpses in motion (tit. will become 



• Andu + dm {for dgum), 

*> The iniinitives folla and ena are used to express time (§ 63, a). 



90 KEY TO THE EXERCISES. 

walking corpses in the world). It is therefore expedient tr 
increase one's property." Having contemplated the mattev 
thus, he laid on his cart the articles of merchandise which he 
had in his possession, tied to the yoke his two oxen, named*- 
Sanjivaka and Nandaka, and went abroad driving (his cart). 

X. 

To Mr. George Banbury, 

Acting Collector^ of the South Arcot District (Ten -^-Atltddu-}- 
Quid). 

Letter (or petition) written by S'rinivasa Ayyaiigar, Acting 
Tahsildarc of Tindivanam Taluq, dated Head Quarters, on the 
19th October 1865. 

I have received and perused (your) 2nd Order No. 37, issued 
on the 30th of September last (calling attention) to your first 
order to receive and despatch the accounts from the Managers 
of the Temples (to enable you) to grant Inani (lands) in lieu of 
paying ready money (for the support) of the temples. 

There are nine temples in this Taluq. The accounts of two 
of these temples, and those of some Yomiyadars and other 
persons amounting to six individuals, to whom the allowance is 
paid in cash, have been prepared. But the accounts of the 
remaining seven temples are not ready yet. I have issued strict 
orders to the Managers of the Temples to appear (before me). 
I beg to informal you that I will have these accounts prepared as 
early as possible, and send them to you. 

Your obedient (servant). 



* Peyardi, "name," ace. governed by uddiya, "possessing," 
^ Avargal, honorific plural, 
c Title of officer in charge of a Tuluq. 

d Id/u fangadi manuvii feydu konden, I kave made this matter (the 
Bubject of) the petition. 



Part III, 



Tamil-English Vocabulary.* 

The words are here arranged according to the English alpha- 
betic order for easy reference; but the student should learn 
to use the Tamil dictionary where the words follow the Tamil 
alphabet. The following contractions are employed: — 

str = rerbs of the strong conjugation, f 28a and { 28 (1). 

w = the weak conjugation, as ney, p. 45 or en, p. 46. 

m = the middle conjugation, as pei-ii, p. 46. 

sm = verbs with strong and middle formg, as nada, p. 46, 

wm^ those with weak and middle forms, as per, p. 46. 

ir = irregular weak verbs, p. 47. 

V ■» verb; n - noun. 



A (agiren or agugiren, anen or 
ayinen or ilginen, aven or 
aguven, aga), to become. 

abagari (abagarikkireu, etc.), 
str., to (if fraud, plunder. 

abattu, calaniiti/. 

abayam, mi.'ifortune, danger. 

abippiniyaii) , intention. 

ai;ili, wnt., to tremble, to move', 

a(;ai, n., desire, [str., to shake. 

a^anam, seat. 

a9ar, presence, appearance. 

a^firam, observance, rite. 

avattai, neglect, disregard. 

avattiii-pannu, m., to neglect. 

accam, /Va?-, dread. 

accu, type. 

acc'adi ( = accu + a(Jikkireii, 
etc.), str., to print. 

adagu, a pledge, vegetables. 

m\&\, garment; cream. 

adai, wm., to attain to. [enclose. 

adai, sir., to shut, block up, 

adai, str., to rebound, to swell. 

adaie:ai. attainment. 



adaikkalam, refuge, 
adiiippu, obstruction. 
adaiyalam, a sign^ a mark, 
adaiyalam po^u, ir., to mark. 
adakku m., to subdue, restrain, 

conceal. 
adakki-p-podu, ir., to repress, 
adakku, n., restraint. 
adalal, therefore. 
adahgal, the contents. 
adangu, rn., to obey, submit. 
adaram, support. 
adarnda, dense, thick. 
adarttiyay ^n-op. adarcciyay, 

adv., close. 
aglaru (-giren, adarnden, -veji, 

adara), wm., to be close 
adayam, gain. [together, 

adi (-kkiren, «(c.), str., to beat. 
adi, a blow, a stroke ; source. 



adi, beginning. {bottom, 

adi, July -August. 
adi^ayam, wonder, 
agli-c-cuvadu, footstep, 
adigam, much. 

* For EnglUh-Tamil Vocabulary (alphabetical), see Tamil SBiiF-TAUOHT, 



^2 



ADI 



adiga-p-periya, very greats vast. 
adiga-p-piraga9amana, vivid. 
adigaram, chapter; authority. 
adigarau-Qey, w., to rule. 
adigara-p-pattiram, a jjower 

of attorney. 
adigari, sir., to increase. 
Adiga-viliii podu, ir., to over- 
adikkadi, often. [charge. 

adilirundu, thence. 
adimai, slavery. 
adipati, lordy ruler, 
adir, wm,^ to tremble. 
adi-t-talam, ground floor ; 
adu, ir., to cook, [foundation. 
adii, str.^ to approach, be near, 
adu, a sheep, [be suitable to. 
adu, m., to dance. 
adukku w., to pile up, pack. 
adu-madu, cattle. [cattle. 

adu-madu mey, str., to tend 
adu-mudal (adatku piabu), 

^since, thereafter. 
acluppu, fireplace, hearth. 
agaQam, sky. [cunning. 

agada-vigadam, treachery, 
agalam, breadth, width. 
agalamana, broad. 
agandai, presumption, pride. 
agappadu, ir., to be obtained, 

to become subordinate. 
agu, to become. (See a.) 
agulam, confusion, noise. 
aikkiyam, union, aggregate. 
aippa9i, October- November. 
aiya, sir. 
aiyo, alas! 
akkal, elder sister. 
akkam, grain ; side. 
akkam, increase, wealth, [come. 
akku, m.y to make, cause to be- 



AND 

al, w., to rule. 
ai, person {fern, a-tti). 
aja, sm., to measure. 
alagu, blade. 

alai, wm., to wander ; be tossed 
about; str., to disturb, 
alai, a wave. [shake. 

alam, a plough 
alam, salt-pan. 
alangaram, ornament. 
alavangu, a crow-bar. 
alavu, measure, quantity. 
aii, str., to bestow. 
aila (§ 4:1 g), not. 
allamal, besides. [night. 

al-l-um pagal-um, day and 
al69anai, consultation, deliber- 
tion. [take counsel. 

alo9i, str., to consult, think, 
aluval, business. 
amai, wm., to yield, agree. 
amiiidi, quietitcss. 
ambattan barber. 
amir, wm., to siyik. 
amma, ammal, madam, 
ammiii, small- pox. [motlier. 
amukku, ?»., to press. 
ail, male. 
a 11 a, anna. 

aniii, oath; iinvii, a7i elejdiant. 
aiiaiyidu, ir., 9attiyam pannu, 
anal, if. [m., to swear. 

anal-ulla, warm. 
analum (§46), although, yet. 
anbu, love. 
anda (§47b), that. 
andai, side, vicinity. 
andai, owl. 

andaiyil, near at hand. 
andarangam, privacy, secrecy, 
a^davan, lord, master. 



AND 

andi, eveyihuj. 
andu, a year. 
anega, many. 
angapadi, stirrup. 
arigriram, pri(U'. 
ange, there. [breadth, inch. 
angulam, a finger, Jinyer's 
ani, a screw, nail, pin. 
aui, June- July. 
anidiyulla, unjust. 
anil, a squirrel. [tice. 

aniyayam, unfairness, injus- 
afijal, afiju, re rerence, fearing. 
anmiii, inanliness. 
aiiiiam, food. 
annaii, elder brother. 
afinaiiam, ii/norance. 
aniirii;i-p-param , pineapple. 
anniya, different, stranye. 
an pauri, a boar. 
an pillai, a male child, man. 
anri, except. 
anrn, then, that day. 
anrniinidal, thenceforth. 
anubavi, sir., to enjoy. 
anuniadi, assent, command 
anunirinani, doubt, suspicion. 
anuppu, m., to send. 
apiyu, office, 

appadi, in that manner, so. 
appal further, beyond, [ence. 
appiyayam, practice, experi- 
appiyac;am pai.inu, m., to prac- 
appodii, then. \tise. 

ar or yar, (p. 34) who. 
'ara^u, a kiny. 
aragu, prettiness, beauty, 
arai, half 

arai (1) v., wm., to smite, 
strike (2) n., a slap, blow. 
ariii, room, cell, cavern. 



95 



ARU 



arai .s^?-., to yrind. [troduce. 
arai str., to call, invite, in- 
arai-met kattu, ceiliny. 
araippi, str., to cause to invite,. 

to send for, to summon 
arakku, redness, lac, wax; 
arai, Jire, heat. [arrack.. 

aralu, w,, to bum. 
aram, file, rasp. 
aram, virtue. 
aram, dejJth. 
aramana, deep. 
ara'-manai, palace. 
aram-atta, shallow. 
arambam, commencement. 
aran, beauty ; fortification, 
aravadu, somebody, [citadel. 
ari, ivm., to know, recognize. 
ari, wm., to perish; str., to 

destroy. 
ari, wm. , to gnaw, nibble ; cut off. 
ari9i, rice. 

arikkili, notice, information. 
arival, a sickle. 
arivi, str., to i^iform, publish. 
arivippu, arivittal, notice, 
arivu, knowledge. 
arivu, destruction. 
arji, reportf petition. 
arttam, n., meaning. 
aru, ir., cease; str., to cut, reap^ 
aru, way ; river ; six. 
aru, m., to abate ; to cool. 
aru, w., to weep. 
arubadu, sixty, 
arudi, end. 
aruge, adv., near 
arugiya, putrid. 
arugu, neighbourhood. 
aragu, ?/t., to ji^itfefy. 
arukku, dirt, filth. 



94 



ARU 



arul, grace. [cllfflcultij. 

arumiii, rarity, costliness, 
arunadam, lord of grace. 
aruppii, reaping, liar vest. 
am u oday am , sunrise. 
aruvi, icaterfall. 
astamanam, sunset. 
asti, estate, riches. 
astivaram, foundation. 
atcebam, censure, objection. 
atci, jiossession ; lordship. 
atpam, mean, trivial. 
attatci ; proof. 
attavanai, register, index. 
iltt'iraicci, mutton. 
attu, m., to assuage, cornfort, 
attuk-kutti, lawb. [soothe. 
attuma, the soul; a living being. 
avabatti, impiety, profaidty. 
ava^iyani, necessity, urgency. 
avadu, either; or. 
aval (§16b), she. 
iivalatcai.iamaiia, ugly. 
iivamanam ; nindai, disgrace, 
avan (§16b), he. [ijisult. 

ava-nambikkai, distrust. 
a vani , A ug ust- September. 
avayavam, limb, member. 
avir, str., to loose, untie, undo. 
aviri, indigo. 
ayattam, readiness. 
ayatta-p-paduttu, m., to pre- 
ayu ; ayu^u, age. [pare. 

ayudam, weapon ; tool. 

Ca (p. 49), to die. [prayer. 
^abam, n., recitation of a 
^abida, list, catalogue. 
^adai, flesh. 

9adanam, a bond, effort,means. 
-Qadangu, a ceremony. 



gAN 

9adar, issue, j/romulgation. 

9adi, caste. 

9adi, str., to assert, maintain. 

^adidi, suddenness. 

^adi-k-kay, nutmeg. 

9adi-pattiri, 7nace. 

9ad u V ana , ta m e ; g en tie . 

9agala, all, 

9agodaran, brother. 

9agodari, sister. 

9aigai, beckoning, signal. 

9akkiradai, diligence, activity. 

9akku, pouch ; sack. 

9alai, hall. 

9alladai, a sieve. 

9amridanam, peace. 

9aniaii, goods, furniture. 

9amanam , si)n ila rity , equal ity . 

9amanana, adj., even. 

9amai'ttiyam, skill, e.i-pertness. 

9ambadi, str., to acquire, earn. 

9ambalam, salary. 

9ambandam, connection. 

9ami, str., to digest. 

9amiy fimai , ind itfestion. 

9ammatti, a sledge-hammer, 

9amugam, presence. 

9amukkalam, carpet. 

9amu9aram, family. 

(^2Lm\ii}'Ai'i, family -man, farmer. 

9aii, a span. 

9aiiai, a grindstone. 

9anal, hernp. 

9anam, people. 

9andai, a market. 

9andai, strife, quarrel. 

9aiidai 9ey, iv.,tofight, quarrel. 

9andam, mildness. 

9andana-maram, sandalirood. 

9andegam, doubt. 

9andega-p-padu, ir., to suspect. 



gAN 

^andi, str., to meet^ visit, 
-9andi, tuHiyht. 
^andosham, cheerfuhiesSf joy. 
^angadi, events ap'air. 
yangldam, soiig, music, 
•^angili, a chain. 
^ani-k-kiiainai, Saturday. 
-9anmargam, vioiaUty. 
•^aiinal, window. 
^anniyayi, an ascetic. 
■^appfulu, food. 
^appani, a c ripple, 
9appattu, shots. 
■9appattu arjii, dining-room. 
^appattu var, shoelace. 
^appidu, ir.y to eat, 
9ara<;ari, areraye. 
^aradii, thread, wire. 
^*arakku, yoods, 
^aram, sap. 

-yarayam, arrack; spirits. 
9ari, riyht, e.cactness ; v. wni.y 

to sl'ale, slip. 
9aripptj4>ii^tn, w., to rectify. 
^arirain, hody. 
^arivana, steep. 
^arkkar, yovernnie)it. 
•9arkkarai, snyar. [ness. 

^at9i, evide)ice, testimony, wit- 
9at9i-k-karau, a witness. 
9at9i 90IIU, m., to bear evidence, 
9attai, a vest, coat, [to witness. 
9attam, a frame, rule, law. 
9attam, voice, noise. 
9attam podu, ir., to shout. 
9attamay {or -aga), aloud. 
9atti, a pan. 
9attu, little, somewhat. 
•9atiippu, marshiness, 
^avagari, a banker. 
;aY-v-ai"i9i, sayo. 



96 

giM 

9avara-k-katti, razor. 

9a var am, shaving 

9avi, a key. 

9avukkaram, soap, 

9avukku a whip, 

Qedam, damage. 

9edi, shrub, bush, 

9el, w., to go, pass. ' 

9elavari (-kkiren, dc), str., to 

9elavu, expense. [spmd. 

9elai, cloth (ofanative uumtan). 

9eluttii, )//., to cause to go, to 

expend. 
9emmriu, a shoetnaker, 
yen am, a saddle. 
yengal, a brick. 
9er, wm., to join; to arrive at, 
cer, str., to cidlect, to accumu- 
yeri, str., to thrive. [late 

9evipp'illada, barren, 
Qerippu, fertility. 
yeripp'ulla, fertile, 
yerii, mud. 
yeriippu, sandals. 
yettu-p-po, to die of, 
yeval, a cock. 
Qevi, ear. 
9evidu , deafness. 
9evvayk-kiramai, Tuesday. 
9ey (-gireu, -deii, -ven, -ya), to 
9eydi, a deed ; news. [do, 

9eygai, an act. 
yeyyul, poetry. 
9idaru, m., to scatter. 
9lkkiram, quickness. 
9ikkiramaua, quick. 
9lkkirama3^ quickly. 
9ila, few, some. 
9ilaiidi, spider. 
yilvauam, an odd number, [try, 
9imai, boundary, foreign coun- 



96 

/ giM 

^imma9anam, a tJirone. 

^indi, str., to think. 

9iiidu, VI., to sjrill, to shed. 

9iiiegam, friendship, affection. 

^inegidan, frisnd. 

9ingam, lion. 

9ini , siKja r ; saddle. 

^inua, small, little, 

^inuavaii, a lad. 

9ippi, a shell- fish. 

9lppu, a comb. 

9iragu, iviiir/. 

9ira, sm., to be elegant. 

9iran jiva, '^live long!" (a form 

of polite address). 
9iri, str., to laugh. 
9iru, little, small (9ittu, before 
9irumai, smallness. [avoivel). 
9iru pen, a girl. 
9islian, a pupil. 
9ittam, icill. 
9itti, success. 
9ittirai, April-May. 
9ittiram, a picture, an orna- 
9ittii, see Qiru. [ment. 

9ittii, note, rereipt, ticket. 
9ivanam, livelihood. 
9ivappana, red. 
9ivi, str., to live. 
91VU, 7n., to pare off, shave, 
9lvuli, a plane. [slice. 

9odu, couple, shoes (of a native). 
9okkattan, draur/htSj chess. 
90I (p. 51, No. 38), to say, tell. 
9olai, a grove, forest. 
9olaiii, maize. 
9ombal, idleness. 
9onda; 9ondamriiia, own. 
^ondakkaran, owner. 
cori, 7vm., to flow down. 
9ori, itching, scurvy. 



guv 

9or, wm., to languish, to fail* 

9 or II, j>ith : boiled nee. 

9U(laua, Jtot. 

9ude9i, native. 

9udu (p. 47), to burn. 

9udu, heat. 

9Ugam, health. 

9Ugamay, safely. 

9Ugappadu,ir., to recover ( from- 
illness j. [heal. 

9ugappaduttu, ?w., to cure; ta 

9ulagu, a winnowiufi fan,sieve^ 

9ulai, kiln. 

9uma, sm., to bear. 

9umai, a load. 

9umaikaran, a porter. 

9umandu p6, to carry away. 

9umma, simply, without rea- 

9undeli, mouse. [son^ 

9ungam, tax. 

9unnambu, lime, 

9ura, around. 

9uraudu, m., to scrape. 

9urangam, a mine, tunnel, 

9uriyan, sun. 

9uru 9uriippay, diligently. 

9uru 9uriippii, industry. 

9uru k ku, quickness. 

9iirukkii, a noose. 

9urul, a roll. 

9urungu, m., to shrink. 

9uttam, purity. 

9uttamana, clean. 

9utti 9ura, around. 

9uttii, m., to point out. 

9uttiram, engine, machine. 

9uttiyal, a hammer. 

9uttu, n., circuit; v.m., to re- 
volve, wrap. 

9uva9am, breath. 

9uvar, wall. 



97 



EGA 

(For words etymologically beginning 
with i), see under T.] 

Ec^amaii, niastar, 
€(;amrm i , in istress. 
■edTivadu, soHictlnntj, n'/iatever. 
«dir, wm., to come in front ; 

sir., to ojipose. 
•edirilli, o/ipomnit, accused. 
"cdo ; edavadu, mnnethinti. 
edii (p. 84), u'hiclt. 
€<Ui, str., tn tnlce up; to uncover. 
e(Uittu-p-p6(lii, /■/•., toreinove. 
«lada ; taii^ada, ini/if. 
oUiii, limit. 

•ellani; ellaruin (p. 87), all. 
eli, a rat. 
-elumbu, a hone. 
-en, w., to sai/, name, 
-en, u'ltf/ 
ei.ibadu, njltty. 
end a (^17), nliich? 
cndiram, a mill. [where. 

enge [engu + ej ; evvidattil, 
•enue-y- agilum, wJierever. 
•enge -y- 6, somewhere. 
eng'irundu, whence. [out. 
eng'um, ever tf where, throwjh- 
•eng'um uUa. universal. 
enna ; ennam ; eduvo, wJiat. 
ei.n.iam, notion. 
eunattnkkaga, wherefore. 
^i.ii.iey, oil (fr. el and ney, 

raju'-seed oil). 
■enney vilakkn, oil-lamp. 
ei.ii.iiranda, innumerable. 
' -ennu, m., to rerhm, count. 
■enru ; ena (^6o), that. 
eppadi, how. 

■eppadi-y-avadu, someliow. 
eppodu ; epuorudn, when. 
epporud'amilinn, wJienever. 

Tamil Grammar S.-T. 



IDI 



epporud'um, alirai/s. 

ei'i, n., fire; v.woi., to burn; 

str., to kindle, consume. 
eri, ivm., to throw. 
eri, a lake. 

eru, Win., to rise, ascend. 
eru, seven. 

eri\,in., to mount, climb, ascend 
erudu, m., to write. 
erudu, a bitllock. 
erumiii, a buffalo 
erumbu, an ant. 
erumbu, ni., to rise. 
eruppu, m., to awake, rouse. 
eruttu, letter, writing. 
eruttu-k-kuttu, m., to join 

letters, spell. 
etpadu, ir., to undertake. 
etta {p.p. of el) i Jit. 
ettanai, how many • 
ettu, n., eit/ht ; v.m., to reach. 
ettu, m., to raise, load. 
ettu-k-kol, to receive, accept ; 
evividUjir.. to e.vcite.[welrinne. 
evu, ni., to mye. 
evvalavu, how much I 
evvaiav'um, how inuch soever, 

I, n., a jiy ; wm., to give 
iQiii, 71., assent, harmony; v. 

wm., to join, ayrce. 
idaiveli, vacancy. 
idaiyiie ger, str., to insert. 
idaiyuru, impediment, mis- 
idadu, left side. [fortune. 

idam, position, place, left side. 
idan kodu, str.. to yield, allow. 
i^i, wm., to fall to pieces; str., 

to pound. 
idi; idimurakkam, thunder. 
idinal, hereby. 



98 



IDU 



idu, ir, to put, give. 

idu (p. 34), this. 

Idu, equivalent. 

idukkam, narrowness. 

idukki, pincers. 

idumudal ; inimel, henceforth, 
hereafter. 

iduppu, the hip. 

igiii, a gift: 

igal (igalu), icm., to hate, op- 
pose, [reproach. 

igar (igaru), wm., to despise, 

ila, young, tender. 

iiabam, n., profit. 

ilai9U, that which is tender; 
lightness, min uteness. 

ilagu, m., to relax. 

iliii, a leaf. 

iliii, str., to tire. 

ilaikkari, vegetable curry. 

ilaipparu, w., to rest. 

iliiipparudal, v.n., rest. 

ilaippattu, ?«., to refresh (one's- 

iiiiippu, v.n., fatigue, [self). 

iiiiiya, young. 

iiaiyaval, younger woman. 

ilaiyavan, younger man. 

iiakkam, number. 

ilakkanam, grammar. 

ilatcam, a hundred thousand. 

ilava^amay, gratis. 

illada, absent, destitute of. 

illai, no. 

illamal, without. 

imam, frost. 

inai (1), n., union, comparison; 
(2) v.wm., to join. [suade. 

iijakka-p-padnttu m., to per - 

inam, a gift. 

inangu, m., to yield, 

inattar, relatives. 



IRA 

inbam, pleasantness, delights 

inda (§17b), this. 

inge, here. 

inge yirundn, Jience. 

iniya, pleasant, sweet. 

innam ; innnm, yet, still. 

innatkalil, nowadays. 

innoru, another. 

inri, without. 

inru ; inraikku, to-day. 

inru iravil ; — rattiri, to-night, 

inu, w., to biing forth. 

ippadi ; indavagaiyil, thus. 

ipporudu ; ippo, now. 

ira, sm., to lose. 

ira, sm., to beg. 

ira, sm., to die. 

ira ; iravu, niglit. 

iraQa, a king. 

iraQa-kumaran, prince. 

iraca-kumaratti, jyrincess. 

iracastiri ; ira^atti, queen. 

iraclttu, receijjts. [dom,. 

iracciyam ; iratciyam, king- 

iradari, a permit. 

iraga9iyam, a secret. 

iragu, a feather, quill, [prey. 

irai, wmi., to pant; roar ; n. 

irai, dignity, eminence, a lord. 

irai, v.wm., to chafe, become 

soft; str., to mix, inchasey 

j)lanc ; n., yarn. 
iraicci, meat. 
irakkam, mercy. 
irakku, m., to lower, 
irai, prawn. 
Irai, the lungs, liver. 
Iram, moisture, damp. 
Iramana ; iianainda, wet, 
irandavadu, second. 
iranglay, in two ; asunder,- 



99- 



IRA 

irai.ulu, tiro. i 

irandum-adangrina, tu-ofold. ' 
irangu, m.j to jriti/, refjret. 
irangu, m., to dencrnd, alight, 
irappala-k-kay, bread-fruit. 
irappu, dcatli. 
iratci, atr., to save. 
iratcippu, salvation. 
irattiii-p-pilliii, twins. 
irattaiysly, doiibbj. 
irattani, blood. 
irattam vadi, mv//., to bleed; \ 

str.,to cause to bleed, [luents. 
irattam bararn, scarlet vest- 
irattu, two-fold ; sack-cloth. 
iraval, a loan. [borrow. 

iraval {or kadan) vaiigu, ;»., to 
iraval koclu, str., to lend. 
iravu, loss. 

iray ayam , secretari/ship. 
irayastiri, resfiectuble, honour- 
able [in addressiu(f). 

iri, wni., to descend, be humbled. 

iru, (1) !>., to break', end; (2) 
str., to pay off. 

iru, str., to draw, pull. 

iru, stn., to e.vist, reniain. 

irudayam, the heart. 

irumal, couffh. 

irumu, >??., to cough. [tight. 

irugu, in., to become hard or 

irul, darkness. 

irumbu, n., iron. 

irupp'idam, habitation, seat. 

iruppn, adj., {made of ] iron ; 
v.n., sitting, residence. 

iru taram, twice. 

iruttu, m., to become dark. 

iruvarum, both of them. 

iskoppiii, scoop. 

ispanju, sponge. 



KAD 



isttor, store. 

isttork kidangu, store-room.. 

ivan (p. 34), tliis man. 

iyal, w., to be able. 

iyalbu, nature. 

iyalbukku virodamana, un- 

lyam, lead [natural. 

iyanra mattum, «., utmost. 

Ka, str., to protect, to wait for. 

kacappu, bitterness. 

kacu, cash. 

ka9uba, kasba, the principal 
village, headquarters. 

kadai, a storg. * 

kadiii, shop ; end. 

kadai9i, the end, the last. 

kadiiiQiyana, utmost. 

kadiiikkaran, bazaar-man. 

kada, sm., to jump over, cross.. 

kadakkira turai, ford. 

kadal, sea. 

kadal-nandu, sea-crab. 

kadalai, gram {Bengal). 

kadamai, dutg, obligation. 

kadan, debt. 

kadan 9lttu, bond. 

kadandu po, to pass, traverse. 

kadan padu, ir., to become in- 
debted. 

kadan patt'iru, to owe. [bar. 

kadappfirai ; alavangu, crow- 

kadavadu (§42c), ought. 

kadavu, m., to nail on, rivet. 

kadavu, door. 

kadavu-p-puttu, a door-lock. 

kadi, str., to bite. [ness. 

kadinam, Jiardness, mikind- 

kadiyamana, severe, hard. 

ka(,livalam, a bridle bit. 

kadivaia-var, reins. 



1,00 



KAD 



iiadiyaram, a watch, clock. 
.kadu, ear. 
kfulu, JKiuile. 
.kadudaci, paper. 
kadudaci uriii, envelope. 
kaduga, apeedilif. [pass swiftly. 
kadugu, 7?., mustard; v.ni., to 
kadukkan, earrim/. 
kadukkul 90IIU, m., to whisper. 
kadu-vetti, wood-cutter. 
kaduvay, tiger ; a hyena. 
kagidam, paper ; letter. 
kai, hand. [stand. 

kaikaruvum megai, wash-hand 
kai-k-kotlali, hatchet. 
kai-k-kol, walk iny -stick. 
kai-k-kuli, a bribe. 
kaimmiii, widowhood. 
kaimmutti, the clenched fist, 
kaim-pen, widow. 
kai-mudal, capital, principal. 
.kaippidi, a handful. 
kai-t-tuvaliii, napkin, 
kai-vedi, pistol. 
kai-vilakku, hand-lamp. 
kai-yalu, w., to practise, handle. 
kai-y-iruppu, balance in hand. 
kaiyoppam, signature. 
kaiyoppam vai, str., to sign. 
kai-y-iilla natkali, arm-chair. 
kaiyurai ; kilavs, glove. 
kakkai, crow. [learn. 

kal (1), n. stone (2) v.w., to 
kal (1) paw, leg (2) quarter. 
,kala, str., to nnx. 
kaliii, a bull. 

ksd'sii; vidiyatkalam, morning. 
kalakkam, agitation, commo- 
ialakku, m., to stir, [tion. 
kalam, a measure of grain, 
kalam, threshing -floor, shoal. 



KAN 

kalam, season, period, time. 
kalame, in the morning. 
kalafijiyam, a granary, treas- 
kalappiii ; er, a plough, [ury. 
kalappu, mixture, concrete. 
kalavali ; tirudan, tliief. 
kali, str., to rejoice. 
kalavu 9ey, to steal, rob. 
kalavu ; tiruttu, theft. 
kali- man, clay. 
kaiippu, joy. 

kaliyai.iam, felicity, marriage 
kalla^ari, a stone-mason. 
kallaii, a thief. 
kaiiar, collar. 
kallarai, a rock cave. 
kal-1-Iral, liver. 
kal-mariii, hail-storm, 
kal-tagadu, slab of stone. 
kalvi, learning. 
kalvi-c-calai, college, 
kalviman, a learned man. 
kalviral, toe. 
kaman, arch. 
kambalam, a blanket, rug. 
kambayam, a coarse cloth. 
kambali, blanket. 
kambi, wire. 
kambu ; tadi, pole, stick. 
kambu, a stalk, stem. 
kaml9U, shirt. 

kamugu-maram, the areca- 
kan, an eye. [nut tree, 

kiin, w., to see. 
kan ; kal, a drain. 
kanakku, an account. 
kanakkan, accountant. 
kanal, r a pour. 
kanatta ; kattiyana, thick. 
kanbi, str., to cause to see, in- 
kandai, a rag, [timate. 



lot 



KAN 

kandakkii; kandattar, mmhic- 
karidaTTirilili, scrofula. [tor. 
kaiuli, sir., to rejirore, rebuke. 
kaiujippu, Htrictness ; unfinf/. 
kai.K.lu pi<li, fttr., to find. 
kangfini ; melviyari, overseer. 
kan<,'ii, f^aiiff. 
kai.ii, the fraction ^. 
ktini, fruit. 

kani kodada, unfruitful. 
kafjji, rice i/ruel. 
kannadi, mirror. 
kain.iadi-t-tattu, a jiane of \ 
kaiiijiip, cJirck. [(/lass. 

kauni ; kumriri, a damsel, 
kai.iui, snare, [spinster. 

kanuimai, maidenhood. 
kannimjli; kannidar, eyelid. 
kauniiiiai-inayir, ei/elas/i. 
k a 1.1 1.1 T r , tea rs . [ iceep . 

kaiinlr-vidii, ir, to shed tears, 
kani'U, seed I in ff; calf, [ceive. 
kai.i (p. 50, No. '26)), to see, per- 
kai.iu ; kuiiticcu, a joint. 
kai.iuk-kal, the anlde. 
kappal, sldp. 

kapp'attu, m.., to take care of, 
kappi, a pulleij. [preserve. 

kfippi ; koppi, coffee. 
kap-pordu, cupboard. 
kappii, (juard, preservation. 
karadi, a bedr. 
karadu muradana, uneven. 
karjii, bund, hank. 
karili, wtn., urugu, m., to melt^ 
kaniindu po, to dissolve. 
karili-p-paduttu, m., to stain. 
kariiiyan, n-liite ants. 
kfiran, doer, maker. 
karaiidi^ spoon. 
karappan, itching. 



KAV 



karattai, carria<ie. 
kareci, str., to roar. 
kari, str., to subtract, deduct. 
kari, curr:/. 
kan9aiiai, tender rare. 
kari \ am, affair. 
karppuram, camphor. 
karttigai, Norember-lJecember^ 
karu, n., embri/o, nundd. 
karudiii," ass. 

karudu, m., to think, mean. 
karugal, darkness. 
karumbu, sutjarcane. 
kaiun-gal, (jranite. 
karungali hiaram, eboiiy. 
karutta ; karuppana, black. 
karuttu, neck. [tie.. 

kariittuk kuttai, wrapper, neck- 
karuva-p-pattai, cinnamon. 
karuvadu, dry fish. 
karuvi ; ayudam, tool. 
kariivu, m., to wash. 
kat9attai, trousers. 
katpalagai, a slate. 
katpi, to teach, order. 
kattai, block, log. 
kattirikkol, a pair of scissors^ 
katti, knife. 
katti, lump. 
kattil, bedstead. 
kattil pudaviiigal, bedclothes,. 
katt'iru, sm., to wait. 
kattu, wind, breeze. 
kattn, a bond, tie; parcel; 
kattu, m., totie, build, [bayidaye.. 
kattu, m., to show. 
kattuttari, a jwst, stake. 
kaval, defence, guard. 
kavalai, care, sorrow. 
kavalaiylnam, neglect. 
kavalali, prisoner. 



JL02 



KAV 



ikavanam, attent'nm. 
kiivani, str., to take notice of. 
kavaificam, pair ofcompas.se.s. 
Ivjiyatka, str., to natch. 
kavatkaraii, watchman. 
kavattai, the fork of a branch. 
kavattu 9ey, «•., to prune. 
kavuccu, couch. 
^kayam, a icound. 
kfiyccal; juram, fever. 
kiiyccu, in., to ivann. 
liiiyidam, letter. 
kayiru, rope, twine. 
kebi ; kugai, a den, cave. 
kedu, ir., to pjerish, spoil. 
keda, ruin. 
kekkn, cake. 
kel, w., to hear ; ask. 
ikelvi, hearing, queMum. [roar. 
kercci (/or karcci), ntr,, to 
iketta, />(?rf, evil. 
kettal, kettle. 
kettiyaiia, clever. 
kidaiigu, a warehouse, 
kll, Jmuje ; jntch, tar. 
]kili, parrot. \jto nip. 

killu, (1) n., a pinch ; (2) v.m., 
'kindu, m., to dig, poke. 
kindu palagai, coffee rake. 
.klr, below, east. 
kiiadi, rail. 
kirai, vegetables. 
.kirakku, east. 
;kivamai, dag of the week. 
'kirambu, cloves. 
kirangu ; ver, root, yam. 
kiravan, old man. 
kiFavi, old ivoman. 
ikirayam ; viJai, cost, value. 
ikire ; paniya, below, down. 
Jiire vidu, to drop. 



KOP 

kiri ; str., pli'u, m., to tear. 
klr-p-padidal [or -padivu), 

obedience. 
kir-p-pad iyjida, insubordinate. 
kir- p - pad iy a mil i , d isobedien ce . 
kirubai, (/race. 
kirumi ; puiu, a wonn. 
kitta (§52), near by. 
kittina, near, short. [near. 
kittu, 7n., to approach, be 
kobam, anger. 

kobam muttu, m., to provoke. 
kobam-ulla, angrgr 
kobi, str. ; kandi, str., to sr<dd. 
koburam, tower. 
koccik-kav, cliilli, red pepper. 
kodiii-k-kalam, hot season. 
kodali, axe. 
kodi, stv., to boil. 
kodi, a flag. 
kodiya, cruel, barbarous. 
kodn, str.. to give, gvant, pay. 
kodukku, sting of wasp. 
kodumiii, cruelty. 
kodumai ma, wheat-flour. 
kokki, cook. 
kol, w., to kill. 
kol, w., to take. 
koi, rod. 

kol, v.n., taking ; calumny. 
koiiii 9ey, to kill. 
kollai, robbery. 
koilaii, blacksmith. 
kombu, a branch, horn. 
konalana, crooked, zigzag. 
kondirattukkaran, contractor. 
kondu va (p. 49, No. 17), to 

bring. 
konjam; atpam, a little. 
konj an kuriiiya, almost, nearly, 
koppai, cup. \well-7iigh. 



KOP 

k6ppi-c-cedi, cojfee bush. 

koppu, branch. 

kori, fowl. 

kori-k-kufiju, chicken. 

kortu, court. 

koruppu, t/rease, fat; impu- 

kottiii, fortress. [dence. 

kottiii, nut. 

kottan, an owl. 

kottappuli, mallet, 

kottu, coat. 

kottu, to ffrnb, pick. 

kovil, temple, church. 

kovis, cabbafje. 

ku9avan, a potter. 

kuccam, sht/ness. 

ku9ini, kitchen. 

ku9iiii-metti, kitchen-boy. 

ku9U, m., to be s/nj. 

kuda (§62), togetJier. 

ku(lada, unable. 

kudadu, cannot (§ 41). 

kudiii, n., umbrella; v. wm.j 

to excavate, scoop. 
kiK^ai, basket. 
kudam, water -pot. 
ka(]a-p-p6, to accompany. 
kudfiram, tent. 
kudi, household^ inhabitant. 
kudi. str.y to drink. 
kiidi9ai, hut, cottage. 
kudiriii, horse. 
kudiriii eri-p-p6, to ride. 
kudiriii-k-karaa, horse-keeper. 
kudiriii-layam, a stable. 
kudinii-p-padai, bridle-path. 
kudi yana van , ho useholder. 
kudiyiru, sm., to dwell, inhabit. 
kudu, n., cage ; socket; v. m., 

to combine, be able. 
ku(^um (§ 41), can. 



108 
KUR 

kudumbam, family, [family. 
kudumbattan, a member of a 
kukkural; caiidai, n., clamour, 
kulam, tank. [quarrel. 

kulam, caste, race. 
kulavi, wasp. 
kiiii, wagefi. 
kuli, str., to bathe. 
kiiiikkaran ; kuliyal, coolie. 
kulikkira ariii, bath-room. 
kuiikkira turai, bathing-place. 
kuiir, cold, chill. 
kuiircciyana, cold. 
kuliyal, labourer. 
kumarau, a son. 
kumasta, clerk. 
kumukku, whole, total, mass. 
kunam, quality. 
kundu9i, pin. 
kuni, wm., to stoop. 
kuniyiral, shrimp. 
kuppidu, ir., to call. 
kuradu, tongs. 
kuriii, a thatched roof. 
kuriii, wm., to decrease. 
kuriiiccal, scarcity. 
kuriiivana, imperfect. 
kuraivu; kurai, deficiency , im- 
kural, tube, flute, [perfection. 
kuralana, hollow. 
kurandai, infant. 
kurangu, monkey. 
kurappam, confusion, 
kurccu, a stake. 
kuri, mark; symptom, 
kuri, pit. 

kuri mu9al, rabbit. 
kurippu, a note, sign. 
kuritta velai, task. 
kurittu, about, concerning. 
kurittu-vai, str., to note down. 



104 



KUR 



kuri-y-arivi, str., to proclaim, 
kuriya ; kurii ; knrnm ; kuttu, 

.short, deficient. 
kui'mjii, shcirjmess. [2)riest. 
kiiru {jyl. kuriikkal), teacher ^ 
kiirudan, a blind man. 
kurudu, Idindness. 
kurukku, cross (oblique). 
kurukku-t-tappal, a cross-bar. 
kururam, cruelty. 
kuruvi, bird. 
kushta-rogam, leprosy. 
kutttii, shortness. 
kuttali, compayiion, friend. 
kiittam, band : meeting. 
kuttam, fjuilt, blame. 
kuttam illamai, innocence. 
kuttafi 9attu, m., to accuse, 

charge. 
kuttan-kudu, m., to assemble. 
kuttavali, a criminal. 
kutti, young of an animal. 
kuttu, proclamation. 
kuttu, ?7i. ; (^ev,wm., to gather. 
kuttu, m. ; tai, str., to j^fick, 

pierce. 
kuttu ; i(li, str., to pjound. 
kuvaliii, mug ; water-lily. 
kuva ma, arrowroot. 
kuvi, str., to heap up. 
kuviyal, ti., /nlc, lieap. 

Lacci, a drawer. 

laccip-petti, chest of drawers. 

ladakkarau, farrier. 

ladain, horseslioe. 

landar, lantern. 

lay am, a stable. 

layan, linex, or <oolie sheds. 

Ie9ana, light, easy. 

lefij i , handkerchief. 



MAN 

lingu, li7ik. 
loham, zinc. 

Ma, flour, meal; mango tree; 

the fraction /s. 
macalai, curry stuff, drugs. 
ma9am; madam, month. 
maccup-po, to decay. 
ma9i, February -March ; mist, 
madangada, unyielding, rigid, 
madangu, m., to yield. 
madi, str., to estimate; respect, 
madi, str., to fold. 
madippu, an estimate. 
madippu, a fold. 
madiri, n., model, example. 
madu ; erudu, bullock. 
magal, daughter. 
magan, son. 
magani, the fraction A. 
mai ; tmdai, ink. 
makkac-colam, maize, com- 
mal, pjalace. [flour, 

maliii, hill. 

malai, a garland ; evening. 
malai-p-pakkam, hill-side. 
maliiiyaruvi, mountain torrent, 
maligai, mansion. 
mailu, wrestling. 
maman, father-in-law, uncle, 
mam param, mango fruit. 
marai, ruotlter- in-law, aunt. 
man, deer. 
man; nilam, eartJi. 
m aiia - c - catc i , con scirn ce . 
mana9u ; manadu, mind. 
manal, sand. 
manam, rnind. 
maiiam illada, reluctant. 
ma,nii-i"ci\nimy'iin\, contentu I cut, 
manastabam, 92., regret. 



MAN 

manastaba-p-padu, ir., to re- 

punt. 

mauvetti, mattock {mamatty). 

mandai, 'a flock. 

mandan, a foolish person. 

mandi, black monkeij. 

mani, hell ; hour. 

mai.iikkattu, tlie wrist. 

mfiniyam, grant of land free of 

mafijal, yellow ; sa^ffr on. [tax. 

maujai nir, saffron water. 

mauiii, str.^ to foryive. 

maunippu, foryiveness, pardon. 

manidan ; mauushan, man. 

manu ; manuvu, a petition, re- 

manushi, woman. [quest. 

mfippandam, jmstry. 

mappillai , h rid eg room, 

mara, sm., to forget. 

marai, wm., to vanish, hide. 

mariii, rain. 

mariii-c-catt;ai, rain-coat. 

mariii illfimai, drought. 

maram, a tree, timber. 

mara-nay, pole-cat. 

marbn, breast. 

marb'u9i, a breast-pin, brooch. 

mjlrgari , December- January. 

mari-kalam or mariii- kalam, 
rainy season. 

mari mari, alternately. 

mariyadiii, civility. 

mariyal, a stopping, jail. 

mariyatkarau, jyrisoner. 

maru, str., to refuse, contra- 
dict, deny. 

maru, other, ne.ct. 

marumagal, daughter-in-law, 
niece. [nephew. 

marumagan, son-in-law, 

marumori, answer. 



10{^ 



MET 



marungalana, dull. 
marundu, medicine. 
marupadiyum ; tirumbavum^ 
matta, otlier [again^ 

mattam, measure, rule. 
mattam ; mattakkudiriii, a 

])ony. 
matten (§47e), I will 7iot. 
mfittiriii, pill. 
matt'iriii99i, beef. 
mattiram, only. 
mattiyauam, mid-day, 
mattu, m., to alter. 
mattiikkaran, cattle-keeper, 
mattum, until. 
mattu -mandiii, a herd. 
mattu-p-patti, cattle-shed. 
mayir, hair. 
me9iii, taUe. 

me9ai-t-tuppatti, table-cloth. 
mediii, platfmm. 
meduvana, soft. 
meduvay, slowly. 
megam, cloud. 
mel, ^fine, soft. 
mel, above ; the west. 
mel, mellu, w. to chew. 
melana, upper, superior. 
melanavan, n., superior. 
mella, slowly. 
melliya, fine, thin. 
melum, moreover. 
mel vila9am, address. 
merugu, (1) n., wax; (2) ?;.?/?.,- 

to smear. 
merugu vatti, candle. 
met jodu, stockings. 
metkatti, an awning. 
met kottu, overcoat. 
metku, west. 
metpadi, ditto,. aforesaid. 



i06 



MET 



metpakkam, top, or west side 
mettai, mattress, cushion, bed. 
mey, truth, body. 
mey, {l)iv7n., to graze, to thatch; 

(2) str., to feed (cattle J, 
meyccal, pasture. 
meyppan, shepherd. 
meyyana ; nigamana, true. 
miccam, excess, remainder. 
midi, the remains. 
roidi, str., to stamp, trample. 
miga, migavum ; metta, much, 
migu (p. 47), to exceed, [very. 
milagu, pepper. 
mm, fish. 

min ; minnal, lightning. 
minittu; nimisham, a minute. 
mirudu, softness. 
mirugam, animal. 
mogamana, dangerous. 
mo, am., to smell. 
mondu par, sir., to smell. 
moppam, smell. 
movay, chin. 

moy, str., to crowd, swarm. 
muQal, a hai-e. 
mudal, the first,* principal. 
mudalam, mudalavadu (§20), 
mudal taram, first n-ife. [first. 
mudam, latneness. 
mudam, foolishness. 
mudattanmili, ignorant state. 
mudi, a crown. 
mudi, a cover, lid. 
mudi, wm,., to end, he finished; 

str., to finisJi. 
mudiccu, knot. 
mudippu, a tie, jntrse. 
mudivu ; kadaigi, n., the end. 
miidu, m., to cover. 
imudugu, the hack {of body). 



MUT 

miidu pani, mist, fog. 
mugadavu, in presence, in 

person. 
mugadu ; modu, roof, ridge, 
mugam, face. 
mugurtta nal, wedding-day. 
mukkadu, veil. 
mukkal, threefourths. 
mukkonam, triangle. 
mukku, nose. 
mul ; mullu, thorn, fork, 
mulai, corner, angle. 
mtilai, brain. 
mulai, breast [female), 
mulai, str., to sprout. 
miilam, root, bulb, cause, 
mullulla, prickly. 
mun ; munne, before. 
munbu, munbaga, in front of. 
munda, previously, formerly 

{inf. of mundu). 
mundili nfil, day before yester- 
mundina, prior. [day. 

mundi-p-p6, to lead, advance. 
mundu, m.., to precede. 
mungil, bamboo. 
munname, before; already. 
munru, three. 
muppadu, thirty. 
murai, order, manner, com- 
muradana, coarse. [plaint 
murai ppattu-k-karan ; vadi, 

complainant. 
rauniiyidu, zr., to complain. 
muran kai, elbow. 
muyan kal, knee. 
muri, (1) wm., to become broken; 

(2) str., to break. 
murudum ; muttilum, ivh<dly. 
murukku, m,., to wring, twist. 
mutta kudiyal, the elder wife. 



MUT 

muttiii, rr/ff. 
muttjli ; kattu. a btmdle. 
inuitam, o kiss. 
muttam, a <oiirt-i/ar(L 
mfittaval, rlilcr ivom.an. 
mfutavan. tUler n an. 
muttilum, eutirelij, utterly, 
inuttirili, seal. [quite. 

muttu, /leaii, 
muyatci, i^/f'ort. 

Nabagam ; yadi, rnemuri/. 

na9ain, destruction, loss. 

Dada, .s ///,., to uallc. 

nacjiii, u-alh; i/ait, pace. 

na<lakkiii, n., conduct. 

lUK.lattu, ui., t(t conduct, direct. 

2ia<j6rnni, daili/. 

na(.lu, /;'., to plant. 

iiac.lii ; niatti, cottre. 

nadu, countrij, jtrovince. 

naduiigu, /;/., to trouble. 

lUKJu nittiri, widnii/ht. 

naduve ; iide, amid, between. 

nagili. sir. to laurfh. 

nagili ; abaranaiii, jeivel. 

na'jam, a nail, claw. 

naganavay, the urina bird. 

nagaram, citj/. 

nagu, ir., to shine, lawjh. 

nakku, w., to suck, lap. 

nfikku, tonfjue. 

nakku mm, sole-fish. 

nal, nallu, v.yn., to love.; n., 

nril, a daij. [the middle. 

iiaiadu, current. 

naird ; naliiikku, to-morrow. 

naihi, (food. 

nal toriim or nadorum, daily. 

naiu ; nangu, four. 

nambikkai, w., trust. 



107 
NER 

nambii, m., to trust, e.v]>ect. 

nanili, (1) wm., to be wet; (2) 
)t., toddij, flower buds. 

nanaivu, wet, moisture. 

nanal, a reed. 

nai.iam ; adakkam, modesty, 

naiidu, crab, lobster. 

nane ; nsiu taii, un/self. 

nafiju ; visham, poisoji. 

nanray, well. 

nanri, ijoodness, yratitude. 

nanri ketta, unyrateful. 

narjii, yreyness. 

nariiiyulla. grey. 

narafiju narattai, orange. 

nari, jackal. 

nashtam ; kedu, loss, harm,, 

natcattiram, star. 

natkali, a quadruped, chair, 

natpadu, forty. 

natpu, friendship. 

nattu, a plant. 

nay, dog. 

nay a, str., to love. 

nayagau, headman, 

iiayirii, tJie sun. 

nay i tt u - k - kiramai , Sunday, 

nediya, nedum, long, tall. 

nedumai, length. 

nedun-cappattu, boots. 

nel ; nellu ; ari9i, rice, paddy. 

nenju, the breast, chest. 

neraga, straightforwa rd. 

neram, time. 

neram tavarada, punctual. 

nerana, straight, honest. 

neri, conduct. 

neridu, ir., to encounter, to 

nermiii, honesty. [happen. 

neruppu ; anal, fire. 

neruppu-k-kiradi, orate. 



108 



NET 



uettiii, tallnefm. 
netti, forehead. 
netta, ijesterdrnj 
ney, (I) n., ghee; (2) r.u\, to 
neyani, alf'ection. [^iveave. 

nl, s^/'., to abandon. 
nl trine, thijself. 
nicaiij, niccayam, eertainti/. 
nidanam, justness; criterion. 
nidipadi ; nidivan, judge. 
nidistalain, court. [remoral. 
nikkam ; iilkkii, sejjaration, 
nlkku, VI., to rein ore, avert. 
nil, ?r., to stand, stop. 
nila ; candiran, moon. 
iiila veliccani, moon-liglit. 
nilai, (1) str., to abide, to last; 
(2) n., condition, position. 
nilaimai, quality, condition. 
nilam ; tariii, ground. 
nllam, blue. 

nllam, length. [tion. 

nilamai, landed property, sta- 
nilam ala, sm., to survey. 
iiilamana, long. 
nliamana, blue. 
niluviti, balance. 
nimir, wni., to become erect. 
nimirttu, m., to set ujwight. 
nimisham, moment. 
nimittam, for the sake of. 
iiinai, str., to think. 
iiinaivu ; cindanai, thought. 
niniiivu kiir, wm., to remember. 
Hindu, )n., to swim. 
nir, (1) you ; (2) nater. 
nira^a vastu, mineral. 
nIr luattam, v-ater -level. [rent. 
nlr ottam , mrppayccal, tor- 
nirtli, wm., to become full. 
niriii ; param, weight. 



ODU 

nirai, (1) wm., to be in order; 
(2) str., to arrange. 

nirai ; \ ari, lijie. 

niriiinda, full. 

nirai, shadoir. 

nirani ; variiam, colour. 

nirambii {intr.), m., nirappu 
{tran.), in., to till. 

niravi. a well ; steam. 

nlrppfiyccu, ?//., to water. 

nirfc-tara, wild duck. 
' nirii, str., to weigh. 

niriitr^i, m.. to ditain. 

nitipati , nitivau, judge. 

nitistalam, court. 
nitpandam (properly, nirb- 

andam), misery. 
nittiriii, sleep. 
nittiraiyay, asleep. 
nittu, length. 

nittu, »?. ; viri, .s^r., to stretch. 
nivirtti, removal. 
niyami, str., to appoint. 
niyayacanam, be^ich {law). 
niyayam, reason, justice. 
niyayamana, right. 
no, (1) 71., aching, pain ; (2) v. 

wm., to ache. 
nokkam, view, object. 
nokku, m., to look. 
novup-paduttu, m., to hurt. 
nul, (1) n., thread, line; (2) 
mini, 2^0 int. [r.w., to spin. 
nurai, (1) ivm., to creep in, to 
trespass ; (2) str., to insen 
nuru, hundred. 
nutpamana, adj., minute, jine, 

0, str., to resemble. 
odiii, water-course. 
odu, a shell, tile. ' 



109 



ODU 

odu, )n.j to nm, flee. 
0(lukku, 111., to oppress. 
odulvku, a corner, shelter. 
olli, thinness. 
onay, wolf. 
onbadu, nine. 

• o 1.1 (I i k k a ran , bachelor. 
oiuliyana ; ottiii, single. 
onrum illai, nothing. 
oppaiii, affreenient, signature. 
oppi, str., to deliver up; prove. 
oppu, w., to consent. 
■oppuk-kodu, str., to consign, 

surrender. 
oppiivi, str., to deliver. 
orara, margin, edge. 
oralo9i, clock. 
ore, one unhj, same. 
or idattilum illiii, nowhere, 
oru (§ 18), an. 
•oru pakkattil, aside. 
oru krdum illiii, never. 
oriikkam, conduct. 
oruinikka, together. 

• orunt^aua, ref/ular. 
orungu, rule, nu'thod. 
orii-patta, together. 
oruturam ; oruvi9ai, once. 
ottaciii ; udavi, help. 
ottagam, a camel. [re7it. 
ottam, a course ; gallop ; cur- 
otti, a mortgage. 

ott'iru, sin., to resemble. 
ottu, m., to drive. 
ottukkol, u\, to acknouH 
ottu-p-pilr, str., to compare. 
ovvoru, each, every. 
6y, ivm. ; ori, win.', ninru po, to 

cease. 
oyada, incessant. 



PAL 



Pa^ai, language. [gear. 

pa9ali, Fusly,-'- official revenue 
paccaiyana, green; raw. 
paci, hunger. 

pa9U, (1) a cow ; (2) green, pure. 
padiii, layer ; army. 
padam ; adi, foot. 
padi, according. 
padi (§ 64), step; way; measure. 
padi, str., to read, learn. 
padil ; padilaga, instead of. 
padi-p-padiyay, gradually. 
padippi, str., to educate. 
padiyal, for, because, whereas. 
padu, (1) ir., to suffer, under- 
go ; (2) str., to lie down. 
padu, m., to sing. 
padukkai, bed. 
padukkiii-y-arai, bedroom, 
padungu, m., to hide. 
pagiii, enmity. 
pagal, day {time). 
pagam, share. 
pagudi, division ; share, 
pai, a bag. 
pai9a ; 9alli, a pie. 
paittiyam, madness. 
paiyan, boy. 
pakkam ; vila, side. 
pakkiyam, happiness. 
pal ; palln, tooth. 
pal, milk. 

pal pa9ii, milch coiv. 
pala ; anega, several, many, 
pfiladai, cream. 
palagai, a board. 
palam, force. 
palam, bridge. 
palam ulla, strong. 
palan, result; advantage. 



* The Arabic name lor a year, commouly used in India. 



110 



PAL 



palau kodu, str., to produce 

results or pro/it. 
palavandam, force, violence. 
pali, a sacrijiee. 
palingu, (jlasH. 
pallam, a pit, hollow. 
palli, a lizard. 
palli-k-kii(lam, school- house. 
paiiivacal, mosque. 
paiiu-p-parus, toothbrush. 
pallu-vali, toothache. 
pambu, snake. 
panai, the palmyra tree. 
panai ; koppai, a pot. 
panam, mo7iey. 
panappai, money-purse. 
pang-idu,iV.; piri,s^r., to divide. 
pangu, section, part, portion. 
panguni, the month March- 
pani, dew. [April. 

panidi, jewels. 
paiiju, cotton. 
pannu, m., to make. 
panri {vuly. panni, pandi), a 
panri-y-iraicci, pork. [hog. 
par, str., to see, look. 
para, other. 
para, old. 
para, sm., to fly. 
paragu, ?;?., to practise. 
parai, a drum,. 
parai ; kat-parai, a rock. 
paviiiya, old. 
parakku, m., to train. 
paralogam, heaven. 
param, a fruit. 
param ; 9umai, a load. 
param arai, wm., to pulp. 
paramal vidu, to overlook. 
paramana, heavy. [nourish. 
paramari, str., to manage; 



PAT 

parambu {intr,), m. ; parappu. 

(tran.), ni., to spread. 
paramori, procerh. 
parai.i, a loft 
pari, fitr., to snatch away. 
pari, hlanic; revcnye. 
pari vangu, m., to rerenf/e. 
paridfibam, pity. 
paritciii, a trial, Cd-periment.. 
patiyari, a doctor, barber. 
parkkiliim (§ 64, b), than. 
parli ari9i, barley. 
paru, str., to become large. 
paru, str., to mature. 
paradu, fault, damage. 
parudu par, str. , to mend,repair^ 
parutta, ripe. 

parutta ; pushtiyulla, stout. 
parvai, siylit, inspection. 
pashai, language. 
patci, a bird. [vour, 

patci, str. ; virungu, m., tode-^ 
patpala, many, several. 
pattiii, a bark; stripe. 
pattam, title ; reign. 
pattan, grand father. 
pattanam, town. 
pattayam, sword ; title-deed. 
patti, grandmother. 
patti, devotion. 
patti, regarding. 
pattippidi, str., to cling, grasp. 
pattiram, a vessel, cup; worthi- 
pattiram, care. [i 

pattiramana, worthy. 
pattiramana, safe. 
pattiyam, diet. 
pattiyam, bail. 
pattu, ten. 
pattu, song, 
pattu, silk. 



Ill 



PAT 

pattu, seizure, attachment ; plas- 
pattu, w., to grasp. [ter, 

pattu madangay, tenfold. 
pattuccittu ; ra9ldu, receipt. 
pfivam, .sin. 
pfivanai kfittu, in. ; pa9angu 

pai.iim, m., to pretend. 
pay, mat. 

pay, wm. ; kudi, str., to leap, 
payam, fear. [rush. 

payam uruttu, m., to threaten. 
payan, result. 
payai.iam po, to travel. 
payappaduttu, ?/?., to terrify. 
payir-idu, iV., to cultivate. 
payittiyam, inadncxs. 
payccu, m., to irrigate, 
pe9u, ?Ai., to apeak. 
pedam, difference. 
pedam illada, uniform. 
pedaimtii, simplicity, [power. 
pelan ; vallaniiii, strength, 
pelavlna; pelavTiiamana, weak. 
pen, a few ale. 
penyadi ; manilivi, wife. 
pen panri (pai.uli), sow. 
pen pilliii, female child. 
pen tori, bridesmaid. 
penai, pen. 

peniii-k-katti, penknife. 
per, na)nc. 

peri9u; perij, revenue. 
peran, grandson. 
per idu, t*r., to name. 
peril, upon, concerning. 
periya, great, grand, large. 
periya pu9aiiik-kay, pumpkin. 
periya turiii, superintendent. 
pertti, granddaughter. 
peru, ir., to obtain. 
peru viral, the thumb. 



PIR 



perugu, m.y to increase, grow. 
perukku, m.; adigari, str., to 

multiply. 
perukku ; kuttu, m., to sweep, 
peruniai, greatness, pride. 
peruii-kadu ; vanam, foiest, 
perun-tara, goose. 
pettili, a hen, female. 
pettai-k-kudirai, mare. 
pettar, parents. 
petti, bo.v, case. 
pettor, parents. 
pey, w., to scatter, rain. 
pi9agu, m., to miss ; n., amis- 
picciii, alms. [take, 

picciii kel, w., to beg [alms). 
picin, gum. 
PI9U, fee. 

pidi, str., to catch, seize. 
pidittiravi, vice {blacksmith's), 
pidungu, m., to pluck, pick. 
pikka9u ; pikkan, pickaxe. 
pila, sm., to split. 
piiaviii, cancer. 
plli ; kural, j)ipe. 
piilfii, cJiild ; caste title, 
pin, after. 
pinam, a corpse. 
pin 9el, w,, to follow. 
pin todar, wm., to trace. 
pin-mari-kalam, N.E. mon- 
pinai ; jamln, security, [soon. 
pinbu ; pinnale, after. 
pindu, ;;/ . , to go behind, be late, 
pingan, jjZa(<?. 
pinne, behind, back. 
pippay, cask. 
pira, sm., to be born. 
piradana, chief. [adversary, 
piradivadi ; edirali, defendant^ 
piraga9i, str., to illuminate. 



112 



PIR 



|)iraga9amana, brif/ht. 

pirage ; pirakale, behind. 

piragu, after. 

piriii, c.str. , to lire ; n. , an error, 

piraiyulla, incorrect. 

pirani, animals. 

pirappu, birth. 

pira9angam, ftennon. 

pira9ittamana, public. 

pirave9i, .sfr., to enter. 

pi ray ai.iam, a jon rney. 

pirayaeam, pains, effort, 

pirayri9ap padu, to try. 

pirayoQauam-ulla, usefnl. 

piredak kuri, 7i., a grave. 

piredam, dead body. 

piri, WW., to become separated ; 
str., to separate. 

piris, saucer. 

piriyamulla, dear, 

piru, w., to tear. 

pittalai, brass. 

po (p. 51, No. 37), to go. 

podada, insujjicient, 

podi, powder. 

podi, a sack. 

podi, str.\ padippi, str., to in- 
struct, teach. 

podi-madu, pack bullock. 

podiyan, lad. [^u-ear. 

podu, ir., to cast down, put; 

podu ^/orporuGuJ, time, while. 

podu, common. 

podu-p-padai, puhlic path. 

podu, wm., to be sufficient. 

podum, enough. 

poduvana, general, common. 

pokkisham, a treasure, [text. 

pokku ; 9akku, n. , excuse, pre- 

pol ; pola ; padi, as. 

pol ; otta, like. 



PUD 

pola-c-cey, it"., to imitate. 
pollada, ivicked, vile. 
pon, gold. 

poramai, impatience ; envy. 
pori, a sign; spark; trap. 
porivana malai, precipice. 
poru, u\, to fight. [during. 
porudu, time, sun; adr., while 
porul, substarice, meaning. 
porumai, patience. 
porundu, m., to unite ; fit. 
poruttam, contract. 
poruttauai, voic. 
poruttu, for the sake of. 
poruttu, (1) v.m., to cause to 

agree, to unite; (2) n., a 

ju7ictio7i, joint. 
pottal, bottle. 
pottani, a bundle of cloth. 
pottanikkaran, a hawker. 
poy, falsehood. [falsely). 

poy-c-collu, 111., to lie (speak 
poy-k-kal, false leg. 
poyi viclu, to depart. 
p6yi-k-koiidu va, to fetch. 
poyi-c-cer, to arrive. 
poyyana, false. 
poyj'anai, perjury. 
pu, a blossom. 
pu9al kattu, storm. 
pii9a9ari, priest. 
piicci, moth ; insect. 
pu9U, to smear, plaster. 
pudai, str., to n-innow. 
pudai, str. ; adakkam pani.iu, 

w., to bury. 
pudan-kiramai, Wednesday. 
pudavai, clot}t. 
pudiday, ayiew. 
pudi ya ; paccai, new, fresh. 
pudu. neir. 



118 



PUD 

puduppi, str., to renew, reform. 
pugjii, w., ainoke. 
pugiii-k-kiKlu, chimneij. 
pugiii-k-kudi, utr., to ftiuoke 

(tobacco). 
pugai-vai.idi, steaw car. 
pugarcci ; tiidi, »., ]>raise. 
pugaru, mil., to praise. 
))nl ; pulln, tp-afis. 
puli, aciiUtif ; tamarind. 
puli, t'ujir, cheetah. 
pulippana, sour. 
pulli, sjtot, a small cip/ier. 
pulogam, the terrestrial icorh). 
piinii, eartli. 

pfuiii adirtal, eartliqnahe. 
pum i kk u - k-klnl ua, under- 
pun, a sore. \ff round. 

pun, a kiioh, ferule. 
puuiii. cat. 

punct^y, ifyil cultivation. 
pundu ; klnii, a shruh, herb. 
[)uni.iiyam, virtue , merit. 
pina, jn'i/eon. 
(nimlu, ir., to roll. 
piiraai, outside. 
purambaiia, outward, e.vternal. 
purambe, outside. 
purai.ia, full, thoroutjli. 
purai.iam, fulness; perfection. 
piirappadii, ir., to jwoceed, start. 
purappadu, departure. 
pnratta^i, September- October. 
purtti ; niraivu, fulness. 
puru, worm. 
puvukkam, sultriness. 
pnrus, brnsh, 
purushan, husband. 
pnruvam, eyebrow. 
pushel, bushel. 
pusbtiyulla, stout, fat. 

Tamil Grammar S.-T, 



TAG 



pustaga-t-tattn, bookshelf, 
putti, stoutness, 
putti, sc7ise ; intelii(/e7ice 
pntticali, a wise man. 
puttiyiJlfida, senseless. 
puttiylnam, nonsense. 
puttiyulla, sensible. 
puttu, (i) n., a lock: {2)v.m., 

to fasten, lock. 
puyam, the arm. 

[For words etyniologically beginning 
with Jf, see' Ar, Ir and Ur.] 

Rficciyam, kini/dom. 

rappar ; orbi^iu, India-rubber. 

ratial, pound. 

rekku, rake. 

reiiiba ; romba, much. 

ridi, manner. 

rodai, ir/ieel. 

roL-am, disease. 

rokkaii), rcadij money, 

rotti. bread. 

rubay, rupee. 

T\\(f\, n., taste. 

rucn, jiroof. 

rnikkaiiibu, ruler. 

Ta (S 89), (/ive. See taru. 
taccan, carpenter. 
tadai, obstacle, bar. 
tadi, (1) a stick; (2) wm,., to cut 
dt)W7i; (3) str., to thicken. 
tadiman, w., cold (in the head). 
tada, str., to prevent, rheck. 
tadumbu, m. ; kariii puran- 

dodu, m., to overflow. 
tagada, impn'oper. 
tagadu, a jdate. 
tagaivilan, a swallow. 
tagam, heat, thirst, 



114 



TAG 



tagappan ; appan, a fatJier. 

ta<,^aram, a tin. 

tagu, ir., to be Jit. 

tagudi, fitness. 

tagiidiyana, suitable, jwoper. 

tai, Januanj-Februarij ; v.str., 

taiyatkaran, tailor. [to sew. 

takkali, tomato. 

talai, head. 

taliii- Mie9ai-k-katti, carvimi- 

talili-novn, headac/te. [knife. 

taliiippa, turban 

talaivan, a lieadman. 

taliiiyanai, pilloir. 

taliiiyari, headman of the vil- 

lu'/e, bailiff. 
taliiiyodu, the skull. 
talaiii, place, floor. [totter. 
lalambu, m. ; tallfidu, m., to 
taiii-vidu, ir., to dismiss. 
taiiu,?//., to push; refuse, reject. 
talu, tfie palate, tomjne. 
taliika, division of a district. 
tamadam ; tamaQam, delay. 
tamadamana, slow. 
tamadi, str., to limjer, delay. 
tamarai, lotus. 
tambalar, tumbler. 
tambi, brother (younyer). 
tan, self. 

tanadu padai, private road. 
tandai, father. 

tandam, staff; punishment, fine. 
tai^di, str., to punish. 
tandiramana, cunning. 
tangai ; -cci, sister (younyer). 
fcangam, ]mre gold. 
tangi ; adaravii, a support. 
taiigu, m., to remain. 
taiigu, m. ; 9Uina, swi., to bear, 
tani, wm., to subside, \support. 



TAY 

taiii, str., to be alone, In de- 
taniiuai, sinyleness. [serted. 
taiiimaiyana, solitary. 
tanitta ; vevverana, separate. 
taniyam, grain, cereals. 
taiiiye, alone. 
tanmai, nature, quality. 
tannir; jalam, cold water. 
tannlr-iodai, water-wheel. 
tannir totti, water -tub. 
tapal ; taval, post, mail. 
tapalil podu, to post. 
tapal-cavadi , post-office. 
tapal-muttirai, postage stamps, 
tapal-karan, postman. 
tappi d am , )n istake . 
tappidamana ; kett i , wrong. 
tappip po, to escape. 
tappu, m., to miss: escape. 
tarui, earth, land. 
taram ; tara, a wife. 
taram irandavau, widower. 
taricii, fallow land. 
tariitiram, pocerty. 
tarpj ill ; tirangu, a bolt. 
ta?nia-kartta, the icarden of a 

tem]de. 
tarn (p. J 9, No. 16), to give. 
tarumam, virtue; alms. 
tattiliyana, flat. 
tattan, goldsmith. 
tattu, (1) v.m., to rap, Jc7wckf 

tap, pat; (2) n.. a knock. 
tattu, shelf; tray ; platfoi-m ; 
tavaliii, frog. [storey, floor. 
tavaniii podu; kadattu, ??i., to 
tavaru, m., to slip, [postpone. 
tavir, wm., to be removed. 
tavira ; oriya, except. 
tay ; amma, mother, 
tayar, ready. 



TAY 

tayavu, kindness, favour. 

teyfintaram, foreign countnj. 

t69am, cotnitnj. 

te9a-p-padaiii, map. 

te^'ilv-kily; elumiccam param, 
lime (fruit). 

te-p-p6ccn, teapot. 

tedi, ilai/ of the in n nth. 

tedu, ?«.; aray, wm.., to search. 

tekka-maram, teak. 

tel, scorpion. 

teli, (1) wm., to become clear ; 
(2), str., to clear; sprinkle. 

teliiida, clear. 

telivaua, eridnnt. 

teiivay, distincthf, 

teilu, m., to sift. 

ten ; tetku, south. 

ten, honey. 

ten^'fiy, a cocoanut. 

tenl, bee. 

tenna-aiaram, cocoanut tree. 
teural, south wind. [stood. 
teri, wm., to be known, undrr- 
terind'e(]ii, str., to select, choose. 
terippu, information, commu- 
nication, [confide. 
tern, m., .to recover; improve; 
tettara, anwietj/. 
tettam, certaintij. 
te-t-tai.n.ilr, tea (beverage). 
teviiii, need. 

teviiiyay irii, sm., to want. 
tevan, god. 
tevastanani, a temple. 
tey, (1) wm., to wear away; (2) 

str., to rub. 
tey-k-karandi, tea-spoon. 
teyiltii, tea (leaf). 
ticai, qjiarter of the heaven. 
tigixippu, alarm. 



116 



TIR 



tlmai, evil, vice. 

tinjii, place ; class. 

tinam, a day. 

tiiigat-kiramai, Monday. 

tlni, food. 

tlni me9ai, dininy-table. 

tlni-y-arai, dining-room. 

tin, to eat, feed. 

in-, (1), wm.., to end; (2) str., to 
finish., decide. 

tira, sm., to opeyi. 

tirjii, curtain; a wrinkle, wave. 

tiral. a ball; multitude; swarm. 

tiralaga, abundantly. 
tirand'edu ; avii'tt'edu, to un- 
tiratca rayam, wine. [pack. 
tiraviyam ; asti, riches. 
tiravu, opening. 
tiri, (1) n., a wick; (2) v.wm., 
to wander about, revolve ; 
(3) str., to twist. 
tirmanam, a derision, resolii- 
tlrmani, str., to resolve, [tion. 
tlrttu-p-p6du, to settle. 
tiru, sacred ; prosperity. 
tirudan, a thief. 
tirudii, m., to steal. 
tirug'ani, n., a screw, [screw. 
tirugani yidu ; murukkii, to 
tirugani karattu, m., to unscrew. 
tirumba {inf.) , again. 
ti rumba adai, to recover (get 

back). 
tirumba-k-kodu, to restore. 
tirumbu, m., to return. 
tirnppn. m., to cause to turn; 
to tr luslate. [tion. 

tii'utti, sujfiriency, satisfac- 
tiruttn, 7/7., to correct. 
tiruttu, tJuift. 
tiruttuttanam, dishonesty. 



116 

TIR 

tirvai, decidon ; tulU 
tittam, accuracij. 
tittaiiiaua, e.i-act, correct. 
titiippaua ; iniya, siceet. 
tittii, ///.; 6911, ni., to abuse. 
tlvatti, torch. 
tivu, an island. 
todiii, the thigh. 
todaiigu, ?//., to bef/in. 
tO(lar, WW., to succeed, follow. 
todariidu pidi, str., to overtake. 
todu, (1) ir., to touch ; (2) str., 

to connect. 
togai ; togam, t<jtal, .sum, 
tol, shoulder. • [amount. 

toi, {l)n., skin; (2) v.w., to be 

defeated. 
tollayiram, ^line hundred. 
tot-petti, porttnanteau. 
tondai, throat. 
tondaravu, trouble. 
toiidu, m., to di<j; draw ivater. 
toiigu, m., to hany, be sus- 
tonimru, ninety. [pended. 

tonru, m., to appear. 
toppi, liat. 
tord, occupation. 
torn. n\, worship. 
totta, cartrld;/e. 
tottakkaran, gardener. 
tottam, yarden : estate. 
tottaui ; katei, appearance, view. 
tottappadu, ir., to seem. 
totti ; ] attal, a trough, cistern. 
tottii, m., to appear. 
toy, (1) wm., to hathe ; (2) str., 
tu9i, dust. [to dip. 

tuda', str., to wipe, rub. 
tudnippam, a broom. 
tiikkam ; tunbam, sorrow. 
tukkam ; nittimi, sleep. 



UDA 

tukkan-koudadu, to mourn. 
tukkii, )u.; edu, str., to lift, 

raise. 
tukkudi, division of a district. 
tiikku-rodai, pulleys. 
tiili, n., drop [of ivater); v.str., 

to fall in drops. 
tulir, (1) n., a bud; (2) v.str., 
tumbi, elephant. [to bud. 

tumbi-k-kai, elephant's trunk. 
tummu, m., to sneeze. 
tun ; kal, post, pillar. 
tiinai, escort; aid. 
twiidaga udai, wm.., to shatter. 
tundu, piece. [sleep. 

tmigu, m. ; nittirai 9ey, w., to 
tuppa9i, interpreter. 
tuppatti, a sheet of cloth. 
tiir ; adi maram, root, stock. 
turiii, a ford. 
turiii, gentleman. 
turai-9aui, a lady. 
turam ; tolai, distance. 
turidam, haste. 
turu, rust. 

turutti, hello} vs : water-bag. 
tushtan, a rujfian. 
tuslianain, n., abuse. 
tuvakku, ni., to begi)-. 
tuvalai, fiow of blood ; a towel. 

Ubayaui, sclieme. 

uccari, str., to pronounce. 

lici, a )ieedle. 

udadii, li/>. 

udii', (1) wealt/i ; (2) garment; 

(3) ivm., to burst, split. 
udai, str., to kid:. 
udaimai ; ndamai, jtossession, 
udiliyavajLi. owner, [property. 
udai], together with. 



UDA 

ui^aue, immediatdij. 

udanpadu, ayreemmt. 

udarii, m., to f;hake. 

udav i , assistance . 

udavu, m., to relieve, ass'st. 

udi, str., to rise (as the san). 

udir, wni., to drop off. 

udi rain, blood. 

udu, .sir.; uduttu (ra//.s.), m., to 

iidu, m., to blow. [clothe. 

udukkira arai, dressimj-rooni. 

udiippu-k-karattu, w., to un- 

U(Juppu, clothing. [dress. 

udiippu me^iii, dressing-table. 

ul ; ulle, within. 

ulagam, the world. 

ulai, furnace. 

ularu, wni., to become dry. 

ulla, containing y possessing ; 

uiifin, snipe. [real. 

uiiah kal, sole (of the foot). 

uiiana, inward. 

uiiapadi, actually, in reality. 

uiiavan, possessor. 

uiie, within, among. 

uii, a chisel. 

u I obam , coveto usness. 

ulukkaru, %mn., to sit down. 

uiundu, beauj gram. 

urn, and ; also. 

uini, husk. 

un, w., to eat; enjoy ; suffer. 

unam, defect. 

unap paduttu, ni., to maim. 

unar, um., to feel. 

unarcci , consciousness. 

m^arccillada, insensible. 

undai, a ball. 

ui.idiyal, bill of earhange. 

undu, there is. 

uumai ; nermiii, hon 



117 
UYI 

I ui;iiiaiyulla, sincere. 
imru, ///., to lean on. 
uppaua; iivar, adj., salt. 
uppu, salt. 
ur, rillage. 
uriii, case, cover. 
urakkam, sleep. 
ural, a mortar. 
uram, strength. 
urauiulla, tough. 
uraiigu, m., to sleep. 
urui.ii, village tank. 
uravu, relationship. [off. 

uri (act.d'neut.)^ to peel; to strip 
uri, skin. 
urittana, peculiar. 
urittay-iru, sm., to own. 
uriya, belonging to. 
uru, wm., to crawl. 
uru-pa(Jai, a plough. 
uru, w., to plough. 
urubu, form. 
urudi, firmness. 
urudiyulla, durable. 
urudiyana tirkkamana, posi- 
uru- kay, pickles. [tive. 

urulai-k-kirangu, potato. 
uruttu, m., to cause to feel. 
ushnam, heat. 
utir, str., to shed, cast. 
utkaru, ivm., to sit. [ment). 
ut-katcattai, drawers {ifar- 
uttamam, the best, [^permission. 
uttaravu, command; answer; 
uttiyogam, profession, ofiice. 
uttu, source (of river), spring. 
uyar, wm., to become high. 
uyaram, height. 
uyaramfina, high. [n., life. 
uyir, str., to live, breathe; 
uyirulla, adj., live, living. 



118 



VA 



Ya (p. 49, No. 17), come. 

vacadi, arcuinnunlation. 

vaeadiyaua, comfortable. 

vacal, a f/atc. 

va9am, suhjection ; charge. 

va9aiiai ; manam, odour. 

vacci, adze. 

va9ik6ttu, waistcoat. 

va9i, sty*. ; padi, sfr., to read. 

vada ; vadakku, north. 

vadagai, n., rent, hire. 

vadagaikku edu, to hire. 

vadai, noi-th wind. 

vadam, rheumathm. 

vadi, wm., to trickle; str., to 

drain. 
vadi; varakkali, complaiiiant; 

plaintiff. 
vadikattu, to strain, filter. 
vadu, m., to fade. 
vadivu, shape, Jifjure: hiauty. 
vagal; murai, jjrocess. 
vagaira ; vagaiyara, belonging 

to, et cetera. 
vai, (1) w., to abase; (2) str., 

to set, place, put. 
vai9uri, small-po.c. 
vaicuri kiittu, m., to vaccinate, 
vaigaci, May -June. 
vairakkiyam, asceticism. 
vaittiyan, doctor. 
vaittu-k-kol, to retain. 
vakkiyam, a sentence. 
vakknttattam, n., a promise. 
vakkattattam 9ey, w., to pro- 
val, tail. [)nise. 

val, a saw ; sword. 
vaiadu, adj., right {-hand). 
valiii, WW., to bend. 
valiii, a net. 
valar, win., to rear, grow. 



VAR 

vali, (1) n., power, strength ; 
(2) r.wm., to be ejcited, to 

force ; (3) str., to ache, row 
valiban, youngman. [(a boat). 
valiba-p-peii, young tvoman, 
valimai, strength. 
vallamai, might, jmwer, 
vanam, sky. 

vanangu, m., to worship, 
vana vil, raiyibow. 
vandi, a carriage. 
vandibedi, cholera, 
vanga, trumpet. 
vangu ; palagai, a bench, 
vangu,^ 7n., to obtain, buy. 
vafijanai, deceit. 
van kori, turkey. 
vaiinan, washerman. 
var, wm., to live. 
var, (1) n., a strap, thong ; (2) 

v.wm., to flow ; (S) str., to 

pour, cast in a mould. 
varagan, a pagoda coin. 
varaik-kay or varaip-paj'am, 

plantain, banana. 
varaiyum ; mattum, until. 
varakkadu, to prosecute. 
varakkam, habit, usage, custom. 
varakkam illada, unusual. 
varakku, a dispute, case {law). 
varal, a coming. 
varam, a week. 
varaiidu, warrant. 
varangu, ?//., to be in use. 
varavu, receipt. 
varavu pai-, str., to anticipate. 
vari [vulg.ibiiw), way, road. 
vari, (1) a line, tax; (2) v. wm.<(: 

str., to draw lines, paint : 

bind. 
variciii ; oruiigu, order, ranh-. 



119 



VAK 

vari-kattu, m., to guide. 
vari-p-pokkas, a traveller^ 

jiassenger. [ntray. 

vari-tappu, m., to miss the road, 
varkkiii, life ; felicity. 
varnam, w., colour ; tribe. 
vari.ii, Htr.^ to paint , depict. 
varttagan; viyapari, merchant. 
varttai, a icord, sentence. 
vartti, a wick, torch. 
vartti-t-tandu, a candlestick. 
vara (p. 49, No. 17), to come. 
varumpadi, income. 
varusham, a year. 
varushantaiam, annually. 
vataculili, ijout. 
vattam, a circle ; exchange of 
vatti, interest. [money. 

vatti; podikkiravan, a teacher. 
vattu, ?/i., to dry up. (cans, of 
vattii rott-i, toast. [vadu. 

vattu ; tara, duck. 
vaya9u ; vayadu, age. 
vayadu (;enra> ag^d. 
vayal ; veli, field. 
vay, mouth. 
vayin gilils, wine-glass. 
vayiru ; iriiippai, the stomach. 
vayittulaivu , dysentery. 
vaykkal, tretich. 
vayppirappu, a declaration. 
ve, wm.y to burn. 
ve9ari, a mule. 
vedi, (1) an e.vplosion of a gun; 

(2) v.str., to explode, burst. 
vedi marundu, gunpoicder. 
vedi tokku, gun. 
vegu, wuch. 
vegumadi, rexcard. 
vegumanam ; 9andosham, 
vel, white. [gift, present. 



VIB 



vel, a dart. 

velai, work, employment. 

velai, time; occasion. 

velai cey, to work. 

velaikkaran, labourer, servant. 

velaikku amarttu,?w., to engage 
for work. 

veli, a hedge; a land measure 
about 5 acres. 

veliccam ; oli, n., light. 

veiippaduttu, m.. to reveal. 

veiiye, outside. 

veilili ; vellaiyana, white. 

veiiam, a flood. 

veiiari, cucumber. [[Venus). 

veiii, silver; evening star; 

veiii-k-kiramai, Friday. 

vendu (§ 47, c). require. 

vengayam, onion. 

veil- gal, quartz. 

ver, (1) n., a root; (2) v.str., 
to sweat ; be angry. 

ver'enge-y-avadu, elsewhere. 

veri, (1) n., drunkenness, con- 
fusion; (2) v.wm., to be 
urged; (3) str., to be drunk. 

veritta, drunk. 

veriyillada, sober. 

vera, other, different. 

verumaiyana, empty. 

veruppu, disgust. 

vetkam, shame. 

vetti, cloth {of an Indian). 

vetti-p-podu, to cut down. 

vettii, m., to cut, chop; dig. 

vettu vay, n., a cutting, gash. 

vettu-k-katti, billhook. 

vettu-k-kili, locust. 

vevveray, separately, apa/rt. 

veyil, sunshine. 

viba9a^am, agriculture. 



120 



VIO 



vicai, spring, tri(j;/ei\ 
vi9anam, sorrow, anxiety. 
vi9ana-p-paduttii, m., to cause 

sorrow, vex, disjilcase. 
vi9araiiai ; 9odauai, trial. 
vi9ari, str., to inquire. [tio7i. 
vi9esham, peculiar it jj, distinc- 
viceshamana ; apurVamaua, 
vi9iri, a fan. [unconnnon. 

viccarival, sci/the. 
vi9ukkottu, biscuit. 
vidai, str., to sow. 
vidiii ; vittu ; kottai, sml. 
vidam, rate. 

vidam ; vagili, Jciud, manner. 
videyan, one who is obedient. 
vidi, w}n., to dawn. 
vidi velli, morning star. 
vidiyal ; vidiyat-kalam, day- 
vidu, home, house. \break. 

vidu, //•., to leave. 
vidudi, leave. 
vidiivi, xtr.,- to releajie. 
vikk nam, an impediment. 
vil, n., a bow. 
vil, w., to sell. 
vila-v-elambu, rib, 
viliii, price. 

vilai kel, to bid, offer a price. 
vilai 90I, to charge. 
vilagu, m.; piiiiiidu, ir., to re- 
vilaiyiTdii, m.., to play. [tire. 
viiai3ulla, dear [costhj). 
vilakku, lamp. 
vilambaram, notice. 
vli.i ; vinaiia, adj., vain. 
vinay, vainly. 
vinnappain, a petition. 
viraga, fuel. 
virai, str., to become stiff or 

numb. 

Printed by J ihn Ro»E|ITS Prkss Ltd, 

r.9. #89 «, 



YUT 

viraitta ; a^aiyiida, stiff. 
viraivana, fast, rapid. 
virai vu, speed. 
viral, finger. 
virfinda, verandah. 
viri, wm. d- str., to open, unfold. 
virodamay, in opposition, 
virodi, enemy. [against. 

virtti ; virutti, increase, growth, 

wealth. 
viru, wm., to fall do an. 
virumbu, m., to wish, desire. 
virundu, a feast ; a guest. 
virundukk'arai, str., to invite. 
virungu, ;;/., to swallow. 
vishabedi, cholera. 
vishani, venom. 
vitka-t-takka, saleable. 
vitpanai, Kale. 
vittiya9am, difference. 
vittu vidu, to relinqui^Ji ; omit. 
vittu-p-po, to leave. 
viyabaram, merchandise, trade. 
viyadi, disease. 
viyadiyulla, ill. 
viyagulam ; tunbam, distress. 
viyarak-kiramai, Thursday. 

Yad'oiiru, whatever. 
yad'oruvan, anyone. 
yanai, an elephant. 
yar ; ar, who. 
yar analum, whoever. 
yokkiyam, %vhat is fitting. 
yomiyadar, grantee, pensioner. 
yugi ; yogi, str., to weditatc, 

reason. 
yurimar ; pancayattar, jury. 
yutta9ali, a warrior. 
yuttam ; 9andai, war. 
yutti, reasoning; propriety. 



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(AVELLERS* ESPERANTO MANUAL OF CONVERSATION. 



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