Skip to main content

Full text of "A Tamil vade-mecum, or Guide to ungrammatical expressions used in ordinary conversation; consisting of the vulgarisms of the Tamil language explained and illustrated by copious examples. For the use of foreigners"

See other formats


! 



-31747 

A 

TAMIL VADE-MECUM, 



GUIDE TO UNGRAMMATICAL EXPRESSIONS 
USED IN OEDINARY CONVERSATION ; 

CONSISTING OF TlIK 

VULGAllISMS 



TAMIL LANGUAGE 

EXPLA.INED AND ILLUSTRATED BY 

COPIOUS EXAMPLES. 

FOR THE USE OF FOUEIClNERS. 

COMPII.ET) AND PUBLISHED BY 

P. SINGAUAPELAYANDERAM PILLAY. 



MADRAS: 

PrdNTED rOK THE EDITOR, 

AT THE PPvESS OF THE SOCIETY FOB PROMOTING CHRISTIAN 

KNOWLEDGE, CHURCH STREET ; VEPERY. 

18 5 9. 



SS 



IIEJir^KKiirfa 



TAMIL ¥iDE-«Cei. 

OP. 

A GUIDE TO EXPEESSIONS USED IN 

ORDINARY CONVERSATION BUT 

UN-GRAMMATICAL. 



It is proposed to publish wliat may here generally be termed a Tamil 
Vade-Mecum. Considering the many publications connected with the 
Tamil Language which have been put forth to promote its study, some ex- 
planation seems necessary to show that the present work is not a mere 
compilation from other works, but that it is one whose place has never 
before been occupied, and also one which, when its object is miderstood, 
will be i3ronounced a desideratum. It is a well known fact that very 
few Europeans, however conversant they may be with Tamil Hterature, 
would be able either thoroughly to understand the language spoken by the 
Natives in familier intercourse with each other, or to make themselves 
understood by them. Even European Missionaries may be said to be no 
exceptions' to this rule. 

Tlie European residents in the country scarcely ever hear the Natives 
in familiar and unrestrained conversation among themselves, and it is on 
tliose occasions that they make use of words and phrases wholly imintel- 
ligible to foreigners. The consequence of this is, that the Missionary in 
conversing with the poorer and more ignoiant part of his flock, or the 
Civilian in the admuiistration of his political functions, often makes use 
of terms and illustrations which, though grammatically and idiomatically 
correct, are unintelligible to them ; when he might, were he familar with 
their every day language, run no risk whatsoever of being misunderstood- 
But the evil becomes one of serious magnitude when the interests of the 



128 



2 ^ 

lower orders in Courts of Justice are concerned, Tlie uneducated Xative 
js then left to the mercy of interj^reters, who alone can understand Id' 
vulgarisms. No blame is to be attached to Europeans on this account ; 
for the words and phrases to which we allude, are not to be found in 
books ; and their Moonshees and educated Natives never use them in 
their presence. Great is the discouragement of the Tamil learner, when, 
on mixing with the people, he hears numerous words to which his 
Dictionary gives liim no clue. It is this unavoidable ignorance of what 
is called Kucld Tamil, that renders the Europeons m respect of the Tamil 
language, so inferior to the East Indian and Native. It is the object of 
this book to set before Europeans the Tamil Language as it is really 
t^poken by the Natives themselves, so that a person may easily understand 
the meanest and most illiterate Native. The correct and grammatical 
terms and jjhrases are placed in juxtaposition with the vulgarisms and 
diiilogues ; original letters on all subjects, written by all classes of Natives 
ai'e also added to illustrate the use of the terms so unfamiliar to Europeans 
The work has been some tinae, under preparation, and is the production 
of the undersigned, whose long and familiar intercourse with European 
Gentlemen, in the capacity of a Tamil Teacher, has given him rare and 
ample opportunities of appreciating the difficvdties they have to contend 
■with in endeavouring to master the Tamil Language. No labor has been 
spared, and for the convenience of intending purchasers, it will be 
published on the much approved plan of Numbers or j)arts, 1 of which 
will compose the whole publication, and each of which will consist of -40 
Octavo pages priced 1 Rupee. A liberal support is solicited, as the work 
has entailed much labor, and can only be serviceable to Eiuopean Gentle- 
men. 

Subscribers are rctjuested to forward their names to the Proprietor, 
PursovaidvUiu Madras. 

P. fSl>'CARArEL.VVANDEKAM PiLLAV, 
MaDKAS, PrnsKVAUKUM, \ J' 



3 

T[EiT[]iryi]@[Fil[li^\Li. 

T have seen pa^t^^ of the book it is proposed to publisli, viz., the Tamil 
Vade-Mecum, and am of opinion that it will prove a most usefid work not 
only for beginners but also to those who are advanced in the knoAviedge 
of tlie language-in helping them to understand it as spoken by all classe.-i 
of Hindoos. 

The author of this work I consider to be entitled to great credit for 
originality of thought, and shall be most happy to see the idea he has 
conceived, carried into execution. 

(Signed) C. 8. Kohlhoff, 

►Sullivan's Gardens, ) Miissionari/, S. P. G. F. P. 

Idih October, 1857. ) 



I have kno-vATi the Compiler of this work for many years, and have 
^studied the Tamil Language with him. He appears to me to be master 
of his language, and from liis pursuits during the last fifteen years, namely 
the publication of Tamil works and the tuition of the language to Euro- 
peans, he must have that facility in his own tongue, as would render any 
of his productions valuable to less experienced students. 

The Avork he now projects, I conceive, to be one of great utility. 
(Signed) A. P. Simkins, 

Manager in tJie liis/iector 

Geiierars Office. 
Madkas, 

28/A October, 1857 



Frona tike comDicncexnent mp to S^ovemlber, 2.S39. 

The Plight Honorable Lord George Francis Piobert Harris, 

the Governor of Madras 5 Copies- 

11)0 Right Reverend Lord Bishop/.. of Madras 2 do. 

The Honorable Walter Elliot, E^q. : 2 do. 



Copies, i Copies. '■ Copies, 

Armoitr, John Esq 1 : Digliton, D. C. P. Esq. l.Macligell, J. Esq 

Arbutlinot, W. H. Etiq. 1 Duiiliill, C 11. Esq 1 u^Ioberly, A. S- Lieut. 



1 Molony,F.B. E,sq. 

3 ]\Ioras, G. Lee Esq 

1 Norman, M. Esq 



x\jbiithuot, W. R. E.sq. 1 : Dutliie. J. Rev.. 
Arbuthnot, W. U. Esq.. 1 EUiot. Wm. Esq, 

Alexander, A. Esq 1 Ellis, G. H. Esq. . 

Anderson, F. Esq 2 Faber, E. C. Col l^Neave, R. Esq, 

Arbutliuot, J. R. Esq. 1 jFirtli, R. Rev., A. M.... l;Newill,_H. Esq^.... 

Alveii, Stanely Ca]>t. 1 1 Forbes, L. Esq 

Angello, P. M. S. Esq. 1 : ForlDes, G. S. Es(i 



liNeild, H.S.J. Lieut... 
liNesbitt, W. S. Esq.. 



Blagrave, E. R. Lieut 
Bush, T. H. Esq.. 
Briggs, G. Major.. 



1 i Farquhar, M. S. Esq. . . 1 ■ O'ConnellPP L. Capt. 

iFrere, H. Esq 1 Orme, F. P]sq 

li Graham, A. Esq l;Peele, F. Esq. 



Bell, J. H. Lieut. Col. 1 i Greufell, St. L. M. Esq. l iPycrof fc, T. Esq 

Burner, John Mr 1 1 Garrett, W. R. xMajor.. li Faulkner, G. B. Esq... 

Esq l^Gray, W. Rev ilParker, R. D. Esq 

tev 1 Gordon, P. B. Esq 1 ^ Plumer, C. G. Esc 



B 

Broadshaw, J 
Batclielor, P. Rev 

Bhch, J. T. Esq 

Biake, H. W. ?,Iajor 



Bayley, W. H. Esq.... 
■ ' C. B.. 



2 Garstiu, J. B. Esq llPowys, R H. Esq 

iGritton, John Rev i i Roberts, C. A Esq 

1 Gabb, F. S. Major i: Richards, John Rev... 

Prfilfour,G.Col.C. B... liGoldingham,JohnEsq, lllose, W. H. Esq 

Bonlderson, J. C. Lt. l Guest, John Rev 1 Rendall, .J . Rev 

Colonel 1 Glover, W. Esq 1 . Royston, P. S. Rev 

Blacklock,A.Esq.,M.D. 3 Hudleston, W- Esq 1 Ritchie, A. Esq 

Braidwood, John Rev. 1 Hall, G. Rev 1 Ritchie, A. Md. Esq.... 

Burgess, John Rev 1 Hooper, W. S. Esq 1 i Reid, J. W. Esq 

Barlow, R. W. Esq 1 Hooper, G. S. Esq 1 .Sim,W. C. Esq 

Bourdillon, J. D. Esq. 1 Hutchins, A. R. Esq... iSmi, J. D. E.sq 

Brown, C A. Col 2 Hutclihis, P. Esq... l:8huldham, A J. Capt. 

1 HiUyard, H. T. Major. 1 ' Shaw, John Esq 

1 Heppel, J. M. Esq 1 Shaw, D. Esq 

i: Hill, John Colonel 1 StacliHn, W. Rev 

1 : Hathaway, W F. Esq. 1 i Saunders, H. B. Esq.... 

liHall, Arthur Esq i;Saunder.s, R. C Esq.... 

1 Horsley,W.H. Major.. liSliortt, H. G. Esq 



Chamier, C. F. Esq. 
Colheck, H. Lieut. Col. 

Craddock, L. Rev 

Cochrane, W. E. Esq. . . 

(larke, T. Esq.: 

Clarke, T.G. Esq 



Clair, J. C. St. Esq rHorgan, D. Esq ] : Stephenson, R Rev 

■ ^~ " !S, L C. Esq jjSelvaroyah Pdlay, T.,. 



Carniichael, 1). F. Esq. 1 ■ Inues 
Campbell, E. C. Esq... l:J()luies, H^Esq. 
Cooper, J. G. Rev.... 
Crampton, J. T. Esq. 
Charlton, W. Esq.... 
Clan-ch,Horl)ert K K.sq 



i;Kohlh()ti;C. S. Rev. 
1 ; Kerakoo.^e, M. E.sq.... 

1 Key, J. B. Esq 

iKerr, W. H. E.sq... 



li Taylor, G. N. Esq..., 



Crocket, E. A. B. Esci. 1 Luslungton, F. Esq. . . 
Carstau-s, P. Esq 1 Law ford, A. C E.sq.. 



Crosse, M. Esq 1 Leggott. E. Es(| 

Court, J. B. ^!r 1 ; Little, John Rev 

Cotton, A. T. Col 1 Lyons, R. H. Mr 

(^orbett, J. W. E.sq 1 : MacC!alhun, A. Rev... 

Cosl)y, W. J. Es(i rMaltby, E. Esq 

Ch'gliorn.H.F.C.Esq., iMiller, Jolm Esq.^ 

M. j» 1 IMallR'Ws, .fdlin Esq... 

Cadell, W. M Esq 1 i Morgan, W.n. Rstj 

Dymefj, 1). 1). Jilsq liMorrison, H. Es»| 

Dyme.s, John Esq 1 i Macfarlane, S. M. Mr 

POINTED BY T.AUROKIASAWMY PiLLAY, AT THE CaXTON PKJSSS, 
EkUABAULOO ClIETTiT SXKEET, No. 28-MaDRAB. 



1 1 Taylor, J. W. F. Capt 
ij Thompson, J. G. Esq.. 

lITurtm. J M. Mr 

llTradJ). ILLiout 

1 -Underdowai, Esq^ 

1 TTndenxood.W. E. Esq. 

1 N'ukers, R. H. Rev 

1 Winslow, M. Rev 

lAVilson. J. F. Lieut 

1 ; Walker, A. Rov 

1 ; Walker, G. E.s(i «.. 

i::\Vebster,A. M. C. Esq. 
1 ! Whiteside, W. S. Esq. 

liWilUams, 1). Rsq.. 

1 Wiuscom, G. V. Lieut. 
1 ; Youuker, A. Rev. 



SECTION 1. 

DICTIONARY SHEWING THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 

CORRECT USAGE AND INCORRECT USAGE IN 

THE TAMIL LANGUAGE. 

Correct Usage. "Vulgar Usage. 

- ^sikairffLD, ^misiruLD or ^^Dsvih or ^tpeaLo or 

^LfiiBsmsB or 6r(z^sroLD or ^^LD^s^^evth, pride : from ji/sih ; I myself : 
and BiTiriD, an act : This word is erroneously used j>iwld as : j^m^^^i^p 
QfLu^ ^UL^^aiua, a wilful mistake^ or ^^usij^^rre^ Qis'iLi^(^ppi}>, 
a sin committed from obstinacy or pride. 

j)/s/sisiTifl, ^iksiTifl; a violent^ a haughty 

man, or profligate woman. 
^■<5(2Pero £_uj;r «i?r, ^Uiuesii—ujfreir, or ^LDLj€5iL-ujir 

COT", or ^,(Lp<oS)u.iu!rek, or ^LoiffitOT, &c. are derived from jy«{3/3si»i_uj/r«ar 
a householder ; the name also of a certain caste of the Tamil people. 
^suD or ji/suih, literally the mind, the soul, the will, I myself, com- 
pound word, jt/s/iisiriTLD — ^.e^r—ion-ear, -one who possesses pride : 
commonly ^LDum'—ujireir, and ^ili^esiL-ajfreir, &c. These words ought 
not to be used to respectable Tvatives; they should be termed ^lL(S 
sairffiTj i-j (r^ih^ear y ^iBiaerreuiTj L2<5rr3sTr, (ip^e9uJiTir, ^Lurr, OuiBiumjiTy 
er^^LoasN , &c. The Hindoos never call their wives by their own 
names, but designate them by such terms as these: ^Q^t, @/5^/r, 
^/EiQSj @£OT(CT), erek^, ggiZ/, er'^i-, (ojemTLs^, .g, ^lLl^, ^m, (s^lLl^, udsjrujir 
err, lbit^^ jijetfiiaiTiliJDy (j&L^ujireir, gg ! ! <^ih^ir ^lEiQiresr, &c. Husbands 
call their wives by nick names thus ; lSji'suiI, sQ^^m^^ lcit(Bj ldlLl^.^ 
jffL^, L^^^sir, ^i-^, Qs'rSsQj uemessf^, (^(oSdTL^ireisr , ^'cw^itjlIz^, ^l^iuit^ 
&c. This improper usage still exists among the Natives. The follow- 
iiT^ terms are used elegantly by Natives in the conversation thus : 
sessreusw, sirsusOsoTj l/jT^q^sot, u^^ir, Osiremi—eueisr , ^ireQ^SLLi-^enrsueBr^ 

(^eoO^uJsuLD, 67-gLD/rsiJr, 0^irLL®OuirLL(Sl.Si^La.€erwir, ^dso, ucs!>ruLjiftfs 
S'^iT, sem^^ireisT^ OsiTemL-dsirffek, &:c. 



jijBuuSiQp^, ^Lj®p^ ; or ^a3L9®/)j7, to be 

obtained or got, to be taken, caught, as : jti^sOanssrsstTuuLLi—^; 
I have got it, semeaoBiSlQeo ^ldlSI®jdjsi, to be caught in a net or gin 
QpiLeoL- j>i'LDU!—2oo, I cannot get eggs. 

^susmu, ^uQu, or jijLpuQu, or jijicuemu 

Wooden Spoon ; Ladle, as : ^uQuQ^^eisr, or ji/LpuQuSj:^^^ei!r, the 
name of a Hindoo Philosopher, 3=ei!r'ijs(&^s(^ ^uQuujitso Qg=trju(ourr 
Lf.p^, or euLLi-^sSpjsi, or uiBldit^p^, to divide the rice for tlie 
people by a wooden spoon. 

jfjSuemuS'SiniiL], ^uQusitldlj, or ji/ipuQuSfruii-j 

or ^tpuetausiriML^ ; the handle of a ladle. 

jfjs^ or ^^ifi, ^Si<siT or j^cSenj ji/sei or j>je/,^f 

the ditch which surrounds a town or fort. 

j^sireiua, ^euaiTffith, from sireal time, jya/r 

«Oiii>, Negative, an unfit time as : jtjsireomffasiTLD or ^avervesi^^unresanh 
an untimely death or a sudden death ; jtjeusiT&dLDesiLp, or Q&(BaiT&i 
mmip, unseasonable rain. 

j^Qq^^^ujld, j^iQjT^^ujih, or j)/i(^(i}}Uii_i ; evil 

action, wickedness as : ^sQ[r;i^iuQp5neneiisisr, or j^L^iouek, a wicked 
man, ^dQff^^tuLDirujuu/^dSl/D^, to snatch or carry away unlaw- 
fully. 

^isiriaT, j)/s£S3=S, or ^L£>ses>s, or jijuS, 

or ji/uu^^fTeh, or ^sema, an elder sister. 

^fksuu^, j^i}^uL^; or jtjrBJssuL<^, a stirrup 

as : j^rsaeuLj^uSeo eire^cs>'S^;iQ;S£iip^, to mount a horse by the 

stirrup. 

^ij2(B^®uum, j)irkQ'S^Qf)uS ; a tattler, a tell- 

tale ji/iiiQ® and ^(A)tJ(_/, a peel for stirring, one who is stirring here 
and there : ^'ejSI'S^q^ljlS, is more commonly used among the Na- 
tives : S ^uul^uulLi— j^ibSi^^q^uiSuQus's^uQus'itQ^, you nnu+ 
not talk such a flattering words. Flattery professes more than frie i- 

ship. ^ . ^ • T 1 

^5^^£)ujii, ^&^Siuw, or j>i®^&^Lo ■ disl , 

aversion, dread of any thing unpleasant or impure, disgust, uglin • ^. 

. _. j)ji. eu, or QS^^vneUj or Osir^ettaj ; 

pledge; as: ^i—e^mausSp^, or (^^etaeneasusSlp^, to pawn .syi.-«a/ 
euiT/EJ@p^, to receive a pawn. 

j^gB)i_.s?, ^^-^ or j^L^&uQuiT ; far fi ' ■ 

aside ; as : give away, make ro(| 



I-^. 



ji/i—»i the gerund of jtjmi—si-Sip^ ; ^u-QS(rf), the same as 
uS(75, (stlLi—uSIq^, eTLLi^i^QT), (Sj$^^uSl(7fi, £ifrffuSl(r^. The word of ^i_«= is an 
imperative, but it is commoulj used only in the Provinces of Madura 
and Pahamcottah. The people that live in Madras, Tanjore, Negapataui 
and Trichinopoly never use by such word ^i-*, but prac- 
tice as follows : eSlffd(^, f^^^, Sirfff^Q^, s^^^uQuir, ^me^.uQuir, ctlLu. 

siTs\\ or ffuuem-s£Eir<^, folded feet, the same as LDL^uwEisfreo, or j^lL 
i—essTssrreo QuirLL®dOa;rrem-Lp-(r^dSp^j or sfre^Qixsosireo QufnLQs 
OsiTismu^QTfsQp^ or '3'u u essrs S5 tT eoQu IT LLiBdOarr em i^(7^s< Si /D^, to sit 
putting one leg upon the knee or thigh of the other, or to sit by 
folding the legs. 

^sasfiei) ov ^cSsfJpiSlen'Ssrr, ^eSuiSlsn'StsiT '^ squirrel. 

j^sssri— isjstr SLo, 01'^ emrt— El SITS ems, ^smL^issirsssnu • raven, the 

black crow. It differs from the common sirssiriLi whicli has an ash 
coloured ring round its neck. 

j^essressr/i^tr&Tj ^esw^ih^n-eh ; a kind of tor- 

ture. A cord being fastened 
round the neck and tied close to the great toe, while the hands are 
kept behind. In another sense ^eiki^/F^iTsir she lifted 

up her head ; erroneously used to above sense in common. 

j^ss»T^3.(^, 2-g3w-(CC3)i@ ; the little tongue 

from ^sssrsmuD, the palate QiDsisumu as : &.6ik(ess)S^ eumw^^^, the 
uvula in the mouth is enlarged. 

^'PssTf^isiLi^v ^smT(^dsiSI^ or j^sssr^s 

s£i{£>i ; a rope which was twisted for the use of native males to tie up 
round their waists ; the same as ^sro/r^/reror : commonly, ^(^^s 
OsTLri, a girdle, this signifies the silver rope instead of thread. 

j>/esbT6dsrsir(o^sS, or ^smrsifsresr Quern S'fr^, ^smsresafl ■ the 

wife of an elder brother, but ji/emresifiujtriT or ld^o^, a respectful mode 
of address to females. 

jnememzsr, ji/em^, brother, the Madras 

people commonly use for Father by the term of ^eazrjOT) but other res- 
pectable Natives of adjacent countries call their fathers as : rg(^, ^u 
uir, jii'iuiuir, except the gentoo caste ; they use by the term of miruSl,^ 
father. In the Province of Palamcottah, they use most commonly for 
father by the word of ^ui3^&, but if any one use this word ^ui^^ 



to any of other countries, even the old women would laugh at him : be- 
cause this meants children's sweetmeat as: jfjuuir ^ipnQiB ^ul3<^Q suit 
siSl^^rrQ/rjesr, my darling, do not cry, you shall have the sweetmeat 
or I will buy and give you cakes. 

^siji p ifi ih ^ (T ek L^esbT^ J j^iomOemiB(^3'iTsir Lissii(B ■ a little 

shrub : pedysarum beasticullation L. Rottler. 

^^uiSujih, ^a^LJiSlijju) ; words not admit- 

ted in society, vulgarity, indecency ; ^■fuiSiuLh vulgar expression^ 
used by the lowest caste, as : j>/ff'ULSluj(^Qff=rreo/D^, properly, j)/^ 
ulSujiJ)Qu<s^P^ or s^l^iulJdQu'S^p^ to express one's self indecently 
or vulgarly. 

^^['fLDih, or ^3;rr^uiLD, ^3;ldim ; (from ^q^ldlb justice 

and the privative ji;.) unrighteousness, injustice. . 

Ji/^IP, @^t£) ; a flower leaf, y^^^ip. 

^@su), ^PiuLD ; plenty, abundance, as 

er^^Sssr iu^ujim uem-Qfiemi—ir uSQr)S(^Q^tr jj^g^Soor uj^iuiMuem- ejireiaa^ 
iLjsmi—iTLD, the rich that has plenty never be satisfied. Covctcous 
people always think themselves in want. 

^^airrfl, j^^iuiTifl ; one who has the charge 

of the things, a trustees. 

ju^s^ujih, ^pOjfuju> ; admiration, astonish- 

ment, as : @J3 ^pQffiui^irQ^, is this marvellous thing ? 

^^Q<t,t-LD, j^QslLl-U}, or j)iPlLl-ld ; luck, 

fortune, good or bad, but commonly used in a good sense, the gift or 
blessing of God; properly, the determination; decree of God as: i^dld 

e^i3 {ji/Q^lLl^u> is lower expression.) 

^^siriiLD, jij^iurrCLD ; authority, power. In 

another sense j^^iufrirw chapter. 

^^suiuu), jtj^ujuujLD ; exceeding fear. 

jt/^sufrjrw, jt/^ujuiTffLh ; a heavy load. 

^^luir, ^^ujirsi ; common expression (a 

foreign word from the Arabic Iladiyah.) presents given to Kings or 
other great men as : jif^tunei) OsiT®sSp^ ; to bestow liberally, freely. 
The present given from one another is used thus : ercs^uoy Q^^ld^, 

^juiQuuirir, jy^tf©uu/r/f ; press the sore from 



i 



5 

j)l^s,Slp^, to press softly, to mollify with fingers. In another criti- 
cal sense ^^dSuuir.r ; beyond to it. 

^^^nuLQ, ^ifir.fQ. proof, evidence, tes- 

timony. In the same pronunciation of j>i^^ir^Q, gives another mea- 
ning for husband's eldest sister but to the youiigest, by the name of 
j>jLbLD!Tie(^ or j>/LDLDir^LLi-ci ; ^^ ^ fTS'Siosnus ■sh.uiSKS, Call yoLir husband's 
sister, or sister-in-law or cousin ; ^^^sTs^&iLjsm^Si, there is a proof, an 
argument. In critical sense, according to grammatical form of ^^ 
^itlL& shows another meaning ; that deficience. 

^^^sunsmiii ji/^euirem-ih ; wilderness, bad, cor- 

rupt, as : ^^ ^^su!rmQsiJsffLuiriS(iT)iiQ; This is like a plain wilder- 
ness. 

jijiErr^^LJD, ^ssr^^LD ; a word, or an expression 

without sense uujenBisiffon-aOs'rreo ; But if derived from ^it^^ld, wealth ; 
it signifies various meanings as : ^rsirs^^LDinuuQuaQsBTssr, common- 
ly jtissr^^LDniLQuuQasissr, I went there in vain or to no purpose ; jycw 
^^LciTtLJs-O^si^iresr ; he died miserably, unhappily, wretchedly ; ^sm-^ 
^LDuemp£s to hurt, to injure, to cause mischief, to make unhappy. 

^fsir^fi3:frffOLh, jijesra^^eneoil) ; an unlucky, un- 

happy, unpropitious time. 

^fBeuir^U), jtj'issr^iT^LDy or ^ScrrsSlir^Lh ; dura- 

tion, perpetuity, eternity the same as stuQuit^ld. 

^S^LD, j^fBS^LD, or jijS'iLuiTLuu) ; injusticc 

the same as /i^nSlssresjLD. 

^^UGULD, ^^(DUfToju) ; or s^j^uevQ^^^, ap- 

prehension, experience, as : ^uQufr^^Quirsij^i^d(&, sui^^, now 
I apprehend it ; now I experience it. 

^^usv-s^rreQ, s^j^jQuireus^ireQ, a skilful, experi- 

enced man, one who is wise from experience. 

^i^eb^, ^-i^eh^, state, condition ; as : 

^m^i^eto^iQ^ QiurrsSajcDsdisy), this does not agree, or this is not 
consistent with your circumstances; ^^sSstt uj/p^emCo^/rCeL-eroo;, set 
these things in order. 

j^m^uL^fTLh, -gij'/i^uuFui ; a harem, the inner 

rooms or apartments for women in noble family or Kings palace, 

^ifiiiiksLD, ^ih^ffluju) ; what is hidden, secret, 

a hidden place. It is principally used of persons, who speak together 



6 

privately: as ^uQuir^ ^ ir tr s^ it cijsSev sir ^i^ifluj^iSl(i^s§l(n^ssr ; the 
King is now conversing privately with him. 

^/h^aesr, Jt/i^suek^ or ^/s^ear ; the Same 

as @(75i— 6w, blind man : commonly, r3(5— car, OuirtLeiDL-ujsir, a<cmQi^ifi 
uuT^eussr, QfS^^inS&ie^ir^eueor, aessr j>/£S(^g=s]jpsrj sQuir^, sQeuir^^ 
uiriTeiamjQsLLu.eusir ; but (^t^iSlip/s^eiisirj QmS^ULoppenskj jtjih^sshr, 
a respectful mode of address to blind men. 

jiji^LjOuirQ^jp, ^'f^u(?u/r^ ; evening time, jy/F 

^s^is^ ; morning and evening. 

.5V '5^ J Ji/''^^^yi'^^ ; a small gray and 

winged insect that infests grain : as ^uSffdseo OmJoemaQsir^i^u l^ 
i-QujiriLi Q^!reisr^(^Qiu — you came to destroy him and all his posses- 
sions as the insect infests and destroys the thousand Kallum T^elloo. 

j)/uSiT^,9, jiisuSiT^^, j^wS^^, (from jt/u 

less and Hir^^ fame) an ill-name, infamy, ignominy. 

j)ju^£ij, ^'(ou^^ ; ill report, slander, scan- 

dal, infamy : as ^euiraOenek^sar lusu^^usmem^te^rrsiir • they used 
infamous words against me, they wound my character ; e^^t^euesrQLD&o 
j;fsu^^mri—(Ts/o^, to spread an ill-report of one. 

^uiuii), ^suiuu}; (from unjui fear and the 

privative; jf-) complaint. In another scnsi'.5y5i;ajii),hatch, as : iBirmQuir 
enTsijfrjT^^So (tD) (7/3Ll6D)i_ ^iS5)ffl;iu,^^6E@ esiav^Q^esT, I kept ten eG;gs 
to be hatched on the last week. 

j>/uujiS(SiS/D^, jijaniuLB®^)^ ; to complain of des- 

titution, to call for succour and help, to cry for protection. 

jtjuinr^Lr), juieujirr^LD ; fine, amercement. 

j)jU!nT^LLQun(BSlp^, ^euinT^LoQun®p^ • to fine. 

^uedLc, ji/svffou) ; (from uffOii produce, ad- 

vantage, and the ])rivntive ji/ ;) unprofitableness, uselessness ; j)/su(Ku:ir 
lu^Os^cucfSifiemuj, a vain, useless cmploynu'iit, unprofitable work. 

^urremi—LD, ^' suit em t^m ; U\\sc accusation, as : 

6p(5fflyeB?(?Lceo j»jeuiT€mi—U)Qun(B:p_^ ; to charge one falsely with a crime. 

ji/uirujLD, j^sjntuLo ; ill-luck, jeopardy ; 

COmp. jS;S^, eSu^j3. 

jtH^s^niB, j^us^iTift, j^'ajfirifl, or jt/sSg-irifl ; (from ^l9 

and 5=/r/fl which joined with QurrQp^^ signifies, to walk abroad to go 
and to return) jii^^niB, or ^suffiTiH, a fickle woman as : jya5?<3=/r//?i(5 



^SsmuSlei&v.^(r^L^d(^^O^tijsvLSeo&o, a Prostitute never stand in oath, 
and a woman of theft also, never fear to God. 

^LSQ&^^th, jticSQs^^euui, or ^cSl(2e>^sih ; the 

act by which any thing poured upon the head, so as to run down the 
whole body, which is seldom done to men, but often to idols : unc- 
tion, drink offering. Wils. S. D. p. 4-3, Abisheca. llottler. 

^lSI/sluld, j)j£fBiuLD ; a gesture, pantomime. 

The indication of sentiment or passion by looks or outward gestures ; 
as : j>i^wluldlSl<}-s&p^, to gesticulate, to make a leaping motion with 
the eyes, to use many gestures in declaiming and singing. 

^lSIulSjutiuu), ^sSuL3jrinuLD ; the inmost thoughts, 

the intention, cordial affection, opinion, allusion ; as LDm^eQQr^aSlp 
ji/eSuLSiriTuj^eiafis' Os^ireiip^, to speak from the heart, to disclose his 
thoughts, ^euek jt/eSuiSiriTuj^em^d sem^uSL^^Q^eir , 1 have discover- 
ed his intentions, (^Qhi^^mQuiii ji/cSluLSljririuLDrruSl(rT,sS/D^, to have 
a cordial affection towards one, or to have a sincere regard for one ; 
gL6(jr jt/sSuiSirtnu^ei!)^ 6T(TjP^ ; Write your opinion, @/5,s euirir^ssi^s 
ssSuLSljj-rrujOLDssresr^ to what does this word allude. 

^iSLDiresni), ^fsSLDirsmil ; (from ^-lS and lditssfld 

lionour) as : ji/svQsa-eir^ jtjSL£iirs!<rLDiTLLj r5u-^^{^sisr ; he has treated 
me very honorably; ^susir jijsSlLDfrsur^etn^ ereiiQu>Qeoe!Dsu^^tredr • he 
has shewn me every favor ; OTe3ri@^^2»/r jt/sSLotrsarQpsm® ; I enjoy 
the protection and favor of my lord or master. 

^iSlcsfl, j}jSetfi, or ^dlsk, or ^lSbw-, or 

^L5sa^Lo0/F^ ; opium. 

^y,(5ffl/ii>, j^ev(r^avi}>, or ^eij^suub, or Jiju^ 

ULD ; (from uiQ^suu), antiquity and the privative ^.) a novelty what is 
new, strange : as L^tSuSCSsi) jtjw^suLDirssr airrflLu/Eis^u un-irdauL^pu 
u(Bp^; to travel in pursuit of curiosities. 

j)iuuesr, ^uus'Q ; father the same as Q^ir 

euusk or jijemt^ or ^suuussr or ^'iero^ or iSl^ir ; ^ifiuuek vulgar- 
ly, fotuiT &c. but the Madras people use this word ^ulSJ^Q for 
children's sweetmeat, see ji/ememdr. 

^'dstrefT, j>/dsir, ji/uua;^ir, j^juS, jtjuurr^^sir ; 

an elder sister. The Madras people commonly use these words for 
^isiTsn-, ^LDa^mm, ^lEiisaa, ^indesisiurrir. In Tinnevelly the Shanar 
castes will call by such terms as : ^isirS or ji/sQs. This is not elegant 



8 

way of talking one another in Southern parts'of Tranquebar, Nega- 
patam, Tanjore, and Cuddalorc, &c. but they all use thus : jyifi/rsrr 

^uufT'L, ^juurruSl, a^uuiT^<2^, use for father's 

mother. Tinnivelly people use the word ^uuirib, or ji/uuiraS inelegant 
and outlandish way as : jijeuek ^uuiruSl ; he is a simpleton, or inno. 
cent man, the same as ^uiSlrrtTeadt, uitlLl^, and ^iiS use for male's 
and female^s Grandmothers generally. 

ji/ifuiS'ujir^u:), ^uSiuir^ih ; habit, ability acquir- 

ed by frequently doing a thing, practice, exercise; as sresrdsuLSujirs' 
iSsoSsd ; I have no practice'or experience, ^uiSiurro'iMirdjQuiTp^ ; to 
become acquainted, accustomed, habituated. 

jtjui-lpLJD, ji/uu/rLD, jij'UL^nu) J that side, 

farther, beyond, again : the same as LDSueuir;^Qf)iMU, ^uuire^, LSekdctsr, 
j)/^ii)uir, ^^iluff erroneously used amongst the vulgars instead of 

^LDttdsenth, <^ loss err u> ; (from ^ldit a fight 

and aenuD, the field) commonly, tumult, confusion or field of battle. 

j)/LD(^S^ ji;(Lp(^9i, or j^LS(^Si ; compelled 

service : as j^(iP(^?iQeu2s\)Qs'u.ip^ ; to serve by compulsion, but the 
Natives generally talk these words about their servants when they 
are doing the works with displeasure. 

^QpsS, ^lSsS ; from j^'QpdSp^ ; to press, 

In another sense jijlSsS or ji/SiS^onnB, fraudulent woman as : ^uir^ 
^,H^i£l£3tpQ£ij eTeOffin-(r^LD ^(ips(^em(B^uiT(ev)itssiT ; f/s is transfigured) 
when the house fell down in the night, all the people were crushed. 
®)isj>i(Lpd&io<^ujLjQLJ!rei iBirQ^rEi^^Louirirss^, I never saw such a 
cunning woman. Por male ^Qpiaek ; a rogue, while, meditating 
mischief feigns an appearance of unconcern as tho' he knew nothing 
the matter; a cunning fellow. 

<s>/QPJ^, j>/lS^ ; boiled rice, food ; the same 

as C?5=/r^,u(75s»H)«,5=/r_<sii),«(cj^,but JVQp^ honorific expression for rice 
and ^Qpjiunf. or ji/iS^uljl, signifies the raw rice ; as : j^^ixir., 
^(ifi^niasir ^(Lp^uu^QutTL- Qeusss!(bi(Sp£m- ; madam 1 pray to have 
mercy upon me for a handful rice ; slLl-qpjs or SLL-^J-Qs^irjn, rice 
packed, or tied up for a journey. N. — B. all the Natives will prepare 
this rice previour<ly they set out from their house and if it be packed 



up in good order it will last about two or three days. There arc 
two dillerent ways to pack up this rice : first by sprinkling milk, 
second by putting the water of tamarind juice with fried chillies, 
then the last will be the best than the other. 

^ihemff, ^lB^s" or ^(Lf.er^'ff' ; good fortune or luck. 

ji/ldulLu.^, ^LhixLii—ssr -^ hnvhev. 

^ldulLl—ss^^, ^iliLDLlL^eares^ ; a razor^or a kind 

of fish : the Indian Mackerel. 

ujiIldit, OuifliuiruSl ; grandmother by mother's side. 

jt/ihiDireirj lditldit, Loiru^sar, /Ee^ffOiliLrirrm ; mother's 

brother ; uncle. Ouiflujt}>LDn-movOurFliuwu>LLrreN] mother's elder brother. 

u>LDir ; madam ; This is a common and honorific title of an aged rich 
woman in all classes of the Natives but the expression QipeSI or ji/LhetDto 
or QaeSl is used vulgarly and discerned only to poor and rude 
people. The respectable old men and women are entitled thus : Qurfluj 
euir&isrr^ euuj^Qs'eiirpsu.'rseiT^ t^^^^iruLSiuiTseh-j evLUj^ffiT(^ffGuirsvrr^ 
uQp^^utpih, ^erTeirir^6uir<£en, ^ehetriretDLDUJfresnaiJiTAerr, <oT(iissuLSL^<s<s 
ejfforr^ SUITS err, QpuutTicijr suits eh, sitQwit e2®QuiTQsu<csr^ QsiTensO^^sts 
euiTSsh, Ouifiiu^dsOj &c. 

^Luj^, ji/'f^; forgetfulness, lassitude, as : 

j>/6u(r^dQ0LD^^ jtja^^ LDp^uLjsm®, he has much forgetfulness. 

^uj&), jtjs^i^ ; neighbourhood, as : ^fg^ 

ffiresr, one of a different in neighbouring town or village ; ^eusirQ^iu 
LLjLD ji/L^LhiSlearsarO^^asr^u ji/S'eo&jareinL- Qp^eiiriLi^Q^iflLLjiTjs, even the 
neighbourhood, do not know what is his evil actions. 

^uj/B^ or ^/5^, ^(^^^ ; a five, as : ^(^s^rnh or 

^(^sireusj^ fifth, or ^t^s-Qp^jQpsmi—iTi^ei Si^iunuQuem^^msfB 
ujirdQiLh, even a young girl will be able to make a curry when she 
has the following three and five things, viz. t-jerU, tamarind, iBsn(^, 
pepper, ^ui-i, salt, s(B(^, mustard, and Qugld, cummin, which are the 
five; and the three are Or, water, O/bq^ul^, fire, and eS/pf^^ firewood. 
N. J3.— This adage is generally used only by native women when 
they are sulky with their husbands, perhaps in eating time, pecu- 
liarly in the time of distress. 

^usldScst, jijiiLr'Ssisr ; the King's residence, 

ji/srchesyu, ^iruiziaUj or jnaoDu : fair woman 



10 

one of tlic four dancing girls in the world of the gods, Q^svQs^nacLo 
€S)u, ^tr&i. \\\\s. S. 1). P. 725 llAmb'ha. 

jijuiriSi—u:, mrsi'L-Lc ; the act of filing or po- 

lishing. 
^!nreSlu.Qa>jSso^ nirwi—Qeuds^ ; politure. 

^iBsuirsh-iDassBTj jijiBsmTLD^zmTj or ^ (0eiJ it LKSsm' ; a 

common tool used by the Natives : it consists of a piece of iron 
sharpened like a knife, wliich being fixed to a plank on which the person 
sits, is used for cutting fish, meat, kc. in pieces. 

j^(fh.5=s'Ssw, jijira'ffBowr ; adoration. 

^QT)^^LD, jii'iT^sii ; the same as so^^^ 

design, the meaning of a word. 
ji/Q^LiGlurrQfiriTr, j>/(r^smLDUJiTewOuiT(fF,3rr -^ a COStly 

thing. 

uemui3sssrf^<i(^ ; cake of the seed of the ^s^uemu tree, or Bassia L. 
bruised in the oil jiress. 

^Qirirfflsth, jtiQirn&ajLJo, ov ^(^irirS'uq, oxQitit^ 

uju> ; disgust, aversion; as ^cosiuQirn^j^Q^ek, 1 have taken a dis- 
gust at it. 

^eniEiQ^iTffOiij ^e'OfEiQsiTooO -J (from Qsirsiim, 

beauty, and ^efio, without,) disorder or confusion : as ^f5^<£LLL^Off06<i 
eornb jifffiiEjQsfrSo^ujirujSli—SQy every thing in this house is in confu- 
sion : .«ya/gj;«@<^ &dsiiujei>iEiQsndsoajiTuSQh,&(^ ; his clothes were huddled 
on, he was carelessly, slovenly dressed : in general he was quite bare 
of clothes. 

^e^LDueOy eQfeusi) ; the act of washing : this 

"word signifies several meanings according the application, as : ^eoij>u 
^uDe^a^u^u^ixutLQL-eisr ; I am vexed and troubled : (srearsQseSm^^ffOiJD 
ueo ; why am I so teased, so clogged, so encumbered with business? 
&^emQu.3=s^ jti'b'OLrueiirs's? ; thy character has been reported every 
where ; ';s)sujei:tMLS(^ujir ? Did you wash your hand ? 

ji/eoiLirrfly j>/&)6iJiTifl ; covetous man ; this is 

very common expression, often used by mothers as an implication 
when their children arc eager to cat more, thus : jiieimir.flQu, a 
ravenous devil. /§(Sujsor^eoLDiTifluL3^/r-3^inli—u)nujj);&vuS'Co^; why are you 
so much desirous to have a thing as a ravenous devil. 



11 

or jijZ\)<^u^uQ~i/Oj;$i, or ji/ffodsuSdp^ ; to disturb^ to delay the pay- 
ment for a long time ; ^eoisiiSip^ ; I'ariali expression, the same as 
euiTLuuuiuLh, plantam ixvni ; QsuS, a fowl, <a/uS), way, ljuSi, fault, 
guilt, vengeance, revenge ; ])roperly euiTL^uuLpLD, Qairu^, euifi, ul$. The 
Tnnjore people never pronounce tp distinctly, but err as : euiren uuenLa 
QsneB, (fcc. 

^jbuil, jijsiuuui; or ji/uuLh ; the same as 

S^/S^, tritle, a bagatelle, what is vile, mean, contemptible. Hindoos 
always elegantly use the term eoen^ans-LD. 

^pussiTiBujuD, ^s\)Ljudstr.-flujLc, jijuuisn (BtxJU) ; 

a small matter. 
jijpu ^^cmih, jij'ekuu^ifissTLDj or ^uu^^^w-ld ■ 

vileness, meanness; as ^i^jtjsouu^^sQ) or ^i^j)juu^^a(^ ^^^dsisr 
QmiruQiDiT ? are you so angry about a trifle ? ^eiuu^dij^u£ij£?6i!ifin-&) 
j>/is;ffir^^ffluS'ieiQssiL-LS.L^uurr6ir ; Pro. if a mean person has obtained 
wealth, he will hold an umbrella even at midnight. {j);uum is pariah 
expression.) 

^eusi—ii, j^euQsi—LJD ; a wrong, a deception ; 

an impediment ; as ^endsi—uuemp^, to deceive, to impede, to cause 
quarrels. 

^■eusira^LD, ^surr^u, ; way, means, power, abi- 

litv,as : j)jeussiQ(frfi}iu^eun3'(ip'SfrefT6usi!; he who possess much power and 
ability, ^^ffia/rew/r^i^iook;, there are no means of doing such a thing; 
j^LDLDiT^^ff^^s aiTtiufTs^LSe\i§5\), I liavc no so much possibility ; jif^ 
^suirs-uiirear^LBip, that is a very bad Tamil ; ^aj/r<?a3/r ear ^a9/^(eB)sb 
0^(^Lj^3siij^efr ^Qfi^^uuLLL^QFfsSip^ ; There are many books have 
been revised by corrupted Tamil. 

juju^^u^, j^su^^lIi ; fabrication, untrulli, 

vanity ; the same as OuiriL, lie ; as : ^&i^^^^p Oe-&)eiJL^'a'Snr;^, to 
spend in vain, uh'^ulKBld j)/dua^^LDiTiLiQuirJ=<^ ; though suffered but 
proiiteth nothing : /SOs^ireo^Oiseoecnh ji/gu^^ld; ail your words are lie. 

^eweiuezD^, j^jsu^esi^ ; danger, affliction ; as 

^snsanh^ (sS'iujiT^iuiTffoQ(f>/il>u ^su^ea^ or ^(SuerV'ciD^uuLLi^n'sm ; lie was 
afflicted much by that disease. 

^snm^eisir, or ^uid3.<esiir, j;^sijiTm3:emrr ; confusion, injury 

waste ; as jtjeuiriifismnujnujQuiTp^ to bccoine vain, fruitless ; jij&jrr/ss 
etDirujiriij s^neBp^ ; to die forlorn and desolate, to perish. 



12 

jn/u^^dju), ^euu^^LULD ; transgression of tlie 

prescribed diet ; the same as u^^uji^/ripsj/ or ui^Lui(ff)SSip<suox u^^ 

^suLDtreerm, Lcirm&Qa® ; (from LDiresrih honor) 

dishonor, ignominy, reproach, aliVont, disgrace ; the ojjposite to G£l(^ 
LdTauLD- as ^euLDfTcsr uu^^'ifleas or LLiresraQsL—tresruff^iBe^^iS-^ a Lam- 
poon, a pasquinade ; ^auuDiresrcDiruj Qu&p^ ; to speak scornlully, con- 
temptuously, insolently. 

^eSifl, " Jii&jifl or .^ffly/fi or ji/6uiflu:Q,.i^ ; 

Indigo plant, ^c^(flLD(^i^£3'riTcS)L- ; Indigo cakes. 

j)/Lp3^, ^luSbv ; a liver complaint. N. B. — 

Dr. Rottler's opinion by misunderstanding for ^'ujSsd is for a small tish- 
properly jt/^eair, or ^a^esiiruQum^ : This is a common expression for 
the small fishes in river or tank. 

j;^CL^spQpiEisndj, jijQ^ejiQ^sjsiT ; a rotten cocoanut' 

^j3J^/reS, ^(^asfi; Qpsssi^i-; properly j;.5J/ 

fs^wc'a ; a widow, so called, because the thread tied by her husband at 
the marriage ceremony round her neck with its appropriate ornament 
is broken after his death : compound word ^/rei) ; as ^'^^eSLcev^d 
@ j)l!Eia,QLDsieoir(^QffehLLGS)L- ; the son of a widow is mischievousncss 
throughout his whole frame, or ^^Mv^e^-Oupp^^u^dso ; the scamp of a 
widow ; j)i^^S and (LpskKcmi— are peculiarly used among the classes of 
the Brahmin castes, but the Soodra of all community express thus : 
su:LDiSB)il.uf., sl'olS^lLl^, ^iTs^uj£iJ3,^sufftr, (^sn ih^dsoeaamQuioSbT or sw 
Oumr, eSl3SS)(SJ, ^fffretfieoeitir^eush-^ Qpgm-ss)i—S&, &:c. as : ^susstslclS^ 
LLL^Ou3;^eQ£3=es)i-QuirffO <5TW(^ih^flS(^sisr, he wanders here and there 
like a scamp of a widow. 

^£}jeuifluem^jSi/D^, j,/^sijffluemr/D^ ; to be perfectly 

cleared the case or tax; the Natives generally speak thus; j^/t^dsnffl 
tusem&uQuiriu jif£ijcijrFlu<oSdre:ssBLL®^ir ; go and settle the case at first. 

^jj/(g, J>/J^<^ ; grass, as: ^qwie/slLodc- 

GnujuQuneo j)/ 3^ tr J, ^ uj u> ir uSi (^i (^li eS'iuiT^s(^ u)(r^ij3umT(mil<iQsiT(B 
^ja e^(rf,<otasuirir ; As the disease is like the creeping stem of the auru- 
ven grass which cannot be eradicated, you must therefore try to n\)\)\y 
a strong medicine to it. 

jilpsmpi.af^^'S, jii/^6e)^ad3h.eQ ; wages for every day. 

j>lfli3(^pu61(^l£>uL^, j>i^i£6w^^ui^^ipuLi ; (lailv sub^ist- 

ance. 



13 

jtjpes)rdap-3ap, ^iea)^^ss^,Qns ; daily, the same 

as .g>i'«isir,'^L-siJD, ])xo])Cx\y jiici!T(njL-sil -J jijissi^suiS^emipuL^^ daily live- 
liliond. 

.sy^wL/, ^LDL^] the same as ^«^<? desire, 

love, affection. 
^Gsr^^ jaissBT^j : then, that day as much 

as j^'f^/Firsrr. as : ^!ckr^i}S6e»TL-QLDGiSsSLfi UDiSSi^siiT^Qh^sQ^trj'ioJsr • he is 
the same as when 1 last saw him ; or er eior ^judt^Q nQ ixtsstl uj it SQfjSs (n^ek , 
he is in no way fallen off. 

^sst^'O^/tlI®, ^sm^jQ^iTiKB^ from that da v. 

jiliT^^ffir^^ifl, ^^sjrrr^^ifi •, midiiiglit. 

j^sksmihusQTiSlp^, j)j6kssnMUsiJQr,p^ ; to distribute, 

to deal victuals. 

^sL^ujii, ^ojL^-ujii ; wantonness, spot, moc- 

kery. 
^s L^ uj LD u sirs' t^ si p^, stjisni^ujiMusmp^ ; to deride, to 

mock, to insult. 
^^lL(SIld, ^sulKSIu); let it be done. N. B. — 

This expression is often used among the Natives of all classes when 
one is envy upon another or done a wrong against him by the following 
threatening word ^sulKBld, i. e. I will try all my best endeavours to 
do evil against you : ^'J-diih this word is expressed by a child of two 
years old. 

^^djULSp/s^sueir, ^i^u>^ pi ^sueir ; he who is born 

as a man, as : ^(^uiSpfu^evdr ^uut^Qs'uJujdsh.i—ir^j he who is born 
as a man must not act thus. 

^ ! QslLQl-Qsst, si, ! OlulLQl-Qsst ah ! I am undone. 

A lamentation, particularly of women, as if a husband had died or any 
thing happened suddenly, then they Aviil set their fingers upon their 
chins and say thus. 

^@£/)si(7-eyi2), ■ ^fe^?sanLfu> ; or s^,€vLDLL(Sui ; so 

long as it lasts ; as : 0'J;^.?QpQp^iTti^23snL^u:, as long as the whole 
nights lasts ; eiQ^iBirerr QpQ^^^irii^dssriLjiJn Qsu'S3\)Q3'ujujQ<mj6m(^Lo ; you 
must work all the day long. 

^u^^, ^w^^; calamity, peril, distress^ 

as : ^eu^jj^^iHp^ ; to get rid of trouble, to be free from distress 



11. 

^mi.£^di^^cu.TLSlsh?eiT, the child uho will not assist in the time of 
trouble. 

^uusmuD, ^suuessiih -J ornament, jewel ; as: 

^sS/rsmih, or ^unemLhy^emL-euehr ; one decked with ornaments, <^ir 
(es)Siiiiss!)TuOuLLu^, or (ST^tTf^urresyruOuiiLLu^ ; Golden Treasury. 

^saujuD, ^sns^LD, or ^euirs^Lh ; the firma- 

ment, the etherial region, heaven ; ^«/r<y^cf^/rz^era/r ; a plant which 
roots out upon the surface of the water. 

^.srnBujLDj ^6iiitlSiuld ; malice, wickedness, in- 

jury. The word ^euiriliiuLD is often used most part by the lower classes. 

^sirniJc-, ^ojiruLc ; meat, food ; (village 

talk) as : ^svfTnLo^pisLSeiSso ; there is no appetite, no desire of food 
^leuiTffwp^JjQuiTp^ ; to lose the appetite on account of increasing ; 
ill health. 

^uSp^, .^i.*^, or ^i-sf- ; it is done, it 

is finished as : iQffir^m^ Os^iL^n-a's^ov^ffsi-^, it is performed what 
you bade. ^sussrs-eir^LD(S!u.jir^Qs' - he is indeed thy younger brother ; 
ffauuiTL—trs^s^ ; the dinner is already done. 

^sir^es)^6-0ffiu^n€ir, ^eu ir a^&o s s Q s iLi ^ it eisr ; he has 

done what ought not to be done. 

^sir^siisk , ^&Jir ^deum ; a dishonest, and un- 

fit man. 

^sir^6uiT!T^zm^j ^euir ^eu/TiT^esi^ ; a bad word ; 

as ^sui^(rr)i(9)U>iTeijireisr, he is hated by every one; ^ja ^-mi^niiQLDir 
euiT^; this is good for nothing: M Os'iTemm^ eicsr^QsiiUueuir^ 
I cannot do what you have said. 

^uirs'LJD, ^^euiTs'LO) ; disorder, irregularity : 

as (9)(BiluLDfreuiT3-LDiTiuQua^p^ ; a family is gone to destruction, 
or ruin, 

^@Lo, .^fiy"> or ^iJo ; it will be done ; 

^^LDS&irQLCiT or ^&^(2lcit p can this be of use to you? 

If c^oii) joined to a nyun or verb, it signifies : it may be ! expressing 
some doubt concerning a i)resent or past thing ; thus : @s^ jt/fiQujinc; 
this rice is agreeable, or he says that it is rice, he supposes that it is 
j^ajair6u/E_airfse)'}> ; it is said that he is come or is arrived, eu^oy/r^ti) 
perhaps he will come, or he or they say that he will come ; ^uul^ujitld 
it will be so ; j^^usk/Be^dOjiiJi^iMQuir^ or ^t-^'toCSuir^drSuuiBeuiregr, when 



15 

he becomes good, he will be happy ; /B.reir ji^eu^dSch^t^ixmiuL^ or 
^Q3^LDuLf.QuifiQearssr, I spoke to him conformably to his wishes. 

^i(^QtrtTo^w, ^^s/Sei^LT) ; angry, Avrath, vehe- 

ment anger as : j)jsueisrQ(ir^iMu ^s^Q^LDiriSl(rf)iS'(rr^ck ; he his very 
angry, (this is very common expression). 

^lEiaireOLD, ^(■^-ki a it sold ; a proper time for 

bringing a thing to pass; ^®«/tsoJ), and <?/r/Ey«/r60Li) ; when the 
time of wealth is come, remember death. 

^3'ifisQ.p^, ^Qi-fls/P^ ; to celebrate : as ^(tj 

/E/rSoiT- ujnQifld/D^ ; to celebrate a holy day, <^(^i^^i—es)LD6s>uj iun9ifi 
&p^, to long for, to desire one's good or property. 

^^irinSlQ^dS'p^, ^„^inTiSlQ?dp^ ; to be in readi- 

ness ; the same as ^uj^^U)iruSl(r^sSp^, or ^tufTun-iSiQ^sQ^^. 

^s'lrifliuesr, ^'3'irfl, ov ^Qf'ium ; master, a 

priest. 

^srv^rresTLD, s^iD^erLD, or ^uirff^esiu ; the roy- 

al audience as : ^©'(CCjeri'^/rear^i^sg ld^<si^^ ? is he able to speak 
in the presence of the king or in the audience, ^'cuek s^emeudQsiremip ; 
he is a timid man, unfit to speak before the senate, ^.^v^nem^^Qeo 
Qu^ 03=tfluLSl^4^d0s,frenjD^ or ^esisuiSQsoQuB Oeuitm^^ievrrpj^ ; to 
plead a bad cause successfully. 

^eivLj^ij), ihSB^dodj f.(^ffLD, ^<s^i-ss&>LD ; an asylum, a 

place of refuge or substance, solidity, strength ; thus they commonly 
say : ^mSmiueOs'DfTO^esrdi^S ^(C^s-LSeiSoO or ^'S3>l— dssdiSiscSffO ; I have 
no refuge but thee; ^ir^O/rs^s3(l0i)z^iT'3f>.(Sl^2sviLiLSeoS^ ; ox ^mu^qp 
iBeids^ ; there is no substance in this paddy, it contains no nourish- 
ment, nutriment. 

^i^ijQ^iresii—, ^i_/rQ^/rsroi_ ; a mcdccinal shrub. 

jiIlLi-is>, ^sms^eij • motion, jog, agitation, 

as : ^is^^Q^n-eimfluSeo ^cSiS^suOLnii^, tliis boat rolls much or pitches ; 
/f Qeuifluj^LLL-Lo!TQu3f(!r^iij ; thou speakest like one, who is mad or 
drunk. 

^(.oaievii, ^^6uu>; pride, arrogancy. 

^sssremLD, ^tpesiix, or ^Qpea^ui; manfulness, 

courage ; the same as ^emSen'Seir^^eisrui, manhood : as ^ip'Stau, or ^ 
Q^es)u:u^shefreijeir ; a valient man, one behaving like a man. ^ipsaunu 
^^uQufTp^ ; to loose one's manly strength or vigour. 



16 

^^iTLD, ^^^ffLD ; haste, hurry, precipi- 

tation, necessity, distress ; as ^.k^inDQuiT^isLDirLLi—fnDpQs^ujQf.ek ; 
1 have done it being compelled by incessant solicitation; ^^^uisirir 
gi;i(g lj^^9ldlL® or LD^^ujih ; a bustling or precipitous person has 
stupid sense in all his business. 

^sktxir, ^i'MiT or ^,3^£iiLbiT ; the soul, 

^ii: .^^^LD-iQ^iTipsk ; a bosom friend ; j^jsum ^sSllurruSlLL®^ ; he 
expired, or departed. 

^ihe^^e^L^, ^kes)^Qpi^, or ^kesi^iBi^ ; the 

eye look or countenance of an owl, the look of simpleton or fool ; as 
^i<!X)^Qu!reiQu, Qu, Oiucsi^ Qpt^d/D^ ; to look here and there like 
an owl. 

^ui^, ^<si/i^ ; calamity, peril. 

^l,ujT6SdTLhy ^eviremLD ; ornament, jewels. 

^luire^ih, @?CT-uLy ; weariness, faiutness, fa- 

tigue : as ^lun-s^LDeuirro^, to be w^earied, to be fainting; ^ujfrs'/h^(ff,p 
^ or ^'hruLj^Q^r)^ to be reheved after fatigue, to be refreshed. In 
another sense oi ^lurrs'iji ; grief; as /sirsir Os'irssrasr^dairs Or ^ujit^ 
uui—(S(su(^Lb ; you must not be sorry for what I said. 

^Lu^^LD, .^"S^^to ; preparation. 

^uj, ^(u*, .^ttysYT, ^Sff^, eurriprsneir ; life, lifetime; 

ffl;^#, dirirujLo, an age, as : ^Sff^thsireuek ; an old man. ^Ss^eun^^ 
Sear ; long life, length of days ; Oej(^eijrruSisr£dr£s.Tsisi^ev^, may 
you live long. 

^tLf^ii, ^uj^tM, or ^liS.^LD ; instruments, 

tools of any kind, as : ^lu^uiBs^esis^usmp^ ; to fence, to exercise 
with arms. 
mijr^ luiTiT ; who : an interrogative and re- 

lative pronoun, of Fcm. and Mas. Sing, and Du. Tiius, when eLji>. 
is added, it has a general sense ; as ujiTQ^ui, all ; and witli a nega- 
tive ; as LuiTQT^LBsi>2o\i, o\' ^iT^iSSiSso ; no body, no one. (These two 
words are vulgar dialect.) 

^^euein^, j)jsv£iir£^' ; an illname, or fame, 

or rumour, ignominy, slander, a scandal; as ^£ue\'iT^O<rnei\:vj!! to 
spread illname, defame, to calumniate, to scandal ^su^^uQurr^La 
^j^6ueifr^Quof(^6i<i I lie speaks always a scandal. ^3i}^^ and ^^s^ir^ 
are very common expression. 



17 

^e?o<r, ^sue^; desire, longing, an appetency. 

^^Senek, ^eSl^euirffaih commonly ; ^eu9snir 

eiTLD; one's goods, body and life : as ^arsrr otsot- ^aj^snactr ^<cS)a::Oujio 
eiiTLDsurTLLLf. iJ/tufT® s^-^e^OsiiT'S^^irsh-, she paid me cooly after per- 
formed her work by my life and body. (This expression is often used 
amongst the natives.) 

^eu&iusLc^ ja/euQiLiui • a necessary thing ; ^su 

QsfT€!srs>(^ SjisiiQujixiTemsij&rT ; she is a great help to me, I cainiot be 
without her. 

^■sSlesit—ujinr ^iijes)i—ujiTiT ; the Lingum or the 

figure representing by different sexes. 

^srorcKL-i^^. ^emn—^& ; a mistress, governess, 

as : tEiTsk &.esrs(^ ^essrssii—'f9i0ujisrjjj0^ifltu[r^ir ? Dontyou know that 
I am a mistress to you? N. B. This word is fundamentally rectified 
only to the superior females of noble family by pariah caste • 
because they are considered to be the servants of other nations 
in India; ^gaarswL- male, a master of a family. All pariahs who 
are under the service of husbandmen, call their land lords ^ssaremi- ; 
they would receive as hire two measures of paddy every day after 
their hard labour in the fields. 

^^<s/r®, &^t—mTes!sfiujLD or s^L-mr^iuLh^-^—'^jbsfr® ; a town near 
Vellore. 

^p^ssneouiriLQp^, ^^^dsireouiruSpji ■ the river's 

water that flows over the fields. 



J/n^, §!^Q£P^, ®^ifip^; to revile, 

to scorn, to scoff, to despise. 
^s^ii^p^ ; the same as wit^itl^p 
^, to strive pertenaciously, to speak obstinately ; as <sr^kQi^Oi-u 

(nj<ok ; he vies, or strives with me, he teases me continually. 

g)(7^LJL/, ©<»'-/''-/ ; sweeping away as with a 

torrent of flood. The word ^stulj is only used by Pariah people thus : 
ei(rf)isfreir(ip(i£^LD u/sisir ^??dQp^fr&> ^(^^Quir(n^cir ; he has tired 
much as he pulls out the Punkah all the day long. 

a burying place, a burning place. 



18 

^®fjCsmi—Lh, s>i sSl s- IT iB d.Q 3;ssbT !—Lb: a penalty, line, 

as : ^'SffiriB^Ofestn—ijOsBir®ff>p^ : lo pay a fine for useless affairs. 

^l^iIl^, ^^i^i-i ; contempt as : ^^ldl/ 

Qusrp^ : to speak arrogantl}', angrily. 

^6S)L-(^3=&), ^i—(^ffei) ; an obstruction, a liin- 

(lerance as : ^i—f^a^sut^ ; a strait, a narrow way : /sirsBrjiiiSL-(^3'eoir 
tu/SesurQemeir ; I was a hinderance to it. 

g)£3)t_iiF£OT-L9KrS5r, @ i- .5= 3^ L£ iSl STT^ ; tllC SCCOncl cllil(l 

of a mother. 

^i;!Di^(^LLQi—fT(TrirBfrerr^ e^esdr^sSLLOi—rrd^fBfTerr ; etery 

other (lay. 

^lLl-u>, ^d^L—ih ; pleasantness as : ^O^ 

asrsQi:i^i—LDiru9(r?,s(^^i, this is pleasing to me, 

^/sits^itP, Qeu^^Lo^ex^ireh; the same as dyi 

/Sliua^n-p, another or strange caste. (When a friend comes to pay a visit 
to another by night time, the latter will ask him, Avho you ? to which 
the former's reply would be thus : QeuJs^ix^&^ir6^iiiSo\) or ^(jjoS^^,) 

^smsQ^f^Qs^rreis^uQufvair^, ^^Lhu^(^Qs=iTeOsOLjQurr6yir^ ; 

neither speak enviously nor endeavour to please at the expense 
of truth. 

^/i^sS^U!, ^LLixiQ^siJiT^ ; mode, or this 

manner. 

^oj^p^, Qmsiip^ ; (from ^lu^Spjji^ to 

be possible, to yield, to go fairly kc. as : ^O^ssrsQaeoir^ ; this thing 
is impossible to me. 

^jsQiULD, irir9iuii> ; a secret, a mystery, 

[ireu&iuLD vulgar expression of low classes.) 

^affOs^x-^iTLD, irs^Qii^irih ; a red powder made 

of Mercury. 

^ffs^euir^LD, ffg^&nT^Lo ; chymistry, Alchymy. 

(^rjs-isnfT^, ns'eiiiT^ : an Alchyraist. 

^ff^BstsrLuiriSl(rf)i@p^, • jjQ3sariuiTuSl(i^sp^j or (T^QturruSn^ 

apjs to be savoury, tastefnl. 

^gi^uuifl/hf.&jni'ic, @^/f^ii) up/s^iS ; even that 

which you beg, sliare with bcggcrs. 

^irs'/siTi^'euiT&Dip, jJeto^trerfJojireinLp ; a plantain tree 

producing fruits of a sweet (lavour. N. B. The Natives are very fond 



19 

of this fruit, tluiu any other plantains ; but few Europeans^ do not 
like this fruit as they are strangers to this country. 

^ulLl^luit, QiTLLL^ssrr, or QiTLLuf.J'SfT^.Sefr j 

the third caste of the fourth tribes of Hindoos. 

^jeadliuQf^jTLD, LcirTcoOLDS'fEJi^tMQtsiiLh ; the evening 

twilight, the time when ^ire^iuzhr was slain by SlL^s^ ; but in ge- 
neral U3/rSs\)U3 3'/a(^LhQfBfnD, or W!Teill'3'i^U-jlEI3k.(BiLQfBJJLD. 

^frLL&ldSlp^,OY ^iTtSbs^dSp^, — QiTS'^dp^, Qirtl^sp^ , to save. 

^itlL'K)l—^ Oiru--as)L-. ; the double QitiI.'sol-.u 

LSein-Ssrr ; twins. 

^ffemi—SLD, OircmTi—euu) ; treachery, perfidy, as : 

QrTsmi—wLDUi-siTp^j to deal perlidiously. 

^a'^^LJD, QfT^sui, Of5^s;LD ; blood N. B. 

The lower classes of the Natives will pronounce thus : Qm^,^LD ; the 
same as ^^^nin ; but the higher, elegantly speak ^it^^sld or s.^ 
JTih. General use OirJ^^uD -, (g) is dropped) as : Oir^ssQiMtr®^, l)lood 
runs. Oir^^dsffOuL^ ; consanguinity, relation by blood, Oir^^dseou 
iSlQffO OumrOsirenp^ : to take a wife from the nearest kindred. 

fissTLb : a jewel, a gem, any thing the best of its kind, or liguratively. 

^iruLBajLD, QuldlBiuiIi : delight, pleasure, glad- 

ness, satisfaction, contentment. 

^nsijdesiSj jieijaesis, ireSdesis, eosijdsuis; : a 

tucker, (Village people's expression is loOsijdssys.) 

^ffe^uDua^ih, irfr£iiL£u<ciiG^Lb ; night and day. 

^rrirujs'Lh, jrinue'Lh ; secretaryship. 

@/r/rey^-^e3r, • ^/rey^^sa'" ; a horseman, a trooper, 

a rider. 

^■Fli^i^uLD, or ^fli—uiM, ^-^uLo, — iBsi^.uld; thc sccoud of the 12 
signs of the Zodiac ; thc bull. A\'ils. S. D. P. 133. 

^(^u^, ^(3^^ ; twenty. 

^QiTuesiu^ Qaues)u : the eye lids. 

^esjirueau, Oirueau ; (erroneous expression : 

but it is very common.) the ventricle, thc stomach, as: ^osrQnu 
<einui§lss)rr(^.^^iT ? have your belly filled by food ? 

^(Sfrd(^, QiTd(ff) : thc leaf of a llower, a 

thin plate of metal used in covering other metals, instead of gilding 
or plating gold leaf, tinsel &c. 



20 

^(oiTs>i, Qirsij : a beach ; C/ray^^toTo/T is 

common usage. 

^si)iau>, eodsu), or Oei^ddsu) : Ihe same as 

ermr, arithmetic, a immbcr. 

@sOffl;5=to, Oiueieus-LD : a free gift, gratituity 

as : MQLus!!rsQ)Qiuj€^eu3'LciirujQaudcdQffuj^irQujiT ? hast thou laboured me 
for nothing or gratuitously. 

^ffiisuLDULD, @^^)a/, Oiu^osif, or OiusOsumiru) ; a cotton 

tree producing fine cotton, the fibres being thin and short, as : ersi>ex} 
eir^^&eiilQunei) /sireirsir^^Qfi/sQf^esr, I had attended you like a 
parrot waiting for the fruits of ersc<2/ or cotton tree : a Proverb 
exhibiting an instance of vain expectation upon any important thing. 

g)60«(w, Q&>d(^ ; a mark to aim at. 

®jsOfEJS<ssrLD O si (El es ism- IX ; eo/Bsem-ih • a fasting 

prescribed to sick people as : OeOEisaanhumT/D^ to keep a prescribed 
fast : Qv^iasmriMuiTLD ^sSi^^ih fasting is heavenly medicine (very 
common expression used by native Physician &c. only to the sickly 
people.) 

®60/E3<5/f eoiE/sirir, or eoiasir -. an anchor 

commonly m'ksk-irLJD, 

^soij'ss)^, Q<soik<^s, or OextiBsiTL-jifl ; Ceylon. 

Oe\)iEJsirujrB, the Metropolis of Ceylon, Candia: aeaJr if, commonly 

©goiOT<3^, Offdse^ff, shame, bashfulness. 

^sS<3^ic(!)3^0siTLLew^L-LDjrLh, Qeos-esie^Qsu-L-LDiiw; a tree Avhich 

seldom produces flowers, its leaves are used as a medicine and are 
eatable. 

@60(^<?Lo, O0O(E^3=u} : a bribe paid in hand ; 

the same as msSes)!—, ensda^cQ, ufi^irearLh, &)irQeCiT^, euiTLDLL 
(Bisirsh, Src. 

^sO(^ffLDeuiTiE]®, OffOf^s^LDSvinEjSi ; one who takes 

bribe; 0Hir(Se^iT^&)frisi@ ; Court Term. 

g)sV)Ll<?^rorLD, or ^eii<3sp?miJD, enJ^ffenfru), Qe^J^s^^Tio ; comeli- 

ness, propriety, decency. 

g)s\iLl*ii>, OeOLifLD, fn)i_l^ti> ; a Lac. 

@6V»Ll©u-a), OoSieSliULDy &)3-Si'.uu> ; the same as 



21 

etzmsmm, esteem, respect, thus : ^snOemesr i(&)Q&).3-fflujLS>kidso, or &)3Si 
ujlSs^Ss\) ; I liave no regard for him. 

^sdizmri—ek, eoemi—^; mas. <sosmL^ fem. an in- 

tractable, stubbornj or troublesome fellow: 60sserL^a(^^ss)[r ; an 
intractable horse. 

^eOiuLD^ eoiuu: ; destruction, loss. 

dung of horses, elephants, and asses ; &>^^ir also means for a kick 
amongst the rakkish fellows thus : iBir^esraQ&irQf^iffi^^rrQsiT^uQuckj 
I will give you a kick, 

^eoihm^, ereaiesis ; a tree, Zizyphus Jujuba 

L. Hottler P. 81. 

^eOiiun-up.^ eOLoufrt^, or 0^!Tiluir<f3'/r^; Lum- 

bady caste. These are a very useful description of Hindoos, re. 
sembling in habits the Gypsies of Europe. They are the great inland 
carriers of the country, especially in the peninsula, where there is no 
inland navigation^ and speak a language of their own. Their princi- 
pal articles of traffic are grain and salt ; they have no fixed domicile ; 
and the males are much given to theft, particularly of cattle, while 
the females steal children and jewels of women. R. This despicable 
habits still exist among the said caste people. 

^sOfTuii, eoiTuLD ; profit, gain, lucre, &;c, 

^so/ruQsoiruih, esiruQeotTuii ; prolit and loss. 

^sOevEisui, eoeu/Eisii) ; cloves. 

^eosuiEJsuuLLee)!^, ■ eoeuiiisuuLLes^L- ; cinnamon. 

^ffOoiJ6SdrLD, eoeuemrLD • salt, the same as s-lJl/ 

as ; (o0^6mff(ip^^iTi}> ; the salt sea, Qs^ir^jna^^ &>susmu>Qufr<S/D^ ; 
to put salt in rice. Some Natives use the word s^iesBirr instead to 
eosnssdrui the salt. 

^sdirSifl, eiirS'ifl or eorrdlifl or eiirsiB ; drun- 

kenness, intoxication. 

^e^aesis, eofroasn or 0Oire!!)s ; way, manners, 

as : j>/eusk <^(if,e^trea)suLD^i(Si^isk ; he is one kind of man ; cpQ^nixresisiuit 
ujQusfp^ ; to speak differently from other people or to show a dis- 
pleasure by speech, <^(iV)i^!Tee)euiurTiS(if/aSi/D^ ; to be out of humour, 
out of order, to be different from one's usual state. 

^'o^suQ'oia^LJDj laxisuQ&i'ifLh ; a little, as : ^<sij^s 



22 

@ eicijQsos'UJiTQ^ui Ljd;^iSle(2s\) ; he lias no sense even a liltlc, 
N. B. This is very nice term for lads ; and the Natives often use 
this expression for senseless matters or any business, when they have 
been foolisldy executed. 

@50/rc?<scL_, ffOiTs-L^, 6\)/r <?£©:_, jiiSsos'l^ ; fati- 

gue, lassitude. 

^.eon'—ui, e^iTL-ili • a horse slioe or dl&iiTu- 

Ujinb the name of a country in the north. 

^ffoiri—s^eksb^ujiTQ, (s^itl-s'^gSluitQ; Monks, Mendi- 

cants of that country. 

^&)in-urrei5>Q^, e^iri—uirssx:^ ; the language of 

the country of Ladam. N. B. Tliis expression exhibits in general the 
children's talk thus : ^ih^ui3s'n'haQu3?pj3 s^^irs—uir^e^ or eo/ssL-tr 
u!ree)Q^ujiru9(T^s(^^ ; This child's speech is unknown to man's un- 
derstanding : as the language of Ladam, but sometime people would 
say thus also : as ^/k^uLS.sh'Seir sle^ULSsn^f^efrjvt^uQuiTffO (^etrjpi^ . 
This child chatters like a parrot. 

S)sv)ffii)<?65)a^, <sS}<sofrLDd'SS)s= ; a grass termed, Cuss 

Cuss : Andropogon muricatum L. Eottler. 

^soiTLULc, e^irujLD ; the same as (^^emiriQsir 

iLi—iTiij, a horse stable : properly (^^es^ireomuLb. 

^<a0rreo2ssr^ e^irsSiSm ; caressing, fondling. 

§l&)iTsijs^fliui}>, ffOirsiiesaf^ajLD ; commonly s?ihsffix, 

^iP&y erroneously j>iip<sij, ^ili'S beauty, loveliness, as : ^sysf 0-fl;(5«/5 
^iru3iruS(TF,sQ(ft/'sh-, she is very beautiful, or handsome. (The word 
^/h^iru> is most elegantly used.) 

^,sQal^LD, e^S^Lo ; the art of writing as : 

^iBS n^^ei erser^QSii-LU Qs^sreco^^S^iJoQuTLLQi—ek I did sign my 
name in that receipt : e^Q^i^ is vulgar dialect. 

@(s£iEisLD, c^iEJSLD ; a sign, or token. 

@<cQisis^iTiff, (o^.ijs.iiiBu.L^asn, or gS .sj s ^ rr iff , 

one that wears a lingum, which immodest figure is contained in a 
metal box. N. B. These people do not follow the ceremonies of burn- 
ing the corps as other Natives do, but set up the corps on a bier of 
car, and carrying it to the burying ground with a procession : being 
surrounded with the crowd of Pandarams and then close it into the 
graves as the manner of silling. 

or &SIl9, Ojol9 or ; Oso£ ; a writing, character. 



33 

^n^&\), s§S>-i), or eosOfTi^Coie^sjih ; plav, 

sport, a branch of feminine action proceeding from love. 

^QffOSLh, or ^QeoSiuu), Qe^Qtuu), or Qeodliuii), Qeosun 

an electuary in medicine as : Q&osSiwwjh.tl/D^i, or uem/p^, to make ; 
to compound an electuary. (Qeosth, is the word of Sanscrit.) 

^QffOuearii, Qffduesru) ; most commonly Qeou 

ussnTii ; (I) an aphrodisiac Medicine, Yenerem excitans (2) Cupiditas 
et habilitas ad coitum, erectiopenis, copulation. Rottler. 

Q^tSl ; exchange, barter the same as Osn^d'SSffieuir/Eiseo or ufu^^lu 

@2>-t), erSsd ; leaf of a tree or plant. 

^3s\)sufrexiiiijssr^ toJOodsnirsssflujehr^ or eTeosvrresi£u.iS3r • 

one who sells the leaves of Banian tree. N. B. These leaves are very 
useful and clean plates to eat on for the Natives, and the above people 
sell four <sT&j for one pie, and each ^3oo will be consisted one broad erSso, 
after stitched together about 15 or 20 small pieces of leaves ; but the 
plantain leaves will be nicer and most useful than these; and specially 
will be used in the time of entertainment ; This sometimes, is very 
scarce to get two leaves for one pie : and that the Natives will oblige 
to buy the said dried leaves whenever the necessity prevails them. 
By selling the leaves with bundle after well dried, these sorts of mer- 
chants, become the people of wealthy. Thus by degrees, they use 
their exertions in another mode of traffic. 

^&ioOfrsSLLL-iT6\), ^SiffOinlL-ireo ; if not, this phrase 

is disjunctive ; otherwise, or else, instead of @eo0i)fr^uLf.uj/rsii, 
because it is not : GTa!russsra,i3S)3idQsiT(B ^eie-3irLLL-ir&) wrrm^drSsar 
.3=es)udsei^LguLSluQuek ; give me my money, otherwise I will summon 
you to the Court. 

^ipuudr, or ^iput-ieasfl ; QiLiuSipii^susN-^ or Qiussreurrujesr ; 

one who has lost all he had, a destitute man. 

@iP6V, ST-Apo/ ; lamentation, dolefulness, 

mourning for the dead : with OsfrmTi-.rr(Bp^, to mourn for, to bewail 
the dead as : ^iB^^L-L^k<5TLpeij or srLpeijULLL-ufn—fruS!(r^d(^j:i or ertp 
(EijLi:u!rfi^!Te£iLjLDirtS(iT)S(^ ; there is affliction or sadness in that house, 
as if there were death in it. The Natives commonly talk this under- 
neath proverb, as scolding or an imprication when they have a Httle 



u 

sulky or slightest trouble in their houses ; or with any one thus : 
^ensksTipOaj&'is ; may he die ! j)/<suesr(^<S eripOeu^^^uQuirs ; may 
death approach his house ! j)/eu^d^ ^ipeijLiutr^^ireifliLjLDsijjT or e-saar 
i-fr&j ; may death and pestilence approach his house ! s-csriosrteO^ 
®^^ erQ^s(^(Tp'Ssrrds ; may the noise of your death approach thee, 
and the shrub Aselepias gigantea, grow in thine house, S:c. ^ip^ ; 
condolement, properly defect, what is lost, gone, or wanting, lamen- 
tation ; and the above said ill-usage as an iraprication, is still exists 
among all the classes of the Native community. 

to put off the time of payment, to delay the days of payment. (This 
word ^si-s^u^sp^ is often used by Pariah people as : ^iTdjeuaLDLL(Bui 
Qu&Qsf^^iTsrr ; she protracted or continued the conversation till her 
mother come.) properly ^frpui^, vulgarly g).^LJL/; this word is termed 
according the following signification : procrastination, delay, dila- 
toriness, protraction, impediment, difficulty, a pull, the act of pulling? 
drawing, the rapidity of a river. 

&^Sffojjj^^eusrr ; a young widow ; an insulting talk of them is thus : 

ene'rr or QuiresrisiJsm^lj^oun'iLi L^^earsm^ijejii^eiisiT. 

^otTLDi3inrujua, QckemuLSiTfrujih ; tender age, youth. 

^enuuiM, (oT'snuuLD, or ^2e(ruuiJa ; evil, mis- 

chief, misfortune as : ^esrOs^LuseisOiuk&iini) ersr-uuij), all your actions 
are evil, ^j/b^J^-s^ffd^ 0(i^tlu(^snuu'j)^ These goods are of an inferior 
kind or quality or sort. 

^errQenTixew^, ^sneSesruairs? ; Compassionate 

mind. 
@£Trsffo, ^sfreveo ; softness, tenderness. 

^li-fi^^surriLisk, ^e^J'S^euirujsar ; one who gapes 

like a monkey. 
^je^ie^s^iasssr, i-isif)^ffdssssr, blear eyes, sore 

eyes with rheum. 
^'detT^^uQuirSlp^ or @3ari©/)3^, ^sfr^e^uQuirp^ ; to grow 
thin, or lean. 

@^'^'^> @fi»r«: ; tenderness, what is young, 

not fully grown, 



^ ; to f^tumble^ aud fall^ to trip. 
^j(ry, <oi(nj, (<t}si>, (o^lL'S^ 3k.e<M ; Pravvn. 

(^lL® the low people's phrase: properly ^a^pjx. 

^jjiSuSi(ff,aSp^, ^^i£luSi(rf)sp^ ; to be tied or 

strained close as a knot. 
^jvssuiSlL^dSljr)^, ^^isuuiSlL^sp^ ; to catch, to 

hold firmly. 
^se>pQpja, ^empuSp^ ; to sprinkle, to scat- 

ter; in another sense ^es)iru9p^ to make a noise. 

@oro^ifflj . sTps^Q ; flesh fit for food, meat : 

as : ^LLi-^eoipff'Sl, mutton u>irLLu^f^pi&, beef. 

^p^uQuirSlp^, ^pjjiuQu/reSlpja ; to split, to 

break asunder, to become separate or disjoined. 

g)CTru), iSTesrui ; a class of men or beasts. 

^esr^^irem, erem^^ireir ; a kinsman. 

^eBr(Lp(^3'esr(ipL0fniS(yi^sQp^t ^sS(^,iDSS(er^L£irTu9(ff)Spjs ; to 

have many relations and dependants, in one union or in one accord, 
(vulgar dialect Loii5(gi5LD, cjisrerjii).) 
^&sTULD, ^'huLD ; delight, dcliciousness, 

pleasure. 
^saruLniriud QslL@p^, ^ldulditujQs^p^ ; to listen with 

eagerness or delight. 
/Etrsir Qs&Qssk. (I ask you) is the language of unlearned people ia 
the Tinnevelly vicinity. 

^ssr^, ^•ossr^j ; this day or to-day. 

SjciireiDpdQevQhQjn'ear , ^vsorSssvr dj^iauQ^euiTsir ', he Will 

come to-day. 
®zisT£6)pissi^ujijQs(r(BLjQuek or ^Si}&ujip(iff2&jeJ!r, ^fioTckatrdss 
w^^uJiEjQairdlLjQueiir ; I will positively give you to-day ^gu&ujim i« 



FT-Qp^, FT-Spjsi ; to bestow. 

i^^sSiidsLD, (compound word) i^isBii&aui ; charitableness. 

FpOf&>, FF^eo, fT'Q^ ; the white ant 

when winged : (from /=f, and O^eo) Termes fatale ; comp. ^iapajirecr, 
Q^isje^ or Q'ffOy as : ^ps(9)iisireiU)^f(i^iTeo, iStpsQ^iS^pSpQ ; 



26 

the white aut gets wings, when the time of its death approaching. 
This is said of one who lias been undeservedly raised to a high station. 
In another sense pfs^i^'^^nLLp^, or pps'&OswLLp,^ -^ to whistle. 

Fr,f}^^uQun-Q/r>^, FriflisfuQuu p^ ; to be benumb- 

ed, stifi'eiied or deadened bj cold, to grow moist. 

ffH-, fpQ) ; a nit, the eggs of a louse. In 

another sense ft-^ (two) is an adjective prefixed to words which begin 
with a vowd tlvus : i^jL^uuiui^ujuQusr-p^, to use expressions 

contained in i^peh. 

/^/f>«@, , iT-ses)s ; cuhnus or straw for pick- 

ii^g the teeth. 

FPirsi^e'jfLDurr, prdisiDsS's^ii.ufr ; a variety of ory- 

za or Paddy, so called from its being very slender. 

ppiTi(^LLei'ic9es>s, Fr-ssiRsu.<kSesiaj ; a kind of jessa- 

mine whose petioles are very slender. 

iv^Slpju, FFesuPp^, or Fn^<pj^ ; to bring 

forth young, as : ^^.J'^i)^, the firstling, fT<^ii>ir(B, a cow which has 
not a calf. 



&.ak^siiiJ!T, e.eij/5^eijesr ; a pleased, a favorite 

or confidential man. 

s.aiE^Offi^^, ^eum^Qs^^ ; pleasing intelli- 

gence, glad tidings. 

s.auD, p-euLD; the earth, the world as : 

t.euQpif./?:^iruQunQsi>Qu3^(npuJ, (^euu)up/3^fru(cuirei>(ous-r(f>j'eEr;) thou 
speakest, as if the world were at an end. p-euuiup/b^iruQuneo means 
as the world flies, peasant talk ^-euiQ^isiQ^uL^Qei) Qu6f(nj'iu. 

s.sSea^LOM'ii), p^(Si^ji^u>liLi) or s^i^sul^^S'lditlDj 

or LtidQesrLDjnh, or Q <f ^ ^ ld irii) , or Qs^iSlirs^uinui ; a worm eaten, or rot- 
ten tree. In another sense as : ji/eu^^s'e>jr<i.sae\) ^sSuQuiT(nf<en, 
she wastes away with grief, commonly s,(Tr,^uQ uneven. 

ti.iun^^, a.^^^ ; high, from e^s^QT/V^ pro_ 

perly s.u.irr^-i^Sipjs, to be lifted, or raised up. 

e^uSii, a-"^0> e-*/r, or £.©/r ; (vulgar 

dialect) properly, t-uS/f, life. 

tL&iiuL^Slp^, s-Sfu/D^ ; to incite, to stir up, 

to set on fdogs ;) to scare, to frighten away (birds.) 



^7 

s.uJiT^^, a_j .2^; height. 

^^ci^i—easru), or ^LLL-.&r3rm, tLei^emu) ; heat^ warmth. 

^i_ik, s.L-LDL^ ; the body : as uiftiurs^LD 

u<mem(SijLD rSl/B^ds&jLo ^.i—ihOudl^^irem ; he is born to be mocked 
cincl despised. ^i—uamuQ^^Spjj, to iiourish, to strengthen, to take 
care of the body, 

e.L_6iJrL/i^<S£TO5 or £-L_6OTuS£D3*, C L_ ii^ U i^ ffi 5D) 3 OT E^. i_ '-f l3 (-Ji « .TO « ; 

a contract, a covenant. 

e-L^ewiS^uL/, s-l-ulSooulj; the offspring of the 

sanae father and mother : tewct-LJiil^uL/^Sar C/?^; love your 
brotliers, and sisters. 

e-c»i— , ^«DL^; raiment, vesture, as : .g 

«oi_uS«i)«o/r^6i/«Br ^^ir ^iOLSsrrSBrr, a man who wears no clothes, is 
considered to be a half: properly ^smu.ijiSl60siin-.ii,suear j^o-mir ^esdrLSen'Seff. 
i. e. such would not be esteemed highly amongst the Company. 

s.emir^^, cerori^ ; sensibility, feeling : as 

e^esir^^QaLLi—evepr, a man without feeling. 

^sssriSp^^OV ^esBTir^^SjD^f fe^emirsp^, to dry, to teach, to 
instruct. 

^fm&p^, ^iiQfl^ or ^(ksp^ ; to eat : as 

fi-€m i—Q ff IT ^ ^ i (^ QiTimi^euLDuepsrp^^ Or ^es!)Ti—<£LL(B3,BiJsmL^&iLou 
eiirp^; to render evil for good, to repay kindness with ingratitude. 
A Proverb. 

«-^a/5?^jSr, £._,«e0^^ ; to help, to be of use, 

to be fit for the purpose, 

t-^^Sp^, ^^£)ip^ ; to shake. 

c^jii, Qtr^^Lc; blood, (vulgarly O-^^^^tj.) 

c^#Q//r«y, &.pjrajinL^, or n^Sl nsL^iriuej -^ defec- 

tive menses caused by flatulency commonly (^s-senaujei,'. 

&.^it/s^isSq£iSp^, SL^i^QuireSflj^ ; to fall off, as 

leaves from a tree ; hairs from the head. 

e.^ir/i^^(T^(^, ^.^/s^s-^Q^eLj ; whithered leaves 

which have fallen. 

^^^jTu), or t^^jc/, sl-^^uld or ^p^u&j ; an answer 

as : ^euirsiatr eiem^^^ireijuuL^ WL^a§!(n^iasetrir .f* do they M'alk agree- 
ably to my orders ? implying that they do not. 

s^^^QtuirasLD, t^ji^iUiJDi or ^^tuiJa or tL^QaJ>f«u 



28 

u> ; an employment as : e-car s^i^ujOiMsisevr or MOiumevr tL-^^ojixussr 

Qp; what is your employiueut or on what employment did you engage 
now. 

s-us=irih^, ^eusirrs^-j palliation, calmness, 

patience, alleviation, tranquillity. 

^uffffdssvr, ^eu^fudcsm ; civility, politeness, 

service, kindness, as : ^^sn ^rn a evr i (S)Q>^ ^ ^ tsiufDdcsmQffuj^n^ ; she 
lias made much politeness to me. 

e-uCc^^, &.eijQ d9\ ; catechist, e^'Juifliu^Tir 

used in Tinnevelly shanar christians like uneap for uirca^ way or road. 

^uQ^ffLD, j^euQ^BuD ; instruction, informa- 

tion, doctrine. 

slu^^ju), s^oj^^ffLD or eLsu^^ireuih ; af- 

fliction, trouble as : e^eus^jraiLJu'^iEjaiTioCui, the time of fribulatioi;. 

S-Uir^trenriM, s^eij it ^ n em ih ; the same as liJiifsro.? ; 

(respectful mode of expression) a handful of grain given in charity. 

s.uir^, &.&iiT^; affliction, calamity. 

snLj^j,;iuD, &.iLj^^iijuD, oruL^^^u) ; War, battle 

the same as a^eareau.^ Quirir. 

tLuiTojuD. s-euTtuui ; a means, an expedient. 

s-uiruSl, &.£uiTuS ; an artful person. 

. &.uu^@pjs, ^up^ or s_lJl9,j3^, or esr^® 

p^ or 'ssL^-s-^spjp, or ^rrsAlsS^p^ to be pufled up by a swelling 
from sickness. 

^uL-{La:r^'Sp^, e.uLfLCiiTjiip^ ; to sell salt. 

^uLjuirirdQp^, s-uLjuirsp^ -^ to make an ex- 

periment in any new work before others. Note. The Native women 
taste the curry, usually when they dress it to know the defection 
either in Salt or Tiunarind. In another sense, ^ui^uirsp^ ; means to 
defile a girl as : ^a;«Jr ^«a/3srr /sei>s\'U(ir)6ijd^ei) e-ut^urrir^^iTear -^ ho 
has defiled her in her proper age or lie has seduced her chastity in 
her projjer prime. 

aSip'^ir, aSiSiJ, most commonly eri©^ 

€Ttftf6V), ciiCo^F, ersQ^eo-^ spittle, saliva. 

s^iBn^Bpjii or s-LS(ifS)pj3, p..lBSp^ ; most commonly ^u 

iSp^, or ^up^ ] to spit. 

g_ujir i^'^urrSpjj, ^.^.i^Quirp^ ; to grow high. 

a.i-'/:.'A.i(3-'^^, sL#/5^(»)6V)ii) ; .1 high caste, a no- 

ble tribe. 



29 

^ir^siLeiDL-, %Lir&sLLea)L-. ; mortar, formed of a 

black wood;, applied inetaplioricall}! to a stout short man ; this would 
be ridiculous to use ^snsin e.jrssL~£s>i—Qurrei> eer^ p^^<f&(T^d(n^£ir : 
he is stout like a mortar. 

^ire^(^L^, s-ffdiQii^ ; a hole in which paddy, 

mortar is lixed. 

S!-iru)(^Q^Q/D^, s-HLJo^Q^^p^ ; to get a parti- 

cular ailment by rolling on the ground. Some natives use to put down 
their children if such is happened upon the ground or fan or win-now : 
in order to remove the pain &-iilJd ; but the respectful way is put such 
a child only 3 times on a sheet, then the child will cry no more. 
This word is applied only to a child not exceeded ten months old. 

ti.innu'Sp^, &-ir3?p^, e.jrmSlp^, &.ffrrs?p^ • 

to rub. 

s-zflsmj:, ^Q^ e.(75'5!c<f ; savour, taste, relish 

as : ((ffQiusT.uQpQg'Eipsiiei^r ; one who is fond of savoury viands, q^^ujir 
dj^sase^ or &.(r^^s)^(Suj!rQu-^s>f8r^:/ £u,-Pse)3'(cujirQ:^Qu£s^pjp^ (an iu)- 
prication) to eat with relish and go to stool frequently. 

s^iBsoLD, e-(r^etDu> ; care, concern affection. 

e^iflSp,^, b-ifliSlpjs ; to flay, to strip ofl". 

^q^sm^QutrSp^, s_Qh,6ssi(h,'Qufrpj^, to go round as a 

ball rolling. In another sense, means to die as : sm^uiJmsTLDiTiLjQffair® 
QufTp^, to die unnoticed, ^eusm^i^LLt—QmeisairLo s-Q^^iQQuir&s?, his 
whole family is exhausted /f itjQf^sesr^Quireuinu, mayest thou perish ' 
An imprication. 

e-f/juLo, (3^'^j (^suih ; form or shape. 

u-QiTirdsLD, QiTiTssui ; ready money, cash, as : 

0;T!rssQiTira'dstsnLjsireiTSj&sr ; a money man. [metal. 

2_60<5Lo, or P-Qeoirsth, QeoirevLD, or Qe^irsuj ; the world, 

s.eiiT^^Sp^, m.€^^p^ ; to make to d^-y by the 

heat of the sun ; as : rSi^eQCSffO it/eo^p^ to dry in the shade ; com- 
monly, i§Ilq jiiHssnT^^ffOiTtij S-bimr^p^. 

gL«\)««5)« ■asQpfhjs, ^ffoieeisd OfiTQ^.rs^ ; the top of 

the rice stamper or pestle Metaphorically said of him wlio is good for 
nothin"" as ; ©jsusstl^^^ ei^sddewsi Osn-(i.pi^(pU!r(sSQhd(^£j, his sense 
appears like the tender branch, of the rice stamper. 

^siiri^dOiEire<!srL^(rr)sSp^, iSOiT^^sQsiremLf-(if)ip^, or B-«o/r 
cSaQsiri-JsTLyQijip^ ; to walk about. 



30 

e^SH^^Lo, ei^^^LD, or ^^^^i^«wa> , avarice, 

niggardliness, stinginess. 
s.^i^sir, ^m^^sar ; a luiscr covetous man, 

niggard. 
e_Oei)irE,QSlpjsi, OffOtriar^p^, to below too humbly 

for the benefit of others. 
a.QffOirilu^rff'-j^'sS/D&jiir^ Oe^iTL!.LfQp(^S ; a drunkard. 

s-Oeixr'Eisir^eijsir, Oeoirisisn-^eii&sr ; a man who never 

craves one's favor. 
e.Os\)/r®ffi(g, 0&s^7(Ba(^ ; empty, not solid. This 

word is peculiarly applied to old woman. 

e. ffboV) E/« (75 51/ /r(i?, £.sv)6oi<s(75a/n-© ; salted sable fish ; 

Esox gymnocephalus Klein, R. Natives speak highly of its good 
relish savin"" : s-'orrsn^'flujeei^e^^^ ^e^eo^zm^^.^Qsirshi^ • sell what- 
ever you have and buy the sable fish. 

s-emTLDsm, e.ipLDesdT ■ an earth impregnated 

with soda. 
ceil IT ^^ijj IT IT, ■ouiT^^ajmr ; (honorifically :) school- 

master, Teacher ; euir^^ is rough term. 

cipppei, CLpiLu-ei), ^L£>.s,^e-o ; thirst as : 

«7-0)r<5(g^ ^6meesF(fPiipLLL-eoiruSlQ^s(^, 1 am perfectly thirst : elegantly 

p_ipewp£ii3,Sp^, SLipsssiL-jjjdp^ ovs-uj6if»ri_jjidpj3 ; 

to become skilled or dexterous by practice, to labour hard. 

s-npQpjp, ^(ipsSp^, Qiu[n^dQp£3 ; to 

plough, to furrow. 

e.ipffl/CJ«/r6V), or ^tpaQsireOy cQ^^^inaQaiTio, or ^aijQaneo ; a 

goad used to drive oxen when ploughing. 

s-<cS)i^uup9sQp^, ^muu.Bsp^, to struggle, to 

wallow, to roll in mire or any thing filthy as : ^sumuireu^^Qsi) ^ ip 
jS)^S(2/'^, he is wallowing in sin. 

9^(Gi^^^uQuirQpj3, ^le^ajL^^st-duiTp^ ; to be eaten 

by worms. 

e_3»»T/LD/r/f£»^, e.<onu>:rics}^s ; an inflammation in 

the breast or bowels, an incurable abscess in the body as: esTTLoni 
em^Osir/np^ (an imprication) to become consumptive. Note. Native 
women do use the word e.e(TUiir/EsiD^ whenever they have a little 
indiLCnation on anv one. 



31 

S-L-Qsirerriet^Sp^, &.s,Qsrrenpj^^ to swallow, io 

absorb, to take in, commonly euiriiSQsuQuiTLKBsQp^. 

s.iLs'LLetni—, ^eh-ff'LLes)!—, or ^£S)iTs=fLLeiDi— ; 

a waist coat. The people of QffirLg(S<ss=u>, in the southern part call 
for a long coat of Natives 3=Lles)t-. or ^liisudsir ; but in Madras, 
commonly 0^/r««/r. There is another sort of gown used among the 
Natives entitled ^isjS or Q/^(Si(^3=LLea)i— ; a long robe which covers the 
body ; (from jt/iiisw ; the body :) the name is now given to a long 
gown, reaching to the ankles, which is worn chiefly by Mussulmen. 
s.l1&2so, s,sn&&\) ; an under or inner cloth^ 

the lining of a coat. 
s.LLues)s, s.erruee)s ; a secret hatred or 

grudge. 
^-lLl^uQsus^ld, s.^i3ir(2ajffLD ; the entrance. 

s.iDisj(:^Sip^, {s^piEj(Q. is an imperative and root 

of the Verb.) s-pijp^ ; to slumber. N. B. This is commonly used 
at the province of Palamcottah instead of ^rraQp^, &. as : e.pijQ 
LLi^tumSiohemnLj, did you sleep child ? 

^/SQp^, SL/^uSpjsi ; to snuff up by the 

nose, to take in by draughts, to suck up, to absorb. 

s-pjadQ^u-Sip^, s-i=£3Qsi@p^ ; to hear Avith at- 

tention : the same as mmssflQsapj^ ; or sq^^^muQasp^. 

s.ppstriflujLh, s^^^siTifliuih ; the thing wliich is 

true ; as : ^^^^Qffireds^ ji/^^^Oun-Q^ijsni. Pro. by telling the 
truth what is discorded will be adjusted ; truth is the surest source 
through life. 

^-PfSi—LC), ^^3;i5SL^Lc, or ji/es>i—dee\>u), p^ 

^u> ; refuge. 
s-psun(BSp^, &-peijrrL^pj3 ; to behave towards 

one, trial one as a relation. 
^peSeirQjiQapujiTeisr, ^pQp<3sipiu!Tm , or ^sjsr^^ir&sr ; 

a relation or a kinsman. 
^j}isSi((rf(2ajir, ^j)is(iffQiuiT ? art thou threaten 

me ? or chastise me ? 
s-jiv^ujiriuaQsu-Qp^, ^^ii^Qs&p^ ; to solicit ur- 

gently, to enquire accurately. 
p.jIULJcin^, e.£}jLDfr&), or s^jvldit, or ^Ssosi^lI. 

ctnt— ; a cloth, which men tie round the head or carry in their hands ; 
;m handkerchief. ^^3cViLf.(>?'ui(Toi-s.^JLDiT£\), is the proper name to tie round 



3; 



the head. In the province of Qs^iri^^I^'fu), QeCf^^^r or ^jvLotr, is 
elegantly used for handkerchief, but Madras ])e()ple use ^lditsu 



Qi—erau., or 

sense, a sma 



m another 



of 



tank, a pool, stocks, prison for the h^gs. 
, ^^utSp^ ; to snarl as a do 

cat, to grumble. 

s-mpSp^ ; to curdle to congeal. 
p^s^ff-neuLD ; perseverance, encour- 
agement, fortitude, firmness, happiness, strenuous and continual 






exertion as ; 
joy. Pro. 



^■f3'iTisijiEjOs[resBi(blLn3'0!i3'^frsij(n^m-^ he is transported uith 



^^3=eou!rLL(B or &.i^euutTL 



^LJu!T3L9.6isrL^LD ; Q. grcat wit. 
eijearenftuL^ ; act of attending to, 
or act of observing. 
g>6rr 

gj,s^iuL^ or uj,SuL^ ; a guess, cou- 
jectare. 

^^(^■ff&i or s-(^3'si ; a swing, 
a song in swinging. 

setrs-ds/S ; curry grown naucious 
by keeping it till the next day. In another sense ^eajFuuL-u^snifluju) 
nsn'^uQuir^s? ; the thing which he desired he has not got. 

msLLKBSipj^, mzLLL^p^ or somLp^ ; to nurse 

by putting food into the mouth, to cherish, to suck when applied to 
beasts. ^aesdiL-iru-L^-io muLLu^esrc^L-L^iuiTi^sk he is like a kid that 
sucks two she-goats ; that is, he gets nothing by serving two masters. 
eenemuiri^, muluiric^ ; ]jctel-nut taken after 

dinner or supper : commonly Q::u^^Sc^uasya^, LSsrsij sq^&i, properly 
^iTUiLj^eiiJi; is respectful mode of expression for betel-nut, (tiJarffl/ ^oja/) 
is vulgar dialect, mn: huirsOstrifiiu (^dknuirdsirevtr^ ; Betel-nut 
ought to be eaten after dinner or supper, at any other time it is 
impossible. 

esirjuS/D^, pssi^p^ ; to blow, to blow the 

fire, to kindle. 
es<i:eta.'BisiTvj3i, p^tr^dsir^js ; a cold wind. 

^s!Liru,3'&l, eato)*^ ; a kiiid of cockle, a snail. 

In another sense, mzLcaQ means a dumb woman ; as <sre<ir/BirQcyrs^ 
eoiru) ^G(rQDii>ssmi—a>^uQuir&!UQ^^ir3^» ; all my days are lost, as the 
dream of one who it; dumb. 



58 

psmirSlp^, msLif^pjn ; to crawl as an iiifantj to 

creep as an ant or a snake as : (oT(rf)ihi^!is,seii(e^iLjiJa even a stone will 
waste by an ant continually creeping over it. Pro. Meta. Practice 
makes perfect. 

vciLirijaQuirSip^^ sssth^Qurpj^ ; to continue creep* 

ini?. 



; a sparrow. 
•.esrpsSLi>SS/a^, CSfLzSirisLLp^^; to eclify. 



msiessBp^ ; to lean, to set. 

ssuzir fi sQ s lL@ p ^ , mnissfKSsdSlp^ ; to put many 

questions, to hear attentively. 

earsBT^Sffi/rei), s^^Q^n-eo ; a prop, a walking 

stick, a staft. 

esiLdr/£luQuiuSipjsi, msLcs^uQuuSp^s ; it rains inces- 

santly. 

QT 

sTsc^Qp^, GTsp^ ; to contract the belly. 

<siiEU -■g^LDuirir^Q^eisrsiTesiTSei'Si^, er:w^'-hu/riT^Q^egr ssiresurSs^) ; vul- 
garly, I have looked every where but could not see or find. Besclic. 

ers'&eo, 5T3-^., or erffQ^SF, er<?^ffO ; that 

which is nasty and naucious, as spittle or the remains on a plate or 
dish after eating. Note. The Natives will not eat in another man^s 
vessel or cup without distinction, except their consanguinity, because 
it is considered to be a pollution ; but Pariahs freely eat in the same 
vessel with all their house people and guests. The Mahomedans and 
Lubbais also follow this system without any difference, by sitting 
4 or 5 persons around about a cup and eat togetlier at once. It is 
very curious for the modesty of other nations in India. 

eT.s=&ppQ^u>i-j, erJ^S^^Q^Loq ; a disease spread- 

ing over the body in itchy pustules. 

enJ-QsmL., sriSlssiu- ; as much space as a 

sesamum seed will cover. 

eTLL&auB, OTi^.fcxf?; the common name for 

33 female fiends, attached to the service of Durga and frequently 
maintaining like a sylph or fairy an intercourse with mortals. Wils. 
S. D. P. 701. Bottler. 

erLLiSs'LctrsssTLh, ejchiSfinairesyrui ; one of the stan- 



34 

aards of measure with the Hindoos ; eight of the sesamum seeds make 
the length of a grain of Paddy, and eight Paddy seeds, that of an inch. 
B. D. page 2GG. 

ereme^snu)-, er(i^3^&iu^ ; an account book, the 

multiplication table. 
erc^Tuju, eriMu^; eighty or 80. 

eTe^<rixL-(a(^, miluii-fEi^ ; eight folds. 

eremmi'SpJ^, . erssiTessf^p^, or erempjn to com- 

pute, to count. 
ere^Qmjii/ eissirdsm ; oil, (transmutation of 

ersn and Oi^tL.) 
ersmdmrQfLiusQp^, <STsmQstssrQ^dQp^;io lub oil upon. 

er^^Sp^, er^p^ ; to deceive, to cheat by 

telling lies. 
erdjQp^, sriLiuSp^ ; to Cast, to throw, to 

shoot an arrow, to fling. 

ffrflsseosirii^QuiT^, erQ^dSSrodstTLDQun ^; one of the 33 

new tunes of the Tamil songs which may be very useful at all seasons. 

OTjjj/i^^ero^, erjiiiiiiilieros^ ; the lemon tree as : 

eT^uiL33'3=u> ULpuiQuiriijsvirisiQsijiT or stsSIlB 3^3=1}) u Lp unQ u .riusu IT /ij Si syir 

go and buy lemon fruit. 

er(ipuuiSlpj3, eTQ£up^ ; to awake, to rouse, to 

excite, [erii^up^ Pariah expression.) 

erQp^Qp^, eiQp^p^ ; to write, to paint, to 

draw. [sTiLj^p^ Pariah expression.) 
sT^irdSpj!), er^sp^ ; to oppose. In the same 

pronunciation sr^iSp^, to ejaculate. 

er^irs-iTLL^, sr^a^s^inLQ ; counter-evidence, 

contrary testimony. 
er^iT^^SpSp^, er^^jsSipjs ; to resist, to with- 

stand. 
(ST^iT/Eeau., €r^/56TOi_ ; acting perversely, or 

a small opposite hall in the native houses. 

eT^iTurriTdSlp^, er^uuir&Sp^ ; to look forward, 

to be in expectation as : e^^sfr{Baj.i^s Qa^uuir^jp^QanemTi^Q^sQ 
p^, to hope for a thing, to be in expectation of a matter. 

(sfk^ssir^i^nsil.(Bu>, eri/esir^fSneiJiKBu) ; whatever the 

wind mav be. 



(STLbQb-oiraiiM, ' efixiQffurexiLh, or ^U)(2sOfr£jLD ; the 

place of the deceased, the purgatory of the Hindoos, the kingdom of 
enoesr. N. JB. The Natives conimoniy talk sri/iGsv/rguo), in another 
sense, greatness, plenty, abundance as: weeiLD tJu^QsiiTe^iMQuirk'SUQh^ 
rain comes abundantly. 

sTiflSlp^, erifluSlinjii ; to burn as ; ss^ssar 

QwsisrOpiflQp^ to burn with excessive heat or ^(V^^OamO/DiflSfi^ 
to burn with crackhng noise ; ^suearuLLi—es)^ i^dssrssuQuirtsp^ii) evsij'^ir 
/fliL/ji7 it grieves me when I consider what he has suffered. 

sT(T^(LpLl€nL-., eSlffL-L.^, ov witlLl^ ; cow-dung dried 

by men or women in Solathcsura ; other places commonly s^jTrru-L^ but 
in Madras sr^LhilQi — 

iM ; the ripe fruit of the lemon tree. N. 13. Li : srefi, rat lBs^s^lo 
more, uipLD, the fruit {uSj^itld take care.) (sis^tB'fs^LDuipLDuii^irLb ; 
take care the fruit because there are plenty of rats in the house. This 
is a ridiculous expression among the Natives. 

srnomLiQp^, erQ^iiup^ or sri^ixup^ ; to arise. 

as; L^ em sO tu (i£ il i-j ^ 01' OiuiLjLLL^jp, the smoke rises, (^ilildl-i,^ ; the 
same as eriLjeij (A'ulgar dialect.) 

toTQ^u^, isTQ£&i^, or eriLjaj^ ; seventy gth^ 

eu^ ; vulgar dialect. 

ereti^esiLD, QuJi^ejsu) ; poverty,as : Q^/tlcQi^Ou} 

^LpicmLaQuQs'i^, speak not of poverty even to a friend — ggOTcrooy. 

sT<S^iriusuu(BS'p^, (sr&t!&rrujrTLj(Bp^' ■ to obtain easily* 

er^kjaQuniElSp^^, iorffli^<3?Qufr(Slp^ ; to throw away, 

to cast off as ; :^^,^<9?'7uiTLLL-iru(ou/rQei)'^us?p^, to speak without 
regard. 

erskQp^, sTiEjp^ ; to say as : ^ssr^^/siQp 

esr Qus'iTLDeiis^LDLDiTiSiq^a&Qpj what you are quiet without saying 
as : s>iuuu}-OujrEi(n^zk so he says ; <cis\i6iiTLDLoiTes)iua/Ej(nj'eBr, he says all is 
A'anity. (This is a respectful mode of expression in Q^iri^Q^s^LD.) 

(ST^^Qp^, eT^pj3 ; the act by flattering words 

cheating, or coaxing, to seduce, 

GrdnSldSp^, srsmiSddp^, or (oT u^ i3 a p £!i ; to 

prove as : ^smsksuiTi^ise^i^ ^ss)^ s^LDdOsLDuSluQusiir. 1 will prove it 
to you from his mouth. 



S6 





& eu IT i ^■s u) ; sollUide. 
ejQeuiri3&p^ ; to be united. 
GojireQ ; washerman (derived from 

^k^p^ ; to bear up in one's 
hands. 
srafTs&l <5jsfTQ^S, <5jsijirQf.& ; the eleventh 

day after the full or new moon, when the Hindoos commonly fast. 



^QsiTiSlsSp^, 
eratrsS, or ^tpsirt 



&U)fr/SuQu,TSp^, 



(^ipasoT 



ujt1i—&nu.& 



<?63P, 



^^eL'.-sjjusuLD ; unity. 
(^s^p^ ; to rail, to abuse. 
ej^&jiTiM ; cause, motive. 
^LTiT^uQutrp^ ; to be balked in 
one's expectations. 

fs&s?uQuiTL^p^ ; to deceive, to 
beguile. 
^Lpesyrrrsiri-LQs'.ffissfi ; the name of 
three signs together, through which Saturn passes in seven and a half 
vcars. Note. — Those who are under the state of misery, will be called 
by others thus; S-mSssruuirQpLD (srifiesin/eirLKBis^et^ i3l^^^^, li. 
Saturn has seized thee ; that is, thou art much distressed.— Saturn 
remains in every sign of the Zodiac two years and a half, and will con- 
sequently have passed through three signs in the course of seven and 
a half years. 

«!!pu^i£!fi&^, <suu^ajs-9i ; (vulgar dialect) beg- 

ging is despicable. 
G&jQp^, ecSlp^ ; to excite, to stir up. 

,5!dTjpiQsiT&T(^9pj3, ^QenQsireirp^, or Quj^ii&Slsir^ 

Guirp^ ; to defend, to speak a favorable for another man, to plead 
the caiise of another. 






a? 

jifiEJsirujeijemeiDL- ; a medicine given 
to women nfler her child-birth. 
Ji/iiuj^ ; fifty. 
jytrL/eceir ; the fiive objects of sense. 

ji/uSsi-iFlaJLr, or jtj&ouiBuJU) ; lichfS 

wealth ; ^^vu/fiiuih, (v. d.) 



37 

^ujuu(BSp^, ^tiiiuuu'Sp^ ; to liesitale, to be 

under apprehension. 
^^U3, ^ubiuLD ; doubt, hesitation,, scruple. 

^eu.5?, j)iiuQ<suffr ; or ji/uj^exi^ ; any thing 

substituted for another, recompense, return as : £.ot«(5<^ <9=srruj(i^03= 

have you any thing to return to the man who conferred much favor on 
vour behalf ? 



<^ssuQuitQp£3, ^dsuQurr/D^ • to go together in 

company with. 
e^^^siiiTQpQp^^ (^i^isi]!T^p^ or ep^^si^iTL^p^ j 

to live in harmony. 
e^uudssruS(BS/D^, ^uuSssruS^/c^ ■ to compare. 

e^uuaQ/D^, ^uuiTi^p^ ; to resemble. 

e^uufnBQa^rreo^^iQpj^ or ^saSLLc^fipSlp^, e^uu^ or eiuuir^fl 

Qs^aiop^ or ^ffOiSLlL^ci^sSlp^ ; to bewail the death of a relation. 
^ui-iis(L£>[Gij)Sip^, e^ui^isQpsSlp^ ; to feign weep- 

ing. 
^uL^ffeij, ^uujre^ ; obligation, duty associ- 

ation. 
e^^a^SiQpjj, i^f^Qffidp^ ; to leave a door 

a-jar^ a half opened. 
^(e^3=fB^^uu®dSp^, e^i^^fflJ^si^u u'Ssp^ • to lie side- 

ways. 
e^QdQ^Qpj^, s^^spjn; straiten, to tighten, 

to compress. 
^LLQuQufT(BSp^, isp'—(SuQurr®p^ ; to adjoin, to 

patch, to lie in wait. 
s^lLl-sw, fS^'-'SJiijjfjewisroL-; camel, (Madras 

expression gjsOTr^-roi- but in G^^/ripG^^^Lo, e^cLemi ) QLlesi— in 

another sense, measure, the length from the end of the thumb to 
the end of the forefinger extended. 

c^em®Sp^, ^emnlir^ • lean against, to ap- 

proach. 
e^9iULDfnj), or ^QtMuu), cp^ ; a tree : Odina pinnata. 

Note. This tree be converted to no use, whence it is proverbially 
said of those, vrho have a specious appearance, but are fit for nothing : 



^^,Qu(rr,J:^>f^^Qi^'r ? llio' the Odiua tree grow ever so large, 
can a pillar be made of it ? 

(^^iejqQ/d^, or s^^jb'^p^ e^sp^ ; to retire, to give ^va^v 

to movC; to foaiiient; sji^CTDr-sQ^s/D^, or ^^^Qu/r(iip^, Tinucvellv 
people, use ^l-&Pj^ instead of e^^/D^. (see page. 2.) 

s^Q^ijcesnh, c^Q^Lcesrs? ; unanimity, concord. 

fi^j3 ; to leak, to drop through. 
9Q£&^'r-^} <^Q£'^PS' ; to drop through the 

roof as rain ; to leak as a cask. 
^skjULD^iuiT^SSUchr (^loisr ^''jldjB uj it ^en ek ; one who 

knows nothing, (exhibiting one who has no much wit.) 



^L-LhsS®S/r)^^ ^i^u>e^<Slp^ ; to ferry over peo- 

ple or goods. 
CiUf-iutlQus^Qp^, g^l^ujllQus^P^ or ^3:ULSlULh(Su 

e^p^ ; to talk obscenely,but elegantly &.s/T.9'smi}>Qus?p^. (jt/ffuiSlLULD, 
Pariah expression.) 

c^^Qp<SSp^j, ep(BQpL^p^ ; to cover with tiles 

c^'SSp^i, ^''9'P^, <^^ps! or g5Ll(_(iL9Lji« 

p^ ; to run. 
g^jjfe'^^, <^^!r^ ; to teach, to read, to re- 

cite, to chant prayers. 
e^u)<ku®Qp^, G^LDuu®p^ ; to become the com- 

mon talk of the town; as QS!LQf)iQsin£so£LL®i(;^ euiu^O^tfls^ffeo ; he 
is fame outwardly, but there is want and misery in his house. 

e^iijSpji/, e^iup^ ; to leave ofl", to desist, to 

cease, to discontinue for a time. 

ciiiiuiSiL^uJiT^, ^ulSl^luit or |5UiiJtf aj/revr ; the 

wife of the husband's brother : the same as ^neni^ properly ^hsm^. 

c^uiTLlasr, ^mrilek ; a kind of iish : Diodon 

llystrix L. ]U)t(lcr. 

[^nQiufTiSi; an obscene expression, one who committed adultery 

with his mother.] N. B. This despicable or an abominable 

expression conmioidy used among the ^^atives, when master see his 

servant do any thing wrong or delay thus ; QajemL-tT^firQiuiri^ ^aa^ 

iQsdjj:niu. uliv ha\.' vou done tliis— A few Xalives rommonly use 



39 

J^■uu(^^OT)i4) ; opposite to ^frQuj^L& ; j>/uuQ^lSI is an iinpl)ing to a 
female sex, but ^irQiuirifi for males. An imprication. 



(SiS(T eis>'su , jijwmsu ; a reiiowiicd woman 

among the Hindoos lately performed a penance. 



sssih, j^iQsrr ; tlie armpit. 

sis^ih, sdS^u) ; difficulty, hardship. 

&s,(^Qros!, asSip^ ; to vomit, to have a 

hooping cougli. Commonly ss(^siitrsk. Note. The Natives are afraid 
much for this distemper which generally attacks the children ; i. e. 
an infectious sickness or a coutageon. 

sa^&Qp^, as'sp^, emsdklp^ ; to be bitter. 

s3'i(&)Qtp^, s.a'sp^ ; to rub with the hands, 

to work softly, to wring. 

SS-k^Q^^pSi, S&m^(l£eSlp^, or ^Q^aSdJQ^sSp 

^ ; to weep bitterly. 
ss's'eiinLi-.Lh, Qs'QsotTLLi—LD ; a squabbling, a 

brawling, a quarrel, a chiding, or scolding, strife. 

ssufnii^^, eeuir^^ ; the same as ^ilj^uiB 

lIgtos^, Military exercise. 
SI— sua, SL-suLc ; bracelet of gold. 

at—(r<3iS-p^, @i—nsijp^j st-n&p^ ; to throw 

a stone, to drive a nail. 
st—uutresip, sLLt^uutreap ; an iron lever. 

si^irjJfBrrir^an^, Sli—irjTfsmr^es)^; a citron tree. 

sup-euireiTLb, &(B <au a err ih ; a bridle, bit. 

SL^^tr&j s®^tTff) ; the same as siruS^ih^ 

properly strQ^Lo. Vulgarly ai^9l. 
s,uf.3-r, <s(B3? ; asperity, severity, difficul- 

ty, urgency, as : jt/ajekentriT^i:!)^ s'SIs^ituSq^sc^^ ; his word is harsh 
fsirek ji/6U6B^i—^^d(^u QuireviriQ^irj^LD s(/is'iTiijQu.9?(tr^skj he Speaks 



harshly whenever I go to him. 



'!!^, s(B(V)QiriTis^ ; a medicinal plantj 

Ilclleborus. 
a®(^, ' aSuij ; mustard. 



40 

StViL^Q, SI—& ; the end. 

sexDL-Qp^, &esii—iSp^ ; to churn, to make 

butter ; to turn or work witli the wheel, or lathe, us turners do. 

«feTOL-<?tf<jc(3'a;^, au-s^a^Q^^so ; a turner's work. 

s,iL(Bis(ip^^, sLL(Bss(xp35^ ; a married woman. 

N. B. All the classes of married women, are called amongst the natives 
thus : siKBldsQ^i^, LnisSleSiuew^/fl, eviri^mjir^i, SLL(BrEisearQp(Lps(rsrr 
euetr, uiTL-<sussir^,<^LL(BismH ^irsSluirsSujQpsrTereu^, but for the wi- 
dows are termed ^ireQin^M^ensiT, Qpasursoi—S'Q, siMLD^L-u^, j);£}i^e9, 

eush, u^LUifii^^err, eosihOuseiTs^ir^, <i£l^0S)su. The latter are bad omen 
according the system of the native sastrams : to be seen first in 
front, whenever a man starts out for any good views. 

«/-l®S^j?, siLp^ ; to bind, to tie. 

se3sranil.9, a. ^& it 3^9 ; a disgusting or raelan- 

clioly siglit. Natives often use this word whenever they^ see_ any 
awful matter thus ; i^ih^ssiii'SBir.d'^isiDUJuCouirQffO isirek GTiEJQfUiUirdsSsii, 
I never saw such as this awful matter any where. 

ss^emrurreS, sssatLLffiTsSI; (Vulgar dialect) a 

melancholy event, a tragical catastrophe. 

s^^Qp^, s^jupja ; to cry from fe&r, or 

sorrow, to voceferate, to pant. 

«^i©S?/D^, s^dSip^ ; to gorge, to glut, to 

swallow greedily. N. 33. The Natives commonly talk when any one 
eat with haste as : ^aimssBaQpesi^uuirn-, look at liim how he eats 
greedily. 

s^^Qp^, B^p^ ; to cry, or make a noise 

to croak, to caw. 

^^_^(^ seu^ ; deceit, cheating, defraud. 

^jjii sat/ti) ; phlegm, seudliuir^ con- 

sumption. 

auireiLD seuire^Lh; the skull, the same as icessr 

6iau.Qiun(B ; suirenth a scull this is honorific term, than use the word 
Lcemesii- as : ^^jeinxaifsj^t-^ ^pk^Quiris?. His head is broken ofl". 

^uii), «<s»/ffi) ; truce, a bad smell, con- 

vention, covenant, contract or conditional surrender as : j>iik^^LLu^ed 
up.d9pss>ido (Xpsilcmeijsas3i.i-BM, I cannot bear the bad smell which 
u in thai house ; ss>jsi^9p^, to come to an ogrcement. 



41 

«Quir^u3, sui^^LD, ^Qeuir^u), or sQuir^ ; 

a dove, pigeon, simpleton, blind, stupid. This word is especially used for 
the man who neglects his business as: ^ih^ iDssH^icm ^iS&subQ^uit^ 
iMiTi^Qfji^ QeuSoOuiTiT^^ <SD IT (Hj' fser ; or ssuih^LDtraSlQTjih^QmjdoOuair^j^emr 
0'fir. This man transacts his busi-ncss by the help of others but 
not spontaneously. 

siluemh, siii^sS, or sixtSefB ; a blanket. 

N. B. The Indian blankets of a dark colour, so woven by the wool 
of sheep, and very common to shepherds ; this word is metaphorically- 
used for the words of gabbler; ^^sLodettlQus's?, thy word is full of 
untruth ; and it would be rediculous by using thus : e.€arSisruuiTir^^iT60 
eLbLS':eifliurruS0d(^^ ; you look like siliLSlidl or foohsh or useless man, 
£ @/s^si SLDiSis^uuireuiTinJDu&m^Q^ ; you must not speak nonsensically. 
This kind of talk is not suitable to a man of dignity. 

sLDi^ULD, OsLhtSffLD; profuudity. 

suiQfiQp^, SLDiBp^, or mui3p^ ; to cover, 

to spread or extend, to overspread, to surround, to become hoarse 
as : ^i^QmsLD rBsm^aCoi^sQekzsr^ or sui3i@iotsr^ ; the cloud has 
covered much. In another sense, the word 3,ui3p^, means to gabble 
rice as much as the widen mouth could hold. 

siu£ij, «ffl/^, auS^ ; a rope, cord. 

ajTSLD, sireuui ; an earthern, or wooden 

water pot. 

ssi—ASBT, sfn—smsja ; a subtle, artful man. 

&rremLh(2uir®Qp^, s(r^<mnh(SuinjjLp^ • to play at 

gambols. 

sifSsm, airSostrr, sQ^Smr ; the knot, or joint 

of a sugar-cane or a round piece of fish, &c. the same as («fesari_LD)as : 
jya/ssr cSyero^ SQf)^i:ms(^asssrujnujuQuirLLt—ireJsr) he has cut it M'itll 
many round pieces ; jt/snssr emsu^/wafr^ii snSmr sirSomiuira9(T^d(^^- his 
hands and legs are thickned by fat. 

sndssgrsQipia^, eQf)'SsmsQLprEi(^ ; the bulb of Dra- 

contium L. R. N. B. The Natives are very fond of this root, if 
well dressed for food. Bramins dress this with Jaggery, and other 
castes with prawn, mixing with Tamarind jaice, then the taste will be 
agreeable. The foreigners should carefully dress it, after well poached 
with the leaves of beans or govas, if not, it will produce however, 
sharpness to tongue and throat a ticklhig or irritation. 



42 

sffesiTi—SLD, airemi—evLD ; a cliunam-box used 

by Hindoos, in wliicli a little fine clinnam is kept up to be rubbed on 
the beetle-leaf before it is chewed ; commonly .^szrar.wsjLCL/is/T-saw-t-fiua). 
Sifi-g^psir®, siBjfasir(B ; a black soil. 

sQT)LDqf)ih^, OeuLf.LD(r^fs^ ; gunpowder. 

s(r^SluQutrQ/D^, srn^isSuQuirp^ ; to be scorched 

or turn black, as the body exposed to the sun, or to be burnt as 
meat and fish : ^/J^u^eroa/izS^ aQr^'cSludutrp^, this tobacco does not 
burn, 

siruuu), OaiTuuLh or Qspuih; pregnancy, 

Avomb-belly : this day's correction is s(^LJULh. 

sifuuiEJSsaiTW^(cun'Qp^, Osiruuii ses^nw^Quirpjn ; to 

miscarry. 
siTuueh^tfl, OsuQu&v^ifl ; the same as Qair 

uiJauB ; a woman M'ith child. 
sireuLD, s^suLD, Qsireuih ; pride, arro- 

gance. 
siTu^ih, ssk'-DLD ; an act, action, or per- 

formance. 
ees)nQp^, sGiairuSl/D^; to melt, sugar, or salt 

in water. 
siTS'QdQp^, Osir-i'Sdp^ ; to roar as a lion, to 

sound, to emit a deep or fall sound, to sound as distant thunder. 
£Be^su}, seosuw ; mutiny, tumult, uproar, 

rebellion. 

seditious, or turbulent man. 
aeo&QQ/Djs, secisSip^ ; trouble, to disquiet, 

to disturb, to threaten as : ^eusk Qib^^ fs/reirQs'uj.s ^ulS^^^ssI/d 
iBjQ ej(T5«6v)«(a5 seoaQeSlLLi—ireir ; he made much trouble yesterday for 
my fault, or he chid me severely yesterday. 

seoeufftM, a8o\)6iJirsu)L9, or sSsoqjitlc ; con- 

fusion, unsettled state of mind. 
sffosnemi—, s2so<^,<Mi— ; tlie mouth of a broken 

pot, placed upon a mortar when paddy is beaten to keep it on. 

se^/Ej(^, &ioQik(^ s^!hj(^ ; a dam or bank made of 

stone, a sluice, a water gate. 
seSiuir&nrLh, s^iuiremTiX!, or aism^snh^ or sieir 



43 

i^fffru) ; a wedding as : seoojirernQpipss^^e^ fireQ^LLL^Li>piB^ask, he 
has forgotten to tie the tally in the nuptial pomp. Tliis proverb is 
metaphorically used to him who is negligeucy in the affairs of im- 
portant. 



ssQiLjSLD, or aeiOL-iLj^LD, sehlsireOLD or s&i^wlh 



QiUSULD : th 



e iron 



age of the world, which, it is said will continue for 432,000 years. 11. 

a^suii, seowih ; a small grinding stone, 

a mortar used chiefly for drugs. 

^^(^irenrLD, seoiSajiresrth ; arts and sciences, 

of which the Hindoos specify sixty-four. 

&&i^Sp^, Os<k<jSps! ; to dig with a small 

stick. 

s<k3sd, sdcM ; leaves stitched together and 

used as plates as : /Birek up/s^Quirp ^s^Qss^CoLnei aei>2oo^ ^s@ 
emsv^Q^ek, I have set a stone upon the leaves which could be flown 
down (the leaf which would be thrown down in the sweepings of 
the streets after eat on :) Meta. I have protected him when he was 
in the state of forlorn. A word of reproach.— The word a^^, 
implies another meaning as : aeods^uuLLt-eusk- one who is defamed, 
or scandalized, ssa^Qs^iup^, to defame. 

spOufrsrflSlp^, se^QuiTL^uSp^, to pick a mill- 

stone, &c. 

spp'Bo^, or <5^^^j sp^^a'hff, .s^^^Ssrr ; a sea-fish : Joh- 

nius of Bloch. E. 

seucssflj S(Sjmsfl • a very fine sort of cloth 

or muslin of India. N. B. This word is only used at the Province of 
Palamcottah, but in other places s^itldu, iSeiai—esysu, lol^. 

senem, ssvsssn^ ; a sling as : ssueain^Oiu 

^iSp^, to sling. 

seuir, «ffl;(g ; the same as LDirdQ^n-uL-i, 

a bifurcated branch as : ^^seuQ^ii'Sui-jLbfrssruijnh, tliis is a tree with 
forked branches. 

seun-Qp^, sw(tf)p^ ; to plunder, to steal, 

to lust after : as the meaning of usurpation. 

severTLD, seuirmLo ; a mouthful rice as : 

eTe3rdQsir(r^seijir<sfr<^Q3-fr^(2uir(Sl, give me a morsel of rice, ji//u^ujirSsers 
(^sssun&TmOs!r(B ; give fodder to that elephant. 



4t 

s&jtruj^^, ssDir^^ ; military exercise. 

seBSp^, s'^Sp^ ; to cover as the cloud 

does the mountain, or the sky, &c. and as a tree with its shade. In 
another sense — to be intended upon a business, or desire earnestly. 

QsEiiejfi, sffl/es^, or OslScb^, or Qs^iei^ ; 

the gate of a fort. 

s^cLjSp^, s>m<c^p§i ; to snatch as a dog. 

PJ3 ; to delay a work, to loiter, to shuffle off a business as: ^eusk sip 
uLjessflCeu^Q^tijuSpsveBr , he is sluggish and indolent in business. 

etp^Sp^, sujeSIp^ or siuem(B,Quirp^ ; to 

slip off as the wheel of a bandy, the handle of a knife, &c. to become 
undone, to get loose. 

eipp£ii9p^, ^^^P^, sixji:-L<f.LjQun®p^ ; or 

sLQUL^uQunQp^ , to put off as clothes, kc. to strip off, to pull off, 
to shake off as an ox does the yoke. 

sipgcU SLusS ; the same as euius^i, a pad- 

dy field. It is elegantly used in some places, but in some parts of 
India, used thus : wiu&i, iSeoui, fB^saa^, LS@e355^, Os^iusirSo, Qsus9. — 
Qs'^^iuLD, Teloogoo. 

sipa^, sojeaf? ; the water wherein 
raw rice has been washed. 

sL^Qp^, sifiiSp^ ; to pass away the 

time as : j)jeu^i(^ QminEisL^n^pj^Quir^uD, he will consider only to 
pass away the time ; ^lL^ssl^u^p^, to remove by certain cere- 
monies a supposed pollution. In another sense si^iSp^, signifies 
the looseness of bowels as : j)jw^e(^enuj^sLfi>^p^, he has 
looseness. 

«(jp@, «Gpffl/ ; an eagle. 

s<cSiips3k.^^nL^s&T, 0^trLDuirs.3?^ji^irL^S6rr ; pole dan- 

cers. 

x&reLjQs'ujQp^, asfreuir/EiSlp^ ; to stcal,to pilfer. 

N. B. The Madras and Tinuevelly people use the word setreuir 
TO «/D^ instead of ^(5®/».^; sm&rek, sffreutresBfl, and ss/rew/rcabrif , 
denote ^o^sir. We can say ssneviriiip^, to be known honestly, 

ajpidlsOsirsmup-Q^si^p^, £BiT(!£dOsrres»rL^(rT)sp^ ; to be 

angry, to have vengeance. 

spjru^Qs-irs^sQ, «^^sQifirei(^ ; a pupil, a scho- 



Jar, one in the rudiments of Poetry, a novice in the art of writing 
poems. 

spiSlSsm; suu^sar ; commandment, the 

same as siruuSoor this is used by rude people or rustic. 

s/bf^i—ssih, spies)u.eui})j or s/b(eB)Llu.euu^ • 

the Carnatic. 

sesTi^zBru), semuSemil) ; dishonour. 

ffienray, Qesrsi^, or S(sc), or S(^gij ; dream, 

as : S(^eSeosessn^OufT(rFierr aireureSeCsemL-L-jesre^ j dreams are like the 
delusive appearance of an extensive sheet of water, seen on the 
dry fields, during the hot season : G),?/r/fuLj£w lo, is an intelligible 
word. 

SGsHsifLD, sep9d<3sin£>, or SG^euFLD, or seafiisS 

jTLD, or ■sffl'fesru: ; srfldSlp^, V. the same as ulL^im, love. 

smuGi^LDf «ev)aSQ^ii), sirtMei^u) • sin, dirt, 

foulness, derived from Calmasha. 

sskjv, aem^i] ; a young plant of any 

tree as : LDir/iisem^ a mango plant, &c. N. B. aek^u is used 
also for the calves of cows and buffaloes, which cannot by any 
means be called simply ©l^'-J^, but say thus : sek^ or semr^^i^ sshr 
^S(^lLij^ or ss&hir^sd(^LLL^. — uar<^eisraeme^Qxu0r(^eisr aem^js(^LLL^. 
But of horses and asses, we may say either (Si'-^'-9- or w/S thus : ©^ 
miTLD/SI, s^es'^Lc-^. And for the young ones of harts, camels, and 
elephants, the following words (^lLl^, ssir^, sem^n, Lmresrsem^}], 
(^LLes)L^S£BssBr^ii,ujtr25ard<S6m^v,Lr>rreir(^LLL^f &C. are used. A ridiculous 
poem, erroneously made by a boy of seven years old thus : j>/^ 
(n^eSiun-iT ^ski^/DiSlQeo ^e^uSearsesrjyj, tSleketDpOiuSieoir/i ^eirjjJ s'lrek 

a^stSsBrr^fTemihf s sir <^ lu rr ^ n" ear ih ; the act of 

giving a daughter in marriage without receiving the customary 
gift or dowery. 

65 /r 

ffiTsl^u)^ siTuSI^LD ; a paper, a letter : S(n/Q 

is used by rustic. 

sirssiriLiuQuirm-, srrdsiruQuireiir ; brass-leaf, or 

gold-leaf, tinsel, glittering like gold. 



40 

sfra^irek sa^^smnrujsrsr ; watchman^ keep- 

er; the name of a demon worshipped by the low caste. (ji/uL^iair 
^^rr^ ; a celebrated thief.) 

s!reiips!rjreir, . s it eu <s s trir ehr • a watchman. 

sirsupsfi-L—ih, sir&jssi^L—LB ; a guard house, 

custody. 

<3S!res}L-sSend(^, siT^6Ssrs(^^0Ysn'srT6ufr£Slsfrd(^ ; 

lamps used for illuminating gardens, Szc. on great occasions. 

sitlLQ sfTs^S ; a vision, apparition, ap- 

pearance; s/ri^ implying dangerous state as: is ji/^ugS^^ sfr&S 
QufT^irQ^ir, Is the sorrowful scene, which thou hast sustained to 
this day not enough ? 

snLL(BQp^, sniLp^; to show, to exhibit. 

siTsssrSlp^ SiressBp^ ; to see, as : jj/euSesr (oTisj 

(^ihurriT^Q^skafressT^ properly ior/Ei(^L£U[riT^Q^i£m-£BiressrisSffO&v^ 1 have 
looked him every where, but could not find. 

s/remLSla3p^, sinhiSlsp^^ sitlLl^P^ -^ to show. 

siT^siM, sir^euLD ; the act of afHicting, 

or vexing others. 

sirjseusfTifdSp^, sir^sumip^ ; to enlarge the 

ear; suL^i^an-^, euLs.s'^Fsir^ ; the perforation of the ear. This is 
greatest familiar custom throughout the southern parts, otsbt^jt Q^ir 
esTji^eiiiLD ericsrQuir uipiuQ^ireheinrsisT lit : whatever dost thou say, 
care not, my name is however old O^ireirsmrek ; means bad fellow ; 
(uipiuQ^irehemreir,) a man of wide hollowed car lap ; ears hanging 
down as far as the shoulders. O^/r^n-Ssiriffi/r^ fem. O^irenefiiu^uQu^^ 
I dare to wound your character. 

siT'LuL^aniLa'sip^, iEiruL^airujiSp^ ; to grow cal- 

lows as : iBi—safBL-ss sirOffOS'0<5i)ir/Ei siruq ffl/r^<s?LJC2'Lj/r<f«, from 
continual walking the feet are grown callows, ereireosairuLj air.^P'u 
QuiTff^^ my hands are grown callows. 

eiTLuk^QutrSp^, sir^.ff?QuiTp^, &.6\>ijpQuirp^; to drv. 

striLii^Qs'iT/Sl, siT(^QffiTrS; tlic uamc of a plant. 

siTLui'si-LjLf, arrs=^ut-i • the same as -fsulKSu 

Lj, salt produced from the earth impregnated with soda. 

airujSlp^, siruSp^ ; to be hot or heated 

to be warm, to be red-hot. 



47 

.airi'ua^s'eo, sira^&e^; dryness, fever, dry 

weather, ^sussr urrQsirs^a^e^.T iSl(T^<i £^ ; he is in great want. 

sir(r^i—GS^€is^, or siTQ^i—^^^si^j sfTiTL-eS^za}^'; juggle, legerde, 
raain, tricks, as : i§0LUsirs!!rsirin-.s9j:em^ uGSdresuf^(sa)6))iuj Q<srr(Bds 
w^TLLQi-m ; I will not give whatever tricks you would make. 

siTiTuu, sirs.iTuLj; sharpness, pungeucv. 

sfrSoCuSls^eurr^ -siT^^iTQ&ieuir, or str^a^irQeO'Eiair 

LLL^emuieiiir ; come early in the morning. The Madras and Palam- 
cottah people commonly use OBjenQoyresr. Tinnevelly shanar's 
erroneous expression is thus : LDi^ixQeorrQi—euiTj come earlier — sSl^oj 
lEisfi-LLL^&iiiMsvtT, s/T^ihurr^iTj d! '-^ (^ -s^ sv fT , &c. usc for thc same. 

srrffoQ<ss^ULa sirsOiL&ujLib , or Ouirn^^^Quirs 

sffO ; spending time as : ^Q^fBirerrQpQp^^Lo ^susk S^iu sitsOlLQiulq 
usm((r^sk, he wastes his time whole day — N. B. The noble 
Natives, allow their times after 2 o'clock P. M. in attending t© 
hear the histories of their famous Puranaras entitled ^^^t-^rr^a^ 
LjffirmrLD — the eighteen historical books of the exploits of the 
Hindoo gods, viz ; 1. i^i^SiU/i), 2. sk-n-LDm, S surrirsLD, 4^, enirtD^nrLo 
5. SniMLD, 6. casuujimrsnui, 7. uirasu^uD, 8. ems^suLD, 9. ^SsdiiisLh iO. 
OustTLfSLh, 11. /5trjr^cuLD, 12. afr(f?,t—Lh, IS. iStjiLemsenir^^tCy 14 
srrm^SLD, 15. iMirtrassmQi-Luu), ]6. ^dSQ^uju:, 17. i^iTLDireesri—ili 

18. U^LDLD. R. 

sir 60 sir 6^ sir, or sirenirfB^aesr^ «/rso/r/5'5»^.; the Hindoo Pluto 

The word "STeo/r/sero^ or sireoir/B^ss^fr, ^^^^j, commonly adopted to 
the wicked lads thus : /f stcttott sueoirwsta^ujrrLLL—uiiTuj ji/S50(^<3? SfiBriK 
si-a,OaiT<osiiTL^Qr)aQ(ir^uj, what are you wandering here and there like 
a scamp or wicked boy ? 

siridsQ^eijSp^, or sireoai^^^uQS/D^ ^ireosQ^dlp^^ or sitso 

sapeSldSism^isuirfr^; to Avash the feet, i. e. to ease the bod}' or puden- 
da. — N. B. The Natives, follow the customs of washing their 

down parts both morning and evening, when they go to ease. 

Eminent authors, do not authorize to use the filthy words but by 
conveying the signification in an ironical way ; for Example : @i^ 
.isQ£euei (washing the posteriors) ironically ■sireosQ^euso or sirgoji'ffo 
unueo. — Qp i^rnhOuLuiu so (^to make water) iio : <opss6r^)is(^uQuiT(^s<so 
Qsaresr s'<a))!Su/rea)^d(^uQuir^eOy ep^,Ei(^^so, — QueouQurrsiso (stoolin"") 
iro : U)ff0suir6s>^ or 3'sosijiTss}^s(^LjQuir3,<so, (Ssrr^^d(^uQuir<^^eOj ©ay 



4S 

Qin'Si&suQuir^d^,Gp^iEisuQu!r^eo,kc, — G^^, (leaQ iro : a jewel of 
womau's ear^ ^iLgQsijn-8s\i, or s^irdsvir^, (notice of death) more ele- 
o-antlv ^(iT)(Lp%iM — «5^i^5^eo(looseness)iro : Qu^imr^ii, euujj^Qu.Tcis^ 
euLu^SQiisso, &c. These expressions are very common to all the 
Hindoo communities. 

siTjpiS/D^, sir^ff^ ; to grow stale or ran- 

cid, to retch. 
sir^iLjiBSip^, sirrSiLjiIiuSp^ ; to hawk and 

spit phlegm. 

wood hen. 



QS},^^ @ffo ; pitch, hinge of a door, as : 

^ih^uUfTiLiaOaeosomi) @«70y,© eucmL^iSl&iQufr®, put the mats in 
bandy after well pitch them up ; ^i^dss;<si^S(Gr^dQ3:scioCiinii SSoaurrsi 
siT/B^ji/L^, buy the binges and fasten to all these doors. 

QlLc-daso, 9iLLi—sss^ ; iron-dross, brick 

burnt too much. 

QiKSlSlp^, SiL^p^ ; to approach as : jtiwcir 

jtjiB^ eu,(rf,s(^dSLLi-^LjOuiT(5u uSl(ff)dQu>Quir^ Qs^^^irsir ; he died when 
he was very near to approach to that country. QLLt-ir^aQsi) OeuLL 
Qu-esTLop ; what cannot be bad, must not be desired — Avi. 

SlemQQmrek^QffQpSp^, &^iid(^9^js0sgsr,'S(i^LScD^, or 

(^^^(^;i^iSl(ff,LB/o^ ; to cough with a wheezing sound. 

Qesc,r®Sipjs, Qsmi—p^ ; to stir the pap with 

a ladle. Metaph. to search, to make diligent inquiry, to prompt. 
^(snzhr ^uesdrQi—rrQF/eSzms^ ersij'Sssrd Si sm u^u uir dssn m ^ ir s'sr ; hc camc 
once or twice with a speculation of enquiring the matter. 

Qik^an-ffizhr, (^ih^sirsosk ; mal, (^k^^iTis^ fem. 

a hobbler. N. B. The Natives will cautiously examine the bride, 
before they could marry her, whether she has a hobble 
walk or not. If she has not it, they would gladly take the 
girl by wedlock ; and they observe excessively such as these 
bad signs, (like ^Q^sSevirei), a.(BiLj(r^aiih, kc.) in negotia- 
ting a Avifc cither for their sous or kindreds : fearing 
that a great danger just as death or penury would sur- 



render and ruin them bitterly — through this means, several 
daug-hter-in-laws, after having received cursing and imprecation 
by their mother-in-laws, had dared to give up their lives under 
the subjection of many revenges. This bad and wicked persistence 
produces from the false stories of Hindoo pooranams — Pro. ©i^ 
sirdl QufTpeSi^ui (^^esureoiriuLnuaip, wherever (Bride) the hobbler 
could go by marriage system, will not be prospered i. e. destruction 
will take place. 

Sinsth, SffeuLD • house, a planet, com- 

monly (^^jSvsnsij^ ^aD3=uJiTuQu/r(T^^, ^-iesiSj ^<35lx>, ^£ii, and j^sld. 
are used only by the Brahmins. 

QirQdSl/D^, QfFldlsQp^ ; to take, to seize, 

to receive, to accept, to comprehend, to conceive, to gain over a 
person. 

Qffujiii, QsmiriuLD ; price, value, sale : as 

OT6<5rfiS'Lls5)i_ airei)dSl^ff)iruj^^<i(^3' Qs's^svL^^Q^ek j I have sold my 
house for current price. 

Qs9, Os<sS ; fear, Os^sQiSi^dS/D^, to 

be over- whelmed with fear, i-jeQuj&iso OssSIujl^^^^ ; Not lion but 
fear has struck him. 

Qenili^Qp^, @<snLhi3p^ ; to clcvate, to raise, 

to awake. 

QenirQp^. QsnQT^P^ ; to be lifted, or rais- 

ed up, to compound, to mix. 

Qe^.(iv,9'ieo, &<oS(^3=eo ; a conch, a shell. 

QdcuSl/D^, Sl'SsrriSlp^ ; to pluck out of the 

flesh a thorn &c. to prick. 

Qf2&jQiuiT(BSp^, Sl^QujiTL^pjs ; to shoot forth 

branches. 

Simi^9p^, Sl^e^p^ ; to nip or pinch, to 

pluck. 



SJ'S'irmSs^s'iTieir^&irLSehmrireir, Qs^s^Qs^ar^tlun^iM ; i. e. chil- 
dren's play, on the heap of sand with a small stick. 

SLp!T^QsiTsmT(BQunQp^, Sj^smr^Qisnem^Qufrp^ ; a river 

under ground has carried off; Ironically said of the things which 
are lost without attention ; decrease daily, to bankrupt. 



50 

QipsrrtuGn^eosQ, StpaQus^e^ ; one kind of j)laiit 

which is very useful to Native Doctors. 

^Lpuuu^Slp^, QipuuL^iSip^ ; to submit to 

another. 
Q^S/D^, Sjji/0^ ; to draw lines, to as- 

sunder, to scratch, to wound slightly as a cat. 

Q/b^uQpeiaL-Sp^, Spj3iQpeB>u.'jS!p^ to plait cocoa- 

nut-leaves. 

(3 

(^s^L-QiTirsti^ (^eivi—QiTtreuu) ; leprosy. 

(gi_©, ©i-®/ ; Goorg country near 

Tellicherry. 

(^L^QiLij^Qp^, (^L^Quj^up^ ; to settle in a place. 

<^lL®Spjp, fS^P^ ; to buffet, to strike 

with the fist, to clout. 

@CT3r©i^rLltf , (^'smic^i—3'LLu). ; a round pan, a 

pan made like a ball. 

O^ero/r, (^^mir (gQen^ or o/f«o/r ; a 

horse, (^.Mxe^n-, Shauar^s speech. 

(5^/r, ©^/r, or 0^05 J <S>(!5^ > recep- 

tacle for paddy or grain made of earthen hoops, (gjiyieroff, a very 
nice word used generally by Tinnevelly people. (Verbal noun.) 

@^^eco«, (^^^etneu ; rent, tenure, contract. 

m,^^®p^, (S^P^ '} to beat in a mortar. 

(^ih3;sui, (^ns^eiiu) ; hiudcrance, obstacle 

as : i^k^^se^iurrfmii (^i^^euLDirdjQurrs's^ ; the wedding has been ob- 
structed ; i9,'Sv«T^^siTiBiu^£ss(^ (^isiisiiLhsuija Qwi^^^ ; an obstacle 
occurred to the intended work. 

Q,/s^@p^, <^i^pjp ; to go a tip-toe, to 

sit upon the legs, 

(^LDiL®Sipjp, qixlLl^p^ ; nauseate, to loathe. 

^isxotriMU n 3? , (^LL'uentsnTerv ; the name of a fish. 

(^iBefi, (^(Lp<ci'f\ ; bubble, water-bladder. 

QiQpjpiSip^, QQp^p^ ; to sound as thunder. 

(^LDi3(BSip^, (^ldlSi(Spj3 ; to reverence or 

worship with joining and lifting up the hands to the forehead or 
to the breast. 11. 



51 

(^u>lS<Si^l1l^, seasruufL-L^ ^ a put in which 

fire is kept up for warming in cold weather. 

(^ujsusir, (^-feussr or Os!rs=su sir; potter man 

qimlB, OsiruiSiuL^^iSlp^ ; a play by 

clapping the hands of young girls. 
(j^jjjsuussBT^Sp^, (&jQTjWuuemp^ ; to make short. 

(SjeiLDLj(9)ih SBBvek , (^sOwL^/s^isusir ; one who has 

united into a strange race or family ; and a word of reproach pe- 
culiarly, to the Christians converted in India alone. 

(^'sSSp^^ (^dluS/D^ ; to be round, to be 

assembled, to be contracted. 
<SipuL^Q/Dji!, (Sifi^r^^ ', to misj to mingle 

as in clay or mire. 
(^errdl, (^ipe^ ; a wasp, a bee. 

(ff,erfliT/s^SiJ3'emu>, (^(er^/s^eus^esrih; a friendly espres- 

sion. 
(^'SfrHrk^Qsirerefi]^ (^(er^/B^Qsirsrreffi-^ a cold fire or fire 

brand ; in another sense ^(^ih^QsireneB, one who slanders another 
by fair words with a kind of gentleness. 

(^efiir^ui, (^(^(oSiLD ; coolness, gentle, cold 

disease caused by cold. 
(^t&^ues^uQ^sU}, (^(6f^uss)UQpeui}i ; a swollen, puf- 

fed face. 
(S^eijSlpjjp, (^(i^i^p^ ; to be sad, melan- 

choly. 
(^^QslLQp^, (y^/BQss,Qp^ ; to consult a for- 

tune teller. This kind of custom is excessive whole India ; chiefly 
amongst the heathens, in order to observe, or ask signs or tokens in 
the pagoda of Deity : for any kind of their good or bad fortune. 

@/SluOuQ£^Qp^, (^,'SuQuQp^p^ -^ to abbreviate 

to abridge, to brief or shorten the words in writing. 

(9)^s(^uueisis>Sj i^^'d(^LjussicS)su ; a cross plank, 

(^^iiEisppSs)}, ■ (SFf^iis^^'^r -J a fish. 

(25^/5cro« or (^jjj/^SifluL{, (^(^QifluL^ ; a smile, simper. 

(^jruO/s/Tiu, OsiTiiOs!rir^^,QfB!rLu ; rice much 

bruised by beating. 
@(55)^0<?/r6b_^2r©^^, (^istnpQs^ireop^ j to complain. 

(v^&apujrr&uQu^rQp^f (^(j^peuiTiuQuSrpj^ j to COm- 



52 
plain, to slander, to back bite : the same as ^ifieuirdjuQua-rp^, 

i^ibS}^ujiriuuQu<s^ivjSj ulSIuu(tiuuQu'3?p^, Sec. 

(^pjjjuuiTiS), (^i^uuird), ; the state bring of 

in fault, speaking aside. 

^ppCb, Q^^LD ; fault, guilt, Clime. 

^p^uSlffiTiudsli—d'Sp^, (^.i^uSjTinLiSt—eSlp^ ; errone- 

ously (^^^'^iriTujSii—dSp^, to lie half dead. 

(^^^uuLLetDi—, Os!rrt(^ULLesiL- ; paper gilt with 

tinsel and used for splendour. 

Q)i^uuiTujuutriTsSp^, (^essfluuirib, or s-eko^uuiruj, or 

sq^^^fTUJuiTsp^, or ■s^iretDLDLuirujuirdp^ ; to look narrowly into a 
thing. 

QisisTLDLD, (^LDLOIM^ OV (^LL LD ^ LU ft ^ • V. d. 

a disease in the belly — there are eight different kinds of disease 
occasioned by obstructions; viz : 1. @Sii)@s3rL0iz), nervous com- 
plaints; 2- eu!T^Q^mLDLD, hypochondrlac disorders ; 3. iSl^^^eiruiii. 
bilious complaints ; 4. &Qeos^iD(^ekijDUi, superfluity of phlegm, 
5. 6r/ft@6ariz)ii, excessive heat and headache; 6. ^^^^cot-^old, vomit- 
ing; 1. ^ear6£(^sinDt}i, convulsion fits ; 8. ia;(?S(^OTraiLD, fever join'd 
with great pains in the whole body. R. 

(^ek /S LDiostsff , (^€m®ui€!!!M ; the red seed of 

Abrus precatorius. L. E,. There are two kinds of varieties bearing 
black and white seeds as : (geror'SioeW? (^^ uanuLSQeiQi-i 3;it _^iei (■^smr 
(BiLDGssfl (^ssdr'SLDessflQiu ; Though the seed of above said, be cast out 
in the dung-hill, its colour will not put away : INIetaphor-ically, said 
of him who is in poor condition though he born in noble family. 
(ajsarjvay/raoi—, (^emremiiev rreoL- ; north west-wind. 

@s3r(3'_^a//rip©/, (^emi^s.eiiiTip(cij ; a perpetual pros- 

perity : (ffjessK^f^suiriLj or (^smm)sseuir(ip are rude expressions used 
among the Pariahs. 

^^ 
s^a-Qp^, si^.9\pj0 ; to be shy, daunted, 

shame faced, to be bashful, to be ticklish not bearing titilation ; 
sh.si-'Sp^ signifies to be weak as : asm3k.3-r^ ; the eyes not bearing 
strong light wksk-.rr^ ; the teeth to be set on edge : commonly «u 
^5=ii) as : ji/eiieir ^dSleifleo etaeeaiu esisuds^uiiT^^ir^^so j)jSije^s(^<s sk. 
^s^(Lpemu.irsij^ ; as soon as we put the fingers iu one of his armpit^ 



53 

he feels ticklish ; sjeneinQfl^tnsiSi^io ^susk 3?^s'3=i'5fT3'3=LBs^^s<>ir^eij 
Oesrsisr^ Qs'ireosoediriJo, we may freely say that he is shameless fellow 
by his evil deeds. 

sk.®2p^, eh.Lfp^ or -Sf^^p^'; to meet 

one, to join with another. 
,9h.L-e^siJiTuj, .ffii-L-isOajj/r ; a gutter. 

ai,.LQ.suiTrw@p^, -sh^L^euirQpp^ or ■a^uf.eiJirL^p^ • 

to live well together. 
■!}?ulL(BSip^, 3i^.LLp^ ; to join^ conjoin, to 

compound, to assemble, to bring together into one place. In another 
sense, means sweeping QuQr)S,p^, eSetrdp^^ mjiriBp^. 

e^CJBiStjh i^aiD, .sk-iL® eu it ^ ^eu i}) , or sh.LL(Bds3'-f 

6VI-LO ; a trade in partnership. 
si^^iT, 3^^'k), or 'mis'^, ©i£rf?/f<?=©, iBwk 

^eo ; coldness; commonly, 3k.^eiL^i(^^, or mz^60-^d(^^^ or /sa/s^ 
foT)/ra9(5«@, or (&)<sSl.3'&iiuiru^QT)d(^ ; wind blows in the dew season, 
or cold wind blows. 

sk.^^n(BSp£i, ■5^^^iT®p^ ; to dance. N. B. 

It is general habits in India, to be disguised as a female, to dance 
in {euiTS'iTui-i,) drama. 

gk.ui3LL®s,Q&n-sikr®i3nQ^Qp^, s^uiSluL^dSl'oir^euiTff^ ; to call 

upon. ■si^uL3LL®iOs!T€m® is a compound verb ; the latter is auxi- 
liary. 

<3h.!r&(s^Qp^j ^Pi-iT^eSp^ ; to make sharp. 

a^n&si-, ^-s^si- ; the point of a thing. 

3h.eij®pj3, 3h.Sp^; to sing, coo, to call, 

to speak. 
£B^cro^pffi£'i_/^, s^ipdQi—fr ; the name of a bird : 

Pelican, Pelicanus Onocrotalus L. R. 

•3^€S)Lpa<5s>s, sk^ipaeisis ; maimed hand. 

Sr^&nipfSiB, (^ipiBiB, or (gjL^iBiB, or ^mipwffl ; 

a fox. 

S^QDLp(ipLL<ES>L-, ■5h.^(LpLLeS)L- OX 'Sh.QpiletSiL- ; 

a rotten egg. 
s^tpuLOiLu^, ^a^ipiTQpLLu^, .sk.LpfrLcuLLL^ ; a dull 

and coward man : N. B. This expression is often used among all 
the classes of the Natives by various terms, (see synonymous 
section) whenever they see a man who is unable to execute his 
business as simpleton. 



54 

Sf^ssrasLpwcsr ^ ~s^esrshr , or sh-SisraSlyjeusisr ; au old 

crook or huuch-backed raan ; A. Poem — «i.63r«S;pffl/iar 0«ff(S'i@ti) 
udsmiuiM^isf) fB!resr&(;^ipsO!TiLj fBeis>!TULfsssrQi—(r (^sS/Ds9£S(B£i/r^) is there 
gray hair in monev, which the old man could afford ? 

Qssse^Os!TLL®Spj^j O^d seS u LjOs fTLL/D^ ; to shout. 

OsiL^i^iflsip^, OsLLt—dcO(i^s^^^iBu^p^ ; to lead 

in lewd course of life. 

QSLJDLSiiOiE[TZSSr(BlQuiTQp^y Q/ELD iSl dSlctT^Q UfTp^ ; tO gO OU 

roaring- and raging, the same as ^uSi;Sli,0siT^T(£i2uiTpj2 : Qp^iiliSl 
ek ^Quirp ^^ 

the gate of a fort or fortified place. 

Qs 

Qsj^suir^, Qs>sij(Tf,j or QseSlq^ or Qsu<se>u ; 

a grain : Cynosurus Coracan L. R. 

Qsi—sih, QsL-euLD ; a shield. 

QslLSIP^, Qadp^.ovQstpdSip^^ OV Qssk 

dp^ • to ask, to interrogate, to demand, to question. 

Qsexf), QeiSiT^ ; a small well : ^^ffl/ a 

large well; Qsassfi is general talk in Tanjorc. 

Qs(TF,Sp^j Qsdaifldp^, or Qs^iaiBdp^ ; 

to cackle as a hen, to cackle. 

QsLLufrirQud3?Qsu.Qp^, QsuusrirQudsi-Qsdp^ ; to be- 

lieve every report. 

Qa-isnS, Qsi^eS^Qs'^; questions, science, 

erudition, justice liearing the complaints of others, as : ^^ear Qsip 
(^uSei) l8s (Lpumpsuisk — this strophe, hath two sentiments, one, 
he is well versed; another, he is ready to open his ears as a chan- 
nel to the flatterers Q^tp^iuppuLLL-esiTLn, most commonly C^tpefl 
QpzsipiSleiiS'OrrsiuiLi—esdTix), a town without justice. 

(c«CTrffl/, QssmsS or QsL^iBj ; freight as : 

auui QsifiS}^sQfd ^irdQs^i^iTji ; to embark goods on board for 
freight ; @Lpa)Lyi(3(J/C?tj/rffl;i suud QsipeSOujeiiii^ ? What is the 
freight to go to Ceylon. 

esissiKBSp^, &,^ss,iLp^ ; to fold up the hands 

together. ' 



e!os^6^/r_4F^, S'S-fftrA^) an invoice^ n list of 

goods^ the same as ^^rrus:ir. 

e^sips'K^^'^p^, ecasfEfTL-p^, or cs)s;OujrrLJuixes)Su 

apsi ; to sign, most elegant for owner's signature QffiroD^eSSl/sui. 
Note. This mode is pretty indeed, however, is not very common in 
the vulgar language, except the writing a note of hand &c. 

ems^^sud(3j^ es^s^utrdSl, or €SisQ^n<i(^ ; a 

pistol, a hand gun ; cs)sQ^iTi(^ is used in Tanjore. 

ewsQ.'BS!ipsS(SlSp^, easO/BsSlLpsS&p^ ; to forsake, 

to give up, to abandon. 

eiasLDLDrrjijOs'ujQp^', pflL^s;^ ff-QQa-iiip^ or uSl^jU'S 

Quu^edQs=ijjp^ ; to reward, to retribute. 

etsiSLLfrp(tr^siSi](TrEi(9)Qp^j eoswtr^^iTujsiJir/Ejdp^ I to bor- 

row for a short time on a verbal promise. 

es)Siuea)LSLL(B@p^j et!)SuSei!)LSLLp^ ; to bribe ; vul- 

garly 0&ii^3=/EiSLLp_^, (cS)S^n.€QsLLp^, ufl3^irGsrrEiail.p£i'j eotrQeiiT'^ 
Osir®ip^, £utrOLDLL(Basn-^Qu!r(Sp^. 

emsujrrerfl^^esrui, Q(nj>&fl^^esnh, siueurreflJi^ssrLh ; (v. d ) a great 
■wickedness, or craftiness. 

€s>SLuir(ef^Qp^, eosuJiTL^p^ or (stsiSiurrlSp^ -^ to 

handle, to use, to practice upon; as: ^iL^^^£m^se<Ds;ujiri-.ireSLL 
L-rrei) Os(E)i}) ; tools if not used, will be impaired or spoiled. 

ee)a,u^£iiseo, es>a:Sjiieuei ; tenacity. 

es)siQsiT'crreu<irrj or ems sQ sir en sir ; ssQenssuesr , etassSefreusiir ; a 
weaver among the Tamiliars. 

€B)siwsffluju>, suStsiQifluju) ', cliaritablc service, 

(a kind of secret association, amongst the vishnoo sects.) 

e!!)sujfnh^ses)fr, emsiun-ii^eoir ; medicinal plant ; 

Eclipta prostrata. L. R. 

etnfBLMLDiT^, su>LDir£i! ; a kind of betel leaf 

darken and stronger than the common one. Its juice is to be 
poured to the infants of 3 days : lest the cold might touch them. 

OsfraQsiTSLD, QairaseiJili ; a treatise in wluch 

four different characters of women and their behaviour are des- 
cribed. 

0siT-3?siM, QstTiuffSU), ■ t^s'suessTih, Osir^euessnh, (^s'suim ; 

the folds or plaits of a woman's cloth. 



56 

Osirs^eii ; a musquito, raoschetto, 
a gnat. 

QsiTL^^, 0sir(Bl3^, Q SIT 1-^-9? ; the joint of 

the jaw bones, as: ^^Q^nQs^w^^uQutra's^, your jaw bones 
became very thin. 

Qsir^eurriuilsk, OsiT®euiTLEs3r • a fish ; Port. 

Peixe Nairo. R. 

QarTLLmi—S&9l, 0an-LLt—ir(^9l, or OsirLLi-iiBiTa' 

Q QsirLLu.(Bis3'&, QiTLLeiai—, QsFiTLLeint— • the shell of a cocoanut. 
In Palamcottah, people commonly say SliTLLeisL- ■ the use of OsitlL 
L.iEisiT3^&, would be very filthy indeed. 

OstrCi-SLD, Qsn-LLi—euLD, OsinLi—L^P^irQ^euLo ; 

a cow house. 

OssnLL-iruSL^ or OstnLi—irut^e^, Qainl-L—iruiS ; a beater, 

an instrument for beating — OsiTLLi—irLDULLL^, a country in southern 
parts, where common sheets, are woven for the use of natives. 
u/_L^ — a village of 10 or 15 huts. 

Qs!rL:.ei5)i-s^p®{D^, OsiTLLmLsirip^ ; to spin cot- 

ton. 

Qsirem^an^, (^ak^^s^f) ; tale bearer, one who 

brings an officious or malicious intelligence. 

Osiri^^/D^, OsiT/h^rp^ ; to gnaw as a rat 

or squirrel &c. Metaph ; Osirk^p^s, to make trouble with urgent 
request. 

OairiMU, QsiTuLj; a branch of a tree. 

In another sense, it implies a kind of jewel or ornament for the 
upper of the ear, worn by women. 0«/r^L/, renders the various 
meanings according the application, as : Osirihuj, stick, alcl/, 
raggy ; this should be known by pronunciation. 

OainhLDLlt^, (SlolLl^ ; watcr-mclon. 

Osire^S^SljD^, or Osir^QffiLQp^, Osireip^ ; to kill, to 

slav. N. B.—O^i-LQSp^, j)/l^s3/djs, j>/£usSlp^, OsireosniSnr)^, 
although these are the verbs of transitive, yet the beginners should 
carefully judge what verb might use in the sentences as; If you say 
M fBirf&Ts^ 9(5 ^i-LsOTi_« QsrTcsd03=iuu.iQeuesi>r®ui ; means you must 
murder a sheep to-morrow ; therefore the participle verb j>i^^s, 
should be used instead to O^/r^O^uJi/j, then it will indicate the 
meaning to cut otf a sheep for eating ; Vulgarly, /f /E/rSsirio 55(5 



57 

Os/rgvoSi—ii), QsirsrroTL-Lh, or 0«/ren-(Srfli_ii> ; 

the river Collarum, Colroom, lit. Qsireo kill, ^(—ih a place — Qsirsh- 
(e^^Qsireh- the liguminous plant ; this word is not authorized to speak 
whatever with the women of Tinnevelly ; — they say it is a scurri- 
lous and immodest word to be heard amongst them, and, kindly 
advice to use sirem-LD instead o{ Osirshi&t) ; ssfr<?mLD means by corrup- 
tion, I did not find, but iu Trichiuopoly and other places, Qsireh(sr^ 
is allowed to speak. 

OstrsYrOsrrdDi-j, QsirQ£S.Qsrri}>L^ or Qsn-npQstruiu 

a prop for supporting vines &c. In another sense QsrrQ^Q^iruu; 
indulgence, condescension, as; L?eirrSsr7-«@a; QsrrQ^QsirihL^ Qsn®^s 
P(gB)6b ^^ e^'^mu-uiSN p^s<ijsi) ; the boy from being indulged, does 
not mind you. 

Ossrr^dstDS^iBS/D^, (^pLLes^i^£S(Si/p^ • to snore and 

Ostrj}jd(^ means for a disease which comes to men generally by 
the copulation of bad women. 

Qsrrsk^LDj or s/h^suirsi^TssiTLh, Qsihssuiret^TSTwuD, or Qsih^uir 
ei^irezsru) ; a kind of Arsenic. 

Q s rr lLs rm eir , Qaire'fTstrffehr; a calumniator. 

QsaBsmuQua^sf-, Q^(rGmuQuff<sF ; li. an irregular 

speech i. e. a foreign speech or language — Q^irsssruQusrSf-^ is always 
used by Tamulians to point out the Englisli language as : Qsiremu 

^lL® s^LDuinfluQueir • If I would know one or two words in Eng- 
lish, 1 will get two Doodees daily, without any hard labour i. e. 
I will be very rich, had I been instructed the English language. 

QsirSsm-ajiTujidr^ Qsiremeumueisr ; a man with a 

writhed or distorted mouth. 

Qstr^Sp^, QaiT^ff^ ; to disentangle the 

hair with the fingers by one's self, to put the feathers aright as 
the birds do with their bills ; to pick, to take up and eat as birds 
as: ^snzhrQs^iT^eo^^s Qsir^(^uQuiTffi) ^iEj(n^ok ; he eats the rice 
slowly as parrot eats. 

QsiT^eaLDj QsiT^wesiU ; wheat. 

Qsrr^^rnh, QsfT^inh ; family, race or tribe 

Z^ ; QsiT^^jiLD^i^ Qusm-dsmsOsir® uiT<s^jrix^ii_^ iSis'i^s^iiSSl -^ 

u 



5S 

give thy daugliter to him, after having made the necessary inquiry 
into his family, and give alms to those that are deserving it. 

QstruLD, QsfreuLD ; anger, as : jij^ujiQsir 

a/ffis/riTCTr ; a raging man; ^nirdQairsiJU) QuirarrujQpij^tLjua, auger 
not appeased, will end in disaster. 
(eSfTuinh, QsrreSirih, or Q'SiTeii[fLo ; a tower^ ' 

a steeple. 
Qstremsip^, Qaire^lp^ ; to bend, to inflect, 

QsfTcSsdj Gs/r.iSffO ; Church, the house of 

God, temple, pagoda. This is a compound word — Cp<s/r king, gs^ 
house. 

QsiTL^, QsiTiB ; a house cock, particu- 

larly its hen, to denominate the first, they add s^trsusi, R. Qsiti^S ; 
is used throughout the Southern parts except Tvanquebar. 

QsiTiv>ip, Qarr?&T ; phlegm, thick phlegm, 

the same as sirs^th, suih : a timid, a pusillanimous person, N.B. — ■ 
The people of Soleythesum, repeatedly say the word Qsneaip but 
in other places use as follows : Q6sir2siT, as : s-eusQsir'^&T, one timid 
in speaking before an assembly. 

QssfTssj3£iiu2, seij^^si'Lh ; the same as Qajirfih, 

deceit, danger, '^smk (oTuQun-^jib siBj^ieu&srrijm ; he is always a 
deceiver, or a double dealer, ^jQ^eoeOT'Sj seij^eusuipd^ ; all these 
cases are barratry. — Qaswi^Lcear is the name of a ]\loonee, who 
cursed Indra (the king of god>; for stealing his wife. 

OsmiSssTLD, QsiT£U6oe!Lb ; commonly; Qsitld 

emtl), i^QSsi^, u>L^9<k\\ (S(c^)i-9ds\), s-^^^i—Ui, sstjffesrLD, aaSi—ui, ^nsF 
92si) &c. these are adopted to the meaning of Qs'sni^stsnM a cover- 
ing, for the privy parts of men. Wils. S. D. p. 223. Caupina. 

Qavneitl, 0.«<2/4.fP ; a small kind of lizard ; 

lacerta Gecko, L. Ossijeitla^new^iiLo, or uei)<£ffiTew^uuD, the art of 
the lizard, and its presage; the Hindoos foolishly observe the noise 
of the lizard as a great rule, for the success of their good aim. 
THE LIZAED'S TRESAGEMF-NT. 
QsiTtKSlLDLje^eQi (^em /E eir jpt , one is good, 

^k./dujOrrem'Sib /dsbjujit(^iJ>, two is fortune, 

a;Ll:_LD,ij^>?r Lciraj^sLD, five is best, 

euuQsuQff-ni-o^ 0LDir(r^'BiT6k(^, _ fourth is arrival, 
&iL<SQLrQ^Lo Qun>ksi!T^, eighth and seventh arc bad, 



50 

^^j^m^£ ^gu .oeht (n^(^iJc, sixth is goodj 

s'LLL-Qpi—Qesr Qpsffr^vO^-irew^ih ) and three, is the surest 7 
s" itQ au Q ^ rr &)£!::] fB fiuun'Q^. ) of death. j 

s^stELDsnTLD, 9. 1— 'Ej 3^ iLes) L-.(? oj IT eo ; the burning 

of a woman with the corpse of her husband. This is postponed 
in the parts of India^ by the favourable preservation of the English 
Government. 

ff-ss'LD, ffojs'Lh, or s'sffiM ; the natural 

state, or disposition, as : ^su^sS^ s'ss^ixurujQufrs'c^ ; this is be- 
come habitual or natural to him ; (^^a/j^ii). is low expression) — see 
syno : section, j)ji^^^€ss?les)UJ s-sg^Londj or a^nsfLLtVLu gj^aS^ Os^frea 
eSdQstr®, tell a reduced price to that clothes. 

s's^eaek, or ffsuiru^^ s^ssisk, or <?«i;«V)2ar, or s^ssouuir 

L^ ; one who married wife's sister ; Pro: ff'se-^i^peif ^mQusmir 
L-mlL^ ^^QiuirQi—ffifl ; the affinity of a brother-in-law, will 
continue until the death of his wife. 

5=«0, s^irtrs^fl, or ^^ei/® ; Sub. Gen. # 

cui_® or ffeiiLLL^ek ; the whole, altogether in a body average or 
mean proportion of things bought : viz. 

One has bought 10 different sheep, four of them for three fa- 
nams each, four for two fanams each, and two for five fanaras 
each ; Total thirty fanams, then he says, mtrsinEumEiQesr u^^mKBs 
@(^ g'snL-u^Qen or s=irrr'9'ifiiiSl(Seo cjidjOeuirem^j Qpijiripg^j UioSsnixaSQp/s 
^^ ; I bought ten sheep for three fanams each upon an average, 
Besch. The following is elegant to be used s^suLLt^Qs^ismsuiSip^, 
to abuse in general, without naming a person, or s^evcLL^QsO'^dp^^ 
to sell promiscuously, or indiscriminately — s^wLieip-i— is a common, 
expression for a lazy fellow. 

^s^, s^en^ ; a puddle, mud, trouble, 

intricacy. Natives generally talk as a word of reproach, thus : 
/B/TOT QpeartSlmQ^iHaJirLDeo ^i^i's^eu^iSled s fr8s\)iSl lLQ i—eir , li. I have 
put down ray legs into this mire, without knowing what would 
happen hereafter, i. c. I have involved myself into this trouble. 
I have intermarried in the connexion of this dishonest family, 
without made a proper inquiry. [He that would eat the kernel, 
must not complain of cracking the uut,] <s=su^uS(2<od aiioSgixsSLLGlu^ 



GO 

ifl(^.firffO ^esrjsicssfiQuJvsr^ili ^.fso^ssts^Qiusik^ULh uirirsQixir? If you 
fling a stone into a puddle, it would spoil even your own clothes 
and that of those who stand near you : i. e. a bad example will 
hurt yourself and those who learn it. 

essorr.i^s'S'LLemL-, ffeueiiTd:^s'LLeeii— ; a garment of 

Europe woollen cloth. 

s^ssurrffUij s'irsufrs'U), or s^iEisrr^^un ; com- 

pany, familiarity, friendship as : ■sFr,g'm-0'rreiiiTSF(Z7)Q3'LU£i ^.ripsuemL-ti 
Q^ir(Th)Lh ^p'3'e^ff-iTisiiiTS't^Qffiij^ s-UJir,i(S^^tr(r^LSei)^ • those who join 
with good men, will not be inhumilated, nor those who associate 
with the wicked, will not be overwhelmed with joy. 

^iisir^^LD, is commonly used in Solethesum, but in other 
countries vulgarly ; s'lrsuirs^iJD, the same as Qs'trdesis, ^h-tKB/Ds^, ^ 
Q/Esthj Q^iTih^irLLSl, Qiuirdsevrr^^ssr Qa^fraesiaeiJirg'dotsrj &c. as : OiE_l 
u.£FiTeu(r3=LD /sp(^emiiis?erTiQs(Bid(^il) ; evil company will corrupt the 
good nature — The following refers about the intimacy : 

Oi5&Sld(^(^ Q/EJS^^d(^L£l lU irdsBT d (^IM Osup/Sd Qs(T^l—^d(^LDj 

(BjeQdQ) is^lijjiEi(^ LD[!iBjd(j^ a;em(Sd(^ LDfrds'sSd(^u>j 

L^eQd(^(^ 0.fi/EiTujd(^ SeirQpu./rd(^ij) (^rre£d(^Ll) Li^d(y^L})i£LL, 

OL—<sSld(^,r>^ ff-EiSir^^ QpsiwQL-ir Oeusrr'ScrT/sir&j eQ(rfjUusxjQe<jr. 

O thou, who dwellest under the shadow of the white Naval tree, 
what friendship can exist between the conquering lion and the 
elephant ; between the victorious kite and the subdued snake, be- 
tween the crab and the strong monkey ; between the tiger and the 
wild dog ; between the ignorant and the learned ; between the cat 
and the rat in the house. 

Note. — The white Naval tree, is in the Pagoda of e^Lci^QseusuDLD 
or ^(njSuir'Ssardaireiiik dedicated to Qauek. R. 

ffs^iuih, ffojiTUJU} ; vulgarly : benefit, fa- 

vour, a cheap price, as : /Brrdrj^os>^^d ^euiriuLLinu euiriaSQeareir ; I have 
bought it for a cheap price. 

^SldSlp^, ffiiSldp^ ; to suflTer, to bear, to 

endure, to undergo, to pardon ; commonly, Qun^dp^, ^/s^iBdp 
^j ^i^<^p^, &c. as: ^eueiir (^essr aes) if, d ffi^dauUL-ir^ ) his temper 
cannot be endured or borne with ^cet^u Quirjpidsd <si.£_/r^, or e.^ 
;fffflisddk.L.iTjp, or ,^irsndsih.L-.(rjj ; \t cannot be suffered, it cannot 



Gl 

be forgiven, ffu3uL^ s^Qp^^ir^^ei^iM Quifljs, patience is the greatest 
than the vast sea. 

3'(^smLD, s'euicHTLD ; omen, as : fBirehr upuu 

®Qpmepa;^3' 3=syet!r^^^es}i-.ujrre^.^ ; before 1 start out from my place, 
I saw a bad sign or omen, s'evzsr^^esiu.iuiriu Os^iriop^ -^ to hinder 
a person in his first aim, by saying disadvantageous or calamitous 
word thus: you will return without prospering in your under- 
takings. 

^<^e^, s'sncS ; au augur, a predictor, 

3=as.<ofr^^fruy, s'e.s.&T ^^, or s^ssirerr^^ • a 

female rival, an appellation which such women, as are married to 
one man, bear with regard to one another: the Native woman 
Avill frequently use the word s^isireir^Sl, when she cannot forbear 
the prosperity of her rival— Pro ; ■s^issretr i^jFirsirenir ■s^ir^^Qg^ir^k 
^ese!Qem(^ will my rival never die, that I may then eat rice with 
the rich broth offering, through the love of my husband ? A word 
of reproach. 

s=(^^eS€3f!, ff(^9s9 ; a medicine for long 

lUe ; commonly f s=^^<cSqP(sQ^s. 

s^L-iTuLidS/s^, ^iTL^sSp^ ; to load gun, to 

rebuke, to admonish. This word is most commonly used in the 
sense of rebuke, •s^rrL^ip^^ as : j^suerrOsfr^ifi ^uiS^^^asirss' 
-firL^^^sSuLi-iTeh- ; she has severely rebuked for a petty offence. 

^1^^} ■3'®^ ; suddenness, speed. 

3'et5>L-i3eii^ or fflS^eoSi), <F6roL_uL9^\) or e^i—uiSioso, or (w? 

««Lf ; an ornament of gold resembling a round patch worn by 
women upon their heads. The word 3'mL-ui3'8oo or <?z_lJl9^, is 
most commonly used in Madras, but in soleythesum &c. are 
used by the words of (^dai^, and eo/risqi ; ^.s^Qu^ for a small one. 
e^iTSaiLo-sstr/B a woman that usually wears it. 

ffstnTis^, or •fesar/bu^^n-^ s=em-uu'siriT • fibres or strings of 

Indian hemp, as : 3'esaruusir<^LL(IiiQsrrifi ^irQssreSeo^ii'SLKBleOsrreirsr 
t—^ ; the hempmaker'shen has entangled herself by scratching .the 
hemp; i. e. he has brought himself into trouble without the incite- 
ment of any other. Pro. 

<F^/Heros, ff-eisj^e ; little coppcr bells 

or silver bells worn bv childr'en on their feet. 



^^/f, ff^ir ; an assembly before whom 

dancers, players, and singers, exbibit. ^^/r ; a low rate. 

s-^ff&suh&nl, s'^usssshbrf} ; a, Sp. of Euphor- 

bia, Eupb. aatiquorum L. E. 

s^iSSl, s'msar^; proximity, approach, 

the presence of God, or of a great and venerable man ; the holy 
place in a temple, the sanctuary as : ©(75 ^sarssr^uSKSffoeu/r^iTei) 9a^ 
@i/«@ (cj /TEST/? J? 60 E7 (3 LD ; wisdom wlll enlighten the disciple, if Goo- 
roo or priest approach into the presence of his spiritual preceptor. 
O^iuiius^sNicsr^uSiso a'^^ujuiuessressfli^sisrj he took an oath -in the 
Divine Presence. — This means for taking an oath attended with 
various ceremonies, front of an idol temple. 

g:uLD, s^&jua ; the same as i^mn-Lo, a corpse. 

Note ; The people of Tinnevelly vicinity, perpetually use the term 
^ffljti for very trifling matters, as: ^Qi—s^euQiD Qiuek f^uut^Offnj 
^iTiLi ? why have you (corpse) done so ? Sometime a lazy person is 
reproachfully called s^suQld. 

s=6S)ud(S&fres)ip or •faasudQsiretoip, s'susQsir^tnip ; one timid, or 
bashful in speaking before an assembly. 

s^uiT, 3=eLiiT ; a voyage. 

^uL^Q/D^, ffup^ ; to smack the lips, to 

suck; naao:aiu^.fufDjp, to lick the hand, &jiT<ss>uj'SiJirss)UJffsup^ ; to 
be on the point of speaking without doing so. N. The Tamulians,have 
no regular verb for smoking the cliooroots,or cegars. Madras usage, is 
going on by the word #(5i_L®«@tf iS^jj ; lit: drinking the chooroots ; 
but in the side of Jaft'ana, by the \\ox(i3r(rT)il.(B3-uLj&p^, lit; smok- 
ing the chooroots or cegars. 

-s'LDiT^^eir, ffLD^k^^ek', an accomplished, qua- 

lified, capable man. 

ffLDif^^, ^LD^^ ; fern. 

a^Lorr^^, or s'lrLon-^^iuLo, ffiok^, or ff^ruar ^-.^luuiy or <?T 

LDirir^^ujdi ; capacity: iQ(nj'uiu^LD^^dsirn'sisrj you are a very clever, 
it is more elegant to say iQ(n/LDU^Lcrr^^ek. 

ffiS&'Sms, s'uSldens, or fireeiii—, or suSldS3ssr 

a gesture, token, or sign. 

fQp^'LD, fQpoiui ; the face of a great, or 



03 

honourable person, presence, proximity. §jiirrjF 3-Qp.mjiaS6S}i_sQ>a 
^.(7^€S)LD ; it is difficult to have the Presence of a king. 

^^LoS/Djij, ^ss>LDuSir^ ; to'^be made, to get 

ready or make ready, or to grow marriageable fit fur wedlock ; as: 
ee!3LL(^&(i^iQnr) QuesdT^ a marriageable girl, sfflQiuffOeoiTi^ ^etsims^s^ira^ 
•5?, properly s/3Qajs0Bi)ir(^ &<z<5)iB^^^j^p^ ; all the viands are 
prepared for the table or dressed. R. Note. — If any one 
might have been asked for whom does this jewel made, his 
reply would be then thus ; sresr&Qs 3=<cmLD^.siTiTSfffr^ they have 
made it for myself. 

^Lhui^LD, s'LDLDih^LD ■ conncxion or relation 

as : e-esrs^Lbu/B^QiD sTssrsstreuir^ : 1 cannot abide with your con- 
nexion or bear thee : S^LDUiih^QQtreiv^sir s>j(r^®(njsk isvlLl^so Os^mQu 
e\}eoirL£) e^^ui^pLDijiLi eoisuiLj/Eissrr (A word of reproach) keep aside all 
the brass vessels into the house, because the thief who feigns 
himself honestly is coming. 

ffixu.i^iT, s^u>Lci^ir ; the name of an illus- 

trious person, of whom many marvellous stories are related. 

s'LJDuih, ^LLUih, (^(nj'ui-i ; ostentation, 

pomp, pride, as : ^<sug2/i@<s (^'-^■sas^&lu9&oso:T(aSLLi—rreii!(c^ ^llu^^ 
Qeo (^sw^i j^io^ ; Though he is a poor for want of food, yet he 
is a great boaster, or braggadocio ; ^LQirdsiflS'iiuiTLD QpsuiripiTd(S)U 
uiT^iuiTLo (ipgeSiuiTir euQf,SjD eSQt^uemuuuiriT, look at the Moodeliiar^s 
coming with pomp and pride, though he has nothing to eat in his 
house ; (except one ollock measure of raw rice and three ollocks 
measure of pot, which could boil the said rice.) This is the phrase 
of women : when husband demands them to taste curry more than 
income. A poem. ^'s^^^O^irdseneoir^irsar ^essremLniLjLb^ G!eusa(^Sls 

ssQ issS^ ^eir^fsrrujsOaiTSQLD — ^/Bsi—sld. — lit: the pride without 
being under the control of a superior,the ambition being arisen with- 
out shame and modesty, and the rice which w^ould be eaten without 
labour, are (these three) equal to a dog eats his vomiting. The 
^Lfi!Ta(9, or ollock, being one 768th part of a ssoih. 

s^LDULimuD, <?,£'« /TiTzi) ; destruction. 

e^uMLLa^Esm, ffsuuLlsSsaw ; preservation, as : 



(Vf(jiuu^6uCLLaSss!!rGuflujLisme7sfiujLh; It is 3 great merit, tlic act 
of providing and preserving a family. 

•ffLoQlUiTSLh, &UJ^UJlTSLh OY CO 5 Q LU IT ^ Ui J SBX- 

ual intercourse. 

&[r&iL^, ffiiuL^ ; tribe, caste, as : jiji^sr 

ffiruL^'jSl(SvdQiuQueikOcm®s/Dj3 ; to take a wife, in the same tribe ; 
^iruL^ is most commonly used in Madura, Tanjore and Palam- 
cottali, but in other places; sugo^lB, ^u^^sul^ ^-wu/s^^sui^^ SiC. 

ffiflS/D^, s^ifliSipj^ ; to slide, or slip as 

garment ; to roll down as corn from a heap ; as : ^Ssosufre^jSas^Q^ 
is^ ^Sooa^ifl/B^jsi, the head has slipped off the pillow ; Qf'Ssoffi-fli^jj • 
the breasts are fallen down. 

s^iBeoiS, s'Q^stsieu ; l?.ce, or silver thread, 

cesser ^j an iTfEjQQmsk, I have bought an upper cloth embroidered with 
gold, to the feast of the last new year's day. {^uulLl-it is not 
Tamil word.) 

5=0(5ii?i;5Sar, LSl^i^3^<?<F(77isro£u ; tinsel. 

^irdaesjiTj or ffpsemiT, g^ssssyir ; as : ^mishr ^dssetniruu/P 

^s5C?«50 Q^eirLLirifl OuirL^k^nuQuirii) Qus^^^sar ; a metaphorical ex- 
pression ; 11. He speaks as the rain of honey falls down into the 
Pandall of sugar, i. e. highest recitation, or oratory. 

^/fi«s»/ruy,#c3Df?, s^dsBsatru^QcsS ; sweet gourd, 

pumpkin. 

^psiTiTj s^dsiTir, or ^irsuirffLDj properly 

^ir^evtrffiJa ; a sloping veranda or pent-house of the Natives. 

ffs^truuo, (from s^eoil, and ^sotruLh, gainj &&iiTuil> or Sevir^ih ; 
the pearl fishery; commonly Qp^^s^^ieoneuLo. 

^eQems, <?ji2/sroa; ; patronage, protectional 

interest : particularly exemption from punishment ; as: ^'sij£r 3=^ 
ee>eu sn-LLL^iQenek® euib^irshr, he brought a protector along 
■with him. 

ffeuirrfl, (is derived from the Persian Sauvari.) ^wsuirfi ; a con- 
veyance, a promenade. 

^^iMUireaia^, Od^-^ Lnuireis)*^, or ^irojuirct^c^ • 

the mother language. Sanscrit, is highly estimated in India 
as llie langunge of gods. (H°^''?'^) 



05 

Note. — " It may be necessary here, to say something of the 
" origin of language, connected with the study of Indian verna- 
'* culars. On this subject, we will quote from Dr. Adam Clarke. 
" The proper names, and their significations given in the Scripture, 
" seem incontestable evidences, that, the Hebrew was the original 
" language of the earth — the language in which God spake to man, 
" and in which, He gave the revelation of His will to Moses and 
" the Prophets. It was used, says Mr. Aiusworfh, in all the world 
" for 1,757 years, until the captivity into Babylon, when the holy 
" tongue ceased from being commonly used, and the mixed Hebrew 
" (or Chaldee) came in its place.'' " The Arabic, Cltaldee, Syr'iac, 
" and Ethiojuc, still bear the most striking resemblance to their 
" parent, the llebre^v. It is very likely that the original language 
" was composed of monosyllables, that each had a distinct, ideal 
" meaning, and only one meaning. The Chinese is exactly such 
"■ a mono.si/llabic language, — and the Hebrew, if stripped of its 
*•' vowel points, and its prefixes, suffixes, and postfixes, would near- 
*' ly answer to this character even in its present state.""^ To 
*' Clarke and Ainsworth, we shall add the testimony of Mr. Wm. 
" Banks. " An examination of any language will show, that, in 
" adapting it to the progress of knowledge, men have more fre- 
" quently had recourse to a change of termination than to invention. 
" The radical words of all languages are comparatively few. Evea 
" in the Greek, which, of ancient languages, has generally been 
" thought the most copious and the most elegant, some graramari- 
" ans affirm that the primitives do not exceed 300. This however, 
" is perhaps, below the truth, if we consider that nearly SO words 
*' are required to name the different external parts of the human 
" body. Whilst men continued to form one Society, they Avould, 
'' of course, enr» ploy the same words, but, when their numbers 
" greatly increased, (as at the building of Babel) they must have 
" separated, for their mutual convenience— as they gradually ad- 
'' vanced in Arts and knowledge, new words would be introduced, 
" and even those which they possessed originally, would probably 
" be pronounced so differently by succeeding generations, in the 
" different places, that they would no longer be recognized as 

" Adam Clarke's Comraeniarv. ^■otcs on Gfiiesis xi. 1—6. 

I 



66 

" having the same origin:— thus, the German, the Butch, the Danhh 
" the Sioedish, the Icelandic, and the Anglo Saxon, are only differ- 
" ent dialects of the Gothic, a language of Asiatic origin. In like 
" manner, the languages at present spoken in Italy, Spain, Protu- 
"gal, France and the South of Europe, are modifications and com- 
" binatious of the Latin. The Latin, is in a gi-eat measure de- 
** rived from the Greek, and the Greek can be traced to Asia : — ■ 
" the language of Ancient l^ritain, is a dialect of the Celtic, a lan- 
'' guage of very high antiquity^ which though now confined to 
" Wales, to Ireland, to the Highlands of Scotland, and to Brit- 
" tany in France, was once spoken over the greater part of the 
'* West of Europe.* The language of the Saxons was a dialect of 
" the Gothic or Teutonic, a language which ol)tained among the 
" nations bordering on the Baltic, and the North of Europe. The 
" language now spoken in England, is not a primitive, but a com- 
'" pound language, consisting of the ancient Gothic or Teutonic, 
" variously modified by the Saxons, Danes and Normans, with a 
" mixture of Greek, Latin, Celtic, and modern French.^'t An 
Essay of the Ver. L. p. 3, 4. 5. 

s^ssTLDurrevLD, Os'uLDuuireiiLD ; original sin, 

ffm-inuuenis, Oa^ixLDuusasu ; inveterate enmity, 

hereditary feud ; also, hatred between very near relatives ; as : jy^w 
eesrejsr ^Lci3^n(Sesr Os'UDLSuuemsuujiTs^ ; properlv jtjissressr^ ssiliS^ir 
QssiOa'sirtjouuemsajirertl, brothers only are indeed the inveterate 
enemies one to another— ^«/rG.^ is a particle here, figuratively 
joined with nouns — ^/rsar for singular, and ^fTij> for plural, should 
be carefully used in classical Tamil. 



* Amongst the Cimbri, Finni,Teutones, Jutes, Celta, Aquitani, Belgre, ,J'c. EssayisL 
+ Of the Hebrew, the Chaldee itnd Syriac arc dialects. Tlie original European ones 
were thirteen, viz. Greek, Latin, Dutch, Sclavonian, (spoken in the East :) "Welsh, Eis- 
cayan, (spoken in Spain ;) Irish, Albanian, (in tlie mountains of Epirus,) Tartarian, (the 
old lUyrian,) the Jazagian, (remaining yet in Liburnia ;) the Chaucin, (in the North of 
Hungary;) and the Finnic, (in East Friesland.) Arabic, is the mother-tongue of Africa. 
From the Latin, sprang the Italian, French, and Spanish; and from the Spanish, the 
Portuguese. The Turkish, is a mixed dialect of the Tartarian. From the high Dutch or 
Teutonic, sprang the Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, English, Scotch, &c. Tiiere are 3,664 known 
lftnguage:< now used in the world. Of this 037 arc Asiatic ; 587 European ; 276 African ; 
and 1,62+ American lang\iac:es ,uid dJalccts, Fiofessor Arlrlnrj, 



67 

LDir LC:dsJii9 ej^en <s(T LD(i^.iQ^ lSI essfl ^ I'r & (^ 

LDLDLDQFii^ Q U !T ii SU IT (1^ (LpSSST® . 

You must not imagine that the [brethren] born with you are 
your protectors : disease born with you will destroy you : the me- 
decine wliich is in the lofty mountain, not born with you, will 
expel the disorder : and there are some that are similar to that 
medicine. ^Mudurie. 

ffssTLDii, O^ixmLD, gsarewii) ; birth as: J>,'u 

uir S ^^(oS)Q.iFLhu:iQu:>'S^i^u LS/D/B^rrQiLirr O^.fliuSs)) \ abba, I do not 
know by what birth you was born i. e. Your manners and customs 
are despicable to others. 

LD, ^ rr Lu s <sS L-.LD ; one's native country as: i3pk^S3,^s^ sTeu^d(^Lb 
Ou(r^icmLDuSei>2so ; there is no respect in one's native country. 

^earcsr^^u), 5=carsB^^u)j possession by a good 

or evil spirit, oracular fury, commonly <^(?a/<?ii) i. e. oracular words 
uttered during such a possession. In another sense tfsorec^^ii, vehe- 
ment anger erearemOLo^^ ffsk €sr ^Liiir®S(n^Lu ; what dost thou angry 
more than thy rank ? 

<F«we37-eO, ^ssred, or ^esreo • a window, s=sir 

esreo iSlsiiresreo- latticework: Meta. intricacy ; ^ih^ssafluj^ ffesrsar 
eo iSisk€sreoiTSQf)S(^j3 ; this affair is intricate or involved. 

ffrrsBLD, s'nsijinh ; the same as su.eo, the 

sea: ^sss'ireuffLD ; overwhelming grief: lit. a sea of grief. muQesr 

Q^ssr ; I was uneasy for having not received an answer to my 
letter — (nj>^^!Ba--iTimjiiLDir SQf)iQ^zk ; I did not sleep, I was waking 
last night. 

^irSip^, s'lrdlp^ ; to die, to lose life ; 

elegantly ^^«S/r^, Lotflsp^ Q^cu^sLD/rQp^, &c. see. sy : sec. as: 
^susBT j>isiJ6rr(Suifl(Siso <5'irS(n^sir ; he is passionately enamoured of her; 
s'tTeu^^m^(^3'eij^siQ.3'ff(Lp^^au> (LpLpiEisirSdLDu-® ; to one who risks 
his life, the sea is only knee deep. Pro. i. e. at the commencement 
of an undertaking difficulties are depreciated. 



s^iTafTsu/n}), ^ireurreuifu) ; the gift of immor' 

tality. 

ffiresis, ^iremeu^ or s/Tftcs ; a place, or 

station, where travellers make a short stay : ^trsosu is used by 
rustic. Jageh, Hind. 

SFirfEjQaiTuiT/asui, s^irsnn-rksLD ; (from •s'"', with jtiii 

SLD, bodily member and ■^uiniisih, the subordinate members, i. e. 
the body with all its members in a perfect state : B.) perfection, 
or completeness, generally as: .^aysw- ereisr^L^esnus^ e^ireu/r/Eisuiiraj Os 
(B^^fT&sTj most commonly ji/wssr eresri^LfLeaius: ^evtrssTLCiriu or ^^itld 
uiTLoiruj Q&Q^^irek ; he has ruined me entirely : s^irisuiTEisQpLh iQiu 
Qu^)itse)Si) s.s!!rdairtr ^ff^ffeij QsirfSsp^ ; If you relate whole stories 
without paying the attention of others, who will be able to answer 
you ? 

the same as ^^^ssr^ an oath or jijus^i^dsssr an order a decree of a king, 
or a written gift or grant bestowed upon Bramins, temples, poets, 
&c. thus: ^eoiTS'iT^csnh, ^(TLCLSrrffir^ssru), ^/ijss'iT^esru} ; Inscrip- 
tions, or grants, engraven on stone, copper, or gold. 

^fTi^sv^u), s^Tisrvu^LD ; immutabihty, end- 

less, duration as : s^sns-Js^ijjlI) ^mir^s^ir&ou^LDir ? do the situation 
continue for ever ? ^sksinuLh, Os^eoeuLa, uQT^enLOj ■iffr&vu^LotT ? do the 
body, prosperity, and youth continue for ever? 

eviTj^QsinQpOi-Dsisr^ LDQtpei!!L£ismeiiiT^Sj(&T,Ui 

As the palm of the hand may readily be turned outwards in the 
open air, so quickly mutable is domestic life. — Say not we shall 
live for a term. — The days of our life are as the flowers of the Pulei, 

Note.— Pulei is Illecebrum Javanicum — of which the soft and 
downy flowers are scattered by the wind. 

^dsoiBeisiS's QsiresiTL- Qeat—tuir — iBsiiLBetna'^ 
^@^e5) OirearO/D®^^^ ^ppuuLLi—irffsosoir 

Even of the lords of the umbrella held over the head of the ele- 
phant like the moon when seeu over the hills, none are left in this 



69 

world without being proclaimed on earth that they have died. 
Naladiyar. 

ffn®Qp^, s^tTL^p^ • to rush on, and beat 

one : to reprove by speaking as : ^a/sar uemi^iSlikLj&ii^ uztnexiujirei^ 
.sSsrr /ssm^iiis^irL^^ek ; he rushed into the battle, and defeated 
the enemies; ji/s^j^odl^uj ^ ^ m ^iSl &;>€<!) it a> en OsFiu^^n-so ji/suOmskSsBr 
wemTi^uj^n-L^ao^Gir ; he severely reprimanded me as I have done 
this without his knowledge. In another sense (^eussrCoLDQso ^^^^ar 
s=it(S^£Qso^^) means he is not so much suspected but the suspicion 
falls upon the other. 

erri—i—ei); a gesture^ a wink, a hint ; a slight or faint notice as : ems' 
■masiriLiD^i to convey an intimation or ^/reoi—, or s^Sadser sitlI. 
u^s, a-^ufSp^j to beckon ji/£u^srsarSssr s^mdmOffuj ^semip^g^ireir ; he 
has beckoned me by a motion of the head or eyes. s^irssiLS'sr&at^ajir 
lu ^u-fo^; to give a hint without naming the person ; ^/B^ssuifl 
uj(s^ Spirent— iLnnuQuirSp^ ; the thing passed without special notice. 
3=inL(BQp^, or s'lrir^^'Sp^, fftnLp^, (rr)S?usmp^^ Qiceiiseiu 
emp^, <o^uuee>i—ap^, ^srrsrfl>^i®p^j Qp^eSsp^^^ Q.a^aeOsQ£S(B)p^ 
QldsoQuulKSsp^ ; to transfer a debt, a charge, as : j>isj&sr eresrsi;^ 

tLQi—ioa-, or QLD<s>j^eo U6-ihre!!sf)eSLLQL-.isar^ or (f^'dfueminfssflisSLLQcssr Suc. 
I have left the money, which he had to pay to me, to be given to 
such one, commonly Qujfri^dOsirenp^ ; wireirji/isusarsi—Ssar Qiuir 
^^s,Qis!ressrQt—issr; I have taken his debt upon me; /§ ^sussr 3=itlL 
L-iriu zi<PsrQ^L-^^p@ euirQsiJem^LJo, you must come to me through 
his mediation; ^sushrffmLu^Qs^ QusmdssiraQsiTem'^i—ek ; I have in- 
termarried by his means. 

ffiTsssrsLD, ff-iTemsBj or ^fr^)'Ej3 • cow-dung 

&c. as : ^susrr dlL^iu/EismlL^^ia OiDQ^/F^Q^i^ s^irmtlO^siflJ^e? Q^(tF)sS 
etrdp^ evi^isLJb. It is custom to her to sprinkle the floor with 
macerated cow-dung and sweep the street, early morning ; &ae^ 
uSl<Sp^, or ■s'lrmsfiQuirLLSl Oldq^^p^ -^ to drop dung, to daub with 
cow-dung. N. This habit is most common throughout in India ; 
people regard the cow-dung highly and sacredly in all their special 
works ; by which a small Pulleyar also, (god) is made by teachers, 
in the native schools and worshipped (at the very commencement 



70 

of a new scholar's' «^ayif learning) with j agree, peas, beaten rice 
(^Q/ffo) cocoanuts, and betel nuts; together with smoke of benjamin. 
s'a^SLD, tf-zr^fiuLo ; horoscope, nativity, 

natural disposition; as: j>/uu^^s sLp(s^^§s))iS/D^ ^eusksrir^suixtrS 
QT)S<^Si} It Js a natural disposition to him to wound his character for 
triflings; s?(r^'—(S(^L^sp^ sresr<i(^s''9^ir^sijLDfnu Quir&s?^ ; smoking 
chooroots, is become a great habit to me ji/eij^ia/B^ eSl^em^uS 
Qeo miie^s'iT^ai iSQ^dQ,^ ; he is skilled in that art ; (stms^n ^en^^^ 
/sireisKaSli-LDfrLLQt-eir ; 1 do not leave my practise. wtpisLD, ulqssld, 
^uiSiLurrs^ut ji/&)s}jitlL(B, signify s^it^sld, thus : ^/biSlaJfrs-EJ ^^s^ir 
eSl^etss Practise is an unavoidable (work) or lesson. 

auLSsL-eLiiT^frs etrSoO^^ek eurnuuOuiiS^rBi 
(^u(oSiuQ'Sonu(ounimjrrd QsiTLSKSuirssr — lBss 

Though the house hen, be fed by owner (with her belly full 
early morning before his repast) yet she would go on to scratch a 
nasty sweepings to try whether there is a pea or prey for her eating, 
thus, a low person, will follow only his bad habits as a great sys- 
tem : though he would have been persuaded with many arts and 
religion. Nal. 

^^^J, ujus^ms:, Q 3= IT It, ^ehe^ih, <k@^ ; 

boiled rice. The Tamuler elegantly say ^/r^«u5, ^ckssrui, ^sh^L^cr 
essfl, but Q ff IT jiiuQ^deas, and «(^©, arc used by the common people, 
or rustic. 

£^rrs2ssr s^ir^Sm ; obstinacy, a lie. #/r^ 

BssrdsiTJTiir ; one who strenuously insists on what he asserts. j>/eudr 
iBiTssr^Q'juQ'S!r<chT£u <^QiTffir^'SserujiTiu3'iT^.i(ni^eisi', he obstinately persists 
in his denying. s^iT^^dstrirmmvAe-jS^iT^^isiTfl fern. — vulg. u1i<§<s9. 

^ir^euirmmsi^^^ir^ ^iTj;rr6uaa!rLD^£i^csr ; a meek or 

gentleman : s'lr^sTeuiTemLLiT®, a tame ox or cow. 

s^iT^u^d^iB, s^ruf^.fl ; (from udf:,-FI, a leaf:) 

mace, or the oily membranous pulp which covers the nutmeg. 

s'lr^^rr^^euir, b^tt f,^TTsSiuk, or s^tt ^SjTTtsS \ a 

certain caste people. The s^ir^^/siretSujir^ have three principal oc- 
cupations as flower-gatherers, minstrels, wandering mendicants. 



71 

^tr^^rr^&jri-, literally, those who do not bcir, or put on ; that is, 
the sacred thread and crown lock of hair. They are of the class 
of Vaishnavas, but of a mixed kind ; and tlie opposite terra is ^/r^ 
^eweuiT, an epithet of Vaishnava — Brahmins, who do wear the 
thread and crown-lock. The former are aiso termed Qes)sOujsQ 
Qujfru<£ff(^ ffrrJs^ir^enrrsefTj from &ms, the crown-lock, and sriQ 
QujiTui^^LD, the sacred thread commonly t^^i^io. "When persons 
of different subdivisions of Vaishnavas join this class, all distinc- 
tion is merged ; and they are reported to hold the custom of an 
intercommunity of wives. They are considered to bear a relation 
to the Vaishnavas, similar to that of Vira ^aivas to the Saivas ; as 
in the following proverb : 

S'lT ^QsiLu-euiok s^ir^^tr^enek, ■s^n-^QsLLt—eussr g^iksiDsk. 

One who has forfeited caste (among the Vaishnavas) is Satta- 
thavan. One who has forfeited caste (among the Saivas) is Sanga- 
man (or a Lingadhari, or a Vaira Saiva) II. 

s^itlS^it, ^iTu^ir ; index, list, inventory. 

s'lruoiri^iULh, errLDrrir^^iULc,, or ■ff^rrLDtr^^uju) ; 

dexterity, skill, capacity, power, cg^^^e^r^ e^irunTir^^ivLo uiras 
p^ ; to try one's capacity. 

^iTiIdr^ ^mEdr ; security : from the 

Arabic Zamin, rseuir^irLEek. security for a man; properly rButJ^mScjir. 
OiTiTss^inEssr^ ^mSckss^^ ; security for money, as: /f ^(^ld/tsbt 
Oirirds^^iriSek OsirQ^s^frso fBrrek ^sisrdsnr sSQQsiisnr ; I will release 
you if you give a satisfactory security for payment. 

s^mufkisirsoua^ s'lruj'iisrreiiLb, or •s'/til/'ej sire^LOj 

s^rroji^iTLD ; evening the even-tide : the same as jtii^QfBin}), Our-Qp^ 
QutremQ&jLisfr. ixirSs\}u>ff/aSsm-Q,'E!ri}i, (^rfliueir LDSsvsijn-aSlfTO i>S(ipu:>Q.'Firuiy 
&c. Vulgarly Ouire^triueuT^ (in this,two letters Q£ and ^ are entirely 
dropped) come in the evening. 

t-rrek ; from v. a. s^srujiQp^, to incline or bend a thing as : ^ibs 

Qu!T<m,shr, that king has driven awy many people, and much cattle. 
N. — QsiTsm^! and QlL® are both particles used amongst the verbs, 
but SILL'S is most common through all the soutliern divisions. 
Elegantly Qs Hem's. 



72 

^iriT@/Dj3, s^fTfflp^; to draw near, to be ou 

the side of a Party ; to be attached to one person alone, to lean, to 
incline or rest against or upon as : sj-enQirnQi—s'iriBp^, to lean 
ao-ainst the wall — st0^6^ gleaning the fields after the crops have 
been reaped. 

ffirensw 3',re^6ULs> or s'lrssesiL—; a drain as; 

s^ireoeuAesy^^^ ^^iiQ^sirjx-(Q 3?^^LDU€SBr^,c\e2in the drain every day, 

^ire^emeu .ffr&^ssyeu ; a shawl, especially 

Cashmscr shawl. Pers. 

ffirssurrffih, or s^soJiT^LD ; ff it &i it 3= ld ; leisure, Opportunity, 

friendship, company, familiarity, as : ffps^ms^nenirfft^Q^iLi^ ^iTtp 
eust^i—isQ^iTQ^UJ ^pa-m&'iTisiJiTS'^Qs'iu^ ^ujir/h'^^irQfLSsiSoO ; those 
who converse with good men will not be inhumiliated or reduced, 
and those who associate with the wicked are not (truly) great. 

3^!TQsfr3?ULD, s^irQei^iTLD ; dimness of sight, 

a feeble sight. s^j^'S(i^ ^nQeos^mJo euk^^ ; the sight is turned 
to dim. 



QsffLo, QeuffLD ; a peak of a mountain 

or ridge. 

QsitQldit^iju), ^dsirQiDir^irui ; or sessrsniri^ 

QiDiT^nuD ; a seal ring. 

9^^Slpj3, &^^p^ ; to spill, to disperse 

as: ^mrsstfecT'T sT/ii(^(^ to^<^(^(?^,(©/j,cF/rG,^)do not spill the water every 
where ; ji/evesr u<sssrQiu0O^iT(^ QgpL^s^QiLL-iTek ; he has squandered 
all the money. 3^.L^mQi-cieuO(xeoffOiTi^ &^pluQuiTff37-, the gathered 
clouds are all dispersed; u^(ir;'/si£iTffluj(d^ 9^(n;j3 ; a well meditated 
matter will not miscarry. — Pro. ^uQuiTQg^ ereki^^i^ 9is;SuSlii^d(^ 
^ ; my mind is now bewildered. 

QJs^iruu^imLD, 9.i^iTuu^ei!)LD ; a statue, a doll, 

^aysYT Qi^iruu^esiLoQuiTffO^ Qf;iTeisr^S(rij-eh ; she looks like a 
painted doll motionless. — N. In observing the classical works of 
Hindoo Poets, they, in most parts, have renowned and flattered 
concerning the handsome of women : more than they could do to 
immortality — as for the beauty of women's head lock, is termed 
QpQei, cloud — the forehead §ioiTW(3es>p, the crescent moon — the 
eyes Q&ieo, a lauco or javelin — the face, Q^r-^ moon, — the hands, 



73 

u^LDiM, lotus ilower~and so on : for all the members of their 
bodies. — Oue of the stanzas out of Naidatham, jijm-m^esi^^^^ 

(v.iSi^LB'^s^Lo^i^ (^asiipQiu^iTiBL-fB^ Osfrck)3.0^irLBsk m/veSesytu 

Q^iriLi/hjD — SLDSoQicsifrLDeOeiBfr ajewiML^(^^^ujQeijp s sm ^Ssasr ld n sisr lo 
(Thfo^isik — ^ixQ^&srisimjiriB^ OsfrcsiTi— Q suit ldi—llit sir pL-fEJaeusBek 

The sentiment of this stanza, represents the beauty of the eyes 
of^tDUj^P wifeof Nalen, — and is compared to the power of Ema, — 
(the king of death) to the eyes of fearful decrs, and to the piercing 
arrows &c. 

Qi^nu), Os^i^Tiriii ; the colour red, Ver- 

million. 

&LDTe(TU), & LDLD IT sfT Lo ;m\vth, play, gaicty ] 

^euek QiiLDirerrQui®^^ ^i-.LDn(B(fr^&sr, he is leap for joy. @/5^ ">Tt3 
SthLDn-sfrilQuirLLiSsSeir^ |B®^ ; vulgarly (^ilLDirsntb. 

QiSlip, SIlScit or Q(Lpsh- ; a small box, 

commonly, i—ulS, uuSsm. 

&u)UjSlp^, Quaup^, to tustle, to pull about 

another, as in sport or wrestling. 

Sle^iriQajLD^ ffeoirsSiuLo, excellency, dignity, 

erdrssfiesiiLD /§ j)/^s QenirsQiuQieu)? art thou better than I am? 

&sQiT3@p^, Qsiii'ip^, or Qje^a^^uQun-p^ ; 

to have the hair standing on end. 

Note. — Vulgarly and badly ^sai^^ and, is used for QeSir^^, as : 
a.i_iz)OLjff06O/r^ 9i^\^^sQsiTsm®^ ; the whole body was trembling 
with fear or cold. mesiipSeirB'Bserih^ s-t—Lhi-jSe)^^^dOsiremO^ • 
the body trembled with cold from being wet with rain. ^ ffsiffijar 
uu QpskQissr semu^£5emCSLD60 sS^^S^uLf eu/hj^^. after cold the 
fever-heat followed. 

QsvsSlp^, or Os'eudQp^, Qevsp^ orOs'isudp^ ; the same 

as Qsuui-i or Os^euut^ ; to be red, to become red. 

Note.— The proper derivation of this word, and of all following 
words connected with it, is O^^su ; but some poets having taken 
license to write the past tense, and past participles, with &, it has 
in consequence become customary to write many of the derivative 
words with that letter. R. 

K 



74 

• ^^s, 9l^eu ; a little, somewhat, spar- 

ingly : QsiT(i^^u>. — Vvov. 9i£iieiji{ELLL<^uQu(rT)msijn-ip ; having built a 
small house, live happily therein &^su Q^^^^smrp^j to eat 
every now and then a little ; Q^sus^Sirueu j^£tiip^ ; li. to cut little 
by little i. e. to receive the money gradually. 

Q£2iiiT, Qs'^iiT, Qp^^jiu) ; urine, rao- 

deste dictum : Q^niSirdKilSlp^ ; to make water ; also to mix urine 
with ingredients for external cataplasms : vulgarly, ^^^irthQuiBp 
Si ; school boy's talk ^sarsar s'isim!T^-k(^uQu{Tp^ or e^sm^!jd(^u 
Quirpjsi. Tinnevelly shanar's use QiDire^p^. 

QjjjsuLh, or SjuLjuLD, &j)i^Lc> ; iufaucy, the age of 

young children, Sljpj^u^^Qeo ^susSi, from infancy, a word much 
used, but not classical. ^eu^/Btresi &^eu^^(o0!>jP'su<iS j^/iSQsuek ; 
I have known him from his infancy. 



9smL^^i®@p^^ 9emL^(sS(Bp^ ; to cxcite, or 

stir up by a gesture. 

9^u>eSQ£Qp^, &^u}(^Q£><sSp^ ; to have a slimy 

flux. 

&^esn}}, ^^esTLxi ; the gift from parents 

to their daughter after marriage ; household-chattels. 

&LJL3LL(Sff'^€ijslp^ or euiTQ'Sp^j &ul3lL(B3^§(^ip_^ ; to comb. 

^uLja^s^inLeeiL-, ^ui-iffsi-inTsmuf. ; the name of a 

fish, with fins on the back in the form of a comb. 

^QDL£)Ui(oSsr^s<s^frisS, &6!SLDLD(oSsr^^dserrettl ; a plant: 

Solanum Lycopevsicum. L. R. 

^/rsJ^^uiurr, &ffeu^ffu,u(r ; rice smelling like 

cumin. 

^nsih, ^iiwLJD ; cumin. 

9ifi®Slp^, ^ffl(fip^ ; to bestow house-hold 

utensils, c:* other property on a married daughter, Meta. to make 
equal •• to regulate properly. 

^jjjSlpjn, ^j^ipjsi ; to hiss, to utter a 

noise as a serpent, and some other animals, to puff at one, to fret 
and fume. 

^^LDir^umr^aQp^, QjiiiLDirjuuesdrp^ ; to treat one 

indiflereutly or badly. 



75 



sr and s/B^iJ), a smell 






a fine smell : from 



opp. 



^ajO<?ffOfflyu) ; the happiness of 

good health. 

^QiT^u), g^tSiT^LJD ; virtue, moral merit; 

€?sstE]snuj, s^dsmEJsiruj ; the unripe fruit 

of a species of Bryonia. This is very fine curry to the Teloogoo 

people at the Western side. 

<5?/Ei(^^^ireir(^ifisd, s?di!;T!i/(^Lpeo; a long tube through 

pellets of clay are blown to shoot birds, &c. 

er^Sp^, 3i-^P^ ; to burn, to scorch, to 

scald, to cauterize, to sear. 
e^smc—eoss^y s?emL—ds/6l ; meat warmed up 

again. The Natives usually warm their curry in the next morning 
for the cold rice called uaaipuj^, or /Ss^Qs^irju, or s(^9>. 

p^ ; to plaster with chunam : commonly eosijdsiTifusmp^. 

er^iS^0'3=iLipj3 ; to cleanse. 
stshQs'^ ; good news. 
sFeniruih ; natural disposition. 
9iLB^es>ir or s^Qp^i^ssiir ; accu- 
Sumitra, a wife of 
D. p. 1000 R. g)a/ 



^^^Off'tuSlp^^ 

SrUtraUUly 

racy, exactness, correctness, justness, probity 

Dasaratha and mother of Lacshmana. Wils 

ea eruuL^ QL9^^3aiTajiTuju2u3?Si(f!j'^ , how she speaks accurately, 

being prostitute? 

jj^iMUiirUiy Qllldit® ; a pad for the head, 

to aid in carrying burdens, 

^nesBi®sp^, s-nessfiLp^ ; to scratch, to scrape 

a wall. 

3^(t^lL®Sp^, si-QT^iLp^ ; to roll up ; s-rQ^iLu^s 

Qek^Quirp^ ; to Steal. 

e^s^uLD or 3?3uis<iui'c, Qs^iTeouuLD ; easiness, facility, 

trifle as : ^fs^j^So Q.^-ireouuLDmu uL^aeeoirt}> ; this system is 
easily to be learned, and understood (^^m(£2s\}LSls&ji^Q3^ireouu>, this 
price is very low, Qo'iruuii, v. d. 

<9Pfflj/f<5F«ii, Qs'irirdsui • the[paradise of Indra. 

sf-enm^t}), Oa'n&o^LD ; healthy, sound, cuii- 



76 

valescent, the natural state of any thing, eresrsSiremS/siTefriruj s.i-u) 
L/ Og^ir&u^LSiG^dso, I am unwell about these two days. 

s^eu^Sp^, €fen£vp^ ; to dry up, to grow 

dry as a river. 

&-(EUfrmesru3^Q3^(rmssnjD, O 3^ ir jb sar ih , Qs^irpeasTLD, s^pessrih^ or Offtrir 
essTLD ; gold : as Q'SfiriremLDiuLDiriij Qa^irfluSp^, to distribute gold abun- 
dantly, li. to rain gold. 

The use of /» though now considered to be obselete, yet need- 
ful to be retained in grammatical use, owing to the frequency of 
its occurrence in books written before the establishment of the 
College of Fort St. George. K. 

sj-i^S^Sl/v^, ^i^eop^; whirl, to twirl around 

as : 3^Lpii&!r^^L^is.k ei l^s^Qs^q^ldi^q^^ , dust raised by a whirl 
wind, ^eviohr ^LQikO^ifliuiTLoeo ^uL-QaQsneseiQi—eir, I have entang- 
led without knowing his tricks. 

s?etT(ff;, 3?sneij ; a sort of scuppcr, a fan, 

to winnow corn with. This word is used in western side, but in 
Madras oppio. 

o 

(^uL^Qp^, (^ui3p^ ; to suck out the sub- 

stance of a thing, the juice of a fruit &c. (^ulS ; the prepuce, of 
infant's sweetmeat ; a mean expression used by Mahomedans, 
and little children. 

(^^sssiTff}, (a5«ffl/««n-//? ; a raenstruous wo- 

man, vulgarly (^i_l®i(g,ijiri7'"'/r«3raysTr; ^:co-\)iuQ^sQesirrfl. see, sy. sec. 
(^ip9p^, or (^0^9 p^, (BifiP^ ; to environ, to sur- 

round, to encompass. 
(^smuisuiS!^, (^^iMsviu^, a potbelly in chil- 

dren. Natives dress the curry of crow and give to eat such 
diseased children. 

SUIT diss: iTff^ IT i^^srsi^ iomLDj-,^S!irird(^ i^iBl^^iTu3 
QursuOu(n^evuSl0'L}) L9(srrierTUjp(j^-^<f£:Qseir 

©y/j;<97ffl9SrX aji'r-is SV L^ lU ^61 UJ IT GST Q iHj ^ST^ ff IT eir 

He who is atllicted with elephantiasis, his brother-in-law with 
diabetes, his son with dropsy; and moreover, this same Yclooran 
being unacquainted with medicine to cure his own disease, what 
sickness can be cured by such V On one occasion when Eeschi, 



was making a missionary circuit, he bappened to halt in a Village 
named Vythisweram Covil, and during his walk through the place 
he approached a pagoda, where he observed a concourse of people, 
some of whom he interrogated respecting the deity to whom the 
pagoda was dedicated. They replied that it was dedicated to 
Vineideerthan and that the blind, lame, pot-belly. Sec. were 
cured by a pilgrimage to this pagoda: whereupon Viramamuni 
immediately composed the above verse. 

Qs'uLj^^^a'Si, Qs'ui-i^^ev® ; a copper plate. 

Qg^uiduir^d^, or Q-a^i^LiSLD, Qs'lJdi-isuw ; the name of a red 

bird. 

Qs^srfliQip^j Qs^svrflip^, to bring things pro- 

perly together, to adapt, to suit. 

Qs'irasil.QQp^, QffpisCp^ ', to tie close 

together. 

<5S)3' 

eas^S^^iuui, sSa^iuLD^ ^^sttlo ; coldness, 

phlegm, said of the body or of any place ; a cold or rheumatic 
disease : commonly ^ffoG^/rci^Lo. 

6P)<f S1/5OT-, g!0<Fu5ii;e3r, ffLueu^ ; one of the 

Saiva sect. It is sometimes, in common use, employed to denote 
any one that abstains from flesh meat. The worshippers of Siva^ 
are called by the said name. 

O^iTQ^, 0<?/r(a/.^ ; beauty, comliness, 

elegance ^a/esr Oa/^ O^irsijs^san-irek ; he is a well dressed showy 
fellow, a gallant. — Qs^ir^s^ir means for Pinchbeck ; commonly 
used- so in Tranquebar ; Madras use is ^i}>uirs(^. 

Os'iTiflSp^, Os'irrfluSlp^ ; to flow down, to 

pour, to shower down as rivers from an eminence, rain from the 
clouds, milk from the breast, tears from the eyes, fruit from a tree. 
Meta. j)/LhL^u)frrH^uj3' Os=rrffl/5^ireiir, he poured in a shower of arrows. 
^-enQm Q/v(r^uQuffluj ^^(Bi uip(^Q<ftrrFiaj, Prov. A fire burning 



78 

within, while the lips ponr forth fruits (svreetness,) s^m^on^ uxsaip 
QuiTffo Os^irrflfh^ireir, he has pourcd gold like rain. 

Os^nqr^Qp^, 03=fr(Tf,dljDjsi i to tuck, to tuck 

in as : aestaOe^iTQrjSp^ ; involuntary closing of the eye though 
sleep, or disease. U(^ffs,^s=(^ Os^irQf^Sp^, to tuck up the fold of 
the garment in five different modes ; a phrase, and custom, apper- 
taining to the householder Brahmins. In another sense Os'irQ^dl 
{Ds> to eat. 

Qs'niisuu'^crsr, Q^irssuurrScsr ; a festival in 

honor of LDfTeusQJ^a'dsjreuif^^ Mahabali,'^ celebrated in the month 



* We travelled all night, a practice which I am not fond of, but which circumstances 
rendered desirable, and, exactly at day-break, reached the rocky beach below the seven pa- 
godas, and where the surf, according to the Hindoos, rolls and roars over "the city of the 
great Bali." One very old temple of Vishnu stands immediately on the brink, and amid the 
dash of the spray, and there are really some small remains of architecture, among which 
a taU piUar, supposed by some to be a lingam, is conspicuous, which rise from amid the waves, 
and give a proof that, in this particular spot, (as at Madras,) the sea has encroached on 
the land, though in most other parts of the Coromandel coast it seems rather receding than 
advancing. There are also many rocks rising through the white breakers, which the fancy 
of the brahmins points out as ruins, and the noise of the surf, the dark shadow of the re» 
maining building, the narrow slip of dark smooth sand, tlie sky just reddening into dawn and 
lending its tints to the sea, together with the remarkable desolation of the surrounding 
scenery, were well calculated to make one remember with interest the description in Kehama, 
and to fancy that one saw the beautiful form of Kailyal in her white mantle pacing sadly 
along the shore, and watching till her father and lover should emerge from the breakers. In 
two points the picture only fails ; the caverns in which she was to lodge at night are, at 
least, a mile from high-water mark, and in tliis climate it is at noon-day only, not as a bed- 
chamber, that a cavern will be preferred to the open air. I made a sketch of the scene ; 
but it is one of those which is nothing except in the hand of a painter. 

The case is otherwise with the real city of Malia Bali-poor, whose ruins stand among the cliffs 
at the distance of a short half mile inland. This has really been a place of considerable impor- 
tance as a metropolis of the ancient kings of the race of Pandion, and its rocks, which within 
themselves are pretty and picturesque, are carved out into porticos, temples, bas reliefs, &c. on 
a much smaller scale, indeed, than Elephanta or Kennery, but some of them very beautifully 
executed. They differ from those of the north and west of India, (which are almost all dedicated 
to Siva or Kali,) in being in honor of Vishnu, whose different avatars are repeated over 
and over in the various temjilcs, while 1 only saw the solitarj- lingam, if it be one, 
which 1 have mentioned, in the sea, and one unfiuisiied cave \Uiich struck me as intended 
for a temple of the destroying power. 

Many of the bas-reliefs are of great spirit and beauty ; there is one of an elephant 
with two young ones strikingly executed ; and the general merit of the work is superior 
to tliat of Elcpiianta, though tlie size is extremely inferior. 1 liad heard much of the lions 
which are introduced in different parts of tlie series, and tlie execution of which was 
said to be more remarkable because no lions are known to exist in the south of India. 
But I apprehend that the critics who have thus praised them have taken their idea of 
a lion from tiiose noble animals which hang over inn-doors in England, and which, it 



of November by lighting lamps and piles of palmyra leaves.— On 
the sea coast opposite of Chingleput there are the ruins of a number 
of very old Pagodas and many carved stones. It is said that a 
great many years ago there was a large town at this place, which is 
now covered by the sea. This place is called the seven Pagodas. 
The Native name for it Mavulivurum : u^ it usQlj it ii. F. G. 
OiFfreo^Sp^, Oa^srsop^; to speak, to tell. 

Qs^n-etns, Qs^nmsu ; Leucophlegmatia, a 

kind of jaundice, a swelling or watery intumescence. L3^<i3;Qffireaeu, 
or lSI^^sititsld, the same disease, with heat, caused by bile. 

Qa'ir^Scsr, Qs^ir^Ssar; an examination, afflic- 

tion, trial, cleansing, research. 

Note. — If we attend to the way in which Qs^irs.Sssr is used by 
Hindus, at the present time, we shall find that though exami- 
nation is the primary idea, it is often examination of a peculiar kind 
made with a view to elicit truth, to detect delinquency, or to try- 
character ; generally including the idea of artfulness in the mode 
of doing it, ex. gr. 1. There is a msrFlQs^irss&nr, which denotes a 
Raja, or Governor of a Province, going in disguise among his sub- 
jects, to ascertain if the officers of government practice equity, or 



must be owned, the lions of Maha-T3ali-poor very remarkably resemble ; they are, in fact, 
precisely such animals as an artist, who had never seen one, would form from des- 
cription. 

Notwithstanding the supposed connexion of these ruins with the great 13ali, I only saw 
cue bas-relief which has reference to his story, and which has considerable merit. It 
represents Bali seated on his throne, and apparently shrinking in terror at the moment 
wlien Vishnu, dismissing his disguise of a brahmin dwarf under which he had asked 
" the king of the three worlds" to grant liim three paces of his kingdom, appears in his 
celestial and gigantic form, striding from earth to heaven, aad " wielding all weapons in 
his countless hands," over the head of the unfortunate Raja, who, giant as he himself 
is said to have been, is represented as a mere Lillyputian in the presence of " the pre- 
serving deity." These ruins cover a great space ; a few small houses inhabited by brah- 
mins are scattered amongst them, and there is one large and handsome temple of Vishnu 
of later date and in pretty good repair, the priests of which chiefly live by showing 
the ruins. One of them acted as our Cicerone, and seemed the only person in the place 
who spoke Ilindoostanee. Two boys preceded us with a pipe and a small pair of cym- 
bals, and their appearance among these sculptures was very pictTiresque and appropriate. 
■ — Bp. Heber. 



80 

exercise oppression towards their subjects. 2. The oflficers who 
are a check on the custom receivers, and examine goods that are 
carried from phice to place, to ascertain if they have paid duty, are 
called Qs'ir^Ssm-saiTinr, and a kind of general overseer who 
watches their conduct is called Qi.cs^'le-n-ai'Sms.aiTiishr. 3. The string 
of questions used ip the courts of justice, is called Q^ir^Sser, or Ca^/r 
^^LULD, and forms the cross examination of the witness, or com- 
plainant, in which the questions are so artfully put by the Pundits 
that an innocent man is as likely to commit himself, as a false 
witness : perhaps more so. 4. Qs^ir^Sm- implying temptation. R. 

Q^^fTQ^Si/D^, Q^a/Sr^ • to wither, to fade 

awav, the same as suir(Bp^ ; Qa^L^Qtusos^iri ^essresi^fleOiSOirLDeo eutrc^ 
uS!(Tf,i(^^ all the plants are withered away for want of waters ^su 
ek Qffirm^'SL-sScirj'sk ; he is fainting or languishing from hunger, 
fatigue, &c. he is pining away from sadness. 

Q^irai^, Q3=rrir<sij ; sadness, lassitude, faint- 

ness, theft. Qa^iriTsuirLu(Surp^^ to be lost, to disappear cj^a/Sssri 
esisQs'iniSlSp^, to forsake one. 

Q3-iTppe^(^^ Qs'ir^^s^sil ; a wicker strainer^ 

boiled rice. 

Qa'iTssTSek, Qs^ireareussr ; one of the lowcst 

tribe among the Mahomedaus. 

Note.— At Cuddalore and Porto Novo, and other places on the 
coast, there are a people called Lubbees. — The Lubbees (or Qairear 
ait) are Mahomedans, descended from Arabs who settled in this 
part of India a great many years ago, and married women of the 
country. The Lubbees are chiefly merchants and traders. 
(Females are platting mats) They do not speak lliudoostauee like 
other Mahomedaus, but Tamil. F. G. 

Os'svd&uju), £F eij iuj ill, or ^sodsaBsur ; delight; 

pleasure; health, pleasant situation, relief, comfort, as : /p/rew^wCos 
e-eijiLULciiTS(fr)iS(Spsisr, I live here very comfortably ; ^eu^i—^^s 
s<dieSL-^ ff^s^ssodmr, that place is more delightful and healthy 
than this. 

Offerriftiuu), &<sijifliuw ; falor, heroism. 



81 

sin) 
evj/BiTesiLD, m^^trswih ; n batliiiJgj ablution, 

pnriiication ; commonly ^uLSujEj.ssiv^iTsnTLD. 

The brahmins count seven k'm^s of ew fs n an i}) , or purification, as: 

1. GiJiTiLj<£ajm'uiTesrLh, a purification occasioned by being covered 
with the dust raised by the trampling of cows, and by the wind. 

2. ^^sSiuj&v.Tiresrii, that produced by the sprinkling of rain in 
the sun-shine. 

3. ixojreiviBiresTih, a purification of the mind by meditation. 

4. LD.i^ireio/oirearw, an ablution, or sprinkling of water on a sick 
person, while hearing the Veda read. 

5. ^uaehfsrremLD, a purification performed by sprinkling with the 
dust taken from the vicinity of sacred trees, or shrubs, &c. as : 
^ed, jy/r.5P, ^eirQ, &c. 

6. ^dSc5r9ujihfBfrearui, a purification performed by applying the 
ashes of cow-dung. 

7. QiusrsmreirmLD, a purification of the mind produced by con- 
templation. R. 

;ts[oTE. In aw^eek, 3 days are especially observed as bathing days 

for all the respected Hindoos, but in these, Wednesday and Satur- 
day are the usage of males ; Friday to females. The widows have 
no such descriptions. The rules are these : 

iLi(6t^5mL-iru>, urBstrnapetT^fr^ &Jini/B^&srdssoifl QueirLL^ssiresr 

N. B. Some Poets have composed their works jvs.- as <?^-iii on 
various subjects, and consecrated them on the names of any one of 
their gods, whom they necessarily worship— <?=^«"> is the set 
of 100 Stanzas. 



82 






THE ANOINTING DAY. 

If 3'ou bathe on Sunday, death Avill seize you, 

If on Monday, you cannot gain the favor of god, 

If on Tuesday, you will fall sick ; 

If on Thursday, sorrow will oppress you ; 

If on holy Friday* you will lose your property ; 

Avoid all these, O Punueivan, thou guardian of our land, 

And anointing bathe on Wednesday and Saturday. 

Ey the word here rendered bathe, more is meant than we usually 
imply by that word. It means, to smear the head with /feoOi^czrar 
Oemuj rapeseed oil and sometimes other substances mixed and after- 
ward to affuse water. The Hindoos arc very superstitious respect- 
ing days Avhieh are deemed to be lucky or unlucky. It would 
greatly amuse the English reader if instances could be cited, but 
they would be out of place here. It is worthy of note that Satur- 
day is regarded by most of the Hindoos as a holy day. Many fast 
on this day especially in the month Puratasi. A. A. A. 

This is related on the Rules of Brahmin's Bathing. 

w pi uSi ssri ei <siv /5 IT ear ix fBsarUiiTirds ei^^^LDua 

j)ljSLC)LDniE! ,ff?,.u/§ir eioiBrremui urremi—ii 

(T^^sQlD /Ei^Uei LC>IT(^ (Lp)€5BreS>L£)QlJU. 

^^mOuiTQTfen, — LSlinncie!!er^d(^ /E^efoitncsnh ^^rriTLo^ (^erreivFrrearLD 
LD^^uWy QnseKrEirevrijD j^^lclc, uiressii—rBiretorBiTesrih UJiTeu/b/SQi'U} jij.'Bir 
^g^iruQi-oehfu^irLc. 

tivisiJuu'L^, sfo-Lcu ; Bclf-existencc. 

0<^^fnjiu:, ff^ULo; sliaving ; vulgarly ,«2w 

ffeunLDueatsfnofliSeisra^uJiT or sos\^QcmiT i-sf aSew (^^ lu ir ? have you done 
your shaving. N.B.— The Bridegrooms get their shaving, before the 

* So called it is a day kept ns sacred Lachmi and Panatlii by many of the women. 



83 

liour of their marriiigc ; tliis is very common tliio\\2;liout in 
India ; a little rcremony also, is observed in (hat time. This is 

ca lied 5 <?ffl/i7 «s ffSyj/r czrariii . 

(^iTusLD, ^rrsvau), or ^^irQpsnLD ; memory 

as: jiijs ers3r&(^ ^irQp'SULSeiSso. 1 do not remember it, I cannot 
recollect it ; and I have no instance of it : the word (cj/tuslo is 
derived from the Sanscrit root Jna, to know. Wils. S. D. P. 
338, 11. [Juyapaka.] 

^iTiSlj3jj /sTuSjij ; the same as (^iB'uj^, the 

sun i^iTjSl^-i^dSiLQ'cinLD ■ Sunday. 
(c^ir^PsStuthf (^iTi^^iis^LD ; superiority in 

spiritual knowledge. 



£_/riOT), ,d;ff(g2); a watching house, or 

station. 
L—iT&r)^trir, ^iTiGssjdscrro'm ; a watchuian» a 

police-man. 

Qu-iTU)uiT, O^tTLLuir, OX O ^iTilu IT ff a^u ^ ; 

dancers, mountebanks, rope-dancers. 

;^^OTE, — iw, I—, em, IT, so, tp, en, p, esr. — Nine of these Consonants, 
never begin a word in Tamil language ; but the famous Avviar 
agreeably the alphabetical row, hath said in ^^^(^Lf.—/EiuQuirffO 
a/Sfrr; L-Lhui—(£L^Qi—'^,emisLi>/3ii^emfaQ); and the meanings of 
such as these, would riot be distinctly known without the addition 
of a vowel as : <^mraiLo;Si^<^sriBi(^, kc. — "Avviar most probably 
flourished in the reigns of the three celebrated kings, Ukkiraperu- 
varhuthi Pandian and the monarchs of the Seran and Sorhan 
kingdoms who were his cotemporaries. In her history as still 
transmitted by oral tradition, there are many references to these 
kings, and to the fabulous miracles she performed before them : 
as for instance the following : 

Avviar one day having been caught in the rain, entered the 
house of Angavey and Sangavey, two women of low cast iu Ceylon. 
I5ecausc they shewed her much respect, and furnished her with 



84 

clothes and food and other things to her satisfaction, she said '' I 
will give you in raarriage to the divine lung of Tirucovaloor." She 
■went to that king, and on her making mention of them he said, 
" If Seran Sorhau and Pandian give me these women in marriage, 
I will receive them forthwith." Having invoked Pillyar, thus : 

OiiSUGSSlUiT . 

65(75f?D<5 U^(TfiLC(r^ULI QpLDLO^^i^ IBaeOSUITLU 65 

eifliLjfic'S)UJS e/asnenear Qs'ihine^, siBQpseusk, 

eeSiuiremT (csuirSsod sc^Q^Qp^ eunciiQem eo 

^ejsr(^dsm ^iruueisr s'lS^ ^. 

" Oh ! thou who hast the head of an elephant with its long trunk, one handed, double-dusked, 
" secreting the three fold mucus, offspring of the god Sivan who wears the skin of an cle- 
" phant, if having swiftly come thou dost not write a wedding invitation on an olei I will 
" assuredly curse thee :" 

he wrote the wedding invitation on an olei, and she sent it by the 
god of the winds to the King before mentioned. 

Immediately on seeing it, they came and entered the marriage 
saloon which she had called into existence by her power, and 
seeing her said '' mother ! Lo here is a piece of a palmyra tree, 
if you make it become a tree, put forth leaves, form its young 
fruit, bring it forth, and wiil present to us three specimens then we 
will do according to your wish. She consented to do so. Accord- 
ingly on her reciting the folio vving verse : 

Lodi€S)3id <5j23/i-'L_ eui^Slsk (njiTLopmr euirsrs^Qffi 

* ^lEjQsirds eiissx(a^(n)i ^ sk £ii u i- Ctf/r^ aeOifsoi>^ 

KATTALEY KALIT THUREY. 
Seran, Sorhan and Pandian, bearing an umbrella white as the moon, having come 
to put consecrated ointment on the bride, stood in the marriage hall and said, you 
must make this palmyra stick put forth its sprout like a white shell, unite its green 
leaves, set crude fruit, and then bear it fully ripe, black below and rosy above, and 
must give one speciinrn alike to each of us. 

Because it happened according to their request, they were much 
afraid, and obeyed her, giving the women in marriage to the 
before mentioned divine king according to her desire. 



85 

Beside this there are yet many mu'iicles toid about licr. But 
they are to be regarded just like the trumped-up miracles of the 
Roman Catholic Saints. 

Her father seems to have been a Brahmin and her mother an 
outcast, who were united to each other without being aware of 
the wide difference in their caste. Afterward however, on finding 
it out, the Brahmin determined as tlie only condition on which they 
should live together, that any children who might be born to thera 
should be deserted immediately on their birth. Avviyar was their 
second female child, and was born, reared, and educated at a village 
inhabited by Panars. (The business of the Panars was to attend 
on Kings and celebrate their praises. But the race is now almost 
extinct.) 

If we may judge from her character and writings, Avviyar was 
educated by a Panar with great care and talent. One thing is 
very evident, she must have possessed eminent natural abilities. 
From the numerous fables respecting her, we may gather that she 
was not only clever, but that she exerted herself to do good. The 
excellent moral maxims she has left, tend for the most part to the 
promotion of good sentiments and good conduct. 

Her principal productions now extant are as follows, Atthi-soodi, 
Kondrey-Venthan, Moothurei (or Vakkundam), Nal-Varhi, Kalvi, 
Orhuk-kam, Avviy-kural, Avviy-Kovey, Pilair-agaval, Ganapa- 
thi-Asiria-^' irutham, and a number of detached versos : but proba- 
bly some of her productions liave been lost; she is reputed to 
have been very clever in chemistry and medicine, and to have dis- 
covered the fabled panacea (or sputh) by eating which she lived 
to the age of 210 years. 

Her fame became widely spread abroad, and wherever she went, 
kings, and nobles, the learned and the ignorant, alike shewed her 
the highest respect. 

Her productions are universally read. Some of them are not 
only among the very first reading books put into the hands of 
children in alm.ost every Tamul school, but are also greatly and 
deservedly esteemed ; and it should be a source of great satisfac- 
tion to those who desire the welfare of Tamil youtli that such 
works are in general use in schools, since in the Tamul there are 



SB 

not wanting many sensual, improper hooks wliieli might liave been 
found in use iu their stead.'^ Ti. Av. S. 



^3i(B, ;sexj® ; a thin flat piece of 

ructal, a plate. Vulgarly Quirek^su'^ properly Ouirpps®^ a golden 
plate. 

ssuum, O^rrauwchr, or Q^iruusk or ^ay 

uussr ; father; commonly Ql^^uuek, properly Qppuu^ or Si^iu 
fisuuek, the father's younger brother; commonly Ourffujuujir, 
properly Ou.flLu^^-suussr, the father's elder brother. 

3BS!rtr^, ^euiririr ; hindering, letting, 

belaying one's vA'ay, thwarting one's design as: ^i^^asmBuji 
^euffirfruLLi—^, this thing was thwarted, ^sbit^ ; Hind. — fff:^ 
QffujQpjS) is used in cutchcry. ^u^Q^uj'Spja, to sequester. 

^semir, ■ ^«ffljcw/r ; a plant : Cassia Tora. L. 

^sirdSp^, ^sdp^, ov ^3L'sp^ ; to break 

in pieces as : fUirser &_eiirueiSs\)s c^sii^Ou IT u^iu IT 'JJ ^ ^^35^l.>Qu!t'SI''^o1] 
ear, I will knock out all your teeth into small pieces. 

^sffissLL(BiSp^, f^sneoisiLp^ ; to cheat any one 

by selling a bad for good article. 



^&&)U!TS^i 



Q, ■sieiieOuuiTS'^i ; a d 



eceiver, a se- 



ducer. Hind. A word of frequent occurrence. 

^seuffo, ^^au6\) ; a quotation in proof, an 

example or L—(Ti3:ei>Qs(TQdS)pju. 

£F,SSlJSiOsiT(SlsQp^, ^i^eUffi>0siTfSs3pj;jj or Q-9-(7^di^-f 

ffeusjir^Qs^ir OsiT®iQp^, to adduce a proof. 

^QiSip^ or ^s<5Ss,@p£3, 0,6U6Sip^ ; to burn a corpse, &c. 

commonly ^(Bpjp, Osir(Gr^i.p^, ^npC-p^, kc. 

^(^p, ^sij^ ; fitness, conveuience, a 

crowd or company of people as : ^eii^^eij^ujiTiu su^i^p^, to pro- 
ceed with a large train of attendants or followers. sso^^^ajJ; ^sij^ 
ajmu ap/)(rFiS:Sp^ ; to be sutficiently instructed. uireufEiSt^s(^;i 
jgeu^ojiTiLj /lesiTi—SssT QstriElasuuLLL^Q^dp^ the punishment has been 
given according to our sins. 

^^LD, {,^e)^LD ; is the fut. of the root /?©) 

it is proper as : jt/^Qs^ujiu^^e^iasirSajLo, a thing proper to be done 
or possible to be done, i^ir srsw^Q^irsk^^i ^syti) ; whatever 
vou say is right ; ironically submissive. 



87 

^^■^s,s,Sp^, ^eayj^dp-^j^ ; to forbid, to inter- 

dict, to stop; to detain as : jij&jcw ^h it s^.s^SimuS lL® ^ ^^iss^Lpm^iTek, 
lie has hindered or arrested Ity the king's name. fi<snsa,S>p^, 
implying to grow fatigued, or tired ; vulgarly ^sSlip^^ as : ^a;dr 
evL^SQeo su(i^txQurrQ^s ^cSi^uQuiriesjeir, he grew tired' vA'heu he 
M'as coming on the road. ^^ljl^, sSsw, ^eSuuj, ^jujits'lc^ and ^su 
LLesiL- Qs^ireuiletDL-, kc are elegantly used by the Tamulians for 
the word of weariness. — e^'7iLD!T,'EiQ&€>s}ir S-ee)^d(&,LDir/Ei(^^e!orr, ^mr 
c^fieeiiu&aemL-iTe:) ^€SdQLLiT/ij(v^,^eis)iT. — Although a horse possess the 
ability of running and kicking, yet he will weary if he would meet 
water in his path— children's riddle for shoe. 

^^Ei(^Sl/D^, ^ikp^ ; to stay, to tarry, to 

sojourn, to lodge somewhere as : j^sushr icT6mQ(€e)Qu. wi—asLDfrCi^ir 
LUffo ^'wSi^.wQuQu 17(0^ sir, he lags, and cannot keep pace with me. 
iir ^rrsm®Qp^sii^/EJsQe<dfrQL-. jijiEjCes Qs'neofjLD ; you may reach the 
place after two or three stages. 

it is a favorable or lucky time to him. 

■sm^Qsuis?, ^ciu^iiQeusg, ^m^^a.i^fjua • do- 

cuments, vouchers. ^&o^w, a quire of paper. Hind. 

a^(^ejD<? or a(^Tffr@i^iTf ^(^.firssi^iT; Tanjore : ^(^e^ff- con- 

traction of ^®^^Q^'r; and ^(^■ffrssh.iT, two different towns, one in 
the Sola-desara, and one in the Pandia-desara. 

^L-U), ^^, umLes)!—, uirem^, ldititssu) 

OsiJLLu^; way, path, road. — ^l-im and un-bTD^ are more commonly 
used in Tinnevelly as: evsssrt^^^u-u) er^wQaQuirr^^sir^ •s'^^Q^Oiftr 
eo(?6V)sOT-, can you tell me where is bandy path ? eresrsQu uir'SetrujiBi 
QcfnJ-emi—iSisQQTfi^ 3''EJSllfEuS'i<oS)iifQs!nS&iis(^u QuirQp ^i—deayiSS sir 
lL(B ; show me the road from Palamcottah that goes to Sungara 
Nainar Covil. ^i-^^pOsiri^^Quinu <£:(Bp^; to lead into the way. 
N. 13. Shanars use the word uire^rj^^ b}^ spelling mistake as : 
uires^p ; — and some of them, are sage enough to find out the paths 
of robber (in his way side) by the impression, of his footsteps or 
mark on the sand. 



^L^Uyi&p^, fii-p^; to tap, to touch, to 

strike gently with the hands, as : ^.LLL^&Qsn(Bisp^, to quiet, to 
tap a child; <5«3rs<jr^i^Co\)^fL^^, to strike on the cheek, eresrdi^u 
U€:ssr ^ ^LLu.n £ (ir^iQ^jjj ; I am in, want of money ; ^-evesrajmr^ieu)^ 



88 

es^iu^^SLLi^i^sJT, he has disobeyed him erewis^iLiL^u'luir&^r; I 
am deprived from obtaining it. 

Quirp^,^r9pj;j, ^^iBjQuQuirp^ ; to grow subdm'd, to becalmed, 
to humble, to submit one's self, as : ^eue^ Q^lu^ ©^^^^^^ ^^ 
a_i ^iu[ise)L-rs^^(ss)so ^eugj/ffi©^ ^iOTflojiQ^^/reoj^ ; as he had much 
grieved for the fault he coiTimitted, speak him to soften his 
indignation. d(SQwiB^ ^sivfi(^QuQuiTs^a? ; the house being bur- 
ned down, the fire is subdued. j^svskiSleiT^ /Eirdr (yeirQssrsesiTi-em^ 
<sSl_ §)uQu!t s^pju ^i:f^(if,'3?QuirS(rf)i^^ ; his child is now pretty 
well? than I saw him last. 

^smasePirdlLLi-rrekQip'ac^, ^^sm^ssBfzpLlL-iTiEjSipi'l^; a shrub, 

its root which contains a fine and cool water : Escorceoueira 
Port, Rheed. R. 

jSemi-Lh, O^sessTL-ua ; fine, amercement, 

penalty, punishment, as : rBirskO^smt-isQanQ^Q^ e^LLc-ires»TL^ujinu 
QurrQemek, I am reduced into beggary having given the penalty 
to the highest authorities — ^emL-Lc is used in three different ways, 
as : — ji/L^O^essTL-u) the penalty of forcing a person, to do a thing by 
beating severely — ^"BQ^^mrL-ih the penalty of compelling to pay 
for nothing— -L9L^Q^6mi—u> the penalty of saving a person or 
nnjust seizure of an innocent person. And in another sense, Q^ 
ckri—s'Qs'iT^ fftTu^peijeisr, means a sluggard, a drone, the same as 
e£ssBi(o3=irjpi ^/siSpeuzir, QeutLu^s^CSs'tr^ ^ikQpedsk, 0.jsemi—Lo im- 
plies also saluting thus: ^eu(TF)S.(^ ctott O^.sssri-iihQ^iTso^ ; ele- 
gantly, /5/rsar Od;<oSsrL-S!^u-QL-Q^t^'drj}J ^euQf}S(&)0- Os^rrSo^Qi : means 
salute him by my name. Some say respectfully /sirek .s'lr&^t-.triEJS 
iSiLQi—ek or utr^ih UGSoffiQ^Osui skj}) Os^neo^^j, — s,iTei>(^u:i3LLQi—^ j 
this word is used by IMusselmen : because they do not know 
how to speak Tamil clearly. 

^^.sm(BQp^, ^eesnLp^ ; to gather or collect 

tribute, rents, de])ts ; or to exact, as : Lcir^ir/s^iru) s-GSBn—enuusmiM er 
eueueuQen'rN^ otot«o# O&ire^Qeaek ^ tell me how much money did 
you collect per mensem ? j:ieuskmniQQeo f^LLc-mcsi) u>(f^/b^3=iru 
i3iLL-!Teisr ; hc swallowcd medicine without its touching his 
tongue. 

^uu)i fle^u), ^ff.eua- ) penitence, pcnancCi 

mortification done to one's self, an austere life. G&iiJ^<si'Lh ■ 



89 

prayerful penance. ^Qj^em^dQs(Sisp^ ; to make void one's penance 
by seducing him to do evil.— N. Several Rishees have been 
seduced from their ardent penance by the beguiling of women. 
As for instance — Visvaraittraj by Menacca. See Baratha. 

^uS^, ssu^ ; a kind of a brass vessel 

or cauldron. 

^uL^Sp^, ^up^ OX ^uiSip^ ; to err? to 

mistake as : ji/syssr^uuiresreueareden, he is not an unfaithful man. 

the hand slip and hurt the eye, will they cut it off? Pro. ©ds^ul/ 
euiTuJ^ui-l S-emi—irSQTfsSlp^ tr^<si^ir(^i(^ euipdsu) ; it is custom 
to an honest person also, to be mistaken in his word.— ^up^y 
shows another meaning, i. e. bleaching the cotton clothes? or 
beating them upon a stone. And moreover (^up^) means to 
escape ; to get out of danger rstreir GSlQ^sSlp^^i(S Q&it^s^im ^sulSS 
^jii ; I was near falling ; I had a narrow escape from falling : 

fiui3pQp fSLhes^LDeSiL®^ ^uiStpQp — Q&uudQserr 

QuiT(!meo GSISsnrQuir.ff'^u Quit, 

This composition was made by a brother Poet called ^ulL'ss^i—u 
i-jsoeuir, who lived in ancient time ; — one of them (eldest) was lame, 
and another (youngest) was blind. — They would never complete 
a stanza separately; — from Os^uudQseh is the composition of the 
eldest. The contents of which, reveals of a loss of cloth which was 
swept away by the waves of a tank water. 

jSJnEisthuiTLp., ^ujiEiSLlurru^} ^e^fEiSiMUiTUf-y ^urbjaULjiTU) ; Tran- 
quebar, i. e. a town adjoining the sea, in south side. 

iBeoLo; an uncultivated field; a ground lying in waste as : ^ren^ 
^(f^^inijslL-/i^ /Seo^^CJso uuSifKSSp^ ; to sow seed in a field not 
before cultivated. 

^(rffUuem-LD. ^iTuu6ifsru> ; the name of a cere- 

mony performed for a deceased person to the performance of which 
the Darbha, or cusa grass (Poa cyuosuroides) is necessary. The 
rite however does not derive its name from the grass ; but 
itself denotes the religious rite of presenting water to the manes 



90 

of the deceased. Wils. S. D. P. 365. Tarpana. This word is 
often used by Brahmins when they perform the rite of the same. 

^230£<ctsi'—. or ^2s\)isesiu., ^6\)«aCT):_ ; a front place of the 

Native houses or the entrance or principal door of a house.— This 
term is peculiar to the Natives of all communities ; chiefly, the 
classes of Brahmins, are accustomed with the word Qitl^. 

^BsHLDsm, ^dsoLDsnek ; the first bom ; the 

same as t-jQ^ei^sir, the husband. This word is often used in another 
sense by Pariahs? when they are fury with another as a word 
of great reproachj as : ereor^SaJLDeusir ereir ^SsouSleO ^emesifireuir^^irisgrf 
li : my. — poured water over my head i. e. my — entirely destroyed 
all my fortune. 

^3£0QpiT3'ff^uj/ruSl(i^dSi/D^, ^3s\}QP&'&iSstinuinSl(f^sp^ ; to be 

very noisy^ troublesome, and vexatious. 

^^QpiT^3'dssrujrrmQ'SijSs\}, ^SsdQp.fSSsBruJfresrCSsijSso ; a very 

arduous task : requiring personal work frequently with pain. 

^eu^iriuLD, ^eij^iruju) ; affliction, straits : 

^eij^iTi^sp^, to be in straits or penury ; erssrsQu QuiresTLDn-^^^Qeo 

Qi-esTf I have borrowed three Rupees on last month, for having 
been pressed much for waut of money. 

sEtauipS/p^, ^eijQp/D^, or fieuL$/D^ ; to creep 

or crawl on the ground as little children do ; ^sijid^eufrp^ or ^ai 
jup^; LLn-jTtrQeo ^ssufh^Qurrp^ ; to crawl with the breast on the 
ground, as in the case of very young children. — u>irinrQeo/5siT/s^ 
s_uSlQinrL^(T^sSlpisiTOsn0i6^irLh westirdsm^^ekuiTuj ; (because thou hast 
done this, thou art cursed above all cattle.) Upon thy belly 
shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life. 
(Scripture.) 

^S(B, ^&}'Si ; bran. ^a/tlOi (S)<B^> 

young fry (of fishes) larv;c (of insects) and the like. ^eijiKBui^il®, 
a friable ball ; made of bran ^eiji:.(BuQucisr ; knits as : rsirsisrOs^irek 
esruuf-Qiffuj ^eOeoiTu-L-ireo erek ^&jLL(Buui(n;sij/B ^emesifuLjik (5® or 
aGiiLL®dOsiT(wssLLiSB>i—iLjib ^ementfiiLjik Osir® ; li : do as I bade, 
otherwise, give my turtle dove and water. This refers the meaning 
as : Do conformable to my order, if not, return my money. 

^es>ips@p^, ^e>Bipdp^,ejiTL^p^,Qu(r^eSp^; 

to shoot by vegetation ; to gerrpinate as : ^enQunei^eisip^^, ^jua^ 



91 

This is a blessing used for Bride and Bridegroom by their parents 
and old folks, when they go to live separately : after having been 
married together — thus: may you both prosper, by spreading like 
the Banyan tree (Fecus rel.) having roots not to be eradicated 
like the (agrostis) grass, surrounded with supports as the Bamboo 
(Bambusa arundinacea) and never fade away. (A form of com- 
plimentary benedictioiij addressed to newly married persons.) 

^sfruu^^ileory ^^uiSitlL^l-. ; the name of 

a fish. 

^emli-iQp^i ^etTLCL^p^ ; to shake as water 
in a vessel? to fluctuate? as : iSee}/D(^i-/B^sfnj)uiT^ (^es^pi^i—zs^mui 
l^ld ; the water in a full jar does not shake? as it does in one 
partly filled. Prov. equivalent to, " the full ear bends." 
spp^suiriT sessri— ^iss Loi—isstr^ir /r 

^eSilTS ffOQffSS UJlcS!!flL£8s\) IB IT £_ 

iB'oS)iT(^i-. i§ir^(^LDU eQ eo. — Pazamozhi. 

This is an instance given to such that boasteth himself more 
than his rank or situation. 

Self-restraint is known only to the wise. Those who are des- 
titute of self-restraint praise themselves even unwittingly. king 
of the country whose mountains are ornamented by clear water 
gushing from the rocks ! the water in a full pot is not subject to 
agitation. ^rrm^etnJbuik iSpQ^d s^^Qaireo ; he stumbles himself, 
and is a staff to others. Prov. medece curateipsum. ^(ol- ^ihi^ 
/f Qujeir ^mwdQp brother! why do you trouble yourself? 

^irsiM, ^sirsvu) ; thirst, desire as : fsirdr 

^rrsLaiTuS!(T^sQ(Sp£sr • I am thirsty : ji/sutsk uem^^ekQiosi} eruQuir 
^,i ^siTisuLDirS(r^iSi(ir;ek, he is always thirst in procuring money. u& 
^irevm ; hunger and thirst. 

^iTiEi(^Slp^, ^iTisp^ ; to support, to assist, 

to bear up, as the walls bear the roof, to ward off, to guard, to 
protect, as : ^•sum- j^su^^ ^/rE/S(2?^ ; he flatters another to gain 
his own ends. er<s3rs.sBu>LDiT^^ir/Ej0.sir(Sld<3:s ^iriEi.£ir^ ; I cannot 
afford to give so much — s.esrQiMQe^ ^irrwaea Qld^s^ ; he is much 
grieved with thee, ^ir/siseo euQ^^sjp^dpjp, to cause pain or 



92 

indiguation. ^i^QpLiemL—^rds ereki^Q^ ^rriassirj^ -^ I cannot carry 
away the load. Lossr^^irisiaeo; a want of good understanding with 
another, a deficiency of cordial feeling. Besch. Luaar^tr/EjSluuffoesysu ; 
vulgarly ujrut^ ; a board which supports the wall over a door, gjo 
Qeu'SefT jijO^ms^^ ^iT/ii(^u), perhaps it will touch me, affect or hurt 
me : u^^uusssr^^Q<si> eresrdi^^ ^itek^llit ? will ten Fanams be 
enough for me ? LD^es^iu u>dso^irfEisQeii^iiu>j LDssiT^rEJSLLu^iuiT ^nra 
QUi; a mountain must support another mountain, can a clod of 
earth do this ? Pro : Ironically said of him who resist against 
with rich people. 

^irem(BQp^, ^nsewiLp^ ; to pass over a river, 

or a hill, &c. si—dQ/D^ ; to escape, to hop off, to jump as : j}/suesr 
jifiB^^P'ssip^ ^iT^TL^uQuir(^€Br, he has passed away that river, j^/s 
^^^^QiuireiiLD ^iremu^uQuiT^^] that vacancy is supplied, ^iss 
^sfreijdQ^ Qiu/bp^^^trLLQiumij ^rrsmL^iSl(i^s(^u) ; this measure will 
be about excessive or lesser to tliat. 

^/r^/r, .str^jsir ; a donor, or a liberal 

man ; grand father. 

Note. — This term is peculiar to Madras people -. in other places, 
uirLLi—sk is usual ; the word uitlLi—it, is Vocative.-Datha is common- 
ly used for a charitable person among the Telungians. — rper°s, 

^ir^^uQuiT®Q/D^, ^iT^^uQun(Bp^ or ^sr^ro^ • 

to separate different kinds of grain, or to separate grain from any 
extraneous mixture, to get rid of old, or damaged, goods by 
contrivance. 

copper. 

^rTLBffUQ^essfl, ^iTiMLSureurressf^ ; the name of a 

river near Palaracotta : said to be contained with copper, if melt 
out the water in heat. Several porches, are built up in the bed of 
the river for the celebration of idols. 

^/roS^, ^/ra/Ssrr ; any thing better than 

another; corrupted from jSir^sif, and @6\3^, in comp. with the 
Dative, it signifies, better, as : jDjaj^sSeu^ ^^eu'Seir ; this person 
is better than that one. /^/f grgar-s^ e^^s^irea.fuuirseuib^iTeo^iTeu'Seir. 
It would be better, were you come to assist me. Beschi. 

^iT&jS/Djp, ^iie^p^; stretch forth or lift up 

arms, to extend ; to rusii, as: ^rr^piSlsrroefTesiiuQuj^dstQevssgiiLD, you 



98 

must take up tlic child that stretches forth its hand to come ; ^eum 
eTssrQu)so ^iT<£^iT:^su[r(nj>sm ; he rushes upon me. ^^irdlpiScn^en&siuu 
Quj<Ssp^^iTuji(yj(si]ips.SLD, It is custom to a mother to join her child 
with breast that cries to her. — ^a/eyJ^/D^ uses in southern side 
for the beast's leaping. 

^iTQ^Qp^, ^tTifiro^ ; to be low, deprcssed, 

to stoop, to submit ; to humble or to be lowly, to slope or incline, 
as : ^iTipi^Slssr0'so wir^w^Q^uuiriii. If thou continuest humble, 
thou wilt do well — Prov. SQipn-inruSl^.i^iTLEKSijesiir ; speak humbly, 
even to those of inferior degree. Avvi, 

^iresiLp, ^iTLp(^Q3=L^ ; a shrub. Port. Car- 

deira ; properly sjb(2^eaLQLDi—&); vulgarly s^^irL£,LDu.&i ; the succulent 
leaf of Aloe perfoliata Var. Aloe vera. R. 

^sTipsF®, ^!tlL9Ij rseapei^-j inferiority ,want, 

privation, penury, as : ^a/sar uu^uiSeo j>/isu^s(^^^trLLQujiru9(ffidS 
(ffj'sir ; in learning he is inferior to him ; ^susk^/s^ ^ ja/a/^o uiras^ 
euiis^eo ^iTLL&uSlffi3s\) ; he is not dificient, or wanting in his duty : 
<oTssrsOaiT(r^^!rLLQuLjL8ffyi2so ; I want nothing. j>i'eu^sQsirsm-^(^6Sip 
eu!iuSi(2)S(&,^ ; one thing is wanting or lacking to him. 

^iTipisut—Lsi, ^ireuL.u>, LDfrSso • a garland, as : 

s-^^ffsTLLffJscBiTeiiL-u) ; a garland of the nut of the tree Eloeocarpus, 
Qfi^^^^ireui—Lb ; a garland of pearls. K. 

^iTifieuiTffLD, ^irenrrinh ; a verandah, or slo- 

ping front of a house. 

^tTifisiJiTiusSLL<es)U-, ^ireutrdsLLes)!— or ^iTisus3SLL<5Sii—, 

the chin, commonly QtDirssLLejnL^. 

^iTtpuuirsh or ^(Teir, ^iruuirm or ^iruuir ; a bolt, a 

door bolt. 

^neitiiSp^, ^ir<c^dp^ ; to prepare food in 

a mode of Indian cookery ; by means of two different pans, one 
for the plain food, the other for seasoning, into the latter of which 
the former is emptied. — No sooner heated the pan, a small quantity 
of ghee or gingili oil will be poured out into it> and fried with em— 
6UIM (Vadavam) i. e. seasoning stuff, consisting of pulse, onions, 
cumin, mustard and garlic, &c. as : ^ireSls^^ms/Siuir^iso qQuj/tiiS 
(r^s(^u} ■ meat so prepared will be tasted. 



94. 

PsjTih, ^duffu), or lSulSul^ ; affliction, 

anxiety, weariness: ^suinosTiiSlqrfap^; to be troubled with an Asthma. 
^eas ^ ^ (ff)S p ^ , or ^^laiE^^&QsiTemuf.q^sp^.—^eus'SlQ^sp^j or 
^eiaeiis'si-iSiskei^qffsp^ ; to stagger, to vacillate; to be at a stand, 
not knowing which way to go; to be astonished or stunned as : 
^^evuu^sm(BiB^s'ffevek ; one who is confused or embarrassed by 
trampling such kind Lf^em® ; properly ^st!)sui-^em®LS^fifssuar ■ 
one who tread such a plant: said to cause confusion of mind, per- 
plexity when trodden upon. 

^d(^Sp^, 0ldp^ ; to stutter, to hesitate 

or faulter in pronunciation ji/eusir^sS^ ^a@euir9ii@(irf^ ; he 
reads falteringly : ^s^euirium, a stammerer; a stutterer; vulgarly, 
O^^^euiTujehr. raas. Q^a^^eufTiLisFQi^ fem. Genders form feminine in 
Tamil by joining <?©, ^^, and rf?. 

^Sli—iTiB'i'SLc, ^i—iTtfidsLD ; firmness,constance, 

courage, comfort as : Lc^sresjS'^^u.frfFlssLiusssrp^ ; to comfort, to 
encourage one's mind. 

^Liu^ or ^(TjQ^Lf or ^q^lLl^, ^lLu^ or ^o^uf. ; the eye-sight ; 
seeing, knowledge, wisdom. W. an evil-eye, fascination by the eye 
as : j^eumi^iTesr^&^L^iSii^eo^k^irm ; he knew it by revelation, ^lL 
L5)ffi5;s^)J)i^; a stonc called jet, or agate stone; Azevichi Portug. 
It is supposed that those who wear this stone will be freed from the 
fascination of the eyes. Fab. R. ^evsir ^d^i^si^ LD^u^ei^L^uSsidsd ; 
none so haughty to look upon as he — ^ei^^jpsL^uLj ; a heathen cere- 
mony for removing an ill caused by evil eyes ; comp, ^&>it^^ — ^a^ 
L^Bi-stp^ ; to waive certain things or camphor, by the hand, around 
another therein, in order to remove such evil influence aeoQsorSs^ 
ji^uL9(eB)£iiiLD sssiTQ&^uf.si^^^^uusdh.i-.iT^ ; thou cannot be escaped 
to a harsh look of malice, though thou hast been escaped to the 
pelting of stones. 

^tLQSp^, ^tLp^, aoevuSpja, &s?pjsi • scold, 

to revile, to abuse, to curse as : 

^QuSi—eQeQi—iTiZsm Qp^iiiSesr ^ 

Qus^iii^^iuT<o^p QuQujiBshr — (n^ee}g=iSleOir 

ewsJsessTji^rssTTjji euefHajusms^Sirir ^ 

s'/EJSL—^^p ff^ireuQ^s; ivssr jv 

It is better not to give, than to give after upbraiding, better tfi 



95 

have a Satan than a contradictory wife ; better is sworn enmity 
than feigned friendship ; better is death than continual trouble. 

ST/SlQiLuem-Op^iTiBpuirioh siy-p/P(^&£iistrSso 

LLjmiu^iLj^suir^iT&t'ieii euirtpQuu9u)Qpisuir 
Osirsssri—irdms OsiTffOSiliLhuss)i — 
^he woman who, bold in opposition, threateneth blows, is as 
death ; she who resorteth not to her kitchen betimes in the morn- 
ing is an incurable disease ; and she who giveth grudgingly the 
food she hath prepared is a household devil. Women of these 
three kinds are a destroying weapon to their husbands. Nalidiyar.W. 
^LS^LSQiuesr£U3iJQr)Spjii, ^Qp^Qu>ek^eun-jr^ ; to come 

with a great attendance. 
^LBir^^iQsiT<ssj!TU}.(i¥)iSp^, ^Qp^^i.QsiiemLa.([f)sQp£ii ; to 

be benumbed, as : srearsaSo ^tBiT^^dSmm^ ; my foot has been 
benumbed; this arises by the stoppage of the circulation of blood. 

^lB^9/d^, ^.lB^p^ ; to wrest, to wind, 

or wring one's self out of a person's hands as : jijsiiek srasresis^iu^ 
^LB^i&sir^ e^L^uQuiruSLiL-rrek ; he wrested his hand out, and 
ran away. 

^iriijsSo, ^miT^^, ^ernr^So, 3f(if,'iiQ^<k ; a wrinkle 

as: ^/FjQi£«06V)ff/5 ^^etr/i^^ip^ ; the whole body is wrinkled, 
flabby, or emaciated. 

^D^^ih, ^uniB^m, ^ffirsSi-ii or ^ffirevL-d> ; an 

extensive country, inclusive of five nations and languages : 1. ^jr 
6i):_ii> ; pure Tamil. 2. ^'^^/r^i ; Telugu. 3.sdr^<-ii; Canarese 
4. u^s/nrmJ-L^ffiJi ; Mahratti and 5. s^irs^e^Jiii ; Gujratt— Sat. 

Some follow a different arrangement, which includes the 
Malayalam and Cingalese. In Wils. S. D. Dravida is defined to be 
the country from Madras to Cape Comerin ; a definition too limi- 
ted, according to usage in the Peninsula. R. 

^jrLL(S@p^, ^iTilp^; to make round, to 

join, to unite. 
^ff^Qp^, ^ir<^p^; to become round, 

to coalesce, to grow as marriageable : commonly ^^LouSp^, or 

myii). Means.— The beauty of the ear of ^^ffsrouj Panicum, and the 



06 

blooming age of a chuckler's (shoe-maker's) damsel, will be haud- 
some in proper time. 

a town : Trichinopoly ; so called from ^ifl&ueisr^ a racsbasa, who is 
said to have had three heads ; who first dwelt in the place. 

^(rF)<i6S(m)LDSiv, or ^(TF)S(^sh!(njLDds\), ^Q^siKscBri^iMdod ; Trincomallee, 
is in the sea port of Ceylon : properly ^iBQsiremui^ the trian- 
gular, or Three topped mountain ; vulgarly, ^n^suessr(m)LDSso or 
^(75 51/(633) to ^ or ,j^'(5(6H9<?^6\)ii) : ( ^Qf,<omtii red, and .gy<?6V)ii), a moun- 
tain,) one of the names of ^0wsm(m)LDSs\), a mountain where 
Qeuek, or the lingum is excessively worshipped. 

^(r^ss(ipd(^sar/DU), ^(rF,ssL^s(^cmL-U) ; the moun- 

tain sacred to Siva or &eucij as : 

(mQi—£iJ'3>'/SJS(^ Qs'niflQp^em^ (LpLLetoL-OiushrQpsLneosj 
siTQi—^ui<5kem(^ Qpsirei^ismdOffa SQ^st^mpQiCj 
The dwelling of him who fixes his foot on the cow, puts the 
moon on his head, and holds the skull of Brahma in his hand? is 
Karzii-Kundam or (eagle mountain) of which town the husband- 
men having cut their sheaves? and the shell fish having deposited 
its pearls therein, the answer (swan) dwelling in the pond of lotos- 
flowers, mistaking them for her eggs, broods over them with her 
wings. sQ£SQeh\ puiirdoo^ — Poem made by j)/i^ss£BsSi£ir/rirs<cu(rp^ 

The allusion to the shell-fish is merely ornamental, inasmuch ; 
as shells are often found in corn-fields, and a poetical licence easily 
converts these mere shells into pearl-oysters. R. 

^QT/s^^jTSoveuiTuj, ^(TF)3^Qff/b^ir ; Trichendoor : a 

town near llamesuran), washed by the waves of the sea, and one 
of the six principal places of s?uL9jLDesti^ujesr, (Subralimanyah) 
There are six principal places to Subrahnianyah as follows : 

1. ^(Tr)UuiTiEJ(^eJ!rpu>i commonly Qs^.i^fTuiSio ; Scanda-mali or 
Sicandcr-mali near Madura. 

2. ^(5 J^^^fiw/ruJ, commonly '^(5-^0^/5 ^7- /r ; Trichendoor. 

3. P(5ei//rfflS63r6Br(5/-j!,connnonly uipm^ or uiuei^^u en es^-^utpdHY* yne\. 

4. ^(/ffoeunsLCy or ©zrau) ; Triuvcragam. 



5. Qesrj3js<sn ; all hills and hilly country of which lie is consi- 
dered to be the god, or patron. 

6. Qa^irSsduiSsdf commonly c^tp«/riiD^,(Alagar-mali,)near Madiira.R. 
There is a god by name ssyrCTrip<5ff, he is worshipped by all the 
aehmer castes, (thieves) whose marriage and systems, are quite 
different to Madras and other country people. 

^(f^i^jv, ^iflfgiT, or eSly,^ ; sacred ashes 

of burnt cow-dung used only by Saivas, and by them considered to 
possess potent virtue. 

^(TT)Su[T(ff^iT, ^QffSuir^iT ; a towu iu TanjotG 

country near Combaconum. ^(f^evirejirir Q^oa/^eyLo ^(i^eSL-LD(r^ 
^n- Q^(r^ifi(^t}, eTfii(^iEJS6mt-^ei2so, lit. It is very seldom to be 
seen in other places : just as the beauty of the streets of Teroo- 
valloor, and just as the handsome of the idol car at Teroovada- 
maroothoore. 

^0@«<oiTgrR, ^Offl/sOTsrf? ; a plant : Euphorbia 

tortitis. R. 

^(i¥,(^Qi3=iTeo^SJp^, Sl(tf)&jOffireop^ or ^iBoJirsiiff^ 

Qs^aeop^ ; to tergiversate? to deal deceitfully. 

^([^(fffUiSsm) ^i Q^eu a LodosuT or ^(f^evLDSoHur -^ au 

instrument to reduce the kernel of a cocoanut into pulp. 

^QTf^^Qpsa, ^^i^p^ ; or Q^^^p^ to cor- 

rect, to mend, to amend, to make the ground level? or even; to 
clean it from stones, thorns? or to discharge pecuniary obligation, 
&c. as : y,ti)^0,i^e.«i»r ; tilling the field, eat. OffujsSSsvr0(i^:i^^ 
Os^iu ; what thou doest, do well—Avvi. ^(f^^^Qpenmsuek ; one 
who is qualified or accomplished ^(T^^^LDiTiuuQu<9^p^, to pro- 
nounce well, accurately, or distinctly. 

^(T^LDL^Slp^, ^Qf/iiup^ ; to turn, to move 

roxind, to turn about as : sir^^ ^QffWiSipjpi, the wind changed or 
shifted, eSiuir^ ^Q^uDLjQpeuu)iTuSlQ^.i(&)^, the disease is upon the 
turn at favourable crisis, eSei^iE^Q^ihiSs's?, the poison is counteract- 
ed ; @af^«(g fBfrs(^^^(r^uiueSei3sv, he prattles lisping, said of a 
young child. 

^(T^uL^Sp^, ^iQf)up^ ; to turn as : jya/wr 

er&srdoar& sessri^eijL^Qesr Qps^eo^ ^(i^ui3s@em(^sm- ; he turned his 
face as soon as he saw me. 

^QeuiT'fSLDj ^(T^ajn-^suLo ; the holy reading. 



98 

This book was made by a Poet LDirbusftsssuirs^seir. ManUikavasaga, 
was a niimster to Fandia at Madura ; his work is now greatly 
observed as an holy prayer among all the Siva sects. ^Q^euirs^su^^ 
^'Q^euirir, ep(r^eij:T3'aj^^(Lp(r^QiiriT ; they will be moved by nothing, 
who are not affected by the Tiruvasagam. 

^euffih, O^ausi^uiy or Oiseus'tj} ; Hindoo 

mourning day, in particular the anniversary of a deceased relation's 
death, in which certain ceremonies are observed. B. Devasa is 
nothing but the meaning of a day in Sanscrit. — 0^-^s. 

^esrS^O^iLi^, O^esTffQd'^ ; every day-news. 

^sk@r)^, ^ekirj3 ; to eat as : inessr^ekjr^ ; 

to rust by reason of lying on the ground, to rot or decay, from 
the same cause LDsm^zkiresiS Lo^&^sisr^ijSLLiBiLD, let the man eat, 
rather than the rust. Ofe\)^^ekjr^ or smiriuir&sr^ekir^ ; to be 
eaten by termites or white ants. — Some native women are very 
fond of eating the bit of earthen clod or charcoal, or brickbat : 
when they are with full pregnancy. This impatience arises to 
them upon eating such things by a kind of scent, issuing out of 
tlie above said. 

^CTTffl/, O^ePTffl/ ; an itching as : ^m&isrr 

errevdr QffiriBi^OeirefTenQeuemQua ; a low proverb, nearly equiva- 
lent to " every one knows best where the shoe pinches ;" and 
every one has the most sensible interest in his own concerns. 

^esroBLD, ^es>LD ; an evil, misfortune, mourn- 

ing as ; j^suesr/ssireoLD ^{mmaQU) eii IT irQ ^Q u n (^eisr , he did not come 
either to funeral nor wedding. 

^Q/D^, or ^iLiQp^f ^iSp^, eiBuSp^ ; to be scorch- 

ed, to be singed, or to be scorciied by the heat of the sun as grass. 
^(^sf^t-eOfTujQuirjD^ ; to grow scorched and barren ; to be 
destroyed by the heat of the suu, in time of draught. Vulgarly 

^ujff3^em(}iQp^, ^vusffn-emCp^ ; to seethe or 

boil away ; to inspissate by boiling. 

^6m(SiSp^, ^esirilp^ ; to touch, to infect 

by touching, to contaminate as : jje/csr tSpi^i^nmru^^Qe'^^dGsr, he 
died of a venomous bite. 

^uiTtB, or ^uiTtuerfl, ' ^miireffl ; literally a row of lights ; 



09 

This used in the Peninsuhi to designate a festival celebrated with 
liglits, to commemorate the killing of Narcasura by Crishna; and 
in Hindoostan proper, the word is used for the festival commemo- 
rating the birth of Carticeya. W. R. 

^ifds^fflS, ^iTss^O^tfl^ ; a prophet, one 

who sees a tiling long before. 

^ir^^(s^3=irui3.(SQp^, ^ir^^i^.fn-u(Sp^ ; to drink the 

■water with which an idol has been washed. 

^§dliru), ^svffui, ^ffl^iM ; haste, hurry, 

speed. 

^pruiaei, ^iKBdee^; a rubbing stone. 

^aoojiuffo, Q^iremeuiuio ; a kind of seasoning 

with food. The Natives make this kind of seasoning in different 
sorts thus : 1. i^eifl^^esieijujeo ; a kind of seasoning with Tama- 
rind. 2. siTeu{—^^meuiuSi> or eiJL-6ij^^'SS)<aijuj6i) ; a kind of dried 
curry stuff after fried in ghee. 3. (o^isjatr^^es)£ijujffo ; a kind of 
cocoanut seasoning. 4. O/sffisSssir^smsuiue^ ; a kind of gooseberry 
(or fruit of the Phyllanthus Emblica) bruised or pounded with salt 
and green chilli to use with cold rice. This is common custom 
of all Hindoos to eat their rice with such ^sexsniuio : the same as 
mn^ BIT ill and euppsn ; a sort of different sndj dried and fried 
for eating with rice. English word — Pickle. 

^(i7,-3?Qpo^, ^(^sFp^ ; to sleep, to die, to 

be la/y, as : ^i(^QSm(^sk LS(s^QiLjem^ssr ; he who sleeps much 
Avill have little appetite. 

^L^sSip^, ^u).s.p^ ; to beat, to leap, to 

throb, to palpitate, to pant, to struggle, to use with vehemence 
thus : If the right eye, shoulder, &c. of a man ; and the left 
eye, breast, &c. of a woman throb ; or palpitate, it is reckoned to 
be a propitious omen, ^eveir iSsBr^L^sSp^Qun-ffO ^L^sQ(irj>sisr ; 
he leaps like a fish, i. e. he is unsettled, continually in motion. 

^esuflSp^, ^essfluSp^ ; to clear up doubts 

to venture, to hazard, to presume, to act boldly to be petulant as : 
^iT6u^ ^'mfiih^(su^a(^3' s^opp^nio QptpiEiaaeosneuirm ; to him who 
dares to die, the sea is only knee deep. Pro. He is reckless of 
danger. -s'lreijsQtii Quitq^s^ld &jLps(^e(^ih ^mfliSp^, i. e. to 
venture on death, to venture on a battle, to hazard a law s,uit. 



100 

^uLjSpji', ^Lj/Djii ; to spit, to throw out spittle. 

^ihi-iQ/Dji or ^'LLOpSpj^, ^tliBp^; to sneeze as : £iiti> 

wpaiT^ Qffieikrss:!f^LjuiTiTsSp^, to pi'Of^nosticate by sneezing: ^imldiso 
s^ireK^iTLD, the art divination by sneezing. 

^uSeiSp^, ^S'c9p^ ; to sleep, eamisissip^ 

^ijS!Oe:>Q£>. Rise from sleep at day break. 

" For is there aught in sleep to charin the wise ? 

To lie in dead oblivion losing half. 

The fleeting moments of too short a life, 

Total extinction of the enlightened soul." Climate and con- 
stitution will doubtless make a ditlerence, and claim considerable 
allowance. A. A. S. 

jSio-^^Slp^, ^p^p^ ; to make one go, to 

expel? to drive or chase away. 

^iB^S'eOy ^ifl(CT)S=eo, OeuffneurreO-^ a bat. 

^QT^SLD, ^Qf)isuLc, ; a liill fort, or place 

of difficult access. 

^(T^sstr, ^^dsiT ; (some say juSssit) 

Mahomedans, reside in the Peninsula of India. In another sense 
^ja/ssCTT one affecting a lofty mien — jssadSl; fem. a woman affect- 
ing the lady or giving herself airs — ^juiiSl^^sniQ /51—sp^ ; to 
aflect a proud mien in walking. 

or ^QKuiyLSf-^^a'^siTem^i rnqr^wp^. ) 

p^ ; to hunt out a thief, or theft, or to explore any thing very 

difficult. ^^(-LDi^L^dp^. See ^t-u). 

^QirirsLo, ^QiriTisuu); treachery, perfidious- 

nes9, betrayal. There are five different kinds of ^QirireuiJa 
treachery as follows : 

1. ^em^jsQirireuLD ; treachery towards relatives. 

2. (^(Tf)f,^QiriT(cvii) ; treachery to a spiritual guide. 

3. ffm^^QiTireuLL ; treachery towards any one's own people, 
tribe, or nation. 

4. ffirs^jiiQiTiKsuLD ; high treason. 

6. eFiTi£l/r,^QiTiT(mju>, treachery towards a master, or lord. These 
despicable dispositions still exist among the most part of 
the mankind, and it is rare avoid their ill-customs as 
follow? :— 



101 

<sSesr/^eo /searQCDJi—uj euiruS^ Omsir^ 

Just as the roaring ocean loses not its salt, though rising high it 
flow into the plentiful waters (of some great river) ; so the base 
will not ever become magnanimous, even though they have the 
advantage of mixing in good society. Paz. 

^iT'3'ffmLb, ^■3=3'mLD; petulancy, wanton- 

ness, pertness. 

^suirsSlp^j, ^susp^; to be of a harsh 

taste, to revolt, or disgust any one. ^sij£irLDesrsF^i6uuuiTuSl(r^d(Qja 
his disposition is harsh. 

^su(&^@p^, ^eveSp^, S'eve^p^ ; to be 

flexible? to be agitable, to shake as : j^(ouem- jt/eosS^^emQQuireo ^su 
em(il@i—S(n}>esr ; he is as lean and feeble as the stalk of the water- 
lily; jji/i^^dsiTifluj^^Qiso QLD;k^^ £jeijemL^(f^d(n^ek- ; he is much in- 
clined to that thing ; he applies himself to it diligently. 

^<su!T^&, ^wirQfi&i ; the twelfth, the 

twelfth day, or phasis, of each lunar fortnight. 'W. E. 

^shi^Slp^, ^snp^'j to jump, to leap, to 

hop, to trip-along, to be frolicsome as : ^eh-efrl Q^iruQuo^^v dlQp 
<Sp^ ; to caper and fall, used only metaphorically, to be punish- 
ed for a wilful aggression — ^sh-piMirQ Ouit^^ldsc^ld ; an unruly 
beast will be doubly loaded. Pro. i. e. an undaunted person shall 
severely be reprimanded. 

^£>jp^, ^Sp^ ; to scatter about, or 

abroad, to strew. 

bird that makes hanging nests very skilfully : Loxia philippina L. 
The Loxia-bird teaches a moral to a monkey as follows : 

^iresTQpiEi ssisSiLjui /BsSlesrp,^0<i>'3S(emu) 
A literal translation of the said Stanza. That is, — In a rainy 



]i)2 

weather, a monkey took a shelter under the root of a tree, wliere 
a nest of Loxia-bird was hanging; then, the bird seeing the 
wretclied monkey being wet entirely by rain? advised why do you 
never build a proper house for your residing against the day of 
winter ? upon hearing this, the monkey having given room to 
his rage, climbed over the tree and made the nest into pieces,-^ 
So, thou wilt be damaged, if thou wfiuldst give advice to a person who 
hath no learning and wisdom. — Should a poor but wise man admo- 
nish a powerful and wicked person, ruin would be tiie consequence. 

^6m-(SQ/D^, ^smiLp^ ; to stir the fire, to 

irritate, to incite, to entice : ^(rF,iivekQffuj^<ss)^ ujai^d(^^ ^sshl^s 
siriLp^ ; to upbraid one with his behaviour. 

^r^Ssrr, ^^eu'^sir ; a shrub : tliree-lobed 

nightshade. Solanum trilobatum. L. 

^TirdSijr.^, ^iS'/D^ or ^«^^ ; to fill up 

as : @<5m-^(5i5i^i,^^^irei> 6uuj^ein^^^d(^u> ; he who fills up a well 
goes about to starve himself — moral for lavishing the valuable 
days in idleness. 

^sueiiLLemLpj ^euirear ld ; rain driven by the 

wind, through the doors or windows as ; LoemLpeSltLS/h^eiJiregruii^i— 
eSsiSsv ; it ceases to rain, but drizzles still. Pro. that is, there are 
some remain of a grievance,still. — In Jaft'ana ^susa usesfor pen. But 
in Madras, use the same English word pen, Qu^ : — meaus a mad 
dog. — §)fo(^ is known to be used in Tran(|uebar. 

0^^fflSi/D£ii, O^ffluS^^ ; to be seen, to be 

known, to be clear, and plain, to perceive, to understand^ as : ^Sso 
QfBiTsijwsiTtLi'a'S'st!'^ ^ema(^<suik^!r(k O^ifliLjih, head-ache and fever 
may teach him, what they mean : that is, experience is the best 
teacher. ^i^QisiiSooetoujs'Qs'ujuj ^esrd(^^ O^iBiLfQixiiT ? do you 
know how to do this work ? Qs^lusuitQi^ O lu m earQ ld it O^^tfitu it ^ ; 
whether he will do it, or not, is uncertain. 

O^S(fFiLLLf.da:<sSiu(Te!n>ru}, ^dlLl^'S sSaummrLD ; consum- 

miiting marriage ceremony. 

O^^&SIlL®, ^<bjlL<S ; nausea, aversion ex- 

cited by medicine, aversion to food, through satiety, as: ^ip^slSlL 
L-iTiu srsi!rd(^d: ^eucLL^uQuiTd^r ; this sweetmeat goes against ray 
stomach, it is loathsome to me. 



lU 



Q^s'eru®Sp^, 0^uu(Bp^ ; meets, appears 

as: ji/eusk j^'^CSeo rBeesri^ujO^uuLLisum, he is well versed in it. 
jijSDssr erekssmesufKoioi) O^LDULLi—irsir^ he came in my sight. 

O^saTLo^y 0^uildSs\) ; the southern moun- 

tain : or Pothiya, fabled still to be the residence of Agastya. 

"Note Agastyar is fabled to be immortal? through the power of 
his drugs. He is decidedly the Hippocrates of Hindustan; and con- 
tinues to be the standing medical authority for prescriptions. Now 
Pothiya is a name of Thibet : but in the South he is claimed as en- 
tirely their own; that hill is considered to be proper to the Pandion 
kingdom ; and is, we believe, tlie one known to Europeans by 
the name of Courtallam, where there is a beautiful water-fall , to 
which place also Europeans resort in the hot weather. Agastyar is 
the father of the pure Tamil dialect, having first prescribed the 
rules of grammar and polished the language. His works now in 
existence, are usually entitled from the number of stanzas which 
they contain : as, the Thirty ; the Two Hundred ; and the like. 
The Wisdom of Agastyar are the following : — 

euiT^uj(rOujfEJ{^ LD^i^iO^iLfempi^ 6»^ 

QtoS'LDmu-iseasr^ /S^sS&o ^.fl^^so &\) 

Q I'd aQ LD<oSi 6U ^ ^ /S&areSleo^/fl^^LSl ear 

euiTff'MJiTdjiBesrp ldujld^<£ , , Qir 

That blissful Spirit which pervades all things, few regard with 
affection, or retain in mind. But if thou ponder his illusory form 
with devout regard, then thou wilt know the nature of this imma- 
terial Being. 

uiruuiTsars^^jhuireo U3^cS>eiii^essr ® 

QiDLLlUUlTQ^LBek^ isS SV ifl ^ ^ ffl ILf ^ 

QiMiuuuirQ^QpsnrL—iTUJ Qen^u-jiMi—iEiSi^ <so 

uiruuiTi^u&'GDsufk^U) uireoirius-Qs^iTiBiLj Qld 

The Brahmin keeps milch cows in his premises. Even so, man 
has five senses to be compared to those animals : — these go about 
feeding and wandering at will, in the house (or mind) of such a 
one as regards not that superior splendor. But if any one will 
restrain their giddy wandering, then will the milch cow yield 
milk in the house of the Brahmin : (that is? then will the sense 
contribute to the satisfaction and nourishment of the soul)". 
Tavlor's Or. W. 



104 

G)^£w-af/7«@ or O^sw-gOTaa/f.SQ, O^esrearFFsems ^ tllC stines, or 
stalk of a cocoa-iiut-leaf. 

O^eirrisi, O^earesreo ; the SOUtll-wind as : 

0^<ci!Tajrio(ipprfSu Ou(yf,'Eisir^^ir^<ffi' ; the southern breeze has be- 
come a hurricane. Pro. a little troublesome affair has become of 
great consequence. 

Q^ikr^Qp^ or ^uu!Bi(^Qp^, Q^ikp^ \ to stand full, to stag- 
nate as : 6Tsms-sB,ia'Ss<3sirtfluj^^eo LDtcsr.si-Q^fsiSLjQuiri'.si- -^ my mind has 
dispirited in that afl'air : Q^EiasoiruSlQ^d/D^, to be full to the brim? 
to stand, or cease to run, as water. Q^&shjd ; water stopt in its 
course — jj^eueir 6xi(tr)LhQuiT^ eut^uSeo Q^d&u)L3L^^^ eS(T£/h^iTm he 
was faint away while he coming in the road. 

Q^(Bi^p^, Q^L^pj^ ; to seek, to acquire to 

earn as : Q^L^^^ihpeveir ; a woman, who lives on the wages of 
iniquity or whoredom. Q^i—lditlLi—it^ ^(fffiLOL—irL^siju^Lc ^ss 

LDITLLl—rT^JilQ£(aU3'S'&S(T(Sn^^U^U:}fB6ioOlT(61JtT3^3'irrEJ^Sir, TllC laZy fellOW 

■who could not earn his bread through his labour, (living by theft) 
and the indolent woman who is waiting for the food of others, 
(being lazy to dress rice for her own belly while she has something 
in her possession) are crowded together to ruin my house. — A word 
o'^ reproach used by old mot lers to her sons and daughters-in-law. 
^susk Q^L^uLjoBi^^^ O^Q^oSiiSirdG!(Y>^eBr ; he hides what he gets, 
and begs in the streets, Prov. 

Q^LLemu., Qs5lLl-u) ; appetence, longing, 

acquisition as: GTesrd(^J^ s^nuuirLLu^ehQiMQei Q^LLi—LBeoSsd ) \ have 
no appetite, no desire of food. 

Q^LLi—iresm&DLD, Q^L-(-.ires)LD ; aptness at acquir- 

ing, as: aiTu-L—tr'Scsr^etsrp asi^CSurr&ieutri^QLD, Q^iiLLi—irsfTeisr Q.i&d^sin-ui ; 
the wealth of a miser (in an unpropitious time) may become like 
the empty shell of the wood apple (Feroniaj after having been eaten, 
and voided by an elephant. Avvy. 

Q^iuseai—uessiLD, (c^(^^uei!srij}^ or Q sALKsnes^i^uem 

LD ; a small silver coin, worn smooth by use : commonly Os^e^eoiru 
uesBTU), or ep^d(^Qp%T or Os'sieHfrisire? as : jfjeu^s^ Qs'tDUire^L^s' 
Os^eieorr&siTirrQp^e^auj sf^(S^^iiS!ei2so ; I have no profit by him even a 
copper coin, which worn smooth by use. 

Q^iueuniBJ^, C?^ffl//r/E/(^; the sloth, or bradypus 



103 

an animal that moves very slowly, ns : j>j&!m^iE}Qf['<^s Sstisr^ 
s£IlL®3 Qgsu(T,ij(&fSu!r^.((T)a(it;eisr ; he is lean like a sloth? notwith- 
standing his eating. j^snOa^ tr(i^ Q^euiT'ijQLSishdsir Our(^i:rr ; she has 
borne a mis-shaped child ; a monster. 

Q^wfBiTiusBdTULLL-sSdrLD, Q^eui^LcuLiu-fmLD ; a town near 

Karical; Davanampatam, or Fort. St. David. R. 

Q^/bjvSipjD, Q^^p^\ to comfort, to con- 

sole, to strenjrthen, to confirm, to refresh one's self. ^<mTL^<k'h^ 
Oiuek^ Qai.^s.Q&!r<siT ; make the conclnsion, see whether there is 
any thing due or not. ' 



0D3^dSlp£^, ^LLid/n^ ; to sew, to stitch, to 

fasten, to run in as a thorn : Meta. ^/s^eufTirfies)^ uesr^Qeo^iu^ 
^^ ; this word pierced or penetrated the heart ; i. e. it m.ade a 
deep impression upon him. jt/sueirQa^tij^^ j)/sijemu)sar^ieo em^s^Lo ; 
he will feel remorse, or will be vexed for what he has done. em^s. 
sisppQjsh- 3^u}ff^^(^<3vfrek, He who learns in such a way as to 
impress the mind, will become a clever man. Aw. 

e6>suj&), fiuiueij a wife, beauty, a seam^ 

a suture as : s-(S<5r^uJiuei) i^ifli^Qutri's^, your seam is ripped up; 
s:iijujeiJlLL(Bu Quir-fs?; the same. — (^LL®^<5iuujso^ a patching, a 
mending; QsiLi^^^ujiuffO, a. double seam. — em^^ujffiQs'irp'^sQsrriso. 
Do not listen to the words of women : 

Though a woman versed in the science of the learned, she will 
remain a silly woman still. Prov. 

Note. — " Though the sentence reflects so strongly on the Tamil 
ladies it was written by one of themselves. What makes the mat- 
ter still worse, it appears that the true meaning is. " Do not 
listen to the words of your wife." So the A. S. V. 

^Q^Gi^^fBes)^iusi Q^trpQsQen&). {Q^^ffiT'EjSlses)^.) 
It is difficult, satisfactorily to account for this maxim. The mind 
almost instinctively reyerts to Hindoo polygamy and the household 



ion 

strife necessarily consequent upon it, as t/ie original cause; but 
it is not impossiblfj that our Hindoo friends, with hcallicn 
benevolence? first consign their women to perpetual ignorance, 
and then reflect on them for it. Thus : 

Quaa^emuQiu^aru^ u> ir ^ ir dsa^s (!'-'' ll. — OstT.-ehr . 
"Ignorance is an ornament to women.'' Ko. V. 

mtLi iTiT(3^6S)jr>QpLj^ujirir /Bear (f>j'/b(^iT fs siir ^ ^ si t lL 

" The man wlio acts not according to his own opinion but 
according to that of his wife, cannot discharge the necessary 
duties connected with this world or the world to come." 

^siHEirei eSet^^esy^tLifSLhuffOir LL!rpes)puL^ix> Ou(jr,iij sirpeio/nLiWuyu 

usoir/EJ, sfTsi^iTcS'LLu- ,^^eainsu>ue!)iT:m .S'SnsrrnQsut—ir ixpsuaair 

/Sihusirr^, Qs'Sc'OslLl^uj LCiiT^Qs>irrBilt3<^p ^qF)^! esU m ^i ^ lu sj (^eu 

" One may trust deadly poison, a river, a hurricane, the beauti- 
fully-large fierce Elephant, the Tiger come for prey, the angels of 
death, a thief, a savage, a murderer, but if one trusts a petticoated 
woman, without doubt he must \Tander about in the streets (i. e. 
as a beggar.")* 

^esrOuQ^smLoQjfireisQCoiu ^sinBssruL^sipi^u^ir s'LDirQsirssinOL—ire/i) 
di^Lhu^iTy ^dixOuifiQujiriii-i^^ Qa<orrir^ u^nQ^iTLpiT j^loQ en ir'-£l^ 
eSs(^U)U^^iT^ LSlesTLjsesdTsn'i^'sSL—fS ^m ct^Qs^i-^p&ssti Qu&ssemsi^ 

Qsil-QLhud^ir, 0urrisiiru6m-LFi(f^dsQeu QuniSiff&Qshi pupir Quirius' 

dSlesTflu^iT LDsafi^'fl/b u^.Qiresruirsfrem, LDuSCSvi^/SaS^rujiriB @4t 

* With all Ihc Native admiration for Avvyar is it not surprising that the Hindoos 
of caste so perseveringly and iuveterately oppose Native female education? If there be 
any thing wanting to the intelligence of Hindustan, ii certainly is the seeing the necessity 
of well-instructed, confidential, and honored equals of the oilier sex; the giving confidence, 
cemented by an indissolul)lc bond, to one only : and making that one a comjianion and 
friend. Till such a result can be some way or otlier acroniplished, little will be done, 
comparatively, towards the real amelioration of India: nothing but a general reception 
of Christianity has yet arcomplished such a result in any eounti-y. That only, it may 
he inferred, can effect it in this land: and \\lio will >:iVj that it is not a result d^-voutly 
to be wislird? T;.\lor's Orimi Hisf. 



1U7 

This stauzahas been consecrated by a Poet ©(^u/r^^-r-f/f, on a 
god Comarasa who lives in a Mountain. The subject of which, cer- 
tifies that the person who is against the law of the down mentioned 
rules, is like to a chaff which is emptied without its grain : as 

1. He who brags himself before the people, 

2. He who conceals in war or struggle, 

3. He who is unwilling to hear the advice of his elders, 

4. He who expostulates with his inferiors opening his secrets, 

5. He who rejoices himself, accusing others behind their faces, 

6. He who observes his own healtb,while his parents are in misery, 

7. He who listens the advice of women, 

8. He who begs, while he has golden money in possession, 

9. He who bears false witness, 

10. He who refuses the system of the worldly people, 

11. He who reveals the intimacy of his own wife with others, 

12. And he w^ho commits adultery with a prostitute, 

are these (12 persons) likened, compared or reckoned to a chaff 
or husks among the Society of men. 

" So barely stated, the above maxim is a bad one." " A virtuous 
woman is a crown to her husband." The words of such a woman 
should be listened to with love and deference. The intellectual 
moral and religious state of women is, in general, a good index of 
the true state of the Society in which they live. The intelligent 
Hindoos acknowledge themselves degraded by the customs and 
prejudices of their people on this point. Till very recently it was 
deemed disgraceful to teach their women to read. The maxim 
of Menu is still law ; " A woman must never seek independence." 
c. V. 141. The Vishnu Purana says. "Let not a man treat 
woman with disrespect, nor let him put entire faith in them. 
Let him not deal impatiently with them, nor set them over 
matters of importance." The days of ignorance are however 
sealed ; the direct and indirect influence of Christianity is very 
powerful in respect of the Social and moral elevation of woman ; 
and the day is not far distant, when, if she could rise from the 
tomb, Avvyar would be the. first to reverse this sentiment. At 
present however, in Hindoo society instead of many wise women 
professing godliness, we know that there are many illustrations 
of the scripture sentiment." A. A. A. S 



lOS 
j63ax)r:'.''Cpro'T°c«j, .^.^i^j^^ :-o,^da:i-* cess's, 

9 oJ ' s^ (f) '•^-^ ' 

Bv Tamil, ^slol/.e^ sfs^^etsff^sij, Q(TfL^^^iTeS(D<s=cf!^ir, 

uffu^^iT£SlrsiT3=nuj, eto/ru^^i uuenojiriicssiT. 
The contents of this slokum, is computed that the advice of his 
own mind, will preserve him health; the advice of goorhoo oi- 
Priest, will especially produce felicity ; and the advice of strangers, 
"vvill ruin lumself ; but the advice of woman, will kill that heareth it. 
— Needey shastrah . 

G)^«/r«^, Os^iTS(^ ; the same as a-i—so, the 

body, corrupted from Sans. Tvach as : Oe^aac&^O&itT^Ssin ^ 'g^'-9P 
^ ; to make a noise in running, or walking. ^/ejCos egsabr^j/c O^ir 
&(^^ O^irQsrsmevdaiTLjD&i) sT(S)J;^uQuir(B; take it all away, leaving 
nothing therein, p-msmujn Oe^nriOsm ^Q^i(^^, your belly is 
hollow. 

Q^in~fTa'9l, O^n-L-^'i^ ; affinity, union : Q^ir 

sems, for which is also used Q,jfl-(5i* or Q^^iri-^a^ ; 0^it®ul-j, sexual 
intercourse: properly 0^(rt—nL^. Met. uireuJ^cJnO^sm—S'S <?/rQ/, 
the effect of sin is death. — ^sv^i(^tj> j>/su^i(^i 0^it(Sul^ ; he in- 
trigues with her. Q ^ n- S! u ljs s ir ir sk ; a, \echer O^^irOuL^iairifl, i'cm. 
0^a(BuQuiiQs, where is thy paramour ? 

O^irdsoSlp^, jg7^aS/r^; to be finished, to 

come to an end, to leave, to forsake, to go off, to be freed as : erek 
doSTi^LL®^ ^S^(^ffir€sr ; he has left me. j>/^Quirsfs ^ds\)(^(FiT&> ^efl 
tp^LD {^strei^^ua) us9s(^,u> ; if suHcring (the consequence of evil 
done in a former state) be accomplished, the medecine will take 
effect. O^^tr^vOsuC®, afar off; QuauQu^^ etJL^O^irSsvu^Lh ; by walking 
with conversing, the journey will easily come to cud. ji/i^^euipdi^^ 
Q^iTdsC(cr)3fQuiiiLj ^ScviLjQfiQpcSQznr^. i. e. I am exceedingly glad 
that the law-suit or process, is ended, nsirsir Qu^^j^l^s^Qd^iw ; 
I have finiylied speaking. 

Q^tTiL^^eo, Q^siTfffSi; a dipping, a soaking, 

a tempering of iron. ^siriQ^^r^ffei) ; a partial curdling, or tem- 
pering; uiT<siQ^nuji9.p^, to put runnet in milk, to curdle it. 

G3ir^.c.uQ/^v, G^iruf:iDuQf,S.v; the flabby breast, 

of women. \i. 



109 

Q 3^apSpj3, Qj;iTip^, Qf^n ij^udufTp^ ; to 

lose a game, a battle, a cause, &c. ^•3v^s,(^^ Q^ir^^fT&sr, he is 
overcome by him. Q3iTpusmOs,fri-.(SiT&i, being nothing of doubt- 
ful event. Aw. Qd^ir^^frEjQsirsfTjrl, (mas. and fern.) one who has 
been defeated. jt/ausaiusm^Qn^Oajeoeorr/E Q^n-^jneSlLLi-trssr, he has 
lust all his money ; he has squandered it. 



wau), iBenu:, O/v^il ; the nail of the 

fingers, or toes as : OiBsui^em-, the root of a nail ; a finger nail. 
Q^-5£v?iSrVQ.DiT£^Lb Q '5 rr^ini^(^s(^^ , to b'^ pained all over, or from 
head to foot : properly OTsarffi@ ns$.<oS)auiBuji^LD QfBirSp^. jti^ineir 
O/E<mjQp(^s0n^siLjLDiTuSl^.iS(i)j>!TScrr ; they are very intimate friends. 
jr^aun-eh &2em-s^sisi^uiSLLL—iT^uD lS-ssuul-it^, you caunot break 
(or destroy) their friendship, though you would endeavour to 
discord it; Qibs.s's^p/SljpuulL® isu(rf^^;3uu(B^^^, I suffer much by 
a whitlow : commonly miirs?^^, a whitlow. 

fBaQ^Qp^, !Bsii(fT)p^ ; to creep, to crawl, 

to crawl as children do, as : ^esr&^^ QsiirmffesTLDtL'^'Ej Qsir®^^ 
mnj^^uQun-LLi—truj, iro. thou hast sent me away with a gift, ^l^iuit 
Qso weu^^uQutr'Sip^, to shove a thing aside with a stick. 

IBSS)SSL.'U, !ESS>SULJLj, IB iU iU IT SSiT Ll^ , ^lflui-j, 

Qadl; a laugh scorn as : GncNs^s' &ifluLjaji^j^ ; it made me laugh. 
/£<ss)3uuLjdSt-.uiiTssr,siTiflujt}> ; a laughable, or ridiculous thing. 

rsffsi-uQuiru^j ■si^izsii—ssLLL^'si^OuaLsjL • very small 

fishes: @/J^ /d 3= a^ uu So s^sn 03= it ein i^nr^ ji/si^sSem-^ §)-^'3''3^^ ; the 
word of one who has poisoned teeth surely effected : that is, one 
whose words are ill omened, or venomous. In another sense ^i* 
eufTLusisi ; a blab, or babbler : commonly Q^iresruusir. 

lEL-dsd, iBu.eoLD ; derision, petulancy ; 

irrcverance, incivility, deceit, as : ^siafBi—edLD Oev(j^iBn'Seni(^Sso0oiT^ ; 
the trickery will not last long, irn-tsossirnsk a petulant, or insolent, 
fellow : s-^iBi— e^ if) iSiih^fB lLu.it p/BQe^'^u IT suTTiu mayest thou, with 
thy petulancy, be cast into the midst of the stream ! R. 

rnQSoHwek, rB(Sisu<oit^sisr ; the sccond of three 

brothers. 

mmi—uL^, fBi—suL^ ; one's life, or doings : 

deportment : /si—exa^JsTT/rsn a regular man ; a man of decent and 



110 

exomplavy, oondaot. /f ^Qf,ir^(^!^QirirQi—u3a^i^irei s^sk /EL-6vL^i(^u 
QuiTm(^Q30LS:(rF,eiJL^(Swcm>'Lh, you will require a golden shoe if your 
coudition be of a little highest. 

/5Llt_/ru)i-LLji, [6LLt—!TQpiLL^ ) middle rate? me- 

diocrity, meanness; Avhat is niiddliui;, or common, as: ^suew- srssr 
ffi(5 WLLi—iT(ipLLi-^L£(rri/Bji]Oair(b>^£i;iTeisr, he gave a conimon medicine 
to my sickness — i7>lLi—!T(lplLl^uSi(oS\) Ou'SssrOim-'S^p^ /S'Jos^sEe^eO, It 
is not right to take a girl by marriage in the middling sort, li 
rtLLi—iTQpiLujL Quff^Qu^nQ^, do not speak nonsensical word. 

r6smT(B<siJiriuGe!r'c£i, mi^(bisiidsiT,o\9 ; a crab-clawed 

scorpion of a large kind. 

mixQwiriu fSLDd?si]iTLULD ; the mystic Saiva 

letters, or a name for male of certain caste people. 

Note.— "The mystical five letters herein alluded to, appear to the 
writer to afford a clue to unravel all the personifications, and 
multiplied consequent practical absurdities of the Saiva sect ; the 
key being carefully kept by the Brahmins and philosophers. In 
other words, there is, it is believed, both an exoteric and esoteric 
system: the former for the vulgar, consisting of rude personifi- 
cations or visible symbols, and consentaneous with the varied and 
absurd idolatry every where existing around ; the other, a refined 
system, resembling Spinozisra, admittmg only one pervading and 
directing mind, identified with and inseparable from the existence 
of matter : consequently very dilTerent from the more elevated 
doctrine of one supreme, self-existent independent, and intelligent, 
First Cause ; from which Being all other beings and things pro- 
ceed, and on whom all others depend. 

It will be perhaps as much a duty as a pleasure to explain some- 
■what the aforesaid cabala, as far as we are able. The mystic 
Saiva letters are, ib, li>^ &,su, lu, made into the technical word, 
Namasivayi. A devout Saiva, to whom the latent' import is un- 
known, is instructed by his spiritual guide to cover one of his 
hands with a cloth, and bowing his head, softly to repeat these 
letters, numbering the repetitions of each letter by touching with 
the thumb on the joints and tip of (jacli finger, and then with one 
finger the joints and tip of the thumb. J^laeh index gives one 
repetitiiin, and the whole hand five repetitions ; the greater the 
number of repetitious the greater the act of virtue : they are also 



Ill 

preceded by meiiLioning the mystic, syllable aum, or o'ra, coin- 
mou to all classes of Hindus. In the opus operaium of this ave 
and pater system consists the merit: though the meauing be to 
the devotee unknown. But the recondite sense, it is beheved, 
may with .some confidence be stated to be the following. 

The five letters have a reference to the five senses, and also to 
the supposed five elements ; akash, or ether, being added to the 
four elements, heretofore of western philosophers. Now as the 
five senses are to the human body and soul, so are the five ele- 
ments to the corporeal substance and incorporeal pervading Spirit 
or soul of the universe." T. O. W. 

Instead of these mystical five letters, separately composed by 
late learned and talented F. W. Ellis Esq. C. S. as follows: 

^fr(jlf-Q<3ilTdF3':3a<i3i6QuUir : 

/BmrS'lJLjLDSsVlSl'SiKoOlT /3 StST LD iSSUp LU fT IT Q U IT <f I— ffO mLl 

eJsk£}i<ss)iTUuiTiT WLDt-jsyQir S su Q^s^fi a. (ir, 3^ QpsBbr'^ 
iS^si:fjnc^eirLDeOiTihf.Sp uxooQitOuj^lLOs'l^Iuu 
(ipmO/D-iieuiJxsSlLl-Qi—drQuTk Qpss)pOiu!r<oii (jr^uJiu:j9i&Jfnu 

LDem<^(b'lSU!r<^(Bl LDS!^^ITSfIlO:rei)S0SU(fTLD 

(5TS3a7(6wp^a;(Sa3rz_L0gWffly uSsu/bjUiir'srinD us^sijiSq^'m 

SSmt^LLL^/bSlTi^^ LDSSTLDfTLLL^pSemTL—UirLO 

/BssdJ (^'xeafiSsarimjmriiiSl OiumuexjQn iBLnQeufTiu. 
Qn;rSs>sypeiiiBiijeij<sO(^LL &^(SujiTiBm&}^Qu!TQT)'s^^ 

eiji)/SI'SB)/D6S)UJ6!JlT!BJ(^euQlT euSiieOSS^LDILjLD'Sl j^'S QU-fSfT SfT 

ui)/Sesipei] e^^sisipi^iu euirnisBirGtu luiresr^te^p 
Qa'TTp^mp^L- (SLLL^esipesiuj^ Q a" u iflQ euQ sm /BUi^euiruj. 
6U!TUjee)LD0uJireBrjv LDireaujOujiTmjjiu:) euaQf^en^^ea Qisup^aJiriu 
MOiLisdeOfrQLDisieoaS Sm^erPi&is^iTu Ouir(i^ei^LB.s^ds^ 
iOujs^QsiuSitT^leai isiljujit.&^&1 SiUiTLgix 
euirQiuiTcir/SlLL (BenQseOiTLD eii6Ssrisi(^s,Qsu /slc9I<suituj. 
ujLD{^eu(tf,;ESir 2sOLhOuir/3iLi iBujir^^sauJu Quir^dsaesyuis' 

^LO^^SssruQulTSSr QpSdrlX-iSOiT/Bfi ^(TT)IEIQlSl(r^L£<bSl!JL-IE.lSl 

SLceO^^ev^iT^efflQ/sif sei'SsJiSii^p (^S5\).i^cLiiTs 
euLbQT^ene,^ e^LDtr^eiiiiQs ujes)Lnr6^n® iSLD&eviruj. 

" The Vrisdorn of Agastcyar for these five letters arc the 

following :" 



JJ2 

^^03=Q£^^irQsO jy,^.irryg:L£.ufcTOt_i,5£3r car 

^(^QffQ^f.^rrQffO ue^Qajt0sliu(S!T>u.<k^eN ehr 

jtj(^06'QD;k^TQ&) ^st—eQfS^iriEjSsm ear 

^'(^Q<s=(Ui^^irQ lu LD IT 'i ^ rS sir (0^ (Sew 

" The following is very nearly a verbal translation." 
" (Thus) the Being rlescribed by iive letters continues filling all 
things. By five letters made the five elements ; by five letters he 
created many forms of animated beings. By five letters he sustains 
aiul preserves is the universe. 

These letters it will be perceived are of the mystic order ; and^ in- 
deed? approaching more nearly to the tenets of the Molinists of the 
Roman Catholic Church, in their day, than would be antecedently 
supposed. They seem to inculcate something more than the 
mere soul of the world : and rather announce a distinct intelligent 
mind. So far as a superiority to popular errors is concerned, Agas- 
teyar of India may perhaps claim to rank on a level with Socra- 
tes, or Plato, of Greece." T. O. W. 

.■E(Lp,'Sa:L.^sQp^, isiB(BisL^s.iD^ ; to bite the un- 

f^cr-lip, through angor, vexation, or suff'ering. This is custom to 
children in sleeping time. 

r^uLjQp^s, wLDup^ ; to confide, to put 

confidence in, to rely on, as : ^'^ /blduuul-it^, it cannot be be- 
lieved, ji/susk ^emSsma^ evQ^evirOssreN-jii ibimuitQ^ ; do not expect 
him to-day. j>/eu esrsrr/flujLJD rsiluifl^iruS^sp^, It is dfficult to feel 
confidence, concerning- his state, or situation, jt/zro^wiiueinreufr^ ; 
it is not to be believed. 

/5JTSLD, fSFBjLD ; hell ; /^irsud(&)LSiSlQsi 

«^'(i£P^: to fall into the pit of hell : to suffer perdition.— /5ir« J), 
«T ; the seven hells of the Hindus. J. ^eh&reo. 2. ^Qirefr jrevii. 
3. (^uaSuirsLr. 4. '0^i—fPiTei>ih. 5. O^ii^^^irem-u). 6. uS and 
7. LDiTLi^. Sat. R. — mnsi ^mojirosuj^ ^pmfslQ^aQpOfs^^ luirsuQfjiJD 
/5esr(/r^uj/S!mf5l^uuiTiTS0TriTiSleBr un^ih ^GmOsirOis^iosi^LLi—iT^, Tf all 
would have known perfectly that the hell hath opened his mouth, 
sin will not stretch forth its sting. 

^L^^i^(BeiJiT (r^L—enueto^uuir QiDiTP'B^ipavmr 
sfLpeoSlpunir LfuetreuirnO/siTib ^Q^eiifrnQs'iriTvuirir 
SL^^0l(SevtriT ^^ixQpu.^ Qpei^euir fffriruunir 



113 

inuir/sQ^fSjQ^ ^luiEK^Qpuirir ^luiflesTQeu^efno 

This is said concerning the sufferings and torments of sinners 
in hell. 

am grown gray as : /5«o/r<if<s^/J Ljetairs^s^irOiTeii^fru) WLOiSlLuiTiieieoir old 
men are not always wise — Prov. /P£ro/r#5=^^^ ; a hoary head. 

mff!)iEi(&)Qp^y FBeOEip^ ; to become supple, to 

be rumpled, to become relaxed. — fseoiEK^ ; a ceremony observed 
in weddings, in which the pair are anointed, first with oil, and then 
with turmeric paste. R. 

ss^LnSipQei/uj^ujfriEJSil. e^svr^^siJsmL^LBQ^LCiSHiui^triT^ 

OLDirerflLDessflsL^^aj Q^iruusxjeuuQurriBm ^iBiri^OuiT/EiQi 

Thamiyendi, had been anointed (through the ceremony called 
/ten/ill^) by the water of Ganges : being mixed with the sweet 
scented powder. — Mingled perfume, fragrant ointment. Nydatham, 

fspOuem®, ' /Be^ffi/OuLhiSan'SofT, ff^Qps^iriB ; a good 

woman as : /upQugmLs.irdOsir(Tf)Oa'iTffO /5ei}eou>iri-L(BsQan'(^(^^ -^ one 
word to a good woman ; one cauterizing to a good cow. — 

^eoeoQ^ (oSsososusmr uyiremuinss) ^insnenQ^ 

What is deficient with a virtuous wife ? 
If in the wife defect, then what is all 
This world can give ? 

Ousmresef^p Ou(r^/B^ss luireijsrr spQusir^fS 

Than virtuous woman what more excellent, 

Who, firm in mind, her wedded faith maintains ? C. S. E. 

^mBsar^esiiuiLj LLu^iuirefTUQsuP.iLjLiieoirLJ 
Qun'^e!^Z!5rip(9fiJb Lj^uQuireapiLjih — eu sir esr QpSso 
Qsu&^uSs^Lo eSpeSTLD/B^rFlLD^lLlU) 
Qu&sQ0nsiJU-jSiTiL-UJiT<oiT Qussar. 

P 



114 

fBQ^eijQp^, iBQ^Sp^ ; to slip out of the 

liandj as a fisbj a piece of money &c. to fall oftj to slip away, to go 
off quickly or secretly, as: SirOLDsh-en /sQ^suuuiri'rdSjp^n-str^jsl 
think that you intend to look about liow to escape. 

fSili^, (safsuLj ; affection, friendship, a 

present, bribery, expectation of gain as: es).'BULjsirLl/Dj5! ; to give 
a present in order to obtain a wish ; to bribe ; to draw into one's 
designs by a present. 

Qpsiss ruilu^ rviLueisr^^ O/Ef^ff"^ ^sf5s /zu-Ilj^ /ztlIl/. 
A smiling countenance is not friendship, affection is seated 
in the heart. — Cural. 

mprBQpehrQp^, OfBj}jQrB£V'Ej'Slir)^ ; (imitative) to 

sound? as by gnashing, or grinding of the teeth, by the fall of 
rain, as : uia'Sso is^umpi^k^ su^sp^, to gnash the teeth ; fB^tzQir 
dr^Laemipujij^srs;,^, a rattling rain is falling. 

/B^sSidl, f3(rf,sudfl ; a trec ; Cordia obli- 

qua. S. R. 

fBdsvr&p^, rs'SssniSpj^ ; to become wet, to 

become soaked as : OPQ^^un f?'Sssr(^3'eu^3;(^i (^^iflffoSs\) ; or Qpp^ih 
wdserk^eii^ic^i @sYfi/fleoS,v ; Pro. One well drenched, uo longer 
complains of a little cold ; or one often punished becomes 
liardened. 

Also Qpm^La m^ssr (^ffe^!&T)i>(^ ir-of^iBsi^s^ Qu^iBiko30 ; Qps s n- lL(B s 
sir^sr^ Oiii'iesS(ipLBsiSs\), properly, QpQpju'kQsL.i—Qi^.i;^ Qsl^ 
e^Soo; one well drenched no longer shuns a little moisture and so 
there is notliing evil to a hardened rogue. R. 

^(b)fBds!iriLj^esi^(Ssiri^tu^(ip^^iriM; Pro. the Avolf exclaims that 
the sheep is wetting by rain i. e. those who mind their own 
interest, will not pay attention for other matters. 

JB(T 

/strsLh, rBireuii) ; Ileavcn, paradise, ether, 

sky, a snake in general : especially the Cobra-capella ; witsus^itS ; a 
medicinal plant useful against a serpent's bite : Cucumis anguinus 
L. iBireuiB^smLLpjSi to be bitten by a snake. wtrsuu.Lb, ear-rings 
worn by female, with the figure of a serpent: commonly iBireut^u). 
/E/raswfr, rrroneously /zr/rgi/f ; Nagoreatown near ^'egapatam.— /5T«ii) 
efliiwr (^ffiEi(^'-\si!Tdoisr fspM^r LD2»\)uuin}>i3ujiT2jBr — the word /Birau) 



lib 

renders the meaning for heaven, monkey, a kind of l^s^Sw tree, 
nice cloth, mountain-snake and elephant.— Neguodoo. 

ir,iTdsuL^3^9, or iBirik3k.Lp^ ns!TB(^uL^kQ ; a ground or earth 

worm, a belly worm. 

fsm^su), fsiTL-euw ; a play, a ballet, a 

drama, as : fsiru.ev.ff'rrSMuOuem, an actress, a danseuse ^/ri_<ays--/r^ ; 
a school or academy for teaching the art of an actress, a theatre 
or court of a palace used for such exhibition, /bitl^sit ; opera-actors 
pantomime players : commonly ■g^^^^rrL^sefr. R. 

N, B. There are several Nadagums composed in songs by Poets, 
on the suffering events of the ancient Kings and of their cruel 
Government. These are learnt by men with the exercise (called 
^^^es)s) of dancing about 5 or 6 months in a private place, and 
then to be danced in public disguising : suitable to the ranks of 
a king, Queen, viziers, officers and offenders,— the names of such 
books, are named : 

The celebrated of these, are entitled Velasam {'sSeoirfui') and 
Vasagapa {euirff-suuir) . The composition of these works, uses in 
very plain Tamil as follows : 

QfiLLes)i—a9/b <£ih.eudsr)£u Qp^eniSlsSsd sinij^^es)uujir 
(^iLsmi—'fir esvBso^/S^iT esjj^^sea' Qus'euii^iTi'u 
OaLL(BuQurrsiTLD OeOmO^irp (o<S(mjf§ QsefnTeSiLL-iTiso 
ji/LLup-uSlene^iTiM nQem^ ^smsssr^^m (^smirQs'ujQsijQssr. 
This stanza is the refutation of Sookracharry, (the Teacher) 
■when Peragaladeu, the son of Hernia the king, inclined not to say 
that his father was god. — Such as these vain exhibitions, cause 
only a temporary joy for peoples' sight, but none effect to the 
heart of eternity. 

fBULLL—iressretsLD^ miTLLL-irismui ; superiority of a 

village. — fsirtLi—freoLDaSfrireir, the chief of a village, /BfTLlL-irsnuidairrfl, 
his wife, a proud woman, aspiring to superiority.— ^/rz_/rs3r, has 
a double meaning ; one, is the negative verb of the 3rd person 
masculine gender: as, he will not go ever there. — And another, is 
caste name of shanars in southern side. 

f5ir®S^jpj, iBiri^p^; to seek, to aim at, 



116 

to desire greatly? to inquire, to send as : ^ss^^ /sirL^<ea)S3r, he bent 
his mind upon it. e-iieroLo /sfru^suiCS^dr, I came or am coracj in your 
account, also I am come to beg a favor of you. 

rBiTLLt—LD; the aim of a thing, intention as : jt/susir eruQun-^ua 
j)ieuerrQufiQ&) /5irLii—LDiruS(Tr)iS(^ek, he is always much attached to 
her. ^aL/gjiff© Qeij2s\)iSlemQLD0O enajavefreijLb fBinLL—iBsii'hdf he has uot 
the least intention on the business. 

/sn^nsl/T)^, fSfTicssB/D^ ; to be shame faced 

modest, or bashful. s-ewSssruuirir^^irsi) LcrnSiuiretBirdseadi'S ui(n)LDej6sr 
/dfr^j(2J'u(SuiTed sfT^s^, you seem to be respectful, as a son-in-law 
in the presence of his mother-in-law. ^suem sSajirem-uOuism /str 
essfldOsirerr(t);u(SuiTeo fSire^sffsOsirem® Quir^a^^, he goes bashfully as 
a bride before her husband. iBir^Dfasne^Qsir^^iua iEL-d(^'BJsiTs9i— 
jj/ti) ; the foot will sometimes slip — ^druQu>sssr^ir i3skuL^is!T^ii 
euirir, those who are afraid of infamy will slight voluptuousness. 
13. Oisjss^ QdsLD /sfremisj QsLLi—eum (an imitative) an impudent, 
or bold faced woman. — There are 4 dispositions belonging to 
women called ti!s®s^(^essru}. I. /sir em li, modest j ; 2. ^oi—ii', simpli- 
city ; 3. ^a^s'ts, fearfulness ; 4. utSlirui-j, imitation, mirak) means 
a cord and bow. jt/sanr/stressr, or (c^mm, erroneously j>/(rri(^s0.sBirL^ 
or ^sasTi^asLu^^ a waist cord ; miremsflpaQp^, to slacken the bow. 
See ^em(Gss)ieuSl^ — /srreenTujih ; an honesty, /Biremujui money; 
Teloogoo. fBiresrih musk. 

/siriSlf mtreS, o9(ajj.ti), /p,^* ; an active 

vegetable poison: wa^e^iBin^ and erroneously uars^g^rsir^, or ens^fsirdl^ 
a strong poison, said to be produced from the root of the Acorus 
Calamus: u sheas' if n<^0atu tLjuL^uuiriruuiriTsemr? do people taste tlie 
relish of the poison ? that is, they do not : it is not to be tasted. 
Four antidotes to this poison are enumerated : 

1. ji/i^emwiTiSl or i3ini>rBiTi3, the sacerdotal antidote; 

2. 3';S^ifluj/sinSf or ^n^^minS, the royal antidote ; 

3. esieu&ujfsiTL3, the merchant antidote ; 

4. (^^^o'^iTL^y the servile antidote ; 

To these are ascribed the following colours : 

1. to ^fB^estrfSiriS, white ; 

2. to s=^^(BujrBin3, red; 

3. to (zmeii9iujiBni3, blue, and 

4. to (^^^ir/smS, black. R. 



117 

£)i!6iiiTisrr, I doubt not but she will surely kill her husband by said 
poison : — 

uiTLhuirQiii su tr em Lp ill uipil). 
The contents of this stanza, reveal that the plantain fruit, pos- 
sessing the quality like the snake Cobra-capella by the usage of peel- 
ing its skin &c. is(^3? denotes in Tamil, both for poison and supple. 

s3=QQ^s(^iii uirioS(TF,d(^LD 6Siri}>iS!(r^<S(^ii Q^ir<oS(r^S(^LD 

Q^iluir(9i(ivfo'fnds\i ^qt^lci^itit ujesrSifltjSleo 
QeutMuir^ih ^rr&^esr'Sisireh-. 
This stanza, gives double meaning for margosa fruit and for the 
breasts of dancing girls. 

^/_063Jr«(5 wireoiunSssTtuiru), 

This stanza, exhibiting the quality of the kernel of the Palma 
Christi, or Recinus L. and the elephant. 

N. 13. — The above mentioned stanzas, were made by one Kala- 
maca a celebrated Poet, in the city of Theroomalaroyan : subjected 
in the southern parts. This Poet appears to have had the gift of 
composition. (His works now in existence are usually entitled from 
the number of stanzas which they contain : as, the Hundred, the 
Thousand. The Editor has not seen the Thousand, but has heard 
of a poem of one hundred stanzas). It happened once to prevail 
a discussion, between him and the meeting of the Poets under 
the said Rajah; who, upon their stimulation had ordered to try 
his capacity : setting him under one ennssmL-tJo. (yemacundam.) 
This is supposed to be a sort of trial of punishment ; and concealed 
him in a pit as far as his neck, and set swords on the parts of 
his neck and ears, in order to try him, whether he would be able 
to compose a stanza without the motion of his head. This stanza 
should be predicated as a task committed in memory, soon as he 
got a word of double meaning, which they would suddenly choose to 



J18 

prefer him ; if not, his head will be assundered. — This is very 
commonly known among all the learners. 

§LuQuiTiLiiuird^(sSL- /sireSQe^ LO^Qpi—eisr fSflQevirrrsQi eSlL-S^uSQeij 

^® i^aQs®^i^''BiM ussisevifcSi—LDear^Qeo ujLhOuiT£srsSl2c;\)LDir^n^S(^, 
LD(2)SijiBi—LDis^(^isdp3 OpifliU'SU'fOLD^uirsirem LDSSsreuTsrrrBiririnuem'sir ldsst 

This stanza refers that the evil actions, are equivalent to that 
of poison. For an instance : 

Poison, for thieves is contained in their hands. 
„ „ lustful women is in their breast, 

„ „ liars is in their tongue. 

„ ,, whoremongers is in their income. 

,, „ calunmiators is in their lips. 

„ „ the men of lasciviousness is in their eyes. 

„ „ snake is in teeth. 

„ ., for scorpion is in tail. 

„ „ wicked men is in their whole body, just as the 

bitter filled in otlI^i or poisonous tree. 
,, „ deceiting fellow is in his mind. 

„ „ harlots is in their fat. 

/BirLDLT, (njuah ; tridental mark on tape 

forehead Vaishnavas. Sans." as ^aj^d^eusk tBirLOLxQuiTLLL-ask ^ he 
has cheated or deceived him. @<a/s3r ^iTuuirLL<S(i);LDeiir, he is a 
glutton. /^iru!(^ffir^/D^, li. to wear the Vaishnava mark on the 
forehead i. e. to squander the money &c. — /sn-LcQ^ujii, a name 
given; an appellation : Sans. Namad'hcya. &^u:(lp£idl-.iu /bitldQ^^uj 
OuDskm ? what name do they give you ? Scrr^si^iBiTLDLa, a small 
mark worn by some Vais]inavas,in compliance with custom ulLss>u- 
miruiU), a large mark worn by some Vaishnavas ostentatiously. 
^pj^fffTLDCLps^sCSs^ s^pjlisS<cneiFiuffiru>Qpe!frssQs^} (c&ipjpnnnDQpeer 
«Cp«^ SsSLL®^u.?;^^ujir (^aearuQuemQem. — Evangelical Poet. 
ir.ndj(G(if)<^f fBiTiLj(rF)cS ; a plant : Achyran- 

thcs aspera. L. 
/Birtuda,®^, /B/ria®6j/j a plant ; Cleo)nc. li. 



119 

j^irdrjuO'Sfrshief^Qp^f /stT^jiOsir^rr/Djii • (o hang one's 

self j^sucar siu^an^uQuinKS rssT'Sasfis'Slssr^ Os'^^aek ; he liang by 
a cord, or rope. See /^n^jSjp^. 

f5iT£iiSip^, miT/SlpD^i ; to yield a smell, good 

or bad, but commonly stink as : rBirp&iirium, one who emits a bad 
smell out of his mouth : Meta. one who speaks filthy words ^sij<sk 
QpdrQufreSJoSr-^ ^uu ^suoksvmu idir^u'^un-i-s?, he is not as before 
now he speaks obscene words i. e. ^i-^iuuQu3=<^. — /sirpeuiTiuemQ^i-. 
rBff^&isi]!T!jusk.f!Tui3LLi—iTsar; properly iB!rpioeu!rujmQ^i—& sipi^ireuiriu 
eiiremsdOsiireesn—iresr^ that which the stinking-mouthed miser has 
hoarded, the camphor-breathing liberal man shall receive and en- 
joy. Prov. equivalent to " the wealth of the sinner is laid up for 
the just." R. 

/BiT/bsire^, /sfTssiTsQ ; a chair, a stool. 

Note. — Natives' stool is entitled LnSmr, &jrfi](^, <£ls^uueoic!nsu ; and 
QpsssrS. These are peculiarly used as a table for dinner : as s^s 

This proverb, is applied when an inferior thinks himself to step in 
the dignity of the highest, of which he shall in no wise (though in 
dreaxu) could be obtained, lit : There is no a day that coald be 
seen the Chuckler had used a Table for his messing ; nor the 
Toddymonger had ever ride on a Palankeen. 

i^ssm®, SeuemrSi ; a vocabulary, a col- 

lection of words. Wils. S. D. 

Note. — This collection is enumerated the twelve Nigandu. 
i^is^mL-iTiijuQusf- speak correctly. 

fSssiru). Menih ; the fourth meaning of 

this word in length. This is derived from Sans. Nigadu. WUs. S. D. 

/Sg^'S'^ld, Qic&^(Biiil, SliKBiTLh ; contumeli- 

ousness 0.'sd^(Bi:LniTiu(Sus?p^, to speak contumeliously. Sl<ri^(Bfi, 
fem. 

iBsssruD, OfBssbTLD ; fat, fatness. Q/sissirs 

Qsn-Q^uq, petulancy? luxurience, wildness : ^<si)eir fS^ffsrsOsirQpuLj 
^suSsiT luitlL®^, by her petulancy, and wantonness, she is become 
insensible and stupid. 

i^sm®Bp^, Qsmru-p^ ; to work away, in a 

crowd, to teaze others, to nibble as worms as : ^jsusk s^ixton- Qmr 



120 

up.aSldrQssr uS(r^dS(^i^y lie teazes continually i. e. he reminds the 
subject perpetually.— /^a9«»7-Ll/r)^, to pinch. ji/6u^d(^ SiHe^L-ei 
O^iB'jLfiJb, he knows magic. 

institution, moral rules : B. relij^ious observance, especially 
that which is self-imposed. Qwldi^is^^i— ^uumLsQQ^sp^, to be 
in constant devotion, vulgarly QfBLOLD for iSujldim as : ^(r^6u^d(^ Qis 
iB^sOuem, a young woman betrothed to any one, ^a/ew- j^eu^e 
(^uu^eodiLi QfBiBasuuLLt—trek, he is deputy to him or he is sub- 
stituted to him. — i^iT 0DOTri@ i^Qs^Qen^esn—iTQiLDm^ /SiulS^^q^'S^ 
(^(fffLLs^^^eisr sc^&s)uju i^&^^irQujir, hast thou eaten of the tree, 
whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat. 
Gen. iii. 11. 

Selected Stanzas, from a work named OLDiiiLDLDem/D^^i-iTsui (The 
tank of true Scripture) composed on the judgment of God : after 
our first Parents have been committed sin, through the temptation 
of Satan. 

^L-iB^Q^'EJaej^uj Q^ehrpsm^uj/fliun- sSujuQuit'^B ^siri^snreiruinQ^iT. 
uSli^d^i—UUUJQp iBsSseiiQ^^^ i3Siiv/bO(2/'® euihuDeifHTLD/S/hj^ 

<^((f)SrTeoOsiT<iesLS.'E)(^ LD<:s>pih^QssiO€srek(n^ QesreaQf^esTd SdjaSi^ireS^etr^ 



]fl 

iBsiTiB^i—.!T^<iTnL—rB^ IB sk CUT ^ 1^ IT sw e>sisa&-ujp OJ^eir u&)^ uQuciau 
euSlir/i^i—T^^^eir QpoiriBiLj-Bi(^Qf,d€^s euQ^^^eS^ ^(SlQu>ssmues>iT.5 sirir. 

^LjS(^ifif§e^^LL U)L0LDi^iDLl.L^rrsu Ouitq^ix'SOit ^'essri^lSsardOsireirsjrr 
QajLB(^Qipesr63fl es9^esrisuuSleiSiTf,/iO^(Sds£i{u> ULLL^dsmoj seiir 

* <3'ITlS(^L£)^ISSO^ u9,SaSllQujff0friEian./S^ ^fBludoBT sSl uLl—Sek peurQ IT, 

QiDiLiLDuiemp^d^Ei—iTSLh — eSSsm iLjjj;ut—0OLD. 
S QT/eu IT essfi , Sireviresufiy ^uatMesuriii ; a naked 

person, emancipation from matter, and re-union with the divine 
nature, perpetual rest, or calm. 

It is used in this last sense by Hindoo writers but especially by 
the Buddhas, and Jainas, and has been mis-represented by some 
European writer as being the idea denoted by the atheistical term 
annihilation. R, 

iSsir^'STQ^^jSip^, iSesdiOemQ£^p^ ; to write stan- 

ding. 
rSsirj;iji§oiir£iJ,'5i—dSp^, iSem^jjiBem^v^Quirp^ or ^iejSI^ 

^laQuQuirp^ to make stops in walking. 

/^ 

SiB^'Sp^, /§is^p^, i(^dp^ ; to swim : as 

SlSsosSLLL-freoSds^ ; if the footing be lost, nothing remains but to 
swim ; q. d.he whoieaves his proper business, gets into difficulties. 
l£^(^(^s^s(^ !§s--3^uuips(g)W!TQrimrQi^iT ? will any one teach a young 
fish to swim i. e. will any one persuade to wise men, to manage 
their business in order. ids^ifl^iruS^iEj &pu^^ds\}Quj. Tliough it 
be difficult to swim in the ocean of learning still stedfastly learn. 
liireS'SetrujirQi—ffi). Do not play in water, Avvi. 

* Q^3^euiT^Qs;eii0e^vsr^uiQufr(r^i?rr 



122 

N. " This precept implies that it is improper for young people 
to play in tanks and other similar dangerous places. By so doing 
they cause great anxiety to those who love them, and run immi- 
nent risk of losing their lives. The temptation to do so is strong 
when under the excitement of company and enjoyment.'' S. 

MrrsssreSlj lj^wbitS ; a reddish color, in 

cotton cloth, produced by frequent dipping, or washing in water 
only, without soap, or similar materials. R. — This is very common 
custom to all the Bramins and noble Soodras. 

iSiT^^uQuirssrff'rr^LD} /§ ^ _^ uQ u it sar Q 3" rr jjji , or ^eseresyfl 

^lLl-s^it^ud, or FP,'BJ'^^ir^LD ; rice become like starch, from being 
allowed to remain long after having been boih'd. N. This rice will 
cause sickness to old people. /?/ry,LlLp.(£zir#/r^Lo is elegant talk 
in Southern side. 

/f/r^C?tf/r^, Ms-Qffrrjpj, or uemupuj^, or s(^&; 

boiled rice, kept over night in water for breakfast. N. Natives 
are very fond of this rice and eat it with puSir, curdled milk ; then 
the taste will be agreeable. Q.^iu, uneo, ^iSlir, Qldi ^euirirs^ s^itulS 
i_ s-i—ihiSsir eSu-'ir^iujuLh^ ghee, milk, curdled milk and buttermilk 
are very healthy to the body : as 

iSir^r^dS QiDiTiiQu^r^dS Omiuui-jQ^i'S u^fmr^jLosviT Qun^eairdau Quit 
QldlSI^ ; he who drinks water that has been boiled, he who di- 
lutes well with water his curdled milk, he Avho uses ghee instead 
of butter, his name is an antidote to sickness; lit. will enjoy 
health. R. 

J^'^'^, QviTiij(^ ; the unripe pulpy sub- 

stance of a palmyra fruit : as Qairemu.sir&o^^'s^ 0/siTiEi;^^iruL9LLu.(r 
eo Oexi(V)(^(&^^^^ ; by eating the said fruit in the summer, it will 
afford much healthiness. — This is very common food to Indians. 
Jfi^ui3sh'2end(^ eutu s^irQsi) O/K/r 357(45 Q/Brr/aaiTiu eSQpeiij^ ; that child 
has looseness like pulp, spoken of a lax state of the bowels, 

j^ifjDipSv^, j^^LpuS/D^ ; to go in with diffi- 

culty, to creep in, to enter, to penetrate : as essz^H^Q^trfenuSeo jsireo 
jpss)ifiiu tended; the thread docs not pass into the needle's eye : ^i 
fi^Qs'irei ermLDear^Qff!) jpis^ipujeS^^ ; the word not enters (that 
is not impressed itself on} my mind. erjuLOL^jpsiDLpuj ^i^iBQ^i^nii 



123 

ff^iT^ti); if a place an ant be free to enter then the fly will enter 
into it 1. e. eieOo^nriM ^stsitpi^^ ajneiLDir^^ULh ^emLpuj^siSo\) H. 
Whole entered into the hole, except the tail. — N. This was answered, 
by a scholar who paid his deep attention on a rat which was enter- 
ing in a hole : during his priest's instruction ; his priest interro- 
gated him on the conclusion of his doctrine; did all my advice 
entered in your mind ? 

^r 

^pQp^, .^sp^ ; to spin, ^so^ap^ 

to spin cotton thread, i^srek^^^^^,^^^ sstmrdQuirifdQdp what 
you count as to spin cotton thread. ^^^^iQLo (,^pjj/d(^Lb) eem 
dr^s'O.firdip^ ; to give a reason for a hundred things; that is, to 
know how to speak with propriety of many things, .^^^igti* 
(j^pj:vd(^ij>) usisfi:sei!)S (ua!sf^s^)0^frSopj^ • to censure a hundred 
things, that is, captiously to find fault. jiiT^^d(^uL3domuLLQL-.Q(^ ? 
have I engaged for a hundred things ? An answer given to one 
who did not content with what he has received. jbtt^ssi^sO^®^^^ 
@(75<T>3^ ; the measure that has spoiled a hundred i. e. a little 
thing spoiled a great. 

Qi^SipQp^y Q/EsSi^p^^ ^erQ^p^ ; to be- 

come loose, to become forsaken, to grow lean and weak : as 
Jgjafl^so/TLog^) Om^ip&&iajfriiS(Tf)'Sp^ to be not close, but loose and 
wide : 

STiuO/^SliQrrQpsiirj ssssrs<offlQ^omTQp6J!r 

Q^iTL^^LDemwirinrQp ^srrenQLnQs'ireifiirQffl 

^iriuLD means here time. This word is so elegantly sanctioned 
by southern persons {^(tiuud, a dice.) 

Before the body grow decrepit? the eyes dark, the teeth loose, 
and death, watching the opportunity, swiftly approach, look, O 
my soul, to the mountain Sonagri (Trinomali) and walk on 
towards it, assiduously worshipping. R. 

erea-s^ffju) QiB^ i^&Q'UJiTujQuiTe'iB^, or ^erriffiQufT&«-, the body i« 
grown weak, and decayed. 



124: 

Q/BUJuSQei easiSlih'Sp^, O/tujuQQei) sasuS®^^, Or OiZiiiuS 

Ceo easasiiu^Q^inudSlp^ ; to put tlie hand into seething hot 
butter-oil, a kind of ordeal. — This also was a common custom in 
Pandia Mandalam (as said) to force a wife^ to dip her hand in 
such a heating oil, when she is suspected as an adultery ; this use 
was to be ordered so, by the caste society. 

Q/5(W;®S'^^, 0/sii®/D^, or /§LBemLL/v^ ; to 

rub between the fingers : to feel, to gi'ope, to twist broken threads 
together ; the same as ^'3ssstaSp^,@psiipQujnQL-. ^esiipujiTiu O^iffujir 
LD&i Quir(rT,/i^esisvsp^. ^2oves>tLi Sit'Sjd^, (Q/s(rf,(BlSp^) to pick, or 
search the head, to pick out the louse ; properly ^^Os^i^L/Gu/rS 
0>siT ; vulgarly ;s^u^i—;S uQuir(rffis5r , Meta. he is about his vile 
business. O/ejj®, what is written indistinctly, and difficult to be 
read ^sveh O^a^ixu QitiTL^, she is a very stingy. 

QfBsfiSpjD, O.'s&fluSp^ ; to come forth 

crawling, and wriggling as: SQiuewem i-i(ipO,^eiflu3(iyLjQu.Tsi> O/ee^ 
uSQ/D, what you crawl like the worm crawls i. e. what you are 
like lukewarm. O-^erfl^^* 0it<o&eFSfs9<sk^ Quirp^ ; to bend the 
body backwards in walking, to walk crooked, or alfectedly. 

Qi5 

QfSffutrffLD/Sujrr^eueir, umrir^jr/h O^'ftaJir^e^ek ; one 

who is not acquainted with modesty and manners. 

Own k^QsiTemi—esi^s^Os^iLi, QrBii^dQekesr&sy^ or QsirL^sQeir 

€srioS>^0'O.3'iij ; pay a vow. ^/f^ulSowSsit miTtGrr.s^^rineir Q.'Bk_^'^uiT<sijjff 
the child is become lean gradually. Qpsfr6ij/rd.ah.LL® Qm/h^QuirJ^ffir. 
Q. have you pounded nicely the curry stuff? Ans. ^soreuTU) QreaeSeo 
8so ; not yet. — Some Indians use to fix a vow (as to pay such as 
Pongal, sacrificing, fastings, money offering, and coring them with 
knives, hooks, iicc.) to god or goddess of heathenism, upon any bad 
or severe inaccumuluted distemper; and in the extremity, nothing 
would be fruitful. 

UlS,"/5,4? GS<9?<5«Lli_/r6Br (or Qp^STJ tU T COT ) eTSSlQ^Ql^ ^ IT dsLCUGflll (f^eST , 

a boy but of ycstcrdny disputes with me. A word of frccpicnr 
occurrence. 



ew/ssl/D^, es)/duS^T^ ; to bccoiae spoiled, or 

rotten ; to begin to grew too soft as a fruit, to waste by being used 
Meta : to be tender hearted : as emf^^^tfia/^ ; properly ssymii^^.suSj^; 
a rope much worn, or half broken. eis),^(^ffuLpLD ; a fruit that is 
over-ripe. mn'sueuQiTsafl^Lh OfsniLiusijesifiQiuis^ ; speak mildly even to 
a beggar Aw. ^euScur /f cro/fuj/y^aaCcfiugpii) ; j'ou must squeeze 
him well or bruise him well. esi.'siuiremL^ ufjL^Qaa/c^ ; to appeal 
to pity. @<ii/£ar Qus^pQu'B'Qei) Lcem LoesirBiLjuo ; by his speech the 
mind will relent, or is accustomed to be pitiful. §,i^uuiT^tflujiTQ^ 

the eminent sermon of this minister, -whatever mind will be sof- 
tened, i. e. the feeling will be revived. eia/sdlSsunn^vQ^e'i ; shun 
every destroying evil. Aw. 

toTDrBQeu^i^LULD or SQaj^carLh, Q ,1 u.j'^ eu ^ ^ uj lii ; an ottering, an 

oblation; derived from Sansc. Nivedana, giving, addressing. R. 

OrbiTem®S/P^, Q/EiremLip^ ; to limp, or halt; 

as QfbiremL^^^&snM ; lameness. Meta. Stubbornness ^.m^aas- Orsir 
eaauD. or npL-euew Osmhuj^Q^^i aireas^uutLL-FuQuir eSlQ^dQ^, 
your desire is like a lame, who wished to have the honey on a tree. 

Qm,:^sr&)Sp^, 0,'Bir^sp^ ; to crush, or bruise 

in pieces, to destroy : as Q''6ir^i(^'f s^sars^thusmp^, to mock and 
vex. ^/E^^ds'So2s)iQuje^ffi)irLh Ouirup-Qufnj^ujfrdj 0/5rr£udSu(cU!T(S), make 
the stone into small pieces ji/sjesr Quitu^l. Qs^ir^esy^ Giuedsoao) 
0/Eir^dSl<sSLLL-irsk, he ate all the rice greedily. — Ofstr^udSip^, 
sometime means for eating by lowest people. 

Qitas.g-QffdjQr'^, Q/BireuSOs^iLip^ ; to give pain, 

to afflict to grieve another : as 

Note. — The queen Vijciyei, whilst pregnant of her first child 
was forced to flee from an insurrection in which the king was 
assassinated by his prime minister : in her flight she was delivered 
of her son Sivagan, in a place appropriated to the burning of the 
dead, a spot considered particularly ill omened and unclean. 
Here the child was found by a merchant, who, being ignorant of 
liis parenta<2;e, took him away? with the design of bringing him up 
as his own. In the meantime, the queen retired to the desert 



126 

Rnd'spent her days in ppiiauce. At length the boy> arrived at 
manhood, having learned the particulars of his birth, and the place 
of his mother's abode, goes thither : the mother is delighted ou 
again beholding her son, vrhom she now finds of ripened yearsj 
and renowned for his military exploits, and in a transport of joy- 
affection, immediately accosts him thus : 

ujirrfio^LDuaLD. a-@-«sff. 

You are come, O Lord Sivagen, whose breast (beams with 
mild splendor) like the rising sun, to visit me ill-omened, (wretch), 
who quitted in the field of battle the king (thy fatlier) valiant 
in war, and abandoned you in the burning place of the dead, 
(you are come) paining your feet, which are as the red Taraarei 
imbued with the (rich) colour of the lac that it has sucked up. B, 

QmiT(^sSp^, (o.'S!TeS/r>^ ; to pain, to smart 

to ache : as MOs'iu^euQi^Qp ^uL^^esBn^irQiUj&^id^^ O^lLhsu^ss)^ Q.^it&i 
Qeii^iiQixiUJsosoiTLDeo s-<sii2osr Q/BrrajQ^'iSNtp-iu^eo^. No need to com- 
plain with others about your imminent fault except God. ^eueir 
^mSsariLjii Oa^iLi^^eKJfiLiLD eiuQuir^i}) OiEiri^Qus^^n^err , he speaks 
(in the bitterness, of his heart) both against himself, and against 
God. @^ Omnk^a^dSpQaij'^, this is the time of privation or 
suffering. O/sT/s^Quireur s^Qpffirnti, a distressed, or f>oor family. 
0/srrijiQuirc3iQfiTjjj; spoiled rice, by being kept in a vessel without 
water, {lEs^mff^-^dQ-a^irn-) srssrCc/pff-a/io £5(7505(75/5 _^0<2/r©<saC?Q'^;io ; 
you must give me a medicine to my sickness. ^^Q(&F)6iji(^<k ^■saQsar 
LJD^i^ Y*roper]y , ^sar(D^'U.s(^g ^irQcarLDQ^ijp, the cause of disease, 
and the remedy are the same; an expression capable of various 
application : Beschi explains it of the human will, or mind, con- 
senting to evil, and removing the effects by contrition. 11. QiBiriud 
QL-fEjOairQi—ei) {Q.-B!r(a\jiSi^iBiQsiTQi—eo) • take sickness in time ; or 
he prompt in applying a remedy, on the first symptoms. Aw. 
Qmiieuppojn ipQeu (^eapeuppOs^s'iisuui ; prosperity without sickness ; 
wealth without deficiency : a form of well-wishing. 



127 

S.Q^i0^flujITLDlei) OuJire(flLCiQ£>IBjQ'ilU) 
^ifj^^^ffQuiSCT^QlMl! IT LD(!f)fs^p(njQ^'^Lti. Q i .S IT LD€S!^ . 

This is said of a meanest fellow's wealth, when he is so proud as 
to not think his former condition ; the remedy of making humble, 
is to turn liini again to his last poverty. 

QnirekLjQiBirp'Sp^y QisitlcljlSIl^sp^ ; to fast, to 

mortify the body, by religious abstinence.. — Virgins in India 
continue in this kind of fasting, once in a year : for the purpose 
of obtaining prosperity in future time. 

u 

useioL-Sui3pj?i, ueuetDL—auSuQuiTS-^ ; it was a 

narrow miss, or escape— <2/5««sB5L_^uLSi^«^. This word was heard 
when two boys were playing marbles ; this gave confusion to a 
learned also (as said) by its cloudy meaning ; by analysis, 0/e£i> 
paddy, «s!Dt_ last, ^ui^a^s?, having escaped. Properly QrBs^sesiu- 
suL3u(cuiruSp£ii or OfBisi)s9irpa;es>t— ^ui3uQunuSlpjpi — means the tip 
of a paddy length, has not touched (for striking your marble.) 
^(rpLOizm'uOuessrLsi(i^ni s sir ;ef^ fa sen jilt's 

^Q^isSUULlL—ITir O^ITL—ITLf. (S^pe'lT . 

The double minded woman, the intoxicating and the practice of 
dicing are the intimate companions to those that have deprived the 
blessing of Holy. 

usffi uweo, LDi^tuiresTLD : the day time : 

iD^s9iuiTserLD means mid-day time, the same as s-Q^Lcti or <sLl«ni_ 

«i_L6K£_ S-Q^LDLD. U SUsSQ ffO 3= IT Lj(B p^ tO diue. IBITsiir ^ [flT U U Sil ei IT iil UIt(B 

uu-Qi—ek 1 wrought day and night. ems^^^sTiusffOiciTj:!! eiTUiSiSSp 
Q siuffOeiiTLDei ^j!fiTLDiT£ti3'iTLJi3(BQp eu ifi i s lR siiSso ^ the jainas, eat only 
at day time, not in the night. By this should be known they finish 
their supper before sun set. 

iSviTsSlsftr^ Qppu^e^ Qs^ujuSp puisSsk^ uSiusp (OtJ'Qldsuq^iJd. 
The wrong done lately to another will return him another day. 

uQlTlh^Q^IT(B'SSlp^, UGLjlB^QsiT(Sdp^, ^ — (BSj7£i{p 

^ ; to distribute. This is most commonly used by rustic. L/ay^^ 
ij(_/n-ffi®^^, to look well, or to survey every part. ue^k^iSsi^^'streuasr 
properly u:^^^p!eijsrrefT6ijeBr, one who possesses the faculty of 
discrimiuatiug. 



128 

u<i7)sujiTsrr>, ussieuuJiTafl ; a liater, an enemv, 

u foe ; us usDevujir<iii'ftd(^L^o5iLU ^./vsutr'^d Qs,(Bss,Q€v^j'Jd ; to destroy 
the habitation of an enemy by feigning friendship and so making 
liim secure, or confident. (ippum>siiQffiuSi^ tS/buemasS'SsmLjLi^ he 
who^^hates will be hated in return. 

us"^, uff&v ; spinach ; Portulaca ole- 

racea ; In another sense, a young boy; as §}iiJcer ^skeeruD 0(n^LLuu3' 
?enujiTesr^iTSi L^i^uSsieofTLDeo Os^uj^ireir • lie did foolishly because 
he is very young. In poems eviuSso, or euLuSoodQsiTL^. 

Qu!r(Sp^ ; to eat, to consume, to devour ; as usu^s^^^it^ld j^euirurr 
ffLb ^[r<sa^3F3=fr^LD ^3)j IT u!T f} LD . If hc consuiue, or preserve me, his 
will is supreme. Prov. 

u-^3'si]sisrssraB(o^, u^s^ suit em a Serf! ; a parrot, as 

having those five colors. 
ui—Q^Qp^, ^'—Q5P^ 'y to spread, as trees 

or plants, to extend, to grow larged, as a ring-worm running in 
any part of the body ; Meta : to become divulged, or spread abroad, 
as fame; as @/5_^<f(?^^ sriiir^uiut—'B^'^urTS's?, this news has spread 
or has been made public every where. 

ui^L-em'-, ULLi-mp; acorn-rick, a por- 

tion from the proceeds of harvest, the allowance of the plough- 
men • as u'J-i—<5<!ips,BipsS, a cultivated field, artificially irrigated. 
uLLt—esip Qp^^snirQuiriBp^, to mark the corn stack with a stamp, 
impressed with nnid, or clay. ^^usi)ULli-&npd Slffiruni ; this is 
a town in which people of all tribes are mingled ; as distinguished 
from one, in which the diflerent tribes and trades live together, 
in distinct streets. R. 

ULLu^ea-aQa^iB, uLLesirQsiB ; a hamlet of fisherman. 

ULlsoL-GScKBuQuirSpj^f u^esiL-^iKSduiroj^ ; the bark 

becomes loose on the tree ^leta. to peel oif by great heat. 

uemfi&siriLj, u^deas, Q.sit^svlLl^uju), .-bq^ 

iBtnLuf-iuLD ; well, prudently, wisely, and with knowledge ; as : 
uesafiseiasujinu ^emuisp^, to cook well g)i/ffi^fle\) erssrdi^u ues^i 
sasjSsoSso, I am not well in the country. s^LLL^swi^C'^s^iU uesufid 
€S)%O3^!T<50suiT^ hc finds fault with the house that has built now, 
said of a supercilious critic, whom nothing will please; and wlio 



129 

finds fault merely because the doing of any work has not been 
confided to himself. E,. ej€-osi)iTLD wi^aetaauemosisflesieus'ff'iT&i eu/rjs 
Q^iTuL3s9m^QuiT&JiTsk ; he will take charge if I fit the things up 
in a good order, or neat style. OT5rre.t_./i)L/<5(3 uessflsesjsiuS'ieos^iTLDsd 
uiTLpiTujQuireijja, my body is become weak without good nourish- 
ment. 

uesifisirnua, umsi^ujfniLh ; sweet cakes, frit- 

ters, pastry as : ufsi^uj!TiT(^-9i-'Bp^, to bake fritters, ueaafiujirir^^^^, 
a shrub Sida populifolia, its seeds are reduced to meal; from 
which sweet fritters are made. — Several kinds of cakes are to be 
made by Indian women by the flour of different pulse and rice, 
none of them would require eggs : unless they earnestly think to 
mix them by the custom of foreigners. Lcrr&j and uesdffujrriiLh are 
figuratively used among Natives thus : unrsijs.^^^c^is umfliutroiMf 
as is the meal, so the fritters ; expenses are regulated by means. 
iDireiiemL-rri^s^ uessfliuTJT(^'3^i—ei)trLD, if there be meal, we can bake 
fritters ; or before undertaking any expensive work, let us calculate 
our means. ereket^L—^i^so iMir^sudso^ I have no money. sT-sBrL/^si^csr 

all the fortune of my husband, had been entirely lavished.—®^ 

^^s(^^^^ LL^n-dlLp.^^rrsi3Lh i^Q£S<;>assOsiT(r^OsiT(y>daLLes)L^Quj, 
though the poor maid-servaut beat flour ever so hard, she has 
but a small cake to expect. 

u(sS^, usmr^ ; an ornament, a trinket, 

iewelry. GuireinOi^ssrjij usm^uso ; golden ornaments are various, 
but gold is one substance ; used to signify, the existence of one 
God under many forms, or manifestations. R. /5ero«, FPa^s^uiS^s?, 
e.eTOt_OTti3, &c. common for jewels. ^<^sijuLD(r€srJ:^3iT(Sei>Smiu s^u^iu 
^Q cs IT IT LDjbeo/DLuQ^ suits'^ OujiT(7r,Qu(iT)iijBL.sijQsfnT(B/uQLi>iSla;^ eSojrr^ 
ik^^pei eu'SoffiJji)S/b(^t}> ei!)eua3r^/b(^0i-D^^eir€S)LL^(Sf.iT en^g^esretDLD^^/r 
QlLLeSm'^- — 'STu0^ir(S Osn-^^zkeioLD^^mSl^ LDuOuiTQ^sm- OldujuQuit 
Q^sh- sirmrU^/Seij. ^(Tf/Sijehi&^eiJiT. 

u^uO^mec, U'^uQi-esr^ ; the sound caused 

by a swift motion, or struggle as : OT£sri@ wms^ ul-uOlsn-jtv ^u^ 
e,p^-> my mind is struggling or labouring in difficulties, or fears, 
&c, Q^nLuiLiisS^/b L^aj ui—uQt—einjj' ^ijid/D^, the vform is moving, 
or struggling, in the heat of the sun. .gyayssr ua^u^^uLf ^L-djSu 
Quiri^ff?, his arrogance is now discontinued. 



130 

uflih, UQh^euLL, or uJi^euu, ^^ ', tl'^ 

same as sirsniM time. ui(^suLDrrsms(rsi>Lly reasonable time, as : 

Thoi\gh you exert yourself to the utmost, the acts you may 
have undertaken will not come to pass before the appointed time : 
none of the lofty trees of lengthened form bear fruit except in 
season. Mudurie. 

u^uiuiTsp^, to explore, or to examine whether the proper 
temperature has been observed, to taste meat, in order to see 
whether it is properly cooked. R. 

uQ^evih, 3h- ; six seasons of the year are reckoned : 1. s/r/f, 2 
sfu^ir, 3. QpmusS, 4. lS^wuooS, 5. ^'^QsueSs^, and 6. Qp^nQsueSei)- 
u(rf,suL£, <9= ; four degrees of the age of women ; by derivation from 
the Sanscrit : 

1. 6urr3s\), uiroso, a child, under 5 years, and also up to sixteen. 

2. /s(rf,eB^, a young woman from 16 to 30 years of age. 

3. iS.QiTerresii—, a matron, a woman from 30 years of age to 55. 

4. eff(75^i«ro5r an old woman. Wils. R. 

The distinction in the use of these terras is not always accura- 
tely observed ; uQ^euLD-cr ; seven degrees of the age of women ; in 
Native Tamil usage. 

1. Quea^, a girl from 5 to 7 years; 

2. Ou^ihiXDu, a girl from S to il years ; 

3. LniEJ6S)s, a girl from 12 to 13 years ; 

4. LDi^tBes)^, a young woman from 14 to 19 years; 

5. ji/iflemevf a woman from 22 to 2o years ; 

6. Q^ifl^su, a woman from 26 to 31 years; 

7. QuiflsrrdQuemr^ a woman from 32 to 40 years. Sanscrit. R, 
u.3jiiSp^, uj-jpi/r^ ; to be over-hasty, to 

be precipitate, u^^iOir/r^i/r^, to speak precipitately, in too great 
haste, rashly, unadvisedly. u^s(ir^f,sirifluj^',ifl^i(n;^y a well meditated 
matter will not miscarry. 

uk^psirso, ' ui^sairei ; a pole : ui^isire^ 

{BinLpja, to fix a pole, of a booth, attended with some ceremonies 
when a marriage or a festival, is to be celebrated, /sir^ii'srr^ineiki—ir 



1.11 

(W)^ e^(ff)U(h^ei)1u^i-eifnJD, uiien tliere are four poles, a booth can 
be made— that is, any needful thing can be made wlien the materi- 
als are ready. R. In another sense ^snm eurriuireo u/s^&dQuir(S(nj'ssr ; 
he speaks proudly, but to no purpose. 

umQ, euifl'5S)ffj i^QffiKi^, uffl/(^<gf ; order, 

course, range, a company of guests : as ^Scoruu/h^, a line or row? 
of elephants. ^liSl/mussr rBu:(LpsmL-UJsiJ<^(^ffO ^esiL^uui^uSeSQ^fS 
^(rQsosmesr SoS)U-uuih^iiS<s£i(jr)i^iTOsiskeBr ; if the host be friendly, 
no matter whether we sit first, or last, among the guests. uih^d(^ 
(Lpmss uesiL-sQUiSl/h^, go forward to the entertainment, but go 
back to war. Prov. Mer€srs(^u ui^eu/r, are you relationship to 
me? — u.i^, in another sense, a ball ; ui^i-p.sr)^^ to strike a ball. 
^^err ui^iTLLi—LLiTUJ QeudsiiO<9'iLi(n;sh-, she works very actively. 

uincffs&)ajLD, uELDnsv9iLULJD ; a licavenly mys- 

tery, a great secret. 

unLDiTiT^f^ui, uiriMiTs^LDLD ; tliB suprcmo, or 

principal good : ironically, foolish simplicity : uffLDirp-^^(^Q^, a 
goorhoo of simpleton. 

uiiiTS(^, iSl/nrdt^ ; inattentiveness, care- 

less-gaping ; idly or looking about ; this is common talk among 
Tamulians ; commonly su/rij/rffi/n^, properly eurruJuirirsSlp^, to gaze 
merely one's proud talk ; QunhtSiinTii;^ uirsp^f, to gaze vacantly 
around, ^sueh- QLDUDL3ffn-s(^ uird/Deveh, she is lascivious woman at all 
times : as wiruir^^(SiJ<srr suit i^(^i^/b ^rr err ji/es)/DSir^^siJ^ OussbTUjiipfB 
^irek, she who gaze one's mouth? will lose her prosperity and 
he who guards on chastity of his wife, will surely lose the same. 
jynjzsr iSlinT3(3)UiriTdQ(n;'SBr, he inattentively looking here and there. 
uuaQpsuLD ; properly unir(LpsLD, is elegantly used for an averted face, 
inattention.— uTT-ffs^ in another sense, iSlinTS(^(su(i?,si^LD, the last or 
past year : also is a title to king as : e^wmB unirs, 

Quirp^, uiBih^Qu.9-rQp^ ; &c. To speak in one's behalf, to side 
with one, to take one's part : as : j>jsu^Quem3'ir^s(^ Quj^jiQm^ 
aiTinresr ; he speaks with partial afTcction, in favour of his 
wife. eLeke^[TLDOeu(^^^ cpQT^udsrLpi^ Offe-iffOiflds. An iniprecation. 
Note.— Rut this is altogether inelegant; and although indeed 
the above denominations are borrowed from the elegant dialect, 



13;2 

yet they are so common, that even the women are in the habit of 
using them. 

uffl/s^QuQiu uiTjpsu^iBssiQ^, 

It is much better to hear the word of a sensible boy ; than to 
Lear the speakings of an ignorant ; and it is more better to hear the 
Divine word ; than to repose our trust on the story of vain fabri- 
cations belonging to this iniquity workl. Ou^ ; ^u-rrsLh. 

ufisiTffihy uifluj/rffLD ; entire destruction, 

abolition , abrogation, atonement ; from Sans. Cara, destroying 
and Pari, intensitive prefix. 

" The sans-word Parihara, disrespect, which, if used, must be 
spelt the same way, in Tamil is not in usage. Its derivation is 
from Pari intensive particle, and Hri to take, to take away, en- 
tirely to remove ; which notwithstanding may possibly be the 
derivation of the word in its Tamil acceptation. R.^' ^euesruji 
^ujLD uifliun-iTLSeii^TLDei i^eaip^ffjreir, he has cured from his sickness 
without diet, and medicine. u^^nuQuesiirs [Osirm peuek) Osrrem 
cmevesr ufliuiTift, he who has killed ten persons is a perfect physician. 

uifls^ii, urflujih ; gift, donation ; in usage 

a nuptial present. utfltLnhQu^sf-p^ ; to arrange the nuptial present. 

Though a girl of wiflow, should try to bestow a proper donation or 
the nuptial present as usual. ufl^tM, means in another sense, one of 
the five senses, that is, feeling or touching ^easn^e^. sans. avuiHs^ti). 

uifl^iruii, uff^^irsviJ},uff^iTuu) ; excessive pain, 

anguish ; (from uiB intensitive and ^tuu) burning.) Wils. S. D. 
In Tamil usage, pity, commiseration ; as : j)in5fjuiriBiu(^(BixiiS u^ajjfiiB 
^Qunesrffi Otti^^uuiT^^nuLo. It is more pity that the ruination 
took place in that large family. 

uQf)tMuipLD, OuQf)iluifiLo ; a large fruit. 

un^iluL^ujmus^Qffiu^(SeuSs\}, OuQ^tluL^^iruj O ff iLi ^Q 6iids\} , or 

(Ju>/rtl(_n-<2»i/^ ; a work very rudely or coarsely, done ; Ouq^ldul^ 
tuiTiuQuffhp^, to speak rudely ; and roughly commonly (geroz-^croL- 



133 

he is a stout or bulky~man ; in another sense : he is a man of igno- 
rant for honesty. OuQ^iliSlL^iSiLjLd/D^, to be avaricious, ^Meta. to 
insist upon. 

ueo^fB^msoTj OuenQavii^jif^ ; one who excels 

in strength; a brave^ or valiant, person. 

usossesj/D, u90eji^dsssr, Qffirifi, usvff&^m \ small 

shells cowries ; used in some places in lieu of small coin. 

u&>is6is, usi)Q!)^ ; a board, a plank. 

UbVir^sirjTLD. (ueoiTQ^L^ujih) ueo^w^ii, eueossLLL—friuui ; vio- 

lence, forcible detention : as sLLi—irnjilsirffOuemih ^eoixi^QjijeisnTu 
emiM. This uses for forcing a person to do a work for nothing. 

LJcVeoi(5, LjQ)s\)/ri@ ; a palanquin, or litter. 

A Telugu word, remotely derived from Sans. Palyauca : elegantly 



ueijiTessPiiS, uevjrSsstff- ; the full moon. 

ueij^^uQuitr^irLD, Ouir^^QiDir^ffUi ; a kind of ring 

esteemed pure, used in the second ring finger, ue^j/j^juj means a 
disease in the anus. 

uipQeupsa®, uLpenssn® ; the name of a town, 

(from Qeueo, a tree : Mimosa.) 

utpQ@p^, uipeS/D^ ; to be used to, to be 

accustomed, uipmjtr^eusk, one who is ignorant and unskilful, not 
familiar. ufncQuiT®uipQwSo have nothing to do with a snake. Aw. 

upuu6sr, ^^^iissiTffeir ; a hasty, rash, 

person : ufouuekueoeSifiib^iTasr, an hasty person, has lost his benefit. 
eviu^^uupuL^Qe^ ^ifluSp^ ; to seek after the means of living, or 
the necessaries of life, with great labour and pains. 

ueapujioisipQp^, u<si5)p{uu^&p^, ^Qpi^uQuir® 

p^ ; to publish by sound of tambour or drum ; as ■3'iTemua!)pd(^ 
Qpip^;Si-f. a stick of an arm's length for a Pariah of span in height : 
implying that a contemptible Pariah must be forced to work by 
flogging. uet5}pu(ouJ''3fS(j^LD ^ss)!ruL^Siji(^iJDLr>siSbrSii>^, the speech 
of a Pariah, and the flower of a Pumpkin, are both destitute of 
fragrance. Prov. R. ^even u^spQiDentD, she is a vain talkative re- 
porter. There are thirteen distinctions among the Pariahs. 

uppetoeudSlp^i u^^emsusp^^ 03fr(ar^^^i£l(Sp^^ 

QptLL^sSKSlp^ ■ to kindle afire i. e. to incite by a secret notice, 



134 

to rouse one. ^£usir^(Su}uija^ds(a>^i}) ^ffisoir^en^uu^^eiDeusSQjLi) 
Qsilu^iarriBj she is a very clever to destroy tlie peace of a family 
and to incite a rebellion by a secret notice. 

u/p£2j'lLDfr, us'^Qldit • will it be sufRcieat ? 

'-'jbjjjLD, commonly u^^^lc, it is sufficient or Qutr^LD enougli. 

u£mLhuiT(^., ussnlunsij -J syrup, or boiled juice 

of the palmyra-tree, ussrujuik^sfai^, the fibrous web, Avhich sur- 
rounds the stalk of palmyra-leaves. 

u^iulL®, u^lL® ; au inspissated extract 

of ripe fruits, and sap, of the palmyra-tree. — This kind of living 
with the enjoyment of Palmyra tree, is very excessive chieflv in 
the east side of Palamcotta ; great many productions are producing 
from the tree just as : ULLss)i—fBirir.LDLL&5)L--€^db\)-0iBiTiBi(^-usmiJDULpLD- 
^'£SsriEia!riu-BefT-usm(i^ffirjx or UcSi§iT-uesrOaULL®-S(ffiULjs<XLLLf.-so)s 
em®-<Ji>-ifiuu^cS, &c. 

ussrjBf uemcssfl ; a hog, or swine. ^.sm- 

uemes!^} a boar, OuLL<ani—uuss6re^, a SOW; QfcrTznilumiTtsiflf a por- 
cupine, a hedge-hog as: 

usk/Sssh-^u^^iflpQp LLir en i-S^ ^ ^ f: (nj i^ 

iB^ p^LuiraLDrri^Irs <s®^^/r^'£!o/ri@a<5,Tso ; 

To shew goodness to ungrateful people is like putting fine flour, 
in place of coarse meal, into a pig-trough, /sirei^iuair. 

udi^Qp^, uei>T(5!^p^ ; to speakj to be gar- 

rulous, to be pressed, or plagued, to card cotton with the fingers 
/§ GT esr ^u smcsflu sin etsflQu-si-Qpf what you speak a long story over and 
over. 

UIT 

uirsLD, uirajih ; a portion, a share, cooking. 

uirSi^QstiiSp^, to dress curry (means for parting also) sfisndj 
utr&LDfTiu s-es)LDa 3ir3 3-r, food sufhciently cooked, uiraihusedip^, to 
cook provisions. 

aifl&aiiriu OuiriBAs^/Siuiruj s i^ cA 3; s ir u'j J- ^luec.riu 
uiBsaiTiLi uS^s-L^iundj Uessr^^sir — Q&iBe.miTLDei) 
j^ui-fdsaiTfu Gi-buj^oulLl- eitrdSl^ eir^dsia^dLcssir 
a.uiJ?ffi}'k)>9- &^^ s-lS . — Cumben. 

The words a'/7.siW53F,u//?-.j!j'L'L/i«/riu. arc meant in this Stanza, 
for Currv. 



135 

siTS^ism^ eSLLQi—sQ ujireS^s s^icSsflSbur sp^MsrOfftLi 
^irs^es)^ /§d8L— QtmriT^csrl c^fiflScffr/; ^./i^u/iir 
Qssi^eBi^ (ourrdS®u) CoswSsrrtfSsi) eui^^iSlsisr ^cijiueu-^u 
uiTS^ssi^ ujiTuSl^i ^fS^L— QiavesiT'^Oosresr uffLjQuiT(rrjQ<sfr, 
Eutreatiug for the grace of Divine. 
uiTsei, urrsuei ; a winding plant : Momor- 

dica Charantia; its bitter fruit is used in cookery. Osmci-juuir 
ensn, a variety ; the fruit is longer^ and not so bitter. 

uir®S/D^f uir^p^ ; to sing as : (^uSojQ/s 

(rf,iQuuiT®nri^, to chaut with a restrained, or slender tone .3n-ipi@ 
uuiTL^, an epithet of Aw. Meta. a flatterer. 

Ljefis^^^ ^uSq^sQU) Ouirsar^i/r^ siriu&i^ui 
OtBiBi^s'OutTifi s^Q£>d(^LD lu IT ehr u IT L^ — sSiflds-QtcinQ 
QuQa(B^'2;SQesr<srremeuOiuz<STLJ QuiriT ji/i—irsiiuir 
.suiTL^i^finuj Qeui^sk gjero^. By Avvyar. 
There are five kinds of utr, or uitl—so \iz -. Osusmuir, ^s^iflujuurr, 
ssQuuir, 6U(^9iuuir, LDQf,LLurr, these are used by the Poets for 
different purpose. ^fB^(cSLLL^eo ^(^eium—eo j>jldssis(tld Qto-s^dQi-.'S 
©J?, there is nothing in that house but the dancing and singing. 
uiTLLL-frefij a laborious man, or an industrious man? <^(r^u[rLLLs^Qoi 
Qss>i-.iju!TLuSi—sQ/D^, to recline on one side. ^;^ss<iSd3? e^(V)Slss>u. 
[uiTiu'Sii—re^ ■s'em^qiTem®^, the body has been injured by a strain. 
uiri—rrsEl^^ uiTi—ir<ailfl ; from eSp, fate, or 

destin, and uir®, hurt, or damage ; an unfortunate destiny. ]]. 
aasBiuih urri—rrdliffuJiTiii QpL^(^ff=j3 {Qpi^i^^) the tiling ended un- 
happily ; it has proved troublesome. — Qpi-'^i^^ may be used as a 
general verb ; when it is used as M QpL^ii'sm^iutr, indicates did you 
tie up the money? and in the sentence pointing the death as Qpufib 
^iTffiT, means is he dead ? and so on — Oeu.^^^s^, Sec. 

uitlLl^iulB , or i3iT^<sis)LD, uinl.L^iu&!)LD ] thc first day af- 

ter the new, and after the full moon : Wils. R. 

UIT6SS-LD, euircssTLD ; an arrow, a rocket as : 

the five arrows : of LDskiD^sisr — 1. ^irixaairu^, the Nelumbiura flower 
or lotus. 2. LDiriiy,, the mango-llovvers, 3. ^(oeirstDL^, the flower 
of the Uvaria. 4. QpsuSaOut^, the Jasmin-flower. .5. Q,eu^uLj^, 
the flower of the Pontederia. ^sSes^suuej^sru), a rocket. 



136 

uirgsu), ufr_deiju> ; lapse, sin, crime. 

uiT^aui, (® ; or u^^ixrrufrssu), five especial crimes. 
'[.'OsiT&^, murder; 

2. OuiTuj, falsehood ; 

3. seir&j, theft ; 

4. sehenQ^i^eo, a drinking any intoxicating liquor. 

5. g(V5^/EOT>^, continually to a spiritual superior. 

Fn€fir(n^mf (ips^Q^iq iSsisn^^ST OeOskicp^^sF 
ffiT^Q(rrfiT QpS^^s sefl. — (^peir. 

sskas)LD^(S^tr Owesru^iTLD. 
uiT^&iLD, er ; the seven sins. 

1. &^^<f(Lpearm^, or jtjB.ijsn-n ih, pride. 

2. ji/Qf,^jsQe^iTuLD, or s^Qe^iTULD, cupudity, avarice, 

3. sTLDiM, lust ; 

4. esisuL—LLLSuju)^ or iJsro«, hatred ; 

5. ^^esruiSlfflujL£), or QuiTS'etsTU'SflujLD, ghittony ; 

6. QssnuLL, or airiLi^s^s, anger ; 

7. ^^LLi—essru), or Qfftrujus^, laziness. Sat. R. u:r^suetir(wiu^S^ 

not be hasty to look at an evil person's face. — World talk. 

uiTuuirck J uniT uuirm J uiTuuijem , {3iiiTL£sesrair^ ^'^^ j * 

Brahmin. This word has the best authority ; and it of the most 
frequent collociuial usage : it seems to be an early, and lisping, 
imitation of the Sanscrit term, people unable to enunciate the 
full sound R. Lj/TLJL/i^ npud'sods^, J. the Brahmin l)as no earthly 
superior, 2. Rom. ('atho. usage, the Papa, (or Pope) has no 
earthly superior. R. 

Note — Those are five characters for Brahmins,are the following.- 
The celebrated son of Pandu, the learned Tudhishther approaching 
the sage Vaishampayna, with haiuls respectfully joined, enquired. 
Who are those called Brahmin^;, and what is the distinguishing 
mark of Brahminity ? Be pleased to explain it to me ; I much 
wish to learn. Vaishamayayana answered. — The first mark of the 
Brahmin is that he is endued with untiring patience and other 
virtues, is void of arrogance and sensual desire, and injures no 
sentient being ; the second that he appropriates not to himself any 



137 

thing the property of another, whether he find it on the road- 
side or in a dwelling, unless it be duly given to him ; the third, 
that he has abandoned all malignancy of disposition, is destitute 
of selfish desire and of secularity, and is always independent of the 
sensual instinct ; the fourth, that whether born of goddess, of 
woman or of brute mother, he ever abstains from sexual indul- 
gence ; the fifth, that he cultivates these five virtues,— truth, 
purity, the subjugation of the senses, pity and kindness to all 
creatures, and austere devotion : the man who has these five 
marks, he is the twice-born, him I declare to be the true Brahmin ; 
all others, O Tudhishthir, are Sudras. A Brahmin is not such 
by descent, or birth or by works of merit, and if even a chandal, 
or outcast, so regarded, but practise the duties of his condition 
he is a Brahmin, son of Kunte. This entire world, O King ! was 
formerly overspread by men of one caste ; till from the varieties 
of occupation and profession, a distinction of four castes, or 
classes, came into use/' V. S. B. P. A. 

uiTLua^s^SlfD^, uirs'S/!^^ ; to cause to flow, to 

water, to irrigate ; to put in, or thurst in : as ^sslehuirs^p^, to 
tickle in the arm-pit. (^L^uuira^p^, li. to thurst into a pit : meta- 
to deceive. ^Ssdsm'jj/ssm^iLidlLLiSufrs^s^ssLL/D^, to pass the end of 
a garment Ijetween the legs ; and fasten it behind MLiinssir'Sso^LL 
(SuufTs^QujerrdsQw^LD, you must thrust the measure into a heap 
of corn, when measuring. 

un-ff^ifLD, uanir^iriJa ; sometimes used 

for a great distance ; a long way ofl", more frequently for profound 
thought or counsel. — utrnir^RLDrSLun-^eueky one who acts without 
due consideration, or fore -thought. 

urresiir, uirempo ; an iron lever for raising 

great masses : an iron crow, or bar for breaking a wall, &c. com- 
monly sL-i—LJuireap : as 

^iTpQuirQiMtr ? if you have swallowed an iron bar, will it be 
removed by drinking a decoction of dry ginger ? Prov. that is, if 
you have done great mischief, will a little effort remove the 
consequences. R. 



138 

" The language of severity -will not prevail against the language 
of mildness : the arrow tliat falls on the mighty elephant and 
pierces hira, forces not its way through cotton ; the rock that is 
not split by the long iron crowbar will yield to the root of a 
young tree/' Nalvazhi. W. — SLLu^uuiresip means a stingy man or 
■woman. 

uiric)Ui!r;8iS,(rF)isi;r'^, uireiwir^p-^ ; to be idle, or lazy : 

Camp. Tel, D. to be backward in doing any business ; to be 
slack: to a cow, to make delays, or evasions. B. urreoLDir^^U'Sf- ; a 
cow that has ceased to give milk. 

U!TLp<SU!riU3^£uQr)^, U IT l^ SI] IT <3^ £)I p ^ ; tO COmplaiu 

without reason (A word of frequent occurrence.) 

l5 

iSSlSlp^i iSluSuSlpjsi, ^^■ip^ ; to tighten, 

to make close : i3jS(^€tSLLi-ei>, making tight. 

i3(^£ij, i3,<su<Bj ; tightness, meta. auste- 

rity arrogance : jt/sucir €ruuL^i3(^iauinuQu&^ok^ how he spoke 
arrogantly ^isusk L3<sijQ6iJiTQi— siriflujiEjQ'SiTem®(cun'(suiT^ • he will 
manage the business with austerity. 

l9^(^, lSIs's(^; a failing? a failure, a 

missing, an error? a deviation, a discord, an embarrassment: as 
ji/^sB(^uL3&s@ei)^. There is no doubt to that ; ^^LSa^dsiruSiQ^s 
p^, it is an oversight, or mistake i£i^<si^(s^ui3 pid ^!r<5iios>suSs's(^ 
ffl7/ruLS5=«(g"araT®, for every one will have a little slip either in hand 
or in tongue, ^•up.^uuirujeo or iS'fss.ircLeo /ui—sQp^- to behave 
■without fault, miresrk^^qfii'^ euL^Ss^aQiisiirLDei^ QuijQzmm, I went 
to that country without missing the way. 

i^g^zBTiflffi, 3'(ijsijiB& ; a glutinous kind of 

reddish rice ; said to be imported from Assam. S$i(ev);S, com- 
monly, or properly iS'SiQsmfi ; a tenacious man, a miser. E. 

L9<ffff(2, 0«/r©j3', s^ffo^eu ; uses for the 

demand of something over. (These words are most commonly 
used among the Natives.) 

LS®iii(j^®p^, iSKBiHjp^; to pluck off, or pidl 

out as: aQ^tli-j (^QajiTu3(r^d(^^sBr^ Q«)jQiTir(oi—iSiSiEi3uuird^(n^mj\i. 

he thinks to pluck out the sugar-cane by its root. 



139 

i^esiTi^e-Qs'ir^, LSfSdTu.irs-Qs^iTj:ti • an oblation of 

rice to deceased ancestors.* L2iflujLSs^is<iiirs--Q<9'ir£v LSssiTi—irs^Q^tr^i, 
The rice which is not to be given kindly? is like the rice offering 
in the ceremony of the deceased. 

Osiricmi—isusiir Quujepreisr(E(nj' • — Qsne^l/s^s'^stli. 

Is not he a fool who provides with food and raiment, a very 
disobedient, and stubborn wife ? 

iSir&o^iTeS^u), iSirmj^iruih ; opportunity, au 

introduction, in making known. 

iSlir^LLQsssru:, i3ir^s's'&ssru:) ; circulation, a reve- 

rential act tov\ards a person, or object keeping the same on the 
right side.— Some beathen use to roll up with their body on the 
floor, round about the idol temple : thinking that any inaccumu- 
lated distemper under which they have been suffering would be 
succoured by doing so. This called j^iEJsuiSlir^LLa^iHsru}. 

Note. — " On the bank of the river Vygai, a little to the west of 
Madura, there is a small Naga-covil, or serpent temple, where 
the only images are Cobra-capellos, with red-mouths : on visiting 
this one morning early, there was a Sudra man rapidly rolling 
himself round it, with frantic gesticulations and incoherent 
expressions, deaf as the snakes themselves to any sound less musi- 
cal than his own voice ; nor would he cease till the prescribed 
number of circumgyrations were accomplished. His manner then 
totally changed ; his sentient faculties seemed to have evaporated 
under the discipline ; and all that could be distinctly gathered from 
him was, that if he did not perform this ceremony punctually and 
accurately, the god Avould come and cut him in two ; saying which 
he, somewhat sullenly, went away. On inquiry afterwards, it 
was learnt that there was a man in the town, a professor of this 
rolling art, probably the identical person, who actually supported 
himself by performing the devotional exercise by proxy, for a con- 
sideration, on behalf of those whose duty it would righteously be 



* "They place upon the sacrificial grass, or rlerbha, on tvvo sides, three different 
mips of l.ioilcd rice, in a linn ; three to the south, and three to the north side: the 
fife of him who makes tlie oblation is afterwards directed to take that which is placed 
1 the middle of each liuc and to eat it ; iSlfser i_ih ssS Qg lii S ear eu ir , she who has 
ic It." Edi. r. 



140 

to discharge it, but who would rather p;>y a tritle and be excused." 
Taylor's Orl. Work. 

lSjj-U(^3=i1>, i3ffen(^3'LD ; extent, extension, 

expanse, the world as : ^^i3[f'sij(^a^^^eo eijip'sisir^suipisu>ir u3(rF,s 
Qp^, this is a thing unusual, or uncommon, in the world. 

duueoLD, or i3iru&)sSujLD, Snwe^ih, or i^neueoujui ; fame, 

renown, strength, power as: ^q^Qot/s^^© s'LDmQQ^^t^iTstSQiLuek^u 
Qu!Tsr(B^^(Tf)iQ(ir/ssr, he is a man famed for wisdom, of Sanscrit. 
^esr^m^^irQesr LSliTsueoeSujLDirdp^, to make one's self. great and 
renowned. ^eu&srQuir s.eosQmiii(^Lh LSljieiis^6QujLDtTtjSQ^s(^^, his 
name is renowned throughout the whole world. OuiHajdlL-iSekSp 
Quit iSlireijeoQiDQujirL^uj Q^itiKS^Q^/SHSI/d eutpsscBsi:^. There is no 
charitable action to allow a goodness to others though one has a 
great name in this world. The following phrase is commonly used 
among the Tamulians thus : QuQ>)Qu^i^Qu(i^ ^iT(^MsnQei^, your 
name is great, but there is no profit to expect from you. 

iSjrtDO-inL^F^esr, iSliTLnirirs'&^ek ; a goblin, or 

savao-e, who, in a, former birth having been a Brahmin, in this state 
has to expiate some sin in the former one ; vulgo, a huge fellow. 
This word still exists among the Natives, they use especially to 
those who are raged by anger as a title of iSiirwarj'LLff^m male 
i3iru:)(nj'SS!rQ, female. 

LSiTLDeSliJ, or e^eom—eSLS, iSlirtcOeix^, eS^, ^^Quj(i^3^ ^ 

t£i6S!>TeiDL-0ujQp^^ ', thc writlug of Brahma, in the forehead of 
men ; fate ; desthiy. The word eoeotri—eSLSl is derived from eo&nn-u), 
the forehead as : 0&>^fjuuiT^, Brahma's writing never fails as : 
dl^dl^ujiTLu ojm^^, it happened so by fate, vulgarly euL^ wifiiumu 
QufTtmei) eS^i^^ujiTiu exiks;^, LD^eacu Oisue^ieoeirrLo eSSleauj Osudoeods^ 
i__/r^, oue may conquer the sense but it is impossible to conquer 
the fate. 

" er(i£^ajeijir0' OtLcisf ^jiruii— OfS(^(S'S^ 
a(rh^uj'S)JiT(fffEiTs s(ff,LDiEi — aQfj^uQuniLs 

This stanza shows every thing will happen according the 
writings of Brahma in the head. 

^LiL-Qpi—Osm cirp3s>)u9 eQekmuL^Oujsi'OpQ^^ 



^l—L~U 



141 

Has the God who in love wrote my destiny upon my head ceased 
to exist ? Even in the time of great famine the burden (of preserv- 
ing) will fall on him alone, therefore O mother, do not grieve." 
A. A. S. 

The following verses are the refutation of fatalism. 



Q0Oir(SlisuQ(6a) QevfTi—^Qium (^(n^iTiQppih — Q^l^i^ 
OeBTLL&irLDmQ^ i§u>eOie^iT i§^ijjpp 
siJ-t—^QuJir Os=tL!siJirssr SQ^^iii. 

Note. The heathen superstition describes destiny or decree of 
fate as the happiness or misery entailed upon a person according 
to his works done before his soul transmigrated from his body 
into another. 

LSllTLDiressn—iif iSQ^Ln/resBrL—LD ; the globe ; the 

world, also of loose usage, like the word, world : as ^smi—ULSlir 
lL 1-60)1 i(^e^(7Fii_j<ei^<sii LSQ^ioaemi—Lcrr? Is it SO great to tell an untruth 
for the person who could be able to turn the whole company of 
people into confusion by one of his lies. 

iSirQujirsLiij LSloQujireuLD ; a mam object, or 

end, an effort, an action, the operation of magical rites ; as j^ixi^ 
sdcfTu L^uQujrrsSdp^, to send out arrows : iSl/rQujireiJuiu^p^^ to 
make a disposition; or scheme, towards a work; to make use of a 
word in composing or writing, ^/h^ ^^^QiutreuLo srssrssirevQeu^B}) 
QiDesr^ ersisn^sorresTLDLL^LD t3llQujiT<siiu:usmissafliJLjiii(LpL^iud30 I tried all 
my best to obtain that situation but all has proved unsuccessful. 



142 

iSifiSjD^, i3iBu3,u^ ; to separate, to sepa- 

rate, one's self" from another, to part, to become disunited, to be 
dissolved : ^(f^;Ss,ioTS)ir e^Q^^^ir isQ^eSluL^iBuSp^ LDsiruiSinuireias' ; it is 
a very difficult to separate one's self from another after friendship. 
^O^ehmsr iS.if'i(iS'i'Bssrss!r(oi)QLD!r O^iflojiT^, I do not know whether the 
time of separation be come, or not ; an expression used in dissention 
between friends or husband and wife. i3iBi^03=(Ba.p^ ; properly 
i3iBiQ^F^(BdS:p^, to discriminate and select. 

L^iBa^ne^iLlSujLaQp^s, q(rf,e>^irs0u:)L9.L^sp^ ; to trouble, 

to insist upon vehemently. 

iSleOiSOs'ieirjjiiSiJQ^Slp^, i3&si3e^^^SL^&3rap^ ; to run 

upon one, with a great multitude, and noise. 

iSl&i)(s9(^6!SujL£iee)eusQp^, eioeuLJL^esieiJsp^^s, uiriremsnuiTirdS 

p^ ; to lay magical materials in any place. 

iSiQpaiciDs, uQpdms ; the dung of goats, 

sheep, rats, &c. slave : as l^q^s^s i^Q£iaLD^Luir^ lS^^^Sstt ibit^<s 
LDj£lujiTj3. The slave will not comprehend the manners and modesty, 
and the brass (wicked man) will not aware its smelling. N. This 
word is most commonly used at Sorah country in two meanings 
for slave and dung of beasts. 

i3il.Qp£3, l3s.&p^ ; to break off a piece 

from a cake, a stone Sec. jijeuiTmQQrBai}) lSlLl—its^ld iSldssuui—ir^ ; 
their friendship is indissoluble; the attempt to break it would be 
vain, j)jsii^'d(y)L8su^dQ,/Ei (^esiL—ds'isiieiik^ iSliL^BiSiekesr^^ there is 
a split between the two ; or the two are in state of disagreement, 
K. This phrase is of frequent occurrence among Tamulians. 

iS'UQfiStXUirirdSlp^^ l3l!(ip€lJLDUITep^, Q^ilTl^S'lTiSQ^ 

apM verbally, to look at a strange face, i. e. to commit adultery ; 
Matt. V. 28. SpQ^suLcufiif^^sii'sa, an adulteress. 

iSle-ar^Quj^, lSsbtitjp; to plait, to braid, to 

wreathe jlowers : sm ji/i^dsiriPuji^ s^eBreareOLSsareareOiTiSlQ^dQp^ • that 
matter is intricate iBiT0sr6uBssnBei>&>nuji3asreSQeisresr. I Hogged him 
severely. ^esrssjeotSekesreiiruj s.efrjjjsrj3, to speak confusedly. ibiTu-it 
iSdrffjn to plait the tape. 

t3 

iSir&s^Qif^, L^&PiUjsj ; to squirt, to syringe ; 

as siiTdairiL ^ujiji^((f)ifijii[S»n^, the cruw squirts its cxcrenients 
downwards; commonly eid^iS^p^. 



143 



JT^ ; to enter, to get in, particularly to enter a bole or narrow 
place ; Meta. to enter into a mean and object condition ; as ^emuju 
LuiTuui^i^irsisr ; lie became a heatlien monk @s^LDi^id^!Tioiir, be has 
entered a caste, spoken in contempt of those who become Christi- 
ans. R. (y)ei)LDL^/F^'/ii(^m/D^ir3i,v (^ireSeiSsd) though a man entered into 
a Christian family the nick name would still remain SQlu ^^5= 
Ooew^ jil€S)i—sa0OLDL^(rf,/r^, to enter into a place of refuge, ^/s^ 
uiTsp^ to look down into a hole, or narrow place Meta. to 
meditate, or consider profoundly. 

L-ics)3;j L/ana/; smoke, vapour. 

L-iifl(^LQ0O L^ei)!reurr3'LJ L^^Lci-jeiss iy,Ll.ij^<sSciisrQil 

OujfflLD€!!dfis SffO!ruil<£s,QSeBiLpueO ^(TFj^^iic^Qir, 

^^ ^fj^^irirserr. — er-iii, sro/5:_^Lo, s^iuiMeuniljUL-isOLD. 
O/SQ^uiSlffisoiruiSi) L^^aeiJiLjLDrr ? li. Is there a smoke without fire i. e. 
Is there any rumour without a least fact ? 

L^easSdso, L^ssioji^dso ; a tobacco-leaf, tobacco : 

ujeasiL^Sso^L^dSlp^, to smoke, or use, tobacco commonly *0l1®« 
©-f «/?)^ : Ljssisn.s'.sF&o, smoke, fumigation : 
OlSiJsiisrLJir, 

QiDssrevr^rrCcLDe!^ 0eU(6r^-i^eiJ(V)LD — ^ saw u sS uSi eo 

uirirLJt-iicB)SuSl8o\)uSlsar ussstl^. 
This is related of the sickness that is produced through the 
habits of smoking. 

QsuimuiT, 
^ ^ LysK«ii5^£ffi)aj ujirir^rrsaruuSiflLli—rrir 
QuiTsiTuQun/SQsiTfm® Quir(^Q^ — Qsusrruyso 
simOcSsrSis^n-LDiiiT&Os'irfFluj semi—euQireosiiTLD wismsis 
eSekOpeoss)irLD QutrufrQQ^. 
A Complaint against the Tobacco by a learned one, that had 
practised it much. 



144 

i-j^Sl/p^, GuirSidSlp^ ; to eat : commonly 

^/TLJ®/rj57. There arc synonymous words to this meaning : see Sy. 
Sect. juisusirussiTS^d;^ ^(sndrOuirSuuir^flojiriSlQ^ihf.iTisiirj he was a 
fortunate person to the state of that man. ct^<5@ld QuitQul^q^ss 
Qeui-sariSiD or (^(B^^s^eus^ffiQffisQenmi^LD, for whatever matters you 
ought to be a lucky person. 

^&>, ^eusus^, ^£vsu0i), ^sir^so, udSl^^isi), UQf,c^^&}, uirirednrLD, Quit 
ffesTLD, iM!Tiha,ei), LBsma^^ei), QiDiu^eo — All these verbal nouns are used 
for eating ; These must be used in proper sentences, as : Did you 
eat, /f ff^s^/^/r/r ? is right; Qwiuk^na ? means, did you graze. 

usir, Lj^^iTir ; a thicket, a thick tuft 

of trees or shrubs. i^^n-QFiS^isrr Lj^ih^aQairen-p^ to hide (one-self) 
within a thicket. 

l^itlKSSIp^, i3rrLLp^ ; to turn about, to 

turn upside down, as the ground is turned by ploughing, to wrest 
or distort a word, to pervert the true sense of saying. lSplL^q^i^i-it 
usmp^, to distort, or wrest from the true meaning ; commonly 

ufFli^iflujiTUJu QuiT(hiSp^, iSlffiLSiBujnuj Qun(Bp^ ; to lay 

rope-strands iu rows. — properly LjiflcDSsm ; commonly iSiBin'SsoTr ; a 
twisted rope of straw, upon which earthen vessels arc placed, &c., 
as : ®jisiim OumT(B<diJ(&dr:^a(^u l9 li^ unSsssr ^ li. he is a lS .fl LC'Ossar for the 
pudenda of women. 

!^fl3^frei)!l, L^Q^iD^irio^LD ; an urgently intreat- 

ing demand, a petition. R. 

u(if)e)^iTsi)Lc, Su^a-Qa-em- cg^ejsi) ^susk Lcju^s^uQuS^sir, I beg ear- 
nestly him to dine with me but he objected to do so. 

qs^(T/;«i<5(Sfi<55«ar, jtiiBibf^QpL^Sa? ; a golden car ring 

worn by women ; quadrangular at the base, with six ornamented 
limbs terminating in a point where the ring is placed, which re- 
sembles a tiger's mouth, it isconnnonly used by the word oijiffskp 
(tjiu^sa- at southern country. 

i_jsi>6^iT0LDinua'Sl, L/sos\)/ra)y,iff) ; a grassy place. 

jfesrfEJs'SetTu L/sV)gO/ra)^i©aSC?6U e.(er^ssirffeaeu, tell the people to sit 
down in a grassy phee. 



145 

L^m^etS^Q LDe^ IT QuireSdffdiuiremui QiuekQipsesremB 

iSsk(it^s!^(T^fS^iT^ QL-ih^irekpek Qserreops^ 

Perform ye acts of virtue now, acknowledging the instability 
[of the present state] which is as the dew-drop on the points of 
the grass. For it is [daily] said : This very moment, he stood, he 
lived, he lay down, and amidst the cries of his relations he 
departed. — Naladiyar. 

Corn has its husk, water its foam, the flower bud a canker? 
Prov. i. e. whatever is useful, or agreeable, will have its defect ; 
but is not therefore to be rejected. R. 

uipeOj L^LpffOLDir^evinh, or QumSl&\}LDir^ 

euirih ; a place or village, near Madras ; hodie the red hills. L/tpeo 
Qss IT ileal-., a Curumba-fort ; now not existing, but remarkable 
in the history of the Tondamandalam. E. 

i-\Q£fk(^Qp^, L^QpiEjp^, Osxii^Quirp^, ©J2/S 

ewLjopiEip^ &c. li. to be boiling, or preparing in water, by means 
of fire ; meta. to be stewed, the body, by heat and perspiration in a 
close, sultry state of the atmosphere, to be growing warm : ^/s^ 
6§® lBs&jld LiQ^isLDiruSQ^dQj^, this house be very close, and hot 
having no air. ersariQ; ^ih^d(oafres}!-.siTeo^^si) Qsnik^Quireijsi or 
^juiau:>L^Q£>iEJ(^^. It is very hot in this summer. 

ujss)Lpd^eiBi-f Sipsseat-, Qs.TeoSsv ; a back- 

yard, as : <^Qf),iSl ^^ssQaL-iuirenQuiri^eo LDpO(n^Q^^^ LiLpss(cS)t^[uireo 
evQhsurr-cir, li. if one woman went away by the entrance, or princi- 
pal door of a house, another will come down by yard i. e. if one's 
wife died, he will marry a woman as a wife. 

i_jefi(^L^dQp^, L^(s^(^L^3,p^, or (Vj'sB(^L^sp£3; 

to drink the sour, i. e. to be delivered of a child improperly for 
^(sBi^e^ip^ ; i-i<s^siQL^dp^, is very common expression among 
the Natives, as: (n^i^ifl ^saiOuem-a^ir^ L/fiifl<s@q2.<?<?/r(oisyr <oreir(^LSsrr 
dsiTiSlp/B^^, what child was born at last night. 

LjeBiuiEiaiiib, Ljsffliufriijsfnu ; the unripe Ta- 

marind fruit, as : q(sifluju:uLp^^s(^Lj L^eifltJL/i@^(»?(p/ij/r, properly 
Lj^ujiMUip^^s(^ Lj€^Lju i^(^^isSu.eu(r^Q(f>^(eUJirf vyilt thou attempt 



146 

to add flavour to the Tamannd ? Pro. wilt thou teach one already 
learned ? cTesrs@u L{e^QuJuuiEJsir^p^^ 1 have eructate or belch, 
sour. qsrJ5i^.?^@^ or i-l<s^.^i^S(iv,9l, sour rice-gruel. ersmesruje^uLjd 
sirLL(fr^dj, dost thou try to frighten me ? Oa'SosdQpd^esr euirtpssiriLi 
i^eiflnSs^ijoiTLLsi) @£rflii/j3, womau's ridiculous phrase for a darling as 
an imprecation, — Lj&rlamu, with particlte ^ld, is used qe&luj/Eisiriu. 

ScoruLji^eiiek, a great or monstrous, liar. s&^s^^pqQ^etT^wskuiTeuui 
Prov. he who lies not in time of Avar, or disturbance (with him is) 
sin. i-idsvtLii-sjOsir^tLj/iisstrsij/B^eSir, avoid flesh (or a lie) murder and 
theft. Aw. L^c^dl(es)^L£iOuiT0i^uLj(LpsuQiaijssir(Si}), if those who 
would wish to tell a lie, they should talk suitable mauner. 

kh 

The single letter l^ has the meaning for beauty, leaf, sharpness, 
Birth, flower, eartii, alluring &c. 

lilLl-'Si}), L^ilt—euih, Lj^LLt—dsu), Qutru)u>ffiit 

iLi—Lh ■ flimsy work, any thing unsubstantial: L^LLi—enssinrssr, a 
boaster, a bragger ; y.L-i-eiit5Q^(BujtnDS(rr)iSpsuek, a man without 
vain pretension. Mersk^ss) QurriimffOirLLt—ihuemCcp, what you pretend 
vain things. s-m^ssii^iuCoeudcsoGujeoffOfrih Lj^LLLSLDiresrQajdso, all your 
work is humbug or any work, or thing which is not lasting or may 
be easily broken ; as glass &c. also a work, which has only the 
appearance of being good ,- but is not so in reality. l^lL®^^,^ to 
lock, or shut ; vulgo Lj^LLp^.—^LLt^meusSpaa, to fasten for a 
time, to tie beasts to a yoke, a stake, to adorn one with jewels. 
Q^iX)irs'Scirff^^^Q<s^!^LL(BSlp^ to put the horses to the carriage. — • 
^su^a(^uyjLLu-(Si]/EO^iifliLjLD ^pssQfisO^fBiLiii, . he knows well how 
to shut and open i. e. he knows well how to deceive the people 
^(r^suserLf^LLL^ssraa/s ^iouQesr^pssQ'Sueesr(Bi}>, those who shut up the 
door, he ought to open it i. e. those who have related the riddle, 
he ought to explain the meaning of it. 

LjjiTcmLOy LjjSiS'Cmii) ; mould LlQ^emiiiSL^ 

&p^, to got mouldy ; ^LOL^!Tessru>, abundance, uiByiiTemi}), comple- 
tion, uiesruL^nemLD, willingness, readiness, cheerfulness. 

^Qins^, Lj^^jjuiinJD, or ^hs^lditui ,• a tree 

or Porcher tree Hibiscus populneus. L... R. » 

j^ijCoojir^^jru), ^(rf)Qmn-^^in}i f the beginning 



147 

and the end C. T. D. Purvvottara (from s^f^^ffLo North, and Liir&itx). 
^jcugnmL-iu L^ir^wiT^^ffOLnffO&)inhsTst!rd(^^iOs}ffliLjii, I know all about 
liim ; or from the beginning to the end. 

Qu 

QulL(ss)l.., QutTLLc^u, ; the female of bird 

QuiTiLss)i_sQsiTL^ ■ a hen. — QuLLeaL-LDir^, a cuckold, one who ex- 
changes his wife. OuesurBsmeurriuek or OuLLssyi—iueiir, a hermaphrodite ,• 
a eunuch ,- a womanish or effeminate man. QuirLLea^L-, a blind man. 

Quu-L-s'EiOsiTLl.QSp^i OulLu.<su!eiOstlLp^ • to maks 

a noise by clapping the hands, in token of joy, when these presents 
are carried to a bride. 

Quern-, Ouimlc^lLl^, OV OuihiSleir^ j 

the humane female OusmsmrBtruj^LD . an excellent woman, a lady ,- 
Ouema^rr^ properly a woman ,- particularly a wife. — s.^bt-l^-^^^'e/© 
^svOuemLs.iT<isip(^, abstemiousness in eating is an ornament of 
women. ^L^ii3pOusmus.nuiL^uSQ,'6(yr)Ui-i, a quarrelsome house-wife is 
like a fire in her husband's bosom. ^L^ujrruOueik^iT u>L^uSOm(t^uL^ 
the death of a peaceable woman is like a fire' in the (husband's) 
bowels ,• or by another rendering, a litigious wife in the time of 
trouble, is a fire in the (husband's) breast- ^/b^vmQusmL&ir s^p 
Op^^^'^LD, women who blame or slander their husbands, are 
to them like the messenger of death ,• or are deadly enemies. Qwom 
(BadJbSp^i, to reproach with a criminal intercourse in reference 
to either sex. LDa^sQ&maswu Ousssi(SisLLL^(^eisr ; he has accused 
me of having a criminal connexion with my own son. 
Qsusmuir. 
OusmL^iTL-Uf.'^S^LDLL'BLD iSiek'^ 3?® sd® iMLL(!ji ua 
&.es3rL—rr6m(cuirsfruj Qp'srren ldlL'A Ei — St^n—TiLi/a 
uirmsdQp Offdj^^irLDLJo un(SiJLB0n<sijujeosiirLD3O 
ujn'QTj/s^&sr Q(fr)'L£.Qn'^p/Sf. 

O ; Wise man, in the time of your death, wife will contimie in 
her house ,• children will follow your corpse as far as the burning 
ground; kindred will surround you until your healthy day: Ob- 
serve therefore, who will be companion at your closing days except 
the charity you have done in this world or sin you have committed. 

Note. — In the ancient time there were celebrated beautiful 
and learned women entitled as Qumrsek isirajauo, Qumrscrr Q^uir 



148 

iriKJS^, thus : s.LJ«rou, Qsrensy^ a.^OT(Si;, euehefl, SiSips'Qffir'B Qi^nixcssf^. 
Here arc the stanzas as follows : 

rstMSiQU) uL^ajerruuir /BtTfflQijJiTiTurrsiT 

Who gives -water for the cruel thorn-clad trees to drink, in the 
forest through which the eye cannot pierce ? The great God. And 
will not the great God give daily food to us who meditate on 
him ? If not what is his occupation ? 

^(r^(^'Si]^ OstTsmu^fsi sScVeuirQesr esrsktsmiu 

Is there a God who protects all classes of living creatures, or is 
there not ? Am not I one among these tribes of living creatures ? 
Ah mother ! why are you perplexed on my account ? What will 
happen, will happen, (i. e. The will of God will be done.) 

3^akL—Lj€S}us(^'3ir (Si^iiSir^ek (nj'iuQ^ihss^ ^iTew(n^iijstJa 

^m)i—^ ^uSliTLSleatpuu ^[ra^ifiBiuio — mmri-^ 

jij^Qm^ a/ear (67) luffsSi—^^ ensssreaLD 

iS2o\)s<bwr® Miu^id^ i§s^. — e-jii/grofiu. 
The foetus enclosed in the womb partakes of the food which the 
mother eatS; but it is wonderful how the life of a creature i"s pre- 
served when enclosed in an egg. Oh mother ! Why sorrowest thou 
on my account ? Stand still, and learn the character of hini who 
is Lord of all. 

^ek'SsBrsuuSp^ ffOQ^^i^ (susfrir^^ eiisir(irj'esr 

(^(BuiOuQ^Lcirek si-Qf)^ Qpc^eSsSlQ^/E 
^IT®U) OuQf^Lcur esreueir. — euehcifl. 
Mother ! The God whose glory shines in the conclusion of the 
Vedas, the Lord who wears as an ornament a glistering snake, 
nourished and provided for me, when 1 was in your womb, and 
in future he will provide." 

Note. — "The four women Uppey, Avviy? Urewey, and Valley, 
■whose praise is so celebrated among mortals were born, as also 
the three men of everlasting fame Athigranum, Tiruvalluvar and 



149 

Kabilar. When Athi and Bagavan were going away, after deser- 
ting the four female and the three (male children) mentioned 
above? Athi full of pity with her foot motionless sticking fast to the 
ground, looked at the children and said. "Who will protect 
these children"? On this, in order to remove her grief, these babes, 
through the favour of God, having become acquainted with 
the circumstances of their case, gave utterance to the above men- 
tioned verses/' A. A.. S. 

" ^iBipQ'fiTifiQiihs^innessf}^ or ^lB tpj/^^Ssuaofr ; a celebrated female ,- 
The history of a learned young woman called (^iSlLpji/^sufrsn) 
meaning one Tamurl Arevarl that understands all science. Great 
battles were fought by kings on account of her beauty. Her style 
has not been excelled by any poets. She promised that if any 
excelled her in making verses, him she would marry. On account 
of this many poets strove with her, but "were obliged to yield with 
shame to her superior talents. At length one of the king's courtiers 
disguised himself and came to her residence in the character of a 
seller of wood, and called out very beautifully that he had wood 
to sell, and afterwards expressed a desire to have an interview with 
her, which was granted to him. She was obliged to yield and take 
him as her husband. It is said this took place 400 years ago.'' 
A. N. — Those verses which they exchanged are all written but a 
stanza for an instance from that work is the following : — ■ 

QldQso ^lSIlL^ld (sSlL^ds/6lijJir etr/s^ QLodosQiBede^irerr 

This riddle is describes the scissors, for cutting areca-nut (called 

QuiuifKBSip^, QuffKBp^ ; to give a name : 

/BiTLDSffessnhumrmvSl/r)^, elegantly /s(tldQ^ujl&®Qp^ as: ^fsjstet^ 
emi—uj wiTLDQ^LuOLDssreBT, * what is your name? Quq^sc^u u^jhu 
essriiQsir®, give to each person 10 fanams. ^eu'shr QuirQurr'^ (duirtfi 



* The Tamuler use tlic Dative nearly after the same manner as the Latins. Thus 
like as iu Latin it is more elegant to say, quod tibi numeii ? than quoJ est nomeu 
turn? so in Tamil also it is better to say, e.ajriQiJCJuOrt'iOT.iir than E-ooriiLj 
Oirmrear? 13. * 



J50 

G?«w", properly ^'sw?nr QuiwtQuits eufTQ£9(<ri'ck, hc hns a great name, 
and prospers. OuajirQuiresruir^^ssir, Commonly Qun-Quirsmun-^eueir, 
a notorious criminal. ^ssnT^Quajirih^QuirSpMy, vulgarly ^ss^t'SQu/s 
^(dUITS's?, u^mi^Qsn ldiSicSIlLu.^, and ^cm(B3'ir(^'3rQu!r3'3i-, &c. Qsvsrr 
errih (£LLss)t—u Qu^^tSluLu.^, the inundation ruined the house. 

QuiflskuLD, Quiflmuiii ; high delight, hea- 

venly joy. Qu!^eku3i^tTsi!)3'iiSi^p & lb jSsku^^iT etas' eS((B, ifthou art 
longing after the happiness of heaven, forsake the pleasures of 
this world. B. Qp/Ssiruu> Oev^t'Siiupe^s^so Qs^iuiLitrQir LDprSekuua 
Q6u<dsr(Blu&jir, those who love heavenly bliss will nut do evil through 
love of earthly pleasure. Kural. 

" SLijQ^i^cisT^ih QsotlL'^ujit Qi^zmiriB^Ei sfruuirzsr 

As the hook rules the elephant, so he, 
In wisdom firm his sensual organs rules. 
Who hopes to flourish in the soil of heaven. 
^iiss^^^^ir<ee)p/D eassOi^si-LDL^ efririrCoSirLDtricsr 
^i^jiQssr <F/rj)2/ffi7 sifl. 
Let Inderan say, the king who all controls, 
Within the expanse of heaven, how great his pov/er, 
Who his five senses in subjection holds." — Cural. 
Ou^Sp^, Ou^^iip^ ; to get, to obtain, 

or gain. j>/eij(s^so ie/tot OuppQ-Mirm-jii'-S^^Sso, I have profiteth 
nothing by him. ^snsk sppimji^ev)ffi}i'jD OuppLcsQ^'sk^iiseiisiiT&ir, 
though he was a learned man, yet his son, whom he begot knows 
nothing. @^ u^uaStirajiTS'^etn^su Ou(/i}>jjj, it is not worth the 
trouble. Beschi. ji/aieir OujV(^<?(3p.?/rif?^^/rs3r, he is a worthy per- 
son, eresrasr Qu^ih, how much is the price ? @<^ 6j(75«/r*ii) Ou(n^<B 
Q^ds^^ this is a work not worth a farthing. Qu£vsu^ OsirerrajirQ^iJa 
serr<sij(rr,LD(I/uiT, prostitutes, and thieves, are like each other. Qup 
peuiuQpifliSlpjSf her bowels yearn over her child. Qu(i})QuJ;jsajsory 
properly OuiunQupponshr, one who has obtained an illustrious, or 
eminent name ; a celebrated man. OTcsri^^tJ Qup(i}j'(t^u3 i^p/h^irq^ 
i£&dSstij 1 have neither parents, nor brothers, and sisters. 11. 

Qu ^ . 

Quff.'j?, euirn^es)^ ; (J3rahminical term) 

speech : ^a/i^jr Qu.'j-o-risnir^ or wiriuin^ ,• a speaker, an orator, a 



151 

man of eloquence, s-sirQixt^^o gcs/flijo O^sut^Qus^sf-ssdriBi or mS'^'^ ; 
many bad things are spoken of thee in the town. B. jtisum-Qui^sr 
^^Q^irQu-^is^^uirffSi- ; he is dead. ji/e}j^<s(3^Lhi5rsi!rd(3^LoQuffQ0dSs\), 
lie is an enemy to me. jii2ie3i(ou<f<^^3'&lei)^aiTLceQ(r^sQ(^esr, he is 
without speech, or breathing, i. e. near death, ^suek Qu^QiQe^ 
^,^d(^L9L^sSl(nj'dr, he finds a flaw in one's speech, ^aiear Quisr 
iS!®EJssOsLLL^ssirireir ■ he is clever to put questions in order to 
fish out of one secrets, or clever to pump one. rsirmQui^e^Qui's'iTuj 
Qu<^iii(cuirjsi @^s<5r (Sjic9uj3'imeiBu-i(^sufrrrireir ■ he spontaneously 
begins a quarrel Avhen I speak well, and modestly. ^fE]S(&^s(^<snQistr 
Qu3'<3?siJ!nT^s!D^iiSeo2s\>, they do not speak with one another through 
enmity. R. isTsin-S(^uQu3^<3^s ^Se^uSsiieOirLrieo e^mrL^iijn'uS0sQQ 
I live alone without a companion, one to talk with. Quiua(^LDQu3=- 
Q^trQ^SsBsrQisv^LD. Even a devil needs a companion. Prov. 

Qu^Qp^i, QumfJp^ ; to take care of, to 

honor • (^(Si>srv^ifl^eku3^iraDSiJiLjLD uiTsh^ifl^drQices^aotuii-jLh Qu^ 
(SUIT ; a married wife honours and cherishes her husband ; but a 
strange woman her own body. ^ihe^^^inLiQue^ ■ honour father 
and mother ; Aw. QussaffsusmrdQiv^ ; to bring up with great 
love, and care. ^evsBrenmjisuemsijLh Qutsscfluutrssn LDeoQusr(()^<chr . he 
speaks without respect or esteem to any one. 

QuiT^^, Qu^^ ; a son's, or daughter's 

daughter, a grand daughter: as Qu^^uOuem QtB^^Quir^^ssreuQ^ 
s(^^Q^ifliLjU), those who trained up their grand daughter they 
would know the trouble of the same. 

65)U 

Q^sns'&sieiJ gently, softly, slowly : (In Tinnevelly and Palain- 
cottah ,• commonly GsuojusBiUtu/Bu-fs^sufr, come slowly.) Q^jieuff- 
Q^m^^emt^eo LD^miuiLjLD LDsretiiaDwssffiinh. If one eat slowly? a 
mountain may be eaten up ; or pains and perseverance, will ac- 
complish great things. — <csiuiuQsi)irL^£mrktQa&> ; Do not associate 
with children. Avvi. 

Note. — " This saying is unworthy of Avveyar, who must have 
been a keen observer. It tempts one to think of the admirable 
woman as a petulant old maid. Beside it is not, like most of her 
remarks, truly philosophical ,- there is much to be learned? even 



152 

from a child, though folly is hound up in his heart, and time can- 
not he better employed than in teaching children useful knowledge 
and in learnhig from them." A. A. S. 

Quit 

QuiTik^Qp^, OurriEifD^ ; to boil over, to 

bubble up? to cook rice, to boil with anger. B. as : wtrek j^/ss<sufriT 
jimfisinujdQsLLi^£ijL-earsre3rdQLjQufriEjSluQuirff<9r ; no sooner I heard, 
that word I was boiled with anger. Ouirju^^trirji/irffiremL-iriT Ournk 
&(es)iTsiri—/remL-irir, one who waits for a purpose with patience, he will 
rule a kingdom but one who boiled with anger, he will rule the 
forest i. e. Patience is the best remedy for grief. Patience under 
old injuries invites new ones. OuiriaQdOstrshp^ ^ to cook rice for 
oneself. &.eirOuiT/Ei(^(^^>Lu p-mL^iflui-HDrks, may thou not prosper 
by your joy, or mirth OuirtEJsiriuQus^p^, to speak joyfully. 
Ouir/Ei(^iE)sireiiu> Lyerfl LDfk^'EiaiTs^m LLirisjsiTiu, Prov. In propitious 
times the Tamarind ; in unhappy times the Mango : an excessive 
abundance of either of those fruits is so interpreted, in popular 
usage. OuiTiksei); a great festival, in honor of the sun, on its en- 
tering the sign, Capricorn ,• when rice is boiled and from its bub- 
bling up the name is popularly derived. OuirnhssoiremrL^, Meta. a 
bachelor ,• one who leaves his family, cooks his own meals, and 
renders no aid to his relatives. R. (aj/^i^em/oii^ sT^sufnuiTi^e^ Ouink 
ssSLL'SOuirsSiLjijOsirSLjCoueir ; if the reservoir be full, will sacrifice 
with boiled rice, i. e. without straining off the water in which it 
has been boiled. 

Ou/TLli-g^ii, OuiTLLt-emui • a leaf, or paper, 

folded up ,• generally, in a square form for holding, or containing 
any thing : fomenting medicine, made up in a bag. R. fseoffo^err 
OuirLLLssdrLDiTLusuirfEjSoJir, go and buy a good snuff leaf bag contain- 
ing snuffs. 

Ouir^s^Sp^, Outr^p^' ' to cover, to" flog, or 

beat, to botch, as ,- j^sDfeeruOuir ^^^ lLu.it irseir ■ ironically they have 
flogged him* well, er ^ ^2m fBiT%ra(^u Ouirfj^csieu^^iOsiremTL^Q^u 
uniii ; how long wilt thou conceal the thing ? ojirtuQuir^^p^ ,- 
to cover the mouth witl^the hand which is commonly [done as a 
sign of reverence, .[or respect, er/HiQsuir^^ir^u) ] ^eucpi^uQurr^i 
^ei>iruS(T^i(j^js,hQ is in debt everywhere, Quir^fBsieoL^aQp^ ; 



153 

to meud, to patch, to repair a roof; Metaphorically, to pay off 
debts, to cover a flaw, to make sham excuses s-m^eiDt-uj Ouir^^Sso 
OiusdeniTih ^ires)t-uuiriTssir ? who will be able to pay all your debts ? 

a.e3ri@ QuiOsoiE/i^LhQuir'S^ffO QiDsSOiueosiiTii^ s'&ieoir, Prov : you are 
heavily iu debt. 

Ou/Trfidlerr/EJ.sinu, Quir(f^sSsrT/Eismij, same as OfSiii 

iLjsssrssiL- ; a ball of baked meal, &c. of the size, and appearance, of 
the apples of the '£<^rks^dj or Feronia. 

p^ ; to join as two board?, or planks ; to agree. j3/susir jijm^ ereisreS 
u-^^&iQ(Bi(^LDuL£LLuiTiu Qu frQf,i ^^SiLL-iTshr , he agreed to pay it to 
me. ^pp^Q^irski^e^iM j)/pp^Qu!r(r^'h^ui Prov : if the real truth 
be owned, the past will be forgiven ffrmdQuOuir(j^/B^^ir^ ; it does 
not please, or suit me. L^(G{^£Si^^t}> OuirQ^i^ui^i^wQeu^u:) ■ if 
you would wish to tell a lie, you must lie consistently. Ouir(rf,/s^rr 
u^eoQuireSp^ ; not tn approve, to disagree. wn-esr^iruLSli-. jya7g^i@ 
LoesrLhQu!TQf,i^!r^y this man does not like to give food to me. 

OuirifiSp^, OuiTL^uSp^ ■ to pour down, to 

pour out : as ^sussr ss^^iQ^ikaTH-fu:) seifs^u^^^iruQuirsk Quitl^S 
^537-, he speaks fluently as if a stone and cocoanut were striking 
against one another. mesiifiQurrL^uSlp^, to rain, LosmLpQudjQp^. 
QuirL^uSl(^esr properly Gu!rL^S(Of£ar ,. he is very charitable ; he is very 
verbose. cSl!—irLDS-o(ou<3?Q(/r^6sr. j^smk^^iirQuirL^isisuu u[riTsS(nj'esr • ho 
is interested, he looks after his own interest. entrir^aD^s^iuQuiTLfi 
Sp^ ; to speak copiously. Li^uLDirflQuirt^-isiiriTSerr ; (the gods) 
poured down flowers. 

QuirehOmsisr^, Qu/rdQaesr^ ■ swiftly, with 

great speed. 
" OuirsrrQsfrssreufriiiQs uipihQisuiTiTirsireOihuiTiT^ 
^snQeuiruu Oirirsrre&liuaiJif. 

Prudent men show not their anger on a sudden, but conceal 
it in their mind, observing the time. 

^SQsn^errQ^esfi eop^^es)^ujird(^ s 

Q/Bird^imj^ fffrO^^ffi (£^iresrQ/3rrs(^ s 

sirs(^si]^etT0^6!^&i eSF^'Eisrrds. . . .Q&J. 
If tbere be aught worthy to be done — do charity. 
If there be aught that should be avoided— avoid anger. 

u 



154 

If there be aught that should be regarded — regard science. 

If there be aught that should be observed — observe rites." B. 
QuiT€3r(^/Eisem&sflf or Quirsisri^inisiTQSi^ , Ousreisr^'Ei'Semc^ ,■ a 
medicinal plant ; Illecehrum sessile. R. OuiTsk(€a)iEiSiemessf^s(^u t-jeSl 
uSlLL®dses)!—/B^ir0i> j)/sm(^dQseoeoir/h^^^<i(^Lh ; if the ponndn/canni 
and Tamarind be bruised together, the compound will be sweet 
to the taste. 

Qui- 

QuirSlp^, QuiT@Qp^, QuiTsS/D^ ■ to go, to pass .• as 

j)j<ss>^3'03'iuLuuQurr(iijehr, he is about to do it, he is going to do it. 
ji/uuL^u QuireuuQuaemr^ ■ you cannot pass there, that is not a 
thorough fare. QuirSpQun-^ O.ff:iTff0sSLL(Bu(SuiTti ,• when you are 
going, let me know. QuirBuui^ir^y commonly QunsuuuL—tr^, it 
is not proper to go. 

Quir®@rD^, Qurr®p^; to put, place, to throw, 

to cast forcibly ,. ^ps/SQe^QuiTu^p^, to cast in the river,- ^p^Qeo 
QuiTLLi—rre^LD ^srr.i^QuirQ, though you cast into the river, yet keep 
a reckoning. Prov. implying the need of care in all that concerns 
domestic management, uir-^smtu^ ^BsisiSQe^Qurruf..p^, to put a 
turband upon the head. ei})UiLi—LhQuir®p^, to stamp metal for 
money, to coin. Qfdirjj/iSluQufrSlp^, to bruise? or grind to pow- 
der ; metaph : to eat eagerly. 

QuirirdSp^, Qusra^p^ • to cloak, to cover : 

iSlsh^-netDiu&'ff^p/iSI^Lh eii&o^ir^^rreoQuir^,^ ei]en^^<ss>eijsp^ ■ to wra[) 
a child in clothes, and lay it down. Quir^^^iO'sireh-p^, to put a 
cloth over one's own head, and shoulders. L^sug/i^irsarru Qua^.^ 
euirip : praise those that praise thee ,• and prosper. Avval. 

QuirsQsfrLLdiSp^, QuirSsvssirLLp^ ; to pass off bad 

wares for good ones ; to show pride. 

Quirearsu), qesruireju}, ^frffdsth ■ boiled rice, 

food. QuiresrsQiDssru^ ^ir^siv^eswemi^y food is that which is 
eaten gladly. 

LD 

UiSfh^^ LDeaijii ; that which is great or 

large ; as Lceu^ji^treareSliuiT^, a great sickness, i^su-i^oj^O-sffrenp^y 
to celebrate any one's greatness. 



155 

uisrr.i^LDiT^ LceuiTf.^LDn- • literally a great 

soul, that is, an excellent man, magnanimous and liberal ; a per- 
son of religious or moral eminence. LDsirQ^eusk • an epithet of 
God among various votaries ; commonly a name oi ffs^wii^ or Siva. 

LDsirusQ, or L£i6Bfrue8s'3'isjrisuir^^, LDireueQa^s-aeireuir^^ . Malid- 
lali a celebrated ruler, dethroned in the V dmand- avatar a ; and 
made sovereign of Pdtala. 

LD'SiLpLDffih, LDiQL—LDiTii^ Q ui IT t— LL ff ui ■ (and in 

the south LoSleh, or iMQerrunnh) a tree, 3Iimusoj)s Elengi. Lin. 

ldSlp^9, Lo^tp^S ; joy, mirth, gladness, 

^skuidlip.s'QLDsssn^Quirisj, may thy mirth become as sand ! an 
imprecation. 

LDEisdlujil, ldejQsQluld, ^trdl, QuitlL'SI . the 

marriage-token ,- an ornament of gold, tied round the neck with 
a cotton string, LD/EiSeSiutSls^es}^ ; the prayer or petition, which a 
woman addresses to God, to a judge, or to a king for her husband; 
thus she savS; LDiEiseSujULSlLLsin&' QsiT®.isQ^6e!ir(Sliii, i. e. ersar^ireQ 
5rssrsQ£^^ (sQ(f^d^LhuL9. usssrsssrQeu^ssr&'ih ■ grant that my £irreQ may 
remain on my neck. ^ekcisaruQu^/D^i^irerr ^iT6Qi33'icto3'QaLLQ(n^(siT 
^iwm'3'ffiQurreir(es)Q(o!) ^irsui—Lhusmeasf} Q^iriiissSL-s'Q.rirffOs^^fn}). Her 
mother's petition is to recover her husband from his sickness^ but 
her sister prays for a garland of pearls. 

ir<?ff@©.37^, LDS'.i/D^ ; to confound? to per- 

plex, to confuse one,- as jiisu'hiLDSFasnQ^, do not confuse her, &c. 
Metaph : to enchant, to c\\?ivm. ^ensn ma^iSs ; she is an enchantress; 
jij6ve'rrLD3'dee)Sssirrfl, she is with child, and is longing for every 
thing ; LDS'sesisuusssri—LD, exquisite food. 

wo^rre^, Los^irffO, or ld^it^ ; a compound 

of spices used in made dishes, seasoning; a horse medicine. — LDs^ireo 
a torch, or flambeau, to-y/rffoi^© ^ (or uto^trSos^Q,) a torch bearer. 

tM&ifu), LDL-3=LD ■ a blaclv speck, or spot 

on the skin, a mole ; a little piece of gold, kept for a sample to 
compare with what was given to the goldsmith. Telu. ^^. 
LD3'3'ihQeuLl.i-^a5)wd/Djp, to cut off, and put aside such a piece, for 
the said purpose. Lnds'uQuirm- ,- such a piece of gold. R. In another 
sense Lnda^ihy fish, : as ^suir LDds^^s^irui^c—uairLLi—iTiT, or si^ds^s'iru 
iSi^wirCi—iriT he will not eat fish, because he is a ms^eueii or votary 



]5C. 

of Siva ; tlic word oTiffsue^ in common use, is cmployefl to denote 
any one who abstains froiu fish or meat. 

iM^^^ei^ff&l, or ei^LD^^e^, iz>i©«sr<?^ ,• a sister-in-law ; the 

wife's younger sister, or the younger brother's wife ; a cousin who 
is the mother's brother's daughter, or the father's sister's daugh- 
ter: ifii^ss)?, is also used in improper familiarity, with reference 
to the wife of any poor person : in this usage it has a had meaning 
as: (sreitliususmQumn-irLLi-^ er&)QffOfnrs(^Lhu>s'9im3^!fl • Pro. A poor 
man's wife is exposed to the rude familiarity of all who call her 
cousin. LDs^'SsnrQpesypaDLD Qsirmri—ir'SQp^, to behave as intimately 
to one, as if such relationship existed. 

LDi^-a^uLsiTLDiTasii, iii(cf,s=ssir LDirdso ■ a kind of jaundice. 

i£)(^<?5ijaP/fu(i)crr^, LDi^s^a^LSl'siTT&T . an adopted child 

commonly ^^^ulS err Ssrr. so called because ii>(i^ffeei^!T or saffron 
water is used in the ceremony of adoption. 

LDL^Qpjfs, Lcu^iSlp^ ; to be killed, or slain 

to perish, to wither away, as standing corn : Lodf-m^Quirp^, to be 
destroyed, as clothes, grain, &c. LoswLDL^e^, despondency, indiffer- 
ence through indolence, apathy. Qua^saff- mi^se'j^&Qp^, to alter 
one's tone or language. Lnu^^^^'^a^sp^, to hem, to enclose with 
a hem. ^eusisr ji//5 3=u(ou3=?s)^Quj iLL^s'SrL£iL^03-ruQu3?(fff6k , he spcaks 
over and over the same subject. Q£Frru>s?ih^ir(Lf'^si^uj!T(Tf)i}> QsuEir^Qp 
^seSiufTQ^LD LDL^fB^Quir^iraerr, Somasundara Mudallyar and Tengu 
Mudaliydr are dead. 

L£>iLi-fEJ'SLL(BSp^, u^lLi-iejslLp^ : to build exactly 

by line and level. LCLLi—i^Cpj^, properly ^tLQSp^ ; to cut or 
break off what is irregular in building a wall ,• to strike a level j 
to frustrate any one's scheme,- Metaph. to keep down, to repress 
through jealousy. QauSj\)<isrrjrsii- ^metopsQwjTinc&o ixlLi—ldQuitlL 
L^irear, the servant wilfully absented himself to-day. ldlLl-u 
ueieow, a rule, a flat ruler, a bricklayer's level. iJiLLL—LDfnuQ>eiT(B 
sQp^i or iDuLL-iriLiOstr^dSpjsi or LB^LLiniiQsir(Bs@ip^^ to give 
but little ,• ^siierrj^.f6finLLu.LiQuiTsSl(Tf,dSl(nj>eTry she is as handsome 
as an Acheen pony, istrpu^ eudna^iQsiTQ^uaLLi—LDeufTfaQQuj^eijQfjQ 
Qps;r, I am accustomed to ride a pony which I bought for forty 
pAgodas. /sirLL®LDLLL-.iii, a country pony ,• es)u(Ssiru>LLL-Lc, a Pegu- 
pony. R. 



i:)7 

U'sssri^p^, Lcems(&,^ ; to yield a fragrant 

odour, as : ^,.if^u<^ fBssej<^ujuem&^^^ this flower yields a pleasant 
smell. LDmrsQsire^LbeuiTir^, to come in a wedding procession, ldsjsti^ 
Gs^LuSlp^, to marry; uD&nrQpLh i^smofithQuirSp^^; a common sti'eet, 
both for wedding-, and funeral processions,- a phrase used in strong 
affii-mation, as> iMsssrQpu)i3;sssr(LpiJDQuirsip <£^iSlsQQmjijQu3?SQ/Desr, 
good, or evil, may happen to me, I assert it as a truth. R. The 
Natives elegantly use LDemeomp for the room where the bridegroom 
and bride, sit on their wedding ^.a-y .ux^lLl^ opp. to eaeuuuiTLLL^ . 
the bride, the wife ; ld^sSI, G^-sS?, Quems^ir^, &c. uhssstld also 
means a pleasant odour, commonly wirs-^ssr^ ei-Blk^\l>. 

LOLL(^Q.p^^ Li,s(^Qp_^ . to vanish away, to 

disappear as a colour, to grow dirty, rusty, or mouldy, as ixdQs 
Qi-ip^, to be in a damaged or perishing state, /dirm-LDdS LLmisi 
(^3o\)(^s- LDsmiioN)UjQL-.&Qpsir, I am grieved and full of sorrow and 
am as it were sand. 

LDcmi_<BOLD, (from Logajr, and ^sum, a place) /5/r®, Q^^fu:, the 
earth, a country, a kingdom, a province. In Hindu geography, 
Fifty-six countries are enumerated ,- of which the following were 
the chief divisions in the South Osirikt^eummir'Sl; Qs^tripiousrr/sirtSf 
0^rresdri—siJSfr/Bir(Sly uiressTL^enen-fBir®, LDSxfsa® .. the Konnn^ Choztt) 
Toiidciy and Malajjdla kingdoms. 

N. « In early times, the Tamil country was divided into the 
Sozan, Seran and Tdndiyan kingdoms ; and the king settled the 
bounds of their respective dominions .- of which boundaries the 
following is a detail. 

VEUSES CONCERNING BOUNDARIES. 

Qsuemurr. A Stanza by Avvaiydr. 

Qsii&To(T!rprScmQpp^ QL0p(9)UQu(If)Ql 3Li(sk]uj!Tlh 

, O^enefTirLDL^ssrpssires}) O^psirrs^u) — s^msnirssr 

^iijii^si—pslLps searu^3jvs/r^U) 
urrtsmL^rBiTLL Ol-sC'Ss^slju^. 
To the south of the river Velldry to the west is Peruvele, to the 
south is Cape Comorin, on the east is the sea ,• to the extent of fifty 
six Kddams (560 miles) is the Pdndiyan's kingdom. 
Qsuemuir. A Stanza by Vempatturar. 
Qen^mirprBmQpp^ Qeijshc^UiffldQsevi-d^ 

)&L.<sSmQLDp(^ Q^switQ^itq^u:) — s^eh err ldSI tp 



158 

South of the river Velldr north of Cape Coniorin, west of the 
sea, east of the large town called Vannnsi fifty-six ladams is the 
Muran (or Pdndi/fcm's) kingdom. 

OsussiTuir. Stanza by Pvjarandl the poet who was retained in 
the palace of the Pdndiyan king. 
Osusrrsrrrrp/6lsir OfopsiTf^ Qldp(^u Qluqi^Qsve^iLnriM 

(Bn'LL(b!&.Q fBtrcusim)!!' /spL^saraataij mir^^iT 

South of the river Velldr on the west is Peruvell the water 
round Cape Comorin to the south, is, by the consent of all, the 
dominion of the prince of the country. [Pdndhja] 
Qsnemuir. Stanza by Avvaiydr. 

East as far as the sea, to the south as far as the Vellar, to the 
west as far as Kottai Karal as far as the Pmnhjdr of Yendd to the 
north, to the extent of twenty-four /rt^/c/wM' (240 miles), arc the 
boundaries of the Soza kingdom. 

O^ssiTufT. Stanza by Piijarandi. 

FFsnQpfeoir i^QTjU^^ iBiTpsirs,u:> 
Qs'rrLpiBtnLQiL-isiiejsia Oiusors'Os'iTei). 
The sea to the east, to the south the Velldi- to the west 
Kullal karai, to the north as far as lla being twenty-four hidanis 
is the boundary of the Sozan country. 

Osuemuir. Supposed to be by Avva'ij/ar. 

(J^incj3Q^psiT(^ C/LD/rO/r«Jr u^iEisir^(e^ 
Q3=i7/sai-LO(—0i)SB)sQiuesrd Qs^ut-j. 
The northernmost place is Pazani, the most eastern is Chcvgodn 
fTric/ie)i<judi)i\\G most western is Kozikudu, on the south is the shore 



159 

of the sea, in all eighty Kddams (800 miles), these are called the 
boundaries of the Sera country. 

OeumrufT. Stanza by Avvai?/dr. 

Q^rrLD^Q.sps!r(^ (vLDirOiressr u^!ejsit^(^ 

The northernmost place is Pazani, to the south is the southern 
KtUi, to the west is KoziJcuclu, the sea shore on the south, these are 
called the boundary of the Sera Kingdom'^ — T. 0. W. 

The following stanza by Kamhan and AvvalijdT , alludes to the 
Soza kingdom. 

jtjihQurrpSeiLDiSi ijjJTcSfB^i ^irLLuemflu^f^ 
Qa^LaOuirp Qi&)lJdQu Qe^ihuj. — ■ 

These verses were written under the following circumstances. 
A dancing girl by name SUamli in Sozadesam^ was long anxious to 
hear a song from the mouth of the poet Kamlan, who used to 
demand 1,000 Pons (a gold coin) for each stanza : but as she could 
only afford 500 Fons, he composed half of the above,- (as far as 
LDsmi—&)Qui) upon this Silambi unable to procure sufficient money 
for the completion of the verses, applied to the poetess Avvaiydr 
who for the consideration of a cup of &^-ip (or meal boiled in water) 
finished the stanza from Quemt^imn^ib to the end. Avvaiijar is 
hence called iF^(Lgi(jeF^uufTL^ ; (she who sang for a cup of pap) this 
word is applied to a person who does anything for a trifle. 

uemLDiTffl, iMLDLDfTifl ■ a saiid-showcr. 

LoemQiD®, ldldQld® ■ a hillock, rising ground : 

LD&mOevLLL^, Commonly LnihiSlLLL^, or suldlSlLl^, a country hoe, 
or spade. 

u>mir(B@p_^, LLessnLp^ . to be pressed, urged ; 

to come in great parties or flocks ; as enemies, flies, &c. To snatch 
away any thing as meat, to steal. To lie with, to commit whoredom. 
To spread as smoke. /Birmea^sQsLlL-n-ei LDemu^si^ua, if I attempt to 
enquire into the matter, a quarrel will take place. 

LDuj!ii(^Qp^, Lbiuihjipsi ; to be confused, or 



160 

perplexed, to be drowsy, to be infatuated, to be touched or smitten 
with the love of a thing. 

LDuSirsufTQ'Sip^, 9ui3L.®£F&e£l;r)^ ; to comb tlie 

hair. 

esuTLh, commonly ^QffemkpuSi^i^ LDiressTLh if the leap fail, death ; 
Prov : i. e. a precarious affair must be managed skilfully. B. 

LOlBiUIT^LD, LDlflUJIT£t5)^, LDffluJirfB, LD(I^WIT^ ■ prOpriCty 

of conduct, respect, as eTSJsri(^ LDiB'jjn-ssi^u^sxfl^Qua'3'iTsk, he has 
treated me courteously. 

w(iT)3QsirQ£>,i^, iDifldQsfTQ^i^ ; an odoriferous 

plant : Artemisia. L. R. 

LDQT^SijeebrQp^, LD(T^&ij,wsp^- to dine and receive 

presents (as a bridegroom in the house of the bride's parents). The 
entertainment or ceremony called ldq^ lasts for 3 days and is 
conduct as follows: — 

ssssrL-G3j'—{m<3'frir <siJU3=iTirL0irsQsu SbsreSlQ^'i^ssfr s'sioLDuuirir, 
Q3^(TF)fBiTff(TPLpek((rf''St>0u!iusi^i^eSp %(5£i^^<9='s^QirT^siuu)(DUireo^ 
QstsTtsQ^nrLD Ou(r^emLD(^ss>pu-j'Ei3friffuj,'EJSimj^ Qa^liiijemuj^esiSQfi^ 

et^Qe^fTiTy jifesTLji—mO'frrearenrui^ Qsse(rrrsifl^ires)sujrr eiir^Oujtr(T^s 

e)jn'sfrf5iTJT!ruj<!;mssr^ LDear^enssi/DUJffitrQLD^^ LOSieiaSLDissirsiJiTefrQeBr €vir 

^QeuiEisi—un'ujQeBr. 

LDQFfh^LD eSlQ^i^w Qpm^issTecr^ during three days medicine is to 
be taken in order to know its effects, and a guest may remain 
three days in a family, without offending the rules of hospitality. 

LDQffc^irdT/B, iM((^^633Ry jijQpeijesiTtli ; a shrub. 

The hinnah-plant, Lawsonia Spinosa, s^a^ifl, &ajmru> and ^euessB. 

iD^^, Qss)iTuusi>ee>s ; a churning stick. 

In the South Qeanuueo^as is used. 

LDeSSp^, LDbSuSl/D^, fsaju.iTioSlp^ ; to in- 

crease, to abound, to be overstocked, or glutted: Q^pajsOsrressr® 
LDeStu^^^T^ ('s9p(2^so) i5e^i—iM IT LD , to buy when scarccj and to sell 
when abundant, is loss, tj/nsfl Osir&rsnuQuir^ik ^ctDpu^ti, eSis 
(<sSps)uQuir(es)ei) u>s9ilild, if a wicked person go to buy, it is dear; 
if he go to sell, it is cheap. Prov. 



161 

LD^u, @srorg3>yo2^ ; a mountain : Lods^ 

^<3=nff0O, a cold wind, or a misty rain, from neighbom'ing lulls. 
B. m^Qurrenejinr^, to come like a mountain, used respectfully 
with reference to persons of rank, honour, or power. u^dsoQutrea 
Guib^^ uei^Quirea Quir^s^^, that which approached as a mountain 
(evil or danger,} departed as the dew. 

OsireoeiiSLD/risSsirLLujiSjQs^ Sl/SujirirOsireiisrL- O^iTi—iTLSl/b 

In plain Tamil : Qs'eiisijiEJss'SefTijLjQSL-QajinT ldsst ^ss>^uQutrs^ (cLnOeo 

Qutreod(oSire3sBu(£UiTiu /§'3=iT&(o€sra^ss)^LjQuir0Ou QuirsLjQuirss(^b-s)p 
k^euQ^ui wL^ajiTe^LDSs\)es)ujs'Qs=iT/s^iT€3r. He approached the mountain 
by a road soaring as the mind of the wealthy, dark at midday as 
the heart of the indigent, level as the petals of a flower, winding 
like a deadly serpent, lessening in progress as the friendship of 
the mean. B. 

ineOffOiTQ^S/D^j LDisi0i>ir(i^/Dj5i ; to lie upon the 

back : meixs^irss^^^psi^ to thrust one down backward to the 
ground. Lnei&iiTSSLju®^^<sQdr^ (^Lnsdfforr/B^) Qpf^a^ireo [Qpuji^iTeo) 
LDirir(SLD(osi>^fr€oreSQ^LD (^LDiTiTL9m-QLD!S0!sS(i£iu:>')Vrov. if one spit upwards 
lying upon the back, it will fall upon oneself, i. e. to blame a rela- 
tive is to blame one's self. Lciei&>iTisuu(B^^sp^ (u^^^sOsirshi^ 
®p^) to lie upon the back, Meta. to trifle, to play tricks when a 
creditor demands payment ; to be backward in doing a thing. R. 

iBiBi^p^f iM^Ssp^, ;SSB>Lg>iSlp^ ; to stop, 

to arrest, to detain on the road ; to watch a herd of cattle, in order 
to prevent them from going astray : wjB^^'so transitive, an arrest- 
ing ; a stopping up a water channel. 

LDjjjQpsLh, LD^vQpeuLD ] anothcr face, on, 

that difl'ers from that of a husband, or wife : a strange man, or a 
strange woman. LD^(LpeuLDuirap£3^ to commit adultery. 

LDtsmsfQisirSlp^) Lo<sm-3?QiBir'^p^ ; the mind grieves. 

wesr^Qidirwuuakpj^f to gricvc one's mind. 



162 

LD^dlir^^a-Qffeisij, LDeweuir^s^QffeOQj • the daily ex- 

penses in a house-hold. 

u>iru>su>y LDirinfTSLD, u> IT ui IT /El s iM ; a festivalj celebrat- 

ed every 12 years at the full moon of February at Kumhhakonam 
when multitudes flock thither to bathe in the LDiTuiiTrE}iES(^efrui or 
flrtham, a sacred reservoir. The name is derived from imslb, Magha 
the 10th lunar mansion in the sign Leo, wherein the moon and 
Jupiter then appear in conjunction. It is used as a chronological 
epoch J e. g. jj^enskOs"^^ Qpssi^LDirLDiriiisLLiruSmjv, he died 3G years 
ago. B. LDiru>ir/ijsu>fr(eF)/buinTssssh.L-ir£s{a. phrase) sisters and brothers 
who live at a great distance, and have not seen each other for of 13 
yearsj cannot again meet without an intervening ceremony. Ed. R. 

WIT 

iDfT, to/rai/ ; meal, flour, ground corn ; 

^uf.^s,ixir, corn pounded in a mortar, lot, a mango, slKBldit ; 
a tree which bears a fine species of Mango which arc usually tied up 
to preserve them. erLLi^iSlQeo aLLQLDirLDULpQpmri—irQLDn ? will the 
€!lLl^, a bitter poisonous tree (strychnos) produce Mangoes ? j/jsussr 
eLL(BLBiT(Si]S(^i- s?^/S(Lpeh(^(DUirLL!—iruQurrsi)Sir<sQ(nj'eirj he takes as 
much care of any thing, as this kind of Mango is surrounded with 
thorns, and defended? i. e. a husband his wife. ^tiiSlunr, a mango 
having a beetle in the kernel ,• Q^loit a sweet mango, Ljeffimir, a 
sour mango. ertBui-iLDir, a kind of mango which is of a burning taste, 
and cannot be eaten. R. 

LLfricSlaaL-^ Lnin^saL- ; beasts and trees, e, g. 

in a deed of sale of land : unr^^i—uiireSlsiDL- s'ffDS^uir&^nsssrQpsrruL^ 
^/bQpear, I sold the beasts, water? hidden treasures, and stones in 
and with this ground, or garden. 

l£>itlL(B@p^, lcitlLp^ ; to put wood into a 

fire ; su^wirefrwmLp^, to bridle, ^suehr jt/ajSsar idsm^iii {^/BS3r(o^iu) 
Lo/TLltf (CT)SOT-, he has given him a good thrashing, upetnenssaus soar 
cwHiSQ&) LDinKS^sS/D^, to ensnare or catch a bird LoirLLi^eoeus 
/D^, to put one into the stocks. 

unrujQp^, mtrtSIp^ ; to die, to be hidden, 

to vanish ; imitujQ^^, he is dying. ^eu06n^(n^ei> LDirajQ(o^6ir, he is 
enamoured, or dying with love. ^&]esiQ'sir(Bisi£iTLLL-iru:,eoLoiTuS(irfsisr, 
he is unwilling to give it. ei(f^sueir^^eii8MQtu unrff^sQsstrenp^, to 



1G3 

kill one self, /f Qtum ^f^tu ^^uSanir icin3'9?sSl(iffiu^ why do you vainly 
waste yourself away with grief. 

LDiTifistreiLD, LDoaLpsireoLD ; the rainy season, or 

monsoon. iniTifl m^uip^, the rain ceases. /Lo/r/flojeoso^ sirifluJLSeoSsVf 
want of rain is want of prosperity Aw. Loirifl Ln^^^sfreiih^ the 
unfruitful time? when the rain has ceased. 

LLirir ^ui-i, LoiTJTiTui^ ; a mode of dressing, 

by Native females, consisting in passing a wide scarf over one, 
shoulder drawn down on the opposite waist ; the scarf so used, ldit 
jj/rtJL/^^^vesuJ ujb/£l ^iQ^^i^enSsar jrira^ir siessri^^^treir, the King 
punished him who pulled her cloth, by which she covered her 
breast. 

LDirirdsiiy uirem^, wl^j ^i—ti> ; a way, a 

road, a path ; ji/ldititssuj^ irreligion, impiety? heresy : j^ojssr eii^ 
LDirirssBiMiTiu L360LpdQ(^ein , how does he support himself? 9(5 u>friT6s 
sLDirtu QuQsp^, to understand. 3=esrLDnird,sui, probity, interity, 
morality. Lnirirdsfh^uLSIssreuek, an irregular person, a perverse man, 
one out of the right way. fBtrssr LD^&^LDiriTssLDfnij(Su3?Q/D£sr, I speak 
after the manner of men. LDfrirssLDiriu eui^ensk, one who walk? 
orderly, in good, or religious way. 

miT^Qp^, LLiT£iip^; to change? to turn, 

to become changed. LDfr/b^dQsiressri—eusBr, Qe^aen^iDnDeuir/ijQesraudr , he 
who has changed money ; as a Rupee into Annas, (^uiriiii^ sr^^Ssar 
umTLD LDiT^VLD, what is the value of the Rupee in other coin, ^sn^ 
d(^^^QujiT^ih ixirrSuQufTiSlpjjj, his office passed out of his hands 
L^LDir^u(ouiT<c^ Quessrs^ir^, a woman whose menses have ceased, unfr 
(Eisirds^LDir/SuQuirdsi-, the tree has ceased to bear fruit ^susk ^<su 
Sssr /56m<m)iijL£iir/6li^ssr, he has flogged him very severely. iDQ^LDir^ssr 
ei]<sky a person who protracts e. g. a judge who delays bringing 
the matter to a decision : properly uarp^, commonly, ldit^^ 
change ; LDir^^Qsir®sp^, to accommodate with clean clothes as 
a washerman when supplies, for the time being, the property of 
another, wesisn^sisr LDfr^^Qsir®^^ir6ir, the washerman has supplied 
another person's cloth. unr^^uLju^esieu, a spare cloth or garment, 
female vesture. ^/b^uLS^etDs^uS Qeo^^SsBrwir^^, properly ^m^su 
uskQs^uSi Qeo^s;dcsnn!Tp£i], how often have the oxen been changed, 
or in how many days can one yoke of oxen plough this field ? 13. 



1G4 

uij3U)iT^.i^uOurreer, «(()ld of the purest kiuils. u^irpijpiisLLaai— the 
gold is of au iiifeiiur touch : in another sense jijsiim lbjtj.^s 
etles)!-, she is u deflowered woman. 

a step mother. 

iB 

lS(^Qpj3, iliBp^, (ST^eML-LLiriSlp^ ; to be 

abundant, to remain : (^tr^sr •^emc^iSi^Q&ir^.es)^ /situjsquQu/t&j 
give to the dog the remainder of the rice which I have eaten ^su 
gj/«© <^ewpl l9 sij /^^"Su IT 3= a?, his richos are increased, /sirsk lB&j^iljld 
uir(SluLLQi—ssr, I have greatly suffered. lBs^s^us also is commonly 
used to express abundance, as LBs^s^mfriuQuirQp^, to become abun- 
dant, to be multiplied. iB'S^^QeuirLLL-iTLDsiilQ^dQ/D^, not to permit 
any one to exceed due bounds iB(i^QuQua?p^, to speak too much, 
to speak haughtily. iSi^Qesr^OsfreikQ QtcpQs Quireueairsir^, Prov. 
It is not good to go with property to the westward. erem-s(^dOsiT(^ 
&LD @i^3'l3(^3's QsirQ(-.ek, pray give a little more than what you 
kindly promised. lB(^9, a ring for the second toe of the right foot : 
it is put on the bridegroom by the parents of the bride at the time 
of marriage, accompanied by an act of homage. lSss, rel. part. 
^iBQn^Os'iT^OLSss LD/B^!rL9eo2o\), Aw. no precept is more authoritative 
than the word of a Father : ^suuekOs^ireidsou uirirssu Qufliu u)ib 
^iTQuiireisr£iiLBsi)clso. iBsseueir, one who is great, or superior. R. 

lBi—jh, tBesurjji ; the neck, the lower jaw, 

the throat ; a draught, a quantity of liquid taken at once, a gulp : 

Avork to get a draught of water, and a mouthful of rice. 

iB^uiBOiciysresrQp^^ QpemQpemOeursSp^s • to mumble ; 

to speak, or to pray, with a low, inaudible, sound. 

iB^ih^t^^^, Qii>0<5i)Q^iB^Lf^^, iD^irik^^L^a:^ ; a superficial mind 
or intellect. 

lS^ulj, Qld^uli ; n lloat, that which 

floats ; ^emuf.fDSirif^S(^ iS ^ui^ekQinio seser, commonly ^iremuf-dair 
irg)is(^ Ouy^ui^QuiCSso^iresr sem, the angler has his eyes fixed upon 
the float. Pro, A steady regard is to be maintained towards one's 
chief duty. 

iB.B^'Sips'} or LDQr,LL®&p^, LBgeBp^ or iBuHp^ ; to fright- 



165 
en, to terrify, to threaten sem-^c^ iilifLL/Pj?, to fascinate ]>y a look 

LolchsiM, L£l(r^<siJLD ; tlie generic name of 

animals or beasts ji/sussr etuQuir^Lc S(i^eu^^m-LcinSQT)S,Q(^m-, he 
is always brutish in his behaviour. 

i£&T(^, (ipsn&i; pepper: Piper-nigrurh 

L. LSerrsiTLu commonly Qpsneuir, chilly : (7/)5rr(a/;56S5rOTf/r,pppper-waterj 
eleo'antly H'BL'^j ^'^,^ eSrfesdT^Qp^jrjjfBirefnruj ir^LQffOeoinneo &juj^ Quit 
(TTjiBaQaiKomiB euQ^i^uuQi£i(^^, my stomach is disordered these 
two or three days for the want of pepper-water. 

iBm^Qp^, iSesr/D^ ; to lighten, to flash, 

to shine, to sparkle, to glitter : (^flojuLSujsus'^^mQfiekQ'ssr iDekiB 
ei^uL^s'QtSlffsrr&ldsLniTLLi-ir^, the fire fly shines not in the radiant" 
of the sun: i^sireare^ Qeu'Ss's^ih, the light diffused by lightning, 
L/«6\) day-light ,• /S«o/r moon-light, SmpO^ioisiniM Quir^siesreixso, all is 
not gold that glitters. LBssr^dOsffOeoniiL^'m^df^inemtp, rain follows 
lightning. 

eviTLu/B^iJilmSsifr uiL—fr^iunirdQtsSisikr 

s'lTiifiossffi^ ^LDiot^iLid(^6mGipiosr 

Qsvii^OsiJLhQpSs\)uuirirLSiLip:)/£l<eB)em-. — (cTDmL—^u>^/BSjTuUL-iKii. 
[sQffSS^.) LSiTLoCD^sii^esreiiesr iBtsk emeus'^ u OusmaemriQ ^LhiBsksm en 
smirQuJ 0uem£S6rr Qios^i^p Os^SoeOiruxs^Qffdsu OuirekuiSso 
s'SpiTuQuir&> fEekQp^s^oiru uesit—^aiirm ereku^frii. 

lE 
Serosa, sS'sB).? ; a mustachio : if ero.?, is 

used in the northern part, and (sSero.? in the southern part of the 
Tamil country ji/eueir QQip^QpipssuKE^saffuSQed LDemui—^(uL—eSs^B5)3) 
OujasrSl(nj'ek, he boasts himself that though he has fallen down on 
the ground the sand has not adhered to his mustachios. 

lEiQ^ire^f i3Q^!reo ; the cuticle : tSQ^ire^ 

iBaQp^, to peel off the cuticle. 
iSsmOa'^eo or LEswOsF^ea-, and LSeki^irnei, tlmi^eaaso, SleotnhLj ; 
the scales of a fish. 

OP 

Oaireirp^f Qs^ih^p^ ; to draw water : ^LpwopiQ q^sulS^iu) ^ip 



16G 

sL-eSeii, fsiTL^Qpssicijirjn iBsTi^ifi ; though you sink the measure 
called fBiTi^ ever so low in the deep sea, you will not draw out at 
oncejfour measures of water. Avvai. Qp^mir. You will receive no 
more than fate (or in the best sense, Divine Providence) ordains. 
^okasffQ'f/i^d.Q^cvuisuiT, go and draw water. 

(7/j«Ll®ffly3srr, QiDfriKSieu'Sorr ; a beam, or cross-tie 

fastened, on the top of the rafters of a house, to keep them at 
a proper distance. 

Qpswed, QpsuLoSi^ eBeieu^uuL-®, velvet. 

Hind, s^esriijseir Seiisu^uuLLL:^(e^&) ^li^t^ iSljre'/E/S^O^irLLL^seiuJS' 
Qs^iTL^^^friTser, The people have adorned this pulpit by velvet. 

QP^LD, Qpsuih; the face, the entrance 

to a house, the commencement, the means or an expedient. Wils. 
Sans. Diet. R. s^^Qpen^^Qeo sfriflojih fsi—dSp^, to transact busi- 
ness by writing, sirfliuih rBGO&)Qps^es)^iQsiT&r(ei^Qp^, the business 
is in a promising state, or has a good appearance. Beschi. 
sirpj^(ipeijuLS'iQ<!K^^£}i@p^y to winnow before the wind. 5=^^(5 
eu/s^QP'S'EJserflOei)irQf)QfisLDinLi ^(tjldlSI.? •3?'S/d^, to turn towards the 
enemy, and fire a volley. t-i^Qpentli, a new face, i. e. an unknown 
person. QpsuLcunir^^s si^&leuirs/D^, to bestow food after having 
looked at the face. ^emL-imjir QpsLLLJiTir^^iTisderesrdOsSiedfrLD aos^sr^io 
ej(Cf)LD, If I have the favor of God I shall prosper. LSlarrSsTri^ Qp<s^m 
OsfTL-irQ^, indulge not a child. QpsuEj Qsires^s^uQuiT'^p^i, to grow 
angry. (Lpeu^ Q^^^uQuirp^, to be put out of countenance, to 
be ashamed. Qpeu^^freii Qpi^^liuirffOi-^s/D,^, to repulse, or repel? by 
the countenance. Qpen ^^eoQ^fUoi-i Lj/ruu(Slp^ or siflsQairu^^m^^ 
hairs appear on the upper lip of young men. Qpsu^^ e^n^^ihO^/S 
esu Qu-5?p^, to speak as one enraged, lit. to speak with blood 
starting from the visage. Qpeud^ (£ajiTi—^eodso, not a fly will touch 
his face, said of one who is angry, or, of one who is sad. jUjSiJsk 
npeiJ^,^ei>'^LLOL-^ii^^iTuQuiTffi Qeu<oesn—rrOLDek(n^^, he has refused 
that in an angry manner, (lp su ^i ^ ii) i^ lLQi—^SI Sip ^ to cast something 
in one's teeth. Qpeu^^emriTui, the mouth of a river or arm 
of the sea, properly Qpsji^jouirinj}, or a^L^Qpsth. (ws/sitl^ com- 
monly (LpeuwiTLf., a feature, a symptom as : j:^5vek(ipeu/BiTL^sn-/EjQD.z 
u.ii:ei)£uns^d(^ eSl(2(nr^iMirdj Qev^jiuilt—j^, the form of his counte- 
nance was changed by great anger. <£il.(BlQpeuLDiTuj^(ir,ihLjU), turn 
towards my house. Genes, xix. S. (Lpsuuiru^unruj Q^iT&>e9pjpy to 



167 

say by heart, (ipsu 3^ su n LDuemss!^ i p^ ^ to shave the hair of the face. 

®UD, though he is your intimate friend you must speak without 
partiality, in order to preserve his friendship. QpeuLDtrLii—Lhuirdp^, 
to be partial towards a person, ^n^^^Sssr (ipsijQp/Slsninu Quei-p^, to 
speak so as to offend one. Qpsu^irsz^essBiuLD, partiality. Qpen^^s^ 
QpehrQ'csr e^smr^u (^^^S(^ui3mQicsr (c^emmu (oU3?p^, to speak one 
thing to one's face, and another thing behind one's back. Qpsu^i^s 
S(^Q Qfi^^nQiTrrQi—Qu!T(^sii (v^so^i^aQseieairileisnli. It is a disgrace 
to all the tribe if a younger brother's wife commit adultery with 
the elder. Prov. isirem- QsLLi—sij^rir^esi^ujiTeo ji/eudrQpsu^ Os'^^u 
Quit ff Si- ; lit. by my question his face or countenance became dead, 
i. e. blushed, was ashamed. QpeiiLD/Siuir^Q^iPii, a strange land ; a 
land where one has no acquaintance. (LpsnLbQpsuu>iTiljQu.g?p^, to 
speak face to face. iBireir ^i^sjiasiiraniu QpeuQpeiJLDtnusaessrQi—eisr, 
I saw that gentleman personally. erm-dsmiLjih eteki^m'SenmujiLjuy Qpeu 
ihuirir^^ ^(^QeiirriTLjuiTtflffoSsd, there is no one will pity me and 
my child and give us food. Qpeuuiri-ih, that which one has learnt 
by heart, ^wek QpeuQisij^Qsiuuji QsLLL^isn-jresr, he is clever at 
shaving the face. For QpeuLo a common expression is Qp(^Q as : 
Qpd^&l&rem(Blp^^ to contract the face through anger or scorn. 

QpsSsnr, Qp&ar, ^<5i£ ; the fore-part, the 

tip of a thing, the point, sharp edge. ^s!£iSlQe\>Sj<srrp^j to nip the 
end, or point of a thing. 

QpaQFfQps^, QiMiriflp^ ; to smell to a thing, 

to explore by smelling : ^ensk ^eu'Ssir QiDirih^QeirQem- (QsirmrQi—') 
^(r^sSi(o^ek, he always falls in love with her. 

(tp-a^ir^^ti, opQiT^^LD ; a propitious hour? 

or fixed time, astrologically determined for solemnizing a wedding, 
laying the foundation of a city, temple, building, &c. {^■m^euirir 
(Tfi3f^ir^^ss&). the foundation stone? R.) Vulgarly ssSujiremu) : seQ 
ojirem-a^^/h^i^iSleo^tTsSsLLt-LDp/h^irssr, he has forgotten to tie on the 
nuptial ornament, at the fortunate time, 

qP^qSIp^, qp^p^ ; to use the utmost strength, 

to make violent efforts, as a woman in child-birth or travail^ to 
strain at stool. R. ^sum ^k^ i^m'^mujff- -^-s^i^ezrar^p QpsQu 
Ou^^irQemr ? Has she brought forth the child after having eaten 
dry ginger ? 



168 

Qpei^L^<siifriEi(^QpuiTiTuuirdr, QpLLi-^euiTiEiQpuiruuiTm ', a Brah- 
man Avho takes (a handful of rice for) alms, lun&sic- is elegantly 
used instead of Gptlqi. QpiLu^, verb. part, oi' (lplL®SI/d^^ bciiij^ 
deficient (^empih^ &c. QpLLi^Ouj®iQfo^, to take up with the horns 
as an ox, to take upon the head as a burden, and carry it, to beg, 
to live on alms. qplLl^uQuitS'/dju, to be in a state of privation. 
^ssresr (zpLlifje^ffO <oTe^eo!T(wil.(BlLD, "where food is wanting, nothing 
else is of any value ; or want of food is the greatest of all wants. 

(ipL-a(9)Qrr,^, Qpi—sp^ ■ to bend the knees, or 

the arm, to clench the fist ; and bend a bow to impede, to hinder 
as : ^Q^fBfr'SsiTQpt_sQi^sir, he has obstructed the religious festival. 
B. (2/5L_e5&«B3(2]j<®/D^, to fiiiish, to complete, used in speaking of what 
one has done, with humility ; e. g. instead of saying (^LLsai^d 
SLLt^Qesresr, I built a house ^(5 QL^es)3= QpL-ssleimj^(S^esr- I have 
put together a hut is sometimes said. R. euQ^Sp euQf^&^^^Si mscsy 
s^&QsiTQ^ sirs^ssiKBaLLL^ (LpL-.&Qei!)sussi§idsers§lQpsJsT^ I think it is 
better to marry my son next year. Qusisrs'iT^ siriissil.® i3sr%T 
euiribssiL®, a wife shackles the feet, and a child stops the mouth : 
i. e. a married man with a family can neither go nor eat as be 
pleases. ^sijdr(ipL-ds!nSl(f^dS(nj'sir ^ he is angry. Q-e!!r<i0sedriosrQpi—6S(^ ? 
what IS the reason for your anger? ^sa/ear eruQurr^iJo ^i—d(^Qpi— 
s(^LjUoisr(a/s3r (^umr^S(nj>esr) he always behaves in disagreeable 
manner. 

Qfii-^Slp^, Qpt^iSlp^ ; to tie up, to bind 

up, knit a knot, to come to an end as : /f /r sirffineoQpc^ts^es)^ iBirizk 
esiSiuireoeijis (ecasajir^ii^QSip-ia) LDinLQi—ek, I am not able to untie, 
with my hand, the knot which you tied with your foot. i. e. you 
arc full of stratagem, ^svsir 3:.2soiuiTQisiQpL^,u9^sk , he is a terrible 
\\ax. (LpL<^iij^^triJDLj^&>uieij:h^^ir, has every one received the betel-nut, 
or have all the community received it ? 

Note. — In the celebration of a certain marriage ceremony the 
owner of the house asked, have the whole community received the 
betel-nut ? To which every one replied yes ! but one among them 
objected, and at last said that he had not received enough to knit 
a knot. A play upon the word Qpu^tu which means to finish and 
to knit, fasten. 

(LpfSA^Qp^, (Lp®iir^ . to press in, to insist 

upon a thing, to press for it as : jijaiek^L-^i^ Old^^^ Qj:)®dsl(^<^, 



169 

he has urgently demanded payment of the debt, j^sudr ^sk si—Sms 
OsiTL-iTLDSi) Qp^aSliJjif^Q(rt)>£ir, he always puts one off by vain 
excuses for the delay of the payment. ldit(Bs'Scit Qp'SdSlQajiTLL®, 
urge on the bullocks, ^euek Q^Q,Qp(BiatTuj QuiTS(o^fir, he goes 
very proudly. Qp'Sdi^, also means a corner, a narrow street, 
or lane. 

(xpu-L—irenuQuiLi-^LDSm, (LpiLL^tTuQuL-L^iiisuasr ; a very 

ignorant man ,- lit. son of a silly woman. This is often applied to 
inferiors as an innocent phrase, as : QiuessrL-irQpLLi—iruQuLlL^uiwQcsr 
^esi^s-Qs^'Jj^iriL, why have you done this, you foolish man? 

QptKBQp^i (LpiLp^ ; to dash against somethingj 

to want, or to need, as: ^au^Qptl.(Bi,(^(ipLL®LD&>60^i—ss3i(sijLDe^S(3i^ 
i. e. that is fit for nothing or cast aside, or he is a blockhead or 
useless man. srmsi^ (LpLKStSSi)^ Qpi—s a^sijiB<5ods\), I have no prop 
or support and no door to shut : an expression used by a widow. 
QpLLu^aOaiT<sfTp^, to hit or dash the head, kc. against any thing. 
miTsisr QpLLu^Qpu-Lp-uufT ^^th tDirsfreSedSoo, though I earnestly reques- 
ted him to do it, he refused, ji/sijsrr QpL-i—irLneoeinTi^ih^ (Lpssn-iuino 
eii]ee)L-uSl(n^srr - Prov. she is a very stingy or miserly woman. iBtnk 
sen- QpLLi—iMiril-Qt—iru}, we want nothing, i^ qplLij^ul^puul—uhtlL 
i-irtu, thou canst not want, &c, QpiL^^^dso, a menstruous cloth. 
(LPLL(Bessr(B QecfluSlp^, to duck the head after having dashed it 
against the lintel, a plirase implying previous want of caution ,- 
look before you leap. 

QP^tT/i^L^^^, (Lp^i^i-^^^ ; mature sense, or' 

understanding : euaSu^^Qea Qp^rr/s^i-j^^ (^^Qesrwuj^ecii^ujiTen- 
LDirii^ precocity in youth denotes a short life, ^svsk L3(^Q(SgouQ£>^^ 
€if)uujsisr, he is a precocious youth. 

€mi—es)6u, LDLLL^ui3es>i—<ssieij ■ coarse cloth. 

Qp^^LD, QP^^ ; a kiss ; liberation or ex- 

emption from further transmigration ; final beatitude in the sense 
of re-absoi'ption into the divine essence. Wils. S. D. R. (je,i^, 
a female name. 

QP(Lp(^Q/D^, (Lp.i£<sS/D^ ■ to bathe the en- 

tire body, the water being poured over the head particularly 
used with reference to a woman when bathing after menstruation 
jiiwerr QpQ^a^s-oSso, she does not bathe, said of a woman who from 



.170 

age, or pregnancy^ or sickness, lias no menses. B. uemuD (tpq^i^lu 
QuiTu9p£u, the money is irrecoverably lost. 

Qp'Sen&Qes)!r, QpensSemir ■ a kind of tender 

greens, or pot-herbs(other\vise @2n)ffi@£ZD/r, commonly eoiQffI). Q^ir, 
a general name of all sorts of greens and the eatable leaves of 
trees : ^ek(£LLL^isi> ei)dQrf!Qs@rfl Qau^ffQiEiBeirir ? have you boiled 
the pot-herbs or greens in your house. Qp^^, a plant's first shooting 
out of the ground, a germ, a shoot. qp'^slL(BQp^, to put moist- 
ened seeds into a basket, to cause tliem germinate, in order to eat 
them, as sldlj, or Holcus spicatus ; or with a view to sow them", 
as rice-corn. (ip\(raOsml.(B, a woman's Jilay, or ceremony ; a clapp- 
ing the hands, and dancing round a vessel containing earth upon 
■which seeds of germinating corn are sown, with a view of obtain- 
ing a good harvest. Beschi. ^^etrtLjilutSiir Qpkni^QeoQ^ifliLjili^ the 
nature of the harvest is known by the germ, i, e. the disposition 
of the child prognosticates the manners and behaviour of the man. 
j^^uuL^'jS(iT)Ss,Qeii^^QiLek^ QpSenujL^^^iTGsr , he has nailed the 
matter ,• or, determined that it must be so. SiLjOp^TidsnQiun- ? didst 
thou also appear ? R. Qp'^sn a certain coin in Trichinopoly &c. 

Qp/3Qp£3, QprBuSp^ ; to break as wood, 

&c. to be broken. u^^ujk^ui3(ee)(so LDQf^ii^Qp^k^QuiTLD, if diet 
be neglected, physic becomes ineffectual. Qp/Suj(LprSlujuQu.5?p^j 
to insult ; Qp^^kea^ap/Slap^, to afFront one, by showing great inci- 
vility CT6iiri@ti) ji/eu^dQu, Qp^3'3'&>iTiSi(n)3:(^^^ there is a dispute 
took place between him and mc. urreoQp/SSlp^ milk to grow sour, 
Qp/S(^ffufr60 sour milk. 

QPJiiQ^p^, Qp^^p^ ; to scorch in boiling, 

or frying. @/5^cfeu^^6Vi Ou)!rpOuirrQpbm(S Qp^dSuQuiT.a's?^ this dried 
vegetable has become scorched in frying. 

Qpp^ans^ Qp^^aissis ,• closcncss, distress, 

■want : as ^uQuirs'iruuiTLi®d03:esrd(^ (ip/f^d^rDaujiruS(rf,dsp^j now 
1 am in great distress for food. (ip/fsldetasQunQp^ ; to besiege. 

Qpeiruipuij or QfipQsiruu), QpLDLDnm ; precipitate, and 

vehement, anger, QpiiiLDPi^Q&OffiTenffdnQ.^, speak not in anger. 
QpiMLDffLDL-iBj(^Qp^, (\\\s) augcr lias relented. 

^^eiiQearQpeiSiQuj ORo3si!rujrr(^,anL- luiresrsiiQesrQpei^QujeO 



171 

" O thou, who art the sun, be not angry ! Thou, who hast me for 
thy servant, be not angry ! Thou whose penance is rewarded, be 
not angry ! Thou who dwellest in my heart be not angry ! O thou 
husband of Lakshiuii be not angry ! Thou fire of intense heat, be 
not angry ! Thou rightous one, be not angry, be not angry ! So 
saying, they stood and worshipped him." B. Qpihunfldp^, to be 
in violent anger. 

(tpem (o^&m , Qpib^iremfi, S-^Itujld ; the edge, 

or skirt, or selvage, of a man's or woman's cloth : ^L^Qprn^irea^, 
the edge, of a woman's cloth, worn inside. QLLeoQpih^iraa^, the edge 
of it, worn upon her shoulder : 

Q,^&LULp@ih 0&ir(Bih^n-'SsBrs QstTLLi—ip(^ 

s&ieSujtpQs ujLp(^. — wireoup-ujiTir. 
" The beauty of the hair? and the beauty of the border of the 
encircling garment, and the beauty of turmeric, are no beauty. 
The beauty of learning is beauty, for it is decisive of our mental 
excellence." — Ndladiydr. 

essreh-e^dOsir<om®iSle!DiriSlearQe!!r uj(r^i^i—iTQ.sn-L$tSlesrssrQ(^ 
Os'S^emSiT.g&srLu^i^Qs'iTp Qs'iSlei^ipiLf^^/Fs^ 
^<3ki^ss)p0aiTL<f.uJs?^pp (ipiSlir(y)i-p.^^(SiSij0^eiruiTir. 
(<S(T5^^) j^ins^irserr ^lduj/b^ QpdsossnirQiu sh-ppth s-iSlstsirs 03SiTe<3 
£i^OLDesruiriTSerr. eresru^rru}. 

^is^ (Lpis^iresBB t^Q^w^s^u (SuirLLL-Q^iue^eoirtMeo u)pO(y^&j^s 
QLoQuiriLi-^eoeo. He alone and nobody else has worn this cloth. 
This phrase is used of a woman who has been faithful to her 
husband. 

QpikdotsrfBiyeir^ Qpk^iBirpjpi, Qpih^/Bireir, QpfE^rr/Birerr ,• the day 

before yesterday. 

Qpesr^, iBskScBT ,. the name of a tree : 

Prerana intcgrifolia L. Ur^LSesrSsars/StiLurdSi^ei) Owa^ (rr)QiumSi(iF,'i 
Qii, if you dress ramnmnmi with smaller leaves it will be savoury. 



]7g 



^ases^piwsw, Qps(^s!Dpiusiir ; a man who has 

no nos^j or a person with an amputated nose : (Lpisempuj^Si^ [suit 
/p«QD<SL/L/LLi_/re\)) suiTssuuLLi—irei) Qpesr^ih QuireuuLtL—trj^ iS&sr^iih 
QutrevuuL-irjs [^Qp^^th Quirsssk-t^ir^ tSlew^ui (Ju/r<s<s.»i-L_/r^] a 
woman married to a noseless man can neither go forward nor 
backward. A phrase applied by servants to a fickle-minded master. 

QpisiifEJsuSd", Qpssi^fEiseij^ • the rope or 

string, which is put through a bullock's nose, as a bridle. 

Qp'SiQiDsa, Qp®p^ . to remain or be, cover- 

ed, or concealed. smr^smQpQp^, lit. to close one's eye or close 
another's eye i. e. to die ; (sirek QpL^QpL^eiDeu^^treiiiui iS^t^^sSeir 
^euQ^^^, though I concealed the thing as a secret, it comes out or 
in public, ^^Isair, vulgarly Qp®^^fTir, a coverlet, as : jt/i^s^eu^ 
^'S(5 or iSessr^^d^ (ip(9^^friTueme}Bfl<5!^iTssmrf did you put a cover- 
ing to that corpse. 

(LpLL(BQp^, Qp^p^ ; to join, or link to- 

gether, to sew together, to kindle, to raise a quarrel among 
people, ffemes>L^QpLLp^. [QfiLLL^eS®Sp^'] 

QlD 

QiMiLis's^Sp^, Quiisf-p^ . to praise, to laud 

as : Qubs'ffiT^LD^G^ir^^ welcome guests ,• friends : OtDj^^dOsireir 
p^, to boast, to vauntj to extol one's self. a-scriQ Otoi^ erdSssSso 
QuirtLt—iriTsetnr, lit. after praising you, did they give you leav_ 
ings of meat ? i. e. Is there any good by flattery ? ^euesr ^su&nr 
Qu>d& OuidQuQu^^esT, he has boasted very much of his action 
/sirek upi^QuirQp ers^^dsSsoQixeo ssei)2s\)^^d@es)ev^Q^eir. I have 
placed a stone on the leaf plate which was flying away. I have 
protected him when ho was destitute. srdQdsSs)) (erdS}2s\)) is a 
platter made of leaves which has been used, and has thereby 
become impure or unclean. 

Ozz)(75(5, OLO0sy ; smoothness, glitter, 

lustre. O LD 0^)211 uL-JiQ^Ludp^^, to rub, in order to give a polish : 
OtxQ^Oeviimd^sTr properly OLDd^OeemQimii', oil for giving a lustre to 
joiner's work, varnish, 

Qixecfiv, Qinvhen, or Quined&T ; softly. 



173 

gently : OLDirbirGrr QiDnmsn, very softly. /s/Tcot- <^k^uu(r^&^&j OLoek 
etrQLD<sfT&T ^£ii^Ois^uQuesr, I will cut ofF this boil very softly. 

OldSos^SIp^, Quieop^i e'oaeuSino^, ^euiLp^ . 

to chew, to masticate, as : ^eusw QLomrc^aQemQessr o^sSi^pOT, 
ijiieum QiDekjuOssTeisiQi-. uS(i^iS^ek) he cliews, or masticates, 
like a sheep ,- to scold, to chide, to taunt as, ^Bjek ^rftr&jtiuseii} 
OiDekdoar Omsm^i]Qs!T<smL^(rF,i(ir^m , he chides me night and day: 
OLoessr^^up^, properly OLom^^uLjSp^, to chew and spit 

(n^ssr, he always scolds me severely, s^esxsusp^ and s^mjiLp^ are 
most commonly used in Madura and Tinnevelly. 

OLDQp(&)Slpjs, OLDQpdlp^ ; to daub a place 

with cow-dung or sandal-paste, jyawerr ^li^sSLLetBL-OiusiffOirLo Qldq£>gSI 
(eD)«Tr, she has daubed all this house with cowdung water, ^a/sw- 
^wskQ3'iu^(^PPs^^ OiDQpi^Q/'eir, he covers, or cloaks, the other's 
fault, /f ^0o'ScdQiusk£u eruuuf. QLD(rg<iSl'^^u> /siresr iBLDUunrLLQu-ek, I 
wont believe though you deny with many protestations. 

Qin 

Qldsld. QiDaJtb ; a cloud, QiMSeK^tMULo, 

a pillar of a cloud, a cloud-pillar. QLDetju)uffe9p^, properly Qixath 
unsijQp^, to be cloudy or overcast Quissirirsiii, venereal disease, 
gonorrhea QiDsQeuCemu.. 

QLDSuui-.ei)Lh, QtDwuuL—eiLDjQLDisiJuuesil— ; ve- 

nereal sores. 

QtMLuQpss, QwuSIp^ ; to feed ; also to graze 

to eat grass, to browse as goats, to eat ,- to cover a house with 
sticks, leaves, &c. QuauuQuirSp^, to go feeding. QLoSpubir^Qsir 
ihi3Q&> iSi&>dsoa,il.u^sQL-L-!rQu:)iLi^, lit. Does the cow take the grass 
on its horns when it is feeding ? i. e. servants are not restricted to 
one place for employment, ^suek Qsfr(^3=/Bt^3'LSl(i^aSlp<sts)^Qujeosorru3 
QiMUJuu!rireSi(iyasr , i. e. he endeavours to waste the remainder of his 
estate. Qunu/s^um®, pastured cattle. 

Qldit 
Olditl^Qp^, Qlditl^u9p£3; to say, to speak; 

Qldit i^lsu^pOLDiTL^, say what thou sayest, rightly, or justly, or 
according to truth. Avvai. QioirL^eu^ ld^hsQ ssrL^sn^aQffLDtJD, if the 
words of the wise be forgotteu, the business will not succeed. 



174 

OiMiriyidsdr^ OLDrT^,!Ea!r ; a plain jewel, with- 

out engraving, or ornament. ^/h^/seaauSlsn QsiTLiijQiau3s\) Oiuir^^ 
iSiTfrLDso 0LDirs<S(^u3(f^d(^^, this is a plain jewel without any 
engraving. Qunrsssar also means a stout man, vulgarly Ossmt—ek ,- 
in the South SQpdairessff. 

QiLfT^Qp^, Qu>rr^p^ ; to hit, to beat, to 

dash against ; sir/b^ Qimit^ Qudit^ ujL^ap^^ the wind blows 
violently. 

QLCi!rw(riLjsaLLes)i—QujeiJ}UjL^, QloitsslLssh^Quj^lli-I ; the jaw- 

bone. QiDirdsLLeiDL-, the chin, properly QpsdsLLes)i—. ji/euOesr dr 
(Qpr)^<ss>^ weifresfldaQeuiomSlQutesr^ jt/eusmQLDtrdsLLeaL—eiaujLJLSlL^^^d 
OsiTemQi—m I earnestly requested pardon for my faults. 

UJ 

uj^irew^fresrihf er^ir&v^iresrui ; the proper place. 

lUfT 

lutTs-sLD, ujir&euiJD ; begginjj, mendicancy : 

luirffeuLhwcmp^, to practise begging, or to be seeking alms, to 
solicit in general. R. 

lufTeiia-'^sijth, ^eu^suirefrih • all which belongs 

to this life ; as ja/evek ^^u^eurrerrQpQpeis^LLiLh ^fim^Q^dQQp&sr, 
properly? jijoj^esn—iu ujirsvd&wQpLo/S/sPo^dQQpeiir, I know all his 
circumstances, concerns, secrets, &c. 

ujfTdssr, ^Ssr ; an elephant as : ^Sssr 

slLi— siu£u 3inOm®^^dQ3;n®d(9)Ui, the elephant delivers the cord 
with which it is to be tied ; commonly ^2c!!nD^^<riTeo ^nQm Loem 
dmrexjiriBdOsiTLLL^dcQU), Prov. applied to any one who brings mis- 
chief upon himself. 

'!/«"', ^euiM ; an age, a period of time. 

There are four ages of the world, viz. Sl(oiT/sinLjsLh, ^(Sir^rriLisLCy^ajir 
untLjSLD, and £B6Qiljsld, the Krita, Treta, Binipara, and Kali, ages. 

Note. — " The supreme Ishwara/i is the creator, preserver, and 
destroyer, of all worlds. This supreme heavenly hJiwaran, by liis 
grace, (or favor) jnadc tlic God Brahma, for the purpose of pro- 
ducing all living souls. Now, the age of this God Brahma is as 



175 

follows: — Tlie tune of wiukiug tiie eye is ono moment ; Hfteen 
of these moments are a Katta'i ; thirty of these Kutfai make a Kali^ 
thirty of these Kail form one Muhnrtkim ,- thirty of these latter 
one (lay. Fifteen days are a ^;a/(AVm?/« ; two of these paksham, 
a month. Two months make one iruttii ; three of these 
intttu make an aijanam ; two of these ayanam make a year. Of 
these years of men, 360 make a year of the Gods ; of these, 4,800 
form the Krita Yugam ; which contains of the years of mortals, 
1,728,000. The Treta-Yitgam contains 3,600 years of the Gods; 
or, 1,296,000 of the years of men. The Dwiq^ara-Yngam contains 
2,400 years of the Gods ; or, 8,64,000 of the years of men. The 
KaU-Yugam contains 1,200 years of the Gods, or, 432,000 of the 
years of men. The whole making four Yugas ; containing, years 
of the Gods, 12,000; or, 4,320,000 of the 'years of men. Now 
one thousand of these great ages make one hright-half of Brahma's 
day, and one thousand more such ages, complete his day. Thirty 
of these days are a month, twelve months, a year. One hundred of 
these years is Brahma's flood/' T. O. W. In another sense p-buld 
earth, as ^uQutrer^m- ^suldqpq^^ujiiQuitiLi^lLl—^ ? what then is 
the world over-turned? i. e. do you think that I would not 
give it you ? 

M> 

«Ki-aS, a quick-sighted person, a man of a ready apprehension : 
^sasuujtriULJuinTdSp^, to consider, to observe with attention. 

Qiurr 
QujiTsQiuLci, Qujirduju) • fitness, convenience, 

ability, decency, decorum. Wils. R. the same as ^ott^, that 
which is good. ^<sa^aQsrr0O£iii@p^eard(^ QtuiTs@ujLD<ke:), it does not 
become you to say this. B. ©^a-ipffl/i^ (oijjirdQujLDfrem-LDiT(E)^ this ox 
is fit for ploughing, S i^uui-^Qug?Qp^ QujfrdSujLn&ieo, yours is not 
a fit mode of speech. ^^saei}eisrQuj!ra.@ujsme^ei), he is not fit for it, 
Qujird3iLi^d(^d3's!Tujuu®^^, to advance money, &c. to an honest 
man trusting to his honesty, to risk one's own money, &c. in a 
ship, or otherwise. R. itEirs^QuQ^d^^QiuirdQiuLDiTLLi ^(Ss5^sO:siTs<k<£) 
iSipuuL-Qeumr^iM you ought to dress decently when in public. 



176 

eiJslQf,Spjs, ouSq^p^, euGijp^ ; to divide, to 

slice, to cut in little longitudinal pieces, to distribute, to disentangle 
the hair ; as ^SsoLoi^ssiir ensijp^ or eniriflp^. j)jsii'?enQp^ujeiiG^iB^{sii® 
iTii^) Ou)rrt-e!S)L^ajLfssQ&j^iiLD, we must shave her head, only leav- 
ing hair in three places ,• (a punishment, in former days to servants. 
eusiji^eiieijh^QesiirsSlp^, properly euS it euS air ih 3^ SsmrrdS/v^, to 
shave by paring olF only parts of the beard, and of the hair of the 
head as a punishment ,- the culprit being afterwards placed upon 
aa ass, and conducted through the streets, of the town. R. ^euen- 
^ib^lE^ ^ it sm i— it iii evGii] 13^ it en j she has cut the fish in two in the 
middle. iyeuQsijiTQ^3'iEiS^@S)iuiLjLD £u&ji3_^ eueijih^ QsLLSl(rr^uj, you 
enquire into the matter strictly. ^i^Qs'sr^^-sm^ ^o-6mi—iruj6u(^^^u 
Quit®, divide the rice into two portions. 

sua'uu®Qp^, eus'uu^p^ ; to submit, to obey, 

as eus'^^dQsuinrju [suq^Q/d^) to return to order, or to come in 
possession, iBnekeua'LDjSiuirLDffOiTu ULL®aQ^iTevaTQi—sar (ji^suULL®dOsir 
emQi—m) I became entangled by want of skill. ^^mwa^w/Sujirui^ 
s'itulSlLQsSlL® ^uQuiT(T^LfiiS(nj'ick, now he sorrows for having 
eaten immoderately ; eus^ia/SlajiTLDeo 90^)1-^^/0 QsirQ^sussTQuirimjuu 
i—iT^ [Quir3;s<3^L-ir£ii) one should not go to any place without know- 
ing its state, sus^ldit^p^, to come into possession, to succeed or 
have good success* j^^ srdreus'LDirsnLDSs Quiris?^, it has not suc- 
ceeded, it fell short of success — sisudssr^sksmih erekeua'LDirdSdOsir 
eirefrs^l'so^ I have not yet got hiui into my power, g)^ cTeki^Qci) 
Qffuj,u €iiffLCi<so&), it is beyond my power to accomplish. s^lfniMsua^LReo 
tsoiTLceQ(ir,sSlp^, to be indisposed, or unwell. 

ei'i—sLD, wL-svLD ; seasoulng stulf consisting 

of pulse onions, cummin, &c. fried together in dressing a curry. 
This kind of seasoning is often used in order to afford a rich 
flavour. eui—euLoirdjssniu'B^^eu&sr, a lean or shrivelled person. 

euL-ei3i}iQun®p^y to prepare such seasoning fresh for every year. 

euL^Slp^f euL^Spja ; to flow downwards, 

to drip down, or trickle, as tears from the eyes; to distil, or fall 
by drops ; to be diminished, as water in a river ; to ebb, or flow 
back to the sea; di% ^Q(n;(!r,(LpipiJD<suL<f.i^^^ the river has fallen a 
cubit. ^a^is5LDsi:L!f.uSp^ {wL^^sp^) blood is flowing, or running 
from a wound. uQ^tsQeu^tJ^sn.^iSlpja the matter issues from the 
ulcer; a/if (cj^a/r^, (au 41 /s^a/rjfl) a long ear-lap; Q^treh^^^/r^. 



177 

Qs^iT^^Qs^^e^e^ ^.iremiJDeuL^aj^&i^^ the water of the rice has not 
yet ruu off [svL^Qp^, to pour off the water from boiled rice by 
inclining the vessel) s^irffiriuLhoiL^ip^, to distil liquor ; to point a 
thing, to sharpen it, as a stylus sTQ^^.^iT0ssftemtu eiiL^d/D^.—evLf.&j ; 
the ebb, or reflux, of a river, or of the sea,- ^uQuir^^eij^^sus 
@OT^ ; the river, or sea, is now ebbing GUL^evirijsu(ns(^Sp^esiT6!Si!Fir, 
water which flows slowly downwards. a.'Lf ay, also means the same 
as ^ifi(S, beauty ; as jtieumQcD^^ em^eviniSlQ^dSco^eir she is very 
beautiful. jtj'susffeuL^'s^isja-O&neiec) evmueuirisSeiSsd, uo tongue can ex- 
press her beauty. The word s^ts^inh is a higher and more refined 
word, used only by learned people.— ejeS evi^si^ ; an articulate 
sound, suffleuL^eij, a character, or letter, Qf&QsiremeuL^e^, a trian- 
gular figure. R. 

0j®^ eu'Seij, ^Q^LDL^ ; an unripe fruit, 

a fault, a scar, a wale, or mark of a burn, as : 

WIT(^(eS)pS-Ll.L—i5v(B. 

The wound may heal, though from a burning brand. 

And be forgotten ; but the wound ne'er heals. 

A burning tongue inflicts. Cural. Ellis. (suQ^i^eoirffffir^, a 
pure tribe, (mj(BQiLDL^sk(sSliLjLD!iuSiQ^sp^, to have warts and spots. 
LD!reu(BmL^aiTdjaQa^pp^ an unripe mango M'ill be very useful 
to pickle. (oresr^es}i—Ujeu(Sl ^esresrunnem/DUJi^s^iSsx), my SCars are still 
visible, ^eussr ^iT/5L-^es)^<sujiTeo ereira'iT^Sf^ <su®S!SieiJcB^irssr. By his 
misbehaviour he corrupted my caste. 

eu(B(^, ejQetj ,- the Telugu-country ,- 

Telingana ; The Telugu language is called O^sjij/e?© as : &.^i(^0^ 
^/B^Li/reros!^ O^iBuLjintr ? do you know the Telugu language. eii(Bsm 
«/r^,commonly <sn(BieussiT^, large ear-laps artificially inade.((aj©«OT) 
fiuOa/OT, a man of Telingana. euQsnek^p^LDeusmi^shr^rigic^LDjiKnj^ 
Pro. There is no limit to the litigation of a Telugu man or the 
lies of a washerman. 

euemt—eir, edessn—sk, QufTssek ; or Quits 

Sliff, a vagabond, a blackguard ; a mean and wicked man as : /sirsk 
sirssdrQurrdse^eneo or /sirearQuirsQtBs^irsQrFlujeOeo, I am not a wicked 
man, QuirsQift^esr^^il^ or edemt—^^ear^^si^f [e^eswi-^^esr ^^& 
(^s) Os!Tv^s,iL®®pss ; to boast of wicked action, lit. to erect a 
banner of licentiousness. eusmL-uQui^e?, abusive, shameless, words 

X 



178 
tlie same as ^uf-ajuif s^^itffemLD^ ojldi-i^ldi-i^ Q((r^ihes>^^ ji^^ulSuju), 

euemi^ssr, GTsireQ ov QmeiJirisQ • a washerman. 

(This is a more respectful mode of expression than the word wesur 
(^cBT.) This word is most commonly used as follows : <£LLuf.msstrnui 
c;6aar(CK,>OTj/i^^0^/fiayii>, the washerman will perfectly understand 
all the circumstances of the houseshold. ^muLLL-aQru^s^ih euem- 
^rrg^Q^^if^ih eii^jsiSl0c8o\), there is no limit for the barber's 
haughtiness aad washerman's tricks. The derivation of eistrsQ 
is said to be as follows : 

The Soza Raja having on a certain occasion sent for a carpen- 
ter^ was unable to procure a workman for a considerable time. 
In order that he might not be similarly inconvenienced in future, 
he made arrangements for locating thediiferent trades in separate 
streets ; one of these was allowed to the outcastes or Paraiyar. But 
it afterwards became necessary to separate the dwelling of these 
men from the other streets on account of their unclean habits, so 
a separate village (or Qe'fl) was constructed for them. But here 
again their consumption of dead animals rendered them a nui- 
sance and the authorities surrounded the Qs^fl with a view of des- 
troying it. At this crisis a certain washerman (weki^eh) was 
besought by the daughter of one of the chief men of the Paraiyar 
to save her. He placed her among his foul clothes and was carrying 
her out of the place on his shoulder in the bundle when he was as- 
ked who he was ? He replied I am eropsirisQ or a seven legged one ,- 
(alluding to his own legs, the woraan^s, those of a child of which 
she was pregnant, and his staff; in all seven.) He thence came to 
be called (srQpsireQ ; This corrupted into (sr^ireQ has grown to be a 
name of the caste. 

euju^Qp^, eu^ejD^ ; to grill, to fry, to 

parch; eu^u^^uiu^, parched pulse ,• ^ajQsrrearSsmJ' s'LlL^uSQeoQuir 
il® ffeuenirujeujpiaQ^n^eh • lit. she is parching me after having put 
into the pan as a caul skin. i. e. she continually troubles for 
the money, &c. 

eujpiQ<£vrr(3, enesipQeuir®, or enpQwn® potsherd 

used for parching ,• a,a oin'Lp/h^eiieirQsLLL.rreosij'sr^pQeuirLLfSdQQpssuiT^ 
if a rich man be ruined, he will be of less worth than a potsherd 



179 

he is a good for nothing fellow. m!rs!£0e(^ii/sirujij)j3 ^etaL-ih^O^eat 
(oij&i s.uiSlQ^i(^u> eupQeutTLLQd (^^evrr^eirQ/D, if the body hath 
departed this life it will be of less worth than a salted potsherd. 

s-i—tlLf^QF,isij(TssiTi^(irjsQp^^ e.L_LcL/^(75(a;/r<s<s/rtt5(i5«(g^ . the 

body is out of regular order ; eviriGlsiBsp^^ to part the hair, in a 
line from the crown of the head towards the nose, ^ojesr ^Q^s^rrd 
einuuL^i(n^ek, he learns in one kind of manner. — euiTd(^ ■ a word, a 
sound as : ji/LSir^(siJiTs(^, a sweet word, a word of good omen, opp. 
eO(Q^a//r<5(5. 0l<T^suird(^s(^ LDjiJ6iJirdQeo2s\), No word will excel yours 
(a respectful mode of speaking to the higher classes) eiJiTi(^a^3'smuui 
uem^jQp^, to speak in one's behalf, or in one's favour. OuiTQr,,^ 
^e^Q3'iLujiT(SLLL-iT^u>{eun'a(^'f3^sivuju)uem6mQwesBr(BlLD or vul^^'o) es)S 
&inLt—Qsii^jLD, if you are unable to confer pecuniary aid you should 
speak in one's behalf with others as a charitable action. ^laadlL-^ 
^s^(W)ii^i-lpuuLli—iBj!TiQaQu!r^LD, your word is quite enough, ^liis 
(ei^ioS3L—uj enirdc^sSQs'ei^^^n'eii sresrei^ S-^^C^ajfrsuLhusSs^g?^ I have 
been settled in an employment by your strong recommendation. 

ey(r-K@©/o^, eurr/Bjp^ . to take a thing 

given or delivered, to receive, to pay Qa^euir [ersuir) 3=^^ {^p^) 
eviTfS}S'5i}iTuSl(r^s(^^ {uSlQFisQp^) the wall has given way a little, etas 
esiLueuiriiQ, draw back thy hand, <^Qf,^fi'Sstsr(suiTimQuQu!riBp^ {®aip^) 
to discharge or dismiss one. ^essr^wirikQuQuirs^g^, the army has 
decamped-G'0/rffl/fflj/r/Da?L/(?Lj/rj<ff the pain has ceased. sniflajuDir^ea 
mirsei!isa^e}T(c^i(^sijfr,'F>(^euiriij. If you have any important matter, 
in hand, you will be stingy. (^isuaeuiria&uQun-'i^s? The swelling is 
gone down. aesii-s(^uQuiriLi3=ird(^ ejiriiQ, go and buy the articles in 
the market. — euiris(^ also means a small bench; a kind of dagger. — 
^(rF^su(m,i(^LDsuiTiEise^!TtiSp£)i, the two are fallen out with one another, 
or, they are at variance with each other, @/5^/S0Oii!6i/n-E'«ffO/riiS(75i(5^, 
this ground is slippery. 03/r®<5<5si)Q;/rffi/«eo, mercantile transactions ; 
buying and selling, interchange in matters of matrimonial contract* 
Osir(SsaeOimjiriEisei>smr(rf,d(^ isijes>sOs'ireO£iiSlp^ ; to compound with 
creditors ; to satisfy them. — ^i^dsL-do 0(n^LhueuiriEis6i>mi3(r^s(^^f 
this sea is very deep, as euinkseQi^Qe^ st—eQe^pdjsuuL-ir^j the sca 
is so deep as not to be fordable. ^eijesr^8s\>es)UjejiTiEiSluQuiTLHB ^eidso 
Ouj^uiTsir he will cut one's head off and then deny it, i. e. he is a 
horrible liar, ^euew-^Ssvaj/rs©, he is a hangman, i. e. he is a villain. 



180 

evirujJ'S'n-gosesr, (suiT.ffre:)scJr • a talkative^ a cliat- 

terini^ man ; the same as s.n^LLt—tn^ffLLi—iruiddTpeijeky euncuiru^ Qffs 
ffireozk, O^iresruL^dsirffeir^ &C. 

eun-QSp^, evirQp^ ; to wither, to fade ; 

meta. to he sad, to waste, to decay, to pine away ; as ^mesrsSurto 
laaetfleoGurrL^uQufT&p^, to pine away for his iniquities ; Ezek. xxiv. 
2S. i^es)i^euifl^ii)6uiTL^fr^(T^, though affliction, or distress, hefall 
thee, pine not. Avrai. — [euiri-L®&p^,'] euinLp^, to cause to 
wither; O/sQULSQe^euirLL/D^, to dry by the fire, i^Q^^^ek^su^ 
eijmL(S)@/D^, to vex one excessively. ^eiJskeTearSsnr/E6m(^ijj6utrLlL^s 
Osnem® ^(tf) uemik'!j?^e^Osn(B^^frek, he paid me one fanam after he 
received hard labour from me. eu[rLLL.^dQsir(Sld/D^, to vex cruelly. 

eutru^, eu/nusii ^ wind ; a vital air of tlie 

body, also windy affection, windiness, flatulency, rheumatic 
distemper as : ji/^irmreurrLusi], a species of dyspesia ; Ainslie's 
Mat. Med. uirfB^svirujimif palsy in one side of the body,- QiDseuiriLie)^, 
flatulency in the body, said to be caused by venereal heat, euiriusi^ 
Qsiretrp^, to acquire flatulency. euirdjetDsnuSL^sSpLDQ^i^, a me- 
dicine that dissipates flatulency. 

eurrujfrQSfi^, eumuir'-Sp^ . to prattle, or prate ; 

to endeavour to deny, as : eurriun-L^uOuLLL^LDisudT, an impertinent 
or good for nothing man Ouemressflidr ^searLD/BQeussr s'LDLcm^ euiriu/S 
Qajest, I know well the nature of a woman and the slander of those 
whose son and daughter have married together, euirujireo Gs>sujireoL^ 
sp^, to tergiversate, to deny a fact or debt. eniriu/Sujtnnp^asrQp^, 
to eat immoderately or injudiciously, €umuireSQuiTS(^@p^, (vulgo 
euiriLnreSiQuiTsp^f) to breathe, to yawn ■ meta. to speak vainly. 
exiiruSeiL^sp^, to strike one on the mouth, i. e, to dismiss one from 
the situation.fiwTiiyLj^^ff-irto, flattery, empty compliments; @^ /F/r<5^r 
^u3^inrQu>ujei&)iTweo Qsupeieo^ this is as tlie flattery of the Ndgcir. 
people. 

airei)ffrr^^ev(j^ix, if one speak indecently a kick will be the return ; 
eviriuOsfrQ&Sp^, to provoke, to excite a quarrel. Qjjisuifli—^d^e^ 
ajirujOsiru.iTLC)<s3(iT,d&p ^^fBLLtx, it is better to be silent or un- 
friendly and not to argue with the young euiriuisire-r, (vulgo. 
«//ri«/r«=) the same as 6i//rOa3LL®i«ffff, euiriiis^^eQ • bribe, euiriiid 



J81 



slLQ (vulgo £uir<isLL(S,) a making speechless, or shutting up an 
animaFs mouth by enchantment. B. 6iJfnu&sfr£i!i3(^srT QuaQ/n^^ 
to go apart, or aside, to ease nature. 

evfnijuuLLL^, eniruLlL^ ^ a chattering wench. 

^-suetTsuiriu^LLi—^i^Qei Qix its' lot 3^ 3?^, mischief occurred through 
her divulging the secret. 6uit0^lL® OsvLiQ/Deudr, one who talks 
down opponents. 

eojiTjTU), Slipesiui ; a week as : wnjrSiipesiUi 

s(s<sijir (eu(T^@n:)SlipeintD^(^sxjiT) come next week ; SiLpmLo is solely- 
used to denote the day of the week, which is also called suit in}, ; 
thus : %ohat day did you come, Friday or Saturday ? is in Tamil 
expressed by, sri^sQi^esiixuSle^ en/s^nuj QeumeBQiuir, s^eSQujrr? The 
Tamilar have also seven week-days, which they call Qigsmui, and 
sometimes wirinh ; they name them after the seven planets, which 
are called Qirsix, in the same order as they follow^ according to 
the Roman, &c. systems, adding the word Siipas>LD, to the name of 
the planet ; thus : 



PLAIN ETS. 


CORRECT USAGE 


COMMON USAGE. 


HIGH DIALECT. 


(^rriujii or (^iriSljjj, 


t^truSp^s Qip 


(^iruSljjj, 


^^^^euiTJTU), or ^ 


The Sun. 


emtD. 




^aj/r/7-ir, Sunday. 


^/Ez«orr,The Moon. 


^IEJSLL@LpetSLD. 


^ikseh-. 


Qa-nijoeuirjnh^ Mon- 
day. 

Lc /E/3 gDaz/TiTii: , Tues- 


Q3=&icu/nu, Mars. 


Qs^eusuiTius Qip 


Os'wennilj. 




05)tX. 




day. 


L/<563r, Mercury. 


L/^ear©if 6WU). 


i^^ek. 


Q^efrLSiusuirULr'^ or 
q^evrrjru:, Wed- 
nesday. 


fSliurTLpLD, Jupiter. 


dllUlTipdQipicSiLD 


(sSlUirLfiLO. 


(^(TFiwirjJii, Thurs- 
day. 


OouOTsrP, Venus. 


Qexieh-G^d Qip 


Qsusrrerfi. 


■spsQ^enirffch, 'Fri- 




eriLD. 




day. 


#63^, Saturn. 


ffesSldSlL^eaLD. 


ffml. 


3^(5^131] IT ffix, Satur- 
day. 

a bridge [eurrjiir 


euirjrireu^f 




ifl^@, i^^ffl/; 



eoj^, from si'mr, water : ^, of ^Sjd^, and eu^, a way). In 
Madras euirrjireij^ is used; but in the South uireitui. srsmsQf-s 
QaiTLL<s5)L-ei5)LULjQuiT0i) Qsir&SiLjLD euirffiTeu^<ss>iuuQutTisi> euiaSiL^iMir 
uessTessBuQunLLi-iriu. Did you make a jewel like bridge and Fort. 
(a word of contempt.) e^eku^sessnc^ssas Qu!rmeiJ([T)ei^^^.60^irair 



182 

uQ^^uiriT^^irnserT, They repaired the nine arched bridge last 
year. 10^(5 is used for a bridge at Tranquebar. 

euiretair^uLi—LDf eumrevi-LesiC—f enirsu-esiL- ,• a beam 

laid from one pillar to another, supporting a roof. 

euiTQ^Qp^i euiTQp/D^ ; to live happily, to 

live prosperously ; euiTQpBlpOusm^ a married woman, who lives with 
her \\.\i%hdiViA.e)jiTL^s<st^suuu-L—Qu6ssrf6vnasuuLLL-0us^- a young 
married woman. u^(ev)^LhQujb^ OuQ^suTip&jwfrLpssi—euirujf may 
you be a mother of many children (lit. sixteen) and live long and 
happy ! (A benediction addressed to a bride.) 

eijiTiT^sn^Oajn:i(^cs)ir Os^ojsuituj 

,girL^sijedLB'EiS!Q^i,Q)QLaiT £ it^Q ld it it /h 

0(^Q£^Ilshr ^udsssr^pnQeiT. — etD6ul7iTsSuj3^^sili. 
euiTip/Esk or eviTQ^QjDsijesr, eiiTTem^ ; one who lives in 

prosperity, the same as ojiri^/Biretr for eun-^eir life-time or ^(^■s=ir<s 
^h-iTsuiTemm, a chief famous for liberality who lived in the city of 

^l^3^/TS3k.lT. 

euiTsarQsiTLPy euiTiaQsiruS ■ a turkey or large 

domestic fowl. 
sTTm-iMuSeoiTL^s semL^(n)i^ evirrnQsiTL^ 
^iT^LD^euirsuuiT^^^ ^ir^i^eisr 
OuiTeaeotrs'^/DeaseSiifl^ ^irt^^pQun j^Qld 
SffOeoir^rreir appsS. — Qp^eafT. 
" A turkey, having seen the wild peacock display his glorious 
plumage, takes himself to be one and he too spreads his own 
ugly wings, and struts about. Such is the recitation of a poena 
learned by an illiterate person.'^ Mudiirai. 

e5)«c_ti), eS^u.iJD • diversity? impediment 

ji)aj(oi—irufLUjfiTu>iriT^^ujLc uemp^^ to frustrate a business by chi- 
canery. (fflS?«i_«£Sj aSffi/i_a;fi^, a sportive verse, or one who writes 
such a verse. 



183 

eSffirm-w or dliuiresnl, LDiuirenrui ; a place fur buryiag. 

or burning, the dead. — dls^mih; sorrow, affliction, pain. eSls^eari 
seiDtr, a cemetery; /oirsar dlL-msSs'eirr^^ireo Qwi^QSlu uirevirCSearssr, 
I have grieved much by incessant sorrow. 

ojffireOf (oSjirs\i ; fresh water fish, 

(sSS^^^ffLDf eSs^s^^^iFLh ; anything variegated, 

handsome, or veonderful ; @^ eSJ^.f^^jrQeijos^} this is an artificial 
work, GSs^s^^^fTLDiresreio^tfl, a woman fond of dress ,- a dressy, or 
showy, woman. 

^i_^Q^iB2oo, euiLi-^^irfflSoo ^ a shrub (Mimosa 

cinerea.) 

Note. — A match was once brought about between the sou of a 
King and an oil-monger's daughter in this manner. He, seeing 
her drying rape seed asked her, eT<srm^Q&dL3p/s^ GrenerrKSffHeijemr 
k^ ensssrOessriij euiT'ass^LuuQusmQtsssr srshertl^g^ih ^/6!aj^&\) srearssr^&o ? 
She replied L^sSl^eOLS/v/h^ L^eSQeOmjenir/s^ ufaeOirsLDiressri—ffiT'S^iTQsu 
y^s^eaiui ^i;&k®dljSULj, OTssrsary,? Both the riddles refer to the 
euLLi-^^iriB (<sSi-^Q^it) so the prince thinking highly of her talent 
for repartee, made her his wife. 

i^L^Qp^, eSi^uSp^ ; to break, to dawn; to 

be divided, as the night from the day ; sometimes, to fill or satisfy. 
i§ sSL^LudairffOihevrr {^i^L^iupsireou), or (sSlLrLQpQfsir^^C^sdiSijiT) come 
early in the morning. In Tinnevelly coraraonly OwehQerresreun; 
or <3SiLaixQs^!rQL-.isuir, (^L^ujiTQpi^Sl or eSlu^iuiTuuirdcsr, a face which 
cannot be washed or a vessel which cannot be filled ; metaph. one 
who cannot prosper by his earnings. j>jeij^iQssk<ssrsni^iT^LD<c^L^ 
luiT^, whatever he may obtain, it will not be enough eSL^tuirQ/^^Q 
Qeuds<}S(j^uQutr^eo Qeuds<diusuuLLu.trGiiiua .ofusQujiruuL—tr^ (luauu 
i-ir^) though an unfortunate man has engaged in a daily work 
he will not get his proper hire. Prov. 

eSustrjni, eSeusirjnD ; a contestj law suit, 

litigation. 

e^ulr^LD, (sfifflj/f^ii) ^ that which is con, 

trary, or adverse ,- perversity ; eSw/F^sfredLo, an adverse time, a 
bad time, ^suzk eSsuf^ssirireiir^ he is a perverse man ; ^uQuir 
disu/r^u:i3/D,i^^; they have now quarrelled. 

eSy,^, ^Qi§jv ; ashes of cow dung, with 

which Siva is said to have smeared his body ; and thence used 



184 

in imitation of him by his worshippers R. ^eusir Qw^^ (O.^p/d) 
uS(Sei)S!(rf,£/Si-LL-irs3r, he ])ut sacred ashes on his forehead, i. e. he 
tricked, or deceived him : a phrase used by Valshiavas. 

eSiuir^, (sSs^rr^ ; sickness. luir^Qpp /Stereo 

<i£lajir^, too much thought causes sickness. QuQr,£,3'ir^,, leprosy. 

(sSujiruiTiiuny (uireuiTjjuDf or luiruirnu) • business, 

occupation, trade, commerce; ldsstlo ujiTeufrfnDfnS!(rFiS(^^, the mind 
is busied or occupied. QsarsujiTeuirffLMy worldly things. 13. QiDirsLuir 
euirjriMy sensuality, lust, lasciviousness. 

<^rr/bses>L-, eSj:<ss£S)L—,idlirei)s(oS)L^ ■ a finger's 

breadth, 12 of which make a s^rresdr or span, and 8 Q/Eec, (q. d. 
barley corns) are one eSrrn^s^tni — eSjreij fingers ; there are five 
names for the fingers as follows : — Qu(r^<sSirei, thumb ; ^sTrsinlL^ 
t£li7eo, the fore finger ; /s^eSirffi), or ufru)i-idl:rSo, the middle finger ; 
^,(sS(l^) ^iren or usi^^^ireSirec, third finger; -3?sstr(Ei<sSne^, the little 
linger. 

cSKSirs^eani, (^QirirsFeariJi, e^leairiuLD ,• Qu^ Purg- 

ing, evacuation by stool ,- GSss>n-uj^^sQ)i (^l^sjd^; to take a purge 
the same as Qu^i(^i(^L^sp^. eSss^itujl^sp,^, to geld, castrate, 
bulls, rams, &c. by compression. (^lenrrOiurrem^ii {Oujiresi^) Quit 
«_<?= Qs^L^Qiurreik^^ {OujiTew^) Qp'SsrTLuirjPy one kind of seed will not 
produce another kind of plant. Prov. The child will be like its 
father. 

Ss'ire^uD, aSlffOir3=il ,• f/j?/ transposilion of 

letters) spaciousness; wide extension, a saloon, a large hall in a 
palace, or great house. sSls^ir<fub!re!iT(£Sl, a spacious house. ^ei>tr3' 
LDirdjuQuirQp^, to expatiate. Qseijstfi^soirffLDiriuduirSlp^, to walk 
with delight. See page 115. 

<^Q£>Slp^f t^iQpeSlpjsi ; to fall ; mcta. to 

diminish, to grow less as grain, corn, fame, Sec. to die, as : s^ns-^ 
^ziiresrLheu,i^^ipQ.cijeik(Sw, the arrival of goods is still expected. 65(5 
^mn'Si Q^s's^s^eiim^e^Q^i^^, an army has invaded the country ; 
eiQ^i^^ekCoLDeo^Q^Spjs, [<£,Q^^p^) to assa\ilt or attack one .• istru^ 
<^(Lpih^^, the pulse ceased. aStp-i (7-L^LJuiTdj.ia-Sp^, to thrust one 
into a pit, mcta. to make one's business fail ,• to obstructj to 
embarrass, to endanger one. QiEp^ Quiflujuir^uj^i^eo QuQ^uia&r 
iBniiiaeisT €p(i£i.i^Qua<^ear, Yesterday Perumal Ndt/akan died at 



185 

Periya Pdlayam. rsirem i^Q^fB 3;(^ l^S(o<o^ ^ii.jLD^ipQeuem(BLD, wherever 
1 choose the girl you must marry without objection. 

Se(rBCf)LD!T£B, sSl err d s LD IT ^ , ^qol—UUld, ^eHrsi 

siriTUi, 6ijn(rf,Qs^iT&0; a broom, or besom; <sSsfrssLDirp(fl/ffO Qu,ir^p^, 
to beat one with a broom. sSefrisLDir^jiis.sLL<ss>L—, [^mssiorrnjjvs 
«Lla»L_) a wasted broom, applied as a term of reproach to a good 
for nothing person. 

eSiVLDuQ/D^, ^eniMLjp^ ; to speak openh^ 

to say publicly, to enquire. 13. 

6S-sh(er^@p_^, dlenp^ ; to embrace, to open 

a flower, the mouth, to separate, to crack ; to break, to make 
manifest, or known, a secret ; to relate. /EirekQ^irekem-^ (£b-mQ 
Qu!T&3i-, they made out the meaning of what I said, (^smSQuir^ir 
&eir, they disagreed with one another ; they separated from one 
another. ^£3 dleh-emr^QuJ^a-, confused discourse, unseemly lan- 
guage ; double entendre. dlsrr(6)^ Qeu£v 0<ciji(^ Qeu(njiijSif-'lfE^^seiT , 
vulgo j)ii@QsL'^ ^easfldeijQr^uj Sfli^^asfT, things widely different, 
or separate from one another. R. 

(5U 

<£fEiQ,@/D^, ^lEjp^ ; to swell, to have a veh- 

ement desire for a thing ; as ^ffl/rar^i^utyi© d/EiSluSl(rf,d(n;csr, 
he longs after sweet meat .gi/sum- sruQuir^i})Qeir^^d(V) <£,aQuQufr 
(£j>eir, he is always famished or he longs at all time for food. cS/ii 
&e\>, a swelling, a great longing after a thing ; jtjeucme^iEiseoniSiQfiS 
&(0/eir, (vulgo ji^ eu£srLSs.siu IT uSi ([!;,& Si (n^<oiT) or '^ems^GSiTiEiss^nSQfiSffr^&sr , 
^exiek QiuLDfT/S Q^(^<5? ^(v^(^jr)jQuiT€SQF)S,Si(irj'ek , he bas pined away 
fur want of food, jnfeusisr ^(S^-vfrirQ<3^ir£5^d(^ Quj'EjS'<£iEjSii9(ir,.iSl([f;ssr> 
^/s^suiilsrrSsiT Q.?'iT^^SQ<£faSl OeuL^uL^emu^(rr)d(Q^, that child longs 
at all times for food but tliere is no one to give it. e-esra^ssto @e3r 
€srf50^e^uj^ei>25\)ujir, are you not satisfied yet ? £LOTr<s§i sm^n3-a^iTUL^(B 
eat as long as you desire. 

(£fl®Qp^, <£iflQpj3 ; to cry, as a child ; 

to squeak, as a pig ; to bellow as an elephant. j)i/h^ui^'err?&T ,£iT£SOir 
■ikjv s^^p^, {s^^'Sp^) that child is crying aloud. 

seasoning, sauce, Qsij(^Q.^u:) is most commonly used in Tinnevelly ; 



ISG 

as: SL^s'^ss CisiT(s^fis< 06iJi^9iesriiSl(u^Se^iiQsrj(SL-esr, pray give 
some curry for our food, u^irir^^ih, is a more refined expression 
for the same thing. 

Q&JLLsii, Oa;i«LD ; shame, bashfulness, 

6&(5,i^^ 06iJssijQs(BdQp^, to treat one shamefully, so as to 
injure one's reputation, to cover one with shame, Ooudssis/Du^strerr 
aim {OentLsimpiLieh-meijesr) a shame faced, or modest person ; Oa^« 

Why is a veil required for shameless women ? Pro. j^iensirQwsSu 
Qurr,e^dr, he was disappointed of his long desire. 

Qeuih^tuLD, OeniiesifSiutJD ; Fenugreek, a plant; 

Trigonella Foenum-grcccum. Qsuihzs)^uj.BLLL^s^i(^s=- ^iQ^sLS&>dso ■ 
curry made with 0<snihss)^iuLh will be savoury. 

Oeuiii-fQp^, Oeuiiup^ ; to become pre- 

maturely ripe ; B. to become wrathful, to fade ^i^u>iTiEisiTaj QsvLhi3 
Qurr^s?, (QuiruSlpjjj) that mango has borne premature fruit ; 
j^eush OeuLaLSQ&jLciS j^Q£^((r^er, she weeps with wrath, sobs with 
vehement anger. 

OeuuiUOJirerr sSnpeuirsir OuiriuQiu QicieiiicSlQ^i^Q^eiiiTsn QuiriLiQuj) 

^Loue^iQckuiTSfr OuitiuQuj a^irSlQpQesreiruirisrr OuiriuQiu, 

r5LhLSs3rQuujiT<£BOsrreO(SOfrLhf5;Tu9^siS'S!S)L-UjrreiJiTQtr. — ^(Sisus^.i^tTLDessB- 
This stanza shows the feigned friendship of women with their lovers. 

OeuQT^SLSf., eS/Dsqi ; a cat's foot, i. e. as 

much as can be taken up with, or between, the thumb and two 
fingers ; medical tisage : eSlirsL^^^srr, as much powder as can be 
taken up by the thumb, and two fingers. 

OsuehetrrresweiOLc, or QsusrriressreiDLD, OsuensnirmLo ; corn ripe, or 
nearly ripe in the field ; agriculture, husbandry. 

QlsueaetriT^i^Uf., OwahemTii^L^ ; a village of 

Sudra farmers, as distinguished from ji^sSirsiTirii. a village of 
Brahmans. 

QaisnsnirmOffLLuf., OsuGnemri^OffLLL^ ; a merchant 

of the same tribe. 

Q&iQp^, Qsu^/njs ; to burn, to seethe, 

to be boiling hot. 



187 

QsulLl^ or QeuQ^L^, Q^rreu^p ; a foldinpf cloth, or 

vesture worn by men, from Sanskrit Ves/daka, a turban. QsulLl^ 
is never used at Madras but Q^ir&j^i^ is the common expression. 

Q3umr(BBp^, QenesBTLLp^ ; to wish, to desire 

to beg, to pray, to buy, as : ssts)u.d(^uQumLj sifl-sn-iuQeuemuLilup-iuir, 
have you bought the vegetable from the market ? This is a corrupt 
expression used by the Labbai sect in the sense of euirmi^Sp^ or 

QojihLj, QevuuLDjTLh ; the margosa tree. 

(QqjulSISso) Qsuuu @^j a margosa-leaf, jya/gr^Q £§(3 QeuthuiriuQusr 
&3? [QurruSipj^] he dislikes home, a phrase used by a married woman 
referring to her hv,shand.(£il-®uQuiom ^tr^QeiiLOL^rb s^inKBluQusssrs'sr^ 
6B0LDLjih ; Prov. his own wife is a margosa, a strange woman sugar- 
cane. — Stolen things are sweet. Q<mjLDLj£S(rffLDus s(rFiU)uiT(^u), the 
(bitter) margosa may become a sugar-cane? i. e. "where there is 
a will there is a way." 

Ge/sYT/r swear, QajsnemrLpsm ; one of the agri- 

cultural tribe ; There are many classes of Q&ieinreinr ; Qsirsmesjus 
LLL^QeusrrerriTLpir, those who wear a tuft of hair upon their head tied 
upon one side. Qs^irL^ajOeusnefriTipiTy the husbandmen of the Soza 
country, ems^euQsusrren-trtpir, husbandmen of the Saiva sect, ^(emeuQ^ 
errerrfTipiT, an agriculturist of the northernmost subdivision of the 
Malay dlarn country, fsJ^^LLirsirO^sfreTr/ripir, another subdivision of the 
Veldla, so called LDSsoiuLDirssrOsueh-'strirLgiT, a Veldla tribe in Chera 
Countrij, LnSsdujLDfrsir ; an epithet of the Sera Kings. Q^^ireSsiLL^ 
QeuekefTirLpir, a Velala tribe who live at Madura and Tinnevelly and 
w^ear the ^irsS as a marriage token. Qu^r^i^ireQsLLLjiQ^eh-emr 
ifiiT, the Velala who wear a large ^irsS. sirfrsir^^n-ir or uireiwuf. 
QeusnsrrirLQir, recte streiarrdsiT^^ Owsherrtripir, vulgo, ■3:irss)irssirLL(^ 
OeusrrmirLQir, a subdivision of the Veldla tribe in the old Pandia 
Kingdom. " On the Pcmdii/an Mdjas return, from Swerga-logum 
he found that in his country only there was no rain ; in conse- 
quence of which he went to Mahdmeru, and put some of the clouds 
round its summit in chains, and brought them to water his kingdom, 
Indra incensed at this violation of his proper power, declared war, 
and took the field at the head of large forces. There was much 
fighting on Doth sides, and many were slain, until Ukrama-Pandiyan 
with his discus struck off Indra's crown. Indra, astonished, found 



188 

he was not combating with a mere mortal, and sent ambassadors, 
promising to bestow rain. I'lrmia woukl not believe him : in con- 
sequence /?z^/ra sent a man of the Veldla caste to become security 
for rain, (hence called sireairasir^csQsij&refTirLprr, or waiters for 
rain). The king then released the clouds from confinement. 
Afterwards, by Iadra',H command, there was abundance of rain, 
with consequent fertility : and IJlrama-VamTiyan ruled the king- 
dom with justice and liberality." T. 0. W. QsverrrrememLDusir/s^^^uj 
eOLy, the ten virtues, or good manners predicated of the Veliila. 
1. ^.&3ijrffl;i^/S^.iifl?«^, ■ keeping an oath. 2. ^i^i/BQ^.TmirS^^^seo, res- 
toring a family reduced to poverty. 3. e!osei£L-(ea)p/Deo- an obliging- 
disposition. 4. <s0(a;«ij57sroreroLo, compassion. 5. e^sseoCSufrpoDeo, 
supporting relations. G. c^ena^LpiuiT^rSi, perseverance. 7. messr&sfi 
sinp^Q^'^io, paying taxes to Government. 8. ^/yji/sjcLDC?^ /Tl-sv, being 
peaceable. 0. <£(iT)i^L^pib^(T^^^, hospitalit3\ 10. ^(T^i^liuOeunQ^i 
ssii, correct conduct. The following stanza will display the 
character of the Veil alar thus ; — 

Qaj6iT!r<cniT(^&]?Pfft-l'8m sirffirstrir^^'iisiisr^i-. QLDL^iuSlsirOu(T^cS3Uiius!!rQ(nj>, 

LDeerQ^eapiui^iiTQLDeai LDisjss)Su:)essrsutrisnQ(o!!r euD'SjQenrtjSi^ffiTUjQssr. 

" The Vdlalar, by the effect of their ploughing (or cultivation) , 
mainfain the prayers of the Brahmans, the strength of kings, the 
profits of merchants, the welfare of all. Charity, donations, the 
enjoyments of domestic life and connubial happiness, homage to 
the gods, the Sdstras, the Vedas, the Piirdnan, and all other 
books, truth, reputation, renown, the very being of the gods, 
things of good report or integrity, the good order of castes, and 
(manual) skill, all these things come to pass by the merit (or elH- 
cacy) of the VcIuUdis plough." T. O. W. 

QiDL^arQa^ecewEj Qairsaipui—ir^. Pro. The husbandman's plough 
is always safe. 



189 " ^: 

The fruitful toils of men and steers must cease, 
If cease the flow of water from the clouds. 

Note.—" The veneration in which the Tamil peo[)Ie formerly 
held the plough was unhounded. Kamben, the translator of the Ra- 
mayanam, which he undertook at the instance of a wealthy farmer, 
left a poem of seventy stanzas in favour of the plough.'^ E. C. 

senffrreir Lnpensisr ssar^^ireoSLouL^ujek OLDerrsnQLD&reneijfk^ Ouwerr 
€nirLp(ss)eijirek. When a Kalian accumulates wealth he will gradually 
become a Yelalan. 

Qsnp^oT, Qw^^rrexj ; a stranger, a Faraiymi 

used by such a one of himselfj when a superior inquires of him 
who are you ? 

QfiLip^ ; to shew a difterent behaviour. 

eaenairQ, eaeuujtrQ ; the month of. May. 

eosiiQp^, €a)6iJuSlp^ ■ to abuse, to revile. 



emeu^i^ojiif suuS^^iuld ; the art of medicine. 

meuaiM, euuSffui ; hatred, enmity ; a dia- 

mond ; as j>/sv^s^ Qi-B(BiB!rerTiriLJ erekQiDdeOisuuSlinhf he is long 
inimical to me ; '^k^BsuuSuLo /5e!nss(^^eurr^, this diamond is not 
fit for setting. ^eu^uso^^eBismfl, he is a powerful enemy. 
^<soiE]&<5^iE)(^<oJsrpLDski^'shr LD(S!Ssfieijes)iTujseo^ipSl 

i£lff!>iijOsfr(S(fls!a<aUiru'ss)i-iLDLij essflsTrQpSso eij®dsem(oL-./EjQu 
OuireO^EjOsiTL^ iB!rQssfiQi^:bii}i Qun'uj^^uSeo ■s^iTih^ireaernQp. 

uLsiEiOsirvm® Quinuihi^^^st5)irQ3'uj^ireh st sir ucsiru). — cto/pl- 

«^o LDessrLci-](fluL-<oOu:). 

(Sjis^efTQpdtsi'LuiruSlLJurr 6-9a^^es)p(^U)irfBsiir^toi!r 

Qpk^esiT (rT)!fi^;3,Quir^iB O^fflstDsuujiflemLg^^&Sp^p 

S!rfEfi!fiu^'3^u-jL£>Quiisk^iJb sirtpSpjj/sxf^iLji^ieijiTiffu 

(arfh^^) ^LDiijfS^ ^<oii&srQ3=irLgfEirL-L-n'3=esrsrsk(2J'6rr srearu^irth. — 6B/5L-. 
^ih ff-iuilsiJiiuuL-eiLD. 



End or Section I. 



WORDS NOT FOUND IN DICTIONARIES BUT IN 
FAMILIAE USE. 

Section II. 

In this section will be found words and phrases in faniiliar use 
by all classes of the natives ; such words and phrases are scarcely 
ever in accordance with the rules of Grammar. The correct 
usage v>dll be found betw^een brackets. [ ]The object of the section 
it to bring home to European ears the Tamil language as spoken 
by the natives among themselves and to render it possible for a 
foreigner to understand the meanest and most illiterate Native. 






-^ 



L—iresr. 

QuiTear e^^si^iJo O/Btr/h^ ^eoeOavir 

eviuji-QfBiTSii \_Sl/o] O^mjii <5fU) 

OeiJ(^ Oevil.® OwlL^^ [OsulL 
sen Ooj^ Offlytl® OsiiL/D^Quirei) 



To squander^ to expend. 

Did you squander all the 
money, &c. ? 

lie has sqandered all my mo- 
ney, and at last I was entirely 
ruined by him. 

Is that such a grand thing ? 
Is that any thing consequential ? 

To destroy. 

That family has gradually 
been reduced from its former 
condition and utterly ruined. 

She did not utter a single 
word, i. e. slie is quiet. 

Hypocrisy, sham. 

He has not got a bellyache 
but is shamming. 

To cry. 

Why do you cry for vain 
things? 

To appear to be very diligent 
in one's business. 

The Cutchery officers have 
put their pen on the ears as to 



11)2 



eOSijueiara!3BLLL—iT[<s3LLL-.ir] QsursirJV 



sliow thej' are very diligent in 
the Circar business. 

li. To weep i. e. to he sorry 
for wasting the money &c. 

He is sorry his son has 
■wasted his money last year. 



[a 



^O^uul^ Ou,Tffla^^( 
earjji'j uirir. 

^/h^Qeu^ ^ lL(B ^® dB shr 0^ Qp 

^isuenQuiA^ ji/fifirLSlujinSi((f,dSl 
(^ixuiTiTdsSo\) [u/r/fcffiffiaffffO^j. 



Look at that cliild, how boldly 
it speaks ? 

That business has not been 
quickly done. 

She is very obstinate, or stub- 
born. 

Filthiness, dirtiness. 
I never saw a stingy man like 
you. 
You are more stingy or miserly 
than the dirtiness of Attapdldyam. 
Note. — This name has adopted for an adjoining place in the 
Town of Madras where filthiness will be collected by the crowd 
of people so that, this was used in Native ProA'erb for a man who 
is a miser. 



^eu3s!ruumfj;^.^iTJ\) ^ssdr(Bdsi-L 



If you have a clear consci- 
ence, you have nothing to fear. 

Will a slave change his na- 
tural disposition, though you 
wash him, and keep him in the 
lap ? 

I have no regard for him. 

lie looks like a great fool. 

Is he so great in his fortune ? 



jijsusisreTek'Sssr j^euQsi^Ltueevrem He has tried with his Utmost 

u u IT IT ^, a trek or erear^^SfouSQed i!»s endeavour to deceive me as he 
mujsaiwssuuiTiT^^frdsr. attempted to commit adultery. 



193 



JI/UUlLi—U), 

S'Ss>L—.s(^uQufraJ fBffi)eoOu(rij'EJ 
airiuLDiruj eurrfEjQojir. 

JijP-S'Q^^lL® (ipQ£l5L-L-tM, 

es)u- QuirQp^luiroj/B^esff^tlii^siJir 



Qsircssr®) is^L^SiLi—irek. 

^eu («) isOsirem® OaLLu-<suir 









Have you done your dinner 
or supper ? 

Truth, reality, goodness. 

This gold is very pure or of 
some valuable touch. 

Go to bazaar and buy some 
good assafoetida. 

Over keen dealing ultimately 
brings loss. 

The master who does not 
know the quality of his servant 
will deeply employ him to more 
hard labour. (Applied to a hard 
hearted master^) 

A production of nature. 

There is no means of dress- 
ing the dinner in this violent 
rain and whirl wind. 

With weeping eyes she stood 
snivelling and confounded^ 

By means of his mouth word 
indeed this I have known. 

He ran away after stealing as 
much of the house property for 
he was a thief. 

Will you put it in the palm 
of your hand, and lick the back 
of the hand ? 

Many myriads are destroyed 
by pride. P. 

Can a car run without an 
axle ? so a woman cannot bring 
forth a child without an hus- 
band. P. 

Will the flood that has burst 
the dam return, though you 
weep, the thing that is so done 



19 i 



^^pSei ^Ljj. ^LDueoij^sa ^(B. 



Qairehenirm. 



ji/imjiSUisrreijs^ir^Qpfii s/6!iljl£> @ 



cannot be undone. Applied to 
a thing passed by wrong sense. 

Consider the matter in private 
before you venture to move it 
in public. 

He who has itches will scratch 
himself i. e. he who is necessary 
for want of a thing, will endea- 
vour to get it with all his best 
labour. 

Too close dealing will be im- 
mense loss. 

Follow not the unloving. 

All that rice and curry in 
two mouthfuls he ate up. 



eisr^Q^iTQi—u(B^^&QaiTesBri—tT<ch-. 
iSesrc^J'esrf vulgarly j)jes)^e03'iTe!>eo 

e^&^ijD s-essruirQjTfT ? 

lun-LLi—iMfTiu ji/SsouLjesiT® ^,(BuS((ff(Ssr, 
QuiTL-eorruiiT ? 



^ijoetamtutrir ^^p (= 



Deep distress seized him and 
he lay down with grief. 

He stood like a tree unable to 
say it. (The mouth not coming.) 

Will they eat poison with the 
tongue that has eaten ambrosia ? 

A country which has not suf- 
fered, will not learn. P. 

He goes about distracted by 
his desires upon the money 
like a devil. 

Can you make a summerset 
in the bottom of a pot ? i. e. 
It is improper to deceive your 
own relations. 

The thread which the old 
lady spins will not suffice for a 
waist-string for llie old gentle- 
man i. e. the expenditures is 
equivalent to the income. 



195 



e^^emiu^^irSQiun (Bud. 



Though you take a woodlouse 
and put it on a bed, it will seek 
the rubbish heap ; i. e. It is im- 
possible to alter the nature of a 
bad man as follows : 

eSlL—edfTLij s.6SsrireSffOirLJLSiiTLDrTiTSe^'3'(ip^p Quius'Setr iLjSih^sh-^^ir 
LLLa.eSu.ffO IT li), ^uiriu^^i^pQuQr^U) up&!iicius(^rBpi-j^^ iLjessri—irss 
eoirQpiSlifOupLjf iSminxiotn^OujQpLJusoir LosQesfls^i—iTLD/bOumLDuesr 
OeisweQs'djiuaiiTLD, L^essfiaDLUiLiLDSppeOfriEj sireo^^ajeBiiriLiLD iSsir 
LjsuQ^Qsssr^QffirffOsiiiru:} LDsssrdsou^iEJSLup^iTUj^ ^iflsse^iriiiaujeiiir 

Luir(B ^aQesTLjeoevoJ 



@S3W L£)LL®ikp(r^uueu3'QLSiirj ld 
eaf® LodsiiQLDCij^^LDQirs'Qicsr. 

L-® SUITES (^3^ <9^&kn—SsirtLJ Old 
^^uirnLoir ? 



^eiie^s(^ QevL^zsiii] 



'^(&'< 



lBl 



.uf-p <s«5rf3r 



l8l 



j>/^esr sn'p(0/>uj upi^^irsm-, 
j>/6iJS'ir'fl^if.p^{^®Slp^) @ev) 






If you cover that affair will it 
not come abroad ? i. e. Secrets 
are never long lived. 

To him who bears the globe 
in his hand and moves it, is 
Chundaicaw a great weight ? i. e. 
Is any thing great to a fraudu- 
lent man ? 

He is lying in wait for him 
(li. a shot he has placed for him.) 

Is it right to plunder from a 
house where we had been sup- 
plied with food ? i. e. It is im- 
proper to return the evil to those 
who rendered goodness. 

He flew like the wind. i. e. he 
is not here but he went away. 

I have discovered that she is 
unfit in domestic affairs. 

The conduct of a licentious 
woman is a disgrace to her 
family. 

Though you ride on an ele- 
phant as a harlot, it is a disgrace 



19G 









JI/QF/SUm 



to walk in the street which you 
have robbed. This is a check for 
a (woman's theft). 
TiSleo You must not nourish anger 
but you must subdue it. 

@ii), QsituQld QujiTmes>piLjiEJ ah-L^eunOajiTLLL-iT^ QsiruQiD^iuir 
Osfr(Sls(^u3y QstruQutQufreOffiir^ QsiruQiM^irQa;® QsiruQunup 
a;^(5@LD, QsiTuQiDUL^Oa^tLjiEi QarruQicuemsiuiteffl QairuQiLsm 
8smQuirs(^u>f QsiruQiDiiSe^srcjciirisj QarruQiDQajenoDiTiLj/sj nh-i^iTLD 
QoOir(r^w^S(^ij), QsiTuQuiis>picSQpekOs!rem(BQuiTuj^ujfBass @l^ 
i^e^ppsfr(ef^u)^ffdiTeo, ^u^Q^ffiir/s^eSir^ O^mSmujirLLQsiremL. 

g)suOT2/i@ ji/em^ (^dr^) (5 When he is unable to get even 
Lf.s3;s 6B^&u3ecSs\) ^eairuSCSeosLL a morsel of bread or a cubit of 
eoeiir^eSuiOuio cloth to cover his body, why 
should he brag of himself? 

If you dig up the sweepings 
that is close a barber's house, 
what will you find there more 
than hair : i. e. If you want to 
enquire his matters it will dis- 
please the hearer. 

His intermeddling is not good. 

She will not spontaneously 
interfere into a quarrel and 
moreover she will not easily let 
it off, if it happened. (Applied 
for a reasonable man.) 

By the curse of the old lady 
Acvj/ar his house is bankrupted 
except for daily food. (Applied 
for a daily grieved person.) 

It is impossible to execute it. 

All your words are right but I 
dont think that I will execute it. 



60 /Ti 

^LDUi—L-esr 
(e^)6\) or Qerr/S^ 
piJuQih. 



&i LDuSllTLDuSlinrUJ Lf 






jy^oo^ (jifpeajp) sQsiri^uj tSff^ 






197 



^euesr erSldSlp J>,'i-^ sr^ S'lriuir 



ji/suear Usir(^ff'ssirir^ 



s® s^Lgs(^0f3UJ (SuiT'EiS3S(BS(0j>srr, 






j>/^S('^QldsO ^lLi^l^soSso. 



^eijsir^Q!)iT3=irsscfluSlQ^d(^LDLL®U) 

eSiSQstT£SBn—.LDU-(BLD eillTlBlUL^^^ 

es)siJ3^s^(o^s=LLc-.LDrruj ^lIz—Lo sg/-yL« 

^aueir QeuasvtSi&o Qld^^ ^s=irir 
^Lr> or ji/a=LDi3^^^esrLDtr uS({^d§l 

/epOs'iumsiuir ujiss>i£S{Q)p^ wq^ 



What business was not ful- 
filled which he undertook. (Ap- 
plied for a man of stratagem.) 
Is he an insignificant man? 
(Applied for a clever.) 

She troubles just as a monkey 
shake a tree. (Applied to a very 
troublesome woman.) 

She always destroyes the peace 
of a family. 

A barber's haughtiness. 
Barber's arrogance is compa- 
red to washermen. (This Proverb 
is peculiarly used for nature of 
both sexes.) 

It will be better. 
It would be little better if you 
wovdd dress the Pavacca curry ra- 
ther than the flower of Plantain. 
This word threatens every 
one. 

He has not the fortune to up- 
ward of a certain period or he 
has not got the favor of bis 
master now. 

As he has obtained the favor 
of the Lady, he expended the 
money as he liked ; but he lost 
the favor of his master after the 
decease of the Lady. 

He is very lazy in his busi- 
ness. 

It is difficult to have in good 
order. 

It is scarce to see the bride 
and bridegroom in good hu- 
mour. 



198 



QuiTLiL-mr^sniT ? 



^SvQ^L^UUITL^ fBITL^uSeOl—fElQ 



©« 



^0<5&cis\5/rti) srmarltli—^^iso MlL 



uiTLLes)u. MlLls^ SlLlsluul^. 



euu> tSles'isr^nOsiTeoe^LD. 

lSs @em^)eisr {Osiressn—trshr,) 

f,2stsnu IT Si) ^ O^mL®^ O^/Ssss^ 

cprQeareisr (stsiedir/b Q^L^sOsiressr 
Qi—ek) ^uQuir Qiksirir&OsiTmsr 



Did the parents of that girl 
gave any jewels as a dowery ? 

It is good to fill up intervals 
of leisure with some useful em- 
ployment. I 

Used either of a person redu- \ 
ced, in consequence of extrava- 
gance, or of one who voluntarily 
resigns attachment to the woild, 
in search of a higher good. Pro. 

Li. Do not spin me a yarn i. e. 
Do not speak a long story, or 
do not speak too much, about . 
your own excellencies. I 

She is fascinating, or lofty, or 
carries her head high. 

Raise the chant high. 

You have come at last a long 
time by slow walking. 

That is, what thou boasteth 
that thine sisters are talkative. 
Prov. 

He has given me ten Fanams. 

A King is quick in punishing 
but God is slow in doing it. 
He agreed to pay the money. 

He has given me nothing at 
all in the things he bought, or I 
have not received a particle from 
him. 

To compare the former weal- 
thy state with the present dis- 
tressed condition. (This is a 
Proverb of frequent occurrence 
among the classes of women as 
an imprecation.) 



199 



^eussr (S^LLu.frssbTLj^ujfTtiJ Quit 

(6B)S3r, 

Ou^^ (Oup£)i) dOsireireir Sj^etsr 
ldlKSiIi uirQuLLi—treir 



^/s^ (^LLeB)L—S slLi—Qisu^iiQld 

em®. 

ji/iSlFfTzssfl^ or SffluuireanB. 

^ih^uQuem LDiriHujrrir (£lLl^(so 
O^LDUstji^jiiTisssfluu®^ or QiBuuir 
easflu®^. 

^tsusk Os^rrdreN-Qs^ireo eresiSssr 

^(B^ QuuiLSleir2istr (QuemiSlsrr'Scn) 

^era/r^^) LDL^iSlQeo QuitlL®<ss 
(QuirLL®iQsiiehe{r'j uiririSlarfsfr, 
jijsuek j)ipsssaiT3'9l ^a;ffi«a@ 

jil®Ses)L- u®Sisst—ujfriLj QuiriSl 
Q^fs^ uem^'sa^ euiriiiQeiJir. 



He became in a very poor 
condition. 

That is not yet succeeded. 



He is without speech or brea- 
thing ; i. e. near death. 

He abuses much without any 
respect. 

He is an idle fellow. 

There is no success. 

He tried all his best to obtain 
a MoonshifF situation, but it has 
proved unsuccessful. 

He is a very bold man in every 

respect. 

He is desires of much. 

He has long desirous to build 

that house while he is living. 

Affliction, or persecution. 

That girl is afflicting much in 
her mother-in-law's house with 
ill-treatment. 

His word is hard as iron saw 
and cut off at all time. 

She attempts to fascinate him 
in her love, in order to cheat 
his money. 

Means, he labours very much 
for his meals, or he is idle 
in his place. 

Li. Go and get money by in- 
cessant importune from others ; 
i. e. Collect the money with 
incessant attendance. 



200 






j^^su upssupiss'Qs'dj. 
^uuit\ ^euzirOw^^dstftssirshl, 

QuiJuinLi—LLinu ^'aseoinuuQu®^ 
^a@6si^ (Qsirem®) ^(SiQQp. 

^i—ir^^ Qs'iu^ireo uu.it ^^ 
u(Bsiiniu. 

^suesT Q^iijuSlpQisuSc^OuJeceoiTLD 



or upsuirtLieoeo or OuQj^s^eoei). 

^is^iSssffOfTLLi—OLDe^e^irLoeresT'SS 
QQeneesTL^inh or ji//h^&&a^UL9s 
Qae^eoiTui eresrei^ Qeuessri—irix. 

ere^d@6usirQuifl60 y^nireuiriij ^s? 



Li. His speech is like an ele- 
phant which goes ia the fort of 
brass i. e. he is eloquent. 

Li. He went away without 
giving any further notice, having 
left all things behind him i. e. 
he died. 

To destroy any one utterly. 

I have entirely destroyed 
him. 
Fading, wearing away i. e. grief. 

AVhat is wanting for him or 
wliat is the cause of his grief. 

Do it with haste or all your 



Oh ! she is a wasting woman. 
He speaks indiscriminately. 

Avarice, grief, sorrow. 

Why you must have avarice 
for another man's property as a 
devil. 

Prov. By doing injustice 
should you be subdued to all the 
troubles. 

All his business is injustice. 

There was a noise regarding 
the quarrel. 

I have no regard for him. 

I will not interfere in his 
matter as I do not like to hear 
his intricating adventures. 

I have full suspicion upon 
him. 

A wound given by a weapon- 



201 



SnUJLD QlD^^ J^ff" situjljd, 
osvOiusneniTLD or ggLlsrot— ^rri-Lerou- 

^L^ ULjijLDITilSiQfi&Sp^. 






He has been slightly wounded 
in the battle. 

The things are too old. 

Have you kept all the old 
things in a room and shut the 
door after it ? 

Lit. The foot of the tree is 
strong enough, i. e. to unite with 
great men. 

We must try to get the favor 
of the noble gentlemen. 



^■{sSietsiiiBrreh-, or Qsirsmi—sneoil) The time or weather is very 
or ^°i-^smujs(TffOLh. hot; or hot seasou. 

^ji LJ(75 auii), or ei/(j5i_^^«3r^j2/«/r (ffozi) ; the six seasons of the year ;" 
viz. 1. sirirafreoili : ^suessfffL^inli-nS, the -plough, season in the months 
of August and September ; 2. s?^^iTSirsOLh : j^/bu^, sinT.i^6ms^ 
the cold season in the months of October and November ; 3. Qpeku 
c^isireiiJD : ldititsi^, <sm^, the former dewy season in the months 
of December and January,- 4. LSskussfissrreOL}) : Lorrffl, uriir^is^, the 
later dewy season in the months of February, and March ; 5. §j^ 
QaiGSpD^irsULL : Q^^qdit, otsu-ss/t©, the temperate season in the 
months of April and May ; 6. Qp^fi-QjaisiSpstreOLh : ^esff, ^l^., the 
hot season in the mouths of June and July. 11. 

^■susrT(^L..rrsQ^afiLuiTiiSl(r^d's!(n;sh. She is in vehement anger. 

esiQii^ireouu(3Qp^. The people are making great 

trouble. 



^flif G^^rf&ijiPisOsv if ^Siji—Q ear s^esr 

LS-uQufT'Sumfs'sh. 

^eu^e(^ Old^£5 ^iTiTLLL—LDiriSl 
0S(5^ or jijiilLi—iso iSnu-L-enruS 



The people shall run away as 
soon as they see Hyder in the 
country. 

He is now in agony or very 
near death or his case is hope- 
less. 

A slight evil unforeseen may 
often produce more pain than a 
great evil which is foreseen. 

A 1 



202 



^fiUEBT uirjTiT^Ceuir^iS! Q&sniT He pretended to sec and hear 
^QuiTsi^i^Q^k^iSlLLt-iTew, notliiug about it. 

jijekesr meiDL—mL-&sLjQundj srrs It is like the crow "which by 
/i ^mmes}L.eis)UJiL^LBLfi,i^£i. aping the walk or gait of the 

swan lost his own. i. e. If poor 
people wish to imitate the rich 
they shall certainly lose even 
what they have. 
UesresrssQsiJSisBuuirLDir ^mri—^JujiTir eu <s(t m ir lLl^ p ueHQ^'E/Qse^ it 

& em ear Qj ITS err OuiBuj^esr(^ OsFiu/SL^fB^ir ejn cherry uaQumus^ Q-Sujeirsui 

^eiirenrfseaL- mi—ssuQuULU^ ^earemeaL^iLj/Ei QsLLt—eiJ6ioSaJir(^i^iTQs3r. 

^aLfSsDT iSds^^iflds^^erT'ofrQsu You must discharge the ser- 



@J/LO. 



^QujpuL-s^si^). 



eaipsa. 






QuJ5-es)ff^ tSl;yr«SQeOoi!'S. 



^iriEim^rriEiesiLjuinr^^ 
&OuJ£irjpiCuir<^s-r (CuiruSp^v) . 

^Oanemuf(rf)S'S(n>^m, 



vant after giving him previous 
notice. 

The payment has not been yet 
settled to him whatever it is. 

Other people's ill-fortune is 
nut and ginger bread to him. 

Tor whose benefit is the re- 
monstration. 

It is handsome now. 

It appears handsome as soon 
as you wear Cummel in your ear. 

He spoke arrogantly. 

Lit. You ought to be tight, i.e. 
you must keep your respect . 
commonly Q^ir^^dSl^rs^s^ir^ui 

You must explain the matter 
slowly without opening your 
heart at once. 

I have been disgusted with 
him after my long experience. 

He is now in distress for want 
of food or destitute. 



j^ il.fi Lp.iu LOU em e^W^j^, To frustrate a business. In another 



20; 



sense, j>ilL(Bl^iijld, dirtiness as 
O (TTi' iM uQ(n^/i €0)^10 IT iSl(r^i(^^, this 
^Q^eieoiTih ^l1.(Sl^ujld, all your 
ujii> eTisji^i}) mt—ssir^ j these 
where. 



^pssuupssuuaQuiL'SlLD u(B 
dsu uiruSeias)). 

^i\^u uadjQeuiomL-niM, 

/§ ^(r^/6irsrr QpQ^^di ^Ls.ff<5^s 
OainL[(BSl)pQ^eke!sr ? 

Sr'^einu Lau sm ^nQ p ^ , 

^6i/6OT" &.srr(S^d(^eirQ'Sfr iSlQ^i^ 
^?eniJjii>usih!rm!fiuQuiT(S)@(n^esr. 

Sr^p^ [■S?p^@pj3'). 

QgsrOujirL^uj LopOp^^ih O^aessr 



well as (?(M?ie!n^ as: ^i^ssSL-to 
place has much filth. i§usihiT^>sl 
actions are vicious, ^/b^ ji/tKBLfi 
ill-deeds will not appear any 

Doubt, fear, suspicion. 

I have always doubted you? 
i. e. I never could trust you. 

You must receive the thing 
after you give an advice and 
threatening. 

To speak ill of any one's 
character. (Applied to a culprit 
man) . 

What is lacking for him as he 
is now in the state of fortune. 

I have done that business 
as quick as possible. 

Though I labor much I have 
no mat to lie down at home. 

Hunger is the best sauce : 
sleep needs no mattress. Prov. 

His house is an old and brokca 
one. 

What business are you doing 
a whole day. 

To steal, cheat, deceive, take. 

He deceives all the money 
being a trustworthy man. 

To go about, surround, wind 
wire, i. e. to steal any thing. 

He is not clever in any busi- 
ness but to steal, or cheat 
people well. 

If a woman married the man 
of sorrow, the mother in-Iav/- 
must assist him. 



204 



Are not the tears of uninterrupted grief, a chafing file to happi- 
ness ? i. e. to the happiness of those who cause them ? 

How long will I be in this 
sorrov.'ful state. 

I will positively perform my 
promise. 

Prov, Dost thou not remember 
what thou hadst suffered when 
thou wast like a small basket, and 
now what thou eatest this day 
when grown like a large basket ? 
i. e. hast thou forgotten thy 
former poor condition, now 
when thou livest in affluence ? 
(This is used as a reproach.) 

There is no sun shine ; s^sh- 
<snfrui-i, the same as QeuSs^. 



eiffis^ULL(SsQ<SfresiTL^(7^uQussr. 



j7fi5rriomTULj srrLLi—3d\) (^sitl 
eoSsd) or QeufdftleiiiriEiBs. 



or 



Q£uisiT<sitlS:S(^ei3so. 



^m^uOuesBT wsors>oLDUULLL-/rGrr 
or (T^^eurr^eh, QuiBiuLncane^ujn' 



I am in destitute and in 
helpless condition without fami- 
ly. (Applied to a bachelor). 

Is it not necessary to sit 
before you lie down ? i. e. a 
ji/o-ase used to enforce the neces- 
sity of cmitlon and deliberation. 

She became of age, as a marri- 
ageable girl. 

That girl is come to maturity. 



A play without a farce, and 
wisdom without a priest, or wis- 
dom not taught by him, does 
not appear well. 

Fortunately I met you as if 



203 



^-jTfrSLDirtuQurrQpeuL^I. 






L^ll 



&mie^6Jirujesr, or Q^irswuusk, 

(SU IT lU !T u^ . 



er^iriT^ 



^UiTQ^dsSUTt 



I had met the God whom I was 
going to worship, i. e. I was ex- 
ceedingly glad to see you as I 
expected. 

To shoot arrows at any one, 
that is, to impute falsehood. 

A direct roadand not crooked. 

To submit. 

On my manifesting a little dis- 
pleasure he immediately shewed 
signs of submission. 
A suckingchildgrowing lean by 
the mother becoming pregnant. 

An example, a pattern or 
form. 

This house is built in a beau- 
tiful manner or in a new 
fashion. 

This Hawker has various 
kinds, or patterns of cloth. 
A loud contentious speaker. 
A talkative fellow. 

One who has had to pass by 
a slippery and miry road ; figu- 
ratively, one who has intermed- 
dled with connection of the 
wicked family. 

His intermeddling is not good 
at any time. 

One who speaks the truth is 
to many an enemy, that is, truth 
is not to be spoken at all times. 

I have been a little busy here 
or I have engaged short busi- 
ness for a time. 

Desire, love, and affection. 



20G 



^uira^&w QLD;k^ ^@isv) @t_ii) 



He likes very much to remain 
in that house but it is very 
scarce. 

1 am not desirous of a hus- 
band. 

That family is entirely 
ruined. 

Last year that family was in 
a wealthy state, but unfortunate- 
ly all the property and house 
are brought into a degrading 
state this year. 

To open the hand in tlie time 
of necessity, i.e. to forsake when 
assistance is wanted, in the time 
of need. 

A very obstinate and impu- 
dent fellow, the most stubborn 
man in the world. 
ff essTL-u loirs' em L.LD, Valour : s^emi—ULSffffemL-LDntu 

Qus^Qpjs, to speak forcibly ; ^effsn-ULSIffffemi-ek, a valiant warrior ; 
ffuu!r6S!£s(^ Q/^iTemL^ ff esir l^u Loirs' em i—m, the halting has prefer- 
ence to the lame : intei' cajcos regnat lucens. ^sssrL^^^im tei^Q/Djj, 
to abuse harshly. ■a^emL^LDir®, he is a blockhead. 

QP^pQairemQp^^iM [QfjbjpiiEj) If the beginning is crooked. 



t-i(^(R^Qei3rismSp^U!r(^dsssr Oiu 



ei e^seoLuminsp^, 



^FeuffemLj^. 



Qsiret!sf)d03SiT(Bluueai^u uirirdSl 



jQffUun'' 



the whole will be crooked. 

It is better to give little with 
a good will, than much with un- 
willingness. 

When complication of diffi- 
culties meet, to sustain them is 
capacity, is it not ? 

A large tire is not (easily) 
quenched by water; Prov. though 
a great man commit a fault, he 
will not suffer. 

Lit. A great sufl'cring, i. e. an 



207 



(oUiru.t~sijerre\)ei)suir. 



M 0ius3rd(^ OuirssirfBisirL-L- 
QevesBTi—inh. 

^euf^ QP& s IT isatsT i}> or QfisesrifLD 

esur^iiLcei^LpOuuJLULDir ? 



Qssr^eisr (siULSdOsirennri — rrswj, 

/srruuj. 
/BiTLjujssirLLaiQp^, 

isinJbL{. 



immoderate menstruation of 
women : Ou(i^u)uiT(S/b^^sl]iv^ 
to be troubled with an immode- 
rate flow of the menses. 

Don't I know that you 
are a troublesome woman ? 

If mother-in-law break the 
^ilLf. it is worthless but if the 
daughter-in-law break the ^lLl^ 
(worth one pie) she will calum- 
niate that it is a golden pan^ i. e. 
the owner's fault is nothing, but 
others it is very culpable. 

You must not threaten me. 

She is stubborn in doing 
business. 

Do what I may it does not 
concern you. 

^Yill it rain upon an unjust 
town ? 

Tbere is no justice in this 
country. 

Where there is water there is 
no impurity; g, d. water cleanses 
every thing. 

He agreed to pay the money. 

Why do you repeat the same 
subject. 

Mockery. 

To make a fool of one, to 
mock one. 

Any thing lean? thin, or slen- 
der 

He is very thin. 



208 

Quirt-ir (srr^Lp^QQusT ! (An imprecation) Car, departs 

yp/rasr rBiTn-soujULX)iTiSi(if,sSQpssr. I am without support ; iSfir 

6\)LDLJti), helpless condition. 
<sT<ir(Durfleo @a)sv)/r^^(i) Ouirso They defame my character 
eotr^^LD Sl6tDn-s=s?srsk&w^ si^p-B after having fabricated false- 
sirpjSQei) esisvd&(n^irseir. hood concerning me. 

Q^ird!L— LD^i^Qs'ir. Keep company with respect- 

able people : as. 

As rain water is changed according to the nature of the soil 
upon which it falls^ so will the nature of men be changed accord- 
ing to the company they keep. Cural. 

The people. who associate with the good are compared to 
the sandal-wood, but those who keep company with the wicked 
are likened to the bamboo — Vempa. 

Stpe^. A shadow, Mctaph. protection, 

shelter, a house ; eiQ^&jeci SL^'sSisQ(r^sSp^f to be under any one's 
protection, or in favor. SLpeimeoe\)^ (ip&ijiiQutriieiir^, Prov. The 
shelter is good, the red ants (beneath it) are evil ; that is, a 
great man is benevolent but is surrounded by malevolent persons, 
who nullify his good intentions. GTenriOsrrQ^3'iTesNSip'sSl&ieoiru:so 
^i^iSQpear. I suffer much for want of a small house. 

i§ QsFirios^Qp 3-iRJs^ Ouirii^LDir Your word is like him who has 
esitnj Quits s sun oJz'sT Old ^Sii^u2u IT lost his teeth, who praises mcal 
eQ((f)i(3j^. of parched grain, i. e. Useless 

man will praise the worthless 
thing. 

Ou,r<??s(^Qpjs. To singe? to scorch, to soar 

something ; to calumniate se- 
cretly. 
$9so Quijuj lie went to him and slightly 



209 



^/hC^ n:u./s_^ ^iBJSpeaiu Ou>^ reported the thing what had 



occurred here. 

He is a very clever calumni- 
ator. 

Life is deceptive? but death 
is certain. 



Qp^QuiTiu /Bn-'Sm^/DdSp^QiDOJ. 

^ssti^lLl— QLc(ipQQeuuS<sQ£iDL-tSlLLL- O su !mi O essT uj <3J- ifi Lutrp/Bemu^ 
Oaj(Lpi^(^'-BL^ , QLDiTSiTi^lsfruQLDiT® eiJQfjSlshrpLBehresreixsSlLS np®^ 

(rrfv^stSid'Sosr, QLDUjQiuekjuQLDUjQujeorru) QuiriLQlujeirj}! ^if-lS&srp 
eStpsSlsm-Ssw-iuirsurSdoweuiTUJ, LDrrsirerrQpSeoSsmuJ OuocuajQesr^iLJU 
QssT ixiemTisuirefrfsrrJTirujeimr^, Li>eisr^£ji!etDpiuffiirQLi>£ii unk&siSuiem'enir 
srrQcsr' euO ^QeuiEiSL—HirtuQesr. 

^emQ<cW(i^3';Sujiru OuiTiLiuSiiBs^ There is no lie of which the 
^!ruj^LUfr[^s)3' Q^eS&iSeo. conscieuce is not sensible, there 

-- is no conception without the 
mother's knowlede:e. 



£.ecr Qurr^iap^uQuiTS. 
Quir^uuppsiiiar. 

Q[5/FU} rBiTS'LDiruSps'- 






He frisks about as grain 
when parched, i. e. he is chat- 
ting or sporting in talk. 

May he and his house be 
annihilated (an imprecation.) 

An envious man, or careless 
nnan. 

It is good to fill up intervals 
of leisure with some useful 
employment. 

The friendship is broken off. 

■\Vhen a country prospers, 
there is no violent rising of 
one part against the other. 
Ava. 

What has the frog, which 
dwells in the well, to do with 
country manners ? Prov. 



210 



Q^LCiiTcsrLD. Waste from robbing : as, 

Q/iLDiresrde/nreir, a mean, penurious person find of living at other 
people's cost ; vulgo. @^ Q^wiresr^^^S^eu/E^ 0^(r^aSlQeoujiT £.6icn_ 
Prov. 



/VTear sssrsirc 



^(p^(OT)j 



LSlfi^Q3^^?{LB^ 



^ en erri 1—^^60 s.(omTCS)WiSl(rfid8/D^ 
Quired siresBTUuQSlp^. 

j)ieueares}S ^ uQ u it eu ^ ^ [eu p /SI) 

euu-L-ixirQuJirLj^C^e^L}) euirs'ffiireo 

euLL.uf.s(^ eviTffld'^ ■ ajiJiEjp^ 

^s?sQLL(BdOsrrerrp^ (^Osirerr 
(Sr^Sp^.) 

£!iSirLDU5eoir!L'OYjj^ir(Lp^<50iTiu. 
*3/ruJ sitQ^^ld. 
^(^ssireQSiSso. 



ero isu dj <5 Co (61' ^2; O i£i 6OT JO/ 



1^ ff l1 ^1. Sn; uy Lo /r l1 ® a; /r cijr . 



Did I ever tread on, or tram- 
ple upon your feet? i. e. Have 1 
interfered in your matter at 
any time ? 

Though she was defiled by 
two men she yet appears to be a 
faithful and trusty woman in 
money dealing. 

His hand is withered, Meta. 
he is no longer able to give alms. 

Kove ever so widely the entry 
is by the door. Pro. 

To borrow for interest or 
without it. 

To become displeased or dis- 
gusted. 

Wholly, entirely. 

I lost entirely one mango 
fruit. 

A ph'ase — no fixed price for 
Q. show, no limit for a story. 

He provides one with a house, 
and lamp, i. e. he gives one a 
livelihood or living. 

I think it is better to marry 
my son when he is youug, or 
in proper time. 

To speak angrily? to indicate 
disgust, or displeasure. 

Prov. lie will pinch pudenda 
and rock a child also, i. e. he is 
a calumniator. 

If the tiger be hungry, will 



211 

he eat grass ? i. e. will a great 
man when he is in distress go 
(for relief) to a mean person ? 

LDedffOesrO^iu^jb QsirQ^uui—trir ueoOurr/iSuj 

Those who have persisted in the course of the path of virtue? 
though in poverty, will not consent to do evil : the spotted red-eyed 
tiger, though ravenous with hunger, will not feed on the groov- 
ing crop in the green meadow. Nidineri. 

QuQ^Qssfrerfluj Qp^^LnQupeHtru) — /srB^eiaifiu^&i 
£xjrr^(^&/6luj Lc/SQuJS!^U)i-jEi s^^eu^^ek 

In plain Tamil &!Eia^^^smL—LU(^'a5}{EiSibt3iiQsuS>^^iTs^ luirdsm-tSlesr 

LDQhueaUtLjUi lSsiB^LD l9 ff'S IT&ldSl/D Qp^^d&2etT ILjU} Qu/DSOfTlli, WffliSl^ 
eS)l—UJ ^3S)L^tSl(c6^QufTl^&i & fS lU U) /£! uSi ek W IT £))1 LD ST ^ U L^ IS s q£ ets> ^ iS ^ 

etDL-iuQ^iT^QiDUjeir/SI Qsuj^isserQi-iT Qs'ireiG^ ; i. e. " If thou enter the 
Lion's den, thou wilt obtain ivory and brightly shining pearls ; 
butj in the hole of a fox, tell ! whether thou wilt find there any 
thing else but (ass's) tails, colt's bones, and ass's skin ?" '* The 
moral drawn from this is : Associating with the noble and good, 
thou wilt enrich thy mind and body, but conversation with the 
mean and wicked yields nothing but trash." Rhe. 

Lit. Your word is like that of 

a woman who commits adultery 

/f 05=;rffo[j)j/©]^^ j^iffsQp j^ifl with a laughing uncle, having 

Qmuj^LL(BSLL® QifldSip 9i^^u left cleaning the rice required 

uQ^Qi-Quiri^uQuirz^Q^i&p^. for dressing, i. e. your wishes are 

to engage one for your necessity 

when she has to attend to her 

own. 
erevri(^3^3=(T^siBd'sQfijjQLDirL^iu I have only time to gather 
^^ifsfiiu QtBUiBeodc^, dried leaves but not to warm 



my 



;self. 



212 



LD(m&')l(fESQ)fBscirurr^^'S LceOiiQ^^L^^ PcariDuazj^iu LniTLLQi—ew iQ ^IT 

This stanza shows nothing but existence of life in this world. 
g)ajsrr wjrfr^^s(^ evt^sfTLLij^ She is a ringleader in trifling 



«iTjTinDe^s(^i e'cmi3(B.iiSlpsucfTir 
erdiasars QsirerrerTfT^ QsniLi^ 
t5iBa,(^s Qsir(c^ffLo ^f5ls!nr:h 



-c9 






§1^ 












j)l€Bsr 






^suii aiiu«rfijjRD/r. 



matters, or spontaneously begins 
a quarrel. Prov. 

He has treated me very igno- 
miniously, and reproachfully. 

That is, if a mean person is in 
authority over good people, he 
will cruelly treat them Avithout 
pity. Prov. 

If I promised him to give- 
something he would constantly 
trouble me. 

He has been wandering 
about, as he did not know the 
house. 

He has been ahvays smelling 
her, i. e. he has fallen in her 
love and attends to her place. 

Do not speak nonsensically 
by foolish ideas. 

Why docs he jump, i. e. 
■what is the reason for his anger ? 

If you have spoiled your 
character by your own mistake, 
what can the teacher do? i.e. 
No blame for self misbeliaviour. 

I have no support, i.e. I have 
no assistance for my work. 

Lit. This Gentleman is like 
Cumbll, i. c. he is uuiit for 
the service and depends upon 
the subordinates in transacting 
the Circar business. (A word 
of reproach. 



213 



/5 /r 63r^6i3/r .s « /ru> (25« Esv* ^ car , 



I am alone "without my family, 
A word has more power than 
an arrotv. 

Offfre^Qsorrs(3)/5isLf.uj QeuS^SFdis^iriEi sfliaQs^uDLo 
eieiQsi!TS(^L£i euLif.siJS^n'essr (Sld€\1(sS(SI3G}^ld £iitiSlrrd(^sirps 
&siQeiir6SQ,0/B(^'^p piiair^u ujpisi<ssLgssr£u aeoeifru 

*' Against the giantess, whose face wore the semblance of night 
Mdmen discharged an arrow, swift as speech, and flaming as fire ,- 
which pierced her adamantine breast, and, indignant of delay, 
pursued its flight : so pass away the divine commands from the 
ears of the wicked. Similar instances are frequently to be met 
with.-" B. 

erearsQeujrtr^ weOi^L^Oiusis^inii I have involved myself into 
eui^^, perilous state. 

(^(f^ssssneu/i^ 0^il.3'^ms,(^a: (^jX'd'Sil.i—frQiT. 

^fh^dsir.fluj^es}^ Q/siftsoQsil. If you enquire into this case 
L-rreo ssirefrQfiLa Q'SuenmrQpLD Q^rfl face to face, the fact will then 



ILJLC. 

f£i6^tlJLQ.i@p6udT, 

JJ3 ISO ip WIT loir or (vulgo) isris^eCilT(f^Lh 
jSlstDLpeufte^, 



be proved. 

One who has tricks. 

A gossipping liar. 

With this his course of life will 
be finished. 

When all creep under a little 
mat, he creeps under painted 
figures, i. e. he is a very subtle 
and artful fellow. ^eui^^QdQeir 

QQtp ^emLpsutTsk ; if that person 
gets under the mat, this one 
will get under the chalk or the 
floor : equivalent to *' diamond 
cut diamond." Frov. 



214 



(^Lf.ssffOtnli or eL^e-kuLLi-p.Qiu!r 

Qsff&iti QsL-'^Qjm or Os^ 
luppsuek or ^evjifL/LS. &c. 

GU(ff)LD, 

Qs!IlL(B OsffLLQu^esr/SiQ^dp^, 
jufr(B. 



u~(TUJ QusJ-p(o^aj^eO!TiMei iMssrua 



C-eosesiSSuutTL— 



®. 






u^SarQuiro'/EJseiiiTLLL-UiT u9(n)d 



Out of debt out of dano;cr. 



Trifling debts pervert good 
circumstances. 

Let us act according to cir- 
cumstances. 
A wretch, a very poor man who 
takes eagerly whatever he gets. 

When misfortune happens, 
the sense grows stupid. 

To struggle with death, to be 
in agony. 

What is piercing, i. e. censur- 
ing or charging with a fault. 

lie will not always speak his 
mind without alluding to others 
fault. 

Q. .Who lives happily to- 
gether ? A. Those who are 
unanimous. 

Lit. A song used by women 
when beating paddy or chunam. 
i. e. a hard scolding for evil 
deeds. 

He is like a noxious plant in 
a garden and like s=(^etB the fa- 
ther-in-law o^^tflQujir^mem- and 
was the destroyer of his family. 

Has he now got horns ? i. e. 
Is he now become powerful, 
arrogant. 

One who knows the cunning- 
ness or artfulness of another. 

To appear outwardly as a good 
man ; and inwardly to have 
wicked principles. 



215 



^eu^si^ eosuQe03=LDfrQ£iSU>Lj<i 



iBtfeer ^ero^ a-sar p_ ^ ^i iT &J em u LSf. 
Os'iuCS^ear ^esiSiurreo ermQLL&i 

ffJTffLD^ 



Villain or scamp. 

He has not the least sense. 

To endeavour ; e^u-t.^uumr, 
try to get it positively. 

I have done it according to 
your direction I therefore re- 
quest that you will not blame me. 
A low price as : /S Qs/remQexi/s 



^L/^^«,s/<s3sir ^Q^3=irs=LD[nu ^ooiOs=ir&}s9dQstr(S ; tell a proper price 
for the books which you have brought to sell. sFjrs'Lh in another 
sense, liiockery. — j),'^ir opp. to ^jts^ld, high price as : ©>/ruL/«<srf?eb 
euir/sjQ§p fffTixireiirseftlsor eSlds^iQaJs^eOiriM j:^^iriruSl(md@p^ ; the shop 
prices are high /i ji/i^^^emBss)iu ^Ss^usTu-irLD^mLD ji/,9ffmu Os^ireo 
eoiTLD&i^u) e^(T^3=ji3'LDrriu Qs^treoeSsQsir®, Tell me the price of cloth 
moderately and let not your charges be high. 

^<svSssr esieudQjvuLjL eiasu^isfreo If I would keep him, as I 

euLLi—^^s(^ euQf^evirsisr. ought he will behave in his way. 

OsirtLL^LjQuirQQ/D^. To speak in a sincere manner. 

^susir em>TL-^s&idru.irLjQufre\> He is not cunning but speaks 
Os/TLlLf tj QurrQSpQ^ tueneorTLDei the truth as he had seen. 



« car (CT) l9 6(ir (OT) (2/ ® ©^ eu car . 
us'triBi or ulLujl. 

ldlLl^itiu. 
uemesurQenemQih. 

Qs'uutMUessri^^s'Si)^)^. 

Q3'-iSieS>WUUL-.sQ3'Qff^UjQp^. 



)Q;63r SL-^Q^jueuirQesT'oirjv 



One who talks thoughtlessly. 

Clamorous woman. 

Lit. To knock^i.e. to run short. 

Every thing is wanting in this 
month. 

Moderately. 

Your expence must be mode- 
rate this month. 

To spend parsiraoniously. 

To repair, to rectify, to mendj 
to lend. 

To curtail the expenses. 

To be a man who will sup- 
port a family. 

I have spent my money for 



216 



sTearua^/E;s'hiQLuSicuiT(^Os'eiaiLS his remedy, but all proved un- 
^^la SL—;iQp^Sp£vifi05iujs &IT successful, [sl^im means body.) 

■ /f (cTuQurrj;!(^ Qs^irGije'fruSltr^is You must always be neat 
Qeuem^LJ}. and clean. 

/§ j)/emss'Q3'ujuj urreOLarr(rt^Q^. Ee not discouraged to accom- 
plish it. 
iSssenrTLLt-u). Impediment, hinderance, 

trouble. 
i^sssonLLi-fj^eo ^uulLu^qT)^ To be ha trouble, to be sur- 
Qp^ [jiisuuilSld QsiremL^Q^i rounded with difficulties. 



Lit. To fall off itself, i.e. to be 
oflended for trifle. 

Lit. To split, i. e. to speak 
eloquently. 

He spoke eloquently before 
the assembly and was astonished 
by every one. 

Commiseration, pity. 

My brother has no pity on 
my poor and distressed condi- 
tion. 

Necessity, urgency. 

This gcutleman has kindly 
assisted me in the time of needy. 
A sea voyage ; in another sense, 
salt. 



She is launching out. 

Q'o make a voyage. 

A square shed, i.e. cheapnes.«. 

A settlement between two par- 
ties. 

You must settle their dispute 
with each other after you have 
engaged in their matter. 



l5. 

dQ(2pdsr. 

a^euHL^sSp^. 






217 



jssssir Qpisir. The case is going headlong. 

/Eirm jijii^sijLpsesi's ^(T^uujLS'triu I tried all my best to settle 
^ns^Qeu^jQiDsksii iSittLuira^uuLL the case but it is intricate. 
Qi—eir ^ies)&o ^^ ^ssiT (tpdsir 
eu IT uS Q^s (^^ . 

Q^rrSsv. Imp. Leave ofF from Q^rrSsvQpjsi 

OjSirS^d-j a far, distance. 

O^itQs?. Sexual intercourse, the same as 

O^iri—its-^ affinity, or union, juiWiSt^ic^iM ^w^d^U) ^uQurr^ireer 
Q^iruf-'Si-^irLruuiiTslp^, ]\xst^ now begin the sexual intercourse 
between him and her. j)/isuzsrQ.^ir(b!<s;'dsirirdr ; he is a lover. 



jSir^LSjTiT^ffiSso, 









QiZSTcasrQ'Sp^, 



There is neither hearing nor 
redress flit, complaint but the 
meaning is, a want of any tri- 
bunal justice,) 

There is no investigation to 
this corpse which is laid here 
four days though many gentle- 
men have resided in this city. 

Lit. To dig, to make hole, i. e. 

to enquire the case particularly. 

iBirehr iBu^ih^ s^iis^iSieo ^nessr I have told one or two things 

Qs—rreisr^ii O-frresrQesresr ^,^Sd ji/i£u of what had occurred here but 

QejjresrSom- Qfdiremi-'p.QiEiTemLf. QslL he made minute enquiries into 

t—rrek. the case separately. 

Lit. To mix, to trouble the wa- 
ter, i. e. to clamour, to scold, 

I revealed two or three things 

in truth without consideration, 

i3l^^^ s&}d(^seo but she severely scolded me. 



or e'lTL^sp^. 

GjQ(StTSarSi 



.irsrr. 



(Qla^ujQp^) 



To oppose, to outdo. 

He always acts contrary to my 
word i. e. he never submits tq 
my order. 



218 

<^is]§1ljQuit[Q2p^' To languish, to pine away. 

g)(3i.'.^5(5 ^^^(SiurreuixQurrem- He is afflicted and grieved 
^irei QiuiiQ ^LjHL^£mL^Q^iS(fr^^. much as he had entirely lost his 

situation, 

ers^^iTerTLD, or (sr su ^ ^ ir err il . Mockevy, scom. 

mBstsFsksil,. Random, confusion as : et&s 

s-9-&s,(i^ Qff^ireiedirQ^y speak not 
at random. 

eriQs QsLD'-in^(Spj3. To assent to any thing wrong 

from some motive ; to speak en- 
ticing words for a small present. 

Q.aFiliQuir(tT)sir eemL-irireuirajf Qs'ireo, 
Fair are the words of those, but void of guile. 
Who know that sterner virtues should be, 
To mild affection. 
Ellis on the Cural, page 257, That is, kindly speech adds much 
to the courtesy of hospitality. 

(@-srr) ^^ih jij^eiMirQiu euirir^sa^s^ sreuiissirtnj^ Qs'neosissu^ 
/sekeiBLX) Qujswt£S(r^^:!f Q^frffOsdeiirsir^. (srOiJjjreiriJo^j ejifemL—iTLDiTQfeiB 

&Qsirmr(B LjyLBi(^'siT QuirujSu. Qs^irtpinrs^ek j^m^aseha® ^iunQppsa 

^ireO'3lleuiTSLo n.eir<sBp!ksiTLDeo OuQQQixeirj}! Os^ireaiiSfsrem^ ji/sii suits' ear 
QslL® Q^3'(^0sL^^:^i(rf,daQeusebi(B0L£><cisrQp s(rf)asmujiTSO jtji^^sfi^ii^ 

ehr^pi^SLLi—ijQesrm^u ^iTQpLbj^.i^'f-sfi^uSdo eS!Q£>/5^^pis^iriT. 
gl^uiQuofSlpjs. To speak pleasingly, sweetly. 

Qp^(B. An angry face, one who has a 

furious wrath constantly. 



219 






QsiTQ^QsiTilL-l. 



Qusr^iiu uppmjek. 



ffih.'] 



or 3=<sS6iv£siTinD[TLu Qa^nio^Qp^. 
3^<snds\iQ u ir p _^ . 



Os'fT&v^eQS^LD OYee>aOujQ£^^. 



Qs-iTtaiisrSstrn'm. 



A hammockj a swinging bed 
for children. 

To cut a crooked stick for the 
purpose of carrying a child or 
sick person in a hammock— Prov. 
i. e. to counteract the good 
intention and deed of another. 
(This term is peculiar to the 
wilful mistake.) 

To be disappointed. 

To leave a door ajar, half 
opened. 

To lie side-ways. 

Lit. the straight and middle 
stem of a tree, i. e. indulgence 
on behalf of children. 

An envious man, an impati- 
ent man. 

One who has not attained 
much knowledge in secular 
matters, or one who acts with- 
out due consideration, or fore- 
thought. 

To speak copiously or at large, 
to detail. 

To grow lean for want of milk. 

A sucking child growing lean 
by the mother becoming preg- 
nant. 

One's own signature, esisfsir 
lL(B, Qp&i and ^P(^/S are the 
marks of a person that cannot 
write, to serve for a signature. 

A well dressed showy fellow, 
a gallant. 



5^ 



^iPSpju. 



Qsuaua [eSlujiruinnii) usm (@2/S) 
^is^uQua^QQe^ luj u l9 io3s\) or 



SL-^Q^£iip^ or Fr-QL—£iip^. 
^eisr S QujfiretDff-OsiTisihiiiS Ou 









Beauty, comeliness, elegance. 

To make a display of one's 
self, or one's dress ; tilso to lead 
an impure, and dissipated life. 

To coax by flattery or to re- 
port every thing pleasing to the 
ear and to attend with any one 
constantly. 

Beggar's pride. 

This is a speech without point. 

I am grieved much like a Brah- 
min woman who has lost her 
salt mutton ; Prov. used when a 
had action which cannot he spoken 
of has been committed g. d. I 
have done and lost what I can 
neither enquirefor, nor com- 
plain about. 

To become a man. 

Food given for in charity. 

Why do you earnestly desire 
to have the things of others 
when you cannot have it. 

Removing frora^ home, with 
the whole family for fear of an 
enemy. 

To speak abusivel}'. 

One wlio urges on the work- 
men. 

A commander of a small 
vessel. 

He is now in agony or very 
near death, or his case is hope- 
less. 



€21 






J)l6U(5Sr 






QsiS 



sireo^^d(?^ gg(9«tJu6ZD/r. 



u(f^^^^^[r^(^LDir 



Sometimes a boat may be 
conveyed iu a cart and at other 
times a cart in a boat, i, e. he 
that assists another may expect 
to be assisted in return. 

He is like on^ who has put 
his feet in two boats, i. e. he 
serves two masters. 

In time of distress a sherd 
serves for an eating vessel : i.e. in 
time of need any thing will do. 
Though the Odina tree grow — 
ever so large, can a pillar be made of it ? T/iis tree can he 
converted to no use ivhence it is proverbially said of those, who have 
a specious appearance, but are ft for nothing. 

SLUsirffLSe^efdir^ taei^jsear ^q^/e Man of. no beneficence, is 
Q^ckmQunQiumesr. compared to the various instances 

as follows : — 
su.!S^(V LB(^iQl^(^ioSi' Qsj/r^^ireir OuQ^^Qasesresr sirLl.LM.ei><sju>ei)iH 

^p^QiDsirsur, LDu.LSi^/sQ^eij(rF,d(^ QpusirifLBsieoiT^ 6uu>ufreuirip(S^d(^ 
fSsirn-f LDuSK^eo/iSeS^ujir® {^sQesn-jenajujet^® ix>SsoQLD&>^(^LiiQfr^(oesr. 

He came last night to my 
house at an unseasonable hour. 

He who has platted one bird's 
cage, will plat nine ; Prov. 

What contract have you 
made with him ? 

To speak without reasonable 
manner. 

If you have saved all the 



or ^3=LDi—/msissr 






9(5^ 



,® 



(Lpiss)t—m^<s)je!!r ^earujs 



OLDskem ? 
enirdc'S^Qutrs 



ITLOe^ Qufff-Q 



M O^iS^eui^ds' uiom^Gs>s Quj&> 



ss^LDireOLD. 



money wliich you have spent, 
then it would be a basket full or 
an obsolute fortune. 

It is natural to man to desire 
tlie same as we are ourselves. 



To talk at a person. 
Nastiness ,- ss^unrt^s-^dso a 
dirty cloth. 
Note. — This term is peculiar to all the Natives ; especially they 
are thus speaking in the time of dispute one to another . ;/f^i««^ 
/^/reissar Qua^sas^uQus-Qeiismi—iTLc, you must not speak that useless 
man's affair. ss^Loircodr, or ssfunrjQ is very common talk amongst 
the East Indians vrith their servants. 

^<sijmQuixiTGOij:itTiSi(T^s@(ir^^. He is a simpleton. 

sinrscs^uf-^LDiTtu Qus^p^ or To say decisively 

^ ff ism- LDtr u'jQ u<f^S p^ . 

QutrSsa-iLiir ? 

e^(f^eu^d(^uuift/5j^QsireJ3r®Qu 

•SrQp^. 

Qeu&o Qisu/EiQ&flaaiuuuiTir or (oeit 
cSlsemei^!— or t^-svessrisaL—, (from 

^S<ikr0SiL-S:^^3'O3-ITei>{^Qjp^. 

epQ^jj^em QtoSi uir/rto u^e^Diu 
uQun(BSp^, or Ouir^uLjsiDeud 
Qp^. 






Are you so great to me ? 

To speak despicably of a thing. 

Did you ever submit to my 
order ? 

To side with a person or to 
favour a person. 

Mind your business. 

Impatience, envy. 

To speak invidiously. 

He is envy all the day long 
of his life. 

To transfer the responsibility, 
or business, to another person • 
to shift the burden, or lay it on 
another's shoulder. 

Hunger seeks no dainties, 
drowsiness seeks no healthy. 



223 

Q.£irp^U>uQ&@<Si)ds03' 61^ em 611 U IT a fB Q3,p^3>^ 

QrBiFITsSl<Si)dsOa^3i-SQp S^^6S)iriLj/EJ SlTQpSirs^LO 

{^-f-n) Quirei!ri^QSi.sFiLjppeun'S(^S(^s (^Q^siiuia'/bp^i^rrQ^LS'ScSsO, lS(^ 
k^ uQii^srrefr(SuiTS(e^s(^ (t^Qu^U) uiTSQpiBs'iSsVf ssSuitl— ^■^eias'UJSTrerr 
£iJirs(^S(^3' 3?SQpui S3;^ioS)iru-jLBs'i)2o\)y Qu<oSsri^<oS)ffiLjmefT eiJifaiemd(VjU 
uujQpLniTesr(LpLS<s^Ss\) Ouj(oiru^iru>. 

ugnsiiTL-uu&^Q^ua. Hunger will be appeased by 

some trifle between the teeth. 
uL ^''■'■'-■oQsGsrQp^. A phrase denoting plenitude 

or excess. 
Lj<s(5LjiO«6(Jr^ euiujvu^^S To be very hungry or sor- 
p^ \_up£ijSp^] rowful. 

(jpL-sSd QswesH [Os/reaarLji] To be angry, to be sulky. 

Qf,iQp^. 

/Birek O-a" IT eh- aurjsO-fT e^ffO/Ei SIT lL lie has anger before the 

if jii'") ^'susar QpL-dQsG^^sQsir word proceeds from my mouth. 

&as0.srTQ£uLj. Lit. tbe fatness of the hand: 

i. e. hasty business. 

evmuiQsiTQ^uLj. Arrogance, boasting insolence, 

(su/TLudQ<sfr(ipuLj ^SsiiujiTQeomjL^Sp^ ; To corrupt a thing by the 
arrogance of the mouth's word. 

^^p(^uQu!Tuj lSss^U} ^%TLJUfTuSl(ff,sQicirp^ j)jflQQsn(BlsSl\^pesr isiu 
isiJussdressfl'd' ^iQo'^p.'SO s^esyLntuSiQi ■fiLi ^ Qun'i^Qsijem(B/OLDeirj}i Qevcssr 
L^dQsiTemi—iT^ — ^w^jijLDetnLDUjnrT ji/^mQLD!fos(rf,3ss3res)6i!^^j^<SueaiU 

PLDlLl^S' 3=ioS>LDiU(SiUm:TSm)]LDQulT^ J>/(Bui-l Jl/^i W^Q UlTlij oS lLI—^. jy^(SS) 

eo&dQffLDiTS ^fBdB j^LhemLDujirif;^(os9/B^ ji/(Sues)U sse^ldCSuit^ ji/uirssr 
euTTiLjurSii^^. ^^p(&i ^isueir tbitsbt u&iqt—Qear ^(f^dQQpOzmekSpuir 

^SS^^tmQsO JI/LDeinLDUJIT(TF,S(^ £VITLLj(^ (^^^LD ^(Su L^^dQssT p^ sOetT 

ek(nj'^. ^S!s^ sQatLi—eiji—eir j)jLDsmLDiu!T(i^s(^d (S.siTULDLSpii^ Osir^ 
&Qp3'tTiS^ss)3^^s®'iOsiTem(EleufB^Qurri>QiiB3^iT(SijiT<ck Qpii^/ress^sauJu 
iSlL^QiJJcirjv j^/^'^D&iQsiTLLL^LjCouiTa-fQffiTearfe^siT — ^stjekj^icts^si^iQ 
dOsiremTdH Q^Q^wL^QiueiiQr^QpOutTQLpj^ ^ir^si^isSlQr^dQp S(^Q a:iTs9 
Qis^exsL^LUeoQiuiT ! ^'uu/r! Qwm^3k.^dGs!Teiks(BQuiT(^shr.(Si(T^<su£irjijes>^ 



22-1 






U). 



O ^ sir (f^ sir . f£ajir eniTtLidOsiTQ£>uLi ^SsvujirQeo sul^Q mpQ^eeT(n^eisr — ^ear 

The fears of tlie robber range 
beyond the forest : i. e. a guilty 
conscience finds rest and no 
where ; Prov. 

Though the sore has been 
healed, the scab remains, (This 
proverb is used to show the dif- 
ficulty of recovering frie^^dship 
or a good character, once lost. 

Fraudulent fellow. 

Vegetable curry deserving 
for food. 

One who, in the present life 
receives the reward of merit ac- 
quired in a former state. 

To talk at person in general 
as a hint to any one. 

These things have postponed. 



SEsvopX^urrsFi 






QuireSuurruj Q^dj 



or This work was made gently. 



;sy^ God shall reward you and 
'iioiurn- [eoeijsQsssrd sdl^^^ destroy you in a moment : a 



eS(£leuirir.^ 



i^uQuiTajLDsestsrdssiirLDi 






word of contempt. 

Lit. His richness hide his 
eyes : i. e. he has satisfaction 
on account of his extent wealth 
without any least thought of his 
former condition. 

She is scolding me constantly 
for a trifling. 

He has got good profit in 
this year by his trade. 

To be active in play, to be 
hasty. This is specially implying 



ui-i. 

seSsjiLD or senPeuinh. 



for a child when playing here 
and there. 

This child has much precipi- 
tation. 
Affection or kindness. 
He has no least affection 
that he is a son. 



IbyTUULDfTiU 



lf\0^. 



M sr eisr est u QT)Sn IT u 



euu:Lj^U)L^(cU3'iTQ^. 



Do not relate all your cir- 
cumstances at once but display 
them gradually lest he should 
think you as a mean fellow. 

Do you think that you are a 
chastising woman ? 

Do not frighten any one. 
Do not speak abusively or 
faultily. 
L^ehrQs^irio^ rssmOe^ire^^^iM QuirujuSesrjyessrirQjbuiTir 
eu^QffiieoeiiL^ajffiTdj eutrip^e^Qpsmi—nQLoir 
i^skQ3'ir(^i—!ruu(Buu ^ei)6i>irQffOiT(TF,eijdsBr 
uSe3rQ.f!r(sQL-irLJu(Buu00O. utpOiDiri^, 
" When the nature of bad words and good words is truly con- 
sidered, will those who use bad words ever be found to prosper ? 
Good words have never been the cause of sorrow though bad words 
often have." Prov. 

^;BeQ(<^pi-jsk3sBr6iji3sr easuiuQesnurrrflL 
G^LSesisuL-e'Os^ireoQeoei), s^^wsffira^iriflujiTsem^. 
"This maxim ia part of the truth which the Christian teacher 
is commanded to inculcate : thus Paul writing to Titus"°says." 

*' Put them in mind to be subject to principalities and powers 
to obey magistrates, to be ready to every good work, to speak evil 
of no man, to be no brawlers, but gentle, shewing all meekness 
unto all men." Titus, iii. 1, 2. 

sQ^iuiSl^QsiaQssr (QstremQu.) To frustrate a business. 



D 1 



226 

u^^raOaLL(-(siJsrr. An iingrateful woman, 

&.eBiudSs?(i^3sv(^d?^. Your character has demolish- 

ed (a word of contempt.) 
s^mQs.TLDeiouiuSQeoQuiruj Qpi^iEi Go and lie down in your own 
SliQsiT. house. 

s^ear^fT^sdOsuQuir Quitsjituj. When will you go home ? 
Q/sffiruj s. ear eij'hrei^sQa Quit. Go straightly towards your 

house. 
<s^a,inus(^p^. To eat greedily. 

@^s.ffisrS(^0ajii6m^^LLL-iruS(T^ To pay a cash for ■worthless 
«@^. things (This mode is often used 

by women.) 



LD. Cleverness. 

ffQP^fTdjs,Qp^. [ffL£)iTelt'is(^p^) To supply, to furnish. 
^QP<sn-ujuuiriijQu<fff@p^. To speak impartially, or with- 

out particular bias, to two 
parties; to speak in general 
terms. 
^^esStuOuiT(iT)<shQsn®^^^e)i Give a present of rare things 
uffOesxsuiLjLD/S. and learn various sciences. 

^mrirtsTTLDrrdj Osir(SdQpQjiTs'Scrr ^si)su> Qui3'<si^u:, The world will 
praise those who give with a good mind, freely and liberally. 
Osireoit—, a gift of valuable things ; Oairsai—ini—U) or tsuoDirujird Osir 
emu., giving without refusing, or denial. St. ((gsst- an umbrella.) 
Liberality makes friends of enemies ; pride makes enemies of 
friends. L'rov. 

u^SudssruJssresriT uei>iT'E.3=3= euirtpeuirir 
(&,Ljf.O,asir(ip^^<isem^jiEi Qsir(B^^vmrtm)LDrrds 
<siP,(6sirLi®(o<srr/b£iiLJuS5sr, f5iT0i)Lp.ujirtr. 
" They resemble, the female palm tree surrounded by the terrace 
in the midst of the village, who pass their lives in [administering 
to] the importunities of the many [that are ready]. ^len who eat 
■without giving to others, though tiieir family l)c fat [and nourishing] 
arc like the male palm in a burning grouud." 



2.27 

i§ eU IT L^ luQ IT IT QfEL^Q^ ITUJItJ= 

S^sSSsvs aiTio0^.sncS^LD. 
^j^QuirQr)L-.isO^(^Q&iTpjQsirefTQi3UirQiu. 
In plain Tamils — s.ULjdsi—^dOsiruuiremO.^eoeyiT ^q^sSI^itsQ'^ 
S'emsrjb^ok ma:/b^dQsiTLJUfTe^£iLjth ^Q^dSQtj'UJ. jtjih^s'Q.iF^tsuQ^QDL-UJ 
LB(^fh3:0j-siiiuLh ^Q^dsLLiBm, QsiT(Sld@/Df.p(Ss^sSeiisiiT^ Q^(sSl35diLjeir 
err aireniMiruSSQrji^iiT^ih ^(^^luiresr QuiT(i^'SondQsiT®s;^ sriiissn &s^<sSs 
^ dQ s IT err u 6uQ ssT iueiairs^'W^'^sopiuiT^ euiTLpdst—euaLU ; i. e. 

'' There are rich per so7is that are like the salt sea ; thou art like the 
fountain of a loell. Lei the great riches of those rich men alone. Mayst 
thou for ever prosper loitho at failing y thou vho even at this time of 
scarcity, tohen none can give any thing, hast received our instruction, 
and afforded the needful supply. 

This is au address of a Poet to a liberal man whom he compares 
to the fountain of a well and praises for his liberality; whilst he 
calls other rich persons, ironically, the large ocean, which only 
yields salt water." Rh. 

«eOTr^;<5(5LJL/sra'@T//Loa;so airsssr There is no wound to be seen, 
u!TiTd(^ QfbiTiLiLcieiso Grronlously and there does not appear to be 
&6ssn—niTd(^ QiBirtLfLDeos^. any pains, i. e. the sickness is 

of no consequence. 
^sucireijshQLnp semeo-xsud/^iT'siT. She cast her eyes upon him. 
^wsfT ji/su^d{^.d e6SdT^mhd(^d She is sorry still though she 
s;sm^uS(!f,w^Lb ^sotcwlo ^(ipS is dearest to him. 

Odniis^ssiiT u-jsasTi—LD^u WEJSujQp aj^siiBifessr 

U-tElSeOlTW^ Q^IT^^(Si)(ff) LD!5J<^iSQpS, ^ Q ^ITlfl(f^Ssm 

&PUiEi(y)Sij^ ^ihetaLDU^Q^ Os'/EJSLOffOiEJ OsrrujQ^'Cs i^ 
ffEJaasQiun® Saenri—i—iaS fB^AitmsiUQ^ QswpenrQen, 
"Two eyes bloom in woman^s face like two Nllam's budding in 
a lotus that absorbs the burning sun beams. The woman wept, 
and wiping her eyes with her hands, it seemed as though two red 
lotus flowers were plucking tw^o tender Nilams.'' J3. 
semsojOs^sk^iEi aQT^s^i^pJ siT^eQ 



228 

QpdSOiUQ^i^^ Old^sc^s^it Oauiremqcj^eij/ij 

[^^■ix^ uirtsisQetsr ! ^^efl semsidsrr.ff' Q3'QGi>icJ<r^Q fired g^fEi sqf^j^ s.tf 

Qeis&irp/Si^ (^^^iTLDei^LLL—^-eT-Ui. /EirtnOu^ajmr — sifLc^^eSiiuei, 

^eu^s(^3' Q3'skp(cSlL^0LDsiiei)iT He will be respected wher- 
^&pui-i. ever he goes. 

^siaQpffmece^np §lpui3eods\) spQ(ir}p^ 
Qs'esrpeSlL-Oixeieiin-^ &puLf. Qp^wir. 

*' If 5'ou M'eigh well between the king, and the man of thorough 
learning, the sage is better than the king : the kiog has nothing 
peculiar to himself but his kingdom ; to the sage every place he 
comes to is his own/' Mudurie. 

^euen ffQps'mr S(^^^ujfiiaeffi How does she manage her 
CO <5TuuLf.u9QfiS'S(n^err ? LniLL-friu household aflairs ? is she frugal 
Offeosij uemc^Q((rj'Q&rir Osiressn— or extravagant ? 
Uiil-®uieuiriflLUL^&S(nj(2(3friT or ^shr 

^(i£@peuiTa,QerrrrQi_ ^qp^ 9ifl Weep with those that -weep ; 
dQpeufTsQer.nQt-QiiB. laugh with those that laugh. 

LDiTessn—.iriT&j(if)euQ(TiT Lnire^^e^^^e^ — Qeueihni—ir 
fsu:><i(^ui^sui^i(cuj /'S/rihQuirwer eij 

Note. — " The man, who, under the greatest calamities, can com- 
mand his sorrow, seems worthy of the highest admiration ; but ho, 
who, in the fulness of prosperity, can in the same manner master 
his joy, seems hardly to deserve any praise. "What can be added 
to the happiness of the man who is in health, out of debt, and has 
a clear conscience ? To one in this situation, all accessions of for- 
tune may properly be said to be superfluous : But, thoufrh little can 
be added to this state, much may be takeii from it. Though between 
this condition and the highest pitch of human prosperity, the inter- 
val is but a trifle ; between it and the lowest depth of misery, the 
distance is imnuuise and prodigious." Wuioin. 



2:2y 

^is ^ih^Q^ffa^Qeo S(tr,aQ In India very few are anxious 

psuirserP.sn OLn^^dOsn-(^ffu:>(nuiT to gain their time. Time is the 

ixiiT^^jT/p^iEiseirss/rffOfiei!);^ ^^rriu best judge of all things. 

LDndSdOsTinen fiu/Tj^ero^ULj®© 

NoTK. — " There is nothing in this life which we ought to set 
a greater value upon than time, and it becomes every one so to 
use, as to improve it. Many are desirous of putting off repentance 
to a future time, yet if they would but recollect how fleet the min- 
utes are, they never would be so eager to defer it even another 
day ; for so uncertain is the life of man, that he, who is to-day in 
perfect health, may, to-morrow, be oppressed with sickness, and, 
in a few days, be conveyed to the silent grave. 

Every young man should appropriate a portion of the day to his 
studies, and, at the sam.e time, divest himself of every thought 
which is liable to distract his attention : for unless we do in our 
youth make a proper use of that time which we ought to dedicate 
to the improvement of our minds, we shall find, when we go out 
into the world, that we have laboured under sad defects and dis- 
advantages. 13ut if we are desirous to imitate the excellent exam- 
ples which Newton, Homer, Demosthenes, and other great men 
afford us, we must apply ourselves to our studies with a fixt at- 
tention, since it is that alone which will enable us to arrive at the 
summit of knowledge. 

Had either of these been distracted with trifling thoughts, the 
rays of genius thus diverging from their proper focus, had lost their 
efficacy, and procured little or no fame to names now so celebrated. 
The stories of Melancthon and Titus Vespasian, afford striking lec- 
tures on the value of time, the one of M'hich was, that whenever he 
made an appointment, he expected not only the hour, but the wi- 
nntes to be fixed, that the day might not run out in the idleness of 
suspense. The other was, if at any time a day had elapsed, in 
which he had done no good, he would exclaim, "My friends, I 
have lost a day." 

As time, like money, may be lost by unseasonable profusion, it 
is the duty of every one to endeavour to imitate the example of 
these great men, that we rdl may properly esteem its value, and 



230 

lament the loss of it, as a miser would that of his riches. The stage 
of life might 1)C made a perpetual fouutain of agreeable and useful 
entertainments, were we to regulate it by a proper distribution of 
our time. There is nothing which unbends the mind more agree- 
ably than the conversation of a well-chosen friend. It eases and 
unloads it, clears and improves the understanding, produces in us 
useful thoughts and knowledge ; and, in a word, finds employment 
for most of the vacant hours of life. 

A gentleman that has a taste for musis, drawing, ov painting, 
acts wisely if he allots a portion of his time to one of those pleas- 
ing arts. The cultivation of plants and flowers, an greeable amuse- 
ment in a country life, may also be found useful, to those who are 
possessed of that taste. But of all the rational amusements of life, 
there is none more proper to fill up its vacant spaces, than rending 
some useful and entertaining authors."^ Since, then, time cannot 
be recalled, it becomes every one to be solicitous for the improve- 
ment of every part of it ; and let us not hoard up a shilling with 
care, whilst that which is above the price of the greatest estate 
passes by unnoticed, and consequently unimproved. 

There is a remarkable instance of parsimony of time in one of 
Pliny's Letters? where he gives an account of the various methods 
he used to fill up every vacancy : after several employments which 
be enumerates, sometimes, says he, I hunt j but even then I carry 
with me a pocket-book, that whilst my servants arc busied in dis- 
posing of the nets, I may be en)ployed in something that may be 
useful to me in my studies ; and that if I miss of my game, I may 
at least bring home some of my own thoughts with me, and not 
have the mortification of having caught nothing all day." — Dii. 
Young. 

/§Qsn®^jS^ujirsu:OsBLLiSuQuir Your present is as well if one 
esiuir{ir)uurr§sii^(^^ Os'a^iQurrem- gives a dead COW as a present to 
u^es)eu^^nesiiEJ OeniS^^^iru'^uir ji ruined I'appan ; said of a pre- 
eS(V)d(^^, sent which is good for nothing. 

Qa<£i icu(rf)LbQ'~itr^ ld^OslLS) When misfortune happens, 
gvQu). the sense grows stupid. Prov. 

* A fi'uiiil, :v book the slualiu!; hours sociire, 
Ami iiiaik Uunii ilu«n foe wisiloiii. — TliOMsOX. 



231 






OP 



)/r? 






^susrr 



Osm 



&^ 



Though a lame one desires 
honey that is hanging on the 
top branch of a tree, will he get 
it ? Prov. The meaning of it 
is, that we should not desire 
v/hat^we cannot obtain. 

He breaks an iron door in or- 
der to fetch cakes made of bran, 
i. e. he is very .busy in trifles; 
Prov. 

He is like a noxious plant in a 
garden and like 3=(^<cS, the fa- 
ther-in-law of ^/flCtu/r^jS ear ear, and 
was the destroyer of his family. 
Though you go against a fire 
brand, you may not go against 
the planet Venus, it is believed to 
be disastrous to go eastward, 
when Venus is the Morning star, 
and vice versa. E. 

It is not advisable for one 
who intends to pillage, to as- 
sociate with others. 
Q^LLL—irerrir ^iMiSs^ons'Lun-p Qp(Bia<ss>su Ou!rQ]fot—®LaeiJi£l 

lj^lLl—it^ OuiTdSiSi^'^LLLQ.6s9/b Qsireh'Soird(y)uQufriijuL^Q^U) 

^iriTsQsirsuLD QuiTiriTiijQpu^iLjLh. Anger not appeased will end 

in disaster. Aww. 

ffs^uSQe^ aeoSsd^LLOL-/S/i^fr If you fling a stone into a 
Oiussr^LD ^g^So^mff puddle, it may spoil your own 
clothes and that of those who 
stand near you : i. e. a bad ex- 
ample will hurt yourself and 
those who see it. 

He who leads a bad life will 
never die happy. B, 



eharfldOa^ifQuirs&ifrssir^s, 



OsirsTT^errd^u' 



Qajsk£VLh uirird^LDtr, 






232 

aieieofTir OsiTeh'ScniuiTuju QutrQ The powerful plunder others. 

&.ek &jemL-6unsrT0LC6S)s\)iTu> J1//SI I have known your state or 

Gauenr. condition. 

/EtresT QuiT<ssrLDir^(^ Qa^eae^iQ I have involved into necessity 

ei&}irLDei) ^^oj^nnjuuLLQi-eir. for want of money last month. 

j^sussr (£(S Offon-L—Oe^^riLesiL-. His house is broken one. 

l9l1® i3lL(S)3^ Qa^sre^gniSQp&sr Hear the whole circumstun- 

Qsen. tially. 

^ujfrSl, Beggar, mendicant. 

^cTD/r LLear3'iriS(rf)i^ j^(i^Q{5i^ He has given with a reluc- 



r(Sli6^ireiir. tant mind with great unwilling- 

ness. 
^eusk ^L-eusTiu Ca;^«(5 euq^ He does not attend to his 
Qp^eoSoc. business in order. 

jyeysar (sr^fEj^a^juuDirtu ffirui3 He is sorry for having his 
lL(B^lL(B 0dl^«S(W76w-. gluttony. 

jif_^u>QujLDiTLLi—rr^. It will not be powdered? i. e. 

the case will be unsettled. 
^i^ssirrflujLh jijeu-^Bss^euml. This business has become cus- 
i^rrtLuQuir&s'rjsj, tornary to him, or he has well 

practiced. 
^eueisr LarrLiup-Qesr^esr (dQsrr He has began to argue with 
emri—iresr) him. 

^euesr ^eu^nr i^m-(nj'dj LDiTLLuf. He has given hitn a good 
(e^ssr. thrashing. 

^is^J=&a^@eBrQminhup/B^^. That child has cried so long 

time. 
£3<s/9(g)^<sil). Inquisitiveness in the busine?s. 

^iaS(BPQ^uL9. A peel for stirring, one who is 

stirring here and there.a tell-tale 
a tatler. 
SLOT eueoeonesiui siaQeonQu- This expression is often used 
Qldit^<s. in the dispute of women as an 

imprecation ,• that is, your power 
may knock down with stone. 
.^jiQ^^jsCSojem Must not 1 pay for my debt ? 



233 



^(SvsirSmTi—sSi^QLDeiieoiTLh QeOir 



>sulL® QemhiSl^LLi 



j3fr. 



j^susar Q^/SQ&lL^u QuireufTsk, 
^su&r 3=LLL-u>iTuS(^aS(ff6rr. 
ju su ear LD(w<iS/D^ 00 jr^s 15 ^rruju^. 



This man wandering here and 
there. 

He eats a luncheon or frugal 
meat whenever he likes. 

This priest seems to be un- 
able to manage the secular mat- 
ters. (A word of reproach.) 

There is no rain here alto- 
gether, but drizzles all the day 
long. 

He does not wish to see my 
prosperous state as he envies me 
much. 

This man has much experi- 
ence in every respect. 

Lit. Is the gun fired ? i. e. is 
it true the report of that man's 
death. 

Intricacy, difficulty. 

He shall run away or he will 
flee from you. 

She is very handsome, s^lLl-u) 
signifies act or regulation. 

He is a glutton. 

To put a charge in another 
man's account. 

Disregard, neglect, contempt. 

Not to esteem any one. 

(An imprecation) Mayest thou 
be deprived of thy sustenance ! 

A little quarrel took place in 
the house since these three days. 

We have received every thing 
completely or altogether. 

(An imprecation) Mayest thou 
E 1 



234 



QsiTem(BiQu!r6xj. (s) 






QsiT 



<5T(fr)S(^!Ei @G5<2;(5 



LOQfiioffSi 



Qisirjv. (Teloogoo) 



be seized with a destructive dis- 
ease and carry you. 

I am fully acquainted with 
all his relations and his consan- 
guinity. 

The judgment of weight by 
the hand. 

Give me some grain by the 
measure of your hand. 

(An imprecation.) May on 
the spot of thy house grow thist- 
les andplants : i. e. thy house be 
destrojed and laid waste. 

Mouth, the same as eniriLi. 

Estate, rich. 

I have nothing to pay you 
this month. 



iSl/DuuSputSleOs^ireir. 
rFFiTLLQ. [rr-QiriTLL®) 

Q/EiTLDtreB. 

lS 3=3=17^0 a IT eh 6^ . 

&.ehQ0toekQ(ff^LLpjj, 

/5 /r car CB sOTf^j (op Eijr J3/) O dP /r ^^ (S ) 



One who is envy upon 
another's pride. 

One who has neither birth 
nor death. 

To ask a permission for a cer- 
tain time from any merchants 
about uncertainty. 

(An imprecation.) Mayest thou 
die by consumption. 

He shall fall in your love. 

He was long time half minded 
whether he may reveal his 
thought or not. 

Haughty fellow. 

A coward. 

To scare away by hissing. 

Before I spoke one word to 
her she spoke ten in answer. 

To make a great noise. 



235 






^eti^S(^ e-ulS^^ ^i5m(BsaLL 



(QenremQi—.) Qsir^ ^Q^sQ^'err. 

QuitlLl^ Q3'djQ(n^sk. 

ereoeOiTQFiiBi si^^^<^lLi— s^ns 

SLLL^sQsiremQi—ek vulgo. struLj 
3LLLf.ssQsir<omQi—^* 

^wek Si— [ear] isisir/ruuiri^iLitr 
uj [OTSrir(Sro^<5@ii)] ersmdsmii^Ui 



Vain or useless prattling. 

The cat Avliich has once tasted 
nice things contained in those 
suspended pots, longs after them 
continually, i. e. stolen things 
or goods are sweet. Prov. 

Strong meat, or refreshment. 

They gave strong meat to 
him in his proper age. 

To be puffed up with wind 
like a log : said of the body. 

Water issues from the springs 
of a well constantly drawn, but 
from one not drawn it ceases 
to do so : Prov. i. e. the more one 
gives, the more will be given 
unto him. 

You always find fault with 
what I say. 

She has always an angry face 
[full of wrath]. 

He speaks rapidly. 

He opposes always or he out- 
do at all time as he likes. 

At last he brought the damag- 
ed articles to deal with me. 

Lit : I have bound a bracelet 
of gold in my hand, i. e. I have 
bound myself to undertake the 
business. 

He is very thin. 

He is deeply indebted at all 
times but never prosper. 

An austere countenance. 
To speak ability. 



236 






^suear iB^eo i3^&) aips^ Oeuml. 



The tears of the poor are like 
a sharp swordj i. e. the rich 
people will have a suffering by- 
God as they have treated the 
poor people illegally. 

He caught hold of him so that 
he was unable to stir. 

(Exclamation.) My belly has 
becoming with flame like that 
of hot water poured out of a 
vessel with a narrow mouth. 

In time of distress a sherd. 

serves for an eating vessel ; 

i. e. in time of need any thing 

will do^ (an imprecation). 

A reserved person. 

These things are very secret. 

Your secret is in public or 
secrets are never long lived. 

Consider before you resolve 
on a weighty action. To resolve 
and say, we will consider here- 
after, is an error. 

Qu!r^Q'StrL^ss>uj<f QiFir^inniliQuireo. /§^Qw€muir, 
eaenir^es Sifleiaius Q^sfrekp i3!nruics3<sfo^l?i(^^ jhuold QisiflCt—^ 



Qs(iistre^^^s(jf) ^(Bsuumrr. 



sQpsss sltjresr, 
srtpssiJ>,.ss'3=ssQr)Sij!r®fB!Tppui 



g)/j^e§® str&)(r Qaireotniruj or 

Q (B IT til un" err th. 

^uQuirop^eufTictntpuULpui OiTir 
LDUS QaiTsQujir [iSiflujLDtr) iSlQ^fS 
©.^. 

i!fL3;S^€S)ITUJITu3(^d@pjS!^ 



This house is very disorderly. 

Anger. 

The plantain fruit is very dear 
now. 

To be pure without spot. 



287 



Qu<3f-pisuesr {QusfQpeiisk^. 



^sQ L^s^Q OiUemQp^. 






(^&0) QuiTl^GO O^ffllLjlh, 



Qluppsu(6t^s(^^0^!fliLju> iSlm'SeiT 
iiSlesTQi^siaLD. 



(^emLcppsui^ LcemLoppaum-. 



Cleverness, skill. 
She is very clever. 
A talkative fellow. 

Lit, An insect, a reptile? l^s=9 
sinL(S/Sipj3, to scare, or frighten 
one. 

A phrase used in reference 
to a sick person who feigns 
himself worse than he really is. 
Novelty. 

Why must you take vain 
trouble ? 

He is still ungrateful though 
I rendered much goodness to 
him. 

Lit. To wear a cap, i. e. to 
deceive the public. 

He will soon bring his master 
into great misery by wasting 
his money. 

The pleasantness of shade will 
be known after having experi- 
enced the heat of the sun : 
Prov. after much trouble rest 
is sweet : sweet is pleasure after 
pain. 

A mother only knows what 
precious gifts children are. 

Will the voice of an old 
woman agree with the lute ? 
Ironically said of him who will 
not attend to another's advice. 
He has an excellent nature. 
A good uatured man will be 
praised but an ill natured man 
will be despised. 



^38 






-,sss:i—iT&d (Lpipisaas 






Li. curvation, bending, crook- 
edness ; i. e. wrath, auger. 

If you extend or stretch forth 
the fore-part of your arm, your 
elbow will be extended at the 
same time ; i. e. if you assist 
others, they will assist you in 
return. 

Do you want a mirror to see 
even what is in your hand : 
Prov. i. e. the thing is very clear 
or plain. 

Olduju9(d(S0 iSlessfliLjQpeikirL—iriijs emsuQuiTQ^icr^iEiQsL^irQ t^Lpeii'n'eiJirir 

id<ksiLD!ril.(BaQisir(tr)(^®Quir^iJDy A word to the wise is suffi- 
or i3pQu6mLSLiTdOsir(r^ Os^ire^siUj cient. Lit. One word to a good 
rB&)6^LDirLL(S)sOesir0 (^®. woman, one cauterizing to a 

good cow. 

apisnpiii-iifs Q<siT6h(SutriT, uekiDirirss LDic3)puea:!BiLj/s ^cssn—^iuir 
QirQs-irekQesri^ uLpesiLDiunssr, /Bsiiiu>irLL®s Qsmri^ ispQusmLS-iri 

uir^t^Qeo u^i(^ Q/5eosQ(T^/5 If there be in the pot two 
^irei} opdoOiSKoeif (tpii^^a^ O^iLi (^jjiemii of paddy innumerable 



6UIE1'3a.^^I^\ 



QffttSi—LD^k^Qffir. 



gods will be dancing in the cor- 
ner of the house : Prov. i. e. 
Toolish people spend at once 
what they have to different pur- 
poses, and afterwards sull'cr dis- 
tress. 

Discriminate in your choice 
of places, that is *< walk with 
the wise'' or on knowing that 
a place is a proper one to go to, 
go to it. Aww. 



Note.—*' If it is quite as important to choose suitable places for 
resort, as it is to select proper companions with whom to associ- 
ate. We should avoid all places of vain and sinful amusement, and 
frequent such as will benefit our souls, and leave pleasing associ- 
ations in our minds. Especially should we love to go to the house 
of God, and seek to have that relish for the service of the Lord 
which the Psalmist had whenhe sung, * I was glad when they said 
unto me, let us go into the house of the Lord.""^ Ps. cxxii. 1. — S. 

^emLDiSiB^ <£5i.Ll®^<a/ Qs^uJiutr Where there is no worth friend- 
eSlLLL—irffO, (^mipeuQ^LD. ship, there will be sorrow, 

/Bsm-/D/Slujrrd^QujfriTs Qt—iinQafr®^^ mevQffOirir^i^^ 

^^smQp^p ULLi—^QuireoiTiM. ji^Qeuessrun'. 

e90 i5^/6lQ3'uj^suirs'SoiT s.6rrefr Eemember one's goodness as 
ldlL^ld iSSobt. long as you live. 

mshr/SLcpuu^ /Besrpmj^ ismp&iea ^emQp Li>puu^iB<s^£}i. 

It is not good to forget a benefit ; but it is good to forget 
evil. Cural. 

u'Sosrs^^omiLiiraQsireireuiT uaJsisrOpiBsiiiTir. 
Small as a grain of millet 
Though it be, large as the towering palm, 
A benefit to grateful eyes appears. 

QsireoiEiSt—iQp Qi—s(&)ikis<5mL-irdj (^etaptutr^^stssr 
^ei),wQL-d(^ LDe3r^Q^iriTdQair(rf)fBeir/SI Qa=tijiSls!nO^(^ 

The conferring of benefits on those whose heart is full of 
poison, is like drawing figures on the water ; while the same 
bestowed on good and upright men, will last for a length of time, 
know this O Supperamanion of Senti. 

^es!>r^(ip(Lpj3t}> ^Qjck QsiT^^ He is fasting without even 
Qp^^iQsirdsMiuirLL s^Q^dQc^sk. tasting a drop of water the 

whole day. 



uo 



it6k-;BLi>fDlBj<50 Do not for get a kindness. 

jMotk. — " The memory of a kindness is pleasant, and tends to 
keep alive friendly feelings in the heart. They who best re- 
member benefits, will be the most ready to shew them. The 
" Tamil poet has sung" " The wise will remember, throughout 
their seven -fold births, the love of those who have wiped away 
the falling tear from their eye." S. 






p^s^iriTLM. 



f5ITLUS(3^ QfiQ£'-D ^iElSiTaJ^SiEIT£3. 



^(f^LD/B 






-LjlOu 






ja^s'ssaiTinr (Oram's 



iir(B 



euiriraicfr . 

L? J5=/rra 0.5/rerreifl, 

^iiisu(G^s'Ssar uSIs^soirLDeo, or ulLs^ 

XTLDiriU O^/TffO^. 

ai—QeuiTLD. 



Though he be a man of es- 
teem, he must follow or rather 
submit to his destiny. 

The mind conformable to 
condition and regard is si^ -.ible 
to the tribe. 

A cocoanut is not a fit present 
for a dog ; that is parva parvis 
or great things do not suit little 
mind. 

Rectitude will preserve the 
head : that is the life. 

To this woman by her chari- 
table disposition and benefici- 
ence, is natural to her, (as if 
born especially to exercise be- 
nevolence.) 
A flatterer has a venal tongue. 

A timorous fellow, 
lie fears much as soqn as he 
saw me. 

Judge impartially. 

[contempt. 
Too much f\imiliarit.y breeds 
Let us act according to cir- 
cumstances. 

A hostile inhabitant feigning 
intimacy (you) must destroy 
r. [ov you must destroy the 



241 






L/s^i-iJif ^_^n-«ar,properly Quits 
SL^ LSlL^^^irear. 

QuiT^Qiuir® aDsi}^^sQ<siT^(B 
lS) <? era <9= <s @ ij (o £_; /r ear <?=/i) to /5^ ii) /r 1/5 (Tj « 

eresrQuiBe^ (ip(SdQs®<ssirQ^. 

^L8(^3=€SiSU3S^IT£iSLD LjeS>SL3(^3' 

emeus ssoiTS IT ^, 

s.U'sQffOsuuLLi—^&.ffOseiDSSi^^ 
^uL^ixir ? 

Qpsk(ot^LLLS!T'8s\)u i^ekei^LL®^ 

^esresipssn'euLL(SLD /sir'Sotritsiraj 
lL® Qld^J}] @Q£SSL^d(rt^dr or jy 

mt—S@pQeii3so eTuuL^ULjiM iBi—s 

©">• 

QsQsurrevrsijL-Qssr Qiuskj^'OS)^^ 

j^eusrr QsuifleO (oTQ^^esr Q^^IFld 
QuiT&i> a^^^LD j^aas'iuiTLD&i) i§leirj)i 



habitation of an enemy by 
feigning friendship, and so 
making him secure or confident.] 

A dancing cow you must 
milk dancing ; R. and a singing 
cow you must milk singing, i. e. 
(you must adapt yourself to 
people's humour.) 

When the stick dances, the 
monkey dances. 

He followed his tract {Quit 
«©> csy^!- the step in which (he) 
went. 

It is like the man who stored 
up his wealth in sacks and yet 
went a begging. 

If you preserve it — a tuft ; if 
you shave it — baldness : i. e. I 
am in your power. 

Don't be angry with me. 

Although you allow fire to 
increase don't allow hatred to 
increase. 

Can the things which have 
got into the mortar escape the 
pestle ? 

He drew back the foot that he 
had advanced and turned back. 

To-day To-morrow ! saying 
he causes me to dance attend- 
ance. 

An affair which is predestined 
will happen any how. 

Why did not you redeem it as 
soon as the date was expired ? 

Like a picture painted oii a 
wall, not moving in the least, 

T 1 



242 



jtjS^^ etflsQp -si-ui3i(f, ^uj/s 
^ireu)isvu^esdn—ir ? 



she sang so that a stone even 
would be melted. 

Is there any tax on rubbish ? 



a) 5^3 fT a^ 3 « (5 ^ jfi/ u sjDi-/ i_/ y, 



1000 times -^=Q2\. Many 
littles make a mickle. Prov. 

The iluppie Hower is sugar, to 
the village where there is no 
sugar-cane press. 

Even an Elephant may suffer 
or [Even an Elephant may be 
slipping away.] 

I am like the parrot that wait- 
ed for cotton pods to ripen. 

S /bu S ^ _a (T^eaSU ■fS' IT IT /S^ SirSQfiLDLSir^QpsSST^DLD 

eS'bucsrisSQ<siis(ip<sn6rT Qev/B^'oSitrs'Qa'iT/BQ^iTiTimjirip'mjmr 
^ui_j^^dr<s^Oe^siir£V iB0i)(sijsir^^(BliEiQ&rluQuiTei) 
^^uemiT.d'Qs'iT/sQ^iriTeuiTipsiJ ^ifl.gffi^rrQL 



sinlL^sOimj u(ifs(^Qi-Dsirj}i sir^ 



ecrrireiiirsaujQpi—S-SsOQpi-^iLjs^i—iT'. 
^sfTsussr^iuinnisO ssszir^i^ujir^. 



j^eairdsTTS?. 



Can you stop the mouth of 
the village with the cover of 
the rice-pot ? 

A country is not destroyed 
without a spy. 

A stone is hollowed out by 
the crawling of ants. 

"Water springs up in the well 
from which water is drawn. 

Though you go 50 miles a 
ladle (is worth only) half a cash. 



Qssn-s^eios^iSlfipun-eO^SQpsik-CSt—ir.s^^^iMiTiflL-^^earedeo (^emih^ir^ecsrQi—ir 
^&^3=z8r(iT)S e^GijQpemQi—ir ^s's'QiiTiiQs Quir^^i ^^iriuirojirQirir 
iBS's'iraJS Q^iretoL-iuirQir ^smi—SsniuirQir uS/s^ /siri—6\>ediru}&> [Qlditl^. 
jaffQSQeoQuiTi^^ LDSues>uujes)tTS sira^^asTQw eotrirQsnefreiiiTQfr. uip 
^u^^&C^u uirojLD @e^3s\). Necessity knows no law. 

easfs^iBjSl, OLnuOiun(BiiQ, euir With trembling hand, and 
ii^&rif\ i^i-flu-L-Q^^irerr. trembling body, and stammering 

lips, she screamed aloud and 
wept. 



243 



® 



/h^irssirio ersir <^@ii) ? 

h. 

cSn'e^£s@QL£nr(r^sihirS(nj'ssr. 



euujJ^QP'SSi>TL-iTuSq^S(^^, 

eoSso. 

sefr!T^s(oSmDffO:^LL®dQSlJUJ^Q^ 



e^Qf^eudsar /BiijujirfBiLiiutrOeusir^ fs 



When the vessel of gold ia 
broken — it is gold. When the 
vessel of earth is broken — what 
is it? 

All may be accomplished by 
stratagem. 

He eats blanc-mange with 
his fingers. 

Will a dead cow eat grass ? to 
be helpless, defenceless, speech- 
less. 

The belly is big, i. e. there is 
no hunger. 

Look at him, he has endea- 
voured to deceive me two annas 
yesterday. 

W^e must recompense to those 
who paid the money and mourn 
to those who are dead. 

If you have bought it who 
will take the trouble with it. 
There is no means for food 
to-day. 

He has the name of being a 
rich man, but in his house there 
is want and misery. Prov. 
To render like for like. 
A small and good price, or to 
spend the money strictly in the 
economy. In another sense an 
assembly before whom dancers, 
players, and singers exhibit. 
You come very seldom - 

We know not what shall be 
on tlie morrow. 

To follow one, for some 
object. 



2U 



O^iLiisu Man proposes, God disposes. 
U)irQssrek/o evLp-Qsu®^^ LDtr^s^ear QuiriuLDL^fSfsireir LOirdrnQsusmL^^ 
euirQ^ek^u uin'^ipis^ir aSirir6ijessr^ih^£mL-3si>ujiTirix)Sse)LnuJsgrQ(nj' [Gear. 

Q^iri—iTdjLCi!T^^p t-Knj'QrremL^Q^i^i—^ ^pojsemCSi—QeijQsiiek 

eSmi—in^QLDQ&d QlUQ£Lhl3L^ffiU^UU^p QSi) Sl^ IT IT ^ IT iZTfi.!jfx. L- 

Suumruupih^QisiTemr Ql-^iBujqjuQuit^ (Sia^^^Qdsti QevL-earL^iSlii) 
Qfft—iTs eij&)isSlei^!B ^emL-Qsu ajeuegreSip3= QSxuSp 0(^(il^^suire^ 
Qs'm^lJiTS^treBQLatu aa^^^ (sS^a/sO (^(T^&en>puuj(rr^suiTiJE>^06vsiirQ(nj> 
euiTi—iriX) (sSle!aeijQuJ(SOir(^ QsvesrO^ftUffOsefreOeOir^eiir LoesrshQs^tuisSl ^£^ld 
l^etTiuiT® (^sCoenrL-jsi) eviuis^diLD^QLnsii (^ldQ ir s^Q esr . ^euQ^foLcfr 
Is he who has drawn water 
all night unto the dawning to 
be compared with him who came 
at day-break, and broke the 
water bucket"? Prov. 

Hast thou found what thou 
didst seek ? 

A fine expression, empty or- 
nament in language. 

His former sickness has again 
seized him, he has relapsed. R. 
Provocation causes excite- 
ment. R. 

If you continually tease one 
who is quiet, will not anger fol- 
low ? 

Lit. The hand that tickles is 
it not the angel of death ? 

There is a quarrel in your 
house at all time. 

The features of his face altered 
from sluunc. 



tU6iJli^'fn'^ioS)L^^^(SlJ^'(^fflfl(^UJlT? 



&IEJSITJTu(oU3''9?. 

OsirmrL^(r^s(^^. 

LSeuarsi^sSli—iM. 



s?LaLDir ^Qf)S'(sp<oijdsar 
OsrremQi— uSl(Tf)i^ireo QsiruiMWinr 

Q^lT? 

aas^^p QiSem® (©) paas tBLo 
€8re^ei>QeuiT? 

e.iaseir ^Lli.jj.e\) eruQuir^(^ Q 
eoirJTiru3(rf)i(^^. 



245 



QjiiesiLLiLjil QuQ^^LDiLjih j^suesT Morul exccllence, or moral de- 
fiuear Q3^dj^'3canu!re\) (2j(rf,u). gradation; is according to the 

nature of moral or immoral 
conduct. 
^euehwiosi QesipujfruSiQf)iQ(ir^'srr . She is an handsome woman. 
Note. — This word and phrase are not of honest, or respectable, 
usage ; denoting only a meretricious woman. 

/f Qlu^ Qdjffrru^statpffs? (i^) Why do you take a hard labour 



QiUfB^jrLDiTuj Q^LueuirQesT^. 



^en'SsfTuurrir Q(frfiJbu i§ lds s w ir tli 

uu^^^u UL^^^s' Qs'ireo^S 

^^ ST'ckLD0sr^sQs (it) ss or 
e^^^iTuQuirei or uLrLih^auQufrs^ 

iSlir^mstsfiiLjis] sireo^^i^eo ^ulSIit 



like a plough and mill-stone, i.e. 

AVhy do you trouble yourself on. 

account of a worthless object ? 

I know all your tricks well. 

To be honest. 

Behold how plausibly she 
speaks and yet she is a liar. 

To tell again and again or over 
and over. 

This is made exactly to my 
mind. 



fl^^aQsircsBru^(T^'is'^isuem(Bui, 
askeSiuLD. 
Q^ffiiu Q^ifiiui' 



06 



rsL—di^uiir? 



^lEiQsirs'U) 



liLu-irp 3=iE3esisiLjLSl 



A prime minister may be un- 
prime minister by time. 

We ought continually to con- 
sider how great our strength is. 

Respect, regard, reverence. 

Though this is said to him re- 
u(Duir6Q peatedly, it is just as when the 
chank is sounded in the ear of a 
deaf man. 

Where there is a just Govern- 
ment can a seditious assembly 
take place ? (properly s^ieiQs^ld 
engagement, agreement, condi- 
tion.) 

Where there is no modesty^ 
there is no honor. 



240 



.iSia;seisu(^ Qs-iuQp^. 



SoLDi 



(BuuiriT. 






(oriEj(Ssi-jss)Siqem(2L-ir ^ijQsQiB 



Q^ui-je 



r®. 



(5^^ 






SI— IT iSizireuirEi^Sp^ uinui'ir- 
^daemi—ujiremJD. 



To make a disturbance or tu- 
mult in the family. 

He spoke without respect. 

To be desirous to see any 
thing. In another sense 1. the 
sin of kiUing a brahman, 2. its 
punishment in the visitation by 
an. evil spirit, causing loss of 
self-command. R. D. p. 366. 

Favor, kindness. 

Is an}"- one living by his favor ? 

A common field. 
Prov. (If you Avish to know 
one's good qualities) try him by 
living with him or by having a 
field in common with him. 

A fencing player is unfit in 
battle, i. e. a novice is unfit for 
managing a business. 

Is he a friend who helps not 
in adversity. 

Wherever there is smoke, 
there is fire. 

Is it necessary to add acid to 
the lemon ? 

The learned fool will lose his 
wealth, 

Learn even to thieve but 
forget it. 

What the eye has seen the 
hand may do. 

The retrocession of the goat 
is the sign of attack. 

If the ass be beaten with a 
bundle of sugar-cane will he 
thereby taste its sweetness ? 



217 



j^sn^sv^s Osinl.(aQ^ir. 



^^fBiYvh i3sisr'SsijnLjLD u^^rsirsir. 



\cJsr^'cS)^Lj Quei^p psu^^ss 






^ Q'S!TsssrL.<f.Q^i®(n^sJsr, 



^sarScHiiupliufr^ ■s^^sarS'LSs'OoaO. 



Is he to receive much income 
per mensem ? 

You must have little patience. 

Lit. He came to buy slaves 
i. e. he came to marry a girl. 

To suffer pain being imprison- 
ed : said of a woman who is long- 
ing after her absent husband. 

The nourishing of anger is the 
destruction of penance. 

Prov. Fortune favors the in- 
dustrious, and poverty associates 
with the indolent. 

Who will make any account 
of her ? 

'No body regards it. 

This is a rice corn not come to 
perfection. 

Shew no sweetmeat to chil- 
dren, withhold not tamarind 
from the Sembio plants, a Prov. 
prohibiting hurtful indulgence, 
and enjoining the giving of 
what is needful. 

Strangury in children. 

Lit. He is always scratching 
such a one^s back ; Prov. used 
to designate a sycophant. 

He seasons an empty sauce- 
pan ,• i. e. he boasts, or brags. 

A woman who of her own ac- 
cord went to her mother's house 
and returned, without her hus- 
band^s leave : epithets of re- 
proach. 

There is no want of self-pos. 



248 



nek. 



etnrQpL 



'SuuiriraQerriT ? 



session ; spoken of a person sup- 
posed to be wrought upon by au 
evil spirit yet^ retaining cunning 
and self-conciousness : the lighter 
afflatus of an evil spirit. 

He who knows himself will 
know God. 

I have no asylum or home, 
^susremih the magistrate of the 
Mahomed ans, a court of justice. 

To be listless, or indifiFerent, 
concerning any thing. 

Do people take up again eject- 
ed spittle ? nearly syno. with 



&■ <3i-<smui&Qsir&T 



his vomit. 

To know how to speak, ac- 
cording to time and place or to 
the quality of persons addressed. 
To act according to such fit- 
ness of things. 

To honor according to rank 
or nobleness of the family. 
A pallid, or shame-smitten 
countenance. 

To contract the face into 
wrinkles, to look sullen, or 
ashamed. 
Anger ; <^sifr(6i5 ei-efrOenekjpi Qpsfiea^s 
siru.(BlSp^ to shew an angry countenance. Thus boys say to the 

gun s^e(^uiurrs(S)U> QeuLLL^^^trQpek -s^ekiQ^^enQerresr Oisui^Oso/^, 

I will cut in bits and give the ginger, and areca-nut shine 
briskly and be warm — jiji^s's^dsssr s^sn^sf^OerreisrJji u^^sQcisresr^ 
(up/HdOsiremc-j^) that fibrous down (of nettles, &c.) causes 
irritation of skin — wu)S'^Oeo\SdSjT^^,@cm6sr(^'9?£irerrauL]QuirL-€SJi2s\}, 
vulgo. there is no sun yet. 

^pj:)idsireSLL(B^^ifluS [©] p^. To wait upon, or dance at- 
tendance, to court ; to importune 



QpSU («) 
Foyr(ST5 



249 

in order to obtain some prospec- 
tive advantage. 

8.«3r«@ii sr(S3ri(5/5 ^irixi. We quite differ in opinion in 

dignity ; that is I have nothing 
to do with you, 

^£>i^^s Qsir®s (Si) psi* To stuff food, into a child's 

mouth. 

^mm Q^ir^es)^^jji^^s(Osfr He came after he had eaten. 

iQus's?. Vulgar and vernacular 



language as : ues>/Des)ujLJU€Tre^s(^en)eu^^n-e<i ^'SsypuQua^sf-QuirQiDir ? 
though a low-man be put in a college, will he change his trivial 
language? umpuC^u^Qs^ir ^/es)iruQu<fQs=fr -. though the said person 
perfectly learn, his language is an half. •3'iremueB)/DS(^Qpip^^LjL ; 
a stick of an arms length for a Pariah of a span in height : imply, 
ing that a contemptible Pariah must be forced to work by flogging. 
u6s>pQu3''S?i(^(^ s?€sijruL^s>^s(^Lo LoesunB SoSso, the speak of a Pariah, 
and the flower of a pumpkin ; are both destitude of fragrance. Prov. 

^ehrssruQuir^^, Teloo. A glutton, lit. a well 

fed buffalo prop. ^mrSuQuir^^. ^ssr/SuiSinnDmrcir, a well fed 
Brahman. 

^sQeasB ^s(^es^ujmu Qsir®d To give little by little. 

)/u^ua!}uuj^s(^^ ^(Bs(^ Qua This boy is very insolent, or 
saucy* 

To know ways and means, to 
have capacity ; to know how to 
disclose hidden or concealed 
things. 
k^s^eijs(^^ PfoiQs/r&iQ^ To seek the key when the door 
open. Prov. to act foolishly. 

^ps^Q^iBiuinaeo QushQp^. To know not what to do, to 

be out of his wits. 

LDsatpiLfth L3srr2ctTuQujjiui instr Eain, and child-birth are mys- 
Q^su(T^s^ii Qfiffliun-^. teries, even to the gods. 

Qps-Ss\) QiuqpulS iBirdj QurrQso The dog that started a hare 
(JuAri^^. slunk aside : Prov. used to 

Gl 



250 



Qeu^np^Q^iT iSlm'^Qp^Q^tr. 



(LpipiBi 



Qujeheir OLD&reir euiriEJS QaicmiaLD. 












^iT& LDm^ir3^inQ LDiQ(5eiirui3(Bisi(§ 



Qp.sFiruL-jemriEi(^isp^y or iLfS^ir 
jrLoeu!rsj(^Qp^, 



ojiresTQ^LLu-iMlTuSQTfsSip^ Gt Qp 
ff'truuirS(TT,sQp£3. 

pLpiris^Ui (ipj!£Ss\)iLj IS Qsireesrc—. 



designate a work well begun, 
but with a sorry ending. 

Which is most acceptable, di- 
ligent work or indolent girl ? 

The arm alone does not mea- 
sure out a cubit i. e. t/ie subject 
is required as imich as the hi-stru- 
mental cause , or ^natter as well as 
an agent. 

Remove carefully the cloth 
put upon a thorn-bush, i. e. 
handle prudently a dangerous 
business. Prov. 

Thorns put for hedging in a 
field are become hurtful to the 
foot : i. e. one who was expected 
to be a help, has become an 
evil, or a plague. Prov. 

Prov. Though the king, or 
great man, be liberal, the porter 
will be surely? or will want a 
bribe. 

God being before us, will 
there be any thing which we 
may not perform ? AVhat a foe 
can be able to do when a man 
is in the power of king. 

The heavy clouds are dispers- 
ed ; the term is applicable to a 
peculiarity of tropical rains when 
cloudsy surcharged toith rain, ra- 
pidly approach, and pass away. 

The sky is overcast or cloudy. 

An obstinate man, and a cro- 
codile, will not leave that which 
is seized. 



;^5I 

9/s^irQ^s 9^(^(S^0uj(Sld@p^. To take away without spil- 
ling. 
■9=^0!uju) uemia^<f Qs'ire3r(^(S,s^ Prov. Did he speak on oath 
s?tMLo!TQs'iT&!r(^Q(^ ? or only vaguely. 

^LLes>L-s=3i-LL(Bs Qsiril.es}L-.uffu To burn down a house, and 
ujSf)^. sow upon the spot the seed of 

E/icinus : i. e. entirely, to ruin a 
family. 
^jTss/ijOsfressri—Quix^ir Sleosijs;-® The moon's rays burn the las- 
Qp^. civious person. 

s?L—^&'i—Q^LDQurr<0srQurr OeO(retflehl(B/B ^eku(^ 

A.S gold is purified by passing through the furnace, so austerity, 
by degrees, purifies one performing penance. Ti. C. 

Qg^ujQujrreirSllTem- lSs^ ^^itQld — 0.suiuajs^ir 
ersiCosorr'ckQnessrs O^/flA'ssf^^gu; OLDcmemnBeiwir 

(^-<orr) (^[flujQjressrth L3s<sii(^'ffi-®Lh ^ujtresr^ ^^esU^th ^^SLntrsff^ 
■3r®i}> Qpt—irQff'iTeo jt/weSirem® Qs^freOeQ^^LD jij^aLD!TS3's;(Bi}>. 

/5iTe9^p 3rLLi-.eu(£), (^psir. 
s?pp^^i sip(^ (^ip<sS(r^^^60. It is lovely for relations to 

dwell together. 
6uujir<sijLhisu(Tf,^^(ipLSsirpdsir(c(eff)ei]'B:i 
seuirji/ssTLDspsem® ^iriuiDp/s^ir ^/ej 
sa^tr^^^ir^ppsvQfi^^Qps'irjf^^eir 

Qurr&i ^Q^euir ■s^pp^^iretorrdsrresdr^ 6sn'esres3u-/5S6U(T})^^L}) Sej(^U)ioT6sru 

OPQ^uL^QeS'SSiiu Q3'trpQ(nj>(B LoesypsQp^, QpQpuuiTius^Q^LLi^ 

erroneously Qp^Loirsi-Q^LLu^ ; Metaph. a swindler, a cheat ; one 
like Heranyacsha, who folded up the earth and decamped. 

jy6ug!/i@<s<sLJi_(T/3(^ (^^mQ^iB He is an innocent, or a good 
u-in^. man, no guile is found in him. 

^siiasr03'eiei](^ ^^^^(^isi^luldituj He has lost all his wealth he 
QuiriueSlCt—^ is ruined entirely. 



252 






The small staff by which 
ploughing oxen are goaded, 
is the means by which a king 
governs and maintains his realm. 
Cumbeu. 

LDU'Si-emT et^&OsuL^ uSeOdS)) lairs'^ 

" If rain fail the inhabitants of the earth suffer : where no 
penitents are found, the rain falls not ; penitence is not performed 
where there is no king, and kings reign not where civil society does 
not exist." 






^(3 



a/sar 03=si)euiriu One among them died. 



npLD, ssm, (ipSo\)j Q^ireai—Qp^eSltu 
npiB ^L^dQp^ /SiciraDLD. 



^(T^U)Qup/ScSipffOin3(ri^i:S(ff/'eir, 

s:end<^LBsSPiSa;frdjLi/DLju(BSp^. 
^esar(BeuirQ s^Ll.Lp.euirmiQSp^. 



He is a very clever man. 

If the right eye, shoulder, 
&c. of a man, and the left eye, 
breast, &c, of a woman throb^ 
or palpitate, it is reckoned to 
be a propitious omen. 

To rove like a fat bull, that is 
to live dissolutely as a debauchee. 

He is like a buffalo : But the 
term is borrowed in Tamil, as an 
epithet of reproach io a sluggard 
quasi ; a lazy buffalo. 

He walks as if on straws he 
totters, being lean and emaciat- 
ed : L. M. S. R. 

No word like the word of a 
raotlier. 

To appear in public, splen- 
didly dressed. 

To retrieve, or repair, to make 
good the loss sustained : oii^ 



253 

s-e!srsQBiT(iT)&i^^u^LBsodso s?s There is nothing against you, 

QldQuit. you may go. (a word of farewelh 

(^Qg=iT/b(n;Offi)(B^^si'euiT)(Sd'fr^^(r The wall, i. e. the body, 

eOL^^^ .srsuii. kept up? or maintained, by rice. 

Qs^irpfipssiSeii'Sso. The rice will not go down-, 

that is, he cannot eat. 
uiBib^QuiTL-ir^Qs'ir^ULii Qs^sriB Boiled rice not given in a 
k^Q^Luir^ sremQemiuiLjiMuiri^, friendly manner, and oil not well 

rubbed in when bathing, are 
lost. 
s.'srrsiTearLSeOffOir^Quir ^^^ssQeuQuQ ULjpsiJ!T(B(ipp(aij(LppQiSiJir 

^errsfrrr^Q^i^Qsirsihir 0L^trQ^siiiTQuiTUJuiTir^^<su(7^ ^dsuiiSirutiS 
irfr(^Qu>iry ^ersir^^Qi^Q^sija^SoeoiniKoirQfissr Q3=m/Sl®ih ^irSzmiuih 
^irSsssnufrCoLDiT) (^mefnr^QuiTBLB&ieOir^QuewiiQLDeisuQ^ eSQ^uurLpui 
<^0uuLDir(cLDir, Qsu(^ssL-<oirULLi—Qun- Q'fiuSlesr/D^evesrQp tSsa^eu 

Quirn-6iD3=uuLl.(S QuQ^is^^Ss To be vehement desire. Co- 
Qp^. vetous men need money least, 

yet most affect it. 
sTsarsi^srS'irLji-itTLLLs^eisrQubQe^ Q^LLL-iBsidso. I have no appetite, 
no desire of food ; Q^LLi—rrcnsir, a thrifty man : airLLu-irdsar^sirpsiGi^ 
Quire^suiT(^QLDy Q^LLi—rr6frsiir(S^®/h ^esrii, the wealth of a miser (in 
an unpropitious time) may become like the empty shell of the 
wood apple (Feronia) after having been eaten, and voided by an 
elephant. A.wwai. 

Os'fr/Tss euirs^eSK^Gi O^iriisLotr A lord, and a serf, are equal 
^i Q^irLL(j^u^(^e^ifl. at the portals of paradise du 

Bourges. In another life all class- 
es are equal. P. 
Q^LLjsij(^9^p (ss) a ^ Si! LD IT (G(r,LD.- Awwai. When god is 

angry, the penance that is being performed is nullified : O^iLieuisi 
QsinSl^^ireo msmff-LDiruSlQ^sSlp ^eudjOss^th. By metonymy the word 
Ofiiuevih is occasionally applied to a good king, but with a hyper- 
bole always understood ; and not to be confounded with a similar 



254 



use of G^eusjr : i§^^ei](ir^LD&i £.60«^aD^<s £Sire(^LDjT3'Qssr OsiiuevQLoest 

£}/ QfflTGilffOUu(BLO. K. 



srek(^<aSipQ^(t^ii^Qsi) sawiuirQ^. 









eresr sirifliuOi-aeieoirLo m/b^ek 
(uz!Ou.(£i—iruj) u®(S.si—irajLJ Quit 



He died : obtained bliss, or 
was beatified : tised but rarely, 
and in reference only io indivi- 
duals ImjUy reputed for sanctity. 

Lit. Put not my faults in the 
street ; Met. Do not make my 
defects public. B. 

Prov. The southern breeze 
has become a hurricane : a little 
troublesome affair has become 
of great consequence. 

Fem. A vexed Avoman. 

Why was I born an unhappy 
woman ? (i.e. exposed to domes- 
tic brawls.) 

My whole business is come 
to nothing, or has been des- 
troyed like * Nanda's, camp. 

Let them smile, or frown, I 
care not. 






iLDfis; 



QQu&ies)siir, 



}sssr£)irsiQs!rmr 






He is one who entices, or 
persuades, by soft and sweet 
words. 

He spake with kind hearted- 
ness. 

He has no transactions, or has 
nothing to do here. 

To give a reason for a hundred 
things ; that is to know how to 
speak with propriety of many 
things. 



* Nandan, the uarac of a king, of a low tribe ; who according to a common story, 
reigned in former times at the town called, Tirumalairaja painatii near Tranqnebar, for 
three hours only, and used leather coin made during his short reign. 



255 






€S)SiSi(o<so OsusffsrQsmtLJ 



ii9(v^ss 



QfsiruJUJisijQfrskuir Qsuiiitusumr 



QfBtr<ssiTL^QiB!rsssrL^s,Q'SLL@p^, 






uesiS'iup^sm^—^'win^sar. 

^Qp^. 



Have I engaged for a hundred 
things ? A7t ansicer given to one 
who is not content with what he 
has received. 

The measure that has spoiled 
a hundred. Prov. 

When thou revest idly about 
wilt thou get food ? 

Do not spin out the time. 

When butter is in the hand 
why weep for want of butter 
oil! (ghee) Pro. 

If a scorpion sting an old wall 
will a swelling arise in a cow- 
post ? Pro. an effect should be 
ascribed to its proper cause : 

(^<sOjSirflu.JLhLDppeiJ6!^i—^^ei) s-eaar 

To speak hastily, or supercili- 
ously. 

The weak, or mean, may (or 
sometimes will) become strong, 
or eminent. Aww. 

To endeavour to draw a thing 
out of oneby repeated questions 
to pump any one. 

He explained it distinctly. 

Prov. A good word on one's 
behalf is a myriad. 

He is poor. 

Speak to the point ; tell, in 
brief, the substance. 

To represent one's case and 
found solicitation thereon ; 
either truly or falsely. 






To wander bereaved of father, 
or mother ; to be in distress. 

He uses ceaseless importu- 
nity. 

I am entirely exhausted, or 
overcome, by fatigue, hunger, ^'c. 

They have devised, or forged, 
a story ; ^uir&krL—U). 
The reward accruing to snfFer- 



^IB^iSK^lf, LDSITUL-L^. 






She is a very loose, or lewd, 
woman. 

A spear will pierce at its own 
length ; but money hits a hun- 
dred miles off. 
uemLD GrsriresrQs'u.'ti-iLh u^Q^LL(b!(sS^(^QffujiLiQwssr£iiu), uessnSsOffiir^ 

QuiT(TF,srtleiioi>iriTsSeiruLjSffi>^ L^6me!!sflujL£leo8s\}Oujssr£}!Ui 

snh^iujS(Tf)LDL8SoSoO a^iQup6ui^iLjiB<s^dso 
0uQ^fSsi>/B£se!^ps=(e^-3=iriru i3Qir^sLoiruj^^iB(^si]trQiT. 

^(T^uiULjf.s9n:)dli-^^Qffo minus What business has a dog at a 

iron shop? Prov. that is, what 
has such a one to do here. 

To fit things up in a good 
order, or neat style. 

He finds fault with the house 
now that it is built, said of a 
supei'cilious critic^ whom nothing 
ioill please ; and who finds fault 
merely because the doing of any 
work has not been confided to 
himself. 






257 









0sirpp6iJesr/S^£i^p/6!i-.^^fisS. 






He speaks with partial affec- 
tion, in favour of a wife. 

By haste, he lost the benefit. 

To seek the means of living, 
or the necessaries of life, with 
great labour and pains. 

When the cat is pleased it 
will scratch a torn mat. 

Give me any thing, said un- 
willingly. 

A king should acknowledge 
the assistance received from a 
low man even in danger. 

To give food as big as the 
fruit of Cratseva religiosa, the 
same as, .s^dldsfr (a word of 
respect.) 

"If thou eatest the fresh and tender leaves of the ak.<£<Efrtx> tree ; 
then the heat will certainly be removed and the body refreshed ; 
thou hast nothing more to fear ; beautiful will be thy body and 
full of strength." ^Q^Lo/h^jnl) by ^Q^Qpeiiir. 

Qp£u is^£>(fri>ii9(T^d@p^. To be striped, streaked ,• Qp^ 

■ssireOf a chapped foot : 
Qp^ssire^QstT® Qrs^^^rflicSirsirerr 

f§p£MuuiT6^fBj)i 0/duju£lL-eueO(c9Q(rp 

Qs^p^U^^iTLO'smirs' Os^&jeSl^QLpiTSQQu}, 

<' Ye who limp about with a chapped foot, there is no other foot 

to be given you, but take ye chunamj salt and the tender shoots 

of the Banian-tree, and mix them with fresh butter, and apply 

them to the foot, and it will become like the flower-leaf, of the 

water-lily or Nelumbiam." Theranar. 

H 1 



)8 



udssruiifsi 



^u^kstr E^mi ssrrQcrreiruiTiTserr. 



Qsrr(Gi^sSes)inuinu SSssr^^uQu^ To speak meanly, contempti- 

bly. 

Prov. If when sitting under 
a palmyra-tree you drink milk, 
they will say it is palm-wine. 
e{r&)3sarOiSiJsi>^£^L-3oViumrexisrrfoiTLLL^p ssfTSijQ.ifujQisuirn- ^Lhss)LD3'Q3-iBeO 
^ireOeiimii/ (^q^SI/sio-s)^ iLjL-a!r(os@ Ui^s^uir^sLSO^eirjjJ 

uireSl^Quj i^L^^^ire^fEJ sisrrQerresTLiirQir^(^Q^ireoss)siiuuujis^;£iTQs3r. 
uirnpiTS(^ mifffffTS'ir. In a ruined town, the jackal 

is king. 
fBfrdr Quemdsmu uiTL^Qeo ^err I have cast my daughter into 
€7flC?£3r£<Jr. a desert place. A phrase by 

which a pureed expresses an 

unhappy bestowing of his child in 

marriage. 

iSt^ej!^3^u€^T^Sp^. To eat in one's house, said when 

heathen monks, or s^ihSloJu^sm are invited to a meal thus : ^tuiriir 

ereir^u-Ls^si @eisrssipa(^u i^-^siSb^umr^LD. Sir, have the goodness 

to take a meal to-day in my house. 

/5/re3r s-csro/zraSffO iSu^meeir Quit I will cram a handful of earth 









uesor^'Sp^* 



./r(L/zrLl®(5Ll®) 



ueOLoQuPrcsrevL^ ldsistloQuitld. 



into thy mouth ; an abusive 
phrase. 

The ball of rice offered for the 
deceased taken and eaten unwil- 
lingly, Meta. food unpleasant as 
a funeral offering. 

That is the thing which makes 
him mad. 

The child has a heart of stone, 
-while the parent's heart is stu- 
pidly tender. 

To distort or wrest from tlie 
true meaning : Qldit^ld umr^jS 

The mind follows the senses, 
or it is sensual. 



259 



LfpOojiLL-rrsw Qujfs?, 
(^&)ep)^iB ^eisr usfsiresieuitjLD UJT 

LdssruiQuiT^sr QurrsQsiaeoiTUi 
QusrsQenemi—niJ}, 

Qsu^dSiTireir ^cmpisit—i(^[^ssr 
<oS^ps(^) suffrrinffO ldlLi—ld QumL 

L ITSSl' . 

^mj^s(^ LDemeiBi—ui-jQp ^Q^Sl 
p^ or ^^!LiTih^QsTriomuf.(i^s§ip^. 

^Q^essru) {^siTemLo) ^ui3^e^ Uiir 



LDiTLDLo enmEJQ'Sp^, 
^dsaLCiGapuj Lopsudssr/EwuirCo^. 



Verbal opposition, contradic- 
tion. 

To find a flaw in one's speech. 

A married wife honours and 
cherishes her husband ; but a 
strange woman her own body. 

Simplicity is an ornament of 
women. Aww. 

How long wilt thou conceal 
the thing ? * 

To receive in full ; no balance 
remaining-. 

It is not fit to follow every 
way, or vague fancy, of the 
mind. 

Ap/iynse^ the servant wilfully 
absented himself to-day. 

A worm is crawling in his 
head, i. e. he is obstinate, or 
has " a maggot in his brain.'* 

Silence resists a mountain. 
Prov. 

If the leap fail, death : Prov. 
i. e. a precarious affair must be 
managed skilfully. B. 

To fetch out a secret. 

Trust not a double dealing. 
3Iarava* man. 



■^ isiri—!r(^Qpsi:2so SL^Qi5iu^soir(^fEi s&>si)isi(^;B(^& 
/sri—frLD(r^^meO^ QeuuiUirds^Ssisr (^CL^pOpiueursi 
Qsn'L-trsiT'shr (suQf,tsmsi!r(^sisSii^lli^ sh-wa^psas 
Luiri—iruJiTiSiSTiT (^peDQr/tpsuiT iDpsnitaiQsrr. 
" The forest is thorny groimd, its inhabitants herdsmfin, its deity Kni/'na.'' 
The sea-shore is salt ground, its inhabitants fishermen, its deity Varunen. 
The mountain is bleak, its inhabitants are Kuraver, its deity Sxihramimyen% 
The level country is fertile, its inhabitants are ploughmen, its deity Indren. 
The barren land is alkaline, its inhabitants Mar aver its deity Durga. 



260 



IDJJ/QPOJU). 









eiiQpeij^eiisvsrirLDeouirir. 
ei}!r(T£@p£3. 

)LDirsiresr. 
)r6^^Q^trL^e<) eresr st^eu ml L- IT 



L-irek. 

eauDeBLBuJirirLol 



Another face i. e. one that 
differs from that of a husband 
or wife ; a strange man, or a 
strange woman, y 

To seize by the throat and 
kill ; as a lion or tiger. 

He who bestows too much 
care on his body, is like one 
who attires a corpse. 

The nature of the harvest is 
known by the germ, i. e. the 
disposition of the child prog- 
nosticates the manners and 
behaviour of the man. 

Thou shalt be, or mayest thou 
be, struck down or as the brown 
stork is struck by the hawk. 

See that the thing may not 
meet with bad success. 

To live prosperously. 

If a man be ruined, he will 
be of less worth than a potsherd 

This employ, or office, does 
not suit me. 

He has laid a trap forme, he 
intends my ruin. 

He has overset the project, as 
if he had dashed against a trap. 

Avoid the house of those (mere- 
tricious women)who blacken the 
lower eye-lids : eB)LC(aSlL^ujirir.sui 
esiLD aD«uj«eOTG)(vj?(Tf(5 ; shun a 
brother. 



* " The Kuruver and Maraver arc wild tribes or people less civilized than others. By 
alkaline laud is meant that which produces a.au/ru3«s«), or fuller's earth. This popular 
idea of the qualities of dillercnt soils may perhaps illustrate the parable of the sower iu 
the gospels ; and renders it probable that same popular saying of the kind existed 
amongst the more ancient inhabitants of Palestine. The sea-shore may not be included, 
because ludia was an inland conutrv," T. O. W. 



2Qi 



easedKSi—Qearewuus'ULS-ssehefrQeijems'j 6iiiriem)'SffiTisuiTisj(^wirerTsiidoir(sSlLl.(Bl 
un'^<s6)^ujQiriTL:^iomEJ§i(^Sd utreniliurrevuj, ujrQeoiTsiEiQLLL-ir^iiuennri}) 



eijQLDir, 



-L^esr 



eo sk.!ru[Ta^i 



Will a wild dog, which de- 
vours a tiger, be as useful as an 
ox that eats grass ? Prov. One 
who lives luxuriously is not so 
fit for labour as one who fares 
meanly. 

To try the edge. Metaph. to 
test acquired skill. 

To act very arrogantly or 
presumptuously, to rush head- 
long, i.e. to be a proud without 
the consideration of former 
state. 

To be in great danger. 

1 survived three threatening 
indications, astrological mode of 
speech, in which ^^^ means a 
malevolent crisis. 

God knows whether it be 
right or wrong ! Prov, 

It ceases to rain, but drizzles 
60^. ■ still. Prov. that is there are some 

remains of a grievance, quarrel; 
&c. 

i^eatpSLLQL—uSiskesTQLCieirp ^:cS)<feSlL—ir^&0SSL^uju OupQp'S^f^'S^iT 
^eaLpuSLLL—Qsiri£sriciDpLj?<sar ^essTL-^iuirQirQujem-^ ^mesiLDQiueie^aLo 









262 






fBirppih, 

QiBniyQmiTLDH ^rrirsirsn. 

^errQsrr QfBQ^uQuifluj ^^®uip 



eu/rtu wir^siipuuipLD esis sudss^s 



^SKOT jijerruu/Sojeij/h^rrck. 

eresreuujjji Qs!T<ofriT(njuSi(T^sQp^, 

(iSlp^). 

^SLLLf.Q&!)icS>euuSlp^. 

unrest ui (^i—rr^. 



The loranthus is running, or 
spreadino; itself over the branch- 
es of valuable trees to their 
hurt ; said of a mischievous per- 
son, who hurts, and destroys, a 
whole family. 

I am to him like Cayenne 
pepper, thatis,he cannot bear me. 

An irregular penitence is im- 
perfect. 

Prosperity without sickness ; 
wealth without deficiency : a 
form of well-wishing. 

A burnt cat will not come 
near the hearth, that is " a burnt 
child dreads the fire." 

To-day a merchant, to-mor- 
row a peon. 

Prov. A fire burning within, 
while the lips pour forth fruits 
i. e. one who speaks sweetly 
Avhile his heart full of tricks. 

The mouth is plantain fruit 
and hand is a fleshy root of Dra- 
contium, said of the nature of 
the stingy. 

He came to inquire the mat- 
ters of the house. 

My belly is in disorder. 
This is become habitual or 
natural to him. 

To abuse in general, without 
naming the person. 

Though the ascetic has relin- 
quished all other things, yet he 
will adhere to his caste and sect. 



263 

Stanza by Athivira-ratna Pandian. 

QL-iTL-ir/B^QpLhLOSi) Qp(r^sSiQ£uixuGussu- 0(trf'SsvaJS 
si^th^QeniTiTSi^iEJ si—uuQiTirLCidsessjQujp Bir^ei). 

srrssBn—Si^U), uirir^^LDird^U'^^^f ji/tpeQ^thf ^uSl.sSi-L!—, QuDQpQei, 
Qu3Qp(^QufreOy s^&rTerruD, (^/sstr LDSSirifiT^^eiat—uj) S-errenLDiresrjiif £_S!»i_ 

LDeOQpLc ^ssbreuui uiires>uj sinSiuQiuiskp Qpsk^LLisi>^<o5)^a^i}>, QpQ^sS, 
Qs(B^^yQeiJtM, QsiTL^iiJ, uaudsi-^ei), ^/Ef5<3=nsir^6S)^, OcSit&vuj, Miiis^ 
st-.!h^Qsnirirs(Sf^LOy M^Q^iTira(e(Emj mssssdrQiDisiy L3sn?&Tse'frQu:e^sinou 
^^f sfr^0O, ^<ssi3'es)LUy st—uuQfTir^ ep^iJuCJ/r/r? [e^L^oJirir) (sr—jpj. 
emfBi—^w, Q ^cSlssitussem^}ippuL—eOLD iD@-LDurrLL(B. 
Note. — <^ As yet wc have done no more than advert to a few of 
the incidents in the Supplementary Manuscript. They are however 
the leading ones. The commercial character of Kavalay-ananten ; 
and his perishing at sea after a reign of only four years, is an in- 
cident of quite unusual occurrence. In the time of Sadlmra-vicaren, 
we find the sanguinary worship of the goddess Call had extended 
to the extreme south. Viravarma is said to have conquered the 
Malay alim country ; and if a viceroy were sent from Madura, it 
would seem to have been then ; but this is at a late period, that 
is ; S. S. 1018 (A. D. 1096}. A little lower down, Ai/ii- 
viramen or Athi-vira-ramen, is to be distinguished as an author. He 
is popularly said to have translated into Tamil the Sanscrit Nishadha, 
founded on the interesting episode in the Mahahharata of Nala, 
and Damiyrmti ; though some other statements would induce 
the supposition, that he merely lent his name, and patronised the 
poet who was the real translator. It is in poetical Tamil, of the 
most abstruse composition : such things appearing to have 
been valued, as music now is, just in proportion to the difficulty 
of execution ; and, by consequence, in false taste. The story how- 
ever, in its native elements, as found in the Mahabharata, is of 
more simple and natural character, in which there is real pathos ; 
and there would be more, v/ere not the instrumental cause of 



264 

NalerCi reverses, founded on reckless gaming. The narrative how- 
ever is remarkable on account of a native superstition still exten- 
sively and practically connected with it. Sani-hagavarif or the 
guardian genius of the planet Saturn, was Nalen's secret but real 
enemy, throughout his sufferings ,- and at last, in their extreme 
point, he concedes a gift at Nalen's request, which is, that who- 
soever reads or hears the narrative of his sufferings, should be 
delivered from all his enemies. The natives do not regard this 
concession merely as the ingenious device of a poet to secure read- 
ers, but in the letter of the promise ; and actually read it, or 
have it read to them, when in circumstances of difficulty, in order 
to be extricated out of them ; and especially from such as may be 
attributable to Sani-bagavan ; of whose malevolence the utmost 
dread is entertained. This is a superstition of which the writer 
has received various details, and the most confirraiug assurance. 

Besides nominally or really composing the Tamil Nigazhatn 
kinf Athi-vira-Tamen also wrote a small collection of sententious 
maxims in the poetical dialect. The writer has made a translation 
of them ; but as the insertion of it would not be suitable here, it 
will be reserved for a more befitting situation. 

Of Atlu-viramen' s son, named Kula-vartanen, nothing is recorded 
but the years of his reign ; and the kings who occupied the inter- 
val of seventy-five years, including Paracrama-Paudion, are not 
mentioned ; nor could they be many. In the time of this last, 
the Mahomedan invasion and conquest occurred ; when he was 
led away captive to Delhi, S. S. 12i6 {k. D. 1324). As we have 
now brought down our account of the Madura kiugdom to a later 
time than others : and as this event is one of magnitude, we may 
fix it as another period : and proceed to bring down our general 
survey to about the same era ; as correctly and fully as we may 
be able to accomplish. 

Thus far we have adverted chielly to the three principal cotem- 
porary kingdoms of the south, or the Sora, Sera, and Pandion king- 
doms ; which are generally found to be considered as connected 
■with each other, in a more especial manner than with any other 
kingdoms." T. O. \V. 



265 

The two brothers? named IraUeyar have sung in favor of the 
PiDullait as follows : — 

Q)^(ipa^6U£ir 03;irso^u3(SsOiT ^iSLpL^p/d^^ixiiLir Qesr 

eiuuffiiu^(f^^^ajirLL Qemp^QirirsijtMiotr Gear 

^(rF)Ql!s(BLDiTei)su^iTIJ(^ &j:bL^ioQQaJiT6ULiiUiir ^^^r 

&3u?ir(LpL^(2LDs0^sij^sxjii^ Qs'/Eis^iQirirsuLbtDir. , . , G«w 

sstntrajL^/s^^sfr^flQujir (axjemirQ^ifliB^ ^ldllit iossr 

SU^UUS5iSB(^QiSUlM(2ulT S® SCa^SiQ ILS IT eulDLLIT CfiCBT 

ujHeosvuL^/r^^i^ Q'ff-iripeisr u tr^i/^ 0:^(0 e^rrevL£U>,T Qesr 

ujrtrsSiruiuufrmTL^ujesi i-jSes)Lpu us/jO(Sxi(crri(S^iTeuLhLDfr. . . , G^w. 

O lady, the Tamil language of Agasfi/ar Avas not born from 
(Colie) but from Potheiya. 

The sixty-four Tiruvillaiadeh did not take place in Uriur. 

The Nedumal (Vishnu) was never born as a tiger. 

Is the sun fixed on the top of Siva's crown of hair ? 

The bank-destroying Caveri never saw any writing ascend up 
against the stream. 

The Attl garland is not so heroic as that of the Veppa flower. 

Did the sea ever submit at the feet of the Soren ? 

Is the praise of the heroic Pandions a light thing ? 

[If not deeply tinctured with mythological belief, it will per- 
haps be acknowledged by the reader, that the Soren panegyrists 
have the best of it. lie will remember that Jgastyar, the father of 
the Tamil language, lived on Potheiya mountain ; that Vislimt was 
a ce qu'on dit incarnate as a fish ; that saiva is represented as wear- 
ing the crescent in his tuft of hair, the Paudion being also of the 
lunar pedigree ; that a writing was said to ascend the Fai^ai, ia 
the time of Kuua-Pandion ; that the sea submitted to JJkrama- 
Pandion^ and he may need to be informed, that when a troop of 

* " Ukrama-Pandion made a great sacrifice of niuety-six aswamedha-yugams, at which 
Itidren becoming jealous, since his rule was endangered, went to liie king of the sea 
Varunen and told hiin to destroy that eountry. Accordingly the sea suddenly came with 
great noise in the middle of the night to the gates of Madura, wlien the king, U/crama- 
Pandion, was awakened by Shm, in the guise of a religious ascetic, informing him of the 
circumstance, and attendant dangers ; the king, being astonished aud without iircsence of 
jnind, was urged by the vision to lose no time, but employ the vel as he had been directed 
and accordingly he went and cast the spear (or javelin) at the sea, which immediately lost 
its force, and" retired, because Vaninen recognized the weapon of his superior. The king 
then went to the temple, and adoring the god, promised tliat as far as the sea had come, 
much land would he give to the temple : and thus he righteously protected (or governed; 
the kiugdom." T. 0. W. 

I 1 



266 



Hindoo warriors put on a Veppa garland, tliey thereby made a 
public vow to conquer or die.] 

a em t—^sarQ iu IT euirt^ si—eo. 
In plain Tamil : gs, evirip(Bjss)L-ujsu.Q60f i§iLiuaj(rr)&(nj>aj, QutrQ(n?uJ, 

CoSSirem^esitussemri—iTQuJir. 

" prosperous Ocean ! thou also (like myself) comest and goest, thou art troubled lliou 
dost not sleep ; thou beatest (the shore) and roarest, when (I) consider (thee) thou art not 
as formerly. Hast thou (perhaps) seen the strong shouldered kiug of Malayalum." R. 



ff(ip3'/rir(^ ff^^^ffirsiTLc. 






«?j7Ji/r J32;«@ LB(^Q^3r S'lTGfO 



The matrimonial state is full 
of vexation and sorrow ; match- 
es are crosses. 

The usual existence of all be- 
ings, things is from generation 
by seed. 

There is no greater art than 



Qpui Q^iTerrf^^ireosffld^^ iBfi^fflssr ffir^ffo and no incantation pre- 



U>lh^gQpLBsi)d^, 

ji/eucir s'-emossrOffirsieQ ersinostjrjf 
^eu^i(^ ffUQfii^Q UL-L^(i^i 



ferable to Oferrfs^^jeosS. 
. Give after abate some part of 
interest. 

On my manifesting a little 
displeasure he immediately sliew- 
cd signs of submission. 15. 

To disentangle, to wind up 
on accounts. 

His intermeddling is not good. 

This affair is intricate or in- 
volved. 

lie made a wink by the head 
or hand and called me. 

He has a deadly pale face. 



267 

O/E/remt-^s (^^0aiT&(^s- ff^dQ Stumbling is the excuse of 
mQ^iB3=irs(^. lame horse. 

ji/suek (Su-L^pL^ih^ s'lTL^^eir. He rushed into the house 

and defeated the people. 
i§ ^mj^irs tBsoeair {iBek(n^dj) You must give him a sound 
s^iT^^xiTuL^ Q<sir(Bs3Qeu^u:). thrashing. 

^vir(S!R!nrLhi5TssiewLDS^dr^esr(ev)iu. What busiuess you did so 

long time. 
^sn^isi^ 6u£^^ euem^ek ^/rei He is a very corpulent man. 

QutT<sSQ^dS/D^. 

^rr-sS^oju Quiresr Osir(B^Q^sk I gave her a bag of money, 
Q£-ir<c^<cmuj eaa OairQ^^treir. and she, in return gave me a 

beggar's wallet. 
QuirenrcSujiT^ j^'evScsr Q^uLuf-i His former sickness has agaia 
QsirsJirQi-LSI(7F,s(^^. seized him, he has relapsed. 

&!^i^ dl^ieoi^^dsirirear. One who is skilled in such de- 

ceptive performances. 
Qn^i^uQuQ ev(TF)^^a,Qsir^S^ One who uses fair speeches, 
Qpeusir. with foul deeds. 

eutfiuSsii ssv-byrir QdieiesijDuSlso^. There is no disturbance in the 

road. 
©j^(ew; L-i^Osfrcsrj}i Qus^Qp^. To prattle, to chatter, 
9 Q'djsk^n QiFireisii ^l-imOu'S^ Thou art borne in a despicable 



^ITtU. 



state. 



^f? AjsQp.il sr.(L^i}> §(r^is^^^L^d ToU and porridge thicken by 
^^, ' too long keeping, Prov. that is 

troublesome business had better 
be speedily despatched. 
s^uj&!T(Biu ^Di^^neisr LKppsnnsn- Prov. One who takes good 
fliu wipei'ipihr. care of his own concerns, and is 

negligent of those of others, that 
is, a selfish man. 
Qffu>iiLjd@^^^iru>^^prEj(^. Though you go into a cove to 

repose, sleep only for one watch 
of 3 hours. Aww. Prov. 
fofTG^cTD^suuiriTds <^u^daw!iQu!{ What can 1 do more than 
G^i-Jr. this. 



268 






1S(^ ^£VLI>ITS 



a.68r ^n'UJiresiiTtt-i'B ^suui^es>ir 



An unfortunate person, v/ho 
brings or is the cause of, mis- 
chief and destruction. 

For a helpless widow the cere- 
mony -will take place for the 
period of 6 months : implying 
the scanty means of the poor 
virgin. 

It is a long time since I saw 



iLifBissm(BQsv(^!BiraTiT{uSp^)&3r^. your father and mother. 

e-drQuxso ermSQOLD^^ ji/itlIl^ I am always doubt in you, i. e. 






I never trust you. [scm. 

What you will get per men- 
Abide according to the direc- 
tion of the superiors. Prov. 

Death is certain, time uncer- 
tain. 



PlB^^uuiB. 

uirQuiLL-ireo uso^ssxdl. No pains, no profit. 

O^irQpsehefrdr. A hypocritical rogue; there 

are live sorts of hypocritical 
rogues as follows : — 

OffonijSGfreffieSesipQffir^^ ^ss!>rL-&\)ujirir^(TfiUuejsBd(^ uf.(^L!^sQs!Tmr 
Ql— cTnawaerrefTiT lEsinoO&efTsrrir OuireisOir^aen-sfrjeu QireuQiraOsum&ineii, 

'■anir O^irnp/hiserTetrir, ^s^irjT&seiremfleu eair&iir^irQLD. 



U6'i0^ireiOSiHUlTu9(T^S'Sp^. 



uiresaresii— uf,rEJ(^os^(^3=^ui ueur 

(CT)iS!OL_ 9(iQlUppjpU:, OiClITLLeiDt-. 

(^Qajeirp)uScsretsiULLi-.ih(2uiraj (ip^ 



To be distracted by too much 
trouble and care. 

Proverb of contemptuous ap- 
plication. 



There is no one believe mc as 
I am now in the state of distress. 



2G9 






^s^as)uj j)jL^^^u uq^'^sl- 
3- 



^s^jirsQarrpQsirssBn—UiueoQLDp 



e&DipQui'Si- j^iiueoQu^QLDiT? 



essri—iT^. 



^esTLcsm^sOjtjQ^sQe^isciTQ^Qusr 



JiS^ri 



There are many children to 
you. 

lie has lost my valuable book. 
This term is peculiar to the 
Madras : at south the usual name 

is QuTd^L^dSp^ or sir^tsip 
QunQp^. 

To beat a poor man asking 
tribute of him. 

Live in a place where the 
■water agrees with you. Avvw. 

Live in a place where there 
is one whom you can trust. Aww 

The cat of the temple fears 
not the gods: i.e. Familiarity 
breeds contempt. Prov. 

Can a business, which is not 
fully explained, be brought be- 
fore the assembly for their 
discussion ? 

Will the poor be heard in the 
court ? Justice is over-ruled by 
power. 

Would you be adorning your 
hair with flowers, while your bel- 
ly is craving for food. Prov. 

He who covets not ; will not 
weep i.e.if desire or lust approach 
thee not, neither will weeping. 
Prov. 

If you have not a guilty con- 
science? youhave nothing to fear. 

If nothing be taken nothing 
will be wanting ; if nothing be 
spoken nothing will be rumour- 



270 

* . ed ; i. c. there i3 no rumour 

however vague, but has some 
truth ill it. 

What bolt can love restrain ? What vail conceal ? 
One tear-drop in the eye of those tliou lov'st. 
Will draw a Hood from thine. Cural. 

^ff<)LL(B^z!!re!ifi^uirffO0i)LL(SSl(nj'edr. He is very troublesome like 

the vexatious saturn. 
jijeuireuirOs'tu^ ^cS2m<s ssnireu Every one shall give an ac- 
Qire^isNs^s^&Oa'nsoeuiTiT. count of what he has done evil. 



* Note. — Europeans account the Natives of India deficient in the benevolent af- 
fections, attributing the defect however, to apathy rather than to natural disjjosi- 
tion ; the Hindus, on the other hand, make a similar estimate of the European 
character, but, judging: from those they see exiled from the ])ale of the tenderer 
charities, believe it proceeds from innate hardness of heart. They are both wrong; 
it is not in feeling but in expression of feeling that the difference lies, even when 
they appear to difler diametrically. Thus, when an European in the first days of 
widowhood bemoans with sighs and tears and expressions of inconsolcable sorrow 
the irreparable loss of the beloved of his heart ; or when on a similar occasion, the 
Hindu says, with apparent iudiflerence, that his wife and his horse fell sick at the 
same time, and the death-demon which came to take the life of the latter took 
by mistake that of the former ; sympathy and disgust may in cither case be equal- 
ly misplaced. As custom I'cquires so imparativcly that the European should exbi' 
bit these signs of affliction for his loss that it becomes almost a moral duty to 
do so ; and as, on the contrary, it demands, with equal regoiu", that the HiEd"^ 
should carefully avoid all such signs, under penalty of being considered weak and 
uxorious, the real feeling of each, it is probable, approaches much nearer than at 
first \'iew is apparent. Apathy, or what appears to strangers ap.ithy, whether aris- 
ing from individual habit or national custom, is often only the out door covering 
for tlic strongest feelings ; liowcver contradictory to appearance therefore, it may 
with perfect truth be intiintaincd that there is no people more keenly alive to the 
affeetions of parent, child and relation, nor more ardent in conjugal attachment, 
or more enthusiastic in devotion to the object of their religious veneration, than 
the Natives of southern India. The last fact will perhaps be more readily admitted 
than the former, but the love of his creatures must, as the predicate of an object 
in the expression of it.s identity, be included in the undissemblcd love of the Croa' 
tor, and he who fcils the I.iIIit strongly must, therefore, be strongly ailcclcd to- 
wards the fornicr. F. W . liWU. 



Q^i^ir^^L^iQeo urrL-muQpL^iLjLD. 



S&SosS (ZpQpQLDITLLeSiL^. 

^PP^LD (^^^UILC) &.pp^<^ 



m!r.(f^a!si^ S IT S'Si>pih^pQ pilosis 



jD/osresTLDUJ LDsk/Sl L^cisr'BosrLDiuiM 
^sarssTQpLLL^ie^so etsi>ffi(rQpLl.(BLD, 



fBITek ^ei/gr«(5 ^si^L—LDITlluL^ 

QajsveiinhQuQQ&sreBT. 

ersk<€G)6^iTserLDLL(Bih uirirai. 



car : or OTS!Jr(65)o\) 3h.L^ lULDtT^piTLD 

uirirsSQpeir. 

^susk ^dsmiuiraSldssrs^u uiu 
uuu.iT^ ullLOLjQun''sSl(f^s@(fr^si!r, 



^srsQiDiT ? 



If you squander away, wliat 
you have not acquired, you will 
suffer for it. 

With tlie appearance, sem- 
blance of much understanding, 
he is a great blockhead. Prov. 

Where a good man is me- 
diator no dispute happens Avhich 
may not be decided by him. 

To tell occurrences how they 
are and how they are not : viz. to 
relate circumstances as they oc- 
curred. 

As the public tank in a city is 
full of general use, so is the wealth 
possessed by men of great know- 
ledge profitable to all. Tiruwall. 

Food is the principal means of 
existence. 

When food is wanting, nothing 

else is of any value ; or want of 

food is the greatest of all wants. 

I spoke to him conformably to 

his wishes. 

I take care, I look, inquire af- 
ter it as much as lies in my pow- 
er. 

He, like an adder, which will 
not hearken to the voice of the 
charmer, follows his own will, 
heedless of the most solemn 
warnings. 

Will a timber tree grow from 
the seed ofthe oil plant ? a pro- 
verb meaning: whatsoever a man 
soweth, that shall he also reap. 
Gal. 6 : 7. 



(year. 



L^s^^ ^uSjit ((^;Siuu>) ^irujLc. 



StoSiniiSp LjsieitriuS/D^. 



LcempD'^^irp/SQ'Sii&eisiiTujQp^. 












lie acts as he is actuated by 
him, he dances as the other 
pleases, i. e. he is entirely under 
the other's control. 

He always speak firmly, 
strongly. 

Li. The pot supports the cur- 
dled milk and the curdled milk 
the pot, that is : from its solidity 
it prevents the pot from falling 
to one side. 

To pick grass out of pot herbs 
when boiled and dished : Prov. 
to act preposterously, or fool- 
ishly. 

Prov. Children's play sand be- 
ing made to represent rice, and 
from which the stones are select- 
ed : to act foolishly, 

Prov.Encourage yourself when 
you are performing a difficult 
work, by reflecting on the bene- 
fit which you will derive from it. 

Food and raiment are not suffi- 
cient. 

As the splint of the Banian 
tree,or oisQffceueo, A.cacia Arabcia 
gives strength to the teeth when 
cleaned by one of them, so mireuLs^ 
lunir and (^perr, the moral poems, 
give slrongtli to the speech. 11. 

There is none who comforts^ 
who cheers. 

He who lives on flattering is 
little better than he who lives 
on begging. 



373 



jOsLLi—Qu&^-s^QuffirQ^. 



j^w^k^^o iSIl—^uQuitB/d^. 



Do not speak an unseasonable, 
unsuitable speech, words spoken 
without, regard to person or place. 
His head is trundling ; a punish- 
ment inflicted upon malefactors, 
is by being buried in the ground 
up to the neckj and an elephant 
dashing his foot against the head 
severs it from the body, when it 
is said to trundle or (Sji-^uQuir 



/S0O6Qei!srdsLDS^ffO£ES\)eopu®^£SL}>. 



l9^ 



CSTL/L 



"^ L^SSTLD.' 



5w ^-soi—KOLD nfT^^iEis eiir 
properly tBc^Sessri—Loirn-^^ 



I have given enough,- I will in- 
cur no more expense, all that 
I have done being in vain. ^ 

Where there is no woilhy 

friendship, there will be sorrow. 

When the back of the hips and 

the shins swell;, there is little 

hope of recovery. 

The offerings presented to her 
may not be kept until the morn- 
ing. 

Note. — 1, @(5^ to an evil goddess, rice and milk and bloody 
sacrifices are offered to her. 2. A woman unfit for marriage, desti- 
tute of breasts and the menstrual flow. R. 

LD2soii9/b£v u>u3ifi(S&)Q^ir/EiSlp^ When the mountains are loos- 
QuirQffO u3(r^dSljD(ceijceiTuSQei) ff^Q ened and hanging as if by a 
^^iresr. hair, he assisted him : Prov. i.e. 

giving assistance when all seems 









Prov. She has secretly slan- 
dered me ; Li. having put a wet 
cloth, with a wet (bloody) knife 
with a wet reaping hook she 
has cut my throat. 

To cultivate the ground, and 
live by it, is more satisfactory, 
K 1 



274 









than to get maintenance and 
food from others by serving 
them. Aww. 

He is an intimate friend and 
yet a rogue. Prov. 

Tho' he be a man of esteem, 
he must follow or rather submit 
to his destiny. Prov. 
By telling the truth, misunder- 
standings are adjusted ; truth is 
the surest resource through life. 

No relationship can subsist? 
without occasional entertain- 
ments. 

Come soon to dinner but be 
slow in battle. 

Though a sparrow fly up on 
high, will it become a kite? Prov. 

i, e. Every one should be 
content with his condition. 
uiriT&(^srr/3 ^Q/s^^iTeiSLh UL^^^SfT^iEi QslLl-IT^iI) ue!:!Bw_^Qeu/s 

Qs-si^i ^enenQeu Is it necessary for the whole 
assembly of a city to turn tlic 
oil-man's press ? Prov. A trilling 
matter does not require a con- 
course of people. 

The more you dig in a sandy 
soil,the more water springs forth, 
so the more you apply to science, 
the more your knowledge will 
increase. Tiruwal. 

Water issues from the springs 
of a well constantly drawn, but 
from one not drawn it ceases to 






^(3 



t(Bu)ir. 


















eT£}r(er^,if.smcmF(TF, tSsia/DdQp^* 



(Dr<cfr€fT^^d3ares)uj unosyiiu ^ ^ dseriu IT 



eiJiT^^sesrs(oS)L-(oS}ujQujps,^LLL^ 



Q.^lTLpQ'^Q^ (SLC!peU)UiQu(o.9:&0. 



do so. Prov. The more one gives, 
the more will be given unto him. 
LukeVI. 38. 

The staff which I gave him to 
lean upon, breaks my head; i.e. 
the good I have done him has 
turned out evil. 

Will one who cannot separate 
small stones from rice, be able to 
bear the stones that support a 
tower ? Prov. One that is unqua- 
lified for a small matter, must 
never attempt a weightier one. 

To a person who? rather than 
doing any thing for himself, has 
men even so much as to raise 
and support him, any business 
will cause v/eariness and faintness. 
Prov. A person always accustom- 
ed to have his business trans- 
acted by another, when compel- 
led to do himself, will find great 
difficulty. 

To offer to the manes of the 
deceased any thing mixed with 
sesamum and water. 

To make a mountain of a sesa- 
mum seed. Prov. to exaggerate. 
If you are desirous to better 
your condition, become a hus- 
band man, Aww. 

The merchant has shut up his 
shop in order to raise the price 
of his commodities. 

Speak not of thy poverty even 
to a friend. 



276 



eiir(^LDUL<f.UJlrUJ6UlB^£3. 

seiaiTujrresr t-jp^emsudsu uiruLj 



(r^iht-jQuiiT ? 



i^.e 



>uire3iiMem-/z 






Solitude is preferable to bad 
society. 

Burnt earth v.ill not adhere to 
fresli. Prov. 

Assist your relations to the 
best of your ability. 

This secret has been divulged 
by you in the whole town. 

It is difficult to leave off an 
old habit. 

It is not good to speak rigor- 
ously, without clemency. 

The rectitude of actions is the 
measure of a man's dignity. 

"When she saw the sufferings 
of her son, she pined away fo^' 
grief. 

White ants make the nest, 
and snakes live in it : Prov. what 
has been made for the i.-, ^A 
one, is often enjoyed by another. 
Will a corpse which has been 
carried to the place of b'uiuini:; 
return ? i. e. what ' 
cannot be undone. 

Ilis understandijic lad know- 
ledge are more and i!iire dimi- 
nishing. 

The cat has pass»-u aun 



road as a bad omcu, i 
business which I hc\ 
been obstructed as fo]iu 

ffiUJiuun'ii^Guir3=- LOLLesji—QujeQLjesr ■sterna: Q&npQuQffS l •'( ^ ■ 
OeiJ<si)eciBuj3.jiL^ sirLLt—ek^SsisruieSQLDei) (£l etr iei qlS Qhm it c.^. 
ijSts&jemaQs'uSbiDsijOajeoiTLhajeOLQQ^/s^i—iisUiflioQaij/b^a-iis. 



"'J 
the 



277 



LDeosi>/D(t^fSsiieisiiGO Qsijesrui'r(ip0Qiijfriruir<a^ LDLDei>Qesruj(f^e>nLCLD^Qsijeir, 

see. sipLJU6^iF?ir3=s5Su:), 63, and 64. Verses. 
^(^■gfS!T<s?Qups (^^ssiiTiLjilQeu He wants a horse that can do 
^iLD ^pmpssi—sau uitujcijldQsj wonders for nothing : &c. &c. 



Though the poor maid-servant 

beat Hour ever so hard, she has 

but a small cake to expect. Prov. 

To find always a fault iij any 

work. 

She sings as a cuckoo» 



^(cUfreQo^dSlp^ Ji/euerr [<?/r(f/r/i)] 

QuireSlQ^dSip^. 

(^Q®iBj(^(rF)(BiEi QQ^ili—iTLLL-LDir As if two blind men began to 
'-9-,(SQ)'^i&(SQ^®isi (^L^£S(i£LDnQp. play blind man's buflf they will 

fall into the ditch. 

^(r^^dmuSsk'uUjsN-/8iuiTir(j^(rf)is0e(rmQpiLjuQ^3'0iMWiTs(^-fQa'i^ 
(SuTLS(^i^^(zmrL.So))SQ£m-/SujiTQn'iui5nQiBeisujLDfriTssQLD<5iedn'Lh 

A blind man and a deaf man 



uirira suQuiriL (^(T^L—esr s^^ao^u 
uJiruS!Qr)iSl(r>j>6sr. 



having gone to a playj the blind 
blamed the dance and the deaf 
the music : a foolish blame. 

One who is the ruin of his fa- 
mily: like a handle of an axe 
which is destructive to its kind, 
namely without the handle the 
axe is of no use, but with it the 
tree is cut down. 
^■strL-irLcpQuiPiiueijiTQuir wt—uuQsijisieiiiTik^ppLDsi^c-thesipQ^djflfTQir 



27S 



Qsiri—ir(sQssiru:iL^Qt5(BliEiQei)^^^a(osQsL^(resr0sirmsB)sQuir6i!rQp, 

A door which does not bark 



)<iSOlU IT S IB IT LU 



SL^S 



@i^. 



eoOuiLiSp^ir. 



einSffir Qurrsuui—iT^. 

L^dGsiTSSiTLHa. 

^^(j^CosD ^3'LLss)L—d0air,iSi^ir 



encSlSesr Qsa(fiLJuS!>sruSsi)Ss\}. 

OsiTLLL^^(Si)Q^err Qsiru-i—iTLDp 



OsirLl.i—rT^cSlLLu.^(cUfreo ■sh.jb 
pzksvQ^ilQurr^ (sSlLl^it^ Quireu 
^(oaj Oldilj. 

^irsur. 



but bites the heel. 

The figures painted on the 
floor have been effaced. 

Does it rain drops as big as a 
large mortar in order to fill a 
tank ? i. e. a man may become 
rich by gathering small sums. 

Dwarfs are of bad omens, bet- 
ter is it to follow a thief than a 
dwarf. 

What have you eaten with 
your meat to-day ? 

Li. Canst thou by doing it join 
a couple of clasp" "^ ^ " '-"w<- 
thou by doing it 
business. 

There is no 
marriage betweej 

Prov. If you 
like a scorpion ; 
give the injury, 
/iiinuless insect, 

It is certain th 
soul leaves the bol 
manner as breatl 

When, he hea; 
hot or violent. 

As the flyini 
know the branch 
may sit : so the 
not know the [ila 
may rest. 




279 



Osirppeus^^ ^s^p:,/SlL-^^^iSi. 



^Sil.®uD SL.stirQsirQ£ucau Quj<S 
■^uQuii (BQeuek. 



&)S sfTssirQp^. 

^ojehr Q 3^ IT sk isisr ^ s (^ /bitO(^(t^ 

\llL GOT", 

Qsirsl.03'sSi;^p?etr srrp^L-0^ 



A king should acknowledge 
the assistance received from a 
low man even in danger. 

Wait I shall make thee humble 
and submissive. 

Prov, A lean person in the 
hand of a fat man, is like a 
straw ; i. e. a poor man is no- 
thing before a rich man. 

The house will scarcely hold 
or contain them. 

Through him I have brought 
this business about. 

God and children will like to 
be with those who love them. 

He alone was speaking for an 
hour. 

I have alledged or proposed a 
doubt to what he has said. 

Cat beaten with a fire-brand 
will be frightened away even by 
the sight of a glow-worm. 

This tree has produced a great 
many fruits. 

Back-bitings and the ear which 
listens to it, are as a fire accom- 
panied with a violent wind. Aww. 

She is not a match for him. 

Prate is poison to the poor ; 
empty talk is very hurtful to 
them, for by it they are prevent- 
ed from doing their necessary 
business. Beschi. vulgo. <5^<?«ff (5 



280 



^sussr jijQ ears (EiQ SIT iLu^iLjLCsQ SIT 
nuBtLjili uesBrG^uQuirtLL—irekt 



I am within the line you drew ; 
that is : I obey your order. 

He has made sport by many 

strange and indecent gestures. 

There arose some dissension 



OsuiTQ^ QsiTsfriTjjj isi—i^(rf,sSlp^. or disagreement betvyeen this 

man and that man. 



Have 



you 



^OiueirjiJ lSu^IsSSoST u<^r£ssfis go to his house ? 

OsiTicm-'-S.Q!TlT ? 

LDsis)ip3'^if> s'TTSHLDnuJ QuiLiSlesr 



resolved never to 






^su^OiuiTQ^ s^BssiTiu erem^ 
euirirsQismT ? 

U(Tek. 



^eouLj] 0^isi)Q£u&)uuir u9(T^s3p empty air ? 



To rain plentifully, in abun- 
dance. 

A proverb ; one pre-eminent, 
as Narkiren in the College at 
Madura, and as Virseren among 
the kings of the Sera-desam. 

Will tlfey think any thing of 
him ? 

He will even twist a rope of 
sand : (not ironical,) he is very 
skilful. 

Ke is not of our caste. 

To shoot arrows at any one, 
that is, to impute faults. Ang- 
lic e to cast dirt enough. R. 

Do you consider my words as 



^suek s^e^eSuOurTpiui^dSpeuecir, 



He is a lying rogue ,• literally, 
a bag full of lies. 

The price of this merchandise 
is fallen. 

To be proud ; to carry one's 
self proudly to go in a tawdry 
dress ; to shine. • 



373 



^L-IB0sLLi—Qu3'-S^Qu3'lfQ^. 



^/w^^dsd u^i—^uQuirQpjji. 



Do not speak an unseasonable, 
unsuitable speech^ words spoken 
without regard to person or place. 
His liead is trundling ; a punish- 
ment inllictcd upon malefactors, 
is by being buried in the ground 
up to the neck, and an elephant 
dashing his foot against the head 
severs it from the body, when it 
is said to trundle or ^u./^u(2uir 



LSski-jLLi—QpLh t^piEJssirei^Lh 



I have given enough,- I will in- 
cur no more expense, all that 
I have done being in vain. 

Where there is no worthy 
friendship, there will be sorrow. 

AYhen the back of the hips and 
the shins swell, there is little 
hope of recovery. 

The offerings presented to her 



LDBiT^^ may not be kept until the morn- 
ing. 



2-C!53i_C55U3 fflT^^IES GOT 

str^: properly iflci^LSli 

Note. — 1. ^(5® to an evil goddess, rice and milk and bloody 
sacrifices are offered to her. 2. A woman unfit for marriage, desti- 
tute of breasts and the menstrual flow. R. 

w^iiSp£u LDiSliBQeoQ^iTfsiSl/D^ When the mountains are loos- 



QuirQea uSl(r^dSlpQeij2aTii3QioO ir<ga^'Q 






ened and hanging as if by a 
hair, he assisted him : Prov. i.e. 
giving assistance when all seems 
hopeless. 

Prov. She has secretly slan- 
dered me ; Li. having put a wet 
cloth, with a wet (bloody) knife 
with a wet reaping hook she 
has cut my throat. 

To cultivate the ground, and 
live by it, is more satisfactory, 
K 1 



274 



^sjsk &.chsfr^!ii3c}refT^Lc>ir u3 






fLpipi 



sm.emppQun(o^ s.p&ipp^. 



5G£ 



r®i 



© 



than to get maintenance and 
food from others by serving 
them. Aww. 

He is an intimate friend and 
yet a rogue. Prov. 

Tho' he be a man of esteem, 
he must follow or rather submit 
to his destiny. Prov. 
By telling the truth, misunder- 
standings are adjusted"; truth is 
the surest resource through life. 

No relationship can subsist? 
without occasional entertain- 
ments. 

Come soon to dinner but be 
slow in battle. 

Though a sparrow fly up on 
high, will it become a kite? Prov. 
SLiuffuup/E^sir^ g/3i(5(75aS? uq^ i. e. Every one should be 
/h^iTtxiT. content with his condition. 

L—e8n—ibs,iTei)'(^ Q/^ujeuiT^Q,u QuiBiueufr^LDSemLDU^eihijQL-ir 

IT c^iuffuupif^iveisua UQf)ih^trsn'^ei!BT&!iii>^iTQesr. 

Is it necessary for the whole 
assembly of a city, to turn the 
oil-man's press ? Prov. A trilling 
matter does not require a con- 
course of people. 

The more you dig in a sandy 
soil,the more water springs forth, 
so the more you apply to science, 
the more your knowledge will 
increase. Tiruwal. 

"Water issues from tlie springs 
of a well constantly drawn, but 
from one not drawn it ceases to 






LLiriTsSQpL 



'-jh-U-L^ Os-Si^^ ^ehefrQeu 



iBta^Biair, 









275 



esfEssirfeirp) dOsiT(B^^^LjL eresr 



&.'3''(ficsnu &.emL-& 












SiJff^3:sS!!rSQS)L-(SSaj\DUjpSSL-L^ 



©« 



Q^iripQ.^Q QiDipefT^LDQuQ^^ei. 



do so. Prov. The more one gives, 
the more will be given unto him. 
LukeVL 38. 

The staff which I gave him to 
lean upon, breaks my head; i.e. 
the good I have done him has 
turned out evil. 

Will one who cannot separate 
small stones from rice, be able to 
bear the stones that support a 
tower ? Prov. One that is unqua- 
lified for a small matter, must 
never attempt a weightier one. 

To a person whoj rather than 
doing any thing for himself, has 
men even so much as to raise 
and support him, any business 
willcausewearinessaud faintness. 
Prov. A person always accustom- 
ed to have his business trans- 
acted by another, when com.pel- 
led to do himself, will find great 
difficulty. 

To offer to the manes of the 
deceased auy thing mixed with 
sesanium and water. 

To make a mountain of a sesa- 
mum seed. Prov. to exaggerate. 
If you are desirous to better 
your condition, become a hus- 
band man. Aww. 

The merchant has shut up his 
shop in order to raise the price 
of his commodities. 

Speak not of thy poverty even 
to a friend. 



376 









semirtuiTck L-ip^emn. 



ST® uxcsrtBJS 



Solitude is preferable to bad 
society. 

Burnt earth will not adhere to 
fresh. Prov. 

Assist your relations to the 
best of your ability. 

This secret has been divulged 
by you in the whole town. 

It is difficult to leave off au 
old habit. 

It is not good to speak rigor- 
ously, without clemency. 

The rectitude of actions is the 
measure of a man's dignity. 

When she saw the sufferings 
of her son, she pined away fo"^ 
grief. 

AVhite ants make the nest, 



and snakes live in it : 



what 



<5F'2r«/ri_l®«(g;iJ Quires iSemk p 






has been made for the use of 
one, is often enjoyed by another. 

Will a corpse which has been 
carried to the place of burning 
return ? i. e. what is once done 
cannot be undone. 

His understanding and know- 
ledge are Uiore and more dimi- 
nishing. 

The cat has passed across my 
road as a bad omen, i. e. the 
business which I began, has 
been obstructed as follows : 

Oajei)(oii^ujs<iru^ sfTLLi—eirLiBmLjeSQLDeo <sS<srr/EiQ,LB(rf,wirQf®i})Lif 
L3^e>j€aiirO-!fuSlmBjOuj(S0iru) wedtBQTj/B^L-iheuiflsoQajih^^iLiviari—Ps.'effiiiiirw, 



Lj^Ssar (s^jhsQl 



377 



LD&}0OpQ^fSsO&)Sii& QauesruiTQp^lQiuirn'uireij LCLDeoQemuj(i^'eS)L£LD^Qsijerrj 
^^^esTQfLDiem^csiidssr ^Q^s'^irQifleiiefrrrpuuiolf<3?liQ^ev'2egr, 
see. ^puue^si-ffs^psLD. 63. and 64. Verses. 
jiKE^'SsiT^Oups (^^'SDiriL^uiQev He wants a horse that can do 
^Lo ^jhsmpasL-sau uiriucijuiQai wonders for nothing : &c. &c. 
^iith or U(5m(Lpu> jt/(^<3=iTuS(y^ds 
Qsu^jLD Qusm^jLD Qp^^uQuir 

Q^^^^i @^^^ LD!T£u^^^ir Though the poor maid-servant 
j\i/LD L/(7^i6B3affiOs/r(T5 QstTQ£&SLL beat flour ever so hard, she has 



0S)L—QiU. 

9(5 



■nifa 



QeuSodliDS^ 



QuireSlQ^&Sp^. 






©C5^ 



^,©C5 



^(75 <3 



]r6^eijrrSLD^Te'iuL 



but a small cake to expect. Prov. 

To find always a fault in any 
work. 

She sings as a cuckoo. 



As if two blind men began to 
play blind man's buff they will 
fall into the ditch. 



^(if)-^dmuSskuuj£iT^iun'ir^(frjSsQenekQpiLjuQ^3'QuisuiTs(^3'Qa'iLeuair 

(^0L—^s(^d'^(T^i~ekQsn'e^QsiT(B^^eui^siTLl.L^evQ^'wQs!r<srr&DS^ir(SLn. 

A blind man and a deaf man 
having gone to a play? the blind 
blamed the dance and the deaf 
the music : a foolish blame. 

One who is the ruin of his fa- 
mily: like a handle of an axe 
v/hich is destructive to its kind, 
namely without the handle the 
axe is of no use, but with it the 
tree is cut down. 



QsfTL—iTvQssirilii-js (^ea^^dS 
UJ!rS(rf)d^](fr^m, 



27$ 






iiT^iBfTiL (^^^sfrSbx^s aL^ss 



&'- 



QsireOLSuLi—^ 



)fS^^ 



sSilt. 









il; s;ai is ^imrt—cc^iujirQnOfiTemQmr sir OLDiuQoJirOutTujQuJir, 
sirili-jQfB'SfEJi^eii^^^sQsQsu.frewOsfreims^aQufrsirQ/r). 

A dog which does not bark 
but bites the heel. 

The figures painted on the 
floor have been etlaccd. 

Does it rain drops as big as a 
large mortar in order to fill a 
tank ? i. e. a man may become 
rich by gathering small sums. 

Dwarfs arc of bad omens, bet- 
ter is it to follow a thief than a 
dwarf. 

What have you eaten with 
your meat to-day ? 

Li. Canst thou by doing it join 
a couple of clasps ? i. e. canst 
thou by doing it complete the 
business. 

There is no interchange of 
marriage between us and them. 

Prov. If you retaliate, you are 
like a scorpion ; but if you for- 
give the injury, you are as a 
harmless Insect. 

It is certain that in death the 
soul leaves the body in the same 
manner as breath is emitted. 

When he heard it, he grew 
hot or violent. 

As the iiying bird does not 
know the branch upon which it 
may sit : so the pilgrim docs 
not know the place where he 
may rest. 



iKBeiiir [ewau] Qiuir. 



erreSlSssr Qsn(Buu2seru^s^'So^. 



jsQ^j Qlllu. 



279 



Qsirjvpeiis^^c^eii'r.^^^L-^^fieS. 



es^uQu:] (S'Cfii/ear. 






jj^euesr Q 3" tr ehr ssr ^ i (^ isirOi^Qf) 
s^^Q3^s^<cm^s QsiTesbi'Sl eurk^^^uL 
Qi—ek. 

OsfT'Srre^.s^LLemi-.ujrr (sOL^iLjessri— 

^/hssLDjrui Osrreh'^iTdsiriLi siriLi 
P^S> {OsTsh'Ssnujrrss smu^^£^). 






A king should acknowledge 
the assistance received from a 
low man even in danger. 

Wait I shall make thee humble 
and submissive. 

Prov. A lean person in the 
hand of a fat man, is like a 
straw ; i. e. a poor man is no- 
thing before a rich man. 

The house will scarcely hold 
or contain them. 

Through him I have brought 
this business about. 

God and children will like to 
be with those who love them. 

He alone was speaking for aa 
hour. 

I have alledged or proposed a 
doubt to what he has said. 

Cat beaten with a fire-brand 
will be frightened away even by 
the sight of a glow-worm. 

This tree has produced a great 
many fruits. 

Back-bitings and the ear which 
listens to it, are as a fire accom- 
panied with a violent wind. Aww. 

She is not a match for him. 

Prate is poison to the poor ; 
empty talk is very hurtful to 
them, for by it they are prevent- 
ed from doing their necessary 
business. Beschi. vulgo. ss--<fds0 
euiru.®s(^ QLDiTLLffrEjQes^i—^^freQ! 
ih i^see)3-ssniiQG(^ QunirL-S'ikQ 



280 



jvsi/eirj^(ossrs.'Ei(SsirLLL^iLjtl)(csrr 
jresBBii-iLci uessTiSTsBuQuirLLt—irear, 



^su^ (£i-LL^pr§u QuirQp^so 
2soOiLieir£ii iSlir^aSSsar ussiTsa^s 

LDesiip.3=^^ s^rrsiTLDfruj QuiuSlek 

e=ss>uu3Qffo/cpSpdr s^n®Q&)i£p 
Q.a'jreir, 



^aj^Oajr(75 ■3'assiruj eremr^ 
urresr. 









I am ■within the line you drew ; 
that is .' I obpy your order. 

He has made sport by many 
strange and indecent gestures. 

There arose some disseiision 
or disagreement between this 
man and that man. 

Have you resolved never to 
go to his house ? 

To rain plentifully, in 'ahun- 
dance. 

A proverh ; one pre-eminent, 
as Narkiren in the College at 
Madura, and as Virscren among 
the kings of the Sera-desam. 

Will they think any thing of 
him ? 

He will even twist a rope of 
sand : (not ironical,) he is very 
skilful. 

He is not of our caste. 

To slioot arrows at any one, 
that is, to impute faults. Aurj- 
/?V(/ to cast dirt enough. U. 

Do you consider my words as 
empty air ? 

He is a lying rogue .• literally, 
a bag full of lies. 

The price of this merchandise 
is fallen. 

To be proud ; to carry one's 
self ])roudly to go in a tawdry 
dress ; to shine. 



281 

@ffl;063r63)«j3 LLS^^s^ffst^QutT He is to me a great enemy. 

jveueiirCcLDQffO jtjiss^ ^rr^^eQ He is not so much suspected, 

eb^v, ^suewQtDQffo jFn(BQ/r}£ii. but the suspicion falls upon the 

other. K* 
^weSi—^^ffO ^euek LueaL-iuek He stands here like a fool. 
firiuffiiTLu i^psl((rfek, 

^sueisi se^t^uSQei) ^irjT^irLDutrerrir He is a Sarasvati in learning ; 

a5(75«©(5>6ijrj that isj he is very learned. 

^euek ^^^^Sosr s'lrsoOLDsoffiinh He speaks with a pretence 

Qusi-Q(oifek. only, and deceitfully. 

s-eh-Qsrruirir^^ireiie^asiTerrLD Oeu Prov. Nauseous within^ beau- 

eflQiu QiiisiTffLh. tiful without. 

g)ffljgj/ffi@^^«« Qets:£sf.u6m^ Without suitable correction 

toffo s^L-rkisLDiTLLL-irek. he will never be obedient. 
greari^u l^^^ ®^;8uS(i^sQesr My mind is bewildered. 

^(75^^ejr(?LD6V) (ipffifr(^ff3sifr eaeu To Confer a favor on one. 



sn-essfiLD/h^di Qsin^^dsLD. Little laziness may cause great 

sorrow. 
umiEisinLQpBiB s^e^s'snuLjss^s^ir^. A jackal which roves among 
Palmyra trees^ is not afraid of their rustling noise : that is one 
who is acquainted with hardship will not be perplexed when 
he meets with unforseen calamities ; or more generally, familiarity 
with any object, removes diffidence or fear. 

u>&oee>ajuuirir^^ /sinu(^&o^^ir If a dog bark at a mountain, 
€0 u)&»S(^3'(Sd^^Quirr ? rBnihs^s^ which will suffer, the mountain 
Qs^^Qllk. or the dog ? Prov. that is, It is 

folly in low people to oppose the 
great. 
Lesson. I. 
sesreariEisifluj, Very black. [sekim-iEiasj}!^^) 
^esiesrii^s^Quj, Quite alone. (^earear/s^eD)?^^) 
SidresTf^Q^uj. Very little. {&e!iresr(^Qj3/^^) 
QuekesTLoQuiBiu. Very great. {OuekesnhQuQ^is) 

L 1 



282 

This and similar forms are in constant nse. 
No rule can be laid down for their formation. 
Either the Adjective is used as sifltu. 

Exercise. 
1^ 6sr ear (S^Q/iSuj ITS loir Qs'iiiiB U!icmrjb(o<fir^esi^ e^si^LD-^esresTLD &^^^ 
©)6?»:_ sesrssriWSjB^^Q^SQpsirefreijssTeuihasiresr - OuskeanhOuQT^^f.L^uj^ 
Q^m^(T^sSl(n;ssr.Slesr<sor(s^9l/S(Suj^ er ear esrQ fajQeussr - ^earear li^esilQuj 
S(fF)i^ ^uj!EiQise)eir- Qs'sss-Qeij^sBexisniruj ^(rf)iQ(ffe^ - jt/i^suiueo uff- 
eai3=uu3=^fiS/DLDfriij ^(t^dQ/D^- ujaj^uiLj^uj L/^^Cji© QiBiuQsiTmT(Sl 
euw^QT)sS(ir^en, 

smear lEtsiBiui^ pa SIT iMiT^ntr,^a'uQuujs 

OssarScor ^sOssirsemsu^^O^cirQear \ uffiTUffQio. 

\QuiLs(^-\- iorsk8sar=QutLidQ sear Soar, iSpssiTwiT^niTJii^s^uQuujS^^ 

to the diabolical demons lust and this rest, jet black in hue. P. 

^esrearihuL^^^^/sesiL-. luiTeOuiUL^^^dSlL^ ujL8(r^u>UL^^^QiM!TLfis^f 

OuirearearLhOuQ^^^QpSoO euearesniisj^^^^^ipe^ Qsk£ar^&j)i^^'^es)L-Ou 

em. eTeiirQear(^Sr^ssei'<ou i eisiQsisT^s^spfiDSasvQlujeatQearesr^einiTuLJ^SoiT 

jSfTiir ffl m ear (^QjJisQuj even is^eieirkiSLBi-Li^uL^ O^iLeiiihiSfQ^isuujQLO. 
Many nouns are formed in this way s^^s-rjvut^, diligence, u^u 
s=uL{, an itching sensation: s(Ss^ut-j, severity: eSjjisSjuui-i, benumb- 
ing of the limbs : ^i^^l^ulj, palpitation : QjuSjvul^, giddiness. 

Lesson. II. 

^suear sh-LEiiTQpLLL^ujfnSl'f^/^^ Qeu'^uirir^^suQrjQriffek-nsn'eJsr ^evSsar 
/BLin3sQsn®^^ S'jTs'£,'S?6rTd s-zflsuff ersarei^L^^^Slsit ^uLieSiuiTLDSi ^ireia 
LDiTiT&v ji/iiffO^ ^ee)LDU Sl/rHlS u^estfl--iij(TT,Q(iffsisr - Qjenen L^(n^e^^(£LL 
etDL-eSlLi'S ^L^ssL^ ^iruj(£LL(Bd(SsiT^@/D (SuiTipiTQaULl.L^ujrruS(r^-iS(n^eh-- 
€mu.lTit>p(o>ffiU^ ^fiu j^(OT)s\3 ^uuiTLDp s ^ S pu3^^(^u>-eiieQiueu6k srerfl 
lueii'Bsisr LS(BeQ tuu^dQp^ei' QpektSieisr uiTirssLDiruu-irear-Qps^^ds^Q 
Q^^^iTQiTaQi—Qurr(ea)ei> ^so^^sQseieOiriSemii) - ^eueir ^nOew(B/^^ 
siTifltu^ee>^eSlLL(au iSsistenirraSsar^^iTeo ^eug^piisiDi—UJ ^<s^uiTffUi ^djsiien&i 
^iT^Oeuearjpi ^da^iBiuuuL-Qu.esr - QuiLfisi LSiirr'SetTsSinLj(^LD - (^ipiiesi^ 
u-i/i Q^^LUeuQp'K] OsireeiTL—iTL^esr^L-^.^Qe^-jtjweir ^puuL^d^sv^tiis 
^eo^&!i^)(a^ciin^n(if.QiJi Qui^ev(r7)S'(n^sk- st^ruueoK^LHiisQsiTL^ ^irQzar 
tSl(><iij{^ uhtlLlj^sQsit^i— ^Qu IT e^'^ou ear ^emetJiTujiTeieLifletas-QaLLi—irar, 
END OV SECTION II. 



28^ 



IDIOMATICAL PHRASES IN COMxMON USAGE WITH 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Section III. 

1. spi^QLD(cSiUfTujuQu3?. lit. Speak like pure milk i. e. speak 
the truth, as : ^sum Qu^/oQuSQs'eoeiirisi ispi^QuieSiuiTuj^^ir(3S(T^m 
@^. His words are as pure and sincere as fresh milk. 

2. ^sueir^^QiuSdawirLLL-irdr. lit. He will not lift up his head i.e. 
He will never prosper again, as : ^-mjesr ^SsdQuj®uuiTOe!!rsk^ srsiir 
uem-ziis'SsnOiusOeiimD stott^s^so sh.L^uJiMLL®u) ^w^dQs Qff-eieuL^^^ 

iSsiresBT^, I have spent all my money in arranging his affairs, trust- 
ing he would be able to extricate himself; but I see that he will 
never be able to maintain himself. 

3. gSlLQi—itlLis^. lit. To drive away i. e. to speak eloquenlly, as : 

c^L-t^LLQi—inLi—iTQ^. You drive on at a great haste to shew your 
cleverness, not allowing others to speak, i. e. say in few words 
what you have to say. 

4. eiDsOuj(S)^^sS(Bl{Q)p^. lit. To lift up any one's hand i. e. to be 
a man by another's assistance or to enable any one to support his 
family. It is an act of great merit to assist the destitute. He will 
not be able to support his family without their assistance, as : ^^ 
csiipp iSeiie!nL£>iSlsS(f^iQp eiQ^eu^sersemaQiu® s^^^iQQp^ OuiBiui-jessr 

L^trek. To enable any one to support his family is an act of great 
merit. He Avill not be able to do so, Avithout their assistance. 

5. OfVf'Lhu^^srrefriTQ^. lit. Do not jump too much, i. e. Do not 
speak too much, as: ^ sresresr ^^^iOs!r(^ff^damfluj^^isrrs 0(0/1}) 
US^iSTTiff^Q^iii ^uuLf. ^em^iLjLD ^s>i'/SliuiTLDisi^erriorrfr(n^. Why do 
you speak so much about this trifling matter? you speak of matters 
you do not understand. 

6. /Birdr Qs'irekesrevn-ir^em^esiUJ S-^/S^ek. lit. He has shaken my 
word, i. e. he has not attended to what I said as : ^uQuitqp^ mrr 
(m^eiJ^s(^<fO<g:/rekesrsufriT^ss>s;es>uj sl-^^uQuitlL® ^met^&^i—uuL^ 
iBL-iaQeiisssrestii^iS(rf)GQQjm, lie has utterly rejected my advice and 
means to take his own course. 



284 

7. jijisiiek(ip£>>i0s(Bl^^a0sircssrL~iT6k. lit. He has taken to twist, 
i.e. he is very ant^ry as : isirm ^snekQffLusu^ iteasisiriBiULaeisoOeu^jpi 

t—irek. Because I told him that his conduct was not good, he got 
angry and went away. 

8. ^/Dss^^e^0sQ'^^.\it. To be in a lower place, i, e. his busi- 
ness is not prospering, or his duty is not going on well or he lost 
the favor of his master, as: @eusk ^i39isS(rf,s,Qp Qmsan-esr ^^^ 

QuiTQp^ ^pss^^dli^sQp^, Because he has displeased his 
superiors in the office, his affairs are now at a low ebb. 

9. lEirek &.e3r&sr ^ps(^Qeusisr. lit. I will put you in a lower place 
i. e. I will disgrace you,' as : M Q urfiuj suits en i^^u>lL®l£: ^uSik son- 
LDffi Qu^QpUL^ujtrio ^s^^tuii) iBirek ^skSosr^psi^a^Q^ssr , or isn&!r 
s.eirS5ar ^psSeSuL® LDjuQeuSsouiriTuQuew-. Because you do not pay- 
proper respect to your superiors, I will disgrace you — I will 
attend to the business, after I have thus disgraced you. 

10. j^suekQui's^ ^asresnJa ^(ipuuiruS(!T,d(^^. lit. Ilis words still 
are procrastination, i. e. he is an inconstant fickle man as : /ftcbt 

@(LpuuiruSl(rf,d3p^iTuj QseneSluuLLQi-eir. "When I investigate his 
matters, I find him to be an inconstant and fickle man. 

1 1. ^ayCTT @^^uQurrQ(n^uQuiTei>QuerQ^a!r. lit. He speaks as if 
he were breaking any thing i. e. he speaks severely, as : 
jijeuekumrssirfluj^^eOUiiTe^^jiu, Loei^^iTs'SetrLD^ujirLDeO ^^^uQunQ 
(o^uQuireo Q us? en IT (Sir, When one speaks to him on money matters 
he behaves with rudeness and asperity. He is not so in other 
matters. 

12. ^k^uQusFSi- aiT^eoji/L^u<Sui, lit. This word will strike in the 
ear, i. e. a rumour reaches people's ear as : Qmp^^(^^iT^rfl<o^Sl(T^/i^ 
ojif^LDO^^ssT ^ji^^.i^ee)iTuSl^es>i—iuQuJ'^ erihj^iEi siT^ei ^L^u®Sp 
^auj.? OffiTeki^ek. The man who yesterday came from Tanjore 
says that every one is speaking of this gentleman. 

13. j^L^uu€S)i-Qun(BQpjp, or QuiT(BSpai€k . lit. Ee who begins to 
pnt a foundation i. c.hc who begins to speak of an important mat- 
ter, as : ^6ueiraj/s^eiTifiuj^es>^uuirir^fiiTed ^Qflir j>ii^uues)i—QuiTL- 



€ij/s^iru(SijireQ(rf;s(^^. "When I looked into the cause of his coming 
it appeared that it was on some urgent affair of his own. 

14. easujjTiSSp^. lit. To shake the hand i. e. to use or to make 
a practice? as: /f s.£w- 3'irLDiT^csrsss>siuiTi^T(BQs!TesBr®euiB^iTeo jti^OsiL 

euffQeuessr^LD. If you make a good use of your property, it be none 
the worse, but much improved by it — you must your learning and 
ability in practice, by making proper use of them. 

15. jtjsuek'^smesri^dsosiTLLi—Qsij^iidso. lit. He is still his head will 
not shew i. e. still he does not come and see me as : jyeucar^oQ/s 

Although he has arrived in Tinnevelly so long ago, he has not 
yet come to see me. 

16. ji/svcisr ^emL—tdli—irLDOffieirScsr ^ifl^^u Qu!r®Sl(n^ek. lit. He 
having constantly sifted me with some speculation i. e. he vexes 
me incessantly to perform the promise to him or troubles me con- 
stantly with some speculation as : i6irshr@sij^iQ)&0siT(i^3=LD s-^aS 

LD6i) j)jiB^i^uQu(T®Q(nj'si!r. I promised to render him some little 
assistance ; but he gives me no rest and incessantly troubles me. 

17. s-smiDesr^eo jij-^sQ&isinrLDeoQuiTi^io e^eir^sQih uiuuui—irQ^, 
If there is no filthiness in your mind be not afraid, i. e. if you 
iiave no guilty conscience you need not fear, as : ^-ekiDesr^ea ji/Qps 

(^uuiu.i^ LDssrfa(^smes3BiSl(i^uuirQ6srsir. AVhile you are free from a 
guilty conscience, why should you be troubled in mind, being 
afraid of others on account of what you have done. 

18. ^6ij&fT^dsojii(ipssrruS(rF)sQ(2;eir. lit. Her head is filthy i. e. she 
has her menses as: j;fsvsrru}ir^L£iunr^LD ^2s^ji/(ipssiTiSl(T^dS/DUL^ujiT0i) 
^Ll.(BQ<su^sQsfTiffOffi)iT!Ei (^^iT6ues)i—ujiruSl(i^dQp^. The business of 
the house is all in confusion, because every month she is subject 
to uncleanness. 

19. j)i'mj&TiDiT^i£<u.!TujinSi(Tf)sQ(ffefT. lit. She is monthly faintnessi.e. 
She has her monthly course or menses as: j^&h^ssl^ssl^ijut ^^ 
u-iru^ismi—irQp^iTeo Ou)eSm^QuiTuSl(r^s8(2;err. She is become quite 
emaciated on account of the excess her menses. 



20. jy6i;srrfi?tl®<S(5r'^ ^Fu:>rrL3(r^sQ(n^sh-f 01' [i^ff^^QujSiDiT^Qr^m^ 
(wpsYT.) lit. She is afar from home, i. e, she has her menses, as : ji/sush- 

i—itQ^.) Touch her not, as she is still in her iincleanuess. 

21. j)j63j(er^s(^^fi2so(ipQfd(^euip(T^sSp^. lit. She is bathing, i. e* 
she has her menses as : unuuir^^s(&^sQ^3!2o))(rpQ£id(^eii/i^(r^i^iTffO 
£.i_(?SOT- (SlLQssui-IPuulI.® ^LLQ^^emrSssuruSlffi) s.nj'SjSdlQpfS^Qsiremr 
L^QfjUuir/rserr. Braminy females during their uncleauness leave 
the house and sleep in the verandahs. 

22. j>jsiiekQir!nx>uj>jQ£,ssnuS(if)sSi((rj'(ck. lit. He is very filthy, i. e. 
lie is very stingy, as ; j)/auesiQujsBiips(e^<iOsir(T^sirs?Q<sfrL—ir^ ^Qp^ 
sn-uS(7^d@0'ei!r. He is too stingy to give even one cash to the 
poor, ov LSs'SiJiJ:u^<sSrrise)aiUJiru9(r^/s^ [0-3^) eresrueijeh(<3'')sTssru6v^e!at—uj 
u>ujds^^e^suuLL(Bji/(ips(^uuLL(t!uQurr(ee)€rr. Mrs. S. who was before 
chaste, being deceived by Mr. S. was defiled by him. 

23. ^'ffl;^i(5 ^Q£^^mQiM^^. lit. He have got much tight i. e. 
he is a great miser? as : ji/eueir ^uSr[QuiTe^03<chr(nj-^Lh ^q^aiT'Si-Gsir 
i—ir^ ^np^fisa!r!i<^iiS(rF)iSi(ir^ek. He would not give away a cash 
even to save his life. 

24. j^£ti;S^3-Qi3'ire^^QjD^. lit. To say having put an end to the 
case, i. e. to speak decisively without partiality, as; erears(^u> srcir 
see}Unu^d(^(Lp6ssrL—iTSluj (^ujir-a'&iu^e'n^uurrjTULL.fLBeOGOiruisO ^.£Uf^^ 
u<2uiTi—Qeiism(BLh. You must decide the dispute between me and 
my brother without partiality. 

25. ^'ba;uQu'3'3r ^LussLLu.rruS(r^d(^^. lit. This speech as the 
deceit of the people who are sitting in the toll, i. e. this is a de- 
cielful fabrication or to speak nothing but fiilsewood as : ji/evsiiQu 
shSip'^Ljd&ei) Sl3-OLDiTckjpiLBffiTLDeo eTffi)0OtTLh^ujdsi-ii—iruSQf)d(^^, There 
is no truth in what he states, it is all false. 

20. Qp^a.'Ss^aujiTrijxSipjii. lit. To loose what was too tight, i. e. 
to appease anger, as : er sm sua uS(^ so GuirirJ:es)^iSl(f^s(y)U>Quir(cf; jijeusir 
QpjpjdOs^^^sOsiresKri-neir, He got angry and went away before 
I opened my mouth ; or jt/euoin s?uiuirraSi(rf)d(^uiQuiTQ^ /§ (tp^sOs® 
^^sOairemi—siTfffmOweireor'i Whcu he is quietj why should you 
get angry ? 



287 

27. jijeiimQsiii^ ^3'(suiriij(ous?Sl(f>;sir. lit. He speaks very well i. e. 
he speaks cunniugly? as : ji/suek ^iriun-u^Qr^i^rr^nuoi L3snds{TUJiTuS(TT,iefirr 
saih Qaur^ ^s=6ii!TujQi-ts?si]iT6k. Though I am as it were like a 
raother or a child to him ; yet he speaks to me in a deceitful 
manner. 

28. ^sussrO(o^u)u ^se)L-.sQismri3'3'&3. lit. He is very light weight, 
i. e. he is of an inferior caste or he is an illegitimate as : ^suear 
/SffO'SO3=irPujtru3(7^fS^ir0O ^uuL^OiueieOrrLD Qus^iMiriLL-iTek ^euesr^mi—S 
@s!»^<?<s^ffO. If he were of high caste he would not speak in this 
manner but he is of low caste. 

29. ^l-/hjQslLu-Qu^<5?. lit. The words which is spoken without 
reason, i. e. an unseasonable speech or unsuitable or uncivil 
speech? words spoken without regard to the person or place, as : 

S Qus'Qeuem-L^ujsiTiBuj^es)^ spQ£iiEJ3frtLi(oUS'trLDSi> erssresr ^i—iEiQsiLi— 
Qu3's?(Sus?Q(fr)>tu. Why do you make use of unsuitable words, 
and say what you have to say in an improper manner. 

30. MQ((r^i}>u^t—(nj'Q^, lit. Do not stumble too much, i. e. do not 
speak so proudly as : ^■ssrd(^srdjsnmisij ^&!\)^i3(ir)i5^(r£^La ereSiueuirs 
'SenQiu(S^uiU€m^ssu^so^u-(i^Q^. How rich soever you. may be, if 
you mock the poor, it Avill be your ruin. 

31. j^su^s(^^L^3i^ssiT6Sbn3. lit. Knock him down and show 
the thing, i. e. give him a reasonable argument or relate all the 
adventures from the beginning to the end or satisfy him by your 
reason, as : fsirek OTOTSBrQ^^/rear^jjj/ii) j>isv^a(^es)pss<^si3s\), Mtuirsu^ 
^sv^d(&)UUL- ^L^^^s SfTsmi^ ^eOffOiTiaSLLt—irdo j;feu^d(^6!!srir^^isu 
F!T^. He regards not anything I say to him, give him some satis- 
factory reason, or else you will make no impressions upon hira. 

32. OsiT(^3=^^i(^u uiT'kLLir/Si^siQ(nj't}iuQaj^6uQf,u3. lit. The less 
milk we draw from the cow the more work will require i. e. if 
you try to save money in little things,you shall have much loss of 

it as: /? j>//h^(c^(B e^LLemi^a^il) SL.es>i—3=^LD(ritS(tf)i(g,LoQunQ^s Os'iistDLDU 

When the house is a little out of repair you do not at once repair 
it, but procrastinate, it will cause you much work hereafter. 

33. @(^i«4i<5©^ji7. lit. To put off the time of payment as; 



288 

jyffl;swOTear«(5« OstrQassQevesurL^ujuem-^iea^ ^ujitiullituj Qsfn—tnDeiajir 
tLj^^iMusisrewfi ^QpseLf-^^sQaitremSieiiirffirek, He does not justly 
repay me the money he owes, but gives me much trouble by con- 
stantly putting me off. 

34. ^isnOesresrs'ir^d Q(ips(^<ssi£i]^^!Tet!r. lit. He has put a blame 
upon my caste i. e. he cast a reproach in my caste? as : jt/euears^ui 
Lciri^JTiTLDeo eTsk^ir^dSlQps(^es)eij^^sQsireadTQi—uSQj^LJUiresr. He will 
not be quiet, but reproaches my caste. 

35. ^esru:>uirn-^j3dQ<siremup.(rf,sSmj^. lit. To look after any kind 
of people or boasts, i. e. to watch for an opportunity, to look out 
for proper means, as : ^'si/sar ^fs^ j>;(rf)ee)LDUJire!irOuir(rT)'SsiT ^L^^jps 
Osirem-lSQuirs ^miiiutrir^^sQisiT<oSSTQi^uSQr,dQ(nrj'(S!r. He is watching 
for a good opportunity for stealing this property, which is valua- 
ble to me. 

36. ^^pSeaTLDuemem^meudQQnom-. lit. I put a thing to it, i. e. 
I will take proper means to effect the business as : i s-emi3sfr'kfrs(^ 
^ekesr/wseQuJirsm-muessresir QuJ^i^s^Se\)QujOujesr^ ^turr^uuL—Qeuanr 
u-irih /Eireirji/^pSlesriMuemessBes^eudQQpek, Do not be grieved because 
as yet you have no means for celebrating your child's marriage, 
I will provide the proper means. 

37. j>isi}mFFiruueia3'tLjsfTefTeuem. lit. He who has possess wet paste 
i. e. he who is rich, as : ^aiiskQ^sBuu!nTesisus(^ Qujsmic>QuiTe8(r^d 
Q(n^ck ^(^<so FPjTuueia^tLisrrefreussr. Outwardly he appears as a poor 
man ; but is in reality rich. 

38. &.uqiJiirjii@jr>^. lit. To sell the salt i. e. to cheat the thing of 
others or to destroy the property of others ; as : ^ajdosreSLlL^ei Q^ 

t^uL^iMirrSlSLLi—irek. In recompense for my receiving him into my 
house and providing for him, he has destroyed all my property. 

39. ^eu^ejm^dsos(^ ^^smnsusQcfr^ek . lit. He has put a rice pot 
on my head i. e. he endeavours to do evil at all times as : j^a/gv 

d^uuixi erek ^dsoi^ eL.^&s><si]uu!rOesreisru^p(^d s'lisCc^/SLBeidso. If you 
consider his character, he will be found to be a very bad man. 
He is always endeavouring to do me evil. 

40. ecuireiJireisujQpL— ^2s\}QpLjf.uS^^, lit. There is no cover large 
enough to shut the mouth of the Town i. e. we cannot conceal 



f289 

the notorious events regarding the vicious action as : li Qs^uj^sstiH 
uJisJs'Bsrr erssrsurLniruj jsji—& Qeisieusi3;tr&y,tl> eMureun'issiuJQpts^^QpL^iSiisoSsd, 
However you may hide the matters you cannot shut the mouth 
of the people of the Town. 

4-1. ^sir^ms'mL&udusTs's?. lit. Your desire lias become nauseous, 
i. e. you have not obtained your desire as : S ^ih^uOuemcissirrs sC 

Your desire of espousing that female which you have so long 
entertained, has not been gratified. 

42. mffewsQsn^^si^u^ srek ^fSesiia 2.6joi_d5(^^. lit. The staff 
which I gave him to lean upon, breaks my head. Prov. The good 
I have done him has turned out evil to me, as : srsf'ujeui^ffQs^- 
iSlsmip.^^LjQurrsLL'SOLDSBr^ ^dsi^Ouj(B^^(^LLQi-.eht ^(S^&i musssrsQair 
(S^^^L^ ersisr^s-QssiUj ^es>i—d(^^. Seeing that he was poor ; I as- 
sisted him to better his circumstances ; he has broken my 
head, with the staff which I gave him to lean upon. 

43. ji/eu^dSm^Os'ireo^ snli—eSi®. lit. Permit to reach this word 
to him, i. e. communicate this news to him, as: ^i^<fLDiT<3's'irjris 

As this news has reached me from a great distance ; go quickly 
and communicate it to him. 

44. eTsm(^Q^iQu<s?Qp^. lit. To speak without thinking? i. e. to 
speak without due respect, as: /s/rssr ^ireir OufiiusuGsarskjv jijeus^ 
uassraOsirQpLD^ojirei) s^pOpssrSg^ih Lc^lujTLDe^LD ioTsssr(C3S)LD£3iiu> Qus?3 
(n^ssr. He being very rich, treats others with contempt and insult. 

45. sriij^svGi^Q^ss jijLDissiuQwrTsuaQsmi^. lit. ^\ bile the archer is 
the cause, why do you blame the arrow ? as : fBirssr &.LDs,(^i-QffLLj<5 

QufrsS'i(r^i(^jj. Your not being angry with me who has done you 
the injury, but with him who advocated, my cause? is like blam- 
ing the arrow, instead of him who shot it. 

46. erpLTLsSopSp^. lit. To fall down by stumbling, i. e. to extol 
one's self. — ■sTp'^^LpiT(2^ ; do not speak so proudly as : j>/svdr ^irek 
(Lp6sreSQT,i^ -SdoO<se)iuuJ^iuiru>isi) ^uQurr ^J^^dsuS^^dsQivcsrjj/ er/a 
L^^:Q£Q(irj'm. He is quite unmindful of his former condition and is 
puffed up with pride. 

M 1 



^90 

47. j>/eueisT ^ems(^QujppiBes)puu!rei!r. lit. lie is as your Picota shali 
draw water for you, i. e. he will cheat you as : ^suskeufffnrijpGuifi 

When he grows up to manhood, he will supplant you. 

48. (^uLjisQ^Qp^. lit. To feign weeping, i. e. to perform a duty 
with carelessness as: ^(^jsSlL—^^eoiaij/B^QFisQnDeuirsOefTisosoirih cjul^^s 

The mourners who came here to weep, wept hypocritically and 
•without feeling. — The servants do not discharge their duty faith- 
fully hut unfaithfully as : /Birek i§ iBt}>(ipicmu.iusuOmsk£ii mixtS QeuSso 
ee>iu p^mei^L-d^^ii) e^uLj<^d^^s£Sp(^ (^uL^-i^^Lniriru^sQpeijdsaruQuireii Q^ 
uj^eiaeu^ssiruj. I entrusted the business to you, thinking that you 
would care for my interests, but you have performed it in a very 
careless manner : /f e^ut^i^unrin^ds^^iresr s-^SssrdsLLL^sQsir 
€m(Bj)j(i^QQpek. You are not faithful, I am sorry I have taken you 
into my service. 

49. ^su^LD jijeu^iM ^QT)<cS}aujiruSi(T^aQ(n^i'rsm. lit. This and that 
man have but one hand, i. e. the two are unanimous in every 
thing as : ^eu^Qa^iuQp ereosoirasiriPnuEiae^'.si^LD jijsv'Sser^^&Telila'Qa^uj 
luiTLoed ^[r6m(B(SuQr,L£) epQ^io7)S!un-uSlQfidS(n/'irs6rr. He in all his matters 
does nothing without his consent, they act together with one 
accord. 

50. Jijexi-ohr s.eir^&\}iSlsvsci!}U.QiuiTu.J (^•-Lejsi—3;^iTsisT3<sijuU!Tei!r, lit. He 
shall cover your head with a broken pot, i. e. he will utterly 
destroy you, since you have foolishly trusted him as : ^ euffGiii(^iB 

By spending uiore than your income, you have exhausted your 
money ,- and therefore being in difficulties, at the last you seek 
to ruin mc. 

51. s^suekrE(osr(nfuji3siTa®(n^sk. lit. IIc has chapped well, i. c. lie 
speaks well as : ^uuir jii&i^uuir li i- ^ireo Qug'BQa03^nLC)ir(tlujinuSisiT<k 
Q(^m. With regard to him, he is incessantly talking. 

.02. j^eijesr ^eir^^2j\)u3QffOQ^sirsiruj jvett^iruuir^sr. lit. He shall grind 
chillies upon your head, i. e. he shall manage your affairs better 
than yourself or he will be very cunning in qheating you as ; j)/*^ 



591 

aiTiLi ji/05)iruuiTsarQufT6Q(rf,i(^^. By liis looks, it appears that he 
will get the upper hand of you, and ruin you. — /Bmir srekesr^ireisr 
s^e!<r<s(^f6esret!)UiQs'uJ^ni^Ui S eTesr^dsoiSisOQpefTSiriu ji/etofrdssirLDeiiQuirSl 
p^kds^. Whatsoever benefit I confer upon you, you cease not 
injure me. 

53. fEom(6i<3?.ff?cDdSps-!r^. lit. A c-aste who carry a wet cloth, i. e. 
the people who know not how to manage their biisiness properly 
or inconsiderate people as : /f stuQuit^im QpccfrQs^iuujQeijemL^ujes}^ 



which sliould be done before ; or afterwards which should be done 
afterwards, but are altogether thoughtless and inconsideialion. 

54. ^■f(S<3=irQuirs'Q3'n-Qajeir/6l(rF,dSi/D^. lit. To be in dangerous 
state, i. e. his case is hopeless as : j^sueisr eSLuir^di^uui^ir^utiQt—eo 

Qufr.fQs'iTQeijsir/j5l(if)S(^_^. They have used every horrible means to 
cure his sickness; but all is in vain, and he is in the utmost danger. 

55. jijih^ai^'Bi^^sm-i ^staiTLciLLi—LDiTujQuiTSijLD. lit. That family will 
fall to the ground, i. e. that family will never prosper at any 
time as: ^6uirs:^-=e)i^uj(^'S^^a!rth QpmeS(rf)i^-ssi3uumTSs ^uQuir 
^0aiTLDLLi-.LDirLLjQutT^6f. Thcir family has sunk lower in the world 
than ever it did before. 

56. ^.i3uss)uujm^35^Quj^cis\}(TLo ji/qf/lLi^. lit. This boy's head is 
completely filled with tricks, i. e. he is a scamp or cunning, 
worthless boy as : ^su£J<rsiiiLr>ies)L-L^0uppsQ£3'€ii>L-uj!ruj ^dsoQiuei 
eifTiii ^[iLLi-^ucmew)]Q(nj>m. lie is a good for nothing son of a widow 
and speaks only false and scurrilous words. 

57. ^<su&!r^2soi(^LS(^Q£sr LSi^nEuiru9Qf)is sS(r^u:i-iSl(^eir. lit. He is 
desirous to be as a water pot heavier than his head can bear, i. e. 
he is desirous to be the head of the family as : ^oiJ^sr @®^^£ar^^o\) 
^i—'KiQtjSljTfrLDS'O 3.Ssdd(^LB(ifiQe!!rLSi—fr£Vfru9Qfids<s3(VF,LDL^S(0j>(ssr. He does 
not wish to be under the control of any of the family, but is 
desirous to be a water pot heavier than the head can bear. 

58. siTs^d^^suiT^ 03=Q^u!S!ius sipp^ Qiij/Sluj(Dev£m(SiLD. Throw 
away the shoe that is of uo use to the foot; i. e. discharge a 



292 

servant who is useless to yoiij as : £ uGm,T^<e:n^iOffeoa.'LSl^^Oeu(^ 

j^s(^^SL'ir^Os'(jTfLjes}us sLpuLL^Quj^i^Qun®. Though you have 
spent much money, and engaged many servants, cast away the 
shoe that does not fit your foot, since it serves not your purpose. 

59. ^)%^uu!r^if}iuiriT eriSluuirir eis)SU!Tsiis^tSQf,s,Q(n]'n'. This PadrCj 
is like an infant who can be carried about by any one, i. c. he 
believes every thing that is told him, or, he has no judgment of 
his own, as: ^li^uutr^iflojirir isireiiirsiTifluj^ism^jLjui ^rnriuiQu^m-c^ 

■B^etDuQ^^esBi® QsLLt—So\iii^QuiTQLh. As this priest has no experi- 
ence in investigating various matters for himself and can be turn- 
ed any way by any person, the congregation is scattered and 
come to ruin. 

60. ^ikQs e^oT) PFsir&siru'j ^Sids\). There is neither crow or fly, 
i. e. there is nothing, as : Mr. B. erdr^/B^eta/r (£Lli-^sSQF,s@^irirQ6u 

Qujek£»eum^Q3'iT€sr(^ick. 1 sent a messenger to see whether Mr. B. 
was in the house, he returned and said, that there was not a 
soul therein. 

GJ. &<sDi-uSieo fE/nLjLD Li&wu-iil) g-®^. The dog and cat run about 
in the bazaar, i. e. there is nothing at all to buy in the bazaar as : 

^irirs's-truuinKBs;^ LSsk6iJtr/EJSir^s(riFt,mOLi>skeisrQmjmj;u QslLi—Quit 

When I asked the cook, why he had not bought some iish for sup- 
I)er he replied ; there was nothing at all for sale in the bazaar. 

G2. <5iaa3k.i^!r^sirffliULDiTS(Tf)ih^LL QuQffeiDLDeuQriUi. Though he do 
not succeed in his enterprise, yet he will obtain glory, i. e. al- 
though this thing should be unattainable yet glory will accrue to 
him as : /§ es)cB'3i>.Q})QLDejrQpem-<n!sPu9(r^.il^psiT,flujil: ems.3k.L^irisSLL(-.ir&i!LD 
^ewdr^uQuQ^cmLDOLiQ^Lo. Though what you thought possible to be 
done, prove impossible, yet you will obtain honor thereby. 

p^. lie consoles iumsclf, under the idea that it will certainly suc- 
ceed ; or he builds castles in the air, as : e.6k^<5aL-.ujQeuessrssiTiEis<s(^ 



2 1)3 

eo^sLDinu (^L^^.ssj3dOsiretkL^(rP)dSl(^iu. Although not one of your 
expectations has beeu succeeded, you still keep on building castles 
in the air. 

64. i^Qiumi^^uj LD(2!^nir'3^$iujLT) ussdT^Si(irf'tL!. Why do you fos- 
ter such lofty thoughts ? i. e. Why do you indulge in vain fancies ? 
or why do you indulge in such foolish boastings ? as : <£(^sersniBaj 
^^ssiTs QiUokuiQi^iiiTSF'^iujua uioSdTioSsB<ssQ'SiT&iiTL'p.(ff^S(iK'iu. Why do 
you foolishly brag about this useless aflair ? 

65. <osissh.L^eu/5^^r)u3cisr. lit. Successful deceit, i.e. a plot that has 
succeeded as: /f/rcar S-esra-Q^Qs-iLi^ wsmssucdi^ <o]esr<s(^<i'isidssk.L^wfs^ 
s'pudosrQuir^ui. I want to have nothing more to do with you — Your 
successful plot (to ruin me) in return for the benefit i have done 
you is quite enough. 

66. j>jsusir s-i—LDL^eufeiT^s^uirirsQ/D^ffoSso. lit. He does not search 
with bended body, i. e. he never gives his mind to his work as : /e/r 
ear ^a/gi/^OsgarearO^^ffeiJr^jjj/Lo jijausk <or<djwcneijLO ^.t^LDL-jsu'^ii'^^Qisj 
Ssduir/rd'Siruleo ^ssarSsosr^^iaSajtrLLL—LDfruSiQfisSi^'m. lu spite of all 
I have said to him, he sleeps in the Verandah and gives not his 
mind to his work. 

67. ^euehrQuirjiju^u®^ 0^mQ^aQiL[jiii(^u:), lit. His name strikes 
every body's mouth [ears] throughout south country, i. e. he is 
the talk of all the south, as ; /f ^li^uQuiflujQsuSsomuj^ ^susSQs'lu 

erreS. If you undertake this miportant business, your name will 
become famous throughout the whole of the south. 

68. g)fflj£sr ^©(TpsKi-ujiOffiilLjissTjssr. lit. He is a clever cage 
maker, i. e. he is clever in making mischief as : (ot. srzkueum ^.iotsot 

<oruQurTQ£^LO 3?^®(Lp6S)L-rB^Q.S!r<smQL-i^(msQ(njm . Mr. A. has usurp- 
ed management of Mr. E.'s family, and is constantly contriving 
some mischief. 

09. ^iriks>si Q^emL—irifo^. lit. To put a piece of wood for the sup- 
port of a broken wall, i. e. to cause auger, or to provoke any one 
as : msrek ^mia<&f,s'^sirn-^&irifliu^<5s>^i-Qaiij^^iTei)^iEissier^sQseisrQufisi 
^aiEJseoQsijessn-iTU). xVlthough I should do something displeasing to 
them^ yet they ought not to be angry with me. 



204 

70. siu'£,i(^ixT!ru^AS/r)^. lit. To feigu beating on breast for hire, 
\. e. to beat the breast, to pretend to perform one's duty with neg- 
lio-ence as : ^skQeuSo^i&'Setr 0<sv(9,mirefTrriu umrs^iSijQffSQ/Dssr eruOuir 
np^th i§ ■sh.<s9d(^i-OTffi-^'sQ/D(osijSo))es>uj.ff' Q3'ujSl(^QuJUJ&dsifrLD&i Q6uQ(n^ 
e>sr0npuLj!Eis,nQ(^ui. I have watched your work a long time; and can 
see nothing but carelessness and negligence in it. 

71. i^£ii^Lji3ewQu^&-u(2ua'iTQ^. lit. Speak not like one in his dot- 
age or like one who has lost his gums, i. e. do not indulge in bad 
lano-uage, as : ^ LLifliutrem^ uSeOsorrwso fFju^utSlesr Qus'ai- Qua^irQ^. 
Speak not abusively or obscenely. 

73. &.<sr(Gr^d(^6rrQsmA'frF)fhf.j3is/D^. lit. To destroy any thing living 
together in the house like the bandicoot, i. e. to destroy one's pro- 
perty under the guise of friendship as :- j^uufr ^eusk ^^Lpi-EiBiufruL 
L-LDiriLJ &.srr^d(^errQ<crruS(7^fB^^^^u(SuiT(SQ(nj>ei!r. He pretending tO 
be an intimate friend, has spent all my money, like the fox. 

73. ^dsduSiQeosLLp^. lit. To bind on the head, i. e. to put any 
thing down to another man's account, as : (^^siSdsirirssrsufrwSleu.'s^ 
S'lTs^s^iSissiT^iutT^ajiTuSlQfjUu^iTffi. Ml'S. S. (ST esTuevskji/suek ^Ss\)uSl(DffO 
sLLL^eSlLiL-irerr. Since the cook has charged most exorbitantly for 
what he brought, Mrs. S. has left them on his hand. 

74. Qi5iTem(BQp^. lit. To dig, to make a hole in the ground, to 
extract the wax out of the ear or that which sticks between the 
teeth, i. e. to enquire into the case particularly as : mtrehr ^it^is^ 
es)iru9L-.d^«^ QuirSlpQuirOf^iceinruj, LDppsv/rsshQg'iL'^s'SerT QmiT<tmL^ 
Q!5iremi-^iQsLDaQ(njlr. Whenever I go to that gentleman, he makes 
very searching enquiries about other people's afl'airs. 

75. ^esrs(ff)LD j)jsu^i^LD srsireur sh.LL®uutjSffiriSl(r^s^_^. lit. What 
share of the cultivation is there lo both of you? i. e. what right 
have you to interfere in another man's business as if it were your 
own? as: i§ ^<au^ea)L-ujQsijSoOei()UJ^ siFl^esrUimLiuiTirsSp^^sO £.6OT« 
(^iM a)j'^ ^s(S)Ou^enr an ok-tL® uuiiS n IT ^ Qh,i(if,^ . ^^ hat has given you a 
right to look so carefully after his business ? 

76. @/F^^i«/rflujLD€S6rr'E/«n-^.lit. This circumstance is not clear, i.e. 
this business will not prosper, as : /f ^sifrLDirii&s^iSQT^uu^iTei) MOffdj 
iLit'o erih/i(o'svasi>u^u)i£l^!a&n0^m^ SlScarsalQpsar. 1 think that because 
you are wicked, no business which you may undertake will prosper. 



295 

77. ^euesreSisrr/iisixiTLLL-iTesr. lit. He will never ho fortunate at any 
time as : @a/OT2/«@4:.r fBS!>/§2ssruL9<s^siir^^freo aQfjCourr^u) eSlsn/sisu 
QuirSlpQ^LSlsi>2s\). Since he has no good principles or intentions he 
Avill never prosper. 

78. S /u<^eojifL^ji/L^s;Sl(o;'OujdrjjiQsipeSiJULLQL-e3r. lit. I have heard 
that you strike a good strike i. e. I have heard that you have ac. 
cumulating much v^^ealth as : /f ^^eirsfrso^ieia^i^emQufrd'Ssiruild rBei)&> 
ji/L^jyL^dS^^Otui^irjiJ &s^iriT0O(Ss<crr<d!uuil.(Bl s^eirs^^s'^ui^dsirss' &ib 
Q^sks^uuiLQl-^. I have heard from some persons, that instead 
of vainly wasting your time, you are doing a good stroke of 
business ; and I rejoice on account of your diligence. 

79. /siT^Qp^m)/L^.^L^:3'-9?Lj(SuiT(T^iMQufTLLQL-.sir. lit. I alvcady put 
a heap of straw on a tlirashing floor having thrashed three times 
i. e. I have no desire for the world, aud have renounced the glory of 
it, as : n;iT€kQifiW(SS)iuQun-iuQp^>i^L^^L^6''sj-uQuir(^LhQun-il.(BsTsi)Sia(^ 
9QiueisrO(nj'L^^^i^LLQL-&sr. Why? 1 have become old, I have re- 
nounced all worldly desires, and have entirely forsaken them. 

80. P-e^a(^3!-^s^Q^iBiLiLDir. lit. Do you know to make round the 
wire ? i. e. do you know how to cheat every body so that you may 
not be found out ? as : mireisr SLhuxsiOs'iuti-jLcuL^ OsiT®^^^ OuirsmeaP.si) 
€T oj su etr (Sijffr^,^u(Su!rLLL-nQtu IT (olisi]im£ii ^einQurfleo 3'ihQ^su>iruS(rf)S(^^. 
I am very suspicious of you, lest you should cheat me out of some 
of the gold, I have given you to make a female earing. 

81. ^su^u LSlL^&'Sf-s;QLL(S) fSsOffOirLLjG>sU(srjj,s^LL(SL—soT. lit. I have 
bleached him well, i. e. I gave him a rebuke or 1 remonstrated with 
earnestly on account of his evil deeds, as : jfjevekOs'iijssssuL^S ^■sem 

Qi—esr. I bore for some time with all his faults. He one day came 
to me, I then earnestly remonstrated with him. 

82. /F/rear ^drs^irLu^etD^OiuQuQusar. lit. I shall take away your 
colour i. e. I shall disgrace you, as : £ srssrdssrLDLLQixa^ijQzsr/SlLjCou 

Since you have spoken to me without any respect and have 
grieved me much, I will most certainly disgrace you. 



200 

83. j>isueks.e!!rsi^j^3;^4^iu'Ei(^i^QwLL'B^irsar. lit. He shall certain- 
ly dig a pit for you, i. e. he will do certainly some injury to you, 
though he professes close friendship to you as : j^'w^smi—iu metDL-d 
eBiSsOsneoeosTii ^fr£ULDir(nj'LU s-<mQ^Qi—uQu!r^ui ^il—s^ldl^si^ ussar 
GSBflsQ3,iT€m®snQf)eu^n-ei ^eisrssSd-j^ujLo^'Sucisr^Lp.OtsuLLfSlidiJiTek. All his 
proceedings are of a treacherous nature if at any time he shall 
quarrel with you, he will most certainly do you some injury. 

84. @_^,s£Sl1® QsefBsssisufTirdSp^. lit. To think it a good joke 
to wound any one as : ^sussTr^p^SiKBi Qseftldossuirird^/p^so Qp^ 
dso-LDiriiSlQhid^ icism^)}dQ s IT icm ^ii^aOsii n' LLi—n'LDSOUiomT €^ofl sQ s a sm^BsD 
Q^Sl/Ds^uireijiM ^ouesfli—i^eo uSff<9=a)/ra.S'(5i^^. He is always disposed 
to create divisions in a family, and to be a ringleader of mischief; 
as he enjoys the sight of other's misery. 

85. u&)^s^s^uu^LhuiriTd3p^.\\t. To taste what is in the teeth, 
i. e. one who is anxious to know some private thoughts with his 
friends or relations as : S OTS3r«@0^(2,'Ey5)63r dlssr^^fri^uSlQFifB^LD uso 
dsddc^s^L^ u^iiufTirdSl/D^QuiTso ereinQudeBia-ui^L^sjQ mirsk eiskcsr 
Os'ireOeiuQ^/DOswek^iJ creaiSssrdQ'ffr^ds&j/E^niij. TllOUgh you are SO 
closely connected with me yet like as a man picks out every par- 
ticle between his teeth, you are come to pry into ray most secret 
affairs, ^wsrr usidsod(&)^^u u^uDuirirds'ipsijQoyrsk^u e^esTd^^Qafl 
luir^iT. Do you not know that she is exceedingly stingy ? 

8G. Osu—'j^uuQTjim's. lit. To support any one by putting him in 
the road, i. e. to entertain a person nnwilHngly or to feed him as 
an enemy l)y the order of one's superiors, as : /b/tsot- ^duOT^ul^i/^ 
eu/b^(ouiT^ er£srd(&)06iJLLL^-LJU(rF,d'S>!)ses)UjJ} 0^es»TL—d^d(^^ Q/jsmau 
iLKTUjQuinKSlssysijJs^ QajQ^^irQ^Oisusisr/^Qfjm^iTsm. AVhcn I went to 
his house he carelessly put before me food grudgingly given, and 
did not further trouble himself. about me. N. B. This word is not 
at all understood by Europeans but is a common expression for one 
who feeds auotiier with carelessness. 

87. HQuiret^sirifliuui uLpinir ? siriuir ? lit. Pid the matter about on 
which you went turn out to be a ripe fruit or one unripe fruit ? 
i. e. Did the affair which you went about succeed or not? as : li seu 
I'nsBiQLDsmLL ^i^Sl&> s,^^Qiu!TSLSqf)d9p^irujQutr^(2iu ji/^uipLDiT? 
aiTujir ? Did you succeed in obtaining that situation in the Govern- 
ment Ollice or not ? 



297 

88. ^li^uQui'esiSF ^iremTemt^tLjLL^mL-s&Qeijessn—iTU). lit. You need 
not break this word to any one, i. e. you must not report this mat- 
ter to any one as it is a secret, as: ^ihs^^s^iEis^ ^ekesruaOeue^st^ 
euireSdoSso ^Q^^^isar ^em^uQusi-iMQuiT^ tBireir e^uKBaQsLLL^Q^/hQ ^esr 
/§ ^smss ^(r<sm<c5)L-UL^Lh s.'saL-ssQeuzmi—inh. This matter is as yet a 
secret, I obtained my information by secretly listening. Do not 
make it known to any one. 

89. Grssr(es)Q^iutrpp(LpL^OsirsrrefrSso. lit. My head has fallen down 
as I cannot comfort myself, i. e. that is beyond my strength to go 
through it, as : /siresr erzkQw^eaujs^- s^iflujiruj Qpuf-ssQeu^sOLcek^u 

(ipL^QsiTSTrsireSeoSs\). I desire properly to complete my business, 
I have yet a full determination to do so ; but my hunger will not 
permit me to do it. 

90. ji/susir ^SnoujirQffOsdSl(n^^. lit. He vomits from his head, i. e. 
he utters nothing but undigested matters as if he were a shastry 
as : ^suesT Q/spsiD/Dsmuiussr Lrtppsurcsetr ^aj3ssrQLD3^.3=(Sisv^uQLDioirjji ess: 
/TLiLli— n.^eStuppstTifluj'iis'BonOujei'eiir/b ads^ajnQei> <si>®(n^ek. He is 
a mere child, and being desirous that others should flatter him, he 
emits from his mouth, many and useless subjects. 

91. @s3r«3r/EyQs/r(g5<?<5<s/risOLoCDU/r(OT)ffO jijwOearesrdQ^ ^emes^sinL® 
euireir. lit. After a short time he will give me water, i. e. In a short 
time he will excel me in learning or any other business as : ^euScsr 
uufriTd^ireou(s^si!i3=ujtTLLi—LDiTi£l(T^aSl(2/'ear ^mesr/EjOsir(^'3=f5irerrQuir(e^eo 
&.e!srsssjS^uj/s ^e^euBBsireserLSuuiresr. If you observe him, he appears 
to be altogether unskilful ; but after a short time he will far excel 
you. 

92. ^eusar ^^^LotnLi—ir^evm, lit. He can do nothing for himself 
i. e. though he cannot earn his own living he is desirous to have 
every thing he sees, as ; euirsijsQspp Qa=<oi>sijQ3'ujujQsiism(Bui ^^et 

Our expences must be according to our income, he is very anxious 
to buy every thing he sees, though unable to do so. 

93. ^su^Si^Qpop/EiSLDir^^JT/sQ^ifiiLjU} i3em0^asr^ihQ^iBuJ[r^. lit. 
He only knows how to swallow his food, i. e. to understand nothing 
else but eating, as : (^fiuSerriS^'SavSsrr (ipQ^iEisuiiTai^ir(6^ ^pSsmu^QT^s 

Nl 



29S 

cares only about eating from time to time ; but kuows not how to 
luaintain himself. 

9'j;. Qsirsmi—LDiKBi) Qsirf^^iSiQeo s6i)Ss\)uQuml.® ^L^s9((rf^. lit. 
He fills his gunny bag with stones as much as it will hold and 
throws it, i. e- he utters whatsoever comes into his mind or one who 
tries with his utmost endeavour, as : MQs^trekesr^si^ isnm iSujiruj(^ 

^L^G@(r>piu. I have answered all your objections ; but you go one 
just speaking what comes uppermost m your mind. /? &.mi^so <si.uL 
ujldlL®/si QsrreaT^uSQeo sei^uQuiTL-® ^L^s9(^0uJ6sr^ Q&eh^uuil. 
Qu.&sr ^^ Sl^/B^iT^? I have heard that you have spoken most 
unreasonably ; is it true ? 

95. 3-LLL^iSiQ6i)QuiTLL<d sF&jsuirujeu^dQp^. lit. To fry meat in a 
pan so long that it is dried up like skin, i. e. he constantly uses 
most reproachful words, as ; mir&srO^ifiujnLceC' ji/,i^s's'/Eis^<5s>iu j^/su 
QetTirQL-Qa'iTickesr^diQuir^u:) ersDrSjar.? g'u-L^iSQei)es>sud'£'r3£usucuJsujiis 
Qp^LctQuirj^ih. In ignorance while I was mentioning this atfair 
to her, she commenced to abuse me in a shameful manner. 

96. M er'S^^QsuSs)) ^i^LDirLLi—ixQuiTiffisirmii^. lit. It appears that 
the work which you took in your hand has all got into confusion 
i. e. you have not succeeded in your undertaking, as : /f Oa/Q tlolSs 
es^aOstrem® (or®<^^(?a;&« ^L-LD{rLLi—LDir(SD)uQutreil(i^d(^^. It appears 
that the work which you took in hand with so much confidence, 
has altogether failed. 

67. s-esriQuQuiT ^L-tDinLi-iMiresr sirei/h^^irek. lit. It is a time of 
perplexity to you, i. c. you cannot manage your business on account 
of j'our declining age, as: e-diQ(SijSs\)&OcfTeoeoiJ'5 fiirj3iLcrr0'uS(tT)Uu 
^ireo Z-esraSuQutr ^i^LD/TLii—LDireiir sfre^tjD'3ufTe9(r^d^r^. Since at this 
time all your all'airs are in confusion, it appears that it is the time 
of dotage to you. 

98. @^ eussrsQsseikrQ^aiflujfr^ ^st—UiirLLi—Lcirm strenw^ireir. lit. It 
is a time of confusion in whicli you cannot distinguish any thing 
i. e. your riches have made you not to know your former friends 
and to forget your former condition, as : s.e!jrd(^s)i/s^(rf)dSp ea>eu 



299 

s.net^(!f)ar(^LD. I am sure that your riches have njade you not to 
know your former friends, &c. 

lit. He loves his pottage and also he loves his mustachio, i. e. what- 
ever gifts may be given to him, he still wishes for more, as : jy0(S33)5= 

j—uuiffeiTiLi^^ Q^irw^SiiSi<si> (s) Q^it(Bu> wfriEiQeuitQ^esr. ^(Tj^a^sou) 
3?^nniQLDiTiss)£F <a§605=<ffi@ LDires)ffet!)UJu(ouiTei)^ffemi^L-tLj/s^emdQ,dOsir 
®ds&Qftreii6Q ji/ffOLL®Q(i}^esr. I bought for Avunachalhim two pair of 
A-rnee clothes, and for Moorngan one Vetteipallium cloth ; but 
ArunnchaUnm is troubling me to make nie give him all the clothes 
for himself, like wishing both for the meal and the mustachios, 

100. LDire^sQappuest^LuirffLD. lit. The cake will be according to the 
flour, i. e. the value of the goods will be in proportion to the price 
■VOU pay for it, as : ls., Oiu^uwir e^LLetDi—^sirtLsmu-cuiresr s^iru^rresrs^efr 

pp ue<dlujiTjjuiiriu^^iTQesr uS(if)i(^QL5m(n^ir. When I asked Mr. D. 
why he had purchased old and broken goods, he said, the goodness 
of the article is in proportion to the price given for it. 

101. ^^Qixcjso ^Ss{)iSi(Tf,iQpjSir ; lit. Is there a head above the 
head ? nscd by vmy of reject mg any assim^tion of undue j^retensioji, 
^w^®jirn-^es}^ sresr^SsoQioQei) ; Verbatim, your word is upon my 
head ; i. e. I highly esteem your command. 

102. /f ^[remL—irLLLf.^rLLL^esr i^LLup-ujrruSl(r^dSl(^iu. lit. You are as 
a kid which sucks from two goats, i. e. he who hunts two hares 
leaves one aud loses the other ; or it is vain to serve two masters, 
vou cannot do two things well at the same tin:ie, as : i ^Q^uds^ 
Q&> c^apfsiaiTiSlnFm^ ^eNQeiJ?e\}s?ens QijLCLDiriuQffdj^ sn'e\)/sisi^tuirLcSi) 

uS(rF,dSl(Sfiu. Instead of remaining quietly in one place, and pass- 
ing your time in transacting your business in an orderly mannei*, 
why do you wander from place to pkce, and try to serve two mas- 
ters at once. 

103. ^im/iraeh- loTeinSsm- ^/h^d(I^tr^3^m-ciS<si> mdcs^fiiU'SUfrLLi^i^iTSeh-. lit. 
They scorched me well in tliis examination, i. e. they have examin- 
ed me in every subject? as : ^ih^e^Qs'tr^dsardi^ <si!ih^^^fTs<^<k 90 



300 

One of the Gentleman who came to examine us, examined me so 
strictly, that he extracted all I knew, but dried up even the oil, 
which my mother caused me to take when I was an infant. 

104. iBirm^ufri^QsiT®^^ &.^^ifl^Q^^. lit. I took much pain to 
give an answer to every question, i. e. I gave a satisfactory answer 
to all, the question put for me, as : ^mmLD^QTiLDL^uQuireus QslLi— 
Qsip^3:(6f^sQspnri s-^^!riBjQsir(B^^euiQ^<sir. I laboured much in 
giving satisfactory answers to all the questions that were put to 
me, even until I was ready to faint, 

105. %k^Q-p'oS)p ^ en u l9w/s^ en IT S(er^sOs&disi)tru) ^LDLoQuirL-Qi—esr, 
^e!^QLD&)^iT6sfl(7^dQ^ ^(^3fu(r^d<oB)aa-jis^6mei!!£tLjm. lit. By answering 
a few questions here and there this time 1 have deceived those 
who came, hereafter, then will be nothing to me but little water 
and five grains of rice, i. e. I have succeeded in passing the exami- 
nation by answering a few questions here and there this time, but 
hereafter they will require me to answer every question on every 
subject. /Biresr ^ii^S3h.em(Bs(^35sui3 <o^Qf,Qu" irjsitiu ^PiruSaOsi-Lu^ 
ssirjrO-sm-esrjjj QuQiriB^Q^ek. I have escaped this time, by answer- 
ing a few questions here and there ; and have passed myself otF as 
a clever fellow. 

106. M Oenesur [Oeawuj] SsmemeijdsdOssLLLj^sstnreir. lit. You are 
clever at buttering people, i. e. you are clever at coaxing people 
as: j^uuir /Bfresr &.eir2sBr eTekesrQunT 0LOir{d^'ffr^Otmirjv uiTira.Q^zk 
^uQutr ^^ssfrrfluj/as'SsnuumfdsLj(SuiT(es)eo SQsiJfss>8smvS)6ijd.sd OsiL 
L^ssn-iremQufr<oQ(T^d(^^. I have hitherto been in the habit of 
looking upon you as a simpleton, but now I find you are very 
clever at coaxing people. 

107. eruQurr^iM M erskSesr euinLL^dOsiTem(Si—uS(rr,dSl(tr^iu. lit. You 
are continually scorching me, i. e. you are continually tormenting 
mc to complete your business, as; ^uuir fBirek e^egrd^ eurrd(^dQair 
(B^^^ihQuiT^U) tisresrSoBT &.uS(SiriTQL-eiJirLL(BSp^LcQutT^u>. Because 
I promised to do something for you, you trouble me continually 
so much that I cannot endure it. 

108. jf/bu^^d e,Lpei{(^^@p^. lit. For a trifle you destroy the 
beauty of a thing, i. e. to ruin cue's afi'airs for the sake of trille.s. 



301 

as : /Bircir s.esrd(^ /Bemee}LCiQ^tLJUjQwesiiT®OLCisirOpsm€SsBtSlQ^.is /f^/rCew 
j>ipu^^s sLp(^Q,^/B^QuiT@0'tu. While I was inteiidiug to render 
you some assistance, you have ruined yourself for the sake of a 
trifle. 

109. ^euek euw^LDLL®(^ ^p/^iQsireik® Qu friLidiLLi-.fr dr. lit. He 
went round about ; he takes away every thing comes to hand 
i. e. he will not leave you empty handed but he will take 
what he can get and run away, as : jt/eutdr &.6mre!i^LDu^err£rr QQirm^ 
doaruQu!Te9(n)!B^£5!Te!> ereir3=u)Uir^^uj^es)^QajeoeOiTLD ^eu^dQ^s ji/Q£ 
Q^ehr , ^(OT)ffO jijeusm ei]k^es)^a''3?p^aQsirem® siMLSsirLLL^sSLLi—ireir. 
Because he appeared to be a respectable man, I gave him all my 
profits ; but he stole all that came into his hands and went away. 

110. S-m2sarssLLLs^&QaiTem® u)irir'-f.sSlpe!D^eSLL&d (^il.L^s'^sij/fleO 
QpLLL^aQsmsfretreoiTLb, lit. It is better to dash one's head against the 
wall than taking hold of you and beating the breast, i. e. it is better 
to be silent than to reprove for your improper conduct, as : rsirek 

^^^6iaujiJLJUL^03'iijujQeiiim(BQuiesr^^eN-'S(^sr^^&m-^ffQLr>iTQ<fir 
lUD ^em^^uSleieoir^^n-eo s-emSosrsLLL^dOsirem® ufriri-p.d9pQ^rr 
Gi— (mLLL^'f'S?isvifleoQu)tr^ss<S'OiTLD. — erearQu6m'3'ir^Qu<9?Q/D ^i—d(^uiL— 
«@s3sir ^QirirCSi—Os^ireoQsueir, ji/eii?etrdsLLL^dOsir6m(Sl LDtrHL^sQpQ^ir 
Qi— QLLL^.fs?wfflSiQu)n-^ds&)tnh. Although I have told you again 
and again, how to do this business, since you are utterly void of 
sense, it is better for me to beat my breast and dash my head 
against the wall, than to employ you.— To whom shall I complain 
of the trouble my wife causes me ? it is better for me to beat my 
breast and dash my head against a wall, than to live with her. 

111. ^eij^csruurrlr^^iTei) QpQ^LDn<3?Qr)LLL^UJiTuSl(ir)iQ(ir;eir. lit. If you 
look at him he rolls together the whole of the flour, i. e. he is con- 
versant with every species of fraud and deceit, as: jt/euSsarQiuirsQuj 
Qsarekjv SlSssr^jn CT6ar<sff(-l®««®^^ QsosijSfrffliuiEis'Sstr fBi—^^ ^3,^n<s>\ 
usmesaflQsur&^r ^wek(5!LD!rm^irsOj^L^^^aOaiTemQiQuiT@p (ipn£LD(TSf(w,Ll. 
L^ujiruSI(rj^3@(if^£sr. As I supposed him to be a clever man, I entrusted 
the whole of my household expences to him. But if I relax in my 
vigilance, he will steal and cheat in every possible way. 

112. un-u>i-ju&les)ujSlSssr^;S^Q^ea}fr<ESl^ss)iuS^^^^. lit. The snake 
thinks of its hunger, while the frog think of its fate, i. c. while 



302 

the poor are thinking how they can supply their wants the rich 
are plotting to oppress them, as : /siresr ereir^eisL-uj u^iuS^LSrfiressnsa 
QTf^s^ih OurrjusatxirLLi—iTLDei <or(sar3h.eSss)UJs.ekes9L^s^jk)QstJEidseu'i^ir50 
^skes)p&(^ /sir'SsndsfreiJLL^^OLDeii jru QuiTd(^'i'Q^irSie9£u(T^£j^ uitldl^ 
u&emuji^Bcar^^^ Q^<mir dl^es)aj/§ISssr^^^(SuiT(sS(f^dglnri^. When 
I could no longer bear the pangs of hunger, and came to you to 
ask my hire, you put me otf with excuses, saying, I will give it either 
to day or to-morrow, like the snake that thinks only of his hunger, 
while the frog is mourning his hard fate. 

lis. SL«5rGLj<?«^ UDo^siTffir^irsse^i^sifieo 0<9'irssi-Li—iTsm(Sua(BSl(^u 
QuiTsSi(tf,s(^^, lit. You speak like one who is in the habit of gamb- 
ling with kings, i. e. one who feels not the pain of the fellow 
labourers as : fBir&sr ^mip^^ssire^s' /rmucjp(i^QuSleo <£iLLQL-/SS(ir^u 
Qutreo er/SiuiTLDe^c^sv^^dOsiremL^QffUu^ uj^irifir^irsse^i—^^s^Q^ir 
dsu-L-irear Quir®Qp^QuiT<s^(fF,sQp^. you would not even throw 
down my hire, as if thrown to a dog, but kept it back, and treated 
me with the utmost contempt. 

114. M <ore!nemiSLj^^^su)3Vii^LSlm?mujn'iriTLLu.LDfriiSl(^.iQ(f)^uj. lit. You 
are like PuUiar kneaded out clay and put down in a certain 
place, i. e. he is so obstinate that he cannot be removed from his 
purpose, as : ^eii^s(^ sr sir airQs'irmi^s^Lh 0<sir(^s'LDireu^ l^/j^lx)^ 

eiDS'uJirLDiso LSlLjL3's?aDeiJ3=3= iSefr'?<ciT(uir'S(aiTuQufrsSi(t^dS(n^ssr. It matters 
not what you say to him, he has not the smallest grain of sense, 
he will not at once attend to the business before him, but is as 
obstinate and immoveable as an image of FalViar, made of clay 
and fixed in a certain place. 

115. /f ^muem-^ee)^OiLi&)ffOiTiEJ S(^^smu&'ffeiJirQujpuLLL—auj. li. 
You have undertaken to make my money like rice waters, i. e. do 
you desire to spend all my money according to your pleasure? as : 
f§U)(fluJire:!i^uJiruSl(Tf)i3^ SfTSOfuiSL—^4^ ^suueiiCSuir eri£ldsi(DSueim(SQLDeir 

OiueoeofT/Fj si^^&n-s'ffQeurtuLli—iruj. Instead of passing your time in a 
respectable manner? and imitating your father ; associating with 
vagabonds, you liavc spent all my money on your own pleasures. 

ilC). /Bfrsk^euSfsr jijibifgiSiriBuj^^si cS ff <oS uLiil d s euir^OiM sir ji/Qs^ trek 



303 "^ 

Qssrsir (Qsipssdlh^} QsssSso. lit. Though I desired him not to 
put his finger into the business he would not hear me, i. e. thougli 
1 desired hina not to intermeddle with that business he would not 
attend to me. 

117. rsfrmOs^irisOisu^ s-cwio &.esiirsssS!eoSbVru(r. lit. That which I 
have said to you does it not vex you, i. e. I will not affected by 
what I have said to you. 

118. ^i^jsies)fr^i^&eo sem-QpL^iLiiriSlQ^/s^Qeudsoumr^^siJir({>j>ir, lit. 
This gentleman goes about his business with his eyes shut, i. e. 
this gentleman has no confidence in himself but trusts his busi- 
ness to the management of others. 

119. ^eua^uupp^es)^iuirs^^iTei) 0ufFlijj^i^(Sujirseiv^irs6n3'UiUJL£) 
utnT^^^sijir^2cOu96^seoSsdLjQuir(SwfrtTssrr. lit. Because he is an ineffi- 
cient gentleman his officials look out for an opportunity of putting 
u stone upon his head, i. e. when the head of an office is mefficient 
his subordinate will lose no opportunity of ruining him. 

1^0. j>jih^uOuessri3eiTh<T ^sijd5sriseia!Tff^a5)n-&<3j-LDu^uSsy> QuitlKBs 
Osirerren-uuiriTiS(n;srr, lit. That woman wants to reduce him 
to powder and make him into a paste in order to put him into her 
lap, i. e. she wants to mould him to her will and pleasure and 
bring him under her own power. 

121. sQf^&jai^rreiiiiEJsirjnhQuiri^ixir? lit. Though mustard seed 
be small does it lose its pungency, i .e. a man of noble birth though 
greatly reduced in circumstances loses not his dignity. 

123. iSTsk(oU3=<3?s'sSl(LpiSeioiuuQu(rffi>^ir(osfi0iQLb. My word is like 
a flint, i. e. my words are very severe. 

123. /srresr esssn—Qpih^mri—QpLo ^nemi—frdjQuTQi^uQurrei Qu.-jj- 
Qeuem. lit. I will speak as though I cut the lump into two pieces, 
i. e. I will speak so severe or without respect of persons. 

\^i,. 3^iTsSies)L-.fB!rdjs(^uQuirs,®i-i^eodM, lit. The dog that dwells in 
the drain has nothing abiding place, i. e. the married woman has 
no other home but her husband's house. 

125. OupQ((i^iTssiT L3sh^s'^fBdr(n^iLjs3--is(veu^jLe. lit. Parents 
must squeeze their children, i. e. they must bring them under 
proper discipline. 



304 

126 /BiTeir ^esrs(^3'Q.3^irssra!r£3 /SsmT^iL(oUJ/Di£lffdSs\)QuirsQ>7^d(^^. 
lit. It appears what I have said to you has not gone up, i, e. Avhat 
I have said to you appears to have no effect upon you. 

127. @£K^ <oTm an£^^Q&iSLLL^(^^s<srT . lit. They bound this about 
my neck, i. e. they place this in my charge. 

128. m!TmQsiT(B_g^usssr^sfa^QajeOsimJ) LDijeSlL^^^iruJiT'i' lit. Have 
you beaten all the money which I gave you into flour of rice? 
&c. i. e. have you wasted all the money which I gave you under 
your charge. 

129. i§ ^&o^srre^u(2uirQ(^iij. lit. You go long throwing up your 
liead, i. e. you conduct yourself petulantly to your superior. 

130. ^'sxtek Qa-ehrdsarssh-eS jijf>sS(frj-uQu(r60 j>/tfldS(n^6ir, lit. He 
wound me like a shrimp eats the ship, i. e. he is constantly troub- 
ling me. 

131. @/5^Q^/f CosipeSQpaDjDuSleo&iiir^ ^airuSQFf^Qj^. lit.. This place 
is without any investigation or decision for the people^s petition, 
i. e. there is no proper government in it. 

132. OT6V)«V)/r(75S@ii) euiTuSQeoueO ^emi(^ei]uSp;SQeiu0O. Every body 
has got tooth in his mouth, but you have got a tooth in your 
belly, i. e. one who is constantly devising injury to others, or one 
■who uses flattering speech before a person but speaks evil after 
his absence. 

133. eTesrS(^^uQuiT S-L-LoOueieiiiri^ Quir^^e^inSQr^s^v^, lit. Now 
is my body full of holes, i. e. I am now greatly in debt, 

1-34. 2_63riOffi63r63r05^ffoa)ffi@6B):_. lit. What is it that you have got 
a very gorgeous umbrellah, i. e. he is a man who enjoys great 
property. 

135. M (oTekesr eruQuir^U) LDS6'Ssri^ffrr^&--3?aQsiTemQi—iS(Tf)sSl(tt/'iij. 
lit. What you are constantly silent, i. c. a man who is not able to 
give a proper answer to any question that may be put to him. 

U)iT®si}ii3Qe<iiSlQ£ih^iruQu!rii ^ss)^dee!kn^(SijL-6k^(ipS(n;iu. lit. You 
know that you arc hungry therefore like a hungry cow which de- 
vours the stalk of millet, as soon as you saw food you fell to it, i. c. 
one who has forgotten for a long time a favorite dish, as soon as 
he sees it, begins greatly to desire it. 



305 

137. i§Q3'!r^eji'3psir,?:UJu:iS-i—Ui3Qei)Quiri—a;cBiresr ^^^ei^u). lit. The 
tiling- which you say is deserve to cast into the open sluice, i. e. 
your words are of uo beuefit to any one. 

138. (^(S,SLLSSn:iQ6ii&dio>Diu ssxsjs^iOstrs^L—fteo easio7)iJjdsL^d(^ 
Qiosk^ uujuu(BQQpek, lit. I am afraid if you begin to build the 

Jiouse, it will bite your hand? i. e. it will take more money to com- 
plete the -work than you are able to pay. 

130. e_OTL9srrSOT<55orr2_OTS)»r05^isi/erosyaj/7'iL;5'a;irc35^S2orU£zo^ i^jfjQ 

dSimw^^^^trdr sumzpeumL'. If your child takes proper care of you, 
you may flourish piling one cooking pot upon another, i. c. if your 
child are provided properly for you, you will be in a prosperous 
condition. 

140. ^siJ6wf5!r^^QSi!TLBifl3'3' suiSlOujicirjiisi <SN d(^^OfiifliLju:>. lit. He 
is a puily strong enough to enable people to pass over four fords 
i. e. he has the great many wives and has a man great experience 
in polygamy, or one who has much experience in every business 
by a long travelling to many places. 

141. ^fiugyiQ ^Lpeijs^Q^sij^ iE!TS(g)ma^^. [a toord of contempt.) 
lit. His beauty drops away from him and his tongue licks, i. e. lie 
is exceedingly deformed and ugly. — j^ifiS(S0iL8(^^S,3uisijLpdG£EiT^n.. 
Ke is as beautiful as a coral necklace, i. e. he is very ugly. 

i.42, wirekQs^ireisresrsrrfBuj^^ssiTs crm-Smd(^,0SL-/i^'isSLLi—.ireir. On. 
account of what I said to her, she seize at me and hallowed me 
out, i. e. she abused me very greatly on account of what I told her. 

143. /f erQp^a,Oair(Sl^^^LL(B mrrseaseuifia^iB^iT^s.^'SijLD. lit. Th6 
note of hand which you have Avritten will serve only to scrape the 
tongue, i. e. the document which you have written will be of no 
use at all as there is no any proper method in it, 

144. (susijs^3;a&LLL!^ eufTba^iudeLlL^ Q^irs^saeu^^d seiac-QuSiisii 
eui^jS&)QunQpsu^d(^^^n-esn-ajn-ir<i@pjsi or ^^^ihuem-p^. lit. Bind- 
ing the stomach and closing the mouth if you collect all the mo- 
ney together at last you will be obhged to be distributed to pas- 
sengers on the road ; i. e. if a man neither gives away in alms nor 
enjoys it himself but hoards it up he will be obliged to distribute 
it to the strangers, 

o 1 



30G 

145. ^L^s^s-Siiiiir L^u^^ffaum a^pOpiLi—^iQ^is erLlL^uuiTiTdi^sush- 
OsirLLLp.iOsirsmT®Quir(^srr. The rice beater and a lielpcr while they 
are away one who looked in overturned the flower, i. e. another 
person cunningly reaps the fruits of another man's labour. 

146. ^sii^svruuirir^fjiTeii s(^SuSlQsoeijL^sSl/Deijm)LLt-.LDiruj sir^D^, 
lit. If you look at hira he is like one who drains of Congee water^ 
from the boiled Congee, i. e. he is very skilful or to shew in outward 
appearance that he is a very poor when he has sufficient wealth. 

147. ^suek (^esynyQse^q^ixi j:^iomn'^'SLL(BQuirs^S^rrisir sTsiris^L—^^fi)^ 
euisfsirehr. lit. Ha come to me with the intention of grinding the 
remainder grain which is kept for the time of necessity, i. e. he 
come to me after he made up in liis mind to waste the money 
which remain in my hand for livelihood. 

148. ^j/BsevQ^Q^LDLDiTLDUipLh i3ss irQeiQu^^^ eufriLisSirOeiKkeoirLa 
euifiiLi^. lit. The mango fruit lies about in the ground in the dung 
and in the gutters, i. e. the fruit of mango is exceedingly plentiful. 

149. ji/sue!!res)sU'3'3^^(snisij'f-s'iTu(oun'ed Os'iTeOffOtTLDp QuirujishliLL-iresr, 
lit. He went away as though he had depositive something as a de- 
posit; i. e. he died very suddenly having left his f;imily and other 
affairs in an unsettled state. 

150. ^ffl;e(JrC?u^S(5rGu<?<^ QeuiEJSSeos<Si;s)L—uSSi luirS^L^i^nuQuire^Q^ 
s@p^. lit. The words he spoke were like the entrance of elephant, 
into the bazaar where copper vessels are sold, i. e. he spoke very 
eloquently. 

151. i§Qus?^p£3 (^u^QpQ£SuQu!rp Qus^.g^irSq^it^^. lit. That 
which you speak is like overwhelming the whole family, i. c. 
what you speak is very dangerous. 

euT. lit. Go and wait constantly near his gate without going away 
to eat until you get the money, i. e. give your whole time and at- 
tention to the getting of money. 

153. ^eneh fBeoeoiTiuO/BiT^dS^OioTreir^ QstpeSuuQSQ/Deir. lit. I 
hear she wastes your money in eating every tiling that takes her 
fancy. 

KNM) OF SECTION III. 



307 

VULGAR AND FAMILIAR SYNONYMES IN THE TAMIL 
LANGUAGE. 
Section. IV. 

The following list coutains a number of words different in form, 
but all used vulgarly to express the same sense and which can be 
met with in no Dictionaries, though they are in common use among 
Natives. 

To speak: I. Quaj-p,^. 2. Qs^neop^. 3. Ou>rrL$iSlp^. 4. e.&Dirsp_^. 
5. ^(ir)<sijsni}>u^p^, 6. ■3'ir^p^. 7. t-iejssp^, 8. eSQ^vpjs. 9. eusjJip 
^. 10. Q^ifieSdp^. 11. QsfTL^sp^. 12. Qs'up^. 13. i3^^p^.\4i. 
O^ireurup^. 15. euirajirn^LiQ^isp^. 16. j^aarruSlp^. 17. euiriueSdiQlsi] 
ekpL^^^s O^sirekp^, 18. ^<oSsr^£3BrQau/EjQp^. 19. Qpem'(Lp£siir(aSiiip 
^. 20. s=FU3iriflajrrujisSl®p^. 21. Q'9=(T^d(^^ SFwsnfr^Q^ir QairiBsp^ 
2.2. QuirifliiSp^. 23. Ouir^Sp^. 

A woman : 1. js^iBesiOJiuir. 2. aa^iueo. 3. (aSih^emip. 4. unr^. 5. Qu 
em, 6. Q/Bifleoiip, 7. Qeires>^. 8. ^/rrf?. 9. wi—iken)^. 10. UDiEiaas. 11. tfcaiB- 
essH^ir. 12. <£/rei/eO/f, 13. ^iiSeoLp. 14. Q^sisiQiDiTL^i. 15. QuessressrHSf, 
16. ^eOEJSiriTLh. 17. OLDeoeQujiren. 18. es)u/EjQ<sifl. 19. ^srrwiSlffi). 20. 
SLLi—ipSl. 2i. siriBastp. 22. jysarearLO. 23. iBeirei^eoL^, 24. ^^^lS. 25. 
sesiTLDisssf}. 2(i.Q'STsiD^LDu9si). 27. @<smijOsn-L^. 28. LDiSlei}rr(orr. 29. QulL 
i—tpS. 30. Quetsa;, 31. anflsma. 32. emu/EjQ'SirL^. 33. Q£VsSl ; a girl, 
maid servant ; so called familiarly or contemptuously ; a slave girl 
as : ssherraQ^mjsSj a pilfering wench. ss^v^^Q^dS, Oaws^QjjisQ, 
OslLl-Q^sSi ; or (QlLl^; low and somewhat degrading expressions. 

To eat: 1. airu<Sp^. 2.0ufrQdSlp^, 3. OLDiraQ^^ekp^, to eat 
greedily? to gluttonize. ^.QuiraasnluemiTp^. 5. ^esrp^. G. ss^esurp^. 

7. LDQpdp^. 8. QsiTLLL^dQp^. 9. QpQ^rkp^. 10. {jijQf)i^p^.) 11. 

s^sSip^. 12, Ouir(^&sp£3. \^. ^£iii®p^. 14. ^ea)L-dp^ -J to 
take, as : ^wesr a5is/riLD6ikr£i!sri^L-.3!Qp^Qu!reo ^smL^^^LjQua(B@(n^sn ; 
he takes in or swallows up, as if he had to fill a pit with clay, i. e, 
he is a glutton, a gormand, a gormandizer. 15. Oirup^. 16. «u;d 
^. 17. QfBirj^dp^. 18. (SuinLJS(&)iEi eissd(^i^ s^^stni^ujiruSlQ^dQp^. 
19. Qs'iTQfiGijp^. 20. QaLLi^sp^. 21. Qp/Sip^, 22. seodp^, 23. 
iEi—irstjp^. 24. ffZBi^sSlp^. 25. Qan-^paji, [Qsir^Qp^.) to pick, 
to take up and cut as birds do, as : Qa^irpstspa Qs!r^,^pQuir&:>^&!r 



303 
p^. to eat rice slowly by little and little. SO. ffei'&p^. 27. e^/J. 

Aiiffer : 1, Qsiruth. 2. sitsbbi(B. 3. •sSuLy. 4. ^sk^. 5. Qtsiruuir^rruD. 
6. nppui-l. 7. Qsjuuue^. 8. Q)cfr(^L^^(^. — Qer^i^'ArOsfTsisr^Qus^'Slp 
SI ; to prattlcj to chatter. 9. (^sm-d(^ ; displeasure lit. curvation. 10. 
(dumLu-u:. 11. (2/)/)««zi). 12. Qp^i(^ or (Xf-£)iS(^k^(T^uL^, 13. (jo<S5^5=/r 
uJL/L,', averting the face ; that which is not right as, ^iriLJuL3(^ed or 
e'(riuuunujQunS(nj'ek ; he is declining from the right way ; The 
phrase s'lriuuun-ujIuirSp^ ; also means to go away withont taking 
notice of an injury received, or without quarrelling, li. (y:/-*©; a 
bend, a curve : the imperative of (tpi—s^Sp^ : qjh-sq^ anger, 
wrathj passion, as : Qpi—iaasiun pra^p^ • to appease an angry 
person. QpL^d(^<siiir uu'cx>r^@p^ ; to provoke, to anger, with the 
Dative. 

To rail? to abuse ; to talk obscenely : 1. ^LL(BSpjsi. 2. 'Sjs-r'Sp^. 

3. eaeuiiSp^. 4. eurrajirQeOLjQpdSlp^. 5. ^■sQ^s-LDaiu Quff^Sp^. 6. 
euQ^i^a^irniBioeoniSiSiiQuaiSp^. 7. ^L^n-'LorrajQus^Sp^ : ^L'^ujld bawdy 
talk. S. j>i^ui3LULDQu3?Qp^. 9. Q(nj>iim>^Q(njihs6)fiujiTuj^Llp^. 10. 

^L-ir^-l—LDlTUJ Qu<9?p^. 11. 61JU)L^/h^U>LjLcQu'5?p^. 12. (^®(^U-niU 

QuiR-Qp£l. 13. eu'Suui—uQug?Qp^. 14. G(/r^uj(I(nj'UJLjQu<9?Sp^. 15. 

ersa'B''5'SSLD!TUjQuS?@p^. 

Come soon: 1. <s5)aya;/r, or SL^'msuir. 2, ss<^c:mrevir. 3. "^sesluiheiir. 

4. ^Q^s^iriueviT. 5. ^^^LutTujeiJir. 6. cSetDireiJirujeurr. 7. ^l^ujit or cjuiaz/r. 
8. OuiTsOs^^ejir. 9. ^iTemOi—'—u^eoeiJir. 10. '9?£}jssinuevn-. 11. sfjVr 
npLQ-ssi^^/vsSp^SQGh exiir. 12. SLBQ^^^ei)isu!T or Q/siTL^uSleievrr. 13. 
eS(ipfi(S^mOs!-L'^L—0'S(jrsiirjpseiUfr. 14. ^ev^usu^tuiriLisuir. J."). ^s'Qs^ir 
QuiT.sFQ&iTQeiiek^ei}tr. 16. OssLLQi—esriSesiLpa'CSs^i^ek^eurr. 17. .a'/D-® 
asLjupsSdjir. 18. QuirQesreireurhQ^cm^ek^ajrr. 19. QuiTLLQu^esr^oufr, 
20. ^^&.s@pLDiTiueiiiT, 21. j),'(^'3'(S€0irLLi^ix>inu^L^£uir. 22. streo^inoj^LD 
u^t^LDeoeuir. 23. ff^aSeargi/fiw/r. 24. ff-LLsireSQeieutr. 25. S^' tLu^sesiss 
uSQeOsuir. 2G. ifiLu^eisr^siiiT. 27. ^i^Oi—esrjjJwrr. 28. ^®^©0i_c3br®aii;>r. 
29. unuffuuniLisuir. 30. uirseuf-aQp^df^eneuir. 

Come early in the morning. 1. OojerrOetreBreuir ; this term is used 
at Palamcottah. 2. eSLf-tudsfreoweuir. 3. sireowuireuir, ^LOuirQp^eSlif. 

fjiojir. 8. sTQ^uusiitr. 9. QsiTL^.3;^eti6iiir. 10. j^^sirf^QiDSvir. 11. ^S'O^ 



GOO 
^euir or StLSi-LL^dSeN-gxwir. 14. Q^^Q^LLL^QeOtsuiT. Jo. (^ffltuesrsirsjr 

l3pU IT'S SUIT. 18. QallSfrij-/f](lp'Soir'f3' iSl /D U IT (B taU IT , 19. SLpS(^(o>SX](Sf^SaiSiliT . 

20. (^{-ffieS^^Q/ffly/T. 



To vex, to weary, to delay to put one off with empty words. 
1. euiTiuiTisO uiE^s)iQuiT<SSl/D^. 2. euiTOJireo QsnatTla^s'iEiSfT'^p^. 3. <?-ts 
(3)LD(IuiTd(&(^0<9'nffO/D£j. 4. OiB(S<c£leOeSLL(SsQ^Q&iruSl(r^dQ/D^, 5. Szrr 

^^0isS(Bpj3. 6. /5Ttorr<Si_^^_^(£lS®s)/D^. 7. @Q£Ut-]LDU^(Slut-lLDniuQuiTLL(bl 

dQihQistjnSiQ^i'Qp^. 8. ^iruiSi^LJDu<s3ir'SSBf1iQ)snGssrL<i.qT)S,@p^, 9. seii^s 
LLL^sQek<3S(TF)sp^. 10. eiJiTUJiTQs^QpL^<fs?(ouiT(blp^. 11. ^itlLQi—itC. 
L—ii)umrp^. 12. .^L^S(cSsn—3i^e!!ruauGm-p^. 13. ^wtLQiiiQurrsiiLL'-BLQ 
esretSQ^sSp^. 14. isiT'mQuiTdSdQsir(S<k>rLf.(T^sp^. 15. ^ewrsOs® or 
^^£bsQs®es}(Sjap^. 16. /siriuiTi-Li^LniTujSsMtLKoiawdp,^, 17. Q<iQirirQi— 
eiKsmsmii O^QFuuj(i£^ujiTuj2o\}iue!Daj'ip^, 18. 0iT^^^<sai^6iJiTiSlQs{>wiTiTd 
Qp^. 19. ^eu^BiLp^. 20. ^irauixiTifiswui^T^Qp^^ 21. sitlLQl-it 
LLL-LDU(siisr^]Qp^. %'.Z. lau&iisOiTeiBLDiuirujifirerrdSL^dp^. 

A glutton or a worthless I'ellow who does nothing but eat. 

}, Qumis^^neuireBT. 2. eucujjj^iTffl. o. •fiiuuiiLL'SjiinjDear- one who 
likes good victuals? au epicure? or gourmand. 4. Q&iTjjiOsiTe\)<o9. 5. 
eiiaj(ir^ppLDiTLLi—iT3}>5uek. 6. Qui^injiiSiiJsk . 7. QuiTses: UL^ifliuek . 8. icsi) 
^i:tftlL^. g. ^zisieBruQuu^^ffiTLDdk. 10. ULf.uj.fls^SsmTt—sar. H. ^ctt 
esrdsireuL^. 12. QuiTiEis^f^iJ-L^, 13. Quir/EisuuLLL—esr or C^/t^^ljlj 
tLi—dr. 14. unsuiT^. 15. .=gye^)EU/r^. 16. Qs^ir^^si^irs'aihfiiTUJLb. 17. 
Qs'iT^^uuirdssiQ'SFinT&sQe'dir&Lo siBs'S'lLl^ siSl6\)iTg^QL£)£ir/S(v^ii£ip,susiT. 

18. Q3=SSlTUJL^<iQp<SU6Sr, 19. Qu0m^6!lS<!S<SITiriciT, 20. eiilUpJpjd(^iSU(^3= 

SssraSeoeOiTLDeiciDi—sSpiiij'si'', 21. Q^iybmt—.LDiL^LDQs'irpsopQnup^ssr. 

An extravagant fellow or woman, a spendthrift, a prodigal. 
1. mn^iTffi, 2. ^UiSlifl^essrL^. S. Qs^eoeuire/rl, 4. &isoBn^£3S(cm-i_iTu 
QuHTeiQffSiKBjuismpeiJssr . 5. si—^Q^rffj'iseueir, 6. ^L^<SiTeS, 7. wiTS'sfTisQ. 

8. (^IS^SirsS. 9. <S6ffdTl—^SizmL-ITLjQun'ioilL^sSp Os=Sd£VITetl]. 10. (o«r 

eOiTSiTeSl. 11. &.(TFfUui-.n'Qp<s^. 12, SL—^Qfi(nj'^siTe(tl. 13. STcmds^^(^iS 
QL-(nj>^ffemi—iTerfl. 14. ^skmiiQ^LLL^. 15. uisssr^Q^LLi^. 16. semi—^^^ 

evIT/ElSl^SSUL-jlEl SUiL-JQ^lLl^, 17. ^d!!0Quj(BsSIT;S6U&-, 18. &-emes>i—LDiT 
^dserristfl. 19. OisiT£}ieiosiisseh<sfl. 20. j^jsmr^aaeasiL-ca)^ ^ssiTSTxtBasIp 
.gijL^snsS. 21. ^^unsir&oQ^ifliLHTLDeo Qa'eZ(s^us?srpQ^si'oi]iT(b-fi.. 



310 

A nio-^ard, one who is close-fisted ; The following synonymes signi- 
fies both for male and female. 

1. Qssms&irireisr or «/r/f?. 2. Qs^LLiSiairifl. 3. s9t<^iB. 4. SQi^fl. 
5. ^^ifl. 6. £ilJ^^<§^ifl- 7. eiJ6i>6dirdQ. 8. a/eosfiSsS, 9. £u&)ei>irense^ri-^. 
10. 0mi6i)soi3=^ifl. 11, jtjL^scsmuj^. \2. /^ul3^cs9. 13. ^(z^si^. 14. ^ 
Q^^^di. 15. j^JTirssileaL-. 16. ^(f^S(^u>si5>3^iuir^ j>iQp^^ssLL6n>L.. 17. 
ffi5=ii). 18. FrOLDiT^a^iBiTffl. 19. sirsfdf^QffOiTLS. 20. ^eairdsiT'^Si^ ^Q£^ 

uiTiT.i'Qpeueh.22. siLi-uusre^p. 23. ueo&\)s(^i^lQtMirih^ufriTsSp£iJ6ir. 

To fare sumptuously, to feast : 1. s^LDLSuLDmrruja^ a^irui^^Qp^, 2. 
^0^^uJiruJ aiTu®p^. 3. ^L-t—Lj^c^<omLL!rLua^!ru(Bp^. 4. Qev^w evir 
^OLDsk£>i <?/ru®/Dj^. 5. (suiu^Q(rrj'ihu.3^s^iTu®p^, G. Q^iru£S)uSmpuj 
ixuL®(^3=iTu®p^. 7. Qfii'S(rQeo §)iT<sisriBuQ7,a.zs)S<^ tpff- 3-iru®p^. 8. 

Pmi'SSiSuSL^Saii' 3^!ru(S)p^. 9. 0<?(555jiO<?(5i<SLJ QuiTLLl—SSiL-dpjl. 

10. (^empii'^eo&nnDe^ &iru(Bp^. 11. euiu^^sQ <sv(^3^2sarumT^LDei> ^/r 
u(Bp^, 12. suLUjjiiSsopuJs QsirLLLf.dpj3. 13. LDmii(^(sfr)ffs^3^iTu(BpJi. 
Qffir&Q ; an infantine expression for Qs-ir^, boiled rice as : Qs^iri® 
^sir8€s>paJiT? dost thow eat rice? Lj/ri^S5^4i<5»K/r>aj/r ? dost thou 
drink milk ? R. 

Habit, practice, exercise. 1. ui^dsLD. 2. s^ss^ld. 3. tajL^isic. 4. 
eu/rtf ssios. 5. ^"3i>siJ it lL® . G. ^u Juj/r^^ii). 7- LSliflojih. 8. L^pi^Qwiri^ 
^s^anaienirLLL-LL. 9. /J'/rtl^ii). 10. eSi-iruuipdsLh. 11. (^<omui3ff^). 12. 
LDirpLp<si>. 13. iSs's^^ssuiTiLi—LD. 14. £Fa^siBu> ', natural disposition as : 
ji,ffl;|gi«<s/5;sa5'_i6s^(jSeo /B&ieo&ir^SLD ; he is skilled in that art. 

A simpleton, a foolish fellow. 1. ^^L3irrr&). 2. ej^eninudT. 3. (szgo) 
^. 4. QuLDire^ih. 5. Ques)^. 6. jiiuuinSl. 7. Oia/^uetDLJ. 8. e2ru)iOT)£a»r 
i^. 9.<5rmiT(^fffr^. 10. 0^i«(OT)(T/3Ll4L. 11. LLUi^sanerJ^^. 12. i^^ffi 
;5ti3. 13. seiii^eieitr^evm, 14. >F,(i)uufTir<smsuirsoseir. 15. ji/QpdSlamfii^ 
eh'SetruJirir. 16. ^(ip^ciQuiTQ^i(^&j!r&j<ck. 17. iidQLjQuirs(gi^0^iflujir<s 
euek. 18. ^uuppeushr. 19. QloitujOitlLl^. 20. QusseoiTemuf.. 21. .9^(SB) 
laQsiTL^. 22. i3.3-3^(T!EjQs(rbir<s^. 23. jfausQsnes^Lg. 24. <s5ti)ii!(S»fl. 25. 
QuniTuussi — /r. 

Envy : 1. uisns. 2, <cSQiTir.~[L}). 3. Ourr(nj'aoLc. 4. ^euOeuiriLL—ir^^ 
mu>. 5. ^Oire^il. 6. .sc^ir^jBuiJo. 7. Quir^uupp^.^emw. 8. siri^irifl 
sdesTLc. 9. (^^-h^f'iiSLKBQss^dsasuiriT^^^ffi). 10. @JJ/ loitulj. 11. C^e® 
ffi-Tgyjii). 12. g)<-«(3 i-'-i-ic?. 13. GojL-^iicojLJCJu/rLl^. 14. ^i_ii?. 1<3. 



311 

Os'H^^. 16. /EiTffsn-eoS^uLj. IT. ji,'L^<G^^Quirp/§l&wuLf. 18, ^Sso 
Oiu®ssrr^ ^^jruisSsouLji^. 19. srri^3=^^emLb. 20. siviLiLcSirnih. 21. 
uimjiT. 22. Os(nL(BsiriLJ(^ffcksesrui. 23. ^^srruj(^3^^^ej!rLh. 2h, sci— 

Intricacy, perplexity : 1. O^ir/i^ffoj. 2. s-u^^irevii). 3. Oe^s^ejas". 
4. QiEiaeouLLi—ib. 5. QuirirmLi—m. 6. s^eh'SotT, 7. a/LcusO/TLli—tD. 8. <9='e; 
slLi—ld. 9. <a60«c55ii). 10. ggi£yiffi/ e^L^a^s^sQeneOfT^ S-U^^ireuil. 11. O^n" 
eo^ 12. Quir^ssQpi^iuirQuifftpeii. 13. ©<5@tJ:il«^ 14. Q^itQs?. 15. 
LSdseoirLLu.u). IG. ^^eOLLt—eo. 17. eurruLf^^u). 

A good for nothing fellow : 1. ^uupp^nsir. 2. ■3'irLDi3(^(S!sf). 3. ia 

^suisir. 6. stSL^LDesiL-iueir. 7. ^L^uQurr^^ffiTLDesr. 8. (^^iejQslL 
i—eiiehr, 9. S-GOeesiSsOsiTQ^ii^, 10. f^iLu^s'si-euir. II. (nTQ^ixiLi^iT^L^ujisk, 
\2. ^tMUU^.s(^^ei3tT ^Guek . 13, ^emdsssr^iEiQ. 14. (^ u^iu ir Qpi^9l . 15. 
0^(rF,ui_iQ£^. 16. ^essremuQuir^^ QpQ^a^, 17. ix>€S)L-iuek. 

To depart, to die. 1. Lns^^iruSLLi—irek. 2. Qs'^^uQuir^ehr. 3. 2.(5 
esbT®Qun'^eisr, 4. LLiB^^uQuiTi^esr, 5. ^pi^QuiTi^skt 6. Quirdsi^ 
^<s=(?u/r(sr)6w-. 7. £S(i^/i^Quir(^ek. 8. ^Q^^^iQsiremru-^. 9. QeuQ 
iflQs'iT/h^irek. 10. Q.ff=iTd.sQeOfrs(^Q&'iT/s^rT6i!r. 11. iDrrernQQuir^eisr , 12. 
Lc<oS)rr;(^,g^Q.uiTies)esr. 13. LDesbT^^ssirenirfza^ehr. 14. ^s^aD^eSlLLi—ireir. 

15»<^^LBsi)ffOirLD&)(cUrr3^'9r^. 16. SLDUenSSuQufTt^sk, 17. e©61/c?fffiSi_ 

(^O.g'freoe^irLDffoQuiri^ssr, 18. ffly/rip/P^63)i_(^«^Llj_/riSsr. 19. emssSi—uuLL 
L-trek. 20. Lcu^i^QuiT^sir. 21. &{rp(ff^iuupiE^Qutrt^5k, 22. ^euek 
Quit ^eo&)6i]!TiBuQu!r^<5?. 23. L^L8uSlsms(oikrSomeSlil.L-.irek. 24. usrsuffLDn" 
(CT)o3r, 25. unQ!Si>!rsuniTu^ujir^ek, 26. 0^iU(^SLDfriev)€3r, 27. s'lriLi^Se 
Qun^shr, 28. ^LLQi—ek^es^L-is^irm, 29. 6ro«<S(T^GS (Si—uulLi-, trick, or 
esse(ip^ujir.f^^. 30. semSsmQpL^sQstr&kin—irek, 31, ^eusmuirQs'iriu 
(^■3=^. 32. [^(^©(Sr)iS3r.] 

Come slowly : 1. OtDeh-efreuir. 2. Qw^suntLsuir. 3. ^^^inSlfhe^irLDei) 
(SUIT. 4. .g^/r ^mireuir. 5. etautueuiT. 6. u^^S'iriuevir. 7. jtjUjflsaostumLi 
evfT. 8. 3^inh;SLDiriLi6U!T. 9. sj<oS>s=i^3'!rL^<iQsk^wir. 10. ji^^esr/BeiDL- mu^ 
/B^ssleir^exirr, 11. ^esiLDtuiTLLi—ixiinij ecniifleuir. 12. QfintnLi—ixtTiu mej 
/E^dQmQ&rrwrr. 13. ssfL'S'GOiTL^dSlesr^euir. 14. &efrn-/s_^Qsir6ikrQt—6uir, 

Sport, scoff, mockervj derision. 1. <?«ffi/5^Lo, 2. uflujirs'LD. 3. /^e; 
@. 4. wiiiiurremL^. 5. QSir^. G. QifluLj. 7. QiueB-^iM. 8. Qse^. 9. 

END OF SECTION IV. 



312 

1M1TA.T1VE EXPRESSIONS FA.M1LIA11LY USED IN THE 

TAMIL LANGUAGE. 

Section V. 
/f is^uQuird(^i Q^fliuiTLDa^ You spent extravagantly. 

O <? 60 fiW U 65Jr 0" OJ . 

/f ajiTd(9)uQurrsSeisoirci)so Qu You speak nonsensically with- 

e?(^£;, out reason. 

i OTSOTOTT csird(^u QuiTsSearprii Why are you angry without 

Q3iTLSl;i^dQa;iren(iyuj. any ample reason. 

jifeijsrr LDirdQLnndSsk^ Of5ik>£sii She heats the paddy very 

^d(n^srr. Carefully with great noise. 

^eueir u-irsL-ira^cir^ fEi-ij^ She walks in a proud manner. 

jijsusk eijQf)W^a(^u ueiJ--s=ir<s He made many excuses for 

(^u(Duir&(3)dO<fir&i(ffj>s!ir. coming. 

jij/d^d&iSljbem/Da- S«@iSig er Did you disentangle that 

O^^iLirr ? String. 

&.2so^srr^srr<5Tsk^Osfr^QdQjDjs. The rice-pot hoils with a buh- 

bling sound. 

ji^/s^i5inu duir&i&JirQarcisrj^ s^ That dog keeps up a howl. 

e^sss^s!^^ Q^SO/Dsiir^ -s^ips He turned round the wheel. 



(JerT-SoTTs^ Q^(^Oscisrj^ siriLid The child has a strong fever. 

^mTcmFi'T(^i^(^0€fTsir ^(n)Sp^. The ^yater is icy "cold. 

^iSsf^uunSoaretDuj u L^Ssur ldi—ld The cat rolled over the pile 

Qi—esr^ ^qtilLl^sSIlLi—^. of pots with a crash. 

^■semieBsFn- LDi-u:>QL-mQ(^'Sj3. Thc water runs on with a 

murraering sound. 

ji/susir ixsiTLcQcrTcsrjpt QuQt^esr. He spokc vcry loud. 

euirojdsireQQ&a .s^emcs^^ir &^& The water runs in thc channel 

Qeoek^ ^(SSjDjp. with a gurgling sound. 

ci—iiOuffoeD/Tii) eSi-cSOL-ew^ Thc body trembles all over. 

^eueffit—Zf^^x 'ciJiTujQmT(ii^i^ir&) If you let her talk she will 



3i;} 

Ollit ^OinirOsis^ ^ 5:^rorGrot_LSif LJ get up a terrible quanel. 
iJirerr. 

i_jsssr<sssBe9(f^f5^ ^s^.K'SLQsOipfBT The water ruus freely from 

^ ^'^Slp^. the ulcer. 

Qsirifi iSsiiiLSOcveir^v i^puuiL The fouls came forth with a 

L-^. J rushing noise. 

&.L-i})L^ss&0^asrrSI(iT)sp^, The body is hot with fever. 

LDsmipQa'nerTQs^nenOeiJsisr^ Ou The rain came down in 

lufl^ or Qf5iTdQ)Q/5iT<sS6a'^ Of5ir torrents. 
esSpji'. 

_^ppeoQua(BOuiTQi—ek£v jrj2/ The shower comes rattling 

Slp^. down. 

stj'SLieke{ih^tBij(Lpi^a'eh(^3'enO<s(T He keeps up a continual 

csr£>i Quej-ioiiirew. chatter. 

ssmaQemsbrj^ ^uui-^&(n;sk. He keeps up a drumming 

noise. 

s-i_ii)£-/ sumsOemearjjj siriuSp The body is hot with fever. 
^. or {0a/r^0«/r0^«6sr^<5/r^^.) 

0[B(^e^ui—uOi—&srra ^uj.sp^. The heart palpitates violently. 

^(T^fB^fTuQuireQ^w^ LoewL^uL- The rain came pattering down 

uGii—earjn eu/h^eiilLLu.^. suddenly, other things continu- 
ing as they were. 

uirir^^ih ufTFiTLDeo uL-uOc-dr He seeing saw not and spoke 

^QuQiSiLi-aek, rashly. 

iSish'bcaseiT secaOensBTjv ui^i(<tj The children are reading in 

i[s,eiT. full chorus. 

^(r^L-esr^Q^Oi—^^ 6j,Lp.(es}sk. The thief scampered off sharp. 

eijemL^&> st-sQi-mjpi QuirSl The bandy goes rattling along. 
p^» 

065(S/eif? (Oserreffi) ueduOeossr^u The lizard is chirping. 
uejusp^, 

srrSo&naOujffO&JiTLD OweijQsi'Qso The arms and legs are all 

m/S(r^sp^. cramped. 

dD^dQ^LDiT^ OLDirOpm/SlQ^i The thin biscuit is very 

p^. crisp. 

s-L-ffQu.mjpi LD0s>jp^!<^&p^. The rain beats in violently. 

p 1 



314 

^L-tlOueiiei>irw w^TevOpek/SQ^ The \vholo body is parched up. 

0,srressrcir>L-spsO/Dsw/S!(r^d;r>^. The throat is parched. 
euojp^Qi^Qei) Osit^sqOssit^ The bowels are violently dis- 

sQsm^ QuirQp^. turbcd. 

Qsuiiir Oen^QeuQ^ek f^Q^i The Iftt water is steaming. 

eSstriTmuLpiJD @®@Qi_63r (nj'i^Q Tiie velam fruit rattles in its 
P^. shells. 

6ru(Surr^LDj)/svekOsrr(BQsirQL- He always speaks hastily. 

erekSsarsse^sTL-ireo &(BQQu.sirjii lie always falls foul of me 

^Q^Q(n^m. when he sees me. 

euir.LpuuipLD OsiripOsiripOevdr The plantain has gone quite 

£11 €B)fEi^QuiriSlp£u {QuiT'fsi-.) bad. 

^w^uulKS eutpenOt^esr jSl(rT^& That silk is very soft. 
p^. 

^eusirarrtBujLD er<si)0i)iTLD euLpsuip His affairs are all disorder. 

^/5^si?^@ Ljfffi-iOffdr Opifl/F£3 That firewood has burnt up 

QuirQpja. ''^11 at once. 

ji/k^^^smB Ouir^fi^OuirOs^mju That cloth has torn (being 

Qt^feJiQutr^e-r^. rotten before.) 

^/E^esriiiswsOinm^iJixessrdp^. The sandal wood yields a frag- 
rant odour. 

^■i^sumutu^ @(S)Q)QL-m£v gg That boy has run off sharp. 

^/ifjUL^t-easu /seoe^iTuj OtMirs' That clotli is very strong and 
OLDirs^Osveir^Q^sp^. well woven. 

s^us^Oirshrjv uiril^QuirCBSp^, The snake glides off with rust- 

tling noise. 
erci!TA(^iQs'^Opmjpi&}(^'Sp^. I am quite bewildered, my 

head whirls round, 
jysugi/i® e.i_ii>L/ er ck cjstQ u: n S His body is somehow rather 

£i<£Qp6sr/SlQdpjp. fat (he wants a thrashing— is 

insolent.; 



315 

^/r/RiemsuSlQffO uis^Ss'j Oibq¥)QiisQit He griuds his teeth in his 

ear^ si-^sfn^esr. sleep. 

(STsimsrs^LDLDir Ostrs^OsirQ^'icisr^ii What ! He is always whisper- 

[(^ff?(^9tm^) O3'iT0oei£Si((r^m. ing somewhat (buzzing in one's 

ear.) 

ereieoirQfjLD Qtorr&'QLDirOffeirjriJ eu They all came clustering to- 

/5^ OLDiriu^^eO^fremL-iTirash-, gether thickly, 

^Q^t-SsBTuduiTeo ^QF,^QiTeir£)i He looks askance like a thief. 

^L-LDLj O^fT^uQe^aQpsm- rSo^s The body is all rough. 

jijeu'^Lj u/DuOpssr ^(Lp^^s They dragged him away vio- 

Osn-ioSsr(B(Suir^irserT. lenlly. 

sT6k(S!srQiMiT (Lp^jQpOsmm^ ns They talked about something 

^LULDadj QuQi^irsBerr, or other in a low mysterious 

way. 

^rrGm^iBiri^ce>si£LL®iJi O^rresr For two hours he talked on 

0^newQei/ici!r^sSL-inDsoQuSlm)dr. incessantly. 

iciesresrQLDir QpsLhiB^iB^Qousir The face is somehow glister- 

rBQrfSp^- ing. 

Qsiressr QsiremOisijeir^ Qu<3^Q He talks thickly (as one who 

(n^sir, has a cold). 

j)l!s^-sSjD(Sj s?£us?0 /D sir jji <oTifliu That firewood does not burn 

eSlsidsd. briskly. 

t_jes)s^^eff>uj&jiTu3Qei>QuirLLi—ir If you put tobacco into your 

ei) /BirsQ<sS^s£lO/Dsir/3(r^<i/D^. mouth your tongue w'ill be burnt. 

sir^Qeo (SjmesrQLDiT @®@0:_ There is a ringing in my ears. 
ek^ or (^(jriQQirsiiQ(fff'(Sl^. 

euuSljii L^QLjQircir^ &.ui3S(ir)i The stomach is much swolln. 

^QSi^Q^iTi—i—iri^ QfBirenO/sirffiT If you touch it it is soft. 
Oeussj^Qhdp^. 

^i^Lotrsij Qsir/oQsfrQp^ ^q^ That flour is coarse. 



Q<f£ij Qixiir^QiDir^Qensk /Sq^^ The mud is thick and makes 
P^. a noise when the foot is put in it. 



310 

wetDssd-- usnuQ.snmMv iBek^jQ The jewels glistened very 

p^, brightly. 

s-iBs.L(f.&3'sOffes^l8Qf)S,p^. The noise is very great. 

j)jsuuiL®s:0siT6m(B Q£ji(^Op He is caught aud looks afraid. 
eifrj:v QpL^s.@(n^5hr, 

^!£^<£'JLi^Q<so OiBQrjUu g?£}i3^ The fire seized that house 

OpesrriidL^f.^ ^(g)S}Os£sr£}j up briskly, burned brightly, and 

/SLDi—uiOi—skOpifliB^Quirs^-s?^. the house is burnt up. 

erekwiSl^ susuOeuek^ or p My stomach burns. 
)seiirjji erfflSp^. 

LbiTLDir^^Qeo uigLhOLDireoOiMireo From the mango tree the fruits 

OeudrMi OeinKiismQp^. are falling. 

Qei'iri—QioOfrOi—esr^ ^^uul^sS He beats the drum with a 

(nj-ssr. dull sound. 

iSeh'Serr ^jij/d^gjiJiiO^ear^ &/S The child smiles cheerfully. 



erasrQmiTQpLD OeuQQ£^Qi-ek^ He is always speaking sharp- 

Qu3rS(nj'sk. ly. 

&nua<s^<£(^ih^ umriis'^T Qinrr He poured out the money 

sOLDSTisQimjskjii s^/B^^iresr. from the sacks in heaps. 

^i^uurres)^ eruQurr^u) Os^ir That way is always muddy. 
^Qa^nO^sisr/SlQf^ip^. 

^p^Qe^Oeusherru) Qu:)iT(^QLDfr The water comes down in 

Os£sr£V6uQ(^^, river. 

LD^^ipa^eirffOerrek^u OsiTLipjs, The rain is coming down iu 

bucket-fuls. 

^isijear^(r^^OiTm r^Qr)sp^&i^. He is very wild. 

^id^suOuiTL^ tpihOpshr /Sq^s That powder is very coarse. 
pjP' 

siruLjsoss(j^0sirL-03iTL-0eL-ek The bracelet is slack on the 

(Sqffip^. hand. 

^L-uiL^us^uQa'sirpfflep^. The body is itching all over. 

Qu3ir^jiu)dlir^d^^0^iTenGi<iir The ring is loose on the 

enOeueBrrSQ^dp^. finger. 

ixe^LoQe^ickjii smr<^Firi>SJ-L^Qp She is weeping abundantly. 



317 

(£OL^0OGOiri}) Qsirs^OsfrOffim-jru The house is all trembling to 

UQ^^iTiLQuiri's?, ruin. 

s?^Ofrs\)0OirLh &.uuL^i^u Quit The whole wall is crumbling 

e^QuireifOeusk^u s-^Qf^Sip^s. awav with the salt air. 

ji/<sijScsrss,cS3n^ir&o Q(B a^Q L-esr £x They all fear the sight of him. 

iB(BlrE]S(irj>iTS(Sfr. 

jijiBsiBssis ^sciQsm^ uSdr^ That jewel shines very bright- 

Qp^. ly 

j)jeuzm- (5reisrdssrss€SiTu-iTs(i <s®<e When he sees me bespeaks 

Oi—sk^\oU3fSi^chr. angrily. 

^es)au^4^Qene(VL^ QPPQppQmjm The newly washed garment, 

/3(i^sp^. is stifi''. 

^euedr/Beki^uj ^i—^Oi—ek^eurr He reads iluently. 

uiwipQuuj^iSsk L^ed£^uffuQ^ After the rain the fields were 
&^jj'(2/)SsTT^^(5iO^. green with grass. 

Imitative words like the following are in very frequent use 
in Tamil. 

Lesson I. 

SdQ isuir/aSeuir — ji/eL'^eisi—iu j)jS(^^0^!TS(Q f^LDS(^Q<aijemiri—inh — j>//5 

i@ Lnd(vQs(^ (3u/ri_lLf(T5i@^/r — ^su^d(^ LDdQ^Sld(^dlLl.L^ujir — ^is 

3eisr — jijw^s(^ iod(^u(ouird(^^ Q^iflujeSeo2o\). 
Lesson II. 

©IlLls.it Sisrr IT? — ^eu^s{^ sstL'Bed UEi;^,Qfij(^ ^(f^dSp^tr? — /§ erskssr 






SsrrffrAu uiTiKirs,Sfnj( 



318 



qQiej(^ Qa'uj.siriTsenir? 

Lesson III. 

iDiruSl(7^S(^cin' ? cSy'S^@2''S@=5<5E6»L_©6roi_ eSi^^n'ffLDn'uSQ^d(^^, — ^eueir 

uSls^ S nPSiL^Si5S>l—.QuJITITetTLDinuei)ld^QrjSQp^lTUjQsi^^ SQlUSSr Qn le^i 

tuir? — ^i^u uirLDi-is(^^^'^'cS)L-QsaLSU-up. uSiTFiUuiriT^eh — j>/ev^sQs 
ear ear i3to!o:Ses)i— i^L^^^QfjiQpQ^sir'? — ^isu^S(^ sBireai—QetDL- (£ieiSuS 

Qp 3^ffS(^s'Sen eviriEiSleujrQeuismi—iTi}) — s^eueir •ssetau.QesiL—Oujeiis^n'/E ^ut 
SfTffiTfijQuirijSl/bjji — jijeuerr^n'es)i—S'iriss)L—iijfr'SLjQu,^S(Oj>'orr — j^eueir<!R.€S)L~ 
Sh.etai—UJiTLLiUQfsri&'s'BoiTeuirifti^eer — !Besii—iBissii—iuiTUJUfrei)LCiiT((^u>so j>j&]3usit 

Lesson 1Y. 

r&'cQTiiSQei ss\''£)iiQe^£iij ^,uu®LDrr — Lasssn^Sso 0,'Bisi>^Q(so_§^i srs^fjit 

^ffl/^ffi@ isSleoeiiiSlsOffinsrijjiud.O^flu-jLDiT? — ,§ ^fs^sairifliu^s^eo ^Ss^juSlL 
lL(S1 Qe0ffiiit})L9(S'0_^Lh usssr(^Q^ — (^^<5s>iTd(^u lSsti) jij; s si) jjjf OailesiLDiuir 

Uj(oUirLLL^(TF,dSl(')/'ir'SSmT? QfB€i)&i}§lSi&:i(S'3iJ^S'S^J^<30SUlTLLL^lSQ^sS^IIS 

etrirl — M ^dj<s3i—^i0leo QuaQp^i^io Os'irsas^Ss'd S)U^ Si—ihestaussiT 
Qg — § srem(i3S)Q(2/'Lbu s'6v^s(^ULSle<i)e)iidsiTtS!(rF)dQ(vt/'LU — MQ^lcu seo 

mstrt ji^is^uuesur^O^ireaseiauJLJup/Slir&^&i Q.^e<i^S0ii^ emeu^^Q^s 

Q^fl-p — g)s»L_#©i3S'tltf eo eSSsos^uuir^mS^^ j>jSuui£lLoir'i — (^fSeusk^ 
ilu^eo 3^iT_§^Q^ @CB)L-d(9)iDiT ? — QsiTi^d(^ euiTj)ii^^ (3p35yr^<j,©(75«(5 
^^ p — ULL(DuL±3'Qi^'i sir^S^ ^(rriS(^~£rr ? — eusmuiScsr ^lSu^^ 

(Wj^/r? — (sl?il®<55(25 LDir^^^ QuinLu^ujir ? 



I 



319 

Lesson V. 

smu-iSisi) s srr (Gin's ^ (sr^ ^uuSIldit? — auirejsBius^L—^^s'O eTefii^Qeh(^ 
J5)(5<S(^^/r — s.esrs(^ ^■stTi^etrfQm^ ^uuiLt—^tr — jijsuerr fferT(erT-3'errOsrr 

uCourreO sit^}j^ — (^^.es^irs^s QsiTerT(6r^Ssh(^(omJi:Sd^'S afiLLL^i^ir 

Lesson VL 
^Lju®Lcir': — sesiL—uSl<si)3Sfre\i!r&0O(r isvii:^QT)<sSp^fr? — ji/<su^dQsesricsr entr 

iiSleo (^rnEJ(^SlufEi(^ (ES&vsiriTu>'ruSl(njdQ) — o^mQiriEJ^ Slir/wQssi<o\}irLD 
QuTOjeSLLi—^iT? — ^ih^eSlujiT^idsiTir^dQ LDQffih^QQr^i^ QsiT®^dSl(niU 
ufTiT'^Q'omw^ fSLht-jS^/Desr — ji/6xi^d(^<sS(TT)f5^'S(r^/s^QffuJ^mTS'in trf — ■ 
ji/.i^LS&aru u(^i5^Sl(T^i^ ji/'j^^^dQsiTem® QuirsuuQuiri^^ — Jfji^ 
<?<9fau/f s'tfl/i^Slffl/B^ aSliQuQuireij^ — ^i^uuirSsvd sjj/B^Qrr/i^ ssiressr 

/B£ii3p/B^ ^Lf-dsL^utriT — euires)uj eruQuir^/b ^/D/B^Sjj/F^Qairemi-^Q^ 
sstQ^ — eruQuir^ii) jjiwesr ^iri^@ii.'s^Qsir<o5drLp-(T^dSi(ff/>£sr — j>/.i^ 

^crr^nSls^^eikrSSisFlT €i-[J k^SlII ih^QsfTeSST L^Q^d&p3,ST t — ^ib^Lb'Sssr sui^/s 

0iirLDamOsLLLp.dsinrOssremjruL£>(y)m^Sl(^/s^(DUirsirQ^ — Qa'irjn LD(j^fB^ 

Lesson VIL 

jtlauej^i—ds^eo s^essresiL—QsmemL- (ouiri—Qeusesri—inD — g_s3r LDzmsmi—Q 

(^LD — <«/r^'<5@,iJ ^sm0DLS(cih!Teir>i^LSl(r^d(^^ir? — jiiiBsQ^Sliu^Go^ ^^ssr 
es)i—SlsmeoL—Lun'uj^(ir,'^L^ uSQ^dSp^ir? — s^-ihp^^esireafifleOLEid-s'LDiriu en 
<smr05)i—@smesii—LS:3s-i^ QaaemL^^rF^dp^ — ^!B^d(^en^^eo Qsemeb-)i—Q 
<mncS)i—^LJU^uiir ? — ji/rs^uL3'SGii^(5S}eud(^s^QF,es)euOsemeinL—Qsih>riss)!^ j)j^ 
^■LDiTiu QuiTLLL^QhdSp^n'? — ji/®d(^urrSsi!rs(er^d(^ j>jGmes)iSecBreiaL-<sasu 



320 

ei)^ or i3^0Lpasesiu.Sso iSuemeia—QiremeaL— ui—iriB^(i^sS/D^ir? — uiru 

/5sCeOiTcSl(i£ii^^iT? — ji/aussr evsesresii^sii'SikresiL-ujiruj Qu&^sist — ushe^aerr 

Lesson Vlll. 
Qljrb^ u3'u03'S3r-Difli(^^ — QsiTL^ssh ens'mQs^e^ jSqf^ip^ — mSk 

Q^LDir uSQ^i(^^ — ^sus3rc^<s^(^O^sirQpcsrsir^'^ffOir^ euQfj^crrj'eir — fsirsk 

Lesson IX. 

^iLi—irem- ? — ^mr^k LDu-iDQi—ek^utrtusIp^ ? — jijsuek dlcsSi—uQu 
&^m ? — QsLLL-QssireSls(&^S(Q ji/evdr s-i—S^Qi—mpu^ai^irek ? — ereer 
^@ 2_i_ti)L/ Qsui—QsuOL-&ir^SiJ(iT)Sip^ ? — j)jih^eeiULuasr a:—sQi-sarJJi 
UL^s(^ek — ^audr^!remQL-LlLsiffi>LDU.LDQt—eisiQ(fij>Lf.eSLLL-ireBr or @®@ 
Oi_^(S(fr/L^<^LLi—iTesr — ji/eussr eriBf3)uQu3'3fS(^(^ ^(SS^Qu-esrjjj eSljipQ 

plQr)f(n/em. 

Lesson X. 

esSSei) nppnppuL^iBi'&LD — sirS^ih ■srrp3rpuuiTuS(f^S(^£3 — SF^nQuieii 
to^iTLD ii^poSpuuiTu9(rF,d(^j0 — ^i^ULSarSsrr ^Q^^Qiresr^Q^dp^ — jifeu 
esrusiidso f5irfBQn'esr^sij^a(^sar — jt/ih^sseo so sOirem^u s^iDiT/s^(cufrs^ 
SrjH — ffirs'OiTsirjv fSQ^isSleSlLLu-iresr — ^li^isiohetrek Q(i^(^Oir^^(ipy^s 
(mek — ^Ss\)(Lpy)Sir^^iTeo s.i—LhQueiei)iTu> eunwQirek^Qfi&pjp — j>jsii&sr 
LitrLxQir^jpiu iSleSlLLi—irssr, 

End of section V. 



LJ ip Q La IT i^ S' Q S' ^ p <B (^ 

^ IT ill i-i . 

LS>Lp!^mi—\USIS>'B^Q^^^' LDSDlTl^LJrreij^ils.f^ 
Ul^QlJ^'^L^&^JTd.mL.UU<B(Tfj^^pQLJfrnRLLQt_., 

^sf^Qs'iTadj^jlousdGu:^^^-]. 

^es^Sj):uuu(^^QsiLQp^ir» 
^<s^^^a9irnii&iriL:^,^iT^j'l::Up^S^upi0Qiu. 

^J-{SULJtl.C^Gil^§>21S(^ c£>i'S^l^Ll:^^S=S--(Ssil epL^tllGLJnCSlSL}^&(^ 
(^mTUp^l^l—^^^HtT^Tt 

^^asisSlQ^^ s(r,m)^BGn^p(S^ Qtl.L_mfoSiiTS)Q4}LLu.uuss),a. 
^(asrTj-^L-j&eSltJ^^^U&xjTfOf, 

mS^<iiSIT(Sfi](TF)eQpQJcG)(rilS^GCU^:ff^ff!r^ipQJ. rQlUoG' S^ p ^1711,0 LJ<emJ » 

tM^S3(T(m)ss:^&^L^j!)'!f!Q^i^a?.sS-QqsuiL^m>ui^'cSlL.!r, 

^■SS[T;^.p(Sll(li LL\5'S'ITi--crLJSl?>£;iL!LE>r. 

■^ .5 cS fT Jisrr <s j5 £5 ff o& i_ /7 i^i ^. ,•£) ..^ro ^ j^ ^ ,5 j^ /^in ^ 

^3sim^!ri^<sh.L^iliiQpp^a<^Ljc.iF^(r^w^h.L-.ut3p^p(r(rss-i. 

^^<sndsfTULJt^^^s<S!W^i;)aQLJC>rs=a>GLj'T;€y,z°r. 



^'&Qij9 eo)J(Lp!i3§ii',(B l9 &=€&£= ^& IT JTisbj-, 

•=^1 'ff y iiS) (o >Si) (d U IT ^_^U0>^> 3 ill US) U^ctS>(T^Sfr£f, 

^J(^Q^s06v?/SiTun-^^6OLliuflQedsL'<!isfitu^iT'. 

■^1 (^- & piM!^! .gJ^i^Ci^i^ L^n-/6^^J>/ /Bujirilj'''o! L-!<:^ 

san-rrtt^^ajiliQLj'iJiQrrobTT' Qor 

^(^ffGtsrss(T!r^(y:^jFfsQGs^ ai ^,fF^'5sr £<Bir sr ^<!r Q aj S ^Q'o'sr fh S! ry 

.^ (1S7 , iffi^ ■'^■^ (3;^ <57 «/6) IJ /T (?LC /r .J^' ^ (U ff' LJ Q tJ £0^^ 



r Co 60T (2 LJ f^ <S 3U jr <£ .T ^ . 

^i^QajbOip^y^B^u oJcJiw3Tt_Ttl;o.'(9a?ai) iQs'rrZsfrQ'uS-^^'rdrQLj 
^ L^aQ p sir pj)i 3 :^^ClQ i^iijQ pLoss'L^ 3 -Sjil LJiU'^u'd , 

^L^iS.pSITp^Q^tL''jSl^-S(^ULJUJi-l'U'-BlMT. 

tS>l i^e ''f^Q iJ^iT (m <^ 'B^ hsa ji^' ol LDrr(7F,cu) s . 
■=^ ^ u "■ .jS oj/r @ Lj ^ Sj (T ^ . 



4fi Ul^Q'-tir L^ ^303- iL'J). 

^■S^^JsOp^tLl-nill^QLJlTSd. ^'d ^ ^ ccr p aSOL.'JS'r'IllUi. 

ePy CKJ? cocr /T ^ (i5) iT tls Q LJ/r 5W g-c^ j<2; ^'^ '^ scar 3" ep ^ -ffi 

«©• vo .iJ (5bi5T @ "r ^V- 322 H [9 G cO ^' err erf] :q <s& (SGor l1' ^ u 

*jy dor L-^^ sS) jb b-0 /r^ ^ .:5/ 6:^7 t_^j i5 _^ ^r G"'/L- /r 
«3y <sSn t_ ;f cTO ^ <F <S tc s ta /o aj,^ & Q ,p: ,^ . '.xr c^^^ 



Ui 



QirfTiRl^Q^tlO). 



L^Qin^iBsf^ 



^/ ,© ^ <s>3 5WS aril ^'^ =^ (If :^ ''" Jj2; !^ aj iT /r(SS)a^ 

c5ya/i(GT,^q«S3I (o L-.ir^LJi-IJS'^iU&BQiT. 

^^■■Lf,ii-(Li::isSsQpSLiirtJiTG\:<sB6i^Q^dTiri_^;rfrae{r!r. 



^iIlSlM d&'oerr jijssi frill u^r^ri^ di'^sT, 
fcS? JU cSlL. I— ''olsunn S0 r\>^j .2JGit a/ rn ^LJLjrr^, 

ajy T 'S= fec^ ^ ii t^ lI' L^ (5 €jS &257 ■« --^C) <3 ^ i— /U ^ 5^° /_J fT si) . 

«^ 3- -5^ S^n .-J iO r lI/ (._/ o2) C Q 3J t_ V^ LQ T , 

jjl !T .5= jgp S3-^Q s)j(iQ u!T iT sren) u ■''■ ir s^^uh. sOis^rrQp^. 
»?5f iT <g^ 6& aa£l :_/ L_ t_ ^ fij ^ . 

jiii^^^'^'Li 6i)ru5)j-QLO 07Lj/r/f-<ffi&rr. 

^ y Ssmjif 'd^^:^ pssn ^. 

^■jtsssf sL^^^s IT SOLUS i,-m'^' r^Qu!r&}0Jc-^ 

^irScis>^^l Tisi j} SIT dsrQlct.aii{jS} a ^c!ii£ sjuSI I (iiQ <sa cSs Q Lii^ a a G sj 
^'fio)ajJr^2? j^.B>prr0 Q^3(fl^s,'3fr:^J ^^BfruLh uc^:cz:sTsO!riX, 
«^-i9Q o)sTc&T BjiissrareS^il-ij^p^u ^ufreVijCa ^ar Ir. 

LJlTifljUj^LQ I'gsi) 

^ ifl ;3 'ri ^ «iv 35 ^'3'Q-^.s^ 3K1T rr,i,^ jo 
ng>/(7^^sT^:^3<T^9^J(^^■^^r^,JJ^ut9■Mis[^sV.lJuQup^elTtru:i 



j^ Ofj&Q .sn saL-. ^ q^.UjLJ n) J)) ujQ LJ tr (^ ^. 

^ (<r) is^ I— Qj ear ■& serf' ,^] s^e^^jQ^ &:% i^QsSGOedirtl) QljiJ- 

Q <f= (T (^' SI) /T (? SCr SO' . 

tJij Sisrr s- ^ lE p ^ ^ ■Silu:iSQeu-i!T^^LSm^:5^,^(BLS. 

cjy 0^; /7 uS V? jO ^/ (6^5? ^^y ^ SM £55Z_- u5) Co 30 ^/_ ,^ U>,T^/7" ^ . 

^^^Lffdrn-euTieSSies'L-lSpQLjniLL-'TisfiiTija. 

^s:^<^.i^n M^ZG" ^(r^{£l£^^Q ^l^^^^^Q) ^gjis^LS-^^:^, 
t^ isi^ <£F iT <e G c (T eO ti ^' fc?r ©t? ^ Q # (oif? . 

^QjGsor^)^iJ;,sr '^ n^^ lj 3S!,p'sS\ l„ & QsuQ bisiQ ejQ s?^Q lUi^^r u ^ ^ si 



tSy SM 60 x rr (u aj /r t^ LJ QJ 607 ^ LJ 50 LD /7 !LJ ,ff <ff /r a; /r cor . 

ei5/ QJiJB/r 6OTL.0 LJ a?3T £23^ Q af (cj LD i7 COT ci (^ LJ <5r ^1 (^ ijO^ 

cSV Gi;607g_'i°r QcrroboOfri l/ gcot^c^ Jj ©.t-u^Qi-/ jOsOfr/E) Q^afru Ljcnrip lc!^ 

K^ Q} ^<S:^^ Q 'oyt tU -Sili L^ ll^l^(T!]'3(^^n (ST bh l!^ 6!S l^illQ LJ ^ 

c^ eJ (^ esOT « .s /r J- eSr ^ sii /r cg= LD /r a; /J" oOT , 

B^ cj fcsT Q)oi;«O/r0T a i;i?csr z_. Ssof Ejfi- rJ^tlj (?LJ .T fft ilt-- fflj &or. 
^'Ji■^)Qu'.sslQcssT&lrpfrr^L^^f;hZmiU!^y$sQa(TeSsll^ffh.^^r^L^. 



,^L^|^O.s/r!^S50u5)o^ (^^oS)iTQLS>'ljpQ^mt(o^ ^(^w^f^Qiji'L^Q^ 

=^' (-LQ .'i>JtT rr p piQ OSS (LfiU^ c^ fi ^'^'^ S ir^P <ffil—^Sd iq IM . 

ej^' (L^ oTO 3 q^L ^ ffi <ffi/r/r ,T^ (^^ fi? lj ^ « G) a eS)rj l5? sSt G'lj/^ 

^(T-P^T^ hS^dsiT usvCabvQupQeJeSsrfBta . 
r^i^QpiQoVly3n-<s(^so,Tssiipuuij>i^.s(rLL''BS!pj^CSufro)>. 

^ <5iT ko :S s' :^'^ 0u:> -j^ C(T Qj rB ^ ^Q i^'isi^Q & iUiuQ 6}i<mi'^La, 
^im p^m p^pfT Lp^i^r^'ols^a L^(^€r'^qhu:i, 

^dr;&f,sijQ<5si'>^irpiriusi0srsQ&b^QpecTsr^iu>tru:i. 
^p3Ut,^^^(yi'sbQfffr^S!ri^Ljut!^o!STllS}^Si9nnu:i. 

^muQuQ^psiJ!TL^Q<Siiestsr(Bih. 

^ (BQGJ^^,^(Ssu6ar^S3si)L^ei^S2si)Qufr'S(7^ii^,iM. 

U ^tj^i i^G sn ''J) ^ sQ sDesisr'^i}^ etjQ i_cm rn?i^T . 
^jBoiarrjB&inrn-^tu^^'SiJiriBejn-fr. £{^<s-<sr. 

[ep2 



^<^UppLXi"L^!UirQF)^(^S(S^,LDt9dQp^^;^pp^fi'^SST, 
^^6UILSpij^(SU^^LJ!T6SfSUlTiLli:ijrr(k\ 

^ m2'Scr s (^ ^ 6iJ IT ^ (T m'^.^sr^iMn-£i IT eor. 
^6huprrrfn'€UH-s^(SsOi^'jOTLJp/BuQi-jfr£:irCo^. 
k;«V v;OT z^! J?y 5 >s <5^ "" ^ ^ 'Sor ^ J?.' <ffi ffi oO (T o /r ^ . 

c^ 6§7 G ^ 5^ ^ COTOJ o5r ^ ^ ^ Q^ (l^ ^ ffij /T- ,^ 

tSji&Tes^ps'^^^ sarmjjB p LJ5i!Tss[Ti^)iLJeS]L^ '^'•"or sisi pii-^S ^^ ^li 
,^ m 6& lliU'I-lSI rr ireisruiiu .h' 

^Gn'&'p^^S^L-l!T'&'SQ^Lj(2^SF(^Qs=ITiSCe^Q(£p\^(cT^^^Z^c^p^A 



^<siTUjij:,LJiTrfs^LliCDLjO[Lju:s^Ql(y^'Ssic£Brr. 

^j^ ,ffi /r ^:5 <a/ fccr j3j ijL SK /u cjy (D ^ jf? iS Q <ffi l3 i £5 G* ai 'iB w '3 o) . 

'^•Sa(DSU<6SSTL-.!TlM ^ ifl ^<3 Q ^.HJ bh L- IT ili Q LJ isWl G SCST GT sB" ■o:jJ ([E Is Hn ^ 

^rrpCoLJrr ^LCL^.£Scs:ffCD6ssr 

<3^iQtm iU ^Q S" &Q 'S!T ^'■-1^- pj)! ^<oCi-j(T J5(i L^ll9.Q6!). 

^s'rnruuiTn-uurT^&n&<S';_^LliGufr^;G^uj Lja'&ifnuGQiQairdF rhsSsd 
^S'!T!Tu:>^(k'sirr ^s'l—QF^L^dor&h^L^ LJ^s^nSJi^QuQuQ ^tr^^ ^ 

c^Slj)£=S<SmeSlJi)ucl>. ' £(DiLj/3-G'fc7M (3*007. 

^SC>^<3=QLJ!flQ^.f:(TLXiSsi)Qu[BG;Bir. 

i^j, cOiS'tUGUffa Gi-XiGediun'^iprrajLjij ;/j GloGo^, 
^eias=iliuil.GL..(xiQ£!LQuGuQi-<s^ . 

c^ ce)«r q GheiTmexjili^^S' <3=£j}} (ip. coo; '3 . 

'^&SiS'UJj^U^pll&r QLEil^<BQJ^CjLJJ^ni,lcir 0^ff£KJr^^,/-^'^5/r^,-^Kj3 
^S^Q^^QQLCifi^LJUl^^^UUL^^£j<LjGl-J3=nGss. 

^ (—LDs- iLt^rr s, Q^ &jL^iUirm ^■^ i-^uy Qu ir^rr Q^ tS^ raj> ck.it ih, 
c^i-^3sfrp^G^'ji9oi)6ULhu(^s-TUpfi^_^Quirey 

■^^'BGpiQpijsfTil.mL^ ^L^SSp^-&(oSljd6l(Bih UlT IJ^^ii lj p a'd i^ 

uyn'iL&s^L.u u^L^^sp^^GisLidix'^Cci*^ ' ■ • . . 



•^^ 



LJi^QLC>!rLB^^irLl.'d, 



^Q £:cij'jbn- (p^nhseQcnQsfr Louii^ctTiIou/S ^ miffs' ^s^(y:i'jbrruci. 

«^i ® Q « '7' t™ /T" ^ ^ ss) t_ o eoT ^ .JB) sJ ffi 3 ,6 /: 'ii' lj i_j /r i^ . 
e?^ HS i_ u9 GO oO fT ^ a/ cS; ^' sc"j /r 1X5 ssfi ^ <!)5r . 

^tlMs'.;^ i^ ft p ^ u L^i;^il. ig^-B 'S'.Lc^n Q p ^^ . 

^tl-Q)-£9,ff-£iLJUlJ^SSiuQG!TlLWlQQy<:c>r, 

^95^7 Q^^t^S iD, ULQ, =.?>l(B bQ &fT(S L.QQid'S'®LCi, P^WIXJ 

.^feT^Lp./'^SUClT QuCorsr^^JSSTuQLJfTm^SsiJQT, [f_/r^. 

^<dts!Lf.eclTLD(^&stl.(B£jpj^(JuiTsd. [G^UQ/T^l/^^Qcifi'orr^^. 



^ji;^L~tT(TFMr^UiLJ!TI^I--fQ'Sn-'^&)}BrS',(^&jDLl]L-l, 

^ f^ ^ ^ © cFui Lj ^ ^ 'i- .|^ (i^ -^(5 (yj eK57 S. 

^vC!:,Lj€&L^iu^i'iss:&Q<&^^fp c:g'/pSsSl. 
^■lL^c&t-iu'r^Q:3=^^r:m<^Q^Lj(BQpQun-^ ^6mse>L,e£^il'^& 



^iiSl n is^Si> p iS'f ^°id^-u f>Q pir L^ sdtr sir ^j>. 

^'jSlg-Lo^'mir^^tr^UGj^ili. • [_s(^uiT>sci-ta^Sps,(ro 

€^iq,SUrrii^^s'UjjB^^su(odr^!Tp/B-o!(Sdn-(^eJiQT. 

t^jT p)Q^(lSDt-.&srQprrrriTpQ<zil.(cL-(^T, 

^tfliu<Sfff^^^cirij^^e^&eiTi^t^j^^QfOas.'stQ(s>j€s!a!(Bij:it 
^jQ^u:ippQ^^(T!jLL^SLu\Q^iT'(^'^Q(^Q^!rij^QQj^ 



up Q ! JST l5! i ^5-xl9^ 



^ ?o£>a'<S-;^ UDL^LO GajS;:!) ^ ^0 fl)£-y CJ3rT G''3C7"SSr. 
^ ■ Ji" LJ (7^ ^,^ /7 a) f§ G rS IJ if tSr LJ (iri ^ ^" (T gS ,'5J G ,S . 

.^ (SIT; <ffi Ca/ <ffl /r (7H ,^ tl (B cS (^ ^ /ip. «?) a^ =sy iLp- G i^ 

«g Ssrrtu /rcfl-^^ ^ o:^ 07 l£ (i) :&"(^LJ LJ;i^; tJ G* t-zcffi ^ 

^ ^n)<F^ GgOeJrr0,j^^^^sS)il£_rr^)LS;L,frE5) G*5x)Q/rr(77;. 



^ir)S'Jso£}iLt^Q^U3S;Uuj(SLJ'rsd-S<^'^sQ'Jp o5r . 

^. pS SJW p rSl ^ Lai-J-si>^c^ jOSG>SiJ,s B^ uiT if s^ rrrj'sSr. 

^pS'3soQuirQp^^E§s>GG^ds>7^Juir(^L^^iu'r;'^i^, 

^pS Jsdi£UiriLi-.(r ^LB^istr ^ ^Qurr L^' ^ siJ ,cs' J h. 

k^p^s(^ULj(rS-^U!r.^^'^issa-u!rCDa'ffpJ)is^j'^^LJ^(2^ijsrr:u3 

^kjtsr^JbsOiTLBso^siJ^^ijiSGuryGinr. [_pluj!r 

^^'SC;^&QQs^Siiuii&Q,Qpm ^si^ '^il-i^a q\:lR i-^(t e9.(o sbcjn [t s'^ 

^ ■3^6ST'oi^iLI&J^SS)^lUiT^Q,Sirmi(B'^UITQp^ ^ gS^] LC^5 ^ ST ■": OJ Smf 

^ ScOT (o (U^ iq (25 <c^^ ^ a; t.j9 ^ a^ Ls ffij (T G SDT c-oT . 
^?6STd^j}j^u^Q^!rf^CB^p&(^mar^^SQtS(T^Lj^QpLQu:i» 
^Ss5T S0(.ij LJ/rSser <s/^(^(e=rf?. 
^!^^.sa<S(^L-\5lpeS\&^(!F)(^n-JiiS-S^^0s!T&r(Wj^^p^(DU(rs^k 

^l&!t&fr;^<MpQuir'(£^&)(^dstQffU.L^u9m(cpl^jSth 
^2(S(a^^TpZs))uS)^^iJ^<xmassstsQsn'il.L^&Q<£sn-cssTt-.^QLjrrei>^ 

^^XSS! £S) OJ &<£!: l^ L^ <SfQTj5 IT (ssOiXiiSipiliU IT aT. 

^^esra^iusS)p£)i^jp3(fi^LL.i^a(^(Mi<>frn^QQ^sSr, 



1^ Sot cs, =5^Co^^/r u^ftCT^ i;0)^a5)ilt_^ Glj;/ c3. 

^'^i3rs9 Q^ B ^^ pQ &{T i^L^L^(S^B ns^^ ptT pQ ^ro(^. 

^ci-st G <B lLl-g:;:!- :u !r :^) ^iLQ&(^lLl^'J istLQ p ,s (T. rQiupsiiTLCfr 

^itssi'Sd^r^iSli^^^sasGinQiup^iTuy ^i^L'^^<oU!TSi')i9.ko.^^^ss^^tr 
^,dcSTU'ru9n''-hQLjpry<^jy^y-}i-cnii9!i(liQLj^u:n-. 

^&<sm^(ri3<§^U!T&usi^'2}Quntl/^^&e'cO)ffuS\GG^Q<s(rn^QstrilL^BSi<Sii 
^^■Qfipsfrffliu '-^jrnS^ujLBei^sCjGevrr. 

L^Ss^jcSiy^<z:i£l'3iuijG£isli^&SpisiJi;sifSds'jQi-c.Q'sO. 
^B<aiiwm^^:i}ai'k<5T'^^Qiu&£ipfi-^p^[TmrTLDp!Ti^0pA'^Qj5lP 



,€) ® LJ L^ sr-i ©^ ;J rf5 <£jS /^/Q i-c GO ? J /r ci ^ © l1' L_/ o(5> oi ^ ,« /r sj5r, 

^(B SU 17 fr iQ ■3' eS! <ff= 5S) ILJ &Q -S'S Oil (T ^ Q &(biu l~JI^ tr- 
^aS:>L^^Q^SrFEeSlp(o<SirsOLh Gi](W)'MQurr^rrg\s'^Q^(ThQ(cl2'^QsQjJ 

)pmresfQ<su^e(Tifl s£5(riLje&ppLJLLL_Gssnxi[r. 

^cresL^JosO!r^irdQjQjS(§])^^(T^tMi!3^ijQ^aLp.^, 

^acmi(Bpfriu&Q£jiT06ra)}j:)L^QuiTLLt^rrujGu!rSjF)S(^^% 
^srej^->^sci^uiTiUj^jr6iJ^v)^ilL^(TiM^li^^^^Q^iri_(BGL^(S{t^€S)^ 

Q s6 /r ® i; iff li; /T /.iG" /_ t,^ . 



^T!TLDSl5)irUjQulTsd rrT^iTzfll^fFi^^iro^ ^C0LAj[rZe6!uQi-J'^c^ Q^P'^^S 

pi)(75(^Q'-cifi"0^fl-sO,jj^oi)ffiyQu3/r(7});ffi/rs\) .Q , 
^ (75 SfT c5r t^/ err Ssrr « (^ isr sS) ,£ Q (55 <^ LJ (^ dr f-X) .7" . 

^(Wf'sQ ro^i^liQ s=ii^^iu T l^rr^^^ ,^!^^ Q^ir^Qpsu^Br Qs=Sj3S)OJiui? 



<-L 



"Li3. 






idso 



tq°liU(X^UL^LDhl(hJ(^(ipi 



j(B. 



^Q]^l£i3dodiT^'Spp'SUehQ^;^;GnSi51S)S{Ji9ei) mG^r^(XUr L.ilSiriLQoJfT^T. 

f))Sijs^ L-i ^ i!?. Q^<sOs£& s S\oi <Brr nnp ^' 

j^ss)L^ijfriBa-iMQLJ!rmiQufl)p^^^!TSiJc^cssruUL^(t)t 
^mQ&JiljuSl<sben-LJ(r^^iurT0t^iT!Uili(ouirQ(-jrot!j. 

^6ti:)jio<F^f^^oarrir^^Lh er^LossiU^Qsn-^^u Quuil.(Dl&QsiT(;.irGfT 

^<jorcS>ps&irQp^jSn aoiTesfr^siLQil). 
fi; cTO <fif {L/ cW i_ C? aj /r eor CT <ffi is erf] lj i_/ fra /_ GJ /r cor . 

fl: ^ c6)^ ^, CT Jb sO/r ej^/£I^ lA) ^^ . 

/?; <£r i) U3 tp. (gG ^ /r ^/X) (? LJ /T" ^ l£> /r dbr (5 Co ;5 G <ff t<oBr • 



S""^"' y, '3^ cS (^ Le c3or lS ffe §si) er oor S) (^fl^ err . 
!^'L~'^ srr^ GDvssi Qiaos' (T As trQ^> 

^i3S(^,psS'iQGoQQjQp^€^(Tj^£;LL(B'rJSlpS!QedQaiQp^. 
S^'i^i-.{U£U6BiQ<<^trpui^Q-[rds9s'<mpS<s&ds(rupl. 

2- ?3 L_ U_i Ci) SOT" LJT J r LJ L.' uS) ^ l1' LJ '^ t^T, 

s_ f « c. (l; ai Q:f) a; CO /7 J^ (o ,5: SsO cp (XjP LD EJ <s fl. era 2_, , 

g^OOTLJ/rcCT^'v^^OTLJ/TtOT t§lUCCtLJLj(ols=ll^l^ Q^L^^OTSL-BS'jL-Q UJ^^^^^ 



S^OTi^sy sgK J" ^Q<? ;ijsi;/r(s6r. 

gi. sss i_. Ci'Pil, (5l i S ir ew' c_ <ffi tr LJ KKSJ ciOT ei .7 LD /r, 

S^'7-hn^rrn-Qu^SB'flscS3Tt—rrpGp;fliLi'<%. . 
B^'smLjn-eQfruuiT!r^^(T^li!bQ^n^Q]!T&'S)iTULjir n'&'S OUTSIT ^, < 

a.^ fiU /r LJ (_J Lfi m <ffi sO G? UD IP c-W ^ a5) ..^1 5l) iT Q ffij b&3T <S SC C LD . 

S- i5^ .3 /r toS) .iu,/5 ^ /;■ OT e- srr err ^ ffl Q<r; sii)^^ rr 5?r . 

e. StO^ LJ Lj "• ,^ 5 Q Q QJ ;W) tJ LJ /r SOT ^ /r^@ aj gCoT -53^ ^or^ 
^^^ (3* aJ /r<£5 U3 i_/ (To qS ^ 56^ ^OTT iJJ. 

S.U i_y ^^ (SOT fl3 aJ iOf ^ J&T «RJ^/ r@ ^ LJ LJ/r 6i5r. 

e_ '_>Ly ^ 3 lL i^ -iB) ii) a^ oO s iti .e cL 'iD .i) . 



^!r£i^QLjniuLB^^(S{r^Q^ir(B(Lp€is>pSil-L-^Quffei). £^(^uiff 
e,0 il® LaLj[ /r tlOiii^® J^ (^ ^^ LJ SOLJ. 
S^LQ^(^Q^p^n-UiSS(^uLJrr Q^'m. 

Q:Brre67s(ElEJp^irpQufrsi' 
S.(i^Qp^msimr'S(^'UtJ!rn-^^ir&.'s^LQi(sS!T^LNiXj^,iFir^. 

a.fe?T6rr^' ?®^ >g^ Q<9^ /r fc-Sr@b^ Q/5/rerrBcrr i SSW5T gsafliQ G^iTilJUi^^ 
S_ srr ©17' ffl sa <a (<S) oi) (25 <5F Q .s /r 6oV ?ffl L- (T^ £JL i S vj? /D coT . 
£.STria5^^®'a-<e^.^u:a.6fffe7Tf^^iS^^irEJ@fQQ'5tlL_^. 

S_OT677 fS) ,?5) <S uS) GsO oTnsy(^6iK?t_ (f/S ffil® 6' C?/D GOT. 

£_^Grre.'6S?i^er/&sir tLiuGuirQmorM^iSt ^J'cp:>!r^<:Mi^LQmt'3rr ^esff 



B-pci}(Su!T6^'^(T^B^ (^c(T(^Qu(rsos'3&[nLKbi3p^, 
El, n? <£!/ :^ <r 6or t^ ( jS) ff? (? eO 5K £5 ee) QJ iU /r (^ ^ . 

&^p(n i^ B ^^^2^1-1 ii -SIT iLi^dsrr sj JO §jyLitrn'^oST(^o\GLj<rn'SLjo^iosfr 

@^p3'fr£i;^Q£^Uj^!T2i)Lnff6t^s',£^ireoa;(B&J'f6^T, 1- [^'-L'iii. 

SS!Lsstsr^pGl-!lTQp\L^pSi}prr)^. 

S^L^niE&idsOqpsa (LpiEi Jitsi>. 
&£n:^Slp£Fi&!(^^§'^j^:ieS]£^QpQuij(sa^6^L^Qp^, 

&e3:^6C)^GLjrrGS(^6S^^sije^LQ^B3ii uQ'^uiT&s,^6arpzj^ lSSj 

&sn:os:>LC)a^S!^srr£)isiJiTiu^rz^puj;&tSl<mJi—u:i. 
B^n:5iy^Lri^::s}(rs'ola\B3(^u^^S!SiJ::Q,i;:Mpc!^p&Qcj(I)i-'^^^ 

^i^ira/^Q.psiJ£n^s^il}Q,L^s.:ii^iQLpss2co')L-.U^Sii2'2i)'tUt[» 



gtCTT ff? (3 ^ <E sffW" ;e«'<5 ®o ii ui'T /r t© G wO dF © ^5 ojr U3, 

tsn: ^ S Q ^ /r LO LD el"! 6^^ l1 (3 <S Q OJ uS) ^ /T' ff? tff' <5^ (^ • 

£6n:,7HffiQ<ff/rr^G^©jiLafL;/TOT^/^<sG<S'5Wf^Giaj6oT. 

fL^ninQair L^iU{^pn i^®'&Q&[j LS!,L:^ff^i^. ^u-Gdi-j(L^iism'^s(Q,^Q^ 

&m:(l^ h^p3^s-SQ^Q'l^S^,sQ£;ir&fGnQeijG§sr(BiJoi. 
&sn::^p3Qs7<S^3^i^iqi^QsG>tu!Ljcff)L^&Qp)^. 

^&&2'Sii^:;^L^^^p>^n-'Sp^Q^'j:i(T. 

eTip^p5'3iSds(^u::msrt^'€i&LLL^'ua-^!X(Si^ tci'^ ^miSiLisxi(<^j^ ^Q p 
eTff-9iSp3BU^&(^uMjpjp}uupsjsi'}.&:^u^. [_rBdsCiufr^rfeq. 

ers'&pm^siuiTeJsir&^isi^Q^'riLL^ir^siJm, 

vj? <ffi t_ <e £F W .g: .T" eo7 ^ ,T ^ or c^. 
Grk9pp}^T(rr>£)nM ^}iU^^Bc6)pa.j^ ^esr&srQeus^CBcn 6j3^&&Qeil^ 



tiL<SS* 



ijiQQisirL^^^jnL(d, 



m(BuuirQF)ili9L^uun-Q^(y:idsii-.rr(^S2en-ui-jP^eS}u:-l(Lfi^(B» 

€r(Btl>LJirif€U!<BS(^Lp0eT:^- 

cr tL /^ u ^ ^J Q /S 607 sw ./?^ oj /r^ /T p- sjj /r L£> _0 Q ^ sor enr . 
er L. £^ LD ir LC ,T (65) ^ ii LJ <&= Q <ff o"sr /£; (7H .^ fi G aJ 6GW vij) li < 

6r «jar <EF /r .^j £_ ;i) <^ (c sO £U w' err ;© ^ Ssw ^ zr ^ /5 ijQ 513 Ssj) . 

<sr i^srescr'^oi LCiSdoi(r u:iQ Ljtr ]^cT u^Q {{S^2iodQ Lnyj . 

m^sc-rit^i^.r-Qcg^tijSpQJ'ohQs^LLi^csreSorrsmLDpQff-tuQpi^ 
GriSsTj(}SerG}s'ius}j^Qs'il.(B(ST6iks(SXi\uipQ^iU€:J^Qs^ 

isTfSr:!;trpi9eoip<is&sOiTih^^'i;srrpi9ej^Lj^£^sOiTu^. [^u^pCauiru^ir. 

eT;i^^(^«oi9^r<^Qupjp,(§)ffbijSGe0^ireiirLL(B9pjii, 

efp^^}iLi;SQPp0LLi-^^LLt_Seh.^. 



€r!flQpQsrr6(T6Ss^tu(oiuco^^or!<sft!sur£3QufrGd. 

ertflSpQ/S(TF)ULQJoQ^!SiUsSc-.s!>irLair. 

€riBQpG^cLe?ai~tucBsedQ&xsr^'ol<S2JtLL^iSiTil-U[rn'^;S^Qu!rs^. 

/^ 05 ST i— U> i_<ffi ii* s ^ fr iU . 

mm^£l^r^^<^i-^0(^^^^'^h^'^sil.(BQp^ir. 

ffaf^c&uiSiJtTi}(^;Sp(^(u:i(ss{Qptij<sfi\^an.j^Qp^QLj(r(3^' 
errfhoi^i^'^Q'SfriliUjp^'Q! QpcSipfS'j/zpii^Qssr^ (oiiU(LpLJ^^rfuosir,^LQ 

er,nj€S)!MijSl,m0^'Sffi)Q'oOiTi-iirGd<sp<s<sG^icSsi(Bid::^ 
er(m^i^'j5l£^i.hGsii<iT<stTir<B&ps3pi(^u::.,T. 
er eSl 5 -^n tl' (_/ o, J ^ iJi^^ 52: £— (? <fir il-i— ^ ^^ LJ T 60. 

6? Ss-^LcssSiuCo^ljasQp^:^. 
erS-LjiM L^^m iLjihQu^ so. 



er cT> 60 /?• (Tn &^'aj 'STi <ff 5^9 ^ (^ ci L^ G? Lj ff eO CT 6cr J (^ ig' <g^ €Sh a. Ss ^^ 

cr (i|> LJ^ Q <fi^ uOT (777 i^}) i^- t-J OT ^ cr ;.5^ (^ ^. (--T7> car Q 

Cv crl? aj /T" i© T raj c9 ij /r i7 z^- ,^ ,55 (T (^ fflj 6&I oj /r «c) /T" ^<s (o) ^5' iij au LD 
er GTT (U77< <5 (j^ err p ctr <d^i Qe^aituC^LJirsi. 



er 607 j;; Li: Lj :l/ u Lj(S;5 eS)^ -b 6T^ (o,T (oLJ .7^ j)2i .^"^ LOU), 

€rGbii5aLr:iTiuLSmL-<kSLn[nuLa QiMtrCorj-irCB^idsrGjiI^n' es^^^L&'rtuji' 

erm m^n-Q siL(Bi1>(oi-JitQ(^^Q U60T ^:sb ^i^ssr(ipmQstL(BuGLJir 

eTl—^Qs:TL^^^pr^SiMB QlUUUL^Qn^fj^^ CDLJ>T©^QJuOr^S5!)ii5} 

eoGLjir^Q^isaTpL^LliLJ^n'Lh. 
<3TacoST^iBL^S(c3^s(j>i3n'SQcrpaii^GsnC-~(B&,psir. 

<srif}(SiurT(BLJSSi<SiQ<s(rcosr(Bs'<SD^^Qs'ii-^UJ^^(rh^Qp^^^ 

(STma^Bp'^si^6rriliLUu::ia'(e^:^:srnH^es)U:i^^6S!iliQ&n';^^ 
GjQQ^Qp'B'siT'bsfr uS^'bso iB^uQujnQp^ i-JiBiUiMQuinLLi^Qu. 

toch? OoSOT LJUKTa ,S^ SI) bTT , 

(^isjpGLJiush^i'Si(TSpjaju£l(bij(^Lh. 

cjr <5» ®;d 3;^ 3(25aijTtu J= 0<£F/r Jo QsrtuQps)j^ ^(^^^tsd^&ct^inl 



cr^ Lfi iJ!j (l5'g)V 3srr ds (^ ^ Q_^ (u fflj (o 03^ SsjjBT. 

^uiuSiu>^<5^^Q)QJiLJuSl(Sdjff(^jli!fl^^G^(re05arj)i<siTiLith. 

^iU(TeiJrr^Qp@Jss)fru9j9JVLC(rsuiT€S)^^p(^Lorr. ["(g-.^ff? 

^xjrr s 0i ifQ u IT sO ^ iMLXifr (^ us^^ [tQ Lj rr ^ > 

^ssujSp^^e}jfr<s (Jsmrio^LEil.L-noQpCcun'^ £$uu!ri9^^iissia 
^S^p-roots)i_.'&ei(m'StT mirth. 

^LLi^m^P Q(irjtLL^c^m Qe;rr&T,:myh e^tLt^neSliLi^irp ^u.i^^i^ 
^im^L^^(^Uu^^GQjp£aQp^(jL-)rr&:). [Qerrdjaitr^. 

^^^m'2 3tu&}il^pjbQaQu.5(^,ujQi_j!T ^ iQi=s!S)ffs;^'S^^^Op 

^9Qi-J(TF,S^S,^^Lnrr. [p?;^^/riL/(Xc^-o3. 

^(r^'ST,a(oue6Sm^(^:Fisnr^G^^th. [Cou^ui. 

^■i^<strfi} c),BP,iij^susS^S!rpQs=tueuiT^, 



«^ <5ii. @ (T^ OT t« ^ ^ QJ 6i5f •Jp esr lJ ^ <9i^ 'i' (l/i £» 
«5 rn^ '^ iS^ il- ip. ^1 G £0 /r 6C5 ie=- (o «5 tl (»5 LE /r . 

©5 (T^ ,^ ^'^•^ ,ffi S/ 3" COT7 /__ cr cs S &aT aj /r . 

gp ^'j-K ^ &Sr^ Q <5^ uj^s Qj£® /I jq srrerr Sir ©^ ^Sssr . 

6p a) jji- <ffi £' SI/ r? ^ SsjOT ^ (5 '^ ^istjT iu ^ ttJ ^ si; (7 

6p'STrid9oO£O/ra5)ilt_/r66)0Ss)T!qu3 ^(56rfisi0u/TeSili_/rai) (^eijlisnusuf 
6pf?5r^LD^ajf«srrfl-fa«6STi5efl epi^LJi^L^^^^frisi ^^Ui!r^p^iFs"s'^ 



l&S. 



uLQQLdiri^^^inL^S.' 



^ ;_ti:i 51/ iOT z^oS) CosO aj e& i^Gv <s^ <_ .si .© ^ i^ • 

Cp £_ (Sy Lfl /r il. (? t_ 6S'' t5) ifiL fi cS (Sy LD f!" tl. G C cor* 

^LL.'£t^i-.tM^Q,Gis0^6§sressfn'Gu'T.'m h QsarLiLQ.sQ^sk&si'Zjrr^Lf—.tiis 

^!rTdcf/^uQ,£^^(T^S3^60<5QLCi60cOirijQjilQQpi':^^€fpjJ!Qp^ 

£5ij£{^^ii9&:'^i^Q(^e))]ij<Birs^iS)<siUi'h6srLD{r(^u:i!r» 
fSff-a^^CoLDirpffifrLCiT. 

«5 (5= iL- 0" wsr « ii) a5) (i5 ^(p/ LD =ffi c {' a5) fip fc-or ii ^-17 ,70 ill . 
^(■-G'0(£!<{su.6<iT^^jsQi-ifrir^^(rpu(SssrLa. Cs,^ 



UL^QLafTLS^^J^^' 



nok 



ifi L. ssr a T if ?snr ois) a» J ,c^ « (Ui ®f 0S5T i_ fl- . 

eL^(M(Ss:> ^(TFjiMi-j^L^.s^(r^ 'cutest ^Qs^^QhQ ^^ n)<^L^<3im^, 

^L-fT ^ ^h .g^ ^ 9, pufsu'bcd p^ (^1 ^Q p ^Quir ^Siy 
^L^Sspf'Sm^sO^^._0psu!r(^LL:!r. ^(sSliLt^tr^^LB. 

^■:j^^,'Ssufrtu^cU)(-.^S^'J'p' ^uJiTe-d. 

^(^ J ©.7 UtS « 3 o-qSiIsi^St ^ aQ p:Z^LjL^ poQSp(^ if. 



VIV 



& 



4B 



fS 



'^^Qun&pSL-fi0:}OS;i^QiuiB^j^aQ3iTsm(B^!fii^iTdTij^.^^$ 

&i3friu'2LJ'rQpeSlL-pQ0ifjujir^. 

'ij)(^ D/^fT^ v/5dSt!.f_.'r Si)(ffl/r^aQasQiBff'LJLJ 67705, 

^<^il_iB(osd'^.sfr<s§sj'^Laa8,sruSlQa\iSG)<sJiQQp^, fG'MffsiJ, 

,rf5253£-uS)^ 7pij.3aQiu'S^^ ^i^'J^^pt^^aTTtsmuirnnBi-s^^zoi^^^^^ 

^icSiL..Q^Qff^ p^S(^Gu^(TQf)Cn &iT,^-iLSiail^i^p(s^uu(nqL0iQGiJ6m(jji 

^iLl-.S^^p!^IULX:ed6iiS6!SfLD/B^^<SLJLJmpaJLO^iSi>» {"cBk^ 

iStLL^tUQ^Q pG uir ^oSiBi^p ^L^n eijQ pQ ^. 

m' 



m^ 



ll^QuilTlfi^^iff i^®' 



^tLes)i-uuampss)[ueS'(i^&Q<s=eiS(c^aGe^a-iuiti(^i^^^^QLJ[reOr 

^KW LJ^ y S© <? SK <e Co tX5 G 60. 

&eSar{^(i^Ufr(^£^tl^^€^e&auS\QeO(ajs:rpiun; 
ei65yL-Lj[reij?&/iuire:Q&nes:sesTi_n£iin^Q:p^, 

4S^t~^SnU-^QL-ipp^(DLJ£)l, 

^^&(o}eir6S<y(B^iflQp^tli. 

^^l—l{pQp^\iU(rfi(r&uL.€i?,lUfnl.(BL&li9,!cr:ir, 

*^ci(^Qffp^iQcmLLn^p^\B6tii—£.inLa. 



^^ ^B&GQj^^(u^-ir ciiQ LJ^Q ^sirQ ^^oL^Csi ^ fi'^oi lQ osr l^st ^ cur m 

fi !^iJ7 SsiSSr « <C L_ /^ =S T L. /5I. CO sfi) tl c_ ^ (J LJ .T sO . 

(sSs: L-tnLJ§<>sOu (slji^(^^^QQ p ear. 
^^^^^3aiSQs3sn-£j)}!5Jcis}siU(U:^lsa'-B^irp(cLJ[rsOt 

&fi^€E)UJUUrr[i^Q^^!m£CSrG^rTLji}(^'^Qs'LULLlCb. 1(2?^^''" 

s ^ ^s ^0 ^esr (^!k& (wi'<^ ^^iis 3 ^^ ^Q s=ii so ^Q &irc^Q^b%' (fi^sd 
s^m^Si^^ks^irQL^^QpQ^isosiiTixiLJstii^, 

^uuGc:ijBuuiLi-.eL,mQ'Sn-il-mc-^^p,^03-i^GLJirQp^. 



ffr.Sfi' utpQiXiirLol ■s^j-il.'^. 

au:uiorG:S^il.B'isiL(BS^/8i-jw-ssBLJiTD h. 

i« lL '_e rr <.>i7 6CT ciS* (_ i^ ^ l9 sir ?£rT t©^ ^ ^<g /J /- (?^ a/ ^_ (l; /r err Q # 

?5 ij S oO s5) Co a) ^ T ff) LJ [_l ff (50r . 

«e f^ fQ <3 .T eEl L.I sO £i SB> a s ^^ a^i srr (jjf? lj 14 SOT « lL tp. 6^ 

'SnF^!t&nsS'StLfiiiL^di^iaiJntupn-^,^(J^frL^a<^^QffeijncViL^,S<5i^Q'» 



C^(!^cl-iSiiiLl:fhW ptlJ(Tdsi •£ <>^<S L^(I S&a Cl\a LJ[r iSidJlT r^ , 
'^^oGilTLJLJ.TK^cTSifr^^tTGCCSiijr^ihScaiTtJiJ 'o. rQlTBii^ fiT^ 



^50^ Q QsiiQ<3'(r p iXy p'jSIlL'S^ss>& ^nuui9 f:^^^(r pQuiT (3d. 

^(B;Uf^i5misS^'~L^pLJ BlSp^(TdsO &CL^<U(^^Q.pa!}^ Q^^SfcS^iLi^ 

p<SfiJ^u:^(r<^5)(mLl.LJ'r&TT. j .'jTfc&/, 

eS oO so /?■ nj a5) ^1 /§; fi ^ ^/« /f LJ 6© «ffi ,S 5-3 Uj . 

«fi5aV Q cS)/8<3(!3^.^^i-JiS^ -tiiS) j2J .©iS G^ Q itSST p! '^(^S^LJLJSi8h^L-„IT^t 

.©ei} SSI) LJ (j3 LJ /r »0 iTti /_^- !5S) t- tfj ff .ol^7(7Fi <i5 « « « j;^ 

^ sO ©5) a9 eo oO fl- ^ Q <e^ fo aJ /H .&' ^ f-5? ob^ sO /r uL' i^ Qi^ 
s eo ©5' iu s?r oYf Qj (T sS i_/ c-cr .£s oi3r @ i_& aj i3qr . 

^^Q/ L^^^ ^Tj^ Q Gaff IT e>9L^^^ iLt^ffptr, 

JB (l^ leZii ^is) 43(1-1— IT pQ\il^lo<ff(eiSUS'. 

« (-Lo SB<S!UjBiq -s^pr^p^ Quiri^'aLirrs'^ssr, 

JsrL&m^Qs[iJ^^&iL--^.t^^Ci>LJ!r{Spj^. 

tS (tp «»,* S6')iLJ<#ta il-zL^. f$ '-^iifiJJerr /T^^-^ (?iLj/rs^. 



B^^} 



U!^Q ^-^ir ip. ,:! ^' JlL'Jj. 






£n^(S>{3''^iBppio<SIT(ipL-L^ 



cfse'iuSfh.t~.rr^tisi^<se6ei^i^!LtiTLDps'Sj^^^Qsn»r. 
^■a7<sB\p^&<seiiiljus!ssr(^ s^uiu^ ^&^ ps^^f. zH]l^^. <^ qPjUI y^7 li-^^ ^^ 

€5mrsttZssrj!j'Ui£l^^'S! ^meiTassrp:!hLjsb!T&fr^. 

^piS!p^Q^L^i-^Q^iT^^^Qp^u:>i£$juQufr,s. 

'Bp^^u^e\'^(LpSsOeQsjp)L£iir. 

'Sps^i^i,^Qptumnn-3^rr^iimsssi(^pSi6i3rL-.f^f.^Qs=iTcO^. 

^p<se3S!L^frpQ£'t:J^6nLi^&S(oS>i5^£(^L£i!r. 
'^pes)saS\pe^'sBss'UU]Bpp£lc<.TLj^iQsi}^ic^LJL^t 
<&pp aS)£_^^) so j-Q?]^ cK^ «D iuseiril/jjQp^, 

'*'pp^.-'SiGaj6iT&iSi^i^i{r^^:>;Si:rreij. 

^pjOi&Q<sB-(Bfi^Quffeiih stLL!jLmQs!r(B.^S^fftr^njkUi mp^^isstpir 

^tpjpi&SpjpnllQu^^Qr3, r<Bh^p(^LD» 

ttfinS^jSeui^GfriliuiTp^Qjrrc^^ 



«© eSr^' c5 (g il- i^^t 6ro izj eS^ e)9i^s<ffi ,3^0<g:fl'5Sr j^/faor if iSf^ 

&n-&m&iqiloerrpjpii!hQuir&(^'3ssrL^(r(^'sdsiJQr)L'h. 
[^cisiuii-L'p^'iQ'SrrmsrSGufrQp^fr, 



SirecS^ ■■-.i'Qff-iTLr.LJ 'kQ&!Tl^-B'^^<Sii^T)£}0LD. 

<s ir^^ S)Q ^^r^B ^ ^^ 'S)jh&n- ^Lhzj(r &^^& p ^'QtJirsd. 

^T^jpj ^.sir ^ jb^ s(^ih(jB u(o>(^'B ^^rr^Q Lc,'^ 3(^ii(fij!r ruJ ;^, 
tBrr^^On^^'SJ'sar Qu<^L^rrLlL§L'ci^iu Q^p^ en^^mm QasressiB 

« J" UJ ;5 ;5 cC £r (t» S a) sO ip- LJ (ill lb . 

^^rrirJiLJ&m-s 'muL^Gd^LDau)p0^3h'^^^p(^se?isfr[ULn'rLD. 

&iT (ft crib's pj2' & si<s5' Lj(r U.IT ^ir sk Qtjffi cB&Q &^ i~l^lj S ii^ip^u ^ 

^fr,ij'n^ii^^ULjp_Sss(T^;;s)^u9.^s5rr^ui^t!^'SsG<^(z§:<i(Bu:i% 

^rrcd(i^Q<ff'tLjQp^ G<sfTisi>^G)&!iJiUirQ^. [^ss^tqL^JbSyJ. 

•5 /r S0_^ ^ ^ Q LJ aJ^ LQ gp! Lg, (^LJ T J;). 

•SiTtoi)^^ iffi G> <ffi ©^ (x) ;ffi/r60a3 . 

^'irSpuLl.t-.^-B<oOG!s:;Spuil.t—^Quire:i. 
^T^<S^Lj(2LJrril.L^irmpB3))S:r~]U (Su!^(BQ(70^- 

iBfJ^'>ullj)l^.^^^<z£'^j(^'&a£^tTS=-BpS'iJL%^(^u^' 

fSn-pj!^<strctT(2uirj^^nppSsQs(r(k<G(T^CbL^&TSiiQufr^ ^{^&Qa.T 



Q^sm^Q®Ji^L-U^:SLCii-jpuuiLL^^QL.:frei. 

^ err Gff cJ o (Tj^ J @ LD/r & &) erf' ai ^ _^ Q ie /?• (^ «j^ t£i /7 oj . 

9n-,4^iiJ'^pi-j9^(i^i-&ir. 

■^^^QQ)}LJp^<iQ(a<sOiS'QLa^scr* 

/3^ pI) ^ LB (CJ <f¥ LD^ ^ 5^ (T^ fW^S LJ /n LOSJT LOi^OJ LD(r. 
^i^&Qp^ST(TT)SmtM^^^3-iM<BL^!^^eQ&ff5^l^gp^ ^(^QuJ 

(g L- £y. iff' <a^ ai fn Lii) ^ .'-!. ^ s Q i5 (7 a/ err Q a; 6?r Q (Frr (^/-c ^^ ff". 







^^QLjir^LJil.t-.esar^0^i^'sS}p(^i£iL(BSsnsr&T[>fS!sr(S. 
^iUaujB»tf0LJ t_;sO;5/r5<5rrCpfflj3ff») ^if^tUL^asiTrr^fr^js QsfrQn£L8*i% 



(^jfrp)(B(e^Q^s^i(Bii<sh-;i^unn £\'S^^ Quired, 

(^anQoJe&ISjQ S3' vial l^€ll (/jl (^,(Ih'SlJ!r QJlT fo^, TiL/ J^i— t^^ 

^:;LCip<SC)^LJlLl^ei^ilLj£]Q£ilTial^LJcLL^eSiL'LSsidsd. 

(^ LJ^ s^^iq^w G) ^ !lj<oi}(Lp&Q <s(T i^ t^<r i^esfeffl L^ ^ f) Q so. 

(^e<^<ssuQueriLJ^(ff^^m)pU]^Q&Qsir(sc:sTL-^QuiTsO. fsir. 

^pS^£l<iTdsmljQup^.^(^ps>Jc6isinij^^6SiQp^, 

(Wj!X>pQi^dsdSSiUS(r^rjF)'S^(Sf^SQ!SiSIItLL~eOlT&!r^. 

(^mpfU&QdPffi^GBi^^'^^'-U^efr. 

(^pp(ipi&fGnQjS(^'3T(^j)i(^Qp5or_^^ (^jfiiMiSliLfmmeir^^o^^ 
QS]ppUipuu^SQLJ^p''-o^<'nj>(T^!;^ppm, f^dr^ust, 

(^ppLa6sr^s'ml.&^jh.L^Si}[TL^s'^^(r^. 
^iX)pi£ic!!)L-.^^'sStf^^(^emi}Qafr^s-a'€OifljSJ' 



•fli^- ,^^ <5 fe) £l^*(^a" A tf /r i^sor (2 fflj ^ i 6}tl(Be5?^ s/r^ 6or, 

^h,SseirircBrQusi!St-.tril.L^{9^20{rQupu(oUffQ(iif^€(iff(^flj&»uljSi 

sh,sQ'-<^^p^^!rQsjrr^i5opLcn-<sis6 eBiLu-BQiLjrrf 
,Bn_ gS LJ LJ oo ^ Q sy tl ©LO/r . 

Oa(SwirevQs(B^2'Ssruurre$r, 

t^fraoeJc!spiJajiTtl.'£lS(^'Mirarrir. 
QeC~'^i-i(^^u!r6<sfuaituLja^i(^^Qg:^^i2jQu([QpLJSTcos^^,Sif 



Q3(BQ<sLLL..pfrQ(ija^3eSitL(I)uj'JLjiTQtu'^r. \jJ:u!n^3U(T^iM, 

€C)SsQsffm^S(^<BSFpL^(mr^^iMjBi^iU'S(^^S/&^UL^'M^!JLDfr^ 

fS)SLhQudfsc^frtLLfL.QLjpp^s^m6V!>p. 
^i5iliQueamt-.fTil.if}.Qupp Qui^sf(^^^^ Q 4pajiL^^s't—^(^ 

^i^ !r'r(uS'Qt§'i^tuGsJ6s^(Bih. 
m<stu(Ln,S^t-DtireisfSiJ^<B€SiffGiupfJ!!irTi*^t-.(T^. 

*K' « UJ, 30r /S S S 5" 2CCT iX C" LJ '7 i-- C? SIJ 6sb? (3 (i . 

Q <s jr ^ (^ ^Q ess? jr_ ff- g^^ i-55 <§= a; tb. 
QGa^rQeSrirp^QGeiiiQsfTmeuQi^^^Qi-jired. 
Q<Sff(^^^^SQ^dQp^i^i^ff&(^iMefr(^^^n-(^i^&Slpj^* 
Qe(r(B&^LjifrtLL^ir^@jm ,^^m^ULJtB^^<^'^ ^L^tMeu-L^iT^oiat 

OsiT(BSQpssi^iL^ijQ'eiT(B^jiiS(^LLL.G3'nQeir(£l^e9Q^(Sij[jGissic^ 
Q<stTL^S=,STp;8i:9p^^i34if!srr(^'$i>,4^<s&ir&ir^mM. 

0^iru.i^iQLp^;^'^^^-®Qp'°^(^'^{^G^fTuSle8iA®Jj3^ ^i-^^O^ 

Q&ii<^i!SiL^S!^ili^ff(^(BQp^iT^aL^s(^uy^ff(^(iiQpflff, 
Qa(T^.(B(^s^i^GLj&Qp^^rr. 



^^ 



UL^Oui!rt^^pjiL(B. 



Q s/r CO --0 i 0..g r5 o^iej2i: ^ c5);3 (^y ^<f) G uff-ff>. 

(? <s /r LJ L^! cx^ 2^ 'J" .-^ ^ fTO ^ !ii ^ ^ iri LJ err lS ^: .Ti3 rr ^u'? (p iS" c^^"^ 

G<BiT(ip!l-l^ULJ^f'jS:^(SLniTffLiSiioScO, 

G <S /r Ll9 !^ L£ 0^:9 U Q LD KT jp ,S7:_ LJ ii/] /l1 f__ r /y (? LJ .T^ U5. 

CoStT^p^TiSsi \£> ^<^(7^Q£(^,7 rr^. 
G£sn'Q]ssiLp(^'o^'5'i.Q£>triii(Zp^pasiLa. 
G<aii L^i-Q0]^JS''^Cf)(^'^(y^^-i-^'^(^-^u:iir. 

Q3!rLB^Bh.il^i9iL'^cSlSi^P^JpTlj(^^^^^^,])Qp^^, 

G£iiT^(^(^'Sfai^'luirei.Qs^(B;S'^^Guir€i). 



Cr'oir /^ ia j,r (?^;e@ £OT£_ £07 C-: /Td? <5^ jiT/u:Q?)£_/r^, 

£ c£^ ^S^ C^ ^J^\LLdsOQ tu &J ^Q U !U!P:(Bsu!r&r. 

^ ^ ^!U^ Qlju ■3s>x ^ ^^'Ssc^sSl iL'B :&(9^B lIjU ^ ^it zk, 

^ LJ L-.' 'T (^u^<^ J Q^ ^ «ff<5f ipL <ff ®^ £--i " i^ J (5" cJ;o7 £_ e"0'.', 
«e= L ii s:^ .-5= 4 ^ ii J J ^ ^ r^ (i sii sow ^1 j3i' s {_t7- igj , 5: ui i_j ^ 



'^ 



ijl^QLSiffLB^^rru.(B' 



iff 



^ /r ,ffi lj Q LJ /r (T^ !S 60? fl9 Co ffij is LJ Q /_/ /r rtxi ^ ci\> SsO ■ 
^!TQpeu£i^'riSSdui0^^Q<sB-QajsQ^6§QiQtli. £<fi^a«ffir6ar. 

^as^mL-UL-^(L^Qsodt(re^^](^ffee&T^0Qgj<^(wp(Suir^ih, 

s=trQ<sst^pQ^i^^^^s(^Qp ^. 
£Mr ^i ct.i^i.l^sf u.a paaiBQ arr ^ en IT ^, 



^r;3ij^aLh urn !r^<s^^ .7 (ip,S ^ ir u3. 

^n-KP ^ IT G i-^S dTS! ess? if s- fT Lff<m(^i^.i=cS'(r^^^aiu 131} IT ft i(^^ 01^ esi^ 

^iLB'S(^(meS)Qua^usaiibsirrssi!jUcj)^^S^^CDLJ{ToO, 

QlL'^ Si^^(rF)6BQu^(^ iQ srilitM.Tji^p; jx LLir. [_Q^ir(BdaQ&i6SS!(BLOtr. 

^ cni ej /T st5T 5 <g; 5?r e/f) ^ ji) ey .isS -a^T err /r. 

^ i) .:0ir m G i>o Lj n tj-iStBh^^^fr. 

&^S'''sS& .iTQvril!U€ssrilQ^sQQ<s[Tess,'£i,L^pu:>eQr^UGSiffili, 

^ J3I « I'i S il /^ LJ Q LJ (^ <S iSi/ /r ^ . 

^ ■diLJcoT pSffiLi^GeitQs'^piriuGffQFiLCifr. 
^SQ^uir&QSesiQiu&i^LSffOdsd, 

iBflt'SLOffjBi^p'Bri^^iMi-iraQcWL^UJir^.- 

[-3 



«B? '9 ^ nr 'B vo LJ /r oOT i5) OTJT _il ^ i r. t-' /r ^^ . 

^ 65® 6K L_ iS « ff (ij fi '^ ^ LJ S5W ii «ff S3> LQ i55i- 5'S; (1^ J <S rr LJ LJ Sror L^^ 

£ieun^,iss ^Co6i>QLjrrQp(DLjrr^!iie<S£:'^^Qe!>3'irtl.i^eaTuir, 
(^(B(oSBJL-yi^.ssT^(BLliui^£5mfr(j9p(o'^jrir^. 

(^il.^<sSGeiuS\(IF)&Qp^QlM(TLLtffLa' 

{^^miQ£(Tei.?^u9oiU^ir(BQLDU^ili» 

(^^ aj ^ i'(^]^'^ lB t^ m^LL j^ff QQ un €^ , 

Os^tLc^Ljessr^es>^i(^ss>p^^iT6sr G£'eis^(U6aTSiiSsOi(^^-^p^jSir^u 
0^tliLjLU«55t_0«u^^a)/r^©j8srr«^!.<a(gtjBir. 

0<3=L^L^i'-i'r^9iJSi^tFlB.Qp^d(^d^CosfTLJil.i_esnri:hLj^Qun9p^, 
Os^(^c^<s£^'^i9-P^GtssitSlijF,d!alp^^G0LD!T^4^pQuu9(7^ik^p^, 



O <fiF LJ LJ i^ a5) ^ a: ,^ aj u LJ i^ (5 (-J ff (?EJ 65r . 

(o) <y (^ SV) (Gn Q (0= /J" ©^^ « iffi (g; "fir LOr. 

(3 <ff /r 6sr (g) sb O (2/ lL <s L£> =jy (Lgi ^ /r ^ ^ &■ df ti . 



^TLJ^r^^vSa') o)aJ sorter »2Js.?rQ<g=T ^> so /7-£^ (Cj/rswLS/LS?fiiQiJ60Tj2''«r 
^iW£5QiMsOsOfrp^<£iLL\9G.;^ijc:>'rjruBp^. [^ey^i^^ 

^ Sro tfF (/? S33 «S ^^-^Iv^ ff (-L «_. (* sy 5517 C^^'ai • 

^ L_ t_ T S?er ^ C^- if- ^^ ^^ ^ S51). 

fi L^Jut^^^iu 3oT^^ (T^bOTrj .'S)^- j^'<3W m; cS- ^^ 65*7' /^. 

^<-i' tQ OJCLp ft' IT 601 (^LCfSOiL/tli-""^;* 



SiliiS 3::T i ;j '^Qi^icii Sir ^^iljQsiJsSl uuSl^r/d sir's ('^ih. 

^•35)u))^.:si LJSh^issrQtu^-srraiT (^LpsirQ .s^iTch-t-^p 'iLJtrsd. 
,^ms(^ut9p^^t9'?rit5fr^s9Ll,[j)isn^dpsfK'l&J:^ 

j^C3T a-^^ll'LQdv I'ST) jV) e (iiij C-? iJ^ I Q;? 6"0' CCI ^G lS /r^0 O^^ f5' c^ , 



« €» ©^ /JL © ©?^ 6V ^ Q ^ cOT J3J (Op 4' ^ m? i— S50 (}■ Ln IT. 

;^>^Q Lj 1^0 L^ff iLl^^uj '-^ ^- 17 a-j\ !^<ss ^ flsi) iU (t ^ €& \U ^ ^ c^ja s Q&c 
;0T i4j SzBJ £Lr^ u ;r Lc^ <£F dot 'ssf ^uix, 

^ifcSiiijuu^Tn-^^u QuimTisc-jTBQs!nI(r;p(^ LJff3ei)'uuiTfr^^iljLJ^ 
^^iu^p£^so ^siLrf^pjr^M Qtf/r SCOT /-.Q;cSr^^^(g)60««»?<«,«y 



Q^TtS^QiriLm 



Uis^'.JUirrt 



^ir S u^fi^mQe'.rieSQhi '9(.rj> ^ p^J i ^^■ULQ'SSi€i}^i{^cJ Qua eS 

^ iT stjr L. & <s .J ^ ear (^ oD Lc t_ fi) , '^55 U3 . 

^€: !tQ esreum fr p ^ pQj ^ ^ir pQ enr [.^Q uj3 ;B p^ eSr , 

^iTiXifQ^i~'ruQuiT^^S(^LjCi(rp^LEijQdsOiuss)JriULBoh?^, 

^£LhuiT&^^ZJCrQ&(^QJ€§ST^mQ^pQ&l<^, 

^i^'~~^QucSsT&!T^0rmsuipi(^ijc^sLoQuchi£^n^ . [,'i?;.,.'i"caTtL 



0^ LJ^QuirLQ^^ail-(B. 

^ e/ -io^ t-T ^tSJ^^p i^i ui'q Gcy iiJ' . 

Q'c:ssre9,m^.,i:^QJm ^^issiuJ^uurrdT e9:?issr^sei^,s-^^®J<^ eSihssiOJ 

/?G^iJT^^^(^a?)3i5S.-;)^,Ti@S^giJc«r ^siG*jO/r0i^ ^l?«-© Q<ff•£Da-'/r 



G'%^LppSU-<i3]*sSwLE ^^SiU-t^^'Snu^^^QlL]^ ...» , ^ 

'^riruQLJir£sQGiJ^}j(aLD!iQmiiTuun-ii^(}9pm<ss6)QJ^>ai, 

^(r^^3Ses3rpoe»p^^Tn-isJiTj:riT(D^9 

Qi^cQ!0SfL£p-^ppLjn£jQsumi'2i5sreijeiztf;i^ir&TuffsBl, 
Q<s ^ps\''(LppS^QuQF^rij&irpi^n^S'Sf^. 

G^;oiT(o'MtT^^G^!SiaiTiLj(eLJ/rsd. 

G^^L^'-U'rdTL£)seh0iSi]^(^Qs'tu^^CoLjn-s-S, 
Q06i:jips^'SiJ&sTL^pij£U',ajsss!ruip(ffuroJir^^ 

G^MH^(^i^^iLis(^sneia(Bsu^^eSl(BB/seu[TamiU(r^, 
G;S>M^^'-jit^u^Gi_jiig61(^s&Qisii^(Bj:}. 



(5l^&Qp^m^^SUJ)}QfS^^muifiTQ.3'lU^^(TFjU2UD. ^C^.kBlCS^, 
fL-p^lTGdpn-QL^(k<S^ITU:SL.piSiju(B^^tT^iUiriLjllLJmS» 



pLhLSl6Gr(^uicSJirjsn-il.L^&)eSlL.,eirrLCfr. \_G)€:!r(B<ssLCiiril,L^fr&Tt 

jf5(^ 5\) aj if <3; oTfiJT (ssafi i)^ "7 -ffi Lfl « LJ LJ il i~ £r jjj; f& Q « -T (a^ 00 /r i?- , 

r tl i_ G) ,^ 607 sja". 

^GO€i^n%sir'Sl€dt§!rL^il!LJtrSosp&]ir^ s^^Q&^J^s seiuuirc^^si 
psOsiorasiirS'SeSsTL^iTcO jsiriLiGLJiTeOil' Qufr^s!i(rcGiirssieS(SL-!Tpyj2eer 

^GiuGusQp^^ 

'p<k'^L^_^'BQj!£(rUU!Tp^l&QjS!TL-0^L^£Sl^pfT^p(^sQ'3n(B 

/5.7L' (o eO/r ,f^ t-i sro rf5^(?aj/r0 <S(^^^ ^^, 

pds(sr^^QLi^Q]^s^^^n'<^'S^^n'^^e^pt'^y-S(ms'-(DS=^ijb' 

/56ST5©LnOcip;ua.J^'S6B7U3uiSiS2<5rr£ur^. 

fSbhmiLE>'o6i]iJuQuQ^&Qfi^i^€isicnmus^fop0^iT€^pp&(opeijam 
pm SQs'iu,'5B!fliljtSl&jfisfrm)iusQ,siTmrp'Bi:s)^Gutr<sO. 

/SirS'&iJTQT^QLo'TmtmpuupjBeniTffSQr/nsfr prr^ QinTb^JieCipuLj 

piTLL(Bls(^ pSooO^^rr wp^ir^p CS^inl.L^'ii^u 1-{&)^S'&(S)L» 



p!taj<&i!r'dsdUup^^pjBSpiisei>iru^tr» 

^ rr Zjsufr L^^Q ^dfi est y^'.6^ ^ IT eS lu^ ^Q ;St^ S3F, 

^riLj3iJ(76a"<$g:.(Scar<s G) e^<5« so TLc/r. 

ffi/r Si/ so <5^ aJ^ T i_ 6255 <ff^tL/aj . 

/5'rt£!lUL->e!5urbQeif'^^^''j^il^s^LJLji~L-il.Gu(rs(r^. 
^rOT,9-<fl='''scana55jj LDl_^LjLj/rvo4r"Br«or ^i^fiO^eSjress?^ €i}iTa-^j^e<BnM9f 
piie^iLi-~^Qf)^^'^^i^''0<BTLLL-ir^ pbX[r^j^lQej(p^(cr}^nQcatL 



^ LP s\^ J5 isbc^^Q^&Q,^ iLl.it ^. 

^cV^p_$^^p£G6itQu^rFjiii^rr'U^issSirr^^^QutrsO, 

^ 2'OT- ^ ^ CJ ^ 3" lL Q^ 3 LDoO Lfi. (? t J IL/ LQ/T . 

^ oOT (75> on^ Q;S 3 uD zr ill 5^ (1^ ^ ^ ''■^ Lj Ssar uif (Jb. 

§^Uppuii—i—mcr,S^J^^6u>p'MoS^ipOutijtqL&T, 
^ 7K f5fr ar U2 L- 'i) ti t ^ --or ^^ (^ ,9? ^ err (C/j LO . 

(^H-iLlj't^Ql^iljiu ^<^p-B ®^i^6isrfis^nim(^Lorr, 

^jj-eSi Sirens' LX^eOLDnd^Q'S'T^^^GLjrrgd. 
^p^s9(jF)CiUfr^^LOLJ^ps-tr^2irn-. 

^pj)i'iQ^a!r(T^i^i-i'B'<sf^ii9!r^^eQatr(^^^V^£'UL^, 
^pe&peQs(B^pj0}^,3^e6S* 



Q ^ T J?i .ii S ^^ COT ^ 6^ JJ/)'^ SU iU ^ . 

Q prrtju p p^tT i^QQi<Qi)w ij^'3i^(^'S3^>pe} p pQ s'ihsi^Q LjbQ s'Sc'^Jih^ 

05) 5 £_ ^ U3 L-/ sO ffly /r ■* "S eSI i-£. ^ LA . 

l^s<^^pu<Si2^sQ^iTiU<sS)<^ds!d^n-iS)e\iei'nn€^'jiiqmQ^!flquiT, 
Lj^SipuasLOunn-^^LjCoLjaf r^^'iT^sirrr^QiiluSl^^^rr^iliQufffF 

u^^^S'LurLnpjjjsi^iUTQ^ui—Ui^uufrcsS^Q^cu^frQ^. 
U£Os<^JQj)p<Bj'-j^BQiU(i0QjS(rnuL^. 

uQeUp^^ LrL^JU;S^U^LJp^^(aUn-il^. [iilbi^. 

U^^^'^pO^'^(T^^Lb,(^'-!ir^urr^u.Qssf^f^j<^r^i'j:, Qufr&^^irrr, 
u9iJrrui3^Ln^T^^jrjQ^iT(BsQ(Jp-,^ u)^ip>u^^Q5^,STp (SuitQu. 

!_, g) _/5;5a; ^ Lv L@ (& « ccsr i so .c; LJ u/r /fLJ LJ^ (?LJ^ sO . 
tJ^ J? rf^/^^ '»"3 3-0 L J fl-jl-i^ ear Lj U3 .Tib. 



L? ^ <ff /r^ t^ t-i *" /? l1' LJ »■ Gew as: tx; q ^ C3or L. or. 

LJil(fi)aii-;zI./L_fffeTpq/i OLjil/:.p.aS]i.-S)0s^i-a sn-psir&s&^^o^mLri. 
iflai^QuireO. 



LJ ^ ifi & iq i J^Qisn^^^^Lj IT eB£} IT irestsr^u^^^ii'SeSi&)Bgii, 

JLJ^^ Q .ffi /T OT LJ QJ c Jr /LO J _@ BJ ^jy eiT ffij fSr . 

i^\0 ^^ ajQ LL!rui c^ L- a p-Q iSi'^) u^^ rrfi'SiiliQ Lj^ ^ f c m p) s IT t_aT^^Q 
usr^Ljsts^iTiuTeScJL^(Ju!ru(^iP,4^swir(iii^i^Q(uir. £^Q^6^^s^. 

UGdsitrL-iliu,i^iUirj}iLa. 

U ip j3 (i§ sB ij u rr cSl ji' q9 (ZFi 3 ^j^Glj IT si. 

t-/ >5r) LO (ij (^ Lpu « ,<^ ?w a» ^ ju /p iJ z pL . 



c-/sfr erf) srsji-J i_/,Jj^ J^^^tL'-'^^'^^*^^'^'^ '^• 
uehmiss 0337 iif^LJL^ err {&(f/^(^^au(r^. 

X-/ j3r _/fi Lj «5i> (^ tl ij!- G* tJ T tl Q t-. e§r ssr . 

ju 3" i— (0 uD^ ^a ii sr vii g© a q5) G* £_ <?j . 

ui!TBLJL^[rL£ipQuT^sbueisS&i^inj^pQu[r(^uii» 

LJ[T(B£:iL^'S'isiJn'S^Sij5lpLJil.iei~iTdsd(UiTQssrQssT. 

LJ^^£^ if LJLB3£iLSi'-^ITLb>QLJ(T(Bu^<B:^GLJlT^. 

ua-LhuiTiLq/L.ua-u>iQOs{ism^T<:^s^eB Co si). 
uiTLQt^iiQiBiqiMGuir^LJsOsgrs^ilQJa-i^^ Q^^. 



Ljn'^^^!rpLJSitjQLjne^iljLJi^UJ^^trpu^(SQuire^. 
i-jfr^uJLjrri^G^iljUUiiJ-o&piJi^ ^QJui^VbtrsiT ^. 

i^rrifuu^nQs=SiJ<SQ^il>Q6iJm2:^s(^^mirrs--G^eiisQi:iLJ0>ir^(r^. 
Ljn-[rsQp£s^-s'j^&(^Q<Btl.QpQffsSiQLjir<:^)0Orr^, 

LJ!r^QF)<&Qp^UIT^&llUL8Q^<sQp^UiTs6}Qe!iQuiriL(Bs(^L^<^SU) 

Ljfre>jfi-^pS!(-iiQ&'^i-.n'^Si}drLja-3U^^^^.Q^^j/§jQjs(j-^sju(^^ 

LJ{reS',sSl(^^Qp£SUiTtr^^LS0-s£!p^, 

LjiTipfriuQLJiTQp^U£reSleksiJ(iu£lCJis;), 

t^f> tsa\ (os^B-p^'S(^ep(7r,(c^rrjr)}u^ui, 

tSl^es>&&isnErmQu::.Q^i9!rujrri^^^ffPQ^[t(B&^pfiiT. 

iS'PTc'B&^^^fT piSip(^UUi(^(3^(Xpeaisru.ir. 
i9^s^<3^'&&f.-j(^orQs='rpi3QoOjT!^a^£;!rdrL-{0^lS^Quir6O, 



i9^^TZ'SfriUiTffQ£sffuS}Sp^(^u.eS(7^uuiT^Qd?^dr(m)^i}G&iT^. 
iQ iatisiT'O u p p^osiT uiUtr nr ^ ^Q UQ^^ff •Sr'^ iLi^fTSiiQ ^6^ 60- . 

t9pfrQuir0om''jS\-sF^uuB-^^SQTQuiT(^(sSi^uu!rm, 



i-V'J^c75iiflxj^^«g;(Lp^fJS'Ti!_oC)/L,LJ LJ 'SOdsO ill l^i L^ ^ ^ ll! (^ ^ il LJ ^ fT^ 

t^b'w <sssi\u ^^ s.'^.'^Qqi:^ jjiQ'oiJLLu-il: yj^Uj L^puud^^ Clj/t©). 

l-j^tUffmirpLBLQuLJ€t)^LQlUVcS>ir^SISiS£'3]c.-£'^I^LL'l'. 

t^ ^ ^ 'Lj:i !r 6§TLU<^ en O'^&j IT d)JL-^^^aJpSr^^Lj<^^p('r?i^T, 
l^sriLi^U[_jsrtl.L^a^oOi^£:&p(oi-jir^m ldo»,?u9o^? i^-^'^irJi-<F-S}Jod:Ai 

l^sSlLJ^iS(^6iJ_^LjiriUff--£^e^Si&t—u:i 
L^eSl<S(^uii9p^^L4,'<i2«tiuirujiliQuifr(^L£}(r, 

i~^e^tuio3-4^^Qe:>jB<i&su6wujpifh.Q^mSpi]r^Q]ir^, 

L^p/BGso^piZi^eS'^uu^Gu!ri,^i£BL$^Q('nr>s5r. 

L^p^Qsodfe^Gls^pupuuCL^^QuiiT^L^piiU^Q!^^* 

y^Uj^s'LjQuirsSTs^i'rlpiM. l(aLja&£f^irih, 



j^.'^^S^Q^/riBiUili Qun-^uu^ff^&r Q^LL>^e,i&iLL.& ^sOiir^^sJtr 

^'sS''pjQ3&S>L-l3pLpO^S\ p&e^ifLXilT. 

^mii £tL(B Q ^ir LQ ^^ ^m cSeOjZ-c-at & LLL^e:itr Liiir. 

^LJLLL^uS}pUITLD!-jQL.Jir60L-!SiQ(c2)<^, 

QLJb§&(^&dT(aS'lTp^S(^<§^tS6^L..Li:^ii^'c>S^- 
QlJSGIS! c^ S(^tljQl-l{r^,^S(^U^Q,SiTpl-j<56Qil—fr. 

Qu^rG)€&jr^ur^p(pLj'^LBn-&SLh- [&S^«-aj/r@6cr. 

Qusmr2s6srsQ&jd^stQiP.i-Jiu>^-GLJiU^^^ i9b^i2zrrQup^ff&jiiS 

Qudsr^a;ruup^Llii^oi>iiiJ^^'^^'^' 
(slLJ<^ari_j^^iJ^L-QpaJmQLJlUf, 



era) tJLQQLcrrLBii0!Til.(B. 

Gu(Tr)U:iiTQ^T.;6:QpQussiiru:>TpptliQu^ajQu(i^Lj-!rc,r{r£-^j^. 

Q LJ(m<Miij ^Q 3m>^ i—^^ jBiUa tn^:) ^Lnp;<B^^p;;^ prrsrHiLQs Q<srr 

OLJpp0li'iijQs=j5^^;ioQuppj)IUJUe>Zl&ppULjdT. 

Quipp.'S(riuu&^^(^'i<auiSlan-LXias:iT(Iu(rs^caujQ^Ij^^^Cij[reO, 
OuppQ,'5si'^ifLCi9ml'saaJ!T'^(l.L^Q^si\><siiru:iUlSi!Tir, 

(^LJ p piQ 'SiitsH' ^ aSiL-'^l pQ LJ(SSU^i^\!<!a i^l OSiQ 
QLJpp'-^5^iJ^£l^^£/(iil2iSiTlS:.aSlh3Gi^G^. 

Oupp^:^ii(^^Q^iFliLjiMi^i^d3(riUij^mLii. 
Gu^;T000^!rpfSla-^Ls,QiUirc5Tjr)iiSi)^, 

GuS=£S)&<s^'P^i^<s[rujffQ^(^L^sSl0>i^, 

Gun-,Tsos=s^n-irZssruQu(^iliL^^s!rj:jQGuJb^Gi^'cm(Bij:i» 

QLjniis£!i^Qu!r^-<E;f Qu^QqiMQuirS^sf Qu6Cur^crsri.i^uuL^if 

(oluir^iiSG(Ts9p/3p(^(ipca{(^^ijrs',S^^'^Qj^^j^siT&9p^^fr, 
WLJ/rajQ,ff /rc^r JcrsJ/roJSQLJ (2cj/r^cw^/si &cajL_£U.T^. 

G LJ Tj;!/ Q LOU J 53 1^ Q aJ ji)^. ,'Jiir . 



O t-' /r ^ so 0- o' t9 ar g^iT c6] 6lv:i /r u ^ Q7 §s/r <5 @ <ff= ,fi= /f? . 

G u^ j^ 0pir rx jy ^. iT<^ Slid ^Q Ljn fdiiQ ^w ssTL^tri^ eiiiJ ,r, f'-''^^* 

QLj«r65T6o^ff5r,ffi6OLj£WLJSiyF0<s0t£iLjG'Lj/r<5^(S=a'ij-©/j'@ {oi^(i]^^(^cJir 

GutrSties^u^P£sil.u.Q]h^jg,Ts=neSl^liMQui^ius}j^&; 

Cou!rQ.r(r(Bfidi QjDi-ciTiL(Ba(^ju£l'S& 9 u Gu^rilQ SrSflGis^tr. 
Qurr'i^Qurr^s-s'l'QLJirk-^iTily^^GSfi^jpi&su^Ljnff's'trui. 

Gur6uru:i!riLay.L~^Q^(Dlsu[r(Tr,LSsh^^0 Glbiu^^s?ucSI Q^rrQjuufr0 



lH'BiTe-^LLsi'L^UrT Q f5 & ISiQ LJ {T iSSr ^Q LJ (T ed , 

ijifi cK LD t^ LJ il. c_ c« ^' <^ @ ur>ir iRS*-ij:5 Lon" iL ffi /r /r l!/ «n lj o^ <S «.s ,^ 

LSiL^\iS\Qe^s^!:rLSl(!^p S'rSiGUj^'SCSe^iLJ'iJ'Ji. [^Qjuf&Cc^Qffjegr^sar 

Lnt_.^S t^'sSlss^. ^^]ij!iu ^ .§ i^i'rmeiJfr eBijesf^ su}, 
uitLf^tf6ieiQufr^ccrihL[^0St^p(^ij:iQ^ir&. 

Laixtsii^QimrrmujfStliQ^p^SfriiQoftt^Quni^. 
LOs^ p QffWp^'hs<k^ntijQi^Quaisi, 

uaeai R5)c_(L/6TrcirQUfB>/J-u9oWGTfi Couir^rr^. 

f-*^sSrsrst^L^A-?j^S^(^^s>!eQ'Bsrr<^6rce)L^Gu'rL^Q&i<^'S{Qu3, 

t^e^mt^iiSQ30(T^QLEiu9.rfrc{'LDR!)p-5^^(2LjrTsi. 



LJ L&Q LD/r t£!^^ ir tl'S, 



«-& 



us uS! /r iL^ *5Tr s =s 01/ 5© s G ^ ijL 'W,! ^ 'vu? LJ /r cO . 
Ltirl u ^ ssj /i.a9 ^isiT ptTeo; u>Q, saLE,iu ^(^dr. 

U3 



IMds'iQiULD^^ii'Etl.ig.uJiTQpQuir^^ inch i^mjsiLLB. OxjuuL^ 

Lofc>^LpasrT^(i^tLt^iT^^u>La^^Qa!Tuii3L0^^uiriuiiiT, 
LB€S)i^GSlil.(B^J^-suireafL£i6SlL^d?etdsO. 

t/: 63T <S ^ SU 2S5) LJ €0 4 (^ €ti)^ Cy . 

Ui^6^mpdsOss>tULBtr^pds^iuiT&.^Q(r[?^L£)ir(^^^^tuiJ:i^.e^ 
LO!rLop^0^ffh.(l^S(S^.@.uQLJfr(T^Q<SL.n: [^^<^^(rtlt-.&Jfk.t^!r^. 

UJ/rejsruiQt-J ffl QpiriQpttessrf.'^ Quifl (?^/r. 



iM ("^ |C^ '-C ^S /^ eS) (^ LQ.T- 

Qu<BfsiJ^Gufr(oQnh'sQp^' 
nj:iL^iqij:^'SUSo<sQufr^!un-U23^(T^UpBQ<Ba&r&Tn-Q<s. 

(WilSB'ULJiL^BsMQs^n'j.ejQPf'^^f^^ (^il.(BuLJil.L^ffp(^&s)pQ<siecip 
(Lp^^<si^Gui!rs'Lc.ir<B^qn'3iQp^sO!ru^^iS(^<3=iS'eSis!mt^QLjff^ 



(y^Q^'^ L4,-3= s^^sstTse^n^Q s^ pQ (^Q (-.is^c-S' p &Q ^ pQ UR si , 

(T^iTrr^ i ,^ /r sKLDijii)^ 3 9 s(^«5ij/r c?SssT q/j9 o^ SKIS. 

QP^ :m}Q umiQ £^^,)Q -^iriLi-^GO QLc<sireaQui<^&re!]rms(o^dBr(BLSt 

Qp23frSSLtu9n-^borj:iJ^^^u9lT€Ssi(SuQ^Q(5i}ii.Q. 

Qpp^^f^uil,(_fr^LC:Qps^^i^UL.<siiTsir^. 

Qfi^oicS^£;^'6sarL^fr(^^QpLk!Sim<B^,'XSmLb. 

^ oOT ccToiT^ ^^s' t£) :.Q 537 eorcrr J (3)^13 • 

(y^''(i'Qo5rQLun,;^ii9sf^,4^i3dr(SmQLjir^^^oi9rrLs:.^0. 
■ (LP .07 Q'o(jiQua^l^^^^&Qp^i^dbT(oa:^(oij[r^^S!^^&Qip^. 

l^seo^jLji^ili^^^irovi^^eaiQunQp^. 
QPi^es:L.^<^sffsr^S(^^(ipi^&sffS(IsOL-j^4fri. \_C!fp&(r,gi^:iQiu-rn>^ 

Qpi^T(^wail.(_eSli^/f.,9ir/:.Qpiflq'L\ 
(:!/^-^^^^^>(yiy^Q:f^9Lafr(^£rpjOJQp'^uj^Qp^^QL^^ 



pii 5 Ag i^/i eSr (p SOT LjD <5&w Li3/r ff) Q tj a J ,^ jj? . 

Q)ui,S s^ Ljn^-s" :fffft!T u; Q,<m ic sn Q ij m 0" ^sOrrJh. 
Q LC'L ^'o^ 0>u: £) ^-> pQ LJ ff !JU yi'i smr ^s' /} ^ rr ^. 

Q L^ a) 6-3 LJ lj /r ;^\1 ^ 607? ffljsP ff <«? c?- 8?J ;Lj (ii ;»; /^ o L^ 

•QLiimmQjS's'T ir^^^str^njiiJiQun'sarso'flptJ^. rCpuirGene^t 

Qu:icisdS^Qjffi^'SSS)SiS}U[BQ^P'c^S(l^^S(^^Sr<BQLcuS}nh- 

Q L£in (Lt_. p p'2eii ^{^is^(y^i^^e'n ^M(^LD (u^;-^^{i^ iLt—^Q U!rcs^, 
Q 03 ■? tnSv /L_ /r i^syF, sj /» Ea^ ^ £^ /o Q <3 /r SOT /_ fT e&jT 
Q u^rr ^^. ^s^'^ ^ tr pj)i i^^Qis^QT L£>L^&Q (rn>m . 
QLCiri6(r^Qei}mQp-si}^fS(i^fi^<i&Sm^ra3iLL%cst^jQurrs^, 

GJplissmr'B&n'!TsbL-j(^(^siJrrs'pLJi:^Lafl.Oj'M. 

6iJ(^^^ifk(^€rzhmQjs.^-&'3aiLL^f^£^iMQp(^QGp^;tQ'Sn-meiTir 

^i~<Seumirp^S'Siiudsir^(^L^.'BQp^ii\ 
eui^ss^^iUirZm[qiM2tju9pj)i'Si}sSlpjiiutLiu>p'j:iU<s{i(ri'DT ^. 
0^0 ^^4cw Sajar^^- eiJ^% 



eu ^ t^ ^] i (^ Qj sSsr^^S^ Co u^ioi irons' si}d-ir,f^^^i,(^se(iAmpQLa 

€iJ iZJ .lb ;vp>'Un^Q^j5lp<in eS 'LI jO/a i ot L^rruo. 

&S£})^B!Til,iQ-^pLJ!TZ<xi (>Lpi^iT^r. ^^^-sirpQurrei, 

eL}ijSlp^ut93fr°^cSiijj5u:i6ilusi^^(sLa:u£Qp t9^: *^irsuiiuuui£;Q<Brr 
eii\B!i(rGQnpQipi^.9iLCUL-L^ss^^cb->ius9(i^i^(^Qps!r» 

ej J- (S^ Q s/r ^^ ,5: iiisj o-S l1' L./ G LD^ .5 . 

fij [^ aj^ Q d? /r (SOI Cccr cjr LJ ® aj ^ z_/ ® . 
et}{JTj^^^ \^s-:)sUiT IT IT'S Q;S freer rQ^d^, 

cjSiiue^p'^'TL^QjiripcSQcOsjj^^irc^j:^ QutnLuei^psmTL^CeuinLisjr 



9d&JSdSi.\i^jS(^~LJLj6i'i^:iatUfjLa. 

eDLBijSlQei3i^SQp^Jstri—s^Ss^iijQiu(B^^Sair<£li&iQLap(ouiril. 

Q&QafrersatrCfftsi^sBr. 

©J /. ^ 5 -S9 i_ ej (T it ^ 55D ^ ffij /r (fif ssr ill G Lj /r c;v) . 

€!Jy^-2:u^ §: ^IS^ pclJi'cliUi^tT hsQ ^ih QiJVB IT ihlJ p nS.iiJUCS)Sp^ ja. 

eiieffrf,S^Qi-n'u:ifriTLQpuiTiLi^;S^QLj!r^. [_iqu.s. 

ejtr&Q^pQsiLL-.,s(L^ cb'i^'SU!!ULjQuirSQQoiiisB(Biis^^ 

eifre:!^us^LL^t_isuuS]jSsL„':iS)L^ Q ^tu pQ fi'U p^t—^'^ LJ^<sC^^SiL^» 

euir^ssirL^esrQ^i^i^ujffGWSiJiij^Q^-^or^paQ£.m^QiJ2tuLJU(rdk 
ai IT 'jj tr L^G!J (T n- ^ SIS) ^ LB lL[:^oC en IT 3- ss^m]. 

€Uffs:^c§3rL^rr(€^piS!drfjjm^m!^s(^ui, 

QJITiUQ]!T€e:t^UULQ'U^e!5)S€S(7^csmiiQ.I^ij(^. 



rO^/ri.23T£_r5'®;eTrQ5*iI-i^(?eoqai. 

6J (T csr lIi U /7 fi" >S i5 U G" LJ 0" ILj tXi ^ offj t-' (gi # eO (T . 

Qldco?^ Co «il £— ^ (fl cjff eo. 

€Bsisa)^&!j9Q50eSiu^^(^ff£a^'^c<>tcsi^^Q60esflLJJ^^ip^iuQutL 
eSliJ'r£-9iLJ(§TjQdFp;B.v^il.L-s:buLb> 

cSliT jjl' *^^ « « « (Si9,&- ff a:. 

65^ (3 ^ «?L /) ^^ ^ G) ^^ u5)^:^^ ^p. t^ ^ -^^^^^ 



t^9rrsm>3Ui^L^^^iQ<sa<pstsi(BS!«Btsrp/Sl(keSin£,Qp^rr. 

©S^ .^ Q su J2,' GjS^ J (?a/^ a-<jy ^ «ir a- ii. 
" L(BS(^eS^^i£!S6^etsBT(BLJL^^^!rmr. 

Qsi)eLc^B(^uQLjpj}i(oai^!SQe!)/S^^iTfi<s§ntr. r&r 



Q eu ^ (mQ Lj ^ tu ^ ^ a- ^uoisSliu IT L^UiOtJ IT luUfT^, fii 

Gaj o) 6» LJ ©51 li i_i a5) (^ 03 fcj <ff tf ti L/. 
Goi^suj-S'SsoiiQ oieup^ffedTiT^^setM^. 

GQiSs^u(]ufftLL-nJih'fTSfr^s(^eB2esTSjiT^^jg. ; 

(o fflj oS LjuS) ew 0" (o LD lij ^ jS n- (^ aS) Ssrr en Q^ Lj Lji:^.. 

Geii%)'v>-ftLJ^T^,gh,e§l^6i}6!^uiGLJirLLL^fr^err^, ri^ir(mui 

Geuhsiis^^^S'S<8h.(^€S^^ULj^^p(^fifi£Ss^ir^La, 



^^ eiSl ^ u ^ [J [f A ^ 

e6'fea.'2_.3w ^LJCw^S jf^Ln^tn (s ^S't^SiT : ets^s eTu.LJi^ii3{ih^^-^ 
^ji^Bii^iLt^e6-j,T(L.ffSjd>TQu.&} ^^&Q ^QffnS, fi^ar^^ ^^ewafc-fer 

0«j»lrtf^ ^iT&ii^iUira'3 utLi^ru^ssS ^tLi^Q^C-i^'JJ"^^ 



sulQi—Quj Li^^jnff-ai eL/EJrf3;er^^ «r.'w8(S3i -asir^^^ediL 
in)ff,er«Sr6OTt-J/r(Bi-Ji_(?ft/.ggyL£(?LJTl (?t-/ ! ^LJL.jrnS ^uoLO'! 6l^ 



^^S'dir&itrQ^L^^Sr G)4FuevLCtULj(8 stir's Qi-.Qjim^(B eriljL^i^ 
Q^flev'cS) ^'^^^bbtrdr^ jH—9in^QiL'Qn^ ^'jpiO*''"(«5^'» 

i ^ictur^sSlil.L-.n'ifi) eS^j^^^iiQ^iLiB (s>itsiss)<g'^'fn&^^ tB-yci^. 

IJS<!B ft Qu if fftii^ (LJirtsiSfnli^^ui ^fisj^LLi—frQ^QLjiriu^djeSi 
^^^s\snii9e^ ^jD'iuQ^^s (^^^^^dsO^S eSuLjffijS(mjS^ 

Quiritu. ^.^^s^^ Qun-m&sriJiuedul ^jffr^^aiQffffmasr&jL^ 

GawggJs s6)o07,^ ^S^&Q ^' &s jsa&t ef<^j^Qf'&)QiTmQii^ 



au It ^ shrill ^uu^)^ ^h^cL^ff'^ tun-Qr^uip'^ uirQ:rQjjciT 

•«L/fL ^^wpskrei:p!—(JLjfTiu(Lpp'ULQLL(B<sQ.B(r^L^(i «.. .flojus 
&i,ssh,i'iL3 <lr ^^ (J^F^]^ §^e^3^<r<ir^w:h ^ or ^ Q l^it (jfji^ 

Q ir<^. j^T(^L^-Q[r fS)^^«>HTiLJ eriiQ^^L^nl ^Qun^>T pT 

^^'liLJiLu^ S j^B'^p\»^p&d>frjLjfr^^^s QiUoXeorriMiSEL^J 
UUtL^ QtJr u3ih^<SpJf4 



w^sSI^UpffT^f^ffi^ s'lrtJihi 



% 






ffii 6»5 •^^ <? , . ...... 

G'&nS ,..., 

sir,si<srth 

^ U LJ 1 iiSl.. 

«=iXU3ff@i— 



^;g^. 



Uf-^i-.ir~<&itr 



S; 



W.' 



LJfTfflhL^lfi . . 

,^ ^(&) .« io)/".fl-5»« ..... 

^p ^ta^'Si ihn a It ........ 

^iS) x.iro/i> ,.c 

iS^sUdSkiP lU .... 

uaisHua ......> . 

^^a/ 






i' 



s^m jSi^ Qffiu'iJtfUi 

0^lfltdJ!TtLJ. 



,T^ 






^t-ff^jas! 

:.^'acTtu/ruj 

oT^&LJU^jSija .• 

/7«^ > 



2S 



j^il'cSIxJii 

\l9sdlT^j^ - 

jaELjtt-/ •• • 

Isi-.eOci^ = • 

iQeHaL-QeOfiL^ 

UsdLl.u.S- 

{uifSTjp 



^^fiBp^^ 



a/ jji «D LD BJ « c- S ,fl) jgy . 

j5 1~ ill t-j -B Qs flip &jgt wrm^. 



^mir&Qpj^. 



asae'^liQeu (^ u lj q/u C' uj C l^ & ett.hQ lilts' 
(!ljQiia\(B Qff^ifSff'.^h LJ j5 (CO) /5) J i/« err ,T £err WffLJ LS^tldJLaQ -or^ggi 



Quifi. /s^osUja ^uuc^uulLl. eSisir&'&Q'SsS'S ^t^iruSi^^ 
eat - ^^!r^ j^J'* Q^£.ar3arLJilt_(S5sr J^^'iff^sjjsw.^^ g-'S-snG'ai 



wed /Bir^QtFn(m(Jsat§Sxr^ G^ir9iu:iUeSsi(m)QiiQa!r ai'tih 
^i—jr^etisTiS^tstr jsiM^suniuir ^an-^^^a-^ er^^^nuaj 

^Jpis^ gpT^ j^ajff^.v5iuaj/r L^&)->i)n-S(2&iiiSiL'B arioso /fi(?<sF/r 
(BQLjnil.(BsQiL.(h 6u ^e^ if iTiuQ entity VL\(h^^B9tL(d Qst>f^^ 

Qa'iLJjS^jD €p^Q^ir t^^i^ns »^& jciir Mire sn&QfT^ jj,iy (3^13)1 pi 
'^0S^ ^^^^i'ffsaLCtiuui Gui&U'^^.Gun&xiiU'JJtrs^it^ G/^t 

LJjfiB^sCoiU Lj&isiiraQ Si) GufiuaQili^QRi^LGLJir^ jS'TQpih 
QiLGi-,GLjrr(o6iir0aT LJT»D;^(iSU«l)CJ«;6i5nr<iSi5B),3 a5)p^i2(C_f u_'TiI.'-S 



Of-i'fl^^ a !r en !ij ^ ' of ^ rr il. 'B u Lj IT ft ^■Btr&i GujTiZ.L^LJt^&ffiLJST 

t.fi«OT j)j^Q mil^'B OT^uDTesr ^t-GgaQiUsoTj^; ^^iij^LO jySsrr^ 

m 



01: tSleSl^u^irff^^e^fffrfUi^sa 

<sv<ffii^o^2aiT5a'aR) Q^riUui'Qe'ireoSsSiLLL.ffr ^uui^QdJ <or&* 
Ubnm&e^t—^^ed jsn^pnefraiu ffira'SsresiSaJT'jSl^sQQpm tr 

(crFffi'^ eui\iJLJS';^(ThQjuiTiLJ (^ffLairibs(^9(iff^iIj Qi^kemQi—tM^ 
©viffixia) .^ai(r^5 Lj'^ew, ^6boTj,T(iS)j)^,«(W) 43? ,««of.,^ Qffir saed^^^m 

jgg ^i^^iuiksi (Sro)oWoo^(7)j'«b jy5a§)(^6U erpsh stiSiUfim^ 
eL/J3 LJ(^^^ tSiiusditih B-'-^'^ jj|/5!.^9«i)pO<rLoso ^«_^^«wroLD(fi 
€S)(75tI;Lj^ L-jir^ffLj'xUi-'DaD^^ finta&r e^iup^QjSfTs,BtTLaeJ 



seffirQi-i j*€iin-&dsff ^«u(f«6^ LC^iuffif^Q&Tasr^ ^(^«ffl;^^@i 
Qffff &^lL>'3 jBL~@J(im:UiunL£i-^6fTmLn(lS^pm'S0eSl QBsO'SjyeOQ^^ 

gto, ^fbfofiuu^jB sSm vast amirs a- ^^^irnQs^i^i^tu Qsi^us- 



ui^Qtu ^mffitpefirir^su}^ ^i—^s^ea vest (Baa tjmi^ ^udntastilt 

mfuS" Qjjissiiniuinu fS'—^^&Sn.'—fr j^ ^ui^ii^Q^tuSp ^ LJiai 
eij^ ^(^Seoresi&i^a 3sci^L&SQed Qui'' jfB'i-i'T^'j «iy 'xi<t^^0«« 

^^Sffxrff-na^ndsfTt-liQuirQoii pt—^j^Qaotr&efl -^ejSs&jGsijSsiS 
j^'l)L^QjX}'eLJir_^ •BtreseBit^ajfraj^iliuiniMei) uJ^^sOiQ^ja autBor 



<p/r Lol.S.'fi L9s-0ir&fW ^&a3ijff/-fl CoffsussSr Codi;aa)JcS-TjTQ<fsrtoO'-©^ 
e'j ^su^^h ^-JLj:^^^fffacr lj sr ^ <3 ill LJ^7Jor - ^«s<e4U/r^ ^ 



eifi^fffi&A^ ^tsd-ojnuied Lopp^eSiil/B (^(^uitJ lE^i^bQshsg^ 

9Bi^Q^iiJLJ9u9tjnvu\>Si l5I 5" /7 Lc COST a5)<^fiwi*p(i^6if err «K6rF''q i^^^tQp 
Oo.)«OTsar Uim^i(eU(\^LJpjBt i9ju^j!:iriu<sffaafiS<^nff^0fi:-^eiu 



GevS^ffith eiiiffsiQ^n-- ^ Q^^uce tl. i^eoei) ^•i3;S it ^ (aretsrS(^^SLUjS 
^mtsaHjL^irS- ^^n ed ^^^i^scn (i^ Q up tu ^Q 'is n lehetr ■suit Quasar jji 

m&T(e&i^;!]ili iQaujeS^^^ii—aj e(LpiS^^i&(^Cj QuaSp^^^^ 

f 

ITLj eT&iiSQtl0s@0>i^-fia^&&m Q b'ilj-uljljlLi— r^'mcrs^ fit it myitis 
QsffiGit^jr^ ^3ifsarijsQsfrm'^sT^Q^u^iTeigit£tQ^(^oar^j^<B}<n^iT-&sF 



«(i a-cwjrL-ffj. una 111) i9ji_i ^^^ (3r^^>L^ilidil>rtnM<smdQ\ Gi^ff.^ 
s iij si^rm 3 « 'J <si) «OT* 'iiii . 

^ a i,\) 9=0^1^ r uc^iisli^^th J^' j^ ~jsS) ^ ^ sQiS 'T seal (J^ ^ iSi Qj:9au.iu ,'S u 
jff^j'il.BstJrr'ff S-iia^Botiuecs^yui lj U3 Ln «ci ^ff ^ Lj(3^«g"";J 



t^kQ,sn(B<Bpu!riuurTSGf^(fGear ^«U60/S ^ir^LatTm-GtSiJSi-ii ^ 

j§,«j)uS)jr^ sO;?c;,^'jiff«Lj Q^j^aS cjy«!B)^ (?«flrf^l«sswi(S/T JstJ 

i^^&ar ^:T^.ri'^e>,^Qg>id^'h ^uCoutr^ cWCLJ^s^fTiu e^cB§.jM^ifrrr 

(31 



&^Qsi>^ LJ^jSlt—^dJsu^^eO^ ff-ir^euLLigu ^®@^3 ^LC^^ui 
Ui^^ii£tQ^^^u9&v^'evt^gg), [QsiSdO^'lLl^ m-it(^ <src2!;'ei err sy 

O-JfTiZ-t-ir ^ jj((S!{S*Qsil(Q Q;*(7i56^a5^f «(e'ia/uoorip,3j0u3 JST^^ 
cor- ^6i>(siisrLL,u.naji^ Qa'(reosiili(iLJ''no iSdoffe'^isQai— Qeii^^s 



OsO(3isJ^tjau^;^'SffLjarr ^euuisa^sOTTtlussjTscef) Qu^Kf^ftafiiresisf 

Qjic^S.^iT^ (ip^ ^M iSldsr ^C^ujn ^^h^i—^B <^'>W^iM(oi^ 
^ ;« €6) xj :^ ^ (1^ ^ jg; u a; Ls i) (? «i ®K» i^ t_ fell ;p ^ (i rr . 1 

Ci2,T- jSlTtU^oSiL-IU &.fi^i^Ujr JSrr^ih iSldsffff^r 0O§Sff(ff=<5r Jf^Si, 



erf? i5)(?oO iuff'SD/rirLflLJ6iK>:iS5W'5iJffG)fj3«w»(9 Q^^jS'TenirG s n e'Zsariuir 



u:>t[iLjQe'fr&:e$sQil.(B£ijn-Qp^ - Q<sil.i^LL(B'Si]iT(^uy - (ip^£S^' 
/nsSfn, er Kfh^^irj^s m SUIT smc^Qff' fid Q Si''^^^&Q(n7^'St(^,^ir jSt 



W^sr^ - ^snQi^UijS e\) so OJtfeu IT (B ^Q^ftSi_^^ jjj) jj ^p/^iljuitLt^ 

isis^-^(Bk(^Qp^j^ Ljm^^ffsmL^ma(^iSi ^jBOe-jrunp^^ ^jji 

srS^&Q-BiatTi^O-iJii - jSu-L-Ui&}p^(Bih - fe-LDe(-^u>^i!_t_ijb Gel 
ia.6jr err a5)afo)«raj ^£prSiS=ffiJ- /siuQccess^BtD ^iJlt_Qixk^e»®<ii a. ui 

«6r6BroW«(r.fpyji Qtair^QiBn-iff lUir&iiTffUiQekieSarp^oLJiiQ^ uj^^oilS 
^"" ^iBji^i^T €T(tiEJ^eisr Q^^^Qiun aiL^.&Qir ^ SLilnSt^ejenit 



LB - ^p^~Q^'^ &^u:iiQil.t~LnfTssrLQcl.(Bih Q en^stai^aQBtrea^ 
^ Ui^^mi '0f^$0!r d'W^0 «.K<:-'«jsr ^oe>Lo^^.s o/^ffsKJT'S'ia-'/r — Qsneo 



ii jSt-s^uQutr^^ - /ir j^miBi-LL ^aQjLaniu su^s^j/r^ 

^^ rnr^^iE^so'^^eH fiffQ&t^LSsLD^^^UD..' - -'-V^ 

^, ©/i7)r^,^2JJffii9ff-^^f«S'LDSLj&(?aja'te's/rii56ij''(?n # 

tf^-«p ^-Qt_j'fl(?^tUfeii6>)e.^sfil(L»LOcL®Ll3ow(?^ '■•# 

«j flT « (t «sr Lo 8sw 6i5) (?fljfi®uD^ 5; (cr^-^ .5? ^/T^^T^tx) # 

[_i—Uiun-e'ir^iQtru Lopsta^f^fiir^^cor Lo^^^iS'cS'asOii^w) lo^ 



^j«w(®)75 - ^uQcS)i-ieu) ^«»iu(?#^ Lc/r(75ffi6j)^ p^ira^'Tt^^u 

( sO u) «BU fflJ «p«s? ii . ) 
^sOirtiSaj^Qa'rxj/r u.thurT'B'nfflsjQir^^ p(T<x,TQ^!n^(B^p & 



(Bsupp OjStMLj&Sffd (Lp^o-0;T60r 6T So sO T Q J5 ^ ^ S^j' & S?,^ IL] Uh ^^ 



: U^ J /f^^ «?^ (^ ^T 2 J. ji . 



ItL^ 



^ssL^ffLJbLomQff'Q iai}tr!rsm(B^Q Lcmrnhssoc?^ <3Lt(^S\)Qff&-dfi;T^ 
pf^^QJ^.^ i^Qutt^^^ GujL^QffU U^ ^^1 «5; (®5) 7)) 6\) '.Iitj<ffi n 0, i?' «« 

essr L^ff (Ui 2^sGi tOT sSai i^e^LJU'SfrQ^, 

^ffLCiC,GQLnsuf.^(^aii fi^ ^^~i^Jfiff^pJS(T(r.* ^ 

Cn. ^'^■.mL^i!Qm(Bi^(e&i^'BL£>uQufr^3ieCGufrQ^pn^, 



tsr.crme'LorTi'e'iraui - ^di6vtlQ.tMQLoir(()ef^i~ .^cai^ssj^^^i 

^ffQfifft^UiLJtf^niBsatlu^^S'^^^ # 

Gui(r^iXfi(c<6--&^&iTUii^Qfi(i^&,^S{Ri~.!urr(oavr^ ^ 

L!^^,-^eiitZieBiLJiun6Sjr66^:L!S^<m<3euff&(^^ ••>.....# 

jB)(ie'^(l9iUiQssisi~trpi^e09rrun(Be'nLB ^ 

6Uif6VU), 

LjiTe'niPLSfi9fsStitGi- uai(^/$fiiBiS\iU(rff^LJ(ips<sr(^eSi^ G&n^tl. 
iI/K9u«su cuffs'^ ^ IT &>:>') 



t^Zs^ i3 il.(B ?B L-CjQ uaB ^ «■ &m- ^ihQpmi-iUj^suifteau J^/Bds^ 



QaH[Ttl.(Bs(»uGu"mi^LSmspi K^&n a^,tl.Gc^ifiaJtr^-^(t^i^ 



©(25'^) ^lu Q £srriLL^i,y)wLQ^(^ ^ffU3-9afi^^ ^irLdLSleaff^ 

La. {^tl^(^(^n-mas^&jp^u.t^JSi') e^iuiisi^^p'Jff{^i^(^cf) 

^^air3s))iih)Qed sTLJu^ajfa/^ Q&n-setst'Soufr^ih - ^'nQs'tLcgu 
cunQn [m'uuQe'LjLjseffi i^) e^'uQ^sisv&b-^liQuiTeSi^ei]^ e'lfi^ 
ffh&M&rrmffi jBfSUCjLLu.nei) ^fi^J»^sO!rtM QsuiG&i^i£lQ^<9^ 



r<D_3ui^i^4^ Qjsil.LSf.^^weltii^i-iiQs'iTm^aGsm - /strew •^(15 
rir?^h- ^siL'Sih ^^(RSSLJir/rLjCJcjirai - ^ ^ //i eH a lu tr ^i^n^ 

uirppGsua&si^BLa) 

f L,iMLjrten^Sa'~4 'S'lTLEx^QanO^^ Q&jeS^Siaaj^^ «r^^ 

GsniBi^fiLaGL^iriL(BaQ&iri>Ssi(B ^ir^^S6iififliuinuuQuir& sou 



Q ff'eiiM fin 6S)Laijrr. 

un an &6Tr.i?(7^^0^ 4^0«(55j^ cjiULJUL.GsussjsK—irth - ^^ 

;<^'M — =gyG?i-GLJ-TE/fi[r,^2jdiG*£-J(iU) - fS Bi sH i3 t^yssr ^ ^ sD ©qgr 

t^iQ^&^iSsir^^i) Q^il.^CjGuitiff'Sr^ — (ourr, (?t_jo, c-ewsr 
uS)@Q<ffi(S§i!?«'4_L-® Qe^iu^i^ imiH^lLi—^ um^^:}^ jSLa.€^^ 



Q^n ^^(^mi(2& e.e^t-.tlu^ji^ iMirQis^rr^nSS ^iBet'cffQ^ 
(y»Q«r egfl ?«ff^il®{^'5w^sDfriU,f(J^(r tit- (^6&6p lS^SIoott £p.SoBr 

i-pQaniEB'^^ Q^ffJs^nh'sSfi creOfiOfeu^SfTijpiL^iM eB ^ j^O 9it ir 
^Qw^i^ULJtfQ (ippB.tu'Bt^i^ ^ajSorG't_ff?oU e^sir gds^B'^p^ 

^^.(XiQstt^^^^^emnQsd i9<i_(fcQsi)oC!)aui^LJutl'S jj^^il/u 
lSf(TLJ Coi5ffiI.CSfiJt£iffi^«ffl<rtf(3i/'Ji (jDfiscr<8fpfifiaaiTseijua Jf^B^ 



QiHiiif ^<mf«Q-&Q^tic~K enLQ&'^^srm^ LQiiosi'trtjiQeo^ ^^a^Qatr 
0a6ff <sdpi) u u IT Q Lh It p/9 a is} QiscLt-. ^iseoun^:mi^Q^i-n-<BW^ 

t^ Q ^ rr lLl- (ip '^^ sO & Q ti' 'ciVL-jSSS} I— Ljr' eh) ^L°r' ^BV^Quon ^iia^ 
Qprris3itsu!Uir!i)Qs'ireQ<sSiiZ.(B fup^Simso ^w&'BiQiuirsQg.jiT (eiutr 






^uui^sSijiifiB' fi*/r&«(TflrLD(ril(?i_(0^? 

&QfiS\a(^uGuttiupei>€deSiuiru^iTmisirae'Qd-((^^&ss>G'jj^. 

es>sujS^aQerre^L.nGu(rQ(ir^iLjl 

^ il C? L. Qujjr (L/ttJ (u^(Cffi © (2/r *5r . 

Url€iTS--jifULJ'^(»urg-^iA(^ e'pGpan^LCLj^fi^irQsaQLJf 

m jy(iLo<r«n.ui5lr-® ejSiiM'r<^^ffUisotgii ua3©^ffl)ffl/.Sft.c, tuir&i 



iSlssrm^rrn ^ ^ ^'l:iSi sun rkssir a s^Q ^ir ixM ^LhtnirsSliLQu.Qe'tr 
^ js ^i^Uiiota&sSiu^ <SLLi^sQisjQ&!r0-nLS. 

^/ToS ^^^ (S\si)£^ LEi3^^\^L^<sQe(l(B^J^ QuI^iUuae^&UJiiSSF 

Qg=c)is^oair&£j'fp§= Qffff^sSsisefnriM ^-jmi^^'ol^iril.Qil ^^sxim^m 

&M^^ CoU^^sGu^^QpLB^^trm-jijuGuiTjSKeGreii^iSiST^ ^iLcz^ 

GnrgaSjsr^ QfftteaeB ^unQstsiU ^^iliBQembh ^tbLair. 
J)jihLa!T&r - ^ ear ^uil-OT ir ^^ff^aJiMiifl9.QF^^^^ J^enQ^ 



Qs'umesrLJL^ (V^iSSipluiGO^onLa eii{r&&(T ^Qs^m ^tiLDT. 

^ ^ ^ <iCT esai^ £> /r efer l9 lj G? LJ Rsr tx Lo (T . 

e/ jBsB}jipQsa>pQiJsoei>ir{^ Qj-unmLDCUinu uTn-^^^iJ&Q^ir ^tt)^ 



^^ f^u su tr p f3 ff ;i^ s'!^ tu :. 



fiv.<S2) 






crfl/j) iMsariMiiBi^e'suisirasniriu QaidsoQe'iLJiu^ j^pQp&J&Tsijie&Tir 

/miWB fi^eis^iMLjsiTJa Qsir'S s serial 9' •i ^'-j> p^ar (psijdsOLnir^^(rLb 
cwCptjQfft) 0(Vj>'hLji3lii^iuuu(Bsijniis ^uuu^ ^saiDS^uCouTp 

tBiBtlQuir^j asetsft^^^ Ujpp'2eii^oflu9i>o sessi 3=nmu.!UfTiiSl(!r)p 

ear Qj^Qi—iT(mp"^iSf!^'^£in(^QsiiZ30 6osa[r^s'^ssiski^-Q(i^p^ 
^sv^semreo j^pGuQ^(B<sQp^ ^3Mffx:(sr5 x^aearfiJiff-ttSiQai 
^ 5,LOT ^ ^ Jl/Cuiff ;25^ LC Ui fr. 

^ULondr - p&)sd_^ ^(3a'frsor«BrQ;B'«)<^(TQLDSor«0Q^(f?iq(^ 
jEfiohr ^mifsQeeO£d(T^^iLL^LoiriLjS'Q(r-!iS>)e^ (LpeiTiG'LJ'i £^ fV-pif- 
ffi)s^ p(-.0Q^b^j)]Qs'T<xjG6armiT, QuDUj^nm ptriueijiT'jJ.TSsii 

Lc^fTUJ QljQ ^my;^e=fftrpQf^ 

^iIjLjtiQi^^siiiTiM e.&ffi(6Y5'5G«€5T ^.mL.9tunljp'rGo'ar @^^^ 



Q&sr^fQsar (o«:j«5rQ^,reb5>><a5)oO^ - (j^eorQ^jjj^iTtb Glj(Tilj 

jS'^-'^ a-'®f?^Sj3;ffi ««;%l}L9/ZjJ:_t^^;;T - ^ COT c?^ :«^S^5r^ffLO!rs8r 
eorth io)^^(SS6sosiJ<ej^-BQsira§sr''B & iienttu ^' iff &pt^n(ua>@t 




tax iiS)j(Tf)^'S ^CjS€(sr Qo^ i_//7£_<n"s^)«(<?j p^ ^m^^na^s^na-^ 
^.a firm L9j}D<S0lLi^fi3-QLja(Lg^:S<S^yfi.L^B(J^Qutr&tf^^!l£S^t^ 

eysn^(n-iiQ(i^n'&^i. esi^iMfr^S^'Sija'SGed ^(^Jj^pj^^i^^a <fiffSxj.«txr 



step ^th(lfi0Sil-3J&(Lp&n STik lIi!f!llJiJiL£iffi^r^S^-)L~!U ^iiG d.JijQ ~iSl 



^^'iieSlcStlijj, Q&ii^&TiT&rn- j^mjiTS(^i;;^a iff'.ss)^-*^^ ^sttQuear 

^95wO- ^ji^Q(utrGu:iLJ<3i^''^}iQpsL'frssh ^e^^QajneCbudm 
^omnn^^ i^iS(B(h0psufr<am L^(£:S(Beup o a&T eliluLffu'^srUi u 

QiPili^njrGn'i^ jiMtjCi e^«j0«s?L.«jua-ff6or ^<fQ&st^0ffih'-Sldiidsir 
€oi-iQhesar(B - ^ ^ ^lj ljo »Q{U^^<rtlu^iunS- «irtB>'l0&nSX}^ 



e.-Lb aj(mLJL-j. Ui^ Starr si'<iss}stssUJirp'eB>pe=Qe'n-p,s &^ 
firreSi siLL^QsuaiSifnOTn- - ^aiT&^i' G e>n p^mif^ireat ^(W^e'^ 
ffiTLjLj^eS p^si^u^ijl euuSlj^i^tun' ^^nheB>i~ lu ^etsuiaaEnffl 

d^aQs^Q^^^iMfT uSl^siQ(T^a-G^ - ^auesy^^u QLjfliujsir 
m^iliCuiT^LcsL^ LJ{r&Q'JJfifr^s!:fe^L-L^i£\(^&Q(fif&T - (^»aBi(^ 

Qpssi - ^^ ^ sr^tf c(T^mii~.iu Qusssn (csS)S(T^aQpQ(^QeO ^ ^ 
Qussia?isesrseLL.(BQp^ vr^^tea jtj^spsi^u^n {Slop's ^ija - Qu 
ear Sj^'&!^e^(aTir^LairiLJ ^uirp^mirojiriuiu GLJffBir^LJi^j&(^ 

QuQ^^^treSiisC-ig^ Qsn&i&rneffi - ^ sir ear ^n sat Q&nifiiUff^ 






^aei^jSpff^Gsatiiie&ra^'^o'mfi)^ Reditu n'l<isJiLJt-iT^drp ea 
BJir e-n &o ^ (fl oj IT if j^ sua &m (x&i ^finujse'ir&vfi^fliunp-j^eij^&sKcresot 

&aeQmj6asrt^ajepT^snmuj^asi0s^fS^j^Qa](^jgirarnQiurLop^ 
fiaiBfiULjiLL^^Qf^fiQ^mr ^rite&i^asn-SiUji^(oeosrsare(^jgai 






fS>ersSnjiear^Qei>Q^irsai^^' 9 go<s n S lu ij e^tsff uu p S ;s neck's sdiBsd 



£3^ 4Bt^/BU^^(riie&t, 

Qair(B&Qp^<ar6isr,B^uQuii^iuurffutfuSi(T^-s^j0. 

#" &m&^i'^Jo(TiU (VyUDttTiTjg^ ui(fit^xrtiaeoS Qo'ssearud" 
^eirQium test i)SiL.<S ill L^pihtjras eretr&QaCiLji^Lja&sLSimiQhua. 



Q&(B^0« H'S f^mm ^ ^i^^GS^fiT <eSi(Be>in&1 ^:3T(^ ,/54 j^^iaft*' 

Q^sifi <xiss L-.^Qi'^ »s B p ^mj ^'^ ^O^ iiicdfT n^ui ^ p f5i Q^j^^ p ^ ^^ ^ 
^&2(SirS(3 -^'L^^pB^^ ii)^@G"a) ^Siji (^-^ e^-Jjn-Qn m pss^LQS 

Qi-^f^iM ptiQsisms6\l^JS{r<U(w^uinai^-^ (^!r;m^^SBi£^'^'pq''(i er 



«8!g3-ffi)r/ftCcuD''0«USBi JJ» LjUJLJLJ®s(?p6Wt GT cl &sf m ii' JD th (ip L^ 

U)/7(j5^Q'7 6o ^uti Woo &sa)QS)i_(i)tJj diifip^LSlfi)^ ^&j&T^nQidix 



•u9j?jiI/uifT6rr sr^'oeiirffiT^Lti ^ffC.&DU.Uios' smilL-i^tiQfi) ^,fi^(cr 

a.,a<iiissil:i^r^-. fSi^^siSp^LJvaijat'muL^n(i<Qp^u:: ^jeijeis)!f^ ^ 

^ tsj£. (W^ nQ fmm LQseoi]iLj'ffl«sw-oC)sa)!9=L£irT6wLS?^(^ &6Bre(w^eSl^ 
J§U' ie@Q^ajaj^^i3u«S@'^ <cr^ani^ajQu:.i)QJ6uiUiiTlLjU Guirr 

Qo6'iuQujeve(^^^Q'<it-'ffil.L~ffL£ipLje§iae(sS^n-e&T ^-t-LJi^Q^iu 



^3or(o)a(®^«SS(7»76OT «gy«tborQcj,x6»^<riS e^^9^i-«lUjaleF<XKj^^ 



99 p ^ p ^ (jf^sQQ rfPih. 

^uiestsrssS ^eoTeS^tLt^mt (W'Sil.iQ'le^ UJ'0 ^ j^-sQuJn^s^^^ 



^4f( «i$.^u^^aSiia^:, 

fi'/rl^ Jr^^-^eof SOT U'LD»a^^^a) ^$is<^ c^Lj^s^n ^ a (^'h ^mirit 

nhi^^Lnrr^^O'iJi L.JL^-eBpQ^^e§t6sr Q&;mQps!riLJLae!^ cr p^^ 
{^i^n lBiu G^Q(rirj>s§r jptiMeos^Qsu^ jaQ^veS uiti^jP ^iIljc^J^ 

a. ^iSt^is 'Slip ^uiP&ti^S;^^ eat &jirffi^Uj» 

tJreBiiluteaiesta. 

Sir. Qsjfi&m&Qiu&s 6^Maar(siSii-,^^S(jfi^\^^fl'^ «^^ 

(etBfGiu(Btia. 



^ i ^ SL/ ^ 6L' ff ^ ^ «} Q^ lX) C? LJ "ff CJ^ U) . 

(^ 6r«o»C'@'.'t-^i-5- e-.*6W)<iJ»ii5)T5_if^;^ t^tr^f^&'ilnjiLi—tt&T. 

Qpm. ' ' '**" 

ijCiQ ^m f^iMKsS^s ill uih ,^cn)tl*r6owrLPtX5(Ttf9r Qi-im (m^^ p's^(^ 



^StS'^ ^iQff -HUSH'S (^ \0 LC p LJ L-L^Kd LJ!T ^ JBtr ^mQ'—L.. &'v.i^ 

Qe^^&ffp^Li^f ^^,!nB(irf&(^^ jsn-ew (V^i^kQ p^'i~ ^Q b^Q uir 
ff^^tiB}\u&L-l^<oisi3lp^ ^it<s Q&T^eiaQffiTed^s^^ii&i «>. e9*iJ 



Qg^r^Qo'T ASnni^UjrTp [^ iX ajT ^ iljLJ tl.^ ^ J IT lli LJ <ffi »0 " tt J 51 tf 6B Sjfi 

jp^Q fijf 907,^^1^ ess Sei tetiQ JijpiQp^n.S'TK' ({5 tf,«(3LOvor j3» 



^uj'<&(aanLSbvr Quj'smiri* ^^irrQ a^AS(^tb QimrQiffuSlsk c}lj 

mJ i-/f?(?t>i),^^Qu^«Sr ^jKSi. «bljd C^cjR <_t_ ,g?T^itj^a5)a<s*«s_'^ 
tr fr '^^ j^ fiw oir & U3^ !^ ^ i^ ^0 QLj<s5ff Qsstsr *w ^ (j^ ^ jgQy «4i (fl «»^ 

ee^dsssrr QQ«sQ^^ b'-b' tun- Qutir 0m?ssr^Pi^'c6S'.Q^0^nn'&Q(XTtr 
i^L^^Qi sir ^ ^Qlj^ ter LJjr'7Ufl"*jB)cr665 SswsQ^irefei^^earffsr kSJ 

^ ^ ill LJ'^' ^ 0eSi'SL> /i ^ QF)^ :? QL^lBtU^(Ueij£S<Brr« ^&j(mS(^-^^ jSiU 

^ til (ya i- 'S ^ er' en" (T err .90/ <s «^ ii^i- ««?■ o riL @ Lj ;^ Q sS B (^ 

(pcjD i]^ Q0^«kG i^n- tl.(B p fSt m isS^ i~iM <srcchd &>.(-■- (s./sQ^ei^i'^^^Qi-j^ 

fi^C.it^^iff>^^^' ^«xirL_rr©.a5^»»»fi)UD®flL/65risar .=s^a;e?irQj^j?s 
Qsn^jf^iM&si'ffnil.Q uBrj^isQ^isSl^'S!'^^ ^'^mr^^irujrirur 



^.Ldkh^-ebi'Ji'^ f^.m ^]t>^tsisr »'f)e;/r«tJbLjaK»«sz5fifiracr eWa ^;S" ^^ 

t-.'r'i^>^^(«<Sif<'u9(S5)LD^j^'tS5)^«) ^UlOkV CToS'ff) e>^l_m i^l^e cS)A&(^ 

^^ITTS=(^^'lLJlQ&a SOI ^LjC/utf^f^'^^U^ -■ (75l22SLCfr(^^^'i7 IT 
iX>.JS<T0L^fi!3 Jii-ff^ U>^c5 0^;^tXi ^ji.m'J}](^^'> Qi-JnQ&St^ ^ 

.^^/F<&(^^C'!'*i-j(r'/6ci45^i ^d-Gcjff Qf-i" 1-J.S 610^ fi^ e.(7? e^iXiT 

;!;0rn--&SQpdr ^lllL^pU fiffQi^(T^Lj£<B ^ ^a^ih GuTsv ^ 
^•5w^"-(^',rrsi) /j-n Q(^i(WoioiP^«@ua Gun fO^^^ -^.i^t-Jip. 



(^.S tUji^(J ^QanlS Q u, eSr tsar ^ ^s-'m) J 9 lj o '^)^^p jxx. 

eiKȣj?. J=Q*Psi>a;LJtW57o(5?jd(^.i-3r f^tsSiLO&dsir^T)) p j^. una ^ .ti^dQi^^^ 
QiLjQuini^m crihia^m^-ni^^'Si Qe'^sSwQs^.i 0^Q^.f!(B^^ Q^^&^ar 

(h^p !j:(c^> j^jih c^i-''LJt^(i_'dsi)Q^'6w Qpih&'biffiljLjrfiTtBSli&d^ 

(TF\ioui(fii>i! ^muj^ ^^d£i>m>iAi-$^ P^'^^^^f^j^ Quirp^^e^^tJ 
LjfWfia&CuZsnSi—i^iTii) j^Q^ Qgj^ ^utir jj ^^&^u GuiT 



<' i6p.Jas>^66(t_u/(/(-fl7Ll. QL..&vi—iTmjjnon^ffS;i^ Q ei &t err r esr 

iZljiL^B ^^'r jf^^ sBl:s-e)^ 0fiij:>^(^iT s{i^tl.i^G>s^^ (.T'L^fiK^^ 

«TOf Q«58ro3T«Q0«(«5Qf-6(3r p-A)(maiB^JjaQaniBu(cLjQaff ^Jj 
Lj:^fiiT<oai(o>ifUjur Lap G lj n ear (ip ^ tr ^^ir'^'Ui&ff'ow ^aj6ff(3*ra) 



^^jalQ^fftaaO (^^ m ^ ^Q siQ ^ Si^ Qua pQ^ ^^^sOti^i^ 
C?LC«-ei_Q'^(es!jp-i ^!TnS=Q^(Thnfi6'sr Gja^v^.^eoirQunew ^^^,i|^^ 

■ ^^.-7^JuJLJo!»»eci],;CC)sar ^:J'(?i_j/r €r^'«j»Q *^(uaJ(r car ;etr.i^;0(r(g 

eorfi^^EuSls) ^^0&?Sffi" ^?Lj(B^^^ ^Oi^ii^ ^/5;^,»jS<iOlLJi^ 

Ostneog(B.ai(^Qfi}^^if ai-<a/5iT ^uJUin 0yff<fif^^^■'S•i5'^,*=^»^■ 



for j!V6ii6»- an jB" ■?<»». i_ir^: (3rss;sr^)Qui!f "ThQcjecw^aQiSGiiaifTf^s^^ 
Qeiuiussi>-(BLa. 



f^aQ&ii(B^Q^!!Loir ^^p 'B&Je'£rC}LJL-Gai6&sL^BjQ^m&sr, 

L&([LjlS^dstrsE:'iU'B Q&ii <dis(B m p ^Q an^ (liLJtT ^. 

firsts-. ;&tb(i/HE>i-aJ«S^^£^C«) vmrdS&i^jmiQh^iirQsai m- 

Q^i^UiUBS-B^^G^ @>)p^-rn)-i]QjBpui'Q^i^ ^,ssr!Sia;^7Uji^-},eh^i— 
@<fflffi/rp0tli^»«5®ti<5®oar ;0LiiM~3esffiiS!Q^BQG(!r/LD (zpsi^pi.nsuL3l 

fff?utB&! ^ssf li^Co eouSp^LBiruiSleyi Zstr p Cd (tp t^ ^ iiOr p^lGf^tE^ 



<5P. Its ^itQptk^ 
asututJii^ loti^iTeutT^ fi^L^Gea ^^nii—aisjw u(^^o &«fiujkiis\^ 



jy^^'7«j.^^x^cSwt5uC<ugjj6»«_aj(^(C5<»,«6H"^«i»jg<e^-i) Lon ta" ei/* sr 
jsmrniue^ i^^^qub ©DLo^^tii '^aJiiS)'-#^jj2s<5iT6sr ^c3>'—Lh 

LquituStRsSp ■3'LktrS'4rff it Sjsisr^ QlU(t^§ uj^iIilQ iB) a^^ihtj 
tSi: Scrrojssfr (^^J;fi5/?'«)tl^65or^6ff-5ff^/auju^--^-<fi&-i-jf7jf office 



LJ§'^S^'^6Sl^iB<;^lh (D5l«^i_;^p«k):-Je,^Li.'tb ^QiSc^t'^^^'^ 

cif(*5<s;(S^ ij @Jitjia|i) ^ L^ <jil-L-.fi 9. (J^ <sr (t^^n <s n Q §i ;1 w p jfi(*^s> 






_^?«ff'^l_SW' £^?(f?CT- -4ft-^l5;jE»''ffl5i?«-)(^0«53«<^'s^ m!S35a; JJ>l_,«KJ/«5J53• 



^q'-Coas Q«njii^LL(B^(^CCtuiitLJ eut^Sw l9^. ^j^ ^(?f * 

(h^p^i^Q^^&i ^ihQ<s QLJbC!^^ (isssrubiT ^^j ih e^.L_(B ^Cljt 
6B)^taJS^"^&ii^ «Q« peais(BG'^niLj^iiLL-ffffeai - ^!z'yss)ps(^-~(^ij^ 




^ 



^ 



uaatD, 



iffebii^ 



... „ 

... S-/r 

. - e_ /?)- 
... e-fl7 



^«t£..... 

^BijS!)& 

^'<&0 

^^QiSfi^i^^* 

^i'^-Jb^ ,. 

«$^®g'^^((5 

^it'SSHulULJl-j ... . 
^.( A" 61} .{»• !T Sm^ ....... 

^^rSfTttJU). , 

=^'<£f'^' .-...«/.....«... 

^.'-ff^^ 

^VL^Uf^JSif^ 5, 

^L-'7,fl5-i-9i-f!<fi= -^Q-nr-m 

^i_f '.jaSKtje..- -"m^Bm 

^s^i=^tLqf, ...../7r^^ 

^i^iue-^/Str(B 

ci^(^qflrsi» .......... 

^(i»>i4Wi_........« /TTifaitc 

jBjQt-QiijehmuSijfi a_(BiflSr 

^u.S'i^ajujj e^rrrB^ 

^(Letsi-^ rrrsxl^ 

^^tessrs'~^p ..• (ff-^m, 

^iWiTi-ili mm@ 

•sy^^soo-a^:^-? <e-/77e_ 



INDEX. 

l1 £— oii aldmr • 

^C*>aDea)ru')^il'S Ofte^jif 

^jQ^irQ^uigL&ff^... ,.. /77<asr 

JljQp!f&^ SL/TT 

j^^^s&iTiu ..«,..... .. /rr«s5>^ 

^m^i'Qii'si;)so&j(i!ij m<3i>m 

j^^,-^k&r^U^m>^ . ... /3Tc?fc(g 

j^'^il^,-aL!.L^<; «so/rtli_aj e_/)r 

..s^u-^uiiTiu e_ffj,^ 

j^uuLLi-LD ,.... /r-^,,.% 

^LJLjigLa_'6C5aiiS>D^. . ../7r<5o5r 
^(Tj^^ii .. .........••• m,sh<ff' 

Jij lliLJ sIL^-bQ^^. */3Twg5«r 

j^tx&>')LnuJnrr . . ...... , . . /jT,es3d» 

c5^^u5)irS'SDefi ■ . .V.;../77^{^ 

^ir'ilii?. Sl/77(S» 

,jil'-I7)«aij:i ' /77(g&^ 

.iSyiKJff<l=(3e"r6^.. .... •••• e-.cr<9a> 

^idsO^tLp^ aT£[oi;ia 

=g^ «j03t>i)/r!S ■«?(?£!)// a) tli.. . EL.rfa 






M 



^ su Q 6»" «w <g jg (si> il .S itj ii . /ir <ffii e_ 
^5u,^*F«|r3se-... S-/7r(3 

^ca4f-(l:A\ /77jS£>@ 

^aiiLjQuJ' (i^ ,© J. S* ^. • • • • • /TT.am Ji,' 



m^,mt^'LJ&XSil:<B_3j^ 55. 

^sisaren prrf?'LJ /tt @ 

i^aji>S>^cSjS5ar (iiss^s 

^fla;c&a;(rSliu<5^.jcWaiii_» jji 

^^eaJ6rfa.^'*(»j ......... .■-. 5^ 

«^«i«of (Jtj^oor^^.., 5j 

jMijuCp(gJj'-lt_(7(i&9Z|V (UdHaSia 

jy'A/oOro)lfl-arj«C^ ^^ 



^&mr<sg)isi]^^^^ E^-jr 

^^eiTiciii^QLtip<eesff ... e-e_« 
^ a;«T ^ B k t"? ff t-9 h •€ «ff ,. . .m<s»ir ■ 

^ai^'liS^ Sparta..... ai€b^ 
.j»7.t^p5<J(1-^^,..' e-^.ff' 

^QliQ^^ry. £L.G-.'3 

^' la; « STT af^r flr,c? (xp (.£,..... iTT cSj cSP 
.i^i&i^ G&r fi. tu 71' « ■' il cjv . . . e-.@ ■i- 

.^&!^&(^ifi'-B^Q-3(r^ ... 55 

^ajftear^^afffiS... ^^ 

^a..^(?«-ff/|?^«3ig ^, 

^a',gjS3@t^ xoj e./JTfl> 

^g!,a(.gj!!SH)i-fl-'6^'"^ 5> 

jja]<sirLjT(B9jDj^ eL-sTsr 

^«umQsrt^ i^^ e-«P, 



w 



^^i^sssf^ffsan^. ..... 


&-^;u) 


^<eii'o«^ Qj^esiu^^Qi-ir, . 


• a-^a- 


^&imQ0^«i>et}!Jif>, 


.e-©a 


^^J^^^S^>Ljt-(iplM . 


*• ?5 


^ ^Q.wi ^irh^QiMrf £f] . . 


.e_a,*» 


tS!f9 ^,{sQ ^^rr^siS,h 


,. ,, 


^^A'^esf^^Q »" t-^^ > . • 


e-<ff^sr 


jS^T^^'^fffiiLJ^^^-^Glr . 


•• ?? 


«^@^,^@5ar^.. ...,,.,. 


e-e_(^ 


jj«iv4^Q!a(J _jff^' Q^sfl-ip.. 


.<£.rr^ 


^ajj|2?«fcSsy^^j5... » 


•• 55 


^'©isSFU-(l^sfel_5>^ffi)- . . . 


..e„.-5?>i^ 


jf^er^i-t^uis^iiJ"' " 


.. ,5 


'jjfik/fiiQ^ i^Qac-'^... . 






. . ;J5 








.. ,5 


eis-- -a.?^fes- 'SS>,^'sB 


.. y 


^esiiMi^^i-^ .o*»*^>». 


'■■- ^* 


^mme^® ».-• 


..a-t&a^ 


^iruigar«'P«®(75- • « • • . 


'-" 5? 




.. 5, 


i^a(»s«?J?f<^«^^"^ •• 


... ,, 


^<Sj«iS3-9§sQi-Pi-i.h .. 


.^e-e 


^'(il.5&^sgs,^S^... . 


. -e-e-sr 


^.&<g^'i'^^-^<3'mp^'^- 


e-a-^ 




.e.fe(^ 




** 59 


^®'^-3i@U;S& 6G)i~Uq-e-@cg53 


t^a'&eiaSl^cP . 


e„«7-u) 


i^sy6S-6ffuJi../niJ ,. 


.a.<ffpe- 


'^ai^&Ci^aiseS'u. 


e_@i>»- 


\Sf'*JS^ fAitU^i «5 


e_/7?.@ 






15 
55 

55 
55 



^aisp'^x^s.'i.... ,5 

^a.i0rQ^(TF<9,.. ...... . e^iBisr 

^®.i set? tfl-r £^. £-52. ..... , ,. - e_ '->-2-. 

.(?^^il .^ S=&ifff „ . . . ^. 

.jyaj^s^aJT effing ... e_/7r/Ba- 

=^ar@Ss555rai./»- £ S3s«- e_srs 

.^fiU^il'S^^Tfy. ........ e-ere- 

JWarssr J.%D!f9i~^^ • ■ •••.. &-^Sh 
teS5>eJ_^eB0W_^a3,.. ■Q^Sta' 

.^ai«Qi_y^J^iqi.a f=.®'>cm" 

^^ J(®5 .,,.,,.,,........■• /Ti'f&S- 

•=^ ^®J^/(2^^' •-•■-■"• ^-'^^ 

^^re^i^^meB . - ....... 'Tr.fei 02* 

<^'P«r^'ifLl-(B ,..-.< ..... ./7rj^2» 

^^®«6v>6@ * e^is*^ 

^^®*'tS «.-..-•. • • 'f^SbS 

^/'SE^SwSsJ'r/^J. OTiB)^ 

<^PP^>^^P^^'^ '■•• ^-^^ 
.jasass?^ «»?_... ........ e-/?Ta, 

«ji»sw€orubMJtiSaWj!^ euerjs 

^3wgBrjxpil.£5i. 5* 

^mtjjt^saff .../ff&oF* 



«;^ 



c^Sil®^. 



M 



^«9.<KQ«ir0.. e_<5^i?7, 

^(BQpian CtOL^ e_<ip» 

^Ljn<Q%'iy>ssr Q~nrT@i 

^Saru^^a&srssS Q-'pe- 

<^^djssh.^J3f(i^ a_«jB_ 

^^u/^&;^u^ ., 



^Q&TffiLp^ a-fi-"^ 






.... e_<F'LD 

S..*"/7?> 



^^^Lju&SfSeij ^tR^s 

^ptlGtj^S'jDj^ &.m^''^j 

^ jf.. @ ." ecor_4- jflS'' ^ ® ... a.e-«»- 

^^«Gsn Ji>iii(rih SLfs-iT). 

^^fi&4i.«S\aj^tBi^ firrtSiT^ 

^flfiiMiTfeua &.FrS^ 

^ fi f^uair ,'i5u.<srsar s(^. . .E-/)7uD(S' 
■^ih0L^Qi-H7S'^cei a-gLcD 

^p^&mnSiiiJik**'.* J) 



^^^lIljh^iB e./5,/B 

@oOLJ»(T|i^aj-7<oD:)Le ... ^, 

^/^Lj«t)Lj«u,^»(j^ a_.^<^ 

^^SfiiJ::>lfij(4>&liaid3(r ... 2J_ST<S3> 

§ji>var.iji'2fB^ e_e.>fi"r 

^o\5i£vf? S-;i.«^ 

^e cotCuloo-oOlc £.Sl.a- 

@a,6m.^'«,S5ii7(Daj<T^. . .gL/TTuDa- 
^ajew suKgrtrj$j^<i(^ .... ,^ 

§)si.t^{^ficSi^(U!SI e./TT'^ 

^»Jsr^^t^iJsir«KJr.a &,mer 

§)siiss! ^(SiSlt^^^ii^ &.mj)J 

i^ei<50lQLJ{T{^iX)iiLl4^ S^msbi 

^ a)J ^h {-^.-sCo snen rr jgt . . .Cl^iD 

^6ie»(jQec3r3&0 ,. 

^suar^imS .... msaZ< 

^W&T^SxB^^^JUOifriLJ.,, Q-srSL. 

^Si)&rr^iU&(ifSb\i\/^(H ... ,^ 

@»^ifQs*^S6ar — a.dP'iD 

^m^rL^^^c^ji^^io .fiL/T^.^- 

^a;«m«i»wc-^ e.,7ia)v9 

^<5i;6w ffi«i)a)(^«5^ e.iJJ.5r 

g^«i^(6*ii0i/'#^«' ••• 99 

■^^2iS(Tiuri>^_ijg£ .es^Jnr 

^9SSii€sQsn^ainh s^i^-s* 



[®i 



^ a; ^ I @ j^ ew jjtf (^ i^ «_/7ri8a (& 

^aj«oioi^e(m .... . • * ■ ^<F'i' 
^®,j»3^(5€^iJ ■ • • e./rru)2_ 

^ -iu&y Gsi' ^J ^ s'll tg. &.e='ir 

^fOJSsijraj^^S e_a,ji 

^^LD-fL-JLV S-IB^ 

^ms ^^SiSssr^SS •• si.^2. 

^«5&«ec;/rj*cs.-,£;il(Bi-e e-(F^£ 

-^«5'^'Cf t-»'''<e'e3f tJb Q-<St^ 

^mQ&s: gih ....e.«£firi)T 

ffS'.T-?il® ................. .fe-ffr-r 



a_.-i^s^dP(— .j|t. a) ...... .SLcff^^ 

e-Lj/raj^_^(T a) a.<?'i75i 

e,0^««jo^i-^*6ar £-'7i«© 

g_ireS)sT)«(-ju'/— c-^ .... a-«3<dF 

e.sOi5ciotf uLjiTil© e.a7J}:si 

e^SfTfiueer /SiU^LDei* 8L<ff'2_ 

eL«n7^T«a)S £.B.5rr 

e_6OTQ.3(rtiic^co ^5 

e_6&rLjaw!^ "e^ 5^ 

e-s^c'iaj-^airri) gL.e.'fi= 



a,eor^®)t_BJt„J 


.. e.^© 


2.^(86or^(r»oi/S(U - . 


....£- 77 (Sr 


E.6WSD6ffisr£-a)ff0t'.*C 


.. . 2-/5.6. 


«?^/r 




3S±tlt_(i 


... 2.ffr>^ 


£M:0«'?,SfrLr)oT).. .. ■ 


. ■ ^4P(!rt 


QOL^SiJ'ldSiiU^LpL^ . . 


.. a-cFS.. 


!>lmjli iii^^tLiBu. sciiJi. 


i...' Q-iir 


^ 




zr^^^tr0!Tih .... - • • 


^nT<x)^^ 


«ris<ff-tf^su> .... .... 


"•• 5) 


sria ^euji^'SU^sestCeL.ir 


.. er^<gr 


hj^QQ^iQ .... .... 


s^frrihijif 


STvOi'orifJJ^^ssz^ .... 


.,..@_'B'5rt- 


sr^P/T^gau"^ r,..,.., ».* 


..i.£!„OT© 


^,i^n i)sun L^S^^^i^ ... 


e_/7ra)'<s' 


•3TL,'LJ'5t.l|(Ji .iTi' .... 


... a./T7S 


^'^L&<g=s'u::LjLfili '.... 


;^£^^ 


sr«ijsor(75"^^'t<ffi 9'^' .; 


feiffrors:. 


yiecsO^0iji£[^.j^j^ .. 


... a-^@ 


'^jy'^ls^ ^M .... 


/,.ej<ffa. 


STosrJ.-^a/.rr jir^a) R)e^ . 


a_3t!*)'5i 


.«r6wii^^_gj(g,..i. .. 


. fei^cisy 


ST iisr i 3 ^ ex: « i s ?f5tifi i^ 


-"Q-'mff' 


cT «»sr .ff (g^ ,jci f ^ _^^ .| :^ <r ^^ - a, /3T ijQ a. 


4?-02T^^«iyO3:'^iL©J -.;. 


.....e-/if 


feT 




sr&fi^(?U(T^^...;. .. 


.Q^CiT'j'^^l 


«T essi « ds ip .i @ '•■•"■> 


e.,77 0^ 


^LUnpjy^ 


... .) 


sv -rnr (k J' / . ff ff ov £f . . . • • 


,. . £Le.ii3 


©■^^■i^^TG";^,-. 


-v%f^ 



t*3 



^^^^j^^ULj(B 

^L-L^''unS^a 

^^Q.xjQf)^j» — ... 

i^Q^Qst)^Ql£^id 

^tT^&,'iesi iliu fi) jB , 

^([j^ii!^^(^C'UiB ... 



fi-ifS- 



.. SLsrgr 



E_£.a. 



G$n^&i ...... 



I? 






... a.iS'J) 



fiS^Ufff^^tgJ) 

.firLp^Atil •... .... • 

aiSsin^^ ..... 

«a(5U)0aj/r^ 

aetfUfiUff^Lj^ 

aeOSp^ 

eQ^^iSliSi^ ^ ... 

setT'S^'^^^pM ••• 

^^eni^iSi^ 

fis^orsw^,?., 






».^;S- 

S-«i«r 

... t5LS-.u) 

.... e.e7<ftr 
.... e.&_^ 

....£./7r©€r 
... -©-(ff'e- 

....a.i7?.@ 

9-<fP;ffir 

s-er^ 

.... P <^t5Jr 

... e_a.^ 



<ai=ic/ .(oc,i5/<55r^ e./77U)(sl 

ssorssf^ajua cl<f'Q 



**ej^0^9LS 

tS^f^Qfireror® 

«^LO<f£<Ja) 

«t_6B9«)<50/7iS«^^ e./qruiaP 

<Bi-.^G^jftQ ,... e.firru5(;g 

ib(B&'^B^,^qP a-»© 

tii^B^^iuQuG, .iL.e.^ 

«il(B(M>L.(B a-/^^ 



<s^Ti_ip.soe/ 



a/r 



® 



e.<Fe- 



mi^<sS\e'Sjsj:t aL./7y>sr 

fear^a^jaxT- e_v©=^ 

Q&sa^^^^sos&fisn- Q-dTssi 

@ «/rji5)^L.'ei} e...cre-, 

2i^7i&:iL'B Q-m'j::};ii> 

Qo^zij^Q^sB gL/TrcD*^ 



ffl^eKSTffi '^... 

^c5«5W(y>«&«9;ajfw e_/F,iT 

(^GSSLC.^^^ G-(5<fln> 

(^^^CutQj Q^m^^ 






w 



^L.&:eH.(i^9,^. 



^eo^^^Ljn 



... ^'SJrtSh 

. .. .a./77>6r 
^. tlip. iff" ,fir at' fij ©).,..,.,. .a.©® 

(gil?^«c5i!0a;il) e.iF'«fl5r 



4fn~ L-'JSLJU'JJ ii ........ 


. .. 55 

... „ 


c« 


.... .J 



fS)««s3csB<ff'a)..- &.n^s=' 

^iffiQ«S.T^^CJL»/ &.a-'5) 

^«^K9(?®)ti»?QJaRs? E-©© 

€B)«^lii'sEj^ ,..,^. Q-tS^a- 

^«Lj««>r^!?#(^.« ,,a_/?9i^ 

Q^ai' s- i^iliQ un (B ,e_/77ii^@ 



'^ 



Q. 



Q.5r 



j*f (L£» Q && ear. 






(Lft'^s'SinjOLj 



...e-flTc 









(erSiJiiLQiffeB} 

(p<miruL9s^eiirfS.^ e-fl7#» 

(p ®»7UD/T6ll? r £i_'7ri7i»tf» 

C<s(ru9^U{,S53r ........ e^mSyr.Bi> 

(d t?/r5C(L^ilt_j§} e-fiT'&'jfj 



'^^i~ij^(?eii&s)suQ e../?T«&e- 

'fi^sfeii5)7si)'sa) e^mffhm 

=ff=iiCi7.3/T^a) Q-/JTiF(^ 

&il.ot^l-.Q^U.L^ B-f^"* 

e'd^L„U(9ffS> ...,, O-mSir 

<B'f:fr....,..,. ..,,»... &,m<ff=>Th 
e'ppnQs(^ ... e_^oOS-2- 

•^scuuSlQoi^^p... .... G./7r^;«) 

*^(ip^fTajsBpj^ e^frJB-S^ 

<g=cci.'/J^&: s>) &.nrri!rr 

s'lrLiifffBu-n-tu..., e_/Tr(?J'or 

^•ffi^ijb. QL.firiJ[j@ 

'^"■JSFjiS'ffi^. Q-msksn- 

s"^ sTjsih.,,.,.^ e-iv(s} 

■trQF^s^s^iM e-/r(g| 

fi'6\'6®aj£p.«fi 8-/7riA)<Bi 

<?'ajff «3L/77U)«ir 

^«)aa)tl'i5)^asrr ^m^'^Sio 

nf-f&akjp^ ,,... e-/?7® 

<0=ai#fi(»7 £jfL. e./7T^ 

tfi-suff.,..*., e-^ti*^*^ 



i?--ffii^a'W^ ^nrixigir\^iBs>i^CQL^neir e-nrr^'^ 

e-et^^^ e-nrs^Y'^^^ ^^'^ 

0^iC3 e_/rT^.(D c.^.«p.w....^ a.ff5.«r 

<ffi-ajfi/.rt7iU^ir/5' •»-.••• ••6. ^ffcr 

^(TJ^i^/r-^ ..., ^, 

<^a'ffiii6uj&0<ff(T e_@iO 

<ffi2a(?iutiLj«5w...-* e_^ff« 

Si^:(^ '.<•«' &-<^oP/' 

.fi?!;r. ©T.'T lIc^ e_rt7,fi3 

St^P^^St^ £_© d 



0'jfseSQei.,*. e-/r7@ 

.(?Lj<er Q_/ira_e- 



a./7TiP 



ffire^m'uCjQLjn^ e^ma><sr 

^/l»«©^tii - e_^/Jie- 

Qj^aQ'^^^'^ ** 

&^^^:>LQlj9 a./n£S-DoT 

^(^«^sni_... e-/M27© 

. 9.fTTfX)<!P 



-h 



f&sr 



9-(n^<sr 



Qu^:pS(W)p-> ,0 55 

BQtumjfi "•• e-/7T<(?r>-sr 

9ctSif>^Gfit^ cm-er© 



Q&&Qs!rS> e-@a- 

Q&'iLi9.iJ(f"'^." ...e-ffir£- 

O^ffeuy^eSiS e-./nu)<ffi» 

. ^ir^^®\Qiffiie\&a&<r „ 

eLCtTdbsr 



tL.nr3v(sr 



(Bii^'lQuir., tLcnsirbr 



^eeir(ips<Bri 

^tBs'^:^^^^pjf! e.e-'^'i 

0C-^rc^ e_/37£® 

^^^GoT) e-<e5r« 

fi^^fi^^LSi^liJ V 

^iltGujaOe^'iruQuir ■■■»'• 55 
jSuriT^irLcfip^'-- e.«£P^ 



t*] 



^(T^Uip^^iBiT ......e_5^u) 

;ff/TUS(^.«JOT^^(g)fa" ;^ 

fSdsdG'iSittlt^iiSr SL^u)^ 

peOffi ^n^ ■ fU (^is 

^aLSfe)^fitl® o.r. ©.IJ^-W 

^a/SaJcJff <ff=^ a.s^'ff' 

^(^ ff^iB^ «... e_.'!®e- 

;e6j^ajtilCccjffegr.« e-<4P<ar 



, a nftS^ f3 

j^oO)i'~«T<5*a5cr fSL.rri'Sfr^^ 

^ajwOsU'^- B-/?r(®?i. 

^)^rrLCiL^fS^ e_/77iD 

^0'h()L.jpS ^TTT m ?*- 

^jSrCJOi ,.,. ....... ... a,/J7<5a* 



^(5lrsLe6)'3aJaJ a-<£p© Osj^iuQ^^i^iu,. p. /?; ^--^ 



^6or JtnasflcTOju 8L.<8pa) '^^oo? 

fbn&e>fS:^SQp ...SLSi-a- 

^(T^.,.. „...,, B^nnud<sr 

^ifiLjQ^(T^>Q e-,^@e- 



^.Tlo'^ew J3/. 



Q^HfTS'S^ 



G 






Q 



^ 



3 ri 



Q^sftli-hsist^ii 

QfBir^B 



^ 



^0&&gluQuiT^' 



?> 



^ 






'3 



«Q«)r(^^u3, 



^(T t_ la;^ 'iffliff Lfi . . . 















^^(BjnilL?. e./7r(gia- 

^fl,„^ ^m^^J^^"!^^^'^ 

^3-&sBB-h ....,4 a-/)Te_a- 

^psuj8Q/D^ S_/77<S^iSi'^C.^^^ffiioor.......^.... &_tJT<fi^-3r 

^p$^&fi<ci\.o >. 55 \^(—&Qp'l&i^ >,Q.nr<^m 

^4Jia;Q^(fl..... 55 ^a)gi)ajT£_(StS ■-. &-m(o^j)l 



.0) 






m 



-Cn'JJg^r 



^nmiJ ■ifSdr L^0' 

/' /r .-w ®,LJcv <s<5 ara? . • • 

^ ' oa7 « (^ ^ 4_<S ffi, . . . 
^' (T 60T LJ j1 t_ ® £_ 862? . . 

fi n SOI ^^jptw &'''&: SL.^.'S^ • • 






.2-/37 82-0) 



... ,j 









r,TSR»^ay^^W«SO? ... fLnPTily^^ 



^n iu&r^Qjinsi'^f/S Si ... e_/ 



3 fi t*"* J^^^t^- Si.<ror , 



;0 



-e6t?'*jy0''^U5 



&.md.% 



P-iTTfE-.tSr 



Qfii 



M 



... •> 



r?uQ#«fj>''iU ,.. sL./rr^(5; 

^.^iLjiieiQLJirifitj.. ., ^, 

iflKl^^/^601 ^' Q_^^ffi 

^^is^^tiirim.Q.,.,.. ... a.af^syy 

£<snlG LJ^^ffSii^ ,.7. 9_/T7£.e_ 
^6iSl^^re5)C?a!) e.nn!&<sf 

^.i!y«7ff<e(63«D« .... a.flTO)^!'-^!?^'^'^^"^ e./Jj(g*i' 

^..M^\«€^^^i^iutu ,^ kj(^*-.^'^'®(S'. „ 

0cTCQLjn^^Lh.., ^^ iLjc^fiSiCi^c^fii^-^. " e-m.^^ 

^Uilt-fi^Sijf R.fr.^ 

I Uysewu! 4a"«» •■>^'. e-.TrCP^ar 

' t_j//9.'j: Qa-ilci cL/rS-*- 



(V^ntUija,Q.''«H3r 

' '^,fffTuUn SfT /.D - 

Q^ir^ 

iJjs/t&^ikQp^:-, e_;27bC'(ar 

!_« ?• t_>«CySi>0' j;^ B-/7:eL/B, 

o4»"^'» ■^'^ a:^..., £-/r@3 

iJ<Pf^^ ti.,7T!-^.(^ 

u.i5 -?(3f)<5f.- .5. » « . ^ . .^. .... .... a./r.& 

Lj^r'ir^: , ......... e_'re_s. 



^Qif9 ^'j^Spjs-' , 



iFjr 



^ '^' w^i.Qun £77 •. . ""sL^/r : 



''^^2 



l9tL(BSiL(h. SL/77we-! 






QuiT^ 






. . . 2_/?7 WifiS- 



^ 



.&.nrff',pi 



,e_,7r5a 



I ®; si) ai JT '7 S , 

' ®)gi)iss3««. ...... o .e_/r;'a_(I5 






l^^f?.. 



M 

u 



y.'^^-'M'^^^ 

/j<r(TLJ«^OLh .,, , 

i_its-isrL^eih&<30 

^^^omiLC. 






.... ^cPi^ 






6sS 






lif gV'^f^^ ij 



, ,e../7T£-aL. 



.£./7rs&sar' 6^<j?^^©il®. a.s^'^ 



sffi^aj^ff-^L.'- 



^-/7I ^'rf* 



CIl'- 






■G 



ij(£5e'i_iff'.i>. 



..,«,...S-i7r(Kfi5» gj^°tlaffit- 






pa.] 



Q 



ai 



Qa3j^ij9b&, B.OT©iD 



G 



Coa) a./7T^<F 



0«u®QsuQ/u«r.., e.mtD 



Q^ZsOQp^Q^n e-/77-@M) 



iSsOT Qpp^JBJf' 







. General Librarr 



l/IIMSffi,aiil,^'BRAR,ES 




<^D570fls33c^