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1- MAShacban , Islamic History : A New Interpretation (London : Cambridge 
Universty Press , 1971) . 

4) Shacban , op. cit , pp 80 - 81 ; Marshall G.S. - Hodgson , The Venture of Islam 
, Vol 1 : The classical Age of Islam (Chicago , London : The Universty of 
Chicago press, 1974) P.218. 



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. vo - y. ^^om t ii^l jUVI V^ 

• Y "\ \ ,_/= i JjLJI ^jll (T- 

- Glubb , The Empire of the Arabs , pp 103 - 104. 
4)Ibid,pp 103-104. 



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3) Glubb , op . cit , p 100 . 



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* 
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- Shacban , op. cit . 

. Y . Y ^ ,/MI ^u.jUJl t /Li (Y 

-Hodgson , op.cit , Vol.1 , PP 219 - 223 
-Shacban , op. cit ,PP. 90 - 99 . 



YA 



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-• A 



1) Hodgson , op. cit, Vol.1 ,P 245. 

- Bernard Lewis , The Arabs in History (New York : Harper , Row Publishers, 

1960 ) P 75. 



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Glubb , op. cit , P 150 



3) Glubb , op. cit , P. 150 . 



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1) Hodgson , op. cit , Vol. 1 , p 268 , n . 14 . 

2) Shacban , op. cit , pp. 127 - 129 . 

3) Lewis , op. cit , p 67 . 



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- Hodgson , op. cit , Vol 1 , p 219 . 

- Lewis , op. cit , p 66 . 

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3) Hodgson , op. cit • 

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-Hodgson , op. cit , Vol. 1 , p 244 

2) Hodgson , op. cit , Vol. 1 , p 244 



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- Hodgson , op. cit , Vol. 1 , p 269 . 



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3) Shacban , op. cit , p. 144 - 147 . 



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- Shacban , op. cit , pp. 144 - 147 . 

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1) George Fejlo Houraini , Arab Seafaring in The Indian Ocean in Ancient and 
Early Medieval Times, pp. 52-53. 

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1) Shacban , op. cit , pp 158 - 159 , 160 - 164 



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