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Full text of "tar49"

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INSTITUTE FOR PALESTINE STUDIES 

Anis Nsouli Street, Verdun 

P.O.Box; 11-7164. Beirut, Lebanon 

Cable; DIRASAT 

Tel/Fax; 868387, 814193 

Cellular (Tel. & Fax): 

(1 - 212) 478 2809 






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Al-mujaz fi tarikh Filasfin al-siyasi (mundhu fajr al-t5rikh battd sanat 1949) 
Ilyas Shufani 

A Digest of Palestine's Political History (Since the Beginning of History until 1949) 
Elias Shoufani 



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cJir Ifll Dj-,.j::>«JI ^UUl J_^. ^yJl tLiyj ^y .jLiilj ioLJij Ol^l US' 

liiU JjU=- ji^- j^ Sjili tiyJl oU*;jJ| y JsUjI jj_^ ^ >JL.^L. 



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^1 ^LJi ^jH\ > jji^^ -e^b]! cM i-i ^j^i '^.>'' ^.^^' 

^ co^f oli> U:>t ^1 Vlj^'^l oUl^l (.Ui^ LU. ^ 4i.^r^l j^l 
JJl^- U J£C .JpjzJl ^>Vl o-LiJU- ^ Uf t^^l >iUi OUl jSC- ^1^ 

(."l ci^l ^y Jij ^- I-IJ «^l^ ":^^>' Sl^ J.^ ^ Id^j^ ^*^-V 

^L.! c^j ;vV ^^i :^ ^i ^ -.-■ L. .^wi^j 'V- **i^ ^iJ 

.i^UJl i«JJl UjJjJ ^1 o-^lsCJiNl > v^l Jl i^l-Jl ^-^^ ^ VUJl 
x:,!. uip JjUj. C-Li)^J ^^> ^' J^'^ ^^' ^ '^^ '<^'-^' '^-' 

jy^ j^- .(Hi-^i oujVi ^^^^^ ^'j-^ ^^'-' '^^' *>* ^■>-^=^' 

JJ^_ ^h <^J^ 'V-J^J ^-^^J ^-^^ ^^'^^^ ''^-'^' CP^' ^ ^ 

^ " " ■■;>. U5 

■.(Paleolithic Age) (cJ^Ul) :^.^1 4^^ j^' - ^ 

:(Mesolithic Age) (cJj>Jl) : V-^' ;^r^' ^' " ^ 
: (Neolithic Age) (cJj^O :^..A^I .i/?^' ^1 - V 



: (Chalcolithic Age) (cJ/JlSOl) : ^UJI - ^$j>^\ j^\ - I 

u^ -rj ^>^ ^^1 tfi '^ij ' (t^ i^ '^j^ (j* V-r^^ ^^ L*^ f HV £ h^ IjA 

iOp OlS'j . JiVl 4j>->J^I CjT^y^\ j^ Ji\ ijAi- i J-illj :ulj;Jlj ^\j 
(iJJI _^Vl ijJLi Ui lO ^UJl 2^l>.i-.V J> jsLli j^ ai ^Ua*JI .Ju ^ 
^ Ji 6LJ)/I 0! tj^lj:*^! p JUi JLp .bjj .OLJl y, J*UJl Ol Jlp Jjb 

cf^J '^.^ 'j:^ Cy yJj*^' V-)^' (Jl '^i-'s?*'! ^y i/ i-a^l il lOijVl 
ly <^^' (.r*- J^"^' (^ *^y ^ ^■^'^ 'y*^l j«;^ (iji-^ c-i.o jb.f Y • J«^ 

- t|j>-Jl fl'i+i'^l y ^^' (J^'y^ (J*»i '■;:-*^l ''j:*^ "^t^Li 1^ r^ 



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(Homo Erectus) i.UJl c->^ - »* oLJ)ll j»-<L tJj_;*Ji ^j^\ j^ ^ WJ»s»^J 
j-jU .jCT i_ii:5o J t5-iJl I (Homo Habilis) ^UaJi .llLJ)/! -uL- (>• ^} j^J 

tjjiii. )^i ji 4i.U]l ]^jiA ,j^ y»j .^l* \,«' S' * " Jt* '^ Jl <>J*^' 

l^ J»:pJ lUJkxJIj ij-l^ij iij:»^l loijiS/l ^-ibi^ ^jivaJ Vkyu. dUl.1 

JjU ^ L<Alv»i b^i ■\Sj^'^ V"^' ^Vl>- ►'-^ L> LfiJi»i~J jl tl5-!A- 
.6lS^)/l jJi L^i* i>-jiJI i-i-J^I ^ W^ f^^. ^^"r^ 'fc*^'j JJ-^" 

SjLi, ^ Ur 4v>^' J ''•^ ^^^•> '/J '^-»^' ''-^- ^ *^^ ^-' '^-^" 
,^U C)^ ^ J\ k-^\ ^y yi J^» h/i\ ^^1 ^L-^l -^-J 

ieJjUl ^ (.^1 > L«^1j^b '^^ij^* - (Olduvai) ^\ij^j\ ^ ^liJl ^^^1 
^ l^-ljilj tUJji ^ (Abbeville Culture) ^\ !jU>- Ji u^^" '^e^iHj 

/U^ OijVl j^ JjjSfl Jb 

'o\^'^\^^ '^ ^yf ti-iJl ^1 ^^ ^,^,.1^1 J^ ^yJl t/l^l -»>J' 
V>JI c> t^J^^ '^'^ V^^ ^l ^-' '^-'^-'^■^ ^^ ^^ ^--^^ "^ ^"*'^' 



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lSj:^' ^j-^ t** ^i* '"Wj*! "J^^y t^J^ oLtJ., ; ! iN i«,.ll oJL* 6jS' iJipj . J^^iJlj 
.iJjjVl ^ l+x*^ (>« *^j iif-iLJij iJjJ«Vlj iJj:;S'!>lSOl :^jk iJbf 

US' tlfi^^ (_^j 'u^j^" j'i"-' tr^ '^i^ "jUT t^ ji-ij ■<• Ja-»^' *L!S-Vl 
^ (.ii^l J^ SjJi ji^ 2^1 ^yj]| jjj^_ ^ -jjl^lj •■crT^^I i>* fj 
^Xj\ ^j* *i*i J*juj nJjv* cjljil aImii rlji 'i<«~Wl J^iy "^Ij^ ^^J -J,.-" 

^j^l os-j; l4Jli .ix-^l ^Sfl ^ ^ytJI Jp-Ul ^ Jit v^j (^\^\j 

'gu-^L. pi^l ^iVl J^l cJb^l ^^1 j^\ ^UjJI oli LyJl'^bfVl Jjl 

.ijUl j^UU Ja::»JI 
^■jU^ jl iix-»J| 4:^;; Ji. t!^ JjU. illuj .Lijil Jl ol^>. j_^j 

^ S' • • ^ JJ tit c^l IJu il^J ^ ^"j *;t x^l ^j . JU^I IJL* 
li^ t^iUJI j;>4^l ^ j_^. t^iSlI jyJl ^Uut 1^^ ^ (»4>. ^- j^- i^U 
JU^l JiUj jlSol ^yj tcsl^ ^!j^ i^-j i,jL^ (_JL.t ^^- j^j tiLJ^I 



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Jl;; M UJip LUi AiLi;?! jCt Jij . V-Jj^b ^-■^^Jl _ 5ijUa:>JI a:IjI:>xJI ^ ^-l 
ti^j t (Homo Sapiens) JibJl ^LJ^iL; o^iU J_^ ifLJ^JI ^_ ^UJ ^^>s^^ 

^ t.\AO'\ i-- (J. Fuhlrott) Oj_>y djL, ^^USfl ^UJl jjl* >*I 

(NeaBder) jXU ^^ilj ^ ^i Ol^j .«f;lj^Vl J^Ib ^.l::^ ^iJj'^ J^ C '^^^ 
Homo-) JUjJJUI OUl ^ Upj 'U:UJI ^> iJjj>iL.ji ^ v^Ij 
iJiJbr aUl jjij tS>-^l oJU^j .oLiLi^'^l c^b-j . (Neanderthalensis 

fL-'Ji Jl Uj^ Jib c^ -^jj (V ^"^ • ' - ^ " *^ '^ ^ t!-' -*' 

.!>»^lj 4-i jii *Jj i(_iL>Jl 

iaii iju^ .jjix. J oj^j ^i^Ji jyJi ^ cju^i II* c.uu^ ;UpIj 

'^\ ^ V-iij ..b> ^ij VdJJl «^l-i ti*^ ^ "^V jl'b '^^ Sj-^-H 
oLi::^! '^ A2i iiv»l^ Sjj-^ Oi^^-ii ^ oJ^j ^>JI CiU^II li> bli y ^1 
jlJjLi -ojU^ J J iOi> ti^bj '^i^l ^^J "'J'J'^' "-^ '^-J-^ 'r?^ ^*^ 

ji^j ^1 ^Ijj .oui v> J ^yr^- ^J^J '^'^' ■> ^^^'^ ^-^^ 
OUMl ^ :j>> c.li^ J-^- U^^ 'jU'Vl (Jp ^ i-^S/t ^Lj ^1 ^ jf«^- 

l^J>y,yJ^\ A-:-UI y UjU::. ly^ W J-^' Dc^*-^ y^ ^^•^^' '/" ^=*^' 



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pvi <uU l_jiU»lj ;^L»- (j»:;>i^ ^yx^ (H^^l^ ti^aU- oljj« J^*mj 'J*'*^' 

. 

. Palaeo-anthropus Palaestiniensis ^It LJu> <-Jj»j t^^iJaJiiJI *jJill OLJ^I 
^jUi^ ^y aJp Ujliu iljl^ *;! VI tj_^ljjJjUl Ljjj! OLJ)/ I^U* d\S ajI «j 

JU-1 ^y Oiirj j/il vJi*Ji (J^l^l (>• j^l id*ll L-Iji ^y ^yiiJ^^ 

iiiLw l^Ji*- liLk-j :jj-S' i*>Mj^ ,2,-ivajjAll -Lacs' ^ J*>«ij JiUJl DLJ^I 
vilisJi ^UiPj tjJi»*j (_jjVl Ul .ojjL ol».ji U+< iji>ij DbA-ilj (^.Uo-il Laa>-j 

*b>JVl ^1 J-»j j4^Ij tJLJl jy j^t »Jlt> JUjJij .;iSj»Jl SijJbi^ ^jUtfVl 
..W.J-VI IJL* ^ '^U ^Ijl J!u>_ d-;^ 4(iL.Vl j*J 

4;ljit icbv' v^j liiUl <;jLvia- jjJjj JJjo tJiUl (ijUyi «^ j^- 

(jl lUU J_^l ^y 1 V tjviil ii>J Js^ JJjJi ^Uuj .*JlSC J:5b>.|j 

oLJ)/I _^ LjU:. j^j /Lr_^jijJ J>j g;iJl yb ^•..t.„.U,l| JL-jjULJI 

.J^LUI UbL^ !jU>J| ^U-j I JUJI OU^ ^UJI ji:>J| iJiUll 

.jJa-Ji J j^^i- 14:1 Sll tLjjjI J JL-jO^UI 14*1^ ^^1 I4.JJ !jL,i>Jl ^j 
OlS- .^^.liiUiJl (»j.jU)I DU>I sU. ii^ ot (_> Jjb i^iJl yVl ti^aiu £i4i 

^Li. ^y liiUl AjjUp- Oi:fj Oij . Ljjj! ^^ ^jAma SL^ ii^' JL> Ujliu 

4KU L^^. Jl Ujl_p. Jj jjUuJI J cJiUl OU)/l oiji! ^ iS-jiJL.j 

Ujjj tS^^ji^l oUI_^Ij fIJbpVlj i-iLillj «^| ilb-y jy -u'U- JxUj Jiil 
5ijy i^ oUU^ i_j;^_, ;_ikj U IJiAj sJxiJl JL,J| ;tJL,-y Jl tii^l 
JyJl J sy^i^ cJtr j^l i*i^| oUlj^l ^bSI Ju> Sjilij t!iU i.J^L 



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^y^ Jlj; V L«J* jpi\ p ^1 Uii-JI J^WI alSfl c^^Ml i^l .UJt ^ 

I J^>31 JL^ ^> O^lWlj J>-JI Jj^ ^ 'i-^ J^L^ '^**^' r '■^-'*^' 
OlSCJ Uju cJl^ UaIM Ot iU:i*>V! Jl Ui ^M yS\ ;W ObjL5^ L^j 

.S^UJI ^y L_.^Li !>iJt Sjli* ^J J^l^ ^-J^J ^-^J -^ ^^ i/ ^^'^^ 
_ ^u>U '^jii^ cr'tA* J*>4 L. Ui*j .oiyjJi jryi .i* g;>«^ ^ -iij 

.1* ell" -^J . J>— Jl s^^ :j^LJ\ \j^j\yr J J '^rt>Jl - ^J^' c>-^' 
oL>Ji vr-^J '^^V^l ^ U^" -V^^J '^^' '-^ <>* ^^'^' '^ 'J^^' 

^I'c^ii^ ;Jl5i C4jp .^J ■■l-'j'^l ^^WJI Cf* '^k>- ^^; ^>^' 'c^^"^' 

JjVl iU-^i Ji*J ^j 'ii^r->-ll "jL^"*-^ "«4-*Jl kj^J^^ v^-^^^ 0^ 

r^ J J^Vl J^l ;> U^. ^J^ '^JJJ^ ^ ^1 II* :^ "VJ^I 

U OIp^ 'J^iJ^ ^M cT^^I G^' <> > 'fl* ^"'^ " J-i cM 
.UbJl Up Jiiai 'l-id-i^ W ^.-AJI ^^^^ 'J-»*^J 'o^j"^' t-Li ^ ^^ r^l 



u 



Homo) JiUJi Dl—J^^l lij^l ij-^l lj> Oj^:>.^l ^j*— jj .*j-iAll tSj>^\ 
Ji>- ij.^1 IJL* ^j .^_^l»Ji OLJ)flj o_^lj ;_^LJl cLvaJ iXjSl; t (Sapiens 
<<JL«j ^ '-'j^u ''^^ ■^■^ °j^ °^^ o^Jii iSJbJb- <Li2j oljL>>j| il)Ljyi 

.i-p-jjJij 4jiUJl 4J_)L,aj«- ciiPij t^iUfla"ill 

ilbbj tUjjjt ^l tVU-i j>-L* Jj i,;;,-kJli |JbJL>^j <'tyi^\ J^l lil '»j^ 

^y ijUa»Jl jljiVl cJJLj tjj/ Jb- ^Jl i^j O'i/I ^/9- Jlj; V ^^j itj\jzj\ 
CJO:- .!->■ t Jj>S/l cJjJUi ^ ;^jj\ Jk Ljjjl C*.^! tit-jVl cJjJUl 

JyiJi Jij Uirf 'Lj^ W^ jd'iW^' tpj i-ii-i>»Jl OLJJAJ 5j--S^I oljl>^)/l 

^ 4J J^- t^iSfl lijJiJI ^J ^lU i_j!>U;L J_ji* ^^1 dU; l:>-ljj oL[_^l 

1^1 ;y»UiJ| ijip _ (Dorothy Bate) c-j ^jjji - i^^l «i* :L.-U» c-iLtl JLJi 

.6I_J-3JI i«jl 

^'jj ;i-JJlj '•i»-jS'l cJ^^UI J ^-...i,. iill OUyi *ii- ^Ul jjJGI jUijVl 

j^\ j:>- ^%^ Lj oJCulj t^.JUll (bU)ll jiijL- ^ JjSlI iiUaaVl i.jVl 

DL^Vi ^ ,y iyJi oIpL*ji i^ tiujjLJi VL:>-Ji oL.jVi ^ ;ajL- 

i«~l»Jl Jlj>-I ^yj Uj LfijLia- Ojji» iSj-i-^ C:jIp_^*>^ cJJi LUjJ t J-9-_;Hj 
fliiiJl yi i»j_^ JS' JJj Vjl CC----J" lalilJl Cj-b>-| ji\ j>Jl 4:>.j^ 



^^ 



jL/j tij^ LjLj jJabj (_y!| olJljj»Ji djLulai LjJji>A 4<Jp frlljj .I4J <_^L^I 

J5UJI diL- ^ j_^- ^ d . JiLJ jCi JU jJU US'j t UjJJ ^y iLvaJI (IJUJ)'! 

o_,JcvaJl IJl^l oljiVl j_^ ^ JJly* t^LJ! tijLs<iiiVl ^IjJI I'M ••V^' 

iljj ;y. wjl (_yip c-S'j |_^l iJiJUuJ! i^JU^Jl JlOVi oli t (Microliths) 

. UjjiJlj »Ua*]lj <_... tf> Jl5' i^j-va* 

dik.1 tUIJ' J^*^' ^J^^JI >jL-i^ ^ liJ^' "^l-^^l -^^ "l-*-^' -'^*=*i-» 
t^UJl liiLJ^I P'Ui ^yi aJlaIj U>t>- Ji V Ij-S' U-Ui :S_)_jiai< ajJ.-j>- oUv' 

ciJLli jj-ij . JbjJlJLjJI U*!.^ ^^i diiJ ^ LjLiJ jJiSi oljil ^ ^ kL. ^s^\ 

iJjiJl s^U^i ^y> Cr" J-»' ->* -^^y' '-^ ^^ "^ '^-^^ </ ^**^' ^->^' f^ 

J^ (>• J^" "^'^' <j^ oLiJi^UJl Jjb- Ur iJiSli Oj-iJl ^.* "j^^ cj^ 
jUijVl'^" ^Ij 'iWJl jj^l J^ L> ^-A-" f->-^^ l^ > ^1 iJ^l 

.l:rpVlj .-L-Vlj olybU ^L^^/l JU-:L-b 'c^l-Jl > >^^ J^ ^ '^J^' 



jJUi U-i JiSJ ,_;-J lii^I SjUap- (^ ijjiS' ^_^I liLi 'i/j "CijLsi^J -^J^l 
LjJUju*^! ^>-j\ iijJj l^jj ^ Jj lUiv JviiVl t^l^Vij (^IjVlj oljiVlj 

i|,.j^Sll uJilyj 4V..,.nll f-L"^lj j:Jli^lj AjJiiJI _^)/l a>»j <ijUU^ ^j . r^^'j 
jUl>- ^ If*;-^ jjJl v-jIjJI t^Jb"_^. (Ills' *j! ^I_pij 4i_jLiJlj ^ji!i liUiS'j 

_,4Jajj .4jjUi>J rij*Jl ^jaJI Jt«J tLJ_^ iji ijjw (,--1 ,_^ t (Cro-Magnon) 

tuUisL,,fl::>-Vl jjjj ^LJLj t J-«-«i! L».j".»" f jJc»<il Jbi:>Jl a-^_>JI I'ij' Ji'j ■ aS'_,iJ!-« 
Jj'^i i]li»j .iyll JUUJLi uf:j AjpUi>-l iLjIj; liUiS'j t4Jj'^'-> V^'j Vj*^' 
Ijj-S' ULj:*! tS^lj civtoJl t5jiJ! (JIjo ljj5i Jjui O^jJUj^S' DU-Jl 01 ^^ *j_ji 
Lj>j iJu-i**!! pijAvau jy ijs^'yi JUII ,, 4' . t .4. " j '(»-fiii (ij^j tolj-Qjlj 

.C-*JI «J. ^1 fOy ^1 oljiS/l 
c-JjJUl j-AP ^^1 ijju ^1 fti\_yJ\ y j;r^l i - t. ij S'l ,^_.k.,..l> ^_j 

Js-ly ^^1 jsd.*.ll iJu f-UJUll ., hj . OijVlj 6tJj ^uj-" ^y oULt:i"yi 

1 fr j i<i i t l*-f*ri V'^' iU-y _jl»J ^ (H^J • i}*^^ J^^ cri^' i-i_^l ^ 

. Lij>- I— <_jisr ij^l— Jl ^Ji* c-lip ^y (Jj. ij^ JjiJbxJl 
C-J^Ul y LiUI oijU^ ;^Vl Jl JA0.VI y i^1_^l ,vJi:i)ij 
tJa->w<JI ^ Lj-MSjuj i(2,Ja.*Jli ^y IjayiiK {Jyr '•'jy oLiy>- !_,!*■ »yj tjJLpifl 
Sylil ., j n H »i_^lj t Xw.Q l ... * (_sy-l CjLy»- ?«3bJ c.*»->»j j^jCj Ujj (_sJJI y jI 
J^S/lj iJlili SyUi ^1 i-^lj Li! .yn-^\ i3y ^ Jy-^l UjLJl jA ^Jj^\ 



1\ 



jvwJl ^J[ iJLaxJl *Jb-_^ cT^I ^jr*i c*^' '■h^ h^ ij¥ i^^^l '^Ji^^ 
OijVl jj* (yj iol_^l ^1 i_^l ^ 'cijc^l *ij^ '■^-J5 («t**- ^^^ o^-iil 

jL^ Ai^j^ I- LIS" t (IjUJ ^yj . UajjPj ijj-j ;5l>«-L« ^J i^-^j 'l^ ' 'Sl)>*' ut* '^i 
.<,j*^S!l Xil^J ,>i- j^\ il* y iXUl i-3l_41 J*sVl Jldl JJiP 
aJUuJ ^jJ! tj5LJl ^Vl cuJjJUl Jl SJUil ii^y. ijJ^\ Sjli- ^j 

.(,_.Jl5JI ^yiVl (iyJl ^_^ (^J*^l W'*' liijUfl:^ ».i»-j (^j-S^I idJ>-^ ly i^^Jj^rJ 
ApLvjj _jl*ij ^_^ . Lf=rlil *r^-> -ii-sLJl SjUo^JI ^ Uljahd* Uajj -^ijl^l jjjj 
dJUiS'j t^lj Jltu ,JU=- Lf!Ujii-il _;-i::3l ^\ tiijjlj S^Ju^l Ij|_^l ci|_,i-iJl 

coc4 i^l j^-^Ji y j>Ji 4 v^i <:^ '^-J^ -^^ ct^Lj *^.> =j^ i/-r^' \ 

,JOu CjLJJA] lijy^ I*lj_)3l ^ jj il t^l ly 

SjUfljJl jj+y Oa4* tiJLiil iJb-y cJiSlij tijj-S" iiU cSi'y^ JiS' o_^l 

Ji*yi J^l SiUu-l Jl JbJLj 4(cJj>Jl) V^l ^yr^^ r^^ J V>JI 

cSyUiJi .!> ^«-^" j^ Wlj^ ^1 i/' y-\ui\ oULSiII cJUi ;UiI :i]l>Jl .1* 

.i^LJI Jly-S/t L4i^> ^1 oLa»^ hj^\ <i.lp_,-j>vJl i;U^i-l 
^ly t JLsJl ^ SL/'t (»JUJI oUadlj ^L>- i»-Jj Ljjjjl DL-JJ dwiJ Uiuj 
J1.L. ^1 o_^U ^^l oUljs»JI y Ujjpj t:)V>JI :)Ul»i U-x« "i/l^-i (>-ji 



j>,^\ 5^lt jiSfl Jj-iJi OUJ *>.|j tj^LJl jAij VU-i ;u>.|_^l oLiUJi 
^ j»j>o t^llip j_^ ^j iAjL- iuJ j_^ J>«^j 4(1)1511) JbJjf «jjji uJU»Jlj 

\A, « • « ^ CJJi-l ^_^l tSjiiJI .1* tjva*Ji jrMJ •'SliLJl -CijUap- ^J jjiaj liUi 

t4llip ^^- Jl _^| |I» OUj UJ icJLjw jiU^ uj^ ^IjL, .^.iLvaJi 
.U_^j iJU--Vl a>v» j-JU-^j aU>Jl J*-luj ,;jpJaJI oljit --^- 

olji^^lj ^_^| ^ ,ij^ hj\i >^' J<^ Ji* U_^ ^J il ,^\y^\ J 
^ Ojy.. .L (.ait ..ii^l ;i_^ i^ Ji_^| _ ^_^| ,^LiJ| ^ ,^_^, 

(^jJl L>J .f • J i^ U,< . • _^ JJ U Jl ,jb i^, tOVl ^^ J.LUI itAi 
iLuj liij^ ^^1 |I> j^\ ^_ >y ^^ ^^^ui j^^jL^^i j_^| ^ 

. iJUyi SjU^JJ UL*!. ^jVi J^I ^ SjiUl .Ju ^^1 ^jxiuj . V-jjj vi*^i 



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Ulli \j^at> tj^_ "if 0:i>-Ul ,jAAjj .*lr^ ^/^b '^l-^l ^ Jj*^l l^^iUaaVl 
*ijJu>JI lijjj*^! _r^Li ilijLva>JI SjjiU i'Ji^ t42»Jj ^y |t^ i43lij 

iJLJVl ol^^l Ifji Li^ljj" (_^l t-qlJj iKJL. cJj-ilL IJlillj t4iil^ JSilJtjJ 

j_^jUJI Jl^ t^ tiJ_jkJI ^S^\J ij\ V-^ ivj^' cr* '*:5'-^ V'bj 5jUm- 

, iLi Jill _ 4^ji>>Ji 

^ jlJl>JI |||Ljrly -^ .ty=^liJ( jtr^^ l^-^^?- j^j 'ty^^i'l Jj^lj ^njjjt jc^ 

..^,.^; i_^ Li! , iJjJl AJVJL>-Ji SjLvai>JI IriT^b *;H>^' ^JJJ^ l/ ^^^*^' '"^J 

|JIp t^WLij iJbA^ jyLJ ^U»p ^j i^eJjJl Jl j>Jl jUi i;^^l :>3l 
Jip V1-»*J' V-^l f^jVl jM.^I JiS/l tj^l CjUI V Ji:^! taia;r ^ylj->. 

i-UJI J-^ oUlj-^ e-ilpj 'jj«-iJlj j^^ls" iJjjI VJt*^' ly d-*" '•^^ 
c^LJl JlJ^I .1^ ^ c^lvJl ,ywUI oi-j^l iL^V^ ^^ J'"^^ <^^' J*J 



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tjJi^i .«(JJljVl OjiL^I) jipbJI JJ U jj,^ ^y (.Ul i%i 

.UA^ 

- Anati, Emmanuel. Palestine Before the Hebrews, London, 1963. 

- Atlas of Israel. Jerusalem, 1970. 

- Bums, Edward McNall. Western Civilizations. 8* Edition. New York, 1973. 

- Dudley, Guilford A. A History of Eastern Civilizations. New York, 1973. 

- Encyclopaedia Hebraica, Jerusalem (Hebrew). 

- McNeill, William H. The Rise of the West. Chicago, 1963. 

- Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton 
(N.J.), 1992. 



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_ ^AA tJJL.i .«(iJ^I jli'i^O j^J^I i^^l oi-jJI jlil' 'i^liaL- t,>-->^ - 

lf^S\ oUUL 

- Anati, Emmanuel. Palestine Before the Hebrews. London, 1963. 

- Atlas of Israel. Jerusalem, 1970. 

- Bums, Edward McNall. Western Civilizations. S"" Edition. New York, 1973. 

- Dudley, Guilford A. A History of Eastern Civilizations. New York, 1973. 

- Encyclopaedia Hebraica. Jerusalem (Hebrew). 

- Encyclopaedia Judaica. Cecil Roth (ed.). New York, 1971. 

- Hallo, William W. and William Kelly Simpson. The Ancient Near East: A 
History. New York, 1971. 

- Harrison, John B. and Richard E. Sullivan. A Short History of Western 
Civilization. 3'^ Edition. New York, 1971. 

- McNeill, WilUam H. The Rise of the West. Chicago, 1963. 

- Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton 
(N.J.), 1992. 



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soy 






Applebaum, Shimon and Mordekhai Gihon. Israel and her Vicinity in the 
Roman and Byzantine Periods. Tel Aviv, 1967. 
Atlas of Israel. Jerusalem, 1970. 

Avi-Yonah, Michael. The Holy Land: A Historical Geography. Michigan, 
1977. 

Bums, Edward McNall. Western Civilizations. 8th Edition. New York, 1973. 
The Cambridge Medieval History, Vol IV, «The Byzantine Empire». 
Cambridge, 1966. 

Diel, Charles. Byzantium, Greatness and Decline. New Brunswick (N.J.), 1957. 
Dudley, Guilford A. A History of Eastern Civilizations. New York, 1973. 
Encyclopaedia Hebraica. Jerusalem (Hebrew). 
Encyclopaedia Judaica. Cecil Roth (ed.). New York, 1971. 
Fiensy, David A. The Social History of Palestine in the Herodian Period. New 
York, 1991. 

• Ghirshman, R. Iran. England, 1978. 

• Harrison, John B. and Richard E. Sullivan. A Short History of Western 
Civilization. 3"^ Edition. New York, 1971. 

■ McNeill, William H. The Rise of the West. Chicago, 1963. 

■ Vasiliev, A. A. History of the Byzantine Empire (324 - 1453). 2 Volumes. 
Wisconsin, 1964. 



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cJdi L4JSIJ i,_^lji-'yi ^j* Ji l>^ ' V*^ -i^ ^J' ■^J •'^^ V->^J 

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iL- (:>-Ji ^ iilli iU ^oiJt Jy^ ^UiJI DIUJI J«r ^* .(^ ^r^ ^) ill:-- 

cJik col^ Ji (^»ij ciA-Jlj ^^\ J^l /^ J^l ^J -f^^^^ 

.^UiJlj ^.JJI JS-^I ^A2]i 

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laUsUl JIU-. yj tiiiLJl i_JlJ XjUI fy> iJ t>j -ii-jJI ^\r^J <-o^}^J 
lUiJl ^IJ t*:LP iUiL. -.j_^ ^j i*jL, .1^1 (>lii» Vr^ SiUll i> ^A» 
^.^ J^ JL*j .i3lUJI 44-ij iSjIib V^-jj bl^^j 5-^ 'i«^l ^Jp *WJ 
J^ (/J -o^^l c> -^^^l '>:^J>-J 'Wei ;i.yJI v^U» ^U-Vb ^ cjlj 
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J>-^l l_^j "►JI^Jlj (jl>-Vl ^y jl i^^\ Jj. cLUi 61^ i^Vl Jj^ 
;4ijUJI oUjiJl Oj>jj . JI_^S/lj JiLUIj oUUJi Ij^lilj n3_^| i_^jj 
oVLS-^^lj 4J^^| oL^>J| <,b'l jt iJUl (.IkJl V^ cr* ^i Ol^ 

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iJjJUJIj i^jUIIj ijSOuJIj AjV^b *ii^'-» Vij^b v^lLJlj 4;i4^_^ij 
liWI dr-J -^Jjl^b Vj-i*^b idy»>>Jlj ^Ui*Jlj ij:-^lj V»-W^b 
L..lk-Jl ojyb *ijLi*JI ^Ijj id>^l sLSJUJI liJLJU^I ^ tUj-.Jl 

oUli-jLwJI dUiS-j tdJUU^I (iLJ Jl .Jl^ ■»j-i ioL.U>Ji ^y iOp ^aiJl 

jkiJi «-l_yj t^^jiJl J>J! j-^l L«^l:iPj .(^JjcsaJl (_^ Sjj-S' oU-l;t»J 

;jA ^iiLJLj i2n**li»JI uri <^^\jr^\ cjjtzJ\j i.^yu/> ^_^ uJ!>UJl L>:> tJjSll 

ij^,5L^I ^-IjJLi IjjL^- o^.Ul iJJljVl jL^I ^!>Ui A*j .^-jli 

j^ Ju.« .^Ulj i:>jj:>U ^ JJ^ LJ^Vlj ^jj'jUj a*_«*Jj >* - *:^«^lj 

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toly ii.>%* ^yJl Jb>l t^JJi tDjj^U i>i JU^-^ ^Ul tiiUJl ^Lj ^^ 

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jt^Uu AiL~« C->-lj UjUjj . liLlU^I JL^ JjjiAJi Ifi jili ^yJl SjJaiJ! «j-»-Vl 

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<Jji i»>-L^ ^j^ Oljlp 4jjj (j^ JL>-I LfcJLiu }j>^ aJj . J-i**i ^ t-jjilL yufim 

a. L«....ll ;L>JLI *j»o i-Jj* ii*liJ( JT^ 'Tj*^' OUaL.II (.JUjx^ jv»liJlj 

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CjLljJa^Ml CJjJ>iiJl iAj_^ 'J^J .Jaii cJj-« jil Cjli Cots' o!»l_^)/l 
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- yrj\ ciUL^Jl Jl _ iiljiSlI _ ^._^l 4JUJI ^ (.iihJI Jliilj 

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.JUIj .Mj ii»J^i J^ 
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JiUrJVlj >-jM^\ cy 'P •^^ ^J • '^^ '■>-^- "^ ^'-^^ '^^'-' '^ 

^\^\ i>\^j .«,:«JUi*!l» ^ ^j>Jl hojk a-^' u?^ ^'^i r^ ''J-' 'f*^' 
io. .lo SiUi .!)! U5 .."^^ Jl V"^ "'Jii ^^**^' r^ '■^^" ^'-^' i/^'^*^' 

.-,.•■ ^JS\ jUijNlj oi>- jj:S3U Jip i^>]l j>b! ^JjJj i^^^ijk^l J^l^l 

jj> .djlSCJI ^ Sjj^ biJ*! i^M' Jl 'W^ '-^J O-^' U.^^j lA^I *i 

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ia*aJl cj|_ji>- _;S'i jiUfl^Jl jjj: US .(^U'Wj \ioA) ^V-^ ijr^r^j' us^i* 

(ijjiJi ijlJb ^ ^Ui«Ji iiljiS/l (^Jb! ^ l^bjJL- -LtP iJi^j. *ji_^ <JU^ jJUl 
(v^j idUUJlj j~jjjSfl ^U Luy^ IjUijI ,2>Ja*-i* oJip JUJ .j-irf. ^iLJi 

j^SikJl ^ «jt>-Vl lj:i!>\ cJlS' JOJ .i*Lp glstfjSli jy^Sjj ;_j|^l ^y _,jiSCll 



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r*jjxSL.y\ .«^^l (3^! Jlp ,^JuJI liljJuJi cjL.ai.» .JUS' J** 'JJ>r- 
^yrJyJl _ ^%^y\ j^^l» -(jij*^") ,/MI ^^y.j *i!>^ 'J-^ - i/W-A - 
.nnr iSy»Li)l .iJiill :i*J4Ji JO^jJlj <^xr*^l* --^^ (^M 'i^j>»*Ji - 

it^^\ oUUL 
_ Atlas of Israel. Jerusalem, 1970. 
_ The Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. IV, «The Byzantine Empire». 

Cambridge, 1966. 
_ Encyclopaedia Hebraica. Jerusalem (Hebrew). 
_ Encyclopaedia Judaica. Cecil Roth (ed.). New York, 1971. 
_ Gibb, Hamilton A. R. Studies on the Civilization of Islam. Boston, 1962. 
_ Hitti, Philip K. History of the Arabs. 6th Edition. London, New York, 1958. 
- Lewis, Bernard. The Arabs in History. London, 1950. 
_ Sauvaget, Jean. Introduction to the History of the Muslim East. Los Angeles, 

1965. 



Yfo 



Shoufani, Elias. Al-Riddah and the Muslim Conquest of Arabia. Beirut, 1972. 
Vasiliev, A. A. History of the Byzantine Empire (324-1453). 2 Volumes. 
Wisconsin, 1964. 



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j:5b-i i(^\Y'o<\ - ^rr^) aJjIjj oUi* ^i «<:)Ujj! ^ikw-i ^^.^rYn t-, ^^ 

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cS^b '(Ijj^t) 5_^I J::^Li .^UjLoJl 5^1j>!lj ^UJIj ^^L i.i^j 

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^tj«jr 



)LjyJI iaJiJlj 



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^j^-UJI ;*J,^ J|_^Vl AiUr-j oU^I ^^ Jj, %^j ,lSjJj\ ii_^| 

c^^^i >;>Ji Jc<^- t^j:- c^^'ir'^ i^ ^j .iSjjji ^ui jip ^j^^^i 

^> -^ ^^-> '>.lj 0^ i/^*^' <^J:^I fl»^l>JI U^- JJj .^UJI .Ujf 
iJilJlj ^UJI (^i_^| ^-pi i^Uj ^ ^^ ^JJl j^UjLJy. ^_^U (^HM) 

4^ l^jili ^_, j_,Vi i^uJl y^i 0^ i^j^l UiiJi iLt; j^j 

P o*J ' Jj-^l J=^l J^ jjH. J^j ^,p j^ cLUi \jii^ Jjj .^jyUl 
J^ i.J^I i,j^l oyy dilXj .JlkJl ^0 J^^ ^.bj .^^ ^^f 

V^WI v->iJl ui'^Jl' -L^li . -ti^^l JJLlI 0^ > Lj|_^ Ll^ J.liJ| 
4;j_^- u^ ,^j^,^ Si^ _ ^^^^ ,j^ j^ .^.,jy| ^,^ .^_^ .^^ .^^ 



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ijJUjildl U_^L Aji_^\ iS\Sji\ _ ikUl jL4:>. .,.JL---j oIjUJ .^Ujji^Vl 
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•"JJ^I tr'l '^J-^J 'W^ Ht'j*-" '"^ 2^J ti'J^' ^*^' 

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i|iJlj iii_^i illTjJI ^-o^tpI ^UI ^I J.UL. ^ ;^-txJ| ^LJI ^_^i J_, 

OjliJI fo^ iU^y U^ ^-_^- litiUl CJlS" iii\Sji\ UlkJ i._^| .JlA ,_..^r...7 

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'urr-I^I O^.J>^yb^. iUUIl ^.jAJl (.|_^Vl ^j .((.Hr<\) XJWI UJl^^l 

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^ .;>J.-ii Ji^ fj!AJl J*J| ^|_^ ^^^ ^ ^1 iju,^vi oL^>J| 



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. Ljliajjjj j_jjj.j.,ail ?'j j ..t.«- u Ajji^bli <L,ajl i_jL»^- ,_jJi* 

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.jjjtJb JLpj >u....>wj L»*>.i« Jj_j^L< iljlS' tj^jJa-JLi ^\ *Jjvj lS-JJj ■'•jjl^^' 

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.(..^JIp i_-Jlj-^l fL-^p '^I'^JiJ K-^j^l <>»-^^l 

o_^5:!>Jl j^_^^ JlpLu^ '-iijjjj j-^Lj_j t»,/:>«-fII «jJl.» (Jj>~* tij— *-iU- 
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JJ ^ l^U^I ^^ ^1 c(^i^l ^yiUi ^1 olt^ J^- ^y ^la::3'ill 

14^ i_j:~j ,2^1:^ _ j^JiuJi Juj4J - LjlJiVI eiJj. c5s*^ ^■i^l *^^J^I 



•t>j;<-^l ^r^l ^-^ fJ^Ul J*jo ^UU ;Uj^ ^- jj l^ tSijoo Jji^tj 

>JI ^>i*fj .LiUalj L^bi :.^l ^.>; ^ J^Lj cDliiVl ,;i^ SljUJlj 

c>^l J**iJ 5'^.>A^ Vr^Hl>-l t^j ^i**' cJl^ tiiJi i(.nY« ^,«--ii/JjVl 
/j^-) JvxJ ojS::^ ^I^jIj c(.LtJI i^l |,_^- j^ tSJbJuJI iU^I ^ ^vl...i;;|| 
.ijli 4^ jiUli OUI J5lj cyv— Jl ,^1^ ^>. ^■>JI ^r^j .((."^^Y . jj^. 

Vloi-yi i>^ ol^l ^ OUI ^>ip|j «.^Vl v^ ^1^1 jl^l jjL^_ 

i._^ oiil (r ii._^i s^:^i la^ ^j (Y ^^_^ ^_^. ^L.1 ^ ^^1 



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(^1 ^>Ji DLj jy' l_jU. jo] . iU-j*JI liU; ^ (^:LkJLyi ^>J»jJI J»jJI Oilj ^1 
t^jj^,s/al| fyjJUJI i^L« ,_yU xS'u)! <^j:>-j 4'*ij>'- A^ 5Jb-_^lj j!>^iLw!>U __^i 
;LJLl»J l.jS^ ^ ibUi j^ ^y iS'jLuJL) LJlkJlj i.iljLi^ ^j |,— US' 

cjlS" ^UJI tjjJiiJl l)^ tiJbJLi IJlSj l^Jj. 4:>-j ci-JJi i ,j-,.«>.:uJl (_^jJl i-jL-iJI 

t^^JjJLj i-i_^ ^/ *JjS' i^Vi Jj^ ^\ LiUiill vi-*«Jj iA-,ia>«-i -tivSJ 0>^ f-UJ 

^ j-,a»»:j Ai*^ ibl Jij^L- -1^ tfrUJJl (y_j .-a* i5i-iJl ^jJuidl ii:»JL!Li ^Ubj 
Ju-jfij <uj^ (IjLIj (»-fM *jkLidJ i.L»l",^. j _^j . \^j^ ij~^J ' *^j^^^ 4*uLu( wUii 
iUjj lJIj::p-!)U ilJUu-VI (j* V-'^b •*; flj^"^' ^-V t^ o^ o^J '■jyk -^J 

j_ji_j;j>JI i_»>»*»j 7T » .,..' tJa»wjMl t3j*>JJ ASwUi«j iULt <-iLwi ^-.^'^ **J-* 
jy r^ iLjJ ^LJ! t-jjJiuJl iJlj-il ti>>*j **--^jj 'U^ tJ'ij*^' t5j-i J-^ 1^ 

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in 



«l»^l Jl <^J 'Lik L5* *jrf^' V^l i> J-^ iJUJVl ^"Ij iio_^jJl 

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p_*^^;-,a-. (_ylp 0>2ii V^^ '^c-'-* '■'^J .SiJUiJl Jilj-Jlj »JUi*Jl 

l5>1 JlljJI J Ci-jLi ^^1 ^Uai^l ol_^l Jlji^Ljj ;,:,-U-^l ^^_,:^1 

.OlSCJl tjUj'V DbJLLy 

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ly o^ji^ uij=rW- J^^ti Jij''-' (»^-HJl '^i^i (JLp iIj^j;^! gis-l Ujupj 



itata 



AJJLjj ajLi ^ Li (ji^'\T^ jJiyJb\jijP- T) -L-LlJI j^ -uIL*- (>wJ tiiJJUl 
i_jL1»^I ^j Ai^^ "^^ -Jj^. -^J 1^ -uJIaII yUaj_^ '*--'U^ ^ '-r'j*^' ojlo** 

, AjJb- Sjjvi; jJ>Ji i-jL-^^ 2^l*d t*-! '^ '1.^ j:^ (*^ Ji>*^ t-jUa>- ,2)S3 

(Y 4I4JISL- MIT <'^' - >-i (j-^j t i >. .L.> JU Jb_^fr ^[ iv4l_;3i i-jiJd^fl i-L-Jj 
jiJb" (r tojSi>- J*-b o_^ y^^*^. Uj iii_rtcJl *^l^^l U^ ^ ur^l cjljLu^i/l 
i_j_^i ji5 (i iLjJip ^t)L::-^U V^ *^ u*^ ''^^' c^ *>«:?" ui>r^l 
CjLS" lil» y,JicS\ JUj . JtsUiM.'^i ^ ,*4'^j>^ ,Hi»>^J '(v^j?^ L»^ UK*;!*-^! 

.»iijJI ;jl^J jJ^I ^J «.iJ_,j<-^i i-LJI J-.^ ^_;*JI (IjUil ^ '^jj^ 

jj*JI j_^LJI ^y>_pi J\, jUlj 4i>iII>Jl ^v^*^ #.Lt tS^ Vjsf^l ly u' > -''^ll 
JJ ^y LjiP ^.^1 t5j>^. i>Jl tijjc*^' ^J^l ^IJl '^J *^ V*^l 1-^ 

^Jlki Ur c«ti;i_^l ^_^l j^^l» I-U- i*iu" j_^ j>-:JI ot Jir"*- A 






JU Jii 'iJii^^l l-iLJl j>. ^^iJa-iili i_jJtJI t^Jj JlkJl ^Ijj jjJlirJl 
^^jf US' 1|,jV| Vapj il)Jii ,y i_i|Jir;*i/l ^_^ iiiLA<Jl j^ f^j^)/lj t<.:,k.,U 

jj'ii ^^^ujSii .-.us:!) (I 

45J14J ^ J^l ^ ^j tCtJliJl ^^^UsuJiJl _^->J| ^UaI ^) ijJiJLUI 

O-^J tf^^^J i^^JDI jyU4 i.--,ial«j t,_^l>,M^I t^Jlit J^li" *%iJlJ Lll>. (<V-*^I 

^1 c_L]i d-iA^t J >jji ^ ^j\ jia ,jj)i\ ^^y\ ^_^j^\j ,uu\ 

(^ VjriJl j-'l^l iUf-Li iJ.>ifvaJI aS'^^I Jj^L- 1-JLUj t^-..L^L«]| ^jil._jJl 
cJL Uj .DxJ Jl Mji\ SjLj .Li ^ ilaj^l UiiJlj ^;..uluj| Jii^l ^ 

O-Jilj (»^> iij>o" i^UjSfl iJO^ Jj^^L. Uii^-I ^1 ol>>Jl .JL* JU. 

^A^J^l Js> Al. Jai^j .^Ul c_.jaij| ol<^_^- JL. Ji>J| ^ OJli) ^^ 
Sjljj UO,^- i^L- j^_^ .JJ^ ,j^,^ J^ ^Ij^^^l :yl_ ;^_jji^ ^^ 

cVrjUJl ^jj ,o_,j^ ,j_^i iU ciJjS/l Ai^jU. ^ ^J\ Jj>j .jyil j^j 



.oUiJi <^\Jo\ ^J^j ij,^ i_>h*.t ^ 0_p,-^ Ujiipj tLUw 6ji>w- ^j.j>J_^l 
j_^ jj^j^JI lAiL* ijjjj K.baJ IJI p.j^_ 6jSiti\ jjli iJ^^j^l ^1 jL>ol 



. o> L »JL«.« ^j.A.M'j 'UmiLw' 



{ipilj l-jiL" Sjj-^ ''d'^xJl o1_,*jc>^I c-.*>-L» ^I t_5^| LiU. (i i\jji 
^ - ■ ■ - ^ 

r'.^*^ '•bj^l (j-V^ ^jh ^'^ 0* '^.^ '^'^ t^ J-^~) '• ■ • Ji^*^ "^jij* js-^' 

\j\j ... j_^ J*j JLiilJ (iJlf>- (^jUa* J Jbl j_^l . . . L<i«ji UUJl 



Michael J. Cohen, Palestine to Israel, From Mandate to Independence (London, 1988), (TT) 
pp. 13-15. 

Ibid., p. 13. (YV> 

Ibid. (TA) 



i\n 



yUi^l j:s~j i5_ji!lj l^A*3 (1)1 LiL SjjJ k_jL-,t ^ oLiJa^l cj^jfj 
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cJli. US' ii_^l ^UJl i*kU. Jjj; |J l^l X^y^a^j <.^j^\ UjLvSj ^ (jjiS" 

SkAj .^}\ ^^•.;k.,..,UII j*;jJl Jip J\ i.U_^| dUb- c^j tlLi 4j<*Ji oblJ 
lt" Vl^yi 5>>-il oSCI .i;j-JI 5a?._^Lj <SL^" ^^Ij tiJ_,54^| ojLi. 

A. - -it>> U Jl Li_^l aSj^JI 5:.LJ ^^ ^ JbjJ |«^l^| ^:.L...U1| j*j->J| ^L^-j 
iIjI LljJ, .ijlS'j . L^loiVI Jt ^y pSiJi i!L4 l+u,fj ^j c i^i ULUi ^ 
U.JJ lO-U J 4j-LJ| iL-jVLj liJlki^l i._,5:>Jlj JUlVl Jl AjfjS 
UiiJIj SaLJJl dlL" ^ L_j__^l Ju> JL.T ^. ^Ij t^iJl iJ._j^L. ^y ^^j>Jti 

'J^^l i> -i^.^:*-^! (>*JI 2il*j -li^l ^ fUJ JLip iljU^j iAd.U^_, ^Uu-I 
^J-^l Jl _>*-ld i^lri jl'J-^l "^ Vl'^'l ^S'j^Jl ^L*j l-.Uj:^|j t Jj_^L- i_Jii. 

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a- (HJJ^ t-iJa^'j "r"-^' >l^ ^-V Jl i-i^" tV^LsaJ i»^ ji,^ ^^Ul 

c-^ ;JlJp lap U t:_^| ^L* ^^j*^ y U^j^ ^L- ^^JiJI tjii J| -iO 

A5i 4 LiL ^la^t ^ Ujji J\ \^j .Ujl^ (.^I ^-_^ ^ ur ,^_^| 



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j_^ lillij i3LJ_,-4-^l ^ iiLUlJl ii'^^Slij ^Uaj_^i jjil! jS'ij^ **rlj^ t/ 

ti*^UJl V^.^1 i^jjJI ^ ^jUlIj i^js+vaJl J**!! Sili ^\ W^j t/JI 
tJL._j5::>J! jIji ^^ t^^l t^. 1^^ Jjj -^ ^Li>^ t >'> ■ ■ ■ ' ''< -^^1 ^ J*^" 

l^^iai ^1 i_^l t_iJU»J LflS/ i-jlJiIJ'yi iiLjv» J>J ^Ji*J Cjlij_>iJl ^.r^ J' J J 

J\ ^ o>-lj ^i I iiJuiiJl V^jli Ull l.U_^l dUi ^j JiJj . ilai-JI Oi ^ 

I4J ^^j t,y.;jv-;>JI (Jil^ ^^y ^-'li^ OJiil Jl ,>i>-U3l ii^l V** -^ 

US' ^j . ^Ml v^ fA^irl jj..i>J oi^ Jl >JIj WjWI J (-1* ' jpT i*~J 

J JjVl iLlUI ^>j ./Ju- V A4^1 aJL^ c^t^ i.-V=r u^ ^'^ '''^^ J 

^t lJiS>. i(,^« At**; 0^. L. 4iJj ^ 4j_^ Apj fUJl ^ 6j>»i ij^li ^ 
jjj^\ >sJc3 J>JLi Sit Jlp J^I P ^yj cUJi>^ ^ JjJiJI v^l ^ 



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cJJb dij .v-li :ur^ J:io- U<:iri ^'^^j*^^ ^^bj '-^J^' ^^ </ ^^^ 
ol.y.A;u-Ji yjj Dt (Y iU^i "J^i ^ ^h i^-S,::^ ^^j ■^j ^ ^^. 

Mji\ Ijj . Jli^l dili JJ ^\ j>iJb Apj OV ij^Sfl If^ 6^ cy 1'Y SiUJI 

tj^^Vl I-^ y(> o-^ t^l-Vl IJL* JU.J i^_,S:>JJ UjL j^li if>**Ji o"^ 
«-a; !-»>-' l+it Lj^.ji i^jS^ '^:-il*T '(t-**^! V^ i/» v''^'^' j'-'*! J^l t/* 
yjj <^l <*^-> S— ^J 'f^'^'f'f j^r./i^U^- YY ^^ L^ ja^ ijUl 

jt*~^/^j^} ly ''s*-'^' '-J^sj^r^i .y 'j-^ j^_)^" cy Jj*^' >^^ cr^. '^' 



.ovi - »vt 



jyi i./j J-^ jX^ igljJI Jd»«j| ifUl j^_i)l t«<, -Ml ii.., UI I «.j<-jj|» 



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^ a,-.U, Ull Vl»j^l ''Sy^^ uri 'jiii-JLi oLti _;|jlJ| ^^ 4^jVl jv-'ti 

•<i>-' i*^ cy '■h^y^'^ *Jl5'_^lj i-jiJiJVl i.,j<»-j i.*4sr 

^ J^ ■=>>*Jb Hr-yJI cM dr* '"ciij^JI i^jaII ^j]U ^y>*J I4J ^L. olj--iI 

IV '^j i'» j^. ^\j ' v^^. ^^ :>->' J\ ^4^. cj^^^ ckj*-" </~. ^ 

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'^^ j'^V (^Vi v-ap Jl c^jJ i^jliJij, ^ !juj;*J| L^LJ ^L,V| 



.w\Y- ^'U ^ i./i jj^ jjvM i^iiji ijL(»ji t^m^i i«ijj<,uiii«._^_^u (r«) 



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John & Hadawi, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 212. (Vl) 



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John & Hadawi, op. cit.. Vol. I, pp. 233-234. (M) 



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LjUjjjjj sa>^| oLV^I ^ LjaaT (SiJbo j_^j aj-j-^ ^jji^ i^.JL' j_^ 

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Jl '^JJJ u-jS^I v^ t.-'l-'J -^^1 £• ^^.ji oli!)U Jl ij^L ^_^| 

lv,L~JJ ^UaiJI U.^1 oi* o>j oij .\SjJ[ ^ JUI o_^j ^!iU)ll JsUj 

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;6W„pp. 350-351. (oi) 
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l»^luj ^V jJ»Ul SiUi iO>j)/l ^. (J -05^ t,jjkJii ^^ v_.lJi::iVl olU- 

dij t u jljj^ o^jjj' *'«J^ U^j^ ' *^.-^ j*si~J ijIju (J ^^jjj d>^ 

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ftW., pp. 358-359. (00) 
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John & Hadawi, op. cit.. Vol. II, pp. 1-2, (oA) 
i\6 



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j-jdl OlS'j -tJj^vJl A'yr lj~^ cJ. « .N^ JLi cols' Lji^ tiiUiJl ^J L^jJUa* *jU». 



/AW., p. 10. (T\) 



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■Vl oUiiU 



Cohen, Aharon. Israel and the Arab World. New York, 1970. 
Cohen, Michael J. Palestine to Israel: From Mandate to Independence. 
London, 1988. 

Encyclopaedia Hebraica. Jerusalem (Hebrew). 
Encyclopaedia Judaica. Cecil Roth (ed.). New York, 1971. 
John, Robert and Sami Hadawi. The Palestine Diary. 2 Volumes. Beirut, 
1970. 

Khalidi, Walid (ed.). From Haven to Conquest: Readings in Zionism and the 
Palestine Problem Until 1948. Second Printing. Washington, 1987. 
Knox, Dennis Edward. The Making of A New Eastern Question: British 
Palestine Policy and the Origins of Israel, 1917-1925. Washington, 1981. 
Lilienthal, Alfred M. The Zionist Connection. New York, 1978. 
Muslih, Muhammad Y, The Origins of Palestinian Nationalism. New York, 
1988. 

Porath, Yehoshua. The Emergence of the Palestinian - Arab National 
Movement (1918-1929). London, 1974. 

, The Palestinian-Arab National Movement From Riots to Rebellion 

(1929-1939). London, 1976. 

■ Smith, Pamela Ann. Palestine and the Palestinians, 1876-1983. London, 1984. 

■ Weinstock, Nathan. Zionism: False Messiah. London, 1979. 



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