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- i ■\ 




I 




UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

ON THE ARTICLES IN 

PARAGRAPHS 381 AND 382 OF THE 
TARIFF ACT OF 1913 

AND RELATED ARTICLES IN OTHER PARAGRAPHS 



PIPES AND SMOKERS' ARTICLES 



Paragraph 168: 

Brier Boot and Brier Wood 

Paragraph 381: 

Pipes and Smokers' Articles 
Meersohaum, crude 



Paragraph 382: 

Hatters' Plush. (For treatment, mo 
par. 314) 



REVISED EDITION 




N-26 



WASHIMQTOM 
QOYBBNMBNT PBINTINQ OFFICB 

Ittl 



•..VrT!1i> *II»Ha.» EAKUt ivXie-NJJ'^-iSK. 



.Iiiun F. lJtTiiT,':tB, Se L f X a r y. 



PREFACE. 



This is one of a series of Tariff Information Surveys prepared by 
the United States Tariff Commission and transmitted to the Com- 
mittee on Ways and Means. The series covers all of the articles and 
commodities provided for in the tariff act of October 3, 1913, and 
others not specifically provided for. It is arranged in the numerical 
order of paragraphs oi that act. 

In some cases two or more paragraphs have been combined in one 
pamphlet. In doing this, inaustrial relationship of the articles has 
Deen followed when possible. In those instances where a paragraph 

littiui has been treated xmder a preceding paragraph of the tarin act, 
reference is made to this fact at the point where the para^apb 

^'^ * appears in numerical qrder . Where one grade of an article is dutiable 
and another grade of the same article is on the free list, the article 
is discussed under the dutiable paragraph, which appears first m 

•fw mumerical order in the tariff act. In certain instances articles of 

t4iiL close industrial relationship and which occur in separate paragraphs 

of the tariff act have b^en combined under one paragraph for con- 
venience of discussion. Reference is made to this fact at the point 
where the commodities would naturally occur in numerical order. 

The first pamphlet in the series is an ''Introduction and index," 
which contains — 

1. An introductory chapter discussing the scope of the series and 
the general method of treatment. 

2. An alphabetical index of the articles provided for in the tariff 
act of 1913 showing the paragraph of the act in which the article 
is provided for and, if discussed imder a different paragraph, the 
nuiiber of such paragraph. \ . f "« F , 

3. A list of the pampolets in the series showing the paragraphs 
and articles included in each pamphle.t. 

Thus by use of this "Introduction and index," the exact location 
ol the discussion relating to a given article or commodity can be 
ascertained. 

In the preparation of this report the Tariff Commission had the 
services of Guy G. George and Charles F. Yauch, of the Commis- 
sion's staff, and of others. 

3 



>£Cf^0f' 



I 




■ WtiU 



Tfi ;.'-£-: *^ i Or 

^',ZY F 



wAMHtmynjM, u. c. 

At 



> 



PREFACE. 



This is one of a series of Tariff Information Surveys prepared by 
the United States Tariff Commission and transmitted to the Com- 
mittee on Ways and Means. The series covers all of the articles and 
commodities provided for in the tariff act of October 3, 1913, and 
others not specifically provided for. It is arranged in the numerical 
order of paragraphs of that act. 

In some cases two or more paragraphs have been combined in one 
pampUet. In doing this, inaustrial relationship of the articles has 
been followed when possible. In those instances where a para^apb 
has been treated xmder a preceding paragraph of the tariff act, 
reference is made to this fact at the point where the para^aph 
appears in numerical qrder. Where one grade of an article is dutiable 
and another grade of the same article is on the free list, the article 
is discussed under the dutiable paragraph, which appears first in 
uumerical order in the tariff act. In certain instances articles of 
close industrial relationship and which occur in separate paragraphs 
of the tariff act have b^en combined under one paragraph for con- 
venience of discussion. Reference is made to this fact at the point 
where the commodities would naturally occur in numerical order. 

The first pamphlet in the series is an ''Introduction and index,'' 
which contains — 

1. An introductory chapter discussing the scope of the series and 
the general method of treatment. ^ 

2. An alphabetical index of the articles provided for in the tariff 
act of 1913 showing the paragraph of the act in which the article 
is provided for ana, if discussed under a different paragraph, the 
number of such paragraph. 

3. A list of the pampolets in the series showing the paragraphs 
and articles included in each pamphle.t. 

Thus by use of this "Introduction and index," the exact location 
ol the discussion relating to a given article or commodity can be 
ascertained. 

In the preparation of this report the Tariff Commission had the 
services of Guy G. George and Charles F. Yauch, of the Commis- 
sion's staff, and of others. 

3 



CONTENTS. 



PIPES AND SMOKERS' ARTICLES. 

' Page. 

Summary 7 

Summary tables 7 

General information: 

1913 tariff paragraph i... 8 

Domestic production 8 

Materials 8 

Organization and methods of production 8 

Geographical distribution 9 

Domestic production, consumption, and exports • 9 

Imports 10 

Tariff history 10 

Competitive conditions and tariff considerations 11 

Production in the United States 12 

Imports by coimtries 12 

Imports for consumption — ^revenue ; 13 

Rates of duty 15 

Court and Treasury decisions , 15 

MEERSCHAUM, CRUDE OR UNMANUFACTURED. 

General information 17 

Tariff paragraph 17 

Description 17 

Sources of supply 17 

Uses and grades 17 

Supply 17 

Imitations 18 

Imports 18 

Tanff history 18 

Tariff considerations 18 

Imports by countries 19 

Imports for consumption — ^revenue 19 

Rates of duty 19 

hatters' plush. 
(Par. 382. For Treatment, see par. 314.) 

BRIAR ROOT OR BRIAR WOOD. 

General information 20 

Paragraph 168 of the act of 1913 20 

Description 20 

Uses 20 

Substitutes 20 

Imports 20 

Prices 20 

Tariff history 21 

Competitive conditions 21 

Imports by countries 21 

Imports for consumption — ^revenue 22 

Rates of duty 22 

Court and Treasury decisions 22 

5 



PIPES AND SMOKERS' ARTICLES. 



SUMUABT. 



The value of the products of the industry manufacturing pipes 
and BmokerB' articles, excluding cigarette paper, was $4,220,000 in 
1914. Hiere were 47 establislmients reported in the industry with 
a capitalization of $3,232,000, which employed 2,354 wage earners. 
The manufactures of cigarette paper are included wiih. the manu- 
factures of paper and not with smokers' articles. 

Of the 47 establishments reported In 1914, 20 were located in the 
State of New York, and the establishments in that State manu- 
factured 63.7 per cent of the total value of products and employed 
63.? per cent of the total number of wage earners. Other States in 
the industry were Missouri, Illinois, Massachusetts, and New Jersey. 

According to one of the large paper manufacturers, the present 
tariff rate on cigarette paper will make it possible to undertake the 
development of this branch of the industry, although scarcely none 
is made in the United States at the present time. On the other 
hand, the duty on clay pipes valued at 40 cents per gross or less is 
declared by manufacturers to be much too low, since labor costs 
have been mudi lower abroad than in this country. 

Amber was first included in the dutiable hst at the rate of $1 a 
pound by the act of 1913^ and meerschaum was also placed on the 
dutiable list for the Erst tune at the rate of 20 per cent ad valorem. 
Neitier article is produced in the United States. Briar root was 
first placed on the dutiable list by the act of 1909 in the hope that 
a domestic substitute would be produced or used, but no such sub- 
stitute has been found which is satisfactory. 

The statistical tables indicate clearly that the competition fur< 
Dished by imports has been quite keen. The ratio of imports to 
production in 1914 was 32.1 per cent. This figure, however, in- 
cludes cigarette paper in imports, while in reality there was practi- 
cally no domestic production of cigarette paper. The percenter 
of those imports which offered direct competition with domestic 
products would, therefore, be considerably lower, probably about 
15 per cent for the year 1914. 

Pipe* ondMmokert' t^Ucle* — Siimnuay table. 





Domeiitic 


importa 
Bumptkiii." 




vatat 

■ftsj- 

nunpUon). 


ofdat;. 


S^ 




115,312,000 


1^41^»3 

Si 
III 


"X; 


'hffiS 

'"Si 

^0(0,227 

e,»4S,!es 


f'-^ 


"T., 
























■i:mm 



































































I Inehiilliu dmretta books, oovcn, and papers. 

* Cmnu oMtm. Not Inoludlng cwntu booka, covm, and pe 

' Caldudar y«ai. 



^ tariff infobmation surveys. 

General Information. 

1913 tariff paragraph. 

381. Pipes and smokers' articles: Common tobacco pipes and 
pipe bowls made wholly of clay, 25 per cent ad valorem; other pipes 
and pipe bowls of whatever material composed, and all smokers' 
articles whatsoever, not specially provided for in this section, in- 
cluding cigarette books, cigarette-book covers, pouches for smoking 
or chewing tobacco, and cigarette paper in all forms, except cork 

{>aper, 50 per cent ad valorem; meerschaum, crude or unmanu- 
aetured, 20 per cent ad valorem. 

DOMESTIO PRODUCTION. 

The value of the products of the industry manufacturing "pipes 
and tobacco" (incluaing cigarette and cigar holders) wfes $4,220,000 
in 1914. The value in 1909 was $5,312,000. In 1914 there were 
47 establishments reported, with a capitalization of $3,232,000 and 
emplojdng 2,354 wage earners. The manufacture of cigarette 
paper is mcluded with other manufactures of paper and not with 
this product. 

McUeriaU* — The chief material used in the construction of pipe 
bowls is briar wood or briar root, which is imported mainly from 
France and Italy. The supply; oi this material is decreasing and 
search is being made for a smtable substitute. Other woods are 
used extensively but are not considered a satisfactory substitute. 

Clay and meerschaum are also used in the construction of {)ipes 
and pipe bowls. Meerschaum used in the manttfacture off pipes, 
cigar and cigarette holders, and other smokers* articles comes 
pnncipally from Asia Minor. It is a clayeylike mineral, white, 
soft, and light enough to float on water, known in mineralogy 
as sepioUte. It is a hydrqus silicate of magnesium. 

Pipestems are made of reeds, woods, hard rubber, or composition, 
as well as from many other materials. Mouthpieces for pipes and 
cigar and cigarette holders are also made from a variety of materials — 
reeds, woods, hard rubber, bakelite, celluloid, ivory, amber, and 
other materials. ^ 

Kice paper is used extensively for cigarettes. 

A great variety of materials are used in the construction of pouches 
for tobacco, pipe cases, and other cases and accessories, chief among 
idiich are wnite pine, leather, rubber, plush or velvet for linings, 
metal fittings, and metal cases and holders. 

Organization and methods of production. — ^This discussion does not 
inchide the manufacture of cigarette books, covers, and papers, 
which are included with the manufactures of paper. The figures 
given include pipe bowls and pipes of whatever material composed; 
also cigar and cigarette holders. 

The number of establishments engaged in this industry has de- 
dined since 1899, when there were 98 reported. In other respects — 
eaoitalization, wage earners employed, and value of products — the 
inujissiT increased from its beginning until 1909, but aeclined some- 
what in 1914. In 1909 there were 62 establishments, capitalized at 
|g,52Sy000, employing 2,775 wage earners, and turning out products 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 9 

valued at $5,312,000. In 1914 the number of establishments was 47, 
capitalized at $3,232,000, employing 2,354 wage earners, and turn- 
ing out products valued at $4,220,000. 

The industry is largely controlled by the corporate form of owner- 
ship with large capitalization, but the number of establishments 
owned by individuals is greater than the number imder other forms 
of ownership, there being 25 owned by individuals, 16 by corpora- 
tions, and 6 under some other form of ownership. One establish- 
ment employed 598, or 25.4 per cent of the total number of wage 
earners. Two other establishments emploved 636, or 27.0 per cent 
of the total number, and 4 other establishments employed 563, or 
23.9 per cent of the total number. From this it will be seen that in 
1914, 7 estabUshments employed 1,797, or 76.3 per cent of the total 
number of wage earners. 

The i>ercentage of males over 16 years of age employed as wage 
earners in 1904 was 86.6 in 1909, 83.7 in 1914, 81.3. The percentage 
of females for the same census years was 11.6, 14.2, and 16.7. The 
number of wage earners under 16 for the same years was 1.8, 2.1, and 
2. There has been an increase in the percentage of women employed, 
but female labor furnishes a comparatively small part of the total. 

The value of products of corporations in 1914 amounted to 
$2,647,000, or considerably more than 50 per cent of the total for 
the entire industry. There were nine establishments with a capitali- 
zation between $100,000 and $1,000,000, and only one establishment 
with a capitalization over $1,000,000. These 10 establishments 
employed 1,997 of the 2,354 wage earners, and were credited with 
products valued at $3,632,000, or about six-sevenths of the total, 
m 1914. 

The processes involved in the manufacture of pipe bowls of briar 
root, other woods, and meerschaum, are largely carried on with the 
aid of machinery, although less machine work is possible with meer- 
schaum. A great deal of skill is required in certain of the final 
stages of manufacture, particularly in the case of meerschaum. 

The manufacture of common clay pipes is a much simpler process, 
requiring less machine labor and less skilled hand labor. A com- 
plete enumeration of the processes, with costs of each, is found in a 
statement by the American Clay Pipe Works (Inc.), tariff hearings. 
Committee on Ways and Means, 1913, Volume V, pages 5731-5734. 
Fancy clay pipes require a number of hand processes, among which 
are molding, trimming, polishing, varnishing, and packing for 
shipment. 

"geographical distribution, — ^New York is the leading State in the 
manufacture of pipes, 20 of the 47 establishments m 1914 being 
located in that State. New York employed 1,492, or 63.3 per cent 
of the total number of wage earners. The value of products of the 
industnr in New York in 1914 was $2,689,000, or 63.7 of the total. 
Other States were Missouri, Illinois, Massachusetts, and New Jersey. 
Domestic 'production, consumption, and exports, — ^There are no ex- 
ports of the domestic products of this industry stated in the Statis- 
tics of Commerce and N avigation. This is no doubt due in part to 
the following reasons: (1) That the American manufacturer is 
practically entirely dependent upon imports of raw materials; (2) 
that there is no overproduction of pipes of desirable quality in this 

64913--21— K-26 ^2 



10 TARIFF INFORMATION SX7BVBYS. 

country: and (3) that the cheaper pipes which are made from domes- 
tic woocte or clay, as well as those made from the high-^ade materials, 
can not be produced as cheaply in the United States as abroad. 

The domestic industry grew gradually until 1909, when the value 
of the products of the mdustry reached a total of $5,312,000. The 
value in 1914 was $4,220,000 or considerably less than in 1909. 

Imports amounted to 20.8 per cent of the value of domestic pro- 
duction in 1910 and 32.1 per cent of the value in 1914. However, 
imports for consumption in this case included cigarette books, 
covers, and papers, while the value of domestic products did not. 
In 1914 and later years the imports of cigarette lKK)ks, covers, and 
papers grew out of all proportion to pipes and other smokers' articles 
out they did not exceed naif of .the total value of imports prior to 
1914. Deducting the value of imports of cigarette books, covers, 
and papers would leave a figure more accurately comparable to 
domestic production, and the ratio would then be about 10 per cent 
and 15 per cent for the years 1910 and 1914, respectively. 

It appears from these considerations that there is no overproduc- 
tion of nigh-quality pipes. The decrease in the value of products 
from 1909 to 1914 may possibly be an indication that cigarettes 
are reducing the demand lor pipes, but even with this conmaeration 
in mind, uiuess a satisfactorv substitute for briar root is discovered, 
it is hardly probable that there will be an overproduction of high- 
grade pipes. 

IMPORTS. 

Prior to 1913 imports of pipes and smokers' articles were stated 
under one heading, and amounted to a little over $1,000,000 in value 
annually. The principal exporting countries were France, Austria- 
Hungary, Unitea Kingdom, and Germany. 

Since 1913 cigarette books, covers, and papers have been stated 
separately, and pipes and all other smokers' articles have been 
included in anotner class. The increase in imports of cigarette 
books, covers, " and papers has been remarkable. In 1913 their 
i value was $706,380, in 1916 their value was $1,247,799, in 1917, 
$3,893,653, and in 1920, $4,723,996. The highest was in 1918, 
$8,808,278. Practically all of this importation came from France. 

The increased importation of cigarette paper was caused by the 
increased production of cigarettes, no doubt due to the demand 
caused by the war. The production of cigarettes in the United States 
has increased from about 17,000,000,000 in 1914 to 40,000,000,000 in 
1919. The. French have had a practical monopoly of the manu- 
facture of cigarette paper. In the past there has not been sufficient 
incentive for American paper makers to enter the field. The paper 
is a difficult one to make; stock is expensive and not easily obtained; 
the volume of the business formerly was not large; foreign costs 
of manufacture were low; and the American manufacturer was 
not encouraged to undertake the development work required to 
carry on the manufacture of cigarette paper. 

TARIFF HISTORY. 

Pipes, pipe bowls, and all smokers' articles not specially provided 
for, including cigarette books, covers, and papers, were assessed 
at 50 per cent ad valorem by the act of 1894; pipes of clay valued 



TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 11 

at not more than 50 cents per gross, at 10 per cent ad valorem; 
meerschaum crude or unmanufactured, free. 

The act of 1897 raised the duty on pipes and pipe bowls not of 
clay, and other smokers' articles, including cigarette books, covers, 
and papers, to 60 per cent ad valorem. Clay pipes were divided 
by tnis act into common pipes valued at not more than 40 cents per 
gross, which were assessed at 15 cents per gross, while other clay 
pipes and bowls were assessed at 50 cents per gross and 25 per cent 
ad valorem. Meerschaum unmanufactured remained on the free 
list. 

The act of 1909 made no change whatever with respect to pipes 
and smokers' articles. The act of 1913 eliminated all specific duties 
and made clay pipes dutiable at 25 per cent ad valorem; other 
pipes and smokers' articles of whatever material composed, in- 
cluding cigarette books, covers, and papers, were reduced from 
60 per cent ad valorem to 50 per cent ad valorem; and meerschaum 
was made dutiable for the first time at 20 per cent ad valorem. 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS AND TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS. 

Correspondence with manufacturers of pipes and smokers' articles 
has not yielded much information with reference to foreign compe- 
tition under the present rates, on accoimt of the war. Post-war 
conditions can not be predicted at this time. Under the present 
rate it is stated by a large paper manufacturer that it will fee pos- 
sible to undertake the manufacture of cigarette paper. 

In the Tariff Hearings of 1908-9 before the Committee on Ways 
and Means, pp. 7305-7311, it was said that the existing duties at 
that time were fair, except on clay pipes costing 40 cents or less per 
gross, on which it was clauned the duty should not be belpw 25 cents 
per gross. Again in 1913, Tariff Hfearings, Committee on Ways 
and Means, 1913, pp. 5731-5734, an argument was presented alons[ 
this same line, supported by a detailed comparison of the costs of 
production in New York and Scotland. 

The para^aph can be reworded so as to include all pipes and 
smokers' articles or parts of pipes and smokers* articles of whatever 
material composed, m finished or partly finished condition. Such 
a revision would prevent the evasion of the duty which is now possible. 

The act of 1913 lowered the duty on pipes and smokers' articles, 
excepting clay pipes, from 60 per cent ad valorem to 50 per cent ad 
valorem. At the same time this act assessed a duty on two raw 
materials on which a duty had not been assessed, amner and meer- 
schaxmi. 

All of the amber used in the T.nited States comes from the Baltic. 
It is obtained from mines in Samland, East Prussia. Imports of 
amber were first assessed by the act of 1913 at the rate of $1 a pound. 

Meerschaum is mined in Asia Minor, and does not compete di- 
rectly with any domestic product. It was first placed on tne duti- 
able list by the act of 1913 at the rate of 20 per cent ad valorem. 

An American manufacturer writes concerning parts of pipes: 

The present phraseology has made it possible for importers in our line to bring 
into this country completed pipe bowls, with the exception of the draft hole, 
and classified them as "manufactures of wood," under paragraph No. 176. The 
argument of the importer is to the effect that the article only becomes a pipe bowl 
when entirely completed. In other words, the absence of the draft hole reduces 



^'^ 



TAKTJT JSrOT.yLATlOJs FT'KVEVfc. 



the <;\siatAik<:siiikm of duty hnxn §0 to 15 per oent. l%e bom)^ of the dntft bole is 
tbe Oioei tri xoal of aU ti^ opeatismm, «ia liievelore ^le l«0t costhr. « « « x^ 
U0 e&plmii ti^ the importaliQai of lb«Be boTrls at 15 per cent has anly been the practioe 
within the laet couple of years, and odIv is umior qTUDxtatK^ on accomrt xi oie 'war. 
The pQUtt we make to^V ie to avoMl the aeaicnumeflB of tbn ccmditMi aSecting im 
wikefi tintee are ^»in iKMraaal. 

Pipes aiid sm&km artidee ' — J^rodudion t« United StuU^. 

[ftvsB Faferal oeniiuR.< 



Hiales. 



1809 



19M 



IflM 



— f 



UuiU<i l:il»t« R472,«0 S2,S34,(U0 110,212,080, »i2»,«B 



JJIitKMS 

Missouri 

ti«w York 

All VtlAW 



-. lS,i 

56,1DD 






T«t»! ; 4,220,005 



1 XiiWudifii; miuy Viifietie^ of smoLeiv' pipes and fittixigs: also cicar and cigBretxo hcdders: but sot 
iuclu'iitJKcift»r«tVr papers, books, aiid cot«^. 

/^tj[*€« &nd Mpmjokcr^ arivAet ' — Imports bjf wwrvtria (Jiacd fean). 



l9aport«d fron- 



A»iirtria-Huugaf y , 

FruJioe 

<;erDiaay 

»1>aii) 

AUotb«r 



46S,f)72 
91,485 I 
17,490 I 

200,000 
34,722 



mi 



«fta^fl74 

510,500 
lfiS,102 

22,649 
341,^0 

39.057 



19t2 



$397,: 
584,747 
»,«•? 

22,954 
305,855 

27,03 



T'Hal 1,140,750 l,44S,OB ] 1,«W,1 



y 



^ Ml iti«d i>(H>iirate)y gfter 1912. <'iiear^(e books, coren« and papcn are induded. 

CiyareUt hooks, (■overs, and papers * — Imports by countries. 



FIHCAL YEARS. 



JmiH>ried from 



I9I» 



1914 



Au^U)H-iiuJIKHfy. 

t'rdiM'e 

Italy 

Hmh\ 

uiiitt»d Kingdom. 
Allollxf 



|I2(),3I8 j 
«M,5«9 I 

40ii 
2<),7H7 ' 
29 I 
10,704 I 



»i«7,e2r> 

flHH, 424 

I0,49K 
442 

19, 559 



Total. 



7<i6,tt« 907,371 



1915 



$135, 235 

7K4,039 

HH,949 

43, 447 

11,516 

8,298 



1,021,483 



1916 



$460 
1,146,523 
18,233 
I Of 5Wjf 
43,879 
23,105 



1917 



1918 



$245 
3,737,635 ; 

48,953 , 
31, 1«) * 
62,276 
13,354 



$8,719,190 

32, »5 

27, «» 

2,788 

27,282 



1,247,799 I 3,893,653 8,808,278 



CAI.KNUAH VKAUK. 



\m\n>ritiii from 



Ati>trta Hungary, 

France , 

(larroany 

Ui)iu»d IClnKdom. 

.laimn. , 

AlIolluT 



1918 



1919 



1920 



Totftl. 



$8,628,700 

132,324 

3,913 

16, 1.53 

48,928 



8,781,090 



$4,795 




5. 857. 972 




169, 713 




130 




91,449 








6,124,059 


$4,723,995 

- 



I lnoIiid«| with " Pipes and Htnokwn' irllolos" prior to 1913. 



TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 13 

Pipa and all other tmoken' arlitUt ' — IiaporU by cowUriet {fiacal yean). 



ImpwlrtftOT^ 


igi3 


1H4 


leis 
«,7es 


ii.caa 

8,84B 

i 


■•1 
11 


1»18 




lis! 

9,888 
14,7»7 1 


«224,VOS 
m:4«0 

Is 














?« 














aw.mt 


E6S,5«) 


332,914 


123,383 


118,407 









1 Included with "Pip* 



imokeis' utlclcs" pHor to 1013. 



Pipa and all other ttnok^ii' artidet ' {dutvMe) — Impoiit bg eountria (aalendar yean). 



Imported from— ' 



HasDOaj 

DnlUd Kingdom... 

lira, ;;:::::: 



< Indoded with "Pipes snd smokers' articles" prior to Idia. 

Pypu and tmokeri' artidet (total)''~-Importi for eoTuumption — Revemu. 



PfawdyeM. 


Bate of duty. 


Quantity. 


Value, 


.Duty 
oouecwd. 


Value per 

umtot 
quantity. 


Actual BDd 

computed 
adYflorem 






l,40S,flSB 

■ ,„ -^ 

183 
3- 

«e 

■68 


t«8a,TD5 

ss 

843, 3«3 

IS 

7M,W0 

811^398 
1,5.18,532 

3|47o;a«8 

3B2T1K 
2. £95. 582 




PtT.^ 


















sa.sa 











































































































































I Induding cigarette books, 

> Calendar year. 

■ Six months ended Juae 3t 



■CigarttU books, dgaretuiook covert, and (AgaretU paper in aUffyrmt 
Imports for eoniumption — Reventu. 


, except Mrk paper — 


fiscal year. 


Sole o[ duty. 


Quantity. , Value. oollecled. imitot 


Actual and 

^^em 
rate. 










'"•ff,. 




























































































































■—do 


i 2,054.f,l7| 1,027,308 













Li montbs ended June 30, 1S21. 



14 



TARIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS. 



Comrfum tobacco pipes and pipe howls of clay y valued at not rnore than 40 cents per gross — 

Imports for consumption — Revenue, 



Fiscal year. 



190S. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 



Rate of duty. 



15 cents per gross. 
do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Quantity. 



Grot8, 
117,789 
120,149 
116,925 
108,805 
102,550 
88,958 
12,364 



Value. 



$33,917 
83,520 
32,769 
30,174 
29,556 
25,443 
3,580 



Duty 
collected. 



917,668 
18,022 
17,538 
16,320 
15,382 
13,343 
1,864 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



ia279 
.279 
.280 
.277 
.288 
.286 
.289 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Pereefa. 

53.76- 

53.52 

54.0»> 

52.05 

52.41 

51.80- 



ALL OTHER. 



1908. 

1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 



50 cents per gross 

plus 25 per cent. 

do 



.do, 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
-do. 



Chrost. 
9,549 

7,109 
8,106 
9,105 
10,257 
11,776 
1,290 



«20,069 

13,697 
16,353 
28,306 
37,783 
36,304 
3,921 



19,791 

6,978 

8,141 

11,629 

14,574 

14,964 

1,625 



$2.06 

1.03 
2.02 
3.11 
3.68 
3.08 
3.04 



Percent, 

48.80* 

5a95» 
49:7^ 
41.08^ 

38. sr 

41.22- 
41.45- 



Common tobacco pipes and pipe bowls of clay — Imports for consumption — Revenue. 



Fiscal year. 



1914.. 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1918 V 
19191. 
19201. 
1921*. 



Rate of duty. 



25 per cent. 

do...., 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do...., 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Duty 
collected. 



$28,175 

31,334 

13,176 

10,064 

4,810 

4,716 

15,852 

12,091 

8,131 



$7,043 
7,833 
3,294 
2,516 
1,202 
1,179 
3,963 
3,022 
2,032 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Actual and. 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Percent, 
25.00* 
25. 00* 
25.00 
25.00< 
25.00^ 
25.00 
25.00* 
25.00 
25.00> 



> Calendar year. 



* Six months ended June 30, 1921. 



Pipes J pipe howls of other material, and all smokers' articles^ n. s. P-fy flwd pouches for 
smoHng or chewing tobacco * — Imports for consumption — lievenue. 



Fiscal year. 



1908.. 
1909.. 
1910.. 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913. . 

1914.. 

1915.. 
1916.. 

lun.. 

1918. . 

1918 «. 

1919 «. 
1920S. 
1921 i. 



Rate of duty. 



{ 



60 per cent. 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

...do 

50 per cent, 
.do.... 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do.... 
.do.... 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Duty 
collected. 



$966,823 
855,809 
953,016 
760,449 
713,266 
536,565 
146,352 
378,034 
311,275 
105, 142 
109,949 
226,467 
132,721 
170, 089 
693,353 
317,008 



$580, 
513, 
571, 
456, 
427, 
321, 

189, 
155, 

113, 

66, 

85, 

346, 

158, 



093 
485 
809 
269 
960 
939 
811 
017 
637 
571 
974 
233 
350 
044 
537 
504 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Actual and 

computed 

advfubrem< 

rate. 



Percent. 
6a 00- 
60.00' 
60.00 
60.00 
60.00' 
60.00 
60.00 
50.00- 
50.00 
50.00* 
50.00 
50.00 
50.00 

5a 00 

50.00' 
50.00 



1 Act of 1897 includes "Cigarette books, cigarette book covers, and cigarette paper in all formsJ' 

« Calendar year. 

» Six montLs ended June 30, 1921. 



TABIFF HTFORMATIOK SUBYEYS. 



15 



Pipes and smoker^ ariicU^--Raie9 of duty. 



,AA 




TWOn. CMSgUltttMP Of <MW!I ipUflP* 



BatflB of dotT, 9M 
and ad viloram. 



UM 



PipflB, p^bo>vls, azid allsiiiokers' artldcs wbatsoevw, not sped- 
^1t cnimMratedorprovided for in this set. 
An coaimaopfaws of day.. .......................... ........ 

M w i schain PyCnioe or raw 

Pipes, pipe bowfaL of aD materials, and an imokvs' artides wbat- 
8oeTcr,notspeoiIIypcorvidedforlnthisact,iDdi]ding dgarette 
boolB, dearette-booK eoven, poudMB for smoking or diewing 
tobaeeo, and dsvette paper in all forms. 
AQ common tobacco pq>es of day 



ISM 

1W7 



F^es, pipe bowls, of all materials^ and an smokers' artides wbat- 

aoerer, not speettOyproTided for in tMs act, indnding cigarette 

books, dsBrette>booK covers, poudies for smoking or dewing 

tobacco, and dgarette pe»er in aU forms. 

An ennnwm tobacco lopes and pipe bowls made whdly of 

day. Tabled at not more than 50 cents per gross. 

Mtei whinm, erode or inimanahrtufed. 



Pfaies and smcdEcrs' artides: Common tobacco pipes and pipe 
Dowb made wholly of day, Tahied at not more tmui 40 cents p^ 
ross. 
Otter tobacco p^ws and p^ bowls of day 



1SB7 
1900 



475 



Otber p^pes and pipe bowb of winterer material composed, 
and au suMik e rs^ artides wbatsoever, not spedaUy pro- 
Tided for in tbis act, inrindrng cigarette books, dgarette- 
book covers, poodies for smoking or chewing tobacco, and 
bi an forms^^ 
or onmannftirtured. . ........... 



Pipes and smokers' artides: Common tobacco pipes and pipe 
Do^ds made irtioOy of day, Tsloed at not more tnan 40 cents i>er 
s. 
tobacco pipes and p^ bowb of day , 



1909 

1913 



381 



Otber pipes and pipe bowls of whatcTcr material composed, 
and all smotorr artides whatscerer, not spedaUy pro- 
Tided for in this section, indnding ci|?urette books, dgar- 
c^e-book eorers, pooches for smoUng or chewing tobacco, 
and dgarette pterin an forms. 

Meerjuhamn, erode or onmapoiMtored....... 

Pipes and smokers' artidesrCcsnmon tobacco pipes and pipe bowls 
made whdly <rfday. 
Other pipes and pipe bowls ci whaterer material composed, 
and au smokers^ artides wttatsoerer, not specially pro- 
Tided for in this section, indnding d^ette books, cigar- 
^te-book covers, pooches for smoiong or chewing tobacco, 
and cigarett e pa per in aU forms, except cork papw. 
Ml' I'll uliaiiiii, erode or nnman 



70 per cent adTakreoi. 

35 pef cent ad Takrcm. 

(Free.) 

70 per cent ad Talorem. 



15 cents per gross. 

(Free.) 

60 per cent ad vakrem. 



10 per cent ad vakrem. 

(Free.) 

15 cents por gross. 



fiO cents per gross and 
25 per cent ad va* 
](vem. 

60 per cent ad Talorem. 



(Free.) 

15 cents per gross. 



50 cents per gross and 
25 per cent ad va- 
lorem. 

60 per cent ad valorem. 



(Free.) 

25 per cent ad valorem. 

50percent ad valorem. 



20 per cent ad valorem. 



COUBT AND TbEASUKT DECISIONS. 

*'An smokers' articles whatsoever" is a comprehensive term, the 
use of the words *'all" and ''whatsoever" leaving little doubt as to 
the intention of Congress, and the intensified form of the phrase as a 
whole manifests a purpose to reach out into all branches oi trade and 
commerce and to gather within the provision everything used chiefly 
by smokes in that pursuit and for tnat purpose, irrespective of other 

Srovisions within which they may be included. (Knauth v. United 
tates, 1 Ct. Cust. Appls., 334, of 1911; Bush v. United States, 10 Ct. 
Cust. Appls., T. D. 38402, of 1920.) Unfinished parts, however, 
are not within the para^aph. In a case imder the act of 1894 unfin- 
ished meerschaum pipe bowls were held dutiable as articles composed 
of earthy or mineral substance (G. A. 3405, T. D. 16977, of 1896). In 
a case und^ the act of 1897 lei^hs of polished hard rubber intended 
to be divided and made into two mouthpieces for pip^s were held 
dutiable as manufacture of rubber. (G. A. 4590, T. D. 21719, of 



16 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

1899.) And in a case under the act of 1913 wood roughly carved inti> 
the shape or form of a pipe bowl, but not sufficiently advanced in 
manufacture to answer the purpose of a pipe bowl, was held dutiable 
as a manufacture of wood. (G. A. 7771, T. D. 35697, of 1915.) On 
the other hand, mouthpieces for pipes finished but not designed to be 
used in any particular pipe or pipestem bein^ made for insertion in 
any pipe or stem so constructed as to receive tnem were held to come 
within the provision of ''all smokers' articles whatsoever'' in act of 
1909. (United States v. Hanover Vulcanite Co., 4 Ct. Oust. Appls., 
503, of 1913.) The doctrine of ejusdem generis has no appUcation in 
construing this pro^asion. (Steinhardt v. United States, 126 Fed. 443, 
of 1903.) 

Paragraph 381 of the act of 1913 has been held to include the 
following articles: 

A smoker's table with 12 ash trays for same (Abstract 37609, of 1915): 

Decorated earthenware in the snape of humidors, cigar trays, ash receivers, etc. 
(Abstract 37798, of 1915). 

Cigarette machines consisting of a tubular piece of brass about one-fourth inch in 
diameter, split in half and hinged and capable of being used to assist the smoker in 
rolling a cigarette (Abstract 40097, of 1916^ 

Lithographed tin boxes about 6 inches square and 1 inch deep, hinged tops, used as 
containers for cigarettes, imported emptj' (Abstract 39627, of 1916) 

Amber cigar and cigarette holders complete and capable of being used as a cigar or 
cigarette holder, but having a slight depression evidently made for a gold band not 
necessary to its use and apparently serving no other purpose than ornamentation 
(Abstract 40001, of 1916). 

So-called cigarette holders made of glass having a m^tal reed were held dutiable 
according to the component material of chief value, and not as smokers' articles nor as 
tovs. (T. D. 34050, of 1914.) 

Glazed clay pipes (T. D. 35963, of 1915) and clav pipe bowls (Abstract 36337, T. D. 
34742, of 1914). 

Bamboo pipestems 5 inches in length, one end cut ofif square just 
back of a joint, thus forming a mouthpiece, and the other end tapered 
to fit into the pipe. (Bush v. United States, 10 Ct. Cust. Appls., 
T. D. 38402, of 1920.) 

Pipe bowls of the commonest variety were held properly dutiable 
at 25 per cent under the first clause of paragraph 381 and not at 50 
per cent under the second clause. (Abstract 44013.) 

Cigar lighters were held classible as smokers' articles under the act 
of 1909 (Bernhardt v. United States, 4 Ct. Cust. Appls., 36, of 1913), 
but pocket cigar lighters were held to be dutiable imaer paragraph 356 
of the act of 1913 as articles designed to be carried on the person, by 
virtue of the provision in paragraph 386 imposing the higher of two 
rates appUcable to unenumer ated articles. (Bischoff v. United States, 
7 Ct. Cust. Appls., 138, of 1916.) 



urif^v 



2E1 






?» 







i 




*:.... 



■h : ^-i- 



»«i» • 



:==z:^ ^^.za 



»ir> 



par:*ija3L ol' 



11 J»r 









-:7?i '^.tx 



■•■• 



>*.. • • 






^'-^^ V ". 






-pr»F- 



Tu : 



K fci. ■*? i 



^ J 






IL i 



I 






er i.^i***2»' :: ^ ^^-^-o*": 






-- *-- •* 



18 TABIFF INFORMATION SUBVBYS. 

turers as agents of American and English houses have secured control 
of the output. An American consul in a report on the supply of 
meerschaum in Austria stated that up to the present time (1907) 
there had been no serious complaint regarding the lack of crude 
meerschaum, though the effect of such a scarcity may be seriously felt 
later. In 1911 the American consul at Prague stated ''the valuable 
material from which meerschaum pipes are made is continually get- 
ting scarcer, and the la^e industry which has flourished in Vienna, 
Biiaapest, Nuremberg, Faris, and in the Thuringian town of Ruhla 
seems endangered." * 

IMITATIONS. 

A cheap artificial imitation of meerschaum is made from gypsum, 
hardened, treated with stearic acid or paraffin, polished and colored 
by a solution of gamboge and dragon^s blood. Imitation meerschaum 
is said to be manufactiired in France from potatoes. 

IMPORTS. 

Almost the entire output of meerschaum of Asia Minor is sent to 
Vienna and thence distributed to various European countries and to 
the United States. Very little, if any, is imported directly into the 
United States from Asia Minor. Practically all of the meerschaum 
imported into the United States comes from Austria-Hungary. Some 
comes from Germany and some from Turkey in Europe. In view of 
the fact that the United States is considered the best purchaser #f 
the Asia Minor product, it seems rather surprising that purchases 
should not be made directly on the spot or tnrough Constantinople 
instead of through Vienna. From 1910 to 1915, inclusive, the value 
of imports from Austria-Hungary was in no year less than 85 per 
cent of the total value imported. In 1910 all of the meerschaum im- 
ported into the United States came entirely from Austria-Hungary; 
imports for this year were valued at $227,314. No general imports 
are shown for the years 1916, 1917, and 1919. In 1918 imports 
amounted to only $4 and in 1920 to $52,274. 

TARIFF HISTORY. 

Before the act of 1913 meerschaum in its crude or unmanufactured 
state was admitted into the United States free of duty. The act of 
1913 imposes a duty of 20 per cent ad valorem. 

TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS. 

Manufactures of meerschaum, when not properljr classifiable under 
paragraph 381 relating to pipes and smokers' articles, are dutiable 
imder paragraph 81 as articles composed of earthy or mineral sub- 
stances. Sr^h articles bear the same rate of duty as crude meer- 
schaum. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



19 



Meerschaum, crude or unmanufactured — Imparts hy countries (fiscal years). 



Imported from-— 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1916 




1227,314 


$168,045 
12,556 


$167,455 

2,035 

23,547 


$119,069 
6,262 


$99,993 

943 

1,854 


$16,880 
83 


flflmiRDy r . r , 


Turkey In EuroDe 




1,993 


All other 




86 


55 














Total 


227,314 


180,687 


193)037 


125,376 


102,790 


18^956 







Total iniTMsrts, by countries, of- meerschaum, crade or unmanulactured, in 1918 amounted to $4. In 
1920, 13,386 pounds, valued at $52,274. 

Meerschaum, crude or unmanufactured — Imports for consumption — Revenue* 



Fiscal year. 



1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 
1914. 



1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1920.. 
19201. 
1921>. 



Rate of duty. 



Free.. 
do. 



do. 

do. 

do. 

do 

do 

do 

20 per cent ad va- 
lorem. 
do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 



3,331 

5,385 

845 



Value. 



$134)624 
158,746 
173,145 
207,670 
18^637 
197^646 
119,457 
92,274 
10,529 

18,966 



671 

707 

20,199 

27,078 

2,991 



Duty 
collected. 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



$2,105 
3»791 



184 

141 

4)040 

6,415 

598 



$6,064 
5,028 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Per cent. 



20 

20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 



1 Calendar year. 



6 months ending June 30, 1921. 



Meerschaum, crude or unmanufactured — Rates of duty. 



Act of- 


Par. 


1883 


741 


1890 


649 


1894 


553 


1807 


613 


1900 


626 


1913 


881 



Tariff classlfloBtion or description. 



Meerschaum, crude or raw 

Meerachaiim, crude or rnimannfartured 

do 

do 

do , 

* * * meerschaum, crude or unmanulactured. 



Rate of ddty. specific 
and ad valorem. 



Free. 

Da 

Da 

Da 

Da 
20 per cent ad valorem 



HATTERS* PLUSH. 



(Par. 382. For treatment see par. 314.) 



BRIAR ROOT OR BRIAR WOOD. 



General Information. 

tariff act of 1913. 

Paragraph 168 of the tariff act of 1913 reads: ''Briar root or 
briar wood, ivy or laurel root, and similar woods, unmanufactured, 
or not further advanced than cut into blocks, suitable for the articles 
into which they are intended to be converted, 10 per cent ad 
valorem.'' / 

DESCRIPTION. 

Briar root or briar wood is an imported wood derived from the 
white or tree heath (Erica Arborea) which flourishes in Italy and 
Algeria, and grows in small quantities also in Spain, France and 
Greece. The wood is obtained from the biirl where the trunk ex- 
pands, at the base and is the only part of the tree used. The i\nr 
and laurel woods are of domestic growth, found chiefly in North 
Carolina. They are somewhat similar in appearance and quaUty 
to the briar root, but are much softer and impractical for the manu- 
facture of pipes. 

USES. 

The only use or at least the only important use of briar wood is 
in the manufacture of tobacco pipes. 

SUBSTITUTES. 

Any substance used in making pipes, such as clay or meerschaum, 
may "be regarded as a substitute. Attempts have been made to 
use the domestic ivy and laurel woods in place of the imported briar 
wood but these substitutes have not been found satisfactory by 
manufacturers. Other domestic woods, which are used as sub- 
stitutes, are apple (for cheaper grades), manzanita, wild lilac, red 
gum, and birch. Ebony, an imported wood, is also used. 

IMPORTS. 

Importations since 1910 range between two and five .himdred 
thousand dollars in value. The chief sources of supply, are France, 
Italy, and French Africa. Imports are shown in more detail by the 
following table. 

PRICES. 

Prices since 1910 for blocks of the principal size are quoted by a 
leading manufacturer as follows: 1910, $4; 1912, $4; 1914, $6; 1916, 
$7 to $12; 1918, $16; 1919, $16; 1920, $16 for the first six months, 
later 10 per cent reduction. Quotations are per gross. 

20 



TABIFF INFORMATIOK SURVEYS. 



21 



TARIPP HISTORY. 



Briar wood was admitted free of duty before the act of 1909. 
In that year it was subjected to a 15 per cent ad valorem duty, 
which was reduced to 10 per cent in 1913. In the hearings preced- 
ing the act of 1909 petitions were made for a duty for the purpose 
of developing the laurel and ivy root industry in North Cfaroiina, 
Tennessee, and Virginia. 



COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS. 

Although briar wood has been on the dutiable list since 1909, 
the domestic industrj^ has not been developed. The difficulty is 
not one of comparative costs of production but of quaUty. Rpe 
manufacturers claim that the domestic woods are not suitable for 
the manufacture of smoking) pipes. The wood is too soft and will 
not stand the heat of the burning tobacco. 

Briar root or briar wood and ivy or laurel root — Imports by countries. 

FISCAL YEARS. 



Imported from— 


1910 


1911 1912 

1 


Imported from— 


1913 


1914 


1916 


France 


fi $46,203 
1*176,248 
/ 16,201 
\«78,065 
6,295 
/»35,347 
\«95,859 
129 


$118,488 

81,592 

278 

} 120,702 


$133,189 

157,789 

2 

66,237 

894 


France 


$132,721 
134,490 


$148,611 
39,938 


$172,213 


Italy 


Italy 

En^and 


91,615 
2 


Exuiand 


Cuba 

French Africa 

All other 


3,818 

39,732 

2,428 


***56,*726' 
2,218 


69,598 


-•••gaavaau •••••••••.. . 


1,124 


Frencn Amca 


Total 




All other 


313,189 


241,493 


334,552 










Total 


/ 185, 761 
\«355,596 


} 321,060 


358,111 









Imported from— 


1916 


1917 


1918 


ImpcMTted from — 


1916 


1917 

• 


1918 


Fnnoe 


$160,688 
236,419 


$214,749 

346,661 

2,685 

24 

21,024 


$158,612 

262,839 

6,138 

"*i26,*i36 


Mcvocco 


$1,52S 
108 






Italy 


All other 


$4^464 


$2,476 


iSninand . . 


Total 


Cuba 




467,537 


589,607 


665,2m 


French Africa 


58,804 



CALENDAR YEARS. 



Imported from— 


1918 


1919 


1920 


Imported from— 

French Africa 

Honffifoni?, ... t ... . 


1918 


1919 

1 


1920 


France 


$292,010 


iSOl. 140 




$186,223 

2,166 

101 


$270,293 




Italy 


896.432 1 43&[sca 






WnglftTvrt ... ^ ^ 


20 


-/ 




JaT>an . . . . ^ . . , 






Oftiiiada ^ X 


28 
1,206 
3,200 






Another 


695 




Costa Rica. j*. 






Total 






fiWn^ , 






831,871 


1,287,831 


1,006,810 









1 July 1-Aug. 6, 1909, when free of duty. 



* Period on and after Aug. 6, 1909 (dutiable). 



f 



22 



TABIFF INFORMATION STJBVEYS. 



Briar root and similar wood unmanufactured, or not further advanced than cut into blocks 

Imports for consumption — Revenue, 



Fiscal year. 



1910. 

1911. 
1912. 
1913. 

1914. 



1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1918 ». 
1919*. 
1920 ». 



Rate of duty. 



/Freei 

\15 per cent 

do 

do 

do 

15 per cent and 10 
per cent.* 

10 per cent 

do 



{ 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Quantity. 



}• 



Value. 



1, 



185,751 
350,703 
310,974 
366,522 
312,051 

250,385 

306,892 
486,019 
585,930 
552,322 
825,695 
155,873 
982,113 



Duty 
colleoted. 



$53,955 
46,646 
54.978 
46,807 

27,666 

30,680 
48.601 
58,593 
55.232 
82,569 
115,587 
98,211 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Percent. 



{ 



16 
15 
15 
15 
16 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 



» July 1 to Aug. 5, 1909, under act of 1897. 

« 15 per cent old law, July 1 to Oct. 3, 1913. New law Oct. 4, 1913, to June 30, 1914. 

' Calendar year. 

Briar wood—Rates of duty. 



Act of— 


Par. 


1913 


168 


1909 
1897 


202 
700 


1894 
1890 


684 
756 



Tariff classification or description. 

Briar root or briar wood, ivy or laurel root, and similar wood 
unmanufactured, or not further advanced than cut into blocks 
suitable for the articles into which they are intended to be 
converted. 

....do 

Briar root or briar wood and similar wood unmanufactured, or 
not further advanced than cut into blocks suitable for the 
articles into which they are intended to be converted. 

....do 

...-do t 



Rates of duty, speolflo 
and ad valoreuL 



10 per cent ad valorem. 



15 per cent ad valorem. 
Free. 



Do. 
Da 



Court and Treasury Decisions. 

Briar root or briar wood has been provided for by name in the last 
five tarijff acts. 

In a decision of 1877 under the Revised Statutes blocks of briar 
wood roughly sawed mto a form from which smokers' pipes are 
manufactured were held to be dutiable as wood unmanufactured and 
not as wood manufactured. — Dept. Order, T. D. 3411. The question 
whether these blocks were of cabinet wood was not raised. 

The matter came up again under the act of 1883. The evidence 
showed that the importation consisted of briar-wood blocks of various 
sizes and forms such as were used by manufacturers of pipes, pipe 
bowls, and cigar holders. The evidence also showed that briar 
wood was extensively used in the arts and in the construction of the 
finest cabinet work because of its variegated appearance and its 
hardness and capacity for bemg carved and highly polished. 

The department held the blocks exempt tvomdutjas cabinet wood 
unmanufactured, notwithstanding almost exclusive use in the manu- 
facture of smokers' articles. — ^Dept. Order, T. D. 7366. This is the 
case referred to in the tariff hearings of 1890 at page 1019. 

Blocks of wood cut to size and prepared for euOTavers' use for 
making wood type, classified under paragraph 215 oi the act of 1909, 
were held dutiable under paragraph 202. (Abstract 32937, T. D. 
33594, of 1913.) 



I 

J 



/ 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVE5YS 

ON THE ARTICLES IN 

PARAGRAPHS 377, 378, 379, and 380 OF THE 

TARIFF ACT OF 1913 

AND BELATED ARTICLES IN OTHER PARAGRAPHS 



PHOTOGRAPHIC GOODS 

Paragraph 377: Paragraph 379: 

Peat Moss. (For treatment, see par. Pencil Leads.^(ForJtreatment, see 

370.) par. 370.) 

Paragraph 378: Paragraph 380: 

Pencils. (For treatment, see par. Photographic Goods. 

^^^') Paragraph 576: 

Films, sensitized bnt not exposed. 



REVISED EDITION 




WASHINGTON 
QOVBBNMBNT PRINTING OFFICB 
N-26 1»21 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

OIBms Elffhth Mid E Streets NW^ WMhlnctMi, D. C. 

C0MMISSI0NEB8. 

• 

Thomas Walker Page, Chairman, 
Thomas O. Mabvin, Yioe Chairman. 
David J. Lewis. 
William S. Cxtlbbbtson. 
bowabd p. costigai7. 
William Bxjbgess. 

John F. Bethune, Secretary, 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

or THIS PUBLICATION MAT BB PBOCUBBD FROM 

THE SXTPERlirrBNDSNT OF DOCUMBNTS 

GOVBRNMBNT PBIMTINO OFPICE 

WASHINOTON, D C 

AT 

6 CENTS PER COP^ 



preface; 



This is one of a series of Tariflf Information Surveys prepared hj the 
United States Tariff Commission and transmitted to the Conunittee 
on Ways and Means. The series covers aU of the articles and com- 
modities provideji for in the tariff act of October 3, 1913, and others 
not specifically provided for. It is arranged in the nmnerical order 
of p^agraphs of that act. 

in some cases two or more para^aphs have been combined in one 

Eamphlet. In doing this, industnal relationship of the articles has 
een followed when possible. In those instances where a paragraph 
has been treated under a preceding paragraph of the tariff act, ref- 
erence is made to this fact at the point where the paragraph appears 
in numerical order. Where oiie grade of, an article is dutiable and 
another grade of the same article is on the free list, the article is 
discussed under the dutiable paragraph which appears first in nmner- 
ical order in the taiiff act. In certain instances articles of close 
mdustrial relationship and which occur in separate paragraphs of 
the tariff act have been combined imder one paragraph for con- 
venience of discussion. Reference is made to this fact at the point 
where the commodities would naturally occur in numerical orcfer. 

The first pamphlet in the series is an "Introduction and index," 
which contams: 

1 . An introductory chapter discussing the scope of the series and 
the general method of treatment. 

'2. An alphabetical index of the articles provided for in the tariff 
act of 1913, showing the paragraph of the act in which the article is 
provided for and, if discussed under a different paragraph, the num- 
ber of such paragraph. 

3. A list of the pamphlets in the series, showing the paragraphs and 
articles included m each pamphlet. 

Thus by use of this "Introduction and index" the exact location 
of the discussion relating to a given article, or commodity can be 
ascertained. ^ 

In the preparation of this report the Tariff Coxnmission had the 
services oi Guy G. George, of tne Commission's staff, and of others. 



— **Wi* aw W4v^. ^'■bA* 



CONTENTS. 

PEAT MOSS. (PAR. 377.) 
[For treatment, see par. 370.] 

•PENCILS AND PENCIL LEADS. (PARS. 378 AND 379.) 

[For treatment, see par. 370.] 

PHOTOGRAPHIC GOODS. 

Pare. 

^Summary 8 

^lunmary tables 9 

'General information 9-15 

1913 tariff paragraphs * 9 

Description 9 

Domestic production 10 

Materials and methods of production , 10 

Organization 10 

Geographical distribution 11 

History of the industry 11 

Domestic production and consumption , 11 

Domestic exports 12 

Imports 12 

Prices 13 

Tariff history 13 

Competitive conditions and tariff considerations 14 

"Statistical tables: 

Production in the United States 15 

Imports, by countries 15-J9 

Imports for consumption — Revenue 19-22 

Domestic exjwrts 23-26 

Rates of duty •. 27 

■Court and Treasury decisions 27-28 

5 



PEAT MOSS. 

[Par, zn. For treatment see par. 3700 



PENCILS AND PENCDL LEADS. 

[Pars. 378 and 379. For treatment see par. 370.] 



7 



PHOTOGRAPHIC GOODS. 



Summary. 



The photographic goods iadastiy was credited with 146 establish- 
ments in 1914, capitalized at $36,388,000, employing 8,674 wage 
earners, and turning out products valued ftt ,a,jtotal of ,$39,041,000. 
These figures include articles not mentioned in tariff paragraphs 380 
and 576, but which properly belong in any discussion dealing with 
the items enumerated in those paragraphs; in fact, they can not be 
separated from the available data. 

riew York is the leading State in the production of photographic 
goods, 59 of the 146 estabhshments reported in 1914 bemg located in 
mat State. The establishments in New York employed 4,762 of the 
wage earners and turned out products valued at $35,175,000, which 
was nearly seven-eighths of the total. Other States in the industry 
were Illinois, Missouri, Massachusetts, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey, and California. 

There seems to be little or no serious foreign competition, which 
may be largely due to the fact that one large American firm not only 
completely dominates the situation in the United States but prac- 
tically dopainates the business in the whole worldt The quality of 
the American product is generally admitted to be the equal if not 
the superior oi all others. The American producer has been the 
pioneer and the leader in the production of kodaks, films, and motion- 
picture films and apparatus. 

Exports of photographic goods reached their highest point with a 
total of more than $25,000,000 in 1920 calendar year. Imports 
for consumption reached their height in the same year, with a total 
of $5,289,612. 

The effect of the lower rates of the act of 1913 had the war not 
occuixed can not be accurately predicted, but taking the situation as 
it exists to-day foreign competition is not serious and does not 
threaten to be so in the immediate future. 

Film scrap, made from film of American manuf actiu'e, is now im- 
ported for tne purpose of recovering the constituent elements, and is 
assessed at 10 per cent ad valorem under paragraph 384, as waste not 
specifically provided for. However, foreign-made film, sensitized but 
not exposed or developed, is free of duty, paragraph 576. It should 
also be noted that paragraph 404 contains a provision relating to the 
return of plates or films of American manufacture, damaged or worn 
out, and fit only for the recovery of the constituent n^aterials. 

8 



TAtllFK INFOBlKtATlON SITHVEYS. 
Photogra^f^ne ffootk — Swrnruxr^ Ud>le. 



9 



Year. 



1910.. 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 
1914.. 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1919.. 
1920.. 
1920 » 



Domestic 
prodncticm. 



$22,562,000 



39,041,000 



Imports 

for con- 

sumptlQn.i 



11,185,909 
1,346,420 
1,170,688 
1,635,105 
2,913,293 
1,980,472 
1,420^902 
1,505,346 
1,323,627 
1,506,451 
2,930,602 
5,289,612 



Domestic 

exports.' 



$4,765,155 

, 7,142,603 

9,445,446 

9,137,287 

9,431,800 

8,276,291 

15,986,066 

14,322,188 

12,290,317 

> 12, 828, 930 

« 20, 648, 562 

25,431,652 



Ratio to production. 



Imports. 



Percent. 
5.2 



7.4 



Exports. 



Percent. 
2L1 



21.9 



Value 
(imports 
for con- 
sumption.)^ 



$1,185,900 

1,346,420 

1,170,138 

1,633,283 

1,926,117 

973,439 

644,636 

700,524 

381,531 

458,796 

784,091 

1,239,745 



Amount 
of duty. 



$202,532 

340,467 

300,843 

423,899 

363,207 

189,325 

111,104 

78,981 

61,781 

34,135 

89,549 

155,456 



Equiva* 

lent ad 

valorem 

rate. 



Per cent. 
24.67 
25.29 
25.66 
25.95 
1&80 
19.45 
17.23 
10.25 
16.19 
7; 44 
1L42 
11.60. 



» Includes both "free" and *' dutiable." 

> Includes all exports of photographic goods. 

s Export figures are for calendar years 1918 and 1919. 

i " Dutiable" imports only. 

6 Calendar year. 



General Information, 



1913 TARIFF PARAGRAPHS. 

* 

Par. 380. Photographic cameras, and parts thereof, not specially 
provided for in this section, photographic dry plates, not specially 

Srovided for in this section, 15 per centum ad valorem; photographic- 
Im negatives, imported in anjr form, for use in any way in connec- 
tion with moving-picture exhibits, or for making or reproducing 
{)ictures for such exhibits, exposed but not developed, 2 cents per 
mear or running foot; * * * photographic-film positives, im- 
ported in any form, for use in any way in connection with moving- 
picture exhioits, * * * including herein all moving, motion^ 
motophotography or cinematography film pictures, prints, positives 
or duplicates of every kind and nature, and of whatever substance 
made, 1 cent per linear or running foot: Provided, however, That all 
photographic films imported imder this section shall be subject to 
such censorship as may be imposed by the Secretary of the Treasury. 
576. Photographic and moving-picture films, sensitized but not 
exposed or developed. Free. 

DESGRIPnON. 

There are other articles which should be included in a full dis- 
cussion of photographic goods, such as sensitized paper, moving- 
picture machines, and many other materials and apparatus. This 
survey aims to deal mainly with photographic cameras and films, 
but the statistical data in general deals wiui all photographic goods. 

Imports have consisted principally of motion-picture mms. Before 
the act of 1913 they were classed principally under ''Motion-picture 
films, positives,'' but since the act of 1913 imports have been greater 
under the free list, ''Motion-picture films, sensitized, but not ex^ 
posed.'' Films entering as motion-picture positives or negatives 
are, in many cases, films which were no doubt manufactured in the 
United States but exposed abroad. 

With reference to a reclassification of film scrap, see Summary, 
page 8, 

64912— 21— N-25 2 



10 TARIFF INFOBMAnOH SUSVETS. 



DOMESTIC FBomrcnoK. 



The value of the products of the photographic goods industiT in 
the United States in 1914 was reported to be S39,041,000. This 
total includes articles not covered in paragraphs 380 and 576. Hiere 
were 146 establishments reported, witb a total ci4>ital of S36,388,000, 
employing 8,674 wage earners. 

Materials and Tndhods of prodtictian. — ^llie greatest portion of the 
value of the products of the industry is turned out by the film brandi. 
Celluloid fonns the base of all photographic films and is manufac- 
tured extensively in the United States. According to the testimony 
{presented before the Committee on Finance, 1913, ceDuloid is manu* 
actured more cheaply in the United States tban abroad: 

The p3rToxyline support (celluloee) is made from a solution of pyro^line (crihilose 
treated with nitric ana sulphuric acids) in solvent menstrua, which solution is qifead 
upon a suitable surface and dried (by evaporation of the solvent menstrua). 

The menstruum used by the Eastmsm Co. in the manufacture of its film support 
is wood alcohol, acetone, and fusel oil, camphor being added to the solution, "niat 
used by the Croodwin Film and Camersi Co. in the manufacture of the Ansco film sup- 
port is wood alcohol, fusel oil, and amyl acetate, a secret ingredient being added to 
the solution. 

In each case the quantity of menstruum is about five times, by weight, ibe quantity 
of pyroxyline. 

This pyroxyline film, when dried, is coated with the sensitized gelatin emulsion 
* * *, This consists of an aqueous solution of gelatin containing nitrate of sQver, 
there being approximately equal parts of the two.* 

The industry has been entkely dependent upon imported camphor, 
but the recent developments in the manufacture of synthetic cam- 
phor promise to free tne industry from this position. 

Glass and gelatin used in the manufacture of dry plates were im- 

Sorted prior to the war, but the domestic manufacturer has not been 
ependent upon imports of these materials since the war. However, 
there is only one manufacturer of photo glass in the United States, 
and it is reported that they now threaten (Apr. 23, 1920) to shut 
down their photo-glass department. Previous to the war one 
dry-plate company miported 90 per cent of then* glass and gelatin. 

Formerly all of the paper stock used for photographic paper was 
manufactured abroad, but owing to an improvement in the sensi- 
tizing solution now used American paper can be and is used. 

Organization. — The corporate form of ownership predominates in 
the photographic goods industry, 85 of the 146 establishments re- 
ported in 1914 being owned by corporations, 44 by individuals, and 
17 by some other form. The total average nimiber of wage earners 
in the industry in 1914 was 8,674, of whom 8,429 were employed by 
corporations. The total value of products in 1914 was $39,041,000, 
of which $38,269,000 was credited to corporations. 

There are a great number of small establishments engaged in the 
industry, but tne number of establishments turning out a product 
of $100,000 or more in value was only 21 in 1914. These 21 estab- 
lishments employed 7,693 of the wage earners. Only one establish- 
ment was reported with a product of over $1,000,000 and employing 
over 1,000 wage earners. This establishment was credited with a 
product of $33,489,000, and with 5,370 of the wage earners in 1914. 

to^^t^^.Bta^ ■ I M- - I i r 111 "' ~' '~ ' ■ ■ _ ■ ■ - 

t Tariff Hearings, Oommittee on Finance, 1913, pp. 1711, 1712. 



1 

• 



TABIFF INFOBMA!EIOK SUEVBYS. II 

It is quite evident that one establishment alone has a very lar^ 
share of the entire industry. The capital of all estaUishments m 
1914 was $36;d88,000. The capital stock of the Eastman Kodak 
Co. was given as $25,698,500 in 1914, by Poor's Manual of Indus- 
trials. ^ reported by the Standard Statistics Co., the capital stock 
of the Eastman Kodak Co. in 1918 was $25,704,100. 

While it is true that the industry is dominated by the corporate 
form of ownership, in fact bv one large corporation with a large 
capitalization, it does not follow that the manufacture of photo- 
^aphic goods necessarily requires a large establishment. The fact 
thai there are 146 establishments reported leads to Hie conclusion 
that the industry may be carried on by small manufacturers, at least 
eertion brandies of the industry. 

Oeogra/pMcdl distrihjLtian^---'Nevr York is the leading State in the 
production of photographic goods, with 59 of the 146 establishments 
reported in 1914. The ei^ablishments in New York employed 
4,762 of the wage earners, or more than 50 per cent of the total, and 
turned out prraucts valued at $35,175,000, which was approd* 
mately seven-eighths of the total. 

Illinois had 18 establishments, with a product valued at 
$1,315,000. Missouri had 9 establishments, with products of photo- 
graphic materials alone valued at $1,007,000 (pnoto0raphic appa- 
ratus not stated). Some of the other States were Massachusetts, 
Ohio, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and California. 

History of the industry. — ^The development of the industry has 
taken place mainly since the census of 1889, when the value of 
products was $2,745,000. In round numbers the increase for the 
subsequent census years has been as follows: 1899, $8,000,000; 
1904, $13^000,000; 1909, $22,000,000; 1914, $39,000,000. Gener- 
ally speakmg, the tariff rate was 25 per cent ad valorem from 1894 
until 1913. 

The growth of the industry does not appear to be closely connected 
with the tariff. In support of this view the following extract is 

S noted from the statement of the Eastman Kodak Co. before th^ 
dmmittee on Finance, tariff hearings, 1913, pages 1708, 1709: 

In fact, it may be stated that the. Eastman Go. has been viewed for years, both 
here and abroad, not only as the originator and developer of amateur photographv, 
but aa the leading manufacturer of photographic apparatus and supplies generally 
in the world, and it attained this leading position and haa maintained it during aU 
these years, not because of its wealth, but simply and solely because of the quSity 
of its products dnd its fair" treatment of the public in the matter of the price tnereoi. 

Domestic production and consumption. — ^The total value of products 
of the photographic goods industry (including both photographic 
apparatus, such as cameras, motion-picture machines, and other 
apparatus, and photographic materials, such as films, sensitized 
paper, and, other matenals), was $39,041,000 in 1914. Photographic 
apparatus was valued at only $4,273,000, while photographic 
materials reached a total of $34,768,000. 

Imports have been small, amounting to less than $3,000,000 in 
1914, the greater portion of which probably consisted of imports of 
films manufactured in the United States but exposed abroad, while 
exports amounted to $9,431,800 in 1914 and more than $25,000,000 
in 1920 (calendar year). 



12 TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

It appears from these facts, and also from the foregoing statement 
with reference to the leading position of the United States in the 
photographic goods industry, tnat domestic consumption is almost 
entirely supplied by domestic production, and that exports now 
account for a considerable portion of the total sales. 

Domestic exports.— The value of exports has been increasing 
rapidly in recent years, the total in 1910 being $4,765,155, while 
ine total in 1920 was $25,431,652. 

Exports of photographic goods were not separately stated prior to 
1912. In 1912 the value of exports of cameras was $563,151, while 
the exports of motion-picture films reached a total of 80,000,000 
linear feet, valued at $6,815,060. 

The exports of cameras have increased considerably, reaching 
their highest total in the year 1920, with a value of $3,548,433. 
Films have been divided smce 1912 into motion-picture films not 
exposed, exposed, and other sensitized goods (including other films)* 
lilotion-picture films, not exposed, reached their highest exportation 
since the year 1910 in the year 1914, with a total of 153,359,550 
linear feet, valued at $4,264,722. Motion-picture films, exposed, 
reached their highest footage total silice 1910 in the year 1916, 
although the value of exports was greater in 1919 with a decreased 
footage. The figures are 158,751,786 linear feet in 1916, with a 
value of $6,757,658, and 153,237,260 linear feet, valued at $8,066,723, 
in 1919. Other sensitized goods exported in 1916 were valued at 
$3,596,597, but it is not known what part of this total consisted of 
films. The exports of all other photographic apparatus and goods 
reached their height in 1920, with a total value of $6,303,433. 

It is evident that motion-picture films are by far the most important 
item of export in this industrj^, furnishing $10,746,986 in 1919 of 
the total export of photographic goods, or approximately one-half 
of the total exportation. 

The destination of. American exports is given in detail in the ' 
statistical tables. England, Canada, France, Australia, and Italy 
have been the principal purchasers of American export®, but they 
have also been pretty thoroughly scattered all over the world. 

IMPORTS. 

Imports for consumption have remained quite constant since 1910, 
at a value somewhat in excess of $1,000,000 and averaging about 
$1,500,000. In 1914 and 1920 the totals were considerably above 
the average, reaching the total of $2,913,293 in 1914 and $5,289,612 
in 1920 (calendar year) . * 

The import figures in this case are not of much value with reference 
to the question of foreign competition, since it is not known what 
portion of the imports are distinctly of foreign origin. Prior to the 
act of 1913 imports were stated only for motion-picture positives; 
motion-picture films, all other; and all other films and plates. Since 
1913 several additional classes have been added, as will be seen from 
the following statement of the trend of imports: 

Cameras and parts of, amounting to a value of $247,290 in 
1914, declined to the sum of $2,152 in 1918, but reached their high- 
est value, $355,660, in 1920 (calendar year). 



TABI7F Il<nPOBMAXION ST7BYBYS. 13 



Dry plates were not separately stated until 1916, when imports 
)re valued at $74,183, declining to $58,660 in 1920. 
Motion-picture films, sensitized but not exposed, free, were first 



stated in 1914, and imports were valued at $889,560. They did not 
fluctuate materially between that time and 1918, but in 1919 declined 
to $283,271, and in 1920.reached their highest, $1,697,976. 

Motion-picture films, negatives, dutiable, were valued at $402,704 
in 1914 and at $728,899 in 1920. 

Motion-picture films, positives, dutiable, reached their height in 
1914, with imports valued at $1,009,469, but declined to a vdue of 
$204,217 in 1920. 

Imports of other films, sensitized, but not exposed, free^ have 
increased in value from $59,880 in 1914 to $2,248,666 in 1920, this 
lattCT, with the exception of. $5,943, being the value of importations 
from Canada. : 

All other films and plates, dutiable, have been pretty well distrib- 
uted among the other classes since 1914, and have been' credited 
with no imports since 1915, when their value was only $91,294. 

Summarizing the above classes of imports for 1920 disclosed the 
fact that about three-fourths of the total value was impjorted imder 
the free list, which consisted principally of motion-picture fiilms, 
sensitized but not exposed. The comparative totals were: Free list, 
$3,949,867 ; dutiable, $1 ,339,745. Probably a large part of the cellu- 
loid base of the imported sensitized motion-picture film was manu- 
factured in this country, but sent abroad to be sensitized. 

Imports have come principally from France, Germany, Italy, and 
England. 

PBIOES. 

During the war the prices of spool films were higher in Ei^gland 
than in the United Staties. For the purposes of comparison the 
post-card siz e 6 -exposure roll filrii is taken. The net wholesale 
price of this film in the United States is now (June, 1920) $35.i)l 
per 100 rolls, the retail price, including the war tax, being 55 cents 
each. Before March 15, 1920, the retail price, not including the 
war tax, of this film was 40 cents. The 1919 catalogue price of 
English roll films, the same size, at normal exchange, wad 56 cents. 
The present price, if any change has been made, is not known. 

The price of English plates, 6i by 8^, at normal exchange, is $3.36 
a dozei^, while the American list is $1.90 a dozen. Duty is paid on 
English film at the above price, that being the market value in 
England. 

TARIFF HISTORY. 

Photographic films and photographic dry plates were assessed for 
duty in the act of 1894 at 25 per cent ad valorem. No change was 
made in the act of 1897. TTie act of 1909 provided a specific duty 
of li cents per linear foot for motion-picture positives, but otherwise 
the duties on films and plates of all kinds remained at the same rate. 

The act of 1913 placed photographic and moving-picture films, 
sensitized but not exposed or developed, on the free list. A duty of 
15 per cent ad valorem was assessed on cameras and parts thereof, 
and the duty on dry plates was reduced to 15 per cent ad valorem. 

64912— 21— N-25 3 



14 TAMtrw TBmaauaacm 

Motioft-pictiire nagatiTes, eaqxised but not dsFdoped, were aaseased 
fti 2 cents per linatf foot; irdereloped abo, 3 cents per linear foot; 
whoa motaon-pictare poatires were rednoed from 1^ cants to 1 cent 
per linear foot. 

Hie effects of the dianjgeB made by the act erf 1913 are not entirely 
ofmooa. The totid t$Sib of imports in 1914 was considerably 
greater than in former years. Hiere was an increase in ^he yahie 
of imports sabject to dntjr, and in addition, imports vahied at nearly 
$1^000^000 were entered free erf duty^. It wonld appear that the 
dianges in the act of 1913 stimtdated imports. Knee 1914 there has 
been a decrease in total imports, no doubt due to the war. 

Hie effect of pladng films not. exposed or dev^doped on the free 
list is ouite evident, as imports und^ the free list have increased 
over 1913, while imports under the dutiable list have decreased 
since 1913. The extent to wfaidi this tendency mi^t have affected 
American mannlacturers had the war not intervened can not be 
accoratdy estimated. 

At the same time that imports of films, sensitized but not emosed, 
have increased in value under the free list, exports of this class of 
fifans have decreased. It would appear that there was less demand 
for such film abroad; a greater demand tor it in the United States; 
that the manufacture dt moti(Hi*picture film, or its sensitizing at 
least, had bemi developed abroad; or possibly that a combinaticm 
of these factors may have existed. 

COMFETmVE CONmnONS AND TABIFF CONSIDERATIONS. 

It will be seen by reference to the sunmiary tables, page 9, that 
the ratio of exports to domestic production exceeded the ratio <rf 
imports to domestic production nearly three tunes in 1914. This 
appears to be conclusive evidence that foreign competition was not 
senous before the war, at leaft when total values are considered. 
During the wfu: importation decreased, and exports from the United 
States increased ereatly, reaching a toted of nearly $16,000,000 in 
1915, as comparea with imports valued at less than $1,500,000. 

The Eastman Kodak Ck>. has been held to be an illegal monopoly 
by decree of the District Court of the United States, Western District 
of Xew York, January 20, 1916.* The £a$tmw Kodak Co,, acc(»rding 
to its own statement, ^'has been viewed for years, * * * ^ the 
leading manufacturer of photographic apparatus and supplies gen- 
erally in the world, "*" * */' ^ The case against the Eastman 
Kodak Co. is pending on appeal in the United States Supreme Court, 

The present market price of dry plates is higher abroad thwi in the 
United States. Glass and gelatin, used in the manufacture of dry 
plates, were imported almost wholly before the war, and there is an 
indication that the American makers will be dependent upon imports 
for glass again in the near future. Camphor is another essential 
material in the manufacture of films. 

The importation of motion-picture films under the free list in- 
creaijed under the act of 1913. The value of exports of motion- 
picture films, not exposed, in the fiscal year 1918 was $1,385,291, com- 

» See Fed. Rep., vol. 226, pp. 62-81. 

« Bee TirifT He*rinfs, Committee on Fintneo, 1913. pp. 1706, 17QQ 



TABIFF INFOBMATIOK SURVBYS. 



16 



pared with an imp<^t value of $739,135. Since the Eastman Co. has 
extensive manufacturing interests in European coimtries, it is possible 
that some of this film might have been manufactured by them 
abroad.^ 

The imports of cameras, dry plates, and other films and plates 
have been relatively small^ wmle the exports of these classes have 
been quite large in comparison. 

From the n)regoing, excepting possibly in the case of certain 
materials, there does not appear to oe any particular tariff problem 
involved in a consideration of the photographic goods industry. 

Photograph goods — Production in United States by States, 

[From Federal oeosus.] 



Fhotograpbic apparatus.. 
PhotosraphiB materials . . 



Total 

Photographic apparatus . 



1899 



S2, 026^000 
£^773^000 



7,799^000 



1904 



13,479,000 
9,544^000 



13,023,000 



1909 



$1,184^000 
31,378^000 



23; MS; 000 



Camera s..... 

MotioifrfiiBtnre machines 

▲tt other apparatus and parts . 



Photographic materials. 



Motion-pietore films, not exposed > . 
An other photographic materials. . . 



Photographic apparatus (by States) . 



CaUfomia. 
nUnois. 



New Jersey. . . 
New York..-. 

Ohio ... 

Pennsylvania. 
Another 



Photographic materiab (by States) . 



niinojs 

Massaohuscftts . 

Missouri 

New York 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania. 
Another 



1914 



H273,000 
84^708,000 



89^041,000 



4^273,000 



1,254,000 
1,820^000 
1,199^000 



84^768,000 



411,000 
34^357,000 



4^278,000 



73,000 

511,000 

121,000 

3,003,000 

23,000 

61,000 

421,000 



84^788,000 



804,000 
265,000 
1,007,000 
32^112,000 
114,000 
177,000 
289,000 



1 Thisdoesnot'tndudethe value of film manuflictured by the Eastman Kodak Co., which is included 
with "An other photogn^Uc materials." . . 

Cameras, and parts of (jdutiahter) — Imports by countries {fiscal years). 



1914 1. 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918. . 
1918*. 
1919 s. 
1920*. 



Imported from— 



France. 



838,013 
43,857 
48,615 
13,494 
927 
2,014 
10,958 



Germany. 



8125,468 

77,426 

5,064 



England. 



182,332 

78,465 

31,987 

13,111 

676 

325 

6,600 



Another. 



81,477 
8,655 
2,221 
2,577 
549 
530 
2,267 



TotaL 



8247,290 

208,503 

87,837 

29,182 

2,152 

2,869 

19,915 

355,660 



> Pfsures cover period since Oct. 4, 1913, to June 30, 1914. Not separately stat<Kl prior to 1914. 
* Calendar year. 



16 



TARIFF IIWORMATION SURVEYS. 

Dry plates (chUiahley — ImporU by countries (fiscal years). 



1916.. 
1917.. 

ms.. 

1018*. 
1919 ». 
1920S 



Imported Arom— 



France. 



182,822 

18,726 

12^217 

5,598 

7,957 



Bnglatid. 



$41,267 

45,632 

19,920 

17,324 

9,555 



All other. 



194 

110 

1,720 

1,131 

98 



Total. 



$74,183 
64,467 

•33,857 
24,053 
17,610 
58,660 



1 iQcluded in ''All other films and plates" prior to 1916. 
* Calendar year. 

Motion-picture films f sensitized but not exposed (JreeY — Imports by countries, 

FISCAL YEARS. 



Imported i^om— 



Belgium. 
France... 
Oermanv. 
Englana. 
All other. 



Total. 



1914 



Quantity. 



Linear feet. 
8,666,620 

25,167,799 

7,932,381 

2,466,697 

483,826 



44,717,323 



Value. 



$208,357 

452,586 

156,675 

57,972 

13,970 



889,560 



1915 



Quantity. 



Linear feet. 

818,550 

46,138,307 

8,271,160 

7,172,888 

1,407 



61,402,312 



Value. 



$20,197 
618,035 
161,831 
167,802 
42 



967,907" 



1916 



Quantity. 



Linear feet. 



68,217,224 



270,485 
3,079 



58,490,788 



■ ' 



Value. 



$743,218 



6,695 
210 



750,023 



Fiance... 
England. 
AU other. 



Total. 



Imported from— 



1917 



Quantity. 



Limarfeet. 

52,223,716 

67,960 

2,400 



52,294,075 



Value. 



$800,326 

1,886 

132 



802,324 



191S 



Quantity. 



Linear feet. 

45,077,632 

2,290,501 

94,682 



47,462,715 



Value. 



$680,337 

54,719 

4,079 



739, 135 



CALENDAR YEARS. 



Imported from— 


1918 


1919 


1920 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Fiance 


Linear feet. 
23,724,338 


$367,956 


Linear feet. 

13,348,828 

153,663 

218,411 

25,600 


$254,986 

14,354 

12,848 

1,083 


Linear feet. 




Oermany 






Enjdand 


1,889,394 
96,723 


46,721 
6,307 






All other 












Total 1 


26,709,455 


419,984 


13,746,502 


283,271 00.828.'»2 


$1,697,976 









* stated separately only since tariff act of Oct. 3, 1913. 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 17 

Motiotv-pictiire films f negatives (dutiable) ^ — Imports by countries (fiscal years). 



Imported f rom— 



France. . . 
Germany. 

Italy 

En^nd. 
AH other. 



Total. 



1912 



Quantity. 



Linearfeet. 








Value. 



$109,910 

20,104 

309 

35,762 

13,045 



179,130 



1913 



Quantity. 



Linearfeet. 

0) 
0) 
0) 

{'> 

0) 



Value. 



$274,746 
73,365 
30,993 
42,166 
36,885 



458,155 



1914 



Quantity. 




Value. 



$155,90^ 
67,430 
74,779 
67,586 
37,007 



402,704 



Imported from— 



France. . . 
Germany. 

Italv 

England. 
Allotber. 



Total. 



1915 



Quantity. 




Value. 



$57,666, 
12,154 
86,707 
72, m 
80,t)94 



258,800 



1916 



Quantity. 



Linearfeet. 

107,873 

52,290 

56,142 

179,689 

368,111 



764,106 



Value. 



$28,672 
36,283 
12,421 

104^738 
43,576 



225,690 



1917 



Quantity. 



Linear fea. 

349,514 

13,462 

66,965 

231,577 

288,634 



950,152 



Value. 



$91,055 

2,565 

72,509 

145,668 

136,465 



448,262 



Imported from — 


1918 


1918 « 1919 > 


1920 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


France 


Linear ft. 
90,057 


$14,665 


Linearfu 
82,242 


$30,542 


Linear ft. 

112,452 

1,046 

47,294 

253,234 

422,064 


$114,259 

261 

6,192 

117,253 

> 146,646 


LinearfL 




Germany 






Italv 


58,345 
156,071 
406,890 


33,623 
68,251 
49,494 


' 30,819* 
104,453 
183,703 


" 18,133 
73,178 
46.158 






£ngland » 






Another 














Total 


713,363 


166,033 


401,217 168.011 


836,089 


384,611 


2,032,416 


$728,809 









» Quantity— not stated. Figures not^eparately stated prior to 1912. 

2 Calendar vear. 

^ Canada, 1919—105,998 linear feet, value $06,526. 

MoUon-pictiire film^j positives (dutn/ihle) — Imports by countries. 

FISCAL YEARS. 



Imported from— 


1910 


1911 


• 1912 


Quantity. 

Linearfeet. 
1,084,519 
9,051,112 

100,416 
1,174,738 
1,254,813 

164,317 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


• 
Denmark 


$65,543 

555,603 

4,257 

65,806 

74,001 

5,815 


Linearfeet. 
1,131,578 
6,834,291 
55,758 
2,524,989 
1,005.407 
173,104 


$68,638 
407,609 

2,060 

149,738 

51.243 

5,827 


Linearfeet. 
1,232,607 
6,867.037 

661,848 
2,842,761 
2,334,451 

346,074 


$76,819 


France 


413,618 


Germany 


27,873 


Italv 


162,682 


England 


127, 400 


Another 


16,691 






Total : 


12,829,915 


771,025 


11,725,127 


685,115 


14,274,768 


825,083 







18 



TARIFF INFOBBiATION SUBVBYS. 



Motio'nrpicture filmSy positives (dutiable) — Imports by countries—Contsmied. 

FISCAL YEARS— Contintied. 



Imported f rom- 



Demnark... 

France 

Oermany... 

Italy 

England 

All other... 

Total. 



1913 



Qaantity. 



Linear feet. 
1,328,560 
6,888,470 
.1,515,395 
2,595,817 
2, $63, 701 
481,883 



15,673,826 



Value. 



187,690 
420,366 

54,854 
139,180 
146,^^133 

24,388 



872,611 



1914 



Quantity. 



Linearfeet. 
1,162,964 
6,517,613 
2,159,231 
3,013,262 
6,386,033 
788,041 



20,057,144 



Value. 



181,390 
273,033 
116,939 
172,679 
327,994 
37,434 



1,009,469 



1916 



Quantity. 



Linearfeet. 

600,665 
2,900,530 

582,237 
1,390,474 
4,274,490 
1,041,043 



10,789,439 



Value. 



$41,403- 
71,632 
30,899 
65,046. 

163,559 
39,460 



411, 99f 



Imported from— 



Denmark.. 

France 

Oermany.. 

Italy 

England... 
AU other... 

Total 



1916 



Quantity. 



Linear ftd» 

262L161 

3,804^227 

19,719 

567,276 

1,715,445 

374,161 



6,743^988 



Value. 



$17,974 

114,364 

755 

26^340 

81,879 

15,010 



256,332 



1917 



Quantity 



Linearfeet, 

85»435 

1,884,233 

11,143 

409,581 

770^726 

641,743 



3,802,960 



Value. 



15,802 
79,363 
532 
25,178 
32,664 
83,579 



227,118 



1918 



Quantity 



Linearfeet, 



605,752 



449,484 

1,741,253 

488,008 



3,374,497 



Value. 



132,854 



32,892 
61,309 
50,003 



177,148 



CALENDAR YEARS. 



Imported from— 


1918 


1919 


1920 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Denmark 


Linearfeet. 




Linearfeet, 
132L434 
756,783 
61,196 
768,814 
15,118 
118,541 
231,309 


17,384 
34,657 

5,812 
43,574 

1,118 
10,373 
12^144 


Linearfeet, 




France 


640^365 
466,791 
374,689 
42,526 
169,316 
173,071 


130,939 
24,607 
21,436 
2,675 
17,111 
28,142 






Italy 






England 






Canada 






Japan 






Another 












Total 


1,866,758 


124,910 


2,084,195 


115,062 


4,201,047 


$204,217 





Motion-pictufe films f all other (dutiabley — Imports by countries (Jiscal years). 



Imported from— 



France. . . . 
Gemumy.. 

Italy 

England... 
All other. . 

• 

Total 



1912 



$109,910 

20,104 

309 

35,762 

13,046 



179,130 



1913 



$274,746 
73,365 
30,993 
42,166 
36,886 



458,155 



1914 



$155,902 
67,430 
74,779 
6^586 
37^007 



402,704 



1 Included in "All other films and plates'' prior to 1912. 



TABIFF INFOBMATIOK SUBYEYS. 



19 



All oikerfiVtM, aensitued biU not expated (Jreey — Imports by eountriei, 

FISCAL YEABS. 



Imported from — 


1014 


1015 


1016 


1917 


1018 


France - ................. 


157,850 

135 

1,720 

166 


l32L(i32 

854 

6,160 

042 




128 


$100 


<lermany » . . 








126^110 
126 


24,830 
10 


4,358 
s 100, 261 


Allot>M«rs 






Total... 


50,880 


38,488 


26,246 


24,877 


203,710 









CALENDAR 


YEARS. 








\ 


Imported f rom— 


• 


1018 


1010 


1020 




Quantity. 


Value. 


l^tance 






8100 

3,552 

400,131 


t37 

5,006 

858,765 


Number. 




TBngiand . . 






ranada 
















Total . 


412^783 


864^708 


13,102,002 


8^248,666 





1 Figures cover period since Oct. 3, 1013. * Canada, 1018, 8108,711. 

All other films and plates (dutiable) — Imports by countries (fiscal years). 



1010 
1011 
1012 
1013 
1014 
1015 



Imports from— 



France. 



$270,271 

484,751 

100,147 

119,581 

61,550 

20,256 



Germany. 



$6,043 
87,073 

4,388 
76,036 
55,322 

2,355 



England. 



$124,102 
101,404 

82,680 
128,020 
144,667 

68,552 



All other. 



$14,761 

46,843 

7,620 

7,124 

3,107 

131 



Total. 



$416,077 
670,071 
203,844 
332,570 
264,655 
01,204 



Photographic goods — Total imports for consumption — Revenue. 



• 


Rate of duty. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Duty 
collected. 


Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 


Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 


Fiscal year: 

1007 


Dutiable 




$38,528 

66, 162 

121,881 

• 1,185,000 

1,346,420 
450 

1,170,138 
1,012 

1,633,283 
087,176 

1,026,117 

1,007,033 
073,430, 
776,266 
644,636 
824,821 
770,524 
042,096 
381,531 

1,107,655 
458,796 

2,146,511 
784,091 

3,040,867 

1,330,745 

2,862,050 
760,601 


$0,631 

16,540 

30,470 

202,532 

340,467 




Percent. 
25.00 


1008 








25.00 


1000 


do 






. 26. 00 


1010 


:::::do:::::::::::: 






24.67 


1011 


do 


■ 




25.20 


1012 


Free 








1012 


Dutiable 




300,343 




25.66 


1013 


Free 








1013 


Dutiable 




423,800 




25.05 


1014 


Free 








1014 


Dutiable 




363,207 




18.86 


1015 


Free 








1015 


Dutiable 




180,325 




10.45 


1016 


Free 








1916 


Dutiable 




111, 104 




17.23 


1017 


Free 








1017 


Dutiable 




78,081 


............ 


10.25 


1018 


Free 








1018 


Dutiable 




61,781 




i6.*io 


1010 


Free 








1010 


Dutiable 




34,135 




7.44 


1020 


Free 








1020 


Dutiable 




80,540 




11.42 


1020» 


Free 








1020» 


Dutiable 




155,456 




11.60 


1021* 


Free 








1021 


Dutiable 





















^ Calendar year. 



* 6 months ending June 30, 1021. 



r) 



TAEIFF INFOBMATION SUBVEYB. 

Gameras and parts ofn. 8. p.f. — Imports for conaumpiion — Revenue, 



Fiscal year: 

1914 

1916 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

19211 



Rate of duty. 



15 per cent 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



1261,647 

201,763 

88,336 

29,646 

2,028 

2,739 

19,915 

368,060 

194,122 



Duty 
collected. 



$39,232 

30,264 

13,260 

4,446 

304 

411 

2,987 

53,709 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Percent. 
16.00 
15.00 
15.00 
15.00 
15.00 

15. OC 
15. OC. 
15.00 
15.00 



1 Six months ending June 30, 1921. 



Dry plates and films — Imports for consumption — Revenue, 

ALL KINDS. 





Rate of duty. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Duty 
collected. 


Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 


Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 


Fiscal year: 

1908 


25 per cent 




186,162 
121,880 


$16,540 
30,470 




Percent. 
25 


1909 


* ■ 






25 













MOVING-PICTURE FILMS NOT DEVELOPED OR EXPOSED. 



Fiscal year: 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913.... 
1914 



26 per cent. 

.....do 

do 

do 

do 



$153,994 

428,272 

75,328 

27,229 

10,814 



$38,498 

107,088 

18,832 

6,807 

2,703 



25 
25 
26 
26 
25 



ALL OTHER. 



Fiscal year: 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914.... 



25 per cent. 

.....do 

do 

do 

do 



$134,883 
178.141 
201,610 
466,326 
105,625 



$33,720 
44,536 
50,377 

116,681 
26,406 



26 
26 
26 
26 
25 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SUBVETS. 



21 



Dry plates and films— Dry plates n. s, p.f, — Imports far consumption — Revenue, 



Fiscal year. 

1914. 

1915 

' 1916 

1917 

1918 

"Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 



Rate of duty. 



15 per cent. 

.....do 

.....do 

do 

do 



....do..., 

,...do... 

...do.... 

...do.... 



Quantity. 



Dozens. 



16,557 
64,452 
53,718 



Value. 



9150,442 

100,029 

73,834 

64,4R4 

. 35,322 

. 24, 472 
18,181 
50,ja66. 
37,977 



Duty 
collected. 



$22,566 

15,004 

11,075 

9,672 

5,298 

3,671 
2.727 
7,539 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



$1,098 
.776 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Percent. 



15 
15 
16 
IS 
15 

15 
1& 
19 
15 



Dry plates and films— Films sensitized but not exposed of developed— Imports for con- 
sumption — Revenue. 



FILMS FOR MOVING PICTURES. 





Rate of duty. 


Quantity. Value. 


Duty 
collected. 


Value per 

unit of • 

quantity. 


Actual and 

computed 

adviuorem 

rate. 


Fiscal year: 

1914 


Free 


Linear feet. \ 
46,174,377 $923,974 
61,367,071 1 963,635 
58,490,788 750,023 
52,294,075 t 802,324 
47,467,077; 739,135 

25,713,817 419,984 
13,246,502 1 283,271 
99,828,532 j 1,697,976 
74,499,651 1,388,045 

1 




$0,020 
.016 
.013 
.015 
.016 

.016 
.021 
.017 


-■■ . 


1915 


do 






1916 


do 






1917 


.....do 






1918 


do 






'Calendar year: 
1918 


do 




. - . 


1919 


do 






1920 








19211 


... do 

















ALL OTHER. 



Fiscal year: 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

<3alendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 » 



Free. . 

do. 

do, 

do. 

do. 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do 



Number. 



4,681,826 

13,102,092 

6,837,456 



$60,202 
42,760 
26,243 
21,675 

202,779 

456,412 

864,708 

2,248,666 

1,474,914 



$0,185 
.171 



> 6 months ending June HO, 1921. 



22 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Dry plain andfilnu — FUm negatives in any form jfbr use in any way in connection with 
moving-picture exhibite or for making or reproducing pictures for siich exhibits — Imports 
for consumption — Revenue. 

ALL KINDS. 



Fiscal year. 



mo. 

1911. 
1912. 
1918. 
1914. 



Rate of duty. 



26 per cent. 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Quantity. 



Value. 



S115»429 
48»807 
86,108 

247,741 
91,200 



Duty 
collected. 



128,857 
12,201 
21,527 
61,935 
22,800 



Value i>er 

unit of 
quantity. 



Actual and 

computed 

advaloram 

rate. 



Percent, 
25.00 
2&0O 
25.00 
2&00 
25.00 



EXPOSED BUT NOT DEVELOPED. 



Fiscal year: 
1914 



1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar yean 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 1 



2 cents per linear 
foot, 
.do. 
.do. 



.do. 
.do. 

.do. 
.do. 



.do., 
.do. 



Linearfeet, 
245,029 

284»452 
245,204 
160,998 
158,132 

74,962 
301,767 
794,348 
186,822 



$45,493 

36,043 
28,018 
92,334 
18^257 

8,206 

112,430 

250,392 

32,474 



$4,000 

5,689 
4,904 
3,219 
3,162 

1,500 

6,035 

15,886 

3,738 



$0,186 

.127 
.114 
.574 
.115 

.109 
.372 
.315 



10.77 

15.78 

17.50 

3.49 

17.87 

18.27 
5.37 
6.34 



EXPOSED AND DEVELOPED. 



Fiscal year: 
1914 



1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

19211 



3 cents per linear 
foot. 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 

.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do 



1,147,316 

907,675 
444,567 
783,419 
596,356 

425,490 

533,322 

1,209,313 

760,423 



$280,638 

207,789 
186,434 
342,669 
144,422 

160,768 
272,631 
474,298 
293,187 



$34,419 

27,227 
13,337 
23,502 
17,890 

12,765 
16,000 
36,279 
22,812 



$a246 

.229 
.419 
.437 
.242 

.378 
.510 
.392 



12.26 

13.13 
7.16 
6.86 

12.39 

7.94 
6.88 
7.65 



Dry plates and films — Film positives in any form for use in any way in connection with 
m^ovrng-picture exhibits, including all movingy Tnotion, motophotogravhy , or linemat4>' 
graphy film pictures j prints, positives, or duplicates of every kind ana of whatever «u6- 
stance made — Imports for consumption — Revenue. 



Fiscal year: 
1910 



1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 
1914. 



1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar yean 

1918 

1919 

1920 

19211 



Rate of duty. 



1} cents per linear 
foot. 



.do. 

...do. 

...do. 

...do. 
cent 
foot. 

...do. 

...do. 

...do. 

...do. 



per linear 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do 



Quantity. 



Linearfeet. 
12,704,330 

11,660,731 
13,968,278 
15,874,823 
2,994,730 
16,489,277 

11,071,559 
6,788,546 
3,780,163 
3,504»697 

1,958,848 
1,947,388 
4,189,647 
3,137,173 



Value. 



$776,929 

682,448 
806,831 
890,813 
151,538 
827,009 

425,689 
228,557 
226,083 
181,202 

123,174 
109,678 
203,879 
202,981 



Duty 
collected. 



$190,565 

174,911 
209,524 
238,122 
44,920 
164,892 

110,715 
67,865 
37,801 
35,046 

19,688 
19,474 
41,896 
31,371 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



$0,061 

.059 
.058 
.056 
.051 
.050 

.038 
.038 
.060 
.051 

.063 
.056 
.048 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Percent. 
24.62 

25.83 
25.97 
26.73 
29.64 
19.94 

26.01 
28.25 
16.72 
19.34 

15.90 
17.76 
20.56 



1 6 months ending June 30, 1921 . 



TABIFP INFORMATIOIT STJBVBYS. 



23 



PhotograpMc goods * — Domestic exports (fiscal years). 



Exported to— 



France... 
Germany. 
England . , 
Oanada... 
Mexico... 

Cuba 

Argentina 



1910 



$220,416 

42,846 

8,456,580 

882,336 

128,400 

62,715 

71,810 



1911 



$223,678 

56,758 

5,429,094 

479,335 

158,810 

96,740 

70,064 



Exported tO" 



BrasiL.... 

Japan 

Australia 

Philippine Islands 
All other 

Total 



1010 



$42,088 
80,814 
53,686 
49,573 

173,985 



4,766,155 



1911 



$110,128 

83,500 

76,426 

142,872 

220,: 



7,142,608 



1 Stated separately after 1911. 



Cameras ^ — Domestic exports (fiscal years). 



Exported to— 



France 

England 

Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina... 
British India 
Australia.... 
New Zealand 
Another.... 

Total.. 



1912 



$253 

342,250 

42,006 

20,247 

24,740 

21,425 

328 

44,972 

6,049 

60,881 



563,151 



1913 



$270 

550,375 

45,592 

20,891 

6,628 

12,688 

609 

79,658 

26,349 

66,619 



809,629 



1914 



$666 

423,747 

30,525 

8,472 

4,841 

12,578 

1,756 

94,552 

13,961 

72,908 



664,006 



1916 



$49,187 

267,557 

23,606 

2,063 

3,533 

2,424 

8 

51,722 

5,579 

85,215 



490,896 



1916 



$64,478 

976,976 

45,969 

1,177 

9,807 

21,812 

140 

110,048 

24,975 

69,304 



1,814,606 



Exported to— 



France 

England 

Oanada < 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina... 
British India 
Australia.... 
New Zealand 
AU other 

Total.. 



1917 



$242,930 

861,305 

127,508 

6,999 

11,912 

7,318 

11,169 

190,107 

81,380 

161,383 



1,702,011 



1918 



$69,534 
646 

104,671 
14,662 
18,997 
48,886 

141,018 

226,546 
35,926 

308,533 



969,419 



1918 « 



$29,235 

12,433 

80,534 

12,457 

16,840 

35,917 

154,800 

244,176 

102,109 

420,387 



1,106,388 



1919* 



$331,660 

465,567 

134,580 

19,322 

38,436 

24,599 

33,124 

152, 184 

88,550 

410,388 



1,648,410 



1920S 



$3,548,438 



1 Included in ''photographic goods" prior to 1912. 



* Calendar year. 



Motion-pictyre films * — Domestic exports (fiscal years). 



Exported to— 



France... 

Italy 

England.. 
Canada... 
Argentina 
BrazlL... 



1912 



Quantity. 



Linear feel. 

1,196,237 

38,000 

69,967,613 

5,374,344 

150,167 

679,722 



Value. 



$390,395 

16,000 

5,831,337 

388,822 

7,685 

56,822 



Exported to— 



Japan 

Australia 

Philippine Islands 
All other 

Total 



1912 



Quantity. 



Linearfeet. 

205,000 

268,400 

795,530 

1,360,289 



80,035,302 



Value. 



$18,235 
19,207 
43,607 
47,860 



6,815,060 



1 Included tn "photographic goods'' prior to 1912; stated separately as ''not exposed" and "exposed" 
after 1912. 



26 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Other sensitized goods * — Domestic exports {fiscal years). 



Exported to— 



Denmark 

France 

Italy 

England... 

Canada 

Mexico 

€uba..... 

ArgOBthia 

Brazil 

Japan ^ 

Australia 

All other 

Total 



1912 



$1,454 

20,079 

2,050 

962,098 

121,286 

35,783 

40,808 

38,371 

26,976 

51,692 

3,681 

105,769 



1,410,087 



1913 



$1,515 
12,605 
300 
3,016,178 
97^416 
54,817 
62,447 
39,218 
27,018 
22,652 
13,645 
89,561 



3,436,371 



1914 



1685 

4,406 

421 

864,028 

42,643 

84,541 

62,476 

35,083 

32,417 

49,259 

14,094 

158,311 



1915 



1265,582 

21,454 

3,746 

1,221,811 

17,518 

38,951 

56,838 

54,747 

19,672 

24,555 

80,982 

115,862 



1,348,216 



1,871,618 



1916 



$224,074 

207,103 

68,582 

2,121,373 

140,371 
22,206 
78,078 

217,141 
60,800 
82,149 
83,549 

301,221 



3,506,507 



Exported to— 



Denmark. . 

France 

Italy 

England... 

CacAda 

Mexico. . . . 

Cuba 

Argentina. 

Brasa 

Japan 

Australia.. 
All other. . 

Total 



1917 



$12,816 

445,893 

128,609 

1,172,197 

196,820 

67,639 

80,186 

174,751 

110,229 

123,393 

139,555 

434,248 



3,086,035 



1918 



$570 
210,293 
187,025 
700,641 
177^951 

92,713 
140,393 
186,920 
125,055 
293,327 

79,369 
744,579 



2,938,836 



1918 » 



$40,029 

50,347 
116,868 
423,890 
180,244 

88,724 
157,507 
216,676 

99,598 
362,902 

93,187 
778,462 



2,616,434 



1919* 



$21,803 
288,258 

42,690 

1,314,898 

208,474 

159,548 

99,998 
228,292 
199,491 
616,409 
155,643 
872,677 



4,208,181 



1920S 



$5,981,340 



1 Included in " Photographic goods" prior to 1912. This class contains paper and other sensitized goods 
not included in pars. 380 or 576. No doubt a large share of this total does consist , however, of photographic 
films other jthan moving-picture films, and photographic dry plates. 

> Calendar year. 

• 

Other apparatus and all other photographic goods ^ — Domestic exports {fiscal years) » 



Exported to- 



other apparatus 

All other picture goods. 



1912 



$180,243 
476,955 



1913 



$268,088 
593,697 



1914 



$183,660 
688,272 



1915 



$102,673 
721,166 



1916 



$455,682 
1,641,315 



Exported to- 



other apparatus 

All other picture goods. 



1917 



$436,420 
1,338,536 



1918 



$545,629 
1,318,694 



1918S 



$782,177 
1,345,174 



1919* 



$2,105,061 
1,939,924 



1920S 



$3,218,806 
3,084,628 



1 These classes are not given here by countries, as they do not seem to include mainly photographic goodsj 
covered bv tariff pars. $80 and 576. 
s Calendar years. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



27 



Photographic cameras, dry plates, and films— Rates oj duty. 



Act of— 



1913 



1912 



1909 



1997 
1894 
1890 
1883 



Par. 



380 



404 



576 



474 



500 



458 
358} 



Tariff classification or description. 



Photographic cameras, and parts thereof, not specially provided 
for in tnis section, pnotoj^phic dry plates, not specially pro- 
vided for in this section. 
Photograpnio-fllm negatives: 

Imported in any form, for use in any way in connection with 
moving-picture exhibits, or for making or reproducing pic- 
tures for such ei±ibit8, exposed but not developed. 
If exposed and developed 



Photographic-film positives, imported in any form, for use in any 
way in connection with moving-nicture exhibits, including 
herein all modng, motion, motopnotography or cinematog- 
raphy film pictures, prints, positives, or duplicates of every 
kind and nature, and of whatever substance made. 

Provided, however. That all photographic films imported under 
this section shall be subject to such censorship as may be 
imposed by the Secretary of the Treasury. 

Articles the growth, produce, or manufacture of the United States, 
when retiuned after having been exported, without having 
been advanced in value or improved in condition by any proc- 
ess of manufacture or other means * * * photographic 
dry plates or films of American manu&cture (except mo^g^> 
picture films), exposed abroad, whether developed or not, and 
films from moving-picture machines, lig^t struck or otherwise 
damaged, or worn out, so as to be unsuitable for any other 
purpose than the recovery of the constituent materials, pro- 
vided the basic films are of American manufacture * * *. 

Photographic and moving-picture films, sensitized, but not 
exposea or developed. 

That it shall be unlawful for any person to * * * bring or 
cause to be brought into the umted States from abroad any 
film or other pictorial representation of any prize fight or en- 
counter of pugilists, under whatever name, which is designed 
to be used or may be used for purposes of public exnibi- 
tion * * *. 

Photographic drv plates or films, not otherwise specially pro- 
vided for in this section. 

Photographio-film negatives, imported in any form, for use in 
any way in connection with moving-picture exhibits, or for 
maJdng or reproducing pictures for sucn exhibits and moving- 
picture films not developed or exposed. 

Photographic film positives, imported in any form, for use in any 
way in coimection with moving-picture exhibits, including 
herein all moving, motion, motopnotography or cinematogra- 
phy film pictures, prints, positives or duplicates of every land 
and nature, and of whatever substance made. 

Articles the growth, produce, or manufacture of the United States, 
not including animals, when returned after having been ex- 
ported, without having been advanced in value or improved 
m condition by any process of manufacture or other means: 
* * * phot<^rapluc dry plates or films of American manu- 
facture (except moving-picture films), exposed abroad, wheth- 
er developed or not, and films from movmg-picture machines, 
light struck or otherwise damaged, or worn out, so as to be 
unsuitable for any other purpose than the recovoy of the 
constituent materials, provided the basic films are of Ameri- 
can manufacture * ♦ ♦. 

Photographic dry plates or fihns 

do r 

(Not enumerated) 

do 



Rates of doty, specific 
and ad vdorem. 



15 per cent ad valorem. 



2 cents per linear or 
running foot. 

3 cents per linear or 
running foot. 

1 cent -per linear or 
runnizig foot. 



Free. 



Free list. 



25 per cent ad valorem. 
Do. 



1) cents per linear or 
running foot. 



Free. 



26 per cent ad valorem. 
Do. 



Court and Treasury Decisions. 



anemat()graph or moving-picture films were held to be photo- 

fraphs dutiable under paragraph 403 of the act of 1897. (United 
tates V. Sussfeld, 1 Ct. Oust. Appls. 61, of 1910.) A camera without 
Jens was held dutiable under paragraph 111 of that act relating to 
optical instruments, or frames, or mountings for the same 5^b- 
«tract 18446, T. D. 28850, of 1908), and enlargers, plate holders and 
slides for cameras were held dutiable under paragraph 108, a similar 
provision in the act of 1909. (Abstract 32370, T. D. 33433, of 



28 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

1913.) Camera tripods were declared not to be parts of cameras 
within ptwagraph 380 of the act of 1913, but dutiable as manufactures 
of metal under para^aph 167. (G. A. 7650, T. D. 34998, of 1914.) 

The following articles were held dutiable as cameras or parts 
thereof under paragraph 380: 

Enlarging cameras. (G. A. 7915, T. D. 36451, of 1916; Abstracts 
40930 and 41125, of 1917.) 

Photographic screens, invoiced as ^'ecrans" to be attached to a 
square frame on the lens of the camera, used in taking pictures in 
colors. (Abstract 40173, of 1916; Abstract 41167, of 1917.) 

PhotoOTaphic screens composed of two sheets of plain glass having 
a coat m geletin and balsam between them. (Abstract 40486, oi 
1916.) 

Cooke's process prisms in the shape of a triangular prism, the back 
and two sides entirely of metal, a lens in each of two faces, etc. 
(Abstract 39352, of 1916; Abstract 41177, of 1917.) 

Cameras with microscopes and other parts imported together, 
but each having a separate invoiced price, were classified by the 
collector as entireties with the microscope under paragraph 94, but 
the cameras were held separately dutiable. It ivas shown that the 
camera is sometimes used with the microscope and fit other times 
separately and independently. (Abstract 40680, of 1917.) An 
exposed and developed photograph-film negative printed from a 
positive taken from the original negative is not dutiable as "photo- 
graphic-film negatives'' at 3 cents, but at 1 cent per linear or run- 
ning foot under this paragraph as ^'moving, motion, motophoto- 
graphy or cinematography film pictures * * * Q-f duplicates 
of every kind and nature.'' (G. A. 8039, T. D. 37073, of 1917, 
following Abstract 39882, of 1916.) 

Scraps of sensitized film produced in cutting to small sizes large 
rolls of photographic film, suitable for no other commercial purpose 
than the recovery of the silver salts and the pyroxylin were classified 
as waste under the act of 1909. (G. A. 7133, T. D. 31130, of 1910.) 

Evidence in accordance with the regulations of the Treasury 
Department must be produced for the free entrv of irioving-picture 
films as American goods exported and returned. (T. D. 34892, of 
1914, and Stone v. United States, 7 Ct. Gust. Appls. 439, of 1917.) 

Under the act of July 31, 1912, any film or other pictorial repre- 
sentation of a prize fignt, under whatever name, which is designed 
to be used or made to be used for public exhibition, is forbidden 
importation under penalty of fine or imprisonment, or both. (Weber 
V. Freed, 239 U. S. 325, and Kalisthenic Exhibitor Co. (Inc.) v. 
Emmons, 225 Fed. 902, of 1915.) An encounter conducted between 
two pugilists or boxers under the Marquis of Queensbury rules in a 
24-foot ring, the contestants wearing regular boxing gloves, 5 ounces 
in weight, and the contest being limited to 20 rounds, is a prize 
fight within the meaning of the statute. A picture film representing 
such a contest is prohibited importation and subject to libel and 
condemnation. (T. D. 35531, of 1915.) A negative film made oq 
the American side of the Canadian border from a positive film ex* 
posed on the Canadian side is also within the prohibition. (Panto- 
mimic Corp. V, Malone, 238 Fed. 135, of 1916.) 

o 



1 





UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



ON THE ARTICLES IN 



PARAGRAPH 376 OF THE TARIFF ACT OF 1913 



AND RELATED ARTICLES IN OTHER PARAGRAPHS 



WORKS OF ART 

Tiiragraph 376 Para^^raphs 61 1 , 652-656 

Works of Art Works of Art. (Free List) 



REVISED EDITION 




WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
N-24 1021 



PREFACE. 



This is one of a series of Tariff Information Surveys prepared by 
the United States Tariff Commission and transmitted to the Com- 
mittee on Ways and Means. The series covers all of the articles and 
conunodities provided for in the tariff act of October 3, 1913, and 
others not specifically provided for. It is arranged in the nimierical 
order of paragraphs oi that act. 

In some cases two or more para^aphs have been combined m one 

Eamphlet. In doing this industrial relationship of the articles has 
een followed when possible. In those instances where a paragraph 
has been treated unaer a preceding paragraph of the tarm act refer- 
ence is made to this fact at the point where the parag^raph appears in 
niunerical order. Where one grade of an article is dutiable and 
another grade of the same article is on the free list, the article is 
discussed under the dutiable paragraph, which appears first in 
niunerical order in the tariff act. In certain instances articles of 
close industrial relationship and which occur in separate paragraphs 
of the tariff act have been combined under one paragraph for con- 
venience of discussion. Reference is made to this fact at the point 
where the commodities would naturally occur in numerical order. 

The first pamphlet in the series is an "Introduction and index," 
which contams: 

1. An introductory chapter discussing the scope of the series and 
the general method of treatment. 

2. An alphabetical index of the articles provided for in the tariff 
act of 1913, showing the paragraph of the act in which the article is 
provided for, and, if discussed under a different paragraph, the 
number of such paragraph. 

3. A list of the pamphlets in the series, showing the paragraphs 
and articles included in each pamphlet. 

Thus by use of this "Introduction and index" the exact location 
of the discussion relating to a given article or commodity can be 
ascertained. 

In the preparation of this report, the Tariff Commission had the 
services of Gmy G. George, of the Commission's staff, and of others. 

S 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Summary 7 

Summarv tables: 

Works of art — 

Free 7 

Dutiable 8 

General information: 

1 91 3 tariff paragraphs 8 

Description 9 

American art and the tariff — 

(a) Development of American galleries 9 

(bS The e^ct of the tariff on the development of art 9 

(c) Art and industry 10 

Domestic exports 10 

Imports 10 

Tariff history 10 

Statistical data: 

Imports by counties — 

Dutiable 10 

Statuary, regalia, etc 11 

For exhibitions, etc 11 

The production of American artists 11 

All other 12 

One hundred years old 12 

Original paintings, statuary, etc 12 

Imports for consumption — ^free — 

Collection in illustration progress of arts, etc 13 

Pictorial paintings on glass, etc 13 

Production of American artists 13 

Paintings in existence more than 20 years 14 

Original sculptures 14 

Ori^;inal paintings 14 

Artists* proof etdiingB 14 

Statuary; regalia; for educational purposes 14 

One hundred years old 15 

Imports for consumption— dutiable — 

Etchings and engraving, n. s. p. f 15 

Paintings, copies^ replicas, or reproductions 15 

Statuary, proiessional production 17 

Sculpture or copies 18 

Domestic exports 19 

Rates of duty 19 

Court and Treasury decisions 23 

5 



WORKS OF ART. 



SUHHABT. 

The United States is the only great Nation which places an import 
duty on works of art. However, the act of October 3, 1913, has 
practically placed art on the free list, as is indicated by the value of 
imports entered tor consumption during recent years. For example, 
in 1914 works of art to the value of $36,000,000 were entered free of 
duty and only 8700,000 were entered as dutiable. In 1920 works of 
art valued at J28,000,000 were entered free of duty, while only 
$525,000 were entered as dutiable. 

Paragraph 376 imposes a duty of 15 per cent ad valorem on works 
of art not specially provided for. This applies in a general way only 
to those works which are not original works of an artist, ancient 
art, the production of American artists abroad for use in exhibitions, 
for religious or educational purposes, and which are not for presenta- 
tion to public institutions. It will be seen that nearly alt art can 
now be imported imder the free list. 

Paragraph 376 affords little revenue, which was J78,889 in 1920, 
and onfy a httle over $100,000 in any year since 1913. Works of 
art can not be discussed from a tariff viewpoint in the same way 
that other articles of commerce can. Art seems to be one field in 
which foreign competition of neither the poor nor the good product 
is feared, but rather the American artist feels that his own livelihood 
depends to a great extent upon the free importation and exhibition 
of works of art, both ancient and contemporary. 

The arguments and facts presented in the tariff hearings {1908- 
1909, pp. 7205 to 7277, and in 1913, pp. 5692 to 5708), together 
with opinions of artists and directors of galleries recently obtained, 
lead to the conclusion that no import duty is desired on works of 
art. The act as it exists at present has not, however, aroused any 
particular criticism. 





Y«u-. 


imports tor 


Domcslic 




i 


*''SS'™ 










,^i^5S 





































TARIFF INFOBMATION SURVEYS. 
Summary to6te — Continued. 

DUTIABLE. 



v,». 


suioptlon. 


Domestic 
exports. 

'298,321 
4M,5» 


Amount 
K3fl,lBl 

ii 


olentad 
valorem 
rate. 




«, 668, 780 

'98?; 377 
1,385,181 

319^844 

IS 

iJ^^ 
5^:963 


P^«M. 
































1,160|015| 27|381 

























General Infobuation. 



1913 TARIFF PARAGRAPHS. 



376. Works of art, including paintings in oil or water colors, pas- 
tels, pen and ink drawings, or copie3, replicas or reproductions of any 
of the same, statuary, sculptures, or copies, replicas or reproductions 
thereof, and etchings and ei^avings, not specially provided for in 
this section, 15 per cent ad valorem. 

611. Statuary and casts of sculpture for use as models or for art 

educational purposes only; regalia and gems, * * * for the use 

and by order of any society * * * for religious, philosophical, 

educational, scientific, or literary purposes, * * * free of duty. 

ginal paintings in oil, nuneral, water, or other colors, pas- 

lal drawings and sketches in pen and ink or pencil and 

irs, artists proof etchings unbound, and engravings and 

unbound, original sculptures or statuary, including not 

two replicas or reproductions of the same; * * * free 

)rks of art, drawing, engravings, photographic pictures, 
;ophical and scientific apparatus brought by professional 
turers, or scientists arriving from abroad for use by them 
y for exhibition and in illustration, promotion, and en- 
iut of art, science, or industry in the United States, and 
e, shall be admitted free of duty, * * *. 
)rks of art, collections in illustration of the progress of the 
ces, agriculture, or manufactures, photographs, works in 
a, panan, pottery, or porcelain, antiquities and artistic 
reof in metal or other material, * * * for exhibition 
r for a municipal corporation, for the purpose of erecting 
LOnument, and not intended for sale * * * free of duty. 
>rks of art, productions of American artists residing tem- 
broad, or other works of art, including pictorial pamtings 
nported expressly for presentation to a national institution 
State or municipal corporation or incorporated religious 
allege, or other public institution, including stained or 



TABIFF INFOBMATIOK SURVEYS. 9 

painted window glass or stained or painted glass windows imported 
to be used in houses of worship, * * * free of duty. 

656. Works of art (except rugs and carpets), collections in illus- 
tration of the progress of the arte, works in * * *, and objects of 
ji^pI; * * * which shall have been produced more than 100 years 
prior to the date of importation, * * * free of duty. 

DESCRIPTION. 

The various paragraphs of the act of 1913 relating to works of art 
are comprehensive and easy of administration, since the decisions 
thereunder have been concerned mainly with the proper classification 
of articles rather than with construction of the paragraphs them- 
selves. The principal decisions imder paragraph 376 relate to works 
in marble and usually hinge on the point as to whether or not the 
article in question is a work of art or an article of utility and a manu- 
facture of marble. Other decisions hinge on the words ^' original'^ or 
'*copy," and whether certain articles are properly included within 
the meaning of the paragraph in question. 

AMERICAN ART AND THE TARIFF. 

{a) Development of American galleries. — '^ Fifty years ago there was, 
I believe, only one public art gallery in America, the Dusseldorf gal- 
lery of New xork, * * *; and to-day art museums are scattered 
all over the land, and are multiplying," said Bryan Lathrop, of 
Chicago, in his remarks before the committee during its hearings of 
1908 on this subject. The large cities of the United States contain 
the principal art collections and galleries, <5hief among these being 
New York, Chicago, Boston, and Washington. 

It is stated that much more than one-ialf of the imported art in 
our public museums has been acquired by the gifts or loans of private 
collectors. Art can not properly be regarded, therefore, as only the 
luxury of the rich. The imported paintings in the Metropolitan 
Museum of New York were valued at $5,000,000 in 1908, four-fifths 
of which were acquired by gifts or loans of private collectors. Nearly 
1,000,000 people yearly visit this museum. It is estimated that one- 
half of the collection in the Corcoran gallery in Washington, in value, 
was presented or is loaned by private individuals. Any duty on 
original works of art would discourage its importation and retard the 

frowth of American galleries. Undoubtedly the past tariff laws have 
ept out many valuable works of art.^ 
(b) The effect of the tariff on the development of art. — ^It is obvious 
that a tax on art is a tax on education and cmture. It limits the 
number of art objects in the country in either public or private pos- 
session, and thus retards the study of the artists and the growth of 
appreciation of art by the public. The artist himself does not desire 
a tariff, since by limiting the importe of art he not only suffers to that 
extent the lack of opportunity to study works of foreign art at home, 
but Ihe demand for his product is retarded by anything which hinders 
the growth of public appreciation of art. rrotection to the artist is 
interpreted more as seclusion. Protection can be claimed neither to 
extend aid to American artists, nor to elevate the American taste for 

1 Tariff hearings, 1908-1909, pp. 7212 to 8210. 
64912— 21— N-24 2 



10 



TAltlFF IN*'0RBIATI6K SURVEYS. 



fine art. The highest development of art can only be attained 
through the fullest knowledge of art, both ancient and modem. 

(c) Art arid industry. r— The relation of the fine arts to the industries 
is often not fully appreciated. The development of an artistic taste 
and skill is of the greatest importance to the manufacturing indus- 
tries and the trades, in fact, m any field in which the proaucts of 
form and design play an important part. For instance, art plays a 
large part in the textile industry, in the wood and metal-worting 
inoustries, and in architecture and building. The ability to compete 
successfully with the rest of the world in the finer g^rades of products 
depends in no small degree upon maintaining artistic standards com- 
parable with those of other nations. 

DOMESTIC EXPORTS. 

American exports of works of art go principally to France, Ger- 
many, England, Canada, and Italy. The total yearly value of 
exports before the war was about $1,000,000. 

IMPORTS. 

Imports into the United States of works of art come mainly from 
France, Germany, Italy, and England. The average yearly value of 
''works of art, all other'' (dutiable), imported from 1905 to 1909 
was somewhat over $4,000,000. The act of 1909 removed the duty 
on works of art over 20 years old. The value of dutiable works of 
art dropped to about $600,000 in 1910, while the value of ''art works, 
all other,'' jumped to $18,000,000 and hxcreased to $50,000,000 in 
1913. The importation of ''art works, all other," decreased mate- 
rially during the war, but in 1918 their value was approximately 
treble that of 1909, the last year before the removal of the duty on 
art over 20 years old. 

TARIFF HISTORY* 

The act of 1883 placed a duty of 30 per cent ad valorem on works 
of art, except certain designated classes for special purposes. The 
act of 1890 reduced the duty to 15 per cent, while the act of 1894 
placed art on the free list. The act of 1897 imposed a duty of 20 
per cent, which the act of 1909 reduced to 15 per cent. The act of 
1909 inserted the 20-year clause above mentioned, and the act of 
1913 dropped this clause. 

Imports by countries. 
WORKS OF ART, DUTIABLE. 



Fiscal years. 



1910.. 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 
1914.. 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 

1918 2. 

1919 2. 

1920 a. 



France. 



$594,021 

396,643 

384,890 

648,177 

275,261 

38,362 

36,998 

22,421 

17,797 

10,735 

14,187 



Germany. 



1133,303 

160,766 

103,233 

109,703 

113,655 

33,091 

1,026 

239 



712 



Italy. 



$285,838 

296,517 

270,705 

288,701 

243,085 

189,320 

220,688 

185,331 

68,559 

44,337 

95,837 



England. 



$469,163 

220,093. 

163,557 

253,087 

110,337 

34,581 

49,845 

28,868 

23,169 

14,298 

26,875 



All other.» 



$218,868 

528,148 

119,651 

187,038 

122,903 

30,195 

26,477 

19,222 

10,305 

7,529 

13,826 



Total. 



$1,701,193 

1,591,167 

1,042,036 

1,486,706 

865,241 

325,549 

'335,034 

256,081 

119,830 

76,899 

178,437 

527,103 



1 Other important countries exporting to the United State? were Netherlands, Austria-Hungary, Spain, 
Canada, and Japan. 

2 Calendar years. 



TABIFF INF0B1£ATI0K SUBVEYS. 



11 



Imports by countriei — Gontinued. 

STATUARY, REGALIA, GEMS, ETC., FOR RELIOIOTT8 OR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES, 

FREE, (FISCAL YEARS). 



Imported from— 


France. 


Germany. 


Italy. 


England. 


All other.i 


Total. 


1910 


1105,592 
150,578 
141,626 
156,765 
146,217 
74, 174 


142,829 
70,217 
34,849 
79,232 
89,122 
41.401 


S76,435 
72,787 
75,943 
29,579 

139,131 
34,086 
17,739 
14,198 
20,507 
28,824 
24,585 


111,438 
11,932 

12,629 

24,049 

11,782 

16,384 

8,706 

o94 

2,058 

100,954 


136,314 
47,007 
56,994 
46,028 
46,150 
35,594 
31,886 
32,376 
29,031 
27,229 
44,018 


$272,608 


1911 


352,621 
347,410 


1912 


1913 


324,283 
444,660 
197,127 
155,225 


1914 


1915 


1916 


79,178 10;638 
71,466 131 


1917 , 


126,877 
124,034 
111,104 


1918 


73,902 
52,993 
68,750 




191S« 


............ 


1919* 


533 


238,840 


1920* 


307,472 















WORKS OF ART, FOR EXHIBITION, PRESENTATION TO PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS, ETC., 

FREE. 



Fiscal years. 



1910.. 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 
1914.. 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 

1918 *. 

1919 «. 

1920 «. 



France. 



1337,995 

306,375 

151,519 

179,191 

592,835 

75,854 

24,463 

22,207 

636 

4,096 

172,070 



Germany. 



154,236 

100,044 

101,637 

131,362 

226,882 

23,564 

38,015 

6,311 



36,249 



Italy. 



S16,131 

32,155 

243,409 

195,560 

153,607 

179,494 

166,816 

94,188 

59,016 

41,843 

59,835 



England. 



|1,V02,046 

125,335 

320,442 

143,206 

264,711 

90,753 

116,679 

85,858 

26,767 

66,363 

66,379 



All other. 



$83,878 
68,016 
43,136 

260,539 
76,625 
22,822 
41,055 

139,861 

26,582 

7,829 

22,417 



T 



Total. 



$2,193,286 
641,825 
860,143 
909,858 
1,314,660 
392,487 
387,028 
348,425 
113,001 
110,131 
356,950 
336,331 



WORKS OF ART— THE PRODUCTION OF AMERICAN ARTISTS, FREE. 



1910. . 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 
1914.. 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 

1918 2. 

1919 3. 

1920 «. 



$465,769 

348,522 

393,860 

375,027 

497,923 

118,606 

162,680 

42,700 

42,783 

10,640 

133,425 



$50,208 
36,896 
27,807 
31,704 
13,191 
850 
26,500 



$59,964 
95,016 
78,948 
55,787 
72,435 
58,910 
68,330 
8,191 
15,426 
12,276 
23,775 



$140,920 

111,728 

130,661 

71,091 

04,366 

8,346 

23,240 

17,906 

11,855 



24,780 



$36,535 

48,398 

169,378 

106,214 

113,230 

20,261 

45,382 

68,929 

31,129 

8,351 

46,805 



$763,396 
640,660 
800,664 
639,823 
761, 186 
206,979 
326,132 
137,736 
101,192 
25,867 
228, 796 
'224,691 



1 Other important countries included in "All other" were Switzerland, Canada, and Austria-Hungary. 

2 Calendar years. 



12 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Imports ly countries — Continued. 

ART WORKS— ALL OTHER (ORIGINAL), FREE i (FISCAL YEARS). 



Imported from— 1910 


19U 


1912 


1913 1914 


1915 


Anstria-Hongary $44,248 

Belgiirai 22^884 

France 8»441,491 

Germany 803,032 

Italy 335,035 

Netherlands. 247,037 

.qpain , J«,314 


$109,588 

21,154 

10,582,150 

1,022,594 

582,727 

127,062 

158,502 

6,785,347 

533,633 


$126,181 

44,675 

16,309,638 

L123,048 

391,035 

151,900 

30,160 

H 879, 916 

638,153 


$47,664 $^141 

209,066 136,066 

21,060,555 21,558»326 

L674,944 1,843,597 

608,424 614,430 

91,812 413,150 

45,454 57,767 


$44,650 

8,083 

7,621,315 

239,892 

837,555 

137,065 

53.611 


U^plftTwl «,2A$;472 


26,355,119 7,720,966 8.033.533 


Canada. '284; 462 

Brasfl 10 


87,113 275,148 


159,644 

43,799 

152,946 
iin *» 


China ! 17,293 

Japan ! 33»123 


79,'756 

88,302 

173,286 


28,729 
103,805 
^2,765 


127,065 63,027 
219.570 177.256 


Another 79,730 


193,302 475»209 i 50d,'784 


TotaL 18,634,131 


20,264^115 


34,250,005 


50,749,108 i 33,384,073 

1 


1 17,913,049 



Imported from— 



Austria-Hungary 

Bdginm. 

France 

Germany 

Italv 

Netheriands 

Spain 

England 

CafuMia 

Brarii 

China 

Japan 

All other 

Total 



1916 



1917 



1918« 



195 $1,167 

14 

8,669,064 8,795,922 $3,271,068 

45,774 257 

2,161,653 1,354,916 1,849,905 

269,796 241,921 28,294 

143,645 896,923 160,331 

6,8n,947 9,951,033 3,096,202 

102,477 151,920 385,743 

1,018,412 175,064 205,214 

268,655 561,746 457,364 

243,947 367,264 281,646 

374,885 507,997 171,960 

20,170,365 23,006,150 9,907,756 



WORKS OF ART 100 YEARS OLD, FREE (CALENDAR YEARS). 



Imported from— 



1918 > 



1919 



France 

Italy 14,723 

Eo^and 408,698 

China 12,591 

H(m^ong 9,»6 

Japan 5,928 

All^er 10,928 

Total 1,155,817 



1920 



$8,034,951 

609,013 

4,585,028 

248,304 

1,655 

328,965 

1,315,760 

15,123,676 . e0,253,804 



WORKS OF ART, ORIGINAL PAINTINGS, STATUARY, ETC. (CALENDAR YEARS). 



France $161,770 $2,274,286 

Italy 25,033 50,775 

Netheriands 23,771 106,532 

Sweden 11,748 42,SS3 

En^and 216,460 2,694,986 

Canada 120,098 130,623 

All other 5,330 192,663 

Total 564,810 5,^748 



$7,029,3(8 



1 Act of Aug. 5, 1909, made original works of art 20 years old or over tree of duty. The figure for 1910 
covers the fiscal year after that date. Theactof Oct. ^ 1913, made original wortcs of art free, with cotain 
limitation.s. 

3 Separatdy stated after 1918. 

* July 1 to Dec 31, 1918. 



TABIFF INFORMATION STJBVBYS. 



13 



Imports for conm/mption, 

WORKS OF ART. COLCECTIONS IN ILLUSTRATION OP THE PROGRESS OP THE ARTS, 
SCIENCES, OR MANUFACTURES, PHOTOGRAPHS, WORKS IN TERRA COTTA, PARIAN, 
POTTERY^ OR PORCELAIN, ANTIQUITIES. AND ARTISTIC COPIES OF, IN METAL OR 
OTHER MATERIAL, IMPORTED IN GOOD FAITH FOR EXHIBITION AT A FIXED 
PLACE, BY ANY STATE, SOCIETY, OR INSTITUTION ESTABLISHED FOR THE EN- 
COURAGEMENT OF THE ARTS, SCIENCE, AGRICULTURE, OR EDUCATION. OR FOR 
A MUNICIPAL CORPORATION, AND ALL LIKE ARTICLES IMPORTED IN GOOD FAITH 
BY ANY SOCIETY OR ASSOCLA.TION FOR THE PURPOSE OF ERECTING A PUBLIC 
MONUMENT, AND NOT INTENDED FOR SALE, NOR FOR ANY OTHER PURPOSE THAN 
HEREIN EXPRESSED. 



Fiscal year. 



1908.. 
1909.. 
1910.. 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 
1914.. 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1918 1. 
1919 1. 
19201. 
1921 «. 



Rate of duty. 



Free.. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do, 

do, 

do, 

do 



Quantity. 



Value. 



1728,827 

1,148,709 

2,415,782 

609,002 

783,330 

853,427 

936,642 

40,473 

147,580 

178,965 

240,507 

241,737 

84,139 

172,210 

150,282 



Duty col- 



leccc 



lecced. 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Average ad 

valOTem 

rates 

(per cent). 



WORKS OF ART, INCLUDING PICTORIAL PAINTINGS ON GLASS, INCLUDING STAINED 
OR PAINTED WINDOW GLASS OR STAINED OR PAINTED GLASS WINDOWS TO BE 
USED IN HOUSES OF WORSHIP, AND EXCLUDING ANY ARTICLE IN WHOLE OR IN 
PART MOLDED, CAST, OR MECHANICALLY WROUGHT, FROM METAL WITHIN 20 
YEARS PRIOR TO IMPORTATION, IMPORTED EXPRESSLY FOR PRESENTATION 
TO A NATIONAL INSTITUTION OR TO ANY STATE OR MUNICIPAL CORPORATION, 
OR INCORPORATED RELIGIOUS SOCIETY, COLLEGE, OR OTHER PUBLIC 
INSTITUTION. 



1908.. 
1909.. 
1910.. 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 
1914.. 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
19181. 
19191. 
19201. 
1921 s. 



Free.. 
.....do. 

do. 

do. 

.....do. 

do. 

do, 

do. 

do. 

do. 

.*...do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

....do 



$27,775 
57,671 
258,637 
229,646 
81,257 
106,519 
287,418 
409,749 
241,^ 
170,075 
100,341 
92,966 
272,811 
163,921 
127,061 



THE PRODUCTION OF AMERICAN ARTISTS RESIDING TEMPORARILY ABROAD. 



1908.. 
1909.. 
1910.. 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 
1914.. 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1918 1. 
1919 1. 
19201. 
1921 «. 



Free.. 

do, 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do, 

do. 

do, 

do, 

do. 

do, 

do. 

do 



$402,194 
549,661 
661,976 
640,974 
718,941 
559,871 
753,041 
383,607 
303,473 
125,459 
101, 188 

25,863 
228,795 
224,591 

63,486 



1 Calendar years. 



> Six months ended June 30, 1921. 



TABIFP INFORMATION SUBVETS. 



14 

Import* for confumpti»)»— Contuiued. 

PAINTIMG8 IN OIL, UUTERAL, WATBB, OB OTHER COLOBS, FASTEU, OBIQINAL 
PHA WlWqa AND 8SETCHSB, ETCmMOa, AND ENOSAVINaa, AND KDLPTITRKB 
VmCH HAVE BEEN IN KXIBTENCB KOBE THAN 3D TEABB FKIOE TO THEIB DATF 
OF niPOKTATION. (ACT OF UOB.) 



nralync. 


WLtoti'o.tf. j QamtHy. 


V.lo». 


Dntrcot- 


VBhuper 
tmUoI 


(pwian't). 






lii 




1 











































OKiaiNAL8CUlPTUEE8 0E8TATUAHY, INCLUDING NOT KOBE THAN TWO BEFLICAS 
OB BEPBODUCTIONB. (ACT OF 1913.) 





Tt« ' 


1 


1 






















































































S4,3M 





















OBIOINAL FAINTINOS IN OIL, lONEBAL, WATEB, OR OTHEB COLOBS, PABTBLB, 
■' '-- PEN-AND-INK OE PENCIL AND WATEB 


























































































































r™ 1... 


\ '^Z 















































































































s 






^s 


1 


































^1 

11 





















































































































• six moDttu «Dd»d June 30, 1931. 



TABIEF IKFOIlUAiriON SUBVKYS. l&t 

itnjwrti /or cOfUumptum—ContuLued. 

WORKS or AHT (KXOKPT ROOB AND CARPETS), COLLSCTIONB IN ILLUBTaATION 
OF THE PROGRESS OP THE ARTS. WORKS IN BRONZE, MAEBLE, TERRA COTTA, 
PARIAN, POTTERY, OR PORCELAIN, ARTISTIC ANTiQDITIES AND OBJECTS OF ART 
OP ORNAMENTAL CHlARACTEa OH EDUCATIONAL VALUE WHICH HAVE BEEN 
PRODUCED MORE THAN 100 YEAHB PHIOE TO THE DATE OF IMPORTATION. (ACTS 
OF I9W AND 1813.) 



PfaclyttT. 


KalBoTduty. 


CBumUty. 


vu» 


■a?- 


VsluBper 
quftnUly. 


AvMBgead 
(ptrceot). 








W S13 

i i 
i i 
1 i 

































































































































































ETCHINGS AND ENORA VINOS, N. 8. P. F. (ACT OF 1913.) 
(Under geBeroltarllT.] ,._.... 



■ 


.'^.^T-:::: 




23,ees 
ilaifl 


11 




8.01 






























1 





















































IN OIL OB WATER COLORS, PASTELS AND PEN-AND-INK DRAWINGS, OB 

COFIEB, REPLICAS, OR REPRODUCTIONS. 









.,Sif 

812, tea 

1,064; 081 

' li 

68,228 
42,711 

^178 
2211, Ml 

83,878 


(seeGis 




20.00 








17^753 

II 

11 

Is 

9;ssi 








f:.::32:::::::::::; 






wioo 




''»'^'=^' 

































































































































luendsdluiiBSa, 1021. 



16 



TARIFF IHFOBMATIO:y SURVEYS. 



hnporUfor ecmsitmpticn — Continued. 

PAINTINGS IK OIL OR WATER COLORS. PASTELS AND PEN-AND-INK DRAWINGS OR 

COPIES, REPLICAS, OR REPRODUCTIONS-ContimKd. 

Fbom Cvtba {R mrmouii Tezatt, Dbc. 27, 1908). 



Fiscal jcw. 



Rate of doty- 



Value. 



ru,^^ Valneper 
.JCSZ,, mdtot iadTakrem 
*"**~- qnantitT. I late. 



1908 


20 per emt le« 20 
pereent. 


$17« 

343 


$28 
51 




Per CMC 
16.00 

lfi.mi 


1909 




1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 


15 per cent le« 20 
peront. 

do 

....Ao 

jdo» 


75 

: 274 

10 

90 


9 : ! izoo 

32 i IZOO 

1 i 12.00 

3 : izoo 




/....do... 


75 


9 ' ! IZOO 


1914 


\....do 


15 


1 ! 1 12.00 


1917 


do..... 


» 85 


10 ! 1S.I» 


191« 


do 


1 


12 

4 
9 


1 


12.00 


1919t 


.do.<. 


35 




IZOO 


1920» 


dA 


75 


.... • 


IZOO 


1 


i 






Fbom PmupporB Isuunw. (Acts of Mas. 3, 1905, Auo. 5,ir)9, ahd Oct. 3, 1913.) 


1906 


75 per oe&t of 20 
pef cent. 

.... .do. •>...•■•... 


•39 


$5 

7 


1 
1 


l&OO 

l&OO 
l&OO 


1909 


49 




1910 


/....do 

1 PM.fcrt 


1 




1911 


C lOB. .......a..... 

.... .do. «. ......... 


3 

1 






1914 


.... .do. ........... 


216 






1915 


.... .do. ••......•.. 


75 






1916 




2 






1918 




22 




i 


1920» 


.... .do. ........... 


120 




• «••««.•••••>••««•••••••• 






1 




t 




From Fbavcs < 


[RBOPROaTT AOREEMENT, . 


rUNE 1, 1898). 


1908 


15 per cent 


$797,555 


$119,633 
94,664 

1 




15.00 
15.00 

1 


1909 


do 


631,093 








1 


1 




Fbom Obbmant 


(REOPROaTY AOREEMENT, 


July 13, 1900). 


1908 


15 perceat 


» 
106,359 


$14,453 
36,617 


1 


15.00 
15.00 


1909 




244,115 


I 








t 




From Italy (I 


LEciPRoaTY Agreement, Ji 


7LY 18, 1900). 


1908 


15 per omt 


1 
' t01,537 


$13,730 
16,656 




15.00 


1909 


....Vdo 


1U,046 




15.00 












From Spain (] 

_ _ - , 

15 percent 


ftECIPROaTY AOREEMENT, S 


EPT. 1, 1906). 


1908 


1 $1,520 


$228 

2,092 




15.00 


1909 




13,947 


t 


15.00 




1 









1 Calendar year. 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



17 



ImporUfcT consumption — Continued. 
From Switzerland (REciPBoaTT Agrekment, Jan. 1, 1906). 



Piscal year. 



Rate of duty. 



1008 lo percent. 

1900 ! do 



Quantity. 



Value. 



$1,796 
1,079 



Duty col- 
lected. 



$269 
161 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Average ad 
valorem 

rate, 
(per cent). 



15.00 
15.00 



I 

\ 



1908. 
1909. 



From United Kingdom (REciPRoaTY Agreement, Dec. 6, 1907). 



15 per cent . 
do 



$83,341 
673,122 



$12,501 
85,968 



15.00 
15.00 



Duty Remitted (On Above No. 96). 



1910. 

1912. 
1914. 
1915. 



For use of foreifm 
diplomatic ofR- 
cers. 

do 

f#...do 
Sec. IV. J 5, act of 
Oct. 3, 1913. 
For use of forei^ 
diplomatic offi- 
cers. 



$19 



48 

1,232 
50 

1,070 



STATUARY WROUGHT BY HAND, THE PROFESSIONAL PRODUCTION OF A SCULPTOR . 



1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 



2(>percent. 

do 

do 

15 percent. 

.....do 

do 

do 

do 



$13,598 
11,091 
1,821 
265,469 
290,860 
234,064 
291,069 
102,654 



$2,720 
2,218 
364 
39,820 
43,630 
35,109 
43,660 
15,398 



20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
15.00 
15.00 
15.00 
15.00 
15.00 



From Cuba (REOPRoaTT Treaty, Dec. 27, 1903). 



1911. 



15 per cent less 20 
per cent. 



$25 



$3 



12.00 



From France (REciPRoaTY Agreement, June 1, 1898). 



1908. 
1909. 



15 per cent. 



$27,576 
18,013 



$4,136 
2,701 



15.00 
15.00 



From Italy (Reciprocity Agreement, July 18, 1900)* 



1908. 
1909. 



15 pw cent. 
do..... 



$225,784 
190,569 



$33,867 
28,585 



15.00 
15.00 



From Germany (Reciprocity Agreement, Jxtly 13, 1900). 



1908. 
1909. 



15 per cent. 
do 



$3,305 
15,369 



$495 
2,305 



15.00 
15.00 



18 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Imports for con$umpt\(m — Ck)iitinued. 
From Portugal (RsciFBoaTT Aobbeicent, June 12, 1000). 



Fiscal yean 



1008. 



Rate of duty. 



15 per cent. 



Quantity. 




Duty col- 
lected. 



%l 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Average ad 
valwem 

rate, 
(per cent). 



15.00 



From Spain (REOPRoaTT Agreement, Sept. i, 1006). 


1008 


15 per cent 




$33 


$4 




15.00 












From Switzerland (REOPRoaTT Agreement, Jan. 1, 1006). 


1008 


15 Der cent 


110 

78 


$2 
11 




15.00 


1000 


.....do .'!.!!! !!!;!!;!!!!!!! 




15.00 




■" 






From United Kingdom (REOPRoaTT Agreement, Dec. 5, 1007). 


1008 


15 ner cent 




$315 $47 
066 144 




15.00 


1000 


do 






15.00 


1 










SCULPTURES OR COPIES, REPLICAS OR REPRODUCTIONS. (ACT OF 1013.) 



1914.. 
1916.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1918». 
19191. 
19201. 
1921* 



15pwc«it. 

.....do 

do 

do 

do 

.....do 

....do 

....do 

do 



$156, 
197, 
236, 
101, 
73, 
43, 
112, 
272, 
126, 



039 
267 
724 
680 
600 
740 
832 
622 
106 



$23,540 
20,500 
35,508 
28,752 
11,053 
6,562 
16,924 
40,803 
18,916 



15.00 
15.00 
15.00 
15.00 
15.00 
16.00 
16.00 
16.00 
15.00 



From Philippine Tsi^ands. (Act of Oct. 3, 1013.) 


1918 


Free 




$25 














••••■••••••• ••••«••••••« 


From Cuba (REOPRoaTT Treaty, Dec. 27, 1903). 


1917 


15 per cttit less 20 

percent. 
.... .do... ......... 




$25 
40 


$3 

4 




12.00 


1920* 






12.00 












Duty Remitted (on Above No. 99). . 


1914 


For use of foreim 
diplomatic offi- 
cers. 




$30 














• 


-■ 



a 

3EJ.., 

X\ 

ifid... 
ai.... 

a. 

lim.. 



% 



1 Calendar years* 



3 6 months ended Jvme 30, 1921. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



19 



Domutic exports (fiscal years). 



Exported to— 



1910 



1911 



1912 



France... 
Qermany. 

Italy 

Bn^and., 
Canada.. 
Cuba..... 
All other. 



$154,186 

600,781 

34,610 

111,009 

118,444 

560 

46,006 



1144,208 

83,817 

97,647 

151,852 

116,655 

3,102 

83,225 



Total ! 1,065,695 



680,506 



$453,571 

113,509 

26,499 

130,957 

144,622 

5,339 

68,930 



943,427 



1913 



$272,054 

74,631 

36,970 

102,723 

137, 4ao 

10.^ 
184,451 



818,604 



1914 



$610,404 
121,468 
94,406 
284,882 
198,586 
3,691 
106,830 



1,415,302 



1915 



$68,538 

4,538 

5,810 

36,976 

133,784 

2,126 

46,579 



298,821 



Exported to— 



France... 
Germany. 

Italy 

England.. 
Canada... 

Cuba 

AU other. 



1916 



1917 



$34,025 



Total. 



6,598 
43,395 

175,201 
17,127 

128,183 



$72,690 



3,118 

51,070 

158,779 

23,730 

86,481 



404,529 395,868 



1918 



$16,750 



935 

6,204 

131,147 

56,748 

105,927 



31?, 711 



> Calendar years. 



Rates of duty, 

DUTIABLE. 



19181 



$16,750 



5,825 

6,261 

122,132 

39,278 

50,789 



341,035 



1019 1 



$170,305 

1,650 

25,632 

586,365 

171,853 

^728 

147,482 



1,150,015 



19201 



$1,640,701 



Act of— 




1883... 



1890. 



1804. 



1807... 



1909. 



1913... 



470 



465 



575 



454 



470 



376 



Tariff classification or description. 



Paintings, in oil or water colors, and statuary not otherwise pro- 
vided for. 

But the term "statuary." as used in the laws now in force im- 
posing duties on foreign importations, shall be understood to 
mduae professional productions of a statuary or of a sculptor 
only. 

Paintings, in oil or water colors, and statuary, not otherwise pro- 
vided for in this act. 

But the term "statuary" as herein used shall be understood to 
include only such statuary as is cut, carved, or otherwise wrought 
by hand from a solid block or mass of marble, stone, or alabaster, 
or from metal, and as is the professional production of a statuary 
or sculptor omy. 

Paintings, in oil or water colors, original drawings and sketches, 
and artists' proofs of etchings and engravings, and statuary, 
not otherwise provided for in this act. 

But the term "statuary" as herein used shall be understood 
to indude only professional productions, whether rmmd or in 
relief, in marble, stone, alabaster, wood, or metal, of a statuarv 
or sculptor, and the word" painting, "as used in this act, shall 
not be understood to include such as are made wholly or in part 
by stenciling or other mechanical process. . 
Paintings in oil or water colors, pastels, pen and ink drawings, 
and statuary, not spedally provided for in this act. 

Buttheterm "statuary" as used in this act shall be understood 
to include only such statuary as is cut, carved, or otherwise 
wrought by hand from a solid block or mass of marble, stone, or 
alabaster, or from metal, and as is the professional production of 
a statuary or sculptor only. 

Paintings in oil or water colors, pastels, pen and ink drawings, 
and sculptures, not specially provided for in this section. 

But the term "sculptures" as used in this act shall be under- 
stood to indude only such as are cut, carved, or otherwise wrought 
by hand from a S(^d block or mass of marble, stone, or alabaster, 
or from metal, and as are the professionalproduction of a sculptor 
only, and the term "painting" as used in this act shall be under- 
stood not to indude such as are made wholly or in part by sten- 
ciling or otiier mechanical process. 
Works of art, indudlng paintings in oil or water colors, pastels, 

pen and ink drawings, or copies, replicas, or reproductions 

of any of the same, statuary, sculptures, or copies, replicas, or 

reproductions thereof, and etchings and engravings, not 

spedally provided for in this section. 



Rates of duty, spedfle 
and ad ▼alorem. 



30 per centum ad va* 
lorem. 



15 per centum ad va- 
lorem. 



Free. 



20 per centum ad va- 
lorem. 



15 per centum ad va- 
lorem. 



Do. 



20 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Bates of duty — Continued. 

DUTI AB LE— Continued. 



Acto^- Par. 



1883. 



1890. 



1894. 



1897. 



1909. 



1913. 



771 



692 



603 



649 



661 



611 



Tariff dassification or description. 



Regalia and gems, statues, statuary, and specimens of sculpture, 
where spedally imported in good faith for the use of any so- 
ciety incorp(N*ated or established for philosophical, literary, 
or religious purposes, or for the encouragement of the fine arts, 
or for the lise or by order of any college, academy, school, semi- 
nary of learning, or public library in the United States. 

Reraiia and f ems, statues, statuary, and specimens of sculpture 
where specially imported in good faith for the use of any so- 



dei 
sop 



ty incorporated or established solely for educational, p 
)hical, literary, or religious purposes, or for the encow 



>hilo- 
encourage- 



held to embrace only such insignia of rank or office or emblems 
as may be worn upon the person or borne in the hand during 
public exercises of the society or institution, and shall not in- 
clude articles of furniture or fixtures, or of regular wearing 
apparel, nor personal property of individuals. 

Regalia and gems, statues, statuary, and specimens or casts of 
sculptures where specially impOTted in eood faith for the use 
of anv society incOTporaled or establi^ed solely for educa- 
tional, philosophical, literary, or reUgious purposes, or for the 
encouragement of fine arts, or for the use or oy order of any col- 
lege, academy, school, seminary of learning, or public library 
in tne United States; but the term "rega&" as herein used 
shall be held to embrace only such insignia of rank or office or 
emblems as may be worn upon the person or borne in the 
hand during public exercises of the soaety or institution, and 
shall not include articles of furniture or fixtures, or 6f regular 
wearing apparel, nor personal property of indiyiduals. 

R^^lia and eems. statuary, and specimens or casts of sculpture, 
where spedally imported in good faith for the use and by order 
of any societv incorporated or established solely for reugious, 
philosophical, educational, scientific, or literary purposes, 
or for the encouragement of the fine arts, or for the use and 
by order of any college, academy, school, or seminary of learn- 
ing in the United States, or any State or public library, and 
not tor sale; but the term ''reealia" as herein used shall be 
held to embrace only such insignia of rank or office or em- 
blems as may be worn upon the person or borne in the hand 
during public exercises of the society or institution, and shall 
not include articles of furniture or fixtures, or of regular wear- 
ing apparel, nor personal propcoty of indi'^aduals. 

Statuary and casts of sculpture for use as modeb or tar art edu- 
cational purposes only; regalia and gems, whore specially im- 
ported in good faith for the use and by order of any society in- 
corporated or established solely for religious, philosophical, 
educational, scientific, or literary purposes, or for the encour- 
agement of the fine arts, or for the use and by order of any 
college, academy, school, seminary of learning, orphan asylum, 
or public hospital in the United States, or any State or public 
library, and not for sale, subject to such regulations as the 
Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe; but the term "re- 
ealia" as herein used snail be neld to embrace only such 
insignia of rank or office or emblems as may be worn upon the 
person or borne in the hand during public exercises of the 
society or institution, and shall not include articles of furni- 
ture or fixtures, orof regular wearing apparel, nor po^onal 
property of individuals. 

Statuary and casts of sculpture tor use as models or for art educa- 
tional purposes only; regalia and gems, where specially im- 
g(wted in good faith for the use and by order of any society 
icorp(M:ated or established solely for religious, phllosohpical, 
educational, scientific, or literary purposes, or f(M: the encourage- 
ment of the fine arts, or for the use and by order of any collie, 
academy, sdiool, seminary of learning, orphan asylum, or 

Sublic hospital in the United States, or any State, or public 
brary, and not for sale, subject to such regulations as the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury shall prescribe; but the term "regalia" as 
her^ used shall be neld to embrace only such insignia of rank 
or office or emblems as may be worn upon the i>erson or borne in 
the hand during public exercises of the society or institution, 
and shall not include articles of furniture or fixtures, or of regu- 
lar wearing apparel, nor personal property of individuals. 



Rates of duty, specific 
and ad valorem. 



Free. 



•-hi. 



?.: 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



21 



Rates of duty — Continued. 
DUTIABLE— Continued. 



Actot— 



1909. 




717 



1913, 



652 



Tariff classification or description. 



1883... 



2508 



1890.... 



758 



1894. 
1897. 



687 
701 



Works of art, including paintings in oi], mineral, water, or otiier 
colors, pastels, original drawings, and sketdies, etcnings and 
engravings, and sculptures, which are proved to the satisfaction 
of the Secretary of the Treasury under rules prescribed by him 
to have been in existence more than 20 years prior to the date 
of thdr importation, but the term "sculptures'' as herein used 
shall be understood to include professional productions of 
sculptors only, whether roimd or in reUef, in bronze, marble, 
stone, terra cotta. ivory, wood, or metal: and the word "paint- 
ing," as used in this act, shall not be understood to include any 
article of utility nor such as are made wholly or in part by 
stenciling or any other mechanical process; and the words 
"etchings" and "engravings," as used in this act, shall be 
understood to include only such as are printed by hand from 
plates or blocks etched or engraved witn hand tools, and not 
such as are printed from plates or blocks etched or engraved by 
photochemical processes. * * * 

Original paintings in oil, mineral, water, or other colors, pastels, 
original drawings and sketches in pen and ink or pencil and 
water colors, artists' proof etchings unbound, and engravings 
and wood cuts unbound, original sculptures or statuary, in- 
cluding not more than two repucas or reproductions of the same; 
but the terms "sculpture" and "statuary" as used in this para- 
graph shall be understood to include professional productions 
of sculptors only, whether in round or in relief, in bronze, 
marble, stone, terra cotta, ivory, wood, or metal, or whether 
cut, carved, or otherwise wrought by hand from the solid block 
or mass of marble, stone, or alabastar, or from metal, or cast 
in bronze or other metal or substance, or from wax or plaster, 
made as the professional productions of sculptors only; and the 
words "painting" and "sculpture" and "statuary" as used in 
this paragraph shall not be understood to include any articles 
of utility, nor such as are made wholly or in part by stenciling 
or any other mechanical process; and the words ''etchings," 
"engravings," and "woodcuts" as used in this paragraph shall 
be understood to include only sudi as are printed by nand from 
plates or blocks etched or engraved with hand tools, and not 
such as are printed from plates or blocks etched or engraved 
by photochemical or other mechanical processes. 

All paintings, statuary, and photographic pictures imported into 
the United States for exhibition by any association dnly author- 
ized under the laws of the United States, or of any State, for the 
promotion and encouragement of science, art. or industry, and 
not intended for sale, shall be admitted free of duty, imder such 
regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe. 
But bonds shall be given for the payment to the United States 
of such duties as may be imposed oy law upon any and all of 
such articles as shall not be reexported withm six months after 
such importation. ' 

Works of art, drawing^, engravings, photographic pictures, and 
philosophical and scientiffc apparatus brought by professional 
artists, lecturers, or scientists arriving from abroad for use by 
them temporarily for exhibition and in illustration, promotion . 
and encouragement of art, science, or industry in the United 
States, and not for sale, and photographic pictures, paintings, 
and statuary, imported for exhibition by any association 
established in good faith and duly authorized under the laws 
of the United States, or of any State, expressly and solely for 
the promotion and encouragement of science, art, or industry, 
and not intended for sale, shall be admitted free of duty, imder 
such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury shall pre- 
scribe; but bonds shall be given for the payment to the Umted 
States of such duties as may be imposed by law upon any and 
all of such articles as shall not be exported within six months 
after such importation: Provided, That the Secretary of the 
Treasury may, in his discretion, extend such period for a 
further term of six months in cases where applications therefor 
shall be made. 

Same as act of 1890, except that the words "paintings, and 
statuary," are deleted. 

Works of art, drawings, engravings, photographic pictures, and 
philosophical and sdentinc apparatus brou^t by professional 
artists, lecturers, or scientists arriving from abr(Mtd for use by 
them temporarily for exhibition and in illustration, promotion, 
and encouragement of art, science, or industry in the United 
States, and not for sale, shall be admitted free of duty, imder 
such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury shall pre- 
scribe; but bonds shall be given for the pa3nnent to the United 
States of such duties as may be imposed by law upon any and 
all such articles as shall not be exported within six months after 
such importation: Providedj That the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury may, in his discretion, extend such period for a further term 
of six months in cases where applications therefor shall be made. 



Rates of daty, specific 
and ad vaicNrem. 



Free. 



pn. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 
RaUi of duty — Continued. 

DUTIABLE— Cod tinned. 



fooA railb fat eil>Lbit!(io a) 



te sli«iW any ol ihc tnidts »t»«aiil 






lii* priril»(*s u( itas inJ iffc- piw«i£;>.g parv"?fi 



r<« Ik allovnl to afona:Lo:'^ V <\i(i<«aii>m! er.fi£<J u-.;. .« 



23 




rM 




w^sAsw^ sat 





m -xieirvxx^id. -W-rmns MOKy. sztTffigff. 

MET irseSt ZL TtMi* Trzi7«rL 

' V~li:jT' Tim !lIBCiik 'y 71^113 JB 



Tina H scz -tt»Tti;c m^ 9ai£ ar^oB . ^nikTcmna in. 
rf lifr ^TseriaB if "lie : 

T3id s:^ iar? laesL jgJ iS uBHt anr» -^Kmn % ji ^isb ^ r w g ^ 
:3Br cue if TTT-TtTTiirriTrT- -mc :^s ±ve JnwcaiiT' .f mirn hk 

S "^a* ,7 ^* .f Jry- T jf t.Tlf- "" i|MI I ' 3I&T 

MT. If IK* _.'_ 1. 




COCKT A3fD TkEASUKT DkCLSO^S. 



of ^he 



Paraer^pc ^o : A br-^nze stAtue cass ir. a focudrr by 
a modes nude in scme p-lastic materUi bj an arasi. Del cpon wnLcii 
Ac artist did litde or nv T^Xtzi^hrr.z^ wag heLi ac^ '~s 
br hand froni mi&tAl ' within the ir-^^ar.^-y of 
act of 1S97- z^i ditiabi* as a m^iiTifactcre c^ nietal 
193. Altznan r. Ui^ited Sl*t«s- 224 U. S^ 5S3- of 1912. ■ 

To cocstitTiie ^"smlp tores" Trtd^r the art of 1^19. the 
bad to SLOW thit the artiil^ were c^it- ^^^rred. c-r rth-awisi 
by band fr-:tn s-'.hd blocks or masses of siarbLe azii th 
sererall^ the i:r:fesis::nAl i>r>f:i?ti:i:s :?€ a smlzt-rr. I>: 
United 'States'^ Ct. C^ist. App.s.. 473. of 1912. 

the aet of K^l-^ *'r:atr:Ary" and "senlr 

X'nited States' T- M&sson. 3 C^ C^Ist- ArrLs.. 



T. 



24 TAKIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS. 

168, of 1912, holding an artistic statue of gold bronze and ivory to 
be sculpture; United States v. Olivotti & Co., 7 Ct. Oust. Appls., 46, 
of 1916.) 

"Works of aft" within paragraph 376 does not cover the whole 
range of the beautiful and artistic, out only those productions of the 
artist which are something more than ornamental and decorative, 
and which may be properly ranked as examples of the free fine arts 
or possibly that class onlv of the free fine arts imitative of natural 
objects as the artist sees them and appealing to the emotions through 
the eye alone. ''Sculpture" as an art is that braiich of the free fine 
arts which chisels or carves out of stone or other solid material or 
models in clay or other plastic substances for subsequent reproduction 
by carving or casting imitations of natural objects, chiefly the human 
form, and represents such objects in their true proportions of length, 
breadth, and thickness, or of length and breadth only. 

A work is not necessarily sculpture because artistic and beautiful 
and fashioned by a sculptor from solid marble. Utilitarian articles 
do not become sculpture by reason of being adorned by the carving 
of a sculptor imless the sculptural decorations be so compelling that 
the utilitarian achievement of the artisan is lost in the realized sen- 
timent of the artist. A marble font and marble settee, the work of a 
sculptor, and incidentally embellished by him with artistic carvings, 
are not sculpture or works of art within this paragraph, but manu- 
factures of marble under paragraph 98. (United States v. Olivotti, 
7 Ct. Cust. Appls., 46, of 1916.) 

Neither the tariff act of 1913 nor this paragraph thereof limits the 
definition of the word ''sculptures" as used in said paragraph and 
the word must be given the meaning ascribed to it in common under- 
standing. A copy J replica J or reproduction under this paragraph must 
possess the same qualities or charactersitics and must be made by a 

{)rofessional sculptor or under his supervision. The history of this 
egislation shows that Congress did not intend by enacting tnis para- 
graph as new legislation to lower the standard of work necessary to 
constitute sculpture or to dispense with the requirement that such 
work must be produced by or under the supervision of a sculptor, 
thereby admitting at a low rate of duty the commercial productions 
of artisans because of characteristics rendering them attractive, 
ornamental, or beautiful. Marble parts of a temple designed as an 
ornament for a yard or a garden, which are embellished or ornamented 
with more or less elaborately cut or carved representations of various 
kinds, there being no claim that they are the professional production 
of a sculptor, are dutiable as manufactures of marble under para- 
graph 98 and not imder this paragraph as works of art or sculpture. 
If these parts are not sculpture it follows that they are not works of 
art imder this paragraph. Having denied classification as works of 
art to the parts of this temple, the court refused to classify the whole 
temple as a work of art. (United States v. Downing, 6 Ct. Cust. 
Appls., 545, of 1916.) 

Articles of utility and articles made whoUy or in part by mechanical 
processes were held to come within paragraph 376 of the act of 1913, 
if they fall within the category oi "works of art" as the term is 
broadly applied. (Dept. Order, T. D. 34438. of 1914.) 

Paragraph 611: Plaster statuary, the professional production of a 
sculptor, but not original, and suitable for use only as a model, wa& 



TAKEPF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 25 

held free of duty under this paragraph rather than dutiable as 
manufactures of plaster of Pans under paragraph 369. (Abstract 
42185, of 1918.) 

Plaster of Paris casts of sculpture, unported for use as matrices 
from which to mold reproductions, are models withm the meanmg 
of this paragraph ffl^antin^ free entry to "statuary and casts of sculp- 
ture for use as models or K)r art educational purposes." (G. A. 7632, 
T. D. 34905, of 1914.) 

Curtains and draperies for use on or about an altar of a church, 
classified under paragraph 358, were held not to be free of duty as 
regaUa imder this paragraph, nor as works of art under paragraph 
655. (Abstract 37203, of 1915.) 

A censer, benitier, and pair of burettes, the only articles in the 
importation carried in the hand during the services of the church for 
wmch they were imported, were held free of duty as regalia under 
paragraph 661 of the act of 1909. The protest was overruled as to 
all other items in the importation. (Abstract 26391, T. D. 31832, 
of 1911.) 

The right of free entry of re^aUa can not be abridged by adminis- 
trative regulations, and a regmation requiring that proof should be 
produced at the time of entry was held not to make dutiable re- 
galia shown by evidence offered to the collector before liquidation 
to be within paragraph 649 of the act of 1897. (Siegman v. United 
States, 141 Fed. 491, of 1905.) 

Fimeral palls used to decorate or place over the casket in church 
at a fimeral and carried to and from the casket by hand, often folded 
into a small bundle for convenience, were held not to come within 
paragraph 611 of the act of 1913. (Abstract 43704, of 1920, following 
Abstract 35806, T. D. 34548, of 1914.) 

ORIGINAL WORKS OF ART. 

Where paintings have been admitted free of duty, the frames on 
these, when framed, have, by a long course of practice in the customs, 
recognized by law, been dutiable, and where paintings are dutiable 
and are imported in frames these frames are not integral parts of the 
pictures and can not be deemed containers either in tnemselves or by 
the rule ejusdem generis. The pictures and the frames are separable 
for tariff purposes. (Kunfeld v. United States, 5 Ct. Oust. Appls., 
222, of 1914.) Pen and ink or pencil drawinqs colored with water 
colors, made on paper by artists working unde? direction of a master 
artist, used as originals for making plates to illustrate women's 
wearing apparel in dress catalogues and magazines, are classable as 
''origmal drawings and sketches in pen and mk or pencil and water 
colors'' under this paragraph and not dutiable as manufactures of 
paper. A sketch or drawing is not taken outside the meaning of the 
word "original" in this paragraph by the fact that.it is the result 
of the combined concurrent efforts of several artists. The pro- 
vision in this paragraph for ''origmal drawmgs and sketches in pen 
and ink or pencil and water colors'' is narrower than the provision 
in the same paragraph for ''original paintings in * * * water, 
or other colors.'^ (9 Ct. Oust. Appls., T. D. 38046, of 1919.) 
An appeal is pending from Abstract 43063, of 1919, involving a some- 
what similar issue. Pen and wash drawings were held entitled to free 



26 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

entry as ori^al drawings under this paragraph. (Abstract 37944, of 
1915.) Chinese waier color paintings hound %n hook form were found 
to be original pamtings and works of art and held free under this 
paragraph. (Abstract 42334, of 1918.) The provision for ''statu- 
ary * * * wrought by hand * * * from metal" in para- 
graph 454 of the act of 1897 does not include a bronze statue cast 
m a foundry by artisans from a model that was made in plastic 
material- by an artist, but upon which he did but Uttle or no retouch- 
ing. (224 U. S., 583, of 1912.) Among articles excluded from the 
paragraph are: Paris oj fountains in the shape of two bronze figures 
cast oy the cire-perdue process from metals made by professional 
sculptors and the castings finished by professional sculptors, held 
dutiable under paragraph 376, they not being shown to be originals 
or first or second repUcas within the meanmg of this paragraph 
(G. A. 8196, T. D. 37785, of 1918); and marble statues executed by 
professional sculptors from sketches or photographs furnished to 
them, though artistic and considered works of art, not being origmal 
sculptures within this paragraph, since sculpture to be original must 
be the work of the artist from its conception or creation in the mmd 
of the artist imtil its completion in its material form (G. A. 8220, 
T. D. 37863, of 1918). A portrait done in oU which was a copy or 
replica of a portrait by the same painter, it being held to be not an 
original painting in oil but a copy, replica, or reproduction, and the 
paragraph providing for original paintings only (G. A. 7199, T. D. 
37792, of 1918), and oil paintings m the form of panels of various sizes 
intended for the decoration of a wall of a room, held not to be origi- 
nals (Abstract 42612, of 1918), were held dutiable under para^aph 
376 as works of art. A marble bench with base and top of single 
pieces of slabs or marble, as an original sculpture to be free under me 
paragraph must also be a work oi art (G. A. 8134, T. D. 37514, of 
1918), and small marble busts and statuettes produced in a commercial 
way (Abstract 42613, of 1918) were held dutiable as manufactures 
of marble or of alabaster. A bronze statue cast by the cire-perdue 
process from an original model made in terra cotta by Rodm, the 
casting being carved, remodeled, and improved by the artist, was 
held free of duty under this paragraph as an original sculpture cast 
in bronze and the professional production of a sculptor. (G. A. 
8229, T. D. 37898, of 1919.) Vases, plaques, and ornaments, mineral 
painted, the original work of an artist, and having no utilitarian 
purposes, are free of duty under this paragraph as paintings in min- 
eral colors. ^^ Mechanical process" should be interpreted under the 
rule of ejusdem generis as relating to a mechanical process of like 
kind as stenciling, that is to say, a process for producing the repre- 
sentation or artistic effect and not a process for fixing more perma- 
nently the production of the artist. ''Firing" of a painting on earth- 
enware is not a "mechanical process" within the meaning of the par- 
agraph. (Wells Fargo v. United States, 8 Ct. Gust. Appls., 125, of 
1917.) 

Original sketches in pen and ink or pencil and water colors were 
held exempt from duty xmder paragraph 652 of the act of 1913, 
although the water colors were laid on with a brush and such sketches 
may be articles of utihty. (G. A. 8331, T. D. 38368, of 1920.) 

Drawings and sketches are entitled to free entry under paragraph 
652 only when they are (1) originals and (2) when the colors thereon 



have beea made with vmter colocs. Sodi dimwings may be sketched 
with poi and ink or with peDcil; they most, howeTer, also contain 
eoior pxodiioed by water color; henoe, pencil diawhigs ordoeteihes 
<Hi paper d patterns and dmi^as intended to be used in laoe makiiig 
are exdnded froBOL said proTisioQ because lattdv pencil diawiogs 
ocmtaming no water eolois. (G. A. 8371, T. D. 3S501, of 19200 

WOKK8 OF AST FOR PTBUC OOU.BCTIOX8, KTa 

When pichtres are admitted free of duty onder bond for exhibition, 
the frames are also entitled to free entnr. (T. D. 3372S, of 191S0 
Fumiburej impcnted by the Ohio State Archjoologicid and Historical 
Society, tor pomanent exhibition at the h<mie oi the late President 
Hayes at Franont, Cttiio, was held not to be free of duty under this 
paragr^h. Hi^ home was deeded to the State of Ohio, with a life 
estate resored to President Hayes's children and granddiildren, in 
whose possession it was being used as a private residence and not 
open to the public. (G. A. 8259, T. D, 38030, of 1919.) Tiie prin- 
dpid purpose of the Olympic Club is to encourage athletics, and to 
do this a regular c(Hps of teadiers is employed to give systematic 
physical instruction. Sudi an institution is engaged in educational 
work and a ^atue artiMie in character, imported for exUbition in 
the dub, was held to fall within the tmns of paragraph 715 of the 
act of 1909, and ^ititled to free entry. (United States t?. Ol3^pio 
aub, 5 Ct. Cust. Appls., 251, of 1914.) 

Artides imported for exhibition in the Red Cross Museum are 
exempt under paragraph 654 of the act of 1913. (T. D. 38320, of 
1920.) 

An importation made by a contracting company who received pay 
for the same from a general fund made up of contributions can not 
be said to have been unported expressly for presentation. Parts of 
an altar, even though produced by a professional sculptor, which 
require changes and extensive and elaborate work and material from 
domestic sources to complete the altar, can not be said to be works 
of art as imported. A Roman Catholic church oi^iuiized primarily 
for religious service has been held by the Boara of General Ap- 
praisers not to be an educational institution within the meaning of 
paragraph 654 of the act of 1913. (G. A. 8360, T. D. 38465.) An 
appeal is pending in the Court of Customs Appeals. 

WOBKS OF ART THE WOBK OP UNITED STATES CITIZENS AND STAINED 

GLASS WINDOWS FOB PRESENTATION. 

The legislative history of that portion of this paragraph that relates 
to poLmted or stained glass windows shows clearly, ana the language 
itself must be taken to show, that it is a complete and independent 
provision in no wise modified or affected by tne clause of exclusion 
m the para^aph. Houses of worship are those designated as bene- 
ficiaries in importing free of duty pamted or stained glass windows, 
and they are so entitled whether incorporated or not. (Perry v. 
United States, 6 Ct. Cust. Appls., 201, of 1915.) Pieces of painted 
or stained glassy intended for use in repairing painted or stained 
glass windows aheady in churches, are not dutiable under the pro* 
vision of paragraph 95 for ''stained or painted glass windows, or 



28 TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

parts thereof," but are free of duty under this paragraph as ''stained 
or painted window glass * * * imported to be used in houses 
of worship." (G. A. 8005, T. D. 36893, of 1916.) Sixiined glass 
panels, 2 feet long and 1 foot wide, imported for presentation to 
Wellesley College, are not entitled to free entry under this para- 
graph as ''works of art * * * including pictorial paintings on 
glass, imported expressly for presentation to a * * * college." 
(G. A. 7856, T. D. 36165, of 1916.) 

ANTIQUITIES. 

Article 395 of the Customs Regulations of 1915, providing that the 
importer of antiquities shall furnish a certificate stating from whom 
the merchandise was acquired and the date of its acquisition, is rea- 
sonable. A certificate stating that antiquities were acquired "from 
various persons" on different dates of the years 1914 and 1915 is 
not a compliance therewith. (United States v, Tsai, 9 Ct. Cust. Appls., 
42, of 1919.) 

ChairSj uplwlstered in tapestri/y classified as manufactures in part 
of wool, claimed to be free as artistic antiquities as to the upholstery, 
were held not separable for dutiable purposes. (Abstract 38885, of 
1915, following G. A. 7203, T. D. 31492, of 1911.) The Treasury 
Department has held that when articles are composed in part of 
artistic antiquities and in part of modem portions not rendering them 
works of art, such parts, when capable of being appraised and reported 
on separately, are to be treated separately for classification purposes. 
(T. D. 37394, of 1917.) Since this decision the rulings have not been 
entirely uniform; as table spreads, centerpieces, am, other articles 
made of lace and embroidery , partly antique and partly modem, were 
held not separable so as to permit the antique portion to be admitted 
free of duty (G. A. 8115, T. D. 37446, of 1917); also pillow slips or 
covers made principally of silk with embroidered and gold lace decora- 
tions, the embroidered silk in the face of the article being over 100 
years old and the gold lace and fringe modern, were held, as imported, 
not to be an artistic antiquity (Abstract 43306, of 1919). But as to an 
importation of certain portions of the walls of a room taken from an old 
house in England (Kilbum Grange), claimed to be made in the time 
of Charles the Second, together with certain modem additions and 
restorations, returned as an entirety, it was held that the modern addi- 
tions and restorations are dutiable and the balance free as antiques 
(Abstract 42942, of 1919); and modern wooden settees and antique 
tapestry covers cut and shaped to fit the frames of the settees, but not 
attached thereto, itemized separately on the same invoice, were held 
not entireties and to be treated separately, the settees dutiable as fur- 
niture and the antique tapestries free under this paragraph (G. A. 8285, 
T. D. 38109, of 1919). In another case under this paragraph various 
articles of furniture, some of which had been repaired, among other 
ways with replacement of parts, such as new legs, were held exempt 
from duty as having been "produced more than 100 years prior to 
the date of importation." (United States v. Shallus, 7 Ct. Cust. 
Appls., 314, of 1917.) Parts of a house imported to be used in the 
construction of another house in this country, though antique and 
the house in its original surroundings interesting and possibly artistic, 



TABIFF INFOBMATION SURVBYS. 29 

were held not free under this paragraph. (G. A. 8114, T. D. 37435, 
of 1917.) 

Porcelam vases, candlesticks, and lamps, classified as articles of 
decorated china, chief value, at 55 per cent ad valorem imder para- 
graph 80 of the act of 1913, were classified as follows: Bowls and 
vases, with metal attachments intended to make them look like or 
useful as lamps or like fixtures, all of the porcelain and decorated 
china being admittedly artistic and made 100 years before importa- 
tion, with the metal parts invoiced and packed separately, were held 
separable for duty purposes ; the porcelam part was held free of duty, 
and the metal part as manufactures of metal. (Abstract 43556, of 
1920.) 

Tapestry which was originally the border of a hanging and had been 
made into furniture covers has lost its identity as an antiquity by 
the addition of new material; and labor and velvet, althou^ ad.- 
mittedly more than:! 00 years old, which had been artistically em- 
broidered, has also lost its identity as an antique. Free entry under 
paragraph 656 was denied. (Abstract 43673.) 

A room consisting of four waUs constructed in the main of antique 
material, but not shown to have existed in the form imported as a 
room 100 years previous to iinportation, was held not exempt from 
duty under paragraph 656. (G. A. 8335, T. D. 38383, of 1920.) 

Greens composea of wood frames and silk, the most part of the 
silk being artistic and antique and consisting of silk trimmings, are 
not free under paragraph 656 nor dutiable under paragraph 318 as 
articles composed in chief value of silk, but are dutiable as articles 
made in whole or in part of trimmings under paragraph 358. (G. A. 
8340, T. D. 38412, of^l920.) 

A rate of duty sufficient to reimburse the Government for the heavy 
expenses incurred might be advisable if duty for revenue should not 
be imposed upon the articles eniunerated in this paragraph. Apart 
from the work in the collector's office, 8 to 10 examiners and from 
25 to 30 employees at New York devote a large part of their time to 
the examination of such importations. Every importation has to be 
examined in its entirety, and occasionally experts are called in to 
assist the examiners in determining the question of antiquity. 

A definite date instead of 100 years might be inserted in the law: 
1820 would be especially appropriate for furniture and might be 
applied also to other articles enumerated in the paragraph. 

o 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

ON THE ARTICLES IN 

PARAGRAPHS 373, 374, AND 375 OF THE 
TARIFF ACT OF 1913 

AND RELATED ARTICLES IN OTHER PARAGRAPHS 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS AND PHONOGRAPHS 

Faragmph 373: Paragraph 376: 

Hnaloal IiiBtnuiieiila VloUn Boila (For treatmeDt, k 

Violins par. 635,) 

Faragraph 874: 

Phoiiociapli*, Oiamophones, and ' 

SlnUlatArtlolei 



REVtSKD EDITION 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 
ElgMi mad E BtuMto Snr« WmdOmgitn. P. C 

COM MISBIOKSBS. 

Thomas Waives Pact^ Chairma^L 
Tboma» O. Mabtih, Vice Chairmam. 
David J. Lfwis. 
William B. Culbebtsov. 

DDWASD p. COBTIGAK. 

William BL^Biacsa. 

JoHir F. BcTBUiPC, Swrc^vr^, 



AJ>DinONAL COPIES 
or -nns rrBucATws mat mt r«orrmw» nt^^m 

THE 5trmUXTXNl»€3CT OT pomf «WT* 

ooTXKKimfT ruxnvo ovms 

VA9HD9CTOX, D. C 
AT 

ft CENTS PER Ci>PY 



PREFACE. 



This is one of a series of Tariff Information Surveys prepared by 
the United States Tariff Commission and transmitted to the Com- 
mittee on Ways and Means. The series covers all of the articles and 
commodities provided for in the tariff act of October 3, 1913, and 
others not specifically provided for. It is arranged in the numerical 
order of paragraphs oi that act. 

In some cases two or more para^aphs have been combined in one 
pamphlet. In doing this industrial relationship of the articles has 
oeen followed when possible. In those instances where a paragraph 
has been treated unaer a preceding paragraph of the tarin act refer- 
ence is made to this fact at the point where the paragraph appears in 
numerical order. Where one grade of an article is dutiaole and 
another grade of the same article is on the free list, the article is 
discussed under the dutiable paragraph, which appears first in 
numerical order in the tariff act. Li certain instances articles of 
close industrial relationship and which occur in separate paragraphs 
of the tariff act have been combined under one paragraph for con- 
venience of discussion. Beference is made to this fact at the point 
where the commodities would naturally occur in numerical order. 

The first pamphlet in the series is an "Introduction and Index/' 
which contams: 

1. An introductory chapter discussing the scope of the series and 
the general method of treatment. 

2. An alphabetical index of the articles provided for in the tariff 
act of 1913; showing the paragraph of the act in which the article is 
provided for, and, if discussed under a different paragraph, the 
number of such paragraph. 

3. A list of the pamphlets in the series, showing the paragraphs 
and articles included in each pamphlet. 

Thus by use of this "Introduction and Index" the exact loca- 
tion of the discussion relating to a given article or commodity can be 
ascertained. 

In the preparation of this report the Tariff Commission had the 
services of Guy G. George and Charles F. Yauch, of the Commission's 
staff, and of others. 

3 



CONTENTS. 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS AND PHONOGRAPHS. 

Page. 

Summary 7 

Summary tables: 

Musical instnmients * 7 

Phonographs : 8 

General information: 

1913 tariff paragraphs 9 

Description 9 

Domestic production — 

Size and importance of the industry 9 

Materials, equipment, and methods of production 9 

Organization 10 

Geographical distribution 11 

History of the industry 11 

Domestic production and consumption 12 

Domestic exports 12 

Foreign production 13 

Imports 14 

Pnces 15 

Tariff history 15 

Competitive conditions 15 

Tarin considerations 16 

Violins: 

Description 16 

Materials , 16 

Methods of manufacture 16 

Domestic production 17 

Foreign production ^ 18 

Imports 18 

Competitive conditions 18 

Tarin considerations 19 

Statistical material: 

Production in the United States — 

Pianos, oigans, and materials 19 

Pianos 19 

Organs 20 

Piano and organ materials 20 

Musical instmments and materials, not specified 20 

Phonographs 21 

Imports by countries — 

Musical instruments 21 

Phonographs 22 

Imports for consumption — ^Revenue — 

Musical instruments 22 

Phonographs 23 

Domestic exports — 

Organs 23 

Player-pianos 25 

Piano players 26 

Pianos, all other 27 

Perforated music rolls 28 

Musical instruments, all other 29 

Phonographs 29 

Recorois and accessories 30 

Rates of duty — 

Musical instruments 31 

Phonographs 31 

Coiirt and Treasury decisions 31 

VIOLIN ROSIN. 
fFor treatment, see par. 635.] 



MUSICAL INSTBtMENTS AND PHONOGRAPHS. 



The mu^cal imtrumeQt industi^y in the United States has developed 
m^nly since IS50. The essential and distinctive features of t^ 
modem piano were introduced in the United States, and. the reed 
oi^an 18 ahnost wholly an American product. The phonograph T^ae 
invented and developed in the United States. 

lite value of ibe producte of the industry in 1849 was . about 
$2,000,000, and in 1914 the total value of the products of the musi^ 
instrument industry, including phonographs, was approximatelT 
$120,000,000. Nearly 50,000 wage earners were employecfin 191$ ana' 
326,274 manos, 42,806 organs, and 514,154 phonographs were'pfv- 
duced. There were 737 establishments engaged m the ihdostry, ' 
capitalized at a total of about $170,000,000. The States of New Tork 
and Illinois produced 59.4 per cent of the total value of pianos and 
organs in 1914, while New Jersey was by far the leading State in the 
manufacture of phonographs. ' 

Foreign competition m the case of pianos, organs, and phonographs 
has been almost negligible. Imports have been mamly supple- 
mentary rather than competitive in the past. The native wood used 
in the American piano is said to be one of its great permanent advan-: 
tages. In the foreign market only the high-grade American piano or 
phonograph can be sold in competition with other makes, out the 
American reed organ is sold very extensively in all parts of tiie world. 
When the sale of a piano or pnonograph depends mainly upon, the 
price rather than upon the quality, the foreign instrument almost 
mvariably finds a more ready sale than the American. 

llie tenS rate on musical instruments was 45 per cent ad valorem 
from'1897 imtil 1913, when it was reduced to 35 per cent. 

Summary table. 
UU81CAL INSTRUMENTS AND PARTS OF. 





DcFmeatlc 


Imports 
gumption." 


Domestic 


(percent). 




impona. 


Expert.. 


"-s,r:- 


193.017. SIB 


Kg 
,.SS 

2,504,902 
1,4S0,2M 


1 i 
I i 

4 » 


l.fi 


























9^572,812 


2.1 
































Ctimaiaimr: 






; 





























kl stcingi lor muslCBl Instrununls. 



TAEIFF INFOBMATION SUEVEYS. 
SuTimiary UtbU — Continued. 

HUeiCAJ. IMSTROHSMTB AND PABTS Or—CmOdoti. 





s 

M 
U 

1 

(07,217 


as 

If 
Si 

IS 

507;B71 























































c^'^: 































PHONOQBAPHfl, 


BTC. 










Damntio 


ImportafDC 
tLon. 


DomtsUc 


(perentt). 




InqHvO. 


VxpBrt,^ 


"Ur?. 


iii,Ta!s9g8 


IG 

m 

M 
80 

6e 

53 

578,818 

m.va 


1,SS3,1M 

Si 

7,Bro.fl» 


an 


























zr.iUtSie 


54 
































atarf-ii^ 




























qnimHtj- 








Actual or 
tote. 


""uff^' 


1284 

Is 

as 
as 

817,967 


181 

.sis 

83,713 

,s.ss, 

ao4,4se 

7»,Ml 


































































'^^^ 































■ IndDdts M«Bl or oUnr metal string! tor miulad 



loJuD*^, igio, act' ot 1909. 



tariff information surveys. 9 

General Information, 
act of october 3, 1913. 

Par. 373. Musical instruments or parts thereof, pianoforte actions 
and parts thereof, cases for musical mstruments, pitch pipes, t uning 
forks, tuning hammers, and metronomes; strings lor musical instru- 
ments, composed wholly or in part of steel or other metal, all the 
foregoing, 35 per cent ad valorem. 

Par. 374. Phonographs, gramophones, graphophones, and similar 
articles, or parts thereof, 25 per cent ad valorem. 

DESCRIPTION. 

The principal classes of musical instruments manufactured in the 
United States are pianos, with and without player attachments; 
Cleans, reed and pipe; piano and organ materials; and phonographs 
and records. There are also a variety of instruments and materials 
manufactured imder the class known as '* Musical instruments and 
materials, not specified,^' which include wind and string instruments 
of many varieties. 

Importations of foreign instruments of the principal classes above 
mentioned have been so small as to be almost negligible. The sta- 
tistics of imports do not disclose the individual items,' but it is quite 
certain that they consist mainly of violins, other stringed instru- 
ments, orchestrions and accordions, and small instruments requiring 
a great deal of hand labor or special skill in their manufacture. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCTION, 

Size and importance of the industry. — In 1914 there were 737 estab- 

' lishments, capitalized at a total of approximately $170,000,000, 

engaged in the manufacture of musical instruments or parts thereof 

and phonographs. Nearly 50,000 wage earners were employed, and 

the value of the products was only a little less than $120,000,000. 

Materials, equipment, a/nd methods of production. — Piano manufac- 
ture has become standardized to a great extent, the same style piano 
of diflFerent factories usually possessing but few distinguishing 
external characteristics other than the name on the fall board. 

The first and one of the most imi>ortant steps in the manufacture 
of a high-grade piano is the selection and seasoning of the wood. 
The wood used is almost entirely of American growth, the only notable 
exceptions being the ebony for the black keys and the expensive 
wooos for veneers. ''Just as Italian and Tyrolese forests made 
Amati violins possible in Cremona, so American lumber has made it 
possible to bring piano making to its highest perfection in this coun- 
try.''^ The seasoned wood is usually guied together imder pressure 
80 as to effect a permanent joint. Very few metal bolts or screws 
are used in the framework, as they are liable to work loose. Both 
tonal quality and strength are secured by gluing the parts. 

The metal plate is a casting of great strength, and its manufacture 

is an important step in the making of a piano. The sounding board 

■ ■ I I I ■—.——■— —.——^—11 I , . 

1 Census of Manufactures, 1902, Part IV, Vol. X, p. 454. 
64912— 21— N-23 2 



10 TABIFF mPOBMATIOMr SUBVBYS. 

is made from carefully selected spruce pine. The wire must be of 
great elasticity. The laying out of the scale and the arrangement of 
tne wire and the action or striking mechanism require expert ability. 

In the manufacture of reed organs practically all of the materials 
are strictly American products, even the ivory and ebony formerly 
Used for the keys now being supplanted by celluloid and a stained 
wood. Very Uttle expensive veneer is used. The manipulation of 
the tongue of the reed to a proper size and curve and the aetermining 
of the size of the reed cells, and qualifying cells, when such are used, 
are the most delicate of the operations involved in its manufacture. 

The primary operation in the construction of a pipe organ, and that 
of the most importance, is the construction of the pipes. They are 
made of wood or metal, and require the greatest skill in voicing and 
tuning. The bellows or electric fan for furnishing the wind must be 
made to correspond to the size of the organ. The action of the keys 
is now usually electric. 

Both the metal parts entering into the mechanism of the phono- 
graph and the wood for the cabinets or cases are entirely American 
materials, excepting expensive veneers for the cabmets. The 
waxlike materials entering into the construction of the records are 
also entirely produced in the United States. 

Organization. — There is a great tendency in the industry toward the 
corporate form of ownersmp with large factories having a high 
capitahzation. In the piano and organ branch of the industry m 
1914, 67.4 per cent of tne total number of establishments, 92.5 per 
cent of the average number of wage earners, and 91.8 per cent of the 
value of products were controlled oy corporations, the corresponding 
percentages for 1909 being 61.9, 86.1, ana 85.7, respectively. Estab- 
ishments whose annual output was valued at $100,000 or more 
turned out 90 per cent of the value of products in 1914 and 88.8 per 
cent in 1909. There were 478 estabUsmnents reported in this branch 
of the industry in 1914, with a total capitalization of $130,989,794 
making the average capitalization of each about $270,000. This 
branch of the industry represents about 76 per cent of the capitaliza- 
tion of the entire musical instrument industry. 

The form of ownership of estabhshments manufacturing musical 
instruments and materials not specified is not given by the census, 
but the average capitalization of the 241 estabhshments in 1914 was 
about $16,000 each. In 1909 there were 187 establishments reported, 
with an average individual capitalization of approximately $18,000. 
This branch of the industry has shown considerable fluctuation in the 
number of estabhshments, but the total capitahzation and the total 
value of the products have both remained practically constant since 
1899 at approximately $3,500^000. This branch of the industry 
represented only about 3 per cent of the total value of the products of 
the entire industry in 1914. 

The character of ownership of the phonograph branch of the in- 
dustry is not available, but it is known that a number of the principal 
maniuacturers are large corporations. The capitalization of the 18 
establishments reported in 1909 and 1914 increased from over $14,- 
000,000 to approximately $34,000,000, which represented an average 
capitalization in 1914 of nearly $2,000,000 for each firm. The value 
of the products increased from $12,000,000 to $27,000,000 during the 
same period, and the number of persons engaged increased irom 
5,928 to 11,366. 



g 



TARIFF IKFORMATION SURVEYS. 11 

Geographical distribution. — ^Pianos, organs, and materials: Based 
upon me value of products, the first four States for the years 1914 and 
1909 were New York, Illinois, Massachusetts, and. Connecticut. 
New York produced 37.2 per cent of the total in 1914, and Illinois 
produced 22.2 per cent. The two States combined produced nearly 
three-fifths (59.4) of the total value of products in 1914. The next 
six States, following the four enimierated above, were Indiana, Ohio, 
New Jersey, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. 

Musical instruments and materials, not specified: The three lead- 
ing States in 1916, based upon value of nroducts, were Indiana, 
Illinois, and New York. In 1909 they were New Jersey, Illinois, and 
Indiana. New Jersey dropped to fifth place in 1914. In both years 
the three leading States together reported more than one-half of the 
total value of products. Other States in 1914 were Massachusetts, 
Michigan, and JPennsvlvania. 

Phonographs: Both in 1914 and 1909 New Jersey was, by far, the 
leading State, measured by value of products, followed by Connec- 
ticut and New York in the order named. 

History of the industry. — ^The development of the industry has 
taken place almost entirely since the year 1850. It is also true that 
the most important inventions have been applied since that time. 
Just what effect the various tariff rates may have had upon the 
development of the industry is difficult to determine, but the facts do 
not seem to indicate that its development is traceable so much to the 
tariff rates as to the improvements in the manufacture of the instru- 
ments and the growth of the market for them. 

The value of the products of the industry has shown a remarkable 
but steady increase since 1849. In round nmnbers the values of the 
products of the combined industry for the census years are as follows: 
1849, $2,000,000; 1859, $7,000,000; 1869, $14,000,000; 1879, 
$19,000,000; 1889, $37,000,000; 1899, $47,000,000; 1904,- $80,000,000; 
1909, $105,000,000j 1914, $120,000,000. The imports m 1872, the 
first year musical mstnunents were separately reported, amounted 
to only 7.6 per cent of the domestic production as reported in the 
nearest census year, and they declined to 4.8 per cent oi the domestic 
production in 1880. There was no duty placed on musical instru- 
ments until 1883, when a duty of 25 per cent ad valorem was imposed. 
Foreign compjetition had evidentlj little effect upon the early develop- 
ment of the industry, and in this 30-vear period from 1849 to 1879 
the yearly value of the products had. increased from $2,000,000 to 
$19,000,000, without any protection afforded by the tariff. 

The imports in 1890 amounted to 4.6 per cent of the domestic 
production, practically the same as in 1880, but both the imports 
and domestic production had nearly doubled in value since the year 
1880. Some of the most important improvements in piano manu- 
facture were being put into use during this 10-year period, and the 
market for instruments was no doubt expanding in a manner corre- 
sponding with the development of their manufacture. There was a 
tariff of 25 per cent ad valorem in effect during this period. 

In 1890 musical instruments were not enumerated in the tariff act, 
but in 1894 the duty of 25 per cent was restored and in 1897 it was 
raised to 45 per cent. However, the increase in the value of the 
domestic proaucts under this protection was onlv about $10,000,000 
for the 10-year period 1889 to 1899, while in the previous 10-year 
period the mcrease had been nearly $20,000,000. 



12 



TARIFF IHFOBMATION SX7BTEYS. 



The growth of the phonograph mdustry has taken place since the 
year 1890, and the player-piano industry nas developed mainly since 
1895. The value oi products of the entire industry in 1904 clearly 
indicates this development, since in the 5-year period from 1899 to 
1904 there was an increase from $47,000,000 to $80,000,000, and this 
total jumped to $105,000,000 for the 10-year period ending in 1909. 
The yearly importation remained practically constant, although the 
percentage decreased to about 2 per cent of the value of domestic 
products. The tariff rate remained at 45 per cent from 1897 until 
1913, when it was reduced to 35 per cent. 

Domestic production and consumption. — Production by States for 
recent census years will be found in the statistical tables. The value 
of the products of the combined industry was given above. The 
small importation of about $1,000,000 annually is made up mainly 
of instruments and materials which supplement the home product 
and do not furnish serious competition to it. The increase in the 
value of exports, amounting to over $9,000,000, in 1918 would seem 
to indicate that the domestic production is sufficient to meet the 
demand of the home market and furnish a surplus. 

Domestic exports.^ — Domestic exports of the combined industry 
increased from a total value of $5,870,951 in 1914 to $9,599,628 in 
1918. This amount in 1918 was almost evenly divided between 
musical instruments and phonographs. The following table shows 
the distribution of exports for the two fiscal years: 



Musical Instniment^: 

Organs 

Player-pianos 

Piano players 

Pianos, all other 

Perforated music rolls 

Musical instruments, all other. 
Phonographs and materials: ^ 

Phonographs 

Records and accessories 



Total value. 



1914 



Number. 



8,457 
1,219 
1,126 
6,501 



Value. 



1555,743 
335,299 
177,683 
1,416,888 
127,626 
745,392 

2,512,320 



5,870,951 



1918 



Number. 



2,330 

3,545 

227 

13,900 



91,217 



Value. 



1139,706 

1,095,665 

59,771 

2,292,467 

149,309 

1,178,381 

2,610,866 
2,073,463 



9.599,628 



1 Not stated separately prior to 1916. 

The destination of exports has changed noticeably in the past few 
years, probably due to the war. England and European coimtries 
have taken decreasing amounts; in some cases exporte to European 
countries have entirely ceased. On the other hana exports to Cuba, 
Mexico, and the Central and South American coimtries have greatly 
increased. Australia was the leading purchaser of the exports of 

Eianos in 1918, taking very nearly one-half of the total. Canada 
as been and remains one of the principal buyers of all classes of 
instruments exported from the United States, and took approxi- 
mately one-hall of the exports of phonographs and materials in 1918. 
The American piano and player-piano are quite generally consid- 
ered to be superior instruments in all markets, especially the highest 



* " Foreign Trade in Musical Instruments/' Special Consular Beports, Na 55» 1912. 



grade American piano, but it3 sale in foreign markets is largely 
restricted to the purchaser to whom expense is not the primary 
consideration, as it is generally higher pnced than its competitors. 
The high Canadian tariff restricts the sale of American pianos in that 
coimtry, but in several districts its sale amoimts to 35 per cent or 
more of the total sales. In general, about 80 to 90 per cent of the 
South American piano market was supplied, before the war, by 
Germanjr. Although the American piano was highly regarded as to 
quality, it was too high priced and was not built to conform to the 
tastes of the purchaser in such matters as ornamentation and finish, 
size and weight, and method of pacldn§ for shipment. The same 
criticisms apply to the American piano m other fields. Before the 
war the American piano met keen competition in practically all 
foreign fields, and generally was not able to compete with the German 
and French product, especially the former, except in the high-grade 
instruments. 

The American phonograph seems to have fared better than the 
piano in the foreign market, and it almost completely dominates the 
market for phonographs in the Western Hemisphere. It is also 
extensively sold in the European market and elsewhere, although 
it meets keen German competition. 

The American export of organs and wind and string instruments 
is not so extensive, but Canada furnishes a good maif et for a con- 
siderable export. The American reed organ is stiU in good demand 
in some foreign countries and is general^ able to compete success- 
fully with other makes, but the demand is steadily declining. The 
American brass and wind instrimients can not generally compete 
successfuUy with other makes in the foreign marlet. 

Undoubtedly the exports of musical instruments would be greater 
were it not that piano and organ manufacturers have in some instances 
found it more advantageous to establish branch factories abroad, 
to carry out the ideas and methods of American production gauged 
to suit the requirements of the foreign trade, thus saving duties and 
obtaining the advantage of less expensive labor. 

FOREIGN PEODUCnON.^ 

Available material on foreign production of musical instruments 
is very meager. Germany is the principal foreign manufacturer, 
especially of pianos. In 1912 it was estimated that there were 150 
piano manufacturers in Berlin, whose annual production was about 
10,500 pianos. The total number manufactured in Germany would 
no doubt exceed this many times. Commerce Reports, November 
24, 1919, page 1098, states that the number of pianos exported from 
Germany in 1913 was 76,460. Based upon the number of pianos 
exported, it is quite clear that the total number manufactured in 
Germany before the war was large. The United States manufactured 
326,274 pianos in 1914 and exported 8,846. Germany is entirely 
dependent upon foreign sources for its supphr of cabinet woods, 
which has been cut on during the war. One German manufacturer 
of phonographs claims an annual output of about 200,000 instruments, 
but many of these are of the cheaper grades. Germany is the 
principal exporter of musical instruments to the United States. 

s " Foreign Trade in Musical Instruments," Special Consular Reports, No. 55, 1912. 



14 TABIFF INFOBMATION SUBVBYS. 

The United Kingdom exported 10,692 pianos of domestic manu- 
facture in 1911, but imported 19,215. According to the census of 
1911, there were 5,622 male piano and organ makers in London. 
Based upon the number of wage earners employed, the annual 
output is estimated at about 30,000 pianos. Talldng machines and 
records to the value of $335,788 were manufactured in the United 
Kingdom in 1907. However, in 1912, it was reported that the 
bulk of the trade in phonographs was of German origin. Many of 
the high-grade phonographs were imported from the United States. 
There were 3,832 organs unported into the United Kingdom in 1910, 
and 915 of domestic manufacture were exported. There is not much 
trade in organs. Wind instruments to a value of $355,354, and string 
instruments to the value of $72,997 were manufactured in the United 
Kingdom in 1907, and the demand was said to be increasing. 

France produced about 25,000 pianos annually before the war. 
Germany exported several hundred pianos annually to France, 
generally pianos of the cheaper grades, and sold them under the 
name of the local dealer in France. France exported about 4,000 
pianos annually. France exported phonographs in 1910 to a value 
of $779,391, while imports were valued at only $141,095. The 
number of instruments manufactured, however, is not Imown. 

Italy manufactured about 1,500 pianos annually before the war 
and imported 4,434 in 1910, of which 3,707 were imported from 
Germany. The average value of the imported piano was about $130 
each. The demand for phonographs was pretty well supplied before 
the war by German manufacturers. 

Russia manufactured about 6,000 pianos annually before the war, 
and imported 4,501 in 1910. 

Canada maniifactures about 20,000 pianos annuallv and iniported 
1,697 in 1911. Canada imports phonographs largely from the United 
States, but manufactures her own organs. 

In comparison with these figures of foreign production the United 
States produced 326,274 pianos in 1914, 42,806 organs, 514,154 
phonographs, and musical instruments not specified to a value'^of 
$3,624,667. 

IMPORTS. 

Reference to table of imports shows a slight increase from year to 
year in the value of imports of musical instruments, untU the beginning 
of the war, reaching their highest point in 1914, with a total value of 
about $2,000,000. The domestic production in that year of the 
combined industry totaled $120,000,000. Imports thus represented 
onlv about 1.6 per cent of the value of domestic products. 

As the imports are not classified it is difficult to determine their 
contents. However, it is auite certain that they do not consist of 
the products of the principal branches of the industry in this country, 
i. e., pianos and organs and phonographs. The value of imports has 
remamed practically constant in amount since the year 1872, at a 
little over $1,000,000 in value, with a small increase in recent years 
but a decrease in comparison to the value of domestic products. 
This fact leads to the conclusion that the imports are mainly supple- 
mentary to the domestic products, as previously stated. 



TABIFF I3JF0BMAJXQN SURVEYS. ' 15: 

PEIOSS. 

Satisfactory price comparisons are not available, but, as indicated 
in the discussion of domestic exports, whenever the American piano 
comes into competition in the foreign market with the German or 
French piano it is usually undersold, when price is the primary con- 
sideration. The consular agents reported m 1912 that a German 
piano sold in many markets for httle more than $100. A price of 
$130 for the cheap piano was common. Such a piano could probably 
pay the freight and duty charges to the United States and still under- 
sell the cheapest American piano. The fact is, however, that this 
piano is not the equal in quality or durability of the cheapest Ameri- 
can pianos. A large local dealer in pianos asserts that there need be 
no fear of competition from the cheaper foreign pianos, whatever 
their price. 

TARIFF HISTORY. 

The rate imposed in 1883 was 25 per cent ad valorem. The act of 
1890 did not enumerate musical instruments, but the act of 1894 
restored the duty of 25 per cent, and the act of 1897 raised the duty 
to 45 per cent, where it remained imtil the act of 1913, when it was 
reduced to 35 per cent. 

Phonographs were first enumerated in 1909, when a duty of 45 per 
cent was imposed. This was reduced to 25 per cent in 1913. 

The fluctuation in the tariff rates apparently produced no notice- 
able fluctuation in the value of imports. Certain it is that the ratio 
of the value of imports to the value of domestic products began 
decreasiiig before any tariff on imports was imposed and has con- 
tinued to decrease from year to year, irrespective of any changes in 
the tariff rates. 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS. 

The value of products of the musical instrument and phonograph 
industry in 1914 reached a total of approximately $120,000,000. 
The total value of imports of musical instruments and phonographs 
in the same year was $2,228,172. The ratio of imports to domestic 
production has been constantly decreasing, from 7.6 per cent in 1872 
to less than 2 per cent in 1914. The following is a recent statement 
of one of the leading manufacturers of pianos, organs, and phono- 
graphs, located in Chicago : 

We believe that importation of foreign instruments such as we manufacture has 
been in the past so small as to be negligible. 

There is no doubt that many of these instruments can be manu- 
factured 'more cheapljr in Germany and other foreign coimtries, but 
the quality and durability of the instruments are not such as to offer 
serious competition to the. high-grade American instruments, espe- 
cially in the case of pianos, organs, and phonographs. One of the 
great advantages possessed by the foreign manufacturer is a lower 
labor cost, and labor is one of the chief items of cost in this industry. 
On the other hand, the American woods used in piano manufacture 
are said to be superior to the foreign. 

The tq,riff has not been of great importance' in the growth of the 
American industry, since the cheaper foreign instruments could have 



16 TABIFF INFOKMATION SURVEYS. 

been imported and sold more cheaply than the American-made instru- 
ments in spite of the tariff. It is only logical to conclude that the 
cheaper CTades have found a better maricet in other countries, and 
that the nigher grades of foreign instruments fail to compete success- 
fully in the American market. However, Mr. George W. Pound tes- 
tified before the Committee on Ways and Means (Tariff Hearings, 
1908-9, p. 7190-7201) that foreign competition had entirely driven 
the American orchestral or band organ out of the market. Such is 
certainly not the case with pianos, organs, and phonographs, which 
constitute the principal classes of instruments manufactured in this 
coimtry. 

Formerly it was considered that the American brass and wind 
instruments were much inferior to the imported, but these are now 
being manufactured extensively in this country and are considered 
by dealers to be the equal if not the superior of the foreign made. 

TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS. 

The present rate of 35 per cent on musical instruments and 25 per 
cent on phonographs has not brought any criticism from the manu- 
facturers in reply to letters of inquiry sent out by the Tariff Com- 
mission. Manufacturers of violins, however, request a separate 
classification and a higher rate of duty for their product. 

Violins. 

description. 

Stringed instruments played with a bow are made in a number of 
sizes, the smallest of wnich is the violin. The next larger is the 
viola, called alto or tenor, followed in order by the violoncello and 
double bass. All are of the same general model. The violin is 
usually made in three sizes — half and three-quarter sizes for children 
and full size, which is the most common. Violins are made prac- 
tically of the same woods and of the same size and shape as they 
were 300 years ago in Italy. The Amati and Stradivanus models 
are still followed. 

MATERIALS. 

The woods used in making an American violin are the various 
species of maple found in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Ohio for the 
back, sides, and neck, and Oregon and Washington spruce for the 
top. The best maple is that which possesses a ^'curP' occurring 
in freak trees. Curly maple is scarce and consequently the greater 
proportion of violins is made of slightly curled or plain wood. All 
maple and spruce are quarter sawed to secure the ^ Aflame effect '' 
of the curl of the maple and the narrow even grain of the spruce. 
Both woods must be air dried and aged for months. 

METHODS OF MANUFACTLTIE. 

The manufacture of violins is almost entirely wood carving. 

Tops and backs are usually made from one piece of wood. The 
wood is split and the corresponding edges joined to show exactlj 
the same symmetrical grain on both sides of the center line. This 



TARIFF INFORMATIOK SURVEYS. 17 

is especially true in the use of curly maple. Backs and tops are 
carved, both inside and out, to the exact model desired and the 
thickness carefully graduated. The tone quality of a violin de- 
pends to a considerable extent on accurately proportioning the 
thickness of wood in all parts. 

Machines are used for removing the bulk of the wood from tops 
and backs and spindle carriers for the necks. Only the rough work 
can be done in tnis way, as the accurate work in shaping and finish- 
ing the complex curved surfaces can be done onl^ by actual hand- 
work. It is claimed that the overdoing of machme carving caused 
the failure in 1920 of one company engaged in the manufacture of 
commercial violins. 

The edges of the top and back are purfled, that is, a three-layer, 
very narrow strip of black-and-white wood is inlaid near the edge, 
which gives a double black line. The inlay for the top and back is 
composed of 30 pieces. 

The neck scroll is carved by hand and is an example of the skill 
required. Sides, consisting of six pieces, together with side linings, 
neck and end blocks, the bass bar, neck, finger board, nut and tail- 
piece nut are carefully fitted and strongly glued together. After 
the parts are sanded and final finishing touches given by hand 
carvers, the instrument is ready to receive the varnish. Varnish- 
ing and rubbing operations are repeated several times, depending 
on the grade of the instrument. 

In the final assembling, the end pin for tailpiece and pegs are 
fitted and inserted, and the tailpiece, tail gut, strings, and bridge 
Are added. In all there are about 80 separate pieces. The instru- 
ment is then ready for tuning and testing. It is not until the final 
test discloses the quality of tone, dependent upon the resonant 
-quality of the wood and workmanship, that the value of the instru- 
ment can be determined. It may be worth a few dollars or several 
hundred. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCTION. 

In 1914 the census reported 135 establishments, with a capital of 
$992,679, employing 495 wage earners, engaged in the manufacture 
of violins and other stringed instruments. The total product was 
valued at $1,142,149. The statistics do not show what proportion 
of the product was violins. 

Violins have been made for many years in America by individuals 
in snaall shops. The Violinists' (jruide Book gives the names of 385 
individuals making from 1 to perhaps 20 annually. It is estimated 
that the output of violins by individuals will amount to 5,000 
annually* 

Up to the beginning of the war, very few violins were made on 
what may be termed a commercial scale. Manufacturers of other 
small musical instruments endeavored to supply the demand, but 
it is stated by a manufacturer that the care necessary and the cost 
of handwork made it impossible to compete with the foreign instru- 
ments, and that three companies, all having had experience in the 
trade, and manufacturing vioUns exclusively, have, within the past 
15 months, gone into bankruptcy, due to the large shipments of the 
accumulated European stocks and the increasing shipments from 
Japan. 



18 TABIFF INFORMATION SU^VETS. 

It is further stated by the manufacturer that there are three 
concerns still in business, each of which produce 3,000 or more 
violins annually. , These three concerns, together with individual 
makers and musical instrument dealers who manufacture for their 
own trade employ about 1,600 people and produced about 65,000 
violins in 1920. 

FOREIGN PRODUOnON. 

The industry in Italy is centered at Cremona, where were produced 
the celebrated violins of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

Violin making is prominent in the Mittenwald and Markneukirchen 
districts of Germany. 

There have been practical schools in Germany for many years 
where this pecuUar and specialized trade is learned. The work is 
usually done in the homes, the several members of the family making 
such parts as their individual skill and age will permit. It appears 
to be the custom for famiUes to speciaUze in making certain parts. 
The various parts are then assembled and the violins varnished and 
finished in a central place. 

Wood carvers in Japan turned their activities to violin making 
several years ago and on account of their long experience in the art, 
they were able to copy the work with ease and produce violins of 
excellent quality. 

IMPORTS. 

The value of imports is not stated in official statistics. It is 
stated by a manufacturer who bases the data on the importation of 
four dealers that prior to the war imports came from Germany, 
Italy, and France and that the total importations amounted to 
300,000 violins annually. Of these Germany shipped 150,000 to 
175,000, Italy 75,000 to 100,000, and France 50,000 to 75,000. 
Shipments from Japan increased during the war as a result of a short- 
age in the United States of the European stock. Violins imported 
prior to the war were of various grades. It is stated that the retail 
price on some was as low as $1.25 to $3 each. 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS. 

Domestic manufacturers state that prior to the war all low and 
medium priced violins and most of the higher grades were imported 
from Germany, Italjr, and France. 

The fact that a violin is made in a foreign country adds greatly 
to its value in the eye of the average purchaser, as the impression 
has been created that American manufacturers are not able to supply- 
good instruments. The claim of age for many foreign-made instru- 
ments also gives them a decided advantage over American makes. 

It has been pointed out by an American manufacturer that first 
place was votea to a modem-made instrument in a test made by a 
celebrated cellist before well-known musicians and critics in Paris, 
and that a similar test with respect to violins resulted in favor of the 
modem instrmnent. 

The prejudice in favor of the imported instrmnent has been some- 
what overcome by domestic maniuacturers, as a result of a greater 
use of American-made violins during the war, when the supply from 
Europe was cut off. 



TABIFF IITFOBMATION SURVEYS. 



19 



American manufacturers in the last three years have had to meet 
the competition of Japanese violins, which up to the present time 
have been^^of good tone and quality. 



TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS. 

Manufacturers of violins ask that their product be given a sepa - 
rate classification and rate in the tariff. Tney state that violins oc- 
cupy a necessary position in the musical world; that they do not 
compete industrially or musically with any other instrument; that 
the product of European countries is made by workers skilled in the 
craft for generations and whose meager living expense is supplied by 
ven^ low wages. 

They further state that 96 per cent of aU the violins sold in America 
were made abroad; that no low or mediimi priced instruments for 
beginners, known as commercial violins, were made here prior to the 
war, and that they constitute fully 75 per cent of the demand; that 
it was not imtil the war had eliminated European shipments were 
they able to begin manufacture on a commercial basis; that labor 
constitutes over 70 per cent of an average violin's cost. 

Production of musical instruments and phonographs in United States ^ by Statef. 

PIANOS, ORGANS, AND MATERIALS. 
[From Federal census. Value expressed in thousands.] 



State. 



California..... 
Connecticut... 

minais 

Indiana 

Kentucky 

Massachusetts 

M1ch^g«\ T» 

Minnesota 

New Jersey... 

New York 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania. 

Wisconsin 

All other 

Total..., 



1899 


1904 


1909 


$76 


$208 


$150 


3,396 


6,273 


6,538 


8,156 


13,323 


19,176 


814 


2,270 


3,686 


112 


505 


588 


6,172 


8,279 


9,106 


1,180 


1,984 


4,226 


53 


55 


294 


1,332 


1,477 


2,229 


14,746 


23,390 


33,680 


1,451 


3,684 


3,926 


1,488 


1,767 


2,382 


18 


184 


893 


2,030 


3,704 


3,916 


41,024 


66,093 


89,790 



1914 



$252 

5,230 

19,706. 

3,934 

761 

8,2ia 

2,682 

315 

3,50$ 

33,072 

3,645 

2,084* 

1,470 

4,181 



88,948 



PIANOS, WITH ANP WITHOUT PLAYER ATTACHMENTS. 

[From Census of Manufactures.] 



state. 


1899 


1904 


1909 


1914 




Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Connecticut 

TTHnftis 


7,269 
46.134 

(^) 
16,809 

71,855 
SL862 

20,082 


6,691,747 
3,566,662 

11,862,257 
1,214,068 

^'} 

3,723,124 


9,240 
74. 137 

(^) 
23,126 

0) 

(}) 

102,032 

11.279 

(') 

(}) 
41,383 


$1,238,667 
9,696,142 

(}) 
5,129,833 

16,684,911 
1,855,610 

(}) 
6,871,316 


9,759 

108,283 

22,891 

28,177 

25,165 

3,970 

131,780 

11,347 

9,402 

4,735 

9,036 


$1,716,695 

14,783,394 

3,319,190 

5,328,716 

3,732,973 

693, 917 

22,764,384 

1,901,294 

1,818,070 

540,350 

1,894,863 


6,127 
93,626 
23,669 
25,544 
13,707 

4,618 

121,215 

10,604 

6,783 
11,766 

8,615 


$972, 34» 
14,562,820- 


TT^dif^nf^ 1 ,,....,, 


3,513,127 


Massachusetts 

Michigan i 

New Jersey 1 

New York 

Ohio 


5,033,930 

2,203,746 

895,711 

22,286,35» 

1,924,67» 


Pennsylvania * 

Wisconsin*.. ..... 

All other. 


1,363,114 
1,440,721 
2,116,314 






Total 


171,011 


27,002,852 


261,197 


41,476,479 


364,545 


58,493,846 


326,274 


56,311,86$ 



> Figures for 1904 and 1899 included in "All other States," to avoid disclosing individual operations. 



20 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



-Production o/mti9ical instrumenU and phonographs in United States ^ by States — Con. 

GROANS. 

[From Federal census.] 



State. 


1899 


1904 


1 


L909 


1014 




Number. 


Value, 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 

28,798 

151 

245 

85 

82 

35,974 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


nUnois 

Massachusetts 

New York 

Ohio 


52,394 

3,460 

73 

1,659 

6,320 

43,352 


$1,773,200 
556,092 
216,120 
123,647 
426,428 
2,121,774 


55,759 

2,210 

58 

2,086 

5,802 

48,051 


11,969,543 
671,770 
133,471 
346,063 
417,614 
2,613,571 


11,281,415 
339,693 
330,373 
199,964 
192,901 

2,964,670 


13,095 

73 

679 

85 

81 

28,793 


11,448,429 
879,204 
734,771 
187,601 


Pennsylvania 

All other States... 


215,444 
3,412,773 


Total 


107,258 


5,217,261 


113,966 


6,152,032 


65,335 


5,309,016 


42,806 


6,378,312 



PIANO AND ORGAN MATERIALS. 





1899 


1904 


1909 


1914 


PiftT^O mftteriftls , 


(«) 


$11,397,907 
1,730,408 


(«) 


$19,492,444 


•Organ mateHftls. ... x . . .. . ^ ..^ . . . 


383,318 










United States 




13,128,315 


$18,474,616 


19,875,762 








:States: 

Connecticut 




2,397,822 
998,239 

2,165,393 
288,959 

5,226,947 

1, 412, 839 
638,116 




3,221,000 


TlHnnis- 






2,496,000 


Massachusetts 






2,438,000 


New Jersey 






(») 


New York 






7,405,000 


Ghio 






1,333,000 


All other States 






2,983,000 











MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIALS, NOT SPECIFIED. 



United States. 



Brass and other metal 

* Violins and other stringed instruments. 
AU other 



States: 

California 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Kentucky 

Maine , 

Massachusetts... 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missoinl 

New Jersey. .... 

New York 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania.. 

Washington 

All other States. 



1899 



13,394,734 



27,513 
514,393 
205,700 
0) 

460,239 

37,710 

38,976 

45,181 

879,521 

763,408 

2^1,064 

192,029 



1904 



13,481,710 



1909 



$3,228,108 



8,145 
674,370 
351 832 



259,445 
123,912 
9,125 
47,744 
862,886 
888,423 

(*) 

173,215 

4,247 

78,366 



16,108 
629, 163 
610,081 

^*} 
0) 

250,781 
223,071 
4,405 
24,973 
635,209 
569,985 

115,118 

9,995 

130,219 



> Not available. 

« Included with " AU other States.'' 

« Included in '< All other" in 1900, 1904, and 1899. 



1914 



$3,624,667 



1,390,819 
1,142,149 
1,091,699 



65,381 
719,344 
742,100 
7,700 
2,615 
418,845 
328,702 

21,375 

17,178 
353.854 
635,931 

17,132 
133,365 

13,380 
147,765 



T^ 



J. 



-Jl 



■^ 



V... 

5^' 



V- 



«J. 






^\^ 



'4t 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



21 



Proehiction of musicalinstruments and pJumographs in United States, by States — Con. 

PHONOGRAPHS, GRAMOPHONES, ORAPHOPHONES, AND SIMILAR ARTICLES OR 

PARTS THEREOF. 





1899 


1904 


1900 


1914 




Num- 
ber. 


Value. 


■ 1 B 

Num- 
ber. 


Value. 

ilO 237.075 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


United States.. 




$2,246,274 






($11,725,996 




* 27, 115, 916- 






V«, a^KV, WI7 ---I-.- -7 -r 




• 


Phonographs, grapho- 
phones, and talking 
machines 

Records and blanks . . 

Parts and siwplies 
not included in 
finished instru- 
ments 


151,403 
2,763,277 


1,240,503 
639,370 

466,401 


?1 


2,966,343 
4,678,547 

(«) 
2,502,185 


344,681 
27,183,959 


5,406,684 
5,007,104 

844,631 
467,577 


514,154 
27,221,290 


15,290,491 
11,111,418^ 

356, 93& 


All othw nroducts. . . . 








357,072 












States:* 

















s Not available. 

* In addition, in 1914, phonographs, graphophones, and parts, valued at $66,531, and in 1909, valued at 
$31,899 were made by establishments engaged primarily in the manufacture of products other than those- 
covered by this industry designation. 

• States: "New York was the only State in 1914 for which statistics could be^ven separately without 
disclosing the operations of individual establishments, but the industry in New York was not of sufficient 
importance to present data in detail for this State. The value of the products of the 5 establishments 
located in New York was $160,603, or less than 1 per cent of the total for the country. Of the remaining^ 
13 establishments rex>orted in 1914, 4 wore located in New Jersey; 3 in Illinois; 2 in Ck>nnecticut; and 1 
each in Delaware, Massachusetts, Ohio, and Pennsylvania." 

Imports of musical instruments and phonographs, by countries (fiscal years). 

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS AND PARTS OF, INCLUDING STRINGS. 



Imported from — 



Austria-Hungary. . 

Belgium 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

Spam 

Switzerland 

England 

Canada 

Hongkong 

Japan 

All other countries 

Total 



1910 



1911 



$99,345 

5,672 

224,795 

940,955 

17,540 

2,751 

9,822 

28,174 

8,701 

1,796 

3,348 

4,963 



$137,819 

5,380 

250,420 

1,123,538 

28,798 

3,070 

9,514 

43,466 

10,919 

1,025 

3,664 

5,487 



1,347,862 



1,623,100 



1912 



$106,150 

4,119 

239,448 

1,166,608 

27,350 

7,139 

7,227 

22,144 

20,367 

567 

7,301 

5,995 



1,614,415 



1913 



Imported from— 



Austria-Hungary. 

Belgium 

France 

Gomany 

Ital5 



1916 



$35,452 



iiaiy., 
SpatQ. 



Switzerland 

England 

Ganada 

Hongkong 

Japan. 

All other countries . 



Total. 



168,986 

197,360 

65,643 

5,405 

17,823 

12,985 

24,853 

3,365 

26,160 

8,283 



566,315 



1917 



$857 



228,895 
8,491 
72,526 
13,737 
18,688 
12,824 
25,015 
9,651 

124,748 
11, 375 



526,807 



1918 



$241,299 

197 

52,326 

9,917 

6,525 

18,555 

32,241 

5,021 

337,349 

6,924 



710,354 



$151,389 

4,353 

271,804 

1,257,074 

35,854 

4,079 

5,311 

24,782 

12,950 

1,032 

9,028 

9,637 



1,787,293 



1914 



$177,092 

4,160 

285,349 

1,467,611 

58,598 

4,318 

8,135 

34,934 

21,573 

2,295 

4,067 

8,602 



2,076,734 



1918 s 



1919 > 



$5^279 



201,343 
35,670 
46,493 
10,976 
5,763 
13,528 
33,773 
621 

210,921 
36,167 



$28,811 
70 

270,572 

315,272 
53,836 
6,608 
34,496 
10,799 
43,687 
11,210 

513,684 
11,329 



566,761 



1,300,374 



1915 



$100,409- 

830 

163,626 

871,126 

53,858 

2,149 

6,505 

20,732 

8,878 

2,627 

4,517 

126,873 



1,262,140 



1920S 



$2,964,505 



1 Imports from Netherlands in 1915 were $18,376. 



s Calendar years. 



22 



TAEIFF IKFORBiATION SURVEYS. 



Imports of musical instruments and phonographs , hy countries {fiscal years)-~Con. 

PHONOGRAPHS, ETC., AND PARTS OF. 



Imi>orted from— 



Aostria-Hungary 

France 

Oermany 

Italy 

Switzerland 

England 

Jmaa 

All^other countries . . . t 

Total 



1010 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1173 


$2,911 


11,426 


$2,310 


H881 


2,709 


2,700 


3,301 


3,427 


12,957 


13,157 


22,678 


10,197 


17,704 


83,435 


249 


398 


298 


1,084 


139 


1,195 


10,421 


1,823 


4,607 


18,442 


5,226 


9,380 


3,149 


5,881 


10,631 


34 


118 


1,661 


3,300 


13, U6 


4,454 


3,214 


793 


1,187 


7,937 


27,197 


51,820 


22,548 


39,400 


151,438 



1915 



$1,871 

31,465 

60,418 

375 

96,190 

8,785 

6,867 

9,140 



215, Ul 



Imported f rom— 



Austria-Hungary. . . 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

Switzerland 

England 

Japan 

All other countries. 



Total. 



1916 



$2,183 

45,908 

4,609 



180,650 

25,636 

7,604 

1,740 



268)025 



1917 



$48,663 

146 

41 

365,698 

42,900 

12,929 

15,050 



486,417 



1918 



$11,824 



257,230 

7,994 

76,604 

2,133 



366,785 



1918* 



1919 > 



$8,521 



223,886 

160 

78,099 

2,310 



$107 

34,427 

695 

399 

480,043 

3,345 

32,383 

6,854 



312,966 558,253 



1920S 



$875)530 



s Calendar years. * Ten months ending Oct. 31, 1920. 

Imports of musical instruments and phonographs for consumption — Revenue. 

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS AND PARTS OF, INCLUDING STEEL OR OTHER METAL 

STRINGS. 



Fiscal year: 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

19141 

1914« 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921» 



Rate of duty. 



46 per cent. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

.....do 

do 

35 per cent. 

.....do 

do 

.....do 

do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do 



Quantity. 



Value. 


Duties 
collected. 


$1,458,801 


$666,460 


1,338,568 


602,351 


1,276,969 


674, 186 


1,366,768 


614,595 


1,668,187 


706,684 


1,526,421 


686,889 


1,738,824 


782,470 


384,263 


172,918 


1,583,414 


654,195 


1,153,821 


403,837 


662,448 


228,356 


618,478 


181,467 


666,057 


233,119 


607,237 


177,633 


1,281,018 


448,366 


2,565,022 


897,757 
607,571 


1.450,204 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Per cent. 



46 
46 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
46 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 

35 
36 
35 
35 



From Phiuppins Islands. 



Fiscal year: 

1909 


75 per cent of 45 

per cent. 
Free 




$6 

2 
8 

46 
619 
131 
226 

111 
93 
92 


I « 






1911 








1913 


do 










1914 


do 










1916 


do 










1917 


do 










1918 


do 










Calendar year: 
1918 


do 










1919 


do 










1920 


An 





















1 Old law, July 1 to Oct. 3, 1913. 

' New law, Oct. 4, 1913, to June 30, 1914. 



* Six months ended June 30, 1921. 



TABIPP IHTOBMATION StTRVBTS. 



23 



Imports of musical instruments and phonographs for consumption — Revenue — Con. 

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS AND PARTS OF, INCLUDING STEEL OR OTHER METAL 

STRINGS— Continued. 

Fbom Cuba (Reopbocity Tbeatt, Dec. 27, 1903). 



Tiscal year: 
1908.... 



1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1914. 
1915. 



1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar irean 

1918 

1919 

1920 



Rate of duty. 



45 per cent less 20 

per cent. 

.....do 

do. 

do 

do 

do 

35 per cent less 20 

I)er cent. 

do 

do 

.....do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



$5 

411 
12 
17 
45 
10 
81 

16 

197 

34 

32 



28 



Duty 
collected. 



II 

147 
4 
6 

16 
3 

22 

4 

55 



9 



8 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Per cent. 



36 

36 
36 
36 
36 
36 
28 

28 
28 
28 

28 



28 



PHONOGRAPHS, AND SIMILAR ARTICLES, AND PARTS OF. 



Fiscal year: 

1910 4 

19106 

1911 

1912 , 

1913 

19141 

1914« 

1915 , 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921» 



20 per cent. 
45 per cent. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

25x>ercent. 

do 

do 

do 

do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



1254 

27,460 

48,092 

23,206 

38,759 

19,131 

128,252 

224,056 

262,041 

458,253 

334^854 

322,188 
578,518 
817,957 
290,089 



150 
12,357 
21,641 
10,442 
17,441 
8,609 
32,063 
56,014 
65,510 
114,563 
83,713 

80,547 
144,629 
204,489 

72,522 



PerceTit. 



20 
45 
45 
46 
45 
45 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 

25 
25 
25 
25 



» Old law July 1, to Oct. 3, 1913. 

« New law. Oct* 4, 1913, to June 30, 1914. 

* Six monuis ending June 30, 1921. 



4 Under act of 1897, July 1 to Aug. 5, 1909. 

ft Under act of 1909, Aug. 6, 1909, to June 30, 1910. 



Domestic exports of musical instruments and phonographs. 

ORGANS. 
[Fiscal years.] 



Exported to— 



Crermany 

Netherlands 

Norway 

England 

Scotland 

Canada 

Mexico 

Newfoundland and Labrador 

British West Indies 

China 

British India 

Australia and Tasmania 

New Zealand 

British South Africa 

All other 

Total 



1910 



Number. 



•614 
899 
103 

3,297 
327 
322 
150 
147 
189 
122 
74 

1,602 
185 
771 
648 



9,450 



Value. 



$49,483 

42,221 

6,410 

332,240 

28,134 

24,616 

7,700 

5,654 

8,661 

7,536 

4,576 

93,640 

8,997 

33,749 

86,296 



721,913 



1911 



Number. 



775 
662 
181 

3,174 
207 
380 
140 
239 
240 
96 
68 

1,614 
123 
645 
582 



9,136 



Value. 



137,754 
36,373 

7,662 
323,620 

8,097 
33,932 

7,050 

8,348 
12,037 

4,945 

3,933 
86,133 

6,877 
28,975 
61,337 



667,073 



1912 



Number. 



1,038 
686 
410 

8,067 
183 
499 
205 
276 
255 
69 
73 

1,491 
208 
726 
716 



9,791 



Value. 



$50,207 

40,121 

14,527 

330,443 

7 264 

31,876 

8,340 

9,983 

15,060 

3,321 

6,567 

76,395 

11,364 

33,922 

43,497 



690,886 



24 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Domestic exports of musical instruments and phonographs — Continued. 

ORGANS— Continued. 



Exported to— 



Germany , 

Netherlands 

Norway 

England 

Scotland 

Canada 

Mexico 

Newfoundland and Labrador 

British West Indies 

China 

British India 

Australia and Tasmania 

New Zealand 

British South Africa 

All other 

Total 



1913 



i9U 



Number. 



Value. 



687 

594 

87 

2,174 
221 
693 
188 
213 
208 
139 
95 

1,451 
152 
966 
835 



8,703 



$48,315 
27,170 

4,171 
292,257 

7,57e 
46,173 

8,715 

9,990 
11,914 

6,779 

5,761 
79,582 

7,612 
36,423 
65,014 



Number. Value. 



334 
SOI 
195 

2- 85a 
308 
517 
81 
249 
207 
167 
110 

1,098 
142 

1,049 
646 



115,392 

23,.080 

8,174 

251,207 

19,53a 

37,767 

3,511 

11,236 

9,989 

^844 

7,128 

64,869 

7,657 

40.410 

46,946 



1915 



Number. 



4 

54 

5 

993 

117 

269 

6 

129 

114 

83 

108 

770 

66 

290 

442 



647,451 8,457 1 555,743 



3,450 



Value. 



1249- 

2,639 

950* 

61,144 
4,628 

15,63a 
747 
4,544 
6,959' 
4,147 
4,788 

42,576. 
3,172 

10,314 

27,670 



190,16O> 



1916 



Exported to— 



Number. Value. Number. 



1917 



1918 



Netherlands 

Noi way 

England 

Scotland 

Canada 

Mexico 

Newfoundland and I^tbrador . 

British West Indies 

China 

British India 

Australia and Tasmania 

New Zeal and 

British South Africa 

All other 



Total. 



79 

21 

842 

152 

572 

2 

80 

92 

89 

26 

720 

61 

324 

531 



3,591 



$5,817 
1,396 

51,332 
7,437 

30,645 
HI 
3,950 
4,861 
6,097 
1,655 

41,343 
3^a71 

13,617 

40,761 



212,393 



9 
43 



Value. 



Number. Value. 



$467 
1,925 



559 
5 
113 
105 
114 
51 
738 
100 
257 
534 



2,628 



27,665 
435 
4,968 
4,619 
5,934 
2,676 

43,921 
5,007 
9,842 

36,615 



656 
21 

121 
77 
88 
63 

568 
90 

222 

424 



144,074 2,330 



$42,85» 
871 
5,464 
4,116- 
3,921 
2,344 

39, 145- 
4,67ft 
8,647 

27,76a 



139,706 



[Calendar yearsj 



Exported to— 


1918 


1919 


1920 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 

16 

89 

87 

260 

82 

262 

72 

138 

21 

377 

290 

577 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Netherlands 




$926 

6,106 

4,761 

21,897 

4,192 

17,640 

5,104 

6,607 

1,205 

21,006 

16,106 

69,097 






Norway 


11 


$2,914 






EngUuid 






Canada 


611 
11 

loa 

76 
72 

3a 

257 
121 
353 


44, ^i5 
718 

5,429 

4,121 
.3,011 

1,082 
15,892 

4,698 
30,852 






Mexico 






Newfoundland and Labrador 






British West Indies 






China 






British India 






A ^qtraifa and Tft««»nRnift 






British South Africa 






All other 












Total I... 


1,647 


113,062 


2,271 


174,647 


2,720 


$296,942 





TAKIFF nrPOKHATiON SCmTKYS. 



as 



o/ wnttieai intingmmtt 

FXATBR>PIA)fOS.t 



I 



m4 



Number, ValiM. Nnmbw. Valm. 




Chile.. 



Pern. 

Urogm^ 

Ven( 



AUoUier... 
ToUl. 



8 

39 

3 

10 

126 

433 

118 

78 

141 

53 

75 

5 

1 

1 

36 

7 

100 

129 



1,374 



3»079 

U;051 

980 

4»S23 

33^899 

101,355 

32,443 

19,333 

47,339 

17,066 

34,647 

1,911 

347 

385 

13,079 

3,424 

37,414 

45,346 



388^303 



12 
53 

m 

6 

ao 

1^ 

351 

36 

65 

59 

23 

11 

13 

1 

4 

16 

36 

15S 

181 



13; 173 

35,996 

1,833 

7,181 

3^351 

58,353 

13,857 

17,455 

31,730 

8,633 

3,705 

4,813 

675 

3,053 

5^384 

7,115 

41.895 

56,688 



1,319 ; 335,399 



1915 



NoB^bw. 



3 
I 

IT 
1 

61 



100 

10 

89 

38 

3 

10 

47 

3 

3 

97 

43 

355 

117 



1,315 



81, M3 



«09 

1^984 

13\1Q9 

3^033 

6,079 

33,131 

8»063 

818 

3,630 

11,310 

900 

545 

7,639 

8,948 

63,500 

35,343 



350^533 



E^qxirtedto— 



Fnnoe 

Italy 

Portugal... 

Spain. 

England... 

CaniMla 

Mexico...*.. 

Cuba 

Aigentiiia. . 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia.. 
Ecuador... 

Peru 

Uruguay... 
Venexuela. . 
Australia.. 
AU other... 

Total 



1916 



Niunber. 



83 

31 

23 

158 

178 

60 

8 

119 

62 

4 

45 
92 
39 
39 
30 
44 
351 
106 



1,461 



Value. 



842,567 

5,863 

4,964 

53,373 

58,789 

22,133 

3,890 

31,884 

30,135 

1,095 

15,438 

27,186 

9,950 

12,549 

9,403 

12,346 

96,886 

41,899 



470, 340 



1917 



Number. 



1 

22 

SO 

308 

1 

106 

63 

244 

108 

64 

83 

269 

100 

72 

48 

35 

824 

321 



2,806 



Value. 



$735 

9,360 

14,830 

137,744 

575 

30,813 

24,003 

7^946 

38,633 

18,833 

30,357 

81,471 

30,005 

32,379 

12,650 

9,400 

224,804 

98,474 



855,889 



1018 
Number. Valtie. 



634 

38 

353 

113 

614 

167 

64 

303 

140 

117 

82 

49 

78 

633 

378 



8850 

545 



308,309 

7,500 

63,499 

49,139 

181,868 
55,176 
19,687 
75,485 
45,498 
37,101 
39,379 
15,917 
36,893 

176,333 

103,097 



3,545 



1,095,665 





[Calendar years.] 


. 1 ._ 


Exported to— 


IS 
Number. 


118 
Value. 


16 
Number 


19 
Value. 


19 
Number. 


30 
Value. 


France 






6 
5 

24 
627 

12 

96 
160 
663 
198 

84 
114 
108 

14 
164 

96 

72 

1,279 

666 


83,975 

1,670 

12,592 

wlu, 9fv 

10,474 

29,859 

68,733 

208,175 

69,548 

30,645 

52,329 

41,027 

5 475 

66,678 

36,146 

22,724 

416,768 

260,812 




Italy 










Portugal 


16 
826 

38 
206 
110 
734 

89 

43 
244 
104 

63 
105 

57 

61 
634 
399 


84,104 

325,288 

7,600 

66,110 

60,871 

218,036 

34,664 

12,740 

106, 139 

36,056 

18,912 

46,785 

19,282 

21,600 

164,126 

163,019 






Spain 






England 






Canada 






Mexieo 






Cuba 






Argentina 






Brazil 






Chile 






Colombia 






Ecuador 






Peru 






Uruguay 




••••••**•* 


Venezuela 






Australia 






AU other 












Total 


3,718 


1,272,210 


4,378 


1,666,519 


8.364 i 


121 472.fl2l2 







1 Included in "Pianos, all other'' prior to 1913. 



26 



XABIFF WPOEMATIOJ^ SURVEYS. 



Dcmettie exports ofmuncal instruments and phonographs — Continued. 

PIANO PLAYERS. 
[Fiscal years.] 



Exported to— 



Germany 

England 

Canada 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Australia and Tasmania 
Another 

Total 



1910 



Number. 



454 
1,407 
109 
126 
121 
242 
216 



2,735 



Value. 



$133,023 
401,580 
56,603 
31,190 
23,817 
41,820 
51,232 



739,265 



1911 



Number. 



655 
1,294 
213 
112 
112 
306 
184 



2,876 



Value. 



$199,945 
359,217 
70,341 
31,696 
26,282 
57,525 
50,360 



795,366 



1912 



Number. 



338 
1,039 
16 
54 
28 
88 
77 



1,640 



Value. 



$05,906 

295,578 

3,8M 

12,790 

7,555 

11,925 

18,728 



446,286 



Exported to— 



Oermanv 

Eng^na 

Canada 

Argentina 

BrazlL 

Australia and Tasmania 
Another 

Total 



1913 


1914 


19 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


3 

906 

16 

18 

4 

211 

100 


$701 

232,834 

2,969 

3,143 

258 

26,028 

21,787 


106 

864 

14 

15 


$17,930 

123,051 

3,559 

3,453 


1 
231 

5 
10 

3 
17 
57 


46 
81 


7,885 
21,805 


1,258 


287,720 


1,126 


177,683 


324 



Value. 



$102 

53,949 

1,120 

3,783 

750 

3,958 

16,765 

80,427 



• 

Exported to— 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Number. 

22 
5 
39 
10 
70 
129 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


England 


$7,301 

1,224 

7,178 

2,750 

19,860 

34,296 


10 
3 
3 

1 

7 

133 


$2,700 

1,082 

1.078 

325 

2,501 

38,646 






CaniEida 


10 

3 

1 

106 

107 


$1,902 
820 


Argentina. X . 


Braxll 


450 


Australia ftpd Tasmanln 


22,968 
33,636 


AH OthAT , 






Total 


275 


72,609 


157 


46,332 


227 


59,771 







[Calendar years.] 



Exported to— 


1918 


1919 


1920 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


England 






$886 
3,542 
1,591 
4,710 
5,567 

17,554 
4,619 
8,962 

10,233 






Canada 


11 
2 
1 

80 
21 
21 
10 
29 


$3,134 

400 

450 

16,538 

7,761 

5,213 

2,357 

9,714 


12 
9 
16 
22 
37 
13 
40 
31 


.......... 




Argentina 






Braril 






Australia 






Spain 






Mexico 






Cuba 






All other 














Total 


175 


45,567 180 


67,664 1 117 


$46,399 













TABIFT INFOBMATION StntTETS. 



27 



Domestic exports o/musieal instncments and phonographa-^ConUDned. 

PIANOS, ALL OTHER. 

[Fiscal years.] 



Exported to— 



France 

Germany 

Italy 

England ..., 

Canada 

Panama 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Brasil 

CMe 

C(domt^ 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Australui and Tasmania 

New Zealand 

Philippine Islands ...... 

British South Africa 

All other 

Total 



1910 



Numbtf. 



61 

137 

76 

838 

1,690 

45 

480 

300 

293 

96 

82 

14 

3 

47 

305 

10 

16 

12 

461 



4,966 



Value. 



120,692 

29,945 

24,017 

278,882 

368,089 

11,272 

104,565 

47,636 

63,979 

23,009 

21,009 

3,168 

1,005 

13,257 

40,863 

1,593 

4,043 

2,493 

103,860 



1,163,467 



1011 



Number. 



60 

165 

145 

1,066 

1,519 

58 
432 
275 
271 
152 
115 

30 

10 

90 
444 

10 
132 

14 
639 



5,617 



Value. 



922,316 

41,670 

45,262 

329,165 

324,443 

14,995 

104,212 

42,343 

53,281 

30,912 

34,735 

5,396 

2,408 

20,512 

64,402 

1,337 

25,597 

4,325 

139,939 



1,307,250 



1912 



Number. 



65 

188 

170 

1,091 

2,430 

47 
387 
446 
396 
446 
241 

50 

16 

2U 

458 

7 

172 

23 
674 



7,527 



Value. 



$16,344 
62,502 
42,103 

339,129 

529, 60& 

10,990 

92,300 

68,51» 

84,654 

99,767 

72,088 

15,209 

3,205. 

45,502 

73,664 

780 

30,478 

4,758 

147,810 



1,730,504 



Exported to— 



France 

Oennany 

Italy 

En^and 

Canada 

Panama 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Brasfl 

Chile 

C(dombia 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Austaralui 

New Zealand 

Philippine Islands . . 
British South Africa 
All other 

Total 



1913 



Number. 



58 

70 

267 

914 

2,576 

92 

605 

550 

294 

414 

169 

78 

15 

247 

440 

10 

128 

6 

675 



7,608 



Value. 



$14,966 
19,009 
54,647 

280,838 

474,810 
19,150 

133,525 

80,241 

54,537 

82,391 

41,490 

17,370 

4,371 

49,087 

66,843 

2,824 

29,734 

3,218 

134,621 



1,663,672 



1914 



Number. 



88 

44 

134 

1,086 

2,281 

•65 

194 

436 

237 

208 

161 

42 

14 

165 

447 

21 

149 

10 

719 



6,501 



Value. 



$22,608 

10,824 

31,762 

323,565 

454,340 

14,138 

44,295 

67,367 

45,067 

45,613 

41,585 

9,401 

3,698 

40,794 

76,213 

3,013 

29,617 

2,451 

150,647 



1,416,888 



1915 



Number. 



52 

246 

1,054 

44 

27 

445 

184 

115 

19 

56 

9 

68 

1,308 

32 

75 

62 

408 



4,222 



Value. 



$2,6Sb 

2,06o 

13,400 

64,950 

221, ose 

11,618 
10,474 
74,601 
30,737 
21,388 

4,846. 
12,656 

1,954 

14,624 

185,671 

4,683 
15,578 
^9,900 
96,674 



808,565 



Exported to— 



France 

Italy 

England 

Canada. 

Panama 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

BrazQ 

ChUe 

Colombia 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Australia 

New Zealand 

Philippine Islands. . 
British South Africa 
AU other 

Total 



1916 



Number. 



3 

32 

192 

792 

108 

64 

1,031 

576 

208 

91 

97 

58 

147 

4,407 

99 

145 

473 

825 



9,343 



Value. 



$900 

8,259 

50,350 

184,019 
30,327 
20,124 

151,728 

106,929 
38,092 
20,534 
23,171 
14,291 
35,380 

643,209 
16,795 
29,171 
60,602 

183,382 



1,617,263 



1917 



Number. 



1,227 

78 

223 

1,241 
550 
400 
213 
191 
152 
206 

5,566 
266 
240 
418 

1,220 



12, 195 



Value. 



$1,414 



219,615 
17,010 
54,724 

203,476 
97,993 
70,451 
55,586 
40,945 
29,339 
38, 152 

680,800 
32,721 
34,466 
45,526 

252,387 



1,874,604 



1918 



l^umber. 



1,284 

66 

228 

1,607 
704 
305 
222 
118 
199 
234 

5,943 
287 
300 
813 

1,690 



13,900 



Value. 



$236,196. 

13,214 

68,646- 

282,867 

130,606 

60,821 

54,73T 

.35,281 

49,849 

53,933- 

791,391 

31,513 

42,010 

112,621 

328,778 



2,292,467 



TAHIFF INFOBMAIIOS SURTBXS. 
D<iim4stic atportt ofmutkal iTUtmmmit and phonographt — Continued. 

PIANOS, ALL OTaBR—Oratmasd. 
[CSlendu Teen.) 



Biport*Jt»- 


10>8 


laiB 


im 


Numlw. 


Value. 


Number. 


Valo*. 


Nomber. 


Valoe. 


Andri H 






2 

1 

3B3 

1 

4,052 

i 


i 

eo 

2g 
36 

62 
0» 

1 




























^ 


SS 




















m 

IIT 

iS6 


11 

46 967 

as 

4S 




























































































10,108 


l,M9,708 


12,507 


a,oai,g»4 


18,638 


16,281,071 





PBEFORATED MUSIC ROLLS.' 
[Fiscal jeais.] 



Exported to- 


1913 


1914 


1916 


1918 


1917 


1018 


„ 


39|0C» 


S4,T02 

33^098 
S,608 

ao)s7B 












2l'^ 


4S 


»*77 

1 














as 

4S,M3 










mm 


127,826 


87,890 


60,170 


101, «7 









[Calender reus J 
Eipottedt 

I Included In " All Mhu, and perU of" prior ta 



Exported to- 


1M8 


im 


1910 




30Q 
M,237 

i'i 

i;B 
IS 


12,734 

;32s 

1 )881 
10,110 

33:^ 


































































"•■"' 


204, 76i 


WW, 913 





TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



29 



Domestic exports of musical instruments and phonographs — Continued. 

ALL OTHER MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, AND PARTS OF. 

[Fiscal years.] 



Exported to— 



Germany 

England. 

Canada , 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Japan 

Australia and Tasmania 
AU other 

Total 



1910 



157,455 

138,055 

225,190 

22,337 

3,492 

3,672 

12,177 

95)320 



557,698 



1911 



194,095 

175,431 

267,670 

28,114 

4,500 

2,108 

36,138 

93,656 



701,712 



1912 



186,946 

117,004 

327,086 

29,937 

10,406 

4,812 

39,386 

114,593 



730,170 



1913 



195,643 

102,421 

408,158 

21,768 

8>491 

4,878 

25,955 

89,785 



754,099 



1914 



1143,885 

99,008 

344,059 

7,934 

8,736 

4,023 

36,908 

100,839 



745,392 



1915 



$4,937 

206,456^ 

209,311 

30,921 

6,202 

4,575 

10,162 

72,567 



545,132 



Exported to— 



Germany. 
England.. 



Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Japan 

Australia and Tasmania. 
All other 



Total. 



1916 



$387,416 

381,538 

13,991 

25,238 

3,415 

67,890 

142,492 



1,021,980 



1917 



$137,277 

538,114 

34,788 

22,528 

17,434 

120,757 

249,682 



1,120,580 



1918 



$76,195 

646,405 

27,530 

32,578 

33,560 

137,749 

224,364 



1,178,381 



19181 



$22,874 

610,402 

31,507 

44,334 

67,482 

108,870 

249,167 



1,134,636 



19191 



$14,716 

222,146 

743,326 

40,080 

53,543 

40,609 

172,622 

411,277 



1,698,317 



19201 



$2,361,6ia 



PHONOGRAPHS, GRAPHONES, GRAMAPHONES, AND RECORDS AND MATERIALS FOR.» 

[Fiscal years.] 



Exported to— 



France 

Germany 

England. 

Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Brazil , 

Chile 

Cdombia , 

Ecuador , 

Peru 

Uruguay , 

China 

Japan 

Australia and Tasmania. 

Phihppine Islands 

British South Africa 

AU other 



1910 



Total. 



$10,223 

110,987 

753,265 

331,677 

263,717 

40,968 

169,966 

97,146 

17,629 

31,143 

4,694 

13,564 

38,796 

29,161 

33,263 

249,421 

47,554 

27,275 

116,843 



1911 



2,881,172 



$25,686 

96,361 

776,378 

528,401 

176,643 

66,138 

186,366 

224,308 

23,446 

46,522 

16,918 

24,984 

41,522 

36,608 

44,891 

362,900 

91,829 

27,922 

199,063 



1912 



2,983,686 



$21,081 

93,578 

672,838 

462,294 

183,470 

70,427 

249,230 

170,183 

23,251 

12,390 

16,176 

30,222 

81,340 

18,512 

45,893 

113,646 

67,320 

21,191 

168,251 



1913 



2,620,202 



$14,769 

46,123 

691,997 

756,021 

175,689 

91,250 

338,567 

143,925 

41,396 

13,739 

19,866 

36,180 

43,660 

42,506 

28,797 

81,918 

42,994 

16,463 

192,240 



2,805,978 



1914 



$17,492 
50,078 

632,033 

894,143 
82,067 
93,501 

161,078 
48,808 
44,213 
16,811 
21,363 
17,407 
14,481 
37,791 
10,889 

181,828 

36,325 

5,664 

246,273 



2,512,820 



1 Calendar year. 



> Stated separately after 1914. 



30 



TABIFF IKFOBMATION SUBVEYS. 



Domestic etports cj musical instruments and phonographs — Continued. 

PHONOGRAPHS, GRAPHOPHONES, AND GRAMOPHONES.' 



Exported to— 



En^nd... 

Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

China 

Hongkong 

Japan 

Australia 

New Zealand 

Philippine Islands . . 
British South Africa. 
All other 



Total. 



1915 



Number. 



3,656 

24,167 

215 

2,381 
268 
314 
667 
311 
97 
452 
130 
511 
142 
79 

1,492 



398 

66 

1,634 



36,880 



Value. 



1132,860 
437,739 

10,141 

36,915 
8,848 

11,881 
8,346 
5,069 
2,387 
7^287 
4,414 

12,622 
1,345 
5,236 

41,576 



17,274 

2,053 

48,018 



794,011 



1916 



Number. 



3,081 

26,888 

75 

2,789 
685 
576 
393 
277 
207 
429 
427 
717 
403 
133 

1,640 

301 

927 

85 

2,228 



42,261 



Value. 



1148,630 
646,790 

3,818 
67,218 
24,015 
23,142 
10,798 

7,250 

6,728 
12,650 
10,311 
25,243 
15,577 

5,379 
63,601 

6,711 
37,981 

2,524 
80,283 



1,198,647 



1917 



Number. 



871 

51,471 

467 

6,511 

1,068 

1,394 

1,552 

556 

469 

692 

1,030 

938 

168 

182 

4,168 

753 

1,081 

469 

4,829 



78,669 



Value. 



^,481 

1,176,650 

19,084 

110,208 

41,143 

44,937 

31,507 

11,936 

11,074 

13,113 

17,608 

54,858 

8,002 

6,254 

159,965 

24,344 

34,311 

8,344 

171,059 



1,987,878 



Exported to— 



England 

Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Brazil 

ChUe 

Colombia 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

China 

Hongkong 

Japan. 

Australia 

New Zealand 

Philippine Islands. . 
British South Africa 
Another 

Total 



1918 



Num- 
ber. 



1,384 
62,037 

946 
6,961 
1,126 

957 
1,377 

584 

807 
1,419 

237 

i,on 

282 

340 
4,065 

458 
1,706 

470 
4,990 



91,217 



Value. 



1125,212 

1,644,590 

42,964 

161,426 

55,133 

34,499 

52,247 

13,295 

18,468 

22,936 

8,324 

33,376 

5,569 

13,936 

132,567 

20,036 

57,118 

8,877 

160,293 



2,610,866 



19181 



Num- 
ber. 



1,669 
34,071 

1,306 

5,828 

1,193 
536 

1,962 
439 
512 
892 
291 

1,342 
468 
640 

4,168 
548 

2,674 
906 

4,914 



64,459 



Value. 



$37,186 

1,037,79^ 

43,717 

131,318 
44,242 
17,703 
47,028 
8,970 
12,651 
12, 141 
9,266 
42,973 
13,970 
27,614 

130,960 
21,982 
89,263 
17,584 

159,685 



1,906,052 



19191 



Num- 
ber. 



2,528 
27,468 
2,526 
5,387 
2,196 
1,188 
1,521 

656 
1,278 
2,554 

378 
1,212 

405 
1,484 
4,612 

797 
1,618 

330 
8,029 



Value. 



S140,698 

1,174,775 

86,933 

144,414 
83,389 
46,328 
60,190 
16,560 
35,906 
47,163 
11,286 
57,570 
14,401 
24,654 

188,029 
30,103 
46,593 
13,688 

268,039 



66,157 2,490,719 



19201 



Num- 
ber. 



87,571 



Value. 



S4, 130, 312 



Iv. 



Q 



S 






RECORDS AND ACCESSORIES.' 



Exported to— 



England 

Canada... 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Brazil , 

Chile 

Colombia 

Peru , 

Uniguay , 

Venezuela 

China 

British India 

Japan 

Australia. J*: 

New Zealand , 

Philippine Islands 
All other 

Total 



1915 


1916 


1165,867 


1198,750 


212,625 


349,352 


6,567 


1,761 


61,437 


76,894 


84,214 


35,863 


7,130 


22,819 


10,367 


14,001 


10,424 


10, 148 


3,849 


10,458 


8,797 


9,986 


11,123 


10,243 


16,759 


11,830 


1,819 


4,069 


5,410 


O, «J44 


64,605 


65,698 


261 


812 


26,551 


27,561 


72,308 


84,201 


769,098 


939,790 



1917 



1193,785 

831,152 

13,051 

138,572 

49,795 

55,608 

16,624 

9,821 

6,024 

18,692 

15,235 

18,519 

13,404 

11,448 

101, 111 

8,596 

28,268 

130,734 



1,660,439 



1918 



173,345 

1,280,629 

35,301 

165,621 
84,251 
66,927 
24,689 
11,259 
8,581 
19, 179 
9,914 
11,057 
23,117 
11,419 
96,740 
33,314 
30,184 
97,936 



2,073,463 



19181 



$52,794 

1,367,018 

65,022 

20^383 
83,807 
63,257 
32,142 
7,313 
6,215 
16,361 
11,193 
11,617 
25,939 
16,867 

116,984 
27,296 
59,471 

118,778 



2,276,367 



19191 



$237,072 

2,027,870 

71,662 

223,016 

160,066 
67,896 
62,636 
21,276 
26,266 
42,737 
20,065 
49,154 
52,154 
26,297 

206,907 
19,068 

103,880 



3,702,668 



19201 



$3»746,387 






^ 



1 Calendar year. 



* Not separately recorded prior to 1915. 



>„ 



TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



31 



Rates of duty — MuBieal instruments and phonographs » 



Act 



1883.. 
1800.. 
1894 . 



1887. 



1909. 



1913... 

1909... 
1913.. 



Par. 



409 



320^ 



453 



467 



373 

468 
374 



Tariff classification or description. 



Rates of duty, specific 
and ad valorem. 



Musical instruments of all kinds 

(Not enumerated) 

Musical instruments or parts thereof (except pianoforte actions 
and parts thereof), strmes for musical instruments not other- 
wise eniunwated. cases for mudcal instruments, pitch pii>es, 
tuning forks, tumng hammers, and metronomes. 

Musical Instruments or parts thereof, pianoforte actions and parts 
thereof, * * *, cases for musical instruments, pitch pipes, 
tuning forks, tuning hammers, and metronomes; strings for 
musical instruments, composed wholly or in part of steel or 
other metal, all the foregoing. 

Musical instruments or parts thereof, pianoforte actions and parts 
thereof, * * * not otherwise enumerated in this section, 
cases for musical instruments, pitch pipes, tuning forks, tuning 
hammers, and metronomes; strings for musical instruments, 
composed wholly or in part of steel or other metal, all the fore- 
going. 

Musical instruments or parts thereof, pianoforte actions and parts 
thereof, cases for musical instruments, pitch pipes, tunine forks, 
tuning hammers, and metronomes; strings for musical mstru- 
ments, comx>osea wholly or in part of steel or other metal, all 
the foregoing. 

Phonographs, gramophones, graphophones, and similar articles, 
or pMts thereof. 



25 per cent ad valorem. 
Da 

45 per cent ad valorem. 
Do. 



35 per cent ad valorem. 

45 per cent ad valorem. 
25 per cent ad valorem. 



Court and Treasury Decisions. 

Musical instruments. — ^A musical instrument has been declared to 
be "an implement or structure artificially constructed and ordi- 
narily used for the production of a succession of musical and har- 
momous soimds, or the completed indispensable parts of such 
structure or implements, artificially constructed which are practically 
indispensable in the art of music, and which are constructed and 
ordinarily used for the production of musical and harmonious 
sounds." (G. A. 8177, T. JD. 37680, of 1918.) It is no part of the 
definition of a musical instrument that it can be used to produce a 
continuous melody and that a chromatic scale can be played upon 
it (United States v. Sears, Roebuck & Co., 7 Ct. Cust. Appls. 60, of 
1916) ; nor is it necessary to its classification as a musical instrument 
that the article shall be capable of producing a complete tune 

(U. S. V. Sears, Roebuck & Co., 9 Ct. Cust. Appls. , T. D. 37875, 

of 1918). The foUowiug among other articles, have been held to 
be musical instruments: Triangles of metal with a wooden-handled 
hammer or striker (United States v. Sears, Roebuck & Co., 7 Ct. 
Cust. Appls. 60, of 1916) : cymbals (Abstract 43345, of 1919); 

Jew's-harps (U. S. v. Sears, Koebuck & Co., Cust. Appls., , 

T. D. 37875, of 1918); castanets (T. D. 37368, of , 4917); and wooden 
fish and brass ^ongs and wooden beaters (Abstract 43345, of 1919); 
but upon a fuller record, wooden fish, a block of hard wood having 
two aeep narrow cavities carved therein so arranged and shaped 
that when struck successive blows with a hard instrument, as a 
hammer, it emits noises resemUin^ the 4^otting of a horse on a hard 
pavement, was held not be a musical instrument (G. A. 8177, T. D. 
37680, of 1918); also brass gongs (Abstract 40319, of 1916); and 
small wooden wnistles known as "baby crys," used in orchestras or 
moving-picture shows to produce a sound like the crying of a baby 
(G. A, 7387, T. D. 32777, of 1912), "Parts of musical mstruments^' 
indode violin and cello necks, unserviceable in the condition in 
whidi imported for any other use than as parts of musical instru- 



32 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

ments (United States v. Lyon & Healy, 4 Ct. Oust. Appls. 438, of 
1913); music rolls for a player piano Jmown as the Welte Mignon 
(Welte & Sons v. United States, 5 Ct. Oust. Appls. 164, of 1914) ; 
organ keyboard case, although placed 20 feet from the closest part 
of the organ (Abstract 37318, of 1915); drum heads (United States 
t?. Lyon & Healy, 4 Ct. Cust. Appls. 84, of 1913); violin bows (Ab- 
stract 39112, of 1916); violin finger boards, necks, pegs, and bridges 
(Richard & Co. et al. v. United States, 4 Ct. Cust. Appls. 470, of 
1913); but does not include hollow, cylindrical wood and ivory not 
shown to be confined to use as parts of musical instruments (United 
States V. Lyon & Healy, 4 Ct. Cust. Appls. 438, of 1913), and violin 
mutes, which are composed of steel and used on the bridge of a 
violin to soften or deaden the sound (Abstract 38839, of 1915). 

'' Strings for musical instruments, '^ provided for in this paragraph 
and paragraph 366, refers to strings ^sed for the production of 
musical soimds and includes strings of the proper length designed 
for use in the production of musical tones upon certain musical 
instruments (Fischer v. United States, 5 Ct. Cust. Appls. 301, of 
1914); and small catgut strings of different gauge or diameter, some 
from 45 to 68 inches in length and others from 23 to 45 inches, 
ready for immediate use as strings for musical instruments (Richard 
& Co. V. United States, 3 Ct. Cust. Appls. 306, of 1912). But strings 
composed of catgut wound with silk, silk chief value, are not in- 
cluded, but are dutiable under paragraph 318 as a manufacture in 
chief value of silk. (Fischer v. United States. 6 Ct. Cust. Appls. 
443, of 1915.) 

Phonograph disks are parts of phonographs within this paragraph 
(American Express Co. et al. v. United otates, 4 Ct. Cust. Appls. 
279, of 1913), as are needles for phonographs (Landay Bros. v. 
United States, 5 Ct. Cust. Appls. 498, of 1915). A pnonograph 
motor complete with the exception of a mainspring, but reacfy for 
use in connection with other articles or parts of the phonograph 
outfit, was held to be a part of a phonograph within this paragraph 
(Abstract 42372, of 1918), but disks of soft wax, known as master 
records, in themselves neither intended for nor susceptible of use 
as parts of phonographs, graphophones, or gramophones, were held 
not within this paragraph, nor exempt from duty as models of im- 
provements in the arts under paragraph 629, but dutiable under 
paragraph 462 as manufactures of wax (G. A. 7182, T. D. 31351, 
of 1911). Mica washers for gramophones are pafts of gramophones. 
(Abstract 36977, of 1914.) 

Under the act of 1883, when parts of musical instruments were 
not specially provided for, ivory piano keys were held dutiable as 
manufactures of ivory. 

Under the act of 1890, musical instruments were classified accord- 
ing to the component material of chief value. 



VIOUN ROSIN. 

For treatmenti see paragraph 635. 

c 



X 





1 





UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

ON THE ARTICLES IN 

PARAGRAPHS 370, 371, and 372 OF THE 

™' ACT OF 1913 



AND RELATED ARTICLES IN OTHER PARAGRAPHS 



Paragraph 370: Paragrapl^ 377: 
. Masks Peat Moss 

Paragraph 371: Paragraph 378: - 

Matting and Mats Made of Cocoa Lead and Slate Pencils 

Fiber or Rattan. (See par. 272.) Paragraph 37d: y 

^ , « « Pencil Leads 

Paragraph 372: 

Moss and Sea Grass, Eel Grass, and Paragraph 552: 
Seaweeds Moss, Seaweeds, and Vegetable 

Substances, crude 



REVISED EDITION 




WASHINGTON 
GOYBBNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
N-22 1921 



\ 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Office: Eighth and E Streets NW., WMhinstan, D. C 

OOICMISSIONEBS. 

Thoicas Walkeb Page, Chairman. 
Thomas O. Mabvin, Vice Chairman, 
David J. Lewis. 
William S. Culbebtson. 
Edwabd p. GOStlGAN. 

WnxiAM Bttbqess. 

John F. Bethune, Secretary, 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

IV IIIIS PUBLICATION HAT BE FAOCUSBD FROM 

THR SUPERINTBNDBNT OV DOCUIISKTS 

aOVEBNMENT PBINTlNa OFFICS 

WASBINQTON, D, a 

AT 

-) CENTS PER COPY 



PREFACE. 



This is one of a series of Tariff Information Surveys prepared by 
the United States Tariff Commission and transmitted to the Com- 
mittee on Ways and Means. The series covers all of the articles and 
commodities provided for in the tariff act of October 3, 1913, and 
others not specifically provided for. It is arranged in the numerical 
order of paragraphs of that act. 

In some cases two or more paragraphs have been combmed in one 
pamphlet. In doing this, industrial relationship of the articles has 
been followed when possible. In those instances where a paragraph 
has been treated under a preceding paragraph of the tariff act, 
reference is made to this fact at the point where the paragraph 
appears in numerical order. Where one grade of an article is dutiable 
and another grade of the same article is on the free list, the article 
is discussed under the dutiable paragraph, which appears first in 
numerical order in the tariff act. In certain instances articles of 
close industrial relationship and which occur in separate paragraphs 
of the tariff act have been combined under one paragraph for con- 
venience of discussion. Reference is made to this fact at the point 
where the commodities would naturally occur in numerical order. 

The first pamphlet in the series is an '* Introduction and index,'' 
which contains: • 

1 . An introductory chapter discussing the scope of the series and 
the general method of treatment. 

2. An alphabetical index of the articles provided for in the tariff 
act of 1913, showing the paragraph of the act in which the article 
is provided for and, if discussed under a different paragraph, the 
number of such paragraph. 

3. A list of the pamphlets in the series, showing the paragraphs 
and articles included in each pamphlet. 

Thus by use of this ''Introduction and index,'' the exact location 
of the discussion relating to a given article or commodity can be 
ascertained. 

In the preparation of this report the Tariff Commission had the 
services of Guy G. George, of the Commission's staff, and of others. 



II 



coNirorTs. 



MASKS. 
General information: ^H^' 

1913 tariff parajoraph. ,...,,..,... ^ • , 7 

Description ana uses 7 

Production, imports and exports 7 

Tariff considerations ^ 7 

Imports for consumption , 7 

Rates of duty 8 

MATS AND MATTING MADE OF COCOA FIBER OR RATTAN. 

[See par. 272.] 

MOSS AND SEAWEEDS. 

Summary 9 

Summary table 10 

General information: 

1913 tariff paragraphs ^ 10 

Description and uses ▼ 10 

Domestic production. . .* 11 

Exports 12 

Foreign production >. 12 

Imports 12 

Prices 12 

Tariff history 12 

Competitive conditions and tariff considerations 13 

Statistical tables: 

ImjH^, by countries 13 

Imports for consumption — Revenue 14 

Domestic exports 15 

Rates of duty 15 

Court and Treasury decisions 16 

PEAT MOSS. 

General information 18 

Summary table 18 

Imports, by countries 19 

Imports for consumption — Revenue 19 

Rates of duty 19 

Court and Treasury decisions 19 

PENCILS AND PENCIL LEADS. 

Summary 20 

Summary table 21 

G eneral information : 

1913 tariff paragraphs 21 

. Domestic production — 

Size and importance of the industry 21 

Materials 21 

Methods of production 21 

Oi^ganization 22 

Geographical distribution 22 

History of the industry 22 

Domestic production and consumption % 22 

Domestic exports 23 

6 



6 U(>NTKNT». 

General information — Continued. 

Foreign production 

Imports 

Prices 

Tariff history .' 

Competitive conditioQB and tariff conNderattons. . 
Statistical tablea: 

Production in the United States 

Imports by countriee 'i..' 

Imports (or consumption — Revenue 

Domestic exports 

Rates of duty 

Court and Treasury decasions 




MASKS. 



General Infoemation. ;* 

1913 tariff paragraph. 

Par. 370. Masks, of whatever material composed, 25 per cent ad 
valorem. 

DESCRIPTION AND USES. 

A mask may be defined as a covering or partial covering for the 
face, used for a disguise. 

PRODUCTION, IMPORTS, AND EXPORTS. 

There are no statistics available for domestic production nor for 
domestic exports. Imports are not stated by countries, but imports 
for consumption are given. Imports have only exceeded a Total 
value of $10,000 in the fiscal years 1914 and 1915, while in other 
years they have been much less than $5,000 yearly (except in 1916, 
when they amounted to $5,688). 

TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS. 



There is no information available which leads to an indication of a 
tariff problem. The duty has varied from 25 per cent ad valorem 
to 35 per cent ad valorem. 

Masks — Imports for consumption — Revenue, 



Fiscal year. 


Rat«ofdaty. 


Quantity. 


Vahie. 


Duty 
collected. 


Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 


Actual and 

c(Hnputed 

ad valorem 

rate. 


1907 


35 per cent 




1805 

941 

860 

2,228 

1,754 

2,116 

4,413 

2,065 

10,410 

29,860 

5,688 

643 

738 

217 

311 

8,141 

4,804 


1282 

329 

301 

780 

614 

741 

1,546 

723 

2,602 

7,466 

1,422 

161 

184 

64 

77 

2,036 

1,201 




Peruni, 
35 


1908 








36 


1909 


do 






35 


1910 


do 






36 


1911 


do 






36 


1912 


.... .do. ............ 






36 


1913 


do 






36 


19141.. 


do 






36 


1914« 


25 per cent 




25 


1916 


.....do - 




25 


1916 


do 






26 


1917 


do 






26 


1918 


do 






26 


1919 


do 






26 


1920 


do 






26 


1920* 


do 






26 


19214 


do 






26 













1 Prior to Oct. 3. 1913, "Composed of paper or pulp." 
s After Oct. 3, ldl3, " Of whatever material composed." 
* Calendar year. 
4 6 mcmths ending June 30, 1920. 



8 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 
Masks — Bjates of duty. 

Tariff classification or description. 

Masks, composed of paper or pulp 

. . . . .do. 

do •. 

.....do................. 

Masks, of whatever znaterial composed 



Act of- 


Par. 


1800 


463 


1894 


355 


1897 


451 


1909 


465 


1913 


370 



Rates of duty, specific 
and ad valorem. 



35 per cent ad valorem. 
25 per cent ad valorem . 
35 per cent ad valorem . 

Do. 
25 per cent ad valorem 



[ 






MATS AND MATTING MADE OF COCOA FIBER OR RATTAN, 



Paragraph 371, act of 1913,25 per cent ad valorem. (For treat- 
ment see par. 272.) 



MOSS AND SEAWEEDS. 



SUMMABY. 



It is estimated that about 700 cars, or about 14,000,000 pounds 
of domestically produced eelgrass, commonly called sea moss, are 
used annually in the United States, and in addition about 100 cars, 
or 2,000,000 pounds, of Canadian sea moss. The principal uses of 
this sea grass or sea moss are for mattress. making and upholstery. 
Small amounts are used for wiping in the furniture trade, and larger 
amounts are used in paper making, probably about 2, 000 ,000 pounds. 
The domestic supply is coUectea during the summer along tne New 
Jersey coast near Bamegat Bay. It is dried on the beach and put up 
for shipment in bales of about 200 pounds each, and loads about 
20,000 pounds to the car. 

The price in 1914 of domestic sea moss was $17.50 a short ton, 
f . o. b. New York. European sea moss, principally from Belgium and 
the Netherlands, sold in 1914 for $9.30 a long ton, f. o. b. New York. 
Canadian sea moss has been selling for $10 to $15 a ton higher than 
the American product. It is collected along the St. Lawrence River. 
The other principal class of moss included under paragraphs 372 
and 552 is commonly known as ' ^ Irish '\ moss. In Japan it is called 
''kanten.'' It is collected to some extent in the United States along 
the New Hampshire and Massachusetts coasts, but it is not known 
that the collection is carried on as a commercial enterprise. The 
growth of kanten in Japan is quite an extensive industry. It is also 
collected along the rocky shores of the British Islands and continental 
Europe. It is used in the manufacture of food products — to thicken 
soups, jams, lellies, and ice cream — also in distilleries as a clarifying 
agent, m making sizing in the textile industry, in tanning, in the 
manufacture of medicines used in the treatment of throat and pul- 
monary affections, and in other ways. However, it is evidently not 
used in large quantities in the United States, since neither the import 
figures nor the statements of dealers indicate a large consumption 
of it. 

64912— 21— N-22 2 J» 



10 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS, 



M088 and seaweeds — Summary table. 



Year. 



1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 
IMS. 
1916. 
1917. 
1918. 
1919. 
1920. 
1920» 
1921* 



Iinx>ort8 

for con- 

sumption.i 



$214,203 
249,587 
220,568 
209,094 
301,820 
226^589 
251,090 
191,676 
241,832 
260,200 
342,411 
496,121 
228,511 



Domestic 
exports. 



$81,314 

65,638 

60,566 

117,789 

91, 578 

68,808 

80,909 

108,968 

499,793 

6 91,475 



Value 
(imports 
for con- 
sumption).) 



Amount of 
duty. 



115,346 



$88,155 
61,594 
49,171 

55,,624 

42^660 

26^762 

9,608 

7,367 

3^066 

11,453 

15,282 

5,1S6 



$8,816 
6,150 
4,917 
4,990 
5,562 
4^256 
2,69« 

961 

737 
301 

114 
1,528 

515 



Vafaieper 

unit of 
quantity. 



(») 



$0.60& 
.161 
.270 



^ Free and dutiable combined. 

• Dutiable imx>orts only. 

• Value per pound in 1909p>$0.154. 

« Exports of moss only after 1917, as seaweed Is not stated $eparately after that year. 

' Calendar years. 

« 6 months ending June 30, 1921. 

General Information. 
1913 tariff paragraphs. 

Par. 372. Moss and sea grass, eelgrass, and seaweedsy if mamiefac^ 
tured or dyed, 10 per cent ad valorem. 

Par. 552. Moss, seaweeds, and vegetable substances, crude or 
unmanufactured, not otherwise specially provided for in tMs section* 
Free. 

DESCRIPTION AND USES. 

The term ^^moss'^ covers a class of small herbaceous plants, b^ng 
generally applied to a number growing together in a mass- The title 
IS also popularly extended to similar growths of other types, particu- 
larly to some lichens and seaweeds. 

Among the mosses valuable as food, the best known are Iceland 
moss, ahchen, Ceylon moss (kanten), and Irish moss (carragheen), the 
last two being seaweeds. ''Moss'' or **sea moss'' farina is a prepared 
;granulated food in which lichen or seaweed is the principal ingredient. 

Iceland moss is a nutritious Uchen gathered chiefly in Norway and 
Iceland, where it is often dried, ground into flour, and made into 
bread. Elsewhere it is generally made into a decoction or jelly and as 
such is considered a valuable article of diet for invalids and children 
and a useful and popular demulcent and emollient in throat and 
pulmonary affections. It contains about 80 per cent of lichen starch. 

Kanten, otherwise known as Japanese gelatin, vegetable isinglass, 
agar agar, is prepared in great quantities m Japan from the GreUdium 
family of seaweed. It is pearly white, semi transparent, tasteless, and 
odorless, and is marketed in stick and block form — ''slender kanten" 
and "square kanten." On analysis it shows about 60 per cent carbo- 
hydrates and 7 per cent protein. 

Kanten is used by the Japanese in the preparation of jelUes and 
soups and for clarifying saki or rice spint. The kanten which is 
exported to the United States and Europe is used in the manufacture 
of food products — to thicken jams, jeUies, and ice cream; in distiller- 
ies, and in the textile, silk, and other industries. Under the name of 
agar agar it is used in making culture media in bacteriological work. 



TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS, 11 

Bengal isinglass, Ceylon moss, and Chinese moss are similar related 
prooncts. 

Gelidium seaweed grows abundantly on the Pacific coast of the 
United States and at some points along the Atlantic, and apparently 
offers a good opportimity for the manufacture of domestic vegetable 
isinglass. 

Carragheen, Irish moss, or pearl moss, is a species of edible seaweed 
named Ster^the town of Carragheen, near Waterford, Ireland. It is 
found on the coast of the British Islands, the rocky shores of conti- 
nental Europe, and the eastern shores of the northern United States 
and Canada. 

The carragheen of domestic use is obtained principally from New 
Hampshire and Massachusetts, the harvest season there extending 
from May to Sept^oaber. After gathering, the plants are washed in 
salt water and spread on the beach to dry ana bleach, the process 
being repeated several times. 

As marketed, carragheen is in pieces of from 2 to 3 inches to 1 foot 
in length, cartilaginous and flexible in texture, branching in shape, 
and in color from a reddish brown to straw color or white, varying with 
local differences in the plant and the extent of the Weaching. For- 
merly the greater part of the supply was employed in the clanfying of 
beer. It is used in the manufacture of food products similarly to 
kanten. It is also used by tanners in finishing leather and in the 
manufacture of oils. 

Eelgrass or sea grass is a submerged plant with very long and narrow 
leaves which grows in abimdance in shallow bays along the North 
Atlantic coast. It is also called barnacle grass and grass wrack. 
Sea grass is now used extensively in the upholstering business in place 
of excelsior, tow, jute fiber, and Florida grass. The season for father- 
ing the grass is short, and the nature of the work necessitates uie em- 
ployment of experienced baymen. The grass is put up for market in 
Dales of about 200 pounds. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCTION. 

It is estimated that about 600 cars, or 12,000,000 pounds, of sea moss 
of domestic production is consumed annually by the mattress and 
upholstery makers, while the paper makers use from 2,000,000 to 
4,000,000 poimds. It is also estimated that Canadian moss to the 
amount of about 100 cars, or 2,000,000 pounds, is used annually in the 
United States. It is collected along the St. Lawrence River. 

It is not known how much domestic Irish moss is collected, but it 
is thought that the quantity is not large, inasmuch as dealers report 
handling only small amounts. 

Since imports are not segregated, it is impossible to determine 
whether they consist of Irish moss or eelgrass. However, it is known 
that the principal importation of Irish moss is from Japan and 
France, wnile eelgrass comes mainly from Canada, the Netherlands, 
and Belgium. 

The domestic production of eelgrass is carried on quite extensively, 
but it is not known that there is any commercial collection of domes- 
tic Irish moss. There is practically no export. It appears, there- 
fore, that imparts and domestic products" are both consumed. One 
of the dealers in eelgrass states that the supply is not sufficient to 
meet the demand. 



V^ TARIFF INFORMATION STJRVFiYS. 



DOMESTIC EXPORTS. 

lK>aM^tic exports of seaweeds are very small^ the highest value for 
>W Y^^w* reoorded in this survey being $48,180 in the fiscal year 1913. 
K\jH\rta are now included in ^' All other articles." 

FOREIGN PRODUCTION. 

1 * 

?}\oih*cHon and preparation of seaweed in Japan} — Between YokoMuna and Tokyo* 
tloiv£ the electric car line and not far distant from the seashore, there were to he seen 
tt Fehruary very many long, f^nce-high screens extending east and west, strongly 
InoUned to the north, and bmlt out of rice straw, closely tied together and supported 
OM bamboo poles carried upon posts of wood set in the ground. These screens, set in 
parallel series of five to ten or more in number and several hundred feet long, were 
^sed for the purpose of drying varieties of delicate seaweed, * * *. 

The seaweed is first spread upon separate 10 by 12 inch straw mats, forming a thin 
layer 7 by 8 inches. These mats are held by means of wooden skewers forced through 
the body of the screen, exposing the seaweed to the direct sunshine. After becoming 
dry the rectangles of seaweed are piled in bundles an inch thick, cut once in two, 
forming packages 4 by 7 inches, wnich are neatly tied and thus exposed for sale as 
soup stocK and icft other purposes. 

To obtain this seaweed from the ocean small shrubs and the limbs of trees are set 
up in the bottom of shallow water, * * *. To these limbs the seaweeds become 
attached, grow to maturity and are then gathered by hand. By this method of cul- 
ture large amounts of important foodstuff are grown for the support of the people on 
areas omerwise wholly improductive. 

The Statistical Yearbook of Japan gives the production of "Kan- 
ten*' for the year ending March, 1916, as 3,703,650 pounds, valued 
at $1,239,374; and in 1917 as 3,065,225 pounds, valued at $1,182,028. 

IMPORTS. 

Imports of unmanufactured moss and seaweeds have been much 

freater than imports of manufactured or dutiable moss and seaweeds, 
mports of unmanufactured moss were valued at $127,008 in 1910 
and $478,361 in 1920. The average value has been about $200,000 
since 1910. 

Imports of manufactured oi* dyed moss and seaweeds were valued 
at $89,802 in 1910, $54,376 in 1914, and $7,367 in 1918. 

Imports of unmanufactured moss came principally from Canada, 
Japan, Germany, France, and British South Afnca. Manufactured 
moss came prmcipally from Germany, France, Japan, and the 
Netherlands. 

PRICES. 

In 1914 eelgrass from the Netherlands and Belgium sold at $9.30 
a long ton f. o. b. New York. Domestic eelgrass sold for $17.50 a 
short ton f. o. b. New York. The wholesale price of domestic sea 
moss in 1919 was $35 a ton. It is predicted that the 1920 price -^pXi 
be $37.50 a ton in car lots, and $40 a ton in less than car lots. It is 
predicted that the 1920 price of Canadian inoss will be $60 a ton. 

TARIFF HISTORY. 

The act of 1894 imposed a duty of 10 per centum ad valorem on 
sea moss or Iceland moss. The duty has remained the same since 
that time, but the wording of the provision has been changed. - In 

1 Extract from "Parmers of Forty Centuries," by F. H. King. 1911 



TARIFF INFORJIATION SURVEYS. 



13 



1897 sea moss alone was named. In 1909 the act added sea grass, 
eelgrass, and seaweeds, if manufactured or dyed. The act of 1913 
made no change with respect to moss and seaweeds. 

The acts of 1890, 1894, 1897, 1909, and 1913 exempted from duty 
''moss, seaweeds, and vegetable suDstaAces, crude or unmanufac- 
tured, not otherwise specidly provided for.'' 

COMPETinVE CONDITIONS AND TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS. 

The domestic producer of eelgrass faces competition at the present 
time from Canaaa. Since Canadian eelgrass sells, or it is predicted 
that it will sell in 1920, for $20 a ton more than domestic eelgrass, it 
would not appear that the two articles are exactly comparable, nor 
that they supply the same demand. 

Since there is no known commercial production of Irish moss, this 
item presents no tariff problem. 

MoB8i seaweeds f and vegetable substances, n. e. «., crwde or umnanvfactured (Jree) — 

Imports by countries {fiscal years). 



Imported f rom— 



France 

GMinany 

Itelv 

Netherlands 

England 

Canada 

Mexico 

China 

Japan 

British South Africa. 
Another 



Total. 



1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


$13,080 


$15,783 


$7,985 


$11,412 


$23,546 


14,515 


29,051 


13,883 


3,699 


55,593 


5,231 


15, 119 


4,163 


9,260 


11,925 


1,911 


6,356 


6,073 


2,238 


916 


3,631 


7,345 


8,721 


11,231 


10,322 


50,938 


53,468 


60,489 


48,827 


58,531 


15,306 


16,418 


4,985 


37 


2,241 


2,060 


2,701 


3,371 


9,710 


3,510 


18,521 


27,367 


34,072 


23,354 


29,685 


373 


6,599 


21,631 


29,834 


35,027 


1,442 


8,408 


3,407 


8,039 


11,723 


127,008 


188,615 


168,680 


157,547 


243,019 



1915 



$14,677 

36,060 

11,514 

6,243 

11,568 

38,568 

380 

8,705 

\\\% 

6,964 



180,931 



Imported from— 



France 

Germany 

Italy 

Netherlands 

England 

Canada 

Mexico 

China ,. 

Japan 

British South Africa. 
All other 



Total. 



1916 



$19,392 

207 

10,670 

3,911 

1,965 

*59,338 

6,934 

43,329 

36,526 



43,341 



225,613 



1917 



$20,654 

132 

3,427 

531 

4,730 

84,095 

8,251 

5,625 

42,845 



10,653 



180,943 



1918 



$19,362 



19181 



3,140 

379 

5,304 

66,488 

16 

6,902 

94,364 



$19,824 
"3,033 



34,208 



230,163 



2,254 
56,209 
11,864 

4,699 
101, 144 



104,495 



303,582 



19191 



$27,882 

62 

5,651 

2,572 

43 

58,730 

4,600 

182 

211,640 

934 

26,460 



338,756 



19201 



$478,361 



1 Calendar year. 

m 

MosSy seaweeds f and vegetable substanceSy n. e. «., all other rnanvfactured or dyed (duti 

able) — Imports by countries (fiscal years). 



Imported from- 



France 

Germany 

Netherlands. 

Japan 

All other 

Total.. 



1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


$7,251 
73,971 


$2,289 
54,143 

3,990 
1,221 


$1,290 

45,718 

17 

357 

1,944 


$442 

46,305 

1,381 

20 

2,174 


$1,425 
46,642 

4,611 
255 

1,443 


7,357 
1,223 


89,802 


61,647 


49,326 


50,322 


54,376 

1 



1915 



$312 

32, 167 

4,962 

20 

2,982 

40,443 



14 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SUBVEYS. 



Moss, seaweeds, and vegetable substances, n. e. s., all other manufacturtd or dyed (duti- 
able — Imports by countries {fi9cal years) — Continued. 



Imported from— 



France 

Germany . . . 
Netheriands 

Japan 

All other. . . . 

Total. 



1916 



S495 

1,578 

20,562 

2,163 

2,695 



27,493 



1917 



$333 

603 

5,024 

2,162 

3, dV4 



11,716 



1918 



$1,096 



1.052 
3,996 
1,263 



7,367 



19181 



ti,887 
442 



2,329 



19191 



1847 

1,672 

18.212 

930 

1,228 



22,389 



19201 



l'i2,544 



1 Calemiar years. 
Moss, seaweeds, etc., crude or unmanufactured, n. s. p.f, (free) — Imports for consumption. 



Fiscal year. 



1907.. 

1906.. 

1909.. 

1910.. 

1911.. 

1912.. 

1913.. 

1914.. 

1915.. 

1916.. 

1917.. 

1918.. 

1919.. 

19150.. 

19201 

1921 > 



Bate of duty. 



Free.. 

do. 

do. 

....do. 

....do. 

....do. 

....do. 

....do. 

....do. 

....do. 

....do. 

....do. 

....do. 

....do. 

....do 

....do 



Quantity. 



Pound*. 



13,291,917 
4,728,051 
7,929, 129 
2,981,570 



Value. 



191, 
67, 
84, 
126, 
187, 
177, 
159, 
246, 
183, 
224, 
182, 
234, 
257, 
330, 
480, 
223, 



863 
881 
263 
048 
993 
397 
190 
196 
029 
928 
068 
465 
134 
958 
839 
356 



I 



jv_j^_ : Value per 

coSSed I "^"f* 
coueciea. ^ qu^^ntity. 



$0,019 
.970 
.065 



Actoaland 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



1 Calendar year. 



Six months ending June 30, 1921. 



Moss, seaweeds, etc., mxmufactvred or dyed (dutiable) — Imports for consumption- 

RevenTie. 



Fiscal year. 



1907.. 

1906.. 

1909.. 

1910.. 

1911.. 

1912.. 

1913.. 

1914.. 

1915.. 

1916.. 

1917.. 

1918.. 

1919.. 

1020.. 

19201 

1921 > 



Rate of duty. 



10 per 

.....do. 

....do. 

do. 

....do. 

....do. 

....do. 

....do. 

....do. 

....do. 

....do. 

....do. 

....do. 

....do. 

....do 

....do 



cent. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 
218,577 
453,213 
309,923 



5,060 
70,866 
56,400 
16,380 



Value. 



$17,567 

37,884 

47,770 

88,155 

61,594 

49,171 

49,904 

55,624 

42,559 

26,762 

9,608 

7,367 

3,066 

11,453 

15,282 

5,155 



Duty 
collected. 



$1,757 
3,788 
4,777 
8,816 
6,159 
4,917 
4,990 
5,562 
4,256 
2,676 

961 

737 
30 

114 
1,528 

515 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



$a08 
.063 
.154 



.605 
.161 
.270 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Percent. 



10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 



> Calendar year. 



Six months ending June 30, 1921. 



TAB3FF IK9QBMA3aOJr STTBVSXS. 



15 



)• 



Reported to— 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


Gfrmiiny , ..... 


2,831 


670 


1,450 


1,582 


100 


Greece. ,'. 




Canada , . 


30,026 
1,346 


29,024 
1,436 


36,331 
1,916 


27,518 
1,530 


48,099 


Cuba 


3,206 


Hongk<H!g 




All other , - . 


5,081 


10,113 


11,748 


3,894 


18,202 






Total 


39,284 


41,243 


51,445 


34,524 


69,609 







Mo89 — DomegUc exports {fisoal yean). 



. Exported to— 



Germany.. 

Greece 

Canada 

Cuba 

H<nigk(Mig. 
All otter.. 



Total. 



1914 



$1,098 



32,663 

2,648 



14,507 



51,006 



1915 



$30,638 
2,366 



3,734 



36,738 



1916 



$48,250 
3,912 



2,558 



54,720 



1917 



$76,837 
4,170 



1,774 



82,881 



1918 



$9,358 
67,074 

5,924 
14,457 

2,980 



99,793 



3Z 



Exported to — 



19181 



19191 



Canada — 

Cuba 

Hongkong. 
All other.. 



.• $n,110 t $72,200 *. 

.; 3,863 I 9,974 

J 14,477 2,997 . 

J 2,217 \ 6.205 '. 



19201 



Total I 91,667 91,475 . $115,34$ 



» Calendar year. 



Seaweed * — Domestic exports (fiscal years). 



ExjKirted to— 


1910 

t 


1911 1912 1913 i 1914 1 1915 1916 


1917 


Hongkong 

Another 


i$40,071 


$14,181 '$26,017 $48,148 ;$40,561 ;$26,827 !$25.221 
12 25 32 11 , 238 , 968 


$23,317 
2,772 




f 


"f ' ■* 


Total 


4o,on 


14,193 26,042 • 48,160 40,572 27,065 , 26,189 


26,087 



1 Incinded in "All other articles" after 1917. 

Moss and seaweeds — BaJUs of duty. 



Act 

€ifr- 



Par. 



t 



Tariff classificaticm or descripticm. 



Rates of duty, speoifl* 
and ad Takvem. 



1883 j 744 I Mo88, seaweeds, and all other vegetable substances used for beds Free, 
and mattresses. 



1883 < 

1890 { 

1894 i 

1894 ; 

1897 ] 

1897 ' 



1909 
1909 
1913 
1913 



) 



777 I Sea>weed, not otherwise provided for Do. 

653 j Moss, sea-yeeds, and vegetable substances, crude or nnmannfac- Do. 

tnred, not other <idse ^ecially provided for in this act. 

69 * * * sea mose or Iceland moss 10 per cent ad valareai. 

558 Moss, seaweeds, and vegetable substances, (rude or onmanufac- Fr^e. 

tnred, not otherwise specially provided fnr in this act. 

81 Seamoss 10 per cent ad valorem. 

617 Mass, seaweeds, and vegetable substances, ur ode or nnmannfac- Free. 

tured, not otherwise specially provided fior in this act. 
78 Moss and sea grass, eelgrass, and seaweeds, if manufactured or 10 per cent ad valereot. 

dyed. 
630 Moss, seaweeds, and vegetable substances, crude or nnmannfac- Free. 

tured, not otherwise spedally provided for in this seetioo. 
372 Mofls and sea grass, eelgrass, and seaweeds, if maimfactared or , 10 per cent ad valorem. 

dyed. 
5ai2 Moss, seaweeds, and v^etable subatanoes, crude or nnmannfac- Free. 

tured, not otherwise speedily provided for in this section. 



^^^6 tJCSfF f5?F0Rl*iTI0iP^R&RVEYS. 

Court and TreasubyT55kci8ions. 

Paragraph 372, — ^Moss dyed, prepared for florists^ use and for 
ornamental purposes, was held not exempt under the act of 1894 
as crude moss. (G. A. 3146, T. D. 16317; G. A. 3384, T. D. 16956, 
of 1 895.) Sea moss which had been dyed for the purpose of preserving 
its natural form and color, such dyeing not changing its name or 
character, was held to come within the provision for sea moss in 
paragraph 81 of the act of 1897. (G. A. 6464, T. D. 27670, of 1906.) 
Wreaths made of natural rock moss, dyed and prepared, w^ere held 
dutiable as moss manufactured or dyed under tne act of 1909. 
(Abstract 26020, T. D. 31744, of 1911.) 

Paragraph 552. — The term vegetable substances as used in para- 
graph 552 of the act of 1913 was interpreted not to be limited to 
articles that are strictly ejusdem generis with moss and seaweeds, 
and birch bark in the condition as stiipped from the tree was held 
not to come within the provision and to be dutiable as an imenumer- 
ated unmanufactured article. (Reed v. United States, 5 Ct. Oust. 
Appls., 95, of 1914.) Lily of the valley roots in bunches and in 
part having sprouts or crowns thereon, imported for forcing, were 
also held not to be exempt as vegetable substances but to come 
within the provision for '^Lily of the valley and other plants used 
for forcing under glass for cut flowers,'' etc. (McAlester v. United 
States, 147 Fed., 773.) Seaweed carrageen, known as Irish moss, 
was held dutiable as sea moss. (G. A. 3459, T. D. 17078, of 1896.) 
Sea grass used in the manufacture of mattresses and for upholstery 
purposes, etc., was held exempt from duty as vegetable substances 
and not dutiable as sea moss. (G. A. 5480, T. D. 24788, of 1903.) 
Seaweeds, dried, known as nori and hashinori, with nothing added 
to change their character, and packed in tin boxes as a convenient 
method of getting the products to market, were held exempt from 
duty as crude seaweeds and not dutiable as vegetables by reason of 
being edible. (United States v, Ohashi, 7 Ct. Gust. Appls., 487 and 
495, of 191 7; United States v. Furuya, G. A. 8272, T. D. 38072, of 
1919; G. A. 8273, T. D. 38073, of 1919; G. A. 8339, T. D. 38411; 
Abstracts 43600, 43710, 43711, 43720, and 43721, of 1920.) 

Natural sim bleached wheat stems and heads, tied into small 
bundles, for use as semifloral omaiuents or emblems, are exempt from 
duty under this paragraph as a crude or unmanufactured vegetable 
substance, or under paragraph 497 as textile grasses or fibers, and 
not dutiable under paragraph 385 as unenumerated manufactured 
articles. (United States v, nice, 9 Ct. Cust. Appls., 165, of 1919.) 
But customs officers were instructed by the Treasury Department to 
continue the assessment of duty on such articles, ponding a furthe 

i'udicial determination of the" matter. (T. D. 38025, of 1919. 
Jleached wheat and ruscus leaves were subsequently held by the 
Board of General Appraisers exempt from duty. (Abstracts 43871 
44025, and 44027, of 1920.) Merc-handise invoiced as grass strings' 
and classified as manufactures of grass under paragraph 368 were 
held exempt from dut}^ under this paragraph as crude vegetable 
substances. (Abstract 41292, of 1917.) Musgo was held exempt 
as a moss. (Abstract 38787, of 1915.) Dried sea moss, known as 
asakusa nori, was held exempt from duty as a crude seaweed, and 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 17 

not dutiable as a prepared vegetable; following G. A. 8272, T. D. 
38072, and G. A. 8273, T. D. 38073. (T. D. 38411, of 1920.) 

Dried stypa grass and avoine in a natural state were held to come 
within paragraph 552 of the act of 1913 because of judicial construc- 
tion of jprior acts impliedly approved by Congress in reenacting the 
law. (United States v. Post, 3 Ct. Gust. Appls., 260, of 1912.) Horse- 
radish roots are vegetable substances unmanufactured rather than 
vegetables for tariff purposes. (United States v, Wallace, 4 Ct. Cust. 
Appls., 142, of 1913; United States v. Nix, 4 Ct. Cust. Appls., 145, 
of 1913.) 

Merchandise invoices as coconut parings, used in the manufacture 
of coconut oil, classified as waste under paragraph 384 of the act of 
1913, were held exempt from duty as a crude vegetable substance 
under paragraph 552. (Abstract 43972, of 1920.) Kice bran, shorts, 
and middlings, by-products in the scouring or cleaning of rice, come 
within paragraph 385 of the act of 1913 as unenumerated articles and 
notwithin paragraph 552. (G. A. 8121, T.D. 37471, of 1917; affirmed 
without o{>mion, T. D. 38242, of 1918.) 



PEAT MOSS. 



Genbbal Information. 
1913 tariff paragraph. 

Par. 377. Peat moss, 50 cents per ton. 

Peat moss is a dry, fibrous, matted substance taken from the 
surface of a peat bog. It is a sanitary stable dressing, noncombus- 
tible, and acts as a deodorant. It is used in the manufacture of 
stuffing for horses' hoofs. It may also be used as stuflSng for mat- 
tresses. 

Peat moss is imported almost wholly from the Netherlands, although 
a Httle is imported from Germany and Belgium. Great fields of it 
are found in certain districts of the Nethenands. It extends from 
the surface of the earth to a depth of 6 to 10 feet, and under the moss 
peat is found to a depth of 12 feet. The fields are drained of water, 
after which the moss is taken out in blocks with spades and brought 
to the factories in flatboats. It is then dried and pressed into hSles 
weighing about 200 pounds each. 

There is no known domestic production of peat moss. An attempt 
was made to manufacture peat moss for stable purposes at Garrett, 
Ind., but that project is reported to have been abandoned. In the 
tariff hearings of 1897 it was claimed that a peat-moss industry could 
be built up m Wisconsin if sufficient protection against the fore^n 
product was granted. A tariff of $1 per ton was imposed in 1897 and 
retained until 1913, and yet no industry manufacturing peat moss 
for the purposes indicated had been developed. It was reported that 
the Wisconsin moss was being used in paper making. 

Before the war the average yearly importation amounted to about 
8,000 tons, valued at from $5 to $6 per ton. It was stated before the 
Committee on Ways and Means that the amount imported before 
duty was imposed on peat moss was about 15,000 tons yearly. The 
revenue derived from the import is very small. 

Peat moss — Summary table. 



Year. 



1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1920 
1921 



Imports for 
consump- 
tion. 



Tons. 
7,878 
8,275 
8,390 
9,081 
9,580 
7,215 
4,442 
1,908 
126 



Value of 
imports for I Amoimt of 
consump- I duty, 
tion. 



$43,143 
42,052 
40,411 
47,799 
57,670 
49, 141 
38,562 
18,438 
1,147 



$7,878 
8,275 
8,390 
9,081 
5,663 
3,607 
2,221 
954 
63 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



$5.48 
5.08 
4.81 
5.26 
6.05 
6.81 
8.68 
9.66 
9.10 



Equivalent 

ad valorem. 

rate. 



Per 



cent. 

18. 2& 

19.68 

20.76 

19.00 

9.82 

7.34 

5.75 

5.17 

5.49 



1,242 
2,466 
1,668 



28,979 
36,201 
11,892 



621 

1,233 

834 



23.33 
14.68 



2.14 
3.41 



^ No imports in 1919. 
18 



* Calendar year. 



s Six months ending June 30, 1921. 



TAKIFF INFORBrCATION SURVEYS. 19 

Peat won — BnporU 6y otmntries (Jueal years). 



NfltlMdBDds. AHodMr. TMaL 



Ymr. 



ino.. 
im.. 

1912.. 

i«u.. 

1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
191S>. 



1 Not stated Mpwslcijaltv 1918. Sae imports for canaanipttei for tko» 

Peal mot9 — Lnports/or consumption — Revenue 



jmr. RMUci&atj. Quantity. ' Vafaw. -^SSSti unit it 



t 



I 
Tons. Ptr 



1907 Inperton 7,606 { Sli,67L I S7,«6 6x87 17.< 

1908- do 8,288 48,222' S,288 3tS2 17.19 

1909 do 8»S76 I 46,309* «v37» &S I&6» 

1910. do- 7,878, «*1« . 7,S78 5l4S l&.a6 

1911 do 8,275' CVOBB ' 14,275 5.68 19.66 

1«2 ulo 8,300 «,411 ; 8,390 4.61 20176 

1913 -do 9,061, 47,799 9,081 5.26 19.66 

1914> do 1,746 f 10,664 i 1,746 6lU : 16l64 

1914> oOcenUpert4B... 7,S»4 , 46^986. 3,917 5.99 6.M 

1915 do 7,215 49,141' 3,607 «.« * 7.34 

1916 -do. 4,442 1 38,562. 2,2a 8l68 Sl76 

1917 do 1,906 1S,43S . 954 9.66 iH 

1918 do 126' 1,147' 63 9.10 Sl4» 

1919*. do- - 

1920 do 1,242' 28,979' 621 23.33 2.M 

1990* do 2,466, 36,201 !,*» 14.66 , 3.41 

1921* do 1,668 I 11,892- .834 

I Aet d 1909. * Cakndar jear. 

SActofl9U. » Six mmths t^dmg Jcae 36. Mat. 



* No imports 1919. 



Peat HUMS — RmUs ofdutg. 



I 



Bates of 



Act.«-jP«., T.riird«»fl«ti<»«rd«cripti«. ^^ 



1697 [ 466 , Peatmoss SI per too. 

1909....; 4n do i DoL 

1013 jn ' do 



I 



G)UBT AND Treasury Decisions. 

Under the act of 1883 before specific provision was made, peat 
moss was at first held dutiable as an mienumerated munanufactnred 
article (T. D. 5782, of 1883), bnt in 1899 the Circuit Court of the 
Southern District of Xew York held that it was exnnpt fnnn duty 
under the provision for crude nonedible mosses, ^^rohmever v. 
Magone, T. D. 21545.) 

flie provision for peat moss in the act of 1897 was held by the 
Board of General Appraisers to include moss fiber picked by hand 
from peat and used for filling mattresses. (G, A. 4535. T. D. 21545, of 
1899.) 



PENCILS AND PENCIL LEADS. 



Summary. 



The war has left the American pencil industry in a very favorable 
condition. Exports for the calenaar year 1920 reached a total value 
of $3,849,221, while imports were valued at $225,578. The exact 
increase in production since the last census is not known, but has been 
quite large. The value of products of the industry in 1914 was 
$8,328,000, while exports in that year amounted to only a little over 
$500,000. The increase in exports alone would account for a large 
increase in domestic production. 

There were 14 estabUshments engaged in pencil making in 1914, 
capitalized at $16,670,000, and employing an average of 4,330 wage 
earners. Thirteen of the fourteen establishments were corporations. 
Of the total number of wage earners, 53.5 per cent were women, 44.5 

?er cent were men, and 2 per cent were under 16 years of age. New 
ork and New Jersey each had 4 establishments; Pensylvannia, 2; 
Rhode Island, 1: Kansas, 1; Illinois, 1; Georgia, 1. 
The industrv nas developed mainly since 1890, when the value of 

Eroducts for the first time exceeded $1,000,000. The United States 
as abimdant supplies of ^aphite suitable for making pencil leads, 
and is one of the principfi3 sources of pencil cedar. An American- 
owned Mexican mine furnishes an excellent grade of fine-grained 
graphite. 

The American manufacturer of pencils is not now suflFering serious 
competition. Germany, regardecf as the most serious competitor 
before the war, is not now in a favorable competitiveposition. Her 
stocks of cedar are depleted and new supplies are dijmcult to secure. 
The output has bjeen curtailed on account of the lack of fuel, shorter 
hours 01 work, higher wages, and decreased production per hour. 
White woods are being used and the quality oi the product is poor. 
This situation is no doubt only temporarv, but it will be some time 
before the German pencil maters can fully recover. Imports from 
Germany before the war were not over $300,000 in 'value, except in 
the year 1914, when that amount was sUghtly exceeded. Total 
imports for consumption in 1914 reached a nign mark of $627,957. 
Japan is beginning the manufacture of pencils, but the quality of 
the product has not been such as to attract the American trade. 
Damsh pencils of good quality are being imported in small quantities, 
but their price is equal to the American prices, if not higher. Pencils 
from L. & C. Hardtmuth, now of the new Republic of Czechoslovakia, 
are being received in small quantities. Tney sell on the basis of 
established quality and reputation and their status would probably 
not be much affected by changes in the tarifl, unless the rates were 

made prohibitive. 
20 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



21 



Pencils atvd pencil leads {inclwding slate pencils) — Summary table. 



Year. 



1910.. 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 
1914. . 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917. . 
1918.. 

1919 «. 

1920 «. 



Domestic 
prodnctlon. 



1 $7, 379, 000 



8,328,000 



Imiwrts 

for 
consump- 
tion. 



1548,465 

511,752 

536,514 

548,072 

627,957 

472,254 

132,067 

7,818 

6,606 

34,429 

208,627 



Domestic 
exports. 



$380, 
498. 

ASA 

625, 
633, 
649, 
1,436, 
2,188, 
2,748, 
3,565, 
3,8^, 



315 
203 
962 
548 
944 
658 
015 
779 
129 
347 
221 



Ratio to pro- 
duction. 



Imports. 



Per cent. 
7.43 



7.54 



Exports. 



Per cent. 
5.15 



6.41 



Value 
(imnorts 

for 
consump- 
tion). 



$548,465 

511,752 

536,514 

548,072 

627,957 

472,254 

132,067 

7,818 

6,606 

34,429 

208,527 



Amoimt 
of duty. 



$193,594 

187,458 

192,592 

195,314 

160,648 

112,898 

27,674 

2,995 

3,095 

9,647 

47,286 



Equiva- 
lent ad 
valorem 
rate. 



36.29 
36.63 
35.96 
35.64 
25.58 
23.91 
20.95 
38. ai 
46.85 
26.80 
22.67 



» Census of 1909. 



« Calendar year. 



General Information. 

Tariff paragraphs of 1913: 

378. Pencils of paper or wood, or other material not metal, filled with lead or other 
material, pencils of l^Eui, 36 cents per gross, but m no case shall any of the foregoing 
pav less than 25 per cent ad valorem: slate pencils, 25 per cent ad valorem. 

379. Pencil leads not in wood or other material, 10 per cent ad valorem. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCTION. 

Size and importance of ike industni, — In 1914 there were 14 estab- 
lishments engaged in tlie manufacture of lead pencils, capitalized at 
$10,670,000, employing 4,330 wage earners, and prpducing an output 
valued at $8,328,000. 

Materials. — ^The principal materials used in the manufacture of lead 
pencils are graphite and clay, used in making the lead, and cedar, 
used for making the cases. The United States is favored with an 
abundant supply of graphite of suitable quality for thjs use, which is 
found in several States. An American-owned Mexican mine, which 
produces an excellent grade of amorphous or fine-gained graphite, 
augments the supply found in the Umted States. The United States 
is one of the principal sources of cedar used in pencil making. 

Colored pencils are made of chalk, claj^, or wax, mixed with color- 
ing pigments. Indelible or copying pencils are made from a mixture 
of ffraphite and aniline coloring matt<Br. 

Methods of production, — Pencil leads are made from a mixture of 
carefully graded fine-grained graphite and the finest clay. The hard- 
ness of the pencil depends upon the amount of clay used, but for the 
medium grade the proportions are about 7 parts of clay to 10 parts 
of graphite, by weight. The wet mixture is ground between stones 
many times, m order to eliminate the grit from the leads. After 

f rinding, the water is forced out of the mixture by pressure until it 
ecomes a thick dough. It is then pressed through dies or small holes 
the shape and size desired for the leads, and after being dried and cut 
into lengths is packed into crucibles and burned for several hours. 

The wood used, which is usually cedar, although pine or other wood 
is sometimes used for the cheaper grades of pencill=i, is cut into little 



22 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



slabs of pencil length and usually of sufficient width for the halves 
of six pencils. The slabs are smoothed and grooved to receive the 
leads by the pencil manufacturer. The leads are then placed in the 
grooves and tne two strips are glued together. The united strips are 
dried and then cut into separate pencils, after which they are pol- 
ished, varnished or painted, stamped, and gacked for shipment, prac- 
tically all of this work being carried on with the aid of mechanical 
equipment. The lead is also sometimes inclosed in paper. 

Except in the lead making, the various processes in pencil Jnaiiu- 
facture are largely automatic and are carried on with machinery. 
More women than men are employed. The following table shows the 

ercentage of men, women, and children employed as wage earners 

or comparative census years: 



I 



m 


Per cent of total wage earners. 


Year. 


Men. 


Women. 


Under 16 
years of age. 


1914 


44.5 

41.8 
41.8 


53.5 
50.9 
52.4 


2.0 


1909 


7.4 


1904 


6.7 







Organization, — The corporate form of ownership predominated in 
the pencil industry in 1914, 13 of the 14 establishments reported 
being corporations, capitalized at a total of $16,670,000, or an average 
individual capitalization of $1,282,000. 

Geographical distribution, — New York and New Jersey each hav<e 
4 of the 14 establishments manufacturing lead pencils. Other 
States with the number of establishments reported in 1914 were: 
Pennsylvlania, 2; Rhode Island, 1; Kansas, 1; Illinois, 1; Georgia, 1. 

History of the industry. — The present method of manufacturing 
lead pencils by mixing the graphite with clay was originated by 
Conte, a Frenchman, about 1800. The process was really perfected 
"by the Germaois. The manufacture of lead pencils was first estab- 
lished in thfe United States by representatives of the Fabers, of 
Germany, in 1861. In 1865 two other American pencil companies 
were established. The Joseph Dixon Crucible Co. attempted the 
manufacture of pencils as early as 1830, but did not meet with success 
at that time. However, in 1872 they again undertook the manufac- 
ture of pencils and met with success. As elsewhere stated, the 
necessary materials for pencil manufacture are found in abundance 
in the United States. 

Domestic production and consumption, — There has been a steady 
erowth in the value of products of the industry, as shown by the 
following table: 



Census year. 



1860 
1870 
1880 
1890 



Establish- 
ments. 


Value of 
products. 


6 

8 
4 
5 

• 


$20,400 

180,000 

279,427 

1,687,560 



Cmisus year. 



1900 
1909 
1914 




Value of 
products. 



12,222,276 
7,379,000 
8,328,000 



TARIFF INFORMATION SUBYBYS. 28 

During the years immediately preceding the war the value of 
imports and exports practically balanced^ at about 5 to 7 per cent 
of value of domestic products. Exports since the war have increased 
by leaps and bounds, from a value of $533,944 in 1914 to $2,748,129 
in 1918. It is quite evident that domestic production is fully able to 
supply the domestic demand. 

Domestic exports, — ^Exports of pencils and pencil leads have grown 
from a value of $380,315 in 1910 to $2,748,129 in 1918 (fiscal years), 
with the greater part of the increase occurring since the beginning of 
the war. Exports for the calendar year 1920 reached a total value 
of $3,849,221, while the value of imports was $208, 527. Gennwiy, 
the principal competitor of the United States, was cut oflF from 
her export trade during the war. 

Exports from the United States went to England, Canada, the 
South American countries, and Australia. Nearly one-half of the 
value of exports in 1918 ($1,015,487) went to England alone, and 
$383,271 went to Canada. 

FOREIGN PRODUCTION. 

The import figures appear to indicate that pencils came principally 
from Germany and England. The pencils coming from England 
were, however, no doubt mostly transshipped from Austria, since it has 
been commonly recognized that L. & C. Hardtmuth have been the 
principal exporters to the United States, and since the import figures 
do not show large imports from Austria. 

Japan is now undertaking the manufacture of pencils, and some 
pencils are made in Denmark. The quality of the Japanese pencils 
has not yet reached a high enough standard to cause much competi- 
tion. Danish pencils are of good quality, but cost about the same 
or a little more than comparable American pencils. 

The latest information from Grermany leads to the conclusion that 
it will be a long time before her pencil makers can again oflFer serious 
competition. Cedar stocks are depleted and white woods are being 
used. The cedar is secured from the United States. German fac- 
tories are short of fuel, wages have increased, and shorter hours of 
work prevail, with less production per hour, and the prices have 
increased from 300 to 600 per cent. Orders are taken only <m thi» 
basis of prices at the time of shipment. 

Tlie 'Kohinoor" pencils, made by L. & C. Hardtmuth, formerly 
of Austria, but now of the new Republic of Czechoslovakia, sell on the 
basis of quality and reputation and compete only with the vefy 
highest-pnced goods. Their competition is not so much feared as 
that of the lower-priced German pencil. They have not been avail- 
able to the American trade in large quantities since the war begaa. 

IMPORTS. 

Imports were practicaUy constant in value during the years pre- 
ceding tiie war, at about $500,000 annually, increasing to $042,998 in 
1914. Since 1914 they have fallen off, until the value in the fiscal 
year 1918 was only $6,085. Imports for the calendar year 1920 
were valued at $208,527. 

Imports have come principally and almost entirely from Germany 
and England, in about equal amounts. However, tJic imports from 
England were no doubt largely transshipped from Austria, 



24 TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS- 

PBIGB6. 

Prices of domestic pencils are available, but there are scarcely any 
(quotations available on foreign pencils, since almost none are being 
imported. The price of good quality imported pencils from Den- 
mark is about tne same as or a little higher to the dealer than 
American pencils of equal quality. German and Japanese pencils do 
not compare in qualitv with American, and are not being bought at 
the prices quoted. German pencils at the present time are made 
maimy of wnite woods and are not to be compared with her prewar 

{>encils. It is stated by an American manuiacturer, who returned 
rom Germany about the end of the year 1919, that prices in Germany 
have advanced 300 to 600 per cent. Wholesale prices of American 
pencils have increased about 25 to 40 per cent over the prewar price. 

TARIFF HISTORY. 

Pencil leads have been assessed for duty since 1883 at 10 percent 
ad valorem, except under the act of 1909. They were made dutiable 
at specific rates by that act at three-fourths of 1 cent per ounce for 
blacK lead, 1^ cents for colored lead, and 2 cents for copying lead. 

Lead pencils were assesssed for duty by the acts of 1883 and 1890 
at 50 cents per gross and 30 per cent ad valorem. The act of 
1894 omittea the specific rate of 50 cents per gross and assessed 
imports at 50 per cent ad valorem\ The acts of 1897 and 1909 
changed the rate to 45 cents per gross and 25 per cent ad valorem. 
The act of 1913 imposed a duty of 36 cents per gross, but in no case 
less than 25 per cent ad valorem. 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS AND TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS. 

The present situation appears to be quite favorable to the American 
pencil manufacturer. Imports for the calendar year 1919 were valued 
at $35,1 18, while exports reached a total value of $3,565,347. Before 
the war imports, and exports practically balanced, with imports in 
excess of exports. The American export business has expanded 
remarkably smce the beginning of the war, due no doubt to tne fact 
that German exports to foreim markets were cut off. 

German competition was the most serious prior to the war. At 
present the best information obtainable from Germany in December, 
1919, leads to the conclusion that it will be auite a long time before 
German pencil makers can recover from tne effects of the war. 
Prices have increased on pencils from 300 to 600 per cent, and orders 
are taken only on the basis of prices which may prevail at the time 
of shipment. 

The principal causes for the enormous increase in prices for German 

gencils are given as follows: Stocks of cedar, which come from the 
Tnited States, are depleted and the necessary import license to obtain 
new supplies is difficult to secure. The fuel situation has permitted 
plants to operate only part time. Wages have increased enormously, 
and hours of work have been reduced to eight a day, with a half day 
on Saturday, and the output per hour has decreased. Alder and 
pine are being used in place of cedar and these make a poorer quality 
pencil. 



TARIFF IKFORMATION STJRVBYS. ' 25 

Japan has beffun the manufacture of pencils, but so far the quality 
of the product lias not been such as to offer serious competition in 
the American market. 

Danish pencils of good quality are imported, but the price is not 
favorable. 

^'Kohinoor'' pencils, made by L. & C. Hardtmuth, now of Czecho- 
slovakia, are not now being imported in large quantities. Thev 
compete directly with the highest grade pencils, but not so much 
with the common pencils w£ch nfake up the Wk of the trade. 
Thev sell on the basis of quality and established reputation. 

The Pencil Manufacturers' Association has submitted a statement 
to the Tariff Commission containing proposed revisions of the para- 
graphs relating to pencils and pencil leads, of which the following 
are here noted: 

PARAGRAPH 378, PENCIL8. 

(1) Pencils "not metal" should be omitted, and if lumber crayons or carpenters* 
p^dls are intended by this term, they should be so- specified or stated as mechanics' 
pencils. The suggested wording for the first part of the paragraph is: ''Pencils of 
paper, wood, or other material, filled with lead ot oth^ mat^ial, and mechanics' 
pencils, * * */* 

(2) The words "slate pencils" are not necessary if pencils in wood or paper are 
intended, since thev would be included in ihe wording as it now stands. If slate 
pencils not in wood are intended, they should be so stated. It is suggested that 
date pencils be included in paragraph 379. 

(3) In addition to rates on pencils, the statement suggests that there should be 
levied certain cumulative duties: Caps or protectors wheth^ separate or attached 
to p^icils, pencils prepared for caps or protectors, and pencils stamped with names 
other than the manufacturer's. Just what is meant by a name other than the manu- 
jbcturer's is not stated, but it would appear to prohibit the use of trade names on 
pencils, substituting therefor the maker's name. Concrete evidence that such 
increases in duty are required is not available and has not been submitted upon 
request of the Tariff Commission by the Pencil Manufacturers' Association. 

(4) Substitute for paragraph 379: "Slate pencils not in wood, per centum ad 

valorem; pencil leads, if colored or black, — — per ounce and — per centum ad 
valorem; copying per ounce and per centum ad valorem.** 

The argument presented by that association in support of a higher 
rate on pencil leads is that the duty on pencil leads ought to be 
increasea in proportion to the duty on aniline, milori blue, vermilion, 
etc. The present rate on leads is 10 per cent ad valorem. The 
highest duty ever assessed on pencil leads was by the act of 1909 
as follows: Black, three-fourths cent per ounce; colored, 1{ cents per 
ounce; and copying, 2 cents per ounce. 

The specific duties of the act of 1909 were objected to on the 

S round that they resulted in an exorbitant equivalent ad valorem 
uty^ many times the former duty of 10 per cent ad valorem, and 
that it was an attempt to stifle the pencil makers who imported their 
leads. 



26 



• TARIFF INFOBICATIOK SUBVKICS^ 



Proctuction in United States. 

[From Federal cenmia.] 
Pencils, lead: 

1899 $1122, 37«- 

1904 4.425,896 

1909 7^378,744 

1914 ^828^418 

Pencils and pencil leads— Imports by countries (fiscal years). 



1910.. 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 
1914.. 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
19181. 
1919 >. 
19201. 



Austria- 
Hungary. 



1720 

828 

1,628 

722 

147 

36,814 

68,872 



368 



France. 



$3,096 

1,027 

2; 265 

2,929 

3, 506 

1,683 

2,031 

578 

236 

149 

163 



Oermany. 



8218,745 
328^377 
255,404 
254^980 
356,331 
287,774 
41,778 



27^289 



England. 



8323,248 

262,302 

283,704 

295,143 

279,908 

92,623 

3,088 

1,568 

749 

1,061 

762 



All other. 



82,742 

2^181 

725 

1,143 

3.106 

6<603 
4,313 
5^558 
5^100 
5,359 
6,626 



Total. 



8548,551 
494,72^ 
543,726 
554,917 

642,999 

483,49^ 

119,582 

7,704 

6»085 

$509 

35^ U8 

225,578 



1 Calendar years. 
Pencils and pencil leads (including slate pencils) — Total imports for consumption — Revenue, 



Fiscal year. 



1907.. 
1908.. 
1909.. 
1910.. 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 
1914.. 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1919 1. 
19201. 
1921 ii 



Rate of duty. 



Various. 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

.....do... 
.....do... 
do.. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



8622,077 

611,882 

521,575 

548,465 

511,762 

536,514 

54&072 

627^957 

472,254 

132,067 

7,818 

6,606 

84>429 

208,527 

135,886 



Duty 
collected. 



8218,122 

204,861 

156,481 

193,594 

187,458 

192,592 

195.314 

160,648 

112,898 

27,674 

2,995 

3,095 

9,647 

47,286 

26,906 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Actual and 
computed 
ad valorem- 
rate. 



Per cent. 
85.06 
83.40^ 
30.00 
85.29 
36.63^ 
85.96 
35.64 
25.58 
23.91 
20.95 
88.31 
46.85 
26,80 



1 Calendar year. 



* Six months ending June 30, 1921. 



Pencil leads f not in wood or other material — Imports for consumption— JievenueJ 



Fiscal year. 



1908.. 
1909.. 
1910 «. 
1914.. 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1918 «. 
1919*. 
1920*. 
1921 V 



Rate of duty. 



10 per cent. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

.....do 

do 



Quantity. 



• 

Value. 


Duty 
collected. 


8135,060 


813,506 


148,027 


14,802 


17,712 


1,771 


86,324 


8,632 


81,118 


8,111 


40,584 


4,058 


2,868 


286 


2,523 


252 


2,190 


219 


25,741 


2,574 


39,892 


3,989 


50,456 


5,045 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Per cent. 



10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 



1 Previous to 1914, pencil leads, not in wood, 
s July 1 to Aug. 5, 1909, under act of 1897. 



I Calendar year. 

* Six montns ending Jime 30, 1921. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



27 



Pencil Imdt, not in wood or other material — Imports for consumpHon — Revenue, 

BLACK. 



Fiscal 3rear. 



1910.. 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 
19141. 



Rate oC duty. 



} cent per ouoce. 

do.,..i 

do 

do 

do 



Qaantity. 



Ounces. 
1,742,484 
2,058,261 
2,688,263 
2,504,403 
421,491 



Value. 



165,648 
75,335 
93,426 
86,753 
14,908 



Duty 

collected. 



$13,068 

15,437 

20,162 

18,783 

3,161 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



10.038 
.037 
.035 
.035 
.035 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Percent, 
19.91 
20.49 
21.58 
21.65 
21.20 



COLORED. 



1910.. 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 
19141. 




554,563 
595,465 
683,970 
546,482 
172,418 



$11,122 

14,471 

15,912 

13,979 

4,127 



$6,982 
7,443 
8,549 
6,830 
2,155 



$0,020 


62.33 


.024 


51.43 


.023 


53.73 


.026 


48.86 


.024 


52.22 



COPYING. 



1910.. 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 
1914 1. 



2 cents per ounce. 

do.rr. 

do 

do 

do 



131,106 

72,600 

129,022 

136,947 

36,603 



$18,899 

7,714 

12,588 

12,662 

3,787 



$2,622 

1,452 

2,580 

2,738 

731 



$aio6 


18.87 


.106 


18.82 


.098 


2a 50 


.092 


21.68 


.103 


19.32 



1 July 1 to Oct. 3, 1913. 

Fene^Uf paper or woodj or other material not metal, filled vnth lead or other material^ and 

pencils of lead — Imports for consumption — Revenue. 



Fiscal year. 



1908. 



1909.. 
1910.. 
1011.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 
1914 1. 
L914 s. 
'1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1918*. 
1919*. 
1920 i. 
1921 « 



Rate of duty. 



Quantity. 



45 cents per gross, 
plus 25 per cent. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

36 cents per gross. . 
do. 



.do. 
.do. 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do. 



Gross . 
157,012 

105^672 

128,277 

128,270 

126,611 

127,580 

27,874 

54,443 

62,933 

4,771 

5,214 

7,040 

11,696 

17, 076 

15,556 

12,542 



Value. 


Duty 
collected. 


$468,813 


$187,850 


367,711 


139,480 


434,678 


166,304 


408,103 


159,747 


410,601 


150,625 


430,137 


164,945 


92,775 


35,737 


64,721 


19,509 


62,615 


22,655 


3,890 


*'ZiZ 


1,625 


i,8n 


2,851 


^5H 


3,509 


4,211 


4,984 


6,147 


17,846 


5,fi00 


16,570 


4,525 



Vahiepcr 

unit of 
quantity. 



$2.98 

3.48 

3.39 

3.18 

3.24 

3.37 

3.83 

1.19 

.99 

.81 

.31 

.40 

.30 

.29 

1.14 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Pereeta, 
4a 06 

37.03 

38.28 

3a 14 

38.88 

38.35 

38.52 

30. ;» 

36.18 

44.15 

115.51 

88.88 

lia9(V 

123. 3& 

31.38 



1 July 1 to Oct. 3, 1913. 

s Oct. 4, 1913 to June 30» 1914. 



* Calendar year. 

* Six months ended June 30, 1921* 



28 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Pencils^ others^ on which specific duty does not amount to ^5 per cent — Irnports for con^ 

sumption — Revenue. 



\ . I « 



Fiscal year. 



1914.. 
1W5.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1918 1. 
1919 1. 
1920 1. 
1921 1 



Rate of duty. 



25 per coat , 
....do..... 

....do 

....do..... 
....do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

.-..do.... 



Quantity. 



Oro88. 

106,251 

103,822 

18,645 

728 

395 

327 

1,182 

59,476 

26,893 



Value. 



$355,080 

325,319 

87,492 

3,283 

1,227 

1,306 

2,695 

150,789 

69, 182 



Duty 
collected. 



$88,770 

81,329 

21,873 

820 

306 

327 

673 

37,697 

17,295 



Value -per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Actual and 

computed 

adyalorom 

rate. 





Percent. 


$3.34 


25 


3.13 


26 


4.69 


25 


4.51 


25 


3.11 


25 


3.993 


25 


2.28 


25 


2.53 


25 




25 



^ Calendar year. 



s ^x months ended June 30, 1921. 



Slate pencils — Imports for consumption — Revenue. 

COVERED WITH WOOD. 



Fiscal year. 


Rate of duty. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Duty 
collected. 


Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 


Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 


1908 


36 per cent 

do 


Oro88. 

2,302 
203 
167 
200 
166 

2,204 
850 


$602.00 
60.00 
51.00 
18.00 
20.00 
222.00 
83.00 


$210.00 
21.00 
17.00 
6.00 
7.00 
77.00 
29.00 


$a262 
.296 
.305 
.090 
.121 
.101 
.098 


Percent. 
35.00 


1909 


35.00 


1910 




35.00 


1911.. 


do 


35.00 


1912 


do 


35.00 


1913..... 


do 


35.00 


19141 


do 


35.00 









OTHERS. 



1908. 



1909.. 
1910.. 
1911., 
1912.. 
1913.. 
19141 



3 cents per hun- 
dred. 
do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Hundreds. 
92,855 

72,671 
92,910 
112,374 
55,579 
64,609 
21,587 



$7,407.00 

5,776.00 
5,355.00 
6,111.00 
3,967.00 
4,319.00 
1,416.00 



$2,785.00 

2,177.00 
2,787.00 
3,371.00 
1,667.00 
1,938.00 
647.00 



$0,079 

.080 
.058 
.054 
.071 
.067 
.066 



37.60 

37.69 
52.05 
55.16 
42.03 
44.88 
45.74 



Uuly 1 to Oct. 3, 1913. 



ALL KINDS. 



1914J 


25 per cent 


Orosa. 


$4,735.00 

3,202.00 

101.00 

42.00 

6.00 

3.00 

1,009.00 


$1,183.00 

800.00 

25.00 

10.00 

1.00 

.75 

252.00 




25.00 


1915 


.....do 






25.00 


1916 


do 






25.00 


1917 


do 






25.00 


1918 


do 






25.00 


1918« 


do 






26.00 


1919« 


do 


844 


1.798 


25.00 


1920« 


do 




1921* 


do 




178.00 


44.50 




25.00 













1 Oct. 4, 1913, to June 30, 1914. 
* Calendar year. 



* Six months ended June 30, 1921. 



TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



29 



Pencils (except $laU) and penal leads — Domestic exports {fiscal years). 



Exported u>— 



TCwglnm l 

Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

BraxiL 

Chile 

Peru 

Japcm 

Australia. 

Philippine Islands 
All other 

Total 



1910 



141,003 

138,402 

58,667 

30,074 

4,888 

8,501 

5,080 

1,891 

20,565 

6,727 

21,628 

42,809 



380,315 



1011 



$183^281 

48»249 

54^808 

40,554 

9,728 

9^768 

6,978 

2,319 

60^000 

12,113 

12,287 

49,118 



496»206 



1912 



1147,020 
54,453 
62,500 
38»536 

6,274 
10,664 
16,936 

2,868 
25^089 
11,493 
21,233 
50,906 



448,962 



ms 



$170, 118 


166,207 


89,921 


55^493 


11,449 


13,352 


4,825 


3,340 


20,135 


13,180 


26,532 


50,996 



625,548 



1914 



1184,886 

145,437 

23,326 

47,824 

6y869 

6y508 

3,641 

3,940 

1,151 

19,662 

26,940 

63,660 



533,944 



1915 



$283^507 

162,277 

5,905 

56,663 

16,806 

5,377 

1,224 

1,828 

201 

16,320 

28,743 

71,717 



649,658 



Exported to— 



Kngjand 

Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba. 

Argentina. 

Braril 

Chile 

Peru 

Japan ^ 

Australia 

Philippine Islands 
AUoQwr 

TotaL 



1016 



$703,630 

261,011 

20,230 

75,108 

83,422 

39,491 

6,700 

8»051 

8^142 

31,258 

48,118 

141,845 



1017 



$1,007,460 

372,002 

83,535 

9&781 

127; 778 

100,653 

34,063 

21,207 

22,492 

37,166 

48,155 

238»388 



1,436,015 1 2,188,779 



1918 



$1,015,487 

383,271 

121,475 

133,987 

152,290 

1^,362 

73,231 

40,817 

33,396 

96,042 

96,402 

448^279 



^748,129 



19181 



$542; 720 

425,927 

104,154 

127,177 

166,069 

110,741 

58,198 

26,806 

50^740 

155,157 

96,525 



2,497,208 



19191 



$1,062,888 

415,926 

207,573 

192,600 

182,049 

202,637 

49,251 

27,479 

70,552 

180^500 

140,957 



3,565,347 



19201 



3,849^221 



1 Calendar year. 
Pencils — Rates of duty. 



1897 
1909 



Actof- 


Par. 


1883 
1883 


131 
473 


1800 


466 


1804 


357 


1897 


456 


1909 


472 


1913 


378 


1883 
1890 
1894 


473 
467 1 
358 



457 
473 



Tariff claasificatioin or description. 



* * * Slatepencils. * * * 

Pencils of wooid filled with lead or other material and pencils 

of lead. 

do 

Slate pencils 

Pencils ofwood filled with lead or other material and slate pencils 
covered with wood. 

All other slat e pencils 

Poicils of paper or wood filled with lead or other material, and 
pencils of lead. 

Slate pencils covered with wood 

All other slate pencils 

Poicils of paper or wood, or other material not metal, filled with 
lead or other material, and pencils of lead. 

Slate pencils covCTed with wood 

All other slate pencils 

Pencils of paper or wood, or other material not metal, filled with 
lead or other material, pencils of lead, but in no case shall any of 
the fore?oin? pay less than. 
Slatejpen "lis 

* * * Pencil leads not in wood 

Pencil leads not in wood 

do 

do 

Pencil leads not In wood, or other material, black 



Rates of duty, specific 
uid ad valorem. 



1913 379 



Colored 

Copyin? 

PencU leads not in wood or other material . 



30 per cent ad valorem. 
50cent8 per gross and 30 
per cent ad valorem. 
Do. 
4 cents per gross. 
50 per cent ad valorem. 

30 per cent ad valorem. 
45 cents per gross and 25 

per cent ad valorem. 
35 per cent ad valorem. 
3 cents per hundred. 
45 cents per gross and 25 

per cent ad valorem. 

35 per cent ad valorem. 
3 cents per hundred. 

36 cents per gross and 25 
per cent ad valorem. 

25 per cent ad valorem. 
10 per cent ad val<»vm. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Three-fourths of 1 cent 

per ounce. 
\\ cents per ounce. 
2 cents per ounce. 
10 per cent ad valorem. 



w tariff information surveys. 

Court and Treasury Decisions. 

■ 

Wood-covered slate pencils were held dutiable as slate pencils and 
not as pencils of wood under the act of 1890, which, like the act of 
1913, imposed one irate of duty on all slate pencils. (G. A. 2582, 
T. D. 15005, of 1894; G. A. 3826, T. D. 17951, of 1897.) 

Crayon pencils were held dutiable as pencils of wood and not as 
crayons. (G. A. 2722, T. D. 15221; In re Blumenthal, 49 Fed., 
226, of 1892.) 

Soap pencils intended for cleaning spectacles and eyeglass lenses 
have been held not to come within the provision for pencils of paper 
or wood, filled with lead or other material, and pencils of lead, etc., 
but dutiable as unenumerated manufactured articles. (United 
States V, American Express Co., 136 Fed., 594, of 1905.) 

Fancy pencils of wood filled with lead, having fitted at one end 
a diminutive crooked handle i^esembling the handle of a cane and 
upon the other end a metal cap protecting the point, have been held 
dutiable as lead pencils. (G. A. 6006, T. D. 26245, of 1905.) 

In reenacting in successive tariff acts in substantially the same 
words the provision for lead pencils. Congress sanctioned the admin- 
istrative and judicial construction which rated them and their 
holders separately for dutiable purposes. Wooden lead pencils with 
.metal holders are accordingly not dutiable as entireties; the pencils 
come within this paragraph, but the holders as metal articles imder 
paragraph 167. (United States v, Borgfelt, 7 Ct. Cust. Appls., 367, 
of 1916.) Pocket pencils of metal and celluloid, in chiei value of 
celluloid, were hela dutiable at 25 per cent under this paragraph. 
(Abstract 39209, of 1916.) 

Small red cylindrical sticks, a mixture of clay and grease with a 
lake consisting of oxide of lead with eosin red, designed to be inclosed 
in wood and used as pencils, were held dutiable as pencil leads and 
not as crayons, under the act of 1890. (G. A. 2457, T. D. 14735, 
of 1894.) 

u 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

ON THE ARTICLES IN 

PARAGRAPHS 368 and 369 OF THE 
TARIFF ACT OF 1913 

AND RELATED ARTICLES IN OTHER PARAGRAPHS 



Paragraph 368: 

Manufactures of CUp, Qrass, Palm 
Leaf, Quills, Straw, Weeds, Whale- 
bone, India Bubber, or Qutta 
Percha (n. s. p. t); and Bubber 
Druggists' s Sundries 

Manufactures of Bone, and Combs 
of Horn or Horn and Metal 
(Treated paragraph 369) 
See also paragraphs 274, 335, 502, 
513 

Paragraph 643: 

Whalebone, unmanufactured 

Paragraph 369: 

Ivory and Manufactures of (n. s. p. f.) 

Manufactures of Vegetable Ivory; 
Mother-of-pearl, Shell, and Papier- 
mdch^ (n. 8. p. f.) 



Paragraph 369 — Continued 

Manufactures of Plaster of Paris 
(Treated paragraph 74) 

Manufactures of Hard Bubber (n. s.* 
p. f.; treated paragraph 368) 

Paragraph 511: 

Horns and Parts of 

Paragraph 570: 

Mother-of-pearl and Shell 

Paragraph 628: 
Teeth, Natural 
See also, Paragraph 339 



REVISED EDITION 




N-21 



WASHINGTON 
OOVBRNMBNT PRINTING OFFICE 

1921 



tyUTRJ} STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



COM M JBSXOTfrStS, 

7fmT><xH Walkee Page, Chairmtm, 
7fto-MA» (). Maktitt, Fice Chairman. 
l)Antf J, LKWX0. 
Wir^UAM S. CciraxTsoH. 

Kl>WAMy P, COSTIGAH. 
W/TXIAK BUBGESa. 

JoH^r F, BETHt'JTE, Secretary. 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

OF THW FUBLICATION MAT BE PROCURED FROM 

THE SUrEKlNTENDERT OF DOCUMENTS 

OOVERNMENT PRINTINO OFFICE 

WA8HINOTON, D. C. 

AT 

6 CENTS PER COPY 




PREFACE. 



This is one of a series of Tarift Information Surveys prepared by 
the United States Tariff Commission and transmitted to the Com- 
mittee on Ways and Means. The series covers all of the articles and 
commodities provided for in the tariff act of October 3, 1913, and 
others not specifically provided for. It is arranged in the numerical 
order of paragraphs of that act. 

In some cases two or more paragraphs have been combined in one 
pamphlet. In doing this industrial relationship of the articles has 
been followed when possible. In those instances where a paragraph 
has been treated under a preceding paragraph of the tariff^ act refer- 
ence is made to this fact at the point where the paragraph appears in 
numerical order. Where one grade of an article is dutiable and 
another grade of the same article is on the free list, the article is 
discussed under the dutiable paragraph which appears first in 
numerical order in the tariff act. In certain instances articles of 
close industrial relationship and which occur in separate paragraphs 
of the tariff act have been combined imder one paragraph for con- 
venience of discussion. Reference is made to this fact at the point 
where the commodities would naturally occur in numerical order. 

The first pamphlet in the series is an ''Introduction and index," 
which contams: 

1. An introductory chapter discussing the scope of the series and 
the general method of treatment. 

2. An alphabetical index of the articles provided for in the tariff 
act of 1913, showing the paragraph of the act in which the article is 
provided for, and, if discussed under a different paragraph, the 
number of such paragraph. 

3. A list of the pamphlets in the series, showing the paragraphs 
and articles included in each pamphlet. 

Thus by use of this "Introduction and index'' the exact loca- 
tion of the discussion relating to a given article or commodity can be 
ascertained. 

In the preparation of this report the Tariff Commission bad the 

services of Joseph M. Donohoe, of the Commission's staff, and of 

others. 

3 



CONTENTS. 



CHIP, GRASS, STRAW, ETC. (OTHER THAN INDIA RUBBER). 

[Bone, horn, and combs of bom or bom and metal. See paragrapb 869.1 

General infonnatioii: , Pag«- 

1913 tariff parampbs 7 

Description ana uflee. - 7 

Production 8 

Exports 8 

Imports 8 

Tariff history 8 

INDIA BUBBER, HARD RUBBER, AND DRUGGISTS' SUNDRIES. 

Summary 9 

Summary table 10 

General information: 

Description and uses 10 

Domestic production — 

Materials and processes 10 

Histoiy of industry J 11 

Oigamzation 11 

Geomphical distribution 12 

Production 12 

Exports 13 

Foreign productioii 13 

Imports 13 

Prices 13 

Tariff history , 14 

Tariff considerations 14 

Statistical tables: 

Domestic production — 

Boots and shoes, by States 15 

Belting, packing, and hose, by States : 15 

General manufactures, by States 15 

Total rubber manufactures 15 

Imports^ by countries — 

India rubber manufactures 16 

Gutta-percha manu^tures 16 

India rubber and gutta-percha manufactures 16 

Straw and grass manufactures 16 

Palm leaf manufactures 17 

Palm leaf (natural) 17 

Chip manufactures 17 

Quill manufactures 17 

Whalebone, unmanufactured 18 

Imports for consumption — 

Druggists* sunonee 18 

Hardrubber manufactures 18 

Gutta-percha manufactures 19 

India rubber manufactures, n. s. p. f 19 

Automobile tires 20 

Rubber sponges 20 

Drinking straws. ..;.., 21 

Manufactures of grass and straw, n. s. p. f 21 

Palm leaf ^natural).. 22 

Palm leaf (manufactures) , 22 

5 



6 CONTENTS. 

Statisticai tables — Continued. 

Imports for consumption — Continued. P*g®- 

Manufactures of chip. 23 

Quill toothpicks 23 

Quills, other maniifactures 24 

Manufactures of weeds 24 

Whalebone, unmanufactured 24 

Whalebone, manufactures 24 

Domestic exports — 

India ruober manufactures— 

Belting, hose, and packing 25 

Scrap 25 

Reclaimed 26 

• Boots 27 

Shoes 28 

Druggists' sundries 29 

Automobile tires 29 

Other tires 30 

All other manufactures 31 

Straw and palm leaf, manufactures of 31 

Whalebone 32 

Prices 32 

Rates of duty 34 

Court and Treasury decisions 35 

IVORY, MOTHER-OF-PEARL, SHELL AND HORN AND MANUFACTURES 
OF, N. S. P. F.; MANUFACTURES OF VEGETABLE IVORY AND BONE, 
N. S. P. F.; COMBS OF HORN OR HORN AND METAL. 

General information i 

1913 tariff paragraphs 37 

Description and uses 37 

Domestic production 38 

Organization 39 

Exports 39 

Imports 39 

Tariff history 39 

Competitive conditions 40 

Tariff considerations 41 

Statistical tables: 

Domestic production 41 

Imports by countries — 

Mother-of-pearl, unmanufactured 42 

Shells, unmanufactured 42 

Shells, manufactiu'es of 43 

Ivory, tusks in natural state 43 

Ivory, manufactures of 44 

Ivory, vegetable 45 

Bone and horn, manufactures of 46 

Imports for consumption — 

Mother-of-pearl 46 

Shells, unmanufactured 47 

Shells, engraved or otherwise advanced 47 

Shell and mother-of-pearl, manufactures of 48 

Ivory, tusks in natural state 49 

Ivory, manufactures of 49 

Ivory, vegetable 50 

Teeth 60 

Papier-m&ch^, manufactures of 50 

Bone and horn, manufactures of 50 

Combs of horn or horn and metal 51 

Domestic exports — 

Shells 52 

Ivory, manufactures and scrap 52 

Bone and manufactures of 52 

Rates of duty 53 

Court and Treasury decisions 54 



MANUFACTURES OF CHIP, GRASS, HORN, PALM LEAF, QUH.LS, 
STRAW, WEEDS, OR WHALEBONE, N. S. P. F. 



General Information. 
1913 tariff paragraphs. 

Par. 368. Manufactures of bone, chip, grass, horn, mdia rubber or 
gutta-percha, palm leaf, quills, straw, weeds, or whalebone, or of 
which any of them is the component material of chief value, not 
otherwise specially provided for in this section, shall be subject to 
the following rates: Manufactures of india rubber or gutta-percha, 
commonly known as druggists' sundries, 15 per centum ad valorem: 
manufactures of india rubber or guttar-percha, not specially provided 
for in this section, 10 per centum ad valorem; palm leaf, 15 per 
centum ad valorem; bone, chip, horn, quills, and whalebone, 20 per 
centum ad valorem; grass, straw, and weeds, 25 per centum ad valorem; 
combs composed whoUy of horn or of horn and metal, 25 per centum 
ad valorem. IThe terms ''grass" and "straw'' shall be understood 
to mean these substances in their natural state and not the separated 
fibers thereof. 

Par. 369. * * * manufactures of * * * vulcanized india 
rubber known as ''hard rubber," or of which these substances or any 
of them is the component material of chief value, not specially pi:o- 
vided for in this section, 25 per centum ad valorem. • 

Par. 643. Whalebone, unmanufactured. 

Horn and manufactures of, and combs of horn or metal (treated 
under paragraph 369). 

Manufactures of India rubber, druggists' sundries, and vul- 
canized rubber known as "hard rubber (treated separately, see 
p. 9). 

DESCRIPTION AND USES. 

This paragraph includes a considerable variety of manufactures 
of chip, grass, palm leaf, quills, straw, weeds, and whalebone, the 

rlification n. s. p. f . not restricting narrowly the number of items, 
ong articles held dutiable are mats made of braids of straw sewn 
together with cotton; millinery ornaments consisting of natural 
straw twisted together loosely and looped or tied, used as center- 
pieces in the crowns of straw hats; palm-leaf baskets; baling twine 
consisting of two strands of grass braided; bottle covers and caps of 
palm leai; and so-called paintings on straw mattings. 

Horn and horn strips are used chiefly for makmg combs, knife 
handles, buttons, and various novelties, such as napkin rings. Whale- 
bone is a light, flexible, strong substance obtained from the plates with 
which baleen whales are eqmpped instead of teeth. The plates vary 
in length from a few inches to 10 or 12 feet. Chemicalljr it is com- 
posed of albumen hardened by phosphate of lime. From it are made 



8 TAKIFF INTOBMATION SUBVBYS. 

bristles for brushes and stuJBSng for mattresses; knobs for canes, um- 
brellas, and parasols; whips and artificial flowers; and formerly um- 
brella ribs and stiffening for corsets. It has been supplanted hj steel 
in umbrellas, while gutta-percha, celluloid, and similar material are 
used in dressmaking. 

PRODUOnON. 

Official production data are lacking in most cases. The domestic 
whalebone catch is entered chiefly at Alaska and Washington. In 
1914 the total reported was 58,000 poimds; in 1916 it was 36,624; 
and in 1918 it was 9,250, the last amoimt being entirely from Alaska. 

EXPOBTS. 

Manufactures of straw and palm leaf are the only articles for which 
exports are shown in official sources. In 1920 these amounted to 
$1,602,941, and since 1913 have averaged $900,000. ITiey are chiefly 
to Canada, Cuba, and South America. Whalebone is exported to 
some extent to England, Canada, and France. 

IMPOBTS. 

Manufactures of quills imported consist largely of quill toothpicks 
Products of palm leaf, straw, and grass are the largest imports of this 
class, averagmg since 1913 about $400,000, or less than half the aver- 
age exports of the same item. Canada, China, and Japan are the 
chief sources. Imports of chip articles were small prior to 1914, but 
increased to $53,000 in 1919 and over $100,000 in 1917 and 1918. 
Imports of mtouf actured whalebone are nil, but the unmanufactured 
material is imported from Russia and Canada, and lately from the 
Falkland Islands. 

TARIFF HISTORY. 

Under the act of 1883 baskets and all other articles of grass, palm 
leaf, whalebone, * * * or straw were dutiable at 30 per cent ad 
valorem; the act of 1890 made manufactures of bone, chip, grass, 
horn * * * palm leaf, straw, weeds, or whalebone, n. s. p. f., 
dutiable at 30 per cent ad valorem; this was reduced to 25 per cent 
imder the act of 1894 but again increased to 30 per cent by the act 
of 1897. The act of 1909 added manufactures of quills and mcreased 
the duty to 35 per cent. Under the present act manufactures of 

Ealm leaf are dutiable at 15 per cent; manufactures of bone, chip 
cm, quills, whalebone, at 20 per cent; and manufactures of gras^ 
straw, and weeds, at 25 per cent. 



MANUFACTURES OF INDU RUBBER AND HARD RUBBER, 
N. S. P. F., AND DRUGGISTS' SUNDRIES. 



Summary. 



In 1914 there were 342 rubber manufacturing establishments in the 
United States, capitalized at $267,671,422, employing 74,022 wage 
earners, and turnmg out rubber products valued at $300,994,000. 
This was eleven times greater than the value of similar products in 
1879; by 1917, however, it had increased nearly 300 per cent. 

Articles coming within the tariff classification ''not specially pro- 
vided for'' constitute the larger portion of these manufactures. 
Chief among them are automobile tu-es. Other products are motor- 
cycle and bicycle tires, rubber hose, rubber boots and shoes, rubber 
tubmg, and druggists' sundries. ^ 

Ruober is vulcanized to make it elastic, impervious, and unchange- 
able in texture under ordinary conditions; qualities which it does not 
possess in its crude state, but which are necessary for commercial 
usage. Essentially the process, which was discovered by an American, 
Charles Goodyear, consists of mixing the cleaned and purified crude 
rubber with sulphur and subjecting the mixture to moderate heat 
(about 300° F.). Other chemicals or minerals are sometimes used in 
addition to sulphur for giving the rubber additional qualities of re- 
siliency, toughness, etc. 

The home consumption of manufactures of rubber is enormous, 
especially of automobile tires. This demand is met by the domestic 
production, which is sufficient also to permit of laree exports. These 
amounted to more than $85,000,000 in 1920. England is the leading 
foreign producer, followed by France. England's production is 
about one-seventh that of this country. Imports are comparatively 
imimportant, amoimting in 1919 to $1 ,373,469, about 1.60 per cent of 
our exports for that year. 

Ohio, Massachusetts, and New Jersev, in the order named, are the 
most important producing centers. Ohio produces more than one- 
third of the total domestic output, its products being tires and general 
m^ufactures. Massachusetts leads in the production of rubber 
boots and shoes, and New Jersey in rubber hose, packing, and belting. 

The corporate form of ownership predominates, and the tendency 
is to concentrate in large establishments with large-scale production. 
The capital of the 10 largest companies in 1919 was $394,553,000, as 
compared with $267,671,422, the total capitalization in 1914. In the 
early part of 1920 production was large, out fell off later in the year, 
due to decrease of orders and general depression. This depression is 
still felt (February, 1921), but orders are increasing and production is 
being resumed. At the present time it is reported 4hat about one- 
third of the number employed a year ago in the Ohio district are 
working. 

64912— 21— N-21 2 9 



10 



TABIPF IKFORMAIION SUBVETS. 



Tennis balls are admitted as manufactiu'es of rubber under this 
paragraph. Manufacturers of these articles contend that they should 
be dutiable at a rate equivalent to the duty on wool, as the cover, 
which is of wool, is the more important part of the ball. 

Summary lahle. 



Ratio to produo- 

UOD. 

Imports. ExportJ. 



p,„- 


"•"■ 














0.i9 


4.13 



























ValuB (Im- 
ports [01 
coosump- 



Genekal Information. 



DESCRIPTION AND USES. 



Manufactures of India rubber, not specially provided for, constitute 
the largest portion of products of the rubber industry. Various 
articles of ruober manufacture are covered in the different schedules 
of the tariff, either specifically or as articles of specified groups {rub- 
ber toys; rubber tobacco pouches, dutiable as smokers' articles). 
The value of these is large, but not so great as the unspecified manu- 
factures, among which are automobile and other tires and tire sun- 
dries; rubber boots and shoes; rubber tubing; dentists' rubber sup- 
plies; rubber balls, pouches, bulbs, and sponges; partially manufac- 
tured rubber; rubber sheets and calces; rubber hospital sheeting and 
printing blankets; and many other articles. It is said that one of 
the larger rubber concent manufactures 30,000 different articles. 

Druggists' rubber sundries comprise such products as hot-water 
bottles, ice bags, and similar articles; vulcanized rubber, known as 
hard rubber (par. 369), differs from soft or pliable rubber in havii^ 
a larger sulphur content and in being vulcanized at higher tempera- 
tures. It is used in bowling balls, knife and razor handles, combs, 
fountain-pen barrels, and other articles of use and adornment. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCTION. 

MateriaU and processes. — To render the crude rubber commercially 
adaptable, it is put through a vulcanizing process to make it elastic, 
impervious, and unchangeable in texture. This process consists 
commonly of mixing sulphur with the rubber and subjectii^ it to 
moderate heat (about 300° F.) for six or more hours. Sulphur is 
the most universally used ingredient, being always used to some extent 
in vulcanization, but other chemicals and minerals are also employed 
for adding resiliency, weight, toughness, and other qualities, as they 



TABIFF INFOBMATION SURVEYS. 11 

may be required for the finished articles. Among these are zinc 
oxide, lithophone, magnesia, whiting, and barytes. Cotton, silk, and 
wool are also used in the making of rubber fabric or cloth. 

The crude rubber is first thoroughly cleansed. It is allowed to 
remain in steam heated water for 24 hours, when it is cut up and the 
larger impurities removed by hand. It is then washed by passing 
between two heavy corrugated iron rollers. A stream of water flows 
over the rubber from a pipe directly at the point of contact with the 
roUers, and the combined action of the roUers and water removes all 
foreign substances adhOTng to the rubber. It is next placed in a 
drying chamber and, after thoroughly drying, is stored m darkness 
until needed. Methods of vulcamzing vary with the article being 
made, but generally the purified and masticated gum is thoroughly 
kneaded with the requisite amount of sulphur and cut and shaped 
before heat is applied. 

Histcfry and development, — ^The United States has always led the 
world in the manufacture of v rubber goods. The industry had its 
inception here, the vulcanization process having been discovered by 
Charles Goodyear, an American. Our output is approximately seven 
times as large as the next manufacturing nation. In 1906 we con- 
sumed 24,113 tons of crude rubber as against 13,868 tons consurned 
by Great Britain, the next largest consumer; in 1917 our consumption 
had reached 157,371 tons as compared with 25,983 tons consumed by 
Great Britain; an increase of about 600 per cent to 100 per cent.^ 

In 1879 the value of domestic products was $25,309,648. This 
had increased more than elevenfold by 1914. For the decade 1904 to 
1914 the increase was 103.4 per cent, while for the latter half of the 
decade it was 52.5 per cent. Between 1914 and 1917 the increase 
was nearly 300 per cent. 

Organization,' — ^The Census of Manufacturers for 1914 classifies data 
on nibber products into three groups — ^rubber belting and hose, rubber 
boots and shoes, and rubber products nx)t elsewhere specified. The 
last group is not entirely synonymous with the tariff classification, 
''manufactures of rubber not specially provided for,^' although ar- 
ticles coming under such classincation lorm the chief value of the 
froup. Rubber boots and shoes are within the classification. Rub- 
er belting is not, however, nor is hose except that which is made 
entirely of rubber and not partly of cotton, flax, hemp, ramie, or jute. 
The greater part of the value of hose shown in tne second group 
probably comprises hydraulic or flume hose, dutiable at 7 cente per 
pound under paragraph 274. Rubber fabrics and rubber clothes are 
among the items mcluded in the third group, which do not come 
within the tariff classification. Elastic woven goods are not included 
in the data as manufactures of rubber. 

In 1914 the industry showed 342 establishments, with 88,821 em- 
ployees and officials. Of these, 74,022 were wage earners, 13,200 
clerks and subordinate salaried employees, and 1,559 proprietors, 
officials, and salaried officers. Eighteen establishments, with 5,115 
waffe earners, were engaged in manufacturing belting and hose; 23, 
witn 18,687 wage earners, in manufacturing boots and shoes; and 301 , 
with 50,220 wage earners, devoted to other manufactures of rubber. 

1 War Industries Board Price Bulletin No. 30. 



12 



10 ^ 

Tennis balls are 
paragrapli. Manui 
be dutiable at a re 
which is of wool, u 



Domestic 
Year. production. 



1910 1 1 197,394,6a 

191l'/. 

1912 

i9u::::::::r'3oo,994,o< 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

1918» 

1919* 

1920 » 



t896,000,( 



» Censxjs of 1909. 
» War Industries B 
» Calendar year. 



Manufacti 
the largest 
articles of r 
of the tariff 
ber to\'s; i 
Tlie value 
fftctures, a 
dries; rubl 
plies; rub^ 
tured rub 
printing 1 
the large 

Druggy 
bottles, 
hard nil 
a larger 
tares, 
fountai' 



capitalaation 



"^^^^T^wr 







per cent ofTk " "^usmeBB. \nrt * *«*-•'• ♦^m 
number hnf ^^^^ ^roeru <•*« ' ^**^ " 
cent CTeat«^^f?f ®^ '° 1»1« ^J^ »-»ts.»f>4- 

general mao^Xr^^**^ "^ th. .. ..^** r^"* ^'^^ 
setts leads fn Ik* "="?• l>«'in? kT. "^ tuunu-n-tttmc- "^ 

'■" 1914 a„w e|^*^es. th^ W ""^^ ""^ r.>j>.^^ u-l*'*-'^ 

^'*^"^"- - ru;.«t«--" 







J/a/ 
adapt 
imper 
conur 
mode 
then 
in n 






422: 






TAMFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

' Rubber mam^w/twrea, 1914. 
[Abstract Census of Manufactures, 19U.1 



13 



Product. 



Quantity 
and value. 



S300,993,796 



The Pstrnt^' ! 4,024,486 

•^ «Mm;^^ $12,647,934 



fie. 



ii omobilo — 



57,211,728 
$37,858,222 






Number 

Value 

Inner tubes — 

Number 

Value I $2o;ioi;os4 

Solid, aU kinds, ralue I $13, 735, 681 



8,021,371 
$105,678,951 

7,907,351 



I 



Product. 



Tires— Continued. 

MotOT cycle and l?icycle (includ- 
ing airplane tires)— 

Number 

Value 

Belting, value 

Hose, value 

Packing, value , 

Clothing, vahie , 

Druggists' and stationers' sundries, 

value 

All other manufactures of rubber, 

value 

Scrap and old rubber (sold or on 

hand), value 

Reclaimed rubber (sold or on hand), 

value 

All other products, value 



Quantity 
and value. 



3,728,138 
$6,905,853 
$7,989,405 
$16,853,693 
$3,507,651 
$6,799,515 

$7,511,755 

$40,133,250 

$1,250,836 

$11,184,958 
$8,885,008 



/)L • • ' ddition, products to the value of $752,5(^ were reported by estaUishments assigned to other dassifl- 






EXPOBTS. 



^^ 'WtnufifteT^^^'^^ consumption of rubber manufactures is enormous, the fact 
*''*'^' ofQi^^f:^ 85 to 90 per cent of the world's automobiles are owned here 
l>l>or hooto tv ?^^^^^^ ^^® extent of the demand for rubber tires. The domestic 
'"**'• puckin^ » 'P^*'' however, is suflBcient to meet this demand and permit of large 
f iTt^ntirmiiLi^ Dorts to practically all parts of the worlds 



,4ren<»ni ma^: 



ur in lOfT**^^ articles are exported to some extent, but tires form the chief 



(Vj,^ t^fcat'^^^' I^ IQ14: the value of exports was $12,441,220 and in 1920 
»^^rpport<St^ ^^ which $53,074,015 was tires. 

»>. Wefif Viktis FOREIGN PRODUCTION. 

'f 'ftoupfct tok^ Statistics on forei^ production are not available, but the consump- 
Ijrt If cf^ ffg ^-^^ of crude rubber furnishes a basis for comparison. Great Britain's 
''f '«>n in ri»i ' 'onsumption in 1917 was about one-seventh that of the United States; 
lirr »09». u "ranee about one-tenth; Italy about one-twenty-fifth. Great Brit- 
: in^f te^^'^ exports « in 1914 were $11,315,608 and in 1918 $17,139,902. 

of wiut it n> IMPORTS. 

Imports are not serious from a competitive standpoint, amounting 

(" iiift(rmtma^^ $1,489,680 in 1914, and in 1920 to $1,373,469, or 1.60 per cent of 

^exports. Tires amounted to $194,445, or 0.36 per cent of our exports 

of tires. Imports in 1917 were less than one-tenth of 1 per cent of 

«r KMMeMmitm ^omestic production. They are chiefly from Canada and England. 

PRICE J^. 

The prices shown on page 32 of this report are taken from the War 
Industries Board Price JBmletin No. 30. Restrictions on output were 
placed on rubber manufactures during the latter part of 1918, and, 
commenting on this, the War Industries Board states: 

These regulations were not in effect sufficiently long enough to have any marked 
influence upon the price situation in the rubber industry. After the signing of the 
armistice they were gradually revoked. 



» Great Britain Annual Return of Trade with Foreign Countries. Pounds sterling converted to dollars 
at normal exchange, $4.8665. 



It TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

The total capitalization was $267,671,422; salaries, $16,278,578; and 
wages, $44,167,402. 

The corporate form of ownership prevails, 82 per cent of the estab- 
lishments being of this type, producmg 99 per cent of the total output. 
The tendency of the business is to concentrate in large establishments 
with lai^e-scale operation. A few establishments are reported doing 
small amount of business, but their number is decreasing yearly; 83 
per cent of the output in 1914 was by establishments with an annual 
Dusiness of more than $1,000,000. The establishments employing 
more than 500 wage earners constitute only 11.7 per cent of the totiu 
number, but give employment to 70.2 per cent of the wage earners. 

Later complete figures are not available. The capital of the 10 
largest companies in 1919 aggregated $394,553,000, about 47 per 
cent greater than the capitsil oi the entire industry in 1914.' 

Tires are the chief product, in 1914 averaging 48.6 per cent of the 
total output. 

Geographical distribution, — ^The industry is carried on in a great 
many States, Ohio, Massachusetts, and New Jersey, in the order 
named, being far ahead of the others. Ohio's products (tires and 
general manufactures) exceed the combined totals of New Jersey and 
Massachusetts. This leadership is due to the development in Akron 
of the ^eat tire and general rubber manufacturing companies, the 
production of the city being 84 per cent of Ohio's total. Massachu- 
setts leads in the production of rubber boots and shoes, and New 
Jersey in the production of rubber hose, packing, and belting. These 
two States are also large producers of general manufactures. 

Production. — ^The domestic output in 1914 was valued at 
$300,994,000. In 1917 this had increased to $896,000,000,^ and for 
the first six months of 1920 the value was reported to be $577,388,210.* 
Tires and tire sundries, the largest item, were valued at $146,521,569 
in 1914 and $394,340,828 for the first half of 1920. The output for 
the entire year is not known, but it is not thought to be commensurate 
with the value of products for the first half of the year, due to reduc- 
tion of orders and curtailment of production in the latter part of the 
year. This depression still exists (February, 1921), although the out- 
look is brighter and orders are increasing. In the Akron aistrict the 
output now is approximately one-fifth of what it was a year ago, 
ana it is reported that less than one-third of the number employed 
then are now working. 

The following table gives the value of the different products in 1914 : 

« India Rubber World, Feb. 1, 1921. 

« War Industries Board BuUetin No. 30, p. 5. 

< India Rubber Review, Feb. 15, 1921; Survey made by Rubber Association of America. 



14 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

With reference to the price fluctuations it is stated in the bulletin, 
page 34 : 

A review of the run of prices for the rubber industry, as a whole — ^that is, for crude 
rubber, ingredients, and rubber products combiiied — ^makes apparent the ^t that 
with the exception of the 16 months ending January, 1915, the rubber industry price 
situation had little in common with commodities in general. Low prices character- 
ized the industry by and large. During the six years dealt with in this study there 
were only 12 months in whidi the index number of the rubber industry was higher 
than that of * 'all commodities," and in all but four thede instances variations above 
the general price level were less than 10 per cent. In February, 1915, rubber prices 
fell 16 per cent below the level of all commodities, and from that time on the index 
numbers of the rubber industry and of commodities in general followed individual 
courses. The latter, after remaining relatively static for some nine months, ascended 
ramdly, reaching its first apex in July, 1917, at a point of 89 per cent above the level 
of February, 1915. The governmental policy of price-fixing inaugurated in the sum- 
mer of 1917 resulted in a slight recession, which continued until June of the following 
year, when the upward course of prices was resumed. The year 1918 ended with the 
index number of all commodities 103 per cent above its prewar level. 

The index number of the rubber industry, on the other hand, followed a rather slow 
upward course, which was interrupted now and then by cycles of depression varying 
from 1 to 10 months in duration. At no time did it approadi the index number of 
**all commodities," and throughout the period following February, 1915, the price 
level of the rubber industry was at least 16 per cent below the price level of com- 
modities in general. This difference in levels was highest in July, 1917, when the 
* * all-commodities " index number was 80 per cent above that of the rubber industry. 
Throughout 1917 and 1918, in fact, the divergency existing between the two levels 
was one of great significance and is to be found in the price fluctuations of but few 
industries. The signing of the armistice found the price level of the rubber industry 
72 per cent below that of all commodities, or, in other words, 31 per cent above its 
own level of 1913-14. 

TAKIFF HISTORY. 

Under the tariff of 1886 india rubber boots and shoes were dutiable 
at 25 per cent ad valorem; manufactures of ffutta percha at 35 per 
cent ad valorem, and manufactures of india riiober not specially pro- 
vided for, at 30 per cent ad valorem. Under the act of 1890 manu- 
factures, not specially provided for, remained at 30 per cent; rubber 
boots and shoes were not specially enumerated, and vulcanized rubber, 
known as hard rubber, classed with gutta percha manufactures at 
35 per cent ad valorem. The act of 1894 reduced the duty on manu- 
factures of india rubber, not specially provided for, to 25 per cent 
and that on manufactures of gutta percha and hard rubber to 30 
per cent; under the act of 1897 thfe auties were increased to 30 per 
cent and 35 per cent, respectively, and the act of 1909 increased the 
duty on manufactures not specially provided for to 35 per cent, 
leaving manufactures of gutta percha and hard rubber at 35 per cent. 
Under this act rubber sponges were made dutiable at 40 per cent 
ad valorem.' The act of 1913 made manufactures of vulcanized or 
hard rubber dutiable at 25 per cent; manufactures of india rubber 
or gutta perchas, known as druggists sundries,' ' dutiable at 15 per 
cent, and manufactures of india rubber not otherwise provided for 
at 10 per cent ad valorem. 

TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS. 

A manufacturer of tennis balls states that tennis balls are admitted 
under this paragraph as a manufacture of rubber, and contends that 
this classification of the article, which is jomposed of india rubber 
with a wool covering, works a hardship on the domestic manufac- 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



15 



turer, in that the wool cover is the most important and expensive 
part of the ball, and that it thus is admitted at a lower duty than the 
woolen cloth for making such covers. 

Manufactures of rubber {total) — Production in United States. 

OFFICIAL SOURCE. 

[From Federal census.] 

1809 177 197,830 

1904 148,014,909 

1909 197,394,638 

1914 300,994,000 

OTHER SOURCES. 

[1917, from War Industries Board Price Bulletin No. 30; 1920, India Rubber Review, Feb. 15, 1921.] 

1917 $896,000,000 

1920 (first six months) 577,388,210 

Production in United States — States. 

INDIA RUBBER BOOTS AND SHOES. 

[From Fedwal census.] 



State. 



Massachusetts. 
Connecticut... 
All other 



Total. 



1904 



939,034,549 

12,829,346 

« 18,201,401 



70,065,296 



1909 



918,722,000 

0) 
30,999,000 



49,721,000 



1914 



923,789,000 

(}) 
30,033,000 



53,822,000 



1 Included in "All other." 

> Includes Connecticut, Kansas, Kentucky, Liouisiana. Nebraska. New Hampshire, Oregon, South 
Carolina, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia. 

RUBBER BELTING AND HOSE.i 

[From Federal census.] 





State. 


1904 1909 


1914 


New Jersey 




99,915,742 


910,341,000 
13.220.000 


All other* 




5,038,444 










Total 


14,954,186 1 919,238,000 


23,561,000 





* Includes hydraulic hose. 

< California, Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, New York. 

RUBBER GOODS, NOT ELSEWHERE SPECIFIED. 

[From Federal census.] 



California... 
Connecticut . 
Illinois 



State. 



1904 



1909 



1914 



9219,212 
8,868,353 
2,847,689 



Indiana 2,357,111 

Massachusetts 14, 098,471 

Missouri ' (i) 

New Jersey 4, 836,338 

New York 8,265,690 

Ohio 15,963,003 

Pennsylvania ! 2,220,355 

Rhode Island i 2,582,180 

Wisconsin i 720,036 

All other 16,971 



9323,000 ; 
11,005,000 ' 

381,000 
4,313,000 
15,796,000 , 

19,543,000 t 
8,784,000 

53,911,000 I 
4,686,000 
3,143,000 j 

(>) 1 

6,551,000 1 



9905,000 

10,188,000 

1,980,000 

6,333,000 

23,011,000 

726,000 

25,458,000 

10,228,000 

109,659,000 

12,177,000 

6,089,000 

7,382,000 

« 9, 475, 000 



Total 62,995,909 128,436,000 : 223,611,000 



» Included in " All other." 

* Delaware, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, New Hampshire, Oregon, TexAS, Virginia, Wash- 
ington. 



16 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Imports by countries. 

MA.NUFACTURES OF INDIA RUBBER (FISCAL YEARS). 



Imported f rom— 




Austria-Hungary. 

Belgium. 

France 

Germany 

Russia in Europe 

England 

Scotland 

Canada 

Japan 

All other 

Total 



$36,565 

80,314 

202,214 

531,971 

35,270 

306,853 

10, 410 

4,417 

1,851 

7,371 



1, 217, 236 



1914 



$46,064 

153,395 

138,308 

669, 491 

149, 826 

299,612 

15,128 

36,595 

1,335 

8,035 



1915 



$42,224 
30,301 
49, 795 

264,771 
23,375 

272, 711 

H705 

80,429 

1,023 

11,947 



1, 517, 789 



791, 281 



1916 



$9 

366 

13,263 

1,695 

10 

227,589 

27, 749 

106,838 

13, 618 

6,893 



398,020 



1917 


19181 








$4,849 
691 


$3,949 




373,804 
23, 724 

155, 252 
29,788 
20,816 


284,128 
19,078 

174,756 
31,435 
86,417 


608,954 


599,763 



GUTTA-PERCHA, MANUFACTURES OF (FISCAL YEARS). 



France 


$973 

26,347 

49,736 

32 

212 


$824 

27,627 

8,297 

2,311 

2,964 


$5U 

7,089 

3,220 

40 

1 








Germany. 




$208 

171, 599 

2,140 

2,028 




United Kingdom 


$56,697 

128 

1,050 


$14,223 
188 


Canada ." 


All other 


2,567 






Total 


77,300 


42,023 


10,841 


' 57, 875 


173,975 


16, 978 





1 In3luled in manufactures of India rubber and gutta-percha after 1918. 
MANUFACTURES OF INDIA RUBBER AND GUTTA-PERCHA (CALENDAR YEARS). 



France 

Switzerland. 

England 

Scotland 

Canada 

Japan 

All other 



Total. 



Imported from— 



1 

1918 
$4,285 


* 1919 
$5,668 


1920 


2,564 




210,425 


480,642 
30,542 

406,947 

30,550 

1,636 




26,936 




167, 682 




21,441 


............ 


5,999 









445, 332 


956,085 


$1,433,957 



MANUFACTURES OF STRAW AND GRASS, N. S. P. F. 

Fiscal Years. 



Imported from— 



1913 



Austria-Hungary ■ $2, 304 

Belgium ' 12, 196 

France ' 18, 831 

Germany 9, 274 

Netherlands ' 59,982 

Switzerland ' 3, 1&4 

United Kingdom i 6,952 

Canada i 47, 262 

China ' 64, 055 

Honglcong , 52, 209 

Japan i 885, 280 

All other 1 12,788 

f 

Total j 1,174,317 



•1914 



$3,780 
15, 101 

9,911 
18,016 
55,399 

4,203 

5,272 

&t,271 

27,727 

41,768 

180,474 

6,849 



1915 



$1,731 

2,499 

7,532 

6,841 

42,537 

7,938 

4,102 

82,973 

26,588 

29,083 

61,065 

12,931 



461,771 278,820 



1916 



$1,499 

9,979 

206 

40,331 

28,975 

2,209 

112,378 

18,572 

29,612 

114,951 

10,445 



3ti9,157 



1917 



1848 
5,596 



19,344 

10,074 

1,026 

171,748 
16,018 
31,367 

152,033 
17,595 



425,649 



1918 



$5,239 



12,976 
14,007 

2,257 
82,*48 

6,010 

18,024 

173,452 

28,022 



342,33.5 



TARIFF INFOBMATION SUBVEYS. 



17 



Imports by countries — Continued. 

MANUFACTURES OF STRAW AND GRASS, N. S. P. F.-CJontinued. 

Calendar Yeabs. 



Imported from— 



Austria-Hungary . 

Belgium 

France 

Germany 

Netherlands 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom. 

Canada 

China 



Hongkong. 

Japan 

Another.. 



Total. 



1918 



SI, 523 



4,044 

282 

39,559 

1,677 

9,847 

131,841 

15,585 



204,358 



1919 



$675 

1,251 

4,197 

51 

3,431 

32,916 

201 

104,970 

6,380 

47,237 

140,834 

20,758 



362,701 



1920 



8657,479 



PALM LEAF, NATURAL (FISCAL YEARS).! 



Imported f rom— 



1913 



Austria-Hungary. 

Belgium 

Denmark 

Germany 

Italy 

England 

Bermuda 



17,008 



315 

1,532 

317 

5 

588 



1914 



130 



742 



Imported from- 



Mexico. . . 

Cuba 

China.... 
All other. 



Total. 



1913 



SI, 332 
1,238 

u, o44 

35 



1914 



17,214 



I Included in " AU other articles" after 1914. 

MANUFACTURES OF PALM LEAF, N. S. P. F. (FISCAL YEARS). 



CHIP— MANUFACTURES OF, N. S. P. F.i 



France... 
Germany. 
England.. 
Japan 



Total. 



SI, 500 
8,909 
2,863 



14.044 



Imported from— 

• 


1913 


1914 


Germany 


S5,349 

238 

22 

140 


S10,651 
713 


Mexico 


Japan 


773 


All other 


847 








Total 


5,749 


12 984 








2,181 



1 Included in "All other articles" after 1914. 

QUILLS, MANUFACTURES OF (FISCAL YEARS).* 



ImpcMted from— 



1913 



Austria-Hungary | S20,244 

Belgium i 106 

France ! 8,218 

Germany j 356 

Switzerland 

England 191 



1914 



S8,807 

56 

9,261 

1,254 

79 ! 

115 



Imported f rom— 



Canada 

Hongkong 

Turkey in Asia. 



Total. 



1 Included in "All other articles" after 1914. 
64912— 21— N-21 3 



1913 



S7 



29,122 



1914 



S21 
3 

20 



19,616 



18 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Imports by countries — Continued. 

WHALEBONE, UNMANUFACTURED (FISCAL YEARS). 



Imported from— 


1913 


1914 


1915 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


England 










336 

1,138 

38,590 

24 


$638 


Canada 


156 

8,830 

7 


$156 

12,510 

20 


760 

8,488 
2 


$1,000 

10,450 

2 


1 067 


Russia in Asia 


66 627 


All otlier 


30 






Total 


8,993 


12,686 


9,250 


11,452 


40, OSS 


68 262 






Imported from— 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Pounds. 


Value. 
$7,246 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Vahie. 


England 


14,482 








Canada 


», —w— _ . , _ 


6,000 
4,221 


$4,000 
2,607 






Russia in Asia 


13,293 
200 


9,719 
16 


6,467 
123,205 


$3,234 

10,028 


All other 








Total 


27,975 


16,981 


10,221 


6,607 


29,672 

1 


13.2^ 







1 Falkland Islands, 22,400 pounds— $10,000. 

Imports for consumption. 

MANUFACTURES OF INDIA RUBBER AND GUTTA-PERCHA, KNOWN AS DRUGGISTS' 

SUNDRIES. 

General Tariff. 



Fiscal year: 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921» 



Rate of duty. 



Quantity. 



15 per cent. 

do 

do 

do 

do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Value. 



Duty 
collected. 



$125,390 
64,820 
24,295 


$18,808 
9,723 
3,644 


61,641 
106,580 


9,246 
15,987 


32,761 

64,579 

217,027 


4,914 

9,687 

32,554 


50,205 


7,530 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Per cent. 



15 
15 
15 
15 
15 

15 
15 
15 
15 



1 6 months ending June 30, 1921. 

From Cuba (RECiPRoaTY Treaty Dec. 27, 1903). 




Fiscal year: 
1917 



$24 



$2 



12 



MANUFACTURES OF VULCANIZED INDLA. RUBBER, KNOWN AB ttAUD RUBBER. 



Fiscal year: 
1908.... 
1909.... 
1910.... 

1911 

1912.... 

1913 

1914 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 



35 per cent. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

25 per cent. 

.....do 

do 

do 

do 



$W,1.4U I |U>e.604 . 



Ml, II!) 

\\\.m 



82. 702 

u\ m 

7^,157 

•lo.r.vo 

\,.m 



35 
35 
35 
85 
S5 
S5 
35 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



19 



Imparts fcfr consumption — Continued. 

MANUFACTURES OF VULCANIZED INDIA RUBBER, KNOWN AS HARD RUBBER— 

Continued. 



Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

192H 



Rate of duty. 



25 per cent. 

do 

do 

do 



Quantity. 



Value. 



$2,513 

4,624 

88,058 

60,487 



Duty 
collected. 



1628 

1,156 

22,014 

15,121 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



From Cuba (Recipeocity Treaty Dec. 27, 1903). 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Percent. 



25 
25 



Fiscal year: 
1908 



1909. 



35 per cent less 20 

per cent. 
do 



5 
3 



28 



MANUFACTURES OF GUTTA-PERCHA, N. S. P. F. 



Fiscal year: 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

19211 



35 per cent . 

....do. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

10 per cent. 

....do 

do 

do 

....do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



$41,299 
67,971 
43,674 
60»511 
35,888 
35,625 
3,157 
28,674 
12,021 
58,986 

166,697 
18,629 

48,214 
143,438 
199,265 

11,884 



$14,454 

23,789 

15,285 

21, 179 

12,560 

12,468 

1,104 

2,867 

1,202 

5,898 

16,669 

1,862 

4,821 
13,343 
19,926 

1,188 



35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

10 
10 
10 
10 



MANUFACTURES OF INDIA RUBBER, N. S. P. F. 
Undeb General Tardt. 



Fiscal year: 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: > 

1918 

1919 

1920 

19211 



30 per cent , 

do 

do 

35 per cent. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

10 per cent , 

do 

do 

do , 

do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



*{; 



856,517 
130,662 
170,920 
722,820 
713,237 
722,380 
911,611 
191, 878 
755,525 
534,389 
426,898 
552,184 
282,572 

180,418 
368,169 
674,277 
254,508 



$556, 

339, 

51, 

252, 

249, 

252, 

319, 

67, 

75, 

53, 

42, 

55, 

28, 



955 
198 
276 
987 
633 
833 
064 
157 
552 
438 
689 
218 
257 



18,042 
36,817 
67,427 
25,450 



30 
30 
30 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

10 
10 
10 
10 



From Philippines. 



Fiscal year 1915... 



Free. 



$500 



1 6 months ending June 30, 1921. 

* Figures for calendar years do not include automobile tires. 



20 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 
Imports for consumption — Continued. 

MANUFACTURES OF INDIA RUBBER, N. S. P. F.-Continued. 
From Cuba (Recipeocity Treaty Dec. 27, 1903). 



Fiscal year: 
1908.... 



1909. 
1910. 

1911. 
1914. 

1916. 



Rate of duty. 



30 per cent, less 20 

per cent. 

do 

35 per cent, less 20 

per cent. 

do 

10 per cent, less 20 

per cent. 
do 



Quantity. 



Value. 



S67 

1,386 
140 

31 
10 

492 



Duty 
collected. 



$16 

332 
39 

8 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



39 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Percent. 



24 

24 

28 

28 



8 



DxjTY Remitted. 



Fiscal year: 

1913 


For use of United 

States. 
do 




$140 

22 
5,081 

12 








1914 






• 




1914 


Sees. 4 and 5, act of 
Oct. 3, 1913. 

For use of United 
States. 










1915 





















AUTOMOBILE TIRES.i 
Under General Tariff. 



Calendar year: 
19182 


10 per cent 

do 


1,476 

13,221 

8,702 

961 


$54,094 

367,976 

178,920 

24,739 


$5,409 

36,797 

17,892 

4,946 


$36.64 
27.83 
20.56 


10 
10 
10 
10 


1919 


1920 


20 per cent 


1921* 














From Virgin Islands. 




— ._ 




Calendar year 1918^ 


Free 


6 


$30 
















From 


Cuba (Reciprocity Treai 


fY). 






Calendar year: 
1919 


10 per cent-20 per 

cent. 
do 


5 
1,725 


$170 
15,525 


$13 
1,242 




g 


1920.. 


$9.00 


g 










Sl>0 


NGES MADE OF RUBBE 


R. 






Fiscal year: 

1910 


40 per cent 




$13,063 

11,924 

11,668 

8,628 

817 

2,242 

3,681 

3,601 

174 

5 
397 
542 


$5,225 

4,769 

4,667 

3,451 

326 

336 

552 

540 

26 




40 


1911 


do 






40 


1912 


do 






40 


1913 


do 






40 


1914 


do 






40 


' 1914 


15 per cent 






15 


1915 


do 






15 


1916 


do 






15 


1918 


do 






15 


Calendar year: 
1919 


do 




y- 




1920 -... 


do 




59 
1 




15 


1921« 


do 






15 








. 





» Not separately stated prior to 1918. 

« July 1 to Dec. 31, 1918. 

s 6 months ended June 30, 1921. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



21 



Imporisfor consumption — Continued. 

SPONGES MADE OF RUBBER— Continued. 
From Phiuppines. 





Rate of duty. 


Quantity. 


Value, 


Duty 
coUected. 


Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 


Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 


Calendar year 1918. 


Free 




$71 






Per cent. 













DRINKING STRAWS. 



Fiscal years: 
1914 



1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar years: 

1918 

1920 

19211 



20 per cent. 
15 per cent. 

do 

do 

do 

do. ... 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



$1,787 


$357 


2,809 


421 


3,585 


537 


4,797 


719 


4,044 


606 


3,269 


490 


2,726 


409 


2,084 


316 


4,287 


643 



20 
15 
15 
16 
15 
15 

15 
15 
15 



MANUFACTURE OF STRAW AND GRASS, N. S. P. F. 

Under General Tariff. 



Fiscal years: 

1908 

1909 

1910 



1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 



1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar years: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

19211 



30 per cent. 

do 

do 

35 per cent. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

25 per cent. 

do 

do 

do 

do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



$670,786 


$201,235 


582,540 


174,762 


76,675 


23,002 


563, 171 


197,110 


786,347 


275,221 


856,782 


299,873 


1,102,813 


385,984 


138,933 


48,626 


287,503 


71,875 


280,056 


70,014 


364,038 


91,009 


435,581 


108,895 


304,032 


76,008 


207,315 


51,828 


353,211 


88,303 


644,067 


161,016 


195,678 


48,919 



From Philippine Islands (Acts of Mar. 3, 1905, and Oct. 3, 1913). 



30 
30 
30 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 

25 
25 
25 
25 



Fiscal year: 

l<)08 


75 per cent of 30 

per cent. 
do 




$38 

103 

47 

400 

1,812 

14,834 

95 

1,653 

1,450 

274 

1,293 

1,361 

815 

741 

6,328 


$8 

23 
10 




22.60 


1909 






22.60 


1910 


do 






22.60 


1910 


Free 








1911 


do 










1912 


do 










1913 


do 










1914 


do 










1915 


do 










1916 


do 










1917 


do 










1918 


do 








, 


Calendar year: 
• 1918 


do 










1919 


do 










1920 


do 























1 6 months ended June 30, 1921. 



22 



mxSXTWACTJrKE. CfW 

FscHi Cuba I 



STBjiir A9D amAdB, 



s: a. F. F. 
a; 



7iiRal7«ar: 






30 p«r eeat Iflsi X 

do 

35p«rcaitlaB 2D 

&> 

do 

do 

peresit. 



i 



1 



IS 

6 

21 
19 



It ! 

i ':-:::::::! 

I 

1 , i 

I 1 

5 j 

15 1 



P*r 



24 



28 
28 
29 



PALM L£AF (NATURAL). 



Fiscdlywr 

l«fe 

l«» 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 



Free 



do'..'II.I.I...I I.I 


do 


,do --.--. ' .... 


do 


do , 


do 


do 


do... ' . .... 


do. ....... 1. ............. 


do 


do..:. ! 


do 


do 


..................... 



17,273 
28y538 
2S,(MD 
33^308 
17,276 
14,801 
18^406 
28^198 
15,680 
7,«» 

4,831 
97,125 
32,202 



'*!" 



PALM LEAF— MANTTFACTXJRES OF CBXCEPT FANS). 

Undkb Genkeal Tamow. 



Fiscal yean 

19d8 

1909 

1910 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

19211 



Fiscal year: 
1910 



Calendar year: 
1918 



1919. 
1920. 



30 pa cent. 

do 

do 

35 per cent. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

15 per cent. 

do 

.....do 

do 

do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



17,737 

^^ 
275 

4,043 

6,081 

2,199 

5,712 

229 

12,813 

7,758 

18,213 

18,^5 

8,413 

1,977 

4,773 

18,177 

4,278 



12,321 
1,041 

82 

1,415 

2,128 

769 

1,999 

SO 
1,926 
1,163 
2,731 
2,841 
1,261 

297 

716 

2,726 

641 



From Cuba (Rec. Treaty, Dec. 27, 1908). 



35 per cent less 20 
percent. 

15 per cent less 20 
per cent. 

do 

do 



tl5 

.1 



\ 



30 
30 
30 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 

15 
15 
15 
15 





28 




12 




- • * 





12 



1 6 months ended June 30, 1921. 



TARIFF IXFORMATIOX SURVEYS. 



28 



Imports for consumption — Continued. 

PALM LEAF— MANUFACTURES OF (EXCEPT FANS)-Continue^. 
From PHiupponE Islands (Acts of Mar. 3, 1905, and Aug. 5, 1900). 



Fiscal year: 
1908.... 



1912. 
1919. 



Rate of duty. 



75 per cent of 30 
per cent. 

Free 

do 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Duty 
cdlected. 



S15 

15 
364 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



14 

1 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Percent. 
28 

12 



MANUFACTURES OF CHIP, N. S. P. F. 
Under General Tariff. 



Fiscal year; 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 » 



30 per cent. 

do 

do 

35 per cent. 

....\do 

do 

do 

do 

20 per cent. 

.....do 

do 

do 

....do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do 
.do 



212,143 



$24,956 

22,028 

4,925 

11,304 

5,661 

851 

492 

1,155 

2,931 

15,433 

48,678 

132,554 

102,371 

41,579 

53,000 

140,607 

54,172 



17,486 

6,608 

1,477 

3,956 

1,981 

297 

172 

404 

586 

3,086 

9,715 

26,510 

20,474 

8,316 
10,600 
28,121 
10,834 



10.249 



30.00 
80.00 
30.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 

20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 



From Peilippines. 


















Fiscal yean 

1910 


75 per cent of 30 

I)er cent. 
Free 




$2 
2 








1911 












1 









QUILLS— MANUFACTURES OF (TOOTHPICKS). 



Fiscal year: 



1908. 

1900. 
1910. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 



2 cents per 1,000 
and 15 per cent. 

do 

do 

35 per cent i 

do 1 

do 

do 

do 



1914 20percent 



1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 



do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 

.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Thousands. 
55,429 

33,902 
2,252 
14,298 
25,463 
12,009 
41,020 
1,752 



19211 do 



24,502 
22,713 

6,802 



$20,981 

19,097 

1,297 

9,100 

11,984 

8,166 

18,646 

1,535 

8; 506 

8,519 

21,543 

26,250 

10,532 

12,848 

11,191 

17,614 

7,622 



$4,255 

3,642 
236 
3,186 
4,194 
2,858 
6,526 
537 
1,701 
1,703 
4,308 
5,251 
2,106 

2,570 
2,238 
3,522 
1,524 



$0,379 

.563 
.573 
.636 
.471 
.680 
.455 
.876 



.4567 
.775 



20.28 

18.55 
18.20 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 

sa.oo 

35.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 

20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 



» Six months ended June 30, 1921. 



24 



TAEIPF INFORMATIOK SURVEYS. 



ImporUfor consumption — Continued. 

Q^UILLS, OTHER MANUFACTURES OF. 



Fiscal year: 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1910 

1911 ^. 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar yean 

1918 

1919 

1920 

19211 



Rate of duty. 



20 per cent. 

do 

do 

35 percent, 
do , 

—.do 

do 

.....do 

20 per cent . 

do 

do 

do 

....do 



.do- 
.do. 
.do. 
.do 



Quantity. 



Value. 



$494 

639 

56 

5,328 

13, 170 

11,136 

5,959 

3,381 

8,260 

9,342 

1,347 

1,548 

2,179 

2,055 

8,320 

15,575 

2,242 



Duty 
collected. 



$98 

127 

11 

1,864 

4,609 

3,897 

2,085 

1,183 

1,652 

1,868 

269 

309 

435 

411 
1,664 
3,115 

448 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Percent. 
20 
20 
20 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 



20 
20 
20 
20 



WEEDS, MANUFACTURES OF. 



Fiscal year: 

1917 


25 percent 




$131 

398 
226 


$32 

99 
56 




25 


Calendar year: 
1920 


do 


' 




25 


192H 


do..... 






25 













WHALEBONE, UNMANUFACTURED. 



Fiscal year: 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

19211 



Free.. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

....do. 

do. 

....do. 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do 



Pounds. 




9,154 


$43,642 


14,295 


64,653 


10,000 


26,472 


31,024 


91,435 


18,251 


44,587 


9,992 


12,686 


9,524 


11,781 


40,088 


68,262 


27,855 


17,936 


10,221 


6,607 


36,107 


16,480 


42,289 


25,901 


9,371 


6,659 


2,779 


1,251 


226 


122 



$4.77 

4.52 

2.65 

2.95 

2.44 

1.27 

1.24 

1.70 

.64 

.64 

.45 

.612 
.710 
.450 



WHALEBONE, MANUFACTURES OF. 



Fiscal year: 

1908 


30 per cent 




$93 

27 

51 

126 

136 

34 

713 

173 

479 

886 

32 

2 

72 
330 
272 


$27 
8 
17 
44 
47 
11 

142 
34 
95 

177 
6 




30 


1909 


..... do. ............ 






30 


1910 


35 percent 






35 


1911 


do 






35 


1912 


do 






35 


1913 


do 






.35 


1914 


20 per cent 






20 


1915 


.....do 






20 


1916 


do 






20 


1917 


do 






20 


1918 


do 






20 


Calendar year: 
1918....; 


do 








1919 


do 




14 
66 

58 




20 


1920 


do 






19211 


do 






20 













1 Six months ended June 30, 1921. 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



25 



Exported to— 



Domestic exports. 
INDIA BUBBER ICANUFAOTURES. 

BBLUNO, H08E,1 AMD FACKIKe. 
FISCAL TEARS. 



France * 

GennftBv 

England 

Scotiand 

Canada 

I^nama 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Chile 

Japan 

Australia 

Philippine Islands . . 
British South Africa 
Portuguese Africa. . . 

Total 



1913 



$32,116 

66,673 

239,753 

18,010 

472,645 

182,671 

438,885 

156,069 

40,011 

41,177 

57,970 

77,900 

186,663 

79,637 

171,998 

58,605 



1914 



$62,349 

65,283 

334,295 

11,774 

306,707 

140,805 

269,483 

127,817 

37,824 

25,084 

71,113 

106,551 

182,927 

50,444 

223,476 

40,698 



2,605,651 2,372,887 



1915 



$6,900 

2,495 

271,708 

7,654 

247, 114 

37,982 
168,336 
109,425 

28,215 

23,719 
107,006 

38,520 
132,202 

58,606 
300,430 

40,069 



1,807,848 



1916 



$35,746 



814,900 

37,757 

279,342 

116,083 

193,470 

171,456 

74,666 

67,339 

175,879 

99,734 

140,715 

57,686 

376,885 

27,939 



2,986,953 



1917 



$51,568 



523,875 
100,221 
468,126 

87,109 
265,680 
252, 110 
131,918 
144,554 
274,164 
158,358 
131,716 

63,607 
361,432 

29,115 



3,532,384 



1918 



$31,905 
'i44*724 



511,381 
79,545 
460,325 
386,069 
163,077 
197,360 
389,694 
346,516 
437,356 
213,517 
472,235 
64,225 



4,525,243 



1 Includes hydraulic or flume hose. 



CALEMDAB TEARS. 



Exported to— 



France 

England 

Canada 

Panama T 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Chile 

Japan 

Australia 

Philippine Islands 

British Soutii Africa 

Portuguese Africa 

Total 



1918 



$31,905 
144,724 
511,381 

79,545 
469,325 
386,069 
163,077 
197,360 
389,604 
346,516 
437,356 
213,517 
472,235 

64,225 



4,525,243 



1919 



1920 



$6,100,460 $8,398,401 



Scrap and Old. 

nSCAL YEARS. 



Exported to— 



1913 



Austria-Hungary 

France , 

Germany , 

Italy , 

Netherlands , 

England 

ScQtIand 

Canada , 

Japan. 

Another 

Total 



Pounds. 



92,708 

1,131,191 

959,509 

29,382 

363,834 

2,679,669 

131,213 

1,341,637 

34,794 

50% 528 



7,269,465 



Value. 



$17,236 

161,070 

146,476 

2,546 

49,204 
259,153 

15,Si3 

154,134 

3,613 

71,167 



880,442 



1914 



Pounds. 



77,073 

888,386 

514,720 

78,267 

249,163 

3,126,182 

22,165 

1,032,429 

40,491 

178,796 



6,207,672 



Value. 



$15,374 

95,567 

98,485 

5,696 

35,108 

206,623 

3,219 

105,883 

1,534 

30,798 



598,287 



1915 



Pounds. 



2,616 

138,714 

38,775 

38,874 

13,-^ 

1,025,793 

450,645 

603,564 

30,143 

89,541 



2,«22,091 



Value. 



$441 

18,902 

9,163 

3,797 

2,033 

136,704 

51,129 

53,805 

1,349 

14,098 



291,421 



64912— 21— N-21- 



26 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURNTflYS. 



Domestic exports — Continued. 

INDIA RUBBER MANUFACTURES-CJontinudti, 

8CE4P AND Old— GonjUnaed. 

FISCAL TEABs— continued. 



Exported to— 



France... 

Italy 

England . 
Scotland . 
Canada... 
Japan — 
All other. 



Total. 



1916 



Pounds. 



83,119 



1,362,622 
835,524 

1,393,550 
121,068 
308,832 



3,904,715 



Value. 



$12,494 



181,622 

105,914 

69,502 

14,981 

15,735 



400,148 



1917 



1918 



Pounds. 



117,984 

65 

890.194 

942,785 

1,496,320 

223,173 

26,140 



3,696,661 



Value. 



Pounds. 



$20,074 

10 

148,488 

116,441 , 

112,418 ■ 

17,127 

918 



141,990 



3,143 

19,183 

1,951,976 



955 



415,526 I 2,117,257 



Value. 



139,191 



820 

1,918 

198,827 



65 



235,311 



CALENDAB YEABS. 



Exported to— 



France 

Germany... 

Italy 

Netherlands. 

England 

Scotland 

Canada 

Japan 

All other 



Total. 



1918 



Pounds. 



8,041 



2,923,570 



318 



2,931,929 



Value. 



$4,452 



283,392 



39 



287,883 



1919 



Pounds. 



603,099 

201,000 

22,400 

1,283,640 

1,488,874 

447,981 
2,316,488 
1,453,462 

475,109 



8,292,053 



Value. 



$100,015 

29,204 

3,136 

127,062 

189,422 

42,988 

178,578 

66,356 

50,232 



808,993 



1920 



Pounds. I Value. 



10,468,538 



$788,097 



Reclaimed, 
fiscal yeabs. 



Exported to— 



Belgium 

France 

Germany 

England 

Scotland 

Canada i 

Japan 

All other 

Total 



1913 



Pounds. 



109,232 
234,604 
129,530 
697,775 
46,676 
3,808,611 
240,512 
146,307 



5,413,247 



Value. 



$17,400 
29,525 
27,599 

119,641 
8,003 

661,960 
39,331 
29,445 



1914 



Pounds. 



09,344 

378,503 

282,860 

' 723,080 

70,839 

3,880,656 

72,427 

106,251 



932,904 



5,683,860 



Value. 



$12,442 
45,737 
51,972 

128,233 
11,701 

655,121 
12,440 
16,794 



834,440 



1915 



Pounds. 



6,685 

295,619 

10,608 

886,072 

90,807 

4,511,317 

116,657 

52,615 



5,970,380 



Value. 



$1,300 

37,822 

1,436 

134,200 

13,550 

610,467 

16,731 

6,995 



822,561 



1916 



Exported to— 



Pounds. 



France 343,466 

England 852,091 

Scotland 126,065 

<;anada l.l 4,921,584 

Japan I 84,719 

79,021 

6,406,946 



Au other. 



Total. 



Value. 



$42,965 

127,757 

19,788 

659,589 

10,659 

10,504 

871,262 



1917 



Pounds. 



155,548 

483,620 

40,611 

4, 140, 129 

39,244 

59,839 

4,938,991 



Value. 



$23,736 

94,292 

6,700 

669,202 

7,332 

12,938 

814,199 



1918 



Pounds. 



227,806 
40,134 



2,713,656 

20,250 

283,112 

3,284,958 



Value. 



$31,631 
10,496 



455,147 

3,211 

66,793 

667,278 



TABIFF INFOBMATION SUBVBYS. 



27 



J)omestic exports — Continued. 

INDIA BUBB^B MANUFAOTURES-<3oottimed. 
Reclaimed— Continued. 

CALBNDA& TSAB8. 



Exported to— 



Belgium. 
France... 
England. 
ScOTland. 
Canada... 
Japan — 
Au other. 



Total. 



1018 



Pounds. 



Value. 



137,519 



2,591,012 

35 

175,668 



2,904,234 



120,061 



441,492 

10 

40,613 



502,176 



1910 



Pounds. 



13,468 

180,570 

321,504 

448,000 

3,750,138 

40,574 
310,378 



5,070,632 



Value. 



12,400 
26,574 
53,906 
73,297 
619,534 
7,397 
56,840 



839,938 



1920 



Pounds. 



4,924,668 



Value. 



$832,873 



Boots, 
fiscal teabs. 



Exported to — 



Deiunark 

France 

England 

Canada 

Newfoundland and Labrador 

Brazil 

Chile 

Australia 

New Zealand 

British South Africa 

All other 

Total: 



1913 



Pairs. 



959 
36 

31,081 

13,009 
5,231 
1,229 
2,001 
4,647 

22,873 
3,124 

45,538 



109,528 



Value. 



$1,426 

118 

64,329 

44,725 

13,296 

4,236 

8,720 

12,996 

47,218 

11,457 

65,819 



274,330 



1914 



Pairs. 



444 

18, £ 

28,949 

8,441 

1,298 

930 

10,219 

10,492 

3,131 

18,337 



101,361 



Value. 



$1,090 

1,063 

44,560 

92,781 

20,849 

2,771 

4,643 

26,543 

33,643 

8,529 

42,714 



279,206 



1915 



Pairs. 



24,187 

231,688 

22,928 

14,375 

133 

1,276 

6,694 

9,217 

2,925 

5,304 



318,727 



Value. 



$40,204 

518,643 

66,237 

33,265 

335 

4,172 

15,952 

27,298 

6,903 

13,666 



726,765 



Exported to— 



Denmark 

France 

England 

Canada 

Newfoundland and Labrador 

Braril 

Chile 

Austral^ 

New Zealand 

British South Africa 

All other 



Total. 



1916 



Pairs. 



60,418 
569,907 

32,842 

23,436 
366 
4,077 
7,071 
9,609 
2,153 

10,251 



720, 130 



Value. 



$132,203 

1,248,116 

91,601 

54,716 

1,242 

9,410 

19,884 

29,048 

6,275 

26,766 



1917 



Pairs. 



267 

108,922 

343.487 

68,701 

42,590 

254 

1,727 

5,482 

5,165 

3,527 

20,333 



1,619,260 



600,455 



Value. 



$1,027 

381,826 

604,473 

186,331 

103,684 

892 

6,951 

16,207 

17,316 

11,777 

62,895 



1918 



Pairs. 



1,254,623 

131,960 

84,093 

53,409 

599 

602 

819 

7,692 

1,677 

24,123 



Value. 



$4 

3,913,450 

455,946 

254,837 

141,364 

2,085 

2,347 

2,480 

22,378 

5,758 

60,612 



1,483,379 



1,559,598 4,861,218 



28 



TARIFF INFORMATION BUKVEYS. 



Domestic exports — Continued. 

INDIA RUBBER MANUFACTURES— GoaUnned. 
Boots— €(mtiniied. 

CALSKDAS TEARS. 



Exported to— 


1918 


1919 


1020 


Pairs. 


Value. 


Pairs. 


Value. 

' $23,322 

310 

48,391 

182,757 

203,470 

2,475 

12,480 

5,478 

41,600 

12,385 

182,036 


Pairs. 


Value. 


Denmark 


1 

577,715 

56,243 

57,513 

40,180 

148 

1,628 

3,008 

5,830 

3k232 

27,079 


$4 

2,120,031 

232,963 

189,566 

125,243 

901 

7,730 

8,567 

17,383 

12, 117 

84,582 


10,076 

124 

27,239 

56,177 

70,827 

494 

3,002 

1,773 

14,734 

3,960 

72,605 






France 






EnpHnd .... ... 






Oaiiftda- -,. X . ...... 






Newfoundland and Labrador . 






Brazil 






Chile 






AustraUa 






Nftw TAftlarvd — 






British South Africa 




, 


All other 












Total 


772,586 2-799-116 


261,110 


714,713 


302,852 


1,012,099 









Shoes. 

nSCAL YEARS. 



Exported to— 



Denmark 

France 

England .-. 

Scotland 

Canada 

Newfoimdland and Labrador. . 

Brazil 

Chile 

Japan 

Australia 

New Zealand 

All other 

Total 



1913 



Pairs. 



52,776 
54,252 

695,466 
58,958 
82,624 
49,999 
76,031 
20,434 
46,717 

340,938 
26,618 

726,594 



2,231,407 



Value. 



$25,617 
27,436 

325,646 
31,485 
46,074 
31,243 
43,861 
12,677 
27,977 

163,150 
21,122 

417,665 



1,163,953 



1914 



Pairs. 



36,023 
43,181 

539,626 
54,582 
70,660 
46,265 
32,803 
9,957 
24,132 

346,410 
14,177 

416,442 



1,634,258 



Value. 



$19,110 
22, .579 

238,011 
26,746 
46,711 
24,5^12 
19,925 
5,676 
12,086 

183,634 
9,331 

225,938 



834,289 



1915 



' ' ■ ■ ' ■ 

Pairs. 


Value. 


60,867 


$29,432 


761,402 


1,254,228 


662,039 


3«0,.310 


31,218 


12,468 


32,252 


27011 


70,843 


35,514 


8,096 


4,677 


4,387 


3,144 


20,623 


11,032 


199,694 


108,060 


27,955 


15,514 


145,024 


192,180 


2,219,900 


2,053;5e0 



Exported to— 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Pairs. 


Value. 


Pairs. 


Value. 


Pairs. 


Value. 


Denmark 


6,801 

148,585 

1,068,429 

57,565 

34,729 

86,681 

25,535 

19,534 

28,763 

175,529 

18,237 

306,508 


$4,044 
71,448 

527,452 
20,473 
26,458 
60,415 
13,134 
11,036 
19,456 
88,296 
13,460 

190,330 


49,818 

236,6.35 
1,885,947 

111,545 
92,739 

116,875 
42,717 
10,487 
38,388 

147,068 
20,435 

603,830 


$22,886 

102,420 

847,653 

40,168 

72,871 

81,508 

24,059 

5,628 

26.215 

76,609 

11,837 

404,371 


3 


$6 


Prance 




England 


250,500 
9,671 

166,601 

105,565 
3.3,362 
4,582 
37,978 
75,461 
20,371 

540,076 


128,457 


Scotland 


8,894 


Canada 


168.390 


Labrador and Newfoundland . . 
Brazil 


83,368 
24,198 


Chile 


3,938 
32,135 


Japan 


Australia 


46,747 

13,474 

403,512 


New Zealand 


AH other 




Total 


1,976,896 


1,046,102 


3,356,484 


1,716,225 


1,244,170 


913,128 







TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



29 



Donwfftc expofU — Continiied. 

INDIA RUBBER MANUFACTTTRES-Continued. 
Shoes— Continued . 

CALENDAR YEARS. 



Exported to— 


1918 


1919 


1920 


Pairs. 

_ 


Value. 


Pairs. 

500,219 

75,281 

1,046,264 

6,700 

131,222 

80,026 

92,834 

25,605 

393,679 

151,673 

15,272 

3,266,713 


Value. 


Pairs. 


Value. 


1 


tA 

105,570 
24,1^ 


$346,849 

52,339 

040, a56 

4,983 

146,824 

87,190 

77,343 

21,389 

390,663 

99,477 

17,549 

2,666,724 






France ( 55.070 






Rn);land 


i0,050 






Scotland 






c,in?ida 


318,919 

128,866 

20,007 

13,521 

67,330 

80,453 

7,118 

573,109 


722,994 

124,214 

15,339 

11,729 

65,082 

&4,996 

4,687 

455,992 






NievrHmmdland'aiid Labrador.. 






Brazil 






Chile.. 






Japan 






Aostralia 






N ew Zealand 






Another 












Total 


1,285,110 


1,584,747 


5,794,488 


4,551,386 


10,088,511 


$9,738,390 





Druggists' Sundries.! 



£xiK>rted to— 



France 

Italy 

England 

•Canada...... 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina... 

Braril 

Chile 

British India. 

Australia 

A 11 other 



Total. 



1918 « 



$47,746 
20,897 

142,308 

206,490 
66,157 
99,749 
36,509 
37,967 
30,365 
17,n4 
48,794 

129,649 



884,245 



» Included in "All other" prior to 1918. 
* Fiscal year. 
3 O^ndar year. 



Automobile Tires, 
fiscal years. 



1918* 


1919 » 


1920 


$36,582 


$45,581 

8,579 

176,918 

275,713 

103,519 

86,060 

65,146 

46,490 

39,039 

18,724 

54,071 

350,666 




21,905 




64,268 




235,394 




53,225 




88,561 




35,425 




27,656 




26,338 




18,231 




31,875 




133,079 








772,539 


1,270,506 


$1,890,967 



Exported to- 



Belgium 

■Germany 

Italy 

England 

Scotland 

Canada 

Mexico 

Jamaica. 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Chile 

Uruguay 

VenexueJa 

Dutch East Indies.. 

PhilipirilKS 

British South Africa. 
AUother 



Total. 



1913 



$401,900 

401,196 

1,150 

1,125,718 



1 



,324,459 

^,883 

30,004 

12,322 

8,153 

47,537 

2,844 

1,990 

10,703 

860 

100,476 

17,057 

252,968 



1914 



$15,730 

132,181 

915 

1,503,440 

336 

961,937 

111,948 

55,361 

55,236 

21,920 

11,839 

10,636 

17,987 

20,439 

2,677 

141,205 

27,090 

414,390 



3,943,220 



3,505,267 



1915 



$6,090 

' 11,740 

2,655,099 

245 

772,574 

106,083 

36,887 

192,355 

34,096 

77,425 

21,353 

11,826 

32,635 

7,688 

250,832 

32,822 

713,520 



4,963,270 



1916 



1917 



$333,437 

9,175,248 

116,858 

1,176,836 

236,811 

40,364 

647,410 

488,329. 

295,479 

58,809 

76,608 

71,849 

201,287 

391,634 

291,318 

4,433,958 



$101,362 

2,669,901 

66,753 

1,486,939 

257,413 

109,048 

1,019,915 

1,301,344 

696,876 

264,603 

100,427 

128,966 

415,742 

345,702 

391,211 

Of l/o4, Wv 



17,936,227 1 12,330,201 



1918 



$55,913 
618,071 



1,766,518 
777,984 
109,097 

1,336,233 

1,649,840 
455,103 
726,876 
224,694 
116,612 
347,912 
863,727 
693,066 

4,237,027 



13,977,671 



30 



TARIFF INFORMATION SUR\^YS. 



Domettic exporU — Continued. 

INDIA RUBBER MANUFACTURBS-Continued. 
AuToMOBiLB TIBK8— Continued. 

CALEKDAB TEAB8. 



Exported t(v* 



Bdgiiim. 

Oermany 

Italy 

England 

Scotland , 

Canada 

Mexico 

Jamaica 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Chile 

Uruguay 

Venezuda 

Dutch East Indies. . . 

Philippines 

British South Africa. 
All other 



Total. 



Tiax9—ALL Other. 

nSICAL TEARS. 



1918 



128,718 



5,428 
198,022 



1,278,000 
009,569 
129,825 

1,454,000. 

1,429,647 
389,822 
951, 102 
213,290 
136,881 
519.535 
982,224 
591, 378 

5,206,092 



1919 



14,511,621 



1532,532 

33,280 

226,245 

1,508,460 

263 

1,021,014 

805,614 

156,822 

2,013,071 

1,788,147 

1,018,055 

795,440 

645,970 

226,953 

686,873 

1,372,544 

479,934 

15,613,442 



28,924,659 



1920 



$1,279,309 



52,044,343 



ExpOTtedto— 



Belgium 

Geraaany 

Italy 

England : 

Scotland 

Canada 

Mexico 

Jamaica 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Chile 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

Dutch East Indies. . 

Philippines 

British South Africa . 
All other 



1913 



$166 

1,658 

3,070 

119,728 



Total. 



17,757 

47,683 

241 

106,114 

16,039 

32,864 

31,076 

8,730 

160 

1,516 

37,512 

6,759 

180,195 



1914 



1634 

202 

8,820 

96,071 



611,548 



22,429 

23,534 

586 

95,567 

7,553 

5,931 

19,805 

16,222 

1,418 

«f , ow 

93,801 

5,153 

160,047 



563,372 



1915 



$31,293 
190,597 



13,888 

19,935 

12,570 

70,832 

7,439 

8,833 

17,260 

7,146 

750 

804 

81,914 

20,405 

92,947 



1916 



1917 



1918 



576,602 



$411,666 

1,306,699 

15,331 

30,487 

33,696 

19,380 

139,892 

97,793 

113,073 

34,751 

26,217 

7,207 

20,756 

146,777 

116,391 

482,961 I 



$144,844 
1,063,585 



49,493 
65,364 
10,587 

174, 132 
99,868 
31, 818 
22,941 
22,282 
24,869 
60,083 

100,4JV4 
97,621 

579,681 



$7,244 
36,675 



3,003,077 



2,547,652 



92,707 
48,019 
12,116 

116,859 

239,321 

15,995 

54,815 

6,070 

1,072 

16,278 

155i055 
29,131 

409.315 



1,130,623 



CALENDAR TEARS. 



Exi)ortedto — 



1918 



Belgium 

Oermany 

Italy 

England 

Canada 

Mexico 

Jamaica 

Cuba , 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Chtte 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

Dutch East Indies... 

Philippines 

British South Africa. 
All other 



Total. 



$283 

19,665 

66,452 

50,769 

12,814 

103,071 

89,519 

8,115 

43,S09 

101 

2,789 

14,764 

133,513 

23,268 

186,958 



755,888 



1919 



$54,492 

90 

136,640 

901 

1,343 

6 

3,616 

7,832 

84,051 

27,362 

26,720 

2,555 

2,372 

40,335 

125,522 

27,937 

1,015,453 



1920 



1,557,227 $1,029,672 



TARIFF INKOKMATION SUEVEYS. 
Domeitie exporU — Continned. 

INDIA BUBBKa MA NO PACTORE3~Conliiiu«d. 



Eipmtadto- 


1B13 


UI4 


1B16 


1016 


lOlT 


1018 




»5T,98B 

flSSO 

140 07T 

376, 8M 

144,000 
78 409 
Sl,68S 

861364 
114,787 
58074 

MS' IK 


134,462 

lis 

1,016,960 
3 721 
B26,SI3 
38; 132 

1331360 

4i),m 

53.721 

«0;293 

«;066 
123, S14 


12,419 
24,530 

3?; 082 

30,806 

1,550,567 

42,511 

11 

11 

Ml' Si 










»i2,787 
622,757 

118,912 
3,165,609 

1,553; 004 
46 387 
61,082 
336,483 

106; 188 

i:l 

610,172 


928,943 














ili 

189,525 

11 




^;:;":::::::::::::::;: 


i,^;| 




'■*lfT. 




178,613 






Si 




















170,982 








Total 


3,113,036 


3,453,472 


3,525,486 


T, MO, 345 


8,285.509 


6,194,816 



Exported to- 


»18 


1918 


1920 






' 1 46 
4 3S 

'■" S 
1 1 

19 80 
1,43. 83 






910,808 














220,308 
718,118 














1,730,564 

Is 

lis 

112,000 
5141193 






















































5,762.070 


9,097,773 









STRAW AND PALM LEAF— MAN UFACTUHEa OF, 



Exported to— 


lOlS 


,,,. 


.015 


1918 


1917 


ms 








3326 

...» 

6; 849 
20,517 

181694 

If 


»i,ei2 

876 


^«8 






Tffi'S 

™'mo 

2,800 
31752 

11 


3,389 

is 

5,401 
8,647 

i 

42,289 










19,861 

82; 837 

91377 
14,338 

70,000 


43; 136 
174; 8W 

i 
,11 


,!fS 










































^«4 














m,m 


799,507 


680,402 


091,164 


1,060,842 









32 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Domestic expcrt$ — Continued. 

STRAW AND PALM LEAF— MANUFACTURES OF-Continued. 

Calewdab Ysabs. 



Exported to— 



1918 



Denmark. 

France 

Qermabv. 
Enc^ana.. 
Canada... 
Panama.. 
Honduras. 
Mexico. . . 
Jamaica. . 

Cuba 

Brazfl 



Argentina 

Colombia 

Australia 

Philippines 

British South Africa. 
Another 



Total. 



$164,216 

6,839 

559 

13,558 

201 

490, 179 

6,077 

87,341 

12,8^2 

3,126 

8,194 

5,296 

49,301 



849,709 



1919 



$2,600 

408 

250 

20,396 

264,263 

3,906 

1,359 

28,644 

2,330 

331,964 

63,280 

52,658 

20,427 

19,163 

5,196 

688 

108,898 



926,430 



1920 



$1,602,941 



WHALEBONE (FISCAL YEARS). 



Exported to— 


1913 


1914 


19 
Pounds. 


15 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 

$34,294 
23,871 


Value. 


France 


71,865 
5,186 


$114,592 
7,607 


23,525 
11,509 


205 


$895 


Germany 




Norway 


24,948 

2,936 

'36 


29,639 


E^eift^d X 


28,700 
403 


59,893 
846 






2.214 


All'otiier 






' 95 










Total 


106,174 


182,938 


35,034 


58,165 


28,111 


32,643 





1916 



Exported to— 



France 

England... 

Canada 

All other... 

Total. 



Pounds. 



31,075 

2,406 

11,299 

94 



Vahie. 



44,934 



19171 



$37,379 

3,083 

12,700 

238 



53,400 



Pounds. 



12,961 

19,288 

8,293 

175 



40,717 



Value. 



$a,906 

M,fl06 

6,684 

5S7 



53,717 



1 Included in "All other articles" atter 1917. 

India rubber manufactures. 

FOOTWEAR- PRICES WHOLESALE, PER PAIR, BOSTON, 1913-1918. 

[From War Industries Board Price Bulletin No. 30.1 



Year. 



1913. 



1914. 



First quarter... 
Second quarter. 
Third quarter.. 
Fourth quarter. 



1915. 



First quarter. . . 
Second quarter. 
Third quarter.. 
Fourth quarter. 



First quarter... 
Second quarter. 
Third quarter.. 
Fourth quarter. 




Year. 



1916. 



1917 



First quarter. . . 
Second quarter. 
Third quarter. . 
Fourth- quarter. 



1918 



First quarter... 
Second quarter. 
Third quarter.. 
Fourth quarter. 



First quarter... 
Second quarter. 
Third quarter.. 
Fourth quarter. 



Arctics. 

$1.14 
1.14 
LH 
1.14 
L14 
1.33 
LSI 
1.31 
L$5 
L38 
1.65 
1.65 
L65 
L65 
L65 



TARIFF INFOBMATION SURVEYS. 



33 



India rubber manufactures — Continued. 

WATER HOSE-^PRICES WHOLESALE, NEW YORK. 
[From War Indiistries Board Price Bulletin No. 30.] 



Year. 



1913 

First quarter. . . 
Second quarter. 
Third quarter.. 
Fourth quarter 

1914 : 

First qtukrter. . . 
Second qtiarter. 
Third quarter. . 
Fourth quarter 

1915 r 

First quarter. . , 
Second <)uarter. 
Third q^uarter.. 
Fourth quarter 



30 ta 



Price per 
foot. 



10.060 
.060 
.060 
.060 
.060 
.060 
.060 
.060 
.060 
.060 
.060 
.060 
.060 
.060 
.060 



Year. 



1916 

First quarter. . . 

Second quarter. 

Third quarter.. 

Fourth quarter 
1917 

First quarter. . . 

Second quarter. 

Third quarter. . 

Fourth quarter. 
1918 

First quarter. . . 

Second quarter. 

Third quarter. . 

Fourth quarter. 



Price per 
foot. 



$0.0675 
.060 
.070 
.070 
.070 
.0783 
.0750 
.0750 
.0783 
.0850 
.1220 
.0950 
.1233 
.1350 
.1350 



TIRES AND TUBES^PRICES, WHOLESALE, AKRON, OHIO— SINGLE TIRE OR TUBE. 

[From 'War Industries Board Price Bulletin No. 30.] 



m 



ds. ' ^» 



205 



Year. 



1913 



1914 



Fir St quarter... 
Second quarter . 
Third quarter. . 
Fourth quarter. 



1915 



First quarter... 
Second quarter. 
Third quarter.. 
Fourth quarter . 



1916 



First quarter.., 
Second quarter . 
Third quarter. . 
Fourth quarter . 



1917 



First quarter... 
Second quarter. 
Third quarter. . 
Fourth quarter. 



1918. 



First quarter... 
Second quarter. 
Third quarter. . 
Fourth quarter. 



W^ 



First quarter... 
Second quarter. 
Third quarter. . 
Fourth quarter. 



Pneumatic 

plain tread, 

30 by 3i. 



$13.90 
15.10 
13.60 
13.60 
13.31 
12.74 
12.74 
12.74 
12.74 
12.74 
9.46 
10.35 
9.16 
9.16 
9.16 
10.08 
10.08 
10.08 
10.08 
10.08 
12.58 
11.12 
12.51 
12.93 
13.78 
14.85 
13. 78 
15.20 
15.20 
15.20 



Pneiunatic 
nonskid, 
30 by 3i. 



$17.40 
ia96 
17.06 
17.06 
16.47 
15.36 
15.36 
15.36 
15.36 
15.36 

> 10. 71 
12.31 
10.29 
10.29 
10.29 
1L31 
1L31 
11.31 
11.31 
11.31 
13.98 
12.63 
13.52 
13.89 
15.36 
17.12 
15.36 
17.71 
17.71 
17.71 



Pneumatic 
nonskid, 
33 by 4. 



$25.68 
27.99 
25.19 
26.19 
24.35 
22.67 
22.67 
22.67 
22.67 
22.67 
17.34 
18.80 
16.86 
16.86 
16.86 
18.55 
18.55 
18.55 
18. «5 
18.55 
23.97 
21.56 
23.71 
24.51 
26.10 
28.72 
26.10 
28.72 
30.03 
30.03 



Pneumatic 

tubes, 

33 by 4. 



$4.14 
4.51 
4.06 
4.06 
4.06 
3.65 
3.65 
3.65 
3.65 
3.65 
2.98 
3.16 
2.92 
2.92 
2.92 
3.23 
3.23 
3.23 
3.23 
3.23 
3.80 
3.54 
3.88 
3.88 
3.88 
4.16 
3.88 
4.27 
4.27 
4.27 



Solid, 36 
by 6. 



$39.27 
39.27 
39.27 
39.27 

• 39.27 
39.27 
39.27 
39.27 
39.27 
39.27 
36.43 
30.20 
33.07 
31.55 
30.80 
37.26 
37.26 
37.26 
37.26 
37.26 
44.63 
4L02 
41.02 
44.63 
5L89 
55.85 
5L89 
57.17 
57.17 
57.17 



u 



ijuarr orFOftMATiojr sxjktets. 



(TrMiWa 



FAOrOKT— FEK DOZEN. 



IWJ. 

Fifsi <!inafter , * . 

Third <|iMft«r.. 

FofVtliatMrt^r. 
I914 

fWst ftptitttff. . . 

^tfiCftiA (|(Mfter. 

TMf4 fffijifttf . , 

Foinrt1iqfMrt«r. 
»W 

fotffth aiJSft€f - 
mti 

^WH (tmrUsr . . . 

5?«e!or)d quarter . 

Tte4 ffWitUt. . 

Fowrth (|twrt*f * 
1917 

fJfsf fl ftaft«T , , . 

Hpfymn qnarUa. 

Third quart f!r. . 

Fourth nnsrinr. 
191* ..., 

9'ir^ amrter. . . 

M^cofwi qfi«t«r . 

Third f\nwrUr. . 

Fonrth quMttsr. 



1 Wst«rbotdc9. 


leebMS, 
doth- 


AD 
nibbcr. 


Xrtngfi 

0(2 
series. 


S7.50 


IB. 15 

9.15 

1 9.15 

• 9.15 

i 9.15 

9.03 

9.06 

9.02 

9.02 

9.02 

I 9.12 

' 9.06 

9.15 

1 9.15 

9.15 

1 9.88 

' 9. 15 

10.12 

10.12 

10.12 

11.03 

10.62 

10.87 

11.32 

11.32 t 

12.46 ' 

11.32 1 

11.87 ' 

13. 15 > 

13.50 • 


S8.10 


7.30 


8.10 


7.50 


8.10 


.. 1 7.50 


8.10 


7.50 


8.10 


7.27 


7.80 


7.33 


8.10 


.... ' 7.25 


8.10 


7.25 


7.50 


7.25 


7.50 


7.45 


7.50 


7.33 


7.50 


7.50 


7.50 


7.-50 


7.50 


7.50 


7.50 


8.06 


8.00 


7.50 


8.00 


8.25 


8.00 


8.25 


8.00 


8 25 


8.00 


8.25 




8.25 




8.25 




S.25 




8.25 




9.60 




8.25 




9. 35 




10.30 




10. 50 









Manufactures of bone, cHp, grass , straw, India rubber, etc. — Bates of duty. 



Act of \ Par- 



1913,,..' 368 



TarUr clfldwiflcatlon or description. 



1913.,..* JKJ© 



1913-.. . 

19.79. . . . 


643 


1909.... 


464 



Mantifar^tiTM of bone, chtp, Rrasti, horn, India nibher or gutta- 
percha; palm leaf, uuIUi, rtraw, weeds, or whalebone, or of 
which any of them w the component material of chief value, 
not otherwise specially provided for in this section, shall be 
subject to the following raten; manufactures of india rubber or 
Kiitta-p«rcba, cx>mmonly known as druKgists' sundries: 
Manijfocftures ot india rubber or gutta-percha, not specially 
provlfjed for in this section. 

Palm leaf. 

Bone, chip, horn, quills, and whalebone 

Orfww, straw, ann we^i 

(Utm)m composed whoUy of horn or of horn and metal 

The terms "grass" and "stratv" shall be understood to 

mean thes^ ntibstanees In their natural state, and not the 

m^mmU^l fibers thereof. 

Manufa^jtures of * * * viilcaniz-ed India rubber known rts 

"hard rublK-r," or of whleh these substances or any of them is 

the component material of chief value, not specially provided 

for in this section. 

Whalebonr, unmanufactured : - • • \v T 

Manufmtures of bone, chip, grass, horn, quills, India ruDiHi". pauu 
leaf, straw, weexls, or whalebone, or of which these substanoes 
or any of them is the component material of chief value, n«l 
spefhllv provl'Iod for In this seet Jon. ^ , ^ * ^ i * . 

But t'hn terms "grass" and "straw" shaU be understood to 
mean th'-re siibstanws in their nattu-al form and struoiuu, 
and not the separated fiber thereof. 

Sponges made of rubber «. - - • v\u:.« [^\W\ 

Combs, composed whoUy of horn, or composed of horn ouu 

ManufSrwofgutta-nercha, * \*7^''^'^''Sil^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
known as "hard nib>,er," or of which these s^^^t^"?^^,^ ./' ^. 
of them is the component material of chief value, not spot laiij 
provided for In this section. 



Rates of duty, specific 
and ad valorem. 



15 i)er cent ad vadorem. 



10 per cent ad valorem. 

15 per cent ad valorem. 
20 ]>er cent ad valorena. 
25 per ivnt ad valorem. 
Do. 



ho 



V\vt\ 

;i-^ |u I koxw Ml valorem. 






m. 



TABIFF INifOEMATIOK SXJBVEYS. 



35 



Manufactures of hone, chip, grass, sttaw, india rubber ^ etc.- — Rates of duty — Continued. 



Actof— 



1909. 
1897. 



1897 



1897. 
1894. 



Par. 



710 
449 



450 



1894. 



1804. 
1890. 



1890. 



1890. 
1883. 



1883. 
1883. 



352 



353 



671 
460 



461 



753 
395 



454 
455 



Tariff classification or description. 



Whalebone, unmanufactured - . . 

Manufactures of bone, chip, grass, horn, india rubber, pahn leaf, 
straw, weeds, or whalebone, or of which these substances or 
either of them is the component material of chief value, not 
specially provided for in this act. 

But the terms "grass" and "straw" shall be understood to 
mean these substances in their natural form and structure, and 
not the separated fiber thereof. 

Manufactures of * * * gutta-percha, * * * and vul- 
canized india rubber known as "hard rubber," or of which 
these substances or either of them is the component material 
of chief value, not specially provided for in this act. 

WhsJebone, unmanufactured 

Manufactures of bone, chip, grass, horn, india rubber, palm loaf, 
straw, weeds, or whalebone, or of which these substances or 
either of them is the component material of chief value, not 
specially provided for in this act. 

But the terms "grass" and "straw" shall be understood to 
mean these substances in their natural form and structure, and 
not the separated fiber thereof. 

Manufactures of * * * guttapercha, vulcanized india rubber, 
known as "hard rubber" * * * or of which these sub- 
stances or either of them is the component material of chief 
value, all of the above not specially provided for in this act. 

Whalebone, unmanufactured 

Manufactures of bone, chip, grass, horn, india rubber, palm lead, 
straw, weeds, or whalebone, or of which these suDstances or 
either of them is the component material of dtiief value, not 
specially provided for in this act. 

Manufactures of gutta percha, vulcanized india rubber, known 
as "hard rubber," * * * or of which these substances or 
either of them is the component material of chief value, all of 
the above not specially provided for in this act. 

Whalebone, unmanufactured 

Baskets and all other articles composed of grass,. * * * palm 
leaf, whalebone, w willow, or straw, not specially enumerated or 
provided for in this act. 

Articles composed of india rubber, not specially enumerated or 
provided for in this act. 

India-rubber boots and shoes 

Gutta-percha, manufactured, and all articles of, not specially 
enumerated or provided for in this act. 



Rates of duty, specific 
and ad valorem. 



Free. 

30 per cent ad valorem. 



35 per cent ad valorem. 



Free. 

25 per cent ad valorem. 



30 per cent ad valorem. 



Free. 

30 per cent ad valorem. 



35 per cent ad valorem. 



Free. 

30 per cent ad valorem. 



25 per cent ad valorem. 

Do. 

35 per cent ad valorem. 



Court and Treasury Decisions. 

Mats made of braids of straw sewn together with cotton were held 
properly classified under this paragraph and not dutiable under para- 
graph 272 as mats or rugs of straw having a warp of cotton. (Aicano 
V, United States, 6 Ct. Oust. Appls., 379, of 1915.) 

The provision for manufactures of chip in this paragraph is more 
specific than the provision for manufactures of w^ood in paragraph 
176 in the case of ropings made of wood, chip, and cotton, chip chief 
value. (United States v, Kronfield, 7 Ct. Cust. Appls., 93, of 1916.) 

Dyed straw is not straw^ in its '* natural state" within this para- 

fraph, and leaves and flowers for miUinery, made of straw which nave 
een dyed but the fibers of which have not been separated, are ex- 
cluded therefrom and classable under paragraph 347 as articles in 
chief value of artificial leaves and flowers. (United States v. Gage, 
8 Ct. Cust. Appls., 306, 378, of 1918.) 

Colored chip-straw milUnery ornaments, crudely resembling flowers 
and leaves, were held likewise dutiable. (United States v, Rosenthal- 
Sloan, 8 Ct. Cust. Appls., 380, of 1918.) 

But millinery ornaments consisting of strands of natural straw 
twisted together loosely and looped or tied, used as centerpieces in 
the crowns of straw hats, forming the starting points, are within this 
paragraph rather than paragraph 347. (Abstract 40979, of 1917.) 




36 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

Palm-leaf baskets (T. D. 36409, of 1916); baling Uvine consisting 
of two strands of grass, braided (Abstract 36906; T. D. 34933, of 
1914); India rubber bulbs used on pyrographic outfits (Abstract 
37299, of 1915); bottle covers and caps of palm leaf (Abstract 36970; 
T. D. 34969, of 1914); rubber-faced cloth used in making card cloth- 
ing (Abstract 38775, of 1916) ; rubber flower syringes (Abstract 37562, 
of 1915); and so-called paintings on straw mattings (T. D. 35163, of 
1915) have been held dutiable under this paragraph. 

The language of successive tariff acts show that Congress has 
regarded india rubber and hard rubber as different things for tariff 
purposes. Syringes, tubes, combs, and breast pumps, in chief value 
of hard rubber, are dutiable as ** manufactures of * * * vulcanized 
india rubber, known as 'hard rubber**' and not as '* manufactures of 
india rubber * * * commonly known as druggists' sundries." 
(Knauth v. United States, 8 Ct. Oust. Appls., 102, of 1917.) 

Whalebone strips, tied in bundles, assessed with duty under para- 
graph 343 of the act of 1909, were held free as whalebone unmanu- 
factured imder paragraph 710 of the act of 1909. (Abstract 32241; 
T. D. 33409, of 1913.) 

Chip roping in skeins or in the form of bells, consisting of shaving 
planed from wooden blocks and woven or bound together with 
cotton cords and then cut parallel to the cords, thus forming chip 
rope, was held properly classified as a manufacture of chip imder 
paragraph 368 and not as shavings of wood imder paragraph 176, 
nor as an unenumerated article under paragraph 385. (Aostracts 
43628 and 43863 of 1920.) ''In their natural state" in paragraph 
368 of the act of 1913 is broader than ''in their natural form and 
structure" in paragraph 463 of the act of 1909. Paragraph 368 
comprehends split straw, so long as the splitting has not resulted in 
a decortication of the fibers. Spht straw and chip material for the 
manufacture of millinery omanients, too crude for classification under 
paragraph 347, come within paragraph 368. (Isler v. United States, 
10 Ct. Cust. Appls., — ; T. D. 38339 of 1920; Abstract 43745 of 
1920.) 

Horn strips, undrilled, cut into uniform lengths, scraped smooth 
or polished, or with ends cut square, or with tne ends rounded off, 
are classified imder paragraph 368 and not under paragraph 511 of 
the act of 1913. (T. D. 38351 of 1920.) 

Dyed straw is not straw in its natural state within that expression 
in paragraph 368 of the act of 1913, and articles made of it are not 
dutiable thereunder. Judicial notice is taken that certain exhibits 
made of straw are dyed. (Johnson v. United States, 10 Ct. Cust. 
Appls., — ; T. D. 38333 of 1920.) 

Millmery ornaments in chief value of straw, but not in imitation of 
fruits, grains, leaves, flowers, and stems, come within paragraph 368 
when in chief value of undyed straw and within paragraph 385 as 
imenumerated manufactures when in chief value of dyed straw. 
(Cochran v. United States, 10 Ct. Cust. Appls., — ; T. D. 38336; 
T. D. 44017, of 1920.) 

Artificial leaves and flowers in chief value of straw were held 
dutiable at 25 per cent and those in chief value of chip at 20 per 
cent under paragraph 368 of the act of 1913. (Abstract 44021 of 
1920.) 



IVORY, MOTHER-OF-PEARL, SHELL AND HORN, AND 

MANUFACTURES OF, ETC. 



General Information. 
1913 tariff paragraphs. 

Par. 369. Ivory tusks in their natural state, or cut vertically 
across the grain only, with the bark left intact, 20 per cent ad valorem; 
manufactures of ivory or vegetable ivory, or of which either of these 
substances is the component material of chief value, not specially 
provided for in this section, 35 per cent ad valorem; manufactures 
of mother-of-pearl and shell, plaster of Paris, papier-m4ch6, and 
vulcanized inaia rubber known as ^'hard rubber, or of which these 
substances or any of them is the component material of chief value, 
not specially provided for in this section, 25 per cent ad valorem; 
shells engraved, cut, ornamented, or otherwise manufactured, 25 
per cent ad valorem. 

Par. 368. Manufactures of bone, * * * horn * * * not 
specially provided for in this section * * * 20 per cent ad 
valorem; * * * combs composed wholly of horn or of horn and 
metal, 25 per cent ad valorem. 

Par. 511. Horns and parts of, including horn strips and tips, 
unmanufactured. Free. 

Par. 570. Pearl, mother of, and shells, not sawed, cut, flaked, 
polished, or otherwise manufactured, or advanced in value from the 
natural state. Free. 

Par. 628. Teeth, natural, or unmanufactured. Free. 

Manufactures of India rubber known as ''hard rubber." (See 
par. 368.) 

Manufactures of plaster of Paris. (See par. 74.) 

DESCRIPTION AND USES. 

Mother-of-pearl is the hard, pearly, internal layer of several kinds 
of shells, especially of pearl oysters, river mussels, and abalone shells. 
The shells are found in the greatest perfection on the coasts of Ceylon, 
in the Persian Gulf, and in the Australian seas. Fresh-water shells 
of the mollusk have been found in the Mississippi River and tribu- 
tary streams and to a small extent in other American rivers. It is 
used largely in the arts, particularly for inlaid work in toys, knife, 
opera glass, and other handles, and very largely for buttons. Other 
snell employed for various purposes include snail, starfish, and tor- 
toise shell. The last is used extensively for combs, hairpins, and 
similar hair ornaments; in inlay work; for ornamental boxes and 
other ornamental purposes. 

37 



38 TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

Horn and horn strips and tips are used chiefly for making combs 
and hair ornaments, Knife handles, and various novelties such as 
napkin rings. Natural teeth of animals are not in demand com- 
mercially except for ornamental purposeis. The teeth of some 
animals were formerly used in dentistry, but artificial teeth are now 
entirely used. 

Ivory tusks are mainly those of the African elephant, these con- 
stituting the best part oi commercial ivory. Other sources are the 
tusks 01 fossil elephants found in Russia, Siberia, and Alaska* and 
the teeth of the narwhal, walrus, and hippopotamus. These latter 
are inferior to elephant tusks, which are considered true ivory. 
Manufactures of ivory include numerous articles useful and orna- 
mental, such as toilet articles, statuettes, and piano keys, the demand 
for the last being so great that imitation products must be drawn 
upon to meet requirements. Vegetable ivory manufactures consist of 
handles of umbrellas, toilet articles, small trinkets, etc. Buttons, 
the chief manufacture of this material as well as of mother-of-pearl 
and shell, are specially provided for and therefore do not come 
within the provisions oi this paragraph. 

Papier-m&ch6 is a tough, plastic substance made from paper pulp 
mixed with glue, paste, oil, resin, or other sizing. It is used m boxes, 
trays, and similar articles, and is also employed in interior decora- 
tions of houses, for cornices, ceilings, etc. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCTION. 

Production data are not completely available. The domestic 
output of horn and horn strips comes from the packing plants. Those 
sold to the button makers are assorted into three grades, known 
commercially as Nos. 1, 2, and 3, ranging from $260 to $125 per ton. 
Practically all domestic moth"fer-of-pearT and shell is derived from 
the mussels of the Mississippi River and its tributaries. A survey 
by the Bureau of Fisheries mdicates that the production varies from 
40,000 to 60,000 tons per year, with a value of between $800,000 
and $1,000,000. About 1,000 persons are engaged in the domestic 
pearl fishery. 

Unspecified manufactures of ivory, mother-of-pearl, shell, horn, 
and bone are grouped by the Census of Manufactures imder the 
classification "Ivory, shefl, and bone work," with total production 
for 1914 of $1,896,000. This, however, does not completely cover 
production of this industry, as such articles as combs, nairpins, and 
piano keys are not included. Separate data are given for combs 
and hairpins not made from metal or rubber, which, however, include 
products made from fiber and celluloid. The total production in 
1914 was $5,478,000. With reference to this classification, it was 
stated in the 1913 tariff hearings by a manufacturer that horn combs 
composed only about $500,000 of a total of $8,275,932 in 1910. The 
horn combs generally sell at low prices, the majority at 5 and 10 
cents, and thus probably constitute the smallest portion of the value 
under the classification. The combs, hairpins, and various other 
ornaments which are made of bone, ivory, and tortoise shell are more 
expensive than the horn combs, and it may be assumed that their 
value forms a very large portion of the total shown. In addition 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 39 

to the value shown for these two groups, ivory, shell, and bonework 
to the value of $250,608 was reported oy estaolishments assigned to 
other classifications. 

ORGANIZATION. 

In 1914 there were 54 establishments classified as manufacturers 
of ivory, shell, and bone work, and 66 establishments as manufac- 
turers of combs and hairpins, not made from metal or rubber. The 
former ^oup employed 795 wage earners with wages of $391,000 
and capitalization of $1,160,000; the latter, 2,773 wage earners, 
with total wage of $1,393,000 and capitalization of $2,959,000. 
New York and Massachusetts are the leading States under each 
classification. 

EXPORTS. 

Exports of shells in 1919 amounted to $574,575, chiefly to United 
Kingdom, Canada, and France. Germany, a large buyer of American 
shel& prior to the war, in 1919 imported $22,752 worth. Exports 
of ivory are not shown subsequent to 1917. In that year they 
amounted, including manufactures and scrap, to $175,458, most of 
which was sent to Canada. Bone manufacturers are not separately 
shown after 1917., The exports in that year were $103,477, the 
highest. 

IMPORTS. 

Mother-of-pearl and shell are imported chiefly from Australia, 
French Oceania, and the Straits Settlements. Shipments of con- 
siderable value are also made from the Philippines. In 1920 the value 
of mother-of-pearl importations was $2,460,677; of shells not sawed, 
cut, or otherwise manufactured, $272,663. The value of shells 
advanced in value is not large, averaging between 1908 and 1918 
about $39,000. The value in 1919 was lowest ($4,504). Manufac- 
tures of shell and mother-of-pearl are principally from England, 
France, and Japan. In 1920 tneir value was $47,560. 

Tusks are imported chiefly from England, Belgian Congo, and 
Egypt. In 1920 imports for consumption amounted to $2,184,164. 
^ Manufactures of ivory are chiefly from TEngland, France, and Japan, as 
are also manufactures of bone and horn, including combs. The manu- 
factures of ivory are chiefly of true ivory, very fittle of the imports 
being manufactures of vegetable ivory. Formerly Scotland was a 
very large exporter of horn and bone products to the United States, 
but in recent years the amoimt has decreased and the majority of 
exports from the United Kingdom are from England. The imports 
of ivory manufactures in 1920 was $140,314; of bone and horn prod- 
ucts, $198,595, of which $73,262 was combs. 

TARIFF HISTORY. 

Under the tariff act of 1883 manufactures of bone, horn, ivory, 
or vegetable ivory, not specially enumerated or provided for, were 
dutiable at 30 per cent ad valorem; shells, whole or parts of, manu- 
factured of every description, n. s. p. f., at 25 per cent ad valorem. 
The act of 1890 increased both these duties to 40 per cent ad valorem. 
This act included mother-of-pearl in this group, but eliminated manu- 



40 TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

aeiures of bone and horn. The duty was reduced to 35 per cent by 
the act of 1894 and remained the same imder the acts of 1897 and 
1909. At present manufactures of ivorv and vegetable ivorv are 
dutiable at 35 per cent; manufactures of mother-of-pearl, shell, and 
papder-m&ch6, at 25 per cent; and shells, engraved, cut, ornamented, 
or otherwise manufactured, at 25 per cent. 

Papic^mAchfi was dutiable at 35 per cent under the act of 1890 ; 
at SO per cent under that of 1894; 35 per cent imder that of 1897 and 
1909. 

The duty on manufactures of bone and horn remained at 30 per 
e«al undw the act of 1890; was reduced to 25 per cent in 1894; 
a^^ placed at 30 per cent in 1897, and increased to 35 per cent 
under the act of 1909. It is now dutiable at 20 per cent. 

Ootmbs were not specifically mentioned in the acts between that 
ol 1$$3 and 1909. All combs were dutiable by the act of 1883 at 
SO per cent. In 1909 the duty on combs composed of horn or horn 
and metal was placed at 50 per cent. It is now 25 per cent. 

Unmanufactured mother-of-pearl, shell, ivory, and Tegetable 
iYory. hoims and parts of. ana unmanufactured teeth, have been 
free." 

coMPKTrrrrE cx>xi>inoxs. 

Imports are mostly of raw materials which do not enter into com- 
peutu>n with domt^tic pro<.luots. Shells and mother-of-pearl im- 
pv>rt^t are s;ilt'Water shells chiefly, differing in quality from the 
dvxmtstic frv^-water shells. The only manufactures which appear 
lv> orf^ serivHis competition are those of horn and bone, especially 
hv>nx combs. 

lu a brief tilevl bv American manufacturers in 1913 it is stated that 
ljJS.>r costs iu Kurv>p^ were less than one-third of American wages^ 
this appiyii>^ particularly to Sv\>tland. whose competitioa was most 
sertvHislv fcUx that the work was done chieflr bv women and children. 
auvl that Autericau machinery was ii\ use. which tended to still fur- 
th<^r rt^luv.^ the labor cv>st.^ \>ur cettsus reports for 191-1 show that 
this wv>rfe is dvxtxe here mv>stly by men. 74.4 per cent of the wage 
e^tu^rs beiu^ male. The Corei^ uxaiiatactorers also have an advan- 
tage it^ the t>!^w luatcrtat the practice in this country of dehorning 
catuo mat5^u>^ it uev^^ssarv for domestic manufacturers to import 
hvH*us tv> a Uv>;e extcut. fhe twluction of duty in 19 13 was followed 
by a tcm^HHav> iucivaso itt the amouut of imports, the total for 1914 
bv^iit^ the uigluv^t t\^ch<\t The uici\*dse did uot continue, the values 
tor ;ac tvulowui^ vchih Khii^ less than those for the years prior to 
l^l 4. Chu-i dvviVH>^o uvHv hifcvc b«.vu due to war coaditioos. but there 
was iK^ luctv^HSv^ wiih the dose of the war. the tpcals for 1915 and 1919 
Wt'^i^ votv much lo\^ev ihan the avem^^r^*. bVr l'J20 the unports are 
tho hl^hvvit xUKV t^>l k. all hv»u^;h tK>t as a;v^h as before UH4. Scotland 
for«KHH\ ^as I ho itu^i >tvH'tvHLs. t^vntpeUlor, but imports truni there are 
ib>w \oi> sduall, ^hde tlK^>te fvvuu IstJ^v-latul alsv* htive decreased slightly. 
Jaf^Hiu, ho^e^vH\ lit e\{viiii»K ^uue viuatuuves lo us. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



41 



TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS. 

Vegetable ivory in its natural state is not specifically provided for 
in the present tariff. It is admitted free tinder paragraph 552 as 
^* vegetable substances, crude or unmanufactured, not otherwise spe- 
cially provided for." The imports of this material are large enough 
to be specifically provided for in the free list. 

Galliiith might be added to the articles enumerated in paragraph 
369. It is a plastic substance, similar in appearance to pyroxyhn, 
but different in composition. It is used for much the same purposes 
as ivory or mother-oi-pearl, such as buttons, beads, umbrella and cane 
handles, cigar and cigarette holders, necklaces, watch fobs, sautoirs, 
etc. ^ 



DOMESTIC PRODUCTION. 

Combs and hairpins^ not made from metal or rubber. 
[Census of Manufactures, 1914.] 



Year. 


Num- 
ber of 
estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Wage 

earners. 


Capital. 


Wages. 


Value of 
products. 


1914 


66 
81 
42 


2,773 
4,555 
1,806 
1,399 


$2,959,000 

5,070,000 

1,112,000 

833,000 


11,393,000 

2,166,000 

758,000 

572,000 


$5,478,000 


1909 


8,376,000 


1904 


2,769,000 


1899 


34 


1,976,000 



Ivory J shelly and boneworh^ not mduding combs and hairpins. 
[From Census of Manufactures, 1914.] 



Year. 



1914 
1909 
1904 

1899 



Num- 
ber of 
estab- 
lish- 
ments. 

54 
52 
66 
70 


Wage 
earners. 


Capital. 

$1,160,000 

1,159,000 

1,269,000 

940,000 


• 

Wages. 


795 

907 

1,769 

1,334 


$391,000 
466,000 
777,000 
529,000 



Value of 
products. 



$1,896,000 
1,865,000 
2,864,000 
1,873,000 



The products of establishments under the classification ivory, shell, 
and bonework include a wide variety of articles for use or ornament. 
In addition to the products covered by the two tables, ivory, shell, 
arid bone work to the value of $250,608 was reported by establish- 
ments assigned to other classifications. The table for combs and 
hairpins includes products made from fiber and celluloid in addition 
to tnose made from bone, ivory, shell, and horn. The figures for 
1909 include data for a number of establishments which were included 
under ivory, shell, and bonework in 1904, the decrease between 1904 
and 1909 in the second table is, therefore, only apparent. With this 
exception the figures in the second table may be properlv considered 
comparable for the different years, but for the first table they are 
not, owing to various changes of classification. 



42 



TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Imperii by countries, 

SHELLS, AND MANUFACTURES OF. 

UmfANUFACTUKED—MOTHEB-OF-PBABL. 
FISCAL TSABS. 



Imported from- 



Austria-Hungary. 

France 

Qermany 

Ital! 



the 



Netherlands 

England 

Mexico 

Straits Settlements. 
Dutch East Indies. 

Australia 

French Oceania.... 

PhiUpplnes 

)ther 



AUot 



Total. 



1913 



H«04 

43,417 

6,244 



23,075 

635,014 

1,432 



48,064 

348L187 

I0[l80 

1,480 

H236 



1914 



$15,613 

1,207 

1,586 

29,728 

800,331 

1,795 

3,952 

9,137 

246,549 

12^968 

12,897 

8^132 



1, 135^952 1,234^025 



1915 



$17 

54,001 

3,289 

11,976 

46,203 

729,812 

5,314 



2,480 

102,099 

5,594 

6,860 

19,462 



987,107 



1916 



$19,292 



64^485 

3,185 

957,805 

17,687 

35,021 

135,163 

478,383 

45,046 

38,845 

75,850 



1917 



$3,175 
'32,835* 



434,510 

1,492 

^08,698 

97,678 

1,183,680 

182,092 

111,334 

82,477 



1, 872, 762 1 2, 237, 971 



1918 



$11,227 



82,117 

8,425 

158,322 

75,354 

1,278,080 

115,786 



^^,m 



522 



1, 976, 746 



CALBNDAB YEARS. 



Imported from— 



England 

Mexico 

Straits Settlements. 
Dutch East Indies. 

Australia 

French Oceania 

PhUippines 

Another 



Total, 



1918 
(value). 



$22,985 



106,108 
77,393 
1,062,388 
128^644 
102^272 
218,030 



1919 



Pounds. 



1,077,007 

770 

75,277 

206,634 

1,505,591 

1,340^877 

236,640 

1,330,181 



1,717,820 5,772,977 



$444 409 

60 

34^338 

86,390 

588,041 

273,514 

71,495 

171,657 



Value. 



1920 



Pounds. 



Value. 



1,669,904 7,629,951 



$2; 460^ 677 



Unmanutactubed (All Otheb). 

FISCAL tears. 



Imponed Dram— 



1913 



Austria-Hungary $82 

France 29,400 

Germany 28,639 

Italy 4,224 

Netherlands 4,936 

Eusland 500,377 

Panama 23,389 

Mexico 4,799 

Straits Sect Jemenis 33,170 

Dutch East Indies 19,545 

PhiLppiuc Islands 43,040 

AUoiher 59.S56 

Total 751,457 



1914 



$11,636 

28,437 

50,121 

1,608 

5,131 

401,044 

1,869 

6,957 

29,279 

3,57S 

29,043 

20,157 



1915 



$4,790 
19,995 



6,003 

203,935 

9,143 

26,956 

9,497 

"*36*2SS" 
28,959 



1916 



1917 



1918 



$S30 
472 
11,499 
10,897 
78,110 
40,860 
4,835 
26,635 
27,240 
69,194 
86,508 



$225 



44,227 
49,461 

2,938 
21,300 

3,258 
^833 
50,387 



$5 



12,995 
45,403 

1,808 
14,290 

4,577 
23,790 



5SS,S60 341,566 357,080 197,639 



SS0,8S4 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



48 



Imports by countries — Continued. 

SHELLS AND MANUFACTURES OF—Continued. 

Unmanitfactubbd (All Other)— Continued. 

CALENDAR TEABS. 



Imported f roTn-~ 


1918 


1919 


1920 


Founds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


France ..^.. 


$29 


391 

176 

91,127 

65,300 

154,661 

23,164 

60,715 

413,307 

1,386,980 


$270 

232 

47,387 

93,050 

7,214 

8,018 

5,093 

30,413 

302,851 






Italy !."!;.'!;;!;!.'.*.*.'.'.*.*;;;.";;!;?rt;; 






En^and 


9,279 
55,044 

5,747 
18,276 






PapRma. X X ........... . 






Mexico 






Straits Settlements 






Dutch East Indies 






Philippine Islands 


34,300 
188,071 






All other '.'.... 












Total 


310,746 


2, 195, 821 


494,528 


1,020,839 


$272, 66a 







Manupactuees op. 

FISCAL TEABS. 



Imported from— 



Austria-Hungary . 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

England 

Japan 

Turkey in Asia. . . 
All other 



1913 



$1,475 
13,367 
15,603 

9,637 
52,929 

2,285 
17,388 

6,140 



Total. 



118,724 



1914 



$3,065 
21,253 
20,710 

7,152 
53,496 

1,154 
16,290 

4,284 



127,404 



1915 



$259 

11,016 

16,507 

7,375 

36,562 

1,520 

2,871 

5,677 



81,787 



1916 



$49 
4,713 
2,604 
1,545 
7,588 
3,074 

194 
1,197 



20,964 



1917 



$7,222 

231 

2,771 

6,930 

3,001 



2,175 



22,330 



1918 



$2,974 



5,278 

925 

7,308 



17,769 



CALENDAR YEARS. 



Imported from— 


1918 


1919 


1920 


Austria-Huneary 




$2,008 
8,356 

742 
1,147 
2,341 

736 
3,673 




France 


$1,188 

475 

2,948 

114 

787 




Italy 




England 




Japan [ . ] . ] . . 




Turkey in Asia 




All other 








Total 


5,549 


19,003 


$55,067 





IVORY AND MANUFACTURES OF. 

Tusks in Their Natural State. 

fiscal tears. 



Imported from— 


1913 


1914 


1915 


Pounds. 


Value. 

$817,537 

141,005 

40 

84 

554,493 

119 

26,957 

13,838 

131,889 

135,396 


Pounds. 

201,361 
26,803 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Valufe. 


Belgium 


311,604 

42,947 

14 

28 

232,378 

292 

8,922 

27,286 

44,449 

54,267 


$537,277 
113,385 




Germany 


24,665 


$112,479 


Italy ;;......;; 


Norway 










TCnglftTid , . . . . X 


156,216 

2,159 

5,447 

11,585 

24,596 

46,620 

5,346 

100 


445,709 

785 

19,013 

3,937 

75,713 

132,058 

12,661 

106 


117,326 


337.411 


Canada 




Aden 






Russia in Asia 


57,560 

6,204 

33,737 

29,320 

2,373 


44,706 
19,815 
87,248 
60,158 
7,362 


British East Africa 


Egypt 


Belgian Congo 


Allother..." 














Total 


722,187 


1,821,358 


480,233 


1,340,644 


271,185 1.669.179 









44 



TARIFF INFOBMATION SUBVEYS. 



ImporU by countries — Continued. 

IVORY AND MANUFACTURES OF— Continued. 

Tusks in Theib Natubal State— Continued. 

FISCAL TEARS— continued. 



« 

1916 

Imported from— j - - , 

Pounds. . Value. 

i 1 


1917 


1918 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


«- III 1 11 

Belgium _ ' _ ' 


60,719 


$137, 503 


• 




Germany 1,978 S3,759 






Englancf 4351988 947)656 

Canada 49,331 83,892 

Aden 6,493 ' 19,009 


350,034 
159,568 


769,250 
291,455 


165,008 
66,649 


1381,480 
130,984 


RussiainAsla ' 6.713 1,422 


6,513 

87,074 

660 

2,332 


1,405 

187,793 

1,450 


15,155 

12,655 

5.188 


3,852 


Egypt 110,635 225,887 

Beljnan Congo 


26,596 
7,978 


AUother 3,948 | 8,047 


3,848 45,999 


80,539 


Total 615,086 1,289,672 


666,900 


1,392,704 310,654 


631,429 



CALENDAR YEARS. 



Imi)orted from — 


19 
Pounds. 


18 

Value. 


1919 


1920 


1 
Pounds. ' 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


i 
Belrf'in* , . - ^ T J 




31,596 

190,373 

8,466 

1,402 

25,992 

45,014 

3,119 


$128,612 

494,590 

23,497 

425 

61,051 

73,757 

4,399 






E ngland : . . . 


180,795 
29,063 
10,338 
15,993 
19,275 
51,769 


1425,207 
61,776 
2,615 
34,240 
27,703 
87,982 






Canada 






Russia in Asia 






Egypt 






BftfpflftTI HopKO ..,.,.. , 






All other 












Total 


297,241 


619,523 


305,962 1 


786,331 


667,525 


$2,360,916 





Manufactures of.i 



FISCAL YEARS. 



ImiK>rted from — 



Austria-Hungary . 

France 

Germany 

En^and 

Scotland 

China 

British India 

Hongkong 

Japan 

AUother 

Total 



I 1 

i 1913 1914 


1915 1916 


1917 


1918 


$249 $764 


$382 $142 
4,529 ; 2,701 
8,012 2,120 
7,674 8,385 

223 . 86 
1,987 1,385 

217 






6,442 5,418 
5,856 5,783 


$2,486 


$2,854 


3,957 i 12,491 
171 


10,737 

49 

3,106 


10,410 


3,130 3,062 
372 , 1,190 


1,786 
25 


1,275 1 1,705 

10,877 I 20,155 

1,698 1,675 


836 808 
8,695 12,235 
2,138 1,377 


2,025 

14,732 

2,441 


1,882 

17,187 

652 


33,856 ; 52,414 

1 


34,693 29,239 


35,576 


34,796 



Not separately shown after 191$. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



45 



Imports hy countries — Continued. 

IVORY AND MANUFACTURES OF— Continued. 

Vegetable Ivory (Taqua Nuts). 

fiscal years. 



Imported from— 



France. . . 
Germany. 

Italy 

England. 
Panama.. 
Brazil. . . . 
Colombia. 
Ecuador.. 

Peru 

Australia. 
Egypt — 
AUother. 



Total. 



Imported from— 



Germaiw.. 
England. . 
Panama... 
Argentina. 

BrazU 

Colombia.. 
Ecuador.. 

Peru 

Australia.. 

Another. . 



Total. 



1913 



Pounds. 




270,919 

93,964 

137, 122 

6,033,775 



4,228,743 
16,817,404 
479, 475 
134,536 
715, 107 
295, 233 



$6,203 

2,377 

2,820 

228,954 



1914 



Pounds. 



183,447 

487,400 

18,645 

5,783 

11,216 

30,681 



21, 

1,428, 

56, 

371, 

5,209, 

4, 

7,917, 

10,413, 

634, 

165, 

869, 

73, 



056 
237 
000 
105 
774 
365 
433 
539 
180 
855 
102 
400 



Value. 



$479 

53,351 

1,156 

8,159 

187,373 

64 

283,544 

304,605 

16,419 

6,087 

19,000 

5,117 



29, 206, 278 977, 525 27, 135, 046 



881,364 



1915 



Pounds. 



44,440 

205,023 

250 

79,375 

3,888,226 

149,578 

8,894,550 

6,828,300 

598,242 



277,034 
94,728 



21,059,746 



Value. 



$1,010 

3,969 

6 

1,934 

76,690 

3,306 

242,998 

160,399 

6,708 



10,439 
3,219 



510,677 



1916 



Pounds. 



800 

94,628 

6,759,275 



29,970 

11,119,019 

13,008,824 

1,420,451 

366,780 

97,330 

45,038 



Value. 



$21 

2,808 

145,272 



533 

335,545 

312,067 

31,647 

10,189 

1,540 

842 



1917 



Pounds. 



Value. 



10,027,657 

393,600 

180,777 

14,423,369 

26,449,246 

904,362 

2,637 



$272,325 

7,197 

3,272 

4W,806 

618,031 

26,460 

61 



318,071 



2,961 



1918 



Pounds. 



8,120,895 



745,340 

9,206,278 

22,636,940 

675,580 



1,487,985 



32,942,116 840,464 51,699,719 , 1,427,780 | 42,873,018 



Value. 



$225, 152 



17,639 
317,387 
642,691 

20,149 



32,701 



1,255,719 



CALENDAR YEARS. 



Imported from— 



England . 
Panama.. 
Brazil.... 
Colombia. 
Ecuador. 

Peru 

Australia. 

AU otbiin:. 



Total. 



1918 



Pounds. 



6,645,275 

736,631 

10,782,517, 

21,036,411 

676,559 



1,365,706 



Value. 



$197,832 

15,513 

386,720 

670,006 

17,919 



35,504 



1919 



41,142,099 ! 1,323,494 



Pounds. 



44,800 

3,695,050 

117 

5,534,369 

21,994,241 

298,338 

22,400 

136,893 

52,882 



Value. 



$3,893 

110,885 

12 

264,828 

782,137 

10,180 

876 

6,696 

2,573 



1920 



Pounds. Value. 



31,779,090 I 1,172,080 



49,960,478 



$2,550,697 



TABIFF INFORMATION STJKVETS. 
Importi by counttiei — Continued. 

BONE AND BORN, UANUFACTDREB Of (INCLUDES COUBB>-CoDtinued. 



Import^ ttom- 


ISU 


1914 


191S 


19M 


1917 


1918 


Au«rla-Him«rv 


II 

■ Ziia 


^;72g 

"i 

5,247 

2;m 


13^064 

9;^ 
21 I7B 

"■^ 
174 

5,720 
i;2M 










144,508 
3 030 

:s 


147,333 










1,822 
1G,1H 






































192,980 


238,839 


131,183 


101,622 


99,578 






' 



Imported rrom- 


ms 


191. 


1». 




til, 303 


118,058 
242 

slisi 




















"'St 

J 






























s»,3ae 


80,187 


iaoa,i»7i 





Imports for coTisumplion. 

SHELLS, NOT SAWED, CUT, FLAKED, POLISHED, OR OTHERWISE MANUrACTUItED. 

MOTHtR or Pbibi.. 



1 

I Rate ol dut;. 

1 


1 
1 


Duty 


qaaotlty. 


■dnOornn 


Fisalyear: 


PotHUll. 1 






Pttcat. 


































1913 ' do 


































CBlendatiear: ^ ; I 1 741 861 ' 




!^:::-:::::::!:::::3S:--::::::::: 


'7'Vi-W,' kZ^^ 




I0.2S9 





TABIFP INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



47 



Im'poTUfor consumption — Continued. 

SHELLS, NOT SAWED, COT, FLAKED, POLISHED, OR OTHERWISE MANUFACTURED— 

Continued. 

All Otheb. 



Fiscal year: 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 



Rate o! duty. 



Free.. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

.....do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Quantity. 



Poundi. 



2,195.821 
1,020,839 



Value. 



1301, 
417, 
388, 
633, 
5S9, 
732, 
672, 
303, 
350, 
202, 
227, 



902 
461 
831 
826 
786 
812 
423 
401 
567 
101 
018 



286,900 
494,528 
272,663 



Duty 
collected. 



S225 
267 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Actual and 

computed 

adyalorem 

rate. 



Percent. 



SHELLS. 
Engbayed, Cut, Obnamenteo, ob Othebwise Advanced. 

UNDEB OENEBAL TABIFF. 



Fiscal yean 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 



35 1)^ cent. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

25 per cent. 

do 

do 

do 

do , 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



$80,421 
68,324 
52,450 
49,728 
69,977 
64,840 
10,155 
28,744 
30,461 
6,938 
11,286 
12,468 

2,991 
0,990 
7,480 



S28,147 

29,913 

'18,357 

17,40i 

20,992 

19,194 

3,564 

7,186 

7,615 

1,734 

2,821 

3,117 

748 

997 

1,872 



35 
35 
35 
36 
35 
35 
35 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 

25 
25 
25 



rBOM PHILIPPINES. 



Fiscal year: 
1906 



1900. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 
1915. 
1916. 
1917. 
1918. 



75 per cent of 35 
percent. 

do 

Free 

do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Calendaryean i 

1918 ' do. 

1919 do. 

1920 i do. 



•17 

9 

245 

50 

47 

100 

88 

75 

9 

380 

251 

83 

514 

1,932 



>4 
2 



26. 2r» 



TABIFF INFORMATION SUBYETS. 
ImporU/or eoniwnption — Continued. 





Bated dot;. 


QouiHty. 


Vain*. 


ja. 


quantity. 


nit«. 


^'-^'^ 




70*; 70S 
22S;il3 

S;!S 

615,645 


11 




3.70 
2.61 
3.M 

2.54 
2.4S 

II 

liw 

2.01 
3:54 


Per out. 












































11 

aim 

1721 402 
430,832 






'.V.V.io'.V.'.'.'.'.V.V. 

ilo 

do 

do 




iv;;;;;;;;: 


20 
20 

20 

20 

20 
20 



MANCFACTOBES OF IVOBY AND VEGETABLE IVORY. N. B. P. F, 

tJHDEB OeNEBAL TAIUFF. 



ST";.. 



Fbok FHiuinm TauHDa. 



Fb^oa. 


"4r °* 




111 

10 


»2B 
29 









































































Fsou CnBi (Rbcipbocitt Tbeatt, Dec 27, 1903). 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 
Importt/ar cowumpftwi— Continued. 

VEGETABLE IVORY (TAOUA NUTB). 





Rateoldulj'. 


Quantltr. 


Value. 


„£&. 


quantUy. 


rats. 


Fi^al^can 




08 

4S 
49 
65 






:cBi 


fffCflK. 






1 


i 

i 

4B4 
















:::::3S:::::::::::: 




















t 


































Calendar ^i^ 


^ 








do 

























TEETH, NATURAL AND UNMANUFACTURED. 



Fi™^»: 






1 
,1^ 





































































































































































PAPIER-MACHfi— MANUFACTURES OP, 



"~a" 








7.. 












1 

1 

3 


834 
WO 

1 
1 

(B4 










































































































Calendaryean 












do 




a:i«s 




*"" 






^'^I 


as 



D HORN, MANUFACTURES OF, N. B. P. F. 
Undek Oehbkal TABirr. 



Fi^lgoan 




1 




%T> 


■m 




30 








SS4 


i 

2: 


IBS 
ISO 

i 
























































91 











TABIFF INFORMATION SUBVETS. 



61 



Imports for consumption — Continued. 

BONE AND HORN, MANUFACTURES OF, N. 8. P. F.— CJontinued. 
Undeb Obnbbai. TABirr— Continued. 



Fiscal year— Con. 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 



Rate of duty. 



20 per cent. 

do 

do 

do 

do 



.do- 
.do. 
.do. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Duty 
collected. 



81,668 
63,463 
59,846 
79,734 
74,992 

46,703 

51,291 

125,333 



16,331 
12,692 
11,969 
15,946 
14,962 

9,341 
10,258 
25,066 



Vahieper 

unit of 
quantity. 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Per cent. 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 

20 
20 
20 





Fbom PnnjppiNB Islands. 








Ksealyear: 

1908 


75 per cent of 30 
do 




$12 

16 

31 

39 

27 

3 

8 

9 

4 

9 
1,111 


$2 
3 




22.50 


1909 






22.50 


1910 


Free 








1911 


do 










1912 


do 










1913 












1914 












1917 


do 










1918 


do 










Calendar yean 
1918 












1919 


do 






1 










1 



Fkom Cuba (becipbocity treaty. Dec. 27, 1903). 



Fiscal year: 
1909.... 
1911.... 
1913.... 



30 per cent less 20. 
35 per cent less 20. 
do 



13 

2 

56 



15 



28 



COMBS, COMPOSED WHOLLY OF HORN OR HORN AND METAL. 

Under General Tabifp. 



Fiscal year: 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918.; 

1919 

1920 , 



50 per cent . 

do , 

do 

do 

do 

25 per cent. 

do 

....do 

do 

do 



$58,111 
103,510 
86,848 
93,681 
14,919 
112,218 
70,009 
41,914 
20,296 
12,375 

12, 136 

8,874 

73.262 



$29,055 

51,755 

43,424 

46,840 

7,459 

28,054 

17,502 

10,478 

5,074 

3,093 

3,034 

2,218 

18,315 



From PHnjppiNE Islands (act of Mab. 3, 1905). 



50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 

25 
25 
25 



Fiscal yean 
1910...., 




$3 



Fbom Cuba (BECiPRoaxY tbeaty, Dec. 27, 1903). 



Fiscal year: 

mo...., 



50 per cent less 20 
per cent. 



$10 



$4 



62 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Domestic exports. 

SHELLS. 
Fiscal Yeabs. 



Exported to— 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


France 


$14,231 
46,118 
6,484 
59,705 
29,712 
570 
19,315 


$17,706 
49,245 

7,273 
49,179 
23,315 

1,584 
16,207 


$2,299 

4,683 

6,120 

41,505 

17,182 

590 

3,824 


$6,060 




$8,000 


Germany 




Italy 


17,513 
29,521 
38,722 
1,028 
22,895 


$18,230 

17,130 

65,922 

3,381 

3,719 


21,974 

43,289 

81,260 

11 


TTnitfid TTiiig^OTTl 


Canada T 


British South AMca 


Allothw 


10,591 




Total 


173,135 


164,559 


76,203 


117,739 


108,482 


165,125 





Calendab Years. 



Exported to— 


1918 


1919 


1920 


France 


$8,000 


$91,913 

22,752 

51,808 

225,093 

1(»,592 

3,113 

71,304 




Germany 




Italy 


12,008 
17,280 
61,967 




United Kingdom 




Canada 




British South Africa 




All other 


14,604 








Total 


113,859 


574,575 


$412,045 





IVORY, MANUFACTURES OF, AND SCRAP.* 

Fiscal Years. 



Exported to— 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


France 


$500 

23,290 

112 

26,518 

4,406 

94 

144 

985 


$925 
34,149 

1,205 
21,813 

2,707 








Germany 








Netherlands 








England 


$14,532 
2,279 


$4,911 

63,762 

3,281 

279 


$28,902 

136,131 

736 


Canada 


Mexico 


Cuba •. 




19 


576 


HongkonK 


1,529 




Philinnine Islands 


14 
95 


1,576 
730 


1,022 
8,091 


All other 


2,612 


852 




Total 


57,761 


63,180 


16,939 


74,539 


175,458 





■H. 



«t 



BONE AND MANUFACTURES OF.i 



Belgium... 

France 

Germany.. 
England... 

Canada 

Cuba 

Japan 

All other. . 

Total 



$6,356 

22,413 
594 

14,171 
4,207 
1,418 

23,786 
4,631 



77,576 



$2,147 
2,201 
1,024 

10,330 
2,375 
2,105 

24,141 
3,328 



47,651 



$18 



2,929 
1,173 
1,741 
23,847 
5,088 



34,796 



$9,859 



1,454 

6,259 

2,621 

26,931 

20,412 



67,536 



$7,030 



8,661 

35,058 

4,908 

7,586 

40,234 



103,477 



Not separately stated after 1917. 



TABIFF INFOBMATIOIT SURVEYS. 



53 



Rates of duty. 



Act of— 



1913... 




360 



1013... 

1913... 
1913... 



1913... 
1909... 



i 

\ 



1909.... 
1909.... 

1909.... 
1897..,. 

1909... 
1909... 

IviM. . . 

1909... 

1909... 
1894... 

1894... 

1894... 
1894... 

1894... 
1890... 

1890... 



368 

511 
570 



628 
464 



506 
463 

589 

692 
450 

584 

449 

577 

635 

680 
353 

354 

510 

613 
352 

511 
462 

460 



1890.... 


461 


1890.... 


618 


1890.... 


673 


1890.... 
1890.... 


701 
733 



Rates of duty, specific 
and ad valoram. 



Ivory tusks in their natural state, or cut yertically across the 
grain only, with the bark left intact, manufactures of ivory or 
vegetable ivory, or of whidi either of these substances is the 
component material of chief value, not specially provided for 
in this section, manufactures of mother-of-pearl and shell, 
plaster of Paris, papier-m&ch^. and vulcanized India rubber 
jmown as ''hard ruober," <»* or which these substances or any 
of them is the component material of chief value, not specially 
provided for in this section. 
Shells engraved, cut, wnamented, or otherwise manufac- 
tured. 

Manufactures of bone * * * horn * * * not specially 
provided for in this section. ♦ ♦ ♦ 
Combs composed wholly of horn or of horn and metal 

Horns and parts of, including horn strips and tips, unmanufao> 
tured. 

Pearl, mother-of, and shells, not sawed, cut, flaked, polished, or 
otherwise manufactured, or advanced in value from the natural 
state. 

Teeth, natural, ot unmanufactured 

Manufacturers of * ♦ ♦ ivory, vegetable ivory, mother-of- 
pearl and shell, plaster of Paris, papier m&ch6 * * * or of 
which these substances or any of them is the component ma- 
t^ial of chief value, not specially provided for in this section, 
and shells engraved, cut, omamenied, or otherwise manufac- 
tured. 

Ivory tusks in their natural state or cut vertically across the grain 
only, with the bark left intact, and vegetable ivory in its natural 
state. 

Manufacturers of bone ♦ * ♦ horn, * ♦ ♦ not specially 
provided for in this section. 
Combs, composed wholly of hcnn or composed of horn and 
metflJ. 

Horns and parts of, including horn strii>s and tips unmanufac- 
tured. 

Teeth, natural, or unmanufactured ^ 

Manufactures of * * ♦ ivory, vegetable ivory, mother-of-pearl 
and shell, plaster of Paris, papier mftch^, and '*' * * or of 
which these substances or either of them is the component ma- 
terial of (diief value, not specially provided for in this act, and 
shells engraved, cut, ornamented, or otherwise manufactured. 

Iygtv tusks in their natural state or cut vertically across the grain 
only, with the bark left intact, and vegetable ivory in its natural 
state. 

Manufactures of bone ♦ ♦ ♦ horn, * ♦ ♦ or of which these 
substances or either of them is the component material of chief 
value, not specially provided for. 

Horns and parts of, unmanufactured, including horn strips and 
tips. 

Pearl, mother-of, and shells, not sawed, cut, polished or otherwise 
manufactured, or advanced in value from the natural state. 

Teeth, natural, or unmanufactured 

Manufactures of * * * papier m&ch^ * * * not specially 
provided for. 

Manufacturesofivory, vegetable ivory, mother-of-pearl, * ♦ * 
and shell, or of which these substances or either of them is the 
component material of chief value, not specially provided for. 

Ivory, sawed or cut into logs, but not otherwise manufactured, 
and vegetable ivory. 

Shells of all kinds, not cut, ground, or otherwise manufactured. . 

Manufactures of bone, ♦ ♦ * nom. ♦ ♦ * or of which 
these substances or either of them is the component material 
of chief value, not specially provided for in this act. 

Horns, and parts of, unmanufactured, indluding horn strips 
and tips. 

Manufactures of ivory, vegetable ivory, mother-of-pearl, and 
shell, or of which these substances or either of them is the com- 
ponent material of chief value, not specially provided for in 
this act. 

Manufactures of bone. * * ♦ horn, ♦ ♦ ♦ or of which 
these substances or either of them is the component material of 
chief value, not specially provided for in this act. 

Manufactures of ♦ * * papier m&ch^ * * * not specially 
provided for. 

Ivory and vegetable ivory, not sawed, cut, or otherwise manu- 
factured. 

Pearl, mother-of, not sawed, cut, polished, or otherwise manu- 
factured. 

Shells of all kinds, not cut, ground, or otherwise manufactured. . . 

Teeth, natural, or unmanufactured 



20 per cent ad valorem. 
35 per cent ad valorenu 
25 i)er cent ad valorem. 



Do. 

20 per cent ad valorem. 

25 per cent ad valorem. 
Free. 

Do. 



Da 
35 per cent ad valorem. 



Free. 

35 per cent ad valorem. 

50 per cent ad valorem. 

Free. 

Do. 
35 per cent ad valorem. 



Free. 

30 per cent ad valorem. 

Free. 

Do. 

Do. 
30 per cent ad valorem. 

35 per cent ad valorem. 

Free. 

Do. 
25 percent ad valorem. 

Free. 

40 per cent ad valorem. 



30 POT cent ad valorem. 

35 per cent ad valorem* 

Free. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



54 



TARIFF INFOriMATION SURVEYS. 
Rates of duty — Oontmued. 



Act of— 




1883... 

1883.., 

1883... 
1883... 
1883... 
1883... 
1883... 



399 

486 

726 
756 
803 
I 780 
I 513 



Tariff classification or description. 



Bone, horn, ivory, or yegetable ivory, all manufactures of, not 
specially enumerated or provided for in tliis act. 

Shells, whole or parts of, manufactured, of every description, not 
specially enumerated or provided for in this act. 

Ivory, and vegetable ivory, unmanufactured 

Pearl , mother-of , 

Teeth, unmanufactured , 

Shells of every description, not manufactured 

Horns, and parts of horns, unmanufactured, and horn strips and 
tips. 



Rates of duty, specific 
and ad valorem. 



30 per cent ad valorem. 

25 per cent ad valorem. 

Free. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Court and Treasury Decisions, 

A box in chief value of wood, designed to contain an ivory toilet 
set, which was packed separately, was held dutiable with the toilet 
set as an entirety under the provision in paragraph 369 for manu- 
factures of ivory. (Abstract 36870, T. D. 34920, of 1914.) 

Heads of game animals , as cut from the carcass, are exempt from 
duty under paragraph 423, 511, or 604. (T. D. 34061, ot 1914.) 
Moose heads with sTcin attached are held not to be classable as an 
entirety, but the horns and parts of separately from the skin. (Ab- 
stract 23064, T. D. 30547, of 1910.) mk and moose horns attached to 
the skull, from which the flesh an(J skin have been removed, are within 
paragraph 511. (O. A. 5652, T. D. 25231, of 1904.) Sliced deerhorn, 
used as a medicine by the Chinese, is not within paragraph 511 but is 
dutiable as a medicinal preparation. (T. D. 36401, of 1916.) By 
reason of the change of its location in paragraph 589 of the act of 
1909 and in paragraph 511 the word 'unmanufactured" was held 
to qualify all the enumerations and not merely '* horns and parts of," 
as in prior tariff acts. Under this construction horn strips j polishedj 
with the ends rounded and drilled, are dutiable as manufactures of 
horn under paragraph 368. (T. D. 34535, of 1914.) 



o 



L 




.- - *>\ 




UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



ON THE ARTICLES IN 



PARAGRAPH 367 OF THE TARIFF ACT OF 1913 



AND RELATED ARTICLES IN OTHER PARAGRAPHS 



ASBESTOS 



Paragraph 367: Paragraph 406: 

Manufactures of. Unmanufaotured. 



REVISED EDITION 




WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

N 20 1921 






1 'i ;: :i 



JoHt C BeTHC 



Af*;>rTlOMAL COPIES 

AT 

', CKMTA PER COPY 



PREFACE. 



This is one of a series of TariflF Information Surveys prepared by 
the United States TariflF Commission and transmitted to the Com- 
mittee on Ways and Means. The series covers all of the articles and 
commodities provided for in the tariflF act of October 3, 1913, and 
others not specifically provided for. It is arranged in the numerical 
order of paragraphs of that act. 

In some cases two or more paragraphs have been combined in one 
pamphlet. In doing this industnal relationship of the articles has 
been followed when possible. In those instances where a paragraph 
has been treated unaer a preceding paragraph of the tariflTact refer- 
ence is made to this fact at the point where the paragjraph appears m 
numerical order. Where one grade of an article is dutiable and 
another grade of the same artide is on the free list, the article is 
discussed under the dutiable paragraph, which appears first in 
numerical order in the tariflF act. In certain instances articles of 
close industrial relationship and which occur in separate paragraphs 
of the tariflF act have been combined imder one paragraph for con- 
venience of discussion. Reference is made to this fact at the point 
where the commodities would naturally occur in numerical order. 

The first pamphlet in the series is an *' Introduction and index," 
which contams: 

1. An introductory chapter discussing the scope of the series and 
the general method of treatment. 

2. An alphabetical index of the articles provided for in the tariflF 
act of 1913, showing the paragraph of the act in which the article is 
provided for and, if discussed under a diflFerent paragraph, the 
number of such paragraph. 

3. A Ust of the pamphlets in the series, showing the paragraphs 
and articles included in each pamphlet. 

Thus by use of this ''Introduction and index" the exact location 
of the discussion relating to a given article or commodity can be 
ascertained. 

In the preparation of this report the TariflF Commission had the 
services of Paul M. Tyler and Henry J. Bierman of the Metals Divi- 
sion of the Commission's staflF, and of others. 

3 



CONTENTS, 



ASBESTOS. UNMANUFACTURED. p^^^^ 

Summary 9 

Summary table 9 

General information: 

Tariff paragraph, act of 1913 10 

Description — 

Uses 10 

Market grades 10 

Domestic production — 

Equipment and organization 10 

GeoCTaphical distribution ~ 11 

Methods of production 12 

History 14 

Domestic production and consumption 14 

Domestic exports 14 

Foreign production — 

Canada 15 

Russia 16 

Southern Africa 16 

Imports 17 

Prices 17 

Tariff history 18 

Competitive conditions 18 

Statistical material: 

Production in the United States 19 

Production in principal foreign countries 19-20 

Imports by countries 20 

Imports for consumption \ 21 

Domestic exports : 21-22 

Prices — 

Canada 22 

New York 22 

Court and Treasury decisions 22 

Rates of duty 23 

MANUFACTURES OF ASBESTOS. 

General summary 24 

General summary table 25 

Imports by countries 26 

Imports for consumption 26 

Domestic exports 27 

Asbestos Textiles. 

Summary table .^ 27 

General information: 

Tariff act of 1913 28 

Description and uses — 

Importance of asbestos textiles 28 

Domestic production — 

Materials 2^ 

Equipment 30 

Methods of production 30 

Organization 30 

Geographical distribution 31 

Domestic production and consumption 31 

Domestic exports 31 

5 



6 CONTENTS. 

General information — Continued. Page- 
Foreign production 31 

Imports 32 

Prices 33 

Tariff history 33 

Competitive conditions 33 

Imports for consumption — Revenue 35 

Market prices 36 

Rates of duty 37 

Court and Treasury decisions 37 

Asbestos Packings. 

General Information: 

Tariff paragraph, act of 1913 37 

Description. 38 

Domestic production — 

Materials 39 

Equipment ^ 39 

Methods of production 39 

Organization 39 

Geographical distribution 39 

History of the industry 39 

Domestic exports 49 

Foreign production 40 

Imports 40 

Prices 40 

Tariff history 40 

Competitive conditions 40 

Tariff considerations 41 

Imports for consmnption 41 

Market prices 42 

Rates of duty 42 

Court and Treasury decisions 43 

Asbestos Papers and Mo^lboards. 

General Information: 

Tariff paragraph, act of 1913 43 

Description 43 

Domestic production — 

Raw materials 44 

Methods of production 44 

Organization 45 

History of the industry 45 

Domestic production and consumption 45 

Domestic exports 46 

For^gn production 46 

Imports 46 

Prices 46 

Market prices 47 

Tariff histOTy 47 

Competitive conditions 47 

Rates of duty 47 

Asbestos and CoMPOsrnoN Pipe and Boiler Coverings. 

General Information: 

Tariff paragraph, act of 1913 48 

Description 48 

Domestic production — 

Raw materials 48 

Equipment 48 

Methods of production 48 

Geograj)hical distribution 49 

Domestic production anji consumption • 49 

Domestic exports 49 

Foreign production 49 

Imports 50 



CONTENTS, 7 

General infonnation — Continued. Page. 

Prices 60 

Tariff history 50 

Competitive conditions : ^ 60 

Prices 61 

Rates of duty 62 

Asbestos Shingles, Slates, Wood, ob Lxthber. 

General Information: 

Tariff paragraph, act of 1913 63 

Description — 

Uses 63 

Substitutes 63 

Domestic production — 

Raw materials 63 

Equipment 64 

Methods of production — 

American method 54 

Austrian method 64 

Geographical distribution 66 

History of the industry 56 

Domestic production and consumption.^ ^ 66 

Domestic exports 56 

Foreign production 56 

Imports 66 

Prices 55 

Tariff history , 56 

Competitive conditions 66 

Rates of duty 66 



ASBESTOS, UNMANUFACTURED. 



Summary. 



The amount of asbestos consumed by the United States annually 
exceeds the combined consumption of all other countries of the 
world, and of the total world output it produces only about 1 per 
cent, about 99 per cent of the total consumption being imported. 

Known deposits of asbestos in the United States are entirely 
inadequate to supply domestic needs and, although efforts are being 
made Dy the Government to discover additional areas, it is probable 
that no very large deposits of the mineral exist in this country. 

At present our chief source of supply is Canada, which supplies 
fully ^5 per cent of the total annual imports. The bulk of the 
imports from Canada consist of '^mill'' fiber, and the rest ''crude*' 
fiber. Imports from other countries consist wholly of crude fiber, 
and come in largest quantity from southern Africa — ^Rhodesia and 
the Union of South Africa. 

Canada produces about 85 per cent of the total world output and 
exports about 90 per cent of its total annual production to this 
country. 

Canada has the world's largest known asbestos deposits and the 
quality of the mineral is unexcelled for most uses. The principal 
mines are conveniently located to the United States — just across 
the border in the Province of Quebec — and will probably continue 
to be the chief source of this country's future supplies. 

AsbestoSf unmanufactured — Summary table. * -^ 



Calendar year. 



1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
191S 
1919 
1920 



Domestic 
produc- 
tion. 


Imports 
for con- 
sumption. 


Domestic 
exports i 


Ratio to production 
(per cent). 


Value 
(imports 
for con- 
sumption). 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Short tons. 
3,693 
7,604 
4,403 
1,100 
1,247 
1,731 
1,479 

•1,683 
1,002 
1,361 

» 1,710 


Short tons. 

59,235 

71,826 

71,562 

97,070 

71,866 

93,567 

116,222 

134,108 

137,699 

135,270 

167,558 


Short tons. 
922 
514 
395 
927 
122 

337 
245 
697 
1,119 
615 


1,603.98 
844.58 
1,525.30 
8,724.55 
5,663.11 
5,305.37 
7,758.15 
7,868.39 
13,742.42 
9,580.02 
9,798.71 


24.97 
6.76 
8.97 

84,27 
9.78 


$1,235,171 
1,413,013 
1,455,983 
1,928,705 
1,407,754 
1,981,484 
3,300,470 
4,521,172 
6,337,608 
7,369,685 
9,120,253 


22.79 
14.56 
69.56 
79.18 
35.97 



. Value 

per unit of 

quantity 

(short 

ton). 



S20.85 
22.03 
22.79 
22.25 
21.94 
23.72 
31.81 
37.75 
46.03 
54.48 
54.43 



» Fiscal year figures to 1917, inclusive. 
63189— 21— N-20 2 



* None reported. 



* Estimated. 



9 



10 tariff information surveys. 

General Information, 
tariff act of 1913. 
Par. 406. Asbestos, unmanufactured. (Free.) 

DESCRIPTION. 

The term asbestos, as commonly used, includes half a dozen 
minerals all having a well-developed fibrous structure but differing 
in chemical composition and in some physical characteristics. The 
most important of these minerals commercially is chrysotile^ or 
serpentine asbestos. About 95 per cent of the asbestos used in 
manufacturing is chrysotile and it commands a better price than the 
other fibrous minerals on the market. AmpTiihole asbestos is gen- 
erally found in shorter fibers and its special use is in chemical labora- 
tories and works where resistance to the action of acid is demanded. 
Crocidolitey or blue asbestos, is a special variety of amphibole asbestos 
differing from the others in appearance and in that it is more fusible, 
whereas an important property of other forms of asbestos is that 
they all resist even very high temperatures. 

uses. — The fundamental property of any asbestos mineral that 
distinguishes it from all other minerals is that it is separable into 
fibers similar in many respects to cotton, wool, and other articles of 
vegetable or animal origm. The use depends on the length and 
fineness of the fiber, on its resistance to the action of heat and 
chemicals, and on its insulating value as a nonconductor of heat and 
of electricity. The most important applications of asbestos are for 
brake linings, boiler and steam pipe coverings, building paper, 
electrical insulation, and in plaster and paints, and for most of these 
purposes chrysotile is superior to other varieties. A special use, for 
amphibole asbestos only, is in chemical laboratories and works. 

Market grades, — '* Unmanufactured '^ asbestos as it comes on the 
market has been separated from adhering rock and consists of 
fibers graded accordmg to length. The longer fibers that can be 
picked out by hand are sold as '^ crude." Crude asbestos is divided 
into (1) a high class material with fibers over three-quarters of an 
inch long, used for the best grades of materials, and (2) fibers shorter 
than three-quarters inch but suitable for spinning and weaving. 
The remainmg rock is sent to the mill and mechanically crushed 
and separated into three grades of ^^mill stock,'' according to the 
length of fiber. Mill stock is rarely suitable for weaving but can be 
made into pipe coverings, insulating materials, shingles, lumber, 
paper, and other articles. 

In addition to these is '^asbestic," which consists merelv of roughly 
groimd serpentine residues, about like very coarse sand or of very 
finely ground asbestos, commonly called ^ ^floats." It is suitable for 
the manufacture of plaster cement, fireproof brick, and similar 
articles. 

Domestic Production. 

The marketed production of asbestos in the United States in 1919 
was 1,361 short tons, valued at $251,265, an increase of 359 tons over 
the production in 1918, but an amount somewhat smaller than the 
annual production during the three years preceding 1918. 

Equipment and organization. — No large capital is recjuired for the 
mining and treatment of asbestos as it is produced in the United 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 11 

States, and it is doubtful if many deposits would justify large invest- 
ments. This condition is different from that of Canada and certain 
other foreign producing countries where large deposits have led to 
the investment of moderate amounts of capital in machinery for 
mining and handling the rock, and more or less extensive treatment 
plants for preparing the fiber. 

Geographical distrihution. — Asbestos is mined in the pnited States 
chiefly in five States — ^Arizona, California, Georgia, Maryland, and 
Oregon. Georgia has for many years been the largest producer of 
asbestos in the United States, although the more important product 
has come from Arizona. The latter is high grade, containing a 
large proportion of spinning fiber, and the second-class fiber, because 
of its freedom from iron, is superior for electrical and some other 

Surposes to most of the asbestos foimd in other countries. The 
reorgia fiber is valuable only for paints, cements, coverings, and 
similar articles, and can not be used in spinning. 

Arizona, — Production of asbestos in Arizona began in 1915 and 
it was not until 1916 that the output became considerable. There 
were five producers by the end of 1918. The principal production 
was at Ash Creek, near Salt River, about 40 miles northeast of 
Globe, but mining has progressed northward beyond Salt River in 
the Sierra Ancha. The first discovery of asbestos in Arizona was 
in the Grand Canyon, but the depth was so great as to make exploita- 
tion and transportation to the railroad a matter of considerable 
difficulty. Thus far no industry has developed in that region. 

Two grades are produced. One is a fine, soft, silky fiber of first- 
class textile quality; the other is harsh fiber, unsuited to making tex- 
tiles. It yields a great deal of ^^ splint'* that makes a rough- looking 
yam very unsatisfactory for most textile purposes. Both grades are 
found in the same mine, the lower grade being invariably more 
abundant. The imusually small percentage of iron in the Arizona 
asbestos makes it superior to Canadian fiber for electrical insulation. 

The limits of the Arizona asbestos field have not been defined. 
The output will never be large compared to that of Canada, but under 
proper management should be approximately 1,000 tons a year of 
valuable fiber for years to come.^ 

California, — The Klamath Mountains, the Coast Range, and the 
Sierra Nevadas are rich in serpentine and in places the rock contains 
considerable asbestos. In 1918 the principal production was in 
Nevada County. No production of crude nber was reported, but 
several grades of mill fiber were produced and used in makmg flooring, 
stucco work, straw-pipe covering, and asbestos cement. 

In 1918 there was a small output of asbestos in Calaveras and Ala- 
meda Counties, and operations which showed fine crude fiber were 
reported in Fresno County. Prospects were also opened in several 
otner counties, but the fiber is too short for spinning, and, although 
some crude occurs which is IJ inches long, profitable development is 
for the most part not expected. 

Georgia, — For several years a mine near Sail Mountain has been 
the largest producer of asbestos in the United States. The mill is 
located at Gainesville. The asbestos is of the massive type of antho- 

ghylHte. Fibrous bundles constitute the whole mass of the rock. 
>nly the surface portion, where the rock has been softened by 

* J. S. Uiller. Mineral Resources, U. S. flftoU Survey, 1316, Part II, p. |20. 



12 TARIFF INFOBMATION SURVEYS. 

weathering, is milled. The solid portion of the rock is too hard for 
milling. In the absence of some way being found to treat this un- 
weathered material successfully the supply will be CTeatly restricted. 
However, in Geoi^a there seems to be a fairly good supply available 
of weather-softened rock for the near future. The product is used 
largely in the manufacture of paints, fireproof cements, and other 
articles in which short fibers can be used. 

Wyoming.— The asbestos deposits of Natrona and Fremont Coun- 
ties have attracted much attention, but have thus far yielded only a 
small quantity of commercial asbestos. In the report of the United 
States Geological Survey for 1917 attention is called to the deposit 
owned by the American Fireproofing & Mining Co. about 28 miles 
south of Lander. A small quantity of spinning fiber obtained there 
was manufactured into yarn and wicking. The mine was practi- 
cally closed in 1918, ana the small supplv of asbestos on hand is 
reported to have been kept in storage unsold. 

Oregon. — One asbestos mine in Oregon operated for a short time in 
1918. The output was reported small and of three grades of material. 
The lowest grade, which embraced the largest quantity, was asbestic. 

Other States in which deposits of asbestos occur are \ ermont, Idaho, 
and Virginia. The mineral is not mined in Vermont and only rarely 
and in small quantities in the two other States. 

Methods of production — Mining. — ^The large mines of Quebec are 
worked almost exclusively open-cast. The operation is quite similar 
to any quarry operation on a large scale. The ore is broken in 
benches — drilling either by hand or by machine — and loaded into 
boxes, which are hoisted out of the pit by cable or boom derricks. 
Occasionally the quarry floor is connected with the hoisting plant by 
an inclined shaft or tunnel, and the rock is run out in cars or skips. 
This is a recent innovation, sometimes coupled with the introduction 
of steam shovels for loading the cars. Rarely underground 



is resorted to, especially for the purpose of avoiding delays in b 
weather. The methods do not differ from those apphcable to depos- 
its of other rock or ore. 

MiUing — Cobbing. — ^A certain amount of hand sorting is done in 
the quarry, and barren material is, so far as possible, left imbroken 
or, ii necessary to break, may sometimes be left on the quarry floor 
and not hoisted. It is always kept separate from the prodnctive 
material. When rock is sufficiently higii grade, it is sent to a cob- 
bing house, where it is broken and screened for the removal of crude 
fiber. This is done by hand. Both men and women are generally 
employed in the Canadian mills for this work. 

Urying. — ^The rejected rock from the cobbing house, together with 
all the milling rock from the quarry, is sent to the mifl, where it 
receives a preliminary rough breakiii^. Since the material carries a 
large amount of moisture as it comes from the quarry, it must first 
be dried. This is generally done in rotary driers of typical design, 
in which the hot gases from a fire box pass over the drying rock in a 
slowly revolving steel cylinder. These cylinders are sometimes fitted 
with perforated ends and act as trommels, separating the coarse rock 
that requires further reduction. 

Crushing. — ^The dried ore is broken in coarse crushers of the jaw 
or gyratory type to about \\ inches maximum diameter. It then 

{>asses to rolls, which reduce it in one or more stages to a size suitable 
or the fiberizer — usual] v about one-half inch. 



TABIFF INFOEMATIOK SUEVEYS. 18 

Fiberising. — ^All the breaking and crushing to this point in the 
manufacture has been merely tov the purpose of liberating the fiber 
from the rock. In order to make the rock more amenable to the 
final extraction of the fiber, it is necessary that the coarse fiber or 
stone asbestos, which for the most part leaves the above machines 
in .the form of small lumps^be divided and split into fine, cottony 
fiber. This operation is done* in a ''fiberizer — either a cylindiical 
beater or a ''cyclone." The former consists of a cylindrical shell in 
which chilled iron beaters revolve. These strike the rock particles 
against the outer shell. The repeated blows either reduce the rock 
to fine grains or fiberke it. The material is graduaUy driven from 
one end of the beater to the other, because the faces of the beaters 
are set at a slight angle. The beater blades run about 300 revolu- 
tions per minute. 

The Cyclone machine is now used in almost every asbestos mill and 
is the most important step in the whole separation. It consists essen- 
tially of two neaters of the screw-propeller type, driven at a high 
speed (2,000 to 2,500 revolutions per minute), usually in opposite 
directions, and inclosed in a cast-iron chamber; The rock is fed just 
above the beaters. The whirlwind created by the beater hurls the 
particles against each other and the sides of the chamber with such 
rapidity and force that the reduction of the material to grains or even 
impalpable powder takes place almost instantly. All material smaller 
than peanut size is thrown out of the chamber and generally falls first 
on a shaking screen placed in an air-tight box connected with a suc- 
tion fan, which assists in the discharge of the cyclone and removes 
part of the fiber. The beaters wear out rapidly and must be replaced 
every 10 to 14 days. The capacity per 10-hour shift varies from 20 
to 30 tons of hard, tough rock to 50 to 60 tons of softer material. 
As a rule, the size of rock charged is not larger than a walnut. 
Coarser material cuts down the capacity as well as increases the wear 
on the blades. The maximum size of sand discharged runs from one- 
sixteenth to one-eighth inch. 

Occasionally the fiberizing is done in two or more stages; usually a 
cylindrical beater as the first machine is followed by one or more 
*^ cyclones." Between each pair of machines fiber is arawn out by a 
suction fan; fine sand (usually one-sixteenth inch and less) is screened 
out and the material oversize elevated to the next machine for 
re-treatment. The sand or imdersized screening is tailing that either 
goes to waste or is ground finer and sold as ^^asbestic" for plaster, 
etc. The action of the auction fans is similar to the winnowing of 
chaff from grain, except that the light material in this instance is 
saved. 

Grading ofjiher, — The final stage in the milling process is the treat- 
ment of the fiber extracted from the rock. All of this goes to col- 
lectors. From them it passes through a revolving screen having 
arms inside that revolve in opposite directions in order to separate 
the different lengths of fiber. Two grades are made, which are treated 
separately in two shaking screens, which effects partial separation of 
the sand adherin^to the fiber. The fiber on these screens is sucked 
into collectors. The longer fiber is screened again in a trommel. 
The oversize constitutes fiber No. 1. The imdersize, after being 
again treated on a shaking screen to remove the sand, is drawn bacK 
again into the same collector. 



■**» I* -.rtv , mit Ji Jiiiitu* jir*i ""w^T ir rnitn* zr^t*^. 

^'fitnr'i, — ;tt*n#-»ni- -via- iJ5»!ft **i*in»wMi>*l— jx aw^w^ffc snesw ^ 
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'sn^rxTA^ns v^smi jl ^nt^^**! jl 1 *""'* laii "lij* irrr^i*. ic aiipaiisiL:^^ « 
*:;ij»- i#*^''r«*r ^riit** juni^'tL jl I-*:niii'iL sr^*T-**i & ^vsnsftiiiiiii. Fn 
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v^AmVd: *aiif»»**i 'i'^ :'^*r3ir:iiii!'rLi:tL inji '*. jl ^jrjnf. Ti** 
r*«ur«*< Jl "-it^ utrccca :f jLetmiizuia^ tt** a:t*s ^ 5.r :$«!mrai;i2Ber abe 

«iit -^rmnii^rTiiu ^,iriii;:a:tL nt :iiii: it^trix jl lijf SiniiL *^g^«^*« :befai 

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i^^'-**^*'** i»^"*::''/ai ^ "Li^ ?:i=.irT i^ :i£x a T.»rx ^—t" ptirs of the 

<»r.rs."^---j;r ^ t ^ ItrT'-^ 1*: lie- r^^-rnl 1-:t ivrirtj?* £rade ol the 




,> ^'^ v^r .' erz''.-^^ — r p: ri^i^-r -exr*: ns : f c : =i^ti'- &^be^;o^ are 
sr.^-:.*: -*5tr.7 ^"^-"^ J^t/ zi rruC ^^ — t^ 

Jr. tr^ '^.r^r.rr.tr 7-^ttr !>:> \ut :*::ji1 exr^rrrs azn^uniwi lo 999 
I'cz vr^^ r.r-ir.7 :--»^iLi2: '.: ^l::h -b^xs senile iii^T. sj^ut more 



TABIFF INFORMATION. SURVEYS. l6 

than one-fifth to England, and much smaller proportions to Canada, 
Germany, France, and a few other comitries. 

The amount exported has never been very important. It is 
probable that a large part is made up of amphibole fiber for chemical 
uses, since the Umted States is the chief producer of this asbestos 
mineral, and some short fiber for use in the manufacture of pulp 
products. 

FOREIGN PRODUCTION. 

Canada produces over 85 per cent of the world's total supply of 
asbestos. In normal times Kussia is the second largest in order of 
production. During the last few years South Africa, including 
Khodesia and the Union of South Africa, has produced increasing 
amounts annually, exceeding, it is believed, the output of Russia 
since 1916. 

Canada. — ^The principal asbestos deposits of Canada are located in 
the Province of Quebec and occur in a long series of basic intrusive 
rocks, usually referred to as the ''serpentine belt." This belt starts 
in the United States and enters Canada at the boundary line be- 
tween Vermont and the Province of Quebec. From the international 
boundary line the general trend of the serpentine belt can be traced 
in an almost continuous development of rocks, presenting a narrow 
zone over 170 miles long. Then comes a gap of about 130 miles 
followed by another development of serpentine rocks. The asbestos- 
bearing rock of the serpentme belt may be roughly divided into five 
separate fields or areas, each one of which possesses distinctive 
features. Chief among these is the Thetford-Black Lake field, by far 
the most important asbestos producing area in the world. Practi- 
ctXXy the whole of the Canaaian long fiber, hand cobbed asbestos 
(designated as ''crude" asbestos), as well as about 70 per cent of the 
"mill stock,'' comes from these deposits. The belt of serpentine 
rocks is here traceable over a distance of 12 miles, while its greatest 
width is about 3 miles. The Quebec Central Railway crosses the 
deposits, and most of the mines are located within a few hundred feet 
on either side of the track. This railway connects both the Brough- 
ton field <which produces mostly short fiber) and the Thetford-Black 
Lake field, with the city of Quebec at its northern terminus, where 
ocean transportation can be had for nearly eight months of the year, 
and with Sherbrooke at the southern terminus, where it connects 
with the system of American railways, by the Boston & Maine Rail- 
road, the Maine Central Railway, and the Grand Trunk. 

The formation of the Quebec asbestos deposits are such as to 
indicate beyond reasonable doubt that the deposits continue in 
depth, without changes in their nature, perhaps beyond the level of 
economic mining. At all events the worTk of exploitation and devel- 
opment carried out in the mines at Thetf ord and Black Lake appears 
to bear this out, and there does not seem to be any cause to fear that 
through exhaustion of the serpentine, the deposits will give out in the 
near future. 

At present the largest excavation in the asbestos field has reached 
the following dimensions: Length, 900 feet; width, 600 feet; and 
depth, 275 feet. At that depth there has been no change whatever in 
the nature of the ore, the percentage of asbestos, or in the quality, 
quantity, and length of the fiber. Moreover, in some of tne pits 



U r-*ziFF ::r=^icjr -m^ ^ ^ 



:t 31*" -v^ ^tjtr**^ -h*r -tie 

'tij^rationf* lin nor V^m "inrii 1 ^~^- Ji -^mr^ -par ji^ ^oorr: :imb 

ff f]r»w#*fi. -With rJ»«n;^ne raniiii-^ -crr^aaE^ «iiiiiat inrpnr nrntH in 

/t^/fi^ff. — T^.i* :)rrr.r:nai 3..iag?an *?fl*e~*^- nunr* ir?^ ^niMip*t in die 
=«rrv?nnne irpasi ^t :h** Trois. Tiir^ jt?* ii5»^ ii?D«>?H^ if **ii]9itipsai}ie 
#r!rr#»nr ,n rTtvTau A--h^*r.i:* j?- inown 'o »<— jr Ji oie ^.wcasn?. bat 
*ii*» -^^p^ ir^ ^niAil inii "lie ih#*r j^ ^f T*"«Tr naiirr. Toe nmusfal iff 

^he^n-^ inrt :*^r *aL«j r^»as*o?i. ji ^innrrg me ib»^ '« -immonrr iiae«i 

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=*ir.c^ ^rp' T**^'MnVtt}n -^^arf in I y.T. 

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A'nr'^r nr^^iK^^ion is riie imori^'-^nieiic in :mn:?o«'r^ar:i>n laciiitifift. 
Pr,/r V : '*: I ^^-^ /r.z.e •:i>h€^ry^ -sr-ii* -jr^.oiit^t in r^ju^iie^a. bar in 
*r.j<r ' 'ar * r.iitr^Tiri was hnil" 'o ViiTona ±rvr wrii<"a riie .^nnfiail 
•jr ,/^';^'./,n xnT^^i^^A TT^^^'^^' ^ SitT, 'TLe "umaT m 1^I>5 wa» over 
f^Mr * -n*'- i^*4 ,-j.r2^ ir«t .n 1 >l'i -^^-r rsr^H'^e rrme^ is lanr^ ** in 1^14. 
T ^ r.rt' J-^*- ,r -rt .11 ~r.i^ra Afnra la ^cil iamrer^L iow^^ver. bv slijw 
^,/^ *kvv''»"* "^T *"r^;i^ror^j.am ot a^b«^rv^:^ fr'^m ^Tfi^rng discnrfe 
a*" 4 ^. ', ".'' *^,** .;iPic A -"fVTAZiXx, -mce i^e^r*::* s bar lirelelniown (vr 
'\^,i^,(.»r'*r,r/*. ''," -i7*:r»an ^^ani^^tAL^rii. wio at^ im^re mr^resc^ ni die 
7 , ' ^ ^ .,i^t\r,r (*, '», . *t 1 ir ri '! *- r o*^ 1 i^i* i?- Eo v-^ver . resDO oarle p^rties^ 
f 'fr.^^.f.'.' .c rt A r,/>'.r. « •:,r"*i icf*r^ ir. SriiziiLnd. JLzi**nc;i. -liDaa. and 
.*,'*-<, i* *,'» v-/*"rr ■I'T .r^r*r^'»^ in iiie S 'i~a African iei»i&. The 
( ^^,. .r '-'.*.' ' ,.» -*,(,' rf X. >''r: V. .i-*-Hn thliiJ. pr daoers bv trec^a«ittr 

;**-/' ^, -A '»% ^v-'^-r -* •%'.'/ ^f '*,.'>; r-^r;*, 'a or -jT'iijerecy it it? at^oeii to seeure 
V ' ,r ., ' ^'^ fr .'•v. /r A/,"', /r i-t./T*. aid ^ ii: r ! rx pnoes. Local 
i\ ^ r o' ',f*f,^ A^'j.''* ^i*', ^. '; xtT'^i " 'I / "roinocirur tiie devi^ioDHieiit 
/-/ r i^ , f' , ' ^ (,^(^ './/^ /-t ,.i'-^"***^ wa.-* rhe f^nnatinG of the 
^ *y ^' ,/' '.'/,'-, .^'*.' - ,*, M,f^,x- r,t v'..r*r. IS '^xp»H!teii uinniatelT to 
A/ ^" ./.».,>/•' . '/.*/: t^: , /,r / r-L^:. fin. to rue entire enx*idolite 
,' ,*' ' ^ '/, ', '.<•-'.* '/^//, ', '^ '■/,'.'- ^w^l :i.n:ohib«''Ie asb^rstos o<!car 
.♦^,'» ^^ ^' , , ^ / ,/y i ' '-• ,' v/.*..-rr. Rr.o«iesia. Up to 1916 
A r, /.'/^. »' ^ . /, /.^ ,./; , ,' /,<-' ^ I', _/ fr /HI trxe Victoria <iistrict^ 
'r'/ '"'•*'/ i* '*',', ^ *' * ',':.'//, -,'-' ,j.r/. * an imn^^rtaat producer. 
M ^x** ^ ,^' ' * • ^ ^" ', /.. //I ^'',r;, ^/*'"i.- In I'>20 the Victoria 
/; '/*/* ^. ; '. <. ;;,^ */'/-', '-*,,*' fj^. ^..'j\ r.nree minos each.. The 
V^y ,/>/'. ^/*^ 4 ^'^ ' " ^'^ , ^,*f<"', c.'\c,r*, ,,- about 2-V miles long, 
'r^** t/,^' v./ "/ ' /, , t / ' ' ^. ,' '/,-* '..// r*^ ♦::>*) f^ccTirs in a zone 
-y^/» ^f ' // /, . '^",, ', A, '/, /'/, ' /:' ^A rr.K ■;*'') rk,i hie deposits are 
^r////: */, ^ ^< //'-,' -c ', ' '; - '1 V /',-.- -if^ developed in open- 
^ ' ^ > '^z-. ^ .' >■■ ^ ', '^', , ,'v: ^,,/^ fA..:T have been erected at 
♦ --rffr > ^ -* <*'. f> -# / - . / ^ < '' «'^/'- / •' '^ r;- ./-ral. The fibers vary 
/- / / '' *i\'^ ^ '•• ' , , - ,.,,'/,.;,., . • ^../l rff*' -/'f>;i rated into three 
^/^ ' ' ' K////*' / V. ,' / , ^ , <, / ^ ^; o,,/,f , ^1 Uf: hbt-rs are flexible, 



TABIFF I2SnF0RMATI0N SURVEYS. 17 

The output of asbestos in Rhodesia shows remarkable advances in 

?roduction in 1920, the total output for the first six months being 
,168 tons, or nearly as large as the entire 1918 production. Practi- 
cally the entire output* is of spinning grades. 

llie Union of South Africa contams asbestos deposits of large size, 
and the mineral mined consists chiefly of crocidoute (blue asbestos) 
and amosite (which in many respects closely resembles crocidolite) , 
but chrysotile is also worked. 

Amosite is the name given in 1918 to a monoclinic ferrous am- 
phibole bv the *' Asbestos Mines of South Africa," the company chiefly 
mterested in its production. The fiber-bearing rocks occur in the 
Transvaal and cover an area 60 miles in length and 6 miles in width. 
Commercial production began about 1916. Amosite is the principal 
variety mined in the Transvaal, though chrysotile, crocidolite, and 
tremolite are also mined to a smaller extent. 

In the Cape Colony field crocidolite is the only variety of asbestos 
worked. The fiber is usually lavender blue, but color variations are 
not uncommon, being in some cases pale yellow or rusty brown. 
Such discolored fibers are harsh to the touch, and command only a 
limited sale. Fully three-fourths of the total production of the 
Union of South Africa from 1915 to 1919 came from the Cape 
Province. 

IMPORTS. 

In the calendar year 1920 the imports of unmanufactured asbestos 
was 167,558 short tons, valued at $9,120,253, having increased to 
this amount from 59,235 tons in 1910 by almost unbroken annual 
increases. 

Fully 95 per cent of all the asbestos imported into the United States 
comes from Canada and represents over 90 per cent of the total pro- 
duction of that country. Imports from other countries have been 
mostly sporadic, and it was not until 1917 that the mineral began to 
come from southern Africa with any indication of stability in the 
movement. The regular annual importations of South African 
asbestos since that year are due largely to the Cape Asbestos Co., 
credited with producing 80 per cent of the entire output of African 
blue asbestos (crocidolite). This company prepared its product in 
a way which eliminated difficulties formerly encountered by American 
manufacturers in spinning the fiber. 

Imported Canadian asbestos includes a large percentage of *'mill 
stock," whereas imports of South African material consists wholly of 
''crudes." 

PRICES. 

The various grades of asbestos have never been standardized, and 
this is a source of great inconvenience to the buyers, as purchases have 
to be made on samples submitted. Each producer has his own 
method of grading, and his own special mark or designation for rock 
grade. There is, nowever, a uniform method of testing the length of 
fiber of the "mill stock" qualities, and some of the large users of 
asbestos have their own representatives at the mines to examine and 
test each shipment as it is made. 

63189— 21--N-aO 3 



18 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

The grading is based on (1) the life of the fiber, which depends on 
the strength and resihency of the threads; (2) the length of the fiber; 
and iS"* on the color of the fiberized material. 

For the purposes of statistics, the Quebec Bureau of Mines has 
adopted a classification based on the sdl ng price of asbestos which 
divides it into two grades of ''crude" or hand-cobbed material, and 
three grades of "mill stock," or fiber recovered by mechanical means 
after crushing and pulverizing the rock. 

In 1915 Canadian fiber of a well-known grade was bought at $50 to 
$60 a ton; m 1916, at $100; in 1917, at $200; in 1918, at $250; m 1919, 
at $300. In 1920 the price asked was from $400 to $525. 

The best grade of Canadian spinning fiber in 1917 ranged from $700 
to $1,500 a ton; in 1918, at from $1,200 to $2,000 a ton. At the close 
of 1920 the best grade was selling as high as $3,500 a ton. 

TARIFF HISTORY. 

Asbestos was specificallv mentioned for the first time in the tarifl 
act of 1864, which imposed, a duty of 25 per centum ad valorem. The 
duty was removed by the act of 1870, and since that year unmanufac- 
tured asbestos has been on the free fist. Unmanufactured asbestos 
was adjudged to include fiber separated from the containing rock. 

COMPETITIVE CONDITJONS. 

The United States is the largest consumer of asbestos in the world 
and manufactures more asbestos products than any other country; 
but it has never been, and shows no promise of ever becoming, an 
important factor in the nroduction of the unmanufactured product. 
Its meager output could be increased to some extent but it will prob- 
ably never become great enough to supply the domestic demand. 
The United States must, therefore, rely largely upon imported crude 
material. 

The chief source of asbestos is in Canada, just outside the borders 
of this country. The supply from Quebec is large, cheaply mined, 
excellent in quality, and so readily available that mere is Uttle stimu- 
lus to domestic production of medium grades of average quality from 
the less favored American deposits. As the only producer of both 
long and short fibers, Canada holds the leading position in the world 
markets. 

Formerly American production consisted almost exclusively of 
the cheapest material, suitable only for paint making or other pur- 
poses requiring only very short fiber. There was also some produc- 
tion of extremely poor rock for local requirements and too low in 
value to bear transportation charges. This demand has fallen off 
but has not wholly disappeared. The brightest outlook for domestic 
production is in the Arizona output of exceptionally good spinning 
nber and of special qualitv, superior for electrical purposes. A less 
important demai\d is met by the production of asbestos fiber, for use 
in filters and chemical work, from amphibole deposits found in the 
crystalline rocks of Maryland. 

The continuance of the Arizona industrv is assured. Although the 
cost of production will always be much greater than in Canada be- 
cause 01 the nature of the deposits, the proportion of valuable spin- 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



19 



ning fiber is greater while the iron content is lower. There is a 
demand for this special product even at a higher price. Owing to 
the fact that in practically all the Arizona fiber the harsh and soft 
material are so mtermingled that it is difiicult to separate them, 
these fibers do not bring as high prices as the Canadian. In 1918 
soft Arizona fiber was selling at $850 to $1,250 a ton, according to 
its length, and the harsh Arizona fiber at $350 to $600 a ton. The 
shorter fibers, or mill rock, have about the same value as the Cana- 
dian shorter fibers. An increase in the Arizona output may be 
looked for but it is not likely greatly to exceed 1,000 tons a year^ 
which is not 1 per cent of American needs on a purely tonnage basis. 
The Georgia production also supplies a special demand, and may 
be expected to continue. The costs are low out the grade of material 
is poor. 

AshestoSj unmanufactured — Production in United States. 
[From Federal census. Product mined.] 



Year. 


Short 
tons. 


Value. 


1902 


2,505 


146,200 
65,140 


1909 : , 







1 Not available. 

[From Mineral Resources, Part 2, U. S. Geological Survey. Product marketed.] 



Year. 



1900 
1901 
1902 
1C03 
1904 
1906 
1906 
1907. 
1908 
1909 
1910. 



Short 
tons. 


Value. 


1,054 


$16,310 


747 


13,498 


1,005 


16,200 


8§7 


16,760 


1,480 


25,740 


3,109 


42,975 


1,695 


28,565 


653 


11,899 


936 


19,624 


3,085 


62,603 


3,693 


68,357 



Year. 



1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 
1914.. 
1915.. 
1016.. 
1917 . 
1918.. 
1919.. 
1920 «. 




7,604 
4,403 
1,100 
1,247 
1,731 
1,479 
1,683 
1,002 
1,361 
1,710 



Value. 



S119,935 

87,959 

11,000 

18,965 

76,952 

448,214 

506,056 

124,687 

251,265 

1,154,000 



s Estimated. 



Asbestos, unmanufactured — Production in principal foreign countries, in short tons. 



Countries. 



Canada 

Canada' 

Russia 

Cape Colony 

Natal 

Rhodesia 

Transvaal... 

Cyprus 

India 

Italy 

Total. 



19101 


19111 


77,508 

24, 707 

13,467 

1,403 

3 

332 

77 

487 

3 

193 


101, 393 

26,021 

17, 124 

1,253 

13 

460 


799 


184 


118,180 


147,247 




111,561 

24,740 

18,138 

1,217 

3 

1,234 

(») 
860 

(') 
1S6 




i:}6,951 


96,542 


24, 135 


21,a31 


19,284 


17,297 


e) 


(*) 


«962 


•1,191 


290 


487 


(') 


0) 


(^) 


(^) 


(') 


0) 


193 


189 



157,939 181,815 



136,737 



1 Figures from Mineral Industry. 

* Ficrures from Mineral Resources of the United States in 1919. (Preliminary Report). 
■ Asbestic. 

< Estimated. 

* Statistics not available. 

* Union of South Africa. 



1915 « 



HI, 142 

25.700 

* 10, 780 

» 2, 139 
2,010 

(') 



0) 



179 



151,950 



20 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Asbestos f unmanufactured — Production in principalforeign countries, in short tons — CJon . 

[Mineral Resources of the United States in 1919.] 



Countries. 



Canada 

Russia 

Union of South Africa. 

Rhodesia 

Australia 

Cjmnos 

India 

Italy 



Total. 



1916 



133,439 
<9,030 
4,656 
6,158 
(*) 
(') 
(') 
90 



1917 



1918 



135,502 



6,219 
9,563 

h 

94 



141,465 

« 6,614 

3,674 

8,574 

488 



153,373 



151,378 j 160,415 



1919 » 



153,069 



3.933 

9,740 

2,00.=> 

« 1,491 

435 



ft 



4 Estimated. 

6 Statistics not available. 

' From "The Mineral Industry of the British Empire and Foreign Countries.' 

« Exports. 

Asbestos, unmanufactured — Imports by countries. 

FISCAL YEARS. 



Imported from— 


1910 


1911 


1912 


Long tons. 


Value. 


Long tons. 


Value. 


Long tons. 


Value. 


Belelum 










5 
12 

1 
94 


$147 


Germany 


43 

6 

92 

47 

47,322 


$3,484 

1,307 

20,121 

10,075 

1,087,098 


i23 

1 

50 


$i2,6i6 

177 

10,928 

16 

1,294,802 


2,069 


Italy 


18 


Russia in Europe 


8,998 


United Kins;dom 


10 


Canada 


56,950 


60,429 


1,367,279 






Total 


47,510 


1,122,085 


57, 124 


1,318,539 


60,541 


1,378,521 







Imported from— 


1913 


1914 


1915 


Long tons. 


Value. 


Long tons. 


Value. 


Long tons. 


Value. 


Germany 


33 

9 

101 

4 

76,790 


$6,841 

1,594 

17,033 

2,046 

1,733,380 


U 

2 

146 


$1,790 

631 

24,844 


2 


$1,302 


Italy.... 




Russia in Europe 


15 


2,895 


United Klnedom 




Canada 


76,365 


1,651,471 


68,069 


1,509,433 






Totnl 


76.937 


1,760,874 


76,524 


1,678,736 


68,086 


1,513,630 







Imported from— 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Long tons. 


Value. 


Long tons. 


Value. 


Long tons. 


Value. 


United Kingdom 


100 
98,870 


$21,512 
2,603,491 


1,112 

114,050 

509 

47 


$262,982 

3,612,228 

55,951 

13,662 


9 

113,063 

1,885 

2,225 


$4,385 


Canada 


5,017,091 
190,275 


British South Africa 


Portuguese Africa 






171,823 


All other 






1,138 














Total 


98,970 


2,625,003 


115,718 


3,944,823 


117, 183 


5,384,712 





CALENDAR YEARS. 



Imported from— 


1918 


1919 


1920 


Long tons. 


Value. 


Long tons. 


Value. 


Long tons. 


Value. 


France 






402 

139 

119,341 


$204,412 

53,057 

6,935,804 




England 






666 
145,283 


$236,361 


Canada 


120,369 

747 
1,829 


$6,207,845 

1,138 

82,217 

46,385 


7,690,165 


Colombia 




♦British South Africa 


804 

89 

2 


132,465 

43,791 

156 


i,994 

1,414 

248 


408,956 


Portuguese Africa 


722,197 


All other 


67,580 










Total 


122,946 


6,337,585 


120,777 


7,369,685 


149,605 


9,120,253 







TAEIFF INFOEMATION SUEVETS. 
Aihutoi, «nmanuf<Ktvrei—Im.ponifor eontumptitm— Revenue. 



Mswlynw. 


KulBoiduly. 


QuBntlti;. 


Vidiie. 


"or 


Valaoper 

qnultltr. 


Actual «inl 






U28I 
U,S1T 

e2,lTS 

Si 

149,600 


4S 
W 

i 

82 
31 

8,337, 808 
9,la),2S3 




26.39 

1! 

22. U 

22.88 

II 

34.07 
4S.95 

S1.SS 

MM 


p»-«. 

























































































































vdefcesfM, or« and unman-ufactMTed—Domexlic exports. 
FISCAL YEARS. 



Exportftdto— 


.9.0 


.911 


1912 


Long ton. 


Value. 


Long tons. 


Valoe. 


Longtona. 


Valoe. 




«7 


IS 


^ 


«,012 

2'sro 








76 










21S 


!,« 








4,13< 


34 










823 


19,132 


«9 


16,161 


3i3 






' 


Eiportedto- 


1913 


leu 


191S1 


Longtrau. 


Value. 


Long tons. 


Value. 


Long too.. 


Value. 




i 


s 


20 










?s 




















S^ 


2S,359 


.„ 


8,050 













Eipottedto— 


ISIS 


.9.7 


1918 


Long tons. 


Vnlue, 


Longtonn. 


Value. 


Long tons. 


Valoa. 




03 


i 






110 














198 


t.9,433 


95 






s*S 








i,m 


20 


2.308 


S!S 






301 


8,821 


2.0 


2.,8S. 













22 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Asbestos^ ore and unmanu/acturtd — Domestic exports — Continued. 

CALENDAR YEARS. 



Exported to- 



ll nlted Kingdom. 

GermAny 

Ncth«rlands 

Franc* 

Canada 

Italy 

Japan 

Another 



Total. 



1918 



Long tons. 



110 



Value. 



$1,650 



45 
139 
327 



9,4.50 

9,772 

30,106 



75 



622 



51,053 



1919 



Long tons. 



219 

23 

1 

20 

34 

494 
30 

178 



999 



Value. 



157, 416 



1920 



Long tons. 



$6,642 


10 


^'^}^ 


82 


90 


60 


20,000 


115 


2,738 


138 


107, 817 


96 


3,000 


5 


8,514 


43 



549 



Value. 



$2,006 

27,250 

4,480 

4,716 

3,885 

71,738 

23,181 

3,815 



141,071 



Asbestos^ unmanufactured — Prices per short ton — Sales price of Canadian asbestos, f. o. b. 

mill. 

[From Mineral Resources, U. S. Geological Survey.] 



Kinds or grades. 



Crude No. 1 

Crude No. 2 

Mill stock No. I 
Mill stock No. 2 
Mill stock No. 3 
Total asbestos . . 
Asbostic 



1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 » 


$263.70 


$263. 45 


$263.31 


$286.62 


$301.23 


$274.11 


99.12 


112.86 


101. 49 


12a 29 


131. 87 


122. 39 


54.69 


.5a 05 


44.97 


46.95 


48.12 


52.40 


2;{.42 


2a 95 


19.74 


19.97 


20.15 


19.99 


8.47 


8.85 


9.79 


9.14 


8.83 


7.46 


32.49 


28.96 


27.79 


27.97 


29.96 


3a 87 


.71 


.81 


.80 


.79 


.83 


.85 



1919* 



$1,256.74 

618.77 

222.15 

53.02 

19.40 

80.47 

2.64 



1 Figures 1916 to 1918 are not available. 

« Preliminary statement, Department of Colonieation, Mines, and Fisheries, Province of Quebec. 

AsbestoSy unmanufactured — New York prices per short ton for Canadian chrysotile fiber , 

[From Mineral Resoui'ccs, U.S. Geological Survey.] 



Kinds or grades. 



No. 1 crude... 
No. 2 crude... 
No. 1 fiber.... 
No. 2 fiber.... 
Shorter fibers. 



1912 



$30O-$325 
•175-200 



1913 



$320-$350 

200-225 

100-125 

75-100 

10-30 



1914 



$35a-$375 

225-250 

100-125 

75-100 

10- 30 



1915 



$350-$400 

225- 275 

110- 150 

80- 125 

10- 30 



1916 



$35O-$l,250 

250- 900 

150- 350 

75- 150 

15- 60 



1917 



$70O-$l,500 

500- 900 

150- 450 

75- 150 

18- 75 



1918 



$1,200-$2,000 

700- 1,200 

40O- 600 

250- 300 

18- 125 



Court and Treasury Decisions. 

Asbestos fiber with a slight admixture of gray rock was held exempt 
from duty as asbestos unmanufactured, and not dutiable as a manu- 
facture of asbestos imder the act of 1890. G. A. 819, T. D. 11828. 

Carded asbestos fiber consisting of amphibole asbestos in fibrous 
form, white in color, and used in part by chemists for filtering acids, 
was likewise held exempt from duty as unmanufactured rather than 
as a manufacture of asbestos under the act of 1894. G. A. 3369, 
T. D. 16850. 

Asbestos fiber, invoiced as ^'asbestic finish," which had been sep- 
arated from asbestos rock by mechanical means and containing 
portions of the nonfibrous rock, was held free of duty as asbestos 
unmanufactured rather than dutiable as a manufacture of asbestos 
under the act of 1897. This importation was found to consist of the 



TABIFF INFOKMATION SURVEYS. 



23 



shortest asbestos fibers and not to be asbestos sponge or any form of 
asbestos cement. • G. A. 4903, T. D. 22937. 

Asbestos subjected to a process called first carding, whereby a 
portion of the impurities was removed, but which had to undergo 
two additional carding processes before the fiber was ready to be 
spun as carded asbestos, was held exempt from duty as asbestos 
immanufactured imder the act of 1909 and not dutiable as a manu- 
facture of asbestos. Abstract 32612, T. D. 33511 (1913). 

An importation invoiced as "asbestos finish," consisting of the 
shortest nbers of asbestos screenings, or refuse obtained in eliminating 
the longer asbestos fibers from the rock, and used in the manufacture 
of paper and cement as a filler, was held exempt from duty as asbestos 
unmanufactured and not dutiable as a manufacture of asbestos under 
the act of 1913. Abstract 41761. A later importation invoiced as 
'* asbestos finish," *' asbestos sand finish," and asbestos ex. finish," 
and found to be a finely powdered by-product or refuse of compara- 
tively little value, was liKewise held exempt from duty as asbestos 
unmanufactured under that act. Abstract 42733. 

AshestoSy unmanufactured — Rates of duty. 



Act of— 


Par. 


1883 


598 


1890 


494 


1894 


388 


1897 


484 


1909 


501 


1913 


406 



Tariff classification or description. 



Asbestos, unmanufactured. 

do 

....do 

.....do 

do 

do 



Rates of duty, specific 
and ad valorem. 



Free. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



MANUFACITIRES OF ASBESTOS. 



General Summaby. 

The rapidly growing demand during recent years, both here and 
abroad, lor finished asbestos products has occasioned largely in- 
creased domestic production, wnich reached its highest level during 
the European War (1914-1918), when larger production was limited 
only by the inability of manufacturers to secure larger supplies of 
raw asoestos fiber. The keen domestic demand for textiles continued 
after the war and, as a result of the increased production and the 
prices prevailing, the American industry prospered greatly. 

In 1919 there were 17 factories, or textile mills, in the United 
States engaged in the conversion of raw asbestos into finished yams, 
cloths, tapes, tubings, etc. In addition to this group of manufac- 
turers, and taking a majority of the output of the 17 factories, is 
another group of finishers who convert the product as it comes from 
the textue mills into finished articles, packings, brake linings, etc. 
Of the latter group there are 23 factories of unportance, all located in 
the eastern section of the United States. 

Fifteen of the textile plants are located in States bordering on the 
Atlantic seaboard, and one each in Indiana, Ohio, and California. 
Their combined capital is estimated at $15,000,000, and the value of 
their annual production at $35,000,000. Capital invested in the 
manufactxire of packings, brake linings, etc., is estimated roughly 
at $25,000,000. The total domestic production of all classes of 
asbestos textiles — taking into account, in addition to the output of 
textile mills, the output of manufacturers using the products of 
asbestos textile mills as their raw material — ^is estimated at from 
$60,000,000 to $70,000,000. 

The importance of the industry lies in the resistant qualities of 
asbestos, the, component material used, which render it suitable for 
use where fire, oil, or acid resisting properties are essential. The 
finished product finds its greatest use m connection with machinery, 
and no substitute of equal service is known. 

The importation of asbestos textiles and allied products is com- 
paratively small and in the past has been rather supplementarv to 
domestic production. Prior to 1914 imports came chiefly from 
Great Britain, Germany, and Austria. During the European War 
(1914-1918) Germany and Austria ceased to be factors in the Ameri- 
can market, and since then Great Britain has practically been the 
only country exporting asbestos textile products to this country. 

Whereas a few manmacturers of asbestos textile products also make 
some or all of the heavier asbestos products, such as shingles, slates, 
wood or lumber, paper, millboard, pipe and boiler coverings, the 
making of these products is generally confined to other groups of man- 
ufacturers, of which there are over 50 in the United States. 

24 



TABIFF INFOKMATION SURVEYS. 



25 



Heavy asbestos articles of foreign manufacture are sold in the 
United States to a small extent only, and the imports of these prod- 
ucts come almost wholly from one factory in Canada. Products of 
European manufacture are practically shut oflf from competing in the 
American market by reason of transportation costs. 

The United States is the world's largest producer and consumer of 
asbestos manufactures. The 'total annual domestic production of 
asbestos textiles and manufactiu*ed textile products alone is esti- 
mated at from $60,000,000 to $70,000,000. This does not include the 
heavy asbestos products, such as shingles, slates, wood or lumber, 
paper and millboards, and pipe and boiler coverings, the production of 
which amounts to several million dollars annually. Much larger 
amounts are exported annually than are imported. In the calendar 
year 1919 the total exports of all kinds of asbestos manufactiu'es were 
nearly 10 times as large as the imports. According to the manufac- 
turers, however, the exports consist mainly of corrugated paper and 
shingles, whereas the imports are chiefly textiles, especially yarn and 
cloth or tapes. An important quantity of asbestos brake and clutch 
linings are included in the exports of American automobiles. 

Import statistics for manufactiu'es of asbestos are compiled by 
United States customs oflGlcials according to the three classifications 
given in paragraph 367 of the tariff act of 1913, viz, asbestos yarn, 
woven faorics, and all other. Exports are all compiled together 
under one head, ''Asbestos, manufactiu'es of.'' 

There being practically five classes of these articles which, in 
process of manuiactiu'e and in resulting product, are distinctly differ- 
ent, separate discussion is given each in the following pages under the 
heads of: (1) Asbestos textiles; (2) asbestos packings; (3) asbestos 
papers and millboards; (4) asbestos and composition pipe and co ver- 
mes, including 85 per cent magnesia coverings; and (5) asbestos 
shingles, slates, wood or lumber. 

Manufactures of asbestos (total) — Summary table — Values. 



Fiscal years: 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar years: 

1919 

1920 



Imports 
for con- 
sumption. 


Domestic 


Amount of 


exports. 


duty. 


1265,185 


1293,616 


<80,087 


291,054 


388>833 


85,312 


338,180 


520,894 


98,861 


381,879 


688,414 


109,651 


398,159 


687,073 


64,294 


232,569 


535,027 


26,832 


171,998 


1,019,083 


19,717 


69,439 


1,502,437 


9,264 


37,220 


2, 112, 721 


4,513 


257,381 


3,531,978 


44,520 


618,450 


4,431,132 


109, 737 



Equivalent 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Percent. 
30.20 
29.31 
29.23 
28.71 
16.15 
11.54 
11.46 
13.34 
12.13 

17.30 
17.74 



63189— 21— N-20- 



TARIFF INFORMATION SUBVEYS. 
Manufacturet of aiibtaoi~~hn'poTi* by eoiintriet(fiteal years). 



I„p„Wto-- 


IBIO 


i9n 


1912 


IB13 


1914 


1915 




nis 


162, 290 
15,019 

317 


•ss 


■as 


■as 


125,733 










'si 


3,289 

181, 7» 


i,aeo 

"kSi 
















1M,B4I 


1,160 






'"■S 


131,889 














,» 


525 


, 6M 


407 


1S,B92 












2! 


21S 






































Total 


289. lai 


293, «S1 


336,701 


395,277 


391,337 


23(\710 


Imported from— 


,». 


1917 


1918 


19.9 - 


1919' 




137 
l.«2 
1M,54S 


US, 502 


t5,S54 


122,376 


IM,9M 






5,259 
40,674 


23,504 




2,989 




"'^ 








'■m 








S,'3S0 


ii'M 


















SO 


















170,269 


68,111 


4H077 


107,413 









ee are for calendar year. 
Manufattures ofoshestos [totol)^I'inpOTts for cojtsifm}:tion^Revenue. 





Values, 


Duties 


Actual 
andcom- 
p^edad 




Values. 


Duties 


Actual 
and torn 
putedad 
yalorcm 


"-ST"; 


$1*8,926 

11 

33S.180 
39*^159 


837,230 

is; 

85,312 
64,284 


Percent. 
29.31 


Fiscal years-Con. 


1232,569 


126,832 

^513 

44,620 
109,737 
























Calendar years: 

























TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



27 



Manufactures of asbestos — Domestic exports {fiscal years). 



Exported to— 



Austria-Hungary 

Belgium 

Denmark 

France 

Germany 

Netherlands 

United Kingdom 

Canada 

Honduras 

Panama 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Venezuela 

British India 

Japan 

Australia 

Philippine Islands. . . 
All other 

Total 



1910 



$2,016 
8,748 
1,004 
4,304 

23,829 
2,997 

17, 135 

103,699 

51 

12, 145 

43,846 

36,550 
902 
3,365 
1,157 
2,039 
8,576 
3,300 

17,953 



293,616 



1911 



18,832 

740 

6,011 

27,284 

3,177 

37,140 

171,582 

59 

, 6,399 

tW, WW 

45,116 

3,665 

845 

642 

2,013 

7,530 

6,654 

27,240 



388,833 



1912 j 

1 


1913 


$704 


$2,160 


4,483 


6,700 


3,425 ' 


6,240 


8,529 1 


4,686 


16,906 1 


11,327 


6 101 1 


4,331 


59,038 


85,018 


273,376 


342,294 


248 


605 


7,860 1 


4,915 


38,311 j 


61,470 


30,885 


44,779 


1,103 


3,760 


521 i 


807 


1,125 


228 


3,101 1 


5,518 


15,738 1 


20,736 


8,497 


24,150 


40,943 


58,690 


520,894 i 

! 


688.414 



1914 



$925 

9,509 

9,375 

10,902 

11,507 

6,404 

125,452 

271,919 

5,985 

5,826 

39,056 

44,811 

11,947 

11,358 

27,002 

3,209 

19,076 

21,674 

51,136 



687,073 



1915 



$94 

12,387 

10,030 

591 

69,551 

114,881 

130,083 

3,431 

5,956 

19,990 

42,564 

4,788 

2,201 

1,221 

15,966 

18,900 

10, 115 

72,278 



535,027 



Exported to— 



Austria-Hungary . . 

Belgium 

Denmark 

France 

Netherlands 

United Kingdom.. 

Canada 

Honduras 

Panama 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Venezuela 

British India 

Japan 

Australia 

Philippine Islands. 
All other 



Total. 



1916 



$15,596 

10,092 

1,932 

118, 188 

215,216 

1,931 

95,208 

40,946 

133,281 
20,982 
3,991 
14,998 
27,943 
40,761 
13,667 

264,321 



1,019,083 



1917 



1918 



$484 

39,508 

1,855 

79,355 

452,201 

2,905 

83,655 

60,498 

271,441 

36,506 

9,363 

6,533 

68,336 

42,304 

13,070 

334,423 



$88,173 



106,875 

611,299 

2,485 

34,852 

98,459 

350,015 

60,570 

9,163 

53,265 

136,977 
62,622 
44,203 

453,763 



1,502,437 2,112,721 



1919 



$175 

12,553 

115,547 

9,366 

72,064 

926,081 

2,896 

58,845 

276,282 

244,045 

155, 519 

11,282 

38,483 

188,914 

95,160 

77,083 

1,027,170 



3,311,465 



* Figures are for calendar year. 

ASBESTOS TEXTILES. 

Asbestos yam and woven fabrics — Summary table — Values. 



19191 



$12,735 

40,428 

22,527 

84,074 

51,237 

101,507 

879,091 

1,533 

63,797 

258,153 

465,973 

137,390 

11,970 

48,146 

166, 102 

105,798 

98,753 

982,764 



3,531,978 



• 

Fiscal year. 


Imports 
for con- 
sumption. 1 


Domestic 
exports.!* 

$293,616 
388,833 
520,894 


Amount 
of duty. 


Actual or 

equivaleut 

ad valorem 

rate. 


1910 


$91,946 

83,661 
96,758 
94,562 

114,978 
35,770 
25,193 
23,208 
7,918 
39,630 

187,816 


$36,778 
33,464 
38. 595 


Per cent. 
40.00 


1911 


40.00 


1912 


40.00 


1913 


688,414 1 37,824 
687, 073 < 27. 129 


40.00 


1914 


4 23.92 


1915 


535,027 
1,019,083 
1,502,437 
2,112,721 
3,311 465 
3,631,978 


7,153 
5,037 
4,641 
1,583 
7,926 
37,563 


20.00 


1916 


20.00 


1917 


20.00 


1918 


20.00 


1919 — Domestic production » 


20.00 


1919 i 


20.00 







I Fiscal years ending June 30. 
« Includes aU manufactures of asbestos. 

» $60,000,000 to $70,000,000 annually. Estimated, C. J. Stover, Asbestos Textile Manufactiurers Asso- 
ciation; includes also products manufactiwed of yarns and woven fabrics. 

* Change in rate of outy, by act of 1913, from 40 per cent to 20 per cent. 

* Calendar year. 



28 tariff information surveys. 

General Information. 

tariff act of 1913. 

ParaffravJi 867. — Manufactures of * * *, asbestos * * *, or 
of which these substances, or any of them, is the component mate- 
rial of chief value, not specially provided for in this section, 10 per 
cent ad valorem; yarn and woven fabrics composed wholly or in 
chief value of asbestos, 20 per cent ad valorem. 

DESCRIPTION AND USES. 

Asbestos textiles are valued chiefly on accoimt of their heat- 
resisting qualities and their durability. 

The basis of all asbestos textiles is asbestos yarn. This yarn is 
made from asbestos crudes and fibers, often mixed with cotton to 
add strength and lessen expense. Frequently in twisting the yarn 
very fine brass or copper wii^e is used, which gives the material 
greater durability under certain conditions. 

Practically all of the asbestos yarn is made by doubling two or 
more strands of spun asbestos together, as single yarns are not very 
satisfactory, owing to the fact that asbestos nbers are so lacking in 
uniformity that an even twist can not be given throughout the entire 
length of a single yarn. As many strands can be twisted together as 
mav be desired — up to eight ply. 

A standard method of numbering asbestos yarns was adopted by 
asbestos manufacturers of the United States in 1907 bv which the 
number of yards per pound divided by 100 indicates the number of the 
yarn. Thus, yarn running 100 yards per pound would be No. 1; 
200 yards per pound, No. 2; and so on up to 3,000 yards per pound 
for No. 30. British standards of asbestos yarns are arbitrary and 
do not compare with these numbers. 

The yarn is woven into cloth, tape, and listing, from which are 
made theater curtains, gloves, clothing, high-pressure steam packing, 
bushings, gaskets, brake-band linings, tubing. The cloth is used for 
filtering acids, alkalies, gases, etc. One of the most recent uses of 
asbestos cloth is in the making of noninflammable mail bags for the 
aerial mail service. * 

Tapes or linings are used for brake-band linings, for insulating 
armatures and field coils, for wiping tin plates, for insulating pipes 
on locomotives, etc. 

Tubings are used chiefly for primary electric cable insulation. 

Brake-band linings are used on automobiles, trucks, tractors, hoists, 
cranes, etc., where high friction resistance and nonburning material 
are needed. They may be made from tapes woven from asbestos 
metallic yarns, or of asbestos cloth, frictioned, folded, and stitched. 

Steam packings are used wherever steam is generated and trans- 
mitted for the packing of piston rods, stuflSng boxes, for gasketing 
flanges, manholes, handholes, etc., also in connection with pumping 
machinery, handling oils, acids, alkalies, and gases. 

Importance of asbestos in textiles, — Asbestos is noteworthy as being 
the only known mineral possessing a fiber which can be spun into 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 29 

yaxn and woven into cloth. Its fire-resisting properties are not found 
in any other material. The articles mentioned are practically indis- 
pensable for their particular purposes; without them industry would 
DC seriously handicapped. For such purposes there is no substitute. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCTION. 

Accurate data on domestic production are not at hand. Statistics 
for the industry by the United States Census Bureau do not give 
separate data for tne textile branch of the industry. It is known, 
however, that this branch of the domestic industry has had an 
extensive development in recent years. 

There are 17 establishments in the United States making yarns, 
woven fabrics, tapes, tubing, etc. The capital investment in 13 of 
these establishments is estimated at approximately $15,000,000 and 
their annual output at $35,000,000 at factory.^ 

In making the above estimate only those concerns engaged in the 
conversion of raw asbestos into finished yarns, cloths, tapes, tubings, 
etc., were considered. In addition to this group and including the 
major production of the 17 establishments is another group of finish- 
ers, such as the large manufacturers of packings, brake linings, etc. 
These concerns take the product of the textile mills and convert it 
into ordinary articles of commerce. It is estimated that the value 
of finished products ultimately sold to consumers by finishers of brake 
linings, packings, etc., together with that part of the textile produc- 
tion sold direct to consumers by textile producers, amounts to ap- 
proximately $60,000,000 to $70,000,000. 

Materials, — The principal raw material used in the manufacture 
of asbestos textiles is asbestos, crude and mill fiber, though cotton, 
flax, rubber, and copper and brass wire are emploj'-ed in connection 
with asbestos in the manufacture of some articles. 

^'Unmanufactured'' asbestos, as it comes on the market, has been 
separated from adhering rock and is composed of fibers graded accord- 
ing to length. The longer fibers that can be picked out by hand are 
sold as ''crude.'' Crude asbestos is divided into two grades, fibers 
over three-fourths inch long and fibers from five-sixteenths to three- 
fourths of an inch in length. The flaky fibrous substance that im- 
pregnates the rock in asbestos deposits is found in much larger 
quantities than the crude and makes up the greater part of the 

E reduction. This is separated by a process of miUing and is generally 
nowji as "fiber" or "mill fiber." Mill fiber is separated into three 
grades, Nos. 1, 2, and 3. Of these three grades only No. 1, by virtue 
of having the longest fiber, is suitable for spinning. The other two 
grades are used for paper stock. 

Canada has always teen the chief source of supplv, though a con- 
siderable portion oi the spinning fiber is mined in ^outh Airica and 
in Arizona. In 1918 the United States received about 95 per cent 
of the tot^l Canadian marketable production, or 134,813 short tons. 
From 2 to 4 per cent of the Canadian asbestos consists of the crude 
grades. The amount of marketable Canadian asbestos from the mill 

» Data secured by correspondence. 



30 TAEIFF INFORMATION SUKVEYS. 

rock (that remai Log after the crude has heen extracted) will average 
from 7 to 10 per cent.^ 

Considerable quantities of asbestos have of late years been obtained 
by this coimtrv from Africa. The African mineitd is of two distinct 
types: Crysotile or serpentine, a white asbestos produced in Rhodesia, 
and crocidolite, a blue- asbestos produced in C^e Colony. The white 
mineral has exceptionally long, strong, fibers, which are used in 
spinning. Blue asbestos, on tne other hand, forms the basis of a 
durable non-heatconducting pii>e covering, while as a filtering mate- 
rial, jointing and packing, m connection with acid plants, it is unex- 
celled. Recent developments have demonstrated tne adaptability of 
blue asbestos fiber to spinning operations. Practically all the impor- 
tation from South Africa consists of crude fiber. 

Arizona asbestos is classified as (1) fine, soft, silky, spinning fiber 
of first-class spinning quality, or (2) as harsh fiber not suitable for 
textile manufacture. Although the second grade may have great 
length, it is harsh and brittle, and when put through textile processes 
creates a good deal of *' splint," which makes a rough looking yam, 
altogether unsuited for textiles of the finer grades. The smaller per- 
centage of iron contained in the best grade of Arizona fiber, wnen 
ccjinpared with Canadian fiber, makes the Arizona asbestos especially 
useful for electric insulation. 

Small quantities of asbestos were imported annually from Russia 
prior to 1916. Though Russian asbestos deposits may be regarded 
as second only to those of Canada, conditions since the war lor the 
time being have practically cut off supplies from that source. 

Receipts of crude and mill fiber during the war were insufficient, and 
for several vears after the war available asbestos has been barelv 
sufficient to take care of the demand. Over 99 per cent of the 
available supply comes from Canada and South Africa, Other acces- 
sory material are obtainable in sufficient quantities from American 
producers and jobbers. 

Equipment. — ^All machinery employed by asbestos manufacturers 
in this country is of American make, and in quality is fairly com- 
parable to foreign machinery. European manufacturers to a large 
extent emplov second-hand cotton machinery, or cotton-waste 
spinning machinery. English manufacturers make more use of 
cot ton- waste methods in spinning than do American manufacturers. 

Methods of production. — Practically the same methods, with but 
minor differences, adopted in general textile operations are em- 
ployed in producing asbestos textiles. Power and automatic machin- 
ery are used in about the same proportion as in yarn and cotton 
mills. 

Xo child labor is employed in the domestic industry. Male labor 
is used in crushing, mi x ing, and calendering, and considerable female 
labor in spinning and twisting. There is little hand labor. 

Onjanization. — The efficient conduct of the industry requires a 
minimum investment for each factorv of approximately $200,000 to 
$300,000 and considerable free capital for the purchase of raw mate- 
rials and the extension of credit. 

Although the market for asbestos textile products is confined chiefly 
to the engineering trades, it is relatively large and expanding rapidly. 

t r»i*»Aimn Wxang Joonial, Mar. 1, 191S> p. 90. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 31 

Oeographical distribution, — ^There are seven asbestos textile plants 
in Pennsylvania, two in Massachusetts, two in New Jersey, two in 
South Carolina, and one each in North Carolina, Indiana, Ohio, and 
CaUfomia. 

Domestic production and consumption, — ^The manufacture of asbestos 
textile products comes, properly, under two heads: (1) The conver- 
sion of unmanufactured asbestos into yams and the weaving of yams 
into cloths, tapes, tubings, etc. — products of the textile mills and, 
(2) the making of various articles from products of the textile mills. 

Official statistics of domestic production are not available. An 
estimate in 1920 places the annual production of the former group at 
$35,000,000, and of the two groups combined at $60,000,000 to 
$70,000,000.^ To avoid duplication in arriving at the latter figure, 
consideration was given only to the amounts sold direct to consumers 
by each of the two groups. 

The production capadty of American manufacturers is sufficient 
to supply domestic demands, and curtailment of production has 
been occasioned only by insufficient supplies of raw materials. 

The consumption of asbestos products per capita in the United 
States far exceeds that of any other country, and it is generally 
accepted that the total American consumption is greater than the 
combined consumption of all other countries. Fully 50 per cent of 
the output of asbestos textiles in the United States is consumed in 
the automobile industry. 

Domestic exports, — Separate statistics of exports of asbestos 
textiles are not available, these articles being included by customs 
officials with other kinds of asbestos manufactures. Exports of all 
kinds of asbestos manufactures were first recorded in 1910, amount- 
ing in that year to $293,616. During the following years, except 
1914 and 1915, there were substantial annual increases which reached 
the maximum of $3,569,932 in the fiscal year 1920. The large 
demand for asbestos products abroad during the war continued after 
the cessation of hostilities. 

The United States exports substantial amounts to many foreign 
countries, including practically all countries of importance. The 
largest amounts, however, go to Canada, Cuba, and the United 
Kingdom. 

Customs export records have never differentiated between various 
kinds of asbestos manufactures, but it is believed that there has 
never been any considerable volume of exported asbestos textiles. 

FOREIGN PRODUCTION. 

The principal foreign countries producing asbestos textiles are 
Englana, Germany, Austria, and Italy. England is by far the most 
important. 

Capital invested in the industry in foreign countries is stated, bv 
American manufacturers, to be approximately as follows: Englandf, 
$25,000,000; Germany, $14,000,000; Austria, $25,000,000; and 
Italy, $1,000,000.* 

In textile goods British manufacturers have maintained a high 
standard of efficiency, due to their greater experience in the manu- 

* Data from correspondence in Tariff Commission's files. 

< C. J. Stover, Ameritan Asbe:^tos Manufacturers Assxiation. 



32 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

f acture of textiles and their supremacy in the spinning of yarn. Ger- 
many, chiefly by virtue of cheap labor, was able to meet competitive 
conditions and produce yam on a large scale. The output per 
machine was less, and the quality was generally inferior to that of 
British make. Mules were employed to a considerable extent 
enabling the use of somewhat shorter fiber, but Germany was unable 
to compete with the British spinners in the same q^uality of product. 

British manufacturers are large users of Rhodesian fiber, which is 
much cheaper than Canadian — the fibers chieflv used in America. 
American manufacturers prefer the Canadian asbestos because they 
have found it easier to spin. The Rhodesian fibers, being exception- 
ally smooth, incline to slip by one another when twisted m the 
spinning operation. Britisn spinners have overcome the difficulties 
in spinning this material by mixing it with a small percentage of 
Canadian fiber to increase tne friction. 

One or two American manufacturers use Rhodesian fiber, but 
broadly speaking they are dependent upon Canadian asbestos for 
their raw material, whereas, it is estimated,^ 60 to 80 per cent of the 
spinning fiber used in England is Rhodesian and South African. 

On account of the difference in grading, it is impossible to make a 
detailed comparison of the cost of Rhodesian and Canadian fibers. 
It may, however, be said that No. 1 Rhodesian is practically equal to 
No. 2 Canadian crude, and sells for from 30 to 50 per cent less per 
ton. A machine will spin practically the same lengths of Rhodesian 
and Canadian yarns per aay, but the weight of the product from 
Rhodesian material is about 20 per cent less. Since yarn is usually 
sold by weight, the apparent output is reduced by one-fifth when 
operating in Rhodesian fiber in spite of the fact that Rhodesian 
fioer actually runs a little faster through the cards, due to its greater 
flexibility and freedom from dust.^ 

Of the eight firms in the United Kingdom that spin asbestos 
yam the three largest furnish the bulk of the output. These firms 
also engage in the manufacture of heavy products, such as slates and 
millboards, as well as packings, coverings, and finished textiles. 
All three of these firms own mines in Rhoaesia or South Africa and 
can bill their own consumption at cost. 

Definite statistics of recent English production are difficult to 
secure, and the last official EngUsh census was taken 13 years ago — 
in 1907. A personal investigation of the situation in England by an 
agent of the Tariff Commission indicates that the total output of all 
classes of asbestos products is several times larger in the United 
States than in England. 

IMPORTS. 

The largest importations of asbestos textiles made in any fiscal 
year prior to the war occurred in 1914 ($114,978). After the begin- 
ning of hostilities in Europe (August, 1914) imports decreased greatly, 
reaching their lowest point in the fiscal year 1918 ($7,918). After 
the cessation of hostilities a speedy recovery took place, so that by 
the expiration of the fiscal year 1920 the importation ($411,048) 
was large? than during any previous 12 months period. The larger 

5 Paul M. Tyler, special agent to Englauf; of the United StatesTariff Commission. 



TARIFF INFOKMATION SURVEYS. 33 

amount was due somewhat to increased prices but mostly to the 
lai^er quantities of both yam and woven fabrics imported. 

fn recording imports by countries, American customs officials do 
not distinguish between textiles and other products of asbestos. 
Official import statistics, however, indicate that of asbestos manufac- 
tures of all kinds imported the United States received by far the 
largest amoimts from England — France and Canada being the 
only other coimtries of importance — the percentages for these three 
countries of the total in 1919 being 63, 21, and 16, respectively. 
Prior to 1915 the principal countries of origin in order of importance 
were England, Germany, and Austria-Himgary. 

Imports of asbestos textiles are largely (me to greater cheapness of 
the foreign article. 

PRICES. 

Comparison of American and British yams is extremely difficult, 
since different ratings are used. Yams, nowever, are sold by weight 
in both countries. 

Asbestos metallic yams of closely similar quality sold in the 
United States in October, 1919, at 85 cents per pound, and in England 
at 45 to 50 cents per pound. Prices of other textiles products in 
England on the same date averaged roughly one-half those obtained 
in me United States with some as low as one-third the price in the 
latter country. The prices given in the statistical tables infra are 
for uncontracted lots and do not represent the prices received by 
manufacturers for the bulk of their product which is sold generally 
imder contract at much less (frequently 25 to 40 per cent) than the 
quoted prices for small lots. 

TARIFF HISTORY. 

No tariff changes were made in the duty on asbestos manufactures 
of all kinds (25 per cent ad valorem) from 1883 to 1909. 

The act of 1909 distinguished between woven fabrics and other 
manufactures of asbestos, and raised the duty on the former product 
from 25 per cent to 40 per cent ad valorem. 

The act of 1913 separated all asbestos textiles from other asbestos 
products bv specifically mentioning ''yam and woven fabrics com- 
posed wholly or in chief value of asbestos " and the duty was fixed at 
20 per cent. The duty on manufactures of asbestos was reduced 
to 10 per cent. In the fiscal year 1914, after the new law had been 
in operation only 9 months, the value of imports increased 22 per 
cent and the revenue derived decreased 28 per cent. 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS. 

Among the branches of the asbestos industry, foreign competition 
in the American market is keenest in textiles. These products are 
costly and transportation is a minor item. Practically the. only 
foreign manufacturers ^ho have sold any considerable quantity of 
asbestos products in the United States are those of England and Ger- 
many. After 1^14, during the World War, Germany was not a 
factor in the trade. Even so late as the spring of 1921, German 



34 TARIFF INFOBMATIOiJ SURVEYS. 

producers had not resumed the manufacture of asbestos products 
on an extensive scale. England is the chief competitor of this 
coimtry. 

The methods of manufactm*e in the United States and England 
are practically the same, but American machinery is run at greater 
speed and the output per operative is greater in tms coimtry. How- 
ever, the gain in production is partly oflFset by more rapid deprecia- 
tion of machines. 

British manufacturers have some advantage in the production of 
asbestos yam, chiefly on accoimt of their more extended use of 
Rhodesian or South African fiber which costs less in the open market 
than the Canadian. Moreover, since the three largest producers of 
asbestos manufactures in England are mine owners (in either Rho- 
desia or South Africa) they can bill the raw material to themselves 
at cost. Rhodesian and South African fiber is procurable in the 
United States at practically the same price as in the open market 
in England and is much cheaper than Canadian fiber w^ch is used 
almost exclusively by most American manufacturers. The use in 
this country, however, of Rhodesian and South African fiber has in- 
creased rapidly in the last two or three years as American spinners 
have gained experience in the manipulation of the smoother fiber. 
The British advantage as regards raw material costs will tend to 
disappear, since it is chiefly due to the larger substitution of Rho- 
desian asbestos for the more costly Canadian material. American 
establishments owning mines in Canada are not as subject to these 
conditions as are those which do not own mines. With the wider 
adoption of Rhodesian fiber Canadian producers may be forced to 
reduce prices to meet competition not hitherto experienced. 

British manufacturers express the opinion that they can not 
compete with manufacturers in the United States, but may sell 
certain products in the United States, provided domestic manu- 
facturers maintain prices at levels which bear no relation to cost of 
production. British prices are from two and one-haK to three times 
nigher than they were before the war, whereas American prices, which 
in 1914 were not greatly higher than British prices, plus the duty of 
25 per cent, are now from two to three times those obtained in 
England. The profit in the turnover of British plants was recently 
estmiated to average about 15 per cent.® 

It is announced that Turner Bros. Asbestos Co. (Ltd.), one of the 
largest British firms, is to build a plant in the United States. That 
company claims that the cost of producing yarn and other asbestos 
proaucts in the United States is much less than the combined cost of 
producing these articles in England and shipping them to this country. 
It is said that the construction of the plant is only delayed by diflBculty 
in getting building material and labor.* 

ft is given as the opinion of United States manufacturers that 
some understanding exists between English manufacturers whereby 
English textiles are offered in the United States at lower prices than 
are asked for the same goods in England, for instance, that an article 
selling in England at 70 cents is offered in the United States at 60 
cents. It is further stated that instead of making, say, 20 per cent 
profit in England, English manufacturers will sell for a profit of 

« Paul M. Tyler, special agent to England of the United States Tariff Commission. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



35 



10 or 5 per cent, and sometimes without profit, to users in the United 
States. 

Definite statistics of wages paid in the asbestos industry are not 
available. Wages paid in the past in the manufacture of asbestos 
textiles were lower in Englana than in the United States. The 
different processes employed in the manufacture of asbestos and 
cotton textiles are almost identical and wages paid in the latter 
industry indicate to a certain extent the rates paid in the asbestos 
industry. 

About two-thirds of the operatives in the English asbestos textile 
mills are women. In April, 1921, the standard wage for the chief 
classes of workers in spinning and weaving was 45 to 50 shillings per 
week of 48 hours, but this was later reduced, in at least one establish- 
ment, to 36 shillings (about $7.20). About one-third of the workers 
are men whose wages, at the same time, ranged from £3 12s. to 
£4 (about $14 to $16) according to the character of work per- 
formed. Loom fixers and machinists were earning from £4 to £4 10s. 
(about $16 to $18). Eighty-spindle machines are used for spinning, 
each operator (female) tending one bank of 40 spindles. The speed 
is regulated by the strength of the fiber. British asbestos workers 
have no separate organization but most of them are members of the 
National Union of General Workers which has a membership of some 
1,250,000 among more or less unskilled workers in a wide range of 
trades. The British manufacturers formed a pool for the purchase of 
raw materials and assisted in the production of munitions during 
the war. In 1920 this pool was revived and promises to be an impor- 
tant factor in the trade as it comprises all out one of the manufac- 
turers and controls fully 90 per cent of the product. Its functions 
are to regulate prices, to act as an Employers' Association in 
dealing with the workers, and otherwise to promote joint interests. 
Price reductions made in the spring of 1921 were drastic and, in many 
cases, the products were sellmg at materially less than production 
costs. 

Total asbestos yam and woven fabrics, composed wltolly or in chief value of asbestos — 

Imports for consumption — Revenue, 



Fiscal year. 



1910. 
1911. 
1912. 



1913. 
1914. 



1915. 
1916. 
1917. 
1918. 
1919. 
1920. 



Rate of duty. 



40 per cent 

do 

do 

Duty remitted, 

section 19 

40 per cent 

do 

20 per cent 

Duty remitted, 

section 4, J 5 

20 per cent 

do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



$01,946 
83,661 
96,488 

270 
94,562 
22,223 
91,203 

1,552 
35,770 
25,193 
23,208 

7,-918 

39,630 

411,048 



Duty 
collected- 



$36,778 
33,464 
38,605 



37,824 

8,889 
18,240 



7,153 
5,037 
4,641 
1,583 
7,926 
82,210 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Per cent, 
40.00 
40.00 
40.00 



40.00 
40.00 
20.00 



20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 



36 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Yam composed wholly or in chief value ofasb^tos — Imports for consumption — Revenue, 



Fiscal year. 



19141. 
1916.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
191B.. 
1919.. 
1920.. 



Rate of duty. 



20 percent. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Quantity. 



Value. 



$1,282 
2,616 
1,629 

19,638 

5,250 

1,225 

180,759 



Duty 
collected. 



$256 

'623 

325 

3,927 

1,050 

245 

36,152 



Value per 

unitM 
quantity. 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valwem 

rate. 



Pertmt. 
2a 00 
20.00 
20.00 
2a 00 

2a 00 
2a 00 
2a 00 



1 Oct. 3, 1913, to June 30. 1914; prior to June 30, 1914, included in "Woven fabrics composed wholly or 
in chief value of asbestos.'* 

Woven fabrics composed wholly or in chief value of asbestos — Imports for consumption — 

Revenue, 



Fiscal year. 



1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1912. 

1913. 
1914. 
1914. 
1914. 

1915. 
1916. 
1917. 
1918. 
1919. 
1920. 



Rate of duty. 



40 per cent 

do 

do 

Duty remitted, 

section 19. 

40 per cent 

do 

20 per cent 

Duty remitted, 

section 4, J 5. 

20 per cent 

do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



$91,946 

83,661 

96,488 

270 

94,562 

22,223 

89,921 

1,552 

33,154 

23,564 

3,570 

2,668 

38,405 

230,289 



Duty 
collected. 



$36,778 
33,464 
38,505 



37,824 

8,889 
17,984 



6,630 

4,712 

714 

533 

7,681 

46,058 



Valur per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Percent. 
40.00 
40.00 
40.00 



4a 00 

4a 00 
2a 00 



20.00 
20.00 

2a 00 

20.00 

2a 00 
2a 00 



Asbestos yams and woven fabrics — Average prices paid by consumers in 1920, 

[Asbestos; published monthly at Philadelphia, Pa.] 



Month. 



January... 
February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August.... 
September 
October... 
November. 
December. 



Yams, 10s. 
commttxdal. 



Per pound, 
$l.ia-$1.40 
1.25- 1.75 
1. 25- 1. 75 
1.25- 1.75 
1. 25- 1. 75 
1.35- 1.90 
1.35- 1.90 
1.35- 1.90 
1.35- 1.90 
1.35- 1.90 
1.35- 1.90 
1.35- 1.90 



Cloth, lOs, 
commercial. 



Per pound. 

$1.20-$1.50 
1.35- 1.90 
1.35- 1.90 
1.35- 1.90 
1.35- 1.90 
L50-2.00 
1.50- 2.00 
1.50-2.00 
1.50- 2.00 
1.50- 2.00 
1.50-2.00 
1.50-2.00 



Yams and 
cloth, speciaL 



Per pound, 
$1.50-$5.25 
1.75-5.25 
1.75-5.25 
1.75- 5.25 
1.75-5.25 
2.00-6.00 
2.00-6.00 
2.00-6.00 
2.00-6.00 
2.00-6.00 
2.00-6.00 
2.00-6.00 



TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



37 



Asbestos textiles — Rates of duty. 



Act of— 




1883. 
1890. 



1894. 
1897. 
1909. 

1913. 



367 



Tariff classification or description. 



Asbestos . manufactured 

Manufactures of * * * asbestos^ * * * or of which these 

sul»tances or either of them is the component material of chief 

value, not specially provided fen* in this act. 
Manufactures of * * * asbestos, * ♦ * or of which these 

substances or either of them is the component material of chief 

value, not specially provided for in this act. 
Manufactures of * * * asbestos, * * * or of which these 

substances or either of them is the component material of chief 

value, not specially provided for in this act. 
Manufactures of * * * asbestos, * * * or of which these 

substances or anv of them is the component material of chief 

value, not specially provided for in this section. 
Woven fabrics composed wholly or in chief value of asbestos. 
Manufactures of * * * asbestos, * * * or of which these 

substances or anv of them is the component material of chief 

value, not specially provided for in this section. 
Yam and woven fabrics composed whoUy or in chief value 
of asbestos. 



Rates of duty, specific 
and ad valorem. 



25 per cent ad valorem. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



Do. 



40 per cent ad valorem. 
10 per cent ad valorem. 



20 per cent ad valorem. 



CouBT AND Treasury Decisions. 

Woven fabrics composed wholly or in chief value of asbestos with 
a border to bind the edges, were held to come within the second 
clause of this provision m the act of 1909 for woven fabrics com- 
posed wholly or in chief value of asbestos, and not within the first 
clause as manufactures of asbestos. . (United States i;. ^ Grasselli 
Chemical Co., 5 Ct., Cust. Appls., 320.) Asbestos yam is dutiable 
under this paragraph and not free under paragraph 406 as unmanu- 
factured. (Abstract 39424.) 

ASBESTOS PACKINGS. 

General Information. 

tariff paragraph^ act of 1913. 

Par. 367. Manufactures of * * * asbestos, * * *, or of 
which these substances or any of them is the component material of 
chief value, not especially provided for in this section, 10 per cent ad 
valorem.^ 



T Includes all asbestos manufactures except yam and woven fabrics. 



38 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVRYS. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Asbestos packings are of two general types or classes. 

Class 1 . — Included in this class are all packings made from crudes 
and fibers by regular standard textile practice, viz, crushing, mixing, 
carding, spinning, weaving, treating. There are several different 
kinds of such packings: 

(a) Wick or rove packinqs are made from rovings produced by 
ordinary carding mac^nery^ the rovings being twisted to the desired 
diameter and density on wick and rope maSing machinery. They 
are used for emergency packings, for wiping tin plate, sheet steel, 
and other metals during the cooling period, and for general packing 
purposes in and near hot surfaces. 

(6) Braided or twisted packings are made of asbestos yarns, the 
yarns being twisted or braided on machinery employed throughout 
the general textile industry for such purposes. Braided or twisted 
packings are frequently graphited and lubricated. They are used 
for pacldng valve stems, small piston rods, and small steins of angle 
and globe valves, sight-feed lubricators, and the like. 

(c) Laid or high-pressure steam packings are made from asbestos 
cloth, rubber treated, cut to size in strips and laid or wound to desired 
finished size, either square, round, or oblong, and with or without 
rubber, wire, lead, or core. These are employed for general packing 
purposes, such as piston rods, stuffing boxes, and the hke, especially 
in service using high pressure and superheated steam. 

{d) Oaskets are made from rubber-treated asbestos cloth, cut in 
strips, folded, and formed to shape and size desired. They may be 
folded and tape jointed, or they may be made from asbestos tubings, 
the latter being tnown as seamless gaskets. Gaskets are used to seal 
joints on maimole or handhole openings of boilers, and at flanges 
in pipe lines, also at ports of gasoline motors. 

Class 2, — In this class are packings and gaskets made from com- 
pressed sheet. This compressed sheet is fabricated by mixing short 
asbestos fibers with binding and filhng materials. By compressij 
and a semivulcanizing process, a product, tough, semiresilient, am 
of the desired size and thickness is obtained. Compressed sheet 
packings are used for a great variety of purposes, principally for 
jointings in connection with internal-combustion motors. 

These packings are also employed for emergency uses, the engineer 
preferring to cut gaskets from a sheet of compressed packing rather 
that wait to secure gaskets of a given size from a supply house. 

Asbestos paper and millboard are used in considerable quantities 
for very hot joint packing in gas stoves, exhaust pipes, furnace 
covers, and other types of joints. The first cost of asbestos paper 
and millboard is less, but it is inferior to the regular compressed sheet 
packing. 

No important substitutes for asbestos packings are known, asbestos 
being the only permanent, elastic, heat resisting, and generally satis- 
factory material available for such purposes. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCTION. 

The capital invested in the manufacture of asbestos packings in the 
United States is roughly estimated at 825,000,000, and the value of 
the annual output at factory at $25,000,000. The Priorities Division 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 89 

of the War Industries Board gave manufacturers in this industry- 
class 4 rating, in 1918. 

Materials, — ^The principal raw materials are asbestos yam, asbestos 
cloth, asbestos fiber, rubber, and filler (china clay or similar material). 

Asbestos yam and cloth are obtained from domestic manufacturers 
of these articles and from Europe — principally England, Germany, 
and Austria, The grade of asbestos fiber employed in making com- 
pressed sheet packings is obtained chiefly in Canada, though some is 
imported from South Africa and relatively small quantities are mined 
in Arizona. Rubber aiad accessory materials are obtained in sufficient 
quantities in the United States. 

Supplies of asbestos yarn, asbestos cloth, and asbestos fiber avail- 
able and in sight are not always sufficient to take care of the demand. 
The United States is dependent on British-controlled territory for 
most of its supply of raw asbestos, as fully 99 per cent of the available 
supply is minea m Canada and southern Africa. There are extensive 
depjosits of asbestos in Russia, and before the European war the 
United States received small amounts from that country annually, 
but after 1915 conditions in Russia became such that all exportation 
to the United States ceased. 

Equipment, — ^All machinery employed in the domestic manufacture 
of asbestos packings is made by American machinery manufacturers 
and in point of quality is fairly comparable to foreign machinery. 

Methods of production, — Practically the same methods, with minor 
differences, are employed in the industry as in general textile opera- 
tions. All asbestos cloth used in the manufacture of packings is 
impregnated with rubber cement. Power and automatic machinery 
are used in about the same proportion as in general textile mills. 

Production is limited to some extent by the inabiUty of American 
manufacturers to obtain at all times sufficient supplies of asbestos yam. 
This condition is directly traceable to the limited supplies available 
of asbestos, crude and fiber, for which American manufacturers are 
almost wholly dependent on foreign sources. 

In the United States no child labor is employed. All work is done 
in the factories. Little hand labor is employed, and there is about 
the same use of skilled labor as in general textile mUls. 

Organization, — The efficient conduct of the industry requires a 
minimum investment of from $5,000 to $10,000 and considerable free 
capital for the purchase of raw materials and the extension of credit. 

The market for asbestos packings is confined almost wholly to the 
machinery trade. It extends to all parts of the United States and to 
foreign countries. 

The capital invested in the American industry, roughly estimated 
at $25,000,000, is divided among numerous concerns, some of which 
are also engaged in other branches of the asbestos industry. 

Geographical distribution. — The manufacture of asbestos packings 
is carried on mostly in States on the Atlantic coast. There are seven 

Principal factories in Pennsylvania, six in New York, three in New 
ersey, three in Ohio, and one each in Indiana, Connecticut, North 
Carolina, and South Carolina. 

History of the industry. — The American industry had its beginning 
in a very small plant in Connecticut about 35 years ago. From this 
beginning it has grown to about 23 iiriportant plants and numerous 
small concerns manufacturing chiefly other products. 



40 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

Domestic exports, — Official statbtics of the Department of Com- 
merce do not show separate compilations of exports of asbestos pack- 
ings. Some packings are being exported, but data showing amoimts 
or destinations are not available. 

FOREIGN PRODUCTION. 

Prior to the World War Germany, England, Austria, and Italy, in 
the order named, were the principal foreign producing countries, 
Germany being by far the most important. In style, size, and class 
foreign-made packings are similar to and inequality they compare 
favorably with American packings. 

IMPORTS. 

In compiling import statistics United States customs records do not 
differentiate between asbestos packings and '^ other manufactures of 
asbestos.'^ Imported amounts of asbestos packings therefore are not 
definitely known. However, it is the general opinion among manu- 
facturers and importers of these articles that asbestos packings are 
imported to a much less extent than asbestos yams and woven fab- 
rics, the total imports of which from 1915 to 1919 averaged slightly 
more than $26,000 annually. 

Prior to 1915 foreign asbestos packings were received chiefly from 
Germany, England, Austria, and Italy; after that year the war 
stopped exports from Germany, Austria, and Italy for tne time being, 
ana only England continued to ship to this country. 

PRICES. 

Comparable prices of certain classes of domestic and foreign 
asbestos packings are not available. 

Prices of asbestos packings in both domestic and foreign markets 
closely follow the prices of asbestos yarns; thus, when asbestos yarns 
are selling at, say, 85 cents per pound, asbestos packings also sell at 
85 cents per pound. The additional cost for labor in manufacturing 
and distributmg packing^ is compensated for by the reduced cost oi 
raw material in the finished product through the introduction of 
cheap filler compounds with the higher-priced asbestos. 

That asbestos packings sell at much lower prices in England than in 
America is indicated by the price of yarns in the two countries. 
Asbestos yarns closely similar m quality sold in the United States in 
October, 1919, at 85 cents per pound and in England at 45 to 50 cents 
per pound.® 

TARIFF HISTORY. 

Asbestos packings have never received special mention in any of 
the tariff acts. 

As no records are in existence showing annual importations it is 
not possible to discern the effect of the lower rate of duty on the 
volume imported or the revenue produced. It may be said, nowever, 
that as late as 1920 domestic production had not been checked by 
reason of the lower duty on imports of foreign packings into the 
United States under the act of 1913. 

> For prices of asbestos yams see i)age 36. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 41 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS. 

American manufacturers of asbestos products are almost entirely 
dependent upon foreign sources for crude asbestos. Most of this they 
obtain in Canada; the rest in Rhodesia and South Africa. Prior to 
1915 small amounts came from Russia, but this source of supply has 
been cut off for the time being. America uses nearly all of tne Cana- 
dian output. It was reported in 1918 that more than 95 per cent of 
the total Canadian production of asbestos was brought to the United 
States.® 

The principal foreign competii^ countries — Germany, England, 
and Austria — are not better supplied with deposits than the United 
States, though the world's principal asbestos deposits are in British- 
controlled territory — Canada, Rnodesia, and South Africa. There 
are no asbestos deposits in the British Isles, and English manufac- 
turers import practically all the mineral from South Afnca. Asbestos 
mined in Germany is suitable only for the manufacture of asbestos 
pulp,^° and, although the occurrence of asbestos in Austria has been 
reported," so far as ascertained no asbestos is mined in that country. 
Both Germany and Austria receive their supplies of the mineral 
mainly from Khodesian and South African deposits. / 

It has been possible to import forei^ packings for less than pre- 
vailing prices asked for American packmgs of similar grade. Never- 
theless domestic manufacturers have experienced little difficulty in 
disposing of their products at remunerative prices, although foreign 
packings are said to be as good in quality as, and in some cases better 
than, American packings. 

In recent years England has been the only country from which 
packings have been shipped to the United States, but the quantities 
nave been comparatively small and largely supplementary. The 
lack of severe Efnglish competition in the United States may be at- 
tributed to the great demand in English, colonial, and near-by Euro- 
pean markets. 

Germany and Austria, formerly the largest manufacturers of as- 
bestos packings, have been practically out of the American market 
since 1914. In Germany, at the outbreak of the war, stocks of raw 
asbestos were small. Imports were cut off and large supplies were 
necessary during the war. Since the war small quantities received 
from Holland and Switzerland have been inadequate to meet the 
demand. Supplies can be secured in other countries, but deliveries 
are extremely slow and prices so high that the prospect of German 
packings entering into competition with the American product in 
the United States is remote. In Austria the situation in the asbestos 
industry is similar to that in Germany. 

Other competitive conditions in the asbestos industry are outlined 
in the Tariff Commission's surveys on ^^ Asbestos, crude'' and *' As- 
bestos textiles.'' 

TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS. 

Although a large part of the asbestos packings imported are made 
of asbestos woven fabrics further advanced in manuiacture by being 
shaped and coated with rubber or other materials, they enter the 

» J. S. Diller in "Asbestos In 1918, " published by the U. S. CeoloFical Suney. 
""Asbestos," March, 1920, p. 12. 
»» Political and Commercial Control of the Mineral Besources of the World, No. 21, p. 8. 



42 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



United States as manufactures of asbestos at a duty of 10 per cent 
ad valorem, while asbestos woven fabrics, under the same paragraph 
(367) of the tariff^ act, are required to pay a duty of 20 per cent ad 
valorem. 

Though manufactures of asbestos have nothing in common with 
manufactures of amber, bladders, or wax, these articles are all in- 
cluded in the same paragraphs of the tariff law. 

All other manufactures of asbestos ' — Imports for consumption — Revenue, 



Fiscal year. 



1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1912. 

1913. 
1913. 

1914. 
1914. 
1914. 



1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1919 «. 
1920S. 



Rate of duty. 



Quantity. 



25i)orcent , 

do , 

do , 

Duty remitted, 

sec. 19. 

25 per cent 

Duty remitted, 

sec. 5. 

25 per cent 

10 per cent 

Duty remitted, 

sec. 4, J 5. 

10 per cent 

do 



Pounds. 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Value. 



Duty 
collected. 



$173,239 

207,393 

241,064 

358 

287,308 
9 

50,085 

223,942 

154 

196,799 

146,805 

46,231 

29,802 

69,565 

139,535 



$43,309 
51,848 
60,266 



71,827 



14,771 
22,394 



19,679 

14,680 

4,623 

2,930 

6,957 

13,954 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Percent. 



25 
25 
25 



25 



25 
10 



10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 



1 Includes all manufactures of asbestos other than yam and woven fabrics. 
* Calendar year. 

Asbestos packings — Average market prices per pound paid by consumer^ in 1920, 

[Asbestos, published monthly at Philadelphia, Pa.] 



Months. 



Wick 
and rope 
packing. 



January $0.65-$0.90 

February .65- .90 

March 66- .90 

April 65- .90 

May 65- .90 

Jime .65- 1.00 

July .65- 1.00 

August .65- 1.00 

September 65- 1.00 

October 65- 1.00 

November 65- 1.00 

December 65- 1.00 



High-pres- 
sure steam 
packing. 



$1.0O-$1.75 
1.00- 1.75 
1.00- 1.75 
1.00- 1.75 
1.00- 1.75 
1.25- 2.00 
1.25- 2.00 
1.25- 2.00 
1.25- 2.00 
1. 25- 2. 00 
1.25- 2.00 
1.25- 2.00 



Wire 

inverted 

sheet. 



$0.80-$1.50 

.90- 1.50 

.90- 1.50 

.90- 1.50 

.90- 1.50 

1.00- 1.50 

1.00- 1.50 

1.00- 1.50 

1.00- 1.50 

1.00- 1.50 

1.00- 1.60 

1.00- 1.50 



Listings 
and tapes. 



$1. 50-$6. 00 
1.75- 8.00 
1.75- 8.00 
1.75- 8.00 
1.75- 8.00 
1.75- 1.90 
1.75- 1.90 
1.75- 1.90 
1.75-10.00 
1.75-10.00 
1.75-10.00 
1.75-10.00 



TAKIFF INFOKMATION SURVEYS. 



43 



Asbestot pachingM — Rates of duty. 



Act of— 


Par. 


1883.... 
1890.... 


39 
459 


1894.... 


351 


1897.... 


448 


1909.... 


462 


1913.... 


367 



Tariff classification or description. 



Asbestos, manufactured .*. 

Manufactures of * * * amber, asbestos, bladders, * * * 
wax, or of which these substances or either of them is the com- 
ponent material of chief value, not specially provided for in this 
act. 

Manufactures of amber, asbestos, bladders, * * * wax, or of 

. which these substances or either of them is the component 
material of chief value, not specially provided for in this act. 

Manufactures of amber, asbestos, bladders, * * * or wax, or 
of which these substances or either of tnem is th component 
material of chief value, not specially provided for in this act. 

Manufactures of amber, asbestos, bladders, * * * or wax, or 
of which these substances or any of them is the copiponent 
material of chief value, not specially provided for in this section. 

Manufactures of amber, asbestos, bladders, or wax, or of which 
these substances or any of them is the component material of 
chief value, not specially provided for in this section. 



Rates of dutv, specific 
and ad valorem. 



25 per cent. 
25 per cent. 



26 per cent. 
25 per cent. 
25 per cent. 
10 per cent. 



Court and Treasury Decisions. 

Asbestos packing, not woven, comes within the 10 per cent rate 
in paragraph 367 of the act of 1913 as manufactures of asbestos, 
under the practice of customs officers at New York. 

•ASBESTOS PAPERS AND MILLBOARDS. 

General Information. 

tariff paragraph, act of 1913. 

Par. 367. Manufactures of * * *, asbestos, * * * or of 
which these substances or any of them is the component material 
of chief value, not specially provided for in this section, 10 per cent 
ad valorem. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Asbestos paper, as the name implies, is a paper made from asbestos 
fiber. It varies in thickness from about one one-hundredth to one- 
eighth inch. Thicknesses up to and including one-sixteenth inch are 
known as asbestos paper, and three thirty-seconds and one-eighth 
inch thicknesses are spoken of as '^roUboard." The width is gen- 
erally 36 inches, and the paper is put up in. rolls weighing approxi- 
mately 100 pounds each. 

Asbestos millboard is made of asbestos fiber with a small per- 
centage of cementing or sizing material, built up in thin layers in 
a manner similar to paper, in sheets 42 by 48 inches, and usually 
from one-sixteenth to one-half of an inch in thickness. 

The chief uses of asbestos paper and millboard are for high-pressure 
gaskets and packings, insulations, lining for stoves, air-cell pipe 
covering, roofing, building paper, and other purposes in the building 
trades. Probably the largest consumption is tor wrapping hot-air 
furnace pipes and risers, and for steam pipe coverings. 

Insulating material made of 85 per cent magnesia and 15 per cent 
asbestos; also hair felt, cork, and wood felt are competing articles 
for pipe coverings. Ordinary building paper, tar paper, etc., may 
also be considered substitutes for asbestos paper in building con- 
struction where fireproofing is not essential. 



44 TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCTION. 

The United States Census Bureau reports that in 1914 there were 
10 establishments in the United States manufacturing asbestos 
building materials — slates, sheathing, siding, air-cell covering, floor- 
ing, etc. — and other articles such* as mats, pads, holders for sad 
irons, rings, tapes, yams, cloths, packings for ice boxes and refriger- 
ator cars, friction and transmission facings and linings, and otner 
asbestos manufactures. As reported by the census for these 10 
estabhshments, the total capital was $2,723,000; the value of the 
products, $1,813,000; and the industry gave employment to an 
average of 651 employees with annual wages amounting to $329,000. 
The Tariff Commission, however, is credioly informed that in 1914 
at least 30 estabhshments manufactured these products and one 
concern alone reports that it employed 650 workers in that year. 

Asbestos paper and millboard occupy an important place in the 
asbestos industry. The manufacture of these articles is desirable 
owing to the fact that it permits the utilization in the same plant of 
short fibers and waste from spinning operations. The uses are 
varied and the products find ready sale on account of fire-resisting 
properties and insulating efficiency. 

Raw materials, — Asbestos paper is composed of from 90 to 95 per 
cent asbestos fiber and from 5 to 10 per cent binding material, con- 
sisting of starch, flour, cold-water paste, clay, or other fillers. 

Because of the greater cost of long asbestos fibers, only the short- 
fiber grades which are not suitable for spinning (ordinarily termed 
''paper stock") are used. These fibers are generally less than one- 
half inch in length, the average being approximately one-fourth inch. 
Shorter grades make an inierior paper, resulting in considerable 
breakage in the finished article. 

Neany all the pulp fiber used in the United States is imported 
from Canada free of auty. 

Methods of production. — Raw asbestos fiber, scrap asbestos, binding 
material, and water are placed in a beater and agitated until the 
fibers are separated and a smooth consistent pulp is obtained. From 
the " beater '^ the material is discharged into a stuff chesf of large 
capacity, in which the pulp is constantly agitated, so that as new 
'' beater '^ lots are fed into it a uniform mixture is made and small 
variations in individual '^beater" lots are prevented from appearing 
in the finished paper. From these '' stuff chests " the pulp is pumped 
into regulating boxes which control the quantity fed to the paper 
machine. From the regulating box the pulp goes to the ''flow box, " 
where additional water and the overflow from the "wet end" are 
added to bring the pulp to proper consistency for feeding into the 
"wet end." This "flow box" also serves to settle the sand and hard 

f>articles regularly found in commercial asbestos fiber as it comes 
rom the mines. The pulp then proceeds to the " wet end, " where it 
is deposited on revolving, screen-covered cylinders and in turn 
transferred from these cyRnders to a continuous woolen felt. The 
number of cylinders used, together with the speed of the machine 
and consistency of the asbestos pulp, determines the thickness of the 
asbestos sheet. A second woolen felt is f6d over the first, so that the 
pulp lies sandwiched between, and the surplus water is then squeezed 
out of the pulp by means of heavy press rolls which mat the fibers 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 45 

together. At the end of this "wet end" the contmuous sheet of wet 
asbestos paper passes over a long bank of steam-heated cylindrical 
driers. The moisture is gradually driven out of the wet paper by 
these driers and the dry sheet of asbestos paper is obtained. 

The sheet, usually 74 inches wide, is wound on storage rolls. From 
these large rolls the sheet is led through slitters which cut it into 
36-inch widths and then to the rewinders, where it is wound into rolls 
of approximately 100 pounds each. These rolls are taken off, 
wrapped, and headed and are ready for the market." 

In manufacturing asbestos millboard entirely different machines 
are used. The origmal mixture is similar, but continuous drums are 
not employed. The board is built up on a rectangular screen. When 
the required thickness is obtained, the material is partly dried by 
squeezmg in a hydraulic press. It is then stored in a drying room. 

In either case the direct labor involved is comparatively small, 
although somewhat greater in producing millboards. The methods 
of manufacture in me United States and in England are almost 
identical. Similar methods are doubtless employed in other foreign 
countries. 

Organization, — In 1920, asbestos paper was manufactured by 10 
concerns in 14 factories located ih the States of Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, and Wisconsin. 

History of the industry, — ^The manufacture of asbestos paper began 
commercially about 40 years ago, but its principal aevelopment 
has taken place during the past 25 years. Many experiments were 
made to manufacture suitable asbestos printing paper, but on accoimt 
of the difficulty of obtaining a smooth and even surface and the tend- 
ency of the material to absorb ink, like blotting paper, it was found 
to be not well adapted for this purpose. Early uses of asbestos 
paper were for ornamental wall paper and carpet linings. None of 
these uses has been developed in a practical way, but the manu- 
facture of asbestos paper has become a very important industry and 
it has found extensive uses in ways that were not foreseen by early 
investigators. 

The first paper made in the United States was manufactured by 
John Roberts & Son Co., in 1876, in a mill near Waltham, Mass. 
The material first used was imported from Italy. About three years 
later Canadian fiber was introouced; the shorter grades of fiber which 
would otherwise be wasted were used for the manufacture of paper 
and millboard and proved to be very satisfactory. For several years 
the product of this mill was sold through Rice Kendall, of Boston, 
Mass. From 1881 to 1900 the H. W. Johns Co., of New York, took 
the entire product, which was 300 to 700 tons a year. The latter 
company built their own asbestos mill at Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1900. 
Keasby & Mattison Co., of Ambler, Pa., began to manufacture in 
1897. Other early manufacturers were the Asbestos Paper Co., at 
Baldwinsville, Mass., and B. S. Binney, at Shirley, Mass. 

Domestic production and consumption. — Production in the United 
States has made tremendous strides, some plants manufacturing as 
much paper in a day as was made in an entire year 25 years ago. 
The average domestic production in the last three or four years nas 

»« From "Asbestos," published by Secretarial Service, Philadelphia, Pa., January, 1921. 



46 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

been about 25,000 to 30,000 tons a year, and the present plant 
capacity is much greater than these figures indicate. 

The bulk of the output is consumed in this country, and the exist- 
ing domestic manufacturing capacity is adequate to supply normal 
demands. 

Domestic exports, — OflScial statistics of exports do not distinguish 
between the various classes of asbestos manufactures, but it is known 
that the bulk of the exports under this classification consists of 
asbestos shingles and corrugated sheathing which are sold chiefly in 
Canada and Latin American countries. The statistical tables of 
exports of all classes of manufactured asbestos are given in the 
discussion of asbestos textiles, supra. 

FOREIGN PRODUCTION. 

Among the foreign producing countries only Canada, Great Britain, 
and Germany are of importance at the present time in the manu- 
facture of asbestos paper and millboard. Of these Canada is the 
only country in a position to compete successfully in the domestic 
market. However, that coimtr^r has but one small plant manu- 
facturing this product, whereas in the United Kingdom there are 
eight firais that manufacture asbestos paper and mulboard in con- 
nection with other asbestos products and two firms that manu- 
facture pnly heavy asbestos products under which paper and mill- 
board are classed. Heavy asbestos products of European origin are, 
however, practically eliminated from the American market because 
of transportation costs. 

IMPORTS. 

Oflicial statistics of the quantity and value of asbestos paper and 
millboard annually imported into the United States are not avail- 
able. Only small quantities of these articles made in foreign countries 
are sold in this coimtry and are the output of one Canaaian mill. 

PRICES. 

Prices quoted on asbestos millboard are usually the same as the 

{)rices quoted on asbestos paper, and vice versa, and vary but little 
rom month to month during the year. 

Prices paid in 1920 by consumers for commercial grades ranged 
from $10 to $15 per 100 pounds in January, from $12 to $18 djurmg 
February to November, inclusive, and $10 to $18 in December. 
For special grades the prices ranged from $15 to $35 per 100 pounds 
in January, $17 to $40 from February to May, inclusive, and $17 to 
$35 from June to December, inclusive. 

Prices of the Canadian products are practically the same as those 
obtaining in the United States, whereas British prices usually range 
somewhat lower. In January, 1920, the price of millboard m Eng- 
land was £55 per ton of 2,000 pounds, or approximately $10.45 per 
100 pounds (exchange at $3.80). 



TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



47 



Asbestos paper and millboards — Average market prices paid per 100 pounds by consumes 

in 1920. 



[Asbestos, published in Philadelphia, Pa.] 



Months. 



January... 
February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 
October... 
November. 
December. 



Paper. 


MiUboard. 


$10-115 


$10-$15 


12- 18 


12- 18 


12- 18 


12- 18 


12- 18 


12- 18 


12- 18 


12- 18 


12- 18 


12- 18 


12- 18 


12- 18 


12-T 18 


12- 18 


12- 18 


12- 18 


12- IS 


12- 18 


12- 18 


12- 18 


10- IS 


10- 18 



Paper and 

millboard, 

special. 



$15-135 
17- 40 
17-40 
17- 40 
17-40 
17-35 
17-35 
17- 35 
17-35 
17-35 
17- 35 
17- 35 



TABIFF HISTORY. 

Asbestos paper and millboard have never been specially mentioned 
in any of the tariff acts. 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS. 

In the manufacture of asbestos paper or millboard the main item 
is the cost of raw material — short asbestos fiber. Canadian fiber 
is the only variety that is used to any extent for this purpose either 
in the United States or Europe. South Africa and Rhodesia do not 
export any quantity of material suitable for the manufacture of these 
articles. Direct labor is a minor factor in cost, and, while some 
labor is needed to keep the automatic machinery in repair, differences 
in labor cost here and abroad are so small that they may be neglected 
m considering the strength of the domestic industrv. 

Next to raw materi^, transportation is probably the most im- 

Eortant item. The freight on raw material from Canada to the 
Tnited States and from Canada to Europe is nearly the same, but 
since most of the American factories are located near the Atlantic 
seaboard, they have advantages in the American market as compared 
with European manufacturers to the extent of the cost of shipment 
across the Atlantic. The development of the industry in Canada, 
close to the supplies of raw material, may, however, be a factor in 
the future. One plant has been established at Deschenes, Quebec, 
and is shipping some of its product into the United States. * 

Asbestos papers and millboards — Rates of duty. 



Act of 



1883. 
1890. 



1894. 
1897. 
1909. 



1913.... 



Par. 



39 
459 



351 
448 
462 



387 



Tariff classification or description. 



Asbestos, manufactured 

Manufactures of * * * asbestos, * * * or of which the^e 
substances or either of them is the component mat^ial of chief 
value, not specially provided for in this act. 

do '. 



....do 

Manufactures of ♦ * ♦ asbestos, * * * or. of which these 
substances or either of them is the component material of 
chief value, not specially provided for in this section. 

— do 



Rates of duty. 



25 per cent ad valorem , 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



10 per cent ad valorem. 



48 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

ASBESTOS AND COMPOSITION PIPE AND BOILER COVERINGS. 

General Information. 

tariff paragraph, act of 1913. 

Par. 367. Manufactures of * * *, asbestos, * * * or of 
which these substances or any of them is the component material of 
chief value, not specially provided for in this section, 10 per cent ad 
valorem. 

DESCRIPTION. 

• 

Asbestos and composition pipe and boiler coverings are manu- 
factures of non heat conducting and heat resisting materials used as 
coverings for heat generators and heat conductors. The principal 
ingredients are asbestos and magnesia. The coverings usually are 
prepared in tubes, blocks, or felt, or in a loose composition, as cement, 
to DC applied with a trowel. 

Some of the principal uses are for covering steam and hot water 
pipes, gas producing lines, and furnaces, in the manufacture of loco- 
motives and stationary boilers, stoves, and ovens, as a lining for 
smokestacks and steel safes, and as a filler between boiler tubes. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCTION. 

In 1920 there were at least 36 concerns in the Uilited States, dis- 
tributed in various States from New York to Calif omia, manufacturing 
asbestos and magnesia coverings. The total quantity or value of the 
annual output is not known. The American industry, however, 
supplies the bulk of these articles used in this country. 

naw materials. — ^Asbestos fiber, asbestos paper, magnesia, and 
cementing material of a mineral character are the materials used. 
The asbestos used in the industry comes mainly from Canada and 
enters this country free of duty. Asbestos paper is made in this 
country from short asbestos fiber and a binder paste. Magnesia is 
produced from dolomite rock or magnesite of domestic origm. The 
import duty on carbonate of magnesia is 1^ cents a pound; the raw 
materials, magnesite or dolomite, are free of duty. 

Equipment. — ^The machinery and other equipment used in the 
industry are manufactured in America in quantities sufl5.cient to meet 
all requirements. 

Methods of production. — Ashestos tubes are made of successive 
layers of asbestos paper separated by strips or dividers of the same 
material, forming a series of very small air spaces. The tube is made 
in 3-foot lengths and spht lengthwise, for easy application; or of 
successive sheets of corrugated and flat asbestos paper cemented 
together, in sections usually 3 feet long, covered with canvas and 
sput lengthwise. 

Ashestos blocks and lagging are made up of asbestos fiber with 
cementing material on the outside surfaces to hold the fibers together, 
or of successive sheets of corrugated and flat asbestos paper cemented 
together. The blocks are usually made 3 feet long, from 12 to 14 
inches wide, and from 1 to 3 inches thick. Lagging is made to 
templates as desired. Blocks are sometimes given a vitrifying 
treatment which renders the outside very hard and adds to the 
refractory character of the insulation. 



■J 






"■ri 



TABiyr rSTFORMATIOK SUItVEYS. 49 

Asbestos felt is made up of asbestos fibers, not pulped or molded, 
built up in layers by superimposing fiber upon fiber in sheets usually 
72 inches long, 3§ inches wide, and from one-eighth to 3 inches thick. 

Asbestos cement is made by mixing together asbestos fiber and bind- 
ing materials of a mineral character. Asbestos cement is ordinarily 
put up in bags containing 100 poimds. Magnesia cement, for use on 
irregular surfaces, is made of 85 per cent magnesia and 15 per cent 
asbestos, and is usually put up in bags containing 60 poimds. 

Magnesia coverings consist of 85 per cent ma^esia and 15 per 
cent asbestos fiber molded into the shapes reqiured for insulatmg 
various surfaces. 

The basic material is magnesium carbonate, which is produced in 
two ways: The eastern manufacturers secure magnesixun carbonate 
from dolomite rock (magnesian limestone), which is found in large 
quantities in the East. The rock is first calcined and then slacked 
with a large volume of water. The resulting product, which consists 
of mixed hydrates of lime and magnesia, is next subjected to a pourse 
of saturation by carbonic acid gas (a by-product of the process), 
which dissolves the magnesia^ leaving the lime. This magnesia 
solution is then filtered, boiled, and precipitated, producing pure 
carbonate of magnesia in the form of a mie white powder. The 
western manufacturers, to whom deposits of magnesite are more 
readily accessible than of dolomite, secure the magnesium carbonate 
from magnesite. The mined magnesite is first burned and then the 
magnesia is extracted by the process above described.^^ Asbestos 
fiber is added to the magnesia as a binder and to give it greater 
durability. 

Geographical distribution. — ^Thomas's Register of Manufacturers, 
1920, records 36 manufacturers of asbestos and magnesia pipe and 
boiler coverings in the United States, located in the States of New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Marvland, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, 
Wisconsin, Nebraska, Colorado, and California. 

Domestic production and consumption, — ^The amoimt and value of 
the total annual production and consumption are not known. The 
United States is the largest consuming coimtry of pipe and boiler 
coverings in the world. Some of the domestic product is exported, 
but most of it is consumed in this country. Manuf actiuing capacity 
is adequate for present needs, and a shortage in these articles could 
be caused only by a deficiency in asbestos, tne supply of which comes 
chiefly from Canada. 

Domestic exports. — Statistics are not available for exports of pipe 
and boiler coverings, as these articles are not separately Usted bv 
customs ofiScials. in the calendar year 1919 the total exports of all 
kinds of manufactures of asbestos amounted in value to $3,531,978, 
the product going to many foreign countries, chief among which were 
Canada, Cuba, and Mexico. 

FOREIGN PRODUCTION. 

The United Kingdom and Germany are the largest foreign pro- 
ducing coimtries of asbestos products (among which are asbestos 
pipe and boiler coverings), smaller quantities being produced in 

» From "Asbestos/' published by the Secretarial Service, Philadelphia, May, 1920. 



60 TABIFF KJTFOBIC^TIOK 6UBVBYS. 

^^^ • 

France and Italy. The annual output of the United States, howpver^ 
far surpasses that of either of these coimtries. Magnesia is made in 
England only from dolomite. The output is comparatively small 
and the prices are about the same as those obtaining in this coimtry. 
Germany is situated fairly favorable as regards magnesia suppUes 
owu^ to the production of magnesium sdts as a by-product of 
potash manufacture. 

IBfPOETS. 

Separate statistics of imports of the above mentioned articles are 
not compUed by American customs officials. The amounts are 
included under ''All other manufactures of asbestos," which embrace 
all imports of manufactures of asbestos other than yam and woven 
fabrics. 

In the calendar vear 1919 ''All other manufactures of asbestos" 
were imported to tne value of $69,565, the bulk of which came from 
England. Imports in 1920 were on a much larger scale. 

PRICES. 

Asbestos and composition pipe and boiler coverings are sold at 
discounts from the 1907 pipe-covering price hst. Asbestos cements 
are sold by weight, there being no standard list price. Asbestos 
felt is sold at discounts from the 1907 asbestos felt price Ust. 

In 1920 the discount on asbestos air-cell pipe covering was 40 
per cent untU May, after which it stood at 35 to 40 per cent during 
the remainder of the year. 

Discounts in 1920 on 85 per cent magnesia coverings ranged from 
5 to 12i per cent from "lisf during the four months irom February 
to May; from 5 to 15 per cent in June to October; and from 10 to 
20 per cent from "list in November and December. 

Prices of asbestos cement in 1920 ranged from $1.75 to $3 a bag of 
100 pounds. 

TARIFF HISTORY. 

Asbestos and composition pipe and coverings have never been 
specifically mentioned by name in any tariff act. 

COMPETITIVE CX)NDITIONS. 

Great Britain and Germany are the largest foreign producing 
countries of asbestos articles. These countries are not sdling pipe and 
boiler coverings in the American market to any considerable extent, 
and severe competition from Great Britain and Germany with the 
domestic product in this country is not expected. Manufacturers in 
the United States are largely dependent upK)n foreign sources for 
supplies of raw asbestos. However, Great Britain is entirely depend- 
ent on imports of this mineral and the deposits in Germany are not 
sufficient to supply the needs of German manufacturers. 

America's foreign supply comes mainlv from Canada and the rest 
from Rhodesia and South Africa. Nearly all the Canadian produc- 
tion is consumed in the United States; m 1918, more than 95 per 
cent of the total Canadian production was sold here. ^ Great Britain 
having no asbestos deposits in the British Isles, imports practically 



TARIFF INFORMATION STTBTBYS. 



51 



all this raw material from Rhodesia and South Africa; Germany 
also receives its foreign supplies from these sources. 

Rhodesian and South Airican asbestos are known for their long 
fiber, and are used chiefly in the manufacture of spun asbestos 
articles, whereas the greater part of Canadian asbestos is of short 
fiber, not suited for spinning. Long asbestos fiber finds little use 
in the manufacture of pipe and boiler coverings because of its greater 
cost. For that reason Canadian asbestos is mostljr employed in 
the production of these articles. Blue asbestos (crocidolite) is also 
somewhat used, particularly in England. 

Freight on asbestos raw material from Canada to Great Britain 
and Germany, plus freight on the finished product, practically 

{)revents much sale of pipe and boiler coverings m the United States 
rom these countries. 

In European countries there is considerable use of an asbestos 
covering which resembles rope. This is wrapped around pipes. 
Formed coverings, which are more cheaply apphed and at least 
equally eflficient, are almost exclusively used m tne United States. 

Asbestos and magnesia pipe covering/ — 1907 list price, per linear foot, 
[Data from the Franklia Manttfacturing Co., Franklin, Pa.] 



Pipe 81268. 


ItoU 
inch. 


li-inch. 


2-inch. 


l}to3 
inch. 


3^inch. 


linch 


10.22 

.24 

.27 

.30 

.33 

.36 

.40 

.45 

.60 

.60 

.65 

.70 

.80 

1.00 

1.10 

1.20 

1.30 

1.85 

2.10 

2.35 

2:60 

2.85 

3.30 

4.00 


10.46 

.40 

.52 

.56 

.60 

.64 

.70 

.76 

.82 

.88 

.94 

1.00 

1.10 

1.20 

1.85 

1.50 

1.65 

1.85 

2.10 

2.35 

2.60 

2.85 

3.30 

4.00 


«).76 
.80 
.85 
.00 
.95 
1.00 
1.05 
1.15 
1.25 
1.35 
1.45 
1.55 
1.70 
1.85 
2.00 
2.20 
2.40 
2.70 
3.00 
3.30 
3.60 
4.00 
4.50 
5.50 


$0.65 

.70 

.75 

.80 

.85 

.90 

1.00 

1.10 

1.20 

1.40 

1.50 

1.60 

1.80 

2.25 

2.50 

2.70 

2.90 

4.10 

4.60 

5.10 

5.60 

6.00 

7.00 

8.40 


$1.20 


finch 


1.35 


linch 


1.40 


11 inches. 


1.45 


il inches , 


1.55 


2 inches 


1.65 


2J inches 


1.75 


3 inches 


1.90 


3i inches 


2.0D 


4 inches 


2.20 


4% inches 


2.35 


5 Inches 


2.50 


6 inches 


2.70 


7 inches 


2.90 


8 inches 


3.15 


9 inches 


3.40 


10 inches 


3.65 


12 inches 


4.10 


14 inches 


4.60 


16 inches 


5.10 


18 inches 


5.60 


20 inches : . 


6.00 


24 inches 


7.00 


30 inches. 


8.40 







Asbestos and magnesia blocks and lagging — 1907 list price, per square foot. 
[Data from the Franklin Maniifactming Co., Franklin, Pa.] 



Thickness. 


Price. 


Thickness. 


Price. 


i inch 


10.30 
.30 
.30 
.30 
.34 
.38 
.42 
.45 
.49 
.53 
.57 
.60 


2i inches 


10.64 


-inch 


2 inches 


.68 


-inch 


2| inches 


.72 


-inch 


2i inches 


.75 


li inches 


2 inches 


.79 


1 Inches 


2 inches 


.83 


\i inches 


2{ inches 


.87 


1* inches 


3 inches 


.90 


1 inches 


3 J inches 


.98 


1 inches 


3i inches 


1.05 


1 inches 


3' inches 


1.13 


2 inches 


4 inches 


1.20 









52 



TABIFF INFORMATION SUEVEYS. 



Asbestos felt — 1907 list price, per sqiuirefot>t, 
[Data from the Franklin Manufacturing Co., Franklin, Pa.] 



Thickuess. 


Price. 


Thickness. 


Price. 


Thickness. 


Price. 


One-plv: 

yW inch 


$0.12^ 
.15 
.20 
.25 
.30 
.35 
.40 
.45 


Two-ply: 

linch 


$0.50 
.65 
.70 
.75 
.80 
.85 
.90 
.95 


Three-ply: 

2 inches 


$1.00 


inch 


1| inches 


2| inches 


1.15 


I inch *. 


It inches 


2 inches 


1.20 


' inch 


1| inches 


2: inches 


1.25 


inch 


li inches 


2 inches - 


1.30 


inch 


1 inches 


2 inches 


1.35 


inch 


1 inches 


2 inches... 


1.40 


^ inch 


1 inches 


2 inches 


1.45 






3 inches 


1.50 









Asbestos and composition pipe and boiler coverings — Discounts from standard price list 

paid by consumers in 1920. 

[Asbestos, published monthly at Philadelphia, Pa.] 



Months. 



January . 
February 

March 

April 

Atay 

June 



4-ply as- 
bestos air 
cell pipe 
covering. 



Per cent. 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
35-40 



85 per 
cent mag- 
nesia pipe 
covenng. 



Per cent. 
10 
5-12i 
5-12i 
5-12i 
5-12^ 
5-15 



Months. 



July 

August — 
September 
October... 
November, 
December. 



4-ply as- 
bestos air 
cell pipe 
covering. 



Per cent. 
35-40 
35-40 
35-40 
35-40 
35-40 
35-40 



85 per 
cent mag- 
nesia pipe 
covermg. 



Per cent. 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
10-20 
10- 2i) 



Asbestos cement — Average market prices, per hundredweight, paid by consumej s. 
(Data from Asbestos, published monthly at Philadelphia, Pa.] 



Months. 


1920 


Months. I .1920 ; 

1 i 


Months. 


1920 


January 


$2.00 
1.75@3.00 
1.75@3.00 
1.75@3.00 


May 


1.75@3.00 t 
1.75@3.00 ' 
1. 75@3. 00 


September 

October 


1. 75@3, 00 


February 


June 


1. 75@3. 00 


March 


July 


November 

December 


2. 50@3. 00 


April 


August 


1.75@3.00 \ 


2. 50@3. 00 









Rates of duty. 



Act of— 



1883. 
189«J. 



3894. 
1897. 
1909. 



1913. 



Par. 



39 
459 



351 
448 
462 



3G7 



Tariff classification or description. 



Asbestos, manufactured 

Manufactures of * * * asbestos, * * * or of which these 
substances or either of them is the component material of 
chief value, not specially provided for in this act. 

do 



do 

Manufactures of * * * asbestos, * * * or of which these 
substances or any of them is the component material of chief 
value, not specially provided for in this section. 

do 



Rates of duty. 



25 per cent ad valorem. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



10 p6r cent ad valorem. 




ASBESTOS SHINGLES, SLATES, WOOD, OR LUMBER, 



General Information. 

tariff paragraph, act of 1913. 

Par. 367. Manufactures of * * *, asbestos, * * *^ or of 
wliich these substances or any of them is the component material of 
chief value, not specially provided for in this section, 10 per cent ad 
valorem. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Asbestos shingles, slate, wood, or lumber are made from short 
asbestos fiber mixed with hydraulic cement, the asbestos forming 
about 15 per cent of the product by weight. These products are 
known for their extreme durability and fire-resisting qualities. The 
shingles are of various shapes and colors, made in sizes from 4 by 8 
inches to 16 by 16 inches and in different thicknesses. The kind in 
most common use is 8 inches wide, 16 inches long, and J inch thick.' 
Heavier shingles, tapered shingles with rough texture surface, and 
colored shingles are made chiefly for artistic effect or to imitate slate. 

Uses, — Asbestos shingles and slate are suitable for use wherever 
roofing material is required or employed. Asbestos lumber is used 
largely in making fireproof walls, doors, and partitions; as a fire stop 
in floors; in electrical work to safeguard against fires from electric 
wires; for deflectors, division plates, and barriers where an electric 
arc is liable to form; for lining controllers, flue boxes, and various 
safety devices; in electric flatirons and other electric heating devices. 

Substitutes. — Asbestos roofing in sheets and rolls, tin; sheet iron; 
galvanized iron; corrugated iron, and numerous sheet roofings made 
from various compounds, and roofing materials claimed by the inven- 
tors to be fireproof are competing articles and substitutes for asbestos 
shingles. Metal sheets of various kinds are frequently used in place 
of asbestos wood or lumber. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCTION. 

In 1920 asbestos shingles, slates, wood, or lumber were manufac- 
tured in the United States by 14 concerns. 

The amount and value of the total annual production are not 
known. The industry has grown rapidlv in recent years, due to a 
wider knowledge of the products and to the increase in the number of 
their uses since their first introduction into the United States in 1907* 

Raw materials, — The materials employed are hydraulic cement and 
asbestos fiber, in proportions of about 85 per cent cement and 15 per 
cent asbestos. (Jement is made in large quantities, from domestic 
materials, in this country; comparatively small quantities are annually 
imported. The asbestos employed is mostly imported from Canada, 

53 



54 TAKUT INFORMATION SUBVEYS. 

only comparatively small quantities of domestic origin being obtain- 
able. Both these articles enter the United States Tree of duty. 

Equiprnent. — ^Machines in use are largely automatic. Only a 
small amount of hand labor is required to produce the finished article. 
Labor is chiefly employed to handle the raw materials and finished 
products. 

In this industry there is practically the same use of machinery 
in foreign countries as in the United States. 

Methods of production. — ^Two distinct processes for making asbestos 
shingles — one American, the other Austrian — are now in use. In 
both hi^h compression is necessary. 

ATtiencan method, — In the American process the shingles are rolled. 
The mixed dry material — asbestos fibers and cement — is automatic- 
ally fed from a hopper to a traveling belt, evenly distributed and 
combed out before passing between rolls. The machine is auto- 
matic. Its operation, for example, when finished slabs of fiber 
concrete three-sixteenths of an inch thick are desired is as follows: 
The hopper gate is adjusted and the picker rolls arranged so that the 
feed of material and tne combine and leveling operation of the picker 
rolls deliver a band or layer oi material about three-fourths of an 
inch thick to »the traveling belt. The pressure exerted by the rolls 
is so adjusted that a layer of material passing between the rolls is 
compacted, while still dry, to about one-half (three-eighths inch) its 
'origmal depth. This compression gives the layer of material suffi- 
cient consistency to enable it to be projected -across a slight gap to 
a belt on the ^*wet^' part of the machme. After thus leaving the 
"dry'' division of the machine, the layer of dry compressed material 
is supplied from a vibrating sprinkler pipe with water, which pene- 
trates all parts of the layer before the material reaches a second set 
of pressure rolls. These pressure rolls in the "wet" division of the 
machine are so adjusted as to compress the wet layer of material to 
a thickness of three-sixteenths of an inch. Slabs or sheets of sizes 
desired for the finished shingles are automatically cut from the layer. 
The sheets of fiber concrete then are stacked up, with metal sheets 
between the layers, in presses to dry. The pressure applied is from 
8,000 to 10,000 pounds to the square inch and firmly unites the 
composition.^ 

AiLstrian method. — The Austrian process makes use of a cardboard 
machine. The asbestos, which preferably is previously disintegrated 
in an edge mill, is subjected to treatment in a mixing machine until 
sufiiciently broken up — that is, until the fibers are separated as much 
as possible. Then the required proportion of hydraulic cement is 
gradually added and the entire bulk mixed thoroughly. This mix- 
ture flows immediately into a vessel with a stirring device, where it 
is diluted with five to six times the quantity of water while being 
continuously agitated or stirred. From this vessel the thin paste 
is conveyed to the cardboard-making machine, to obtain a cardboard- 
Uke product. The thin paste is earned to and on an endless rotating 
porous fabric, through wnich the water of the thin paste or pulp flows 
off, leaving on the upper side the hydraulic cement intermixed with 
asbestos as a thin layer. This layer is then conducted to a roller, 
which removes the layer from the endless fabric and rolls it up. Thus 

1 From U. 8. Letters Patent No. 979547, granted to Chas. L. Norton, Hudson, N. H., Dec. 27, 1910. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 55 

a sheet is formed composed of several superimposed layers, the number 
of layers corresponding to the nmnber of rotations of the roller. As 
soon as the product has reached the desired thickness it is cut to 
size and pressed to shape.' 

Geographical distribution. — According to Thomas's Register of 
Manufacturers, asbestos shingles, slates, wood, or lumber were manu- 
factured in 1920 by 14 concerns — 2 in New Hampshire, 1 in Massa- 
chusetts, 2 in New York, 2 in New Jersey, 1 in Rhode Island, 2 in 
Pennsylvania, 1 in Ohio, 2 in Illinois, and 1 in Wisconsin. 

History of the industry. — ^The first invention for the manufacture of 
these articles was by Ludwig Haschek, an Austrian. The products 
were manufactured for a number of years in Europe before being 
made in the United States in 1904. In 1910 an American, Charles 
Li. Norton, invented a process for making fibrous sheets of cement 
and asbestos. 

Domestic production and consumption. — ^The amount and value of 
the total domestic output and consumption are not known. Ameri- 
can manufacturing capacity is adequate to supply the domestic 
demand, and a shortage of the product is only possible through the 
failure to obtain suflScient supphes of asbestos, the bulk of which 
must be imported. 

Domestic exports. — Statistics of imports of the articles mentioned 
in this survey are not separately compiled by United States customs 
oflBcials, but are included with figures showing total exports of all 
kinds of asbestos manufactures. 

FOREIGN PRODUCTION. 

Canada is the principal foreign country selling asbestos shingles 
and asbestos lumber in the American market. Tne Canadian prod- 
uct, which is made by one factory, is equal in quality to the product 
manufactured in this country, but the Canadian industry is small. 

'IMPOBTS. 

Separate statistics of imports of asbestos shingles, slates, wood, or 
lumber are not compiled by the United States customs ofiScials, and 
little is known, except that imports are not considerable, regarding 
the quantity annualfy received from foreign countries. It is prob- 
able that most, if not all, of these imported ^ articles come from 
Canada, where only small quantities are produced. 

PRICKS. 

In 1920 the catalogue prices of a popular brand of gray asbestos 
shingles, f. o. b. factory, ranged from $1.60 per hundred for 4 by 8 
inch size to $11.50 per huncirod for 10 by lu inch size. Prices for 
veneered shingles were quoted from about 25 to 33* per cent higher, 
and colored shingles from 5(i to 60 J per cent higher than gray shingles. 
Asbestos building lumber wtw quottul from 15 cents a square foot for 
sheets one-eighth inch thick to $1.20 a foot for sheets 1 inch thick, 
with a liberal discount (not stilted) oi\ quantity lots. 

« From U. 8. Letters Patent No. 12W4, gr««»t«l to LHa>\»g IUt*'li*k, AustrliHunnary. Jan. 15, 1907. 



56 



TARIFF INFOBMATION SURVEYS. 



TARIFF HISTORY. 

Asbestos shingles, slates, wood, or lumber have never been specifi- 
cally mentioned in the tariff acts. 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS. 

The only competitor in the American market at this time is Canada, 
which country is well supplied with raw material, located just across 
our border. At present (1921) there is but one factory in Canada 
engaged in the manufacture of asbestos shingles and asbestos wood 
or lumber. This factory is controlled by American interests. 

With available small supplies of domestic asbestos near at hand 
and large supplies in Canada, American manufacturers had a con- 
siderable advantage over European manufacturers, either in Great 
Britain or on the Continent, who must import their asbestos material. 
American manufacturers can obtain their material practically as 
cheaply as can the European producers, and in order to sell in the 
American market European manufacturers are required to meet the 
additional expense of transatlantic freight on tne heavy finished 
product. 

• Rates oj duty . 



Act 
of- 



1883. 
1890. 



1894. 
1897. 
1909. 



1913. 



Par. 



39 
469 



351 
448 
462 



367 



Tariflf classifl cation or description. 



Rates of duty, specific 
and ad valorem. 



Asbestos, manufactured I 25 per cent ad valorem. 

Manufactures of * ♦ ♦ asbestos, * ♦ ♦ or of which these j Do. 

substances or either oS. them is the component material of chief 

value, not specially provided for in this act. 

do ' Do. 

do Do. 

Manufactures of * * ♦ asbestos, ♦ * * or of which these Do. 

substances or any of them is the component material of chief 

value, not specially provided for in this section. 
do I 10 per cent ad valorem. 



/ 




^ ^ i.T; a- - ' 







UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

ON THE ARTICLES IN 

PARAGRAPH 366 OF THE TARIFF ACT OF 1913 

I 

AND RELATED ARTICLES IN OTHER PARAGRAPHS 



Paragraph 30(5: Paragraph 419: 

Manufactures of Catgut, Whip Gut, Bladders, Integuments, Tendons, 

or Worm Qut and Intestines of Animals and Fish 

^ , . Sounds, Crude 
Paragraph 367: 

Manufactures of— Paragraph 443 : 

tJlJ^f Jf ^ ^^"^ ^'' ^^^ Catgut, Whip Gut, or Worm Qut, un- 



Bladders 

Wax (see also pare. 412 and 641) 



manufactured 



(For treatment of asbestos and yam Po»Klr»t.oT^v. aoa. 
and woven fabrics of asbestos, see ^^ragrapn 4^0. 

par. 367, N-20.) 



Goldbeaters' Molds and Skins 



REVISED EDITION 




WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
N-19 1921 






UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

OiBce: Eighth and E Streets NW., Washinffton, D. C. 

OOMMISSIONEBS. 

Thomas Waleeb Page, Chairma/n, 
Thomas O. Mabvin, Vice Chairman, 
David J. Lewis. 

WnXIAM S. CUIiBEBTSON. 

Edwabd p. Costigan. 
William Burgess. 

John F. Bethxjne, Secretary, 



additional copies 

OF THIS PX7BLICATI0N MAY BE PBOCURED FBOM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OP DOCUMENTS 

GOVERNMENT PBINTINQ OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

5 CENTS PER COPY 



PREFACE. 



This is one of a series of Tariff Information Surveys prepared by 
the United States Tariff Commission and transmitted to the Com- 
mittee on Ways and Means. The series covers all of the articles and 
commodities provided for in the tariff act of October 3, 1913, and 
others not specifically provided for. It is arranged in the numerical 
order of paragraphs of that act. 

In some cases two or more paragraphs have been combined in one 
pamphlet. In doing this, industrial relationship of the articles has 
Deen followed when possible. In those instances where a paragraph 
has been treated unaer a preceding paragraph of the tariff^ act refer- 
ence is made to this fact at the point where the para^aph appears in 
numerical order. Where one grade of an article is dutiable and 
another grade of the same article is on the free list, the article is 
discussed under the dutiable paragraph, which appears first in 
nimierical order in the tariff act. In certain instances articles of 
close industrial relationship and which occur in separate paragraphs 
of the tariff act have been combined under one paragraph for con- 
venience of discussion. Reference is made to this fact at the point 
where the commodities would naturally occur in numerical order. 

The first pamphlet in the series is an "Introduction and index," 
which contams: 

1. An introductory chapter discussing the scope of the series and 
the general method of treatment. 

2. An alphabetical index of the articles provided for in the tariff 
act of 1913, showing the paragraph of the act in which the article is 
provided for and, if discussed xmder a different paragraph, the 
number of such paragraph. 

3. A list of the pamphlets in the series, showing the paragraphs 
and articles included in each pamphlet. 

Thus by use of this ''Introduction and index'' the exact location 
of the discussion relating to a given article or commodity can be 
ascertained. 

In the preparation of this report the Tariff Commission had the 
services of Guy G. George and Joseph M. Donohoe, of the Commis- 
sion's staff, and of others. 

3 



V 



CONTENTS. 



CATGUT, WHIP GUT, OR WORM GUT. 

Page. 

Summary 7 

Summary tables: 

Catgut, dutiable 8 

Catgut, free 8 

General information: 

1913 tariff paragfraphs 8 

Description and uses / 8 

DomeAic production 9 

Foreign production 10 

Imports 10 

Prices 10 

Tariff history 11 

Competitive conditions 11 

Tariff considerations t 12 

Statistical material: 

Imports by countries 13 

Imports for consumption — Revenue 14 

Rates of duty 14 

Court and Treasury decisions 15 

MANUFACTURES OF AMBER, BLADDERS OR WAX. 

General information: 

1913 tariff paragraphs 16 

Amber and wax 16 

Bladders 16 

Tariff history 17 

Statistical tables: 

Imports by countries — 

Bladders 17 

Fish sounds 18 

Sausage casings 18 

Manufactures of amber 19 

Manufactures of wax 19 

Imports for consumption — 

Bladders : 19 

Fish sounds 19 

Sausage casings 20 

Weasands 20 

Manufactures of amber 20 

Manufactures of bladders 20 

Manufactures of wax 21 

Exports: 

Sausage casings 21-22 

Manufactures of wax 22-23 

Rates of duty 23 

Court and Treasury decisions 24 

GOLD BEATERS' MOLDS. 

General information: 

1913 tariff paragraphs 25 

Description and uses 25 

Statistical tables: 

Imports by countries 25 

Imports for consumption 26 

Rates of duty 26 

5 



CATGUT, WmP GUT, OB WORM GUT. 



Summary. 



The term catgut is derived from kitgut, an old term for violin gut. 
Catgut is made almost invariably from the intestines of sheep, never 
from the intestines of cats. 

The crudest form in which catgut is known to the trade is a manu- 
factured string; that is, it is not fresh gut, dried gut, or salted gut, 
which are the only crude or unmanufactured forms of sheep gut, out 
it is a string madfe by twisting together strands of intestmes which 
have been cleansed and otherwise treated. 

Catgut has been imported almost wholly under the free list as 
unmanufactured catgut (par. 443), simply because the strings are 
imported in the crudest form in which catgut is kno\\Tr to the trade. 
Thus, tennis gut, unsterilii^ed surgical gut, spinning gut, catgut rope, 
and catgut in bundles cut to certain lengths, but which require 
further treatmepit before being salable as strings for musical instru- 
ments, have been imported under the free list. These strings are 
not raw, dried, or salted gut strings, but are in reality manufactured 
gut strings. 

The value of domestic products of the gut-string industry is not 
^ven in the census statistics. However, based upon the reports of 
individual manufacturers, the annual value of products of the industry 
may possibly reach a total of $2,000,000 or more at the present time. 
It IS a comparatively new industry, having been developed mainly 
since 1912. The imports of manufactured catgut reachea a total of 
$68,003 in 1915, the highest total since the year 1910; and the imports 
of unmanufactured catgut reached a total of $328,790 in 1919, the 
highest total since the year 1910. Chicago is the center of the industry 
in the United States. 

The wholesale price of German music strings laid down in this 
country before the war was 60 to 80 cents a bundle, while the cheapest 
price of American music strings was about $1.25 to $1.50. The 
present American cost of manufacture of a bundle of strings is given 
as about $2.75. 

The price of 1,000 feet of No. 2 surgical catgut before the war was 
$2.50 for both the American and imported. The present price for 
American surgical catgut is $14, while some German catgut is now 
(spring of 1920) being received at a contract price of $7.50. 

One of the leading American manufacturers states that the labor 
cost represents about 55 per cent of the total and the material cost 
about 45 per cent of the total. The manufacturers assert that the 
cost of raw material has increased about 500 per cent and the cost of 
labor about 200 per cent since the beginning of the war. One manu- 
facturer thinks that the German string maker has little or no advan- 
tage in the price of the raw material, but that the cost of labor is 
much less. 



8 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Foreign string makers purchased at least a part of their material 
in this country before the war. The Tariff Commission has recently- 
been advised that a German string maker has contracted with one 
of the packers for practically their entire output of spinners, or 
narrow sheep casings, which he expects to have dried, sent to Germany, 
and after being manufactured returned to this country as violin and 
surgical gut. The price paid for this material is not known. 

The American manufacturer is asking for: A revision of classifi- 
cation, to make all gut strings dutiable; a higher duty on all gut 
strings; a high duty on ^'orientar' tennis gut, which is not made 
from intestines, but from animal sinews, tiilk, and glue. 

The manufacturer of surgical sutures desires a duty on prepared 
surgical sutures. 

Summary table — Catgut. 



Year. 



1910 : 

1911 

1912 

1913 .*, 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1920 8 



Imports 


Imports 


for con- 


for con- 


sumption 


sumption 


(freo).i 


(dutiable).' 
$11,7»7 


$148,670 


153,835 


4,096 


131, 249 


4,878 


139, 125 


3,427 


123, 551 


139,344 


198, 081 


136,954 


253,678 


62,443 


316,491 


27,136 


216, 810 


22,332 


328,796 


36,210 


172,662 


34,527 


307,214 


05,454 



Amount 
of duty. 



$2,949 

1,024 

1,220 

857 

27,877 

27,391 

12,488 

5,426 

4,466 

7,242 

6,905 

13,091 



^ Unmanufactured. 

« Manufactures of catgut, including strings for musical instruments under act of 1913. 

• Calendar year. 



General Information. 



1913 TARIFF PARAGRAPHS. 



366. Manufaotures of catgut, or whip gut, or worm gut, including 
strings for musical instruments ; any of the foregoing or of which these 
substances or any of them is the component material of chief value, 
not specially provided for in this section, 20 per cent ad valorem. 

443. Catgut, whip gut, or worm gut, unmanufactured, free. 



DESCRIPTION AND USES. 

The term '^ catgut '^ is applied to gut strings prepared from animal 
intestines, generally those of sheep, more rarely those of the horse, 
ass, and mme, but never those of the cat. 

The intestines are first thoroughly cleaned and freed from fattv 
substances and then steepjed in water for several days, after whicn 
the external membrane is scraped off with a blunt knife. The 
scraped intestines are steeped and scraped again, after which they are 
steeped for some time in an alkaline solution, and then drawn throu^ 
a perforated brass thimble. They are next subjected to the anti- 
septic action of the fumes of burning sulphur. Finally they are 
sorted and made into strings or split into strands which are made 
into strings. 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 9 

The strings are put to many uses. The highest quality strings are 
used as strings for musical instruments and for malang surgical 
ligatures, usea by surgeons in closing wounds. Catgut is also used 
for cloakmakers^ cords, hatters' cords, the whip gut of commerce, 
and cords for tennis rackets. The Italian violin string is generally 
regarded as the best violin string obtainable, although the American 
string has been highly praised by leading violinists. American 
manmacturers supplied great quantities of surgical ligatures to the 
armies during the war. 

Worm gut, or silkworm gut, is the fine strong fiber employed by 
anglers in attaching their hooks. It is obtained from the silkworms 
by taking them before they begin to spin and very carefully pulling 
them asunder. The glutinous silk contained in the silk glands is 
then drawn into a single thread and gently dried. Small quantities 
are imported annually from Italy. 

''Onentar' gut, used in stringing the cheaper tennis rackets, is. 
made from the sinews of animals, combined with silk and glue. 

Surgical sutures might be defined as gut strings in their natural! 
condition or tanned to render them more slowly absorbable in the- 
body tissues, either sterilized, partly sterilized, or put up in glass 
tubes, jars, or containers, paper envelopes, or containers of tin foil, 
or other substances, ready to be subjected to sterilizing procedures 
to render them susceptible to use as surgical ligatures or sutures. 
The quality of this product determines its cost to a large extent, and 
the consumer would no doubt be interested in preventing a tendency 
to undersell this product with a 'cheaper imported article of poorer 
quality. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCTION. 

Machinery plays only a small part in the manufacture of gut 
strings, practically aU work being done by hand labor. The supply 
of raw material, which is a by-product of the packing industry, is 
large. After cleaning and scraping, the intestines are split into 
strands, the smooth parts entering into the highest grade strings, 
while the rough parts, to which the supporting membrane of the 
intestines was attached, are used in making coarser and larger 
strings. The size of the string depends upon the size and number 
of strands twisted together. The strands are attached to a stationary 
point at one end and to a wheel at the other. Turning the wheel 
twists the strands together. This string then becomes the catgut of 
commerce. 

There is not a great deal of information available as to the size 
and character of the organizations manufacturing gut strings, but 
it is obviously an industry which may be handled on a small scale 
as well as on a large scale. At least two of the large Chicago packers 
are engaged in the manufacture of gut strings for various uses. 
Other manufacturers buy catgut or surgical catgut, which is their 
ra\y material for the manufacture of surgical ligatm^es. The highest 
grade string is required for surgical ligatures and their manufacture 
reouires special laboratories and highly trained men. 

The manufacture of gut strings is a comparatively new industry 
in the United States. One of the largest manufacturers started his 
factory in 1912. It has been stated by several string makers that 
80 to 90 per cent of the gut strings used in the United States before 

64912— 21— x-19 2 



10 TABIFF IKFORMATIOlir SURVEYS. 

the war were imported. The industry has grown rapidly since the 
beginning of the war, probably as a residt of the ^eater demand 
for surgical ligatures. It should be noted that imports increased 
during this period, although the increase in price would indicate a 
smaller increase in volimie than in value. 

FOREIGN PRODUCTION. 

Germany, England, Scotland, and Japan appear to be the principal 
countries exporting to the United States. European coimtries have 
the advantage of experienced labor in the manufacture of eut strings, 
and possibly the advantage of cheaper labor. The quality of trie 
product of German, Italian, and Swiss manufacturers has generally 
been considered superior for many purposes to that of the -Mierican. 

Competition from foreign string makers is feared by the American 
manufacturers. Before the war 80 to 90 per cent of the gut strings 
used in this coimtry were made abroad. The Tariff Commission has 
recently been informed that a German string maker has contracted 
for practically the entire output of narrow sheep casings of one of 
the large pacKers, which he intends to have sent to Germany to be 
manufactured and then returned to this country as an imported 
article. This practice was common before the war, and if it is 
resumed it appears that the domestic manuf acttirer will have very 
active competition to meet. 

IMPORTS. 

The total importation of manufactures of catgut was $62,907 in 
1914, which was a great deal higher than previous years, the total 
for 1913 being only $3,417. Germany and Japan furnished $50,000 
x)f the 1914 importation. 

Imports of unmanufactured catgut reached a total of $153,779 in 
1911, but declined to $122,733 m 1914. In 1914 the principal 
nations exporting to the United States were Japan, Germany, Eng- 
land, Scotland, Spain, France,' and Italy, in the order named. 

Imports by countries are not stated separately after 1914. The 
average annual value of imports, excluding musical instrument 
strings, entered under the dutiable list, excepting the years 1914 
and 1915, was less than $10,000. The value m 1914 was $62,399, 
and in 1915, $68,003. In 1919 and 1920 imports amoimted to 
$14,446 and $8,041, respectively. Imports entered for consumption 
under the free list have increased since 1914, when the total was 
$123,551. In 1917 the total was $316,491, but declined somewhat 
in 1918, the total for the year being $216,810. In 1919 and 1920 
imports amounted to $328,796 and $172,662, respectively. 

Strings for musical instruments made of gut were first separately 
stated m 1914. In that year imports were valued at $76,778, the 
highest. Imports for the year 1920 were valued at $26,486. 

PRICES. 

The first known shipment of catgut from Germany since the war 
was received in April, 1920. The contract price agreed upon for 
this and subsequent regular shipments for a stated period in American 
dollars was $7.50 for 1,000 feet of No. 2 surgical catgut. The present 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 11 



/ 



prica of American catgut is $14/ Before the war the American 
price was the same as the German, $2.50. 

. One of the principal American manufacturers states that their 
cheapest prewar price on music strings was $1.50 a bimdle of 30 
strings, while the German strings were laid down in this country at 
60 cents to 80 cents a bundle. The present catalogue prices on 
American strings range from $3 up for a bundle of 30 strings, the 
different prices depending upon the length and quality of the strings. 

TARIFF HISTORY. 

Strings for musical instruments were not included in the paragraph 
with manufactures of catgut until the act of 1913. In 1894 a duty of 
25 per cent ad valorem was imposed on strings for musical instru- 
ments. This was increased under the act of 1897 to 45 per cent 
ad valorem, and was retained at that rate in the act of 1909. The 
act of 1913 included strings for musical instruments with manufac- 
tures of catgut, and reduced the duty to 20 per cent ad valorem. 

Manufactures of catgut, whip gut, or worm gut were made subject 
to a duty of 25 per cent ad valorem by the act of 1894, and re-^ 
mained at this rate until the act of 1913, which lowered it to 20 per 
cent ad valorem. Until the act of 1913 manufactures of catgut 
w^ere subject to the same duty of 25 per cent ad valorem since the 
act of 1883. 

The act of 1894 enumerated unmanufactured catgut, not further 
manufactured than in strings or cords, on the free list. They were 
also so enumerated by the act of 1890. In 1897, the quaUfying clause 
was omitted, and '' catgut, whip gut, or worm gut, unmanufactured,^'" 
has remained in this form on the free list since that date. 

COIVIPETITIVE CONDITIONS.^ 

Foreign production of gut strings is carried on to some extent by 
family labor, although factories are also maintained. Succeeding 
generations of famihes have made strings, and thus foreign labor has 
become highly skilled. Before the war foreign labor was also much 
cheaper than American labor, but no accurate information on foreign 
labor costs in this industry in 1920 is available. 

Domestic labor costs are said to have increased from an average of 
17i cents an hour before the war to as high as 46 § cents an hour at the 

E resent time. Manufacturers represent that the cost of raw material 
as increased from as low as i cent per 8-yard length of sheep and 
lamb intestines to as high as 5i cents per 8-yard length. One manu- 
facturer states that the cost of making a bundle of violin strings has 
increased from $1.20 before the war to $2.75 at the present time. 

The domestic industry is a comparatively new one and has de- 
veloped principally since the beginning of the war. One manu- 
facturer's factory space has been increased 600 per cent since the 
beginning of the war. Another states 'that the industrjr has increased 
at least fivefold since the war removed foreign competition. 

Before the war 80 to 90 per ceot of the ^t strings used in this 
coimtry was imported. The American manufacturer was undersold 
and tne leading string makers anticipate destructive competition 

1 This discussion is based largely upon correspondence received by the Tariff Commission. 



12 TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

again in the very near future unless protected by a high duty. Amer- 
ican producers assert that before the war German string makers were 
able to buy raw material in this country and after manufacturing it 
abroad return it as a manufactured article at a price which was less 
than the domestic cost of production. The Tariff Commission has 
been informed that a Grerman string maker has recently contracted 
for the output of raw material of one of the large packers, which he 
will send to Germany to be manufactured and returned to this 
country. 

TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS. 

The American gut string mal&ers are asking that the classification 
be changed, so that only fresh, dried, or salted intestines be allowed 
to enter under the free fist, and so that all other strings made of gut, 
which they hold are manufactured strings, be made subject to duty. 

^'Orientar' gut, which is not manufactured in this countrv, but 
which is imported from Japan, is made of animal sinews, silfc, and 
glue, and enters free of duty. It is used for stringing tennis rackets, 
but is used only on the cheaper rackets. The price of a coil of this 
string which is sufficient to string a racket is given as 30 to 35 
cents. The manufacturer states that the cost of sufficient tennis 
gut to string a racket is about $1.20. The manufacturer is asking 
for a higher duty on ''oriental " gut. 

Surgical catgut now enters free of duty, since it is the raw material 
for surgical ligatures or sutures. Manufacturers of sutures say that 
the quality of imported catgut has been superior for their purposes, 
and that a duty on this material wiQ have the effect of raising the 
price of their product to the hospitals and doctors without improving 
the quality. On the other hand, the manufacturers state that catgut 
may be imported as sui^cal catgut free of duty, and then be used as 
strings for musical instruments. 

Surgical sutures are a manufactured product not now separately 
stated in the tariff act. The quality of the product largely deter- 
mines its cost. While there is no evidence of imports of any conse- 
quence, it seems quite probable that sutures might be manuiactured 
abroad as well as catgut at a lower cost than in this country. Per- 
haps the most dangerous element of competition would be the at- 
tempt to import a poorer quality of sutures at a cheap price and call 
them just as good as the American. This the consumer would cer- 
tainly object to. 

A reclassification which will draw a clear distinction between man- 
ufactured and unmanufactured gut strings seems to be desirable. 
A duty on '' oriental^' gut, as well as on all manufactured gut strings, 
would be in line with the policy of assessing duties on manufactured 
articles. Surgical sutures appear to deserve separate statement as a 
manufactured article. 

Costs and prices. — ^According to the statements of two of the leading 
string makers, labor costs have increased about 200 to 250 per cent 
since the beginning of the war, or from 17^ cents to 46§ cents an 
hour in one case, and from 17 cents to 43^ cents in the other case; 
while raw material has increased in cost about 500 per cent, or from 
i cent to 6^ cents per 8-yard length of sheep intestines in one case, 
and from 1 cent to 5^ cents in the other case. 



TABIFF INFORMATION SUEVEYS. 



13 



One of these manufacturers, however, states that the total manu- 
facturing cost of a bimdle of violin strings has increased from $1.20 
to $2.75, which is an increase of only 129 per cent; while the other 
gives the increase a^ 95 cents to $2.87, which is an increase of about 
200 per cent. The increase in the cost of manufacturing these strings 
h,as not been nearly so large in either case as the reported increase 
in the labor and material costs. 

One of the manufacturers of surgical sutures states that the do- 
mestic price of catgut has increased six times since the beginning of 
the war, while another gives the increase of 1,000 feet No. 2 surgical 
oatgut as 460 per cent, or from $2.50 to $14. In this case it appears 
that the increase in the price of the product has been greater than 
the increase of the principal costs entering into its maninacture. 

The increase in tne price of surgical catgut from Germany has been 
only from $2.50 to $7.50, or 200 per cent. (The present price of 
$7.50 in this case is not a conversion from marks, the goods being 
delivered in terms of dollars.) 

One string maker, who is asking for a high duty, states that '^we 
do not believe that German string manufacturers can secure raw 
material any cheaper than we can, out the labor situation is one on 
which we can not possibly compete * * *.'' 

If the cost of raw material to the German maker has increased as 
much as to the American maker, and it is also freely admitted that 
German labor costs have advanced materially, it would hardly seem 
possible that there should exist such a wide difference in the present 
German and American price, based wholly upon the manufacturing 
costs. 

Imports by countries (fiscal years). 



MANUFACTURES OF CATGUT, OR WHIP GUT, 


OR WORM GUT.i 




Imparted from— 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 

187 
76 


1914 


France 


»76 

103 

18 

7,039 

4,693 

257 

85 


1 

$375 

69 1 

20 i.. 


S62 

474 


»1,111 
28,647 


Germft7»y 


Italy 


1,412 


England 


2,202 

1,119 

353 

47 


2,974 

654 

637 

99 


i,i79 
80 

1,984 
11 


6.941 


Scotland 


811 


Japan 


22,062 


AU other 


1,923 






Total 


12,270 


4,185 


4,900 


3,417 


62,907 





CATGUT, WHIP GUT, OR WORM GUT, UNMANUFACTURED.! 



France 

Germany 

Italy 

Spain 

Switzerland 

Turkey in Europe. 

England 

Scotland 

Japan 

Turkey in Asia 

All other 



Total. 



»1,814 

31,697 

7,383 

5,748 

1,239 

1,431 

32,064 

24,397 

42,813 



617 I 



*1,279 

32,344 

7,558 

3,929 

357 



25,016 

23,640 

67,679 

1,524 

453 



149,103 I 153,779 



$5,428 
33,931 

5,492 

5,359 
412 

3,289 
20,853 
17,756 
38,760 

1,459 
190 



132,929 



$5,211 

33,484 

2,708 

6,056 

338 

2,046 

24,412 

16,742 

46,996 



1,127 



139,120 



1 Included in " AU other articles" after 1911. 
64912— 21— N-19 3 



$9,128 

21,546 

7,746 

10,045 

94 



18,011 
14,357 
41,791 



15 



122,733 



14 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Imports for consumption — Revenue, 
CATGUT, UNMANUFACTURED. 



Fiscal year. 



1908.. 
1909.. 
1910.. 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 
1914.. 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1919. . 
1920.. 

1920 « 

1921 ^ 



Rate of duty. 



Free... 

do. 

......do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

....do. 
....da. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. ! 



Value. 



24,813 
23,197 
40,215 
24,304 



»114, 
128, 
148, 
153, 
131, 
139, 
123, 
198, 
253, 
316, 
216, 
328, 
172, 
307, 
146, 



706 
464 
670 
835 
249 
125 
551 
061 
678 
491 
810 
796 
662 
214 
258 



Duties 
collected. 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



S13.25 
7.44 
7.64 
6.02 



Actual and 

oompoted 

ad valorem 

rate. 



MANUFACTURES OF CATGUT, OR WHIP GUT, OR WORM GUT. N. E. S. 



1907. 

1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 
1914. 



1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1919.. 
1920.. 
1920 V 
19216 



25 p^ cent ad va- 
lorem. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do.i 

20 per cent ad va- 
lorem.< 
do. 




.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
-do. 
.do. 
.do. 



S64,513 

84^790 

66,326 

11,796 

4,096 

4,878 

3,426 

167 

62,399 

68,003 
9,790 
4,867 
8,602 

14,446 
8,041 

15,634 
9,352 



$16^128 

21,197 

16,581 

2,949 

1,024 

1,219 

856 

41 

12,479 

13,600 
1,958 
973 
1,720 
2,889 
1,608 
3,127 
1,870 



Perenit. 



25 

25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
20 

20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 



CATGUT— STRINGS FOR MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



1914. 



1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1918*. 



1919.. 
1920.. 
1920* 
19216 



20 per cent ad va- 
lorem. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

20 per cent less 20 
percent. 

20 per cent 

do 

do 

do 



$76,778 



68, 
52, 
22, 
13, 



21. 
26, 
49, 
40, 



951 
653 
269 
730 
25 

764 
486 
820 
742 



$15^355 

13,790 

10,530 

4^453 

2,746 

4,353 
6,297 
9,964 
8,148 



PerceiA, 



2» 

20 
20 
20 
20 
16 

% 
20 
20 

ao 



1 Under the act of 1909. 
s Under the act of 1913. 
« From Cuba (reciprocity treaty, Dec. 27, 1903). 



* Calendar year. 

6 6 months ended June 30, 1921. 



Catgut — Rates of duty. 



Act of— 


Par. 


1883 


488 




671 




672 




714 




431 



Tariff classification or description. 



Rates of duty, specific 
and ad valorem. 



Strings: All strings of cat^t, or any other like material, other j 25 i>er cent ad valorem. 

than strings for musical instruments. ' 

Catgut strings, or gut-cord, for musical instruments Free. 

Catgut or whip-gut, unmanufactured Do. 

Gut, and worm gut, manufactured or unmanufactured Do. 

Catgut, whipgut, or worm^t, unmanufactured, or not further ' Do. 

manufactured than in stnngs or cords. ' 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS, 



15 



Catgut — Rates of duty — Continued. 



ii 



Hi 



K- 



-:* 



\^ 



Act of— 


Par. 


1890 


459 




529 


1894 


326i 




351 


1897 


448 




453 


1909 


517 
462 




467 


1913 


529 
366 




443 



Tariff classification or description. 



Manufactures of * * * eat-gut or whij^-eut or WOTm-gut, 
* * * or of which these substances or eitner of them is the 

component material of chief value, not specially provided for 

in this act. 
Catgut, whix>-gut, or worm-gut, unmanufactured, ok not further 

mauufactured than in strings or cords. 

* * * strings for musical instruments not otherwise enumer> 
ated, * * *. 

Manufactures of * * * catgut or whip gut or worm gut, 

* ■" * or of which these substances or eiUier of them is the 
component material of chief value, not specially provided for 
in this act. 

Manufactures of * * * catgut or whip gut or worm gut, 

* * * or of which these substances or either of them is the 
comi>onent material of chief value, not specially provided for 
in this act. 

* * * strings fw musical instruments not otherwise enumer- 
ated, * * *. 

Catgut, whip gut, or worm gut, unmanufactured 

ManujGactures of * * * catgut or whip gut or worm gut, 

* * * or of which theaa substances or any of them is the 
component material of chief value, not spedally provided for 
in tills section. 

* * * strings for musical instruments, not otherwise enumer- 
ated in this section, * * *. 

Catgut, whip gut, or worm gut, unmanufactured 

Manufactures of catgut, tx whip gut, or worm gut, including 
strings for musical instruments; any of the foregoing or of 
which these substances or any of them is the component ma- 
terial of chief value, not specially provided for in tnis section. 

Catgut, whip gut, or worm gut, unmanufactured 



Rates of duty, specific 
and ad valorem. 



25 per cent ad valorem. 

Free. 

26 per cent ad valorem. 

Do. 

Do. 

45 per cent ad val(M^m. 

Free. 

25 per cent ad valcN'em. 

45 per cent advalorem. 

Free. 

20 per cent ad valorem. 

Free. 



Court and Treasury Decisions. 

The terms ''catgut" and ''whip gut" are often used interchange- 
ably. Whip gut or whipcord is the result of the process of the manu- 
facture of gut into a twisted article. Colored catgut strings twisted 
and in lengths suitable to be used in stringing tennis rackets were 
held not dutiable as a manufacture of catgut, but free as unmanu- 
factured. (United States v, American Express Co., 6 Ct. Cust# Appls., 
36, of 1915.) Strands of gut twisted in the form of a rope or cable 
and then apparently coated with a light varnish like material are a 
manufacture of cutgut. (United States v. Sheldon & Co., 5 Ct. Cust. 
Appls., 421,^ of 1914.) 

Colored cutgut strings in lengths suitable for use for stringing tennis 
rackets were held to come withm this provision. The colormg was not 
a process occurring after the manufacture of the catgut, but pending 
the manufacture, and the colored article is not a manufacture of ca^ 
gut. Whip gut or whipcord is the result of the process of the manu- 
facture of catgut into a twisted article which clearly falls within this 
paragraph. The fact that whip gut, a result of such manufacture, 

15 of a length suitable for use m the manufacture of tennis rackets 
was held not to remove it from this paragraph, since the record dis- 
closed that this is the length in which whipcord so manufactured is 

Sroduced in the first instance. (United States v, American Express 
O.J 6 Ct. Cust. Appls., 36, of 1915.) Catgut strings in lengths from 

16 to 31 feet, used as material in making clocks and as belting on 
small lathes, also come within. this paragraph rather than paragraph 
161 as parts of clocks. (G. A. 8231, T. X). 37914, of 1919.) 

Gut for surgical use, for tennis rackets, or for making fishing tackle 
or parts thereof, might be specified in the law. 



MANUFACTURES OF AMBER, BLADDERS, OR WAX. 



General Inpobmation. 
1913 tabiff pabaqbaphs. 

367. Manufactures of amber, * * * bladders or wax, or of 
which these substances or any of them is the component material of 
chief value, not specially provided for in this section, 10 per centum 
ad valorem; * * *. 

419. Bladders, and all integuments, tendons, and intestines of 
animals and fish sounds, crude, dried, or salted for preservation only, 
and unmanufactured, not specially provided for in this section, free. 

MANUFACTUBES OF AMBEB AND WAX. 

Waxes are used chiefly for the manufacture of candles, floor waxes, 
and other polishes, insulating compoimds, plastic masses, phonograph 
records, modeling wax, and pharmaceutical preparations. 

Amber is used principally m ornaments, beads, pipes, cigar holders, 
and sometimes in. scientific instruments as an insulating material. 

Domestic production statistics are not available, as the various 
articles of wnich wax and amber are the component materials are 
shown as the products of their respective industries. 

Imports of manufactures of wax averaged about $25,000 prior to 
1918. In that year they were valued at $72,606, but decDned to 
$14,994 in 1919. Exports increased from $47,303 in 1911 to $1,382,- 
355 in 1919, and for the first six months of 1920 were valued at 
$875,000. 

Imports of amber manufactures were valued at $9,333 in 1914 ; $721 
in 1918; and at $6,757 for the first half of 1920. 

BLADDEBS. 

Bladders of sheep, hogs, and cattle are dried after eliminating the 
fat, and used in foreign countries as containers for sausage, lard, and 
butter. The intestines and integuments are used for sausage casings 
and other coverings. The swimming bladders or soimds of fish pro- 
vide isinglass. 

Sausage casings are the only item of this classification on which 
domestic production statistics are available. In 1914 they were 
valued at $10,146,208, of which $9,077,593 (64,453,298 poimds) were 
produced as subsidiary products of the meat-packing mdustry, and 
$1,068,615 by establishments engaged primarily in their production. 

Domestic exports of sausage casings in 1919 amounted to 25,477,028 
poimds, with a value of $6,809,834. European countries were the 
largest markets, but they were exported to practically all parts of the 
world. 

16 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 17 

The imports of manufactures of bladdery, except for the years 
1917 and 1918, when thev reached a value of $1,259 and $8,288, 
re^ectively, were negligible. In 1920 they were valued at $138. 

Imports of bladders and all integuments, tendons, and intestines 
of animals (except fish soimds and sausage casings), unmanufactured, 
averaged, from 1908 to 1918, $138,060, reaching their highest value 
($497,000) m 1918. In 1920 this decUned to $251,423. 

Fish sounds, crude, dried or salted for preservation purposes only, 
were imported to the value of $104,654 in 1917, but declined to 
$28,365 in 1920. For the past three years these imports have been 
chiefly from Canada. In former years large quantities were imported 
fi-om England and Venezuela. 

Sausage casings are imported chiefly from Australia, China, New 
Zealand, and Argentina. Large quantities are also imported from 
Europe. In 1919 imports of 11,234,028 poimds were valued at 
$5,629,412, or approximately five-sixths the value of domestic exports 
of this article, although less than half the quantity. 

Beef weasands were not stated separately in import statistics imtil 
1916. They are now held dutiable as imenumerated unmanufactured 
articles under paragraph 385. The value of imports in 1920 was 
$120,019. 

TARIFF HISTORY, 
f 

Manufactures of amber, bladders, or wax were dutiable at 25 per 
cent ad valorem under the tariff act gf 1890. Under the acts of 1894, 
1897, and 1909 they were dutiable at 25 per cent ad valorem, and this 
was reduced to 10 per cent ad valorem in the act of 1913. Under the 
act of 1883 amber oeads and gum and manufactures of bladders were 
on the free list. 

Unmanufactured bladders, integuments of animals, were first 
enumerated in the act of 1883, and fish sounds in the act of 1890. 
They were admitted free under these and all subsequent acts. 

Imports hy countries. 

BLADDERS AND ALL INTEGUMENTS, INTESTINES, AND TENDONS OF ANIMALS, 
UNMANUFACTURED (EXCEPT FISH SOUNDS AND SAUSAGE CASINO). 

[Fiscal years.] 



Imported from— 1909 1910 ^ 1911 1912 1913 1914 



Germany $5,885! $41,499 $12,494 

Enj^land. 1,282 | $334 1,271 3,M1 

Canada $8,760 17,604 i 22,068 46,941 20,931 

Chile 6,009 5,572 

China 333 2,461 142 1,011 

Hongkong 6 ' 2,896 

Australia 709 575 

Russia in Europe 299 10,906 i 2,491 

Another 3,295 4,113' 13,891 285 6,227 

TotaL 7,Zoi 38»129 ; 41,954 96,237 52,336 



1 Indaded in "All other articles*' in 1910 and after 1914. 



18 



TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Imports by countries — Continued. 

FISH SOUNDS (FREE). 



Imported f rom~ 



Denmark 

England 

Canada 

Newfoundland and Labrador 

Venezuela 

British India 

All other 

Total 



1912 



Pounds. 



Value. 



1913 



2,133 

15,333 

125,329 

8,808 
120,773 

7,291 

1,583 



1347 
4,583 

30,700 
1,325 

29,456 
2,244 
1,507 



281,250 



70, 162 



Pounds. 



4,621 

181,569 

164,251 

8,935 

59,281 

60,422 

7,032 



Value. 



1792 
53,483 
57,761 

1,680 
15,357 
17,856 

3,086 



486,111 



149,015 



1914 



Pounds. 



2,559 
102,662 
126,606 
13,740 
33,212 
19,712 
37,299 



Value. 



«50O 
28,763: 
29,907 
3,347 
7,822- 
5,971 
7,390- 



335,790 



83,700- 



Imported from— 



Denmark 

England 

Canada 

Newfoundland and Labrador. 

Venezuela 

British India 

All other 

Total 



1915 



Pounds. 



4,467 
44,904 
155,630 
10,522 
72,085 
13,986 
10,287 



Value. 



$875 

15,046 

33,649 

2,108 

18,867 

4,751 

9,927 



311,881 



85,223 



1916 



Founds. 



1,100 

69,549 

215,720 

10,887 

95,265 



3,247 



395,768 



Value. 



1288 

19,243 

49,675 

1,856 

23,299 



1917 



Pounds. 



1,502 i 
95,863 ; 



1,322 

26,548 

255,108 

2,721 

158,785 

50 

12,274 



456,808 



Value. 



1372: 

8,058 

51,419 

448- 

37,404 

15- 

28,197 



104,507- 



1918 



Imported from- 



Pounds. 



Denmark ' 

England , 5,884 

Canada 155,657 

Newfoundland and Labra- 



Value. 



dor 

Venezuela 

British India. 
All other 



5,110 

158,785 



5,812 



»1,744 
38,565 

t 

1,137 
34,200 



1,853 



1918 « 



Pounds. 



108,251 

2,700 
119,888 



1,965 



Value. 



1919* 



Pounds. 



$30,173 I 82,901 



296 
26,058 



20 
23,371 



363 6,093 



Total 331,248 



77,499 232,804 56,890 112,385 



Value. 



$8,967 

2 

5,041 



2,150 



16,160 



1920 « 



Pounds. 



Value. 



121,765 



$27,048- 



SAUSAGE CASINGS. 



Imported from— 



Austria-Hungary . . 

Denmark 

Germany 

Russia in Europe. . 

Netherlands 

England 

Canada 

Argentina 

Chfle '. 

China 

British India 

Japan 

Russia in Asia 

Turkey in Asia 

Australia 

New Zealand 

British South Af- 
rica 

All other 



1913 



1, 



Total. 



$6,634 

10,934 

259,563 

4,610 

150,446 

433,633 

121,395 

277,501 

14,639 

45,919 

1,834 



521 

50,959 

6,761 

2,349 



88,340 



2,476,082 



1914 



$35,658 
14,964 

319,535 

10, 112 

69,545 

1,857,875 

196,343 

200,572 



22,287 

1,089 

28,328 

614 

100,857 

1,344 

5,843 



90,691 



2,955,657 



1915 



$3,629 

379 

69, 914 

1,791 

17,440 

1,472,518 

283,784 

457,889 

31, 970 

102,095 



24,273 
200 

40,048 
163, 271 
133,374 

5,408 
136, 518 



2,944,501 



1916 



$121 



121,391 



1,149,259 

204,693 

704,302 

69, 122 

119,226 

65 

107, 704 

493,932 

4,486 

233,894 

464,098 

7,899 
285,685 



3, 865, 877 



1917 



191S 



1918 > 



$53,898 

S80! 

427,245 

252, 140i 

745, 179 

140,686 

407, 854 

21,164 

103,332 

1,058,045 



$229,266 



281,238 
557, 932 

16,841 
152, 801 



88,602 
448,028 
607,608 
129,975 
596,662 
129,744 
110, 896 
459, 172 
2,376 
206,655 
464,658 

38,611 
118, 772 



4,219,235 3,631,025 



$215, 048 



66,444 
555,119 
479, 551 

18,568 
592,601 
117,245 

59,553 

201,944 

2,969 

293,460 

724,630 

17,051 
164,251 



3,508,434 



1919 « 



$8,397 

1,628 

153,177 

706,302 

980,036 

189,835 

1,047,205 

28,829 

79,658 

44,119 

84,465 

970,635 

1,110,006 

30,583 
194,537 



5,629,412 



1920* 



$7,047,437 



a Calendar year. 



TAKIFF INFOHMATIOlf SURVEYS. 



19 



Imports by countries — Continued. 

MANUFACTURES OF AMBER. 



Imported from— 


1909 


19101 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


A nRtria-HnnRftrv - . ^ ^ ^ ■... 


$149 
229 

5,980 
231 
137 




$120 

277 

2,839 

509 

83 


$198 

28 

2,113 

176 

58 


$65 

*** '4*267* 
859 
28 


$170 


FmnCft. - , ,,- -r,,,-^,,rr--.-.-r-r---^ T - 




784 


^^^rmanv . r - 




8,116 


KTurlaTKiand ScotlaTid . r r ^ ............... . 




117 


All other 




96 








Total 


6,726 




3,828 


2,568 


5,219 


9,285 









MANUFACTURES OF WAX. 



Imported f rom— 



Austria-Hungary . 

France 

Oonnany ........ 

£nglana. 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Japan 

AU other 



Total. 



1909 



$2,923 

13,324 

10,940 

3,205 

1,984 



420 
5,823 



38,619 



1910 



$1,552 

6,226 

11,161 

1,903 

333 

95 

1,463 



213 
593 



23,539 



1911 



$1,333 
9,899 
3,573 
1,411 
360 
1,292 



132 
1,037 



19,037 



1912 



$35 

5,924 

4,283 

3,079 

8 



1,547 

2,765 

45 

2,874 



20,560 



1913 



21,276 



1914 s 



$187 
4,605 
2,841 
3,451 
1,295 


$520 
9,238 
7,011 
7,580 


Q4R 




2,300 
768 


2,210 


870 
4,111 


4 
2,130 



28,693 



1 Included in " AU other articles" in 1910 and after 1914. 
a Included in "All other articles" after 1914. 



Imports for consumption — Revenue, 

BLADDERS, INTEGUMENTS, TENDONS, AND INTESTINES OF ANIMALS (EXCEPT FISH 

SOUNDS AND SAUSAGE CASINGS), UNMANUFACTURED. 



Rate of duty. 



Fiscal year: 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar j^t: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

19211 



Free... 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do- 

do. 

do- 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
do. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 



2,808,388 

1,279,818 

106,684 



Value. 



Duty 
collected. 



$6, 

41, 

33, 

96, 

50, 

106, 

225, 

439, 

497, 



260 
871 
251 
490 
365 
191 
719 
060 
376 
163 
906 



389,311 

198,933 

251,423 

21,880 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



$0,070 
.196 
.205 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



FISH SOUNDS^ CRUDE, DRIED OR SALTED FOR PRESERVATION ONLY. 



Fiscal vear: 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

.1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921» 



Free.. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

....do. 
....do. 



Pounds. 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



269,618 
523,008 
490,213 
258,427 
481,018 
336, 190 
308,472 
396,031 
456,738 
331,284 

232,804 

112,385 

126,219 

12,173 



S113, 
69, 
83, 

142, 
70, 

147, 
83, 
84, 
96, 

104, 
77, 



731 
416 
198 
050 
679 
021 
720 
543 
201 
654 
499 



56,890 

18,160 

28,365 

4,366 



$0,258 
.159 
.290 
.273 
.306 
.250 
.274 
.243 
.229 
.233 

.244 
.161 
.224 
.358 



1 Six months ended June 30, 1921. 



20 



fAKirr INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Imports for conswnption — Revenue — Continued . 

SAUSAGE CASINGS. 



Rate of duty. 



Quantity. 



Fiscal year: 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1915 

19161 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921» 



Free.. 
.....do. 
....do. 
.....do. 
....do. 
....do. 

do. 

do. 

....do. 
....do. 
....do. 



Pounds. 
3,530,790 
3,535,092 
4,497,918 
4, 138, 416 
4,818,439 
4,579,414 



.do i 

.do I 11,234,028 

.do 12,137,901 

.do 5,254,110 



Value. 



$2, 180, 703 
2,529,915 
2,601,051 
2,652,564 
2,395,379 
2,482,146 
2,958,135 
2,945,874 
3,873,027 
4,212,216 
3,610,019 

3,624,025 
5,629,412 
7,049,347 
2,764,479 



Duty 
collected. 



Value per 

imit of 
quantity. 



$0,617 
.639 
.578 
.641 
.497 
.542 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



.501 
.581 
.526 



WEASANDS OR OX GULLETS. 



Fiscal year: 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 « 



10 per cent , 

.....do 

do , 



.do. 
-do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Pounis. 



188,099 

174,326 

88,321 



129,493 
60,834 
70,546 

43,973 
132,263 
120,019 

51,764 



$2,949 
6,083 
7,054 

4,397 
12,226 

12,001 
5,176 



.703 
.689 
.586 



Percent. 



MANUFACTURES OF AMBER. 



10 
10 
10 

10 
10 
10 
10 



Fiscal year: 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 , 

1912 

1913 , 

1914 

ft::::::: 

f5l6 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1920* 

1921" 



25 per cent. 

.....do 

do 

do 

do 

.....do 

do 

10 per cent. 

.....do 

do 

do..:... 

do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Free 

10 per cent. 



$9,915 
6,676 
3,394 
3,833 
2,568 
7,202 
1,232 
8,100 
4,516 
5,436 
248 
721 

425 

2,466 

21,846 

25,000 

5,687 



$2,478 

1,669 

848 

958 

642 

1,800 

308 

810 

451 

543 

24 

72 

42 

247 

2,184 



568 



25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

10 
10 
10 



10 



MANUFACTURES OF BLADDERS. 



Fiscal year: 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921« 



25 per cent. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

10 per cent . 

do 

do 

do 

do 



.do. 
-do. 
.do. 
.do 



$42 
21 
84 



1 
26 

3 
43 

883 
1,259 

8,288 

21 

88 

138 

73 



$10 

5 

21 



6 



4 

88 
125 
828 

2 

9 

13 

7 



1 Beef weasands not included after 1915. (T. D. 35886-37224.) 

« Six months ended June 30, 1921. 



2 From Philippine Islands. 



25 
25 
25 



25 



10 
10 
10 
10 

10 
10 
10 

10 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



21 



Imports for consump Hon — Revenue — Continued . 

MANUFACTURES OF WAX, N. E. S. 



Fiscal year: 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1914 

1915 

1916....:.. 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

19211 



Rate of duty. 



25 per cent. 

do 

do 

do...... 

do 

do 

do 

10 per cent. 

do....:. 

do 

do 

do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Quantity. 



Value. 


Duty 
collected. 


$50,345 


• 

$12,586 


33,977 


8,494 


25,177 


6,294 


16,566 


4,141 


20,539 


5,134 


20,619 


5,154 


8,475 


2,118 


27,852 


2,785 


16,694 


1,669 


25,575 


2,557 


16,768 


1,676 


62,993 


6,299 


3,630 


363 


12,039 


1,204 


14,117 


1,411 


14,436 


1,443 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Percent. 



25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

10 
10 
10 
10 



Fiscal year: 
1908.... 



1910. 
1913. 
1915. 



1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 



From Cuba (REOPROcrrY Treaty, Dec. 27, 1903). 



25 per cent less 20 

per cent. 

do 

do 

10 per cent less 20 

per cent. 

do 

do 

do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



$22 

95 
555 
715 

5,704 
3,733 
9,613 

3,630 
2,955 
2,895 



$4 

19 

111 

57 

456 
298 
769 

292 
236 
232 



20 

20 
20 

8 

8 
8 
8 

8 
8 
8 



Domestic exports. 

SAUSAGE CASINGS. 
[Fiscal years.] 



Exported to — 



1913 



Pounds. 



Belgium 

Denmark 

France 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Spain , 

England 

Canada 

Australia 

New Zealand 

British South Africa. 
Another 



408,303 

857,536 

32,280 

7,122,669 

1,865,577 

2,244,831 

166,399 

815,846 

363,971 

100,566 

11,676,175 



Total 26,203,391 



Value. 



$75,179 

39,277 

130,116 

3,698 

1,012,380 

223,358 

455,369 

62,602 

177,262 

86,006 

29,932 

1,606,269 



3,901,428 



1914 



Pounds. 



653,019 

477,462 

829,668 

38,086 

9,065,473 

2,668,350 

2,313,502 

123,347 

1,116,706 

279,013 

90,687 

12,646,993 



30,092,206 



Value. 



.$69,127 

66,622 

132,902 

6,216 

1,109,003 

302,604 

462,908 

42,370 

242,652 

64,966 

103,422 

1,497,201 



4,077,882 



1915 



Pounds. 



14,873 

8,972,528 

1,376,028 

817,206 

4,868,000 

1,807,169 

2,463,063 

142,233 

723,606 

266,926 

24,769 

934,328 



Value. 



$1,658 
1,657,320 
297,144 
163,081 
558,719 
222,198 
479,015 

41,966 
171,476 

60,112 

22,792 
1,284,437 



30,818,551 



4,859,815 



Six months ended June 30, 1921. 



I 



22 



TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Domestic exports — Continued. 

SAUSAGE CASINGS— Continued. 



Exported to— 



Belgium 

Denmark 

France 

Italv 

Netherlands 

Spain 

England 

Canada 

Australia 

New Zealand 

British South Afirica. 
Another 



Total. 



1916 



Pounds. 



1,236,063 

1,158,027 

158,356 

1,747,011 

1,941,600 

4,163,695 

149,763 

842,472 

293,262 

110,206 

2,908,438 



14,708,893 



Value. 



$233,394 
240,301 

30,795 

271, 118 

234,577 

1,029,766 

51,260 
208,435 

78,677 

27,208 
462,150 



2,867,681 



1917 



Pounds. 



14,960 

1,993,491 

54,710 

2,695 

1,605,435 

575,291 

340,067 

812,098 

279,388 

198,035 

241,890 



6,118,060 



Value. 



S2,992 
557,465 

11,286 
1,291 
24d,818 
192,898 
190,317 
311,170 
119,898 

54,968 

49,856 



1,741,959 



1918 



Pounds. 



503,727 
2,840 



1,618,799 
2,020,210 
708,893 
817,499 
195,955 
167,777 
131,878 



8,173,578 



Value. 



S179,657 
1,57a 



278,697 

1,456,507 

427,525 

411,054r 

121,429 

68,779 

69,31fr 



3,014,537 



Exported to— 



Belgium 

Denmark 

France 

Italv 

Netherlands 

Spain 

England 

Canada 

Australia 

New Zealand 

British South Africa. 
All other 



Total. 



Exported to— 



France 

Italy 

United Kingdom 

Canada 

Argentina 

BrazU 

Chile 

Venezuela 

Dutch East Indies . . 

Hongkong 

Japan 

Australia 

British South Africa. 
All other 



Total. 



[Calendar years.] 



1918 



Pounds. ! Value. 



288,503 
209 



704,830 
1,040,200 
847,794 
605,593 
186,783 
182,826 
180,563 



4,037,391 



S121,226 
97 



284,929 
945,714 
572,294 
373,456 
124,092 
81,366 
108,506 



2,611,680 



1919 



Pounds. 



1,177,174 

2,195,758 

1,503,512 

642,011 

5,641,052 

2,410,091 

3,300,592 

1,262,494 

314,820 

141,889 

152,154 

16,735,481 



25,477,028 



Value. 



$213,800 

257,983 

505,763 

73,322 

659,067 

452,898 

2,776,847 

450,205 

267,091 

135,481 

77,239 

1940,138 



6, 809, 834 



1920 



Pounds. 



25,338,187 



Value. 



$5,860,935^ 



MANUFACTURES OF WAX. 
[Fiscal years.] 



1913 



$1,287 

2,049 

18,362 

38, 410 

3,415 

2,375 

641 

296 



313 

2,810 

4,835 

7,652 

37,373 



119,818 



1914 



$5,854 

1,646 

29,800 

22,584 

1,546 

4,013 

1,142 

332 



2,509 

495 

5,280 

3,752 

33,210 



112,193 



1915 



$10,185 

5,181 

87,960 

21, 243 

1,902 

1,049 

11, 172 

1,994 



16 

13 

4,393 

8,109 

31,931 



185, 148 



1916 



$72,644 

23,239 

134,680 

60,413 

8,681 

16, 557 

54,761 

9,325 

2,717 

74 

13,234 

13,074 

3,675 

148,454 



561,528 



1917 



$44,023 

40,576 

6,3,823 

60,907 

47,832 

5,672 

6,163 

7,425 

15,363 

34,^7 

5,379 

6,387 

111,623 



449,425 



1918 



$143, 554 

28,400 

161,654 

88,981 

3,2ia 

14,35«^ 

40,65& 

1,262 

12,1(» 

22,262 

21,894 

64,808 

9,504 

104,541 



717, 181 




t« 


Km 


^■i 


Bla 


. 1 ift 

• 


Ma, 


1 


Q 


1 


C 


b 


i 


fa 


Mi 


t 




V ^ 




^ ^ 


M 



r ^ ) 



'^% 



.« 


^ 


I» 




.% 


<^ 



"' ^1 



1 To Germany: 4,484,173 pounds, $506,125. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



23 



Domestic exports — Continued. 

MANUFACTURES OF WAX— Continued. 
[Calendar years.] 



Exported to— 



France 

Italy 

United Kingdom 

Canada 

Argentina 

Brazil 

CWle 

Venezuela 

Dntch East Indies > 

Hongkong 

Japan 

Australia 

British South Africa 

Another 

Total 



1918 



$36, 

46, 

91, 

81, 

5, 

H, 

14, 

1, 

8, 

63, 

69, 

16, 

143, 



540 
012 
820 
077 
157 
254 
480 
592 
786 
550 
033 
626 
074 
131 



1919 



$195, 529 

79,187 

363,619 

104,877 

36,438 

26,010 

14,985 

9.939 

18,244 

13,864 

54,251 

63,382 

15,121 

386,909 



592,132 I 1,382,355 



1920 



$1,001,345 



Rates of duty. 
MANUFACTURES OF AMBER, BLADDERS, AND WAX. 



Act of— 



1883 

1890 

1894 




640 
655 
459 



351 



1897 448 
1909 462 



.1913 , 367 



Tariff classification or description. 



* ♦ * 



Amber beads and gum , 

Bladders, manufactures of , 

Manufactiu'es of * * ♦ amber, ♦ ♦ *, bladders 

or wax, or of which these substances or either of them is the 

component material of chief value, not specially provided for 
* * *^ 

Manufactures of amber, ♦ * ♦ bladders * * * wax, or 
of which these substances or either of them is the component 
material of chief value, not specially provided for in this act. 

do 



Manufactures of amber, * * ♦, bladders * * * or of 
which these substances or any of them is the component mate- 
rial of chief value, not specially provided for in this section 

Manufactures of amber, * * *, bladders, or wax, or of which 
these substances or any of them is the component material of 
chief value, not speciaUy provided for in this section. 



Rates of duty, specific 
and ad valcvem. 



Free. 

Do. 
25 per cent ad valorem. 



Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



10 per cent ad valorem. 



BLADDERS, INTEGUMENTS, TENDONS, AND INTESTINES OF ANIMALS AND FISH 

SOUNDS. 



1883 
1890 
1894 

1897 
1909 



1913 419 



655 

507 
403 

496 
512 



Bladders, crude, and all integuments of animals not specially 
enumerated or provided for m this act. 

Bladders, includuig fish bladders or fish sounda, crude, and all 
int^:uments of animals not specially provided for in this act. 

Bladders, and all integuments * * ♦ of animals, and fish 
sounds or bladders, crude, * * * salted for preservation, 
and unmanufactured, not specially provided for in this act. 

Bladders, and all int^;uments, * * * £tnd intestines of 
animals and fish sounds, crude, dried or salted for preservation 
* * * only, and unmanufactured, not speciaUy provided 
for in this act. 

Bladders, and all integuments, tendons and intestines of animals 
and fish sounds, crude, dried or salted for preservation only, 
and unmanufactured, not specially provided for In this section. 

do 



Free. 
Do. 

Do 

Do. 
Do. 



24 tariff information surveys. 

Court and Treasury Decisions. 

Small articles resembling in shape and color, but not in size, various 
fruits and vegetables, and designed for use only in waxing sewing 
thread, do not substantially simulate artificial fruits and are dutiable 
as manufactures of wax. (United States v. Duckerhoff, 4 Ct. Oust. 
Appls. 384, of 1913.) 

Wax is not restricted in its meaning by lexicographers, by the 
courts, or by Congress to substances of animal origin only, but in- 
cludes all substances of kindred nature derived from mineral or vege- 
table sources. Paraffm is wax within this paragraph. (United States 
V, Coccaro, 4 Ct. Cust. Appls. 506, of 1913.). 

Candles of paraflin wax and cotton wick were held dutiable as 
manufactures m chief value of wax and not exempt from duty as 
petroleuni products. (G. A. 8018; T. D. 36958, of 1917.) But a 
combination of waxes stearic acid specially prepared for use in the 
manufacture of phonographic records is not classable as a manufac- 
ture of wax, and is dutiable as an unenumerated manufactured article. 
(Abstract 28036; T. D. 32379, of 1912.) 

Beef weasands are not free of duty under this paragraph as ''in- 
teguments, tendons, and intestines of animals, '^ but are dutiable as 
nonenumerated unmanufactured articles" under paragraph 385. 
(United States v. White, 8 Ct. Cust. Appls. 115, of 1917.) 

Pituitary glands taken from the brain pan of the calf and used in 
the manufacture of certain medicines are also not within the pro- 
visions of this paragraph. (Frankfeld v. United States, 7 Ct. Cust. 
Appls. 296, of 1916.) 

Turtle skin or integument lying between the shell of the turtle and 
the ribs and backbone, used for the purpose of making green-turtle 
soup, only the integuments being used, was held free of duty under 
paragraph 51 of the act of 1909. (Abstract 32627; T. D. 33511, of 
1913.) 

Linings of hogs' stomachs, salted, are free of duty under this para- 
graph as intestines of animals. (Abstract 43143, of 1919.) 

Fish sounds, which according to the testimony are dried and pre- 
served only enough to stand shipping, otherwise not preserved, were 
held free of duty under this paragraph (Abstract 40051, of 1916), as 
were fish sounds cleaned and dried after having been split to facili- 
tate the cleaning and drying (United States v. Brown, 10 Ct. Cust. 
Appls. ; T.D. 38295, of 1920). 

Fish sounds, split and dried, the splitting apparently done to per- 
fect the drying process, were likewise classified. (Abstract 41785, of 
1918.) 

Fish sounds, split, washed, and dried in the sun, such splitting be- 
ing part of the drying process, were held not to be '^prepared fish 
sounds'' within the meaning of that provision in paragraph 34, but 
free of duty under the provision in this paragraph for ''fish soimds, 
crude, dried, or salted lor preservation only, and unmanufactured.'' 
(G. A. 8276; T. D. 38088, of 1919.) An appeal is pending from this 
decision. (T. D. 38125, of 1919.) 



GOLDBEATERS* MOLDS AND GOLDBEATERS' SKINS. 



General Information. 



1913 TARIFF PARAGRAPH. 



496. '^ Goldbeaters' molds and goldbeaters' skins/^ free. 



DESCRIPTION AND USES. 

Goldbeaters' skin is the outer membrane of the caecum, or blind 
gut, of the ox, prepared for the goldbeater. The manufacture is an 
extremely offensive operation, as the intestines are subjected to par- 
tial putrefaction to facilitate the separating of the membranes for 
the cleaning, drying, and finishing processes. They are finished by 
treating with camphor or alum and coating with white of egg. 

A goldbeater's mold consists of a collection of about 850 leaves of 
goldbeaters' skins, parchment, and vellum, between which flattened 
pieces of gold are placed to be hammered out to the finished thick- 
ness and size. The intestines of about 380 oxen are required to fur- 
nish the leaves of skin for one mold. The skins are each 3^ inches 
square. 

Imports in 1914 were valued at $26,634, practically all from Eng- 
land and Germany; in 1918, $22,609; and in 1920, $41,086. 

Goldbeaters' molds and skins have been free of duty in all tariff 
acts from 1883. 

Imports by countries {fiscal years). 
GOLDBEATERS' MOLDS AND SKINS. 



Imported from— 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1 
1912 1913 


19141 


Germany 


$3,242 
20,601 


$4,968 
27,719 


$4,151 
24,608 


$5,371 $7,632 
27, 7U 19,484 
27 


$7,496 
19,293 


Enelana 


Canada 


285 


Austria-Hungary 






126 
36 






Fran ce T . . ! 






143 ' 










1 




Total 


23,843 


32,687 


28,921 


33,252 j 27,116 


27,074 







Not separately stated after 1914. 



25 



26 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Imports for consumption— OoMbeaters* molds and shins (free). 



Fiscal year: 

IvUo. ...... 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

191'5 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 



Rate of duty. 



Free... 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Quantity. 



Number. 



22,802 



Valu^. 



^,818 
23,995 
32,687 
28,921 
33,252 
26,408 
26,634 
13,944 
23,131 
38,651 
22,609 

16,024 
11,050 
41,086 



Duty 
collected. 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



11.80 



Rates of duty — Goldbeaters^ molds and goldbeaters^ shins. 



Act of— 


t 
Par. 


Tariff classification or description. 


Rates of duty, specific 
and ad valorem. 


1883.... 


710 ! 
598 : 
498 1 
567 ! 
579 
496 

! 


Goldbeaters' molds and goldbeaters' skins 


Free. 


1890.... 


do 


Do. 


1894.... 


do 


Do. 


1897 


do 


Do. 


1909.... 


do 


Do. 


1913.... 


do 


Do. 









o 



f 





■ . ->- 





UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

ON THE ARTICLES IN 

PARAGRAPHS 354, 355, 356, and 357 OF THE 

TARIFF ACT OF 1913 

AND RELATED ARTICLES IN OTHER PARAGRAPHS 



FUR HATS, BONNETS, OR HOODS 

Paragraph 354: Paragraph 355: 

Fur Hats, Bonnets, or Hoods Indurated Fiber Ware. (For treat- 

ment see par. 349) 
Paragraph 356: Paragraph 357: 

Jewelry. (For treatment see par. p^^^^^^^ ^^^ Semiprecious Stones, 

^"^"^^ (For treatment see par. 333) 



REVISED EDITION 







WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
N-18 1921 



UKItCD STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Thomas Walkzb Pa^ CAa4rmaim. 
Thomas O. Makvin, Vice Chairmam. 
David J. Lewis. 

WnxiAM 8. CuLBM rr s oN. 

I 

Bdwabd p. CosnoAN. I 

William Bitbgbss. I 

John F. Bethxtne, Seoretarp. 



additional copies 

Of THIB PUBLICATION MAT BB PROCUVSD ffBOM 

THE SITPEBINTJCMDINT OF DOCIMBNTB 

OOYEBNICBMT PBINTINO OFnCB 

WASHINOTON, D. C. 

AT 

5 CENTS PER COPY. 



PRES^ACE. 



This is one of a series of Tariff Information Surveys prepared by 
the United States Tariff Commission and transmitted to the Com- 
mittee on Ways and Means. The series covers all of the articles 
' and commodities provided for in the tariff act of October 3, 1913, 
and others not specifically provided for. It is alrranged in the 
numerical order of paragraphs of that act.- 

In some cases two or more paragraphs have been combined in 
one pamphlet. In doing this, industrial relationship of the articles 
has been followed when possible. In those instances where a para- 
graph has been treated under a preceding paragraph of the tariff 
act, reference is made to this fact at the point where the paragraph 
appears in niunerical order. Where one grade of an article is dutiable 
and another grade of the same article is on the free list, the article 
is discussed under the dutiable paragraph, which appears first in 
numerical order in the tariff act. In certain instances articles of 
close industrial relationship and which occur in separate paragraphs 
of the tariff act have been combined imder one paragraph for con- 
venience of discussion. Reference is made to this fact at the point 
where the commodities would naturally occur in numerical order. 

The first pamphlet in the series is an *' Introduction and Index,'* 
which contams: 

1. An introductory chapter discussing the scope of the series and 
the general method of treatment. 

2. An alphabetical index of the articles provided for in the tariff 
act of 1913, showing the paragraph of the act in which the article 
is provided for and, if discussed under a different paragraph, the 
number of such paragraph. 

3. A list of the pamphlets in the series, showing the paragraphs 
and articles included in each pamphlet. 

Thus by use of this ''Introduction and Index,'* the exact location 
of the discussion relating to a given article or commodity can be 
ascertained. 

In the preparation of this report the Tariff Commission had the 
services of Charles F. Yauch, of the Commission's staff, and of others. 



CONTENTS. 



HATS, BONNETS, OR HOODS OF FUR. 

Page. 

Summary 7 

Summary table 8 

General information: 

1913 tariff paragraph 8 

Description 8 

Domestic production 8 

Materials 9 

Equipment 10 

Methods of production 10 

Oi^nization 12 

Geographical distribution 13 

History of the industry 14 

Domestic production and consmnption 14 

Exports 15 

Foreign production 16 

Imports 16 

Prices 17 

Tariff history .• 17 

Competitive conditions 18 

Tariff considerations 18 

Production in the United States 19 

Imports by countries 22 

Imports for consumption and revenue. 24 

Exports 26 

Prices 26 

Rates of duty 28 

Court and Treasury decisions 29 

5 



HATS, BONNETS, OR HOODS OF FUR. 



Summary. 



In 1914 there were 224 establishments^ with a total capital of 
$39,401,429, engaged in the manufacture of fur-felt hats. The total 
number of wage earners was 21,318, and the value of the product, 
$37,349,744. 

Hatter's fur is by far the most important material entering into the 
manufacture of fur-felt hats. 

The domestic production greatly exceeds the imported article. 
The skins from which the fur is obtained are, however, imported. 

Until 1846 the makiog of fiur-felt hats was a hand trade entirely, 
since which time machines have gradually replaced handwork, so 
that to-day there are very few operations that machines can not 
successfully perform. The European countries have kept pace with 
the Americans in the use of the most modern and improved machinery. 
The inventions are due largely to American ingenuity, but it is said 
that England, Belgium, France, and other European countries have 
copied American tools, machinery, and methods. Some establish- 
ments make the hat from start to finish, some make nothing but 
hat bodies, while others do finishing only. 

The industry is centered in a few eastern States — Pennsylvania, 
Connecticut, New Jersey, New York, and Massachusetts. 

Both value and quantity of fur-felt hats produced in 1914 decreased 
from that of 1909, tne decrease in value being 22 per cent. The census 
year 1914 covered a period of business depression among fur-felt 
nat manufacturers. Tne decline in the business was also attributed 
to the greater use of caps, cloth hats, and wool-felt hats. 

Imports dropped off greatly during the war, but even before the 
war tne quantity imported showed a tendency to decline. Imports 
decreased from 42,943 dozen in 1910 to 36,725 dozen in 1914. Im- 

Eorts for the year 1912, however, amounted to 55,312 dozen. Imports 
ave not reached prewar figures, the imports for the fiscal year 1920 
amounting to 18,115 dozen. 
Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, and England are the 

f principal countries irom which hats are imported. Exports of fur- 
elt hats are not separately shown in official statistics, but with the 
exception of a well-Known make, exports are small. 

Prices of hats remained stable during the years 1913-1915, but began 
to advance in 1916, and at the end of 1918 had advanced about 75 
per cent over 1913 prices. This was in marked contrast to hatter's 
lur, which had advanced approximately 360 per cent. 

Style does not afford the protection to domestic producers that it 
formerly did, due in great measure to the independence of chain stores 
or hat specialists in originating styles, whicn formerly were in the 
hands of a few manufacturers. Caps, wool hats, and hats made of 
cloth are coming into greater use, as they are cheaper than fur-felt 
hats. 

7 



8 



TABIFF INFORMATION SUEVEYS, 



• 

The labor costs in Europe have been lower than in the United 
States, due to the lower wages paid abroad and to the introduction of 
American machinery and metnodsw In recent years, however, the 
industry abroad has been so disorganized as to render direct com- 
parisons impossible. 

HatSf fur-felt — Summary table. 



Year. 



1910 


Dozen. 
12,989,252 


1911 


1912 




1913 




1914 


« 2, 118,634 


1915 


1915 




1917 




1918 




1919 


1920 


1920* 1 



Domestic 
production. 



Imports for 
consump- 
tion. 



Dozen. 
42,940 
40,999 
55,312 
43,663 
36,725 
18^618 
19,527 
30,063 
22,936 
14,786 
18, 115 
28,089 



Ratio of 
imports 
to pro- 
duction. 



Per cent. 
1.4 



1.7 



Value (im- 
ports for 
consump- 
tion). 



$564,606 
593,900 
875,221 
747,723 
664,717 
379,937 
313,231 
497,626 
466,049 
405,431 
579,888 
1,094,373 



Amount of 
duty. 



9304,142 
313,619 
452,552 
379,487 
314,506 
170,972 
140,954 
223,932 
209,722 
182,444 
260,950 
492,467 



Value per 
unit of 

quantity. 



$13. 15 
14.48 
15.82 
17.12 
18.10 
20.41 
16.04 
16.55 
20.32 
27.42 
32.01 
39.03 



Equiva- 
lent ad 
valorem 
rate. 



Percent. 
53.87 
62.71 
51.76 
50.81 
•47.81 
46.00 
45.00 
45.00 
45.00 
45.00 
45.00 
45.00 



Domestic exports .vere not separately stated. 

1 1909 excludes 366,370 dozen of fur-felt hat bodies and hats in the rough. 
* Excludes 329,363 dozen of fur-felt hat bddies and hats in the rough. 
' July 1 to Oct. 3, 1913, 49 per cent; Oct. 4, 1913, to June 30, 1914, 45 per cent. 
^ Calendar year. 

General Inform atiox. 

1913 tariff paragraph. 

354. Hats, bonnets, or hoods, for men's, women's, boys', or chil- 
dren's wear, trimmed or untrimmed, including bodies, hoods, plateaux, 
forms or shapes, for hats or bonnets, compose wholly or in chief value 
of fur of the rabbit, beaver, or other animals, 45 per cent ad valorem. 

DESORIFnON. 



Although head covering in some form is in use throughout the civi- 
lized world, the hat as generally recognized is not the form in widest 
The fez, turban, or other headgear is worn hy people in thickly 



use. 



populated parts of the world as part of their religious belief. The 
Dest felt hat is made of fur. In competition with fur-felt hats are 
caps, hats made of cloth, and wool-felt hats. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCTION. 

In 1914 there were 224 establishments engaged in the manufacture 
of fur-felt hats. The total number of wage earners was 21,318 and 
the value of the product, $37,349,744. In addition, fur-felt hats to 
the value of $476,499 were made in establishments engaged primarily 
in the manufacture of other products. There is some duplication in 
the value due to the inclusion with ''hats, fur-felt," of the product of 
establishments which made nothing but hat bodies, in some instances 
under contract work on materials by other manufacturers, and of still 
others which did finishing only. 



TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 9 

Materials, — ^The chief materials used ia the production of fur-felt 
hats are hatters' fur, leather, bands and binoing, satin, and wire. 
Materials used in shaping and finishing hats are shellac, alcohol, dyes, 
and chemicals. 

By far the most important single material is hatters' fur. This 
consists of the soft underfur of the rabbit, hare, coney, nutria, or 
beaver removed from the skin and prepared for use in the manufacture 
of hats. In the finished hat it does not resemble fur as generally 
recognized. Through the processes of manufacture the fur loses its 
identity and becomes a fibrous substance. The fur of the beaver is 
rarely used now on account of its high price. Rabbit skins are used 
almost exclusively in the production of hatters' fur. There is no 
rabbit m this couitry whose fur is good for hat making except in the 
production of hats that do not have to be dyed or colored. Some hat 
manufacturers prepare the fur in their own establishments, but it is 
mostly purchased from factories engaged in that line of production or 
from maporters. Before the war the finest fm* came from Germany* 
It is generally imported in a cut condition, but sometimes on the skin, 
in which case it is known as fur skins carroted. 

A number of factories in Connecticut produce hat bodies as a final 
product. These bodies become the material for finishers. In 1914 
there were produced in Connecticut 267,178 dozen hat bodies valued 
at $1,741,885, or $6.52 per dozen. Of the total production in Con- 
necticut only 90,745 dozens, valued at $540,939, were used as material 
in other factories located in that State, leaving about two-thirds of the 
rough bodies to be used by hat factories outside the State. The total 
felt bodies used as materials in 1914 amounted to 395,848 dozens 
valued at $2,453,503. 

Shellac is used in stiffening hat bodies. It is a product of British 
India. There has not been found a satisfactory substitute. It is sub- 
ject to sudden fluctuations in price. 

Logwood dyes have been superseded by anilines and alizarines 
resulting in reducing the time consumed in dyeing, greater variations 
in color, and better control over results. 

A comparison of the value of hatters' fur consumed in the United 
States with imports shows that the domestic production is far in excess 
of the imports, but the skins from which natters' fur is produced 
originate abroad. 

The amount of hatters' fur used in the fur-felt hat industry in 1909 
was 8,645,576 poimds, valued at $9,278,922, or $1.07 per poimd. 
Imports of furs not on the skin prepared for hatters' use, including fur 
skins carroted for the fiscal year ending Jime 30, 1909, amoimted to 
$923,088 and for the year 1910 to $1,499,815. On the basis of these 
figures imports for 1909 were not quite 10 per cent and imports for 
1910 a little over 16-per cent of the total value consumed in 1909. 
Hatters' fur used in 1914 amoimted to 5,766,904 pounds, valued at 
$7,108,248, or $1.23 per pound. Imports for the fiscal year 1914 
amounted to $607,254 and for the year 1915 to $352,705. 

Percentages of imports for the fiscal years 1914 and 1915 based on 
consumption in 1914 were, respectively, 8.5 and 4.9. The value of 
imports is not strictly comparable with that of consumption, as the 
former is the actual market value or wholesale price at the time of 
exportation to the United States in the principal markets of the 
country whence exported. To the import value, therefore,^ should 

64912— 21— N-13 2 



10 TABIPF IKFOBMATIOK SUEYBYS. 

be added transportation, insurance, and other charges in connection 
with the shipment; also duties and importers' profit. 

Equipment. — ^Until 1846 the making of hats was a hand trade 
entirely. The principal processes of manufacture are now performed 
by machinen^, the inventions of Americans. Those of Thomas 
Bianchard, BL A. Wells, and John T. Waring are, with some modifi- 
cations, the foundation of present-day madiine production. Eng- 
land, Belgium, France, ana other European countries have copira 
American tools, machinery, and methods. The invention of maclunes 
used in the manufacture of hats has not been confined to the United 
States. The machine method of pressing derby hats was in use in 
England before being introduced here. 

Methods of production, — ^The manufacture of fur-felt hats is divided 
into what is known as front-shop and back-shop work. Back-shop 
work begins with the raw fur and continues through the processes of 
making the bodies and shaping them ready to be finished. Front- 
shop work consists of the finishing processes. Most of the largest 
establishments make the hat from start to finish. The larger num- 
ber of shops, howev^, is engaged in performing only part of the 
processes of manufacture, some make nothing but hat bodies, often 
under contract work on materials furnished bv other manufacturers, 
and others do finishing only. The making of nat bodies is carried on 
in factories, while finishing is often done on a small scale by retail 
stores. For a comparison of establishments engaged in the manu- 
facture of hat bodies and those engaged in the mushing of hats, see 
page 21. 

Mixing, — The first operation in the manufacture of fur-felt hats 
is the mixing of the fur. The different furs are placed in layers in a 
bin and thoroughly mixed. From the bin the fur is transferred to a 
mixer consisting oi a box partly wire screened and containing toothed 
cylinders revolving at high speed. 

Blowing. — ^Blowing carries forward the process of mixing and, in 
addition, cleans the fur by separating and removing dirt and other 
extraneous matter. The fur is kept constantly agitated in a current 
of air. The blower is divided into a number of sections, each section 
being complete in itself. It is important that the fur be thoroughly 
oleaned, as otherwise defects will be brought to light in subsequent 
operations. Formerly the fur was passed through a six-section 
machine, but now the sections number from 12 to 40. 

Forming.— CleBn fur from the blower is weighed out into boxes, 
«ach containing a sufficient quantity to make one hat. The fur is fed 
into a machine called a former, which consists of a perforated copper 
<5one revolving on a shaft and inclosed in a chamber. An exhaust 
fan draws the fur about the cone and holds it there by suction. 
When the fur is properly distributed the cone wrapped with a piece 
of wet burlap is removed and dipped into warm water irntil thoroughly 
soaked. The fur is then removed from the cone in one mass. Th£ 
is made possible by the felting of the fur, which begins when the cone 
is lowered into the vat of water. In felt fabrics the fibers are inter- 
woven and interlocked in every possible way. It has a smooth sur- 
face, no designs or figures, and aoes not need to be cut '' to match." 
It is not only possible but necessary to start the work in the general 
form of the completed article, as the shape can not be greatly altered 
after once the fioers are matted without destroying the fabric. 



TABIFF INFOElCATIOn SUBVEY8. 11 

• 

Hardening, — ^Hardening consists of several operations, the object 
of which is to promote felting, to add strength and durability to the 
f d,bric, and to reduce the mass to proper proportions. The fur cone 
is rolled and pressed first by hand and afterwards by machinery. 
The hardener sprinkles the fur cone with hot water from a brush and 
wraps it in a cloth and rolls it a few times. The body is opened up 
to prevent sticking together and examined for imperfections. In Hie 
sizmg room the starter does nearly the same work as the hardener, 
but with less care, and the sizer aoes about the same work as the 
starter but in a more vigorous manner. Sizing is a hand operation 
in some factories and a rnachine operation in others. In machine 
sizing the work is divided into three stages, the fabric being manipu- 
lated by rolls which in each succeeding stage are operated at higner 
rates oi speed. After being sized to proper height and thickness the 
hat bodies are pinned out. 

Pinning out — ^This is a machine operation. The machine consists 
of a revolving cone upon which the hat body is placed and a second 
cone pressed against the outer surface of the body. The water is 
thus squeezed out. The smaller cone also acts as an iron. By this 
operation the felt is made smoother, of a more uniform thickness and 
the body more exact in size. Whizzers or centrifugal extractors are 
used to dry the bodies. 

Shaving. — ^Long, loose hairs are cut off by passing the hat body 
over a cone-shaped roller that brhigs the fabric in contact witn 
rapidly revolving knives. The finer soft hats are returned to the 
sizers for further manipulation. 

Dyeing. — Some colors are obtained more satisfactorily if applied 
after the bodies have been stiffened. As a rule, however, dyeing pre- 
cedes the stiffening process. If strong colors are desired the bodies 
are placed in vats of large capacities and stirred mechanically by 
moving paddles. If delicate shades are desired only a few bodies 
can be placed in the vat at one time, for their submersion in the bath 
dye beyond the exact time would intensify the color; hence large 
quantities can not be handled at one time. 

S^emnor.— Stiffening consists in applying a solution of shellac 
to the bodies. It is done either by hand or machine. In the hand 
process the body is dipped into the solution and an operator using a 
orush or a *'jack," scrubs or rolls the gum into the felt. In the 
machine process the body is passed between rollers which together 
with a brush work the giun into the fabric. The machine can be so 
arranged that more stiffening can be applied to different parts as 
desired. The bodies are then placed in ovens, with apertures in the 
top, through which the vaporized alcohol passes. To remove the 
shellac from inner and outer surfaces, the bodies are dipped in an 
alkaline solution, after which they are scrubbed with brushes and 
washed in fresh water. This is also a machine operation. Stiffen- 
ing of soft hats is confined to the brims and is a machine operation. 

Stretching and blocking, — ^After stiffening, the bodies are passed 

through several operations to ^ve them the first rough outlines of 

the finished article. Before being stretched they are dipped in hot 

water to soften the shellac. Tip stretching consists in lorcin^ the 

, felt between the rays of two metal stars. The same principle is in- 

. volved in brim stretching but the stars are so arranged that only 




llliTilhC 



12 TABIPF IlfVOBMATION SUBYETB. 

that part of the fur cone which is to become the brim ie 
These two operations are performed by machines. Wet 1 
done by hand in some establishments and by machines in dbas. 
is claimed that hand bloddn^r is superior to machine as tiif k 

Euts too much strain on the Dody. Whizzers are used to ^ 
odies after they have been wet blocked. Back shop opamtk 
here. 

yiNIBHINO PROCESSES. 

The finishing processes are conducted in the ^* front shop/" 
consist in shapmg the body, removing protruding fur fibers, s; 
the felt with irons and pads, and trinmiing with bands, 
leathers, and linings. Soft hat finishing diners from that for 
hats. 

Pouncing. — Soft hats are crown poimced, which consists of 
the hat over a block, attached to a revolving shaft and rubbing 
surface of the felt with a pad of pouncing paper to give it smootim 
Crown poimcing is done by hand and by machine, though the hinJ' 
process is considered the better method. Brims are pounced br 
machines. 

Before poimcing stiff hats, they are machine pressed which gives 
the crown the size and dimensions required. As in soft hats, the 
crowns are generally pounced by hand, especially in the better CTades 
and the rims bv machine. Owing to the greater amoimt of Celiac 
in a stiff hat tKe poimcer has to use greater care to avoid wearing 
down the fur so as not to expose the shellac. The poimcing machine 
was invented in 1853 by John T. Waring, an American. 

Bloeling. — Hats are dampened and tnen the blocker stretches the 
crown over a wooden block of the exact shape of the finished hat 
until it fits the block. The blocker irons the brim. TTie crown of 
the hat is iron^ by a machine, an ingenious machine invented by 
Charles Keid, an American, The soft hat is again poimced, this time 
with mcffe care. 

Rim trimmiHg ami shaping. -The^ rou^h edges of the rim are 
trimmed by a cutting machine and the nm brought to the desired 
width. Tfie curt given to the rim is also done by means of a machine. 
Bnms of stiff hats ar^ nnmdod as in soft hats. Instead of being 
curled, they are e<lJ^Hi up;'' that is, turned up along the extreme 
edge. The brim is ^^ot bv a juxhvss known as matricing, the iron 
m^d used being known a^i a matrix. Edj»es are hand planed before 
binding. Wires are jvlavHHl in that part v^f the brim ''edged up" to 
produce a spitD^. lu tluer j»ravlo hats wiivs an^ not iK^ed. 

Trimming.. — The bauvU, tuwdiu^, and leathers have much to do 
with the general anpearamv v^f the ixat and it is msvc^^sary that suitable 
trimnungs be used to iHvufvnnvi (v^ Ai\ajH\ai\vl ovvlvxr v^f the body. Sew 
ing machines are use^l lar^^K u\ atuohitx^ iho trimming 

Orgamzation. — ^The total caivual wf thi^ 221 ^v^tabUshiuents engaged 
in the manufacture of fut^Wt Uh^^ aivunuUvsl tv^ *a9.40U429 in 1914. 
For 




CO] 

vaib, 

"other'' forms odfovk-iuvHlx^^ AK^ut M ^hu* coui v^^ ih<.* total vahie of 

products was productHl uv wiUW^^luuvunt v^wiusl b\ vvrjvrations. 



^ svina 



TABIFF INFOBMATION STJBVEYS. 



13 



' ^A^ In 1914 six establishments reported products valued at over 
7***i»tt ' $1,000,000. Their combined products amounted to $13,618,957, or 
''.''iDiafr 36.5 per cent of the total value. The following tables show size of 
" to znic*; establishments according to value of products and average number 
^miflf> of wage earners: 

Establishments grouped according to value of products,^ 



with k. 

ift mz 
pyetz 



!f kr-' 
sr:: r 



r - 



Value per establishment. 



Total 

Less than 95,000 

$5,000 to 120,000 

120,000 to 9100,000... 
$100,000 to $1,000,000 
$1,000,000 and over. . 



Number of 
establishments. 



1914 



224 



39 
59 
52 
68 
6 



1909 



273 



35 
63 
78 
91 
6 



Average number of 
wage earners. 



1914 



21,318 



52 

281 

1,379 

11,538 

8,068 



1909 



25,064 



53 

334 

1,987 

13,141 

9,549 



Value of products. 



1914 



$37,349,744 



89,827 

606,939 

2,534,833 

20,499,188 

13,618,957 



1909 



$47,864,630 



104,234 

695,573 

3,639,413 

26,673,802 

16,751,608 



i Data from Abstract of the Census of Manufactures, 1914. 



Establishments grouped according to average number of wage earners.^ 



/ 


Number of es- 
tablishments. 


Number of wage 
earners. 


Per cent of total wage earners. 


Wage eamers^per establishment. 


1914 


1909 


1914 


1909 


1914 


1909 


Cumulative. 




1914 


1909 


Total 


224 


273 


21,318 


25,064 


100 


100 












No wage earners 


6 
74 
46 
22 
25 
30 
17 
2 
2 


12 
71 
56 
47 
82 
31 
19 
2 
3 














1 to5 


194 
510 
671 
1,725 
4,817 
6,002 
1,101 
6,298 


200 
687 
1,597 
2,224 
4,600 
6,579 
1,102 
8,075 


0.9 

2.4 

3.1 

8.1 

22.6 

28.2 

5.2 

29.5 


a8 

2.7 

6.4 

8.9 

1&3 

26.3 

4.4 

32.2 


a9 

3.3 
6.4 
14.5 
37.1 
65.3 
70.5 
100.0 


0.8 


6 to 20 


3.5 


21 to 50, 


9.9 


51 to 100 


18.8 


101 to 250 


37.1 


251 to 500 


63.4 


501 to 1,000 


67.8 


Over 1,000 


100.0 







i Data from Abstract of the Census of Manufactures. 

In 1914 there were 15,539, or 72.8 per cent, males emploved, of 
whom 158 were xmder 16 years of age, and 5,779 females, of whom 
19 were imder 16. The lowest average number employed was in May, 
19,791, and the maximum in October, 22,438. The per cent of wage 
earners employed in establishments where the prevailing hours of 
labor were less than ^4 per week, was 40.6 in 1909 and 74.5 in 1914. 

GeoarapMcal distribution. — ^It was claimed by manufacturers at the 
tariff hearings in 1913 that the fur-felt hat industry was not a sec- 
tional nor a New England one. According to the census returns, 
1914, the industry is confined to a few Eastern States — Pennsylvania, 
Connecticut, New Jersey, New York, and Massachusetts. These 
States contained 175 establishments, or 78.1 per cent of the total 
number, and produced a product valued at $35,988,044, or 96.4 per 
cent of the total. The indiistry is also confined to a few cities in those 
States, namely, Philadelphia, Danbury, Newark, New York, and 
Orange. The value of fur-felt hats produced in these cities amoimted 
to $28,619,498, or 59.8 per cent in 1909, and to $27,305,966, or 73.1 
per cent in 1914. 



14 TABIF7 niTPOBMATIOK SUBYBYB. 

History of the industry. — ^The manufacture of fur-felt hats in the 
United States dates back to early colonial days. Encouragement 
was given to manufacturers by legislative enactments. The As- 
sembly of Virginia offered 10 pounds of tobacco for every good wool 
or fur hat made in the colony. A prize of 40 shillings was oflEered 
by Delaware for the neatest and best hat manufactured in the lower 
counties. Exportation of raccoon skins were prohibited by Virginia. 
By 1731 the industrjr had become of so much importance that English 
manufactiurers petitioned ParUament to forbid the importation of 
hats produced m the American colonies. The conomittee reported 
that 10,000 beaver hats were made annually in New York and New 
England, and that there were 10 hatters in Boston, one making 40 
hats a week. Carolina also had a flourishing industrv and exported 
hats to the Spanish islands. Zadoc Benedict began the manufacture 
of hats in 1780 at Danbury, Conn. He employed two apprentices. 
New London Coimty in Connecticut was also a center of the industry. 
The industry had become of importance in Pennsylvania as early as 
1786. It is estimated that there were produced 54,000 fur hats and 
160,000 wool hats annually and that there were 68 hatters in Phila- 
delphia and vicinity and 247 hatters in other parts of the State. 

The total number of fur hats reported as manufactured in 1810 
amoimted to 457, 6&6, of which 45,369 were made in Pennsylvania; 
142,645, valued at $415,167, in Massachusetts; 31,524, valued at 
$94,052, in New Jersey; and fur hats valued at $304,472 in Mary- 
land. 

Manufacturers assembled in convention in 1831 estimated the 
production of all kinds of hats and caps at $15,000,000 annually and 
that emplovment was given to 15,000 men and boys and 3,000 
women. Tne census of 1840 reported the value of all kinds of hats 
and caps at $8,704,342. In 1850 the capital of establishments 
engaged in the manufacture of hats and caps amounted to $4,427,798 
and m 1860 to $4,136,572. In the latter year 2,449,672 fur hats, 
2,462,974 felt or soft hats and 6,191,482 wool hats were produced. 
It was not until 1900 that the manufacture of fur-felt hats was 
treated as a separate industry by the census. 

Up to 1846 the manufacturing processes were almost entirely 
performed by hand. The first notable invention appears to be that 
of Henry Blynn, of Newark, N. J., who in 1835 invented a machine 
for stinening • hats. Other noteworthy inventions are those of 
Thomas Blanchard, John T. Waring, and H. A. Wells, who may be 
considered the pioneers in labor-saving inventions. The ironing 
machine use in ironing the crown of the hat wag invented by Charles 
Reid. The modern machines are based on the principles of these 
original inventions. 

Domestic production and consumption. — It was not until the census 
of 1900 that separate statistics of production were shown for the 
fur-felt hat industry. The value of products in 1904 increased 31.7 
per cent compared with that of 1899, and 30.7 per cent in 1909 
compared with that of 1904. A comparison of the value of products 
in 1914 with that of 1909 shows a decrease of 22 per cent. The 
decreases for the various States were: Massachusetts, 76.9 per cent; 
New York, 35 per cent; Pennsylvania, 15.2 per cent; New Jersev. 



TABUT INPOBMATION SURYBYS. 



15 



9.7 per cent; and Connecticut, 8.9 per cent. On page 157 of the 
Census of Manufactures 1914, Vol. li, it is stated: 

The census year of 1914 covered a period of business depression among felt-hat 
manufactures. This industry is one of the first to feel the pinch of a financial string- 
ency, due to the fact that when a man finds he must economize, the cost of headgear 
is often one of the first items to pe reduced. Thus the geiieral business depression 
of 1914 was reflected in the manufacture of fur-felt hats. 

Aside from the general depression which the manufacturers of fur-felt hats shared 
in common with many manufacturers in other industries in 1914, there were two 
additional causes of lessened production which related only to this industry. One 
cause of this change was the substitution of the cheaper cloth caps, popularized in 
connection with the automobile, for men's fur-felt hats, and of velvet, satin, and 
other cloth hats for women's fur-felt hats. The value of the production of "hats and 
caps, other than straw, felt and wool, " increased from $13,689,338 in 1909 to $18,593,221 
in 1914, or by 35.8 per cent; and this rather large increase took place at a time when 
many of the industries showed decreases or only insignificant increases in 1914 as 
compared with 1909. Furthermore, the styles of fur-felt hats prevailing in 1914 also 
resulted in lessened production. The demand at that time for soft instead of stiff 
hats, with a resulting reduction in the number required; for, when the stvle runs 
largely to stiff hats, the consumer byya a new one more frequently than when soft 
hats are in fashion. 

Manufacturers stated at tariff hearings in 1913 that business was 
not up to full capacity due partly to change in styles and partly to 
the demand for cloth caps and wool hats, it was claimed tnat tneir 
factories were running 75 per cent of full time and in some cases as 
low as 50 per cent. 

In the table which follows, production and consumption of fur- 
felt hats in the United States are shown for the years 1899, 1904. 
1909, and 1914. 

« 

Production and consumption of fur-felt hats and bodies in the United States. 



Item. 



Production: 

Fur hats 

Fur hat bodies. 



Total hats and bodies . 
Imports for consiunptlon. , . , 



Total production and imports. 
Domestic exports 



1899 



Dozen. 
1,882,372 
165,010 



2,047,382 
6,735 



2,053,U7 
(») 



Consumption. 



Production: 

Fur hats 

Fur hat bodies 

other than in hat factories. 



2,053,117 



925,385,506 
992,730 



Total hats and bodies »26,378,236 

Imports for consumption 80, 250 



Total production and imports i 26,468,486 



Domestic exports 
Consumption 



0) 



26,468,486 



1904 



Dozen. 
2,611,875 

88,986 



2,700,861 
8,817 



1909 



Dozen. 
2,989,252 
366,370 



3,355,622 
32,715 



2,709,678 
0) 



3,388,337 
0) 



2,709,678 



134,314,234 
660,959 
333,441 



3,388,337 



S43,442,466 

2,703,738 

806,601 



« 35,308,634 ! '46,952,805 
119,883 I 397,917 



1914 



Dorm. 
2,118,634 
329,363 



2,447,997 
36,726 



2,484,72^ 
0) 



2,484,722 



S33,603,531 

2,372,937 

476,499 



2 36,452,967 
664,717 



35,428,517 ] 47,350,722 



35,428,617 47,360,722 



37,117,684 



37,117,684 



I Not separately stated. Manufacturers have stated at tariff hearings that outside of one firm there ar» 
practically no exports. 

s Excludes in 1899, Sl,432,951; in 1904, $1,654,160; in 1909, $1,718,426: and in 1914, $1,373,276 value of aill 
other prodycts and work on materials for others. 

Exports. — Domestic exports of fur-felt hats are not separately 
stated in official statistics. With the exception of one firm, whicn 
has a well-known trade-mark or name, exports are small. Felt 
hats and hat materials are separately stated in 1918 and 1919. 
Exports for these years amounted to $1,273,799 and $1,699,532, 
respectively. 



16 TABIFF INFOBMATION SUEVEYS. 

FOBEIGN PEODUOnON. 

The chief foreign countries producing fur-felt hats which come in 
competition with the domestic product are, or were before the war, 
Austria-Htmgary, England, France, Italy, Belgium, and Germany. 
The industry is centered at Denton and Stockport in England, and 
at Brussels in Belgium. Domestic manufacturers state that the 
foreign-made hat in most active competition with the American- 
made hat is that which comes from Italy. 

IMPOETS. 

Imports for consumption decreased from 42,943 dozen in 1910 to 
36,725 dozens in 1914, although the value increased from $564,606 
to $664,717, or from $13.14 to $18.10 per dozen. The year 1912, 
however, shows imports of 55,312 dozen, valued at $875,257, the 
highest in quantity and value for the five-vear period preceding the 
war. In the five-year period 1915-1919 (fiscal years) the greatest 
amount imported was m 1917 Vhen imports amounted to 30,063 
dozen, valued at $497,626, and the lowest in 1919 when they amounted 
to 14,786 dozen, valued at $405,431. In the year 1920 imports 
amounted to 18,115 dozen, valued at $579,888. The value per 
dozen has advanced from $13.14 in 1910 to $32.01 in 1920. 

Imports by coimtries were first separately stated in 1912. In 
this year 56,280 dozens, valued at $885,943, were imported. Based 
on quantity 18.5 per cent came from Austria-Hungary, 16.7 per 
cent from Belgium, 25.1 per cent from France, 7 per cent from 
Germany, 6.4 per cent from Italy, 26.2 per cent from England, and 
0. 1 per cent from all other coimtries. Imports from Austria-Hungary 
averaged $19.88 per dozen, the highest; from Belgiima, $10.76 per 
dozen, the lowest. The averages per dozen for other countries were 
France, $18.73; Germany, $16.86; and Italy, $13.36. 

Imports from only two countries increased in quantity in 1914 
over 1912. Of the 35,751 dozens imported 38.2 per cent came from 
Austria-Hungary and 12.8 per cent from Italy. England furnished 
17.3 per cent; France, 15.1 per cent; Belgium, 12.6 per cent; and 
Germany, 3.8 per cent. Imports from all coimtries except Belgium 
increased in value per dozen. Austria-Hungary with $22.28 per 
dozen was highest and Belgium with $9.63 per dozen was lowest. 
Imports from England increased in value from $13.37 to $18.29 per 
dozen; Italy from $13.36 to $14.16; Germany, $16.86 to $19.59; and 
France from $18.73 to $19.25. 

Imports dropped off greatly during the war. In the jears 1917- 
1919, inclusive, no imports were received from Austria-Hungary, 
Belgium, and Germany. Imports from Italy during this period as 
well as for the years 1918 and 1919 exceeded prewar figures, while 
those of France and England declined. About 75 per cent of the 
quantity imported in the years 1918 and 1919 came from Italy. 
The value per dozen of hats* imported in 1919 from France averaged 
$37.09; England, $37.01; and Italy, $24.58. 



TABIPP INPOBMATION SUBVBYS. 



17 



PRICES. 

The prices shown on page 25 of this report are taken from Bulletin 
No. 27, Prices of Hatter's Fur and Fur-Felt Hats, issued by the War 
Industries Board. With reference to the source of the quotations the 
board states: 

The prices of hatter's fur were obtained from the American Hatter. For hat prices 

S notations were obtained from manufacturers, and those grades were selected which 
le different firms consulted considered standard. 

The War Industries Board, with reference to the rise in prices, 
states:^ 

* * * the prices of hatter's fur, which had been reasonably stable for the years 
1913, 1914, ana 1915, rose at the end of 1918 approximately 360 per cent above the 
1916 price, while the prices of the finished hats increased only 75 per cent. The ship- 
ping embargo, of course, had a material effect on the price of fur, but the contrast 
between raw and finished product is so striking that, coupled with the fact of the 
large stocks known to be on hand, it gives ^und for the suspicion held by members 
of the War Trade Board familiar with the industry that the raw materials had been 
subject of considerable speculation or profiteering. On the contrary, the hat manu- 
facturers did not make the prevailing high prices of hatter's fur an excuse for marking 
up the material they had in stock and making a corresponding increase in the price 
of their hats. 

TARIFF HISTORY. 



With the exception of the acts of 1897 and 1909, the duty imposed 
on the importation of fur-felt hats has been ad valorem. The rate 
under the act of 1883 was 30 per cent; act of 1890, 55 per cent; 1894, 
40 per cent; and 1913, 45 per cent. 

The acts of 1897 and 1909 imposed an ad valorem duty of 20 per 
cent and in addition a specific duty varymg from $2 to $7 per dozen 
in 1897 and from $1.50 to $7 per dozen in 1909. The classification 
according to value in the 1909 act was brought in nearer agreement 
with the commercial divisions in hat prices, which, startmg with 
$4.50, increase in arithmetical progression by $1.50 per dozen. The 
following table shows imports lor consumption, duties, average per 
unit, and equivalent ad valorem rate in representative years under 
various tarin acts: 



Items. 



Imports: 

Quantity , dozen.. 

Value 

Average per unit 

Duties 

Equivalent ad valor^n per cent. . 



1896 (tariff 
act of 
1894). 



S117,663 



$47,065 
40.00 



1905 (tariff 
act of 
1897). 



8,143 

$119,324 

$14.65 

$62,354 

52.26 



1912 (tariff 
act of 
1909). 



55,312 
$875,257 

$15.82 

$452,561 

61.71 



1914 (tariff 
act of 
1913). 



36,725 
6 $664, 717 

e$18.10 

<2 $314, 506 

<47.31 



a 19,094 dozen from July 1 to Oct. 3, 1913, and 17,631 dozen from Oct. 4, 1913, to June 30, 1914. 

6 $384,961 from July 1 to Oct. 3. 1913, and $279,756 from Oct. 4. 1913, to June 30, 1914. 

c $20.16 from July 1 to Oct. 3, 1913, and $15.87 from Oct. 4, 1913. to June 30, 1914. 

d $188,616 from July 1 to Oct. 3, 1913, and $125,890 from Oct. 4, 1913, to June 30, 1914. 

< 49 per cent from July 1 to Oct. 3, 1913, and 45 per cent from Oct. 4, 1913, to June 30, 1914. 

» Price Bulletin No. 27, War Industries Board. 



^A y..««M^/ i^ftm^^^omm 0:1 



V/^/'A'M*^ it ^A^MXK^f: 



>/ /-J, ////. ./^^ ,.,M< Vi^* .*rt/if *>y*i^ m^s^ ifT^auoix. rry ioazr or 

;/'*'y/i />> if////t*'t*4^A W*U. U*ih fi^^y^^ V*vi^t out irr tuflae igftdcB^. 
V^'> .'J/Ji/. />// 4M>/ M/iu-z/ij HvUi^ liVt i/*f icirturc tmtE the openii^ 

>/;; i)> uhffi^ifi^ i^h AM>^>/wi ^/ Umj ^'**itUr ien^i oftme it wcnild 

h'»\i^t^ ^Ih^y fUt hoi 4*^ffiif^i mnm i^m Cmdinif hnt mamifi 
hji l)»Hf w<^)**fl» (/*/< ttni^^nt^it* tl^tfif '/w«, 'Hiieir ord^v ane 
u|JIm / vvUli IliM JuOM'*ttM> or forAtJj/o |>ro'lu<j<tr with whom most satis- 

Oii|i^>. ummI UU| mmiI lm<«» iimiiM of tU)ih are coming into greater 
IhM Hlhl »'»MM*»)*|MMlillv liMVt) H(fnr(i«i| tho output of fur-felt hats. 

iMfMf \VM^»*iT» liiiftOM llu» WM' WMi'tt low«r in Europe than in the 
Hulhtl ^"*UH»»j* >Un»'li lo^nlhor wllh th« Introduction of American 



hh\)|\h\(M\ \s\\\\ \\\s^\\\u\n )o«ulloil in A lowor hibor cost abroad. In 
\\]\\W\ * til^Hi 1^ A»noiio«n »nHhuf«oturm»Pi in 1013 it is stated that 
n\>M»^\u\^ y\\^\ \\\\ m V\\^\\t^\ \\M mvllinKrtMI4.40 per dozen was $2.74 



m\ \\\\ m \m*MU^U \\M ^\A\\\\^ ^\ IU,SA per doxen $7.23. The 
\\\^\\\^ \\\ W^\^\ \\\ V\\i^^\\^\ W^^y^^ *«id to bo U) pt>r day, and the same 
\\\ \\M\>^\ \\<\>M>v 0\^v\v ^^w \>o um\M>* ^nd \vht>ro boys and giris are 
VS\\^n\\\n \S< \v> >MNi<^vji ^^^ xSv\>>U3i ^VVMWU on tht^ industry in the United 
s .^\^^ ^\^> \v\ VsMNf o\ \^S^^ ^nd ,4 A ptNT iHvnt in 1914 of the total 
W v\.N^ N v\^^^^^ V^^^^^^ >,n^\\)nV> >s) ii>\ ^t<fcW\>>d>mtvixt5i wht>w the permilin^ 



V 

\ \ \ s \\\ ■* 



XABIFF ISTFORMATION SUBYETS. 



19 



Hats J fW'feli * — Summoary, 

[The manufacture of stiff and soft hats of fur felt is presented under this beading. The ftir of the rabbit, 
the hare, and the covpu is the chief material. In some instances it is removed from the skin in the larger 
hat shops, but to what extent can not be determined ttam. the returns. Much of the iai is bought £r<mi 
estabhsmnents doing nothing but cutting hatters' fur; they are cliused under ''hat and cap materials.'' 
A considerable quantity of cut fur is tmp(Nrted. While many concerns classed under ''hats, fur-felt/' 
make the hat from start to finish, others make nothing but the hat bodies, some of them doing work 
under contract on materials furnished by other manufacturers, and still others do flnfahiTiir only. fHiere 
is thus some duplication in the value of products. Separate statistics were first ^wn at the census of 
1899. In 1879 and In 1889 fur-felt hats were included with "hats and caps, not izicluding wool hats'' 
and in 1869 with "hats and caps."] 



United States: 

1914 

1909 

1904 

1899. 
States, 1914: 

CaUfornia 

Connecticut — 

Illinois......... 

Massadnnetts. . 

Missouri. 

New Jersey 

New York. 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania . . 

Texas 

All other States. 



Num- 
ber of 
estab- 
lish- 
ments. 



224 
273 
216 
171 

6 
58 

9 
10 

6 
41 
39 

7 
27 

3 
18 



Wage 
earners 
(aver- 
age). 



21,318 
2^064 
22,047 
18^880 

58 

5,461 

43 

629 

114 

4^401 

3,563 

27 

6^714 

13 

295 



Pri- 
mary 
horse- 
power. 



20^851 
19,245 
16,630 
11,483 

16 
6,029 

22 
"976 

24 
i722 

13 

6,241 

10 

410 



Capital. 



$39,401,000 
35»734,000 
23,258,000 
16^701,000 

5^000 
6,167,000 

56,000 
1,422,000 

88^000 
5^266,000 
6^205^000 

29,000 
19,526,000 

22,000 
476,000 



Wages. 



$12, on, 000 

H 223,000 

11,282,000 

9,119,000 

3^000 
3,057,000 

28,000 
279,000 

73,000 
2,603,000 
1,854,000 

1^000 
3,^000 

12,000 
173,000 



Cost of 
materials. 



$16^047,000 
22,109,000 
16^975,000 
13,514,000 

92,000 

4^633,000 

53,000 

470,000 

202,000 

3,70^000 

3,491,000 

47,000 

3,889,000 

^000 

354,000 



Value of 
productfi. 



$37,350,000 
47,865,000 
36,629,000 
27,811,000 

157,000 

9,476,000 

118,000 

86^000 

321,000 

7,960,000 

6,637,000 

01,000 

11,041,000 

30,000 

645^000 



Value 
added by 

manu* 
facture. 



$2^403,000 
25^756,000 
2^654,000 
1< 297, 000 

65,000 

4^843,000 

6&000 

305,000 

119,000 

4,261,000 

3,140^000 

41000 

7,15^000 

22,000 

291,000 



^ Data from Abstract of the Census of Manufactures, 1914. 

HattffuT'feU ' — Coit ofmaJteriaU and value of product in United States, 



1914 



1909 



Total cost. 



Hatters' fun 

Pounds 

Cost 

Fur-ltit hat bodies and hats in the tao^ 

Docens 

Costs. 

ChCTnical s and d j e stugs , cost 

All other materials, cost. 



$16^047,056 



$22,109,231 



FBODI7CIS. 



r 



A766,904 
$^106^248 

395,848 

$2,463,503 

$4^161 

$6,953,146 



I 



&M^576 
$8^27^922 

406,447 

$2,$7&24$ 

$84^587 

$0,411,474 



1904 



$16,975,206 



6,718,359 
$6,743,936 

211,760 
$1,361,372 
$1,140^281 
$6,739,617 



For-fett hats: 

DoEcns....... ............. •«..••...... 

Value 

Fur-felt hat bo^es and hats in the roo^ 

Doeens. 

Value 

AH other prodncts, vmfaie 

Work on materials for others 



2; 118^ 634 
$33,603,531 

329,363 

$2, 372; 507 

<$8M,309 

*$506,967 




989,262 
¥Sfi 

a8«,370 
$553,554 



I 



^611,875 , 
$3^314,234 

88,9iS 
$160,959 I 

$560,799 I 



1899 



$13,513,668 



6,166,269 
$^376,991 



Totalvafaie J$37,349,744 ,<$47,854,630 i > $36, 629, 353 $27,811,187 




1,882,372 
$25,385,506 

165,010 
$092,730 
$941,092 
$491,919 



1 Data from Abstract (rf the Census of Manulsctares, 1914. 

< In addition ini9l4fiir-kit hats, to the vahie oT $476,49^ In 1909, to the value oC$W6v601; and in 1904, to 
the value of $333,441, were made by estabhshmeatB tngiffid primarily In the manmacture of products 
other than those c o v e red by the industry designation^ 

* Corrected figures. 



20 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Hats J fur-felt * — Materials and output^ by States, 



state. 



MATEBIALS. 



Hatters' fur. 



Connecticut 

Massachusetts... 

New Jersey 

New York 

Pennsylvania... 
All other States. 



Fur-felt bodies and hats in the rough. 



Connecticut 

Massachusetts... 

New Jersey 

New York 

Pennsylvania... 
All other States. 



PEODUCTS. 



Fur-felt hats. 



Connecticut... 
Massachusetts 
New Jersey... 

New York 

Pennsylvania 



7,585,947 

708,793 

7,149,716 

5,943,763 

11,013,629 

All other States , 1,201,683 



Cost 

or value, 

1914. 



17,108,248 



1,^967,618 

(«) 
1,690,520 

706,701 
2,519,557 

223,852 



2,453,503 



540,939 
50,897 

186,901 

1,200,908 

75,071 

398,787 



Quantity. 



1914. 



Pounds. 
6,766,904 



1,731,569 

(«) 
1,327,918 

842,514 
1,459,412 

405,491 



Dozen. 
395,848 



90,745 
6,775 
58,256 
180,848 
11,987 
47,237 



33,603,531 



2,118,634 



515,986 
62,711 
496,423 
477,338 
472,498 
93,678 



F ur-f elt hat bodies and hats in the rough . . ' 2, 372, 937 



Connecticut .^ 1,741,885 

All other SUtes ' 631,052 



329,363 



267,178 
62,185 



1909. 



Pounds. 
8,646,576 



1,673,332 
1,047,438 
1,817,020 
1,883,207 
1,976,118 
248,461 



Dozen. 
406,447 



87,117 
29,979 
29,156 
194,268 
26,984 
38,943 



2,989,252 



530,558 
320,587 
579,596 
776,258 
668,696 
113,557 



366,370 



335,947 
30,423 



1904. 



Pounds. 
6,718,359 



1,385,325 
647,484 
1,880,510 
1,563,680 
1,227,951 
113,409 



Dozen. 
211,760 



30,783 
3,289 
40,992 
92,984 
23,512 
20,200 



2,611,875 



600,312 
234,792 
676,906 
631,374 
413,506 
54,986 



88,986 



63,676 
26,310 



1899. 



Pounds. 
6,166,269 



1,499,767 

456,593 

1,897,113 

1,281,452 

817,311 

214,033 



Dozen. 
148,212 



61,726 
29,338 
22,711 
24,620 
5,045 
4,772 



1,882,372 



497,683 
227,032 
690,939 
226,061 
280,880 
59,777 



166,010 



153,188 
11,822 



1 Data from United States census reports. 
* Included in "All other States." 



Hats, fur-felt ^^Produdion in United States, by States. 

[From Federal census.] 



States. 



Connecticut 

Massachusetts., 

New Jersey 

New York 

Pennsylvania.. 
AU other 



1899 



$7,646,882 
2,630,964 
7,2U,229 
5,602,458 
4,243,352 
576,302 



1904 



$8,662,799 
2,315,501 ' 
9,540,433 ' 
7,739,774 
7,350,311 
1,020,445 



1900 



$10,399,860 

3,745,873 

8,826,217 

10,218,660 

13,022,617 

1,652,408 



Total ' 27,811,187 ■ 36,629,353 47,864,630 



1914 



$9,475,778 

854,722 

Y, WW, Ox4 

6,637,380 

11,040,820 
1,361,700 



37,349,744 



1 In addition, in 1914, fur-felt hats to the vahie of $476,^9; in 1909, to the value of $806,601; and in 1904 
to the value of $333,441 were made in estabUshments engaged primarily in the manufacture of iwoducts 
other than f ur-f^t hats. 



TARIFF INFOBMATION SUBTBYS. 



21 



Hat8y far 'felt * — Production in United States, by cities. 

[From Federal census.] 



Cities. 



Philadelphia, Pa 
Danhury, Coim.. 
New York, N. Y 

Newark, N. J 

Orange, N. J 

All other 

Total 



1899 



53,07*', 470 
5,007,095 
2,241,347 
3,453,619 
2,246,494 

11,787,172 



27,811,197 



1904 



$5,847,771 
5,798,107 
3,899,435 
4,586,040 
2,311,614 

14,186,386 



36,629,353 



1909 



$10,401,794 
7,114,683 
4,765,029 
4,433,132 
1,904,860 
19,245,132 



47,864,630 



1914 



$9,914,443 
7,065,766 
3,601,944 

V, WJU, <704 

2,822,860 
10,043,778 



37,349,744 



1 In addition, in 1914, fur-felt hats to the value of $476,449; in 1909, to ^e value of $806,601; and in 1904, to 
the value of $333,441 were made by establishments engaged in the manufacture of products other than 
fur-felt hats. 

fur-felt hats — Comparison of establishments engaged in making hat bodies and finish- 
ing hatSf 1914'^ 



Items. 



Number of establishments. . . 

Persons engaged 

Proprietors 

Salaried employees 

Wage earners 

Primary horsepower 

Capital 

Salaries and wages 

Salaries 

Wages 

Contract works, paid 

Rent and taxes 

Cost of materials 

Value of products 

Value added by manufacture 



I'otal. 



224 



22,932 



163 

1,451 

21,318 



Establishments engaged 
I»imarily in- 



Making hat Finishing 
bodies. hats. 



86 



138 



Per cent distribu- 
tion. 



Making 
^hat 
bodies. 



38.4 



Finishing 
bodies. 



61.6 



20,012 



41 

1,132 

18>839 



2,020 



87.3 



12.7 



122 

319 

2,479 



25.2 
78.0 
88.4 



74.8 
22.0 
11.6 



20,851 
$39,401,429 



10,837 
$34,217,567 



1,014 
$5, 183, 862 



95.1 
86.8 



4.0 
13.2 



H000,263 I 12,222,024 1,777,330 



1,029,451 
12,070,812 



1,610,739 
10, 612, 185 



19,825 

324,626 

16,047,058 

37^340,744 

20,402,686 



16, 141 

202,070 

13,256,141 

30,806,848 

17,550,707 



318,712 
1,458,627 



3,684 

122,547 

3,600,017 

6,542,806 

2,851,070 



87.3 



12.7 



83.5 
87.0 



16.5 
12.1 



81.4 
62.2 
78.2 
82.5 
86.0 



18.6 
37.8 
21.8 
17.6 
14.0 



> Data from Census of Manuftetures: 1014. 



The statistics for the manufacture of hats are included under six 
classifications: "Hat and cap materials;'' "hats and caps, other than 
felt, straw, and wool;'' "hats, straw;" "hats, wool-felt;" "hats, fur- 
felt;" and as "trimmed hats, and hat frames," under "millinery and 
lace goods." The following statement summarizes the statistics for 
these six classifications and gives a total for all varieties of head cover- 
ings as far as it can be shown from census reports. The inclusion of 
hat and cap materials and of hat bodies and hats in the rough results 
in duplication, as these materials are included in the value ot products 
of the establishments that produce the complete article. 



22 



TABIFF INFOBMATIQN SXJBVEY8. 



Hats and capSj^ 1914 — Miscellaneous. 





Total. 


Hats. 


Hats and 

caps other 

than felt, 

straw, and 

wool. 


Trimmed 

hats and 

hat frames. 


Hat and 




Pur-felt. 


Wool-felt. 


Straw. 


cap ma- 
terials. 


Number of estab- 
lishments 


I,n6 


224 


30 


149 


580 


634 


98 


Persons engaged — 


65,891 


22,932 


1,372 


10,619 


8,942 


19,954 


2,072 


Proprietors and 
firm members. 

Salaried em- 
ployees 

Wage earners 
(^veragenum- 


1,939 
6,203 

57,749 


163 

1,451 

• 

21,318 


38 
85 

1,249 


137 
999 

9,483 


797 
823 

7,322 


703 
2,649 

16,602 


101 
196 

1,775 


Prlmary horse- 
nower .... ....» 


37,614 
$85,539,806 


20,851 
$39,401,429 


3,091 
$2,608,839 


5,248 
$12,588,754 


1,339 
$6,846,996 


4,131 

$17,676,716 


^954 
$6,417,072 


Capital 


Salaries and wages . 


40,214,448 


14,000,263 


747, 131 


7,019,971 


5,431,775 


11,948,381 


1,066,927 


Salaries 


8,020,767 
32,193,691 


1,929,451 
12,070,812 


147,553 
599,578 


1,766,913 
5,253,028 


924,254 
4,607,521 


2,989,875 
8,968,506 


262,681 


Wages 


804,246 


Paid for contract 
work 


258,473 

2,606^845 

72,969,411 

138,622,200 

65,652,789 


19,825 

324,626 

16,947,058 

37,349,744 

20,402,686 


100 

44,531 

978,339 

966,145 


32,513 

443,934 

14,085,786 

25,443,501 

11,357,715 


109,008 

451837 

9,26^577 

18,593,221 

9,325,644 


60,807 

1,255,956 

26,638,794 

48,361,908 

21,728,114 


27,220 


Rent and taxes . ^. . . 

Oost of materiab — 

Value of products . . . 

Value added by 
manufacture 
(value of products 
less cost of mate- 
rials) 


82,961 
5,061,857 
6,929,342 

1,877,485 







1 Data from abstract of the Census of Manufactiues: 1914. 



HatSi bonnets f and hoods — Fur — Imports by countries {fiscal years). 



Imported from— 



Aastria-Hungary. 

Belgium 

France 

Oermany 

Italy 

England 

All other 



Total. 



—7 

19121 



Quantity. 



Dozen. 

10,434 

9,386 

14,138 

3,962 

3,697 

14,719 

54 



56,280 



Value. 



$207,451 

100,997 

264,779 

66,648 

48,062 

196,782 

1,234 



886)943 



1913 



Quantity. 



Dozen. 
13,651 
5,381 
7,328 
1,987 
6,371 
9,209 
77 



44,004 



I Included in "All other, etc.," prior to 1912. 



Value. 



$290,399 

50,111 

153,836 

37,493 

80,618 

149, 676 

1,147 



763,178 



1914 



Quantity. 



Dozen. 
13,656 
4,510 
5,401 
1,347 
4,586 
6,181 
70 



36,751 



Value. 



$304^308 

43,435 

103,947 

26,392 

64,929 

113,036 

1,601 



657,648 



TABIFP INFOBMATTOK SURVEYS. 2S 

Hats, bonnets, and hoods — Fur — Imports by countries (fiscal years) — Continued. 



Imported from — 



Austria-Hungary 

Belgium 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

England.., 

All other 

Total 



1915 



Quantity. 



Dozen. 

4,505 

569 

4,254 

356 

4,928 

5,607 

86 



20,395 



Value. 



195,000 

o, (XW 

81,733 
5,340 

69,042 

103,286 

1,188 



364,487 



1916 



Quantity. 



Dozen. 

298 

622 

3,026 

16 

10,366 

5,318 

35 



Value. 



19,581 



$7,037 

o,84v 

57,954 

422 

154,318 

89,668 

465 



313,718 



1917 



Quantity. 



Dozen. 



4,544 



19,254 

5,516 

83 



29,397 



Value. 



$104,073 



285,677 

U0,806 

1,429 



482,077 



Imported from— 


1918 


1919 


1920 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


France 


Dozen. 

3,901 

16,966 

1,991 

39 


$104,526 

315,026 

56,860 

724 


Dozen. 
2,928 
10,924 
489 


$106,586 
268,650 


Dozen. 




Italy 






Kngi^nd - . 






Another 


13 i '350 












Total 


22,917 


478,036 


14,354 305.58.? 


20,777 


623,279 









Hats J bonnets J and hoods — Fur — Imports by countries (calendar years). 



Imported from — 


1918 


1919 


1920 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 

V 


Value. 


France 


Dozen, 

3,257 

16,479 

997 

14 


$96,768 

327,511 

29,854 

515 


Dozen. 

3,572 

10,600 

839 

55 


$121,792 

323,714 

87.288 

1,895 


Dozen 




Italy 






'Rnglftnd , 






AD Other 












Total 


20,747 


456,648 


15,066 


484,689 


30,735 


$1,159,492 





24 



TABIFF INFORMATION 8XJBVBY8. 



HaiSf bontietSf or hoods for men'Sf women'i, hoys\ or cMldren^s wear, trvMvmed or uiv- 
trimmed, including hoaieBy hoods ^ plateaux, forms^ or shapes for hats or bonnets com- 
posed wholly or in Mef value of the fur of the rabbity beaver , or other animais— Imports 
for consumption — Revenue, 



Fiscal year. 


Rate of duty. 


> Quantity. 


Value. 


Duty 
collected. 


Value per 

anitof 
quantity. 


Actnalaad 

eoanoted 

adworam 

rate. 


1007 


12 per dozen plus 
20 per cent.» 

13 per dozen plus 
20 per cent.* 

$5 per dozen plus 
30 per cent.* 

17 per dozen plus 
20 per cent.^ 

Total, 1007.. 

$2 per dozen plus 

30 per cent.» 
$3 per dozen plus 

20 per cent.* 
$5 per dozen plus 

20 per cent.* 
$7 per dozen plus 

30 per cent.< 

Total, 1008.. 

$3 per dozen plus 

30 per cent.i^ 
$3 per dozen plus 

30 per cent.* 
$5 per dozen plus 

30 per cent.* 
$7 per dozen plus 

20percent.4 

Total, 1000.. 

$2 per dozen plus 

20 per cent.* 
13 per dozen plus 

20 per cent.* 
$5 per dozen plus 

20 per cent.* 
$7 p^ dozen plus 

2opereent4 

Total, 1010*. 

$1.50 per dozen 

plus 30 percent.* 
13 per dozen plus 

20 per cent.* 
$5 per dozen plus 

20 per cent.* 
S7 per dozen plus 

20 per oent.1* 

Totel,1010T. 

$1.50 per dozen 

plus ») percent.* 
$3 per dozen plus 

20 per cent.* 
$5 per dozen plus 

20 per cent* 
17 per dozen plus 

^percentu 


Dozen. 
1,881 

0,035 

5,046 

3,238 


14,007 
77,155 
60,032 
82,402 


14,743 
42,535 
30,039 
30,108 


S2.60 

8.54 

13.68 

25.40 


PacemL, 
96l86 




9 55.13 
56w55 
47.46 




10,105 


233,406 


125,425 


12.16 


53.72 


1008 


1,454 
0,501 
7,141 
3,707 


4,007 
80,511 
00,037 
05,108 


3,710 
44,604 
55,603 
45,603 


2.76 

8.47 

13.00 

25.05 


02.50 




55.40 
55.73 
47.95 




21,802 


270,562 


140,610 


12.77 


53.51 


1000 


272 

22,275 

P,005 

4,072 


842 

306,572 

87,681 

102,821 


714 

108,139 

48,013 

40,071 


3.00 

9.27 

14.30 

25.25 


84.83 




52.35 
64.75 
47.72 




32,714 


307,016 


205,037 


12.16 


51.75 


1010* 


10 
2,186 
81 
f 


83 

30,616 

1,060 

18 


55 

10,682 

610 




4.37 

0.43 

13.00 

34.00 


65.78 




51.81 
58.44 
«kl2 




2.2861 


21,777 


11,365 
324 

82, «W 
105,055 
104,002 


0.52 

3.34 

8.02 

12.67 

35.66 


52.19 


lOlOT 


140 

17,016 

13,043 

^646 


400 

143,733 
176,600 
221,808 


64.04 




57.30 
50.45 
47.27 




40,654 


542,830 


202,777 


13. S5 


53.90 


19U 


30 
15,308 
15,410 
10,361 

40,099 


66 
130,606 
215,008 
258,040 


44 

70,065 
120,0n 
123,430 


3.15 

7.88 

13.06 

25.15 


67.56 




58. (» 
55.82 
47.84 


ToUl,1011.. 

i 1 


503,000 


313,610 


14.48 

1 


52.81 

1 



1 Valued at not more than S5 per dozen. 

* Valued at more than S5 per aozen and not more than 610 per dozen. 

* Valued at more than 810 pa- dozen and not more than S20 i>er dozen. 

* Valued at more than S20 i>er doaen. 
» July 1 to Aug. 5, 1000. 

* Valued at not more than $4.50 per dozen. 
7 Aug. 6. 1900, to June 30, lOia 

* Vamed at more than $4.50 per do«n and not more than $0 per doaen. 

* Valued at more than 10 per dozen and not more than $18 per dozen. 

* Valued at more than $18 per doeen. 



TAKIFF INFOllMATION SURVEYS. 



25 



JHata, bonnets, or hoods for men* 8, women* 8, boys*, or children* s wear^ trimmed or un- 
trimmed, including bodies, hoods, plateaux, forms , or shapes for hats or bonnets com- 
posed wholly or in chief value of the fur of the rabbit, beaver, or other animals — Imports 
for consumption — i?«rewt*«— Continued. 



Fiscal year. 


Rate of duty. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Duty 
collected. 


Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 


ActuAl and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 


1912 


$1.50 per dozen 

plus 20 per cent.* 
$3 per dozen plus 

20 per cent." 
$5 per dozen plus 

20 per cent.9 
$7 per dozen plus 

20 per cent." 

Total, 1912.. 

$1.50 per dozen 

plus 20 per cent.* 
$3 per dozen plus 

20percent.» 
$5 per dozen plus 

20 percent.' 
$7 per dozen plus 

20 per cent.'* 

Total, 1913.. 

$1.50 per dozen, 

20 percent.* 
$3 per dozen, 20 

per cent.* 
$5 per dozen, 20 

per cent." 
$7 per dozen, 20 

per cent." 
45 per cent" 

Total 1914 

45 per cent 

do 


Dozen. 
S30 

15,218 

22,944 

16,620 


$1,865 
119,927 
339,542 
413,887 


$1,167 

69,641 

182,630 

199,114 


$3.52 

7.88 
14.80 
24.90 


Pereefd, 
62.60 




68.07 
53.79 
48.11 




55,312 


875,221 


452,552 


15.82 


61.71 


1913 


298 1 002 


646 

41,020 

152,223 

185,598 


3.32 

7.69 

15.14 

25.39 


65.15 




9,037 
18,961 
16,367 


09,534 
287,068 
390,129 


58.99 
53.03 
47.57 




43,663 


747,723 


379,487 


17.12 


50.75 


1914 


192 

2,412 

5,665 

10,825 

17,631 

• 


734 

17,652 

90,859 

275,716 

279,756 


435 

10,766 

46,497 

130,918 

125,890 


3.82 

7.32 

16.04 

25.47 

15.87 


59.26 




60.99 
51.18 
47.48 
45.00 




36,725 


664,717 


314,506 


18.10 


47.31 


1915 


18,618 
19,527 
30,063 
22,936 
14,786 
18,115 
28,039 
6,227 


379,937 
313,231 
497,626 
466,049 
405,431 
579,888 
1,094,373 
174, 102 


170,972 
140,954 
223,932 
209,722 
182,444 
260,950 
492,467 
78,346 


20.41 
16.04 
16.55 
20.32 
27.42 
32.01 
39.03 
27.96 


45.00 


1916 


45.00 


1917 


do 


45.00 


1918 


do. 


45.00 


1919 


• • . . .dOa... ......... 


45.00 


1920 


.... .do....... ...... 


45.00 


1920» 


do 


45.00 


1921W 


do 


45.00 









* Valued at not more than $4.50 per dozen. 

* Valued at more than $4.50 per dozen and not more than $9 per dozen. 
9 Valued at mwethan $9 per dozen and not more than $18 per dozen. 

>« Valued at more than $18 per dozen. 
" Oct. 4, 1913, to June 30, 1914. 
»« Calendar year. 
13 Six months ended June 30, 1921. 



26 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Hats and hat materials — Felt * — Domestic exports (calendar years). 



Exported to— 



Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentjiiia 

Plullpplne Islands, 

Peru 

All other 

Total 



1918 



1556,264 

255,862 

176,217 

44,546 

86,816 ; 

21,117 I 

154,094 



1919 



$668,805 
301,598 
188,712 

80,748 
179,399 

20,336 
280,270 



1,273,799 I 1,699,532 



1920 



$3,145,224 



1 For men and boys— not separately stated prior to 1918. 
Wholesale prices of hatter^ s fur and fur-felt hats, by months^ quarters, and years, 191S-1918. 



Market. 



Unit 

Base price 

1913— Year 

Quarters- 
First 

Second... 
Third.... 
Fourth... 

Months- 
January.. 
February. 
March 

- April 

May 

June 



July 

August 

September. . 

October 

November. . 
December. . . 



1914— Year 

Quarters- 
First 

Second 

Third 

Fourth.... 

Months- 
January... 
February. 

March 

April 

May 

June 



July 

August...... 

September.. 

October 

November. . 
December. . . 



Hatter's fur. 



/OOIH 
hair, 
best 



New 
York. 
Pound. 
$3.2417 

4.6375 

5.0833 
5.2500 
4.7167 
3,5000 

5.0000 
5.0000 
5.2500 
5.2500 
5.2500 
5,2500 

5.0000 
4,6500 
4.5000 
4,2500 
3.5000 
2.7500 

2.5167 

2.4000 
2,3500 
2.5667 
2.7500 

2.5000 
2.3500 
2.3500 
2.3500 
2.3500 
2.3500 

2.3500 
2.3500 
3.0000 
3.0000 
2.7500 
2.5000 



Coney. 



Scotch, 

best 

B.C.B. 



New 
York. 

Pound. 

$1.8708 

1.9917 

2.0000 
2.0000 
2.0000 
1,9667 

2.0000 
2.0000 
2.0000 
2.0000 
2.0000 
2.0000 

2.0000 
2.0000 
2.0000 
2.0000 
1.9500 
1.9500 

1.7833 

1.7667 
1.7500 
1.7833 
1.8333 

1.8000 
1.7500 
1.7500 
1.7500 
1.7500 
1.7500 

1.7500 
1.7500 
1.8500 
1.8500 
1.8500 
1.8000 



French, 
best, 
extra. 



New 
York. 
Pound. 
$1.4208 

1.5250 

1.6000 
1.5333 
1.5000 
1,4667 

1.6000 
1.6000 
1.6000 
1.6000 
1.5000 
1.5000 

1.5000 
1.5000 
1.5000 
1.5000 
1.4500 
1.4500 

1.3708 

1.3667 
1.3500 
1.3667 
1.4000 

1.4000 
1.3500 
1.3500 
1.3500 
1.3500 
1.3500 

1.3000 
1.3000 
1.5000 
1.4500 
1.4000 
1.3500 



Best 
B.C.B., 

im- 
pulled. 



New 
York. 
Pound. 
$1.220K 

1.3125 

1.3167 
1.3500 
1.3000 
1,2833 

1.3000 
1.3000 
1.3500 
1.3500 
1.3500 
1.3500 

1.3000 
1.3000 
1.3000 
1.3000 
1.3000 
1.2500 

1.1458 

1.1500 
1.1500 
1.1833 
1.1000 

1.1500 
1.1500 
1.1500 
1.1500 
1.1500 
1.1500 

1.1500 
1.1500 
1.2500 
1.2000 
1.1000 
1.0000 



French, 


French, 


best 


best, 


mot- 


iin- 


tled. 


pulled. 


New 


New 


York. 


York. 


Pound. 


Pound. 


$1.1979 


$0.9750 


1.3458 


1.0917 



1.4500 
1.3667 
1.3333 
1,2333 

1.4500 
1.4500 
1.4500 
1.4500 
1.3000 
1.3500 

1.3500 
1.3500 
1.3000 
1.3000 
1.2000 
1.2000 

1.1229 

1.1000 
1.1250 
1.1083 
1. 1583 

1.1500, 
1.0750! 
1.0750 
1.1250{ 
1.12601 
1.1250 

1.0250 
1.0500 
1.2500, 
1.2500! 
1.1500j 
1.07501 



1.1500 
1. 1167 
1.0833 
1,0167 

1.1500 
1.1500 
1.1500 
1.1500 
1.1000 
1.1000 

1.0500 
1.1000 
1.1000 
1.1000 
1.0000 
.9500 

.9146 



Fur-felt hats. 



Knox. 



New 

York. 

T^ozen. 

$39.0000 

39.0000 

39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 

39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 

39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 



Stetson 



Phila. 

Pozen. 

$30.0000 

30.0000 

30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 

30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 

3a 0000 

30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 




No. 1 
fur felt. 



39.0000 30.0000 



ozen. 
$12.0000 
12.0000] 

12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 

12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 

12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 

12.0000 



.9000 39.0000 
.9000 39.0000 
.9250! 39.0000 
.9333, 39.0000 



30.0000. 12.0000 
30.0000 12.0000 
30.0000 12.0000 
30.0000 12.0000 



.9000 
.9000 
.9000' 
.9000 
.9000 
.9000 

.8500' 
.8250 
1. KKX) 
l.OOUO 
.WOO 
.85tW 



39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 

39. mxw 

39. 0(X)0 
39,0000 

30, 00(X) 
39, mXH) 
39. (HHH> 

aU. IHHH) 



30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 

30.0000 
30,0000 
3a OlXHl 

ao.iHxxi 

iUKUOlK) 
30.0000 



12.0000 
12.0000' 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 

12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
13.0000. 



Conn. 

Dozen, 
f 16. .5000 
16.500a 

16.500a 
16.500a 
16.5000 
16.500a 

16.5000 
16.5000 
16.5000 
16.5000 
16.5000 
16.5000 

16.5000 
lO-SOOO* 
16.5000 
16.500a 
16.500a 
16.5000* 

16.5000 

16.500( 
16.5000 
16.5000 
16.5000 

16.5000 
16.5000 
16.5000 
16.5000 
16.5000 
16.5000 

16.5000 
16.5000 
16.5000 
16.5000 
16.5000 
16.5000 



» Price Bulletin No. 27, War Industries Board. 



TABIFF IKFOBMATIOK SURVEYS. 



27 



Wholesale prices of hatter* s fur andfur-feU hats, by months, quahers, and years, IBlS-lBlS — 

Oontinued. 



Market. 



Unit 

Base price.... 

1915— Year 

Quarters- 
First 

Second... 

Third.... 

Fourth.. - 
Montlls— 

January.. 

February. 

March 

April 

May 

Jime 



July 

August 

September.. 

October 

November. . 
December... 



1916— Year 

Quarters — 

First 

Second... 

Third.... 

Fourth... 
Months- 
January.. 

February. 

March 

April 

May 

June 



July 

August 

September. . 

October 

November. . 
December... 



1917— Year 

Quarters- 
First 

Second 

Third 

Fourth 

Months- 
January 

February. . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 



July 

August 

September.. 

October 

November. . 
December... 



Hatter's fur. 



OOIH 
hair, 

best. 



Coney. 



Scotch, 

best 

B.C.B. 



New 
York. 
Pound. 
$3.2417 

2.7083 

2.6000 
2.6833 
2.7600 
3.0000 

2.6000 
2.6000 
2.6000 
2.6000 
2.6000 
2.7600 

2.7600 
2.7600 
2.7600 
2.7600 
3.0000 
i3.2600 

4.3125 

3.6667 
4.3333 
4.5000 
4.7500 

3.5000 
3.5000 
4.0000 
4.0000 
4.5000 
4.5000 

4.5000 
4.5000 
4.5000 
4.7500 
4.7500 
4.7500 

5.6146 

5.3333 
5.5000 
5.5000 
6.1250 

5.2500 
5.2500 
5.5000 
6.5000 
5.5000 
i 5. 5000 

5.5000 
5.5000 
6.5000 
5.7500 
16.1250 
6.5000 



New 
York. 
Pound. 
SI. 8708 

1.6600 

1.6600 
1.6000 
1.6167 
1.7333 

1.7600 
1.6000 
1.6000 
1.6000 
1.6000 
1.6000 

1.6000 
1.6000 
1.6600 
1.6600 
1.7500 
1.8000 

2.4792 

1.9667 
2.2500 
2.6333 
3.0667 

1.9000 
1.9000 
2.1000 
2.1000 
2.2500 
2.4000 

2.5000 
2.7000 
2.7000 
2.7000 
3.0000 
3.5000 

4.5000 

4.0000 
4.5000 
4.5000 
5.0000 

3.7500 
3.7500 
4.5000 
4.5000 
4.5000 
U.5000 

4.5000 
4.5000 
4.5000 
4.5000 
15.0000 
5.5000 



French, 
best, 
extra. 



New 
York. 
Pound. 
SI. 4208 

1.3083 

1.3167 
1.3000 
1.3000 
1.3167 

1.3600 
1.3000 
1.3000 
1.3000 
1.3000 
1.3000 

1.3000 
1.3000 
1.3000 
1.3000 
1.3000 
1.3600 

1.8375 

1.5333 

'1.7000 

1.8667 

2.2500 

1.5000 
1.5000 
1.6000 
1.6000 
1.7500 
1.7500 

1.8500 
1.8500 
1.9000 
2.0000 
2.2500 
2.5000 

3.5854 

3.1333 
3.4333 
3.6000 
4.1750 

2.9000 
3.2500 
3.2500 
3.4000 
3.4000 
13.5000 

3.6000 
3.6000 
3.6000 
3.8500 
I 4. 1750 
4.5000 



Best 
B.C.B., 

im- 
pulled. 



French, 
best 
mot- 
tled. 



New 

York. 

Pound. 

$1.2208 

.9708 

1.0000 
.9500 
.9600 
.9833 

1.0000 

1.0000 

1.0000 

.9500 

.9500 

.9600 

.9500 
.9500 
.9500 
.9600 
.9600 
1.0600 

1.5792 

1.2167 
1.4333 
1.6333 
2.0333 

1.2000 
1.2000 
1.2500 
1.3000 
1.4000 
1.6000 

1.6000 
1.6000 
1.7000 
1.7500 
2.0000 
2.3500 

3.2625 

2.8833 
3.0417 
3.2500 
3.8750 

2.7500 
2.9000 
3.0000 
3.0000 
3.0000 
13.1250 

3.2500 
3.2500 
3.2500 
3.5000 
1 3. 8750 
4.2500 



New 
York. 
Pouud 
$1. 11)79 

1.0167 

1.0167 
1.0000 
1.0000 
1.0600 

1.0600 
1.0000 
1.0000 
1.0000 
1.0000 
1.0000 

1.0000 
1.0000 
1.0000 
1.0000 
1.0500 
1.1000 

1.6417 

1.2500 
1.4167 
1.5333 
1.9667 

1.2000 
1.2500 
1.3000 
1.3500 
1.4500 
1.4500 

1.5000 
1.5000 
1.6000 
1.7500 
1.9000 
2.2500 

3,0896 

2.5333 
2.9167 
3.1333 

3.7750 

2.3500 
2.5000 
2.7500 
2.8500 
2.9000 
13.0000 

3.1000 
8.1500 
3.1500 
3.3000 
13.7750 
4.2500 



French, 

best, 

un- 

pulled. 



New 

York. 

Pound. 

$0.97.J0 

.7750 

.7667 
.7600 
.7667 
.8167 

.8000 
.7600 
.7600 
.7600 
.7500 
.7500 

.7500 
.7600 
.8000 
.8000 
.8000 
.8600 

1.2833 

1.0500 
1.1667 
1.3333 
1.5833 

1.0000 
1.0500 
1.1000 
1.1000 
1.2000 
1.2000 

1.2500 
1.3500 
1.4000 
1.4000 
1.6000 
1.7500 

2.4521 

2.1667 
2.3167 
2.4000 
2.9250 

2.1000 
2.1000 
2.3000 
2.3000 
2.3000 
12.3500 

2.4000 
2.4000 
2.4000 
2.5000 
12.9250 
3.3500 



Fur-felt hats. 



Knox. 



Stetson, 



New 

York. 

Pozen. 

$39.0000 

39.0000 

39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 

39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 

89.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 

39.0000 

39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 

39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 

39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 

41.7500 

41.0000 
42.0000 
42.0000 
42.0000 

39.0000 
42.0000 
42.0000 
42.0000 
42.0000 
42.0000 

42.0000 
42.0000 
42.0000 
42.0000 
42.0000 
42.0000 



Phila. 

Doeeu. 

$30.0000 

30.0000 

30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 

30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 

30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 

30.0000 

30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 

30.0000 
30.0000 

3a 0000 
3a 0000 

30.0000 
30.0000 

30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 

33.5000 

31.0000 
33.0000 
34.0000 
36.0000 

30.0000 
30.0000 
33.0000 
33.0000 
33.0000 
33.0000 

33.0000 
33.0000 
36.0000 
36.0000 
36.0000 
36.0000 



A fur 
felt. 



No. 1 
fur felt. 



Comi. 

Dozen. 

$12.0000 

12.0000 

12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 

12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 

12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 

12.9167 

12.0000 
12.0000 
12.6667 
15.0000 

12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 
12.0000 

12.0000 
12.0000 
14.0000 
14.0000 
15.5000 
15.5000 

16.9167 

15.5000 
15.5000 
15.5000 
21. 1667 

15.5000 
15.5000 
15.5000 
15.5000 
15.5000 
15.5000 

15.5000 
15.5000 
15.5000 
15.5000 
24.0000 
24.0000 



Conn. 

Dozen. 

$16. .3000 

16.6000 

16.6000 
16.6000- 
16.6000 
16.6000 

16.6000 
16.6000 
16.6000 
16.5000 
16.6000 
16.6000 

16.6000 
16.6000 
16.6000 
16.5000 
16.6000 
16.6000 

17.0833 

16.5000 
16.5000 
17.0000 
18.3333 

16.6000 
16.5000 
16.5000 
16.5000 
16.5000 
16.6000 

16.5000 
16.5000 
18.0000 
18.0000 
18.5000 
18.5000 

19.9167 

18.5000 
18.5000 
18.5000 
24.1667 

18.5000 
18.5000 
18.5000 
18.5000 
18.5000 
18.5000 

18.5000 
18.5000 
1&5000 
18.5000 
27.0000 
27.0000 



1 No prices quoted; interpolated. 



28 



TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Wholesale prices of ?tatter*s fur arid fur 'felt hats f hyrnontbSf quarters jandy ears yl91 1-1918- 

Oontinued. 



Market 

Unit 

Base price 

1918— Year 

Quarters- 
First 

. Second 

Third 

Fourth 

Months- 
January 

February. . . 

March 

April 

May 

' June 

July 

August 

September.. 

October 

November. . 
December... 



Hatter's fur. 



/OOIH 
hair, 
best. 



New 
York. 
Pound. 
13.2417 

9.0633 

7.0000 

8. mo? 

10.1067 
10.5000 

7.0000 
7.0000 
7.0000 
8.0000 
18.6667 
19.3333 

10.0000 
10.0000 
10.5000 
10.5000 
U0.5000 
10.5000 



Coney. 



Scotch, 

best 

B. C B. 



New 
York./ 
Pound. 
$1. 8708 

7.8750 

6.5000 
7.4000 
8.6000 
9.0000 

6.2500 
7.0000 
6.2500 
7.0000 
i 7. 4000 
17.8000 

18.2000 

18.0000 

9.0000 

9.0000! 

19.0000 

9.00001 



French, 
best, 
extra. 



New 
York. 
Pound. 
$1.4208 

6.2229 

5.1000 
6.3542 
6.6875 
6.7500 

5.0000 
5.1500 
5.1500 
6.0000 
6.0000 
16.5625 

16.6250 

16.6875 

6.7500 

6.7500 

16.7500 

6.7500 



/Best 
B.CB., 

un- 
pulled. 



New 
York. 
Pound. 
$1.22081 

5.8229 

4.7500 
5.7917 
6.3750 
6.3750 

4.7500 
4.7500 
4.7500 
5.2500 
6.0000 
16.1250 

16.2500 

16.3750 

6.5000 

6.5000 

16.3750 

6.2500 



French, 
best 
mot- 
tled. 



New 
York. 
Pound. 
$1.1979 

5.1563 

4.5000 
5.1250 
5.5000 
5.5000 

4.5000 
4.5000 
4.5000 
4.7500 
5.2500 
15.3750 

5.5000 
5.5000 
5.5000 
5.500O 
15.5000 
5.5000 



Frendbi, 

best, 

un- 

pulled. 



New 
York. 
Pound. 
$0.9750 

4.1042 

3.5000 
3.9167 
4.5000 
4.5000 

3.5000 
3.5000 
3.5000 
3.5000 
4.0000 
14.2500 

4.5000 
4.5000 
4.5000 
4.5000 
14.5000 
4.5000 



Fur-felt hats. 



Knox. 



New 

York. 

Dozen. 

$39.0000|$30, 

53.0000 



Stetson. 



Phila. 



A fur 
felt. 



Conn. 



Dozen. Dozen. Dozen. 

1 0000 $12. 0000 $16. 5000 

44.75001 27.0000 31.5000 



50.0000 
54.0000 
54.0000 
54.0000 

42.0000 
54.0000 
54.0000 
54.0000', 
54.0000; 
54.0000, 

54.0000 
54.0000 
54.0000 
54.00001 
54.0000 
54.0000 



38.0000 
39.0000 
51.0000 
51.0000 

36.0000 
39.0000 
89.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 
39.0000 

51.0000 
51.0000 
51.0000 
51.0000 
51.0000 
51.0000 



24.0000 
24.0000 
30.0000 
3&0000 

24.0000 
24.0000 
24.0000 
24.0000 
24.0000 
24.0000 

3a 0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 
30.0000 

3a 0000 



No. 1 
fur felt. 



Conn. 



27.0000 
27.0000 
36.0000 
36.0000 

27.0000 
27.0000 
27.0000 
27.0000 
27.0000 
27.0000 

36.0000 
36.0000 
36.0000 
36.0000 
36.0000 
3a 0000 



» No prices quoted; interpolated. 

Fur liats, bonnets^ or hoods — Rates of duty. 



Act of— 


Par. 


1883.... 


400 


1890.... 


451 


1894.... 
1897.... 


335 

432 


1909.... 


446 


1913.... 


354 



Tariff classification or description. 



Bonnets, hats, and hoods for men, women, and children, com- 
posed of ♦ ♦ ♦ other material, not specially enumerated or 
provided for in this act. 

Hats for men's, women's, and Children's wear, comrwsed of the 
fur of the rabbit, beaver, or other animals, or of which such fur 
is the component material of chief value, wholly or partially 
manufactured, including fur hat bodies. 

.^-.do 

Bats, bonnets, or hoods, for men's, women's, bovs', or children's 
wear, trimmed or imtrimmed. Including bodies, hoods, pla- 
teaux, forms or shaDCs, for hats or bonnets, comnosed wholly 
or in chief value of fur of the rabbit, beaver, or other animals: 
Valued at not more thMi $5 per dozen 



Valued at more than $5 per dozen and not more than $10 per 

dozen. 
Valued at more than $10 per dozen and not more than $20 per 

dozen. 
Valued at more than $20 per dozen 



Hats, bonnets, or hoods, for men's, women's, boys', or children's 
wear, trimmed or untrimmed. including bodies, hoods, pla- 
teaux, forms or shapes, for hats or bonnets, composed wholly 
or in chief value of fur of the rabbitt, beaver, or other animals: 
Valued at not more than $4.50 per dozen 



Valued at more than $4.5d per dozen and not more than %9 per 

dozen. 
Valued at more than $9 per dozen and not more than $18 per 

dozen. 
Valued at more than $18 per dozen 



Hats, bonnets, or hoods, for men's, women's, bovs', or children's 
wear, trimmed X)t untrimmed, including bodies, hoods, pla- 
teaux, forms or shapes, for hats or bonnets, composed wholly or 
in chief value of fur of the rabbit, beaver, or other animal". 



Rates of dutv, specific 
and ad valorem. 



30 per cent ad valorem. 



55 per cent ad valorem. 



40 per cent ad valorem. 



$2 per dozen and 20 per 

cent ad valorem. 
$3 per dozen and 20 per 

cent ad valorem. 
$5 per dozen and 20 per 

cent ad valorem. 
$7 per dozen and 20 per 

cent ad valorem. 



$1.50 per dozen and 20 

per cent ad valorem. 
$3 per dozen and 20 per 

cent ad valorem. 
$5 per dozen and 20 per 

cent ad valorem. 
$7 per dozen and 20 per 

cent ad valorem. 
45 per cent ad valorem. 



TABIFF INFORMATION SUKVEYS. 



Court and Treasury Decisions. 



29 



In applying the provision in paragraph 432 of the act of 1897 for 
*'hats, * * * trimmed * * * composed wholly or in chief 
value of fur/' the composition of the hats was determined by^ reference 
to the whole hat, including the trimming, rather than by referring to 
the body of the hat alone, so that where hats, the bodies of which were 
fur, were so trimmed that the silk trimming was the component 
material of chief value, the hats were held dutiable under paragraph 
390 of the silk schedule. (Rheims Co. v. United States, 160 Fed., 
925, of 1908.) 

A similar (][uestion arose under the acts of 1909 and 1913 upon hats 
of straw trimmed with silk, etc. The trim m ing of the nat was 
declared to be an entity in determining the classification. (United 
States V. Lord, 4 Ct. Gust. Appls., 322, of 1913; Aitken v. United 
States, 6 Ct. Cust. Appls., 232, of 1910.) 

Rabbit-fur hoods used by automobilists are dutiable under para- 
graph 384 rather than as fur wearing apparel. (Abstract 32941, T. D. 
33594, of 1913.) Caps of rabbit fur are not within paragraph 384, 
not beinghats in either customs practice or common parlance. (G. A 
4708, T. i). 22228, of 1900.) 






."v.„. 







> 




^ 



\^ 




UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

ON THE ARTICLES IN 

* 

PARAGRAPHS 351, 352, and 353 OF THE 

TARIFF ACT OF 1913 

AND RELATED ARTICLES IN OTHER PARAGRAPHS 



HAIR AND MANUFACTURES OF HAIR 



Paragraph 351: 
Human Hair 

Paragraph 352: 
Curled Hair 



Paragraph 353: 
Haircloth 

Paragraph 503: 

Horse, Cattle, and Other Animal 
Hair, n. s. p. f. 



REVISED EDITION 




N-12 



WASHIMQTON 
GOYBRNMBNT PRINTIMG OFFICE 

1921 



1 



CONTENTS. 



HUMAN HAIR. Page. 

Sammary...- * 7 

Summary table y.. 7 

General information: 

1913 tariff paragraph 8 

Description and usee 8 

f Materials * 8 

Sources 8 

^ Process 9 

l^i Domestic production .^. 9 

^ Organization ." 9 

( Foreign production 10 

Imports 10 

f Tariff history 10 

ii Competitive conditions and tariff considerations 10 

Statistical tables: 

Production in United States 11 

Imports, by countries ., 11-13 

Imports for consumption 13-14 

Rates of duty 15 

Court and Treasury decisions 15 

HAIR, CURLED, FOR BEDS AND MATTRESSES. 

Summary 16 

General information: 

1913 tariff paragraph 16 

Description ana uses 16 

Materials 16 

Production 16 

Domestic exports 16 

Organization 17 

Substitutes 17 

Tariff considerations 17 

Statistical tables: Production in the United States 17 

Imports for consumption 17 

Rates of duty 17 

HAIRCLOTH. 

Simunary 18 

Summary tables 18-19 

General information: 

1913 tari^ paragraph. 19 

Crinoline and hair seating — 

Description and uses 19 

Raw materials 19 

Processes 19 

Substitutes 19 

Imports 20 

Hair press cloth—; 

Description and uses 20 

Development of the industry .' 20 

Organization and domestic production 20 

Foreign production and imports 21 

Tariff history 21 

Competitive conditions 21 

Tariff considerations .,. . • 22 

5 



I 
I 






\ 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Office: Eighth and E Streets NW., Washinffton, D. C. 

COMMISSIONERS. 

Thomas Walker Page, Chairman, 
Thomas O. Marvin, Vice Chairman, 
David J. Lewis. 
William S. Culbertson. 
Edward P. Costigan. 
William Burgess. 

John F. Bethune, Secretary, 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PBOCUBED FROM 

THE SUJ^EBINTBND^NT OF DOCUMENTS 

GOVERNMENT PR^NTINe- OFFICE 

WASra^OTON, D. C. 

*'at 
6 CENTS PER COPY 



PREFACE. 



This is one of a series of Tariff Information Surveys prepared by 
the United States Tariff Commission and transmitted to the Com- 
mittee on Ways and Means. The series covers all of the articles and 
commodities provided for in the tariff act of October 3, 1913, and 
others not specifically provided for. It is arranged in the numerical 
order of paragraphs of that act. 

In some cases two or more paragraphs have been combmed in one 
pamphlet. In doing this indiistrial relationship of the articles has 
Deen followed when possible. In those instances where a paragraph 
has been treated imaer a preceding paragraph of the tariff act refer- 
ence is made to this fact at the point where the paragraph appears in 
numerical order. Where one grade of an article is dutiable and 
another grade of the same article is on the free Hst, the article is 
discussed under the dutiable paragraph, which appears first in 
numerical order in the tariff act. in certain instances articles of 
close industrial relationship and which occur m separate paragraphs 
of the tariff act have been combined under one paragraph for con- 
venience of discussion. Reference is made to this fact at the point 
where the commodities would naturally occur in numerical OTaet. 

The first pamphlet in the series is an ''Introduction and index,'' 
which contams: 

1. An introductory chapter discussing the scope of the series and 
the general method of treatment. 

2. An alphabetical index of the articles provided for in the tariff 
act of 1913, showing the paragraph of the act in which the article is 
j)rovided for and, if discussed under a different paragraph, the 
number of such paragraph. 

3. A list of the pamphlets in the series, showing the paragraphs 
and articles included in each pamphlet. 

Thus by use of this ''Introduction and index" the exact location 
of the discussion relating to a given article or commodity can be 
ascertained. 

In the preparation of this report the Tariff Commission had the 
servicfes of Joseph M. Donohoe, of the Commission's staff, and of 
others. 

3 



] 



8 tariff information surveys. 

General Information. 

1913 tariff paragraph. 

Par. 351. Human hair, raw, 10 per centum ad valorem; if cleaned 
or commercially known as drawn but not manufactured, 20 per 
centum ad valorem; manufactures of human hair, including nets and 
netting, or of which human hair is the component material of chief 
value, not specially provided for in this section, 35 per centum ad 
valorem. 

DESCRIPTION AND USES. . 

Human hair, other than the natural growth of the wearers, has 
been worn through the centuries for the purpose of adornment and 
to conceal baldness. At the present time it is manufactured into 
various products, the most important being those used in the hair- 
dressing industry, such as wigs, switches, bangs, hair nets, etc. Wigs 
and transformations are used extensively by theatrical folk and by 
men for concealing baldness. Women generally are users of human 
hair, additional to the natural ^owth, in the arrangement of their 
coiflfures, and in the use of nete for maintaining the shape of the 
coiffures. Human hair is also used in the making of hair trinkets, 
watch chains, bracelets, etc. This use is unimportant. 

An important and recent development of the use of human hair, 
due to war conditions, is the makmg of hair press cloth for use in 
extracting oils from cotton seed, flaxseed, etc. The greater amount 
of raw hair is used for this purpose. 

MATERIAL. 

* 

Human hair is known to the trade by four grades. 

Selected first quality is strictly first-class hair, all of which has been 
cut from the head; first quality is a mixture of cut hair and combings, 
usually 50 per cent of each; second quality consists entirely of coim>- 
ings, properly rooted, either drawn from the head in the process of 
combmg or obtained from the other grades of hair in the process of 
heckling or drawing. Oriental and Kussian hair, which is coarse, 
heavy, and oily, is known as third quality. Rooting the hair is plac- 
ing all the root ends together; drawing or heckling is sorting or 
arranging the hair according to length. 

SOURCES. 

The sources of raw material are continental Europe and the Orient, 
China now being the greatest source of supply. 

'Before using the co^.rse, heavy, oily nair from the Orient and 
Russia, it is necessary to dye or bleach it. It is used principally in 
the manufacture of fabrics and for the cheapest grades of wigs, curls, . 
etc., and for hair nets. 

The finer grades of hair come from the peasants of Norway, and 
the countries of central and southern Europe. The peasant families 
save the hair detached from the head in the process of combing and 
sell it to the buyers. Also, especially in southern France, it is cus- 
tomary for the peasant girls to sell the entire head of hair. The 



TABIFP INFOBMATION SURVEYS. 9 

hair obtained by cutting in this manner is the very best grade and 
is used for the highest and most expensive quality of wigs. Some 
hair is also obtained from the heads of convicts. 

Jute is sometimes used as a substitute for human hair in making 
wigs for theatrical purposes. It has the appearance of hair when 
made in this manner, but has poor wearing qualities. 

PBOGESS. 

The raw hair is washed, combed, drawn, or heckled, sorted into 
lengths, and then sterilized by boiling. This is slow and tedious hand 
work, and is done abroad by hand labor. If curls or waves are 
desired the hair is wrapped around small sticks of the desired size. It 
is then boiled, after which it is baked. The curl or wave remains 
after the stick is removed. 

In making switches, the method in general use is to weave the hair 
(several strands at a time) on thi*ee strings, the hair being the weft 
and the strings the warp. When the required amount is woven the 
strings are pulled taut, wrapped around the ropt ends and tightly 
tied. Other articles are made with an elaboration of this method., 
additional strings being added to give the desired width for wigs, 
bangs, etc. For the highest class articles this weaving is done on 
special high-grade lace, the lace being held taut in a Frame. This 
weaving on lace is called ventilation. It is practically all handwork, 
the simplest kind of a stand for holding the strings being used. The 
lace for ventilation is woven in France by hand and is very expensive. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCTION. 

The human-hair mdustry in the United States consists entirely'of 
manufacturing human-hair products. No domestic hair is saved or 
collected for this purpose, an raw material being imported. 

The value of articles of human hair manufactured in the United 
States in 1909 was $11,216,000, but this declined to $3,335,000 in 
1914. This large decrease is attributed mainly to changes of style, 
which is considered the controlling factor in the mdustry. Figures for 
later production are not available, but from information furnished by 
the trade, the production of hair nets, wigs, etc., in the United States 
has decreased. Hair press cloth manufactures have increased, 
but, as stated, this is a recent development not included in the above 
figures. 

ORGANIZATION. 

In 1914 there were 205 establishments engaged in this industry, 
employing 1,193 wage earners, with a total capitalization of 
$2,543,000. The individual form of ownership predominated, there 
being 137 such establishments, employing 608 wage earners and pro- 
ducing articles to the value of $1,529,000. Of the remaining estab- 
lishments 28 were corporate and 40 of other forms of ownership, 
^he business may be conducted on a small scale, as 26 of the establish- 
ments employed no wage earners and 82 of them had a production 
of less than $5,000 per year. Forty establishments had production 
of more than $20,000 per year, while four exceeded $100,000. 

No domestic exports are shown in official statistics. 

64912— 21— N-12 2 



10 TARIFF INFORMATION SitRVEYS. 

FOREIGN PRODUCTION. 

Detailed figures are not available for the production of human-hair 
goods abroad, but it may be stated that most of the better qualities of 
toupees, switches, wigs, etc., are made in Europe. Hair nets were 
formerly made by the home workers in the central and southern 
countries of Europe, but during the war this industry shifted to 
China, which is now the greatest source of supply for this article. 

IMPORTS, 

Imports of human hair for consumption declined from $3,500,000 
in 1910 to $500,000 in 1915, but smce then have increased to 
$7,574,809 in 1920. Prior to 1919 the largest single item of import 
was raw hair, but in 1919 and 1920 the manufactured articles value 
much in excess of the unmanufactured hair. This excess is caused 
by the tremendous increase in the value of hair nets imported. 

TARIFF HISTORY. 

Under the tariff of 1883 raw and uncleaned hair paid a duty of 
20 per cent ad valorem. In all subsequent acts until 1913 the product 
was admitted free. In 1913 a duty of 10 per cent ad valorem was 
imposed. Under the act of 1883 the cleaned and drawn hair, not 
manufactured, was dutiable at 30 per cent ad valorem. In all subse- 
quent acts, including the present law, the duty has been 20 per cent 
ad valorem. The manufactures of human hair in all the tariff acts 
from 1883 to the present time, with the exception of the act of 1894, 
wKfen the rate was 30 per cent, have paid a duty of 35 per cent. 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS AND TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS. 

No serious competitive or tariff problem is presented with regard 
to manufactures of hair or cleaned but unmanufactured hair. The 
principal item of manufactures of hair is '^nets and netting.'' These 
are made principally by home work m China, and, while some higher 
priced nets are made in America, the viewpoint of the trade is that 
the cheaper nets could not economically be made here. 

With regard to raw imcleaned hair a question arises, with respect 
to the recently developed hair press cloth industry, as to the duty of 
10 per cent on raw hair in relation to the duty of 15 cents per square 
yard on hair press cloth (par. 353). Press cloth manufacturers nave 
asked an increased duty on the press cloth, stating that the duty on 
raw hair is considerably higher with regard to the hair content than 
the 15 cents per square yard duty on the manufactured article. This 
contention is covered in more detail in the Tariff Information Survey 
on the Hair Press Cloth Industry. 



TARtET INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



11 



Hair work * — Prodvjction in United States, 



Year and State. 



United States: 

1914 

1909 

1904 

1899 

1889 

1879 

1889 i 

1859 

1849 

States, 1914: 

California 

Colorado 

Illinois 

Massachusetts 

Midiigan 

Missouri 

New York ^. 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

Utah 

All other States 



Number 
of estab- 

Ush- 
ments. 



205 
250 
125 
158 
492 
299 
230 
44 
25 

14 
5 

27 
5 
5 
3 

90 
7 

16 

27 



Wage 

earners 

(average 

number). 



1,193 

3,634 

863 

820 

1,397 

1,172 

1,651 

155 

108 

62 
28 

176 
16 
12 
10 

635 

27 

93 

6 

128 



Capital. 



12,543,000 

4,716,000 

1,132,000 

760,000 

1,363,000 

613,000 

767,000 

73,000 

34,000 

44,000 
42,000 

379,000 

12,000 

10,000 

7,000 

1,603,000 

23,000 

232,000 
13,000 

178,000 



Wages. 



$581,000 

1,610,000 

335,000 

287,000 

490,000 

323,000 

416,000 

44,000 

26,000 

39,000 

11,000 

97,000 

7,000 

6,000 

5,000 

296,000 

13,000 

50,000 

3,000 

54,000 



Cost of 
materials. 



11,529,000 

6,081,000 

728,000 

496,000 

846,000 

667,000 

883,000 

78,000 

36,000 

29,000 

8,000 

282,000 

14,000 

5,000 

8,000 

1,033,000 

8,000 

76,000 
4,000 

62,000 



Value of 
products. 



$3,335,000 

11,216,000 

1,782,000 

1,406,000 

2,489,000 

1,468,000 

1,972,000 

237,000 

90,000 

120,000 
32,000 

602,000 
42,000 
26.000 
25,000 
2,023,000 
46,000 

219,000 
12,000 

188,000 



1 Establishments in this classification clean, bleach, curl, and otherwise prepare human hair, including 
that of Chinese and Japanese, mohair, and yak, horse, camel, and other hairs, and manufacture them into 
articles of adornment. The products include ornamental hair work^ puffs, rats, refined yak hair, rolls, 
theatrical and other wigs, toupees, transformations, foundations, switches, fronts, braids, beards, bangs, 
turbans, and turban pads, waves, and wavy hair for switches and wigs. Prior to 1899 the returns includea 
small local establishments, manufacturing chiefly to individual order. In addition to the products covered 
by the table, hair work to the value of 111,615 was reported for 1914 by establishments assigned to other 
industries, principally millinery and lace goods. 

Imports by countries, 

HUMAN HAIR, UNCLEANED. 

[Fiscal years.] 



Imported f rom— 



Austria-Hungary. 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

Russia in Europe. 

England 

China 

Hongkong 

Japan 

Belgium 

Netherlands 

All other 



Total. 



1910 



Pounds.! 



Value. 



1407,643 

78,740 

405,611 

791,020 

155,530 

144,633 

232,623 

533,574 

93,812 

1,653 

1,777 

1,069 



2,847,685 



1911 



Pounds. 



28,068 

3,209 

49,017 

135,907 

4,386 

129,258 

523, 159 

429,870 

367,573 

576 

203 

1,107 



Value. 



1234,868 

27,769 

144,344 

563,211 

39,437 

140,311 

299,184 

437,838 

222,298 

1,373 

1,600 

2,303 



1912 



Pounds. 



18,301 

643 

43,157 

101,967 

1,076 

143; 534 

199,110 

444,324 

46,416 



120 
1,668 



1,672,333 



2,114,536 1,000,316 



Value. 



1172,004 

3,536 

104,556 

906,694 

6,447 

111,233 

79,288 

256,484 

18,940 



1,113 
693 



1,660,988 



1 Quantity not stated prior to 1911. 



u 



TARIFF INFOKMATION SURVEYS, 



Imports by countries — Continued. 

HUMAN HAIR, UNCLEANED— CJontinued. 



la^MTtod fram^ 



~ inSurope 
Id 

, ing.'.V.'.'.'.'. 

Haul 

BvEliim 

Netheriands 

AU other 

Total 



1913 



Pounds. 



23,376 

51,717 

106,615 

139,638 

1,199 

367,318 

324,433 

443,047 

63,960 

6,130 

111 

1,798 



1,529,342 



Value. 



1193,587 

19,277 

158,498 

1,283,784 

8,782 

329,620 

172,138 

325,395 

32,080 

5,425 

1,276 

642 



2,530,604 



1914 



Pounds. 



33,616 

36,215 

115,322 

22,434 

197 

432,870 

167,390 

104,972 

7,808 



141 
265 



921,230 



Value. 



»101,070 

22,367 

83,235 

141,875 

1,522 

188,356 

60,370 

51,557 

3,157 



1,257 
66 



654.832 



1915 



Pounds. 



2,574 

3,222 

19,866 

23,013 

11 

139,855 

361,601 

84,710 

29 



57 
14 



534,852 



Value. 



$23,211 

1,798 

30,147 

117,009 

179 

43,485 

70,401 

18,973 

63 



729 
89 



306,084 



Imported from— 



Austria-Hungary. 

France 

Qermany 

Italy 

Russia in Europe. 

England 

China 

Hongkong 

Japan 

Another 



Total. 



1916 



Pounds. 



7 

1,789 

1,717 

39,125 



383,967 

433,896 

95,690 

76 

19 



956,286. 



Value. 



1917 



Pounds. 



Value. 



1141 

1,516 

15,436 

201,519 



70,624 

73,694 

28,296 

23 

38 



15,099 

278 

53,345 

20 

584,247 

319,078 

265,360 

180 

3,744 



16,793 

934 

209,969 

120 

170,290 

84,535 

119, 124 

297 

9,847 



391,287 



1,241,351 601,909 



1918 



Pounds. 



' 73 
*"37,*i26 



349,808 

1,004,607 

576,332 

5,513 

5,884 



1,979,343 



Value. 



1482 
123,693 



137, 144 

356,427 

214,231 

16,773 

4,444 



853, 193 



[Calendar years.] 



Imported from— 


1918 


1919 


1920 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 

1,640 

44 

221 

103,192 

421.90.<i 


Value. 

$13,381 

1,132 

880 

506,809 

172,064 

463,103 

. 226,983 

11 

2,221 

6,936 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Austria-Hungary 










France ....' 










Qormany 










Italy 


66,875 

99,435 

869,980 

430,700 

17,333 


""ii99,62i 
69,323 






England 






China, 


339,651 1.099!9i0 






Honekong 1 


175,508 
5,333 


468,051 

20 

220 

1,463 






Japan 






Belgium 






AUother 


5,657 


3,354 












Total 


1,479,980 


792,190 


2,096,756 


1,393,520 


2,343,409 


1,610,762 





TABIFF INFOBMATION SURVEYS. 



13 



Imports by countries — Continued. 

HUMAN HAIR, CLEANED, AND MANUFACTURES OF. 

[Fiscal years.] 



Imported from— 


19121 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Austria-Hungary . 
Franco 


$40,196 

15,330 

91,310 

491 


$52,354 

18,201 

95,244 

274 

306 

24,897 

26 

1,930 

1,565 

2,025 

813 

509 


$23,299 

19,424 

98,890 

14,073 

40 

30,163 

501 

824 

4,690 

4,466 

726 

844 


$38,906 

25,296 

90,130 

13,551 

3,833 

25,730 

631 

4,938 

84 

2,665 


$17,078 

8,660 

41,079 

7,822 

327 

40,535 






$15,043 

1,555 

34,930 


$7,961 


Germany. . ....... 




Jt&lv... "..'.'.'.'.'.',.. 


15,576 


Netnerlands 




England 


34,438 
18 
4,855 
3,966 
2,593 
389 
2,613 


52,176 


29,199 


Russian Europe. . 
China 




182,048 
2,678 
2,519 


486,987- 
1,604 
3,336 


580,777 


Hongkong 

Japan 


1,642 
3,225 


Beleium. . 




All other 


3,012 


15,411 


' 4,'443 


4,974 






Total 


196,199 


198,134 


197,940 


208,776 


318,157 


598,964 


643,354 



[Calendar years.] 



Imported from— 



France. . 
Italy.... 
England. 



China. 
Hongkong. 

Japan 

Belgium... 
All other. . 



Total. 



1918 



$11,761 

19,752 

31,791 

709,109 

6,150 

5,437 



3,619 



787,619 



1919 



$13,719 

36,071 

136,128 

2,031,051 

4,510 

3,191 

594 

16,875 



2,242,139 



1920 



$6,637,804 



Not separately stated prior to 1912. 



Human hair: Imports for consumption — Revenue. 

RAW, UNCLEANED, NOT DRAWN. 



Fiscal year. 



19C8. 

1909 

1910 

1011. 

!9l?. 

1913., 

1914. 



Rate of duty. 



I'fee . . 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 



1,831,730 
1,676,194 
1,000,S63 
1,602,136 
416,910 



Value. 



Duty 
collected. 



$722,241 
1,039,690 
2,8^9,077 
2,121,477 
1,661.060 

338,411 



Value per 

unit of 

quantity. 



$1.66 

1.27 

1.66 

1.59 

.81 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Percent. 



ASIATIC. 



1914.. 
ini5.. 
1916.. 
1Q17.. 
1018. 
iSilS K 
1910 I. 
19201 
1921 «. 



10 per cent. 

do 

do 

do , 

... .do 

do 

do 

do 

do... . 



442,679 

4.56, 492 

944,502 

1,115,151 

1,966,100 

l,4«a,385 

1,936,876 

1,947,624 

471,632 



$159, 151 
141; 938 
169,242 
345. S49 
737,443 
588,081 
P39, 752 
1,000,078 
226,414 



$15,915 
14, 193 
16,924 
34, 584 
73,744 
58.f08 
83,975 

100,007 
22,641 




10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 



> Calendar vear. 

• Sbc months ended June 30, 1921. 



14 



TABIFF INFORM ATIOK SURVBJ^S. 



Human hair: Imports for consumption — Revenue — Continued. 
RAW, UNCLEANED, NOT DRAWN— Continued. 

ALL OTHER. 



Fiscal year. 



1914.. 
1915.. 
1910.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1918 h 
1919 '. 
19?0i. 
1921 s. 



Rate of duty. 



10 per cent. 

do 

do 

do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

.-..do 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 

33,706 

65,544 

58,712 

188,425 

47, 595 

64,346 

133, 112 

255,582 

27,336 



Value. 



Duty 
collected. 



$145,274 
160,695 
232,015 
280, 519 
136,373 
203,589 
524, 2X7 
534,230 
135,581 



$14,527 
16,009 
23,201 
28,051 
13,637 
20,359 
52,425 
53,243 
13,558 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



$4.31 
2.45 
3.94 
1.48 
2.86 
3.16 
3.94 
2.09 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Per cent. 

laoo 

10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 







CLEANED OR 


DRAWN. 








V 
1908 


20 per cent 




$49,245 
88,617 

141,583 

90,665 

52,633 

36,713 

6,242 


$9,849 
17,723 
28,316 
18,133 
10,526 
7,342 
1,248 




20.00 


1909 








20.00 


1910 


do 






20.00 


1911 


do 






20.00 


1912 


do 


21,613 
7,608 
2,254 


$2.44 
4.83 
2.77 


20.00 


1913 


do 


20.00 


1914 


do 


20.00 









ASIATIC. 



1914.. 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1918 1. 
1919 K 
19201. 
1921 «. 



20 per cent. 

do 

do , 

do , 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



27,312 
10,250 
8,080 
45,614 
31,106 
12,467 
33,152 
63,374 
20,552 



$9,468 

5,983 

2,100 

8,373 

14,865 

8,554 

22,190 

52,790 

36,941 



$1,893 
1,196 
420 
1,674 
2,973 
1,711 
4,438 

10,558 
7,388 



$0,347 
.583 
.259 
.183 
.477 
.710 
.669 
.989 



20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
2a 00 
20.00 
20.00 

2a 00 

20.00 



ALL OTHER. 



1914.. 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1918 1. 
1919 ». 
19201. 
1921 «. 



20 per cent. 

do , 

do , 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



2,576 

4,070 

1,028 

4,679 

5,864 

6,193 

35,848 

15,562 

11,661 



$20,262 
18,392 
7,568 
24,402 
16,209 
20,368 
50,302 
64,426 
36,957 



$4,052 
3,678 
1,513 
4,880 
3,241 
4,074 
10,060 
12,885 
7,391 



$7.86 
4.51 
7.36 
5.23 
2.76 
3.29 
1.40 
4.14 



20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
2a 00 
•20.00 
20.00 

2a 00 

20.00 



MANUFACTURED. 



1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 



35 per cent. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



$301,876 
581,792 
594,053 
342,706 
151,891 
173,509 
51,851 



$105,656 

203,625 

207,917 

119,945 

53,161 

60,727 

18,148 



MANUFACTURED: NETS AND NETTING. 



1914.. 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1918 1. 
1919 1. 
19201. 
1921 «. 



35 per cent. 

do..... 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



$51,747 

103,948 

223,417 

484,276 

515,791 

628,990 

2,070,500 

5,774,022 

3.182,486 



$18,111 

36,381 

78, 195 

169,496 

180,526 

220,146 

724,675 

2,020,907 

1,130,870 



ALL OTHER MANUFACTURES. 



1914.. 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
19181. 
19191. 
19201. 
1921 s. 



35 per cent. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do?.... 

do 

do 



$63,389 
84,506 
31,196 
27,703 
27,313 
12,202 
88,196 

149,263 
91,882 



$22,186 

29,577 

10,918 

9,698 

9,560 

4,271 

30,868 

52,242 

32,158 



35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 



35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 



35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 



1 Calendar year. 



< Six months ended June 30, 1921 . 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



15 



Rates of duty — Human hair. 



Act of— 



1883 


442 




444 


1890 


447 
461 


i\m 


604 

332 

^353 


1897 


504 
429 
450 


1909 


571 

442 


1913 


583 
351 



Par. 



TarifiF classification or description. 



Hair, human, bracelets, braids, chains, rings, curls, and ringlets, 
composed of hair, or of which hair is the component matenal of 
chief value. 

Human hair, raw, uncleaned, and not drawn 

If clean or drawn, but not manufactured 

When manufactured , 

Hair, human, if clean or drawn but not manufactured , 

Manufactures of * * * human hair, * * * or of which 
these substances or either of them is the component material of 
chief value, all of the above not specially provided for in this 

£Wt. 

* * * human hair, raw, uncleaned, and not drawn 

Hair, human, if clean or drawn but not manufactured 

Manufactures of * * * human hair, * * * or of which 

these substances or either of them is the component material of 
chief value, all of the above not specially provided for in this act. 

, * * * human hair, raw, uncleaned, and not drawn , 

Hair, human, if clean or drawn but hot manufiactured 

Manufactures of * * * human hair, * * * or of which 
these substances or either of them is the component material of 
chief value, not specially provided for in this act. 

* * * human hair, raw, uncleaned, and not drawn 

Hair, human, if clean or drawn but not manufactured 

Manufactures of human hair, or of which human hair is the com- 
ponent material of chief value, not specially provided for in this 
section. 

* * * human hair, raw, uncleaned, and not drawn 

Human hair, raw 

If cleaned or commercially known as drawn, but not manu- 
factured. 
Manufactures of human hair, including nets and nettiuKS, or of 
which human hair is the component material of chief value, not 
specially provided for in this section. 



Rates of duty, specific 
and ad valorem. 



35 per cent ad valorem. 



20 per cent ad valorem. 
30 per cent ad valorem. 
35 per cent ad valorem. 
20 per cent ad valorem. 
35 per cent ad valorem. 



Free. 

20 per cent ad valwem. 

30 per cent ad valorem. 



Free. 

20 per cent ad valorem. 

35 per cent ad valorem. 



Free. 

20 per cent ad valorem. 

35 per cent ad valorem. 



Free. 

10 per cent ad valorem. 

20 per cent ad valorem. 

35 per cent ad valorem. 



Court and Treasury Decisions. 

Human hair tops are not specificalh provided for and are assessed 
with duty under paragraph 385 as a nonenumerated article manu- 
factured m whole or in part. (T. D. 36200, of 1916.) Such mer- 
chandise assessed under paragraph 385 were claimed to be dutiable 
under 'paragraph 286 and the protest was overruled by the Board 
of General Appraisers without affirming the assessment. (Abstract 
38842, of 1915.) 

Human hair yarn is dutiable at 35 per cent as a manufacture of 
human hair uncfer paragraph 351 ; human hair press cloth made from 
the jam is dutiable at 15 cents per square vard under paragraph 
353. The 15-cent rate is generally considerably less than the 10 per 
cent on raw human hair under paragraph 351. 

Separate provision might be made for human hair tops. 



HAIR, CURLED, SUITABLE FOR BEDS AND MATTRESSES. 

[Par.352,actof]9]3.1 



Summary. 

Hair, curled, suitable for beds and mattresses, is produced from both 
domestic and imported hair. Horse, cow, goat, and hog hair is used, 
horsehair being the best. It is also the chief raw material imported. 

In 1914 there were 19 establishments engaged in this industry. 
They employed 1,212 wage earners, had a combined capital of 
$2,930,000, and total production of $3,658,000. 

Imports are negligible, being valued at $6 in 1919 and $90 in 1920. 
Domestic export statistics are not available. 

No tariff or competitive problems seem to be presented in this 
industry. Horsehair, the chief article of raw liiaterial imported, is 
on the iree list. 

General Information. 

1913 tariff paragraph. 

Par. 352. Hair, curled, suitable for beds or mattresses, 10 per cent 
ad valorem. 

DESCRIPTION AND USES. 

Curled hair is the hair of animals, chiefly that from the manes 
tails, and fetlocks of horses, and tails of cattle, dyed black and curled 
for use in stuflBng mattresses, sofas, cushions, and in other upholstery 
work. An extensive use of curled hair is in the upholstering of auto- 
mobiles. Only the shorter hairs from the tails and manes of the 
horse and tails of cattle are curled, the longer lengths being used for 
manufacturing haircloth. 

MATERIALS. 

Horsehair is the best and most generally used. Most of it is 
imported, chiefly from Argentina, China, England, Canada, Russia, 
and Uruguay. The domestic hair used is procured from the packing 
houses and tanneries. After the raw hair is cleansed and sterilized 
by boiling, it is dyed. The curl is then imparted by tightly plaiting 
and baking the hair. 

PRODUCTION. 

In 1909 the value of domestic production was $5,130,000. In 1914, 
it was $3,658,000. This decline was due to decreased use and not 
increased imports. The value of production for later years is not 
available, but 20,719,741 poimds were produced in 1916, 22,033,651 
pounds 1917, and 13,652,610 pounds in 1918.^ 

Statistics on foreign production are not available, but no serious 
competition is offered to the domestic industry, imports for the past 
seven years having averaged less than $50. 

DOMESTIC EXPORTS. 

Exports of curled hair are not separately stated in the statistics. 
They are included in manufactures of animal hair, which average 
between $300,000 and $400,000. 

» Report Bureau of Markets, Department of Agriculture, Dec. 2, lUlS. 
16 



TARIFF rSTFORMATIOK SURVEYS. 



17 



ORGANIZATION. 



In 1914 there were in the United States 19 estabhshments engaged 
primarily in the manufacture of curled hair. They employed 1,212 
wage earners and had a combined capital of $2,930,000. Chicago, 
Phfladelphia, and New York are the important centers of the industry. 



SUBSTITUTES. 



While curled hair is the best material for its various uses, it is also 
the most expensive. Substitutes are being used in mattress and 
upholstery work, those most frequently used being seaweed and sea 
moss, Spanish moss, Tampico, and coconut fiber. 



TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS. 



No tariff or competitive problems seem to arise in connection with 
this mdustry. Horsehair is the prmcipal item of raw material 
imported, and this is admitted free imder paragraph 503. 



Production in United States — Curled hair} 



Year. 


Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Wage 
earners. 


Capital. 


Wages. 


Cost of 
materials. 


Value of 
products. 


1914 


19 
29 


1,212 
1,372 


$2,930,000 
3,929,000 


$524,000 
570,000 


$2,471,000 
3,498,000 


$3,658,000 


1909 


5,130,000 







1 Abstract of the census of manufacturers, 1914. 

Imports for consumption — Revenue. 

HAIR, CURLED, SUITABLE FOR BEDS AND MATTRESSES. 



Fiscal year. 


Rate of duty. 


Quantity. 


Value. 

$136 

10 

8 

47 

259 

1,728 

2 

271 


Duty 
collected. 

$13.00 

1.00 

.80 

4.70 

25.90 

172.00 

.20 

27.00 


Vahieper 

unit of 
quantity. 


Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 


1908 


10 per cent 




Per cent, 
10.00 


1909 


do 






10.00 


1910 


do 






10.00 


1911 


do 






10.00 


1912 


do 






10.00 


1913 


do*. 






laoo 


1914 


do 






10.00 


1915 


do 






10.00 


1916 


do 









1917 


do 




72 

1 


7.20 
.10 




* * i6.66 


1918 


do 







10.00 


19181 


do 






19191 


do 




6 

140 

18, 137 


* '.'eo' 

* 14.00 
1,813.00 




10.00 


19201 


do 




10.00 


19212 


do 



















1 Calendar year.. < 6 months ended June 30, 1920. 

Rates of duty — Hair, curled, suitable for beds or mattresses. 



Act of- 



1883 



1890 
1894 
1897 
1909 
1913 



Par. 



443 
717 

450 

332^ 

430 

444 

352 



Tariff classification or description. 



Rates of duty, specific 
and ad valorem. 



Curled hair, except of hogs, used for beds or mattresses 

Hair, * * * of hogs, curled for beds and nufttresses, and not 
fit for bristles. 

Hair, curled, suitable for beds or mattresses • ««/^»x ^^^^«^ T».vr«^u.. 

do 10 per cent ad valorem. 

do Do. 

do Do. 

do Do. 



25 per cent ad valorem. 
Free. 

15 per cent ad valorem. 



HAmcLora 

[Known as ** crinoline," "hair seating," and hair presB cloth.] 



Summary. 



Haircloth known as ^^ crinoline ''and ^^hair seating'' are made from 
the long hair of the manes and tails of horses. Crinoline is a light 
haircloth, formerly much used in feminine apparel, but is now con- 
fined principally to the stiffening of hats and bonnets and in stiffening 
men's coats. Hair seating is a heavy cloth used in upholstery, much 
less now than formerly. 

Imports of crinoline are negligible. Those of hair seating are not 
statea separately from hair press cloth. The industry is relatively 
unimportant, the total production of all haircloth for 1914 being 
$2,395,486. No tariff or competitive questions are involved. 

Hair press cloth is a very heavy cloth made from spun hair, chiefly 
human hair from the Orient. To a small extent horsehair from South 
America is used for some makes of this cloth. It is used in connec- 
tion with the expression of cottonseed, linseed, and other oils, and is 
important as an auxiliary to the oil-milling industry. The manu- 
facture of this type of press cloth developed during the war, it having 
come into general use as a substitute for camel's-hair press cloth, which 
was formerly almost exclusively used, but which could not be sup- 
plied in sufficient quantities owing to the curtailment of the supply 
of raw material. 

Official production figures are not available, but it is estimated 
from information furnished by the trade that the annual production 
is about 2,000,000 pounds, with a value of $1,800,000. Imports are 
combined with hair seating and in 1919 were valued at $164,560. 
Practically all of these, however, were press cloth. 

The industry faces strong foreign competition. American manu- 
facturers request a revision upward of the duty on the hair press cloth. 
They state tnat the present duty of 15 cents per square yard is only 
about one-fourth, as regards the hair content, of the duty they pay on 
the raw human hair. 

Summary table. ^ 
CRINOLINE. 





Value 
(imports 

for 
consump- 
tion). 


Amount 
of duty. 


Value 
per unit 

of 

quantity 

(square 

yard). 


Equiva- 
lent ad 
valorem 
rate. 


Fiscal year: 

1910 


$171 

4,223 

1,814 

58 

46 

336 

17 

177 

11,787 


120 

830 

339 

9 

3 

66 

2 

15 

148 


10.665 
.407 
.427 
.468 
.754 
.356 
.485 
.692 

4.78 


Percent, 
12.02 


1911 


19.66 


1912 


18.73 


1913 


6.48 


1914 


7.96 


1915 


16.80 


1916 ^ 


12.36 


1917 7. 


8.61 


Calendar year: 

1918 


1.25 


1919 




1920 


150 


4 


2.02 


2.96 







1 Total production of haircloth in the United States in 1914 amounted to $2,395,486. 
18 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



19 



Summary table — Continued. 

HAIR SEATING AND HAIR PRESS CLOTH. 



Fiscal year: 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 



Value 
(imports 

for 
consump- 
tion). 


• 
Amount 


Value 

per unit 

of 


of duty. 


quantity 
(square 
yard). 


$23,581 


S3, 286 


$1.42 


23,533 


4,071 


1.16 


18,249 


2,*600 


1.40 


31,869 


4,126 


1.54 


106, 757 


8,876 


1.94 


81,723 


5,840 


2.97 


67,633 


4,375 


2.31 


84,399 


4,079 


3.10 


122,598 


4,684 


3.92 


95, 751 


3,207 


4.47 


164,560 


6,083 


4.85 


48,776 


1,774 


4.12 



Equiva- 
lent ad 
valorem 
rate. 



Per cent. 

13.93 

17.30 

14.25 

12.99 

8.31 

7.15 

6.47 

4.83 

3.82 

3.34 
3.05 
3.64 



General Information. 



1913 tariff paragraph. 

Par. 353. Haircloth, known as crinoline cloth, 6 cents per square 
yard; haircloth, known as hair seating, and hair press cloth, 15 cents 
per square yard. 

CRINOLINE AND HAIR SEATING. 

Description and uses, — Haircloth is made from the long hair ob- 
tained from the mane and tail of horses. It is a very strong, durable 
material, not liable to fade, but on account of its open texture catches 
a great deal of dust. Crinoline cloth is the light haircloth formerly 
much used for stiffening feminine apparel, but now principally used 
in stiffening bonnets and hats and men's coats. Hair seating is 
heavy haircloth used in upholstery. 

Raw materials. — The chief raw material used is horsehair. Other 
hair is used to a small extent. Imports of horsehair come chiefly 
from Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Canada, Russia, England, Italy, 
Germany, and Belgium. The domestic horsehair is obtained from 
tanneries, from dead animals, and is inferior to the imported horsehair. 

Processes. — ^The raw hair is boiled to clean and sterilize it, then is 
dried by high-speed centrifugal action, then drawn or heckled, sorted 
into proper lengths. It is then soaked in water to make it supple, 
and ayed black, when it is ready for use. Formerly it was woven on 
hand looms (now by machinery), with a black linen warp, the hair 
being the weft. The weave is a kind of sateen, the weft or hair being 
flushed to the surface. It is woven with a raw edge on each side, no 
selvage being possible on account of the short length of the horse 
hair. After leaving the loom the cloth is hot rofled to give it a 
luster. 

Haircloth is made in widths of from 16 to 30 inches. 

Substitutes. — ^The most commonly used imitation or substitute is 
that made from black polished linen warp and weft. 



20 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

Imports, — ^Imports of crinoline are negligible; those of hair seating 
are shown under press cloth below, together with statistics of domestic 
production. 

HAIR PRESS CLOTH. 

Description and uses, — ^Press cloth is entirely distinct from crinoline 
and hair seating, being a very heavy thick cloth used in the oil milling 
industry as a container in which the seed meats are wrapped while 
being subjected to heavy pressure to express the oils. At the present 
time two different styles of press cloth are used — camers-hair press 
cloth (covered by pars. 288 and 422) and hair press cloth, included 
in the paragraph imder consideration. 

Under the latter paragraph is included aU press cloths made of 
human or animal hair not specifically mentioned elsewhere. Prac- 
tically all hair press cloth used is that made of human hair. A hair- 
cloth made of horsehair is used as a protective mat for some purposes 
in the oil mills, but its use is small and relatively unimportant, not 
being used for the general purposes of press cloth. 

Human-hair press cloth is made from the heavy, coarse human 
hair from the Orient. The principal requirement for this cloth is 
strength and resistance to heat, as the seed meats are pressed im- 
mediately after cooking while extremely hot. Spun hair is used \u 
weaving the cloth. It weighs 44 to 66 ounces to a yard 12 to 13^ 
inches wide, or 7 to 11 pounds to the square yard, the different weights 
being used for different conditions. In view of the weight of the 
cloth, it is sold by the pound rather than by the yard. 

Development of industry. — ^The manufacture in the United States 
of press cloth from human hair is a recently developed industry, its 
origin and growth having been due to war conditions. Prior to the 
war practically all the press cloth U3ed was made from earners 
hair, but with the supply of raw material curtailed, camel' s-hair 
cloth could not be made in sufficient quantities to meet the demands. 
A substitute was foimd in the Oriental human hair. It is not equal 
to the camel's-hair cloth in weariag qualities, but met the demands 
as a substitute and can now compete with the camePs-hair cloth on 
a lower price basis. 

While the spinning of human hair for this purpose is new here, 
it had been established in European countries. The process of 
spinning human hair for press cloth is different from that lor making 
tne camePs-hair cloth. 

The press cloth industry is important as auxiliary to oil milling, 
press cloth being required in the making of cottonseed, linseed, castor, 
and other oils. 

ORGANIZATION AND DOMESTIC PRODUCTION. 

In 1914 the census of manufactures showed domestic production 
of all hair cloth as $2,395,486, 15 out of a total of 19 establishments 
being located in Pennsylvania, the others in New York and Rhode 
Island. The production of hair press cloth developed since 1914. 

According to estimates of the trade, the annual production of hair 
press cloth is between 1,700,000 poimds to 2,000,000 pounds, with a 
value of $1,600,000 to $1,800,000. The piills are located in South 
Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Massachusetts, New York, and 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 21 

Pennsylvania. The capitalization is not known, but heavy invest- 
ments were made during the war to speed up production. Some of 
these mills confine their production to human hair press cloth, while 
some manufacture both types of cloth. It was necessary, however, 
for all to install special spindles for spinning the hair, the process 
being diflFerent from that employed in making camel's hair cloth. 

There are no exports of press cloth, the entire domestic production 
being consumed at home. 

FOREIGN PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS. 

Statistics on foreign production are not available, nor are import 
figures shown separately. Imports of hair seatmg and hair press 
cloth are combined, the total for 1919 being $164,560. In 1913 the 
imports were only $31,000, but in 1914 they jumped to $106,000, 
the larger part coming in after the 1913 tarin act became eflFective. 
There was a decline the following year, but the total increased to 
$122,000 in 1918 and $164,000 m 1919. The 1920 total, however, 
is smaller than anjr yeaj* since 1914. It is claimed by the manu- 
facturers that practically all of these imports were hair press cloth. 
The increased imports were incidental to the increased demands for 
press cloth. 

TARIFF HISTORY. 

Under the act of 1883 crinoline cloth was dutiable at 30 per cent 
ad valorem and hair seating at 30 cents per square yard; under the 
act of 1890 the duties were, respectively, 8 cents and 30 cents per 
square yard, which the act of 1894 reduced to 6 cents and 20 cents 
per square yard. Hair press cloth was first specifically included in 
the act of 1897, that act making hair seating and hair press cloth 
dutiable at 20 cents per square yard and crinoline cloth at 10 cents 
per square vard. The act of 1909 retained the duty of 20 cents per 
square yard on hair seating and hair press cloth, but reduced that on 
crinoline to 8 cents per square yard. 

Prior to the act of 1913 cameFs-hair press cloth was not specifically 
mentioned in the tariff, it being dutiable under Schedule K. Under 
the act of 1913 hair of the camel was placed on the free list (par. 650) ; 
press cloth of camel hair is dutiable at 10 per cent ad valorem (par. 
288) ; and cameFs-hair press cloth imported expressly for oil-milling 
purposes and so marked, and meeting the requirements specified is 
admitted free (par. 422). 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS. 

Human-hair press cloth faces domestic competition from cameFs 
hair press cloth. They are related industries, nowever, some plants 
being equipped to manufacture both kinds of cloth. 

During the period between the adoption of the 1913 tariff act and 
the beginning of the war the imports from England and Germany of 
both finds of press cloth were heavy, and indicated that tnose 
coimtries could make the cloth for less than the domestic manufac- 
turers. This competition was not serious during the war, the making 
of cameFs-hair press cloth in those countries having ceased entirely, 
but the imports of both cloths showed a considerable increase m 
1P19. The source of raw material for cameVs-hair cloth is more 



22 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVJilYS. 



accessible to the European manufacturers, and, as Russian human 
hair is entirely similar to Chinese hair, the raw material for the 
human-hair press cloth would also probably be cheaper. 

TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS. 

CameFs-hair press cloth and the hair from which it is made are 
both on the free list. The present duty on hair press cloth (par. 353) 
of 15 cents per scjuare yard is equivalent to 1^ cents to 2^ cents per 
pound on the hair content of the cloth, a square yard weighing from 
6 to 11 pounds. Compared to this, the average duty per pound 
paid on raw Asiatic hair for the first half of 1920 was 5^ cents per 
pound. The manufacturers state that the loss due to cleaning, 
sorting, and otherwise preparing the raw hair is about 20 per cent, 
which makes the total duty paid on the hair content of the domestic 
cloth three to four times as much as that paid on the hair content of 
the foreign-made cloth. 

The customs revenue from hair seating and hair press cloth has 
averaged about $5,000 annually since 1914, while that from the raw 
uncleaned hair (the greater part of which is used in hair press cloth) 
averaged $50,000 between 1914 and 1919. In 1919 it was $136,000 
and in 1920 it was $153,850. 

The present act combines hair seating and hair press cloth. The 
hair press cloth now imported is entirely dissimilar and distinct from 
hair seating, is of varying weights, and is sold by the pound instead 
of by the yard. It woiud seem desirable to separate it from hair 
seating ana make the unit of duty the same as the commercial unit; 
that is, the poimd. 

No tariff questions arise in connection with crinoline and hair 
seating. 

Production of haircloth ^ in United States. 



Year and State. 



United States: 

1914 

1909 

States, 1914: 

Pennsylvania.., 
All otner States. 



Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Wage 

earners 

(average 

number). 


Capital. 


Wages. 


Cost of 
materials. 


19 
14 

15 
4 


595 

538 

466 
129 


$2,945,000 
2,281,000 

2,057,000 
888,000 


$290,000 
252,000 

233,000 
57,000 


$1,654,000 
1,614,000 

1,324,000 
330,000 



Value of 
products. 



$2,395,000 
2,230,000 

1,938,000 
457,000 



1 Haircloth was formerly used most extensively in upholstering, and its manufacture was included 
under "upholstering materials." Large quantities of it are now used in the manufacture of clothing, and 
for this reason it was given a separate classification in 1909. This textile is made by using a warp of cotton 
yarn and a weft of horsehair. Hair bristles, brush material, and curled hair were also reported, but the 
value of these has been included in the amounts reported as subsidiary products to the upholstering mate- 
rials industry. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



23 



Imports for consumption — Revenue. 

HAIRCLOTH KNOWN AS CRINOLINE. 





Rate of duty. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Duty col- 
lected. 

$3 

117 
20 

830 

339 

9 

3 

56 

2 

15 


Value per 

unit of 

quantity. 


Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 


Fiscal year— 

1908 


10 cents per square 

yard. 
do 


Square yards. 
32 

1,178 
257 

10,380 

4,247 

124 

61 

941 

35 

254 


$20 
299 

m 

4,223 

1,814 

58 

46 

336 

17 

177 


$0,625 

.254 
.665 

.407 
.427 
.468 
.754 

.356 
.485 
.692 


Percent. 
16.00 


1909 


39.40 


1910 


8 cents per square 

yard. 
do 


12.02 


1911 


19,66 


1912 


do 


18.73 


1913 


do 


6.48 


1914 


6 cents per square 

yard. 
do 


7.96 


1915 


16.80 


1916 




12.35 


1917 


do 


8.61 


191S 


do 




Cedeudar year— 
1918 


do 


2,465 


11, 787 


148 


4.78 


1.25 


1919 


do 




1920 


do 


74 


150 


4 


2.027 


2.96 









HAIRCLOTH KNOWN AS HAIR SEATING AND HAIR PRESS CLOTH. 



Fiscal year: i 

1908 20 cents per square 

i yard. 



1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 



•do. 
.do. 
•do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



1914 15 cents per square 

t yard. 



1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 

.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



192H I do. 



18,912 

21,210 
16,432 
20,357 
13,004 
20,630 
12,778 
42,143 

38,934 
29,173 
27,196 
31,230 

21,379 

33,885 

11,831 

1,800 



$22,863 

24,940 
23,581 
23,533 
18,249 
31,869 
23,435 
83,322 

81,723 

67.633 

84,399 

122,598 

95,761 

164,560 

48,775 

6,595 



$3,7^ 

4,242 
3,286 
4,071 
2,600 
4,126 
2,555 
6,321 

5,840 
4,375 
4,079 
4,684 

3,207 

5,083 

1,774 

270 



$1.21 

1.18 
1.42 
1.15 
L40 
1.54 
L83 
1.98 

2.97 
2.31 
3.10 
3.92 

4.478 
4.856 
4.122 



^ Six months ended June 30, 1921. 



16.54 

17.01 
13.93 
17.30 
14.25 
12.99 
10.91 
7.59 

7.15 
6.47 
4.83 
3.82 

3.34 
3.08 
3.64 



Rates of duty — Haircloth, known as ^* crinoline cloth,** *^hair seating ,** and ^'hair press 

cloth.** 



Act of— 



1883 



1890 



1894 



1913 



Par. 

445 

446 

448 
449 

333 
334 



1897 I 431 

I 



1909 445 



353 



288 



Tariff dassifloetion or description. 



Haircloth, known as ^'crinoline cloth," and all other manufac- 
tures of hair not specially enumerated or provided for in this act. 
Haircloth, known as "hair seating" 



Haircloth, known as "crinoline cloth" 
Haircloth, known as "hair seating".. . 



Haircloth, known as "crinoline cloth" , 
Haircloth, known as "hair seating" 



Rates of duty, specific 
and ad valorem. 



Haircloth, known as "crinoline" cloth , 

Haircloth, known as "hair seating," and hair press cloth 



Haircloth, known as "crinoline" cloth 

Haircloth, known as "hair seating," and hair press cloth. 



Haircloth, known as " crinoline" cloth 

Haircloth, known as "hair seating," and hair press cloth. 



-v~ , * * * press cloth composed of camel's hair, n. s. p. f 

422 I * * * press cloths composed of camel's hair, imported ex- 
pressly for oil milling purposes, and marked so as to indicate j 
that it is for such purposes, and cut into lengths not to exceed 
72 inches and woven in widths not under 10 inches' nor to exceed 
15 inches and weighing not l&ss than i pound per square foot. 



30 per cent ad valorem. 

30 cents per square 

yard. 
8 cents per square yard. 
30 cents per square 

yard. 
6 cents x>er square yard. 
20 cents per square 

yard. 
10 cents per square 

yard. 
20 cents per square 

yard. 
8 cents per square yard . 
20 cents per square 

yard. 
6 cents per square yard. 
15 cents per square 

yard. 
10 per cent ad valorem 
Free. 



24 takiff information surveys. 

Court and Treasury Decisions. 

Press cloths composed of camePs hair for oil milling purposes are 
exempt from dutj , while the } am from which they are made is 
dutiafcle at 18 per cent ad valorem under paragraph 287. 

The provision in paragraph 431 of the act of 1897 for hair press 
cloth was held not limited to fabrics composed of the same material 
(horsehair) as the other articles enumerated in said paragraph. 
(Caldwell v. United States, 141 Fed. 487.) But a different conclusion 
was reached in another case where camePs-hair press cloth was held 
dutiable as manufactures of wool rather than as hair press cloth under 
that act. (Oberle v. United States, 165 Fed. 53.) 

Hair press cloth, in chief value of camel's hair, was held dutiable 
as press cloth composed of camePs hair under paragraph 288. (Ab- 
stract 38425, of 1915.) CameFs-hair press-cloth mats are dutiable as 
manufactures of wool under paragraph 288 ; and combination goat's- 
hair and camePs-hair mats as a nonenumerated manufactured article 
under paragraph 385 when goat hair is the element of chief value. 
(T. D. 34285, of 1914.) 

Cattle-hair cloths, square in form, with flaps to fold over similar 
to envelopes, used for pressing herbs for medicmal purposes, classified 
as a manufacture of wool under paragraph 288 and claimed dutiable 
as hair press cloth or as a nonenumerated manufactured article, were 
found not to be hair press cloth or an article made from hair press 
cloth. (Abstract 40330, of 1916.) 

Regulations governing the marking of press cloths are prescribed 
in T. D. 33929, of 1913. 



fiAIR OF HORSE, CATTLE, AND OTHER ANIMALS. N. S. P. F. 



VBlne <im- 
sumptliui).' 



Valuspei 
quantity. 



0,3SS,36a 
S,M0,1» 
11, 663, fits 



1,315,440 

2,182,3512 
3,402,702 



.142,S4S 
.3T«,34t 
.4X),111 

.449,167 
.089,033 

2,038,838 
' 4S1,3M 

.478,488 

U,7G1 



• Flisl six monttis of 1020. 



nt Include horssbalr [or bows of vloUns after 1913, as qiuntlty not stated. 
ixmDnttiso[192a. 

General Infoemation. 

1913 tariff pabagbaph. 

Pa-r. 503. "Hair of horse, cattle, and other animals, cleaned or 
uncleaned, drawn or undrawn, but unmanufactured, not specially 
3)rovided for in this section," free. 

DBSCRIPnOK AND USES. 

The long hair from the manes and tails of horses is used as a filling, 
usually with a cotton warp, in making haircloth, fish lines, straining 
cloths, and in violin bows. The short hair from horses' manes ana 
tails and from the tails of cattle is curled and used for stuffing cush- 
ions and for other upholstery work. The hair of cattle and other 
animals is a tannery oy-product and is used in felt for roofing and 
for covering steam pipes. It is used, mixed with wool waste or 
cotton, in making coarse yarns for carpets, horse blankets, and the 
cheapest grade of tweeds. Cattle hair is also used as binding for 
mortar and plaster. 

PEODUCnON. 

Domestic production statistics are not available. Most of the 
cattle hair used is produced at home, while a lai^e part of the horse- 
hair is imported. 

IMPORTS. 

The average annual importation of horsehair has been somewhat 
less than 4,000,000 pounds a year for the last few years, although the 
imports exceeded 6,000,000 pounds in each of tne years 1916 and 
1917. In 1918 imports of horsehair were 3,978,240 pounds, valued 
at $1,316,643. In 1918, two-thirds of our imports of norsehair came 
from Argentina; China was the sourtie of next importance, while 



26 



TARIFF INFOBMATION SURVEYS. 



Italy, England, Canada, Mexico, and Uruguay also sent us con- 
siderable amounts. The imports of cattle and other animal hair, 
with ^the exception of horsehair, decreased considerably diiring the 
war'. In 1914 they amounted to 10,507,680 pounds, valued at 
$1,051,698, while in 1918, they amounted to 4,029,839 poimds, 
valued at $550,306. Canada is the principal source of these imports. 

A large quantity came from Germany beiore the war. 

I ■ ■ ■ - 

EXPORTS. 

Exports of unm^anufactured animal hair amount to something, 
over $1,000,000 a year on the average, most of which goes to Great. 
Britain. Exports of manufactures of animal hair amotmt on the 
average betw;een $300,000 and $400,000, principally to Canada. 

Imports f by countries — Hair of horse, cattle, and other animals^ n. ». p./, 

FISCAL YEARS. 



Imported from— 



Argentina 

United Kingdom. 

Canada 

Urujniay 

Mexico 

China 

Germany 

France 

Italy ,. 

Russia in Europe. 

Brazil 

Australia 

British India 

Austria-Hungary . 

Denmark 

Belgium 

All other 



Total. 



1910 



Pounds. 



1,628,753 

2,156,281 

3,8C8,196 

601,399 

352,446 

116,732 

6,352,109 

416, 882 

418,788 

1,107,029 

707,756 

27,857 



139,759 

32,4«4 

315, 167 

518^744 



18,760,6S2 



Value. 



$374,675 

aS3,026 

197,463 

133.020 

7i; 831 

62,797 

581, 575 

69,049 

190,071 

306.634 

167,046. 

2,C97 



10,542 

6.695 

49,360 

65,310 



3, in, 791 



1911 



Pounds. 



1,338,674 

2,092,999 

3.225,152 

4.>4, 134 

357,355 

75,737 

7,154,678 

241,782 

376, 109 

799,673 

647,845 

3,720 

80 

420,931 

44 

292,a')9 

73,496 



17,535,268 



Value. 



1315,656 

615,351 

150,227 

103,560 

71,247 

50, 715 

671,793 

32,446 

207,825 

175, 192* 

149,300 

237 

8 

19,323 

42 

60,953 

16.700 



1912 



Pounds. 



1,807,088 

2,641,049 

2,632,159 

382,982 

451, 249 

320,610 

6,33.3,791 

296.475 

378,950 

1,235,084 

430,558 

3.888 



2, 610, .595 



85,896 

10 

127,778 

49,416 



16,176,983 



Value. 



$512, 163 

947,482 

186,514 

93,274 

92,432 

79,620 

683,611 

'37,144 

233,318 

312,752 

106,238 

247 



15,771 

5 

27,121 

8,047 



3,333,740 



Imported from— 



Argentina 

United Kingdom. 

Canada 

Uruguay 

Mexico 

Chfnft 

Germany 

France 

Italy 

Russia in Eurone. 

Brazil 1.. 

Australia 

Chile 

British India 

Austria-Hungary . 

Denmark 

Belgium 

All other 



Total, 



1913 



Pounds. 



1,636,424 

2,691,414 

3,668.302 

225, 019 

378, 105 

417,897 

4,741,084 

121, 703 

311, 741 

1,017,840 

444,938 



1,216 
16,691 
140, 870 
324,507 
212,595 
146, 174 



16.496,520 



Value. 



$465,308 

919,987 

206, ?09 

«1,062 

75,692 

163,422 

669,294 

24, 475 

225,918 

246,210 

130,710 



341 
10,441 
20,429 
36,388 
46,311 
20,777 



3.323,074 



1914 



Pounds. 



1,151,722 

2,780,258 

3,482,368 

202,693 

340,802 

153,368 

4,321,521 

185, 536 

2aM55 

617,909 

211,877 

1,922 



30.352 

54,111 

56,090 

194,257 

198, 575 



14,246,516 



Value. 



$327,126 
884,664 
234,275 

.50,206 

63,734 
121,011 
595,548 

27,398 
119,263 
152.386 

55,202 
129 



1.074 

7,672 

6,267 

42,300 

27,991 



1915 



Poimds. 



1,349,271 

2,323,997 

5,224,336 

338, 558 

353,477 

364,049 

751,696 

63,880 

344, 579 

5,338 

169,240 

138,213 

12,945 

48,266 



16,433 

39,042 

148,153 



2,715,146 11,690,473 



Value. 



$394,107 

787,795 

342,903 

79,712 

79.515 

111,809 

197,388 

5,690 

163,805 

2,018 

38,006 

8,701 

2,988 

2,187 



2,261 

1, 654 

24,413 



2,244,853 



TAEIFF IHFOKMATIOK STJBTEYS. 27 

ImpoTta, by countrUk — Hair ofhvne, eattU, and other atumaU, n.t. p.f. — Coutiiiaed. 

FISCAL YEARS— Contlnuad. 



InHiorted from— 


w.« 


J917 


IMS 


P<«nda. 


VbIu«. 


Poonds. 


•VtXat. 


Pounds. 


Vihw. 


A Una. 


1 1 

37 

25 


t(iie,733 
sj.oiw 

287. S31 

Hi 


3.972.062 

«s. era 

11 

407^590 
89,018 


11,021, SM 

p 

371400 


014,' «£S 


■ss? 


D^MdHTiiJom 




ja!,e78 










,i!2 






eslS, 




Bredl....^ 


.ts: 

2,7% 


i 




BrillsblnSi'.ll"!^-!!"!!'! 




81,393 


10,290 


4,1S3 


j;«» 














32,821 


a, 080 


231, 38S 


122,1*3 


iai,«i 


JMio 






W, 890, MB 


3,0SftT71 


13,108,7^7 


% 04^871 


7.88%9« 


1,83*. 480 





CALENDAR YEARS. 



; Imported tram— 


1818 


1919 


1920 


PouDdi. 


VBlue. 


Pounds. 


V.liw. 


FooLd.. V.tu». 




jo^?8; 

9S4 

S3, 404 

82)0D0 
11 


Hi 

371,328 

•ill 


4,3I3,<>]0 

■Si 

91,041 


17 
ilfl 
06 

i 
1 




































































































■"■■M,m' 


7^218 


201, WJ 


120, M7 














«, 31^187 


l,314,Sfi6 


(^66^884 


^185,811 


11,888,800 


»3,4aH81T 





TABIFP ISTFOBMATIOII SUEVBT3. 



CATTLE HAIB. 





KBteofdutr- 


Q»MUty! 


Valua. 


co£^. 


HF 


Actual u>d 


"-sr^ 




Pmndt. 

S»«;4i8 

3,814^381 


■'is 

230)370 
1I>S,«M 

731388 




KLOSl 

.085 

'.on 

.004 

.on 


Ftrcait. 












do 

ElEEE: 

do. 

:::::^S::::::::::::: 
























■CatendsrVeai- 



































H0B3BH&IB rOB BOWS OF VI0LIN3 AND OTHXK UUSICAI. INSTHUMENTS. 



"-TJr:i..... 






6;bii 

24.82B 
";«I4 




































































■Cslendaryear- 





























































ALL OTHER H0R9BHAIR. 



""w^"*^ 




ts,z 

8,432,770 
3,078,340 

\',3(a',e20 


5;S 

18' 043 
1,010,173 

'589;81H 




tO.SI3 

1 

i 

.348 
!446 






t 








































do. 
























«^S;''— 








do 































OTHER ANIUAL HAJE, N. 3. P. F. 





1947 552 


































»•««■"« 




'1631537 


740;j96 



XABIFP INFOEMATION STJEVBYS. 



29> 



Domeitk exports — Hair ofhorBe^ catUe^ and other animaU, n. $. p.f, 

FISCAL YEARS. 



Exported to- 


19101 


1 
19111 


19121 


1913 


1914 


1916 


1916 


1917 


1918 


United Kingdom 

Germany 

Belsiiim 


$435,468 

268,628 

103,096 

191,235 

34,291 

12,632 

18, 121 

30,105 

1,698 

3,286 

18,778 

60 

80 


$639,066 

231,206 

92,803 

197,283 

8,927 

15,253 

32,604 

19,462 

5,376 

2,792 

16,242 

1,698 

355 


$613,924 

288,811 

129,041 

274,483 

23,853 

18,376 

21,765 

22,514 

2,855 

6,301 

13,221 

1,366 

170 


$620,015 

420,526 

238,074 

117,694 

12,640 

1550 

27,367 

6,838 

285 

338 

5,543 

1,100 

3,354 
9,608 
2,225 


$415,313 

296,882 

168,905 

115,561 

22,177 

250 

17,925 

18,456 

42 

191 

5,738 


$1,004,978 
28,661 

9,646 
96,346 

8,002 

1,500 
26,086 
25,673 

1,456 

6 

43,312 


$1,778,660 


$1,287,628 


$961, 936* 








Canadft. ......... 


151, 170 
2^201 


100,981 


199,424^ 


AnstraliA 


4,071 


Austria-Hungary 
France 

'NAt.hArlAIKiR . 






73,382 

2,217 

78 

39 

10,558 


47,616 


26,887 


Mexico 


159 

9 

6,313 

560 

1,658 


10,199^ 


Pf|,ni^Tna 


18,231 


Cuba 


22,917 


Japftn .,..,., . 


13,593 


Bntish South 
Africa 






925 


15,199- 


Sweden.. 


'*'23,'598 


6,502 
60,021 




Another 


25,427 


11,278 


9,431 


21,606 


7,430 


226,041 


Total 


1,142,845 


1,274,345 


1,426,111 


1,449,157 


1,085,038 


1,402,189 


2,038,838 


1,451,354 


1,478,498. 



CALENDAR YEARS. 



Exported to- 



United Kingdom 

Germany 

Belgium 

Canada 

Australia 

France 

Netherlands 

Mexico 

Panama 

Cuba 

Japan 

British South Africa. 

Sweden 

All other 



Total. 



1918 



$569,988 



266,980 

9,152 

16,507 



562 

10,012 

29,594 

16,235 

5,027 



131,694 



1,055,751 



1919 



$1,067,806 

30,931 

23,302 

318,568 

13,487 

100,599 

20,892 

30,005 

7,573 

35,840 

67,225 

605 

5,959 

504,446 



2,247,238 



1920 



$2,423,258- 



1 Includes both "Unmanufactured" and "Manuftotures of." 



Rates of duty — Hair of horses , cattle^ and other animals ^ n, s. p.f. 



Jkcstoi- 


Par. 


1883 


Sun- 
dries. 


1890 


604 


1894 


504 


1897 


571 


1909 


583 


1013 


503 



Tariff classification or description. 



Hair, horse or cattle, and hair of all kinds, cleaned or undeaned, 
drawn or undrawn, but unmanufactured, not specially enu- 
merated or provided for in this act. 

Hair of horse, cattle, and other animals, cleaned or uncleaned, 
drawn or undrawn, but unmanufactured, not specially pro- 
vided for in this act; * ♦ * , 

Hair of horses, cattle, and other animals, cleaned or un« 
cleaned, drawn or undrawn, not specially provided for in this 
act; * * * . 

Hair of horse, cattle, and other animals, cleaned or uncleaned, 
drawn or undrawn, but unmanufactured, not specially pro- 
vided for in this act; * ♦ * , 

Hair of horse, cattle, and other animals, cleaned or uncleaned, 
drawn or undrawn, but unmanufactured, not specially pro- 
vided for in this section; * ♦ * . 

.....do 



Rates of duty, specific 
and ad valorem. 



Free. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



O 



. A 



t . A 




.,"-,•* 



N 





1 




UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

ON THE ARTICLES IN 

PARAGRAPHS 349 AND 350 OF THE 
TARIFF ACT OF 1913 

AND RELATED ARTICLES IN OTHER PARAGRAPHS 



Paragraph 349: 
Fans 

Paragraph 350: 
Gun Wads 



Paragraph 355: 

Indurated Fiber Ware 
Manufactures of Pulp, n. s. p. f. 

Paragraph 480: 

Palm Leaf Fans 



REVISED EDITION 




Nil 



WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1921 



> 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Office: Eiffhth and E Streets NW., WMhinffton, D. C. 

COMMISSIONERS. 

Thomas Walkee Page, Chairman, 
Thomas O. Marvin, Vice Chairman, 
David J. IjEwis. 
William S. Culbertson. 
Edward P. Costigan. 
William Burgess. 

John F. Bethune, Secretary. 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

or THIS PX7BUCATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

QOYERNMENT PRINTINQ OmCB 

WASmNGTON, D. C. 

AT 

5 CENTS PER COPY 



PREFACE. 



This is one of a series of Tariflf Information Surveys prepared by 
the United States Tariff Commission and transmitted to the Com- 
mittee on Ways and Means. The series covers all of the articles 
and commodities provided for in the tariff act of October 3, 1913, 
and others not specifically provided for. It is arranged in the 
numerical order oi paragraph of that act. 

In some cases two or more paragraphs have been combined in 
one pamphlet. In doing this, industrial relationship of the articles 
has Deen followed when possible. In those instances where a para- 
graph has been treated under a preceding paragraph of the tariff 
act, reference is made to this fact at the point where the paragraph 
appears in numerical order. Where one grade of an article is dutiable 
and another grade of the same article is on the free list, the article 
is discussed under the dutiable paragraph, which appears first in 
numerical order in the tariff act. In certain instances articles of 
close industrial.relationship and which occur in separate paragraphs 
of the tariff act have been combined under one paragraph for con- 
venience of discussion. Reference is made to this fact at the. point 
where the commodities would naturally occur in numerical order. 

The first pamphlet in the series is an ''Introduction and Index," 
which contains: 

1. An introductory chapter discussing the scope of the series and 
the general method of l^reatment. 

2. An alphabetical index of the articles provided for in the tariff 
act of 1913, showing the paragraph of the act in which the article 
is provided for and, if discussed under a different paragraph, the 
number of such paragraph. 

3. A list of the pampmets in the series, showing the paragraphs 
and articles included in each pamphlet. 

Thus by use of this ''Introduction and Index'' the exact location 
of the discussion relating to a given article or commodity can be 
ascertained. 

In the preparation of this report the Tariff Commission had the 
services of Charles F. Yauch, of the Commission's staff, and of 
others. 

S 



CONTENTS. 



FANS. 

General information: Page. 

1913 tariff paragraphs 7 

Description 7 

Domestic production — 

Materials. 7 

Consumption and exports 7 

Forei^ production — 

Japan 8 

Other countries 8 

Imports 8 

Tariff liistory 9 

Competitive conditions 9 

Production in Japan 10 

Imports by countries ^ 10 

Imports for consumption .* 11 

Rates of duty 12 

Court and Treasury decisions 12 

GUN WADS. 
General information: 

1913 tariff paragraph 13 

Description and uses 13 

Imports 13 

Tari *f history 13 

Imports for consumption • 13 

Rates of duty * 13 







INDURATED FIBER WARE AND M A.NUFACTURES OF PULP N. S. P. F. 

General information: 

1913 tari f paragraph 14 

Description and uses 14 

Production 14 

Tari'f history 14 

Interpretation and comments 14 

Production in the United States 15 

Imports for consumption 15 

Rates of duty 16 

5 



FANS. 



General Infobhation. 

s 

1913 TAKIPF PARAORAPHS. 

349. Fans of all kinds, except common palm-lea| fans, 50 per cent 
ad valorem. 

480. Fans, common palm-leaf, plain and not ornamented or 
decorated in any maimer, * * * free. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Fans are made in a variety of forms but in general are of two 
kinds: (a) Those which can be folded; and (6) those which are per- 
manently expanded or fixed. Folding fans are sometimes made of 
thm slips of ivory, wood, papier-mftSifi, etc. They are, however, 
more commonly made of a continuous surface of paper, silk, or other 
material mounted on strips and can be folded easily in the manner of 
a plaiting. Folding fans nad their origin in Japan. Fixed fans are 
made of leathers set side by side, leaves pf palm trees, and paper or 
other material spread over a rigid frame. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCTION. 

Statistics of production in the United States are not available. 
Data relating to this industry are included with "Fancy articles not 
elsewhere specified" in the census classification of manufactures. 

Materials. — The chief materials used in the manufacture of fan 
sticks are bamboo, wood, bone, mother-of-pearl, celluloid, galalith, 
tortoise shell, horn, and ivoiy. The moimtings are made of paper, 
parchment, cotton, silk, leather, and feathers of the ostrich, goose, 
and other domestic birds. The moimtings are sometimes decorated 
with lace, paintings, or spangles, or combinations of these. 

The domestic manufacturers depend almost entirely on the impor- 
tation of fan sticks, fabrics, laces, leathers, and spangles used in tneir 
industry. This is due partly to the scarcity of skilled stick makers, 
spanglers, and decorators, and partly to the cost of manufacture, 
which, according to fan manufacturers, is commercially prohibitive 
in this country. Such materials are imported from Japan, France, 
Austria, and Germany. 

Domestic production, consuinptix>nj and exports. — No data are 
available. As previously stated, the Census Bureau does not report 
data separately for this industry, nor does the Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce report separately the value of fans exported. 



TARIFF nrFCB3£Anoy SURVEYS. 
FOREION PRODUCTION. 



The principal foreign countries producing fans are Japan, CSiina, 
France, Austria, Germanv, and Spain. With the exception of Japan, 
no data showing value oi production are available. 



JAPAN. 



The industry in Japan is centered at Kyoto and Xagoya. Fans are 
made by hancl and usually in private houses. There are two kinds of 
Japanese fans, the folding ana flat. Folding fans have handles made 
of bamboo, wood, or bone, and are mounted with paper, parchment, 
cotton, 6r silk. Flat fans are made of wire or tamboo frames 
cx)vered with silk or paper. The decorations are put on the paper or 
silk by hand or machine. The Statistical Report of the Department 
of Agriculture and Commerce, Japan, for the year 1918 shows that 
there were in that year 1,129 factories and workshops engaged in the 
manufacture of fans. The total number employed was 7,301, about 
evenly divided between males and females. The average number 
employed per factory was less than seven. The value of tne product 
amounted to $1,614,000. A comparison of the returns for tne year 
1912 with those for 1918 shows the following increases: Number of 
factories, 10; employees, 358; and value of product, $474,000. 
(See p. 10.) 

OTHER FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 

The industry in France is centered at Paris and in Austria at 
Vienna. The handles or sticks of French fans are made of wood, 
bono, horn, mother-of-pearl, celluloid, galalith, tortoise shell, mounted 
with tops consisting or paper, parchinent, leather, cotton, silk-tissue, 
h\c{\ and feathers. Austrian, German, and Spanish fans are made on 
lines similar to the French. Vienna, however, has been an important 
center for the manufacture of feather fans, and was considered, 
before the war, the principal market for this class of fans. 

(/hina produces the common palm-leaf fan with natural handle and 
l(Mif; palm-leaf fans with artificial handles and with edges finished 
with cotton binding; fans made of strips of bamboo woven by hand; 
luul others of a more expensive tvpe. Fans coming under the first 
claHsification are admitted free oi duty into the United States; the 
others are dutiable. 

IMPORTS. 

/'rni.«?, other than common palm leaf, — ^The value of fans, other than 
common palm leaf, imported into the United States for the five-year 
jm^war period, 1910-1914, averaged $233,914. The average for 
tlu^ livo-year period, 1915-1919, was $91,041. The imports for 1920 
amounted to $199,950, being more than five-sixths of the prewar 
av(»rage. Imports before the war came from Japan, Austria, France, 
(JiMinany, China, Hongkong, and Spain. Of the total imports, 
$;rj(),l()2, in 1912, 86.5 per cent came irom Japan, 26.9 per cent from 
Austria, 24.9 per cent from France, 5.9 per cent from Germany, and 
2.7 per cent trom China. In the year 1918 the percentages were: 
Ja()an, 70.7; France, 15; and China, 2.3. The increase in percentage 
of imports from Japan was not due to greater quantities imported 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 9 

from that country but to the decrease in the total value of fans im- 
ported, there being no importations from Austria and Germany and 
only^ about one-fourth of the normal amount in value from France. 
/ Palm-leaf fans. — ^The average importation of palm-leaf fans for 
the five-year period 1910-1914 was 763,084 aozens, valued at 
$61,251, or $0.08 per dozen. For the years 1915-U919, the average 
was 281,250 dozens, valued at $35,119, or $0.12 per dozen. In 1920 
there were imported into the United States 373,668 dozens, valued 
at $99,828, or $0,267 per dozen. " 

Practically all of the palm-leaf fans imported into this country 
come from China. Some come from Hongkong and a few from Japan. 
In the year 1912, when imports amounted to 1,091,931 dozens, valued 
at $78,143, 84.1 per cent of the total quantity came from China, 15.6 

5er cent from Hongkong, and less than one-half of 1 per cent from 
apan. In some of the other years, however, the imports from 
China both as to quantity and value have been well over 90 per cent. 

TARIFF HISTORY. 

Fans, other than common palm leaf — ^The phrase ^^of whatever 
material composed" in the tariff act of 1883 was omitted in all sub- 
sequent tariff acts. With this exception and changes in the rate, 
the language has been identical. The tariff act of 1890 did not 
enumerate fans; 35 per cent ad valorem was imposed by the act oi 
1883; 40 per cent, act of 1894; and 50 per cent, acts of 1897, 1909. 
and 1913. ^ 

Palm-leaf fans. — Common palm-leaf fans in all tariff acts 1883- 
1913 have been placed in the free list. The acts of 1897, 1909, 
and 1913 restricted the free importation of common palm-leaf fans 
to ^^ plain and not ornamented or decorated in any maimer, and palm 
leaf in its natural ^tate, not colored, dyed, or otherwise advanced 
or manufactured.'' 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS. 

Domestic manufacturers have been compelled to import prac- 
tically all of the fabrics, laces, feathers, spangles, and fan sticks used 
in the production of fans, as there are no aflSiated industries in^this 
country producing such materials in sufficient quantities at reason- 
able prices. 

The art of dressing and dyeing feathers in Europe is generally con- 
sidered superior to that done in the United States. During the war, 
however, advancement was made in the art of dressing and dyeing 
feathers, which together with the availability of domestic celluloid 
fan sticks has enabled the domestic manufacturers to turn out a 
product in competition with the imported article, unless the latter 
IS something exceptional as to dyeing and shading. 

The better grades of fans are subject to change of fashion. Paris 
is acknowledged as the originator of desi^s and there has always 
been a strong demand in this country for French fans. 

Fans of the type made in Japan and China, due largely to their 
decorations, can not be successfully produce*^' here. Decorations are 
put on by hand in both Japan and China. The decorations on the 
Japanese fan reflect the work of an individual artist, while those on 
the Chinese fan are generally an exact copy of a design. 



10 TABIFF INFOBMATION SUBYEYS. 

Imported palm-leaf fans with natural handle and leaf or with arti- 
ficial handle and edges finished with cotton binding do not compete 
with domestic maniuactm*e. 

The export trade of domestic made fans is very limited, as the 
foreign producers have' long had control of the market. 
' Font and round fanM — Produetion t'n Japan.' 



if«r. 


Fictoriea 
•rorkshoiw. 


r^. 


Total. 


V»lue.> 




1 13B 3 886 
1,131 3,!S6 
11211 3M17 


337S 

i 


Is 

i 

7)301 


„„ 












































' 



^ , of AKriculture and Commerwi, J»p»n, 1918. 

to United Stales monsy at 80.408 per yen. 

Importi by eowUrie* (Jiioal ytart). 

FANS OP ALL KINDS, BZCEPT COHUON PALU-LEAF FANS. 



imported trom- 


m,2oe 

4i 


mi 


..1! 


..13 


1914 


19U 




1 
4aM 

4S 


1!;S 

18,820 

4,ae7 

118,080 
1, 298 


3:829 


n-s. 

3,408 
3; 88? 


tl4,6g7 


































270.070 


282.947 


320,10! 


27S.915 


220,881 








Impaled from— 


1918 


1917 


1918 


19181 


1.19. 


1920 > 




.11.073 
21,7S2 

2,91S 
■7M 














131.294 


114,099 


•4.S07 


tl4,422 










78. W4 


2.966 
2,148 

lis 


1,339 


4; 105 


























83,SS5 


128, 37S 


tti.a» 


H,T59 


56,117 









FANS, COMMON PALH.LEAF. 



Impoctedtrom- 


1910 


1911 


1912 


Do«ll9. 


Value. 


Dotaus. 


Value. 


DOUDS. 


Value. 




7SB, LOl 

l^«7 
' 84 


»55,761 


091,374 


-■§ 


918,782 
;^37S 


■S'fl? 




























795.804 


88,006 


692,051 


S8,191 


1,091.931 


78,143 





TABIPF INFOBMATION StTEVBYS. 



11 



Imports by countne$ (fiscal years) — Oontinued. 

FANS, COMMON PALM-LEAF— Ckmtinued. 



Ta 



Imported from— 



f. 

China 

Hongkong., 

Japan 

All other... 

Total 



1913 



Dosens. 



651,716 

64,863 

1,875 

4 



618,458 



Vi^ue. 



S47,595 

6,155 

173 

2 



53,925 



1914 



Dozens. 



582,884 

31,724 

2,500 

10 



617,118 



Value. 



$53,982 

3,704 

300 

6 



57,992 



1916 



Dozens. 



371,951 
80,965 
17,500 



470,416 



Value. 



$33,507 
8,817 
1,925 



44^249 



Imported from— 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Dozens. 


Value. 


Dozens. 


Value. 


Dozens. 


Value. 


China 


314,632 
8,303 
2,575 


$29,988 
954 
335 


258,369 

96,027 

500 

25 


$40,661 

14,638 

60 

18 


117,714 
381 


$23,876 
69 


H ongkong 


Japan 




All other 


33 


10 










Total 


325,510 


31,277 


354,921 


56,377 


118,128 


23,955 






Imported from— 


19] 


L81 


19191 


19201 


Dozens. 


Value. 


Dozens. 


Value. 


Dozens. 


Value. 


China 


109,524 

2,504 

30 

33 


$21,426 

410 

4 

10 


168,825 
61,340 


$27,372 
10,753 






HOnrtOTIfr. ,..,.,.. T- , r T r r 






Japan 






AU other 


6 


3 












Total '. 


112,091 


21,850 


230,171 


38,128 


373,668 


$99,828 





1 Calendar year. 



Imports for consumption — Revenue, 

FANS OF ALL KINDS, EXCEPT COMMON PALM-LEAF FANS. 



Fiscal year. 



1907. 



1908.. 
1909.. 
1910.. 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 
1914.. 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1919.. 
1920.. 
1920S 
1921* 



I^te of duty. 



50 per cent ad va- 
lorem. 
do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Quantity. 



Dozens. 



89,055 
411,952 
419,^934 
180,798 



1 Excludes small amounts from Philippines and Cuba. 
» Calendar year. 
t6 months ended June 30, 1921. 



Value.! 



$517,804 

361,875 
213,940 
270,900 
280,174 
324,115 
278,332 
216, 169 
131,460 

85,114 
132,308 

91,907 

21,098 
130,432 
184,026 

70,867 



Duty 
collected. 



$258,902 

180,936 

106,970 

135,450 

140,087 

162,057 

139, 166 

108,084 

65,730 

42,557 

66,154 

45,953 

10,549 

65,216 

92,013 

35,433 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



$0,237 
.317 
.433 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Percent. 



50 

50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 



12 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Imports for consumption — Revenue — Continued . 

FANS, COMMON PALM-LEAF, PLAIN AND NOT ORNAMENTED OR DECORATED. 



Fiscal year. 



1907.. 

1908.. 

1909.. 

1910.. 

1911.. 

1912.. 

1913.. 

1914.. 

1915.. 

1916.. 

1917.. 

1918.. 

1919.. 

1920.. 

19201 

19218 



Rate of duty. 



Free . . 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do 

do 



Quantity 



Dozens. 
342, 010 
459, 892 
420,937 
795,709 
691, 496 
1, 091, 295 
703, 188 
617, 135 
474, 170 
325, 507 
344, 605 
117, 126 
137, 278 
442,956 
373,693 
268,612 



Value. 



$22, 130 
39,063 
27, 729 
58, 117 
58,192 
78, 139 
53, 925 
57,992 
44,249 
31,277 
55,153 
23,954 
20,736 

110,003 
99,835 
49,215 



Duty 
collected. 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



$0,065 
.085 
.066 
.073 
.084 
.072 
.077 
.094 
.093 
.096 
.160 
.205 
.151 
.248 
.267 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valerom 

rate. 



Per cent. 





1 Calendar year. « 6 months ended June 30, 1921. 




Rates of duty. 




FANS OF ALL KINDS, EXCEPT COMMON PALM-LEAF FANS. 



Act of— 


Par. 


1883 


428 


1890 
1894 


"'336' 


1897 


427 


1909 
1913 


440 
349 



Tariff classification or description. 



Fans of all kinds, except common palm-leaf fans, of whatever material 

composed. 
Not enumerated. 
Fans of all kinds, except common palm-leaf fans 



.do. 

.do. 
.do. 



Rates of duty spe- 
cific and ad va- 
lorem. 



35 per cent ad va- 
lorem. 

40 per cent ad va- 
lorem. 
50 per cent ad va- 
lorem. 
Do. 
Do. 



FANS, COMMON PALM-LEAF. 



1883 


693 


1890 


564 


1894 


474 


1897 


552 


1909 


563 


1913 


480 



Fa n s, common palm-leaf. 

Fans, common palm-leaf * * * 

Common palm-leaf fans, * * * 

Fans, common palm-leaf, plain and not ornamented or decorated in 
any manner, 

.'.'.do'.'.'."'.'.'.. 



♦ ♦ ♦ 



Free. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



Court and Treasury Decisions. 

The proviso to paragraph 410 of the act of 1909 was construed to 
cover all articles composed of tissue paper and by providing that such 
articles shall pay no less rate of duty than that imposed upon the 
component material of chief value of which any such article is made, 
the classification of tissue-paper fans was fixed as proper under that 
paragraph. (United States v. Mason, 2 Ct. Oust. Appls., 236, of 
1911.) 

Common palm-leaf fans alone being excepted, the natural and legal 
inference is that paragraph 384 is intended to embrace all other fans 
(United States v. Harper, 2 Ct. Cust. Appls., 101, of 1911), among 
them embroidered fans in chief value of silk. Paragraph 384 is more 
specific than the provision in paragraph 358 for * articles * * * 
embroidered * * * j^^y whatever name known." (United States 
V. Field, 7 Ct. Cust. Appls., 430, of 1917.) 

Folding fans are dutiable imder this provision. (Abstract 38896, of 
1915, followmg Abstract 33232, T. D. 33668, of 1913.) 



GUN WADS. 



General Information. 

1913 tariff paragraph, — 350. Gun wads of all descriptions, 10 per 
cent ad valorem. 

Description and uf^efi. — Gun wads are disks used to hold in place 
powder or shot, ^nd are made of felt, cardboard, or jute. 

Imports, — Imports for. the period 1908 to 1916 ranged from $507 
in 1916 to $3,716 in 1914. No imports are shown for the years 1917 
to 1920, inclusive. 

Tariff history. — The acts of 1883 and 1890 imposed a duty of 35 
per cent ad valorem; those of 1894 and 1913, 10 per cent ad valorem; 
and those of 1897 and 1909, 20 per cent ad valorem. The tariff 
description has remaiTied unchanged in all of these acts. 

Gun wads — Imports for consumption — Reveniie.^ 



Fiscal 5*ar. 



1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 
1914. 
1915. 
1916. 



Rate of duty. ! Quantity. 



Value. 



20 per cent . 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

10 per cent . 

do , 

do , 



$905 

592 

728 

1,139 

1,592 

918 

2. 

3,714 

3,305 

507 



Duty 
collected. 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



1181 
118 
145 
227 
318 
183 



371 

330 

50 



Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate. 



Per cent. 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 



10.00 
10.00 
10.00 



» None shown for the years 1917-192! , inclusive. 



Gun wads — Rates of duty. 



Act of— 


Par. 


1883.... 


440 


1890.... 
1894.... 


446 
331 


1897.... 


428 


1900.... 
1913.... 


441 

350 



Tariff classification or description. 



Rates of duty. 

specific and ad 

valorem. 



Gun-wads, of all. lescriptions i 35 per cent ad va- 

I lorem. 

.do ] 1)0. 

.do ' 10 per cent ad va- 

I lorem. 

.do I 20 per cent ad va- 

I lorem. 

do ' Do. 

.do 10 per cent ad va- 
lorem. 



13 



INDURATED FIBER WARE AND MANUFACTURES OF PULP, 

N. S. P. F. 



Gbnbbal Infobuation. 

1913 tabiff paragraph. 

355. Indurated fiber ware and manufactures of pulp, not specially 
provided for in this section, 25 per centum ad valorem. 

DESCRIPTION AND USES. 

Indurated fiber ware is wood pulp chemically treated and molded 
into pails, kegs, tubs, boxes, cuspidors, coolers, trunks, cases, etc. 
Other manufactures of pulp include composite board for car ceilings, 
bulkheads, and door panels for steamboats, vulcanized fiber ana 
fiber specialties for motors and dvnamos, insulators, skate wheels, 
washers, disks and bushings, railway signals, electric rail^ joints, 
noiseless rollers and gears, fiber sheets, and fiber rods and tubing. 
Manufactures of papier-mftch6 and of vulcanized rubber come withm 
paragraph 369. 

PRODUCTION. 

In 1914 production was valued at $4,483,000. There were 24 
establishments located chiefly in Delaware and New York. The 
total capital was $6,862,000, and the number of wage earners 1,654. 

TARIFF HISTORY. 

Indurated fiber ware and manufactures of pulp were first specifi- 
cally provided for in the act of 1890. They were made dutiatle at 
35 per cent ad valorem, which was also the rate in the acts of 1897 
and 1909. The act of 1894 imposed a duty of 30 per cent ad valorem 
and that of 1913, 25 per cent. 

INTERPRETATION AND COMMENTS. 

Papier-mftch6, a manufacture of paper pulp, might be transferred 
to this paragraph from paragraph 369, and the word "other" in- 
serted between "and" and "manufactures." 

14 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



J5 



Pulp goods * — Production in United States, 
[From Federal census.) 



Year and State. 



United States: 

1914 

1909 , 

1904 , 

1899 

1889: 

States, 1914: 
Delaware.. 
New York. 
Another... 



Number of 
establish- 
ments. 



24 
14 
17 
22 
9 

8 
7 
9 



Wage 
earners. 



1,664 
783 
696 
691 
252 

892 
347 
415 



Capital. 



16,862,000 

2,680,000 

3,198,000 

2,317,000 

418,000 

3,436,000 
1,607,000 
1,819,000 



Wages. 



1884,000 
377,000 
284,000 
284,000 
111,000 

486,000 
181,000 
217,000 



Cost Of 
materials. 



S2, 191, 000 
971,000 
719,000 
647,000 
123,000 

1,028,000 
647,000 
616,000 



Value of 
products. 



$4,483,000 

1,770,000 

1,467,000 

1,267,000 

363,000 

2,145,000 

966,000 

1,372,000 



1 In this classification are included establishments engaged in the manufacture from wood pulp or paper 
chemically treated of such articles as pails, kegs and boxes, tubs, cuspidors, vases, measures, coolers, oases, 
trunks and cases, plates and dishes, jars, travs, etc. Composite board for car ceilings, bulkheads, and door 
panels for steamboats, vulcanized nber and fiber specialties for motors and dynamos, automobile parts, 
insulators, skate wheels, washers, disks and bushings, railway signals, eleciric rail joints, noiseless roUers 
and gears, fiber sheets, and fiber rods and tubes were also reputed. The manufacture of wood pulp itself, 
except so far as conducted by establishments making the finished products mentioned, and the manu- 
facture of paper from wood pulp are not included. The statistics of pulp goods were first reported sep- 
arately at the census of 1889. In addition to the products covered by the table, pulp goods to tne value of 
$105,318 in 1914 and to the value of $52,231 in 1909 were reported by establishments engaged primarily in 
the manufacture of other products— paper and wood pulp, steam packing, and lookhig-gXass and picture 
frames. 

Fiber ware, indurated^ and rruinufact'wres of pidp— -Imports for consumption — Revenue, 

UNDER GENERAL TARIFF. 



Fiscal year. 



1908.. 
1909.. 
1910.. 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 

1914.. 

1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1919.. 
1920.. 
1920^ 
1921>. 



Rate of duty. 



{: 



35 per cent. 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

.do 

25 per cent. 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 



1 Calendar year. 

s Six months ended June 30, 1921. 



Value. 


Duty 
collected. 


$1,685 


$589 


423 


148 


13,300 


4,655 


1,399 


489 


3,140 


1,099 


2,874 


1,005 


896 


313 


3,613 


903 


2,708 


677 


4,442 


1,110 


4,114 


1,028 


4,771 


1,192 


1,640 


385 


2,010 


502 


6,806 


701 


146 


36 



Value per 

unit of 

quantity. 



FROM PHILIPPINE ISLANDS (ACT OF AUG. 6, 1919). 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Percent, 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
25.00 
25.00 
25.00 
25.00 
25.00 
25.00 
25.00 
26.00 
26.00 



1911 


Free 




$33 

• 671 

60 

65 








1913.... 


do 










1914 


do 










1920 


do 























/ 



16 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

t 

Indurated fiber ware and manufactures of pulp, n. s, p. f. — Rates of duty. 



Act of— 


Par. 


1883 
1890 


""46i* 


1894 


353 


1897 


433 


1909 


447 


1913 


355 



Tariff classification or description. 



(Not enumerated. ) 

* ♦ * indurated fiber wares and other manufactures composed of 
wood or other pulp, or of which these substances oreither of them is 
the coinpouent material of chief value, ♦ * * not specifically 
provided for in this act. 

* * ♦ indurated fiber wares, and other manufactures composed of 
wood or other pulp, or of which these substances oreither of them is 
the CO npoaent material of chief value, * * ♦ not specially pro- 
vided for in this act. 

Indurated fiber ^are and manufactures of wood or other pulp, and 
not otherwise specially provided for. 

Indurated fiber ware and manufactures of pulp, not specifically pro- 
vided for in this section, printed or unprinted. 

Indurated fiber ware and manufactures of pulp, not specially pro- 
vided for in this section. 



Rates of dutv, 
specific ana 
ad valorem. 



35 per cent ad 
valorem. 



30 per cent ad 
valorem. 



35 per cent ad 
valorem. 
Do. 

25 per cent ad 
valorem. 



O 



\ 



V 



•n 





.t . . 



--* 



V. 



\ 





UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



ON THE ARTICLES IN 

PARAGRAPH 348 OF THE TARIFF ACT OF 1913 



AND RELATED ARTICLES IN OTHER PARAGRAPHS 



^ 



FURS AND FUR GOODS 

Paragraph 348: Paragraph 491: 

Dressed Furs. Furs^ undressed. 

Plates and Mats of Dog and Ooat 

Manufactures of furs, prepared for Paragraph 603: 

use as materials. Skins of Hare, Babbits, etc. 

Hatters' Fur. 
Wearing Apparel. 



REVISED EDITION 




WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
N-10 1021 



I 

I 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Office: Eiffhth and E Streets NW., Washiiiffton, D. C. 

COMMISSIONERS. 

Thomas Walker Page, Chairman. 
Thomas O. Marvin, Vice Chairman, 
David J. Lewis. 
William S. Culbertson. 
Edward P. Costigan. , 

William Burgess. 

John F. Bethune, Secretary, 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

6 CENTS PER COPY 



PREFACE. 



This is one of a series of Tariflf Information Surveys prepared by 
the United States TarilBF Commission and transmitted to the Com- 
mittee on Ways and Means. The series covers all of the articles and 
commodities provided for in the tarilBF act of October 3, 1913, and 
others not specifically provided for. It is arranged in the numerical 
order of paragraphs of that act. 

In some cases two or more paragraphs have been combined m one 
pamphlet. In doing this indiistnal relationship of the articles has 
been followed when possible. In those instances where a paragraph 
has been treated under a preceding paragraph of the tariff act refer- 
ence is made to this fact at the point where the paragraph appears in 
numerical order. Where one grade of an article is dutiaole and 
another grade of the same article is on the free list, the article is 
discussed under the dutiable paragraph which appears first in 
numerical order in the tariff act. In certain instances articles of 
close industrial relationship and which occur in separate paragraphs 
of the tariff act have been combined under one paragraph for con- 
venience of discussion. Reference is made to this fact at the point 
where the commodities would naturally occur in numerical oraer. 

The first pamphlet in the series is an '^Introduction and index,'' 
which con tarns : 

1. An introductory chapter discussing the scope of the series and 
the general method of treatment. 

2. An alphabetical index of the articles provided for in the tariff 
act of 1913, showing the paragraph of the act in which the article is 
provided for and, if discussed under a different paragraph, the 
number of such paragraph. 

3. A list of the pamphlets in the series, showing the paragraphs 
and articles included in each pamphlet. 

Thus by use of this "Introduction and index" the exact location 
of the discussion relating to a given article or commodity can be 
ascertained. 

In the preparation of this report the Tariff Commission had the 
services of Charles F. Yauch, of the Commission's staff, and of others. 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Summary 7 

Summary tables 9 

General information — 

. 1913 tariff paragraphs 10 

Description 10 

Domestic production — 

1. Groups or divisions 11 

Kawfurs 11 

Dressed furs 11 

Fur goods 11 

Fur for hatters' use 11 

2 . Materials 11 

Raw furs 11 

Sources of supply 12 

Adequacy of supply 12 

Domestication and breeding 12 

Substitution and imitation 13 

Fur markets 14 

Classification of furs 15 

3. Equipment 15 

4. Methods of production 15 

5. Organization 16 

6. Geographical distribution 17 

7. Domestic production and consumption 17 

8. Domestic exports 18 

Foreign production 18 

Imports 20 

Prices 22 

Tariff history 22 

Competitive conditions 23 

Tariff considerations 24 

Statistical tables: 

Production in the United States — 

Furs, dressed, summary 25 

Furs, dressed, by States 26 

Furs, dressed, by cities 26 

Fur goods, summary 26 

Fur goods, by States 27 

Fur goods, by cities 27 

Imports by countries — 

Furs and fur skins, undressed 27 

Furs, dressed, and manufactures of 28 

Furs dressed on the skin 29 

All other manufactiures of fur 29 

Imports for consumption — 

Furs and fur skins, undressed 30-31 

Furs dressed on the skin 32 

Plates and mats of dog and goat skins 32 

Manufactures of furs, n. s. p. f 32 

Manufactures of fur prepared for use as materials 33 

Wearing apparel 33 

Hatters' fur 34 

Fur waste 34 

Domestic exports — 

Furs ana fur skins , 35 

Furs and fur skins, dressed, and manufactures of 36 

Exports of foreign marchandise 36-37 

Prices 38 

London fur sales 38 

Estimate of annual production of raw furs 39 

Production in Canada 39 

Canada's foreign trade in furs 40 

Rates of duty 42 

Treasury and court decisions 43 

5 



FURS AND FUR GOODS. 



I . ' 



FURS AND MANUFACTURES OF FURS, EXCEPT FUR HATS, 

BONNETS, AND HOODS. 

SUMMAET. 

Production and consumption of raw furs and fur goods, — ^The United 
States i8 the leading country in the production, manufacture, and 
consumption of raw furs and fur goods. A fur merchant has stated 
in a letter to the commission that New York City manufactures 
more fur goods than London, Paris, Leipzig, Vienna, and Moscow 
combined. The* amount in quantity or value of production of raw 
furs in the United States can be estimated only. The sales of raw 
furs in New York and St. Louis in 1919 amounted to about 
$35,000,000, which, however, includes the value of foreign furs con- 
signed to these points for sale, but excludes quantities of domestic 
furs used locally. The amoxmt is probably below rather than above 
the domestic production. 

In 1914 the value of dressed furs and manufactures of furs amounted 
to $2,875,000 and $43,633,000, respectively, as against total imports 
of $5,099,000 and exports of $870,824. In 1916 it was estimated that 
$61,000,000 was a conservative estimate of the value of fur goods 
bought annually by the people of the United States. Revenue col- 
lections under the 10 per cent excise tax on articles made of furs 
amounted to over $15,000,000 for the fiscal year 1920. 

Sources of supply of raw furs, — Pelts of animals used in the fur 
goods industry come from all parts of the world. The pelts most 

fenerally usea are those of animals which inhabit cold countries, 
'he chief foreim producing countries are Russia, Siberia, China, 
Australia, Canada, and parts of South America. 

The principal fur markets are London, Leipzig, Paris, Petrograd, 
Moscow, and Irbit in Siberia. The United States, due largely to the 
war, has taken the lead in the distribution of furs. New York and 
St. Louis are now equal in importance to any fur markets of the 
world, and are important centers in the international trade in furs. 

There is much substitution and imitation of the more expensive 
furs. Low-grade furs by skillful dyeing and dressing can be made to 
resemble the more expensive ones, so that only an expert in furs can 
detect the difference. 

Organization, — ^The collection of furs lies principally with large 
companies. Dressing and dyeing of furs is generally conducted as a 
separate industry by establishments of rather small units. Of the 
96 establishments in 1914 three had a product in excess of $100,000 , 
their combined product amounting to $1,985,000, or about 38 per 
cent of the total. The total wage earners were 1,525. 

In 1914 there were 1,322 establishments with a capital of 
$29,677,371 engaged in^the manufacture of fur goods. Of tne total 






8 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

establishments, 1,235 had a combmed product of $23;774;000, or 
nearly 66 per cent of the total. One establishment had a product in 
excess of $1,000,000. The total wage earners were 9,030. 

Geographical disinbvtion. — Both tne dressed furs and fur goods 
industries are centered in Greater New York. In 1914 about 68 per 
cent of the value of dressed furs and about 66 per cent of the value 
of fur -goods were produced in that city. 

Domestic exports. — Raw furs before the war were exported prin- 
cipally to England, Germany, Canada, France, and Belgium. In the 
year 1913 domestic exports amounted to $17,465,000 and in 1920 to 
$30,137,000. 

Exports of dressed furs and manufactures of furs increased in value 
from $615,441 m 1912 to $8,745,757 in 1920. Canada was th« prin- 
cipal purchaser before the war and has continued to be a steady and 
large purchaser. England did not begin to figure prominently m the 
trade until 1915. France became a Targe importer in 1916, and in 
1920 took $4,011,338, or 45.9 per cent of the total exports. The 
export trade in dressed furs and fur goods with Argentina amounted 
to only $195 in 1913 as against $436,857 in 1920. 

Imports. — Statistics of imports of raw furs by countries show the 
fur markets rather than the countries of origin. The principal coun- 
tries exporting raw furs to the United States were, before the war, 
Germany, England, Canada, Belgium, France, Russia, and Australia. 
Imports from China, Russia in Asia, Japan, and Argentina, which 
before the war were small, show big increases in the value of furs 
exported. The largest prewar imports of raw furs amounted to 
$17,339,000 in 1912. The total value in 1920 amounted to $103,- 
772,000. Part of this enormous increase is due to the rise in the 
price of furs, the growing importance of New York and St. Louis as 
world markets, and the mcreased demand in the United States for 
furs of all kinds. 

Dressed furs on the skin came principally from Germany, France, 
Belgium, and England. They averaged somewhat over $5,000,000 
before 1914. In 1920 they amounted to $6,529,000. 

Importation of manufactures of furs compared with production in 
the United States are relatively small. France, Germany, China, and 
England were the principal suppliers before the war. In 1912 imports 
amounted to $2,301,000 and m 1920 to $4,913,000. 

Plates and mats of dog and goat skins are imported principally 
from Cnina and are used in the manuiacture of the cheaper fur coats. 
The importation of wearing apparel made of fur is small. In 1913 
the value was $392,000. The tariff act of 1913 divided wearing 
apparel into two groups: (1) Composed of or in chief value of hides 
or skins of cattle, dog, or goat, ana (2) composed of or in chief value 
of fur, n. s. p. f . The hignest importation under the i&rst group was 
in 1918, when they amounted to $19,575. In 1920 the value oi sucli 
articles imported amounted to $1,447. Under the second group the 
highest amount was reached in 1914, $344,507. In 1920 the amoimt 
was $94,240. Hatters' fur showed a tendency to decline in value 
until 1920, when imports amounted to 398,286 pounds, valued at 
$1,565,000, the highest in value for the period 1907-1920. 

Competitive conditions. — Raw furs are imported free of duty into all 
countries except Russia. This international free trade may be 
attributed to the fact that the raw furs of one country are not com- 



TARIFF INFOBMATJON SURVEYS. 9 

petitive with those of another country. Even furs of the same 
specie of animals vary greatly according to the r^on where obtained, 
and for tliis reason it may be said mey are not competitive with 
each other. Fashion governs very largely the kinds of furs used 
without regard to the country of origin. The real competition lies 
in the ma^eting of the furs. 

Foreign competition is felt in the dressing and dyeing of furs. 
It has been generally recognized in the past that Europeans excel 
in the art of dressing and dyeing furs. England owes her prominence 
in this branch of the fur industry to the peculiar property of the water 
and to secret processes and methods. It was not until 1913 that the 
United States Government sent the sealskins, collected on Pribilof 
Islands, to St. Louis to be dressed, dyed, and sold. They were 
formerly sent to Lond<tn for that purpose. Germany also had a 
strong hold on the dressing and dyeing of furs, and the establishments 
at Leipzig engaged in this branch of the fur industry were noted for 
the excellence of their work. The French influence on the trade is 
primarily one of style and combination of colors. Previous to the 
war the oest sealine and seal-dyed rabbit skins came from Germany, 
France, and Belgium, Tte war gave a great impetus to the industry 
in the United States, and it is now claimed that American dyers 
and dressers can produce furs which are unrivalled in color, sheen, 
suppleness, strength, and beauty. 

Ajnerican fur dressers and dyers have stated at tariff hearings 
that they have found it impossible to compete with the cheap foreign 
labor, especially that employed on the poorer grade of furs. Pro- 
ducers of hatters' furs have stated that labor cost in Europe is from 
45 to 52 per cent less than in the United States, that substantially 
all chemicals and dyes used in their trade are cheaper abroad, and that 
they have been able to maintain the advantage over the foreigner 
only through quick deliveries and the granting of fiberal lines of 
credit. 

Summary Table. 



JVr« and manu/aetvres of fun, except fur kat», bonnets, and hooda. 




10 tabiff infokmation surveys. 

General Information. 
1913 tariff paragraphs. 

Paragraph 348. Furs dressed on the skin, not advanced further than 
dyeing, 30 per centum ad valorem; plates and mats of dog and goat 
skins, 10 per centum ad valorem; manufactures of furs, further 
advanced than dressing and dyeing, when prepared for use as material, 
joined or sewed together, mcluding plates, linings, and crosses, 
except plates and mats of dog and goat skins, and articles manu- 
factured from fur not specially provided for in this section, 40 per 
centum ad valorem; articles ol wearing apparel of every description 
partly or wholly manufactured, composed of or of which hides or 
skins of cattle of the bovine species, or of <the dog or goat, are the 
component material of chief value, 15 per centum ad valorem; 
articles of wearing apparel of every description partly or wholly 
manufactured, composed of or of which fur is the component material 
of chief value, not specially provided for in this section, 50 per 
centum ad valorem; furs not on the skin, prepared for hatters' use, 
including fur skins carroted, 15 per centum ad valorem. 

Paragraph 491. Furs and fur skins, undressed, free. 

Paragraph 603. Skins of hares, rabbits, dogs, goats, and sheep, 
undressed, free. 

DESCRIPTION. 

• 

This survey is not confined to a specific article, but covers all 
articles coming under the fur industry, with the exception as noted 
in the title. These articles may be divided into three groups: (1) 
Furs and fur skins, undressed; (2) furs and fur skins, dressed or pre- 
pared in some manner for further use in manufacture; and (3) manu- 
factures of furs. 

The first group includes simply the skins which haye been removed 
from fur-bearing animals. They are spoken of in the trade as pelts. 
The second group includes furs dressed on the skins, plates, and mats 
of dog and goat skins, manufactures of furs prepared for use as mate- 
rials, and hatters' fur. The third group includes wearing apparel 
and other completed articles made oi fur. 

All of the articles coming under the second group, however, do not 
carry the same rate of duty, the rates varying according to the stage 
of manufacture and to the class of material of which the articles are 
composed. The same is true of articles in the third group. 

The Bureau of the Census in the Census of Manufactures gives 
separate data for two groups only, namely: (a) Furs, dressed; and 
(6) fur goods. The former covers data for establishments engaged 
primarily in the preparation of fur skins, including scraping, currying 
and tanning, and bleaching and dyeing. Hatters' fur, dressed hair, 
and bristles are also reported in this group. The fur-goods indus try- 
covers data for establishments engaged in the manufacture of fur 
sets and furs, including boas, capes, collars and collarettes, muffs, 
stoles, fur coats and (3oaks, fur and fur-lined overcoats, fur hats, 
caps, gloves, and mittens, and various minor products as bands, 
rugs, tippets, heads, tails, and paws. In some mstances establish- 
ments engaged primarily in the manufacture of fur goods dress and 
tan skins, thus overlapping with the dressed-furs industry. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 11 

Plates and mats are trade names for certain standard sizes of furs. 
They are not separate skins, but consist of two or more skins joined 
or sewed together to bring them up to the standard of measurement 
and for convenience in transportation. 

Crosses and linmgs are pieces of furs sewn together and made up 
into the form of crosses, squares, or linings. 

Hatters' fur consists oi the soft underfur of the rabbit, hare, 
nutria, or beaver when removed from the skins and prepared for use 
in the manufacture of fur-felt hats. Fur skins carroted are skins ' 
which have been treated with a solution of nitric acid and quicksilver 
to protect them from damage by insects and to facilitate the succeed- 
ing operations of manufacture. 

Hatters' fur in the finished hat does not resemble furs as generally 
recognized. Through the processes of manufacture the fur loses its 
identity and becomes a fibrous substance. 

domestic production. 

Groups or divisions. 

Raw furs. — Statistics of production are unobtainable. The impor- 
tance of the annual production of domestic furs is apparent from the 
sales held in New York and St. Louis, which in 1919 amounted to 
about $35,000,000. This figure includes many foreign furs, but it 
does not include large quantities of domestic furs which are used 
locally, and is probably below rather than above the domestic 
production. 

Dressed furs, — Fur dressing and dyeing is the intermediate process 
between securing the pelts and manufacturing them into garments 
and other articles. It is usually conducted as an independent indus- 
try. In 1914 there were 96 establishments employing on the average 
1,525 wage earners and turning out a product valued at $2,875,036. 
In addition products valued at $8,850 were reported by establish- 
ments assigned to other industries. 

Fur goods, — In 1914 there were 1,322 establishments engaged in the 
manufacture of fur goods. The average niunber of wage earners 
amoimted to 9,030 and the value of the product to $43,632,693. In 
addition products valued at $813,550 were reported by establishments 
engaged primarily in the manufacture of men's and women's cloth- 
ing, millmery and lace goods, leather gloves, mittens, and horse 
furnishings. 

Fur for Tiatters^ use. — ^There are no separate data for this branch 
of the fur industry. The value of the product is included by the 
census with that reported for ''Furs, dressed," or *' Hat and cap 
materials." 

Materials. 

Raw furs. — Raw furs form the material for th^ fur-dressing industry, 
and the dressed furs in turn become the material of the fur-goods 
industry. The domestic pelts most commonly used in making 
wearing apparel and other manufactures of fur are muskrat, skunk, 
opossum, and raccoon. Other domestic pelts of which large quanti- 
ties are used are fox, wild cat, Ivnx, otter, beaver, badger, mink, and 
civet cat, a species allied to the skunk. In addition to these the 
census lists the following as the principal kinds of fur skins used in 






12 TABUT nrrORMATION SUBVBTS. 

the fur-goods industiy: Bear, caracal, conej, ermine^ hare, marmot, 
marten, rabbit, Chinese weasel, rat, nutria, sable, seal (Alaska and 
hair), squirrel, angora and Chinese goat, Bulgarian, Chinese, and 
Persian lamb, calf, dog, horse, kangaroo, kid, Kussian pony, sJieep, 
and wolf. 

Chief sovTces cfsut^fly, — ^Pelts of animals used in the fur-goods in- 
dustry come from all parts of the world. The pelts most generally 
used are those of animals which inhabit cold countries. Countries 
in the Tropics, however, are not devoid of animals whose pdts are 
in demand. 

Russia, Siberia, China, Australia, Canada, United States, and South 
America are the chief countries from which raw furs are obtained. 
Chinchilla and nutria are practically the only furs which come from 
South America. 

Russia and Siberia export pelts of the hare, rabbit, otter, beav^ , 
bear, sable, sheep, goat, wolf, fox, lynx, squirrel, badger, ermine, 
£^tch, kolinsky, marten, mink, and marmot. Canada produces bear, 
beaver, fox, l3^nk, marten, mink, .muskrat, otter, and seal. Aus- 
tralia furnishes pelts of the hare, rabbit, kimgaroo, opossiun, wallaby, 
and wombat. China is the chief source of supply of dog, goat, and 
sheep skins. In China dogs are raised for the value of their skins. 
The skins are generally sewed together and are known as plates and 
mats. 

Adequacy of supply. — The number of pelts of the smaller fur-bearing 
animals which is Drought to the markets annually is very CTeat. The 
advance of civilization uj>on the domains of these animals seems to 
increase rather than diminish their number. Among the smaller 
fur-bearing animals in the United States which seem to be increasing 
in number may be mentioned the muskrat, skimk, mink, fox, mole, 
weasd, and raccoon. The large fur-bearing animals, however, are 
decreasing in^ number. 

Domestication and breeding of fur hearing animals, — ^The demand 
for furs is ever increasing, which, together with the scarcity of some 
kinds of furs, has led to the domestication and breeding of fur-bearing 
animals on a commercial scale in Canada, Russia, Germany, and the 
United States. Fur farming or ranching has been extended to the 
raising of foxes, beavers, martens, minks, muskrats, fishers, raccoons, 
sables, otters, and skuuKs. 

The raising of rabbits and hares on the Continent of Europe is an 
industry of loni? standing. The French and Belgians raise many 
rabbite which hive a gool fur. This fur when dyed and dressed is 
put on the market in large quantities, but generally under another 
name. 

In Canada the raising of black and silver foxes for their skins is 
now on a commercial footing, although admittedly a highly specula- 
tive business. Domestication of the olack fox be^an about 1888 on 
Prince Edward Island and that of the silver fox about 30 years ago. 
Mink, raccoon, fisher, beaver, and muskrat are also found on Canadian 
fur farms. 

In the United States, minks appear to have been the first of the 
wild fur-bearing animals to be raised for their fur. A resident of 



TAKiyr INFORMATION SUBVEYS. 13 

Oneida County, N. Y., began to breed them shortly after the close of 
the Civil War. There^ are areas in the salt marshes of the Delaware 
and Chesapeake Bays where the muskrat is protected and the owners 
let out the ''ratting" privileges. Fox farming has been conducted 
successfully in widely scattered localities. The breeders of skunks, 
however, outnumber the breeders of all other fur-bearing animals. 

The species of rabbit from which hatters' fur is made are not 
indigenous to the United States, atid it has not been possible to breed 
them and still retain the commercial characteristics of the fur. , 

With increased fur farming as a business and as' a side Ime for 
farmers, together with the enactment of laws by the various States 
for the protection of fur-bearing animals, the prospects are fair for 
a future adequate supply of furs. 

Svhstitution and imitation of furs. — ^Many furs are so finished and 
dyed as to retain little of their original appearance. By skillful 
dressing and dyeing, low-grade furs are made to resemble the more 
expensive ones. Skunk sMns sent to England to be made up have 
come back as imported black marten or Alaska sable. The leopard 
skin is^ imitated; muskrats and marmots are striped like mink; 
mfurtens, minks, and sables are darkened; raccoons, opossums, and 
white skunks are dyed black or natural skiink color; ana silver fdxes 
are successfully iimtated. 

The London Chamber of Commerce issued a list of the most 
common misdescriptions of manufactured furs. The list gives an 
excellent idea of the evil complained of and is as follows:^ 

American sable Real Russian sable. 

FiUJh, dyed Sable. 

Goat, dyed Bear. 

Hare, dyed Sable or fox. 

Kid Lamb or broadtail. 

Marmot, dyed Mink, sable, or skunk. 

Mink, dyed Sable. ^ 

Musquash, dyed...'. Mink or sable. 

Musquash, pulled and dyed . i Seal, electric seal, Red River seal, or 

Hudson seal. 

Nutria, pulled and dyed Do. 

Nutria, pulled, natural Beaver and otter. 

Opossum, sheiu^ and dyed Beaver. 

Otter, pulled and dyed Seal. 

Rabbit, dyed Sable or French sable. 

Rabbit, eflieared and dyed Seal, electric seal, Red River seal, 

Hudson seal, and seal musquash. 

Rabbit, white Ermine. 

Rabbit, white, dyed Chinchilla. 

Wallaby, dyed Skunk. 

White hare Fox and other similar names. 

Dyed furs of all kinds "Natural." 

White hairs inserted in foxes and sables Real or natural furs. 

It is only fair to add that these more serious misdescriptions oc- 
cur principally in advertisements appearing in the newspapers oflfer- 
ing furs for sale at private addresses. 

» Daily CoDsular and Trade Reports, 1911, p. 1028. 



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TABIFF INFOBMAnOK ST7BYEYS. 15 

London or Leipzig. Canadian furs sold to New York merchants 
were often resold to merchants in Canada. Canada was also a large 
pnrdiaser of raw European furs in the New York market. It was 
stated at the tariff hearings in 1913 that Canadian fur merchants 
purcdiased 50 per cent of their entire supply through Unit^ States 
merchants. It was also stated that raw furs brought into this 
country from CSiina, Japan, and Australia are laig^y articles of 
international trade, most of them being reshipped to other countries 
in their raw state. 

Classificaiion of furs. — ^Furs are in many cases articles of luxury, 
and then* use is subject to the whims of fashion and restricted to tne 
rich. On the other hand there are many furs that serve as articles of 
graieral utility and provide a most effective apparel for resisting cold 
and inclement weather. It is impossible to draw with precision a 
line between furs as luxuries and rurs as necessities. In response to 
inquiries from Congress for information along this line, the foUowing 
classification was submitted to the chairman of the Committee on 
Finance of the United States Senate, by fur merchants of St. Paid, 
in a brief filed with the committee in 1913:' 

Purs as articles of luxury. — ^Ruasiaii sable, marten, ermine, mole, lynx, black fox, 
silver fox, sea otter, fisher, fur seal, blue fox, white fox, chinchilla, polar bear, and 
grizzly bc^. 

Furs not made into articles ofliucury, bui are used by people of small means. — ^Marmot, 
hare and rabbit, wolf, raccoon, red fox, kitt fox, pony, house cat, wildcat, opossum, 
miiskrat, Japanese mink, Chinese weasel, kangaroo, dog, goat, sheep and lamb, hair 
seal, wool seal, wombat, and wallaby. 

Furs used by people of moderate means whenever prices are low^ but uhich sometiynes 
are fashionable and then are higher in price. — Squirrel, black and brown bear, badger, 
civet cat, beaver, holinksky, mink, fitch, nutria, skunk, wolverine, otter, and cross fox. 

Manufacturers of fur maybe divided into four groups: (1) Those 
producing the highest grade furs, (2) those producing medium grades 
for the bettcF class of the dry goods trade. (3) those making a specialty 
of so-called popular-priced furs, and (4) those producing only low* 
grade coarse furs. 

Eqdipmext. 

In the dressing and dyeing of skins the following apparatus is used : 
Washing tanks, drying vats, cleaning drums, polishing drums, wooden 
tanks for dyeing, revolving stone cylinders for beammg, and kicking 
machines for pounding the skins, and shearing and unh airing ma- 
chines. Sewing machines, specially designed, form the principal 
equipment of the manufacturer of fur-wearing apparel. 

The advent of the dehairing machine has done a great deal to 
change the fur-manufacturing business. By the use of this machine 
the long hairs of the outer coat of the seal, beaver, muskrat, mink, 
otter, and other fur animals can be removed, leaving only the soft 
under fur. German and American fur-sewing machines were intro- 
duced about 1890 and resulted in better work being done. 

American furriers are generally considered leaders in ingenuity and 
latest methods of manipulating skins. 

Methods of production. 

The older method of dressing furs was to place the pelts in an 
alkaU bath in order to soften tnem. The pelts were then tubbed, 



* Tariff Hearings, Committee on Finance V. S. Senate, 63d Conjr., 1st sess., Vol. Ill, p. 1580. 




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TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 17 

wage earners, 7,426, or 82,3 per cent, were in establishments em- 
ploying 50 or less wage earners. One establishment, the largest, 
employed on the average 335 wage earners. 

Geographical distribution. 

Both the dressed furs and the fur goods industries are centered 
in Greater New York. In 1914 about 68 per cent of the total value 
of dressed furs and about 66 per cent oi the fur goods were pro- 
duced in that city. Most of the establishments engaged in dressing 
fui^ are located m Brooklyn, and those engaged in the production 
of hatters' fur are located within a radius of 100 miles of New YoA 
City. Other centers of the dressed furs industry are located in 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Minnesota, Wisconsm, and Illinois. 
Other important centers in the fur-goods industry are St. Paul, 
Chicago, Detroit, Boston, Philadelphia, Minneapolis, Milwaukee, 
and San Francisco. 

Domestic production and consumption. 

The United States is the leading country in the production, mantn 
facture, and consumption of furs and fur goods. Statistics showing 
the number or value of raw furs collected are not obtainable. In 
1919 the value of furs sold at St. Louis and New York was about 
$35,000,000, including, however, some imported furs, but exclud- 
ing large quantities of domestic furs whicn were used locally. In 
the fiscal year 1919 imports of raw furs amounted to $38,000,000, 
domestic exports to $10,275,000 and reexports of foreign furs to 
$148,000. 

In 1914 there were imported into the United States dressed furs 
and manufactures of furs to the value of $5,099,000, as against 
production for that year of $2,875,000 in ^'furs, dressed,'' and $43,- 
633,000 in ''fur goods,'' and of domestic exports $870,824 for botii 
''furs, dressed," and "manufactures of furs." Production data 
for 1919 are not yet available. 

In an article on the fur trade of the United States appearing in 
Commerce Reports 1916, $61,000,000 was riven as an estimate oC 
the total value of manufactured furs annually bought by the p;30ple 
of the United States. 

That the estimate for 1916 is far below the value of fur goods 
consumed by the people in the United States at the present time 
(1920) there can be no doubt. The revenue act of 1918 provided 
for an excise tax of 10 per cent on all articles made of fur on the 
hide or pelt or of which any such fur is the component material 
of chief value. A report of the Internal Revenue Bureau shows 
that the collections under the provision relating to furs for the 
fiscal year 1920 amounted to $15,300,000. It is stated by a fur 
merchant in a letter to the commission that "more fur goods are 
manufactured in New York than in London, Paris, Leipzig, Vienna, 
and Moscow combined. " 

The importation of raw and to a certain extent of dressed furs is 
due to the fact that a number of fur-bearing animals are not indige- 
nous to the United States and must be imported if the demand is 
to be satisfied. It is in the dyeing and dressing of furs that foreign 
competition is felt. The importation of fur goods is small com- 
pared with the domestic production. 

64912— 21— N-10 8 



' /• 






I 



'ft ■' " ■",■,,,'„•,, my/, .,. ,'., •/, «^,>, ■^^ 

hilr < I II: I nil 



'W I / him nil ll» llii (,«.„„ , „ I, „ , ,|i,f,ril,,il/,r .,f r.w 

ll:i I'l.i.li li l«l i/i. .... mill ilv.'f. «rf imUal for the 

iil:|«lli I'lBlii; l™ iim,|/i,i/,hI m ii I™<||T in pro- 

''' lil'll li'' '.I'"> T|,i„,l,„.,.», <l„rmEliv-a 



nil 



III lill lliiili mm III. I iiiiMlnllr III ilnwiiiK mill dyemg 

lvli,i"Hiil'l |iii|Hilmliiiiiilvii|,v ill IhiHlrnHHinKana 

"|l II' I»l Ml "t lill' lliiii.l" 1 Iii-»iii, AiStria, 

litliiiil mill I'liiiiiiln Mliiji.iliiiiiiir I'liriiinii iiniilHction 

\m<M'»\ niiil liM li -il « mil imiiliililii. The 

llil|u)l 111 I'liiiliiiiil lliii,, nil,.,, si.iiimil.ih, «l«tislics 
Il 1 . Ill I iilili rim li.liil 1 iilu,. i.V K„,„^ m.i.l.. and 
milMJ liinlmiil »' liMiUHiiil H.nmal valoiv(,n,-hanj»e. 
\i I Hi « .i»i> 1 11 i«i I » .1 . I us I , ,.( » Uinh ■.Mil » ,.iv maW 
\\ \\\ .lililui.iii iliiii,! \\,.\i. ivii ill.. a\vMi*i;v Iv: ,.«:- 

i\*M^m\\\iui|viiiiii- 



TABIV^ IKFOBlffATIOK SUBVEYS. 



19 



Canada is about the only other foreign counti^y which j^ubli^ea 
statistics of production. In a prdiminary report on the hat, cap^^and 
fur industry for the calendar year 1918 the Dominion Bureau c^ 
Statistics states that the total' capital investment amounted to 
$14,431,530, cost of matmals at factory $8,438,424, and selling value 
of product at the factory $17,112,425. The following tables show the 
cost of the various mateSdals used as well as the articles made and their 
selling value. 

COST OF MATERIALS AND VALtTE OP PRODUCTS. 

The cost at the factory of the various materials used by Canada's 
hat, cap, and fur industiy during 1918 was reported to the Dominion 
Bureau of Statistics as: 



Materials used. 


Cost 
value at 
factory. 


Materials used. 


Cost 
value at 
factory. 


Furs and skins: 


$1,774,470 

2,678,144 

1,030,747 

286,850 

477,573 

205,881 

115,452 

78,012 


TrimmlnM, all kinds 


$104,770 
440,644 


Raw 


Straw and straw plaits 


Dressed 


Thread, buttons, and fasteners 

Canvas, waddine, fltc 


109,589 
44,826 


Woolen goods 


Cotton and other goods 


Leather for sweat bands 


74,143 


Silk and satin 


Dvestuffs and chemicals 


99,616 
847,758 


All other linings 


All other materials 


MufT bads And niiiltMllininffs 


Total 




Coat shells 


8.438.424 






Vf -WUVf -M^m^ 



The selling value at the factory of the different articles made diir- 
ing the year was : 



Articles made. 



Men's coats: 

Fur 

Fur lined 

Women's coats and Jackets: 

Fur 

Fur lined 

Caps: 

Fur , 

Cloth 

Uniform..- 

Hats: 

Fur 

Wool 



Selling 
value at 
factory. 



$1,214,430 
261,231 

3,632,605 
329,267 

165,400 

2,264,737 

402,763 

1,355,254 
384,658 



Articles made. 



Muffs 

stoles and other neckwear 

Gloves and gauntlets, fur or fur lined. . 

Muff beds 

Coat shells... 

Robes 

Straw hats and shapes.. 

Velvet hats and shapes 

All other products 

Received for custom work and repairing 

Total 



Selling 
value at 
factory. 



$1,172,430 

1,452,668 

225 25$ 

101,499 

4,100 

263,224 

148,114 

1,577,763 



17,112,426 



In a report on the hatters' fur industry in Belgiiun, Consul Nay- 
smith, Ghent, states: 

From January 1 to July 1, 1920, the total value of raw rabbit skins to the United 
States was 17,863,437 trancs ($1,780,343), while the value of hatters' fur was 7,497.872 
francs ($749,737). For 1919 the value of the eatports of rabbit skins to the United 
States was $64,206 and of hatters' fur $15,323. Their combined value in 1913 was 
$1,590, 438. 

In a letter to the State Department, copy of which has been forr 
warded to the Tariff Commission bv that department, the Belgian 
Embassy presents a representation, by the tanners, and dyers of skin 
in Belgium, of conditions facing the Belgian rabbit-skm industry 
with relation to the American market. 

It sets forth that prior to the war the United States furnished a 
market for approximately 50 per cent of their prepared rabbit skins, 
but that now (January, 1921), in view of the mcreased price of the 



to TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS, 

prepared skins and the consequent increase in the customs duty b^ 
reason of the ad valorem rate, the cost to the American impcnrter is 
prohibitive. In detail, it is stated that formerly the pr^ared skins 
Irere offered in Belgium at 10 francs a dozen. The customs duty, 
at 30 per cent ad vSorem, was 3 francs, or a cost (duty paid) to the 
American importer of 13 francs a dozen. Compared with this, the 
skins are now approximately 40 francs a dozen. This means a duty 
of 12 francs, or a total cost of 52 francs. 

It is claimed tliat without the American market the industry can 
not survive, and the request is made that a new tariff classification 
provide for prepared rabbit skins at a rate of duty lower than that 
which now applies (Par. 348: Furs dressed on the skin). 

The memorandum further sets forth: 

They respectfully beg to call attention to the fact that the American manufacturers 
find an almost open market for tibeir goods in Belgium. A great many American furs, 

Particularly those of an expensive nature, are impnorted from the United States into 
^els:ium, and the customs duties applied to them is decidedly less than the customs 
duties applied to the rabbit skins, which is a cheap fur, when imported into the 
United States. The Belgium customs duty never exceeds, even for the most expensive 
furs, 0.90 franc per kilo. The following appears to be the conseouence: While 5 
skunk skins, weighing 1 kilo and valued at about 500 francs, are taxed by the Belgian 
customs officials only 0.90 franc, 12 rabbit skins, on the other hand, weighing 1 Kilo 
also, but valued at 100 francs, are taxed by the American customs officials 30 francs; 
the Belgian manufacturers thus pay 30 francs duty on 100 francs, while the American 
manufacturers do not pay more than 1 franc (to be exact 0.90 franc) per 500 francs. 

The manufacturers entertain the opinion that the rabbit skin is not an article of 
luxury, and they take the liberty to set forth the request that, on that ground, it be 
reclassified so that a customs duty lower than the one which is imposed on the first 
be applied to it. 

Only if it be done can they find again in the United States a market for their goods, 
and without that market their industry is bound to fail. 

IMPORTS. 

Raw furs, — Statistics of imports of raw furs by countries show the 
fur markets rather than the countries of origin. Many of the raw 
furs imported from England and Germanj are furs which have been 
sent there from other countries for sale m the London and Leipzig 
markets. General imports do not show the kind of skins imported 
from the various coimtries. Imports for consumption show the 
Idnds of skins imported but not the coimtries from which imported., 
The principal kinds of fur skins imported, as shown in the imports 
for consumption, are beaver, hare and rabbit, fox, mink, marten, 
mole, muskrat, seal, and squirrel. Some of the important raw furs 
imported are muskrat, mink, marten, bear, fisher, fox, otter, seal, 
beaver, and wolf, from Canada; sable, ermine, kolinsky, seal, wolf, 
otter, and squirrel, from Russia; rabbit, kangaroo, opossiun, wallaby, 
and wombat, from Australia; nutria and chinchilla, from South 
America. Undressed rabbit^ skins are also imported from France, 
Belgium, and Germany. 

Our largest prewar imports of raw furs amounted to $17,339,198 
in 1912. The value for the vear 1913 was slightly less. In 1914 and 
1915 the value of imports decreased about one-half but rose to pre- 
war figures in 1916. Imports for theyears 1918 and 1919 were more 
than double the prewar amount. The value of raw furs imported 
into the United States in 1920 amounted to $103,772,044, which is 
neariy six times that of 1912. This enormous increase in the value 
of raw furs imported may be attributed to the rise in the price of 



TABIFF INK)&MATtOK SURVEYS. 21 

furs, the growing importance of New York and St. Louis as world 
fur markets, the increased demand in the United States for furs of 
all kinds, improvement in the art of dressing and dyeinff furs in the 
United States, and to the fact that the fur merchants ana fur dressers 
and dyers of Europe are not fimctioning on a prewar basis. 

The coimtries from which we imported the largest amounts of furs 
before the war were, in the order of importance, Germany, England, 
Canada, Belgimn, IVftnce, Russia, and Australia. Imports from all 
countries, except Germany, Russia in Europe, and Belrium, in- 
creased greatly in 1920 as compared with those of 1912. Increases 
occurred in the value of imports from the following countries: France, 
England, Canada, and Australia. Countries — China, Russia in 
Asia, Japan, and Argentina — ^from which small quantities were 
imported before the war also show siu'prising increases in 1920 ov^ 
1912. The increases in the value of unports from these coimtries 
may be accoimted for partially by higher prices, direct shipments 
to the United States instead of through the European fur markets, 
and in case of China and Japan, their being intermediate markets tor 
collection of furs before final shipment to the United States. It is 
possible that the increased use of furs in the United States has caused 
a demand for furs which were formerly not .in demand. This may 
also account partially for the increases in the value of imports from 
certain countries, but as no statistics are available which show the 
kinds of furs imported by countries, the extent of such trade can not 
be determined. 

Dressed /urs.— r-Imports of furs dressed on the skin which before 
1 9 14 were on the average somewhat over $5,000,000 a year decreased 
greatly after that date. In 1919 they reached their lowest point, 
$783,061. However, in 1920 imports had again reached prewar 
figures; in fact, had exceeded them. Imports for 1920 were valued 
at $6,528,733. Germany, France, Belgium, and England were the 
principal sources of imports before 1914. Imports from China 
lormed about 31 per cent of the total in 1917 and over 50 per cent 
in 1918, but dropped in 1919 to less than prewar figures. 

Manufactures ojfyr. — Imports of manufactures of furs came prin- 
cipally from France, Germany, China, and England before 1914. Of 
the total imports of $2,301,284 in 1912 $1,063,852, or 46.2 per cent, 
came from France; $569,227, or 24.7 per cent, from Gfermany; 
$191,647, or 8.3 per cent, from China; and $160,595, or 7 per cent, 
from England. In 1919 China sent $964,630, or 56.9 per cent; 
France, $325,058, or 19.2 per cent; England, $149,788, or 8.8 per 
cent; and Canada, $146,727, or 8.6 per cent. Total imports for 1920 
amounted to $4,913,448, being more than double the prewar figures. 

Imports for consumption show somewhat in detail the character 
of the goods described as manufactures of furs. 

Plates and mats of dog and goat skins, — Imports of plates and 
mats of dog and goat skins have increased from $280,855 in 1914 
to $1,029,852 in 1919. The number of such articles imported in 
1919 amounted to 766,115, with an average value per unit of quan- 
tity of $1.34. These articles come principally from China and are 
used in the manufactiu-e of the cheaper fur coats. 

Manufactures of furs prepared for use as materials, — Included in 
this description are manutactures of furs further advanced than 
dressing and dyeing, plates and mats, except those of dog and goat 
skins, finings and crosses. Imports of sucn articles when made of 

64912— 21— N-10 4 



smI Om me MsalL ht ]«» Amy «fliitpii to tBa. OlfaiBr vteks 

is I»l» to SS0,2d5 n I j^ld, 

Weermf &ffmd.—l!\kt tmS set «< idia cfcnded wnirmg ^<>>^ 
mad<^ of nir ittto t«pi^ g^ovjpsy (1) duU e ampoiwd ^f hides or aans ctf 

fef. imf^f%» of Ibe fdOMT were Tfttacd sS Sl^,£frd ml l^\& wd S85 
A Idld. Imyo^rte ia etiaMSir ytaas h«ve bcsA nwmll 1^ Tafa» ol 
imkpo9%» wader ^ igtoad ff^ifsf jcadigd die higtiei^ Bwrk m 1914, 
$344^7. In tirc^ odi^ 7^»B9, ldl7 aad Idridy tibe nb» ^seeded 
$100,000. Im ll^ld HMMto wtfe Tsined ftt SlS,a9d. 

In IdlO ]H^>orts w«re TiOMd ftt (l^^Q^^lSy tlK hj^iest. In I§14 
^b^ WftOTi^ed to SM7,2M, ef wiodi SIOM^ w«e Mdor Ihe toc^ 
•et of IdOd. Jd&ymf^ dMne had Bot hen & ngahur d eqre aae ia 
^aloe of doeh iora koportod, the tendeoej was tofwud it dedisft laa^ 
1»20. Th€«e wtw maported S^422 pouda, Tatoed al SaaSyTZl, ra 
1M», md m ]d20, 30^^286 poands, Ttimed at Sl,5i5,O0O. 



Vtmf like SMai othe^ artides, haire adraseed to necoid hdriits 
WfthiB the last feir Team. Tha wiiotesale pnce erf fms ranes wiMy- 
not only aeeofding to diffenni spaeaeB, but ako to diffcaent gnides 
of die nnmne sffeeaes. As an iHoslnitioii of the ivkle nnge in paioeB, 
a fine silrer fooc skin sold for S1,000 in 1919 as against $150 to $200 
tor an arorage idver fon skm aid fiO for a cheap red foK skin. It 
ia fttoted that 25 fox skins of mmnah raised in captmfev were sold in 
London in 1910 at an a;Terage of 11,400 each, and lint the ho^iast 
priee paid for a sinde akin was $2^760. Top wholewate prices for raw 
mr» m 1913 and 1920 affegiren for die folioimigekins: Mink, $20 and 
$75; nniskrat, $1 and $6*80; aeid, $120 and $175; Anstrafian rabbit, 
90 centa and $4.20 per pomid; bea^rer, $90 and $64; ermme, $5 and 
$4/76; Mud fox> $100 and $270; red fox, $35 md $64; and BBioles, 
50 cents and 70 cento. 

Conacd General l^dnner, London, hi writibg oa Uie fall fiH* sales in 
London, November, 10!W, stotes: 

A f^^fiMtlAl dedin^ in prices haa set in Md, compared with the spiin^sale, die prices 
r«ali2;«d at the Ml aucticmt declined by the foliowii^ percentages: Ten per cent in 
Aus^alian red fox, otter, ncnrthem mink, and nortfawest^n wdf ; 20 x>a- cent ifi blue 
toXf white fox. Russian sable, squirrel skins; 25 per cent in Australian opossimi, cross 
fot, ermine, Bwne marten, civet cat, black bear, and Persian lamb; 30 per cent in red 
fox ; 35 per cent in lynx and musquash; 40 per cent in beaver, fisher, scunk, raccoon, 
fitch, wtiite hare, marmot, CTay and Idtt fo^, house cat, nutria and Tibet lambs and 
crosses; 50 per cent in wallaby, wolverine, marten, Ainerican opossum, kolinsky, and 
wild cat. 

He al»o states that — 

flprintf prices were realized for silver fox, jackal, and American and Russian badger; 
but for kangaroo, chindiilla, mole, and Japanese fox there was practically no sale.^ 

TARIFF HISTORY 1883-1913. 

Kau) furs^-^The lan^age relating to furs undressed and fur skins 
undressed has been substantially the same in all tariff acts beginning 
with that of 1888. No duty was imposed by any of the acts. 

* Oomitwro* RQportiy Dto. 7, 1990. 



INFOUtAXMUr STBTXIS. SS 



ArMt^tf lfi83. No dwiee WW made m &e nt» vBlil 1913. wkM li 
TO iMivMcd to 90 per cwU In dw acts of 1800, 1804. and ISOT 
ditJu e J fws were restnctW to '"lins diaat d oti tlie skin, bwl no4 
made np into artides.*' The act ci 1900 sobstitutod ''not advanocd 
fortiier dna drcn^ but not lepaind'* fcr "net made nn into arti- 
cles.** The warding cf the 1013 act is thessme as tiiat at 1900 with 
Ihe cxcc|»tioii of ''hot not ropaired** trhkji« ovinia to the donhtfal 
meaning oi the word repaired, was omitied. 

Jldfers'^r.— The tanff act of 1883 c^OTided for a 20 per cent ad 
Takxcm rate on hatters* for not on taa skm. The rate rrmainod 
nnfhaneed in all snfaseqoMt tariff acto nnia tibe act of 1013, which 
rednoed the rate to IS per o^t^ 

The act of 1894 was we first to contam a specific piOTisiaA lelatiiig^ 
to dftiwwd fms suitable only for nse m the mannf actare of fw hats. 
This net placed them <m the free hst, hnt in all sdbaeqnent acts lik€i(y 
were (daoed in the dntidde list at the same rate of dntr as Iha4 an 
hatters' faraot on the skin. . 

Jfini^iinres of yiir.— The act xji 1883 contained a separate para- 
g^afdL reUtbig to articles made of far not ^(iecia% ennmerated or 
|woinded6»*, while the aois af 1890, 1891, and 1897 contained specifie 
provisions IcNT maamfaetiires of far; the pro^raions, howemr, w^tf« not 
gir^i a separate paragraph. The act of 1909 incieaaed the niudber 
of spcseific i»oTisiflns relating to fors, hnt f «led to provide speoifi- 
call|r for mannfactores of for not provided for. The act of 1913, in 
ad^tion to die srtides ennmetated, contains a provision for mann- 
f aetmes of for not spedallv jM^vided for. The rates of dot j under 
the acts ot 1883, 1800. 1894, 1897, and 1913, were, respectively, SO, 
35, 30, 35, and 40 per cent ad valoron. 

Mamrfmitwres oj far fm «m a« maikenal. — The act di 1909 whs the 
&Bt to provide speoificdiy fer thb c^ass of merchandise. The pro- 
visicm reads ''mannfactnres of fwrs, farther advanced than dreesing 
and dyemg wfa«& preptfed for nse afi material, induding phites» 
limn^, and crosses.'^ The act of 1913 goes further than that of 1909 
tnr distjng nishing between plates and mats of dog and goat skins and 
wose of other skins, the former being dutiable at 19 per ^caiit and the 
latt^ at 40 per c^t. The act of 1909 made all plates and mats 
(fatiable at 35 per cent. 

Wtarimjg apparel. — ^It was not imtil the act of 1909 that specific 
provi»on was made for articles of wearing appard cosoq^osed of fur, 
wevious to which they came under the general description of manu- 
factnres of fur. The rate of duty was 50 p^ cent ad valorem. The 
act of 1913 jwovided for two classes of wearii^ apparel, (1) those 
composed of the skins of cattle of the bovine species or of the dog or 
goat; and (2) those composed of fur not specially provided for. The 
rates under the 1913 act are 15 and 50 per c«it, respectivdy. 

(XMiPETlTlVK CONDITIONS. 

Raw skins are imported free of duty into all countries except 
Russia. This intemation^J free trade may be accounted for by me 
fact that furs of different coimtries are not directly competitive with 
each other. The furs of one coimtry are in demand in another and 
vice versa. Furs are not only referred to by species but by region 
where obtained as well. As the quality of the lur varies greatly ao*^ 



^ XABIFF DrroRMATiosr srsvETs. 

-cordii^ to tlie re^;ion iriiere obtained, it may be said that fus of the 
same qpecie of anmtah are not oranpetitive with each other. Fashi<»i 
gorems vefj laigdy the kinds of fms used without regard to the 
-eoontiy of ofigin. Use of all kinds of fms has heesi Teiy p<^nlar for 
the pttst few years. 

Competition Hesdii^y in m^^etiiig the furs. The Hudson's Bay 
Co. have fen* many years sold their rars at ancdon in London, m 
1916 there was orsaiDised in New York a corporation to handle fur 
^ales. Auction sales are hdd three times a year and consignmoits 
of furs nre received from all parts of the world. There are auction 
aales of simihff chiuacter conducted in St. Louis. 

It has heesk generally recoenixed that the Eur<q>eans excd in the 
art of dressing and djreing rars. England has long maintained its 
position as leader in tnis bnmdi of the fur industrr^ notwithstanding 
many attempts to wrest the sujuremacy from her. Hie excellence 
of the Englisn dyeing and dressing has been attributed to the peculiar 
property of the water and to se^et processes and methods. Seal 
dyemg was lareely in the control of one man, who practically enjojned 
a monopoly. Until 1913 the United States Groveroment's sealskins 
wrere sent to London to be dressed and dyed, but they are now treated 
and sold in St. Louis. The dyeing and dressing estaUishmaits at 
Leipzig and other centers in Grermany w»« also noted for the excel- 
lence of ihm wc^k. 

The Fren<di influence upon the trade is primarily one of style and 
■combination of colors. Many of the lower grade furs brou^t into 
this countay were dressed and dyed abroad. All of the best sealine 
4md sc^ dyed rabbit skins came m>m Ciermany, France, and Bdgium. 
Althou^ die American dressers and dyers were becomii^ more 
-succ^sful up to the time of the war, it was not until thai tnat the 
^reat opportunity came to them to become the lead^s in their 
industry. To-day American djr^s and dressers are producing furs 
whidi are said to be unnvided in color, sheen, suppleness, strength, 
and beauty. Hie rapid devdopm^it in this ccmntry in the produc- 
tion of fur colors, which up to 1914 were imported from Grermany, 
Itas be^i a material aid to dressers and dyers. 

American fur dressers and dyers have stated at tariff hearings that 
diey have found it impossible to compete with the dieaper K>reign 
labor, especially with that employed on the poorer graaes of fuiis. 
Domestic producers of hatters' fur have stated in the mist that labor 
•cost in Europe is from 45 to 52 per cent less than in the United States, 
that substantiaUy aU chemicals with which the fur is treated are 
•cheaper abroad than here, and that they have been able to maintain 
^e advantage over the foreigner only through quick deliveries and 
granting of liberal lines of credit. 

Whemer the American dressers and dyers will be able to maintain 
iheir leadership against their foreign competitors when conditions 
l>ecome settled in Europe remains to be seen. New competitors may 
enter the field, as it has been reported that the Swiss on account of 
ihe stagnation of the Leipzig fur market have started establishments 
for the treatm^it of furs. 

TAKIFF OONSTOERATIOXS. 

In 1917 when war-revenue taxation was under c<Hisideration it 
was proposed to place a duty of 10 per cent on all the articles in 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



25 



the free list, including furs and fur skins undressed, and to increase 
the duty on the manufaetured product by an equal amoimt. This 
met with opposition from the fur trade. It was maintained that 
demoralization would result from placing a duty on this raw material, 
which has been free for some time. 

Paragraph 603, '* skins of hares, rabbits, dogs, goats, and sheep, 
undressed, should be elinainated, as the provisions in paragraph 
491, ''furs and fur skins, undressed," and 604, ''skins of all kinds, 
Wkw, and hides not 8pecially*^|)rovided for," cover the paragraph in 
question. 

The act of 1913 contains iio specific provision for sheepskin plates 
and mats. Such articles ar© subject to a duty of 40 per cent under 
paragraph 348 as against 10 per cent on plates and mats of dog and 
goat skins. Plates a&d mats of sheepskin are practically of the same 
qriality and are used for similar purposes as those of dog and goat 
sjons. 

A strict interpretation of paragraph 348 would impose a duty of 
30 per cent on dressed dog and goat skins, which apparently was not 
the intention of Congress in view of other provisions m the same para- 
graph, namely, 10 per cent on plates and mats of dog and goat skins 
and 15 per cent on wearing apparel composed of the skins of dogs 
and goate. There being no other provision in the tariff which includes 
them directly, they have been held dutiable at 10 per cent by simili-* 
tude to plates and mats of dog and goat skins. 

Questions have arisen whether dressed animal skins with the wool 
or hair on and intended for use as fur are within the terms "wools" 
or "hair," paragraphs 286, 304, and 650. It has been held that such 
skins, if for fur uses and if it is improfitable to separate the wool or 
hair from the skin and use it for wool or hair purposes, are not within 
the terms "wools" or '^hair," but are properly classifiable as "furs," 
which are not limited strictly to fur-bearing animals. 

Statistical Tables. 

Production in the United States. Furs dressed, summarg.^ 



United States: 

1914 

1909 

1904 

1899 

1889 

1879.., 

1889 
States, 1914J' 

Colorado 

lUlnols 

MinneS(^ 

New Jersey 

New York 

Pennsylvania. . 

All otMer States 



Num- 
ber of 
estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Wage 
tamers 
(aver- 
age). 


Pri- 
mary 
horse- 
power. 


Capi- 
tal.* 


• 

Wages.* 


Cost Of 

niate- 

rials.* 


of 
prod- 
nets.* 


96 


1,525 


2,275 


12,490 


1923 


1906 


^216 


93 


1,241 


2,103 


1,672 


806 


811 


85 


1,105 


1,260 


1,296 


755 


1,642 


92 


835 


1,063 


798 


478 


520 


1^400 


26 


400 


353 


267 


239 


203 


651 


192 


4,134 




3,599 


1,389 


5,338 


8,239 


182 


2,903 


86 


3,472 


1,042 


^816 


8»903 


3 


5 


13 


14 


4 


2 


11 


3 


42 


40 


28 


24 


9 


65 


6 


60 


335 


84 


40 


44 


117 


6 


278 


383 


354 


157 


67 


350 


52 


974 


1,234 


1,640 


596 


604 


1,945 


5 


43 


28 


92 


32 


83 


146 


21 1 


123 


242 


278 


70 


97 


241 



Value, 
added 

by 
manu- 

fdCr 

ture.« 



Sl,969 
1,580 
1,574 
880 
448 
2,901 
4^087 

9 

56 

73 

283 

1,341 

63 

144 



1 Data from the "Abstract of the Census of Mannfactnrers, 1914.'' 
s Expressed in thousands. 



26 



TARIFF IKFORMATIOK SURVEYS. 



Production in. United Slates, 

FX7R8, DRESSED— STATK8.1 
(Figures from Fedend census.] 



States. 



lUinoAs 

Minnesota 

New Jersey 

New York , 

Penns^yania 

Wisnmsin. 

AU other 

Total 



Value. 



18M 



199,850 

125,396 
34,628 

777,227 
22,500 
56,960 

3H3e5 



1904 



1900 



$146,780 

1,199.235 

(«) 
1,400,062 

56,733 
412,901 



1,400,455! 3,215,701 



$129,659 

181,265 

625,444 

1,239,725 

«0,3O8 
131,558 



1914 



$86,33S 

117,452 

350,159 

1,945^004 

145,638 

251,447 



2,390,959 2,875,086 



FURS, DRESSED-CITIES. 
[Figures firom Federal census.) 



Cities. 



Value. 



1899 



New York City 
All other 

, Total 



$749,288 
651,167 



1,400.455 



1904 



$1,400,052 
1,815,649 



3,215,701 



1909 



$1,203,225 
1,181,734 



2,390,959 



1914 



$1,945,004 
930,032 



2,875,036 



FUR GOODS— SUMMARY.' 



United States: 

1914 

1909 , 

1904 

1899.. 

1889 

States . 1914: 

Caufomia 

Colwado 

Connecticut 

District ol Columbia . 

nUnois 

Tndi^nft 

Iowa 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

New Jersey 

New York 

Ohio 

Or^on 

Pennsylvania 

Utah 

Washington 

Wisconsin. 

All other States 



Num- 
ber of 
estab* 
lish- 
ments. 


Wage 
earners 
aver- 
age. 


Pri- 
mary 
horse- 
power. 


Capi- 
tal.4 


Wages.< 


Cost Of 

mate- 

rials.4 


Value 

of 
prod- 
ucts.^ 


Value 
added 

by 
manu- 
fac- 
ture.* 


1,322 


9,030 


3,233 


$23,677 


$6,335 


$23,847 


$43,633 


$19,786 


1,241 


11,927 


2,120 


29,249 


7,788 


31,777 


55,938 


24,161 


867 


9,370 


1,994 


17,990 


5,123 


21.202 


37,119 


15,917 


734 


7,758 


907 


12,484 


3,927 


14,281 


25,899 


11,618 


484 


6,947 


325 


11,116 


3,477 


11,743 


20,527 


8,784 


19 


126 


23 


360 


94 


200 


509 


309 


6 


14 


1 


35 


10 


10 


45 


35 


10 


25 


9 


99 


12 


39 


92 


53 


6 


48 


13 


157 


32 


87 


192 


105 


84 


300 


141 


1,087 


219 


870 


1,605 


736 


7 


19 


18 


40 


11 


26 


60 


34 


17 


124 


176 


309 


82 


186 


437 


251 


12 


47 


6 


1 140 


33 


77 


165 


8& 


17 


208 


49 


1 523 


146 


476 


862 


386 


35 


380 


503 


1,476 


183 


818 


1,680 


862 


1 36 


838 


372 


3,316 


549 


2,677 


4,207 


1,530 


! 7 


106 


37 


313 


47 


93 


231 


138 


9 


82 


61 


, 1*8 


43 


129 


294 


165 


14 


76 


153 


! 199 


42 


80 


183 


103 


877 


5,904 


1,345 


18,552 


4,343 


16,822 


30,312 


13,490 


25 


136 


41 


322 


100 


149 


423 


294 


6 


35 


8 


153 


29 


60 


190 


130 


63 


212 


45 


1,020 


149 


523 


1,043 


520 


3 


4 


1 


15 


3 


4 


19 


IS 


14 


55 


17 


1 153 


38 


60 


164 


104 


36 


225 


140 


1,075 


129 


368 


711 


-343 


19 


66 


54 


185 


41 


93 


209 


116 



1 In addition to the products covered by the table dressed furs to the value of $8,850 were reported for 1914 
by establishments assigned to other classifications. 
« Included with " All other." 

> Datafrom the ''Abstract of the Census of Manufa<itui ers, 1914." 
* Expressed in thousands. 



TARIFF INFOBMATION SURVEYS. 
Pnduetwnm Uniltd Slatu — Continued. 

FUR GOODS-aTATEa.' ' 

iFlgiircB from Foderml cenaui.l 



Btatw. 


ISM 


■«. 


1«» 


1.M 


^^,;;;:::;:::::;:;::;;:: 


;;;;;EEE;;;hsi 


■li 


! mi 
i m 


'if 






718,097 










fe^;;;;;;:;;;::;;;;:;;;; 


913|TM 










ToWJi 


n.Ta.aui 37,123,129 


U, 037,949 


«,9JI,«B 



FUR aOODB-CITIES. 





ausB. 


1999 

1 


1904 


1909 


1914 






1 ififlTan 


t464,220 
1,430,598 
1,120,797 
7H0M 

2,791,092 

MB, 608 

3,305,961 


1T377B3 

. i;360;497 

tlD,B10 

39,87i,l» 

3;i<»;s72 

8,410,330 


i:iii,«« 












i i;352;2« 


iSSSSSSi:::;::: 












i"'^'^ 


"'™'™ 


^S^^^^: 




;E;;;-i!:gi 


'wspsae 










Total' 


|27,7JS,2M 


J7,l«,l» 


iS, 937,518 


43,8H,(>9» 



m repntol bj MtmbllBlmi 



.SBdfill*dtO0tl>CTClaHia»tlDDE. 



• "Abstract ol the Canani of UuiufKtarera, 1914," ahowa totals lor 

a 119,000, raspecttTilT. TlM dau in tbe sbttnct ontr ntnrns ot lad 
n rapcrta for theseveaia cover letums of otbei estabUahments as well 



a 1904 u 125399,000 and 



' "Abnnct Dl the <!aiiBvi3 tn ManulKturcTB, 1914," sboi 

•JT 119,000, reapectively. Thodata in '"- ' 

nuln rep«ts (or these yean coTv retiu 



otbor sflabUalmientfl as wdl. 



IS of factories onlr, • 



ImporU by amtitrUt. fiicat yearg. 
FUR AND FDR BSJUS UNDRESS&D. 





Imported from- 


1910 


m> 1 




8,327; 704 
314,001 


„™™,! 




893 
3,332 

i,7s; 

72! 
10 
91 

5« 


708 

1 

249 












"'11 

li 












AUotbK'.. 






5,«B«,258 Hi361,IX 



931,624 

'834; 870 
3,010,709 
2,197,509 



TARIFF INFORMATION SUEVEYS. 

ImporU bg eouniriet, fiscal years— ContinuBd. 
FCR AMD FUR SKINS UNDBESSED-CoBtlnned. 



Imported [rom— 


1915 


■•» 


.917 


«.8 




1348 722 


■■fS 
■ ii'i 

71 1 149 
1,I01,9M 








'1 

22a 
i; 


44fl 

g 


»l,629,a21 










1,552,234 
7Se<2S0 
6,2M,MT 

}'&^ 

176,418 
908, B« 










S, 269, 043 






3;6S4;890 








253, 7S» 
1,558, 6S0 










7,7fl8,3« 


lfl.891,ai» 


21,i63,37S 


35,679.SG4 






1019 


1920 


Nninber. 


Value. 


Number. 


Vain*. 




10,325;«8 


•M.«8 








12,648,?QS 










12 723 1M 


iS,72i;22B 
13,461,381 

11 


4,231,499 










'!;S;!S 














l,464;2Sl , 6,6TO,4a 


6,460,067 






■-s;8ii;iio- 




IS, 302, ass 






IM, 814,907 


37,965,713 


165,841,435 








Imported trom- 


July Ho Dec. 31, IMO. 


Calendar 


year 1920. 


»™U„. 


V»..e. 


Numb«. 


Value. 














4,ffi2,lM 


1841,021 


11, 620, 078 












2, Mi, 040 
2,908,099 

435,172 
1,108,692 

'4281737 
5,140,293 


30 81 
25 to 
















































21,074,671 


30,376,997 






' 







FUES, DEE8SED,AND MANUFACTURES 0F.« 



Imported nom— 


1910 


Importedfron^ 


1.1. 


Bell 


11 

i,*8i;«02 


Canada 


















Telttl 










' ' 



lO 9kln" and "manulactuios ol," aftoi 1910. Includes Cur 



TABIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS. 



29 



Imports by countries j fiscal years — Continued. 

FURS DRESSED ON THE SKIN.i 



Imported Irom- 



Belghim 

Fpajace..., 

Germany. 

England.... 

Canada 

China 

Russia in Europe 
All other 

Total 



1911 



$1,356,098 

1,603,525 

1,592,173 

534,394 

33,476 

122,173 

17,650 

22,495 



1912 



$1,167,370 

1,620,216 

1,896,629 

511,309 

37,212 

78,220 

6,820 

28,026 



1913 



$924,519 

1,584,488 

2,057,222 

603,646 

35,563 

156,539 

14,841 

18,960 



5,281,984 j 5,345,802 5,395,778 3,204,251 



1914 



$553,019 

647,538 

1,206,587 

250,018 

28,985 

487,001 

14,847 

16,256 



Imported from— 



Belgiiim 

France 

Germany , 

England 

Canada 

China -. 

Russia in Europe 

All other , 

Total -•. 



1915 



$299,157 

364,019 

337,862 

128, 779 

30,334 

330,520 

1,895 

91, 135 



1,583,701 



1916 



$17,666 
687,740 
199,541 
455,101 
120,146 
581,733 
15,960 
75,513 



2,153,400 



1917 



$899,479 
13 
606,231 
34,797 
945,092 
390,967 
108,549 



1918 



$164,103 



175,063 

41,009 

674,925 

114,616 

51,634 



2,985,128 1,221,350 



Imported from— 


• 

1919 


1920 


1921 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Frftncf* , 


461,816 

« 104, 013 

28,339 


$470,552 

•215,667 

44,108 

51,548 

1,186 










F.nrfand 










Canada 










China 

All other 


25,601 
366 


















Total 








620,035 


783,061 4,111,504 


$6,628,733 1,639,412 $1,311,650 



ALL OTHER MANUFACTURES OF FURS, INCLUDING WASTE.i 



Imiwrted from— 



Austria-Hungary 

Belgium 

France 

Germany 

England 

Camida 

Qiina » 

Another 

Total 



1911 « 



$90,666 
297,215 
1,106,381 
656,331 
559,653 

40,944 
143,659 

91,114 



1912 



$20,063 
168,152 
1,063,852 
569,227 
160,595 

44,925 
191,647 

92,823 



1913 



$17,088 

85,479 

722,636 

622,269 

208,446 

44,022 

262,305 

26,334 



1914 



$20,959 
222,679 
655,489 
394,370 
221,372 

21,330 
227,633 

27,242 




$9,606 

119,253 

266,468 

167,060 

• 144,002 

17,282 

44,505 

42,776 



2,985,963 I 2,301,284 { 1,988,579 



1,791,074 800,952 



1916 



$2,106 
374,792 
75,901 
123,313 
31,447 
92,160 
41,361 



741,070 



Imiwrted from— 


1917 
$921,599 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


France ^ 


S702.3Q8 


$325,058 

» 149,788 

146,727 

964.630 






England 


117,634 1 95.768 






Canada.-... . 


22,112 

99,515 

^27,747 


69,322 
104,701 






Qiina .^\.^\\\.V.'.\'..V.\V.V...\\\\V.\.\\\\ 


1 


All other..; 


38,338 1 108,621 


1 •. 




1 


Total .' 


1,188,607 


1,010,432 1.694-824 


$4,913,448 1 $1,997,305 






7 - -/ 




- / - ■ / 



^ Inchidedin ''Furs, dressed and manufactures of" prior to 1911. 

» United Kingdom. 

' Includes **Hats, bonnets, and hoods." ^ 



TARIFF INFOBMATION SURVEYS. 

Imports /or congujnption — Revenue. 
FUKS AND FUR BEIMS, UNDRESSED, SEALSKINS, RAW. 



Fiscal year: 


Rate of dQt7. 


1 
Quantity. 


v.i„. '• ^^y 


Value per 
quanlily. 


Actual and 






'■S\ 

1,»4S 
7)932 1 


' 


i9;« 

1 


Ptrctm. 


































































do 

::::S:::::::::-::: 


g:^! 


























"d-'M: 












eSeee 



























FDRS AND FUR SKINS, UNDRESSED, OTHER THAN SEAL.i 






f™. j 


j 


























































































































15:286,080 




SI. SB 
Vl3 






















11,634,223 
13,0«,13« 
4,993,W7 




1.78 






...do 























FURS AND FUE SKINS, UNDRESS ED -HARE AND RABBIT.' 



19 41 


Fr«e 8,949,809 1 12,741,109 




19.306 










































, Wuratn-. : 




S 






do 119,578,247 1 28,091,979 














do... .- i^Sis;™! 19;439;eS5 

do 82,735.480 1 23,526,860 




'.2»* 





























FURS AND FUR SKINS. 


UNDRESSED— BEAVBR.i 






Free ! Ifi0,496 


4,269,648 




li 





















































• 1919 and after, besTsr, Fox, marten, mink, mole, moskrat, and squirrel reported separately; 1 



1 Calendar year. 

• ■»■'■-— —.er.be..™, .u~, u™™.., um^, ^™ 

.._., rabbit skins reported separately. 

■ Included with "Fur and fur skins, undressed, other," 
< New law, Oct. 4, 1913, to June 30, 19H, 

1 Included Id "All other" previous to 1918 (fiscal), 

• JolyltoCec.ai, 191S. 

' Six months ended June 3n, 1921. 



/ 



TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



31 



Imports for consumption — ReventLe — Continued . 

FURS AND FUR SKINS, UNDRESSED— FOX.* 



Fiscal year. 



1919.. 
1920.. 
1918 <. 

1919 1. 
19201. 
1921 7. 



Rate of duty. 



Free.. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do 



Quantity. 



Number. 
443,968 
1,064^903 
148,116 
916,874 
696,561 
122,599 



Value. 



$4,747,968 

12, 631, 814 

1,155^808 

10, 709, 178 

7,251,897 

1,586,390 



Duty 
collected. 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



$ia69 

11.76 

7.80 

10.70 

12.15 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Per cent. 



FURS AND FUR SKINS, UNDRESSED— MINK.* 



1919.. 
1920.. 
1918 <. 
19191. 
19201. 
1921 T. 



Free. . 

.....do. 

....do. 

::::t 

....do 



331,583 
611, 516 
111,784 
312, 169 
560,768 
185,915 



1808,916 

3,653,250 

153,602 

1,212,897 

3, 403, 158 

834,314 



12.44 
5.97 
1.37 
3.88 
6.06 



FURS AND FUR SKINS, UNDRESSED— MARTEN.* 



1919... 

1920.. 

1918*. 

19191. 

19201. 

1921 T. 



Free.. 

do. 

.....do. 
....do. 

do 

....do. 



131, 438 
294^542 
30,306 
181, 136 
264^675 
221,902 



12,069,619 
5,369,899 
244,815 
3,388,823 
4,763,531 
2,798,982 



$15.76 

18.23 

8.07 

18.70 

17.99 



FURS AND FUR SKINS, UNDRESSED— MOLE.* 



1919.. 
1920.. 
1918 «. 
19191. 
19201. 
1921'. 



Free.. 

do. 

....do. 

do. 

do 

do. 



4,473,277 

18,318,364 

199,693 

6,244,093 
17,407,900 

3,114,837 



$1,057,211 

6,381,250 

43,131 

1, 598, 106 

6, 119, 346 

381,491 



$0,236 
.348 
.215 
.255 
.351 



FURS AND FUR SKINS, UNDRESSED— MUSKRAT. * 



1919.. 
1920.. 
1918*. 
19191. 
10201. 
1921 ». 



Free.. 

do. 

do. 

....do. 

....do 

....do. 



1,689,089 
1,093,368 

685,633 
1,563,971 

849,145 
1,042,325 



$2,152,539 
3,179,318 
722,079 
2,718,138 
2,594,845 
1,355,767 



$1.27 
2.90 
1.05 
1.73 
3.05 



FURS AND FUR SKINS, UNDRESSED— SQUIRREL.* 



1919.. 
1020.. 
1918 «. 
19191. 
19201. 
1921'. 



Free.. 

do. 

.....do. 
....do. 

do. 

do 



4,044,044 
9,369,561 
790,798 
8,314,755 
5, 756, 333 
2,265,104 



$2,484,486 
7,275,605 
403,096 
5,432,692 
5,676,323 
1,551,054 



$0,614 
.776 
.509 
.653 
.985 



1 Calendar year. 

* Ineluded In "All other" previous to 1919 (fiscal). 

• July 1 to Dec. 31, 1918. 

' 6 months ended June 30, 1921 . 



32 TAKIFF INFOBMATION SUEVEYS. 

Imporli/oT consumption — Revenue — Continued. 

FUR3 DRESSED ON THE BKIN NOT ADVANCED FURTHEH THAN DYEING— SEAL. 



Fiscal year. 


Rate of duly. 


I 
Quantity, i 


..u 




Duty 

1102, see 

3»,303 
142,305 

5i;098 
17,771 
12,811 

IS 
l;S 

8,062 
19,120 

9|203 
1.200 


Value per 
quantity. 


Actual and 




WtHnftcr. 1 
1S,7BI 
8 4IS 

12,380 1 
9,062 1 

'T48 
1,801 




30,02 

Is 

II 

9.04 

16:72 
25.49 
12.32 


PtT ant. 




1 

25; 

i 


K23 
S50 

730 
US 

1 

732 
220 


























S 


























:;:::t:::::::::::: 






































._ 



FURS DRESSED ON THE BKIN, NOT ADVANCED FURTHER THAN DYEING. OTHER 
THAN SEAL, 









2i 

9fi 
99 

SO 
3fi 
82 

i 
1 


''ail; wo 

397,706 

Si 

19,021 























































































































032,093 
.■ 3,«8;92« 


11.02 
















19191 




,| S32,302 


LM 


3t 











PLATES ANE 


MATS OF DOG AND GOAT SKINS, 






, [lOn«-c«nt 




498,429 
986,550 
681,982 
1,029,892 


mowl 


10 


































do 

-,: t 


706,116 
083.761 


ISiS^ 


L98 


u 


;::::::::::::::i:;:;t:;:::;:z 


261,824 


sk' 


i:^ 


10 








' 











































1 


' 


■ 

































• EieLudassmalLamount imported from 





TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



33 



Imports for consumption — Revenue — Continued. 

MANUFACTURES OF FURS FURTHER ADVANCED THAN DRBSSINO AND DYEING 
WHEN PREPARED FOR USE AS MATERIAL, INCLUDING PLATES, LINING, AND 
CROSSES— SEAL. 



Fiscal year. 


Rate of duty. 


i 

Quantity. 


Value. 

1233,210 
75,338 


1 Duty 
1 collected. 


1 

Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 


Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 


1910 


35 per cent " 


Number. 


t 

S81,623 
26,368 


Per cent. 
35 


1911 


35 percent 




............ 


35 


IQia. 


None shown 






/ 


1913 


35 per cent 




240 

8 

1,013 

1,313 

1,099 


84 

3 

405 

525 

44D 




35 


1914 


/35percent< 






35 


1915 


\40 per cent < 

40 per cent 






40 
40 


1916 


do 






40 


1917 


None shown 








1918 


40 ner cent 




i,636 
83 
60 

1,621 
78 
32 

2,142 


655 

33 

24 

648 

• 31 

9 

856 




40 


1919 


do 






40 


1920 


.... .do. ........... 






40 


1918» 


do 






40 


19191 


do 






40 


19201 


.... .do. ........... 




............ 


40 


1921 « 


do 




40 













MANUFACTURES OF FURS FURTHER ADVANCED THAN DRESSING AND DYEING 
WHEN PREPARED FOR USE AS MATERIAL, INCLUDING PLATES, LINING, AND 
CROSSES AND ARTICLES MADE FROM FUR, N. S. P. F., OTHER THAN SEAL. 



1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 

1914. 



1915.. 

1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1919.. 
1920.. 
1918 ». 
19191. 
19201. 
1921 «. 



{ 



35 per cent ". 
35 per cent*.. 

do 

....do 

35 per cent. . . 
40 per cent *. . 
40 per cent... 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 



II 
1 



,698,340 
,133,628 
794,263 
936,506 
237,443 
249,742 
237,550 
270,032 
277,391 
101,797 

50,265 
391,787 

70,206 
182,136 
315,122 
171,929 



S594,419 

396,770 

277,992 

327,777 

83,105 

99,897 

95,020 

108,013 

110,956 

40,719 

20,106 

156; 715 

28,082 

72,854 

126,048 

68,768 



35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 



WEARING APPAREL OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, PARTLY OR WHOLLY MANUFAC- 
TURED, COMPOSED OF OR OF WHICH FUR IS THE COMPONENT MATERIAL OF CHIEF 
VALUE. 



1910 ". 
1911... 
1912... 
1913... 



50x>ercent. 

do 

do 

do 



w 1315,809 
472,939 
325,832 
392,188 



$157,904 
236,470 
162,916 
196,094 



50 
50 
50 
o) 



WEARIN"G APPAREL OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, PARTLY OR WHOLLY MANUFACTURED, 
COMPOSED OR IN CHIEF VALUE OF HIDES OR SKINS OF CATTLE, DOG, OR GOAT. 



1914" 


15 oer cent ' 


$180 

299 

1,594 

5,068 

19,575 

85 

1,447 

19,591 

1,273 

416 

156 


$27 
45 

239 

760 

2,936 

13 

217 
2,938 

190 
62 
23 




15 


1915 


do 




15 


1916 


do 




15 


1917..^..-. ..... 


..... do ............ 




15 


1918 


do 






15 


1919. - 


do 






15 


1920 


do 




15 


19181 


do 




15 


19191 


do --- - 


15 


19201 


do 






15 


1921« 


do 






15 













1 Calendar year. 

* Six months ended June 30, 1921. 

< New law, Oct. 4, 1913, to June 30, 1914. 

» Old law, July 1 to Oct. 3, 1913. 



" Aug. 6, 1909, to June 30, 1910, imder act of 1909. 
1" Excludes small amount imported from Cuba. 
H Oct. 1, 1913, to June 30, 1914. 



34 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Imports for consumption — Revenue — Continued . 

WEARING APPAREU OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, PARTLY OR WHOLLY MANUFAC- 
TURED. COMPOSED OR IN CHIEF VALUE OF FUR. N. S. P. F. 



Fiscal year. 



Rate of duty. 



Quantity. 



1914 i& 

1915 , 

1916 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1920 

19181 

19191 

19201 i do 

19212 ! do 



50 per cent . 

do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 



Number. 



Vahie. 



$344,507 

110,974 

75,917 

123,355 

100,192 

13,599 

94,240 

14,692 

85,476 

124,238 

29,328 



Duty 
collected. 



$172, 
55, 
37, 
61, 
50, 

1: 



253 
487 
958 
678 
096 
799 
120 
346 
738 
119 
664 



Value per 

unit of 
quantity. 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Per cent. 



50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
60 



FURS NOT ON THE SKIN, PREPARED FOR HATTERS' USE, INCLUDING FUR SKINS, 

CARROTED. 



1907 20 per cent 



1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 

1914. 

1915. 
1916. 
1917. 

1918. 



1919.. 
1920.. 
1918 1. 
1919 1. 
19201. 
1921 «. 



do. 

do 

do 

do 

do , 

do 

20 per cent 8 

15 per cent < 

15 per cent 

do 

do 

/ do 

\15 to 20 per cent". 

15 per cent 

do 



{■ 



.do. 

.do. 

.do. 

do. 



Pounds. 



80,422 
398,286 



138,913 
341,257 
196,459 



$897,401 
729,516 
923,088 

1,499,815 
599,390 
959,300 
472,304 
108,052 
499,202 
352,705 
293,056 
640,534 
475,507 
10,778 
228,721 

1,565,000 
446,242 
496,559 

1,387,420 
262,562 



$179,480 

145,903 

184,617 

299,963 

119,878 

191,860 

94,461 

21,610 

74,880 

52,906 

43,958 

96,080 

71,326 

1,293 

34,308 

234,750 

66,936 

74,483 

208,113 

39,384 



$2.84 
3.92 



3.57 
4.06 



20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 

ap 

15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
12 
15 
15 

1^ 
15 
15 
15 



FUR WASTE. 



1907 ' 10 per cent 



1908 .....do. 

1909 do. 

1910 do. 

1911 1 do. 

1912 do. 

1913 do. 

1914 ' do. 

1915 do. 

1916 do. 

1917 do. 

1918 do. 

1919 i.....do. 

1920 do. 

19181 do. 

19191 do. 

19201 do. 

1921 « ! do. 



1,121,958 
645,087 



541,773 

708,910 

56,648 



$231,469 

190,449 

265,265 

208,278 

152,826 

114,238 

105,896 

78,580 

40,545 

61,667 

63,112 

84,501 

134,425 

167,205 

166,970 

79,060 

168,510 

17,383 



$23,146 

19,045 

25,526 

20,828 

15,282 

11,424 

10,590 

7,858 

4,054 

6,167 

6,311 

8,450 

13,442 

16,720 

16,697 

7,906 

16,851 

1,738 



$0,120 
.259 



.146 
.237 



1 Calendar year. 

« Six months ended June 30, 1921. 
* New law, Oct. 4, 1913, to .lune 30, 1914. 
8 Old law, July 1 to Oct. 3. 1913. 

1^ Excludes small amount imported for use of foreign ministers or from the Philippine Islands. 
i« Reciprocity with Cuba. 



10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 



I 

TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

Domestic exports, fiscal years, 
FURS AND FUR SKlNS.i 

Exported to— ' 1910 

France I $1,102,749 

Germany I 4,879,032 

England. 5,536,«28 

<3anada 11 2,780,128 

All other 1 204,298 

Total I 14,501,636 



35 



1911 



$613,631 

2,239,011 

5,434,210 

1,950,713 

235,952 



10,473,517 



FURS AND FUR SKTNS, RAW OR UNMANUFACTURED.2 




Exported to— 


1912 


Exported to— 


1912 


■Rftlgiiirn 


$107, 574 

833,495 

4,946,088 

6, 163, 867 


Canada 


$2,260,475 
48,500 


France 


All other 


-i? Arm on 17 


Total 




■RTigland . rn 


14,360,008 







FURS AND FUR SKINS, RAW OR UNMANUFACTURED— SEALSKiNS.s 



Exported to— 



England. 
Canada.. 



Total. 



1913 



Nuwber. 
3,837 



3,837 



DoUars. 
188,700 



1914 



Number. 
1,343 



188,700 I 1,343 



DoUars. 
37,199 



1915 



Number. 



8 



37,199 



8 



Dollars. 



405 



405 



Exported to— 


1916 


1917 


1918 


England 


Number. 


DoUars. 


Number. 


D(Mars. 


Nwmber. 


DoUars. 


•TiAiiada . . 


^ 


600 




















Total 


30 


600 












1 1 





FURS AND FUR SKINS, RAW OR UNMANUFACTURED— OTHER THAN SEALSKINS.* 



Exported to— 



Bel^tun . 
France. , . 
Oermany, 
England. 
Canada.. 
Sweden. . 
All other. 



Total, 



1913 



$117, 100 
1,054^228 
6, 184, 160 
7,117,936 
2,76^546 



35,233 



17,276,203 



1914 



$60,543 

938,333 

4, 291, 869 

7, 721, 921 

1,023,610 



1915 



25,072 



14,061,348 



$56,353 
105,983 
1,403,609 
818,424 
47, 251 
108,899 



2, 540, 519 



1916 



1917 



4,373,127 

1,673,939 

84,797 

218,813 



6,852,473 



6, 594, 532 

1,855,874 

124,720 

219,754 



10,490,438 



1918 



$501, 797 I $1, 695, 558 | $536, 640 



7,866,242 

2,099,925 

97,666 

199,059 



10,799,532 



1 Stated separately as "Raw" and "Dressed, etc.," after 1911. 
3 Stated separately as "Sealskins" and "All other" after 1912. 
3 Not separately stated prior to 1913. 

< Included under "Fur and fur skins" prior to 1912, and under "Fur and fur skins, raw or unmanufac- 
tured," in 1912. 



36 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Domestic exports, fiscal years— ^oniinned. 

FURS AND FUR SKINS, RAW OR UNMANUFACTURED. 



Exi)orted to— 



France... 
England. 
Canada.. 
Sweden.. 
All other. 



Total. 



1919 



$1,262,768 

4,775,668 

3, 456, 108 

463,309 

317,469 



1920 



$4,350,017 

15,775,507 

7,568,973 



July 1 to 

Dec. 31, 

1920. 



2,433,753 



10, 275, 342 30, 137, 340 



$382,377 

1,878,614 

845,666 



828,091 



3,934,748 



Calendar 
year, 
1920. 



$3,545,474 

13,807,582 

6,188,406 



2,731,845 



26,273,307 



First 6 months calendar year 1921, total, $6,348,379. 

FURS AND FUR SKINS, DRESSED, AND MANUFACTURES OF.^ 



Exported to— 



T 



France. 
Germany 
Englanc 
Canada... 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Australia. 
Argentina. 
AlTother. . 



1912 



Total. 



$13,727 
68,802 
32,334 

310,356 
60,530 
24,493 
30,757 



74,352 



615,441 



1913 



$10,658 
72,576 
68,672 

628,031 
30,865 
21,655 
14,225 
195 
77,806 



1914 



924,683 



$100,555 
76,668 
50,997 
422,790 
42,889 
18,524 
15,558 
157 
92,706 



1915 



870,824 



$201,787 

1,935 

528,145 

286,304 

27,778 

20,581 

37,358 

32,813 

116,834 



1,253,535 



1916 



1917 



$538,989 $1,606,011 



936,855 
445,761 
58,207 
21,974 
14,460 
47,436 
372,031 



1,913,053 

902,975 

103,252 

39,098 

16,412 

74,909 

583,012 



2,435,713 ! 5,238,722 



Exported to— 


1 
1918 1919 


1920 


July 1 to 

Dec. 31, 

1920. 


Calendar 
year 1920. 


France 


$815,306 $1,487,747 
847,836 383,021 
874, 023 869. 604 


$4,011,338 
1,714,853 
1,448,180 


$691,459 
308,039 
484,307 


$2,944,529 
1,145,739 
1,257,964 


England 


Canada 


Mexico 


53.041 




Cuba ! 16.' 477 


•• 








Australia 


36,129 










Argentina 


221,449 


318, 977 


436,857 


135,803 


472,292 

68 


Norway 


Denmark 








12,450 
322,184 


66,682 
726, 414 


All other 


239,838 


1,277,324 


1, 134, 529 






Total 


3,104,099 


4,336,673 


8,745,757 


1,954,242 


6,613,688 





5 Included in "Furs and fur skins" prior to 1912. 
Total for first 6 months of calendar year 1921, $771,506. 

Ifx ports of foreign merchandise, by countries, fiscal years. 
FURS, AND MANUFACTURES OF, EXCEPT FUR HATS. 



1910 



1911 



Exported to— 



Furs and 
I fur skins, 
I un- 
! dressed. 



Belgium , $5,202 

Prance 60,719 

Germany 197, 922 

England. 70,K71 

Canada 224,867 

All other 27,556 

^ Total ' 587,137 



Furs, 
dressed, 
and man- 
ufactures 
of. 



Furs and 
fur skins, 

un- 
dressed. 



I 



$15, 373 
95,392 
26,664 

127, 861 
552 



$343, 738 

186, 792 

35, 418 

216,227 

2,750 



265,812 784,925 



Furs, 
dressed 
on the 

skin. 



$1,908 
22,273 
141, 735 
15,432 
43, 332 
1,694 



Manufac- 
tures of 
furs, in- 
cluding 
waste. 



226,374 



$1,180 
19,053 
92,075 
14,827 
82,725 
1,760 



211, 620 



TARIFF INPOBMATION SUKVEyS. 



37 



ErporU pffonign merehantKBe^ hf (mintnes, ftteai y««r»— Contmtted. 

FURS, AND MANUFACTURES OF, EXCEPT FUR HATS— Continued. 



Exported to— 



1912 



Belgium 

France :^ 

Oermany 

England. 

Canada 

Another 

Total 



Furs and 

fur skins. 

undressed. 



115,498 
241,216 
203,553 
89,257 , 
362,154 
4,952 



Furs, 

dressed on 

the skin. 



$11,572 

9,721 

70,346 

31,876 

81,729 

1,470 



916,630 i 206,714 



Manulao> 
ture of 
furs, includ- 
ing waste. 



$1,663 
2,377 

21,843 
4,724 

86,^678 



117,285 



1913 



Furs and 

furskinsr. 

undressed. 



$14,282 
112,694 
138,815 
254,794 
720,958 
1,936 



Furs, 

dressed on 

the sMu. 



$21,592 
15,255 
83,.677 
21,536 

OOf o44 

2,961 



1,243,479 



198,855 



Manufac- 
tures of 
furs, includ- 
^ ing waste. 



$714 

655 

15,556 

7,999 

86,109 

372 



111,405 



Exported to— 



1914 



B^gium... 

France 

Germany.. 
England... 

Canada 

All other... 

Total 



Furs and 
fur skins, 
undressed. 



$897 

94,992 

189,008 

61,536 

209,583 

1,817 



Furs, 

dressed on 

the skin. 



Manufoc- 
tures of 
furs, includ- 
ing waste. 



$6,781 
53,874 
97,307 
40,492 
14,667 
5,427 



557,833 218,548 



1915 



Furs and 

fur skins, 

undressed. 



$5,198 
22,003 
12, 329 
55,353 
864 



$28,258 

6,719 

19,788 

225,479 
2,700 



95, 747 279, 944 



Furs, 

dressed on 

the skin. 



$969 

5,237 

9,568 

147, 751 

70,596 

8,081 



242,202 



Manufac- 
tures of 
furs, includ- 
ing waste. 



$3,941 

2,644 

45,008 

60 



61,653 



Exported t( 



France 

England... 

Canada 

All other... 

Total 



1916 



Furs and 

fur skins. 

undressed. 



$1,400 

66,254 

472, 937 

2,740 



Furs 

dressed on 

the skin. 



$1,213 

16,987 

61,367 

4,773 



Manufac- 
tures of, 
including 
waste. 



543,331 



84, 340 



$558 

26,442 

94,103 

1,752 



122,855 



1917 



Furs and 
fur skins, 
undressed. 



$7,700 

26,463 

496,586 



530,749 



Furs ' Manufac- 
Ar.l^I^^r^ 1 tures of, 

thTsto , ^"^l"^i"g 
inesKm. | ^^ste. 



$2,692 

23,404 

97, 458 

4,080 



$3,923 

1,151 

81,822 

652 



127,634 



87,448 



Exported to— 



France.. - 
England. 
Canada. . 
All other. 



Furs and 

fur skins, 

undressed. 



$2,000 

61,550 

628, 817 

2,523 



Total. 



694, 890 ! 



1918 






1919 




Furs 

dressed on 

the skin. 

~* ■ ■ - 
$10,825 


Manufac- 
tures of, 

including 
waste. 


Furs and 

fur skins, 

undressed. 


Furs 

dressed on 

the skin. 


Manufac- 
tiues of, 

including 
waste. 


$80 






7,000 






112,309 
20,477 


122,830 




1 




\ 


150, 611 


122,910 


$148,448 


$625 


$18, 962 



1920: 



Fur»«id ftir «kins , undressed ^61, 03 1 

Furs dressed on the skin 19,889 

Manuitotures of fu r , including waste 1 4, 071 



38 



TAitl^F INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Exports of foreign Tnerchandise, by countries ^ fiscal years — Continued. 

FURS— PRICES PER PELT AS OF JANUARY OF EACH YEAR QUOTEli. 
[Data from War Industries Bo^rd) Price Bulletin No. 27.] .-^ , 



Kinds or grades. 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Mink 


$3.00 

1.30 

3.00 

.25 

.65 

6.75 

.70 

15.50 

6.10 


$2.00 

1.00 

1.75 

.18 

.40 

4.75 

.60 

9.25 

4.00 


$2.50 

1.70 

2.75 

.25 

.60 

3.75 

.65 

5.75 

6.25 

^ 3.25 

175.00 


$2.25 

2.00 

3.00 

.40 

.60 

7.48 

.72 

8.53 

5.14 

3.10 

133.00 


$^.75 

2.50 

3.50 

.60 

1.00 

14.00 
1.10 

19.00 

15.60 

5.20 

154.00 


$4.00 


Raccoon 


3.50 


Skunk ^ 


4.75 


Muskrat 


1.30 


Opossiun 


1.10 


Beaver , 


16.60 


Ermine 


1.18. 


Lynx 


26.75 


Marten 


21.00 


P ersians 




Silver fox 






160.00 


Rabbit skins 






.34 


Russian sable 


1 


45.00 


55.00 


60.66 
.26 


S0.0O 


Mole 




.08 













LONDON FUR SALES. 



The following statement shows the number of furs sold at public 
auction by Lampson & Co., London, England, during 1918 and 1919: * 



'A 



Kinds of furs. 



Bear 

Beaver 

Cat: 

avet... 

House.. 

Wild... 

Ermine 

Fitch 

Fox: 

Gray.... 

Kitt.... 

Red.... 

Silver... 

White.. 
Hare, white 
Kolinsky... 



Number of skins sold. 



1918 



9,521 
11,205 

110,658 
18,899 
18,721 
33,954 
33,375 

6,052 
5,550 

10,990 

2,010 

5,252 

206,027 

19,026 



1919 



15,351 
5,587 

129,968 

36,934 

9,512 

108,031 
22,694 

12,296 

11, 153 

37,904 

3,517 

5,424 

107,743 

39,828 



Kinds of furs. 



Lamb 

Mink 

Mole 

Moufflon , 

Musquash 

Nutria 

Opossum: 
American. 
Australian 
Ringtail... 

Raccoon. , 

Skunk , 

Squirrel , 

Wallaby , 

Wolf 



Number of skins sold. 



1918 



41 
54 

506 

39 

1,421 

132 

775 

75 

46 

85 

769 

288 

265 

20 



,974 
,442 
,164 
,148 
,907 

,809 
,978 
,538 
,320 
,583 
,566 
,809 
,292 



1919 



21,703 

60,664 

1,629,723 

36,266 

359,701 

134,719- 

893,469^ 
19(),947 
8,588. 

49,20a 
918, 78.^ 
649,386 
137,306 

30, 195. 



Kinds of fur. 



Raccoon.. 
Musquash. 
Skunk.... 



Mink 

Fox: 

Red 

Gray 

Kitt 

White 

Australian red. 



Number of skins sold. 



Total, 1919. May, 1920. 



Lynx. 

Fisher.. 

Bea\er. 

Bear... 

Wolf... 



Marten, stone. 
Fitch 



Ermine. . - 
Squirrel. . . 
Chinchilla. 
Mole 



Hare, white 

Lamb, etc 

Moufflon , 

Opossum: 

American . 

Australian . 

Ringtail... 
Wallaby...... 

Nutria 



... ! 



49,208 
359,761 
918,783 

60,604 

37,904 

12,296 

11,153 

5,424 

10,310 

959 

1,799 

5,587 

15,351 

30, 195 

5,548 

22,694 

108,031 

049,386 

4,071 

1,629,723 

100, 743 

21,703 

36,266 

893,469 
196,947 
8,588 
137,306 
134,719 



9,723 

98,320 

245,915 

9,098 

70,379 

3,163 

158 

2,212 

18,366 

37 

150 

712 

1,734 

9,808 

0,221 

11,237 

54, 158 

35,043 

1,207 

971,924 

27, 253 

8,393 

529 

245,765 

18,235 

6,949 

45,240 

18,096 



ctober, 
1920. 


Total, 1920. 


18,228 


35,968^ 


213,348 


410,702- 


172, 143 


700,851 


12, 249 


48,696 


30,270 


121,719 


0,544 


18,735 


217 


24, 173 


4,009 


10,792- 


t4,007 


112,150 


176 


600 


102 


1,042- 


77S 


2,209 


2,290 


5,451 


14,905 


38, 165 


3,404 


11,803^ 


0,533 


29,926 


30,012 


107,539- 


112.505 


257,555 


284 


2,532 


151,448 


1,686,090 


145, 141 


255,842 


13, 094 


28,482 


529 


5,41^ 


281, 180 


705,853 


40,342 


71,588 


10,078 


20,477 


27,171 


131,304 


5,195 


54,396 



* Commerce Reports Nos. 230-306. 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SCTBVEYS. 



39 



Estimate of the averaae annual fur 'production of North America ^ estimated by E. Brass 

on the basis of proauctixm for the three years ^ 1907-1909, 



[OomiiilssloQ ofGooservation, Canada: Fur Fanning in Canada, 1914, p. 186.] 



Kind of fur: 

L3mx or wildcat 

House cat 

Timber wolf 

Prairie wolf 

Red fox 

Silver fox 

CroBsfox 

White fox 

Blue fox 

Gray fox 

Kit fox 

Hudson Bay marten. 

Fisher 

Mink 

Weasel (ermine) 

Wolverene 

Badger. 



80 

8 

40 

200 

4 

16 

30 

6 

50 

4 

1 20 

10 

60 

. . . 400 

3 

30 

Skunk 1,500 

Civet cat (small skunk) 100 

Otter 30 

Raccoon 600 

"\^ite bear 

Black bear 20 

Brown bear 3 

Grizzly bear 1 

Marmot 30 

Beaver 80 

Muskrat or musquash 8, 000 

Opossum 1,000 

Hare 200 

Musk ox 



Skins. 

90,000 
000 



000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
400 
000 
000 
200 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
500 
Average production valued at approximately $24, 000, 000 

Production in Canada.^ 

HATS, CAPS, AND FURS— COMPARATIVE STATISTICS FOR 1910 AND 1915. 



Items. 




Number of establishments 

Capital : 

Salaries and wages 

Cost of material 

Value of products 



139 

$10,653,627 

$2,244,170 

$6,329,698 

$11, 155, 103 



1915 



115 
$6,551,127 
$2,001,993 
$4,002,626 
$7,326,880 



FURS, AND MANUFACTURES 0F.« 



Industry. 



Hats, caps, and furs 

1901 

1905 

1915 

1917 

19188 

Furs, dressed: 

1905.../ 

1917 

Fur goods: 1917 



Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 




Capital. 



235 
510 
461 
578 
530 



Employees Wages 
on wages. paid. 



Cost of 
materials. 



Value of 
product^. 



3,273 
3,889 
3,114 
3,558 
3,867 



214 
488 
267 



$881,960 
1,180,840 
1,265,088 
2,457,943 
2,665,674 

76,552 
347,296 
204,383 



$3,328,984 



4,084,021 
8,446,416 
8,438,424 




$5,876,467 

9,104,297 

7,559,257 

15,551,825 

17,112,425 

1,970,190 
1,071,805 
1,523,552 



» Data from Postal Census of Manufactures, Canada. 1916. The census of 1910 was limited to industries 
employing five hands or over, while that of 1915 included all establishments irrespective of nimiber of 
onployees. Data for 1915 have been brought to 1910 basis. 

« Data from the Canada Year Book. 

« Data from United States Commerce Reports, Aug. 28, 1920. 



40 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Canada* 9 foreign trade vnfwra,^ 



Furs, and manufactures of, imported from— 



Astrakhan or Russian hare skins and China goat plates or rugs, 
wholly or partially dressed but not dyed (free) 

United States 

United Kingdom 

China 

Other countries 

Fur skins of all kinds, not dressed in any manner n. e. s. (free) 

United States 

United Kingdom 

Germany 

Russia 

Other countries 

Fur skins, wholly or partially dressed, n. e. s. (dutiable) 

United States 

United Kingdom 

France 

Germany ^ 

Other countries 

Manufactures of fur (dutiable) 

United States 

United Kingdom 

France 

Germany 

Other countries 

Otlier furs (free) 

United States 

United Kingdom 

Other countries 

EECAPITULATION. 

United States 

Dutiable 

Free 

United Kingdom 

Dutiable 

Free 

Other countries 

Dutiable 

. Free 

Grand total 

Dutiable 

Free 



Fiscal yvars eadiiig Mar. 31— 



, 1914 



$86,086 

17,880 

16,723 

26,895 

24,588 

2,241,877 

1, 388, 415 

250,269 

411,607 

67, 110 

124,476 

699,979 

148,503 

153, 711 

164,311 

215,357 

18,097 

719, 598 

215,209 

439,540 

11,482 

50,331 

3,a34 

7,088 

6,869 

26 

193 



1,776, 
363, 

1,413, 
860, 
593, 
267, 

1,117, 
462, 
654, 



876 
712 
164 
269 
251 
018 
481 
612 
869 



1915 



$126,045 

63,124 

45,127 

5,485 

12,309 

1,328,864 

1, 124, 144 

68,230 

118,601 

52 

17,828 

375^675 

135,252 

62,583 

95,880 

67,351 

14,620 

401,889 

159, 705 

219,084 

10,644 

11,723 

733 

6,976 

6,638 



1916 



$101,880 

65,612 

16,323 

540 

19,405 

1,986,581 

1,937,386 

33,087 



16,108 

348,168 

239,820 

40,402 

60,219 



8,727 

284,625 

161, 376 

122,904 

345 



7,131 
6,631 



1,488, 
294, 

1, 193, 
395, 
281, 
113, 
355, 
200, 
154, 



338 j 

I 
863 I 
957 ; 
906 

033 ; 

667 
366 
553 
940 
613 



500 

2, 410, 825 

401,196 

2,009,629 

212, 716 

163,306 

49,410 

105,844 

69,291 

36,553 



3,754,626 
1, 419, 575 
2,335,051 



2,239,449 

777,564 I 
1,461,885 



2, 729, 385 

633, 793 

2, 095, 592 



Furs and manufactures of, imported from— 



Astrakhan or Russian hare skins and China goat plates 
or rugs, wholly or partially dressed, but not dyed. . . 

Umted States 

United Kingdom 

Other countries 

Fur skins of all kinds, not dressed in any manner 

United States 

United Kingdom 

Other countries 

Fur skins wholly or partially dressed 

United States 

United Kingdom 

Other countries , 

Manufactures of fur 

United States , 

United Kingdom , 

Other countries , 

Hatters' fur , 

United States 

United Kingdom 

Other furs 

United States 

Other countries 

Grand total 

United States 

United Kingdom 

Other countries 



Fiscal years ending Mar. 31— 



1917 



$103,431 

72,211 

27,613 

3,607 

2,288,766 

2,234,627 

5,026 

49, 113 

687,595 

504,906 

50,930 

131,759 

488,101 

304,601 

183,474 

26 

196,525 

190,528 

6,997 

301 

297 

4 



1918 



$133,172 
111,824 




21,348 

2,894,365 

2,775,486 

27,453 

91,426 

518,721 

346,659 

38,889 

133, 173 

417,308 

323,690 

92,420 

1,198 

308,536 

292,505 

16,031 

3,904 

3,746 

158 



102,806 

3,378,179 

3,092,467 

47,410 

238,302 

635, 430 

397,610 

13,172 

224,648' 

350,769 

262,367 

87,874 

528 

507,837 

465,894 

41,943 

12,992 

6,120 

6,872 



3,764,719 



3,307,170 
273,040 
184,509 



4,276,006 



3,853,910 
174,793 
247,303 



5,030,874 



4,267,319 
190,399 
673,156 



1920 



$366,315 

104, 174 

192,259 

69,882 

10,295,065 

9,413,769 

324,459 

556,837 

1,329,607 

686,554 

104,769 

538,284 

267,038 

233,238 

32,576 

1,224 

582,301 

542,378 

49,923 

27,194 

2,985 

24,209 



12,877,520 



10,983,098 

703,986 

1,190,436 



^ Data from Trade Reports, Department of Customs, Canada. 



TABIPF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



41 



Canada* i foreign tradt in furs — Continued. 



y ■■ I I* ^BBIPTHftCtUrCS Oly 

eo^ported to— 



United states.. 



United Kingdom. 

Otiier cotnitiies. , 

Fur skins, not dressed 

United States 

United Kingdom 

Otiier countries 

Fur skins, the produce of ma- 
rine animals 

United States 

United Kingdom 

O tlxer countries 

Mannfactures of fur 

United States 

United Kingdom 

Otlier countries 



Orand total. 



United States 

United Kingdom. 
Other countries... 



Fiscal years ending Mar. 31— 



1914 



1915 



10,035 
1,261 
254 
5,557,926 
2,139,228 
3,069,305 
359,393 

45,203 

3,174 

42,029 



53,070 

23,992 

21,597 

7,481 



929,802 

19,506 

«,300 

4,056 

2,726,961 

1,820,887 

1,297,702 

108,372 

12,574 
5,042 
7,528 

29,808 
8,537 

17,097 
4,174 



1016 



5,667,749 ;2, 799, 205 



2,176,429 1,353,972 
3,124,192 1,328,627 
367,128 116,606 



f IK), 198 

106,386 

2,flOS 

1,207 

4,'6a8,ld9 

8,«44,097 

929,217 

94,825 

19,156 
12,373 

6,717 

66 

37,192 

10,560 

19,282 

7,360 



4,834,685 



3,n3,416 
957,821 
103,448 



ion 



$70,747 
33,476 
18,379 
18,802 
5,684,720 
4,801,423 
869,455 
13,842 

43,497 

38,477 

6,020 



38,419 
10,021 
18,027 
10,371 



5,837,383 



4,883,397 6,470,966 



1918 



$M,614 

51,446 

900 

42,509 

8,024,021 

6,355,061 

1,651,649 

17,313 

49,600 
47,396 

1,300 

911 

31,166 

17,062 

4,060 
10,044 



1919 



185,381 

89,017 

to, 125 

30,239 

13,499,431 

9,658,758 

3,743,178 

97,500 

32,358 
31,502 

856 



120,461 

14,192 

3,796 

102,463 



1020 



494,488 

33,180 

35,«32 

26,976 

20,617,291 

16,532,801 

3,936,839 

147,651 

10,818 

8,021 

2,700 

97 

199,174 

20,532 

83,846 

94,796 



8,199,312 



910,881 
43,105 



1,657,509 
70,837 



13,737,621 ;20,921,971 



9,743,464 16,594,534 



3,763,955 
230,202 



4,058,917 
268,520 



The most recent data relating to the domestic production of fm*s in 
Canada are for 1910, in which year the value of the principal classes 
of skins and furs of Wild animals coUected was : 



Kind of fur. 



Assorted. 
Bear 



Beaver. 
Fox 



Lynx (including wildcat) 

Marten 

Mink 

Muskrat 

Otter 

Seal (fur) 

All others 



Total. 



Number. 



4,509 
24,895 
17,589 

8,159 

31,437 

45,973 

915,754 

5,721 

5,108 
91,036 



Value. 



$445,320 
44,923 
131,833 
222,145 
114,756 
221,583 
221,500 
256,213 
102,291 
32,997 
133,989 



1,927,550 



The production of furs in Canada in 1910 was more than double 
that of 1900, the value increasing by 114.25 per cent during the 
decade. It is said that while fur values have risen in recent years 
the number of skins collected shows a decrease in ea^h class on tte- 
count of the gradual settlement of previously uninhabited regions. 



42 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Rates of duty. 



Act of— 




1883.. 

1883.. 
1883.. 
1883.. 
1890.. 

1890.. 



1890. 
1890. 
1894. 

1894. 
1894. 

1894. 



1897. 
1897. 



1897. 
1897. 

1909. 



1909. 
1909. 

1913. 



1913. 
1913. 



435 

450 
705 
706 
444 

461 



687 
588 
492 

493 
329 

353 



426 



450 



561 
562 

439 



Tariff classification or description. 



573 
574 

348 



491 
603 



Fur, articles made of, and not specially enumerated or provided 

for in this act. 

Hatters' furs, not on the skin, and dressed furs on the skin 

Furs, undressed 

Fur skins of all kinds, not dressed in any manner 

Furs, dressed on the skin, but not made up into articles, and furs 

not on the skin, prepared for hatters' use. 
Manufactures of fur * * * dr of which these substances or 

either of them is the component material of chief value * * * 

not specially provided for in this act. 

Furs, undressed 

Fur-skins of all kinds not dressed in any manner 

Furs, undressed; dressed fur pieces suitable only for use in the 

manufacture of hatters' fur. 

Fur skins of all kinds not dressed in any manner 

Furs dressed on the skin, but not made up into turtides 

Furs not on the skin, prepared for hatters' use 

Manufactures of * * * fur * * * or of which these sub- 
stances or either of them is the comiwnent material of chief 

value, all of the above not specially provided for in this act. 
Furs dressed on the skin, but not made up into articles, and furs 

not on the skin, prepared for hatters' use, including fur skins 

carroted. 
* * ♦ manufactures of fur * * * or of which these sub- 
stances or either of them is the component material of chief 

value, not specially provided for * * *, 

Furs, undressed 

Fur skins of all kinds not dressed in any manner and not specially 

provided for in this act. 
Furs dressed on the skin, not advanced further than dyeing, but 

not repaired. 
Manufactures of furs, further advanced th&n. dressing and dyeing, 

whan prepared for use as material, including plates, linings, 

and crosses. 
Articles of wearing apparel of every description^ partly or wholly 

manufactures, composed of or of which fur is the component 

material of chief value. 
Furs not on the skin, prepared for hatters' uSe, including fur skins 

carroted. 

Furs, undressed 

Fur sldns of all kinds not dressed in any manner and not specially 

provided for in this section. 

Furs dressed on the skin, not advanced further than dyeing 

Plates and mats of dog and goat skins , 

Manufactures of furs, farther advanced than dressing and dyeing, 

when prepared for use as material, joined or sewed together, 

including plates, linings, and crosses, except plates and mats of 

dog and goat skins, and articles manufactured from fur not 

specially provided for in this section. 
Articles of wearing apparel of every description, partly or wholly 

manufactured, composed of or of which nides or skins of cattle 

of the bovine species or of the dog or goat are the component 

material of chief value. 
Articles of wearing apparel of every description, partly or wholly 

manufactured, composed of or of which fur is the comiwnent 

material of chief value, not specially provided for in this section. 
Furs not on the skin, preparea for hatters' use, including fur skins 

carroted. 

Furs and fur skins, undressed 

Skins of hares, rabbits, dogs, goats, and sheep, undressed 



Rates of duty, specific 
and ad va^iexa. 



30 per cent ad valorem. 

20 per cent ad valorem. 
Free. 

Do. 
20 per cent ad valorem. 

35 per cent ad valorem. 



Free. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
20 per cent ad valorem. 

Do. 
30 per cent ad valorem. 



20 per cent ad valorem. 

35 per cent ad valorem. 

Free. 
Do. 

20 per cent ad valorem. 

35 per cent ad valorem. 

50 per cent ad valorem. 

20 per cent ad valorem. 

Free. 
Do. 

30 per cent ad valorem. 
10 per cent ad valorem. 
40 per cent ad valorem. 



15 per cent ad valorem. 



50 per cent ad valorem. 



15 per cent ad valorem. 

Free. 
Do. 



CouBT AND Treasury Decisions. 



Dressed animal sTcins with the wool or hair on, when unprofitable 
to separate the wool or hair from the skin and use it for wool or 
hair purposes, are not within the terms ^Vools^' or ''hair'' (pars. 
286, 304, and 650), but are, if devoted to fur uses, within the word 
''furs'' in paragraph 348 which is not limited to products of strictly 
iur-bearing animals, but include sheepskins with wool on when de- 
voted to fur uses and not bearing so great an amount of wool as 
to make it commercially practicable to remove the wool and use it 
Tfor wool purposes. SheepsJcins, entire, or pieced hy sewing in the 



TARIFF rSTOBJLAlJOlS SURVEYS. 43 

diaper of rectangles and crosses irifi ike matvral gromtk tkertam 
ano the flesh side dressed, used as cMxhuaiy for skins are used, and 
not l>eanng wocd to the extent mjiking remoTal of the wocd ocHnm^- 
ci&llir practieaUe, are withm the jMX>Tiskm fcM* "furs dressed on the 
skml" (Avers r. United Sutes, 8 Ct, Cust. Appls.. 87, <rf 1917.) 
Hitir too dkori to he co mme rcially spun into yam or for Uke wtaUng of 
te^EiHes and chiefly cm|Joyed in the making oi furs or for garments, 
or for other for nses, is that kind oi hair which is known as for, 
tfaou^ it be takoi frmn the back of a ^eep. The hair of the Angwa 
rabbit resembles that of the Angora goat <»- alpaca more neaiiy 
thao it does that of the sheep tff the camel. (Blomningdale r. United 
States. 8 Ct. Cust. Ap{ds., 104, of 1917.) Crosses made of dressed 
kidskins sewed togetno* are within paranaph 348 as manofactnres 
of fur prepared lor use as matm^ joined or sewed togetho* and not 
as plates and mats of goatskins. It is not material for the purposes 
of this provision that soatskin crosses mi^t to some extent nave 
been impcoted if it is ^lown that thev are not commonly impcHted 
in that form. With proof that kidskins and goatskins are difleroit 
tbirigs conmi^tdally. the provision for roatskin arddes will be held 
not to include kidskin articles. Wim proof that "crosses" and 
''plates'' as applied to articles made of fur skins have distinct mean- 
ings, a cross can not be dutiable as a plate under paragraph 34S. 
(Seward r. United States, 9 Ct. Cust. Appls., 4, of 191S-.I SJi^ti^ 
shins tanrud and dressed and sewed in the lorm of rugs and commonly 
known in the trade as plates made from China sheepskins and ap- 
parently used in the making of fur robes for baby carriages are 
manufactures of fur within paragraph 34S. ''Abstract 42322, of 
1918.) 

Dressed goatskins and doo^hins are dutiable at 10 per cent by simil- 
itude to goatskin and dogskin plates and mats under the second pro- 
vision of paragraph 34S, there oeing no provision in the tarifl^ which 
includes than directlv. *G. A. 7569, T. D. 34493, of 1914: Abstract 
36623, of 1914, T. D.'34237, of 1914.; But China ooaiskin mats and 
rugs made up into completed articles are dutiable at 15 per cGot 
under paragraph 348. <T. D. 34544, of 1914.) Men's gloves having 
leather fingers, fur backs, and lined with fur and wool, w«% held 
dutiable as fur wearing apparel und^* paragraph 348. ''Abstract 
36969, of 1914.) F«r pieces or dippings cut from dressed and dyed 
rabbit skins, used for trimming supp^^, etc., were held dutiable 
under the first provision of paragraph 348. (Abstract 37558, of 
1915.) 

O 



r 





UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

ON THE ARTICLES IN 

PARAGRAPH 347 OF THE TARIFF ACT OF 1913 

AND RELATED ARTICLES IN OTHER PARAGRAPHS 



Paragraph 347: 

Featheits, Artiflcial 

Flowers and Millinery Ornaments 



REVISED EDITIOS 




J!h% 



WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1921 



CONTENTS. 



FEATHERS, ARTIFICAL FLOWERS, AND MILLINERY ORNAMENTS. 

Page 

Summary 7 

Summary table 8 

G eneral information : 

1913 tariff paragraph 8 

Description and classification 8 

Domestic production — 

Size and importance of the industry 9 

Concentration in New York City 9 

A seasonal industry 9 

Women and hand labor 9 

Hours of work 10 

Wages 10 

Home work 10 

Value of products 10 

Materials and processes 10 

Feather making 11 

Organization 11 

Geographical distribution 12 

Domestic production and consiunption 12 

Domestic exports 13 

The ostrich industry 13 

Foreign production 13 

Imports 14 

Chart showing decline of imports 15 

Prices 16 

Tariff history 16 

Competitive conditions and tariff considerations 16 

Statistical tables: 

Production in the United States 17 

Imports by countries 18 

Imports for consiunption, revenue 20 

Imports for consumption, classified 21 

Domestic exports 21 

Rates of duty 22 

Court and Treasury decisions 23 

Miscellaneous, statistical data from census abstract 25 

5 



FEATHERS, ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS, AND MILLINERY 

ORNAMENTS. 



SUMHABT. 



This survey deals paxticulaxly, but not exclusively, with manu- 
factured flowers and feathers suitable for millinery ornaments, 
although the statistical data include all classes of artificial flowers 
and fruits, and conmion feathers as well as ornamental feathers. 

There were 456 establishments engaged in the flower and feather 
industry in 1914, capitalized at $8,745,000, employing 9,291 wage 
earners, and turning out a product valued at $19,065,000. It is 
estimated that there were more home workers than factory workers 
engaged in the industry; in fact, only a few firms carry on all the 
work on flowers in factories. It is an industry employing mostly 
women and hand labor, 81.4 per cent of the factory workers being 
women. 

The industry is located almost wholly in New York City, 85.8 
per cent of the total value of products oeing credited to that city 
m 1914. It is a seasonal industry and faces periods of unemploy- 
ment. It is thus difficult to retain labor in the trade. Present 
wages paid in the industry are not known in detail, but the pre- 
vauing wages have always been low in comparison with other indus- 
tries. The individual form of ownership prevails and the size of 
establishments is usually small. The few large factories, however, 
turn out the greater part of the total output. 

The number of workers in the French artificial flower and feather 
industry is probably double that in the American industry. Flower 
makers in France and Germany remain in the trade and become 
more skilled than workers in the American industry. The season of 
imemployment is usually not so long as in America. The greatest 
advantage possessed by the French industry is its superiority in 
designing, which makes France the leader in styles. So long as this 
situation exists the demand for French flowers and feathers will 
persist. The high quality of their workmanship is also an important 
factor. Many small flowers requiring a great deal of patient hand 
labor are made in Germany. 

Imports for consumption before the war were about 50 per cent 
of the value of domestic products. Diuing the war imports declined 
from a total value of $12,442,828 in the fiscal year 1913 to $2,692,621 
in the fiscal year 1918. The figures for the fiscal year 1920 show 
an increase in imports over 1918, crude ostrich feathers reaching a 
total value of $2,015,326, and flowers and feathers suitable for muli- 
nery ornaments reaching a total value of $2,256,869, largely from 
France. Other classes nave not shown much increase since the 
close of the war. 

As long as style is the principal factor in the trade, and as long as 
Paris sets the style as well as produces flowers and feathers of supe- 



8 TARIFF INFORMATION' SURVEYS. 

rior workmanship, there will be a demand for imported flowers and 
feathers. The American producer will probably never attempt to 
make many of the small flowers imported from Germany which rwjuire 
30 much painstaking labor. The domestic production of common 
feathers for beds and pillows is not sufficient to supply the demand . 

Featken, artificial fioiven, and mitlinery ontamenU — Summary tabU. 





Dom«atic 
production. 


■ss? 


Domeatic 


RBtlo to produo- 


Value (Im- 


^..„o,SS- 






bnport,. 


Eiports. 


,i„r 




'MS, 981,000 




1 

eoD 
m 

311 

388 


806 

1 


Perctnl. 
50.22 


Pit ant. 

1.3 


' i 

30 

88 
71 


K3»,..,:'"a"!i 






















^t 


iR,oeG,ooa 


«.TO 


3.38 


2,321,306 1 4I.8£ 




























'OTi;7M , 36.110 
l.a3a,»U 36.47 














76 
i 87 












B7B,644 
















' ' 



> Imports for consumption luolode all teatbera, artificial flowers, and mUllnei)' omanucit* (dutiable). 
' Calendar year. 

General Information. 

1913 TARIFF paragraph. 

347. Feathers and downs, on the skin or otherwise, crude or not 
dressed, colored, or otherwise advanced or manufactured in any man- 
ner, nor specially provided for in this section, 20 per cent ad vdorem; 
when dressed, colored, or otherwise advanced or manufactured in 
any manner, and not suitable for use as millinery ornaments, including 
quilts of down and manufactures of down, 40 per cent ad valorem; 
artificial or ornamental feathers suitable for use as millinery orna- 
ments, artificial and ornamental fruits, ^ains, leaves, flowers, and 
stems or parts thereof, of whatever material composed, not specially 
provided for in this section, 60 per cent ad valorem; boas, bouton- 
nieres, wreaths, and all articles not specially provided for in this 
section, composed whoUy or in chief value of any of the feathers, 
flowers, leaves or other material herein mentioned, 60 per cent ad 
valorem: Provided, That the importation of aigrettes, egret plumes, 
or so-called osprey plumes, and the feathers, quills, heads, wings, 
tails, skins, or parts of skins of wild birds, either raw or manufactured, 
and not for scientific or educational purposes, is hereby prohibited; 
but this provision shall not apply to the feathers or plumes of ostriches, 
or to the feathers or plumes of domestic fowls of any kind. 

DESCRrPTION.' 

ATtifidalfiotaert. — ^This classiliciition iocludes the output of e8tal>liahDienta engaged 
in the manufacture of artificial leaves, palms, graasee, wreaths, plants, foli^e, and 
vines, thorns, buds and fruits, wax floweis, and in the preservation of Rowers and 

1 Abstract o[ the Census of Manulactures, 1>U— pp. 239, 340. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 9 

plants, stems, tubing, and other materials for use in the manufacture of artificial 
flowers. * There is considerable overlapping between this industry and ** feathers and 
plumes. " * * * In addition, artificial flowers to the value of $820,520 were reported 
in 1914 by establishments assigned to other classifications, principally '* feathers and 
plumes.*' 

Feathers and plumes, — This classification includes the output of establishments 
producing fancy feathers, plumes — ^horse, theatrical, hearse, military, and society — 
boas, muSs, and auills, and also those engaged in the dyeing, curling, and renovat- 
ing of ostrich featners. * * * In addition, feathers and plumes to the value of 
$1,339,869 were reported for 1914 by establishments assigned to other classifications, 
principally ** artificial flowers" (11,101,223), ''house-furnishing goods" (feather pillows 
and beds), and "millinery and lace goods" (trimmed hats and hat frames). 

DOMESTIC PRODUCTION.^ 

(a) Size and importance of the industry. — There were 456 establish- 
ments reported in 1914 engaged in the combined artificial flower and 
feather and plume industries. They employed 9,291 wage earners 
and their capital was $8,745,000, with a product valued at $19,065,000. 

The two industries were quite evenly divided as to number of 
establishments and the number of wage earners employed, but the 
value of products of the feather and plume industry was nearly 
$3,000,000 in excess of that of the artificial flower industry. The 
home manufacture of flowers is very extensive, but the number of 
people employed in this manner is not, of course, included in the 
above figures. 

(6) Concentration in New Yoric, — Only one industry in 1914, 
according to the Census of Manufactures, showed a greater degree of 
concentration in one State and one city than did flowers and feathers 
and plumes. New York City was credited with 85.8 per cent of the 
total value of products of the flower and feather industry. Not 
onl}r is the industry concentrated in New York City, but in one 
section of the city, namely, between Prince an^ Fourteenth streets. 

(c) A seasonal industry. — Flowers and feathers are both seasonal 
industries, and when their manufacture is carried on in the same 

. estabhshment they have a tendency to fit together, so that the slack 
season in feathers is the busy season in flowers. The average number 
employed in the flower industry in 1914 was 4,808, the maximum 
number being 5,418 in November and the minimum number being 
3,840 in June. The average number in the feather industry for the 
year was 4,483, while the maximum was 5,391 in September and the 
minimum 3,829 in December. However, since flowers and feathers 
are not usually manufactured in the same factory, and since many 
employees will not work on both flowers and feathers, each industry 
has a slack season of about four months or more, during which many 
employees must be ^'laid off.'' 

(d) Women and Tiand labor. — Both flowers and feathers are manu- 
factured principally by women, and almost wholly by hand labor. 
In 1914, 81.4 per cent of the total number employed were women, 
4.1 per cent were wage earners under 16 years of age, and 14.5 per 
cent were men. Men were employed in cutting and dyeing flowers 
and in dyeing feathers, but practically all the other processes are 
carried on by women and children. Home workers are not included 
in the above figures. 

> Artificial flower makers, Mary Van Kleeck, 1913. 
64912— 21— N-9 2 



10 TAMSFT EgOBMATlOy SUXTKTSu 



That pnfthrmUr no irhin^ p ro cgaofcs are ued is Aown by the 
fact that for the rear 1914 in die State of Xew York the total hoise- 
pover — steam, pks engine, and dectiic — itsed in 3G9 cstahfehments 
was oolj 450 — l-IS horsepower for the flower indostiy and 302 hcose- 
power for feathrrR. In the Tcrr nature of the case lai]^e-scale ma- 
chine piwftWift'M can not be used, and inasmuch as standijdizaticHi of 
ut udu e t and mass piodoctaon is oontraiy to the roles of fashkmy a 
large rafaie of ootpnt per eartaHidimcpt, with a low nnit cost of pro- 
duction is not to be expected. 

f • J7o«rt <ff mrir. — In 1914 the majoritT of wage eazneis woe 
emplojcd in factories where the prerailing homs of work per wc«k 
were 4$ to 54. while nearlr 1,500 were cmploTed in factcmes 
moffkiiig less than 48 boors. Aboot one-third were em{^Ted in fac- 
tories amkin g 54 homs. A few were cmploTed in f actones baring 
more than 54 hoois per wedc, and 19 were cnqdored in the feather 
indiBtrr where the prerailing boors were from 60 to 72 per wed^^. 

^f» ^ft«#f». — The wages paid were veiy low. The following quo- 
tation fraok an inrestigation made br the Russell Sage Foundation 
indicates the |Hewarrmle of wages: ** In nearly four-£fus of the shops 
inrcstigated. 88 in number, cmploTing 4 J09. or 80 p«* coit of the 
totalnumberof women in the trade, the highest weddy wage receired 
by any woman was leas than $15, while 39 per cent w»e in shops in 
which the maximum nercr readied $12.*' According to the cmsus 
figures of 1905, more than half of the women enqdoyed (55^ per 
cent : in the Ikiwet and featho- industry earned less than $6 a week 
during a busy week of the year, sli^tly more than one-fourth (483) 
earned $8 or oxer, and only about 1 in 16 rose to $12 or oto-. Weekly 
wMe statistics hare not bisen compiled in lat^* census r»orts. 

\g) Ham^ imrir. — The fcdlowiiig extract from ''Artincial flower 
makers," br Harr Tan Kleed^ indicates the extent of home work 
in the flow^ indi^tr^: 



Of t^ 114 finw mreBdested only 24 sUted that aU the manobctiini^ vjts doii# 
ia die wrtaooB. Hie runaimng 90 rqnrted that they gmve oat part of thor vwk 
to koaie TOioefs. The ■! iumi) iitw of 7€ ol tbeae firms sbowied that tbey had on their 
pay idOs b c l » eea ?J0O mod 2.400 fanilieB vbo made flowcfF at home. ' Tiiey had no 
leofxds of the n^onbcr of indiTidnal voiken rqnrted in these families, bat judging 



from o^izr invest]^ jtions of a gnnm of home vtvkeis, three in a iunily is a lov av««(ge. 
ThnB. acoanfinr to the leputte of employes, home irorkeiF in this uade in Xev York 
mnst Bsmber » oat 7.000 and aie more nomerons than emploN^ees in the shops. 



(4 1 Yahu cff produds. — ^The total value of products of the flower 
and feather indnstiy in 1914 was $19,065,000. of which $7,614,000 
was flowos and $1 1,451,000 was feathers and plumes. 

The cost of materials used for artificial flowers was $3,207,000. 
Therrfore the value added by manufacture was $4,407,000, or about 
58 p«* cent of the total. The cost of mat^^ials used in the feather 
indnstiy was $6,102,000; thwefore $5,349,000, or about 47 pw* cent 
of the total, was added by manufacture. 

FlovDtr making^ mai* nofe, and proc€ssfs, — ^The raw materials used 
in timlrmg flowefs are chiefly muslin, silk, and velvet. Usually white 
is used, and the color is applied later. A strip of the cloth, gen^^j 
a ^ard and a half long, is first stretched on a frame, and starch is 
applied with a brush. If leaves are to be made, the color is ^>plied 
to the cloth on the frame. The cloth is next cut into petals, Tlie 
tools used are a steel die or stamp, a lead block, and a wooden mallet. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 11 

The petals are sent to the dyer, who copies the color from the 
design or model. Sometimes petals are stenciled, as in the case of 
orchids. The finished petals are dried between sheets in a wire frame, 
frequently in a room artificially heated. These processes of starch- 
ing, cutting, and dyeing are usually done by men. 

The work of the women, either at home or in the shops, consists of 
preparing, making, and branching. To ^' prepare'^ the petals means 
to shape them by curling their edges, pinching them between the 
fingers, or " goffering '* them. Goffering is the making of the cup- 
like shape of a petal and is done with a tool consisting of a ball at 
the end of a handle. This ball is heated on a gas stove and applied 
to the petal as it rests on the palm of the hand. Crimping machines 
are used in soilie factories for the cheaper flowers. These machines 
curl the edges of a number of petals at one time and usuully punch 
a hole in the petal at the same time. 

''Making'' includes the various processes of arranging the petals 
to form a flower and attaching them to a stem. In the higher-grade 
flowers each petal is pasted in its place, but in the cheaper flowers 
they are ''slipped up'' — that is, the stem is inserted through a hole 
in each petal, which is then slipped up into its place and held with 
paste. The latter process requires neither taste nor skill, but demands 
speed. Leaves are sometimes made in separate factories. After the 
leaves have been cut, a stem is pasted on each leaf. The leaf is then 
veined on a pressing machine moved by a handwheel. 

When flowers and leaves are completed they are brought together 
and arranged to appear pleasing to the customer. This is called 
branching and is considered the most important work in the trade. 

The work of designing is of the utmost importance to any flower 
manufacturer, since the product must be popular in order to find 
ready sale. Practically all of the leading designs are imported from 
Paris. The cheaper flowers are usuallj a copy or imitation of the 
higher class product. Manufacturing is usually done to fill orders 
taken on the samples shown, since the risk involved in making up 
stock in advance is great. This fact is a further cause for the slack 
season in the industry. The finer the flower the more important it 
is that it be produced by one hand, and in the higher grade estab- 
lishments eacn worker prepares and makes the whole flower. 

Feather making.^ — ^As in flower making, dyei^ is one of the most 
important processes, and it is done by men. 'flie processes carried 
on hj women are "stringing" or tying the feathers at intervals on a 
cord in preparation for dyemg; "steaming" them, or holding them 
over boiling water, to make them pliable or to give them certain 
effects; and "preparing" or cleaning and sorting the feathers. 

The prepared feathers are pasted or sewed on frames in different 
designs, such as heads, breasts, and wings; or they may be wired or 
branched into various styles of feather ornaments. The last process 
is stemming or papering the free ends of the wire. 

(a) Organization. — Artificial flowers: There were 217. establish- 
ments reported in 1914 engaged in the manufacture of artificial flow- 
ers,'with a total capital of $3,349,000, or an average individual capital 
of $15,433. The total average number of wage earners employed was 
4,808, or approximately 22 in each establishment. While by far the 

1 See Artificial Flower Makers, Mary Van Kleeck. 



12 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

greater number of establishments employed less than 50 wage earners, 
11 employed between 51 and 100, or 16.1 per cent of the total number, 
and 11 others employed between 101 ana 250, or 33.4 per cent of the 
total number. * 

More than one-half of the flower establishments turned out a 
product of less than $20,000 each, 65 establishments turned out a 
product between $20,000 and $100,000 in value, and 22 establish- 
ments turned out products between $100,000 and $1,000,000 in value, 
with an a^regate practically e<iual to all the others combined. 

There were 137 nower establishments owned by individuals, 33 by 
corporations, and 47 by some other form of ownership. These differ- 
ent dasses employed nearly the same nimiber of wage earners and 
turned out products of nearly eaual value, except that the corpora- 
tions were somewhat less in numoer and value of products. 

(6) Feathers and plumes. — ^The feather and plume industry was 
credited with 239 establishments in 1914, having a capital of $5,396,- 
000, or an average individual capital of $22,577. Tliev employed 
4,483 wage earners, or an average of 19 in each establishment. By 
far the greater number employed only a small nimiber of wage earners, 
219 out of 239 employing not over 50 wage earners, while 14 employed 
from 51 to 100, and only 6 employed between 101 and 250. 

Nearly one-half of the establishments manufacturing featiiers (111), 
turned out a product valued at not over $20,000 each; 93 turned out 

Products valued at between $20,000 and $100,000; and 35 produced 
etween $100,000 and $1,000,000. The output of the 35 establish- 
ments was greater in value than all the others combined. 

There were 133 establishments owned by individuals, 47 by corpo- 
rations, and 59 by some other form of ownership. They employed 
approximately the same number of workmen, but the establishments 
owned by some other form turned out products valued at about 
$300,000 more than the value of the products of each of the other two 
dasses. 

From this it will be seen that the flower and feather industries are 
carried on mainly by individual and small factories or shops, although 
the large factories nirmshed a large share of the total output. 

Geographical distributian. — ^The total value of the products of the 
feather and plimie industry in 1914 was $11,451,000, of which New 
York State furnished $10,274,000. Pennsylvania furnished a product 
valued at $787,000, and California furnished $159^000 of the total. 

Artificial flowers were also produced largely in New York, the total 
for the industry in 1914 being $7,614,000, while New York's total was 
$6,181,000. Pennsylvania was second with a total of $688,000, and 
Illinois third with a total of $348,000. 

Domestic production and consumption. — ^Imports for consumption 
of flowers and feathers prior to the war were Skbout equal to one-half 
the value of domestic products, while exports of domestic products 
were very small. The demand for the imported flowers and feathers 
has not much relation to the tariff. 

French flowers are undoubtedly superior, as a rule, to American- 
made flowers. This is due to greater skill and experience on, the 
part of French flower makers and particularlv to the French superi- 
ority of designs. Low wages and periods ol unemployment in the 
American industrv are not conducive to skill and constancv to the 
trade. 



TAsarw iKFOBiflUkxsosr suitbss. J i 

Ostrich feathers origmate mainly in South Africa and must be 
imported, since ibs ostrich industry in the United States is very 
small. Other feathers and millinery ornaments are also imported 
in large quantities. As lon^ as America looks to Paris for its styles 
it is reasonable to assume mat imports of flowers and feathers will 
continue to be large. Improvements in design and execution bj 
American makers will be necessary if iixe ratio of imports to domestic 
production is to be reduced. 

Domestic exports. — ^Domestic exports are very smidl, averagii^ a 
little over $300,000 annually since 1910, except in 1913 and 1914, 
when they were double that amoimt. E2q>orts of feathers only are 
given. They went principally to Canada and 4io the European 
countries. 

The ostrich industru, — ^Detailed information regarding the ostrich 
industry is given in the auxiliary file of this survev, pages 15 to 25. 
Ostrich farming was first undertaken in South Africa late in the 
sixties, and grew to large proportions until checked by the war in 
1914. In 1913 it was estimated that there were at least 900,000 
ostriches in South Africa. In 1913 a pair of the best breeding 
ostriches easily sold for $5,000 in South Africa, and the prime feathers 
(perfect white wixig feathers from the cock birds) nrought from 
$120 to $140 a pound (about 90 feathers to a pound). An ostrich 
yields about 1 J pounds of feathers annually which, before the war, 
averaged about $20 to $30 in value. Exports of ostrich feathers 
from South Africa in 1913 were valued at $14;600,O00. 

Ilie ostrich industry in the United States began to develop about 
1900, when there were about 500 birds in this coimtry. In 1910, 
according to the Census of Agriculture, there were 5,349 ostriches in 
the country, of which 4,028 were found in Arizona, 1 ,082 in California, 
147 in Arkansas, and 92 in Florida. According to A. R. Lee, Bureau 
of Animal Industry, Circular 172, there were 6,100 breeding or 
feather-producing ostriches in the United States in January, 1910. 
A pair of breeding birds in this country was valued at about $800. 

The war destroyed the feather market. Inmort restrictions in 
England and later in the United States, i^d tne lack of^ shipping 
space for this trade, caused a practical cessation in the use of ostricn 
feathers. The number of birds declined rapidly and feathers sold 
in 1017 in South Africa at the low av^rge of $2.70 to $3^25 a pound. 
The number of birds in South Africa was reduced by at least 50 per 
cent. The industry in the United States was practically abandoned. 
Mr. Lee now states (April, 1920) that there are at present probably 
500 to 000 birds in this countrv. 

The present demand for feathers is again good and the price is fair, 
so that it may be expected that the industry will soon regain some 
of the lost ground. In Arizona, however, the farms formerly devoted 
to ostrich mrming are now put to other uses, and doubt is expressed 
as to whether they will again raise ostriches. 

FOREIGN PBODUCTION.^ 

Paris is the colter of the artificial flower industry and is looked to 
for the "style." The Employers' Syndicate includes 500 shops in 

UrUfiQial Flower Hakers, 1913^ Mary Van Kleeck. 
64912—21— N-9 3 



14 TABIFr n^rOBMATION STJBVHYS* 

its membership; and, in addition to these, Paris contains many small 
contract shops which are not admitted to the syndicate. 

The president of the syndicate estimates the total number of women flower makers 
working in the shops and at home in Paris and its surrounding districts to be 30,000, 
while tne flower and feather maker's union believes that there are 28,000 workers 
in the trade, of whom 3,000 are men and 25,000 women. Of these women, 15,000, 
the imion estimates, work at home and 10,000 work in shops. These figures show 
that probably more than twice as many women are employed in the artincial-flower 
industry in Jraris as in shops and home work in New York. 

Except in exclusive shops, where it is carried on as an art, the mak- 
ing flowers in Paris has become similar to that in New York. The 
demand for quantity production has replaced the more artistic 
product, which reqinred a great deal of time and was costlv. A 
number of hours might be spent by one person on a single fine flower. 

Seasonal unemplojment is similar to that in New York, although 
not so long in duration. Wages varied from $14 a week for the best 
flowers to about $5 per week for the cheaper flowers, with many 
workers earning less than $5. It does not anpear that there was 
much difference in the average wages paid in New York and Paris. 
The wages eartied by home workers were also about the same. 

The above comments on the artificial-flower industry apply also 
to the shops working with feathers, some of the shops working on both 
flowers and feathers. The demands of the styles and seasons de- 
termine largely the output of the shops. * 

London is the principal feather market of the world, and conse- 
quently many of the imports into the United States come from 
England. This does not indicate that they are of English production. 
Ostrich feathers originate in South Africa. Imports of manufactured 
feathers come principally from France, and other millinery omar- 
ments, flowers, fruits, grains, etc., come from Germany and France. 

IMPORTS. 

Imports of ostrich feathers, crude, reached a total value of 
$6,252,298 in the fiscal year 1913, coming from England and SoutJi 
Africa, but originating aJmost wholly in South Africa. The value of 
imports of this class decreased to $534,921 in 1917. 

Imports of other crude feathers and downs amounted to nearly 
$2,000,000 in 1913, of which $1,299, 928 came from France. England 
furnished the next largest amount. Some feathers of this class also 
came from Germany, China, and Hongkong. 

The value pf imports of manufactured feathers not suitable for 
millinery purposes averaged about $1,500,000 before the war, about 
two-thirds of which came from t^rance and about one-thu-d from Ger- 
many. The value of this class of feathers has been almost insignifi'- 
cant since 1915. 

Imports of millinery ornaments, including feathers, flowers, and 
fruits, reached a total value of $3,131,972 in 1914, and have not 
decreased in value as much as the various classes of feathers, the low 
fi^re of $1,013,509 having been recorded in 1918. Imports of this 
class came from France and Germany in almost equal value before the 
war, but since the war have come almost wholly from France. 

The figures for the most important classes of imports for consump- 
tion are diagramed on the following page. Curve No. 1 represents the 
importation of crude or unmanufactured ostrich feathers; Curve No. 2 



TARIFF INFORMATION STJtlVBYS. 



15 



represents the imports of ornamental flowers, feathere, grains, etc., not 
specially provided for; Curve No. 3 represents the imports of manu- 
factured ornamental feathers, exclusive of a small amotmt of manu- 
factures ostrich plumes; and Curve No. 4 represents the imports of 
crude ornamental feathers for millinery purposes classified as *'all 
other." 

It ^U be seen from the diagram, that the greatest decrease has been 
in the imports of crude ostricn feathers. Changes of fashion no doubt 
had something to do with this reduction ot imports, but it is clear that 
the importation of all kinds of millinery ornaments gradually declined 
imtil tne four classes touched the $500,000 mark in 1918. This figure 
represents roughly 8, 20, 28, and 30 per cent, respectively, of the 
imports of the classes of products named above for the peak year 
of 1913. 

Imports by countries for the calendar years 1919 and 1920 indi- 
cate that the trade in the two principal classes of flowers and feathers 
has been on the increase. Ostrich feathers, crude, valued at $2,698,146 
in 1919, and $1,088,111 in 1920, were imported, compared with a total 
of $746,709 in the fiscal year 1918. The class of millinery ornaments, 
which consists principally of artificial flowers, fruits, etc., showed an 
increase of $842,730 over the fiscal year 1918, or a total value of 
$1,856,239 for the calendar year 1919, of which $1,717,495 came 
from France. For 1920 the total increased to $3,270,257. 

nCPOBTS FOB COKSXTHPTIOK OF FLOWBBS AND FEATHBBS. 

CuBVE 1.— Crude ostrich feathers. 
CuBVE 2.— Artificial floweYs, grains, etc., xl s. p. f. 
CuBVE 8.— MsDiifactared ornamental feathers. 
CUBVS 4.— Crude ornamental feathers— ''all other." 





























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16 TARIFF INFOliMATION SUBVEYS. 

PRICES. 

The number of varieties of millinery ornaments is so great and the 
style changes so frequently that it is not considered of much value to 
quote prices. Imported and domestic articles are also rai^y directly 
comparable. Many of the smaller flowers, such as forget-me-nots 
and very small roses, requiring a great deal of painstakinjg band 
labor, are practically not ma(& m this coimtry, so that miports 
frequently are supplementary and not con^)etitive. Furthermore, 
articles which may be competitive are difficult to compare, because 
of variation in color or shade, or material and workmanship. 

The following prices are given merely as a suggestion of the range 
of prices on some more standard articles (wholesale prices): 

Domestic wreatl;is, mixed — ^flowers, fruits, grasses, $6 to $48 a 
dozen; imported wreaths, $6 up. Pansies, imported, small, 7 in 
bunch, $12 a dozen bunches; pansies, imported, large, 5 in a bunch, 
$15 a dozen bimches. Violets, domestic and imported, $13.50 a 
dozen bunches. Eoses, from $3 ,a dozen bunches for little June 
roses, to $7.50 and up a dozen for larger roses. A good quality rose 
of fair size usually costs from $12 to $24 a dozen, although mxidi 
higher prices prevail for the finest quality. 

Forget-me-nots, imported only, $3 a dozen bimches. 

Leaves (foliage), $3 to $4.50 and up, a dozeaoL bundles. 

Ostrich feathers ran^e in price from $6 to $60 per dozen at the 
present time. All kinds of imitation feathers ai^e made, sinoe the 
prohibition of imports of the feathers and plumes of wild birds. 

The price of stmerior white goose feathers in 1920 (Chiiaese) was 
55 cents a pound, more than double what it was in 1915. This 
price is c. i. i., New York, less duty. Superior Szechuan duck feathers 
(Chinese), cost 13 cents a pound in 1915 and in 1920 cost 35 cents, 
c. i. f ., New York. 

TARIFF HISTORY. 

The act of 1894 imposed a duty of 35 per cent ad valorem on 
feathers, flowers, fruits, etc., when suitable tor imlUnery ornaments, 
and also including quilts and manufactures of down. Feathers ana 
downs for beds and crude feathers and downs of all kinds were placed 
on the free hst. 

The act of 1897 assessed crude feathers and downs at 15 per 
cent ad valorem, and manufactured flowers and feathers and 
miUinery ornaments of all kinds at 50 per cent ad valorem. 

The act of 1909 raised these rates to 20 per cent and 60 per cent 
ad valorem, respectively. 

The act of 1913 retained the rates of 20 per cent for crude feathers 
and created a new class — ^feathers manufactured but not suitable for 
millinery ornaments — at 40 per cent. The rate on artificial and 
ornamental feathers and other miUinery ornaments remained at 60 
per cent ad valorem. The act of 1913 also prohibited the importation 
of aigrettes and the feathers of wild birds, except for scientific or 
educational purposes. 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS AND TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS. 

Salesrooms of dealers in flowers and feathers appeared to have 
quite large stocks of imported flowers in the spnng of 1920, but 



TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



17 



retailers were not heavily stocked with imported goods. Dealers, did 
not think that there had been a dumping of goods as had been 
anticipated; in fact, there is no indication of an oversupply. Buyers 
appear anxious to get imported flowers and are going abroad for 
them. 

While American producers have improved the quality and style 
of their output since the beginning of the war, it is not at all 
certain that the improvement has been such as to permanently 
secure to them a larger share of the trade than before the war. 

The American manufacturer faces the same labor problems as 
before the war; that is, labor will not remain permanently in the 
trade, wages are higher than formerly, and in addition, tne cheap 
home labor is being eliminated to some extent. While home labor 
still exists, it is said to be higher priced in proportion to factory labor 
than before the war, because there are so many opportimities to earn 
better wages. 

It has been commonly recognized in the trade that style and 
ouality of workmanship are controlling factors in this industry and 
that cost of production and price are relatively less important factors. 
Until the American manufacturers create superior or more popular 
styles and turn out workmanship of equally high quality, the demand 
for imported flowers will probably persist whether the duty is high or 
low. The American manufacturer will probably never attempt to 
make the small flowers requiring so much patient hand labor. 

The dependence of American fashions on foreign styles will also 
continue to influence the demand for imported goods. While con- 
ditions abroad are very unsettled and prices have been advancing 
materially, still it appears quite certain that the demand for imported 
flowers and feathers will be great and the competition from abroad 
will again become keen. 

The domestic supply of common feathers for beds and pillows does 
not meet the demand 

Statistical Tables. 

FeatherSf artificial JUywers^ and millinery ornaments * — Production in United States, 

[From Federal census.] 



Year. 



1904. 



Value. 



16,203,000 
5,247,000 



Year. 



1909. 
1914. 



Value. 



123,980,000 
19,065,000 



1 The statistics for artiflcial flowers and feathers and plumes are combined in this table. They are 
separately stated by States in the two tables following. 



18 



TARIFIF INFORMATION SURVBtd. 



Artificial flowers ^-^Productiofi in United States— 8t6U8. 

[From Federal census.] 



States. 



United States. 



States: 

California 

Illinois 

New JOTsey 

New York 

Pennsylvania 

All other States >. 



1909 



19,041,000 



1914 



$7,614,000 



45,000 
348,000 

79,000 

6,lgl,000 

688,000 

273,000 



1 Artificial flowers and feathers are stated separately by States. 

> Includes: Florida, 1 estaUishment; Maryland, 3; Massachusetts, 1; Midilgan, 1; Missouri, 3; Ohio, 1; 
Utah, 1; Wisconsin, 1. , 

Feathers and plumes * — Production in United States — States. 

[From Federal census.l 



States. 



United States. 



States: 

California 

Illinois 

New York 

Pennsylvania. 
Another* 



1909 



$14,939,000 



1914 



$11,451,000 



159,000 

60,000 

10,274,000 

787,000 

171,000 



^ Feathers and plumes and artificial flowers are stated separately by States, 1914. 
* Include: Colorado, 2 establishments; District of Columbia, 1; Florida, 1; Georgia, 2; Iowa, 2; Mary- 
land, 4; Nebraska, 1; New Hampshire, 3; Texas^ 1; Utah, 2; Vermont, 2; Washington, 1. 

Ostrich feathers (crude, dutiabley — Imports by countries, 

FISCAL YEARS. 



Imported from— 



France 

England 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Uruguay 

British South Africa. 
Another 



Total. 



1912 



$51,870 
2,263,138 
26,486 
4,951 
15,440 
1,444,018 
793 



3,806,696 



1013 



$29,399 
3,706,610 
18,850 
6,984 
16,379 
2,471,602 
2,474 



6,252,298 



1914 



$118,082 
2,326,769 
41,224 
6,569 
0)986 
1,431,146 
11,152 



3,944,928 



1915 



$22,381 

1,245,458 

40,592 

5,570 

63,843 

798,659 

6,668 



2,183,171 



1916 



$2,028 
677,657 
45,724 
734 
33,108 
1,435,535 
18,994 



2,195,497 



1917 



$439 

88,183 

94,217 

327 

17,589 

334, 141 

25 



534,921 



1918 



12,746 
6,432 

44,202 
3,276 

11,751 

673,347 

4,955 



746, 70^ 



CALENDAR YEARB. 




France 

England 

Argentina 

Uruguay 

Britiish ^uth Africa. 
Another 



Total. 



Imported from — 



$45,175 

321,116 

140,108 

37,104 

2,147,383 

7,260 



2,698,146 



1920 



$1,088,111 



1 Included in '*A1I other feathers and downs, crude, etc.," prior to 1912. 



TAKIFF INFOBMATION SURVEYS. 



19 



All other feathers and downs, crude * — Imports by countries. 

FISCAL YEARS. 



Imported f rom- 



Franoe — 
Germany., 

Sogkaia.. 
jBxioo 

duna 

Hongkong. 
Another.. 



Total. 



1910 



$877,772 

89,362 

4,390,909 

24,735 

63,946 

100 

1,666,954 



7,113,778 



1911 



$477, 183 
91,056 

3,486,472 
22,354 
26,399 
17,950 

1,744,416 



5,865,830 



1912 



$721,422 

102,567 

284,117 

7,063 

33,637 

16,372 

63,467 



1,228,645 



1913 



$1,299,928 

139, 108 

228,193 

17,663 

74,038 

50,446 

175,708 



1,985,084 



1914 



$538,471 
128,391 
51,795 
5,642 
59,973 
77,846 
64,617 



926,735 



1915 



$103,383 
69,364 
51,051 

46,807 
10,626 
38,217 



819,452 



Eranoe... 
Germany. 
England. 
Ifescioo . . . 
CWna-... 
Bongkong 
All(Sher. 



Total. 



Imported from— 



1916 



$153,376 

7,456 

37,314 

8 

262,425 



65,075 



$25,654 



1917 



$384,586 



59,948 



408,753 
22,860 
68,139 



944,295 



1918 



$262,998 



1,596 



761,917 

125,866 

60,094 



1,212,471 



CALENDAR YEARS. 



Imported fram- 



France — 
England.. 

ChUia 

Hongkong. 
Japan 



1919 



$293,020 

12,991 

386,681 

76,046 

6,289 



1920 



Imported f rom— 



British South Afirica. 

Argentina 

Allother 



Total. 



im ._ -.1820. 



$2,082 
58,826 
16,875 



852,810 



$1,506,986 



1 Ostrich feathers included prior to 1912. 

Feathers and downs, dressed or manufactwred, not suitable for millinery ornaments (duti- 

able) — Imports by countries. 

FISCAL YEARS. 



Imported from— 



Austria-Himgary . 

Prance 

Germany 

Japan 

Another 



Total. 



1910 



$6,526 

1,304,196 

664,625 

158 

19,219 



1,994,724 



1911 



$82,241 

974,413 

349,257 

679 

17,601 



1,424,191 



1912 



$29,042 

956, 191 

358,473 

1,037 

11,319 



1,356,062 



1913 



$12,608 

1,151,984 

511,298 

637 

25,391 



1,701,918 



1914 



$11,651 

611,509 

176,823 

7,778 

13,780 



821,541 



1915 



$11 
9,858 
5,707 
6,489 
4,852 



26,917 



1916 



$11,399 
12 
5,818 
4,069 



21,298 



1917 



$15,227 



9,430 
12,217 



36,874 



1918 



$24,340 



11,964 
8,228 



44,532 



CALENDAR YEARS. 
Imported from: France, in 1919, $27,511; Japan, $1,321; all other, $5,224; total, $34,056. 1920, total, $56,060, 



20 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

Jiillinert/ omamenU, fialheri, fimven, fruiU, etc. (dvliable) — ImporU by amniriei 
FISCAL YEARS. 



OenasDy.. 
Engluul. . . 

ABatiH'.',', 



1,42:, 307 

1,232,068 

S,4V> 



liOl, 9M 
802,76* 
1, 154, SIS 

1^041 



OcrinaD;.., 



11,848,531 
2,817 



CALENDAR YEAH. 


Imported Erom- 


1 isig 


Imported Irom- 


ISIS 


1S20 




1 tn,2!a 

""\ '■'Ifl'si? 




WG,H2 
S,877 










Total 








1,8M,139 


l3,270,asT 











-Rev«nut.i 


PlanlTOU- 


RaUoCduty. 


QuanUty. 


Value. 


J&,. 


unitol 
quanUty. 


ss 








12;W3;S8S 

e, raj, MS 

1 
1 


3.K1.MI 

3,<m,m 

as 

1,519,820 
'ess; 428 




33.50 
























l^SS 








ISll 






30.09 












































































Sp-:::::::: 


































1 todudes all dutl 
1 Calendar year. 
■ aiimoathsend 


Able feathers and ml 
MlJ[uDe30,1931. 


UUnery omsmt 


»•■• 









TARIFF INFOBMATION SUBVEYS. 
9 and _flouier»~lmporU for Miuutnptitm — Cla$rifitd.' 
DUTIABLE. 





OstihAlMt 


FMtlisrs 
for beds 


Crude. 




1108,362 


13, Ml, Ml 




^0« 






K,3S! 


8,866,428 


I 


19,857 

SI 


2,173,740 




«3,B63 

m'.m 


1,336,916 
818.036 





ftro^t- r&ctured,la 
nimZ't- I mU " i' d 



;ll 



>,72S 328,60. 



^ 14,33. 

09 U.SSB 

71 ' 3IS,106 

15 I 8' 811 

M) i 42,Cr7r) I 13!e; 



Fniits, 



!{.| 



19,2S7 

18,797 
S,06fl 



bnt araaegUgibk. 
■ Cakndu' jur. 
•SlxmontSseiu 



[TOiH FtiiUppli]el9luid9,fr«e, omlIt«d, but are negUgibla. Imporla 

Feathert — Domatie exports (^leal yeari). 



m Cuba also omllWd, 



1910 



IUIt 

NMhirluida.. 



47^000 

as, 673 
51,607 
ZB.TSl 



38,071 
K^llS 



IUIt 

NatiirlsiHb... 

England--,-... 



40,192 
70,112 
66,257 



72,603 
8,930 



187, 145 I 
3^6*4 ' 
6^647 : 



22 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Artificial and ornamental flowers and feathers — Rates of duty. 



Act o(— 

1883 
1883 



1883 
1883 
1890 

1890 



Par. 



429 
429 



650 
652 
443 

443 



1890 



1800 
1804 



504 



567 
328 



1894 
1894 

1807 
1897 



400 

477 



425 



425 



1897 
1900 



1909 



493 
438 



438 



1909 



1909 
1913 



1913 
1913 

1913 



438 



509 
347 



347 



347 



347 



Tariff classiflcation or description. 



Feathtf s of all kinds, crude or not dressed, colored or manufac- 
tured. 

When dressed. c(dwed, or manufactured, including dressed and 
finished l^ras, for millinery ornaments and artificial and (nua- 
mental feathers and flowers, or parts thereof, of whatever ma- 
terial cmnposed, for millineiy use, not speciaUy enumerated or 
provided for in this act. 

Bed feathers and downs 

Birds, stuffed 

Feathers and downs of all kinds, crude or not dressed, colored, or 
manufactured, not specially provided for in this act. 

When dressed, colwed, or manufactured, including quilts of 
down and other manufactures of down, and also including 
dressed and finished birds suitable for milinery ornaments, 
■and artifidal and ornamental feathers and flowers, or parts 
thereof, of whatever material composed, not specially provided 
for in tnis act. 

Birds, stuffed, not suitable for millinery ornaments, and bird 
sldns, prepared for preservation, but not further advanced in 
manufacture. 

Feathers and downs for beds 

Feathers and downs of all kinds, when dressed, colored or manu- 
factured, including quilts of down and other manufactures of 
down, and also including dressed and fini^ed birds suitable 
for mJJlinOTy ornaments and artificial and ornamental feathers, 
fruits, grains, leaves, fiowers, and stems, or parts thereof, of 
whatever material composed, suitable for millinery use, not 
specially provided for in this act. 

Bira skins, prepared for preservation, but not further advanced 
in manufacture. 

Feathers and downs for beds, and feathers and downs of all kinds, 
crude or not dressed, colored, or manufactured, not specially 
provided for in this act. 

Feathers and downs of all kinds, including bird skins or parts 
thereof with the feathers on, crude or not dressed, colored, or 
otherwise advanced or manufactured in any manner, not 
specially provided for in this act. 

When dressed, colored, or otherwise advanced or manufactured 
in any manner, including quilts of down and other manufac- 
tures of down, and also dressed and finished birds suitable for 
millinery ornaments, and artificial or (nnamental feathers, 
fruits, grains, leaves, fiowers. and stems, or parts thereof, of 
whatever material composed, not si)ecially provided for in 
this act. 

Birds, stuffed, not suitable for millinery ornaments 

Feathws and downs of all kinds, including bird skins or parts 
thereof with the feathers on, crude or not dressed, colored, or 
otherwise advanced or manufactured in any manner, not 
specially provided for in this section. 

When dressied, colored, or otherwise advanced or manufactured 
in any manner, including quilts of down and other manufac- 
tures of down, and also dressed and finished birds suitable for 
millinery ornaments, and artificial or ornamental feathws, 
fruits, grains, leaves, flowers, and stems, or parts thereof, of 
whatever material composed, not specially provided for in 
this section. 

Boas, boutonnieres, wreaths, and all articles not specially pro- 
vided for in this section, composed wholly or in chief value of 
any of the feathers, fiowers, leaves, or other materials or articles 
herein mentioned. 

Birds, stuffed, not suitable for millinery ornaments 

Feathers and downs, on the skin or otherwise, crude or not 
dressed, colored, or otherwise advanced or manufactured in 
any manner, not specially provided for in this section. 

When dressed, colored, or otherwise advanced or manufactured 
in any manner, and not suitable for use as miUinwy cnmaments, 
including quilts of down and manufactures of down. 

Artifidal or ornamental feathers suitable for use as millinery 
ornaments, artificial and ornamental fruits, grains, leaves, 
fiowers, and stems, or parts thereof, of whatever material com- 
posed, not specially provided for in this section. 

Boas, boutonnieres, wreaths, and all articles not specially pro- 
vided for in this section, composed wholly or in cnief value of 
any of the feathers, flowers, leaves, or other material herein 
mentioned. 

Provided, That the importation of aigrettes, egret plumes or 
so-called osprey plumes, and the feathers, quills, heads, wings, 
tails, skins, or parts of skins, of wild birds, either raw or manu- 
factured, and not for scientific or educational purposes, is 
hereby prohibited; but this provision shall not apply to the 
feathers or plumes of ostriches, or to the feathers or plumes of 
domestic fowls of any kind. 



Rates of duty, specific 
and ad vu<M«m. 



25 i>er cent ad valorem. 
50 per cent ad valorem. 



Free. 

Do. 
10 per cent ad valorem. 

50 per cent ad valorem. 



Free. 



Do. 
35 per cent ad valorem. 



Free. 
Do. 

15 i>er cent ad valorem. 
50 per cent ad valorem. 



Free. 

20 per cent ad valorem. 



60 per cent ad valorem. 



Do. 



Free. 

20 per cent ad valorem. 



40 i>er cent ad valorem. 



60 per cent ad valorem. 



Do. 



tabiff information surveys* 28 

Court and Treasury Decisions. 

''Artificial" for tariff purposes is substantial simulation of the 
nat^iral. (United Sti^tes v. Dieckerhoff, Raffloer & Co., 4 Ct. Cust. 
Appls., 384, of 1913.) An exact imitation is not essential. Thus 
dyed straw millinery ornaments, crudely resembling ** fruits, grains, 
leayes, flowers, and stems, or parts tnereof,'* were held to come 
within paragraph 347; but articles composed of strips of colored 
straw and not resembling any of the things named in para^aph 347 
were held dutiable as unenumerated manufactured articles under 
paragraph 385. (Johnson v. United States, 10 Ct. Cust. Appls., 
T. D. 38333, of 1920.) It is not necessary that the articles snould 
truly represent fruits, grains, leayes, flowers, or stems. It is suffi- 
cient if they simulate natural fruits, leayes, flowers, and stems in 
physical characteristics and appearance closely enough to cause them 
in common understanding to oe regarded as leayes, stems, flowers, or 
fruits produced not by nature but by the hand of man, and at the 
same tmie are appropriate and suitable to be used for those purposes 
of ornamentation to which the natural products may be temporarily 
deyoted. Millinery ornaments consisting of clusters of black straw 
wound into the form of berries or ^apes and set on black straw leayes 
attached to stems made of black straw and metal; and millinery 
ornaments consisting of sprays of black straw leayes and black straw 
roses sewed with black threads to a stiff fabric foundation were held 

Sroperly classified as ** artificial and ornamental fruits, grains, leayes, 
owers, and stems''; but millinery ornaments in chief yalue of straw 
and not in imitation of fruits, grains, leayes, flowers, and steins were 
held dutiable as manufactiu'es m chief yalue of straw in *4ts natural 
state" under paragraph 368, or if in chief yalue of dyed straw, as 
manufactures not provided for under paragraph 385. Dyed straw 
was furthermore held not in its "natural state" within paragraph 
368, and millinery ornaments so crudely and grotesquely fashioned as 
to be scarcely deserving of the description ornamental and not resem- 
bling fruits, grains, leaves, flowers, and stems were held not classable 
under paraOTaph 347. (Cochran Co. v. United States, 10 Ct. Cust. 
Appls., T. D. 38336, of 1920.) Ivory brooches, pendants, and scarf- 
pms carved in imitation of various flowers were held dutiable as 
manufactures of ivory under paragraph 369, rather than as artificial 
and ornamental flowers under paragraph 347. (United States v. 
Darling, 10 Ct. Cust. Appls., T. D. 38334, of 1920, followed in Abstract 
43739.) In another case articles of straw and chip in natural colors, 
too fragile and crude to be used as millinery ornaments but imported 
as raw material for making them, and not resembling fruits, ^ains, 
leaves, flowers, and stems, or parts thereof, were held excluded from 
paragraph 347, it being declared that not every bended straw or 
twisted shaving can amount to an artificial and ornamental flower or 
leaf within that paragraph. Split straw and chip material for the 
manufacture of millinery ornaments, too crude for classification under 
paragraph 347, fall within paragraph 368 as manufactures of chip and 
straw. (Isler v. United States, 10 Ct. Cust. Appls., T. D. 38339, of 
1920; followed in Abstract 43745, of 1920, as to split straw in its 
natural condition and chip braided or twisted into shapes resembling 
in a crude way fruits, steins, or flowers.) 



24 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 

Under the act of 1913 the articles must be both artificial and orna- 
mental. (Bayersdorfer & Co. v. United State* 7 Ct. Oust. Appls.v^6, 
of 1916.) The words *' artificial and ornamental" modifying ^e 
word "fruits/' etc., in this paragraph refer to the per se character and 
not to the intended use of tne articles. This is shown by the fact that 
feathers in various physical conditions are dutiable at one rate and 
'' artificial or ornamental feathers suitable for use as millinery orna- 
ment^" at another rate. (Morimura Bros, v. United States, 8 Ct. 
Cust. Appls., Ill, of 1917.) 

Dried and dyed immortelles were held to come within paragraph 
210 of the act of 1913, directly or by similitude, as preserved cut 
flowers and not as artificial and ornamental flowers unaer paragraph 
347. (Bayersdorfer v. United States, 7 Ct. Cust. Appls., 66, of 

1916; Rice v. United States, 10 Ct. Cust. Appls., ,T. D. 38403, 

of 1920.) Wreaths of dried and dyed immortelles with straw f randies, 
the frames being of minor value, were held by virtue of the mixed 
material clause m paragraph 386 of the act of 1913 dutiable at the 
same rate as preserved cut flowers. (Bayersdorfer v. United States, 
7 Ct. Cust. Appls., 66.) 

The foUowmg articles have been held to come within paragraph 
347 of the act of 1913: 

Artificial and ornamental pears and apples, chiefly used as pin- 
cushions. (Morimura v. United States, 8 Ct. Cust. Appls., Ill, of 
1917.) Goose skins dressed with down on them not suitable for 
milUnerv ornaments, as ''downs on the skin * * * dressed.'* 
(United*^ States v. Herskoyits, 8 Ct. Cust. Appls., 203, of 1917.) 
Leaves and flowers for millinery ornaments made of straw which 
has been dyed, but the fibers of which have not been separated. 
(United States v. Gage, 8 Ct. Cust. Appls., 306; United States v. 
International Forwarding Co., id., 378; United States v. Rosenthal- 
Sloan, id., 380, of 1918.) Carved ivory flowers. (Abstract 41375, 
of 1917.) Artificial flowers made of beads. (United States v, 

American Bead Co., 9 Ct. Cust. Appls., , T. D. 38044, of 1919.) 

Dried skins of chicks and ducklings with the heads and feet attached, 
stuffed with cotton, fitted with bead eyes, and wired so as to give 
them a natural appearance and having a wire attachment apparently 
for the purpose of fastening them to other objects as decorations as 
"downs on the skin * * * dressed.'' (Morimura v. United 
States, 7 Ct. Cust. Appls., 378,. of 1917.) Skins of ducklings or 
chicks, which skins have been dried and stuffed with cotton medi- 
cated with some preservative, same classification. (Morimura v. 
United States, 6 Ct. Cust. Appte., 183, of 1915.) Straw hats trimmed 
with silk, artificial flowers, and ornamental feathers, flowers and 
feathers predominating. (Aitken, Son & Co. v. United States, 
6 Ct. Cust. Appls., 232, of 1915.) 

Colored feathers fastened upon white cards in the shape of birds, 
used to decorate walls in the same maimer as pictures, are articles 
of feathers and not feathers within this paragraph. (United States 
V, Beach, 8 Ct. Cust. Appls., 365, of 1918.) Mounted birds, not 
suitable for use as millinery ornaments, are dutiable at 40 per cent 
under this paragraph, (f. D. 36184, of 1916.) Down-fiUed silk 
quilts, silk the component material of chief value, are dutiable as 
manufactures of silk under paragraph 318, and not as quilts of down 
under this paragraph. (United States v. Altman & Co., 8 Ct. Cust. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



25 



Appls., 148, of 1917.) Flues of feathers, obtained bv stripping one 
side of the goose quill, were held dutiable at 20 per cent ratner than 
at 40 per cent under this paragraph. (United States v. Massce & 
Co., 9 Ct. Cust. Appls., , T. D. 38214, of 1^19.) 

Regulations governing the importation of plumage are contained 
in articles 537 and 538 of the Customs Regulations of 1915, and 
T. D. 33781, 33799, 33810, 33944, of 1913; 34057, 34518, 34748, 
34886, 34913, of 1914; 35307, of 1915; 36322, 36382, of 1916; 37422, 
of 1917; and 37660, of 1918. 

While downs were enumerated in the first part of this paragraph, 
thoy are not mentioned in the prohibitory clause, and downs of 
wilii birds are accordingly permitted entry. Beaks of wild birds, 
however, while not mentioned, are nevertheless excluded, as being 
within the term '^heads.'' 

Miscellaneous . 

Summary of the industry. 
[Abstract of the Census of Manufactures, 1914.] 



Number of establishments 

Waee eamors (average number) 

Ca^tal 

Washes 

Cost of mat^als 

Value of products 

Value added by manufacture... 



Feathers and plumes. I Artificial flowers. 



1909 



187 

5,181 

$6,100,000 

2,234,000 

9,010,000 

14,939,000 

5,929,000 



1914 



239 

4,483 

$5,396,000 

1,988,000 

6,103,000 

11,451,000 

5,348,000 



1909 



225 
4,835 
$3,593,000 
1,740,000 
4,618,000 
9,041,000 
4,423,000 



1914 



217 
4,808 
$3,349,000 
1,991,000 
3,207,000 
7,641,000 
4,407,000 



Local concentration — Artificial flowers ^ featherSy and plumes — Value vj products. 



Total . 

New York State 
New York aty. 



1914 



$19,064,570 
16,455,637 
16,348,118 



1909 



$23,980,567 
21,162,385 
21,098,226 



1914 



Per cent. 



86.3 
85.8 



1909 



Per eenU 



88. 2 
88.0 



Hours oj labor per week, 1914* 

Average number of wage earners in establishments where prevailing 
hours per week were as follows : 



• 


Total. 


48 hours 

and 
under. 


48 to 54 
hours. 


54 hours. 


54 to 60 
hours. 


60 hours. 


60 to 72 
hours. 


Artlfloialflcnvers 


4,808 
4,483 


714 
783 


2,239 
2,444 


1,685 
1,252 


112 
2 


39 
2 


10 


1^0atn^0rs snd pltnucs ........... 









26 



TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Wage eamen employed each month. 



Average number 

January 

February , 

March , 

April 

May 

June 

July 



Census 1914. 



Artiflda] 
flowers. 



4,808 
4,572 
4,807 
5,137 
5,162 
},33l 
3,840 
3,902 



Feathers 

and 
plumes. 



4,183 
4.285 

4,784 
4,725 
4,628 
4,288 
4,058 
4,239 



August , 

September , 

October , 

November 

December 

Per cent minimum is of maxi 
mum 



Census 1914. 



Artificial 
flowers. 



4,486 
6,247 
5,382 
5,418 
5,412 

70.9 



Feathers 

and 
plumes. 



4,662 
5,391 
4,856 
4,051 
3,829 

71.0 



Average number of wage earners j by per cent and age — Artificial flowers andjeathers and 

plumes t 1914. 





Total. 


Average number. 


Per cent of total. 


Census year. 


16 and over. 


Under 16 
years. 


16 and over. 


Under 16 




Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


years. 


1914 


9.291 

10,016 

4,343 


1,347 

1,317 

604 


7,564 
8,387 
3,545 


380 
312 
194 


14.5 
13.1 
13.9 


81.4 
83.7 
81.6 


4.1 


1909 


3.1 


1904 


4.5 







Characher oj ownership^ 1914. 



% 


Establishments. 


Wage earners. 


Valye of products. 




Inde- 
pend- 
ent. 


Cor- 
pora- 
tion. 


Other. 


Inde- 
pend- 
ent. 


Cor- 
pora- 
tion. 


Other. 


Independ- 
ent. 


Corpora- 
tion. 


Other. 


Artificial flowers.. 
Feathers and 
plumes 


137 
133 


33 

47 


47 
59 


1,697 
1,439 


1,339 
1,427 


1,772 
1,617 


$2,701,000 
3,699,000 


12,148,000 
3,669,000 


$2,765,000 
4,083,000 











Classified by value oj products ^ 1914. 



I ess than $5,000 

$5,000 to $20,000 

$20,000 to $100,000... 
$100,000 to $f ,000.000 



Number. 



55 
75 
65 
22 



Flowers. 



Wage 
earners. 



87 

676 

1.908 

2,137 



Value. 



$124,000 

815,000 

2,996,000 

3,679,000 



Number. 



48 
63 
93 
35 



Feathers. 



Wage 
earners. 



84 

365 

1,657 

2,377 



Value. 



$126,000 

686,000 

4,111.000 

6,529,000 



TAKIFF INFOEMATIOK SITBVEYS. 



27 



EstablMmerUs classified by number of wage earners, 1914» 





Artiftdal 
iUmtn. 


Fettbcn 
■od phmiM. 


KHtabHahmaitff... , , , , 


Til 
15 


239 


A^^^rt^g!f^ nniiif>fr of WBge mriMn 


4. 489 


No wi^ rniMn . 


^ 11 







1 toSwageMniflrs 

eto^wage earners 

21 to M wage euners. . . 
51 to 100 wage earners. . 
101 to 250 wage earners. 



Artificial flowecB. 



Feathers and phmies. 



Number. 



72 
61 

11 I 
11 



Wage 



197 
72» 

1,503 
772 

1,607 



Per oeot ■ %T_._, ■ »- — 
oCtotaL ! «™«'- 



Wage 



4.1 
15i2 
ZL2 
16tl 



I 



oTtotaL 



81 
M 
43 
14 



220 
978 
1,424 
9U 
910 



4.9 
2L9 
3L8 
2L2 
20L3 



O 




V 




^-N 














UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

ON THE ARTICLES IN 

PARAGRAPHS 344, 345, and 346 OF THE 

TARIFF ACT OF 1913 

AND RELATED ARTICLES IN OTHER PARAGRAPHS 



Paragraph 344: 
Pireworks 

Paragraph 345: 
Matches 

Paragraph 346: 

Cartridges, Loaded and Empty, and 

Percussion Caps 
Blasting Caps 
Safety Pases 



Paragraph 521 : 

Joss Stick or Joss Light 

Paragraph 608: 
Spunk 



REVISED EDITION 




N-8 



WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1021 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION- 

Ofice: £i«htli mmI E Sftneto NW., Wmabki^fion, D. C. 

OOM MISSION l!U(6. 

Thomas Walker Page, ('fmimuin. 
Thomas O. Mabvin, Vice Chairman. 
David J. Lbwi«. 
William S. Culbebtson. 
Edwakd p. CJostigan. 

WlLI-IAM BUKGESS. 

John F. Bethune, Setretary. 



ADDITIONAL C0PIE8 

OF THIS PUBUCATION MAY BE PEOCURED FROM 

THE 8UPERINTEVDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

GOVERNMENT PRWTING OFFICE 

WA8KINCTON, D. C. 

AT 

5 CENTS PER COPY 



PREFACE. 



This is one of a series of TariflF Information Surveys prepared by 
the United States Tariff Commission and transmitted to tne Com- 
mittee on Ways and Means. The series covers all of the articles and 
commodities provided for in the tariff act of October 3, 1913, and 
others not specifically provided for. It is arranged in the numerical 
order of paragraphs of that act. 

In some cases two or more paragraphs have been combined in one 

Eamphlet. In doing this industrial relationship of the articles has 
een followed when possible. In those instances where a paragraph 
has been treated unaer a preceding paragraph of the tariff act refer- 
ence is made to this fact at the point where the paragraph appears in 
numerical order. Where one grade of an article is dutiable and 
another grade of the same article is on the free list, the article is 
discussed under the dutiable paragraph, which appears first in 
numerical order in the tariff act. in certain instances articles of 
close industrial relationship and which occur in separate paragraphs 
of the tariff act have been combined under one paragraph for con- 
venience of discussion. Reference is made to this fact at the point 
where the commodities would naturally occur in numerical order. 

The first pamphlet in the series is an ''Introduction and index," 
which contams: 

1. An introductory chapter discussing the scope of the series and 
the general method of treatment. 

2. An alphabetical index of the articles provided for in the tariff 
act of 1913, showing the paragraph of the act in which the article is 
provided for and, if discussed under a different paragraph, the 
number of such paragraph. 

3. A list of the pamphlets in the series, showing the paragraphs 
and articles included in each pamphlet. 

Thus by use of this "Introduction and index'' the exact location 
of the discussion relating to a given article or commodity can be 
ascertained. 

In the preparation of this report the Tariff Commission had the 
services of C. R. De Long, of the Chemical Division, with relation to 
matches, and Sandford L. Willis, of the Metals Division, with rela- 
tion to cartridges, of the Commission's staff, and of others. 

a 



■ 

1 



. » 



CONTENTS. 



FIREWORKS. 

General information: Pag«- 

1913 tariff paragraph , 7 

. Domestic production 7 

Materials * * 7 

Imports and exports 7 

Tariff history 7 

Statistical tables: 

Production in the United States 8 

Imports for consumption , 8 

Bates of duty. , 9 

Court and Treasury decisi ons 9 

MATCHES. 

General information: 

1913 tariff paragraph 10 

Description 10 

Materials. 10 

' Method ol manufacture 11 

Output. 11 

Domestic exports 11 

Laws relating to the match industry 11 

Imports 12 

Foreign production 12 

Tariff history 12 

Statistical tables: 

Production in the United States 13 

Production in Japan 13 

Imports by countries. 13 

Imports for consumption 14 

Domestic exports. 15 

Rates of duty 16 

Court and Treasury decisions 17 

CARTRIDGES, LOADED AND EMPTY, PERCUSSION CAPS. 

Summary , 19 

Summary tab Je^. , . 20 

General inform^ti/on: 

1913 tariff paragraph.... 20 

Description 20 

Uses... 2X 

Domestic production: 

Raw materials 21 

Equipment 22 

Methods of production 22 

Organization 22 

Geographical distribution 22 

History of the industry 22 

Domestic production and consumption 22 

Domestic exports 22 

Foreign production -^ 23 

Imports , 23 

Prices 24 

Military importance of the industry 24 

Tariff fiistory....... 25 

Competitive conditions 25 

Tariff considerations 25 

5 



. .'£• 






1* ^ » ^ 4 



-> t« 



w««»(>^» 



^ f 



*■•- »■•- 



t ■• 



> ^^ :^ 



y 



' ■r*t» •««' V* 



X 



^*" 






/ 



^ ** ^^ • 4 *^ 



3 
-9- 



FIREWORKS. 



General Iniosmation. 

191S tariff paragraph. — 344. Firecrackers of all kinds, 6 cents per 
pound; bombs, rockets, Romdn candles, and fireworks of all descripr 
tions, not specially provided for in this section, 10 cents per pound; 
the weiffht on all the foregoing to include all coverings, wrappings, 
and packing material. 

Domestic production. — In 1914 there were 41 manufacturers, with 
a capital of $2,162,449 and an output valued at $2,296,236. 

''Display fireworks of all kinds are the principal manufactures of 
establisnments in this; classification (fireworlcs); among specific 
products are air torpedoes, bombs, mines, set pieces, shells, wheels, 
torches, rockets, colored fire, lands, electric sparklers, firecrackers, 
paper balloons, and roman candles." * 

Materials. — The materials most used in fireworks are gunpowder 
or its constituents, carbon, sulphur, and potassium nitrate. Fire- 
works are so varied in form that many substances may be employed 
in their manufacture. Metallic salts are used to produce different 
colors; several oxidizing materials may supplant potassium nitrate 
and other explosives may replace gunpowder for certain purposes. 
Powdered aluminum, dextrine, and copper-covered wire are used in 
the manufacture of sparklers. Besides tneir scenic purposes, rockets, 
Roman candles, and Bengal lights are also used for signaling at sea. 

Imports and exporte.— Imports by countries are not separately 
stated in official statistics, but practically all firecrackers imported 
into the United States come from China and Japan. Other fireworks 
were imported principally from Germany and France. Imports of 
bombs, rockets, etc., for the five-year period, 1910-1914, averaged 
65,000 pounds, valued at $8,000, with revenue of $7,000, and those 
of firecrackers 3,390,000 pounds, valued at $216,000, with revenue of 
$254,000. Imports for the calendar year 1920 were: Bombs, rockets, 
etc., 14,987 pounds, valued at $4,071, with revenue of $1,499; fire- 
crackers, 4,169,224 pounds, valued at $740,985, with revenue of 
$250,153. 

Tariff history.— Th% acts of 1888 and 1894 imposed an ad valorem 
duty of 100 and 50 per cent, respectively, on the importation of 
firecrackers. A specific duty of 8 cents per pound was imposed by 
the acts of 1890, 1897, and 1909. The act of 1913 reduced the rate 
to 6 cents per pound. 

Bombs, rockets, Roman candles, and fireworks were specifically 
provided for in the acts of 1909 and 1913. The former act imposed 

a duty of 12 cents per pound and the latter 10 cents per pound. 

- 

1 Abstract of the Coasus of Manufactures, 1914. 



8 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



Production in United States — States — Fireworls. 
[From Federal census.] 



Year and State. 



United States: 

1914 

1909 

1904 

1899 

1889 

18791, 

'i869»...... 

1859* 

States, 1914: 

Massachusetts.. 

Pennsylvania.. 

All other States 



Number 


Wage 


ofestab- 


earners 


Ibh- 


(average 


mcnts. 


number). 


«- 


~i^24 


42 


1,403 


34 


1,480 


' ' ' '46 


1,638 


22 


518 


39 


7:i5 


21 


363 


12 


144 


4 


389 


6 


57 


31 


878 

I 



Capital. 



Wages. 



Cost of 
materials. 



Value oT 
products. 



Expressed in tfibusands. 




346 

93 

1,723 



X Explosives and Artworks. « *' Fireworks," "torpedoes." 

Imports for consumpHon^^RevenTie — Fireworks, 



Fiscal year. 


Rates of duty. 


Value. 


Duty 

collected. 


Actual and 

oompated 

ad valorem 

rate. 


1908 


20 per cent 


$86,343 

52,453 

892 


$17,268 

10,490 

178 


Per cad. 
2a 00 


1909 


......do 


2a 00 


1910 , 


do 


20.00 


I 





Imports for consumption — Revenue. 

BO.MBS, rockets; ROMAN CANDLES, AND FIREWORKS OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS 

N. 8. P. F. 



Fiscal year: 

1910 

1911 

1912 

191». 

1914. 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1919 

1920 

19211 



Rate of duty. 



12cent8 per pound. 

do 

do 

..,..do 

....do 

10 cents per pound. 

do 

do 

do 

....do 



.do. 
.do. 
.da. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 
74,007 
29,066 
16,939 
19,467 

8,if<01- 

177,513 

38,575 

19,543 

25,587 

4,008 

5,278 

14,987 
15,505 



Value. 



$9,850 
3,377 
3,221 
3,229 
1,526 

18,711 

6, 134 

3,719 

4,474 

446 

1,251 
4,071 

2,188 



Duty 
collected. 



$8,888 

3,488 

2.a32 

2,336 

960 

17,751 

3,857 

1,954 

2,558 

406 

528 
1,499 
1,650 



Value per 

unit of 

quantity. 



$0,133 
.116 
.190 
.166 
.1»1 
.105 
.159 
.190 
.174 
.109 

.237 



Actual and 

computed 

ad valorem 

rate. 



Par cent. 
90.23 
103.29 
63.05 
72.35 
62.1>2 
94. «7 
62.88 
52.55 
57.19 
91.21 

42.19 
86. M 



FIRECRACKERS. 



Fiscal year: 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912....... 

1913 

1914 

1914 

1915 

1916, 

1917 

1918 

Calendar year: 

1919 

1920 

19211 



8 cents per pound. 

do.... 

do 

do..,. 

do... 

do 

6 cents per pound . 
do 

;dOi 

do 

....do... : 



.do. 
.do. 
.do 



5,421, 
4,864, 
3,949, 
3, 150, 
3,037, 
3,090, 
29, 

3,514, 
2; 601, 
3,2^4, 
2, 999, 
1.117, 



504 
638 
261 
291 
873 
450 
155 
312 
022 
153 
503 
004 



1,^.244 
4,169.224 
3,813,310 



$394,045 
305,653 
252,645 
201,817 
194,224 
208,740 
1,799 
220,618 
I'lS, 140 
254,318 
3^2.248 
123,087 

280,237 
740,985 
458,477 



$433,720 
asO, 171 
315,940 
252,023 
243,029 
247,236 
?,332 
210,858 
156,001 
197.049 
179.970 
67,020 

100,995 
250,153 t 
228,698 ' 



$0,073 
.063 
.064 
.064 
.064 
.068 
.062 
.063 
.062 
.077 
.127 
.110 

.167 



110.07 

127.36 

125.05 

124.87 

125.13 

118.44 

129.65 

95-5^ 

95.66 

77.48 

47.08 

54.4j5 

36.04 
33.76 



I 



1 6 month? ending June .30, 1921. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 



9 



'J?' 



Rates of duty — Fireworks. 



.•r! 



1* 

r 

I" 



IZ 



Act of— 


Par. 


1883 
1890 


431 

438 


1894 
1897 


323 
420 


1909 


433 


1913 


344 



Tariff classification or description. 



Firecrackers of all kinds 

Firecrackers of all kinds, but no allowance shall be made for tare 

or damage thereon. 
do 

Firecrackers of all kinds, the weight to include all coverings, 

wrappings, and packing material. 

Firecrackers of all kinds 

Bombs, rockets, roman candles, and fireworks of all descriptions, 
not specially provided for in this section. 

The weight on all the foregoing to include all coverings, wrap- 

gings, and packing material, 
'irecrackers of all lands 

Bombs, rockets, Roman candles, and fireworks of all descriptions, 
not specially provided for in this section. 
The weight on all the foregoing to include all coverinp, wrap- 
pings, and packing materials. 



Rates of duty, specific 
and ad valorem. 



100 per cent ad valorem. 
8 cents per pound. 

50 per cent ad valorem. 
8 cents per pound. 

Do. 
12 cents per pound. 



6 cents per pound. 
10 cents per pound. 



Court and Treasury Decisions. 

Shells made of paper containing a charge of explosive which 
after importation are equipped with a fuse, a cone, powder, or other 
means of propelling the shells through the air, were held to be fire- 
works. (Abstract 41751 of 1918.) Shells containing no explosive 
are not fireworks. (Abstract 33162, T. D. 33660, of 1913.) 

64912— 21— N-8 2 



l'. 



I 



i.j4 



3m^imryti 



Tanf act of /.7:.J.— Pak. 34.1 Marnnet ^mimr jr jmmc if aD 
dpfwripnons, p^r irroas of im* amnttRfi «m fm-v^-annr b«nB& nnrnmc- 
me not more than tmrn aumtmn maicnem oar ins. 5 mhs :$ar sthk: 
wftpn imnorteft orherwise -tum m i#)x»'Tniiiamme mt mEn-'-iiaii 
one hiincimt matciies t^ai-ii. i if : rmr i#3r me -rmnaBiit siaoz^Ks: 
wax mati-hes, fiMeea, wmd mar»-Jifia. ma uL mm-nes ir 3«he^ it 
lolcters or having a stamen. i-efL ir -iinrr^t ^m-ji ir smil ami -^wb 
consistm^ til a wiek iMare^t wim m jniannnanm fiumsKUst ami 3m4a 
iignts, L.1 p«- (^mnim ad ^-amran: B-ni-yot^u Toar ai .Mnanrimffli-si^ 
section ten at ; An act ro prnvuie for a "iix iii»iil wmi» aHflramBraB 
matclies, and tor otiM- purposes. ' airarn^t A^ici ami£. innnHB 
nunttml ami cweirft, wtiire piiospkoi-K niurrin» mannfammiHt w^^ 
or in part in anv tureen oounnrr amd aur le -nnu4Mt iri .siiHr a^i anV 
ot tne pfim ot rile Laimi Star^ antt -.ne mDorratimr dtraw^ - 
herefaj prnhibiml: P-rnr,aea -o-a.t-. r^iat aornme: or tnis kc ^ 

J~ I . '^ ^P*^^ '^ moiiif- ^ii let :q' mnvute Snr * jaot 
upon white piiosphonis inacciiiis> ann'ror icaer ^utdom^ aoinrvral 
Apni mntli, ninete«i liuniirifd and rw«i^e. ' ^ 

L'^^?morz(m.— MacciiestnATbe-iivuiec JIM -iir^ Tia^Sar 
Of (lescnpuon: kV Fneciun mancaes. smir.e iid: 2' ^-cnon 




lUe lust two classy wul ^v^rti^t^ on a:jv surtuce b- fncdon. w6& die 

whicli Has bem pn^partju wt:..a a u/;AOurv of >jo^>^auris sesaoisaiWLile 
md mme abrasive mAtmai. lu v>e ^.-^i^e^c::/ iriuc-a im nfici^iSMT 

fflatemJs are all rm.xed (.o^hIht ^.^Ki l>u:. v>u n -oe dpomc: in uli 
flnuhl<^-dip nmtclie^ che drsi, vv<io ^vi»ut-v>i a-i .>X'.;:^mii i^r^a^' OTdciM 
pntasamm c^orate. giue. aiKt an tncr(, - cr, suca i^ aav. ' ^Tie ^mnd 

dip or tip of nae macca, ^^>i^uu>^^ t^^^ '^ ^;^\ -:.^,ciixixa::Ie su^b^aoce, 
«i_inh a»piiospliorusse^ui^vu:>v:>>,;,v, ,,.,,{ .,., a'>:H.>i'.e -jiiir.^ruu. ^octtAs 
mnt> or gronnd^gia^ > ^^-^' vvul^'oo •,. nutu'^ is ',n-oa ^v ^i:^ aww 
m thft Lnited states taati any oi^or ^ »o ,.■ uu .>.. V^:^ ac-rajisaft- 
6T tma matcli is tliat ic prev^^au uu^ • il\pv»,v >- > , ; , ^^ 



ttr>m fire hazard and for u-iuus^ku-,^,. .^.u. 

frmp following- classes of mawnxU ,l^ \u ,^,. ,^' ^ '7u:n^:\li nxa- 
Urr)fk\, mch, as phosphorite seciv^uisv^^'^uio oa an 'lio: \ >.u v.:..:.e: 2 
An OTCultT^ng agent, such as jvitiN^miu v,v^ ^v^.^uiu ^ i^:a c' rvc >tid, 
w mftng&nese dioxide; 1^3^ meic uuiuhmS,^ a. au a >. v^.x^w^O >u,'a as 
pminfl gJass or flint, and colonui; lu.r.s'ui'. y^i^ -^ -o or lcir;e^a*i- 
/if!ftivf! jfwm for the purpose of causing t'lo tu^ ul u» vv' o.- o ,o j'o >c>*k 
nn() to exclude the air froxa the head vU i,lsO lu i.. v 
10 



TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS. 11 

The match stick is usuaUy imprecated with paraffin wax to make 
it ignite readily, and in recent years it has become the practice to also 
impregnate the stick with some chemical, iisuallv sodium phosphate. 
The wood used for match stems in the United otates is usually that 
of the white pine, while in European and Asiatic coxmtries, the Rus- 
sian aspen is used. 

Method of manufacture. — The manufacture of matches has been 
developed to the point where it is a continuous mechanical operation 
requiring comparatively little labor. The perfectly dried blocks of 
wood are cut into lengths of 2f inches and are then fed into automatic 
cutting machines. These machines cut about 40 match splints at 
one stroke and these are forced automatically into openings in a 
perforated iron plate which is in continuous movement. The match 
splints after bemg forced into the plate are conveyed over a series 
of heaters and then through an arrangement which forces out any 
imperfect splints. The plates now pass over a trough of paraffin wax 
in such a manner that about one-fourth of the stick becomes im- 
pregnated. The matches now pass over a composition roller where 
the first dip is put on. In order that the first mp may have time to 
dry, the plates are made to travel up and down through a series of 
wheels and are then given a second dip. The finished match is now 
carried back toward the end where tne blocks were first punched. 
Sufficient time elapses for the matches to dry. Here, the matches 
are automatically punched out from the traveling belt and auto- 
matically packed in boxes of the desired number. 

According to Rogers,^ the machine used for the double-dip matches 
is 96 feet long, contains 1,600 plates, takes one hour for the complete 
operation, and makes 8,000,0()0 matches in 10 hoiu-s. 

The manufacture of matches requires careful control of atmos- 
pheric conditions. The air in the match-making room is usually 
?urified and kept within fixed limits of tempxerature and humidity, 
'his is necessary for the proper dipping and drying of the matches. 
Also this careful control makes a more desirable atmosphere for the 
workmen necessary to operate the machines. 

Ovipvi. — ^According to the 1914 census there were 20 establish- 
ments engaged in the manufacture of matches, employing 3,800 wage 
earners, with a capital of $11,736,187 and an output of matches 
valued at $12,500,000. It is estimated that the production in the 
United States in 1917 amounted to 28,805,000 gross boxes of matches. 

Domestic export, — ^Prior to 1915 the domestic export of matches 
was between $80,000 and $100,000. About 50 per cent of the export 
was to Canada. During the period from 1915, to 1918, inclusive, the 
domestic export of matches was fairly constant at between $430,000 
and $500,000. During this period iBVance was the principal con- 
sumer. During the 1919 calendar year exports increased to $626,780, 
and in 1920 amounted to $514,592. 

Laws relating to the match industry. — Formerly matches made in 
the United States contained ordinary white or yellow phosphorus. 
The constant handling of this material in match factories by work- 
men led to the so-caUed ''phosy jaw.'' The passage of the Esch- 
Hughes Act in 1912 prohibited the importation of white phosphorus 

1 Rogers, Allen, "Manual of Industrial Chemistry," 3d edition, p. 256. 



1 * 



^"XAEzn i3rroTLM.rr:"jr bLLKVii^ . 



LI. ..rf€^ Eirr' r'anuer^ .. - x. an. luaoe: huc^ ^ n-^i tar iiikixl 
' -.^^^: —r^ru- ri?m:»oiiii. rinff" tiuc ttt^^- cr T=eiiawt- thiibbdiicithc: - 

TL^i.- ^rriaiiiuo: ua- nv: oiir' resiUrt?. 21 :iirLrrnn?€C Jieaixi c:' ifie- 
T* -^rrLTj-^i, ru' : iia- nis resin i^. jn r'^titte' afl2€T^ X- riH "bb*- or 
::.2*. : iK^- 1: lii' 11 emit .j.j<^MniJo: sulj-ui' i* Hi* fioTv* jiac DesL 
?»*T-'-/us:' ^liii: t<v 1: M^iiK c li*' L.urr»i*e£i 'jcammfit Tabcwcixir 
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TAMFF INFOBMATION SXJBVEyS. 



13 



Production in United States — Matches.^ 



United States. 



1914 
1909 
1904 
1899 
1889 
1879 
1869 
1850 
1849. 



Number 




of es- 


Wage 


tablish. 


earners. 


ments. 




«20 


3,800 


26 


3,631 


23 


3.185 


22 


2,047 


27 


1,696 


37 


2,219 


76 


2,556 


75 


1,262 


60 


1,021 



Capital. 




Cost of 
materials. 



Vahieof 
products. 



Expressed in thousands. 



$11,736 


SI, 758 


15,202 


11.953 


1,390 


4,599 


5,334 


1,101 


3.286 


8,cnN> 


613 


3,421 


1.941 


474 


936 


2,115 


536 


8.299 


1,622 


617 


1,180 


362 


179 


230 


109 


165 


138 



812,656 

11,353 

6,647 

6,006 

2,194 

4.668 

3,640 

699 

428 



1 Data from Abstract of the Census of Manufactures, 1914. 

s California, 3; Illinois, 2; Indiana^: Kassachusetts, 1; Michigan, 1; Minnesota, 1; New Jersey, 1; New 
T<»rk, 3; Ohio, 4; Pennsylvania, 2; Wisconsin, 1. 



Production of matches in Japan} 



Tear. 



1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 



Quantity. 



Qr(»* boxet. 
«»,»47,215 
43,948,327 
52,815,232 
51,731,020 
49,050,228 



Value.* 



96,286,336 
6,083,648 
7,052,4<V3 
T; 072, 784 
7,749,609 



Year. 



1915. 
1916. 



Quantity. 



Vahi«.« 



Oroiibox€$. 
49,320,862 
50,612,996 

1917 i 52,531,551 

1918 1 48,364,435 



$11,351,241 
13,86^054 
16,484,466 
19,785,046 



1 From Thirty-flfth Statistical Beport of the Denartment of Agriculture and Commerce, Japan. About 
80 per cent of tne total production is "safety matches." 
> Con vtfted from yen at par value of $0,485. 

Imports hy countries — Matches, 

FISCAL YEARS. 



Imported from— 1910 



1911 



Austria-Hungary. $30,956 ! $34,531 

BeUdum , 41.608 ; 55.933 

Oermany 36,819 66.458 

Norway > 86,674 | 1]2.6» 

Sweden 157,466 285.577 

Japan ' 1,016 ' 4,087 

Allother 18,406 ' 29,090 



1912 



$39,153 
26,192 
20.664 

115, 8«5 

265.789 

5,980 

36.503 



1913 



1914 



$61,811 
28.285 
28.994 
108.202 
453.499 
10,928 
37:851 



$91,118 
35,187 
49.651 
117.748 
473,628 
22,797 
92,666 



1915 



191$ 



$22,634 
12.451 
25.293 
86,086 

383,935 
72,441 
80,379 



1917 



1918 



$89,^15 

611,482 

2S7.455 

16, 2S 



$141,002 , $673,68$ 
ffl0,827 I 2,149,r " 
$37,647 1,067,< 
41,877 



1 — • > 

Total 372,946 . 599,309 510,146 { 730.170 882,7» 



662,830 



975,606 1,969,968 3,8S6,9$1 



CALENDAR YEARS, 



191$ 




Norway $402,005 

Uweden- , 2,299,0a 

Japan 8S8.738 

Allother ; 115,940 

TolaL „ 3,676,728 



wao 



$*«,302 I 

377.8W , 

730.338 ' 

•4,917 ' 

1,249,462 $912, 1J6 



14 



tabhtf tsrroBMATioisf suk^kis^ 



Impfirt9/or eormimption — lUjjemte — Mad^, friction or htdfer, 

IN BOX28 CONTAnfnrO NOT MORE THAN in MATCHES FSB. BOX. 

[TTodar general tBfff.1 



Bote df doty. 



flWftI 



w vfloni; 
10« 

low.-... 

lOTO 

«W3 

m» 




Id!^ 

IIW* 

1«8. „. 

ldl8.' 

»W.- 

IMO.... 



' * * * • bOV^ m ^ ^ 9 m w m m w wm\ 

r... .do,..., ,.,...,) 

|5 e0nt« p6r gross.. J 

.....do... ....I 

.....do....*.... i 

.....do......... ...J 

|l * • * •QOrf m 0^9 « m m ^t 

^2 C0Rt8 p6r 0088. 
do 

6gi 

9 9 *QO» 0A 

...,.do... 



* 9t 



..do. 
.,do. 
.do 



775,080 
L371,046 

,287 

,440 

,8» 

,603,206 
,1M8,«3S 

,001,900 

4,062,331 
1,011,013 
1,044,673 




33^273 
2S.M3 

m,7m 

537,731 
441,123 
M7;i04 
,040 
,013 



301,206 

3^31^781 

3,044,714 
8^314 
087,632 




(pantity. a^^^a^onm 



P*- 



83, 4» 
150,587 
100,130 

I48L570 

40,340 



.210 



38.71 

3&3» 
2SuO» 



.218 
.213 

aio 



.302 
.350 
.500 

.«5 

,557 
.570 



27. 5» 
2&22^ 
20.08- 
14.77 



0L02 
&5» 

&3» 



(/nmit THAN IN BOXES CONTAnfflNG NOT MORE THAN 100 HATCHES EACH. 



im 

1000 

lOTO.. ..,.-.,.. 

IWl. 

1013 

1013. 

1014........... 

1015... 

1010........... 

101$........... 

1010 

1030 



1 ocnip0r tboQSftDd 

M 9 9 OV^ 9 00 9 0000 

\} 0mt per mos«&d 

....do..... ... 

....do 

....do 

^ a «CliV« 00 99099000 

i cent p«r thoosMid 

.do 

.do.. 

.... .oo. ............ 

do 



{ 



.do. 
.do. 

.do 



5M,101 

037^420 

101,350 

100,056 

500,870 

58,004 

180,074 

248L802 

7^081 

3,060 

^520 

184 

12 

12 

11,564 

304,143 




2 

2,885 

30,516 



IB,8il 

0,374 

1,013 

1,407 

^274 

440 

1,355 

1,866 

2,714 

11 





43 

705 



iBLflao 

.047 
.046 



.073 
.040 
.090 
.033 
.357 
.060 
.033 
.167 



3L4» 
3L72 
17.54 
11.33 
Ml 27 
l&M 
24.35 
1L3» 
L06 
7.44 



2.5f> 
LOO 
2.5» 



WAX AND FANCY HATCHES AND TAPERS. (AoCoflOOO.) 



f fiool roort: 

1010 

foil 

1013 

loia 

1014 



3lp«roont. 

....^do 

do 

do 

do 



g.308 
,330 
60,226 
66,822 
1,700 



13,0^ 

31,070 

23,387 

636 



35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 



WAX AND WIND MATCHES AND ALL MATCHES IN BOOKS OR FOLDERS OR HAYING 
A STAINED, DYED, OR COLORED STICK OR STEM. (Act of 1013.) 



Flsoal }^o*rs: 

1014 

1015 

1016 



lSi2: 



OAlendiir yoAri: 

low 

1010 

1030 



35])eroen(. 

.....do 

.....do 

....do..,., 
do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Paeka^«f. 



4,037,882 
2,033,113 



134,362 

13,367 

6,001 

12,275 

21,005 

15,060 
13,555 
10,410 



3856 
3,316 
1 747 
3,068 
5,251 

8,705 
3,380 
2,004 



35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
25.00 
35.00 

35.00 
35.00 
25.00 



TABIFF INFOBMATION SURVEYS. 



15 



Imports for consumption — Revenue — Matches, fiieUon or lucifer — Continued. 

TAPERS, FtJSES, AND NIOHT'LIGHTS. (Acts of 1913.) 



Fiscal years: 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

Calendar years: 

1918 

1919 

1930 



Rate of duty. 



35 percent. 

do 

do 

do 

do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Quantity. 



POWtnSm 



Value. 



|ao,lS6 
90,338 
M,017 

7,484 

6»a3t 

3,017 
4,076 
6,007 



T>oty 
oollected. 



15,681 
5,062 
3,754 
l,8n 
1,508 

5M 
1,019 
1,001 



Vahir per 

unit of 

quantity. 



Actual and 

compiled 

ad valorem 

rate. 



JPcr ctnit 
35.00 
25.00 
25.00 
25.00 
25.00 

25.00 
25.00 
25.00 



Domestk exports — Matches, 

FISCAL YEARS. 



Exported to— 



Canada... 
C<dombia. 
All other. 



Total. 



1910 



138,786 
13,408 
3Sy738 



80^877 



1911 



940^501 
96,694 



77,106 



■i \t 



1012 



850,816 
12; 338 



92^851 



Exported to-- 



Canada 

Colombia 

Honduras 

Mexico 

French West Indies. 

France 

All other 



Total. 



1913 



11,009 
1,04$ 



19^667 



102,407