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Full text of "The Ta'ríkh-i-guzída : or, 'Select history of Hamdu'llâh Mustawfí-i-Qazwíní; compiled in A.H. 730 (A.D. 1330)"

(Translations of the three Inscriptions 
on the Cover.) 



/. Arabic. 

*' These are our works which prove 
what we have done; 
Look, therefore, at our" works 
when we are gone." 



2. Turkish. 

"His genius cast its shadow o'er the world, 
And in brief time he much achieved and 

wrought : 
The Age's Sun was he, and ageing suns 
Cast lengthy shadows, though their time be 
short." 

' (Kemdl Pdshd-zdde.) 



3. Persian. 

**When we are dead, seek for our 
resting=place 
Not In the earth, but In the 
hearts of men." 

(Jaldlu 'd-Dm Rumi.) 



''E. J. W. GIBB MEMORIAL' 

SERIES. 



VOL. XIV, 2. 



(All communications respecting this volume should be addressed to 
Professor E. G. Browne, Pembroke College, Cambridge, who is the 
Trustee specially responsible for its production.) 



THE TA'RIKH-I-GUZtDA 

OR 

' "SELECT HISTORY" 

OF 

HAMDU'LLAH MUSTAWFI 
^ -I-QAZWINI 

COMPILED IN A.H. 730 (A.D. 1330) AND NOW 

ABRIDGED IN ENGLISH FROM A MANUSCRIPT DATED 

A.H; 857 (A.D. 1453)1 

BY / V 

EDWARD G. BROWNE, 

WITH INDICES OF THE FAC-SIMILE TEXT 

BY 

R. A. NICHOLSON. 

PART II, CONTAINING THE ABRIDGED 
TRANSLATION AND INDICES. 



PRINTED FOR THE TRUSTEES OF THE 
«E. J. W. GIBB MEMORIAL" 



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LONDON: LUZAC & CO., 46, Great Russell Street st. w.c. 

1913- 




PRINTED BY E. J. URILL, 
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This Volume is one 

of a Series 

published by the Trustees of the 

''E. J. W. GIBB MEMORIALr 



The Funds of this Memorial are derived from the Interest accruing 
from a Sum of money given by the late MRS. GIBB of Glasgow, to 
perpetuate the Memory of her beloved son 

ELIAS JOHN WILKINSON GIBB, 

and to promote those researches into the History, Literature, Philo- 
sophy and Religion of the Turks, Persians, and Arabs to which, from 
his Youth upwards, untjl his premature and deeply lamented Death 
in his forty-fifth year, o?i December J, igoi, his life was devoted. 



'•'•The worker pays his debt to Death; 
His work lives 07i, nay, quickeneth.^^ 

The following memorial verse is contributed by '^Abdti'l-Haqq Hdmid 
Bey of the Imperial Ottoman Embassy i?i London, one of the Founders 
of the New School of Turkish Literature, and for many years an 
intimate friend of the deceased. 



Jaj ^J£=>J^^'. 4_L-.V9j JV,1 -c-JuS^ 



aO _;v^M.A t5-^' A^Mi«>i«\ iji.«\.iu \S^jy^ **•' 



''E. J. W. GIBB MEMORIAL' : 

ORIGINAL TRUSTERS. 

[JANE GIBB, died November 26, 1904], 

E. G. BROWNE, 

G. LE STRANGE, 

H. F. AMEDROZ, 

A, G. ELLIS, 

R. A. NICHOLSON, 

E. D Em SON ROSS, 

AND 
IDA W. E. OGILVY GREGORY (formerly GIBB), ap- 
pointed igo^. 

CLERK OF THE TRUST. 

W. L. RA YNES, 

ij", Sidney Street.^ 

CAMBRIDGE. 

PUBLISHERS FOR THE TRUSTEES. 

E. J. BRILL, LEYDEN. 
LUZAC <^ Co.. LONDON. 



PREFACE. 

In the Preface to the companion volume of the present 
work, which contains the facsimile of a MS. of the Tarikh 
-i-Guzida brought from Persia in the summer of 1907 by 
my friend Mirza '^Abdu '1-Husayn Khan Wahidu 'l-Mulk, I 
announced my intention (p. XVl) of discussing in this volume 
with greater fulness the various questions connected with 
this history and its author. Now, however that this volume, 
which contains an abridged translation of the text, together 
with the Indices necessary for the convenient use of the 
latter, is ready for publication, I find that I am not in a 
position to add anything of importance on these questions 
to what has been already published or referred to in the 
previous volume; and all that now appears necessary is that 
I should briefly explain its structure and production. 

This volume consists of two parts, the English Abstract 
of Contents or Abridged Translation of the text, occupying 
237 pages; and the Persian Indices to the text, which were 
omitted from the previous volume, to which they properly 
belong, in order to avoid increasing its already considerable 
bulk (854 -J- 20 pages). 

The Indices are entirely the work of my friend and col- 
league Dr. R. A. Nicholson, who undertook the laborious 
task of constructing them with his usual kindness, and has 
carried it out with his customary thoroughness. They are 
four in number, viz.-.^ 

(i) Index of persons mentioned in the text, both men and 
women (pp. 5 — 182). 

(2) Index of nisbas (pp. 183 — 224). 



XIV PREFACE. 

(3) Index of place names and tribal names (pp. 225 — 277). 

(4) Index of books cited or referred to in the text (pp.. 
278—286). 

Dr. Nicholson has been kind enough to write a short note 
explaining the principles which have guided him in the con- 
struction of these Indices, rendered the more difficult by 
the scribe's errors which mar the text reproduced in the 
facsimile, and this note is added at the end of the Preface. 

For the Abridged Translation, or Abstract of Contents, I 
must assume entire responsibility, though I have received 
the most valuable help from my learned friend Mirza 
Muhammad of Qazwi'n, to whom each proof was submitted 
and by him returned with many important corrections, ob- 
servations and annotations, which have been for the most 
part incorporated in the text or in foot-notes. In making 
such an Abstract it is very difficult to avoid being swayed 
by personal predilections and idiosyncrasies, and I am con- 
scious that I may have unduly compressed such portions 
of the work as appeared to me less interesting, and, on the 
other hand, unduly expanded other portions which seemed 
to me of greater interest. The thick numbers in brackets 
occurring throughout the Translation indicate the pages of 
the facsimile contained in the first volume, and it is these 
which must he regarded when the Persian Indices are em- 
ployed in connection with the English Abstract. 

My attention has been called to an unfortunate error in 
the facsimile, occurring between pp. 226 and 231, which, 
owing, probably, to the adhesion of two leaves of the ori- 
ginal MS., has resulted in the complete omission of pp. 227 
and 228, and the insertion twice over of pp. 229 and 230. 
The text of the omitted pages is as follows: 



^))U\ J ij^\ 4ic J_^j J^^ ^\> jj 4^=. :>J^ .L^l^j (p. 227) 



PREFACE. XV 



^^\^\ j\ j,]^ ^ij jcj^ '<-U 4^= ^\o:^f jS, ^^ ^ :>^^\ 
S*M i. ^_^\.«j\ ^ y .j*^ ^^»\ oJ> i^J^ C^-^. <-^"^ >A>«.)i aAc ^v-»V 



jTJi J_^ ^^ ^; iaalw J jy. j^^f- ^; ^\^~< C J>^ «_-i3 AixL- \j^ -L. ^ 
JjO 5ju.j cl-:,. o^_j.« _5\ (jj J.'.\i W\ _^ 4,dcp- ol/^V J^ '^^-^^ A^Vl 



i^T" 



L$jS ^_j> j\ ^\j ^_J.. :>\.:i\ *Uj j ^^^^. -^j^^ ^L*\i\ JW Jt«\ 
Jj Vj^ Jfe^ ^jr^ O^ J^ \;j^ Jj^ J^ J^ -^^^ ^^ ''••-i'^f c'^^ 



XVI PREFACE. 



t5 J.jC _j ^y^^ ^_^VjVLj _5 A;\ ^_^V^ ^\$\ ^y5\ c^-.\ j\,/Uj ^ J 
y/^» J 4:;j, J AJ.-. jrji\ ^ -icS- a\.M ^^ji*^ ^Jc t>c.*y>* ^*^ -^^"^ -^ — 'y-^ 

Q, jUVa _j [aJ] ij^j (j^ -^^^ ,3— J S^ *^' (_^ "^^^^ U^-J ■^>-*^ 

^■^ J^ f^^ J r'r' r^-^ a* y-^'^ ^- ^*^- a- '^^ j •^^'. J''^ j t? 

^\ ^i ^>L N J (?>i ^ (p. 229) ^^.j::,^. 

In conclusion, the aim of this volume is to serve as a 
guide for the English student of Oriental history to one of the 
more ancient and reputable historical manuals which are so 
popular in Persia, and if it fulfils in this respect somewhat 
the same function as Major David Price's old but still useful 
Retrospect, I shall be well satisfied. 

Edward G. Browne. 
Cambridge, August 10, 191 3. 



NOTE ON THE INDICES. 

It may be helpful to those using the Indices if I state the 
method of arrangement which I have adopted. Since no 
difficulties are likely to arise in connection with the names 
of places, tribes, or books, my remarks on this point will 
refer almost exclusively to the First Index, which contains 
the names of persons. 

(i) The definite article , \\ and the words .,\ '".\ .,,\ ^v^-, 

^ are ignored. Thus, aIW. jij'^\ is placed under c. , and 
Jcli; y\ under . . 

(2) Names consisting of a proper noun followed by a nisda 
^- S-> (S'y^ jViac , are placed under the initial letter of 
the noun. 

(3) Names consisting of a kunya followed by a nisba e.g., 
ijjyj:i "U^-.?- y\ , are usually placed under the initial 
letter of the secund word in the kwiya. 

(4) Names consisting of a kunya followed by a proper 
noun, e. g., ^ ^ j,*-\ AW ^.s- y\ , are usually placed 
under the initial letter of the noun, whether a nisba 
follows or not; but sometimes they are placed under 
the ktinya, for special reasons : thus V, ^ a».< SC^ ^ \ 
J, V^'^ will be found under »_j , because he is commonly 

known as J,V6 jC J\. Many names of this kind occur 
in the Index twice, viz., under the kunya and also 
under the proper noun. 



XVII I NOTE ON THE INDICES. 

As a rule, the names are printed in the Indices just as 
they stand in the facsimile. A large number of them are 
corrupt, and many are written so defectively that it was 
not easy — in some instances I found it impossible — to 
decipher them. Some obvious mistakes have been corrected 
and the true reading has frequently been determined by 
reference to Ibn Hisham, Tabarf, Ibn al-Athir and other au- 
thorities, but no ^attempt has been made to control and 
verify the names systematically. This must be left for the 
first Editor of the Tarikh-i-Guzida, and I do not envy 
him the task. 

Reynold A. Nicholson. 



Page 

I 


of translation. 


I 






r 






2 






3 






4 







COMPARATIVE TABLE OF CONTENTS OF 

THE TEXT CONTAINED IN THE PRECEDING 

VOLUME AND OF THE TRANSLATION 

CONTAINED IN THIS. 

Page 

DOXOLO.GY I of text 

Author's account of himself and 

his work 3 » » 

Principal sources used by him . 8 „ „ 

Date of completion 8 „ „ 

On the different eras . . . ' . 9 » „ 

Plan and contents of book . . lo „ „ 

INTRODUCTION, on the Creation 

of the Universe i6 „ „ 7 

FIRST CHAPTER, on Pre-Mu- 
hammadan Prophets and Phi- 
losophers 18 „ „ 8 

(I) Prophets '. 20 „ „ 8 

(II) Philosophers 68 „ „ 25 

SECOND CHAPTER, on the Pre- 

Muhammadan Kings of Persia. 81 „ „ 28 

(I) Pishdadiyan 81 „ „ 28 

(II) Kayaniyan 91 „ „ 30 

(III) Muluku 't-Tawa'if. . . . loi „ „ S3 

(IV) Sasaniyan 103 ?> „ 36 

THIRD CHAPTER, on the Pro- 
phet Muhammad and his Suc- 
cessors 124 „ „ 42 

Prefatory, on his genealogy . . 125 „ „ 42 



XX TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Pajjc I'agc 

(1) Short biography . . . . 128 of text 43 of translation. 

(II) Orthodox Caliphs. ... 165 „ „ 46 „ ., 

(III) The Imams 203 „ „ 48 „ „ 

(IV) The chief "Companions" . 208 „ „ 51 „ „ 
(V) The Umayyad "Kings". . 255 „ „ 52 „ 

(VI) The 'Abbdsid Caliphs . . 290 „ „ 57 „ „ 

FOURTH CHAPTER, on the 

Muhammadan Dynasties of Persia 372 „ „ 72 „ „ 

(I) Saffariyan 373 » » 72 „ „ 

(II) Sdmaniyan 379 » » 73 » ». 

(III) Ghaznawiyan 393 » » 78 „ 

(IV) Ghuriydn 406 „ „ 83 „ „ 

(V) Daylamiyan, or Al-i-Buwayh 413 „ „ 85 „ „ 
(VI) Saljiiqiyan (Seljuqs) ... 433 „ „ 93 „ 

(a) of Persian 'Iraq 434 » » 93 » 

(d) of Kirman 479 » » ^°7 » » 

(c) of Asia Minor 480 „ „ 108 „ „ 

(VII) Khwarazmshahiyan . . . 486 „ „ no „ „ 

(VIII) Atabakan 503 » » "8 „ „ 

(a) of Syria and Diyar Bakr. . 503 „ „ 118 „ „ 

{l>) of Fars 5^5 » » ^20 „ 

(IX) Isma'ilfs ....... 509 „ „ 122 „ „ 

(a) of Egypt and North Africa 

(the Fatimid Caliphs) . . . 509 „ „ 122 ,. „ 

(d) of Persia (the Assassins) . . 517 „ „ 127 „ „ 
(X) Qara-Khita'iyan of Kirman 527 „ „ 131 „ „ 

(XI) Atabakan of Luristan . . 535 „ „ 134 „ „ 

{a) of Lur-i-Buzurg 537 » >. ^34 „ 

(^) of Lur-i-Kuchak . .... 547 „ „ 137 „ 
(XII) The Mongols (Ilkhans) of 

Persia 557 >, '» i39 » 

INTERCALATED CHAPTER on 

the House of Muzaffar ... 613 ,, „ 151 „ „ 
FIFfH CHAPTER, containing 

biographies of learned men . . 755 „ „ 208 „ „ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. XXI 

Page Page 

(I) Imams and Mujtahids . . . 755 of text 208 of translation. 

(II) "Readers" of the Qur'an . . 759 „ „ 209 „ „ 

(III) Traditionists 760 „ „ 210 „ „ 

(IV) Shay khs, Saints and Holy Men 760 „ „ 210 „ „ 
(V) Doctors and Divines . . . 797 „ „ 218 „ „ 

(VI) Poets of (a) Arabia .... 812 „ „ 222 „ „ 

(ff) Persia .... 813 „„ 222 „ „ 

SIXTH CHAPTER, on the city of 

Qazwin, the Author's birthplace 829 „ „ 227 „ „ 
(I) Its name and the etymology 

thereof 830 „ „ 227 „ „ 

(II) Its principal buildings. . . 830 „ „ 227 „ „ 

(III) Its subjugation and conver- 
sion by the Arabs. . . . 832 „ „ 228 „ „ 

(IV) Its aqueducts, rivers, mos- 
ques, tombs and suburbs . 832 „ „ 228 „ „ 

(V) Notable men of different 
classes who have resided in 

it or visited it 835 „ „ 229 „ 

(VI) Governors of Qazwin . . . 838 „ „ 231 „ „ 

(VII) Tribes and families of Qazwin 842 ,, „ 233 „ „ 
CONCLUSION AND COLOPHON 849 „ „ 237 „ 



ABSTRACT OF CONTENTS OF THE 
TA'RIKH-I-GUZIDA. 

Praise of God (l — 2) and of the Prophet and his family (3). 
The Author, Hamdu'llah Ahmad b. Abi Bakr b. Nasr, the 
Mustawfi (State accountant) of Qazwin, describes how he 
imbibed a taste for historical studies from the late minister 
Rashidu'd-EWn Fadlu'llah, in whose service he had been, and 
who was constantly surrounded by men of learning (3 — 4), 
until at length, notwithstanding his lack of early training in 
literature and historical science, he began to compose a great 
historical poem [the Zafar-ndma, a supplement to the Shdh- 
ndma of Firdawsi] '), giving an account of the history of the 
world from the advent of the Prophet Muhammad down to 
his own times. Of this poem, designed to contain 75,000 
verses, he had already composed more than 50,000 verses 
(4 — 5), and it was his intention to dedicate it, when com- 
pleted, to Ghiyathu'd-Di'n Muhammad, the worthy son and 
successor of his late patron the deceased minister Rashi'du'd- 
Din Fadlu'llah (5 — 6). Having recited the titles and praised 
the virtues of his patron, and apologized for the unworthi- 
ness of his offering (7), he proceeds to enumerate the prin- 
cipal sources of information used for the compilation of this 
present manual of history, which are as follows (8) : 

(i) The SiratiCn-Nabi [Ibn Hisham's Biography of the 
Prophet is presumably intended]. 

(2) The Qisasii l-Anbiy d. [Ath-Tha'^alibi's work is probably 
meant]. 

(3) Ar-Risdlatu' l-Qushayriyya. 

(4) The Tadhkiratiil-Awliyd [? of Faridu'd-Din *^Attar]. 

I) For description of the unique MS. of this work, see Rieu's Persian 
Supplement^ pp. 172 — 4. 

I 



2 SOURCES OF THE TA'RIKH-I-GUZIDA. 

(5) The Tadwin of the Imam Rafi^f [or-Yafi'f, by which 
is probably meant the Rawdur-Riydhin\ 

(6) The Tajdribul-Umam of Abu ^AH Miskawayhi. 

(7) Mashdribii't-Tajdrib^. oi K\iM'\-\{d.^2.n 'Alf b. Zayd al- 
Bayhaqf]. 

(8) The Diwdnu'n-Nasab. 

'(9) The great chronicle of Muhammad b. Jari'r at-Tabarf. 

(10) The history of Hamza of Isfahan. 

(11) The great chronicle of Ibnu'l-Athfr \i.e. at-TaWikhul- 
Kdmil\. 

(12) The Zubdatu t-Tawdrikh of JamaluM-Dfn Abu'l-Qasim 
of Kashan. 

(13) The Nizdmu' t-Tawdrikh of the Qadi Nasiru'd-Dfn 
Abu Sa^id at-Baydawf. 

(14) The ^Uyiinu' t-Tawdrikh of Abu Talib 'AH b. al-Khayr 
al-Khazin al-Baghdadi. 

{15) The Kitdbii-'' l-Ma^drif o{ Ihn Qutayba ad-Dfnawarf. 
{16) The TaWikh-i Jahdn-gushdy of 'Ala'u'd-Din 'Ata 
Malik-i-Juwaynf. 

(17) The Persian translation, by Abu'sh-Sharaf al-Jarba- 
dhaqani, of al-'UtbCs TaWikh-i-Ya^nini. 

(18) The SiyaruH-Muliik [more correctly entitled the Siydsat- 
ndma] of the Nizamu'1-Mulk. 

(19) The Shdh-ndma of Firdawsi. 

(20) The Saljiiq-ndma of Zahfri of Nfshapur. 

(21) The Majma% Arbdbil-Maslak [or-Mulk] of the Qadf 
Ruknu'd-Dfn of Khuy. 

(22) The Istizhdrul-akhbdr of the Qadf Ahmad of Damghan. 

(23) The ydmi'ti t-Tawdrikh of the Author's late martyred 
master and patron, the minister Rashidu'd-Din Fadlu'llah. 

This compendium is entitled TaWikh-i-Guzida ("the Select 
History"), and was completed in the year A. H. 730 (8). The 
preface concludes with a prayer that it may be honoured 
by the perusal of Ghiyathu'd-Din, and that the faults of omis- 
sion and commission which mar its pages may be overlooked. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS OF THE GUZIDA (9). ■ 

Of the different eras used by historians, e.g. (i) from the 
Fall of Adam ; (2) from *the Deluge ; (3) from the casting of 
Abraham into the fire; (4) from the Call of Moses; (5) from 
the destruction of Pharaoh; (6) from the building of the 
Ka'^ba; (7) from the accession of Alexander the Great; (8) 
from the invasion of Yaman by the Abyssinians; (9) from 
the reign of Nebuchadnezzar; (10) from the "Year of the 
Elephant", etc. Of these eras, the Israelites employed Nos. 
4 and 5 ; the Ishmaelites (or Arabs) No. &\ the Greeks and 
Romans No, 7; the Yamanites No. 8; the Copts No. 9, and 
the Arabs of Quraysh No, 10. From this diversity of eras 
arose much confusion (10), which the Prophets have not 
endeavoured to remove, while the philosophers either deny 
that the world had a beginning, or, as in the case of the 
sages of India, Cathay, Chinese Tartary, China and Europe, 
assign to the first man a remote antiquity, or assert the 
existence of several successive "Adams". The Muhammadans 
of Persia reckon 6000 years, more or less, from x^dam to 
Muhammad. The astronomers estimate that from the Deluge 
until the present time, A. Y. 698, 4433 years have elapsed. 
This book is divided into an Introduction [Fdtiha), six 
Chapters, and a Conclusion {Khdtima) as follows: 
Introduction. On the Creation. 

Chapter I. On the Prophets, in two Discourses, viz. : 
First Discourse (ll) On the Great Prophets described 

as Mursal and Ulul-^Azm. 
Second Discourse. On the Minor Prophets and others 
who furthered the cause of religion and morality 
until the time of Muhammad, in two Sections, viz. : 
§ I. Minor Prophets. 
§ 2. Philosophers and moral teachers. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS OF THE GUZIDA. 

Chapter II. On the Pre-Islamic Kings of Persia, in four 
sections, viz. 

§ I. Pishdddiydn, ii Kings who reigned 2450 years. 

§ 2. Kaydniydn, 10 „ „ „ 734 » 

§ 3. Mulukut-Tawd''if, 22 „ ' „ „ 35° » 

§■4. Sdsdniydn, 3^ » » » 52/ » 

Chapter III. On the Prophet Muhammad and his Com- 
panions and Successors, in an introduction and six 
sections, viz. 
Introduction. The Prophet's genealogy and kin. 

§ I. His life, wars, wives, amanuenses, relatives, clients 

and heirs. 
§ 2. The five [al-Hasan b. *^Ali is included] orthodox 
Caliphs, whose dominion endured exactly 30 lunar 
years (12) from 13 Rabi"^ I, A. H. 11 until 13 
Rabf' I, A. H: 41 [= 6 June A. D. 632—15 July, 
A.D. 661]. 
§ 3. The remaining ten of the twelve Imams [excluding 
'^Ali and al-Hasan who are included in the last 
section], from 4 Safar, A. H. 49 until Ramadan, 
A. H. 264 [= 14 March, A. D. 669— May, 877], 
a period of 215 lunar years and 7 months. 
§ 4. Account of some of the Prophet's chief Com- 
panions and Followers. 
§ 5. The fourteen Umayyad "Kings" (not Caliphs), 
from 13 Rabf I, A. H. 41 until 13 Rabi" I, A. H. 
132 [= IS July, A.D. 661—30 Oct., A.D. 749], 
a period of 91 lunar years. 
§ 6. The thirty-seven 'Abbasid Caliphs, from i3Rabf I, 
A. H. 132, until 6 Safar, A. H. 656 [=30 Oct., 
A. D. 749 — 12 Feb., A. D. 1258], a period of 
523 lunar years, 2 months and 23 days. 
Chapter IV. Muhammadan dynasties of Persia and some 
adjacent countries in twelve sections, viz. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS OF THE GUZIDA. 5 

§ I. Three Safifaris, who reigned 35 lunar years, from 
A. H. 253 until A. H. 287 [A. D. 867—900], over 
a great part of Persia. Their descendants were 
still governors of Sistan at the time this history- 
was written. 

§ 2. Nine Samanis (13), who reigned for i02'/2 years, 
from the middle of Rabi" II A. H. 287 until 5 
Dhu'l-Hijja, A. H. 389 [= March 20, A. D. 900 
— 17 Nov., A. H. 999.] 

§ 3. Five [sic] Ghaznawis, who reigned for 155 lunar 
years, viz. A. H. 390 — 545 [= A. D. 1000 — 1150], 
during the first 30 years of which period a large 
part of Persia, as well as Ghazna, was under 
their sway. 

§ 4. Five Ghuris, who reigned for 64 lunar years, from 
A. H. 545 until A.H. 609 [= A. D. 11 50 — 1212]. 

§ 5. Seventeen Daylamis (or Buwayhis), who reigned 
for 127 lunar years, from Dhu'1-QaMa, A. H. 321 
until A. H. 448 [=A. D. 933—1056]. 

§ 6. Saljuqs, divided into: 

(a) Fourteen great Saljuqs, who ruled over Persia 
for 161 lunar years, from A. H. 429 until 
Rabf I, A. H. 590 [=A. D. 1037 — 1194.] 
(d) Eleven Saljuqs of Kirman, who ruled there 
for 150 years, from A. H. 433 until 583 
[=A. D. 1041 — 1 187.] 
(c) Fourteen Saljuqs of Asia Minor, who reigned 
for 220 years, from A. H. 480 until A. H. 700 
[A. D. 1087— 1300]. 

§ 7. Nine Khwarazmshahs (14), who reigned for 137 
lunar years, from A. H. 491 until Shawwal, A. H. 
628 [= A. D. 1098 — August, 1231]. 

§ 8. Atabaks, divided into. 

(a) Nine Atabaks of Syria and Diyar Bakr, who 



TABLE OF CONTENTS OF THE GUZIDA. 

reigned for 120 years, from A. H. 481 until 
• A. H. 601 [=A. D. 1088— 1204]. 
[b) Eleven Atabaks of Fars (Salgharfs), who 
reigned for 120 lunar years, from A. H. 543 
until A. H. 663 [A. D. 1 148— 1265.] 
§ 9. Isma'flfs, divided into. 

{a) Fourteen Fatimid Caliphs (or Anti-Caliphs) 
of Egypt and the West, who reigned for 
260 years {sic) from A. H. 299 until A. H. 
556 [= A. D. 911 — 1161]. 
{b) Eight Grand Masters of the Persian Assassins 
of Alamiit, who reigned 171 years, from 
A. H. 483 until Shawwal, A. H. 654 [= A. D. 
1090 — Nov., 1256]. 
§ 10. T^n Qara-Khita'fs, who ruled over Kirman from 
A. H. 621 until 706 [= A. D. 1224 — 1306], a 
period of 86 lunar years. 
§ II. Atabaks of Luristan, divided into. 

[a) Seven Atabaks of Lur-i-Buzurg, who reigned 
180 lunar years, from A. H. 550 until 730 
[=A.D. 1155— 1330]. 
{b) Eleven Atabaks of Lur-i-Kiichak, who reigned 
150 lunar years, from A. H. 580 until A. H. 
730 [=A.D. 1184— 1330], (15). 
§ 12. Thirteen Mongol il-Khans of Persia, who, from 
A. H. 599 {= A. D. 1203] until the time of 
writing, A. H. 730 [= A. D. 1329 — 1330], have 
reigned 131 years,, "and let who will hereafter 
write the conclusion of their history." 
Chapter V. Account of learned and pious men nn 6 sec- 
tions, viz, 

§ I. Doctors of theology [Imams and Mujtahids). 
§ 2. Readers of the Quran [Qurrd). 
§ 3. Traditionists {Muhaddithiin). 



TABLE OF CONTENTS OF THE GUZIDA. / 

§ 4. Shaykhs [MashcCikh). 
§ 5. Learned men i^ulamd). 
§ 6. Poets, Arabic and Persian. 
Chapter VI. Account of the Author's native city, Qazwin, 
in 8 ') sections. 

§ I. Traditions concerning it. 
§ 2. Derivation of its name. 
§ '3. Its buildings. 

§ 4. Its conquest and conversion by the Muslims. 
§ 5. Its aqueducts, rivers, mosques, tombs and suburbs. 
§ 6. Some of the Companions and Followers of the 
Prophet, the Imams, Caliphs, Shaykhs, men of 
learning, kings, ministers and amirs who have 
visited it. 
§ 7. Its governors and rulers. 

§ 8. The tribes and notable men who have arisen thence. 

Conclusion (16). Genealogies of the Prophets, Kings and 

philosophers, arranged in the form of a tree, summing 

up in a brief space the information on this subject 

contained in this history. 



INTRODUCTION: ON THE CREATION (16). 

God, by the word Kun ("Be!") created the two worlds, 
the unseen "World of Command" l^dlam-i-amr), and the 
visible "World of Creation" ^dlam-i-khalq). The Universal 
Reason, the World-Soul, Matter, the Four Elements, the 
Nine Spheres, the Stars, the Seven Planets, the Twelve Signs 
of the Zodiac. — (17) Revolution of the Spheres. — Cause 
of night and day and of the seasons. — The "Seven Sires", 
"the Four Mothers", and the "Threefold Offspring". — Origin 



i) So in other MSS. In this MS. §§ 3 — 4 are amalgamated in one, and the 
number of sections is only 7. 



8 CHAPTER I, FIRST DISCOURSE. 

of the sea, storms and mountains. — Appearance of minerals, 
vegetables and animals. — Creation of Man. 

CHAPTER I. — THE PROPHETS (18). 

According to a tradition reported by Abu Dharr al-Ghif- 
farf there were 124,000 Prophets (100,000 in this MS.), of 
whom 3 1 3 were Miirsal '). Of these 4 were Syrians, viz. 
Adam, Seth, Enoch (who is Idris, the first who wrote) and 
Noah; while 4 were Arabs, viz. Hud (19), Salih, Shu*^ayb 
(/. e. Jethro) and Muhammad. Of the Hebrew Prophets the 
first was Moses and the last Jesus. The Revelations made to 
these Prophets comprised 100 tablets [Sakifa) and 4 books, 
viz. 50 tablets to Seth, 30 to Enoch, 10 to Abraham [and 
10 to Moses before the Pentateuch ^)], and the Pentateuch, the 
Gospel, the Psalms and the Qur'an. — Six of the greatest 
of the Prophets held the rank of Ulul-'^azm, viz. Adam, 
Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad. — The Author 
has only succeeded in finding mention of 73 Major Prophets 
{Mtirsal) and 45 Minor Prophets. — The former number, 
he considers, accords well with the allegorical sense of these 
two traditions: — "The doctors of my Church are as the 
Prophets of the Children of Israel", and. "My Church shall 
become divided in to 73 sects, whereof one, that which I 
and my Companions follow, shall be saved." — Definition 
of the terms nabi (20), imirsal, and iiliil-^azm. 

First Discourse. The Prophets, major and minor. 

Thirty Prophets (21), besides Muhammad, are mentioned 
in the Qur'an, to wit: — (i) Adam, (2) Seth, (3) Idris = 
Enoch, (4) Noah, (5) Hud, (6) Salih, (7) Abraham, (8) Lot, 
(9) Ishmael, (10) Isaac, (11) Jacob, (12) Joseph, (13) Khidr, 

i) Tabarf, i, 152. 

2) These ten are also ascribed to Adam. 



THE PROPHETS. — ADAM. 9 

(14) Job, (15) Shu'ayb = Jethro, (16) Moses, (17) Aaron, (18) 
Joshua, (19) Elias, (20) EHsha, (21) Samuel, (22) David, (23) 
Solomon, (24) Ezra, (25) Daniel, (26) Dhu'1-Kifl, (27) Jonah, 
(28) Zechariah, (29) John the Baptist and (30) Jesus Christ. 
The names of the following forty-two are found in various 
histories and commentaries, but not in the Qur'dn-. (i) Shem, 
(2) Ham, and (3) Japhet, the three sons of Noah; (4) Judah, 
(5) Levi, (6) Reuben, (7) Simeon, (8) Issachar, (9) Zebulon, 
(10) Dan, (11) Gad, (12) Naphtali, (13) Asher, and (14) Ben- 
jamin, these eleven, with Joseph, being the ancestors of the 
twelve tribes [asbdt] of Israel; (15) Handhala, (16) Gideon, 
(17) 7-Ui;, (18) Caleb, (19) Ezechiel, (20) ^W , (21) ^\;U> 
(22) V,:^\AC (23) ^_jh, (24) LW, (25) L^jJ^c, (26) ^^, (27) 
Isaiah, (28) Amos, (29) Hosea, (30) L j , (31) Sadiq, (32) Sadiiq, 
(33) ^^, (34) ^W, (35) ^1. (36) Nahum, (37) ^yiU (38) 
Habakkuk, (39) Zephaniah, (40) l^j\, (41) J.*\^., (42) Haggai, 
(43) Jt^U^j ' (44) >^A. 

Adam, called Abu'l-Bashar and SafiyyuHldh. 

The part played by Gabriel, Michael and "^Azra'il (22) in 
the creation of Adam from clay. — After 40 days, God 
breathes into him His Spirit, and teaches him the Names 
of all things. — He is worshipped by the Angels, except 
Iblis. — The creation of Eve. — Adam and Eve are for- 
bidden to eat wheat; or wheat, grapes and figs. — Iblis 
enters Paradise by the help of the Serpent, and persuades 
Adam and Eve to eat the forbidden fruit. — They are 
expelled from Paradise. — Adam is banished to Sarandib 
(Ceylon) and Eve to Jeddah. — (23) After 100 years, on 
the day of ^Ashiird Adam's repentance is accepted. — Other 
important events which happened on this day (Muharram 
10). — Adam and Eve meet again at Mecca, at "^Arafat, 



10 CHAPTER I, FIRST DISCOURSE. 

and return to Ceylon. — Cause of the enmity between Cain 
{Qdbil) and Abel [Hdbil). — Cain's sacrifice is rejected, and 
he murders Abel (24) and buries his body. — Ibli's persuades 
Cain to worship Fire. — Birth of Seth. — Adam dies at 
the age of 1000 years, and Eve dies a year (or three days) 
later. — They were buried by Seth near Mecca in the mountain 
of Bu Qubays, but dis-interred and re-interred by Noah. — 
Adam had 21 sons and 22 daughters. 

Seth. 

Seth succeeded Adam, received revelations from God, and 
denounced the Fire-worship practised by the children of 
Cain. — He built the Ka'^ba, died at the age of 912 years, 
and was succeeded by his son Enos [Anush), who lived 
965 years and first cultivated the date. He was succeeded 
by his son Cainan, who lived 920 years, and began to build 
Babel. He was succeeded by his son Mahalaleel [Mahalail), 
who (25) lived 895 years, and was succeeded by his son 
Jared, who lived 962 years. All these were born during 
Adam's life-time. 

Idris, soti of Jared, called Enoch [Akhnukh). 

Enoch, or Idris, was at once King, prophet and sage, was 
versed in Astronomy, and invented writing, spinning, weaving 
and sewing. He built the Pyramids and foretold the Deluge. 
— His friendship with the Angel of Death, and the device 
whereby he entered Paradise when he had lived 865 years. 

Noah, called Najiyyulldh. 

Noah, the great-grandson of Idris, received revelations 
from God, and preached to his people for 950 years (26), 
during which period 80 believed. — He makes the Ark, 
which is described. — The Flood begins in an oven at Kufa, 
submerges the "habitable quarter" of the earth and all the 
mountains, and continues for six. months. — The Ark rests 



THE PROPHETS. — NOAH. II 

on Mount Judf near Mawsil, and Noah and his companions 
leave it on Muharram lo (the ^Ashw'd). — They build a 
village there called [Siiq] Thamdnin, "the [Market of the] 
Eighty" '). — Noah died at the age of 1600 years, or 1300 
years. — Since most of the inhabitants of the earth are 
descended from Noah, he is sometimes entitled "the second 
Adam". He had four sons, Shem, Ham and Japhet, who 
believed and ware saved in the Ark, and Canaan (27), who 
disbelieved and was drowned. 

Shem is held by some to have been a prophet, and most 
of the prophets and all the Persians are descended from 
him. He had six sons, of whom the eldest was Arfakhshad, 
from whon Qahtan and Faligh were descended in the fourth 
generation. The latter was the ancestor of the Persians, 
while most of the Arabs are descended from the former, 
whose son, YaVub, first spoke Arabic. From Qahtan sprang 
the Himyarites, the Lakhmites, and Saba (Sheba), who wds 
the father of Quda'^a, Ash^ari, Azd and Tayyi'. Shem's second 
son, "^Alim, begot Khurasan and Haytal. The former begot 
'^Iraq, and the latter Kirman and Mukran. Shem's third son 
was Aswad, who begot Ahwaz and Pahlu, of whom the 
latter begot Pars. Shem's fourth son was Nudhar, who begot 
Adharbad and Arran, Arman and Mughan. Shem's fifth son 
was Iram, from whom were descended the tribes of "^Ad 
and Thamud. Shem's sixth son was Yafan, who begot Sam 
and Rum. 

Ham is the ancestor of all the blacks. The story of Noah's 
drunkenness and Ham's irreverence (28), and how it was 
punished. Ham had also six sons, Zangi, Kus, Hind, Barbar, 
Qibt, Habash. The last was the father of Nuba. 

Japhet had eight sons, Turk, Khazar, Saqlab, Rus, Bishak, 
Mughul, Gog and Magog. Chin and Machin are the sons of 

l) Tabari, i, 197. 



12 CHAPTER I, FIRST DISCOURSE. 

Khutan, and the Bulghars, Birtasis and Bashghirdis are also 
his descendants, as well as the Greeks, Franks and some 
of the Romans.' After the death of Noah, all these dwelt 
together in Babel for many years, until one night their 
common language was taken from them and each awoke 
speaking a different tongue, whereupon they separated, and 
the land where each settled became known by his name. 

Hud. 

Hiid, the fifth great prophet, is variously accounted a son 
of 'Abir or "Ad, to which latter tribe he was sent. He 
preached to them with little success for fifty years. He then 
cursed them, and God withheld rain from them for three 
years. They sent the sage Luqman to Mecca to ask for rain 
(29). — A black, a red and a white cloud appear, and the 
men of 'Ad are told to choose. They choose the black cloud, 
and are all destroyed by a violent tempest, in the month 
of Shawwal, during the bardiil-^ajuz, or "Old Woman's Cold". 
Hud survived this event for fifty years, died at the age of 
150 years, and is buried at Hadramawt. 

Sdlih. 

Salih was sent to the tribe of Thamud. His miracle con- 
sists in bringing a female camel and its young one out of 
the rock. Thamud refuse to believe and kill the camel. God 
causes their faces to turn yellow and then black, and finally 
destroys them by a loud noise from heaven. Salih lived to 
be 258 (or 180) years of age. He was buried at Mecca. 

Handhala. 

Handhala b. Safwan was descended from Fihr b. Qahtan, 
and was sent to the Ahlur-Rass, or people of Rass, who 
was a king of the people of Nimrod (30) in the West. This 
king had apostasised, and claimed to be God, and his people 



THE PROPHETS. — ABRAHAM. 1 3 

practised various unnatural crimes, of some of which the 
perpetrators are still called Rass and Sd^tari. God finally 
destroyed them all by thirst, and by the arrows which they 
would have shot at Handhala. 

Abraham, called Khalilulldh (31). 

Genealogy of Abraham, His father Azar was Nimrod's 
wazir. The astrologers foretell the birth in Nimrod's time 
of a prophet who will cause his destruction, and Nimrod 
consequently orders a massacre of all male children born at 
that period. Abraham was hidden by his mother in the 
place now called Birs [Nimrud] near Kufa, which the author 
visited. At the age of seven he emerged from the cave 
where he was hidden, and, after worshipping the heavenly 
bodies, he is guided to the worship of God. He preaches to 
Nimrod and denounces idol-worship. At the suggestion of 
Iblis, Nimrod casts Abraham by means of a great catapult 
into the fire. He refuses help from the angel Gabriel, and 
the fire is turned into a rose-garden, whence he emerged safe 
and sound, being at that time 60 years of age. Nimrod, 
desiring to make war on God, constructs an aeriel car drawn 
by vultures, and from it (32) discharges an arrow towards 
heaven, which returns to him stained with blood. Nimrod 
(whom some identify with the Persian Ka'us) increases in 
arrogance and claims to be God. Abraham with his wife 
Sara (who is also his cousin, and the most beautiful of 
women) and his family and retainers retires from Babel to 
Egypt. The king of Egypt, Sinan b. "^Ulwan desires Sara 
for himself, and takes her from Abraham, but is divinely 
prevented from touching her. He restores her to Abraham, 
and presents Hagar to her. They retire from Egypt to 
Palestine. A bag of sand miraculously turned to flour. 
(33) Why Abraham is entitled Khalihi lldh ("the Friend of 
God"). Nimrod, renewing his rebellion against God, is des- 



14 CHAPTER I, FIRST DISCOURSE. 

troyed by a gnat which enters his brain. Sara gives Hagar 
to Abraham, and she bears him a son, Ishmael, Abraham 
being then 86 years old. — Circumcision is instituted. Sara's 
jealousy drives out Hagar and Ishmael to Mecca. The spring 
of Zamzam appears. Ishmael is brought up by the Banii 
Jurhum. Abraham prepares to offer up Ishmael. A ram is 
accepted as his substitute {34). A year later Isaac is born 
to Abraham by Sara, she being then seventy years old. — 
Ishmael divorces his Jurhumite wife to please Abraham. At 
God's command they repair the Ka'^ba, set up the Black 
Stone and institute the Pilgrimage to Mecca. Sara dies at 
the age of 130 years. Abraham marries again and survives 
Sara fifty years. He dies at the age of 200 and is buried 
at Hebron in Syria, at the place now called Khalilu'llah. 
Ten tablets {sahifa) were revealed to him. Various practices, 
chiefly in respect to personal cleanliness, which he instituted. 

Lot (35). 

The seven Cities of the Plain, San*^a, Saw'^a, ''Amra (= Go- 
morrah), Rijya and Sodom, said to have been situated between 
Kirman and Sfstan '). — Wickedness of their inhabitants. — 
The three angels, Gabriel, Michael and Israfil, entertained 
by Lot. Destruction of the Cities of the Plain and flight of 
Lot and his family, except his wife (36), who is destroyed 
by a stone from heaven. Lot survived her 7 years and died 
on a Wednesday in the month of Rabf I. 

Ishmael 

Ishmael was sent as a prophet to the Amalekites of Yaman 
and Hadramawt, to whom he preached the religion of Abra- 
ham for fifty years. He died at the age of 130 and was 
buried at Mecca beside his mother Hagar. 

l) This idea probably arose from the fact that the desert east of KirmAn 
is called Dasht-i-Lut^ and that this was misinterpreted as "the Plain of Lot". 



THE PROPHETS. — ISAAC, JACOB, JOSEPH. 1 5 

Isaac. 

Isaac was sent to the people of Syria. The story of Esau 
and Jacob and of Isaac's blessing, by virtue of which all the 
sqcceeding prophets except four, viz. Khidr, Job, Shu'^ayb 
[-=: Jethro) and Muhammad, were of the posterity of Isaac. 
Isaac died at the age of 180, and was buried beside Abra- 
ham in the year wherein Joseph became ruler ^aziz) of Egypt. 

Jacob (37). 

Jacob, fearing the wrath of his brother Esau, fled by night 
into Canaan; wherefore he was called Israel. He marries 
his cousin. Of his two wives the elder bore him six sons, 
Judah, Levi, Reuben, Simeon, Issachar and Zebulon; the 
younger two, Joseph and Benjamin; and each of his two 
concubines two, the one Dan and Naphtali, the other Gad 
and Asher. Joseph was born when Jacob was 89 years old, 
was lost to him when he was 90 years old, was separated 
from him for 40 years, and recovered by him when he was 
130 yea^s old. Jacob died in Egypt at the age of 147 and 
was buried at Khalilu'llah. 

Joseph. 

Joseph's incomparable beauty. His vanity and its punish- 
ment. His dream. He is cast into the pit by his brethren 
and sold to a trader for 20 dirhams. His brethren tell Jacob 
that a wolf has destroyed Joseph (38). Joseph is sold for five 
times his weight of musk, which in Egypt exceeds gold in value, 
to the '^Aziz-i-Misr, who was treasurer to the King of Egypt. 
Zalikha falls in love with Joseph, she being then 15 years 
old and he 17. His chastity, and her calumny. The Egyptian 
ladies, amazed at Joseph's beauty, cut their hands instead 
of the oranges which they hold. — Joseph's imprisonment. 
The king's chief butler [shardb-ddr] and chief baker [khwdn- 



1 6 CHAPTER I, FIRST DISCOURSE. 

sdldr) are cast into prison. Joseph interprets their dreams 
(39). The king Rayan's dream of the fat and the lean kine. 
Joseph interprets it, and, on the death of his former master, 
is made treasurer and placed in control of all the granaries. 
He being then 32 years of age, asks for Zalikha in marriage. 
She bears him two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh. Joseph's 
brethren come to buy corn in Egypt. He bids them bring 
Benjamin {40). Their second journey to Egypt with Ben- 
jamin. Joseph detains Benjamin. Jacob's bitter grief. He be- 
comes blind from his much weeping. Third journey of Jo- 
seph's brethren to Egypt. He reveals himself to them, and 
sends his shirt by them to Jacob, who rubs it on his eyes 
and recovers his sight. Jacob returns with his sons to Egypt, 
where he dies seventeen years later. Joseph survives him 
23 years, and then dies aged 97. His body is placed in a 
glass coffin which is sunk in the Nile, but is afterwards 
recovered by Moses and buried at Khalilu'Ilah (41). Discus- 
sion of the question whether Joseph^s brethren were prophets. 

Khidr. ♦ 

His name was Balya b, Malkan b. Faligh etc. He was born 
before the time of Abraham, was a contemporary of Dhu'l- 
Qarnayn the greater, and accompanied him in his search 
for the Water of Life, which he drunk and so became im- 
mortal. Allegorical explanation of this legend. 

Job. 

Job. was the great-great grandson of Esau. The misfortunes 
and trials wherewith God proves him (42). His exemplary 
patience, and its reward. His death at the age of 200. 

Shu^ayb (Jethro). 

His mission to the people of al-Arfka (? Jericho), most of 
whom, on account of their unbelief, were destroyed by fire 
from a cloud. 



THE PROPHETS. — MOSES. 1 7 

Moses, called Kalimu'lldh, 

He was born in Egypt in the reign of Walid b. Mus'^ab. 
b. Rayyan, (the grandson of Joseph's Pharaoh) who greatly 
oppressed the Israelites (43) and killed their male children 
on account of a prediction of his astrologers. The child 
Moses, consigned to the Nile, is found by one of the hand- 
maidens of Asiya, Pharaoh's wife, and adopted by her. His 
own mother is engaged to nurse him. When two years old 
he one day plucked Pharaoh by the beard. Pharaoh wished 
to kill him, but was dissuaded by Asiya, who, to show the 
child's lack of discrimination, place^ before him two bowls, 
one filled with fire and one with rubies. Moses picked up a 
burning coal and put it in his mouth, and, in consequence 
of the burn which it inflicted, he was ever afterwards unable 
to speak clearly. At the age of 20 he was given a wife, 
who bore him two sons. At the age of 26 he killed the 
Egyptian and fled from Egypt to Shu'^ayb (Jethro), whose 
daughter he married after he has served Jethro as a shepherd 
for two years. She bears him two sons. Moses returns to 
Egypt. The episode of the Burning Bush on Mount Sinai (44). 
The miracles of the "White Hand" and the Rod which 
turned into a serpent are vouchsafed to Moses, and he is 
sent to Egypt accompanied by his brother Aaron to act as 
his spokesman. Pharaoh is obdurate and brings his magicians 
to contend against Moses, but they are convinced by his 
miracles and believe in him, whereupon they are put to death 
by Pharaoh. The seven plagues wherewith God afflicts the 
Egyptians, together with the two miracles of the Rod and 
the "White Hand" make up the Nine Signs of Moses (45). 
Flight of Moses with the Israelites from Egypt. They cross 
the Red Sea, which the Egyptians seeking to do are drowned. 
The Tablets of the Law are revealed to Moses on Mount 
Sinai in the presence of 70 witnesses. Colloquy of Moses 



1 8 CHAPTER I, FIRST DISCOURSE. 

with God. (46) Moses asks, but is not permitted to see God, 
whose effulgence causes Mount Sinai to be shivered in pieces 
(from some of which, it is said, Mount Uhud was produced), 
whereat the 70 witnesses die of fright, but are restored to 
life by Moses' prayer. — The story of Samirf and the Golden 
Calf, which speaks and moves by virtue of a handful of dust 
whereon Gabriel had trod and which Samirf scattered over 
it. Moses kills 70,000 of the Calfs worshippers. He desires 
to burn the Calf and does so by virtue of an Alchemy 
which God teaches him, in despite of his cousin Qarun (Corah). 
Qarun learns the secret of this Alchemy from Moses, and 
so becomes wealthy, and rebels against Moses. God causes 
the earth to open and swallow him up together with his 
wealth (47). A rich Israelite is murdered by his nephews 
and his body thrown between two villages, the inhabitants 
of which are suspected. Moses bids them kill a cow and 
strike the mundered man with one of its limbs, whereupon 
he comes to life again and identifies his murderers. The 
story of Moses and Khidr (48). Khidr explains the reasons 
of the three actions which excited th§ wonder and dis- 
approval of Moses. Moses Is sent against Og the son of Anak 
(^Uj or "C/q b. "Unuq)^ (49) and kills him in single combat, 
by the help of the hoopoe. Balaam, the nephew of Shu'^ayb 
(Jethro) prays against the Israelites, who lose their way and 
wander in the wilderness for forty years. The Quails and 
Manna. Death of Moses and Aaron. They are succeeded by 
Gideon and Jephthah (who die in the wilderness), and these 
in turn by Joshua. 

Joshua the son of Niin (50). 

Joshua was the nephew and executor of Moses, and led 
the children of Israel against the giants of Syria, took their 
land, and killed Balaam, who at the Resurrection will appear 
in the form of the dog which accompanied the Seven Sleepers. 



THE PROPHETS. — JOSHUA — DAVID. 1 9 

He died at the age of 127 years. He was succeeded by 
Caleb, who brought the IsraeHtes back to Egypt and there 
died. Next came Ezechiel the Levite, who cursed his people 
for their unbelief and they died of a pestilence, but were 
again restored to life by his prayer. It is said that a putrid 
odour still clings to the descendants of these Jews. Some 
historians identify Ezechiel with Dhu'1-Kifl, who will be 
mentioned presently, but others say that the former lived 
before David and the . latter after, which latter statement 
appears to be the more correct. Ezechiel was followed by 
Phineas, who is said to have been identical with him who 
was called Khidr by the Arabs, and who found the Water of 
Life ; but this statement is incorrect, for the Khidr who found 
the Water of Life was not an Israelite, as was this Khidr, who 
was the brother of Elias. 

Elias (51). 

Elias was sent to preach to the worshippers of Baal, 
whom, on account of their unbelief, he afflicted, with drought 
and famine. Disgusted by their unbelief, he finally withdrew 
into seclusion, appointing as his successor — 

Elisha the Ephraimite. 

He was, for some generations, the last of the Hebrew 
Prophets. — The Jews disregard their doctors {^ulama). — 
The Ark of the Covenant is captured by Goliath. 

Samuel. 

Samuel is, after an interval, sent as a Prophet (52) to the 
Israelites, who, guided by him, recover the Ark. — They 
demand a King, and are given Saul [Tdlut). — Goliath 
killed by David. — Death of Samuel, aged 52. 

David. 
David was the eleventh in descent from Jacob. Saul, jealous 



20 CHAPTER 1, FIRST DISCOURSE. 

of his influence, tries to kill him (53). Saul and his sons are 
killed by the Philistines. The Psalms {Zubur) are revealed 
to David. — His marvellous sweetness of voice. — His sin 
with the wife of Uriah, by whom Solomon is born to him. 

— His repentance and forgiveness. — Uriah is restored to 
life to assure David of his forgiveness. The Jews, forbidden 
to fish on the Sabbath, put down their nets on the Sabbath 
and draw them in on Sunday. David reproves them, but 
they pay no heed, and as a punishment are metamorphosed 
into pigs. — David chooses Solomon as his successor and 
builds the Temple at Jerusalem. He dies at the age of one 
hundred, having reigned forty years. 

Solomon (54). 

Solomon alone of all mankind was both king and prophet.. 

— His ring, inherited from Adam, on which was engraved 
the Most Great Name of God. — His authority over all 
living creatures. — His throne, and how the wind obeys 
him and carries him whither he will. — His wise minister, 
Asaf b. Barkhiya. — His adventures with Bilqi's, Queen of 
Sheba (55), whom he marries, and who bears him Rehoboam. 

— Solomon's shape assumed and sway usurped by one of 
the yinn. — His death at the age of fifty-five. — How his 
death was concealed from the yinn for a year. — Mention 
of three or four more obscure prophets (55 — 56). 

Isaiah. 

The Assyrians (or "Babylonians") attack Jerusalem, but 
death overtakes their whole army at the prayer of Isaiah. 

— Isaiah waS the first prophet who foretold the advent of 
Christ and Muhammad. — He is murdered. — Luhrasp, 
king of Persia, sends Ruham the son of Giidarz (who was 
called Nebuchadnezzor in Syria) to avenge his death, lay 
waste Jerusalem, and bring the Israehtes into captivity. 



THE PROPHETS. — JEREMIAH— JONAH. 21 

Jeremiah (57). 

Some historians identify Jeremiah with Ezra, asserting that 
the latter was his Arabic and the former his Hebrew name. 
On the death of Isaiah he fled to Egypt, but was brought 
back by Nebuchadnezzor to Jerusalem. Ezra's faith that God 
would once again make the Holy Land flourish. — His 
soul is taken from his body while he sleeps, and restored 
a hundred years later, when Daniel had come, and the 
country was once more prosperous. — He convinces the 
Jews that he lived a century earlier by reciting the Tawrdt 
(Pentateuch) by heart, and showing thepi where a copy of 
the same made by Isaiah was hidden under a pillar of the 
temple. Some of the Jews (58) called him the Son of God, 
and so became infidels. — Bahman the son of Isfandiyar, 
being vexed with the inhabitants of Jerusalem, sent Nebu- 
chadnezzor to destroy it again and massacre or take captive 
the Israelites^ who were thus greatly reduced and humbled. 

Daniel. 

After the death of Bahman, Daniel restored Jerusalem, 
and brought back the Israelites thither. God gave him as 
his sign a knowledge of the Science of Geomancy. He guided 
the Israelites for a time, and then retired into Khuzistan 
in Persia, and there died. His tomb was discovered there 
by Abu Musa al-Ash'^ari when the Arabs conquered Persia 
[in the seventh century of the Christian era.]. 

Jonah. ' ; 

Jonah was sent to preach to the people of Nineveh. — 
Their unbelief. — Their punishment and repentance. — 
Jonah and the whale (59)- — He remains forty days in the 
whale's belly. — His deliverance. — His gourd and the 
gazelle, — He dies and is buried at Kufa. — Three more 



22 CHAPTER I, FIRST DISCOURSE. 

minor prophets contemporary with Jonah. — Three more, 
Sadiq, Sadiiq and Salum, sent to the people of Antioch, of 
whom, on account of their unbelief, all the adults are des- 
troyed by a noise from heaven. — Some say that these three 
prophets lived in the interval between Christ and Muhammad, 
and that their story is connected with the villagers [ashdb-i- 
qarya) mentioned in the Qur'an (6o). Five more minor pro- 
phets, including Nahum and Habakkuk. 

Dhu'l-Kifl. 

Some say that he was descended from Job and was an 
Arab; others that, he was an Israelite. He was sent to a 
King of Syria named Canaan [Kan^dn). His tomb is near 
Kufa, and was a place of pilgrimage of the Jews, until 
Uljaytii (Shah Khuda-banda, the Mongol) took it from them 
and gave it to the Muslims, who built a Mosque on the 
spot. — Haggai and another minor prophet. 

Zechariah. 

Zechariah was of the posterity of Solomon, and was cousin 
to 'Imrdn thfe father of Mary, and their wives were sisters. 
Birth of Mary. — A Son is promised to Zechariah (6l)* — 
His unbelief. — He is tongue-tied for three days. — John 
the Baptist is born nine months later. — The Angel Gabriel 
appears to Mary when she is eighteen years old in the form 
of Joseph the Carpenter, on the 25th of the month of Adhar 
(March), and foretells the birth of Jesus. — The miraculous 
conception of Jesus, who is born nine months later. — Jesus 
speaks in his cradle to vindicate his mother against the 
calumnies of the Jews, declare his own mission, and announce 
the advent of Muhammad "the Seal of the Prophets". — 
Mary flees into Syria with the child Jesus. — Calumnies 
uttered by the Israelites against Zechariah. — The king of 
Jerusalem tries to kill him. — He flees towards Damascus, 



THE PROPHETS. — JOHN THE BAPTIST, JESUS. 23 

but, being overtaken by his pursuers, takes refuge within a 
hollow tree. — Iblis tells his pursuers where he is, and they 
saw the tree in two, together with Zechariah. 

John the Baptist, 

His mission. — He believes in Jesus. — He is put to 
death by the king of Jerusalem [Herod] for the sake of 
[Herodias] his niece, whom John had forbidden him to marry 
(62). The blood of John the Baptist will not dry up or rest, 
and the doctors of the law declare that it will not do so 
until the blood of his murderers is poured upon it. Giidarz 
the Parthian (Ashghani) hears this, marches on Jerusalem, 
and kills 70,000 Jews, but the blood will not rest until finally 
the blood of the murderers is poured over it. 

Jesus Christ. 

The genealogy of Jesus up to Adam. He was born on 
Wednesday, the 25th of Kanun-i-Awwal (December) in the 
year 233 of Alexander, at Nasiratu'l-Khalil (Nazareth) near 
Jerusalem, on which account his followers are called Nazarenes 
[Nasrdni, plural, Nasdra). He alone of all the prophets was 
born with the gift of prophecy, for others have only become 
prophets after the age of forty. When he was thirty years 
of age he came back (63) from Damascus to Jerusalem, 
where the Gospel [Injil) was revealed to him, and he began 
to summon men to God. The Jews required a miracle, where- 
upon he made a bat out of clay, breathed on it, and it flew. 
He also healed blind and leprous persons whom the physi- 
cians had been unable to benefit, and restored toTife Shem 
the son of Noah as a witne^ to them. As the Jews still 
remained obdurate, after two years' preaching Jesus departed 
into Egypt. On his way thither he preached to a company 
of washermen, twelve of whom believed and became the 
twelve disciples. — Their names. — They accompany Jesus 



24 CHAPTER I, SECOND DISCOURSE. 

Christ to Andalusia {sic), where there is a famine. Jesus 
prays, and food is sent down for them from heaven — roast 
fish, roast lamb and cress — for three consecutive days. 
Some unbelievers ascribed this miracle to magic, and were 
turned into swine. Jesus again returned to Jerusalem. The 
Jews seek to kill him. He flees, and the Jews seize Simon 
[PeterJ, who refuses to betray his Master. They then seize 
Judas, who for 30 dirhams shows them where Jesus is. The 
Jews wish to take him, but God conceals him from their 
eyes, and transforms into his likeness Yishu', the chief priest 
of the Jews, whom they crucify (64) in his stead, while 
Jesus ascends into heaven, he being then thirty-two years 
of age. Yishu' remained on the Cross for seven days and 
nights, and Mary used to go every night and weep at the 
foot of the Cross, until, on the seventh night, God sent 
down Jesus from heaven to comfort her. John the Baptist 
and seven of the Disciples also saw Jesus, and spent that 
night with him, and he gave them many wise counsels, some 
of which are here given. — The Jews conquered by the 
Romans. — The Disciples disperse, two going to Rome, 
one to Qayruwan, one to Ifriqiyya (Tunis), one to the Franks, 
one to the Hijaz, and one to Jerusalem (65)- Rapid diffusion 
of Christianity. Reverence for the Cross. — Some regard 
Jesus as God, and some as the Son of God, while others 
regard him and his mother Mary as partners of God, all of 
which beliefs are heresy. Mary died six years after Jesus 
had ascended into heaven. 

Second Discourse. Section i. The minor Prophets. 

Abel *(Habfl). 

He was the first to whom a prophetic commission was 
given. His story has been already given (p. 10 supra; pp. 
23 — 4 o{ facsimile). 



MINOR PROPHETS. — PHILOSOPHERS. 2$ 

Dhu'l-Qarnayn al-Akbar. 

Some say that it was he who built the Sadd-i-Ydjuj (Great 
Wall) and journeyed round the world, and that he lived 
before Abraham and was contemporary with Khidr, who 
accompanied him in his search for the Water of Life ; but 
others assert that these deeds are to be ascribed to the 
other Dhu'l-Qarnayn, namely Iskandar (Alexander the Great) 
the son of Darab the son of Bahman. Dhu'l-Qarnayn is 
mentioned in the Qur'an, but as a King, not a prophet, 
and that he was a prophet is denied by some historians. 

Abimelech and 

These were Syrian prophets, followers of the religion of 
Abraham, with whom they were contemporary. [There follow 
on this page and on p. 66 names of other prophets, most 
of which cannot be identified]. Amongst them (66) are Sam- 
son; a descendant of Aaron named ^Ali; Aghrirath, son of 
Pushang, said to have been the only prophet who came out 
of Turkistan, who was killed by his brother Afrasiyab; Saul; 
(Qj) Simon \Peter\ who followed Jesus Christ; Jirjis [St. George), 
who, after suffering much persecution, converted the king 
and people of Mawsil (Nineveh); Khdlid b. Sindn, who, in 
the time of Nushirwan, preached Christianity to the Arabs, 
overcame a fire which they worshipped, and brought rain 
when he would. 

Second Discourse. Section 2. Philosophers and Teachers. 
Luqmdn (68). 

Some assert that he was the cousin of Moses, others that 
he was a black slave. Some regard him as a prophet, but 
in the Qur''dn he is" only mentioned as a wise man. God 
granted him the life of seven vultures, a vulture being said 
to live 500 years or less. Some of his wise sayings and 
maxims (69). 



26 CHAPTER I, SECOND DISCOURSE. 

Pythagoras {Fithdghuras). 
He was the disciple of Luqman and contemporary with 
Gushtasp. His musical inventions. — His sayings. 

Hippocrates [Buqrdt). 
He was the disciple of Pythagoras (70), and contemporary 
with Bahman, and was the father of Medicine. His is the 
saying, '^Ars longa, vita brevis''\ Mention is also made of 
Buqrdtis, whom the author treats as an independent person 
and a disciple of the above. 

Socrates {Suqrdt). 
Some of his alleged sayings are quoted. 

F/ato {A/id tun). 
He was the disciple of the above, and contemporary with 
Darab. His wise sayings (70— 71). 

Aristotle {Aristdtdlis). 
He was the disciple of Plato and the minister and adviser 
of Alexander. 

Pliny (Balinds) (72). 
He was the disciple of Aristotle, and constructed the mi- 
naret of Alexandria, which showed all that was taking place 
in the lands of the Franks. 

Galen {Jdlinus). 

He was the disciple of Pliny. Some of his sayings. 

Ptolemy [Batlimus). 

He was the disciple of Galen. So'me of his sayings. 

Thiyddhuq (73). 

He was a contemporary of Nushirwan '). His medical apho- 
risms (73). 

l) This is an error. He flourished in reality in the Umayyad period, and was 
jn the service of Hajjdj b. Yusuf. See al-Qifti"s Ta'rikhu' l-Hukamd^ p. 105 and 
Ibn Abf Usaybi'a, vol. i, pp. 121 — 3, where his aphorisms are mentioned. 



PHILOSOPHERS AND HEROES. 2/ 

Buzurjmihr . 
He was Nushirwan's prime minister, and was a native of 
Merv. — His aphorisms (74 — 78). 

The Mujdhidun, or Strivers for God (78). 

The seven Sleepers [Ashdb-i- Kahf). 

These Hved in the time of the Emperor Decius [Daqiyd- 
nus), near Tarsus in Syria. — Their names. — Their dog. 
— Their trance in the cave lasts for 309 years, when they 
are restored to consciousness. 

Samson {Shamsun) {79). 
His strength. He makes war on th^ unbeHevers with the 
bone of a camel. He is betrayed by his wife and bound with 
his own hair. He pulls down the king's palace on his enemies. 

The Tubba' of Yaman. 
He was a contemporary of Bahram Gur. He is converted 
to the Jewish religion, and informed of the approaching 
advent of the Prophet Muhammad. He visits the Ka'^ba at 
Mecca and invests it for the first time. He challenges the 
unbelievers of Yaman, who are consumed by a miraculous 
fire which inhabited a cave there. 

The Christians of Najrdn [Ashdbu^ l-Ukhdiid) (80). 

These lived in the time of Pi'ruz son of Qubad. Fimun 
the Christian converts the tree-worshippers. How Jiis disciple 
''Abdu'llah b. Tamir discovers the Most Great Name of God. 
Dhu Nuwas Yusuf, the Himyarite king of Yaman, takes captive 
and kills '^Abdu'llah b. Tamir, whose body was discovered 
during the Caliphate of ""Umar (81). Dhu Nuwas burns the Chris- 
tians of Najran in pits of fire. God punishes him by sending 
the Abyssinians to invade Yaman and destroy him and the 
ancient dynasty which he represented. Hasan-i-Sabbah, the 
founder of the Assassins [Maldhida) was of his posterity. 



28 CHAPTER II, SECTION I. 

CHAPTER II. — PRE-ISLAMIC KINGS OF PERSIA. 

Section i. The Pishdddiydn. 
I. Gayiimarth. 

Various accounts of his genealogy. His son (or grandson) 
Siydmak is killed by the divs or demons, but his death is 
avenged by his son (or grandson) Hushang (82). Istakhr, 
Balkh and Damawand are said to have been founded by 
Gayumarth, who lived 1000 years. 

2. Hushang. 

He succeeded his grandfather Gayumarth, and is also 
called Bum-Shdh, and entitled Pish-ddd, because he first 
dispensed equaj justice amongst men. His institutions, and 
the cities founded by him. He reigned for 40 years. The 
prophet Idrfs was his contemporary. His philosophical apho- 
risms (83—85). 

3. Tahmiirath (85). 

He succeeded his father Hushang, and was entitled Div- 
band, "the Binder of Demons". Fasting instituted in his 
time, on account of a famine which prevailed. — Biidasaf 
and the Chaldaeans. — Sa*^di's Bicstdn cited (86). Origin of 
idolatry. — Origin of the Sabaeans and of star-worship. — 
Religious toleration enjoined by Tahmiirath. He reigns 30 
years. — Cities founded by him. 

4. Jamshid. 

He succeeded his father (or, according to others, his bro- 
ther) Tahmurath. He instituted three castes in his kingdom, 
soldiers, artisans and agriculturalists. Invention of the arts 
of Music and Medicine (87). Idolatry prevails. Jamshfd's im- 
pious claim to be divine. Cities founded by him. He reigns 



THE PISHDADIYAN, 



29 



700 years, and survives his deposition by Dahhak 100 
years more. 

5. Dahhak. 

He was called Qays in Arabic and Biwarasp in Persian. 
Etymology of the name Dahak [dah-dk = "ten vices"). His 
shoulders are attacked by a devouring cancer {saratdn) which 
only the application of human brains can relieve. His cooks, 
Armayil and Karmayil, and how they save some of Dahhak's 
victims (88), from whom are descended the Kurds. The story 
of Kawa the blacksmith and his revolt. Dahhak is deposed 
after a reign of 1000 years. 

6. Firidun. 

His genealogy and names. Now he overthrows Dahhak (89). 
The dir afsh-i-Kdway an becomes the national standard. Its 
final capture by the Arabs at Qadisiyya. Firidun divides 
his kingdom between his three sons, Salm, Tur and Iraj, 
of whom the two former are jealous of the latter and murder 
him. Birth of Miniichihr, grandson of Iraj. He grows up and 
avenges his grandfather's death. The hostility between Iran 
and Turan dates from that time. Wars of Kush, the nephew 
of Dahhak, with Sam the son of Nariman. Firidun reigned 
500 years, 

7. Miniichihr. (90) 

He first causes gardens to be made. Moses and Joshua 
were his contemporaries. He reigned 120 years. 

' 8. Nudhar. 

He succeeded his father Miniichihr. Afrasiyab makes war 
upon him, and finally takes him captive and puts him to 
death. He reigned 7 years. 

9. Afrdsiydb. 
After killing Nudhar, Afrasiyab usurped the Persian throne, 



30 CHAPTER II, SECTION 2. 

until, after he had wrought much devastation, he was ex- 
pelled by Zal the son of Sam. 

10. Zaw. 

He was placed on the throne by Zal, and remitted all 
taxes for 7 years, until the country recovered its prosperity. 

1 1 . Karshdsp. (91) 

Kar-shasp succeeded his father Zaw, but reigned only 6 
years, his death taking place while he was engaged in war 
with Afrasiyab, who again overran Persia, but was expelled 
by Zal. 

Section 2. The Kaydniydn. 
(Duration of this dynasty, 734 years). 

I. Kay-Qubdd. 

He delivers Persia from Afrasiyab by the help of Zal and 
.Rustam. Rustam made Jahdn pahlawdn, a position equiva- 
lent to that of Amiru' I- Umard. Institutions of Kay-Qubad. 
The frontier between Iran and Turan is fixed by the won- 
derful bow-shot of Arash. Kay-Qubad reigned 100 years. 

2. Kay-Kdwiis. 

He succeeds his father (or grandfather) Kay-Qubad. He 
gets into trouble in Mazandaran and is rescued by Rustam, 
who . makes his way thither alone through the Haft-Khwan 
(92). He suffers defeat by the ^imyarites in Hamawaran, and 
is again rescued by Rustam, who is rewarded with the hand 
of Mihr-naz, the sister of Kay-Kawus. Kay-Kawus' attempt to 
reach heaven in an aerial chariot drawn by vultures. The 
story of Rustam and Suhrab. The story of Siyawush. Afra- 
siyab defeated by Rustam (93), who ravages Turkistan. Kawus 
reigned 150 years. 



THE KWANIYAN. 



31 



3. Kay-Khusraw. 

He was the son of Siyawush, and was born four months 
after his father's death. Giv the son of Gudarz brings him 
from Turan to Iran. Rivalry of Firiburz. Further wars with 
Turan (94). Story of Bizhan and Manizha. Rustam is sent 
in disguise to Turan to deHver Bizhan from prison. The 
combat called Jang-i-duwdzdah rukh between the champions 
of Iran and Turan. Afrasiyab is defeated and pursued by 
Kay-Khusraw until he is finally taken captive near Lake 
Chichast in Adharbayjan by (95) Hum, and is put to death 
by Kay Khusraw, who afterwards abdicates in favour of 
Luhrasp. 

4. Luhrasp. 

He was the great-grandson of Kay-Qubad. He makes 
Bukht Nassar (Nebuchadnezzor), whom the Persians call Bakht- 
Narsi, commander-in-chief. Story of his son Gushtasp (96) 
and Katayun, daughter of the Emperor of the Romans. 
Luhrasp abdicates in favour of his son Gushtasp, and retires 
into religious seclusion at Balkh, where he is killed by Arjasp, 
having reigned 120 years. 

5. Gushtdsp. 

Zoroaster appeared in his reign, Gushtasp adopts the 
Zoroastrian faith, and endeavours to impose it on the Romans, 
but desists on (97) learning that Firidiin had given them 
a charter guaranteeing them religious freedom. Isfandiyar's 
zeal for Zoroastrianism. Arjasp, the grandson of Afrasiyab, 
invades Persia, kills Luhrasp at Balkh, and defeats Gushtasp, 
who sends his brother Jamasp to release Isfandiyar. Isfan- 
diyar defeats and kills Arjasp, and demands the throne of 
his father Gushtasp, who sends him to Jcill or^take captive 
Rustam, against whom he is incensed. Rustam is only able 
to kill Isfandiyar by the guidance of Zal and the Simurgh, 



32 CHAPTER II, SECTION 2. 

who instruct him to use arrows made of gaz (tamarisk) wood. 
Towns founded by Gushtasp (98). His reign lasted 1 20 years. 

6. Bahman^ son of Isfandiydr. 

He seeks revenge for his father, and kills Rustam's son 
Faramarz. He is called hx(\z.s\i{x-\-Dirdz-dast ("the Long- 
handed") by the Persians, and Kurush (Cyrus) by the Jews. 
His son Sasan and his daughter Humay. He marries the 
latter, and makes her queen, excluding Sasan, who with- 
draws into seclusion. 

7. Humdy, or Shamirdn. 

A son is born by Humay to her father Bahman. She casts 
him into the water, whence he is rescued by a washerman, 
and named Ddrdb, because he was found in the water {dar 
db). His royal origin is revealed by his powers, and Humay 
(99) finally recognizes him as king, and retires after a reign 
of 32 years. She built Persepolis {Hazdr Sutun-i-Istakhr),, 
which Alexander afterwards destroyed. 

8. Ddrdb, son of Bahman. 

He establishes the post [barid) in Persia. He demands in 
marriage the daughter of Fayliqus (Philip), but divorces her. 
She gives birth to Iskandar (Alexander) whom Philip declares 
to be his own son. Darab appoints another son named Dara 
his successor, and dies after a reign of twelve years. 

9. Ddrd, son of Ddrdb. 

Alexander refuses to pay the customary tribute to Dara, 
and says that "the bird which laid three golden eggs is 
dead." He attacks Dara, who is murdered by two of his 
own servants, and marries Rawshanak [Roxana] the daughter 
of Dara. Dai'a reigned for 14 years. 



ALEXANDER. — THE PARTHIANS. 33 

\o. Iskandar [Alexander). 

Iskandar the son of Darab the son of Bahman (lOO) suc- 
ceeded his brother Dara, and conquered the whole world. 
Qaydhafa the queen of Andalusia alone outwits him. He 
goes in quest of the Water of Life with Khidr. Aristotle 
acts as his Wazir, plagiarizes Persian philosophy, . and then 
burns the books and destroys the sciences of the Persians. 
Monuments left by Alexander. He divided Persia before his 
death amongst 90 Muliiktit-Tawaif, or Tribal Kings, and 
thus rendered her powerless. He reigned 14 years in Persia, 
died at Shahrazur, and was buried at Alexandria. The famous 
lovers Wamiq and "^Adhra lived in his time. (lOl) Some of 
his aphorisms. 

Section 3. The Tribal Kings [Muluku^t-Tawd^if). 

These ruled over Persia from the death of Alexander 
until the foundation of the Sasanian dynasty by Ardashir 
Babakan, in all 318 years ^). Learning and science flourished 
in their days, and the Book of Sindibdd and other notable 
books were composed. There were three branches of these 
kings, comprising 21 rulers who were of greater importance 
than the others. 

First Branch, (i) Abtahan. 

Abtahan-i-Rumi held Khurasan, ""Iraq, and part of Fars 
and Kirman from Alexander. After a reign of four years he 
was killed by the founder of the — 

Second Branch, (i) Ashk of Dara. 
He was recognized as suzerain and over-lord by the other 



l) The period was in reality much longer, over 550 years, for Alexander 
died B. C. 330 and the Sasanian dynasty was founded in A. D. 226. The only 
Muhammadan historian who was aware of, and explained the reason of this 
falsification is, so for as I know, Mas'iidi, in his admirable Kitdbu't-Tanbih 
wa'l-Ishrdf (ed. De Goeje, pp. 97 — 9). 

3 



34 CHAPTER II, SECTION 3. 

kings, but took no tribute from them. He reigned fifteen 
years and was succeeded by his son — 

(2) Ashk son of Ashk. 

He (102) reigned twenty years and was succeeded by his 
brother — 

(3) Shdpiir son of Ashk son of Ddrd. 

He is called "the Great Shapur". He defeated the Greeks 
[Rum), and recovered a large part of the spoils taken from 
Persia by Alexander. He reigned six years, and was succeeded 
by his son — 

.(4) Bahrain son of Shdpiir. 
He reigned eleven years and was succeeded by his son — 

(5) Baldsh [Vologeses). 
He reigned sixteen years, and was succeeded by his son — 

(6) Hurmazd. 

He also reigned sixteen years, and was succeeded by his 
brother — 

(7) Narsi. 
He reigned four years, and was succeeded by his nephew — 

(8) Firiiz son of Firiiz son of Baldsh. 
He reigned seventeen years, and was succeeded by his son — 

(9) Baldsh. 
He reigned twelve years, and was succeeded by his cousin — 

(10) Khusraw son of Narsi son of Baldsh. 
He reigned six years, and was succeeded by — 



THE PARTHIANS (ASHGHANIYAN). 35 

(11) Baldshdn son of Balds h son of Fir4z. 

Marghzar-i-Balashan, a place near Isfahan, is named after 
him. He reigned twenty-two years, and was succeeded by 
his son — 

(12) Ardawdn. 

He reigned thirteen years (103), and was killed in battle 
with the Ashghaniyan. 

Third Branch. The Ashghdniydn. 

These Ashghaniyan were descended from Firiburz the son 
of Kawus. They were eight in number and reigned one hun- 
dred and fifty years. 

(i) Ardawdn son of Ashgh. 

He held the same position of over-lord conceded to the 
preceding dynasty by the other kings, reigned thirty years, 
and was succeeded by his brother — 

(2) Khusraw son of Ashgh. 

Jesus Christ was born in his reign, which lasted twelve 
years. He was succeeded by his brother — 

(3) Baldsh son of Ashgh. 

He also reigned for twelve years, and was succeeded by 
his son — 

(4) Giidarz, called '^the Greaf\ 

He avenged the death of John [the Baptist] on the Jews. 
He reigned thirty years and was succeeded by his son — 

(5) Biri. 

Ways and Ramin ') governed Khurasan on his behalf. He 
reigned twenty years and was succeeded by his son — 

i) The hero and heroine of a popular Persian romance. The first name is 
here pointed Ways (not Wis^ quite clearly. 



5^ CHAPTER It, SECTIONS 3—4. 

(6) Giidarz. 
He reigned two years and was succeeded by his uncle — 

(7) Narsi son of Giidarz son of Baldsh. 

He reigned ten years, and was succeeded by the son of 
his predecessor — 

(8) Narsi son of Giidarz son of Biri. 

In his time the Romans attacked Persia, but he sought 
help from the [other] Muluku^t-Tawa'if and drove them 
back. He reigned thirty one years and was killed by Ardashir 
Babakan, and with him the "Tribal Kings" came to an end. 

Section 4.. The Sdsdniydn {Akdsira, pi. of Kisrd). 

These were thirty-one in number, and the dynasty endured 
for 527 years (104). 

ft 

(i) Ardashir Bdbakdn. 

Babak, from whom Ardashir derives his patronymic, was 
his maternal grandfather and was Ardawan's governor in 
Fars. The town of Shahr-i-Bdbak takes its name from him. 
Story of Sasan and Babak's dream. The latter gives his 
daughter in marriage to the former. Birth of Ardashir. He 
goes to Ardawan's court. His flight and revolt. He fights 
and kills Ardawan, whose daughter he marries. Her story. 
Birth of Shapur. His recognition by Ardashir. The Barme- 
cides [Al-i-Barmak) were descended from Ardashir's devoted 
minister [Abarsam]. — Story of Haftawad and the Worm 
of Kirman, from which that city derives its name. Ardashir 
destroys the Worm (105), takes Kirman, and kills Haftawad 
and his sons. Cities founded by Ardashir. — Some of his 
aphorisms. He reigned 44 years and 2 months, of which time 
30 years were spent in subduing the Tribal kings. 



THE SASANIYAN. 



37 



(2) Shdpur son of Ardashir. 

He reigned 31 years. — Cities founded by him. — Towns 
built by Sasanians in the shapes of animals, e. g. Siis in the 
shape of a hawk, Shushtar in the shape of a horse, etc. (106). 

t (3) Hurmazd son of Shdpur. 

His strength and courage. He persecutes the Manichaeans. 
Cities founded by him. He reigned 2 years. 

(4) Bahrdm son of Hurmazd. 
He reigned for 13 years and 3 months. 

(5) Bahrdm son of Bahrdm. son of Hurmazd. 
He reigned for 8 years. 

(6) Bahrdm son of Bahrdm son of Bahrdm. 

He was called Bahram Bahraman and Sagan-shah [i. e. 
king of Sijistan or Sistan). He reigned 13 years and 4 months. 

(7) Narsi son of Bahrdm son of Bahrdm son of Hurmazd. 

He succeeded his brother, who died childless. He reigned 
9 years. 

(8) Hurmazd son of Narsi. 
He also reigned 9 years. 

(9) Shdpur son of Hurmazd, called Dhiil-Aktdf. 

(107) He was born 40 days after his father's death. During 
his childhood the Arabs give more trouble, sack Ctesiphon, 
and carry off his aunt Nusha, who is married by Tahir, the 
Arab leader, and bears him a daughter named Malika. Shapur, 
on reaching man's estate, makes war on the Arabs, and 
with the help of Malika, kills Tahir, takes his stronghold, 
and marries Malika. Story of MaHka and the "crumpled 



38 CHAPTER II, SECTION 4. 

rose-leaf, Shapiir puts her to death also, and kills many of 
the Arabs. How he gets the nick-name oi Dhu I- Aktdf {'^ the. 
Shoulder-man"). Shapiir explains to Malik b. Nadr, an an- 
cestor of the Prophet Muhammad, that his hatred of the 
Arabs arises from a prophecy that his house will be over- 
thrown by them. Malik (108) dissuades him from further 
slaughter. Shapiir, pretending to be his own ambassador, 
visits the Roman Emperor [Qaysar-i-Rmn), but is recognized 
and taken prisoner. The Emperor devastates Persia. Shapiir, 
aided by a girl who falls in love with him, escapes to Persia, 
takes the Qaysar captive, and compels him to repair the 
ruin he has caused in Persia by the aid of Greek workmen. 

— Some say that Manes (Mani) appeared in Shapiir's reign. 
(109) His miracles or pretended miracles. He is put to death. 

— Another false prophet named Adharbadh, from whom 
the province of Adharbadhagan (Azarbayjan) takes its name. 
Cities founded by Shapiir. He lived 72 years, and was king 
during the whole of this period. 

(lo) Ardashir son of Hurmazd. 

He was the brother of his predecessor, acted as regent 
for 10 years during the minority of his nephew Shapiir, and 
then retired in his favour. 

(11) Shdpiir son of Shdpiir son of Hurmazd. 

(110). He reigned only five years and four months, and 
was killed by his tent being blown down on him when he 
was out hunting. Sharwin and Khurwfn were his contempo- 
raries. The former was lent to Riim to act as regent for 
the Qaysar's infant son, and remained there until the time 
of Bahram Giir. Then are many Pahlawi poems about him, 
including one named Sharwiniydn, 

(12) Bahrdm son of Shapiir son of Shdpiir. 
He succeeded his brother, and is entitled Kirmanshah. 



THE SASANIYAN. 



39 



He was cruel, tyrannical and avaricious. He reigned 13 years. 
His epitaph. 

(13) Yazdigird son of Bahrdm. 

(ill). He reigned only a year, and is by many historians 
not reckoned amongst the Sasanian kings. 

(14) Yazdigird [cousin of the above). 

He, on account of his tyranny and evil deeds, is known as 
Baza-gar (in Arabic, al-Athim), i.e. "the Sinner". — Predic- 
tions of the astrologers. — Story of the fairy horse which 
causes his death at Chashina-i-Sabz ("the Green Fountain") 
in Khurasan. He reigned 21Y2 years. 

(15) Bahrdm son of Yazdigird son of Shdpur son of 
Shdpur (112). 

On account of his father's tyranny he was at first excluded 
from the succession, Kisrd being chosen as king, but his 
courage in the Ordeal of the Lions secured him the throne. 
His courage and justice. His love of the chase. Why he was 
called Bahrdm Giir. — Story of him and his mistress Dil- 
aram. His reign was a time of pleasure and merry-making. 
Lull's imported from India as minstrels. — Story of Bahram, 
his wicked minister Rast-Ravish (or Rdst-Rushan in MS.), 
the shepherd and the faithless dog. (113) The Khaqan of 
Turkistan invades Persia. Bahram's feigned flight to Adhar- 
bayjan. He defeats and kills the Khaqan in a night attack. 
He invades India and marries the daughter of the king of 
that country. He dies at the age of 63 years. 

(16) Yazdigird son of Bahrdm Gur. 
He had an uneventful reign of 17 years, 



40 CHAPTER II, Section 4. 

(17) Htirmazd son of Yazdigird (II4). 

Civil war between him and his elder brother Fi'ruz. He 
reigns only one year. 

(18) Firiiz son of Yazdigird. 

The great famine in his days. — His justice and firmness. 
— Cities founded by him. — He is killed in battle by 
Khush-Nawaz the Turk, after a reign of ten years. 

(19) Balds h son of Firiiz. 

His brother Qubad flees from him. — Sufra, the Jahdn- 
pahlawdn, or world-warrior, of the period, avenges the death 
of Fi'ruz on the Turks. Balash dies after a reign of five years. 

(20) Qubdd son of Firiiz. 

In Pahlawi he is called Lukard. Mazdak appears in his 
reign (II5). His communistic teachings. Deposition of Qubad 
in favour of his brother Jamasp. — Qubad is restored by 
the help of the Haytals. His son Nushfrwan destroys Mazdak 
and his followers. — Cities founded by Qubad. He reigned 
64 years, saving 3 years during which his brother Jamasp 
ruled. 

(21) Aniisharwdn [Niishirwdn). 

He was the first Sasanian king who was known as Kisra, 
a title given to all his successors. His justice. His institu- 
tions. His defences against the people of Qipchaq. His Sipah- 
sdldrs Shfranshah (Sharwanshah) etc. (I16). The book of 
Kalila and Dimna and the game of chess brought from 
India in his reign. — Drafts invented by Buzurjmihr. — The 
"Year of the Elephant", in which the Abyssinians under 
Abraha attacked Mecca, was the 40th year of his reign. In 
the same year the Prophet Muhammad was born. Nushfrwan 
reigned 48 years. — His epitaph. — His aphorisms (116— II9). 



THE SASANIYAN. 



41 



(22) Hurmazd son of NusMrwdn. 
His tyranny. — (120) Persia is invaded on all sides, by 
Turks, Khazars, Arabs and Greeks. The last three are paci- 
fied by concessions, and Bahram Chubin is sent to fight the 
Turks, whom he defeats, and whose leader, Sawa-Shah, he 
kills. He is insulted by Hurmazd, who charges him with 
keeping for himself the best of the booty, and, casting off 
his allegiance, pronounces in favour of Prince Parwiz, who 
retires to Armenia, and marries the daughter of the king 
of that country. Hurmazd is deposed, blinded and killed 
after a reign of 12 years, and his son Parwiz is placed on 
the throne. Genealogy of Bahram Chubin. He defeats Parwiz, 
who flees to the Qaysar of Rum, and marries his daughter 
Maryam. He returns to Persia, conquers Bahram Chubin, 
and puts him to flight. (I2l) At the instigation of Parwiz, 
Bahram Chubin is murdered in Turkistan after he had 
maintained a successful rebelHon for two years. 

(23) Khusraw Parwiz. 

He was the eighteenth in descent from Ardashir Babakan, 
and all his ancestors were kings. His luxury, pomp and 
power. — Some of his wonderful possessions. (122) Barbad 
the minstrel, and the 360 tunes he invented. Parwiz obtains 
possession of the Qaysar's treasures. — The Prophet Muham- 
mad's letter to Parwiz and its reception. The Prophet curses ' 
him. His son Shiruya rebels against him and kills him. — 
He reigned 38 years. — Some of his sayings. 

(24) Shiruya son of Parwiz (123). 
He killed many of his brothers and relations, but died of 
the plague at the age of 22 after a reign of 6 months. 

(25) Ardashir son of Shiruya. 
« 

He was still but a child when he was murdered by a 
servant after a reign of 18 months. One of the nobles of 



42 CHAPTER II, SECTION 4. — CHAPTER III. 

Parwfz named Qara'in then usurped the supreme power, but 
was killed two years later. 

(26) Turdn [Purdn] Dukht, daughter of Parwiz. 

She reigned only six months. In her reign the Prophet 
Muhammad died. 

{2']) Azarmi-Dukht, daughter of Parhviz. 

Her beauty and intelligence. She kills one of her generals 
who tries to make love to her. She reigned only four months. 

(28) Farrukh-zdd. 

He was a grandson of Shiruya. His mother was a singer 
of Isfahan named Shakar (Sugar), and his parentage uncer- 
tain. After a reign of one month he also was murdered by 
a slave. 

(29) Yazdigird son of Shahriydr son of Parwiz. 

(124) He was the last Sasanian king. His life was saved 
by his nurse when Shiruya killed so many of his relatives. 
In the Caliphate of "^Umar, Sa'^d b. Waqqas attacks Persia. 
— Defeat and death of Rustam son of Farrukh-zad at Qadi- 
siyya. — Flight of Yazdigird to Merv. — He is defeated 
by Mahiiy Suri.and Bizhan, takes refuge in the house of a 
miller, and is killed by order of Mahuy. He nominally 
reigned twenty years, but effectively for four years only. 

CHAPTER III. — THE PROPHET AND HIS 
SUCCESSORS. 

(125) Introduction. On the Prophet's genealogy. 

The pre-existent "Light of Muhammad" [Niir-i- Muhammad). 
(126) How that Light descended from Adam, in whom it 
first appeared, through the prophets anid Arab tribes (127) 
to Quraysh and the Prophet's family. 



CHAPTER III. THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD. 43 

(128) Section i. Account of the Prophet's life. 

His position amongst the prophets. His birth and horoscope. 
(129) Portents which heralded his birth. Satih interprets the 
omens. Full genealogy of the Prophet (130) up to Adam. His 
mother Amina. Death of his father "^Abdu'llah. His childhood. 
(131) Death of Amina. — Death of ^Abdu'l-Muttalib. — His 
uncle Abu Talib becomes his guardian. — He goes as a mer- 
chant to Syria. He is nick-named "the Trusty" [al-Amin). He 
enters Khadija's service, and marries her. Abu Talib's khutba 
(homily) on (132) this occasion. At the age of 35 he is 
chosen by Quraysh to replace the Black Stone at Mecca. 
During a period of famine he supports '^Ali, ^Abbas and 
Ja'^far, in order to relieve Abu Talib. — Beginning of the ' 
Revelations in his fortieth year (133). All sacred books were 
revealed in the month of Ramadan. — Muhammad com- 
forted by his wife Khadija and her cousin Waraqa b. Nawfal. 
The conversions of Khadija, '^Ali, (134) Zayd, Abu Bakr, 
*^Uthman, Talha, Zubayr, SaM b. Abi Waqqas, '^Abdu'r- 
Rahman b. "^Awf and Abu "^Ubayda b. al-Jarrah all took place 
within 20 days of Muhammad's call. — Enmity of Quraysh. 
Conversion of '^Umar, who was the fortieth convert during 
the first three years of the Prophet's Mission. Islam now 
began to be preached , openly. — Persecution of the Muslims. 
(135) Flight of '^Uthman and his wife Ruqayya, and Hamza 
to Abyssinia. — ^ The miracle of the "Cleaving of the Moon". 
— Death of Abu Talib and Khadija in the loth year of 
the Prophet's Mission, which he therefore named "the Year 
of Woe". The Prophet goes to Ta'if. (13b) He is badly 
received, but is consoled by the conversion of a company 
of the Jinn. His Ascension [Mi'^rdj). — Conversion of many 
of the people of al-Madina. — The people of Mecca, insti- 
gated by Iblis in the form of an old man of Najd, try to 
kill the Prophet. — His Flight [hijrat] to al-Madina. — The 



44 CHAPTER III, SECTION I. 

first mosque built there. — The Ansar. (137) Treachery of 
the Jews of al-Madina. — The qibla changed from Jerusalem 
to Mecca. The Prophet's wars with the unbelievers in A. H. i 
and bther events of that year, including his marriage with 
'A'isha. {138) A. H. 2. The Prophet gives his daughter Fatima 
in marriage to his cousin 'Ali. (139). She was then 13 years 
old. She bore him 3 sons, ^asan, Husayn and Muhsin, and 
two daughters, Zaynab and Umm Kulthiim. She died A. H. 
II, six months after her father. {140) ""All nick-named Abii 
Turab. — The Fast of Ramadan instituted. (141) Battle of 
Badr. — Death of Ruqayya, the wife of "^Uthman. Umm 
Kulthum is given to him in marriage in her place. (142) Per- 
sians defeated by Arabs. — A. H. 3. Wine prohibited. Battle 
of Uhud (143). Muslims defeated, 65 slain, and the Prophet 
loses a tooth. ^AH's sword is broken, and the Prophet gives 
him Dhu'l-Fiqar instead, Hamza killed. A. H. 4. {144) Other 
battles. A. H. 5 (145) Attack on al-Madina, which Salman 
the Persian helps to fortify. *^Ali kills "Amr b. 'Antar. — 
Defeat and slaughter of the Jews of Quraydha. A. H. 6. Wars 
with Banu Libyan and Banu Mustaliq (146). The scandal 
concerning 'A'isha, and the Revelation exculpating her. Con- 
versions of ^Amr b. ^As and Khalid b. WaU'd. (147) The 
Prophet sends letters to the rulers of adjacent countries 
inviting them to embrace Islam. The King of Egypt an- 
swered politely and sent presents, including the girl Mariya 
(whom the Prophet took in marriage, and who bore him 
Ibrahim), and the mule Duldul, which was given to "^Ali. 
The King of Syria did not answer at all. The King of 
Yamama answered politely, but declined to accept Islam. 
The Kings of "^Uman, Bahrayn and Abyssinia accepted 
Islam and wrote polite answers. Heracleus, the Emperor of 
the Romans, secretly accepted Islam, though he concealed 
his behef, and wrote a polite answer. Khusraw Parwfz, King 
of Persia, tore the Prophet's letter in pieces and reviled 



LIFE OF THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD. 45 

him. The Prophet's curse was the cause of the downfall of 
the Persian Empire and the House of Sasan. (148) A. H. 7. 
Conquest of Khaybar. ^Ali's valour. Fadak surrenders. Attempt 
to poison the Prophet. Death of Umm Kulthum. (149) The 
miracle of the weeping tree. A. H. 8. (150) Khalid b. Walid 
becomes Amir. Subjugation of Mecca. (151) Other battles. 
(152) Death of the King [Najdshi) of Abyssinia. Wholesale 
conversions of Arab tribes. Appearance of Musaylima the 
False Prophet. — Death of Zaynab. — Birth of the Pro- 
phet's son Ibrahim. A. H. 9 (153) Unbelievers forbidden to 
make the Pilgrimage to Mecca. A. H. 10. Death of Ibrahim. 
The "Farewell Pilgrimage". A. H. 10. The Prophet's illness. 
Abu Bakr appointed to act as his deputy. (154) Death of 
the Prophet. — His funeral. — Safiyya's elegy on him (155). 
Fatima's elegy, and another's. — Personal characteristics of 
the Prophet. (156) Difference between the obligations laid on 
him and those laid on his followers. (157) The Prophet's 
fourteen wives. Khadija, Zaynab and Isaf died during his life- 
time; "^Aliya and Khawla he divorced; the remaining nine were 
''A'isha, Suda, Hafsa, Umm Salma, Zaynab, Juwayriya, Safiyya, 
Maymuna and Umm Habiba. He had four other wives with 
whom he did not cohabit, and five other women he sought 
in marriage but did not actually marry. He had also two 
concubines. — Further account of these wives and the chil- 
dren they bore to the Prophet. — Why God caused his 
sons to die in infancy (158 — 162). The Prophet's four daugh- 
ters and their history. — (162) The Prophet's amanuenses. 
— His names and titles. — {163) His uncles and aunts. — 
His slaves and handmaidens. — His horses (164). His swords, 
coats of mail, bows, shield, spears, heljmets, staves, turban, 
cloak and other personal possessions. — His ass, camels, 
sheep, garments and other gear (165). 



46 CHAPTER III, SECTION 2. 

Section 2. The Five Orthodox Caliphs. 

These reigned in all 30 years. The first Caliph was Abu Bakr. 
His (166) biography. Apostacy of the Arabs. — Twelve armies 
sent against them, viz. against (i) Tulayha, (2) Sajja^a [Sajah] 
(167). Dissension between Abu Bakr and "Umar about Khalid. 
(3) Musaylima (168). (4) Hajar in Bahrayn, and eight other 
expeditions, all in A. H. 11. — A. H. 12. War with Persians. 
Hurmazd and Qarin. (169) Hira and Khawarnaq taken. — 
(170) Shirzad and Hilal defeated. — Syria attacked. — Death 
of Abu Bakr and accession of ""Umar. Khalid replaced by 
Abu ^Ubayda b. al-Jarrah. (171) Death of Abu Bakr at the 
age of 63 after governing the Muslims for two years. (172) 
Abu Bakr's three sons. — 'Umar b. al-Khattdb succeeds as 
the second Caliph in A. H. 13. Why entitled Fdruq. — (173) 
The campaign against Syria. (174) Abii "^Ubayda dies at 
Hims, and is replaced as governor of Syria by Mu*^awiya b. 
Abf Sufyan. — Success of the Egyptian Campaign. — The 
Persian Campaign : successive defeats of Rustam, Narsi and 
Jalfnus. — Chaldaea occupied by the Arabs. (175) Bahman 
Jadii defeats and pursues the Arabs, but withdraws on 
account of disturbances in Persia. — Yazdigird is made king. 
— His interview with the Arab envoys sent by SaM b. Abi 
Waqqas, and the fear with which their words inspire him. 

(176) The Battle of Qadisiyya. — Death of Rustam and 
defeat of the Persians. — Basra founded, A. H. 16. — Amount 
of spoil taken from al-Mada'in (Ctesiphon) by the Arabs. 

(177) Defeat of the Persians at Hulwan. — Tekri't reduced. 

(178) The Persians prepare for another battle, (179) which 
is fought at Nahawand and results in the defeat of the Per- 
sians. — The trick by which Hurmuzan saves his life. — 
The Taxes imposed by ""Umar in ""Iraq and Sawad. — Ha- 
madan taken. (180) Ray, Isfahan, Kirman, Sistan and Mukran 
are taken or capitulate in A. H. 22. Adharbayjan, Arran, 



THE ORTHODOX CALIPHS. 47 

Mughan, Gushtasfi and Shirwan taken or surrendered. (181) 
Gurjistan surrenders. — Herat, Merv, Balkh and Nishapiir 
taken. The flight of Yazdigird. He is murdered by order of 
Mahuy Siiri. — Fars subdued. An instance of telepathy. 
(182) The cave by Nahawand whence the voice issued visited 
by the author. (183) '^Umar assassinated by Abu Lu'lu'a the 
Persian in A. H. 23. Before his death he appoints the council 
of six to elect his successor. (184) ^Umar's children. He was 
first entitled Amiru'l-Muminin. — (185) His governors and 
officers. — Accession of ^Uthman, the third Caliph. (186) His 
election. — His nepotism. — '^Amr b. '^As sent to subdue 
Egypt, which apostasized. (187) Renewed war with the Qaysar 
of Rum. He is killed by ''Abdu'llah b. Zubayr, and his army 
defeated. — Andalusia invaded. (188) A. H. 29. "^Uthman's 
recension of the Qur'dn. '^Abdu'llah b. Saba the Jew stirs 
up revolt against ''Uthman. (189 — 191) Ten complaints made 
against "^Uthman, and his answers to them. (191 — 192) Murder 
of '^Uthman at the age of 81. — (192) His eleven sons. 
Accession of ^Ali b. AH Tdlib, the fourth Caliph in A. H. 25. 
(193) Hostility of ''Amr b. al-^As and other leaders of the 
Banii Umayya towards ""All. (194) Mu'^awiya demands the 
surrender of ""Uthman's murderers from ^Ali. Talha, Zubayr 
and ''A'isha combine against '^Ali and establish themselves 
at Basra. — The Battle of the Camel. (195). The Battle of 
Siffin. Mu'^awiya appeals to the Word of God. (196) The 
Arbitration at Dawmatu'l-Jandal. Cursing from the pulpit 
instituted by Mu'awiya and ''All after this, and continued 
for 60 years ere it was abolished by "Umar b. '^Abdu'l-'^Aziz. 
— Mu'^awiya makes "^Amr b. al-'^As governor of Egypt. (197) 
The Khawarij. — ''Ali defeats them at Nahruwan. — Three 
Kharijites conspire against the lives of "^Ali, Mu'^awiya and 
''Amr b. al-^As. (198) They fix on Friday, Ramadan 17, . 
A. H. 40, as the day for their attempt. — ""All is assassinated 
in the Mosque at Kufa by '^Abdu'r-Rahman b. Muljam. — 



48 CHAPTER III, SECTIONS 2 — 3. 

^AlCs tomb and its history. He was 69 years of age when 
he was killed, having been Caliph for 4^/4 years. He had 35 
(or 32) children, of whom the names of 1 1 sons are recorded. 
(199) Account of these. Account of 13 of his daughters. — 
(200). Some of *^All's sayings. His son Hasan, called al-Mujtabd, 
succeeds as fifth Caliph. He makes peace with Mu'awiya. — 
Terms of this agreement. (201) Mu'awiya became supreme 
ruler in A. H. 41, and with his accession the Caliphate was 
changed into a temporal sovereignty. Mu'awiya instigates 
one of Hasan's wives to poison him. (202) His death and 
burial. His 14 sons. 

(203) Section j. The remaining ten Imdms. 
[The first two Imams, ^Ali and his son Hasan, alone 
exercised temporal power. The remaining ten were as fol- 
lows : — ] 

(3) Hiisayn b. ^Ali%. Abi Tdlib. 

He was Imam during 11 years, 11 months and 6 days. 
He was born on Sha'ban 2, A. H. 4, at al-Madina. His son 
and successor "AH Zaynu'l-'^Abidin was born when he was 
42 years old, and was 14 years old when his father was 
killed at Kerbela in A. H. 61. Husayn's head and his captive 
family before Yazid. His seven sons and two daughters. He 
was 56 years old at the time of his death (204). 

(4) ^Ali Zaynu'WAbidin b. Husayn. 

He was born at al-Madina in A. H. 46, and held the Ima- 
mate for 33 years, 2 months and 27 days. His son Muham- 
mad al-Baqir, who succeeded him, was born when he was 19 
years old, and his grandson Ja^far-i-Sadiq when he was 37. 
He died at the end of A. H. 74 at al-Madina, poisoned, as 
the Shi'^a assert, by command of Walid b. '^Abdu'l-Malik: 
His eight sons and five daughters. He was over 48 years of 
age at the time of his death. 



THE TWELVE IMAMS. mq 

(5) Muhammad al-Bdqir b. '^Ali b. Husayn. 

He was Imam for 22 years, 7 months and 8 days, was 
born in A. H. 65 at al-Madina, was 18 years old when his 
son and successor Ja'^far-i-Sadiq was born, and died in A. H. 
117 at al-Madina. The Shfa say that he was poisoned by 
order of Hisham b. ''Abdu'l-Malik. He was 52 years old at 
the time of his death. He had six sons and two daughters. 

(6) Ja'^far as-Sddiq b. Muhammad al-Bdqir. 

(205) He was Imam for 31 years, and 8 days, was born 
at al-Madina in A. H. 83, lived 65 years and 4 months, and 
thus attained a greater age than any other of the Imams, 
of whom, excepting ''Ali, he was also the most learned. He 
first nominated his elder son Isma^^il to succeed him, but 
deposed him because he had drunk wine, and replaced him 
by Musa al-Kadhim. Isma'^il pre-deceased his father, who caused 
him to he publicly buried, so that all might be aware of his 
death. This is denied by the Isma'^ili sect. Ja'^far died in 
A. H. 148 at al-Madina. The Shi'^a say that he was poisoned 
by command of Ja'far Abu'd-Dawaniq. He had six sons and 
seven daughters. One of his sons, Muhammad, is buried in 
Jurjan at the place called Giir-i-Surkh ("the Red Tomb"). 

(7) Musa al-Kddhim b. Jd^far as-Sddiq. 

He was Imam for 34 years, 6 months and 21 days, was 
born in A. H. 128 at al-Madina and lived 55 years and 5 
days. His son and successor ''All ar-Rida was born when he 
was 24 years old. He died at Baghdad in A. H. 183, (206) 
and was buried at Karkh. The Shi'^a say that he was mur- 
dered by order of Harun ar-Rashid, who caused molten lead 
to be poured down his throat. He had 31 sons, of whom 
the names of 25 are recorded, and of whom many are buried 
in Persia, and 28 daughters, of whom the names of 16 are 
recorded, and of whom two are buried at Qum. 

4 



50 CHAPTER III, SECTION 3. 

(8) ^AH ar-Ridd b. Musd al-Kddhim. 
He was Imam for 27 years and 23 days, was born at 
al-Madina in A. H. 151 and lived 51 years, 2 months and 
26 days. His son and successor Muhammad at-Taqi, called 
Jawad, was born when he was about 44 years of age. He 
died at Tus in Khurasan in A. H. 203, poisoned, as the Shi^a 
assert, by the Caliph al-Ma'mun. He had five sons and one 
daughter (207). 

(9) Muhammad at-Taqi b. '^Ali ar-Ridd. 

He was Imam for 16 years, 8 months and 26 days, was 
born at al-Madfna in A. H. 195, and lived 24 years, 9 months 
and 18 days. His son "^AH an-Naqi was born when he was 
about 19 years old. He died at Baghdad in A. H. 220, and 
was buried at Karkh. The Shi'a say that he was poisoned 
by al-Mu*^tasim. He had two sons and four daughters. 

(10) '^Ali an-Naqi b. Muhammad at-Taqi. 

He was Imam for 33 years, was born at al-Madina in A. H. 
224 and lived 39 years, 11 months and 18 days. His son Hasan 
al-'Askari was born when he was about 18 years old. He died 
at Samarra in A. H. 254. The Shf^a say that he was poisoned 
by the Caliph al-Mu'^tazz. He had four sons and one daughter. 

(11) Hasan al-^Askari b. '^Ali an-Naqi (208). 

He was Imam for 5 years, 8 months and 5 days, was 
born at Samarra in A. H. 232 and lived 27 years, 2 months 
and 27 days. His son, the Imam Mahdf, was born when he 
was about 22 '/j years of age. He died in A. H. 260 at Samarra, 
his son being then 4'/2 years old. The Shfa say that he was 
poisoned by the Caliph al-Mu*^tamid. He had only one son. 

(12) The Imdm Mahdi, Muhammad b. Hasan al-'^Askari. 
He was the last" of the Twelve Imams, was Imam for 



THE TWELVE IMAMS. — THE COMPANIONS. 



51 



4^2 years, was born at Samarra is A. H. 255, disappeared 
there in the time of the CaHph al-Mu'^tamid, and was never 
again seen by mortal eyes. The Shi'^a believe that-he is "the 
Mahdi of the Last Days", that he still lives, and that he 
will re-appear in God's good time. The Isma^ilis, on the 
contrary, regard '^Ubaydu'llah, the fourth in descent from 
Isma*^!'!, and the founder of the Fatimid Dynasty, as the 
Mahdi. The Sunnis say that the Mahdi is not yet born, and 
that he will be one of the descendants of "^Ali and Fatima. 

Section ^. Account of some of the chief Companions and 

Followers. 

(209) Definitions of the terms "Companions" [Asjidb) and 
"Followers" {Tdbi'^un). Of these two classes more then 100,000 
are mentioned in history, some of the chief of whom will 
be here briefly noticed. [The Asjidb, who come first, fill 
pp. 209 — 243. They are for the most part arranged alpha- 
betically, but mention is first made of "the Ten Harbingers" 
[al-'^Asharatu'l Mubashshara) and the "Forty Precursors" 
{al-Arbd^una'l-Muqaddamun)\ '). The 7>« include the first four 
Caliphs and Talha, (210) Zubayr, SaM b. Abi Waqqas, Sa'^id 
b. Zayd (211), Abu 'Ubayda, and 'Abdu'r-Rahman b. 'Awf. 
The Forty include, besides the above. Hamza, (212) Abu 
Dharr al-Ghifari, Bilal, Ja'^far b. Abi Talib called Tayydr 
("the Fher"), Khalid b. Sa'^id (213), Zayd b. al-Haritha, 
Khabbab, Zayd b. al-Khattab, Suhayb b. Sinan, ""Ammar b. 
Yasir, 'Abdu'llah b. Jahsh, 'Abdu'llah b. Mas'iid, 'Ubayda 
b. Harith, (214) 'Utba b. Ghazwan, ^Amr b. Maf lin, ^Abbas 
b. 'Utba, "A'ish b. Mughira, Ma'mar b. 'Abdu'llah, Mihjan 
b. al-Arwa^ Fudala b. "^Ubayd, Hisham b. al-^As, Arqam, 
'Abbas b. Abi Rabi'a, SaM b. 'Abdu'llah (215) Miqdad, 
Mu*^ayqib b. Abi Fatima, Mus'^ab b. "^Umayr, Hisham b. 

l) The "ten" are included in the "forty", of whom they constitute a supe- 
rior class. 



52 CHAPTER III, SECTIONS 4 — 5. 

■^Utba b. Abi Waqqas. [The list of the remaining "Compa- 
nions", arranged in alphabetical order, extends to p. 243, 
and concludes with an account of "the Hypocrites" [Mtaid- 
fiqiin) who apostasized or otherwise shewed the insincerity 
of their beHef. Then follows (pp. 243 — 255) a similar alpha- 
betical list of the "Followers" {Tdbi%n). 

(255) Section 5. The Umayyad '^Kings', and their rule 
in Persia. / 

These were 14 in number, and they ruled for 91 years. 

(i) Mu'dwiya b. Abi Stifydn. 

His genealogy, conversion and position in Islam. The 
Sunni's regard him as in error in his conduct towards "^Ali, 
but do not curse him because he was one of the Prophet's 
Companions, and amanuenses. His absolute sovereignty dates 
from A. H. 41, when al-Hasan abdicated in his favour. He 
recognizes Ziyad as his brother. He makes Damascus his 
capital. Heroic methods adopted by Ziyad to secure order 
in Basra. (256) Yazfd placed by his father in command of 
the expedition against the "Romans" in A. H. 52. Its success. 
Death of Abu Ayyub al-Ansarf. Yazfd receives the people's 
allegiance as successor to the throne in A. H. 56. Five per- 
sons refuse (257) to take the oath, "^Abdu'llah b. "^Abbas, 
Husayn b. '^Ali, 'Abdu'llah b. Zubayr, 'Abdullah b. 'Umar. 
'Abdu'r-Rahman b. Abi Bakr. Mu^awiya warns Yezfd against 
three of these, advises him as to his conduct, and dies in 
Rajab, A. H. 60, after a reign of 19 years and 3 months, 
at the age of 81. 

(2) Yazid b. Mu^dwiya (258). 

Flight of ^usayn and Ibn Zubayr from al-Madina. — The 
people of Kufa promise support to Husayn. — He sends 
his cousin Muslim b. 'Aqil to learn the temper of the people 



THE UMAYYADS. 53 

at Kufa. — Husayn, with his kinsfolk, and a Httle army of 
40 horsemen and 100 infantrymen, sets out for Kufa, in 
spite of the warnings of "^Abdu'Ilah b. '^Abbas and "^Abdu'llah 
b. '^Umar. "^Ubaydu'llah b. Ziyad is made governor of Kufa. 
He kills MusHm and Hani. (259) Husayn's meeting with 
Fara^daq. Account of the Battle of Karbala. (260) Husayn 
and all his kinsmen, except his son "^Ali Zaynu'l-"^Abidin, 
are killed. Of his kinsmen 17 and of his followers 124 pe- 
rished. The captive women and Pusayn's head are taken 
before Yazid at Damascus. The captives sent to al-Madina. 
(261) Yazid takes and plunders al-Madina. Ibn Ziyad is made 
governor of '^Iraq and South Persia. Success of Muslim arms 
in Transoxiana. Rebellion of Ibn Zubayr in A. H. 64. Yazid 
causes Mecca to be bombarded, and dies, after a reign of 
3 years and 2 months, at the age of 39. (262) His 13 sons. 

(3) Mu'dwiya b. Yazid, called ar-Rdji billdh. 
He reigned only 40 days and then died. 

(4) Khdlid b. Yazid. 

He cared for science, especially Alchemy, more than state- 
craft (263). 

(5) Marwdn b. al-Hakam. 

He married the mother of Khalid. The Battle of Marj 
Rahit. War with Ibn Zubayr. (264) Battle of 'Aynu'1-Ward. 
Pestilence in Basra and Syria. Marwan is smothered by his 
wife to avenge an insult offered by him to her son Khalid. 
He was 81 years and 9 months old when he died. Two 
other claimants to the supreme power arise, -Nafi^ b. Azraq 
and Najda b. Mu'^awiya. 

(6) "Abdul-Malik b. Marwdn (265). 
Reyolt of Mukhtar. He avenges the death of Husayn, 



54 CHAPTER 111, SECTION 5. 

claiming to act on behalf of Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya. 
(266) Ibn Ziyad is killed. War between Mukhtar and Mus'^ab. 
The former is killed in A. H. 69. (267) War with the "Ro- 
mans". Mus'Tab killed. (268) Ash-Shu'^bi's reminiscences, indi- 
cating the vicissitudes of fate. Hajjaj b. Yusuf bombards 
Mecca. (269) Death of ^Abdu'llah b. Zubayr, A. H. 73. (270) 
Shiraz built. The first Arabian coinage. (271) Valour of 
Shabi'b b. Yazid. His death by drowning. Wars with the 
Kharijites. (272) The Battle of Jamajim, A, H. 83. Wasit 
founded. Qutayba b. Muslim made governor of Khurasan. 
(273) The government records cease to be kept in Persian 
and are transferred into Arabic, The lovers Buthayna and 
Jamil, and the retort made to "^Abdu'l-Malik by the former. 
Death of ^Abdu'l-Malik in Shawwal, A. H. 86, after a reign 
of 21 years, at the age of 62. 

(7) Walid b. ^Abdun-Malik. 

His love of learning and promotion of education. His love 
of women. He had at one time and another 6^ wives. 
Qutayba's conquests in Turkistan, and the spoils taken by 
him. Bukhara, Samarqand, Sughd, Chach, Farghana (274) 
and Khw^razm taken by the Muslims. Constantinople attacked. 
Buildings erected at al-Madina, Damascus etc. (275) Death 
of al-Hajjaj in A. H. 95, aged 54. Instances of his severity. 
He had put to death in cold blood more than 100,000 men, 
and when he died 58,000 people, including 8000 women, 
were in prison, mostly for trivial reasons, by his orders. 
(276). I.Iajjaj's culminating crime was the execution of Sa^'d 
b. Jubayr, a month after which Hajjaj went mad, and was 
eaten by worms. Plague in Basra, followed by earthquake. 
Walid died in A. H. 96, after a reign of 9 years and 8 months, 
at the age of 45. 



THE UMAYYADS. 55 

(8) Sulaymdn b. "^AbdiCl-Malik. 

Kashghar subdued by Qutayba, who then rebels against 
Sulayman. (277) Qutayba conquers Gurgan and Tabaristan. 
Rise of the Barmecides [Al-i-Barmak). History of the family. 
Why pure gold is called "Jayari". (278) Sulayman died of 
pleurisy in Safar, A. H. 99, after a reign of 2 years and 8 
months, aged 45. 

(9) ^Umar b. ^ Abdul-" Aziz. 

His piety and justice. He abolishes the cursing of "AH. 
He imprisons Yazid b. Muhallab. The Imam Muhammad b. 
"All b. 'Abdu'llah b. 'Abbas begins the "Abbasid propa- 
ganda. Death of "Umar b. ^Abdu'1-Aziz in Rajab, A. H. 10 1. 
He was buried at Hims (Emessa) after a reign of (279) 2 
years and 5 months at the age of 33. He is said to have 
been poisoned by a servant at the instigation of Hisham. 

(10) Yazid b. "Abdu'l-Malik. 

War with Yazid b, Muhallab. Abu Muslim enters the 
service of the "Abbasids. (280) Yazid's love for' two singing- 
girls named Habbaba and Sallama. (281) His grief at the death 
of Habbaba causes his own death in Rajab, A. H. 105, at 
the age of 40, after a reign of 4 years and one month. He 
is buried beside her. ' 

(11) Hisham b. ^Abdul-Malik. 

The Khazars invade Adharbayjan. (282) Mar wan repeals 
them and advances as far as Saqlab. Nasr b. Sayyar ap- 
pointed governor of Khurasan. Death of the Imam "All b. 
"Abdu'llah b. "Abbas in A. H. 118, aged 78. RebeUion of 
Zayd b. "Ali ZaynuVAbidin in Kufa in A. H. 121. Faith- 
lessness of the people of Kufa. How the name Rafidi came 
to be applied to the Shi"a. Death of Zayd. Desecration of 
his tomb, (283) His son Yahya imprisoned in Khurasan by 



56 CHAPTER III, SECTION 5. 

Nasr b. Sayyar. '^Abbasid propagandists mutilated. Death of 
Hisham in A. H. 125, after a reign of 19 years and 8 months, 
at the age of 61. 

(12). WaHd b. Yazid b. ^Abdu'l-Malik. 

He causes Yahya b. Zayd to be released. Yahya's rebel- 
lion. (284) He is killed in battle, and his body with that of 
his brother crucified, until, in the reign of Marwan, Abu 
Muslim took the bodies down, buried them, and bade his 
followers wear black as a sign of mourning. This is how 
black came to be the "^Abbasid colour, and the partisans of 
the House of "^Abbas to be called Siydh-piishdn (or, in Arabic, 
Musawwida). Death of the Imam Muhammad b. *^Ali b. "^Ab- 
du'llah b. 'Abbas in A. H. 125. He nominates his son Ibrahfm 
to succeed him, and after him Abu'l-'^Abbas. Walid's atheism 
and impiety. He dresses one of his mistresses in his clothes 
and sends her to take his place in the mosque at public 
prayer. He is deposed, and dies in A. H. 126, at the age of 
43 (285) after a reign of one year and two months. 

(13) Yazid b. Walid. 

His mother Shah Afarid was the grand-daughter of Yaz- 
digird the last Sasanian king. He inclined to the Mu'tazilite 
heresy. He reigned six months and died of the plague in 
A. H. 126. 

(14) Ibrahim b. Walid. 

He reigned only two months, and was defeated by Marwan 
and killed. 

(15) Marwan b. Muhammad b. Marwd?i, called al-Himdr 

{Uhe Ass"). 

Increasing disorder in the Empire. Revolt of al-Kirmanl. 
Abu Muslim raises the ''Abbasid standard hear Merv on 



THE 'ABBASID CALIPHS. 



57 



Ramadan 27, A. H. 129. (286) Nasr b. Sayyar's celebrated 
verses, in which he appeals for help to Marwan. Nasr defeats 
al-Kirmani, but is defeated by Abu Muslim and dies. Abu 
Muslim conquers Khurasan, Gurgan, Ray, Sawa, Qum, Kashan, 
Nahawand, Hamadan, Hulwan and Shahrazur. (287) Kufa is 
taken. Abu Salama made Wazir. Abu'l-^Abbas as-Saffah, his 
brother Abu Ja^far and their four uncles, who were in hiding 
at Kufa, are acclaimed by Abu Muslim and his army. Alle- 
giance is sworn to Abu'l-'^Abbas as-Saffah. Marwan cruelly 
puts to death Ibrahim the brother of Abu'l-' Abbas. (288) 
Defeat of Marwaiv by the Euphrates. He flees to Egypt. 
(289) He is killed at Busir in Fayyum at the end of A. H. 
132, after a reign of 5 years, at the age of 55. AbuVAbbas 
seeks out and kills 80 of the Umayyad princes, and holds 
a banquet over their remains. A "Pahlawi" verse cited a propos 
of this. Desecration of the Umayyads' graves at Damascus. 
Establishment of the Umayyad dynasty in Spain in A. H. 
139, where they continued to rule for about 300 years. 

Section 6 (290). The '^Abbdsid Caliphs. 

These were 37 in number, and their rule endured 523 years, 
2 months and 23 days. 

(i) Abu l-"^ Abbas as-Saffdh, 

He was the fifth in descent from al-^ Abbas, and was 
recognized as CaHph on the 13th of Rabi*^ I, A. H. 132. Some 
of his aphorisms. He buys the Prophet's mantle for 400 dinars. 
His governors. He sends his brother Abu JaTar to Khurasan 
to investigate the doings of Abu Muslim and obtain his 
allegiance. Abu Salama, the "Wazir of the House of Muham- 
mad", is put to death on suspicion of partiaHty for the House 
of *^Ali, and his office is given to Khalid the Barmecide. 
(291) Revolt of Talibu'l-^aqq 'Abdu'llah b. Yahya. He is 
defeated by Abu Muslim. Abii Muslim's growing ambition. 



58 CHAPTER III, SECTION 6. 

Death of as-Saffah at the end of A. H. 136, after a reign of 
4 years and 3 months. 

(2} Abu Ja^far al-Mansiir. 

He succeeded his brother. His avarice. He is nicknamed 
Abu'd-Dawaniq. (292) Abu Muslim arouses his hostility. (293) 
Abu Muslim is induced to visit the Caliph, (294) and is 
murdered treacherously and his body cast into the Tigris. 
His soldiers are appeased. This happened on Sha'^ban 25, 
A. H. 137. Abu Muslim was 6y years old, and was originally 
from Isfahan, though generally regarded as belonging to 
Merv, where his first successes were achieved. Rebellion of 
Muhammad b. *^Abdu'^llah the '^Alawi, who claims to be the 
Mahdf, He is killed, but his brother Ibrahim continues the 
war (295) and occupies much of Southern Persia. He too is 
killed. His father and other relatives escape to Spain. The 
building of Baghdad in A. H. 145. The attempt to destroy 
the Aywdn-i-Kisrd. (296) Death of al-Mansur at the age of 
6'i^ after a reign of 22 years. His sayings. His wazirs. The 
bo6k of Kalila and Dimna translated by "^Abdu'lldh b. al- 
Muqafifa*^ from Pahlawf into Arabic. Abu IJanlfa. 

(3) Al-Mahdi. 
He was the sixth in descent from al-*^Abbas. (297) His 
generosity and prodigality. (298) Rebellion of 'Abdu'llah b. 
Mu'^awiya the '^Alawi at Isfahan. He is conquered and dies 
in captivity. Rebellion of Hakam b. Hashim, "the Moon- 
Maker", known as al-Burqa*"! and al-Muqanna". He claims to 
be God, and many follow him in Kash and Nakhshab. Being 
closely pressed, he poisons all his companions and kills him- 
self and consumes his body, so that it was believed by his 
followers that he had disappeared. This happened in A. H. 
166. Account of the wazirs of al-Mahdi (299 — 300). Death 
of al-Mahdi in Ramadan, A. H. 179, after a reign of 13 years 
and I month at the age of 43. 



THE "ABBASID CALIPHS. 



59 



(4) Al-Hddi b. Mahdi. 

He was 7th in descent from al-^Abbas. He was in Gurgan 
when his father died and he became Caliph. Another "^Alawi 
revolt. Idris takes part of Andalusia, where his descendants 
reigned for more than 300 years. The Zindiqs (Manichaeans) 
become prominent in his reign. "^Abdu'llah b. al-Muqaffa"^ is 
one of their leaders. (301) His translation into Arabic of the 
Book of Kalila and Dimna. His attempt to imitate the 
Qur^dn. He and his confederates are put to death by al-Hadi. 
Death of al-Hadi on 16 Rabi*^ i, A.H. 173, ascribed to Divine 
wrath at a cruel and unprovoked murder on his part. (302) 
He reigned one year and 3 months. His wazirs. 

(5) HdrunuW-Rashid. 

He was the seventh in descent from al-'^Abbas. The death 
of his brother and predecessor, his accession, and the birth 
of his son and successor al-Ma'mun all took place on one 
night. His uncle, his father's uncle and his grandfather's 
uncle were all amongst those who took the oath of alle- 
giance to him. He makes Yahya b. Khalid al-Barmaki ("the 
Barmecide") his wazir. Power of the Barmecides for 17 years, 
Harun's respect for men of learning, especially the Imam 
Malik. His strict observance of religious obligations and his 
charity to the poor (303) and munificence to the learned. 
Legal quibbles whereby the Qadi Abu Yusuf enables Hariin 
to gratify his passions. (304) Zubayda bears to Harun his 
son al-Amin, whom, in his fifth year, Harun nominates as 
his successor. Revolt of Yahya b. "^Abdu'llah the "Alawi in 
A. H. 176. By what statagem he was brought to Baghdad and 
ultimately poisoned. Hariin divided his empire between his 
three sons, al-Amin, al-Ma'mun and al-Mu'taman, whose names 
were included in this order in the khutba. Story of Ja'^far 
the Barmecide and Harun's sister "^Abbasa. (305) Harun's 



6o CHAPTER III, SECTION 6. 

slaughter of the Barmecides in A. H. 187. Virtues of Yahya. 
Repentence of Harun. (306) Fadl b. Rabi"^ made wazir. War 
with Byzantines, A. H. 190, Revolt of Rafi*^ b. Layth b. Nasr 
b. Sayyar in Khurasdn against '^Ali b. ^Isa b. Khaqan. Harun 
sends Harthama thither. He marches himself to Hamadan. 
{307) Death of Harun at Tiis on 3 Rabi*^ ii, A. H. 193, after 
a reign of 23 years and 2Y2 months at the age of 42. Virtues 
of his wife Zubayda. 

(6) Al-Amin b. Hdriin. 

He was the eighth in descent from al-^Abbas, and was the 
only caliph descended from him on both sides. His love of 
women and new fashions in dress. His demands of his bro- 
ther al-Ma'mun. (308) Al-Ma'mun's wazir, Fadl b. Sahl the 
Persian. Anecdote of his conversion from the faith of Zoro- 
aster to that of Muhammad. Al-Amin strives to divest his 
two brothers of their rights and nominate his son Musa as 
his successor. Outbreak of war between al-Amin and al- 
Ma'miin. (309) Their respective generals, *^Alf b. '^Isa b. Mahan 
and T^hir '^Dhu'l-Yaminayn" ("the Ambidexter"). Victory of 
Tahir near Ray. Another victory over al-Amin's troops at 
Hamadan. Al-Ma'mun's troops occupy the Pass of ^ulwan. 
They are re-inforced by Harthama. Ahwaz, Basra, Wasit and 
al-Mada'in yield to al-Ma'mun. (310) 'Death of.al-Amfn and 
capture of Baghdad on Muharram 5, A. H. 198. Al-Ma'mun's 
reception (311) of the news. Al-Amin had reigned 4 years 
and 9 months, and was 27 years of age at the time of his 
death. 

(7) Al-Ma'mun b. Harun. 

He also was eighth in descent from al-*^Abbas. His cha- 
racter. His trust in his wazir Fadl b. Sahl "-Dhur Riydsa- 
tayn\ (312) Revolt of the 'Alawf Tabataba in Kiifa. Other 
*^Alawf revolts. Fadl b. Sahl induces al-Ma'mun to nominate 



THE <^ABBASID CALIPHS. 6 1 

the Imam ^Ali ar-Rida [the 8th Imam of the Shf a] to succeed 
him (313), give his daughter Zaynab to him in marriage, 
and change the ''Abbasid black for the ^Alawi green. Anger 
of the other ''Abbasids, - who wish to depose al-Ma'mun in 
favour of his uncle Ibrahim. Al-Ma'mun, in Muharram, A. H. 
202, causes Fadl b. Sahl to be murdered in the bath, and 
then puts his murderers to death. He deposes his rival Musa. His 
marriage with Puran, the daughter of Hasan b. Sahl. Splendour 
of the wedding. (314) Death of Muhammad b. Ja'^far as-Sadiq 
(A. H. 203) in Jurjan. His tomb is known as "the Red Tomb" 
[Gur-i-Surkh : see p. 49 supra). Al-Ma'mun's love of lear- 
ning. Translations from the Greek and Syriac undertaken by 
his orders. His weekly conferences on literary and scientific 
matters. His generosity to the poor. (315) Quarrel between 
'Abdu'llah b. Tahir and al-Mu'tasim. (316) Death of Tahir 
in Khurasan. His son Talha succeeds him in that govern- 
ment. RebelHon put down in Egypt. Appearance of the 
*-false prophet Babak in Adharbayjan. Death of al-Ma'mun on 
Rajab 7, A. H. 228, after a reign of 8 years and 7 months, 
at the age of 48. He was buried at Tarsus. Various state- 
ments as to the causes of his death. His Mu'^tazilite views. 
His severity towards the orthodox, especially Ahmad b. Hanbal. 
(317) His sayings. 

(8) Al-Mu'^tasim b. Hdrun. 

He also was the eighth in descent from al-^Abbas, and 
also the eighth Caliph of this family. He reigned 8 years, 
8 months and 8 days; die'd at the age of 48; had 8 sons, 
8 daughters and 8000 slaves; won 8 notable victories; killed 
8 eminent princes; and left 8 million dinars to his heirs. 
For these reasons he is called al-Khalifatu' l-Muthamman. (318) 
Character of al-Mu'^tasim. Increasing power of Babak "Khurram- 
din", the false prophet. He is finally defeated, and 40,000 of 
his followers slain, by Haydar (or Khaydhar) b. Kawus, better 



62 CHAPTER HI, SECTION 6. 

known as Afshin. Babak and his brother are mutilated and 
slain at Samarra on Safar 3, A. H. 223. Babak's executioner 
(one of ten) confesses to having killed more than 20,000 per- 
sons. Campaign against the Greeks. (319) ^Ammuriyya taken 
by al-Mu"^tasim. Abortive conspiracy against him. His zeal 
for Islam. He undertakes a successful winter campaign against 
the Greeks to release a captive Muslim women. He builds 
the town of Samarra, or Surra man ra'a, for his Turkish 
guards. (320) Rebellion of Mazyar b. Qarun in Tabaristan. 
His followers wear red clothes and profess the tenets of 
Babak. Mazyar is defeated and taken captive by "^Abdu'llah 
b. Tahir. He is scourged and crucified opposite Babak. Com- 
promising letters from Afshin are found amongst Mazyar's 
papers, and Afshin is tried and condemned to death. Al- 
Mu*^tasim, like his predecessor, holds the Mu'^tazilite doc- 
trine, and persecutes the orthodox. He refuses to ransom 
from the Christians Muslim prisoners who regard the Qur'an 
as increate. Death of al-Mu'^tasim in Rabi*^ i, A. H. 227. He is 
buried at Samarra. His wazirs. (321). 

(9) Al-Wdthiq bi'lldh b. al-Mv^tasim. 

He was the ninth in descent from al-^Abbas.-He also was 
a Mu'^tazilite, but friendly to the House of "^Ali and a patron 
of the learned. In consequence of this, and of his learning 
and eloquence, he is called "the Lesser Ma'mun" {al-Ma'- 
nuhui'l-Asghar). He was also a good poet and musician. 
Death of "^Abdu'llah b. Tahir, whose son Tahir succeeds him 
in A. H. 230 in the government of Khurasan. The quarter 
of Karkh in Baghdad is burned down. Liberality of al-Wathiq 
to the distressed. He is persuaded by his chamberlain to be 
equally liberal towards the people of Farghana. (322) Story 
of a darwish who proves the Caliph. How al-Wathiq was 
cured of the dropsy, but (323), failing to follow his physi- 
cian's advice, died of a recurrence of the disease at the end 



THE 'ABBASID CALIPHS. 



63 



of Dhu'l-Hijja, A. H. 232 at Samarra. Anecdotes concerning 
his death and last moments. 

(10) Al-Mutawakkil b. al-Mu^tasim. 

He was the ninth in descent from al-'^Abbas. Seven per- 
sons swore allegiance to him who were the sons of previous 
Caliphs of his house. Satirical verses by Di^Dil al-Khuza^i on al- 
Mutawakkil and his predecessor. (324) Al-Mutawakkil's hatred 
of the Shf^a and the House of ^Ali. He destroys the tomb 
of al-Husayn in A. H. 233, and prevents pilgrimages thither. 
He nominated his son Muntasir to succeed him, and was 
the first Caliph openly to declare who should succeed him. 
Power of Fath b. Khaqan. (325) Bukht-Yishu" the physician. 
Disabilities imposed on non-Muslims. Revolt of Zayd b. 
Ahmad al-Baqirf. Al-Mutawakkil's five sons. (326) Al-Muta- 
wakkil and his favourite Fath b. Khaqan murdered on the 
same night, in the middle of Shawwal, A. H. 247. He had 
reigned 14 years, 9 months and 9 days, and was 42 years 
of age. Ascendancy of the Turkish soldiery under Wasif 
and Buqa. Caliphs made and deposed or killed by them. 
This ascendancy lasted nearly 90 years, until the time of 
the Daylamites, and included the reigns of twelve Caliphs (327). 

(11) Al-Muntasir b. al-MutawakkiL 

He was the tenth in descent from al-*^ Abbas. He showed 
favour to the House of "^Ali. He reigned only 6 months, and 
died early, Uke other parricides, in the middle of Rabi"^ ii, 
A. H. 248, at the age of 25. 

(12) Al-Musta^in bi'lldh. 

He was the tenth in descent from al-'^Abbas, like his cousin, 
whom he succeeded. Tahir b. '^Abdu'llah b. Tahir dies, and 
is succeeded in the government of Khurasan by his son 
Ahmad. Revolt of Ya'^qub b. Layth as-Saffar in Sistan. 



64 CHAPTER III, SECTION 6. 

Revolt of Hasan b, Zayd al-'^Alawi, called ad-Dd^'i ila'l- 
Haqq in Tabaristan in A. H. 250. (328) His successes. He 
ultimately died after a reign of 19 years in A. H. 270, and 
was succeeded by his brother Muhammad, who reigned for 
18 years, and was finally killed by Muhammad b. Harun 
aided by Isma'^il-i-Samanf. Al-Musta'^fn was finally deposed 
by the Turks at the end of Muharram, A. H. 252, and after- 
wards (329) murdered, after a reign of 3 years, 9 months 
and 2 days, at the age of 27. 

(13) Al-Mu^tazz b. al-Mntawakkil. 

He was the tenth in descent from al-'^Abbas. His learning 
and accomplishments. Ad-Da'^f ila '1-Haqq adds Qazwin, 
Abhar and Zanjan to his possessions, and collects a following 
of 10,000 man. Musa b. Biiqa is sent against him, and (330) 
defeats him by a stratagem in A. H. 253. Ya^'qub b. Layth, 
in A. H. 255, conquers Khurasan, Quhistan, Kirman and Fars. 
Al-Mu'^tazz murders his brother al-Mu'ayyad. He himself is 
murdered by the Turks (331) after a reign of 3 years, 6 
months and 21 days, at the age of 23, on Rajab 17, A. H. 255. 

(14) Al-Muhtadi b. Wdthiq. 

He was the tenth in descent from al-*^Abbas. His poetry. 
His ^ Mu'^tazilite convictions. Owing to his piety, he is com- 
pared to "^Umar b. '^Abdu'l-'^Aziz. (332) His personal super- 
intendance of the administration of justice. The revolt of 
the Ethiopian slaves [Zanj) at Basra, under the *^Alawf "^Alf 
b. Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Baqir, called al-Burqd^i ("the 
Veiled") in A. H. 255. They hold Basra and the surrounding 
region for 14 years and some months. Al-Muhtadf excludes 
all Jews and Christians from state employment. He desires 
to disband the Turkish guards, who, learning his intention 
(333), depose him on Rajab 28, A. H. 256, and a few days 
later secretly put him to death, he being then 32 years of age. 



THE 'ABBASID CALIPHS. 65 

(15) Al-Mu^tamid billdh b. al-Mutawakkil. 

He was the tenth in descent from al-Abbas, and succeeded to 
some extent in restoring the prestige of the CaHphate. Ya'^qub 
b. Layth adopts the heresy of the Batinis (Isma'ih's), takes 
Tabaristan from ad-Da*"! ila'1-Haqq, and marches on Baghdad. 
The Caliph sends his brother al-Muwaffaq bi'llah against him. 
(334) Ya'^qub, deserted by most of the Amirs of Khurasan, is 
defeated and flees to Khuzistan. His bold reply to the Caliph's 
conciliatory message. He dies of colic. Al-Muwaffaq is sent 
against al-Burqa"/ and the Ethiopian slaves in A. H. 270. Al- 
Burqa*"! is killed and his head sent to Baghdad. It is buried by 
Sayyid ar-Radi. Al-Muwaffaq governs the Hijaz and Basra until 
A. H. 270. (335) Revolt in "^Iraq-i-^Ajam of another ^'Alawi 
named Hasan b. ''Ali, called al-Utrush ("the Deaf") and entitled 
an-Nasir bi'llah. Various relatives nominated by al-Mu*"tamid 
to succeed him. Death of al-Mu'^tamid in Rajab, A. H. 279 
from over-eating, after a reign of 23 years at the age of 51. 

(16) Al-Mu'tadid (MS. -Muqtadid) billdh b. al-Muwaffaq. 

He was the eleventh in descent from al-'^Abbas. His cha- 
racter. He is called "the second Saffah". He transfers his 
capital from Surra man ra'a to Baghdad. (336) His sayings 
and verses. Ibnu'r-Rumi's verses on him. His severity in 
punishment. (337) In consequence of a vision, he honours 
the House of '"Ali. Alarmed by the growth of the Saffari 
power, he stirs up Isma'^il the Samani against them. He restores 
the Persian Naw-ruz (338) from the Vernal Equinox to Mid- 
summer '). He died after a reign of 9 years and 9 months at 
the end of Rabi'^ i, A. H. 289, at the age of 47. 

(17) Al-Muktafi bi'llah b. al-Mu^tadid (MS. -Muqtadid). 
He was the twelfth in descent from al-'^Abbas. His cha- 



i) See al-Biruni's al-Athdriil-Baqiya^ ed. Sachau, pp. 31 — 33 and 215 — 217 
(translation pp. 36 — 39 and 199 — 201). 

5 



66 CHAPTER III, SECTION 6. 

racter. His verses. Rebellion of Zikrawayhi b. Maliruwayhi 
the Carmathian in A. H. 294. He conquers Kufa, Diyar Bakr 
and part of Syria, sacks Mecca, kills many of the pilgrims, 
and closes the Ka'^ba. Finally he is killed by the Caliph's 
armies, and his head sent round the empire. (339) Al-Muktafi 
reigned 6 years, 7 months and 20 days, and died at the 
age of 34 on Dhu'l-Qa^da 13, A. H. 295. His Wazi'rs. 

(18) Al-Miiqtadir billdh b. al-Mu^tadid (MS. -Muqtadid). 

He was also the twelfth in descent from al-^Abbas, and 
succeeded at the age of 13. Eleven years after his accession 

(340) certain of his Amirs desire to depose him in favour 
of Ibnu'I-Mu'^tazz. The attempt fails, and Ibnu'l-Mu'^tazz is 
cruelly put to death. Further conspiracies and rebellions. 
IsmaS'li rising in N W. Africa, and defeat of Aghlabi princes. 

(341) Revolt of the Daylamis in A. H. 315. In A. H. 319 the 
Carmathians under Abu Sa'^fd al-Jannabi again attacked 
Mecca and massacred the inhabitants, so that the well of 
Zamzam was filled with blood, and carried off the Black 
Stone. They then approach Baghdad. Abu Saj is sent against 
them. Abu SaS'd demonstrates the blind devotion of his 
followers. (342) He defeats and takes captive Abu Saj, and 
chains him up amongst the dogs. Al-Muqtadir is killed on 
Shawwal 27, A. H. 320 at the age of 33 after a reign of 
24 years and 1 1 months. Circumstances of his death. His 
Wazfrs. One of them was Ibn Muqla, the celebrated calli- 
graphist (343). 

(19) Al-Qdhir billdh b. al- Muqtadid (MS. -Muqtadid). 

He was the twelfth in descent from al-*^Abbas. He massa- 
cres the Amirs of the Turkish guard, and pacifies the sol- 
diers with money. He crucifies Abii Ahmad b. al-Muktaff, 
whose rivalry he fears. (344) He reigned i year, 5 months 
and 7 days, and was deposed and blinded in Jumada i. 



THE "^ABBASID CALIPHS. 



67 



A. H. 322. He survived 16 years and a' half after this, and 
died at the age of 51. 

(20) As-Rddi bi'lldh b. al-Muqtadir. 

He was the thirteenth in descent from al-^Abbas. His 
poems, (345) Murder of Mardawi'j by Bajkam, who becomes 
Amirit'l-Umard of Baghdad. Ibn Muqla's right hand is cut 
off. (346) Tribute is paid to the Carmathians. Ar-Radi reigned 
6 years, 10 months and 2 days, and died on the 17th of 
Rabi*^ i, A. H. 329 at the age of 32 (or? 52). 

(21) Muttaqi Wlldh b. al-Muqtadir. 

He also was the thirteenth in descent from al-^Abbas. 
(347) ^^ w^s deposed and blinded by Tuzun, the Amiriil- 
Umard, on Safar 20, A. H. 333. He survived this 24 years, 
and died in Sha'^ban, A. H. 357. He reigned 3 years, 11 
months and 1 1 days, and lived 50 years. 

(22) Al-Mustakfi bHldh b. al-Miiktafi. 

He was the thirteenth in descent from al-'^Abbas. (348), 
and was forty-one years of age at his accession. His sayings. 
Death of Tuzun, the Amiriil-Umard. He is succeeded in 
this office by Mu^izzu'd-Dawla the Daylami. He deposed and 
blinded the Caliph in Jumada ii, A. H. 334, after he had 
reigned i year and 4 months. The Caliph survived for 4 
years more, and died at the age of 46. 

(23) Al-Mutf lilldh b. al-Mnqtadir. 

(349) He was the thirteenth in descent from al-^Abbas. 
Continued power of Mu'^izzu'd-Dawla. He breaks the power 
of the Turks. In A. H. 339 the Carmathians, without obvious 
reason, restored to Mecca the Black Stone which they had 
carried off 20 years before, saying. "By command we took 
it away, and by command we restore it". Verification of a 



68 CHAPTER in, SECTION 6. 

saying of *^Ah"s. (350) Miraculous circumstances connected 
with its restoration. Al-Muti"^ reigned 29 years and a half, 
was then stricken with paralysis, abdicated in Dhu'l-Qa'^da 
A. H. 363, and died two months later. 

(24) A/'TdY bi'lldh b. al-Muif. 

He was the fourteenth in descent from al-'^Abbas. He 
reigned for 17 years and 10 months. (351) In A. H. 365 
Syria and the Hijaz passed from his control into that of the 
Isma"'ilfs. The portent of the monstrous bird in A. H. 375. 
At-TaT, at the instigation of Baha'u'd-Dawla the Daylami, 
abdicates in Sha'^ban, A. H. 381. He survived 12 years longer, 
and died at the age of 69. 

(25) Al-Qddir bi'lldh b. Ishdq b. al-Muqtadir. 

He was the fourteenth in descent from al-'^Abbas. Khurasan 
at first refuses to recognize the abdication of at-Ta% until 
compelled to do so by Sultan Mahmud b. Subuktigin. (352) 
Al-Qadir reigned 41 years and four months. His poems. 
Activity of Batinis, and attempts at bribery on their part. 
(353) correspondence between al Qadir and Sultan Mahmud 
b. Subuktigin about the poet Firdawsi. Al-Qadir died on 
Dhu'l-Hijja J5, A. H. 422 at the age of 78. Fall of the 
Samani and rise of the Ghaznawi dynasty in his time. 

(26) Al-QdHm bi'amrilldh b. al-Qddir. 

(354) ^^ ^^^ ^^ fifteenth in descent from aPAbbas. His 
poetry. Decline of the Daylami power, and rise of the House 
of Seljiiq. Tughril Beg the Seljuq comes to Baghdad on 
Ramadan 22, A. H. 447. (355) War with al-Basasiri. (356) 
War between Tughril and Ibrahim Inal. Inal put to death. 
Al-Basasiri besieges Baghdad in Dhu'l-Hijja, A. H. 450. (357) 
For a year and 4 months the power of the Carmathians 
prevailed even at Baghdad, Tughril enters Baghdad at the 



THE 'ABBASID CALIPHS. 



69 



Caliph's invitation, and (358) receives the title of Ruknu'd- 
Din. Al-Basasiri is killed. The Caliph marries Arslan Khatun, 
daughter of Chaghri Beg, and gives his own daughter, Sayyida 
Khatun, in marriage to Tughril Beg. Death of al-Qa'im in 
Sha'^ban, A. H. 467, at the age of 75 (359) after a reign of 
44 years and 8 months. Great floods in Baghdad in this 
year. Contemporary rulers of the Houses of Ghazna, Daylam 
and Seljuq. Some of al-Qa'im's sayings. 

(27) Al-Muqtadi bi-amrtlldh. 

He was the seventeenth in descent from al-'^Abbas, and 
was the grandson of his predecessor. He married Mah-Malik, 
the sister of Malikshah the Seljuq, who bore him a son. 
Afterwards he married a daughter of Malikshah. He reigned 
19 years and 5 months. Beginning of the "New Propaganda" 
of the Isma^ilis under the direction of Hasan-i-Sabbah, who 
takes possession of the Castle of Alamut. Abu Bakr al- 
Hamawi made qddi of Baghdad. His uprightness and incor- 
ruptibility. (360) Death of al-Muqtadi in Muharram, A. H. 
487 at the age of 37 years, 8 months and 8 days. 

(28) Al-Mtistazhir biHldh b. al-Muqtadi. 

He was the eighteenth in descent from al-'^Abbas. His 
sayings. His verses (361). He strengthens the fortifications of 
Baghdad. He reigned peacefully for 25 years, 3 months and 
II days, and died in Rabi"^ ii, A. H. 512, at the age of 41 
years and a half. Contemporary rulers. Fall of the House 
of Daylam. Continuance of Hasan-i-Sabbah's propaganda. 

(29) Al-Mustarshid bi'lldh b. al-Miistazhir. 

He was the nineteenth in descent from al-'^Abbas. His 
character. His poetry. (362) He is defeated at Dinawar by 
Sultan Mas'^iid the Seljuq, and while a captive in that Prince's 
hands is assassinated by the fidais of Hasan-i-Sabbah. Al- 



yO CHAPTER III, SECTION 6. 

Mustarshid's defeat was in Rajab, A. H. 529, and his murder 
took place 8 months later. He reigned 17 years and 2 months. 
Contemporary rulers. 

(30) Al-Rdshid b. al-Miistarshid. 

He was the twentieth in descent from al-'^Abbas. He em- 
barks on a fruitless war with Mas^iid the Seljiiq to avenge 
his father, is driven out of Baghdad, and finally is assassi- 
nated hy fid a is at Isfahan on Pv.amadan 27, A. H. 532 (364). 

(31) Al-Muqtafi li-atnri' lldh b. al-Miistazhir. 

He was the twenty-first in descent from al-'^Abbas. He 
emancipates himself from the Seljijq tutelage. (365) Revolt 
of the Atabek Sunqur b. Mawdud in Fars. Birth of Chingfz 
Khan in A. H. 540. Contemporary Kings. Al-Muqtafi reigned 
24 years and 11 months and died in Rabi'' i, A. H. 555 at 
the age of (i6. 

(32) Al-Mustanjid bClldh b. al-Mnqtafi. 

He was the twenty-first in descent from al-"^Abbas. His 
character. His poetry. (366) Anecdotes illustrating his saga- 
city and penetration. (367) Fall of the Fatimid Dynasty in 
Egypt, which becomes orthodox and subject to the Caliph 
of Baghdad. Al-Mustanjid dies in Rabi'' i, A. H. 566 after a 
reign of 1 1 years. Contemporary rulers. End of the House 
of Ghazna, which is succeeded by the House of Ghur. 

(33) Al-Mustadi^ bi-amrt'lldh b. al-Miistanjid. 

He was the twenty-first in descent from al-'^Abbas. His 
character. (368) Fall and death of the Amirul-Umard, Qutbu'd- 
Di'n Qaymaz. Assassination of the Caliph's wazir "^Adudu'd- 
Din. Al-Mustad'i reigned 9 years and 8 months, and died in 
Shawwal, A. H. 575. Contemporary rulers. (369). 



THE 'ABbAsID caliphs. 7 1 

(34) An-Ndsir li-dint'lldh b. al-Mustadi\ 

He was the twenty-second in descent from al-*^Abbas. Peace 
and tranquillity prevail in his reign. His courage, conquests 
and efforts to increase the prosperity of his realms. His 
charities to the poor. He reigned 46 years and 1 1 months, 
the longest reign of any Caliph. In his time the Khwarazm- 
shahs overthrew the Seljuqs. Beginning of the Mongol In- 
vasion. Contemporary rulers. {370) Buraq-i-Hajib takes Kirman. 
An-Nasir died in Shawwal, A. H. 622. 

(35) Az-Zdhir bi-aniri lldh b. an-Ndsir. 

He was the twenty-third in descent from al-'Abbas. He 
reigned only 9 months and 15 days, and died on Rajab 13, 
A. H; 623. Contemporary rulers. 

(36) Al-Mustansir biHldh b. az-Zdkir. 

He was the twenty-fourth in descent from al-'^Abbas. He 
reigned 16 years and 11 months. Prosperous condition of 
(371) his realms. The revenues of certain provinces specified 
were then ten times as much as they were in the author's 
time. The Caliph defeats the Mongols who were besieging 
Irbil. In Rajab. A. H. 625 he begins to build the Mus- 
tansiriyya College, which was finished in A. H. 632. Contem- 
porary rulers. Al-Mustansir died on the 4th of Jumada ii, 
A. H. 640, at the age of 52. 

[ij) Al-Mustd^sim bi'lldh b. al-Mustansir. 

(372) He was the twenty-fifth in descent from al-'^Abbas, 
and the last Caliph of that House. He reigned 15 years and 
7 months. His character. Hulagii Khan the Mongol takes 
Baghdad and kills him oh Safar 6, A. H. 656, he being then 
46 years and 3 months old. The sack of Baghdad. In 40 days 
800,000 of its inhabitants were killed. Contemporary rulers 

(373)- 



72 CHAPTKR IV, SECTION I. 

CHAPTER IV. — MUHAMMADAN DYNASTIES 
IN PERSIA. 

Section I. — The Safari Dynasty (373). 

This Dynasty included 3 rulers, who reigned for 33 years. 
Their ancestor, Layth, was a coppersmith in Sistan, who 
took to highway robbery, wherein, however, he observed a 
certain chivalry which led to his being employed in a military 
capacity by Dirham b. Nasr b. Rafi"^ b. Layth b. Nasr b. Sayyar. 

(i) Ya'^qub b. Layth. 
His son Ya'^qub revolts against the sons of Dirham, Salih 
and Nasr, (374), and begins to be powerful in A. H, 237. In 
A. H. 253 he was in possession of the whole of Sistan. By a 
stratagem he defeats Tanbal the King of Kabul. Two years later 
he takes Herat, and shortly afterwards Kirman. (375) He sub- 
dues Khurasan and Pars, and is recognized by the Caliph 
al-Mu'^tazz as King. He reigned 2 years and 6 months, and 
amassed much treasure. He attacks ad-Da*^i ila'I-Haqq, and 
conquers Mazandaran. He then marches on Baghdad against 
the Caliph al-Mu'^tamid, but is defeated at Hulwan, and 
retires to Khuzistan, where he dies on Shawwal 14, A.H. 265. 

(2) "Amr b. Layth. 

He succeeded his brother, and reigned 22 years over 
Khurasan, "^Iraq, Pars, Kirman, Sistan, Quhistan, Mazandaran 
and Ghazna. (376) Rafi" b. Harthama opposes him, but is 
killed. The Caliph al-Mu'^tamid incites Isma*^il-i-Samanf to 
attack him. Admirable discipline of Isma'^il's army. ''Amr is 
taken prisoner by Isma^'il. Anecdote of how "^Amr's supper 
is carried off by a dog (377), when that morning his cook 
had complaijied that 300 carnels did not suffice to carry 
his kitchen utensils. Isma'^il refuses the treasures offered by 
'Amr. (378) The author moralizes on his degenerate days. "^Amr 
is sent in chains to the Caliph al-Mu'^tadid (MS. -Muqtadid), 



SAFFARI AND SAMANI DYNASTIES, ^^ 

who imprisons him for two years, but on the accession of 
the new Caliph he is killed, or allowed to die of starvation. 

(3) Tdhir b. Muhammad b. '^Amr. 

He succeeded his grandfather "^Amr, reigned .a little more 
than a year, and was then overcome by Isma^il the Samani. 
His grandson, Ahmad, and his descendants continued to 
rule Sistan until A. H. 558, and even in the author's time 
the family still exercised authority there. 

Section 2. — The Sdmdni Dynasty (379). 

These were 9 in number, and ruled in Persia for 102 years, 

6 months, and 20 days. Their ancestor Saman was a des- 
cendant of Bahram Chubin, but was reduced to the humble 
position of a camel-driver. His ambition is stirred by two 
verses of poetry, and he becomes a highwayman. His son 
Asad enters the service of Tahir Dhu'l-Yaminayn in the 
time of al-Ma'mun. His sons become governors, Nuh of 
Samarqand, Ahmad of Farghana, Yahya of Ashnas, Ilyas of 
Herat. In A. H. 261 al-Mu^'tamid grants the government of 
all these districts to (i) Nasr b. Ahmad b. Asad b. Saman. 
His brother Isma'^il was governor of Bukhara. War between 
the two brothers. (380) Nasr died in A. H. 299, and the 
supremacy of (2) Isma'^i'l is henceforth uncontested. Bukhara 
is made the Samani capital, and the Safifari domains are 
conferred on the Samanis by the Caliph al-Mu'^tadid. Anec- 
dote illustrating the character of the Tahiri, Saffari and Sa- 
mani dynasties. {381) Theory of recompense. Isma'^il reigned 

7 years and 10 months, and died on Safar 14, A. H. 295. 

(3) Ahmad b. JsmaHl. 

His love for men of learning. He substitutes Arabic for 
Persian ("Dari") in his proclamations. He reigns 5 years and 
4 months. He prays for death in preference to the disorder 



74 CHAPTER rr, sBcnox 2- 

of Ins Kh^idoai. The hoas at Im gate He is iiml c icd by 
Ins servants on the 3th of Jomada ii, A. H. 50a. Omc of Ins 
servants was Alptagio, aftenvards Umnfn . 

(4) Nasr b. Akmad. 

He pats to death his fiithei's murdaers. ^Ss$ Hb pro- 
tracted sojourn at Herat. He is induced hj RndakTs cde- 
bfated ballad to retnm to Bnkhaia. His g ener o u s tieataBcat 
of a scion erf* the Saffitri House, vfaom be ;^points to die 
goveniment of Ststan, which his descendants stiU mkd in 
the aothor's time. Kinnan taken hy Abd *A]i Dyasu He niies 
it for 37 years (^83) when he is driven oat by tiie people, 
and retraced by his scm Iltsa^ Makan b. Kaki attacks Khu- 
rasan, bat is defeated and slain in A. H. 329 by Nasr's ge- 
neral Amir ^AIL The celebrated dc^atch of Amir 'AVs 
secretary (Iddifi) on tins victory. Nasr reigned 30 years and 
3 numths, and died on Ramadan 12, A. H. 330. 

(5) Nik b. Nasr ^ai-Hamid", 

He fights with and conquers his unde Ilnrahim b. Ahmad. 
He reigned 12 years, 7 months and 7 days, and died <» 
the 19th of Rabi^ i, A. H. 343. Alptagin was commander-in- 
chief in his days (384V 

(6) '^Abdul-Malik b. NuA, 

He reigned 7 years and 6 months, and was killed by a 
£dl while pla3ring polo in Shawwal, A. H. 350. Further in- 
crease in Alptagin's power. 

(7) Mamrir b. Nik "as-Sadid^. 

Alptagin endeavours to place Mansiir's uncle on the throne. 
Failing in this, he ultimately makes his way with 3000 fol- 
lowers to Ghazna. Abu'l-Hasan b. Simjiir succeeds him as 
governor of Khurasan, and marches against him with 15,000 
horsemen, but is defeated at Balkh. (385) Alptagin besides 



THE SAMANl D\^ASTY. ^ 

and takes Gfaazna and kills its king. Xlansor sotids a^^anst 
him another army of 30,ocx> horsemen, whom Alptag&i, mitik 
6000 men, defeats. Khalaf b. Ahmad, the ndo- of f^fcta^^ 
goes on the pilgrimage, leax-ing Tahir b, Husayn as las 
viceroy. The latter refuses him entrance on his return, and 
Khalaf takes refiige with Mansur, who lends him troops 
wherewith he retakes Sistan. He is again dri\*en out by 
Tahir b. Husayn, who soon afterwards dies. He is socceeded 
by his son Hasan, who surrenders, and Khalaf is reinstated. 
Mansur reigned 1 5 years, and died in ShawTral, A. H. 36$. 
His wazir was Abii *^Ah' Muhammad b. Muhammad al-Bal^ami 
[MS.-Balkhi], who translated Tabari's chronicle into Per^an. 

(8) Niih b. Mansur. 

Contrary to the advice of Simjuri, he gives the premiership 
to Abu'l- Hasan al-^Utbi. (386) Hostility between al-^Utbi 
and Simjuri. Husamu 'd-Dawla Tash is made commander-in- 
chief and Fa'iq chamberlain. Khalaf revolts in Sistan. Nuh 
sends Husayn b. Tahir against him. Khalaf holds out for 
7 years, to the great hurt of the Samani prestige. Abu'l- 
Hasan b. Simjiir is removed from the government of Khurasan 
(where he is replaced by Tash) and despatched against Khalaf, 
with whom he comes to an understanding. He conspires 
with Fa'iq and murders Abu'l-Hasan al-'^Utbi. Disorders 
•supervene in Khurasan. Tash occupies Nishapur, Fa'iq Balkh, 
and Abu'l-Hasan b. Simjur Herat. Death of the latter, who is 
succeeded by his son Abii *^Ali, on whom Nuh confers the 
government of Khurasan. (387) War between Abu "^Alf and 
Tash. The latter 4^akes refuge with Fakhru'd-Dawla the 
Buwayhid in Gurgan. Fakhru'd-Dawla makes him governor 
of Gurgan until his death in A. H. 379. War between Gurgan 
and Khurasan. Abu '^Ali b. Simjur becomes governor of Khu- 
rasan. Niih, being suspicious of him, gives the government 
of Herat to Fa'iq. War between Fa'iq and Abu "^Ali Simjur. 



76 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 2. 

The former, defeated, flees to Bukhara, whence he is driven 
back to Balkh by Begtuziin. Abu 'Alf b. Simjur demands for 
himself from Nuh the government of Khurasan, which he 
obtains. He renounces his allegiance to the Samanis and 
takes refuge with Bughra Khan the Turk, whom he incites 
to attack the Samanfs, stipulating that he shall himself be 
recognized as king of Khurasan. Bughra Khan defeats and 
takes captive the Samani general. Niih (388) propitiates 
Fa'iq and sends him against Bughra Khan, with whom however, 
he was secretly in agreement, so that he fell back from 
Samarqand, followed by Bughra Khan, who advanced on 
Bukhara. Niih fled before him to Jurjaniyya (Khwarazm), which 
was governed by Ma'mun b. Muhammad-i-Farighuni ') and 
Abii *^Abdi'llah Khwarazm-Shah. Fa'iq went out from Bukhara 
to meet Bughra Khan, who proclaimed himself king, and sent 
Fa'iq to Balkh, but afterwards fell sick and retired to Tur- 
kistan. Niih invited the help of Subuktigin and his son 
Mahmud of Ghazna against Fa'iq and Abu "All b. Simjur. The 
latter, suddenly deserted by Dara b. Qabus, the Ziyarid 
prince of Tabaristan, was routed, and with Fa'iq took refuge 
with Fakhru'd-Dawla of Daylam (389). Abii "^Ali meditates 
treachery, but in dissuaded by Fa'iq. Nuh makes Subuktigin 
governor of Khurasan and gives hin? the title of Nasiru'd- 
Dawla and his son Mahmud that of Sayfu'd-Dawla (A. H. 384). 
Subuktigin goes to Herat and Mahmud to Nishapur. The 
latter is attacked and defeated by Abii ''Ali b. Simjur and 
Fa'iq, but, reinforced by his father Subuktigin, attacks and 
defeats them, whereupon they flee to the Castle of Kalat (MS. 
Kalab or Gulab). Fa'iq subsequently goes to llak Khan, brother 
of Bughra Khan, while Abu '^Ali b. Simjur goes to Ma'miin- 
i-Farighuni '). He is seized on the way by Abu '^Abdi'llah 



I) This error of confusing the Ma'miinis of KhwArazm with the Fan'ghiinfs 
of Jiizjdn is also committed by the author of the yahdn-drd. See notes to 
Chahdr Maqala (Gibb Series, Vol. xi), pp. 242 — 4. 



THE SAMANI DYNASTY. «- 

Khwarazmshah, but is released by Ma'mun, who kills Abu 
'^Abdi'llah and sends Abii "^Ali b. Simjiir to Nuh. Nuh grants 
him an amnesty (390), but breaks his word and kills him. 
'Ilak Khan marches on Bukhara with Fa'iq, to whom Nuh 
cedes the government of Samarqand, and dies soon after- 
wards on Rajab 13. A. H. 387. 

(9) Abul-Hdrith Mansiir b. Nuh. 

He reigned for i year and 7 months. He appoints Fa'iq 
amir and Abu'l-Muzafifar al-^Utbi wazir. Ilak Khan again 
advances on Bukhara, takes it and appoints a governor, but 
the city is retaken by Mansiir and Fa'iq. War between 
Begtuzun and Abu'l-Qasim b. Simjur. The latter is defeated 
and flees to Fakhru 'd-Dawla in Gurgan, who, on his death, 
is succeeded by his son Majdu'd-Dawla Rustam. Sultan 
Mahmud of Ghazna attacks Begtuzun and takes Khurasan, 
but (391) retires in favour of Mansur. Mansur is blinded by 
Begtuzun and Fa'iq on Safar 18, A. H. 389. 

(10) 'AbdiCl-Malik [MS. \Amidu' l-Mulk\ b. Niih. 

He succeeded his brother and reigned 8 months and 17 
days. Mahmud of Ghazna, to avenge Abu'l-Harith Mansur, 
marches on Begtuzun and Fa'iq, drives them into Transoxiana, 
and occupies Khurasan. Fa'iq and Ilak Khan return and drive 
out ^Abdu'l-Malik from Bukhara. The Samani power comes 
to an end on Dhu'l-Hijja 22, A. H. 389. Al-Muntasir IsmaM 
b. Nuh, brother of '^Abdu'l-Malik, escaped to Khwarazm, 
where he collected an army and defeated Ilak Khan's brother 
at Samarqand. (392) 'Ilak Khan in person marches against 
him, and he retreats to Nishapur, where he is joined by 
Abu'l-Qasim b. Simjur. They are attacked by Mahmud of 
Ghazna and his brother Nasr. Al-Muntasir takes refuge 
with Qabiis b. Washmgir, who offers him the kingdom of 
Ray. He is joined by Minuchihr and Dara, sons of Qabus, 



78 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 3. 

and goes to Nfshapur. He is finally defeated by Nasr b. 
Subuktigi'n, and seeks aid from the Ghuzz Turks, by whose 
help he defeats llak Khan and recaptures Bukhara. He invokes 
and receives the help ofMahmud of Ghazna, who replaces him 
on the throne (393). He disbands his army, is taken off his 
guard by llak Khan, is defeated, flees westwards to Barda^ and 
is killed there by Arabs of the Banu Bahi'j in Rabi"^ i, A. H. 395. 

Section 3. — The Ghaznawi Dynasty. 

These were 14 in number, and reigned in all for 150 
years. Their founder, Subuktigi'n, was the slave of Alptigin, 
himself a slave of the Samanis. Alptigin, not trusting Mansur 
b. Niih the Samanid, fled from Khurasan to Ghazna, where he 
established himself, and ruled for 16 years. He conducted 
several campaigns against the Indians. On hisdeath Subuk- 
tigi'n, who was married to his daughter, waselected Atnir. 

(i) Subiiktigin. 
In A. H. 367 he subdued several provinces, attacked India 
and took prisoner the Indian King Jaypal (MS. Haytal), but 
released him on his undertaking to pay tribute. In A. H. 
384 Nuh b. Mansur the Samani conferred on him the 
government of Khurasan. In A. H. 387 he died and was 
succeeded by his son — 

(2) Isma^il b. Subiiktigin, 

Whose mother was Alptigi'n's daughter. He quarrels and 
fights with his elder brother. 

(3) Mahmiid Sayfu'd-Dawla, 
Who overcomes him. Nushtigi'n, Isma'iTs servant (394) 
is put to death by Mahmud, who sends his brother Ismail 
into exile. Mahmud is refused the governorship of Khu- 
rasan in favour of Begtiizun. He takes Nfshapur. He is 
attacked by the Samani prince Abu'l-Harith Mansur, to whom, 
from motives of loyalty, he offers no resistance. Later, when 



THE GHAZNAWI DYNASTY. 70 

Fa'iq and Begtuzun kill Abu'l-Harith, who is succeeded by 
# "^Abdu'l-Malik, Mahmud seizes Khurasan, and makes his elder 
brother Amir Nasr governor of it. On the extinction of the 
Samani dynasty in A. H. 390, Mahmud is recognized as 
King of Ghazna and Khurasan (395) by the Caliph al-Qadir 
bi'llah, who confers on him the title of Amimi'l-Milla, which 
he afterwards supplements with that of Yaminiid-Dazvla. 
Mahmud, whose mother was the daughter of the Prince of 
Zawul (Zabulistan), fixes his capital at Balkh. His victories and 
achievements are well known, and are recorded in the Kitdb-i- 
Yamini of al-^Utbi, the Maqdmdt of y^i^z/ TViaJT [Mushkan], and 
the writings of Abu'1-Fadl ash-Shaybani '). His love of poets, 
on whom he spends a yearly sum of 400,000 dindrs. His 
minister consoles him for his personal ugliness. Discovery 
of a gold mine in Sistan. A mountain swallowed up in an 
earthquake. Campaign against Bushanj. In Muharram A. H. 
392 (396) Mahmud again invades India. Jaypal, the Indian 
King, burns himself alive, having appointed his son to suc- 
ceed him. Mahmud receives the title of Ghdsi, and afterwards 
, of Sultan. He subdues Sistan. He again invades India and 
penetrates to Multan and Kashmir. He defeats llak Khan. 

(397) Further campaigns of Sultan Mahmud. He kills Suri 
of the House of Ghur. Surf's son commits suicide. Destruc- 
tion of idols. Conquest of Gharjistan. Capture of Mardin. 

(398) Death of llak Khan in A. H. 403. He is succeeded by 
his brother Tughan. Mahmud helps him in his wars with 
the unbelievers, and obtains the daughter of llak Khan in 
marriage for his son Mas'^ud. He puts to death a Fatimi 
emissary from Egypt. His campaign against Qinnawj (A. H. 
409). Abundant spoils taken. Revolt of Afghans during his 
absence. Mahmud wrests "^Iraq from the Buwayhids in A. H. 
426, and confers it on his son MasMd. How Sultan Mahmud, 



l) Abu'1-Fadl al-Bayhaqi the historian is certainly meant. 



80 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 3. 

by a strategem, poisons a gang of Baluch robbers (400} who 
have plundered caravans going to India, and extirpates their 
kinsmen. He takes Khwarazm from the House of Ma'mun '), 
Disgrace and imprisonment of Abu'I-^Abbas Fadl b. Ahmad. 
(401) Shamsu'l-Kufat Abu'l-Qasim Ahmad b. Hasan of May- 
mand appointed wazirs. Sultan Mahmud sees the Prophet 
in a dream. He dies at the age of 61, after a reign of 31 
years, in A. H. 421. 

(4) Nasiru d-Dawla Mas'iid b. Mahmud. 

By his father's will, ^Iraq, Khurasan and Khwarazm are 
given to him, and India and Ghazna to his brother Muham- 
mad. Two years later he takes Kirman from the Buwayhids. 
War between the two brothers. Muhammad is defeated, 
taken captive and blinded. Mas'^ud is defeated by the Seljiiqs 
(402} and killed in A. H. 433 after a reign of 10 years. After 
this the authority of the Ghaznawis was confined to Ghazna. 

(5) '^hnddti d-Dawla Muhammad b. Mahmud. 

He ruled for 4 years in Ghazna during the life of his 
brother, was then imprisoned by his brother for 9 years, 
and reigned for one year more after his brother MasMd's 
death. He was killed by his nephew in A. H. 434. 

(6) Shihdbii d-Dawla Mawdiid b. Masiid. 

He killed his uncle Muhammad, and all his children, and 
all who had conspired against Mas*^ud, and married the 
daughter of the Seljuq Chaghri Beg, who bore him a son named 
Mas'^ud. He reigned 7 years, and died in Rajab, A. H. 441. 

(7) Mas'ud b. Mawdiid. 

He succeeded his father, being but a child, and after 
reigning one month was deposed by the nobles. 

)) The MS. adds "Farighdnf". See p. 76 supra., ad calc. 



THE GHAZNAWI DYNASTY. 3 1 

(8) Bahd'ud-Dawla ^Ali b. Mas^ud. 

(403) He succeeded his nephew, married the widow of 
Mawdud, the daughter of Chaghrf Beg, and reigned for 2 
years, but was defeated in A. H. 443 by his uncle. 

(9) Majdud-Dawla Abu Mansur ^AbduW-Rashid b. Mahmud. 

He succeeded his nephew and reigned for one year, when 
he was defeated by the daughter of Chaghrf Beg. Tughril 
"the Ingrate" finally kills him. Nine princes, grandsons of 
Mahmud, were surviving at this time, viz. Hasan, Nasr, Iran- 
shah, Khalid, "^Abdu'r-Rahim, Mansur, Humam, "^Abdu'r- 
Rahman and Isma'^il, all imprisoned in the Castle of Dihak. 
They escaped, but were betrayed by Nushtigin to Tughril, 
who killed them all. Three other princes of the House of 
Ghazna survived them, viz. Farrukh-zad, Ibrahim and Shuja"^, 
who were also imprisoned. Tughril was preparing to kill them 
also (404), when he was himself killed by Nushtigin. 

(10) Jamdlu'd-Dawla Farrukh-zdd b. Mas'^icd^). 

He gave decent burial to the princes slain by Tughril 
"the Ingrate", and by him cast into pits and ditches. He 
reigned for six years, and died in A. H.450 ^), having nominated 
his cousin to succeed him. 

(11) Zahiru'' d-Dawla Ibrahim b. Mas^ud. 

He reigned long and well, and was called "father" by the 
Seljuqs. He built many mosques, monasteries, bridges, etc. 
and died on Shawwal 5, A. H. 492, after a reign of 42 years. 

(12) '^Imddu' d-Dawla Mas%d b. Ibrahim. 

He married the sister qf Sanjar the Seljuq, reigned 16 
years, and died in A. H. 508. 



i) MS. "b. '^Abdu'r-Rashid", but this is an error. 
2) A. H. 451 according to Bayhaqi, Ibnu'l-Athir, etc. 



82 • CHAPTER IV, SECTION 3. 

(13) Kamdlu' d-Dawla Shirzdd b.Mas^itd. 

He reigned for one year (405)> when his brother Arslanshah 
revolted against him and killed him in A. H. 509. 

(14) Sultdnu d-Dawla Arslanshah b. Mas^ud. 

His accession is contested by his brother Bahramshah, 
who is helped by his uncle Sanjar the Seljuq. He abandons 
Ghazna, and flees to Lahawar (Lahore), but returns again 
to fight his brother, by whom he is captured and put to 
death in A. H. 5 1 2, after a reign of 3 years. 

(15) Yaminu^ d-Dawla Bahrdmshdh b. Mas%d. 

He was a great patron of learning. The Imam Nasru'llah 
b. '^Abdu'l-Hamfd translated the Book of Kalila and Dimna 
from Arabic into Persian for him. He reigned for 32 ') years, 
when *^Ala'u'd-Dfn Husayn b. Husayn of Ghiir drove him 
into India, and bestowed his capital, Ghazna, on his brother, 
Sayfu'd-Din. (406). Bahramshah returns and defeats Sayfu'd- 
Dfn, whom he parades through Ghazna mounted on a 
cow. '^Ala'u'Dfn, hearing this, marches against him, but, ere 
he reaches him, Bahramshah dies in A. H. 544 '). 

(16) Zahiru' d-Dawla Khusfawshdh b. Bahrdmshdh. 

He flees to India from "^Ala'u'd-Dfn Hasan, who again takes 
Ghazna and gives it to his nephew Ghiyathu'd-Dfn Abu'1-Fath 
[Muhammad b.] Sam. Khusrawshah is induced to surrender 
himself to *^Ala'u'd-Dfn, and is interned in a castle for 10 years, 
where he dies in A. H. 555 ^). With his death the House 
of Ghazna came to an end. 



i) The Tabaqdt-i-Nasiri says that he reigned 41 years, and died in A. H. 
552 at Ghazna, after three wars with ^Ala'u'd Dawla and a retreat to India. 
See notes to Chahar Maqdla (Vol. xi of this Series), pp. 156—159. 

2) A. H. 559 according to the Tabaqdt-i-Ndsiri. 



THE GHURI DYNASTY. 



83 



Section ^. — The Ghiiri Dynasty. 

These were five in number, and reigned from A. H. 545 
until A. H. 609, 64 years in all. Their ancestor was Sur^ 
King of Ghur, who once defeated Sultan Mahmud. His 
grandson fled to India, where a son was born to him (407) 
named Sam, who became a Muslim and went to Dihlf, 
where he became a rich merchant. To him was born a son 
named Husayn, who suffered shipwreck in one of his voyages, 
and, being cast ashore, almost the sole survivor of the crew, 
was imprisoned for seven years, when a general amnesty to 
prisoners enabled him to make his escape. He fled to Ghazna 
and joined a band of robbers, who were finally captured 
by Sultan Ibrahfm, who put them all to death with the 
exception of Husayn, whose he spared. (408) He becomes 
Sultan Ibrahim's chamberlain, and afterwards, under Sultan 
Mas'^ud b. Ibrahim, governor of Ghur. 

(i) '^Alaud-Din Husayn b. Husayn. 

As the power of the House of Ghazna declines, he esta- 
blishes himself in their place, and makes his nephew, Ghi- 
yathu'd-Din Muhammad, governor of Ghazna, taking Herat 
as his own capital. There he died in A. H. 551 '), after a 
reign of six years. 

(2) Sayfu'd-Din Muhammad b. ^Alaud-Dln Husayn. 

Sanjar the Seljiiq took Balkh and gave it to Muhammad 
b. Mas"^ud b. Husayn. In the war which ensued, Sayfu'd-Dfn 
was killed in A. H. 558, after a reign of 7 years ^). 

(3) Ghiydthu'd-Din Abu'l-Fath Muhammad b. Sam b. Husayn. 

He succeeded his cousin, and fought a fierce fight with 
the Ghuzz (409), whom he subdued and compelled to pay 

i) A. H. 556, according to Ibnu'l-Athir and the yahdn-drd. 

2) Rather more than a year, according to the Tabaqdt-i-Ndsiri. 



84 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 4. 

tribute, and set his cousin Mahmud b. MasMd ') over them 
as governor. To this Mahmud he gave his sister in marriage, 
and to them was born a son named Baha'u'd-DIn Sam. 
He made his brother Shihabu'd-Dln governor of Herat, and 
chose Ghazna as his own capital. Shihabu'd-Dfn's successful 
campaign against the Indians. Death of Tukush Khan at 
Khwarazm. The Ghuris take Merv. Ghiyathu'd-Dln and his 
brother besiege Nfshapur, which is defended by Tukush's 
son '^Alfshah, and take it. (410) After sundry vicissitudes, 
Khurasan falls into the hands of the Ghuris. Death of 
Ghiyathu'd-Dln in A. H. 598 after a reign of 40 years. 

(4) Shihdbud-Din Abu'l-Muzaffar Muhammad b. Sam 
b. Htisayn. 

He mourns for his brother. Muhammad Khwarazmshah 
(411) marches on Merv, retakes Khurasdn, allies himself with 
the Gur Khan of Qara-Khita'l and the King of Samarqand, and 
routs the armies of Ghur. Verses on this event by Firdaws, 
the lady-minstrel of Samarqand. The Qara-Khita'i army be- 
sieges Shihabu'd-Dln in Talaqan, but he buys his safety and 
retreats in disorder to Ghazna, where his slave 'Ildigiz refuses 
to admit him, so he passes on to Multan in Sind, where 
his slave Aybak was governor. (412) Having fought and 
killed Aybak, who refused to admit him, he collects fresh 
troops and returns to Ghazna, which submits. He makes 
peace with Khwarazmshah, to whom he cedes Merv and 
Nfshapur, retaining Balkh and Herat. In A. H. 602 he under- 
took a fresh campaign against India, but was finally assassi- 
nated by some Hindus after a reign of 4 years. 

(5) Mahmud b. Muhammad b. Sam b. Husayn. 
For a while Baha'u'd-Dln Sam b. Muhammad was his 



l) From the Tabaqdt-i-N&siri it would appear that this Mahmiid was really 
the son of Ghiydthu'd-Dfn Muhammad. 



THE HOUSE OF BUWAYH. 85 

rival, but he died suddenly. Mahmud gave the government 
of Bamiyan to the sons of Baha'u'd-Din Sam, '^Ala'u'd-Dln 
and Jalalu'd-Dfn. Owing to Mahmud's weakness, his pro- 
vinces were seized by his governors. Qutbu'd-Dfn Aybak 
took his Indian possessions and made Dihli his capital (413), 
where he was in turn succeeded by his slave Shamsu'd-Din, 
who assumed the title of Sultan, and whose sons succeeded 
him until they were overthrown by Sultan Jalalu'd-Din Khalaj. 
So likewise Taju'd-Din lldigiz took Ghazna and Zabulistan, 
and Qubacha Multan, Lahore, and other Indian provinces, 
while Sultan Mahmud retained only Herat and Ffruzkuh. 
Sultan Mahmud reigned 7 years, and in A. H. 609 was one 
day found dead in his house. The murderer was not found, but 
"^Alishah b. Tukush Khun was suspected of instigating the 
murder. Thus the line of the House of Ghur came to an 
end, and their possessions passed into the hands of Khwa- 
razmshah. The kings of Kart, who still ruled in Herat in 
the author's time, were descended from the Ghurids. 

Section 5. — The House of Day lam or Buwayh. 

These were 17 in number, and reigned for 127 years, 
from Dhu'l-Qa'da A. H. 321 until A. H. 448. According to 
their historian as-Sabf, their ancestor, Buwayh or Buya (414) 
was descended from Bahram Gur (genealogy given), and was 
born and dwelt in a village Kiyakilish in Daylaman near 
Qazwfn. He entered the service of Makan b. Kaki. He had 
three sons named '^All, Ahmad and Hasan. Asfar b. Shiriiya, 
Mardawfj and Washmglr were also in attendance on Makan. 
In A. H. 315 Asfar revolted against Makan, but a year later 
was assassinated by the Carmathians, and was succeeded by 
Mardawfj b. Ziyar, who took possession of Rudbar, Talaqan 
and Rustamdar, and later of Mazandaran, Ray, Qazwin, 
Abhar, Zanjan and Tarimayn. He also took and sacked Ha- 
madan, and made a great massacre there, and defeated 



86 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 5. 

Makan, whom he drove back into Khurasan. Mardawij then 
appointed '^Ah' b. Buya and his brothers to occupy Karaj, 
and himself marched on Isfahan, whence he drove out the 
governor of the Caliph al-Muqtadir, Muzafifar b. Yaqut, who 
fled to Fars to his father. (415) Meanwhile ^A\i b. Buwayh 
and his brothers were in Arrajan, and they with 300 men 
fell in with Yaqut with 2000 men at Kurkan. Reinforced 
by another 300 Lurs, the Buwayhids defeated Yaqut and 
marched on Fars, which they subdued. At this juncture 
Mardawij was murdered by his servants while he was in the 
bath, and his body was sent from Isfahan to Ray and there 
buried in A. H. 321. ^Ali b. Buwayh then occupied Isfahan, 
having defeated Washmgir b. Ziyar, whom he drove back 
into Tabaristan. Thus "^Ali b. Buwayh became supreme in 
"^Iraq and Fars on Dhu'l-Qa'da 11, A. H. 321, and took the 
title of — 

(i) "^Imddd! d-Dawla, 

He gave *^Iraq to his brother Hasan, together with the 
title of Ruknu 'd-Dawla, while on his youngest brother, 
Ahmad, he conferred the government of Kirman, making 
Shiraz his own capital. A snake guides him to (416) a hidden 
treasure. Anecdote of the deaf tailor. Hundred days' war 
with Caliph's troops. 'Imadu'd-Dawla's dream and victory. 
He obtains the government of Fars from the Caliph on a 
guarantee of remitting 800,000 dinars (417) a year. He reigned 
16 years and a half and died in Jumada i, A. H. 338, leaving 
to succeed him his brother — 

(2) Ruknu d-Dawla Hasan b. Buwayh. 

His wars with the son of Qara-tigin, the Samani general. He 
ruled "^Iraq for 44 years, i6'/2 in the time of his brother '^Imadu 
'd-Dawla, and 27'/^ in the time of his son *^Adudu'd-Dawla. 
He died in Muharram, A. H. 366, leaving *^Iraq to his little 



THE HOUSE OF BUWAYH. 8/ 

sons, and Yazd, Isfahan, Qum, Kashan, Natanz and Jurba- 
dhaqan to Mu'ayyidu'd-Dawla Abu Nasr; Ray, Hamadan, 
Qazwin, Abhar, Zanjan, Sawa, Awa and part of Kurdistan 
to Fakhru'd-Dawla "^Ali; and Fars to his eldest son *^Adudu 
'd-Dawla Fannakhusraw. His wazir, Ibnu'l-'^Amfd Abu'1-Fadl 
Muhammad b. Husayn, was one of the most talented men of 
his time. (418) Verses in his praise. His own compositions. 

(3) Mu^izzu' d-Dawla Ahmad b. Buwayh. 

He is sent to subdue Kirman, but is put to shame by 
the generosity of Abu "^Ali Ilyas. On the death of Abii '^Ali 
and the accession of his son Alyasa'^ he again attacks and 
annexes Kirman and Mukran. His wars with the Baliiches, 
in which he loses his left hand. He subdues Khuzistan, 
Basra and Wasit. In A. H. 334 he paid a visit to the Caliph 
al-Mustakff, and was made AmiruH-Umard^ and practically 
ruled Baghdad for 21 years, for 3 years of which he was con- 
temporary with ?Imadu'd-Dawla, and for 18 years with Ruknu 
'd-Dawla. He died in A. H. 356 at the age of 54 years {419).^ 

(4) ^ Adudu^ d-Dawla Abu Shujcf Fannakhusraw b. Ruknu'd- 

Dawla. 

He succeeded his uncle in Fars in A. H. 338, and reigned 
34 years. He was the best of all the Buwayhids. In A. H, - 
356 Washmgir b. Ziyar died in Tabaristan, and was succeeded 
by his son Bihistun. On the death of his father Ruknu'd- 
Dawla '^Adudu'd-Dawla proceeded to Baghdad in A. H. 367, 
and fought with his cousin '^Izzu'd-Dawla Bakhtiyar and 
killed him. The Caliph receives him with unprecedented 
honour, and added to his other titles that of Taju'l-Millat. 
In the same year Bihistun b. Washmgir died, and was suc- 
ceeded by his brother Qabus. (420) War between ^Adudu'd- 
Dawla arid Mu'ayyidu'd-Dawla on the one hand, and Fakhru 
'd-Dawla on the other. The latter flees to Qabiis in Tabaristan. 



88 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 5. 

Mu'ayyidu'd-Dawla defeats Fakhru'd-Dawla and Qabus, and 
takes Tabaristan and Gurgan. The fugitives go to Khurasan 
and seek help from Nuh b. Mansur the Samanf, who sends 
Husamu'd-Dawla Tash and Fa'iq to help them. Mu'ayyidu'd- 
Dawla's wise wazir, the Sahib Isma'^il b. '^Abbad, detaches Fa'iq 
from his allies and defeats them. (421) The Samanid ruler sends 
his wazir Shaykh Abu'l-Hasan al-'^Utbi to help the allies, 
but he is killed on the way. Fakhru'd-Dawla remains 3 years 
and Qabus 18 years in Khurasan. Amongst the monuments 
left by *^Adudu'd-Dawla are the Band-i-Amir in Fars, the 
shrines of ''All and Husayn, the hospital of Baghdad, the 
wall of al-Madina, the town of Suqu'1-Amir south of Shlraz, 
and the palace in Baghdad called Saray-i-Sultan. (422) ''Adu- 
du'd-Dawla reproved by a madman. He died at Baghdad 
in A. H. 372, and was buried at Mashhad-i-'^AH [i. e. Najaf]. 

(5) ^Izzu'd-Dawla Bakhtiydr b. MuHzzu'd-Dawla. 

His position at Baghdad, and vicissitudes. (423) He is 
attacked by '^Adudu'd-Dawla and killed in Shawwal, A. H. 
367. The wazir Ibnu'l-'^Amid ') is also put to death. 

(6) Mu ayyidii d-Dawla b. Ruknu^ d-Daivla. 

He was governor of ''Iraq in the time of ''Adudu'd-Dawla, 
to which, on the defeat of Fakhru'd-Dawla and Qabus, he 
added Gurgan and Tabaristan. He ruled over these for 6 
years in the time of ''Adudu'd-Dawla, and one year after his 
death. On the death of Abu'1-Fath Ibnu'l-^Amfd he made the 
Sahib Isma'^fl b. *^Abbad his wazir in A. H. 367. Learning and 
industry of the Sahib. Mu'ayyidu'd-Dawla died in A. H. 373. 
Verses on the Sahib by Abu Sa'^id ar-Rustami of Sijistan. 

{j) Fakkrud Dawla b. Ruknu' d-Dawla. 
He succeeded to the throne in A. H. 373. (424) He 



1) This is an error for Muhammad b. Baqiyya. 



THE HOUSE OF BUWAYH. 89 

retained the Sahib Isma^il b. '^Abbad as his minister. In 
A. H. 379 war broke out between him and his nephew Ba- 
ha'u'd-Dawla. Fakhru'd-Dawla occupied Khuzistan and was 
marching on Basra when Baha'u'd-Dawla flooded the plain 
and prevented him. He returned to Hamadan, and peace 
was made. Fakhru'd-Dawla is recognized as Amiru'l-Umara. 
He builds a mosque in Baghdad, which was restored in the 
author's time by Khwaja . SaMu'd-Din Muhammad Sawaji, 
the Minister of Ghazan Khan the Mongol. In A. H. 385 the 
Sahib Isma'^il b. "^Abbad falls ill. His dying advice to Fakhru 
'd-Dawla. (425)- His death after serving 18 years as wazir. 
His burial at Isfahan. Fakhru'd-Dawla's neglect, of his injunc- 
tions and harshness towards his clients and family. He sells 
the premiership for 10,000 dinars to Abu'l-'^Abbas ad-Dabbi 
and Abu "^Ali b. Jamula of Isfahan. Their exactions and 
oppressions. The Qadi "^Abdu'l-Jabbar was fined a milhon 
dirhams by them and dismissed from his judge-ship. This 
*^Abdu'l-Jabbar was a Mu^tazili. Beliefs of this sect. Corruption 
of judges and divines worse than corruption of courtiers. 
{426) Death of Fakhru'd-Dawla in A. H. 387. His son Majdu 
'd-Dawla Rustam was only eleven years of age, so his widow 
Sayyida became regent. Her autocratic rule. Inscription 
designed by Fakhru'd-Dawla for his tomb. Catalogue of the 
moneys and other possessions he left behind him. (427)- 

(8) Majdu' d-Dawla Abu Tdlib Rustam b. Fakhru' d-Dawla. 

In A. H. 388 Qabus b. Washmgir returned from Khurasan 
and recaptured Gurgan and Tabaristan. After protracted 
fighting he makes peace with Majdu'd-Dawla on condition 
that these two provinces and Mazandaran shall be ceded to 
him. Qabus subsequently takes Gilan, and gives it to his 
son Minuchihr. Qabus reigned 15 years after his return. 
Then his army mutinied, made his son Minuchihr king, and 
put him in prison, where he shortly afterwards died. Minu- 



90 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 5. 

chihr makes peace with Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna (who 
gives him his daughter in marriage), and recognizes him as 
his overlord and suzerain. He puts to death his father's 
murderers. Majdu'd-Dawla, having reached years of discretion, 
desires to recover the powers assumed by his mother. She flees 
to Badr b. Hasanawayh the Amir (428) of Kurdistan. He helps 
her to defeat Majdu'd-Dawla, captures Ray, takes prisoner 
Majdu'd-Dawla and his wazir Abii "^Ali, and restores Say- 
yida, who richly rewards him and sends him back to Kur- 
distan. Her wise and firm rule. The wise answer by which 
she turns aside Sultan Mahmiid's hostile purpose. (429) Re- 
conciliation between her and her son, who assumes the 
sovereignty. He gives his brother Shamsu'd-Dawla the go- 
vernment of Hamadan. On Sayyida's death disorder ensues. 
Majdu'd-Dawla invokes Sultan Mahmiid's help to restore 
order. Sultan Mahmud kills him and his son in A. H. 420, 
after he had reigned 33 years, and takes possession of '^Iraq. 

(9) Sharafti d-Dawla AbiCl-Fawdris-Shirzil b. '^Adudu'd- 

Dawla. 

He became king of Kirman on his father's death in A. H. 
372, while his brother Samsamu'd-Dawla became Amiru'l- 
Umara at Baghdad. Four years and a half later, Sharafu'd- 
Dawla went to Baghdad, captured, blinded and imprisoned 
Samsamu'd-Dawla, and became king in his place. Sharafu'd- 
Dawla lived two years longer and died in Jumada ii, A. H.379. 

(10) Samsdmu' d-Dawla Abie Kdlanjdr (430) Marzubdn 
b. '^Adudu^ d-Dawla. 

On the death of Sharafu'd-Dawla, Samsamu'd-Dawla was 
brought forth from his prison and proclaimed king, but his 
claims were disputed by his nephew Shamsu'd-Dawla '^AH 
b. Sharafu'd-Dawla, and his brother Baha'u'd-Dawla b. "^Adudu 
'd-Dawla. In the wars which ensued Ahwaz and Basra were 
destroyed. At length Samsamu'd-Dawla fled, and eight years 



THE HOUSE OF BUWAYH. 9I 

later was killed in Fars by the sons of "^Izzu'd-Dawla Bakh- 
tiyar and Niiru'd-Dawla Salar, in A. \i. 388. 

(11) Bahaud-Dawla Abit Nasr Shdhinshdh ^) b. '^Adudu 

''d-Dawla. 

He became king in Safar, A. H. 380, on the death, of Sharafu 
'd-Dawla, and reigned 24 years and 3 months. The Caliph 
al-Qadir bi'llah gave him the title of Shahinshah Qiwamu 
'd-Din ^). He made peace with Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna, 
and demandedhis daughter in marriage, and died at Arrajan 
in Fars in Rabi*^ i, A. H. 404 [Ibnu'l-Athir, 403]. 

(12) Sultdnu' d-Dawla Abu Shujd^ b. B aha' ti d-Dawla. 

On his father's death he became king of Fars and Kirman. 
He received the title of Ghiyathu'd-Dawla. He reigned 12 
years and 4 months. His brother Qiwamu'd-Dawla Abu'l- 
Fawaris, who was governor of Kirman, revolted against him, 
was defeated (431), and fled to Sultan Mahmud, who sent Abu 
Sa'^id at-Ta'i to help him. Aided by troops from Baghdad, 
Sultanu'd-Dawla again drove him out of Kirman, and he 
fled to Hamadan to Shamsu'd-Dawla b. Fakhru'd-Dawla. 
Sultanu'd-Dawla died in Fars in A. H. 416 [/. y^., 415]. 

(13) Musharriffu' d-Dawla Abu '^Ali Hasan b. Bahd'u d-Dawla. 

He was Amiru'l-Umara at Baghdad for 6 years and 2 
months, and died in A. H. 416. . 

(14) J aldlu' d-Dawla b. Bahd'u' d-Dawla b. '^Adudu' d-Dawla. 

He was first governor of Basra on behalf of his brother, 
and afterwards held the position of Amiru'l-Umara for 25 
years. In his time began the predominance of the Turks at 

i) In otlJer histories his name is given as Firiiz. 

2) According to Ibn Taghri-bardi's Kitdbu'l-Inshd (Arabe 4439, Paris, f. 
158) he was entitled Nizamu'd-Din, and was the first person to receive a 
title compounded with -Din instead of -Dawla. 



92 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 5. 

Baghdad, and his power was little more than nominal. He 
was a friend of scholars and a fine calligraphist. He died in 
A. H. 435. His son Abu Mansur al-Maliku'l-^Azfz was governor 
of Wasit, but on his father's death he fled to Diyar Bakr 
and there died in destitution. 

{432) (15) Al-'^Imdd li-Dini'lldh '^IzzuH-Muluk Abii Kdlanjdr 
Marzubdn b. Sultdnu' d-Dawla b. Bahd'u'd-Dawla. 

He succeeded his father as ruler of Fars in A. H. 416. 
His uncle Jalalu'd-Dawla was Amfru'l-Umara at Baghdad, 
and there was war between them for 14 years, after which 
they made peace, and on his uncle's death Baghdad also 
came under his control, but the Turks paid no attention to 
him. He consequently went to Shiraz and left his son al- 
Maliku'r-Rahim to represent him at Baghdad. He reigned 
in all 24 years, for five of which he resided at Baghdad. 
Isma'^il of Shabankara revolted against him, and Tughril Beg 
the Seljuq prepared to attack him, but the mediation ot 
the Qadi Abii Muhammad an-Ndsihl '), author of the manual 
of Hanafite law entitled al-Mas^iidi, secured a peaceful solu- 
tion, which was ratified by the marriage of Tughril Beg's 
daughter to Abu Kalanjar, who died in A. H. 440. '^Iraq had 
by this time passed into the control of the §eljuqs. 

(16) Al-Maliku'r-Rahim Abie Nasr b. Abu Kdlanjdr. 
He ruled in Baghdad as Amfru'l-Umara for 7 years. In 
{433) ^- ^- 447 Tughril the Seljuq marched on Baghdad, 
seized him, and imprisoned him in the Castle of Tabarak 
near Ray until his death. 

{17) Abu Mansur b. Abu Kdlanjdr. 

He reigned for 8 years in Fars. Fadlawayh of Shabankara 
rebelled against him, took him prisoner in A. H. 448, and 

i) See Brockelmann's Gesch. d. Arabisch. Litt.^ Vol. i, p. 373. 



THE HOUSE OF SELJUQ. g^ 

imprisoned him in a fortress where he died. Fars was held 
for a time by Fadlawayh, and then passed into the pos- 
session of the Seljuqs. Mahk Abu ^^Ah' b. Abu Kalanjar 
survived his brother nearly 40 years, and held Nawbanjan 
in Fars and Kirmanshahan in fief. He was treated with 
honour by the Seljuqs, and died in the days of Barkiyaruq 
b. Malikshah in A. H. 487, and with him the Buwayhid 
dynasty came to an end. 

Section 6. — The Seljuqs. 

Of these there were 3 branches, viz. 

(i) The "Great Seljuqs", who ruled over the whole or the 
greater part of Persia. They were 14 in number, and reigned 
161 years, from A. H. 429 until Rabi"^ i, A. H. 590. 

(2) The Seljuqs of Kirman, who were 1 1 in number, and 
reigned 150 years, from A. H. 433 intil A. H. 583. 

(3) The Seljuqs of Rum (Asia Minor), who were 1 1 in 
number, and re-igned (434) 220 years, from A. H. 480 until 
A. H. 700. 

Eminence and virtue of the Seljuqs, who were free from 
the faults and defects by some of which nearly all other . 
"dynasties were characterized. Their orthodoxy, beneficence 
and care of their people. Hence they were not afflicted by 
rebellious vassals like most previous dynasties. 

(i) The Great Seljuqs. 

Abu'l-^'Ala al-Ahwal in his history traces Seljuq's descent 
through 34 generations from Afrasiyab. Seljuq had 4 sons, 
Isra'il, Mika'il, Musa and Yunus, who possessed spacious 
pastures in Turkistan. In A. H. 375 they moved into Trans- 
oxiana, and settled near Bukhara and Sughd and Samarqand. 
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna (435) cultivated friendly relations 
with them, but, being alarmed by the boasts of Isra'il as to 
the number of men whom he could summon to his standard, 



94 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 6. 

treacherously seized him and imprisoned him in the castle 
of Kalanjar, where he died 7 years later. Isra'il's brothers 
wished to cross the Oxus, but Arslan Hajib advised Sultan 
Mahmud not to permit this. However permission was granted 
them, and they settled near Nasa and Baward (Abiward) in 
Khurasan. Mfka'fl had 2 sons, Chaghri Beg and Tughril Beg, 
who were at the head of these settlers. They won the esteem 
and confidence of the people of Khurasan. Sultan Mas'^ud of 
Ghazna on his accession attacked them, but was defeated. 

(436) Troubles in India prevented him from returning to 
the attack, and the governor [Su-bdshi) of Khurasan, whom 
he commanded to attack them, was immediately and com- 
pletely routed. 

(i) Tughril Beg b. Mikd'U b. Seljiiq. 

He was crowned at Nishapur in A. H. 429, and appointed 
his half-brother Ibrahim b. Inal governor of that city, where 
he exercised great tyranny. The remonstrances of the inha- 
bitants cause- him to amend his evil ways. In A. H. 432 ') 
Sultan Mas'^ud of Ghazna gave battle to the Seljuqs at Dan- 
danaqan near Merv, but was defeated and fled to Ghazna, 
where he put aside all further ambition and took to drink.' 

(437) The Seljuqs divide their empire as follows. To Chaghri 
Beg, the elder brother, was assigned Khurasan, and he made 
Merv his capital. Musa Payghu Kalan received Ghazna, 
Herat and India. To Qawurd the son of Chaghrf Beg were 
given Tabas and Kirman, Tughril Beg himself took ^'Iraq-i- 
■^Ajam and such further lands to the west as should subse- 
quently be conquered, and made Ray his capital. There he 
found the treasures of *^AH Kama of Daylam and Majdu'd- 
Dawla Rustam, which he distributed amongst his soldiers, 
and then set out to conquer ""Iraq, Adharbayjan, Kurdistan, 

l) Abu'1-Fadl Bayhaqf. who himself took part in the battle and flight, 
gives the date in his history (ed. Tihrdn, pp. 622— 8) as Ramadan, A. H. 431. 



THE HOUSE OF SELJUQ. 05 

Fars, etc. The Caliph wished him to come to Baghdad, but 
this he was not able to do until 18 years after his accession, 
in A. H. 447. His name was inserted in the khutba and on 
the inscriptions of the coins, and he received the titles of 
Sultanu'd-Dawla and Yaminu Amiri'l-Mii'minin. The name 
of the Buwayhid al-Maliku'r-Rahim was added after his. 
In the year above mentioned he finally crushed the Bu- 
wayhids and performed the pilgrimage before entering 
Baghdad. (438) The revolt of al-Basasiri. Tughril makes 
"^Amidu'l-Mulk Abu Nasr Kunduri his wazir, and demands 
the Caliph's daughter in marriage. The Caliph, though un- 
willing to grant this, is compelled to accede to this request. 
Chaghri Beg died in Khurasan in A. H. 453, and was succeeded 
by his son Alp Arslan. Tughril died on his way to Ray, where 
he intended to consummate his marriage with the Caliph's 
daughter Sayyida (439), on Ramadan 8. A. H. 455, and Sayyida 
returned with her dowry to Baghdad. Tughril was 70 years 
old at the time of his death, and had reigned 26 years. 

(2) Alp Arslan b. Chaghri Beg. 

Alp Arslan's brother Sulayman was nominated as Tu- 
ghril's successor, but Tughril Beg's cousin Qutulmish de- 
feated and dispossessed him. Qutulmish was in turn defeated 
and slain by Alp Arslan, who, on his accession received 
from the Caliph al-Qa'im the titles of Sultan ''Adudu'd- 
Din ') and Burhanu Amiri'l-Mu'minin. He put to death 
'^Amidu'l-Mulk Abu Nasr-i-Kunduri, and made Abu ""Ali al- 
Hasan b. Ishaq of Tus, better known as Nizamu'1-Mulk, his 
minister. Al-Kunduri's dying message to the king and his 
minister. Account of Hasan-i-Sabbah. (440) His enmity towards 
the Nizamu'1-Mulk. His attempt to displace him from the 
Sultan's favour, and its failure. (441) Hasan flees from court 



i) "^Adudu'd-Dawla, according to Ibn Khallikan. 



96 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 6. 

and becomes a •* heretic" (Isma'ili). New fashion of keeping 
state accounts inaugurated in consequence of Hasan's disaster. 
Alp Arslan's campaign against Georgia, which submits and 
gives hostages. Armenia submits to him, and the king of that 
country gives his daughter in marriage to Alp Arslan, who 
afterwards divorces her, and gives her in marriage to the 
Nizamu'l-Mulk, to whom she bore sons. Armanus, Emperor 
of the Byzantines, attacks Persia, but is utterly defeated at 
Malazgird, taken prisoner, and forced to give tribute. (442) 
Alp Arslan sends his brother Qawurd to attack Fadlawayhi 
the Shabankara in Pars. He himself marched against the 
Khan of Transoxiana, but was stabbed by his captive, Yusuf- 
i-Kutwal, in Rabi" i, A. H. 465, after he had ruled over 
Khurasan as his father's representative for 2 7a years, and 
over the whole of Persia for 9 '/a years (443). 

(3) Malikshdh b. Alp Arsldn. 

Though he had several elder brothers, the Nizamu'l-Mulk 
secured his succession. He was attacked by his uncle Qawurd, 
whom he defeated and took captive at Karaj, and who 
was subsequently poisoned on account of a threatened mu- 
tiny of the troops. (444) In A. H. 46^ ') his brother Tukush 
rebelled against him, but was taken prisoner and blinded. 
Antioch taken from the Franks. Samarqand besieged and 
taken in A. H. 47i(?). The ferry-men of the Oxus are paid 
with drafts on Antioch, to teach them the extent of Malik- 
shah's empire. He marries Turkan Khatun the daughter of 
Tamghaj Khan b. Bughra Khan. A son was born to him 
on Rajab 25, A. H. 479 at Sinjar, whom he names Sinjar or 
Sanjar. Malikshah makes the pilgrimage in A. H. 48 1(?). He 
discharges a blood-debt to Jami'^ the farrdsh at Baghdad. 
He confers benefits on the pilgrims. He twice inspects his 



i) The date was really A. II. 477, according to Ibnu'l-Athir and ^Imadu'd- 
Din al-Kdtib. 



/ 



THE HOUSE OF SELJUQ. 97 

empire, from Antioch and Latakia in the west to Trans- 
oxiana, Khutan and Cathay in the east. (445)> ^"^d from the 
Caspian is the north to Yaman and Ta'if in the south. He 
is again involved in war with the Byzantines, and is taken 
captive by these, but is unrecognized, escapes, and after- 
wards takes captive their Emperor, whom he treats with 
magnanimity. (446) He conferred the government of his wes- 
tern possessions on Da'ud b. Sulayman b. Qutulmish, in 
whose family it remained until the time of Ghazan Khan ; 
the government of Kirman on Sultanshah b. Qawurd, in 
whose family it remained for more than a century; and the 
government of Syria on another brother. The siege of Tyre. 
He makes Nushtigin (the ancestor of the Khwarazmshahs) 
governor of Khwarazm. Other governors appointed (447). 
Malikshah's love of the chase. He builds pyramids of the 
hoofs of the animals which he slew. He nominates his son 
Barkiyaruq to succeed him, by the advice of the Nizamu'l- 
Mulk. Turkan Khatun wished him to nominate her son 
Mahmud, and is consequently furious with the Nizamu'1-Mulk, 
and poisons the mind of Malikshah against him and his 12 
sons, who all hold important governments. (448). Malikshah 
dismisses the Nizamu'1-Mulk, and replaces him by Taju'1-Mulk ') 
Abu'l-Ghana'im. Other changes in the ministry, and conse- 
quent impairment of the government. Verses on this subject. 
Assassination of the Nizamu'1-Mulk at Sahna ^) by a fzdai on 
12 Ramadan, A. H. 485. Verses sent by Nizamu'1-Mulk to 
the Sultan. Death of Malikshah in the following month. (449) 
Verses by Mu^izzi on this double calamity. Malikshah was 
38 years old when he died, and had reigned 20 years. His 
titles. He chose Isfahan as his capital, and was buried 
there. His wealth and state. After his death Turkan Khatun 
desired to put his son Mahmud on the throne, but the 



i) MS. Taju'd-Din, ma/e. 2) MS. Mihna, male. 

7 



98 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 6. 

Caliph al-Muqtadf would not at first permit it, though he 
was finally compelled to yield. 

{4) Barkiydruq b. Malikshdh. 
He was at Isfahan at the time of his father's death, Turkan 
Khatun's troops drive him thence (450) to Ray, where he 
is crowned. He defeats them at Buriijird at the end of 
Dhu'l-Hijja, A. H. 485. He is bribed by Turkan Khatun not 
to press his advantage. She, by a promise of marriage, 
induces his maternal uncle, Qutbu'd-Dawla Isma'il b. Yaquti, to 
attack him, but Isma'il is defeated by him at Kara], taken 
captive and put to death in A. H. 486. In the following year 
Tutush '), Barkiyaruq's uncle, who had been blinded by 
Malikshah, revolted. Barkiyaruq, unable to oppose him, and 
hearing that Turkan Khatun had died (in Ramadan of this 
year) at Isfahan, marched thither, and was ostensibly recon- 
ciled with his brother Mahmiid. Some of Mahmud's amirs, 
however, seized Barkiyaruq and wished to blind him, but at 
this juncture Mahmud was attacked by small-pox, and died 
on the third day, and Barkiyaruq was declared king. He 
made the Mu'ayyidu'1-Mulk, son of the Nizamu'1-Mulk, his 
minister, and received from the Caliph the titles of Ruknu 
'd-Dfn and Yaminu Amiri'l-Mu'minin. In Safar, A. H. 488 he 
again fought a battle with his uncle Tutush ') near Isfahan, 
took him captive, and interned him in the Castle of Tikrft 
(451), where he died. Mu'ayyidu'1-Mulk was replaced as Prime 
Minister by his brother Fakhru'1-Mulk. The Assassins tried 
but failed to kill Barkiyaruq. Zangf b. Aq-sunqur is made 
ruler of Syria ^). In A. H. 489 Barkiyaruq was attacked by his 
uncle Arsldn Arghun, who, however, was assassinated by one 



1) MS. Tukush, male. 

2) According to Ibnu'l-Athfr and the yahan-drd this *Imddu'd-Din Zangf 
was made governor of Syria and Mesopotamia by Sultdn Mahmiid (p. 102 infra., 
N°. 7) in A. H. 521. 



THE HOUSE OF SELJUQ. qq 

of his slaves ere the two armies had met. Sinjar was made 
governor of Khurasan in A. H. 490. Unaz, one of Malikshah's 
slaves, rebelled against Barkiyaruq, but was assassinated in 
Muharram, A. H. 492, near Sawa. In the same year (= A. D. 
1099) the Franks recaptured Jerusalem, and killed 70,000 Mus- 
lims. Muhammad b. Malikshah rebels against his brother 
Barkiyaruq. Majdu'1-Mulk of Qum (452) is dragged from 
Barkiyaruq's presence and murdered by the nobles. Barki- 
yaruq fled by way of Ray and Isfahan to Khuzistan, where 
he was reinforced by Sadaqa. Meanwhile Muhammad b. Ma- 
likshah was crowned at Hamadan, made Mu'ayyidu'1-Mulk 
his minister, and in Rajab, A. H. 493, defeated his brother 
Barkiyaruq, but in Jumada ii of the following year he was 
in turn defeated, and the Mu'ayyidu'1-Mulk taken prisoner 
(453), and a few days later put to death by Barkiyaruq 
with his own hands, on Sha'^ban 8. Meanwhile Muhammad 
b. Malikshah was reinforced by his great-uncle Sinjar. A 
temporary peace was ended by a battle near Sawa in Rabi"^ ii, 
A. H. 495. Muhammad was defeated, and fled to Isfahan, 
whence, after a second defeat, he was driven back to 
Ganja. In Jumada ii, A. H. 496, the two half-brothers 
made a peace based on the granting to Muhammad of the 
western provinces of the empire. Soon after Barkiyaruq's 
illness increased, and he died at Burujird on 12 Jumada ii, 
A. H. 498, naming his son Malikshah his successor, and 
Ayaz his Atabek or guardian. (454) He was only 25 years 
of age at the time of his death, and had reigned 12 years. 

(5) Muhammad b. Malikshah. 

He at once marched to attack Ayaz and Sadaqa '), whom 
he captured and put to death, and imprisoned his nephew 
Malikshah. The Caliph received him with honour, and gave 

l) This is an error, for Ayaz was killed in A. H. 498 and Sadaqa b. Mazyad 
"King of the Arabs" in A. H. 501. 



100 CMAPTER IV, SECTION 6. 

him the title of Ghiyathu'd-Dfn, Qasfmu Amfri'l-Mu'minfn. 
Muhammad next applied himself to the task of suppressing 
the Assassins, who had waxed strong during the civil war, 
so that Ahmad b. "Attash had taken possession of the 
castle of Shah ') Dizh, close to Isfahan, and had won over 
to himself 30,000 men. SaMu'1-Mulk, the king's wazir, was 
one of these and he strove to compass the king's death by 
(455) bribing the surgeon-barber who was to bleed him to 
poison his lancet. This plot is revealed by the wife of Sa^'du 
'1-Mulk's chamberlain to her paramour, and by him to the 
king, who kills the barber and the wazir and his adherents. 
Thereupon Ahmad b. ^Attash capitulates, and is put to a 
shameful death. Story of ""AH b. Madanf, the blind decoy of 
the Assassins, and their secret murder-house. (456) Discovery 
of the victims' remains. ^Ali b. Madanf, his wife and their asso- 
ciates are put to death. The king sends the Atabek Shfr-glr 
to attack Hasan-i-Sabbah and the Assassins of Alamut, but 
the king's death took place before anything was effected. 
In A. H. 500 Fakhru'1-Mulk b. Nizamu'1-Mulk was assassinated, 
and his brother Ziya'u'1-Mulk^) was made wazir in his place. 
"^Ala'u'd-Dawla Abu Hashim of Hamadan outwits the maHce 
of Ziya'u'1-Mulk. In A. H. 502 (457) Sultan Muhammad under- 
takes a campaign against India. He brings back an immense 
idol to Isfahan and makes it the threshold of a madrasa \ 
He died on Dhu'l-Hijja 14, A. H. 511, and is buried in that 
same madrasa. Verses composed by him on his deathbed. 
He was 37 years old at his death, and had reigned 13 years. 

(6) Sinjar b. Malikshdh. 
He was for 20 years ruler of Khurasan, and afterwards 



1) MS. Siydh Dizh, male. 

2) According to Ibnu'l-Athfr he also bore the title of Nizamu'1-Mulk. 

3) There seems no ground for this statement, and it would appear that the 
author has wrongly ascribed to this king an achievement of Sultan Mahmtid 
of Ghazna. 



THE HOUSE OF SELJUQ. ^ 1 01 

for 40 years and 4 months "King of the kings of the world", 
holding sway from Tartary to Egypt and Syria, and from 
the Caspian Sea to Arabia Felix, and he was amongst the 
kings of Islam what Khusraw Parwfz was amongst the Sasa- 
nians. He won 17 out of 19 great battles which he fought. 
The Caliph Mustarshid (458) conferred on him the titles of 
Mu'^izzu'd-Din ') and Burhanu Amfri'l-Mu'minfn. He placed 
Bahramshah on the throne of Ghazna, and allowed him 
1000 dfnars a day. He defeats his nephew Mahmud b. Mu- 
hammad b. Malikshah, but forgives him and confers on him 
the government of the Western provinces, which, on Mah- 
mud's death, he transferred to Mahmud's brother Tughril, and 
afterwards on another brother, Mas'^ud. In A. H. 515 Sinjar's 
mother died. In A. H. 524 he took Samarqand from its ruler, 
Muhammad -) b. Sulayman, who had defied him, but afterwards 
reinstated him. In A. H. 530 Bahramshah of Ghazna opposed 
him (459), but was reduced to obedience. War with the 
Khwarazmshahs. In A. H. 535 he was defeated at Dasht-i- 
Qatawan near Samarqand by the army of Cathay and lost 
Transoxiana, which passed into the hands of the heathen. 
Verses of Farfdu'd-Dfn-i-Katib on this subject. Heavy losses 
of the Muslims in this war. In A. H. 543 Bahramshah defeated 
the Ghuris (460), and sent the head of Siiri to Sinjar. Verses 
of Fakhru'd-Din Khalid of Merv on this event. In A. H. 544 ^) 
*^Ali Chatri *), whom Sinjar had raised from the position of 
court-jester to the governorship of Herat, rebelled against 
him, and joined ^Ala'u'd-Dfn Husayn of Ghur. Sinjar con- 
quered and captured them, and put ''AH Chatri *) to death, but 



i) MS. Mu'izzu'd-Dawla, 7nale. 

2) MS. Ahmad, male. 

3) The real date was A. H. 547, according to Ibiiu'l-Athir and the author 
of the Chahdr Maqdla (pp. 65, 87), who was himself present at the battle. 

4) MS. Himyari; but the Fdhaiu's-Sudur (Suppl. pers. 1314, f. 73) ii five 
places, as well as Gantin's Paris edition of the Guzida^ p. 264, gives Chatri as 
the correct reading. 



102 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 6. 

pardoned "^Ala'u'd-Dfn and replaced him on the throne of 
Ghur. In A. H. 548 Sinjar was taken captive by the Ghuzz. 
Causes of their revolt. (461) Their efforts to reconcile them- 
selves with Sinjar fail, and a battle is fought, in which Sinjar 
is taken prisoner and his troops are routed. (462) Sinjar is 
detained by them four year^, while they lay waste Khu- 
rasan, and kill or maltreat many of its inhabitants, amongst 
them Muhammad b. Yahya, to whose death Khaqani 
alludes in a celebrated verse. Early in A. H. 551 Sinjar 's 
wife. Turkan Khatun, died, and Sinjar bribed his custodian, 
Amfr Ilyas, to help him to escape. By the help of Ahmad 
b. Qumaj, governor of Tirmidh, he was conveyed across the 
Oxus, and in Ramadan, A. H. 551, made his way back to 
Merv. On his arrival there, he fell sick, and died on (463) 
26 Rabr i, A. H. 552, at the age of 72. He was at first 
succeeded by his nephew Mahmud Khan b. Muhammad 
Khan, of the family of Bughra Khan, who ruled for five 
years and a half, but was deposed and blinded in Ra- 
madan, A. H. 557, and died a year later. Part of Khurasan 
was then seized by Mu'ayyad, and part by Khwarazmshah. 

(7) Mahmud b. Muhammad b. Malikskdh. 

He succeeded his father in *^Iraq, and, after being recon- 
ciled to his uncle, extended his sway over Adharbayjan, 
Baghdad, Diyar Bakr, Fars, Arran, Armenia and Georgia. 
The Caliph al-Mustarshid confers titles on him. In A. H. 5 14 
he defeated his brother MasMd outside Hamadan. He reigned 
13 years and 2 months. His quarrel with the Caliph al- 
Mustarshid. He takes Baghdad. (464) He brings the finances 
of the kingdom into order. He died on Shawwal ii, A. H. 
525 at the age of 27. His wazir Nasir b. *^Ali Darkajini 
(al-Darkazini) tried to place Prince Da'ud on the throne, 
but Sinjar appointed Tughril, the brother of the late king. 



THE HOUSE OF SELJUQ. I03 

(8) Tughril Beg b. Muhammad b. Malikshdh. 

The Caliph al-Mustarshid gives him the titles of Ruknu'd- 
Din and Yaminu Amiri'l-Mu'minin. Wars between him and 
his elder brother Mas^ud. Darkajini put to death. Tughril 
reigned 3 years and 2 months, and died at Hamadan in 
Muharram, A. H. 529, at the age of 25 years, 

(9) Mas^iid b. Muhammad b. Malikshdh, 

He gave his daughter Gawhar Khatun in marriage to his 
rival Prince Da'ud b. Mahmud b. Muhammad, on whom he 
conferred the goverment of Adharbayjan, Arran and Armenia 
(465)> and who made Tabriz his capital. Da'ud reigned 7 
years, at the end of which time he was assassinated by 
fiddHs at Tabriz in A. H. 533 as he was entering the bath. 
Sultan Mas'^ud fought and took captive the Caliph al-Mus- 
tarshid, who was also assassinated by fidais at Maragha. 
He then inflicted a defeat on the Caliph ar-Rashid, who 
was also assassinated at Isfahan. Al-Muqtafi was then made 
Caliph, and conferred on Mas'^ud the titles of Ghiyathu 
'd-Din and Qasimu Amiri'l-Mu'minin, Khwaja Kamalu'd-Dfn 
Muhammad-i-Khazin made wazir. He arouses the hostility 
of the Amirs, and the Atabek Qarasunqur compels the Sultan 
to put him to death. (466) Troubles in Fars. Death of 
Qarasunqur. The Atabek 'Ilduguz made governor of Adhar- 
bayjan and Arran, and the Atabek Jawulf of Fars. Abortive 
revolt against Mas'ud by his nephews and certain Atabeks, 
Sulaymanshah imprisoned in the citadel of Qazwfn, where 
he was kept for 7 years. MasMd makes war against the 
Assassins and besieges the Qara-i-Qahira, one of their strong- 
holds near Qazwin, but, dissensions breaking out in the army, 
nothing is effected. Death of Amir Jawuli at Zanjan. (467) 
The Atabek Qaraja becomes ruler of Fars, but is killed 
there soon afterwards. Mas'^ud then makes his nephew Mu- 



104 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 6. 

hammad b. Mahmud governor of Fars, and gives him his 
daughter Gawhar Khatun (the widow of Da'iid) in marriage. 
Plots of certain Amirs, and the doom which overtook them. 
In A. H. 543 the Salgharf Sunqur b. Mawdud seized Fars, 
which thus passed from the possession of the Seljuqs. (468) 
Four years later Sultan Mas'^ud died on Rajab i, A. H. 547 
at Hamadan, after a reign of 18 years and a half, at the 
age of 45 years. 

(10) Malikshdh b. MahmUd b. Muhammad. 

He succeeded his uncle, and received the titles of Mughfthu 
*d-Dfn and Yaminu Amiri'l-Mu'minin. After 4 months he 
was deposed and imprisoned by Khass-beg, who proclaimed 
his brother [Muhammad] king. He escaped from prison to 
Isfahan, where he again asserted his sovereignty, but died 
15 days later on the nth of Rabr i, A. H. 555, at the age 
of 32, eight years after his first accession. 

(11) Ghiydthu' d-Din Muhammad b. Mahmud, 

He succeeded his brother, and put Khass-Beg and Zangi- 
i-Jandar to death at Hamadan. (469) His liberality to the 
troops. Titles conferred on him by the Caliph. Escape of 
his uncle Sulaymanshah from the citadel of Qazwfn. His 
rebellion, at first successful, utterly collapses, and Muhammad 
re-establishes his rule. Continued civil war. Death of Sinjar. 
Growing anarchy. Khurasan is lost to the Seljuqs in A. H. 
553. War and reconciliation with the Caliph. Death of Sultan 
Muhammad in A. H. 554 after a reign of 7 years. 

(12) Sulaymdnshdh b. Muhammad b. Malikshdh. 

He nominates Arslan b. Tughril (471) his successor, and 
after a reign of 8 months is deposed by the Amfrs at the 
end of Ramadan, A. H. 555, and died in prison in the fol- 
lowing year. His titles. 



THE HOUSE OF SELJUQ. I05 

(13) Arsldn b. Tughril b. Muhammad b. Malikshdh. 

He succeeded his uncle, and married the CaHph's daughter 
Khatun-i-Kirmanf '). His step-father, Atabek Ilduguz, admini- 
stered the kingdom. Titles conferred on him by the Caliph. 
Arslan defeats his rival, Muhammad b. Seljuqshah. His victory- 
over the people of Abkhaz. Fresh activity of the Assassins (472), 
who build new castles near Qazwin, and terrorize the neigh- 
bourhood. Arslan takes four of their castles, including the Qara-i- 
Qahira, which Sultan Mas'^ud had failed to conquer. He meets 
the Atabek Zangi at Isfahan, and pays him honour, and confers 
on him the province of Fars. Invasions of Khwarazmshah 
in A. H. 561 and A. H. 563. Assassination of 'Inanj. Death 
of Arslan's mother in A. H. 568, and of the Atabek Ilduguz 
a month later. Verses of the Qadi Ruknu'd-Din of Khuy on 
this. {473) The king of Abkhaz again attacks the lands of 
Islam in A. H. 569. Arslan, with the Atabeks Muhammad 
and Qizil Arslan, the sons of 'Ilduguz, marches against them. 
Arslan marries Sitti Fatima, daughter of ^Ala'u'd-Dawla, and 
dies 15 days later, in the middle of Jumada ii, A. H. 571, 
after a reign of 15 years, 8 months, and 15 days. 

(14) Tughril b. Arsldn b. Tughril. 

He succeeds his father, and receives titles from the Caliph. 
His gracious appearance and character. His verses. His uncles 
Atabek Muhammad b. Ilduguz and Qizil Arslan administer 
his kingdom. Invasion of the Abkhazis, and of the king's 
uncle Muhammad b. Tughril, both of which are defeated. 
For two years, while the Atabek Muhammad was alive, all 
went well. In A. H. 581 took place that ominous and cele- 
brated conjunction of the stars which led the astrologers, 
and especially the poet Anwarl, to predict some great dis- 



i) MS. Kirman Khatiin, but the name is given as above in the Rahatu's- 
Sudur (Suppl. pers, 1314, f. Ii63). 



,I06 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 6. 

aster, such as gales and earthquakes '). At the time predicted, 
however, a remarkable calm prevailed. Verses satirizing 
Anwari. However in this year was born Chingfz Khan, who 
afterwards wrought such devastation in the world, and at 
the end of the same year the Atabek Muhammad died, and 
the kingdom fell into confusion. (475) Qizil Arslan succeeds 
Muhammad as Atabek, but soon quarrels with and revolts 
against Tughril, proclaims Sinjar b. Malikshah in his stead 
at Hamadan, and finally defeats Tughril, and imprisons him 
and his son in the castle of Kihran. Next day, however, 
Qizil Arslan is found killed, in Shawwal, A. H. 587. (476) 
Massacre of Assassins [Maldhida] at Baghdad. Sayfu'd-Din 
Mahmud releases Tughril and his son from captivity. In the 
middle of Jumada ii, A. H. 588 Tughril fought a battle with 
Qutlugh Inanj -) outside Qazwin, and defeated him. Soon 
afterwards Tukush Khwarazmshah invaded Persia, defeated 
Tughril, and compelled him to cede Ray. In A. H. 590 
Tughril was victorious in another battle with Qutlugh 'Inanj, 
and celebrated his victory at Ray with wine and poetry (477). 
Tukush returned to the attack, accompanied by Qutlugh 'Inanj. 
Tughril went into battle drunk, reciting verses from the 
Shdhndma,-dind struck a blow with his mace which fell on 
his own horse's leg, and brought both rider and steed to 
the ground. (478) 'Inanj Qutlugh killed him as he lay help- 
less on the ground. His head was sent to Baghdad and 
gibbeted opposite the Caliph's palace. Thus ended the power 
of the Seljiiqs in "^Iraq, which passed into the hands of the 
Khwarazmshahs. Most of the Atabeks and Amfrs of the Seljuqs 
who had betrayed their masters came to a bad end. Of those 



1) Mirzd Muhammad regards this well-known story as apocryphal, since he 
has shown by internal evidence that Anwari was already a poet of renown 
in A. H. 500, so that it is very improbable that he was still alive and active 
in A. H. 581. 

2) The son of the Atdbek Muhammad, son of the Atabek 'llduguz. 



THE HOUSE OF SELJUQ. IO7 

who were faithful, Nusratu'd-Dfn Abu Bakr b. Muhammad b. 
'Ilduguz reigned for 20 years after his uncle Qizil Arslan 
over Arran and Adharbayjan, and died in A. H. 607. He 
was succeeded by his brother Muzaffaru'd-Din Uzbeg, who 
reigned for 15 years and died in A. H. 622, after which his king- 
dom (479) passed into the possession of the Khwarazmshahs. 

2. The Seljuqs of Kir man. 

The first of them was (i) Qawurd b. Chaghri Beg b. Mika'il, 
who become governor of Kirman in A. H. 433, and ruled 
over it for 32 years. In A. H. 455 he added Shiraz to his 
domains, and drove out the Daylamites. In A. H. 465 he 
was taken prisoner and poisoned by Malikshah, who gave 
Kirman to his son (2) Sultanshah, who died in A. H. 476 
after a reign of 12 years. He in turn was succeeded by his 
brother (3) Turanshah, who reigned 1372 years and died in 
A. H. 489. He was succeeded by his son (4) Iranshah, who 
reigned for 5 years, when his subjects, suspecting him of 
heresy, revolted against him and killed him in A. H. 494. 
He was succeeded by his cousin (5) Arslanshah b. Kirman- 
shah b. Qawurd, who reigned for 42 years, and died in 
A. H. 536. He was succeeded by his son (6) Muhammad-shah, 
who reigned for 14 years and died in A. H. 550. He was 
succeeded by his son (7) Tughrilshah, who reigned for 12 
years and died in A. H. 562. Thereupon his three sons (8) 
Arslanshah, Bahramshah and Turanshah contended for the 
kingdom for 8 years (480), each ruling the country for a 
time, while the land was wasted and laid desolate. Finally 
(9) Muhammad-shah b. Bahramshah succeeded, but Mubarak- 
shah and others of his kinsmen revolted against him, and 
he took refuge with Arslan b. Tughril, who gave him help, 
so that he compelled Mubarakshah to flee to Ghur. But in 
A. H. 583 the Ghuzz, led by MaHk Dinar, invaded Kirman 
and put an and to the Seljuq rule there. 



I08 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 6. 

3. The Seljiiqs of Runt [Asia Minor). 

When Alp Arslan conquered and slew Qutulmish b. Isra'il, 
he wished to extirpate his family, but the Nizamu'1-Mulk 
dissuaded him, and sent them in command of troops to Syria, 
(i) Sulayman b. Qutulmish seized Antioch during the absence 
of its ruler. Sharafu'd-Dawla "^Ali *), who collected tribute for 
the Seljuqs in those parts, demanded tribute from Sulayman, 
who refused it, defeated and killed Sharafu'd-Dawla and 
added Aleppo to his domains. He wrote to inform Malikshah 
what had happened, but before an answer came was attacked 
by Taju'd-Dawla Tutush b. Alp Arslan (481), and, being 
deserted by his amirs, committed suicide. Malikshah was 
much distressed at his death, and appointed his son (2) Da'iid 
to succeed him. Danishmand, being threatened by the By- 
zantines, asked help from the surrounding Muslim poten- 
tates, and Da'ud came to his assistance, and was rewarded 
by the throne of Qonya (Iconium) in A. H. 480. He reigned 
20 years and died in A. H. 500. His brother (3) Qilij Arslan 
succeeded him and reigned for 40 years. At the end of his 
reign Sultan Mas'^ud ruled in "^Iraq, and the Caliph, disliking 
him, held out to Qilij Arslan hopes of the sovereignty of 
^Iraq, so, leaving his son Mas'^ud as his vicegerent in Asia 
Minor, he marched on Baghdad, but perished in A. H. 539, 
and was buried at Mayyafariqin. (482) His son (4) Mas^iid 
succeeded him, reigned 19 years, and died in A. H. 558. He 
was succeeded by his son (5) "^Izzu'd-Din Qilij Arslan, who 
reigned 20 years, and had 10 sons. The increasing weakness 
of the Danishmandi dynasty led him to covet their domains, 
and he took Siwas and Qaysariyya, and built Aq-saray, 
which places he finally retained in spite of the temporary 



i) This is an error and an anachronism. Sharafu'd-Dawla Muslim b. Quraysh 
b. Hadrdn was governor of Mesopotamia on the part of the l^anii ''Aqil. See 
Ibnu'l-Ath(r, under the year A. H.477, and the Jahdn-drd (British Museum, 
Or. 141, f. 127*5). 



THE HOUSE OF SELJUQ. lOO 

successes of the Atabek Nuru'd-Din, king of Syria, and 
Fakhru'd-Dfn ''Abdu'l-Masih against him. He divided his 
realms amongst his sons, and nominated as his successor the 
youngest, (6) Ghiyathu'd-Din Kay-Khusraw, who came to the 
throne in A. H. 578. His elder brother (7) Ruknu'd-Dfn Su- 
layman contests the kingdom with him (483), and besieges 
Qonya, which finally surrenders. Kay-Khusraw escapes to 
Constantinople. Ruknu'd-Din receives titles from the Caliph 
and takes Arzanu'r-Rum (Erzeroum), but is defeated by the 
Georgians. He then prepared to march into Rum, but died 
in A. H. 602, after a reign of 24 years and was succeeded 
by his son (8) ^Izzu'd-Dln Qilij Arslan, then only a child. 
When "^Izzu'd-Din had reigned 18 months, dissensions broke 
out amongst the amirs, and Ghiyathu'd-Din Kay-Khusraw 
returned, took Qonya, and deposed his nephew, who shortly 
afterwards died in captivity. Kay-Khusraw conquered Qara- 
man and took many fortresses near Ladhiqiyya (Latakia), 
and finally (484) fell in battle against the unbelievers in 
A. H. 609. He was succeeded by his son (9) "^Izzu'd-Din Kay- 
Ka'us, who died a year later, and was succeeded by his 
brother (10) ^Ala'u'd-Din Kay-qubad, who reigned 26 years, 
and was the most illustrious of this dynasty. His brother 
Ruknu'd-Din Sulayman rebelled against him, but was con- 
quered, imprisoned and shortly afterwards died. He also 
successfully waged war with Jalalu'd-Dfn Khwarazmshah. He 
died in A. H. 636, poisoned by his son (11) Ghiyathu'd-Dfn 
Kay-Khusraw, who succeeded him, and reigned 8 years. 
During his reign the Mongols over-ran Asia Minor, subduing 
in turn all its princes, and Ghiyathu'd-Din died in A. H. 644. 
He was succeeded by his son (12) Ruknu'd-Din Sulay man- 
shah '), whose minister was Mu'^inu'd-Din Parwana of Kashan, 
and who sent his brother ^Ala'u'd-Din Kay-qubad as ambas- 



i) In the Jahdn-drd (British Museum, Or. 141, f. 95a), and by Lane-Poole, 
who follows it, this king's name is given as Ruknu'd-Din Qilij-Arslan. 



no CHAPTER IV, SECTIONS 6 — 7. 

sador to the Mongol Qa'an. This brother returned, having 
successfully accomplished his mission, but was poisoned by 
Ruknu'd-Din on his arrivel at the frontier. (485) Another 
brother, Kay-Ka'iis, attempted to wrest the crown from him, 
but died ere he could effect anything. In A. H. 664 Ruknu'd- 
Dln Sulaymanshah was put to death by order of Abaqa 
Khan, and was succeeded by his son (13) Kay-Khusraw. As 
he was of tender years, the administration of the kingdom 
was entrusted by the Mongols to Mu*^fnu'd-Din Parwana, 
who married the young Sultan's mother. Kay-Khusraw reigned 
18 years, and was finally put to death by order of the 
Mongol Ahmad Khan. He was succeeded by (14) Ghiyathu 
'd-Din Mas*^ud b. Kay-Ka'us, who was appointed by Arghun 
Khan the Mongol. In his reign the realm was disturbed, 
and Antioch and Latakia were lost. A Mongol army was 
sent by Gaykhatu and Hulachii, and the author's cousin Fakh- 
ru'd-Din Muhammad Mustawfi was made wazir. He res- 
tored order to the kingdom, but was put to death through 
the intrigues of SaMu'd-Dawla, the Jewish wazir of Arghun 
Khan, and was succeeded in this office by Fakhru'd-Din 
(486) Ahmad-1-Arkushf of Tabriz. Ghiyathu'd-Dfn Mas'ud 
died in A. H. 697, and was succeeded by his nephew (15) 
Kay-qubad b. Faramurz, who was appointed by Ghazan 
Khan. Later he rebelled, but was defeated and deposed by 
the Mongols, and so ended the dynasty, save that some 
princelings of the House of Seljuq still held sway in the 
author's time in certain regions on the coast '). 

Section 7. — Khwdrazmshdhs. 

These were 10 in number, and reigned from A. H. 491 
until the month of Shawwal, A. H. 628, that is, for a period 
of 138 years. 

l) Historians differ much as to the duration of this dynasty and the names 
and numbers of its members. 



THE KHWARAZMSHAHS. m 

(i) Niishtigin Gharcha\ 

He was originally the slave of Bulkatigin, a slave of Sultan 
Malikshah, to whose office he succeeded, becoming governor 
of Khwarazm (487), in which position he continued until 
his death, which happened in the time of Barkiyaruq. He 
was succeeded by his son — 

(2) Muhammad b. Niishtigin, 

who was appointed by Sinjar, and received the title of 
Qutbu'd-Din in A. H. 491. He was a loyal and active vassal 
of the Seljuqs, and, after a reign of 30 years, died in A. H. 
521. He was succeeded by his son — 

(3) Atsiz b. Muhammad. 

He enjoyed great favour with Sinjar. This moved the 
other nobles to jealousy, and they succeeded in sowing 
mistrust between them. Atsiz retired to Khwarazm, and 
presently rebelled against the Sultan, who drove him out 
of Khwarazm, and gave the government of it to his nephew 
Sulayman b. Muhammad. On Sinjar's departure, Atsiz returned, 
recaptured Khwarazm, assumed the title of King and removed 
the names of the Seljuqs from the coinage and the khtitba, 
in A. H. 535. Congratulatory ode composed by Rashidu'd- 
Din Watwat in honour of this event. Anger of Sinjar (488), 
who returned and captured Khwarazm, but forgave Atsiz. 
Atsiz again revolts. Verses sent by him to Sinjar. Reproaches 
addressed by Sinjar to him. Adlb Sabir, the poet, is sent 



i) MS. GJiaracha, male. Ibnu'l-Athir (jiib anno 490) says he was called 
Gharshja, because he was a native of Gharshistan, while in the Jahan-ard 
(British Museum, Or. 141, f. 99a) it is stated that he was called after Gharcha 
in Samarqand because he had been bought there as a slave by Malikshah's 
servant Bulkatigin. As the author of the Guzida says just above that the dy- 
nasty began in A. H. 491 it appears that he does not reckon Niishtigin him- 
self as one of them, but begins with his son Muhammad. 



112 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 7. 

by Sinjar to Khwarazm. He exposes a plot devised by Atsiz 
against Sinjar's life, and is drowned in the Oxus by Atsiz. 
In A. H. 542 Sinjar again marches on Khwarazm and be- 
sieges the Castle of Hazarasp. Verses composed by Anwarf 
written on an arrow and shot into the Castle. (489) Verses 
composed by Rashid-i-Watwat in reply and similarly shot 
into Sinjar's camp. Anger of Sinjar, who vows if he catches 
Rashfd, to cut him into seven pieces. Hazarasp falls, but 
Rashid's life is saved by the intercession of a courtier. 
Khwarazm submits to Sinjar, who pardons Atsiz and rein- 
states him. Other towns in that region agrees to pay tribute. 
When Sinjar was taken captive by the Ghuzz, his nobles 
appealed for help to Atsiz (490), but Sinjar's release was 
effected before he could respond. He reigned 29 years, for 
16 years of which period he was an independent sovereign, 
and died on the 9th of Jumada ii, A. H. 551. Verses com- 
posed by Rashidu'd-Din Watwat on his death. 

(4) ll-Arsldn (MS. Alp Arsldn) b. Atsiz. 

Unsuccessful rivalry of Sulayman, another son of Atsiz. 
On the death of Sinjar, Khurasan was filled with disorder, 
and Khwarazmshah succeeded in adding parts of it to his 
domains. The Khan of Samarqand slew the chief of the 
Qarlugh tribe, who appealed to ll-Arslan. He besieged Samar- 
qand and restored peace '). Seven years later he is attacked 
by the Qara-Khitay, falls sick, and suffers defeat. (491) He 
dies on Rajab 9, A. H. 558 -). 

(5) Sultdnshdh b. ll-Arsldn b. Atsiz. 
He was of tender years on his accession, and his mother 



i) The text is corrupt. The incident is fully described in the second part 
of the Ta'rikh-i-Jahdn-Gushd of Juwaynf. The name of the Turkish tribe in 
question is variously given as Qarlugh, Qarlukh, and Kharlukh. 

2) Rajab 19, A. H. 560 is the more correct date given in the Jahdn-Gushd. 
Ibnu'l-Athir gives A. H. 568. 



THE KHWARAZMSHAHS. H^ 

acted as regent. His elder brother Tukush demands a share 
of the kingdom. Verses exchanged between Sultanshah and 
Malikshah b. Tukush on this subject. Civil war of an inde- 
cisive character ensues for lo years. In A. H. 568 (MS. 558) ') 
Tukush invokes the help of the daughter of the Gur Khan 
of Qara-Khitay, to whom he offers tribute, and obtains pos- 
session of Khwarazm. Sultanshah reigned over his diminished 
kingdom for 21 years more (492) and died at the end of 
Ramadan, A. H. 589. 

(6) Ttikiish Khan b. tl-Arsldn. 

He succeeded to a part of the kingdom on the defeat of 
his brother on the twelfth of Rabf i, A. H. 568. Congratula- 
tory verses on his accession by Rashidu'd-Din Watwat. Suc- 
■"cessive conquests of Tukush. He kills Sultan Tughril the 
Seljuq and takes '^Iraq (493). The Caliph tries to reconquer 
it, but his army is defeated. Verses composed by Sinjar 
Shah on his blindness. Conquest of Kirman. Punitive expe- 
ditions against Daylamites and Assassins, and cap,ture of the 
Assassin stronghold of Arslan-Gushay. In revenge the Assas- 
sins killed Shamsu'd-Dln the wazir of Tukush. Tukush pre- 
pares to take further measures against the Assassins, but 
dies on Ramadan 19, A. H. 596, after a reign of 28^2 years, 
for 6 of which he also held sway over "^Iraq (494). 

(7) '^Ald'ud-Din ^) Muhammad Tukicsh. 

His wars with the kings of Ghur. Earthquakes at Nishapur 
of great violence, extending over two months, in which 
almost the whole of the ancient city was destroyed. Sixty- 
four years later, in A. H. 669, another earthquake destroyed 



i) The same date, A. H. 568, is also given in the Jahdn-Gusha. The reading 
of this text obviously an error. 

2) MS. Qutbu'd-Din, which (Ibnu'l-Athir, sub anno 596) v*ras his title before 
he succeeded to the throne, when it was changed to his father's title "^Ala'u'd-Din. 

8 



114 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 7. 

the new city which had been built after the first earthquake, 
and the town had to be again rebuilt. A descendant of the 
Sasanian king Yazdigird called Ghazi rules in Mazandaran. He 
is murdered by his brother-in-low, a man of low origin named 
Abu Riza, who is in turn killed by his wife in revenge for 
her brother. She then offers herself in marriage to Khwarazm- 
shah, who,* not finding her beautiful, gives her in marriage 
to one of his amirs, and takes possession of Mazandaran. 
He then takes Kirman, and makes Mu'ayyidu'1-Mulk Qiwamu 
*d-Din Abii Bakr ruler of Zawzan, which afterwards passes 
to Ikhtiyaru'd-Din, Shuja'^u'd-Din Abu'l-Qasim acting as de- 
puty-governor for some while. (495) In A. H. 609 the Ghuris 
are overthrown, and Khwarazmshah takes possession of their 
kingdom. His three campaigns against the Gur-Khan of Qara- 
Khitay, whom he finally subdues, and receives the title of "the 
Shadow of God on the Earth" {Zillu lldhi fi' lard).Y qxsqs on this 
composed by the Munshi Niiru'd-Din '). Verses on this poet's 
prediliction for wine. The Gur-Khan is taken captive by Kiich- 
luk, king of the Nay man -) and dies two years later. Khwarazm- 
shah, on the death of Taju'd-Din 'Ilduguz, takes Ghazna and 
Ghur, and bestows them on his son Jalalu'd-Din. He receives 
the title of "the Second Alexander" {Iskandar-i-thdni), and 
adds to his Imperial pomp (496) a band of 27 golden kettle- 
drums, each of which, on the first day, is played by a prince, 
15 of these princes being of other houses, and 12 of his 
own family. He puts Shaykh Majdu'd-Din Baghdadi ') to 
death on suspicion of adultery with his mother, and sets up 
Sayyid "^Imadu'd-Din of Tirmidh as a rival to the CaHph of 



i) In the Jahdn-Gushd he is entitled Nizdmu'd-Din, not NUru'd-Din. 

2) See vol. i of the yahdn-Gushd in this series, p. 48. 

3) This Majdu'd-Dfn was a celebrated Siifi, a pupil of Shaykh Najmu'd-Dln 
Kubrd and one of the spiritual directors of Shaykh Faridu'd-Din 'Attdr. The 
circumstances to which reference is here made are set forth in the Nafahd.tti'l- 
Uns^ Haft Iqlim^ Majma'^ul-Fu^ahd (vol. i, p. 542), etc., and* in my Literary 
History of Persih^ vol. ii, pp. 494 — 5. 



THE KHWARAZMSHAHS. He 

Baghdad, against whom he undertakes a campaign. On the 
way to ^Iraq he defeats the Atabeks of Fars and Adhar- 
bayjan. The former, SaM b. Zangi, he takes captive, and 
before releasing him exacts a tribute amounting to two-thirds 
of the revenues of Fars : the latter, Uzbek, he puts to flight. 
He then marches by way of Asad-abad (near Hamadan) on 
Baghdad, but is stopped by heavy snow, which causes great 
losses to his army. His prestige is much injured by this 
reverse, and it was at this juncture that certain Mongol 
merchants, subjects of Chingiz Khan, who had come to 
Utrar, were put to death, and their goods seized (497), by 
the governor of that city, who was related to Khwarazm- 
shah's mother. Chingiz Khan sent ambassadors to demand 
reparation, and these too were insulted and killed. Thereupon 
Chingiz Khan declared war on Khwarazmshah, who had an 
initial success near Kashghar, in spite of which he retreated, 
filled with alarm at the determined valour of the Mongols. 
His minister, Badru'd-Din '^Amid, goes over to the Mongols, 
and, by forged letters, succeeds in sowing dissension between 
Khwarazmshah and his nobles, and thus makes easy the 
advance of the Mongols. (498) Khwarazmshah took refuge 
in the Island of Abasgiin in the Caspian, and died there in 
A. H. 617 in the greatest want and misery. His body was 
later exhumed and burned by the Mongols. He had reigned 
21 j'-ears, and left 7 sbns, Aq-Sultan, Arzlaq Sultan, Ku- 
chay-tigin and Oghul Malik, who perished at the hands of 
the Mongols and never succeeded to sovereign power, and 
Jalalu'd-Din Mankobirni, Ghiyathu'd-Din Pir-shah and Ruknu 
'd-Din Ghursa'iji, of whom the last, though the youngest, 
first succeeded to the Throne on his father's death. 

(8) Ruknu'd-Din Ghursa'iji. 

His father left him ^Iraq, and ^Imadu'1-Mulk was his mi- 
nister. After his father's death he went to Kirman, seized the 



Il6 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 7. 

treasury there, and returned to Isfahan, where the citizens 
opposed him by force of arms, and some thousand persons 
were slain. Thence he went to Ray and Ffruzkuh, and 
entrenched himself in the Castle of Gird-Kuh, which the 
Mongols besieged for 6 months and finally captured. As 
Ruknu'd-Din refused to bow the knee before the Mongol 
commander (499) they slew him and all his soldiers and 
attendants in A. H. 619. 

(9) Ghiydthu d-Din Pir-Shdh. 

On the death of his father he went to Kirman, which his 
father had assigned to him. Shuja^u 'd-Din Abu'1-Qasim-i- 
Zawzani, who had hitherto acted as his deputy, refused to 
admit him, so he turned back on Fars, where he defeated 
the Atabek SaM b. Zangi, devastated the country, passed 
on to "^Iraq, and assumed the crown at Ray. Here he was 
attacked by his brother Jalalu'd-Din, who had just returned 
from India, and was compelled to submit to him. After a 
while he killed Nusrat Malik b. Kharmfl, a favourite of 
Jalalu'd-Din, and fled into Khuzistan and later to Kirman, 
where Buraq Hajib received him with magnanimity and 
concluded a treaty with him. Later a conspiracy was formed 
by some of Buraq's relatives (500) to put Ghiyathu'd-Di'n 
on the throne. Buraq discovered it, publicly put the con- 
spirators to death, and secretly strangled Ghiyathu'd-Dfn 
and his mother, whom he had taken to wife. This happened 
in A. H. 627. 

(10) Jaldlu^ d-Din Mankobirni. 

On his father's death he proceeded to Khwarazm, but, 
not being loyally supported by his amirs, he retreated to 
Ghazna. His brothers Arzlaq and Aq-Sultan followed him 
to persuade him to return, but when they reached the fron- 
tiers of Khurasan they were attacked by the Mongols and 



THE KHWARAZMSHAHS. 1 17 

killed. In that year Jalalu'd-Dfn fought seven battles with 
the Mongols and was victorious in all, until finally Chingiz 
Khan himself marched against him, in the month of Shaw- 
wal, A. H. 618, and defeated him. Jalalu'd-Din with 700 of 
his men attempted to swim the river into Sind, but only 
he and seven of his companions reached the other shore in 
safety. He then gathered a fresh army, conquered a consi- 
derable portion of India, and remained there two years, 
when, hearing that Chingiz Khan had withdrawn from Persia, 
he left Jahan Pahlawan Uzbek as his deputy in India (501), 
and himself set out for Persia, where he arrived in A. H. 
621. He first entered Kirman, and there married the daughter 
of Buraq Hajib. Thence he proceeded to Fars, and married 
the daughter of the Atabek SaM. Thence he advanced 
through Isfahan to Ray, where his brother Ghiyathu'd-Din 
was ruler. Thence to Baghdad, where he defeated the Arabs. 
He next seized Adharbayjan, and married Malika Khatun, 
daughter of the Seljuq Tughril, who had been divorced by 
the Atabek Uzbeg. Jalalu'd-Din, next subdued Georgia. He 
returned from Tiflis to Kirman in seventeen days, but was 
met on his approach by its ruler Buraq Hajib, who persuaded 
him to retire '). Meanwhile al-Malik al-Ashraf abducted Malika 
Khatun from the Castle of Khuy, while the Georgians revolted. 
Jalalu'd-Din thereupon marched to Akhlat to punish al-Malik 
al-Ashraf, but ere it surrendered news came that the Indian 
army had attacked "^Iraq. Jalalu'd-Din now completed the 
subjugation of Georgia, reduced Akhlat, and took prisoner 
the wife of al-Malik al-Ashraf. (502) He next marched into 
Syria and Asia Minor to punish al-Malik al-Ashraf and "Ala'u 
'd-Din Kay-qubad the Seljuq, but, being at the time ill, 
was repulsed. Shortly afterwards, however he renewed his 
campaign, and devastated their territories. Verses composed by 



l) This MS., unlike most others, says that Jalalu'd-Din killed Buraq, which 
is an obvious error, as the latter survived the former and died in A. H. 632. 



Il8 CHAPTER IV, SECTIONS ^ — 8. 

him on this occasion. He next attacked the Mongols, who had 
advanced on Isfahan. Both right wings were defeated. Death 
of 'Ala'u'd-Dawla ') Yazdf, the grandson of ^Ala'u'd-Dawla ') 
Garshasf b. *^Ah' b. Faramarz b. ''Ala'u.'d-Dawla (a descendant 
of the ancient Kayani kings, whom Jalalu'd-Dfn used to call 
his "father", and to whom he had given the government 
of Khurasan) aged sixty years, in this battle. The Mongols 
march on Khurasan, and Jalalu'd-Din retires to the moun- 
tains of Luristan, while his fugitive troops enter Isfahan. 
Good offices of the Qadf Ruknu'd-Dfn Sa'^idf in keeping the 
peace between them until the return of Jalalu'd-Dfn seven 
days later. He goes to Arran and Kurdistan, and in despair 
takes to drink. Verses on this by Nuru'd-Dfn Munshl. (503) 
The Mongols pursued him thither, and in the middle of 
Shawwal, A. H. 628 (= middle of August, A. D. 1231) sur- 
prised him drinking. He escaped, and' wandered into the 
mountains, where he was murdered by a Kurd whose bro- 
ther he had slain at Akhlat. With him perished the dynasty 
of the Khwarazmshahs, and the Mongols became supreme 
in Persia. 

Section 8. — The Atdbeks. 

Of these there were two separate dynasties, one in Syria 
and Diyar Bakr, the other in Fars. The former comprised 
nine rulers, who reigned from A. H. 481 until A. H. 658, for 
177 years; the latter, known as the Salghurfs, comprised 
eleven rulers, who reigned 120 years, from A. H. 543 until 
A. H. 663. 

I . The Salghuri (? Sunquri) Atdbeks. 
These are said to be descended from Salghur, who was 



i) The MS. has -Din instead of -Dawla^ wrongly. 'Ald'u'd-Dawla was the 
title borne by a series of rulers of Yazd descended from ^Ald'u'd-Dawla Abit 
Ja'far Muhammad called Kdkiiya. See notes to Chahdr Maqdla^ pp. 169 — 170. 



THE ATABEKS. I in 

of the race of Taq Khan son of Aghur ') Khan, and who 
joined the Seljuqs, and was given the position of chamberlain. 
According to another account, the Atabeks of Diyar Bakr 
and Fars were originally of one family, while others say 
that the Atabeks of Shfraz were descended from Salghur, 
and the Atabeks of Diyar Bakr and Syria from Aq-Sunqur 
(504), the favourite slave of Malikshah, on whom the govern- 
ment of Aleppo was conferred in A. H, 481. He ruled this 
city for ten years, and died in A. H. 491. His son (2) Zangi 
succeeded him, and was made governor of all Syria by 
Barkiyaruq, with the title of ^Imadu'd-Dfn ^). In the reign of 
Muhammad b. Malikshah, Arbll, Mosul and part of Diyar 
Bakr were added to his dominions. He had 3 sons, Buzaba ^), 
Nuru'd-Dfn [Mahmud] and Mawdud. Buzaba ^) was made 
governor of Fars, Nuru'd-Din [Mahmud] of Syria, and Mawdud 
of Diyar Bakr. Nuru'd-Din Zangf died in A. H. 541 *). His son 
(3) Nuru'd-Dfn [Mahmud] reigned in Syria 46 years and died 
in A. H. 568 ^). He was succeeded by his son (4) al-Malik 
as-Salih, who was driven out by his cousin (5) [Qutbu'd-Din] 
Mawdud, who reigned 43 years in Diyar Bakr and died in 
A. H. 565. He was succeeded by his son (6) Sayfu'd-Dln 
Ghazi, who took Syria from his cousin al-Mahk as-Salih, but 
lost it to the Egyptians in A. H. 571, and died in A. H. 576. 
He was succeeded by (7) his brother ["Izzu'd-Dfn] Mas^ud 
b. Mawdud, who reigned for 13 years and died in A. H. 
589. After him reigned his son (8) Arslanshah (505), who 
[had many contests with the House of Ayyub, and died in 
A. H. 607. He was succeeded by (9) his son Mas'^iid, known 
as Malik-i-Qdhir , who died in A. H. 615. He was succeeded 



1) This MS. has Intumuz (J,_j^i;\), others j}\ (Aghur) or _j.i\ (Aghii). 

2) MS. Nuru'd-Din. 

3) This MS. has Bizaba, but Buzdba is the usual form. 

4) MS. 522, an evident error, as shown by Ibnu'l-Athir, who was himself 
the protege of this family, the Jahan-ard and Ibn Khallikan. 

5) A. H. 569 is the date given by the three authorities cited in the last note. 



120 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 8. 

by his son (lo) Nuru'd-Dfn Arslan-shah] ') who was only a 
child, and whose kingdom was administered by(ii) Badru'd- 
Dln Lulu, who ruled for 58 years, died in A. H. 659, and was 
succeeded by his son (12) al-Malik as-Salih, who was killed 
by the Mongols, into whose hands his kingdom then passed. 

2. The Atdbeks of Pdrs. 

The first of these was (i) Sunqur b. Mawdud, whom some 
assert to have been the son of Salghar b. Aqsunqur, and 
others of Zangi b. Aqsunqur, the founder of the Atabeks 
of Diyar Bakr, who, to avenge his uncle Bfzaba, killed in 
battle by Sultan Mas"'ud the Seljuq in A. H. 543, revolted 
during the reigns of this king and of his nephew Muhammad 
b. Mahmud and made himself king of Fars, where he reigned 
13 years, and died in A. H. 556. The Masjid-i-Jami*^ of Shfraz 
was built by him, and also a rest-house {ribdt). 

He was succeeded by his brother (2) Zangf b. Mawdud, 
who had first, however, to drive out two rival claimants, 
after which he was recognized as Atabek of Fars by the 
reigning Selj liq, " Arslan b. Tughril. He reigned 14 years, 
repaired and endowed the mausoleum of the celebrated saint 
Shaykh Abu 'Abdi'llah [b.] Khafff^), and died in A. H. 570 
(MS. '60 erroneously). 

He was succeeded by his son (3) Takla, who reigned 20 
years and died {506) in A. H. 590. 

He was succeeded by (4) Tughril b. Sunqur b. Mawdud, 
whosp rule was, however, contested by his cousin Sa'^d b. 
Zangf, and in this fratricidal war Fars was devastated by 
plague and famine. In A. H. 599, after a reign of 9 years, 
Tughril was overcome and taken captive by (5) SaM b. 
Zangi, whose reign opened with a period of fearful famine, 
followed by plague. After gradually restoring the country 

i) The words in brackets, omitted in this MS., are supplied from others. 
2) For his biography see Jdmf's Nafahatti'l-Uns^ pp. 262 — 4. 



ATABEKS. — ISMA'^ILIS. 12 1 

to prosperity, he added Kirman to his dominions and 
pacified Shabankara. In A, H. 613 he prepared to attack 
'^Iraq, but was taken prisoner by the troops of Muhammad 
Khwarazmshah, and had to purchase his liberty by making 
over to the conqueror two-thirds of the revenues of Fars. 
On his return, his son Abu Bakr refused to let him enter 
Shfraz, and in the fight which ensued he was wounded in 
the eye by an arrow. (507) But the people of the city 
brought him in secretly by night, and he cast his son Abu 
Bakr into prison. When Sultan Jalalu'd-Dln Khwarazmshah 
passed through Fars on his return from India, he interceded 
for, and obtained the release of Abu Bakr. Sa^d died in 
A. H. 628 after a reign of 28 years. 

He was succeeded by his son (6) Abu Bakr b. SaM b. 
Zangf, who proved a wise, just and magnanimous sovereign, 
and a generous patron of learned and pious men. His chief 
noble was Muqarrabu'd-Dfn Abu'l-Mafakhir Mas^ud. Abu 
Bakr added to his dominions Kfsh, Bahrayn, Qatff and Lahsa 
(or al-Ahsa). Public buildings erected by him (508). His 
endowment of the mausoleum of Abu ^Abdi'Uah [b.] Khafif '). 
He died in A. H. 658 after a reign of 30 years. 

He was succeeded by his son (7) Sa^d II, who died twelve 
days after his father, and was in turn succeeded by his -son 
(8) Muhammad, who was but a child, and whose nominal 
reign (for the actual conduct of affairs was in the hands of 
his mother Turkan Khatun) lasted only two years and seven 
months, for he died in the last month of A. H. 660. 

He was succeeded by (9) Muhammad Shah b. Salghur- 
shah b. SaM b. Zangf, who reigned only 8 months, when 
he was overthrown and put to death by Turkan Khatun on 
Ramadan 10, A. H. 661. 

He was succeeded by his brother (10) Seljuqshah b. Sal- 



l) For his biography see Jami's NafahatuH-Uns^ pp. 262 — 4. 



122 CHAPTER IV, SECTIONS 8—9. 

ghurshah, who defeated and slew Turkan Khatun. Her 
brother, ''Ala'u'd-Dawla, sought help from Hulagii Khan (509), 
against whose troops Shlraz was gallantly defended by Mu- 
qarrabu'd-Din Mas'ud. Seljuqshah was finally killed by the 
Mongols in Safar, A. H. 663. 

He was succeeded by (11) Abish Khatun, daughter of 
SaM II. She reigned for a year over Fars, after which she 
was given in marriage to Mangu Tfmur the son of Hulagu 
Khan, and Fars passed directly under the control of the 
Mongols, though Abish continued to be the nominal ruler for 
nearly 20 years. 

Section g. — The Isma^ilis. 

This section is divided into two Discourses, the first treating 
of the Isma'^ilfs of Egypt, Syria and the Maghrib, the second 
of the Assassins or Isma'^ills of Alamiit. 

First Discourse, The IsmaHlis of Egypt etc. [Fdtimids). 

These, fourteen in number, reigned from A. H. 296 until 
A.H. 556, i.e. for 260 years, and are mentioned here because 
of their connection with the Persian Isma'^ilfs commonly known 
as the Assassms. 

(i) Al-Mahdi. 

(510) According to the author of the TaWikh-i-Jahdn- 
Gushd, the Sunnis assert that he was descended from "^Ab- 
du'llah b. Salim of Basra, while the people of *^Iraq trace 
his descent from '^Abdu'llah b. Maymiin al-Qaddah, who was 
one of the propagandists of the Imam Isma'^fl b. Ja'^far as- 
Sadiq. On the other hand Abu Talib 'All b. Najib ') al-Bagh- 
dadf in his '^Uyiinii t-Tawdrikh asserts that al-Mahdi was 
directly descended from the Imam Isma'^fl as follows: [Abu] 



i) Other MSS. have Khdzin or Anjab. See p. 2 supra (14). 



THE ISMA^ILIS OF THE WEST. 



123 



Muhammad ['Ubaydu'llah] al-Mahdi b. 'Abdu'llah ar-Radi 
b. Qasim at-Taqi b. Ahmad al-Wafi b. Muhammad al-Wasf 
hi Isma^il, etc., which pedigree would make him the twelfth 
of the Isma'^ili Imams and the tenth in direct descent from 
'^Ali b. Abi Talib. This Muhammad, who was the great-great- 
grandfather of the Mahdi, fled to Ray to escape the perse- 
cution of the '^Abbasid Caliphs, and is buried near there in 
Muhammad-abad. His descendants settled at Qandahar, where 
the family is well known. The Mahdi declared himself in 
A. H. 296, and in A. H. 302 overcame the Banu Aghlab (who 
then ruled in North Africa on behalf of the "^Abbasid Caliph 
al-Muqtadir), and possessed himself of their domains. Herein, 
say the Isma'^ilis, was fulfilled the Prophet's saying, "At the 
beginning of 300 years [i.e. of th€ fourth century of the Flight] 
the Sun shall arise from its Setting-place" [Mag-krid]. Al-Mahdi 
reigned 26 years, and died in A. H. 322 at the age of 62 years. 
He was 5 years younger than the Imam Mahdi recognized 
by the rival sect of the Shfa, the Ithnd "^ashariyya or "Sect 
of the Twelve". 

(2) Al-Qd'im bi-amri' lldh. 

Al-Mahdi was succeeded by his son Ahmad ') al-Qa'im, 
who was defeated by the Sunnis under Abu Yazid and 
imprisoned at al-Mahdiyya (in Tunisia). (511) He died in 
Shawwal, A. H. 334, but his death was concealed until his 
son could succeed him. He reigned twelve years. 

(3) Al-Mansur bi-Quwwati lldh. 

Isma^il b. al-Qa'im succeeded his father, defeated and 
killed Abu Yazid, reigned 7 years, and died at Mahdiyya 
in A. H. 341. 



i) Ibnu'l-Athir, Ibn Khallikan and the Jahdn-drd give his name as Mu- 
hammad, which is probably correct. 



124 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 9. 

(4) Al-MuHzz li-Dlnt'lldh Abu Tamim Md^add b. Mansiir. 

He succeeded his father, ruled wisely and well, and added 
Egypt to the Fatimid domains, taking it by stratagem from 
the "^Abbasid governor Kafur. In A. H. 362 he began to 
build Cairo, which he made his capital. He also took the 
Hijaz, and, after a reign of 24 years, died in A. H. 365. 

(5) Al-^'Aziz billdh Abu Mansur b. al-Mu'izz. 

He succeeded his father and added Syria to his domains, 
after killing Alptigin, the *^Abbasid governor. He made a 
Jew governor of Syria, and a Christian governor of Egypt, 
but later dismissed them in response to the complaints of 
his Muslim subjects. (512) He reigned 21 years and died in 
A. H. 386 [MS. 380]. 

(6) Al-Hdkim bi-amri' lldh Abu ^Ali Mansur b. '^Aziz. 

He succeeded his father, and made a great show of piety and 
humility, riding unattended through the streets mounted on 
an ass, and claiming to hold converse with God like Moses. 
His rigorous enactments against wine and women did not 
prevent him conniving at all sorts of vice on the part of 
his courtiers. Angered at the growing discontent, he lays 
waste the country. Other eccentricities on his part. Citation 
from the Kitdb-i-Istizhdr of the Qadi Ahmad-i-Damghan{ 
concerning ^Alawf-i-Madanf, whom al-Hakim commissioned 
(513) to remove the bodies of Abu Bakr and "^Umar from their 
graves, which impious attempt was miraculously prevented. 
Al-Hakim's intention of putting to death his sister on a 
charge of adultery is frusti'ated by her causing him to be 
assassinated in A. H. 411 after he had reigned 25 years. 

(7) Az-Zdhir li-i'^zdzi DiniHldh ') b, al-Hdkim. 
He was succeeded by his son, who put to death the in- 



i) So Ibnu'l-Athlr. The Guzida has az-Zdhir bVlldh. 



( / 



THE ISMA'ILIS OF THE WEST. I 25 

stigators of his assassination. He reigned 16 years, and died 
in Cairo (514) in A. H. 427. ' 

(8) Al-Mustansir bi'lldh Abii Tamim Md'add b. az-Zdhir. 

He was only 7 years of age when he succeeded to the 
throne of his father. His avarice. He reigned 60 years. Re- 
bellion subdued. He had 3 sons, Nizar, Ahmad and ^Abdu 
'1-Hamid, and originally nominated the first named as his 
successor, but afterwards set him aside in favour of Ahmad, 
to whom he gave the title of al-Musta'^li. The allegiance of 
the Isma^ilis was divided between these two. The celebrated 
Hasan-i-Sabbah espoused the cause of Nizar, and thereafter 
carried on the propaganda in his name. Al-Mustansir died 
in A. H. 487. 

(9) Al-Musta^li bi'lldh Abu' l-Qdsim Ahmad b. al-Mustansir. 

(515) He succeeded his father, captured his brother Nizar 
and his two sons, who endeavoured to escape, at Alexan- 
dria, and imprisoned them for life at Cairo. The Franks 
obtained possession of some of the coasts of Syria. Al-Mus- 
ta^li reigned 10 years, and died at Cairo at the end of 
A. H. 497. 

(10) Al-^Amir bi-ahkdmilldh Abu ^Ali Mansur b. al-Musta^li. 
He reigned 27 years, when he was assassinated by some 

of Nizar's followers, at the age of 40 years, in A. H. 524. 

(11) Al-Hdfiz li-Dini'lldh Abu Maymmi b. [Abul-Qdsim b.] ') 

al-Mustansir. 

He reigned 20 years and died in A. H. 544. 

(12) Az-Zdfir Bi'lldh. 
He was the son of al-Hdfiz li-Dinilldh. In his reign the 



l) MS. omits the words in brackets, which are supplied from Ibnu'l-Athir. 
For "Abu'l-Qdsim" the Jahdn-ard has "Muhammad". 



126 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 9. 

Franks took Ascalon, He reigneM 5 years and was assassi- 
nated by his wdzir '^Abbas b, Tamim in A. H. 549. 

(13) Al-FdHz billdh. 

He was the great-grandson of al-Mustansir, and was para- 
lytic. (516) He reigned for 3 years and died of epilepsy in 
A.H.555'). 

(14) Al-'^Adid li-Dinilldh b. al-Fa'iz. 

He succeeded his father. When, in A. H. 554, the Franks 
prepared to invade Egypt. Al-Fa'iz, filled with alarm, 
sought protection from the ruler of Syria, who sent al-Malik 
an-Nasir Salahu'd-Dfn Yusuf b. Ayyiib (Saladdin), the go- 
vernor of Hims (Emessa), to help him. On his approach, the 
army of the Franks fled. After this a quarrel arose between 
al-'^Adid and his wazir Shawir. Al-^'Adid fled for protection 
to Salahu'd-Din, who put Shawir to death. In A. H. 556 
(or, according to another statement, in A. H. 565) the khutba 
was pronounced in Egypt in the name of the "^Abbasid Ca- 
liph •*), and a week afterwards al-'^Adid, the last Fatimid Ca- 
liph, died, and Salahu'd-Din took possession of Egypt, taking 
the title of Siiltdn ("king"). In A. H. 571 he also took pos- 
session of Syria, and expelled therefrom the Atabek Sayfu 
'd-Dfn Ghazl Salghuri. In A. H. 585 ^) he took Jerusalem from 
the Franks, and afiixed an inscription on the Gate. In A. H. 
589 *) he also took "^Akka (St. Je^n d'Acre). On the decline 
of the House of Ayyiib, Egypt passed (517) into the hands 
of slave-dynasties [Mamluks). The author adds that at the 
time he wrote Nasiru'd-Dfn was king there, and was reported 
to have recognized a scion of the House of ^Abbas as Caliph 

1) So Ibnu'l-Athfr. The MS. has 552. 

2) Ibnu'l-Athir, Ibn Khallikdn and the ^a/idn-drd place this event in A. H. 567. 

3) A. H. 583 is the date given by most historians. 

4) This was the date of Saladdin's death. 'Akka was taken in A. H. 583 
according to Ibnu'I-Athir. 



THE ISMA'ILIS OF ALAMUT. 



127 



on condition of himself being recognized as king. But this 
Caliph is never seen by the people, all communications with 
him passing through his chamberlain. 

Second Discourse of Chapter IV, Section g. 
The Isma^ilis of Persia, or „ Assassins". 

These were eight in number and reigned for 171 years, 
i. e. from A. H. 483 until A. H. 654. They were as follows. 

(i) Hasan-i-Sabbdh. 

His genealogy and alleged descent from the Himyarite 
kings of Yaman. He was at first a Shf 1 of the Sect of the 
Twelve, and was chamberlain to Alp Arslan the Seljuq, but 
was converted to the Sect of the Seven, or Isma'^ilfs, by 
'Abdu'1-Mahk b. 'Attash. His quarrel with the Nizamu'1-Mulk 
leads to his dismissal from the Court. He goes to Ray, his 
native place, in A. H. 464, whence in A. H. 471 he proceeds 
to Syria, and carries on the propaganda for Nizar b. Mus- 
tansir. There he remained several years, during which period 
he is alleged to have been entrusted by Nizar with the 
care of one of his sons, whom he brought back with him 
to Persia. Fearing the vengeance of the Nizamu'1-Mulk, he 
remained in hiding in Isfahan, in the house of the Ra'is 
Abu'1-Fazl Lunbani, to whom he said one day, "If I had two 
congenial friends, I would destroy this empire". Abu'1-Fazl, 
deeming him mad (518), began to give him medicines appro- 
priate to that distemper. Hasan-i-Sabbah, perceiving this, 
fled to Ray. He converted to his doctrine sundry warders 
of castles, such as Ra'is Muzafifar of Gird-Kuh, and Husayn 
of Qa'in, governor of Turshiz. He then went to Qazwin, and 
in,A. H. 483 (a number equivalent to the sum of the nume- 
rical values of its component letters) captured the Castle of 
Alamiit, which, being interpreted, means "the Eagle's Nest" 



128 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 9. 

{Aluh-dmut), of which the governor was Mahdi-i-^Alawi. De- 
scription of the stratagem whereby Hasan-i-Sabbah obtained 
possession of the Castle, It is attacked (519) by Altun Tash, 
a slave of Malikshah, who reduces it to considerable straits, 
but dies before he has captured it. Rapid progress of the 
propaganda. Malikshah sends Arslan Tash and Qizil-Tdsh 
against the Assassins; who are reinforced by the Dihdar 
Abu *^Ali Ardistani with 300 men. Death of Arslan Tash 
and assassination of the Nizamu'1-Mulk. Death of Malikshah 
at Baghdad shortly afterwards. Civil war between Barkiyaruq 
and Muhammad. Further progress of Hasan-i-Sabbah's pro- 
paganda. His lieutenant, Kiya Buzurg-umid, takes the Castle 
of Lammasar at the end of A. H. 495. (520) Sultan Muhammad 
b. Malikshah undertakes fresh operations against the Assas- 
sins, and besieges Alamut for eight years, but dies before 
he can effect anything. Sultan Sanjar in turn attempted to 
extirpate the Assassins, but was intimidated by an attempt 
on his life into abandoning it. Hasan-i-Sabbah's meeting 
with his former host, Ra'is Abu'1-Fazl. Ascetic life of Hasan- 
i-Sabbah. During the 35 years of his rule no one made or 
drunk wine in his domain. He puts to death his two sons, 
one for wine-drinking and the other for fornication (521). How 
the custom arose amongst the Assassins of sending away 
their wives and daughters in time of stress to some safe 
place. Only twice during his reign did Hasan-i-Sabbah come 
out of his house. His books and his "Esoteric" {Bdtini) doc- 
trine. He died on Wednesday the 6th of Rabi'^ ii, A.H. 518, 
and was succeeded by — 

(2) Kiyd Buzurg-umid of Rudbdr. 

He, while professing the belief of his predecessor, observed 
the external forms of the law of Islam. He reigned 14 years, 
two months and twenty days, and died on the 26th of 
Jumada ii, A. H. 532. 



THE ISMA'ILIS OF ALAMUT. 



129 



(3) Muhammad b. Buzurg-umid. 

He reigned 24 years, 8 months and 7 days, and (522) 
died on the 3rd of Rabf i, A. H. 557. His son would have 
claimed the rank of Imam, but he prevented him. 

N (4) Hasan b. Muhammad b. Buzurg-umid. 

On his father's death he again claimed to be the Imam, 
and professed to be the great-grandson of Nizar b. Mustansir. 
Explanations of this claim, and pedigree advanced by Hasan. 
He institutes the impious '^Idul-Qiydm, or „ Festival of the 
Resurrection", on Ramadan 17. A. H. 559, and abrogates all 
outward observances of the Law (523). This Festival marks 
the commencement of the new era adopted instead of the 
hijra by the IsmaS'lis. Hasan is given the title of '^ala Dhi- 
krihi' s-Saldm ("on his Mention be Peace"), and is called 
"Lord" by his followers, but by the Muslims of Qazwfn 
"Kiira Kiya". His heretical doctrines and antinomianism 
cause discontent amongst some of his followers, and he is 
finally killed by a scion of the House of Buwayh, who was 
his brother-in-law, on the 6th of Rabf^ i, A. H. 561, after a 
reign of 4 years. 

(5) Muhammad b. Hasan '^ala Dhikrihi s-Saldm. 

On his accession (524) he put to death his father's mur- 
derer and all his relatives, and carried on his father's here- 
tical doctrines and practices. He died after a reign of 46 
years on the loth of Rabf i, A. H. 607, poisoned, as some 
assert, by his son and successor. 

(6) Jaldlud-Din Hasan b. Muhammad. 

He repudiated the heresies of his father and grandfather, 
enforced on his followers the observance of the Law of Islam, 
and was recognized by the Caliph as a Muslim and called 
^ Naw-Musulmdn" . He invites the ^ulamd of Qazwin to inspect 

9 



130 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 9. 

the library of Alamut and burn such books as they consider 
heretical, and curses his heretical ancestors and predecessors. 
In A. H. 609 he sent his mother to perform the Pilgrimage, 
and she was highly honoured by the Caliph, and given pre- 
cedence over all other princes. Permission was also given 
for intermarriage between members of Jalalu'd-Din's family 
and the nobles of {525) Gilan and other Muslims, and he 
availed himself of this permission to marry four ladies of 
Gllan, one of whom, the daughter of the Amir of Kutam '), bore 
him 'Ala'u'd-Dln, who afterwards succeeded him. Jalalu'd-Din 
also made friends with Muzafifaru'd-Dln Uzbek, the Atabek 
of Adharbayjan, and joined him in a campaign against Mun- 
gulf the ruler of "^Iraq, as a result of which Abhar and 
Zanjan were added to his domains. When Chingfz Khan 
invaded Persia, Jalalu'd-Dfn made his submission and received 
promises of security. He died in the middle of Ramadan, 
A. H. 518 (some say from dysentery, others by poison 
administered by his wives and sister) after a reign of 1 1 '/2 years. 

(7) '^Alau'd-Din Muhammad b. Jalalu'd-Din. 

He was only nine years old at the time of his father's 
death and his accession. He abandoned his father's orthodoxy, 
and reverted to the heretical beliefs and practices of his 
earlier ancestors. His madness increases the prevailing dis- 
orders. (526) Enmity between him and his son Ruknu'd-Din 
Khurshah. Hasan-i-Mazandaranl murders *^Ala'u'd-Dfn, as" he 
hes drunk at Shfr-Kuh, at the end of Shawwal, A. H. 653, 
after he had reigned 35 years and one month, he being 
then 45 years of age. Verses on his death by Mawlana 
Shamsu'd-Din Ayyub Ta'usf. 

(8) Ruknu d-Din Khurshah b, '^Alau'd-Din. 
To avert from himself the suspicion of parricide, he put 



l) Kdtam is the name of a district in Gfldn. 



QARA-KHITA'IS OF KIRMAN. 131 

to death Hasan-i-Mazandaranf, his father's murderer, and his 
sons. He conquered the castles of Shalriid ') In Khalkhal, and 
put their garrisons to the sword. When he had reigned 
one year, Hulagu Khan attacked him, and he, knowing the 
futihty of resistance (527), marched out from his castle of May- 
miin-i-Dizh at the end of Shawwal, A. H. 654, and surrendered. 
In the course of about a month Hulagu took and destroyed 
about fifty of the Assassins' strongholds, such as Alamut, 
Maymun-i-Dizh, Surush, Surkha-Dizak, Nira, Bahram-Dizh, 
Ahan-Kiih, Zawran, Taj, Shayharan ^), Firdaws, Mansuriyya, 
etc. Gird-Kuh [and Lammasar] alone held out for a time, 
and with their fall the power of the Persian Isma'^ilis ended. 
Alamut, their chief stronghold, was built by ad-Da^^i ila'l- 
Haqq Hasan b. Zayd al-Baqiri in the reign of al-Mutawakkil 
in A. H. 246, and thus endured in all 410 years. 

Section 10. — The Qard-Khitdy rulers of Kir7ndn. 

These were nine in number, and reigned from A. H. 621 
until A. H. 706, in all 86 years. 

(i) Burdq-i-Hdjib. 

He was one of the amirs of the Gur Khan of Qarakhitay, 
and on the conquest of Qarakhitay by Muhammad Khwa- 
razmshah, he entered the service of that king and attained 
a high rank. When Khamid-Pur ^), Khwarazmshah's governor 
of Bukhara, was killed by the Mongols (528), Buraq joined 
Sultan Ghiyathu'd-Din. He fights and kills Shuja'^ Abu'l- 
Qasim A'^war-i-Zawzani, the governor of Kirman, takes Ga- 
washir, and finally, by treacherous correspondence with the 
Mongols, Kirman also. He receives from the Mongols the 
title of Qutlugh Khan. He reigned 1 1 years, and (529) died 



1) Shalrud and Salrud are the usual MS. readings. Gantin's edition, pp. 512 — 3. 

2) Most of the Paris MSS. have Shimiran, which is probably correct. 

3) So in the Jahdn-Gushdy. Most MSS. of the Gtizida have Hamid-Bur or -Piir 



132 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 10. 

in A. H. 632, leaving a son named Mubarak-Khwaja and 
four daughters, Sunj Turkan, who married Chaghatay Khan; 
Yaqut Turkan, who married the Atabek Qutbu'd-Dfn Mah- 
mud Shah' of Yazd ; Maryam Turkan, who married Muhyi'd- 
Dfn Amir Sam, the grandson of the Yazdi Atabek; and 
Khan Turkan, who married his nephew (her cousin) Qutbu'd- 
Din Tayangu. The latter succeeded Buraq-i-Hajib, and reigned 
over Kirman for two years. 

(2) Rukmi" d-Din Mubdrak-Khwdja b. Burdq. 

He defeated Tayangu, and was named ruler of Kirman 
by Ogotay. He reigned 16 years, and was dismissed in A. H. 
650 [MS. 605] by Manggu Khan. 

(3) Qutbu' d-Din. Tdyangu. 

Four months after his restoration he married Qutlugh 
Turkan, formerly one of the concubines of Buraq Hajib, who 
guided him with wise councils and bore him several daugh- 
ters. Ruknu'd-Din Mubarak-Khwaja again began to intrigue 
to displace his rival, and Tayangu, having got him into his 
power, put him to death with his own hands in A. H. 651. 
(530) A pretender appears and impersonates Jalalu'd-Din 
Khwarazmshah, and gathers round him many people, but 
is killed by Tayangu. Tayangu next surprises and massacres 
a number of Baluchi's (Kuch u Baluch) '), who had by their 
depredations long terrorized the countryside. Tayangu finally 
died in Ramadan, A. H. 655. 

(4) Sultdn Hajjdj b. Qutbu'd-Din. 
He was appointed by Manggu Khan to succeed his father, 
his mother, Qutlugh Turkan, acting as regent during his 
minority. She gave her daughter, Padishah Khatun, in marriage 



i) The Kiich (Arabic Qufs and Qufs, see Ydqtft, s.v. ^pX, ^JxJ^ ^m^ (j-*^)' 
are a predatory tribe inhabiting the mountains of Kirmdn. 



QARA-KHITA'IS OF KIRMAN. 



133 



ot Abaqa Khan, thus greatly strengthening her position, and 
reigned for 15 years. Meanwhile her son grew up, and 
quarrels arose between her and him. (531) After various 
intrigues Hajjaj, displaced in his mother's favour, retired to 
India in A. H. 666 '), and Qutlugh Turkan reigned until A. H. 
681, in which year she died at Tabriz, and was buried at 
Kirman by her daughter Blbi Turkan. 

(5) Sultan Jaldlu d-Din Siirghatmush. 

He reigned for 9 years. His wazir Fakhru'1-Mulk Mahmud 
b. Shamsu'd-Din Muhammad Shah Zawzani prevented him 
from continuing on good terms with his sister Padishah Khatun 
(532), in revenge for which she afterwards killed him. She 
also caused her brother Jalalu'd-Din to be strangled on 
Ramadan 27. A. H. 693, and gave it out that he had com- 
mitted suicide. 

(6) Padishah Khatun, daughter of Qutbu'd-Din. 

She had been married "in the Mongol fashion" to Gay- 
khatu, who, when he came to the throne, conferred on her 
the sovereignty of Kirman. Her verses (specimen cited). (533) 
She is put to death in A. H. 694 [MS. 664). 

(7) Muzaffarti d-Din Muhammad Shah b. Hajjaj. 

He succeeded by command of Ghazan Khan in A. H. 695, 
with the Qadi Fakhru'd-Din Hirawi as his wazir. The latter 
is murdered in consequence of his tyranny, and Kirman 
revolts. It is besieged for a year and a half, at the command 
of Ghazan Khan, by the Amfrs of ^Iraq" and Fars. (534) The 
Amirs suggest to Ghazan Khan that he should send Sultan 
Muhammad Shah, who was in attendance on him, to receive 
the submission of the city. (535) He died of drink, after a 
reign of 8 years, in A. H. 703. 



I) A. H. 669 in most MSS. 



134 CHAPTER IV, SECTIONS 10 — 11. 

(8) Qutbu'd-Din Shdh-Jahdn b. Surghatmush. 

He succeeded his cousin, and reigned a little more than 
two years and a half. On account of his tyrannies and pecu- 
lations he was summoned by Uljaytu to his court, and not 
permitted to return, Mahk Nasiru'd-Din Muhammad b. Burhan 
being sent to replace him at Kirman. Qutbu'd-Din finally 
died in retirement at Shfraz, and was buried at Kirman. 

Section ii. — The Atdbeks of Luristdn. 

Account of the Zubdatut-Tawdrikh as to the derivation 
of the word Lur. (Three explanations given, all very feeble). 
(536) Another legend as to the semi-diabolic origin of the 
Lurs in the time of Solomon, the same legend being also 
told of the Gilakis. Another legend makes the Lurs of semi- 
Arabian descent. Evidences afforded by their language. (537) 
Ten Arabic letters (^^ ^^ da, (]i ^c. cc, iv_i ^^ (_.(^) 

said not to occur in the Luri dialect. The Lurs are divided 
into two branches. 

(i) Lur-i-Buzurg (Greater Lurs). 

The division of the Lurs into "greater" and "lesser" is 
said to date from about A. H. 300, when a certain Badr 
I'uled over Lur-i-Buzurg and his brother Mansiir over Lur-i- 
Kuchak. Badr had a long reign and was succeeded by his 
grandson Nasiru'd-Din Muhammad b. Khalil b. Badr, who 
ruled justly, aided by his wazir Muhammad b. Khurshid, At 
this time half of Luristan was in the possession of the Shuls. 
Their chief was Sayfu'd-Din Makan Riizbahanf, whose ances- 
tors had been governors of that region since Sasanian times, 
and whose descendants still hold that position. About A.H. 
500 some hundred families of Kurds emigrated from Jabalu's- 
Summaq into Luristan. Their chief was Abu'l-Hasan Fadluya, 
who had a son named '^Ali. How he is wounded by his 



ATABEKS OF LURISTAN. 



135 



enemies (538) but saved by his dog. "^Ali leaves a son named 
Muhammad, who was in the service of the Salghari Atabeks. 
He died leaving a son named Abu Tahir, who, by his cou- 
rage, rose high in Sunqur's service, subdued Luristan, and 
became an independent sovereign. He died in A. H. 555 '), 
leaving 5 sons, Hazarasp, Bahman, ^Imadu'd-Din Pahlawan, 
Nusratu'd-Din llwakiish, and Qizil. (539) Hazarasp succeeded 
his father, and ruled well and justly, so that more tribes, such as 
the '^Aqilis and Hashimis and some two dozen others, whose 
names are enumerated, migrated into the country from Jabalu's- 
Summaq and other places. These ultimately displace the Shuls, 
who are driven into Fars, while Hazarasp extends his domain 
to within four parasangs of Isfahan. His wars with the Atabek 
Tikla. (540) The title of Atabek is conferred by the Caliph 
an-Nasir on Hazarasp. On his death he is succee.ded by his 
son Tikla, who is attacked by the Atabek SaM of Fars. 
The Atabek's army, in spite of its size, is dispersed on the 
death of their leader Jamalu'd-Din "Umar Lalba. Three sub- 
sequent campaigns of the Salghuri Atabeks against Luristan 
are equally unfortunate. Tikla b. Hazarasp annexes portions 
of Lur-i-Kuchak. His country is invaded by the Caliph's 
generals Baha'u'd-Din Garshasf and "^Imadu'd-Din Yunus, who 
take captive his brother Qizil and confine him in the Castle 
of Lahuj (or Lamuj). (541) Tikla kills ''Imadu'd-Din and takes 
captive Baha'u'd-Din. In A. H. 655 Tikla joins Hiilagu Khan's 
attack on Baghdad, but, disgusted at the atrocities committed 
by the Mongols, withdraws to Luristan, whither he is pur- 
sued by them. (542) He finally surrenders to Hulagu on 
promise of amnesty, but is put to death at Tabriz. His body 
is conveyed to Luristan by his followers and buried. He 
was succeeded by Shamsu'd-Di'n Alp Arghun, who restored 
the prosperity of the country, and ruled 15 years. He left 
two sons, of whom Yusufshah was nominated ruler of Lu- 

i) This MS. reads A. H. 505, evidently an error. 



136 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 11. 

ristan by Abaqa Khan, (543) who held him in high favour 
on account of his valour in the campaign against Gllan. 
On the accession of Ahmad [Takudar] and his quarrel with 
Arghun, Yusufshah marched with 2000 horse and 10,000 
foot to the help of the former. On his defeat in Khurasan 
these Lurs retreated through the desert of Tabas towards 
Natanz, but many of them perished of thirst. Arghun sent 
Yusufshah to seek out Shamsu'd-Din the Sdhib-Diwdn, 
[who, on Ahmad's defeat, had fled to Qum and Isfahan] 
and bring him to his court, and Shamsu'd-Din gave him 
his daughter in marriage. Later, when Shamsu'd-Dfn was 
put to death, Yusufshah returned to Luristan, where he 
shortly afterwards died (544) in A. H. 680 '), leaving two sons, 
Afrasiyab and Ahmad, of whom the former succeeded to 
the position of Atabek of Luristan. He ruled tyrannically, 
fined and otherwise maltreated Nizamu'd-Dln, Jalalu'd-Dfn 
and Sadru'd-Dfn, who had faithfully served his predecessors 
as wazirs, and ruined their family, some members of which 
took refuge at Isfahan. Death of Arghun. Baydii, the Mongol 
governor of Isfahan, is killed by Qizil, Salgharshah and 
others, who thereupon seized Isfahan in the name of Afra- 
siyab. The Lurs extend, their domains and inflict a defeat 
on the Mongols (545), who, however, returned to defeat and 
destroy them. In this battle one Mongol women is said to 
have killed ten Lurs. Afrasiyab was ultimately pardoned by 
Arghiin's successor. Gay Khatii, and confirmed in the go- 
vernment of Luristan, in which position, notwithstanding 
his tyranny towards his subjects, including his relations (546), 
he was confirmed by Ghazan Khan, who, however, after- 
wards caused him to be put to death, and appointed his 
brother Nusratu'd-Din Ahmad to succeed him. This prince 
ruled well and wisely, sought to repair the mischief done 

i) This MS. has A. H. 608, an obvious error, since Arghdn's accession was 
in A. H.680. 



ATABEKS OF LURISTAN. 137 

by his brother, and put in force the Sacred Law, which, 
says the author, has been scrupulously observed since his 
accession until the time of writing, a period of 35 years, so 
that Luristan became "the envy of Paradise" (547). 

(2) Lur-i-Kuchuk (Lesser Lurs). 

Account of the inhabitants of Luristan, both those who 
were and those who were not originally Lurs, and enume- 
ration of their tribes. Until A. H. 550 these had no prince 
of their own, but were subject to the Caliph and his gover- 
nors of Persian ''Iraq. At this date, Husamu'd-Dfn Suhili, 
one of the Aq-sari Turks, a follower of the Seljuqs, was 
governor of Luristan and part of Khuzistan. (548) Shuja'^u'd- 
Din Khurshid b. Abi Bakr b, Muhammad b. Khurshfd was 
the first independent ruler of Lur-i-Kuchuk. He had two 
sons, Badr and Haydar, of whom the latter was killed during 
the siege of Dizh-i-Siyah ("the Black Fortress"). The other, 
Badr, and his cousin Sayfu'd-Din Rustam, made war on the 
Turkish ruler of Bayat '),, overcame him, and took his country. 
Sayfu'd-Din treacherously compassed the death of Badr, who 
left four Sons, Husamu'd-Din Khalil, Badru'd-Din Mas'^ud, 
Sharafu'd-Din Tahamtan and Amir "^Ali. Shuja'^u'd-Din died 
in A. H. 621 at the age of a hundred. His tomb was regarded 
as holy by the Lurs on account of his justice. He was suc- 
ceeded (550) by Sayfu'd-Din Rustam, who ruled justly and 
suppressed highway robbery with a strong hand, but was finally 
killed by "^Ali, a son of the murdered Badr. (551) His brother, 
Sharafu'd-Din Abu Bakr succeeded him, and he in turn 
was succeeded by his brother "^Izzu'd-Din Garshasf, who was 
speedily deposed (55^) by Husamu'd-Din Khali'I, and, a year 
later, murdered by him. War ensues between Husamu'd-Din 
and Shihabu'd-Din Sulaymanshah, the brother of '^Izzu'd- 
Din's widow and the guardian of his infant children. So 

l) Baydt is the name of a district in or near Khilzistan, 



138 * CHAPTER IV, SECTION II. 

fierce was the feud that in one month 31 battles were fought 
between them. Sulaymanshah was at length defeated and 
retired into Kurdistan, but after some years returned with 
60,000 horse and 9000 foot (553) and defeated and slew 
Husamu'd-Din Khalfl in the plain of Shapiir-khwast. His body 
was burned and his head sent to Sulaymanshah, who expressed 
regret at his death and composed a quatrain on his fate. 
This happened in A. H. 640. He was succeeded by his bro- 
ther Badru'd-Din Mas'^iid, who appealed for help to the 
Mongols, representing Sulaymanshah as the protege of the 
Caliph. He was therefore permitted to accompany Hulagii 
Khan's expedition, and was present at the sack of Baghdad, 
after which he begged that Sulaymanshah might be surren- 
dered to him. Sulaymanshah was killed, and his family were 
given to Badru'd-Din Mas'^ud, who took them with him to 
Luristan, and gave them the choice of remaining there or 
of returning to Baghdad. {554) Most of them remained in 
Luristan and married and settled down there. Badru'd- 
Din Mas'^iid died in A. H. 658. His justice and piety. His 
sons, Jalalu'd-Din ') Badr and Nasiru'd-Din "^Umar, dispute 
with Taju'd-Din Shah, the son of Husamu'd-Din Khali'l, for 
the crown. They appeal to the Mongol Abaqa Khan, who 
decides in favour of the last-named, and puts the others to 
death. Taju'd-Din reigned 17 years, and was finally put to 
death by Abaqa Khan in A. H. ^Jj. The power then passed 
into the hands of Badru'd-Din Mas*^ud's two sons Falaku'd- 
Din Hasan and "^Izzu'd-Din ^usayn, who reigned jointly for 
15 years and extended their authority over Nihawand, Ha- 
madan, Shushtar and Isfahan, and other neighbouring places. 
(555) ^^^^ ^^^ brothers acted always in concert, and had an 
army .of 17,000 men. Both died in the reign of Gaykhatii in 
A. H. 692. They were succeeded by Jamalu'd-Dfn Khidr, son 
of Taju'd-Dfn Shah, who was killed by rival competitors 
1) Jamdlu'd-Din in other MSS. 



ATABEKS OF. LURASTAN. 



139 



for the throne in A. H. 693 near Khurramabad. With him 
the family of Husamu'd-Din Khah'l came to an end. He was 
succeeded by Husamu'd-Din "^Umar Beg, who (556) was 
speedily deposed in favour of Samsamu'd-Din Mahmud, who 
was put to death by command of Ghazan Khan in A. H. 
695. He was succeeded by ^Izzu'd-Din [Ahmad, the son of 
Amir] ') Muhammad, the son of '^Izzu'd-Din Husayn, the son of 
Badru'd-Din Mas^ud, the son of Shuja\i'd-Din Khurshid, who 
was still but a child; and the effective power passed to a 
large extent into the hands of (557) Badru'd-Din Mas'^ud ^), 
and, after "^Izzu'd-Din's death, into those of his widow Dawlat 
Khatun. Thenceforward the power of the dynasty gradually 
waned and the country passed more and more under the 
control of Mongol governors. Characteristics of the country 
of Luristan. Mineral wealth. Fauna and flora. Rivers and 
principal towns. 

Section 12. — Account of the Mongols, preceded by 

an Introduction {Matla"), and followed by a Conclusion 

[Makhlas). 

(558) Introduction, on the Genealogy of the Mongols. 

The author bases his account on the Jdmi'^u't-Tawdrikh 
of his "martyred master" Rashfdu'd-Din Fadlu'llah, and 
makes Japhet the ancestor of the Turks and Mongols. Oghuz 
Khan. Tur. Early mythological history of wolf-parents and 
the like. Beginning of third century of the Flight (ninth 
century of the Christian era). {559) The melting of the 
mountain which bars the egress of the Mongols. The original 
home of the Mongols and its boundaries. Characteristics' and 
government of the early Mongols. (560 — 564) Tables of the 
Mongol tribes, taken from the Jdmi^ut-Tawdrikh. 



1) The words enclosed in brackets are omitted in many MSS. 

2) This Badru'd-Din Mas'^ud was the son of Falaku'd-Din Hasan and the 
grandson of the Badru'd-Din Mas'^ud mentioned above. 



I40 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 12. 

Makhlas (Conclusion). 

565—571 Tables of the Mongol rulers descended from 
Chingiz Khan, down to Abu Sa^fd, the author's contemporary. 

Maqsad. The Mongol rulers of Persia, or Ilkhdns. 

These were 14 ') in number, and had reigned from A. H. 
599 until the time of writing (A. H. 730) 130 years, but of this 
period only 1 14 years over Persia. Tlieir descent was from 
Alanquwa of the tribe of Qurlas [? Biriilas], one of the branches 
of Qunqurat. The miraculous birth (572) of three male chil- 
dren by a woman of this family in A. H. 375, one of whom, 
Buzanjar, was the ninth ancestor of (i) Chingiz Khan. Pedigree 
of Chingfz Khan. He was originally named Temiichfn, and 
was born on Dhu'l-Qa'^da 20, A. H. 549 (= Jan. 26, A. D. 1 155). 
Left an orphan at the age of 13, he was abandoned by his 
tribe, the Nirun, but re-established his supremacy over them 
at the age of 30. At the age of 40 he allied himself with 
Ung Khan, chief of the Kara'its. For 8 years these extended 
their joint authority over the neighbouring tribes, but after- 
wards quarrelled, and engaged in a strife which left Chingfz 
Khan supreme. He then took the title of king, and brought 
under his authority all the Mongols and kindred tribes, and 
the peoples of Cathay, Khutan, Khazar, Saqsin, Bulghar, 
Qirghfz, Alan, Tangut and Russia. (573) Convention with 
Sultan Muhammad Khwarazmshah. Increased commercial 
relations between Persia and Mongolia. Treacherous murder 
pf Mongol merchants by Inaljuq the governor of Utrar in 
A. H. 615. Chingfz Khan invades Persia. In A. H. 617 the 
Mongol Amirs Yama Noyan and Subtay are sent against 
Persia, followed by Tulf Khan, Tushf Khan, Chaghatay Khan, 
and Ogotay Khan. The massacres wrought by the Mongols 
in Persia are unparalleled in history. (574) "If for a thou- 

l) MS. "13", which is correct ifQubilay Khdn be omitted from the reckoning. 



MONGOL ILKHANS OF PERSIA. j^j 

sand years no other calamity or disaster should befall, and 
justice and equity should prevail, the world would still not 
go as it went then". A certain great man who was asked 
as to the doings of the Mongols, replied: "They came, they 
slew, they departed and deported". In A. H. 621 they retired 
for a while. The lands assigned by Chingiz Khan to four 
of his seven sons. Death of Chingiz Khan in Ramadan, A. H. 
624 (= Aug. — Sept., A. H. 1227) after a reign of 25 years. 

(2) Ogotdy Qadn, son of Chingiz Qd'dn. 

He was crowned in A. H. 626, two years after his father's 
death, and reigned 13 years. His clemency and generosity. 
Further conquests in Cathay in A. H. 627. (575) Final over- 
throw of Sultan Jalalu'd-Dfn Khwarazmshah in A. H. 628. 
Amir Jintimur made governor of Persia until A. H. 633, 
when he was succeeded by Naw-sal, who died in A. H. 637 
and was succeeded by Gurkiiz. After 8 years, he was put 
to death in A. H. 645, and was succeeded by Arghun, who 
held this position until his death in the reign of Abaqa 
Khan. Ogotay died of excessive drinking on the 5th of Ju- 
mada ii, A. H. 639 (= Dec. 11, A. D. 1241) Account of Tushi 
(who predeceased his father Chingiz by six months) and (576) 
his son Batu and his successors. Account of Chaghatay Qa'an, 
who predeceased his brother Ogotay by one year. (577)' ^^^ 
of his successors. Account of Tuli Qa'an, who died in A. H. 
628 ') (578). 

(3) Kuyiik Qd'dn, son of Ogotdy Qd'dn. 

Between his father's death and his succession, his mother 
acted as regent for four years. He reigned only about a 
year, and was succeeded by — 



l) In A. H. 630, according to the ydmi^u't-Tawarikh (ed. Blochet, p. 221). 



142 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 12. 

(4) Mangu Qd'an, son of Ttili Qd'dn. 

He was crowned in Rabi^ i, A. H. 648 (= June, A.D. 1250). 
He sends his brothers Qubilay and Hiilagii to make further 
conquests in the East and in the West respectively. 'Idi- 
qut, king of the Uyghiirs, plans a massacre of Muslims at 
Besh-Baliq, but is himself put to death. Earthquake in 
Adharbayjan in A. H. 652. (579) Death of Mangu at the be- 
ginning of A. H. 657 in a Chinese campaign, after a reign 
of 9 years, at the age of 48. 

(5) Qubilay Qd'dn. 

He reigned 35 years, and died in A. H. 693 at the age of 
83. His capital was Pekin (Khan-baligh, "Cambaluc"), His 
grandson Timur Qa'an, who ruled over Cathay, and his suc- 
cessors, and the struggle between Christianity and Islam. 

(6) Hiildgu Khdn '), son of Tiili, son of Chingiz. 

He was sent to extirpate the Assassins in Persia by his 
brother Mangu, at the instigation of the Qadi Shamsu'd-Din 
Ahmad of Qazwin, in A. H. 653. (580) Surrender of Ruknu'd- 
Din Khurshah, the king of the Assassins, at the end of 
Shawwal, A. H. 654 (== Nov. 19, A. D. 1256). He is put to 
death. Hiilagu captures and sacks Baghdad, and puts to 
death al-Musta^sim, the last 'Abbasid Caliph, on Safar 6, 
A. H. 656 [= Feb. 12, A. D. 1258). 800,000 of the inhabitants 
of Baghdad are slain. Further advances of the Mongols into 
Asia Minor and Syria. At Damascus news reaches Hulagii 
of the death of Mangu, and he turns back, leaving the Amfr 
Kitbuqa to prosecute the campaign. The Egyptians attack 
and rout the Mongols, and kill Kitbuqa. (581) Death of 

1) Qa'dn, Khaqdn and Khdn are all different forms of the same Mongol 

title, but it seems best to keep the first for the purely Mongolian rulers and 

the last for those (of whom Hiildgd was the first) to whom waS assigned the 
government of Persia. 



MONGOL ILKHANS OF PERSIA. i^o 

Hulagu at Maragha in A. H. 663, after a reign of 9 years, 
at the age of 48. The Zij-i-llkhdni compiled for Hulagu by 
Nasiru'd-Din Tusi, Mu'ayyadu'd-Din 'Arudi, Fakhru'd-Din 
Akhlatf and Najmu'd-Din Qazwini. 

(7) Abdqd Khan, son of Hiildgii. 
He was appointed to succeed his father by his uncle Qu- 
bilay Qa'an in Ramadan, A. H. 663 (June — July, A. D. 1265). 
Tarakay Khatun sends an army against Persia. A battle is 
fought on Safar 8, A. H. 664. (582) Abaqa Khan marches on 
Tiflis. Mas'^iid Beg b. ' Mahmud Yalwaj goes to Persia in 
A. H. 666. Wars of Abaqa Khan with various rivals. Birth 
of Ghazan at the end of Rabi"^ ii, A. H. 670 (beginning of 
December, A. D. 1271). Revolt of Tarabi in Bukhara in 
A. H. 636 '). (583) Death of Arghun at Tus on Dhu'l-Hijja 
20, A. H. 673. Coalition between a number of the Assassins 
[Maldhidd] and a son of Khwarazmshah against the Mongols. 
They capture Alamut, but it is retaken and destroyed by 
j\baqa. — Earthquake at Akhlat and other places. Defeat 
of Mongols by Bunduqdar's Egyptians at Abulustayn ^). — 
Mu^inu'd-Din Parwana put to death by Abaqa in A. H. 6^6. 
Invasion of Pars by Nikiidar's army. Defeat of Mongols by 
Syrians near Hims (Emessa). Death of Abaqa at a banquet 
given by Shamsu'd-Din Muhammad b. Khwaja Baha'u'd-Din 
Sdhib-Diwdn (584) in A. H. 680 (MS. 688) after a reign of 
17 years and 3 months. The above-mentioned Shamsu'd-Din 
was his minister and also his father's. — His capacity in 
administration and financial ability. — Majdu'1-Mulk of Yazd 
was latterly preferred to him, and hence some suspected 
that he had poisoned his master Abaqa in revenge. — Death 
of Prince Manggu Timur at Baghdad in A.H. 681. 

i) MS. "671", but the author of the Jahdn-Gushdy^ who was contemporary 
with the event, gives the date adopted in the text (vol. i, pp. 85 — 90 of the 
edition in this series). 

2) So vocalized in Yaqut's Geographical Dictionary : •,.,.' ^.. \ . 



144 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 12. 

(8) AJimad Khan, son of Huldgu. 

He was crowned at Aladaq ') in A. H.681, and appointed as 
his wazir Shamsu'd-Din the Sahib- Diwdn^ at whose instigation 
he put Majdu'1-Mulk of Yazd to death on the 20th of Jumada i, 
A. H. 681. — Rebellion of Arghiin. (585), who defeated Ahmad 
at Qazwi'n in A. H. 683. Ahmad sacks Damghan, and Arghun 
retires to the fortress of Kalat, and afterwards surrenders 
voluntarily and is imprisoned, though Ahmad's amirs urgently 
counsel him to kill him. Arghun is rescued from prison by 
some of his followers, and defeats Ahmad (586), who is put 
to death after a reign of 2 years and 2 months. '^Ala'u'd-Din 
'^Ata-Malik the Sdhib-Diwdn, brother of Shamsu'd-Din, [author 
of the Ta'rikh-i-Jahdn-gushd] and governor of Baghdad and 
Arabia after the destruction of the last Caliph by Hulagu, 
died during Ahmad's reign in A. H. 681. 

(9) Arghiin, son of Abdgd. 

On Sha'ban 4, A. H. 683 (= Oct. 16, 1284) Shamsu'd-Din 
Muhammad Sahib-Diwan was put to death at Ahar by Ar- 
ghun, on- suspicion of having poisoned Abaqa Khan. He had 
served Arghun's grandfather, father and uncle as premier 
for a period of 29 years. Verses on his death, which was 
regarded by some as a judgement on him for having com- 
passed the death of Majdu'1-Mulk of Yazd. (587) His son 
Harun was put to death in Jumada ii, A. H. 685 (=: August, 
1286). Malik Jalalu'd-Din Hamadani was then made prime 
minister, but was put to death on Rajab 15, A. H. 688 
(= August 5, 1289), and was succeeded by Sa'du'd-Dawla 
of Abhar, the Jew. (588) His vigorous administration. Amir 
Chuban's iirst military achievements in A. H. 688 (= 1289). 
SaMu'd-Dawla's hostility is aroused against Fakhru'd-Din 



i) This form alternates in the histories of the period with Aladdgh, Alatdq, 
and Alatdq. 



MONGOL ILKHANS OF PERSIA. 



145 



Mustawfi ') (589), and he causes him to be put to death on 
Ramadan i, A. H. 689 (=-• Sept. 7, 1290). Arghun's illness, 
SaMu'd-Dawla and others are put to death in Safar, A. H. 690 
(= February, 1291). Arghun died in the following month, 
after a reign of seven years. Verses on the execution of 
Khwaja Wajihu'd-Din in A. H. 685. 

(10) Gay-Khdtii b. Abdqd. 

Sadru'd-Din Ahmad-i-Khalidi is made prime minister. (590) 
Gay-Khatu's extravagance and licentiousness. Revolt of the 
Atabek Afrasiyab Fadluya in Luristan, who was afterwards 
put to death by Ghazan and succeeded by his brother Nus- 
ratu'd-Din Ahmad, who was still Atabek when the author 
wrote. The attempt to establish paper currency [chdzv] 
causes much discontent, which is increased by Gay-Khatu's 
extravagance and immorality. Baydu rebels (SQl)? defeats 
Gay-Khatu, and puts him to death in Safar, A. H. 694 
(=z January, 1295) after a reign of three years and seven months. 

(11) Baydu b. Targhdy b. Huldgu. 

Jamalu'd-Din Dastgardani is made prime minister. Revolt 
of Ghazan Khan, aided by the Amir Nawruz and the late 
prime minister Ahmad-i-Khalidi. After fierce struggles they 
agree that the south of Persia shall be assigned to Ghazan 
and the north to Baydu. The latter violates the compact, 
and Ghazan flies to Khurasan, where, in A. H. 694 (= A. D. 
1295) he is persuaded by the Amir Nawruz to embrace 
Islam. He subsequently defeats Baydu, whom he puts to 
death at Tabriz after a reign of eight months. 

(12) Ghdzdn b. Arghun b. Abdqd. 
He succeeded to the throne at the end of A. H. 694 



i) This Fakhm'd-Din was the Author's cousm on the father's side. See 
p. 485 of the text (= p. no supra). 

10 



146 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 12. 

(= November, 1295), and, aided by Amfr Nawruz, devoted 
himself to the restoration of Islam in Persia, the destruction 
of the idol-temples, and the conversion of his heathen com- 
patriots. (592) Several rebellious Mongol nobles are slain or 
reduced to submission. Jamalu'd-Din Dastgardani is again made 
wadr, but is put to death two months later. He is followed 
by Sadru'd-Dfn Ahmad-i-Khalid{, who checks the evil prac- 
tices which have grown up in connection with the demands 
for horses, fodder and the like made by the innumerable 
ileitis or king's messengers. (593) Ghazan Khan suspects the 
Amir Nawruz of treasonable correspondence with the Sultan 
of Egypt, and first kills his brothers and sons, and finally, 
after a struggle in which he is assisted by Malik Fakhru'd- 
Din Kart, captures Nawruz himself near Herat and puts him 
to death at the end of A. H. 696 (= October, 1297). On the 
2ith of Rajab, A. H. 697 {= May 4, A. D. 1298) he also put 
to death his minister Sadru'd-Dfn Ahmad-i-Khalidi, and 
appointed in his place the author's beloved patron and master, 
Rashfdu'd-Din Fadlu'llah. (594) In A. H. 700 (= 1301 — 2) 
Ghazan Khan also put to death Ruknu'd-Dfn Sa'in, Qadf of 
Simnan, Sayyid Qutbu'd-Din Shirazi, and Mu"^fnu'd-Dfn Ghanji; 
and at the beginning of A. H. 702 (= end of August, A. D. 
1302) he also put to death Nizamu'd-Din Yahya, son of 
Wajihu'd-Din Zangi. Ghazan Khan's three campaigns against 
Egypt, thC' first in A. H. 699, in which his troops were vic- 
torious, the second in which no resistance was met with, 
and the third, in A. H. 702, in which Ghazan's troops were 
utterly defeated. Ghazan was ill when this evil news arrived, 
and his illness was aggravated by the rebellion of Prince 
Alafrank, the son of Gaykhatu, (595) and proved fatal on 
Shawwal 10, A. H. 703 (= May 16, 1304). He died at Qazwfn, 
after a reign of eight years, at the age of 30, and was buried 
at Tabriz, being the first of the Mongol kings whose place 
of burial was known to the public. In his reign was insti- 



MONGOL ILKHANS OF PERSIA. 



H7 



tuted the new era (still current in the author's time) known 
as the Ta'rikh-i-Khdni, which took as its starting-point 
Rajab 12, A. H. 701 (= March 13, 1302). 

(13) Uljdytu [Khudd-banda Muhammad) b. Arghiin. 

He was in Khurasan when the news of his brother's death 
arrived. He was crowned at Tabriz on Dhu'l-Hijja 15, A. H. 
703 (= July 19, 1304), being then 23 years of age. (He was 
born on Dhu'l-Hijja 12, A. H. 680 = March 24, 1282). His 
reign was the most happy and prosperous of all the Mongol 
sovereigns. He repressed unbelief, and imposed the jizya 
(poll-tax) on Jews and Christians, besides compelling them to 
wear di'stinctive garments. (596) Birth of his son Abu Sa'^id 
on Wednesday, Dhu'1-QaMa 8, A. H. 704 (May 29, 1305). In 
A. H. 705 Sayyid Taju'd-Din Gur-surkhi, the agent of Amfr 
Hurqiidaq, was guilty of seditious actions, and was put 
to death on Shawwal 20 (= May 5, 1306). In the same 
year certain rebellious Mongol princes and the Amirs of 
Egypt and Syria submitted. In A. H. 706 Gflan was sub- 
dued, and a tax imposed on its silk. In this war Amir 
Qutlughshah was killed. Foundation of the cities of Sultan- 
iyya (east of Tabriz), Sultanabad (near Mount Bisutiin), and 
Uljaytu Sultanabad near Mughan, by the sea-shore. Death 
of Uljaytu's wife llduzmish Khatun in Jumada i, A. H. 708 
(Oct. — Nov., 1308). Submission of Shamsu'd-Din ^LC|-sunqur, 
lord of Hama (597), Jamalu'd-Din Afram, lord of Aleppo, 
and other amirs of Syria in that year. In A. H. 710 differ- 
ences arose between the ministers Rashfdu'd-Dfn and Sa^du'd- 
Di'n, and, suspicion of a conspiracy being cast on the latter, 
he was put to death on Shawwal 10, A. H. 711 (= Feb. 19, 
1 312) at Baghxdad with Amfr Nasiru'd-Dfn Yahya, Khwaja 
Zaynu'd-Dfn, Khwaja Shihabu'd-Dfn Mubarakshah, and others. 
Verses by the author on this event. On Dhu'l-Hijja 3 of 
the same year Sayyid Taju'd-Dfn Awjf, a prominent Shf^ite, 



148 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 12. 

was put to death, and Sayyid 'Imadu'd-Din ^Ala'u'1-Mulk 
was blinded, and (598) Khwaja Taju'd-Dln of Tabrfz was 
made wazir, on condition that he should obey Rashfdu'd- 
Din, by whom the author was placed in charge of the dis- 
trict comprising Qazwfn, Abhar, Zanjan and Tarimayn. In 
Shawwal, A. H. 712 (= February, 13 13) Uljaytu marchdd into 
Syria, and reduced the fortress of Rahba. Some of the 
Mongol princes invaded and ravaged Khurasan, and Uljaytu 
sent the Amir Shaykh ''AH Qushji to avenge this insult. He 
crossed the Oxus and ravaged Tirmidh and Transoxiana, 
and Prince Abu Sa^'d was appointed governor of Khurasan, 
with Amir Sunuj as his lieutenant. (599) In A, H. 715 (= 
A. D. 13 1 5 — 6) a quarrel arose between the ministers Ra- 
shfdu'd-Dfn and Taju'd-Din ''Alfshah, to whom Uljaytu gave 
joint powers. In the following year (A.-H. 716), on Shawwal i 
(= Dec. 17, 1 3 16), Uljaytu died at Sultaniyya, after a reign 
of 12 years and 9 months, being then not quite forty years 
of age. Verses by the author on his death. A curious (600) 
ghost-story, attested by many persons, describing how the 
spirit of a certain Qara-Bahadur, who fell in battle with the 
heathen, spoke first to his family and afterwards to all the 
people of his town (Yangi Shahr), first from a corner of his 
house, and then from a stick set up in the market-place. 
The spirit-voice is described as like a voice issuing from a 
jar. (601) After three days it ceased entirely. 

(14) Abu Sa^id Bahadur Khan b, Uljaytu. 

On receiving news of his father's death, Abu Sa'^id at once 
left Khurasan, which was immediately seized by Prince 
Yusur and Amfr Begtut. Abu Sa'^fd was crowned in Safar, 
A. 11,717 (= April — May, 1317), being then 12 years of age, 
and Amfr Chuban at first acted as regent. Fines imposed 
on Amfr Tuqmaq and Qutlughsh.ih Khatun. (602) Amfr 
Chuban sends an expedition against Prince Yusur and Amfr 



MONGOL ILKHANS OF PERSIA. i^g 

Begtiit in Khurasan, and brings them to submission. Renewed 
quarrels between the ministers Rashidu'd-Din and "AHshah. 
As a result of intrigues the former was dismissed from his 
post and sent to Tabriz in disgrace. (603) In the winter 
Abu Sa'^id went to Baghdad, where, on Dhu'l-QaMa 20, A. H. 
717 (= Jan. 24, 1 3 18) the Amir Suinuj died. In the spring 
Abu Sa'^id returned to Sultaniyya, while Amir Chuban went 
to hunt in Adharbayjan, taking Rashidu'd-Din with him, in 
spite of his unwillingness to leave Tabriz. The partisans of 
his rival "^Alishah succeeded in poisoning the minds of Sultan 
Abii Sa^id and the Amir Chuban against him, and finally 
on the i8th of Jumada i, A. H, 718 (= July 18, 1318) he was 
put to death, with his son "^Izzu'd-Dfn Ibrahim, near Abhar. 
(604) Overthrow of Amir Zanbiir in Ramadan of this year, 
on account of his opposition to Amir Chuban, who had made 
himself very unpopular by his severities. War between Qur- 
mishi and Chuban. (605) The latter is extricated from his 
embarrassments by Taju'd-Din "^Alishah. Further mischief 
wrought in Adharbayjan by the Amirs Iranchin and Qur- 
mishi, both of whom belonged to the Karayit tribe of the 
Mongols. Sultan Abu Sa"^id meets them in battle at Miyana 
in Rabi^ ii, A. H. 719 (== May — June, 1319), and utterly routs 
and destroys them. It was on account of the Sultan's courage 
in this battle that he received (606) the title of Bahadur. On 
Rajab 20, A. H. 719 (= Sept. 6, 13 19) Amir Chuban married 
Sati Beg, the daughter of 'Uljaytu. Death of Amir Husayn 
b. Aq-buqa in Muharram, A. H. 722 (= Jan. — Feb., 1322). 
Amir Timur-tash, son of Amfr Chuban, governor of Rum 
(Asia Minor), revolted, but was reduced to obedience by 
his father, who put to death his evil counsellors, and brought 
him to the Sultan, who shortly afterwards reinstated him. 
Death of the minister ^Alishah in Jumada ii, A. H. 724 (= 
June, 1324) at 'Ujan. He was the only minister of the Mon- 
gols who died a natural death, and was succeeded by his son 



I50 CHAPTER IV, SECTION 12. 

Amir Ghiyathu'd-Din Muhammad, who was soon, however, 
displaced by Malik Nusratu'd-Din "^Adil, called Sa'in Wazir." 
(607) In A. H. 725 (= A. D. 1325) Amir Chiiban, passing 
through Gurjistan, invaded the realms of Uzbek Khan, and 
devastated them, to avenge the devastation wrought by him 
when he came to Persia. Dismissal of Sa'in Wazir from the 
position of Grand Wazir. Dimashq-Khwaja, son of Chuban, 
succeeds him. Amfr Chuban sends his eldest son Hasan against 
Zabul and Kabul to attack Tirma Shiri'n, whom he defeated. 
He then ravaged those countries, and defaced the tomb of 
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna. To this impious act the author 
ascribes the fall of the family of Chuban which shortly 
ensued. (608) The king, alarmed at the growing power of 
this family, sought an occasion against them, and on Shaw- 
wal 5, A. H. 727 (= Aug. 24, 1327) a rumour was put about 
that Chuban had been put to death in Khurdsan, and an 
attack was made on the house of his son Dimashq-Khwaja, 
who was killed. Verses by Shamsu'd-Din of Sawa on this 
subject. Chuban, on receiving this news, put to death Sa'in 
Wazir the ex-minister in revenge at Herat, and marched on 
'^Iraq. The king hastened from Sultaniyya to meet him. W'hen 
Chuban reached Ray and the king Qazwin, many of the 
amirs who were with Chuban deserted him and joined the 
King, whereupon he fled with his women, leaving the bulk 
of his baggage. At each stage he left behind some of his 
followers, so that finally, having crossed the desert, he reached 
Herat with only 17 followers, and there sought shelter from 
Malik Ghiyathu'd-Di'n [Kart], who, in Muharram, A. H. 728 
(= Nov. — Dec, 1327), treacherously slew him, together with 
his son Jalaw Khan and several of his principal followers. 
But Ghiyathu'd-Din [Kart] did not profit by his treachery, for 
shortly afterwards both he and his son Hafiz died. Tfmiir- 
Tash, another of Chuban's sons, fled to the Sultan of 
Egypt, who, fearing his popularity, put him to death in 



MONGOL ILKHANS OF PERSIA. 



151 



Shawwal, A. H. 728 (= August, 1328), and sent his head to 
Sultan Abii Sa'^id. (610) Chuban's son Hasan and his son 
fled to Khwarazm, where they were honoured by king 
Uzbek, but soon afterwards Hasan was killed in battle, and 
his son died a natural death. Shaykh Mahmud, another of 
Chuban's sons, who was governor of Gurjistan, was taken 
prisoner by Abu Sa'^id's troops and put to death at Tabriz, 
and in short the family of Chuban was practically exter- 
minated. Thereupon Ghiyathu'd-Din Muhammad, son of the 
talented but unfortunate Rashfdu'd-Din Fadlu'llah, the author's 
master and patron, was made prime minister, jointly with 
Khwaja '^Ala'^u'd-Din Muhammad b. "^Imadu'd-Din, but six 
months later all the power was vested in him, (611) while 
his ex-coadjutor was placed in charge of the finances of the 
Empire and appointed wazir to the governor of Khurasan. 
Execution of Narin-Taghay and Tash-Timur at the begin- 
ning of Shawwal, A. H. 729 (= July 29, A. D. 1329). Praises 
of Shamsu'd-Din Muhammad b. Nizam al-Husayni al-Yazdi. 
Verses cited from Zahiru'd-Din Faryabi. The author prays 
for the long life and prosperity of Sultan Abu Sa'^id and of 
his just and accomplished ministers. 

[ADDITIONAL CHAPTER, OMITTED IN MOST MSS. 
AND NOT INCLUDED IN THE ORIGINAL. 

Account of the Muzaffari Dynasty, which included seven 
ruleri, and reigned in Fdrs, etc. 
from A. H. '/18 — 7^5, a period of jj years. 
Pp. 613-755] 
Mawlana Mu^inu'd-Din Yazdi wrote a history of this dy- 
nasty, which however, is written in so florid a style (614) 
and contains so many exaggerations that the writer of this 
chapter, Mahmud Kutbi (?)'), having read the Tarikh-i-Guzida, 

i) The diacritical points and correct reading of this word are doubtful. See 
Rieu's Persian Catalogue.^ p. 82. 



152 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

determined to enrich its contents with a brief account of 
the House of Muzaffar, from the time of its rise to power 
until its destruction by Tfmur-i-Lang (Tamerlane). (615) The 
author, who composed this treatise in A. H. 823 (A. D. 1420), 
describes his qualifications for this task, and asks the indul- 
gence of his readers (616). 

(i) Amir Mubdrizu^ d-Din Muhammad. 

He was the son of al-Muzaffar, son of al-Mansiir, son of al- 
Hajj Amir Ghiyathu'd-Dfn, who was from Khwaf in Khurasan. 
His ancestors had come thither from Arabia in the time of 
the Muhammadan Conquest, and six centuries later, in the 
time of the Mongol Invasion, they retreated southwards to 
Yazd. The Hajji had three sons, Abu Bakr, Muhammad and 
Mansur. The two former were attached to the service of the 
Atabek *^Ala'u'd-Dawla ') of Yazd. When Hulagu Khan marched 
against Baghdad, the Atabek sent Abu Bakr b. al-Hajji with 
300 horsemen to assist him. After the capture of Baghdad, 
this Abu Bakr was sent with an army to the Egyptian fron- 
tier, and was killed in battle by the Arabs of Khafaja. His 
brother Muhammad succeeded him as lieutenant to the 
Atabek of Yazd, until he also died, leaving no issue. 

Mansiir b. Hdjji. 

- The third brother, Mansur, dwelt at the little town of 
Maybud near Yazd, and assisted his father during his life- 
time. He had three sons, Mubarizu'd-Din Muhammad, Zaynu'd- 
Din *^Ali, and Sharafu'd-Dfn Muzaffar. The first had one son, 
Amfr Badru'd-Din Abu Bakr, who was the father of Shah 
Sultan. 

Sharafu'd-Din Muzaffar. 
He was the youngest of the three brothers, but the most 



1) MS. 'Ald'u'd-Din. See the foot-note on p. 118. 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 



153 



virtuous and talented. (617) He dreamed that the sun arose 
from the house of the Atabek '^Ala'u'd-Dawla and entered the 
collar of his robe. When he rose up, the sun broke into 
several pieces and fell from his skirt. He enquired the inter- 
pretation of this dream, and was informed that it portended 
the passing of the power from the present Atabeks to his 
family, where it would remain for as many years as the 
number of the pieces into which the sun had broken. He 
was entrusted shortly afterwards by the Atabek Yiisuf-Shah 
b. "^Ala'u'd-Dawla with the government of the Maybud district, 
and succeeded in clearing the mountains there of a band of 
brigands from Shiraz who had taken up these abode there. 
Yusuf-shah, having killed the ambassadors of Arghun, was 
obliged to flee from Yazd towards Sistan. Muzaffar accom- 
panied him, but, an attempt having been made on his life, 
he left them, and came in A. H. 685 (= A. D. 1286) to Kirman, 
where he was well received by Sultan Jalalu'd-Din Siirghit- 
mish Qara-Khitay (618). After a while he returned to Yazd, 
and soon afterwards was presented to Arghun, who employed 
him in his service. Gay-Khatu shewed him even greater 
favours. The Atabek Afrasiyab b. Yusufshah revolted in 
Luristan, and Gay-Khatu sent against him an army com- 
manded by Muzaffar, who, thanks to his influence and local 
knowledge, succeeded in pacifying the Atabek Afrasiyab and 
bringing him back to his allegiance. After the death of Gay- 
Khatu, in Rabf i, A. H. 694 (= Jan.— Feb. A. D. 1295), Mu- 
zaffar repaired to Ghazan's camp, received all the insignia of 
authority, and was appointed Amir-Hazdra, or chief of a thou- 
sand men. (619) In the middle of Jumada ii, A. H. 700 (= end 
of February, A. D. 1301) the Amfr Mubarizu'd-Din Muham- 
mad was born. On the death of Ghazan and accession of 
Uljaytu in A. H. 703 (= A. D. 1303 — 4), Muzaffar was assigned, 
in addition to the district of Maybud, the care of the 
roads from Ardistan to Kirmanshah and from Herat and 



154 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

Merv ') to Abarquh. He also accompanied the Sultan on his 
campaign against Gilan. At this time the wazir Rashi'du'd-Din 
had a grudge against Muzaffar, but his deputy, Sayyid Jalalu'd- 
Din Kashi, succeeded in effecting a reconciliation. In A. H. 
707 (= A. D. 1307 — 8) Muzaffar was sent to Yazd and Shfraz, 
accompanied by his son Mubarizu'd-Din Muhammad. In 
A. H. 71 1 (•= A. D. 131 1 — 12) when Uljaytu marched to Bagh- 
dad, Muzaffar met him at Khaniqin. A little later he was 
charged with the duty of subduing the rebellious Shaban- 
kara. (620) Shortly after this he fell ill, and, though he 
rallied after three months, he had a relapse (caused, as was 
supposed by poison administered by his enemies) and died 
on Dhu'1-QaMa 13, A. H. 713 (== March i, 13 14). His body was 
conveyed to Maybud and buried in a college which he had 
erected and endowed. He left one son (Mubarizu'd-Din Mu- 
hammad) and three daughters ^). His younger daughter was 
married to his nephew Badru'd-Dfn Abu Bakr, to whom she 
bore Shah Sultan. One of his daughters was the mother of 
Sultan Ahmad's wife, while the other was the mother of 
Amir Ghiyathu'd-Din Muhammad b. Qutbu'd-Dln Sulayman- 
shah b. Mahmud b. Kamal. 

Mubdrizu'd-Din Muhammad. 

He was only thirteen years of age on the death of his 
father Muzaffar. He was brave, orthodox, and a patron of 
learning, but cruel, bloodthirsty and treacherous. (621) He 
is despoiled by his rivals. Sharp fight with the Nikudarfs, 
in which his sister and other women take part. He is con- 
firmed in his father's offices by Uljaytu, with whom he 
remains for four years. At the beginning of Shawwal, A. H. 

i) Here and again on p. 634 of the original (p. 159 infra) the MS. has 
o.^. ., perhaps an error for o-vi^j".*, the well-known plain by Persepolis 
and north of Shfrdz. 

2) MS. "two", but three are afterwards enumerated. 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 



155 



716 (= Dec. 17, 1316) Uljaytii died, and was succeeded by 
, his son Abu Sa'id. In A. H. 717 (= A. D. 13 17 — 8) Mubarizu 
'd-Din returned to Maybud. (622) Sayyid ''Adudu'd-Dln Yazdi 
repelled. Amir Kay-Khusraw b. Mahmud Shah Inju '), a 
descendant of Khwaja ""Abdu'llah Ansarf, whose family had 
for years ruled the southern coast of Persia, came to Yazd 
at this juncture, and, propitiated by the gift of a horse, 
made great friends with Mubarizu'd-Din. The Atabek Hajji 
Shah, the last of the Atabeks of Yazd, had a quarrel with 
the lieutenant of Amir Kaykhusraw and killed him. There- 
upon Sultan Abii Sa'^i'd ordered (623) Mubarizu'd-Din and Kay- 
Khusraw to attack Hajji Shah, who, after a great battle, was 
completely crushed. In Shawwal, A. H. 718 (= Dec, 13 18) Mu- 
barizu'd-Dfn visited the court and was confirmed in his govern- 
ments. Soon afterwards the Slstanis, known as Nikudarls, led by 
a certain Nawruz, revolted. Mubarizu'd-Din, then only 18 years 
of age, attacked them with only 60 horsemen. A fierce conflict 
ensued (624), in which Mubarizu'd-Din was victorious, and 
pursued the Nikudaris as far as Bafq, killing many of them, 
including Nawruz. The captives and heads of the slain were 
sent to the Sultan's court, and there was wailing and lamen- 
tation in every household of the Nikudaris, who, however, 
long continued the struggle, so that it required 13 or 14 
years fighting and some 21 battles to reduce them finally 
to submission. 

Birth of Shah Muzaffar. 

(625) Shah Sharafu'd-Di'n Muzaffar was born in A. H. 725 
(= A. D. 1325). He was brave, pious and virtuous. His mother 
died while he was still young, and was buried at Kirman in 



l) MS. has "Muhammad", here, but further on "Mahmud", which is con- 
firmed by the Jahdn-drd (Brit. Mus., Or. 141, f. i67«). 'Injii is a Mongol word 
denoting Crown lands or Royal estates, and was given to this family as a title 
because to them was entrusted the charge of these lands. 



156 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

the college of Jamal-i-'^Umarf which his father had built. In 
A. H. 729 (~ A. D. 1328 — 9) Amir Mubarizu'd-Dfn Muhammad 
went to Kirman to marry Qutlugh Khan, the daughter of 
Sultan Qutbu'd-Dln Shah Jahan b. Sultan Jalalu'd-Din Sur- 
ghitmish b. Sultan Qutbu'd-Din Muhammad b. Amfr Husamu 
'd-Dfn Khamitbiir ') Tayangu b. Gulduz-i-Qara-Khita'f. It 
happened that she had gone with her father to Shfraz, and 
thither Mubarizu'd-Dfn followed her. His suit was successful, 
and his bride followed him to Yazd, and he met her at 
Abarquh. Khwaja Baha'u'd-Dfn b. "^Izzu'd-Din was at this 
time wazir. 

Birth of Shah Shujc^. 

Jalalu'd-Dln Shah Shuja*^ was born on Wednesday, 22 Ju- 
mada ii, A.-H. jn (= March 10, 1333). (626) In A. H. 734 
(= A. D. 1333 — 4) Amfr Muhammad again visited the Camp 
of Sultan Abu Sa'^fd, accompanied by his son Shah MuzafTar, 
and received from the Sultan the most notable marks of 
favour. Ther(?after Mubarizu'd-Dfn visited the Shrine of ''Alf 
b. Abi Talib. 

Death of Sultan Abu Sa^id. 

On the death of Abii Sa'^id in A. H. 736 (= 1335 — 6), chaos 
ensued (627), and pretenders to the throne arose on all sides. 
The wazir, Ghiyathu'd-Dfn Muhammad b. Rashfdu'd-Dfn 
placed Arpa on the throne, but Amfr ""Alf Pasha ^), the maternal 
uncle of the late Sultan, disapproved of this choice, attacked 
Tabrfz, routed Arpa's troops, and put him and the wazir 
Ghiyathu'd-Dfn to death. In Jumada i, A. H. 737 (= Dec. 
1336) Shah Qutbu'd-Din Mahmiid was born. 

1) In the yahdn-gushd this person is repeatedly mentioned under the name 
of «KhamidbUr". This MS. of the Guzida has "Khamftar", probably for «Kha- 
mftbiir, a variant of the other form. 

2) This, as Mfrzd Muhammad points out, seems to be the earliest recorded 
use of the title of Pdshd. That it was borne by this Amir "^Ali is confirmed 
by Ibn Taghri-bardf and the Jahdn-drd. 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 15^7 

The Amir Abu Ishdq Shaykh goes to Yazd. 

Shiraz was ruled by the sons of Mahmud Shah [Injii] (628), 
of whom the eldest, Amfr Jalalu'd-Dfn Mas^ud Shah, was 
supreme. His youngest brother Jamalu'd-Dfn Shaykh Abu 
Ishaq ') went to Yazd, and was met at a distance of one 
parasang from that city by Amir Mubarizu'd-Dfn Muhammad. 
Thence he went to Kirman, where he raised an army and 
returned to Yazd, which he endeavoured, but failed, to 
capture by stratagem. (629) At the intercession of Shaykh 
Shihabu'd-Din "^Ali Ba "^Imran he retired. 

The -Repentance of Amir Mubdrizu'' d-Din Muhammad. 

In A. H. 740 (:= A. D. 1 339 — 40) Mubarizu'd-Din b. Muzaffar, 
being then forty years of age, adopted the life of a devotee. 

Amir Pir Husayn comes to Pars. 

Mubarizu'd-Dfn's devout life was interrupted by a sum- 
mons to join Amfr Pfr Husayn, who was marching on Shiraz. 
After some hesitation he consented, and the two met at 
Istakhr. On hearing this, Amir MasMd Shah b. Mahmud Shah 
[Inju], the governor of Shiraz, escaped to Kazarun, whither 
he was pursued by Mubarizu'd-Din. (630), who, having put 
him to flight, returned to lay siege to Shiraz. After a fierce 
sortie, the defenders were reduced to great straits, and 
finally capitulated to Amfr Pfr Husayn, who conferred on 
Mubarizu'd-Dfn the government of Kirman. Thither he pro- 
ceeded in the same year (A. H. 740), and took possession of 
that city without encountering any resistance from its ruler, 
Malik Qutbu'd-Dfn b. Nasiru'd-Dfn Muhammad b. Burhan, 
who with his father, had ruled there for 35 years. (631) 
Mubarizu'd-Dfn disbanded his army and sent for Shah Shuja% 
who arrived a few days later. 



i) Many of the poems of Hafiz are in praise of this prince. 



158 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

The army of Khurdsdn marches on Kirmdn. 

On the loss of Kirman, Malik Qutbu'd-Din set out for 
Khurasan, and asked for help from the king of Herat, who 
lent him an army of Ghurfs under the command of Malik 
Da'ud. This army advanced to within four parasangs of 
Kirman before Mubarizu'd-Din was informed of its approach. 
He thereupon withdrew to Anar on the road to Yazd, and 
sent news to Amfr.Pfr Husayn. Having collected an army, 
he marched back to Kirman to attack the invaders, while 
Shah Muzaffar and Shah Sultan aided him to the utmost 
of their power (632) The Khurasanis were driven back into 
the city, while Mubarizu'd-Dfn alighted in the Mazdakan (?) 
quarter, subdued all the suburbs, and shortly afterwards 
routed the Khurasanfs. Malik Qutbu'd-Dfn again sought help 
from Herat. Meanwhile Amfr Pfr Husayn arrived from Shfraz 
to help Mubarizu'd-Din, and the defenders of the city were 
hard pressed. Many notable men amongst them, such as 
Khwaja Taju'd-Din ^Iraqf, came out and made their submis- 
sion. In Jumada ii, A. H. 741 (= Nov. — Dec. 1340) the city 
capitulated, Malik Da'iid retired to Khurasan, and Mubarizu 
'd-Dln took possession of ~Kirman. In the same year was 
born Sultan "^Imadu'd-Dfn Ahmad. 

(633) Conquest of Bam. 

The strong fortress of Bam was held by Akhi Shuja^u'd- 
Dfn, who had been appointed its governor in the life-time 
of Sultan Abu Sa'^id, and who had already on several occa- 
sions fought and worsted the governors of Kirman. Muba- 
rizu'd-Dfn, anxious to put a stop to his ambitions, despat- 
ched against him Qutlugh-shah, and followed in person. A 
prolonged siege ensued, but the city was (634) finally cap- 
tured, after a siege of three or four years. Akhf Shuja'^u'd- 
Dfn was spared at the time, but was afterwards killed. 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. . 159 

War with the Arabs. 

Certain Arabs in Herat, Merv '), Sahn-i-Rudhan, Rafsinjan 
and Shahr-i-Babak betook themselves to robbery, and Muba- 
rizu'd-Din with his son Shah Muzaffar and his wazir Ruknu'd- 
Din Mahmud b. Rashi'd set out to attack them, and inflicted on 
them a severe defeat. (635) Birth of Shah Yahya on Sunday, 
Muharram 14, A. H. 744 (= June 8, 1343). His name was deter- 
mined by an augury drawn from the Qur'an, and the title 
of Nusratu'd-Din was conferred on him on account of the 
recent victory over the Arabs. 

Ministry of Khwdja Burhdnu'd-Din. 

This minister, who was the son of Kamalu'd-Din Abu'l- 
Ma'^ali, claimed descent from the Caliph "^Uthman. His father, 
after visiting the two Sacred Cities, came to Yazd, and there 
founded many mosques, hospitals and colleges. He died in 
A. H. 738 (= A. D. 1337 — 8). His son Burhanu'd-Din then 
went to Shiraz, and in A. H. 742 (= A. D. 1341 — 2) was chosen 
ivazir by Mubarizu'd-Din. In A. H. 752 {= A. D. 135 1—2) he 
retired, but when Fars was added to the MuzafTari domains 
in A. H. 756 (= A. D. 1355) he received the double office of 
Chief Judge and Grand Wazir. 

Account of Amir Pir Husayn and Amir Shaykh Abii Ishdq. 

(636) Attempts made by mischief-makers to sow discord 
between Amir Pir Husayn and Mubarizu'd-Dfn. In A. H. 742 
(= A. D. 1341 — 2) the government of Isfahan was given to 
Amir Shaykh Abu Ishaq, who joined Malik Ashraf [b. Timur- 
tash b. Chupan] when he marched against "^Iraq and Fars. 
Amir Pir Husayn was at Qasr-i-Zard collecting troops and 
munitions of war (637). He set out with a large army for 

i) See supra^ p. 154, ad calc. It is probable that "Herat" also is a mistake, 
and that both the places here referred to, like those following, were in the 
Kirman district. 



l6o SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

Isfahan, but was deserted by the Qadi Shamsu'd-Dfn Sa'in 
and Amfr Jalalu'd-Din Tayyibshah, the commander of the 
Turkman army, who deserted to Malik Ashraf. Amir Muzaf- 
faru'd-Din Salghar urged him to seek help from Mubarizu 
'd-Dfn, but this his suspicions prevented him from* doing, 
and he set out that same night for Tabriz to seek help from 
his cousin, Amfr Shaykh Hasan b. Timiirtash, who, however, 
cast him into prison. Most of his captains, including Zahfru 
'd-Di'n Ibrahim-i-Sawab, thereupon joined Mubarizu'd-Di'n, 
who thus became possessed of an uncontested domain. (638) 
In Muharram, A. H. 744 (=June, 1343) a battle took place 
at Na'in between Malik Ashraf and Shah Muzaffar and 
Shah Sultan. Malik Ashraf was defeated and retired to 
Sultaniyya and Tabriz, where he collected a great army to 
invade Fars. He plundered and massacred, and in the valley 
of Shi'^b Bawwan, so celebrated for its natural beauties, he 
smoked to death some 2000 people who had taken refuge 
in a cave. (639) Malik Ashraf is recalled to Tabriz. The 
strong fortress of Sfrjan capitulates, and agrees to pay a 
yearly tribute of 100,000 dindrs. Khwaja Taju'd-Din '^Iraqf 
saves himself from death at the hands of Mubarizu'd-Din by 
a verse of poetry (640). 

Amir Shaykh Abu Ishdq goes to Kirmdn. 

On the departure of Malik Ashraf from Fars, Amfr Shaykh's 
power greatly increased, and he assumed the title of king 
and struck coins and caused the khutba to be read in his 
name. In Safar, A. H. 748 (—May — June, 1347) he marched 
on Kirman, attacking Sfrjan on the way, and destroying the 
town with some 1200 of the inhabitants, but leaving the citadel 
unreduced. On reaching Bahramjird, some 15 parasangs from 
Kirmdn, he ascertained that Mubarizu'd-Dfn was awaiting him 
with a large army, whereupon he retired to Shfraz. (641) On 
his arrival there he made Amfr Zahfru'd-Dfn Ibrahfm-i-Sawab 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. i6i 

his wazir, and when he was assassinated shortly afterwards 
he appointed Sayyid Ghiyathu'd-Din '^Ah' and Shamsu'd-Din 
Sa'in jointly to this post. The latter was soon conipelled by 
the jealousy of the former to retire. He went to Hurmuz 
and the coast of the Persian Gulf, collected a large following, 
raided many towns, and finally determined to attack Kir- 
man, but was defeated and slain by Mubarizu'd-Din. (642) 
On hearing this news, Amir Shaykh Abu Ishaq marched on 
Kirman to take vengeance on Mubarizu'd-Din, but was 
defeated in a great battle and retired on Shiraz by way 
of Taft. 

Account of the Hazdra. 

Mubarizu'd-Din, finding the Afghans settled in the SE. 
of Persia disobedient and disloyal, distinguished the loyal 
Jurma'is with a special badge, and ordered the Afghans to 
be extirpated. (643) Amir Dawlatshah, the chief of the latter, 
was put to death with seven other amirs. 

Defeat of Mtibdrizti' d-Din by the Afghans '). 

Soon after Mubarizu'd-Din had returned to Kirman, he 
heard (644) that the Afghans and Jurma'is had united and 
were plundering the country. Thereupon he marched against 
them, and the two forces met in the plain of Khawun (?) The 
Afghans were at first defeated, but returned while Mubarizu 
'd-Din's troops were engaged in plundering, and made a 
fresh attack, in which Mubarizu'd-Din sustained seven wounds 
and nearly lost his life. Idolatrous rites and sacrifices of 
Afghans, taken from the Mongols, enabled Mubarizu'd-Din 
to obtain from the doctors of Islam a declaration that this 
was a holy war and he a Ghdzi or champion of the faith. 



l) I am not sure whether by "Afghans" or "Awghdns" (^Vj\c.«\) the. Author 
means the people whom we know under this name, but in any case (as appears 
from pp. 643,1. 5,649, 1. 9, and especially 662,11. 12 — 13) he evidently regarded 
them and the Jurma'is as Mongol tribes. 



1 62 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

He returned safely to Kirman, where Shah Shuja*^ and the 
wazir Burhanu'd-Din were awaiting him. 

(645) Faithlessness of Amir Shaykh Abu Ishdq. 

Mubarizu'd-Din and Amir Shaykh Abu Ishaq had made 
a treaty, one of the objects of which was to prevent the 
Afghans from making their way to Shfraz. When, however, 
the former sent Khwaja Hajji Daylam there, the Afghans 
had already been received with honour. Abu Ishaq, feeling 
ashamed, detained them, and sent 5000 men to help Mu- 
barizu'd-Din, but they had secret instructions to desert to 
the enemy in the middle of the battle. This treachery be- 
came known to Mubarizu'd-Din, and thereupon Abu Ishaq" 
openly broke with him, and sent 2000 men under Amir 
Sultanshah Jandar to help the Afghans, while he himself set 
out for Yazd, which he entered without fighting. Shah Mu- 
zaffar being at Kirman. On hearing this. Shah Muzafifar at 
once marched to Maybud near Yazd, where his sons then 
were. He proceeded to garrison and fortify the place. Abu 
Ishaq at once sent troops against him (646) under Muham- 
madi and Zawara-i-Isfahani, but Shah Muzafifar routed them 
and took 70 of their chief men prisoners. Thereupon Abu 
Ishaq sent some 20,000 men against Maybud, but these also 
failed to capture the fortress, and peace was concluded. 

Events in Kirman. 

Meanwhile Amir Sultanshah Jandar with his Afghans ad- 
vanced on Kirman, but Mubarizu'd-Din kept them at a 
distance of four parasangs from the city. When Abu Ishaq 
returned from Maybud he sent Sayyid Sadru'd-Din to Kir- 
man to negotiate, Mubarizu'd-Dfn complained of (647) Abu 
Ishaq's faithlessness, but promised, out of compassion for 
the people, to abandon the war and make no attempt at 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 



163 



retaliation. So peace was concluded, and Sultanshah returned 
to Shiraz. 

Account of the Afgjidns and yurmcCis. 

Finding no party willing to support them, the Afghans 
submitted, and in one day received 1000 robes of honour, 
while some of their amirs attached themselves to the Court 
at Kirman. At this juncture Muhammad Beg, son-in-law of 
Malik Ashraf, marched against *^Iraq, and asked help from 
Mubarizu'd-Din, who set but to follow them when they had 
nearly reached Isfahan, accompanied by some of the Afghans. 
Treacherous intentions becoming apparent on their part, 
Mubarizu'd-Din slew a great number of those who had accom- 
panied him, and of those who were at Kirman. Amir Timur, 
one of the bravest captains of Abu Ishaq, was also put to 
death on suspicion of treachery (648). 

Campaign in the Garm-sir. 

Winter being now near at hand, Mubarizu'd-Din and his 
son Shah Shuja^ who was then 16 years of age, set out for 
Jiraft. On arriving there, they found the Afghans holding 
the Qara-i-Sulaymani. Abu Ishaq again violated his promise 
and allowed the Afghans at Shiraz to march thither with 
Amir Sultanshah Jandar, to collect the taxes from Mukran, 
Hurmuz, etc. On arriving near Mubarizu'd-Din's camp a 
message reached them from Abu Ishaq that he was sending 
six regiments to reinforce them, and that they should pro- 
ceed to Kitman. Amir Sultanshah communicated this letter 
to Mubarizu'd-Din. (649) This was the seventh time that 
Abu Ishaq had violated his promises. Desultory fighting and 
raiding went on until the spring came and the weather grew 
hot, when Mubarizu'd-Din returned to Kirman, whither he 
was followed by Sultanshah, on whom he conferred many 
favours. As summer advanced they withdrew into the cooler 



1 64 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

region. Then the Mongol ') officers came and made their sub- 
mission, and returned to Kirman. The Nawruzis, another 
tribe of Mongols '), had always been loyal and peaceable, 
and so secured their safety. In A. H. 752 (= A. D. 135 1 — 2) 
(650) a mosque was built outside the Zarand gate of the 
old city of Kirman, and Mawlana *^Afifu'd-Din, son of Mu- 
hammad-i-Ya'^qub, was invited to come from Yazd and open 
it. Other buildings were erected with money derived from 
Mubarizu'd-Din's estates at Maybud, and in A. H. 755 (= 
A. D.I 3 54) MuS'nu'd-Din Yazdi, the author of the original 
of this chronicle, was appointed professor in one of these 
colleges named the Ddru's-Siyddat. 

Ministry of Qiivdmu'd-Din. 

In A. H. 750 (= A. D. 1349 — 50) Qiwamu'd-Din Muhammad 
became wazir to Shah Shuja^ In A. H. 755 (= A. D. 1354) 
he was made viceroy. Next year he was Qaim-Maqdni of 
Kirman, and acted as adviser and instructor to Shah Shuja^ 

Abii Ishdq again marches on Yazd. 

In A. H. 751 (=A, D. 1350 — 1) Abu Ishaq, with a great 
army, laid siege to Yazd, whither Shah Muzafifar brought 
his sons from Maybud. (651) A battle takes place, in which 
several of Abu Ishaq's officers are killed. A siege follows, 
but finally Abii Ishaq has to retire to Shi'raz. Grievous 
famine ensues in Yazd, and many die. 

Conquest of Amir Beg Jakdz. 

When Amfr Beg Jakaz deserted the cause of Malik Ashraf, he 
came to Abu Ishaq and was made commander of his army. 
After the retreat of Abu Ishaq from Yazd, he was sent with 
Amir Kayqubad b. Kay-Khusraw in command of an army 

l) /. e. the Awghdns or Afghdns, whom the author regards as a tribe of 
Mongols. See supra^ p. 161, ad calc. 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 



165 



against Kirman. Mubarizu'd-Dfn, on hearing this, made a 
treaty for mutual defence with the Afghans and Jurma'is 
(652), for each side had lost some 800 men in the recent 
wars, and so reconciliation was possible without dishonour. 
He also summoned Shah Shuja*^ from Kirman and Shah 
Muzafifar from Yazd, and they foregathered at Rafsinjan. 
Mubarizu'd-Din and Amfr Beg Jakaz met at Panj Angusht 
in Jumada i, A. H. 753 (= June — July, 1352), and, after a fierce 
battle, Amfr Beg's force was utterly routed and retired to 
Shiraz, while rich spoils fell into the hands of the victors, 
including a harp encrusted with jewels belonging to the Amir 
Kayqubad, the price of which enabled Mubarizu'd-Din to 
equip and train 70 horsemen. 

(653) Conquest of Shird-z by Mubdrizu' d-Din. 

Mubarizu^d-Din now decided to march on Shiraz, and first 
moved to Bam, where he received from Murtada A^zam 
Shamsu'd-Din ^Ali of Bam a sacred relic to which his future 
good fortune is ascribed, namely a hair of the Prophet, 
which was afterwards deposited in the DdriCs-Siyddat of 
Kirman. (654) Mubarizu'd-Din then proceeded to Riqan, where 
he nominated Jalalu'd-Din Shah Shuja'^ his successor. Abu 
Ishaq, hearing of the approaching attack, consulted the nobles 
and 'ulamd. One of the latter, "^Adudu'd-Din ^Abdu'r- Rahman 
al-'Iji advised him to make peace, and, his advice being accep- 
ted, he set out to seek Mubarizu'd-Din. At Sirjan he met Shah 
Muzafifar, who was coming from Yazd, and they proceeded toge- 
ther, coming up with Mubarizu'd-Din in the plain of Arzuya(?) 
and Dasht-bard. Mubarizu'd-Din received al-'Iji very graci- 
ously and assigned him an allowance of 50,000 dindrs and 
10,000 for his attendants. He also read Ibn Hajib's Commentary 
on the Mufassal with Shah Shuja^ He also tried to dissuade 
Mubarizu'd-Din from continuing his march on Shiraz, but the 
latter declined, on the ground that Amir Shaykh Abu Ishaq 



1 66 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

had already violated his promises eight times, and proceeded 
to Furg and Tarim, while al-ljf went by way of Nayriz to 
Shabankara. (655) Mubarizu'd-Din reached Fars in Safar, 
A. H. 754 (= March, 1353), and Abu Ishaq advanced to meet 
him with an army, but fell back next day on Shiraz, whither 
he was followed by Mubarizu'd-Din. 

Capture of the Castle of Sarband. 

Majdu'd-Din of Sarband surrendered his castle, and was 
confirmed in the Wardenship of it and of Khafrak, but soon 
rebelled, whereupon Mubarizu'd-Din, accompanied by his 
son Shah Shuj^S attacked and subdued it. Majdu'd-Dfn and 
his elder son went to Shiraz, while his younger son and his 
followers were captured and put to death. He then returned 
to lay siege to Shiraz but fell ill for a time, while Shah Muzaffar 
was also taken seriously ill, and (656), notwithstanding all that 
the physicians could do, died in Jumada ii, A. H. 754 (= July, 
1353) ^f^d was buried at Maybud in the Muzaffariyya Col- 
lege. He was 28 years and a half in age when he died, and 
left four sons. Shah Yahya, Shah Mansur, Shah Husayn and 
Shah '^Ali, and two daughters. 

Capture of the Red Castle (Qal'^a-i-Surkh). 

Shortly after this. Shah Shuja*^ set out to capture the Red 
Castle situated 4 Parasangs from Shiraz, which was occupied 
by some of Abu Ishaq's troops. It was reduced, and the 
spoils were divided by Shah Shuja*^ amongst his troops. 
Meanwhile Mubarizu'd-Din, in spite of his illness, continued 
to prosecute the siege of Shiraz. On Friday, 6th of Rabi*^ i, 
A. H. 754 (= April II, 1353) Hajji Qiwamu'd-Din Hasan, one 
of the chief men of Fars (657), died, to the great grief of 
Abii Ishaq '). His son narrates to the author of this history 

i) Hdfiz has a qifa on this event, giving the date as above, except that 
the month is given as Rabi' ii, not Rabi' i. See Rosenzweig-Schwannau's 
edition of the Diwdn^ vol. iii, p. 304. 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 



167 



how he went, on the third day after Qiwamu'd-Dfn's death, 
to see Abu Ishaq, who lamented the time he had spent in 
studying astrology, and the mistakes into which it had led 
him, and recited verses on its futility. (658) Abii Ishaq 
aroused the hostility of the Shirazis by putting to death 
Sayyid Amir Hajji Darrab and Hajji Shamsu'd-Din. Finally 
in the month of Ramadan [A. H. 754 =: October, 1353] Ra'fs 
■^Umar, son of ^Ala'u'd-Din, caused the Murdistan gate to be 
left open, and Mubarizu'd-Din and his troops entered the 
town on Shawwal 3 (= Nov. i, 1353), and Abu Ishaq, with 
some of his followers, fled to Shulistan, and thence to the 
White Castle {Qat'a-i-Sapid), noted since Sasanian times for 
its strength. He then demanded help from Amir Shaykh 
Hasan, governor of Baghdad, who sent his son Amir Aq- 
buqa by way of Shushtar to help him. (659) On hearing 
that Shah Shuja*^ was advancing against them, however, Aq- 
bijqa returned to Baghdad, while Abu Ishaq fled to Isfahan. 
Mubarfzu'd-Din conferred the government of Kirman on 
Shah Shuja^ and handed over to him "^Ali Sahl, the ten- 
year-old son of Abu Ishaq, Amir Beg Jakaz, and Kulu 
Fakhru'd-Din, The second was drowned in the Kirman river, 
the last was put to death at Kirman, and the child was 
murdered near Rafsinjan, though it was pretended that he 
had died a natural death. His grave is now regarded as a 
holy place, and a supernatural light is said to shine over it 
at times. (660) ') Mubarizu'd-Din's good government of Fars, 
encouragement of learning and repression of dissipation. 
Quatrain on this composed by Shah Shuja^ In A. H. 755 
(= A. D.I 3 54) Mubarizu'd-Din set out to conquer "Iraq, 
accompanied by Shah Shuja*^ and the Afghan, Arab and 
Jurma'i levies. Shah Shuja'^ left Kirman in the month of 
Rabi^ i (= April), but at Shahr-i-Babak he was deserted by 
the Afghans and Jurma'is. After he had joined his father, news 
l) A blank space left here in the MS. seems to indicate a missing title. 



1 68 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

reached them that Amfr Ay-Tftnur, commander of Abu Ishaq's 
army, had gone to Shulistan, joined Amfr Ghiyathu'd-Din 
Mansiir, governor of the Shiil, and intended to seize Shiraz. 
Thereupon Shah Shuja*^ set out for Shulistan, but, finding 
no trace of them th'ere, carried off all their cattle. The rebels 
had gone to Kazariin, whence they doubled back on Shfraz 
and effected an entry by the Kazariin gate. Shah Sultan, 
Mubarizu'd-Din's governor of Shiraz (66l), was completely 
taken by surprise, and fled to Shah Shuja*^. The invaders 
set fire to the quarter of Murdistan, which was most loyal 
to Mubarizu'd-Din. Shah Shuja*^ hastened back to the town, 
which he entered by the Istakhr gate, and gallantly attacked 
the rebels. Ay-Timur was killed by an arrow, and his forces 
routed, and afterwards another force of Shiils and other 
disaffected nomads was routed by Shah Shuja'' at the Ka- 
zarun gate. {662) Complete security restored in Shiraz by 
Shah Shuja^ Verses on this '). Another attempt made by 
'Imadu'd-Din Mahmud and Amir Salgharshah, the nephew 
of Amfr Shaykh Abii Ishaq, to overthrow the Muzaffari rule 
in Fars. These collected an army at Darabjird, and invited 
the Afghan . Mongols '^) to join them. They were promptly 
attacked by Shah Shuja", who put them to flight. (663), and 
then returned to Shiraz. At this time Majdu'd-Din surren- 
dered the strong castle of Quhandiz [or FahandirJ to Shah 
Sultan, and also Amfr Shaykh Abu Ishaq's treasures, which 
were stored up there. He was pardoned by Shah Shuja*" for 
his rebelHon, and these treasures were given to him. 

Miibdrizu' d-Din swears allegiance to the Caliph 
and besieges Isfahan. 

Mubarizu'd-Dfn occupied the Castle of Mardanan [or Marwa- 



i) A blank space here seems to indicate a missing title. 
2) See foot-note on p. 161 supra. 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 



I $9 



nan J near Isfahan, the defenders of which, notwithstanding their 
numbers, refused to come out to fight him. In A. H. 75 5 (= A. D. 
1354), having sworn allegiance to the ''Abbasid Caliph al- 
Mu^tadid ') Bi'llah Abu Bakr, he restored the Caliph's name 
in the khutba (from which it had been omitted ever since 
the Mongol invasion) throughout "^Iraq, exactly 100 years 
after the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols. Tradition cited 
a propos of this. (664) Meanwhile Amir Shaykh Abu Ishaq 
was trying by every means to recover his dominions. He 
pardoned Sultanshah, whom he had held prisoner at Tabarak 
for some time, and, relying on his loyalty, sent him to rally 
the Afghans and Jurma'is ; but Sultanshah made his way to 
Luristan and thence to Shiraz, where he -joined Shah Shuja^ 
As winter drew on, the siege of Isfahan was raised, but in 
the spring the task of subduing it was entrusted by Muba- 
rizu'd-Din to Shah Shuja^ When the army had encamped 
at the gates of Isfahan, Sayyid Jalalu'd-Din Mir-Miran, go- 
vernor of that place, hid himself. (665) A few days later 
news came that Abu Ishaq, with the Atabek Nuraward b. 
Sulaymanshah b. Ahmad, had gathered an army in Luristan. 
Shah Shuja'^ decided that he must first disperse this, and so 
marched to Kandaman and thence to Firuzan. Mubarizu'd- 
Din also came hither with lightning speed. Thereupon the 
Atabek returned into Luristan, while Abu Ishaq went to 
Shushtar, Shah Shuja'^ returned to lay siege to Isfahan, and 
Mubarizu'd-Dfn encamped at Marwanan to bar the return 
of the enemy. Soon afterwards Jalalu'd-Uin Mir-Miran made 
his submission to Shah Shuja*^, who returned to Shiraz. 



l) The MS. here has wrongly "al-Muqtasid". Ibn Taghri-bardi in his Nu- 
Jumu'z-Zdhira fi Muhiki Misr ■wd'l-Qdhira records under the year A. H. 754 
the death of the Caliph al-Hakim bi'amri'llah Abu'l-*^ Abbas Ahmad. As he 
had not nominated his successor, a meeting of the nobles and judges was 
held, and they elected Abu Bakr b. al-Mustakfi bi'llah AbiV-Rabi*^ Sulayman, 
and swore allegiance to him under the title of al-Mu*^tadid. See also as-Suyuti's 
Ta'rikhu'l-Khulafd^ Cairo ed., p. 201. 



170 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

Conquest of Shabdnkdra. 

Description of Shabankara, its strong fortress, its mills, 
its gardens, and its general prosperity. (666) Its ruler was 
at this time Malik Ardashi'r, who defied Mubarizu'd-Dfn, 
and collected an army to resist him. Mubarizu'd-Din sent 
his son Mahmud to deal with this rebellion. He subdued 
the place, and Ardashfr fled. 

Revolt and subjugation of the Hazdra-i-Shddi. 

The Hazara-i-Shadl had been well treated by Mubarizu'd- 
Din, who had given them lands in fief, but they forgot these 
favours and rebelled towards the end of A. H. 756 (= Jan- 
uary, 1355), in spite of the warnings of Amfr Mubarakshah 
(667) whom they plundered and drove away to Shfraz. 
Shah Shuja*^ marched against them, defeated them, and killed 
their leader. Amir Buqa, and many others of their chief men. 

Shdh Shujd'^ goes to Kirmdn to extirpate the Afghdns 

and JurmdHs. 
These tribes were settled in this region in the time of 
Shah Shuja'^'s great-grandfather Jalalu'd-Dfn Surghatmish to 
protect it. In course of time they waxed prosperous and 
multiplied. Sultan Shah Jahan took a wife from amongst 
them and of that union was born Qutlugh, called "the Mo- 
ther of Kings" {Uinmu' s-Saldtin. When Mubarizu'd-Dfn con- 
quered Kirman in A. H. 742 (= A. D. 1341 — 2) he (668) greatly 
honoured and strengthened this tribe. Yet nevertheless from 
time to time they rebelled, as has been mentioned. In A. H. 
754 (= A. D. 1353), when Kirman was bestowed on Shah 
Shuja^ he showed them fresh favour, yet in A. H. 755 (= A. D. 
I354)> when he set out to join his father at Shfraz, they 
revolted at Shahr-i-Babak. On hearing now that Shah Shuja*^ 
was advancing against them, they retired to the mountains, 
and, being hard pressed, again craved and obtained forgive- 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 171 

ness. Shah Shuja*^ entered Kirman on Rajab 8, A. H. 757 
(= July 7, 1356), and at this juncture his wife, the sister of 
Amir Surghatmish-i-Afghanf, and the mother of the princes 
Sultan Uways, Sjultan Shibli, and Sultan Jahangir, and of Sultan 
Padishah the wife of Shah Yahya, died. Two years earlier 
he had married another wife (669), and the marriage was 
consummated on Sha'^ban 12. Two robbers, Mahmud Timur and 
an Arab of Shahr-i-Babak, were captured and put to death. 

Shah Shuja^ again marches on Isfahan. 

At the end of Sha'^ban, Shah Shuja'^ left Kirman. On the 
2nd of Ramadan he reached Rafsinjan, and on Tuesday the 
9th he reached Yazd, where he remained three days, and 
then met his father Mubarizu'd-Din outside Na'in. A few 
days later nevys arrived that Amir Shaykh Abu Ishaq had 
collected an army of the Hazara-i-Shadf at Jarbadhaqan 
(Gulpayagan), and Mubarizu'd-Din, leaving Shah Shuja"^ there 
(670), set out to attack them, but they dispersed the day 
before his arrival, leaving many of their stores and posses- 
sions. Meanwhile Shah Shuja^ encamped at Fi'ruzan, one 
stage from Isfahan, whence he moved near to the Bagh-i- 
Karan, which adjoined the city wall. Several sorties were 
made by the inhabitants, in one of which the Amir Kay- 
Ka'iis showed great valour, and many of the Isfahanis were 
taken prisoner. Mubarizu'd-Din, leaving Shah Sultan to con- 
duct the siege, returned to Shlraz. 

Conquest of Luristdn. 

The Atabek Nur-award, whose ancestors had ruled Lu- 
ristan for generations, was from the first inclined to dispute 
Mubarizu'd-Din's supremacy, and he and his kinsman Kayu- 
marth b. Takla wished to give their support to Amir Shaykh 
Abu Ishaq. Mubarizu'd-Din was anxious, on account of family 
connections, to avoid a conflict with them, but when {671) 



1/2 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

Nur-award allied himself with Abii Ishaq, placed all his 
resources at his disposal, and marched on Isfahan, so that 
no doubt remained as to his hostility, Mubarizu'd-Dfn was 
very angry. He sent Nasiru'd-Din Khunji, Amir Kamalu'd- 
Dfn Husayn Rashi'di, Khwaja Ruknu'd-Din 'Amidu'1-Mulk 
and Khwaja Sadru'd-Din Anari to remonstrate with them, 
but without effect. In the year A. H. 756 (=A. D. 1355) 
when Mubarizu'd-Din encamped outside Isfahan, the Atabek 
Nur-award sent the Qadi Qutbu'd-Din, the chief judge of 
Luristan, as an ambassador to him. In Muharram, A. H. 757 
(Jan. 1356) it was decided to invade Luristan. Shah Shuja'^ 
joined his father, and the expedition started, in spite of the 
intense cold. When they reached Bahbahan, however, the 
weather turned warmer. At this juncture news arrived that 
Kayiimarth, Shaykh *^sa the Kurd, and other chiefs, were 
advancing with an army of 10,000 horse and foot. Thereupon 
Mubarizu'd-Dfn (672) prepared for battle, entrusting the right 
wing to Shah Shuja'^ and the left wing to Shah Mahmud, 
while he himself took command of the centre, in company with 
his grandson Shah Yahya. In the battle which ensued Kayii- 
marth was killed and his army defeated. Next day the sur- 
vivors, including the Atabek Shamsu'd-Din Pashang b. Sal- 
gharshah b. Ahmad b. Yusufshah b. Shamsu'd-Din Alp-Arghun 
b. Hazarasp b. Abu Tahir b. Muhammad b. *^Ali b. Abu'l- 
Hasan Fadlu'i, and ''Ala'u'd-Din "^Ata, Taju'd-Din Taki'n- 
Tash, Siraju'd-Din "^Umar Lal-pa, and the other chiefs came 
to make their submission, and were well received. On reaching 
Idaj '), the capital of Luristan, news arrived that Nur-award 
had occupied the strong fortress of Susan. Shah Shuja^ set 
out to attack him, whereupon he retreated to another fortress. 
Mubarizu'd-Din, having practically subdued Luristan, con- 
ferred the government of it on the Atabek Shamsu'd-Din 
Pashang, the cousin and son-in-law of Nur-award, whom he 

l) The modern MAl-Amir, one of the chief Bakhtiyari centres. 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 



173 



soon succeeded in capturing and deprived of his eye-sight. 
Mubarizu'd-Di'n, returning homewards from Idaj, celebrated 
his victory by a great hunt in the plain of Rakhshabad (673). 

Conquest of Isfahan and capture of Shaykh Abii I shag. 

While the campaign in Luristan was in progress, Shah 
Sultan was vigorously besieging Isfahan, whither Shaykh 
Abu Ishaq had returned. Sayyid Jalalu'd-Din Mir-miran took 
part in the defence, and the siege dragged on through the 
hard winter until the spring, when many of the garrison 
came out and joined Shah Sultan's forces, to the great dis- 
couragement of Shaykh Abu Ishaq and his ally Jalalu'd-Din, 
which was presently increased by the treacherous surrender 
of the fortress of Tabarak to Shah Sultan by its warden. 
(674) Seeing the discouragement of the besieged, Sayyid 
Jalalu'd-Din, abandoning his wife and family, escaped from 
the city with one attendant and fled to Kashan. Shaykh 
Abu Ishaq, unable to get out of the city, took refuge in 
the house of Mawlana Nizamu'd-Din Asil, the Shaykhu'l- 
Islam of "^Iraq. Finally his whereabouts was discovered, and 
he was brought to the Castle of Tabarak, news of his capture 
being sent to Amir Mubarizu'd-Din, who ordered him to be 
sent to Shfraz. In the mayddn of that city he was brought 
before Mubarizu'd-Din, who was surrounded by all the '^ulamd, 
judges and nobles of Fars, and there he was put to death 
by Ariiir Qutbu'd-Dfn, the youngest son of Sayyid Amir 
Hajji Darrab, whom he had formerly slain. (675) Two qua- 
trains recited by him at his death '). 

l) The poet Hafiz has many poems on Shaykh Abil Ishaq, amongst others 
the following on his death, of which he gives the date as 21 Jumada i, A. H. 
757 (= May 22, A. D. 1356): — 

^jUi^'V) /r—^ * ^JiAi j^^ y.^^ * ' '-r'j'^ J Oj^ C>y^T'^ v^^^i -^^ 



174 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

Rebellion of the Afghans and yurmdHs. 

In the year A. H. 757, when Shah Shuja' set out for Shiraz 
on his way to Luristan, he was accompanied by a number 
of amirs and soldiers of the Afghans and Jurma'is. Amir 
^Ah' MaHk, who had hitherto been loyal, was appointed to 
go to Riidbar. Soon after his arrival there he had a quarrel 
with Taqtay as to a certain pasture, as a result of which 
Taqtay was slain, and *^Ali Malik obtained possession of an 
undisputed territory. He took captive Amir "^Izzu'd-Di'n, chief 
of the Jurma'is, but could not kill his brother Shamsu'd- 
Dfn, who was in attendance on Shah Shuja^ He sent *^Izzu'd- 
Din in chains to Kirman, but on the way thither he escaped, 
unknown to his custodians, and took refuge with his tribe, 
where he gathered round him a number of men who bore 
resentment against *^Ali Malik, marched against him, and 
killed him. When news of this reached Amir Mubarizu'd-Din, 
he wished to march at once and take vengeance (676), 
but, being engaged in a campaign against Adharbayjan, he 
was compelled to postpone his intention for a year. 

The Subjugation of Tabriz. 

In Muharram, A. H. 758 (January, 1357) Mubarizu'd-Din, 
having overcome all his rivals and occupied Fars and "^Iraq, 
set out for Isfahan with a large army. Near that city he 
was met by all the notables and chiefs, who escorted him 
to the palace, where he received the homage of Shah Sultan, 
who expected, but did not receive, much favour for his ser- 
vice, for the Minister Khwaja Burhanu'd-Din had accused 
him of embezzling a sum of 700 tiimdns from the revenues 
of *^Iraq. This caused a certain estrangement, in spite of 
which Shah Sultan gave a great banquet, at which, however, 
Mubarizu'd-Din, who was violent, passionate and ill-natured, 
behaved with great rudeness. (677) This increased the en- 
mity already existing between the uncle and nephew. At 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 



175 



this juncture an ambassador arrived from Janf Beg Khan b. 
Uzbeg Khan with 300 horsemen, bringing the news that the 
Khan had come to Tabriz, killed Malik Ashraf, and assumed 
supreme authority; and that he now summoned Mubarizu'd- 
Din to his presence to perform the duties of Yasdwul, or 
Marshal, incumbent on him as formerly on his father. Mubarizu 
'd-Din replied in harsh terms, and entrusted the entertain- 
ment of the ambassadors to Shah Sultan, whose anger was 
further increased by this new and unexpected burden. After 
they had departed, news arrived that Jani Beg had fallen 
sick and had returned to his own tribe [ulus], leaving Akhf 
Jiiq in Tabriz. This news decided Mubarizu'd-Din to under- 
take the conquest of Adharbayjan. Then news came by suc- 
cessive messengers that Jani Beg was dead, and had been 
succeeded by his son Bardi Beg, who had thereupon put 
his brothers to death. Mubarizu'd-Din forthwith began his 
preparations, selected 12,000 men from the armies of ^Iraq 
and Fars, and set out for Tabriz. Amir Akhi Jiiq, being 
informed of this, came out from Tabriz to meet him with 
30,000 horsemen. (678) The two armies met at Miyana. 
Mubarizu'd-Din entrusted the right wing to Shah Shuja^ the 
left to Shah Mahmud, and himself took command of the 
centre, having Shah Yahya with him. He ordered his sol- 
cfiers to fire three arrows each and then charge. Kamalu'd- 
Din Lutfu'llah, son of Sadru'd-Din '^Iraqi, produced the sword 
of Khalid b. Wali'd" "the Sword of God", and recited the 
prayer engraved upon it three times, and one of the arrows 
fired struck down the enemy's standard-bearer. Akhi Juq's 
right wing broke Mubarizu'd-Din's left wing and threatened 
to encircle his centre, but Mubarizu'd-Din and Shah Yahya 
fought with such valour that Amir Akhi Juq's army was 
completely routed, and its leaders mostly slain or taken 
captive, and Mubarizu'd-Din's sons pursued them to Nakh- 
juwan, where they feasted for three days. (679) Muba- 



176 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

rizu'd-Din was greatly incensed at this, reprimanded them, 
and honoured only Shah Yahya, who had remained with 
him and had fought with great valour. On the Friday 
he himself ascended the pulpit and deliveped a homily. 
News arrived that an army was advancing on Tabriz from 
Baghdad, and Mubarizu'd-Din decided to withdraw. On the 
march he was continually threatening punishments to his 
sons and others, and they, being alarmed, laid the matter 
before Shah Sultan, who, having already a grudge against 
Mubarizu'd-Din, incited them to seize their father, telling 
them that he certainly intended to blind them and exclude 
them from the succession in favour of his youngest and 
favourite son, whose mother was Badi*^u'l-Jamal. (680) They 
therefore agreed together on reaching Isfahan to seize and 
bind their father Mubarizu'd-Din. They arrived there on Tues- 
day in the middle of Ramadan, A. H. 759 (= Aug. 21, 1358). 
On the following Thursday at midnight Shah Sultan came 
with one attendant to Shah Shuja"s house and announced 
that he would flee, as it was said that Mubarizu'd-Din was 
acquainted with the plot, and that if so he would certainly 
kill all the conspirators. It was therefore agreed that before 
sunrise next day they should put their plans into execution. 
Shah Sultan then proceeded to Shah Mahmiid, who was in 
the bath, and gave him the same information, whereupon 
he at once mounted and came to the house of his father 
Mubarizu'd-Din, who was busy reading the Qtir'dn. Shah 
Mahmud waited outside in the porch, while Shah Shuja' and 
Shah Sultan stood at the door of the room in which Mu- 
barizu'd-Di'n was, and sent five or six men in to seize him. 
He, on seeing them, understood what was intended, and 
sought for His sword, but it was not at hand. The conspi- 
rators, therefore^ were able to seize and bind him. At the 
same time Shdh Sultan went and killed Khwaja Burhanu'd- 
Din. That night they conveyed Mubarizu'd-Din to the Castle 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. .177 

of Tabarak and blinded him '). (681) Reflections of the author 
on the vicissitudes of Fortune. Mubarizu'd-Din is conveyed 
from Tabarak to Qara-i-Isfid ("the White Castle") in Fars. 
After a month or two he told the warden of the castle 
that he had not wholly lost his sight, and persuaded him 
(682) to befriend him. Finally, after much correspondence, 
an understanding was arrived at between Mubarizu'd-Din 
and his sons. The former was permitted to come to Shi'raz 
and to have with him Badi'^u'l-Jamal and his youngest son 
Sultan Bayazid, together with his body-servants, while the 
government was to be carried on in his name and with his 
approval. When he had been for two or three months at 
Shiraz, he made a plot with some of his adherents to 
seize and kill Shah Shuja'^ when he came to see him. Shah 
Shuja*^, being informed of this, ordered his accomplices to be 
put to death, and himself to be transferred to the Castle of 
Tabar in the Garmsfr, or hot region, of Fars. Then he 
fell ill, and was removed in consequence to the Castle of 
Bam, where he died at the end of Rabi'^ i, A. H. 765 (= be- 
ginning of January, 1364), at the age of 65, having reigned 
40 years, 22 years in Yazd, 13 years in Kirman, and 5 years 
over "^Iraq and Fars. 

Jaldlud-Din Shah Shuja^ b. Muhammad b. Mtizaffar 
b. al-Mansiir b. Hdjji Khusrawi [? Khurasani]. 

(683) Praise of this Prince's virtues and talents. He began 
his studies at the age of seven, and in A. H. 742 {-=:■ A. D. 
1 341 — 2), when only nine years of age, he had learned the 
Qur'dn by heart. His studious character and love of learned 
men. His excellent memory. Specimens of his Arabic (684) 
and Persian verse. His valour and skill in arms. On his 



l) Hafiz refers to this event in a fine qifa whicli will be found on pp. 
230 — 232 of Rosenzweig-Schwannau's edition, vol. iii. It Ijegins: — 



178 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

succession to the throne he bestowed Persian "^Iraq and 
Abarquh on Shah Mahmud and Kirman on Sultan Ahmad, 
and made Khwaja Qiwamu'd-Dln Muhammad his Prime Mi- 
nister. At the beginning of Muharram, A. H. 760 (= Dec. 3, 
1358) he set out for Kirman to chastise the rebelHous Af- 
ghans and Jurma'is. Thence he proceeded to Bam, Jiraft 
and (685) Manujan. He defeats the Afghans and kills a great 
number of them. The Afghans rally and again give battle, 
but after a fierce fight, in which Shah Shuja*^ himself took 
part, sue for peace. They did not, however, observe the 
truce, and permission was given to plunder their possessions. 

(686) The Afghans then got Khwaja Shamsu'd-Din Muham- 
mad to intercede for them, and by means of the Shaykhu'l- 
Islam Sadru'd-Din '^Abdu'l-'^Aziz, a descendent of Burhanu'l- 
Aqtab Shaykh Shihabu'd-Din Tiirayashti, succeeded in obtain- 
ing forgiveness from Shah Shuja*^ by promising obedience 
in the future. Shah Shuja*^ then returned to Shiraz. Shortly 
afterwards his brother Shah Mahmud rebelled against him, 
attacked and took Yazd, placed Khwaja Baha'u'd-Din Qurji 
there as governor, and himself marched to Isfahan. 

Shdh Yahyd is sent to Yazd. 

At this time Shah Yahya, Shah Muzaffar's son and Shah 
Shuja"s nephew was imprisoned in the Castle of Quhandiz 
[MS. "Fahandir"], but he succeeded, with the help of con- 
federates, in seizing the governor and taking possession 
of the castle. Shah Shuja*^ sent an army to besiege him. 

(687) Finally a truce was concluded, on condition that 
Shah Yahya should evacuate the castle and retire to Yazd, 
but, though treated with honour by Shah Shuja^ he conti- 
nued at Yazd to intrigue against him. Verses of Shah Shuja'' 
on this subject. Shah Shuja*^ marches towards Yazd, and 
sends Khwaja Qiwamu'd-Dfn Muhammad thither from Abar- 
quh, where he himself remains. A rumour is started that 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 



179 



one of Qiwamu'd-Din's intimates named "^Abdu'r-Rahman 
Kunbani was intending to assassinate him, and Qiwamu'd- 
Din, without investigating the matter, immediately caused 
(688) '^Abdu'r-Rahman to be put to death. Yazd was soon 
reduced to great straits, and Shah Yahya was obHged to 
submit to his uncle Shah Shuja^ who accepted his excuses. 
Text of the fresh agreement concluded between the uncle 
and nephew. (689) Shah Shuja^ then returned to his capital, 
ordering his army to raise the siege of Yazd. Soon after- 
wards he set out for Qasr-i-Zard, because Shah Mahmud 
threatened rebellion. The wazir [Qiwamu'd-Dfn] was accused 
by his enviers of being disloyal, and was arrested, fined, 
and ultimately put to death with torture in the middle of 
Dhu'1-QaMa, A. H. 764. His place was taken by Khwaja 
Kamalu'd-Din Rashidi. 

The Conflict between Shah Shuja and Shah Mahmud. 

Shah Shuja'^ now marched on Isfahan against his brother 
Shah Mahmud, and besieged him there for one or two months. 
Daily skirmishes took place, and one day Shah Mahmud 
succeeded (690) in decoying Shah Sultan and a number of 
the besiegers into an ambush in the suburban lanes [kucha- 
bdgh-hd), and in taking Shah Sultan captive and killing 
his younger brother Amir Mubariz. Shah Sultan was blinded 
by his foes, as he had formerly blinded the late king Mu- 
barizu'd-Di'n. Quatrain by Sadru'd-Din *^Iraqi on this subject. 
After this defeat Shah Shuja"^ retired to Shiraz, and Shah 
Mahmud began to seek support and alliance from Sultan 
Uways at Tabriz. Simultaneously with MuS'nu'd-Din's second 
mission to Isfahan, Amir Mubarak-shah Aynagh came from 
Tabriz to Isfahan to endeavour to create trouble (691) and to 
induce Shah Mahmud to revolt. Reinforcements arrived from 
Tabriz led by Amir Shaykh "^Ali Aynagh, Amir Sati Bahadur, 
Mubarakshah Diili, and sundry Amirs, like Ghiyathu'd-Din 



l8o SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

Shul, Salghur-shah Turkman, etc., and Shah Yahya as well as 
Shah Mahmud joined them. The combined army marched out 
of Isfahan in A. H. 765 (= A. D. 1363 — 4), and Shah Shuja*^ 
advanced to meet them from Shiraz, entrusting his right wing 
to his youngest brother Sultan Ahmad, and his left wing to his 
eldest son Sultan Uways. Sultan Ahmad, angered at not 
being admitted to the Council of War held by Shah Shuja*^ 
and his amirs, deserted in the night to Shah Mahmud, and 
many of the soldiers followed his example. Shah Shuja^ 
however, undeterred by these defections, gave battle near 
Khwansar. (692) When night fell the battle was still unde- 
cided. Shah Shuja*^ fell back on Shiraz, while the opposing 
army scattered, many of the leaders retreating swiftly to 
distant places, e.g. Sayyid Humamu'd-Din to Isfahan, the 
son of Amir Shaykh "All Aynagh to Kashan, and Shah Yahya 
to Yazd, while Shah Mahmud and Amir Shaykh 'AH reached 
Isfahan by different routes, and decided to take no further 
action until they should learn what had befallen the army 
of Shah Shuja^ News reached them that Shah Shuja^ had 
retreated to Shiraz. In passing by the Band-i-Am(r he had 
confided the fortress there to one of his Amirs, who being 
inexperienced and timorous, surrendered that strong place 
to the enemy as soon as they summoned him to do so. 
Shah Shuja^ meanwhile, having remained a few days in 
Shiraz to re-equip his army, marched back to seek revenge, 
but was attacked by a pain in the foot which compelled 
him to return. Now there was a certain Dawlatshah who had 
been the faithful servant of the unfortunate Qiwamu'd-Din, 
and who had been imprisoned for a few days at the time 
of his master's execution, but was afterwards released and 
taken into favour (693). This man had been sent by Shah 
Shuja" to Kirman to bring money to Shiraz for the payment 
of the army. On reaching Si'rjan he met Sultan Shiblf and Amir 
Surghatmish, who were advancing to Shiraz with reinforce- 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 



I»I 



ments for Shah Shuja^ and persuaded them and [Badru'd-Din] 
Hilal, Sultan Shibll's guardian [Atdbek) to return with him to 
Kirman. There he seduced many of the Amirs and nobles from 
their allegiance; put to death Amir Hajji the Master of the 
Horse {Mir-dkhur), who was governor of Kirman on behalf 
of Shah Shuja*^, and Sultan Shibli's Atdbek, Badru'd-Din 
Hilal; imprisoned Sultan Shibli in the Qara-i-Kuh; and 
assumed the supreme power. (694) When news of these 
events reached Shah Shuja*^ he was greatly discouraged, and 
at this juncture Shah Mahmud's army arrived before Shiraz 
and daily skirmishes took place. Finally Shah Shuja*^ decided 
to send his son Sultan Uways to seek Amir Surghatmish 
(who was believed to be still loyal) in the Garmsir and to 
march with him against Kirman to subdue Dawlatshah ; but 
they could effect nothing. Meanwhile the siege of Shiraz 
dragged on, until finally Shah Mahmud sent a message to 
his brother Shah Shuja"^ to say that the "foreign" Amirs 
from Baghdad prevented him from concluding any peaceful 
agreement, but that if Shah Shuja^ would retire to Abarquh 
for a while until he could induce these Amirs to disperse, 
a satisfactory agreement could be concluded, and a fair 
partition of the country effected between them. (695) Shah 
Shuja"^ consents. Text of his reply to his brother. They meet 
at the castle of Quhandiz [MS. Fahandir], and Shah Mahmud 
agrees to restore the Gastle of Sar-i-Band-i Amir to Shah Shuja*^, 
so that he could go that way to Abarquh. His wife, Khatun-i- 
*^Uzma, and youngest son. Sultan Zaynu'l-'^Abidin, (696) with 
Amir Ikhtiyaru'd-Din Hasan Qurchi, however, took the road 
by Shulistan, while Shah Shuja'^ himself went by Qasr-i-Zard, 
wherein he acted wisely, as he thereby evaded a party of 
the hostile Amirs from Tabriz who had intended to inter- 
cept him. His governor at Abarquh, Jalalu'd-Din Turanshah, 
received him most loyally, and they agreed to march on 
Kirman and endeavour to overthrow the usurper Dawlatshah. 



l82 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

They set out in the month of Isfandarmudh, A. H. 765, with 
a small army equalling in numlaers the army of the Prophet at 
the Battle of Badr {i.e. 313). Dawlatshah came out to meet them 
with an army of 4000 men. An Arab Amir named Mahmiid 
brought this news to Shah Shuja^ who immediately set out 
from Shahr-i-Babak for Sirjan. The two armies met towards 
sun-down ; Shah Shuja^ in spite of the smallness of his force, 
attacked valourously (697), and was completely victorious, 
capturing abundant spoils and putting Dawlatshah to rout. 
Next day he advanced to Kirman, and on reaching Shahabad, 
one parasang from the city, found that Dawlatshah had 
closed the city gates and was preparing to withstand a siege. 
Finally, however, he was induced by Amir Ramadan Akhtaji 
to surrender, on condition of pardon for his offences, this 
promise being guaranteed by the ivazir Khwaja Turanshah. 
Next day Dawlatshah came out, accompanied by his nobles, 
and received presents and robes of honour. Shortly after- 
wards, however. Shah vShuja^ being informed that Dawlatshah 
meditated a fresh act of treachery and even an attempt at 
assassination, (698) put him to death. Sultan Uways and 
Amir Surghatmish were, on the other hand, honoured and 
rewarded. Shah Shuja^ soon afterwards set out to try to 
recapture Shiraz, and received reinforcements and adhesions 
at Nayriz and other places on his way, but, being deserted 
by the Afghan and Jurma'i contingents, and sickness also 
having attacked him, he was compelled to return to Kirman. 

Campaign in the Garmsir. 

Shah Shuja^ next marched into the Garmsir to subdue the 
Afghans, who retreated to mountain fastnesses, issuing forth 
to fight whenever an opportunity presented itself. (699) The 
campaign was fruitful of hardship to the besiegers, and the 
Afghans asked for help from Shah Mahmud, while Shah 
Yahya and some of the Amirs came to help Surghatmish. 



THE MUZAFFART DYNASTY. 



183 



Shah Yahya sought to be reconciled to his uncle Shah Shuja*^. 
Text of the letter written by the latter to the former in 
response to these overtures. (700). Shah Shuja^ being again 
attacked by pain in the foot and other complaints, retired 
two or three stages. His antagonists, deeming him afraid, 
prepared to attack him, whereupon he turned back, fell upon 
them unawares, and defeated them. Most of them submitted, 
including Amfr Surghatmish, who, with Da'ud-i-Ghuri, had 
taken refuge in the QaPa-i-Sulaymanf. Da'ud, however, esca- 
ped to Shiraz. Shah Yahya set out from Shiraz with an 
army for Yazd, followed by Mubarakshah Aynagh. A battle 
took place between them at Khirama (701), and they turned 
back. Shah Yahya sent from Yazd to demand the elder 
daughter of Shah Shuja*^ in marriage. The request was granted 
and the marriage concluded. Shah Shuja^ then set out to 
subdue Fars. At Chahar Gunbad Shah Mansur b. Shah Mu- 
zafifar b. Muhammad b. Muzafifar came from Yazd to do 
allegiance to his uncle, who treated him with much honour. 
From Shahr-i-Babak Shah Shuja"^ turned back to Shfraz, and 
Shah Mahmud came to meet him. Pahlawan Khurram advanced 
from Mashhad to support Shah Shuja*^, fell in with Shah 
Mahmud's army, and was almost defeated when Shah Shuja*^ 
and his army arrived on the scene (702), and Shah Mahmud 
suffered a severe defeat, two hundred of his best horsemen 
being drowned in a river which they attempted to cross in 
their flight. 

Conquest of Shiraz. 

Shah Shuja'^ then returned to Shfraz. At Pul Basa he was 
again attacked by Shah Mahmud on Saturday, i6th of Dhu'l- 
QaMa, A. H. 767 (= July 25, 1366) and a great battle took 
place. The people -of Shiraz agreed to open the gates to 
Shah Shuja'^, and on Sunday, 24th of Dhu'l-Qa'^da, Shah 
Mahmud retreated towards "^Iraq. Sultan ^Imadu'd-Dfn Ahmad 



184 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

left him and made his submission to Shah Shuja^ who once 
again ruled in Fars, (703) and again frequented the assemblies 
of the learned. Thus he attended the lectures of Mawlana 
Qiwamu'd-Dfn Faqih Najm and began to study the Usui of Ibn 
Hajib with the commentary of Mawlana "^Adudu'd-Din '^Ab- 
du'llah. He appointed as Chief Qadi "the Shafi'l of the Age" 
Mawlana Baha'u'd-Din "^Uthman Kuh-gelu'i and made Qut- 
bu'd-Din Sulayfnan-shah b. Khwaja Mahmud Grand Wazir. 
He also sent Mawlana Ghiyathu'd-Dln Kini to Mecca to 
build a rest-house for pilgrims and buy a plot of ground 
for a tomb for himself, giving him 200,000 dindrs for this 
purpose. Both the tomb and the rest-house are still in exis- 
tence. Arabic verse composed by Shah Shuja*^ for the latter. 
In the year A. H. 770 (= A. D. 1368 — 9) he swore allegiance 
to tlie Caliph al-Qahir bi'llah Muhammad b. Abi Bakr al- 
*^Abbas{ '). After he had established himself in Fars, in A. H. 
768 (= A. D. 1366 — 7) he (704) marched on Isfahan. Shah 
Mahmud sent messengers with conciliatory letters to him, 
peace was concluded, and he retired. Some while afterwards 
Shah Mahmud's wife. Khan Sultan, the daughter of Amir 
Kay-Khusraw b. Shah Mahmud-i-lnjii, wrote to Shah Shuja' 
offering, if he passed through *^Iraq, to surrender Isfahan and 
hand over her husband, Shah Mahmud, bound to his brother. 
She added that he should lose no time, as a large army 
was expected shortly from Tabriz, conveying the daughter 
of Sultan Uways. Shah Shuja"^ thereupon again set out for 
Isfahan and encamped outside the city. Shah Mahmud sent 
a deputation of the leading citizens to wait on his brother 
and try to conciliate him, offering complete submission to 

l) There is no evidence of the existence amongst the puppet-Caliphs of 
Cairo of any one bearing this name and title. According to as-SuydtCs 
Ta'rikhu' l-Kkulafd (Cairo ed., pp. 202 — 3) the titular Caliph at this period 
was al-Mutawakkil 'ala'lldh Abii 'Abdk'llah Muhammad b. al-Mu^tadid, who 
was chosen Caliph in A. H. 763 and deposed in favour of al-Wathiq bi'lldh 
in A. II. 785 (= A. D. 1361 — 1384). 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 



185 



his commands. Shah Shuja^ seeing his brother's humiHty 
(705), agreed to meet him, and concluded a fresh agreement 
with him, after which he again returned to Shiraz. In the 
same year he arrested and imprisoned Khwaja Qutbu'd-Dfn 
Sulayman-Shah, and blinded his son Amir Ghiyathu'd-Dln 
Mahmiid, and sent him a prisoner to Kirman. Qutbu'd-Din 
Sulayman-Shah escaped from prison, went to Isfahan, and 
was made zvazir by Shah Mahmud. Shah Shuja'^ made Shah 
Hasan the son of Shah Mahmud Sayyid Mu'^inu'd-Din Ashraf 
of Yazd his wazir. Shah Mahmud 's wife, Khan Sultan, always 
filled with the desire of avenging the death of her uncle Amir 
Shaykh [Abu Ishaq] and her other relatives, continued to plot 
for the destruction of the Muzaffaris, and therefore kept urging 
Shah Shuja*^ to subjugate *^Iraq, and also endeavoured to 
pass off as her own child the baby son of one of her waiting 
women. These matters were finally brought to the knowledge 
of her husband Shah Mahmud, who, having satisfied him- 
self of their truth, ordered her -to be strangled. At this 
juncture the daughter of Sultan Uways came with a great 
army from Tabriz to "^Iraq to reinforce him. He then again 
advanced against Fars, and Shah Shuja^ collected an army 
and came out to meet him. (706) The two armies met 
at Chasht-khwar. Shah Shuja*^ entrusted the right wing to 
Sultan Ahmad and the left to Shah Mansur, himself taking 
the centre. A fierce battle ensued and lasted all day. Shah 
Shuja^ withdrew to Shiraz, but Shah Mansur with the left wing 
achieved a partial victory, and entered Shiraz laden with spoil. 

Shah Hasan is killed and Tiirdnshdh becomes Wazir. 

At this juncture Shah Hasan showed to Shah Shuja*^ a 
letter purporting to be written by Khwaja Jalalu'd-Din 
Turanshah and Humamu'd-Dfn Mahmud, (707) wherein they 
offered him their allegiance and promised to open the city 
gates to him if he advanced. On the back of this letter 



l86 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

Shah Mahmud had written that he would come that very 
week. Summoned before Shah Shuja' to give account of this 
matter, the two accused persons declared that the letter was 
not in their writing, and that they had no knowledge of it. 
It happened that Shah Hasan was laid up with pain in the 
foot. Amir Ikhtiyaru'd-Dfn Hasan Qiirchi was sent to ascer- 
tain how the letter had come into his hands, and suspicion was 
aroused that it was a forgery effected by order of Shah Hasan 
by Khwaja Mahmiid-i-Hajji "^Umar Munshf. Shah Hasan's ivazir 
was thereupon seized, tortured and strangled, while Khwaja 
Jalalu'd-Din Turanshah was made wazir, a post for which his 
talents and virtues eminently fitted him. (708) When news 
of these events reached Shah Mahmud, he at once turned 
back to Isfahan. 

Rebellion of Pahlawdn Asad b. Tughdnshdh at Kirmdn. 

When Amfr Mahmud, son of Amir Qutbu'd-Din Sulayman- 
shah, was brought to Kirman, he ingratiated himself with 
the governor, Pahlawan Asad, who was an old friend of his, 
and seduced him from his allegiance to Shah Shuja^ Shah 
Yahya also wrote to him from Yazd and inspired him with 
ambitions of sovereignty, but the presence of "the Mother 
of Kings", Khan Qutlugh, in Kirman restrained him for a 
time from overt rebellion, until a serious quarrel broke out 
between the wrestlers and athletes of Kirman and those of 
Khurasan, in which Khan Qutlugh espoused the cause of 
the Kirmanis and Pahlawan Asad that of the Khurasanis. 
Recriminations and complaints ensued, and Khan Qutlugh 
retired to Slrjan. Thereupon Pahlawan Asad, relieved of her 
presence, began to strengthen the fortifications. Shah Shuja"^ 
refused to believe that he really intended rebellion, and 
Pahlawan Asad, having put the city in a state of defence, 
began to raise an army. (709) In spite of the exhortations 
of Shah Shuja*^ to his sons to avoid intestinal quarrels, his 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 



187 



eldest son Sultan Uways joined himself to a tribe of Af- 
ghans and forged a letter in his father's name bidding Pah- 
lawan Asad surrender Kirman to him, and even began to 
advance with the tribe on Kirman. Perceiving, however, 
that his enterprise was doomed to failure, he left his army 
and made his way to Isfahan to his uncle Shah Mahmud. 
This increased Pahlawan Asad's boldness, and he proceeded 
to besiege Lakan, the Warden of Qara-i-Kuh, until he sur- 
rendered that fortress. He then arrested the agents of Wd- 
lidatu's-Saldtin, forced them by torture to reveal to him the 
places where her treasures were concealed, and put Khwaja 
Muhammad '^Ulya-abadi in chains (710), taking from him all 
that he possessed, and finally killing him. He also poisoned 
Khwaja Shamsu'd-Din Muhammad, called Zdhid ("the Asce- 
tic") and took his property, and in short greatly oppressed 
the people, so that Kirman never again regained its former 
prosperity. Shah Shuja"^, on learning of these events, sent 
Farrash Hajji Baha'^u'd-Dfn to Isfahan to effect a recon- 
ciliation with his brothers. Being assured in this quarter, he 
marched on Kirman through the Garmsfr by Jiraft and Bam, 
where he learned from the Warden, Amir Husayn, details 
of the rebellion and tyranny of Pahlawan Asad, Shah Shuja*^ 
then advanced hastily to Mahan and alighted at a place 
called Shah-abad, only one parasang from Kirman. Here a 
fierce battle took place. (711) Shah Mansur and his uncle 
Shah Sultan Abii Yazid alighted from their horses and 
valourously endeavoured to fight their way across the bridge 
by the Darwaza-i-Sa'^adat ("Gate of Happiness") and enter 
the city, but Shah Shuja^ fearing lest they should be slain, 
ordered them to retire, and, leaving his brother Sultan ''Imadu 
'd-Dfn Ahmad to reduce the city by siege, himself returned 
to Shiraz. Sultan Ahmad tarried some days at Zarand, where 
many deserters from the army of Kirman joined him. Shah 
Yahya asked for reinforcements from Khwaja ''All Mu'ayyad 



1 88 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

Sabzawarf, who sent him a hundred horsemen commanded by 
the Sarbadar Pahlawan (712) Ghiyath-i-Tuni. Being short of 
money wherewith to pay them, Shah Yahya sent them on 
to Pahlawan Asad, who, fearing further desertions from his 
force, would not set foot outside the city. Sultan Ahmad 
encamped to the south of Mahan, where he was joined by 
Amir Muhammad Jurma'i and his fellow-Amfrs, who had 
forced their way out of the city. Soon, the siege becoming 
more rigorous, the city began to suffer severely from lack 
of provisions. Finally permission was granted for the poorer 
people to leave the city, but many perished and the rest 
were scattered. When the siege had lasted eight months. 
Sultan Ahmad was summoned to Shfraz, and the conduct 
of the siege was entrusted to Pahlawan Khurram, who induced 
Pahlawan Asad to submit. (713) A meeting between the two 
took place in the city in the Qasr-i-Humayun, and it was 
agreed that Pahlawan Asad should send his brother Pahlawan 
Muhammad b. Tughanshah and one of his sons to Shfraz as 
hostages, and should surrender the citadel to the retainers of 
Shah Shuja^ namely to Pahlawan "^All-Shah Marniyanl and 
a hundred of his men. This siege' of Kirman began on Ra- 
madan 20, A. H. 775 (= March 5, 1374), and ended early in 
Rajab, A. H. 776 (= first part' of December, 1374), having 
lasted nine months and twenty days. Now there was a secret 
passage from the citadel to the Palace, and Pahlawan '^All- 
Shah, having corrupted some of Pahlawan Asad's retainers, 
took advantage of it to send a party of determined men 
into the Palace to assassinate Pahlawan Asad. This was 
done on Friday in the middle of Ramadan, A. H. JJ^ (= 
Feb. 16, 1375), and Pahlawan Asad's head was sent to Shfraz. 
Shah Shuja*^ appointed Amfr Ikhtiyaru'd-Dfn Hasan Qurchf 
governor of Kirman. (714) He, by his justice and clemency, 
restored the prosperity of Kirman, and, by his generosity, 
made it a rallying-point for learned and pious men. 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 



189 



Death of Shah Mahmiid and anarch of Shah Shujd^ 
on Tabriz. 

In the month of Shawwal of this year (March, 1375) news 
was brought to Shah Shuja*^ from Tabriz that Sultan Uways 
was dead ; and on Wednesday the 14th of that month 
(March 18, 1375) news arrived that Shah Mahmiid had died 
on Shawwal 9 (= March 13) and that the two factions in Isfahan 
known as Du-danga and Chahar-Danga were fighting, the former 
wanting Sultan Uways b. Shah Shuja*^ to be qdHm-maqdm or 
Viceroy, and the latter demanding a king. The deceased 
Shah Mahmud was 38 years, five months and nine days old 
when he died, and had ruled over ^Iraq for 17 years, and for 
two years of this period over Fars also. On hearing this news. 
Shah Shuja'^ prepared to set out, and several messengers 
from Tabarak (715) and elsewhere urged him to make all 
possible haste to Isfahan. On approaching that city he was 
met by Sultan Uways and many of the Amirs and nobles 
of Shah Mahmud, and took possession of Isfahan without 
opposition. Sultan Uways shortly afterwards had a fall from 
his horse and broke his leg. Shah Shuja*^ continued his pre- 
parations for an advance on Tabrfz, and raised an army of 
12,000 men. He advanced by way of Jarbadhakan (Gulpaya- 
gan) and Qazwin. At the former place he received adhesions 
and reinforcements, but at the latter he met with opposition. 
He thereupon attacked the city and took it by storm, but 
restrained his troops from looting, threatening death to any 
who should offend in this way. He next advanced to Jurma- 
khwaran, when Sultan Husayn the son of Sultan Uways oppo- 
sed his advance with 24,000 horsemen. Shah Shuja*^ defeated 
the opposing army, and (716) took captive two of their leaders, 
'^Abdu'l-Qahir and Pahlawan Hajji Khar-banda, whom he sent 
in bonds with an announcement of his victory to Fars and ^Iraq. 
He then occupied Tabriz without further difficulty, and sent 



1 90 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

Shah Mansiir with 2000 horsemen to Qara-bagh, Amir Faraj 
to Nakhjuwan, Am{r Isfahan-shah b. Sultan Shah Jandar to 
Awjan, and other Amirs to other parts of Adharbayjan. 

Return of Shah Shujd^ to Tabriz. 

When Shah Shuja'^ had been at Tabriz for two or three 
months, two nomad chiefs named Shibli Da'iid and *^Umar 
Jubdastf agreed to attack Awjan with their followers and 
overthrow Amfr Isfahan-shah, proclaiming that Sultan Husayn 
was at hand with 10,000 horsemen. In this plan they were 
successful, capturing Isfahan-shah and scattering or slaying 
his soldiers, of whom the survivors fled to Tabriz. Shah 
Shuja*^, in spite of the snow and the pain in his foot 
from which he suffered, at once set out in a litter and 
retreated without halting to Qazwin, where the people 
again opposed him (717), but he passed on, without con- 
cerning himself with them, to Kashan, where he was joined 
in a few days by Shah Mansiir and many of the Amirs 
who had been dispersed in different directions, and who 
contradicted the rumours of Sultan Husayn's arrival. It was 
only two months later that he arrived from Baghdad at 
Tabriz, and, in exchange for the nobles of Tabriz taken 
captive and afterwards released by Shah Shuja^ sent Amir 
Isfahan-shah to *^Iraq. Shah Shuja'' gave the daughter of 
Sultan Uways ') in marriage to his son Sultan Zaynu'l-'^Abidin, 
appointed him governor of Isfahan, and himself set out for 
Fars, accompanied by many of the captains and nobles of 
"^Iraq. Being angry with Shah Yahya because of the help 
he had given to Pahlawan Asad, he sent an army against 
him to Yazd, and also composed some very uncomplimen- 
tary verses about him (5 couplets given). {718) Shah Yahya 
succeeded in persuading the army investing Yazd to take 

i) /. e. Sultdn Uways 'Ilkdni of Tabriz, who had recently died, not the 
homonymous son of Shah Shuja^ 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 



191 



no action against him until he should have time to commu- 
nicate with Shfraz and make his submission, but, when they 
were off their guard, he made a sudden sortie and put them 
to rout, seizing much spoil. The remnants of the army fled 
to Shiraz, and Shah Shuja*^ then resolved to go in person, 
to take revenge on Shah Yahya, but Shah Mansur per- 
suaded him to allow him to go instead. Shah Yahya, reali- 
zing that this army would not withdraw until they had 
made an end of him, sent his mother to intercede for him, 
and she eventually succeeded in effecting a reconciliation 
between the two brothers. The army, learning this, began 
to make off in successive bands for Shiraz, leaving only Shah 
Mansur and his immediate followers at Yazd. (719) Shah 
Yahya now strove to persuade Shah Mansur to go to Ma- 
zandaran and raise an army there to enable them to carry 
out their joint projects, nor would he allow Shah Mansur 
to enter the city. Finally the latter set out for Mazandaran, 
and Shah Shuja^ arrived in person with a large army to 
punish Shah Yahya, who again, however, by means of the 
intercession of the daughter and elder sister of Shah Shuja^ 
and his youngest son Sultan Jahangir, succeeded in pacifying 
the angry monarch and inducing him to withdraw to Shfraz. 
In the year A. H. 780 (= A. D. 1378 — 9) Shah Husayn b. 
Shah Muzaffar b. Muhammad b. Muzaffar, the younger bro- 
ther of Shah Yahya, came to Shfraz, and was well received 
by his uncle Shah Shuja"^ who appointed him deputy [qdHm- 
maqdm) of his brother Shah Mansur. In A. H. 781 (= A. D. 
1379 — 1380) Shah Shuja*^ set out for Sultaniyya, where a 
certain Sariq "^Adil had gathered together an army and was 
endeavouring by violence to usurp the supreme power. (720) 
He suffered a serious reverse; his great army, drawn from 
Fars, '^Iraq and Luristan, waS scattered, and he himself was 
thrown from his horse. Surrounded by a few faithful retainers 
he continued to fight on foot, until Malik Bawarchf, one of 



192 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

his officers, gave him his own horse. Another officer, Akhi 
Kuchuk, "the Rustam of the Age", came up and stayed the 
panic, and presently 10,000 or 15,000 gathered round Shah 
Shuja^ One of Shah Husayn's standards and a set of his 
kettle-drums were recovered by them, and Shah Shuja^ taking 
this as a good omen, ordered shouts of victory to be raised. 
Hearing these, and seeing such trophies in the hands of their 
foes, Sariq' ^Adil's men were panic-stricken and fled to the 
city, which was soon afterwards occupied by Shah Shuja*^. 
Sariq *^Adil and his captains took refuge in the citadel, and 
began to sue for peace. Shah Shuja*^ received their overtures 
favourably, and a treaty was concluded. (721) Rich presents 
were given to Shah Shuja^ who then received Sariq *^Adil 
with honour, left him in possession of the city, and returned 
with his army to Shfraz. 

About this time several other events took place deserving 
of mention. 

First, Sultan Zaynu'l-'^Abidin, to whom the government of 
Isfahan had been entrusted, by reason of his youth and the 
pride of ignorance neglected his duties to the people. He 
was therefore dismissed, and Pahlawan Khurram was made 
governor in his stead. He on his death was succeeded by 
Pahlawan Muhammad Zaynu'd-Din. Ultimately Sultan Zaynu'l- 
*^Abidin, after suffering a brief imprisonment, was restored. 

Secondly, Sultan Ahmad, the son of Sultan Uways '), rebelled 
in Tabriz, killed his brother Sultan Husayn and others of 
his kinsmen, and usurped control over the province of Adhar- 
bayjan. 

Thirdly, Fir 'All Badak, one of the chief nobles of Hama- 
dan, fled to Shfraz, where he was well received by Shah 
Shuja*^ and sent to Shiishtar, which he subdued, appointing 
a servant named Islam as its governor, and himself pro- 
ceeding to Baghdad, where he struck coins in the name of 

i) Here again Sultdn Uways 'Ilkdnf of Tabriz is intended. 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 



193 



Shah Shuja*^, and caused the khiitba to be read in his name. 

(722) Fourthly, Sultan Ahmad set out from Tabriz for 
Baghdad. Prince Shaykh "Ah' and Pi'r ""Ah' Badak went with 
an army to intercept him, but were both killed and their 
army routed, and Baghdad also fell into Sultan Ahmad's hands. 

Fifthly, SultanUways, son of Shah Shuja^ sickened and died. 

Sixthly, Shah Mansur, who had been for a while a fugitive 
in . Mazandaran, came to Sultaniyya to Sariq "^Adil, who, 
since he claimed to be loyal to Shah Shuja", arrested and 
imprisoned him. He was, however, released by some of his 
adherents, and came to Baghdad, where he was well received 
by Sultan Ahmad, of whose sincerity, however, he was suspi- 
cious. Islam, the governor of Shushtar, informed Shah Shuja*^ 
of this, and he sent Pahlawan "^Ali Shah Marniyani to Islam's 
help. The former, as soon as he had established himself, 
designed to oust the latter, but his plot miscarried, and he 
himself was killed. In the same year Sultan Ahmad sent 
Shah Mansur to Shustar, into which he gained admittance 
by the help of certain friendly Shaykhs. He then gradually 
rid himself of his most powerful opponents, and began to 
harry the province of Luristan, killing and plundering the 
people. (723) The Atabek Pashang complained to Shah Shuja^ 
and begged him to send an army and take Shushtar. At 
this juncture an ambassador arrived from Baghdad, and Sultan 
Ahmad complained of Sariq "^Adil, because he had placed 
his younger brother, Sultan Bayazid, on the throne at Sul- 
taniyya, and had thus created an estrangement between the 
brothers. Shah Shuja'^ answered both ambassadors according 
to their desires, promising to march on Sultaniyya with an 
army, and, on his return thence, to proceed to Shushtar by 
way of Lur-i-Kuchak. 

Sultan Shibli is arrested and blinded. 

Shah Shuja"^, on setting out from Shlraz, was accompanied 

13 



194 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

by his son Sultan Shibli, who generally followed two or 
three stages behind him. At Bayda he wished to review his 
army befoVe his father. (724) Certain mischief-makers sought 
to alarm Shah Shuja*^ by misrepresenting the Prince's object, 
and accusing him of rebellious intentions, asserting that he 
was secretly in league with Amfr Muzaffaru'd-Dfn Salghar- 
shah Rashfdf. Shah Shuja^ recalling the legendary king Firf- 
diin's words to his undutiful sons (here given not from the 
Shdhndnia, but in Arabic), was much alarmed, and in the 
month of Rabi^ i, A. H. 785 (= May 1383) arrested both the 
accused, imprisoning the Amir Salghar-shah in the citadel, 
and Sultan Shibli in the castle of Iqlid. Then one day, being 
drunk, he ordered Amir Ramadan Akhtaji and Khwaja 
Jawhar-i-Kuchak to go to the castle and deprive the Prince 
of his sight. Next day Shah Shuja*^ repented of his action, 
and sent off a mounted messenger to countermand the cruel 
order, but he arrived too late, and the king's repentance 
was vain. This cruel deed, moreover, brought him ill luck, 
for Khan Qutlugh "the Mother of Kings" died (725), and 
Shah Husayn, the brother of Shah Yahya and Shah Mansur 
also died on that campaign. Shah Shuja*^ then proceeded to 
Sultaniyya. When he reached Qazwin, Sultan Bayazid and 
Sariq *^Adil came out to meet him, and were graciously 
received. Amir Ya^qiib-shah the standard-bearer was sent to 
Sultan Ahmad, and peace was concluded between the bro- 
thers. Shah Shuja"^ removed Sariq '^Adil from his post, and 
returned to Shfraz. 

Shah Shujd^ marches against Shushtar and Luristdn. 

On returning from Qazwin, Shdh Shujd^ sent his army by 
way of Lur-i-Kuchak to Khurram-dbad, where he encamped 
beneath the citadel and received the allegiance of Malik "^Izzu'd- 
Din, whose daughter he demanded in marriage. The service 
was conducted by MawUna SaMu'd-Din Anasi, and four days 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 



195 



were devoted to the celebration of their nuptials. After this 
Shah Shuja^ proceeded over bad roads and through moun- 
tains to Dizful and Shushtar, the army suffering much from 
the cold, for it was winter. When they reached the Shushtar 
river, heavy rain came on, which lasted for several days, 
but finally the weather cleared, and the Atabek Shamsu'd- 
Din Pashang arrived, and also Shah Mansur, from the other 
side of the river, with 500 or 600 horsemen fully equipped. 
Thus they remained for a week, as the river was too high 
for them to be able to cross. On both sides there was talk 
(726) of peace. Shah Mansur came to one bank of the river, 
and Shah Shuja^ to the other, and this was as near as they 
could come to meeting. Shah Shuja'^ then retired, promising 
the Atabek to send an army from Shiraz under the command 
of Sultan Bayazid to reinforce him, and proceed with him 
to Shushtar by way of Kuh-Gayluya. Shah Shuja*^ returned 
to Shiraz, while the Atabek went to Idaj. On the march 
Faraj Agha deserted Shah Shuja*^ and went to Shushtar. On 
reaching Shiilistan, Shah Shuja^ remained there a few days 
making merry, but, falling ill, he proceeded to Shiraz, where 
he was met by the ladies of the court, who were returning 
from Isfahan. Once more he plunged into an orgie of drink- 
ing, which he continued without intermission until his ill- 
ness again grew serious, and he was obliged to take to his 
bed. His complaint baffled the skill of the physicians, (727) 
and he presently realized that he must die, and .set about 
making all the arrangements for his funeral and interment. 
Meanwhile the Amirs and people were divided into two hostile 
parties as to who should succeed the dying king, one preferring 
Shah Shuja'^'s son Sultan Zaynu'l-'^Abidin, and the other his 
brother Sultan Ahmad. Shah Shuja^ on hearing this, sent for his 
son Zaynu'l-Abidin, and gave him some fatherly advice on the 
necessity of unity and concord amongst kinsmen, of which the 
substance is given. (728) Zaynu'l-^Abidin was much moved by 



196 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

this, and by his father's impending death, and on his coming 
forth from the death-chamber, Shah Shuja"^ sent for his brother 
Sultan Ahmad and they wept together. Then Shah Shuja*^ 
gave Sultdn Ahmad a similar admonition, begged him to set 
out at once for Kirmdn and assume the government of that 
city, and urged him not to suffer himself to be led into rebel- 
lion against Zaynu'l-'^Abidin, nor to give countenance to 
those mischief-makers who were already engaged in stirring 
up strife. He then gave him further advice as to his beha- 
viour, and what he should seek and avoid. (729) Advice of 
Shdh Shujd*^ to Sultdn Ahmad as to the government of Kirmdn 
and Bam, the treatment of the tribes, and other matters, 
continued. (730) On that very day Sultan Ahmad left Shirdz 
and set out for Kirman. After this Shdh Shuja*^ wrote a 
letter to Ti'mur (Tamerlane). Text of this letter. (731) Same 
continued. (732) Same continued. Shdh Shujd*^ mentions his 
age as fifty-three. He announces his choice of Zaynu'l-'^Abidfn 
as his successor, and commends him and his other sons and 
brothers to Timur's favour. (733) Conclusion of letter. — 
Having completed all these arrangements. Shah Shujd*^ expired 
on Sunday, 22nd of Sha'bdn, A. H. y86 (= October 9, A. D. 
1384), and was buried at the foot of the Mountain of Chil 
Maqdm at Shfrdz, according to the wish which he had ex- 
pressed '). (734) His age at the time of his death was 5 3 years 
and 3 months, and he had reigned 27 years. On his death 
confusion ensued : the people of "^Irdq demanded Shdh Yahyd; 
Sultdn Ahmad, as already narrated, was ruler of Kirmdn; 
and Sultdn Zaynu'l-'^Abidfn reigned in Shfrdz in the place 
of his father. 



i) This statement hardly agrees with that made on p. 703 of the text 
(p. 178 supra) to the ciTect that ShAh Shujd' spent a large sum of money in 
buying a plot of ground for his tomb at Mecca. 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. jg^ 

Reign of Zaynii l-" Abidin b. Jaldhi d-Din Shah Shtijd'^ 

b. Mubdrizu' d-Din Muhammad b. Sharafu' d-Din Muzaffar 

b. Shujd^ti d-Din Mansur b. Ghiydthti d-Din Hdjji. 

No sooner had Zaynu'l-'^Abidfn succeeded his father than 
Shah Yahya marched from Isfahan to attack him. Sultan 
Bayazid deserted the former and joined the latter. The two 
armies, however, separated without fighting, and some sort 
of agreement was made between the two rivals. Soon after- 
wards the Isfahanis, prompted by their intrinsic malice and 
turbulence, expelled Shah Yahya from their city (735), and he 
fled with his retainers to Yazd, while Sultan Bayazid went to 
Luristan. Zaynu'l-^Abidin, being informed of this, appointed 
his mother's brother Amfr Muzafifar-i-Kdshf governor of Isfahan. 

Sultan "^IrnddiC d-Din Ahmad b. Muhammad 
b. al-MtLzaffar b. al-Mansiir b. al-Hdjji comes to Kirmdn. 
Sultan '^Imadu'd-Din Ahmad reached Kirman on Friday, 
the 20th of Sha*^ban, A. H. 786 (= October 7, 1384), and was 
met by the loyal and God-fearing Amir Ikhtiyaru'd-Dfn Hasan 
Qiirchf, and other notables of the city, who brought him to 
the Qasr-i-Humdyim (Royal Palace) and delivered to him the 
keys. Amir Hasan wished, but was not permitted, to go to 
Shiraz. Two days later the news of the death of Shah Shuja*^ 
arrived, and public mourning was observed. Sultan Ahmad 
was enthroned as ruler of Kirman. His virtues and benefi- 
cence, especially towards the ^ulamd. His lack of decision 
and easy-going character. 

Amir Surghatmish the Afghdn joins his tribe. 

Zaynu'l-^Abidin, having made peace with Shah Yahya, 
released Amir Surghatmish (736), who had been for some 
time detained by Shah Shujd^ and sent him to his tribe. 
Sultan Ahmad, on his arrival at Kirman, showed much favour 
to Amir Muhammad Jurma'f, who had formerly served him^ 



198 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

faithfully, and imprisoned Amir Tdkur the Afghan. The 
Afghan amirs were, generally speaking, in a miserable and 
impoverished condition, and, on the arrival of Amfr Sur- 
ghatmish in the Garmsir, at once joined him. Sultdn Ahmad, 
being informed of this by Amir Muhammad, set out from 
Kirman with an army. On reaching the Garmsir ') he was joined 
by a nuYnber of warriors, whom he received with honour, 
and proceeded to Chahar Gunbad, where he was further 
reinforced by Amfr Muhammad with a number of the Jurma'i 
amirs. Surghatmish sent scouts to bring him correct infor- 
mation about this army, but these fell in with a detachment 
of Sultan Ahmad's army and were put to rout. Surghatmish 
thereupon retreated to the Garmsfr to Tarim, leaving his 
brother Jamshfd in the Castle of Arzu. A letter from 'AH 
[b.] Nasr, the governor of Sirjdn, to Surghatmish, promising him 
help, fell into Sultdn Ahmad's hands, and he caused '^Ali 
[b.] Nasr to be put to death, and set out for Sirjan, where he 
confiscated the traitor's possessions. Two>or three days later 
the Sultdn set out to lay siege to the Castle of Arzu, (737) 
which he subdued without much difficulty, and put certain 
suspected persons to death, sending Jamshid in chains with 
the severed heads of the slain to Kirman, whither he followed 
him. In A. H. 787 (= A. D. 1385 — 6) arrived an envoy from 
Ti'miir, viz. Mawldnd Qutbu'd-Din, bringing assurances of 
favour and friendship, and Sultan Ahmad caused Timur's 
name to be inserted on the coinage and in the khtitba. 
After this Amfr Surghatmish sought help from Shfrdz, and 
received reinforcements commanded by Pahlawdn Zaynu'd- 
Di'n Shahr-i-Bdbakf. Amfr Muhammad at once informed Sultdn 
Ahmad, who wished to march against Surghatmish in person, 
but was dissuaded, and contented himself with sending an 
army commanded by Pahlawdn '^Ali Qiirchf, who was "the 

l) MS. "Shfrdz", which is certainly an error, though the emendation is 
conjectural. 



THE MUZAFFARI DVySTASTY. jog 

Rustam of the Army of Kirmdn", supported by Amfr Muham- 
mad Jurma'i. (738) A battle took place in which Amir Muham- 
mad slew Siirghatmish in single combat with a blow of his 
mace, and the enemy, on seeing this, lost all discipline and 
courage and were speedily routed, with great losses in slain 
and prisoners. Sultan Ahmad then appointed Pahlawan ^AH 
Qiirchi governor of the Afghans. 

Arrival of Sultan Abii Yazid [or Bdyazid] b. Muhammad 
b. al-Muzaffar at Kirmdn. 

In A. H. 788 (= A. D. 1386—7) Sultan Bayazid set out from 
Luristan for Kirman, sending Khwaja Tdju'd-Dfn Salmani on 
in advance to announce his arrival. Sultan Ahmad sent Mihtar 
Hasan the farrdsh to meet him and prepare fodder and pro- 
visions for his escort. Sultan Bayazid halted at Shahr-i-BAbak, 
and his ill-disciplined and hungry soldiers began to loot and 
plunder. Sultan Ahmad was much vexed at this, and refused 
to allow Sultan Bayazid to enter Kirman, so he turned back 
disappointed to Yazd and joined Shah Yahya. 

{739) Timur's first entry into ^Irdq and Fdrs. 

In Shawwal, A. H. 789 (= Oct.— Nov., A. D. 1387) news 
arrived that Ti'mur had advanced into "^Iraq, and that Amir 
Muzaffar-i-Kashi and all the nobles and captains of "^Iraq v 
had waited upon him and surrendered to him the keys of 
all the cities and fortresses. Sultan Zaynu'l-^Abidin with his 
Amirs left Shiraz and went towards Baghdad, while Shah 
Yahya busied himself in preparing suitable presents where- 
with to propitiate Timur (who promised security to all who 
submitted to him) and ordered a certain sum of money to 
be paid to him for the maintenance of his army. His officers 
entered Isfahan to collect this money, but the Isfahanis rose 
against them and slew then? all. Next day Timur's soldiers 
entered the city and made a general massacre, in which 



200 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

nearly 200,000 of the inhabitants were slain. Then Tfmur 
set out for Fdrs, and Sultdn Ahmad came from Kirman to 
pay him his respects, sending Amfr Ikhthiydru'd-Dln Hasan 
on in advance. (740) The latter was well received by Timur, 
and in consequence sent messages to Sultan Ahmad urging 
him to come without delay. He also met with a favourable 
reception from the great conqueror, and was by him con- 
firmed in the government of Fdrs, ""Irdq and Kirman. Then 
Tfmur returned to his capital Samarqand. 

Sultan Bdyazid comes to Kirman. 

Sultdn Ahmad was accompanied on his return to Kirman 
by some of Tlmur's revenue officers. Sultan Bayazid was 
preparing to march on India, but, on hearing how the king- 
dom had been apportioned by Tfmiir, he returned to the 
Garmsir, where he was joined by the tribe of the Afghans. 
Sultdn Ahmad was greatly disturbed by this news, the country 
being in disorder and the army scattered, some of the sol- 
diers having even joined Sultan Bayazid, but nevertheless 
he marched out to attack his rival, whom he defeated and 
took prisoner, but treated kindly (741) and forgave, though 
he put to death those who had misled him, and sent their 
heads with a proclamation of victory to Kirman, whither he 
followed them, accompanied by his brother. Thence he went 
to Sfrjan on a hunting excursion, sending his brother to 
Manuqan to look after the revenues of Hurmuz. He then 
returned to Kirmdn, where he was presently joined by his 
brother Bayazid after he had compelled the people of Ma- 
nuqdn (or Manujdn) to submit and pay tribute. 

Capture of Sultdn ZaynuH-^Abidin. 

When Sultdn Zaynu'l-'^Abidfn, with his Amirs, soldiers and 
treasures, set out from Shlrdz for Baghdad, he was met at 
Shiishtar by Shdh Mansur, and brought across the river to 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 2OI 

the city, outside which he encamped. He was hospitably 
entertained by Shah Mansur, and was visited by the wife 
of the latter (who was the daughter of Shah Shujd^ and 
therefore his sister or half-sister) and her son Sultan Gha- 
danfar. Gradually, as confidence increased, the soldiers of 
Zaynu'l-^Abidin, and finally he himself with his captains, 
ventured into the city in pursuance of their affairs, until 
suddenly Shah Mansur seized and bound Zaynu'l-^Abidin 
and his chief officers, took possession of his treasure and 
property, and invited his soldiers to take service with him. 
{742) Being aware that his brother Shah Yahya was in 
Shiraz and that Tfmur had returned to Samarqand, Shah 
Mansur imprisoned Zaynu'l '^Abidfn in the citadel, induced 
most of his Amirs to join him, and marched on Shiraz. 
Shah Yahya, unable to meet him, retreated to Yazd, and 
Mansur occupied Shiraz without opposition. He seized the 
chief nobles, and blinded Amir Ghiyathu'd-Din Mansur Shul. 
Shah Yahya, on reaching Yazd, lured Pahlawan-i-Muhadh- 
dhab, the governor of Abarquh, thither on some pretext, 
and on his arrival put him to death, seized Abarquh, and 
took possession of his treasure, which he had amassed in 
the course of many years. He then sent messengers to Sultan 
Abu Ishaq at Sirjan, and induced him to enter into an alliance. 

Shah Yahya marches on Kir man. 

When Sultan Abu Ishaq, relinquishing all thought of 
Kirmdn, allied himself with Shah Yahya, the latter marched 
from Yazd by way of Anar to subdue Kirman, plundering 
as he went, until he arrived at Nuq. Amir Ikhtiydru'd-Dln 
Hasan, one of the principal nobles of Kirman, had recently 
died. Sultan Ahmad and his brother [Sultan Bayazid] set out 
on their march, while Shah Yahya proceeded from Nuq to 
Baft, where he was joined by Sultan Abu Ishaq and the army 
of Sirjan, and where the two armies met in battle. At this 



202 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

juncture an ambassador, who was coming from the court of 
Tfmur to Kirmdn (743), came up, and strove to effect a 
reconciUation, but without success. On Saturday, the 7th of 
Jumdda I, A. H. 792 {= April 23, 1390) a battle took place 
at Baft between the two factions, in which Shah Yahya was 
finally defeated and fled to Yazd, while Sultan Abu Ishdq 
entrenched himself in Si'rjan. Sultan Ahmad sent a procla- 
mation of his victory with the heads of the slain to Kirman, 
and proceeded to Sirjan, which capitulated after a few days' 
siege. Abu Ishdq surrendered, did obeisance to Sultan Ahmad, 
was pardoned and received back into favour, and was restored 
to his former position as governor of Sfrjdn. Amfr Hajji Shah, 
the brother of Abu Ishaq's mother, who was deemed respon- 
sible for this rebellion (744) was, however, "put to death 
after a brief imprisonment. In the same year, in the month 
of Shawwdl (Sept. 12 — Oct. 10, 1390), Sultan Abu Ishaq died, 
aged 37, and was deeply mourned by the people of Kirman. 
Hj2 was a poet, and one of his quatrains is quoted as a 
specimen. 

Sultdn Zaynu'l-'^Abidin comes to Isfahdn. 

When Shdh Mansur had established himself in Shiraz, some 
of those charged with the custody of Zaynu'l-*^Abidin at 
Shushtar agreed to liberate him and bring him to Isfahan, 
where he was well received by the people. 

Reign of Shdh Mansur b. Shdh Muzaffar b. Muhammad 
b. Muzaffar \b. Mansur] b. Hdjji. 

When Shdh Mansur had established himself in Shirdz, he 
proceeded to attack and capture Abarqiih, and then mar- 
ched on Isfahdn, devastating the country as he passed. He 
returned, however, to Shirdz without effecting much, and 
found it suffering from famine and drought (745). i" conse- 
quence of which many of the people of Fdrs had perished 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 



203 



or emigrated. The Atdbek Shamsu'd-Din Pashang had been 
succeeded on his death by the Atdbek Pir Ahmad, between 
whom and his younger brother Malik Hiishang a quarrel had 
arisen, in which the latter was slain. Thus internecine strife 
arose in Luristan, and Shah Mansur proceeded thither and 
drove out Pfr Ahmad, who went to lay a complaint before 
Timur. Shah Mansur meanwhile appointed Malik Uways, a 
local nobleman, governor of Luristan, and himself set out 
for Shiraz to prepare a fresh expedition against Isfahan. 
Meanwhile Shah Yahya had persuaded Zaynu'l-'^Abidin that 
he must ally himself with Sultdn Ahmad to seek vengeance 
on Shah Mansur, and the two allies agreed to meet at Si'rjdn 
in Safar, A. H. 793 (= January, 1391). There Sultan Ahmad 
and his son Sultdn Ghiyathu'd-Din Muhammad were met by 
Sultan Zaynu'l-*^Abidin coming from Isfahan, and entertained 
by Sultan Abu Ishaq (746). After a few days they set out for 
Fars. At Tdrim they were joined by the Hazara tribe, but 
at Furg Shah Mansur with a large army barred their way. 
•Sultan Ahmad made his way to Nayriz by way of Khush- 
Nawa. Shah Yahya sent word that he was coming with all 
speed and that his allies should await his arrival, so, in spite 
of the advice of their officers and nobles to continue their 
advance, they tarried some ten days in that neighbourhood. 
However, Shah Yahya did not arrive, and meanwhile Shah 
Mansur re-entered Shirdz, raised and equipped a fresh army, 
and again took the field. Sultan Ahmad went by way of 
Sarvistan to Pasd (Fasa), while Shah Mansur proceeded by 
another road to the Garmsir. The two armies met on a 
Friday evening at Fasa. Shah Mansur, who expected reinfor- 
cements, pretended to wish to arrive at a peaceful agreement, 
and battle was not joined until Saturday, when he fiercely 
attacked the armieS of Kirman and Isfahdn, put them to rout, 
and killed many. The fugitives made for Kirmdn, but Sultdn 
Zaynu'l-'^Abidin left them at Qatra and went to Isfahdn, 



204 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

while Sultan Ahmad went to Kirman, and Sultan Abu Ishdq 
halted at Sfrjdn. 

Isfahdn is captured by Shah Mansur, and Sultan Zaynul- 
'^Abidin taken and blinded. 

(747) Shdh Mansur after his victory returned to Shiraz, 
and was joined by many deserters from the rival army. He 
then marched on Isfahan, and Sultan Zaynu'l-'^Abidin, unable 
to oppose him, fled to Khurasan by way of Ray. Shdh Mansur 
was now master of '^Irdq. The governor of Ray, Musd "Jaw-kar" 
("the barley-farmer"), treacherously seized Zaynu'l-'^Abidin and 
sent him bound to Shah Mansur, who immediately deprived 
him of his eyesight. What Shdh Mansur subsequently suffered 
at the hands of Timur is regarded by the author as a punish- 
ment for this cruel deed. Shah Mansur next proceeded to Yazd, 
and laid waste that city and its environs, after which he set out 
for Kirmdn, whither he sent an ambassador bidding his uncle 
and his brother Shdh Yahyd renounce their allegiance to 
Tfmur and each send one of the sons and some retainers to 
accompany him to Khurasan and hold the river (Oxus) against 
a possible invasion of Timur. (748) In case of their refusal, 
he threatened them with war. Sultdn Ahmad declined to 
accede to this proposal, and pointed out the folly of pro- 
voking Tfmur. Shah Mansur thereupon harried the neigh- 
bourhood and then returned to Shiraz, whence he presently 
set out again to lay siege to Yazd where Shah Yahya was. 
Several skirmishes took place, in one of which a certain 
Amfr of Shah Mansur's named Gurgin was killed. Shah Mansur, 
greatly enraged, laid waste the whole country-side and again 
advanced on Kirman as far as Rudan and Rafsinjan, laying 
waste this country also. Some of his Amirs deserted him and 
joined Sultan Ahmad, who accorded them a good reception. 
Shah Mansur, alarmed at these desertions, withdrew to Shiraz, 
and succeeded by favours and gifts in inducing Sultan Abii Ishaq 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 205 

to join him (749) in attacking Kirmdn. Abu Ishaq advanced from 
Sirjan into the Garmsir, and Sultan Ahmad marched thither 
to meet him, halting for a month at Baft, where ambassadors 
from Timur came to him and informed him that their master 
was advancing with his army on ''Iraq and Fdrs, and that 
it behoved him to meet them with the army of Kirman at 
Ray. Sultan Ahmad thereupon returned to Kirmdn, where, 
prompted by certain envious and malicious slanderers, he 
put to death Pahlawdn Qutbu'd-Din Haydar on a false charge 
of intriguing with Sultan Abu Ishdq. Tfmur's envoy ') began to 
approach Kirman at the beginning of A. H. 795 (= latter part 
of November, 1392), and Sultan Ahmad with all his nobles went 
to meet him and bring him in to Kirman. Shah Mansur, 
who was then at Isfahan, retired to Shiraz and betook him- 
self to the wine-bottle, so that for forty days no one saw 
him in public. 

(750) Second invasion of Fdrs by Timicr. 

Timur, on leaving his winter quarters in Mazandaran, and 
subduing Sultaniyya and the neighbourhood, proceeded to 
Hamadan, whence he sent Muhammad Sultan Bahadur through 
Kurdistan, with orders to rejoin the main army at Huwayza 
and Dizful. At the same time he sent prince "^Umar Shaykh 
Bahadur by way of Qum, Awa, Sawa and parts of Lur-i- 
Buzurg and Lur-i-Kuchak to meet him at the same rendez- 
vous. Malik '^Izzu'd-Din the Lur was at that time engaged 
in a dispute with his son, but on hearing of the advance of 
Tlmur's troops they at once made peace, and, going in 
opposite directions, evacuated Lur-i-Kuchak. Timur, leaving 



l) This passage is obscure. The literal translation is : "the King of kings 
(Shdh-i-Shdhati) with the army reached the Kirman road". Either the expres- 
sion "King of kings" refers to some one other than Timiir, or the words 
"envoy of" have been omitted, for it appears certain from the other histories 
of the period {Zafar-ndina^ ''Aja'ibu' l-Maqdiir^ MatlaSis-Sa'^dayn^ Habibu's- 
Siyar^ etc.) that Timdr never visited Kirmdn, ' 



206 . SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

Amir Sayfu'd-Din Qultash with some 500 men to hold Bu- 
rujird, and Amir Hajji Timur Buqa and Shaykh Sistani, with 
the same number of men, to hold Khurramabad, advanced 
towards Shushtar by way of Samra (751). and thence to 
Dizful, where he was received by the nobles and chief men. 
When "^Ali Kiitwal and Amir Isfandiyar who governed Shushtar 
on behalf of Shah Mansur, heard this, they fled to Shfraz, 
and Timur entered Dizful without opposition. Leaving Khwaja 
Mas^d with a thousand men to garrison Shushtar, and Hasan-i- 
Rashid at Huwayza, and one of his Khurasanl officers at 
Dizful, Timur advanced by way of Bahbahan towards Shiraz. 
Mihtar Sa^adat the farrdsh, who was the Warden of Qal'^a-i- 
Safid, trusting in the impregnability of that fortress, renowned 
from ancient times, opposed Timiir, who, on the third day 
after his arrival, stormed and took the castle and put all 
the garrison to the sword. When this news reached Shah 
Mansur he fled incontinently from Shiraz to the Bridge of 
Fasa. Being joined there by certain fugitives, he enquired 
of them what the people of Shiraz were saying, and they 
replied that they were laughing at him because, with all his 
arrogance and heavy quiver, he had "fled like a goat". 
(752) On hearing this, shame and his evil destiny prompted 
him to turn back and oppose Timur, who had already 
reached Shiraz, with his small army of 3000 men, mostly 
nomads. When Timur saw him prepared for battle, he entrusted 
the right wing of his host to Pfr Muhammad Bahadur, the 
left to Prince. Muhammad Sultan Bahadur and the centre to his 
son (753) Prince Shah Rukh. As Timur's army advanced. Shah 
Mansur's right and left wings at once gave way and fled, but 
he himself, with his bravest retainers, stood firm, and fought 
with desperate valour, so that Timur's body-guard gave 
way, all except four or five men •), until at last he was left 



i) That Timiir was very hard pressed, and that Shah Mansiir even succeeded 



THE MUZAFFARI DYNASTY. 207 

alone, wounded in three places in the neck and face. (754) 
Unrecognized, he made his way into the city; but one of 
Tfmur's soldiers dragged him from his horse, and, as he fell 
to the ground, his helmet fell off his head, and he cried, 
"I am he whom you seek: give me a draught of water, and 
take me alive to Tfmur." The soldiers paid no heed to his 
request, but killed him on the spot and brought his head 
to Timur. Most of his retainers were also killed or taken 
captive; Fars was subjugated, and proclamations of victory 
were sent by Timur through his empire. Sultan Ahmad and 
Mahdi the son of Shah Shuja'^ were on their way to Timur's 
camp when news of these events reached them : they has- 
tened their advance and made their submission. Sultan Abii 
Ishaq b. Uways b. Shah Shuja^ left a servant named Gudarz " 
in charge of the Castle of Sfrjan, and himself went to 
Timur, who caused all these princes to be put in chains, 
Fars and "^Iraq were assigned to Prince "^Umar Shaykh Bahadur, 
and Kirman to Idaku Bahadur, to whom, on presentation 
of a letter from Sultan Ahmad to his son Sultan Ghiyathu'd- 
Din Muhammad, the keys of the city were at once surren- 
dered (755)- -^ week later, during the first third of Rajab, 
A. H. 795 (= May 13 — 22,1393) an Imperial Rescript was 
issued in the village of Mahyar, ordering all the House of 
Muzaffar, great and small, to be put to death, which order 
was ruthlessly carried oat. 

[Here ends the intercalated history of the Muzaffari dynasty, 
and the interrupted text of the Tarikk-i-Guzida is resumed.] 



in striking him twice on the helmet, is asserted in the Zafar-ndnta^ Matld^u's- 
Sd'dayn and Habibti's-Siyar. 



208 CHAPTER V, SECTION I. 

CHAPTER V. — ON THE IMAMS, 'READERS', 

SHAYKHS AND DOCTORS OF ISLAM, 

IN SIX SECTIONS. 

Section i. — Imams and Mnjtahids of Islam [i'^. 

(i) Ja^far-i-Sadig "the Imam of the Sunnis" (j/r/) ') (p. 756), 
of whom mention has been already made. 

(2) Adii Hani/a Nc^mdn b. Thdbit b. Taiis b. Hnrmazd. 
His ancestor blessed by '^Alf, whose standard-bearer he 
was. Abu Hanffa's dream. He died at Baghdad in A. H. 
151 (= A. D. 768), at the age of 80. Malikshah's Mustaivfi, 
Sharafu'1-Mulk Abu Sa'^d, built a mausoleum over his 
grave. He had met and conversed with 7 of the Pro- 
phet's Companions (names given). 

(3) Mdlik b. Anas (757). His father was one of the Com- 
panions. He died, aged 85, in A. H. 179 (= A. D. 795 — 6) 
at al-Madfna, and was buried in al-Baqi*^. 

(4) Muham^nad b. Idris ash-ShdJi'^i. His dreams. He is accused 
of being a "Rafidi" (Shi'^ite) on account of his excessive 
love for the House of the Prophet. He is persecuted 
by the Caliph to declare the Qur'an created. The trick 
whereby he satisfies his persecutors. He flees to Egypt 
and dies there on Rajab 7, A. H. 204 (= Dec. 28, 819), 
aged 54, and is buried at Fustat (Old Cairo). 

(5) Ahmad b. Hanbal (758) was the disciple of ash-Shafi*^i. 
He was imprisoned and beaten to death for refusing to 
admit that the Qur'an was created. His death took place 
in A. H. 230 (= A. D. 844— 5)2). He was buried beside 
Abu Hanifa. 

(6) Td'us b. Kaysdn al- Yamdni, d. A. H. 106 (= A. D. 724—5 : 
this text has A. H. 600 erroneously). 

i) This must he a mere scribe's error for "Imam of the Shf'is". 
2) This is an error. The correct date, A. H. 241 (= A. D. 855 — 6) is given 
by Ibnu'l-Athfr and Ibn Khallikan. , 



BIOGRAPHIES OF DIVINES AND THEOLOGIANS, 209 

(7) Hasan b. Yasdr al-Basri, d. A. H. iio(= A. D. 728 — 9) 
at Basra. 

(8) Muhammad b. '^Abdii'r- Rahman b. Abi Layla, d. A. H. 
106 (A. D. 724—5) '). 

(9) Rabfa b. [Abi] "AbdiV-Rahmdn, d. A. H. 136 (= A. D. 

753—4)- 

(10) ""AbdiCr-Rahmmi b. '^Umar al-Awzai, d. A. H. 157 (= 
A. D. 773—4). 

(11) Stifydn ath-Thawri, d. A. H. 161 (= A. D. 777 — 8) at 
Basra, aged 64. 

(12) Qddi Abu Yusuf Ya^qiib b. Ibrdhim b, Habib b. Sd'd, d. 
-A. H. 182 (= A. D. 798—9), aged 89. 

(13) Muhammad b. (759) Hasan ash-Shaybdni, d. A. H. 189 
(= A. D. 805), aged 58. 

Section 2. — '^Readers" [id), or "•Qurrd". 

(i) Ndfi" b. ^AbdtCr-Rahmdn b. Abi NaHm of al-Madina, 
originally of Isfahan, d. A. H. 169 (= A. D. 785—6). 

(2) ^AbdiClldk b. Kathir of Mecca, d. A. H. 120 (= A. D. j^% 

(3) Abii ^Amr b. al-^Ald' al-Basri, d. A. H. 154 (= A. D. 771) 
at Kufa. 

(4) ^Abdu'lldh b. ^Amir of Damascus, d. A. H. ri8(= A. D. 

(5), ^Asim b. [Abtn-NajudY) al-Kufi, d. A. H. 127 (= A. D. 

744—5)- 

(6) Hamza b. Habib b. '^Umdra as-Zayydt^) al-Kufi^ d. A. H. 
156 (= A. D. 772— 3). 

(7) AbtCl-Hasan '^Ali b. Hamza al-KisdH al-Kufi, d. in A. H. 
189 (= A. D. 804 — 5) at Ray. These seven persons are 



i) Another error. The correct date is A. H. 148 (= A. D. 765 — 6). 

2) See Ibn Khallikan under the letter c-; Fihrist^ p. 29; and .Ibnu'l-Athir 



sub anno 128. 



3) See Ibn Khallikan under the letter^; Fihrist^ p. 29; and Ibnu'l-Athir 
suh anno 156. 



14 



210 CHAPTER V, SECTIONS 2—4. 

the "Seven Readers" of primary authority. The remaining 
ones are: > ' 

(8) Abu yayar Yazid b. al-Qa^qd^. 

(9) Khalaf b. (760) Hishdm, d. A. H. 229 (= A. D. 843—4) '). 
(10) Abii Muhammad Ya^qiib b. Ishdq b. Zayd b. ["^Abdu'llah 

b. Abi] Ishdq al-Hadrami ^). 

Section j. — Traditionists (7), or '^ MuhaddithiirH'. 

(i) Al-Bukhdri, d. Shawwal, i, A. H. 256 (= Sept. i, A. D. 
870) at Samarqand. His great-grandfather was converted 
to Islam from Zoroastrianism. 

(2) Muslim of Nfshapur, d. 24th of Rajab, A. H. 261 (= 
April 23, A. D. 875). 

(3) Abu Da'iid Sulaymdn . . . as-Sijistdni, d. i6th Shawwal, 
A. H. 257 (= Sept. 6, A. D. 871) at Basra, aged 55. 

(4) Abu '^Isd Muhammad at-Tirmidhi, d. A. H. 279 (= A. D. 
892 — 3) at Tirmidh, aged 55. 

(5) Abu '^Abdir-Rahmdn [Ahmad] an-Nasd'i, d. at Mecca, 
A.H. 303(==A.D. 915— 6): other MSS. have A. H. 203 (= 
A. D. 818 — 9), which is correct^). 

(6) Abu '^Abdilldh Muhammad b. Yazid b. Mdja of Qazwi'n, 
d. A.H. 273 (=A. D. 886— 7) at Qazwfn. 

(7) Abu Muhammad '^AbduUldh . . . ad-Ddrimi. These seven 
were the greatest Traditionists, and each of them left a 
Corpus of critically selected Traditions entitled as-Sahik. 

Section ^. — Shaykhs. 

Those who had met any of the actual Companions {Sahdba) 
of the Prophet were known as "Followers" [Tdbi%n), and 
those who had met any of them as "Followers of the Fol- 
lowers" {Taba^'ut-TdbtHn), but afterwards, for the sake of 

i) MS. erroneously "129". See Fihrist^ P- 3^1 =i°<i Ibnu'l-Athir sub aitno 229. 

2) See Ibn Khallikdn under Ya^qub. 

3) See Ibn Khallikdn and Ibnu'l-Athfr sub anno 303. 



BIOGRAPHIES OF SHAYKHS. 211 

brevity (761), later holy men were known simply as Shaykhs 

{MashdHkh) or "Elders". A few of the chief of these are 

here enumerated. (About 300 are mentioned in the text, 

but of these only the more important are given here). 

(i) Uways al-Qarani was one of the Companions of the 

Prophet, but is placed at the head of this list of Shaykhs 

"for a blessing". His devotion to the Prophet. He is 

said to have been killed in a war with the people of 

Daylam, and to be buried near Qazwi'n, but others say 

he was killed at the Battle of Siffin, A. H.-36 (= A. D. 

656 — 7), and others that he is buried near Kirmanshah. 

Some of his sayings. 

(2) Hasan of Basra, d. A. H. 1 10 (= A. D. 728 — 9) '). Some 
of his sayings (762). 

(3) Habib al-^Ajatni. His conversion. Some of his sayings. 

(4) Muhammad-i-Wdsi\ d. A. H. 120 (= A. D. 738). 

(5) '^Utbatu' l-Ghuldm ^) was a disciple of Hasan of Basra. 

(6) Abu Hdzim of Mecca, another disciple of the same (763). 

(7) Mdlik-i-Dindr, d. A. H. 130 (= A. D. 747—8). 

(8) Rdbt^a aW^Adawiyya. 

(9) Abti Sulaymdn Da'ud-i-Tai, d. A. H. 165 (= A. D. 781 — 2). 

(10) Abu Ishdq Ibrdhim b. Adham, a prince of Balkh. His 
conversion. (764) He goes to the Hijaz and meets Fudayl 
b. 'lyad. He died in Asia Minor in A. H. 161 (= A. D. 
yy/ — 8) ^), and is buried near Ahmad b. Hanbal. 

(11) Abu '^Ali Shaqiq of Balkh. His conversion. He died in 
A. H. 190 (= A. D. 805— 6) *). (765) His sayings. 

i) MS. A. H. 117 (= A. D. 735). The correct date is given on p. 20() stipr a 
(7). See Ibn Khallikdn, etc. 

2) See Fihrist^ p. 183, 1. 23; p. 185, 1. 5; and the Tadhkiratu'l-Awliyd 
of ^ Attar (ed. Nicholson, vol. i, pp. 57 — 9). 

3) This MS. has "A. H. loi, or, according to another account, A. H. 130)". 
The date A. H. 161, given by most MSS. of the Guzida^ is confirmed by Ibnu'l- 
Athir, Ibn Shakir, Jami, etc. 

4) Ibn Khallikan gives A. H. 153 (A. D. 770) and Jami, in the Nafahdtu' I- 
Uns^ A. H. 174 (= A. D, 790 — i). 



212 CHAPTER V, SECTION 4. 

(12) Fudayl b. ^lydd of Merv, d. A. H. 187 (= A. D. 803). 
He was originally a highway-robber. His conversion. His 
sayings. 

(13) Hdtim al-Asamm ("the Deaf). Why called "the Deaf. 
Speaks boldly to the Caliph. (766) "The Four Deaths" 
which the mystic must die. 

(14) Abii Mahfuz Ma^ruf b. Firiiz al-Karkhi, d. A. H. 200 (= 
A.D. 815 — 6). His parents were Christians. His con- 
version. His sayings. 

(15) Miihammad-i-Sammdk, a contemporary of him last men- 
tioned. 

(16) Buhlul. He reproves Harunu'r-Rashid (767) '). 

(17) Abii Nasr Bishr b. Hdrith, called al-Hdfi ("the Bare- 
footed") of Merv, d. A. H. 227 (=A. D. 841 — 2). Cause 
of his blessedness. His sayings. 

(18) Abii Yazid [Bdyazid] Tayfiir b. '^Isd b. Stiriishdn of 
Bistam, d. A. H. 261 (= A. D. 874— 5) or 234 (= A. D. 
848 — 9). His sayings (768). He had two brothers named 
Adam ^nd '^'Isa ^), some of whose sons also bore his name. 

(19) Ibrahim of Merv (or Herat ^), according to other MSS.), 
a contemporary of the above. His tomb is at Qazwfn. 

(20) AbtH-Hasan A/imad[b.Abi'l-] Hawarf, d. A. H. 230 (= A. D. 

844-5) % 

(21) Ahmad b. Harb, another contemporary of Bayazfd. His 
sayings. 

(22) Abie Hdmid Ahmad b. Khidrawayhi (769) of Balkh, d. 
A. H. 240 (= A. D. 854 — 5), aged 95. 



i) Other MSS. here insert two other biographies, of Shaykh Muhammad-i- 
Aslam of Tiis, and Shaykh AbU Sulaymdn of Damascus. 

2) According to Tbn Khallikdn the second brother was called "^AH. 

3) Herdt appears to be correct, for Jdmi {Nafahdf) calls him Ibrdhfm 
Sitanba-i-Hirawf. 

4) So also in the Nafahat of Jdmf; but the Fihrist (p. 184 and notes 
thereon) and the TdJu'l-'^Arui (under j 5 7-) give A. H. 246 (^ A.D. 860 — i). 



BIOGRAPHIES OF SHAYKS. 213 

23) Abii '^AbdiHldh Hdrith b. Asad al-Muhdsibi, d. A. H. 243 
(= A. D. 857—8) at Baghdad. 

(24) DhiCn-Nun al-Misri ("the Egyptian"), d. A. H. 245 (= 
A. D. 859—860). 

(25) Dhiil-Kifi, brother of the above. 

(26) Abii Turdb "AH b. Htisayn of Nakhshab, d. A. H. 245 
(= A. D. 859 — 860) (770) Preservation of his corpse. His 
sayings. 

(27) Abii Bakr b. Muhammad b. '^Amr of Tirmidh, d. A. H. 
247 (=A. D. 861— 2). 

(28) Abit "AH Ahmad b. "Asim of Antioch, d. A. H. 205 (= A. D. 
820—1 : other MSS. have "A. H. 250" = A. D. 864—5) ')• 

(29) Abie "Abdtlldh Ahmad b. Yahyd, d. A. H. 240 (= A, D. 

854-5). 

(30) Muhammad b. "AH al-Hakim of Tirmidh. (771). 

(31) Abu' I Hasan as-Sari ^) as-Saqati^ d. A. H. 257 (= A. D. 
870 — i). His sayings. 

(32) Abie Zakariyyd Yahyd b. Mu"ddh ar-Rdzi, d. A. H. 258 
(=A. D. 871 — 2). His sayings. 

{^-^ Muhammad b. Isma"il as-Sdmiri, d. A. H. 296 (= A. D. 
908 — 9) at Qazwin (772). His sayings. 

(34) Abie Hafs "Amr ^) b. MusHm ^) al-Hadddd of Nfshapur, 
' d. A. H. 266 (= A. D. 879—880). 

(35) Abii SdHh Ha^ndiin b. Ahmad b. Qassdr of Nishapur, d. 
A. H. 271 (=A. D. 884— 5). 

(36) Abii Muhammad Sahl b. "Abdu'llah Tustari (of Shiishtar), 
d. A. H. 273 (= A. D. 886—7). 



i) The latter date is correct, for he is stated to have died in the time of 
al-Musta'^in, who was Caliph from A. H. 248 — 251 (=: A. D. 862 — 5). 

2) MS. "at-Tustari", i. e. of Shushtar, but the reading adopted is that given 
by the Fihrist^ Ibn Khallikdn^ the TadhkiratuH-Awliyd^ Nafahdtu' l-Uns^ etc. 

3) MS. '^Umar, but the Kashfu' l-Mahjub and Nafahdt give the reading 
here adopted. 

4) For "Muslim" the Nafahdt has "Salama" and the Kashfu^ l-Mahjiib 
"Sdlim." 



214 CHAPTER V, SECTION 4. 

(37) Abu Ishdq Ibrahim b. Yahyd Gawdhdn of Tabrfz, 
d. A. H. 277 (= A. D. 890—1). 

(38) Abiil-Hasan ^Ali b. Sahl of Isfahan, d. A. H. 280 

(=A.D.893-4)'). 

(39) Abii Hainza al-Bazzdz of Baghdad, d. A. H. 287 
(=A. D. 900). 

(773) (4*-^) '^^^^'' Bakr b. Ahmad b. Nasr ad-Daqqdq, d. A. H. 

290 {= A. D. 903). 

(From this point onwards only the more notable 

Shaykhs are mentioned here. The number prefixed 

to each indicates his position in the series given 

in the text.) 
(45) Abti l-Qdsim Jiinayd of Nihawand, better known 

as of Baghdad, d. A. H. 297 (=: A. D. 909 — 910). 

His (774) sayings. 
(776) (58) Husayn b. Mansur al-Halldj, of Bayda in Fars, 

put to death at Baghdad, A. H. 309 (== A. D. 921 — 

922) ^), during the CaHphate of al-Muqtadir at the 

instigation of the Wazir Hamid b. '^Abbas. His 

execution, and some of his sayings. 
(779) [ll) ^^^ Bakr Shibli, d. A. H. 334 (= A. D. 945—6). 

Specimen of his Arabic verses. Anecdote of him 

and a Magian. 
(784) (96) Abu' I Qdsim ^Abdu'l-Karim b. Hawdzin al-Qushayri 

of Nishapiir, author of the well-known treatise 

{Risdla) on Sufiism. 
(97) Abu Sa^id b. AbVl-Khayr, author of the well-known 

quatrains, d. A. H. 440 (= A. D. 1048 — 9) ^), aged 89. 



1) This MS. has A. H. 208 (= A. D. 823), but the reading adopted, which 
is that of most MSS. of the Guzida^ is confirmed by the statement that he 
died in the time of the Caliph al-Mu'^tadid (A. H. 279 — 289 = A. D. 892 — 902). 

2) The reading "307" in this MS. is evidently an error, for the Fihrist^ 
Ibnu'l-Athfr and Ibn Khallikdn all agree in the date here adopted. 

3) MS, "340", which is certainly erroneous. See the NafahdtuH-Uns and 
Rieu's Persian Catalogue^ p. 342. 



BIOGRAPHIES OF SHAYKHS. 215 

(99) Majdud b. Adam SandH of Ghazna, the celebrated 

mystical poet. 
(785) (100) Abul-Qdsim Gurgdni, who forbade the burial of 

Firdawsi's body, and was reproached by the poet's 

spirit in a dream. 
(103) Bdbd Kiihi, whose tomb is at Shiraz. 
(106) '^Abdiilldh Ansdri, a contemporary of Abu Sa^id 

b. Abi'l-Khayr. His (786) sayings. Malik Sharafu'd- 

Din Mahmud Shah Injii, who reigned over so 

large a portion of Persia, claimed to be his des- 

cendent (pedigree given). 

(787) (107) Ahmdd Ghazzdli, brother of the more celebrated 

Muhammad Ghazzali. Died at Qazwin, A. H. 520 
(== A. D. 1 126) '). Persian verses by him. 

(io8) Muhammad Ghazzdli, known as Hujjatti l-Isldm, 
d. A. H. 505 (== A. D. 1 1 1 1— 12) ^). 

(109) Hdfiz Abu l-'^ Ala Hasan b. AJpnad '^Attdr of Ra- 
madan, d. A. H. 560 (= A. D. 1 1 64 — 5). Verses 
about him by Khaqani cited. 

(788) (116) Awhddu' d-Din Kirmdni, the poet. 

(117) Majdu' d-Din Baghdddi, put to death on suspicion 
of an intrigue with the mother of Khwarazmshah. 
After his death Khwarazmshah repented of what 
he had done, and went to Shaykh Najmu'd-Din 
Kubra, and asked (789) what atonement would 
suffice to expiate this deed, to which the Shaykh 
replied that their lives and the lives of many 
others would hardly expiate it; a saying presum- 
ably held to have hinted prophetically at the 
fatal results of the impending Mongol invasion. 
One of Majdu'd-Din's Persian quatrains cited. 



1) MS. "510", but the date adopted is that given by Ibnu'l-Athir, Ibn 
Khallikdn, etc. 

2) MS. "500", but see the authorities cited in the last note. 



2l6 CHAPTER V, SECTION 4. 

{^^^)[\\Z) NajmiCd-Dm Kubrd, called '^ Wali-tardsh" ("the 
Saint-carver"). In his whole life he only accepted 
twelve disciples, all of whom, however, became 
famous. They included Majdu'd-Din Baghdadi, 
SaMu'd-Din-i-Hammuya '), Radiyyu'd-Din "AH Lala, 
Sayfu'd-Din Bakharzi, Jamalu'd-Din Gili, Jalalu'd- 
Din [Riimi?]^), etc. Chingiz Khan warned Najmu'd- 
Din to flee from Khwarazm, as he intended to 
massacre all the inhabitants; but the Shaykh 
refused to abandon his fellow-citizens in the time 
of their distress when he had lived for 80 years 
amongst them in times of prosperity, and perished 
in the massacre in A. H. 618 (=A. D. 1221 — 2). 
Some of his verses. 

(790) (119) Shihdbu'd-Din Suhrawardi, d. A. H. 632(=A. D. 

1234 — 5) in Baghdad. One of his Persian quatrains. 
(121) Sa^diid-Din-i-Hammuya, d. A. H. 650 (= A. D. 
1252— 3)3). 

(791) (122) Najmu'd-Din Day a, author of t\\Q Mirsddu'l-^Ibdd, 

fled to Turkey in Asia at the time of the .Mongol 
invasion. 

(123) SayfiCd-Din [Bdkharzi\, d. A. H. 658 (= A. D. 
1260). One of his Persian quatrains, 

(124) Jaldhid-Din Rumi, who fled from Balkh to Asia 
Minor in the time of the Mongol invasion. He is 
buried at Qonya. Specimen of his lyric poetry. 

(792) {131) Shaykh Ahmad-i-jfatn, called "Zinda-Pir. 

(793) (139) Shaykh Riizbihdfi, who is buried at Shiraz. 



i) See on the form of this name (often erroneously written "Hamawi") 
note 2 on p. i.xiii of the Persian Introduction to vol i of the Tu'rikh-i- 
Jahan-Gushdy of Juwayni (vol. xvi, i, of this Series). 

2) There seems to be no other authority for the statement that Jalilu'd-Din 
Rdmf was a pupil of Najmu'd-Di'n Kubrd, and, for chronological reasons, it is 
very improbable. 

3) This MS. has "658". The date adopted in the text is from Jami's A^'a/a^i/. 



BIOGRAPHIES OF EMINENT MEN. 21/. 

(145) Sa^du'd-Din Qutlugh-Khzvdja al-Khdlidi of Qazwin, 
where he died, aged 80, in Muharram, A. H. 728 
(= Nov. — Dec, A. D. 1327). Ghazan Khan and 
many of t"he Mongols were converted by him '). 

(146) Safiyyiid-Din Ardabili. 

(147) '^AlatCd-Dawla b. Malik Sharafud-Din Sinindni. 

(After N°. 151, on p. 794, there follows a mere list of 
names, concerning whom the author has been unable to 
ascertain any particulars as to date or circumstances. This list 
extends to p. 796, 1. 14, and, with the longer notices which 
precede, brings up the total number of Shaykhs mentioned 
to 287). — (796) According to a tradition there are always 
300 of God's Saints [Awliyd) on earth, of whom 40 attain 
great, 7 still greater, and one supreme eminence. This last 
is the Qiitb or "Pole", the Pivot of the World, and God's 
Proof to His creatures. On his death he is succeeded by the 
next in order, and {797) this hierarchy thus exists unbroken. 
The author puts the total number of Saints whose names 
are recorded at over 80,000 and possibly as many as 124,000, 
of whom, for the sake of brevity, he has, he says, enume- 
rated 313, so that there are evidently some omissions in 
this manuscript and most others. The author ends this sec- 
tion with a bitter denunciation of the Shaykhs and Sufis of 
his own time. 



i) According to the Jdmi^u't-Tatudrikh (Paris MS., Suppl. persan 209, 
ff. 'i^ib — 354a) and Ibn Taghri Bardi's al-Manhalu' s-Sdfi (Paris MS., Fonds 
arabe 2068, f. 28a) it was Shaj'kh Sadru'd-Din Ibraliim b. Shaykh Sa'^du'd-Dm 
Hammuya who was instrumental in converting Ghazan Khdn and some 100,000 
Mongol soldiers to Islam. See vol. i of the To' rikh-i-Jahdngushdy in this 
series, pp. LXii — LXiii (-:_ — ^_-^) of the Persian Introduction. It is difficult to 
account for the discrepancy between these and the To' rikh-i-Guzida^ since 
the authors of all three works were in a position to know the truth. Perhaps 
the author of the Guzida war anxious to give credit to a fellow-citizen for 
this achievement. 



2l8 CHAPTER V, SECTION 5. 

Section 5, — Learned men i^Ulamd) of all sorts. 

(a) Rdwis (handers down of tradition) of the Four 
Orthodox Sects. 

(798) One only is mentioned for the Hanafi School; four 
or five for the Maliki; some 19 or more for the Shafi^^i, (799) 
and about the same number for the Hanbah'. Next follow — 

(b) Rdwis of the Qiirrd or ^Readers'". 

Of these 14 are mentioned, two for each of the "Seven 
Readers". 

(c) Rdwis of the four chief Traditionists, 
viz. al-Bukhari (800), Muslim, as-Sijistani and al-Kisa'i. 

(d) Men learned in various sciences arratiged alphabetically. 

(Many of these notices also are very exiguous, merely 
mentioning the name of an author and one of his books, 
without any date or other particulars. Here also only a selec- 
tion of the more interesting are given.) 

(801) (4) Imdmu d-Din ar-RdfiH, author of several commen- 

taries and works on Jurisprudence, died in Dhu'l- 
Qa'da, A. H. 623 (= Oct.— Nov., A. D. 1226). Spe- 
cimen of his Persian verse. 

(5) Athirii d-Din Abhari, who died a little before the 
Mongol invasion. His works on philosophy, etc. 
His Persian verse. 

(9) Qddi Ahmad Ddmghdiii, author of the history en- 
titled Istizhdru l-Akhbdr '). 

(802) {12) Abu'l-Fath b. Husayn b. Muhammad b. Ahmad al- 



l) This is one of our author's sources: see p. 2 (N°. 22) stipra^ and p. 8 
of the Persian text. 



BIOGRAPHIES OF EMINENT MEN. 219 

Isfahdni ^), auth>Dr of the Dhakhira-i-Khwdrazm- 
shdhi and the Khuffiyy-i-'^AldH ^). 

{i^)'^Abdu'lldh b. al-Muqaffa^, translator into Arabic of 
the Book of Kalila and Dimna. 

(16) Abii ^Ali b. Sind (" Avicenna"), d. A. H. 427 (= A. D. 
1035 — 6). His works. His Arabic versified trans- 
lation of the Aphorisms of the physician Baradiq 
("Tayaduq" is given as a variant in the margin; 
he is represented as a contemporary of King Anu- 
sharwan, or Niishirwan, the Sasanian). 

(803) Avicenna is rebuked by a crossing-sweeper. 

(ly) Abu Ma^shar al-Balkhi, the astronomer, d. A. H. 
190 (= A. D. 805—6) \ 

(804) [\(^ Abu Rayhdn al-Biruni al-Khwdrazmi, the astrono- 

mer, who wrote the KitdbtC t-tafhim fit-tanjim in 
A. H. 421 (= A. D. 1030), and subsequently the 
Qdnun-i-Mas^udi. 

(20) Abu'l-Fath al-Busti. Specimen of his Arabic verse. 

{22) AbtC sh-Sharaf Ndsir b. Khalifa b. Sa'^d'^) al Jar- 
bddhaqdni, translator into Persian of al-^Utbi"s his- 
tory of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna (the Kitdb-i- 
Yamini). He died a little before the Mongol In- 
vasion. 



i) The name, kunya and nisba of this writer are here wrongly given. In 
the most correct of the Paris MSS. (Suppl. persan 173, f. 277a) they are 
given as follows: "Sayyid Isma*^il b. Husayn b. Mahmud b. Ahmad al-*^Alawi 
al-Jurjani". See also the Chahdr Maqdla (vol. xi of this series, pp. 70 and 
236 — 8) where it is given as "Abii Ibrahim Isma'^il b. Hasan b. Ahmad b. 
Muhammad al-Husayni al-Jurjani". This much at least is certain, that his name 
was Isma^il and his native place Jurjdn. 

2) See the Chahdr Maqdla (vol. xi of this series), pp. 237 — 8. 

3) An obvious error. According to the Fihrist (p. 277) and Ibn Khallikan 
{s.v. Ja^far) Abii Ma'^shar died in A. H. 272 (= A. D. 885— 6). 

4) In the preface to the Kitdb-i- Yamini the translator gives his name as 
Ndsih instead of Ndsir ^ and his father's name as Zafar instead of Khalifa. 
The Paris MS. of the Guzida mentioned in the last note but one agrees in 
the second particular. 



220 CHAPTER V, SECTION 5. 

(805) (27) Badt'ii' z-Zamdn al-Harnaddni, author of the Ma- 

qdmdt. 

(32) ^Amr b. Bahr al-Jdhidh, d. A. H. 255 {= A. D. 869). 

(33) Abii Nasr IsmaHl b. Hammdd al-Jawhari, author 
of the celebrated lexicon the Sihdh. 

(806) (44) Jdru'lldh Abu'l-Qdsim MaJpniid b. "^Umar az-Zaijtakh- 

shari, author of the Kashshdf, d. A. H. 588 (= 
A. D. 1 192) '). 
/ (50) Shaykh Shihdbu' d-Din as-Suhrawardi, called al- 
Maqtul ("the Slain''), celebrated for his magical 
powers, put to death in the time of the Caliph Nasir. 
(52) Sadrii d-Din Sdwaji, put to death in the time of 
Hulagu on suspicion of practising magic. 

(807) (55)'^/s:-3r«'i/-Z>/« "AH b. al-Athir al-Jazari, author of 

the great history called al-Kdmil. 
(58) "Abdulldh b. Muslim b. [Qutayba] -) Abi Muhammad 

ad-Dinazvari, the historian, a contemporary of the 

Caliph al-Mu'^tamid. 
(60) '^AbdiClldh . . .b. Khurdddh\bih\ al-Khurdsdni, author 

of the Masdliku l-Mamdlik, contemporary with the 

Caliph al-Mutawakkil. 
(61) '^Abu "Amr ]^Uthmdn b. "Utnar] ^), better known as 

Ibnul-Hdjib, author of the Kdfiya, the Shdfiya 

and the ^Ariid. 

(808) (66) ^Ald'u d-Din "Aid Malik Sdhib-Diwdn % author of 

the Tarikh-i-Jahdn-Gushd, and brother of Shamsu 
'd-Din Sahib-Diwan. 



1) The correct date, as given by Ibn Khallikdn and Ibnu'l-Athfr, is A. H. 
538 (= A. D.I 143— 4). 

2) So in the Paris MS. mentioned above, and in Ibn Khallikdn's Biogra- 
phical Dictionary. 

3) The title '^Aynu'l-Quddt added in the original is an error, arising, as 
the Paris MS. shows, from a notice, omitted in this MS., of "^Aynu'l-Quddt 
-i-Maydnaji. 

4) Here also there are several errors in the name as given in the original. 



BIOGRAPHIES OF EMINENT MEN. 221 

[6'/) ^AbdiCl-Karim b. Hawdzin al-Qushayri, contempo- 
rary with Alp Arslan. 

(69) ^Adudud-Din Shabdnkdrai. There is a tradition 
that every hundred years some great theologian 
will arise to strengthen and defend Islam. Of such 
was the Umayyad Caliph "^Umar b. ^Abdu'l-'^Aziz 
in the first century of the hijra; the Imam ash- 
Shafi'^f in the second ; Abu'l-*^ Abbas Ahmad b. 
Surayj ') in the third; Abu Bakr al-Baqilani in the 
fourth; al-Ghazzali, called Hujjatul-Isldm, in the 
fifth; Fakhru'd-Din ar-Razi in the sixth; and *^Adudu 
'd-Din, the subject of this notice, in the seventh. 
Mention of some of his works. 

(70) Abit Hdniid Muhammad al- Ghazzdli " Hujjatu'l- 
Isldm"" ("the Proof of Islam"). He is said to have 
written 999 books. Mention of some of those best 
known. 

(809) (72) Fakhru'd-Din .... ar-Rdzi, died A. H. 606 (= A. D. 

1209 — 10) at Herat. Chronogram on his death. His 

works. One of his Persian quatrains. 
{yy) Muhammad b. jfarir at-Tabari, the historian, died 

A. H. 320 (=*A. D. 932) 2). 
(78) Mtthammad b. Zakariyyd ar-Rdzi, the physician. 
{810) (79) Al-Farrd al-Baghazvi, (810), author of the Ma^dlimu 

't-Tanzil. Persian quatrain by him. 
(80) Muhammad b. Yahyd ash-ShdJi'^i, killed in the 

rebellion of the Ghuzz. 
(83) Al-Qddi Abu '^Ali Muhassin b. "^Ali at-Tanukhi, author 

of the well-known collection of stories entitled al- 

Faraj ba'^da'sh-Shidda, died Muharram, A. H. 384 (= 

Feb. — March, 994) ^). 

i) The original has Shurayh^ corrected as in the text from Ibn Khallikdn. 

2) The correct date, as given by Ibnu'I-Athir and Ibn Khallikdn, is A. H. 
310 (= A. D. 922— 3). 

3) MS. 484, here corrected from Ibnu'l-Athlr, Ibn Khallikan and Hajji Khalffa. 



222 CHAPTER V, SECTION 5 — 6. 

(90) Abii '^Ali Muhammad b. Muhammad al-Bal^ami (811), 

(811) translator into Persian of Tabari's history. 

{(^-^ NasirtCd-Din Tiisi, died i8th of Dhu'l-Hijja, A. H. 
672 (=Jan. 25, 1274) at Baghdad. His writings. Some 
of his Persian verses. 

(94) Najmu'd-Din ^AH .... al-Kdtibi a'l-Qazwini, author 
of ar-RisdlattCsh-Shamsiyya and other works, a 
contemporary of Hulagii Khan. 

(95) Al-Qddi Ndsiru' d-Din Abu SaHd '^Abdti'llah . . . . al- 
Bayddwi, author of the well-known Commentary 
on the Qur'dn and other works, died A. H. 685 
(= A. D. 1286—7) at Tabriz '). 

(97) Nasriilldh b. '^AbduU-Hamid b. AbtCl-Ma^dli, a con- 
temporary of Sultan Bahram Shah the Ghaznawi, 
auth6r of the Persian translation oiKalila and Dimna. 

(812) (102) Ydqut al-Musta^simi, the celebrated calligraphist. 

(This section contains in all 105 names). 

Section 6. — Poets. 
(A.) Arabic poets. 
( I ) Imru'u'l- Qays. 

(813) (2) Abu. Nuwds, died A. H. 195 {= A. D. 810— 811). 

(3) Abu. Firds. 

(4) Al-Mutanabbi, died A. H. 354 (= A. U. 965) \ 

(B.) Persian poets ^). 
( I ) Anwar i, contemporary with Sultan Sanjar the Seljuq. 

1) The original has, erroneously, Sa'^d for 5aSV, and 605 for 685. 

2) The original has 364, corrected here from Ibnu'l-Athfr and Ibn Khallikdn. 

3) Of this section I published a translation, together with the text of all 
the poems cited, in the J.H.A.S. for October, 1900, and January, 1901. This 
article is also obtainable as a tirage-a-part. It is based upon several of the 
best MSS. of the Guzida^ and is much fuller than the list here given, for it 
contains notices of 89 instead of only 63 poets and poetesses. Amongst those 
here omitted are Azraqf, Asadf, Piir-Bahd-yi Jami, '^Izzu'd-Dfn Gurji, Fakhru'd- 
Dfn Gurgdnf, and several others, including most of the poets who composed 
verses in dialect. 



BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS. i 223 

(814) (2) Adib Sdbir, also contemporary with the, above, 

drowned in the Oxus by order of Atsiz Khwa- 
razmshah. 

(3) Athir-i-Awmdni (Awman is a village near Hamadan), 
the panegyrist of Sulayman-shah, governor of Kurd- 
istan. He died in the time of Hulagu Khan. 

(4) Athir-i-Akhsikati (Akhsikat is near Farghana in 
Transoxiana). 

(5) Imdmi [of Herat]. He was the panegyrist of the Kings 
of Kirman, and died in the time of Abaqa'Khan. 

(815) (6) AbiC l-Faraj-i-Zawzani '), a contemporary of Malik- 

shah the Seljuq, and one of Anwari's teachers, 

(7) Ibn Khdtib of Ganja, a contemporary of Sultan 

(816) Mahmud of Ghazna (816). His mundzara, or poetical 
duel, with the poetess Mahistf [q. v.). 

(8) Awhadi. 

(9) Bunddr-i-Rdzi, who wrote verses in dialect. 

(10) Bahd^u'd-Din Sdwaji. 

(11) jfamdlu'd-Din RustuqiCl-Qutni"^). He came from 
near Qazwin and wrote verses in the dialect of that 
place, and died, aged 90, in the time of Abaqa Khan. 

(817) (12) Jaldhi'd-Din '^Atiqi, still living in the author's time. 

(13) Jamdlud-Din Kdshi, contemporary with Abaqa 
Khan. His parody of a poem of Sa'^df's. 

(14) Sayyid Hasan of Ghazna, contemporary with Sultan 
Bahramshah the Ghaznawi. 

(15) ""Umar Khayydm, the Astronomer-poet of Nishapur. 

(818) (16) Afzalu'd-Din Khdqdni of Shirwan, died A. H. 582 

(== A. D. II 86 — 7) at Tabriz, and was buried in 
the "Poets' Corner" at Surkhab. 
(17) Khwdjii of Kirman. 



1) Other MSB. have Rt'mi (of RUna) for Zawzani^ and this appears to be 
the correct reading. 

2) The original and otlier MSS. have RasiquH-Qutni. 



224 CHAPTER V, SECTION 6. 

(i8) Daqiqi, contemporary with Amfr Nuh the Samanf. 
He began the versification of the Slidhndma and 
wrote lOOO ') verses, which Firdawsi afterwards 
incorporated in his work. 

(19) RafVu'd-Din Kirmdni, originally of Abhar, a con- 
temporary of Ghazan Khan. 

(20) Rtikniid-Din, son of the above, a contemporary 
and friend of the author. 

(819) (21) Riidagi, contemporary with Amir Nasr the Samanl. 

He is said to have written 700,000 verses of poetry. 
He also translated the Book of Kalila and Dimna 
into Persian verse. 
(22) Malik Radiyyti'd-Din Bdbd was governor -of Diyar 
Bakr in Abaqa's reign. Quatrain addressed by him 
to Shamsu'd-Dfn Sdhib-Diwdn on his dismissal from 
this post. 

(820) (23) Suzani, contemporary with Sultan Sanjar^ noted 

for his satires and frivolous poems. 

(24) Sa'^di of Shiraz, who took this nom de guerre in 
compliment to his patron the Atabek Sa'^d b. Abf 
Bakr b. SaM b. Zangi. He died on the 17th of 
Dhu'l-Hijja, A. H. 690 (= Dec. 11, 1291) at Shfraz. 

(25) * * * -) Sagzi (of Sijistan or Si'stan). 

(26) Sirdj\u^d-Din\ Qumri. 

(821) (27) SandH of Ghazna, already mentioned amongst the 

Shaykhs (p. 215 'i^^o. gg supra), survived until the 
time of Bahramshah. He composed the well-known 
Hadiqatu'' I- Haqiqa. 
(28) Shams-i-Kdshi, d. A. H. 602 (= A. D. 1205 — 6) at 
Tabrfz, and is buried at Surkhab. He collected 
and edited the poems of Zah{r-i-Faryabi. 

i) MS. "3000", but the reading adopted is that of the Shdhnama itself, as 
well as of other MSS. of the Guzida. 

2) Other MSS. have Sirdji. The word "■bayt" ("verse") here inserted in this 
text is an obvious scribe's error. 



BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS. 22$ 

(29) Sharafu' d-Din Shufurwah of Isfahan, a contem- 
porary of Sultan Arslan [b. Tughril the Seljuq.] 

(30) Shamsu d-Din Tabasi. There were two poets of this 
name, one still living in the time of the author, 
who was a friend of his. 

(31) ShavisiC d-Din Kdshi, who died about two years 
before the author wrote, and was the panegyrist 
of Khwaja Baha'u'd-Din Sahib-Diwan-i-Juwayni. 

(822) (32) Zahir-i-Farydbi, died in Rabi'' i, A. H. 598 (= March 

— April, 1 192) at Tabriz, and was buried at Surkhab. 

(33) Fakhru' d-Din Ibrahim b. Buzurjmihr b. ^AbdiCl- 
Ghaffdr al-Jazvdliqi, better known as ^Irdqi, of Ra- 
madan, died A. H. 686 (^ A. D. 1287) at Damascus. 

(34) ^Unsnri, one of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna's court- 
poets. Anecdote of him, Farrukhi, ^Asjadi and Fir- 
dawsi. 

(823) (35) FaridiC d-Din ^Attdr of Nishapur, author of the 

Tadhkiratu'l-Awliyd. 

(36) "^Abdu'l- Wdsi'^ \Jabali\, contemporary with Sultan 
Sanjar the Seljuq. 

(37) Imddu'' d-Din FazluH i^Imdd-i-Lur), contemporary 
with Abaqa Khan. His poetical repartee to Khwaja 
Shamsu'd-Din Sahib-Diwan. 

(38) '^Uthmdn-i-Mdki, the Qadi, of Qazwin, panegyrist of 
the author's cousin Khwaja Fakhru'd-Din Mustawfi. 
He wrote the Radi-ndma, in 5000 couplets, re- 
counting theoppressions he had suffered at the 
hands of his cousin Mawlana Radiyyu'd-Din. 

(824) (39) Malik ^ Imddu'' d-Din Isma^il al-Bukhdri. 

(40) Firdawsi [Abu' l-Qdsim al-Hasan b. ^Ali) of Tus. 

(41) Falaki of Shirwan, panegyrist of Miniichihr king 
of Shirwan. 

(42) QutbiC d-Din "^Atiqi of Tabriz. 

(43) Kamdlu" d-Din Ismd^il of Isfahan. 

15 



226 CHAPTER V, SECTION 6. 

(825) (44) MuHzzi, the panegyrist of Sultan Sanjar the Seljuq. 
' (45) Mubdrak-shdh-i-Ghuri, the panegyrist of Sultan 

Ghiyathu'd-Dfn Ghurf. 

(46) Mujir i-Baylaqdni, author of a Sawgand-ndma. 

(47) Majd-i-Hatngar of Yazd, one of the poets patro- 
nized by Khwaja Baha'u'd-Din Sahib-Diwan-i- 
Juwayni. 

(48) Malik Mahmud b. Muzaffaru'd-Din of Tabriz. 

(49) NaJMu'd-Din Zarkub, contemporary with Abaqa 
Khan. 

(826) (50) Nizdmi of Ganja, author of the Khamsa. 

(51) Nizdmi-i-'^Arudi-i-Samarqandi, author of the Maj- 
ma^u^n-Nawddir (= Chahdr Maqala ')). 

(52) Ndsir-i-Khusraw, called '^Hujjat" ("the Proof) by 
the Isma'^ilis, a contemporary of the Fatimid Ca- 
liph al-Mustansir. He was born in A. H. 358 (=A. D. 
968 — 9) ^), and is said to have lived nearly 100 
years. He wrote the RawshandH-ndma. 

(53) Najibu' d-Din Jarbddhaqdni, died towards the end 
of the Seljuq period. The Book of Bishr and Hind 
is one of his compositions. 

(54) Ndsir-i-BajjaH % SaMi's contemporary and fellow- 
countryman. 

(827) (55) Humdm-i-Tabrizi, also a contemporary of Sa*^df. 

(56) Rashidud-Din Watwdt, a contemporary of Sultan 
Sanjar the Seljuq, author of the HaddHqtis-Sihr. 

(57) Abu' l-'^ Aid of Ganja. His verses against Khaqani. 

(828) (58) Sa'^d-i-Bahd, contemporary with Sultan Uljaytu. 
(59) Fakhru'd-Din Fathulldh, brother of the author. 



i) See pp. XIV— XVI cf the Introduction to the text of this work published 
in the Gibb Memorial Series, of which it constitutes vol. xi. 

2) The correct date is A. H. 394 (= A. D. 1003—4), according to the poet's 
own statement. See my Literary History of Persia^ vol. 11, p. 226. 

3) See Ydqitt's Mu'-jamti'l-Bulddn., s. v. aj*T . 



ACCOUNT OF QAZWIN. 22/ 

(829) (60) Mahsati, the poetess. 

(61) Fir daws, the lady-ministrel. 

(62) Ayisha, the rhapsodist. 

{6'^) Bintu'n-Najjdriyya [or, BintiC l-Bukhdriyya\. 

CHAPTER VI. — ACCOUNT OF THE CITY OF QAZWIN, 

THE AUTHOR'S NATIVE PLACE, IN 

SEVEN SECTIONS. 

(830) Section I. — How it received its name. 

In the Kitdbut-Tibydn it is stated that Shapur I the Sasa- 
nian founded the city and named it Shdd-Shdpicr. One af the 
Sasanians was conducting a campaign against the Daylamis, 
and a battle was taking place in the Plain of Qazwin. The 
general in command, seeing a weak point in his ranks, said to 
one of his officers '^An kdsh vin va rdst kiin^'' ("See that crooked 
thing and put it right"), and the name Kashvin (afterwards 
Qazwin and Qazbin) was afterwards applied to the town. 

Section 2. — Character and buildings of the city. 

The quarter called Shahristan is in the middle of the old 
town built by Shapur, when he fled from Rum to Persia. 
An old fire-temple which once stood by the river is now a 
monastery for qalandars. After the victory which he obtained 
over the Greeks (831), Shapur regarded Qazwin with especial 
veneration, and took great pains to enlarge and beautify 
the city, but his builders were much harrassed by the Day- 
lamites, and Shapur, being occupied with the subjugation of 
the Arabs, was obliged to bribe the Daylamites to keep 
quiet. The building was begun in the month of Aban in the 
year 463 of Alexander, 1178 solar years before the time of 
writing '), the sign of Gemini being in the ascendant. As 

i) This is obviously erroneous, for the Ta'rikh-i-Guzida was completed in 
A. H. 730 (=A.D. 1330), and 1178 years before that would give A. D. 152, 
a century earlier than the reign of Shapdr I the Sasanian. 



228 CHAPTER VI, SECTIONS 2—4. 

soon as Shapiir was freed from other preoccupations, he 
attacked the Daylamites with vigour, subdued them, and 
treated them with the utmost severity, and the persistent 
hostility between them and the people of Qazwi'n dates from 
those days. Introduction of Islam and conquest and enlarge- 
ment of Qazwin by SaM b. al-'^As the Umayyad (832). Qazwin 
again enlarged by the Caliph al-Hadi, who called the city 
Madinata Miisd ("the City of Miisa", Musa being his own name). 
This portion of the present town is now called Sanamak '). 

Section 3. — Conquest and Conversion of Qazwin. 

Account of the conquest of Qazwin by the Arabs in the 
Kitdbu' l-Bulddn. Apostacy of inhabitants after first conquest. 
Second conquest by Abu "^Abdi'r-Rahman al-Harithi. Genui- 
neness of their subsequent conversion to Islam. In the author's 
time a few of the inhabitants of the Dastajird quarter were 
Hanafis and Shfis, but the vast majority Shafi%, and there 
were also a few Jews, but no other sect or religion was 
represented. 

Section /}.. — SuburbSy rivers (833), qandts, mosques 
and tombs of Qazwin. 

Suburbs. — Bishariyyat; Dashti; Abhar-Rudh; Faqiran. 

Rivers and valleys. — The rivers are partly fed by the snows 
on the hills, partly by springs, and are mostly dried 
up in the summer. 

Qandts (Persian Kdriz), or underground aqueducts. ^- One 
in Mubarakabad, made by Malik Iftikharu'd-Dfn, and 
bequeathed by him with a garden to maintain his mau- 
soleum. Originally the whole town was supplied by wells, 
some of which are over a hundred yards in depth. A 
qandt was made by Hamza b. Alyasa^ Sultan Mahmud's 



l) The Paris MS. Suppl. peisan 173 has "Sabik" or "Sabak", dlL.. 



ACCOUNT OF QAZWIN. 



229 



governor of Qum and Qazwi'n. Another is called Tanfuri; 
a third Rudhbdri; a fourth, in the Dastajird quarter, 
Sayyidi; a fifth, Khdtuni; a sixth, now the principal one, 
Khumdr-tdshi; a seventh, Sdkibi, in the Abhar quarter; an 
eighth Maliki, in the Abhar, Azraq and 'Uri quarters (834). 
Mosques. — The Masjid-i-Jdmi'^ , ascribed to the Imam ash- 
Shafi'^i; — the Hanafi Mosque, enlarged by Muzaffaru'd- 
Di'n Alp Arghun, of which the great arch {Tdq) was 
constructed by Khwaja ''Izzu'd-Din Hanafi; — Masjid-i- 
Thawb Bdb-Kandn, originally an idol-temple, the first 
building used as a mosque after the conversion of the 
people to Islam, but held in detestation by the Shi'^ites 
because in Umayyad times '^AH used to be cursed from 
its pulpit; — another Mosque [Masjid-i-Shahr), originally 
a Fire-temple; — ' Masjid-i-Murddiydn, repaired by 
Khwaja Fakhru'd-Din Mustawfi; — Masjid-i-Tabib-dbdd, 
repaired by Khwaja Sadru'd-Din Ahmad Khalidi; — 
Masjid-i-Qddi IsmaHl; — Masjid-i-Mddd, in the Darkh 
quarter; — a Mosque in the middle of the bdzdr in 
the Shahristan quarter; — Masjid-i-Dahak ; — another 
Mosque on the road the cemetery, near the Hawdu'n- 
iVia:/;? ("Prophet's Pond") and the Khdnqdh, or monastery, 
of Nizamu'd-Uin. — Other less important mosques (835) 
and tombs. 

Section 5. — Eminent men of different classes 
who visited Qazwin. 

Companions of the Prophet. — Bara b. '^Azib, who conquered 
Qazwin for the Muslims, and whose posterity still exist 
there, many of them being preachers. — Bakr Zaydu'l- 
Khayl at-Ta'i, who accompanied the preceding. — Sa'id 
b. al-As al-Umawi, who was governor of Qazwin under 
■^Uthman. — Salman al-Farisi, who took part in wars 
against the Daylamites. — Abu Hurayra. 



230 CHAPTER VI, SECTION 5. 

Followers of the Companions. — Ibrahim b. Yazfd an-Nakha*^i; 
Uways al-Qarani; Rabf b. Juthaym al-Kufi; Sammak 
b. Makhzama al-Asadf; Sammak b. "^Abdu'l-Qays, and 
a third Sammak; (836) Shimra b. "^Atiyya al-Asadf; 
''Urwa b. Zaydu'l-Khayl al-Hamdanf; "Ubayd b. ''Amr 
as-Salmani; Muhammad b. Hajjaj b. Yusuf ath-Thaqafi; 
Mazyad b. Kaysan as-Sukkari. 

Imams and Caliphs. — "^AH b. Musa ar-Rida (the eighth 
Imam of the Shfa); al-Mahdi and Harunu'r-Rashid, the 
■^Abbasid CaHphs. 

Shaykhs and Men of Learning. — Ibrahim b. Shayba of 
Herat; Ibrahim b. Adham; Ibrahim Khawwas; Ahmad 
b. Muhammad al-Ghazzah'; Hatim al-Asamm-; Sufyan 
ath-Thawri; Shaqiq of Balkh ; Yahya b. Mu'^adh of Ray; 

Kings and Wazirs. — Fadl b. Yahya al-Barmakf (837) ; Isma'^fl 
b. Ahmad the Samanf; Ilyas, brother of the preceding, 
was governor of Qazwfn in A. H. 293 (= A. D. 905 — 6); 
Ibnu'l-'^Amfd, wazir of Ruknu'd-Dawla, came to Qazwfn 
in A. H. 358 (= A. D. 969), and exacted from the inhabi- 
tants a price of 1,200,000 dirhams\ the Sahib Isma'il b. 
'^Abbad came several times; Tughril the Seljuq, and 
Malikshah the Seljuq, who, learning the terror inspired 
by the Assassins [Maldhida) in the people of Qazwfn, 
appointed *^Imadu'd-Dawla Turan b. Alfaqshah governor, 
with special orders to check their depredations; Muham- 
mad b. Malikshah, during his war with his brother Bar- 
kiyaruq; Arslan b. Tughril remained there some time 
and took the Qal'^a-i-Qahira from the Assassins, and 
named it "Arslan-Gushay"; his son Tughril came there 
during his wars with Qutlugh Inanj and Qizil Arslan; 
Sultan Muhammad [Khwarazmshah] came there after his 
defeat by the Mongols, and lodged in the house of 
"Izzu'd-Dfn Karfman in t\iQ _ Kiicha-i- [%^^) Naw {'^^qw 
Street"), until the Qazwfnfs guided him to the Island 



ACCOUNT OF QAZWIN. 



231 



[of AbasgunJ in the Caspian in which he finally took 
refuge; the Salghuri Atabek Sa'^d-i-Zangf came there 
when he escaped from Khwarazmshah, and lodged in 
the Ardaq quarter, in the house of '^Imadu'd-Din Ahmad, 
whom he afterwards richly rewarded when he came to 
the throne of Fars. 
Khdqdns and A^nirs. r- Hulagu Khan, after he had destroyed 
the Assassins ; his son Abaqa Khan with his son Arghun 
and his amirs and captains stayed 18 days in the house 
of Malik Iftikharu'd-Din; Ahmad Khan, Gaykhatu Khan, 
Ghazan Khan, 'Uljaytu Sultan, and Abu Sa'^id all of them 
repeatedly passed by or visited Qazwin. 

Section 6. — Governors of Qazwin. 

In Sasanian times the governors lived at Sarv-badh in the 
summer and at Ray in the winter. In Muhammadan times, 
Abu Dujana Simak (839) b. Kharasha al-Ansarf and Kathi'r 
b. Shihab al-Harithi were governors for the Caliph '^Umar; 
and Sa'^i'd b. al-'^As al-Umawi for '^Uthman. Five successive 
governors (named) represented *^Ali. In Umayyad times Hajjaj 
b. Yusuf, who was governor of most of Persia, appointed 
his son Muhammad; later Yazid b. al-Muhallab, Qutayba b. 
Muslim, and Nasr b. Sayyar appointed governors. In early 
'^Abbasid times the government of Persia was chiefly in the 
hands of the Barmecides [Al-i-Barmak); later came ^Ali b. 
"^Isa b. Mahan and the House of Tahir. In the time of the 
Caliph al-Mu'^tasim, when the Daylamites were again giving 
trouble, the author's ancestor (the fourteenth in line of 
ascent) Fakhru'd-Dawla Abu Mansiir al-Kufi, a descendant 
of Hurr b. Yazid ar-Riyahi, was sent there to command 
the army and administer the province (840) in A. H. 223 
(= A. D. 838), and for nearly 200 years his descendents, all 
of whom bore the title Fakhru'd-Dawla, were entrusted 
with these functions. Thus in A. H. 251 (= A. D. 865) they 



232 CHAPTER VI, SECTION 6. 

acted for two years for ad-Da*^{ ila'1-Haqq Hasan b. Zayd ') ; 
then for 38 years for Musa b. Buqa, governor of Persia for 
the Caliph al-Mu'tazz. For two years after the rise of the 
Samani power Ilyas b. Ahmad the Samani was governor. In 
A. H. 294 (= A. D. 906 — 7) the Caliph recovered his authority 
and appointed the author's twelfth ancestor in the line of 
ascent,' Fakhru'd-Dawla Abu "^Ali, to this government, which 
he held for 27 years. When in A. H. 321 (=A. D.933) the 
House of Buwayh or Daylam obtained possession of most 
of Persia, the author's ancestors governed in their name for 
100 years. When in A. H. 421 (= A. D. 1030) Sultan Mahmud 
of Ghazna took possession of*^Iraq, the author's ninth ancestor 
Fakhru'd-Dawla Abu Mansur died, and the government of 
^e city passed out of the family, who were charged with 
the duties of state-accountants, and were thenceforth known 
by this title, Mustawfi, which the author still bore. One of 
Sultan Mahmud's courtiers named Karasti was made governor. 
(841) How he caused the people of Qazwin to eat "doubt- 
ful" meat, so that their prayers might no longer be effica- 
cious, then oppressed them, and was finally killed by them, 
after he had been governor for rather more than a year. 
He was succeeded by Hamza b. Alyasa^ previously governor 
of Qum, who ruled for more than two years. After him the 
Amir Abu "^Ali Muhammad Ja'^fari and his sons governed 
for about sixty years. The last of them, Fakhru'l-Ma'^ali 
Dhu's-Sa'^adat Abu *^Ali Sharafshah b. Muhammad b. Ahmad 
b. Muhammad Ja'farf, died in A. H. 484 (= A. D. 1091). 
His yearly income from his extensive estates amounted to 
366,000 dinars in gold. He left one daughter, who lost all 
this immense wealth, and was reduced to penury, so that 
she was obliged to live on the charity of others. Reflections 
on the vicissitudes of fortune. — After the Mongol invasion 

i) The MS. adds al-Bd<]ir^ which seems to be an error. For the genealogy 
of Hasan b. Zayd, see Tabarf's Annals, iii, p. 1523, and Ibnu'l-Athfr, stib anno 250. 



ACCOUNT OF QAZWIN. 233 

of Persia, Mangu Qa'an appointed Malik Iftikharu'd-Di'n 
Muhammad al-Bukhari governor (842) in A. H. 65 1 (= A. D. 
1253 — 4), and he and his brother Malik Imamu'd-Din Yahya 
ruled for 27 years. In A. H. 6^] (= A. D. 1278 — 9) the govern- 
ment was given jointly to Husamu'd-Din Amir "^Umar of 
Shiraz and Khwaja Fakhru'd-Din Ahmad Mustawfi. Thence- 
forth, until the end of 'Uljaytu's reign, the government was 
chiefly in the hands of the Iftikharis. Sultan Abu Sa'^id 
Bahadur Khan at the beginning of his reign conferred it on 
the agents of his mother Gunjishkan Khatun to provide 
money for her army. 

Section 7. — Tribes and leading families of Qazwin. 

Many of the leading families are of Arab origin. The fol- 
lowing are the principal ones : 

(i) Sayyids, notable here for their piety and learning. 
Amongst the most eminent were Sayyid Rida; Sayyid 
''Imadu'd-Dfn ^AbduVAzim al-Husayni an-Naqib (843); and 
Sayyid '^Izzu'd-Din Muhammad, a friend of Shaykh Jamalu'd- 
Dfn Gill, one of whose living descendents is the Qadi Say- 
fu'd-Din Muhammad al-Husayni, chief judge of Sultaniyya 
and the district [tiimdn) of Qazwin, Abhar, Zanjan and 
Tarimayn. 

(2) '^Ulamd (doctors of Theology). Praised for their ortho- 
doxy and piety. 

(3) Iftikhdriydn. These are the descendants of Iftikharu'd- 
Din Muhammad Bakri, a descendant of the Caliph Abu Bakr, 
who studied with the Imam Muhammad b. Yahya of Nfshapur. 
His chief living descendent is Malik Iftikharu'd-Din Muham- 
mad b. Abu Nasr, whose accomplishments are enumerated. 
Amongst others he was skilled in the Mongol and Turkish 
languages (844), and his pronouncements on the philology 
of these languages are deemed authoritative by the Mongols. 
He has translated the Book of Kalila and Dimna into Mon- 



234 CHAPTER VI, SECTION /. 

golian, and the Book of Sindibdd into Turki. He rose to a 
high position under Mangu Khan, and enriched Qazwin with 
many beautiful buildings. His brother "^Imadu'd-Din Mahrnvid, 
was governor of Mazandaran, and [another brother], Ruk- 
nu'd-Din Ahmad, was ruler {Malik) of Gurjistan. A third 
brother, Radiyyu'd-Din Ahmad, was governor of Diyar Bakr, 
and was a good poet. Later the family fell into poverty. 

(4) Bdzddrdn (Keepers of the Falcons). Their ancestor was 
Baranghash, falconer of the Caliph al-Muqtafi, who made him 
governor of Qazwfn under the title Muzaffaru'd-Dln. 

(5) Bashshdriydn, a wealthy family, to which belonged 
Khwaja *^Izzu'd-Dfn Bashsharf. 

(6) Hulwdniydn, originally from the frontier-town of Hulwan. 

(7) Khdlidiydn, descended from Khalid b. Walld al-Makh- 
ziiml. There are two branches of the family. To the first 
belonged Shaykh Nuru'd-Dfn Gil, ancestor of the Shaykhu'l- 
Islam Sa'^du'd-Din Qutlugh- [? MS. Qatl-] Khwaja; to the second, 
which came from Zanjan, Sadru'd-Dfn Ahmad al-Khalidi, 
who was for two years Prime Minister of Persia, and was 
related to the Sadr-i-Jahan. 

(8) Dabirdn. Of these was Najmu'd-Din ^Ali b. ^Umar (845) 
al-Katibi. 

{9) Rdfi^dn, of Arab origin, descended from Rafi^ b. Khadij 
al-Ansari. From them many learned men of note have arisen. 

(10) Zdkdniydn, also of Arab origin, descended from the 
Banu Khafaja. They have in their possession a document 
(text given) professedly emanating from the Prophet and 
written in *^Alf's handwriting, dated Muharram 7 (year un- 
specified) and (846) witnessed by Abii Bakr, *^Umar, Salman 
al-Farisi and four others of the Companions. Of this family 
also there are two branches, to the first of which, eminent 
in learning, belong Sharafu'd-Dfn "^Umar and his son Ruknu'd- 
Din Muhammad, who vigorously opposed the Shi"^ites in their 
endeavours to win over the Mongols to their interest, jour- 



ACCOUNT OF QAZWIN, 



235 



neying to Khurasan to see the Mongol Amir Jurmaghun and 
dispute with the Shfa doctors in his presence. To the second 
branch, eminent in statesmanship, belonged Safiyyu'd-Din 
Zakani and Nizamu'd-Din "Ubaydu'llah, writer and poet, 
generally known as "^Ubayd-i-Zakani. 

(11) Zubayriydn, descended from Zubayr b. Mus'^ab b. Zu- 
bayr b. al-'^Awwam. 

(12) Zdddniydn, whose ancestor Zadan was a contemporary 
of the Prophet. 

(13) Shirzddiydn, whose ancestor was Shfrzad son of Shiran, 
a middle-class sheep-farmer. His son, Hajji Badru'd-Din, be- 
came rich, and was appointed Ulugh Bitikji of Qazwin by 
Ogoday Qa'an (847). His son, Husamu'd-Din "^Umar, was 
favoured and promoted by Amir Buqa, and was for some 
years governor of Fars. 

(14) Taiisiydn, whose ancestor was Ta'us b. Kaysan. 

(15) '^Abbdsiydn, related to the "^Abbasid Caliphs. 

(16) Ghajfdriydn, of whom was the great Shafi'^i theologian 
Najmu'd-Din '^Abdu'l-Ghafifar, author of the Kitdbul-Hdwi, 
who died Muharram 8, A. H, 665 (= Oct. 9, 1266), and whose 
sons are at the present time leading theologians in Qazwin. 

(17) Qadawiydn, descended from Fakhru'd-Din Fakhr-award, 
who held office in the Diwdn-i-Qadd (Ministry of Justice), 
whence their name. ^ 

(18) Qardwuldn, a Turkish family, who settled at Qazwin 
in Mongol times and became very wealthy. They were cele- 
brated for their beauty. 

(19) Karajiydn, descended from Abu Dulaf al-^Ijli, who 
came to Persia in the time of Harunu'r-Rashid, built the 
city of Karaj, and dwelt there. 

(20) Anasiydn, descended from Anas b. Malik, included 
many learned lawyers and theologians (848), but are now 
extinct. 

(21) Kayd'dn. To this family belonged Mawlana '^Izzu'd- 



236 ^ CHAPTER VI, SECTION 7. *" 

Dfn Abu'l-Fada'il, who went to Tabriz and rendered great 
services in the Khwarazmshahi troubles. 

(22) Mdkdniydn, descended from Makan b. Kaki of Daylam. 
His descendant' Sadidu'd-Din Isma^il b. ^Abdu'l-Jabbar b. Mu- 
hammad b. ^Abdu'l-'^Azfz b. Mak became Qadi of Qazwfn, 
and this office is still in the family. 

(23) Mustawfiydn (the Author's family), descended from 
Hurr ,b. Yazfd ar-Riyahf. (The facts already mentioned about 
them in the Section on the Governors of Qazwin (pp. 231 — 2 
supra) are here repeated in an abridged form). 

(24) Mii'minan. One of them, the late Taju'd-Din Mu'minf, 
was employed by Khwaja Shamsu'd-Din Sdhib Diwdn. In 
later life he repented of the acts of tyranny which he had 
committed and retired to Tabriz. 

(25) Mu^d/d'tydn. Of these was "Abdu'l-MaHk b. Muhammad, 
who was one of the secretaries of Tughril Beg the Seljuq. 
The family is now extinct in Qazwin. 

(26) Marztibdniydn. These inhabit the Dastajird quarter, 
near the Bagh-i-Maydan (849). 

(27) Nisdburiydn. These left Nishapiir, their original home, 
*n A. H. 540 (= A. D. 1 145 — 6), at the time of the great 
earthquake, and amongst those who came to Qazwfn was 
the chief Qadi '^Abdu'r-Razzaq. The family is now extinct 
in Qazwfn. 

(28) Biild Timicriydn, descended from Amir Tukush, whose 
ancestor was Tayang ') Khan, ruler of the Na'iman. Tukush 
was chief magistrate {Shahna) of Qazwfn in the time of 
Ogoday Khan. His son, Bula-Tfmur, from whom the family 
derives its name, became an Amfr and amassed much pro- 
perty, some of which is still in the hands of his son Nusratu'd- 
Dfn Buqa. 



l) This name is neither clearly nor correctly given in the original, but the 
correct reading is certain. See Berezine's ydmfuU-Tawarikh^ vol. i, p. 138, 
and the Ta'rikh-i-Jahdn-gushdy^ vol. i, p. 46, n. 3 in this Series. 



CONCLUSION, COLOPHON. 237 

CONCLUSION. 

Concerning the genealogical trees inserted by Rashidu'd- 
Din in his great history [the Jdmi'ti t-Tawdrikh\. These, in 
spite of their excellence and the originality of the plan on 
which they are constructed, appeared to the Author suscep- 
tible of improvement, and are briefly criticized by him. (850) 
He thesefore devised a new and simplified system of such 
"trees", in which he designed to use various colours as 
indications, which he briefly explains (850 — 851), and so 
ends his book. [The actual trees are wanting in this MS., 
as in most others which I have examined.] 

COLOPHON (852). 

Transcribed by Zaynu'l-^Abidin b. Muhammad al-Katib 
ash-Shirazi, and completed at noon of the 6th of Ramadan, 
A. H. 857 (= Sept. 10, 1453). Below this is a note in the hand 
of a former possessor, the Mu'^tamadu'd-Dawla ^Abdu'1-^Ali 
Mirza, son of Prince Farhad Mirza (uncle of the late Nasiru'd- 
Di'n Shah), dated the 17th of Rajab, A. H. 1313 (= Jan. i, 
1896), and another note in the margin dated Dhu'l-Hijja, 
A. H. 1 108 (= June— July, A. D. 1697). 






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CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS TO THE 
INDEX OF PERSONS. 

Page r. Add AiV ijy\ c ^^\. 

Page r. After (Jvxi>- i_/-_y> add oAT ' . 

Page r^ Add \ . "\ (.jy\t ^y ^_>«jj\. 

Page ^^ Add 'l^W <■ j\.j ^y\ J^f^j y^^ i ^jy^^..^ . 

Page ^o Add iSj\j jUu 4.. ^ ^y^j i ^j\j jUu . 

Page ^O ^Idd \ \o c oViJ^Ao . 

Page V^ After <x\i\ JuP- ^^^ A*« deZeJe ^; iA^j^^^, .^ ^, jj^Ji* 

Page Ar After ,_^_j\ ^2^; ^i-Li refwZ isj^ instead^ of iSj^^- 

Page \ .y Add r\ (LJ^J^. 

Page \ \ . Add A«A ^c ^^'■c references given imder \ taC - v^_^Jtl\ »^Mc. 

ici'yr cLxio , 
Page 1 1^ Afte,- A- A ^ <>iyr vl)i- ^ ^^'. ^j-^i^ *^ O^. J^ «f'f' 
i^'.y^ ^1^ VW Oi-^'' *^ *; (V^ P'y^j- 

Pago 1 \ i i^or ^jiC U»y ^ read ^^Ji^ J^'y J^ • 

Page 1 oi. After ^^wu ^j.; -XiJ/o afW ^2;^'**^ i>' *^i^ T^^J^^^'^^^ 1? ' 

Page \ il After 7r\yi ^y\^ ^y. ^l ^yt-^ delete (3Ui>- ^^j^' 

Page \oA -Fo}- -X.^i ^^_ Jj^;** '''^'^d ^^jZ. y J^J^' 

Page \~l. ^cW r\i c t5-5^\ ^rij O'- ^^' L>! JL/^ C^-' ■^^-^*-°- 

Page \ "Vi. iJjide?- (^^y* add the following references: i T^ iTl — 1^ <■ \ 

1. ^VA ay ai (o\-i. 



^ ^^ ^ 









V ^^(•v ^ V^^^ ^ % 







Ju«^ «i\a) Jtil^ :>^l. j\ ^J-lJ j3 Ji_^ AjiJa* ^^ 

j^sr* \'^\^ ji^ (5>? \v-^i L. 



INDICES OF THE TA'RIKH-I-GUZIDA 

(FAC-SIMILE OF TEXT, VOL. XIV, i) 

/ 

COMPRISING : 

(i) Index of names of persons together with an 
alphabetical list of nisbas; 

(2) Index of names of places and tribes; 

(3) Index of books cited ; 



BY 



R. A. NICHOLSON, Litt. D. 



(N. B. The abridged translation contained in this volume, 
XIV, 2, does 7iot contain all the names mentioned in the 
text, but since the pages of the original text are indicated 
by thick figures in the body of the translation, these Indices 
will serve for the latter, so far as it goes, as well as for 
the former. As a rule names are given in the Index as 
they occur in the text, without correction, save when the 
correction is obvious. Such corrections are, as a rule, indicated. 
Where several references occur under one heading, the more 
important are generally overlined). 



University of Toronto 
Library 



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